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Low-income public housing in Hong Kong and Singapore 1950-1980 : a comparative analysis Shen, Qing 1986

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LOW-INCOME PUBLIC HOUSING IN HONG KONG AND SINGAPORE 1950 - 1980: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS by QING SHEN B.S., Z h e j i a n g U n i v e r s i t y (P. R. C h i n a ) , 1982 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA O c t o b e r 1986 © Q i n g Shen, 1986 9 5 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department or by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date DE-6 n/R-n i i ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s d i s c u s s e s t h e r o l e o f u r b a n low-income h o u s i n g i n t h e p r o c e s s o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t o f d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s and examines t h e ways i n w h i c h government h o u s i n g p o l i c y and h o u s i n g p l a n n i n g c a n c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f u r b a n low-income h o u s i n g i n t h e s e c o u n t r i e s . The s t u d y f o c u s e s on low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g , and i s c o n d u c t e d t h r o u g h a c r i t i c a l and c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e between 1950 and 1980. To u n d e r s t a n d t h e r o l e o f u r b a n low-income h o u s i n g , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o e x p l o r e t h e n a t u r e of h o u s i n g . T h r e e a s p e c t s of t h e n a t u r e a r e d e f i n e d : ( i ) h o u s i n g as a b a s i c human need; ( i i ) h o u s i n g as an economic a c t i v i t y ; and ( i i i ) h o u s i n g as a major component o f t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t . W h i l e t h e p r o b l e m o f h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e i s d e e p l y r o o t e d i n t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c i r c u m s t a n c e s of d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , t h e n a t u r e of h o u s i n g s u g g e s t s t h a t h o u s i n g p l a y s a dynamic r o l e i n t h e p r o c e s s o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s e c o u n t r i e s . Government h o u s i n g p o l i c y and h o u s i n g p l a n n i n g a r e t h e r e f o r e c r i t i c a l f a c t o r s i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f h o u s i n g . The i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s t h a t g u i d e t h i s c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g programs i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e a r e : ( i ) What were t h e p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , and e c o n o m i c c i r c u m s t a n c e s f o r t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s ? ( i i ) How d i d Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e o r g a n i z e , f i n a n c e , and a d m i n i s t e r low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , s u b s i d i z e and d i s t r i b u t e p u b l i c h o u s i n g u n i t s ? ( i i i ) How d i d p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e p o l i c y g o a l s f o r t h e low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g ? ( i v ) What was t h e s o c i o -e c onomic e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s ? The a s s u m p t i o n s f o r t h e a n a l y s i s a r e t h a t h o u s i n g p l a y e d a dynamic r o l e i n t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e two u r b a n -s t a t e s ; t h a t f i n a n c i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m e asures were major d e t e r m i n a n t s of t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e s o c i a l g o a l s f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r ograms; and t h a t t h e e c o n o m i c r e s o u r c e s f o r low-income h o u s i n g were c o n s t r a i n e d by t h e d e v e l o p i n g economy and t h e s o c i a l s y s t e m of Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e . P l a n n i n g and d e s i g n were t h e r e f o r e c r i t i c a l t o a c h i e v e low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s t h a t have t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f l a r g e s c a l e , low r e n t s , r e a s o n a b l e q u a l i t y and a c c e s s i b i l i t y . One a d d i t i o n a l a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e s h a r e d b o t h s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , and e conomic b a c k g r o u n d s f o r low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g , b o t h o f w h i c h were r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r h o u s i n g p o l i c y and p l a n n i n g . W h i l s t t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y i s t o e x p l o r e g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s f o r low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s i s a p u r p o s e of o f t h e s t u d y , i t i s a l s o t h e i n t e n t i o n t o e m p h a s i z e t h a t e a c h c o u n t r y s h o u l d d e t e r m i n e i t s h o u s i n g p o l i c y and h o u s i n g p l a n n i n g b a s e d on i t s own s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c i r c u m s t a n c e s . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t i c e t h a t t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s i v a r e r e f l e c t e d i n t h e d i f f e r e n t p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n measures i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e , i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e d i f f e r e n t d e s i g n s t a n d a r d s t h e y a d o p t e d . Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e a r e two o f t h e few d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s i n t h e w o r l d w h i c h have a c h i e v e d s u c c e s s i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g p o l i c i e s and p r o g r a m s . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t c o u n t r i e s and c i t i e s w i t h c o m p a r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s l e a r n from t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e . As an e f f o r t t o w a r d s s u c h l e a r n i n g , S h a n g h a i , t h e l a r g e s t and most d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d i n d u s t r i a l and c o m m e r c i a l c e n t r e i n C h i n a , i s a n a l y z e d i n t h e l a s t c h a p t e r a s a c o m p a r a b l e c a s e . V TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i L i s t o f T a b l e s v i i L i s t o f F i g u r e s v i i i A cknowledgement i x CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 The H o u s i n g P r o b l e m i n t h e C i t i e s o f D e v e l o p i n g C o u n t r i e s 1 1.2 H o u s i n g , H o u s i n g P o l i c y and P l a n n i n g i n t h e P r o c e s s o f S o c i o - E c o n o m i c Development i n D e v e l o p i n g C o u n t r i e s 6 1.3 P u r p o s e and Scope of t h e S t u d y 10 CHAPTER 2. THE INITIATION OF PUBLIC HOUSING IN HONG AND SINGAPORE 14 2.1 H i s t o r i c and G e o g r a p h i c B a c k g r o u n d 15 2.2 The S o c i o - E c o n o m i c S i t u a t i o n a nd H o u s i n g P r o b l e m P r i o r t o t h e I n i t i a t i o n o f L a r g e S c a l e P u b l i c H o u s i n g Programs 22 2.3 The I n i t i a t i o n of Low-Income P u b l i c H o u s i n g Programs 31 2.4 The S o c i o - E c o n o m i c Dynamics o f t h e Low-Income P u b l i c H o u s i n g Programs i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e ....35 CHAPTER 3. ADMINISTRATION AND FINANCE OF PUBLIC HOUSING IN HONG KONG AND SINGAPORE 44 3.1 The A d m i n i s t r a t i v e O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r P u b l i c H o u s i n g ....44 3.2 F i n a n c e of P u b l i c H o u s i n g Programs 57 3.3 The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f P u b l i c H o u s i n g 62 v i CHAPTER 4. PLANNING AND DESIGN OF THE LOW-INCOME PUBLIC HOUSING IN HONG KONG AND SINGAPORE 66 4.1 The F u n c t i o n o f P L a n n i n g and D e s i g n 66 4.2 S q u a t t e r C l e a r a n c e and Complementary Low-Income P u b l i c H o u s i n g Programs 68 4.3 H i g h - R i s e and H i g h - D e n s i t y P u b l i c H o u s i n g 75 4.4 Low D e s i g n S t a n d a r d s f o r P u b l i c H o u s i n g 81 4.5 S p a t i a l E x p a n s i o n o f P u b l i c H o u s i n g Programs 89 CHAPTER 5. THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC EFFECTIVENESS OF THE LOW-INCOME PUBLIC HOUSING PROGRAMS IN HONG KONG AND SINGAPORE 98 5.1 The Impact of P u b l i c H o u s i n g Programs on t h e P r o v i s i o n o f H o u s i n g 100 5.2 Rent and A f f o r d a b i l i t y of P u b l i c H o u s i n g U n i t s 104 5.3 The Impact of t h e Low-Income P u b l i c H o u s i n g on t h e P h y s i c a l C o n d i t i o n o f t h e R e s i d e n t s 109 5.4 The L o c a t i o n o f P u b l i c H o u s i n g E s t a t e s 115 5.5 An A s s e s s m e n t of t h e S o c i a l E f f e c t o f t h e Low-Income P u b l i c H o u s i n g Programs i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e ...120 CHAPTER 6. LESSONS FOR COMPARABLE CONDITIONS 124 6.1 S h a n g h a i a s a Comp a r a b l e C i t y 124 6.2 P e r s p e c t i v e s on t h e P o l i c y and P l a n n i n g f o r P u b l i c H o u s i n g i n S h a n g h a i 130 BIBLIOGRAPHY 137 v i i L I S T OF TABLES T a b l e 3.1 P u b l i c H o u s i n g I n v e s t m e n t i n Hong Kong 61 T a b l e 3.2 P u b l i c H o u s i n g I n v e s t m e n t i n S i n g a p o r e 62 T a b l e 4.1 F e a t u r e s o f R e s e t t l e m e n t E s t a t e s i n Hong Kong 79 T a b l e 4.2 C o m p a r a t i v e F l a t D e s i g n S t a n d a r d s : Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e 88 T a b l e 4.3 C o m p a r a t i v e B l o c k D e s i g n S t a n d a r d s f o r F l a t s : Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e 88 T a b l e 4.4 New Towns i n S i n g a p o r e 94 T a b l e 5.1 S q u a t t e r P o p u l a t i o n i n Hong Kong 102 T a b l e 5.2 P u b l i c H o u s i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n and S q u a t t e r C l e a r a n c e i n S i n g a p o r e 104 T a b l e 5.3 T y p i c a l R e n t s o f P u b l i c H o u s i n g i n Hong Kong 106 T a b l e 5.4 Income and R e n t a l i n S i x A s i a n C o u n t r i e s , 1973 ...107 T a b l e 5.5 Number o f H o u s e h o l d s P e r L i v i n g Q u a r t e r by Type i n Hong Kong (1971) 112 T a b l e 5.6 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e R e s i d e n t i a l C o n d i t i o n s i n P u b l i c H o u s i n g E s t a t e s w i t h P a s t R e s i d e n t i a l C o n d i t i o n s 114 v i i i L I S T OF FIGURES F i g u r e 2.1 The S e t t i n g o f Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e 16 F i g u r e 2.2 Hong Kong 17 F i g u r e 2.3 S i n g a p o r e 20 F i g u r e 4.1 The L o c a t i o n o f S q u a t t e r A r e a s i n Hong Kong 70 F i g u r e 4.2 R e s e t t l e m e n t B l o c k s f o r t h e Shek K i p Mei F i r e V i c t i m s 78 F i g u r e 4.3 R e s e t t l e m e n t H o u s i n g i n Hong Kong: Mark I 83 F i g u r e 4.4 R e s e t t l e m e n t H o u s i n g i n Hong Kong: Mark I I 83 F i g u r e 4.5 R e s e t t l e m e n t H o u s i n g i n Hong Kong: Mark I I I 84 F i g u r e 4.6 R e s e t t l e m e n t H o u s i n g i n Hong Kong: Mark IV 84 F i g u r e 4.7 T y p e s o f P u b l i c H o u s i n g i n S i n g a p o r e 87 F i g u r e 4.8 New Towns i n Hong Kong •. 92 F i g u r e 4.9 New Towns i n S i n g a p o r e 93 F i g u r e 5.1 L o c a t i o n o f P u b l i c H o u s i n g i n Hong Kong 117 i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I w i s h t o e x t e n d my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o my s u p e r v i s o r s , P r o f e s s o r Brahm Wiesman and P r o f e s s o r P e t e r O b e r l a n d e r f o r t h e i r g u i d a n c e and e n c o u r a g e m e n t . I am p a r t i c u l a r l y i n d e b t e d t o P r o f e s s o r Wiesman who has g e n e r o u s l y c o n t r i b u t e d so much t i m e and i d e a s i n h e l p i n g me a c c o m p l i s h my s t u d y a t UBC s u c c e s s f u l l y . I a l s o w i s h t o th a n k P r o f e s s o r T e r r y McGee f o r h i s a d v i c e . A s p e c i a l word of t h a n k s i s a l s o due t o my p a r e n t s and s i s t e r i n C h i n a f o r t h e i r m o r a l and s p i r i t u a l s u p p o r t d u r i n g t h e p a s t two y e a r s o f s t u d y . F i n a l l y , my s p e c i a l g r a t i t u d e goes t o t h e government of t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a f o r s p o n s o r i n g my g r a d u a t e s t u d i e s a t UBC. 1 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 H o u s i n g P r o b l e m s i n t h e C i t i e s o f D e v e l o p i n g C o u n t r i e s H o u s i n g p r o b l e m s a r e u n i v e r s a l . They a r e e v i d e n t i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l l y most d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s s u c h a s t h e USA and Canada as w e l l a s i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s o f A f r i c a and A s i a . The p r o b l e m o f t h e s h o r t a g e o f h o u s i n g p e r s i s t s , and t h e r e f o r e , t h e p r o v i s i o n o f h o u s i n g s t a n d s as a c h a l l e n g i n g a r e a f o r government p o l i c y - m a k i n g i n v i r t u a l l y e v e r y c o u n t r y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e s e v e r i t y of t h e h o u s i n g p r o b l e m v a r i e s from p l a c e t o p l a c e , w i t h t h e g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t t h e c i t i e s i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , 1 e s p e c i a l l y t h e b i g c i t i e s , have t h e w o r s t h o u s i n g p r o b l e m . In many o f t h e s e c i t i e s , o n l y a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f h o u s e h o l d s c an a f f o r d h o u s i n g b u i l t by t h e p r i v a t e h o u s i n g s e c t o r and, as a c o n s e q u e n c e , a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of t h e u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n , i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e p o o r , have t o c h o o s e t o l i v e i n s q u a t t e r and slum a r e a s as a p a r t o f t h e i r s t r a t e g i e s f o r s u r v i v a l . S u c h an o b s e r v a t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e h o u s i n g p r o b l e m i s r e l a t e d t o a number o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s . F i r s t , i t i s r e l a t e d t o economic c a p a b i l i t y , r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e match between p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of human a b i l i t y i n m o b i l i z i n g and u t i l i s i n g r e s o u r c e s . S e c o n d l y , i t i s r e l a t e d t o 'In t h i s s t u d y , t h e c o n c e p t " d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s " i n d i c a t e t h e c o u n t r i e s w h i c h a r e n e i t h e r i n d u s t r i a l l y d e v e l o p e d c a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r i e s nor d e v e l o p e d s o c i a l i s t c o u n t r i e s . 2 t h e p a t t e r n o f income d i s t r i b u t i o n , w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h e s o c i a l p a t t e r n o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e m o b i l i z e d r e s o u r c e s . T h i r d l y , i t i s r e l a t e d t o t h e p a t t e r n o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f human s e t t l e m e n t s , w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s t h e s p a t i a l p a t t e r n o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s e m o b i l i z e d r e s o u r c e s . The s o c i o - e c o n o m i c r e a l i t y i n most d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e m i s - m a t c h between p o p u l a t i o n and r e s o u r c e s , enormous d i s p a r i t y i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f income and w e a l t h , and t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n i n c i t i e s . The u r b a n i z a t i o n p r o c e s s i n t h e s e c o u n t r i e s , w i t h a l l i t s p r o b l e m s , r e p r e s e n t s s u c h a s o c i o - e c o n o m i c r e a l i t y . In t h e m a j o r i t y o f d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , t h e r a t e o f p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h i s h i g h w h i l s t t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e economy i s r e l a t i v e l y s l o w . S t a t i s t i c s i n 1978 show t h a t d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s c o n s t i t u e d 69.8% of t h e w o r l d ' s t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n but g e n e r a t e d o n l y 16.5% o f i t s GNP ( W o r l d Bank A t l a s , 1978). T h i s m i s - m a t c h i s one of t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e g e n e r a l p o v e r t y i n t h e s e c o u n t r i e s , r e p r e s e n t e d i n economic terms by low GNP p e r c a p i t a . The m i s - m a t c h has a l s o c a u s e d t h e m i s -match between l a b o u r s u p p l y and l a b o u r demand, and has r e s u l t e d i n a h i g h r a t e of underemployment and unemployment. Under s u c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s , i t i s v i r t u a l l y not p o s s i b l e f o r t h e s e c o u n t r i e s t o f i n d s u f f i c i e n t r e s o u r c e s t o s a t i s f y t h e v a r i o u s needs of t h e p o p u l a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g t h e need f o r h o u s i n g . I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, t h e n e g a t i v e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e m i s - m a t c h between p o p u l a t i o n and r e s o u r c e s have not had a s i g n i f i c a n t i mpact on t h e p a t t e r n of 3 p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h . D e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s c o n t i n u e t h e i r g e n e r a l l y low r a t e s of p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h , a r o u n d one p e r c e n t , w h i l s t h i g h r a t e s o f p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h , two t o t h r e e p e r c e n t o r more, p e r s i s t i n most d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . O n l y a few d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s have r e l a t i v e l y low r a t e s o f p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h , i n c l u d i n g C h i n a , Cuba, E t h i o p i a , Lebanon, Y u g o s l a v i a . W h i l e P a k i s t a n , B a n g l a d e s h and A f g a n i s t a n , t h e f a s t e s t g r o w i n g c o u n t r i e s i n A s i a , a r e among t h e w o r l d ' s p o o r e s t ( W o r l d Bank A t l a s 1985). The d i s p a r i t y i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f income and w e a l t h i s c u r r e n t l y a u n i v e r s a l phenomenon. Such a p a t t e r n o f d i s t r i b u t i o n i s t h e u n d e r l y i n g r e a s o n f o r t h e u n i v e r s a l e x i s t e n c e of t h e h o u s i n g p r o b l e m . However, b e c a u s e o f t h e g e n e r a l p o v e r t y i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , t h e d i s p a r i t y i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f income and w e a l t h has r e s u l t e d i n a much h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n l i v i n g i n " a b s o l u t e p o v e r t y " ( L i n n , 1983, p 4 ) . As an example, i n t h e c a p i t a l i s t d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s i n S o u t h e a s t A s i a , t h e t o p q u i n t i l e of t h e p o p u l a t i o n t y p i c a l l y e n j o y 50% o f t h e n a t i o n a l income w h i l e t h e b o t t o m f i f t h r e c e i v e o n l y a b o u t 5-7% ( W o r l d Bank, 1984). I t i s t h e r e f o r e not h a r d t o i m a g i n e t h e l i m i t a t i o n i n t h e p o o r ' s economic s i t u a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r b a s i c n e e d s . The c u r r e n t s p a t i a l p a t t e r n o f t h e b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t , or i n o t h e r words i n v e s t m e n t , i s a c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e s y s t e m o f c a p i t a l i s t e c o n o m i e s . C o n v e n t i o n a l e c o n o m i s t s may a r g u e t h a t t h i s s p a t i a l p a t t e r n o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s i s 4 e c o n o m i c a l l y e f f i c i e n t , b ut i t i s u n d e n i a b l e t h a t i t h a s v a r i o u s n e g a t i v e c o n s e q u e n c e s . U r b a n i z a t i o n has r e s u l t e d i n an i n c r e a s e d c o n c e n t r a t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n and an e x t r e m e l y c o m p l i c a t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p between man and h i s e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t i s d i f f i c u l t t o p l a n . The u r b a n i z a t i o n p r o c e s s i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s i s a p r o c e s s t h a t r e s u l t s i n t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f b o t h w e a l t h and p o v e r t y . On t h e one hand, c i t i e s i n t h e s e c o u n t r i e s a r e t h e p l a c e s where some p e o p l e make t h e i r f o r t u n e s , r e c e i v e t h e b e s t e d u c a t i o n , and e n j o y t h e b e s t s o c i a l a m e n i t i e s . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e l a r g e i n f l u x o f m i g r a n t s , d r i v e n e i t h e r by t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r employment, income, e d u c a t i o n , and o t h e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t i e s o r by t h e l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e r u r a l a r e a i n a b s o r b i n g s u r p l u s l a b o u r and p o p u l a t i o n , a l w a y s s u r p a s s e s i n number . t h e human r e s o u r c e r e q u i r e d by t h e c i t i e s . As a r e s u l t , c i t i e s f a c e s h o r t a g e s i n t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f employment, h o u s i n g , and even f o o d . T h e r e f o r e , t h e h o u s i n g p r o b l e m i n t h e c i t i e s o f t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s i s a p a r t of t h e p r o b l e m r e s u l t i n g from t h e s p a t i a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n of p o v e r t y i n t h e s e c o u n t r i e s . The d i s p a r i t y i n t h e s p a t i a l p a t t e r n o f d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w e a l t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t n o t o n l y a t n a t i o n a l and r e g i o n a l l e v e l s but a l s o a t t h e u r b a n l e v e l . S p a t i a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f s o c i a l g r o u p s and income o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e t y p i c a l phenomena i n m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s . T h i s i n t u r n r e s u l t s i n t h e d i s p a r i t y i n l a n d p r i c e s r e l a t e d t o l o c a t i o n . The p r i c e o f c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d l a n d i s so h i g h t h a t t h e p o o r f i n d i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e f o r them t o s a t i s f y t h e i r b a s i c h o u s i n g needs 5 i n c l u d i n g a c c e s s , t e n u r e , s e r v i c e s , and s h e l t e r , c r e a t i n g a dilemma. As a c o n s e q u e n c e , symptoms of t h e u r b a n h o u s i n g p r o b l e m , i n c l u d e l a n d i n v a s i o n and i l l e g a l s u b d i v i s i o n , o v e r c r o w d i n g , l a c k of s e r v i c e s , p o o r a c c e s s t o employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and r a p i d l y r i s i n g l a n d and h o u s i n g p r i c e s . The above d i s c u s s i o n has r e v e a l e d t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c b a s i s f o r t h e h o u s i n g p r o b l e m i n t h e c i t i e s o f d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , i n d i c a t i n g t h e d i r e c t i o n i n w h i c h t h e government s h o u l d a p p r o a c h s o l u t i o n s . As t h e h o u s i n g p r o b l e m i s d e e p l y r o o t e d i n s o c i o -e c onomic c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t h e s o l u t i o n t o t h e h o u s i n g p r o b l e m i n t h e c i t i e s o f t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s e v e n t u a l l y r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e c o m b i n e d e f f e c t of t h e m i s - m a t c h between p o p u l a t i o n and m o b l i z e d r e s o u r c e s , and t h e d i s p a r i t y i n t h e s o c i a l and t h e s p a t i a l p a t t e r n o f d i s t r i b u t i o n have t o be r e d u c e d t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t even t h e p o o r e s t u r b a n h o u s e h o l d s c a n e a r n s u f f i c i e n t t o meet t h e i r b a s i c n e e d s , i n c l u d i n g h o u s i n g . The m a g n i t u d e o f t h e e f f o r t needed t o a c h i e v e s u c h a g o a l i s o b v i o u s . What t h e government n e e d s t o do i n v o l v e s r e f o r m s i n t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s o c i e t y and improvement i n t h e l e v e l o f p r o d u c t i v i t y o f t h e c o u n t r y . M o r e o v e r , w i t h t h e p e r s i s t e n c e of t h e t r e n d s i n p o p u l a t i o n g r o w th and u r b a n i z a t i o n , i t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t u r b a n c o m m u n i t i e s i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s w i l l have t o a b s o r b c l o s e t o 1 b i l l i o n p e o p l e between 1975 and 2000 ( L i n n , 1983). T h i s w i l l , i n t h e f o r e s e e a b l e f u t u r e , a g g r a v a t e t h e s e v e r i t y o f t h e h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . What s h o u l d t h e g o v e r n m e n t s i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s do, 6 a b o u t t h e c u r r e n t l y h i g h r a t e o f p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h , l i m i t e d e c o n o m i c r e s o u r c e s , and t h e e x i s t i n g s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t r u c t u r e , t o make p r o g r e s s t o w a r d s an i m p r o v e d h o u s i n g s i t u a t i o n ? 1.2 H o u s i n g , H o u s i n g P o l i c y and H o u s i n g P l a n n i n g i n t h e P r o c e s s  o f S o c i o - E c o n o m i c Development i n D e v e l o p i n g C o u n t r i e s 1 The e f f o r t s made by gov e r n m e n t s t o improve t h e h o u s i n g s i t u a t i o n v a r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y from c o u n t r y t o c o u n t r y . Government a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s t h e h o u s i n g p r o b l e m r a n g e s f r o m i n d i f f e r e n c e t o d i r e c t p r o v i s i o n o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g . N e e d l e s s t o say, t h e d i f f e r e n c e r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n t p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m s and economic c a p a b i l i t i e s . At t h e same t i m e , t h e d i f f e r e n c e between c o u n t r i e s w i t h a s i m i l a r p o l i t i c a l and e c o n o m i c s i t u a t i o n s u g g e s t t h a t s u c h d i f f e r e n c e a r e a l s o c o n d i t i o n e d by t h e p r i o r i t y g i v e n t o h o u s i n g i n d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g i e s . C o u n t r i e s a d o p t d i f f e r e n t d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g i e s on t h e b a s i s o f d i f f e r e n t t h e o r i e s o f t h e p r o c e s s o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t , w h i c h p r e s e n t d i v e r s e v i e w s on t h e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between h o u s i n g and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s . I t seems a common b e l i e f among a c a d e m i c s t h a t t h e h o u s i n g p r o b l e m has a c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a c o u n t r y ' s s o c i o - e c o n o m i c r e a l i t y and t h e r e f o r e improvement i n the h o u s i n g s i t u a t i o n 1 T h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s b a s e d on two r e f e r e n c e s : ( i ) U r b a n i s a t i o n ,  H o u s i n g , and t h e Development P r o c e s s ( D r a k a k i s - S m i t h ^ 1981); and ( i i ) " N a t i o n a l and R e g i o n a l D e velopment S t r a t e g i e s : I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r H o u s i n g P o l i c i e s " (Wu, 1979). 7 a c t u a l l y means p r o g r e s s i n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e has n e v e r been agreement on t h e r o l e of h o u s i n g i n t h e h i s t o r i c p r o c e s s o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . E a r l y s t a t e m e n t s t e n d e d t o a d o p t t h e s i m p l e h u m a n i s t s t a n c e t h a t h o u s i n g f o r t h e urba n p o o r was one o f t h e most e f f e c t i v e ways of i m p r o v i n g t h e i r o v e r a l l l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s , v i e w i n g h o u s i n g as an end i n i t s e l f r a t h e r t h a n a means t o t h e b r o a d e r end of e r a d i c a t i n g p o v e r t y . T h i s view has had l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s so t h a t h o u s i n g p r o t a g o n i s t s have t e n d e d t o expand t h e i r arguments t o i n c o r p o r a t e q u a s i - e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l r e a s o n s i n o r d e r t o enhance t h e i r a c c e p t a n c e . On one hand t h e y p u t g r e a t e m p h a s i s on t h e s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s o f l o w - c o s t h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s b e c a u s e o f t h e i r p o t e n t i a l f o r income r e d i s t r i b u t i o n , b e c a u s e t h e y a r e t h o u g h t t o r e d u c e d i s e a s e and d e l i n q u e n c y , and b e c a u s e t h e y may moderate t h e i m p a t i e n c e o f t h e ur b a n p o o r w i t h t h e p e r s i s t e n t i n e q u a l i t i e s of u r b a n l i f e ; on t h e o t h e r hand, t h e y a l s o a r g u e t h a t t h e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h l a b o u r -i n t e n s i t y o f h o u s i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n r e s u l t s i n i n c r e a s e d employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s . An o p p o s i t e p o s i t i o n i s t a k e n by some e c o n o m i s t s , who a r g u e t h a t income r e d i s t r i b u t i o n c a n be more e f f i c i e n t l y a c h i e v e d by methods o t h e r t h a n i n v e s t m e n t i n l o w - c o s t h o u s i n g , and t h a t h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e i s j u s t one o f many p r o b l e m s w h i c h r e s u l t from r a p i d u r b a n g r o w t h . D e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s a r e t h e r e f o r e u r g e d t o i n v e s t i n a r e a s w h i c h o f f e r more t a n g i b l e o r immediate r e t u r n s . The a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t g e n e r a l e conomic g r o w t h w i l l e v e n t u a l l y b r i n g a b o u t improvements i n o t h e r f i e l d s , s u c h a s h o u s i n g . In 8 t h e i r a r guments h o u s i n g i s s e e n a s an u n p r o d u c t i v e s e c t o r of eco n o m i c a c t i v i t y w h i c h a b s o r b s r a t h e r t h a n g e n e r a t e s r e s o u r c e s . The d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g i e s b a s e d on t h i s s c h o o l o f t h o u g h t , w h i c h a r e what Wu c a l l s "macro-economic growth s t r a t e g i e s " , were a d o p t e d by many g o v e r n m e n t s o f t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s a f t e r t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War (Wu, 1979). N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t h a t a narrow f o c u s on ec o n o m i c growth has r e s u l t e d i n a b r o a d p e r m e a t i o n o f b e n i f i t s t h r o u g h o u t s o c i e t y . On t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e t e n d e n c y t o d a t e i s t o w a r d s g r e a t e r income d i s p a r i t y (Wu, 1979). In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e i s no s o l i d e v i d e n c e t o show t h a t s a c r i f i c i n g h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t i n f a v o u r of o t h e r s e c t o r s w i l l r e s u l t i n a h i g h e r r a t e o f economic g r o w t h . Many c o u n t r i e s have begun t o r e a l i z e t h e need t o m o d i f y t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g i e s b e c a u s e of t h e new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of d e v e l o p m e n t i n a b r o a d e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c o n t e x t . As f a r as h o u s i n g i s c o n c e r n e d , t h i s means t h a t a f i r m e r r a t i o n a l f o r h o u s i n g i n v e s t m e n t , h o u s i n g p o l i c y and h o u s i n g p l a n n i n g i s b e i n g s o u g h t . The p o i n t t o be made h e r e i s t h a t t h e new r a t i o n a l s h o u l d be b a s e d on an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l n a t u r e of h o u s i n g . T h e r e a r e e s s e n t i a l l y t h r e e a s p e c t s w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e t h e n a t u r e o f h o u s i n g . F i r s t , h o u s i n g i s a b a s i c human need, w h i c h s u g g e s t s i t s s e r i o u s s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c o n s e q u e n c e s b e c a u s e of t h e i m p o r t a n c e of h o u s i n g t o e v e r y i n d i v i d u a l and t h e f a m i l y . T h e r e f o r e , r a t h e r t h a n a r e s u l t o f d e v e l o p m e n t , h o u s i n g i s a b a s i c component c o n s t i t u t i n g t h e h i s t o r i c p r o c e s s of 9 d e v e l o p m e n t . I t i s t h e r e f o r e i m p e r a t i v e t h a t t h e government makes e v e r y p o s s i b l e e f f o r t t o meet b a s i c h o u s i n g n e e d s . S e c o n d l y , h o u s i n g i s an economic a c t i v i t y , w hich means t h a t h o u s i n g on one hand needs r e s o u r c e s , s u c h as l a n d , c a p i t a l and l a b o u r , and on t h e o t h e r hand, c r e a t e s employment and g e n e r a t e s p r o f i t s . In f a c t h o u s i n g forms p a r t o f t h e c a p i t a l o f a s o c i e t y i n t h e same way as t o o l s , e t c . T h i s has two i m p l i c a t i o n s : ( i ) h o u s i n g makes a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t t h r o u g h j o b c r e a t i o n , p r o f i t s , and s t i m u l a t i o n o f r e l a t e d e c o nomic s e c t o r s ; ( i i ) h o u s i n g p r o v i s i o n i s s u b j e c t t o a c o u n t r y ' s e conomic c a p a b i l i t y f o r i n v e s t m e n t i n i t . The t h i r d a s p e c t of t h e n a t u r e of h o u s i n g i s t h a t h o u s i n g i s a maj o r component o f t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t h o u s i n g c an c o n t r i b u t e t o s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t t h r o u g h i m p r o v i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between man and h i s p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t and t h r o u g h e c o n o m i z i n g on t h e use o f urba n l a n d . To t h i s p o i n t , t h e n e c e s s i t y and b e n e f i t s of h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t has been p r e s e n t e d . Government h o u s i n g p o l i c y and h o u s i n g p l a n n i n g s h o u l d e n s u r e an a d e q u a t e a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s t o t h e h o u s i n g s e c t o r t o g i v e f u l l p l a y t o t h e dynamic f u n c t i o n s o f h o u s i n g . However, b e c a u s e t h e r e s o u r c e s n e e ded f o r h o u s i n g a r e c o n s t r a i n e d by t h e l i m i t e d e c onomic c a p a c i t y o f a d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r y , government h o u s i n g p o l i c y and h o u s i n g p l a n n i n g s h o u l d a l s o e n s u r e an e f f i c i e n t use o f t h e l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s . T h i s means t h a t t h e p r o v i s i o n of l o w - c o s t h o u s i n g f o r t h e p o o r s h o u l d be t h e c e n t r a l p o l i c y o r i e n t a t i o n . 10 The d e f i n i t i o n of "low-income g r o u p " i s r e l a t e d t o t i m e and l o c a t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e i s one f e a t u r e common t o low-income g r o u p s i n a l l c o u n t r i e s , i . e . t h e y do n o t e a r n enough t o be a b l e t o s a t i s f y what a r e c o n s i d e r e d as b a s i c r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r l i f e . As f a r a s h o u s i n g i s c o n c e r n e d , low-income h o u s e h o l d s a r e t h o s e who c a n n o t s a t i f y t h e i r b a s i c h o u s i n g needs by s p e n d i n g a n o r m a l p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e i r income on t h e h o u s i n g m a r k e t . In most c a s e s , t h e y have t o spend more t h a n 20 p e r c e n t o f t h e i r income on r e n t s , i f t h e y want t o have t h e i r b a s i c h o u s i n g needs s a t i s f i e d . I t i s t o t h e s e p e o p l e t h a t t h e government s h o u l d p r o v i d e l o w - c o s t h o u s i n g . The a p p r o a c h e s t a k e n by d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s a r e d i v e r s e . The d i f f e r e n c e s a r e seen a t a l l l e v e l s and a l l a s p e c t s of h o u s i n g p o l i c y and p l a n n i n g . R e s u l t s show t h a t not a l l d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s a r e e q u a l l y s u c c e s s f u l i n i m p r o v i n g h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s , w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h e i m p o r t a n c e f o r t h e s e c o u n t r i e s t o a d j u s t t h e i r a p p r o a c h e s t h r o u g h l e a r n i n g f r o m e a c h o t h e r . 1.3 P u r p o s e and Scope o f t h e S t u d y T h i s s t u d y i s i n t e n d e d t o d i s c u s s t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c r o l e of u r b a n low-income h o u s i n g i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s of d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , and t o examine t h e ways i n w h i c h government h o u s i n g p o l i c y and h o u s i n g p l a n n i n g c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c e f f e c t i v e n e s s of u r b a n low-income h o u s i n g i n t h e s e c o u n t r i e s . The s t u d y f o c u s e s on one a p p r o a c h , i . e . low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g , and i s c o n d u c t e d t h r o u g h a c r i t i c a l and 11 c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e . Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e a r e two of t h e few d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s i n t h e w o r l d w h i c h have p u r s u e d p o l i c i e s o f l a r g e -s c a l e l o w-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s . 1 They a r e f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d a s e x a mples of s u c c e s s f u l p u b l i c h o u s i n g p o l i c i e s and p r o g r a m s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e l i k e l y t h a t c o m p a r a b l e c o u n t r i e s can l e a r n f r o m Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e t h r o u g h u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c b a c k g r o u n d , t h e n a t u r e and t h e p o l i c y o r i e n t a t i o n , t h e p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n , and t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e i r low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s . C o n t r i b u t i n g t o s u c h l e a r n i n g i s t h e g o a l of t h i s s t u d y . Low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g by d e f i n i t i o n has t h r e e e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . F i r s t , i t i s a s o c i a l i n i t i a t i v e r a t h e r t h a n a market i n i t i a t i v e , and has t h e o b j e c t i v e of p r o v i d i n g a d e q u a t e h o u s i n g t o t h e d e s i g n a t e d low-income g r o u p . S e c o n d l y , b e c a u s e i t i s a s o c i a l i n i t i a t i v e , t h e r e n t f o r t h e low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g i s g e a r e d t o t h e income o f t h e r e s i d e n t s . T h i r d l y , as i t s r e s i d e n t s a r e from t h e low-income g r o u p , t h e income from r e n t s u s u a l l y can n o t c o v e r t h e c o s t s of b u i l d i n g . As a c o n s e q u e n c e , low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g u s u a l l y r e s u l t s i n s u b s t a n t i a l d e f i c i t s , w h i c h r e q u i r e s government s u b s i d i e s . 2 What 1Hong Kong an d S i n g a p o r e a r e u s u a l l y i n c l u d e d i n t h e g r o u p o f c o u n t r i e s l a b e l l e d " d e v e l o p i n g " . See McGee, 1971, and L i n n , 1983. 2 N o t e s t a k e n i n P r o f e s s o r O b e r l a n d e r ' s l e c t u r e , 1986. 12 were t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e t h a t l e d t o t h e t o t h e i n i t i a t i o n o f t h e i r low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s ? What were t h e s o c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n s o f t h e h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s and how has t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n e v o l v e d ? How have t h e g o v e r n m e n t s i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e d e s i g n a t e d t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and f i n a n c e s y s t e m s t o d i r e c t t h e s o c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g ? What were t h e m a j o r c o n s t r a i n t s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a c h i e v i n g t h e g o a l of t h e h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s ? How have p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n a c h i e v i n g t h e g o a l s o f t h e low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g ? What have been t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c e f f e c t s o f t h e h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s ? T h e s e a r e t h e q u e s t i o n s w h i c h g u i d e t h e e f f o r t o f t h i s s t u d y . The e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s o f low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n d i c a t e t h a t Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e s h a r e some s i m i l a r i t i e s . By i d e n t i f y i n g t h e s i m i l a r i t y , some b a s i c p r i n c i p l e i n a p p r o a c h i n g low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g may be g e n e r a l i z e d . However, i t s h o u l d be e m p h a s i z e d t h a t t h i s s t u d y i s n o t i n t e n d e d t o a d v o c a t e p u b l i c h o u s i n g as a u n i v e r s a l l y f e a s i b l e a p p r o a c h t o t h e h o u s i n g p r o b l e m i n i n t h e c i t i e s of d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . I t i s r e a l i z e d t h a t Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e as " h i g h income d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s " and " u r b a n - s t a t e s " a r e d i f f e r e n t t h a n most d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . T h e r e f o r e , u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f f l e x i b i l i t y i n h o u s i n g p o l i c y and p l a n n i n g i s c r i t i c a l t o t h o s e c o u n t r i e s t h a t want t o l e a r n f r o m Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e . In an e f f o r t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f f l e x i b i l i t y , i t i s an i n t e n t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y t o i d e n t i f y t h e major d i f f e r e n c e s i n 13 h o u s i n g p o l i c y and h o u s i n g p l a n n i n g between Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e and t o d i s c u s s t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c b a c k g r o u n d l e a d i n g t o t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s , and t h e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e i r p r o g r a m s . The l a s t p a r t o f t h i s s t u d y , w i l l summarise what can be l e a r n e d by c o m p a r a b l e c o u n t r i e s i n c l u d i n g a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of t h e l e s s o n s w h i c h C h i n a c a n l e a r n f r o m t h e p o l i c y and p l a n n i n g f o r l o w-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e . The s t u d y i s b a s e d on d a t a c o l l e c t e d f r o m government p u b l i c a t i o n s and from p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s by v a r i o u s a u t h o r s on l ow-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e as w e l l as on t h e u r b a n h o u s i n g p r o b l e m i n C h i n a . Works by a number o f s c h o l a r s on u r b a n i z a t i o n , h o u s i n g p o l i c y and h o u s i n g p l a n n i n g i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s a r e v a l u a b l e r e f e r e n c e s f o r t h i s s t u d y . In a d d i t i o n , c r i t i c a l comments by UBC f a c u l t y c o n t r i b u t e d many i d e a s f o r t h i s s t u d y . 1 4 CHAPTER 2. THE INITIATION OF PUBLIC HOUSING  IN HONG KONG AND SINGAPORE T h i s c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s why and how a l a r g e s c a l e low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o gram was i n i t i a t e d i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e . I t a n a l y s e s t h e p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l and economic f a c t o r s w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e d t h e b a s i s f o r i n i t i a t i n g p o s i t i v e g o v e r n m e n t a l a t t i t u d e s i n t h e two c i t y - s t a t e s t o w a r d s s o l v i n g t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e h o u s i n g p r o b l e m s . The a n a l y s i s o f t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s i g n i f i c a n c e o f d e v e l o p i n g low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e i s t h e c e n t r a l theme o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n . The p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m i n Hong Kong began i n 1954. B e f o r e t h e n , t h e r e was no t r a d i t i o n of government a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f low-income h o u s i n g . I t i s n o t e a s y t o d e f i n e t h e i n i t i a l d a t e f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o gram i n S i n g a p o r e b e c a u s e t h e S i n g a p o r e Improvement T r u s t , a government o r g a n i z a t i o n i n c h a r g e o f b u i l d i n g p u b l i c h o u s i n g , had been i n e x i s t e n c e s i n c e 1927, l o n g b e f o r e t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h e H o u s i n g D e velopment B o a r d (HDB) i n 1960. N e v e r t h e l e s s , a d e q u a t e h o u s i n g f o r t h e whole p o p u l a t i o n was o n l y an e l u s i v e g o a l b e f o r e t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f HDB, w h i c h marked t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f l a r g e s c a l e p u b l i c h o u s i n g programs d o m i n a t i n g t h e h o u s i n g s e c t o r i n S i n g a p o r e . In t h i s s t u d y 1960 i s t h e r e f o r e t a k e n as t h e y e a r i n w h i c h S i n g a p o r e i n i t i a t e d i t s p r e s e n t p o l i c y f o r low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g . I m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s t o be an s w e r e d a r e : Why i n 1954 d i d t h e government o f Hong Kong change i t s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s h o u s i n g from 15 t r a d i t i o n a l i n d i f f e r e n c e t o p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i n t e r v e n t i o n ? why i n 1960 d i d t h e government of S i n g a p o r e a p p e a r i n t h e h o u s i n g s e c t o r w i t h a new a t t i t u t e and b e g i n t o make a f u n d a m e n t a l improvement i n t h e p r o v i s i o n of low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g ? what were t h e r e s p e c t i v e p o t e n t i a l d y n a m i c s o f low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g w h i c h were f o r e s e e a b l e t o t h e g o v e r n m e n t s ? To answer t h e s e q u e s t i o n s , i t i s n e c e s s o r y t o r e v i e w Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e ' s h i s t o r i c and g e o g r a p h i c b a c k g r o u n d s , t h e i r p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l and economic s i t u a t i o n s i n t h e p o s t - w a r p e r i o d , and t o examine t h e c o n s t r a i n t s on and t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p o s t - w a r d e v e l o p m e n t . 2.1 H i s t o r i c and G e o g r a p h i c B a c k g r o u n d 1 HONG KONG, s i t u a t e d on t h e c o a s t of C h i n a ' s Guangdong P r o v i n c e , has been a B r i t i s h crown c o l o n y s i n c e t h e m i d - l 9 t h c e n t u r y . The t o t a l l a n d a r e a o f Hong Kong i s a b o u t 410 s q u a r e m i l e s (1,062 s q u a r e k i l o m e t r e s ) . The t e r r a i n o f Hong Kong i s m o s t l y h i l l y and i n p l a c e s v e r y s t e e p . O n l y a b o u t 20% of t h e t o t a l l a n d a r e a i s s u i t a b l e f o r c u l t i v a t i o n o r f o r h a b i t a t i o n ( s e e f i g u r e 2.1 & f i g u r e 2 . 2 ) . 1 T h i s r e v i e w i s b a s e d on t h e f a c t s p r o v i d e d by E n c y c l o p e d i a  A m e r i c a n a ( 1 9 8 1 ) ; A c a d e m i c A m e r i c a n E n c y c l o p e d i a ( 1 9 8 2 ) ; The New  E n c y c l o p e d i a B r i t a n n i a ( 1 9 8 5 ) ; A H i s t o r y of Hong Kong ( E n d a c o t t , 1958); H o u s i n g i n Hong Kong ( e d i t o r : Wong, L.S.K., 1978); H o u s i n g i n S i n g a p o r e ( e d i t o r : Yeh, S t e p h e n , 1975). 16 F i g u r e 2.1 - The S e t t i n g of Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e S o u r c e : E n c y c l o p e d i a B r i t a n n i a , 1979. 18 B r i t a i n a c q u i r e d Hong Kong from C h i n a i n t h r e e s t a g e s : Hong Kong i s l a n d was f o r m a l l y c e d e d i n 1842; Kowloon, w h i c h i n c l u d e d t h e t i p of Kowloon p e n i n s u l a and S t o n e c u t t e r s I s l a n d , was n e x t c e d e d i n 1860; and t h e New T e r r i t o r i e s , w h i c h c o m p r i s e d t h e r e s t of t h e Kowloon P e n i n s u l a , t h e r u r a l a r e a s a d j a c e n t t o m a i n l a n d C h i n a and o v e r 200 o f f - s h o r e i s l a n d s , were l e a s e d i n 1898 f o r a p e r i o d of 99 y e a r s . The c o l o n y was a c q u i r e d by B r i t a i n m a i n l y f o r t h e p u r p o s e of t r a d e w i t h C h i n a and t h i s i n t u r n d e t e r m i n e d t h e s p a t i a l p a t t e r n o f d e v e l o p m e n t i n Hong Kong. The major u r b a n a r e a s have been b u i l t on Hong Kong i s l a n d and on Kowloon P e n i n s u l a , e m b r a c i n g t h e V i c t o r i a H a r b o u r , w h i c h i s one o f t h e w o r l d ' s f i n e s t n a t u r a l h a r b o u r s . Hong Kong was s p a r s e l y p o p u l a t e d b e f o r e i t s i n i t i a l o c c u p a t i o n by G r e a t B r i t a i n i n 1841. D u r i n g t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , Hong Kong, w i t h i t s s t r a t e g i c g e o g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n , was d e v e l o p e d as a major e n t r e p o t and d e p o t f o r t r a d e . In 1859, o c e a n - g o i n g s h i p p i n g u s i n g t h e V i c t o r i a H a r b o u r was r e c o r d e d as 2,179 s h i p s o f 1,164,640 t o n s . In 1898, t h e f i g u r e i n c r e a s e d t o 11,058 s h i p s o f 13,252,733 t o n s . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f Hong Kong grew q u i c k l y , r e c o r d e d as 86,941 i n 1859 and 254,400 i n 1898 ( E n d a c o t t , 1958). O t h e r t h a n i t s g r o w i n g f u n c t i o n as a e n t r e p o t and d e p o t f o r t r a d e , t h e g r o w t h of Hong Kong has been c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o many o t h e r f a c t o r s . As t h e main s o u r c e o f p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h of Hong Kong was r e f u g e e s f r o m C h i n a e s c a p i n g from t h e l o n g y e a r s o f war or s e e k i n g b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s , h i s t o r i c e v e n t s s u c h as t h e d i s c o v e r y o f g o l d i n A u s t r a l i a ( 1 8 5 1 ) , t h e o p e n i n g of Suez C a n a l ( 1 8 6 9 ) , t h e f a l l o f 19 t h e C h ' i n g d y n a s t y and t h e c o n s e q u e n t r e v i v a l o f r e g i o n a l w a r l o r d s i n t h e 1910s and 1920s, and t h e J a p a n e s e i n v a s i o n i n 1930s were a l l i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s b e h i n d t h e p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h i n Hong Kong. By 1940, t h e y e a r b e f o r e t h e J a p a n e s e ' o c c u p a t i o n o f Hong Kong, t h e p o p u l a t i o n had r i s e n t o 1.8 m i l l i o n s . The c o l o n y was o c c u p i e d by t h e J a p a n e s e i n December o f 1941. Between 1941 and 1945, t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e o u t w a r d movement t h r o u g h m i g r a t i o n and t h e p o p u l a t i o n f e l l t o a r o u n d 650,000. However, on t h e r e s u m p t i o n o f B r i t i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p e o p l e s t r e a m e d back i n t o Hong Kong. The s u b s e q u e n t c i v i l war i n C h i n a r e s u l t e d i n a f l o o d o f r e f u g e e s g r e a t e r t h a n had e v e r o c c u r e d i n t h e p a s t . By 1951 t h e p o p u l a t i o n had r i s e n t o o v e r 2 m i l l i o n . SINGAPORE, i s an i n d e p e n d e n t n a t i o n i n S o u t h e a s t A s i a . I t i s l o c a t e d o f f t h e s o u t h e r n t i p o f t h e M a l a y P e n i n s u l a , a t t h e c r o s s r o a d s o f t h e I n d i a n and P a c i f i c o c e a n s . T o g e t h e r w i t h i t s 40 t i n y a d j a c e n t i s l e t s , t h e r e p u b l i c o c c u p i e s 226 s q u a r e m i l e s (585 s q u a r e k i l o m e t r e s ) o f t e r r i t o r y . T o p o g r a p h i c a l l y , t h e c o u n t r y i s f l a t and low ( s e e f i g u r e 2.1 & f i g u r e 2 . 3 ) . The modern h i s t o r y o f S i n g a p o r e s t a r t e d i n t h e e a r l y 19th c e n t u r y , a t i m e when S i n g a p o r e ' s s t r a t e g i c l o c a t i o n came t o be r e c o g n i z e d by t h e West, B r i t a i n , saw t h a t she n e e d e d a good h a r b o u r i n t h e v i c i n i t y of t h e M a l a y P e n i n s u l a t o s e r v e as a p o r t o f c a l l f o r h e r s h i p s on t h e r o u t e from I n d i a t o C h i n a , and a l s o t o open up new a r e a s f o r commerce. In 1819, Thomas S t a m f o r d F i g u r e 2.3 - Singapore Source: Cheng Lim-Keak, 1985. . • • • N) O 21 R a f f l e s a c q u i r e d t h e i s l a n d from t h e M a l a y S u l t a n o f J o h o r e on b e h a l f o f t h e B r i t i s h E a s t I n d i a Company. In 1824, S i n g a p o r e was e s t a b l i s h e d as a major B r i t i s h t r a d i n g p o s t i n S o u t h e s t A s i a . C h i n e s e and I n d i a n t r a d e r s , I n d i a n i n d e n t u r e d l a b o u r s and M a l a y s began a r r i v i n g i n l a r g e numbers. In 1826, S i n g a p o r e became p a r t o f t h e S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t s , w h i c h was made a B r i t i s h crown c o l o n y i n 1867. The coming of t h e s t e a m s h i p i n t h e mid-1860s and t h e o p e n i n g of Suez C a n a l i n 1869 c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f S i n g a p o r e . By t h e end of t h e 19th c e n t u r y , S i n g a p o r e ' s p o s i t i o n as a m a j o r e n t r e p o t i n S o u t h e s t A s i a had been w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . A c c o r d i n g l y , S i n g a p o r e e x p e r i e n c e d a d r a m a t i c g r o w t h o f p o p u l a t i o n . In 1840 t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f S i n g a p o r e was 35,389, By 1891 t h e number had grown t o 184,554, m a i n l y t h r o u g h i m m i g r a t i o n . D u r i n g t h e e a r l y d e c a d e s of t h e 2 0 t h c e n t u r y , t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n S i n g a p o r e c o n t i n u e d t o grow. In 1901, t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n was 228,555. The f i g u r e more t h a n t r e b l e d i n f o u r d e c a d e s , r e c o r d e d as 769,216 i n 1941. The i s l a n d f e l l t o J a p a n e s e f o r c e s i n 1942. I t r e m a i n e d under J a p a n e s e o c c u p a t i o n f o r t h r e e and a h a l f y e a r s , d u r i n g w h i c h i t s prewar s o c i e t y was f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i s r u p t e d . I t was r e t u r n e d t o B r i t i s h c o n t r o l i n 1945 and became a s e p a r a t e crown c o l o n y i n 1946. In 1959, S i n g a p o r e became a s e l f - g o v e r n i n g s t a t e and Lee Kuan Yew, t h e l e a d e r of t h e P e o p l e ' s A c t i o n P a r t y , was e l e c t e d as t h e f i r s t P r i m e M i n i s t e r o f t h e S t a t e of S i n g a p o r e . In September 1963, a f t e r a l o c a l r e f e r e n d u m a p p r o v i n g 22 merger, S i n g a p o r e a c h i e v e d i n d e p e n d e n c e by becoming one o f t h e 14 s t a t e s i n t h e new f e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y s i a . J u s t 23 months l a t e r , on A u g u s t 9, 1965, s e v e r e i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t r e s u l t e d i n S i n g a p o r e ' s s e p a r a t i o n from t h e f e d e r a t i o n . Thus t h e i s l a n d became an i n d e p e n d e n t r e p u b l i c w i t h i n t h e B r i t i s h Commonwealth of N a t i o n s . W i t h d r a m a t i c p o s t - w a r p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h , S i n g a p o r e was by t h e n a c i t y - s t a t e o f ab o u t 2 m i l l i o n p e o p l e . 2.2 The S o c i o - E c o n o m i c S i t u a t i o n and H o u s i n g p r o b l e m P r i o r t o  t h e I n i t i a t i o n o f L a r g e S c a l e P u b l i c H o u s i n g Programs T h r e e i n t e r - r e l a t e d i s s u e s a r e t o be d i s c u s s e d h e r e : P o s t -war p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h ; c o n s t r a i n t s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d e v e l o p m e n t ; and h o u s i n g needs and h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e . These i s s u e s c o n s t i t u t e d t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c b a s i s f o r Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e ' s l a r g e s c a l e government i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t o t h e h o u s i n g s e c t o r . HONG KONG 1 e x p e r i e n c e d a phenomenal growth o f p o p u l a t i o n a f t e r i t was r e g a i n e d by B r i t a i n i n 1945. In 1951, t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f Hong Kong r o s e t o 2 m i l l i o n , w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d an i n c r e a s e o f 40% p e r annum. D e s p i t e t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f b o r d e r c o n t r o l s i n 1950, l e g a l and i l l e g a l i m m i g r a t i o n c o n t i n u e d t o p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e o v e r a l l p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h o f t h e c o l o n y . D u r i n g t h e 1950s p e r m i t t e d m i g r a t i o n a v e r a g e d 40,000 p e r 1 T h i s r e v i e w i s b a s e d on t h e f a c t s p r o v i d e d i n H i g h S o c i e t y ( D r a k a k i s - S m i t h , 1979); and H o u s i n g i n Hong Kong ( e d i t o r : Wong, L.S.K., 1978). 23 year, while the annual i n f l u x of i l l e g a l immigration was estimated at between 30,000 and 80,000 (Drakakis-Smith, 1979). Obviously, such p o p u l a t i o n growth posed a great impact on the s o c i a l and economic r e a l i t i e s i n Hong Kong. The s o a r i n g p o p u l a t i o n was not the only c h a l l e n g e f a c i n g Hong Kong. Another great d i f f i c u l t y was the f a c t that the foundation of Hong Kong's entrepot a c t i v i t y was demolished, because of the emergence of the People's Republic of China i n 1949 and China's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Korean War r e s u l t e d i n the i m p o s i t i o n of a trade embargo by the Un i t e d Nations i n general and by the Un i t e d S t a t e s i n p a r t i c u l a r . The only c h o i c e l e f t to Hong Kong to get out of i t s dilemma was to develop manufacturing. Drakakis-Smith argues that although the l a r g e i n f l u x of refugees from China i n the post-war years caused v a r i o u s problems, i t a l s o brought Hong Kong great b e n e f i t s . Many of the refugees were long-term urban r e s i d e n t s who brought with them c o n s i d e r a b l e amounts of c a p i t a l , as w e l l as e x t e n s i v e i n d u s t r i a l and commercial experience. Those migrants without s p e c i a l a t t r i b u t e s f u r n i s h e d a l a r g e pool of r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e , cheap labour. T h e r e f o r e , post-war Hong Kong had c e r t a i n e s s e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n s - c a p i t a l , labour, and e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p f o r i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . Han p o i n t s out that Hong Kong's l a i s s e z - f a i r e trade p o l i c y was another important f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g to the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r post-war i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n (Han, 1978). The remaining q u e s t i o n was: d i d Hong Kong have the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l environment capable of accommodating the 24 d e v e l o p m e n t o f l a r g e s c a l e m a n u f a c t u r i n g and accommodating a m a s s i v e l a b o u r f o r c e a t a c c e p t a b l e l i v i n g s t a n d a r d s ? Two i n t e r -r e l a t e d f a c t o r s - l a n d and h o u s i n g were, t h e r e f o r e , o f d e t e r m i n i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e t o t h e p o s t - w a r economic d e v e l o p m e n t o f Hong Kong. The sudden p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h c a u s e d a g r e a t h o u s i n g p r o b l e m . T h e r e was no e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e f o r m a l h o u s i n g s e c t o r i n Hong Kong was e x p a n d i n g a t a r e a s o n a b l e s p e a d t o accommodate t h e huge number o f r e f u g e e s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e o v e r one m i l l i o n immgrants between 1945 and 1951 e i t h e r s e t t l e d i n s q u a t t e r camps o r , i n t h e e x i s t i n g tenement a r e a s t h r o u g h s u b d i v i s i o n . The government f e l t u n a b l e t o h e l p s u c h a l a r g e number o f r e f u g e e s f i n d accommodation and hoped t h a t i f t h e s i t u a t i o n q u i e t e n e d down i n C h i n a many of t h e s e r e f u g e e s would r e t u r n . However, t h i s d i d n o t happen as t h e s e p e o p l e were g r a d u a l l y a b s o r b e d i n t o t h e l o c a l economy. The h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e was a p p a l l i n g . S q u a t t e r a r e a s were t h e most v i s i a b l e symptom o f t h e p r o b l e m . The p o s t - w a r i m m i g r a n t s were i n i t i a l l y a l l o w e d t o s e t t l e where t h e y w i s h e d . As a r e s u l t , s q u a t t e r s were seen i n v a r i o u s p l a c e s . Some were on v a c a n t l a n d i n , o r a r o u n d , t h e c i t y , some were l o c a t e d i n j u n k s on t h e s e a , and o t h e r s were on r o o f t o p s . In 1949, i t was e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e s q u a t t e r p o p u l a t i o n o f Hong Kong was 300,000 (Fong, 1980). In t h e s q u a t t e r s e t t l e m e n t s , i n f r a s t r u c t u r e f a c i l i t i e s were g e n e r a l l y u n a v a i l a b l e . T h e r e was no c o n t r o l o v e r t h e l a y o u t and t h e d e s i g n of t h e s t r u c t u r e s . T h e r e f o r e , s q u a t t e r s e t t l e m e n t s 25 were a l w a y s a t h r e a t t o t h e h e a l t h , s e c u r i t y , and p h y s i c a l a p p e a r e n c e o f Hong Kong. A h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e o v e r one m i l l i o n r e f u g e e s was a b s o r b e d i n t h e e x i s t i n g tenement a r e a s i n Hong Kong and Kowloon. S u b d i v i s i o n , t h o u g h l e s s v i s i b l e , c a u s e d s e r i o u s o v e r c r o w d i n g i n t h e tenement a r e a s . The t e n e m e n t s w h i c h e x i s t e d i n t h e e a r l y 1950s were u s u a l l y t h r e e t o f i v e s t o r e y s h i g h , b u i l t on l o n g narrow l o t s w h i c h v a r i e d i n w i d t h from 4 t o 4.5 m e t r e s , w i t h a l e n g t h t o b r e a d t h r a t i o of r o u g h l y 3 t o 1 . P r i m a r y l e a s i n g w i t h i n most t e n e m e n t s was by f l o o r , b ut a l m o s t a l l were s u b d i v i d e d and s u b l e t i n t o c u b i c l e s . O n l y t h o s e u n i t s n e a r t h e windows had d i r e c t a c c e s s t o l i g h t and a i r . C o o k i n g and t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s were communal and p r i m i t i v e . The s i t u a t i o n o f o v e r c r o w d i n g i n s i d e t h e t e n e m e n t s was s e v e r e . Ingrams d e s c r i b e d many of t h e t e n e n t s s l e e p i n g i n s i x t i e r e d bunks, and a tenement f l o o r n o r m a l l y i n t e n d e d f o r t h r e e f a m i l i e s a c t u a l l y c o n t a i n e d f r o m n i n e t o even more t h a n t w e n t y {Ingrams, 1952). T h e r e f o r e , t h e h o u s i n g s i t u a t i o n i n Hong Kong p r i o r t o 1954 was q u i t e d i s c o u r a g i n g . The g r e a t m a j o r i t y of Hong Kong's two m i l l i o n p e o p l e l i v e d i n o v e r c r o w d e d , u n h e a l t h y and i n s e c u r e c o n d i t i o n s i n e i t h e r t e n e m e n t s o r s q u a t t e r a r e a s . T h e r e was no t r a d i t i o n o f government a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f h o u s i n g . A l t h o u g h t h e s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c p r o b l e m c a u s e d by t h e s e v e r e h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e , e s p e c i a l l y by t h e l a r g e s q u a t t e r p o p u l a t i o n , was becoming more and more o b v i o u s , no s i g n i f i c a n t a c t i o n was t a k e n by t h e government t o i mprove t h e s i t u a t i o n . P e r h a p s , t h e 26 t r a d e embargo on C h i n e s e goods c a u s e d a s u b s t a n t i a l d e c r e a s e i n government r e v e n u e s and c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e r e l u c t a n c e of t h e government t o make any l a r g e i n v e s t m e n t s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e i n c r e a s i n g r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e n e c e s s i t y o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n Hong Kong an d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , l a n d , l a b o u r , and h o u s i n g r e s u l t e d i n an i n c r e a s i n g r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e of p r o v i d i n g p e o p l e w i t h a d e q u a t e h o u s i n g . A l t h o u g h d i r e c t government i n t e r v e n t i o n was s t i l l n o n - e x i s t e n t , t h e i d e a of a l a r g e s c a l e low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o gram was b e i n g l a t e n t l y f o s t e r e d . SINGAPORE 1 had a v e r y h i g h r a t e of p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h i n t h e p o s t - w a r y e a r s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e c e n s u s o f 1947, t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n S i n g a p o r e i n t h a t y e a r was 938,000. The c e n s u s o f 1957 r e c o r d e d a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f 1,484,000, w h i c h i n d i c a t e d an a n n u a l g r o w th r a t e o f 4.3 p e r c e n t d u r i n g t h e d e c a d e 1947-57. I t was made up of a 3.5 p e r c e n t n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e p e r annum, and a 0.8 p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e p e r annum t h r o u g h t h e movement of p e o p l e t o S i n g a p o r e from t h e t h e n F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a ( L e e Soo Ann, 1973). P o s t - w a r S i n g a p o r e t h u s f a c e d an a c u t e p o p u l a t i o n p r o b l e m . The h i g h r a t e o f p o p u l a t i o n g r o w th r e s u l t e d i n an i n c r e a s i n g l y 1 T h i s r e v i e w i s b a s e d on t h e f a c t s p r o v i d e d i n HDB A n n u a l R e p o r t  1960 ( S i n g a p o r e H o u s i n g and Development B o a r d ) ; I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n S i n g a p o r e (Lee Soo Ann, 1973); and P u b l i c  H o u s i n g i n S i n g a p o r e ( e d i t o r : Yeh, S t e p h e n , 1975). 27 h i g h r a t e o f unemployment. In 1959, unemployment r e a c h e d 13.5 p e r c e n t ( L i m Chong-Yah, 1984). The S i n g a p o r e economy was h a r d -p r e s s e d t o m a i n t a i n p e r c a p i t a r e a l incomes ( Lee Soo Ann, 1973). I t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e n o r m a l e x p a n s i o n o f e n t r e p o t t r a d e and b a n k i n g w o u l d n o t be s u f f i c i e n t t o keep p a c e w i t h t h e r a p i d i n c r e a s e o f p o p u l a t i o n (Lee Soo Ann, 1973). T h e r e f o r e i t was o b v i o u s t h a t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l e c onomic p a t t e r n c e n t r e d a r o u n d e n t r e p o t t r a d e and s e r v i c e s c o u l d no l o n g e r meet t h e c h a l l e n g e and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n was needed i n t h i s i s l a n d s t a t e w h i c h has l i m i t e d l a n d r e s o u r c e f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l . The u r g e n c y of s p e e d i n g up t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s was a l s o p u s h e d by p o l i t i c a l c h a n g e s i n p o s t - w a r S i n g a p o r e . The change of p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s from a c o l o n y t o an i n d e p e n d e n t s t a t e , t h e p o l i t i c a l and economic r e l a t i o n s h i p s between S i n g a p o r e and t h e F e d e r a t i o n of M a l a y a , and t h e p o l i t i c a l c o m p e t i t i o n f o r l e a d e r s h i p a l l had a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n d r i v e i n S i n g a p o r e . Lee Soo Ann a r g u e s t h a t , g i v e n t h e s e v e r e unemployment a t t h e l a t e 50s and t h e s p e c t r e o f even g r e a t e r unemployment i n t h e s i x t i e s , any r e s p o n s i b l e government t h a t came i n t o power i n 1959 would have been c o m m i t t e d t o a p r o g r a m o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n (Lee Soo Ann, 1 973) . In t h e l a t e 1950s, S i n g a p o r e t h e r e f o r e f a c e d p r o b l e m s i n r e g a r d t o a r r a n g i n g i t s p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t f o r i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n as had Hong Kong i n t h e e a r l y 1950s. H o u s i n g , as a b a s i c human need, a major o c c u p i e r of l a n d , and an economic 28 s e c t o r , was c r i t i c a l t o t h i s s t a t e a n t i c i p a t i n g i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n under t h e s i t u a t i o n of a h i g h p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h r a t e w i t h i n a v e r y l i m i t e d p h y s i c a l s p a c e . H o u s i n g s h o r t a g e had l o n g been a p r o b l e m i n S i n g a p o r e . A l t h o u g h t h e government e n t e r e d t h e f i e l d of p u b l i c h o u s i n g a s e a r l y as 1927 t h r o u g h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e S i n g a p o r e Improvement T r u s t ( S I T ) , l i t t l e p r o g r e s s was made t o w a r d s s o l v i n g t h e low-income p e o p l e ' s h o u s i n g p r o b l e m u n t i l t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e H o u s i n g and D e v e l o p m e n t B o a r d (HDB) i n 1960. S I T came i n t o b e i n g under t h e S i n g a p o r e Improvement O r d i n a n c e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , S I T under i t s O r d i n a n c e was " g i v e n no power t o c a r r y out any l a r g e - s c a l e h o u s i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n " ( T e h Cheang Wan, 1975). I t was a l s o h a n d i c a p p e d by i n s u f f i c i e n t f u n d s t o be an e f f e c t i v e f o r c e i n u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t . By 1942 S I T had c o m p l e t e d o n l y 2,049 h o u s e s and 53 s h o p s . The h o u s i n g p r o b l e m was a g g r a v a t e d d u r i n g t h e P a c i f i c War. T housands o f h o u s e s were d e s t r o y e d and as a r e s u l t of l a c k o f c o n t r o l d u r i n g t h e J a p a n e s e o c c u p a t i o n t h o u s a n d s of p e o p l e c o n s t r u c t e d t h e i r own u n a u t h o r i s e d d w e l l i n g s . The h o u s i n g s i t u a t i o n f u r t h e r d e t e r i o r a t e d a f t e r t h e war. The demand f o r low r e n t a l h o u s i n g r o s e s h a r p l y a s a r e s u l t o f m i g r a t i o n and v e r y h i g h b i r t h r a t e . A c c o r d i n g t o Teh Cheang Wan, a n o t h e r r e a s o n c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e i n c r e a s i n g demand was t h a t t h e p o p u l a t i o n had l o s t i t s t e m p o r a r y c h a r a c t e r and become a p e r m a n e n t l y s e t t l e d one (Teh Cheang Wan, 1975). T h i s meant t h a t t h e h o u s i n g need c h a n g e d from s i n g l e p e r s o n s t o f a m i l i e s , and 29 c o u l d n o t be met e f f e c t i v e l y by s u b d i v i s i o n ^ o f t h e e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g s t o c k . A l a r g e p a r t of t h e c i t y c e n t r e c o n s i s t e d o f o l d d i l a p i d a t e d s h o p - h o u s e s . Many o f them s l a c k e d b a s i c u t i l i t i e s and were o v e r d u e f o r d e m o l i t i o n . As a r e s u l t o f t h e h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e , t h e s e h o u s e s were s u b - d i v i d e d i n t o c u b i c l e s t o house 10 t i m e as many p e o p l e as t h e y n o r m a l l y accommodated (Varma and S a s t r y , 1979). When t h e s u p p l y of h o u s i n g i n t h e C e n t r a l A r e a r e a c h e d s a t u r a t i o n , new immgrants formed s q u a t t e r s e t t l e m e n t s on t h e f r i n g e of t h e c i t y . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e 1960 H o u i n g and Development B o a r d A n n u a l R e p o r t , by t h e end o f t h e War t e n s of t h o u s a n d s of p e o p l e were l i v i n g i n h u t s made o f o l d wooden bo x e s , r u s t y c o r r u g a t e d i r o n s h e e t s and o t h e r s a l v a g e d m a t e r i a l . They l i v e d i n c o n g e s t e d s q u a t t e r s e t t l e m e n t s w i t h no s a n i t a t i o n or w a ter (HDB A n n u a l R e p o r t 1960). The s q u a t t e r c o m m u n i t i e s were f i r e and h e a l t h h a z a r d s . T h i s b r i e f s u r v e y o f t h e s i t u a t i o n makes i t c l e a r t h a t t h e p o s t - w a r p r o b l e m s were v e r y much g r e a t e r t h a n t h o s e o f t h e p r e -war p e r i o d . By 1947 t h e h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e was v e r y s e r i o u s . Many b l o c k s i n t h e C i t y c o n t a i n e d o v e r 1,000 p e o p l e t o t h e a c r e . Land became s c a r c e r and more e x p e n s i v e as t i m e went on (HDB A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1960). A f t e r 1947, e f f o r t s were made t o i n c r e a s e t h e p a c e of b u i l d i n g p u b l i c h o u s i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e HDB 1960 A n n u a l R e p o r t , a t o t a l of 20,907 u n i t s were b u i l t by t h e S I T i n t h e p e r i o d 1947-1959, a v e r a g i n g 1,740 u n i t s p e r annum. P r i v a t e 30 e n t e r p r i s e b u i l t some 19,000 u n i t s o v e r t h e same p e r i o d . T o g e t h e r t h e n 40,000 u n i t s were b u i l t w h i c h c o u l d accommodate l e s s t h a n 300,000 p e r s o n s . However, t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e o v e r t h e p e r i o d was 641,000 p e r s o n s . In t h e p o s t - w a r y e a r s , t h e h o u s i n g u n i t s p r o d u c e d c o u l d t h e r e f o r e o n l y accommodate l e s s t h a n h a l f of t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e , n ot t o m e n t i o n t h e huge b a c k l o g a l r e a d y w a i t i n g f o r d e c e n t h o u s i n g . The s h o r t a g e of h o u s i n g i n t h e p o s t - w a r y e a r s r e s u l t e d i n an i n c r e a s i n g h o u s i n g c r i s i s . The a l r e a d y o v e r c r o w d e d and i n many c a s e s d i l a p i d a t e d o l d s t r u c t u r e s i n t h e c e n t r a l a r e a s o f t h e C i t y was b e i n g f u r t h e r c o n g e s t e d , s q u a t t e r p o p u l a t i o n and s q u a t t e r s e t t l e m e n t s were b o t h g r o w i n g i n s i z e , and u n s c r u p u l o u s p e o p l e were u s i n g t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y t o make q u i c k p r o f i t s o ut o f t h e s u f f e r i n g o f t h e p o o r . In 1959, t h e r e were an e s t i m a t e d one q u a r t e r o f a m i l l i o n p e o p l e l i v i n g i n slums and a n o t h e r one t h i r d o f a m i l l i o n p e o p l e i n s q u a t t e r a r e a s . A l t o g e t h e r t h e y made up a b o u t 35% o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n ( S i n g a p o r e 1983). I t was c l e a r t h a t s o m e t h i n g had t o be done t o change t h e s i t u a t i o n . The g o a l was t o i n c r e a s e t h e p r o v i s i o n o f low-income h o u s i n g t o a d e q u a t e l y accommodate t h e g r o w i n g p o p u l a t i o n and t o improve t h e c i t y ' s s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t t o accommodate t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of m a n u f a c t u r i n g w h i c h was so u g h t a s t h e key t o making p r o g r e s s . 31 2.3 The I n i t i a t i o n of Low-Income P u b l i c H o u s i n g HONG KONG. 1 On C h r i s t m a s day 1953, 58,000 p e r s o n s l o s t t h e i r homes i n t h e g r e a t f i r e i n Shek K i p M e i , a s q u a t t e r s e t t l e m e n t i n Kowloon. A l t h o u g h a l m o s t h a l f o f them f o u n d accommodation i n t h e permanent b u i l d i n g s of t h e c i t y , t h e r e m a i n d e r moved i n t o s t r e e t s and a r c a d e s o f n e i g h b o r i n g Sham S h u i Po. As t h e y e a r p r o c e e d e d t h e r e were f i v e l a r g e s q u a t t e r f i r e s and a number of s m a l l o n e s . D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 2 5 t h December 1953 - 2 5 t h December 1954, o u t o f t h e whole p o p u l a t i o n a b o u t one p e r s o n i n e v e r y 20 l o s t t h e i r home i n a s q u a t t e r f i r e . In r e s p o n s e t o t h e s i t u a t i o n , t h e Hong Kong Government a p p o i n t e d an emergency s u b - c o m m i t t e e o f t h e Urban C o u n c i l t o a d v i s e on what measures s h o u l d be a d o p t e d t o meet t h i s c r i s i s . A l l t h e recommendation o f t h e s u b - c o m m i t t e e were a c c e p t e d and formed t h e b a s i c p l a n f o r r e s e t t l e m e n t u n d e r t a k e n d u r i n g 1954. T h e s e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d an a b r u p t d e p a r t u r e from p r e v i o u s p o l i c y : "The two main recommendations were t h a t , as l a n d was s h o r t , i t w ould be n e c e s s a r y t o r e s e t t l e s q u a t t e r s i n permanent m u l t i -s t o r e y b u i l d i n g s ; and, t h a t s i n c e t h i s u n d e r t a k i n g would n o t a t t r a c t s u f f i c i e n t p r i v a t e c a p i t a l , t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n s h o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n d i r e c t l y by Government and f i n a n c e d f r o m p u b l i c f u n d s . " (Hong Kong A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1954). In t h e S p r i n g o f t h e y e a r a t e m p o r a r y D e p a r t m e n t o f 1 T h i s r e v i e w i s b a s e d on t h e f a c t s p r o v i d e d i n H i g h S o c i e t y ( D r a k a k i s - S m i t h , 1979); The F i r s t Two M i l l i o n s (The Hong Kong H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y , 1 980T~j and H o u s i n g i n Hong Kong ( e d i t o r : Wong, L.S.K., 1978). 32 R e s e t t l e m e n t was s e t up under a C o m m i s s i o n e r f o r R e s e t t l e m e n t , t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l m a t t e r s c o n n e c t e d w i t h p r e v e n t i o n o f i l l e g a l b u i l d i n g and t h e c l e a r a n c e and r e s e t t l e m e n t o f s q u a t t e r s . D u r i n g t h e y e a r t h e government c o n s t r u c t e d emergency accommodation f o r 54,000 p e r s o n s . E i g h t permanent s i x - s t o r e y b l o c k s , e a c h h o u s i n g o v e r 20,000 p e r s o n s , were c o m p l e t e d and o c c u p i e d . The d e s i g n s t a n d a r d o f t h e s e b u i l d i n g was v e r y low. The p e r c a p i t a f l o o r s p a c e was o n l y 2.2 s q u a r e m e t r e s . Water s t a n d p i p e s , c o o k i n g f a c i l i t i e s and f l u s h l a t r i n e s were a l l communal. These f a c i l i t i e s were g r o s s l y i n a d e q u a t e . A l t h o u g h g r o u n d f l o o r shop s p a c e was p r o v i d e d , t h e amount was i n s u f f i c i e n t t o c o p e w i t h t h e demand and t h e r e s i d e n t s t h e r e f o r e had t o meet t h e i r own r e t a i l r e q u i r e m e n t s t h r o u g h t h e hawker t r a d e . R e n t s i n t h e r e s e t t l e m e n t f l a t s were b a s e d on a 40 y e a r a m o r t i z a t i o n o f c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s , i n c l u d i n g l o a n repayment. E v e n t u a l l y , r e n t s were f i x e d a t o n l y $14 p e r month f o r a s t a n d a r d f l a t , i n c l u s i v e o f w a t e r c h a r g e s . A c c o r d i n g t o D r a k a k i s - S m i t h , s u c h r e n t s were l o w e r t h a n t h o s e w h i c h a l a r g e number of s q u a t t e r f a m i l i e s were a l r e a d y p a y i n g f o r t h e i r h u t s ( D r a k a k i s - S m i t h , 1979). Government's p o l i c y a t t h e c l o s e o f 1954 was t o a c c e l e r a t e and expand t h e m u l t i - s t o r e y r e s e t t l e m e n t p r o gram a s f a r as f u n d s w o u l d p e r m i t w i t h a view t o r e m o v i n g t h e w o r s t s q u a t t e r a r e a s w i t h i n a b o u t two y e a r s . By t h e end o f t h e y e a r , r e s e t t l e m e n t o p e r a t i o n assumed a new d i r e c t i o n and i m p e t u s . 33 SINGAPORE. 1 In a manner d i f f e r e n t from Hong Kong, p o l i t i c a l e v e n t s , r a t h e r t h a n f i r e h a z a r d s , marked t h e c hange i n t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h e h o u s i n g p r o b l e m i n S i n g a p o r e . When t h e new f u l l y - e l e c t e d Government came i n t o power i n June 1959, most o f t h e e x p a t r i a t e o f f i c e r s of t h e S I T l e f t t h e s e r v i c e . The mass r e s i g n a t i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e d o f f i c e r s g r e a t l y d e m o r a l i s e d t h e r e m a i n i n g s t a f f and s h a t t e r e d t h e S i n g a p o r e Improvement T r u s t o r g a n i z a t i o n . W i t h i n weeks of coming i n t o o f f i c e , t h e newly e l e c t e d government began t o p r e p a r e d r a f t l e g i s l a t i o n t o d i s s o l v e t h e S I T and t o s e t up a more v i a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h more f u n d s and l e g a l powers t o d e a l w i t h p u b l i c h o u s i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n and management, urba n r e n e w a l and r e l a t e d p r o b l e m s . The H o u s i n g and D e velopment B o a r d (HDB) was e s t a b l i s h e d on t h e 1st F e b r u a r y , 1960. I t i s a S t a t u t o r y B o a r d under t h e p o r t f o l i o o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f Law and N a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t . A f t e r c o m i n g i n t o b e i n g , t h e HDB made a q u i c k s t u d y o f t h e e x t e n t o f t h e h o u s i n g p r o b l e m . I t was e s t i m a t e d t h a t 150,000 u n i t s were r e q u i r e d f r o m 1960-1970 t o meet t h e demand, t o r e l i e v e o v e r c r o w d i n g i n C e n t r a l A r e a , t o p r o v i d e accommodation f o r t h e new f a m i l i e s formed d u r i n g t h e d e c a d e , t o p r o v i d e a l t e r n a t i v e a ccommodation f o r t h e r e s e t t l e m e n t o f p e o p l e a f f e c t e d by p u b l i c d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s , t o r e h o u s e p e o p l e a f f e c t e d by t h e u r b a n 1 T h i s r e v i e w i s b a s e d on t h e f a c t s p r o v i d e d i n HDB A n n u a l R e p o r t  1960 ( S i n g a p o r e H o u s i n g and D e v e l o p m e n t B o a r d ) ; and P u b l i c  H o u s i n g i n S i n g a p o r e ( e d i t o r : Yeh, S t e p h e n , 1975). 34 r e n e w a l p r o g r a m i n t h e C e n t r a l A r e a and t o r e h o u s e t h o s e removed by s l u m c l e a r a n c e . I t was f u r t h e r e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r c o u l d o n l y b u i l t a b o u t 40,000 u n i t s d u r i n g t h e d e c a d e f o r t h e upper and m i d d l e income g r o u p s (Teh Cheang Wan, 1975). The HDB s t u d y made i t c l e a r t h a t t h e government had t o p r o v i d e some 110,000 u n i t s f o r t h e t e n y e a r p e r i o d 1960-1970. A F i v e - Y e a r B u i l d i n g P r ogram was p r e p a r e d by t h e B o a r d and was l a t e r a p p r o v e d w i t h some m o d i f i c a t i o n s by t h e Government. The P l a n aimed a t b u i l d i n g 52,842 p u b l i c h o u s i n g u n i t s a t a c o s t o f $230 m i l l i o n o v e r t h e p e r i o d 1960-1964, a v e r a g i n g 10,000 u n i t s o f low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g p e r y e a r (HDB A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1960). A p r o g r a m of s u c h a s c a l e r e p r e s e n t e d a new b e g i n n i n g f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n S i n g a p o r e , i n w h i c h t h e government p l a y e d a d o m i n a n t r o l e i n p r o v i d i n g s h e l t e r e s p e c i a l l y f o r low-income p e o p l e . The B u i l d i n g p r o g r a m was s u c c e s s f u l l y i m p l e m e n t e d . A r e m a r k a b l e 7,320 u n i t s were b u i l t i n 1961. Two t y p e s of h o u s i n g were b u i l t : emergency one room f l a t s and s e l f - c o n t a i n e d f l a t s w i t h two t o t h r e e rooms i n c l u d i n g k i t c h e n , b a t h r o o m and modern s a n i t a t i o n . The emergency t y p e was of low s t a n d a r d : i t p r o v i d e d 120 s q u a r e f e e t o f l i v i n g s p a c e and 80 s q u a r e f e e t of s e r v i c e a r e a w i t h b athrooms and c o o k i n g f a c i l i t i e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , 10,000 u n i t s o f s u c h t y p e were b u i l t i n t h e f i r s t t h r e e y e a r s o f t h e f i v e y e a r p r o g r a m . The m o n t h l y r e n t f o r t h e s e u n i t s was o n l y S$20. A c c o r d i n g t o 1960 HDB A n n u a l R e p o r t , t h e h o u s i n g p r o g r a m were e x t e n s i v e and c o m p r e h e n s i v e and i n a l l t h e h o u s i n g e s t a t e s , e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s , s u c h as 35 e l e c t r i c i t y , gas and p i p e d water were a v a i l a b l e . Communal f a c i l i t i e s s u c h as s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s , s c h o o l s , community c e n t r e s , c l i n i c s , c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y g r o u n d s a n d open s p a c e s were a l s o p r o v i d e d e i t h e r i n t h e e s t a t e s or w i t h i n w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e . 2.4 The S o c i o - E c o n o m i c Dynamics of t h e Low-Income P u b l i c H o u s i n g Programs i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e a r e good c a s e s f o r e x p l o r i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between u r b a n low-income h o u s i n g and t h e p r o c e s s of s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . S i n c e 1954 and 1960 r e s p e c t i v e l y , t h e s e two u r b a n - s t a t e s have been d i s t i n g u i s h e d from t h e m a j o r i t y of d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s i n t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t s a r e a c t i v e i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e i r c o u n t r i e s ' h o u s i n g p r o b l e m s and t h a t t h e i r r e s p o n s e has been t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f l a r g e s c a l e low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g e s t a t e s . In t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r , we have b r i e f l y m e n t i o n e d t h a t t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s o f t h o u g h t on t h e a p p r o a c h t o d e v e l o p m e n t and on t h e r o l e of h o u s i n g i n t h e p r o c e s s of d e v e l o p m e n t . B a s e d on d i f f e r e n t t h e o r i e s , t h e r e a r e v a r i o u s government d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g i e s i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s t o p u r s u e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . W h i l s t e a c h t h e o r y has i t s own i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r h o u s i n g p o l i c i e s , one g r o u p o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g i e s , i . e . t h e one w h i c h Wu c a l l s "macro-economic growth s t r a t e g i e s " , has had t h e g r e a t e s t i n f l u e n c e (Wu, 1978). M a c r o - e c o n o m i c g r o w t h s t r a t e g i e s were a d o p t e d by many n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t s a f t e r t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War. The i m p o r t a n t 36 f a c t o r s were s e e n t o be t h e n a t i o n a l a v a i l a b i l i t y of c a p i t a l , l a b o u r , r e s o u r c e s and t e c h n o l o g y . Economic g r o w t h was e q u a t e d w i t h e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t and t h e c o n d i t i o n s f o r g r o w t h were assumed t o be endogenous. An i m p l i c i t a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t d e v e l o p m e n t c o u l d o n l y be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n . An a d d i t i o n a l a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t n a t i o n a l economic growth would i n t i m e b e n e f i t t h e i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n . I n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t r e q u i r e s l a r g e c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t s . C a p i t a l c o u l d be accummulated by e x p o r t i n g n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , e n c o u r a g i n g h i g h e r p r o p e n s i t i e s t o save among t h e p o p u l a t i o n , and by f o r e i g n i n v e s t m e n t and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l o a n s . T h e r e a r e d i v e r g e n t v i e w s among t h e s e p r o p o n e n t s o f r a p i d n a t i o n a l g r o w t h . One a p p r o a c h f a v o u r s m a s s i v e i n v e s t m e n t i n m a j o r i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n p r o j e c t s a s w e l l a s i n f r a s t r u c t u r e . The o t h e r a p p r o a c h a r g u e s f o r c o n c e n t r a t e d i n v e s t m e n t i n a few s e l e c t i v e key i n d u s t r i e s . In t e r m s o f i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r h o u s i n g p o l i c y , s i n c e t h e c h i e f g o a l of macro-economic d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g i e s i s t o a c h i e v e r a p i d e conomic growth t h r o u g h i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n , any p rogram w h i c h d i v e r t s s c a r c e c a p i t a l away from t h e key i n d u s t r i e s m i g h t be c o n s i d e r e d a s n e g a t i v e . P r o v i s i o n o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g c a n be seen as i n v e s t m e n t i n a n o n - p r o d u c t i v e s e c t o r . I t c o u l d be a r g u e d t h a t t h e same r e s o u r c e s m ight be u s e d t o b u i l d more f a c t o r i e s . I t i s o f t e n s a i d t h a t t h e i n p u t - o u t p u t r a t i o o f h o u s i n g i n v e s t m e n t i s t o o h i g h t o be e c o n o m i c a l l y e f f i c i e n t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , any s u b s t a n t i a l p u b l i c h o u s i n g program c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d t o be e c o n o m i c a l l y u n w i s e . 37 I t c a n be f u r t h e r a r g u e d t h a t any p r o g r a m w h i c h d e t r a c t s from t h e p r o m o t i o n o f a g g r e g a t e economic g r o w t h s h o u l d be d e l a y e d u n t i l s u c h t i m e as t h e o v e r a l l improvement i n economic w e l f a r e w i l l a l l o w e i t h e r t h e i n d i v i d u a l o r t h e government t o a f f o r d t h e p r o v i s i o n of b e t t e r l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n ; t h a t b e t t e r h o u s i n g may c o n t r i b u t e t o w a r d s improvements i n p u b l i c h e a l t h and c o n s e q u e n t l y h e a l t h i e r w o r k e r s , i s n o t p e r s u a s i v e s i n c e under c o n d i t i o n s of l a b o u r s u r p l u s wages c a n be k e p t v e r y low and r e p l a c e m e n t s a r e p l e n t i f u l . T h e r e f o r e , o n l y l i m i t e d showcase h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s a r e l i k e l y t o be a c c e p t a b l e when t h e s e p r o j e c t s a r e n e c e s s a r y t o s o f t e n p o l i t i c a l u n r e s t . The weakness o f t h i s s t r a t e g y l i e s i n i t s narrow d e f i n i t i o n o f d e v e l o p m e n t . I t i s t r u e t h a t , i n t h e e x i s t i n g w o r l d economic s y s t e m , i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n i s a c r i t i c a l p r o c e s s t o w a r d s d e v e l o p m e n t , and economic growth i s an i m p o r t a n t measure o f t h e r a t e o f d e v e l o p m e n t . However, i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n and economic g r o w t h i s not t h e o n l y c o n t e x t f o r d e v e l o p m e n t , n o r i s i t s e p a r a b l e from s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . A good s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t i s b o t h a p u r p o s e o f ec o n o m i c growth and a means t o f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t . I n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n depends on t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f not o n l y on c a p i t a l and n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , but a l s o on human r e s o u r c e s and t e c h n o l o g y . The dynamic r o l e o f s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t i s most c l e a r l y s e e n i n i t s r e l a t i o n t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of human r e s o u r c e s and t e c h n o l o g y , w h i c h i n t u r n d e t e r m i n e s t h e e f f i c i e n c y of c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t and r e s o u r c e u t i l i z a t i o n . 3 8 In the f i r s t chapter we have discussed the nature of housing, which i s comprised of three aspects, i . e . housing as a basic human need, housing as an economic a c t i v i t y , and housing as a major component of the physical environment. The nature of housing suggests that a new r a t i o n a l , based on a broader interpretation of development in i t s socio-economic context, should be established to guide future investment in housing. Hong Kong and Singapore are good examples for developing t h i s idea further. While most developing countries were reluctent to allocate funds to housing, Hong Kong and Singapore began large scale low-income public housing programs. It i s worth understanding the major factors which caused t h i s active p o l i t i c a l response. What potential socio-economic dynamics of housing were foreseeable to the policy-makers in Hong Kong and Singapore? Why was a low-income public housing approach taken? Like many other national governments, the governments of Hong Kong and Singapore have been active in searching for economic development. They consciously pursued p o l i c i e s designed to foster economic growth in the conviction that economic prosperity would f i l t e r down. Nevertheless, they are distinguished from other developing countries because they view housing as a part of an integrated process of development. They have achieved success in both housing and economic growth. The basis for establishing the positive relationship between low-income urban housing and the process of socio-economic development was provided by the a b i l i t y of low-income 39 h o u s i n g t o s a t i s f y t h e l a r g e low-income p o p u l a t i o n ' s b a s i c h o u s i n g n e e d s , i m p r o v i n g t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t and e c o n o m i z i n g on t h e use of u r b a n l a n d . R a t h e r t h a n t h e f r u i t o f a d e v e l o p e d economy, t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e l a r g e s c a l e low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g programs was a n e c e s s a r y s t e p i n t h e s o c i o -e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t o f Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e . As a b a s i c human need, t h e p r o v i s i o n of h o u s i n g o f f e r e d a ccommodation t o m i l l i o n s of low-income p e o p l e who were a major r e s o u r c e f o r i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n and economic d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e two u r b a n - s t a t e s . Cheap l a b o u r was c r i t i c a l t o t h e c o m p e t i t i v e p r i c e of e x p o r t c o m m o d i t i e s , w h i c h was, and s t i l l i s t h e major component of m a n u f a c t u r e i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e . The s i t u a t i o n i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e i n 1940s and 1950s was t h a t o f an u n b a l a n c e d match between p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h and t h e p r o v i s i o n of b a s i c human n e e d s , w h i c h c r e a t e d s e v e r e c o n s t r a i n t s on economic d e v e l o p m e n t . As was shown i n t h e s t u d y by t h e S i n g a p o r e HDB, t h e h o u s i n g market was not a b l e t o p r o v i d e enough low c o s t h o u s i n g t o meet t h e needs of t h e g r o w i n g p o p u l a t i o n . Or, i n o t h e r words, t h e e x i s t i n g economic s i t u a t i o n and t h e d i s p a r i t y i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w e a l t h meant t h a t f o r a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of t h e p o p u l a t i o n b a s i c h o u s i n g needs c o u l d not be p r e s e n t e d as an e f f e c t i v e demand. The i n c r e a s i n g s q u a t t e r p o p u l a t i o n and slum r e s i d e n t s i n Hong Kong r e p r e s e n t e d t h e same s i t u a t i o n . I t was a l s o a t h r e a t t o p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y . Government i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t h e h o u s i n g s e c t o r was i n c r e a s i n g l y n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t t h e e x p a n s i o n o f s q u a t t e r s e t t l e m e n t s and t h e f u r t h e r d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f t h e s o c i a l and 40 p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e . As a m a j o r component o f t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e p r o v i s i o n o f w e l l p l a n n e d low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g was an e f f i c i e n t way t o m o b i l i z e u n d e r - u s e d l a n d r e s o u r c e s . B o t h Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e a r e among t h e most d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d c o u n t r i e s i n t h e w o r l d . T h e r e f o r e , p r e v e n t i o n o f f u r t h e r e x p a n s i o n o f s q u a t t e r s e t t l e m e n t s and c l e a r a n c e o f s q u a t t e r l a n d of h i g h d e v e l o p m e n t v a l u e was c r i t i c a l t o t h e i r e c onomic d e v e l o p m e n t . The s q u a t t e r l a n d i n b o t h Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e was i n p u b l i c o w n e r s h i p , w h i c h p r o v i d e d a good b a s i s f o r t h e i r p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s . As was p o i n t e d o u t i n t h e r e p o r t by Hong Kong's C o m m i s s i o n e r f o r R e s e t t l e m e n t , i t was " r i d i c u l o u s f o r t h e e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l p r o g r e s s o f t h e c o l o n y t o be s t r a n g l e d t h r o u g h a l a n d s h o r t a g e w h i c h c o u l d be r e l i e v e d i f i l l e g a l s t r u c t u r e s c o u l d o n l y be removed" ( C o m m i s s i o n e r f o r R e s e t t l e m e n t , 1955). The s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d y n a m i c s o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h e p o l i t i c a l r e s p o n s e t o t h e h o u s i n g p r o b l e m was p u s h e d by e m e r g e n c i e s ( i n Hong Kong f i r e d i s a s t e r s , and i n S i n g a p o r e p o l i t i c a l c h a n g e ) , p u b l i c h o u s i n g programs i n b o t h u r b a n - s t a t e s were f a r more t h a n s i m p l y w e l f a r e p r o g r a m s . The p o l i t i c a l r e s p o n s e was d e e p l y r o o t e d i n b r o a d e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c r e a l t i e s . H e r e i s an e x t r a c t from t h e Hong Kong A n n u a l R e p o r t d e s c r i b i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e f i r e h a z a r d and t h e i n i t i a t i o n o f i t s low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g p rogram: 41 "These unhappy d e v e l o p m e n t s had two i m p o r t a n t r e s u l t s . F i r s t , t h e y t r a n s f o r m e d t h e s q u a t t e r p r o b l e m from a s t u b b o r n and a p p a r e n t l y endemic e v i l i n t o an emergency o f t h e f i r s t o r d e r ; and s e c o n d t h e f i r e s f r e e d f o r p r o p e r d e v e l o p m e n t s u b s t a n t i a l a r e a s o f v a l u a b l e l a n d w h i c h t h e p r e s e n c e o f s q u a t t e r s had r e n d e r e d u n u s a b l e and whose r e m o v a l had d e f i e d a l l i n g e n u i t y . " I t was made c l e a r t h a t t h e s q u a t t e r s e t t l e m e n t s were s e e n a s b o t h a s o c i a l p r o b l e m and a b l o c k t o d e v e l o p m e n t , and t h e f i r e s were seen a s p r o v i d i n g c h a n c e s t o change t h e s i t u a t i o n . The method u s e d t o make t h e change was t o d e v e l o p low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g t o r e s e t t l e s q u a t t e r s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t was f u r t h e r c l a r i f i e d t h a t s q u a t t e r s " a r e not r e s e t t l e d s i m p l y b e c a u s e t h e y n e e d . . . o r d e s e r v e , h y g i e n i c and f i r e p r o o f homes; t h e y a r e r e s e t t l e d b e c a u s e t h e community can no l o n g e r a f f o r d t o c a r r y t h e f i r e r i s k s , and t h r e a t t o p u b l i c o r d e r and p r e s t i g e w h i c h t h e s q u a t t e r a r e a s r e p r e s e n t and b e c a u s e t h e community needs t h e l a n d o f w h i c h t h e y a r e i n i l l e g a l o c c u p a t i o n . And t h e l a n d i s needed q u i c k l y " ( C o m m i s s i o n e r f o r R e s e t t l e m e n t , 1955). From t h e above r e v i e w o f t h e b a c k g r o u n d and p u r p o s e f o r t h e i n i t i a t i o n o f l a r g e s c a l e low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e we see t h a t t h e s e two c i t i e s s h a r e many common f e a t u r e s i n t h e i r h i s t o r i c , g e o g r a p h i c , s o c i a l , and economic c o n t e x t s . A l t h o u g h marked by d i f f e r e n t h i s t o r i c e v e n t s , p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s i n b o t h Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e a r e e s s e n t i a l components of g r a d u a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i t i c a l s t r a t e g i e s f o r econ o m i c and s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e r e a r e f o u r main common f e a t u r e s i n t h e i n i t i a t i o n o f Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e ' s l a r g e 42 s c a l e government i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t h e h o u s i n g s e c t o r . F i r s t s - t h e y were b o t h u r b a n - s t a t e s p u r s u i n g i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n u nder c o n d i t i o n s o f r a p i d p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h and economic p r e s s u r e . S e c o n d l y , t h e s e r i o u s h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e s h o r t a g e o f l a n d r e s o u r c e s , p o s e d s e v e r e c o n s t r a i n t s on s o c i o -e c onomic d e v e l o p m e n t i n b o t h u r b a n - s t a t e s . T h i r d l y , t h e s q u a t t e d l a n d s i n b o t h Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e were g e n e r a l l y i n p u b l i c o w n e r s h i p . F i n a l l y , t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r i n b o t h c a s e s was n o t a b l e t o s a t i s f y t h e i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n ' s b a s i c h o u s i n g n e e d s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e . One m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t t h e p o s t - w a r p o p u l a t i o n impact was much g r e a t e r i n Hong Kong, b e c a u s e a l a r g e i n f l u x o f r e f u g e e s and i m m i g r a n t s was an i m p o r t a n t c a u s e of p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h , w h i l s t i n S i n g a p o r e t h e impact o f i m m i g r a t i o n was f a r l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t . A s e c o n d m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t S i n g a p o r e e x p e r i e n c e d more p o l i t i c a l c hange i n t h e p o s t - w a r y e a r s . A t h i r d m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t S i n g a p o r e had a t r a d i t i o n of government a s s i s t a n c e i n h o u s i n g w h i l s t Hong Kong d i d n o t have s u c h t r a d i t i o n . A f o u r t h d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t Hong Kong's p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g ram was i n i t i a t e d i n 1954, when t h e GNP p e r c a p i t a was much low e r t h a n t h a t of S i n g a p o r e i n 1960. A l l t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s were r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s . F o r i n s t a n c e , i n t h e i n i t i a l y e a r s , p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n Hong Kong had a c o n t i n g e n c y n a t u r e w h i l e i t was b e t t e r p r e p a r e d i n S i n g a p o r e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e d e s i g n s t a n d a r d was l o w e r i n Hong Kong t h a n i n S i n g a p o r e . 43 The p o t e n t i a l d y n a m i c s o f low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e were c l e a r . However, h o u s i n g as an e conomic a c t i v i t y r e q u i r e s e conomic r e s o u r c e s as an i n p u t . How c o u l d Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e , w i t h t h e i r l i m i t e d economic r e s o u r c e s , a c h i e v e t h e g o a l of h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t ? I t seems t h a t t h e i r e s s e n t i a l a p p r o a c h was t o d i r e c t t h e l i m i t e d a s s i s t a n c e t o w a r d s low-income g r o u p s by c o n s t r u c t i n g "low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g " . But who was i n t h e " l ow-income" g r o u p ? What were t h e p o l i c i e s u s e d t o e n s u r e t h e s o c i a l g o a l s ? And what p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n m e a s u r e s were u s e d t o e n s u r e t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s ? The common f e a t u r e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e r e s p e c t i v e h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s o f t h e two c i t y - s t a t e s w i l l be a n a l y s e d f u r t h e r i n s u b s e q u e n t c h a p t e r s . 44 CHAPTER 3. ADMINISTRATION AND FINANCE OF PUBLIC HOUSING  IN HONG KONG AND SINGAPORE1 I t i s important to d i s c u s s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and f i n a n c e of p u b l i c housing because these f a c t o r s i n d i c a t e both the resources a v a i l a b l e f o r p u b l i c housing and the manner in which they are m o b i l i z e d and u t i l i z e d . As i t i s now about three decades since l a r g e - s c a l e low-income p u b l i c housing programs i n these two urba n - s t a t e s were i n i t i a t e d , the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and f i n a n c i a l a spects have evolved, going hand i n hand with the development of p u b l i c housing. Three aspects of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and f i n a n c e are reviewed here: f i r s t , - the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r p u b l i c housing; second, the the f i n a n c i a l arrangements f o r p u b l i c housing; and the t h i r d , the a l l o c a t i o n of p u b l i c housing f l a t s . 3.1 The A d m i n i s t r a t i v e O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r P u b l i c Housing P u b l i c housing a d m i n i s t r a t i o n has a dual r o l e . F i r s t i t a d v i s e s government on p o l i c i e s r e g a r d i n g p u b l i c housing, which means th a t i t i s one of the major a c t o r s determining the p o l i c y o r i e n t a t i o n of p u b l i c housing programs. Second, i t implements p u b l i c housing program, which i n v o l v e s v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s of 1The d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s chapter i s based on f a c t s p r o v i d e d i n : Hong Kong Housing A u t h o r i t y Annual Report (1975-1985); Singapore  Housing and development Board Annual Report (1960-1979); Housing  i n Hong Kong ( e d i t o r : Wong, L.S.K., 1978); P u b l i c Housing i n  Singapore ( e d i t o r : Yeh, Stephen, 1975); and Housing Problems and  P u b l i c Housing Program i n Hong Kong (Fong, 1980). 45 p l a n n i n g , land a c q u i s i t i o n , design, c o n s t r u c t i o n , and management. The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r p u b l i c housing i s t h e r e f o r e c r i t i c a l to the s e t t i n g and the achievement of p o l i c y g o a l s . HONG KONG. At f i r s t we w i l l review the p u b l i c housing a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n Hong Kong by examining the general o r g a n i z a t i o n of i t s government a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . As a B r i t i s h Crown Colony, Hong Kong i s a d m i n i s t r a t e r e d by the Hong Kong Government of which the c e n t r a l f i g u r e i s the Governor who p r e s i d e s over both the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l and the Ex e c u t i v e C o u n c i l . The L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l enacts l e g i s l a t i o n and c o n t r o l s the expenditure of p u b l i c funds. The Exe c u t i v e C o u n c i l , a d v i s e s the Governor on a l l important matters of p o l i c y . At the c e n t r e of p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n Hong Kong i s the Government S e c r e t a r i a t . The Ch i e f S e c r e t a r y i s the Governor's p r i n c i p l e a d v i s e r on p o l i c y and the c h i e f e x e c u t i v e of the government. His o f f i c e c o - o r d i n a t e s and su p e r v i s e s the work of a l l government departments and i s organized i n t o s i x p o l i c y branches based on program are a s : environment, economic s e r v i c e s , home a f f a i r s and i n f o r m a t i o n , housing, s e c u r i t y , and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . In a d d i t i o n , i t has two resource branches d e a l i n g with f i n a n c e and a branch f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the New T e r r i t o r i e s . In a d d i t i o n to the c e n t r a l government o r g a n i z a t i o n there are a number of semi-autonomous s t a t u t o r y bodies. The most important of which, as f a r as housing i s concerned, are the 46 H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y and t h e Urban C o u n c i l . T h e r e have been many c h a n g e s i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n Hong Kong s i n c e l a r g e - s c a l e l ow-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g p rograms were i n i t i a t e d i n 1954. At t h e b e g i n n i n g , t h e Urban C o u n c i l was d e s i g n a t e d by t h e R e s e t t l e m e n t O r d i n a n c e a s t h e a u t h o r i t y f o r t h e management of t h e r e s e t t l e m e n t e s t a t e s , f a c t o r y a r e a s , and " a p p r o v e d a r e a s " i n t h e m e t r o p l i t a n Hong Kong. In t h e New T e r r i t o r i e s , t h e competent a u t h o r i t y was t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r f o r R e s e t t l e m e n t who was a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c l e a r a n c e of s q u a t t e r s t h r o u g h o u t Hong Kong and f o r s q u a t t e r c o n t r o l i n u r b a n a r e a s . Two s e l e c t c o m m i t t e e s o f t h e U r b a n C o u n c i l , one i n c h a r g e of r e s e t t l e m e n t p o l i c y and t h e o t h e r c h a r g e d w i t h e s t a t e management, were c r e a t e d . A R e s e t t l e m e n t Department h e a d e d by a c o m m i s s i o n e r was a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d . In p r a c t i c e , t h e Urban C o u n c i l ' s R e s e t t l e m e n t P o l i c y Committee d e t e r m i n e d r e s e t t l e m e n t p o l i c i e s and p r i o r i t i e s w h i l e t h e R e s e t t l e m e n t Department e x e c u t e d t h e s e p o l i c i e s and c a r r i e d o u t t h e r e s e t t l e m e n t of s q u a t t e r s , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of r e s e t t l e m e n t a r e a s and e s t a t e s , and t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f new s q u a t t e r s e t t l e m e n t s . Two i m p o r t a n t a r e a s were o u t s i d e t h e e x e c u t i v e a u t h o r i t y of t h e R e s e t t l e m e n t D e p a r t e m n t . The f i r s t c o n c e r n e d t h e s e l e c t i o n o f s i t e s and t h e d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e m u l t i - s t o r e y e s t a t e s , w h i c h was t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e P u b l i c Works Department who handed t h e b u i l d i n g s o v e r on c o m p l e t i o n t o t h e R e s e t t l e m e n t D e p a r t m e n t f o r management. The s e c o n d was t h e f i n a n c i a l c o n t r o l o f t h e 47 r e s e t t l e m e n t p r o g ram w h i c h was r e t a i n e d i n i t s e n t i r e t y by t h e F i n a n c e B r a n c h o f t h e Government S e c r e t a r i a t ( M o r r i s , 1978). The s e c o n d major p i e c e o f h o u s i n g l e g i s l a t i o n p a s s e d i n 1954 was t h e H o u s i n g O r d i n a n c e w h i c h e s t a b l i s h e d a H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y t o p r o v i d e h o u s i n g f o r low-income f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n o v e r c r o w d e d c o n d i t i o n s i n p r i v a t e t e n e m e n t s . The A u t h o r i t y was c o m p r i s e d of a l l t h e e x - o f f i c i o members of t h e Urban C o u n c i l , t o g e t h e r w i t h not more t h a n t h r e e p e r s o n s n o m i n a t e d by t h e G o v e r n o r . Under t h e t e r m s o f t h e O r d i n a n c e , i t was g i v e n a wide r a n g e o f a u t h o r i t y t o b u i l d h o u s i n g , as w e l l powers t o d e v e l o p l a n d and a c q u i r e and improve r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g s . In 1959, t h e government, d i s a p p o i n t e d w i t h t h e p r o g r e s s i n r e l i e v i n g t h e h o u s i n g p r o b l e m and c l e a r i n g u n s a t i f a c t o r y p r i v a t e t e n e m e n t s , commenced t h e t h i r d t y p e of p u b l i c h o u s i n g , i . e . t h e Government Low C o s t H o u s i n g Scheme. T h i s p r o gram was f o r p e o p l e w i t h a f a m i l y income l o w e r t h a n t h e h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y t e n e n t s . The P u b l i c Works Department was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n and t h e c o m p l e t e d e s t a t e s were managed by t h e H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y . T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e were t h r e e t y p e s o f low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g w i t h two s o c i a l g o a l s - one was t h e r e s e t t l e m e n t h o u s i n g , w h i c h was b a s i c accommodation h a s i t i l y e r e c t e d i n l a r g e numbers f o r t h o s e a f f e c t e d by s q u a t t e r c l e a r a n c e o r t h o s e made h o m e l e s s by f i r e s ; t h e o t h e r was s e l f - c o n t a i n e d p u b l i c h o u s i n g b u i l t by t h e H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y or under t h e Government Low C o s t H o u s i n g Scheme, s u p p l y i n g b e t t e r accommodations t o o t h e r low-income p e o p l e i n need of h o u s i n g . The p r o b l e m w i t h t h e e a r l y 48 p a t t e r n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was t h a t t h e r e were many o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g but l i t t l e c o o p e r a t i o n among them. In 1964, a W o r k i n g P a r t y , a p p o i n t e d by t h e government t o i n v e s t i g a t e h o u s i n g p r o b l e m s , recommended t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a H o u s i n g B o a r d t o a d v i s e government on a l l h o u s i n g p o l i c y and t o r e v i e w t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of a p p r o v e d p o l i c y by a l l t h e d e p a r t m e n t s c o n c e r n e d . The government a c c e p t e d t h e p r o p o s a l , and i n 1965, t h e H o u s i n g B o a r d was e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s u r v e y i n g t h e t o t a l h o u s i n g e f f o r t , p u b l i c and p r i v a t e , a d v i s i n g government on t h e s i z e and s c o p e o f t h e f u t u r e p u b l i c h o u s i n g and on s u c h m a t t e r s as r e n t l e v e l s , and e l i g i b i l t y f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g ( M o r r i s 1978). In i t s e i g h t y e a r s o f e x i s t e n c e from 1965-1973, t h e H o u s i n g B o a r d made many p o l i c y r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t o t h e g o vernment. N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t was o n l y an a d v i s o r y body, not a c c o u n t a b l e f o r t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of i t s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . T h e r e was s t i l l no s i n g l e o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t had t h e o v e r a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h o u s i n g p o l i c y and f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m . The p r o b l e m s w i t h t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s y s t e m , a c c o r d i n g t o M o r r i s , were: ( i ) t h e r e was a gap between r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g e s t a t e s and t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r managing and m a i n t a i n i n g them ( w h i l e t h e f o r m e r l a y i n t h e domain of t h e P u b l i c Works D e p a r t m e n t , t h e l a t t e r was a major f u n c t i o n of t h e H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y and t h e R e s e t t l e m e n t D e p a r t m e n t ) ; ( i i ) t h e e x i s t a n c e of t h e two s e p a r a t e management b o d i e s c a u s e d t r e m endous c o n f u s i o n f o r t h e p u b l i c , p a r t i c u l a r l y a s t h e d e s i g n o f l a t e r r e s e t t l e m e n t e s t a t e s was s i m i l a r i n s t a n d a r d t o low 49 c o s t h o u s i n g ; and ( i i i ) t h e l a r g e s i z e o f t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g ram r e q u i r e d p o o l i n g o f t h e l i m i t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s o u r c e s ( M o r r i s , 1978). In O c t o b e r , 1972, t h e G o v e r n o r o f Hong Kong ann o u c e d a t e n y e a r h o u s i n g p r o gram w i t h t h e t a r g e t o f p r o v i d i n g permanent, s e l f - c o n t a i n e d homes w i t h good a m e n i t i e s i n a r e a s o n a b l e e n v i r o n m e n t , f o r t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e p e o p l e o f Hong Kong. T h i s p r o g r a m i n v o l v e d b u i l d i n g accommodation f o r some 1.8 m i l l i o n p e o p l e o v e r t h e n e x t t e n y e a r s . The G o v e r n o r a l s o a n n o u c e d t h e c r e a t i o n o f new h o u s i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n t o g i v e t h e p r o g ram t h e n e c e s s a r y s u p p o r t : "What we p r o p o s e i s t o v e s t i n a s i n g l e body t h e powers and f u n c t i o n s t h a t a r e a t p r e s e n t f r a g m e n t e d , t h a t i s t o say t h o s e o f the- H o u s i n g B o a r d ; t h o s e o f t h e Urban C o u n c i l and t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r f o r R e s e t t l e m e n t under t h e R e s e t t l e m e n t O r d i n a n c e and t h o s e o f t h e H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y under t h e H o u s i n g O r d i n a n c e . We p r o p o s e t o a s s o c i a t e w i t h t h i s s i n g l e body a u n i f i e d H o u s i n g D e p a r t m e n t . T h i s w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p l a n n i n g , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and c o n s t r u c t i o n ... o f a l l p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n t h e C o l o n y and a l s o f o r a l l t h e d u t i e s f o r m e r l y c a r r i e d out by t h e R e s e t t l e m e n t Department and t h e s t a f f o f t h e H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y " , ( s p e e c h by t h e G o v e r n o r o f Hong Kong, S i r C r a w f o r d M. M a c l e h o s e , t o t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l on O c t o b e r 18, 1972). T h e r e were a l s o o t h e r i m p o r t a n t c h a n g e s i n p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n Hong Kong w h i c h had a g r e a t i n f l u e n c e on t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of p u b l i c h o u s i n g . One i n v o l v e d t h e g r o u p i n g o f d e p a r t m e n t s t o a c h i e v e g r e a t e r c o o r d i n a t i o n i n government p r o g r a m s . A number of new b r a n c h e s were c r e a t e d , i n c l u d i n g a H o u s i n g B r a n c h headed by t h e S e c r e t a r y f o r H o u s i n g w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p o l i c y and p rograms i n t h e h o u s i n g f i e l d . S i n c e 1973, p u b l i c h o u s i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n Hong Kong has 50 been under one s i n g l e o r g a n i z a t i o n - t h e Hong Kong H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y . I t i s a s t a t u t o r y body r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o o r d i n a t i n g a l l a s p e c t s o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g . The f u n c t i o n s of t h e A u t h o r i t y i n c l u d e : ( i ) a d v i s e s t h e G o v e r n o r on a l l p u b l i c h o u s i n g p o l i c y m a t t e r s ; ( i i ) p l a n s and b u i l d s p u b l i c h o u s i n g e s t a t e s f o r c l a s s e s o f p e o p l e recommended by t h e a u t h o r i t y and a p p r o v e d by t h e G o v e r n o r ; ( i i i ) manages p u b l i c h o u s i n g e s t a t e s , C o t t a g e a r e a s , Temporary H o u s i n g A r e a s and T r a n s i t c e n t r e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e t e r r i t o r y of Hong Kong; ( i v ) a d v i s e s t h e G o v e r n o r on p o l i c i e s p e r t a i n i n g t o s q u a t t e r c o n t r o l and e l i g i b i l i t y f o r r e h o u s i n g on c l e a r a n c e and e m e r g i e n c i e s ; (v) a c t s a s a g e n t f o r t h e Crown i n t h e s a l e and d e v e l o p m e n t of l a n d . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y has s i n c e 1977 u n d e r t a k e n t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i y f o r p l a n n i n g , b u i l d i n g , and managing Home O w n e r s h i p f l a t s f i n a n c e d i n i t i a l l y by t h e government where i n d i v i d u a l f l a t s a r e s o l d t o f a m i l i e s w i t h i n c e r t a i n income l i m i t s on t e r m s a p p r o v e d by t h e g o v e r n m e n t . The A u t h o r i t y meets q u a r t e r l y u nder the c h a i r m a n s h i p o f t h e S e c r e t a r y f o r H o u s i n g t o r e v i e w t h e work of t h e s i x s t a n d i n g c o m m i t t e e s w h i c h have d e l e g a t e d powers t o d e a l w i t h m a t t e r s c o n c e r n i n g f i n a n c e , b u i l d i n g , e s t a t e management, home o w n e r s h i p , o p e r a t i o n s and a p p e a l s . The A u t h o r i t y c o m p r i s e s 14 members r e p r e s e n t i n g a wide s p e c t r u m o f t h e community, an d s i x o f f i c i a l members f r o m Government d e p a r t m e n t s d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n h o u s i n g m a t t e r s . The b u i l d i n g Committee h o l d s m o n t h l y m e e t i n g s t o d e c i d e 51 upon t h e s e l e c t i o n , p l a n n i n g and l a y o u t of s i t e s , t h e d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s and t h e a c c e p t a n c e of t e n d e r s f o r b u i l d i n g works. The F i n a n c e Committee meets once e v e r y q u a r t e r and ex a m i n e s t h e a n n u a l income, e x p e n d i t u r e and c a p i t a l b udget of t h e H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y . I t a l s o c o - o r d i n a t e s and a d v i s e s on t h e f i n a n c i a l a s p e c t s o f t h e p o l i c i e s f o r m u l a t e d by o t h e r c o m m i t t e e s o f t h e A u t h o r i t y . The Management Committee meets m o n t h l y and i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o v e r s e e i n g t h e management o f h o u s i n g e s t a t e s and c o n s i d e r i n g p o l i c i e s a nd s t a n d a r d s f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t e n a n t s , t e n a n c y c o n d i t i o n s , methods o f r e n t c o l l e c t i o n , a nd e s t a t e m a i t e n a n c e , r e p a i r s and s a n i t a t i o n . The o p e r a t i o n Committee i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p o l i c y m a t t e r s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e c l e a r a n c e o f l a n d r e q u i r e d f o r r e d e v e l o p m e n t , p r e v e n t i o n and c o n t r o l of s q u a t t i n g ; p l a n n i n g and c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f improvements t o s q u a t t e r a r e a s ; management o f C o t t a g e A r e a s and T r a n s i t C e n t r e s ; and a l l o c a t i o n o f t e m p o r a r y and permanent p u b l i c h o u s i n g . The A p p e a l s Committee i s a s t a t u t o r y body e s t a b l i s h e d under t h e H o u s i n g O r d i n a n c e t o h e a r a p p e a l s by t e n a n t s a g a i n s t t h e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e i r t e n a n c y o r t h e s e r v i c e o f a n o t i c e t o q u i t . The Home O w n e r s h i p Committee c a r r i e s o u t i t s f u n c t i o n by making recommendations on new e l i g i b i l i t y c r i t e r i a f o r a p p l i c a n t s f o r f l a t s u nder t h e Home O w n e r s h i p Scheme and f l a t 52 p r i c e s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e Committee on H o u s i n g S u b s i d y t o T e n a n t s o f P u b l i c H o u s i n g was s e t up i n O c t o b e r 1984 t o c o n s i d e r t h e i s s u e of h o u s i n g s u b s i d y f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g r e n t a l t e n a n t s . The E x c u t i v e arm o f t h e A u t h o r i t y i s t h e H o u s i n g D e p a r t m e n t . The Department i s d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r b r a n c h e s : A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , C o n s t r u c t i o n , E s t a t e Management, and O p e r a t i o n . The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n B r a n c h c o - o r d i n a t e s t h e s t a f f and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e H o u s i n g D e p a r t m e n t . T h e s e f u n c t i o n s i n c l u d e p r o v i s i o n o f o f f i c e s e r v i c e s , f i n a n c e and a c c o u n t s , p e r s o n a l t r a i n i n g , and r e s e a r c h . The C o n s t r u c t i o n B r a n c h h a n d l e s t h e p l a n n i n g , d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n of p u b l i c h o u s i n g and a n c i l l a r y c o m m e r c i a l , i n d u s t r i a l and s o c i a l f a c i l i t i e s . I t a l s o d i r e c t s and c o - o r d i n a t e s t h e work o f c o n s u l t a n t s , and c a r r i e s o u t r e s e a r c h on t h e t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s of h o u s i n g . The E s t a t e Management B r a n c h i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e management o f t h e A u t h o r i t y ' s r e n t a l h o u s i n g e s t a t e s . In a d d i t i o n , i t a l s o magages t h e Home O w n e r s h i p Scheme and p r o p e r t i e s on b e h a l f of t h e g o v e r n m e n t . The O p e r a t i o n s B r a n c h i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c l e a r a n c e o f l a n d f o r d e v e l o p m e n t , r e h o u s i n g t h e a f f e c t e d s q u a t t e r s and t e n a n t s of d i l a p i d a t e d tenement b u i l d i n g s , v i c t i m s o f n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r s , c o n t r o l of i l l e g a l s t r u c t u r e s , and r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e o v e r c r o w d e d Mark I and Mark II r e s e t t l e m e n t e s t a t e s b u i l t i n 1950s. I t i s a l s o i n c h a r g e of p r e p a r i n g p l a n n i n g b r i e f s and a c q u i r i n g s u i t a b l e s i t e s f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of h o u s i n g e s t a t e s and t e m p o r a r y h o u s i n g a r e a s . 53 SINGAPORE'S p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m i s b a s e d on t h e B r i t i s h model of p a r l i a m e n t a r y d e m o c r a c y . I t c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e p a r t s : t h e L e g i s l a t u r e , t h e J u d i c i a r y and t h e E x e c u t i v e . The L e g i s l a t u r e c o n s i s t s o f t h e P r e s i d e n t of t h e R e p u b l i c and P a r l i a m e n t . The power o f t h e L e g i s l a t u r e t o make laws i s e x e r c i s e d by p a s s i n g B i l l s w h i c h a r e a s s e n t e d t o by t h e P r e s i d e n t . J u d i c i a l power i s v e s t e d i n t h e Supreme C o u r t and t h e S u b o r d i n a t e C o u r t s . The f u n c t i o n of t h e E x e c u t i v e i s c a r r i e d o u t by t h e C a b i n e t , w h i c h i s c h a i r e d by t h e Prime M i n i s t e r , who i s a p p o i n t e d by t h e P r e s i d e n t . The C a b i n e t i s a c o u n c i l o f m i n i s t e r s c h a r g e d w i t h t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e c o u n t r y and p r o v i d i n g P a r l i a m e n t w i t h t h e p o l i c y g u i d a n c e . The P r i m e M i n i s t e r e f f e c t i v e l y d i r e c t s t h e Government. The C a b i n e t i s r e s p o n s i b l e c o l l e c t i v e l y t o t h e P a r l i a m e n t and c o m p r i s e s t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r and f o u r t e e n m i n i s t e r s i n c h a r g e of M i n i s t r i e s of C o m m u n i c a t i o n s , C u l t u r e , D e f e n c e , E d u c a t i o n , t h e E n v i r o n m e n t , F i n a n c e , F o r e i g n A f f a i r s , H e a l t h , Home A f f a i r s , L a b o u r , Law, N a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t , S o c i a l A f f a i r s and T r a d e and I n d u s t r y ( T h i s r e v i e w i s b a s e d on E n c y c l o p e d i a A m e r i c a n a 1981; Academic  A m e r i c a n E n c y c l o p e d i a 1982). The M i n i s t r y o f N a t i o n a l Development i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p l a n n i n g , s u p e r v i s i n g a s w e l l a s u n d e r t a k i n g p h y s i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t . I t s main d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t i e s c o v e r p u b l i c h o u s i n g , m i d d l e income h o u s i n g , u r b a n r e n e w a l , p u b l i c works, p r i m a r y p r o d u c t i o n , p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n . I t i s t h e s o l e government a u t h o r i t y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f o r m u l a t i o n and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of s e t t l e m e n t p l a n s a t a l l l e v e l s . The m i n i s t r y 54 has a number o f d e p a r t m e n t s t o c o n t r o l and g u i d e d e v e l o p m e n t i n S i n g a p o r e . The p o l i c i e s f o r m u l a t e d by t h e m i n i s t r y a r e c a r r i e d o u t by two s t a t u t o r y b o d i e s , i . e . t h e H o u s i n g and Development B o a r d and t h e Ur b a n Redevelopment A u t h o r i t y . The H o u s i n g and De v e l o p e m n t B o a r d i s a s t a t u t o r y body e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1960 by t h e ena c t m e n t of t h e H o u s i n g and Development A c t . I t has been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g and a n x i l i a r y f a c i l i t i e s s i n c e t h e n . The B o a r d i s c o m p r i s e d of a c h a i r m a n , a d e p u t y c h a i r m a n , and f o u r members. I n i t i a l l y , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n under t h e B o a r d c o m p r i s e d s i x d e p a r t m e n t s : S e c r e t a r i a t , F i n a n c e , R e s e t t l e m e n t , L a n d s , B u i l d i n g , and E s t a t e s . A m a j o r change i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e B o a r d o c c u r e d i n 1973, when i t was r e s t r u c t u r e d i n t o f o u r s e c t i o n s . S i n c e t h e n , t h e B o a r d has c o m p r i s e d t h r e e D i v i s i o n s and one De p a r t m e n t a l l under t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e C h i e f E x e c u t i v e O f f i c e r : A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and F i n a n c e D i v i s i o n , B u i l d i n g and Development D i v i s i o n , E s t a t e s and Lands D i v i s i o n , and R e s e t t l e m e n t D e p a r t m e n t . The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and F i n a n c e D i v i s i o n c o n s i s t s of t h r e e d e p a r t m e n t s : S e c r e t a r i a t , F i n a n c e , and Systems and R e s e a r c h . The S e c r e t a r i a t D e partment i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r g e n e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p e r s o n n e l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n c l u d i n g s t a f f r e c r u i t m e n t and t r a i n i n g , c o n d i t i o n s of s e r v i c e , u n i o n m a t t e r s , and p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s . The F i n a n c e D epartment i s i n c h a r g e o f f i n a n c i a l p o l i c y , b u d g e t a r y c o n t r o l , r e c o r d s and a c c o u n t s o f income and e x p e n d i t u r e , and c o l l e c t i o n s and payments. The 55 Systems and R e s e a r c h D e p a r t m e n t i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r management and s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n s y s t e m s , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s u r v e y s and r e s e a r c h , o r g a n i z a t i o n s y s t e m s and methods s t u d i e s , and e l e c t r o n i c d a t a p r o c e s s i n g . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e i s an I n t e r n a l A u d i t D e p a r t m e n t w h i c h i s d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e Chairman of t h e B o a r d . The B u i l d i n g and Development D i v i s i o n c o n s i s t s of t h e f o l l o w i n g d e p a r t m e n t s : A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and C o n t r a c t s , A r c h i t e c t u r a l , C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g , S t r u c t u r a l E n g i n e e r i n g , E l e c t r i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g , and S u r v e y . The D i v i s i o n i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r l o n g and s h o r t t e r m b u i l d i n g p r o g r a m s , p l a n n i n g and u r b a n d e s i g n i n c l u d i n g new towns, h o u s i n g e s t a t e s , C e n t r a l A r e a h o u s i n g s i t e s , and r u r a l c e n t r e s . I t i s a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e s i g n and s u p e r v i s i o n o f ( i ) HDB p r o j e c t s , i n c l u d i n g p u b l i c h o u s i n g , towns c e n t r e s , i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s , s p o r t s and c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , s o c i a l and community f a c i l i t i e s ; ( i i ) a g e n c y p r o j e c t s , i n c l u d i n g l a n d r e c l a m a t i o n , m i d d l e income h o u s i n g , and o t h e r Government h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s . The o t h e r f u n c t i o n s of t h e D i v i s i o n i n c l u d e r e p a i r and r e d e v e l o p m e n t of h o u s i n g e s t a t e s , and management of t h e p l a n t s f o r b u i d i n g m a t e r i a l s . The E s t a t e and L a n d D i v i s i o n c o n s i s t s of t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s : C e n t r a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , L a n d A c q u i s i t i o n , Land Management and L e a s e s , L e t t i n g s , Hawkers and M a r k e t s , Car P a r k s , L a n d s c a p i n g , E s s e n t i a l M a i n t e n a n c e S e r v i c e s , L a b o u r and W e l f a r e , S e c u r i t y , L e g a l , R e v e r t e d P r o p e r t i e s , and 24 A r e a O f f i c e s . The D i v i s i o n has t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : management of HDB 56 p r o p e r t i e s and r e v e r t e d p r o p e r t i e s , l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n and management, s a l e and r e n t a l of f l a t s , r e n t a l of shops and i n d u s t r i a l p r e m i s e s , management o f hawker c e n t r e and m a r k e t s , c a r p a r k management and e n f o r c e m e n t , l a n d s c a p i n g , 24-hour e s s e n t i a l m a i n t e n a n c e s e r v i c e , l a b o u r and w e l f a r e s e r v i c e , e s t a t e s and l a n d s l e g a l m a t t e r s , s e c u r i t y s e r v i c e s , and r e s i d e n t s ' c o m m i t t e e s . The R e s e t t l e m e n t D e p a r t m e n t i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r ( i ) c l e a r a n c e o f S t a t e L a n ds r e q u i r e d f o r p u b l i c d e v e l o p m e n t , i n c l u d i n g p u b l i c h o u s i n g , u r b a n r e n e w a l , i n d u s t r i e s , p o r t f a c i l i t i e s , a i r p o r t d e v e l o p m e n t , r o a d s , r e s e r v o i r s and o t h e r p u b l i c works; ( i i ) r e l o c a t i o n of h o u s e h o l d s , s h o p s , f a r m e r s and i n d u s t r i e s ; ( i i i ) a s s e s s m e n t of ex g r a t i a c o m p e n s a t i o n , and ( i v ) d e v e l o p m e n t o f r e s e t t l e m e n t f a r m s . From t h e above r e v i e w , we c a n c l e a r l y see t h a t b o t h Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e have complex and w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s y s t e m s f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g . They b o t h have t h e f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s : ( i ) t h e r e i s a s t a t u t o r y body w h i c h has r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l a s p e c t s o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g , i n c l u d i n g p l a n n i n g , f i n a n c e , d e s i g n , c o n s t r u c t i o n , a l l o c a t i o n , and management; ( i i ) t h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e body has a s t r u c t u r e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s u c h t h a t e a c h component has c l e a r l y d e f i n e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ; ( i i i ) t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t i e s f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g c o v e r s a wide a r e a , i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e p o l i c y g o a l of t h e government t o d e s i g n a t e p u b l i c 57 h o u s i n g p r o g r a m as a p a r t o f i t s o v e r a l l d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g y . 3.2 F i n a n c e of P u b l i c H o u s i n g Programs F i n a n c e i s e s s e n t i a l f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g any p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m . I t i s as an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e s u c c e s s o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s , b e c a u s e ( i ) t h e s o u r c e o f f i n a n c e i n d i c a t e s t h e s o c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e h o u s i n g programs and i s a m a j o r d e t e r m i n e n t o f r e n t s ; ( i i ) t h e s c a l e of c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t d e t e r m i n e s t h e s c a l e o f t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s ; ( i i i ) f i n a n c e i s a major d e t e r m i n e n t of t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g , s u c h as t h e l o c a t i o n o f s i t e s and t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a m e n i t i e s , w h i c h a r e i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s d e t e r m i n i n g t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c e f f e c t s o f t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s . In Hong Kong between 1954 and 1972, as we have seen from t h e above r e v i e w , t h e r e were t h r e e k i n d s of low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g - r e s e t t l e m e n t e s t a t e s p r o v i d e d by t h e R e s e t t l e m e n t D e p a r t m e n t , h o u s i n g e s t a t e s p r o v i d e d by t h e f o r m e r H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y , and h o u s i n g e s t a t e s b u i l t u nder t h e Government Low-C o s t H o u s i n g Scheme. T h e s e p u b l i c h o u s i n g programs were f i n a n c e d i n d i f f e r e n t ways. The c a p i t a l f o r R e s e t t l e m e n t H o u s i n g e s t a t e s and Government Low-Cost H o u s i n g came d i r e c t l y f r o m Government Revenue. The H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y was f i n a n c e d by l o w - i n t e r e s t Government Development Loan Funds p l u s s e l f - f i n a n e i n g from r e n t s r e c e i v e d . A l l t h r e e t y p e s o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g r e c e i v e d government s u b s i d i e s . The c a p i t a l a l l o c a t i o n f o r R e s e t t l e m e n t H o u s i n g and Government Low-Cost H o u s i n g was a s o c i a l r a t h e r t h a n an economic 58 i n i t i a t i v e . L o a n s t o t h e H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y c a r r i e d a l o w e r t h a n market r a t e o f i n t e r e s t . In a d d i t i o n , a l l t y p e s o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g r e c e i v e d government s u b s i d i e s t h r o u g h a l l o c a t i o n o f l a n d by t h e government a t l e s s t h a n f u l l market v a l u e ( s e e D r a k a k i s -S m i t h , 1979, Fong, 1980, and M o r r i s , 1978). The r e s u l t was t h a t t h e r e n t s f o r t h e s e p u b l i c h o u s i n g f l a t s were s u b s t a n t i a l l y l o w e r t h a n market p r i c e s . The r e s e t t l e m e n t h o u s i n g r e c e i v e d t h e l a r g e s t s u b s i d i e s b e c a u s e i t s r e n t s were b a s e d on a 40 y e a r a m o r t i z a t i o n o f c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s , i n c l u d i n g l o a n r e p a y m e n t s a t o n l y 3.5% p e r annum i n t e r e s t . No p r o v i s i o n was made f o r r e g u l a r r e n t r e v i e w s t o c o v e r i n c r e a s e s i n o p e r a t i n g c o s t s , r e s u l t i n g i n s u b s t a n t i a l d e f i c i t s w h i c h were c o v e r e d by government g r a n t s ( M o r r i s , 1978, p 5 8 ) . S i n c e 1973, p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n Hong Kong has been a d m i n i s t r a t e d by a s i n g l e o r g a n i z a t i o n - t h e Hong Kong N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y . The r e c o n s t r u c t e d H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y ' a c t i v i t i e s a r e f i n a n c e d i n a number of ways. E x p e n d i t u r e s on c l e a r a n c e and s q u a t t e r c o n t r o l a r e met i n f u l l from t h e G e n e r a l Revenue of Hong Kong. E x p e n d i t u r e s on managing and m a i n t a i n i n g t h e f o r m e r H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y and Government Low-Cost H o u s i n g a r e met e n t i r e l y from income from r e n t s w h i l e any s u r p l u s i s t o be u s e d t o meet e x p e n d i t u r e s on r e d e v e l o p i n g o l d e s t a t e s and d e v e l o p i n g new o n e s . The major s o u r c e f o r t h e m a s s i v e c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t i s l o a n s f r o m t h e Hong Kong government. The d e f i c i t s i n m anaging and m a i t a i n i n g t h e f o r m e r R e s e t t l e m e n t E s t a t e s a r e met by a d e f i c i e n c y g r a n t p r o v i d e d by t h e government. A f t e r 1976, t h e government p r o v i d e d l a n d t o t h e A u t h o r i t y f r e e , a s a 59 premium f o r low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g . T h i s p r i n c i p l e a l s o a p p l i e s t o t h e s i t e s on w h i c h p u b l i c h o u s i n g e s t a t e s have been b u i l t s i n c e 1973, and t o l a n d o c c u p i e d by f o r m e r R e s e t t l e m e n t and Government Low-Income e s t a t e s w h i c h were handed o v e r t o t h e A u t h o r i t y i n 1973. 1 The new l a n d p o l i c y has c o n s i d e r a b l y l i g h t e n e d t h e f i n a n c i a l b u r d e n o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g , l e a v i n g o n l y t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s t o be met. I n S i n g a p o r e , t h e c a p i t a l f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g i s met by l o a n s from t h e g o v ernment. The H o u s i n g and D e v elopment B o a r d o b t a i n s two t y p e s o f l o a n s : a 6 0 - y e a r l o a n a t 7 3/4% i n t e r e s t t o f i n a n c e p u b l i c h o u s i n g f o r r e n t a l and a 10-y e a r l o a n a t 6% i n t e r e s t t o f i n a n c e p u b l i c h o u s i n g f o r s a l e . In 1978, S$910 m i l l i o n of l o a n f u n d s were a l l o c a t e d t o t h e B o a r d f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g . The e x p e n d i t u r e of t h e HDB i n c l u d e s r epayments of l o a n s , p r o p e r t y t a x , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , m a i n t e n a n c e and c o n s e r v a n c y c h a r g e s . The income i s from r e n t , s e r v i c e c h a r g e s , i n t e r e s t and o t h e r m i s c e l l a n e o u s income. Due t o t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s p o l i c y of p r o v i d i n g d e c e n t h o u s i n g f o r t h e low-income p e o p l e , t h e r e n t a l of p u b l i c h o u s i n g i s f i x e d a t a s u b - e c o n o m i c l e v e l , and t h e 1 S i n c e 1973, t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n Hong Kong has been under one s i n g l e o r g a n i z a t i o n , i . e . t h e Hong Kong H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y . A c c o r d i n g l y , a l l t h r e e t y p e s o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g b u i l t between 1954 and 1973 by t h e p r e v i o u s t h r e e b o d i e s were handed o v e r t o t h e newly e s t a b l i s h e d Hong Kong H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y . 60 s e l l i n g p r i c e s of t h e f l a t s a r e a l s o below c o s t . As a r e s u l t t h e B o a r d ' s a n n u a l e x p e n d i t u r e has a l w a y s e x c e e d e d i t s income. The r e c u r r e n t d e f i c i t s a r e f u l l y s u b s i d i s e d by t h e government i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r t h r o u g h a n n u a l p r o v i s i o n made i n t h e R e p u b l i c ' s M a i n E s t i m a t e s . The B o a r d ' s a n n u a l d e f i c i t was S$10 m i l l i o n i n 1971, S$30 m i l l i o n i n 1973, and i n 1978, t h e f i g u r e r o s e t o S$59 m i l l i o n ( S i c a t , 1979, and A n n u a l R e p o r t 1978-1979). A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e o f t h e f i n a n c e of p u b l i c h o u s i n g i s t h e s c a l e o f i n v e s t m e n t . B o t h Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e have p u t c o n s i d e r a b l e amount c a p i t a l i n t o p u b l i c h o u s i n g ( t a b l e 3.1 and 3 . 2 ) . T a b l e 3.1 P u b l i c H o u s i n g I n v e s t m e n t i n Hong Kong ( a t 1978 market p r i c e s HK$M.) P e r c e n t a g e o f G r o s s P u b l i c R e s i d e n t i a l D o m e s t i c F i x e d P e r c e n t a g e Y e a r B u i l d i n g s C a p i t a l F o r m a t i o n of GDP 1961 52 4.0 0.9 1 962 74 4.3 1 . 1 1963 1 24 5.5 1 .6 1 964 1 35 5. 1 1 .5 1965 129 4.3 1 .2 1966 125 4.9 1 . 1 1 967 120 5.6 1.0 1 968 101 5.1 0.8 1969 91 3.7 0.6 1970 1 04 2.9 0.6 1971 1 12 2.3 0.5 1 972 90 1 .7 0.4 1 973 1 17 1.8 0.4 1 974 313 4.3 0.9 S o u r c e : M o r r i s , 1978, p68. 61 T a b l e 3.2 P u b l i c H o u s i n g I n v e s t m e n t i n S i n g a p o r e C a p i t a l I n v e s t m e n t i n C a p i t a l I n v e s t m e n t i n Y e a r P u b l i c H o u s i n g (S$M.) Y e a r P u b l i c H o u s i n g (S$M.) 1960 10.0 1 970 91 .1 1 961 30.2 1 971 1 36.4 1962 40.5 1 972 242.7 1963 50.8 1973-74 436.2 1 964 35.3 1974-75 475 1965 31 .9 1975-76 648 1 966 50.4 1976-77 765 1 967 59.4 1977-78 n .a. 1968 72.2 1978-79 91 1 1969 71.9 S o u r c e s : Chua Wee Meng and Ho Koon N g i a p , 1975; S i n g a p o r e HDB A n n u a l R e p o r t 1973-1979. The above r e v i e w shows t h a t b o t h g o v e r n m e n t s have p u t c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t i n f i n a n c i n g low- income p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s t o e n s u r e t h e s o c i a l n a t u r e o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g . A l t h o u g h d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of p u b l i c h o u s i n g a r e s u b s i d i z e d t o d i f f e r e n t e x t e n t s , r e n t a l s and s a l e p r i c e s o f a l l t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g f l a t s a r e l o w e r t h a n a c t u a l c o s t s . We now know t h e d i f f e r e n t ways i n w h i c h t h e government s u b s i d i e s a r e p r o v i d e d : i n Hong Kong i t i s f r e e l a n d ; i n S i n g a p o r e t h e government c o v e r s d e f i c i t s by g r a n t s , and b o t h g o v e r n m e n t s o f f e r low i n t e r e s t l o a n s f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g . Next we a r e i n t e r e s t e d how t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n g u i d e s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e s u b s i d i z e d p u b l i c h o u s i n g f l a t s . What a r e t h e r e g u l a t i o n s t o e n s u r e t h e s o c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g ? Who a r e t h e p e r s o n s e l i g i b l e f o r t h e s u b s i d i z e d p u b l i c h o u s i n g f l a t s ? 62 3.3 The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f P u b l i c H o u s i n g F l a t s The f o c u s of d i s c u s s i o n h e r e i s n o t on t h e p r o c e s s o f d i s t r i b u t i o n o r on t h e methods u s e d i n s u c h a p r o c e s s , r a t h e r , i t i s on t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h d e t e r m i n e t h e b e n e f i c i a r i e s o f t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s . In Hong Kong, b e f o r e 1973, t h e c r i t e r i a f o r t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g were as f o l l o w s ( D r a k a k i s - S m i t h , 1979): The R e s e t t l e m e n t H o u s i n g was b u i l t t o r e s e t t l e f a m i l i e s d i s p l a c e d f r o m Crown l a n d r e q u i r e d f o r d e v e l o p m e n t , f a m i l i e s made h o m e l e s s by t h e d e m o l i t i o n o f d a n g e r o u s b u i l d i n g s , c o m p a s s i o n a t e w e l f a r e c a s e s , and c e r t a i n v i c t i m s o f n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r s . F o r t h i s t y p e o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g t h e r e were no income c r i t e r i a . The Government Low-Cost H o u s i n g was f o r low-income f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n o v e r c r o w d e d and s u b - s t a n d a r d accommodation. In t e r m s of income l i m i t , t h e o r i g i n a l g o a l was t o b u i l d f l a t s f o r f a m i l i e s e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n HK$300 p e r month, but even t h e s i m p l e s t f o r m of b u i l d i n g made t h e r e n t s t o o h i g h f o r t h i s income g r o u p and t h e u p p e r l i m i t was t h e r e f o r e , r a i s e d t o HKS500. The H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y b u i l t h o u s i n g f o r f a m i l i e s o f m o d erate means l i v i n g i n o v e r c r o w d e d and s u b - s t a n d a r d a c c o mmodation. These f a m i l i e s were t o have an income between HK$500 and HK$900 a month. 63 F o r t h e h o u s i n g b u i l t by t h e Hong Kong N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y a f t e r 1973, t h e e l i g i b i l i t y c r i t e r i a a r e a low h o u s e h o l d income (HK$2,000 a month f o r a f a m i l y o f t h r e e t o HK$2,850 f o r t e n o r more) and a maximum l i v i n g a r e a o f 35 s q u a r e f e e t p e r p e r s o n . The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t of e l i g i b i l i t y c r i t e r i a f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g w h i c h was u s e d i n 1979 (Fong, 1980): 1. V i c t i m s of f i r e s and n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r s , 2. C o m p a s s i o n a t e c a s e s , 3. E x - t e n a n t s o f d a n g e r o u s b u i l d i n g s , 4. Development c l e a r a n c e s , 5. Urban Renewal Scheme, 6. Redevelopment o r c o n v e r s i o n , 7. Re-use of t e m p o r a r y h o u s i n g a r e a s , 8. R e l i e f of o v e r c r o w d i n g , 9. W a i t i n g l i s t a p p l i c a n t s , 10. J u n i o r c i v i l s e r v a n t s , 11. M i s c e l l a n e o u s . O c c u p a n t s of h u t s a f f e c t e d by n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r s o r i n d e v e l o p m e n t c l e a r a n c e a r e a s a r e e l i g i b l e f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g o n l y i f t h e h u t s c o n c e r n e d were r e c o r d e d i n t h e 1964 s q u a t t e r c o n t r o l s u r v e y . In S i n g a p o r e , t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g f l a t s b u i l t by HDB a r e a l s o a l l o c a t e d t o t h e low-income g r o u p . In t h e e a r l y p e r i o d , t h e c r i t e r i a f o r a l l o c a t i o n were: "an a p p l i c a n t must be a S i n g a p o r e c i t i z e n o v e r 21 y e a r s of age, and have a f a m i l y u n i t o f not l e s s t h a n f i v e p e r s o n s , i n c l u d i n g h i m s e l f " ; and " t h e a p p l i c a n t ' s 64 income must not e x c e e d S$500 p.m. and t h e t o t a l f a m i l y income must n o t e x c e e d S$800 p.m.". R e g i s t r a t i o n f o r t h e B o a r d ' s one room u n i t s i s open t o t h o s e w i t h a f a m i l y u n i t o f n o t l e s s t h a n t h r e e p e r s o n s and an income n o t e x c e e d i n g S$250 p e r month. In 1964, t h e B o a r d i n i t i a t e d t h e Home O w n e r s h i p Sheme. Under t h i s sheme, t h e b a s i c c r i t e r i a f o r a p e r s o n t o p u r c h a s e HDB f l a t s a r e t h a t t h e a p p l i c a n t ' s i n d i v i d u a l m o n t h l y income i s not more t h a n S$800 and t h a t t h e t o t a l m o n t h l y income o f t h e a p p l i c a n t ' s f a m i l y i s n o t more t h a n S$1,000. In 1969, t h e f a m i l y income c e i l i n g was r a i s e d f r o m S$1,000 p e r month t o S$1,200 p e r month. In A u g u s t 1967, t h e r e q u i r m e n t on t h e s i z e o f t h e a p p l i c a n t ' s f a m i l y was r e d u c e d t o 2 p e r s o n s . The income l i m i t s f o r r e n t i n g p u b l i c h o u s i n g f l a t s r e m a i n e d u n t i l 1978, when t h e i n d i v i d u a l income l i m i t o f $500 p e r month was removed. As a c o n c l u s i o n t o t h i s d i s c u s s i o n on t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and f i n a n c e o f t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g programs i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e , we may say t h a t , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n of p u b l i c h o u s i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n b o t h Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e p r o v i d e s a sound b a s i s f o r e f f i c i e n c y ; t h e f i n a n c e i s a l s o p r o m i s i n g f o r s u c c u s s f u l l y a c h i e v i n g t h e p o l i c y g o a l of p r o v i d i n g h o u s i n g t o t h e low-income f a m i l i e s ; and s u c h a p o l i c y g o a l seems f u r t h e r e n s u r e d by t h e r e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h g u i d e s t h e a l l o c a t i o n of p u b l i c h o u s i n g f l a t s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t has t o be e m p h a s i z e d t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and f i n a n c e i s n o t t h e o n l y f a c t o r d e t e r m i n i n g 65 t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c e f f e c t s of low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g . T h e r e a r e a number o f r e a s o n s f o r s a y i n g t h i s . F i r s t o f a l l , a l t h o u g h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and f i n a n c e i s o f c r i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e , t h e r e a r e o t h e r d e t e r m i n e n t s of t h e s u c c e s s o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s , i n c l u d i n g p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g , d e s i g n , c o n s t r u c t i o n , management. F o r example, what d e c i d e s t h e a f f o r d a b i l i t y o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g f l a t s i s n o t o n l y t h e s u b s i d i e s but a l s o t h e f i n a l r e n t , w h i c h i s a r e s u l t of v a r i o u s f a c t o r s . S e c o n d l y , t o a l l o c a t e p u b l i c h o u s i n g t o t h e low-income g r o u p d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r y mean t h a t t h e p o o r e s t p e o p l e a r e among t h e b e n e f i c i a r i e s b e c a u s e o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y d i s t a n c e t o employment and r e n t s , may f o r c e t h e low-income p e o p l e t o g i v e up t h e i r c h a n c e s t o l i v e i n r e m o t e l y l o c a t e d o r e x p e n s i v e p u b l i c h o u s i n g e s t a t e s . T h e r e f o r e , we have t o e x p l o r e o t h e r i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e s u c c e s s of t h e low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g p rograms i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e , i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n of p u b l i c h o u s i n g . 66 CHAPTER 4. PLANNING AND DESIGN OF THE LOW-INCOME PUBLIC HOUSING IN HONG KONG AND SINGAPORE 4.1 The F u n c t i o n o f P l a n n i n g and D e s i g n T h i s t o p i c i s d i s c u s s e d h e r e on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n a r e a c r i t i c a l s t e p t o w a r d s i m p l e m e n t i n g government h o u s i n g p o l i c y and low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s . P r e v i o u s a n a l y s i s has shown t h e p o t e n t i a l of d e v e l o p i n g low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e . The most i m p o r t a n t f i n d i n g i s t h a t p u b l i c h o u s i n g c an be an e f f e c t i v e way t o s a t i s f y b a s i c h o u s i n g needs o f t h e poor and t h a t i t can be an e f f i c i e n t s t r a t e g y t o e c o n o m i z e on t h e use of u r b a n l a n d , w h i c h i s c r i t i c a l t o b o t h t h e i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n and s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e . The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and f i n a n c e of low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g have s e t p r o m i s i n g g u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c g o a l s of t h e h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s o f wh i c h t h e c e n t r a l theme i s t o g i v e f u l l p l a y t o p o t e n t i a l s o c i a l and economic d e v e l o p m e n t t h r o u g h p r o v i d i n g w e l l p l a n n e d p u b l i c h o u s i n g f o r low-income h o u s e h o l d s . What s h o u l d p l a n n e r s and a r c h i t e c t s do, w i t h t h e l i m i t e d economic r e s o u r c e s p r o v i d e d , t o a c h i e v e t h e s e p o l i c y g o a l s ? To s a t i s f y t h e h o u s i n g needs o f t h e p o o r , p l a n n e r s and a r c h i t e c t s s h o u l d f i r s t u n d e r s t a n d t h e ter m " h o u s i n g n e e d s " . At one l e v e l , h o u s i n g i s a b a s i c human need; a s e c u r e and s a n i t a r y p r i v a t e s h e l t e r i s e s s e n t i a l t o l i f e . A t a n o t h e r l e v e l , h o u s i n g i s s e e n t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n and o v e r a l l 67 d e v e l o p m e n t o f a p e r s o n ' s a b i l i t i e s , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t i e s and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , p l a n n e r s and a r c h i t e c t s s h o u l d c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r a wide r a n g e of a t t r i b u t e s o f h o u s i n g , i n c l u d i n g a f f o r d a b i l i t y , p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l a m e n i t i e s , l o c a t i o n and a c c e s s . B e c a u s e o f t h e s e v e r i t y o f t h e h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e , i t was a l s o e s s e n t i a l f o r a s u c c e s s f u l h o u s i n g p r o g r a m t o be o f a s c a l e w h i c h e n a b l e s t h e o v e r a l l h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e t o be a l l e v i a t e d q u i c k l y . H o u s i n g i s a major component of t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t . As an i m p o r t a n t l a n d u s e , i t may c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of o t h e r s e c t o r s , e s p e c i a l l y m a n u f a c t u r i n g and commerce. Such c o n f l i c t s have o f t e n o c c u r r e d i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e where s p a c e i s so l i m i t e d w h i l e t h e demand f o r l a n d f o r i n d u s t r y , and h o u s i n g t h e g r o w i n g p o p u l a t i o n have b o t h been g r e a t . T h e r e f o r e , e c o n o m i z i n g on u r b a n l a n d t h r o u g h i m p r o v e d p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n was, and s t i l l i s , an i m p o r t a n t o b j e c t i v e f o r t h e d e s i g n e r s o f t h e low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e . No d o u b t t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n has been enormous. I t i s c o s t l y t o b u i l d h o u s i n g t h a t i s w e l l l o c a t e d , e q u i p p e d w i t h b a s i c i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , and has e a s y a c c e s s t o employment and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , w h i l e t h e low-income p e o p l e ' s p o t e n t i a l t o pay f o r h o u s i n g i s e x t r e m e l y l i m i t e d . Even t h o u g h b o t h Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e o f f e r government s u b s i d i e s , t h e c a p i t a l r e s o u r c e s a r e l i m i t e d . M o r e o v e r , t h e l a n d s h o r t a g e i n b o t h u r b a n - s t a t e s p r e s e n t s a f u r t h e r c h a l l e n g e . What have t h e 68 p l a n n e r s and a r c h i t e c t s done t o b r i d g e t h e gap between t h e ec o n o m i c r e s o u r c e s and t h e a m b i t i o u s p o l i c y g o a l s o f t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s ? T h e r e have been e s s e n t i a l l y f o u r m e asures u s e d i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e i n p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n i n g t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p u b l i c h o u s i n g : ( i ) s q u a t t e r c l e a r a n c e and c o m p l e m e n t a r y p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s ; ( i i ) h i g h - r i s e and h i g h - d e n s i t y p u b l i c h o u s i n g ; ( i i i ) s p a t i a l e x p a n s i o n o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m ; and ( i v ) low d e s i g n s t a n d a r d s f o r p u b l i c p u b l i c h o u s i n g . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s d i s c u s s t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e s e m e asures c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s u c c e s s of t h e p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n of t h e h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s . 4.2 S q u a t t e r C l e a r a n c e and Complementary P u b l i c H o u s i n g Program HONG KONG i s one of t h e most d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d a r e a s i n t h e w o r l d . In 1978, t h e o v e r a l l p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y o f Hong Kong was 11,582 p e o p l e p e r s q u a r e m i l e The 1976 By-Census showed t h a t t h e d e n s i t y of t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s (Hong Kong I s l a n d , Kowloon, New Kowloon, and T s u e n Wan) was 64,532 p e o p l e p e r s q u a r e m i l e . The d e n s i t y o f t h e most p o p u l a t e d u r b a n d i s t r i c t i n Kowloon-Mong Kok was o v e r 413,000 p e o p l e p e r s q u a r e m i l e , w h i c h i s p r o b a b l y t h e h i g h e s t i n t h e w o r l d ( F o n g , 1980). As a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f i t s l a n d a r e a i s h i l l y and u n s u i t a b l e f o r d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e v a l u e o f t h e l a n d l o c a t e d i n t h e u r b a n a r e a s i s o b v i o u s l y h i g h . The h i g h p r i c e of u r b a n l a n d , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e s e r i o u s 69 h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e , has c a u s e d s q u a t t e r s e t t l e m e n t s . The h i s t o r y of t h e s q u a t t e r p r o b l e m i n Hong Kong goes back as f a r as t h e 19th c e n t u r y . However, i t was o n l y s i n c e 1949 t h a t t h e m a g n i t u d e of t h i s p r o b l e m become unmanageable, and i t was t h e n t h a t t h e government began t o employ some p r e v e n t a t i v e m e asures t o c l e a r s q u a t t e r a r e a s f o r d e v e l o p m e n t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , c l e a r a n c e w i t h o u t r e h o u s i n g a c h i e v e d l i t t l e s u c c e s s i n i m p r o v i n g t h e o v e r a l l s i t u a t i o n ( F o n g , 1980). S i n c e 1954, t h e r e s p o n s e o f t h e Hong Kong government t o t h e l a n d s h o r t a g e has been t o p u r s u e a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e program o f l a n d d e v e l o p m e n t t o p r o v i d e s i t e s f o r h o u s i n g and o t h e r u r b a n u s e s . The most i m p o r t a n t measure a p p l i e d f o r t h i s p u r p o s e has been s q u a t t e r c l e a r a n c e and t h e c o m p l e m e n t a r y p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s . In t h e e a r l y 1950s, t h e s q u a t t e r p o p u l a t i o n of Hong Kong was w i d e l y s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e e x i s t i n g u r b a n a r e a s ( f i g u r e 4 . 1 ) . T h e s e s q u a t t e r s e t t l e m e n t s i l l e g a l l y o c c u p i e d c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of u n l e a s e d Crown L a n d . Most of t h e a r e a s o c c u p i e d by s q u a t t e r s was l a n d w h i c h was s u i t a b l e f o r o t h e r forms o f d e v e l o p m e n t . Many h i l l s l o p e s o c c u p i e d by s q u a t t e r s were i d e a l s i t e s f o r m u l t i - s t o r e y r e s i d e n t i a l b l o c k s as t h e s e s i t e s o f t e n commanded a good view o f t h e h a r b o u r . As Hong Kong was t h e n a n t i c i p a t i n g i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , t h e s e s q u a t t e r s e t t l e m e n t s b l o c k e d t h e p a t h of e conomic d e v e l o p m e n t . The under u t i l i z a t i o n of t h e l a n d i n t h e s q u a t t e r a r e a s c o n t r a d i c t e d t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e o v e r a l l l a n d s h o r t a g e i n Hong Kong and a g g r a v a t e d c o n f l i c t s F i g u r e 4.1 - S q u a t t e r A r e a s i n Hong Kong, 1955. S o u r c e : D r a k a k i s - S m i t h , ( 1 9 7 9 ) . 71 o v e r l a n d u s e . M o r e o v e r , s q u a t t e r s e t t l e m e n t s c a u s e d many s o c i a l and e n v i r o n m e n t p r o b l e m s . They were t h r e a t s t o p u b l i c h e a l t h and s e c u r i t y . T h e r e f o r e , i t was n e c e s s a r y , i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e t h e p o l i c y g o a l o f e c o n o m i z i n g on t h e use o f u r b a n l a n d , t o b u i l d p u b l i c h o u s i n g e s t a t e s t o r e p l a c e s q u a t t e r s e t t l e m e n t s . The c o n t i n u e d s q u a t t e r f i r e s i n 1953 and 1954 c r e a t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e Hong Kong government t o r e o r g a n i z e t h e s q u a t t e d l a n d . The government t o o k t h e o p p o r t u n i t y and i n i t i a t e d t h e R e s e t t l e m e n t Program. I t was t h e government m o t i v e t o a l l e v i a t e t h e s e v e r e c o n f l i c t s o v e r l a n d use between h o u s i n g and o t h e r forms o f d e v e l o p m e n t t h r o u g h g r e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y i n t h e use of l a n d f o r b o t h h o u s i n g and o t h e r p u r p o s e s , s u c h a s m a n u f a c t u r i n g and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . T h i s was done by u s i n g h i g h d e n s i t y m u l t i - s t o r e y r e s e t t l e m e n t b l o c k s t o r e p l a c e s q u a t t e r h o u s e s , and l e a v i n g p a r t of t h e c l e a r e d l a n d f o r o t h e r u s e s . T h i s a p p r o a c h , of t h e R e s e t t l e m e n t Program, was t h e domi n a n t component of t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m i n Hong Kong i n t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1954 t o 1973. T h i s a p p r o a c h i n v o l v e d a c o m p r e h e n s i v e p o l i c y of c o n t r o l , c l e a r a n c e , and r e h o u s i n g o f s q u a t t e r s . A l l s q u a t t e r a r e a s were t o r e m a i n " f r o z e n " as from A u g u s t 1954, i . e . no u n a u t h o r i s e d new s q u a t t e r s t r u c t u r e s were p e r m i t e d . S q u a t t e r s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h were e r e c t e d b e f o r e A u g u s t 1954 were d e s i g n a t e d a s " t o l e r a t e d " s t r u c t u r e s . They were s p e c i a l l y marked and a l l o w e d t o r e m a i n u n d i s t u r b e d u n t i l t h e y had t o be d e m o l i s h e d t o make way f o r d e v e l o p m e n t , a t wh i c h t i m e t h e o c c u p a n t s were r e h o u s e d (Fong, 72 1980). T h i s was an e s s e n t i a l measure t o e n s u r e t h a t s q u a t t e r a r e a s were under government c o n t r o l . When an a r e a was r e q u i r e d f o r d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e R e s e t t l e m e n t Department was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a r r a n g i n g c l e a r a n c e o f a l l s t r u c t u r e s and r e h o u s i n g of t h e e l i g i b l e p e r s o n s . P r i o r i t y and t i m i n g f o r c l e a r a n c e o f an a r e a was o f t e n d e c i d e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e p u r p o s e f o r w h i c h t h e l a n d was r e q u i r e d ; t h e t i m e r e q u i r e d f o r t h e c l e a r a n c e of t h e l a n d ; t h e number of s q u a t t e r s a f f e c t e d and t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a l t e r n a t i v e accommodation f o r t h e s e s q u a t t e r s . A new p a t t e r n o f l a n d use has a p p e a r e d on t h e p r e v i o u s l y s q u a t t e d a r e a s . A c c o r d i n g t o D r a k a k i s - S m i t h , o v e r 27 p e r c e n t o f t h e s q u a t t e r l a n d c l e a r e d between 1956 and 1964 was u s e d f o r i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t and a u c t i o n s a l e s , a b o u t 42 p e r c e n t was u s e d f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g e s t a t e s , and t h e r e m a i n d e r was u s e d f o r i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s , s u c h as r o a d or d r a i n a g e schemes, and o t h e r p u b l i c works ( D r a k a k i s - S m i t h , 1979). Such a new p a t t e r n of l a n d use was a r e s u l t of t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of r e s e t t l e m e n t e s t a t e s and o t h e r forms o f low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g t o " p r o v i d e r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s a t much h i g h e r d e n s i t i e s t h a n t h e s q u a t t e r a r e a s t h e y r e p l a c e " (Dwyer, 1975). SINGAPORE. The s h o r t a g e o f l a n d r e l a t i v e t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s a l s o a major c o n s t r a i n t on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f S i n g a p o r e . In 1980, t h e 2.43 m i l l i o n p o p u l a t i o n of t h i s u r b a n - s t a t e l i v e d a t a d e n s i t y o f 3907 p e r s o n s p e r s q u a r e k i l o m e t e r s . T h i s p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y , a l t h o u g h s l i g h t l y l o w e r t h a n t h a t o f Hong Kong, was 73 much h i g h e r t h a n t h e d e n s i t i e s i n o t h e r S o u t h e s t A s i a n c o u n t r i e s ( L i u , e t a l , 1983). S i n g a p o r e i s t h e r e f o r e s i m i l a r t o Hong Kong i n i t s l a n d p r o b l e m . In t h e l a t e 1950s and e a r l y 1960s, t h e l a n d p r o b l e m was v e r y s e r i o u s i n S i n g a p o r e b e c a u s e t h e r e was an i n c r e a s i n g h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e and t h e s q u a t t e r s e t t l e m e n t s were i n c r e a s i n g . The government r e c o g n i z e d t h e s e c o n s t r a i n t s on e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t and t h e need and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f HDB and t h e c o n s e q u e n t low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m marked t h e b e g i n n i n g of a p o s i t i v e government a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h e l a n d p r o b l e m . As i n Hong Kong, t h e government o f S i n g a p o r e has p u r s u e d a c o m p r e h e n s i v e p r o g r a m of l a n d d e v e l o p m e n t t o p r o v i d e s i t e s f o r h o u s i n g and o t h e r u r b a n u s e s . The m a j o r measure u s e d f o r t h i s p u r p o s e has a l s o been t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f l a r g e s c a l e low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g e s t a t e s t o a c h i e v e a h i g h e r e f f i c i e n c y o f l a n d u s e . The major d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s e two u r b a n - s t a t e s has been t h a t S i n g a p o r e u s e s p u b l i c h o u s i n g t o r e p l a c e b o t h s q u a t t e r s e t t l e m e n t s and slum b u i l d i n g s t h r o u g h b o t h r e s e t t l e m e n t and u r b a n r e n e w a l p r o g r a m s , whereas Hong Kong has c o n c e n t r a t e d i t s e f f o r t s more on c l e a r a n c e and r e s e t t l e m e n t of s q u a t t e r s . The p o l i c y i n S i n g a p o r e was t h a t t h e o c c u p a n t s had t o be r e s e t t l e d i n a c c e p t a b l e accommodation of one form o r a n o t h e r b e f o r e u r b a n r e d e v e l o p m e n t c o u l d t a k e p l a c e . P r a c t i c a l p o l i c i e s f o r r e l o c a t i o n and c o m p e n s a t i o n o f t h o s e a f f e c t e d by c l e a r a n c e 74 a r e i m p l e m e n t e d . Most p e r s o n s a f f e c t e d by c l e a r a n c e schemes a r e r e h o u s e d i n HDB f l a t s under s p e c i a l a r r a n g m e n t s (Wan, 1975). T h e r e i s no d a t a a v a i l a b l e r e g a r d i n g t h e new p a t t e r n o f l a n d use on t h e f o r m e r s q u a t t e r s e t t l e m e n t s o r s l u m s . T h e r e i s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e t o show t h a t t h e c l e a r e d l a n d i s u s e d f o r v a r i o u s p u r p o s e s , i n c l u d i n g p u b l i c h o u s i n g , i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t , i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , and l e a s e s t o p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s . From t h e above d i s c u s s i o n we can c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f l a r g e s c a l e low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n t h e s e two c i t y - s t a t e s , e s p e c i a l l y Hong Kong has made a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n t h r o u g h r e o r g a n i z i n g l a n d use i n t h e f o r m e r s q u a t t e r a r e a s . However, t o a s s e s s whether t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g has been s u c c e s s f u l and whether i t has r e a l l y a l l e v i a t e d t h e c o n f l i c t s o v e r l a n d use between h o u s i n g and o t h e r s e c t o r s , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o examine whether o r not s u c h a c o n t r i b u t i o n has been made a t t h e e x p e n s e of h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t i t s e l f . I t i s n o t u n u s u a l t h a t g o v e r n m e n t s i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n u r b a n l a n d f o r i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n , c l e a r s q u a t t e r a r e a s but do n o t o f f e r a d e q u a t e a l t e r n a t i v e h o u s i n g . Has t h e s i t u a t i o n been a v o i d e d i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e ? The f i n d i n g s a r e q u i t e p o s i t i v e . In Hong Kong, t h e h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y f o r t h e r e - u s e of s q u a t t e r a r e a s was u s u a l l y g i v e n t o l a n d r e q u i r e d f o r Government h o u s i n g e s t a t e s w h i c h would p r o v i d e a l t e r n a t i v e h o u s i n g f o r t h e s q u a t t e r s c l e a r e d . The r e s e t t l e m e n t 7 5 e s t a t e s b u i l t between 1954 t o 1964. were i n l o c a t i o n s n e a r t h e main m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a o f Kowloon w i t h i t s a r r a y o f employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s and s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s . The f a c t t h a t a l a r g e number o f s q u a t t e r s have been r e h o u s e d i n a s h o r t t i m e i n d i c a t e s t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e r e s e t t l e m e n t p r o g r a m . In 1969, f i f t e e n y e a r s a f t e r t h e s t a r t o f t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g program, a t o t a l o f one m i l l i o n p e o p l e were accommodated i n R e s t t l e m e n t H o u s i n g (Wong, 1978), r e p r e s e n t i n g a s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n t h e h o u s i n g s t o c k . A s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n i s o b s e r v e d i n S i n g a p o r e , where t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n h o u s e d i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g e s t a t e s r e a c h e d t o 75% i n e a r l y 1980s. P u b l i c h o u s i n g r e p l a c i n g s q u a t t e r s e t t l e m e n t s and slums made b e t t e r l a n d use p l a n n i n g p o s s i b l e , so t h a t l a n d , a v e r y s c a r c e e conomic r e s o u r c e i n b o t h Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e , c o u l d be p u t t o i t s o p t i m a l use f o r t h e e n t i r e community. What we s h o u l d know n e x t a r e how o t h e r p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n m e a s u r e s have been u s e d t o a c h i e v e t h e p o l i c y g o a l s i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e . 4.3 H i q h - R i s e and H i g h - D e n s i t y P u b l i c H o u s i n g To a c h i e v e t h e p o l i c y g o a l s f o r low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s of l a n d and c a p i t a l a r e u s e d a p p r o p r i a t e l y . As we have seen i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , t h e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of l a n d use i n t h e f o r m e r s q u a t t e r a r e a s has r e d u c e d t h e l a n d r e s o u r c e a v a i l a b l e f o r h o u s i n g . We have a l s o d i s c u s s e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f i n v e s t m e n t i n i n d u s t r y s e e n by most 76 d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . W i t h most c a p i t a l g o i n g t o i n v e s t m e n t i n i t , t h e amount a v a i l a b l e f o r h o u s i n g i s l i m i t e d . T h e r e f o r e , i t would n o t have been p o s s i b l e t o a c h i e v e s a t i s f a c t o r y p r o g r e s s i n h o u s i n g , i f s p e c i a l measures had n o t been t a k e n i n t h e p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g o f t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g e s t a t e s . One e s s e n t i a l measure w h i c h has been u s e d i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e i s h i g h - r i s e a nd h i g h - d e n s i t y . HONG KONG. The h i l l s i d e s b e h i n d t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s o f Hong Kong I s l a n d and Kowloon had been b o t h a p h y s i c a l a nd p s y c h o l o g i c a l b a r r i e r t o t h e s p a t i a l e x p a n s i o n o f Hong Kong. B e f o r e t h e new town d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m was i n i t i a t e d i n t h e e a r l y 1970s, t h e government f e l t t h a t t h e o n l y s p a c e a v a i l a b l e f o r d e v e l o p m e n t was t h e e x i s t i n g s q u a t t e r a r e a s , and t h a t t h e r e s e t t l e m e n t p r o g r a m w o u l d be f e a s i b l e o n l y i f t h e o r i g i n a l i n h a b i t a n t s c o u l d be accommodated a t a h i g h e r d e n s i t y , w h i l e p r o v i d i n g r o a d s , s e r v i c e s and open s p a c e i n t h e same a r e a s ( W i l l , 1978). Such a b e l i e f became a s e v e r e c o n s t r a i n t on p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g i n t h e f i r s t two d e c a d e s . Even b e f o r e t h e s t a r t o f t h e l a r g e s c a l e low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m , t h e r e had a l r e a d y been some e v i d e n c e t h a t low d e n s i t y one and t w o - s t o r e y h o u s i n g was u n r e a l i s t i c f o r Hong Kong. I n 1952, t h e n o n - p r o f i t Hong Kong S e t t l e r s ' H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , p a r t l y f i n a n c e d by Government, s t a r t e d b u i l d i n g and s e l l i n g s m a l l s t o n e c o t t a g e s i n a p p r o v e d a r e a s . T h e s e h o u s e s became v e r y p o p u l a r among s q u a t t e r s and n o n - s q u a t t e r s a l i k e . 77 However, i t was v e r y s l o w t o b u i l d t h i s t y p e of h o u s i n g as w e l l as v e r y l a n d c o n s u m i n g . To accommodate a l l s q u a t t e r s i n Hong Kong i n t h i s t y p e o f h o u s i n g would have r e q u i r e d b o t h a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f l a n d and a l o n g p e r i o d of t i m e , n e i t h e r of w h i c h Hong Kong c o u l d a f f o r d . S i n g l e - s t o r e y was once a g a i n c o n s i d e r e d f o r t h e d e s i g n o f t h e f i r s t p u b l i c h o u s i n g e s t a t e s t o r e h o u s e t h e Shek K i p Mei f i r e v i c t i m s , but f i n a l l y m u l t i - s t o r e y r e i n f o r c e d c o n c r e t e b l o c k s were u s e d , a l t h o u g h some t w o - s t o r e y h o u s i n g were a l s o b u i l t f o r emergency r e l i e f . B a s i c a l l y , e a c h r e s e t t l e m e n t b l o c k was a s i x - s t o r e y b u i l d i n g i n t h e f o r m o f an "H", w i t h t h e minimum r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r h e a l t h . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no d a t a a v a i l a b l e r e g a r d i n g t h e d e n s i t y of t h e r e s e t t l e m e n t e s t a t e s , t h e d e n s i t y was o b v i o u s l y v e r y h i g h . The i n i t i a l s p a c e s t a n d a r d s a d o p t e d were o n l y 24 s q u a r e f e e t p e r a d u l t and h a l f o f t h i s f o r a c h i l d . The h i g h f l a t d e n s i t i e s were compounded by h i g h g r o u n d d e n s i t i e s ( f i g u r e 4 . 2 ) . A l t h o u g h s i x d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of r e s e t t l e m e n t b u i l d i n g have been i n t r o d u c e d s i n c e 1954, t h e d e n s i t y has r e m a i n e d h i g h and t h e h e i g h t has i n c r e a s e d ( t a b l e Roof p l a y g r o u n d . Bear ing wai ls -Partition wal ls s, B a l c o n y . s *3 - C o v e r e d area 3 C DC r ~ D C D C PO ON IJl 3 C SHUN NING D C D C DC I E ROAD R 0 « 0 \ I i Mark I resettlement I J blocks 50 100 I I 1 g r — F i g u r e 4 .2 - R e s e t t l e m e n t B l o c k s f o r t h e Shek K i p Me i F i r e V i c t i m s . S o u r c e : D r a k a k i s - S m i t h , ( 1 9 7 9 ) . 79 T a b l e 4.1 F e a t u r e s o f R e s e t t l e m e n t E s t a t e s i n Hong Kong Y e a r Type S t o r i e s F l o o r Space p e r A d u l t 1954-61 Mark I 6-7 24 ( s q . f t . ) 1961-64 Mark I I 7-8 24 1964- 67 Mark I I I 8 24-26 1965- 69 Mark IV 16 24-26 ( s e l f - c o n t a i n e d ) 1966- 71 Mark V n.a. 27-35 ( s e l f - c o n t a i n e d ) 1970- Mark VI n.a. 35 ( s e l f - c o n t a i n e d ) S o u r c e s : W i l l , 1978; Fong, 1980. T h e r e were two o t h e r major t y p e s of p u b l i c h o u s i n g b e f o r e t h e f o r m a t i o n of t h e new H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y i n 1973: t h e H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y E s t a t e s and Government Low-Cost H o u s i n g E s t a t e s . A l t h o u g h t h e s e t y p e s o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g had r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e r d e s i g n s t a n d a r d s t h a n t h e r e s e t t l e m e n t e s t a t e s , t h e y a l s o had h i g h - r i s e and h i g h - d e n s i t y as t h e i r p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e . H i g h - r i s e and h i g h - d e n s i t y has a l s o been u s e d a s an e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e f o r t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g e s t a t e s b u i l t a f t e r 1973, i n c l u d i n g t h o s e l o c a t e d i n t h e s a t e l l i t e towns. SINGAPORE, l i k e Hong Kong, c o u l d not a f f o r d t o a l l o c a t e s p a c e l i b e r a l l y . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e p r o v i s i o n o f open s p a c e i n r e s i d e n t i a l l a y o u t s i s s e t a t a s t a n d a r d of a b o u t 1 a c r e p e r 1,000 p o p u l a t i o n , w h i c h i s much l o w e r t h a n 7 a c r e s p e r 1,000 p o p u l a t i o n as recommendated i n E n g l i s h towns (Varma, 1979). H i g h - r i s e has been t h e major f o r m of d e s i g n o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g e s t a t e s s i n c e t h e f o r m a t i o n of t h e HDB. Most of t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g e s t a t e s b u i l t i n 1960 were 4 t o 12 s t o r i e s (HDB 80 A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1960). D e n s i t y and economy were e m p h a s i z e d . 1 The h e i g h t f o r t h e l a t e r p u b l i c h o u s i n g was u s u a l l y a r o u n d 12 s t o r i e s f o r s l a b b l o c k s and 20 t o 25 s t o r i e s f o r p o i n t b l o c k s ( L i u , 1975, p138 & 145). A v e r a g e o v e r a l l d e n s i t y i s a b o u t 88 d w e l l i n g u n i t s p e r a c r e . C a l c u l a t e d on an a v e r a g e of f i v e p e r s o n s p e r d w e l l i n g u n i t , t h e n e t r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i t y i s a b o u t 370 p e r s o n s p e r a c r e ( L i u and Tan, 1979) Most b u i d i n g b l o c k s i n t h e s a t e l l i t e towns t a k e s t h e f o r m of 9- t o 1 3 - s t o r e y s l a b b l o c k s and 20- t o 2 5 - s t o r e y p o i n t b l o c k s ( L i u , e t a l , 1983). D e n s i t y i s a r o u n d 440 p e r s o n s p e r a c r e f o r t h e o l d e r s a t e l l i t e towns and 240 t o 440 p e r s o n s p e r a c r e f o r t h e new o nes ( L i u , 1975). As a means t o d e a l w i t h t h e p r o b l e m of l a n d s h o r t a g e , h i g h -r i s e and h i g h - d e n s i t y i s a common f e a t u r e o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e . However, t h i s c r e a t e s many p r o b l e m s w h i c h w i l l be r e v i e w e d i n n e x t c h a p t e r . D e s p i t e t h e s e p r o b l e m s , h i g h - r i s e and h i g h - d e n s i t y have been u s e d i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e f o r t h e l a s t two o r t h r e e d e c a d e s , t o s u c c e s s f u l l y b u i l d t h e l i n k a g e between economic d e v e l o p m e n t , and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f h o u s i n g and t o e n s u r e a s a t i s f a c t o r y p r o g r e s s i n 1 A c c o r d i n g t o t h e HDB 1960 A n n u a l R e p o r t , t h e HDB r e v i s e d t h e t h e p l a n n i n g p r i n c i p l e s f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g w h i c h had been u s e d by t h e S I T . T h e s e r e v i s e d p r i n c i p l e s i n c l u d e d " t h e d e n s i t y i n a l l t h e u n d e v e l o p e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d s had t o be s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n c r e a s e d t o c a t e r f o r t h e i n c r e a s e of p o p u l a t i o n . . . " ; and "economy i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h e l a y i n g o u t o f h o u s i n g e s t a t e s " . 81 h o u s i n g p r o v i s i o n w i t h l i m i t e d l a n d r e s o u r c e s . 4.4 Low D e s i g n S t a n d a r d s f o r P u b l i c H o u s i n g Low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s on t h e s c a l e o f t h o s e i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e need s u b s t a n t i a l economic r e s o u r c e s . The measures u s e d by t h e governments t o d e a l w i t h t h e c o n s t r a i n t s on l a n d h as been d i s c u s s e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n . In t h i s s e c t i o n , t h e t e r m "economic r e s o u r c e " i s use d t o r e p r e s e n t b o t h l a n d and c a p i t a l . The f o c u s o f t h e a n a l y s i s i s on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between economic r e s o u r c e s and d e s i g n s t a n d a r d s f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g . F i v e v a r i a b l e s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n d e c i d i n g on t h e d e s i g n s t a n d a r d s . F i r s t , t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f l a n d . S e c o n d , t h e c a p i t a l r e s o u r c e a v a i l a b l e f o r h o u s i n g i n g e n e r a l and f o r low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r . T h i r d , t h e t o t a l h o u s i n g needs w h i c h a r e t o be met by low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g . F o u r t h , t h e l i v i n g h a b i t s o f t h e p r o s p e c t i v e r e s i d e n t s . F i f t h , t h e p a y i n g a b i l i t y of t h e p r o s p e c t i v e r e s i d e n t s . A s u c c e s s f u l d e s i g n needs t o a c h i e v e a b a l a n c e between q u a l i t y and r e s o u r c e c o n s t r a i n t s . HONG KONG. 1 The i n i t i a l d e s i g n s t a n d a r d f o r t h e r e s e t t l e m e n t h o u s i n g e s t a t e s was v e r y low. In Mark I e s t a t e s , w h i c h were b u i l t between 1954 and 1961, t h e s p a c e a l l o w a n c e p e r 'The main s o u r c e s f o r t h i s d i s c u s s i o n a r e : H o u s i n g P r o b l e m s and  P u b l i c H o u s i n g P rogram i n Hong Kong (Fong, 1980); and H i g h  S o c i e t y ( D r a k a k i s - S m i t h , 1979). 82 p e r s o n was 24 s q u a r e f e e t , w i t h c h i l d r e n under 1o y e a r s o l d c o u n t i n g a s h a l f an a d u l t . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s s t a n d a r d a 120 s q u a r e f e e t u n i t had t o accommodate f i v e a d u l t s , o r t h r e e a d u l t s and f o u r c h i l d r e n . The s u p p o s e d l e g a l minimum l i v i n g s p a c e i n Hong Kong a t t h a t t i m e was 35 s q u a r e f e e t p e r p e r s o n . T h e r e f o r e t h e d e s i g n o f t h e r e s e t t l e m e n t h o u s i n g e s t a t e s was s u b s t a n d a r d e d . These H-shaped b l o c k s c o n t a i n s 64 b a c k - t o - b a c k rooms p e r f l o o r and t h e c r o s s p i e c e i s a s e r v i c e c o r e c o n t a i n i n g s i x communal f l u s h t o i l e t s f o r e a c h s e x , two water s t a n d p i p e s , and an open communal c l o t h e s w a s h i n g s p a c e ( f i g u r e 4 . 3 ) . The d e s i g n f o r Mark I I b l o c k s was ab o u t same as Mark I ( f i g u r e 4 . 4 ) . G r e a t improvements were made i n t h e d e s i g n of t h e Mark I I I e s t a t e s , w h i c h were b u i l t between 1964 and 1967. The s p a c e p e r p e r s o n was r a i s e d t o 26 s q u a r e f e e t , and e a c h u n i t h a s i t s own water t a p and b a l c o n y . Rooms a r e a c c e s s e d by an i n t e r n a l c o r r i d o r i n s t e a d of a p e r i m e t e r b a l c o n y ( f i g u r e 4 . 5 ) . The Mark IV e s t a t e s , b u i l t between 1965 and 1969, had a b a s i c l a y o u t s i m i l a r t o t h e Mark I I I w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n t h a t e a c h u n i t has i t s own p r i v a t e t o i l e t . A n o t h e r d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t two e l e v a t o r s a r e p r o v i d e d i n e a c h o f t h e s e 1 6 - s t o r y b u i l d i n g s ( f i g u r e 4 . 6 ) . The Mark V b l o c k , b u i l t between 1966 and 1971, was a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f t h e Mark IV w i t h v a r i a b l e room s i z e s i n c o r p o r a t e d t o a l l o w accommodation o f d i f f e r e n t f a m i l y s i z e s . A f u r t h e r m o d i f i c a t i o n made i n 1970 u p g r a d e d t h e s p a c e a l l o c a t i o n t o 35 F M P L A N F i g u r e 4.3 - Resettlement Housing i n Hong Kong: Mark I . Source: W i l l , (1978). P L A N M B F i g u r e 4.4 - Resettlement Housing i n Hong Kong: Mark II Source: W i l l , (1978). BATH M PLAN F M M F i g u r e 4.5 - Resettlement Housing i n Hong Kong: Mark I I I Source: W i l l , (1978). ill III III PLAN i F i g u r e 4.6 - Resettlement Housing i n Hong Kong: Mark IV. Source: W i l l , (1978). 85 s q u a r e m e t e r s p e r p e r s o n . I t was t h e f i r s t t i m e t h a t t h e r e s e t t l e m e n t e s t a t e s were b u i l t i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e l e g a l minimum l i v i n g s p a c e p e r p e r s o n . The d e s i g n s t a n d a r d s have been s i g n i f i c a n t l y i m p r o v e d i n t h e new H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y E s t a t e s b u i l t s i n c e 1973. A l l u n i t s a r e now s e l f - c o n t a i n e d , w i t h p r i v a t e b a l c o n y , k i t c h e n s and t o i l e t s w i t h s h o w e r s . The minimum s p a c e s t a n d a r d i s s e t a t 35 s q u a r e f e e t p e r a d u l t and i n c r e a s i n g t o 50 s q u a r e f e e t i n l a t e s t m o d e l s . SINGAPORE. L o o k i n g back a t t h e l a s t t w enty f i v e y e a r s , t h e HDB has had t o s t a r t f r o m a " s i m p l e , c r u d e and economic d e s i g n " ( L i u , e t a l , 1983). The e a r l y p u b l i c h o u s i n g b l o c k s were b u i l t t o t h e maximum d e n s i t y , b a s e d on t h e h o u s i n g p o l i c y of t h e government w h i c h e m p h a s i z i n g " t o p r o v i d e , w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f t h e r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e , as many l o w - c o s t h o u s i n g u n i t s a s p o s s i b l e i n o r d e r t h a t c i t i z e n s i n t h e l o w e r income g r o u p c a n , w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e Government, o b t a i n a d e c e n t s t a n d a r d o f h o u s i n g " (HDB A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1960). I t was r e a l i z e d t h a t " u n t i l t h e i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n p l a n s o f t h e S t a t e a r e a b l e t o a t t a i n a s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h d e g r e e o f s u c c e s s , t h e r e i s l i t t l e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e a v e r a g e income l e v e l s of t h e s e p e o p l e b e i n g r a i s e d and t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o v i d e d must be s u c h as t o be a b l e t o meet t h e i r needs as w e l l as t o come w i t h i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o pay" (HDB A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1960). Between 1960 and 1965, t h e r e were two t y p e s o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g : emergency one room f l a t s and 86 s e l f - c o n t a i n e d f l a t s o f two t o t h r e e rooms w i t h k i t c h e n and b a t h r o o m . A h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g u n i t s b u i l t i n t h i s p e r i o d were t h e one room emergency t y p e ( a c c o r d i n g t o Varma and S a s t r y , f o r t h e f i r s t and s e c o n d 5-year h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s , t h e p r o p o r t i o n of f l a t s was f i x e d a s 40% f o r 1-room t y p e and 30% e a c h f o r 2- and 3-room t y p e s ) . T h i s t y p e of p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o v i d e d a b o u t 200 s q a u r e f e e t o f f l o o r s p a c e . A f t e r 1965, i m p r o v e d one-room, two-room and t h r e e - r o o m f l a t s were i n t r o d u c e d w i t h g r e a t e r f l o o r s p a c e . F o u r - r o o m f l a t s and f i v e - r o o m f l a t s were i n t r o d u c e d i n 1968 and 1971 r e s p e c t i v e l y ( f i g u r e 4 . 7 ) . A l t h o u g h b o t h Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e have u s e d a low d e s i g n s t a n d a r d as an e f f i c i e n t way t o a c h i e v e p o l i c y g o a l s f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g , t h e "low s t a n d a r d " has been i n t e r p r a t e d d i f f e r e n t l y . I f we make a c o m p a r i s o n between Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e i n t h e i r d e s i g n s t a n d a r d s , we f i n d t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t . The s t a n d a r d s o f Hong Kong's p u b l i c h o u s i n g a r e much l o w e r t h a n t h e s e o f S i n g a p o r e ' s ( t a b l e 4.2 and 4 . 3 ) . 87 CORRIDOR PUBLIC HOUSING 1-ROOM IMPROVED FLAT (FLAT SIZE 32.8 m?) ACCESS BALCONY PUBLIC HOUSING 3 - ROOM IMPROVED FLAT (FLAT SIZE 68.6 m*) BEDROOM W C BA/ Wi B A l MASTER BEDROOM STORE "-"7 KITCHEN/ DINING BEDROOM LIVING ROOM PUBLIC HOUSING 4-ROOM NEW FLAT (FLAT SIZE 92.6 m2) PUBLIC HOUSING B-ROOM FLAT ( POINT BLOCK) (FLAT SIZE 120.7 m2) SCALE 10 20 30 FEET 10 METRES F i g u r e 4.7 - Types of P u b l i c Housing i n Sinagpore. Source: L i u and Tan (1979). 88 T a b l e 4.2 C o m p a r a t i v e F l a t D e s i g n S t a n d a r d s : Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e Hong Kong S i n g a p o r e Net d w e l l i n g u n i t s i z e ( s q . f t ) 120-215 380-1350 F l o o r s p a c e ( s q . f t - p e r s o n ) 24-43 75-260 P r o v i s i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s * * * communal t o i l e t a nd b a t h r o o m f o r Mark I - I I I . c o o k i n g m a i n l y i n a c c e s s b a l c o n i e s i n Mark I-VI s e l f - c o n t a i n e d f o r o t h e r t y p e s * s e l f - c o n t a i n e d f o r a l l t y p e s of p u b l i c h o u s i n g . S o u r c e : L i u and Tan, 1979. T a b l e 4.3 C o m p a r a t i v e B l o c k D e s i g n S t a n d a r d s f o r F l a t s : Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e Hong Kong S i n g a p o r e H e i g h t and a c c e s s i b i l i t y * Mark I - I I I , 6-8 w i t h o u t l i f t s * Mark I V - V I , 8-20 w i t h l i f t s * * M a i n l y 10-25 w i t h l i f t s Some 2-4 w i t h o u t V e r t i c a l c i r c u l a t i o n * 8 0 - 4 1 5 - s t a i r w a y * 3 3 0 - l i f t * * 1 6 - 1 0 0 - s t a i r w a y 4 0 - 1 0 0 - l i f t U n i t s p e r f l o o r 60-135 4-32 U n i t s p e r b l o c k 400-2150 M a i n l y 80-200; up t o 700 S o u r c e : L i u and Tan, 1979. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s 89 d i f f e r e n c e . The e s s e n t i a l r e a s o n i s t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e have many s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t e r m s o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c b a c k g r o u n d , p o l i c y g o a l s and p l a n n i n g m e a s u r e s , t h e y were d e v e l o p e d on d i f f e r e n t e c onomic b a s e s . One i n d i c a t o r o f t h e d i f f e r e n t economic l e v e l i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n S i n g a p o r e e n j o y s a h i g h e r a v e r a g e income t h a n t h a t i n Hong Kong. A s e c o n d i n d i c a t o r i s t h a t Hong Kong f a c e d a p o p u l a t i o n i m p a c t which was f a r g r e a t e r t h a n S i n g a p o r e ' s . A t h i r d i n d i c a t o r i s t h a t t h e p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y i s h i g h e r i n t h e u r b a n a r e a s of Hong Kong b e c a u s e i t s g e o g r a p h i c a l f e a t u r e s c a u s e d h i g h l y c o n c e n t r a t e d human s e t t l e m e n t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , w hether o r n o t Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e have s e t t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e d e s i g n s t a n d a r d s a p p r o p r i a t e l y i s an i m p o r t a n t i s s u e f o r t h e a n a l y s i s i n n e x t c h a p t e r . 4.5 S p a t i a l E x p a n s i o n o f P u b l i c H o u s i n g Program I n t e n s i v e d e v e l o p m e n t o r r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f l a n d s i n t h e main u r b a n a r e a s has been a p o l i c y f o r t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e . E f f i c i e n c y i n t h e use of l a n d , a t l e a s t i n t e r m s of ec o n o m i c v a l u e , has been a c h i e v e d i n t h e u r b a n a r e a s d e v e l o p e d under t h i s g u i d e l i n e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e c o n t i n u o u s p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h i n t h e s e two c i t y - s t a t e s has c r e a t e d p r e s s u r e on l a n d use w h i c h i s t o o g r e a t t o be t o t a l l y c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e l i m i t e d s p a c e o f t h e main u r b a n a r e a s . S i n c e t h e mid-1960s, s p a t i a l e x p a n s i o n , m a i n l y i n t h e form o f new town d e v e l o p m e n t , has been a c o m p l e m e n t a r y p o l i c y of t h e i r p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s . 90 HONG KONG. In a b o u t t h e mid-1960s, Hong Kong f i n a l l y d e c i d e d t o abandon t h e t r a d i t i o n o f c o n t a i n i n g u r b a n growth w i t h i n t h e l i m i t e d s p a c e o f Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Kowloon. The o b v i o u s f a c t o r b e h i n d t h e s p a t i a l p a t t e r n o f d e v e l o p m e n t was t h e need f o r newly d e v e l o p e d l a n d t o accommodate f u r t h e r p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e . I t was e s t i m a t e d by t h e Census and S t a t i c s D e partment t h a t t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of Hong Kong would r i s e f r o m 3.94 m i l l i o n i n 1971 t o 5.69 m i l l i o n i n 1986. The e x p e c t e d a d d i t i o n of r o u g h l y 1.7 m i l l i o n p e o p l e between 1971 and 1986 would have t o be accommodated i n t h e New T e r r i t o r i e a s l a n d w i t h i n t h e main u r b a n a r e a s had n o t o n l y been n e a r l y e x h a u s t e d , d e c a n t i n g of o v e r c r o w d e d p o p u l a t i o n i n some u r b a n d i s t r i c t s had a l s o been c o n s i d e r e d a s a s o c i a l a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l n e c e s s i t y ( S i t , 1981). A c c o r d i n g P r y o r , i n 1974 abo u t 29% o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n t h e main ur b a n a r e a s l i v e d i n Mark I and Mark I I R e s e t t l e m e n t e s t a t e s w h i c h had g r o s s d e n s i t i e s o f o v e r 1,600 p e r s o n s p e r a c r e . A p l a n f o r r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s e o l d e r e s t a t e s was p r e p a r e d by t h e government, and a d e n s i t y o f 960 p e r s o n s p e r a c r e was e x p e c t e d t o be us e d a s a g u i d e f o r t h e r e d e v e l o p m e n t . I t was e s t i m a t e d t h a t 0.15 m i l l i o n o u t of t h e t o t a l 0.48 m i l l i o n p e o p l e would have t o be r e h o u s e d e l s e w h e r e a s t h e r e s u l t of t h e r e d e v e l o p m e n t ( P r y o r , 1978). The p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e u r b a n a r e a s was e x p e c t e d t o d r o p by 270,000 p e r s o n s i n t h e d e c a d e 1976-1986, a c c o r d i n g t o o f f i c i a l p l a n n i n g . A l t o g e t h e r a b o u t 4,700 a c r e s o f new l a n d f o r r e s i d e n t i a l p u r p o s e would be r e q u i r e d by 1986, t o meet t h e needs of an i n c r e a s e d p o p u l a t i o n , and t o d e c a n t p e o p l e from some 91 o v e r c r o w d e d u r b a n d i s t r i c t s ( S i t , 1981). New l a n d was a l s o r e q u i r e d t o s u s t a i n i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . By 1986, t h e t o t a l work f o r c e i n Hong Kong's m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r y , a c c o r d i n g t o government s o u r c e s , would be a b o u t 1.78 m i l l i o n . T h i s f i g u r e s u g g e s t e d t h a t a b o u t 3,600 a c r e s o f l a n d would have t o be p r o v i d e d f o r t h i s s e c t o r . A t t h e end of 1977, t h e amount of i n d u s t r i a l l a n d z o n e d w i t h i n t h e main u r b a n a r e a s was a p p r o x i m a t e l y 900 a c r e s . T h u s , an a d d i t i o n a l 2,750 a c r e s would be n e e ded between 1978 and 1986 ( S i t , 1981). W i t h i n t h e main u r b a n a r e a s , a c c o r d i n g t o S i t , t h e amount o f new l a n d t h a t m i g h t be a v a i l a b l e a f t e r 1976 would be v e r y l i m i t e d . I t amounted t o o n l y 300 a c r e s f o r i n d u s t r i a l , and 145 a c r e s f o r r e s i d e n t i a l . T h e r e f o r e , new l a n d t o accommodate t h e e x p e c t e d p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e and t o p r o v i d e s p a c e f o r t h e g r o w t h o f i n d u s t r y would have t o be p r o v i d e d m a i n l y by new u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t o u t s i d e t h e main ur b a n a r e a s ( S i t , 1981). By t h e end o f 1979, s i x new towns were b e i n g p l a n n e d . They a r e : T s u e n Wan, Sha T i n , Tuen Mun, T a i Po, F a n l i n g - S h e u n g S h u i and Yuen Long ( f i g u r e 4 . 8 ) . The p l a n s f o r t h e f i r s t t h r e e new towns was s t a r t e d i n l a t e ~ 5 0 s and 60s, but t h e main impetus t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e s e t h r e e new towns came i n O c t o b e r 1972, when t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s t e n - y e a r h o u s i n g t a r g e t was a p p r o v e d by t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l . T h i s t e n - y e a r h o u s i n g p l a n aimed a t p r o v i d i n g 1.8 m i l l i o n p e o p l e w i t h p u b l i c h o u s i n g , and 1.3 m i l l i o n o f t h i s t a r g e t f i g u r e would be c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h i n t h e new towns. T s u e n Wan New Town i s e x p e c t e d t o p r o v i d e f o r an 92 u l t i m a t e p o p u l a t i o n of n e a r l y a m i l l i o n people, and Sha T i n New Town and Tuen Mun New Town are each t o house about h a l f a m i l l i o n (Fong, 1980). The plans f o r the l a s t t h r e e of the s i x new towns were made know to the p u b l i c i n December, 1979. T h e i r i n i t i a l d e s i g n a t e d t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n s were 220,000, 170,000 and 128,500 r e s p e c t i v e l y ( S i t , 1981). F i g u r e 4.8 - L o c a t i o n of New Towns i n Hong Kong. Source: S i t , (1981). 93 SINGAPORE began i t s comprehensive new town development program i n the mid-1960s. Although there i s no data a v a i l a b l e r e g a r d i n g e i t h e r land need or the c a p a c i t y of the e x i s t i n g urban areas, the shortage of l a n d i n the urban area was no doubt the key f a c t o r behind the development of new towns. Eleven new towns have been b u i l t or a r e being b u i l t i n Singapore. They vary i n s i z e and i n d i s t a n c e from the c i t y c e n t r e ( f i g u r e 4.9 and t a b l e 4.4). Most of these new towns are designed to c o n t a i n 30,000 to 40,000 d w e l l i n g u n i t s f o r an estimated p o p u l a t i o n of 150,000 to 200,000 persons, c o v e r i n g an area of 300 to 600 h e c t a r e s each. These new towns, together with r u r a l communities, c o n t a i n e d some 20 percent of the p o p u l a t i o n (data from Hardoy, 1979; Varma and S a s t r y , 1979). F i g u r e 4.9 - L o c a t i o n of New Towns i n Singapore. Source, Hardoy, (1979). 94 T a b l e 4.4 New Towns i n S i n g a p o r e New Towns P r o j e c t e d Popu. D i s t a n c e f r o m C i t y C e n t r e (km) Queenstown 150,000 5-8 Toa Payoh 190,000 6-8 T e l o k B l a n g a h 70,000 5-7 Woodlands 290,000 22-25 Bedok 225,000 10-14 Ang Mo K i o 245,000 10-14 C l e m e n t i 120,000 11-13 Nee Soon 200,000 1 9-21 Hou Kang 120,000 9-13 J u r o n g 160,000 14-19 Tampines 230,000 14-18 S o u r c e : H a r d o y , 1979. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o l o o k a t t h e im p a c t o f t h e new town d e v e l o p m e n t on t h e s p a t i a l p a t t e r n o f economic d e v e l o p m e n t i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e . In b o t h c i t i e s , new towns were i n i t i a l l y b u i l t t o accommodate p u b l i c h o u s i n g e s t a t e s , n o t i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e s . T h e r e f o r e much o f t h e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t o w a r d s t h e s e a r e a s i s t h e r e s u l t of t h e l o c a t i o n of p u b l i c h o u s i n g e s t a t e s r a t h e r t h a n t h e r e s u l t o f a d e c e n t r a l i z e d economy. In s u c h c a s e s , p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o v i d e s t h e low-income g r o u p w i t h s h e l t e r b u t does n o t s a t i s f y t h e i r h o u s i n g needs b e c a u s e t h e most i m p o r t a n t a t t r i b u t e s o f low-income h o u s i n g , i . e . l o c a t i o n and a c c e s s i b i l i t y , a r e i g n o r e d . T h e r e have been v a r i o u s p r o b l e m s c o n c e r n i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , employment, and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s i n t h e new towns. Such p r o b l e m s were p a r t i c u l a r l y s e v e r e i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s of t h e new town program. L a t e r d e v e l o p m e n t s were d e s i g n e d t o e s t a b l i s h i n t e g r a t e d and p a r t l y s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t i n d u s t r i a l new towns. In t h e newer p u b l i c 95 h o u s i n g e s t a t e s , n o t o n l y a r e t h e r e many community f a c i l i t i e s s u c h a s m a r k e t p l a c e s , s c h o o l s , p l a y g r o u n d s , s o c i a l w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s , b a n k s , p o s t o f f i c e s w i t h i n o r a d j a c a n t t o t h e e s t a t e s , p l a n s f o r t h e s e e s t a t e s o f t e n i n c l u d e t h e p r o v i s i o n o f f a c t o r y s i t e s f o r i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . But d e s p i t e improvements, p r o b l e m s s t i l l e x i s t . In Hong Kong, f o r i n s t a n c e , most o f t h e new towns, w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f T s u e n Wan, a r e n o t d o i n g v e r y w e l l i n a t t r a c t i n g i n d u s t r i e s . T s u e n Wan does n o t have t h i s p r o b l e m b e c a u s e of i t s l o n g e r h i s t o r y , t h e e x i s t e n c e o f an e s t a b i l i s h e d i n d u s t r i a l c o r e , and i t s p r o x i m i t y t o t h e main u r b a n a r e a s . The o t h e r f i v e new towns a r e s t i l l i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e o f d e v e l o p m e n t and t h e r e f o r e t h e r e a r e p r o b l e m s i n t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . I t i s a r g u e d by some s c h o l a r s t h a t m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s a r e most u n l i k e l y t o d e c e n t r a l i s e f r o m t h e main u r b a n a r e a s t o t h e new towns w i t h o u t some form o f government i n c e n t i v e (Fong and Yeh, 1984). N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e i s a l a c k o f a c t i v e p o l i c i e s i n Hong Kong t o a t t r a c t i n d u s t r i e s and employment t o t h e new towns. In S i n g a p o r e , t h e H o u s i n g and Development B o a r d a l s o b u i l d s i n d u s t r i a l p r e m i s e s i n t h e new towns. The c o m p a r a t i v e l y c h e a p and w e l l - s e r v i c e d i n d u s t r i a l and c o m m e r c i a l s i t e s have a t t r a c t e d some l i g h t i n d u s t r y and c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . The p r o p o r t i o n of l a n d use f o r i n d u s t r y i n t h e l a t e r new towns i s h i g h e r t h a n t h a t i n t h e e a r l y ones (Yeung, 1979, p 3 5 ) . T h e r e f o r e , i t seems t h a t t h e new towns i n S i n g a p o r e have become i n c r e a s i n g l y s e l f -c o n t a i n e d . However, most o f t h e j o b s f o r p r i m a r y income e a r n e r s r e m a i n i n t h e main c i t y c e n t r e . Thus, t h e new towns t e n d t o 96 s e r v e s i m p l y a s l a r g e s u b u r b a n h o u s i n g e s t a t e s w i t h most of t h e l o c a l j o b s t a k e n up by s e c o n d a r y income e a r n e r s (Hardoy, 1979, P81 ). Many new town r e s i d e n t s i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e have t o commute t o t h e main u r b a n a r e a s where most j o b s a r e l o c a t e d . However, t h i s p r o b l e m has been p a r t i a l l y a l l i e v a t e d t h r o u g h p r o v i s i o n of i n t e n s i v e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s . B e c a u s e o f t h e o b v i o u s d i s a d v a n t a g e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n t h e new towns, one of t h e e a r l y w o r r i e s of new town d e v e l o p m e n t i n Hong Kong was how t o f i l l t h e new towns w i t h p e o p l e . However, t h e a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n i n t h e l a s t f i f t e e n y e a r s o r so has been e n c o u r a g i n g . About 50% o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e of Hong Kong between 1971 and 1981 moved t o t h e new towns (Yeh and F ong, 1984). Some e v i d e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t p e o p l e c h o o s e p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n t h e new towns i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a c h e a p e r and b e t t e r l i v i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a t an e a r l i e r d a t e (Yeh and Fong, 1984). B e c a u s e t h e demand f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g i s h i g h , i t t a k e s e i g h t t o n i n e y e a r s t o g e t a p u b l i c h o u s i n g u n i t i n t h e u r b a n a r e a s , whereas i t t a k e s o n l y t h r e e t o f o u r y e a r s t o o b t a i n one i n t h e remote new towns s u c h as Tuen Mun. The d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s c h a p t e r has shown us t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n o f t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e have b r i d g e d t h e gap between t h e r e s o u r c e s f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g p rograms and t h e p o l i c y g o a l s f o r t h e p r o g r a m s . A g a i n , Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e s h a r e s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t h e 97 e s s e n t i a l measures u s e d t o a c h i e v e t h e o b j e c t i v e s f o r p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n . T h e s e s i m i l a r i t i e s a r e e x p l a i n e d by t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t h e h i s t o r i c , g e o g r a p h i c a l , e c o n o m i c , and s o c i a l b a c k g r o u n d s of t h e r e s p e c t i v e p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s . The major d i f f e r e n c e i s s e e n i n t h e emormous gaps between t h e d e s i g n s t a n d a r d s o f t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n Hong Kong and t h a t i n S i n g a p o r e , w h i c h i s a c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e d i f f e r e n t economic b a s e s on w h i c h t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g programs have been d e v e l o p e d . What do t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s mean t o t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s ? T h i s q u e s t i o n i s a d d r e s s e d i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . 98 CHAPTER 5. THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC EFFECTIVENESS OF THE LOW-INCOME  PUBLIC HOUSING PROGRAMS IN HONG KONG AND SINGAPORE The previous analyses has shown that both Hong Kong and Singapore's low-income public housing programs have been developed under the guidance of a new rati o n a l for housing investment. This rational views housing as a basic human need, an economic a c t i v i t y , and a major component of the physical environment a l l of which suggest that housing plays a dynamic role in the process of socio-economic development. This role has been p a r t i c u l a r l y obvious in Hong Kong and Singapore where dramatic population growth has created a shortages of housing and urban land both of which were constraints on i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n . An e f f o r t has been made to give f u l l play to the dynamic role of housing. Has the e f f o r t been f r u i t f u l ? To assess the low-income public housing programs in Hong Kong and Singapore i t i s necessary to examine the socio-economic effectiveness of the programs. The nature of the housing problem in developing countries guides t h i s assessment. A successful public housing program must have the force to help change s o c i e t i e s , s o c i a l and physical environments through i t s impact on the pattern of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of wealth and the s p a t i a l organization of human settlements. A successful public housing program i s also a dynamic force that raises the productivity of society through the improved qu a l i t y of human existence and, in some cases, the direct economic benefits generated by the housing sector. 99 Whether o r n o t a p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m i s s u c c e s s f u l i s , t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , r e f l e c t e d i n t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e h o u s i n g b u i l t , i n c l u d i n g i t s s c a l e , a f f o r d a b i l i t y , d e s i g n s t a n d a r d s , l o c a t i o n , and a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . The s c a l e of p u b l i c h o u s i n g i s an i m p o r t a n t i n d i c a t o r of s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e . A m a s s i v e h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e i n d i c a t e s t h e need f o r a l a r g e i n c r e a s e of h o u s i n g s t o c k . To be s u c c e s s f u l , a p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m must be o f a s c a l e t h a t w i l l a l l e v i a t e t h e h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e . The r e n t and a f f o r d a b i l i t y o f t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g u n i t s i s a n o t h e r i m p e r a t i v e . A s u c c e s s f u l low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m has t o be a f f o r d a b l e t o t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e low-income p e o p l e , who a r e assumed t o be t h e b e n e f i c i a r i e s o f government a s s i s t a n c e . The p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s of t h e low-income h o u s e h o l d s i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g e s t a t e s i s an i m p o r t a n t i n d i c a t o r o f t h e s o c i o -e c o n o m i c e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m . I t i s e s s e n t i a l f o r a s u c c e s s f u l low-income h o u s i n g p r o g ram t o h e l p t h e p o o r improve t h e i r l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n s i m p l y t o r e l o c a t e them. The l o c a t i o n and a c c e s s i b i l i t y of p u b l i c h o u s i n g e s t a t e s i s a n o t h e r i n d i c a t o r o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c e f f e c t i v e n e s s . I t r e p r e s e n t s t h e i m p a c t o f t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m on t h e s p a t i a l p a t t e r n o f u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t . P r o x i m i t y t o employment and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s i s i m p o r t a n t t o t h e low-income p e o p l e ' s s u r v i v a l . 100 F o r b o t h Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e , t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s h o u s i n g p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e i s t o e n s u r e t h a t e v e n t u a l l y e v e r y f a m i l y has a permanent, s e l f - c o n t a i n e d home w i t h i n r e a c h o f employment and o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s a t a r e n t o r p r i c e i t can a f f o r d . I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t s u c h an a m b i t i o u s g o a l t a k e s t i m e t o a c h i e v e . How e f f e c t i v e have Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e been i n i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p o l i c y m e a s u r e s ? What have been t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e a p p r o a c h e s ? And, how c a n t h e s e p r o b l e m s be s o l v e d i n t h e f u t u r e ? 5.1 The Impact o f P u b l i c H o u s i n g Programs  on t h e P r o v i s i o n of H o u s i n g I n c r e a s e i n t h e h o u s i n g s t o c k i s an i m p o r t a n t i n d i c a t o r o f improvement i n t h e h o u s i n g s i t u a t i o n , as i t a l l e v i a t e s t h e h o u s i n g p r o b l e m by r e d u c i n g t h e o v e r a l l h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e . I n a c o u n t r y where t h e s u p p l y of h o u s i n g r e s p o n d s p u r e l y t o m arket demand, t h e p r o b l e m o f h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e c a n not be a v o i d e d b e c a u s e t h e h o u s i n g needs of t h e p o o r a r e not e f f e c t i v e l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e o v e r a l l demand. L a r g e s c a l e low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s make i t p o s s i b l e t o r e d u c e t h e h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e t h r o u g h i n c r e a s i n g t h e p r o v i s i o n , b e c a u s e t h e s u b s i d i z e d h o u s i n g u n i t s a r e d e s i g n e d f o r low-income g r o u p s . The amount of low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o v i d e d i n b o t h Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e i s i m p r e s s i v e . By 1980, t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g s e c t o r i n Hong Kong accommodated more t h a n two m i l l i o n p e o p l e , o r a b o u t 40 p e r c e n t of t h e p o p u l a t i o n (Fong, 1980). In 101 S i n g a p o r e , by 1983, low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g " - e s t a t e s had accommodated 1.8 m i l l i o n p e o p l e o r a b o u t 75 p e r c e n t of t h e 2.5 m i l l i o n p o p u l a t i o n . A t o t a l of a b o u t 380,000 u n i t s were b u i l t by t h e HDB between 1960 and 1983 ( S i n g a p o r e 1983). What has been t h e impact o f s u c h a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n h o u s i n g on t h e low-income g r o u p a s a whole? We c a n f i n d t h e answer by o b s e r v i n g t h e c h a n g e s t h a t have t a k e n p l a c e i n t h e s q u a t t e r a r e a s and slums i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e i n t h e l a s t two o r t h r e e d e c a d e s . The i m p o r t a n c e of t h e s l u m - s q u a t t e r c o n c e p t l i e s i n i t s f u n c t i o n a s an i n d i c a t o r o f h o u s i n g need w h i c h c a n n o t be e f f e c t i v e l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n demand. T h e r e f o r e , an e f f e c t i v e low-income h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s h o u l d have d i r e c t i m pact on t h e s q u a t t e r s e t t l e m e n t s and s l u m s . What we see i n t h e c a s e o f Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e i s a d e c r e a s e of s q u a t t e r s and slum r e s i d e n t s i n b o t h c i t i e s . I n 1953, 13 p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f Hong Kong l i v e d i n s q u a t t e r a r e a s , w h i l e i n 1980 o n l y 5.6 p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n was e s t i m a t e d t o be s q u a t t e r s . The t a b l e 5.1 shows us t h e change i n s q u a t t e r p o p u l a t i o n i n Hong Kong i n t h e l a s t t h r e e d e c a d e s . A l t h o u g h i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e t o t a l number o f s q u a t t e r s i n 1980 was v e r y c l o s e t o t h a t of 1953, w h i c h was t h e y e a r p r i o r t o t h e i n i t i a t i o n of i t s l a r g e s c a l e p u b l i c h o u s i n g program, i t i s a n e c e s s a r y t o s t r e s s t h e i n c r e a s e i n t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n Hong Kong i n t h e t h r e e d e c a d e s . O n l y i f we keep i n mind t h e 120% p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e i n t h e 28 y e a r s c a n we p o s s i b l l y r e a l i z e t h e enormous d i f f i c u l t y i n v o l v e d i n p r o v i d i n g h o u s i n g i n p a c e w i t h 102 t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e and t h e g r e a t a c h i e v e m e n t made by t h e p r o p o r t i o n a l d e c r e a s e o f s q u a t t e r p o p u l a t i o n . T a b l e 5.1 S q u a t t e r P o p u l a t i o n i n Hong Kong Y e a r T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n E s t i m a t e d S q u a t t e r s P e r c e n t a g e i n t h e T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n 1950 1,900,000 250,000 13.2 1 953 2,300,000 300,000 13.0 1956 2,610,000 265,000 10.2 1959 2,950,000 500,000 17.0 1 964 3,490,000 546,000 15.6 1965 3,597,900 538,300 15.0 1966 3,629,900 514,800 14.2 1967 3,722,800 485,100 13.0 1968 3,802,700 442,600 11.6 1969 3,863,900 428,700 11.1 1970 3,959,000 411,145 10.4 1 971 4.045,300 392,700 9.7 1 972 4,114,400 323,160 7.8 1 973 4,159,600 309,500 7.4 1 974 4,248,700 325,000 7.6 1978 4,720,000 295,000 6.3 1 980 5,017,000 278,800 5.6 S o u r c e s : Fong, 1980, p88. T h e r e i s no i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t h e change i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f slum r e s i d e n t s i n Hong Kong. However, i t i s v e r y l i k e l y t h a t t h e f i g u r e has d r o p p e d w i t h t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g u n i t s . P u b l i c h o u s i n g b u i l t b e f o r e 1973 by t h e H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y and t h e Government Low-Cost H o u s i n g Scheme was o r i e n t e d t o slums r e s i d e n t s . W h i l e t h e o v e r a l l i n c r e a s e i n t h e h o u s i n g s t o c k c o n t r i b u t e d by t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g s e c t o r r e l e a v e d some p r e s s u r e on p r i v a t e t e n e m e n t s . The 1968 s u r v e y by t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Hong Kong showed t h a t o v e r h a l f of t h e s q u a t t e r s i n t e r v i e w e d l i v e d i n p r i v a t e 103 t e n e m e n t s b e f o r e t h e y moved i n t o s q u a t t e r h u t s (Fong, 1980, p 9 0 ) . P e r h a p s t h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s move was t h a t t h e r e s e t t l e m e n t h o u s i n g was o r i e n t e d t o s q u a t t e r s r a t h e r t h a n s l u m r e s i d e n t s , and t h e r e f o r e l i v i n g i n s q u a t t e r a r e a s was c o n s i d e r e d as means f o r o b t a i n i n g a p u b l i c h o u s i n g u n i t . S i m i l a r o b s e r v a t i o n s can be made i n t h e c a s e o f S i n g a p o r e , t h o u g h t h e a v a i l a b l e d a t a i s n o t a s c o m p l e t e . In 1959, one t h i r d of a m i l l i o n p e o p l e l i v e d i n s q u a t t e r a r e a s and a n o t h e r one q u a r t e r of a m i l l i o n i n s l u m s . A l t o g e t h e r t h e y a c c o u n t e d f o r a b o u t 37% of t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . By 1970, t h e number o f s q u a t t e r s and slum r e s i d e n t s i n S i n g a p o r e d e c r e a s e d t o 345,000 o r o n l y 15% of t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n ( L a q u i a n , 1979, p 5 3 ) . No d o u b t , w i t h t h e boom i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g and t h e c o n t i n u o u s e f f o r t p u t i n t o s q u a t t e r c l e a r a n c e i n t h e 70s and 80s, t h e p r o p o r t i o n of s q u a t t e r s and slum r e s i d e n t s has d r o p p e d f u r t h e r ( t a b l e 5 . 2 ) . The above o b s e r v a t i o n s make i t c l e a r t h a t t h e low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s i n b o t h Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e have made a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e o v e r a l l h o u s i n g s t o c k . They a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m " t o k e n h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s " w h i c h a r e i n t e n d e d t o be v i s i b l e s ymbols o f g o v e r n m e n t a l c o n c e r n f o r t h e p o o r r a t h e r t h a n m e e t i n g t h e i r r e a l n e e d s . The d e c r e a s e i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n l i v i n g i n s q u a t t e r a r e a s and s l u m s s u g g e s t s t h e p o s i t i v e i m p a c t o f t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g programs on t h e s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e . 1 04 T a b l e 5.2 P u b l i c H o u s i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n and S q u a t t e r C l e a r a n c e i n S i n g a p o r e (1961 - 1978) P u b l i c H o u s i n g B u i l t S q u a t t e r C l e a r e d Y e a r ( u n i t s ) ( f a m i l i e s ) 1 961 7,320 294 1 962 12,230 817 1963 10,085 1,181 1964 13,028 3,643 1965 10,085 6,510 1966 12,659 6,018 1 967 12,098 5,984 1968 14,135 5,865 1969 13,096 6,519 1970 14,251 6, 125 1 971 16,147 3,882 1 972 20,252 4,060 1973-74 23,224 12,067 1974-75 27,128 10,980 1975-76 29,458 12,011 1977-78 25,354 16,443 S o u r c e s : HDB A n n u a l R e p o r t 1961-1979. 5.2 Rent and A f f o r d a b i l i t y o f P u b l i c H o u s i n g U n i t s The a f f o r d a b i l i t y o f h o u s i n g i s c r i t i c a l as i t d e t e r m i n e s i t s s o c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n . I t i s a common s i t u a t i o n i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s t h a t t h e p r i c e o f t h e low-income h o u s i n g i s t o o h i g h f o r t h e p o o r . In s u c h c a s e s t h e s o c i a l i mpact o f t h e low-income h o u s i n g p r o g r a m i s c o n t r a r y t o t h e p o l i c y g o a l , b e c a u s e i n s t e a d o f h e l p i n g t h e p o o r , a l l t h e p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e goes t o p e o p l e who have t h e f i n a n c i a l a b i l i t y t o a f f o r d t h e h o u s i n g . T h e r e f o r e , r e n t and a f f o r d a b i l i t y a r e i m p o r t a n t i n d i c a t o r s o f s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e . The r e n t f o r e a c h t y p e of p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n Hong Kong i s 105 shown i n t a b l e 5.3. The r e n t s f o r t h e r e s e t t l e m e n t h o u s i n g , w h i c h i s t h e d o m i n a n t t y p e o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n t e r m s o f t o t a l u n i t s b u i l t , a r e v e r y low i n d e e d . Most o f t h e s e h o u s i n g u n i t s a r e d e s i g n e d f o r f i v e - p e r s o n h o u s e h o l d s . I f we t a k e 20% as a n o r m a l p e r c e n t a g e h o u s e h o l d e x p e n d i t u r e on h o u s i n g , we w i l l f i n d t h a t i n 1974 t h e m o n t h l y r e n t f o r a l l of t h e r e s e t t l e m e n t h o u s i n g u n i t was w i t h i n t h e means o f a f i v e - p e r s o n h o u s e h o l d e a r n i n g " p o v e r t y income" ( a c c o r d i n g t o Chau, i n 1974, t h e p o v e r t y income f o r a f i v e - p e r s o n h o u s e h o l d was US$710 a n n u a l l y , w h i c h was e q u i v a l e n t t o a b o u t HK$300 p e r month. Chau 1979). Cheap r e n t f o r t h e r e s e t t l e m e n t h o u s i n g i n Hong Kong i s seen a s a f o r c e f u l p o i n t i n p e r s u a d i n g s q u a t t e r s t o move q u i e t l y f r o m t h e i r homes, w h i c h were o f t e n more s p a c i o u s and c o n v e n i e n t t o work, t h a n t h e r e s e t t l e m e n t e s t a t e s ( H o p k i n s , 1969). The r e n t s f o r t h e o t h e r t y p e s o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g , a g a i n u s i n g 20% a s a n o r m a l p e r c e n t a g e f o r h o u s h o l d e x p e n d i t u r e on h o u s i n g , a r e g e n e r a l l y w i t h i n t h e means o f t h e d e s i g n a t e d i n c o m e - g r o u p s . They a r e much l o w e r t h a n t h e r e n t s f o r p r i v a t e t e n e m e n t s . In 1976, t h e r e n t f o r a p r i v a t e tenement of 349 s q u a r e f e e t was HK$630, whereas t h e r e n t f o r a p u b l i c h o u s i n g u n i t o f 393 s q u a r e f e e t was o n l y HK$196 i n 1978 ( t a b l e 5 . 3 ) . 106 T a b l e 5.3 T y p i c a l R e n t s of P u b l i c H o u s i n g i n Hong Kong Program & Y e a r S i z e o f F l a t M o n t h l y Rent ($HK) Type of C o m p l e t i o n ( s q . f t . ) 1974 1978 Former I - I I (1954-64) 86 14 24 R e s e t t l e - 120 19 33 ment 1 52 24 43 E s t a t e s I I I (1964-66) 171 32 50 IV (1966-69) 1 37 29 43 169 35 52 200 43 63 V (1969-72) 176 39 55 221 52 71 VI (1972-74) 238 60 83 Former O l d Type 171 48 70 G o v e r n - (1963-66) 204 54 81 ment 232 73 93 Low C o s t H o u s i n g New Type 234 67 1 03 E s t a t e s (1967-73) 299 84 1 42 375 1 1 1 1 79 Former 1958-65 259 90 1 1 2 H o u s i n g 296 1 32 1 57 A u t h o r i t y 329 141 171 E s t a t e s 1966-73 304 1 22 1 38 329 1 43 171 393 174 196 New 1973-78 1 20 75 H o u s i n g 244 181 A u t h o r i t y 364 261 E s t a t e s 400 286 S o u r c e : F o n g , 1980. R e n t s f o r t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g u n i t s i n S i n g a p o r e a r e a l s o w i t h i n t h e f i n a n c i a l c a p a b i l i t y o f most i n t e n d e d h o u s e h o l d s . F o r t h e 1-, 2- and 3-room r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s b u i l t i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s , t h e s t a n d a r d r e n t s were f i x e d a t S$20, S$40, and S$60 p e r 107 month r e s p e c t i v e l y , e q u i v a l e n t i n e a c h c a s e t o a b o u t 15 p e r c e n t o f t h e f a m i l y income o f t h e d e s i g n a t e d income g r o u p s (Yeung, 1973, p 4 8 ) . I n 1966, t h e m o n t h l y r e n t i n c l u d i n g s e r v i c e and c o n s e r v a n c y c h a r g e s f o r a one-roomm p u b l i c h o u s i n g u n i t was S$30 ( e q u i v a l e n t t o a b o u t HK$60). I n 1983, 16 y e a r s l a t e r , t h e m o n t h l y r e n t f o r a one-room u n i t , i n c l u s i v e o f t h e c h a r g e s , was S$40 ( e q i v a l e n t t o a b o u t HK$80), an i n c r e a s e o f o n l y one t h i r d . By c o m p a r i s o n , t h e r e n t f o r p r i v a t e a p a r t m e n t has gone up f i v e t o t e n t i m e s d u r i n g t h i s 16 y e a r s p e r i o d ( S i n g a p o r e 1983). Compared w i t h Hong Kong, S i n g a p o r e has h i g h e r d e s i g n s t a n d a r d s f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g and c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y h i g h e r r e n t s . T a b l e 5.4 shows t h e income and r e n t f o r low-income h o u s i n g i n s i x A s i a n c o u n t r i e s . I t r e v e a l s t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f a v e r a g e m o n t h l y r e n t t o p e r c a p i t a GNP v a r i e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y among d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s and t h e f i g u r e s f o r Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e a r e much l o w e r t h a n t h o s e o f o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . T a b l e 5.4 Income and R e n t a l i n S i x A s i a n C o u n t r i e s , 1973 C o u n t r y Per C a p i t a GNP (US$) E q u i v a l e n t M o n t h l y Income (US$) A v e r a g e M o n t h l y Rent (US$) S i n g a p o r e Hong Kong M a l a y s i a 1490 1 090 480 250 240 102 124.2 90.8 40.0 20.8 20.0 8.5 11.6-58.0 3.6-32.6 7.2-26.8 15.0-30.0 9.0-67.0 1.6- 8.4 P h i 1 i p p i n e s T h a i l a n d S r i Lanka S o u r c e : HOUSING ASIA'S MILLIONS, e d . by Yeh & L a q u i a n , 1979 No d o u b t b o t h Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e a r e d i s t i n q u i s h e d 108 from o t h e r d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s where p u b l i c h o u s i n g programs a r e a c o n s e q u e n c e of " m i s p l a c e d p h i l a n t h r o p y " and a r e n o t a f f o r d a b l e t o t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p o o r . However, i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t , i n b o t h Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e , a l t h o u g h t h e r e n t f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r t h a n t h a t f o r p r i v a t e h o u s i n g and t h e u n i t s a r e a f f o r d a b l e t o t h e d e s i g n a t e d income-g r o u p s , t h e y may not be a f f o r d a b l e t o t h e p o o r e s t . F o r i n s t a n c e , i n 1971 more t h a t 15% o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n Hong Kong c o u l d not a f f o r d t h e h o u s i n g u n i t s b u i l t by t h e H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y , i f t h e e x p e n d i t u r e on h o u s i n g was n o t t o e x c e e d 20% o f t h e s e h o u s e h o l d s ' income ( a c c o r d i n g t o Fong, i n 1971 15.3% o f t h e h o u s e h o l d s i n Hong Kong e a r n e d l e s s t h a n HK$400 p e r month. Fong, 1980, p l 0 7 ) . Such a p r o b l e m i s more l i k e l y t o o c c u r i n • S i n g a p o r e , where r e l a t i v e h i g h e r r e n t s have r e s u l t e d f r o m h i g h e r d e s i g n s t a n d a r d s . A c c o r d i n g t o Buchanan, a s u r v e y made i n 1967 showed t h a t one t h i r d o f slum r e s i d e n t s were not moving t o HDB h o u s i n g e s t a t e s m a i n l y b e c a u s e t h e r e n t s would have been t o o g r e a t a p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e i r income - i n most c a s e s , t h e s e r e n t s were e q u i v a l e n t t o between 20% and 50% of t o t a l h o u s e h o l d income (Buchanan, 1972, p 2 3 4 ) . In a HDB s u r v e y c o n d u c t e d i n l a t e 1960s, i t was f o u n d t h a t "change i n h o u s i n g e x p e n d i t u r e " r a n k e d f i r s t f o r t h o s e r e s i d e n t s ' r e p o r t i n g a change f o r t h e worse (Yeung, 1973). A l t h o u g h t h e s i t u a t i o n may have been i m p r o v e d i n 1970s and 1980s, e a r l i e r p r o b l e m s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e government s h o u l d o f f e r t h e p o o r e s t more a s s i s t a n c e . D e s i g n s t a n d a r d s c o u l d a l s o be more f l e x i b l e b e c a u s e a l o w e r s t a n d a r d r e s u l t s i n l o w e r r e n t s , w h i c h i n t u r n means t h a t p u b l i c h o u s i n g can be a c c e s s i b l e 109 t o more low-income p e o p l e . 5.3 The Impact o f t h e Low-income P u b l i c H o u s i n g  on t h e P h y s i c a l C o n d i t i o n s o f t h e R e s i d e n t s S c a l e and a f f o r d a b i l i t y a r e m e a n i n g f u l i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e s o c i a l e f f e c t o f low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g p rograms o n l y i f t h e h o u s i n g u n i t s p r o v i d e a d e q u a t e c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e r e s i d e n t s , i . e . t h e y meet t h e b a s i c r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r s a f e t y , h e a l t h , and d a i l y l i f e c o n v e n i e n c e . F o r any low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m w h i c h i s not s o l e l y a means t o o b t a i n t h e s q u a t t e r l a n d o r t o r e d e v e l o p d i l a p i d a t e d a r e a s , q u a l i t y s h o u l d a l w a y s be a s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T h e r e i s no s o c i a l b e n e f i t t o t h e low-income r e s i d e n t s i n a r e l o c a t i o n p r o c e s s i n w h i c h t h e y a r e r e s e t t l e d i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g e s t a t e s where t h e c o n d i t i o n s a r e as bad o r worse t h a n i n t h e s q u a t t e r s a r e a s o r slums w h i c h t h e y have l i v e d . What k i n d of h o u s i n g e n v i r o n m e n t do t h e r e s i d e n t s o b t a i n from t h e low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e ? What has been t h e change, i n t e r m s of r e s i d e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n s , f o r t h e low-income h o u s e h o l d s who were r e l o c a t e d from s q u a t t e r s e t t l e m e n t s and slum a r e a s i n t o t h e low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g e s t a t e s ? In t h e l a s t c h a p t e r , we have r e v i e w e d t h e p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n s t a n d a r d s o f low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n t h e two c i t y - s t a t e s . What have been t h e s o c i a l e f f e c t s of t h e p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n ? The a n swers t o t h i s q u e s t i o n a r e so d i v e r s e (Fong, 1980, D r a k a k i s - S m i t h , 1979, G r i m e s , 1976, 110 L i u , 1975) t h a t i t seems n e c e s s a r y t o use e x p l i c i t c r i t e r i a t o a c h i e v e an o b j e c t i v e v i e w . T h e r e a r e t h r e e v a r i a b l e s w h i c h may be c o n s i d e r e d as m a j o r i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e change i n r e s i d e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n s of t h e low-income p e o p l e : s a f e t y , d e n s i t y , and t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of s e r v i c e s . I t s h o u l d be s t r e s s e s d t h a t a v a l i d d i s c u s s i o n must be f i r m l y r o o t e d i n t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c b a c k g r o u n d s of t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s . What i s d e s i r a b l e may n o t be what i s p o s s i b l e . T h e r e f o r e , t h e a s s e s s m e n t s h o u l d made by c o m p a r i i n g t h e r e s i d e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e low-income h o u s i n g e s t a t e s and t h o s e w h i c h a r e o f f e r e d i n o t h e r p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s , i . e . s q u a t t e r h o u s i n g and l o w - r e n t a l t e n e m e n t s p r o v i d e d by t h e p r i v a t e h o u s i n g s e c t o r . I n Hong Kong, low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g e s t a t e s d e m o n s t r a t e an improvement i n s a f e t y , as compared t o t h e s q u a t t e r a r e a s from w h i c h a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of t h e r e s i d e n t s came. B e f o r e t h e s e p e o p l e were r e l o c a t e d , t h e y f a c e d t h e t h r e a t s from l a n d s l i d e s , t y p h o o n s , f i r e s , and e v i c t i o n s , f o r example t h e Shek Mei f i r e . In t h e 1969 s u r v e y c o n d u c t e d by K e i t h H o p k i n s a s a p a r t of a S q u a t t e r R e s e a r c h P r o j e c t , 60 p e r c e n t o f t h e s q u a t t e r s who had r e s p o n d e d s t a t e d t h a t s e c u r i t y f r o m n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r was t h e most i m p o r t a n t r e a s o n f o r t h e i r move (Fong, 1980, p l 8 3 ) . T h i s f i n d i n g c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s b o t h t h e improvement i n s a f e t y p r o v i d e d by t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g s e c t o r and t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s u c h an improvement t o t h e p o o r . O v e r c r o w d i n g i s u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d as t h e w o r s t a s p e c t o f Hong Kong's p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e 111 f o r t h e r e s e t t l e m e n t e s t a t e s b u i l t between 1954 and 1963. A c c o r d i n g D r a k a k i s - S m i t h t h e low s t a n d a r d and l a c k o f p l a n n i n g i n t h e Mark I , I I and I I I r e s e t t l e m e n t e s t a t e s were d e p r e s s i n g t o o u t s i d e o b s e r v e r s ( D r a k a k i s - S m i t h , 1979, p 5 4 ) . The o v e r a l l d e n s i t y o f t h e s e e s t a t e s was h i g h e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e s q u a t t e r a r e a s t h a t were r e p l a c e d (Dwyer, 1972). A c c o r d i n g Fong, t h e a v e r a g e f l o o r a r e a p e r p e r s o n f o r v a r i o u s p u b l i c h o u s i n g e s t a t e s was 28 s q u a r e f e e t , w h i c h i s l o w e r t h a n t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g f i g u r e o f 30 s q u a r e f e e t f o r p r i v a t e t enements (Fong, 1980). The gap between p r i v a t e t enements and t h e e a r l y t y p e s o f r e s e t t l e m e n t e s t a t e s t h a t p r o v i d e d o n l y 24 s q u a r e f e e t p e r a d u l t i s even more s i g n i f i c a n t . However, t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s may not be a s u f f i c i e n t b a s i s f o r making a judgement. F i r s t of a l l , h i g h d e n s i t y does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean c r o w d i n g . A h i g h e r d e n s i t y i n t h e r e s e t t l e m e n t e s t a t e s t h a n t h a t i n t h e s q u a t t e r a r e a s can be t h e r e s u l t of more e f f i c i e n t l a n d use i n t h e f o r m e r t h r o u g h h i g h -r i s e r a t h e r t h a n t h e r e s u l t o f l o w e r s t a n d a r d s . S e c o n d l y , a l t h o u g h t h e a v e r a g e f l o o r a r e a p e r p e r s o n i s h i g h e r i n p r i v a t e t e n e m e n t s t h a n i n r e s e t t l e m e n t e s t a t e s , t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n i s much more u n e q u a l i n p r i v a t e t e n e m e n t s . In f a c t , t h e p r i v a t e t e n e m e n t s have a v e r y h i g h p e r c e n t a g e of h o u s e h o l d s s h a r i n g t h e i r l i v i n g q u a r t e r s w i t h o t h e r s . In 1971, t h e d e g r e e of s h a r i n g i n t h i s t y p e of h o u s i n g was c l o s e t o two f a m i l i e s p e r u n i t , w h i c h i s much h i g h e r t h a n t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g f i g u r e f o u n d i n t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g e s t a t e s where s h a r i n g i s a l m o s t non-e x i s t e n t ( t a b l e 5 . 5 ) . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e o v e r c r o w d i n g s i t u a t i o n i n t h e r e s e t t l e m e n t e s t a t e s i s n o t as 1 1 2 s e r i o u s a s t h a t i n t h e many t e n e m e n t s where h o u s e h o l d s s h a r e t h e i r l i v i n g q u a r t e r s . T h i r d l y , t h e s i t u a t i o n o f o v e r c r o w d i n g i s f o u n d m o s t l y i n t h e r e s e t t l e m e n t e s t a t e s b u i l t between 1954 and 1963 w h i c h does n o t p r e s e n t t h e whole p i c t u r e o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n Hong Kong. In f a c t , t h e a v e r a g e f l o o r a r e a p e r p e r s o n f o r t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g e s t a t e s b u i l t i n 1970s and 1980s i s h i g h e r t h a n t h e f i g u r e f o r p r i v a t e t e n e m e n t s . T a b l e 5.5 Number of H o u s e h o l d s P er L i v i n g Q u a r t e r by Type i n Hong Kong (1971) No. o f H o u s e h o l d s No. o f L i v i n g Per L i v i n g Type o f L i v i n g Q u a r t e r H o u s e h o l d s Q u a r t e r s Q u a r t e r P r i v a t e s e l f - c o n t a i n e d f l a t s 185,632 135,589 1 .37 P r i v a t e t e n e m e n t s 249,256 125,211 1 .99 Non s e l f - c o n t a i n e d p u b l i c h o u s i n g u n i t s 1 06,295 103,894 1 .02 S e l f - c o n t a i n e d p u b l i c and a i d e d h o u s i n g 156,879 156,137 1 .00 House 8,625 7,214 1 .20 S i m p l e s t o n e s t r u c t u r e 57,553 49,876 1 .15 O t h e r permanent h o u s i n g 10,794 10,551 1 .02 Temporary h o u s i n g 71,636 66,338 1 .08 A l l t y p e s 846,670 654,810 1 .29 S o u r c e : Fong, 1980, p l 8 9 . The a v a i l a b i l i t y of p h y s i c a l a m e n i t i e s s u c h a s e l e c t r i c i t y , p i p e d w a t e r s u p p l y , t o i l e t and k i t c h e n i s a l s o an i m p o r t a n t measure. V e r y few s q u a t t e r h o u s e h o l d s have water s u p p l y i n t h e i r h o u s e s . Some o f them d o n ' t even have e l e c t r i c i t y , and sewerage i s g e n e r a l l y n o t p r o v i d e d i n s q u a t t e r a r e a s (Fung, 1978). In r e s e t t l e m e n t e s t a t e s , h o u s e h o l d u t i l i t i e s s u c h a s e l e c t r i c i t y 1 13 and w a t e r s u p p l y a r e p r o v i d e d . A l l t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g u n i t s b u i l t a f t e r 1973 a r e s e l f - c o n t a i n e d . The a v e r a g e s i t u a t i o n i n t h e p r i v a t e t e n e m e n t s i s l a r g e l y t h e same as i n t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g , a l t h o u g h i t i s n o t c l e a r how bad t h e s i t u a t i o n c a n be i n some o f t h e s e t e n e m e n t s . In S i n g a p o r e , u s i n g t h e same c r i t e r i a , t h e p o s i t i v e i mpact of t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g on t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e r e l o c a t e d h o u s e h o l d s i s more o b v i o u s . In t e r m s o f s a f e t y , t h e s q u a t t e r s e t t l e m e n t s a l s o had s e r i o u s p r o b l e m s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e d a n g e r o f f i r e s . So p u b l i c h o u s i n g i s no doubt an improvement. A c c o r d i n g t o Yeung, when t h e d e n s i t i e s i n t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g e s t a t e s a r e compared w i t h t h e more c o n g e s t e d p a r t s o f t h e c i t y f r o m where most r e s i d e n t s have moved, p u b l i c h o u s i n g e s t a t e s g e n e r a l l y r e p r e s e n t an improvement (Yeung, 1973). W i t h r e g a r d t o modern town p l a n n i n g p r i n c i p l e s , r e s i d e n t i a l u s e s i n t h e e s t a t e s o c c u p y , on t h e a v e r a g e , o n l y 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l l a n d a r e a , t h e o t h e r h a l f of t h e l a n d i s d e v o t e d t o r o a d s , s c h o o l s , l a n d s c a p i n g , and o t h e r a u x i l i a r y s e r v i c e s . L i v i n g s p a c e p e r p e r s o n has more t h a n d o u b l e d , h a v i n g i n c r e a s e d from 31.2 t o 66.4 s q u a r e f e e t a f t e r r e l o c a t i o n . In t e r m s o f t h e p r o v i s i o n of p h y s i c a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , n e a r l y a l l HDB f l a t s have i n d i v i d u a l k i t c h e n , bathroom, and t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s . The p r o g r e s s made i n r e s i d e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n s , when measured a g a i n s t t h e t h e slum a r e a s and i n s a n i t a r y s q u a t t e r c o l o n i e s i n S i n g a p o r e , i s c o n s i d e r a b l e (Yeung, 1973, p 5 8 ) . T a b l e 5.6 i s a summery of a s u r v e y c o n d u c t e d by t h e HDB, w h i c h p r e s e n t t h e i n t e r v i e w e e ' s p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e t o t h e c o m p a r i s o n of r e s i d e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n s i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g u n i t s 1 14 w i t h t h e i r p a s t l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s . T a b l e 5.6 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e C o m p a r i s o n of t h e R e s i d e n t i a l C o n d i t i o n s i n P u b l i c H o u s i n g E s t a t e s w i t h P a s t R e s i d e n t i a l C o n d i t i o n s V a r i a b l e Name No Change Changed f o r t h e B e t t e r Changed f o r t h e Worse Changes i n l i f e i n g e n e r a l 12.6% 69.8% 11.8% Changes i n p u b l i c s e c u r i t y 37.7% 55.9% 6.5% Change i n h e a l t h of h o u s e h o l d members 28.9% 66.8% 4.3% Change i n c l e a n l i n e s s 14.9% 75.2% 9.8% Change i n e n v i r o n m e n t i n b r i n g i n g up k i d s 25.8% 68.7% 5.5% S o u r c e : Yeung, p73 ( 1 9 7 3 ) . A l l t h e above c o m p a r i s o n s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e t h a t i n b o t h Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e t h e r e s i d e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g e s t a t e s a r e u s u a l l y b e t t e r t h a n i n t h e s q u a t t e r a r e a s . C o n d i t i o n s i n t h e p r i v a t e t e n e m e n t s a r e no b e t t e r t h a n i n t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g e s t a t e s . A c t u a l l y , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t a c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o p o r t i o n of p r i v a t e t e nements a r e i n a worse c o n d i t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s p e r h a p s f a i r t o say t h a t t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g s e c t o r i n b o t h c i t i e s o f f e r t h e i r r e s i d e n t s h o u s i n g u n i t s o f a d e q u a t e q u a l i t y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y t o p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e r e s i d e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n s i n Hong Kong's non s e l f - c o n t a i n e d r e s e t t l e m e n t e s t a t e s a r e v e r y low i n d e e d . T h i s low q u a l i t y has c a u s e d many p r o b l e m s f o r t h e r e s i d e n t s and has been c r i t i c i z e d by a number of w r i t e r s i n t h i s f i e l d ( D r a k a k i s -S m i t h , 1979, and M o r r i s , 1978). But, i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t 1 15 c r i t i s i s m be b a s e d on t h e economic c o n d i t i o n s a t t h e t i m e r a t h e r t h a n on an u n r e a l i s t i c " d e s i g n s t a n d a r d " . I n f a c t , i n Hong Kong p r o j e c t s f o r t h e c o n v e r s i o n o f t h e o l d e s t a t e s have been p l a n n e d and i m p l e m e n t e d s i n c e 1968. C o m p a r a t i v e l y s p e a k i n g , t h e h i g h e r d e s i g n s t a n d a r d s o f t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n S i n g a p o r e do r e s u l t i n b e t t e r r e s i d e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a n t h o s e i n Hong Kong. N e v e r t h e l e s s , b o t h u r b a n -s t a t e s have p r o v i d e d low-income p e o p l e w i t h an i m p r o v e d h o u s i n g e n v i r o n m e n t t h r o u g h p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s . The q u a l i t y o f r e s i d e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n s , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e s c a l e of t h e h o u s i n g p rograms and t h e g e n e r a l l y a f f o r d a b l e r e n t s , a r e p o s i t i v e s o c i o -economic e f f e c t s of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s . 5.4 The L o c a t i o n o f P u b l i c H o u s i n g E s t a t e s The word " l o c a t i o n " u s e d h e r e i n c l u d e s b o t h a c t u a l p h y s i c a l l o c a t i o n a n d m o b i l i t y o r a c c e s s t o t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . The l o c a t i o n of l o w-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g has an i m p o r t a n t s o c i a l e f f e c t b e c a u s e i t d e t e r m i n e s a c c e s s t o employment and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . P r o x i m i t y t o employment i s c r i t i c a l t o t h e s u r v i v a l o f t h e p o o r . S u r v e y s o f slum and s q u a t t e r d w e l l e r s a l m o s t a l w a y s r e v e a l t h a t c l o s e n e s s t o work i s a p r i m a r y r e a s o n f o r t h e i r l o c a t i o n . The l i n k between p l a c e of r e s i d e n c e and p l a c e of work i s so i m p o r t a n t t h a t i t i s o f t e n a major d e t e r m i n a n t of t h e s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e o f a low-income h o u s i n g p r o g r a m . In t h e l a s t c h a p t e r we showed t h a t t h e p h y s i c a l and f i n a n c i a l a v a i l a b i l i t y o f l a n d i s a major d e t e r m i n a n t i n s h a p i n g 1 16 t h e p a t t e r n o f d e v e l o p m e n t . In Hong Kong, p r i v a t e h o u s i n g i s c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e i n n e r c i t y , whereas p u b l i c h o u s i n g i s s c a t t e r e d on t h e f r i n g e . In f a c t , P r y o r n o t e d t h a t i n 1973, 70% of t h e t o t a l g r o s s f l o o r a r e a o f p r i v a t e h o u s i n g was i n t h e i n n e r d i s t r i c t s and 88% of t h e t o t a l f l o o r a r e a o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g was i n t h e o u t e r d i s t r i c t s (Yeung, 1979). A l t h o u g h i n i t i a l l y t h e government a l s o b u i l t i n t h e c i t y c e n t r e on s i t e s made a v a i l a b l e by s q u a t t e r f i r e s o r s q u a t t e r c l e a r a n c e p r o g r a m s , a f t e r t h e 1950s i t t u r n e d i t s a t t e n t i o n p r i m a r i l y t o p e r i p h e r a l a r e a s b e c a u s e l a n d v a l u e s a r e h i g h e r i n t h e i n n e r d i s t r i c t s ( F i g u r e 5 . 1 ) . As a r e s u l t , t h e low-income h o u s i n g p r o g ram i n Hong Kong has c r e a t e d a major p o p u l a t i o n s h i f t w i t h i n t h e c i t y . The b u l k o f - t h e r e s e t t l e m e n t p o p u l a t i o n has been moved t o t h e s u b u r b a n a r e a s , w h i l s t t h e main economic f o c i , e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r m s of c o m m e r c i a l and s e r v i c e j o b s , s t i l l r e m a i n i n t h e o l d e r p a r t s o f t h e c i t y . T h i s has r e s u l t e d i n c o n s i d e r a b l e s e g r e g a t i o n between t h e p l a c e s of work and t h e p l a c e s o f r e s i d e n c e i n t h e c i t y . In a s t u d y by Fung on s q u a t t e r r e l o c a t i o n and home-work s e p a r a t i o n , i t was f o u n d t h a t t h e p r o c e s s of r e l o c a t i o n d i s r u p t e d t h e e x i s t i n g commuting p a t t e r n s o f t h e a f f e c t e d s q u a t t e r s . Those p e o p l e moved t o a p e r i p h e r a l s e t t i n g d i d e x i b t more commuting t h a n o t h e r s (Fung, 1978). The o p p o s i t i o n t o moving has come, n o t so much f r o m t h e t y p e o f R e s e t t l e m e n t H o u s i n g b e i n g o f f e r e d , b u t from i t s l o c a t i o n (Fung, 1978). 117 F i g u r e 5.1 - L o c a t i o n of P u b l i c Housing i n Hong Kong. Source: Drakakis-Smith, (1979). In Singapore, a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n of development can be observed. Large s c a l e c o n s t r u c t i o n programs s i n c e 1960 have been launched i n the o u t l y i n g areas where l a r g e t r a c t s of l a n d were assembled at lower c o s t . Although at one time a number of urban renewal p r o j e c t s were c a r r i e d out i n more c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n s , the l a t e s t developments have been s e l f - c o n t a i n e d s a t e l i t e towns. As i n Hong Kong, the c e n t r a l area i n Singapore i s s t i l l the employment focus, and most r e s i d e n t s of p u b l i c housing e s t a t e s have to spend a long time on t h e i r journey to work. No doubt l o c a t i o n i s a major problem f o r low-income p u b l i c housing programs i n both c a s e s . F i r s t of a l l , the root of the 118 l o c a t i o n p r o b l e m i s u r b a n e x p a n s i o n r e s u l t i n g f r o m p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h and economic d e v e l o p m e n t ; and s e c o n d l y , t h e h i g h l a n d v a l u e s i n t h e c e n t r a l d i s t r i c t s . T h i s f o r c e s t h e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of p u b l i c h o u s i n g , t h e move o f t h e low-income h o u s e h o l d s t o w a r d s f r i n g e , and t h e o v e r c r o w d i n g i n c e n t r a l d i s t r i c t s . In e x a m i n i n g p e o p l e ' s r e s p o n s e c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e a s o n s b e h i n d t h e i r r e s i d e n t i a l move, i t was f o u n d t h a t t h e main r e a s o n s f o r s q u a t t e r s ' r e s i d e n t i a l moves were r e l a t e d t o i n s u f f i c i e n t s p a c e and e x p e n s i v e r e n t i n t h e i r p r e v i o u s accommodation w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e d a s much as 67% o f a l l t h e a n s w e r s (Fung, 1978). The l a n d i n t h e o u t l y i n g a r e a s i s c h e a p e r b e c a u s e i t i s l e s s v a l u a b l e as measured by t h e e x i s t i n g economic s y s t e m . M a n u f a c t u r e r s a r e h e s i t a n t t o l o c a t e t h e r e b e c a u s e i t i s u s u a l l y more p r o f i t a b l e t o i n v e s t i n c e n t r a l a r e a s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e p r o b l e m of home-work s e p a r a t i o n o f t e n o c c u r s as a c o n s e q u e n c e o f new town d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , t h e r e a r e t h r e e ways f o r an i n d i v i d u a l a f f e c t e d by r e l o c a t i o n t o r e a c t t o an i n c r e a s e d l e v e l o f commuting: (a) t o seek a change of j o b ; (b) t o change r e s i d e n c e ; and ( c ) t o t o l e r a t e i n c r e a s e d commuting. But i n b o t h Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e , most p e o p l e d i d n o t change t h e i r j o b s a f t e r moving i n t o p u b l i c h o u s i n g e s t a t e s , and few p e o p l e had t h e i n t e n t i o n o f moving o u t . T h e r e f o r e , t h e most common r e a c t i o n was t o t o l e r a t e i n c r e a s e d commuting. What e f f o r t c a n t h e government make t o a l l e v i a t e t h e l o c a t i o n p r o b l e m o f low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g ? T h e r e have been 119 two a p p r o a c h e s . One i s t o o f f e r t h e r e s i d e n t s j o b s w i t h i n t h e h o u s i n g e s t a t e s t h r o u g h d e c e n t r a l i z i n g i n d u s t r i e s and t o b u i l d more s o c i a l s e r v i c e s i n t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g e s t a t e s . A s e c o n d a p p r o a c h i s t o i n c r e a s e t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y of t h e r e s i d e n t s by i m p r o v i n g t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m . How s i g n i f i c a n t a r e t h e s e a p p r o a c h e s ? The f i r s t a p p r o a c h seems t o have had o n l y l i m i t e d s u c c e s s so f a r i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e b e c a u s e t h e gov e r n m e n t s i n b o t h u r b a n - s t a t e s have been r e l u c t a n t t o o f f e r i n c e n t i v e s t o e n c o u r a g e t h e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y . In S i n g a p o r e , f o r i n s t a n c e , a l t h o u g h i t has been t h e p o l i c y o f t h e HDB t o b u i l d l o c a l l i g h t i n d u s t r i e s i n some e s t a t e s , t o e n a b l e l o c a l r e s i d e n t s t o f i n d j o b s n e a r e r t h e i r homes, i t has been f o u n d t h a t n ot enough has been p r o v i d e d t o a b s o r b o r a t t r a c t t h e a v a i l a b l e l a b o r f o r c e i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g a r e a s . Most of t h e c h i e f i n c o m e - e a r n e r s o f t h e h o u s e h o l d s i n p e r i p h e r a l l y l o c a t e d p u b l i c h o u s i n g e s t a t e s s t i l l work i n t h e c e n t r a l d i s t r i c t (Yeung, 1973; H a r d o y , 1979). As has been m e n t i o n e d i n c h a p t e r 4, i n b o t h Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e , many o f th e r e s i d e n t s of p u b l i c h o u s i n g e s t a t e s have t o r e l y on v e h i c u l a r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o g e t t o work. F o r t u n a t e l y , s i g n i f i c a n t improvements have been made i n t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m s i n b o t h c i t i e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t has t o be s t r e s s e d t h a t t h e r e a r e many p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h home-work s e g r e g a t i o n and r e l y i n g on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a l o n e c a n n o t p r o v i d e a f i n a l s o l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m . C o n t i n u o u s u r b a n e x p a n s i o n a g g r a v a t e s t h e p r o b l e m o f 120 home-work s e p a r a t i o n b e c a u s e t h e p o o r e s t can n o t a f f o r d t h e c o s t o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , i t seems n e c e s s a r y t h a t Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e p u r s u e a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e s p a t i a l p l a n n i n g p o l i c y t o c r e a t e j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n t h e new towns i n o r d e r t o g i v e t h e l ow-income r e s i d e n t s e a s i e r a c c e s s t o employment. 5 . 5 An A s s e s s m e n t o f t h e S o c i a l E f f e c t o f t h e Low-Income  P u b l i c H o u s i n g Programs i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e S c a l e , a f f o r d a b i l i t y , q u a l i t y and l o c a t i o n a r e m a j o r i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c e f f e c t i v e n e s s of low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s . Whereas i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o examine e a c h s e p a r a t e l y t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e m e r i t s and p r o b l e m s o f t h e s e p r o g r a m s , an o v e r a l l a s s e s s m e n t s h o u l d c o n s i d e r t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n . P u b l i c h o u s i n g ought t o be a r e s u l t o f a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s w h i c h b a l a n c e s t h e s e i n t e r r e l a t e d f e a t u r e s . The low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g programs i n b o t h c i t i e s a r e s u c c e s s f u l i n t e r m s of q u a n t i t y . The l a r g e s c a l e p r o v i s i o n of low-income p u b l i c u n i t s h a s , t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , s a t i s f i e d t h e h o u s i n g needs of t h e low-income p e o p l e w h i c h can not be e f f e c t i v e l y r e p r e s e n t e d by demand i n t h e market economy. The s o c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n of h o u s i n g p r o v i s i o n by t h e p u b l i c s e c t o r i s t o a l a r g e e x t e n t e n s u r e d by t h e low r e n t s f o r t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g u n i t s and t h e r e g u l a t i o n s c o n t r o l i n g t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s u b s i d i z e d low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g u n i t s . As a r e s u l t , t h e p e o p l e i n t h e low-income g r o u p s a r e t h e major b e n e f i c i a r i e s o f government a s s i s t a n c e . 121 N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e have been p r o b l e m s r e g a r d i n g t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f b e n e f i t s w i t h i n t h e low-income g r o u p s . In Hong Kong, t h e major p r o b l e m has been t h a t t h e low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m was o r i e n t e d t o s q u a t t e r s i n t h e f i r s t two d e c a d e s and t h e a p p a l l i n g r e s i d e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e p o o r l i v i n g i n p r i v a t e t e n e m e n t s were n e g l e c t e d . The dominant p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g b u i l t i n Hong Kong b e f o r e 1973 was f o r r e l o c a t i n g s q u a t t e r s , whereas t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e p o o r l i v i n g i n p r i v a t e tenement t o o b t a i n a p u b l i c h o u s i n g u n i t was much more l i m i t e d . In S i n g a p o r e , a s compared w i t h Hong Kong, t h e d e s i g n s t a n d a r d s f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g u n i t s have been h i g h e r , and so have been t h e r e n t s . T h e r e have been some i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t t h e low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g u n i t s i n S i n g a p o r e were n o t a f f o r d a b l e t o t h e p o o r e s t o f t h e p o o r (Buchanan, 1972). A c c o r d i n g t o Yeung, by 1973, p u b l i c h o u s i n g had a t t r a c t e d m o s t l y p e o p l e o f upper l o w e r , and l o w e r m i d d l e c l a s s e s (Yeung, 1973). A l t h o u g h b o t h Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e have t h e p r o b l e m t h a t t h e p o o r e s t o f t h e p o o r may be e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e b e n e f i t s o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g due t o t h e r e n t s , t h i s p r o b l e m i s more l i k e l y t o o c c u r i n S i n g a p o r e . T h i s s i t u a t i o n s u g g e s t s t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r more government a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e p o o r e s t h o u s e h o l d s . In t e r m s o f t h e q u a l i t y of p u b l i c h o u s i n g , i t has been made c l e a r i n t h e p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n t h a t i n b o t h Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e p u b l i c h o u s i n g o f f e r s much b e t t e r r e s i d e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a n do t h e s q u a t t e r s e t t l e m e n t s . A l t h o u g h d e s i g n s t a n d a r d s i n some p u b l i c h o u s i n g e s t a t e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e r e s e t t l e m e n t e s t a t e s b u i l t i n Hong Kong between 1954 and 1963 122 a r e v e r y low, c r i t i c i s m s h o u l d a l s o c o n s i d e r t h e g r e a t s c a l e , t h e low r e n t , and t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c b a c k g r o u n d of t h e e a r l y r e s e t t l e m e n t program. To c o n c l u d e , t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e have made a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o h o u s i n g t h e p o o r i n t h e s e two u r b a n - s t a t e s b e c a u s e few low-income h o u s e h o l d s c a n a f f o r d t o pay f o r p r i v a t e t e n e m e n t s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o i m a g i n e how t h e m i l l i o n s of low-income p e o p l e would f i n d a ccommodation f o r t h e m s e l e v s , i f t h e r e were no low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , as we have n o t e d many r e s i d e n t s of t h e p u b l i c e s t a t e s f a c e t h e p r o b l e m o f home-work s e p a r a t i o n . As t h e c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d l a n d becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y s c a r c e , i t has been a s t r a t e g y f o r new p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s t o be b u i l t f u r t h e r away, owing t o t h e l i m i t a t i o n i n p u b l i c f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s . However, we have t o keep i n mind t h a t s u c h a p a t t e r n of d e v e l o p m e n t i s more a r e s u l t of u r b a n e x p a n s i o n r e s u l t i n g f r o m p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h t h a n a s h o r t c o m i n g o f t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , p l a n n e r s s h o u l d a l w a y s remember t h a t government h o u s i n g p o l i c y and p l a n n i n g s h o u l d be a dynamic f o r c e t o change t h e e x i s t i n g s p a t i a l p a t t e r n o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of w e a l t h and human s e t t l e m e n t i n c a s e s u c h p a t t e r n o f d i s t r i b u t i o n b l o c k s f u r t h e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . In t h e c a s e of Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e g o v e r n e m n t s t o make an e f f o r t t o d e c e n t r a l i z e i n d u s t r i e s and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . The n a t u r e of h o u s i n g s u g g e s t s t h a t i t c o n t r i b u t e s t o 123 s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t not o n l y t h r o u g h s a t i s f y i n g b a s i c human n e e d s , but a l s o t h r o u g h i m p r o v i n g t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t and s p a t i a l p a t t e r n o f c i t i e s and by d i r e c t e c onomic b e n e f i t s f r o m t h e h o u s i n g s e c t o r . The dynamic r o l e o f t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s i n c h a n g i n g t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t and s p a t i a l p a t t e r n o f c i t i e s i s p a r t i a l l y s een i n t h e l a r g e number o f s q u a t t e r s c l e a r e d and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f new towns. Such i m p a c t s have been c r i t i c a l t o t h e i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n and u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t i n b o t h Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e . I t i s w i d e l y a d m i t t e d t h a t , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t and p u b l i c h o u s i n g have r e i n f o r c e d e a c h o t h e r i n b o t h Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , an a c c u r a t e a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s r e q u i r e s more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e c o n s e q u e n t p a t t e r n o f l a n d u se, u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t , employment i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n and b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l i n d u s t r i e s w h i c h , owing t o t h e l i m i t a t i o n o f a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n , s h o u l d be e x p l o r e d i n f u r t h e r s t u d i e s . 1 24 CHAPTER 6. LESSONS FOR COMPARABLE CONDITIONS 6.1 S h a n g h a i a s a C o m p a r a b l e C i t y In t h i s c h a p t e r t h e l e s s o n s o f t h e low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s of Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e a r e a p p l i e d t o t h e c i t y o f S h a n g h a i , w h i c h has s e v e n m i l l i o n p e o p l e and i s t h e l a r g e s t i n d u s t r i a l and c o m m e r c i a l c e n t r e i n C h i n a . 1 I t i s c e r t a i n l y t r u e t h a t t h e r e a r e enormous d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s i t u a t i o n o f C h i n a and t h e two u r b a n - s t a t e s . I t i s e s s e n t i a l t o keep t h e s e i n mind b e c a u s e S h a n g h a i i s a m e t r o p o l i t a n u n i t w i t h i n t h e p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , and e c o n o m i c framework o f C h i n a . However, S h a n g h a i i s i n many r e s p e c t s a c i t y c o m p a r a b l e t o Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e . F i r s t o f a l l , S h a n g h a i i s among t h e most d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d c i t i e s i n t h e w o r l d . S e c o n d l y , t h e e c o n o m i c p r o d u c t i v i t y o f S h a n g h a i , a s measured by GNP p e r c a p i t a , i s much h i g h e r t h a n t h e a v e r a g e f o r C h i n a , and i s p e r h a p s c l o s e t o t h e GNP p e r c a p i t a o f Hong Kong or S i n g a p o r e i n t h e l a t e - l 9 6 0 s . T h i r d l y , S h a n g h a i has c o m p a r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g human r e s o u r c e s f o r p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n i n g h o u s i n g as w e l l as t e c h n o l o g i c a l a b i l i t y f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n . F o u t h l y , t h e h i s t o r i c and g e o g r a p h i c f e a t u r e s of S h a n g h a i a r e a l s o c o m p a r a b l e t o Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e : S h a n g h a i was a s e m i - c o l o n i a l c i t y b e f o r e t h e f o u n d a t i o n of t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a ; i t i s S t a t i s t i c s show t h a t i n 1985, S h a n g h a i had 6.98 m i l l i o n p e o p l e of w h i c h t h e t o t a l number of h o u s e h o l d s were 1.97 m i l l i o n s (The M i n i s t r y o f P u b l i c S e c u r i t y , 1986). 1 25 a l s o an i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o r t c i t y . F i f t h l y , t h e c u r r e n t economic r e f o r m s i n C h i n a , w h i c h promote t h e c o - e x i s t e n c e o f market and p l a n n e d e c o n o m i e s and i n c r e a s e t h e autonomy o f l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s , make S h a n g h a i more c o m p a r a b l e t o Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e . I f t h e f o c u s o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n i s n a r r o w e d t o h o u s i n g , we ca n f i n d more c o m p a r a b l e f e a t u r e s . One i s t h e s h o r t a g e o f h o u s i n g . The p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n has shown t h a t i n t h e 1950s and 1960s, b o t h Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e f a c e d a s e r i o u s h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e , and a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n was f o r c e d t o l i v e i n s q u a t t e r s e t t l e m e n t s and s l u m s . A l t h o u g h t h e p r o b l e m o f h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e i s v i s u a l l y l e s s o b v i o u s i n S h a n g h a i , i t i s a c t u a l l y s e r i o u s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e C h i n a News Ag e n c y , S h a n g h a i now has a h a l f m i l l i o n h o u s e h o l d s ( o v e r 25 p e r c e n t o f i t s t o t a l h o u s e h o l d s ) t h a t a r e not h o u s e d a p p r o p r i a t e l y , and i t s h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e has not been a l l e v i a t e d d e s p i t e a g r e a t e f f o r t h a v i n g been p u t i n t o h o u s i n g s i n c e 1980 ( C h i n a News Agency, May 10, 1986 and May 18, 1986). The h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n a number o f ways. F i r s t , i t i s seen i n t h e m a s s i v e s u b d i v i s i o n o f t h e e x i s t i n g u n i t s t h r o u g h f a m i l y t i e s . A h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of u r b a n h o u s e h o l d s i n S h a n g h a i a r e composed o f t h r e e o r even f o u r g e n e r a t i o n s . I t i s n o t uncommon t h a t t e n o r more p e o p l e crowd i n t o a h o u s i n g u n i t i n t e n d e d f o r f o u r t o f i v e p e r s o n s . T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s t o c e r t a i n e x t e n t s i m i l a r t o t h e s u b d i v i s i o n o b s e r v e d i n t h e p r i v a t e t e n e m e n t s i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e . S e c o n d , t h e h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e i s shown by t h e t h e s e v e r e d i f f i c u l t y f a c e d by t h e c i t y i n p r o v i d i n g h o u s i n g f o r newly 1 26 form e d f a m i l i e s . Many young c o u p l e s c a n n o t f i n d h o u s i n g f o r t h e m s e l v e s , and many o t h e r s a r e d e l a y i n g m a r r i a g e b e c a u s e no h o u s e s a r e a v a i l a b l e . T h i r d , t h e h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e i s seen i n t h e c o l l e c t i v e accommodation p r o v i d e d f o r p r e - m a r r i e d p e o p l e . A s i n g l e room i n t h e s e c o l l e c t i v e r e s i d e n c e s i s s h a r e d by two t o more t h a n t e n p e r s o n s . T h i s form o f h o u s i n g i s common f o r young p e o p l e a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e s o r w o r k i n g . F o u r t h , t h e h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e i s a l s o seen i n t h e l a c k o f s e r v i c e s s u c h a s water and sewage. A s e c o n d c o m p a r a b l e f e a t u r e c o n c e r n s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e h o u s i n g p r o b l e m . I t was s t a t e d i n t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r of t h i s s t u d y t h a t t h e h o u s i n g p r o b l e m i s r e l a t e d t o : ( i ) economic c a p a c i t y , r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e match between p o p u l a t i o n g r o w th and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of human a b i l i t y i n m o b i l i z i n g and u t i l i s i n g r e s o u r c e s ; ( i i ) t h e s o c i a l p a t t e r n o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e m o b i l i z e d r e s o u r c e s ; and ( i i i ) t h e s p a t i a l p a t t e r n of human s e t t l e m e n t s . L i k e t h e two u r b a n - s t a t e s i n t h e 1950s and 1960s, t h e e c o n o m i c c a p a c i t y o f C h i n a i s low, owing t o t h e mis-match between p o p u l a t i o n and r e s o u r c e s . T h i s i s shown by t h e low GNP p e r c a p i t a , t h e h i g h p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g s h o r t a g e o f l a n d and o t h e r r e s o u r c e s . W h i l e S h a n g h a i has h i g h e r p r o d u c t i v i t y t h a n t h e n a t i o n a l a v e r a g e , i t s wages and i n v e s t m e n t a r e c e n t r a l l y p l a n n e d . As a r e s u l t , S h a n g h a i ' s a v e r a g e h o u s e h o l d income i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n i n o t h e r c i t i e s , and i t s economic r e s o u r c e s f o r h o u s i n g , p h y s i c a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s a r e l i m i t e d . M o r e o v e r , p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e c a u s e s p r o b l e m s of underemployment and a s e v e r e l a n d s h o r t a g e . 127 In t e r m s of t h e s o c i a l p a t t e r n of t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of w e a l t h , S h a n g h a i , l i k e o t h e r p a r t s o f C h i n a , has a more e q u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n t h a n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e , and c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y t h e s o c i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w e a l t h has r e l a t i v e l y l e s s impact on t h e h o u s i n g p r o b l e m . However, a gap d o e s e x i s t . One a s p e c t o f t h e gap i s seen i n t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n wages. T h i s a s p e c t o f t h e gap i s c u r r e n t l y g r o w i n g . A s e c o n d a s p e c t of t h e gap i s seen i n u n e q u a l a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o t h e w e a l t h w h i c h i s d i s t r i b u t e d t h r o u g h non-market c h a n n e l l s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e r e i s a gap i n h o u s e h o l d s ' h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s . In t e r m s of t h e s p a t i a l p a t t e r n of s e t t l e m e n t , t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n i n u r b a n a r e a s i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e h o u s i n g p r o b l e m i n S h a n g h a i and o t h e r c i t i e s i n C h i n a s u c h as P e k i n g . S h a n g h a i f a c e s a p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e t h a t i s t h e r e s u l t of b o t h a h i g h b i r t h r a t e i n t h e 1950s and 1960s and r u r a l - u r b a n m i g r a t i o n . I t i s d i f f e r e n t t h a n S i n g a p o r e where t h e p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e has come m o s t l y f r o m n a t u r a l g r o w t h . However, S h a n g h a i i s s i m i l a r t o Hong Kong i n a s e n s e t h a t i m m i g r a t i o n , l e g a l and i l l e g a l , h as c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h . N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e r e i s an e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between S h a n g h a i and b o t h Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e i n t h a t l a n d i s n o t a market commodity i n C h i n a , and as a r e s u l t t h e s p a t i a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n of s o c i a l g r o u p s seems l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e c i t y of S h a n g h a i . The t h i r d c o m p a r a b l e f e a t u r e i s t h e dynamic r o l e of h o u s i n g i n t h e p r o c e s s o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . In Hong Kong an d S i n g a p o r e , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g has gone hand i n hand w i t h s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . H o u s i n g i s e q u a l l y 128 i m p o r t a n t t o S h a n g h a i , a c i t y t h a t p l a y s a l e a d i n g r o l e i n C h i n a ' s m o d e r n i z a t i o n d r i v e . H o u s i n g a s a b a s i c human need i s c r i t i c a l t o t h e p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y and economic e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e c i t y . The e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e i s t h e r e f o r e a s e v e r e c o n s t r a i n t on t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t o f S h a n g h a i . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o show t h e i m p a c t o f t h e h o u s i n g p r o b l e m on S h a n g h a i p e o p l e , s u c h an i m p a c t may w e l l be p e r c e i v e d by l o o k i n g a t t h e r e s u l t o f a s u r v e y i n P e k i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e P e o p l e ' s D a i l y , a r e c e n t s u r v e y c o n d u c t e d i n a n e i g h b o u r h o o d i n P e k i n g i n c l u d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g two q u e s t i o n s : ( i ) " i f y o u were t h e Mayor o f P e k i n g , what w o u l d be t h e f i r s t t h i n g f o r you t o do f o r t h e c i t y ? " ; and ( i i ) " which s e c t o r do you t h i n k s h o u l d be o f t h e h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y f o r t h e n e x t s t e p of our e c o n o m i c r e f o r m s ? " . The r e s u l t s r e v e a l e d t h a t , f o r t h e f i r s t q u e s t i o n 70% of m a r r i e d p e o p l e a n s w e r e d t h a t h o u s i n g s h o u l d be t h e most u r g e n t i s s u e ; and f o r t h e s e c o n d q u e s t i o n , a g a i n h o u s i n g a c c o u n t e d f o r 53% o f t h e t o t a l a nswers ( P e o p l e ' s D a i l y , A u g u s t 1, 1986). These a n s w e r s a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t , as C h i n a has j u s t e x p e r i e n c e d many d i s a s t r o u s p o l i t i c a l movements s u c h as t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n , m a t e r i a l i n c e n t i v e s a r e i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e i n m o b i l i z i n g p e o p l e . H o u s i n g , as shown by t h e s u r v e y r e s u l t s , i s most i m p o r t a n t t o t h e p e o p l e . M o r e o v e r , t h e w e l f a r e n a t u r e of u r b a n h o u s i n g i n C h i n a and t h e non-market method o f i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n have t o g e t h e r c a u s e d c o r r u p t i o n and c o r r e s p o n d i n g r e s e n t m e n t . T h i s c e r t a i n l y a g g r a v a t e s t h e n e g a t i v e c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e . As an e conomic s e c t o r , h o u s i n g i s a a r e a w i t h g r e a t p o t e n t i a l i n c r e a t i n g employment 129 and b e n e f i t s , and s t i m u l a t i n g r e l a t e d economic s e c t o r s . As a major component of t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t , h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t has a d i r e c t i mpact on t h e s p a t i a l p a t t e r n o f s e t t l e m e n t s . W e l l p l a n n e d p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e have made a s i g i n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e i r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t t h r o u g h t h e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e use o f u r b a n l a n d . I t i s e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t f o r S h a n g h a i t o a c h i e v e t h e o p t i m a l use o f i t s l a n d , b e c a u s e t h e p e r c a p i t a l a n d r e s o u r c e s a r e e x t r e m e l y l i m i t e d w h i l e t h e demand f o r l a n d i s h i g h . The p u b l i c o w n e r s h i p o f l a n d p r o v i d e s S h a n g h a i w i t h a good o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e s p a t i a l p l a n n i n g o f i t s h o u s i n g . W e l l p l a n n e d h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t c a n e f f e c t i v e l y a l l e v i a t e t h e s e r i o u s h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e o f S h a n g h a i , p r o v i d e j o b s t o i t s g r o w i n g l a b o u r f o r c e , and a c h i e v e a h i g h e f f i c i e n c y o f i t s l a n d u s e , a l l of w h i c h w i l l r e s u l t i n a f a s t and smooth pace o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e c i t y , and c o n s e q u e n t l y , i n C h i n a . W h i l e t h e dynamic r o l e o f h o u s i n g p r o v i d e s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t , S h a n g h a i f a c e s v a r i o u s c o n s t r a i n t s . The most o b v i o u s c o n s t r a i n t s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e f a c e d by Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e , i . e . t h e s h o r t a g e of c a p i t a l and l a n d f o r l a r g e s c a l e h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s . I t i s now c l e a r t h a t S h a n g h a i s h a r e s many s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e i n r e g a r d t o t h e s e v e r i t y of t h e h o u s i n g p r o b l e m , t h e n a t u r e c f t h e h o u s i n g p r o b l e m , and t h e dynamic r o l e of h o u s i n g i n t h e p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p m e n t . What a r e t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e s i m i l a r i t i e s f o r t h e e x p l o r a t i o n o f u s e f u l 130 l e s s o n s f o r S h a n g h a i ? 6.2 L e s s o n s of Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e f o r S h a n g h a i The s u c c e s s o f t h e low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g p rograms i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e i s b a s e d on a new r a t i o n a l f o r h o u s i n g i n v e s t m e n t w h i c h s e e s h o u s i n g a s an i n s e p a r a b l e p a r t of an i n t e g r a t e d p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e r e a r e two e s s e n t i a l p o l i c y and p l a n n i n g g u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e i r low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s : ( i ) government p o l i c y and p l a n n i n g s h o u l d e n s u r e an a d e q u a t e a l l o c a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s t o t h e h o u s i n g s e c t o r t o g i v e f u l l p l a y t o t h e dynamic f u n c t i o n s o f h o u s i n g ; and ( i i ) b e c a u s e t h e r e s o u r c e s needed f o r h o u s i n g a r e c o n s t r a i n e d by t h e i r l i m i t e d economic c a p a c i t y , government h o u s i n g p o l i c y and p l a n n i n g s h o u l d e n s u r e an e f f i c i e n t use o f t h e l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s . The p r e v i o u s l y r e v i e w e d s i m i l a r i t i e s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s e two g u i d e l i n e s may be e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t f o r S h a n g h a i . Under t h e s e g u i d e l i n e s , t h e g o v e r n m e n t s i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e have a c h i e v e d l a r g e s c a l e , low r e n t a l p u b l i c h o u s i n g w i t h r e a s o n a b l e q u a l i t y and a c c e s s i b i l i t y t h r o u g h f o u r d i s t i n c t i v e p o l i c y and p l a n n i n g m e a s u r e s . F i r s t , t h e y have been a c t i v e i n f i n a n c i n g low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s . Second, t h e y have a w e l l d e f i n e d s o c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n f o r t h e i r p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s , d i r e c t i n g p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e t o low-income g r o u p s t h r o u g h s u b s i d i e s and d i s t r i b u t i o n r e g u l a t i o n s . T h i r d , t h e y have u s e d d e s i g n s t a n d a r d s and p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g t o b r i d g e t h e i r p o l i c y g o a l s and r e s p e c t i v e r e s o u r c e p o t e n t i a l f o r p u b l i c 131 h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s . F o u r t h , t h e y have been a c t i v e i n p u r s u i n g h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t t h r o u g h s p a t i a l p l a n n i n g and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of s a t e l l i t e towns. In S h a n g h a i , i n v e s t m e n t i n h o u s i n g was r e s t r i c t e d f o r t h r e e d e c a d e s from t h e 1950s t o t h e 1970s, a s h o u s i n g was seen as an u n p r o d u c t i v e s e c t o r . T h i s has r e s u l t e d i n a s e r i o u s h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e . However, t h e s i t u a t i o n has c h a n g e d s i n c e t h e l a t e -1970s. I t i s e n c o u r a g i n g t o see t h a t a new r a t i o n a l f o r h o u s i n g i n v e s t m e n t , b a s e d on t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e dynamic r o l e of h o u s i n g , has been a c c e p t e d . A c c o r d i n g t o C h i n a News Agency, 330,000 h o u s e h o l d s i n S h a n g h a i have moved i n t o new h o u s i n g f l a t s s i n c e 1980 ( C h i n a News Agency, May 18, 1986). T h i s s i t u a t i o n d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t as f a r as h o u s i n g i n v e s t m e n t i s c o n c e r n e d , S h a n g h a i i s l e a r n i n g t h e l e s s o n s o f Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e . However, d e s p i t e t h e i n c r e a s e d c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t i n h o u s i n g , a s e r i o u s h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e p e r s i s t s i n S h a n g h a i . In o r d e r t o s p e e d up t h e pace o f h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t t o a l l e v i a t e t h e h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r S h a n g h a i t o e x p l o r e more s o u r c e s f o r h o u s i n g i n v e s t m e n t . One i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e i s p e r s o n a l s a v i n g s . To a t t r a c t i n d i v i d u a l s t o i n v e s t i n h o u s i n g , c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n of h o u s i n g s e c t o r has been p r o p o s e d by many C h i n e s e s c h o l a r s and has been p a r t i a l l y i m p l e m e n t e d ( D a i , 1984; L i n , 1984). S h a n g h a i i s among t h e more t h a n 160 c i t i e s i n C h i n a t h a t b u i l d and s e l l c o m m e r c i a l h o u s i n g u n i t s . T h e s e u n i t s a r e u s u a l l y s o l d t o i n d i v i d u a l s a t s u b s i d i z e d p r i c e s . T h i s measure i s s i m i l a r t o t h e Home O w n e r s h i p Program o f Hong Kong and 132 S i n g a p o r e , w h i c h has been a m a j o r t r e n d i n t h e s e two u r b a n -s t a t e s f o r t h e l a s t d e c a d e . T h i s a p p r o a c h i s e f f i c i e n t i n r a i s i n g i n v e s t m e n t i n h o u s i n g by u t i l i z i n g t h e c a p i t a l r e s o u r c e s of t h o s e who a b l e t o pay f o r i t . T h e r e have been o t h e r measures a p p l i e d i n S h a n g h a i t o r a i s e h o u s i n g i n v e s t m e n t . T h e s e i n c l u d e f i n a n c i a l bonds w h i c h c a r r y h i g h e r i n t e r e s t t h a n t h e u s u a l i n t e r e s t f o r f i x e d - t e r m s a v i n g s a c c o u n t s , and a l o t t e r y l i n k e d t o h o u s i n g . To t h i s p o i n t , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o l e a r n t h e l e s s o n s , c o n c e r n i n g t h e s o c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g , p r o v i d e d by Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e . C u r r e n t l y , t h e h o u s i n g b u i l t i n S h a n g h a i can be c a t e g o r i z e d r o u g h l y i n t o two g r o u p s : w e l f a r e p u b l i c h o u s i n g and c o m m e r c i a l i z e d h o u s i n g . W e l f a r e p u b l i c h o u s i n g u n i t s a r e r e n t e d a t r e n t s t h a t a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l o w e r t h a n t h e a c t u a l c o s t s . The r e s i d e n t s o f w e l f a r e p u b l i c h o u s i n g u s u a l l y pay l e s s t h a n 5 p e r c e n t of t h e i r h o u s e h o l d s income f o r r e n t s . T h e s e h o u s i n g u n i t s a r e d i s t r i b u t e d t h r o u g h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c h a n n e l l s . The c o m m e r c i a l i z e d h o u s i n g u n i t s a r e b u i l t by t h e p u b l i c s e c t o r , and a r e s o l d a t p r i c e s c l o s e r t o r e a l c o s t s . They a r e d i s t r i b u t e d m a i n l y by t h e m a r k e t . These h o u s i n g u n i t s a r e a l s o , i n most c a s e s , s u b s i d i z e d , a l t h o u g h t h e s u b s i d i e s v a r y . The p r o b l e m i n S h a n g h a i i s t h a t t h e r e a r e u s u a l l y no income l i m i t s s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n a t e d t o r e g u l a t e t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e w e l f a r e p u b l i c h o u s i n g u n i t s . The o v e r a l l h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e and t h e t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e w e l f a r e p u b l i c h o u s i n g b a s e d on a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n t o g e t h e r r e s u l t i n government s u b s i d i s e d h o u s i n g g o i n g t o t h o s e who have t h e 133 i n f l u e n c e t o o b t a i n t h e l i m i t e d h o u s i n g u n i t s p r o v i d e d . A l t h o u g h c o m m e r c i a l i z e d h o u s i n g a v o i d s t h e p r o b l e m of c o r r u p t i o n , n o t a l l h o u s e h o l d s c a n a f f o r d i t . I t i s t h e r e f o r e i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e s o c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f e a c h k i n d o f h o u s i n g be c l a r i f i e d . In Hong Kong, p u b l i c h o u s i n g i s b u i l t t o accommodate t h e h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f h o u s e h o l d s t h a t a r e n o t a b l e t o a f f o r d t h e h o u s i n g b u i l t by t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r . P e r h a p s i t i s w i s e f o r S h a n g h a i t o use income as t h e major c r i t e r i a f o r t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e w e l f a r e p u b l i c h o u s i n g u n i t s , t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e i n c r e a s e i n c o m m e r c i a l i z e d p u b l i c h o u s i n g does n o t r e d u c e t h e c h a n c e f o r t h e l o w e r income h o u s e h o l d s t o a c c e s s a f f o r d a b l e h o u s i n g . The a l t e r n a t i v e i s t h a t S h a n g h a i g r a d u a l l y c o m m e r c i a l i z e s t h e whole h o u s i n g s e c t o r , and t h e s u b s i d i e s t o t h e c o m m e r c i a l i z e d p u b l i c h o u s i n g u n i t s a r e g e a r e d t o t h e h o u s e h o l d income of p r o s p e c t i v e r e s i d e n t s . To enhance t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l i z e d h o u s i n g t o low-income p e o p l e , i t may be an e f f e c t i v e a p p r o a c h f o r S h a n g h a i t o e s t a b l i s h a mortgage s y s t e m f o r p u r c h a s i n g h o u s i n g . Such a f i n a n c i a l measure c a n a t t r a c t more f u n d s t o t h e h o u s i n g s e c t o r , and as a r e s u l t more h o u s i n g u n i t s can be b u i l t t o a l l e v i a t e h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e . T h i s f i n a n c i a l measure has been w i d e l y a p p l i e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d , and i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e g r e a t p r o g r e s s of p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e i n t h e 1970s and 1980s. The s p a t i a l p l a n n i n g f o r t h e low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e a l s o p r o v i d e s u s e f u l l e s s o n s . I t was a n e c e s s a r y s t e p f o r Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e t o o b t a i n more l a n d r e s o u r c e s f o r low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g 134 p r o g r a m s t h r o u g h t h e - d e v e l o p m e n t of s a t e l l i t e towns. N e v e r t h e l e s s , d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f low-income h o u s i n g w i t h o u t d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y has r e s u l t e d i n home-work s e p a r a t i o n i n b o t h Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e . B e c a u s e o f t h e l a n d s h o r t a g e i n t h e u r b a n a r e a s , S h a n g h a i i s a l s o p l a n n i n g and b u i l d i n g a number o f s a t e l l i t e towns. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t S h a n g h a i s h o u l d t r y t o a v o i d t h e p r o b l e m s e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s a t e l l i t e towns i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e . One e n c o u r a g i n g s i g n o f t h e s p a t i a l p l a n n i n g i n S h a n g h a i i s t h a t h o u s i n g and i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t a r e g o i n g hand i n hand. However, t h e r e have been e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e s a t e l l i t e towns o f S h a n g h a i a r e s t i l l n o t a t t r a c t i v e t o i t s r e s i d e n t s b e c a u s e of gaps i n r e g a r d t o e d u c a t i o n q u a l i t y , s o c i a l l i f e , and c o m m e r c i a l s e r v i c e s between t h e c e n t r a l a r e a s and t h e s a t e l l i t e t owns. I t s h o u l d e m p h a s i z e d t h a t t h e s e gaps must be r e d u c e d i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e s u c c e s s f u l d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e s a t e l l i t e towns i n S h a n g h a i . I t i s t h e r e f o r e i m p o r t a n t t h a t p l a n n e r s u n d e r s t a n d t h e p r o b l e m s f a c e d by t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h e s a t e l l i t e towns. The p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n f o r t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e a l s o p r o v i d e s v a l u a b l e l e s s o n s f o r S h a n g h a i . The b a s i c g u i d e l i n e f o r p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g i s t h a t i t l i n k s l i m i t e d economic r e s o u r c e s w i t h t h e p o l i c y g o a l s o f t h e h o u s i n g p r o g r a m . T h i s i s c l e a r l y shown i n t h e e f f o r t s by Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e t o a c h i e v e l a r g e s c a l e p r o d u c t i o n and low r e n t s f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g . The s e v e r i t y of t h e h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e i n S h a n g h a i i n d i c a t e s t h a t a g r e a t number of h o u s i n g u n i t s a r e needed t o s a t i s f y t h e h o u s i n g needs; The low income o f 135 t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e C h i n e s e h o u s e h o l d s i n d i c a t e s t h a t r e n t s o r p r i c e s must be low. I t i s t h e r e f o r e i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e s t a n d a r d s f o r h o u s i n g be under government c o n t r o l , and p e r h a p s i t i s w i s e t o m a i n t a i n low s t a n d a r d s u n t i l t h e o v e r a l l h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e i s a l l e v i a t e d . In t h e p a s t f i v e y e a r s , S h a n g h a i has r a i s e d i t s p e r c a p i t a l i v i n g s p a c e f rom 5 s q u a r e m e t r e s t o 6 s q u a r e m e t r e s , w h i c h i s much h i g h e r t h a n t h a t i n Hong Kong ( C h i n a News Agency, 1986). However, i t has not r e d u c e d t h e number o f h o u s e h o l d s i n u r g e n t n eed of h o u s i n g . We know from t h e p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n t h a t t h e s t a n d a r d s f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g v a r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y between Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e and low s t a n d a r d s has been a b a s i c measure u s e d by Hong Kong t o a c h i e v e t h e p o l i c y g o a l s f o r low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g . Under t h e c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n o f h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e , p l a n n e r s i n S h a n g h a i s h o u l d p u t more e m p h a s i s on t h e s c a l e of p r o d u c t i o n r a t h e r t h a n on t h e i n c r e a s e of p e r c a p i t a l i v i n g s p a c e . I t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e l a n d r e s o u r c e s be u s e d e c o n o m i c a l l y . The p e r c a p i t a l a n d a r e a f o r C h i n a i s amongst t h e l o w e s t i n t h e w o r l d , and t h e l a n d s h o r t a g e i s e s p e c i a l l y s e v e r e i n S h a n g h a i . I t i s v a l u a b l e t o e x p l o r e t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f h i g h - r i s e and h i g h - d e n s i t y i n c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e low-income h o u s i n g p rograms i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e . I t seems i n c r e a s i n g l y n e c e s s a r y f o r S h a n g h a i t o accommodate more d e v e l o p m e n t by h i g h - r i s e and h i g h - d e n s i t y h o u s i n g . The above d i s c u s s i o n has shown t h a t t h e c i t i e s w i t h 136 c o m p a r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s c a n l e a r n many u s e f u l l e s s o n s from t h e l o w-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g programs i n Hong Kong and S i n g a p o r e . S h a n g h a i i s o n l y one o f t h e s e c i t i e s , and t h e a n a l y s i s f o r i t may n o t be v a l i d f o r o t h e r s . I t t h e r e f o r e needs t o be e m p h s i z e d t h a t s u c h l e a r n i n g be expanded b a s e d on e a c h c o m p a r a b l e c i t y ' s own s i t u a t i o n . However, i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e s u c c e s s of low-income p u b l i c h o u s i n g i s composed o f a number o f f a c t s r a t h e r t h a n a s i n g l e one. F l e x i b i l i t y and c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s a r e b o t h i m p o r t a n t . 1 37 BIBLIOGRAPHY Abrams, C h a r l e s . Man's S t r u g g l e f o r S h e l t e r i n an U r b a n i z i n g  W o r l d . C a m b r i d g e : M.I.T. P r e s s , 1964. A n g e l , S. and S. B e n j a m i n . " S e v e n t e e n Reasons Why The S q u a t t e r P r o b l e m C a n ' t Be S o l v e d . " E k i s t i c s , V o l . 4 1 , No.242, 1976. C a s a n o v a , R., Tan Soo H a i , C.K. L e o n g , and S.H. S o e p a n g k a t . "Land P o l i c i e s and P r a c t i c e s . " H o u s i n g A s i a ' s M i l l i o n s . 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