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Xin Qiji (1140-1207) : the guerrilla-poet Tsang, Kam-Kwan 1987

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XIN Q U I (1140-1207):  THE GUERRILLA-POET  BY KAM-KWAN TSANG B.A. UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA, 1980 A T H E S I S SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department o f THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Asian Studies) We a c c e p t t h i s required  t h e s i s as conforming  to the  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA OCTOBER 1987 ©  KAM-KWAN TSANG, 1987  In  presenting  degree freely  at  this  the  available  copying  of  department publication  in  partial  fulfilment  University  of  British  Columbia,  for  this or of  thesis  reference  thesis by  this  for  his  and study. scholarly  or  thesis  her  for  Department of  Asian  The University of British 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  October  Studies Columbia  15,  1987  I further  purposes  gain  the  requirements  I agree  shall  that  agree  may  representatives.  financial  permission.  of  be  It not  that  the  Library  permission  granted  is  by  understood be  for  allowed  an  advanced  shall for  the that  without  make  it  extensive  head  of  my  copying  or  my  written  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page  C h a p t e r One  -  XinQiji:  The Man a n d H i s L i f e  C h a p t e r Two  -  Use o f A l l u s i o n  Chapter Three  -  Use o f Comparison  Chapter Four  -  U s e o f .Humor  ....  1 37  and C o n t r a s t  81 110  Conclusion  130  N o t e s o n C h a p t e r One  133  N o t e s o n C h a p t e r Two  145  Notes on Chapter Three  158  Notes on Chapter Four  166  Notes on C o n c l u s i o n  183  Bibliography.....  184  ABBREVIATIONS  !  jl  g k j  -5-  SHY  7h  Q  SGZ  -  ,31  HS  SJ  JS  SS  JXC  $L  JXNP  f  JXSW  f | l  # f H  ^ #  ^  % ;i  A*  SSXY  i  WZJ XSNP  L  D  M  MSJ  C  5  A  A  5  k  %  -$  *9  1  SSJZS  -f- I f fj fi-  t%  SCBM  +  i f i i /-t  -tit t/l; f j Tf  f  ft  ZWG  £  t  ZZYL  i f is II.  ZZJJ  *f  L *  i |  |  iii  FOR MY LATE MOTHER:  Y.H. TONG-TSANG (1921-1983)  1  CHAPTER I :  The mere m e n t i o n image  of  XIN  course  The  Man  and  o f t h e name X i n Q i j i  a downtrodden  tumultuous  QUI:  of  patriotic  her  Throughout  China  has  number o f p a t r i o t i c p o e t s , Qu  Yuan ( 3 4 0 - 2 7 8 B.C.)  (712-770) H  ( 1 1 2 5 - 1 2 1 0 ) fj^  few,  who  of n a t i o n a l  i t s people,  reflecting  was  a  yf} ]jf  , Du  Fu  s  just  anguish  t o name a  against  social  the n a t i o n times  of  B u t none a r o u s e d s o much s y m p a t h y and  regret  as  of a l l ,  on  X i n was  a  sense of r e g r e t i s based,  uncommon c o m b i n a t i o n  literati  (the  quite  has.  literatus  of  entire  produced  spoke out  national  the  during  T h i s overwhelming his  crisis,  the  T h e i r p o e t r y , t h u s , became t h e v o i c e o f  s o c i a l upheaval. Xin  a n d L u You  at a time  injustice. and  |)  Life  immediately evokes  poet.  history,  His  as who  words,  a guerrilla their  Xin actually  took  ) i n the h i l l s  ease  guerrilla populace  as  skills  expressed  Jin at  well  of  and  fighter  skillful  up  and both  background.  fighter.  concerns  U n l i k e most  mainly  h i s sword jungles.  through  and  X i n was  with brush  and  identified  w i t h X i n as  h i s various essays  o f them."  medium  the  enemy  a literatus sword. The  X i n was  he c o u l d w r i t e a n d  in military  p l a n n i n g and  patriotism  i s understandable  given  strategy. the  fact  u n d e r t h e r u l e o f t h e enemy.  who  Being  a  general a common  fight.  t o the emperor, X i n demonstrates  brilliance  quarter of h i s l i f e  "one  Chinese  the  fought  a l s o g a v e X i n t h e "common t o u c h " .  s o l d i e r w i t h uncommon a b i l i t i e s : In  and  first  his  Xin's fervent that  he  spent  a  But X i n d i d not  2 fight  this  enemy  p a t r i o t i c passion schemes.  with  was  Cui Dunli  blind  patriotic  (Song)  factor  untrammelled illustrated be  and  opposition, halting  was  ^(j  the  he  i n more Xin  his  was  an e x t r a o r d i n a r y  These  organized  detail  stubbornly  p r o j e c t when he  will  in  this  c a r r i e d out received  chapter.  his  the  seen  amount o f 1200)  money i n o r g a n i z i n g  ^  mountains  troops: and  Flying Tigers his  "qushan  blocking  up  in his  saihai  to describe  Jj]jt jj  sea).  i n e s t a b l i s h i n g order  ^  But  2  Zhu  jjf}~ the  at  continue. for  doing  various  Xi  huge  (1130-  t h e way  Xin  (driving  the  success  i l l u s t r a t e d Xin's  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e performance  of  order  f o r spending a  Flying Tigers.  characters  the  i t and  fondness  criticized  the  used these four  managed t h e  In  X i n was  Instead  g o l d e n t a b l e t (an  can  a grand s c a l e .  Against  plan.  Xin's  on  daring,  the F l y i n g T i g e r s , which  enough t o h i d e  things  1  best  later  be  man.  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were  daring  spirit  literary  stubborn,  f r o m t h e e m p e r o r ) , X i n was untrammelled  his  military  s a i d t h a t X i n had  personality:  pragmatic.  i n t h e way  discussed  rather,  s e t i n a framework of w e l l - p l a n n e d  a s w e l l a s m i l i t a r y t a l e n t s , and Another  fervor;  of  the  pragmatism'.  government  posts,  X i n d i s p l a y e d h i s knack f o r g e t t i n g p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s . Thus, t o h i s admirers, dared  to  r u l e s which  for  and  sometimes d e f i a n t a t t i t u d e towards  and  d e f i a n t mood o f  f r u s t r a t e d by  government.  It  the  was  a c o u r a g e o u s man  the  the  he  s e e n as  defy  disregard echoed  X i n was  supposed  pro-war  to  follow.  g r o u p s , who  the  were  who His  system angered  t h e p r o - a p p e a s e m e n t p o l i c y o f t h e S o u t h e r n Song is this  daring  spirit  i n working  around  the  3 bureaucratic  system  and  g e t t i n g p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s w h i c h won  him  admiration. But  Xin's  enemies  and  personality also  superiors,  Chinese character and  that  h i s p o e t i c works  heroic, but  system constant  on  a  reflected  The  i n the  said: difficult  unrestrained.  is  ruling  put  his  loose  class  had  merit You  useful  but  times  of  perspective,  his  approach  perceived  reckless,  as  be  jL  heroic,  working  ^%  critics is  on best  (1127-1206)^ said  trouble."  rather  as  the  he  was  \ s a i d a man  and  man  daring,  around  and  people  undaunted  The  translated  Yang W a n l i many  his  cannon.  a t t i t u d e towards X i n  1  [Wang H u a i  in  can  for  To  both X i n the  superiors  government's was  a  X i n was  penchant  scale  to c o n t r o l .  nature  as  f o l l o w i n g statement.  "Xin  into troubles.  which  His  grand  guard.  appeared  i s "hao  unrestrained.  and  him  i s o f t e n used to d e s c r i b e  u n t r a m m e l l e d , and  also  this  Xin  got  From  3  often  than  of the  brusque  heroic  and  pragmatic. Thus, t o h i s a d m i r e r s , a  writer, a  fighter,  s u c h a man  with  and  useful  role during  was  given  regional  problems  admirers; misguidedly  a rare t a l e n t wasted.  thinker, a  many d i v e r s i f i e d  various  (1143-1194)  a  X i n was  a  used,  t a l e n t s was  and not  and  Xin  echoed  feelings general  there  a  t a l e n t wasted:  i s no  use  for  real  doer;  yet  a  major  Instead,  to dealing  Xin's  the  good  was  given  disputes.  was  a  national turmoil.  administrative duties, confined  ^  indeed,  time of  strategist,  He  friend  with  Chen  Liang  among  Xin's  "If real tigers.  he  rats But  are  using  4 them w o u l d  be  the  means o f  f e e l i n g s o f h i s f r i e n d s and Xin  actually  from  d i d but  doing  political dared  to  for  and  speak  out  p e r s o n was  having  been  arose  might  country.  and  Xin  challenge  yet  not  was He  the  collection was  very  Fan  of  Kai  Xin's  sure  of  than  Xin  do.  His  Jin  out  lifelong of  the  observation: statecraft. Xin  himself  He felt  of  r e g r e t and  ;»J  ).  rightly "In  he was  what  he  the  Being  "[Xin's]  mission  the heart not  and  to a s s i s t  that  his cries  and  much  first  a man  possibly  Zhu  Xi  who  achieve. allowed  also  had  achievement the  to the  in But  6  This  sense  in his lyrics  Huang L i z h u a n g  5  this  were  royal family." fullest.  he  chance.  the  X i n was  pervasive  of agony.  very  the n o r t h , t o chase  employed t o the  evident  feeling  published  could  to recapture territory.  s o r r o w was  who  c o n f i d e n t i n what  c o u l d h a v e done more t h a n he was  was  of  true patriot  not g i v e n a f a i r  observed  occupied  he  victim  of  , who  and  d r e a m was  had  a  r e g r e t and  himself.  (Song)  c i , rightly  he  Xin's c i are  i ^  Xin felt  himself  Certainly Xin felt  as  prevented  lost.  mistreated  disciple  a  was  of  d e t e r m i n e d i n what he w a n t e d t o a c h i e v e , and  His  s o much f r o m what  seen was  The  4  pro-appeasement p o l i c y  more o v e r w h e l m e d by  c o u l d have a c c o m p l i s h e d ,  favour."  h a v e done b u t  circumstances.  t h e r u l i n g c l a s s , and No  admirers  w h a t he  his  wars  r e c e i v i n g heaven's  (ci  (Qing)"j*  observed:  t h e d e c l i n i n g p e r i o d o f t h e S o n g , X i n had  t a l e n t o f Guan Zhong ( ? - 6 4 5 B.C.) credited with strengthening  Yf  t h e economy a n d  the [who  was  m i l i t a r y of  the  state  of  B.C.)  y|  iff  Qi $C  in  3  )~)  during ] and  the  Yue  Yi  ^  the Warring States but  His  loyal  i n d i g n a t i o n had  and  harmonious d i s c u s s i o n w i t h a  could  man!  not  a  fervent,  h i s m e l a n c h o l y and  his  T h o s e who  ci.  What do Had  Xin  not  who  left  was  outlet.  result,  Just  his  boredom a r e  behind  of  the  Yan  military  i t in actual read h i s  Chen T o n g f u  Jiaxuan?"  (770-481/480  fond of  deploy  compared X i n w i t h  t h e y know a b o u t  period  [a g e n e r a l  fully no  As  ^  period  affairs],  What  he  Chunqiu  (Chen  use. joyful  Liang)  t r a g i c songs  are  a l l projected  into  a primped-up beauty!  7  more  than  six  hundred  ci,  he p r o b a b l y w o u l d h a v e r e m a i n e d a c o n t r o v e r s i a l f i g u r e i n C h i n e s e history; admired  his by  patriotism  others.  But  and his  i s t h r o u g h h i s ci  t h a t one  of  a  In  patriot.  sometimes side  of  After  untrammelled  Xin:  having  read  is driven purely indiscriminately the  heart  his ci, by  to  the  he  was,  thoughtful, one  no  longer  blind patriotic  shooting  nature,  wanted  circumstances  fracturing  an  already  frankly admitted  t h a t he  and  and  to his  divided  do  ci  and  by was  concern In  wanted t o speak but  one was  heart and  another  sorrowful. who  cannon  Rather,  p a t r i o t who  nation.  the  r e c k l e s s man  f e r v o r or a l o o s e  inner  patriotism.  reveal  sees a  but  chivalrous  fearful,  more, but  some  to f e e l  heroic, his  by  his  in a l l directions.  of a pragmatic, s o r r o w f u l  untrammelled outer  that  restrained,  confirm  comes t o s e e  addition man  questioned  ci solidly  It  true  talents  one  that sees  his heroic restrained about of  by  further  his  can't  and  ci,  ( y££  he j\j  6 ).  It i s this  8  kind  of  restraint displayed  u n t r a m m e l l e d man t h a t c o n f i r m s h i m a s a t r u e p a t r i o t i c  by  poet.  I n a d d i t i o n t o r e v e a l i n g t h a t X i n by no means a r e c k l e s s who was i n c a p a b l e has  o f e x e r c i s i n g c o n t r o l and r e s t r a i n t ,  become t h e r e f l e c t i o n o f a t u r b u l e n t  symbolize the u n f u l f i l l e d Through  h i s poetry,  personal  misfortune  divided and  nation.  subsequently  beginning bigger  of a single  Whether  of the Northern  political  eventual  comes t o f e e l  role  Song  t h a t X i n had been a wasted t a l e n t .  the  man  i s also  X i n was n o t o n l y the  same  frequently  sentiment:  (1906-?)  was o f t e n  employed  a man o f h e r o i c  "heroic"  Zheng Q i a n poetic  (heroic)" that  ^  regret  throughout  h i s ci a l s o  vigorous, has t h i s  left  a  later  used t o d e s c r i b e X i n  to characterized  nature,  a  But the  i n 1 2 7 9 A.D.  generations  "hao  and  remains debatable.  sense  word  sadness  united,  i f X i n had been g i v e n  lingering  The  t h e sorrow and  which had c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e  Song p e r i o d  of the Southern of  China.  i n d i v i d u a l but the sorrow of a  the vigor  and m i l i t a r y  downfall  e r a , a n d X i n h a s come t o  t h e Song e m p i r e w o u l d h a v e b e e n  recovered  man  h i s poetry  n a t i o n a l dream o f a u n i f i e d Song  one n o t o n l y  an  powerful,  Xin's c i . demonstrate  and dynamic.  t o say about X i n ' s  heroic  style:  "The v o i c e a n d t h e a t t i t u d e a r e s t r o n g a n d m a n l y , t h e s p i r i t and t h e c o l o r a r e b r i s k and s w e e p i n g , t h e l i n e s are u n t r a m m e l l e d and f r e e , and t h e v e r s e s a r e s o l i d and c l e a r - c u t . " 9  This (diangu  heroic ^  tyt  s t y l e i s best ).  This  r e f l e c t e d i n h i s use o f a l l u s i o n  poetic  device,  due t o i t s  evocative  7 p o w e r , a l l o w s X i n f i r s t o f a l l , t o s a y more. dragon  suddenly  set  rampant.  He  classics,  histories,  famous  f r e e i n the  rampages t h r o u g h  people,  giving  distinctive classical But such  an  the  blunt  expression, packed,  grief.  power  a  term  can  quoting  the  biographies  Xin's  c i  a  of  very  t o make s t a t e m e n t s  of  this  be  ^  but  indirectness in to the  tightly-  spring.  Xin's  bravado  aptly " which  sorrows  forceful  in  compared  l a y e r s of  which  "accumulated  keenly observed  Xin  compressed  many  i s " j i yu as  of  and  h i s message a p p e a r s  Because  of  through  Chinese  abandonment  allows  poetic feeling  i t s way  poets,  category  that  sharp.  the  coiled  translated  allusion  manner  or  The  this  history,  was  flavor.  of  indirect  never  forces  use  earlier  imprisoned  i n h i s ci,  wilderness, Xin  the pages of  works of  L i k e an  suppressed captures can  be  sorrow this  more  and  coiled  literally  and/or melancholy".  by Chen T i n g z h u o ( 1 8 5 3 - 1 8 9 2 ) 7 ^ . i£. 'Jv^  This  is  :  "Xin J i a x u a n i s t h e d r a g o n o f t h e ci world. His b r e a d t h o f s p i r i t i s immensely h e r o i c but h i s realm of ideas i s sorrow-laden." 1 0  Thus, style  like  exhibits  h i s unusual  blend  an  combination  unusual  directness-indirectness,  of  abilities, of  Xin's  poetic  characteristics:  e x p r e s s i v e n e s s - s u b t l e t y , abandonment-  apprehension,  boldness-hesistancy, dauntlessness-fearfulness.  But  i s always s o r r o w f u l .  his poetry  aptly s t r o n g , f i e r c e and  captures intense  this  The  aspect  of  comment i n t h e Song X i n ' s ci:  Shi  "sorrowful,  8 Xin's  inner  his  idealistic  and  illustrated  in  Chapter  inner  conflicts  i s best  I t i s through t h i s  hesistancy,  The  reader  and f e a r  comes  p o e t i c medium  (discussed that  Xin's  become more p r o n o u n c e d  t o s e e a man  a n d t r a p p e d by h i s own  forces,  reflected  i n h i s use o f comparison and c o n t r a s t  struggle,  haunted  of opposing  world view versus h i s r e a l i s m ,  Three).  poignant.  and t h e i n t e r p l a y  idealism.  who  and  i s constantly  In order t o bring out  t h e s h a r p c o n t r a s t a n d t o compare t h e d i f f e r e n c e s , X i n i n h i s c i , often  resorts  to a  variety  of d i c t i o n  and  format,  giving  f r e s h n e s s and r i c h n e s s t o h i s c i . Unable unwilling  to detach  from  the world of p o l i t i c s  t o compromise h i m s e l f , X i n r e t r e a t e d  humor, where farce.  himself  he  Chapter  Xin's sorrow.  turns Four  h i s anger  into  the world of  and f r u s t r a t i o n  i s an e x p l o r a t i o n  and  into  of t h e amusing  poetic side  of  Zheng Q i a n h a s t h i s comment a b o u t X i n t h e man:  " H s i n C h i a - h s u a n a l w a y s pushes h i m s e l f from t h e open i n t o t h e n a r r o w , a n d he d o e s t h e same i n h i s l y r i c s . The more u n p l e a s a n t t h e e v e n t i s , t h e h a r d e r i t becomes f o r him t o f o r g e t . " 1 2  It  i s this  inability his  humor  inability  to forget  t o c h a n g e , o r t o t r a n s c e n d h i s own an element  of sadness.  Four not o n l y demonstrate Not  only  c a n he  seamlessly, language.  unpleasantness i n l i f e  discussed  that  turn  classical classical  sources  phrases  as w e l l .  into  into  gives  i n Chapter  Xin's w i t but h i s v e r s a t i l i t y  incorporate  he c a n a l s o  The ci  sorrow,  and h i s  hisc i  colloquial  9 X i n ' s s o r r o w h a s a s much t o d o w i t h X i n t h e man a s w i t h t h e time  i n which  he was  born  t w e n t y - s e v e n t h , 1140 A.D.  and r a i s e d .  r e i g n o f Gao Zong  was Shao X i n g in  the d i s t r i c t  Jin-occupied  )•  , (the o f f i c i a l  ^  , Qi  their  jjj^  own.  Jiaxuan  ,  .  by t h e J i n .  ruling  over  Dominating  a culture  such  a  r e q u i r e d more t h a n m i l i t a r y their  After this  initial  so s t r o n g  control.  .  this  part  of China  of China,  and c u l t u r a l l y  stage of  than  their  united  In the early  towards  was  t h e J i n found  more s o p h i s t i c a t e d  policy  He g a v e  race  stages of  the Chinese  was  p e r i o d , s i n i c i z a t i o n began t o t a k e p l a c e ,  First,  the d u a l i s t i c  not o n l y f a i l e d t o a l t e r  bureaucratic  j[  %  control.  two r e a s o n s .  even r e i n f o r c e d grew  Ijj  was  c o m b i n i n g a l e n i e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a p p r o a c h w i t h an  iron-clad military  period  Xin's z i  In the i n i t i a l  1 4  force alone.  occupation, the Jin's  conciliatory,  for  huge  i n the  1 3  occupation of the northern part  1 5  prefecture,  i w h i c h he l a t e r c h a n g e d t o Y o u ' a n  and conquered  themselves  name o f h i s r e i g n  ;ij  F o u r t e e n y e a r s b e f o r e X i n was b o r n , invaded  May  X i n was b o r n i n S i f e n g Zha \&)  o f L i Cheng  h i m s e l f t h e hao  on  l u n a r month, t h e t e n t h y e a r o f  p r o v i n c e o f Shandong  iS. j \  Tanfu  <Z]  %1£  born  According t o the Chinese calendar, i t  was t h e e l e v e n t h d a y o f t h e f i f t h the  X i n was  i t .  of the early  the Chinese s o c i a l  s t r u c t u r e but  S e c o n d , t h e power o f r e g i o n a l J i n o f f i c i a l s  that  system  approach  only could  The C h i n e s e  the adoption enable  of the f u l l  t h e J i n government t o  bureaucratic  system,  which  Chinese retain  stresses the  absolute authority  o f t h e emperor,  the  central  power  of  the  was  perfect  government.  s i n i c i z a t i o n served the purpose of  for strengthening  Hence,  the  process  of  centralizaton.  The p o l i c y o f s i n i c i z a t i o n and t h e J i n e m p e r o r L i a n g ' s (1122-1161)  ruthless  consolidation  of  h i s own  power  i n c e n t i v e to Chinese peasant u p r i s i n g s i n the north. of  sinicization  reinforced  i d e n t i t y , w h i c h was against  the  the  Chinese  one o f t h e d r i v i n g  "barbarians".  o f e a s t e r n Henan ;^ "jf f & L  '  a n <  ^  ^  activities.  war  worsened  local  local  that was  resentment.  resentment i n such  an  young g u e r r i l l a  into  food  The  , was groups  situation;  an  activities inferno  environment  as  little  "an  Changduan  eight, y\  Kaifeng 1 7  period."  J u Biannian  when X i n was  ).  that  But  rebellions  o c c u p a t i o n , the  a center of  sprang  up.  anti-  Years  frustration, added t o t h e  of g u e r r i l l a  fierceness  groups  turned  the J i n .  X i n was  g r e w up  born  and  of  hunger,  of h a t r e d towards  born u n t i l  i s known a b o u t X i n .  obscure  national  It  as  a  fighter.  From t h e t i m e he was 1162,  process  which covered the p r o v i n c e s  d e s p e r a t i o n , and n a t i o n a l h u m i l i a t i o n a l l of  of  much  , s o u t h - w e s t e r n Shandong, n o r t h e r n A n h u i  Numerous g u e r r i l l a the  sense  the J i n ' s  northern Jiangsu ;J_  Jin  The  forces of t h e i r  Throughout  a r e a n o r t h o f t h e H u a i R i v e r /|t ;"^J  gave  1 6  $k he  t h e y e a r he moved s o u t h i n  I r v i n g Lo d e s c r i b e d t h i s  C a i and  Cai  - I l iX  *7  \\  was  with  offer  no  book  Jiaxuan  > said  h i s g r a n d f a t h e r Zan  (the present d i s t r i c t they  in their  %  o f K a i f e n g i n Henan  explanation  period  or  solid  that , in ?*j  historical  11  documents brief  i n support  account  "obscure  i n h i s essay  (Meiqin Shilun  "The  assertion.  of h i s f a m i l y background  boyhood"  Discourses  of their  family  allotted  line  a piece  "A  X i n himself and a g l i m p s e  of this of land  )":  to  leave  subject  (XinQiji)  i n Jinan  My  \%]  grandfather  because  of  he t o o k  office  Shamefully, stayed  duties.  i n Jingshi  having  a  under  *j\  district  ) and Bozhou  ^  }t\  (the Yi) in  barbarians. at that  i n Suzhou  time  (Suxian,  province of Anhui  A n h u i ) , and passed  district by Y i iff  p r o v i n c e o f Shandong, i n t h e d i s t r i c t o f  and H a i  ( i n t h e p r e s e n t p r o v i n c e o f Shandong, of Haicheng  fj^  ).  But a l l these  were n o t h i s g o a l s i n l i f e .  Oftentimes,  supper,  along  he w o u l d  b r i n g me,  some h i g h p l a c e s . l a n d , he would rivers.  order live  He  present  the d i s t r i c t  and  unable  family.  ( i nthe present  o f Bo, i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f  For  entrusted  large  (the capital  o f Su, i n t h e  was  .  Z a n , was  the  was K a i f e n g ) , s u c c e s s i v e l y s t a y e d the present  of h i s  18  g e n e r a t i o n s , we r e c e i v e d t h e h o n o r o f b e i n g with m i l i t a r y  direct  twice,  he  with  a f a r and broad  affert  e  my p e e r s ,  r to  view o f the  our a t t e n t i o n t o the mountains  Thinking of starting  to relieve under  Having  the grief  hostilities  and i n  and v e x a t i o n o f having  to  t h e same s k y w i t h h i s f a t h e r ' s m u r d e r e r s , ordered  me  a  Humble O f f e r i n g o f Ten  ~f 1^1  •  gave  t o accompany  account  clerks  (those  who  capital) lay  of  took  provincial  to the the  capital.  land.  My  t h e s e p l a n s were Deng  Guangming $1  T finding  -f  title  for  called  Wenyu  Master  for Palace  are  no  ^  found  Jinan  /  he was  genealogy  was  the  records  #r  .  Xin's  adminstrator  great  of  \  Shandong, i n the d i s t r i c t At Studying  the  age  under  Dang H u a i y i n g  of  ten,  L i u at  their  area, 21  6b.  5b)  i n the .  Xin's  X i n and  \\.  Xin's  served  as  ( i n the ^  became a  was  of  Grand  ^  .  There  of  Xin  Xin in  of this  grandfather (rank  was  9a) (flp  R e v e n u e Manager present  and  province  of  2 0  L i u Zhan  later  Jjfj  $/f  student passed  named  the J i n  famous J i n s c h o l a r .  Dang w e r e o f t e n m e n t i o n e d  a  title  recorded  another  who  ), father  Genealogy  ).  was  Grand  father's l i f e .  Also  X i n s t u d i e d under  and  A.  %.  the Gentleman C o n f u c i a n  same t i m e  jtt.  t h a t he was  great-great  ''j  Jiaxuan  ^  ^  his  (1134-1211)  s e r v i c e examination  Dang.  rank  5a o r  of Huimin  the  civil  and f|  of  grandfather  i n Binzhou  of  (Qing)  Tafu  »B  given the p r e s t i g e t i t l e  before  Jf  concerning  that  away  Chronology  named Zan  family record  fact  the  g i v e n the s i m i l a r  L e i s u r e (rank  Ifc  would observe  Jiaxuan  official  Jiaxuan's  the  1 9  (Chaosan  and  historical  Qitai  an  Xin  indeed  f o r C l o s i n g Court  to  with Xin Qitai's  of was  records  passed  in his  agrees  that Xin's grandfather  prestige  grandfather  realized."  i n h i s Chronology  Master  T h e r e , we  ^ t%  -  financial  together  as  In Xin-  Xin  Qitai  also  states  k n o w l e d g e w h i l e he was 1153, the  X i n was  that  a young boy.  selected  as  one  Liu  B o j i /f>] \% jfjfl  d e f i n e s xiangju and/or  examination  for various subjects.  Shi  , the  given.  that  and The  1124 .  candidates to  write  triennial  Xin  indeed  of  had  .  Xin states the  land  that  and  f r o m X i n Q i t a i , who  e v e n t was  the  not  as  one  L i a n g Qichao's  X i n was  visiting  e x p l i c i t l y that  nominated based  capital  be  no  reason  3  the  eighth. acknowledges  i s the  of  nominated  the  candidates for  that  Qianshan  This position  3W  unless I  i&  '$*  a->  n?  nominated  came  this t as  i s a l s o upheld  Xin's l i f e ,  Gazetteer_  the  account  An t h a t X i n was  r e s e a r c h on  t h e Jinan  own  there to inspect  Liang asserts  to believe  in his detailed  Sanchao  H o w e v e r , by h i s  h i s a s s e r t i o n on X i n Q i j i ' s own twice.  Jin  were  f o r the examination o r i g i n a l l y  candidate f o r the j i n s h i degree.  record i n either  nominated  examinations  degree  was  the  examination  (1873-1928) o p i n i o n i s t h a t  r e c o r d e d i n the Genealogy  t h e r e would  D e n g , who  of  he  £~  of candidates  explicitly  obtained his jinshi  22  e x a m i n a t i o n were h e l d  was  J-  the examination. claim  1129,  r e c o r d which  %L  According t o the  2 3  h e l d i n 1153  jEJL  t o be  Then t h e l i s t  government.  )-  jinshi  c a n d i d a t e was  After  e x a m i n a t i o n was  Bian  the  service  2 4  4k  <f> 4\  civil  only h i s t o r i c a l  account,  Xiangju  earliest  The  Beimenghui  The  t o the quota.  submitted to the c e n t r a l  1123  (Ling  as a c a n d i d a t e f o r e i t h e r  was  any  the l o c a l  of f o u r t e e n , i n  i n h i s Song da i Zhengjiaoshi  by h i s l o c a l o f f i c i a l s  of  A t t h e age  i degree  lay  of  r e c o g n i z e d f o r h i s wide  jinshi  it  in  X i n was  ft  d i d not jft  a by  find or  14 in  t h e Licheng  Gazetteer  b o t h Deng a n d L i a n g of  X i n merely  actual  I t w o u l d seem  dated  this  because they  event  could  i n 1153 i n t h e i r  n e i t h e r prove  that  chronology  nor d i s p r o v e i t s  occurrence.  The f i r s t warfare  was  time  that  Xin actively  participated i n guerrilla  i n 1 1 6 1 when he was t w e n t y - t w o y e a r s  old.  The J i n  emperor, L i a n g , l a u n c h e d a m a s s i v e m i l i t a r y a s s a u l t on t h e s o u t h . In  response,  under to  groups  event,  Offering  fifty  numbered more  forces  with  Xin's enhanced  an  altogether  X i n was t h e C h i e f  incident.  guerrilla  Duan -fy ) y  u n i t under  who l o v e d  x  Joined  One  introduced  Duan's.  o f "A h u m b l e  h i s own  guerrilla  people.  After  they  h a d two  coalition  iU  t o Geng  was  Jing's  d a y , Y i Duan s t o l e  fail,  him three  he was  willing  the o f f i c i a l  terms w i t h  Y i Duan t o Geng J i n g ,  to give  he  hundred  Secretary 4  t o engage X i n i n c o n v e r s a t i o n  Y i Duan's a c c o m p l i c e .  Geng J i n g should  Prior  27  ;  28  greatly  forces  was  t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f a. monk named Y i  X i n h a d b e e n on f r i e n d l y  of being  ,  forces  on m i l i t a r y  He a n d X i n s o o n became g o o d f r i e n d s due t o t h i s  interest. Since  two t h o u s a n d  p o s i t i o n i n the g u e r r i l l a by  affairs.  than  joined  i n h i s essay  X i n had formed  Geng J i n g ,  thousand people.  another  account,  o f Ten D i s c o u r s e s , "  which  joined  b y h i s own  i n the north  ( 1 0 9 5 - 1 1 6 2 ) J('K jf\  t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f Geng J i n g  this  unit  many g u e r r i l l a  s e a l and  fled.  Y i Duan a n d h a d a l s o  X i n was s u s p e c t e d  by Geng J i n g  To p r o v e h i s i n n o c e n c e , days  common  to capture  X i n asked  Y i Duan.  t o s u b s t i t u t e h i s own  head  I f he forYi  The i n c i d e n t e n d e d w i t h X i n r e t u r n i n g t o Geng J i n g  with  Y i Duan's h e a d . In  1 1 6 1 , X i n went  establish and  2 9  t o stage  forces.  towards  arrival  i n the south.  The  1^  guerrilla  when Geng J i n g  >ijj  followed.  unit  l e d b y Geng J i n g  Xin's biography  Zhang a l i v e  and  4|  Nansong  Shu  role  i n t h e Song  i s found  of Junior  ffl  /f  Shilong  was t h e p e r s o n  o f Donghai  The h i s t o r i c a l  N  #  j>  r o l e i n the events  ^ capital.  t h e Zhuzi  Yulei  Fuzhi_ A different  3 1  A  c  c  o  r  who a c t u a l l y  i f any, i n the capture  records:  o f W e i Sheng  '  that  Shi s t a t e s t h a t i t was X i n  by o t h e r  .  t$  sources  camp w i t h Wang S h i l o n g J_  Jinan  i n the biography  b y Zhang Y i n g  district  t o be r e t u r n e d t o t h e S o u t h e r n  , Kangxi  x  compiled  role,  (the present  t o the north.  This v e r s i o n i s a l s o supported 4"  their  i n t h e n o r t h came t o a n  do n o t a g r e e o n X i n ' s e x a c t  captured  upon  Xin  was a s s a s s i n a t e d b y Zhang Anguo  who went i n t o the, J i n m i l i t a r y and  wanted  Service  ) , o n h i s way b a c k  t h i s event  Jing Song  who was i l l i t e r a t e .  X i n was g i v e n t h e p r e s t i g e t i t l e  A t t h a t t i m e , X i n was i n H a i z h o u  on  Geng  the Southern  o f t h e envoys were welcomed a s h e r o e s  Gentleman f o r Rendering  ^  i n the north  I n response,  offensive with  t o accompany J i a R u i  the rest  end  was t o  A t t h a t t i m e , t h e J i n emperor  the south.  a coordinated  unit  trip  X i n was c h o s e n f o r t h i s m i s s i o n b e c a u s e Geng J i n g  a literatus and  Song g o v e r n m e n t .  was a d v a n c i n g  wanted  The p u r p o s e o f t h i s  communication between t h e g u e r r i l l a  t h e Southern  Liang  south.  d  i  n  9  t  version of Xin's  j$?  (1120-1164) o  t h i s account,  captured  o f Zhang w i l l  Zhang.  never  3 2  ,  Wang Xin's  be c l e a r ; i t  16 would  seem, h o w e v e r ,  Deng s a y s  that  t h a t the f i r s t  was  helpful  class credit  i n capturing  Zhang.  s h o u l d be a w a r d e d t o X i n .  The  guerrilla  death  of  Geng  and  X i n began h i s permanent r e s i d e n c e i n t h e s o u t h  in  1162.  Xin  unit  he  was  born  divided  in half  rule  the  of  witnessed foreign his  allowed  him  sentiment the  in  As  a Chinese,  to t r a i n  as  the  as  Song  from  the  hand  s h a p e d X i n i n t o a man But  in  different  the  from  the  t o be  political But  of  north.  3 4  For  liberating  i n the  i n s t e a d , he  be was  The  Zan  his  the  he  under as  the In  t h e mood  played  spirit.  north,  the  to  north,  an Xin,  was  save the  to his  times  action.  rest  center  was  of h i s l i f e was  of  dominated i n the  by  south, He  c o u l d make m a j o r  myriads  local  drastically  unfulfilled.  w h e r e he  leader one  was  court  homeland  given  also  anti-Jin  s e n s e o f m i s s i o n - he  ruling  the  iron  activities,  strong  his patriotic  n a t i o n a l mood  The  the  same f a t e  guerrilla  leader.  emeny.  political  d e c i s i o n and  of  recapture  o f m i s s i o n and  pro-appeasement p e o p l e . dream  a clear  the  was  of h i s l i f e ,  s u f f e r e d the  grandfather  the  south,  under  t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s was  to  of  He  g r e w up  nation  his national pride humiliated.  and m o l d i n g  government  His  he  center  His  a l r e a d y had  upheaval.  Jing,  the hardship of l i v i n g  a guerrilla  well.  the  twenty-two years  s u f f e r i n g and  r o l e i n shaping  the  again.  born.  first  Shandong,  a s a y o u n g man,  longed  was  social  i n the n o r t h l e d him  important  Xin's  of  h i s freedom denied,  south  people  he  In the  domination.  up  time  before  Jin.  people,  help  at a  h i s people's  Growing  in  disintegrated after  3 3  of  soldiers  adminstrative  post  17  after  another.  w h i c h he  was  t h o u g h t he  A f t e r he the  He  never g i v e n  in  moved s o u t h ,  the  information travelling years.*  X i n was  have  on  where  i n the  Wu  been  Jinling  he  was  and  a  1165.  Chu  no  period  of  speculation  post  life.  He  claim  regions  Xin  was  indeed  comes f r o m C a i  and  Cai  Wuchu Kao their  "f  that  several observations.  Controller-General p o s t i n 1162  and  was  the  for three  term should  he  Xin  might  have ended i n  the  was  of  unclea'r that  Xin  region. in  the  C a i and  F i r s t , the  years only.  in  province  Wu  a r t i c l e "Xin Q i j i 6  was three  suggested  il.  this  next  that  he  to  solid  that  roaming  that  ^  left  much  i n the  also  .  1  c l a i m on  was  travelling  in their  He  f o r the  ify j$\  might have been w a n d e r i n g i n the Wujiang A  and  Deng a d m i t t e d  Xin's  isn't  more t h a n s p e c u l a t e  Nanjing  3 5  •  regions  government  ) area. this  power  the post of A s s i s t a n t  There  except  (present:  Jiangsu about  of  Qichao d i d  without  given  i n J i a n g y i n ;£  beginning  Liang  s t a t u s and  deserved.  Controller-General  post  the p o l i t i c a l  Cai  position  Xin accepted  and  Chu  Manyao based of  the  this  1165.  * Wu was t h e m o s t e a s t e r l y o f t h e s t a t e s i n t h e T h r e e K i n g d o m s p e r i o d (229-280 A.D.). I t c o m p r i s e d Z h e j i a n g and areas n o r t h w e s t o f i t . Chu was a k i n g d o m f r o m t h e W a r r i n g States period. I t c o v e r e d t h e p r e s e n t a r e a s o f Hunan, H u b e i , J i a n g s u , and Jiangxi.  18 The  second p i e c e of evidence  which they used t o  t h e i r c l a i m i s t h e m e e t i n g between X i a Zhongyu Xin.  B e c a u s e X i a was  district and  Cai  of  Jiangdu  assumed  Guiji ^  ^|  province  of  from Yangzhou ;£  that  , i n the  X i n and  X i a met  (the present Zhejiang  district  ;Jf| ;X  )•  province either  of  But  for  Zhongyu  ^  the *|_  a c t u a l l y met In  the  slipped  purpose  ^  i .  of  i n Yangzhou or G u i j i same a r t i c l e ,  into  intelligence.  Jin  the  territory  They b a s e t h e i r  in  , in  c i to X i a ,  with  Xia's  the  beside  ci  was  (he  Xia  i n d i c a t i o n t h a t X i n and period.  also state that  for  Cai  s t a t e s t h a t the c i  during this  Cais  the  of J i a n g s u ) ,  S h a o x i n g t% J2§  harmonizing  and  i n Yangzhou or  i n Xin's  ) i t h e r e i s no  f.  (present:  the note i n the preface which s p e c i f i c a l l y written  ^  ")\\  %^  support  the  purpose  a s s e r t i o n on  Xia  3 7  i n 1167, of  Xin  gathering  the character  "sai  f /L  " which  Xin  f r e q u e n t l y uses  i n Deng G u a n g m i n g ' s o l d e d i t i o n  ffjL $t ^ Chunhan  i & -fr  \  ^  pattern asserting  there  t e r m "chusai  "Ye  Jinmen  that  dividing  According  Ci  was  a  ci  the  *§f  line  observations,  " as a n o t h e r ^  character  ". "sai"  which they  between Cai  and  the Cai  But  should  take  i t as  north  and  edition,  Deng  name f o r t h e  tune  Cais  believed that  J i n ' s occupied  disagree,  i n t e r p r e t e d as  south. the  territory.  the area,  Based  term  a c t u a l l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t X i n d i d i n f a c t sneak i n t o the f r o n t i e r " w h i c h was  "Chusai  the Huai R i v e r the  them,  Jianzhu  titled  both be  to  Biannian  I n t h e new  "dangerous f r o n t i e r " ,  these  o f Jiaxuan  Yougan  d e f i n e s the  the  ,  i n his ci.  on  "chusai"  "dangerous  Cai 7] of  and  C a i a l s o c i t e t h e p h r a s e "qingyou  " from X i n ' s  evidence  essay  supporting  Gengru  |  'Qianru  Jingguo  character temporal  zhi  Shi  ^  fcjl  "qing  immediacy, or  Gengru  phrase.  favors  Therefore  the  d a y s when X i n was The is  the  " has  two  hardly  Qiji  meanings:  three  said  "qingyou  to  be  by  X  ^  argues  that  the  i t can  indicate  or  i n the  "past".  Xin  Qiji's  Yu  Yunwen  to  after  he  supposedly  to X i n Gengru, "temporal  could  fighter  the  northerners  north.  have been  Southern  too  Song who  government's  moved s o u t h  "three  immediacy."  only  i n the  point  to  X i n argues that s l i p p i n g big a  risk  for Xin Q i j i  a r o u s e more s u s p i c i o n o f h i s l o y a l t y on  back to  the J i n ' s t o the  take,  the  north.  suspicious  after  Xin  Bingwu  ^  h i s essay  years  beifang"  a young g u e r r i l l a  ^  in interpreting  then, according be  4-  article  submitted  piece  Nanguihou  mean " f o r m e r l y "  t o have  another  i s repudiated  tff]  in this  as  k\ j | f  second p o i n t which X i n Gengru r a i s e s t o r e f u t e the  towards the of  fa  i n 1170,  phrase  "Xin  Gengru  into J i n territory, can  This  second meaning  iL t  after"  claim  %  i t can  the  I f X i n were  (1110-1174) I  years  claim.  in his article 1  slipped  Nine Discourses"  their  Xin  Xin  "The  beifang  Cais'  attitude invasion  north  would  since  i t would  the p a r t of the  Southern  Song g o v e r n m e n t . The did  m o s t one  in fact  familiar  travel  can  broadly  w i t h the area.  the northern  infer  r e g i o n has  from i n the  Xin's  Xin's  phrase  northern  r e g i o n and  k n o w l e d g e o f and  b e e n a s s e r t e d by  i s that Xin was  familiarity  Cheng B i  Qiji quite with  (1164-1242) ^£  20 p^i over  -/f,  ;  "Qiji  t h e n o r t h e r n r e g i o n when he was y o u n g . jt  f o o l e d him  Indeed, Xin's  J<  J i ii  i n h i s Mingshui  j  ?  i  t h e Wu  c i , as both  £  ft  :M  travelled a l l  No one c o u l d h a v e  ^  f  t  4.  ^  a n d Chu r e g i o n s w e r e f r e q u e n t l y m e n t i o n e d Cais observed  i n their  s e v e r a l c i i n support of t h e i r a s s e r t i o n . To t h e Tune o f Qingping  article.  Iii  «  For example:  Le_  M  #  W h i c h h o u s e h o l d do those white haired o l d f o l k s  o  n  t  t  % it  To t h e Tune o f Qingping  belong  H "ffi  "When I was y o u n g , I d r a n k  t o excess  Jf  -ft  -ft  Wakened i n r e m i n i s c e n c e o f t h e Wu  Writing a farewell c i to a friend To t h e Tune o f Z a u y a o Ling "If  t h e Wu f o l k s  4 0  y  Le  1  to?"  river."  '*  f? * x  by t h e r i v e r a s k a b o u t  M I * it  %  4 1  r e t u r n i n g t o t h e Wu  me  in  They.cite  "The Wu d i a l e c t s o u n d s w o n d e r f u l w h i l e spoken i n t i p s y p l a y f u l n e s s .  a?  1  region:  One  by o n e , I may  -  -  From t h e f r e q u e n t is  safe  likely  t r o u b l e you t o t e l l  %\  -%  tL  that  Xin travelled  i n his ci,i t  i n that  area,  event  i n Xin's  of the essay  also t i t l e d  "Yurong  Xin Qitai  life  during  this  "A Humble O f f e r i n g  Shilun  ^  j " 1^7  5^  a l l put i t s composition  o f Ten ".  i n 1165.  period  Linzhu  d a t e s it  -|  The  i n 1168.  of composition  or submission  when c o m p a r e d  t o the content  of t h i s  i s a clear  pragmatism.  He  truly  lived  -Jk  Xionghe  i s rather  essay.  Jiang  4 4  secondary  I r v i n g Lo g i v e s  English version  i n d i c a t i o n of Xin's  and  4 5  time  much s h o r t e n e d a n d s i m p l i f i e d  the  Deng, L i a n g , Wu  4 3  was  Discourses",  p u t s t h e y e a r o f c o m p o s i t i o n b e t w e e n 1168 t o 1 1 6 9 .  essay  most  b e t w e e n 1165 t o 1 1 6 8 .  composition  Qiji  42  m e n t i o n o f t h e Wu a n d Chu r e g i o n s  to conjecture  Another  y£a  them."  i n h i s book.  military  brilliance  jjfC  -j£  This  and h i s  up t o Zhu X i ' s comment o f h i m :  knows m i l i t a r y a f f a i r s q u i t e w e l l  a  "Xin  \\  %\  ^1.^46 The are that  i s divided  an a n a l y s i s  Further,  better  the  north  the  best  into ten discourses.  of  t h e enemy  the strategy  f o r the Southern  was  appropriately  defense  The  o f t h e w e a k n e s s e s o f t h e enemy.  the strength  spying. even  essay  c a n be  accurately  first  X i n proposes assessed  o f d i v i d e and conquer would Song  i f the a n t i - J i n  exploited.  i s a good o f f e n s e .  The  Xin also  three  by  work  sentiment i n believed  r e s t of the essay  that was  devoted  to the  symbolic annual  need  moving  to strengthen defense.  of  tribute  the  capital  i n order  g o v e r n m e n t was  to J i n l i n g  to demonstrate  To  defend  recruitment being from  of  familiar  the  local with  recruiting  the  setting  a  stated,  province and  was  rather  reward  halt  to  the  than a t t a c k i n g  Xin  and  the  Southern  Song  Furthermore,  the  advantage  also prevent  of  the J i n  stop the flow of  morale  the  the  advocated  the  further  raising  system  attack  region,  To  to  to the s e c u r i t y of  This could  made e r r o r s .  important point  t h o s e n o r t h e r n e r s who they were  advocating well  i n the  lenient  army  by  treatment  of  L a s t l y , the route to v i c t o r y ,  enemy's m a i n  less  vital  body  in  Shandong  a r e a s such as t h e  as  called.  that  these people would  framework. these  The  4 7  sixth  be  head  Xin  also  notes  Ren,  and  c r e a t e problems by  putting  The  of  their  cause were  overlooked i n  t o be  that  skilled  the  problem  t o farm  said and  A.  course  of  farmers  southerners  as  were  the g a t h e r i n g of  i n the s o u t h . the  towards jL  i n the  feared that  uprisings,  given land  Ren  discourse,  trained  t h i s -bias  people  s h o u l d not  of the southerner's h o s t i l i t y  t h e s e p e o p l e be  soldiers,  correct  which  moved s o u t h , t h e Guizheng  s u s p i c i o u s o f t h e Guizheng  If  the  a l r e a d y had  people.  t h i s essay i s X i n ' s mention  to  a  the  tail. Another  as  who  advocated  c o m p e t e n t l e a d e r s who Xin  that  crucial  River  people  local  Xin also fair  Huai  the area.  defectors, up  and  s e r i o u s about ' r e c a p t u r i n g the n o r t h .  t h e d e f e n s e o f t h e H u a i R i v e r was South.  Xin suggested  4 8  X i n attempted  into  an  X i n , was food  economic hunger.  to eat,  the  c h a n c e s o f t h e i r m a k i n g t r o u b l e w o u l d be It  is  significant  discrimination the  rest  The  people  robbers  of  which  by  the  the  southerners. as  Jin  were  treated  south, their  patriots  i n the  who  as  name o f  by  treated  essay.  this as  For  problem.  bandits  fighters,  had  bravely struggled against  trouble-makers  freedom. of  After  like  and Xin, the  exploiting  these  being  of  people  certain  the moved  to return  to  o l d p r o f e s s i o n as r o b b e r s and b a n d i t s .  the  after  River,  Ren  Gao  established  Zong  was  one  sentiment  revitalize  fervor. the  The  strong  economy  Guizheng  k e e p a c l o s e w a t c h on activities.  A  set of  t h e Guizheng  Ren.  50  the  of  this  south  of  across  policy  problem. the  the  Huai  nation.  a political  gesture  E c o n o m i c a l l y , the n o r t h e r n e r s c o u l d h e l p  Ren  i n the  south  enjoyed  them a n d  Southerners.  F o l l o w i n g the  government a l s o h a r b o r e d  towards  was policy  expertise in  privileges  and  4 9  t h e s e p e o p l e was  t o keep a t i g h t  restrictions  military  with their  some s p e c i a l  a t t h e same t i m e t h e p o l i c y  slight  the causes  h i s empire  was  b e n e f i t s w h i c h were d e n i e d t o t h e But  of  t h e n o r t h e r n e r s t o move s o u t h was  to sustain t h i s  farming.  Song g o v e r n m e n t ' s v a c i l l a t i n g  Guizheng  anti-Jin  Encouraging  and  in this  plagued  and  problem  guerrilla  t h e y were w i d e l y s u s p e c t e d  towards  to  faced  the  The  mere  Apparently the Southern  Just  Ren  n o r t h were seen  seen  situation  mentioned  X i n h i m s e l f was  were n o t but  Xin  t h e Guizheng  his life, from  that  reduced.  l i d on  imposed of ,"  the  a deep m i s t r u s t towards  a l l their  specifically  "stress  the  on  civil,  Southern the  to  Song  military.  In  addition  was  a  Guizheng  unpopular to  t o h i s untrammelled Ren  with  t h e emperor  and a  the ruling which  personality,  former class;  stressed  t h a t much more u n p o p u l a r w i t h  guerrilla  presenting  h i s pro-war  the fact  that X i n  fighter  made h i m  a military  strategy  stance only  made h i m  t h e pro-appeasement group.  F r o m 1168 t o 1 1 7 0 , X i n was C o n t r o l l e r — g e n e r a l ^  (the present d i s t r i c t ij  i n the province  s  a post  of Jiangsu).  During  this  period,  Liang  L a t e r i n 1 1 7 0 , X i n was  Xiri wrote ( J i u Yi  Qichao,  "jl  position  the trend from  Discourses"  strong  pro-war  i n this  emphasized essay;  content. The  theme  systematic recapture the  of  this  time,  program o f p r e p a r a t i o n of the north  rulers  alike.  minister  established  and X i n  "A H u m b l e O f f e r i n g essay.  o f Ten  Furthermore,  the importance  since  essay  essay  o b s e r v e s t h a t by  X i n was  Liang  of having  working  a  i n the  h i s j o b h a d a n i n f l u e n c e on  Deng Guangming a g r e e d w i t h L i a n g ' s  5 2  another  As a r e s u l t , X i n s w i t c h e d h i s  i n this  Ministry of A g r i c u l t u r e at that the  given  a n a l y s i s , puts the  Liang  solidly  i n the essay  Xin heavily  economy  was  irreversible.  t o pro-defense  conjectures,  ^]  a t the Court  • )" t o the prime  i n h i s contextual  the appeasement p o l i c y  considered  j | _ ;l?  and s u b m i t t e d  d a t e o f s u b m i s s i o n o f t h i s e s s a y i n 1170. 1170,  t Nanjing  ^  *J  "Nine D i s c u s s i o n s  Yu Yunwen.  ^  iX  i n the Recorder A s s i s t a n t Magistrate  of National Granaries  titled  of Jiangning  i n Jiankang  i s the necessity f o r war.  observation. of having  X i n believed  5 3  a  that the  was a m o r a l o b l i g a t i o n f o r t h e r u l e d a n d  The  leaders  o f t h e -nation  should  n o t be  discouraged the  by  one  defeat  will  to  actually  had  military  strength.  either  fight.  Moreover,  p l e n t y of  through  (the Defeat  the  intimidation  economy  national first  essay  to  government's suggested north.  could  budget.  The  the  Southern  which  ^  ( J a o zhi  and  strengthened  by  emperor.  move w o u l d  To  recover  lost  restraint. upholds upright;  The  Xin  would  suggested in  speak  comments i n t h e Song  Xin's  Southern  Song  X i n once  again  the  people  to  i n the  the  north  Song g o v e r n m e n t .  his  mind  without  much he  h i s d i s c u s s i o n [with reference to history]  i s strong  and  to ingratiate  the  two  next  Chuzhou  years,  (the present  A n h u i ) and  given  the post  town. been  ;4?  %f]  JL,  1 1 7 2 - 1 1 7 3 , X i n was district  o f Chu,  of Administrator  Chuzhou, X i n t r a n s f o r m e d  prosperous  $  was  blunt  " [ t h e way]  i t i s not  Shi  the  in  o p i n i o n , X i n c o u l d be v e r y  just  be  is in a  (Nanjing), closer  t o the  into  that  For  in  could  and  ).  territory,  to Jiankang  demonstrate  regard to h i s b e l i e f He  translated  mentioned  demonstrate  lose  government  restraint  above p o i n t s were not  resolve to  stubborn.  and  ) i f one ZJ  *p  t h a t t h e y w e r e n o t d e s e r t e d by t h e S o u t h e r n In  Song  c o u l d be  { j i a o zhi  be  moving the c a p i t a l This  L i i n 1163)  two-pronged approach t o v i c t o r y  s u p e r i o r p o s i t i o n , or a t t r i t i o n that  the  resources  The  o f Fu  this  area  %  transferred to  i n the provine .  from a barren  had  ruined  reduced  to wasteland.  As  by  frequent  a first  warfare;  the  of  While  he  tract  into  Because of i t s p r o x i m i t y t o the Huai  region  A^C  was a  R i v e r , the farms  step towards recovery, X i n  were put  in  a request t o the central  region  be e x e m p t e d  from  government  tax.  This  that  the people i n t h i s  r e q u e s t was g r a n t e d .  t h e e x e m p t e d money was u s e d t o b u i l d more h o u s i n g . trade  i n this  goods. house  area,  X i n reduced  As a r e s u l t ,  t a x e s by t h i r t y  i t became a b u s t l i n g  To  Then,  stimulate  p e r c e n t on a l l  trading  center.  To  t h e m e r c h a n t s , X i n b u i l t a t a v e r n a n d named i t t h e F a n x i o n g  Guan  ft  constructed  .  Above  f o r singing  Lou  this  tavern,  was  a n d d a n c i n g w h i c h was named t h e D i a n z h e n  Xin's achievements  was a n a b l e  another b u i l d i n g  and competent  i n Chuzhou d e m o n s t r a t e The Song  administrator.  Shi  had  he this  comment a b o u t X i n ' s p e r f o r m a n c e w h i l e he was t h e A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f Chuzhou: service refugees;  "[Xin]  was  lenient  and t a x a t i o n ; instructed  he  recalled  tk,  i t  l\  ify  t  big political  prime m i n i s t e r  .»56  Commission  praising  I  for military  had s c a t t e r e d  affairs  n  1  1  7  4  ,  x  n  i n J i a n g d o n g ;X  adviser  ;X  as J u d i c i a l  cunning  t e a merchant  Wenzheng  ||[ ^  n  to Jiangxi e  fall,  a  was s t a g i n g  t  h  e  Jjt  ?  t h e new  man.  to the Director  X i n was t r a n s f e r r e d t  s  recommended h i m h i g h l y  v  ""jf .  n  a  i n 1174 when  the G r a n a r i e s Bureau ^  I  w  him as a c h i v a l r o u s and t a l e n t e d  was a p p o i n t e d a s t h e u n o f f i c i a l  4*IL ~, "H  ^ ^Jj^  flf_ i  as  and proposed  ^  b r e a k - t h r o u g h came  Ye Heng ( 1 1 2 1 - 1 1 8 3 ) 7f  t o t h e emperor, Xin  t h o s e who  colonies  #  Consultant a t the M i l i t a r y  His  people  the people i n m i l i t a r y  policy of establishing military i*U  i n drafting  63  of  I n t h e summer o f t h a t y e a r ,  a revolt  Commissioner  i n Hubei  named L a i ^  27 Xin  was  after  sent  there  several  as  official  m i l i t a r y experience of  L a i d i d not  fall,  bandits.  the  •  the  dual  X i n was  of  of  1176,  reported  refused  to  As  Lai  With  his  handling  executed  a  reward,  the  in  the  Xin  Imperial  was  Archives to  catch  Xin  approved.  6 1  j f  he  that  had  order an  one  d i d not taken  of  was  the  Next year  Commissioner  fyj  .  of  of Vice  In  the V i c e F i s c a l  the  he  that  Xin  Hubei.  He  59  was  Chamberlain  fall,  Xin's  want t o be  he  rope  t o be  stern. internal  so  stern  (execution).  appointments  in  the  6 0  ft] Jfc, £) for  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the  take  was  dealing  too  into  Zhou Y i g o n g  official  would  people  the  named  held  being  reported  dropping  In  Commissioner  for  sent  held  present  praised for his effective criticized  as  Fiscal  J i a n g l i n g ( i n the  j/"  by  and/or  .  title  official of  he  the  also  reported  fall  given  X i n was was  transferred to J i a n g x i  if'J  Military  s t o l e n a cow.  approve  r e a s o n t h a t he lives  ^  often enforced  was  L a i was  the  ^  X i n was  i t was  f o r having  in  3}  the  Although  bandits,  example,  t h a t he It  1178,  •  the  exile  failed.  with  f i g h t e r , Xin's  end.  X i n was  and  t o Hubei a g a i n as  ^  For  him  Compiler of  Administrator  Enforcement  transferred  with  of  H u b e i ) and  s p r i n g of Law  an  to deal  complimented f o r h i s a b i l i t i e s  Commissioner  posts  province  of  catch  emperor.  of Senior  C o m m i s s i o n e r o f J i a n g x i }£  the  to  revolt to  beginning  Judicial  the  Commissioner  5 8  In the a  attempts  disappoint  bringing  ?£\ ^'jf $\  J  Judicial  as a former g u e r r i l l a  promoted t o the post <P^,  a  future  the  human  had  he  28 At  the beginning  Hunan. title  o f 1 1 7 9 , he was t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m H u b e i t o  I t was a l s o i n t h i s y e a r " D i s c u s s i o n on B a n d i t s  t h a t he s u b m i t t e d  (Lun Daozei  Zhazi  ~?^] ^  "J" ) . " The c a u s e o f d i s t u r b a n c e s , X i n b l u n t l y c o r r u p t i o n and b r u t a l i t y stern  towards  officials denied he  and f i l e .  t h e b a n d i t s , h e was a l s o v e r y  t h a t he was b e i n g  establish  stern.  law and o r d e r ,  should  use the rules  t  ^  jfc.  Xin's coupled  ."  sternness  with  corruption admitted  created  himself:  people.  d i s a s t e r may s w i f t l y  In •rt'j  "Ruling the  x  t  t h e government  H~z ~t  Tj[  (  4^.  with  lest  follow  o f government  f o r himself. been I have  before  &  the bandits  &  ±  n o t been  Jf- $lj $  clerks  officials  of  As X i n f r a n k l y  stubborn,  my w o r d s  and  t a c t l e s s and accepted  leave %  my  by  mouth,  H,  t h e f a l l , X i n became t h e A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f T a n z h o u ;jjf  (the present  Hunan), a s w e l l time,  enemies  the years  I fear  how  62  " I have always Over  When he was a s k e d  l> K ^  accusation  more  towards t h e X i n had never  Controlling  f^, %  i n dealing  h i s blunt  self-confident. ordinary  tough  T r e a t i n g t h e s c h o l a r s , one  of propriety.  c l e r k s , o n e s h o u l d be s t e r n  - f ^  X i n was n o t o n l y  X i n answered:  common p e o p l e , o n e s h o u l d be l e n i e n t .  essay  d e c l a r e d was t h e  a n d t h i s a n g e r e d many o f h i s c o l l e a g u e s .  the fact  would  o f t h e rank  another  district  as the M i l i t a r y  the regions  activities.  o f C h a n g s h a -J^. /J/"  of Jiangxi  The l o c a l  Commissioner  a n d Hunan were  government  officials  i n the province of i n Hunan. centres  At that of bandit  apparently  w e r e no  29 match f o r these  "professional"  robbers.  X i n was  again sent  there  as a t r o u b l e - s h o o t e r . It  was  through  administrative to  their  powerful (xiang fifty  as  Xin's  well  fullest. groups,  s e i z e power  X i n smashed  to  f i l l  force.  He  submitted to  the  f o r the  size  by  funds  reply. the  huge  t o no  ^  and  cost  foot  the  )".  grand  avail.  village  immediately.  jf^  )  But  the  training  one  of the best  to Xin  camp was  societies  up  The  64  a  local  emperor which  of  the  of  second police  requesting  Xin  named  "The  r e c r u i t i n g s o l d i e r s w h i l e he  soldiers,  Xin's  request,  project. five  the  was  court  Xin planned  hundred  to  cavalry;  from Guangxi  There were o t h e r  j^f  officials to stop  ,  who  were  tried  Xin insisted  i n c o n t i n u i n g the p r o j e c t .  Xin  ordering  h i d the  tablet  completed. 6 6  The  him  to  until  the  Flying  I t even helped  E v e n t h e J i n was  stop  him  he  a p p r o a c h and  i n the a r e a .  the northern border.  local  t o a maximum  the emperor, a c t i n g s w i f t l y , sent a golden  ^  the  6 5  hundred horses  armour.  unhappy w i t h X i n ' s  to  Upon r e c e i v i n g  thousand  weapons and  setting  army u n i t  4j| K i  to purchase f i v e  pai  their  local  proposed  Finally,  reducing  a  two  times, but  the  his  demonstrated  hands of  base,  proposal  recruit  plus  the  were  their  a  Jun  X i n began r a i s i n g  alarmed  incident that  skills  from  power vacuum by  organize  F l y i n g T i g e r s (Feihu  was  this  Weapons w e r e c o n f i s c a t e d f r o m t h e m .  s t e p was  waiting  to  his military  ) , by  people.  permission  as  To  ^jjj*  she  approach  several  tablet the  (jinzi  project  c o n s t r u c t i o n of  T i g e r Army  became  i n the defense  r e p o r t e d t o be  fearful  of of  the F l y i n g T i g e r s . But trouble  the  6 7  birth  with  of  this  army  h i s enemies.  some e y e b r o w s , and  the  The  fact  unit  cost  plunged  of  this  that Xin could  Xin  into  deeper  p r o j e c t had  raised  r a i s e s u c h a huge  o f money i n s u c h a s h o r t t i m e a r o u s e d s u s p i c i o n a s he  had  used.  midst  of  that  Xin's  sole credit  does  with  t h e p r o j e c t was  f o r having  the  and  as  in  in  his  After  and  the  Nevertheless Zhu  6 8  ten-thousands.  i  A  4  Xin  His  #  fiL.  left  %  |  Hunan,  the  of  was  t h i n g s always got JL  and  was  They while  about  their  started to drunk.  7 1  Xin's  even  persistent  which  i n the  Song  Shi  spent  could  be  money  in  negotiating  done i . a m e d i a t e l y  enemies  /|_  ti)  quality  of  gangs.  i n broad  dealing  His  adroit  reputation of being  rob  69  aims.  own  the  Flying  of  arrogant  the  tough  into  loosely- knit  did  army.  in  I n s t e a d o f a w e l l - d i s c i p l i n e d army u n i t ,  group  he  about X i n ,  deteriorated. a  Bida  also  biography  amount [He]  He his  defiant  the  X i gave X i n  competent  pursuing  colleagues. huge  than  officials.  in  in  Zhou  t r a i n e d such a f i n e  more  made h i m  "The  [financial matters]; if,  costly.  methods  project  officials.  strong.  was  w e l l as  himself  comment:  measured  Xin  single-minded  a n n o y e d many o f this  too  the  t h i s p r o j e c t s t i r r e d up more c o n t r o v e r s y  bandits  confidence  many  organized  indicates that  enough  had  angered  s o l d i e r s for being  Although it  i n s i s t e n c e i n completing  oppositions  criticized praise  Xin's  to the  sum  The an  elite  to  i t turned  s o l d i e r s became  d a y l i g h t and  were q u i c k  Tigers  military killed  unit. people  blame X i n , but  a  better  e x p l a n a t i o n can  be  m a g i s t r a t e s i n Hunan. leadership.  The  Xiangyang  t%  trained  %^  problem proper  In  noted  y e a r , he  was  district  of  effective: who  ^  those  from  X i n was X  &  ^'f ^  as  spread  Military  refuse to s e l l  immediate  force w i l l The  powerful  people  to  rice  The  serious c r i s i s  Xi  the  border.  to  Zhu  communication  led.  control  By  Without  unit,  the  any  Flying  the  order  praised Xin  t h e end  province  orders  part  were  was  present as  of  Jiangxi,  in  i n charge  of  s t e r n but  be b a n i s h e d ;  $f  %  meant prices,  forbade  situation.  to  was  those  stop  the  worsening  stern  or  the other  measure  s e r i o u s economic  effectivness in bring  u n d e r c o n t r o l by u s i n g o n l y e i g h t c h a r a c t e r s . situation  very  t  robbers  This  i n an o t h e r w i s e  for his  o f t h e same  Jiangxi)  X i n was  rice will  raising  Compiler  of  Commissioner  clause  and  Senior  (the  executed  second  exploit  restored c i v i l  Zhu  be  first  keeping  situation.  the  due  a c r o s s J i a n g x i , and  t h o s e who  1 , 7 3  with  n a t i o n a l army u n i t s  being  .  i n the  His  •  the  transferred to  given the t i t l e  program.  Once t h e  the  of  7 2  later  shortage  crisis.  and  t  and  t o one  been  of  was  N a n c h a n g <^7  from  effectively  defense  to Longxing  fy\  suppliers  had  t r a n s f e r r e d back  s e i z e r i c e by  %  unit  problem  leaders  o f 1180,  F a m i n e had relief  Xi's letter  were o t h e r  the  the  Palace  Administrator  the  the  instructions  the f a l l Wen  for  that  the  clear  o f t h e You  of  , where t h e r e  between and  i n Zhu  b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e p r o b l e m was  control  Tiger d i s i n t e g r a t e d .  1181.  Zhu  specifically  perceptively  found  under c o n t r o l ,  a  7 4  X i n ' s second s t e p  was  to  make  areas. bring  interest-free The o n l y  back  rice  b e g a n t o come i n t o  title  t o people  to sell  locally.  Censor  and e f f i c i e n t l y  the f a l l Wang  from  One m o n t h  the affected region. solved.  other  was  the prestige  j j ^ t\  , sent  removal from o f f i c e .  rice  The f a m i n e c r i s i s  o f 1181, one o f X i n ' s  L i n j_  later,  He was g i v e n  o f Court Gentleman Consultant In  t o buy r i c e  c o n d i t i o n was t h a t w i t h i n one month t h e y h a d t o  some  effectively  loans  critics,  a petition  the Imperial  asking  f o r Xin's  I n h i s p e t i t i o n , Wang a c c u s e d X i n o f b e i n g  b r u t a l and c o r r u p t .  I t was a l l e g e d t h a t X i n s p e n t money a s i f i t  were d i r t  he m u r d e r e d  and sand;  X i n was f i n a l l y  people  the p o l i t i c a l  game a t t h a t t i m e .  impeaching o t h e r s . of h i s c o l l e a g u e s t o h i s own w i s h . jjy}  and  political than other From years, himself his  7 9  7 7  X i n h a d done h i s s h a r e o f t h a t he a n g e r e d many 70 Z^,  according  I n 1 1 7 8 , he a l s o i m p e a c h e d Huang M a o c a i ~^ j£$ J|- j f £  i  n  H80 .  f o r impeachment a t t h a t  I t appears that Xin's  game, r a t h e r  than  that  7 8  B u t t h e most  t i m e were  corruption  impeachment was p a r t o f t h e  X i n was more c r u e l  and  corrupt  officials. the winter  o f 1 1 8 1 t o t h e e n d o f 1 1 9 2 , more t h a n t e n  X i n was b a n i s h e d an extravagant  days  7 6  by i m p e a c h i n g S h i Y u a n z h i  reasons  cruelty.  7 5  t o i m p e a c h a n d be i m p e a c h e d  I n 1 1 7 6 , i t was r e p o r t e d  ; a n d Zhao S h a n j u e  often cited  weeds.  f o r c e d t o r e t i r e a t t h e age o f f o r t y - t w o .  G i v e n t h e power o f t h e c e n s o r s , was  as i f p l u c k i n g  in visiting  from  villa  the p o l i t i c a l  by Lake D a i vp  mountains  center. \i§  and streams.  .  8 0  He He  He a l s o  built spent buried  h i m s e l f i n books.  He r e a d p r o f u s e l y a n d t u r n e d o u t a huge number  of  period.  ci d u r i n g t h i s  first  collection of h i s c i t i t l e d  %s  " i n 1188.  till  he g o t s i c k .  was  surrounded  years, still  h e was  " J i a x u a n C i J i a J i /j*|<_  By h i s own a c c o u n t ,  8 1  Fan K a i p u b l i s h e d the  he d r a n k  f  heavily,  often  A l t h o u g h x i n was f i n a n c i a l l y c o m f o r t a b l e a n d  8 2  by a b e a u t i f u l not a happy  environment,  and contented  during  man.  X i n was l i k e  a caged  deep s o r r o w f u l n e s s thus  dragon.  these ten  H i s mind  83  on r e c a p t u r i n g t h e n o r t h , n o t n a t u r a l s c e n e r y .  period, and  Xin's disciple  During  Frustration,  became t h e d o m i n a n t  was this  bitterness,  features of h i s  ci. It public  was n o t u n t i l office.  retirement  t h e e n d o f 1192 t h a t X i n was r e c a l l e d t o  His first  was J u d i c i a l  post  Commissioner  was t h e same o l d X i n e v e n a f t e r applied  t h e same  administrative In  stern  approach.  of Editor  post o f Chamberlain suggested portion  stationed  The  so t h a t each  emperor  also  a n d was  unit  of forced •  i  x  exile.  unyielding  n  He  i nhis  8 4  w i t h t h e e m p e r o r a n d was g i v e n  Palace  and t h e  t h a t the defense  y£ Jf^ lines  s h o u l d be s t r e n g t h e n e d ,  f o r the lower h a l f .  i n Xiangyang  decade  of Fujian  f o r t h e P a l a c e Revenues  o f t h e Yangtse  protective shield  river  measures  of J i y i n g  t o t h e emperor  a  t e n years of i n t e r n a l  1193, X i n had an audience  the t i t l e  after  a n d J i n g n a n 4r*J could support  h a d some w o r d s  'j/  along  .  He  t h e upper  to function  as a  A l a r g e d i v i s i o n s h o u l d be \^]  t t h e two e n d s o f t h e  t h e o t h e r when a t t a c k e d .  for Xin.  I t was s a i d  8 5  that the  reason  for recalling  spirit  i n t h e p a s t had  Xin  was  Military in  was  somewhat c a l m e d d o w n .  made  Commissioner  the  of  to  save  bandits  roaming  recruiting another  a l l surplus  and  the  area,  training  Shi,  X i n was  Xin  of  Fuzhou  During  and  the  h i s short  stay  accomplished,  was  >^  money i l l e g a l l y . F r o m 1194 Jj  again  for being  t o 1202,  , near P i a o S p r i n g At  the  age  office.  He  present  province  the  becoming  a  -S?  uprisings  planning  before  of  organize  In h i s  biography  steady  in his  could  be  named Huang A i \ for sent  collecting b a c k home.  Mountain  ^ i n 1203,  X i n was  Zhejiang  ;^rj  )  called  back  i%  and  to  ( i n the the  Military  Zhedong.  turn  of  powerful  area  plan  of  to  a censor  i n retirement at Qian  sixty-four,  of  problem  anything  s e c o n d t i m e , X i n was  £f£  Ku ^  usual  g r e e d y , d e b a u c h e d and  f^V  the  thirteenth  foreign force.  engaging the J i n i n b a t t l e X>  his  became t h e A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f S h a o x i n g  Commissioner of By  of  was  i m p e a c h e d by  the  X i n was  But  8 7  cruel, For  8 8  He  to  the  p r a i s e d f o r b e i n g c a l m and  approach.  $  counter  t o the F l y i n g T i g e r s .  administrative he  To  resorted  soldiers.  army u n i t s i m i l a r  t h e Song  revenue.  excessive  86  Administrator  F u j i a n i n 1194.  that his  F u z h o u , X i n e s t a b l i s h e d a t r e a s u r y named t h e B e i ' a n ^  in  then  X i n back t o o f f i c i a l  the  While  the  Mongols  were  the  Mongols  were  i n the n o r t h , the people  e x p l o i t e d the  against  century,  Jin.  situation  Once a g a i n ,  spreading q u i c k l y across the occupied  by  of the  staging  anti-Jin  territory.  Shanxi  numerous  sentiment  was  In  1204,  Xin  ( 1 1 6 8 - 1 2 2 4 ) -y the  he  situation.  What s h o u l d  was  asked  Xin  be  with  said  been p r e p a r i n g pro-war  T h i s s u g g e s t i o n was  stance,  the  with  t o make  to hear.  Jin. many  The  driving  historians,  was  Xin  given  of E d i c t Attendant  /3-  H  fy\  ( i n the  According begin  .  present  province  the  Huai  was  a b o u t t o be  was  once a g a i n  River  the  train  region.  of  ten But  as  was  attack  on  the  Southern  the  Jin.  Zhazi  Pavilion  about  recruited  completed,  h o l d i n g ploughs 9 2  service.  was  Upon given  Baowen P a v i l i o n and  this  Cheng B i  launched  i n h i s Bingzi  intelligence;  the  defeat, double  the  Xin title ^  was of  again  due  soldiers  called  to  were was into  E d i c t Attendant ^  an  Lundui  t h e number o f s o l d i e r s  of Longtu P a v i l i o n  he  9 1  Song g o v e r n m e n t  i n s t e a d o f s w o r d s , and  insufficient. He  l a c k of  from  when  commented t h a t t h e d e f e a t was p r e p a r a t i o n and  to  a s an A d m i n i s t r a t o r , X i n  r e l i e v e d of h i s post, i n 1205. year,  power.  an A d m i n i s t r a t o r .  soldiers,  this  self-  Zhenjiang  o f s i x t y - s i x , was  thousand  of  greatly  o f t h e Paomo  Jiangsu)  before  would  t r a n s f e r r e d to  t r a n s f e r r e d to Longxing  next  unsuccessful  sloppy  was  t o Cheng B i , X i n , a t t h e age  a project to  In  Then he  battle  had  force  further consolidate his p o l i t i c a l  ^  victorious  Han  8 9  h i s s t a t u s and  "|[  were  what t h e p r i m e m i n i s t e r  enhance  title  of  thorough  9 0  the  a  to  Zong  days  serving.  was  that  the  Jin's  was  wanted  according  thought  emperor,. N i n g  t o g i v e h i s assessment  done i m m e d i a t e l y  for a battle  He  the  that  (1151-1202) f | f j ^ j \  Tuozhou  his  audience  and  p r e p a r a t i o n f o r war. Han  an  jj\  current  numbered.  had  of jljj  fif]  ^  ^'1 •  I  Commissioner  addition  n  h e was o f f e r e d t h e p o s t  of Military  o f Zhedong a n d t h e A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f J i a n g l i n g , b u t  he d e c l i n e d b o t h . In  1 2 0 7 , X i n was c a l l e d  assessment  before  of the situation.  t h e emperor  He was a l s o a s k e d  to give h i s t o accept the  p o s t o f t h e V i c e M i n i s t e r o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f War  if  -If  b u t he a g a i n d e c l i n e d t h e o f f e r . Xin of  was a w a r e t h a t he was b e i n g u s e d a s a pawn i n t h e w o r l d  politics  during with  during these  the l a s t  two y e a r s  Han's s e l f - s e e k i n g  military  years.  of h i s l i f e  policy.  summoned a g a i n lamented:  h i s frustration  When Han was a b o u t  t o launch  a  s t a n c e , he c a l l e d X i n  s o a s t o g i v e a s y m b o l i c stamp o f a p p r o v a l t o h i s  l a t e s t s e l f - s e r v i n g venture. i n a state  refusals of office  reflect  e x p e d i t i o n , knowing X i n ' s pro-war  back t o o f f i c e  was  H i s repeated  When t h e war was o v e r a n d t h e c o u r t  of confusion i n the aftermath t o " c l e a n up t h e m e s s " .  93  o f d e f e a t , X i n was  His friend  Chen  Liang  [ X i n ] came when c a l l e d a n d went away when waved a s i d e .  He h a d no w h e r e t o t u r n t o b e t w e e n h e a v e n a n d e a r t h  %  ^ i. In  head  *<\  the f a l l  it i  fif .-  94  o f 1207, t h e J i n s p e c i f i c a l l y  Song.  o n e more t i m e .  jf^ \ Qiji  .  asked  f o r Han's  negotiation with the  Han h a d no a l t e r n a t i v e b u t t o d e c l a r e war o n t h e  regular appointee  Xin  at i  as a c o n d i t i o n f o r e n t e r i n g peace  Southern Jin  £  A g a i n , Han r e c a l l e d X i n a n d a s k e d  h i m t o be a  i n t h e B u r e a u o f M i l i t a r y A f f a i r s rf& %  But X i n a t t h i s  t i m e was t o o i l l t o a c c e p t  d i e d on September 10, 1207.  *f  the offer.  37  CHAPTER I I : Before term  analysing  allusion  "diangu  ^  Chinese "story,"  needs ".  t h e use o f a l l u s i o n  t o be d e f i n e d .  ^  Huang F u t u n g  f^j?  i n Xin's ci,  '" 9 ^  v e s  ~k ffi ^ ~\ t  n  $ ls  i^)  the  I n Chinese, t h e term i s  A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Zhongwen  Dictionary 1  USE OF ALLUSION  Dacidian  (Great  ) , diangu  means  , i n h i s e s s a y "Lun  Diangu  definition:  " I n g e n e r a l , diangu a r e d e f i n e d as examples o r h i s t o r i c a l events. They a r e o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o a s quoted h i s t o r i c a l s t o r i e s or those f o u r - c h a r a c t e r p h r a s e s w h i c h have an o r i g i n a l w r i t t e n s o u r c e . Diangu must h a v e a s o u r c e ; t h e y c a n n o t be fabricated." 2  Yu-kung Kao and T s u - l i n M e i g i v e t h i s  definition:  "Webster's C o l l e g i a t e D i c t i o n a r y d e f i n e s ' a l l u s i o n ' a s 'an i m p l i e d o r i n d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e . ' B u t i n o u r v i e w , i t i s i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l whether t h e r e f e r e n c e is direct, e x p l i c i t or i m p l i c i t . " 3  " A l l u s i o n i s p r e s e n t i n a poem i f t h a t poem makes r e f e r e n c e t o a n e v e n t embedded . i n t h e m a i n e v e n t o f t h e poem." 4  In the Chinese v e r s i o n of that a r t i c l e , on t h a t  they f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t e  definition:  "As l o n g a s i t i s f o u n d i n a l i t e r a r y s o u r c e . . . e v e n though t h e s e e v e n t s d i d n o t a c t u a l l y happen i n time a n d s p a c e . . . I f t h e s e ' q u o t e d e v e n t s ' c a n be f o u n d i n h i s t o r i c a l books, a l l f u r t h e r v e r i f i c a t i o n i s unnecessary. A poet uses a l l u s i o n s o l e l y f o r t h e purpose o f expansion. The p o e t ' s g o a l i s s a i d t o be a c h i e v e d i f t h e r e a d e r a n d t h e p o e t a r e b o t h  38  f a m i l i a r w i t h the quoted Hightower Ch'ien"  in his  events."  article'"Allusion  gives a similiar  5  i n the  Poetry  of  T'ao  definition:  "from the nature of the m a t e r i a l s a l l u d e d to ('an a l l u s i o n s h o u l d be t o an i d e n t i f i a b l e w r i t t e n s o u r c e ' ) , from the w r i t e r ' s technique of m a n i p u l a t i o n t h o s e m a t e r i a l s ('an a l l u s i o n s h o u l d c o n t r i b u t e to the paraphrasable content of the poem'), from the r e a d e r ' s r e a c t i o n t o occurrences o f a l l u s i o n ( 'he s h o u l d be a w a r e o f an o c c u r r e n c e o f a l l u s i o n e v e n when he f a i l s t o i d e n t i f y i t ' ) . " 6  In  summary,  First,  they  must  the  be  real  classical, Third, from  to  historical latter  be  fictional.  can  refer  four  than  a  thesis  are  figures  or  original  fiction,  to a Chinese  characters.  i s "yongshi  an  written  tf\  source,  Second, source  and/or  diangu can  The  be  mythology.  p h r a s e which can  Fourth,  events.  four-fold.  diangu  can  Chinese  term  range  include for  the  ", w h i c h l i t e r a l l y means " u s i n g  an  7  Qiji  .content  The  popular  Thus f a r , t h e r e has Xin  diangu  l i t e r a r y or h i s t o r i c a l .  historical,  diangu  two  event".  or  of  have a p r e v i o u s l y e x i s t i n g  whether t h a t source can  attributes  uses  allusion  been l i t t l e in his ci.  w i t h a n n o t a t i o n and first has  distinctive  step.  taken ways  critical Most  classification.  C h e n S h u m e i 'pjjl /^X. %  at  least  Xin  uses  one  step  a n a l y s i s of  critics 8  x  This  allusion.  9  But  have  been  i s no  more  i n her  f u r t h e r and Chen  how  master's  lists only  three uses  39  statistics use  to confirm  classical  deeper  the  phrases  are  the  c i  have  different  ways X i n  the exact  wording  wording  allusion set  present; between  a  and the  diangu  allusion.  and  contrast  using a l l u s i o n  and  the  What  1 0  allusion?  demonstrate  These a r e :  This  the  using  second, using the  exact  action.  fifth,  between  using  the  These  past  allusion and  the  the  contrast upon  f u n c t i o n of  the  f u n c t i o n of  diangu  the  f u n c t i o n of  diangu  Besides  representative nature,  using  s i x c i touch  i n ci:  and  third,  fourth,  to set a p o s i t i v e  diangu  six  first,  condensation;  to poetic d i c t i o n ;  moral  how  discussing  each of  t o show how  these  their  methods  i t e m b o d i e s i t s own  characteristics.  As  for  diction, enable  to  present.  be d i s c u s s e d i n d i v i d u a l l y  special  of  expansion;  f u n c t i o n s of  to  going  of determining  interpreted.  use  texts;  to poetic structure;  regard  or  about  t e x t s t o g i v e an o p p o s i t e m e a n i n g ;  purpose of  regard  regard  generality will  uses  of c l a s s i c a l  sixth, past  with  with  hesitation  to  question.  selected  negative  general  Xin's  f o r the purpose of  f o r the up  taken  been  of c l a s s i c a l  allusion  be  of  s e e k s t o answer t h i s  Six  with  to  characteristics  chapter  three  The  that Xin loves  i s rooted perhaps i n the d i f f i c u l t y  means h i s a l l u s i o n s  to  known f a c t  i n his ci.  Xin  using  well  the  quoting  f u n c t i o n of verbatim  diangu  with  regard  directly  from  the  the poet to s t r e s s the  similarity  to  poetic  classics  between the  can  original  40  source  and  the  characteristic in  current  o f X i n ' s usage  the directness  sorrow  of t h i s  of h i s d i c t i o n ,  through twists  through  situation.  and  turns:  But  the  technique l i e s  but a l s o  special not  only  i n expressing his  i t i s a case of admission  denial.  To t h e Tune o f Manting 1202/1196)  Fang  To h a r m o n i z e w i t h Zhao C h a n g f u  P  1  t  %t  1}  o f t h e Zhang  (1194Spring  1 1  *fi  1  To t h e w e s t , t h e s l a n t i n g s u n o v e r t h e Y a n z i m o u n t a i n , To t h e e a s t , t h e r u n n i n g w a t e r o f t h e Y a n g t z e , B e a u t y s t a y s n o t f o r man a t a l l .  2  W i t h t h e m e t a l l i c r i n g o f one f a l l i n g l e a f , The w o r l d a l r e a d y knows i t i s t i m e o f f a l l .  3  I  b e n d my f i n g e r s t o c o u n t t h e j o y o u s o c c a s i o n s in l i f e , And a s k : "Who r o d e t o Yangzhou on t h e back  4  You  know me, I h a v e a l w a y s b e e n gay i n s p i r i t , H a v i n g r e t i r e d t o Cangzhou, b e f o r e I grew o l d .  5  There a r e e n d l e s s b o t h e r s ,  of  a  41  and All £  l i f e i s but a hundred y e a r s . w o u l d come t o r e s t i n one d r i n k . %  fi  >h I .  *  -  t  *|  *f  A n g r y w i t h my c h i l d r e n a l w a y s s a y i n g I'm s o r r o w f u l i n h e a r t .  tt  ?J  £  N2  $  7  B e s i d e s , t h e r e a r e canes and straw-shoes, mountains and c r e e k s , My f r i e n d s l i k e Ruan J i a r e w a i t i n g f o r me t o t o u r w i t h them.  8  T h e r e ' s more f o r a l a u g h . T h e i r scheming mind has a l r e a d y been exposed t h e r e a r e s t a r t l e d s e a g u l l s , above t h e s e a .  T h i s c i was w r i t t e n a t t h e t i m e from o f f i c e old  f o r t h e second t i m e .  who a g a i n  feels  X i n was f o r c e d t o r e t i r e  A s a man o v e r  1 2  was r e j e c t e d by t h e r u l i n g  he h a s r e a c h e d  class,  t h e end o f h i s l i f e ,  fifty  years  Xin certainly  as i n d i c a t e d i n *  lines  one  directly, free  and  resentment  Instead  1 3  Xin i n this  facade.  delicate  two.  c i , hides  of p r o j e c t i n g h i s sorrow i t u n d e r n e a t h a happy,  care-  B u t a l l a l o n g , he d r o p s h i n t s o f b i t t e r n e s s a n d about  balance  subtle admission  being  rejected.  between  As a  the pretense  of sorrowfulness.  result,  there  of happiness  is a  and h i s  B u t t h e more X i n j u s t i f i e s  42  his  "happiness,"  lies  i n words,  t h e more s o r r o w t h e more h o n e s t  he p r o j e c t s .  he i s i n f e e l i n g .  symmetry  comes t o a p e a k  Shi  i n l i n e s i x , a f t e r parading  Jing  wanting t o r e t i r e The is Shi  at the verbatim  i n l i n e s three  to five.  Jing  l^f  f r o m a poem t i t l e d  jffi  1 5  tl  xinyou  dynasty, and  which  ^y]  s a c k e d by t h e b a r b a r i a n  that  Xin selects this  t o the east  similarities  \  "  " i n the  at the s i t e of  after  being  I t i s not a  1 6  to express  s t a t e o f mind, f o r the h i s t o r i c a l many  <C  o f t h e W e s t e r n Zhou &  tribes.  phrase  ^  o f t h i s poem was s a d d e n e d  Is  h a d b e e n moved  from the  "reasons" f o r  jjj^ -flJ£  when he saw t h e r u i n s o f t e m p l e s a n d p a l a c e s t h e o l d c a p i t a l Hao j i n g  this  1 4  "Shu Li  The a u t h o r  And  quotation  h i s various  f o u r - c h a r a c t e r p h r a s e "weiwo  a quotation  The more X i n  his  i^] taken  coincidence  "sorrow-free"  b a c k g r o u n d o f t h i s move h a d  to the p o l i t i c a l  situation  of the Southern  Song. The  first  dynasties  were  similarity forced  i s that  to relocate  the capitals i n order  t o t a l c o l l a p s e o f the e n t i r e empire. of King  You  of  t o prevent  a  , t h e l a s t e m p e r o r o f t h e W e s t e r n Zhou was  According  deceitful  the  What l e d t o t h e d o w n f a l l  h i s a p p o i n t m e n t o f a c o r r u p t m i n i s t e r named Guo S h i f u 'y^.  both  t o t h e Shi  tongue  Ji  $L  »^  and a v i c i o u s m i n d .  aroused t h e anger o f t h e p o p u l a c e .  , Guo was a man 1 7  /L with  H i s appointment  K i n g You f u r t h e r a l i e n a t e d  h i m s e l f f r o m t h e m i l i t a r y by h u m i l a t i n g them.  He was m a d l y i n  43  love with at a l l .  a c o n c u b i n e named Bao S i 4* I n order  t o induce  s o l d i e r s guarding  who h a r d l y  h e r t o s m i l e , K i n g You o r d e r e d t h e  the f r o n t i e r  to light  t h e beacons which were  supposed t o g i v e warning o f impending a t t a c k . soldiers  scrambling  laughter. soldiers King  After ignored  p o s i t i o n s , Bao S i b u r s t  of these  t h e beacon f i r e  q u e e n who  feudal princes. incident  was  Shen  King  humiliated  they  were  the  ignited.  over  district Jing,  himself  Again,  Southern similar. ministers  w i t h t h e s t a t e o f Zeng £"1f tribe  t h e beacon  Subsequently,  the kingship  o f L u o jfrfl  fj .  X i n achieves  fire  a n d moved  to declare  was  ignited,  three  ruling Jing  the nation. and w i t h  his capital  goals.  at the  east,  First,  to the from t h e  i t demonstrates  o f t h e W e s t e r n Zhou a n d t h e  there  of their were  inept  T h i r d , by q u o t i n g  this  be  H i s son Y i J i u  the cause  dynasties,  war this  they  You was k i l l e d  By u s i n g t h i s l i n e v e r b a t i m  Second,  In both  King .  between t h e d o w n f a l l  Song.  t h e Shi  powerful  But the s o l d i e r s d i d not respond l e s t  again.  the p a r a l l e l  o f one o f t h e  , t h e f a t h e r , was s o a n g e r e d by t h i s  f o o t o f t h e L i M o u n t a i n £)&  from  whenever  Quan R o n g -fc - j ^  You.  time f o r r e a l .  Shi  into  fabricated alarms,  the daughter  ^  t h a t he a l l i e d  the barbarian  against  took  Upon s e e i n g t h e  Y o u ' s i n f a t u a t i o n w i t h Bao S i a l s o l e d h i m t o d e p o s e t h e  reigning  and  to their  several  smiled  historical  downfall and  i s  corrupt  this  phrase  background  behind  t h e poem "Shu L i , " X i n i s i n f a c t s a y i n g , t h r o u g h d e n i a l , t h a t  44  he  i s indeed  w o r r i e d about the a f f a i r s of h i s  Despite companions another chapter not  to  reason of  accentuate the  being  worried.  t h a t he who  1  had  Jk  and  creeks,  The  1 8  the  startled the  $j  Zi  Xin in  the would  drawing  seagulls, Xin  i n the  him:  him.  following ci. to  Xin's  stress dissimilarity.  Yin  f o r the Calabash  ^  \i  "4  At  (1182-  Spring  1  Why m u s t J i a x u a n be f o r e v e r p o o r ? Beyond t h e edge o f the c a s c a d i n g s p r i n g , pearl-like droplets f a l l .  Content w i t h heaven, knowing f a t e Who h a s e v e r b e e n e q u a l t o t h i s ? Upon t h e c a l l , do t h e j o b ; Upon d i s m i s s a l , go home.  to  quotations  a l s o c r e a t e an e f f e c t o f i r o n y .  Shuilong  a  is in  surrounding  U- *f *?-M,tt*Jf>r >tfc.i%.  2  drops  T By  1 9  danger  are scheming a g a i n s t  touring  seagulls  impure m o t i v e s .  i s awared of  a l l o w him  inscription  ft  and  of  l a s t ci, i n which X i n uses d i r e c t q u o t a t i o n  classics they  plenty  " i n t h e Lie  who  To t h e T u n e o f 1192/1187) An  $  similarity,  same t i m e ,  has  for  those  U n l i k e the  he  mountains  between h i m s e l f  saying  that  the  there are people  from  claim  visit  "Huang T i  befriend  parallel fact  Xin's  country.  the  45  3  O t h e r s c o u l d n o t have borne t h e d i s t r e s s , w i t h o n l y one c a l a b a s h , h a p p y was h e . Hui's v i r t u e , admirable indeed.  A .34  i%  ,  tfc. « 4P.  -  S  »  *»•'  I r e c k o n , t h i s q u e s t i o n was a s k e d i n t h a t y e a r : "With coarse r i c e t o e a t , water t o d r i n k , why d i d y o u b u s t l e a b o u t s o ? "  *M 5  t  1 W ' fo  &  r  t  L  .  *  L e t ' s j u s t face the f l o a t i n g clouds over the mountain. D o n ' t be i n a h u r r y - s c u r r y , r u s h i n g down t h e s l o p e .  1 ti 4 f  i , I ft 4 & * T.  6  The r e f l e c t i o n o f my h a g g a r d f a c e i n t h e w a t e r . I c e r t a i n l y d o n ' t g e t much f r o m t h o s e l i g h t f u r s and f a t h o r s e s .  7  Frosty coolness c i r c l i n g the teeth, s c e n t f i l l e d t h e bosom a f t e r t h e gentleman f i n i s h e d h i s d r i n k .  i 8  *  %  *  % .  %  t l  % %, bah  I.  M o c k i n g t h e c a l a b a s h on t h e t r e e i n t h e w i n d , f o r m a k i n g a s o u n d , was s h a t t e r e d w i t h one s w i n g . What d o y o u s a y t o b e i n g m u t e d ?  '£ -ti fr. &  m ,  -  *$,  In the prefatory note, X i n c l e a r l y written  as an i n s c r i p t i o n  si ^ i«  £  s t a t e s t h a t t h i s ci i s  f o r the Calabash  Spring.  But t h e  46  content  of t h i s c i c e r t a i n l y goes beyond s c e n i c d e s c r i p t i o n .  What X i n d o e s i s t o u s e jumping-off  point.  the  that  events  been d i s m i s s e d He  has  have  l e d him  the  this  by  Lake Dai  one,  Xin  obvious  this  phrases:  i s i n no  irony  irony  by way  between  h i s own  was  He  forced  i s , and has  to  named i t t h e  are  two  with a d e l e t i o n of different  order,  two and  scenery,  content what  with  this  miserable  i s apparent  there  beautiful  i n Xin's  verbatim  just  retire. "Calabash  described  himself.  beautiful  quotations,  He  awareness  of  classical  three  classical  phrase with on  the  senses  environment  c h a r a c t e r e a c h , one  s u b t l e pun  in  His  selection  c h a r a c t e r s , one a  as  inner state.  p h r a s e s w i t h a d e l e t i o n o f o n l y one  in  dwelling.  and and  o f w h e r e he  2 0  s h o u l d e v o k e and of  to  from p u b l i c o f f i c e  Though s u r r o u n d e d line  S p r i n g as h i s p o e t i c  T h i s p l a c e reminds him  bought a v i l l a  Spring."  the Calabash  phrase  characters  phrase  "floating  Xin's  sarcastic  clouds." The  first  verbatim  opening statement.  q u o t a t i o n comes a f t e r  I n l i n e two,  X i n quotes verbatim  four c h a r a c t e r s of a seven-character  phrase from the  "Content w i t h heaven, c o g n i z a n t  With  this  four-character phrase,  the  first  Yi  Jing_  of i t s o r d i n a t i o n ;  X i n begins  to delineate  47  his  p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a l i t y , which i s at t o t a l variance with  first  statement.  being  content  verbatim  but  should  be  has  R a t i o n a l l y , X i n u n d e r s t a n d s t h e maxim a b o u t with  heaven  quotation  level,  failed  what i s .  to l i v e  and  accentuates  i t also creates and  up  a  The  understanding his  t o t h i s maxim, and  function  this  his  contrast present  phrase  i n being  is  he  open  between  i s taught  the  also  i n the  what  i s that  two.  The  way  r e f u t a t i o n of  quotation  rational  Xin  f r a n k l y admits i t  in line  to  to a  The  of  content  , Confucius  line  two  gives  w i t h heaven.  ( 5 5 1 - 4 7 9 B.C.)  upon t o s e r v e ,  office.  phrase. the  last  called  from  the  The  poetic  to  the  Xin's  logic  strengthens  classics  of the  and  Xin's  for  Xin's  s t a t e of mind.  failure  is  statement.  between what  The  ;ft  quotation  revelation, leading  opening  at  psychological reality  i t s near i m p o s s i b i l i t y  internal  knowing  fate.  larger discrepancy  by m e n t i o n i n g of  his  and  ( X i n changed  the  reason  I n t h e Lun  advocates  Yu  loyalty  a c c e p t a n c e when one the  order  of  ^ while  is  one  dismissed  characters  in  this  T h e r e i s a more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s p h r a s e i n  next  ci.)  2 2  Xin  found i t d i f f i c u l t  had  just  to accept  been f o r c e d  to  retire,  much l e s s t o be c o n t e n t  and  with  he this  "treatment." The verbatim begins  dissimilarity quotation  and  is  in line  further  stressed  three.  In  e n d s h i s comment on  Yan  Hui  the  Lun  (521-490  by  the  yu, B.C.)  second  Confucius  48  «zj b y p r a i s i n g  him f o r being  content  amidst p o v e r t y .  further  e m p h a s i z e Yan H u i ' s c o n t e n t m e n t , i n t h e f i r s t  of  three,  line  only  X i n quotes  the character  bukan  g i you  praise  I  /  1  another  gi /I  of Confucius'  omitted  ^, ^  )•  By q u o t i n g  o f Yan H u i , X i n emphasizes  between Yan H u i and h i m s e l f .  from  stands  for.  with  the o r i g i n a l  (ren  verbatim  the t o t a l  B u t by a g r e e i n g  indirectly  The more X i n p r a i s e s  disapproves  phrase  phrase  Confucius'  dissimilarity with  p r a i s e o f Yan H u i , X i n f u r t h e r a l i e n a t e s h i m s e l f Hui  To  2 3  Confucius'  f r o m what Yan  Yan H u i , t h e more  o f h i m s e l f , and t h e b i g g e r  he  the contrast  b e t w e e n t h e a g i t a t e d X i n a n d t h e s e r e n e Yan H u i . Beside Hui  also  creates  calabash  Xin two to )"  a  a n d he was  "Calabash miserable  stressing  Spring"  the d i s s i m i l a r i t y , touch  happy, w h i l e  quotations  the next  e a t , w i t h water t o d r i n k  "  Spring  one  named t h e  a n d y e t he i s v e r y  indeed.  f r o m t h e Lun  i s directly  t o Yan  Yan H u i has o n l y  X i n has a v i l l a  by t h e C a l a b a s h  and u n s e t t l e d introduces  of irony.  the reference  stanza Yu.  by e n d i n g  The p h r a s e  (fanshu  yinshui  quoted from Confucius  with  the f i r s t  with  "with coarse  rice  0<j jfyf ]<^ K  7  the character  "shi  omitted:  "The M a s t e r s a i d , ' w i t h c o a r s e r i c e t o e a t , w i t h w a t e r t o d r i n k , a n d my b e n d e d arm f o r a p i l l o w - I have s t i l l j o y i n t h e m i d s t o f these t h i n g s . ' " Z A  The  second  direct  quotation  comes f r o m  this  passage i n  49  the  Lun  Yu  with  the characters  "giu Jl.  and yu  omitted: " C h ' i u , how i s i t t h a t y o u k e e p r o o s t i n g a b o u t ? Is i t n o t t h a t you a r e an i n s i n u a t i n g t a l k e r ? C o n f u c i u s s a i d , ' I do n o t d a r e t o p l a y t h e p a r t o f such a t a l k e r , but I hate o b s t i n a c y . " ' " The  phrase  restless, By  "xi 'xi zhe  assiduous  posing  this  originally asked  /\  " has t h e meaning  p e r s o n and/or an i r r i t a t e d  as a h y p o t h e t i c a l q u e s t i o n  asked  by Wei Shengmou til  by Yan H u i , X i n f u r t h e r  i  s t a t e o f mind.  (the question  was  i n t h e Lun  Yu)  ®K  delineates  of a  Yan H u i ' s  simple  reference  to the  contentment. The  second  "floating  clouds  stanza  begins  with  ~<2f  (fuyun  a subtle  )" i n l i n e  five  f r o m t h e same p a s s a g e a s t h e p h r a s e "fanshu  which  comes  yinshui":  " R i c h e s a n d h o n o r s a c q u i r e d by u n r i g h t e o u s n e s s t o me a s a f l o a t i n g c l o u d . "  are  2 6  By and  advising  himself  n o t t o g o down t h e m o u n t a i n  hurry,  with the a l l u s i o n of the " f l o a t i n g clouds," X i n i m p l i c i t l y  r e v e a l s t h a t he was n o t r u n n i n g he  in a  was  i n office.  retirement, breath-taking The  The  Xin lives scenery,  phrase )"  after  ironic  in a  rich  fact  i n line  i s that  environment  with floating  "light  r i c h e s and honors  clouds  f u r s and f a t horses s i x comes f r o m  while  i n h i s forced surrounded  hovering (qingqiu  by  above. feima  the f o l l o w i n g passage  50  Yu w i t h t h e v e r b s " t o r i d e (cheng jjjj^ )" and " t o > wear ( y i ^ ) " o m i t t e d a n d t h e two nouns i n r e v e r s e d o r d e r : in  t h e Lun  "The M a s t e r s a i d , 'when C h ' i h was p r o c e e d i n g t o Ch'i, he h a d f a t h o r s e s t o h i s c a r r i a g e , a n d w o r e light furs. ' " 2 7  With  this  haggard  allusion, face  X i n stresses the d i s s i m i l a r i t y  now  (by having  been  sorrowful  r e t i r e m e n t ) a n d t h e way i t c o u l d h a v e b e e n to  h i s c a r r i a g e and wearing  light  that  indeed drink.  poor  f u r s ) i f he w e r e t o p u r s u e  his  he  i s in a  in spirit.  "rich"  The i r o n i c  twist  p h y s i c a l environment,  he i s  In sorrow,  Xin invites  himself  for a  2 8  The •fe  now  i n forced  (having f a t horses  r i c h e s a n d h o n o r s w h i l e he was a n o f f i c i a l . is  of h i s  a c t o f d r i n k i n g reminds X i n o f an e v e n t .  , a high-minded d r i n k , hung  blowing  into  annoying.  man  of the ancients, after  h i s empty  calabash  t h e empty c a l a b a s h With  Symbolically,  one  swing,  the noisy  Xu You  on t h e t r e e .  made a n o i s e  Xu  calabash  he  smashed  which  the  finished The  wind  Xu  found  calabash.  i s Xin himself.  2 9  Not o n l y  does X i n blames h i m s e l f f o r b e i n g so t a l k a t i v e b u t o t h e r s a l s o have blamed him f o r b e i n g to  this,  calabash result, "Calabash  X i n adds which he  an i n s i n u a t i n g  an element  the ruling  i s now  forced  talker.  of irony:  class  found  to retire  S p r i n g " , near t h e Calabash  By  alluding  h e was  the noisy  annoying,  and as a  to a v i l l a  Spring.  named t h e  51  After  deciphering  craftman s k i l l f u l l y  these c l a s s i c a l  q u o t a t i o n s , one  feels  inside.  "calabash." "Calabash poor  Acting  Spring"  "Calabash  as  the focus of  I t i s the b e a u t i f u l - r i c h  internal  which  state.  Spring",  p r o v i d e s the  ironic  d r a n k f r o m t h e o n l y c a l a b a s h he had was  Xin  i s the  Xir  artistic Xin  c a l a b a s h " who  not  t r y to  phrases  envision  from d i f f e r e n t  to  say  the  Yan  Hui  happy a n d c o n t e n t . beautiful  the  fact  more w i t h by  he  quotes  treats  i t as  W i t h h i s deep knowledge  of the  classics,  infinite 3 0  i n his ci.  that  He  sources.  structure;  composed  to Xin's  "poor"  combinations of c l a s s i c a l  that  i s , t h e use  fewer  classical  o f diangu  words.  The  phrases,  is a  following good  ci,  example  the  Xing  yy  i f  of  (11827/1182)  An i n s c r i p t i o n f o r t h e J i a x u a n P a v i l i o n . A medley of c l a s s i c a l p h r a s e s .  the poet  entirely  c l a s s i c a l q u o t a t i o n f o r the purpose of condensation.  To t h e Tune o f Tasuo  the  t o expand allows  an  phrases  With a l i m i t e d p o e t i c space, as  n e x t two ci d e m o n s t r a t e , t h e p o e t c a n u s e diangu poetic  the  named  i s banished t o the  hide  profusely  adventure.  could  i s the  named  twist  the  irony  Spring." does  classical  irony  X i n , t h e owner o f t h e v i l l a  i s m i s e r a b l e , whereas  "noisy  this  the  environment  who  "Calabash  a  s e l e c t i n g h i s phrases from the c l a s s i c s i n  o r d e r t o s t r e s s not o n l y t h e o p p o s i t e but t o p r o j e c t he  sees  using  52  WE- i t It. I i i 5. 1  To a d v a n c e o r t o r e t i r e , To s u r v i v e o r t o p e r i s h ; Upon t h e c a l l , do t h e j o b , Upon d i s m i s a l , go home.  2  T h i s p e t t y man ( X i n ) w o u l d l i k e t o s t u d y f a r m i n g w i t h Fan Xu.  3  B e n e a t h e v e r y wooden d o o r , there's a resting place. Under t h e sun s e t , herds r e t u r n i n g .  tti H  i  i  4,  5 #  a t ;3  4  L e a v i n g t h e Duke L i n g o f W e i , I n t e r c e p t e d by Huan T u i .  5  He was a man o f e a s t , w e s t , s o u t h , w  6  I  * *  north.  /. - a .  Chang J u a n d J i e N i w e r e a t work i n t h e f i e l d . Q i u , why d i d y o u b u s t l e a b o u t s o ?  4 ul SMJ & *ft,-US In  the preface,  collection  Xin states  and s y n t h e s i s  <»  frankly that  of phrases  from  this  various  M,  ci  is a  classcial  53  b o o k s : . t h e Yi Jing t h e Shi Ji Lie  Zi  this  lb  jE'l  ci  serving and  £  ?  v  ffi  , t h e L u n Yu  , t h e S h u Jing  %  J>k  &  , , the  , a n d t h e Jfeng Z i  i s a bitter  The theme o f  repudiation of Confucius'  one's c o u n t r y  faithfully  teaching  when one i s c a l l e d  r e t i r i n g g r a c e f u l l y upon d i s m i s s a l .  The i n i t i a l  t o serve phrase i n  l i n e one i s t h e s e l e c t i o n o f f o u r c r u c i a l c h a r a c t e r s from sentence retire, acting "t,  ^  i n t h e Yi Jing: to maintain  4.  requirement )=level  $  and t o  fa  Y e s , he o n l y i s t h e s a g e , 4-  J  of line  A  L  H  . • »1  ever  ^f-  T h e  t o n a l  o n e i s / / — , — / / [ ( / ) = o b l i q u e t o n e a n d (-  tone]; the characters j i n  (-), wang half  i  t o advance  this  and t o l e t p e r i s h ; and t h a t w i t h o u t  incorrectly. f  " t o know how  of  -fc.  (/), t u i  (-) f i t p e r f e c t l y .  r e q u i r e s some s h u f f l i n g s .  ( / ) , cun  However, t h e second  The s e c o n d p h r a s e o f l i n e one T  as opposed t o p a r t i c l e s t h e L u n Yu:  "Yongzhi  zexing,  Since tone i n t h i s Xin  "xu z i  cang-yong-she"  ") f r o m t h i s s e n t e n c e i n  shezhi  ze cang  if}  41 j  t h e o n l y c o n c r e t e words w i t h a  s e n t e n c e a r e "xing  h a s no c h o i c e  ^  f"J  but t o w r i t e  "  " a n d "cang  i t i n the order  instead of f o l l o w i n g the o r i g i n a l  jj^  level ",  of "xing"yong-xing-  she-cang". As an  X i n states i n the preface,  inscription  this  c i i s a l s o w r i t t e n as  f o r t h e p a v i l i o n J i a x u a n , one o f t h e p a v i l i o n s  54  in  Xin's  forced  The p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g  retirement.  teaching Xin  villa.  He  about being  had served  an i d e a l  the  with  X i n swings  happiness  substitutes  verse life  (xiaoren,  taking the entire  to f i t the metric  i n line  second  of  phrase  effortless  manner.  t h e compound v e r b style of rural The a  requirement  of line Simply  three  "xue ^ from  beginning  II  33  "keyi  of a  presented  Fan i s none  conveyed.  himself.  Line  four  persecuted  Confucius.  than  i s a description 3 6  By q u o t i n g  Jing, "  seven-character of that  3 4  i n t h e same character of life  3 5  i n line  four  provides  projected i n the f i r s t  as the counterpart  other  ~^  the uncomplicated  o f t h e second stanza  The p e r s o n  unflappable  ."  t h e Shi  o m i t t i n g the second  i seffectively  calling  the s i m p l i c i t y  stark contrast t o the t r a n q u i l l i t y  stanza.  way  i s composed  "xialai  farming  life:  two, X i n evokes  h i s simple s u b t r a c t i o n of words.  half  of  a humble  three, X i n demonstrates  s t y l e through The  way  X i n simply  o m i t t i n g o n l y t h e second c h a r a c t e r o f t h e verb order  the  the f i e l d s .  o n e s e l f ) i n Fan Xu's and Fan's i n t h e v e r b  in  patriot,  But i n response,  t o another  of tending  h i s name  simply  Confucian  As a  By i n c o r p o r a t i n g F a n ' s name i n l i n e  simple  By  the  public servant. loyally.  X i n ofh i s  him a s i d e .  Sarcastically, farming.  i s embittered  h i s country  country has shunted  reminds  o f the calm,  the Master,  Confucius  of the d i s s a t i s f i e d ,  Confucius'  exact  words i n  55  line  five,  Xin  dissatisfied spent  shifts  person  the  i n the  most o f h i s l i f e  emphasis Lun  running  Yu  on  to  Confucius  the  b a c k and  tragic  five  The  context  t h a t much more  of  this  the  figure  who  f o r t h around the  d i r e c t i o n s of the world, c o n s t a n t l y f l e e i n g danger.  from  verbatim  four  from r e j e c t i o n  q u o t a t i o n makes  and line  poignant:  "When C o n f u c i u s h a s s u c c e e d e d i n b u r y i n g ( h i s m o t h e r ) i n t h e same g r a v e ( w i t h h i s f a t h e r ) a t F a n g , he s a i d , ' I h a v e h e a r d t h a t t h e a n c i e n t s made g r a v e s ( o n l y ) , a n d r a i s e d no mound o v e r them. But I am a man, who w i l l be t r a v e l l i n g e a s t , w e s t , s o u t h and, n o r t h . I c a n n o t do w i t h o u t s o m e t h i n g by w h i c h I c a n remember ( t h e p l a c e ) . " 3 7  Confucius, to  a man  who  advocated  admit h i s f e a r of not  future  due  to  his  piety  a l l his l i f e ,  r e c o g n i z i n g h i s parents' grave  constant  s e r v e o n e ' s p a r e n t s and  filial  travelling,  country w e l l .  teaching  subsequent l i f e  Confucius  and  style.  to  By q u o t i n g C o n f u c i u s  in  w o r l d o f o f f i c i a l d o m and  with Ni  was  The  theme o f  the  p r e s e n t a t i o n of  working  ends  with  Shengmu posing  simple  together a  on  verbatim  i n the  Lun  was  also  around  and  between in  the  constantly rejected.  two  and  happiness  r e c l u s e s named Chang J u farm  question 29  running  satisfaction  the  Yu.  teachings  X i n a l s o draws a p a r a l l e l  h i m s e l f , who  i n the  people  v e r b a t i m , X i n d e l i n e a t e s the i r o n y of Confucius' his  had  By  i n the posed  quoting  t h i s q u e s t i o n t o h i m s e l f and  last to  line.  3 8  Confucius  i t directly,  a t t h e same t i m e ,  returns and  Jie  The  ci  by  Wei  Xin  is  implying  56  that Ju,  he i s u n a b l e  to achieve  J i e N i and Fan Xu.  the inner  He  cannot  m e n t i o n e d i n l i n e one w i t h g r a c e still  tranquility  practice  o f Chang  the teaching  and contentment.  H i s mind i s  on t h e a f f a i r s o f t h e n a t i o n and n o t on f a r m i n g .  ci  This said:  i n c u r r e d the wrath  "Just  phrase  playing with  upon a n o t h e r !  style."  words,  ci  This  B u t Zhang o v e r l o o k s  4 0  mechanically  craftmanship.  Mencius  ^  %.  Zhuang Z i ) Shi  Shishuo of  JtJ  one  any p o e t i c  of a l l these  A s Wu H e n g z h a o  4 1  \%  ^% Preface  to  Commentary  to  , the £ v*  Wenxuan  ^)  the  Book  the  Sjfc kfi)  yj  "H  , the  Xuan  Xue  ^  (  Han  ,  ( t h e works o f  Nanhua  , t h e L i Sao  ^  ->£  v a r i o u s l y used.  Analects  , t h e Zuo  iL)  Zhaoming  He c r i s s - c r o s s e s t h e  Lesser  the  i~T/ y4 ff'K. , t h e  t h e poems o f L i Bo  Shu  a n d Du Fu  3^  9  ^  , the (the study |  i t ijf  /> /  , are a l l  T h i s i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e v i g o r o u s  strength of h i s pen."  4 2  This c i i s s y n t a c t i c a l l y coherent.  the ,  ffi  v  Ji Xinyu  the  >i  pf  Poetry  Chunqiu  the  who  commented:  a n c i e n t and t h e p r e s e n t :  of  piling  without  the poetic effect  " X i n J i a x u a n t r e a d s new g r o u n d .  the  Zhang G a o k u a n ,  i s torpid,  p i l e d - u p q u o t a t i o n s , and t h e i r (1771-?)  of c r i t i c  fragmented but p o e t i c a l l y  I t i s a l s o a good e x a m p l e o f u s i n g  diangu  to  57  condense and s i m p l i f y complex i s s u e s . "concrete  words" from t h e o r i g i n a l  Confucius'  teaching  statement,  X i n sketches  i n o n l y e i g h t c h a r a c t e r s i n l i n e one.  subtracting  two c h a r a c t e r s f r o m t h e  simple  of farming  life  By s e l e c t i n g o n l y t h e  Shi  c i t a t i o n , the  Jing  i s simply described i n l i n e  three.  Furthermore, t h e main f u n c t i o n o f these q u o t a t i o n s Confucian  classics  i n t h i s c i i s t o accentuate  between t h e t e a c h i n g s of p r a c t i c i n g  them:  of those  By  from the  the irony  c l a s s i c s and t h e consequences  A f t e r serving h i s country  loyally, Xin  was f o r c e d t o r e t i r e a n d f o u n d h i m s e l f w i t h p l e n t y o f t i m e t o w r i t e an i n s c r i p t i o n also the h a o  $j  f o r h i s p a v i l i o n named J i a x u a n , w h i c h was  he g a v e h i m s e l f .  Unlike the l a s t  i n which the f u n c t i o n of  ci,  s i m p l i f y s e v e r a l complex i s s u e s , t o expand a s i n g l e e m o t i o n . f i g u r e s and e v e n t s expanded.  4 3  By e v o k i n g  the various  historical  of the p a s t , the emotion of p a r t i n g i s  The r e a d e r  i s thus  l e d t o examine t h e m u l t i t u d i n o u s D i f f e r e n t shades and  of parting are cut into their  c o m p o n e n t s by t h e d i f f e r e n t of p o e t i c experience, emotional  i sto  i n the f o l l o w i n g c i i s  diangu  c a u s e s o f t h i s p a i n f u l human o r d e a l . experiences  diangu  f i n e s t and b i t t e r e s t  .thereby  diangu,  widening  w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e , d e e p e n i n g i t s  appeal.  To t h e Tune o f 1202/1197)  the scope  Hexin  Lang  \  J*)  %f  '  1  (1194-  58  P a r t i n g w i t h my t w e l f t h c o u s i n M a o j i a . The b u t c h e r b i r d a n d t h e c u c k o o a r e r e a l l y two d i f f e r e n t b i r d s . See t h e " A d d i t i o n a l A n n o t a t i o n t o t h e Li 5 a o " . 4 4  «'\ % £ 1  t% it U, %<s»*l,h  L i s t e n t o the butcher b i r d i n the green o f t h e t r e e s , J*.  2  -t - *•. %  ffi %  Ih i%.  How c a n one b e a r upon t h e c e a s i n g o f t h e p a r t r i d g e s ' and t h e c u c k o o ' s h o w l i n g ?  if  i  a  t%  t%  %  n  . a  vk  %  3  Howl  4  A n d t h a t t a k e s no a c c o u n t  5  S t r u m m i n g t h e pipa, s h e r o d e away over the f r o n t i e r , i n t o the dark.  shrilling,  «.  ' t i l l s p r i n g i s gone w i t h o u t a t r a c e , b i t t e r l y resenting the fragrance, a l l ceased.  o f human p a r t i n g s .  •I l U I fifl % .?.. 6  And!  t 7  F a r e w e l l t o t h e Golden Gate, m o v i n g t o t h e Chang Men, i n h e r k i n g f i s h e r  *  n  !  ?  to*  w.  L o o k i n g a t t h e poem " Y a n y a n " , a concubine departs.  4  %  & - a  If  !.  carriage.  59  8  The G e n e r a l , o f a hundred b a t t l e s , h i s body a n d name b a t t e r e d .  9  On t h e b r i d g e o f H e l i a n g , o n e b a c k w a r d Home, t e n t h o u s a n d m i l e s away! Old friends, forever apart.  « 1 ;  10  4  31  ®  %  t.  glance  & a it.  Chill! Chill! t h e western wind above t h e Y i R i v e r . Guests i n t h e i r snow-white o u t f i t s f i l l e d the seats.  %  % % & A. 4 ,  i  *  ft  iw.  11  The b r a v e  12  Had t h e b i r d s known a l l t h e s e g r i e f s , t h e y would have shed b l o o d , n o t t e a r s .  s o l d i e r ' s s a d song y e t u n f i n i s h e d .  °f % I ** * *f ffc . *t J ^ ;1 13  With  *  4f  <s-.  whom w o u l d I g e t d r u n k u n d e r t h e m o o n l i g h t ?  •**  - M .  $  «  a.  U s i n g t h e a l l u s i o n s o f t h r e e p a r t i n g women, d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n s and components o f f e e l i n g s connected are explored.  The f i r s t woman i s Wang Zhao j u n  f a m o u s b e a u t y who was g i v e n a s a g i f t Chan Yu  ?  j  with parting +_  ^  , a  by t h e e m p e r o r t o p l e a s e  , t h e r u l e r o f t h e Hun.  The pipa  was p l a y e d  60  o n t h e way t o c o m f o r t h e r s o r r o w . the purpose  of pleasing a foreign  The s e c o n d fell  Wang was s e n t away f o r  4 5  king.  p a r t i n g woman i s E m p r e s s Chen ^  o u t o f f a v o r w i t h Han W u t i  \%  ,  4 6  %_ Jo who Line s i x  d e s c r i b e s Chen's p a r t i n g s c e n e , l e a v i n g t h e p a l a c e i n h e r kingfisher  c a r r i a g e , heading  stayed u n t i l  towards  t h e Chang Men w h e r e s h e  S i m a X i a n g r u ( ? - 1 1 8 ) "^J 0^  P r o s e o f Chang Men f o r h e r .  wrote t h e  S u b s e q u e n t l y , t h i s was r e a d b y  t h e e m p e r o r a n d s h e was r e s t o r e d t o h e r p r e v i o u s f a v o r e d status.  Her p a r t i n g  i s an example o f f a l l  The t h i r d woman i s D a i G u i of  Wei's  was l a t e r  concubines. killed  ^jhj  from  , o n e o f Duke Zhuang  She g a v e b i r t h t o a s o n who  by Wei's o t h e r s o n , b o r n t o h i m by a n o t h e r  concubine.  Without  household.  Upon l e a v i n g , Zhuang J i a n g ftf ^  h e r s o n , D a i G u i was f o r c e d t o l e a v e W e i ' s  Z h u a n g ' s w i f e , composed a poem t i t l e d cause  grace.  , Duke  "Yanyan" f o r h e r .  The  4 7  o f D a i G u i ' s d e p a r t u r e was t h e power s t r u g g l e w i t h i n a  household, c u l m i n a t i n g i n murder. T h e s e t h r e e women came f r o m d i f f e r e n t  socio-economic  background;  y e t , a l l t h r e e s u f f e r e d t h e same f a t e o f  departure.  Wang was a common g i r l  e l e v a t e d t o a queen i n t h e p a l a c e . q u e e n b u t was d e t h r o n e d ; Dai  whose s o c i a l  s t a t u s was  E m p r e s s Chen b e g a n a s a  s h e went down o n t h e s o c i a l l a d d e r .  Gui occupied the lowest s o c i a l  status of the three.  She  was a common c o n c u b i n e whose s t a t u s was j u s t b a r e l y a b o v e t h e  61  servants.  Due t o t h e b i r t h o f h e r s o n , h e r s t a t u s w i t h i n t h e  household  was r a i s e d .  But t h i s  "promotion"  i n an even worse p o s i t i o n than b e f o r e . l e a v e h e r husband's household, woman a t t h a t The  ended up w i t h h e r  She was f o r c e d t o  a tremendous d i s g r a c e f o r a  time.  l i v e s o f these  t h r e e women i l l u s t r a t e o n e f a c t :  d e s p i t e d i f f e r e n c e s i n o r i g i n and socio-economic all  were u n a b l e  these  t o escape t h e p a i n o f p a r t i n g .  three h i s t o r i c a l  events  one a f t e r  sweep, X i n i s c o n v i n c i n g a l m o s t  background, Having  another  i n one l y r i c a l  t o t h e degree o f  irrefutability  i n h i s proclamation  awaits us a l l ;  i t i s a n i n e s c a p a b l e human phenomenon.  The  that the fate of parting  f o u r t h p a r t i n g scene i s d e s c r i b e d from t h e angle o f  the s t a y i n g party instead of the l e a v i n g . Li  Ling  paraded  (?-74)  t i m e o f Han W u t i ^  was c a p t u r e d -"^  .  The g r e a t  by t h e X i o n g n u i n t h e  The l o c a t i o n o f t h e p a r t i n g  s c e n e was o n t h e H e l i a n g b r i d g e , when a n o t h e r a m b a s s a d o r Su Wu ( ? - 6 0 ) What i s e v o k e d b y t h i s diangu departure.  general  was a l l o w e d i s more t h a n  captured  t o r e t u r n home.  48  the sorrow o f  The c o r e o f e m o t i o n h e r e i s t h e h e a r t o f a  p a t r i o t , a g r e a t g e n e r a l who s u f f e r e d t h e p a i n o f d e p a r t u r e not o n l y a t t h e p e r s o n a l but t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l as w e l l . addition t o bearing the h u m i l i a t i o n of h i s country's Li  In  defeat,  a l s o s u f f e r e d t h e p a i n o f p e r m a n e n t s e p a r a t i o n f r o m h i s own  country.  The p a i n o f d e p a r t u r e ,  through  this  historical  62  event, And  i s enlarged  from the p e r s o n a l  t o the n a t i o n a l  a t the temporal l e v e l , departure  i s extended  level.  from  impermanence t o permanence. The  theme o f no  a n o t h e r diangu. the emotional who  was  for Qin,  The  return i s accentuated Y i r i v e r Jfl ?K  all-white outfits,  the  p r i n c e s who  his  ±_  background, which i s very on p r e s e n t i n g  .  Upon l e a v i n g  Jing  Ke  departure:  the  r e t u r n s no  more."  "chilling"  on p a r t i n g i s i t s s c e n i c  aspect  of p a r t i n g .  The  hissing  t h e s n o w - w h i t e gowns, a l l g i v e  f r o s t y sensation, sending  a s h u d d e r down o n e ' s s p i n e .  reinforced  by t h e s h r i e k i n g m e l o d y o f  i n l i n e eleven  f a r e w e l l song sung i n h o p e l e s s n e s s . sound of b i r d s but  49  c a r e f u l l y orchestrated i n i t s focus  w i n d , t h e c h i l l y w a t e r , and  And  up  came t o b i d f a r e w e l l w o r e  l e a v e s , he  g r i p p i n g e l e m e n t o f t h i s diangu  blood.  to  Hiss! The w i n d b l o w s . Chill! The w a t e r o f t h e Y i R i v e r .  Once t h e b r a v e s o l d i e r  The  ten, c a l l s  t r a d i t i o n a l c o l o r of mourning.  sang t h i s f a r e w e l l song b e f o r e "Hiss! Chill!  reference  ( ? - 2 2 7 B.C.) jf'J  to assassinate King Q i n ^  t h e l o r d s and  the  , in line  p a r t i n g s c e n e o f J i n g Ke  sent  by  ends w i t h a s i l e n t  T h i s ci  begins  a  This  is  the with  the  e f f u s i o n o f t e a r s and .  f i n a l l y , w h i l e e v e r y t h i n g has  departed,  only  the  63  poet i s l e f t  t o ask  T h i s i s one a g e s , i t has  i n the l a s t  known ci.  of Xin's best  received nothing  E v e n Wang G u o w e i this  the hollow q u e s t i o n  Down t h r o u g h  but p r a i s e from the  (1877-1927)  had  the  critics.  high praise for  i n s p i t e of h i s d i s t a s t e f o r using  ci,  line.  in  diangu  ci.  Wang s a i d : "The method o f e x p r e s s i o n o f H s i n C h ' i - c h i ' s t z ' u t o t h e t u n e o f 'Ho h s i n l a n g ' [ w i t h s u b t i t l e ] 'On the departure of t w e l f t h b r o t h e r , Mao-chia i s s u p e r b , and w o r d a f t e r word t o o has ching-chieh. I t shows an a b i l i t y a l m o s t b o r d e r i n g on t h e d i v i n e (shen), y e t he d i d n o t i n t e n t i o n a l l y work t o c r e a t e s u c h an e f f e c t . F o r t h i s r e a s o n l a t e r men w e r e unable to i m i t a t e him." 5 0  The  power and  the uniqeness of t h i s c i  lies  i n Xin's  t o b r i n g t h e s o r r o w o f p a r t i n g t o i t s h i g h e s t , most l e v e l by  instilling  F i r s t of a l l ,  m o t i o n and  d i f f e r e n t kinds of motions are  sounds of t h r e e b i r d s . before  the a r r i v a l  of fragrance conveys the  cessation in his  The  butcher  of the f a l l .  ( s p r i n g ) and  diangu.  i t s sound  I t s c r y mourns t h e o f autumn.  r u t h l e s s p r o g r e s s i o n of time.  intense  i n t r o d u c e d by  b i r d emits  the a r r i v a l  ability  Beware l e s t equinox;  I t s sound  In the L i  the s h r i k e sound h i s note b e f o r e  Causing a l l the f l o w e r s to l o s e t h e i r fragrance. " 51  fine  just  departure  Sao,  says: II  the  the  i t  64  The s e c o n d b i r d to  \\  i s the partridge.  t h e sound o f t h i s C h i n e s e p h r a s e :  "^J  " which l i t e r a l l y  further.  5 2  The s o u n d  l e a v i n g , though The t h i r d  i t will  home!  "4  L e t ' s go home!".  returning  (going  "-  53  t o proceed.  i s t h e cuckoo, which sounded "buru  guiqu,  Literally,  I t s sound  conveys  and  giugu  j£*  the motion of  i n line  by t h e c e s s a t i o n o f s p r i n g f r a g r a n c e .  B u t a g a i n , i t comes t o a f u l l  three, The m o t i o n  5 4  of three departing  The movement i s c a r r i e d o n by two diangu  seven.  ^  home).  b e g i n s a g a i n i n l i n e f i v e w i t h t h e diangu women.  buru  like  i t means " l e t ' s go  B u t a l l t h e s e m o t i o n s come t o a h a l t signified  y e , gege ^"J  means i t c a n ' t go o n a n y  be d i f f i c u l t  kind of b i r d  ft  "xingbude  i s similar  o f t h e p a r t r i d g e conveys t h e motion o f  t h i s t o the ancient Chinese: 4 / 3'  I t s sound  i n line s i x  stop i n the next  t h r e e l i n e s when t h e h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t i s d e s c r i b e d f r o m t h e v i e w o f L i L i n g , t h e o n e who was f o r c e d t o s t a y . c h a r a c t e r s i n l i n e s e i g h t and n i n e , l i e ^ emphasize  ,  i n l i n e s t e n and e l e v e n where  h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t c e n t e r s o n J i n g K e , t h e one who was g o i n g  away. ci  a n d j'ue i^j  t h e s h a t t e r i n g o f t h e hope o f e v e r m o v i n g a g i a n .  The movement i s a g a i n s t a r t e d the  The l a s t  The s t r o n g c o n t r a s t  i n movement t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e  b r i n g s t h e r e a d e r ' s e m o t i o n t o t h e most i n t e n s e  level,  65  finally  t o be f o c u s e d  on t h e p o e t who s t a y s b e h i n d  i n the l a s t  line. The  i n t e n s i t y o f t h i s c i i s a l s o r e i n f o r c e d by t h e  c o n t r a s t o f sound and s t i l l n e s s c o n t a i n e d ci  begins  i n the diangu.  The  w i t h t h e s o u n d s o f t h r e e d i f f e r e n t b i r d s w h i c h comes  i n s u c c e s s i v e w a v e s , a n d e a c h s o u n d i s more i n t e n s e t h a n t h e p r e v i o u s o n e , due t o t h e e f f e c t o f a c c u m u l a t i o n . s o u n d s come t o a h a l t spring.  i n l i n e t h r e e upon t h e d e p a r t u r e o f  This s t i l l n e s s  i s r e i n f o r c e d by t h e g l a r i n g  presentation of h i s t o r i c a l the horse,  t h e pipa,  images c o n t a i n e d  i n the  t h e Golden Gate, the dark  Chang Men, t h e k i n g f i s h e r (swallow)".  But a l l  f r o n t i e r , the  c a r r i a g e , a n d t h e poem  Their s t i l l n e s s emits  diangu:  "Yanyan  f a r more e m o t i o n t h a n a  moving o b j e c t , f o r t h e r e i s an element o f permanence and timelessness i n motionlessness.  In the forever  w o r l d , t h e r e i s something unchanged: the g r i e f accompanying i t transcends class.  changing  p a r t i n g i s u n i v e r s a l and t i m e , space and s o c i a l  The p a i n o f p a r t i n g c r e s c e n d o s  i n t h e sound o f a  f a r e w e l l song i n l i n e e l e v e n , which b r i n g s t h e c i t o a dramatic  ending:  a l l the tears turning into blood.  t e n s i o n w h i c h has been a c c u m u l a t i n g alternating suddenly  i n the successive  p r e s e n t a t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l events  r e l e a s e d , s y m b o l i c a l l y changing  every  i s thus shade o f t h e  emotion o f p a r t i n g i n t o a pool of deadening, reddish stillness.  The  66  In the next present  two  i s brought  c i , t h e c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n t h e p a s t and  a b o u t by h i s t o r i c a l a l l u s i o n s .  Kao  Mei d e s c r i b e the p o e t i c f u n c t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l a l l u s i o n  the  and this  way: "A h i s t o r i c a l a l l u s i o n has two p o l e s , one r e l a t e d t o a c o n t e m p o r a r y t o p i c and t h e o t h e r t o a h i s t o r i c a l event. The two a r e c o m p a r e d , and t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e comparison i s t o b r i n g out the s i m i l a r i t y between the two and t h e r e b y p r o v i d e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o c h a r a c t e r i z e o r comment on t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y e v e n t . . . S i m i l a r i t y and c o n t r a s t are then the o p e r a t i v e p r i n c i p l e s of allusion. 1 , 5 5  Kao  and M e i  f u r t h e r d i v i d e the r e s u l t of t h a t  b e t w e e n t h e p a s t and  the present  comparison  i n t o p o s i t i v e and  negative  allusion: "A p o s i t i v e a l l u s i o n , w h i c h e m p h a s i z e d t h e a n a l o g y b e t w e e n t h e p a s t and t h e p r e s e n t , c l e a r l y d o e s n o t convey the sense of change. A n e g a t i v e a l l u s i o n , w h i c h e m p h a s i z e s t h e c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n t h e p a s t and the p r e s e n t , a p p a r e n t l y p o i n t s t o change. But even h e r e , t h e p r e s e n t i s b e i n g compared t o the p a s t ; the n e g a t i v e a l l u s i o n says i n e f f e c t that the p r e s e n t s h o u l d be l i k e t h e p a s t b u t i s n o t . " 5 6  But  i n h e r e n t i n t h e mechanism o f comparing t h e p a s t  t h e p r e s e n t , be implicitly  i t p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e i s t h e p o e t who  calling  a c t i o n i s emotion,  for action. which  5 7  And  i s generated  is  the m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e f o r i n the t e n s i o n c r e a t e d  by p u t t i n g two  poles  together.  t h e r e c u r r e n c e o f e v e n t s and w o r d s i n a l l u s i o n  which  Kao  And  and M e i  ( t h e p a s t and  with  call  the present)  simultaneously  the "archetype," provides a  moral  guideline for present  action:  "With such a s h o r t compass, i t i s h a r d l y p o s s i b l e t o e x p l a i n t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s and m o t i v e s o f an a c t . W i t h t h e use o f h i s t o r i c a l a l l u s i o n , however, the i m p o s s i b l e becomes u n n e c e s s a r y . The b a c k g r o u n d material - circumstances, motives, personal r e l a t i o n s , e t c . - n e e d n o t be e x p l a i n e d b u t o n l y alluded. The mere m e n t i o n o f a h i s t o r i c a l p e r s o n o r p l a c e a c t i v a t e s t h e c o m p l e x o f i d e a s and e v e n t s c o n v e n t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e s w i t h i t , w h i c h , when g r a f t e d onto the present t o p i c , prepares the stage for moral a c t i o n . " 5 8  U s i n g diangu and  as a n e g a t i v e c o m p a r i s o n between t h e  the p r e s e n t , X i n i n the f o l l o w i n g c i laments t h a t  present  i s no  longer  like  To t h e Tune o f Niannu 1181/1170)  the  Jiao  past the  past:  •4  ]QC fa  X i%  (1167-  Mounting the Shangxin P a v i l i o n i n Jiankang. To t h e Camp Commander S h i Z h i d a o 5 9  i i 1 ' t - * *!. U  7  * ? » 4  I come t o l a m e n t t h e p a s t , g o i n g up t h e h i g h t o w e r a t h o u s a n d hu o f i d l e w o r r i e s come upon  me*  * hu i s a g r a m m e a s u r e n o m i n a l l y h o l d i n g t e n p e c k s , five.  later  The  t  c r o u c h i n g t i g e r s , the c o i l i n g dragons W h e r e ' s t h e l i n e and s h a p e o f t h e l a n d ? O n l y t r i u m p h s and r u i n s f i l l e d t h e e y e s . tft  H %%ft I ? * A &,  f  t  ;M.  S l a n t i n g s u n - r a y s , beyond the w i l l o w s , R e t u r n i n g b i r d s , by t h e w a t e r s i d e , Wind sweeping the t a l l t r e e s , across the f i e l d .  A  l o n e s a i l , westward bound. A s i n g l e n o t e - Who i s p l a y i n g t h e  if w. * * , - ^ if  flute?  8 rr ?  I  remember t h e c h a r m and g r a c e o f A n s h i who r e t r i e d t o the E a s t e r n Mountain i n h i s o l d T e a r s f a l l i n g along w i t h a sad l u t e song.  *f ti % % a :*j. £ x  Bl.  5 £ f *  T r a n s f e r r r i n g a l l hope o f fame and name t o my c h i l d r e n ' s g e n e r a t i o n , A l l d a y l o n g , I'm s p e n d i n g t i m e on c h e s s .  % The  % n % %] Q £.Jk  a tit  >t &  p r e c i o u s m i r r o r c a n no l o n g e r be s o u g h t . E v e n i n g comes f a s t t o t h e a z u r e c l o u d s . Who w o u l d be my c o m p a n i o n i n d r i n k i n g ?  W i n d r o a r i n g by  the r i v e r h e a d .  age.  ik.  69  A t dawn, waves t u r n o v e r t h e  31  11  U,  ill  IS  IN  With the purpose of lamenting  ;*  house.  >k ®1 &  the past  i n mind, X i n  d e l i b e r a t e l y a s c e n d s t o a h i g h p l a c e w h e r e he c o u l d s u r v e y l a n d f a r and w i d e .  B u t what f i l l s  the eyes i s the  o f t h e d e s t r u c t i v e f o r c e w h i c h has been rampaging pages  of h i s t o r y :  aftermath through the  J i a n k a n g , a p l a c e where t r u e s a g e s  h e r o e s u s e d t o d w e l l , i s now  the  and  a devastated piece of land  i n h a b i t e d by a g r o u p o f c o w a r d o f f i c i a l s who c o u r a g e t o c h a l l e n g e t h e enemy.  l a c k the w i l l  The o r i g i n a l p o w e r f u l  60  and  shape  and b e a r i n g o f t h e l a n d , w h i c h i s v i v i d l y d e p i c t e d w i t h t h e imagery of the c r o u c h i n g line  two,  i s now  attesting  t i g e r s and t h e c o i l i n g d r a g o n s i n  r e p l a c e d by r u i n s w h i c h a r e s o  to the f r i g h t e n i n g  has been changed  f o r the  fact  visible,  that the course  of  history  worse.  As a w a r n i n g t o t h e r u l i n g c l a s s t h a t t h e p r e s e n t be l i k e  the p a s t , but i t i s not  (that loyal o f f i c i a l  should  should  be  u s e d and t r u s t e d i n s t e a d o f p e r s e c u t e d ) , X i n a l l u d e s t o a X i e An  (32-385) jfy  historical  figure.  politician  i n t h e E a s t e r n J i n (317-420)  to the E a s t e r n Mountain ^ politics  until  he was  r e i g n o f X i a o W u t i /i  Jj  ^ ^  , a  great era, retired  and d i d n o t s e t f o o t i n  forty,  t o be p r i m e m i n i s t e r d u r i n g  Tp\  .  His p o l i t i c a l  the  talent plus his  p r o m i n e n t s t a t u s a s p r i m e m i n i s t e r made h i m t h e f o c u s o f attack.  Hispolitical  r i v a l s were s u c c e s s f u l i n d r i v i n g a  wedge b e t w e e n X i e a n d t h e e m p e r o r . wept w h i l e h e a r i n g  A t a r o y a l banquet, X i e  Huan  " S i n c e even being t h e l o r d i s n o t easy, being minister i s exceptionally d i f f i c u l t . I f your l o y a l t y and t r u s t w o r t h y s e r v i c e i s not u n d e r s t o o d , t h e n y o u w i l l be s u s p e c t e d . " 6 1  With t h i s a l l u s i o n , X i n i s a l s o drawing a p a r a l l e l b e t w e e n S h i a n d X i e who was a c c u s e d o f s l a n d e r a n d f a b r i c a t i o n , a n d was d e m o t e d t o a m i n o r p o s t (the present  district  Hunan) t h e y e a r  of Lingning ^  i n the province of  t h i s c i was w r i t t e n .  X i e and S h i b o t h  s u f f e r e d a t t h e hands o f t h e i r p o l i t i c a l participation i npolitics,  according  a sense o f duty towards t h e i r t h e e n d , was  i n Yongzhou  enemies.  Their  t o X i n , was m o t i v a t e d  country.  Yet t h e i r  by  loyalty, i n  questioned.  L i n e s i x i s a s u b t l e comparison between X i n and X i e . While p l a y i n g chess, J i a n was won. bed,  he  Having read  and continued  pleasure.  X i e r e c e i v e d news t h a t t h e b a t t l e w i t h F u the l e t t e r ,  X i e j u s t p u t i t on t h e  w i t h h i s c h e s s game w h i l e d i s p l a y i n g no  When X i e was a s k e d a b o u t t h e c o n t e n t  of the l e t t e r ,  answered s l o w l y t h a t h i sc h i l d r e n ' s g e n e r a t i o n  won t h e b a t t l e  ( t h e b a t t l e was f o u g h t  X i e S h i ~t%i %  a n d h i s nephew X i e Xuan ~\%\ %  displaying  had a l r e a d y  by X i e ' s younger ).  6 2  brother By  t h e same " i n d i f f e r e n c e " i n l i n e s i x , X i n i s i n f a c t  71  h i n t i n g t h a t h i s m i n d i s on rather  t h a n on  The the  the  i n e v i t a b l e downfall  the  of  end  the  a n n i h i l a t i o n of  the  destruction  s y m b o l i z e d by  of  the  the the  talented  of  and  the  house  of  (the  the  loyal will  The  i n t e g r a t i o n of  description.  The  the  The  of s c e n i c  d e s c r i p t i o n i n stanza  where t h e  h o u s e i s o v e r t u r n e d by  figure  a l l u s i o n to Xie  from the  scenic  past.  6 3  talented  the  present  of  the  forces  loyal  in  between the  following p a s t and  ci,  the  the  i s sandwiched between f o u r one  and  raging  the  the  last  tides.  two  of  X i n uses  diangu  historical in  the  l o y a l and  the the  entire  t o draw an  present, emphasizing that same.  the  Huan Y i i n  the  lines  lines  Yet,  sound of a f l u t e  of d e s t r u c t i o n  of h i s t o r y s h o u l d remain the  the  of nature i n  runs i n s e a m l e s s c o n t i n u i t y t h r o u g h o u t the  In the  a  past events with  i n s t r u m e n t p l a y e d by  Thus, the m o t i f  empire).  present,  d e s c r i p t i o n to the  i s l i n k e d s m o o t h l y by  p r e s e n t to the m u s i c a l  will  the  destructive  present.  transition  force,  p a s t and  broken s p i r i t  p a s t i s embodied i n the  to  t h i s a l l u s i o n , beside drawing  p o w e r f u l n e g a t i v e comparison between the  scenic  waves  S o u t h e r n Song  land.  lead  destructive  rushing  of  nation  sycophants to r u l e the  r o a r i n g w i n d and  effectiveness  i n Xin's  nation  t h i s c i i s a warning  entire nation.  u l t i m a t e l y overthrow the  lies  of h i s  p r e s e n t empire i f the  i t s p o l i c y of a l l o w i n g  The  The  well-being  c h e s s game.  v i o l e n t scene at  continued  the  ci.  analogy  the  course  72  To  t h e Tune o f Yongyu  Lamenting the past & The  a  k  Le  ;K  $L  by t h e B e i g u  Si -f  f t  ^  (1205/1204)  Pavilion  i n Jingkou  6 4  t  immutable mountains and r i v e r s , t h e h e r o Sun Zhongmou c a n n o t be f o u n d .  4 1 a J.. t it *, I 4 #ft4. The  s t a g e f o r dance and song, a l l c h a r m i n g e l e g a n c e gone under t h e b e a t i n g r a i n , t h e r o a r i n g  % m  ft -I, *• & &  wind.  A common a l l e y w h e r e t h e s l a n t e d s u n r a y s cut i n t o t h e bushes t h e r e o n c e l i v e d J i Nu, people say.  Mn  ni. 1  I  f  I n.  i.-  * *J  L  .  A f  T h i n k i n g of those years, w i t h golden l a n c e s and i r o n - s h o d horses, H i s s p i r i t s , l i k e a t i g e r , g u l p i n g down m y r i a d s o f li.  *!• The  % 4  !  4 \ ^ h. k % % l i- t.  hasty plan of Yuanjia, p a y i n g homage a t L a n g j u x u won o n l y a n e r v o u s n o r t h w a r d  glance.  h  A, ff i  £  \  ?,  Hit k  f,  Forty-three years! I c a n s e e i t s t i l l i n memory t h e Yangzhou Road e n g u l f e d i n f l a m e .  f Jt  73  7  Unbearable n o s t a l g i a i s t h e drumming s o u n d , the r a v e n s s e e k i n g f o o d beneath the B i l i a l t a r .  t 4 3 1 # U  8  T\ - »} *f 1| *t'f£.  To whom I i n q u i r e : "the o l d L i a n Po, i s he s t i l l c a p a b l e o f e a t i n g  rice?"  0  Drawing  a p o s i t i v e c o m p a r i s o n between t h e p a s t and  p r e s e n t , X i n u s e s two h i s t o r i c a l to  f i g u r e s i n the f i r s t  stanza  d r i v e home t h e p o i n t t h a t t h e s u r v i v a l o f a n a t i o n l i e i n  e i t h e r h a v i n g a g o o d d e f e n s e o r a good o f f e n s e . policy  The  worst  first  historical  f i g u r e X i n a l l u d e s t o i s Sun "|^  N  Three Kingdoms p e r i o d i n J i n g k o u fa 0  province of  , t h e e m p e r o r o f t h e Wu  (220-280). (present:  He  first  empire i n  established his  Zhenjiang  ; j _i n the  Jiangsu).  Of t h e t h r e e e m p i r e s a t t h e t i m e o f t h e T h r e e era,  S u n ' s e m p i r e o f Wu  his  defensive strategy.  was The  the l a s t belief  to f a l l ,  Kingdoms  l a r g e l y due  i n having a strong  coincides with Xin's m i l i t a r y concept. e m p e r o r "On  to  t h e c a s e w i t h t h e S o u t h e r n Song a t t h e t i m e .  Zhongmou ( 1 8 2 - 2 5 2 ) / / ^  capital  The  i s n e i t h e r h a v i n g the energy t o defend nor the w i l l  a t t a c k , w h i c h was  the  the  to  defense  In h i s essay to the  T r a i n i n g C i v i l i a n - s o l d i e r s t o Defend  the Huai  74  River  , " X i n advocates b u i l d i n g a  s t r o n g d e f e n s e l i n e based on t h e t h r e e towns o f t h e H u a i River.  6 5  I n a n o t h e r m e m o r i a l t o t h e e m p e r o r , "The Humble P r e s e n t a t i o n o f Ten D i s c o u r s e s , " deal with strengthening  nine of those  ten discourses  t h e S o u t h e r n Song d e f e n s e s y s t e m .  t h a t X i n i s a g a i n s t a t t a c k , on t h e c o n t r a r y , X i n i s v e r y i n favor o f a t t a c k over defense.  Not much  In the last discourse, X i n  gives h i s reason: "They h a v e t h e i n t e n t o f d e c e i v i n g u s a n d we a r e a l s o p r e p a r e d t o be a t t a c k e d . One d e c e i v e s , t h e o t h e r p r e p a r e s ( t o be a t t a c k e d ) . I t w o u l d be c u r i o u s i f t h e r e i s n o t war u n d e r t h i s s i t u a t i o n i n the world. I f war i s i n e v i t a b l e , w h i c h one i s more advantageous: t o have sent t h e s o l d i e r s a t t a c k i n g f i r s t , a n d t o s i t a n d w a i t t o be a t t a c k e d ? " 6 6  H a v i n g a s t r o n g d e f e n s e i s t h u s t h e means o f a c h i e v i n g t h e goal of offense.  Citing  t h e achievement o f Sun, X i n l a s h e s a t  t h e pro-appeasement p o l i c y o f t h e S o u t h e r n Song.  Although i t  had  signed  a " p e a c e t r e a t y " w i t h t h e J i n , t h e g o v e r n m e n t was  not  t a k i n g advantage of t h e c e a s e - f i r e p e r i o d t o prepare f o r  f u t u r e enemy a t t a c k s . government had f a l l e n  Instead,  t h e e n t i r e S o u t h e r n Song  into a state of i n e r t i a ,  p a s s i v i t y , lacking the w i l l was a man o f r e a d i n e s s .  to fight.  Sun, on t h e o t h e r  W h i l e he was p r e p a r i n g  d e f e n s e , he was a c t u a l l y b u i l d i n g a g o o d The  second h i s t o r i c a l  e n v e l o p e d by hand,  f o r a strong  offense.  f i g u r e i s a man who c o u l d f i g h t a n d  75  win.  fy£  L i u Yu ( 3 5 6 - 4 2 2 )  Jinu  fa  )  f  was t h e f i r s t  t h e Nanbei e r a (420-581) ^ hometown, i t was t h e f i r s t successful battles, finally  ^  , (whose c h i l d h o o d name was e m p e r o r o f t h e Song ( 4 2 0 - 4 7 9 ) i n .  N o t o n l y was J i n g k o u h i s  p l a c e w h e r e he s t a g e d  e s t a b l i s h i n g himself as t h e f i r s t  emperor o f t h e S o u t h e r n d y n a s t i e s Although  a series of  (420-589)  .67  X i n a d v o c a t e s a n o f f e n s e p o l i c y , he r e c o g n i z e d  that i f a m i l i t a r y e x p e d i t i o n i s h a s t i l y planned, to  fail.  i t i s doomed  To w a r n Han T u o z h o u , t h e p r i m e m i n i s t e r o f t h e  S o u t h e r n Song a t t h a t t i m e , who a l w a y s w a n t e d t o a t t a c k t h e Jin  i n order  t o strengthen  h i s own p o l i t i c a l  f i v e , X i n evokes a h u m i l i a t i n g defeat year  (450)  Wenti  %  of Yuanjia  ( 4 2 2 - 4 5 3 ) 7L>  According  t o Song W e n t i ' s own a c c o u n t ,  Biography  o f Wang Xuanmo ( 3 8 8 - 4 6 8 ) £_  Shu  ~<3  i n the  , Wang's f r e q u e n t  twenty-seventh  f\  recorded  ). i n the  %  i n t h e Song  delineation of military  s t r a t e g y o n c a p t u r i n g t h e n o r t h was e n o u g h t o i n d u c e engage t h e N o r t h e r n Wang f i n a l l y was  Wei ( 3 8 6 - 5 3 4 ) Jt  launched  i n line  , a n era-name o f Song  ( L i u Y i l o n g [ 4 0 7 - 4 5 3 ] j|j  £ ^  position,  ^%  him t o  i n battle.68  h i s h a s t y a t t a c k i n 450 A.D., b u t  b e a t e n b a c k b y t h e W e i a l l t h e way t o t h e Y a n g t z e ,  t h r e a t e n i n g Wang t h a t t h e y w o u l d c r o s s t h e r i v e r . reportedly regretted the decision t o launching expedition.  Song W e n t i  this  While l o o k i n g towards t h e north from t h e t o p o f  t h e F e n g h u o Tower  X. ^  , a poem a l l e g e d l y w r i t t e n b y h i m  76  r e c o r d e d i n t h e Song drops mingled The  Shu  jfc ^ |  says i n p a r t :  ;f- ^  ;Aj  second phrase i n l i n e  ^  "gazing  north,  tear  ."69 five  " t o make s a c r i f i c e  [feng  ) i n L a n g j u x u " comes f r o m t h e b i o g r a p h y o f G e n e r a l  of C a v a l r y $j Qubing (Hun)  f$  ^  J§J  <^  ( 1 4 5 - 1 1 7 B.C.) (£j  ^  ^  $j  j|  i n the SAi  £ • jh-  a l l t h e way  J i .  ( i n the  t h e M o n g o l i a n Autonomous R e g i o n )  performed a s a c r i f i c e  i n the mountain before  t h i s p h r a s e , X i n s u b t l y r e m i n d s Han  m i l i t a r y merit  For  i n conquered f o r e i g n  X i n , the e v e n t u a l  attack  planned, s o l i d l y anchored i n the designed strategy.  An  on  attack  i n 1204.  repeating little fell  The  in  downfall  Nevertheless,  r e s u l t was  remaining i n the  Han  that i s ,  well  would  only  as w e l l  ventured  This defeat n a t i o n , and  get  carefully  d i s a s t r o u s , once  the h i s t o r y of Y u a n j i a .  strength  t h e J i n must be  ill-conceived operation  national defeat.  By  7 0  territory.  framework o f a  hasten the prime m i n i s t e r ' s p o l i t i c a l inviting  can  from a s u c c e s s f u l m i l i t a r y e x p e d i t i o n ,  performing a s a c r i f i c e  and  returning.  t h a t one  Nu  present  north-western part of  using  Huo  once drove the X i o n g  back t o L a n g j u x u  as his  again  sapped  the  the  S o u t h e r n Song  1279.  L i n e s i x changes the p o e t i c plane from a n a t i o n a l to personal south. of  Wei  one. The  I t had  b e e n f o r t y - t h r e e y e a r s s i n c e X i n moved  s o u n d o f war  r i t u a l music.  a  drums has  been r e p l a c e d  I t i s a p i c t u r e of  "peaceful"  by  the  sound  endeavor,  77  people making s a c r i f i c e s the f e s t i v e  to t h e i r  mood i s a p o i g n a n t  o c c u p i e d and  r u l e d by  local deities.  reminder  of the land  Di  d r i v e s h i s p o i n t home. (424-451)  ^  jft 4jf  Bili,  ^  On  o f t h e Wei  ,  The  71  military of  later  name " B i l i "  efforts  dynasty,  f\ y  after  Taiwu  defeating  to the n o r t h of  Xt  /he  became t h e B i l i  built  Temple  s e r v e s as a w a r n i n g  against hasty  a s i n t h e c a s e o f Wang; i t i s a l s o a  the n o r t h e r n t e r r i t o r y s t i l l The  seven,  t h e c h i l d h o o d name o f  t h e Guabu M o u n t a i n  h i m s e l f a lodge, which ^  still  in line  Wang Xuanmo, a d v a n c e d h i s t r o o p s a l l t h e way the Yangtze.  beneath  the J i n .  By p u r p o s e l y u s i n g t h e name B i l i ^ Xin  But  reminder  o c c u p i e d by t h e J i n .  last h i s t o r i c a l figure  i s L i a n Po  / j ^  who  was i  already a retired  g e n e r a l when t h e K i n g Dao  of  s e n t f o r him  Zhao  physically emissary, of  r i c e and  armour and still  had By  ten c a t t i e s  ^  t o s e e w h e t h e r he was  f i t t o be a s o l d i e r . L i a n Po consumed one  Xiang  Upon t h e a r r i v a l o f peck  (about  o f meat i n one  316  cubic  ^ still Zhao's  inches)  m e a l , t h e n p u t on  l e a p t onto h i s horse, a l l to demonstrate t h a t t h e v i g o r t o f i g h t and  t u r n i n g the comparison  into a question, Xin transforms When L i a n Po was  to serve h i s country.  b e t w e e n L i a n Po and i t into  o l d , someone s t i l l But  ,  his he  7 2  himself  a very sad c o n t r a s t .  remembered t h e r e was  old  g e n e r a l named L i a n Po.  the q u e s t i o n i m p l i e s t h a t  one  e v e n remembers t h e r e i s an o l d s o l d i e r  called  Xin  an no  Qiji,  78  much l e s s comes t o i n q u i r e a b o u t h i s w e l l - b e i n g . t h e r e i s h a r d l y anyone t h e r e l i s t e n i n g q u e s t i o n becomes t h a t much h o l l o w e r . w i t h L i a n Po,  Knowing  to h i s pleas, h i s By d r a w i n g a  parallel  Xin also implies h i s willingness to serve.  someone d i d come t o i n q u i r e a b o u t h i s h e a l t h , X i n was than w i l l i n g t h a t no one end  to repeat  came; no one  events  l a m e n t f o r one  in life:  events  e m o t i o n s as  T h i s ci  one  In of  the  the  himself.  a f t e r another,  the consequences of  nor  critics.  evoking just  in  those  embodies the v e r y essence of X i n the  man;  i s vintage Xin. I n t h i s c i , t h e r e i s a show o f b a l a n c e  sentimentalism  and  r a t i o n a l pragmatism.  between  hurricane running  through  the l i n e s .  X i n chooses h i s semantic  s y n t a c t i c a l l y ending  romantic  Allowing himself  submerge deep i n the p a s t , X i n l e t h i s e m o t i o n , l i k e  way  fact i s  r e c e i v e d n o t h i n g but p r a i s e from the  f i g u r e s and  compelling  evocations. it  The  beauty of i t l i e s not o n l y i n i t s dense f o r m a t ,  historical its  demonstration.  If  more  remembered X i n ' s e x i s t e n c e .  l o w by t i m e and  T h i s c i has The  L i a n Po's  of t h i s ci, Xin gives a personal  heroes l a i d  that  a  This i s r e f l e c t e d  structure.  Instead  to  in  of  each f o u r - c h a r a c t e r phrase i n l i n e  one,  X i n a l l o w s h i s thought as w e l l as the p o e t i c rhythm t o run unhindered  till  the t w e l f t h c h a r a c t e r , a f t e r a s u c c e s s i o n  three four-character phrases, 73  vigor.  0  g i v i n g these  the  lines strength  on of and  79  S u r e l y X i n i s s e n t i m e n t a l a b o u t t h e p a s t , b u t he d o e s n o t a l l o w h i m s e l f t o be o v e r w h e l m e d b y n o s t a l g i c p a s s i o n .  The  p a s t i s r o m a n t i c i z e d a s he v i v i d l y  scenes  depicts the battle  o f L i u Yu b u t t h i s a l s o s e r v e s a u t i l i t a r i a n  purpose.  H i s t o r y , t h e n , i s more .-than a m o d e l ; i t i s 3 m i r r o r the p a s t , t h e p r e s e n t , and t h e f u t u r e . for  the analogy ).  with the present  (tuogu  reflecting  The p a s t i s d r a w n o n yujdn  A m i d n o s t a l g i a , X i n i s r a t i o n a l enough t o h a v e  stopped  c l i n g i n g o n t o what i s g o n e ; he p r a g m a t i c a l l y e x p l o i t s  the past f o r the b e n e f i t o f the present. The  Qing  literary  c r i t i c Wang G u o w e i i s w e l l known f o r  his opposition t o using allusion  i n ci.  H i s reason  i s that  ) i n p o e t i c f e e l i n g .74 What Wang i s s a y i n g i s t h a t diangu,  i f used i m p r o p e r l y , c a n  take t h e reader out o f t h e p o e t i c world which now a n d b a c k t o t h e p a s t b y diangu;  i s t h e here and  t h e r e b y , c r e a t i n g a gap  between t h e r e a d e r ' s p r e s e n t p o e t i c f e e l i n g which i s supposedly The ability  aroused  by t h a t a l l u s i o n .  c r a f t m a n s h i p o f -the p o e t , t h e n , i s t e s t e d i n h i s t o p r o v i d e a seamless  emotional—poetic continuity  between t h e p a s t - i n f o r m a t i o n and t h e p r e s e n t - e m o t i o n . l e s s e r p o e t s , t h e u s e o f diangu demonstrates  c a n be d i s a s t r o u s .  But X i n  t h a t t h e u s e o f a l l u s i o n c a n be e m p l o y e d i n many  d i f f e r e n t ways w i t h o u t c r e a t i n g p o e t i c g a p s a n d h o l e s . Jingsi  For  ( Q i n g ) t%  KL'  a d m i r i n c l y said:,  As Lou  "The way he [ X i n ] m a n i p u l a t e s ( t h e q u o t e s ) f r o m t h e Zhuang Zi, t h e Li Sao, t h e c l a s s i c s , and h i s t o r i c a l w o r k s , J i a x u a n has not l e f t even a t r a c e o f h i s carving blade. H i s pen h a s v i g o r o u s p o w e r . " 7 5  81  CHAPTER I I I :  If of  the use o f a l l u s i o n enables  another,  use  USE OF COMPARISON AND CONTRAST  X i n t o s a y one t h i n g i n t e r m s  r e v e a l i n g t h e t w i s t s and t u r n s  of h i s f e e l i n g s , the  o f c o m p a r i s o n and c o n t r a s t a l l o w s X i n t o a c c e n t u a t e  polarities. clearly  Through  the dichotomy  between " w h a t - i s " True poetic  to being  of Xin's  world  view  and h i s o s c i l l a t i o n  a versatile  poet,  X i n chooses  one f i n d s t h a t  t o u s e , he  always  f o r the purpose  X i n employed  contrast.  of demonstrating  to sharpen  These c i d i s t i n c t i v e l y  comparison  and  contrast:  belong  the  to three  contrast  comparison  temporal  c o n t r a s t between t h e p a s t and t h e p r e s e n t .  Throughout  his life,  that  i s , the recapture  life  time,  government  X i n and h i s t o r i c a l  X i n was p r e o c c u p i e d  of the north.  remained u n f u l f i l l e d . t o o weak  and X i n ' s  politically  strong  and  hope,  hope, d u r i n g h i s  Not o n l y was t h e S o u t h e r n  i n d i f f e r e n c e of the Southern  territory  different  by a s i n g l e  But t h i s  and  figures,  and m i l i t a r i l y  to launch  a t t a c k on t h e J i n , t h e y a l s o l a c k e d t h e d e s i r e a n d w i l l The  different  categories of  o f two  worlds,  desire  Song  towards  to  S i x c i have  h i s use of comparison  spatial  between  whichever  manages  d i f f e r e n t v a r i a t i o n s o f t h e same t e c h n i q u e .  chosen  methods  p o e t i c medium, one comes t o s e e more  and "what-should-be."  technique  generate been  this  h i s inner  Song an  to fight.  recovering  lost  t o do s o c o n s t i t u t e t h e two  82 opposite  poles  contrast, these  i n Xin's  Through  the poetic  technique  as the f o l l o w i n g c i demonstrates, the p o l a r i t y  opposite  To  life.  between  w o r l d s becomes t h a t much more a p p a r e n t .  t h e Tune  of  Shvilong  Yin  ™f  (1192-  1194/1194) Passing  b y t h e S h u a n g x i Tower i n  A * M t it  Nanjian  If  R a i s i n g my h e a d , f l o a t i n g clouds i n t h e north-west; A m y r i a d . I i o f l o n g sword i s needed* to s t r e t c h along t h e l e n g t h o f t h e sky.  f.  It  *  it  >|  %  %  1  *J.  People say that i n t h i s place, they o f t e n s e e i n t h e dead o f n i g h t a b r i l l i a n t g l a r e around t h e Dipper and t h e Herdboy.  At  *k  >&,  4  h,  ;?s 4  4 4- f u *<&.  I  feel the mountains a r e h i g h , t h e l a k e i s empty a n d t h e water i s c l e a r , t h e moon i s b r i g h t a n d t h e s t a r s a r e p a l l i d .  I  intended t o l i t t h e rhino horn t o look below, L e a n i n g a g a i n s t t h e r a i l , I'm a f r a i d of rousing the roaring-thundering wind, the f r i g h t e n e d f i s h and t h edragon below.  *4  11- i i  m  *r ft. »• * &. ^ ft  * One i i i s a b o u t 1890 f e e t i n E n g l i s h m e a s u r e .  of  83  P a s s i n g by t h e h i g h t o w e r i s t h e w a t e r , ready t o c r o s s over, but i t i s r e s t r a i n e d by t h e t o w e r i n g m o u n t a i n s a c r o s s t h e r i v e r .  At t% i x f l  &  #  Y u a n l o n g i s a l r e a d y a n o l d man; Why n o t r e c l i n e on a c o o l mat w i t h a pot o f something c o l d . )L The  ft  %  i,  The  *  %  &  1,  -  $\  f .  |  two w o r l d s  mythical  contrasted  world.  The  i s i n today's  northern  part  i n this  c i begins  Jianxi  # Ji  c i are the real with  a view ^]  d i s t r i c t of Nanping  of Fujian ^  two c r e e k s :  1 I  * if. n, ni  Nanjian  the  »k i it  s|\  Who a g a i n , b e n e a t h t h e s u n s e t , h a s m o o r e d t h a t s a i l on t h a t s a n d y b e a c h ?  L  the  h  u p s a n d downs o f a t h o u s a n d p a s t a g e s , a h u n d r e d y e a r s o f woes a n d g l e e s a r e s e e n a t a g l a n c e f r o m on h i g h .  4 t 8  I. fit  £  province.  J^>J  w o r l d and  of  Jj?  , i n the  Shuangxi  to the l e f t  reality.  refers to  of the c i t y  and  Qiaochuan $ t  >'|  the  o f h i s homeland i n t h e J i n - o c c u p i e d t e r r i t o r y , t h e  direction  enormous p h y s i c a l bridged  t o the r i g h t .  As t h e poet  looks  north-west,  d i s t a n c e between t h e poet and h i s homeland i s  by t h e image o f a l o n g  Xin's wish  1  to fight  sword.  the J i n i n order  This  symbolizes  to recapture  not only  the n o r t h , but  84 also  h i s lack  o f power t o do s o .  2  F u r t h e r m o r e , X i n was n o t t h e  o n l y o n e who l a c k e d t h i s s w o r d .  The S o u t h e r n S o n g , a t t h a t t i m e ,  was  the J i n m i l i t a r i l y .  also  sword  t o o weak  embodies  Nanjian  legend Jin  sword  o f a super-sword  Line  3  i n reality  i n a myth.  t h r e e i s an i n d i r e c t  The s t o r y :  280)  As t h e l e g e n d  reference to a  ^  t h e r e was a v i o l e t  chronogram, (niu  jj:  "Dipper )."  Wu's s t r e n g t h .  5  £I> 5j?  qfj  , Shu ( 2 2 1 - 2 6 4 )  emanation  (nandou  i n the Kingdoms  , a n d Wu ( 2 2 2 -  o f Wu, a s t h e l e g e n d  i n t h e s k y between t h e e i g h t h  ^}  )"  and t h e n i n t h ,  "Herdsboy  Some s o o t h s a y e r s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s was a s i g n o f But a f t e r  t h e d e f e a t o f Wu, t h e v i o l e t  emanation  n o t o n l y r e m a i n e d b u t o n t h e c o n t r a r y , i t became b r i g h t e r . yt^  h a d h e a r d o f a s o o t h s a y e r named L e i Huan known f o r h i s a b i l i t y Lei  concluded  super-sword  that  rising  i n interpreting  the violet  jf  emanation  Upon  who was w e l l consultation,  was t h e e s s e n c e  (the present d i s t r i c t  i n the province of Jiangxi), .  signs.  Zhang  of a  t o w a r d t h e s k y , a n d t h a t t h i s s w o r d was i n t h e  p r e f e c t u r e o f Yuzhang "J^L ^ %  into  super-sword  r e f e r s t o t h e p e r i o d o f t h e Three  Wei (220-265)  with goes,  was t r a n s f o r m e d  . In the beginning, before the f a l l  goes,  i s contrasted  i n t h e b i o g r a p h y o f Zhang Hua ( 2 3 2 - 3 0 0 )  Shu. f£l  of a long  was t h e p l a c e w h e r e a s u p e r - s w o r d  dragons.  X i n and t h e  government.  absence  the presence  Thus, t h e  t h e powerlessness o f both p a r t i e s :  S o u t h e r n Song The  t o overcome  the d i s t r i c t  o f Nanchang  o f Fengcheng  A f t e r L e i d u g u p t h e two s w o r d s w i t h t h e names L o n g q u a n and T a i ' a  js  c a r v e d on them  respectively, the  85 v i o l e t emanation i n t h e sky disappeared. one  super-sword.  lost.  Z h a n g was  killed,  h i s death.  Hua's  While  super-sword  water.  h i s super-sword  He  flew  o f f from  ordered people  could  s e e was  h i s waist-band  t o look  two d r a g o n s  i n the water.  while,  t h e r e was a b r i g h t  light  shining  impossible  into  3£  the  but a l l  The p e o p l e  the super-sword.  were  After  a  i n t h e w a t e r , and t h e r e  waves.  T h i s myth draws o u t t h e c o n t r a s t the ideal  and  f o r the super-sword  and r e t u r n e d w i t h o u t r e t r i e v i n g  were huge, r o a r i n g  was  he was p a s s i n g by N a n p i n g one d a y , L e i  afraid  and  took  L e i ' s s u p e r - s w o r d was p a s s e d o n t o h i s s o n L e i Hua ^  after  they  After  Zhang a n d L e i e a c h  one.  In reality,  f o r him t o f i g h t  between t h e r e a l  Xin's lack  the J i n .  o f power  What he c o u l d  r e a l i t y , he s e e k s i n t h e m y t h i c w o r l d , i n a n e f f o r t  situation makes i t  not f i n d i n  t o compensate  f o r h i s l a c k o f r e a l power w i t h m y t h i c a l p o w e r . In l i n e but  three,  obstructive  obstructions  reality  reality.  X i n ' s sense  tall  idea of recapturing Qiji's  stars described  o f emptiness  t h e S o u t h e r n Song:  Xin  The  inside  complacent,  i n line  Jiao  ( 2 8 8 - 3 2 9 ) }§l  and c o o l  attitude of towards the  the north.  desire  the rhinoceros'  the cold  three symbolize not  but the e n t i r e  indifferent  quiet  symbolize the  The empty l a k e ,  t o get the super-sword  more i n t o t h e e l u s i v e m y t h i c a l w o r l d i n l i n e of  I t i s a very  mountains  i n r e a c h i n g h i s homeland.  water and t h e p a l l i d only  creeps i n again.  horn J>^/  drives  four.  The  him once lighting  i s a r e f e r e n c e t o t h e b i o g r a p h y o f Wen i n t h e Jin  Shu.  6  The s o l d i e r s  o f Su  86 Jun  (266-328)  revolt. %^  t h a t was  were v a r i o u s  scarlet  clothes  while  contrast  the  function  of  two  worlds.  the  creatures  inert,  the  this By  i n the  calm  social  Clearly  Xin's  analogous since  court,  forces  inner  ruling  country.  The  and  w a t e r , and  on  horses.  one  and  the  two  real  the  and  the  ruling  can  be  force that  of  are  brought  the  desire  mythical,  c l a s s but  stance  not  of  the  the  the only  to the  these  comparing both  by  any  comparison  destructive the  "peace  seemingly treaty". device  t o empower h i m s e l f .  But  pro-appeasement f a c t i o n pitted  a l s o deepened the  pro-appeasement  of  some m a g i c weapon o r  i n order  hands of  "fish"  frightened  and  by  wearing  they are  l u r k i n g behind  i s t o get  i n the  pro-war  nature  l i t a  i s used  of a l l ,  class:  that  saw.  similarity  easily  about  he  The  which  and  the  ^  heard  some c r e a t u r e s  riding  accentuate  super-sword  fear  had  S e c o n d l y , t h i s myth e s t a b l i s h e s a  condition  the  saw  He  t h i s myth, X i n i s , f i r s t  destructive  Xin's  pro-war  i s to  water w i t h  r e a l power was  powerful the  to  were  lines  indifferent  social-political  to s e t t l e  r e f e r t o t h e c r e a t u r e s Wen  in  citing  s l i g h t disturbance. the  four  myth  ordered  i n the  He  7  d i f f e r e n c e between  passive,  between  living  others  myth  was  unfathomable depth.  more c l o s e l y .  "dragons" i n l i n e Unlike  in  of  Wen  came t o t h e w a t e r o f N i u z h u j i  creatures  r h i n o horn to look  and  r e b e l l e d and  Upon h i s r e t u r n , he  , a pool  there  zL'^  him  the  p o l a r i z a t i o n between  cliques, further  more c h a o s d r i v e s X i n  against  out  of  dividing the  the  mythical  world. The  obstructive p o l i t i c a l  forces  i n r e a l i t y and  Xin's  desire  87 to  r e t u r n home a r e f u s e d  line  five.  Xin's  wish  high  i n the scenic  The o n w a r d movement o f t h e w a t e r t o go home, i s i m m e d i a t e l y  mountains,  mountains  together  towering  symbolize  description i n  which  symbolizes  d a s h e d by t h e s i g h t o f t h e  intimidatingly  over  the o b s t r u c t i v e forces:  the river.  they  The  shatter  Xin's  dreams o f r e t u r n i n g home. Contrary seems  to the fervent desire displayed  to portray  comparing  himself  Yuanlong  TLl f ) l  biography  i n the  Liu Xu  a sense with  Sanguo  B e i ( 1 6 1 - 2 2 3 ) %\ mentioned  was e v i d e n t .  that  This Zhi  $jl  J-  Deng fj^ line  whose  .  $j  were g u e s t s  of time while  he d i d n ' t  of h i s and  y(j  ^  sleep  Not o n l y was Chen i n  in a tall  n o t m i n d where t h e y 8  image o f i n d i f f e r e n c e .  Furthermore,  b u n k e r a n d l e t Xu ( h i s  b u i l d i n g a n d l e t Xu s l e e p o n t h e  sleep;  of national c r i s i s ,  instead, their  concern  people should  By c o m p a r i n g h i m s e l f w i t h C h e n , X i n i s i n  f a c t h i n t i n g t h a t h i s mind i s s t i l l h i s imitation  long  L i u B e i t h e n r e t o r t e d t h a t i f he w e r e  L i u ' s r e a s o n was t h a t i n t i m e s  be a b o u t t h e c o u n t r y .  Xu c i t e d h i s v i s i t  Xu was a g u e s t a t h i s h o u s e .  g u e s t ) s l e e p on t h e l o w e r .  although  was  e v e n s p e a k t o Xu f o r a  Chen s l e p t on t h e u p p e r s l e e p i n g - p l a t f o r m  should  1^  by  Chen Deng was a famous man y e t h i s a r r o g a n c e  no mood t o be a good h o s t ,  floor.  Xu S i  a t L i u Biao's  L i u B e i a s k e d Xu t o p r o v e t h a t .  C h e n , he w o u l d  z i ^  r e f e r s t o a passage  a t Chen's d u r i n g a t i m e o f s o c i a l u p h e a v a l .  period  one, X i n  of i n d i f f e r e n c e i n the second  Chen •  i n stanza  on t h e a f f a i r s o f h i s n a t i o n ,  o f Chen's l y i n g  down p r o j e c t s an o u t w a r d  88 Xin's  concern  contrasted  with  s e v e n and  The  not  ending  court: one  the  eight.  projects  just  fate  of  his  indifference  of  the  The  only  an  is a  the  over  stationary  v e i l e d warning  look  message i s c l e a r :  the  only  a  contrast  of  the  the  Xin's  against  mountain, sail,  and  water  in  the  of the the the  establishment small  and  reality: high  the  the  tower,  sandy lake,  the  beach. where  inner  f u r t h e r d i v i d i n g an press  r e a l and an  organizes the  is  Song  deceptive;  sun.  complacency of  Xin's  the  ruling  i t s downfall. of  the  real  and  the  this  mythical,  c i . the  b e t w e e n t h e s e two  empty  further  underlined  worlds.  The  environment lake,  small  mythical  the  world  large of  the  pallid  the  world  is  towering  stars,  i s Nanjian  were e v e n t s  by  and  believed  the the to  the  north,  his  fear  of  f r a c t u r e d S o u t h e r n Song g o v e r n m e n t i f  with  alternating pattern.  shuttle  setting  recapture  the p o l i t i c a l - s o c i a l o b s t a c l e s Xin  line  ago.  to  already  ahead  is  large  The  the  desire  way  last  Southern  the  see  physical  Xin's  to  the South  comparison-contrast  many y e a r s  were  to  to  lines  indifference.  i n the  i n d i f f e r e n c e and  have t a k e n p l a c e  he  gives  in  i n the  also  subtly  powerlessness i n being a s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l p i t t e d  giant  world  upward  i s then  ruling class  mentioned  calm  h a s t e n the p r o c e s s of  Besides mythical,  Xin  political  to  c l a s s can  sail  country  a u r a of seeming c a l m , but  apparent  has  the  his are The  large  This  goal,  his  a l l skillfully  f r u s t r a t i o n over captured i n  comparison-contrast and  poetic  worlds,  and  the  small,  i s structured  structure allows  reflecting his  between  the poet  inner  desire  the the by to to  89 recapture  the  north  f r u s t r a t e d by o u t e r The the  general  direction  super-sword X i n out  of  world  i n order  switches  back  of  action.  The  get  to sight  same  i s Xin's  north-west,  Nanjian. enable  time  being  the  the of  constantly  signified  contains  impossibility  to fight  world  and  super-sword  the  of  world  the  be  t h e power o f t h e s m a l l - m y t h i c a l w o r l d too  fierce  f o r the  ends w i t h  a  political  consequences  the  large-realistic  f r i g h t e n e d man of  small-mythical world  would  assist  contrary,  Xin  the  who  is terrified  high  pursuing no  longer  mightily in  possession  of  the  h i s own offers  fighting  super-sword  seeming calmness of the l a r g e - r e a l i s t i c Turning  away f r o m  the  the  mountains  first  super  a  small-mythical world,  power  five.  This  time  p o t and  a c o o l mat,  rather  than  Xin turns  the t a l l to the  the  in line  mythical  power.  The  On  the the  poet  finds  five.  The  again i t  b u i l d i n g mentioned i n l i n e  even s m a l l e r w o r l d  t h i n g s which o f f e r  which  disrupt  t h e enemy o n c e a g a i n becomes a n i m a t e d , b u t  i s s y m b o l i c a l l y f r u s t r a t e d by  and  result,  enemy. would  stanza  social  As  to  world.  h i m s e l f f a c i n g the l a r g e - r e a l i s t i c world again wish to f i g h t  of  (the c r e e k ) .  the  goal. the  poet  four proves  The by  the  i s devoid  in line  world.  a  home d r i v e s  once a g a i n p r o p e l s X i n i n t o the s m a l l - m y t h i c a l w o r l d But  small,  having  Then  which  of  by  small-mythical  needs.  fearsome h e i g h t  the  h i s way  into  he  large-realistic the  homeland,  which  The him  large-realistic to  the  world  of  which would the  at  circumstances.  large-realistic  myth-haunted  one  while  of  a  cold  immediate p h y s i c a l comfort large-realistic  world  is  90 stretched  back  defeats  in  i n time i n l i n e  one  small  comparison  and  between the  r e a l and  For  that  the  his goal  could  other  Throughout  his  the  necessity  the  north  And  But  Xin  to get  and  his  involved disdain  forces  evident:  is  bored with  To  the  he  f i n d s the  the  Tune  life  of  of  world  the  world  l o v e and  p o e t i c t e c h n i q u e of c o n t r a s t . is  dark  torn  the  s i n g l e hope the  the  one  side  i n order  political can  of  be  come o u t In the  Yet  desire  world.  sharply  f o l l o w i n g ci,  on  and  recapture  characterized  more  as  politics.  to  h a t e , a t t a c h m e n t and  of  hand,  political  between the  politically  the p o l i t i c a l  conflicting  the was  for  of  oscillation  S o u t h e r n Song g o v e r n m e n t .  Xin  and  worlds.  accomplished without the  pattern  inner  knew q u i t e w e l l , on  detested  components of  these  be  Xin's  p r e o c c u p i e d by  he  entire l i f e ,  relationship with dualistic  X i n was  not  alternating  accentuates  support of  hand,  This  the m y t h i c a l  north.  w e l l as m i l i t a r y the  view.  contrast  a l l his l i f e ,  recapturing  seven, embracing past g l o r i e s  Xin's by  the  detachment. under  Xin's  o f p o l i t i c s a p p a l l i n g and  the  dilemma yet,  he  retirement.  Shuilong  1202/1187-1188) A g a i n , c o m p o s i n g an i n s c r i p t i o n f o r t h e C a l a b a s h s p r i n g , u s i n g t h e "suo" d i c t i o n t o c h a n t as a t o a s t f o r my d r i n k i n g p a l s . F i n d i n g t h e s o u n d and rhyme q u i t e h a r m o n i o u s , my g u e s t s e m p t i e d a l l t h e i r w i n e g l a s s e s .  91 Oh!  Listen! The s o u n d o f j a d e c l e a r and pure.  Oh!  Bright i s the mirror, r e f l e c t i n g the t i n i e s t  4  'i  & %  ornaments,  detail  t  Please! Don't l e a v e h e r e . And be t a i n t e d by t h e f i l t h a n d c h o k e d by t h e t h r i v i n g k n e e - h i g h w i l d weeds.  4 *t,  H  X  f iji  \\  ,  Not  o n l y those t i g e r s and l e o p a r d s to e a t people l i k e you for t h e i r d e l i c i o u s food, T h e r e a r e a l s o t h e monkeys. /fo  5  if L  f  ;*0  hungering  >i. f  f{ \ i* ^  It  £ .  ft  i  4j  &  S  *  M, il i  and t h e mountains a r e h i g h .  £.  W i t h my humdrum, s o l i t a r y flu  8  t  P e r i l o u s a r e the roads,  li 4, 7  , ;4  i  The v a s t e v e r - f l o w i n g r i v e r s a n d s e a s w i l l c a p s i z e a boat l i k e a t i n y seed. You do n o t h e l p t o c r e a t e t h o s e r a g i n g w a v e s . £  6  ft  d i r t ,  «  W  life.  £ .  The w i n t e r v a t s f i l l t h e summer c a p s . When y o u r e t u r n , d o n ' t f o r g e t t o brew some w i n e f o r me.  A  n  h  t n  i\.t  n  i\  f  t  92  9  A l s o , f o r t h e f r a g r a n c e , make some smooth a n d s o f t T u a n l o n g and P a i n f e n g t e a .  i ?i- a 1 1 10  The a n c i e n t s a r e l o n g g o n e . Alas, f o r myself, I'm c o n t e n t w i t h a s i n g l e bamboo d i s h o f r i c e and a s i n g l e g o u r d d i s h t o d r i n k f r o m .  i  k s ih ft, -4 U l , %  Since it  Hun Chu is  •? t s . .  i f it & , i  the d i c t i o n  i s necessary. /[\\ i%  Ci  added  character  o f t h i s c i i s q u i t e u n i q u e , a few words on  In this  (summoning  -^P  \M  .  tiKt  |  c i , X i n adopts the s t y l e the soul)",  one o f t h e c h a p t e r s  In t h i s chapter,  a t t h e end o f each i s exclamatory  the character  sentence.  only.  of the  Shen Kuo  "Zhao  i n the  " s u o <Z  The f u n c t i o n o f  " this  (1031-1095)  comments: "The p r e s e n t  d)f{  Kui Xia, ^  (present:  p r o v i n c e ) , Hu X i a n g J ^ ( p r e s e n t : Hunan p r o v i n c e ) (present:  Xin's  Hubei p r o v i n c e and  and t h e p e o p l e o f J i a n g l i a o  Hunan p r o v i n c e ) , a l l e n d e d t h e i r  w i t h t h e word Chu."  Sichuan  'suo'.  This  i s the ancient  >X-  ^  incantation  style of  9  incorporation of this  demonstrating According  once a g a i n  character  i n this  c i i s unique,  h i s fondness f o r p l a y i n g w i t h words.  t o the p r e f a t o r y statement, the content  of this c i  93 supposedly The  has  only  n o t h i n g t o do w i t h t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e  link  between  the  two  i s the  character  "Zhao  Hun."  "suo".  The  d e l i b e r a t e e m p l o y m e n t o f t h i s w o r d i s more f o r t h e s a k e o f p o e t i c experimentation  than  content.  maintaining  one's p u r i t y  echoes  the  of  respectively Here,  two  and  the  act of  compositions  i n t h e Chu  using  Nevertheless,  the  p o l i t i c a l world  the  water  with The  the  filth  imagery  from  ( w h e r e he  Calabash  and  two)  death  dirt  (in line  e m a n a t i n g The  was  Spring  " L i Sao,"  the  from  contrast  leopards  devouring  good  to drink.  of m o t i v a t i o n : people  in line  (content  The  Spring  ( w h e r e he  before).  The  Hun"  (in line  one  the  sets  up  i s now)  clear  a and  sound  of  ) i s contrasted (in line  tiniest  r a n c i d smell generated i s contrasted  the  good  between  tea  these  two  with  ( i n  three).  detail  people,  Implicit  greed  in this  i n the world  f o u r ) and  with having  i n the world  one  of  the  (in  there are  to  filth  fragrance n i n e ) .  continues  in  the  tigers  and  retirement, there  is  c o n t r a s t i s the d i f f e r e n c e  of p o l i t i c s  contentment  from the  l i n e  worlds  In the p o l i t i c a l world,  of water i n l i n e t e n ) . By  are  "Zhao  Xin  i n the p o l i t i c a l world  three)  sphere of motions.  tea  soul  i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e w i l d weeds w h i c h c h o k e p e o p l e  (in line three). dirt  and  of  Ci.  b r i g h t n e s s o f t h e moon w h i c h r e f l e c t s  line  and  i n the  theme  summoning t h e  " L i Sao"  s t r o n g c o n t r a s t between the Calabash the  the  i n the  bamboo d i s h o f  rice  (hungering  world and  of one  to  eat  retirement gourd  dish  1 0  c o n t r a s t i n g the  world  of  politics  with  the  world  of  94 retirement, in  X i n at the f i r s t  h i s persuasion  that  But  the use o f t h i s  Xin  does  not l i k e  explicitly in  way  he  eight. life, his  describes  a simple,  rather  Asking  routine i s again  succession  serene  politics;  seven  i n line  f o r Hui's  simple  l i n e i s a reflection of  the p o l i t i c a l  living,  rather  At the f i r s t  of p o l i t i c s  of e v i l  life  stressed i n  of seasons  He i s  1 2  institutions  and  than t h e enjoyment o f  o f t h e use o f c o n t r a s t  the impression  from t h e s n a r l  inner  Line  life.  levels.  the world  contrast  either.  dilemma:  h i s f r i e n d s t o b r i n g h i m more w i n e a n d t e a  the effect  a t two  give  i n retirement.  than a genuine p r e f e r e n c e .  the powerful,  contented  Thus,  of  of retirement  the fixed  to his lackadaisical  between  successful  to reveal h i s inner  he seems t o d i s p l a y a y e a r n i n g  weariness  enemies.  and  the world  of fighting  points  to  contrast serves  h i s days  t h e " a n c i e n t " mentioned i n the l a s t  tired  seen  enjoys  The b o r i n g a n n u a l  1 1  Although  inner  his  he t r u l y  seems t o be v e r y  s t a t e s h i s l o n e l i n e s s a n d t h e humdrumness o f h i s d a y s  retirement.  the  glance,  that  and t h e w o r l d X i n would  contradiction:  contrast  of retirement  seems  t o withdraw  and embrace t h e s i m p l e  But a t the second  i n n e r dilemma.  c i c a n be  the strong  much p r e f e r  forces i n p o l i t i c s  of retirement.  reveals Xin's  level,  i n this  level,  the  There i s a s u b t l e c o n t r a s t  X i n i s disgusted  with  the evilness of  b u t he i s a l s o b o r e d b y t h e m e a n i n g l e s s o f  retirement  life. Historical  f i g u r e s p l a y a p r o m i n e n t r o l e i n X i n ' s ci.  p r e s e n c e a d d s i n t e r e s t t o X i n ' s c i , a n d more i m p o r t a n t ,  Their  Xin often  compares fond  himself  Li  historical  Among  Guang figures.  compare h i m s e l f  these  figures,  actually  ignored  (365-427)  I t i s not surprising  fide  that  >Jjfj favorite  Xin likes to  s h a r e many s i m i l a r i t i e s .  soldiers.  defended t h e i r country  their  X i n i s very  i s another of Xin's  w i t h L i , f o r they  a n d X i n w e r e bona  end,  them.  o f c o m p a r i n g h i m s e l f w i t h Tao Yuanming 13  Li  with  They b o t h w e r e p a t r i o t s  i n the b a t t l e f i e l d s .  l o y a l t y were n o t p r o p e r l y  recognized.  Both who  But i n t h e  They b o t h  were  by t h e g o v e r n m e n t .  To t h e Tune o f Basheng 1192/1188)  Ganzhou  /\  4  •Hj  (1182-  I was r e a d i n g t h e b i o g r a p h y o f L i Guang. I c o u l d n o t s l e e p , s o I t h o u g h t o f my p a c t t o l i v e i n t h e m o u n t a i n s w i t h Chao C h u l a o and Yang M i n z h a n , I p l a y f u l l y u s e d t h e e v e n t s o f L i ' s l i f e t o compose t h i s ci t o s e n d t o t h e m . 14  1  The  f o r m e r g e n e r a l came b a c k at night a f t e r f i n i s h e d drinking. Removing h i s c a r v e d s a d d l e a t t h e Long P a v i l i o n .  2  Loathing a t t h e drunken l i e u t e n a n t o f the B a l i n g P a v i l i o n , being f l u s t e r e d , f a i l e d t o recognize the t a c i t u r n general.  3  A s o l o r i d e t o the mountain, hunting  tigers.  96  of  S p l i t - t h e rock a t the f r i g h t e n i n g the loosened bowstring.  sound  D e j e c t e d , spending h i s r e m a i n i n g days i n h i s garden and f i e l d without having the t i t l e of marquis.  % %. n %  th  i  « i .  Whoever s a i d t h a t a move t o t h e m u l b e r r y a n d the S o u t h e r n M o u n t a i n , r e q u i r e s a h u n t i n g o u t f i t and a h o r s e ?  % Q  %  |  U  *>, 1 * 1 *  k, # ii 4?  E  Look a t him: a u g u s t and h i g h - m i n d e d . He s p e n t h i s l a s t y e a r s i n laughter.  \ ill 7  ~X  i t  chit-chat  and  u n l i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r accomplishments i n e a r l i e r t i m e s when t h e Han was e x p a n d i n g i t s f r o n t i e r s , T h e i r m e r i t and fame e x t e n d e d o v e r t e n t h o u s a n d m i l e s , Even t h e t a l e n t e d had p l e n t y o f l e i s u r e t i m e .  i.4 $ SUM  f SJ.  O u t s i d e t h e gauze window, t h r e a d s o f r a i n f a l l i n the s l a n t e d w a f t i n g wind. I f e l t one s p a s m o f c h i l l .  % >|\ 4*\ UL  Instead  The  J>.  With  &  this  idle  Qu-  £ }6 $ Jf-.  .  A &fl 4 8  hemp o f Du  of  comparison first  level  explicitly  comparing  i n a n o t h e r , making of  comparison  himself with  i t more s u b t l e  i s set  in a  L i , Xin hides and  temporal  indirect. frame  of  97 reference: present first Li  the past  dejected  general  L i Guang.  L i Guang  is, contrasted  The c i b e g i n s  with the present.  two l i n e s r e f e r t o t h e p a s s a g e r e c o r d e d i n t h e Shi  Guang  recognize  J i .  1  A  5  drunken  with the The  i n the biography  lieutenant  failed  of to  t h a t t h e one who was s t o p p e d a t t h e B a l i n g P a v i l i o n was  t h e once famous g e n e r a l . Li plum  Guang's  (taoli  biography, was  greatness  wuyan  34 f  i n the phrase  ) i n line  two.  L i was a g r e a t man o f f e w w o r d s .  mourned  by  inarticulateness were  i s captured  incapable  friends  and  "wordless  According  to his  Upon h i s d e a t h ,  1 6  strangers  a l i k e .  he H i s  and p o p u l a r i t y were t h u s l i k e n e d t o plums w h i c h o f speech,  b u t whose  fruits  ( L i ' s admirers)  line  both s i d e s o f t h e brook. This  respect  and l o v e  f o r L i Guang  reads h i s biography.  Not o n l y  loyal  and courageous  t o h i s country  during  his military  expeditions General lived.  1 8  loyalty. without  against  was L i a g r e a t  t h e Hun.  would  had served  not dare  h i s country  r e c e i v i n g any honor which  he d u l y  title  deserved.  spent h i s time d r i n k i n g and t i l l i n g  in  seventy  nobly  retired  line three.  L i i s contrasted I t i s recorded  L i ,  L i the F l y i n g where L i  and w i t h into  (a marquis 1 9  also  military  t o go n e a r  B u t i n t h e e n d , he s l i p p e d q u i e t l y  recognition  The  man, he was  T h e Hun c a l l e d  1 7  i f one  on t h e b a t t l e f i e l d .  s e r v i c e , had l e d over  o f t h e Han a n d t h e y L i Guang  i s understandable  utter  retirement  title)  or the  In h i s retirement, L i .  the f i e l d . with  t h e former  i n h i s biography  great  general  t h a t o n c e he went  98 hunting tiger. the  and  mistakenly  The  2 0  arrow  accuracy  result  of  Then, t h e  of  the  stuck  shooting  First  stone.  is vividly  and  skill,  is  the  i s no waste  now  to  his the  to  allow  the  once  remaining  days  t h a t L i Guang h a s  it  in idleness. second  Guang and  superb  retired  the  hidden  main i n the  retiree.  great  f i n a l l y the bowstring  shooting  was  general  t i l l  to  comparison  is  to s i x .  on  numerous  the  fields.  of L i ' s shooting  now  t h a t he  comes  the  comparison first  nil.  fields.  spending The  his  implication  could only  in line  Even i n the e a r l i e r  t a l e n t s untapped.  comparison  is  four  tend  laughter.  s o much f r e e t i m e  of  s k i l l ,  spent  to  general  waste  seven:  Li  days of the  Han,  such  as L i  I t i s t h i s comparison that  chilling realization  I t i s the  The  splitting.  p e r i o d w i t h many o p p o r t u n i t i e s , g r e a t men  to  and  Xin.  rock  L i in lines  energy  c h i t - c h a t and  used a g a i n i s p r a c t i c a l l y The  by  a  In other words, X i n t h i n k s t h a t i t  "wordless"  level  were i g n o r e d , t h e i r Xin  his  2 1  a  the poet h i m s e l f .  a prosperous  leads  such  in idle  is  the  o u t f i t , a s u b t l e reminder  longer of u s e .  Thirdly,  The  using  hunting  be  speed, power,  captured  described:  i t to  i t s way. and  contrasted  taking  The  o f a l l , t h e g r e a t g e n e r a l whose l i f e  Secondly,  a  stone,  sound i s r e c o r d e d ,  greatness,  battlefields  is  a  i n the  is first  w h i c h s e n t t h e a r r o w on  immediately  at  L i ' s shooting  startling  Li's  shot  t h a t h i s chance of  being  2 2  ( X i n and with  Li) in this  L i the  level  of  great  ci is  general  comparison  that  skillfully and  Li  the  strengthens  \  99 the  second.  and  the dejected  Li  The s h a r p e r c o n t r a s t  and X i n .  indirectly  L i , the stronger  i s between t h e former g e n e r a l t h e comparison  W h i l e t a l k i n g about L i and h i s l i f e ,  t a l k i n g about  he c e r t a i n l y  government. unpopular  was n o t a f a v o r i t e  A s i d e from h i s pro-war with  Xin i s i n fact  himself.  A l t h o u g h X i n was g i v e n v a r i o u s o f f i c i a l south,  i s made b e t w e e n  t h e pro-appeasement  posts after  he moved  of the Southern  Song  s t a n c e w h i c h made h i m v e r y figures  at the court,  Xin's  u n t r a m m e l l e d a n d f l i p p a n t p e r s o n a l i t y h a d made h i m many p o l i t i c a l enemies.  B u t X i n was a l s o  He w o u l d  steadfastly  adhere  y i e l d i n g on h i s p r i n c i p l e s . next  c i , one comes  response t o h i s  To t h e Tune  a s t u b b o r n man a s he o n c e a d m i t t e d . t o h i s own  Through  t o see Xin's  idealism  rather  t h e use o f comparison sense  self  esteem  than i n the  and h i s  enemies.  (1179/1179)  I n t h e y e a r o f C h u n x i J i h a i , I was t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m t h e p o s t o f t h e V i c e F i s c a l C o m m i s s i o n e r i n H u b e i t o Hunan. My c o l l e a g u e Wang Z h e n g z h i g a v e me a f a r e w e l l b a n q u e t i n the Xiaoshan P a v i l i o n . I composed t h i s c i f o r t h i s occassion.  1  How much more o f t h e r e p e a t e d o n s l a u g h t s o f t h e wind and r a i n c o u l d I bear? S w i f t l y , s p r i n g has departed.  100  For  I t r e a s u r e s p r i n g and l o n g f e a r that the f l o w e r s blossomed prematurely. how much t h e m o r e , c o u n t l e s s f a l l e n p e t a l s .  And  ii 4 I've  -i. *t> a m  % >h % h  heard t h a t your r e t u r n route i s a l r e a d y b l o c k e d by t h e w i l d a l l over t h e h o r i z o n .  I i t A,  4 i  have  & ft.  grasses  * ;£ J ^ «,  t  I nurse anger a t S p r i n g f o r keeping her s i l e n c e . Only t h e s p i d e r beneath the eaves, t i r e l e s s l y s p i n n i n g h e r web a l l day long t r a p p i n g t h e wind-blown c a t k i n s .  s The  h * n. 'i  *  A  fe  ti. t % **•  Chang Men a f f a i r h a s o n c e a g a i n t h w a r t e d my g o o d J e a l o u s y has been d i r e c t e d towards h e r .  4 n1 Although has But  %  Hi  a n *.  t% Ml A  a thousand ounces o f g o l d bought Xiangru's prose, who w i l l l i s t e n t o h e r g r i e v a n c e s ?  1 i jflt f  JL  i' W. ifc »*. n> 1% n if?  Youl Do n o t go i n t o r a p t u r e s . C a n ' t y o u s e e t h a t t h e f l e s h o f Yuhuan a n d F e i y a n has t u r n e d i n t o a s h e s ?  f I % f * i . i >l f * % | i > t  This k i n d of i d l e sorrow i s t h e most p a i n f u l t o b e a r . Do n o t l e a n a g a i n s t t h e t o t t e r i n g r a i l w h e r e t h e s e t t i n g sun i s above t h e m i s t y w i l l o w s . I t i s a p l a c e o f sorrow.  time.  u.  101  Very It  specifically,  was d u r i n g t h e s p r i n g  Hubei  lines,  X i n uses  the Chinese  evocation  through  carefully  s e t the stage  lamenting  of composition.  o f 1 1 7 9 , when X i n was t r a n s f e r r e d  t o Hunan a s t h e V i c e F i s c a l  four  by  X i n g i v e s t h e exact year  Commissioner. traditional  f o r h i s comparison  the passing of spring  In the f i r s t  2 3  poetic  technique of  j)^  (bi-xing  comparison-incitement  from  ) to  i n t h e second  and h i s impotence  stanza  to stop the  passage o f time. Spring, union  a n d new  which the  a time  o f j o y and r e b i r t h ,  beginning,  stands  s h o u l d be f o r e v e r c h e r i s h e d . poet's  departed  diligent  spring.  repeatedly blossomed  but f u t i l e  The p o e t  destroyed t o o soon  (line  f o r something  of  very  blissful beautiful  I n t h e s e f o u r l i n e s , one s e e s effort  complains  by t h e w i n d  a season  to detain the already that  and r a i n  the flowers  (line  two) and a l l u s i v e l y  one); they  tells  were have  Spring that  the w i l d grasses a r e . b l o c k i n g her return route ( l i n e three). A l l these lament  the fact  that the b e a u t i f u l t h i n g s a r e not cherished  as they s h o u l d be; i n s t e a d , they a r e r u t h l e s s l y By favour beauty, Because  evoking with  the h i s t o r i c a l  t h e k i n g because  X i n s e t s a comparison o f h i s own  beauty  figure  destroyed.  o f E m p r e s s Chen who  of other people's  lost  jealousy of her  between h i m s e l f and Empress C h e n .  2 4  o f c h a r a c t e r , X i n b e l i e v e s t h a t he  i n a d v e r t e n t l y s u f f e r s t h e same f a t e a s b e a u t i f u l women.  Like a l l  102 beautiful  t h i n g s under  the  sun,  s e a s o n s , a l l become t h e v i c t i m s  whether  virtues,  of d e s t r u c t i v e  persons  forces.  Like  f o r m i d a b l e f o r c e s o f r a i n and wind w h i c h a n n i h i l a t e s p r i n g first in  stanza, the e v i l  nullifying  restored  her  power o f  virtue.  ever  previous status,  having  mood.  As  suddenly prevail  line  coincides  i f spotting realizes:  since  ^c. JJ  suddenly  dot  those  Yang G u i f e i  Yuhuan J l  , was She  2 5  to  was  revolt.  had  purchase  hopelessness  resurrected,  of  w i t h the u p l i f t  light  jealous  the d i c t i o n  in total  ones  in  a  cannot  and  ( 7 1 9 - 7 5 6 ) ffift Q  Tang  7% J,  Xuanzong's  e x e c u t e d d u r i n g An  Zhao F e i y a n  ^  Xin  will  not  temporal  , whose name  jLi  of  poetic  darkness,  t h e y a r e a l s o m o r t a l , s u b j e c t t o t h e same  restrictions.  concubine.  gold  Xin's despair turns into  beautifully  a  whose  T o t a l l y c r u s h e d by t h e  i n the  seven.  Like a dying b u t t e r f l y next  Chen,  the  destructive  X i n ' s g o l d i s unable  h i s name e x o n e r a t e d ,  rhetorical question i n line  Xin's  i s equally  U n l i k e Empress  h i m a moment o f v i n d i c a t i o n . of  jealousy  or  was  favourite  Lushan's  ^  was  committed  suicide  (709-757) the  empress  of  I  Emperor  Cheng  ^  v|5  .  demoted t o a c o m m o n e r . for  their  those  who  eventually  jealousy. are  26  By  jealous  share  the  She  who  a r e now  By  she  Both o f t h e s e b e a u t i e s were w e l l comparing of  him,  same f a t e .  these  the  two  poet  comparing  the  Although  fates  of  jealous  indicates  e n j o y e d t h e e a r s and h e a r t s o f t h e emperors, "dethroned."  after  these  two  t h e y were  was  known  women w i t h they  will  women o n c e eventually  t h e s e women w i t h  those  c l o s e t o t h e e m p e r o r and a r e v e r y j e a l o u s o f h i m ,  Xin  103 issues  a veiled  positions. powerful  warning  As time  about  progresses,  and t h e powerless,  movement o f t i m e w i l l  will  their  " s u p e r i o r " but temporary  the beautiful  and t h e u g l y , t h e  a l l turn t o ashes.  churn every mortal  s o u l t o b i t s arid p i e c e s .  Xin  then advises himself not t o lean against the r a i l  the  place  symbol  o f sorrow.  The c l o s e r he s e e s  of the Southern  Song  empire  The o n w a r d  coming  f o rthat i s  the setting  sun, a  t o an e n d , t h e more  sorrow X i n f e e l s . U n l i k e t h e l a s t c i i n which t h e main comparison i s h i d d e n i n another  comparison,  this  w i t h a p o s i t i v e one.  one j u x t a p o s e s  s i x s u b t l y marks  Chen; read one  the latter her prose  Xin  This  t h e d i f f e r e n c e between  had her s t a t u s  Chen  t h e emperor had  U n l i k e E m p r e s s C h e n , no  This d i s s i m i l a r i t y  underlies Xin's  hopelessness  negative  beautiful  comparison  i s immediately  b u t j e a l o u s women, t h o s e  beauty i n character w i l l comparison their  between i n ever  h i s grievances. followed  p o s i t i v e one w h i c h i s d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s X i n ' s enemies. two  But  X i n and Empress  restored after  to Xin's grievances.  and Empress  addressing  o f them w e r e v i c t i m s o f j e a l o u s y .  w r i t t e n b y Sima X i a n g r u .  even l i s t e n s  comparison  By c o m p a r i n g h i m s e l f w i t h E m p r e s s C h e n , X i n  makes t h e p o i n t t h a t b o t h line  a negative  serves  these  who w e r e j e a l o u s o f X i n ' s  one d a y t u r n i n t o a s h e s .  as a warning  Like  by a  t o those  s t a t u s a n d power d e r i v e d f r o m t h e i r  This  positive  who a r e o v e r j o y e d  at  close relation with the  emperor. The  use o f three  historical  women a s a means o f c o m p a r i s o n  104 serves and  another  thematic  poetic  coherence  there a r e nature wild  purpose:  grasses,  i tprovides  to this  symbols: a spider  c i .  textural continuity  In the f i r s t  wind and r a i n ,  four  lines,  fallen petals, flowers,  and' h e r w e b , w i n d - b l o w n  catkins.  By  m e n t i o n i n g t h e names o f t h r e e women, X i n e n s u r e s t h a t t h e l i n e o f nature  symbols  Chinese  poetry  short-lived. misty in  i s not broken.  willow  are likened The c i a l s o  The  rain  The  main  ends w i t h  the fallen  women s y m b o l i z e and t h e wind theme  beautiful  to flowers.  and t h e s e t t i n g s u n .  two g r o u p s :  beautiful  B e a u t i f u l women  (flowers  They a r e b e a u t i f u l b u t  two n a t u r e  symbols:  spring,  flowers  Feiyan),  and the  t h e good and t h e b e a u t i f u l i n g e n e r a l . the destructive forces  c i , i s that  a n d women),  as time  the ugly  by u s i n g  three  historical  theme t h a t  t h e o n w a r d movement o f t i m e w i l l  the  ( s p i d e r ) , t h e good  and t h e bad ( r a i n and wind) w i l l  Therefore,  in life.  progresses,  ( s p r i n g ) , t h e v i c t i m ( E m p r e s s Chen a n d X i n ) , t h e p o w e r f u l and  the  T h e s e s y m b o l s c a n be d i v i d e d  petals,  symbolize  of this  i n traditional  (Yuhuan  a l l turn t o ashes.  women, X i n r e i n f o r c e s t h e churn everything  to  b i t s and p i e c e s . T h i s a w a r e n e s s o f t h e p a s s a g e o f t i m e becomes a n g u i s h i n t h e next category his  young  growth innocent  o f comparison and c o n t r a s t , i n which X i n ,  and o l d s e l v e s .  i s delineated  contrasts  In the following c i , the process of  simply  but poignantly  by c o m p a r i n g t h e  l a d h e o n c e was t o t h e s o r r o w f u l p e r s o n he i s now.  105 To t h e Tune o f 1191) On my cliff.  Chounu  way  to  Er  jl ?J <:  $$%  the  Bo  (1182-1192/1188-  Mountain,  1  When I was  2  I l o v e d t o c l i m b up h i g h b u i l d i n g s .  3  I l o v e d t o c l i m b up h i g h b u i l d i n g s , f o r c i n g m y s e l f t o be s o r r o w f u l f o r t h e s a k e o f c o m p o s i n g some new  But  now  young, I d i d not  I have t o t a l l y  *p 4  if\ k  know t h e t a s t e o f  savored  fe *  the t a s t e of  sorrow.  *  6  I want t o s p e a k b u t c a n ' t . How a b o u t I s a y : "What a c o o l autumn!".  ih  il  can't.  ij  1  r  *.  ij  T h i s c i i s n e a t l y d i v i d e d i n t o two  did  not  the  poems.  I want t o s p e a k b u t  p a s t X i n and  on  sorrow.  5  £X  this  t| h i f I  %  4  I wrote  2 7  the present  know  anything  Xin. about  The  ft  $  JK.J!  sections; relating  f o r m e r X i n was  being  sad.  The  to  the  a young l a d  who  matured  is  Xin  106 overwhelmed process had  o f growth.  i n front  h i s poetry.  finds the  an  indirect  reference  to the p a i n f u l  The y o u n g X i n , s i n c e he was s o s o r r o w - f r e e ,  to deliberately  scenery in  by s o r r o w ,  climb  up a h i g h  building,  hoping  that the  o f him might g i v e h i m something t o lament  about  The X i n now i s s o o v e r w h e l m e d by s o r r o w t h a t he  himself  speechless.  A l l he c a n u t t e r  i s some comment  on  weather. The  simple  poignancy  manner,  of this  lies  i n the context  young, X i n had t o a c t i v e l y sorrows  in life  h a v e much after  himself  experience, experienced  speechless,  though  of i t s  seek o u t s o r r o w .  f o l l o w him.  life  having  comparison,  irony.  in a  When he  l a d , s i n c e he d i d n o t to say.  As an a d u l t ,  m u c h , he h a s a l o t t o s a y b u t  an i n d i c a t i o n  was  As X i n m a t u r e s , t h e  As an i n n o c e n t he h a d n o t h i n g  presented  of h i s being  finds  overwhelmed  by  sorrow i n l i f e . The find  young  something  territory, his  But  about.  Growing  in life.  As a  guerrilla  after  action.  he moved on paper  He south,  only.  could  fight  loved to  i n Jin-occupied  h i s plans Thus,  sense of  his position  his patriotic  fervor  the J i n with  h i s sword.  to recapture  the north  Xin often  g u e r r i l l a days w i t h fond and proud memories. one  up  l a d who  figther,  him ample o p p o r t u n i t y t o t r a n s l a t e  anti-Jin  remained  t o lament  an i g n o r a n t  X i n was a p a t r i o t i c y o u n g man who h a d a c l e a r  mission  provided into  X i n was more t h a n  looked  back  to h i s  The f o l l o w i n g c i i s  t y p i c a l example o f X i n r e m i n i s c i n g about t h o s e good o l d . days:  107  To t h e Tune o f Zhegu Tian 1199)  ftfg j% ii  (1194-1202/1197-  A t a l k w i t h my g u e s t o n a c h i e v e m e n t a n d fame b r o u g h t m e m o r i e s o f my y o u n g e r d a y s . J o k i n g l y I w r o t e t h i s ci.  k  %  * H S * * , f f l l  In the prime o f l i f e , I commanded t e n t h o u s a n d under t h e banner.  s| £  men  m I ti ii M  The Han r i d e r s i n b r o c a d e , r i d i n g had j u s t c r o s s e d t h e r i v e r .  forth,  I n t h e d a r k n e s s o f n i g h t , t h e Yan groping f o r their quivers;  soldiers,  & 4  5  *  4  a  ft  *»  t  I n t h e dawning l i g h t , o n t o t h e enemy, t h e Han a r r o w s  showered.  R e m i n i s c i n g on t h e p a s t , b e m o a n i n g t h e p r e s e n t  I Hi  it  4  4,  6  To my w h i t e h a i r s , t h e s p r i n g w i n d t o b r i n g back t h e i r c o l o r .  7  L e t ' s t a k e my t e n t h o u s a n d m i l i t a r y p l a n s *f  a*  %  ?  f  A'  |,  fails  %\ Vf.  back  108  8  To e x c h a n g e , f r o m a n e a s t e r n n e i g h b o r , books on p l a n t i n g t r e e s .  What  prompted  achievement similar the  the reminiscence  a n d fame w h i c h  to the last  present  was  X i n had w i t h  one, i s n e a t l y  i n i t s two s t a n z a ,  the character  sorrow-seeking, stanza  i s filled  youthful  with  contrast  The m a i n d i f f e r e n c e  Unlike  ci,  t h e p a s t and  a strong  lies  t h e young l a d who was  I t depicts  2 8  about  This  X i n i s action oriented.  action.  i n f i n i t e energy and bravery.  between  providing  o f t h e y o u n g man. this  h i s guest.  divided  between t h e young X i n and t h e o l d one. in  the discussion  a young  The  first  man  with  The s u c c e s s o f t h e s u d d e n a t t a c k i s  s u g g e s t e d by t h e r e s p o n s e o f t h e Yan s o l d i e r s . (The J i n s o l d i e r s are  referred  region.)  t o as Yan  In confusion,  2 9  weapons, a n d X i n ' s disarrayed The  sound from  contrast  between  i s left  library still  they  were  t h e enemy t r o o p s  v i c t o r y i s sealed  occupying  t h e Yan  h a s t i l y grab f o r t h e i r  by r a i n i n g a r r o w s o n t o t h e  enemy.  travels  What  since  and a c t i o n  the past  of b a t t l e suddenly  back  to the present,  the a c t i o n - f i l l e d  o f t h e once  past  vigorous  o f b o o k s on p l a n t i n g  trees.  has h i s dream u n f u l f i l l e d ,  providing  and t h e l a n g u i d  youth  i s a n o l d man  I t i s sad that  and sadder  a b r a v e s o l d i e r h a s become a b i t t e r ,  disappear  that  as X i n a  sharp  present. with  a  an o l d man  he who was o n c e  c y n i c a l o l d man, o v e r w h e l m e d  109 by  h i s own s e n s e o f f a i l u r e ,  but  defeated  n o t s o much by h i s e n e m i e s  by t h e p a s s a g e o f t i m e . The  special  contrast  does  features  about  not l i e only  Xin's  i n h i s thoughtful  e m p l o y m e n t o f many d i f f e r e n t  sources,  this  diction.  brings  comparison effect and  to h i s poetic  and c o n t r a s t c a r e f u l l y  o f e a c h ci.  selection  and t h e m y t h i c a l w o r l d ,  He  also  used  again,  so as t o maximize  hisoscillation  h i s r e v u l s i o n a t both  overwhelming  h i s grievances  sense  progression of time. he  d i d n o t know t h a t  of sorrow  and  structures his the poetic  a t not being  and f a i l u r e  X i n considers h i s l i f e  the world of about  heard,  under  a total  h i s poetic craftmanship  to reveal  between t h e  p o l i t i c s and t h e w o r l d o f r e t i r e m e n t , h i s h o p e l e s s n e s s being  and  and t h e sense o f f r e s h n e s s  Thus, t h e p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e serves  to reinforce h i s inner feelings:  real  use of comparison  would  withstand not only the passage but the t e s t of time.  the  ever  and h i s linear  f a i l u r e ; but be a b l e t o  110  CHAPTER I V :  Much  has  classical humor  phrases,  in his c i .  humor. side  been  said  USE OF HUMOR  .about  but l i t t l e 1  fondness  f o r using  a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d  to the  T h e r e i s no d o u b t t h a t X i n h a s a s e n s e o f  B u t one c a n n o t h e l p  feel  of h i s sorrowfulness.  himself  Xin's  t h a t t h i s humor i s t h e o t h e r  T h r o u g h humor, X i n makes f u n o f  and h i s a d d i c t i o n t o wine,  belittles  h i s enemies-  p r o j e c t i n g h i s anger and s o r r o w under t h e c l o a k o f w i t . Most o f t h e c i d i s c u s s e d wine the  (with the exception selection  frequent they  have  works.  of the f i f t h  of these  mentions  chapter one).  c i , h i s fondness  are related  The r e a s o n f o r and t h e  of h i s drinking notwithstanding,  i s that  a distinctive  flavor  i n contrast  intoxication  with  silliness.  3  These c i a r e l i k e  a transparent  c o m i c e x p r e s s i o n on t h e o u t s i d e , t h r o u g h  h i s other  as h i s excuse, X i n  speaks h i s mind f r e e l y and i s n o t a f r a i d o f l e t t i n g his  to  f o r wine  I t i s as i f u s i n g  2  i n this  others see  mask w i t h  a  w h i c h one c a n s e e t h e  clown's t e a r s and sorrow. But  Xin i s s t i l l  fondness does  he  poetic  f o r playing with use c l a s s i c a l  words  phrases  i n these remains  humorous c i h i s evident.  f o r the purpose  a s s o c i a t i o n s , b u t he a l s o t u r n s c l a s s i c a l  colloquial that  X i n and  language a p p a r e n t l y  are novel  i n their  Not of  only  evoking  phrases  into  f o r the fun of i t , c r e a t i n g c i  diction  and amusing  i n their  effect.  Ill For the purpose selected humor  here  of demonstrating Xin's v e r s a t i l i t y , display  i s expressed:  him  the  the f i r s t  six different  narration,  c o n t r a d i c t i o n , paradox, In  the  and  forms  satire,  which  irony.  c i , by p l a y f u l l y  n a r r a t i n g what h a p p e n e d  night before, Xin expresses  t h e Tune o f Xijiang  through  personification,  deep d i s a p p o i n t m e n t  himself f o r having b e l i e v e d the teachings of the  To  the s i x c i  Yue  <&  to in  ancients.  ^3-  1202).  To  r e l i e v e w h a t ' s on my  drunkenness,  mind  1  In  I m e r e l y want some t i t t e r s and  2  Where w o u l d  3  R e c e n t l y I ' v e begun t o r e a l i z e t h e b o o k s o f t h e a n c i e n t s  4  Are c o m p l e t e l y unworthy of  5  Last night I f e l l  I find  giggles.  t i m e t o be s o r r o w f u l ?  trust.  down d r u n k  under the p i n e  tree.  112 6  I asked the  pine:  "How  d r u n k am  I ? II  ft n % % 15 j . j . T  7  I t h o u g h t t h e p i n e was m o v i n g t o w a r d s a b o u t t o p r o p me up.  * 11 H 8  f #,  f  P u s h i n g t h e p i n e w i t h my  The depth  1P  of  degree  of  Xin's  portrait  of  reveals  the  himself: true  The  4  a  reason  for  sorrow, previous  t h a t he he  states  blind  poem d o e s n o t  Confucianism  three  i n the  elaborate which  his  on  ci  i s m a t c h e d by  statement  in line  four, of  which teachings; social  social  totally deceived  involvement,  unworthy by  the  of  belief.  sayings  reveals his previous  Xin  naive  of  has By the  found  totally  from s o c i a l  his his The  5  whether  i t be  obligation  these  ancients,  and rather  doctrines  that Xin  he  had  are been  indirectly  his f r u s t r a t i o n that  c o u l d n e i t h e r c h a n g e s o c i e t y by a c t i n g on detach himself  fact  from  ancients.  but  claiming  b e l i e f , and  he  source of  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , or Daoism which a d v o c a t e s t r a n s c e n d e n c e than  Xin  saying  derives  the  comic  Xin i s in  The  the  subtly, By  two,  indeed.  and  is a  But  "happiness".  teachings  teaches  away! 11  "Go  drunkard.  sorrowful  in line  faith  opening  sorrowful  i s very  said:  in this  giggling  d o e s n ' t h a v e t i m e t o be admitting  hand, I  playfulness  sorrow.  me,  issues.  those d o c t r i n e s ,  he nor  113 In  depicting h i s helpless giddiness  rhetorical How  question  drunk  moving.  was  Xin?  X i n pushed  and  "telling"  i t away.  narrating  was  s i x i s that drunk  much  enough  more  The d r a m a t i c  7  gestures  t o g o away make  hollow.  some  of  help.  "pushing"  h i s d r u n k e n n e s s more  B u t t h e more c o m i c X i n d e p i c t s h i m s e l f  8  p r o j e c t s , and  t h e more  6  t o see the pine  what h a p p e n e d t o h i m t h e p r e v i o u s  he  drunk, the  s e e m e d t o t h i n k he n e e d e d  the pine  and f u n n y .  sorrow  He  .Even t h e p i n e  But  vivid  i n line  while  pity  evening, he  by  t h e more  evokes  inhis  readers. Xin  not only  disillusionment, them, p o k i n g those  who  flatter  uses  he u s e s  humor  stupidity  no p r i n c i p l e s ,  and a c h i e v e  h i s sorrow  i t t o a t t a c k h i s enemies,  fun at their  have  to portray  self-serving  belittling  and c l u m s i n e s s .  but only goals,  a sweet Xin's  and  Towards  tongue  attack  c a n be  b r u t a l but funny as w e l l .  To t h e Tune 1192/1185)  o f Qiannian  Piao  ~f  -ffi  Z h e ' a n ' s s m a l l p a v i l i o n i s named " G o b l e t I compose t h i s ci t o make f u n o f i t .  % \ & ?t] % The  *  it t . q *b  g o b l e t , i n f r o n t of people before harmonizing i s so c o n g e n i a l . That i t f i r s t t i l t s forward.  h  (1182words."  <g A al, j- i *j hi Hi  to  9  t  114 The  most i m p o r t a n t t h i n g i s a g r e e i n g . Okay e v e r y t h i n g .  % The  !  !  l | I  ? ! 5,  #.  s i p h o n a l s o s i l l i l y p e r c h e s up t h e r e , t o the w i n e s k i n , always s m i l i n g .  I t s c o o l n e s s or warmth, e v e r p l e a s i n g is  %  the  Ganguolao.  %  +31*.  I,  When I was y o u n g , due t o t h e e f f e c t o f w i n e , my s p e e c h was cumbersome and t o o t h e r ' s e a r s , t r o u b l e s o m e . ') The  it  3®,  &  *  A  i |  m.  p r i n c i p l e of harmonizing, I have l e a r n e d j u s t r e c e n t l y .  $ fr> i j |  ft I was  8  ^  il.  it 9  never very a d r o i t o t h e r ' s words.  t $L  :  in learning  L o o k a t them! Those magpies! How adorable!  The without captured  first  stanza  principle.  is a  Their  c o m i c a l l y by  satirical  stupidity  comparing  them  and to  d e p i c t i o n of  those  obsequiousness four  objects.  is The  first tips  o b j e c t i s a k i n d o f g o b l e t , an a n c i e n t w i n e v e s s e l w h i c h over  using is  when f i l l e d  the g o b l e t  and  to represent  a l s o m a k i n g a pun  pavilion. By  on  that  they  only  to  kowtowing  to others  other's  know  how  unsteadiness forth  to  of  as  know how  ears.  sycophantic  transfers  pour  their  please  others  by  is visually  words  An's  they  object  that  type  from  as  of  makes  b i g mouths.  i t i s used  wine  Xin  one  an  the burlesque  adjective,  a  who  The  noun,  container  tilt  object  their  wineskin  with  drawn t o g e t h e r , t h e grotesque  term  denotes  knows how  t o do  a  they  Their  1 1  the  and  back  emptied. to  is  a  a  siphon  that  This  symbol  nothing  except  When t h e t e r m  "huaji"  person,  and  ignorant, incessant chattings.  as  well.  huge b o d y .  1 2  only  "chiyi  to  their  f \ f g %.  When t h e s e  big  " is a  images  c o m p l e t e d p i c t u r e shows a g r o u p o f  waistlines,  to  "huaji  to another.  draws a t t e n t i o n not  fat bellies  are  forward,  reference  i t depicts a loquacious  nature of t h e i r  third  mouths but  person  as  fact  that  a l l u d e d t o by  the words of o t h e r s i n c e s s a n t l y .  with  Zhe  is in  agreeing.  repeat  of  Xin  words have a chance  a  type  out  still,  evokes  The  name o f  When t h e y do o p e n t h e i r m o u t h s ,  principle  second  " when  used  In  people,  "goblets," Xin  to  Worse  even b e f o r e  m o c k i n g image f o r t h e i r  is  when e m p t i e d .  r o c k i n g o f t h e g o b l e t when i t i s f i l l e d  The  4"fj  certain  people  get out of t h e i r mouths.  and  again  1 0  pleasing  only  up  " g o b l e t words," the  d e s c r i b i n g these  saying  stands  are  cheats  smiling ignorantly, constantly  116 n o d d i n g , i n c e s s a n t l y r e p e a t i n g empty w o r d s t o e a c h The  fourth object  referred t o i s a herbal medicine  "ganguolao  a cure  diseases  i n the f i v e  magic i n b a l a n c i n g w i t h warmth. herbal  viscera.  body t e m p e r a t u r e , n i c e l y  i s o n e who  to f a c i l i t a t e person  t h i n g , was  previous unlike  introduced  just  lines.  i s overly  In idiot.  at least  as t a l k a t i v e  ci,  the focus  to please  he was  contrast,  This l a d , f o r  talkative,  to please.  h i s speech,  He s p o k e a s he  to others  than  himself  i n the disguise  learning  of h i s attack  on h i s e n e m i e s '  folly.  o f harmony, m e n t i o n e d  enemies'  eagerness t o please. others'  "smoothness"  "complimentary" magpies  words,  remark  are birds  By s a y i n g  known  saying  contemptible  i s more  insulting  for their  His  i n line  despicable  how c l u m s y he was i n  Xin i s i n fact  i s very  o f an  as t h e s t u p i d one, X i n a c t u a l l y  s i x , o n l y makes t h e t a r g e t s o f h i s a t t a c k seem more their  those  stanza.  slowness i n l e a r n i n g the " r u l e "  in  by  s i n c e r e and  i s by  i n style.  X i n i s an a t t a c k e r  By p r e s e n t i n g  sharpens  eager  this  as the f o o l s mentioned i n  was n o t i n t e n d e d  i n the f i r s t  this  like  blending, coldness  five  T h i s made h i m more o f a n u i s a n c e  described  t o work  rather than being  in line  But though  the f o o l s ,  wished.  internal  t r u e harmony.  clumsy, i f not i n substance, One  of  named  The k i n d o f p e r s o n we m i g h t a s s o c i a t e w i t h  medicine,  The  f o r a l l kinds  I t a l s o reputed  1 3  o f f e r i n g one o p i n i o n o r a n o t h e r , trying  other.  indeed. than  ability  that h i s The  adoring.  last The  t o l e a r n and t o  117 repeat and  human w o r d s .  repeating  their  inability Not  his  other  only  By p r a i s i n g t h e i r  talent for learning  people's words, X i n , i s i n f a c t ,  ridicules  to think.  t h e p e o p l e whom X i n d i s l i k e d w e r e t h e o b j e c t s o f  ridicule,  technique  1 4  i n the following  ci,  of p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n , Xin's  through  the poetic  own i m p u l s e  to drink  becomes h i s t a r g e t a s w e l l .  To t h e T u n e 1202/1196)  o f Qinyuan  Chun  I'm a b o u t t o q u i t d r i n k i n g . come n e a r me.  • tft A 1  >n. %  >i*i k  ;KJ l j j  11194-  I warn t h e w i n e - g l a s s n o t t o  it s i i .  You! Wine-glass! Come f o r w a r d ! I , t h e o l d man, s t a r t i n g f r o m t o d a y , t o g i v e h e e d t o my m o r t a l f r a m e .  k St] jt. .X M 18. % th v il. 2  Through t h e l e n g t h o f very long y e a r s o f d r i n k i n g , my e x c e s s i v e d r i n k i n g h a s made me t h i r s t y , and my t h r o a t s c o r c h e d l i k e a f r y i n g p a n .  4\  jf  ; | . -a  £ .  3  Now I j u s t l i k e t o s l e e p , snoring thunderously.  4  You s a y : " L i u L i n g was a w i s e man f o r a l l a g e s , He o n c e s a i d t h a t i f o n e d i e s f r o m d r i n k i n g ,  118 it's  simply a matter of being  % & % If  & /f, sf ?l <f ti % f J I  ti.it  this i s so, i t ' s a p i t y y o u show s o l i t t l e to your best f r i e n d .  h i^lX  buried."  It tl*b,  kindness  4 9 &% /  F u r t h e r m o r e , you u s e song and dance t o s e d u c e me t o d r i n k ; making p e o p l e i n t h i s w o r l d t h i n k I am t h e m a g p i e p o i s o n .  h i l . \ k <% I IH *h4  i 3 And  c  resentments, whether b i g o r s m a l l , a r i s e f r o m what one l o v e s . T h i n g s , whether good o r b a d , through excess produce d i s a s t e r .  >L  £<  *  * , i i fft|- t ;  «n  «? * 4  I, A U ft \  Now, I ' l l make a n a g r e e m e n t w i t h y o u : Do n o t s t a y ! R e t r e a t now! W h i l e I s t i l l c a n m u s t e r some resistance against you!  3?  bold  :i A  t  •• p $ r  *  4  #  ifi  The  w i n e - g l a s s bows t w i c e a n d s a i d : " I f y o u wave me a s i d e , I w i l l g o . B u t i f y o u want t o c a l l me b a c k , I w i l l surely return."  The  uniqueness  address  back.  1 5  of this  ci,  framework  of  #  £  -j  b e s i d e s t h e p o e t ' s d i r e c t and  t o the wine-glass, i s that  The  K  the  the object  piece  i s  talks  e n t i r e l y  119  conversational. glass, of  Through t a l k i n g back and f o r t h w i t h  Xin discloses h i s internal struggle.  h i s c i , which a r e as a r u l e f i l l e d  embodies a f l u i d  and funny d i s c u s s i o n .  and  the wine-glass  the  question  surface. give  seems t o b r i n g  o f whether  "to drink  with  ounce  of energy  Y e t u n l i k e most emotion,  this  one  The d e b a t e b e t w e e n X i n  Xin's  inner  struggle  and n o t t o d r i n k "  The mere v e r b a l i z a t i o n o f t h i s  X i n an e x t r a  the wine-  struggle  to resist  over  t o the  appears t o  the impulse  to  drink. The humorous p a r t diction his  which  of t h i s c i l i e s  X i n employs  wine-glass but a l s o  level,  he p r e t e n d s  the  first  calls uses  line,  h i s body somewhat  which  was  like  he  i n conducting  he i s r e s o l v e d  a conversation  to quit  with  A t one  d r i n k i n g , and  the shakiness of h i s " r e s o l u t i o n . "  refers  a "mortal uncouth  i n t h e brusque  t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n he c r e a t e s .  that  a t a n o t h e r , he r e v e a l s  not only  to himself  frame."  poetic  a s t h e " o l d man"  In the next  imagery  a f r y i n g pan, and h i s s n o r i n g ,  only unabashedly mentions but describes  and  two l i n e s ,  h i s scorched which  In  he  throat, he n o t  i t s d e a f e n i n g sound as  well. A f t e r he h a s p a i n t e d sleeping claims  m a n n e r i s m s , he l a s h e s i s h i s best  fondness f o r wine. line  a somewhat b u r l e s q u e p o r t r a i t o f h i s  four  f r i e n d , thus  1 6  indirectly  I t i s obvious that  concerning L i u Ling's  wine-glass'.  o u t a t t h e w i n e - g l a s s whom X i n  By t r a n s f o r m i n g  admitting  his  t h e argument s t a t e d i n  reason i s Xin's h i s excuse  more t h a n t h e  for drinking  into  120 blame,  Xin  more he nature  i s on  the  defensive,  blames the w i n e - g l a s s ,  indirectly  t h e more he  and  subtly.  admits the  The  fragile  of h i s r e s i s t a n c e to wine. In  media  line  of  s i x , Xin  song  making him  and  look  accuses  dance  wine-glass  i n order  seduce  using  him  in go-  between as  her  to  the  "song  dance".  du -t$  to  the  deadly  poison.  character  zhen,  Thus, the  By  Xin  image o f X i n who  h i m s e l f as the  that  he  drinks  after  three  six).  But he  loves  b e c a u s e he As  so  much. of  not  himself  as  the  been w e l l soaked i n wine t h i s wordplay.  to  that people Xin  drink.  will  seems t o  aggressive  r a v i n g at  calms  down a  r a t i o n a l i z e h i s impulse  also  character  role  By  (heavy  referring  feel  resents  him  a  accusations  his wine-glass He  take  this  little (lines  only  i t so  way  better four  to  indicates much  how  precisely  l o v e s i t s o much.  Xin  excessive  the  this  "magpie p o i s o n " , X i n ' s u n d e r l y i n g m e s s a g e i s  lines his  has  Xin gives  e v o k e d by  i t i s quite definite  since  much  adding  portrays  drinking) i s s k i l l f u l l y to  Sao,  or  drink,  S17 jg . ' In t h i s l i n e , Xin demonstrates h i s adroitness p l a y i n g w i t h words. I n s t e a d of u s i n g the magpie as the  i n t h e Li  "magpie p o i s o n "  to  the  yQ.  role  the deadly  to  of  "zhendu  and  like  the  either.  has  been p a r t i a l l y  not  quit  in line  to d r i n k .  d r i n k i n g i s not bad  little  In  wrong.  He  good, but other  agrees,  to that  d r i n k i n g i n moderation i s  i s an  but  begins  to himself,  words, X i n w i l l  This  drinking altogether  s e v e n , he  will  only  indication continue  admit  he  t h a t he  may  to  in  drink  121  moderation. The  ending  is  just  to  the  wine-glass  bows  mustered  seemingly  a  drink.  His  he  to  has  as  comical  old  man  him  with  a  agreement  more s t r e n g t h  with  glass  i s a s k e d t o r e t r e a t i m m e d i a t e l y as  would  chip  words  clearly indicate  stop  away a t  tries  drinking,  shallowness  of  Xin's  to  his his  to  the  give  Xin  beginning.  mortal  resolve.  stern  i f any  The  and  playfulness resolve.  He  this  i s not  has  not  if  the  this  wine-  prolonged  in  the  in his  ci  stay  parting future.  1 9  effort  to  gives  that  to  First,  wine-glass'  serious  in  as  Second,  1 8  its availability  be  impulse  wine-glass  resist.  The  f r a m e who  i s obvious i n l i n e eight.  would  Although  the  tremendous e f f o r t i n h i s  shaky r e s i s t a n c e make an  as  away  serious  the  about  quitting after a l l . The glass  next c i i n d i c a t e s that  to  come b a c k .  s t o p d r i n k i n g was not of  himself,  Xin  in life,  escapes (as  humorous p a r t  Xin's Zhuang  own  2 1  into  i n the  concept  did  i n f a c t ask  reason  A  prisoner  the  world  following  of  of of  his  wine-  failure  to  to  could  circumstance  w i n e where  and  certain  rendered i r r e l e v a n t .  ci lies,  secondly,  relativity  for  the  a numbness w h i c h he  w r i t i n g l e t t e r s ) are  c o n t r a d i c t i o n , and  Zi's  drinking.  prime  t h a t w i n e g a v e him  attain psychologically.  things The  The  2 0  Xin  first  in his justify  of  adroit his  a l l , in use  of  continued  122  T o t h e T u n e o f Busuan Zi h j j~ 1202/1195) Drinking wine, leading t o moral degradation  (1194-  hi m i i it '•  I f R o b b e r Z h i ' s name h a d b e e n Q i u , a n d C o n f u c i u s h a d b e e n named Z h i ,  & \z W  £ JL,  IL  ip  A j * .  Then a l l t h i s t i m e , Z h i w o u l d h a v e b e e n t h e s a g e , and Q i u t h e dunce. T h e r e ' s no r e a l i t y i n t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between b e a u t i f u l and u g l y .  U 3  ±. &  ii 4,  -i  % i x. .& 4  Jl %  it « f„  A thousand ages pass i n a b l i n k o f t h e e y e . So l e t ' s j u s t b r i n g o n t h e w i n e !  -r t 1 Tt - f a|,  Referring Xin  &  I t i s s i m p l y v a i n t o g e t a n empty name f o r y o u r s e l f i n t h e books and a n n a l s . The a n t s w i l l e v e n t u a l l y p i c k y o u r b o n e s c l e a n .  $ I  4  1  uses  Confucius t o j u s t i f y  on m o r a l i t y  his drinking.  Zhi to return  from  the perspective  with  a s a g e l y mask who s t o l e  committed  %.  t«.  t o t h e c h a p t e r o f R o b b e r Z h i i n t h e Zhuang  the debate  p e r s u a d e Robber  3, A  2 2  between  Z h i and  While Confucius t r i e s t o  to the "right"  o f Robber  Robber  way, C o n f u c i u s ,  Z h i , i s no more t h a n a  name a n d fame.  the act of stealing,  Zi,  according  Since  robber  they  both  t o Robber Z h i ,  123  C o n f u c i u s was  no more a s a i n t t h a n t h e R o b b e r Z h i  Furthermore, turn the As  i n t o no  the  " s t o l e n " name and  more t h a n an  body w h i c h a result,  "stole"  there  isn't  a p p l i e s t h i s type of  any  be  picked  f i x e d value  reasoning  of  position  a l l ; thus,  in  of  drinking. The  Xin  a  an  personal  part  of  Xin  this  otherwise  contradiction  reference  serious  ants.  Xin  distinction  for  That  i t i s the  from  most  thoroughly  between  and  the  right  ugly,  drinking  leads  himself,  Xin  to  indulge  says  and  he  say,  he  on  the  degradation.  one  what  hand,  and  to  drink.  The  "philosophical"  d r i n k i n g , he  following  description  of  ci  excuse  By  i s not  a l l the  also only  has  one  funny  "holes"  (that  in  his  a he  when any  bad,  the  On  states that  the his  contradicting  justification for  a  isn't  farce.  a  his  and  good  note, Xin c l e a r l y  into  creates  that since there wrong,  does  r e l a t i v i s t ' s argument of Robber Z h i ) , i s i n f a c t a has  that  only  also  believes  i t is a l l right  moral  not  using  continued  the  moral  of  Xin  hints  i s that  drinking,  i s to  hand, i n the p r e f a t o r y  If  then  B e i n g a drunk  p h i l o s o p h i c a l debate  j u s t i f y i n g his d r i n k i n g , Xin claims  other  the  i f i t i s viewed  argues,  b e t w e e n w h a t he  believes.  beautiful  by  i n things.  i t i s a l l r i g h t to  justification  actually  clean  and  2 3  funny  turn  drunkard,  eventually  h i s t o r y books  to his drinking.  seems i m m o r a l t o a s o b e r p e r s o n , b u t perspective  fame w i l l  empty w o r d i n t h e  i t will  himself.  for  missing  i t s vivid  i n h i s mouth, but  and  the  his  teeth. visual  also,  Xin  124 adopts  the  Daoist's  explanation  Fallen  The The  of  paradox  as  the  for losing his teeth.  To t h e T u n e 1192/1189)  1  p h i l o s o p h i c a l concept  of  Busuan  (1182-  Zi  Teeth  h a r d o n e s a r e n o t s t u r d y and f i r m ; s o f t ones a r e hard t o d e s t r o y .  SI-] I  f  l  ?, i  l  v)  1ft  ti.  $.  I f you d o n ' t b e l i e v e me, open y o u r mouth and l o o k , The t o n g u e i s s t i l l t h e r e b u t t h e t e e t h a r e g o n e .  5 3  ii ik P3  * ft  6 J ^  3.  T h o s e a l o n g t h e c h a m b e r s on two s i d e s are already missing. Now t h e r e i s a n o t h e r o p e n i n g i n t h e m i d d l e . ft.  4  h, i a.  15 f ft? Ti.  I t e l l the c h i l d r e n not t o l a u g h T h i s i s a dog h o l e f o r you t o go  t I 8.  Hi Certainly preface,  one  i f there would  Daoist philosophy.  2 4  from L a o z i ' s  \  ^  *3 f  i s no m e n t i o n o f  think The  at t h i s o l d i n and o u t .  that  Xin  man.  if. HA. "fallen  teeth" i n  i s d i s c u s s i n g some  c o n c e p t o f p a r a d o x i n l i n e one  explanation  t o Chang Cong  the  "deep" comes  ^f/t.  who  125 wanted  t o know why  were gone.  The  h i s tongue  As  what i s s o f t  his  have d o u b t s colloquial  description t h e two  t o t a k e an  Z i , i s embodied  o f X i n ' s mouth.  sides.  And  now,  i s another  is  counter-attack at  an  holes  opening  i n h i s mouth.  What one  right the  By  25  go  out, Xin i s poking  o f o t h e r , as  i s also  saying  the  humorously which  of  opposite.  visual along  The  front,  last  line  at a l l the  i n the  middle  i s f o r the c h i l d r e n  the c h i l d r e n ,  of i n d i r e c t n e s s ,  to  indirectly  As  the  an  ironic  i s free  of  any  he  tells  next  hint  or  Shanhua  his true  But  direct  thing i n  i n his poetry, feeling  c i demonstrates,  situation.  d e p i c t s , humorously,  unable t o r e s o l v e the i r o n y  s a y i n g one  he u s e s a l l u s i o n  irony:  portray  To t h e Tune o f  a  "holes"  laughed  the opening  fun at  i n t h e way  a master  s o r r o w , t h i s one  is  dogs.  I f X i n i s the master terms  who  s a y i n g i t s purpose  that they are  are  i n the middle.  referring  h o l e , and  saying  three sees  children  a s t h e dog i n and  line  asks  l o o k o f h i s mouth.  w i t h more t e e t h m i s s i n g i n t h e  there  in  teeth.  up h i s c l a i m , he  "inside"  language,  teeth  i s h a r d ; what i s h a r d i s ,  i f t o g a t h e r more " e v i d e n c e " t o back  In  ci  t h e r e but  U s i n g t h i s c o n c e p t , X i n e x p l a i n s away h i s f a l l e n  t h o s e who  he  still  r e a s o n , a c c o r d i n g t o Lao  the concept of paradox: soft.  was  unlike  mention  Xin the of  by can last  inner  t h e s o r r o w f u l X i n who  is  within.  Zi  iXi ^  T  (1192-1194/1194)  126 Playfully i 1  i  | {  2  1K ; i 3| 4 Sf ^  %<  Mountain  ;  Spring -  \n £. -i  A l l o f a s u d d e n , some one was t h e r e t o t a k e me ruining the l i f e of t h i s Old Scalp.  jj *«, 3  ?H  i L  2 6  ^  I remember t h o s e h a p p y t i m e s i n t h e C a l a b a s h A l l y e a r l o n g I was b e s o t t e d i n d r i n k as w e l l a s c h a n t i n g p o e t r y .  iL \\  %.  4,  £\  £  I I  *3.  back,  it.  S t u m b l i n g a r o u n d t h e h o u s e , p e o p l e t r y t o p r o p me u p . W i t h n o t h i n g t o do, I mimic t h e sound o f t h e p a r t r i d g e .  & 4  **• «  ft  I f ,ftl1  But then, there i s the admonition " L e t ' s go home!"  This after  c i was composed w h i l e  he h a d s p e n t t e n y e a r s  line  which  gives  surface,  that.Xin wine being  an a c c o u n t  f  of the cuckoos':  poetry.  back t o o f f i c e  n e a r l y c o s t h i s head.  back  i n forced retirement. of h i s year-long  had a m a r v e l o u s  and c h a n t i n g called  f? £V f&  he was c a l l e d  as i n d i c a t e s i n l i n e  indeed  f  % k- %n 4 • f * u  *f % tt  the  composing t h i s c i i n the Three  He  The  first  activities,  one, g i v e s  time  to office  on  the impression  i n retirement, drinking  i n d i c a t e s h i s resentment at  i n l i n e two, c o m p l a i n i n g  But the o r i g n a l  source  that  of these  this  lines  offer  more i n s i g h t  t o Xin's.seeming  "happiness."  was a poem w r i t t e n by Yang P o ' s w i f e . the  emperor  hermits  Song  i n the country.  Because  p o e t r y , he was c a l l e d b e f o r e Yang  whether  Yang s a i d h i s w i f e composed  a  V>..  this  M  other  i n fact,  wine.  But X i n a l s o  felt  from  earlier,  bitter  asked  left:  3§;  i n such  taken  an u n r e s t r a i n e d  manner.  to the palace.  I  -t %  X i n was  himself  noted  good  for his parting.  o l dscalp."  A  'A  w o r d s , w h i l e c l a i m i n g t h a t he was h a v i n g  relieve  As  a poem  i s a l s o t h e time you l o s e your  % a #} i l  2 8  compose  Song Z h e n z o n g  t h i s one b e f o r e he  poetry  Today y o u a r e b e i n g  time,  out the  i i it i ti n  1 1  In  o f Yang,  seeking  Po c o u l d  source  d e j e c t e d and b e s o t t e d y o u r s e l f i n d r i n k .  And d o n ' t c h a n t  But  Yang  t h e emperor.  i ^ ^ % R,. &  j  was  a n y one had composed  "Don't f e e l  At t h e time  2 7  ~jf\ j |  Zhenzong  This  about  i n h i s retirement  depression, resented  he  being  his entire  not being  given  a t t h e same t i m e ,  The  main  he d e t e s t e d  of Xin's  sorrow  besotted  called  throughout  But  source  dejected  back  official  a bigger the world i s that  and t o  himself  in  to office. career, Xin  political of  a good  role.  officialdom.  h e was c o n s t a n t l y  128 being  p u l l e d between t h e s e Like  the f i r s t  of p l a y f u l n e s s again,  i n this  chapter,  i s m a t c h e d by t h e d e p t h o f X i n ' s  t e r m , he r e f e r s h i m s e l f  I-t  pi  ) i  drunkenness. house  line  n  two.  this  two, sounded l i k e  the ancient  fact  The s o u n d  saying  Chinese.  he  can't  X i n describes h i s around the At the  of a drunkard.  But a t  X i n reveals h i s  of the partridge,  as noted i n  t h e p h r a s e " c a n ' t go o n a n y f u r t h e r " By m i m i c k i n g  i t ssound,  go on any f u r t h e r  officialdom.  The l a s t  reveals  d e s i r e t o go home  Xin's  [laotou  of the partridge.  funny p o r t r a i t  Once Using  as t h e "Old S c a l p  Then v i v i d l y ,  t h e sound  i s a very  conflicts.  chapter  sorrow.  at himself.  s e c o n d l e v e l , by d e s c r i b i n g h i s s i l l i n e s s ,  inner  t h e degree  He was s o d r u n k t h a t he was s t u m b l i n g  and m i m i c k i n g  surface,  to  c i discussed  X i n displays h i s t a l e n t at laughing  a colloquial  the  poles.  line,  X i n i si n  i n the world  of  t h r o u g h t h e sound o f t h e c u c k o o , (back t o t h e C a l a b a s h  Spring)  for  t h e c u c k o o ' s s o u n d r e s e m b l e d t h e p h r a s e " l e t ' s go home" t o  the  ancient  again,  Chinese.  after  dejected,  But then the p s y c h o l o g i c a l c y c l e  he g e t s  and w i l l  back  once a g a i n  home, he w i l l besot himself  begins  be d e p r e s s e d  and  i n wine.  T h r o u g h t h e humorous p o r t r a l o f a d r u n k e n X i n , t h i s c i i s funny. The  But through t h e use o f i r o n y , t h i s c i i s e q u a l l y s a d .  more X i n c l a i m s  that  he was happy i n h i s r e t i r e m e n t , t h e  more d e j e c t i o n he p r o j e c t s . home, t h e more he r e v e a l s depressing  place.  The more he c l a i m s  h i s inner  he w a n t s t o go  turmoil of returning to a  X i n was a v i c t i m o f h i m s e l f .  He  could  129  neither  t r a n s f o r m nor  In  this  accept whichever  c h a p t e r , X i n uses  humor  f r u s t r a t i o n a n d a n g e r and by s a t i r i z i n g revenge. his  Through  naivety,  tightly-wound wit.  the  conflicts.  mockery which  X i n ' s humor  following  to  quotation  h i s shaky  i s the amusing  rails  resistance  out side  was i n .  his  h i s enemies,  His r a i l i n g s spring  he  relieve  t h e d i s g u i s e o f humor, he  h i s enemies,  teeth, h i s inner  situation  seeks h i s  at  himself,  to wine, h i s  a r e compressed  under of  the d i s g u i s e h i s sorrow.  best captures X i n the person  into of The  behind X i n  humorist. "Anger i s t h e most r e p e l l e n t of e m o t i o n s . It is a c u t e d i s c o m f o r t t o be p r e s e n t w h e r e a man has f a l l e n into a furious passion. I f you a r e i n s u c h a s i t u a t i o n , and t h e o b j e c t o f your a c q u a i n t a n c e ' s r a g e h a s no c o n n e c t i o n w i t h y o u , y o u will e x p e r i e n c e an i n s t i n c t i v e c r a v i n g t o e s c a p e i n t o humor, t o r e t u r n the p a i n f u l s i t u a t i o n i n t o a l u d i c r o u s one." 2 9  inner  130  CONCLUSION What term  sets X i n Q i j i  "haofang  of poets Xin,  ^  share  apart  from  " denotes,  other  h e r o i c poets?  As t h e  p o e t r y w r i t t e n by t h i s  category  these p o e t i c f e a t u r e s :  heroic, powerful  w i t h h i s untrammelled p e r s o n a l i t y , c e r t a i n l y  qualities  i n h i s ci.  t h a t make X i n Q i j i  But there  are three  unique and s t a n d  When t h a t The feel  i s one o f f i e r c e n e s s .  the depth  particular  these  elements poets.  X i n has t h e a b i l i t y  to  i n t o a t i g h t l y wound s p r i n g .  s p r i n g i s unhinged, a l l these  effect  exhibits  o u t among t h e h e r o i c  Due t o h i s i n d i r e c t n e s s i n e x p r e s s i o n , c o m p r e s s h i s many l a y e r s o f f e e l i n g s  and f r e e .  feelings  As a r e s u l t ,  of h i s poetic intensity.  Xin's  shoot  forward.  the reader  can  c i a r e more  than  p o w e r f u l , they a r e f i e r c e and i n t e n s e . Though X i n Q i j i greatness  lies  sorrowfulness  was a man o v e r w h e l m e d by s o r r o w .  i n the fact  that  he  opposite: choosing never to  man  b u t h i s poetic  controlled,  expression.  craftmanship  r e s t r a i n e d and t h o u g h t f u l .  identify  with  precedence over  as maudlin; Xin's  sorrow.  h i s own  sorrow.  was a (ji dacheng  ^  h i s  Rather, h i s X i n was a n  demonstrated the  various poetic techniques, the sorrowfulness  came a c r o s s  Xin  allowed  t o overwhelm h i s p o e t i c c r a f t m a n s h i p .  s o r r o w became t h e s e r v a n t o f h i s a r t i s t i c untrammelled  never  His poetic  Thoughtfully i n Xin's c i  on t h e c o n t r a r y , h i s r e a d e r s  came  X i n was a p o e t whose a r t t a k e s  7^  a p o e t whose  compositions  131  embody w o r k s a n d c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f p r e v i o u s Xin  Qiji,  game,  was more t h a n  an e x p e r i m e n t .  colloquial),  a medium o f e x p r e s s i o n . Therefore,  texts  (literary,  philosophical), historical previous poetic  poets,  tools  his  c i which  and  grace. Among  |t ^  hand.  classical,  and symbols,  X i n was a v e r s a t i l e ji  a p t l y captured  their  I t was a l s o a (classical  or  historical  or  events,  lines  from  t h e m e s , became t h e  he d i d i t w i t h  such  ease  dacheng.  a l l t h e h e r o i c p o e t s , o n l y Su Dongpo  similarities  Poetry, to  Not o n l y d i d X i n i n c l u d e these i n  gave i t s d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s ,  was X i n ' s e q u a l .  their  any p h r a s e s  figures, historical  p o e t i c imagery  i n Xin's  scholars.  (1036-1101)  T h e r e a r e many w o r k s w r i t t e n c o m p a r i n g  and d i f f e r e n c e s . individual  But the f o l l o w i n g  comment  characteristics:  "Su a n d H s i n h a v e b e e n c o n s i d e r e d ' p o w e r f u l a n d f r e e ' poets o f t h e h i g h e s t esteem. Y e t they have l i t t l e i n common. Su d i s p l a y s a g e n t l e e x p r e s s i v e n e s s i n h i s d e p i c t i o n o f scenes whereas H s i n can w i n t h e r e a d e r ' s unreserved admiration i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of f e e l i n g s . H s i n ' s poems do h a v e d e p i c t i o n o f s c e n e s t o o b u t t h e y l a c k t h e g e n t l e e x p r e s s i v e n e s s o f Su. S i m i l a r l y , Su's w o r k s a l s o d e s c r i b e f e e l i n g s b u t t h e y a r e no c o m p a r i s o n t o H s i n ' s i n depth and s u b t l e t y . As f o r poems w i t h a n i n t e l l e c t u a l a n d p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n t e n t , t h e y o p e n e d up f r e s h t e r r i t o r y : H s i n i s more i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e human a n d t h e e a r t h l y w h i l e S u t e n d s t o e s c a p e t o Taoism and Buddhism. Their d i f f e r e n c e can a p t l y be d e s c r i b e d by t h e two t e r m s : ch'u *fc ( t r a n s c e n d e n t ) a n d ju ~\ (secular)." 1  C e r t a i n l y Su a n d X i n h a v e b e e n p u t i n t h e same c a t e g o r y poets.  But X i n ' s g r e a t p o e t i c c r a f t m a n s h i p put him i n a  o f h i s own.  For the past  seven hundred y e a r s , X i n Q i j i  of heroic category held h i s  132  own  territory However,  In was  L i u Guo  Xin's  The  heroic  of  expression?  who  tried  sentiment,  to imitate Xin.  ( 1 1 8 7 - 1 2 6 9 ) %] compared  was  flat  question  and  should  direct, help  t o X i n was  thoughtful selectivity  expressiveness  In the world  o f ci,  lacking  Xin's  to pinpoint Xin  Of a l l t h e c i poets,  versatility, erudite diction,  in feeling,  $ j Jjf.  a l s o t r i e d t o i m i t a t e X i n but  feeling  following  fervor,  intensity  poets  But h i s h e r o i c s e n t i m e n t ,  unique p o e t i c s t y l e :  patriotic  force.  later  (1154-1206)  expression  Qiji's  were  literature.  Song p e r i o d , L i u K e z h u a n g  one o f them.  subtlety.  and  there  the Southern  weak. his  i n the h i s t o r y of Chinese  w h i c h one and  had  restraint,  his fierceness  i n words but s u b t l e t y i n  X i n i s , indeed,  t h e tour  de  133  Notes:  1.  Chapter  Cui  I  Dunli,  Gongjiao  Ji  Shangwu Y i n s h u g u a n , 2.  Zhu  X i , Zhuzi  (Taibei: 3.  Yulei  comment was  tablet Song  (hereafter  Ji  Juan  Chen L i a n g ,  ZZYL),  CZ),  made i n a n There  inscription  Chen Longchuan  Deng G u a n g m i n g , Jiaxuan  (Taibei:  Taiwan  on  a  large  stone  Wenji  ( h e r e a f t e r LCWJ),  (Taibei:  10/6.  Ci Biannian  portraint.  Jianzhu  (hereafter  JXC),  (Shanghai:  S h a n g h a i G u d i a n Wenxue C h u b a n s h e , 1 9 5 7 ) , p . 5 2 3 .  Zhu  Wengong  X i , Zhu  Xu J i u , 1981),  8.  ed.,  396.  Shangwu Y i n s h u g u a n , 7.  L i Jingde  i s a b i o g r a p h y o f Wang i n t h e  Chen made t h i s comment on X i n ' s p a i n t e d  6.  Taiwan  132/5159.  (hereafter  X i n x i n g Shuju F a x i n g , 1956),  5.  (Taibei:  1 9 6 ? ) , 120/1079.  t o Wang H u a i .  Shi,  GJJ),  6/5.  Zhengzhong S h u j u , 1 9 6 2 ) ,  Shangwu Y i n s h u g u a n ,  4.  1972),  Y a n g W a n l i , Chengzhai  This  (hereafter  JXC, a)  Ciyuan  (hereafter  ZWG),  (Taibei:  Taiwan  1 9 6 ? ) , 85/1540.  Congtan,  (Shanghai:  Shanghai G u j i  Chubanshe,  p.79.  126. A l l Xin's this  b)  Wenji  There of  ci  discussed  in this  thesis  are c i t e d  from  edition. a r e many w o r k s w r i t t e n  Xin's ci.  F o r more  on  the d i f f e r e n t  information,  see  JXC,  versions pp.523-  551.  Chen Manming,  Journal  of  Research  L i t e r a t u r e 12 Cheng  Chien,  Comparison,"  Guizhang ed., Tuo  Tuo  "Su  Baiyu  of  Chinese  Language  292-297. and  Hsin  1 (1970):  Zhai  (Taibei:  Cihua,  Chia-hsuan:  A  45.  i n Cihua  Congbian,  Tangwen S h u d i a n , 1 9 3 4 ) , ( h e r e a f t e r SS),  Tang  1/3814.  (Beijing:  Zhonghua  401/12166.  L i a n g Q i c h a o , Xin  According  and  Review  Cheng C h i e n , i b i d . ,  (Shanghai:  Institute  Tung-p'o  e t a l . , Song Shi  Shuju, 1977),  in  (1968):  Tamkang  Chen T i n g z h u o ,  " J i a x u a n Chuangduanju Y a n j i u "  pp.49-51.  Jiaxuan  Zhonghai  Xiansheng  (hereafter  XSNP),  Shuju Youxian G o n g s i , 1936), pp.1-3.  to Xin's biography  b e h i n d t h e hao  Nianpu  " J i a x u a n " was  i n t h e Song  Shi,  the  reason  that Xin considered c u l t i v a t i n g  t h e f i e l d s a s t h e most d i l i g e n t a c t i n l i f e . SS, a)  23/421-436. J i n g - s h e n Tao the  J i n prior  north.  See  (Seattle: b)  has  a v e r y good and  t o and The  during  Jurchen  in  detailed  their  o c c u p a t i o n of  Twelfth  U n i v e r s i t y of Washington  E l i z a b e t h P e r r y i n h e r book g i v e s geographical,  of the  China,  1976).  detailed  continuous  rural  uprisings  Historically,  people  from  causes  i n  region  their  r e b e l l i o u s n e s s and b e l l i g e r e n c e .  B.C  Chen  She  Century  Press,  socio-ecological  this  analysis  started  the  for  the  this  region.  were  known f o r  As e a r l y a s f i r s t  209  major  135 peasant Ming of  rising  i n Chinese h i s t o r y .  d y n a s t y , Zhu Anhui.  Yuanzhang  For  more  Revolutionaries Fransico: 16.  Irving  in  Yucheng  18.  Cai Yijiang  Lo,  translation  Ch'i-chi. (hereafter  ed.,  21.  Ibid., Deng  Shanghai of  LDMC),  Jiaxuan  the  native  Rebels  (New  and (San  this  Twayne  Changduanju  title  was Huang  Huai  p.410. from  i n Lidai  and  Yang  Lo's  Mingchen Shiqi  ed.,  94/1297.  Chaocun  Jiaxuan  Biannian,  i s adopted  recorded  Shiwen  Xin  York:  Shuju, 1979),  Haiwai Tushu,.1970),  Guangming,  (Shanghai:  a  1845-1945,  Taiwan Xuesheng S h u j u , 1964),  Xin Qitai  Deng  see  China  Ch'i-chi,  This essay  (Xianggang: 20.  d e t a i l s ,  C a i G u o h u a n g , Jiaxuan  The  (Taibei:  was  of  p.32.  Xianggang  Zouyi  7\_>  North  Hsin  (Xianggang:  Hsin  19.  and  English  founder  S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1980).  P u b l i s h e r , I n c . , 1971), 17.  The  (hereafter  JXSW),  p.3. Nianpu  (hereafter  JXNP) ,  G u d i a n Wenxue C h u b a n s h e , 1 9 5 7 ) , p . l .  pp.17-18. disagrees with  which  i t said  Deng a g r e e s (1190-1257?)  with  the  information  f u j?f f»j  history  Furthermore,  biography  that and  Deng  was  i t s time  found  Ji  f  11 j  %  a book w h i c h was  several  Song  Shi,  in  ^  r e c o r d e d i n Yuan Haowen's  Zhongzhou this  i n the  C a i B o j i a n jj^  t h a t X i n s t u d i e d under  Deng's r e a s o n was record  Xin's  closest  2/43. used  to  discrepancies  poems t o  Xin's  time.  between  Xin  13.6  and  Cai's  Xin  was t h e r e  capital,  life.  For example, C a i l i v e d only  twice.  X i ncould  With  hardly  such  i n the c a p i t a l but  a short  stay  i n the  have had a chance t o s t u d y  under  Cai. 22.  Ibid.,  p.19.  23.  L i u Boqi,  Songdai  Zhengjiao  Shuju, 1971), Vol.2, 24.  Shi, ( T a i b e i :  Taiwan  Zhonghua  p.420.  Tuo T u o e t a l . , Jin Shi,  (Beijing,  Zhonghua  Shuju, 1975),  51/1129-1131. 25.  Xu M e n g h u a , Sanchao Yunwu  Beimenghui  ed., (Taibei:  Bian  Taiwan  ( h e r e a f t e r SCBM),  Shangwu  Wang  Yinshuguan, 1976),  249/6. 26.  JXNP, p . 1 9 .  27.  SCBM, 249/6. Another reason f o r t h e formation in  the north  was t h a t  people  of various g u e r r i l l a  found  i t difficult  groups  to survive  under heavy t a x a t i o n . 28.  a)  JXSW, p . 3 .  b)  Deng i n h i s JXNP  disagrees  Shi  organization  of  that  Geng's  t h e J i n emperor  uprisings  with  Liang.  began w h i l e  Liang  the record  i n t h e Song  started after Deng  the death  believes  that the  was a t t a c k i n g t h e s o u t h .  See JXNP, p . 2 3 . 29.  SS, 4 0 1 / 1 2 1 6 1 .  30.  The E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n  of Xin's  offical  titles  a r e adopted  137 from  C h a r l e s O.  Imperial  H u c k e r ' s A Dictionary  China,  (Stanford:  of O f f i c i a l  Titles  Standford University  in  Press,  1985). 31.  a)  ZZYL,  132/5158.  b)  JXNP,  p.24.  c)  Qian  Shisheng,  (Tokyo: 32.  JXNP,  33.  Ibid.,  34.  There  Gudian Y a n j i u h u i , 1973),  are other reasons f o r t h i s in  the  that  untouched  by  bloom.  Kikuya  ed.,  39/245.  war,  in a  people  indifferent  First  - f ^ i n 1163  a p p e a s e m e n t was  Living  Submerged  South.  ZJ  L i ?|  contention  Jin.  Nagasawa  p.26.  Fu  Song  Shu,  p.25.  attitude of  Nansong  the  had  economy  eager  Mongol  Gernet's Invasion  1962),  and  Nanyi,  (Wuhan:  reason  i s  Jiaju's  Hubei  in  south  another  China  (New  York:  Liang  Song  n o r t h were  r e c o v e r e d , t h e r e t u r n o f t h e two  the  Secondly,  was  in to  the  full rise.  Southern  war  with  the  p i c t u r e a t t h a t t i m e , see on  the  Eve  of  the  M a c M i l l a n Company, Jingji  Renmin Chubanshe,  i f the  Defeat  begun  prosperity,  to s t a r t  Life  1250-1276,  Zhang  that  Daily  the  to confirm  s o u t h had  F o r a more d e t a i l e d e c o n o m i c  Jacques  seemed  i n the  of m a t e r i a l  were not  a l l ,  complacent  the best p o l i c y .  standards i n the flood  of  and  Zhongxin  1957).  to  be  The  de third  successfully  c a p t u r e d emperors  Hui  would have posed a p r o b l e m t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f Gao  Zong's r e i g n .  The  comment i n t h e  Zong to Song  138  Shi  a b o u t Gao  Zong  was  p u t t i n g up w i t h shame. 35.  XSNP, p , 8 .  36.  Cai Yijiang Beifang  he  Luncong  JXC,  38.  X i n Gengru,  lived  See SS,  a n d C a i Guohuang,  37.  2 (1979):  i n complacency w h i l e  32/612.  "Xin Q i j i  Manyou Wuchu  Kao",  88-94.  p.505. "Xin Qiji  Z h i s h i " , Guangming 39.  that  Cheng  Nanguihou  Ribao  B i , Mingshui  Ji  12  Bingwu  'qianru  Jinguo'  (Taibei:  Taiwan  (1979).  (hereafter  MSJ),  Shangwu Y i n s h u g u a n , 1 9 7 2 ) , 2/10. 40.  JXC,  41.  Ibid.,  p.230.  42.  Ibid.,  p.97.  43.  a)  JXNP,  b)  XSNP, p . 1 0 .  c)  JXSW, p . 3 .  44.  Wu  p.177.  Xionghe, "Xin Q i j i  Gudian 45.  p.26.  Wenxue Luncong  Jiang  Linzhu,  Xin  'Meiqin  Shilun'  1 (1980): Qiji  Zuonian  Kaobian",  279.  Zhuan,  (Taibei,  Taiwan  Shangwu  Y i n s h u g u a n , 1 9 6 4 ) , p.29. 46.  ZZYL,  47.  Huang K u a n z h o n g , in  110/4363.  Songshi  Yanjiu  "Luelun  Nansong  Ji, (Taibei:  Shidai Guoli  de G u i z h e n g R e n " ,  Bianyikuan  Zongshu B i a n s h e n W e i y u a n h u i , 1 9 7 1 ) , V o l . 1 4 , Guizheng  Ren  were a l s o c a l l e d and  guiming zhongyi  Zhonghua  p.475. guichao  Huang a l s o h a s another  book  a very  titled  Officials  Concerning  Compromise,  Border  Li  Tsung,  JXSW,  good  The  chapter  Controversies  National Defense  (Taibei:  on  and  the of  Affairs  Guizheng  Late -  Sung  The  Refugees  during  Taiwan U n i v e r s i t y ,  1978).  Ren  in  Dynasty  Problems  of  the  of  Reign  p.15.  Huang K u a n z h o n g , i b i d . , p . 4 8 6 . T h e r e were s i x s p e c i a l b e n e f i t s f o r s i x d i f f e r e n t o f Guizheng  Ren  1.  who  Those  (See SHY, were  15):  slaves  commoners i n t h e  categories  in  the  North  could  become  South.  2.  Ten-year or f i v e - y e a r t a x - f r e e p e r i o d s f o r  3.  Three-year  4.  Capital  farmers.  t a x - f r e e periods f o r merchants. punishment  was  cancelled  for  surrendered  soldiers. 5.  For  government  government p o s t 6.  Literati  Ibid.,  a  i n the South,  guarantee p l u s more  of  the  same  benefits.  c o u l d apply f o r the c i v i l  service  were  their  examination.  p.88  Guizheng  Ren  properties, south. were was  officials,  to  forbidden.  which  the  to  sell  t o move  b e t w e e n Guizheng I n t r o d u c t i o n of  prohibited.  Guizheng  burden to the  allowed  d e f e c t , or  Marriages  strictly  not  Ren  Southern  to other Ren  any  and  been  places the  Han  Jin cultural  Furthermore, had  l a n d or  the  in  the  Chinese elements  special benefits  g e t t i n g were  Song g o v e r n m e n t .  other  See  WZJ,  became  a  137/2a-b.  ,140 51.  After  Zhao  under  Kuangyin  his control,  (927-976) he  d i d not  allowing the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s throughout based  the entire  on  brought repeat  of  civil  power  "strong  XSNP, p . 1 0 .  53.  JXNP, p . 3 3 .  54.  SS,  55.  GJJ,  6/4-5.  56.  SS,  401/12162.  58.  from  o f t h e Song  trunk, One  weak  was  branches  o f h i s schemes f o r  the generals  was  to stress  the  and s l i g h t t h e m i l i t a r y .  52.  57.  away  of  t o h a v e t o o much p o w e r . T h u s ,  ). steering  the mistake  Song e r a , t h e p o l i c y  the doctrine  China  401/12162.  Ibid. Xu  Song,  Song  Huiyao  Jigao  (hereafter  SHY),  (Beijing,  Zhonghua e d i t i o n , 1 9 5 7 ) , 1 7 8 / 6 9 8 3 . 59.  Lou  Yao,  Shangwu 60.  Zhen  a)  Ji  (hereafter  GKJ),  (Taibei:  Taiwan  (Taibei:  Taiwan  Shangwu  edition,  Yinshuguan, 1 9 6 ? ) , 106/1041.  Dexiu,  Shangwu 61.  Gongkui  Zhen  Wenzhong  Gong  Wenji,  Y i n s h u g u a n , 1 9 6 - ) , 45/690.  Zhang  Duanyi,  Gui'er  J i , (Shanghai:  1 9 3 7 ) , C/13a. b)  Guo  Yuheng  zhong  de  ruthless  i n h i s essay Yige  Wenti  Tanqi"  i n suppressing  it commoner (min tyj )"  "Cong  Dui Xin Q i j i  comments  the bandits  See Guangming  that  whom Guo  Ribao  Wenxue  Pingjie Xin  was  called Yichan  141 510. 62.  ZZYL,  132/5159.  63.  JXSW, p . 3 7 .  64.  L i Xinchuan, (Taibei:  65. 66.  Jianyan  Yilai  Zaji  M i n h a i Chubanshe, 1967), j i a j i  (hereafter ^  JYYL),  18/584.  SS, 401/12163-12164. Ibid.  67.  LDMC, 1 8 5 / 6 b - 7 a / 2 4 4 4 .  68.  Zhou B i d a , Wenzhong 1971),  143/13a;  Ji, (Taibei:  ZWG, 9 4 / 1 4 6 7 ;  70.  5 5 , 401/12163.  71.  ZWG, 9 3 / 1 6 4 7 ; 9 4 / 1 0 5 2 .  72.  ZWG, 9 3 / 1 6 4 7 .  73.  5 5 , 401/12164.  74.  ZZYL, The  T a i w a n Shangwu  Yinshuguan,  138/lb-2a.  69.  94/1654-1659.  111/4383. eight  55:  "quehe  % 75.  Chaoye  c h a r a c t e r s here zhe zhan,  are different  bidi  zhe pei  from  those  i n the  ^ ^fyj fjjj $ | t  SO  5 5 , 401/12164. In and  the o f f i c i a l evil  restraint.  biography,  man who d a r e d  Wang i s p o r t r a y e d a s a  t o speak  He w a s a v o i d e d  h i smind  jealous  w i t h o u t any  by h i s c o l l e a g u e s .  See 5 5 ,  386/11853. 76.  F o r a more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c e n s o r ' s power a t t h a t time,  s e e James L i u ' s  "The S o u t h e r n  Sung  Emperors and t h e  142 Opinion  Officials"  i n Hsing  Hua Journal  New S e r i e s V I I I 1 ( 1 9 7 0 ) : 77.  L i u K e z h u a n g , Houchun edition),  Xiansheng  Daquanji,  79.  SHY, 1 0 1 .  80.  JXNP, p . 8 2 .  81.  Ibid.,  p.94.  82.  Please  s e e n o t e no. 2 i n c h a p t e r  83.  Luo K a n g l i e ,  assertion  in his article lists  that  four  thousand gift.  "min  Second,  he b u i l t  retired  from  days  X i n supported  t h e f a c t t h a t X i n gave a as a p a r t i n g a  by L a k e  X i n was  t o Zhu e x p l a i n i n g  bought  ship.  large  Dai.  engaged  released.  household  Fourth,  with  bieji  p] ^  6.)  while  i n ox s k i n  t h e commodity  and asked  B u t Zhu o n c e s a i d t h a t  official  order  that  f o r the m i l i t a r y  ( S e e WGJ,  of h i s  T h i r d , he owned a p i e c e o f l a n d on  his villa  office,  Jingji  i n the s t y l e  s h i p was o n c e c o n f i s c a t e d by Zhu X i ' s p e o p l e .  letter  Luo  he c i t e s  de  i n support  " t o L i u Guo  c o n c u b i n e s and s e r v a n t s . which  "Mantan X i n J i a x u a n  h i s retirement  First,  ^fj  4.  "evidences"  X i n spent  of a r i c h person.  put  Shangwu  101/3998; 101/4002.  Shenghuo,"  was  (Taibei:  150/1318.  SHY,  a  Studies,  345-349.  78.  His  of Chinese  he  trading. X i n wrote  i n h i s ship  Zhu t o r e l e a s e  the  Later  was  the ship  t h e merchants would  even  f l a g s on s h i p s w h i c h d e l i v e r e d human w a s t e s i n  t o escape concludes  taxation.  that  Xin's  ( S e e WGJ,  110.)  Nevertheless,  impeachments were m a i n l y  due t o  143 political is  reasons.  a l s o echoed  Xin  Jiaxuan"  shrewdness asserts,  i n doing  Since  with  that Xin's a  grand  support 84.  The c o s t l y  burden  Xin's  as w e l l  Furthermore,  no..60.  85.  LDMC, 3 3 6 / 2 2 b - 2 3 b .  86.  GKJ, 3 5 / 3 2 7 .  87.  SS, 401/12164.  88.  a)  SHY,  b)  JXNP,  X i n managed  Wang  says  t h i n g s on popular put a  unwilling  to  to establish  l a w and  the rope."  102/4045-4046. 81 a n d 1 1 0 .  this  year.  Huang A i .  yiji  ZJ %  S  t h a t Wang L i n i m p e a c h e d  See S S , 401/12164.  Deng G u a n g m i n g , t h e p e r s o n  JYYL,  eyed  untrammelled  X i n advocated  who w e r e  I n t h e Song Shi, i t i s r e c o r d e d  89.  class  i n not g e t t i n g  p r o j e c t s which  Still,  o r d e r by " d r o p p i n g  was  Xin's  from the  X i n w i t h empty s t o m a c h s .  See note  Xin  of those  the ruling  Wang  personal  and h i s fondness i n d o i n g  on t h e t a x - p a y e r s ,  "Yetan  i tto his  as  controversial.  factors  view  impeachments,  were d i s t r u s t f u l  made h i m e s p e c i a l l y  This  by a t t r i b u t i n g  X i n was a n o r t h e r n e r ,  stubbornness  2 0 0 , 77.)  who i n h i s a r t i c l e  due t o p o l i t i c a l  s c a l e were major  support. heavy  business.  suspicion.  personality  Yuekan  defends Xin's wealth  The s o u t h e r n e r s  north. him  by Wang Z h a n c h i  were  reasons.  ( S e e Mingbao  But according t o  who i m p e a c h e d  X i n i n 1194  Wang L i n was i n Hunan a t t h a t 18/1151-1152.  time.  144 90.  a)  X i e Fangde, Yinshuguan,  b)  Dieshan 1966),  LDMC, 1 8 5 / 2 a .  91.  SHY,  103/4059.  92.  MSJ,  11-12.  93.  See n o t e  94.  LCWJ, 1 0 / 6 .  no.3.  Ji,  7/9-11.  (Taibei:  Taiwan  Shangwu  145  Notes: 1.  Chapter I I  Zhongwen D a c i d i a n B i a n z u a n W e i y u a n h u e e d . , Dacidian,  (Taibei:  Zhongwen  Huagang Chuban Y o u x i a n G o n g s i ,  1 9 7 7 ) , V o l . 1, p . 1 5 1 6 . 2.  Huang F u t u n g , "Lun D i a n g u , " Huazhong (1979):  3.  Shiyuan  Xuebao  4  107.  Y u - k u n g Kao and T s u - l i n M e i , " M e a n i n g , Allusion Studies  i n T'ang P o e t r y , " Harvard 38  (1978):  Metaphor,  Journal  of  and  Asiatic  325.  4.  Ibid.,  p.326.  5.  Y u - k u n g Kao and T s u - l i n M e i , " M e a n i n g , Zhuyi  Metaphor,  Allusion  i n T'ang P o e t r y , " Xiegou  Shijian,  Zhou Y i n g x i o n g and Zheng S h u s h e n e d . ,  and  de L i l u n  yu (Taibei:  L i m i n g Wenhua S h i y e G o n g s i , 1 9 8 0 ) , p p . 7 0 - 7 1 . 6.  H i g h t o w e r , James R., C h ' i e n , " Harvard  " A l l u s i o n i n the P o e t r y of  Journal  of A s i a t i c Studies  31  T'ao (1971):  5. 7.  Y u - k u n g Kao a n d T s u - l i n M e i make a d i s t i n c t i o n the  terms  " u s i n g an e v e n t " a n d  " I f an e v e n t c o n t e m p o r a r y directly,  t h e n we w i l l  betweeen  " m e n t i o n i n g an e v e n t " :  t o the poet i s r e f e r r e d  say t h a t  he  'mentions  to  the events';  b u t i f he u s e s a p a s t e v e n t t o r e f e r t o p r e s e n t e v e n t w o u l d we "Meaning,  say that  he  Metaphor,  'uses an e v e n t . ' "  See Kao and  and A l l u s i o n i n T'ang P o e t r y , "  Mei,  146  Harvard  Journal  of  Asiatic  T h e r e i s no s u c h d i s t i n c t i o n character 8.  |^|  "yong  38 ( 1 9 7 8 ) :  Studies  326.  i n Chinese f o r the Chinese  " means " u s i n g " .  Most o f t h e C h i n e s e c r i t i c s acknowledge t h e obvious  thus  fact  f a r h a v e managed t o  that X i n l i k e s  t o use  a l l u s i o n s p r o f u s e l y i n h i s ci.  As a r e s u l t , X i n h a s b e e n  given the c r e d i t of bringing c i  t o a new  dimension.  However, X i n ' s u s e o f a l l u s i o n h a s n o t b e e n studied.  Most o f t h e c r i t i c s  classification.  Lun  Yu.  Little  For example:  with  X i n quotes t h i s  from the  a n a l y s i s h a s b e e n done on how X i n u s e s  a l l u s i o n a n d what all  have c o n t e n t  adequately  i s i t sspecific  f u n c t i o n i n a ci.  Of  t h e m a t e r i a l on h i m , t h e r e a r e o n l y two C h i n e s e  articles  specifically  on X i n ' s u s e o f a l l u s i o n ;  as f o r  E n g l i s h m a t e r i a l , I r v i n g Lo has a s m a l l s e c t i o n i n t h e last  chapter  o f h i s book.  Of t h e s e  two C h i n e s e  Zhang Gaokuan managed t o s t a t e t h e f a c t employment width  of allusions  and d e p t h ,  that the  i n Xin's c i ' senlarge  increase the a e s t h e t i c value  v a r i o u s use o f imagery and t h e s u g g e s t i v e n e s s allusion.  (See Zhang, pp.89-90.)  original  Lo g i v e s c r e d i t sources  lies  to Xin's  poetic through of  Chen S h u m e i ' s  t h e s i s a l s o c e n t e r s on X i n ' s use o f a l l u s i o n . no. 37.)  sources,  master's  (See note  " e f f e c t i v e use o f t h e  not only i n the s k i l l f u l  adaptation  of e n t i r e p a s s a g e s . . . b u t a l s o i n t h e d e l e t i o n s and  147  a d d i t i o n s he m a d e . . . A l t e r a t i o n s only the f r u i t s  such as t h e s e  r e v e a l not  of h i s reading but a l s o h i s concern  t h e c o h e r e n c e and u n i t y o f t h e e n t i r e poem." p.132.) first his  The  h e s i t a t i o n about going  of a l l , the d i f f i c u l t y of determining  (See L o ,  i s rooted i n how  a l l u s i o n s t o be t a k e n o r i n t e r p r e t e d , and  the d i f f i c u l t y of t r a n s l a t i n g allusions. article 1973, 9.  deeper  those  T h i s i s acknowledged  (See  secondly,  in his  Lattimore,  p.408.)  Chen Shumei i n h e r m a s t e r ' s t h e s i s l i s t s ways X i n u s e s a l l u s i o n . same a l l u s i o n many t i m e s . paraphrases Third,  X i n means  c i w h i c h u s e many  by L a t t i m o r e  " A l l u s i o n and T'ang P o e t r y . "  for  First,  three  X i n has a t e n d e n c y t o use  Second, X i n e i t h e r  the e n t i r e o r i g i n a l passage  (pp.49-88).  r e w r i t e s or  i n his ci.  i n e a c h c i , more t h a n h a l f o f t h e l i n e s  allusion  particular  use  She a l s o p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e r e i s a  c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n X i n ' s p o e t i c t o p i c and t h e s o u r c e s his  quotations.  likes  For example,  on t h e t o p i c o f w i n e , X i n  t o q u o t e L i Bo a n d Tao Y u a n m i n g , f o r b o t h o f them  a r e w e l l known f o r t h e i r uses s t a t i s t i c s  fondness of wine.  t o emphasize  the well-known  u s e s many a l l u s i o n s i n h i s c i . a n a l y s i s on how 10.  of  X i n uses  T h i s i s acknowledged  B u t Chen o n l y fact  that Xin  So f a r , t h e r e i s l i t t l e  allusion.  by L a t t i m o r e  " A l l u s i o n a n d T'ang P o e t r y . "  in his article  (See L a t t i m o r e ,  1973,  148  p.408. ) a)  The d a t e s o f c o m p o s i t i o n a r e g i v e n f o r e a c h c i discussed  i n this thesis.  The f i r s t  by Deng Guangming i n h i s JXC.  date i s given  The s e c o n d d a t e i s  g i v e n by C a i Y i j i a n g a n d C a i Guohuang i n t h e i r Jiaxuan b)  Changduanju  L i u Z a i , Mantang  book  Biannian.  J i , ( T a i b e i : T a i w a n Shangwu  Yinshuguan, 1979), 32/12-15. Xin retired a)  f o r t h e s e c o n d t i m e i n 1195.  The r e f e r e n c e t o t h e Y a n z i M o u n t a i n comes f r o m t h e Li Sao.  ( S e e F u , 1 9 7 2 , p.37.)  For the E n g l i s h , see  Hawkes, 1 9 5 9 , p . 2 8 .  "I ordered Hsi-ho t o stay the saw-steeds'  * 4 fc i» %  r >? ?  To s t a n d o v e r Y e n - t z u m o u n t a i n  b)  For the reference of the f a l l e n Hong, Huainan  Zi  a)  -  %  a n d n o t go i n .  l e a v e s , see Shen  ( d . 122 B . C . ) , Wang Yunwu a n d Zhu  Jingnong ed., ( T a i b e i : J u a n 16.  gallop,  $  Shangwu Y i n s h u g u a n , ^  i  7  1966),  tl  C a n g z h o u was a r e t i r e m e n t p l a c e f o r h i g h m i n d e d people i n ancient China. t h e B i o g r a p h y o f Y u a n Can Shi  Deng Guangming  mentions  i n t h e Nan  who w r o t e a f i v e - c h a r a c t e r  poem  149  about  retiring  t o C a n g z h o u . (See JXC,  p.303.)  C e r t a i n l y X i n d o e s n o t i n t e n d t o make a b e t w e e n Yuan and h i m s e l f .  comparison  X i n s i m p l y uses t h i s  as a  common noun d e s i g n a t i n g a p o p u l a r p l a c e f o r retirement. b)  Line three i s a story  i n t h e Y i n y u n Xiaoshuo.  conversation t o p i c i s the wishes of l i f e . s t a t e s t h a t he w o u l d  The One  l i k e t o be t h e m a g i s t r a t e o f  Y a n g z h o u , w h i c h s t a n d s f o r fame and s t a t u s . w a n t s t o be  rich.  The  third  one w i s h e s t o a s c e n d  s k y w a r d on a c r a n e , w h i c h means he immortality.  But the l a s t  wants  one s a y s he w a n t s t o  e n t e r t h e c i t y o f Y a n g z h o u on a c r a n e w i t h hundred words, and  thousand  he w a n t s e v e r y t h i n g :  "Yinyun  (Changsha: c)  The  fame, s t a t u s , w e a l t h  F o r more i n f o r m a t i o n , s e e Huang Xiaoshuo",  juan  Shangwu Y i n s h u g u a n ,  l a s t phrase i n l i n e  F u ' s poem t i t l e d  five  4, i n  Tanzhu,  1940).  i s a paraphrase of  " J u e j u Manxing  Jiushou  (Shanghai: 'Shanghai G u j i  Du  ^.T^j  See Yang L u n , Du Jingquan,  one  i n h i s waist-pocket; i n other  immortality.  Zaizhi,  Another  Shi  Chubanshe,  1980), V o l . 1 , p.356.  II  Don't t h i n k a b o u t  the endless bothers out  there,  Just  empty t h e l i m i t e d c u p s i n l i f e . "  I Maoshi  i  Zhenggi  (hereafter Legge's  ?f<  I  JL  ^  ( L e g g e , 1960, V o l . 3 ,  &  t h e s a c r i f i c e m i l l e t coming  p.110):  into blade.  A i ~& [Legge m i s s e d t h e second in  T h o s e who  knew  I was  T h o s e who  translation]  me  sad a t h e a r t ,  n % -o Said  Zhush  &  S l o w l y I moved a b o u t ,  3*  Jing  t h e m i l l e t w i t h i t s d r o o p i n g heads  T h e r e was  Said  , i n Shisan  4/330.  translation  \t i ft  0  ^  SSJZS),  " T h e r e was  fj  i  t  d i d n o t know  i°  me  /f  I was  seeking f o r something.  n * ^ i O distant  and a z u r e Heaven!  & £ 1 < By what man  was  this  [brought about]?  phras  151  16.  The w e s t e r n Zhou d y n a s t y b e g a n i n t h e y e a r when K i n g "T^ i  t h e Y i n jf^  conquered  from B a o j i n g  ^  .  to Luoyi  y e a r o f t h e r e i g n o f K i n g You 17.  S i m a Q i a n , Shi Shuju, 1973),  18.  Ji  Xinyu  20.  , Shan Tao JJ ;*|  ^  , Ruan X i a n f%j  Yang B o j u n , L i e z i J i j i e ,  (Taibei:  Ruan J i i s one o f t h e s e v e n  ffi  (Beijing:  Jj^  J i Rang  ,  , X i a n g X i u fc] ^  ,  , a n d Wang Rong  Zhonghua  Shuju,  p.60.  A c c o r d i n g t o t h e l o c a l g a z e t t e e r o f Q i a n Shan C o u n t y  Jj  , the Calabash F a l l  the p r e f e c t u r e . gourd-shaped  was t w e n t y - f i v e l i  Water r a n from t h e mountain  lake.  Calabash F a l l . 21.  23/548.  Ruan J i ?Tu  1979),  Zhonghua  ( h e r e a f t e r SSXY),  o f t h e Bamboo G r o v e :  ^.j  i n the eleventh  ji^J j i _  v i r t u o u s men  h •  19.  £j  4/147-149.  Hongye S h u j u , 1 9 7 2 ) ,  Ling  The c a p i t a l was moved  (hereafter S J ) , (Beijing:  Yang Y o n g , Shishuo  Liu  Wu  For t h i s  See JXC,  For the E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n of t h i s l i n e ,  Gongsi, 1935),  of Yi King,  p.279.  and i n t o a  r e a s o n , X i n named i t t h e  , i n SSJZS  Text  from  p.163.  Z h o u y i Zhengyi  t r a n s . , The  ; £  7/77. s e e I.D. Sung  ( T a i b e i : Wenhua T u s h u  ±_  152  22.  Lun  23.  Ibid.,  24.  Lun  Yu Zhushu,  in  25.  Lun  Yu Zhushu,  i n SSJZS  The  English translation  Four  Yu Zhushu  iii  -lL  jju  , i n SSJZS  7/2482.  6/2478.  Books,  SSJZS  (New Y o r k :  7/2482. 14/2512.  i s f r o m James L e g g e t r a n s . , The P a r a g o n Book R e p r i n t  Corp.,  0  1 9 6 6 ) , p.210. 26.  27.  28.  Lun.Yu  Zhushu,  i n SSJZS  7/2482.  For  the English t r a n s l a t i o n ,  Lun  Yu Zhushu,  For  the English t r a n s l a t i o n  i n SSJZS  s e e Leege,  1966, p.85.  6/2478.  see Legge,  1966, p.65.  L i n e s e v e n i s a p a r a p h r a s e o f Su S h i ' s poem t i t l e d " J i Gaoling  Shi  -^J <g  <z  »"f  "  S e e JXC, 1 6 3 .  "Upon t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f my p o e t r y s i l k y s m o o t h n e s s s e t upon my bosom.  n  A  Mi  ffl  m ?{%  Upon t h e e n d i n g o f my c h a n t i n g , f r o s t y c o o l n e s s c i r c l e d my t e e t h . "  Ht %. * i i i $ % 29.  JXC, p . 1 6 3 .  30.  I n o n e o f t h e c i , t o t h e Tune o f Zhegu  Tian  X i n mentions h i s fondness i nt o u r i n g s and readings i n  153  t h i s way: "For a l l  my  life,  I d o n ' t owe a n y d e b t t o t h e c r e e k s a n d m o u n t a i n s ;  All  ;i  $ i I the various  *  i  medicines,  c a n n o t h e a l my e x c e s s i v e ' r e a d i n g o n b o o k s a n d history.  I See JXC, 31.  % « U i  p.446.  Z.D. Sung t r a n s , The Text  of Yi King,  (Taibei:  Wenhua  Tushu G o n g s i , 1975), p.14. 32.  See n o t e  no.22.  33.  Maoshi  Zhengyi,  34.  Ibid.,  7/377.  35.  Ibid.,  4/331.  36.  Mengzi  Z h u s h u , i n SSJZS  i n SSJZS  English translation  13/2506.  9/b/2739.  i n Legge, 1966, pp.807-808.  "When C o n f u c i u s , b e i n g d i s s a t i s f i e d left  i n Loo and Wei, had  t h o s e s t a t e s , he met w i t h t h e a t t e m p t o f Hwan, t h e  M a s t e r o f t h e H o r s e , o f Sung, t o i n t e r c e p t and k i l l h i m . " 37.  Liji  Zhengyi  ;L> 3- %  , i n SSJZS  6/a/1275.  F o r t h e E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n , s e e Li Chi: T r a n s l a t e d by James L e g g e , (New Y o r k : 1 9 6 7 ) , p.12  Book of  Rites,  New Hyde P a r k ,  154  38.  Lun  Yu Zhushu,  English  i n SSJZS  18/2529.  t r a n s l a t i o n i n Legge, 1966, p.276.  "Ch'ang-tsu  and C h i e h - n i w e r e a t work i n t h e f i e l d  t o g e t h e r , when C o n f u c i u s p a s s e d by them, a n d s e n t to i n q u i r e  f o r the f o r d . "  39.  Ibid.,  40.  Zhang G a o k u a n , "Lun J i a x u a n C i de Y o n g d i a n , "  14/2512.  Daxue  Xuebao  4 (1981):  41.  Ye J i a y i n g ,  42.  Wu H e n g z h a o , L i a n z i j u  Vol.7,  "Lun J i a x u a n C i , " Hai Cihua,  Nei  1/6-7,  Wai  32 ( 1 9 8 1 ) :  i n Cihua  Tangwen S h u d i a n ,  SS,  44.  Hong X i a n g z u , L i Sao B u z h u , ( X i a n g g a n g :  Congbian, 1967),  401/12165.  1963), a)  b)  Zhonghua  Han  Shu  (hereafter  HS),  (Beijing:  Zhonghua  Shuju,  97/3988-3919.  JXC, p.399.  X i a o T o n g , Wen Xuan,  (Xianggang:  Shangwu  Yinshuguan,  1978), pp.327-330. Maoshi  Shuju,  1/30-31.  1 9 6 2 ) , 9/297-298;  47.  41.  pp.2359-2360.  43.  46.  Liaoning  88.  Tang G u i z h a n g e d . , ( T a i b e i :  45.  Tse-lu  Zhengyi,  i n SSJZS,  Legge's t r a n s l a t i o n  2/298-299.  (Legge, 1960, V o l . 4 , p . 4 2 ) :  "The s w a l l o w s go f l y i n g  about,  With t h e i r wings unevenly  displayed.  155  The  l a d y who  retiring  [ t o her n a t i v e  state],  And  I e s c o r t e d her f a r i n t o the c o u n t r y .  4 A 1 ft I looked t i l l  at  tears f e l l  it  >%  49.  SJ,  50.  a)  down l i k e  rain."  &  X i a o Tong e d . , Wen 1978),  her,  ! U  And my  48.  I c o u l d no l o n g e r s e e  Xuan,  (Xianggang:  Shangwu  Yinshuguan,  28/637.  28/6271. Wang G u o w e i , Renjian Tang G u i z h a n g  b)  ed.,  Cihua, (Taibei:  b/2,  i n Cihua  Tangwen S h u d i a n ,  A d e l e A u s t i n R i c k e t t , Wang Kuo-wei's hua,  (Hong Kong:  1977),  Jen-chien  1934). Tz'u-  Hong Kong U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ,  p.73  51.  Hawkes, i b i d . ,  52.  Zhongwen D a c i d i a n B i a n z u a n W e i y u a n h u i Dacidian,  Congbian,  p.32.  (Taibei:  ed.,  Zhongwen  Huagang Chuban Y o u x i a n G o n g s i ,  1977),  V o l . 3 8 , p.311. 53.  Ibid.,  54.  Hong X i a n g z u , Li 1963),  V o l . 16, p . 3 6 5 .  p.7.  Sao  Buzhu,  (Xianggang:  Zhonghua S h u j u ,  156  55.  Y u - k u n g Kao a n d T s u - l i n M e i , " M e a n i n g , M e t a p h o r , a n d Allusion Studies  i n T'ang P o e t r y , " Harvard 38 ( 1 9 7 8 ) :  Journal  of  Asiatic  328.  56.  Ibid.,  p.344.  57.  A s Kao a n d M e i p o i n t o u t i n t h e i r a r t i c l e ,  the use o f  metaphor a l s o employs t h e t e c h n i q u e o f c o m p a r i s o n and contrast.  However, t h e main d i f f e r e n c e l i e s  distinction action."  i n the  t h a t " . . . m e t a p h o r on q u a l i t y a n d a l l u s i o n  See Kao a n d M e i , 1 9 7 8 , p . 3 2 8 .  58.  Ibid.,  59.  A c c o r d i n g t o Tong P e i j i ,  p.329.  appeasement g r o u p .  S h i Zhidao belong t o the p r o -  B u t Tong f a i l s  t o d i s c u s s why X i n  would b e f r i e n d a pro-appeasement p e r s o n , g i v e n s t r o n g s t a n c e on r e c a p t u r i n g t h e n o r t h . "Xin  on  Qiji  yu S h i Z h e n g s h i , " Wenxue Yichan  Xin's  See Tong 4  (1982):  pp.66-71. 60.  JXC,  61.  F a n g X u a n l i n g , Jin Shu,  p.10. (Beijing:  Zhonghua  Shuju,  1974), 79/2072-2092. 62.  Ibid.,  63.  The s e c o n d p h r a s e i n l i n e f o u r  pp.2074-2075. i s a paraphrase of  t h e s e two l i n e s i n one o f Huang T i n g j i a n ' s c i : To t h e Tune o f  Niannu  "The g e n t l e m a n Sun  smiling,  Peiji,  157  Sitting  there playing the f l u t e . "  4 i f See Tang G u i z h a n g  liin e d . Quan Song  Ci, ( B e i j i n g :  f  Zhonghua  S h u j u , 1965), V o l . 1 , p.385. 64.  JXC, p . 4 8 9 .  65.  X i n Q i t a i , Jiaxuan  Shiwen  Chaocun,  (Xianggang:  Haiwai  Tushu, 1970), p.2. 66.  Ibid.,  p.21.  67.  Chen Y u c h u n , "Tan X i n c i Huaigu,'"  B e i j i n g Shifan  3 (1979) : 68.  'Yongyu L e : Daxue  Xuebao  Jingkou  Beiguting  (Shehui  Kexue  Bao)  66.  Shen Y u e , Song  Shu,  (Beijing:  Zhonghua S h u j u ,  1974),  (Beijing:  Zhonghua S h u j u ,  1974),  76/1973-1976. 69.  Ibid.,  95/2333-2334.  70.  SJ,  71.  Shen Y u e , Song  111/2935-2937. Shu,  95/2330; 95/2352. 72.  S J , 21/2448-2449.  73.  Ye J i a y i n g ,  74.  Wang G u o w e i , Renjian  " L u n J i a x u a n C i , " Hai Nei Wai 32 ( 1 9 8 1 ) :  Tang G u i z h a n g 75.  Cihua,  a / 4 - 5 , i n Cihua  11/n.p.  Congbian,  ed., i b i d . , V o l . 1 2 , pp.4250-4251.  Zhang S i y a n e d . , C i l i n J i s h i , 1949),  37.  (Shanghai:  Beiye  Shanfang,  158 NOTES:  1.  CHAPTER I I I  Wang X i a n g z h i e d . , Y u t i Jisheng, Chubanshe, 1962),  2.  The f i r s t  line  (Taibei:  Wen H a i  of these  two l i n e s  133/703.  i s a paraphrase  i n the  "£ f r j -f JL  f i f t h poem o f t h e " G u s h i S h i j i u s h o u "In the west-north, there i s a t a l l  ":  tower,  & h \ 5j $ Rising,  reaching the f l o a t i n g clouds  above."  i % >% % f See  3.  S u i Shusen,  Gushi  shijiushou  Ji  Zhonghua S h u j u X i a n g g a n g  F e n j u , 1 9 7 7 ) , p.7  Wang X i a n g z h i  Jisheng,  1962),  e d . , Yuti  J S , 36/1075-1076.  5.  The C h i n e s e a s t r o n o m i c a l s y s t e m  as  and is niu  i n t o t w e n t y - e i g h t xu  "lunar  took  (Xianggang:  ( T a i b e i , Wenhai  Chubanshe,  133/705.  4.  divided  Yi,  mansion").  them about  i s equatorial.  ^  (Needham  The a n c i e n t  27.33 d a y s  28 i s a r o u n d e d - o f f  Chinese  t o complete  figure.  The s k y i s  translates figured  their  this  that i t  phasic  cycle,  The dou ( t h e s a g i t a r i u s )  between t h e e i g h t e e n t h and t h e n i n e t e e n t h mansions. (thecapricorni)  i s located  the t w e n t i e t h mansions. Needham, Science  between t h e n i n e t e e n t h and  For further  and C i v i l i z a t i o n  The  i n f o r m a t i o n , see Joseph  in China,  (Cambridge:  t h e U n v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 9 ) , V o l . 3 , pp.171-262.  At  159 6.  JS,  7.  Ibid.,  8.  Chen S h o u , San Guo Zhi  67/1785. 20/449.  S h u j u , 1959/1973 p r i n t i n g ) , 9.  Shen K u o ,  Mengxi  SGZ),  (hereafter  Zhonghua  7/229-230.  ( T a i b e i : Taiwan  Bitan,  (Beijing:  Shangwu Y i n s h u g u a n ,  1 9 6 6 ) , 3/1. 10.  a)  The f i r s t  phrase of l i n e  line  this  from  Fu X i r e n ,  line  three  1976, p.160):  darkness  b)  %%  the English  The s e c o n d  phrase  (prose) t i t l e d  Tu Mu,  ^  of l i n e  three  S]  i s a paraphrase of  %t  (803-853?)  t\  "A F a n g g o n g  :& H i i Wenji,  *fc  of  s e e Hawkes, 1 9 5 9 , p . 1 0 5 .  1  Fanchuan  T  %^ , fi &  f r o m Tu M u s  iii  )\  Go n o t down t o t h e L a n d  translation,  t h e s e two l i n e s  See  this  i n t h e c h a p t e r o f "Zhao Hun" ( S e e  "0 S o u , come b a c k !  For  i s a paraphrase of  46  %  *•  "  fu  :  * J  (Shanghai:  Guji  Chubanshe,  1978), p . l . c)  The f i r s t four Xiren,  phrase  echoes  this  " f u b a o gan r e n line  1976, p.160):  from  t h e "Zhao  " i n line Hun"  (See Fu  160 "For  tigers  &  and l e o p a r d guards t h e g a t e s ,  ^  i  p-  W i t h j a w s e v e r r e a d y t o r e n d up m o r t a l  •K %  f  £  1  " T h r e e e y e s he h a s i n h i s t i g e r ' s  %  3  d)  I  the E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n ,  The  imagery of a t i n y  the  Zhuang  water  the  Zi,  will it the 11.  sail  Song  p. 1894.) ^  ZZJJ  1/1.  a  t o bear  up up  stick  a  the  in  English  p.29-30.  b i g boat.  hollow i n the  fast,  For  deep enough,  on i t l i k e b o a t s .  the f i r s t  " t meaning Ci  this  floor  and  i t won't Pour  a  bits  of  have  cup  trash  But s e t t h e cup t h e r e  f o r the water  of  i s too shallow  and and  boat too l a r g e . "  I n t h e JXC, *f1u)  see  i s not p i l e d  into  will  p.105.  s e e d i n l i n e f i v e comes f r o m  s e e W a t s o n , 1968,  strength  water  s e e Hawkes, 1 9 5 9 ,  i n t h e c h a p t e r o f " F r e e and E a s y W a n d e r i n g "  translation,  "If  bull's."  * * , *t « +/.  2  For  passage  head,  %  it  and h i s body i s l i k e a  f.  men."  a l s o has  character  shame, r e m o r s e . this  character.  in line  Tang G u i z h a n g  from the phrase  the character "kuairan  duchu  is  "kui  i n h i s Quan  (See Tang G u i z h a n g ,  As Deng h i m s e l f a c k n o w l e d g e s ,  " version,  seven  i s "kuai fifo  1965,  i n the " S i Juan jfy  " which flfej  <£?  comes  " i n the  161 biography  o f Yang Wangxuan i n t h e Han  context  of  solitary  life,  "kuai"  line  which  chooses  seven which  67/2908.  From t h e  m e n t i o n s h i s humdrum  and  i t i s more a p p r o p r i a t e t o a d o p t t h e c h a r a c t e r means  this  Shu  numbness,  character  dullness.  i n h i s book  Liu Sifen  (See L i u S i f e n ,  also 1981,  p.102). 12.  Lun  13.  Deng Guangming of  Yu Zhushu,  i n SSJZS  Qianzhi  (the  suspected  \%  present  7/2482. t h a t Chao C h u l a o was  who  was  Henan p r o v i n c e ) .  14.  SJ,  15.  Ibid.,  109/2871.  16.  Ibid.,  109/2878.  17.  S J , 109/2876.  18.  S J , 109/2871.  19.  S J , 109/2874.  20.  S J , 109/2871-2872.  21.  Line  the  successor  a n a t i v e o f Chanzhou ^ See JXC,  ->/-j  p.154.  109/2867-2878.  five  i s a paraphrase  F u ' s poem t i t l e d  "Qujiang  II  Sanzhang  I've  o f Du  decided  t h a t a s f o r my  life,  t h e r e ' s no need t o c o n s u l t h e a v e n ,  Luckily, ii  t h e r e a r e m u l b e r r y a n d hemp f i e l d s $  f  %  |  N  jjpjL  #  i n Du  Qu.  162 The  f o r m e r g e n e r a l moved t o t h e edge o f Southern  ft >H  the  Mountain.  ii ii ft b j |  W i t h a h u n t i n g o u t f i t and a h o r s e , I'll  Watching  f o l l o w L i Guang.  the shooting of  tigers,  t o p a s s t h e r e s t o f my  declining years.  h « ik I if A % See  Qian  Qianyi,  Qianzhu  Chubanshe, 1979), V o l . 1 ,  22.  In with  another  c i,  L i ' s paternal  marquis  Xin  Dushi,  (Shanghai:  Guji  p.24.  sarcastically  c o u s i n L i C a i who  e v e n h i s m o r a l c h a r a c t e r was  To t h e Tune o f Busuan  Shanghai  compared received  rated  Li  Guang  the t i t l e  low.  Zi  1  The  i m m o r t a l G e n e r a l L i once s n a t c h e d t h e young b a r b a r i a n ' s h o r s e .  2  As f o r c h a r a c t e r , L i C a i i s i n t h e l o w - m i d d l e b u t he h a d t h e t i t l e o f m a r q u i s .  of  163  P l u c k i n g o u t r o o t s o f w i l d weed, R e p l a c i n g t h e l a y e r o f bamboo w i t h new  tiles.  "5 If  by c h a n c e any n o m i n a t i o n f o r t h e t i t l e of S k i l l f u l f a r m e r i s needed, Who w o u l d be more q u a l i f i e d t h a n me?  23.  Wang  Xiangzhi,  1962),  7uti  Jisheng,  (Taibei:  Wenhai  Chubanshe,  66/409.  Xiaoshan P a v i l i o n public  office  was  named  located the  24.  See n o t e no.46 i n c h a p t e r  25.  O u y a n g X i u , Xin  Tang  east of the w a t e r - c o u r s e , the  Cheng  Ya  Hall  ]^  "i,  two.  Shu,  (Beijing,  Zhonghua S h u j u ,  1975),  76/3493-3495. 26.  HS,  97/b/3973-4012.  27.  The  Bo M o u n t a i n  in 28.  a)  i s to the south-west  the province of The  first  l i n e i s a paraphrase of t h i s l i n e from "Song Fan  AJL&4*«&*i^ Huang  Taiwan b)  The  2-  Jiangxi.  T i n g j i a n ' s poem t i t l e d  See  $1  of Guangfeng  Shanju  Deru  Zhi  Qingzhou  Huang Shi  •« h 4 ft Shi,  Huang  Shangwu Y i n s h u g u a n ,  Gongzhu  1968),  ed.,  (Taibei:  p.14.  s e c o n d l i n e i s a p a r a p h r a s e o f t h i s l i n e f r o m Zhang  164 Xiaoxiang's "Shuidiao  ( 1 1 3 3 - 1 1 7 0 ) J|d %•  See Yuhu Jushi Guji Deng  Anguo.  f£  Wenji,  £H  ":  interprets  of the incident He a l s o  this  i n 1162  Shanghai  interpretes  p.365).  This l i n e of interpretation  ( s e e Jiaxuan Ci  Xuandu,  p.133).  t o sneak i n t o  Ci Xuanzhu, p. 211)  But they  Zhang  t h e Yan s o l d i e r s a s t h e S o u t h e r n  JXC,  Xiangsheng  managed  i n the  when X i n c a p t u r e d  who  Cixuan,  %  c i specifically  soldiers  Qiji  %\  A  Xu Peng e d . , ( S h a n g h a i ,  Song  Xin  j  titled  Chubanshe, 1 9 8 0 ) , p.298.  Guangming  context  TK  Ketou  poem  and  t h e J i n camps ( s e e i s f o l l o w e d by Xue  p . 1 4 2 ) , Zhang B i p o ( s e e L i u Sifen  ( s e e Xin  a l l disagree with  Yan s o l d i e r s were t h e S o u t h e r n Song.  Deng  Qiji  that  Instead, they  the  believed  t h e y s h o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d  a s b e i n g t h e J i n s o l d i e r s . A more  farfetched  i s put f o r t h  said  interpretation  this c i specifically  assassination  refers  by h i s own  by C a i Y i j i a n g ,  t o Yuan  soldiers.  Yenliang's  This  d i s p u t e d by Qu D e z h u , who f o l l o w e d Deng's disagreed his  that  article  Ci  A more a p p r o p r i a t e interpretation  on  any  should  'Zhegn  Tian'  approach  on  is  strongly  interpretation  event  interpreted  Liangzhong  to this  Xinjie  but  given  i n the prefatory  i n Xin's  Zhiyi").  c i i s t o base  the information  the information  specific be  view  t h e Yan s o l d i e r s w e r e t h e S o u t h e r n Song ( s e e  "Xin  particularly  who  life.  as t h e s o l d i e r s  The  one's  in his ci, n o t e , and n o t Yan  soldiers  o f t h e Yan  region  165 which  was o c c u p i e d  patriotism, Jin  by t h e J i n a t t h a t  Xin definitely  territory.  makes t h e p o i n t  By u s i n g that t h i s  e v e n when i t was o c c u p i e d  would  time.  not regard  the t r a d i t i o n a l region  still  For a l l h i s this  name  belonged  by t h e J i n .  v  region  as  "Yan", X i n t o t h e Song  166  Notes:  1.  Chapter IV  Irving the  Yucheng  last  Lo has  chapter  discussion  on  context:  of  irony  comparison of Xin's  Shi  h i s book  Xin's  the  a s Lo c a l l e d  a s m a l l s e c t i o n on  it,  was  (1036-1101).  Hsin  wit  i s set  of  paradox  "metaphysical  Xin's  Ch'i-chi. in a  His  philosophical  i n Xin's  w i t " or  made b e t w e e n  humor i n  L i Po  c i and  a  " c o s m i c humor"  (701-762)  and  For f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n , see Lo,  Su  1971,  pp.120-127.  2.  a)  I n t h e p r e f a c e t o one o f h i s c i To t h e Tune o f Dingfeng  Bo  (JXC,  mentioned  that  him  h i s heavy  about  h i s f a m i l y members had drinking.  To t h e Tune o f Yu Hudie about  his friend  previous (see  JXC,  letter  p.397), X i n  Du  Xin  ^  himself  ft]  , who  proclaimed of t h i s ci:  Getou  " I d o n ' t n e e d any e n c o u r a g e m e n t  preface,  in a  Xin to stop drinking  fondness f o r wine i n the b e g i n n i n g  To t h e Tune o f Shuidiao  warning  , Xin also talked  %\_  had a d m o n i s h e d  p.352).  In another  j L %t§  Shugao  been  to drink,  his  167  I' m  only  afraid  (See  JXC,  p.39).  1  b)  Guo  ;9  ffi  the wine  i s e m p t i e d . II  bottle  | ' f  Youyu h a s a s e c t i o n on X i n a n d w i n e i n h i s  article.  He  analyzes  Xin's  drinking  in  the  framework  of Freud's p s y c h o l o g i c a l stages:  oral,  anal,  sexual  Guo's  "Lu  and  Yu,  Xinli  Certainly heroic  following  other  patriotic  Lo's t r a n s l a t i o n  Title:  Chengming  Zhongshan  are  i s a good  Tune t i t l e :  and  genital).  See  di Shidai  Xueshu  Wenhua  Beijing  yu  Jikan  28  31-35.  there  and  (phallic  Xin Qiji  Yinsu,"  (1980): 3.  that  wine-related  i n tone  and  c i which  in diction.  example:  (p.62):  Dance o f C a v a l r y  (P'o-chen-tzu)  A H e r o i c Song W r i t t e n f o r Ch'en  T'ung-fu  a n d t o Be S e n t t o Him Date o f c o m p o s i t i o n :  (conj.)1188  W h i l e d r u n k , I t r i m m e d my  lamp and e x a m i n e d my  sword;  are The  168 I n a dream, I r e t u r n e d  t o the strung-out  camps a n d b u g l e  -calls.  f  *Z  <D  My s o l d i e r s  ft  i ^ T  f e a s t e d on r o a s t e d  f l e s h of Eight-hundred-li  Ox;  From  fifty-string  zithers  came  a  jumble  of  border  melodies. On autumn's s a n d y p l a i n , I c a l l e d t h e r o l l . '*• t  ft  feJ  f  My h o r s e f l e w f a s t e r  >f  9  .  IX  than the s t a l l i o n  *  £  of L i u ;  My bow t w a n g e d l i k e a c l a p o f t h u n d e r .  *M How  K  I ft  I wished  to discharge  t h e kingdom's  prince.  ] ij i  L  * f |  And t o w i n f o r m y s e l f i m m o r t a l  And how s a d  1  |  my h a i r  i  turns  fame!  white!  task  f o r my  169  Ye J i a y i n g ' s comment o n t h i s c i : "[the  much g r i e f  and sorrow.  %i  i!L» tftfu  "Lun b)  d e s c r i p t i o n ] i s very  The  1?< ^  a)  ^  But i t embodies  "fjj  ^  "  "f  See  Ye  J i a x u a n C i " , Hai Nei Wai 31 ( 1 9 8 1 ) : use o f the c o l l o q u i a l  the f i r s t 5.  vivid.  This  line  36.  "gie  l i n e a touch o f c o l l o q u i a l  alludes to this  SSJZS  adverb  Jiaying,  " gives  flavor.  i n t h e Meng  Zi Zhushu  in  13/a/2773.  Legge's t r a n s l a t i o n  "Mencius s a i d ,  (Legge, 1962, p.978):  ' I t w o u l d be b e t t e r t o be w i t h o u t t h e  'Book o f H i s t o r y ' t h a n t o g i v e e n t i r e c r e d i t  to i t . "  I l ii % s i* A % Xin  takes  lines  Mencius'  three  deserve  no  position  and f o u r : credit  one s t e p  t h e books  at  a l l .  further i n  of the ancients  X i a Chengshou ' s  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these  two l i n e s  demeaning  o f t h e a n c i e n t s ; r a t h e r , he  the teachings  is saying that their the Bipo  real  world  also  teachings are not a p p l i c a b l e i n  Xin lived  agrees  i s that X i n i snot  with  i n (pp. 106-107) . Xia's  Zhang  interpretation.  170 However,  Zhang  elaborates The  ancients  a p p l i c a b l e i s because  longer  not  followed  Zhang's  line  and  of  reasoning  (p.164) and  Tao  Tang  not  mean t o  "demean" t h e  But  these  two  lines  d i s a p p o i n t m e n t , be fact  that  less  f o l l o w them.  reveal faith b)  The  people  more o f  Xin  i s not  while  the  do  convey  little  Xin's  adverb  inner  by  of  his  the  In  the  t h e Tune o f Hexin  I' m not  I only  Liu  a t t e n t i o n to  disgust  these at  his  no  Sifen does  ancients. of  applicability  deep  or  the  them much lines previous  teachings. "shichu  /^uo  " gives  line  flavor.  following ci,  he  proudly  it:  To  the  (p.239) .  sense  a b i t embarrassed at d i s p l a y i n g h i s  drunk.  of  Certainly Xin  teachings  of  they are  people  i s followed  (p.198).  point  teachings  More i m p o r t a n t l y ,  i n these antique  colloquial  by  i t in their pay  four a c o l l o q u i a l 6.  upheld  the  the  applicability. are  reason  on  Lang  s o r r y t h a t I don't see  r e g r e t that the  ancients  the  ancients,  silliness proclaims  171  The  description  o f t h e hand g e s t u r e i s e q u a l l y  another Xin's  ci:  To t h e Tune o f  Shuilong  "I've  slapping  m  Yin  %J  the r a i l  repeatedly."  X i a Chengtao,  this  i n their  " FA. $  Shu  does  commentaries,  a n d Xue a l l agree  that  "pushing" gesture i n d i c a t e s Xin's stubbornness.  comments t h a t  Er  p.28)  Zhang B i p o , L i u S i f e n  X i a Chengtao  line  {JXC,  n  t  Xiangsheng,  b)  vivid i n  e y e d t h e Hook o f Wu,  ih k  a)  p.313).  (JXC,  h a d n e v e r s e e n my a n t i c s . "  -1-  in his line  not exist  edition.  Song  eight  ^V- ^ |^(J  Tang  #  Ci  Xinshang  (p.107)  i s a paraphrase of  •' i)  i n the "Biography of  " i n t h e Han Shu. i n t h e Han  this  Shu,  But t h i s Zhonghua  line Shuju  172  c)  Liu Tiren  and  ( Q i n g ) i n h i s Qisong  criticized  this  as  substance of a c i poet.  Tang Ciyi  not  being  the  its  narrative  diction 9.  The  Xin's  style,  drunkenness, as  and d r a m a t i c  sad.  o f Zheng R u x i e  m e n t i o n e d by X i n i n t h e p r e f a c e o f a n o t h e r  ci  p.117).  a)  ZZJJ,  F o r a more d e t a i l e d b i o g r a p h y o f Z h e n g ,  Xianzhi,  10/522-523.  7/27/182.  Zhuang Z i u s e d  this  term t o d e s c r i b e those  harmonize a l l t h i n g s . 1968,  Watson's t r a n s l a t i o n  b)  Huang  (Watson,  after  I harmonize a l l t h i n g s i n the Heavenly  Equality, leave to their live  who  p.303):  " W i t h t h e s e g o b l e t w o r d s t h a t come f o r t h day day,  to  admitted, i t s  whom was (JXC,  But  i n addition  L i u himself  i s c o l l o q u i a l , w i t t y , and  name Zhe'an i s t h e z i "-J-  s e e Qingtian  10.  of  the  natural  See L i u T i r e n , J u a n 2.  t h i s c i i s not o n l y unique i n i t s v i v i d presentation  likened  o u t my  so  years."  Tingjian  harmonized  e n d l e s s c h a n g e s , and  (heqi  also 7f°  used |^  the  term  ) " i n one  "congenial  or  o f h i s poems  173 titled  "Xie Da Wenshan  %«7  f u A i.£ "} "•  -  Erxiong S  e  e  T a n  9  Ju  J& ffjj  Xuan,  .1982,  Jiujue S o n  9  c  i  p.321.  "The j o l l y in  elder brother  the w i n e - b o t t l e laughing a t you people,  % t  <% 11 %  «  I'm a s h a r m o n i z i n g  A 11.  a)  (wine)  A  P  as t h ethree s p r i n g s . "  I I *• ^  h  X i n e x t r a c t s t h e t w o c h a r a c t e r s "ran 9^, ''J  " from  ZZJJ,  this  " a n d "ke  p a s s a g e i n t h e Zhuang  Zi.  See  7/27/182.  Watson's t r a n s l a t i o n  (Watson, 1968, p . 3 0 4 ) :  "What makes them s o ? M a k i n g them s o makes them s o .  h i  E,  ¥,  ii %  What makes t h e m n o t s o ?  M a k i n g them  n o t s o makes  them n o t s o .  ,1- f * 8. . f 8, * f £ What makes them a c c e p t a b l e ? makes them a c c e p t a b l e .  ^ f 1  1 iM  M a k i n g them  acceptable  174  What m a k e s  them n o t a c c e p t a b l e ?  Making  them  not  a c c e p t a b l e makes them n o t a c c e p t a b l e .  By  b)  repeating  these  two  characters  in line  emphasizes the repeated  a c t i o n s of  agreeing.  The s e c o n d p a r t o f l i n e  two comes f r o m a l i n e J4_ ^  o f Huang T i n g j i a n ' s  ( s e e Huang G o n g z h u ' s Huang  "Saying  'good'  The  Sima  chapter  The  terms  passage Shu,  "The  ti i  refers  "Yanyu  "huaji"  5  and  i n the chapter  92/3713:  silly  siphon,  Shanju  4.  ^)  Shi  1  to ^  "Ciyun  ^  ^(  p.85):  to everything i s the Master  11 4  i n one  poem t i t l e d  Y o u g a n ^ ' - | | -ft  Rendao s h i L i z h i  two, X i n  Sima"  k 'i>  Sima  Hui  f&j %%)L  " i n t h e Shishuo  "chiyi" " J i u Zhen  refer  to  *  n  t  h  e  Xinyu.  the  following  " i n the  Han  175 h a s a n abdomen a s b i g a s t h e p o t . "  The  chiyi  also  has a very  flexible  capacity  f o r wine.  I t ' s body e x p a n d s when more w i n e i s p o u r e d i n .  13.  L i Shizhen,  Bencao  Wangmu,  (Beijing,  Renmin  Weishen  Chubanshe, 1982), 12/691. Ganguolao migan  ^  lucao  ||  i s "gancao , micao ^  Apparently "guolao" Li  "• ^  ^  , lingtong  Shizhen's  / meicao  ^  X i n combines  together,  I t h a s s i x o t h e r names:  calling  annotation,  ^- Jp  , guolao  ,  ^  t h e two names  £  "gancao"  i t "ganguolao".  According to  t h e name "guolao",  "supreme m a s t e r " d e r i v e s f r o m i t s a b i l i t y  meaning t h e t o combine  other medicine, g i v i n g a harmonized p h y s i o l o g i c a l 14.  a)  T h e s e two c h a r a c t e r s a d d some c o l l o q u i a l  b)  The name "Qinji satirical  S  i  ( c i ge flavor  Liao  ijr|^ j f ]  with  effect.  ) i n line s i x  t o t h e poem,  jjj* % j  " i s a title  poem w r i t t e n by B a i J u y i  (772-846)  •  These l i n e s d e p i c t i n g  and  t h e Qinji  " I t s ear i s smart, i t s heart i s wise, i t s tongue t i p i s ingenious;  Liao:  of a  176  I t knows t h e l a n g u a g e o f b o t h men  For  the  Bai  Juyi  Vol.  1,  In h i s essay, projecting  26,  Ji,  b i r d s II  v e r s i o n o f t h i s poem, s e e (Beijing:  Zhonghua  Gu  Xuejie,  Shuju,  1979),  p.89.  Guo  observed  t h a t X i n was  h i m s e l f v i a an o b j e c t ).  Jikan  entire  and  See  (1980):  Guo 29.  Youyu The  (jiewu  quite s k i l l f u l yongwo  i n Zhongshan  examples of X i n ' s fondness of u s i n g  'fjg T)\  Xueshu  f o l l o w i n g s are  just  "Of a l l t h o s e s e a g u l l s and e g r e t s w h i c h h a v e a c o v e n a n t w i t h me, A f t e r today's sworn o a t h , we s h o u l d n o t be d i s t r u s t f u l o f e a c h o t h e r . "  X i n a l s o w r o t e one II  c i f o r the e g r e t s :  W h i t e e g r e t s by t h e c r e e k , Come, I w i l l t e l l y o u :  Wenhua a  personification:  Where i s t h e w h i t e c r a n e ? T r y t o b r i n g him a l o n g " (JXC,  p 89) .  in  few  177 T h e r e a r e o n l y a few f i s h i n t h e c r e e k , Y o u r m a s t e r l o v e s y o u and You s h o u l d l o v e t h e f i s h . You s h o u l d l i v e i n harmony w i t h o t h e r s . " P.460).  (in of  Jiangsu).  Jin  Shu,  Juan  There  i s a  He was  a native  the present  province  biography  of  Xinyu,  L i n g was  r e c k l e s s and d i s s o l u t e , a n d  the  universe  too c o n f i n i n g .  so  He  used  a  spade  on  t h a t when he  died  t h e man He  s o much e a r t h and wood, and  his  life.  whole  World,  Press,  character  deadly poison  ( S e e SSXY, 4/196.  s e e M a t h e r , A New (Minneapolis:  He  had  a  following  could  body l i k e  translation,  The  to ride i n a  h i s shoulder  t h e e a r t h and b u r y h i m on t h e s p o t .  the  the  considered  c a r t c a r r y i n g a pot of wine.  carrying  behind,  in  i t says:  "Liu  deer-drawn  17.  him  48.  I n t h e Shishuo  man  (JXC,  dig in  treated his roamed  about  For the E n g l i s h  Account  of  U n i v e r s i t y of  Tales  of  Minnesota  1976), p.128.  "zhen called  i s soaked i n wine.  <)(jh "zhen  " i s a magpie which produced du  a  " when i t s f e a t h e r  178  Line  s i x a l s o r e f e r s t o t h i s passage  i n t h e L i Sao.  Hawkes' t r a n s l a t i o n (Hawkes, 1 9 6 2 , p . 3 0 ) :  " I s e n t o f f t h e m a g p i e t o p a y my c o u r t  4 t% h it ?  4 But  18.  a)  to her,  t h e m a g p i e t o l d me t h a t my s u i t h a d gone  Since it  Xin clearly  i s possible  line  eight  r e f e r s t o t h e L i Sao  that  also  the term  refers  amiss"  i n line six,  "chengyan  to this  jfy «  passage  " in  i n the L i  Sao. Hawkes' t r a n s l a t i o n (Hawkes, 1 9 6 2 , p . 2 3 ) :  "There  once  frankness,  *D  But  was  %  a time  when  TU  1 <*p  can a l s o  is quite  v  ,"  with  me i n  £ ft 1 1  means  c l e a r that  mind"  A fa  Hawkes a d o p t s a more l i t e r a l  B  spoke  t h e n he r e p e n t e d a n d was o f a n o t h e r  ft  term  he  t r a n s l a t i o n here.  "covenant" by u s i n g  Xin establishes  a  o r "agreement."  the term  "chengyan  parallel  between  This It  the  179 relationship h i m s e l f and also  b e t w e e n Qu  Yuan and  the wine-glass.  By  his  using  subtly implies his relationship  glass  i s based  on  loyalty,  emperor,  and  t h i s term,  Xin  with  like  the  this  term  the  wine-  loyalty  of  s u b j e c t t o emperor. Deng G u a n g m i n g from  the  since  b)  Zuo  comments  Zhuan  there  is  £  no  that ^  (JXC,  reference  throughout  the  interprete  t h i s l i n e with reference  The  entire  " -fc jj  l a s t phrase  this  l i n e contains  following f«\  sentence  and  expose  his  %  p.286).  But  the  Zuo  t o t h e Li  ||  Zhuan  first  to  Sao.  %L  " in  five characters  i n the chapter  "Xian  of  the  Wen  Yu:  Legge's t r a n s l a t i o n I have s t i l l  comes  i t i s more a p p r o p r i a t e  \%  the  " i n t h e Lun  "But  ci,  to  also  ( L e g g e , 1962,  p.212):  power enough l e f t corpse  in  the  to cut Liao o f f ,  market  and  in  the  court."  In  the  expose place  Lun  Yu,  a  corpse  or  court.  the meaning o f  19.  Ban  Gu,  Han  the  Shu  character (after  Buzhu,  " means  execution)  Here, Xin  " t o put  "si  uses  in  this  the  to  market  character  in  forth."  (Taibei:  Xin  Wengeng  Chuban  180  20.  Gongsi, 1975),  50/1073.  Xinn's resolve  to quit drinking  the  preface  drinking  pals,  come b a c k . 21.  The  of  heavy d r i n k i n g  To  1  JXC,  c i best (JXC,  the  company  Who  Er  U  will  p i t y me?  Then I w i l l  4  Putting  d e s c r i b e s the  ®%  j l 7u  *  %  reason  Who 7  At the s i d e of  Xin's  sky.  will  pity  me?  % ^ m %?  t a k e s o r r o w and make i t i n t o a  by  for  (7/1206)  a l l t h e m y r i a d t h i n g s o f p a s t and  them  to  £  *[ # * i * | Place  his  p.474):  *  3  of  the wine-glass  L a t e l y , s o r r o w has b e e n a s b i g a s t h e  % wj n  5  In  in  p.287.  t h e Tune o f Chounu  ft 2  c i.  X i n , once a g a i n i n v i t e s  See  following  another  c r u m b l e s , as i n d i c a t e d  sorrow's  present,  I side;  by  sorrow's  sorrow.  II A & it.  sky.  & &  1  side.  181 6  And I w i l l move my home t o t h e Wine F o u n t a i n .  if i 22.  ZZJJ,  23.  The l a s t  *}  t  8/29/194-202. phrase  i n the l a s t  f r o m Tao Y u a n m i n g ' s For  &  a  full  Yuanming  version  Ji  line  i s a verbatim quotation  ( 3 6 5 - 4 2 7 ) "Ze Z i S h i "J| -J- f r j of  Jiaoqian,  this  poem, s e e Y a n g  (Xianggang:  Wuxing  Yong,  ". Tao  J i Shuju,  1971), p.178. Hightower's t r a n s l a t i o n "If  this  i s t h e way i t i s f a t e d t o be  J u s t l e t me  reach f o r the thing  A  i Lo's  ( H i g h t o w e r , 1 9 7 0 , p.178) i s :  «•  translation  t  n  of the l a s t  i n the cup."  verbatim phrase  (Lo, 1971,  p.121): "Then l e t me p a r t a k e o f t h i s  24.  Zhonghua Shuo  t h i n g w i t h i n t h e cup."  Wenhua F u x i n g Y u n d o n g  Yuan  Jin  Yinshuguan,  Zhu  Jin  Yi,  Tuixing  (Taibei:  Weiyuanhui Taiwan  ed.,  Shangwu  1977), 10/317-318.  25.  SSXY, 2 5 / 6 0 2 .  26.  The  Three  are  Jiuxian  Mountains  are i n the Fujian , Minshan  ^  J,;  province. , and  They  Yuewang  Mi-27.  Liao  Deming  e d . , Tiaoxi  Yuyin  Conghua  Qianji,  Wu  Zai  182 compiled,  (Beijing:  Renmin  Wenxue C h u b a n s h e ,  1981),  42/287. T h i s was 28.  an i n c i d e n t  r e c i t e d by Su Dungpo.  Xin's unhappiness during be  seen  period "You  i n the  h i s time i n retirement  following  lines,  written  can  also  i n the  same  (1192-1194):  l o o k a t S c h o l a r Zhuang, the u n f e t t e r e d ,  •% h Even  $  4  facing  £  %  the mountain, f o r e s t ,  Sorrow and p.257).  happiness hardly  i  t i  %&  f i e l d , and  h a v e l e f t h i s bosom."  T h i s p h r a s e comes f r o m t h e c h a p t e r " K n o w l e d g e in  the North  Zi  (See ZZJJ,  For  (Zhibei  You  Modern  t r a n s l a t i o n , see Watson, 1968,  Worcester, Essays  (Princeton:  Zhuang  6/145).  the E n g l i s h  David  (JXC,  Wandering  ) i n the  "The m o u n t a i n s and f o r e s t , t h e h i l l s f i l l s us w i t h o v e r f l o w i n g d e l i g h t joyful. Our j o y h a s b e e n e n d e d comes t r a i l i n g i t . We h a v e no way a r r i v a l o f g r i e f a n d j o y , no way them f r o m d e p a r t u r e . . . " 29.  hills,  in  "From  the  Art  Criticism,  Princeton-Hall,  of  p.247:  and f i e l d s a n d we a r e when g r i e f t o bar the to prevent  Satire",  Ronald  Satire:  Paulson  I n c . , 1 9 7 1 ) , p.118.  ed.,  es:  Conclusion  Ku S u i , " I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Su T u n g - p ' o ' s Tz'u," Without  Music:  Chinese  Chinese U n i v e r s i t y  Tz'u  Press,  Poetry.  i n Song  (Hong K o n g :  1980), pp.173-174.  The  184  BIBLIOGRAPHY  A.  Ban,  Chinese  Gu  References  (32-92)  Annotated  y}i by  Yan  S h u j u , 1962,  . Yan  Han  Shigu  if]  and  Yijiang Qiji  and  Buzhu  . ^  .  ^  Jiaxuan  ^  ^  Beijing:  t  , 100  ^  -|  3-X ,  ^  %  ffc  1$}  Juan.  Zhonghua  Juan. .  Notes  by  Taibei:  Xin  .  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