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Xin Qiji (1140-1207) : the guerrilla-poet 1987

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XIN Q U I (1140-1207): THE GUERRILLA-POET BY KAM-KWAN TSANG B.A. UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t he Department o f THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( A s i a n S t u d i e s ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as co n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA OCTOBER 1987 © KAM-KWAN TSANG, 1987 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writ ten permission. Department of A s i a n S t u d i e s The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date O c t o b e r 15 , 1987 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Cha p t e r One - X i n Q i j i : The Man and H i s L i f e .... 1 Chapter Two - Use o f A l l u s i o n 37 Chapter Three - Use o f Comparison and C o n t r a s t 81 Chapter Four - Use o f .Humor 110 C o n c l u s i o n 130 Notes on Chapter One 133 Notes on Ch a p t e r Two 145 Notes on Chapter Three 158 Notes on Chapter Four 166 Notes on C o n c l u s i o n 183 B i b l i o g r a p h y . . . . . 184 ABBREVIATIONS g k j j l ! HS JS JXC $ L # ^ A* % ; i JXNP f f H # -f- I f JXSW f | l ^ i fj fi- L D M C 5 A A 5 k % MSJ SCBM SHY SGZ SJ SS SSJZS SSXY WZJ XSNP ZWG ZZYL ZZJJ -5- t% 7h Q -$ - ,31 *9 1 + i f i i /-t -tit t/ l ; f j Tf f ft * f L i | £ t * | i f is II. i i i FOR MY LATE MOTHER: Y.H. TONG-TSANG (1921-1983) 1 CHAPTER I: XIN QUI: The Man and H i s L i f e The mere mention o f t h e name X i n Q i j i i m m e d i a t e l y evokes the image o f a downtrodden p a t r i o t i c p o e t . T hroughout t h e e n t i r e t u m u l t u o u s c o u r s e o f h e r h i s t o r y , C h i n a has p r o d u c e d q u i t e a number o f p a t r i o t i c p o e t s , Qu Yuan (340-278 B.C.) yf} ]jfs , Du Fu (712-770) H |) and Lu You (1125-1210) fj^ j u s t t o name a few, who a t a time o f n a t i o n a l c r i s i s , spoke out a g a i n s t s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e . T h e i r p o e t r y , t h u s , became the v o i c e o f the n a t i o n and i t s p e o p l e , r e f l e c t i n g n a t i o n a l a n g u i s h d u r i n g t i m e s o f s o c i a l u p h e a v a l . But none a r o u s e d so much sympathy and r e g r e t as X i n has. T h i s overwhelming sense o f r e g r e t i s based, f i r s t o f a l l , on h i s uncommon c o m b i n a t i o n o f s k i l l s and b a c k g r o u n d . X i n was a l i t e r a t u s as w e l l as a g u e r r i l l a f i g h t e r . U n l i k e most C h i n e s e l i t e r a t i who e x p r e s s e d t h e i r c o n c e r n s m a i n l y t h r o u g h t h e medium of words, X i n a c t u a l l y t o o k up h i s sword and f o u g h t t h e enemy (th e J i n ) i n t h e h i l l s and j u n g l e s . X i n was a l i t e r a t u s who was a t e a s e and s k i l l f u l b o t h w i t h b r u s h and sword. B e i n g a g u e r r i l l a f i g h t e r a l s o gave X i n the "common t o u c h " . The g e n e r a l p o p u l a c e i d e n t i f i e d w i t h X i n as "one o f them." X i n was a common s o l d i e r w i t h uncommon a b i l i t i e s : he c o u l d w r i t e and f i g h t . In h i s v a r i o u s e s s a y s t o the emperor, X i n d e m o n s t r a t e s h i s b r i l l i a n c e i n m i l i t a r y p l a n n i n g and s t r a t e g y . X i n ' s f e r v e n t p a t r i o t i s m i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e g i v e n t h e f a c t t h a t he s p e n t a q u a r t e r o f h i s l i f e under t h e r u l e of the enemy. But X i n d i d not 2 f i g h t t h i s enemy w i t h b l i n d p a t r i o t i c f e r v o r ; r a t h e r , h i s p a t r i o t i c p a s s i o n was s e t i n a framework of w e l l - p l a n n e d m i l i t a r y schemes. C u i D u n l i (Song) ^ ( j s a i d t h a t X i n had l i t e r a r y as w e l l as m i l i t a r y t a l e n t s , and was an e x t r a o r d i n a r y man.1 A n o t h e r f a c t o r was h i s p e r s o n a l i t y : s t u b b o r n , d a r i n g , u n t r a m m e l l e d and p r a g m a t i c . These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were b e s t i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e way he o r g a n i z e d the F l y i n g T i g e r s , w h i c h w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . A g a i n s t o p p o s i t i o n , X i n s t u b b o r n l y c a r r i e d o u t h i s p l a n . I n s t e a d o f h a l t i n g t h e p r o j e c t when he r e c e i v e d the g o l d e n t a b l e t (an o r d e r from th e e m p e ror), X i n was d a r i n g enough t o h i d e i t and c o n t i n u e . X i n ' s u n t r a m m e l l e d s p i r i t can be seen i n h i s fondness f o r d o i n g t h i n g s on a grand s c a l e . X i n was c r i t i c i z e d f o r s p e n d i n g a huge amount o f money i n o r g a n i z i n g t h e F l y i n g T i g e r s . Zhu X i (1130- 1200) ^ used t h e s e f o u r c h a r a c t e r s t o d e s c r i b e the way X i n managed the t r o o p s : "qushan saihai Jj]jt jj ^ jjf}~ ( d r i v i n g t h e m o u n t a i n s and b l o c k i n g up t h e s e a ) . 2 But t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e F l y i n g T i g e r s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g o r d e r i l l u s t r a t e d X i n ' s pragmatism'. I n h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p e r f o r m a n c e a t v a r i o u s government p o s t s , X i n d i s p l a y e d h i s knack f o r g e t t i n g p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s . Thus, t o h i s a d m i r e r s , X i n was seen as a courageous man who d a r e d t o d e f y t h e r u l e s w h i c h he was supposed t o f o l l o w . H i s d i s r e g a r d f o r and sometimes d e f i a n t a t t i t u d e towards the system echoed t h e d e f i a n t mood o f t h e pro-war g r o u p s , who were angered and f r u s t r a t e d by the pro-appeasement p o l i c y o f the S o u t h e r n Song g o v e r n m e n t . I t i s t h i s d a r i n g s p i r i t i n w o r k i n g a r o u n d t h e 3 b u r e a u c r a t i c s y s t e m and g e t t i n g p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s which won him a d m i r a t i o n . But X i n ' s p e r s o n a l i t y a l s o g o t him i n t o t r o u b l e s . To h i s e n e m i e s and s u p e r i o r s , X i n a p p e a r e d as a l o o s e c a n n o n . The C h i n e s e c h a r a c t e r t h a t i s o f t e n used t o d e s c r i b e b o t h X i n t h e man and h i s p o e t i c works i s "hao which can be t r a n s l a t e d as h e r o i c , u n t r a m m e l l e d , and u n r e s t r a i n e d . X i n was h e r o i c , d a r i n g , b u t a l s o u n r e s t r a i n e d . H i s p e n c h a n t f o r w o r k i n g a r o u n d t h e s y s t e m and on a g r a n d s c a l e p u t h i s s u p e r i o r s and c r i t i c s on c o n s t a n t g u a r d . The r u l i n g c l a s s 1 a t t i t u d e towards X i n i s b e s t r e f l e c t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t . Yang W a n l i ( 1 1 2 7 - 1 2 0 6 ) ^ s a i d : " X i n h a d m e r i t b u t many p e o p l e s a i d he was d i f f i c u l t t o c o n t r o l . You [Wang Hua i j L ^% \ s a i d a man o f t h i s n a t u r e i s u s e f u l i n t i m e s o f t r o u b l e . " 3 F r o m t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s p e r s p e c t i v e , h i s u n d a u n t e d and o f t e n b r u s q u e a p p r o a c h was p e r c e i v e d a s r e c k l e s s , r a t h e r t h a n h e r o i c and p r a g m a t i c . Thus, t o h i s a d m i r e r s , X i n was a r a r e t a l e n t wasted. He was a w r i t e r , a f i g h t e r , a t h i n k e r , a s t r a t e g i s t , and a d o e r ; y e t s u c h a man w i t h many d i v e r s i f i e d t a l e n t s was not g i v e n a major and u s e f u l r o l e d u r i n g a time of n a t i o n a l t u r m o i l . I n s t e a d , he was g i v e n v a r i o u s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s , c o n f i n e d t o d e a l i n g w i t h r e g i o n a l p r o b l e m s and d i s p u t e s . X i n ' s good f r i e n d Chen L i a n g (1143-1194) ^ echoed t h e f e e l i n g s g e n e r a l among X i n ' s a d m i r e r s ; i n d e e d , X i n was a t a l e n t w a s t e d : " I f r e a l r a t s a r e m i s g u i d e d l y u s e d , t h e r e i s no use f o r r e a l t i g e r s . But u s i n g 4 them w o u l d be t h e means o f r e c e i v i n g heaven's f a v o u r . " 4 The f e e l i n g s o f h i s f r i e n d s and a d m i r e r s a r o s e not so much from what X i n a c t u a l l y d i d b u t what he might have done but was p r e v e n t e d f r o m d o i n g f o r h i s c o u n t r y . X i n was s e e n a s a v i c t i m o f p o l i t i c a l w ars and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . He was a t r u e p a t r i o t who d a r e d t o speak o u t and c h a l l e n g e t h e pro-appeasement p o l i c y o f t h e r u l i n g c l a s s , and y e t l o s t . No p e r s o n was more overwhelmed by r e g r e t and t h e f e e l i n g o f h a v i n g b e e n m i s t r e a t e d t h a n X i n h i m s e l f . B e i n g v e r y much d e t e r m i n e d i n what he wanted t o a c h i e v e , and c o n f i d e n t i n what he c o u l d have a c c o m p l i s h e d , X i n f e l t he was not g i v e n a f a i r chance. H i s d i s c i p l e Fan K a i (Song) , who p u b l i s h e d t h e f i r s t c o l l e c t i o n o f X i n ' s c i , r i g h t l y o b s e r v e d t h a t X i n was a man who was v e r y s u r e o f h i m s e l f and what he c o u l d p o s s i b l y a c h i e v e . 5 C e r t a i n l y X i n f e l t he c o u l d have done more than he was a l l o w e d t o do. H i s l i f e l o n g dream was t o r e c a p t u r e t h e n o r t h , t o chase th e J i n o u t o f t h e o c c u p i e d t e r r i t o r y . Zhu X i a l s o h a d t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n : " [ X i n ' s ] m i s s i o n a n d a c h i e v e m e n t w e r e i n s t a t e c r a f t . He had t h e h e a r t t o a s s i s t t h e r o y a l f a m i l y . " 6 But X i n h i m s e l f f e l t he was not employed t o t h e f u l l e s t . T h i s sense o f r e g r e t and s o r r o w was e v i d e n t and p e r v a s i v e i n h i s l y r i c s ( c i ;»J ). X i n ' s c i a r e h i s c r i e s of agony. Huang L i z h u a n g (Qing)"j* i ^ r i g h t l y o b s e r v e d : " I n t h e d e c l i n i n g p e r i o d o f t h e Song, X i n had the t a l e n t o f Guan Zhong (?-645 B.C.) Yf [who was c r e d i t e d w i t h s t r e n g t h e n i n g the economy and m i l i t a r y o f the iff 3 s t a t e o f Q i )~) d u r i n g t h e C h u n q i u p e r i o d (770-481/480 B.C.) y| $C ] and Yue Y i ^ ^ [a g e n e r a l o f the Yan i n t h e W a r r i n g S t a t e s p e r i o d who was fond of m i l i t a r y a f f a i r s ] , but he c o u l d not f u l l y d e p l o y i t i n a c t u a l use. H i s l o y a l i n d i g n a t i o n had no o u t l e t . J u s t read h i s j o y f u l and harmonious d i s c u s s i o n w i t h Chen Tongfu (Chen L i a n g ) What a man! As a r e s u l t , h i s t r a g i c s o n g s a r e f e r v e n t , h i s m e l a n c h o l y and boredom a r e a l l p r o j e c t e d i n t o h i s c i . Those who compared X i n w i t h a primped-up b e a u t y ! What do t h e y know about J i a x u a n ? " 7 Had X i n n o t l e f t b e h i n d m o r e t h a n s i x h u n d r e d c i , he p r o b a b l y would have remained a c o n t r o v e r s i a l f i g u r e i n C h i n e s e h i s t o r y ; h i s p a t r i o t i s m and t a l e n t s q u e s t i o n e d by some b u t a d m i r e d by o t h e r s . But h i s c i s o l i d l y c o n f i r m h i s p a t r i o t i s m . I t i s t h r o u g h h i s ci t h a t one comes t o see and t o f e e l the h e a r t o f a t r u e p a t r i o t . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e h e r o i c , c h i v a l r o u s and sometimes u n t r a m m e l l e d man t h a t he was, h i s ci r e v e a l a n o t h e r s i d e o f X i n : r e s t r a i n e d , t h o u g h t f u l , f e a r f u l , and s o r r o w f u l . A f t e r h a v i n g read h i s c i , one no l o n g e r sees a r e c k l e s s man who i s d r i v e n p u r e l y by b l i n d p a t r i o t i c f e r v o r or a l o o s e cannon t h a t i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y s h o o t i n g i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s . R a t h e r , one sees the h e a r t o f a p r a g m a t i c , s o r r o w f u l p a t r i o t who by h i s h e r o i c and u n t r a m m e l l e d n a t u r e , wanted t o do more, but was r e s t r a i n e d by o u t e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s a n d h i s i n n e r c o n c e r n a b o u t f u r t h e r f r a c t u r i n g an a l r e a d y d i v i d e d n a t i o n . I n one o f h i s c i , he f r a n k l y a d m i t t e d t h a t he wanted t o speak but was c a n ' t ( y££ j\j 6 ) . 8 I t i s t h i s k i n d o f r e s t r a i n t d i s p l a y e d by an untrammelled man t h a t c o n f i r m s him as a t r u e p a t r i o t i c p o e t . In a d d i t i o n t o r e v e a l i n g t h a t X i n by no means a r e c k l e s s man who was i n c a p a b l e o f e x e r c i s i n g c o n t r o l and r e s t r a i n t , h i s p o e t r y has become the r e f l e c t i o n o f a t u r b u l e n t e r a , and X i n has come t o s y m b o l i z e the u n f u l f i l l e d n a t i o n a l dream o f a u n i f i e d Song C h i n a . Through h i s p o e t r y , one not o n l y comes t o f e e l t h e s o r r o w and p e r s o n a l m i s f o r t u n e o f a s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l but the sorrow o f a d i v i d e d n a t i o n . Whether the Song empire would have been u n i t e d , and s u b s e q u e n t l y r e c o v e r e d the v i g o r which had c h a r a c t e r i z e d the b e g i n n i n g o f the N o r t h e r n Song p e r i o d i f X i n had been g i v e n a b i g g e r p o l i t i c a l and m i l i t a r y r o l e r e m a i n s d e b a t a b l e . But the e v e n t u a l d o w n f a l l o f t h e S o u t h e r n Song i n 1279 A.D. l e f t a l i n g e r i n g s e n s e o f s a d n e s s a n d r e g r e t t h r o u g h o u t l a t e r g e n e r a t i o n s t h a t X i n had been a wasted t a l e n t . The word "hao ( h e r o i c ) " t h a t was o f t e n used t o d e s c r i b e X i n th e man i s a l s o f r e q u e n t l y employed t o c h a r a c t e r i z e d X i n ' s c i . X i n was not o n l y a man o f h e r o i c n a t u r e , h i s ci a l s o demonstrate the same " h e r o i c " s e n t i m e n t : v i g o r o u s , p o w e r f u l , and dynamic. Zheng Qian (1906-?) ^ has t h i s t o say about X i n ' s h e r o i c p o e t i c s t y l e : "The v o i c e and the a t t i t u d e a r e s t r o n g and manly, the s p i r i t and the c o l o r a r e b r i s k and sweeping, the l i n e s a r e u n t r a m m e l l e d and f r e e , and t h e v e r s e s a r e s o l i d and c l e a r - c u t . " 9 T h i s h e r o i c s t y l e i s b e s t r e f l e c t e d i n h i s use o f a l l u s i o n ( d i a n g u ^ tyt ). T h i s p o e t i c d e v i c e , due t o i t s e v o c a t i v e 7 power, a l l o w s X i n f i r s t o f a l l , t o say more. L i k e an i m p r i s o n e d d r a gon s u d d e n l y s e t f r e e i n t h e w i l d e r n e s s , X i n i n h i s ci, was rampant. He rampages t h r o u g h t h e pages o f h i s t o r y , q u o t i n g t h e c l a s s i c s , h i s t o r i e s , works o f e a r l i e r p o e t s , and b i o g r a p h i e s o f f a m o u s p e o p l e , g i v i n g t h i s c a t e g o r y o f X i n ' s c i a v e r y d i s t i n c t i v e c l a s s i c a l f l a v o r . But t h e use o f a l l u s i o n a l l o w s X i n t o make s t a t e m e n t s i n s u c h an i n d i r e c t manner t h a t h i s message a p p e a r s f o r c e f u l but n e v e r b l u n t o r s h a r p . B e c a u s e o f t h i s i n d i r e c t n e s s i n e x p r e s s i o n , t h e p o e t i c f e e l i n g can be compared t o t h e t i g h t l y - p a c k e d , c o i l e d power o f a c o m p r e s s e d s p r i n g . X i n ' s b r a v a d o f o r c e s i t s way t h r o u g h many l a y e r s o f s u p p r e s s e d s o r r o w and g r i e f . The C h i n e s e t e r m w h i c h a p t l y c a p t u r e s t h i s c o i l e d abandonment i s " j i yu ^ " w h i c h can be more l i t e r a l l y t r a n s l a t e d as "accumulated sorrows and/or m e l a n c h o l y " . T h i s i s k e e n l y o b s e r v e d by Chen Tingzhuo (1853-1892)7^. i£. 'Jv̂  : " X i n J i a x u a n i s t h e d r a g o n o f t h e ci w o r l d . H i s b r e a d t h o f s p i r i t i s immensely h e r o i c but h i s r e a l m o f i d e a s i s s o r r o w - l a d e n . " 1 0 T h u s , l i k e h i s u n u s u a l b l e n d o f a b i l i t i e s , X i n ' s p o e t i c s t y l e e x h i b i t s an u n u s u a l c o m b i n a t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : d i r e c t n e s s - i n d i r e c t n e s s , e x p r e s s i v e n e s s - s u b t l e t y , abandonment- a p p r e h e n s i o n , b o l d n e s s - h e s i s t a n c y , d a u n t l e s s n e s s - f e a r f u l n e s s . But h i s p o e t r y i s always s o r r o w f u l . The comment i n t h e Song Shi a p t l y c a p t u r e s t h i s a s p e c t o f X i n ' s ci: " s o r r o w f u l , s t r o n g , f i e r c e and i n t e n s e 8 X i n ' s i n n e r c o n f l i c t s and the i n t e r p l a y o f o p p o s i n g f o r c e s , h i s i d e a l i s t i c w o r l d view v e r s u s h i s r e a l i s m , i s b e s t r e f l e c t e d and i l l u s t r a t e d i n h i s use o f comparison and c o n t r a s t ( d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter T h r e e ) . I t i s th r o u g h t h i s p o e t i c medium t h a t X i n ' s i n n e r s t r u g g l e , h e s i s t a n c y , and f e a r become more pronounced and p o i g n a n t . The r e a d e r comes t o s e e a man who i s c o n s t a n t l y haunted and t r a p p e d by h i s own i d e a l i s m . I n o r d e r t o b r i n g out t h e s h a r p c o n t r a s t and t o compare t h e d i f f e r e n c e s , X i n i n h i s c i , o f t e n r e s o r t s t o a v a r i e t y o f d i c t i o n a n d f o r m a t , g i v i n g f r e s h n e s s and r i c h n e s s t o h i s c i . U n a b l e t o d e t a c h h i m s e l f f r o m t h e w o r l d o f p o l i t i c s and u n w i l l i n g t o compromise h i m s e l f , X i n r e t r e a t e d i n t o t h e w o r l d o f humor, where he t u r n s h i s a n g e r and f r u s t r a t i o n i n t o p o e t i c f a r c e . C h a p t e r Four i s an e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e amusing s i d e o f X i n ' s sorrow. Zheng Q i a n has t h i s comment about X i n t h e man: " H s i n C h i a - h s u a n a l w a y s pushes h i m s e l f f r o m t h e open i n t o the narrow, and he does the same i n h i s l y r i c s . The more u n p l e a s a n t t h e event i s , t h e h a r d e r i t becomes f o r him t o f o r g e t . " 1 2 I t i s t h i s i n a b i l i t y t o f o r g e t u n p l e a s a n t n e s s i n l i f e and h i s i n a b i l i t y t o change, o r t o t r a n s c e n d h i s own sor r o w , t h a t g i v e s h i s humor an element o f s a d n e s s . The ci d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r Four not o n l y demonstrate X i n ' s w i t but h i s v e r s a t i l i t y as w e l l . N o t o n l y c a n he i n c o r p o r a t e c l a s s i c a l s o u r c e s i n t o h i s c i s e a m l e s s l y , he can a l s o t u r n c l a s s i c a l p h r a s e s i n t o c o l l o q u i a l l a n guage. 9 X i n ' s s o r r o w has as much t o do w i t h X i n the man as w i t h t h e t i m e i n w h i c h he was b o r n and r a i s e d . X i n was b o r n on May t w e n t y - s e v e n t h , 1140 A.D. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e C h i n e s e c a l e n d a r , i t was t h e e l e v e n t h day o f the f i f t h l u n a r month, t h e t e n t h y e ar o f th e r e i g n o f Gao Zong <Z] , ( t h e o f f i c i a l name o f h i s r e i g n was Shao X i n g %1£ )• X i n was b o r n i n S i f e n g Zha \&) i n t he d i s t r i c t o f L i Cheng ^ , Q i ; i j p r e f e c t u r e , i n the J i n - o c c u p i e d p r o v i n c e o f Shandong j j j^ . X i n ' s z i was Tanfu iS. j \ i w h i c h he l a t e r changed t o You'an Ijj  %j[ . He gave h i m s e l f the hao J i a x u a n , 1 3 F o u r t e e n y e a r s b e f o r e X i n was b o r n , t h i s p a r t o f C h i n a was i n v a d e d and c o n q u e r e d by t h e J i n . 1 4 I n t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e o f t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n o f t h e n o r t h e r n p a r t o f C h i n a , t h e J i n found t h e m s e l v e s r u l i n g o v e r a c u l t u r e more s o p h i s t i c a t e d than t h e i r o w n . 1 5 D o m i n a t i n g s u c h a huge and c u l t u r a l l y u n i t e d r a c e r e q u i r e d more than m i l i t a r y f o r c e a l o n e . I n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n , t h e J i n ' s p o l i c y t o w a r d s t h e C h i n e s e was c o n c i l i a t o r y , c o m b i ning a l e n i e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e approach w i t h an i r o n - c l a d m i l i t a r y c o n t r o l . A f t e r t h i s i n i t i a l p e r i o d , s i n i c i z a t i o n began t o t a k e p l a c e , f o r two r e a s o n s . F i r s t , t h e d u a l i s t i c a p p r o a c h o f t h e e a r l y p e r i o d not o n l y f a i l e d t o a l t e r t h e C h i n e s e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e but even r e i n f o r c e d i t . Second, the power o f r e g i o n a l J i n o f f i c i a l s g r e w s o s t r o n g t h a t o n l y t h e a d o p t i o n o f t h e f u l l C h i n e s e b u r e a u c r a t i c s y s t e m c o u l d e n a b l e t h e J i n government t o r e t a i n c o n t r o l . The C h i n e s e b u r e a u c r a t i c s y s t e m , w h i c h s t r e s s e s t h e a b s o l u t e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e emperor, was p e r f e c t f o r s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e power o f t h e c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t . Hence, t h e p r o c e s s o f s i n i c i z a t i o n s e r v e d t h e purpose o f c e n t r a l i z a t o n . The p o l i c y o f s i n i c i z a t i o n and the J i n emperor L i a n g ' s (1122-1161) r u t h l e s s c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f h i s own power gave much i n c e n t i v e t o C h i n e s e peasant u p r i s i n g s i n t h e n o r t h . The p r o c e s s o f s i n i c i z a t i o n r e i n f o r c e d t h e C h i n e s e s e n s e o f n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y , which was one o f the d r i v i n g f o r c e s o f t h e i r r e b e l l i o n s a g a i n s t t h e " b a r b a r i a n s " . Throughout the J i n ' s o c c u p a t i o n , the a r e a n o r t h o f the Huai R i v e r /|t ;"̂ J which c o v e r e d t h e p r o v i n c e s o f e a s t e r n Henan ;^ ^ , s o u t h - w e s t e r n Shandong, n o r t h e r n Anhui "jf f&L ' a n < ^ n o r t h e r n J i a n g s u ; J _ , was a c e n t e r o f a n t i - J i n a c t i v i t i e s . Numerous g u e r r i l l a groups sprang up. Y e a r s of war w o r s e n e d t h e l o c a l f o o d s i t u a t i o n ; f r u s t r a t i o n , h u n g e r , d e s p e r a t i o n , and n a t i o n a l h u m i l i a t i o n a l l added t o t h e f i e r c e n e s s o f l o c a l resentment. The a c t i v i t i e s o f g u e r r i l l a groups t u r n e d t h a t r e s e n t m e n t i n t o an i n f e r n o o f h a t r e d towards t h e J i n . I t was i n s u c h an e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t X i n was b o r n and grew up as a young g u e r r i l l a f i g h t e r . From th e time he was b o r n u n t i l t h e year he moved s o u t h i n 1162, l i t t l e i s known about X i n . I r v i n g Lo d e s c r i b e d t h i s p e r i o d a s "an o b s c u r e p e r i o d . " 1 6 C a i and C a i i n t h e i r book Jiaxuan Changduan J u Biannian $ k \\ - I l iX *7 > s a i d t h a t when X i n was e i g h t , he was w i t h h i s g r a n d f a t h e r Zan % , i n K a i f e n g y\ ( t h e p r e s e n t d i s t r i c t o f K a i f e n g i n Henan ?*j ) . 1 7 B u t t h e y o f f e r no e x p l a n a t i o n o r s o l i d h i s t o r i c a l 11 documents i n s u p p o r t o f t h e i r a s s e r t i o n . X i n h i m s e l f gave a b r i e f a c c o u n t o f h i s f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d and a g l i m p s e o f h i s " o b s c u r e b o y h o o d " i n h i s e s s a y "A Humble O f f e r i n g o f Ten D i s c o u r s e s ( M e i q i n S h i l u n • ~f 1^1 )": 18 "The f a m i l y l i n e o f t h i s s u b j e c t ( X i n Q i j i ) was a l l o t t e d a p i e c e o f l a n d i n J i n a n \%] . F o r g e n e r a t i o n s , we r e c e i v e d t h e honor o f b e i n g e n t r u s t e d w i t h m i l i t a r y d u t i e s . My g r a n d f a t h e r Zan, was un a b l e t o l e a v e b e c a u s e o f h a v i n g a l a r g e f a m i l y . S h a m e f u l l y , he took o f f i c e under t h e b a r b a r i a n s . He s t a y e d i n J i n g s h i * j \ ( t h e c a p i t a l a t t h a t time was K a i f e n g ) , s u c c e s s i v e l y s t a y e d i n Suzhou ( S u x i a n , t h e p r e s e n t d i s t r i c t o f Su, i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f Anhui ) and Bozhou ^ }t\ ( i n t h e p r e s e n t d i s t r i c t o f Bo, i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f A n h u i ) , and passed by Y i iff ( t h e p r e s e n t p r o v i n c e o f Shandong, i n the d i s t r i c t o f Y i ) and H a i ( i n t h e p r e s e n t p r o v i n c e o f Shandong, i n t h e d i s t r i c t o f Haicheng fj^ ). But a l l t h e s e were not h i s g o a l s i n l i f e . O f t e n t i m e s , a f f e r t e r s u p p e r , he would b r i n g me, a l o n g w i t h my p e e r s , t o some h i g h p l a c e s . H a v i n g a f a r and broad view o f t h e l a n d , he would d i r e c t our a t t e n t i o n t o t h e mountains and r i v e r s . T h i n k i n g o f s t a r t i n g h o s t i l i t i e s and i n o r d e r t o r e l i e v e t h e g r i e f and v e x a t i o n o f h a v i n g t o l i v e under t h e same sky w i t h h i s f a t h e r ' s m u r d e r e r s , t w i c e , he o r d e r e d me t o accompany a c c o u n t c l e r k s ( t h o s e who t o o k p r o v i n c i a l f i n a n c i a l r e c o r d s t o the c a p i t a l ) t o t h e c a p i t a l . T h e r e, we would o b s e r v e the l a y o f t h e l a n d . My g r a n d f a t h e r p a s s e d away b e f o r e t h e s e p l a n s were r e a l i z e d . " 1 9 Deng Guangming ^ i n h i s Chronology of Jiaxuan T $1 - f - t% a g r e e s w i t h X i n Q i t a i ' s (Qing) ^ jtt. A. f i n d i n g i n h i s Chronology of Xin Jiaxuan Jf t h a t X i n ' s g r a n d f a t h e r was i n d e e d named Zan and t h a t he was Grand M a s t e r f o r C l o s i n g C o u r t (Chaosan Tafu f | \\. %. ), a p r e s t i g e t i t l e f o r an o f f i c i a l o f rank 6b. X i n ' s f a t h e r was c a l l e d Wenyu ^ and he was g i v e n the s i m i l a r t i t l e o f Grand Master f o r P a l a c e L e i s u r e (rank 5a or 5b) ^ ^ . There a r e no h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s c o n c e r n i n g h i s f a t h e r ' s l i f e . X i n Q i t a i f o u n d J i a x u a n ' s f a m i l y r e c o r d i n the Genealogy of Xin of Jinan / Ifc » B . A l s o r e c o r d e d i n t h i s g e n e a l o g y was t h e f a c t t h a t X i n ' s g r e a t - g r e a t g r a n d f a t h e r was g i v e n t h e p r e s t i g e t i t l e o f the Gentleman C o n f u c i a n (rank 9a) (flp #r . X i n ' s g r e a t g r a n d f a t h e r s e r v e d as Revenue Manager and a d m i n s t r a t o r i n B i n z h o u \ ''j ( i n t h e p r e s e n t p r o v i n c e o f Shandong, i n the d i s t r i c t o f Huimin ^ ) . 2 0 A t t h e age o f t e n , X i n s t u d i e d under L i u Zhan Jjfj $/f S t u d y i n g under L i u a t t h e same t i m e was a n o t h e r s t u d e n t named Dang H u a i y i n g (1134-1211) who l a t e r p a s s e d t h e J i n c i v i l s e r v i c e e x a m i n a t i o n and became a famous J i n s c h o l a r . I n t h e i r a r e a , X i n and Dang were o f t e n mentioned t o g e t h e r as X i n - Dang. 2 1 X i n Q i t a i a l s o s t a t e s t h a t X i n was r e c o g n i z e d f o r h i s wide knowledge w h i l e he was a young boy. At the age o f f o u r t e e n , i n 1153, X i n was s e l e c t e d as one o f t h e l o c a l c a n d i d a t e s t o w r i t e t h e j i n s h i i t i degree e x a m i n a t i o n (Ling Xiangju 4k )-22 L i u B o j i /f>] \% jfjfl i n h i s Song da i Zhengjiaoshi <f> 4\ jEJL %L £~ d e f i n e s xiangju as a c a n d i d a t e f o r e i t h e r the j i n s h i e x a m i n a t i o n and/or f o r v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s . The c a n d i d a t e was t o be nominated by h i s l o c a l o f f i c i a l s t o the q u o t a . Then th e l i s t o f c a n d i d a t e s was s u b m i t t e d t o t h e c e n t r a l government. 2 3 A c c o r d i n g t o the Jin Shi , t h e e a r l i e s t c i v i l s e r v i c e e x a m i n a t i o n were h e l d i n 1123 and 1124 . 2 4 A f t e r 1129, t r i e n n i a l e x a m i n a t i o n s were g i v e n . The e x a m i n a t i o n was h e l d i n 1153 was the e i g h t h . The o n l y h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d w h i c h e x p l i c i t l y a c k n o wledges t h a t X i n i n d e e d had o b t a i n e d h i s j i n s h i d e g r e e i s t h e Sanchao Beimenghui Bian J - . 3 However, by h i s own a c c o u n t , X i n s t a t e s e x p l i c i t l y t h a t he was t h e r e t o i n s p e c t the l a y o f t h e l a n d and not as one o f the nominated c a n d i d a t e s f o r the e x a m i n a t i o n . L i a n g Qichao's (1873-1928) o p i n i o n i s t h a t the c l a i m t h a t X i n was nominated f o r the e x a m i n a t i o n o r i g i n a l l y came from X i n Q i t a i , who based h i s a s s e r t i o n on X i n Q i j i ' s own account o f v i s i t i n g t h e c a p i t a l t w i c e . L i a n g a s s e r t s t h a t u n l e s s t h i s An I i& event was r e c o r d e d i n t h e Genealogy of Qianshan '$* a-> n? t t h e r e would be no r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t X i n was nominated as a c a n d i d a t e f o r the j i n s h i degree. T h i s p o s i t i o n i s a l s o u p h e l d by Deng, who i n h i s d e t a i l e d r e s e a r c h on X i n ' s l i f e , d i d not f i n d any r e c o r d i n e i t h e r t h e Jinan Gazetteer_ 3W ft j f t or 14 i n t h e Licheng Gazetteer I t would seem t h a t b oth Deng and L i a n g d a t e d t h i s event i n 1153 i n t h e i r c h r o n o l o g y o f X i n m e r e l y because they c o u l d n e i t h e r p r ove nor d i s p r o v e i t s a c t u a l o c c u r r e n c e . The f i r s t t i m e t h a t X i n a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n g u e r r i l l a w a r f a r e was i n 1161 when he was twenty-two y e a r s o l d . The J i n emperor, L i a n g , l a u n c h e d a massive m i l i t a r y a s s a u l t on the s o u t h . I n r e s p o n s e , many g u e r r i l l a g r o u p s i n t h e n o r t h j o i n e d f o r c e s under the l e a d e r s h i p o f Geng J i n g (1095-1162) J('K jf\ , 2 7 P r i o r t o t h i s e v e n t , by h i s own a c c o u n t , i n h i s e s s a y o f "A humble O f f e r i n g o f Ten D i s c o u r s e s , " X i n had formed h i s own g u e r r i l l a u n i t w h i c h numbered more t h a n two t h o u s a n d p e o p l e . A f t e r he j o i n e d f o r c e s w i t h Geng J i n g , a l t o g e t h e r t h e y had two hundred f i f t y t housand p e o p l e . X i n was t h e C h i e f S e c r e t a r y 4 iU ; 28 X i n ' s p o s i t i o n i n t h e g u e r r i l l a c o a l i t i o n was g r e a t l y e n h a n c e d by an i n c i d e n t . J o i n e d t o Geng J i n g ' s f o r c e s was a n o t h e r g u e r r i l l a u n i t under t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f a. monk named Y i Duan -fy )xy who l o v e d t o engage X i n i n c o n v e r s a t i o n on m i l i t a r y a f f a i r s . He and X i n soon became good f r i e n d s due t o t h i s common i n t e r e s t . One day, Y i Duan s t o l e t h e o f f i c i a l s e a l and f l e d . S i n c e X i n had been on f r i e n d l y terms w i t h Y i Duan and had a l s o i n t r o d u c e d Y i Duan t o Geng J i n g , X i n was s u s p e c t e d by Geng J i n g o f b e i n g Y i Duan's a c c o m p l i c e . To p r o v e h i s i n n o c e n c e , X i n asked Geng J i n g t o g i v e him t h r e e d a y s t o c a p t u r e Y i Duan. I f he s h o u l d f a i l , he was w i l l i n g t o s u b s t i t u t e h i s own head f o r Y i Duan's. The i n c i d e n t ended w i t h X i n r e t u r n i n g t o Geng J i n g w i t h Y i Duan's h e a d . 2 9 I n 1161, X i n went s o u t h . The purpose o f t h i s t r i p was t o e s t a b l i s h c ommunication between the g u e r r i l l a u n i t i n t h e n o r t h and t h e So u t h e r n Song government. A t t h a t t i m e , t h e J i n emperor L i a n g was a d v a n c i n g t o w a r d s t h e s o u t h . I n r e s p o n s e , Geng J i n g wanted t o s t a g e a c o o r d i n a t e d o f f e n s i v e w i t h t h e S o u t h e r n Song f o r c e s . X i n was chosen f o r t h i s m i s s i o n because Geng J i n g wanted a l i t e r a t u s t o accompany J i a R u i 1^ who was i l l i t e r a t e . X i n and t h e r e s t o f t h e envoys were welcomed as h e r o e s upon t h e i r a r r i v a l i n t h e s o u t h . X i n was g i v e n t h e p r e s t i g e t i t l e o f J u n i o r Gentleman f o r R e n d e r i n g S e r v i c e The g u e r r i l l a u n i t l e d by Geng J i n g i n t h e n o r t h came t o an end when Geng J i n g was a s s a s s i n a t e d by Zhang Anguo At t h a t t i m e , X i n was i n Ha i z h o u ( t h e p r e s e n t d i s t r i c t o f Donghai ^ >ijj ), on h i s way back t o t h e n o r t h . The h i s t o r i c a l s o u r c e s on t h i s event do not agr e e on X i n ' s e x a c t r o l e i n the e v e n t s t h a t f o l l o w e d . X i n ' s b i o g r a p h y i n the Song Shi s t a t e s t h a t i t was X i n who went i n t o the, J i n m i l i t a r y camp w i t h Wang S h i l o n g J_ ^ and c a p t u r e d Zhang a l i v e t o be r e t u r n e d t o the Sou t h e r n c a p i t a l . T h i s v e r s i o n i s a l s o s u p p o r t e d by o t h e r r e c o r d s : the Zhuzi Yulei 4" 4|x , Kangxi Jinan Fuzhi_ and Nansong Shu ffl / f N # . 3 1 A d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n o f X i n ' s r o l e i s found i n t h e b i o g r a p h y o f Wei Sheng (1120-1164) j$? , c o m p i l e d by Zhang Y i n g jj> t$ ' A c c o r d i n 9 t o t h i s a c c o u n t , Wang S h i l o n g was t h e p e r s o n who a c t u a l l y c a p t u r e d Z h a n g . 3 2 X i n ' s r o l e , i f any, i n t h e c a p t u r e o f Zhang w i l l n e ver be c l e a r ; i t 16 w o u l d seem, h o w e v e r , t h a t he was h e l p f u l i n c a p t u r i n g Zhang. Deng says t h a t t h e f i r s t c l a s s c r e d i t s h o u l d be awarded t o X i n . 3 3 The g u e r r i l l a u n i t d i s i n t e g r a t e d a f t e r t h e d e a t h o f Geng J i n g , and X i n began h i s permanent r e s i d e n c e i n t h e s o u t h i n 1162. X i n was b o r n a t a time o f s o c i a l u p h e a v a l . H i s n a t i o n was d i v i d e d i n h a l f b e f o r e he was b o r n . He grew up under the i r o n r u l e o f t h e J i n . I n t h e f i r s t twenty-two y e a r s o f h i s l i f e , he w i t n e s s e d h i s p e o p l e ' s s u f f e r i n g and t h e h a r d s h i p o f l i v i n g under f o r e i g n d o m i n a t i o n . As a C h i n e s e , he s u f f e r e d t h e same f a t e as h i s p e o p l e , h i s f r e e d o m d e n i e d , h i s n a t i o n a l p r i d e h u m i l i a t e d . G r o w i n g up i n S h a n d o n g , t h e c e n t e r o f g u e r r i l l a a c t i v i t i e s , a l l o w e d him t o t r a i n as a g u e r r i l l a l e a d e r . The s t r o n g a n t i - J i n s e n t i m e n t i n t h e n o r t h l e d him t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s was the mood i n t h e s o u t h a s w e l l . H i s g r a n d f a t h e r Zan a l s o p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n s h a p i n g and m o l d i n g h i s p a t r i o t i c s p i r i t . X i n , as a young man, a l r e a d y had a c l e a r sense o f m i s s i o n - he was t o h e l p t h e Song government t o r e c a p t u r e t h e n o r t h , t o s ave h i s p e o p l e f r o m t h e hand o f t h e emeny. I n t h e n o r t h , t h e t i m e s shaped X i n i n t o a man o f m i s s i o n and a c t i o n . B u t i n t h e s o u t h , t h e n a t i o n a l mood was d r a s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e n o r t h . 3 4 The r u l i n g c o u r t was d o m i n a t e d by pro-appeasement p e o p l e . For the r e s t o f h i s l i f e i n the s o u t h , X i n ' s dream o f l i b e r a t i n g h i s homeland was u n f u l f i l l e d . He l o n g e d t o be i n t h e p o l i t i c a l c e n t e r where he c o u l d make major p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n and be t h e l e a d e r o f m y r i a d s o f s o l d i e r s a g a i n . But i n s t e a d , he was g i v e n one l o c a l a d m i n s t r a t i v e p o s t 1 7 a f t e r a n o t h e r . He was never g i v e n t h e p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s and power which he thought he d e s e r v e d . A f t e r he moved s o u t h , X i n was g i v e n t h e p o s t o f A s s i s t a n t t o t h e C o n t r o l l e r - G e n e r a l i n J i a n g y i n ;£ • He l e f t t h i s p o s t i n t h e b e g i n n i n g o f 1 1 6 5 . T h e r e i s n ' t much s o l i d i n f o r m a t i o n on where he was e x c e p t s p e c u l a t i o n t h a t he was t r a v e l l i n g i n t h e Wu and Chu r e g i o n s f o r t h e next t h r e e y e a r s . * L i a n g Q i chao d i d no more th a n s p e c u l a t e t h a t X i n might have b e e n w i t h o u t a g o v e r n m e n t p o s t and was r o a m i n g i n t h e J i n l i n g ( p r e s e n t : N a n j i n g ify j$\ i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f J i a n g s u ) a r e a . 3 5 Deng a d m i t t e d t h a t he was unclea'r a b o u t t h i s p e r i o d o f X i n ' s l i f e . He a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t X i n might have been wandering i n t h e Wujiang ^ il. r e g i o n . A c l a i m t h a t X i n was i n d e e d t r a v e l l i n g i n t h e Wu and Chu r e g i o n s comes from C a i and C a i i n t h e i r a r t i c l e " X i n Q i j i Manyao Wuchu Kao "f 1 . 6 C a i and C a i based t h e i r c l a i m on s e v e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s . F i r s t , t h e p o s i t i o n o f the C o n t r o l l e r - G e n e r a l was f o r t h r e e y e a r s o n l y . X i n a c c e p t e d t h i s p o s t i n 1162 and t h e term s h o u l d have ended i n 1165. * Wu was t h e most e a s t e r l y o f the s t a t e s i n the Three Kingdoms p e r i o d ( 2 2 9 - 2 8 0 A . D . ) . I t c o m p r i s e d Z h e j i a n g and a r e a s n o r t h w e s t o f i t . Chu was a k i n gdom f r o m t h e W a r r i n g S t a t e s p e r i o d . I t c o v e r e d th e p r e s e n t a r e a s of Hunan, H u b e i , J i a n g s u , and J i a n g x i . 18 The second p i e c e o f e v i d e n c e which t h e y used t o s u p p o r t t h e i r c l a i m i s the meeting between X i a Zhongyu ^ f. and X i n . Because X i a was from Yangzhou ")\\ ( p r e s e n t : t h e d i s t r i c t o f J i a n g d u ;£ % ^ , i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f J i a n g s u ) , C a i and C a i assumed t h a t X i n and X i a met e i t h e r i n Yangzhou o r i n G u i j i ^ ^| ( t h e p r e s e n t d i s t r i c t o f S h a o x i n g t% J2§ , i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f Z h e j i a n g ;Jf| ;X )• But i n X i n ' s c i t o X i a , b e s i d e t h e note i n t h e p r e f a c e which s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e s t h a t the c i was w r i t t e n f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f h a r m o n i z i n g w i t h X i a ' s ci (he Xia Zhongyu ^ *|_ ^ i . ) i t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t X i n and X i a a c t u a l l y met i n Yangzhou or G u i j i d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . 3 7 I n t h e same a r t i c l e , t h e C a i s a l s o s t a t e t h a t i n 1167, X i n s l i p p e d i n t o J i n t e r r i t o r y f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f g a t h e r i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e . They base t h e i r a s s e r t i o n on t h e c h a r a c t e r "sai f /L " which X i n f r e q u e n t l y uses i n h i s c i . A c c o r d i n g t o them, i n Deng Guangming's o l d e d i t i o n o f Jiaxuan Ci Biannian Jianzhu ffjL $t ^ i& -fr \ ^ , t h e r e was a ci t i t l e d "Chusai Chunhan Yougan I n t h e new e d i t i o n , Deng d e f i n e s t h e term "chusai " as a n o t h e r name f o r the tune p a t t e r n "Ye Jinmen *§f ^ ". But b o t h C a i s d i s a g r e e , a s s e r t i n g t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r "sai" s h o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as t h e "dangerous f r o n t i e r " , w hich they t a k e i t as the Huai R i v e r a r e a , t h e d i v i d i n g l i n e between t h e n o r t h and t h e s o u t h . Based on t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s , C a i and C a i b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e term "chusai" a c t u a l l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t X i n d i d i n f a c t sneak i n t o the "dangerous f r o n t i e r " w h i c h was J i n ' s o c c u p i e d t e r r i t o r y . C a i and C a i a l s o c i t e the p h r a s e "qingyou beifang k\ j|f 7] " from X i n ' s essay "The Nine D i s c o u r s e s " as a n o t h e r p i e c e o f e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t i n g t h e i r c l a i m . T h i s i s r e p u d i a t e d by X i n Gengru | i n h i s a r t i c l e "Xin Q i j i Nanguihou Bingwu 'Qianru Jingguo1 zhi Shi ^ % fa tff] 4- ^ ^ X ^ X i n Gengru i n t h i s a r t i c l e a r g u e s t h a t the c h a r a c t e r "qing fcjl " has two m e a n i n g s : i t c a n i n d i c a t e t e m p o r a l immediacy, or i t can mean " f o r m e r l y " or i n t h e " p a s t " . X i n Gengru f a v o r s t h e second meaning i n i n t e r p r e t i n g X i n Q i j i ' s p h r a s e . I f X i n were t o have s u b m i t t e d h i s e s s a y t o Yu Yunwen (1110-1174) I i L t i n 1170, t h r e e y e a r s a f t e r he s u p p o s e d l y s l i p p e d i n t o J i n t e r r i t o r y , t h e n , a c c o r d i n g t o X i n Gengru, " t h r e e y e a r s a f t e r " c a n h a r d l y be s a i d t o be " t e m p o r a l i m m e d i a c y . " T h e r e f o r e t h e p h r a s e "qingyou beifang" c o u l d o n l y p o i n t t o the days when X i n was a young g u e r r i l l a f i g h t e r i n the n o r t h . The second p o i n t which X i n Gengru r a i s e s t o r e f u t e the C a i s ' c l a i m i s t h e S o u t h e r n Song g o v e r n m e n t ' s s u s p i c i o u s a t t i t u d e towards th e n o r t h e r n e r s who moved s o u t h a f t e r the J i n ' s i n v a s i o n o f the n o r t h . X i n argues t h a t s l i p p i n g back t o the n o r t h would have been t o o b i g a r i s k f o r X i n Q i j i t o t a k e , s i n c e i t would arouse more s u s p i c i o n o f h i s l o y a l t y on t h e p a r t o f t h e S o u t h e r n Song government. The most one can i n f e r f r o m X i n ' s p h r a s e i s t h a t X i n Q i j i d i d i n f a c t t r a v e l b r o a d l y i n t h e n o r t h e r n r e g i o n and was q u i t e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e a r e a . X i n ' s knowledge o f and f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e n o r t h e r n r e g i o n has been a s s e r t e d by Cheng B i (1164-1242) ^£ 20 p^i i n h i s Mingshui J i i i J< -/f, ; " Q i j i t r a v e l l e d a l l o v e r t h e n o r t h e r n r e g i o n when he was young. No one c o u l d have f o o l e d him jt j i ? £ ft : M ^ f t 4 . ^ 1 Indeed, t h e Wu and Chu r e g i o n s were f r e q u e n t l y mentioned i n X i n ' s c i , as b o t h C a i s o b s e r v e d i n t h e i r a r t i c l e . T h e y . c i t e s e v e r a l c i i n s u p p o r t o f t h e i r a s s e r t i o n . For example: To t h e Tune o f Qingping Le_ "The Wu d i a l e c t sounds w o n d e r f u l w h i l e spoken i n t i p s y p l a y f u l n e s s . a ? Iii « M # Which household do th o s e w h i t e h a i r e d o l d f o l k s b e l o n g t o ? " 4 0 o t n t % it y To t h e Tune of Qingping Le H "ffi "When I was young, I drank t o e x c e s s 1 Jf -ft - f t Wakened i n r e m i n i s c e n c e o f the Wu r i v e r . " 4 1 W r i t i n g a f a r e w e l l c i t o a f r i e n d r e t u r n i n g t o t h e Wu r e g i o n : To t h e Tune of Zauyao Ling ' * f? x* " I f t h e Wu f o l k s by t h e r i v e r ask about me M I * it % One by one, I may t r o u b l e you t o t e l l them." 4 2 - - %\ -% t L From t h e f r e q u e n t mention o f the Wu and Chu r e g i o n s i n h i s c i , i t i s s a f e t o c o n j e c t u r e t h a t X i n t r a v e l l e d i n t h a t a r e a , most l i k e l y between 1165 t o 1168. A n o t h e r e v e n t i n X i n ' s l i f e d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d was t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e e s s a y "A Humble O f f e r i n g o f Ten D i s c o u r s e s " , a l s o t i t l e d "Yurong Shilun ^ 5^ j " 1^7 ". Deng, L i a n g , and X i n Q i t a i a l l put i t s c o m p o s i t i o n i n 1165. 4 3 Wu Xionghe -Jk y£a p u t s t h e year o f c o m p o s i t i o n between 1168 t o 1169. 4 4 J i a n g L i n z h u -| d a t e s it i n 1168. 4 5 The t i m e o f c o m p o s i t i o n o r s u b m i s s i o n i s r a t h e r s e c o n d a r y when compared t o t h e c o n t e n t o f t h i s e s s a y . I r v i n g Lo g i v e s a much s h o r t e n e d and s i m p l i f i e d E n g l i s h v e r s i o n i n h i s book. T h i s e s s a y i s a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n o f X i n ' s m i l i t a r y b r i l l i a n c e and h i s pragmatism. He t r u l y l i v e d up t o Zhu X i ' s comment of him: " X i n Q i j i knows m i l i t a r y a f f a i r s q u i t e w e l l jjfC -j£ \\ %\ ^ 1 . ^ 4 6 The e s s a y i s d i v i d e d i n t o t e n d i s c o u r s e s . The f i r s t t h r e e a r e an a n a l y s i s o f t h e weaknesses o f t h e enemy. X i n p r o p o s e s t h a t t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e enemy c a n be a c c u r a t e l y a s s e s s e d by s p y i n g . F u r t h e r , t h e s t r a t e g y o f d i v i d e and conquer would work even b e t t e r f o r t h e S o u t h e r n Song i f the a n t i - J i n s e n t i m e n t i n t h e n o r t h was a p p r o p r i a t e l y e x p l o i t e d . X i n a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e b e s t d e f e n s e i s a good o f f e n s e . The r e s t o f the e s s a y was d e v o t e d t o t h e need t o s t r e n g t h e n d e f e n s e . X i n s u g g e s t e d t h e s y m b o l i c m o v i n g o f t h e c a p i t a l t o J i n l i n g and a h a l t t o t h e a n n u a l t r i b u t e i n o r d e r t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t h e S o u t h e r n Song government was s e r i o u s about ' r e c a p t u r i n g t h e n o r t h . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e d e f e n s e o f t h e Huai R i v e r was c r u c i a l t o the s e c u r i t y o f t h e S o u t h . To d e f e n d t h e H u a i R i v e r r e g i o n , X i n a d v o c a t e d t h e r e c r u i t m e n t o f l o c a l p e o p l e who a l r e a d y had t h e a d v a n t a g e o f b e i n g f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e a r e a . T h i s c o u l d a l s o p r e v e n t the J i n from r e c r u i t i n g t h e l o c a l p e o p l e . To f u r t h e r s t o p t h e f l o w o f d e f e c t o r s , X i n a l s o a d v o c a t e d r a i s i n g m o r a l e i n t h e army by s e t t i n g up a f a i r r e w a r d s y s t e m and t h e l e n i e n t t r e a t m e n t o f competent l e a d e r s who made e r r o r s . L a s t l y , t h e r o u t e t o v i c t o r y , X i n s t a t e d , was t o a t t a c k t h e enemy's main body i n Shandong p r o v i n c e r a t h e r t h a n a t t a c k i n g l e s s v i t a l a r e a s such as the head and t a i l . A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t p o i n t w h i c h s h o u l d not be o v e r l o o k e d i n t h i s e s s a y i s X i n ' s mention o f t h e s o u t h e r n e r ' s h o s t i l i t y towards t h o s e n o r t h e r n e r s who moved s o u t h , the Guizheng Ren j L A. as t h e y were c a l l e d . 4 7 The s i x t h d i s c o u r s e , i n t h e c o u r s e o f a d v o c a t i n g t h a t t h e s e p e o p l e be t r a i n e d t o be s k i l l e d f a r m e r s as w e l l a s s o l d i e r s , X i n a l s o n o t e s t h a t t h e s o u t h e r n e r s were s u s p i c i o u s o f t h e Guizheng Ren, and f e a r e d t h a t the g a t h e r i n g o f t h e s e p e o p l e would c r e a t e problems i n t h e s o u t h . 4 8 X i n a t t e m p t e d t o c o r r e c t t h i s - b i a s by p u t t i n g t h e p r o b l e m i n t o an economic framework. The cause o f t h e i r u p r i s i n g s , s a i d X i n , was hunger. I f t h e s e p e o p l e were g i v e n l a n d t o f a r m and f o o d t o e a t , t h e chances o f t h e i r making t r o u b l e would be reduced. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t X i n m e n t i o n e d t h e p r o b l e m o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n w h i c h t h e Guizheng Ren f a c e d i n t h i s e s s a y . For t h e r e s t o f h i s l i f e , X i n h i m s e l f was p l a g u e d by t h i s p r oblem. The p e o p l e f r o m t h e n o r t h were seen and t r e a t e d as b a n d i t s and r o b b e r s by t h e s o u t h e r n e r s . The g u e r r i l l a f i g h t e r s , l i k e X i n , were not seen as p a t r i o t s who had b r a v e l y s t r u g g l e d a g a i n s t t h e J i n b u t were t r e a t e d a s mere t r o u b l e - m a k e r s e x p l o i t i n g t h e s i t u a t i o n i n t h e name o f f r e e d o m . A f t e r t h e s e p e o p l e moved s o u t h , t h e y were w i d e l y s u s p e c t e d o f b e i n g c e r t a i n t o r e t u r n t o t h e i r o l d p r o f e s s i o n as r o b b e r s and b a n d i t s . A p p a r e n t l y t h e S o u t h e r n Song government's v a c i l l a t i n g p o l i c y towards t h e Guizheng Ren was one o f t h e causes o f t h i s p r oblem. J u s t a f t e r Gao Zong e s t a b l i s h e d h i s e m p i r e s o u t h o f t h e H u a i R i v e r , a n t i - J i n s e n t i m e n t was s t r o n g a c r o s s t h e n a t i o n . E n c o u r a g i n g t h e n o r t h e r n e r s t o move s o u t h was a p o l i t i c a l g e s t u r e t o s u s t a i n t h i s f e r v o r . E c o n o m i c a l l y , the n o r t h e r n e r s c o u l d h e l p t o r e v i t a l i z e t h e economy i n t h e s o u t h w i t h t h e i r e x p e r t i s e i n f a r m i n g . The Guizheng Ren e n j o y e d some s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s and b e n e f i t s w h i c h were d e n i e d t o t h e S o u t h e r n e r s . 4 9 But a t t h e same time t h e p o l i c y towards t h e s e p e o p l e was t o keep a c l o s e watch on them and t o keep a t i g h t l i d on a l l t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . A s e t o f r e s t r i c t i o n s was imposed s p e c i f i c a l l y on t h e Guizheng Ren.50 F o l l o w i n g t h e p o l i c y o f " s t r e s s t h e c i v i l , government a l s o h a r b o r e d a deep m i s t r u s t towards t h e m i l i t a r y . and s l i g h t t h e m i l i t a r y ," t h e S o u t h e r n Song I n a d d i t i o n t o h i s u n t r a m m e l l e d p e r s o n a l i t y , t h e f a c t t h a t X i n was a Guizheng Ren a n d a f o r m e r g u e r r i l l a f i g h t e r made him u n p o p u l a r w i t h t h e r u l i n g c l a s s ; p r e s e n t i n g a m i l i t a r y s t r a t e g y t o t h e emperor w h i c h s t r e s s e d h i s pro-war s t a n c e o n l y made him t h a t much more u n p o p u l a r w i t h t h e pro-appeasement group. From 1168 t o 1170, X i n was C o n t r o l l e r — g e n e r a l i n J i a n k a n g ^ ^ ( t h e p r e s e n t d i s t r i c t o f J i a n g n i n g iX ^ t N a n j i n g ^ ] ijs i n the p r o v i n c e o f J i a n g s u ) . L a t e r i n 1170, X i n was g i v e n a p o s t i n t h e R e c o r d e r A s s i s t a n t M a g i s t r a t e j | _ ;l? a t the C o u r t o f N a t i o n a l G r a n a r i e s *J D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , X i r i w r o t e and s u b m i t t e d a n o t h e r e s s a y t i t l e d "Nine D i s c u s s i o n s ( J i u Yi "jl • )" t o t h e prime m i n i s t e r Yu Yunwen. L i a n g Q i c h a o , i n h i s c o n t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s , p u t s t h e d a t e o f s u b m i s s i o n o f t h i s e ssay i n 1170. L i a n g o b s e r v e s t h a t by 1170, t h e appeasement p o l i c y was s o l i d l y e s t a b l i s h e d and X i n c o n s i d e r e d t h e t r e n d i r r e v e r s i b l e . As a r e s u l t , X i n s w i t c h e d h i s p o s i t i o n f r o m p r o - w a r i n t h e e s s a y "A Humble O f f e r i n g o f Ten D i s c o u r s e s " t o p r o - d e f e n s e i n t h i s e s s a y . F u r t h e r m o r e , L i a n g c o n j e c t u r e s , X i n h e a v i l y e m p h asized t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f h a v i n g a s t r o n g economy i n t h i s e s s a y ; s i n c e X i n was w o r k i n g i n t h e M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e a t t h a t t i m e , h i s j o b had an i n f l u e n c e on th e c o n t e n t . 5 2 Deng Guangming ag r e e d w i t h L i a n g ' s o b s e r v a t i o n . 5 3 The theme o f t h i s e s s a y i s t h e n e c e s s i t y o f h a v i n g a s y s t e m a t i c program o f p r e p a r a t i o n f o r war. X i n b e l i e v e d t h a t the r e c a p t u r e o f t h e n o r t h was a mor a l o b l i g a t i o n f o r t h e r u l e d and t h e r u l e r s a l i k e . The l e a d e r s o f t h e - n a t i o n s h o u l d n o t be d i s c o u r a g e d by one d e f e a t ( t h e D e f e a t o f Fu L i i n 1163) and l o s e t h e w i l l t o f i g h t . M o r e o v e r , t h e S o u t h e r n Song g o v e r n m e n t a c t u a l l y had p l e n t y o f r e s o u r c e s which c o u l d be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o m i l i t a r y s t r e n g t h . The two-pronged approach t o v i c t o r y would be e i t h e r t h r o u g h i n t i m i d a t i o n { j i a o zhi ^ ) i f one i s i n a s u p e r i o r p o s i t i o n , o r a t t r i t i o n (Jao zhi *p ZJ ). X i n s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e economy c o u l d be s t r e n g t h e n e d by r e s t r a i n t i n t h e n a t i o n a l b u d g e t . The above p o i n t s were not mentioned i n X i n ' s f i r s t e s s a y t o t h e emperor. To d e m o n s t r a t e t h e S o u t h e r n Song government's r e s o l v e t o r e c o v e r l o s t t e r r i t o r y , X i n once a g a i n s u g g e s t e d moving th e c a p i t a l t o J i a n k a n g ( N a n j i n g ) , c l o s e r t o the n o r t h . T h i s move wou l d d e m o n s t r a t e t o the p e o p l e i n the n o r t h t h a t t h e y were not d e s e r t e d by the S o u t h e r n Song government. In r e g a r d t o h i s b e l i e f and o p i n i o n , X i n c o u l d be v e r y b l u n t a n d s t u b b o r n . He c o u l d j u s t s p e a k h i s m i n d w i t h o u t much r e s t r a i n t . The comments i n t h e Song Shi was t h a t " [ t h e way] he upholds h i s d i s c u s s i o n [ w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o h i s t o r y ] i s s t r o n g and u p r i g h t ; i t i s not t o i n g r a t i a t e $ ;4? %f] JL, % A^C F o r t h e n e x t two y e a r s , 1172-1173, X i n was t r a n s f e r r e d t o Chuzhou ( t h e p r e s e n t d i s t r i c t o f Chu, i n t h e p r o v i n e o f A n h ui) and g i v e n t h e p o s t o f A d m i n i s t r a t o r . W h i l e he was i n Chuzhou, X i n t r a n s f o r m e d t h i s a r e a from a b a r r e n t r a c t i n t o a p r o s p e r o u s town. Because o f i t s p r o x i m i t y t o t h e H u a i R i v e r , the r e g i o n h a d b e e n r u i n e d by f r e q u e n t w a r f a r e ; t h e f a r m s were reduced t o w a s t e l a n d . As a f i r s t s t e p towards r e c o v e r y , X i n put i n a r e q u e s t t o t h e c e n t r a l government t h a t t h e p e o p l e i n t h i s r e g i o n be exempted f r o m t a x . T h i s r e q u e s t was g r a n t e d . Then, t h e exempted money was used t o b u i l d more h o u s i n g . To s t i m u l a t e t r a d e i n t h i s a r e a , X i n r e d u c e d t a x e s by t h i r t y p e r c e n t on a l l goods. As a r e s u l t , i t became a b u s t l i n g t r a d i n g c e n t e r . To house t h e merchants, X i n b u i l t a t a v e r n and named i t t h e F a n x i o n g Guan ft . Above t h i s t a v e r n , a n o t h e r b u i l d i n g was c o n s t r u c t e d f o r s i n g i n g and d a n c i n g which was named t h e Dianzhen Lou X i n ' s achievements i n Chuzhou demonstrate he was an a b l e and competent a d m i n i s t r a t o r . The Song Shi had t h i s comment about X i n ' s performance w h i l e he was the A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Chuzhou: " [ X i n ] was l e n i e n t i n d r a f t i n g p e o p l e f o r m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e and t a x a t i o n ; he r e c a l l e d t h o s e who had s c a t t e r e d as r e f u g e e s ; i n s t r u c t e d t h e p e o p l e i n m i l i t a r y a f f a i r s and proposed p o l i c y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g m i l i t a r y c o l o n i e s ^ flf_ ^ ^Jj^ i * U tk, i t l\ ify t # .»56 I n 1 1 7 4 , x i n w a s t h e C o n s u l t a n t a t the M i l i t a r y Commission i n Ji a n g d o n g ;X Jjt ? H i s b i g p o l i t i c a l b r e a k - t h r o u g h came i n 1174 when the new prime m i n i s t e r Ye Heng (1121-1183) 7fv recommended him h i g h l y t o t h e emperor, p r a i s i n g him as a c h i v a l r o u s and t a l e n t e d man. 6 3 X i n was a p p o i n t e d as t h e u n o f f i c i a l a d v i s e r t o t h e D i r e c t o r of t h e G r a n a r i e s Bureau ^ ""jf . I n the summer o f t h a t y e a r , X i n was t r a n s f e r r e d t o J i a n g x i ;X as J u d i c i a l Commissioner 4*IL ~, "H I n t n e f a l l , a c u n n i n g t e a m e r c h a n t named L a i Wenzheng ||[ ^ was s t a g i n g a r e v o l t i n Hubei ^ 27 X i n was s e n t t h e r e as a J u d i c i a l Commissioner t o d e a l w i t h L a i a f t e r s e v e r a l o f f i c i a l a t t e m p t s t o c a t c h him f a i l e d . W i t h h i s m i l i t a r y e x p e r i e n c e as a former g u e r r i l l a f i g h t e r , X i n ' s h a n d l i n g o f L a i d i d not d i s a p p o i n t t h e emperor. L a i was e x e c u t e d i n the f a l l , b r i n g i n g t h e r e v o l t t o an end. As a r e w a r d , X i n was promoted t o t h e p o s t o f S e n i o r C o m p i l e r o f t h e I m p e r i a l A r c h i v e s <P̂,J ?£\ '̂jf $\ • X i n was complimented f o r h i s a b i l i t i e s t o c a t c h b a n d i t s . 5 8 I n t h e b e g i n n i n g o f 1176, X i n was t r a n s f e r r e d t o J i a n g x i as a J u d i c i a l C o m m i s s i o n e r and i n t h e f a l l he was t h e F i s c a l Commissioner o f J i a n g x i }£ 3} ^ if'J . Next year he h e l d t h e d u a l p o s t s o f A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f J i a n g l i n g ( i n t h e p r e s e n t p r o v i n c e o f H u b e i ) and t h e M i l i t a r y Commissioner of H u b e i . I n the s p r i n g o f 1178, X i n was g i v e n t h e t i t l e o f V i c e C h a m b e r l a i n o f Law E n f o r c e m e n t ^ j f j / " fyj . I n t h e f a l l , he was t r a n s f e r r e d t o Hubei a g a i n as t h e V i c e F i s c a l Commissioner ^ • A l t h o u g h X i n was p r a i s e d f o r h i s e f f e c t i v e d e a l i n g w i t h t h e b a n d i t s , he was a l s o c r i t i c i z e d f o r b e i n g t o o s t e r n . For example, i t was r e p o r t e d t h a t X i n s e n t p e o p l e i n t o i n t e r n a l e x i l e f o r h a v i n g s t o l e n a cow. 5 9 He was r e p o r t e d t o be so s t e r n t h a t he o f t e n e n f o r c e d o r d e r by d r o p p i n g t h e rope ( e x e c u t i o n ) . 6 0 I t was r e p o r t e d t h a t an o f f i c i a l named Zhou Y i g o n g ft] Jfc, £) r e f u s e d t o a p p r o v e one o f X i n ' s o f f i c i a l a p p o i n t m e n t s f o r t h e r e a s o n t h a t he d i d not want t o be h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the human l i v e s X i n h a d t a k e n a n d / o r w o u l d t a k e i n t h e f u t u r e had he a p p r o v e d . 6 1 28 At t h e b e g i n n i n g o f 1179, he was t r a n s f e r r e d from Hubei t o Hunan. I t was a l s o i n t h i s year t h a t he s u b m i t t e d a n o t h e r e s s a y t i t l e " D i s c u s s i o n on B a n d i t s (Lun Daozei Zhazi ~?^] ^ - f ^ "J" ) . " The cause o f d i s t u r b a n c e s , X i n b l u n t l y d e c l a r e d was t h e c o r r u p t i o n and b r u t a l i t y o f t h e rank and f i l e . X i n was not o n l y s t e r n t o w a r d s t h e b a n d i t s , he was a l s o v e r y t o u g h t o w a r d s t h e o f f i c i a l s and t h i s angered many o f h i s c o l l e a g u e s . X i n had never d e n i e d t h e f a c t t h a t he was b e i n g s t e r n . When he was asked how he w o u l d e s t a b l i s h l a w and o r d e r , X i n answered: " R u l i n g t h e common p e o p l e , one s h o u l d be l e n i e n t . T r e a t i n g t h e s c h o l a r s , one s h o u l d use t h e r u l e s o f p r o p r i e t y . C o n t r o l l i n g t h e government c l e r k s , one s h o u l d be s t e r n f ^ , % l>xK ̂  t H~z ~t Tj[ ( 4^. t ^ j f c . ." 6 2 X i n ' s s t e r n n e s s i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e b a n d i t s and c l e r k s c o u p l e d w i t h h i s b l u n t a c c u s a t i o n o f government o f f i c i a l s o f c o r r u p t i o n c r e a t e d more enemies f o r h i m s e l f . As X i n f r a n k l y a d m i t t e d h i m s e l f : " I have a l w a y s been s t u b b o r n , t a c t l e s s and s e l f - c o n f i d e n t . Over t h e y e a r s I have n o t been a c c e p t e d by o r d i n a r y p e o p l e . I f e a r l e s t b e f o r e my words l e a v e my mouth, d i s a s t e r may s w i f t l y f o l l o w & & ± Jf- $lj $ % H, I n t h e f a l l , X i n became t h e A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f Tanzhou ;jjf •rt'j ( t h e p r e s e n t d i s t r i c t o f Changsha -J^. /J/" i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f Hunan), as w e l l as t h e M i l i t a r y Commissioner i n Hunan. A t t h a t t i m e , t h e r e g i o n s o f J i a n g x i and Hunan were c e n t r e s o f b a n d i t a c t i v i t i e s . The l o c a l government o f f i c i a l s a p p a r e n t l y were no 29 match f o r t h e s e " p r o f e s s i o n a l " r o b b e r s . X i n was a g a i n s e n t t h e r e as a t r o u b l e - s h o o t e r . I t was t h r o u g h X i n ' s a p p r o a c h t o t h i s i n c i d e n t t h a t h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e as w e l l as h i s m i l i t a r y s k i l l s were de m o n s t r a t e d t o t h e i r f u l l e s t . To s e i z e power from t h e hands o f t h e l o c a l p o w e r f u l g r o u p s , X i n smashed t h e i r b a s e , t h e v i l l a g e s o c i e t i e s (xiang she ^ j j j * ) , by r e d u c i n g t h e i r s i z e t o a maximum o f f i f t y p e o p l e . Weapons were c o n f i s c a t e d from them. 6 4 The second s t e p was t o f i l l t h e power vacuum by s e t t i n g up a l o c a l p o l i c e f o r c e . He s u b m i t t e d a p r o p o s a l t o t h e e m peror r e q u e s t i n g p e r m i s s i o n t o o r g a n i z e a l o c a l army u n i t w h i c h X i n named "The F l y i n g T i g e r s (Feihu Jun 4j| K i ^ ) " . 6 5 X i n began r a i s i n g funds and r e c r u i t i n g s o l d i e r s w h i l e he was w a i t i n g f o r t h e r e p l y . Upon r e c e i v i n g X i n ' s r e q u e s t , t h e c o u r t was a l a r m e d by t h e huge c o s t o f t h e p r o j e c t . X i n p l a n n e d t o r e c r u i t two t h o u s a n d f o o t s o l d i e r s , f i v e h u n d r e d c a v a l r y ; he proposed t o p u r c h a s e f i v e hundred h o r s e s from Guangxi j^f , p l u s weapons and armour. There were o t h e r o f f i c i a l s who were unhappy w i t h X i n ' s grand approach and t r i e d t o s t o p him s e v e r a l t i m e s , but t o no a v a i l . X i n i n s i s t e d i n c o n t i n u i n g t h e p r o j e c t . F i n a l l y , t h e emperor, a c t i n g s w i f t l y , s e n t a g o l d e n t a b l e t ( j i n z i pai ^ j f ^ ) t o X i n o r d e r i n g h i m t o s t o p t h e p r o j e c t i m m e d i a t e l y . But X i n h i d t h e t a b l e t u n t i l t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e t r a i n i n g camp was c o m p l e t e d . The F l y i n g T i g e r Army became one o f t h e b e s t i n t h e a r e a . 6 6 I t even h e l p e d i n t h e d e f e n s e o f t h e n o r t h e r n b o r d e r . Even th e J i n was r e p o r t e d t o be f e a r f u l of t h e F l y i n g T i g e r s . 6 7 But t h e b i r t h o f t h i s army u n i t p l u n g e d X i n i n t o d eeper t r o u b l e w i t h h i s enemies. The c o s t o f t h i s p r o j e c t had r a i s e d some eyebrows, and t h e f a c t t h a t X i n c o u l d r a i s e such a huge sum o f money i n such a s h o r t t i m e a r o u s e d s u s p i c i o n as t o t h e methods he had used. X i n ' s i n s i s t e n c e i n c o m p l e t i n g the p r o j e c t i n t h e m i d s t o f o p p o s i t i o n s a n g e r e d many o f f i c i a l s . Zhou B i d a c r i t i c i z e d t h a t t h e p r o j e c t was t o o c o s t l y . N e v e r t h e l e s s he d i d p r a i s e X i n ' s s o l d i e r s f o r b e i n g s t r o n g . 6 8 Zhu X i gave X i n t h e s o l e c r e d i t f o r h a v i n g o r g a n i z e d and t r a i n e d such a f i n e army. 6 9 A l t h o u g h t h i s p r o j e c t s t i r r e d up more c o n t r o v e r s y about X i n , i t does i n d i c a t e s t h a t X i n was more t h a n competent i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e b a n d i t s as w e l l as t h e o f f i c i a l s . He was a l s o t o u g h e n o u g h a n d s i n g l e - m i n d e d i n p u r s u i n g h i s own a i m s . H i s c o n f i d e n c e i n h i m s e l f made him d e f i a n t and p e r s i s t e n t w h i c h annoyed many o f h i s c o l l e a g u e s . H i s b i o g r a p h y i n the Song Shi had t h i s comment: "The huge amount o f money s p e n t c o u l d be m e a s u r e d i n t e n - t h o u s a n d s . [He] was a d r o i t i n n e g o t i a t i n g [ f i n a n c i a l m a t t e r s ] ; t h i n g s always got done i.amediately /|_ i f , i A 4 # fiL. | % J L ti) A f t e r X i n l e f t Hunan, t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e F l y i n g T i g e r s d e t e r i o r a t e d . I n s t e a d o f a w e l l - d i s c i p l i n e d army u n i t , i t t u r n e d i n t o a g r o u p o f l o o s e l y - k n i t g a n g s . The s o l d i e r s became a r r o g a n t about t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n o f b e i n g an e l i t e m i l i t a r y u n i t . They s t a r t e d t o r o b e v e n i n b r o a d d a y l i g h t and k i l l e d p e o p l e w h i l e d r u n k . 7 1 X i n ' s e n e m i e s were q u i c k t o blame X i n , b u t a b e t t e r e x p l a n a t i o n can be found i n Zhu X i ' s l e t t e r t o one o f the m a g i s t r a t e s i n Hunan. Zhu b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e p r oblem was w i t h the l e a d e r s h i p . The c o n t r o l o f t h e u n i t had been t r a n s f e r r e d t o X i a n g y a n g %^ t% , where t h e r e were o t h e r n a t i o n a l army u n i t s t r a i n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h e d e f e n s e o f t h e b o r d e r . Zhu p e r c e p t i v e l y n o t e d t h a t t h e p r o b l e m was due t o c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r o b l e m between t h e l e a d e r s and t h o s e b e i n g l e d . W i t h o u t any p r o p e r and c l e a r i n s t r u c t i o n s from t h e c o n t r o l u n i t , t h e F l y i n g T i g e r d i s i n t e g r a t e d . 7 2 I n t h e f a l l o f 1180, X i n was g i v e n t h e t i t l e S e n i o r C o m p i l e r o f the You Wen P a l a c e X & ^'f ^ . By t h e end o f the same y e a r , he was t r a n s f e r r e d back t o L o n g x i n g ( t h e p r e s e n t d i s t r i c t o f Nanchang <^7 t i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f J i a n g x i ) as A d m i n i s t r a t o r and l a t e r as M i l i t a r y Commissioner of J i a n g x i , i n 1181. Famine had s p r e a d a c r o s s J i a n g x i , and X i n was i n charge o f t h e r e l i e f program. H i s immediate o r d e r s were s t e r n but v e r y e f f e c t i v e : t h o s e who r e f u s e t o s e l l r i c e w i l l be b a n i s h e d ; t h o s e who s e i z e r i c e by f o r c e w i l l be e x e c u t e d $ f % t ^ % fy\ • 1 , 7 3 The f i r s t c l a u s e was meant t o s t o p t h e s u p p l i e r s f r o m k e e p i n g r i c e and r a i s i n g p r i c e s , w o r s e n i n g t h e s h o r t a g e s i t u a t i o n . The second p a r t f o r b a d e r o b b e r s or o t h e r p o w e r f u l p e o p l e t o e x p l o i t t h e s i t u a t i o n . T h i s s t e r n measure e f f e c t i v e l y r e s t o r e d c i v i l o r d e r i n an o t h e r w i s e s e r i o u s economic c r i s i s . Zhu X i p r a i s e d X i n f o r h i s e f f e c t i v n e s s i n b r i n g a s e r i o u s c r i s i s under c o n t r o l by u s i n g o n l y e i g h t c h a r a c t e r s . 7 4 Once the s i t u a t i o n was under c o n t r o l , X i n ' s second s t e p was t o make i n t e r e s t - f r e e l o a n s t o p e o p l e t o buy r i c e f r o m o t h e r a r e a s . The o n l y c o n d i t i o n was t h a t w i t h i n one month t h e y had t o b r i n g back some r i c e t o s e l l l o c a l l y . One month l a t e r , r i c e began t o come i n t o t h e a f f e c t e d r e g i o n . The famine c r i s i s was e f f e c t i v e l y and e f f i c i e n t l y s o l v e d . He was g i v e n t h e p r e s t i g e t i t l e o f C o u r t Gentleman C o n s u l t a n t j j ^ t\ I n t h e f a l l o f 1181, one o f X i n ' s c r i t i c s , t h e I m p e r i a l C e n s o r Wang L i n j_ , s e n t a p e t i t i o n a s k i n g f o r X i n ' s removal from o f f i c e . I n h i s p e t i t i o n , Wang acc u s e d X i n o f b e i n g b r u t a l and c o r r u p t . I t was a l l e g e d t h a t X i n spent money as i f i t were d i r t and s a n d ; he murdered p e o p l e as i f p l u c k i n g weeds. 7 5 X i n was f i n a l l y f o r c e d t o r e t i r e a t t h e age of f o r t y - t w o . G i v e n t h e power o f t h e c e n s o r s , t o impeach and be impeached was the p o l i t i c a l game a t t h a t t i m e . 7 6 X i n had done h i s sh a r e o f impeaching o t h e r s . I n 1176, i t was r e p o r t e d t h a t he angered many of h i s c o l l e a g u e s by impeaching S h i Yu a n z h i 70 Z^, a c c o r d i n g t o h i s own w i s h . 7 7 I n 1178, he a l s o impeached Huang Maocai ~^ jjy} ; and Zhao Shanjue j£$ J|- j f £ i n H 8 0 . 7 8 But the most o f t e n c i t e d r e a s o n s f o r impeachment a t t h a t time were c o r r u p t i o n and c r u e l t y . 7 9 I t appears t h a t X i n ' s impeachment was p a r t o f t h e p o l i t i c a l game, r a t h e r than t h a t X i n was more c r u e l and c o r r u p t t h a n o t h e r o f f i c i a l s . From t h e w i n t e r o f 1181 t o the end o f 1192, more th a n t e n y e a r s , X i n was b a n i s h e d f r o m t h e p o l i t i c a l c e n t e r . He b u i l t h i m s e l f an e x t r a v a g a n t v i l l a by Lake D a i vp \i§ . 8 0 He spent h i s d a y s i n v i s i t i n g m o u n t a i n s and s t r e a m s . He a l s o b u r i e d h i m s e l f i n books. He r e a d p r o f u s e l y and t u r n e d out a huge number of ci d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . X i n ' s d i s c i p l e Fan K a i p u b l i s h e d the f i r s t c o l l e c t i o n o f h i s c i t i t l e d " J i a x u a n C i J i a J i /j*|<_ f %s " i n 1188. 8 1 By h i s own a c c o u n t , he drank h e a v i l y , o f t e n t i l l he g o t s i c k . 8 2 A l t h o u g h x i n was f i n a n c i a l l y c o m f o r t a b l e and was s u r r o u n d e d by a b e a u t i f u l e n v i r o n m e n t , d u r i n g t h e s e t e n y e a r s , he was n o t a happy and c o n t e n t e d man. 8 3 H i s mind was s t i l l on r e c a p t u r i n g t h e n o r t h , not n a t u r a l s c e n e r y . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , X i n was l i k e a caged d r a g o n . F r u s t r a t i o n , b i t t e r n e s s , and deep s o r r o w f u l n e s s t h u s became t h e dominant f e a t u r e s o f h i s c i . I t was not u n t i l t h e end o f 1192 t h a t X i n was r e c a l l e d t o p u b l i c o f f i c e . H i s f i r s t p o s t a f t e r a d e c a d e o f f o r c e d r e t i r e m e n t was J u d i c i a l Commissioner o f F u j i a n • x i n was t h e same o l d X i n even a f t e r t e n y e a r s o f i n t e r n a l e x i l e . He a p p l i e d t h e same s t e r n m e a s u r e s and was u n y i e l d i n g i n h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a p p r o a c h . 8 4 I n 1193, X i n had an a u d i e n c e w i t h the emperor and was g i v e n the t i t l e o f E d i t o r o f J i y i n g P a l a c e and the p o s t o f C h a m b e r l a i n f o r t h e P a l a c e Revenues y£ Jf^ 'j/ . He s u g g e s t e d t o t h e emperor t h a t t h e defense l i n e s a l o n g t h e upper p o r t i o n o f t h e Yangtse s h o u l d be s t r e n g t h e n e d , t o f u n c t i o n as a p r o t e c t i v e s h i e l d f o r t h e lower h a l f . A l a r g e d i v i s i o n s h o u l d be s t a t i o n e d i n Xiangyang and J i n g n a n 4r*J \^] t the two ends o f the r i v e r so t h a t each u n i t c o u l d s u p p o r t the o t h e r when a t t a c k e d . 8 5 The emperor a l s o had some words f o r X i n . I t was s a i d t h a t the r e a s o n f o r r e c a l l i n g X i n back t o o f f i c i a l was t h a t h i s e x c e s s i v e s p i r i t i n the p a s t had somewhat calmed down. 8 6 X i n was t h e n made t h e A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f F u z h o u and t h e M i l i t a r y Commissioner o f F u j i a n i n 1194. D u r i n g h i s s h o r t s t a y i n Fuzhou, X i n e s t a b l i s h e d a t r e a s u r y named the B e i ' a n Ku ^ £f£ ^ t o s a v e a l l s u r p l u s r e v e n u e . To c o u n t e r t h e p r o b l e m o f b a n d i t s r o a m i n g t h e a r e a , X i n r e s o r t e d t o h i s u s u a l p l a n o f r e c r u i t i n g and t r a i n i n g s o l d i e r s . He was p l a n n i n g t o o r g a n i z e a n o t h e r army u n i t s i m i l a r t o t h e F l y i n g T i g e r s . I n h i s b i o g r a p h y i n t h e Song Shi, X i n was p r a i s e d f o r b e i n g calm and s t e a d y i n h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a p p r o a c h . 8 7 B u t b e f o r e a n y t h i n g c o u l d be a c c o m p l i s h e d , he was a g a i n impeached by a censor named Huang A i \ $ >̂  f o r b e i n g c r u e l , g r e e d y , debauched and f o r c o l l e c t i n g money i l l e g a l l y . 8 8 For the second t i m e , X i n was s e n t back home. From 1194 t o 1202, X i n was i n r e t i r e m e n t a t Qian Mountain J j , near P i a o S p r i n g f^V ^ A t t h e age o f s i x t y - f o u r , i n 1203, X i n was c a l l e d back t o o f f i c e . He became the A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f Shaoxing i% ( i n t h e p r e s e n t p r o v i n c e o f Z h e j i a n g ;^rj ) a n d t h e M i l i t a r y Commissioner o f Zhedong. By t h e t u r n o f t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e M o n g o l s were b e c o m i n g a p o w e r f u l f o r e i g n f o r c e . W h i l e t h e M o n g o l s were engaging t h e J i n i n b a t t l e i n t h e n o r t h , t h e p e o p l e o f t h e S h a n x i X> -S? a r e a e x p l o i t e d t h e s i t u a t i o n by s t a g i n g numerous u p r i s i n g s a g a i n s t t h e J i n . Once a g a i n , a n t i - J i n s e n t i m e n t was s p r e a d i n g q u i c k l y a c r o s s t h e o c c u p i e d t e r r i t o r y . I n 1204, X i n had an a u d i e n c e w i t h t h e emperor,. N i n g Zong (1168-1224) -y j j \ and he was asked t o g i v e h i s assessment of t h e c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n . X i n s a i d t h a t t h e J i n ' s d a y s were numbered. What s h o u l d be done i m m e d i a t e l y was t o make th o r o u g h p r e p a r a t i o n f o r war. T h i s s u g g e s t i o n was what the p r i m e m i n i s t e r Han Tuozhou (1151-1202) f | f j ^ j \ wanted t o h e a r . 8 9 Han had been p r e p a r i n g f o r a b a t t l e w i t h t h e J i n . The d r i v i n g f o r c e o f h i s p r o - w a r s t a n c e , a c c o r d i n g t o many h i s t o r i a n s , was s e l f - s e r v i n g . 9 0 He t h o u g h t t h a t a v i c t o r i o u s b a t t l e w o u l d g r e a t l y enhance h i s s t a t u s and f u r t h e r c o n s o l i d a t e h i s p o l i t i c a l power. X i n was g i v e n the t i t l e o f E d i c t A t t e n d a n t o f the Paomo P a v i l i o n "|[ ^ H fy\ . Then he was t r a n s f e r r e d t o Z h e n j i a n g /3- ( i n t h e p r e s e n t p r o v i n c e o f J i a n g s u ) as an A d m i n i s t r a t o r . A c c o r d i n g t o Cheng B i , X i n , a t t h e age o f s i x t y - s i x , was about t o b e g i n a p r o j e c t t o t r a i n t e n t h o u s a n d s o l d i e r s , r e c r u i t e d from t h e H u a i R i v e r r e g i o n . But b e f o r e t h i s was c o m p l e t e d , when he was about t o be t r a n s f e r r e d t o L o n g x i n g as an A d m i n i s t r a t o r , X i n was once a g a i n r e l i e v e d o f h i s p o s t , i n 1205. 9 1 I n t h e n e x t y e a r , the S o u t h e r n Song government l a u n c h e d an u n s u c c e s s f u l a t t a c k on t h e J i n . Cheng B i i n h i s Bingzi Lundui Zhazi commented t h a t the d e f e a t was due t o s l o p p y p r e p a r a t i o n and l a c k o f i n t e l l i g e n c e ; t h e s o l d i e r s were h o l d i n g p l o u g h s i n s t e a d o f swords, and t h e number o f s o l d i e r s was i n s u f f i c i e n t . 9 2 Upon t h i s d e f e a t , X i n was a g a i n c a l l e d i n t o s e r v i c e . He was g i v e n t h e d o u b l e t i t l e o f E d i c t A t t e n d a n t o f Baowen P a v i l i o n and o f Longtu P a v i l i o n ^ ^ j l j j fif] ^ '̂1 • I n a d d i t i o n he was o f f e r e d t h e p o s t o f M i l i t a r y C o m m i s s i o n e r o f Zhedong and t h e A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f J i a n g l i n g , but he d e c l i n e d b o t h . I n 1 2 0 7 , X i n was c a l l e d b e f o r e t h e emperor t o g i v e h i s ass e s s m e n t o f t h e s i t u a t i o n . He was a l s o a s k e d t o a c c e p t t h e p o s t o f t h e V i c e M i n i s t e r o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f War - I f if but he a g a i n d e c l i n e d t h e o f f e r . X i n was aware t h a t he was b e i n g used as a pawn i n the w o r l d o f p o l i t i c s d u r i n g t h e s e y e a r s . H i s r e p e a t e d r e f u s a l s o f o f f i c e d u r i n g t h e l a s t two y e a r s o f h i s l i f e r e f l e c t h i s f r u s t r a t i o n w i t h Han's s e l f - s e e k i n g p o l i c y . When Han was about t o l a u n c h a m i l i t a r y e x p e d i t i o n , knowing X i n ' s pro-war s t a n c e , he c a l l e d X i n back t o o f f i c e so as t o g i v e a s y m b o l i c stamp o f a p p r o v a l t o h i s l a t e s t s e l f - s e r v i n g v e n t u r e . When the war was over and the c o u r t was i n a s t a t e o f c o n f u s i o n i n the a f t e r m a t h o f d e f e a t , X i n was summoned a g a i n t o " c l e a n up the mess". 9 3 H i s f r i e n d Chen L i a n g lamented: [ X i n ] came when c a l l e d and went away when waved a s i d e . He had no where t o t u r n t o between heaven and e a r t h % ^ i. £ *<\ at i it i fif .-94 I n t h e f a l l o f 1207, t h e J i n s p e c i f i c a l l y asked f o r Han's h e a d a s a c o n d i t i o n f o r e n t e r i n g p e a c e n e g o t i a t i o n w i t h t h e Sou t h e r n Song. Han had no a l t e r n a t i v e but t o d e c l a r e war on the J i n one more t i m e . A g a i n , Han r e c a l l e d X i n and asked him t o be a r e g u l a r a p p o i n t e e i n t h e Bureau o f M i l i t a r y A f f a i r s rf& % * f j f ^ \ . But X i n a t t h i s t ime was t o o i l l t o a c c e p t t h e o f f e r . X i n Q i j i d i e d on September 10, 1207. 37 CHAPTER I I : USE OF ALLUSION B e f o r e a n a l y s i n g t h e use o f a l l u s i o n i n X i n ' s c i , t h e te r m a l l u s i o n needs t o be d e f i n e d . I n C h i n e s e , the term i s "diangu ^ ". A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Zhongwen Dacidian (Great Chinese Dictionary ^ ~k ffi ^ ) , diangu means " s t o r y , " 1 Huang Futung ~\ $ i^) , i n h i s ess a y "Lun Diangu f^j? '" 9 ^ v e s t n l s d e f i n i t i o n : " I n g e n e r a l , diangu a r e d e f i n e d as examples or h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t s . They a r e o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as quoted h i s t o r i c a l s t o r i e s or those f o u r - c h a r a c t e r p h r a s e s w h i c h have an o r i g i n a l w r i t t e n s o u r c e . Diangu must have a s o u r c e ; t h e y c a n n o t be f a b r i c a t e d . " 2 Yu-kung Kao and T s u - l i n Mei g i v e t h i s d e f i n i t i o n : "Webster's C o l l e g i a t e D i c t i o n a r y d e f i n e s ' a l l u s i o n ' as 'an i m p l i e d o r i n d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e . ' But i n our v i e w , i t i s i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l whether t h e r e f e r e n c e i s d i r e c t , e x p l i c i t o r i m p l i c i t . " 3 " A l l u s i o n i s p r e s e n t i n a poem i f t h a t poem makes r e f e r e n c e t o an event embedded . i n t he main event o f the poem." 4 I n t h e C h i n e s e v e r s i o n o f t h a t a r t i c l e , t h ey f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t e on t h a t d e f i n i t i o n : "As l o n g as i t i s found i n a l i t e r a r y s o u r c e . . . e v e n though t h e s e e v e n t s d i d not a c t u a l l y happen i n time and s p a c e . . . I f t h e s e 'quoted e v e n t s ' can be found i n h i s t o r i c a l books, a l l f u r t h e r v e r i f i c a t i o n i s u n n e c e s s a r y . A poet uses a l l u s i o n s o l e l y f o r the purpose o f e x p a n s i o n . The p o e t ' s g o a l i s s a i d t o be a c h i e v e d i f t h e r e a d e r and the poet a r e bo t h 38 f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e quoted e v e n t s . " 5 H i g h t o w e r i n h i s a r t i c l e ' " A l l u s i o n i n t h e P o e t r y o f T'ao C h ' i e n " g i v e s a s i m i l i a r d e f i n i t i o n : "from t h e n a t u r e o f t h e m a t e r i a l s a l l u d e d t o ('an a l l u s i o n s h o u l d be t o an i d e n t i f i a b l e w r i t t e n s o u r c e ' ) , f r o m t h e w r i t e r ' s t e c h n i q u e o f m a n i p u l a t i o n t h o s e m a t e r i a l s ('an a l l u s i o n s h o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e p a r a p h r a s a b l e c o n t e n t o f t h e poem'), f r o m t h e r e a d e r ' s r e a c t i o n t o o c c u r r e n c e s o f a l l u s i o n ( 'he s h o u l d be aware of an o c c u r r e n c e o f a l l u s i o n even when he f a i l s t o i d e n t i f y i t ' ) . " 6 I n summary, t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f diangu a r e f o u r - f o l d . F i r s t , t h e y must have a p r e v i o u s l y e x i s t i n g w r i t t e n s o u r c e , whether t h a t s o u r c e be l i t e r a r y o r h i s t o r i c a l . Second, diangu c a n be r e a l o r f i c t i o n a l . The o r i g i n a l s o u r c e c a n be c l a s s i c a l , h i s t o r i c a l , p o p u l a r f i c t i o n , a n d / o r m y t h o l o g y . T h i r d , diangu can r e f e r t o a C h i n e s e p h r a s e which can range f r o m two t o f o u r c h a r a c t e r s . F o u r t h , diangu can i n c l u d e h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e s o r an e v e n t s . The C h i n e s e term f o r t h e l a t t e r i s "yongshi tf\ ", which l i t e r a l l y means " u s i n g an e v e n t " . 7 Thus f a r , t h e r e has been l i t t l e c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f how X i n Q i j i u s e s a l l u s i o n i n h i s c i . Most c r i t i c s have been .content w i t h a n n o t a t i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . 8 T h i s i s no more t h a n a f i r s t s t e p . Chen Shumei 'pjjl /^X. %x i n her m a s t e r ' s t h e s i s has t a k e n a t l e a s t one s t e p f u r t h e r and l i s t s t h r e e d i s t i n c t i v e ways X i n u s e s a l l u s i o n . 9 But Chen o n l y u s e s 39 s t a t i s t i c s t o c o n f i r m t h e w e l l known f a c t t h a t X i n l o v e s t o use c l a s s i c a l p h r a s e s i n h i s c i . The h e s i t a t i o n about g o i n g deeper i s r o o t e d perhaps i n t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f d e t e r m i n i n g how X i n means h i s a l l u s i o n s t o be t a k e n o r i n t e r p r e t e d . 1 0 What a r e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f X i n ' s u s e o f a l l u s i o n ? T h i s c h a p t e r seeks t o answer t h i s q u e s t i o n . S i x c i h a v e b e e n s e l e c t e d t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e s i x d i f f e r e n t ways X i n uses a l l u s i o n . These a r e : f i r s t , u s i n g t h e e x a c t w o r d i n g of c l a s s i c a l t e x t s ; second, u s i n g t h e e x a c t wording o f c l a s s i c a l t e x t s t o g i v e an o p p o s i t e meaning; t h i r d , u s i n g a l l u s i o n f o r t h e purpose of c o n d e n s a t i o n ; f o u r t h , u s i n g a l l u s i o n f o r t h e purpose of e x p a n s i o n ; f i f t h , u s i n g a l l u s i o n t o s e t up a n e g a t i v e c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n t h e p a s t and t h e p r e s e n t ; and s i x t h , u s i n g a l l u s i o n t o s e t a p o s i t i v e c o n t r a s t between t h e p a s t and t h e p r e s e n t . These s i x c i t o u c h upon t h r e e g e n e r a l f u n c t i o n s o f diangu i n c i : t h e f u n c t i o n o f diangu w i t h r e g a r d t o p o e t i c d i c t i o n ; the f u n c t i o n o f diangu w i t h r e g a r d t o p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e ; and t h e f u n c t i o n o f diangu w i t h r e g a r d t o m o r a l a c t i o n . B e s i d e s d i s c u s s i n g t h e i r g e n e r a l i t y and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n a t u r e , each o f t h e s e methods w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n d i v i d u a l l y t o show how i t embodies i t s own s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . As f o r t h e f u n c t i o n o f diangu w i t h r e g a r d t o p o e t i c d i c t i o n , q u o t i n g v e r b a t i m d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e c l a s s i c s c a n e n a b l e t h e poet t o s t r e s s t h e s i m i l a r i t y between the o r i g i n a l 40 s o u r c e a n d t h e c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n . B u t t h e s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f X i n ' s usage o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e l i e s not o n l y i n t h e d i r e c t n e s s o f h i s d i c t i o n , but a l s o i n e x p r e s s i n g h i s s o r r o w t h r o u g h t w i s t s and t u r n s : i t i s a c a s e o f a d m i s s i o n t h r o u g h d e n i a l . To t h e Tune o f Manting Fang %t 1} (1194- 1202/1196) To harmonize w i t h Zhao Changfu o f the Zhang S p r i n g 1 1 P 1 t *fi 1 To the west, t h e s l a n t i n g sun over the Y a n z i m o u n t a i n , To t h e e a s t , t h e r u n n i n g water o f the Y a n g t z e , Beauty s t a y s not f o r man a t a l l . 2 W i t h t h e m e t a l l i c r i n g o f one f a l l i n g l e a f , The w o r l d a l r e a d y knows i t i s time o f f a l l . 3 I bend my f i n g e r s t o count t h e j o y o u s o c c a s i o n s i n l i f e , And a s k : "Who rode t o Yangzhou on t h e back o f a 4 You know me, I have al w a y s been gay i n s p i r i t , H a v i n g r e t i r e d t o Cangzhou, b e f o r e I grew o l d . 5 There a r e e n d l e s s b o t h e r s , 4 1 and l i f e i s but a hundred y e a r s . A l l would come t o r e s t i n one d r i n k . £ fi % > h I . * t - * | *f Angry w i t h my c h i l d r e n - a l w a y s s a y i n g I'm s o r r o w f u l i n h e a r t . tt ?J $ N2 £ 7 B e s i d e s , t h e r e a r e canes and s t r a w - s h o e s , m ountains and c r e e k s , My f r i e n d s l i k e Ruan J i a r e w a i t i n g f o r me t o t o u r w i t h them. 8 There's more f o r a l a u g h . T h e i r scheming mind has a l r e a d y been exposed - t h e r e a r e s t a r t l e d s e a g u l l s , above t h e s e a . T h i s c i was w r i t t e n a t the time X i n was f o r c e d t o r e t i r e f rom o f f i c e f o r t h e second t i m e . 1 2 As a man over f i f t y y e a r s o l d who a g a i n was r e j e c t e d by the r u l i n g c l a s s , X i n c e r t a i n l y f e e l s he has r e a c h e d t h e end o f h i s l i f e , as i n d i c a t e d i n * l i n e s one a n d t w o . 1 3 I n s t e a d o f p r o j e c t i n g h i s s o r r o w d i r e c t l y , X i n i n t h i s c i , h i d e s i t underneath a happy, c a r e - f r e e f a c a d e . But a l l a l o n g , he drops h i n t s o f b i t t e r n e s s and r e s e n t m e n t a b o u t b e i n g r e j e c t e d . As a r e s u l t , t h e r e i s a d e l i c a t e b a l a n c e between t h e p r e t e n s e o f h a p p i n e s s and h i s s u b t l e a d m i s s i o n o f s o r r o w f u l n e s s . But the more X i n j u s t i f i e s 42 h i s " h a p p i n e s s , " t h e more s o r r o w he p r o j e c t s . The more X i n l i e s i n words, t h e more h o n e s t he i s i n f e e l i n g . And t h i s symmetry comes t o a peak a t t h e v e r b a t i m q u o t a t i o n from t h e Shi Jing i n l i n e s i x , a f t e r p a r a d i n g h i s v a r i o u s " r e a s o n s " f o r w a n t i n g t o r e t i r e i n l i n e s t h r e e t o f i v e . 1 4 The f o u r - c h a r a c t e r p h r a s e "weiwo xinyou t l ^ <C \ " i s a q u o t a t i o n from a poem t i t l e d "Shu Li jjĵ  -flJ£ " i n the Shi Jing l^f jffi 1 5 The a u t h o r o f t h i s poem was saddened when he saw t h e r u i n s o f temples and p a l a c e s a t t h e s i t e o f the o l d c a p i t a l Hao j i n g ^y] Is o f the Western Zhou & i^] d y n a s t y , w h i c h had been moved t o t h e e a s t a f t e r b e i n g t a k e n and s a c k e d by t h e b a r b a r i a n t r i b e s . 1 6 I t i s not a c o i n c i d e n c e t h a t X i n s e l e c t s t h i s p h r a s e t o e x p r e s s h i s " s o r r o w - f r e e " s t a t e o f mind, f o r the h i s t o r i c a l background o f t h i s move had many s i m i l a r i t i e s t o t h e p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n o f the Southern Song. The f i r s t s i m i l a r i t y i s t h a t t h e c a p i t a l s o f b o t h d y n a s t i e s were f o r c e d t o r e l o c a t e i n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t t h e t o t a l c o l l a p s e o f t h e e n t i r e empire. What l e d t o the d o w n f a l l o f K i n g You , t h e l a s t emperor o f t h e Western Zhou was h i s appointment o f a c o r r u p t m i n i s t e r named Guo S h i f u /L 'y^. A c c o r d i n g t o the Shi Ji $L » ^ , Guo was a man w i t h a d e c e i t f u l t o n g u e and a v i c i o u s m i n d . 1 7 H i s a p p o i n t m e n t a r o u s e d t h e anger o f t h e p o p u l a c e . K i n g You f u r t h e r a l i e n a t e d h i m s e l f from t h e m i l i t a r y by h u m i l a t i n g them. He was madly i n 43 l o v e w i t h a co n c u b i n e named Bao S i 4* who h a r d l y s m i l e d a t a l l . I n o r d e r t o i n d u c e her t o s m i l e , K i n g You o r d e r e d t h e s o l d i e r s g u a r d i n g t h e f r o n t i e r t o l i g h t t he beacons which were supposed t o g i v e warning o f impending a t t a c k . Upon s e e i n g t h e s o l d i e r s s c r a m b l i n g t o t h e i r p o s i t i o n s , Bao S i b u r s t i n t o l a u g h t e r . A f t e r s e v e r a l o f t h e s e f a b r i c a t e d a l a r m s , t h e s o l d i e r s i g n o r e d t h e beacon f i r e whenever they were i g n i t e d . K i n g You's i n f a t u a t i o n w i t h Bao S i a l s o l e d him t o depose t h e r e i g n i n g queen who was t h e d a u g h t e r o f one o f t h e p o w e r f u l f e u d a l p r i n c e s . Shen ^ , t h e f a t h e r , was so angered by t h i s i n c i d e n t t h a t he a l l i e d h i m s e l f w i t h the s t a t e o f Zeng £"1f and t h e b a r b a r i a n Quan Rong -fc - j ^ t r i b e t o d e c l a r e war a g a i n s t K i n g You. A g a i n , t h e beacon f i r e was i g n i t e d , t h i s t i m e f o r r e a l . But the s o l d i e r s d i d not respond l e s t t hey be h u m i l i a t e d a g a i n . S u b s e q u e n t l y , K i n g You was k i l l e d a t t h e f o o t o f t h e L i Mountain £)& . H i s son Y i J i u t o o k o v e r t h e k i n g s h i p and moved h i s c a p i t a l e a s t , t o t h e d i s t r i c t o f Luo jfrfl fj . By u s i n g t h i s l i n e v e r b a t i m from t h e Shi Jing, X i n a c h i e v e s t h r e e g o a l s . F i r s t , i t d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e p a r a l l e l between t h e d o w n f a l l o f the Western Zhou and t h e S o u t h e r n S o n g . S e c o n d , t h e c a u s e o f t h e i r d o w n f a l l i s s i m i l a r . I n b o t h d y n a s t i e s , t h e r e were i n e p t and c o r r u p t m i n i s t e r s r u l i n g t h e n a t i o n . T h i r d , by q u o t i n g t h i s p h r a s e f r o m t h e Shi Jing and w i t h t h i s h i s t o r i c a l background b e h i n d t h e poem "Shu L i , " X i n i s i n f a c t s a y i n g , t h r o u g h d e n i a l , t h a t 44 he i s i n d e e d w o r r i e d about th e a f f a i r s o f h i s c o u n t r y . D e s p i t e X i n ' s c l a i m t h a t he h a s p l e n t y o f t o u r i n g c o m p a n i o n s t o v i s i t t h e m o u n t a i n s an d c r e e k s , X i n d r o p s a n o t h e r r e a s o n f o r b e i n g w o r r i e d . 1 8 The s e a g u l l s i n t h e c h a p t e r o f "Huang T i $ " i n t h e Lie Zi $j T would n o t b e f r i e n d t h o s e who had impure m o t i v e s . 1 9 By d r a w i n g a p a r a l l e l between h i m s e l f and the s t a r t l e d s e a g u l l s , X i n i s i n f a c t s a y i n g t h a t he i s awared of t h e danger s u r r o u n d i n g him: t h e r e a r e p e o p l e who a r e scheming a g a i n s t him. U n l i k e t h e l a s t c i , i n which X i n uses d i r e c t q u o t a t i o n t o a c c e n t u a t e s i m i l a r i t y , i n the f o l l o w i n g c i . X i n ' s q u o t a t i o n s from t h e c l a s s i c s a l l o w him t o s t r e s s d i s s i m i l a r i t y . At the same t i m e , t h e y a l s o c r e a t e an e f f e c t o f i r o n y . To t h e Tune o f Shuilong Yin ^ \i "4 (1182- 1192/1187) An i n s c r i p t i o n f o r t h e C a l a b a s h S p r i n g ft J k 1 1 Why must J i a x u a n be f o r e v e r p o o r ? Beyond th e edge o f the c a s c a d i n g s p r i n g , p e a r l - l i k e d r o p l e t s f a l l . U- *f *?-M,tt*Jf>r >t fc. i%. 2 C o n t e n t w i t h heaven, knowing f a t e - Who has e v e r been e q u a l t o t h i s ? Upon t h e c a l l , do t h e j o b ; Upon d i s m i s s a l , go home. 45 3 O t h e r s c o u l d not have borne t h e d i s t r e s s , w i t h o n l y one c a l a b a s h , happy was he. H u i ' s v i r t u e , a d m i r a b l e i n d e e d . A .3- i% t , - tfc. « 4P. S » * » • ' 4 I r e c k o n , t h i s q u e s t i o n was asked i n t h a t y e a r : "With c o a r s e r i c e t o e a t , water t o d r i n k , why d i d you b u s t l e about s o ? " *M 1 W ' r f o & t L . * * 5 L e t ' s j u s t f a c e the f l o a t i n g c l o u d s over t h e mountain. Don't be i n a h u r r y - s c u r r y , r u s h i n g down t h e s l o p e . 1 ti 4 f i , I ft 4 & * T. 6 The r e f l e c t i o n o f my haggard f a c e i n the w a t e r . I c e r t a i n l y don't g e t much from t h o s e l i g h t f u r s and f a t h o r s e s . 7 F r o s t y c o o l n e s s c i r c l i n g t h e t e e t h , s c e n t f i l l e d t h e bosom a f t e r t h e gentleman f i n i s h e d h i s d r i n k . i % * % . % t l % %, bah I. 8 Mocking t h e c a l a b a s h on t h e t r e e i n t h e wind, f o r making a sound, was s h a t t e r e d w i t h one s w i n g . What do you say t o b e i n g muted? '£ -ti fr. & m , - *$, £ si ̂  i« I n t h e p r e f a t o r y n o t e , X i n c l e a r l y s t a t e s t h a t t h i s ci i s w r i t t e n as an i n s c r i p t i o n f o r t h e C a l a b a s h S p r i n g . But t h e 46 c o n t e n t o f t h i s c i c e r t a i n l y goes beyond s c e n i c d e s c r i p t i o n . What X i n does i s t o use t h e C a l a b a s h S p r i n g as h i s p o e t i c j u m p i n g - o f f p o i n t . T h i s p l a c e reminds him o f where he i s , and t h e e v e n t s t h a t have l e d him t o t h i s d w e l l i n g . He has j u s t been d i s m i s s e d f r o m p u b l i c o f f i c e and was f o r c e d t o r e t i r e . He has bought a v i l l a by Lake D a i and named i t t h e " C a l a b a s h S p r i n g . " 2 0 Though s u r r o u n d e d by b e a u t i f u l s c e n e r y , as d e s c r i b e d i n l i n e one, X i n i s i n no way c o n t e n t w i t h h i m s e l f . He senses t h e o b v i o u s i r o n y between what t h i s b e a u t i f u l e n v i r o n m e n t s h o u l d evoke and h i s own m i s e r a b l e i n n e r s t a t e . H i s awareness o f t h i s i r o n y i s a p p a r e n t i n X i n ' s s e l e c t i o n o f c l a s s i c a l p h r a s e s : t h e r e a r e two v e r b a t i m q u o t a t i o n s , t h r e e c l a s s i c a l p h r a s e s w i t h a d e l e t i o n o f o n l y one c h a r a c t e r e a c h , one p h r a s e w i t h a d e l e t i o n o f two c h a r a c t e r s , one p h r a s e w i t h c h a r a c t e r s i n d i f f e r e n t o r d e r , and a s u b t l e pun on t h e p h r a s e " f l o a t i n g c l o u d s . " The f i r s t v e r b a t i m q u o t a t i o n comes a f t e r X i n ' s s a r c a s t i c o pening s t a t e m e n t . I n l i n e two, X i n q u o t e s v e r b a t i m the f i r s t f o u r c h a r a c t e r s o f a s e v e n - c h a r a c t e r p h r a s e from the Yi Jing_ W i t h t h i s f o u r - c h a r a c t e r p h r a s e , X i n b e g i n s t o d e l i n e a t e "Content w i t h heaven, c o g n i z a n t o f i t s o r d i n a t i o n ; 47 h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a l i t y , w hich i s a t t o t a l v a r i a n c e w i t h h i s f i r s t s t a t e m e n t . R a t i o n a l l y , X i n u n d e r s t a n d s the maxim about b e i n g c o n t e n t w i t h h e a v e n a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g f a t e . The v e r b a t i m q u o t a t i o n a c c e n t u a t e s h i s knowing a t t h e r a t i o n a l l e v e l , but i t a l s o c r e a t e s a l a r g e r d i s c r e p a n c y between what s h o u l d be and what i s . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a l i t y i s t h a t X i n has f a i l e d t o l i v e up t o t h i s maxim, and he f r a n k l y a d m i t s i t by m e n t i o n i n g i t s near i m p o s s i b i l i t y i n l i n e two. The p o e t i c f u n c t i o n o f t h i s q u o t a t i o n i s t o open t h e way t o X i n ' s i n t e r n a l r e v e l a t i o n , l e a d i n g t o a r e f u t a t i o n o f t h e l o g i c o f h i s o p e n i n g s t a t e m e n t . The q u o t a t i o n a l s o s t r e n g t h e n s t h e c o n t r a s t between what i s t a u g h t i n t h e c l a s s i c s and X i n ' s p r e s e n t s t a t e o f mind. The l a s t p h r a s e of l i n e two g i v e s t h e r e ason f o r X i n ' s f a i l u r e i n b e i n g c o n t e n t w i t h heaven. I n t h e Lun Yu ^ ;ft , C o n f u c i u s (551-479 B.C.) a d v o c a t e s l o y a l t y w h i l e one i s c a l l e d upon t o s e r v e , and a c c e p t a n c e when one i s d i s m i s s e d f r o m o f f i c e . ( X i n changed t h e o r d e r o f c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s p h r a s e . There i s a more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s p h r a s e i n t h e n e x t c i . ) 2 2 X i n had j u s t been f o r c e d t o r e t i r e , and he found i t d i f f i c u l t t o a c c e p t much l e s s t o be c o n t e n t w i t h t h i s " t r e a t m e n t . " The d i s s i m i l a r i t y i s f u r t h e r s t r e s s e d by t h e s e c o n d v e r b a t i m q u o t a t i o n i n l i n e t h r e e . I n the Lun yu, C o n f u c i u s b e g i n s and ends h i s comment on Yan Hui (521-490 B.C.) 48 «zj by p r a i s i n g him f o r b e i n g c o n t e n t a m idst p o v e r t y . 2 3 To f u r t h e r emphasize Yan H u i ' s contentment, i n t h e f i r s t p h r a s e o f l i n e t h r e e , X i n q u o t e s a n o t h e r o f C o n f u c i u s ' p h r a s e w i t h o n l y t h e c h a r a c t e r g i o m i t t e d from t h e o r i g i n a l (ren bukan g i you / I1 /I ^, ̂  ) • By q u o t i n g v e r b a t i m C o n f u c i u s ' p r a i s e o f Yan H u i , X i n e m p h a s i z e s t h e t o t a l d i s s i m i l a r i t y between Yan H u i and h i m s e l f . But by a g r e e i n g w i t h C o n f u c i u s ' p r a i s e o f Yan H u i , X i n f u r t h e r a l i e n a t e s h i m s e l f from what Yan H u i s t a n d s f o r . The more X i n p r a i s e s Yan H u i , t h e more he i n d i r e c t l y d i s a p p r o v e s o f h i m s e l f , and the b i g g e r the c o n t r a s t between t h e a g i t a t e d X i n and the serene Yan H u i . B e s i d e s t r e s s i n g t h e d i s s i m i l a r i t y , t h e r e f e r e n c e t o Yan H u i a l s o c r e a t e s a t o u c h o f i r o n y . Yan H u i has o n l y one c a l a b a s h and he was happy, w h i l e X i n has a v i l l a named t h e " C a l a b a s h S p r i n g " by t h e C a l a b a s h S p r i n g and y e t he i s v e r y m i s e r a b l e and u n s e t t l e d i n d e e d . X i n i n t r o d u c e s the next s t a n z a by endi n g the f i r s t w i t h two q u o t a t i o n s from t h e Lun Yu. The phrase " w i t h c o a r s e r i c e t o e a t , w i t h water t o d r i n k (fanshu yinshui 0<j jfyfK 7]<^ )" i s d i r e c t l y q u o t e d from C o n f u c i u s w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r "shi " o m i t t e d : "The M a s t e r s a i d , ' w i t h c o a r s e r i c e t o e a t , w i t h w ater t o d r i n k , and my bended arm f o r a p i l l o w - I have s t i l l j o y i n t h e m i d s t o f t h e s e t h i n g s . ' " Z A The s e c o n d d i r e c t q u o t a t i o n comes f r o m t h i s p a s sage i n 49 t h e Lun Yu w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r s " g i u J l . and yu o m i t t e d : " C h ' i u , how i s i t t h a t you keep r o o s t i n g about? I s i t n o t t h a t y o u a r e a n i n s i n u a t i n g t a l k e r ? C o n f u c i u s s a i d , 'I do not d a r e t o p l a y the p a r t o f su c h a t a l k e r , but I h a t e o b s t i n a c y . " ' " The p h r a s e "xi 'xi zhe /\ " has t h e meaning o f a r e s t l e s s , a s s i d u o u s p e r s o n and/or an i r r i t a t e d s t a t e o f mind. By p o s i n g t h i s as a h y p o t h e t i c a l q u e s t i o n ( t h e q u e s t i o n was o r i g i n a l l y asked by Wei Shengmou til i ®K i n the Lun Yu) a s k e d by Yan H u i , X i n f u r t h e r d e l i n e a t e s Yan H u i ' s s i m p l e c ontentment. The s e cond s t a n z a b e g i n s w i t h a s u b t l e r e f e r e n c e t o t h e " f l o a t i n g c l o u d s (fuyun ~<2f )" i n l i n e f i v e which comes from t h e same passage as the ph r a s e "fanshu yinshui": " R i c h e s and honors a c q u i r e d by u n r i g h t e o u s n e s s a r e t o me as a f l o a t i n g c l o u d . " 2 6 By a d v i s i n g h i m s e l f not t o go down the mountain i n a h u r r y , and w i t h t h e a l l u s i o n o f the " f l o a t i n g c l o u d s , " X i n i m p l i c i t l y r e v e a l s t h a t he was not r u n n i n g a f t e r r i c h e s and honors w h i l e he was i n o f f i c e . The i r o n i c f a c t i s t h a t i n h i s f o r c e d r e t i r e m e n t , X i n l i v e s i n a r i c h e n v i r o n m e n t s u r r o u n d e d by b r e a t h - t a k i n g s c e n e r y , w i t h f l o a t i n g c l o u d s h o v e r i n g above. The p h r a s e " l i g h t f u r s and f a t h o r s e s (qingqiu feima )" i n l i n e s i x comes from the f o l l o w i n g passage 50 i n t he Lun Yu w i t h t h e v e r b s " t o r i d e (cheng j j j j^ )" and " t o > wear ( y i ^ )" o m i t t e d and t h e two nouns i n r e v e r s e d o r d e r : "The M a s t e r s a i d , 'when C h ' i h was p r o c e e d i n g t o C h ' i , he had f a t h o r s e s t o h i s c a r r i a g e , and wore l i g h t f u r s . ' " 2 7 W i t h t h i s a l l u s i o n , X i n s t r e s s e s t h e d i s s i m i l a r i t y o f h i s h a g g a r d f a c e now ( b y h a v i n g b e e n s o r r o w f u l i n f o r c e d r e t i r e m e n t ) and t h e way i t c o u l d have been ( h a v i n g f a t h o r s e s t o h i s c a r r i a g e and we a r i n g l i g h t f u r s ) i f he were t o pursue r i c h e s and honors w h i l e he was an o f f i c i a l . The i r o n i c t w i s t i s t h a t now he i s i n a " r i c h " p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t , he i s in d e e d poor i n s p i r i t . I n sor r o w , X i n i n v i t e s h i m s e l f f o r a d r i n k . 2 8 The a c t o f d r i n k i n g reminds X i n o f an e v e n t . Xu You •fe , a h i g h - m i n d e d man o f t h e a n c i e n t s , a f t e r he f i n i s h e d h i s d r i n k , hung h i s empty c a l a b a s h on t h e t r e e . The w i n d b l o w i n g i n t o t h e empty c a l a b a s h made a n o i s e which Xu found a n n o y i n g . W i t h one s w i n g , Xu s m a s h e d t h e c a l a b a s h . 2 9 S y m b o l i c a l l y , t h e n o i s y c a l a b a s h i s X i n h i m s e l f . Not o n l y does X i n blames h i m s e l f f o r b e i n g so t a l k a t i v e but o t h e r s a l s o have blamed him f o r b e i n g an i n s i n u a t i n g t a l k e r . By a l l u d i n g t o t h i s , X i n adds an e l e m e n t o f i r o n y : he was t h e n o i s y c a l a b a s h w h i c h t h e r u l i n g c l a s s f o u n d a n n o y i n g , and as a r e s u l t , he i s now f o r c e d t o r e t i r e t o a v i l l a named t h e "Cal a b a s h S p r i n g " , near t h e C a l a b a s h S p r i n g . 51 A f t e r d e c i p h e r i n g t h e s e c l a s s i c a l q u o t a t i o n s , one sees a c r a f t m a n s k i l l f u l l y s e l e c t i n g h i s p h r a s e s from t h e c l a s s i c s i n o r d e r t o s t r e s s not o n l y t h e o p p o s i t e but t o p r o j e c t t h e i r o n y he f e e l s i n s i d e . A c t i n g as t h e f o c u s o f t h i s i r o n y i s t h e " c a l a b a s h . " I t i s t h e b e a u t i f u l - r i c h e n v i r o n m e n t named the " C a l a b a s h S p r i n g " w h i c h p r o v i d e s t h e i r o n i c t w i s t t o X i n ' s p o o r i n t e r n a l s t a t e . X i n , t h e owner of the v i l l a named the " C a l a b a s h S p r i n g " , i s m i s e r a b l e , whereas t h e "poor" Yan Hui who drank from the o n l y c a l a b a s h he had was happy and c o n t e n t . X i n i s the " n o i s y c a l a b a s h " who i s b a n i s h e d t o the b e a u t i f u l " C a l a b a s h S p r i n g . " X i r d o e s n o t t r y t o h i d e t h e f a c t t h a t he q u o t e s c l a s s i c a l p h r a s e s p r o f u s e l y i n h i s c i . He t r e a t s i t as an a r t i s t i c a d v e n t u r e . W i t h h i s deep knowledge o f t h e c l a s s i c s , X i n c o u l d e n v i s i o n i n f i n i t e c o m b i n a t i o n s of c l a s s i c a l p h r a s e s from d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s . 3 0 W i t h a l i m i t e d p o e t i c s p a c e , as t h e n e x t two ci d e m o n s t r a t e , t h e poet can use diangu t o expand t h e p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e ; t h a t i s , t h e use o f diangu a l l o w s t h e poet t o s a y more w i t h f e w e r w o r d s . The f o l l o w i n g c i , e n t i r e l y composed by c l a s s i c a l p h r a s e s , i s a good example o f u s i n g c l a s s i c a l q u o t a t i o n f o r t h e purpose o f c o n d e n s a t i o n . To t h e Tune o f Tasuo Xing yy i f (11827/1182) An i n s c r i p t i o n f o r t h e J i a x u a n P a v i l i o n . A medley of c l a s s i c a l p h r a s e s . WE- i t It. I i i 5. 52 1 To advance o r t o r e t i r e , To s u r v i v e o r t o p e r i s h ; Upon t h e c a l l , do the j o b , Upon d i s m i s a l , go home. 2 T h i s p e t t y man ( X i n ) would l i k e t o s t u d y f a r m i n g w i t h Fan Xu. 3 Beneath e v e r y wooden d o o r , t h e r e ' s a r e s t i n g p l a c e . Under t h e sun s e t , her d s r e t u r n i n g . tti H i i 5 # 4, a t ; 3 * * 4 L e a v i n g t h e Duke L i n g o f Wei, I n t e r c e p t e d by Huan T u i . 5 He was a man o f e a s t , west, s o u t h , n o r t h . w I / . - a . 6 Chang J u and J i e N i were a t work i n t h e f i e l d . Q i u , why d i d you b u s t l e about so? 4 ul SMJ & * ft, -US <» M, I n t h e p r e f a c e , X i n s t a t e s f r a n k l y t h a t t h i s ci i s a c o l l e c t i o n and s y n t h e s i s o f p h r a s e s from v a r i o u s c l a s s c i a l 53 books: . the Yi Jing ? v f f i , t h e Lun Yu J>k , t h e Shi Ji £ lb , t h e Shu Jing % & , t h e Lie Zi jE'l , and t h e Jfeng Z i The theme o f t h i s ci i s a b i t t e r r e p u d i a t i o n o f C o n f u c i u s ' t e a c h i n g o f s e r v i n g one's c o u n t r y f a i t h f u l l y when one i s c a l l e d t o s e r v e and r e t i r i n g g r a c e f u l l y upon d i s m i s s a l . The i n i t i a l p h r a s e i n l i n e one i s t h e s e l e c t i o n o f f o u r c r u c i a l c h a r a c t e r s from t h i s s e n t e n c e i n t h e Yi Jing: " t o know how t o a d v a n c e and t o r e t i r e , t o m a i n t a i n and t o l e t p e r i s h ; and t h a t w i t h o u t ever a c t i n g i n c o r r e c t l y . Yes, he o n l y i s the sage fa ^ f - " t , ^ f 4. $ i J , 4- A L H . • » 1 T h e t o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t o f l i n e one i s / / — , — / / [ (/)=oblique tone and (- ) = l e v e l t o n e ] ; t h e c h a r a c t e r s j i n (/), t u i (/), cun (-), wang -fc. (-) f i t p e r f e c t l y . However, the second h a l f r e q u i r e s some s h u f f l i n g s . The second p h r a s e o f l i n e one T " as opposed t o p a r t i c l e s "xu z i ^ ") from t h i s s e n t e n c e i n t h e Lun Yu: "Yongzhi zexing, shezhi ze cang if} 41 j S i n c e t h e o n l y c o n c r e t e words w i t h a l e v e l t o n e i n t h i s s e n t e n c e a r e "xing f"J " and "cang jj^ ", X i n has no c h o i c e b u t t o w r i t e i t i n t h e o r d e r o f " x i n g - cang-yong-she" i n s t e a d o f f o l l o w i n g the o r i g i n a l "yong-xing- she-cang". As X i n s t a t e s i n t h e p r e f a c e , t h i s c i i s a l s o w r i t t e n as an i n s c r i p t i o n f o r t h e p a v i l i o n J i a x u a n , one o f t h e p a v i l i o n s 54 i n X i n ' s v i l l a . The p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g r e m i n d s X i n o f h i s f o r c e d r e t i r e m e n t . He i s e m b i t t e r e d w i t h t h e C o n f u c i a n t e a c h i n g about b e i n g an i d e a l p u b l i c s e r v a n t . As a p a t r i o t , X i n had s e r v e d h i s c o u n t r y l o y a l l y . B u t i n r e s p o n s e , t h e c o u n t r y has shunted him a s i d e . S a r c a s t i c a l l y , X i n s w i n g s t o a n o t h e r way o f l i f e : f a r m i n g . By i n c o r p o r a t i n g Fan's name i n l i n e two, X i n evokes t h e s i m p l e h a p p i n e s s o f t e n d i n g t h e f i e l d s . X i n s i m p l y s u b s t i t u t e s h i s name (xiaoren, a h u m b l e way o f c a l l i n g o n e s e l f ) i n Fan Xu's and Fan's i n t h e v e r b "xue ^ ."33 By s i m p l y t a k i n g t h e e n t i r e p h r a s e f r o m t h e Shi Jing, o m i t t i n g o n l y the second c h a r a c t e r o f the v e r b "keyi ~^ " i n o r d e r t o f i t t h e m e t r i c r e q u i r e m e n t o f a s e v e n - c h a r a c t e r v e r s e i n l i n e t h r e e , X i n dem o n s t r a t e s the s i m p l i c i t y o f t h a t l i f e s t y l e t h r o u g h h i s s i m p l e s u b t r a c t i o n o f w o r d s . 3 4 The s e c o n d h a l f o f l i n e t h r e e i s composed i n t h e same e f f o r t l e s s manner. S i m p l y o m i t t i n g t h e s e c o n d c h a r a c t e r o f s t y l e o f r u r a l f a r m i n g i s e f f e c t i v e l y c o n v e y e d . 3 5 The b e g i n n i n g o f t h e second s t a n z a i n l i n e f o u r p r o v i d e s a s t a r k c o n t r a s t t o t h e t r a n q u i l l i t y p r o j e c t e d i n t h e f i r s t s t a n z a . The p e r s o n p r e s e n t e d as the c o u n t e r p a r t o f t h e ca l m , u n f l a p p a b l e F an i s none o t h e r t h a n t h e M a s t e r , C o n f u c i u s h i m s e l f . L i n e f o u r i s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e d i s s a t i s f i e d , p e r s e c u t e d C o n f u c i u s . 3 6 By q u o t i n g C o n f u c i u s ' e x a c t words i n t h e compound v e r b " x i a l a i II the u n c o m p l i c a t e d l i f e 55 l i n e f i v e , X i n s h i f t s t h e e m p h a s i s on C o n f u c i u s f r o m t h e d i s s a t i s f i e d p e r s o n i n t h e Lun Yu t o t h e t r a g i c f i g u r e who s p e n t most o f h i s l i f e r u n n i n g back and f o r t h around th e f o u r d i r e c t i o n s o f t h e w o r l d , c o n s t a n t l y f l e e i n g from r e j e c t i o n and d a n g e r . The c o n t e x t o f t h i s v e r b a t i m q u o t a t i o n makes l i n e f i v e t h a t much more p o i g n a n t : "When C o n f u c i u s h a s s u c c e e d e d i n b u r y i n g ( h i s m o t h e r ) i n t h e same g r a v e ( w i t h h i s f a t h e r ) a t Fang, he s a i d , ' I have he a r d t h a t t h e a n c i e n t s made gr a v e s ( o n l y ) , and r a i s e d no mound over them. But I am a man, who w i l l be t r a v e l l i n g e a s t , w e s t , s o u t h and, n o r t h . I cannot do w i t h o u t something by w h i c h I can remember ( t h e p l a c e ) . " 3 7 C o n f u c i u s , a man who a d v o c a t e d f i l i a l p i e t y a l l h i s l i f e , had t o admit h i s f e a r o f not r e c o g n i z i n g h i s p a r e n t s ' grave i n t h e f u t u r e due t o h i s c o n s t a n t t r a v e l l i n g , t e a c h i n g p e o p l e t o s e r v e one's p a r e n t s and c o u n t r y w e l l . By q u o t i n g C o n f u c i u s i n v e r b a t i m , X i n d e l i n e a t e s t h e i r o n y o f C o n f u c i u s ' t e a c h i n g s and h i s subsequent l i f e s t y l e . X i n a l s o draws a p a r a l l e l between C o n f u c i u s and h i m s e l f , who was a l s o r u n n i n g a r o u n d i n t h e w o r l d o f o f f i c i a l d o m and was c o n s t a n t l y r e j e c t e d . The theme o f s i m p l e s a t i s f a c t i o n and h a p p i n e s s r e t u r n s w i t h t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f two r e c l u s e s named Chang Ju and J i e N i w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r on t h e farm i n t h e l a s t l i n e . 3 8 The ci e n d s w i t h a v e r b a t i m q u e s t i o n p o s e d t o C o n f u c i u s by Wei Shengmu i n t h e Lun Yu.29 By q u o t i n g i t d i r e c t l y , X i n i s p o s i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n t o h i m s e l f and a t the same t i m e , i m p l y i n g 56 t h a t he i s u n a b l e t o a c h i e v e t h e i n n e r t r a n q u i l i t y o f Chang J u , J i e N i and Fan Xu. He c a n n o t p r a c t i c e t h e t e a c h i n g mentioned i n l i n e one w i t h g r a c e and contentment. H i s mind i s s t i l l on the a f f a i r s o f the n a t i o n and not on f a r m i n g . T h i s c i i n c u r r e d the wrath of c r i t i c Zhang Gaokuan, who s a i d : " J u s t p l a y i n g w i t h w o r d s , m e c h a n i c a l l y p i l i n g one p h r a s e upon a n o t h e r ! T h i s c i i s t o r p i d , w i t h o u t any p o e t i c s t y l e . " 4 0 But Zhang o v e r l o o k s the p o e t i c e f f e c t o f a l l t h e s e p i l e d - u p q u o t a t i o n s , and t h e i r c r a f t m a n s h i p . 4 1 As Wu Hengzhao (1771-?) commented: " X i n J i a x u a n t r e a d s new ground. He c r i s s - c r o s s e s the a n c i e n t and the p r e s e n t : the Analects ^% , the Mencius ^ >i , the Lesser Preface to the Book of Poetry p f JtJv ffi , the Zuo Commentary to the Chunqiu %. i~T/ y4 ff'K. , the Nanhua ( t h e works of Zhuang Z i ) \% ^ , the L i Sao Sjfc kfi) the Shi Ji i L ) , the Han Shu yj "H , the Shishuo Xinyu ->£ £ v* , t h e Xuan Xue ( t h e s t u d y o f t h e Zhaoming Wenxuan ^ ( 3^ 9 | i t i j f /> / the poems of L i Bo ^) and Du Fu ^ , a r e a l l v a r i o u s l y used. T h i s i s an i n d i c a t i o n of the v i g o r o u s s t r e n g t h o f h i s p e n . " 4 2 T h i s c i i s s y n t a c t i c a l l y fragmented but p o e t i c a l l y c o h e r e n t . I t i s a l s o a good example o f u s i n g diangu t o 57 condense and s i m p l i f y complex i s s u e s . By s e l e c t i n g o n l y the " c o n c r e t e words" from the o r i g i n a l s t a t e m e n t , X i n s k e t c h e s C o n f u c i u s ' t e a c h i n g i n o n l y e i g h t c h a r a c t e r s i n l i n e one. By s u b t r a c t i n g two c h a r a c t e r s from the Shi Jing c i t a t i o n , t he s i m p l e l i f e o f f a r m i n g i s s i m p l y d e s c r i b e d i n l i n e t h r e e . F u r t h e r m o r e , the main f u n c t i o n o f t h e s e q u o t a t i o n s from the C o n f u c i a n c l a s s i c s i n t h i s c i i s t o a c c e n t u a t e the i r o n y between the t e a c h i n g s o f t h o s e c l a s s i c s and the consequences of p r a c t i c i n g them: A f t e r s e r v i n g h i s c o u n t r y l o y a l l y , X i n was f o r c e d t o r e t i r e and found h i m s e l f w i t h p l e n t y o f time t o w r i t e an i n s c r i p t i o n f o r h i s p a v i l i o n named J i a x u a n , which was a l s o the h a o $j he gave h i m s e l f . 4 3 U n l i k e the l a s t ci, i n which the f u n c t i o n o f diangu i s t o s i m p l i f y s e v e r a l complex i s s u e s , diangu i n the f o l l o w i n g c i i s t o expand a s i n g l e emotion. By e v o k i n g the v a r i o u s h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e s and ev e n t s of the p a s t , the emotion o f p a r t i n g i s expanded. The re a d e r i s thus l e d t o examine the m u l t i t u d i n o u s causes of t h i s p a i n f u l human o r d e a l . D i f f e r e n t shades and e x p e r i e n c e s o f p a r t i n g a r e c u t i n t o t h e i r f i n e s t and b i t t e r e s t components by the d i f f e r e n t diangu, .thereby w i d e n i n g the scope of p o e t i c e x p e r i e n c e , w h i l e a t the same t i m e , deepening i t s e m o t i o n a l a p p e a l . To the Tune o f Hexin Lang \ J*) %f (1194- 1202/1197) ' 1 58 P a r t i n g w i t h my t w e l f t h c o u s i n M a o j i a . The b u t c h e r b i r d and t h e cuckoo a r e r e a l l y two d i f f e r e n t b i r d s . See t h e " A d d i t i o n a l A n n o t a t i o n t o t h e Li 5 a o " . 4 4 «'\ % £ -t - *•. % t% it U, %<s»*l,h 1 L i s t e n t o the b u t c h e r b i r d i n t h e green o f t h e t r e e s , J * . ffi % Ih i%. 2 How can one bear upon the c e a s i n g o f t h e p a r t r i d g e s ' s h r i l l i n g , and the cuckoo's h o w l i n g ? i if a t% t% % n . a vk % «. 3 Howl ' t i l l s p r i n g i s gone w i t h o u t a t r a c e , b i t t e r l y r e s e n t i n g t h e f r a g r a n c e , a l l c e a s e d . 4 And t h a t t a k e s no acco u n t o f human p a r t i n g s . 5 Strumming t h e pipa, she rode away over the f r o n t i e r , i n t o the da r k . •I l U I fifl % .?.. 6 And! F a r e w e l l t o t h e Golden Gate, moving t o t h e Chang Men, i n her k i n g f i s h e r c a r r i a g e . t * n ! ? to* w . 7 L o o k i n g a t t h e poem "Yanyan", a c o n c u b i n e d e p a r t s . 4 % & - a I f ! . 59 8 The G e n e r a l , o f a hundred b a t t l e s , h i s body and name b a t t e r e d . 9 On t h e b r i d g e o f H e l i a n g , one backward g l a n c e Home, t e n thousand m i l e s away! O l d f r i e n d s , f o r e v e r a p a r t . « ;1 4 ® 31 % t . & a i t . 10 C h i l l ! C h i l l ! - t h e w e s t e r n wind above t h e Y i R i v e r . G u e s t s i n t h e i r snow-white o u t f i t s f i l l e d t h e s e a t s . % % % & A. 4 , i * ft iw. * 11 The b r a v e s o l d i e r ' s sad song y e t u n f i n i s h e d . 12 Had t h e b i r d s known a l l t h e s e g r i e f s , t h e y would have shed b l o o d , not t e a r s . °f % I ** * *f ffc . *t J ̂ ;1 4 f <s-. 13 W i t h whom would I g e t drunk under the m o o n l i g h t ? •** - M . $ « a. U s i n g t h e a l l u s i o n s o f t h r e e p a r t i n g women, d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n s and components o f f e e l i n g s c o n n e c t e d w i t h p a r t i n g a r e e x p l o r e d . The f i r s t woman i s Wang Zhao j u n +_ ^ , a famous beauty who was g i v e n as a g i f t by t h e emperor t o p l e a s e Chan Yu ? j , t h e r u l e r o f t h e Hun. The pipa was p l a y e d 6 0 on t h e way t o c o m f o r t her s o r r o w . 4 5 Wang was s e n t away f o r th e purpose o f p l e a s i n g a f o r e i g n k i n g . The second p a r t i n g woman i s Empress Chen ^ %_ Jo who f e l l o u t o f f a v o r w i t h Han Wuti \% , 4 6 L i n e s i x d e s c r i b e s Chen's p a r t i n g s c e n e , l e a v i n g t h e p a l a c e i n her k i n g f i s h e r c a r r i a g e , h e a d i n g towards t h e Chang Men where she s t a y e d u n t i l Sima X i a n g r u (?-118) "^J 0^ w r o t e t h e P r o s e o f Chang Men f o r h e r . S u b s e q u e n t l y , t h i s was r e a d by th e emperor and she was r e s t o r e d t o her p r e v i o u s f a v o r e d s t a t u s . Her p a r t i n g i s an example o f f a l l from g r a c e . The t h i r d woman i s D a i G u i ^jhj , one o f Duke Zhuang o f Wei's c o n c u b i n e s . She gave b i r t h t o a son who was l a t e r k i l l e d by Wei's o t h e r s o n , born t o him by a n o t h e r c o n c u b i n e . W i t h o u t her son, D a i G u i was f o r c e d t o l e a v e Wei's h o u s e h o l d . Upon l e a v i n g , Zhuang J i a n g ftf ^ , Duke Zhuang's w i f e , composed a poem t i t l e d "Yanyan" f o r h e r . 4 7 The cause o f D a i G u i ' s d e p a r t u r e was t h e power s t r u g g l e w i t h i n a h o u s e h o l d , c u l m i n a t i n g i n murder. These t h r e e women came from d i f f e r e n t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c background; y e t , a l l t h r e e s u f f e r e d t h e same f a t e o f d e p a r t u r e . Wang was a common g i r l whose s o c i a l s t a t u s was e l e v a t e d t o a queen i n t h e p a l a c e . Empress Chen began as a queen but was d e t h r o n e d ; she went down on the s o c i a l l a d d e r . D a i G u i o c c u p i e d t h e l o w e s t s o c i a l s t a t u s o f the t h r e e . She was a common c o n c u b i n e whose s t a t u s was j u s t b a r e l y above the 61 s e r v a n t s . Due t o t h e b i r t h o f her s o n , her s t a t u s w i t h i n the ho u s e h o l d was r a i s e d . But t h i s " p r o m o t i o n " ended up w i t h her i n an even worse p o s i t i o n t h a n b e f o r e . She was f o r c e d t o l e a v e her husband's h o u s e h o l d , a tremendous d i s g r a c e f o r a woman a t t h a t t i m e . The l i v e s o f t h e s e t h r e e women i l l u s t r a t e one f a c t : d e s p i t e d i f f e r e n c e s i n o r i g i n and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c background, a l l were u n a b l e t o escape the p a i n o f p a r t i n g . Having paraded t h e s e t h r e e h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t s one a f t e r a n o t h e r i n one l y r i c a l sweep, X i n i s c o n v i n c i n g a l m o s t t o t h e degree o f i r r e f u t a b i l i t y i n h i s p r o c l a m a t i o n t h a t t h e f a t e of p a r t i n g a w a i t s us a l l ; i t i s an i n e s c a p a b l e human phenomenon. The f o u r t h p a r t i n g scene i s d e s c r i b e d from t h e a n g l e o f t h e s t a y i n g p a r t y i n s t e a d o f t h e l e a v i n g . The g r e a t g e n e r a l L i L i n g (?-74) was c a p t u r e d by t h e Xiongnu i n t h e ti m e o f Han Wuti ^ -"̂  . The l o c a t i o n o f t h e p a r t i n g scene was on t h e H e l i a n g b r i d g e , when a n o t h e r c a p t u r e d ambassador Su Wu (?-60) was a l l o w e d t o r e t u r n home. 4 8 What i s evoked by t h i s diangu i s more tha n the sorrow o f d e p a r t u r e . The c o r e o f emotion here i s t h e h e a r t o f a p a t r i o t , a g r e a t g e n e r a l who s u f f e r e d t h e p a i n o f d e p a r t u r e not o n l y a t t h e p e r s o n a l but t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l as w e l l . I n a d d i t i o n t o b e a r i n g the h u m i l i a t i o n o f h i s c o u n t r y ' s d e f e a t , L i a l s o s u f f e r e d t h e p a i n o f permanent s e p a r a t i o n from h i s own c o u n t r y . The p a i n o f d e p a r t u r e , t h r o u g h t h i s h i s t o r i c a l 6 2 e v e n t , i s e n l a r g e d from th e p e r s o n a l t o the n a t i o n a l l e v e l . And a t t h e t e m p o r a l l e v e l , d e p a r t u r e i s extended from impermanence t o permanence. The theme o f no r e t u r n i s a c c e n t u a t e d by the r e f e r e n c e t o a n o t h e r diangu. The Y i r i v e r Jfl ?K , i n l i n e t e n , c a l l s up t h e e m o t i o n a l p a r t i n g scene o f J i n g Ke (?-227 B.C.) jf'J who was s e n t t o a s s a s s i n a t e K i n g Q i n ^ ±_ . Upon l e a v i n g f o r Q i n , t h e l o r d s and p r i n c e s who came t o b i d f a r e w e l l wore a l l - w h i t e o u t f i t s , t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c o l o r o f mourning. J i n g Ke sang t h i s f a r e w e l l song b e f o r e h i s d e p a r t u r e : " H i s s ! H i s s ! The wind blows. C h i l l ! C h i l l ! The water o f t h e Y i R i v e r . Once the b r a v e s o l d i e r l e a v e s , he r e t u r n s no more." 4 9 The g r i p p i n g element o f t h i s diangu on p a r t i n g i s i t s s c e n i c background, w h i c h i s v e r y c a r e f u l l y o r c h e s t r a t e d i n i t s f o c u s on p r e s e n t i n g t h e " c h i l l i n g " a s p e c t o f p a r t i n g . The h i s s i n g w i n d , th e c h i l l y w a t e r , and the snow-white gowns, a l l g i v e a f r o s t y s e n s a t i o n , s e n d i n g a shudder down one's s p i n e . T h i s i s r e i n f o r c e d i n l i n e e l e v e n by t h e s h r i e k i n g melody o f t h e f a r e w e l l song sung i n h o p e l e s s n e s s . T h i s ci b e g i n s w i t h the sound o f b i r d s but ends w i t h a s i l e n t e f f u s i o n o f t e a r s and . b l o o d . And f i n a l l y , w h i l e e v e r y t h i n g has d e p a r t e d , o n l y the 63 poet i s l e f t t o ask the h o l l o w q u e s t i o n i n the l a s t l i n e . T h i s i s one o f X i n ' s b e s t known ci. Down th r o u g h the ages, i t has r e c e i v e d n o t h i n g but p r a i s e from the c r i t i c s . t h i s ci, i n s p i t e o f h i s d i s t a s t e f o r u s i n g diangu i n ci. Wang s a i d : "The method of e x p r e s s i o n o f H s i n C h ' i - c h i ' s t z ' u t o the tune of 'Ho h s i n l a n g ' [ w i t h s u b t i t l e ] 'On the d e p a r t u r e o f t w e l f t h b r o t h e r , Mao-chia i s superb, and word a f t e r word to o has ching-chieh. I t shows an a b i l i t y a l most b o r d e r i n g on the d i v i n e (shen), y e t he d i d not i n t e n t i o n a l l y work t o c r e a t e such an e f f e c t . For t h i s r e a son l a t e r men were unable t o i m i t a t e h i m . " 5 0 The power and the u n i q e n e s s of t h i s c i l i e s i n X i n ' s a b i l i t y t o b r i n g the sorrow of p a r t i n g t o i t s h i g h e s t , most i n t e n s e l e v e l by i n s t i l l i n g m o tion and c e s s a t i o n i n h i s diangu. F i r s t o f a l l , d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f motions a r e i n t r o d u c e d by the sounds of t h r e e b i r d s . The b u t c h e r b i r d e m i t s i t s sound j u s t b e f o r e the a r r i v a l of the f a l l . I t s c r y mourns the d e p a r t u r e o f f r a g r a n c e ( s p r i n g ) and the a r r i v a l of autumn. I t s sound conveys the r u t h l e s s p r o g r e s s i o n o f t i m e . In the L i Sao, i t Even Wang Guowei (1877-1927) had h i g h p r a i s e f o r s a y s : II Beware l e s t the s h r i k e sound h i s note b e f o r e the equinox; C a u s i n g a l l the f l o w e r s t o l o s e t h e i r f i n e f r a g r a n c e . " 5 1 64 The second b i r d i s t h e p a r t r i d g e . I t s sound i s s i m i l a r t o t h e sound o f t h i s C h i n e s e p h r a s e : "xingbude ye, gege ^"J \ \ "^J " whi c h l i t e r a l l y means i t c a n ' t go on any f u r t h e r . 5 2 The sound o f t h e p a r t r i d g e conveys t h e m o t i o n o f l e a v i n g , though i t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t t o p r o c e e d . The t h i r d k i n d o f b i r d i s the cuckoo, which sounded l i k e t h i s t o the a n c i e n t C h i n e s e : "buru guiqu, buru giugu ^ j£* 4 / 3' ft "4 "- 5 3 L i t e r a l l y , i t means " l e t ' s go home! L e t ' s go home!". I t s sound conveys the m o t i o n o f r e t u r n i n g ( g o i n g home). But a l l t h e s e m o t i o n s come t o a h a l t i n l i n e t h r e e , s i g n i f i e d by t h e c e s s a t i o n o f s p r i n g f r a g r a n c e . 5 4 The mo t i o n b e g i n s a g a i n i n l i n e f i v e w i t h t h e diangu o f t h r e e d e p a r t i n g women. The movement i s c a r r i e d on by two diangu i n l i n e s i x and seven. But a g a i n , i t comes t o a f u l l s t o p i n the next t h r e e l i n e s when t h e h i s t o r i c a l event i s d e s c r i b e d from t h e v i e w o f L i L i n g , t h e one who was f o r c e d t o s t a y . The l a s t c h a r a c t e r s i n l i n e s e i g h t and n i n e , l i e ̂  and j'ue i^j , emphasize t h e s h a t t e r i n g o f t h e hope o f ever moving a g i a n . The movement i s a g a i n s t a r t e d i n l i n e s t e n and e l e v e n where th e h i s t o r i c a l e v ent c e n t e r s on J i n g Ke, the one who was g o i n g away. The s t r o n g c o n t r a s t i n movement throughout the e n t i r e c i b r i n g s t h e r e a d e r ' s emotion t o the most i n t e n s e l e v e l , 65 f i n a l l y t o be f o c u s e d on the poet who s t a y s b e h i n d i n t h e l a s t l i n e . The i n t e n s i t y o f t h i s c i i s a l s o r e i n f o r c e d by t h e c o n t r a s t o f sound and s t i l l n e s s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e d i a n g u . The c i b e g i n s w i t h t h e sounds o f t h r e e d i f f e r e n t b i r d s w h i c h comes i n s u c c e s s i v e waves, and each sound i s more i n t e n s e t h a n t h e p r e v i o u s one, due t o the e f f e c t o f a c c u m u l a t i o n . But a l l sounds come t o a h a l t i n l i n e t h r e e upon t h e d e p a r t u r e o f s p r i n g . T h i s s t i l l n e s s i s r e i n f o r c e d by the g l a r i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n o f h i s t o r i c a l images c o n t a i n e d i n t h e diangu: t h e h o r s e , t h e pipa, t h e Golden Gate, the dark f r o n t i e r , the Chang Men, t h e k i n g f i s h e r c a r r i a g e , and t h e poem "Yanyan ( s w a l l o w ) " . T h e i r s t i l l n e s s e m i t s f a r more emotion t h a n a moving o b j e c t , f o r t h e r e i s an element o f permanence and t i m e l e s s n e s s i n m o t i o n l e s s n e s s . I n t h e f o r e v e r c h a n g i n g w o r l d , t h e r e i s something unchanged: p a r t i n g i s u n i v e r s a l and t h e g r i e f accompanying i t t r a n s c e n d s t i m e , space and s o c i a l c l a s s . The p a i n o f p a r t i n g c r e s c e n d o s i n the sound o f a f a r e w e l l song i n l i n e e l e v e n , which b r i n g s the c i t o a d r a m a t i c e n d i n g : a l l t h e t e a r s t u r n i n g i n t o b l o o d . The t e n s i o n w h i c h has been a c c u m u l a t i n g i n the s u c c e s s i v e a l t e r n a t i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n o f h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t s i s t h u s s u d d e n l y r e l e a s e d , s y m b o l i c a l l y c h a n g i n g e v e r y shade o f the emoti o n o f p a r t i n g i n t o a p o o l o f d e a d e n i n g , r e d d i s h s t i l l n e s s . 66 I n t h e next two c i , t h e c o n t r a s t between th e p a s t and t h e p r e s e n t i s b r o u g h t about by h i s t o r i c a l a l l u s i o n s . Kao and Mei d e s c r i b e t h e p o e t i c f u n c t i o n o f h i s t o r i c a l a l l u s i o n t h i s way: "A h i s t o r i c a l a l l u s i o n has two p o l e s , one r e l a t e d t o a contemporary t o p i c and t h e o t h e r t o a h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t . The two a r e compared, and the purpose of t h e comparison i s t o b r i n g out t h e s i m i l a r i t y between the two and t h e r e b y p r o v i d e the o p p o r t u n i t y t o c h a r a c t e r i z e or comment on t h e contemporary e v e n t . . . S i m i l a r i t y and c o n t r a s t a r e then the o p e r a t i v e p r i n c i p l e s o f a l l u s i o n . 1 , 5 5 Kao and Mei f u r t h e r d i v i d e the r e s u l t o f t h a t comparison between the p a s t and the p r e s e n t i n t o p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e a l l u s i o n : "A p o s i t i v e a l l u s i o n , which emphasized the a n a l o g y between t h e p a s t and the p r e s e n t , c l e a r l y does not convey the sense of change. A n e g a t i v e a l l u s i o n , w h ich emphasizes the c o n t r a s t between the p a s t and t h e p r e s e n t , a p p a r e n t l y p o i n t s t o change. But even h e r e , t h e p r e s e n t i s b e i n g compared t o the p a s t ; t h e n e g a t i v e a l l u s i o n says i n e f f e c t t h a t the p r e s e n t s h o u l d be l i k e the p a s t but i s n o t . " 5 6 But i n h e r e n t i n t h e mechanism o f comparing t h e p a s t w i t h t h e p r e s e n t , be i t p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e i s the poet who i s i m p l i c i t l y c a l l i n g f o r a c t i o n . 5 7 And the m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e f o r a c t i o n i s e m o t i o n , which i s g e n e r a t e d i n the t e n s i o n c r e a t e d by p u t t i n g two p o l e s ( t h e p a s t and the p r e s e n t ) s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t o g e t h e r . And t h e r e c u r r e n c e o f e v e n t s and words i n a l l u s i o n w h i c h Kao and Mei c a l l t h e " a r c h e t y p e , " p r o v i d e s a m o r a l g u i d e l i n e f o r p r e s e n t a c t i o n : " W i th such a s h o r t compass, i t i s h a r d l y p o s s i b l e t o e x p l a i n t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s and m o t i v e s o f an a c t . W i t h t h e use o f h i s t o r i c a l a l l u s i o n , however, th e i m p o s s i b l e becomes u n n e c e s s a r y . The background m a t e r i a l - c i r c u m s t a n c e s , m o t i v e s , p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s , e t c . - need not be e x p l a i n e d but o n l y a l l u d e d . The mere mention o f a h i s t o r i c a l p e r s o n o r p l a c e a c t i v a t e s t h e complex o f i d e a s and e v e n t s c o n v e n t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e s w i t h i t , w h i c h , when g r a f t e d o n t o t h e p r e s e n t t o p i c , p r e p a r e s the s t a g e f o r m o r a l a c t i o n . " 5 8 U s i n g diangu as a n e g a t i v e comparison between the p a s t and t h e p r e s e n t , X i n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c i laments t h a t the p r e s e n t i s no l o n g e r l i k e t h e p a s t : • 4 fa i% To t h e Tune of Niannu Jiao ]QC X (1167- 1181/1170) Mounting th e Shangxin P a v i l i o n i n J i a n k a n g . To t h e Camp Commander S h i Z h i d a o 5 9 7i i1't-* *!. U * ? » 4 I come t o lament th e p a s t , g o i n g up t h e h i g h tower a t h ousand hu of i d l e w o r r i e s come upon me* * hu i s a g r a m measure n o m i n a l l y h o l d i n g t e n p e c k s , l a t e r f i v e . The c r o u c h i n g t i g e r s , t h e c o i l i n g dragons - Where's the l i n e and shape o f t h e l a n d ? O n l y t r i u m p h s and r u i n s f i l l e d t h e e y e s . t tft H %% ft &, I ? * A f t ; M . S l a n t i n g s u n - r a y s , beyond t h e w i l l o w s , R e t u r n i n g b i r d s , by t h e w a t e r s i d e , Wind sweeping th e t a l l t r e e s , a c r o s s t h e f i e l d . A l o n e s a i l , westward bound. A s i n g l e note - Who i s p l a y i n g the f l u t e ? if w. * * , - ^ if 8 rr ? I remember the charm and g r a c e o f A n s h i who r e t r i e d t o the E a s t e r n Mountain i n h i s o l d age. T e a r s f a l l i n g a l o n g w i t h a sad l u t e song. *f t i % % a :*j. £ x B l . 5 £ f * T r a n s f e r r r i n g a l l hope o f fame and name t o my c h i l d r e n ' s g e n e r a t i o n , A l l day l o n g , I'm s p e n d i n g time on c h e s s . % % n % %] Q £.Jk a tit >t & ik. The p r e c i o u s m i r r o r can no l o n g e r be sought. E v e n i n g comes f a s t t o t h e a z u r e c l o u d s . Who would be my companion i n d r i n k i n g ? Wind r o a r i n g by t h e r i v e r h e a d . 69 At dawn, waves t u r n over the house. 31 11 i l l U, IS IN ;* >k ®1 & W i t h the purpose o f l a m e n t i n g the p a s t i n mind, X i n d e l i b e r a t e l y ascends t o a h i g h p l a c e where he c o u l d s u r v e y the l a n d f a r and wide. But what f i l l s t he eyes i s the a f t e r m a t h o f the d e s t r u c t i v e f o r c e which has been rampaging t h r o u g h the pages o f h i s t o r y : J i a n k a n g , a p l a c e where t r u e sages and heroes used t o d w e l l , i s now a d e v a s t a t e d p i e c e o f l a n d i n h a b i t e d by a group of coward o f f i c i a l s who l a c k the w i l l and courage t o c h a l l e n g e the enemy. 6 0 The o r i g i n a l p o w e r f u l shape and b e a r i n g o f the l a n d , which i s v i v i d l y d e p i c t e d w i t h the imagery of the c r o u c h i n g t i g e r s and the c o i l i n g dragons i n l i n e two, i s now r e p l a c e d by r u i n s which a r e so v i s i b l e , a t t e s t i n g t o the f r i g h t e n i n g f a c t t h a t the c o u r s e o f h i s t o r y has been changed f o r the worse. As a warning t o the r u l i n g c l a s s t h a t the p r e s e n t s h o u l d be l i k e the p a s t , but i t i s not ( t h a t l o y a l o f f i c i a l s h o u l d be used and t r u s t e d i n s t e a d o f p e r s e c u t e d ) , X i n a l l u d e s t o a h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e . X i e An (32-385) jfy ^ , a g r e a t p o l i t i c i a n i n the E a s t e r n J i n (317-420) ^ e r a , r e t i r e d t o the E a s t e r n Mountain ^ Jj and d i d not s e t f o o t i n p o l i t i c s u n t i l he was f o r t y , t o be prime m i n i s t e r d u r i n g the r e i g n o f X i a o Wuti /i Tp\ . H i s p o l i t i c a l t a l e n t p l u s h i s p r o m i n e n t s t a t u s as prime m i n i s t e r made him t h e f o c u s o f a t t a c k . H i s p o l i t i c a l r i v a l s were s u c c e s s f u l i n d r i v i n g a wedge between X i e and t h e emperor. A t a r o y a l banquet, X i e " S i n c e even b e i n g the l o r d i s not e a s y , b e i n g m i n i s t e r i s e x c e p t i o n a l l y d i f f i c u l t . I f your l o y a l t y and t r u s t w o r t h y s e r v i c e i s not u n d e r s t o o d , t h e n you w i l l be s u s p e c t e d . " 6 1 W i t h t h i s a l l u s i o n , X i n i s a l s o d rawing a p a r a l l e l between S h i and X i e who was ac c u s e d o f s l a n d e r and f a b r i c a t i o n , and was demoted t o a minor p o s t i n Yongzhou ( t h e p r e s e n t d i s t r i c t o f L i n g n i n g ^ i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f Hunan) t h e year t h i s c i was w r i t t e n . X i e and S h i b o t h s u f f e r e d a t t h e hands o f t h e i r p o l i t i c a l enemies. T h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p o l i t i c s , a c c o r d i n g t o X i n , was m o t i v a t e d by a sense o f d u t y towards t h e i r c o u n t r y . Yet t h e i r l o y a l t y , i n the end, was q u e s t i o n e d . L i n e s i x i s a s u b t l e c o mparison between X i n and X i e . W h i l e p l a y i n g c h e s s , X i e r e c e i v e d news t h a t t h e b a t t l e w i t h Fu J i a n was won. Hav i n g r e a d t h e l e t t e r , X i e j u s t put i t on the bed, and c o n t i n u e d w i t h h i s chess game w h i l e d i s p l a y i n g no p l e a s u r e . When X i e was asked about t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e l e t t e r , he answered s l o w l y t h a t h i s c h i l d r e n ' s g e n e r a t i o n had a l r e a d y won t h e b a t t l e ( t h e b a t t l e was fo u g h t by X i e ' s younger b r o t h e r X i e S h i ~t%i % and h i s nephew X i e Xuan ~\%\ % ) . 6 2 By d i s p l a y i n g t h e same " i n d i f f e r e n c e " i n l i n e s i x , X i n i s i n f a c t wept w h i l e h e a r i n g Huan 71 h i n t i n g t h a t h i s mind i s on the w e l l - b e i n g o f h i s n a t i o n r a t h e r than on the chess game. The v i o l e n t scene a t the end of t h i s c i i s a w arning o f the i n e v i t a b l e d o w n f a l l o f the p r e s e n t empire i f the n a t i o n c o n t i n u e d i t s p o l i c y o f a l l o w i n g s y c o p h a n t s t o r u l e t h e l a n d . The a n n i h i l a t i o n of the t a l e n t e d and the l o y a l w i l l l e a d t o the d e s t r u c t i o n o f the e n t i r e n a t i o n . The d e s t r u c t i v e f o r c e , s y m b o l i z e d by the r o a r i n g wind and the r u s h i n g waves w i l l u l t i m a t e l y o v e r t h r o w the house ( t h e S o u t h e r n Song e m p i r e ) . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h i s a l l u s i o n , b e s i d e drawing a p o w e r f u l n e g a t i v e comparison between the p a s t and the p r e s e n t , l i e s i n X i n ' s i n t e g r a t i o n o f the p a s t e v e n t s w i t h the p r e s e n t s c e n i c d e s c r i p t i o n . The b r o k e n s p i r i t o f the l o y a l i n the p a s t i s embodied i n the d e s t r u c t i v e f o r c e s o f n a t u r e i n the p r e s e n t . The a l l u s i o n t o X i e i s sandwiched between f o u r l i n e s o f s c e n i c d e s c r i p t i o n i n s t a n z a one and the l a s t two l i n e s where the house i s o v e r t u r n e d by r a g i n g t i d e s . Y e t , the t r a n s i t i o n from the s c e n i c d e s c r i p t i o n t o the h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e i s l i n k e d smoothly by the sound of a f l u t e i n the p r e s e n t t o the m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t p l a y e d by Huan Y i i n the p a s t . 6 3 Thus, the m o t i f of d e s t r u c t i o n of the l o y a l and the t a l e n t e d runs i n seamless c o n t i n u i t y t hroughout the e n t i r e ci. I n the f o l l o w i n g ci, X i n uses diangu t o draw an a n a l o g y between the p a s t and the p r e s e n t , e m p h a s i z i n g t h a t the c o u r s e of h i s t o r y s h o u l d remain the same. 72 To t h e Tune o f Yongyu Le ;K $L ^ (1205/1204) Lame n t i n g t h e p a s t by t h e B e i g u P a v i l i o n i n J i n g k o u 6 4 & a k Si -f f t t The immutable mountains and r i v e r s , t h e hero Sun Zhongmou cannot be foun d . 4 1 a J.. t it *, I 4 # ft 4. The s t a g e f o r dance and song, a l l charming e l e g a n c e gone under t h e b e a t i n g r a i n , t h e r o a r i n g wind. % m ft -I, *• & & * *J i . - A common a l l e y where t h e s l a n t e d sun r a y s c u t i n t o t he bushes - t h e r e once l i v e d J i Nu, p e o p l e say. . M n I ni. 1 f I n. L A f T h i n k i n g o f t h o s e y e a r s , w i t h g o l d e n l a n c e s and i r o n - s h o d h o r s e s , H i s s p i r i t s , l i k e a t i g e r , g u l p i n g down m y r i a d s o f l i . *!• % 4  ! 4 \ ̂ h. k % % l i- t. The h a s t y p l a n o f Y u a n j i a , p a y i n g homage a t La n g j u x u won o n l y a nervous n o r t h w a r d g l a n c e . h £ \ ? , Hit k f , A , f f i f J t F o r t y - t h r e e y e a r s ! I can see i t s t i l l i n memory - t h e Yangzhou Road e n g u l f e d i n f l a m e . 73 7 U n b e a r a b l e n o s t a l g i a i s t h e drumming sound, th e r a v e n s s e e k i n g f o o d beneath t h e B i l i a l t a r . t 4 3 1 # U T\ - »} * f 1| *t'f£. 8 To whom I i n q u i r e : "the o l d L i a n Po, i s he s t i l l c a p a b l e o f e a t i n g r i c e ? " 0 Drawing a p o s i t i v e c omparison between the p a s t and the p r e s e n t , X i n uses two h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e s i n t h e f i r s t s t a n z a t o d r i v e home t h e p o i n t t h a t the s u r v i v a l o f a n a t i o n l i e i n e i t h e r h a v i n g a good d e f e n s e or a good o f f e n s e . The w o r s t p o l i c y i s n e i t h e r h a v i n g t h e energy t o defend nor t h e w i l l t o a t t a c k , w h i c h was t h e case w i t h the S o u t h e r n Song a t the t i m e . The f i r s t h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e X i n a l l u d e s t o i s Sun Zhongmou (182-252)//^ "|̂ N , the emperor of t h e Wu empire i n th e Three Kingdoms p e r i o d (220-280). He f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d h i s c a p i t a l i n J i n g k o u fa 0 ( p r e s e n t : Z h e n j i a n g ; j _ i n the p r o v i n c e o f J i a n g s u ) . Of t h e t h r e e empires a t t h e time o f the Three Kingdoms e r a , Sun's empire o f Wu was t h e l a s t t o f a l l , l a r g e l y due t o h i s d e f e n s i v e s t r a t e g y . The b e l i e f i n h a v i n g a s t r o n g d e f e n s e c o i n c i d e s w i t h X i n ' s m i l i t a r y c o n c e p t . I n h i s e s s a y t o the emperor "On T r a i n i n g C i v i l i a n - s o l d i e r s t o Defend t h e Huai 74 R i v e r , " X i n a d v o c a t e s b u i l d i n g a s t r o n g d e f e n s e l i n e based on t h e t h r e e towns o f the Huai R i v e r . 6 5 I n a n o t h e r memorial t o t h e emperor, "The Humble P r e s e n t a t i o n o f Ten D i s c o u r s e s , " n i n e o f t h o s e t e n d i s c o u r s e s d e a l w i t h s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e So u t h e r n Song d e f e n s e system. Not t h a t X i n i s a g a i n s t a t t a c k , on the c o n t r a r y , X i n i s v e r y much i n f a v o r o f a t t a c k over d e f e n s e . I n t h e l a s t d i s c o u r s e , X i n g i v e s h i s r e a s o n : "They have t h e i n t e n t o f d e c e i v i n g us and we a r e a l s o p r e p a r e d t o be a t t a c k e d . One d e c e i v e s , the o t h e r p r e p a r e s ( t o be a t t a c k e d ) . I t would be c u r i o u s i f t h e r e i s not war under t h i s s i t u a t i o n i n t h e w o r l d . I f war i s i n e v i t a b l e , which one i s more advantageous: t o have s e n t the s o l d i e r s a t t a c k i n g f i r s t , and t o s i t and w a i t t o be a t t a c k e d ? " 6 6 H a v i n g a s t r o n g d e f e n s e i s thus t h e means o f a c h i e v i n g t h e g o a l o f o f f e n s e . C i t i n g the achievement o f Sun, X i n l a s h e s a t th e pro-appeasement p o l i c y o f t h e South e r n Song. A l t h o u g h i t had s i g n e d a "peace t r e a t y " w i t h t h e J i n , the government was not t a k i n g advantage o f t h e c e a s e - f i r e p e r i o d t o p r e p a r e f o r f u t u r e enemy a t t a c k s . I n s t e a d , the e n t i r e S o u t h e r n Song government had f a l l e n i n t o a s t a t e o f i n e r t i a , e n v e l oped by p a s s i v i t y , l a c k i n g t h e w i l l t o f i g h t . Sun, on t h e o t h e r hand, was a man o f r e a d i n e s s . W h i l e he was p r e p a r i n g f o r a s t r o n g d e f e n s e , he was a c t u a l l y b u i l d i n g a good o f f e n s e . The second h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e i s a man who c o u l d f i g h t and 75 w i n . L i u Yu (356-422) fy£ , (whose c h i l d h o o d name was J i n u fa ) f was t h e f i r s t emperor o f t h e Song (420-479) i n th e Nanbei e r a (420-581) ̂  ^ . Not o n l y was J i n g k o u h i s hometown, i t was t h e f i r s t p l a c e where he s t a g e d a s e r i e s o f s u c c e s s f u l b a t t l e s , f i n a l l y e s t a b l i s h i n g h i m s e l f as t h e f i r s t emperor o f t h e So u t h e r n d y n a s t i e s (420-589) .67 A l t h o u g h X i n a d v o c a t e s an o f f e n s e p o l i c y , he r e c o g n i z e d t h a t i f a m i l i t a r y e x p e d i t i o n i s h a s t i l y p l a n n e d , i t i s doomed t o f a i l . To warn Han Tuozhou, t h e prime m i n i s t e r o f t h e Southern Song a t t h a t t i m e , who always wanted t o a t t a c k the J i n i n o r d e r t o s t r e n g t h e n h i s own p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n , i n l i n e f i v e , X i n evokes a h u m i l i a t i n g d e f e a t i n t h e t w e n t y - s e v e n t h y e a r (450) o f Y u a n j i a (422-453) 7L> , an era-name o f Song Wenti % £ ^ ( L i u Y i l o n g [407-453] j|j f\ ). A c c o r d i n g t o Song Wenti's own a c c o u n t , r e c o r d e d i n t h e Bi o g r a p h y o f Wang Xuanmo (388-468) £_ % i n t h e Song Shu ~<3 , Wang's f r e q u e n t d e l i n e a t i o n o f m i l i t a r y s t r a t e g y on c a p t u r i n g t h e n o r t h was enough t o i n d u c e him t o engage t h e N o r t h e r n Wei (386-534) Jt ^% i n b a t t l e . 6 8 Wang f i n a l l y l a u n c h e d h i s h a s t y a t t a c k i n 450 A.D., but was beaten back by t h e Wei a l l t h e way t o t h e Y a n g t z e , t h r e a t e n i n g Wang t h a t t h e y would c r o s s t h e r i v e r . Song Wenti r e p o r t e d l y r e g r e t t e d t h e d e c i s i o n t o l a u n c h i n g t h i s e x p e d i t i o n . W h i l e l o o k i n g towards the n o r t h from t h e t o p o f t h e Fenghuo Tower X. ^ , a poem a l l e g e d l y w r i t t e n by him 76 r e c o r d e d i n t h e Song Shu s a y s i n p a r t : " g a z i n g n o r t h , t e a r drops m i n g l e d jfc ^ | ; f - ^ ;Aj ."69 The second p h r a s e i n l i n e f i v e " t o make s a c r i f i c e [feng ^ ) i n L a n g j u x u " comes from th e b i o g r a p h y o f G e n e r a l Wei o f C a v a l r y $ j f$ ^ J§J ^ $j j | i n t h e S A i J i . Huo Qubing (145-117 B.C.) <^ £ • jh- once drove th e X i o n g Nu (Hun) (£j ^ a l l t h e way back t o L a n g j u x u ( i n t h e p r e s e n t n o r t h - w e s t e r n p a r t o f t h e M o n g o l i a n Autonomous Region) and p e r f o r m e d a s a c r i f i c e i n t h e mountain b e f o r e r e t u r n i n g . 7 0 By u s i n g t h i s p h r a s e , X i n s u b t l y reminds Han t h a t one can get m i l i t a r y m e r i t from a s u c c e s s f u l m i l i t a r y e x p e d i t i o n , t h a t i s , p e r f o r m i n g a s a c r i f i c e i n conquered f o r e i g n t e r r i t o r y . F o r X i n , t h e e v e n t u a l a t t a c k on t h e J i n must be w e l l p l a n n e d , s o l i d l y a n c h o r e d i n t h e framework o f a c a r e f u l l y d e s i g n e d s t r a t e g y . An i l l - c o n c e i v e d o p e r a t i o n would o n l y h a s t e n th e prime m i n i s t e r ' s p o l i t i c a l d o w n f a l l as w e l l as i n v i t i n g n a t i o n a l d e f e a t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , Han v e n t u r e d h i s a t t a c k i n 1204. The r e s u l t was d i s a s t r o u s , once a g a i n r e p e a t i n g the h i s t o r y o f Y u a n j i a . T h i s d e f e a t sapped the l i t t l e s t r e n g t h r e m a i n i n g i n t h e n a t i o n , and t h e S o u t h e r n Song f e l l i n 1279. L i n e s i x changes the p o e t i c p l a n e from a n a t i o n a l t o a p e r s o n a l one. I t had been f o r t y - t h r e e y e a r s s i n c e X i n moved s o u t h . The sound o f war drums has been r e p l a c e d by t h e sound o f r i t u a l m u s i c . I t i s a p i c t u r e o f " p e a c e f u l " endeavor, 77 p e o p l e making s a c r i f i c e s t o t h e i r l o c a l d e i t i e s . But beneath the f e s t i v e mood i s a p o i g n a n t reminder o f the l a n d s t i l l o c c u p i e d and r u l e d by the J i n . By p u r p o s e l y u s i n g the name B i l i ^ ^ i n l i n e s even, X i n d r i v e s h i s p o i n t home. B i l i , t he c h i l d h o o d name of Taiwu Di (424-451) ^ jft 4jf o f the Wei d y n a s t y , a f t e r d e f e a t i n g Wang Xuanmo, advanced h i s t r o o p s a l l the way t o the n o r t h o f the Y a n g t z e . On the Guabu Mountain f\ y Xt / h e b u i l t h i m s e l f a l o d g e , which l a t e r became the B i l i Temple ^ , 7 1 The name " B i l i " s e r v e s as a w a r n i n g a g a i n s t h a s t y m i l i t a r y e f f o r t s as i n the case o f Wang; i t i s a l s o a reminder of the n o r t h e r n t e r r i t o r y s t i l l o c c u p i e d by the J i n . The l a s t h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e i s L i a n Po / j ^ who was i a l r e a d y a r e t i r e d g e n e r a l when the K i n g Dao X i a n g ^ ^ , of Zhao sent f o r him t o see whether he was s t i l l p h y s i c a l l y f i t t o be a s o l d i e r . Upon the a r r i v a l o f Zhao's e m i s s a r y , L i a n Po consumed one peck (about 316 c u b i c i n c h e s ) of r i c e and t e n c a t t i e s of meat i n one meal, then put on h i s armour and l e a p t onto h i s h o r s e , a l l t o demonstrate t h a t he s t i l l had t h e v i g o r t o f i g h t and t o s e r v e h i s c o u n t r y . 7 2 By t u r n i n g the comparison between L i a n Po and h i m s e l f i n t o a q u e s t i o n , X i n t r a n s f o r m s i t i n t o a v e r y sad c o n t r a s t . When L i a n Po was o l d , someone s t i l l remembered t h e r e was an o l d g e n e r a l named L i a n Po. But the q u e s t i o n i m p l i e s t h a t no one even remembers t h e r e i s an o l d s o l d i e r c a l l e d X i n Q i j i , 78 much l e s s comes t o i n q u i r e about h i s w e l l - b e i n g . Knowing t h a t t h e r e i s h a r d l y anyone t h e r e l i s t e n i n g t o h i s p l e a s , h i s q u e s t i o n becomes t h a t much h o l l o w e r . By d rawing a p a r a l l e l w i t h L i a n Po, X i n a l s o i m p l i e s h i s w i l l i n g n e s s t o s e r v e . I f someone d i d come t o i n q u i r e about h i s h e a l t h , X i n was more t h a n w i l l i n g t o r e p e a t L i a n Po's d e m o n s t r a t i o n . The f a c t i s t h a t no one came; no one remembered X i n ' s e x i s t e n c e . I n t h e end o f t h i s c i , X i n g i v e s a p e r s o n a l lament f o r one o f the h e r o e s l a i d low by time and e v e n t s i n l i f e : h i m s e l f . T h i s c i has r e c e i v e d n o t h i n g but p r a i s e from th e c r i t i c s . The beauty of i t l i e s not o n l y i n i t s dense f o r m a t , e v o k i n g h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e s and e v e n t s one a f t e r a n o t h e r , nor j u s t i n i t s c o m p e l l i n g emotions as the consequences of t h o s e e v o c a t i o n s . T h i s ci embodies th e v e r y essence o f X i n t h e man; i t i s v i n t a g e X i n . I n t h i s c i , t h e r e i s a show o f b a l a n c e between r o m a n t i c s e n t i m e n t a l i s m and r a t i o n a l pragmatism. A l l o w i n g h i m s e l f t o submerge deep i n the p a s t , X i n l e t h i s emotion, l i k e a h u r r i c a n e r u n n i n g t h r o u g h t h e l i n e s . T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e way X i n chooses h i s s e m a n t i c s t r u c t u r e . I n s t e a d o f s y n t a c t i c a l l y e n d i n g each f o u r - c h a r a c t e r p h r a s e i n l i n e one, X i n a l l o w s h i s thought as w e l l as t h e p o e t i c rhythm t o run on u n h i n d e r e d t i l l t h e t w e l f t h c h a r a c t e r , a f t e r a s u c c e s s i o n o f t h r e e f o u r - c h a r a c t e r p h r a s e s , g i v i n g t h e s e l i n e s s t r e n g t h and 73 v i g o r . 0 79 S u r e l y X i n i s s e n t i m e n t a l about the p a s t , but he does not a l l o w h i m s e l f t o be overwhelmed by n o s t a l g i c p a s s i o n . The p a s t i s r o m a n t i c i z e d as he v i v i d l y d e p i c t s t h e b a t t l e scenes o f L i u Yu but t h i s a l s o s e r v e s a u t i l i t a r i a n p u r p o s e . H i s t o r y , t h e n , i s more .-than a model; i t i s 3 m i r r o r r e f l e c t i n g t h e p a s t , t h e p r e s e n t , and t h e f u t u r e . The p a s t i s drawn on f o r t h e a n a l o g y w i t h the p r e s e n t (tuogu yujdn s t o p p e d c l i n g i n g o n t o what i s gone; he p r a g m a t i c a l l y e x p l o i t s t h e p a s t f o r the b e n e f i t o f the p r e s e n t . The Qing l i t e r a r y c r i t i c Wang Guowei i s w e l l known f o r h i s o p p o s i t i o n t o u s i n g a l l u s i o n i n c i . H i s reason i s t h a t What Wang i s s a y i n g i s t h a t diangu, i f used i m p r o p e r l y , can ta k e the r e a d e r out o f the p o e t i c w o r l d which i s the here and now and back t o t h e p a s t by diangu; t h e r e b y , c r e a t i n g a gap between t h e r e a d e r ' s p r e s e n t p o e t i c f e e l i n g which i s su p p o s e d l y a r o u s e d by t h a t a l l u s i o n . The c r a f t m a n s h i p o f -the p o e t , t h e n , i s t e s t e d i n h i s a b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e a sea m l e s s e m o t i o n a l — p o e t i c c o n t i n u i t y between t h e p a s t - i n f o r m a t i o n and t h e p r e s e n t - e m o t i o n . For l e s s e r p o e t s , t h e use o f diangu can be d i s a s t r o u s . But X i n demonstrates t h a t t h e use o f a l l u s i o n can be employed i n many d i f f e r e n t ways w i t h o u t c r e a t i n g p o e t i c gaps and h o l e s . As Lou J i n g s i (Qing) t% KL' a d m i r i n c l y s a i d : , ). Amid n o s t a l g i a , X i n i s r a t i o n a l enough t o have ) i n p o e t i c f e e l i n g . 74 "The way he [ X i n ] m a n i p u l a t e s ( t h e quotes) from t h e Zhuang Zi, t h e Li Sao, t h e c l a s s i c s , and h i s t o r i c a l w o r k s , J i a x u a n has not l e f t even a t r a c e o f h i s c a r v i n g b l a d e . H i s pen has v i g o r o u s power." 7 5 81 CHAPTER I I I : USE OF COMPARISON AND CONTRAST I f the use o f a l l u s i o n e n a b l e s X i n t o say one t h i n g i n terms of a n o t h e r , r e v e a l i n g the t w i s t s and t u r n s o f h i s f e e l i n g s , the use o f comparison and c o n t r a s t a l l o w s X i n t o a c c e n t u a t e h i s i n n e r p o l a r i t i e s . Through t h i s p o e t i c medium, one comes t o see more c l e a r l y t h e d i c h o t o m y o f X i n ' s w o r l d v i e w and h i s o s c i l l a t i o n between " w h a t - i s " and "what-should-be." True t o b e i n g a v e r s a t i l e p o e t , one f i n d s t h a t w h i c h e v e r p o e t i c t e c h n i q u e X i n c h o o s e s t o u s e , he a l w a y s manages t o generate d i f f e r e n t v a r i a t i o n s of the same t e c h n i q u e . S i x c i have been c h o s e n f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e d i f f e r e n t m e t h o d s X i n e m p l o y e d t o s h a r p e n h i s u s e o f c o m p a r i s o n and c o n t r a s t . These c i d i s t i n c t i v e l y b e l o n g t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s of c o m p a r i s o n and c o n t r a s t : s p a t i a l c o n t r a s t o f two d i f f e r e n t w o r l d s , c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n X i n and h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e s , and temporal c o n t r a s t between the p a s t and the p r e s e n t . Throughout h i s l i f e , X i n was p r e o c c u p i e d by a s i n g l e hope, t h a t i s , the r e c a p t u r e o f the n o r t h . But t h i s hope, d u r i n g h i s l i f e t i m e , remained u n f u l f i l l e d . Not o n l y was the Southern Song g o v e r n m e n t t o o weak p o l i t i c a l l y and m i l i t a r i l y t o l a u n c h an a t t a c k on the J i n , they a l s o l a c k e d the d e s i r e and w i l l t o f i g h t . The i n d i f f e r e n c e o f t h e S o u t h e r n Song to w a r d s r e c o v e r i n g l o s t t e r r i t o r y and X i n ' s s t r o n g d e s i r e t o do so c o n s t i t u t e t h e two 82 o p p o s i t e p o l e s i n X i n ' s l i f e . Through t h e p o e t i c t e c h n i q u e o f c o n t r a s t , as t h e f o l l o w i n g c i d e m o n s t r a t e s , t h e p o l a r i t y between t h e s e o p p o s i t e w o r l d s becomes t h a t much more a p p a r e n t . To t h e Tune of Shvilong Yin ™f (1192- 1194/1194) P a s s i n g by the Shuangxi Tower i n N a n j i a n A * M t it If R a i s i n g my head, f l o a t i n g c l o u d s i n t h e n o r t h - w e s t ; A m y r i a d . I i o f l o n g sword i s needed* t o s t r e t c h a l o n g t he l e n g t h o f t h e s k y . f . I t * i t > | % % 1 * J . P e o p l e say t h a t i n t h i s p l a c e , t h e y o f t e n see i n t h e dead o f n i g h t a b r i l l i a n t g l a r e around t h e Di p p e r and t h e Herdboy. A t *k >&, 4 ;?s 4 h, 4 4- fu *<&. I f e e l t h e mountains a r e h i g h , t h e l a k e i s empty and the water i s c l e a r , t h e moon i s b r i g h t and t h e s t a r s a r e p a l l i d . I i n t e n d e d t o l i t t h e r h i n o h o r n t o l o o k below, L e a n i n g a g a i n s t t h e r a i l , I'm a f r a i d o f r o u s i n g t h e r o a r i n g - t h u n d e r i n g w i n d , t h e f r i g h t e n e d f i s h and t h e dragon below. *4 11- i i m *r ft. »• * &. ̂  ft * One i i i s about 1890 f e e t i n E n g l i s h measure. 83 P a s s i n g by t h e h i g h tower i s t h e w a t e r , ready t o c r o s s o v e r , but i t i s r e s t r a i n e d by t h e t o w e r i n g mountains a c r o s s the r i v e r . At t% i x f l & # Yuanlong i s a l r e a d y an o l d man; Why not r e c l i n e on a c o o l mat w i t h a p o t o f something c o l d . ) L ft £ I. fit h s | \ »k i it f . The ups and downs o f a thousand p a s t ages, a hundred y e a r s o f woes and g l e e s a r e seen a t a g l a n c e from on h i g h . 4 t % i, % * & 1, - $\ | 8 Who a g a i n , beneath t h e s u n s e t , has moored t h a t s a i l on t h a t sandy beach? L * if. n, ni 1 I # Ji The two w o r l d s c o n t r a s t e d i n t h i s c i a r e the r e a l w o r l d and t h e m y t h i c a l w o r l d . The c i b e g i n s w i t h a v i e w o f r e a l i t y . N a n j i a n i s i n t o d a y ' s d i s t r i c t o f N a n p i n g ^] Jj? , i n t h e n o r t h e r n p a r t o f F u j i a n ^ p r o v i n c e . Shuangxi r e f e r s t o t h e two c r e e k s : J i a n x i J^>J t o t h e l e f t o f t h e c i t y and Qiaochuan $ t >'| t o t h e r i g h t . 1 As the poet l o o k s n o r t h - w e s t , t h e d i r e c t i o n o f h i s homeland i n t h e J i n - o c c u p i e d t e r r i t o r y , the enormous p h y s i c a l d i s t a n c e between t h e poet and h i s homeland i s b r i d g e d by t h e image o f a l o n g sword. T h i s s y m b o l i z e s not o n l y X i n ' s w i s h t o f i g h t t h e J i n i n o r d e r t o r e c a p t u r e t h e n o r t h , but 84 a l s o h i s l a c k o f power t o do s o . 2 F u r t h e r m o r e , X i n was not the o n l y one who l a c k e d t h i s sword. The S o u t h e r n Song, a t t h a t t i m e , was a l s o t o o weak t o overcome t h e J i n m i l i t a r i l y . Thus, t h e sword embodies t h e p o w e r l e s s n e s s o f b o t h p a r t i e s : X i n and t h e S o u t h e r n Song government. The a b s e n c e o f a l o n g sword i n r e a l i t y i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e p r e s e n c e o f a s u p e r - s w o r d i n a myth. As t h e l e g e n d g o e s , N a n j i a n was t h e p l a c e where a s u p e r - s w o r d was t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o d r a g o n s . 3 L i n e t h r e e i s an i n d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e t o a super-sword l e g e n d i n t h e b i o g r a p h y o f Zhang Hua (232-300) £I> 5j? i n the Jin Shu. The s t o r y r e f e r s t o the p e r i o d o f the Three Kingdoms f£l : Wei (220-265) ^ , Shu (221-264) qfj , and Wu (222- 280) . I n t h e b e g i n n i n g , b e f o r e t h e f a l l o f Wu, as the l e g e n d goes, t h e r e was a v i o l e t emanation i n the sky between the e i g h t h chronogram, "Dipper (nandou ^} )" and the n i n t h , "Herdsboy (niu jj: ) . " 5 Some s o o t h s a y e r s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s was a s i g n o f Wu's s t r e n g t h . But a f t e r t he d e f e a t o f Wu, the v i o l e t emanation not o n l y remained but on the c o n t r a r y , i t became b r i g h t e r . Zhang had h e a r d o f a s o o t h s a y e r named L e i Huan yt^ who was w e l l known f o r h i s a b i l i t y i n i n t e r p r e t i n g s i g n s . Upon c o n s u l t a t i o n , L e i c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e v i o l e t e m a n a t i o n was t h e e s s e n c e o f a supe r - s w o r d r i s i n g toward the s k y , and t h a t t h i s sword was i n the p r e f e c t u r e o f Yuzhang "J^L ̂  ( t h e p r e s e n t d i s t r i c t o f Nanchang % i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f J i a n g x i ) , t h e d i s t r i c t o f Fengcheng . A f t e r L e i dug up t h e two swords w i t h t h e names Longquan jf and T a i ' a js c a r v e d on them r e s p e c t i v e l y , t h e 85 v i o l e t emanation i n t h e sky d i s a p p e a r e d . Zhang and L e i each took one s u p e r - s w o r d . A f t e r Zhang was k i l l e d , h i s s u p e r - s w o r d was l o s t . L e i ' s s u p e r - s w o r d was passe d on t o h i s son L e i Hua ^ 3£ a f t e r h i s d e a t h . W h i l e he was p a s s i n g by Nanping one day, L e i Hua's s u p e r - s w o r d f l e w o f f f r o m h i s w a i s t - b a n d and i n t o t h e w a t e r . He o r d e r e d p e o p l e t o l o o k f o r t h e s u p e r - s w o r d b u t a l l t h e y c o u l d see was two d r a g o n s i n t h e w a t e r . The p e o p l e were a f r a i d and r e t u r n e d w i t h o u t r e t r i e v i n g t h e super-sword. A f t e r a w h i l e , t h e r e was a b r i g h t l i g h t s h i n i n g i n the w a t e r , and t h e r e were huge, r o a r i n g waves. T h i s myth draws out t h e c o n t r a s t between the r e a l s i t u a t i o n and t h e i d e a l one. I n r e a l i t y , X i n ' s l a c k o f power makes i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r him t o f i g h t the J i n . What he c o u l d not f i n d i n r e a l i t y , he seeks i n t h e m y t h i c w o r l d , i n an e f f o r t t o compensate f o r h i s l a c k o f r e a l power w i t h m y t h i c a l power. I n l i n e t h r e e , r e a l i t y c r e e p s i n a g a i n . I t i s a v e r y q u i e t b u t o b s t r u c t i v e r e a l i t y . The t a l l m o u n t a i n s s y m b o l i z e t h e o b s t r u c t i o n s i n r e a c h i n g h i s homeland. The empty l a k e , the c o l d water and t h e p a l l i d s t a r s d e s c r i b e d i n l i n e t h r e e s y m b o l i z e not o n l y X i n ' s sense o f e m p t i n e s s i n s i d e but t h e e n t i r e a t t i t u d e o f t h e S o u t h e r n Song: c o m p l a c e n t , i n d i f f e r e n t and c o o l towards the i d e a o f r e c a p t u r i n g t h e n o r t h . X i n Q i j i ' s d e s i r e t o g e t t h e s u p e r - s w o r d d r i v e s him once more i n t o t h e e l u s i v e m y t h i c a l w o r l d i n l i n e f o u r . The l i g h t i n g o f t h e r h i n o c e r o s ' h o r n i s a r e f e r e n c e t o the b i o g r a p h y o f Wen J i a o (288-329) }§l J>̂/ i n t h e Jin Shu.6 The s o l d i e r s o f Su 86 J u n (266-328) zL'^ r e b e l l e d and Wen was o r d e r e d t o s e t t l e t h e r e v o l t . Upon h i s r e t u r n , he came t o t h e water o f N i u z h u j i ^ % ^ , a p o o l t h a t was o f u nfathomable d e p t h . He had h e a r d t h a t t h e r e were v a r i o u s c r e a t u r e s l i v i n g i n t h e w a t e r , and he l i t a r h i n o h o r n t o l o o k more c l o s e l y . 7 He saw some c r e a t u r e s w e a r i n g s c a r l e t c l o t h e s w h i l e o t h e r s were r i d i n g on h o r s e s . The " f i s h " and "dragons" i n l i n e f o u r r e f e r t o t h e c r e a t u r e s Wen saw. U n l i k e t h e myth i n l i n e s one and two w h i c h i s u s e d t o c o n t r a s t t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e r e a l and t h e m y t h i c a l , the f u n c t i o n o f t h i s myth i s t o a c c e n t u a t e the s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e s e two w o r l d s . By c i t i n g t h i s myth, X i n i s , f i r s t o f a l l , comparing t h e c r e a t u r e s i n the water w i t h t h e r u l i n g c l a s s : t h e y a r e b oth i n e r t , p a s s i v e , i n d i f f e r e n t and can be e a s i l y f r i g h t e n e d by any s l i g h t d i s t u r b a n c e . S e c o n d l y , t h i s myth e s t a b l i s h e s a comparison b e t w e e n t h e d e s t r u c t i v e f o r c e o f n a t u r e and t h e d e s t r u c t i v e s o c i a l - p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s t h a t a r e l u r k i n g b e h i n d t h e s e e m i n g l y c a l m s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n b r o u g h t a b o u t by t h e " p e a c e t r e a t y " . C l e a r l y X i n ' s i n n e r d e s i r e i s t o get some magic weapon or d e v i c e a n a l o g o u s t o t h e s u p e r - s w o r d i n o r d e r t o empower h i m s e l f . But s i n c e r e a l power was i n t h e hands o f the pro-appeasement f a c t i o n i n c o u r t , X i n ' s pro-war s t a n c e not o n l y p i t t e d him a g a i n s t the p o w e r f u l r u l i n g c l a s s but a l s o deepened the p o l a r i z a t i o n between t h e p r o - w a r and pro-appeasement c l i q u e s , f u r t h e r d i v i d i n g t h e c o u n t r y . The f e a r o f more chaos d r i v e s X i n out o f t h e m y t h i c a l w o r l d . The o b s t r u c t i v e p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s i n r e a l i t y and X i n ' s d e s i r e 87 t o r e t u r n home a r e f u s e d t o g e t h e r i n the s c e n i c d e s c r i p t i o n i n l i n e f i v e . The onward movement o f t h e water w h i c h s y m b o l i z e s X i n ' s w i s h t o go home, i s i m m e d i a t e l y dashed by the s i g h t o f the h i g h m o u n t a i n s , t o w e r i n g i n t i m i d a t i n g l y o v e r t h e r i v e r . The mo u n t a i n s s y m b o l i z e the o b s t r u c t i v e f o r c e s : they s h a t t e r X i n ' s dreams o f r e t u r n i n g home. C o n t r a r y t o the f e r v e n t d e s i r e d i s p l a y e d i n s t a n z a one, X i n seems t o p o r t r a y a s e n s e o f i n d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e s e c o n d by c o m p a r i n g h i m s e l f w i t h Chen Deng fj^ whose z i ^ was Yu a n l o n g TLl f ) l • T h i s l i n e r e f e r s t o a p a s s a g e o f h i s b i o g r a p h y i n the Sanguo Zhi J- $j . Xu S i 1^ y(j and L i u B e i (161-223) %\ $jl were g u e s t s a t L i u B i a o ' s ^ Xu m e n t i o n e d t h a t Chen Deng was a famous man y e t h i s a r r o g a n c e was e v i d e n t . L i u B e i asked Xu t o prove t h a t . Xu c i t e d h i s v i s i t a t Chen's d u r i n g a time o f s o c i a l u p h e a v a l . Not o n l y was Chen i n no mood t o be a good h o s t , he d i d n ' t even speak t o Xu f o r a l o n g p e r i o d o f time w h i l e Xu was a guest a t h i s house. F u r t h e r m o r e , Chen s l e p t on the upper s l e e p i n g - p l a t f o r m bunker and l e t Xu ( h i s guest) s l e e p on the lo w e r . L i u B e i then r e t o r t e d t h a t i f he were Chen, he would s l e e p i n a t a l l b u i l d i n g and l e t Xu s l e e p on the f l o o r . L i u ' s reason was t h a t i n tim e s o f n a t i o n a l c r i s i s , p e o p l e s h o u l d not mind where they s l e e p ; i n s t e a d , t h e i r c o n c e r n s h o u l d be about the c o u n t r y . 8 By comparing h i m s e l f w i t h Chen, X i n i s i n f a c t h i n t i n g t h a t h i s mind i s s t i l l on the a f f a i r s of h i s n a t i o n , a l t h o u g h h i s i m i t a t i o n of Chen's l y i n g down p r o j e c t s an outward image of i n d i f f e r e n c e . 88 X i n ' s c o n c e r n o v e r t h e f a t e o f h i s c o u n t r y i s t h e n s u b t l y c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e i n d i f f e r e n c e o f t h e r u l i n g c l a s s i n l i n e s seven and e i g h t . The s t a t i o n a r y s a i l mentioned i n t h e l a s t l i n e p r o j e c t s not o n l y an a u r a of seeming c a l m , but a l s o i n d i f f e r e n c e . The e n d i n g i s a v e i l e d w a r n i n g X i n g i v e s t o t h e S o u t h e r n Song c o u r t : t h e a p p a r e n t p o l i t i c a l c a l m i n the South i s d e c e p t i v e ; one j u s t h a s t o l o o k u p ward t o s e e t h e s e t t i n g s u n . X i n ' s message i s c l e a r : t h e i n d i f f e r e n c e and complacency o f t h e r u l i n g c l a s s can o n l y h a s t e n the p r o c e s s of i t s d o w n f a l l . B e s i d e s t h e c o m p a r i s o n - c o n t r a s t o f t h e r e a l a n d t h e m y t h i c a l , X i n ' s p o w e r l e s s n e s s i n b e i n g a s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l p i t t e d a g a i n s t a g i a n t e s t a b l i s h m e n t i s f u r t h e r u n d e r l i n e d by t h e c o n t r a s t o f t h e s m a l l and t h e l a r g e w o r l d s . The l a r g e w o r l d i s t h e w o r l d o f r e a l i t y : t h e p h y s i c a l environment o f t h e t o w e r i n g mountain, the h i g h tower, the empty l a k e , the p a l l i d s t a r s , the s a i l , and t h e sandy beach. The s m a l l w o r l d i s N a n j i a n and the w a t e r i n t h e l a k e , where t h e m y t h i c a l were e v e n t s b e l i e v e d t o have t a k e n p l a c e many y e a r s ago. X i n ' s i n n e r d e s i r e t o r e c a p t u r e t h e n o r t h , h i s f e a r o f f u r t h e r d i v i d i n g an a l r e a d y f r a c t u r e d S o u t h e r n Song government i f he were t o p r e s s ahead w i t h h i s g o a l , and h i s f r u s t r a t i o n over t h e p o l i t i c a l - s o c i a l o b s t a c l e s a r e a l l s k i l l f u l l y c a p t u r e d i n the way X i n o r g a n i z e s t h i s c i . The c o m p a r i s o n - c o n t r a s t between the r e a l and t h e m y t h i c a l , t h e l a r g e and t h e s m a l l , i s s t r u c t u r e d by an a l t e r n a t i n g p a t t e r n . T h i s p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e a l l o w s t h e poet t o s h u t t l e between t h e s e two w o r l d s , r e f l e c t i n g h i s i n n e r d e s i r e t o 89 r e c a p t u r e t h e n o r t h w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e b e i n g c o n s t a n t l y f r u s t r a t e d by o u t e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The l a r g e - r e a l i s t i c w o r l d i s X i n ' s homeland, s i g n i f i e d by t h e g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n o f n o r t h - w e s t , w h i c h c o n t a i n s t h e s m a l l , m y t h - h a u n t e d w o r l d o f N a n j i a n . The i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f h a v i n g a super-sword which would e n a b l e him t o f i g h t h i s way home d r i v e s X i n out o f t h e l a r g e - r e a l i s t i c w o r l d and i n t o t h e s m a l l - m y t h i c a l one i n o r d e r t o g e t t h e s u p e r - s w o r d he needs. Then t h e p o e t s w i t c h e s back t o t h e l a r g e - r e a l i s t i c w o r l d w h i c h i s d e v o i d o f a c t i o n . The s i g h t o f t h e fearsome h e i g h t o f t h e h i g h mountains once a g a i n p r o p e l s X i n i n t o t h e s m a l l - m y t h i c a l w o r l d ( t h e c r e e k ) . But t h e power of t h e s m a l l - m y t h i c a l w o r l d i n l i n e f o u r p r o v e s t o be t o o f i e r c e f o r t h e l a r g e - r e a l i s t i c w o r l d . The f i r s t s t a n z a ends w i t h a f r i g h t e n e d man who i s t e r r i f i e d by t h e s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l c o n s equences o f p u r s u i n g h i s own g o a l . As a r e s u l t , t h e s m a l l - m y t h i c a l w o r l d no l o n g e r o f f e r s t h e super power wh i c h w o u l d a s s i s t X i n m i g h t i l y i n f i g h t i n g t h e enemy. On t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e s u p e r - s w o r d would d i s r u p t t h e seeming calmness of t h e l a r g e - r e a l i s t i c w o r l d . T u r n i n g away from t h e s m a l l - m y t h i c a l w o r l d , t h e poet f i n d s h i m s e l f f a c i n g the l a r g e - r e a l i s t i c w o r l d a g a i n i n l i n e f i v e . The w i s h t o f i g h t t h e enemy once a g a i n becomes a n i m a t e d , but a g a i n i t i s s y m b o l i c a l l y f r u s t r a t e d by the t a l l b u i l d i n g mentioned i n l i n e f i v e . T h i s t i m e X i n t u r n s t o t h e even s m a l l e r w o r l d o f a c o l d p o t and a c o o l mat, t h i n g s which o f f e r immediate p h y s i c a l comfort r a t h e r t h a n m y t h i c a l p o w e r . The l a r g e - r e a l i s t i c w o r l d i s 90 s t r e t c h e d back i n time i n l i n e seven, embracing p a s t g l o r i e s and d e f e a t s i n one s m a l l v i e w . T h i s a l t e r n a t i n g p a t t e r n o f c o m p a r i s o n and c o n t r a s t a c c e n t u a t e s X i n ' s i n n e r o s c i l l a t i o n between the r e a l and the m y t h i c a l w o r l d s . For a l l h i s l i f e , X i n was p r e o c c u p i e d by the s i n g l e hope of r e c a p t u r i n g the n o r t h . But he knew q u i t e w e l l , on the one hand, t h a t h i s g o a l c o u l d not be a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h o u t the p o l i t i c a l as w e l l as m i l i t a r y s u p p o r t of the Southern Song government. Yet on t h e o t h e r h a n d , X i n d e t e s t e d t h e d a r k s i d e o f p o l i t i c s . Throughout h i s e n t i r e l i f e , X i n was t o r n between the d e s i r e and t h e n e c e s s i t y t o get i n v o l v e d p o l i t i c a l l y i n o r d e r t o r e c a p t u r e t h e n o r t h a n d h i s d i s d a i n f o r t h e p o l i t i c a l w o r l d . X i n ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the p o l i t i c a l w o r l d can be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the d u a l i s t i c components of l o v e and h a t e , attachment and detachment. And t h e s e c o n f l i c t i n g f o r c e s come out more s h a r p l y under t h e p o e t i c t e c h n i q u e of c o n t r a s t . In the f o l l o w i n g ci, X i n ' s dilemma i s e v i d e n t : he f i n d s the w o r l d of p o l i t i c s a p p a l l i n g and y e t , he i s bored w i t h the l i f e of r e t i r e m e n t . 1202/1187-1188) A g a i n , composing an i n s c r i p t i o n f o r the C a l a b a s h s p r i n g , u s i n g the "suo" d i c t i o n t o chant as a t o a s t f o r my d r i n k i n g p a l s . F i n d i n g t h e sound and rhyme q u i t e harmonious, my g u e s t s emptied a l l t h e i r wine g l a s s e s . To t h e Tune of Shuilong 91 Oh! L i s t e n ! The sound o f jade ornaments, c l e a r and pure. Oh! B r i g h t i s the m i r r o r , r e f l e c t i n g the t i n i e s t d e t a i l 4 'i & % t P l e a s e ! Don't l e a v e h e r e . A n d b e t a i n t e d b y t h e f i l t h a n d d i r t , choked by the t h r i v i n g k n e e - h i g h w i l d weeds. H 4 *t, X f iji \\ , i Not o n l y t h o s e t i g e r s and l e o p a r d s h u n g e r i n g t o e a t p e o p l e l i k e you f o r t h e i r d e l i c i o u s f o o d , There a r e a l s o the monkeys. /fo ft if L , ;4 t >i. f £ . 5 The v a s t e v e r - f l o w i n g r i v e r s and seas w i l l c a p s i z e a boat l i k e a t i n y seed. You do not h e l p t o c r e a t e those r a g i n g waves. £ f ;*0 It f{ \ i* ̂  S * M, il i f t 6 P e r i l o u s a r e the r o a d s , and the mountains a r e h i g h . li 4, ft £ . 7 W i t h my humdrum, s o l i t a r y l i f e . flu i 4 j & « W £ . 8 The w i n t e r v a t s f i l l the summer caps. When you r e t u r n , don't f o r g e t t o brew some wine f o r me. A n h t n i\.t n i \ 92 9 A l s o , f o r the f r a g r a n c e , make some smooth and s o f t Tuanlong and P a i n f e n g t e a . i ?i- a 1 1 i f it & , i •? t s . . 10 The a n c i e n t s a r e l o n g gone. A l a s , f o r m y s e l f , I'm c o n t e n t w i t h a s i n g l e bamboo d i s h of r i c e and a s i n g l e gourd d i s h t o d r i n k from. i k s ih ft, -4 U l , % | tiKt S i n c e the d i c t i o n o f t h i s c i i s q u i t e u n i q u e , a few words on i t i s n e c e s s a r y . I n t h i s c i , X i n adopts the s t y l e o f the "Zhao Hun /[\\ i% (summoning the s o u l ) " , one of the c h a p t e r s i n t h e Chu Ci -^P \ M . In t h i s c h a p t e r , the c h a r a c t e r " s u o <Z " i s added a t t h e end o f e a c h s e n t e n c e . The f u n c t i o n o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s e x c l a m a t o r y o n l y . Shen Kuo (1031-1095) comments: "The p r e s e n t K u i X i a , ̂  d)f{ ( p r e s e n t : S i c h u a n p r o v i n c e ) , Hu X i a n g J ^ ( p r e s e n t : Hubei p r o v i n c e and Hunan p r o v i n c e ) and the p e o p l e of J i a n g l i a o >X- ^ ( p r e s e n t : Hunan p r o v i n c e ) , a l l ended t h e i r i n c a n t a t i o n w i t h the word 'suo'. T h i s i s the a n c i e n t s t y l e o f Chu." 9 X i n ' s i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r i n t h i s c i i s u n i q u e , d e m o n s t r a t i n g once a g a i n h i s fondness f o r p l a y i n g w i t h words. A c c o r d i n g t o the p r e f a t o r y s t a t e m e n t , the c o n t e n t o f t h i s c i 93 s u p p o s e d l y has n o t h i n g t o do w i t h the c o n t e n t s o f t h e "Zhao Hun." The o n l y l i n k b e t w e e n t h e two i s t h e c h a r a c t e r " s u o " . The d e l i b e r a t e employment o f t h i s word i s more f o r t h e sake o f p o e t i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n t h a n c o n t e n t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e theme o f m a i n t a i n i n g one's p u r i t y and t h e a c t o f summoning t h e s o u l a r e e c h o e s o f t h e two c o m p o s i t i o n s " L i S a o " a n d " Z h a o Hun" r e s p e c t i v e l y i n the Chu Ci. Here, u s i n g t h e i m a g e r y from t h e " L i Sao," X i n s e t s up a s t r o n g c o n t r a s t between th e C a l a b a s h S p r i n g (where he i s now) and t h e p o l i t i c a l w o r l d (where he was b e f o r e ) . The c l e a r sound of t h e w a t e r i n t h e C a l a b a s h S p r i n g ( i n l i n e one ) i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the f i l t h and d i r t i n t h e p o l i t i c a l w o r l d ( i n l i n e t h r e e ) . The b r i g h t n e s s o f t h e moon which r e f l e c t s the t i n i e s t d e t a i l ( i n l i n e two) i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the w i l d weeds which choke p e o p l e t o d e a t h ( i n l i n e t h r e e ) . The r a n c i d s m e l l g e n e r a t e d from t h e f i l t h a n d d i r t ( i n l i n e t h r e e ) i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e f r a g r a n c e e m a n a t i n g f r o m t h e g o o d t e a ( i n l i n e n i n e ) . The c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n t h e s e two w o r l d s c o n t i n u e s i n t h e s p h e r e o f m o t i o n s . I n t h e p o l i t i c a l w o r l d , t h e r e a r e t i g e r s and l e o p a r d s d e v o u r i n g p e o p l e , i n the w o r l d o f r e t i r e m e n t , t h e r e i s good t e a t o d r i n k . I m p l i c i t i n t h i s c o n t r a s t i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e o f m o t i v a t i o n : greed i n the w o r l d o f p o l i t i c s ( h u n g e r i n g t o e a t p e o p l e i n l i n e f o u r ) and contentment i n the w o r l d o f r e t i r e m e n t ( c o n t e n t w i t h h a v i n g one bamboo d i s h of r i c e and one gourd d i s h o f water i n l i n e t e n ) . 1 0 By c o n t r a s t i n g t h e w o r l d o f p o l i t i c s w i t h t h e w o r l d o f 94 r e t i r e m e n t , X i n a t t h e f i r s t g l a n c e , seems t o be v e r y s u c c e s s f u l i n h i s p e r s u a s i o n t h a t he t r u l y e n j o y s h i s days i n r e t i r e m e n t . But t h e use o f t h i s c o n t r a s t s e r v e s t o r e v e a l h i s i n n e r dilemma: X i n does n o t l i k e t h e w o r l d o f r e t i r e m e n t e i t h e r . L i n e seven e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e s h i s l o n e l i n e s s and t h e humdrumness o f h i s days i n r e t i r e m e n t . 1 1 The b o r i n g a n n u a l r o u t i n e i s a g a i n s t r e s s e d i n t h e way he d e s c r i b e s t h e f i x e d s u c c e s s i o n o f s e a s o n s i n l i n e e i g h t . A l t h o u g h he seems t o d i s p l a y a y e a r n i n g f o r H u i ' s s i m p l e l i f e , t h e " a n c i e n t " mentioned i n the l a s t l i n e i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f h i s i n n e r w e a r i n e s s r a t h e r t h a n a genuine p r e f e r e n c e . 1 2 He i s t i r e d o f f i g h t i n g t h e p o w e r f u l , t h e p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and h i s enemies. A s k i n g h i s f r i e n d s t o b r i n g him more wine and t e a p o i n t s t o h i s l a c k a d a i s i c a l l i v i n g , r a t h e r than t h e enjoyment o f a s i m p l e , c o n t e n t e d l i f e . T h us, t h e e f f e c t o f t h e use o f c o n t r a s t i n t h i s c i can be s e e n a t two l e v e l s . A t t h e f i r s t l e v e l , t h e s t r o n g c o n t r a s t between t h e w o r l d of p o l i t i c s and the w o r l d o f r e t i r e m e n t seems t o g i v e t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t X i n would much p r e f e r t o w i t h d r a w from t h e s n a r l o f e v i l f o r c e s i n p o l i t i c s and embrace the s i m p l e and s e r e n e l i f e o f r e t i r e m e n t . But a t t h e second l e v e l , t h e c o n t r a s t r e v e a l s X i n ' s i n n e r dilemma. There i s a s u b t l e c o n t r a s t o f i n n e r c o n t r a d i c t i o n : X i n i s d i s g u s t e d w i t h t h e e v i l n e s s o f p o l i t i c s ; b ut he i s a l s o b ored by t h e m e a n i n g l e s s o f r e t i r e m e n t l i f e . H i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e s p l a y a prominent r o l e i n X i n ' s ci. T h e i r p r e s e n c e adds i n t e r e s t t o X i n ' s c i , and more i m p o r t a n t , X i n o f t e n compares h i m s e l f w i t h them. Among t h e s e f i g u r e s , X i n i s v e r y f o n d o f comparing h i m s e l f w i t h Tao Yuanming (365-427) >Jjfj h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e s . I t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t X i n l i k e s t o compare h i m s e l f w i t h L i , f o r th e y s h a r e many s i m i l a r i t i e s . Both L i and X i n were bona fide s o l d i e r s . They b o t h were p a t r i o t s who a c t u a l l y defended t h e i r c o u n t r y i n t h e b a t t l e f i e l d s . But i n t h e end, t h e i r l o y a l t y were not p r o p e r l y r e c o g n i z e d . They b o t h were i g n o r e d by the government. To the Tune o f Basheng Ganzhou /\ 4 •Hj (1182- 1192/1188) I was r e a d i n g t h e b i o g r a p h y o f L i Guang. I c o u l d not s l e e p , so I thought o f my p a c t t o l i v e i n t h e mountains w i t h Chao Chul a o and Yang Minzhan, I p l a y f u l l y used t h e e v e n t s o f L i ' s l i f e t o compose t h i s ci t o send t o them. 1 4 13 L i Guang i s a n o t h e r o f X i n ' s f a v o r i t e 1 The former g e n e r a l came back a t n i g h t a f t e r f i n i s h e d d r i n k i n g . Removing h i s c a r v e d s a d d l e a t the Long P a v i l i o n . 2 L o a t h i n g a t t h e drunken l i e u t e n a n t o f t h e B a l i n g P a v i l i o n , b e i n g f l u s t e r e d , f a i l e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h e t a c i t u r n g e n e r a l . 3 A s o l o r i d e t o t h e mountain, h u n t i n g t i g e r s . 96 S p l i t - t h e rock a t t h e f r i g h t e n i n g sound o f t h e l o o s e n e d b o w s t r i n g . D e j e c t e d , s p e n d i n g h i s r e m a i n i n g days i n h i s garden and f i e l d w i t h o u t h a v i n g t h e t i t l e o f m a r q u i s . % %. n % i th « i . Whoever s a i d t h a t a move t o t h e m u l b e r r y and hemp o f Du Qu- th e S o u t h e r n M o u n t a i n , r e q u i r e s a h u n t i n g o u t f i t and a h o r s e ? % Q | % U *>, 1 * 1 * E k, # ii 4? J> . Look a t him: august and high-minded. He s p e n t h i s l a s t y e a r s i n i d l e c h i t - c h a t a n d l a u g h t e r . \ i l l ~X i t . £ }6 $ Jf-. 7 W i t h u n l i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r accomplishments i n e a r l i e r t i m e s when the Han was expanding i t s f r o n t i e r s , T h e i r m e r i t and fame extended over t e n thousand m i l e s , Even the t a l e n t e d had p l e n t y o f l e i s u r e t i m e . A &fl 4 i.4 $ SUM f SJ. 8 O u t s i d e t h e gauze window, t h r e a d s o f r a i n f a l l i n t h e s l a n t e d w a f t i n g wind. I f e l t one spasm o f c h i l l . & % >|\ 4*\ UL I n s t e a d o f e x p l i c i t l y comparing h i m s e l f w i t h L i , X i n h i d e s t h i s c o m p a r i s o n i n a n o t h e r , making i t more s u b t l e and i n d i r e c t . The f i r s t l e v e l o f c o m p a r i s o n i s s e t i n a t e m p o r a l frame o f 97 r e f e r e n c e : t h e p a s t g e n e r a l L i Guang i s , c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e p r e s e n t d e j e c t e d L i Guang. The c i b e g i n s w i t h t h e p r e s e n t . The f i r s t two l i n e s r e f e r t o t h e passage r e c o r d e d i n t h e b i o g r a p h y o f L i Guang i n t h e Shi J i . 1 5 A d r u n k e n l i e u t e n a n t f a i l e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e one who was s t o p p e d a t t h e B a l i n g P a v i l i o n was th e once famous g e n e r a l . L i Guang's g r e a t n e s s i s c a p t u r e d i n t h e p h r a s e " w o r d l e s s plum (taoli wuyan 34 f ) i n l i n e two. A c c o r d i n g t o h i s b i o g r a p h y , L i was a g r e a t man o f few w o r d s . 1 6 Upon h i s d e a t h , he w a s m o u r n e d b y f r i e n d s a n d s t r a n g e r s a l i k e . H i s i n a r t i c u l a t e n e s s and p o p u l a r i t y were thus l i k e n e d t o plums which were i n c a p a b l e o f speech, but whose f r u i t s ( L i ' s a d m i r e r s ) l i n e b o t h s i d e s o f t h e brook. T h i s r e s p e c t and l o v e f o r L i Guang i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e i f one r e a d s h i s b i o g r a p h y . Not o n l y was L i a g r e a t man, he was a l s o l o y a l t o h i s c o u n t r y and c o u r a g e o u s on t h e b a t t l e f i e l d . L i , d u r i n g h i s m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e , had l e d o v e r s e v e n t y m i l i t a r y e x p e d i t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e Hun. 1 7 The Hun c a l l e d L i t h e F l y i n g G e n e r a l o f t h e Han and they would not dare t o go near where L i l i v e d . 1 8 L i Guang had s e r v e d h i s c o u n t r y n o b l y and w i t h u t t e r l o y a l t y . But i n t h e e n d , he s l i p p e d q u i e t l y i n t o r e t i r e m e n t w i t h o u t r e c e i v i n g any h o n o r t i t l e ( a m a r q u i s t i t l e ) o r t h e r e c o g n i t i o n w h i c h he d u l y d e s e r v e d . 1 9 I n h i s r e t i r e m e n t , L i . sp e n t h i s time d r i n k i n g and t i l l i n g t h e f i e l d . The r e t i r e d L i i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the former g r e a t g e n e r a l i n l i n e t h r e e . I t i s r e c o r d e d i n h i s b i o g r a p h y t h a t once he went 98 h u n t i n g a n d m i s t a k e n l y s h o t a t a s t o n e , t a k i n g i t t o be a t i g e r . 2 0 The a r r o w s t u c k i n t h e s t o n e . The speed, power, and t h e a c c u r a c y o f L i ' s s h o o t i n g i s v i v i d l y c a p t u r e d by X i n . The r e s u l t o f t h e s h o o t i n g i s f i r s t d e s c r i b e d : t h e r o c k s p l i t t i n g . Then, t h e s t a r t l i n g sound i s r e c o r d e d , and f i n a l l y t h e b o w s t r i n g \ which s e n t t h e arrow on i t s way. L i ' s g r e a t n e s s , a n d h i s s u p e r b s h o o t i n g s k i l l , i s i m m e d i a t e l y c o n t r a s t e d t o t h e r e t i r e d L i i n l i n e s f o u r t o s i x . F i r s t o f a l l , t h e g r e a t g e n e r a l whose l i f e was spent on numerous b a t t l e f i e l d s i s now u s i n g h i s e n e r g y t o t i l l t h e f i e l d s . S e c o n d l y , t h e h u n t i n g o u t f i t , a s u b t l e reminder o f L i ' s s h o o t i n g s k i l l , i s no l o n g e r of u s e . 2 1 I n o t h e r words, X i n t h i n k s t h a t i t i s a w a s t e t o a l l o w s u c h a g r e a t g e n e r a l t o t e n d t h e f i e l d s . T h i r d l y , t h e o n c e " w o r d l e s s " g e n e r a l i s now s p e n d i n g h i s r e m a i n i n g days i n i d l e c h i t - c h a t and l a u g h t e r . The i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t L i Guang has so much f r e e time t h a t he c o u l d o n l y waste i t i n i d l e n e s s . The s e c o n d l e v e l o f c o m p a r i s o n comes i n l i n e s e v e n : L i Guang and t h e poet h i m s e l f . Even i n t h e e a r l i e r days of t h e Han, a p r o s p e r o u s p e r i o d w i t h many o p p o r t u n i t i e s , g r e a t men such as L i were i g n o r e d , t h e i r t a l e n t s untapped. I t i s t h i s c o m parison t h a t l e a d s X i n t o t h e c h i l l i n g r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t h i s chance of b e i n g used a g a i n i s p r a c t i c a l l y n i l . 2 2 The main c o m p a r i s o n ( X i n and L i ) i n t h i s c i i s s k i l l f u l l y h i d d e n i n t h e c o m p a r i s o n w i t h L i t h e g r e a t g e n e r a l and L i t h e r e t i r e e . I t i s t h e f i r s t l e v e l o f c o m p a r i s o n t h a t s t r e n g t h e n s 99 t h e second. The s h a r p e r c o n t r a s t i s between the former g e n e r a l and t h e d e j e c t e d L i , t h e s t r o n g e r t h e comparison i s made between L i and X i n . W h i l e t a l k i n g about L i and h i s l i f e , X i n i s i n f a c t i n d i r e c t l y t a l k i n g about h i m s e l f . A l t h o u g h X i n was g i v e n v a r i o u s o f f i c i a l p o s t s a f t e r he moved s o u t h , he c e r t a i n l y was n o t a f a v o r i t e o f t h e S o u t h e r n Song government. A s i d e f r o m h i s pro-war s t a n c e which made him v e r y u n p o p u l a r w i t h t h e pro-appeasement f i g u r e s a t t h e c o u r t , X i n ' s u n t r a m m e l l e d and f l i p p a n t p e r s o n a l i t y had made him many p o l i t i c a l e n emies. But X i n was a l s o a s t u b b o r n man as he once a d m i t t e d . He w o u l d s t e a d f a s t l y a d h e r e t o h i s own i d e a l i s m r a t h e r t h a n y i e l d i n g on h i s p r i n c i p l e s . Through t h e use o f comparison i n t h e n e x t c i , one comes t o s e e X i n ' s s e n s e s e l f e s t e e m and h i s response t o h i s enemies. I n t h e year o f Chunxi J i h a i , I was t r a n s f e r r e d from t h e p o s t o f t h e V i c e F i s c a l Commissioner i n Hubei t o Hunan. My c o l l e a g u e Wang Zhengzhi gave me a f a r e w e l l banquet i n t he X i a o s h a n P a v i l i o n . I composed t h i s c i f o r t h i s o c c a s s i o n . To t h e Tune (1179/1179) 1 How much more o f t h e r e p e a t e d o n s l a u g h t s o f t h e wind and r a i n c o u l d I bear? S w i f t l y , s p r i n g has d e p a r t e d . 100 F o r I t r e a s u r e s p r i n g and l o n g f e a r t h a t the f l o w e r s have blossomed p r e m a t u r e l y . And how much t h e more, c o u n t l e s s f a l l e n p e t a l s . ii 4 -i. *t> a m % >h % h & ft. I've h e a r d t h a t your r e t u r n r o u t e i s a l r e a d y b l o c k e d by the w i l d g r a s s e s a l l o v e r t h e h o r i z o n . 4 i I i t A, * ;£ J ^ «, t I n u r s e anger a t S p r i n g f o r k e e p i n g her s i l e n c e . O n l y t h e s p i d e r beneath the eaves, t i r e l e s s l y s p i n n i n g her web - a l l day l o n g t r a p p i n g the wind-blown c a t k i n s . s h * n. 'i * A fe ti. t % **• The Chang Men a f f a i r has once a g a i n t h w a r t e d my good t i m e . J e a l o u s y has been d i r e c t e d towards h e r . 4 n 1 % Hi a n *. t% Ml A JL u. A l t h o u g h a thousand ounces o f g o l d has bought X i a n g r u ' s p r o s e , But who w i l l l i s t e n t o her g r i e v a n c e s ? 1 i jflt f i' W. ifc »*. n> 1% n if? Y o u l Do not go i n t o r a p t u r e s . Can't you see t h a t t h e f l e s h o f Yuhuan and F e i y a n has t u r n e d i n t o ashes? f I %t f * i . i >l f * % | i > T h i s k i n d o f i d l e s orrow i s t h e most p a i n f u l t o be a r . Do not l e a n a g a i n s t t h e t o t t e r i n g r a i l where t h e s e t t i n g sun i s above t h e m i s t y w i l l o w s . I t i s a p l a c e o f sorrow. 101 V e r y s p e c i f i c a l l y , X i n g i v e s t h e e x a c t year o f c o m p o s i t i o n . I t was d u r i n g t h e s p r i n g o f 1179, when X i n was t r a n s f e r r e d from Hubei t o Hunan as t h e V i c e F i s c a l C o m m i s s i o n e r . 2 3 I n t h e f i r s t f o u r l i n e s , X i n uses t h e C h i n e s e t r a d i t i o n a l p o e t i c t e c h n i q u e o f e v o c a t i o n t h r o u g h c o m p a r i s o n - i n c i t e m e n t (bi-xing j)^ ) t o c a r e f u l l y s e t t h e s t a g e f o r h i s comparison i n the second s t a n z a by l a m e n t i n g t h e p a s s i n g o f s p r i n g and h i s impotence t o s t o p the passage o f t i m e . S p r i n g , a t i m e o f j o y and r e b i r t h , a s e a s o n o f b l i s s f u l u n i o n and new b e g i n n i n g , s t a n d s f o r s o m e t h i n g v e r y b e a u t i f u l w h i c h s h o u l d be f o r e v e r c h e r i s h e d . I n t h e s e f o u r l i n e s , one sees t h e p o e t ' s d i l i g e n t b u t f u t i l e e f f o r t t o d e t a i n t h e a l r e a d y d e p a r t e d s p r i n g . The p o e t c o m p l a i n s t h a t t h e f l o w e r s were r e p e a t e d l y d e s t r o y e d by the wind and r a i n ( l i n e o n e ) ; they have b l o s s o m e d t o o soon ( l i n e two) and a l l u s i v e l y t e l l s S p r i n g t h a t t h e w i l d g r a s s e s a r e . b l o c k i n g her r e t u r n r o u t e ( l i n e t h r e e ) . A l l t h e s e lament t h e f a c t t h a t t h e b e a u t i f u l t h i n g s a r e not c h e r i s h e d as t h e y s h o u l d be; i n s t e a d , t h e y a r e r u t h l e s s l y d e s t r o y e d . By e v o k i n g t h e h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e o f Empress Chen who l o s t f a v o u r w i t h t h e k i n g because o f o t h e r p e o p l e ' s j e a l o u s y o f her b e a u t y , X i n s e t s a comparison between h i m s e l f and Empress Chen. 2 4 B e c a u s e o f h i s own b e a u t y o f c h a r a c t e r , X i n b e l i e v e s t h a t he i n a d v e r t e n t l y s u f f e r s t h e same f a t e as b e a u t i f u l women. L i k e a l l 102 b e a u t i f u l t h i n g s u n d e r t h e s u n , w h e t h e r v i r t u e s , p e r s o n s o r s e a s o n s , a l l become the v i c t i m s o f d e s t r u c t i v e f o r c e s . L i k e the f o r m i d a b l e f o r c e s o f r a i n and wind which a n n i h i l a t e s p r i n g i n t h e f i r s t s t a n z a , t h e e v i l power of j e a l o u s y i s e q u a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e i n n u l l i f y i n g v i r t u e . U n l i k e E m p r e s s C h e n , whose g o l d had r e s t o r e d her p r e v i o u s s t a t u s , X i n ' s g o l d i s u n a b l e t o p u r c h a s e him a moment o f v i n d i c a t i o n . T o t a l l y c r u s h e d by t h e h o p e l e s s n e s s o f ever h a v i n g h i s name e x o n e r a t e d , X i n ' s d e s p a i r t u r n s i n t o a r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n i n l i n e seven. L i k e a d y i n g b u t t e r f l y s u d d e n l y r e s u r r e c t e d , t h e d i c t i o n o f X i n ' s n e x t l i n e c o i n c i d e s b e a u t i f u l l y w i t h the u p l i f t i n p o e t i c mood. As i f s p o t t i n g a d o t o f l i g h t i n t o t a l d a r k n e s s , X i n s u d d e n l y r e a l i z e s : t h o s e j e a l o u s ones c a n n o t and w i l l n o t p r e v a i l s i n c e t h e y a r e a l s o m o r t a l , s u b j e c t t o the same t e m p o r a l r e s t r i c t i o n s . Yang G u i f e i (719-756) ffift Q jLi , whose name was Yuhuan J l , was Tang X u a n z o n g ' s 7% J, f a v o u r i t e c o n c u b i n e . 2 5 She was e x e c u t e d d u r i n g An Lushan's (709-757) ^c. JJ r e v o l t . Zhao F e i y a n ^ ^ was t h e empress o f I Emperor Cheng ^ v|5 . She committed s u i c i d e a f t e r she was demoted t o a commoner. 2 6 Both o f t h e s e b e a u t i e s were w e l l known f o r t h e i r j e a l o u s y . By c o m p a r i n g t h e s e two j e a l o u s women w i t h t h o s e who a r e j e a l o u s o f h i m , t h e p o e t i n d i c a t e s t h e y w i l l e v e n t u a l l y s h a r e t h e same f a t e . A l t h o u g h t h e s e two women once en j o y e d t h e e a r s and h e a r t s o f t h e emperors, t h e y were e v e n t u a l l y " d e t h r o n e d . " By c o m p a r i n g t h e f a t e s o f t h e s e women w i t h t h o s e who a r e now c l o s e t o t h e emperor and a r e v e r y j e a l o u s of him, X i n 103 i s s u e s a v e i l e d w a r n i n g a b o u t t h e i r " s u p e r i o r " b u t t e m p o r a r y p o s i t i o n s . As time p r o g r e s s e s , the b e a u t i f u l and t h e u g l y , the p o w e r f u l and t h e p o w e r l e s s , w i l l a l l t u r n t o as h e s . The onward movement o f time w i l l c h u r n e v e r y m o r t a l s o u l t o b i t s arid p i e c e s . X i n t h e n a d v i s e s h i m s e l f not t o l e a n a g a i n s t t h e r a i l f o r t h a t i s t h e p l a c e o f s o r r o w . The c l o s e r he s e e s t h e s e t t i n g s u n , a symbol o f t h e S o u t h e r n Song e m p i r e coming t o an end, t h e more sorro w X i n f e e l s . U n l i k e t h e l a s t c i i n which the main comparison i s h i d d e n i n a n o t h e r c o m p a r i s o n , t h i s one j u x t a p o s e s a n e g a t i v e c o m p a r i s o n w i t h a p o s i t i v e one. By comparing h i m s e l f w i t h Empress Chen, X i n makes t h e p o i n t t h a t b o t h o f them were v i c t i m s o f j e a l o u s y . But l i n e s i x s u b t l y marks t h e d i f f e r e n c e between X i n and Empress Chen; t h e l a t t e r had her s t a t u s r e s t o r e d a f t e r t he emperor had re a d her p r o s e w r i t t e n by Sima X i a n g r u . U n l i k e Empress Chen, no one even l i s t e n s t o X i n ' s g r i e v a n c e s . T h i s d i s s i m i l a r i t y between X i n a n d E m p r e s s Chen u n d e r l i e s X i n ' s h o p e l e s s n e s s i n e v e r a d d r e s s i n g h i s g r i e v a n c e s . T h i s n e g a t i v e c o m p a r i s o n i s i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w e d by a p o s i t i v e one whi c h i s d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s X i n ' s enemies. L i k e t h e s e two b e a u t i f u l but j e a l o u s women, t h o s e who were j e a l o u s of X i n ' s b eauty i n c h a r a c t e r w i l l one day t u r n i n t o a s h e s . T h i s p o s i t i v e c o m p a r i s o n s e r v e s as a w a r n i n g t o t h o s e who a r e o v e r j o y e d a t t h e i r s t a t u s and power d e r i v e d f r o m t h e i r c l o s e r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e emperor. The use o f t h r e e h i s t o r i c a l women as a means o f comparison 104 s e r v e s a n o t h e r p o e t i c p urpose: i t p r o v i d e s t e x t u r a l c o n t i n u i t y and t h e m a t i c c o h e r e n c e t o t h i s c i . I n t h e f i r s t f o u r l i n e s , t h e r e a r e n a t u r e symbols: wind and r a i n , f a l l e n p e t a l s , f l o w e r s , w i l d g r a s s e s , a s p i d e r and' h e r web, w i n d - b l o w n c a t k i n s . By m e n t i o n i n g t h e names o f t h r e e women, X i n en s u r e s t h a t t h e l i n e o f n a t u r e s y m b o l s i s n o t b r o k e n . B e a u t i f u l women i n t r a d i t i o n a l C h i n e s e p o e t r y a r e l i k e n e d t o f l o w e r s . They a r e b e a u t i f u l but s h o r t - l i v e d . The c i a l s o ends w i t h two n a t u r e s y m b o l s : t h e m i s t y w i l l o w and t h e s e t t i n g sun. These symbols can be d i v i d e d i n two g r o u p s : t h e f a l l e n p e t a l s , s p r i n g , f l o w e r s and t h e b e a u t i f u l women s y m b o l i z e the good and t h e b e a u t i f u l i n g e n e r a l . The r a i n and t h e wind s y m b o l i z e t h e d e s t r u c t i v e f o r c e s i n l i f e . The m a i n theme o f t h i s c i , i s t h a t as t i m e p r o g r e s s e s , t h e b e a u t i f u l ( f l o w e r s a nd women), t h e u g l y ( s p i d e r ) , t h e good ( s p r i n g ) , the v i c t i m (Empress Chen and X i n ) , the p o w e r f u l (Yuhuan and F e i y a n ) , and t h e bad ( r a i n and wind) w i l l a l l t u r n t o a s h e s . T h e r e f o r e , by u s i n g t h r e e h i s t o r i c a l women, X i n r e i n f o r c e s t h e theme t h a t t h e onward movement o f time w i l l c h u r n e v e r y t h i n g t o b i t s and p i e c e s . T h i s awareness o f t h e passage o f time becomes a n g u i s h i n the ne x t c a t e g o r y o f comparison and c o n t r a s t , i n which X i n , c o n t r a s t s h i s young and o l d s e l v e s . I n the f o l l o w i n g c i , t h e p r o c e s s o f g r o w t h i s d e l i n e a t e d s i m p l y b u t p o i g n a n t l y by c o m p a r i n g t h e i n n o c e n t l a d he once was t o the s o r r o w f u l p e r s o n he i s now. 105 To t h e Tune of Chounu Er $$% jl <:?J (1182-1192/1188- 1191) On my way t o t h e Bo M o u n t a i n , I w r o t e t h i s on t h e c l i f f . 2 7 % t| h i f I 1 When I was young, I d i d not know the t a s t e o f sorrow. 2 I l o v e d t o c l i m b up h i g h b u i l d i n g s . 3 I l o v e d t o c l i m b up h i g h b u i l d i n g s , f o r c i n g m y s e l f t o be s o r r o w f u l f o r the sake of composing some new poems. 4 But now I have t o t a l l y s a v o r e d the t a s t e o f sorrow. *p 4 if\ k fe * * 5 I want t o speak but c a n ' t . 6 I want t o speak but c a n ' t . How about I say: "What a c o o l autumn!". £X ih i l ij 1 r * . i j ft $ JK.J! T h i s c i i s n e a t l y d i v i d e d i n t o two s e c t i o n s ; r e l a t i n g t o the p a s t X i n and the p r e s e n t X i n . The former X i n was a young l a d who d i d n o t know a n y t h i n g a b o u t b e i n g s a d . The m a t u r e d X i n i s 106 o v e r w h e l m e d by s o r r o w , an i n d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e t o t h e p a i n f u l p r o c e s s o f growth. The young X i n , s i n c e he was so s o r r o w - f r e e , had t o d e l i b e r a t e l y c l i m b up a h i g h b u i l d i n g , h o p i n g t h a t t h e s c e n e r y i n f r o n t o f him might g i v e h i m something t o lament about i n h i s p o e t r y . The X i n now i s so overwhelmed by sorr o w t h a t he f i n d s h i m s e l f s p e e c h l e s s . A l l he can u t t e r i s some comment on th e weather. The p o i g n a n c y o f t h i s c o m p a r i s o n , t h o u g h p r e s e n t e d i n a s i m p l e manner, l i e s i n t h e c o n t e x t o f i t s i r o n y . When he was young, X i n had t o a c t i v e l y seek out sorrow. As X i n ma t u r e s , the sorrows i n l i f e f o l l o w him. As an i n n o c e n t l a d , s i n c e he d i d not have much l i f e e x p e r i e n c e , he had n o t h i n g t o say. As an a d u l t , a f t e r h a v i n g e x p e r i e n c e d much, he has a l o t t o say but f i n d s h i m s e l f s p e e c h l e s s , an i n d i c a t i o n o f h i s b e i n g overwhelmed by sorrow i n l i f e . The young X i n was more t h a n an i g n o r a n t l a d who l o v e d t o f i n d s o m e t h i n g t o l a m e n t a b o u t . G r o w i n g up i n J i n - o c c u p i e d t e r r i t o r y , X i n was a p a t r i o t i c young man who had a c l e a r sense of h i s m i s s i o n i n l i f e . As a g u e r r i l l a f i g t h e r , h i s p o s i t i o n p r o v i d e d him ample o p p o r t u n i t y t o t r a n s l a t e h i s p a t r i o t i c f e r v o r i n t o a n t i - J i n a c t i o n . He c o u l d f i g h t t h e J i n w i t h h i s sword. B u t a f t e r he moved s o u t h , h i s p l a n s t o r e c a p t u r e t h e n o r t h r e m a i n e d on p a p e r o n l y . T hus, X i n o f t e n l o o k e d back t o h i s g u e r r i l l a days w i t h f o n d and proud memories. The f o l l o w i n g c i i s one t y p i c a l example of X i n r e m i n i s c i n g about th o s e good old . days: 107 To the Tune o f Zhegu Tian ftfg j% ii (1194-1202/1197- 1199) A t a l k w i t h my g u e s t on ac h i e v e m e n t and fame brought back memories o f my younger days. J o k i n g l y I wrote t h i s ci. k % * H S * * , f f l l s| £ %\ Vf. I n the prime o f l i f e , I commanded t e n thousand men under the banner. m I ti ii M The Han r i d e r s i n br o c a d e , r i d i n g f o r t h , had j u s t c r o s s e d the r i v e r . I n the d a r k n e s s o f n i g h t , the Yan s o l d i e r s , g r o p i n g f o r t h e i r q u i v e r s ; & * 4 a ft *» t 4 In the dawning l i g h t , o nto t h e enemy, t h e Han arrows showered. 5 R e m i n i s c i n g on the p a s t , bemoaning the p r e s e n t I Hi it 4 4 , 6 To my w h i t e h a i r s , the s p r i n g wind f a i l s t o b r i n g back t h e i r c o l o r . 7 L e t ' s t a k e my t e n thousand m i l i t a r y p l a n s * f a * % ? f A' | , 108 8 To exchange, from an e a s t e r n n e i g h b o r , books on p l a n t i n g t r e e s . What p r o m p t e d t h e r e m i n i s c e n c e was t h e d i s c u s s i o n a b o u t a c h i e v e m e n t and fame w h i c h X i n had w i t h h i s g u e s t . T h i s ci, s i m i l a r t o t h e l a s t one, i s n e a t l y d i v i d e d between the p a s t and t h e p r e s e n t i n i t s two s t a n z a , p r o v i d i n g a s t r o n g c o n t r a s t between the young X i n and the o l d one. The main d i f f e r e n c e l i e s i n t he c h a r a c t e r o f t h e young man. U n l i k e t h e young l a d who was s o r r o w - s e e k i n g , t h i s y o u t h f u l X i n i s a c t i o n o r i e n t e d . The f i r s t s t a n z a i s f i l l e d w i t h a c t i o n . 2 8 I t d e p i c t s a young man w i t h i n f i n i t e energy and b r a v e r y . The s u c c e s s o f the sudden a t t a c k i s suggested by t h e response o f the Yan s o l d i e r s . (The J i n s o l d i e r s a r e r e f e r r e d t o a s Yan s i n c e t h e y w e r e o c c u p y i n g t h e Yan r e g i o n . ) 2 9 I n c o n f u s i o n , the enemy t r o o p s h a s t i l y grab f o r t h e i r weapons, and X i n ' s v i c t o r y i s s e a l e d by r a i n i n g arrows onto the d i s a r r a y e d enemy. The sound and a c t i o n o f b a t t l e s u d d e n l y d i s a p p e a r as X i n t r a v e l s f r o m t h e p a s t back t o t h e p r e s e n t , p r o v i d i n g a s h a r p c o n t r a s t between t h e a c t i o n - f i l l e d p a s t and the l a n g u i d p r e s e n t . What i s l e f t o f t h e once v i g o r o u s y o u t h i s an o l d man w i t h a l i b r a r y o f books on p l a n t i n g t r e e s . I t i s sad t h a t an o l d man s t i l l has h i s dream u n f u l f i l l e d , and sadder t h a t he who was once a brave s o l d i e r has become a b i t t e r , c y n i c a l o l d man, overwhelmed 109 by h i s own sense o f f a i l u r e , d e f e a t e d not so much by h i s enemies but by t h e passage o f t i m e . The s p e c i a l f e a t u r e s a b o u t X i n ' s use o f c o m p a r i s o n and c o n t r a s t d o e s n o t l i e o n l y i n h i s t h o u g h t f u l s e l e c t i o n and employment o f many d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s , and the sense o f f r e s h n e s s t h i s b r i n g s t o h i s p o e t i c d i c t i o n . He a l s o s t r u c t u r e s h i s c o m p a r i s o n and c o n t r a s t c a r e f u l l y so as t o maximize t h e p o e t i c e f f e c t o f each ci. Thus, t h e p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e s e r v e s t o r e v e a l and t o r e i n f o r c e h i s i n n e r f e e l i n g s : h i s o s c i l l a t i o n between the r e a l and the m y t h i c a l w o r l d , h i s r e v u l s i o n a t both t h e w o r l d of p o l i t i c s and the w o r l d o f r e t i r e m e n t , h i s h o p e l e s s n e s s about ever b e i n g u s e d a g a i n , h i s g r i e v a n c e s a t not b e i n g h e a r d , and h i s o v e r w h e l m i n g s e n s e o f s o r r o w and f a i l u r e u n d e r t h e l i n e a r p r o g r e s s i o n o f t i m e . X i n c o n s i d e r s h i s l i f e a t o t a l f a i l u r e ; but he d i d not know t h a t h i s p o e t i c c r a f t m a n s h i p would be a b l e t o w i t h s t a n d not o n l y the passage but the t e s t of t i m e . 110 CHAPTER IV: USE OF HUMOR Much h a s b e e n s a i d .about X i n ' s f o n d n e s s f o r u s i n g c l a s s i c a l p h r a s e s , but l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d t o t h e humor i n h i s c i . 1 There i s no doubt t h a t X i n has a sense o f humor. But one cannot h e l p f e e l t h a t t h i s humor i s t h e o t h e r s i d e o f h i s s o r r o w f u l n e s s . Through humor, X i n makes f u n o f h i m s e l f and h i s a d d i c t i o n t o w i n e , b e l i t t l e s h i s e n e m i e s - p r o j e c t i n g h i s anger and sorrow under t h e c l o a k o f w i t . Most o f the c i d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e r e l a t e d t o wine ( w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e f i f t h o n e ) . The r e a s o n f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t h e s e c i , h i s f o n d n e s s f o r w i n e and t h e f r e q u e n t m e n t i o n s o f h i s d r i n k i n g n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , i s t h a t t h e y have a d i s t i n c t i v e f l a v o r i n c o n t r a s t w i t h h i s o t h e r w o r k s . 2 I t i s as i f u s i n g i n t o x i c a t i o n as h i s e x c u s e , X i n speaks h i s mind f r e e l y and i s not a f r a i d o f l e t t i n g o t h e r s see h i s s i l l i n e s s . 3 These c i a r e l i k e a t r a n s p a r e n t mask w i t h a comic e x p r e s s i o n on the o u t s i d e , t h r o u g h which one can see t h e clown's t e a r s and sorrow. B u t X i n i s s t i l l X i n a n d i n t h e s e h u m o r o u s c i h i s f o n d n e s s f o r p l a y i n g w i t h words re m a i n s e v i d e n t . Not o n l y d o es he u s e c l a s s i c a l p h r a s e s f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f e v o k i n g p o e t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s , but he a l s o t u r n s c l a s s i c a l p h r a s e s i n t o c o l l o q u i a l language a p p a r e n t l y f o r the f u n o f i t , c r e a t i n g c i t h a t a r e n o v e l i n t h e i r d i c t i o n and amusing i n t h e i r e f f e c t . I l l F or the purpose o f d e m o n s t r a t i n g X i n ' s v e r s a t i l i t y , t h e s i x c i s e l e c t e d h e r e d i s p l a y t h e s i x d i f f e r e n t forms t h r o u g h w h i c h humor i s e x p r e s s e d : n a r r a t i o n , s a t i r e , p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n , c o n t r a d i c t i o n , paradox, and i r o n y . I n t h e f i r s t c i , by p l a y f u l l y n a r r a t i n g what happened t o him t h e n i g h t b e f o r e , X i n e x p r e s s e s deep d i s a p p o i n t m e n t i n h i m s e l f f o r h a v i n g b e l i e v e d t h e t e a c h i n g s o f t h e a n c i e n t s . To the Tune of Xijiang Yue <& ^3- 1202). To r e l i e v e what's on my mind 1 I n d r u nkenness, I m e r e l y want some t i t t e r s and g i g g l e s . 2 Where would I f i n d time t o be s o r r o w f u l ? 3 R e c e n t l y I've begun t o r e a l i z e the books o f t h e a n c i e n t s 4 A r e c o m p l e t e l y unworthy of t r u s t . 5 L a s t n i g h t I f e l l down drunk under the p i n e t r e e . 112 6 I asked th e p i n e : "How drunk am I ? II ft n T% % 15 j . j . 7 I thought t h e p i n e was moving towards me, about t o p r o p me up. * 11 H 1P f f #, 8 P u s h i n g th e p i n e w i t h my hand, I s a i d : "Go away! 11 The d e g r e e o f p l a y f u l n e s s i n t h i s ci i s matched by the d e p t h o f X i n ' s s o r r o w . 4 The o p e n i n g s t a t e m e n t i s a comic p o r t r a i t o f h i m s e l f : a g i g g l i n g d r u n k a r d . But s u b t l y , X i n r e v e a l s t h e t r u e r e a s o n f o r h i s " h a p p i n e s s " . By s a y i n g he doesn't have time t o be s o r r o w f u l i n l i n e two, X i n i s i n f a c t a d m i t t i n g t h a t he i s v e r y s o r r o w f u l i n d e e d . The s o u r c e of h i s s o r r o w , he s t a t e s i n l i n e t h r e e and f o u r , d e r i v e s from h i s p r e v i o u s b l i n d f a i t h i n the t e a c h i n g s o f the a n c i e n t s . 5 The poem does not e l a b o r a t e on which t e a c h i n g s ; but whether i t be C o n f u c i a n i s m w h i c h t e a c h e s s o c i a l o b l i g a t i o n a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , o r Daoism which a d v o c a t e s t r a n s c e n d e n c e r a t h e r t h a n s o c i a l i n v o l v e m e n t , X i n has f o u n d t h e s e d o c t r i n e s a r e t o t a l l y u n w o r t h y o f b e l i e f . By c l a i m i n g t h a t he had been d e c e i v e d by t h e s a y i n g s o f t h e a n c i e n t s , X i n i n d i r e c t l y r e v e a l s h i s p r e v i o u s n a i v e b e l i e f , and h i s f r u s t r a t i o n t h a t he c o u l d n e i t h e r change s o c i e t y by a c t i n g on t h o s e d o c t r i n e s , nor d e t a c h h i m s e l f t o t a l l y from s o c i a l i s s u e s . 113 I n d e p i c t i n g h i s h e l p l e s s g i d d i n e s s w h i l e d r u n k , t h e r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n i n l i n e s i x i s t h a t much more h o l l o w . 6 How d r u n k was X i n ? He was d r u n k enough t o see t h e p i n e moving. .Even t h e p i n e seemed t o t h i n k he needed some h e l p . But X i n pushed i t away. 7 The d r a m a t i c g e s t u r e s o f " p u s h i n g " and " t e l l i n g " t h e p i n e t o go away make h i s drunkenness more v i v i d and f u n n y . 8 But t h e more comic X i n d e p i c t s h i m s e l f by n a r r a t i n g what happened t o him the p r e v i o u s e v e n i n g , t h e more s o r r o w he p r o j e c t s , a n d t h e more p i t y he e v o k e s i n h i s r e a d e r s . X i n n o t o n l y u s e s humor t o p o r t r a y h i s s o r r o w and d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t , he uses i t t o a t t a c k h i s enemies, b e l i t t l i n g them, p o k i n g f u n a t t h e i r s t u p i d i t y and c l u m s i n e s s . Towards t h o s e who have no p r i n c i p l e s , b u t o n l y a sweet t o n g u e t o f l a t t e r and a c h i e v e s e l f - s e r v i n g g o a l s , X i n ' s a t t a c k can be b r u t a l but funny as w e l l . To t h e Tune o f Qiannian Piao ~f -ffi ( 1 1 8 2 - 1192/1185) Zhe'an's s m a l l p a v i l i o n i s named " G o b l e t words." 9 I compose t h i s ci t o make f u n o f i t . % \ & ?t] % * it t . q *b t The g o b l e t , i n f r o n t o f p e o p l e b e f o r e h a r m o n i z i n g i s so c o n g e n i a l . That i t f i r s t t i l t s f o r w a r d . h <g A al, j- i *j hi Hi 114 The most i m p o r t a n t t h i n g i s a g r e e i n g . Okay e v e r y t h i n g . % ! ! ? ! 5, l | I #. The s i p h o n a l s o s i l l i l y p e r c h e s up t h e r e , t o the w i n e s k i n , always s m i l i n g . I t s c o o l n e s s or warmth, ever p l e a s i n g i s the Ganguolao. % % I, +31 * . When I was young, due t o the e f f e c t o f wine, my speech was cumbersome and t o o t h e r ' s e a r s , t r o u b l e s o m e . ') ^ it 3®, & * A i | m. The p r i n c i p l e of h a r m o n i z i n g , I have l e a r n e d j u s t r e c e n t l y . ft $ fr> i j | il. it 9 t $L: I was never v e r y a d r o i t i n l e a r n i n g o t h e r ' s words. 8 Look a t them! Those magpies! How a d o r a b l e ! The f i r s t s t a n z a i s a s a t i r i c a l d e p i c t i o n o f t h o s e w i t h o u t p r i n c i p l e . T h e i r s t u p i d i t y and o b s e q u i o u s n e s s i s c a p t u r e d c o m i c a l l y by c o m p a r i n g them t o f o u r o b j e c t s . The f i r s t o b j e c t i s a k i n d o f g o b l e t , an a n c i e n t wine v e s s e l which t i p s o v e r when f i l l e d and s t a n d s up a g a i n when emptied. I n u s i n g t h e g o b l e t t o r e p r e s e n t c e r t a i n s y c o p h a n t i c p e o p l e , X i n i s a l s o making a pun on " g o b l e t words," t h e name of Zhe An's p a v i l i o n . 1 0 By d e s c r i b i n g t h e s e p e o p l e as " g o b l e t s , " X i n i s i n f a c t s a y i n g t h a t t h e y o n l y know how t o pour out words t h a t a r e p l e a s i n g t o o t h e r ' s e a r s . Worse s t i l l , t h e y t i l t f o r w a r d , kowtowing t o o t h e r s even b e f o r e t h e i r words have a chance t o get out o f t h e i r mouths. When they do open t h e i r mouths, t h e y o n l y know how t o p l e a s e o t h e r s by a g r e e i n g . 1 1 T h e i r u n s t e a d i n e s s o f p r i n c i p l e i s v i s u a l l y a l l u d e d t o by the back and f o r t h r o c k i n g o f the g o b l e t when i t i s f i l l e d and emptied. The s e c o n d o b j e c t t h a t X i n makes r e f e r e n c e t o i s a mocking image f o r t h e i r b i g mouths. The term "huaji 4"fj " when i t i s u s e d as a noun, d e n o t e s a s i p h o n t h a t t r a n s f e r s wine f r o m one c o n t a i n e r t o a n o t h e r . T h i s symbol evokes a t y p e o f p e r s o n who knows how t o do n o t h i n g e x c e p t r e p e a t the words of o t h e r s i n c e s s a n t l y . When the term "huaji" i s used as an a d j e c t i v e , i t d e p i c t s a l o q u a c i o u s p e r s o n , and t h e b u r l e s q u e n a t u r e o f t h e i r i g n o r a n t , i n c e s s a n t c h a t t i n g s . The t h i r d o b j e c t draws a t t e n t i o n not o n l y t o t h e i r b i g mouths but t h e i r f a t b e l l i e s as w e l l . "chiyi f\fg %. " i s a t y p e o f w i n e s k i n w i t h a huge body. 1 2 When th e s e images a r e drawn t o g e t h e r , t h e completed p i c t u r e shows a group of c h e a t s w i t h g r o t e s q u e w a i s t l i n e s , s m i l i n g i g n o r a n t l y , c o n s t a n t l y 116 n o d d i n g , i n c e s s a n t l y r e p e a t i n g empty words t o each o t h e r . The f o u r t h o b j e c t r e f e r r e d t o i s a h e r b a l m e d i c i n e named "ganguolao a c u r e f o r a l l k i n d s o f i n t e r n a l d i s e a s e s i n the f i v e v i s c e r a . 1 3 I t a l s o r e p u t e d t o work l i k e magic i n b a l a n c i n g body t e m p e r a t u r e , n i c e l y b l e n d i n g , c o l d n e s s w i t h warmth. The k i n d o f p e r s o n we might a s s o c i a t e w i t h t h i s h e r b a l m e d i c i n e , i s one who i s o v e r l y e a g e r t o p l e a s e by o f f e r i n g one o p i n i o n or a n o t h e r , r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g s i n c e r e and t r y i n g t o f a c i l i t a t e t r u e harmony. The p e r s o n i n t r o d u c e d i n l i n e f i v e i s by c o n t r a s t , clumsy, i f not i n s u b s t a n c e , a t l e a s t i n s t y l e . T h i s l a d , f o r One t h i n g , was j u s t as t a l k a t i v e as t h e f o o l s m e n t i o n e d i n p r e v i o u s l i n e s . But tho u g h he was t a l k a t i v e , h i s s p e e c h , u n l i k e the f o o l s , was not i n t e n d e d t o p l e a s e . He spoke as he wished. T h i s made him more o f a n u i s a n c e t o o t h e r s than t h o s e d e s c r i b e d i n the f i r s t s t a n z a . I n t h i s ci, X i n i s an a t t a c k e r i n t h e d i s g u i s e o f an i d i o t . By p r e s e n t i n g h i m s e l f as the s t u p i d one, X i n a c t u a l l y sharpens t h e f o c u s o f h i s a t t a c k on h i s enemies' f o l l y . H i s slowness i n l e a r n i n g the " r u l e " o f harmony, mentioned i n l i n e s i x , o n l y makes the t a r g e t s o f h i s a t t a c k seem more d e s p i c a b l e i n t h e i r e a g e rness t o p l e a s e . By s a y i n g how clumsy he was i n l e a r n i n g o t h e r s ' w o r d s , X i n i s i n f a c t s a y i n g t h a t h i s enemies' "smoothness" i s v e r y c o n t e m p t i b l e i n d e e d . The l a s t " c o m p l i m e n t a r y " remark i s more i n s u l t i n g t h a n a d o r i n g . The magpies a r e b i r d s known f o r t h e i r a b i l i t y t o l e a r n and t o 117 r e p e a t human w o r d s . 1 4 By p r a i s i n g t h e i r t a l e n t f o r l e a r n i n g and r e p e a t i n g o t h e r p e o p l e ' s words, X i n , i s i n f a c t , r i d i c u l e s t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o t h i n k . Not o n l y the p e o p l e whom X i n d i s l i k e d were the o b j e c t s o f h i s r i d i c u l e , i n t h e f o l l o w i n g ci, t h r o u g h t h e p o e t i c t e c h n i q u e o f p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n , X i n ' s own i m p u l s e t o d r i n k becomes h i s t a r g e t as w e l l . To t h e Tune o f Qinyuan Chun ;KJ l j j 11194- 1202/1196) I'm about t o q u i t d r i n k i n g . I warn the w i n e - g l a s s not t o come near me. • tft A >n. % >i*i k it s i i . 1 You! W i n e - g l a s s ! Come f o r w a r d ! I , t he o l d man, s t a r t i n g from t o d a y , t o g i v e heed t o my m o r t a l frame. k St] j t . .X M 18. % th v il. 2 Through the l e n g t h o f v e r y l o n g y e a r s o f d r i n k i n g , my e x c e s s i v e d r i n k i n g has made me t h i r s t y , and my t h r o a t s c o r c h e d l i k e a f r y i n g pan. 4 \ jf ; | . -a £ . 3 Now I j u s t l i k e t o s l e e p , s n o r i n g t h u n d e r o u s l y . 4 You say: " L i u L i n g was a w i s e man f o r a l l ages, He once s a i d t h a t i f one d i e s from d r i n k i n g , 118 i t ' s s i m p l y a m a t t e r o f b e i n g b u r i e d . " % & % ti.it & /f, sf ?l <f ti % f J I I f t h i s i s s o , i t ' s a p i t y you show so l i t t l e k i n d n e s s t o your b e s t f r i e n d . h i^lX It tl*b, 4 9 & % / F u r t h e r m o r e , you use song and dance t o seduce me t o d r i n k ; making p e o p l e i n t h i s w o r l d t h i n k I am t h e magpie p o i s o n . i 3 h i l . \ k <% I IH *h4 c And r e s e n t m e n t s , whether b i g or s m a l l , a r i s e from what one l o v e s . T h i n g s , whether good or bad, thr o u g h e x c e s s produce d i s a s t e r . >L £< * «n * , i i f ft| - t ; «? * 4 I, A U ft \ Now, I ' l l make an agreement w i t h you: Do not s t a y ! R e t r e a t now! W h i l e I s t i l l can muster some r e s i s t a n c e a g a i n s t you! 3? :i A t •  r p $ * 4 # i f i K # £ -j The w i n e - g l a s s bows t w i c e and s a i d : " I f you wave me a s i d e , I w i l l go. But i f you want t o c a l l me back, I w i l l s u r e l y r e t u r n . " The u n i q u e n e s s o f t h i s ci, b e s i d e s the p o e t ' s d i r e c t and b o l d a d d r e s s t o t h e w i n e - g l a s s , i s t h a t t h e o b j e c t t a l k s b a c k . 1 5 T h e f r a m e w o r k o f t h e p i e c e i s e n t i r e l y 119 c o n v e r s a t i o n a l . Through t a l k i n g back and f o r t h w i t h t h e wine- g l a s s , X i n d i s c l o s e s h i s i n t e r n a l s t r u g g l e . Yet u n l i k e most o f h i s c i , which a r e as a r u l e f i l l e d w i t h e m o t i o n , t h i s one embodies a f l u i d and funny d i s c u s s i o n . The debate between X i n and t h e w i n e - g l a s s seems t o b r i n g X i n ' s i n n e r s t r u g g l e over t h e q u e s t i o n o f whether " t o d r i n k and not t o d r i n k " t o t h e s u r f a c e . The mere v e r b a l i z a t i o n o f t h i s s t r u g g l e appears t o g i v e X i n an e x t r a ounce o f e n e r g y t o r e s i s t t h e i m p u l s e t o d r i n k . The humorous p a r t of t h i s c i l i e s not o n l y i n t h e brusque d i c t i o n w h i c h X i n employs i n c o n d u c t i n g a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h h i s w i n e - g l a s s but a l s o the c o n t r a d i c t i o n he c r e a t e s . At one l e v e l , he p r e t e n d s t h a t he i s r e s o l v e d t o q u i t d r i n k i n g , and a t a n o t h e r , he r e v e a l s the s h a k i n e s s o f h i s " r e s o l u t i o n . " I n t h e f i r s t l i n e , he r e f e r s t o h i m s e l f as t h e " o l d man" and c a l l s h i s body a " m o r t a l frame." In the next two l i n e s , he uses somewhat u n c o u t h p o e t i c i m a g e r y h i s s c o r c h e d t h r o a t , w h i c h was l i k e a f r y i n g pan, and h i s s n o r i n g , w h i c h he not o n l y u nabashedly mentions but d e s c r i b e s i t s d e a f e n i n g sound as w e l l . A f t e r he has p a i n t e d a somewhat b u r l e s q u e p o r t r a i t o f h i s s l e e p i n g mannerisms, he l a s h e s out a t t h e w i n e - g l a s s whom X i n c l a i m s i s h i s b e s t f r i e n d , t h u s i n d i r e c t l y a d m i t t i n g h i s fondness f o r wine. I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t the argument s t a t e d i n l i n e f o u r c o n c e r n i n g L i u L i n g ' s r e a s o n i s X i n ' s more than the w i n e - g l a s s ' . 1 6 By t r a n s f o r m i n g h i s excuse f o r d r i n k i n g i n t o 120 blame, X i n i s on t h e d e f e n s i v e , i n d i r e c t l y and s u b t l y . The more he blames the w i n e - g l a s s , t h e more he a d m i t s the f r a g i l e n a t u r e o f h i s r e s i s t a n c e t o wine. I n l i n e s i x , X i n a c c u s e s t h e w i n e - g l a s s o f u s i n g t h e m e d i a o f song and dance i n o r d e r t o s e d u c e him t o d r i n k , p l a y i n g w i t h words. I n s t e a d o f u s i n g the magpie as the go- between as her r o l e i n the Li Sao, X i n g i v e s t h i s r o l e t o the "song and d a n c e " . By a d d i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r du -t$ t o t h e c h a r a c t e r zhen, X i n p o r t r a y s h i m s e l f as t h e d e a d l y p o i s o n . Thus, th e image of X i n who has been w e l l soaked i n wine (heavy d r i n k i n g ) i s s k i l l f u l l y evoked by t h i s w o r d p l a y . By r e f e r r i n g t o h i m s e l f as t h e "magpie p o i s o n " , X i n ' s u n d e r l y i n g message i s t h a t i t i s q u i t e d e f i n i t e t h a t p e o p l e w i l l t a k e him t h i s way s i n c e he d r i n k s so much. X i n seems t o f e e l a l i t t l e b e t t e r a f t e r t h r e e l i n e s o f a g g r e s s i v e a c c u s a t i o n s ( l i n e s f o u r t o s i x ) . But h i s r a v i n g a t h i s w i n e - g l a s s o n l y i n d i c a t e s how much he l o v e s t o d r i n k . He r e s e n t s i t so much p r e c i s e l y because he l o v e s i t so much. As X i n c a l ms down a l i t t l e i n l i n e s even, he b e g i n s t o r a t i o n a l i z e h i s i m p u l s e t o d r i n k . He a g r e e s , t o h i m s e l f , t h a t e x c e s s i v e d r i n k i n g i s not good, but d r i n k i n g i n m o d e r a t i o n i s a l s o not bad e i t h e r . I n o t h e r words, X i n w i l l o n l y admit he has been p a r t i a l l y wrong. T h i s i s an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t he may n o t q u i t d r i n k i n g a l t o g e t h e r but w i l l c o n t i n u e t o d r i n k i n making him l o o k l i k e the d e a d l y "magpie p o i s o n " or "zhendu yQ. S- 17 j g . ' I n t h i s l i n e , X i n d e m o n s t r a t e s h i s a d r o i t n e s s i n 121 m o d e r a t i o n . The e n d i n g i s j u s t as c o m i c a l as t h e b e g i n n i n g . The w i n e - g l a s s bows t o t h e o l d man w i t h a m o r t a l frame who has m u s t e r e d a s e e m i n g l y tremendous e f f o r t i n h i s i m p u l s e not t o d r i n k . H i s shaky r e s i s t a n c e i s o b v i o u s i n l i n e e i g h t . F i r s t , he has t o make an agreement w i t h t h e w i n e - g l a s s as i f t h i s would g i v e him more s t r e n g t h t o r e s i s t . 1 8 Second, the wine- g l a s s i s asked t o r e t r e a t i m m e d i a t e l y as i f any p r o l o n g e d s t a y w o u l d c h i p away a t X i n ' s r e s o l v e . The w i n e - g l a s s ' p a r t i n g w o r d s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e i t s a v a i l a b i l i t y i n t h e f u t u r e . 1 9 A l t h o u g h X i n t r i e s t o be s t e r n and s e r i o u s i n h i s e f f o r t t o s t o p d r i n k i n g , h i s p l a y f u l n e s s i n t h i s c i g i v e s away t h e s h a l l o w n e s s o f h i s r e s o l v e . He i s n o t t h a t s e r i o u s about q u i t t i n g a f t e r a l l . The next c i i n d i c a t e s t h a t X i n d i d i n f a c t ask the wine- g l a s s t o come b a c k . 2 0 The p r i m e r e a s o n f o r h i s f a i l u r e t o s t o p d r i n k i n g was t h a t wine gave him a numbness which he c o u l d not a t t a i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y . 2 1 A p r i s o n e r of c i r c u m s t a n c e and o f h i m s e l f , X i n escapes i n t o the w o r l d of wine where c e r t a i n t h i n g s i n l i f e , (as w r i t i n g l e t t e r s ) a r e r e n d e r e d i r r e l e v a n t . The humorous p a r t i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c i l i e s , f i r s t o f a l l , i n X i n ' s own c o n t r a d i c t i o n , and s e c o n d l y , i n h i s a d r o i t use o f Zhuang Z i ' s c o n c e p t o f r e l a t i v i t y t o j u s t i f y h i s c o n t i n u e d d r i n k i n g . 122 To t h e Tune o f Busuan Zi h j j~ ( 1 1 9 4 - 1202/1195) D r i n k i n g w ine, l e a d i n g t o m o r a l d e g r a d a t i o n hi m i i it '• I f Robber Z h i ' s name had been Q i u , and C o n f u c i u s had been named Z h i , & \z W £ JL, IL i p A j * . Then a l l t h i s t i m e , Z h i would have been the sage, and Q i u t h e dunce. There's no r e a l i t y i n t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between b e a u t i f u l and u g l y . U ±. & 1 ii 4, -i & J l % 3 I t i s s i m p l y v a i n t o get an empty name f o r y o u r s e l f i n t h e books and a n n a l s . The a n t s w i l l e v e n t u a l l y p i c k your bones c l e a n . $ I % i x. .& 4 it « f„ 4 A thousand ages pass i n a b l i n k o f the eye. So l e t ' s j u s t b r i n g on the wine! -r t 1 Tt - f a|, 3, A %. t«. R e f e r r i n g t o t h e c h a p t e r o f Robber Z h i i n t h e Zhuang Zi, X i n u s e s t h e d e b a t e on m o r a l i t y b e t w e e n R o b b e r Z h i and C o n f u c i u s t o j u s t i f y h i s d r i n k i n g . 2 2 W h i l e C o n f u c i u s t r i e s t o p e r s u a d e Robber Z h i t o r e t u r n t o the " r i g h t " way, C o n f u c i u s , from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f Robber Z h i , i s no more th a n a robber w i t h a s a g e l y mask who s t o l e name and fame. S i n c e they both c o m m i t t e d t h e a c t o f s t e a l i n g , a c c o r d i n g t o Ro b b e r Z h i , 123 C o n f u c i u s was no more a s a i n t than the Robber Z h i h i m s e l f . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e " s t o l e n " name and fame w i l l e v e n t u a l l y t u r n i n t o no more th a n an empty word i n t h e h i s t o r y books and t h e body w h i c h " s t o l e " i t w i l l be p i c k e d c l e a n by the a n t s . As a r e s u l t , t h e r e i s n ' t any f i x e d v a l u e i n t h i n g s . X i n t h e n a p p l i e s t h i s t y p e of r e a s o n i n g t o h i s d r i n k i n g . B e i n g a drunk seems immoral t o a sober p e r s o n , but i f i t i s viewed from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f a d r u n k a r d , X i n a r g u e s , i t i s t h e most mor a l p o s i t i o n o f a l l ; t h u s , i t i s a l l r i g h t t o t h o r o u g h l y i n d u l g e i n d r i n k i n g . 2 3 The f unny p a r t o f t h i s r e f e r e n c e i s t h a t not o n l y does X i n t u r n an o t h e r w i s e s e r i o u s p h i l o s o p h i c a l d e b a t e i n t o a p e r s o n a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r d r i n k i n g , he a l s o c r e a t e s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n between what he s a y s he b e l i e v e s and what he a c t u a l l y b e l i e v e s . T h a t i s t o s a y , on t h e one hand, when j u s t i f y i n g h i s d r i n k i n g , X i n c l a i m s t h a t s i n c e t h e r e i s n ' t any d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n r i g h t a n d w r o n g , g o o d and b a d , t h e b e a u t i f u l and t h e u g l y , i t i s a l l r i g h t t o d r i n k . On t h e o t h e r hand, i n the p r e f a t o r y n o t e , X i n c l e a r l y s t a t e s t h a t h i s d r i n k i n g l e a d s t o m o r a l d e g r a d a t i o n . By c o n t r a d i c t i n g h i m s e l f , X i n h i n t s t h a t h i s e x c u s e ( t h a t o f u s i n g t h e r e l a t i v i s t ' s argument o f Robber Z h i ) , i s i n f a c t a f a r c e . I f X i n h a s a " p h i l o s o p h i c a l " j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r h i s c o n t i n u e d d r i n k i n g , he a l s o has one f o r h i s m i s s i n g t e e t h . The f o l l o w i n g c i i s not o n l y f unny i n i t s v i v i d and v i s u a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f a l l t h e " h o l e s " i n h i s mouth, but a l s o , X i n 124 a d o p t s t h e D a o i s t ' s p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n c e p t o f paradox as the e x p l a n a t i o n f o r l o s i n g h i s t e e t h . To t h e Tune o f Busuan Zi ( 1 1 8 2 - 1192/1189) F a l l e n T e e t h 1 The h a r d ones a r e not s t u r d y and f i r m ; The s o f t ones a r e hard t o d e s t r o y . SI-] I f ll ?, i v) 1ft $. ti. I f you don't b e l i e v e me, open your mouth and l o o k , The tongue i s s t i l l t h e r e but t h e t e e t h a r e gone. 5 ii ik P3 * ft h, i 6 J ^ 3 . 3 Those a l o n g the chambers on two s i d e s a r e a l r e a d y m i s s i n g . Now t h e r e i s a n o t h e r opening i n the m i d d l e . ft. a . 15 f ft? Ti. 4 I t e l l the c h i l d r e n not t o l a u g h a t t h i s o l d man. T h i s i s a dog h o l e f o r you t o go i n and o u t . Hi t I 8. *3 f if. HA. C e r t a i n l y i f t h e r e i s no mention o f " f a l l e n t e e t h " i n the p r e f a c e , one w o u l d t h i n k t h a t X i n i s d i s c u s s i n g some "deep" D a o i s t p h i l o s o p h y . 2 4 The concept of paradox i n l i n e one comes from L a o z i ' s ^ \ e x p l a n a t i o n t o Chang Cong ^f/t. who 125 wanted t o know why h i s tongue was s t i l l t h e r e but h i s t e e t h were gone. The r e a s o n , a c c o r d i n g t o Lao Z i , i s embodied i n the concept of paradox: what i s s o f t i s h a r d ; what i s hard i s , s o f t . U s i n g t h i s c o n c e p t , X i n e x p l a i n s away h i s f a l l e n t e e t h . As i f t o g a t h e r more " e v i d e n c e " t o back up h i s c l a i m , he asks those who have doubts t o t a k e an " i n s i d e " l o o k of h i s mouth. I n c o l l o q u i a l l a n g u a g e , l i n e t h r e e i s a v i s u a l d e s c r i p t i o n of X i n ' s mouth. What one sees a r e " h o l e s " a l o n g the two s i d e s . And now, w i t h more t e e t h m i s s i n g i n the f r o n t , t h e r e i s another opening r i g h t i n the m i d d l e . The l a s t l i n e i s an c o u n t e r - a t t a c k a t t h e c h i l d r e n who l a u g h e d a t a l l the h o l e s i n h i s mouth. 2 5 By r e f e r r i n g the opening i n the m i d d l e as the dog h o l e , and s a y i n g i t s purpose i s f o r the c h i l d r e n t o go i n and o u t , X i n i s p o k i n g fun a t the c h i l d r e n , i n d i r e c t l y s a y i n g t h a t they a r e dogs. I f X i n i s the master of i n d i r e c t n e s s , s a y i n g one t h i n g i n terms of o t h e r , as i n the way he uses a l l u s i o n i n h i s p o e t r y , he i s a l s o a master o f i r o n y : he t e l l s h i s t r u e f e e l i n g by s a y i n g t h e o p p o s i t e . As t h e n e x t c i d e m o n s t r a t e s , X i n can humorously p o r t r a y an i r o n i c s i t u a t i o n . But u n l i k e the l a s t c i w h i c h i s f r e e o f any h i n t o r d i r e c t m e n t i o n o f i n n e r sorrow, t h i s one d e p i c t s , humorously, the s o r r o w f u l X i n who i s unable t o r e s o l v e the i r o n y w i t h i n . To the Tune of Shanhua Z i iXi ^ T (1192-1194/1194) 126 P l a y f u l l y composing t h i s c i i n the Three M o u n t a i n 2 6 i i | { ^ 1 I remember tho s e happy ti m e s i n the C a l a b a s h S p r i n g - A l l year l o n g I was b e s o t t e d i n d r i n k as w e l l as c h a n t i n g p o e t r y . iL \\ %< 1K ; i 3|; 4 Sf ^ \n £. -i *3. 2 A l l of a sudden, some one was t h e r e t o t a k e me back, r u i n i n g the l i f e of t h i s O l d S c a l p . jj *«, i L ?H %. £\ 4 , £ I I i t . 3 S t u m b l i n g around the house, p e o p l e t r y t o prop me up. With n o t h i n g t o do, I mimic the sound o f the p a r t r i d g e . & ft **• « I f, ftl 1 f f? £V f& f 4 But th e n , t h e r e i s the a d m o n i t i o n o f the cu c k o o s ' : " L e t ' s go home!" *f % tt % k- %n 4 • f * u T h i s c i was composed w h i l e he was c a l l e d back t o o f f i c e a f t e r he had spent t e n y e a r s i n f o r c e d r e t i r e m e n t . The f i r s t l i n e w h i c h g i v e s an a c c o u n t o f h i s y e a r - l o n g a c t i v i t i e s , on the s u r f a c e , as i n d i c a t e s i n l i n e one, g i v e s the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t . X i n indeed had a marvelous time i n r e t i r e m e n t , d r i n k i n g w ine and c h a n t i n g p o e t r y . He i n d i c a t e s h i s r e s e n t m e n t a t b e i n g c a l l e d back t o o f f i c e i n l i n e two, c o m p l a i n i n g t h a t t h i s n e a r l y c o s t h i s head. But the o r i g n a l s o u r c e o f the s e l i n e s o f f e r more i n s i g h t t o X i n ' s . s e e m i n g " h a p p i n e s s . " T h i s s o u r c e was a poem w r i t t e n by Yang Po's w i f e . 2 7 At t h e time o f Yang, t h e emperor Song Zhenzong ~jf\ j | was s e e k i n g o u t t h e h e r m i t s i n t h e c o u n t r y . Because Yang Po c o u l d compose good p o e t r y , he was c a l l e d b e f o r e the emperor. Song Zhenzong asked Yang w h e t h e r any one had composed a poem f o r h i s p a r t i n g . Yang s a i d h i s w i f e composed t h i s one b e f o r e he l e f t : "Don't f e e l d e j e c t e d and b e s o t t e d y o u r s e l f i n d r i n k . i ^ ^ % R,. & 3 § ; And don't chant p o e t r y i n such an u n r e s t r a i n e d manner. 1 1 i i it i ti n Today you a r e b e i n g t a k e n t o the p a l a c e . j a V>.. M -t I But t h i s i s a l s o t h e time you l o s e your o l d s c a l p . " % a #} i l % 'A A In o t h e r words, w h i l e c l a i m i n g t h a t he was h a v i n g a good t i m e , i n f a c t , X i n was d e j e c t e d i n h i s r e t i r e m e n t and t o r e l i e v e h i m s e l f f r o m d e p r e s s i o n , he b e s o t t e d h i m s e l f i n w i n e . 2 8 But X i n a l s o r e s e n t e d b e i n g c a l l e d back t o o f f i c e . As n o t e d e a r l i e r , t h r o u g h o u t h i s e n t i r e o f f i c i a l c a r e e r , X i n f e l t b i t t e r a b out n ot b e i n g g i v e n a b i g g e r p o l i t i c a l r o l e . But a t t h e same t i m e , he d e t e s t e d t h e w o r l d o f o f f i c i a l d o m . The main s o u r c e o f X i n ' s s o r r o w i s t h a t he was c o n s t a n t l y 128 b e i n g p u l l e d between t h e s e p o l e s . L i k e t h e f i r s t c i d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e degree o f p l a y f u l n e s s i s matched by the depth o f X i n ' s s o r r o w . Once a g a i n , X i n d i s p l a y s h i s t a l e n t a t l a u g h i n g a t h i m s e l f . U s i n g a c o l l o q u i a l term, he r e f e r s h i m s e l f as the "Old S c a l p [laotou pi I-t ) i n l i n e two. Then v i v i d l y , X i n d e s c r i b e s h i s drunkenness. He was so drunk t h a t he was s t u m b l i n g around the ho u s e and m i m i c k i n g t h e s o u n d o f t h e p a r t r i d g e . A t t h e s u r f a c e , t h i s i s a v e r y funny p o r t r a i t o f a d r u n k a r d . But a t the second l e v e l , by d e s c r i b i n g h i s s i l l i n e s s , X i n r e v e a l s h i s i n n e r c o n f l i c t s . The sound o f t h e p a r t r i d g e , as n o t e d i n c h a p t e r two, sounded l i k e t he phrase "can't go on any f u r t h e r " t o t h e a n c i e n t C h i n e s e . By m i m i c k i n g i t s sound, X i n i s i n f a c t s a y i n g he c a n ' t go on any f u r t h e r i n t h e w o r l d o f o f f i c i a l d o m . The l a s t l i n e , t h r o u g h the sound o f t h e cuckoo, r e v e a l s X i n ' s d e s i r e t o go home (back t o the C a l a b a s h S p r i n g ) f o r t h e cuckoo's sound resembled the phrase " l e t ' s go home" t o the a n c i e n t C h i n e s e . But then the p s y c h o l o g i c a l c y c l e b e g i n s a g a i n , a f t e r he g e t s back home, he w i l l be d e p r e s s e d and d e j e c t e d , and w i l l once a g a i n b e s o t h i m s e l f i n wine. Through the humorous p o r t r a l o f a drunken X i n , t h i s c i i s funny. But through t h e use o f i r o n y , t h i s c i i s e q u a l l y s a d . The more X i n c l a i m s t h a t he was happy i n h i s r e t i r e m e n t , the more d e j e c t i o n he p r o j e c t s . The more he c l a i m s he wants t o go home, t h e more he r e v e a l s h i s i n n e r t u r m o i l o f r e t u r n i n g t o a d e p r e s s i n g p l a c e . X i n was a v i c t i m o f h i m s e l f . He c o u l d 129 n e i t h e r t r a n s f o r m nor a c c e p t w h i c h e v e r s i t u a t i o n he was i n . I n t h i s c h a p t e r , X i n u s e s humor t o r e l i e v e h i s i n n e r f r u s t r a t i o n and anger and by s a t i r i z i n g h i s enemies, seeks h i s revenge. Through t h e d i s g u i s e o f humor, he r a i l s a t h i m s e l f , h i s n a i v e t y , h i s enemies, h i s shaky r e s i s t a n c e t o wine, h i s t e e t h , h i s i n n e r c o n f l i c t s . H i s r a i l i n g s a r e compressed i n t o t i g h t l y - w o u n d mockery which s p r i n g out under t h e d i s g u i s e o f w i t . X i n ' s humor i s t h e amusing s i d e o f h i s s o r r o w . The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n b e s t c a p t u r e s X i n t h e p e r s o n b e h i n d X i n the h u m o r i s t . "Anger i s t h e most r e p e l l e n t o f e m o t i o n s . I t i s a c u t e d i s c o m f o r t t o be p r e s e n t where a man has f a l l e n i n t o a f u r i o u s p a s s i o n . I f you a r e i n such a s i t u a t i o n , and the o b j e c t o f your a c q u a i n t a n c e ' s r a g e h a s no c o n n e c t i o n w i t h y o u , y o u w i l l e x p e r i e n c e an i n s t i n c t i v e c r a v i n g t o escape i n t o humor, t o r e t u r n t h e p a i n f u l s i t u a t i o n i n t o a l u d i c r o u s one." 2 9 130 CONCLUSION What s e t s X i n Q i j i a p a r t f rom o t h e r h e r o i c p o e t s ? As the o f p o e t s s h a r e t h e s e p o e t i c f e a t u r e s : h e r o i c , p o w e r f u l and f r e e . X i n , w i t h h i s untrammelled p e r s o n a l i t y , c e r t a i n l y e x h i b i t s t h e s e q u a l i t i e s i n h i s ci. But t h e r e a r e t h r e e p a r t i c u l a r e l e m e n t s t h a t make X i n Q i j i u nique and s t a n d out among the h e r o i c p o e t s . Due t o h i s i n d i r e c t n e s s i n e x p r e s s i o n , X i n has t h e a b i l i t y t o compress h i s many l a y e r s o f f e e l i n g s i n t o a t i g h t l y wound s p r i n g . When t h a t s p r i n g i s unhinged, a l l t h e s e f e e l i n g s shoot f o r w a r d . The e f f e c t i s one o f f i e r c e n e s s . As a r e s u l t , t h e r e a d e r can f e e l t h e depth o f h i s p o e t i c i n t e n s i t y . X i n ' s c i a r e more than p o w e r f u l , t h e y a r e f i e r c e and i n t e n s e . Though X i n Q i j i was a man overwhelmed by sorrow. H i s p o e t i c g r e a t n e s s l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t he n e v e r a l l o w e d h i s s o r r o w f u l n e s s t o overwhelm h i s p o e t i c c r a f t m a n s h i p . R a t h e r , h i s sorrow became t h e s e r v a n t o f h i s a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n . X i n was an u n t r a m m e l l e d man b u t h i s poetic c r a f t m a n s h i p d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e o p p o s i t e : c o n t r o l l e d , r e s t r a i n e d and t h o u g h t f u l . T h o u g h t f u l l y c h o o s i n g v a r i o u s p o e t i c t e c h n i q u e s , the s o r r o w f u l n e s s i n X i n ' s c i never came a c r o s s as m a u d l i n ; on t h e c o n t r a r y , h i s r e a d e r s came t o i d e n t i f y w i t h X i n ' s sorrow. X i n was a poet whose a r t t a k e s p r e c e d e n c e over h i s own sorrow. term "haofang ^ " d e n o t e s , p o e t r y w r i t t e n by t h i s c a t e g o r y X i n was a (ji dacheng ^ 7^ a poet whose c o m p o s i t i o n s 131 embody works and c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f p r e v i o u s s c h o l a r s . P o e t r y , t o X i n Q i j i , was more than a medium o f e x p r e s s i o n . I t was a l s o a game, an e x p e r i m e n t . T h e r e f o r e , any p h r a s e s ( c l a s s i c a l o r c o l l o q u i a l ) , t e x t s ( l i t e r a r y , c l a s s i c a l , h i s t o r i c a l o r p h i l o s o p h i c a l ) , h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e s , h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t s , l i n e s from p r e v i o u s p o e t s , p o e t i c imagery and s y m b o l s , themes, became t h e p o e t i c t o o l s i n X i n ' s hand. Not o n l y d i d X i n i n c l u d e t h e s e i n h i s c i which gave i t s d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s , he d i d i t w i t h such ease and g r a c e . X i n was a v e r s a t i l e ji dacheng. Among a l l the h e r o i c p o e t s , o n l y Su Dongpo (1036-1101) |t ^ was X i n ' s e q u a l . There a r e many works w r i t t e n comparing t h e i r s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s . But t h e f o l l o w i n g comment a p t l y c a p t u r e d t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : "Su and H s i n have been c o n s i d e r e d ' p o w e r f u l and f r e e ' p o e t s o f the h i g h e s t esteem. Yet they have l i t t l e i n common. Su d i s p l a y s a g e n t l e e x p r e s s i v e n e s s i n h i s d e p i c t i o n of scenes whereas H s i n can win the r e a d e r ' s u n r e s e r v e d a d m i r a t i o n i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f f e e l i n g s . H s i n ' s poems do have d e p i c t i o n o f scenes t o o but they l a c k t h e g e n t l e e x p r e s s i v e n e s s of Su. S i m i l a r l y , Su's w o r k s a l s o d e s c r i b e f e e l i n g s b u t t h e y a r e no c o m p a r i s o n t o H s i n ' s i n d e p t h and s u b t l e t y . As f o r poems w i t h an i n t e l l e c t u a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n t e n t , t h e y opened up f r e s h t e r r i t o r y : H s i n i s more i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e human and t h e e a r t h l y w h i l e Su t e n d s t o e s c a p e t o Taoism and Buddhism. T h e i r d i f f e r e n c e can a p t l y be d e s c r i b e d by t h e two t e r m s : ch'u *fc ( t r a n s c e n d e n t ) and ju ~\ ( s e c u l a r ) . " 1 C e r t a i n l y Su and X i n have been put i n the same c a t e g o r y o f h e r o i c p o e t s . But X i n ' s g r e a t p o e t i c c r a f t m a n s h i p put him i n a c a t e g o r y o f h i s own. For t h e p a s t seven hundred y e a r s , X i n Q i j i h e l d h i s 132 own t e r r i t o r y i n the h i s t o r y o f C h i n e s e l i t e r a t u r e . However, t h e r e were l a t e r p o e t s who t r i e d t o i m i t a t e X i n . I n t h e S o u t h e r n Song p e r i o d , L i u Kezhuang (1187-1269) %] $ j Jjf. was one o f them. But h i s h e r o i c s e n t i m e n t , compared t o X i n was weak. L i u Guo (1154-1206) a l s o t r i e d t o i m i t a t e X i n but h i s e x p r e s s i o n o f f e e l i n g was f l a t and d i r e c t , l a c k i n g X i n ' s s u b t l e t y . The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s h o u l d h e l p t o p i n p o i n t X i n Q i j i ' s u n i q u e p o e t i c s t y l e : Of a l l t h e c i poets, which one had X i n ' s h e r o i c s e n t i m e n t , t h o u g h t f u l s e l e c t i v i t y and r e s t r a i n t , p a t r i o t i c f e r v o r , v e r s a t i l i t y , e r u d i t e d i c t i o n , h i s f i e r c e n e s s and i n t e n s i t y i n f e e l i n g , e x p r e s s i v e n e s s i n words but s u b t l e t y i n e x p r e s s i o n ? I n t h e w o r l d o f ci, X i n i s , i n d e e d , t h e tour de force. 133 N o t e s : Chapter I 1. C u i D u n l i , Gongjiao Ji ( h e r e a f t e r GJJ), ( T a i b e i : Taiwan Shangwu Yins h u g u a n , 1972), 6/5. 2. Zhu X i , Zhuzi Yulei ( h e r e a f t e r ZZYL), L i J i n g d e e d . , ( T a i b e i : Zhengzhong S h u j u , 1962), 132/5159. 3. Yang W a n l i , Chengzhai Ji ( h e r e a f t e r C Z ) , ( T a i b e i : Taiwan Shangwu Yinshuguan, 1 9 6 ? ) , 120/1079. T h i s comment was made i n an i n s c r i p t i o n on a l a r g e s t o n e t a b l e t t o Wang H u a i . There i s a b i o g r a p h y o f Wang i n the Song Shi, Juan 396. 4. Chen L i a n g , Chen Longchuan Wenji ( h e r e a f t e r LCWJ), ( T a i b e i : X i n x i n g Shuju F a x i n g , 1956), 10/6. Chen made t h i s comment on X i n ' s p a i n t e d p o r t r a i n t . 5. Deng Guangming, Jiaxuan Ci Biannian Jianzhu ( h e r e a f t e r JXC), ( S h a n g h a i : Shanghai Gudian Wenxue Chubanshe, 1957), p.523. 6. Zhu X i , Zhu Wengong Wenji ( h e r e a f t e r ZWG), ( T a i b e i : Taiwan Shangwu Yinshuguan, 1 9 6 ? ) , 85/1540. 7. Xu J i u , Ciyuan Congtan, ( S h a n g h a i : Shanghai G u j i Chubanshe, 1981), p.79. 8. JXC, 126. a) A l l Xin's ci d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s a r e c i t e d from t h i s e d i t i o n . b) There a r e many works w r i t t e n on the d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s o f X i n ' s c i . For more i n f o r m a t i o n , see JXC, pp.523- 551. Chen Manming, " J i a x u a n Chuangduanju Y a n j i u " i n Journal of Research I n s t i t u t e of Chinese Language and L i t e r a t u r e 12 (1968): 292-297. C h e n g C h i e n , "Su T u n g - p ' o a n d H s i n C h i a - h s u a n : A Comparison," Tamkang Review 1 (1970): 45. Chen T i n g z h u o , Baiyu Zhai Cihua, i n Cihua Congbian, Tang Guizhang ed., ( T a i b e i : Tangwen Sh u d i a n , 1934), 1/3814. Tuo Tuo e t a l . , Song Shi ( h e r e a f t e r SS), ( B e i j i n g : Zhonghua S h u j u , 1977), 401/12166. Cheng C h i e n , i b i d . , pp.49-51. L i a n g Q i c h a o , Xin Jiaxuan Xiansheng Nianpu ( h e r e a f t e r XSNP), (Shanghai: Zhonghai Shuju Y o u x i a n G o n g s i , 1936), pp.1-3. A c c o r d i n g t o X i n ' s b i o g r a p h y i n t h e Song Shi, t h e r e a s o n b e h i n d the hao " J i a x u a n " was t h a t X i n c o n s i d e r e d c u l t i v a t i n g t h e f i e l d s as the most d i l i g e n t a c t i n l i f e . SS, 23/421-436. a) J i n g - s h e n Tao has a v e r y good and d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of t h e J i n p r i o r t o and d u r i n g t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n o f t h e n o r t h . See The Jurchen in Twelfth Century China, ( S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington P r e s s , 1976). b) E l i z a b e t h P e r r y i n her book g i v e s d e t a i l e d g e o g r a p h i c a l , s o c i o - e c o l o g i c a l c a u s e s f o r t h e c o n t i n u o u s r u r a l u p r i s i n g s i n t h i s r e g i o n . H i s t o r i c a l l y , p e o p l e from t h i s r e g i o n were known f o r t h e i r r e b e l l i o u s n e s s and b e l l i g e r e n c e . As e a r l y as 209 B.C Chen She s t a r t e d t h e f i r s t m a j o r 135 p e a s a n t r i s i n g i n C h i n e s e h i s t o r y . The founder of the Ming d y n a s t y , Zhu Yuanzhang 7\_> was a n a t i v e o f A n h u i . F o r m o r e d e t a i l s , s e e Rebels and Revolutionaries in North China 1845-1945, ( S a n F r a n s i c o : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1980). 16. I r v i n g Y u c h e n g L o , Hsin Ch'i-chi, (New Y o r k : Twayne P u b l i s h e r , I n c . , 1971), p.32. 17. C a i Y i j i a n g and C a i Guohuang, Jiaxuan Changduanju Biannian, (Xianggang: Xianggang Shanghai S h u j u , 1979), p.410. 18. The E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h i s t i t l e i s adopted from Lo's Hsin Ch'i-chi. T h i s e s s a y was r e c o r d e d i n Lidai Mingchen Zouyi ( h e r e a f t e r LDMC), Huang H u a i and Yang S h i q i e d . , ( T a i b e i : Taiwan Xuesheng S h u j u , 1964), 94/1297. 19. X i n Q i t a i e d . , Jiaxuan Shiwen Chaocun ( h e r e a f t e r JXSW), (Xianggang: H a i w a i Tushu,.1970), p.3. 20. Deng G u a n g m i n g , Xin Jiaxuan Nianpu ( h e r e a f t e r JXNP) , ( S h a n g h a i : Gudian Wenxue Chubanshe, 1957), p . l . 21. Ibid., pp.17-18. Deng d i s a g r e e s w i t h X i n ' s b i o g r a p h y i n t h e Song Shi, i n which i t s a i d t h a t X i n s t u d i e d under C a i B o j i a n jj^ ^ Deng a g r e e s w i t h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e c o r d e d i n Yuan Haowen's (1190-1257?) f u j?f f»j Zhongzhou Ji f 11 j % 2/43. Deng's r e a s o n was t h a t t h i s was a book which used poems t o r e c o r d h i s t o r y and i t s t i m e was c l o s e s t t o X i n ' s t i m e . F u r t h e r m o r e , Deng f o u n d s e v e r a l d i s c r e p a n c i e s between X i n 13.6 and C a i ' s l i f e . For example, C a i l i v e d i n the c a p i t a l but X i n was t h e r e o n l y t w i c e . W i t h s u c h a s h o r t s t a y i n t h e c a p i t a l , X i n c o u l d h a r d l y have had a chance t o s t u d y under C a i . 22. Ibid., p.19. 23. L i u B o q i , Songdai Zhengjiao Shi, ( T a i b e i : Taiwan Zhonghua Shuju, 1971), V o l . 2 , p.420. 24. Tuo Tuo e t a l . , Jin Shi, ( B e i j i n g , Zhonghua S h u j u , 1975), 51/1129-1131. 25. Xu Menghua, Sanchao Beimenghui Bian ( h e r e a f t e r SCBM), Wang Yunwu e d . , ( T a i b e i : T a i w a n Shangwu Y i n s h u g u a n , 1 9 7 6 ) , 249/6. 26. JXNP, p.19. 27. SCBM, 249/6. Another r e a s o n f o r the f o r m a t i o n o f v a r i o u s g u e r r i l l a groups i n the n o r t h was t h a t p e o p l e found i t d i f f i c u l t t o s u r v i v e under heavy t a x a t i o n . 28. a) JXSW, p.3. b) Deng i n h i s JXNP d i s a g r e e s w i t h the r e c o r d i n the Song Shi t h a t Geng's o r g a n i z a t i o n s t a r t e d a f t e r t h e d e a t h o f t h e J i n emperor L i a n g . Deng b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e u p r i s i n g s began w h i l e L i a n g was a t t a c k i n g t h e s o u t h . See JXNP, p.23. 29. SS, 401/12161. 30. The E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n o f X i n ' s o f f i c a l t i t l e s a r e adopted 137 from C h a r l e s O. Hucker's A Dictionary of O f f i c i a l T i t l e s in Imperial China, ( S t a n f o r d : S t a n d f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1985). 31. a) ZZYL, 132/5158. b) JXNP, p.24. c) Q i a n S h i s h e n g , Nansong Shu, N a g a s a w a K i k u y a e d . , 32. JXNP, p.25. 33. Ibid., p.26. 34. There a r e o t h e r reasons f o r t h i s i n d i f f e r e n t and complacent a t t i t u d e i n t h e S o u t h . F i r s t o f a l l , t h e D e f e a t c o n t e n t i o n t h a t appeasement was the b e s t p o l i c y . S e c o n d l y , u n t o u c h e d by w a r , t h e economy i n t h e s o u t h was i n f u l l b loom. L i v i n g s t a n d a r d s i n t h e s o u t h had begun t o r i s e . Submerged i n a f l o o d o f m a t e r i a l p r o s p e r i t y , t h e S o u t h e r n Song p e o p l e were not eager t o s t a r t a n o t h e r war w i t h t h e J i n . For a more d e t a i l e d economic p i c t u r e a t t h a t t i m e , see J a c q u e s G e r n e t ' s Daily L i f e in China on the Eve of the Mongol Invasion 1250-1276, (New Y o r k : M a c M i l l a n Company, 1 9 6 2 ) , and Zhang J i a j u ' s Liang Song J i n g j i Zhongxin de Nanyi, (Wuhan: Hubei Renmin Chubanshe, 1957). The t h i r d r e a s o n i s t h a t i f t h e n o r t h w e r e t o be s u c c e s s f u l l y r e c o v e r e d , t h e r e t u r n o f the two c a p t u r e d emperors H u i Zong the l e g i t i m a c y o f Gao Zong's r e i g n . The comment i n the Song (Tokyo: Gudian Y a n j i u h u i , 1973), 39/245. o f Fu L i ?| ZJ - f ^ i n 1163 had seemed t o c o n f i r m t h e would have posed a problem t o 138 Shi about Gao Zong was t h a t he l i v e d i n complacency w h i l e p u t t i n g up w i t h shame. See SS, 32/612. 35. XSNP, p,8. 36. C a i Y i j i a n g and C a i Guohuang, " X i n Q i j i Manyou Wuchu Kao", Beifang Luncong 2 (1979): 88-94. 37. JXC, p.505. 38. X i n G e n g r u , " X i n Q i j i N a n g u i h o u B i n g w u ' q i a n r u J i n g u o ' Z h i s h i " , Guangming Ribao 12 (1979). 39. Cheng B i , Mingshui Ji ( h e r e a f t e r MSJ), ( T a i b e i : T a i w a n Shangwu Yinshuguan, 1972), 2/10. 40. JXC, p.177. 41. Ibid., p.230. 42. Ibid., p.97. 43. a) JXNP, p.26. b) XSNP, p.10. c) JXSW, p.3. 44. Wu X i o n g h e , " X i n Q i j i ' M e i q i n S h i l u n ' Z u o n i a n K a o b i a n " , Gudian Wenxue Luncong 1 (1980): 279. 45. J i a n g L i n z h u , Xin Q i j i Zhuan, ( T a i b e i , T a i w a n Shangwu Yinshuguan, 1964), p.29. 46. ZZYL, 110/4363. 47. Huang Kuanzhong, " L u e l u n Nansong S h i d a i de G u i z h e n g Ren", i n Songshi Yanjiu J i , ( T a i b e i : G u o l i B i a n y i k u a n Zhonghua Zongshu B i a n s h e n Weiyuanhui, 1971), V o l . 1 4 , p.475. Guizheng Ren were a l s o c a l l e d guiming and zhongyi guichao Huang a l s o has a v e r y good c h a p t e r on t h e Guizheng Ren i n a n o t h e r book t i t l e d The Controversies of Late Sung Dynasty O f f i c i a l s Concerning National A f f a i r s - The Problems of Compromise, Border Defense and Refugees during the Reign of Li Tsung, ( T a i b e i : Taiwan U n i v e r s i t y , 1978). JXSW, p.15. Huang Kuanzhong, i b i d . , p.486. There were s i x s p e c i a l b e n e f i t s f o r s i x d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s o f Guizheng Ren (See SHY, 1 5 ) : 1. T h o s e who w e r e s l a v e s i n t h e N o r t h c o u l d become commoners i n the South. 2. Ten-year or f i v e - y e a r t a x - f r e e p e r i o d s f o r f a r m e r s . 3. Three-year t a x - f r e e p e r i o d s f o r merchants. 4. C a p i t a l p u n i s h m e n t was c a n c e l l e d f o r s u r r e n d e r e d s o l d i e r s . 5. F o r g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s , a g u a r a n t e e o f t h e same government p o s t i n t h e South, p l u s more b e n e f i t s . 6. L i t e r a t i c o u l d a p p l y f o r the c i v i l s e r v i c e e x a m i n a t i o n . Ibid., p.88 Guizheng Ren were not a l l o w e d t o s e l l t h e i r l a n d or o t h e r p r o p e r t i e s , t o d e f e c t , or t o move t o o t h e r p l a c e s i n t h e s o u t h . M a r r i a g e s between Guizheng Ren and the Han C h i n e s e were f o r b i d d e n . I n t r o d u c t i o n o f any J i n c u l t u r a l elements was s t r i c t l y p r o h i b i t e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , the s p e c i a l b e n e f i t s w h i c h t h e Guizheng Ren had been g e t t i n g were became a burden t o t h e S o u t h e r n Song government. See WZJ, 137/2a-b. 51. ,140 A f t e r Zhao K u a n g y i n (927-976) b r o u g h t C h i n a u n d e r h i s c o n t r o l , he d i d n o t r e p e a t t h e m i s t a k e o f a l l o w i n g t h e l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s t o have t o o much power. Thus, thro u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e Song e r a , t h e p o l i c y o f t h e Song was b a s e d on t h e d o c t r i n e o f " s t r o n g t r u n k , weak b r a n c h e s s t e e r i n g power away f r o m t h e g e n e r a l s was t o s t r e s s t h e c i v i l and s l i g h t t h e m i l i t a r y . 52. XSNP, p.10. 53. JXNP, p.33. 54. SS, 401/12162. 55. GJJ, 6/4-5. 56. SS, 401/12162. 57. Ibid. 58. Xu S o n g , Song Huiyao Jigao ( h e r e a f t e r SHY), ( B e i j i n g , Zhonghua e d i t i o n , 1957), 178/6983. 59. Lou Y a o , Gongkui Ji ( h e r e a f t e r GKJ), ( T a i b e i : T a i w a n Shangwu Yinshuguan, 1 9 6 ? ) , 106/1041. 60. Zhen D e x i u , Zhen Wenzhong Gong Wenji, ( T a i b e i : T a i w a n Shangwu Yin s h u g u a n , 1 9 6 - ) , 45/690. 61. a) Zhang D u a n y i , Gui'er J i , ( S h a n g h a i : Shangwu e d i t i o n , 1937), C/13a. b) Guo Yuheng i n h i s e s s a y "Cong D u i X i n Q i j i P i n g j i e z h o n g de Y i g e W e n t i T a n q i " comments t h a t X i n was r u t h l e s s i n s u p p r e s s i n g t h e b a n d i t s whom Guo c a l l e d ). One o f h i s schemes f o r it commoner (min tyj )" See Guangming Ribao Wenxue Yichan 141 510. 62. ZZYL, 132/5159. 63. JXSW, p.37. 64. L i X i n c h u a n , Jianyan Y i l a i Chaoye Zaji ( h e r e a f t e r JYYL), ( T a i b e i : M i n h a i Chubanshe, 1967), j i a j i ^ 18/584. 65. SS, 401/12163-12164. 66. Ibid. 67. LDMC, 185/6b-7a/2444. 68. Zhou B i d a , Wenzhong J i , ( T a i b e i : Taiwan Shangwu Yinshuguan, 1971), 143/13a; 1 3 8 / l b - 2 a . 69. ZWG, 94/1467; 94/1654-1659. 70. 55, 401/12163. 71. ZWG, 93/1647; 94/1052. 72. ZWG, 93/1647. 73. 55, 401/12164. 74. ZZYL, 111/4383. The e i g h t c h a r a c t e r s h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n t f r om those i n the 55: "quehe zhe zhan, bidi zhe pei ^ ̂  fyj t fjjj $ | % SO 75. 55, 401/12164. I n t h e o f f i c i a l b i o g r a p h y , Wang i s p o r t r a y e d as a j e a l o u s a n d e v i l man who d a r e d t o s p e a k h i s m i n d w i t h o u t any r e s t r a i n t . He was a v o i d e d by h i s c o l l e a g u e s . See 5 5 , 386/11853. 76. For a more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f the c e n s o r ' s power a t t h a t t i m e , see James L i u ' s "The S o u t h e r n Sung Emperors and the 142 O p i n i o n O f f i c i a l s " i n Hsing Hua Journal of Chinese Studies, New S e r i e s V I I I 1 (1970): 345-349. 77. L i u Kezhuang, Houchun Xiansheng Daquanji, ( T a i b e i : Shangwu e d i t i o n ) , 150/1318. 78. SHY, 101/3998; 101/4002. 79. SHY, 101. 80. JXNP, p.82. 81. Ibid., p.94. 82. P l e a s e see note no. 2 i n c h a p t e r 4. 83. Luo K a n g l i e , i n h i s a r t i c l e "Mantan X i n J i a x u a n de J i n g j i S h e n g h u o , " l i s t s f o u r " e v i d e n c e s " i n s u p p o r t o f h i s a s s e r t i o n t h a t X i n s p e n t h i s r e t i r e m e n t days i n the s t y l e o f a r i c h p e r s o n . F i r s t , he c i t e s t h e f a c t t h a t X i n gave a thousand "min f̂j " t o L i u Guo as a p a r t i n g g i f t . S e c o n d , X i n s u p p o r t e d a l a r g e h o u s e h o l d w i t h c o n c u b i n e s and s e r v a n t s . T h i r d , he owned a p i e c e o f l a n d on w h i c h he b u i l t h i s v i l l a by Lake D a i . F o u r t h , w h i l e he r e t i r e d f r o m o f f i c e , X i n was engaged i n ox s k i n t r a d i n g . H i s s h i p was once c o n f i s c a t e d by Zhu X i ' s p e o p l e . X i n wrote a l e t t e r t o Zhu e x p l a i n i n g t h a t t h e commodity i n h i s s h i p was bought f o r t h e m i l i t a r y and a s k e d Zhu t o r e l e a s e t h e s h i p . (See WGJ, b i e j i p] ^ 6.) L a t e r t h e s h i p was r e l e a s e d . But Zhu once s a i d t h a t the merchants would even put o f f i c i a l f l a g s on s h i p s which d e l i v e r e d human wastes i n o r d e r t o e s c a p e t a x a t i o n . (See WGJ, 110.) N e v e r t h e l e s s , Luo c o n c l u d e s t h a t X i n ' s impeachments were m a i n l y due t o 143 p o l i t i c a l r e a s o n s . (See Mingbao Yuekan 200, 77.) T h i s view i s a l s o echoed by Wang Z h a n c h i who i n h i s a r t i c l e "Yetan X i n J i a x u a n " defends X i n ' s w e a l t h by a t t r i b u t i n g i t t o h i s sh r e w d n e s s i n d o i n g b u s i n e s s . X i n ' s i m p e a c h m e n t s , Wang a s s e r t s , w e r e due t o p o l i t i c a l a s w e l l a s p e r s o n a l r e a s o n s . The s o u t h e r n e r s were d i s t r u s t f u l o f t h o s e from the n o r t h . S i n c e X i n was a n o r t h e r n e r , t h e r u l i n g c l a s s eyed h i m w i t h s u s p i c i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , X i n ' s u n t r a m m e l l e d p e r s o n a l i t y made him e s p e c i a l l y c o n t r o v e r s i a l . Wang sa y s t h a t X i n ' s s t u b b o r n n e s s and h i s fondness i n d o i n g t h i n g s on a g r a n d s c a l e were m a j o r f a c t o r s i n n o t g e t t i n g p o p u l a r s u p p o r t . The c o s t l y p r o j e c t s w h i c h X i n a d v o c a t e d p u t a h e a v y b u r d e n on t h e t a x - p a y e r s , who were u n w i l l i n g t o su p p o r t X i n w i t h empty stomachs. 84. See n o t e no..60. S t i l l , X i n managed t o e s t a b l i s h l aw and o r d e r by " d r o p p i n g the rope." 85. LDMC, 336/22b-23b. 86. GKJ, 35/327. 87. SS, 401/12164. 88. a) SHY, 102/4045-4046. b) JXNP, 81 and 110. In the Song Shi, i t i s r e c o r d e d t h a t Wang L i n impeached X i n t h i s y e a r . See SS, 401/12164. But a c c o r d i n g t o Deng Guangming, t h e p e r s o n who impeached X i n i n 1194 was Huang A i . Wang L i n was i n Hunan a t t h a t t i m e . 89. JYYL, y i j i ZJ %S 18/1151-1152. 144 90. a) X i e F a n g d e , Dieshan J i , ( T a i b e i : T a i w a n Shangwu Yinsh u g u a n , 1966), 7/9-11. b) LDMC, 185/2a. 91. SHY, 103/4059. 92. MSJ, 11-12. 93. See note no.3. 94. LCWJ, 10/6. 145 N o t e s : Chapter I I 1. Zhongwen D a c i d i a n B i a n z u a n Weiyuanhue ed., Zhongwen Dacidian, ( T a i b e i : Huagang Chuban Y o u x i a n G o n g s i , 1977), V o l . 1, p.1516. 2. Huang Futung, "Lun Diang u," Huazhong Shiyuan Xuebao 4 ( 1 9 7 9 ) : 107. 3. Yu-kung Kao and T s u - l i n M e i , "Meaning, Metaphor, and A l l u s i o n i n T'ang P o e t r y , " Harvard Journal of A s i a t i c Studies 38 (1978): 325. 4. Ibid., p.326. 5. Yu-kung Kao and T s u - l i n M e i , "Meaning, Metaphor, and A l l u s i o n i n T'ang P o e t r y , " Xiegou Zhuyi de L i l u n yu S h i j i a n , Zhou Y i n g x i o n g and Zheng Shushen ed., ( T a i b e i : L i m i n g Wenhua S h i y e G o n g s i , 1980), pp.70-71. 6. H i g h t o w e r , James R., " A l l u s i o n i n the P o e t r y of T'ao C h ' i e n , " Harvard Journal of A s i a t i c Studies 31 (1971): 5. 7. Yu-kung Kao and T s u - l i n Mei make a d i s t i n c t i o n betweeen the terms " u s i n g an e v e n t " and " m e n t i o n i n g an e v e n t " : " I f an event contemporary t o t h e poet i s r e f e r r e d t o d i r e c t l y , t h e n we w i l l say t h a t he 'mentions t h e e v e n t s ' ; but i f he uses a p a s t event t o r e f e r t o p r e s e n t event would we say t h a t he 'uses an e v e n t . ' " See Kao and M e i , "Meaning, Metaphor, and A l l u s i o n i n T'ang P o e t r y , " 146 Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 38 (1978): 326. There i s no such d i s t i n c t i o n i n C h i n e s e f o r the Chi n e s e c h a r a c t e r "yong |̂ | " means " u s i n g " . 8. Most of the C h i n e s e c r i t i c s thus f a r have managed t o acknowledge the o b v i o u s f a c t t h a t X i n l i k e s t o use a l l u s i o n s p r o f u s e l y i n h i s ci. As a r e s u l t , X i n has been g i v e n the c r e d i t of b r i n g i n g c i t o a new d i m e n s i o n . However, X i n ' s use o f a l l u s i o n has not been a d e q u a t e l y s t u d i e d . Most o f the c r i t i c s have c o n t e n t w i t h c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . For example: X i n quotes t h i s from the L u n Yu. L i t t l e a n a l y s i s has been done on how X i n uses a l l u s i o n and what i s i t s s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n i n a ci. Of a l l the m a t e r i a l on him, t h e r e a r e o n l y two Chi n e s e a r t i c l e s s p e c i f i c a l l y on X i n ' s use of a l l u s i o n ; as f o r E n g l i s h m a t e r i a l , I r v i n g Lo has a s m a l l s e c t i o n i n the l a s t c h a p t e r of h i s book. Of the s e two C h i n e s e s o u r c e s , Zhang Gaokuan managed t o s t a t e the f a c t t h a t the employment o f a l l u s i o n s i n X i n ' s c i ' s e n l a r g e p o e t i c w i d t h and d e p t h , i n c r e a s e the a e s t h e t i c v a l u e through v a r i o u s use of imagery and the s u g g e s t i v e n e s s of a l l u s i o n . (See Zhang, pp.89-90.) Chen Shumei's m a s t e r ' s t h e s i s a l s o c e n t e r s on X i n ' s use of a l l u s i o n . (See note no. 37.) Lo g i v e s c r e d i t t o X i n ' s " e f f e c t i v e use o f the o r i g i n a l s o u r c e s l i e s not o n l y i n the s k i l l f u l a d a p t a t i o n o f e n t i r e p a s s ages...but a l s o i n the d e l e t i o n s and 147 a d d i t i o n s he m a d e . . . A l t e r a t i o n s such as t h e s e r e v e a l not o n l y t h e f r u i t s o f h i s r e a d i n g but a l s o h i s c o n c e r n f o r the coherence and u n i t y o f the e n t i r e poem." (See Lo, p.132.) The h e s i t a t i o n about g o i n g deeper i s r o o t e d i n f i r s t o f a l l , the d i f f i c u l t y o f d e t e r m i n i n g how X i n means h i s a l l u s i o n s t o be t a k e n or i n t e r p r e t e d , and s e c o n d l y , the d i f f i c u l t y o f t r a n s l a t i n g t h o s e c i which use many a l l u s i o n s . T h i s i s acknowledged by L a t t i m o r e i n h i s a r t i c l e " A l l u s i o n and T'ang P o e t r y . " (See L a t t i m o r e , 1973, p.408.) 9. Chen Shumei i n her master's t h e s i s l i s t s t h r e e p a r t i c u l a r ways X i n uses a l l u s i o n . F i r s t , X i n has a tendency t o use same a l l u s i o n many t i m e s . Second, X i n e i t h e r r e w r i t e s o r p a r a p h r a s e s the e n t i r e o r i g i n a l passage i n h i s c i . T h i r d , i n each c i , more than h a l f o f t h e l i n e s use a l l u s i o n (pp.49-88). She a l s o p o i n t s out t h a t t h e r e i s a c o r r e l a t i o n between X i n ' s p o e t i c t o p i c and the s o u r c e s o f h i s q u o t a t i o n s . For example, on the t o p i c o f wine, X i n l i k e s t o quote L i Bo and Tao Yuanming, f o r b o t h o f them a r e w e l l known f o r t h e i r fondness o f wine. But Chen o n l y uses s t a t i s t i c s t o emphasize the well-known f a c t t h a t X i n uses many a l l u s i o n s i n h i s c i . So f a r , t h e r e i s l i t t l e a n a l y s i s on how X i n uses a l l u s i o n . 10. T h i s i s acknowledged by L a t t i m o r e i n h i s a r t i c l e " A l l u s i o n and T'ang P o e t r y . " (See L a t t i m o r e , 1973, 148 p.408. ) a) The d a t e s o f c o m p o s i t i o n a r e g i v e n f o r each c i d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . The f i r s t d a t e i s g i v e n by Deng Guangming i n h i s JXC. The second d a t e i s g i v e n by C a i Y i j i a n g and C a i Guohuang i n t h e i r book Jiaxuan Changduanju Biannian. b) L i u Z a i , Mantang J i , ( T a i b e i : Taiwan Shangwu Yinshuguan, 1979), 32/12-15. X i n r e t i r e d f o r the second time i n 1195. a) The r e f e r e n c e t o t h e Y a n z i Mountain comes from t h e Li Sao. (See Fu, 1972, p.37.) For the E n g l i s h , see Hawkes, 1959, p.28. " I o r d e r e d H s i - h o t o s t a y the saw-steeds' g a l l o p , * 4 fc i» % r? >? To s t a n d over Y e n - t z u mountain and not go i n . b) For the r e f e r e n c e o f the f a l l e n l e a v e s , see Shen Hong, Huainan Zi ( d . 122 B.C.), Wang Yunwu and Zhu J i n g n o n g ed., ( T a i b e i : Shangwu Yinshuguan, 1966), Juan 16. - % $ ^ i 7 tl a) Cangzhou was a r e t i r e m e n t p l a c e f o r highminded p e o p l e i n a n c i e n t C h i n a . Deng Guangming mentions the B i o g r a p h y o f Yuan Can i n the Nan Shi who wrote a f i v e - c h a r a c t e r poem 149 about r e t i r i n g t o Cangzhou. (See JXC, p.303.) C e r t a i n l y X i n does not i n t e n d t o make a comparison between Yuan and h i m s e l f . X i n s i m p l y uses t h i s as a common noun d e s i g n a t i n g a p o p u l a r p l a c e f o r r e t i r e m e n t . b) L i n e t h r e e i s a s t o r y i n t h e Yinyun Xiaoshuo. The c o n v e r s a t i o n t o p i c i s t h e wishes o f l i f e . One s t a t e s t h a t he would l i k e t o be the m a g i s t r a t e o f Yangzhou, which s t a n d s f o r fame and s t a t u s . A nother wants t o be r i c h . The t h i r d one w i s h e s t o ascend skyward on a c r a n e , which means he wants i m m o r t a l i t y . But t h e l a s t one says he wants t o e n t e r the c i t y o f Yangzhou on a c r a n e w i t h one hundred thousand i n h i s w a i s t - p o c k e t ; i n o t h e r words, he wants e v e r y t h i n g : fame, s t a t u s , w e a l t h and i m m o r t a l i t y . For more i n f o r m a t i o n , see Huang Z a i z h i , "Yinyun Xiaoshuo", juan 4, i n Tanzhu, (Changsha: Shangwu Yinshuguan, 1940). c) The l a s t p h r a s e i n l i n e f i v e i s a p a r a p h r a s e o f Du Fu's poem t i t l e d " J u e j u Manxing Jiushou ^.T^j See Yang Lun, Du Shi Jingquan, ( S h a n g h a i : 'Shanghai G u j i Chubanshe, 1980), V o l . 1 , p.356. II Don't t h i n k about t h e e n d l e s s b o t h e r s out t h e r e , J u s t empty th e l i m i t e d cups i n l i f e . " I i i f j I ?f< Maoshi Zhenggi ^ 0 JL ^ , i n Shisan Jing Zhush ( h e r e a f t e r SSJZS), 4/330. Legge's t r a n s l a t i o n (Legge, 1960, V o l . 3 , p.110): "There was t h e m i l l e t w i t h i t s d r o o p i n g heads \t i & & There was the s a c r i f i c e m i l l e t coming i n t o b l a d e . ft A i ~& S l o w l y I moved about, [Legge missed t h e second p h r a s i n t r a n s l a t i o n ] Those who knew me S a i d I was sad a t h e a r t , n % -o t Those who d i d not know me 3* i° /f S a i d I was s e e k i n g f o r something. n * ^ i O d i s t a n t and a z u r e Heaven! & £ 1 < By what man was t h i s [brought a b o u t ] ? 151 16. The w e s t e r n Zhou d y n a s t y began i n the year when K i n g Wu "T^ i conquered t h e Y i n jf^ . The c a p i t a l was moved from B a o j i n g ^ t o L u o y i £j i n t h e e l e v e n t h year o f the r e i g n o f K i n g You ji^J j i _ 17. Sima Q i a n , Shi Ji ( h e r e a f t e r S J ) , ( B e i j i n g : Zhonghua S h u j u , 1973), 4/147-149. 18. Yang Yong, Shishuo Xinyu ( h e r e a f t e r SSXY), ( T a i b e i : Hongye S h u j u , 1972), 23/548. Ruan J i i s one o f the seven v i r t u o u s men of the Bamboo Grove: J i Rang Jĵ  , Ruan J i ?Tu ffi , Shan Tao JJ ;*| , X i a n g X i u fc] ^ , L i u L i n g .̂j ^ , Ruan X i a n f%j , and Wang Rong ±_ h • 19. Yang B o j u n , L i e z i J i j i e , ( B e i j i n g : Zhonghua S h u j u , 1979), p.60. 20. A c c o r d i n g t o the l o c a l g a z e t t e e r o f Qian Shan County ; £ Jj , the C a l a b a s h F a l l was t w e n t y - f i v e l i from t h e p r e f e c t u r e . Water r a n from the mountain and i n t o a gourd-shaped l a k e . For t h i s r e a s o n , X i n named i t the C a l a b a s h F a l l . See JXC, p.163. 21. Z h o u y i Zhengyi , i n SSJZS 7/77. For the E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h i s l i n e , see I.D. Sung t r a n s . , The Text of Yi King, ( T a i b e i : Wenhua Tushu G o n g s i , 1935), p.279. 152 Lun Yu Zhushu iii -lL jju , i n SSJZS 7/2482. Ibid., 6/2478. Lun Yu Zhushu, in SSJZS 7/2482. Lun Yu Zhushu, i n SSJZS 14/2512. The E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n i s from James Legge t r a n s . , The Four Books, (New York: Paragon Book R e p r i n t Corp., 0 1966), p.210. Lun.Yu Zhushu, i n SSJZS 7/2482. For the E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n , see Leege, 1966, p.85. Lun Yu Zhushu, i n SSJZS 6/2478. For the E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n see Legge, 1966, p.65. L i n e seven i s a p a r a p h r a s e o f Su S h i ' s poem t i t l e d " J i Gaoling Shi -^J <g <z »"f " See JXC, 163. "Upon the c o m p l e t i o n o f my p o e t r y - s i l k y smoothness s e t upon my bosom. n A Mi ffl m ?{% Upon the en d i n g o f my c h a n t i n g , f r o s t y c o o l n e s s c i r c l e d my t e e t h . " Ht %. * i i i $ % 29. JXC, p.163. 30. I n one o f the c i , t o the Tune o f Zhegu Tian X i n mentions h i s fondness i n t o u r i n g s and r e a d i n g s i n 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 153 t h i s way: "For a l l my l i f e , I don't owe any debt t o t h e c r e e k s and mountains; - $ i I ;i * i A l l t h e v a r i o u s m e d i c i n e s , cannot h e a l my e x c e s s i v e ' r e a d i n g on books and h i s t o r y . I % « U i See JXC, p.446. 31. Z.D. Sung t r a n s , The Text of Yi King, ( T a i b e i : Wenhua Tushu G o n g s i , 1975), p.14. 32. See note no.22. 33. Maoshi Zhengyi, i n SSJZS 13/2506. 34. Ibid., 7/377. 35. Ibid., 4/331. 36. Mengzi Zhushu, i n SSJZS 9/b/2739. E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n i n Legge, 1966, pp.807-808. "When C o n f u c i u s , b e i n g d i s s a t i s f i e d i n Loo and Wei, had l e f t t h o s e s t a t e s , he met w i t h t h e attempt o f Hwan, t h e Ma s t e r o f t h e Horse, of Sung, t o i n t e r c e p t and k i l l him." 37. L i j i Zhengyi ;L> 3- % , i n SSJZS 6/a/1275. For t h e E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n , see Li Chi: Book of Rites, T r a n s l a t e d by James Legge, (New York: New Hyde P a r k , 1 967), p.12 154 38. Lun Yu Zhushu, i n SSJZS 18/2529. E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n i n Legge, 1966, p.276. "Ch'ang-tsu and C h i e h - n i were a t work i n the f i e l d t o g e t h e r , when C o n f u c i u s p a s s e d by them, and s e n t T s e - l u t o i n q u i r e f o r the f o r d . " 39. Ibid., 14/2512. 40. Zhang Gaokuan, "Lun J i a x u a n C i de Yongdian," Liaoning Daxue Xuebao 4 (1981): 88. 41. Ye J i a y i n g , "Lun J i a x u a n C i , " Hai Nei Wai 32 (1981): 41. 42. Wu Hengzhao, L i a n z i j u Cihua, 1/6-7, i n Cihua Congbian, Tang Guizhang ed., ( T a i b e i : Tangwen Sh u d i a n , 1967), V o l . 7 , pp.2359-2360. 43. SS, 401/12165. 44. Hong X i a n g z u , L i Sao Buzhu, (Xianggang: Zhonghua S h u j u , 1963), 1/30-31. 45. a) Han Shu ( h e r e a f t e r HS), ( B e i j i n g : Zhonghua S h u j u , 1962), 9/297-298; 97/3988-3919. b) JXC, p.399. 46. X i a o Tong, Wen Xuan, (Xianggang: Shangwu Yins h u g u a n , 1978), pp.327-330. 47. Maoshi Zhengyi, i n SSJZS, 2/298-299. Legge's t r a n s l a t i o n (Legge, 1960, V o l . 4 , p . 4 2 ) : "The sw a l l o w s go f l y i n g a b o u t , W i t h t h e i r wings un e v e n l y d i s p l a y e d . 155 The l a d y who r e t i r i n g [ t o her n a t i v e s t a t e ] , And I e s c o r t e d her f a r i n t o t h e c o u n t r y . 4 A 1 ft I l o o k e d t i l l I c o u l d no l o n g e r see h e r , at ! U And my t e a r s f e l l down l i k e r a i n . " i t >% & 48. X i a o Tong ed., Wen Xuan, (Xianggang: Shangwu Yi n s h u g u a n , 1978), 28/637. 49. SJ, 28/6271. 50. a) Wang Guowei, Renjian Cihua, b/2, i n Cihua Congbian, Tang Guizhang ed., ( T a i b e i : Tangwen Sh u d i a n , 1934). b) A d e l e A u s t i n R i c k e t t , Wang Kuo-wei's Jen-chien Tz'u- hua, (Hong Kong: Hong Kong U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1977), p.73 51. Hawkes, i b i d . , p.32. 52. Zhongwen D a c i d i a n B i a n z u a n Weiyuanhui ed., Zhongwen Dacidian, ( T a i b e i : Huagang Chuban Y o u x i a n G o n g s i , 1977), V o l . 3 8 , p.311. 53. Ibid., V o l . 16, p.365. 54. Hong X i a n g z u , Li Sao Buzhu, (Xianggang: Zhonghua S h u j u , 1963), p.7. 156 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. Yu-kung Kao and T s u - l i n M e i , "Meaning, Metaphor, and A l l u s i o n i n T'ang P o e t r y , " Harvard Journal of A s i a t i c Studies 38 (1978): 328. Ibid., p.344. As Kao and Mei p o i n t out i n t h e i r a r t i c l e , the use o f metaphor a l s o employs the t e c h n i q u e o f comparison and c o n t r a s t . However, the main d i f f e r e n c e l i e s i n the d i s t i n c t i o n t h a t "...metaphor on q u a l i t y and a l l u s i o n on a c t i o n . " See Kao and M e i , 1978, p.328. Ibid., p.329. A c c o r d i n g t o Tong P e i j i , S h i Zhidao b e l o n g t o t h e p r o - appeasement group. But Tong f a i l s t o d i s c u s s why X i n would b e f r i e n d a pro-appeasement p e r s o n , g i v e n X i n ' s s t r o n g s t a n c e on r e c a p t u r i n g the n o r t h . See Tong P e i j i , " X i n Q i j i yu S h i Zh e n g s h i , " Wenxue Yichan 4 (1982): pp.66-71. JXC, p.10. Fang X u a n l i n g , Jin Shu, ( B e i j i n g : Zhonghua S h u j u , 1974), 79/2072-2092. Ibid., pp.2074-2075. The second phrase i n l i n e f o u r i s a p a r a p h r a s e o f t h e s e two l i n e s i n one o f Huang T i n g j i a n ' s c i : To t h e Tune o f Niannu "The gentleman Sun s m i l i n g , 157 S i t t i n g t h e r e p l a y i n g t h e f l u t e . " 4 i f l i i n See Tang Guizhang e d . f Quan Song Ci, ( B e i j i n g : Zhonghua S h u j u , 1965), V o l . 1 , p.385. 64. JXC, p.489. 65. X i n Q i t a i , Jiaxuan Shiwen Chaocun, (Xianggang: H a i w a i Tushu, 1970), p.2. 66. Ibid., p.21. 67. Chen Yuchun, "Tan X i n c i 'Yongyu Le: J i n g k o u B e i g u t i n g H uaigu,'" B e i j i n g Shifan Daxue Xuebao (Shehui Kexue Bao) 3 (1979) : 66. 68. Shen Yue, Song Shu, ( B e i j i n g : Zhonghua S h u j u , 1974), 76/1973-1976. 69. Ibid., 95/2333-2334. 70. SJ, 111/2935-2937. 71. Shen Yue, Song Shu, ( B e i j i n g : Zhonghua S h u j u , 1974), 95/2330; 95/2352. 72. S J , 21/2448-2449. 73. Ye J i a y i n g , "Lun J i a x u a n C i , " Hai Nei Wai 32 (1981): 37. 74. Wang Guowei, Renjian Cihua, a/4-5, i n Cihua Congbian, Tang Guizhang ed., i b i d . , V o l . 1 2 , pp.4250-4251. 75. Zhang S i y a n ed., C i l i n J i s h i , (Shanghai: B e i y e Shanfang, 1949), 11/n.p. 158 NOTES: CHAPTER I I I 1. Wang X i a n g z h i ed., Y u t i Jisheng, ( T a i b e i : Wen H a i Chubanshe, 1962), 133/703. 2. The f i r s t l i n e i s a p a r a p h r a s e o f t h e s e two l i n e s i n t h e f i f t h poem o f t h e "Gushi S h i j i u s h o u "£ f r j -f JL ": " I n t h e w e s t - n o r t h , t h e r e i s a t a l l tower, & h \ 5j $ R i s i n g , r e a c h i n g t h e f l o a t i n g c l o u d s above." i % >% % f See S u i S h u s e n , Gushi shijiushou Ji Yi, ( X i a n g g a n g : Zhonghua Shuju Xianggang F e n j u , 1977), p.7 3. Wang X i a n g z h i ed., Yuti Jisheng, ( T a i b e i , Wenhai Chubanshe, 1962), 133/705. 4. J S , 36/1075-1076. 5. The C h i n e s e a s t r o n o m i c a l system i s e q u a t o r i a l . The sky i s d i v i d e d i n t o t w e n t y - e i g h t xu ^ (Needham t r a n s l a t e s t h i s as " l u n a r m a n s i o n " ) . The a n c i e n t C h i n e s e f i g u r e d t h a t i t to o k them about 27.33 days t o complete t h e i r p h a s i c c y c l e , and 28 i s a r o u n d e d - o f f f i g u r e . The dou ( t h e s a g i t a r i u s ) i s between the e i g h t e e n t h and the n i n e t e e n t h mansions. The niu ( t h e c a p r i c o r n i ) i s l o c a t e d between t h e n i n e t e e n t h and th e t w e n t i e t h mansions. For f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n , see Joseph Needham, Science and C i v i l i z a t i o n in China, (Cambridge: A t th e U n v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 959), V o l . 3 , pp.171-262. 159 6. JS, 67/1785. 7. I b i d . , 20/449. 8. Chen Shou, San Guo Zhi ( h e r e a f t e r SGZ), ( B e i j i n g : Zhonghua Shu j u , 1959/1973 p r i n t i n g ) , 7/229-230. 9. Shen Kuo, Mengxi Bitan, ( T a i b e i : Taiwan Shangwu Yinshuguan, 1966), 3/1. 10. a) The f i r s t p h r a s e of l i n e t h r e e i s a p a r a p h r a s e o f t h i s l i n e from t h i s l i n e i n the c h a p t e r o f "Zhao Hun" (See Fu X i r e n , 1976, p.160): "0 Sou, come back! Go not down t o t h e Land o f dar k n e s s %% ^ %^ , fi & T *fc S] For the E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n , see Hawkes, 1959, p.105. b) The s e c o n d p h r a s e o f l i n e t h r e e i s a p a r a p h r a s e o f th e s e two l i n e s from Tu Mu 1s (803-853?) % t f u (prose) t i t l e d "A Fanggong t\ % " : )\ iii :& H i i 46 *• * J See Tu Mu, Fanchuan Wenji, (Shanghai: G u j i Chubanshe, 1978), p . l . c) The f i r s t p h r a se " f u b a o gan r e n " i n l i n e f o u r e c h o e s t h i s l i n e f r o m t h e "Zhao Hun" (See Fu X i r e n , 1976, p.160): 160 "For t i g e r s and l e o p a r d guards the g a t e s , & ^ p- i W i t h jaws ever ready t o rend up m o r t a l men." •K % f 1 £ "Three eyes he has i n h i s t i g e r ' s head, % 3 i t % and h i s body i s l i k e a b u l l ' s . " f . I 2 * * , *t « +/. For t h e E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n , see Hawkes, 1959, p.105. d) The imagery o f a t i n y seed i n l i n e f i v e comes from t h i s passage i n the c h a p t e r o f "Free and Easy Wandering" i n t h e Zhuang Zi, s e e ZZJJ 1/1. F o r t h e E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n , see Watson, 1968, p.29-30. " I f w a ter i s not p i l e d up deep enough, i t won't have th e s t r e n g t h t o bear up a b i g b o a t . Pour a cup o f w a t e r i n t o a h o l l o w i n t h e f l o o r and b i t s o f t r a s h w i l l s a i l on i t l i k e b o a t s . But s e t t h e cup t h e r e and i t w i l l s t i c k f a s t , f o r the water i s t o o s h a l l o w and the boat t o o l a r g e . " 11. I n t h e JXC, the f i r s t c h a r a c t e r i n l i n e seven i s "kui *f1u) " t meaning shame, remorse. Tang Guizhang i n h i s Quan Song Ci a l s o has t h i s c h a r a c t e r . (See Tang G u i z h a n g , 1965, p. 1894.) As Deng h i m s e l f acknowledges, i n the " S i Juan <£? ^ " v e r s i o n , the c h a r a c t e r i s "kuai jfy " which comes from t h e p h r a s e "kuairan duchu fifo flfej " i n t h e 161 b i o g r a p h y o f Yang Wangxuan i n the Han Shu 67/2908. From the c o n t e x t o f l i n e s e v e n w h i c h m e n t i o n s h i s humdrum and s o l i t a r y l i f e , i t i s more a p p r o p r i a t e t o adopt t h e c h a r a c t e r "kuai" w h i c h means numbness, d u l l n e s s . L i u S i f e n a l s o c h o o s e s t h i s c h a r a c t e r i n h i s book (See L i u S i f e n , 1981, p.102). 12. Lun Yu Zhushu, i n SSJZS 7/2482. 13. Deng Guangming s u s p e c t e d t h a t Chao Chulao was the s u c c e s s o r (th e p r e s e n t Henan p r o v i n c e ) . See JXC, p.154. 14. SJ, 109/2867-2878. 15. Ibid., 109/2871. 16. Ibid., 109/2878. 17. S J , 109/2876. 18. S J , 109/2871. 19. S J , 109/2874. 20. S J , 109/2871-2872. 21. L i n e f i v e i s a p a r a p h r a s e o f Du Fu' s poem t i t l e d "Qujiang o f Q i a n z h i \% who was a n a t i v e o f Chanzhou ^ ->/-j Sanzhang II I've d e c i d e d t h a t as f o r my l i f e , t h e r e ' s no need t o c o n s u l t heaven, L u c k i l y , t h e r e a r e m u l b e r r y and hemp f i e l d s i n Du Qu. ii $ f % | N jjpjL # 162 The former g e n e r a l moved t o t h e edge o f the S o u t h e r n Mountain. ft >H ii ii ft b j | W i t h a h u n t i n g o u t f i t and a h o r s e , I ' l l f o l l o w L i Guang. Watching t h e s h o o t i n g o f t i g e r s , t o p ass the r e s t of my d e c l i n i n g y e a r s . h « ik I if A % See Q i a n Q i a n y i , Qianzhu Dushi, ( S h a n g h a i : Shanghai G u j i Chubanshe, 1979), V o l . 1 , p.24. 22. I n a n o t h e r c i , X i n s a r c a s t i c a l l y c o m p a r e d L i G u a n g w i t h L i ' s p a t e r n a l c o u s i n L i C a i who r e c e i v e d t h e t i t l e o f marquis even h i s m o r a l c h a r a c t e r was r a t e d low. To t h e Tune o f Busuan Zi 1 The i m m o r t a l G e n e r a l L i once s n a t c h e d the young b a r b a r i a n ' s h o r s e . 2 As f o r c h a r a c t e r , L i C a i i s i n t h e l o w - m i d d l e but he had the t i t l e o f m a r q u i s . 163 P l u c k i n g out r o o t s o f w i l d weed, R e p l a c i n g the l a y e r o f bamboo w i t h new t i l e s . "5 I f by chance any n o m i n a t i o n f o r the t i t l e o f S k i l l f u l farmer i s needed, Who would be more q u a l i f i e d t h a n me? 23. Wang X i a n g z h i , 7 u t i Jisheng, ( T a i b e i : Wenhai Chubanshe, 1962), 66/409. X i a o s h a n P a v i l i o n was l o c a t e d e a s t of the w a t e r - c o u r s e , the p u b l i c o f f i c e named t h e Cheng Ya H a l l ]^ "i, 24. See note no.46 i n c h a p t e r two. 25. Ouyang X i u , Xin Tang Shu, ( B e i j i n g , Zhonghua S h u j u , 1975), 76/3493-3495. 26. HS, 97/b/3973-4012. 27. The Bo Mountain i s t o the south-west of Guangfeng $ 1 2- i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f J i a n g x i . 28. a) The f i r s t l i n e i s a p a r a p h r a s e o f t h i s l i n e from Huang T i n g j i a n ' s poem t i t l e d "Song Fan Deru Zhi Qingzhou Shi AJL&4*«&*i^ •« h 4 ft See Huang Shanju Shi, Huang Gongzhu e d . , ( T a i b e i : Taiwan Shangwu Yinshuguan, 1968), p.14. b) The second l i n e i s a p a r a p h r a s e o f t h i s l i n e from Zhang 164 X i a o x i a n g ' s (1133-1170) J|d %• poem t i t l e d "Shuidiao Ketou TK f£ £H ": Aj %\ % See Yuhu Jushi Wenji, Xu Peng ed., ( S h a n g h a i , Shanghai G u j i Chubanshe, 1980), p.298. Deng G u a n g m i n g i n t e r p r e t s t h i s c i s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e i n c i d e n t i n 1162 when X i n c a p t u r e d Zhang Anguo. He a l s o i n t e r p r e t e s t h e Yan s o l d i e r s as t h e S o u t h e r n Song s o l d i e r s who managed t o sneak i n t o the J i n camps (see JXC, p.365). T h i s l i n e o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s f o l l o w e d by Xue Xiangsheng (see Jiaxuan Ci Xuanzhu, p.142), Zhang B i p o (see Xin Q i j i Ci Xuandu, p. 211) and L i u S i f e n ( s e e Xin Q i j i Cixuan, p . 1 3 3 ) . But t h e y a l l d i s a g r e e w i t h Deng t h a t the Yan s o l d i e r s were t h e S o u t h e r n Song. I n s t e a d , t h e y b e l i e v e d t h ey s h o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as b e i n g the J i n s o l d i e r s . A more f a r f e t c h e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s put f o r t h by C a i Y i j i a n g , who s a i d t h i s c i s p e c i f i c a l l y r e f e r s t o Yuan Y e n l i a n g ' s a s s a s s i n a t i o n by h i s own s o l d i e r s . T h i s v i e w i s s t r o n g l y d i s p u t e d by Qu Dezhu, who f o l l o w e d Deng's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n but d i s a g r e e d t h a t t h e Yan s o l d i e r s were the S o u t h e r n Song (see h i s a r t i c l e "Xin Ci 'Zhegn Tian' Liangzhong X i n j i e Z h i y i " ) . A more a p p r o p r i a t e a p p r o a c h t o t h i s c i i s t o base one's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n on t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n i n h i s c i , p a r t i c u l a r l y the i n f o r m a t i o n i n the p r e f a t o r y n o t e , and not on any s p e c i f i c e v e n t i n X i n ' s l i f e . The Yan s o l d i e r s s h o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as t h e s o l d i e r s o f t h e Yan r e g i o n 165 w h i c h was o c c u p i e d by t h e J i n a t t h a t t i m e . F o r a l l h i s p a t r i o t i s m , X i n d e f i n i t e l y would not r e g a r d t h i s r e g i o n as J i n t e r r i t o r y . By u s i n g t h e t r a d i t i o n a l name "Yan", X i n makes the p o i n t t h a t t h i s r e g i o n s t i l l b e l o n g e d t o the Song even when i t was o c c u p i e d by t h e J i n . v 166 Note s : Chapter IV 1. I r v i n g Yucheng Lo has a s m a l l s e c t i o n on X i n ' s humor i n t h e l a s t c h a p t e r o f h i s book Hsin Ch'i-chi. H i s d i s c u s s i o n on X i n ' s w i t i s s e t i n a p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n t e x t : t h e i r o n y o f p a r a d o x i n X i n ' s c i a n d a comparison o f X i n ' s " m e t a p h y s i c a l w i t " or "cosmic humor" as Lo c a l l e d i t , was made between L i Po (701-762) and Su S h i (1036-1101). For f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n , see Lo, 1971, pp.120-127. 2. a) I n the p r e f a c e t o one o f h i s c i To the Tune of Dingfeng Bo (JXC, p.397), X i n m e n t i o n e d t h a t h i s f a m i l y members had been w a r n i n g him about h i s heavy d r i n k i n g . In a n o t h e r p r e f a c e , To the Tune of Yu Hudie j L %t§ , X i n a l s o t a l k e d about h i s f r i e n d Du Shugao %\_ ^ ft] , who i n a p r e v i o u s l e t t e r had admonished X i n t o s t o p d r i n k i n g ( s e e JXC, p . 3 5 2 ) . X i n h i m s e l f p r o c l a i m e d h i s fondness f o r wine i n t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s c i : To t h e Tune of Shuidiao Getou " I don't need any encouragement t o d r i n k , 167 I ' m o n l y a f r a i d t h a t t h e wine b o t t l e i s e m p t i e d . II (See JXC, p . 3 9 ) . 1 ffi ;9 | ' f b) Guo Youyu has a s e c t i o n on X i n and wine i n h i s a r t i c l e . He a n a l y z e s X i n ' s d r i n k i n g i n t h e framework o f F r e u d ' s p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a g e s : o r a l , a n a l , and s e x u a l ( p h a l l i c and g e n i t a l ) . See Guo's "Lu Yu, X i n Q i j i Chengming d i S h i d a i B e i j i n g yu X i n l i Y i n s u , " Zhongshan Xueshu Wenhua Jikan 28 (1980): 31-35. 3. C e r t a i n l y t h e r e a r e o t h e r w i n e - r e l a t e d c i w h i c h a r e h e r o i c a n d p a t r i o t i c i n t o n e a n d i n d i c t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g i s a good example: Lo's t r a n s l a t i o n ( p . 6 2 ) : Tune t i t l e : Dance of C a v a l r y (P'o-chen-tzu) T i t l e : A H e r o i c Song W r i t t e n f o r Ch'en T'ung-fu and t o Be Sent t o Him Date o f c o m p o s i t i o n : ( c o n j . ) 1 1 8 8 W h i l e drunk, I trimmed my lamp and examined my sword; 168 I n a dream, I r e t u r n e d t o the s t r u n g - o u t camps and b u g l e - c a l l s . f <D *Z ft i ^ T My s o l d i e r s f e a s t e d on r o a s t e d f l e s h o f E i g h t - h u n d r e d - l i Ox; F r o m f i f t y - s t r i n g z i t h e r s came a j u m b l e o f b o r d e r m e l o d i e s . On autumn's sandy p l a i n , I c a l l e d t h e r o l l . '*• t ft feJ f >f 9 . I X * £ My h o r s e f l e w f a s t e r than t h e s t a l l i o n o f L i u ; My bow twanged l i k e a c l a p of t h u n d e r . * M I ft K How I w i s h e d t o d i s c h a r g e t h e kingdom's t a s k f o r my p r i n c e . ] ij i L * f | And t o w i n f o r m y s e l f i m m o r t a l fame! And how sad my h a i r t u r n s w h i t e ! 1 | i 169 Ye J i a y i n g ' s comment on t h i s c i : " [ t h e d e s c r i p t i o n ] i s v e r y v i v i d . But i t embodies much g r i e f and sorrow. ^ ^ "fjj "f %i 1?< ^ i!L» tftfu " S e e Ye J i a y i n g , "Lun J i a x u a n C i " , Hai Nei Wai 31 (1981): 36. The use o f the c o l l o q u i a l adverb "gie " g i v e s the f i r s t l i n e a t o u c h o f c o l l o q u i a l f l a v o r . T h i s a l l u d e s t o t h i s l i n e i n the Meng Zi Zhushu i n SSJZS 13/a/2773. Legge's t r a n s l a t i o n (Legge, 1962, p.978): "Mencius s a i d , ' I t would be b e t t e r t o be w i t h o u t the 'Book of H i s t o r y ' t h a n t o g i v e e n t i r e c r e d i t t o i t . " I l ii % s i* A % X i n t a k e s M e n c i u s ' p o s i t i o n one s t e p f u r t h e r i n l i n e s t h r e e and f o u r : t h e books o f t h e a n c i e n t s d e s e r v e no c r e d i t a t a l l . X i a C h e n g s h o u ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s e two l i n e s i s t h a t X i n i s not demeaning the t e a c h i n g s o f the a n c i e n t s ; r a t h e r , he i s s a y i n g t h a t t h e i r t e a c h i n g s a r e not a p p l i c a b l e i n t h e r e a l w o r l d X i n l i v e d i n (pp. 106-107) . Zhang B i p o a l s o a g r e e s w i t h X i a ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . b) 5. a) 170 H o w e v e r , Z h a n g e l a b o r a t e s o n t h e p o i n t o f a p p l i c a b i l i t y . The r e a s o n t h e t e a c h i n g s o f t h e a n c i e n t s a r e not a p p l i c a b l e i s because they a r e no l o n g e r f o l l o w e d and u p h e l d by t h e p e o p l e (p.239) . Zhang's l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g i s f o l l o w e d by L i u S i f e n (p.164) and Tao Tang ( p . 1 9 8 ) . C e r t a i n l y X i n does not mean t o "demean" the t e a c h i n g s o f t h e a n c i e n t s . B u t t h e s e two l i n e s do c o n v e y h i s s e n s e o f deep d i s a p p o i n t m e n t , be i t i n t h e i r a p p l i c a b i l i t y or t h e f a c t t h a t p e o p l e pay l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o them much l e s s f o l l o w them. More i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e s e l i n e s r e v e a l more o f X i n ' s i n n e r d i s g u s t a t h i s p r e v i o u s f a i t h i n t h e s e a n t i q u e t e a c h i n g s . b) The c o l l o q u i a l adverb "shichu /̂ uo " g i v e s l i n e f o u r a c o l l o q u i a l f l a v o r . 6. X i n i s not a b i t embarrassed a t d i s p l a y i n g h i s s i l l i n e s s w h i l e drunk. I n the f o l l o w i n g c i , he p r o u d l y p r o c l a i m s i t : To the Tune o f Hexin Lang I ' m not s o r r y t h a t I don't see the a n c i e n t s , I o n l y r e g r e t t h a t the a n c i e n t s 1 7 1 had never seen my a n t i c s . " (JXC, p . 3 1 3 ) . The d e s c r i p t i o n o f the hand g e s t u r e i s e q u a l l y v i v i d i n an o t h e r X i n ' s ci: To the Tune o f Shuilong Yin " I ' v e eyed the Hook o f Wu, ih k % J s l a p p i n g the r a i l r e p e a t e d l y . " {JXC, p.28) m t n a) X i a Chengtao, Zhang B i p o , L i u S i f e n and Xue X i a n g s h e n g , i n t h e i r c o m m e n t a r i e s , a l l a g r e e t h a t t h i s " p u s h i n g " g e s t u r e i n d i c a t e s X i n ' s s t u b b o r n n e s s . b) X i a Chengtao i n h i s Tang Song Ci Xinshang ( p . 1 0 7 ) comments t h a t l i n e e i g h t i s a p a r a p h r a s e of t h i s l i n e " FA. $ ^V- ^ # •' i) i n the "Biography o f Er Shu -1- | ^ ( J " i n the Han Shu. But t h i s l i n e d o e s n o t e x i s t i n t h e Han Shu, Z h o n g h u a S h u j u e d i t i o n . 172 c) L i u T i r e n (Qing) i n h i s Qisong Tang Ciyi l i k e n e d the a n d c r i t i c i z e d t h i s a s n o t b e i n g t h e n a t u r a l s u b s t a n c e o f a c i p o e t . See L i u T i r e n , Juan 2. But t h i s c i i s not o n l y u n i q u e i n i t s v i v i d and d r a m a t i c p r e s e n t a t i o n o f X i n ' s d r u n k e n n e s s , i n a d d i t i o n t o i t s n a r r a t i v e s t y l e , as L i u h i m s e l f a d m i t t e d , i t s d i c t i o n i s c o l l o q u i a l , w i t t y , and sad. whom was mentioned by X i n i n t h e p r e f a c e of another c i (JXC, p.117). For a more d e t a i l e d b i o g r a p h y o f Zheng, see Qingtian Xianzhi, 10/522-523. 10. a) Z Z J J , 7/27/182. Zhuang Z i used t h i s term t o d e s c r i b e t h o s e who harmonize a l l t h i n g s . Watson's t r a n s l a t i o n (Watson, 1968, p.303): "With t h e s e g o b l e t words t h a t come f o r t h day a f t e r day, I harmonize a l l t h i n g s i n the Heavenly E q u a l i t y , l e a v e t o t h e i r e n d l e s s changes, and so l i v e out my y e a r s . " b) Huang T i n g j i a n a l s o u s e d t h e t e r m " c o n g e n i a l o r h a r m o n i z e d (heqi 7f° |^ )" i n one o f h i s poems 9. The name Zhe'an i s the z i "-J- o f Zheng R u x i e 173 t i t l e d "Xie Da Wenshan Erxiong Jiujue Ju J& ffjj % - f u A i.£ "} "• S e e T a n 9 S o n 9 c i Xuan, .1982, «7 p.321. "The j o l l y e l d e r b r o t h e r (wine) i n t h e w i n e - b o t t l e l a u g h i n g a t you p e o p l e , % t « <% 11 % I'm as h a r m o n i z i n g as the t h r e e s p r i n g s . " A A P I I *• ^ h 11. a) X i n e x t r a c t s t h e two c h a r a c t e r s "ran 9̂ , " and "ke ''J " f r o m t h i s p a s s a g e i n t h e Zhuang Zi. See ZZJJ, 7/27/182. Watson's t r a n s l a t i o n (Watson, 1968, p.304): "What makes them so? Making them so makes them so. h i E , ¥, ii % What makes them n ot so? Making them not so makes them not so. ,1- f * 8. . f 8, * f £ What makes them a c c e p t a b l e ? Making them a c c e p t a b l e makes them a c c e p t a b l e . ^ f 1 1 i M 174 What makes them not a c c e p t a b l e ? M a k i n g them not a c c e p t a b l e makes them not a c c e p t a b l e . By r e p e a t i n g t h e s e two c h a r a c t e r s i n l i n e two, X i n emphasizes the r e p e a t e d a c t i o n s o f a g r e e i n g . b) The second p a r t o f l i n e two comes from a l i n e i n one o f Huang T i n g j i a n ' s J4_ ^ poem t i t l e d " C i y u n Rendao s h i L i z h i Yougan ^ ' - | | -ft 4. )̂ 1 ^ (̂ (see Huang Gongzhu's Huang Shanju Shi p . 8 5 ) : " S a y i n g 'good' t o e v e r y t h i n g i s t h e M a s t e r Sima" 11 4 ti i k 'i> The S i m a r e f e r s t o Sima H u i f&j %%)L * n t h e c h a p t e r "Yanyu 5 ^ " i n the Shishuo Xinyu. The t e r m s "huaji" and " c h i y i " r e f e r t o t h e f o l l o w i n g passage i n t h e c h a p t e r " J i u Zhen " i n the Han Shu, 92/3713: "The s i l l y s i p h o n , 175 has an abdomen as b i g as the p o t . " The chiyi a l s o has a v e r y f l e x i b l e c a p a c i t y f o r w i n e . I t ' s body expands when more wine i s poured i n . 13. L i S h i z h e n , Bencao Wangmu, ( B e i j i n g , Renmin W e i s h e n Chubanshe, 1982), 12/691. Ganguolao i s "gancao "• I t has s i x o t h e r names: migan ^ , micao ^ ^ / meicao ^- Jp , lucao || ^ , lingtong ^ , guolao ^ £ A p p a r e n t l y X i n c o m b i n e s t h e two names "gancao" and "guolao" t o g e t h e r , c a l l i n g i t "ganguolao". A c c o r d i n g t o L i S h i z h e n ' s a n n o t a t i o n , the name "guolao", meaning the "supreme master" d e r i v e s from i t s a b i l i t y t o combine w i t h o t h e r m e d i c i n e , g i v i n g a harmonized p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t . 14. a) These two c h a r a c t e r s ( c i ge ijr|^ jf] ) i n l i n e s i x add some c o l l o q u i a l f l a v o r t o the poem, b) The name "Qinji Liao jjj* % j " i s a t i t l e o f a s a t i r i c a l poem w r i t t e n by B a i J u y i (772-846) S i • These l i n e s d e p i c t i n g the Qinji Liao: " I t s e a r i s smart, i t s h e a r t i s w i s e , i t s tongue t i p i s i n g e n i o u s ; 176 I t knows the language of both men and b i r d s II For the e n t i r e v e r s i o n o f t h i s poem, see Gu X u e j i e , Bai Juyi J i , ( B e i j i n g : Zhonghua S h u j u , 1 9 7 9 ) , V o l . 1, p.89. I n h i s e s s a y , Guo o b s e r v e d t h a t X i n was q u i t e s k i l l f u l i n p r o j e c t i n g h i m s e l f v i a an o b j e c t (jiewu yongwo 'fjg T)\ Jikan 26, ( 1 9 8 0 ) : 29. The f o l l o w i n g s a r e j u s t a few examples o f X i n ' s fondness of u s i n g p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n : "Of a l l t h o s e s e a g u l l s and e g r e t s which have a covenant w i t h me, A f t e r t o d a y ' s sworn o a t h , we s h o u l d not be d i s t r u s t f u l o f each o t h e r . " ). See Guo Youyu i n Zhongshan Xueshu Wenhua Where i s t h e w h i t e c r a n e ? T r y t o b r i n g him a l o n g " (JXC, p 89) . X i n a l s o wrote one c i f o r the e g r e t s : II White e g r e t s by the c r e e k , Come, I w i l l t e l l you: 177 There a r e o n l y a few f i s h i n the c r e e k , Your master l o v e s you and You s h o u l d l o v e the f i s h . You s h o u l d l i v e i n harmony w i t h o t h e r s . " (JXC, P.460). o f J i a n g s u ) . T h e r e i s a b i o g r a p h y o f h i m i n t h e Jin Shu, Juan 48. I n the Shishuo Xinyu, i t s a y s : " L i u L i n g was r e c k l e s s and d i s s o l u t e , and c o n s i d e r e d the u n i v e r s e t o o c o n f i n i n g . He used t o r i d e i n a deer-drawn c a r t c a r r y i n g a p o t o f wine. He had a man c a r r y i n g a s p a d e on h i s s h o u l d e r f o l l o w i n g b e h i n d , so t h a t when he d i e d the man c o u l d d i g i n the e a r t h and bury him on the s p o t . He t r e a t e d h i s body l i k e so much e a r t h and wood, and roamed about h i s whole l i f e . (See SSXY, 4/196. For t h e E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n , see Mather, A New Account of Tales of the World, ( M i n n e a p o l i s : U n i v e r s i t y of M i n n e s o t a P r e s s , 1976), p.128. 17. The c h a r a c t e r "zhen <)(jh " i s a magpie which produced a He was a n a t i v e ( i n t h e p r e s e n t p r o v i n c e d e a d l y p o i s o n c a l l e d "zhen du " when i t s f e a t h e r i s soaked i n wine. 178 L i n e s i x a l s o r e f e r s t o t h i s passage i n the L i Sao. Hawkes' t r a n s l a t i o n (Hawkes, 1962, p . 3 0 ) : " I s e n t o f f t h e magpie t o pay my c o u r t t o h e r , 4 4 t% h it ? But the magpie t o l d me t h a t my s u i t had gone a m i s s " 18. a) S i n c e X i n c l e a r l y r e f e r s t o the L i Sao i n l i n e s i x , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the term "chengyan jfy « " i n l i n e e i g h t a l s o r e f e r s t o t h i s p a s s a g e i n t h e L i Sao. Hawkes' t r a n s l a t i o n (Hawkes, 1962, p . 2 3 ) : "There once was a t i m e when he s p o k e w i t h me i n f r a n k n e s s , *D % £ ft 11 But then he r e p e n t e d and was o f a n o t h e r mind" ft TU 1 <*p A fa Hawkes adopts a more l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n h e r e . T h i s t e r m can a l s o means "covenant" o r "agreement." I t i s q u i t e c l e a r t h a t by u s i n g t h e term "chengyan v B ," X i n e s t a b l i s h e s a p a r a l l e l b e t w e e n t h e 179 r e l a t i o n s h i p between Qu Yuan and h i s emperor, and h i m s e l f and t h e w i n e - g l a s s . By u s i n g t h i s term, X i n a l s o s u b t l y i m p l i e s h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the wine- g l a s s i s b a s e d o n l o y a l t y , l i k e t h e l o y a l t y o f s u b j e c t t o emperor. Deng Guangming comments t h a t t h i s t e r m a l s o comes from t h e Zuo Zhuan £ ^ (JXC, p.286). But s i n c e t h e r e i s no r e f e r e n c e t o t h e Zuo Zhuan throughout the e n t i r e c i , i t i s more a p p r o p r i a t e t o i n t e r p r e t e t h i s l i n e w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e Li Sao. b) The l a s t p h r ase " -fc jj \% % | | %L " i n t h i s l i n e c o n t a i n s t h e f i r s t f i v e c h a r a c t e r s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s e n t e n c e i n t h e c h a p t e r " X i a n Wen f«\ " i n the Lun Yu: Legge's t r a n s l a t i o n (Legge, 1962, p.212): "But I have s t i l l power enough l e f t t o c u t L i a o o f f , and e x p o s e h i s c o r p s e i n t h e m a r k e t and i n t h e c o u r t . " I n the Lun Yu, t h e c h a r a c t e r "si " means t o e x p o s e a c o r p s e ( a f t e r e x e c u t i o n ) i n t h e m a r k e t p l a c e or c o u r t . H e r e , X i n u s e s t h i s c h a r a c t e r i n t h e meaning o f " t o put f o r t h . " 19. Ban Gu, Han Shu Buzhu, ( T a i b e i : X i n Wengeng Chuban 180 G o n g s i , 1975), 50/1073. 20. X i n n ' s r e s o l v e t o q u i t d r i n k i n g c r u m b l e s , as i n d i c a t e d i n t h e p r e f a c e o f a n o t h e r c i . I n t h e company o f h i s d r i n k i n g p a l s , X i n , once a g a i n i n v i t e s t h e w i n e - g l a s s t o come back. See JXC, p.287. 21. The f o l l o w i n g c i b e s t d e s c r i b e s t h e r e a s o n f o r X i n ' s heavy d r i n k i n g (JXC, p.474): To the Tune of Chounu Er ®% j l 7 u (7/1206) 1 L a t e l y , sorrow has been as b i g as the s k y . ft * U * % £ 2 Who w i l l p i t y me? Who w i l l p i t y me? % wj n 7 % ^ m % ? 3 Then I w i l l t a k e sorrow and make i t i n t o a s k y . 4 P u t t i n g a l l t h e m y r i a d t h i n g s of p a s t and p r e s e n t , *[ # * i * | I 5 P l a c e them by s o r r o w ' s s i d e ; by s o r r o w ' s s i d e . At the s i d e o f sorrow. II A & it. & & 1 181 6 And I w i l l move my home t o the Wine F o u n t a i n . if i *} t & 22. ZZJJ, 8/29/194-202. 23. The l a s t p h r a s e i n the l a s t l i n e i s a v e r b a t i m q u o t a t i o n from Tao Yuanming's (365-427) "Ze Z i S h i "J| -J- f r j ". F o r a f u l l v e r s i o n o f t h i s poem, see Yang Yong, Tao Yuanming Ji Jiaoqian, ( X i a n g g a n g : W u x i n g J i S h u j u , 1971), p.178. H i g h t o w e r ' s t r a n s l a t i o n ( H i g h t o w e r , 1970, p.178) i s : " I f t h i s i s the way i t i s f a t e d t o be J u s t l e t me r e a c h f o r the t h i n g i n the cup." i - A « • t n Lo's t r a n s l a t i o n of the l a s t v e r b a t i m p h r a s e (Lo, 1971, p.121): "Then l e t me p a r t a k e o f t h i s t h i n g w i t h i n t h e cup." 24. Zhonghua Wenhua F u x i n g Yundong T u i x i n g W e i y u a n h u i e d . , Shuo Yuan Jin Zhu Jin Yi, ( T a i b e i : T a i w a n Shangwu Yi n s h u g u a n , 1977), 10/317-318. 25. SSXY, 25/602. 26. The T h r e e M o u n t a i n s a r e i n t h e F u j i a n p r o v i n c e . They a r e J i u x i a n , Minshan ^ J,; , and Yuewang M i - - 27. L i a o Deming e d . , Tiaoxi Yuyin Conghua Qianji, Wu Z a i 182 c o m p i l e d , ( B e i j i n g : Renmin Wenxue Chubanshe, 1 9 8 1 ) , 42/287. T h i s was an i n c i d e n t r e c i t e d by Su Dungpo. 28. X i n ' s u n h a p p i n e s s d u r i n g h i s time i n r e t i r e m e n t can a l s o be s e e n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g l i n e s , w r i t t e n i n t h e same p e r i o d (1192-1194): "You l o o k a t S c h o l a r Zhuang, the u n f e t t e r e d , •% h $ 4 £ % Even f a c i n g t h e mountain, f o r e s t , f i e l d , and h i l l s , Sorrow and h a p p i n e s s h a r d l y have l e f t h i s bosom." (JXC, p.257). i % & t i T h i s p h r a s e comes from the c h a p t e r "Knowledge Wandering i n t h e N o r t h ( Z h i b e i You ) i n the Zhuang Zi (See ZZJJ, 6/145). For t h e E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n , see Watson, 1968, p.247: "The mountains and f o r e s t , the h i l l s and f i e l d s f i l l s us w i t h o v e r f l o w i n g d e l i g h t and we a r e j o y f u l . Our j o y has been ended when g r i e f comes t r a i l i n g i t . We have no way t o bar the a r r i v a l o f g r i e f and j o y , no way t o p r e v e n t them from d e p a r t u r e . . . " 29. D a v i d W o r c e s t e r , "From t h e A r t o f S a t i r e " , S a t i r e : Modern Essays in C r i t i c i s m , R o n a l d P a u l s o n e d . , ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n - H a l l , I n c . , 1971), p.118. e s : C o n c l u s i o n Ku S u i , " I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Su Tung-p'o's Tz'u," i n Song Without Music: Chinese Tz'u Poetry. (Hong Kong: The C h i n e s e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1980), pp.173-174. 184 BIBLIOGRAPHY A. C h i n e s e R e f e r e n c e s Ban, Gu (32-92) y}i if] . Han Shu >\ % , 100 Juan. 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