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Canada and the Sandinistas : a case study of the determinants of Canadian policy towards Nicaragua, 1979-1984 Prongos, Peter George 1986

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CANADA AND THE SANDINISTAS A Case Study of the Determinants o-f Canadian P o l i c y Towards Nicaragua, 1979-1984 By PETER GEORGE PRONGOS B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o-f Colorado, 1978 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULLFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of P o l i t i c a l Science} We accept t h i s t h e s i s as con-forming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February 1986 (c?) Peter George Prongos, 1986 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. r Department of The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6(3/81) A b s t r a c t T h i s t h e s i s e x a m i n e s C a n a d i a n r e s p o n s e s t o d e v e l o p m e n t s s u r r o u n d i n g S a n d i n i s t a r u l e i n N i c a r a g u a . The q u e s t i o n s a d d r e s s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s a r e : 1) What was t h e n a t u r e o f t h e T r u d e a u g o v e r n m e n t ' s p o l i c y t o w a r d t h e S a n d i n i s t a g o v e r n m e n t o f N i c a r a g u a ? 2) What w e r e t h e d e t e r m i n a n t s o f t h i s p o l i c y ? 3) What a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c i e s w e r e a v a i l a b l e t o t h e C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t ? A b r i e f - o v e r v i e w o f t h e e v o l u t i o n o f C a n a d i a n p o l i c y t o w a r d s L a t i n A m e r i c a i n t h e 2 0 t h c e n t u r y i s f o l l o w e d b y a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e m a j o r e l e m e n t s o f C a n a d i a n r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e S a n d i n i s t a g o v e r n m e n t , a h i s t o r y o f t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h a t p o l i c y , a n d a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f C a n a d i a n n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l a c t o r s , i . e . b u s i n e s s , l a b o u r , c h u r c h e s , a i d a n d s o l i d a r i t y g r o u p s , a n d t h e p r e s s . T h e n e x t s e c t i o n f o c u s e s o n t h e i n f l u e n c e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l a c t o r s o n C a n a d i a n p o l i c y , p a r t i c u l a r y t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The l a s t p a r t a n a l y z e s t h e d e t e r m i n a n t s o f C a n a d i a n r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e S a n d i n i s t a s a n d o f f e r s a c r i t i q u e o f C a n a d a ' s p o l i c y . T h i s s t u d y f i n d s t h a t o f f i c i a l i n t e r e s t i n N i c a r a g u a g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e d a f t e r t h e S a n d i n i s t a v i c t o r y , f o l l o w i n g t h a t o f t h e C a n a d i a n p u b l i c . The C l a r k g o v e r n m e n t m i r r o r e d t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e C a r t e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , w h i c h was s u s p i c i o u s o f t h e new g o v e r n m e n t i n M a n a g u a . I n s p i t e o f t h e e n o r m o u s d e v a s t a t i o n w r o u g h t i n N i c a r a g u a , t h e T o r i e s p r o v i d e d no d i r e c t b i l a t e r a l a i d . The r e t u r n o f t h e L i b e r a l s u n d e r P i e r r e T r u d e a u d i d n o t s i g n a l a n i m m e d i a t e c h a n g e o f p o l i c y t o w a r d s M a n a g u a , w h i l e R e a g a n ' s i n a u g u r a t i o n i n 1981 b r o u g h t t o p o w e r a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n d e t e r m i n e d t o " r o l l b a c k " t h e S a n d i n i s t a r e v o l u t i o n . C a n a d a ' s i n i t i a l r e s p o n s e was " q u i e t a c q u i e s c e n c e " . A l t h o u g h n o t c o m p l e t e l y u n s y m p a t h e t i c t o t h e S a n d i n i s t a s , C a n a d a was w a r y o f a n g e r i n g t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . C a n a d a g r a n t e d m o r e a s s i s t a n c e t o H o n d u r a s i n s p i t e o f i t s d e p l o r a b l e human r i g h t s r e c o r d a n d s u p p o r t f o r t h e C o n t r a a t t a c k s a g a i n s t N i c a r a g u a . C a n a d a d e c i d e d t o b a c k t h e C o n t a d o r a p e a c e p r o c e s s a s t h e o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e t o i n c r e a s i n g U . S . m i l i t a r i z a t i o n , b u t t h i s s u p p o r t was p r i m a r i l y c o n f i n e d t o r h e t o r i c . A s C a n a d a g r e w i n c r e a s i n g l y w o r r i e d a b o u t W a s h i n g t o n ' s a c t i o n s , l l t t a w a b e g a n t o be m o r e o p e n l y c r i t i c a l . The g o v e r n m e n t e v e n t u a l l y made a f e w moves t o i m p l e m e n t i t s own p o l i c y t o w a r d N i c a r a g u a (some a i d , s t r o n g e r r h e t o r i c ) , b u t l l t t a w a d i d n o t u n d e r t a k e a n y m a j o r p e a c e o r d e v e l o p m e n t i n i t i a t i v e s , e i t h e r u n i l a t e r a l l y o r w i t h o t h e r n a t i o n s . C a n a d a ' s a m b i g u o u s r h e t o r i c was e s s e n t i a l l y c o m p a t i b l e w i t h U . S . p o l i c y , t h e m a i n d i f f e r e n c e b e i n g q u e s t i o n s o f m e t h o d . P o l i c y t e n d e d t o be p i e c e m e a l a n d i n c o n s i s t e n t , d e t e r m i n e d p r i m a r i l y b y t h e h o p e o f w i n n i n g t h e g o o d w i l l o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , m o d i f i e d s l i g h t l y b y t h e f e a r - i i i -o f t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f a n e s c a l a t i n g c r i s i s o n t r a d e a n d w o r o r d e r , a n d , t o a l e s s e r d e g r e e , b y p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n C a n a d a . The C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t i s f o u n d t o h a v e f a i l e d t o l i v e u p e i t h e r t o i t s p r i n c i p l e s o r i t s p o t e n t i a l t o h e l p r e s o l v e t h e c r i s i s t h a t d e v e l o p e d a r o u n d t h e S a n d i n i s t a r e v o l u t i o n . - i v -T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s L i s t o f T a b l e s v i i A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s v i i i I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 C h a p t e r 1 . O f f i c i a l R e l a t i o n s 3 a ) B a c k g r o u n d 3 b ) P o l i t i c a l R e l a t i o n s 13 c ) D e v e l o p m e n t A s s i s t a n c e 29 C h a p t e r 2 . D o m e s t i c A c t o r s 3 7 a ) C o m m e r c i a l R e l a t i o n s 37 b) N o n - G o v e r n m e n t a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s 42 L a b o u r 4 2 C h u r c h e s 47 A i d a n d S o l i d a r i t y G r o u p s 50 c ) P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s 57 T h e New D e m o c r a t s 5 7 The C o n s e r v a t i v e s 60 The L i b e r a l s 62 d) T h e P r e s s 64 C h a p t e r 3 . I n t e r n a t i o n a l A c t o r s 72 a ) N i c a r a g u a 72 b ) T h e U n i t e d S t a t e s 78 c ) O t h e r C o u n t r i e s 84 v . C h a p t e r 4 . A n a l y s i s 88 a ) O r i e n t a t i o n , R o l e s , O b j e c t i v e s 93 b ) D e t e r m i n a n t s o f C a n a d a ' s P o l i c i e s T o w a r d s t h e S a n d i n i s t a s 96 1) The I n t e r n a t i o n a l S y s t e m 96 2) C a n a d a ' s N a t i o n a l A t t r i b u t e s 102 c ) D e c i s i o n M a k i n g 105 1) The G o v e r n m e n t 106 2) N o n - G o v e r n m e n t a l A c t o r s 108 B u s i n e s s P u b l i c O p i n i o n 109 d ) C r i t i q u e a n d C o n c l u s i o n s 113 N o t e s 129 B i b l i o g r a p h y 144 A p p e n d i c e s 152 - v i . -L i s t o f T a b l e s T a b l e I . C a n a d i a n A i d t o N i c a r a g u a - - 1 9 7 3 - 7 8 . 8 . T a b l e I I . C a n a d i a n - N i c a r a g u a n T r a d e - - 1 9 7 5 - 7 9 . 9 . T a b l e I I I . C a n a d i a n - C e n t r a l A m e r i c a n T r a d e . 1 0 . T a b l e I V . T o t a l C a n a d i a n B i - L a t e r a l A i d t o C e n t r a l A m e r i c a — 1 9 8 0 / 8 1 - 8 3 / 8 4 . 3 1 . T a b l e V . C a n a d i a n - N i c a r a g u a n T r a d e - - 1 9 7 9 / 8 0 / 8 4 . 3 5 . A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k t h o s e i n t h e P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e D e p a r t m e n t a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w h o s e a d v i c e a n d c r i t i c i s m w e r e i n v a l u a b l e i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s : P r o f . Don M u n t o n , P r o f . P e t e r B u s c h , P r o f . K . J . H o l s t i a n d P r o f . P h i l i p R e s n i c k . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e many p e o p l e who f a c i l i t a t e d my r e s e a r c h i n V a n c o u v e r , O t t a w a , a n d T o r o n t o , w i t s p e c i a l t h a n k s f o r t h o s e who c o n s e n t e d t o be i n t e r v i e w e d a n d t t h e p e o p l e a t C A P A . - v i i i -CANADA a n d t h e S A N D I N I S T A S A C a s e S t u d y o f t h e D e t e r m i n a n t s o f C a n a d i a n P o l i c y T o w a r d s N i c a r a g u a , 1 9 7 9 - 1 9 8 4 I n t r o d u c t i o n The v i c t o r y o f t h e " F r e n t e S a n d i n i s t a de L i b e r a c i o n N a c i o n a l " ( F S L N ) a n d i t s s u p p o r t e r s o v e r t h e Somoza d i c t a t o r s h i p i n J u l y 1979 h a s h a d p r o f o u n d r e p e r c u s s i o n s , n o t o n l y i n N i c a r a g u a a n d C e n t r a l A m e r i c a , b u t t h r o u g h o u t t h e h e m i s p h e r e a n d b e y o n d . T h i s t h e s i s e x a m i n e s C a n a d i a n r e s p o n s e s t o d e v e l o p m e n t s s u r r o u n d i n g S a n d i n i s t a r u l e i n N i c a r a g u a . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s e x a m i n a t i o n a t t e m p t s t o s h e d l i g h t o n t h r e e q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o C a n a d i a n p o l i c y t o w a r d s t h e S a n d i n i s t a r e v o l u t i o n : 1) What was t h e n a t u r e o f t h e T r u d e a u g o v e r n m e n t ' s p o l i c y t o w a r d t h e S a n d i n i s t a g o v e r n m e n t o f N i c a r a g u a ? 2) What w e r e t h e d e t e r m i n a n t s o f t h i s p o l i c y ? 3) What a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c i e s w e r e a v a i l a b l e t o t h e C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t ? C a n a d i a n i n t e r e s t i n N i c a r a g u a h a s g r o w n s i n c e t h e e n d o f t h e 1 9 7 0 s . E c o n o m i c , h u m a n i t a r i a n , a n d p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h a v e c o m b i n e d t o r a i s e t h e s a l i e n c e o f N i c a r a g u a f o r C a n a d i a n s a n d f o r t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t . T h i s i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t was a c c o m p a n i e d b y c h a n g e s i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e t w o c o u n t r i e s , a n d i s a s u b j e c t t h a t h a s y e t t o be f u l l y - 2 -e x p l o r e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t i s h o p e d t h a t t h i s s t u d y , b y s u g g e s t i n g e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h e e v o l u t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t o f C a n a d a ' s r e c e n t f o r e i g n p o l i c y , w i l l p r o v i d e c l u e s a b o u t t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f C a n a d i a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y i n g e n e r a l . The n a t u r e o f t h e i s s u e s i n v o l v e d , t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o C a n a d a ' s i n t e r n a t i o n a l r o l e s a n d o b j e c t i v e s , t h e u n u s u a l l e v e l o f p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , a n d t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a r e some o f t h e f a c t o r s t h a t make a s t u d y o f t h i s p r o b l e m i m p o r t a n t . The c o n t i n u i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e o f many o f t h e s u b j e c t s d i s c u s s e d , s u c h a s t h e o n - g o i n g c r i s i s i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a , t h e p r o b l e m o f u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d t h e r o l e o f t h e p u b l i c i n f o r e i g n r e l a t i o n s , make t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n t i m e l y a s w e l l . A f t e r a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e m a j o r e l e m e n t s o f C a n a d i a n p o l i c y t o w a r d s t h e S a n d i n i s t a g o v e r n m e n t , t h e r e w i l l be a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f C a n a d i a n n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l a c t o r s . The t h i r d s e c t i o n w i l l f o c u s o n t h e i n f l u e n c e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l a c t o r s o n C a n a d i a n p o l i c y . . The l a s t p a r t w i l l a n a l y z e t h e d e t e r m i n a n t s o f C a n a d i a n r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e S a n d i n i s t a s a n d o f f e r a c r i t i q u e o f C a n a d a ' s p o l i c y . - 3 -C h a p t e r 1 - O f f i c i a l R e l a t i o n s a ) B a c k g r o u n d C a n a d i a n i n t e r e s t i n i t s h e m i s p h e r i c n e i g h b o u r s s o u t h o f t h e R i o G r a n d e was a r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l b r i e f l y o u t l i n e some o f t h e m o r e i m p o r t a n t e v e n t s t h a t m a r k e d C a n a d a ' s i n c r e a s i n g i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h N i c a r a g u a , k e e p i n g i n m i n d t h a t , " i t i s m o s t d i f f i c u l t i n t h e C e n t r a l A m e r i c a n c o n t e x t t o t r e a t a n y p a r t i c u l a r c o u n t r y i n i s o l a t i o n " . (1 ) I t w a s n ' t u n t i l t h e s e c o n d d e c a d e o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y t h a t C a n a d i a n s b e g a n t o e s t a b l i s h l i n k s w i t h N i c a r a g u a . I n 1 9 1 6 , W i n n i p e g b u s i n e s s m e n d e v e l o p e d a n i n t e r e s t i n b u i l d i n g a r a i l r o a d t h r o u g h t h e c o u n t r y . N e g o t i a t i o n s p r o d u c e d a c o n t r a c t , b u t t h e n a h o l d was p u t o n t h e p r o j e c t . "The r e a s o n a p p e a r s t o h a v e b e e n t h a t a U n i t e d S t a t e s c o m p a n y h a d u s e d t h e i r i n f l u e n c e t o g a i n t h e c o n c e s s i o n . " (2) ( N i c a r a g u a was u n d e r U . S . o c c u p a t i o n a t t h e t i m e . ) A s i d e f r o m some m i n o r i n v e s t m e n t , t r a d e , a n d b a n k i n g a c t i v i t i e s , C a n a d a h a d a l m o s t no i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h N i c a r a g u a o v e r t h e n e x t s e v e r a l d e c a d e s . H o w e v e r , a d i s p u t e o v e r N i c a r a g u a i n 1928 e x e m p l i f i e d a t heme t h a t e m e r g e d e a r l y i n t h e c e n t u r y a n d w h i c h h a s p e r s i s t e d t o t h e p r e s e n t : C a n a d a ' s c o n c e r n t o a v o i d t a k i n g p o s i t i o n s v i s - a - v i s L a t i n A m e r i c a w h i c h w o u l d u n d u l y u p s e t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The M e x i c a n d e l e g a t i o n t o t h e S i x t h I n t e r - A m e r i c a n C o n f e r e n c e o f t h e P a n A m e r i c a n U n i o n c o n s i d e r e d p r o p o s i n g C a n a d i a n m e m b e r s h i p i n t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n . B u t P r e s i d e n t C o o l i d g e h a d j u s t o r d e r e d t h e r e - o c c u p a t i o n o f N i c a r a g u a b y U . S . M a r i n e s . H a i t i was a l s o o c c u p i e d , w h i l e M e x i c o , P a n a m a , C o l o m b i a , C u b a , a n d t h e D o m i n i c a n R e p u b l i c h a d a l l b e e n r e c e n t l y i n v a d e d b y t h e U . S . O t t a w a c o u l d n o t s u p p o r t t h i s i n t e r v e n t i o n a n d f e a r e d t h a t j o i n i n g t h e U n i o n w o u l d r e q u i r e C a n a d a t o v o t e w i t h t h e L a t i n A m e r i c a n s a g a i n s t t h e U . S . r e - o c c u p a t i o n o f N i c a r a g u a , t h e r e b y a n t a g o n i z i n g W a s h i n g t o n . C a n a d a c h o s e t h e s a f e c o u r s e - - a v o i d i n g m e m b e r s h i p a n d , t h e r e f o r e , t h e n e e d t o t a k e a s t a n d . C a n a d a r e c o g n i z e d t h e r e g i m e o f t h e f i r s t Somoza s o o n a f t e r he s e i z e d p o w e r i n 1 9 3 6 , a n d N i c a r a g u a m a i n t a i n e d a c o n s u l a t e i n M o n t r e a l i n t h e l a t e 1 9 3 0 s a n d ' 4 0 s . A t r a d e a g r e e m e n t was s i g n e d b e t w e e n O t t a w a a n d M a n a g u a i n 1 9 4 6 , a n d i n t h e 1 9 5 0 s C a n a d i a n C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r i e s , many f r o m Q u e b e c , became i n c r e a s i n g l y i n v o l v e d i n N i c a r a g u a a n d o t h e r C e n t r a l A m e r i c a n c o u n t r i e s . (3 ) C a n a d a ' s r e f u s a l t o b r e a k d i p l o m a t i c r e l a t i o n s w i t h C u b a i n 1959 was t h e f i r s t o f a n u m b e r o f moves w h i c h s i g n a l l e d t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a somewha t m o r e i n d e p e n d e n t C a n a d i a n p o l i c y f o r t h e r e g i o n , due p a r t l y t o a g r o w i n g C a n a d i a n i n t e r e s t i n L a t i n A m e r i c a . T h i s a c t i o n was f o l l o w e d , i n 1 9 6 0 , b y a d e c i s i o n o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s (DEA) t o e s t a b l i s h a L a t i n A m e r i c a n D i v i s i o n . C a n a d a j o i n e d t h e P a n A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f G e o g r a p h y a n d H i s t o r y i n 1960 a n d t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s E c o n o m i c C o m m i s s i o n f o r L a t i n A m e r i c a i n 1 9 6 1 . A d i p l o m a t i c m i s s i o n , o p e n e d i n S e p t e m b e r o f t h a t y e a r i n C o s t a R i c a , was a l s o a c c r e d i t e d t o N i c a r a g u a , H o n d u r a s , P a n a m a , a n d E l S a l v a d o r . When t h e C a n a d i a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t A g e n c y ( C I D A ) was - 5 -e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1 9 6 8 , C e n t r a l A m e r i c a was one a r e a o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n . C I D A ' s m a n d a t e , " t o s u p p o r t t h e e f f o r t s o f d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s i n f o s t e r i n g e c o n o m i c g r o w t h a n d s o c i a l p r o g r a m s " , was b a s e d o n s k i l l s a t w h i c h C a n a d i a n s w e r e n o t e d : e d u c a t i o n , a g r i c u l t u r e , f i s h e r i e s , f o r e s t r y , a n d p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . (4 ) 'On 29 May 1 9 6 8 , n e w l y e l e c t e d P r i m e M i n i s t e r , P i e r r e T r u d e a u , a c k n o w l e d g e d t h i s c h a n g e o f d i r e c t i o n f o r C a n a d i a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y : "We h a v e t o t a k e g r e a t e r a c c o u n t o f t h e t i e s w h i c h b i n d u s t o o t h e r n a t i o n s i n t h i s h e m i s p h e r e - i n t h e C a r i b b e a n , L a t i n A m e r i c a - a n d o f t h e i r e c o n o m i c n e e d s . We h a v e t o e x p l o r e new a v e n u e s o f i n c r e a s i n g o u r p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c r e l a t i o n s w i t h L a t i n A m e r i c a w h e r e m o r e t h a n f o u r h u n d r e d m i l l i o n p e o p l e w i l l l i v e b y t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y a n d w h e r e we h a v e s u b s t a n t i a l i n t e r e s t s . " (5 ) S e v e r a l m o n t h s l a t e r , T r u d e a u d i s p a t c h e d f i v e m i n i s t e r s a n d 30 c i v i l s e r v a n t s o n m o n t h - l o n g t o u r o f n i n e L a t i n A m e r i c a n c o u n t r i e s . I t was t h e l a r g e s t o f f i c i a l d e l e g a t i o n e v e r s e n t t o t h e r e g i o n . T h e s e moves w e r e b a s e d o n t h e new g o v e r n m e n t ' s d e c i s i o n t o b r o a d e n i t s r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r c o u n t r i e s f o r p u r p o s e s o f t r a d e a n d i n v e s t m e n t , a n d i n o r d e r t o d i m i n i s h C a n a d i a n v u l n e r a b i l i t y v i s - a - v i s t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n 1 9 6 9 , t h e b i r t h o f s e v e r a l L a t i n - A m e r i c a o r i e n t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n C a n a d a s i g n i f i e d t h e c o n t i n u e d r i s e i n t h i s a r e a ' s i m p o r t a n c e t o C a n a d i a n s . The C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f L a t i n A m e r i c a n S t u d i e s , f o r m e d t o f o s t e r t h e s p r e a d o f i n f o r m a t i o n , p u b l i s h e d " N o r t h - S o u t h : C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f L a t i n A m e r i c a n S t u d i e s " . T h i s y e a r a l s o w i t n e s s e d t h e f o r m a t i o n o f - 6 -t h e O n t a r i o C o o p e r a t i v e P r o g r a m m e i n L a t i n A m e r i c a n a n d C a r i b b e a n S t u d i e s , w h o s e p u r p o s e was t o l i n k s t u d e n t s o f L a t i n A m e r i c a w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e . The C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r L a t i n A m e r i c a ( a n d t h e C a r i b b e a n ) , ( C A L A ) , was c r e a t e d b y 50 c o r p o r a t i o n s i n t h e same y e a r . T h i s i n f l u e n t i a l g r o u p o f b u s i n e s s p e o p l e p r o m o t e d i n v e s t m e n t a n d t r a d e , a n d d e v e l o p e d s t r o n g t i e s w i t h C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s . O t t a w a ' s f o r e i g n p o l i c y r e v i e w f r o m 1968 t o 1970 p r o d u c e d a m a j o r r e p o r t : " F o r e i g n P o l i c y f o r C a n a d i a n s " . W h i l e L a t i n A m e r i c a r a t e d i t s own d i s c u s s i o n , i t was s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t e v e n a t t h i s l a t e d a t e t h e r e was no s p e c i f i c m e n t i o n o f C e n t r a l A m e r i c a ( o r N i c a r a g u a ) i n t h e r e p o r t . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n r e f l e c t s k e y e l e m e n t s o f C a n a d a ' s p o s t - w a r a p p r o a c h t o f o r e i g n r e l a t i o n s : S p e c i a l n o t e i s t a k e n o f L a t i n A m e r i c a , a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h a t t h i s a r e a i s b e c o m i n g a ' f o r c e i n t h e w o r l d ' . The b a s e s o f C a n a d a ' s i n t e r e s t s a n d r e l a t i o n s w i t h L a t i n A m e r i c a a r e i d e n t i f i e d a s : e c o n o m i c g r o w t h , e n h a n c e m e n t o f t h e q u a l i t y o f l i f e , a n d t h e p r o m o t i o n o f s o c i a l j u s t i c e . The o b j e c t i v e o f t h e new p o l i c y i s t o d e v e l o p C a n a d a ' s d i s t i n c t p o s i t i o n i n t h e W e s t e r n H e m i s p h e r e a s a m i d d l e p o w e r w i t h t h e a s p e c t s o f b o t h a d e v e l o p e d a n d a d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r y . C l o s e r r e l a t i o n s w i t h L a t i n A m e r i c a w e r e e x p e c t e d t o e n h a n c e C a n a d i a n s o v e r e i g n t y a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e t h r o u g h t r a d e a n d i n v e s t m e n t , w h i l e ' c l o s e r d i a l o g u e ' a b o u t w o r l d p r o b l e m s w o u l d e n h a n c e C a n a d a ' s c a p a c i t y t o p l a y a n i n d e p e n d e n t r o l e i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s . ' " (6 ) C a n a d a ' s a c t i o n s r e f l e c t e d t h i s new a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s L a t i n A m e r i c a , w h i c h i t s e l f was p a r t o f t h e T h i r d O p t i o n , t h e T r u d e a u g o v e r n m e n t ' s p l a n t o d e c r e a s e C a n a d i a n d e p e n d e n c e o n t h e U . S . b y b r o a d e n i n g c o m m e r c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l l i n k s w i t h E u r o p e , J a p a n , a n d T h i r d W o r l d n a t i o n s . F o r i n s t a n c e , C a n a d a j o i n e d b o t h t h e P a n A m e r i c a n H e a l t h O r g a n i z a t i o n a n d t h e I n t e r - A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f - 7 -A g r i c u l t u r a l S c i e n c e s i n 1 9 7 1 . C a n a d a a s s u m e d " p e r m a n e n t o b s e r v e r " s t a t u s i n t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n o f A m e r i c a n S t a t e s (OAS) i n 1 9 7 2 , w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g a p o l i c y o f n o n - m e m b e r s h i p . (7 ) T h i s a p p r o a c h was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h C a n a d a ' s t r a d i t i o n a l r e l u c t a n c e t o become i n v o l v e d i n p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s w h i c h w o u l d f o r c e O t t a w a t o t a k e s i d e s w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a g a i n s t L a t i n A m e r i c a o r v i c e v e r s a - e x a c t l y t h e k i n d o f p r o b l e m t h a t C a n a d a w o u l d l a t e r f a c e o v e r N i c a r a g u a . I n t h e same y e a r , C a n a d a j o i n e d t h e I n t e r - A m e r i c a n D e v e l o p m e n t B a n k , t o w h i c h O t t a w a h a d c o n t r i b u t e d , b u t w i t h o u t a v o t e , s i n c e 1 9 6 4 . " B y t h a t t i m e h a v i n g e s t a b l i s h e d t h e c r i t e r i a f o r i t s own b i l a t e r a l a i d p r o g r a m m e s , t h e g o v e r n m e n t f e l t i t s f o r e i g n p o l i c y g o a l s w o u l d n o t b e l o s t i n i n c r e a s i n g a i d t h r o u g h a m u l t i l a t e r a l a g e n c y " . (8) C a n a d a ' s i n i t i a l s u b s c r i p t i o n was US $ 2 6 3 . 5 m i l l i o n , w h i c h g r e w b y 1983 t o US $ 9 8 3 . 6 m i l l i o n . (9) O t t a w a r e s p o n d e d t o t h e n e e d s o f t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r b y j o i n i n g t h e I A D B , h o p i n g t o g i v e C a n a d i a n f i r m s s i g n i f i c a n t a d v a n t a g e s i n t r a d e a n d o t h e r c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . ( 1 0 ) The n e x t m a j o r s t e p was T r u d e a u ' s v i s i t s t o C u b a , M e x i c o , a n d V e n e z u e l a i n 1 9 7 6 , ( h i s f i r s t a s P r i m e M i n i s t e r ) , f o l l o w e d b y a m a j o r t r a d e t o u r t o L a t i n A m e r i c a f o r C a n a d i a n b u s i n e s s i n e a r l y 1 9 7 9 , o r g a n i z e d b y I n d u s t r y , T r a d e a n d C o m m e r c e . T h e s e a c t i o n s h e l p e d t o r a i s e C a n a d a ' s p r o f i l e w h i l e e s t a b l i s h i n g i m p o r t a n t l i n e s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . I n s p i t e o f t h e s e i n c r e a s i n g t i e s t o L a t i n A m e r i c a , N i c a r a g u a r e m a i n e d v i r t u a l l y i g n o r e d , s t i l l s h a r i n g a n a m b a s s a d o r w i t h f o u r o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . A l t h o u g h C a n a d a b e g a n i t s b i l a t e r a l a i d p r o g r a m t o L a t i n A m e r i c a i n 1 9 7 1 , t h e r e was n o a s s i s t a n c e f o r N i c a r a g u a . I n t h e s i x y e a r s f o l l o w i n g t h e N i c a r a g u a e a r t h q u a k e i n 1 9 7 2 , C a n a d a p r o v i d e d $ 3 . 5 4 m i l l i o n i n a i d t o t h e Somoza r e g i m e . ( 1 1 ) - 8 -T a b l e I . C a n a d i a n A i d t o N i c a r a g u a 1 9 7 3 - 7 8 ($ m i l l i o n s ) I 11 c 1 /. Y7 ,/3 S o u r c e : LAWG R e s o u r c e K i t The R o y a l B a n k h a d l o a n e d t h e Somoza r e g i m e $ 4 2 . 8 m i l l i o n , b u t r e j e c t e d a r e q u e s t f o r a f u r t h e r $20 m i l l i o n a t t h e t i m e o f t h e p o p u l a r u p r i s i n g s i n S e p t e m b e r 1 9 7 8 . ( 1 2 ) ( M o s t o f t h e money w h i c h h a d b e e n l o a n e d t o t h e N i c a r a g u a n s t a t e d e v e l o p m e n t a g e n c y , I N F O N A C , w e n t t o f i r m s c o n t r o l l e d b y t h e Somoza f a m i l y . ) T h i s b r i e f o v e r v i e w d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e t w o m o s t i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s o f C a n a d i a n p o l i c y t o w a r d s p r e - S a n d i n i s t a N i c a r a g u a . F i r s t , t h e r e r e a l l y was no p o l i c y , i n t h e s e n s e o f b e i n g d e t a i l e d o r w e l l t h o u g h t - o u t . W h i l e n o t c o m p l e t e l y i g n o r e d , N i c a r a g u a ' s p r o f i l e i n O t t a w a was s o l o w a s t o be b a r e l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m t h o s e o f d o z e n s o f o t h e r s m a l l T h i r d W o r l d c o u n t r i e s . N i c a r a g u a was n o t a s t o p f o r t h e m a j o r o f f i c i a l C a n a d i a n t o u r s . The l a c k o f s u b s t a n t i a l e c o n o m i c o r o t h e r t i e s l a r g e l y a c c o u n t e d f o r C a n a d a ' s l a c k o f i n t e r e s t . The R o y a l was t h e o n l y C a n a d i a n b a n k i n v o l v e d w i t h N i c a r a g u a a n d N o r a n d a owned a g o l d m i n e , b u t n e i t h e r i n t e r e s t was s u b s t a n t i a l . A s T a b l e I I . i n d i c a t e s , t r a d e r e l a t i o n s r e m a i n e d m i n i m a l . ( 1 3 ) - 9 -T a b l e I I . C a n a d i a n - N i c a r a g u a n T r a d e 1 9 7 5 - 7 9 ($ m i l l i o n s ) /1?S EXPORTS ¥-0 v . ? / M P O R T S . (from Nicaragua) I 3 . 0 / 3 . 0 S o u r c e : M u r r a y , 1 9 8 1 - 8 2 A s e c o n d r e a s o n f o r t h i s l a c k o f i n t e r e s t was t h e v i e w t h a t N i c a r a g u a , l i k e a l l t h e n a t i o n s o f C e n t r a l A m e r i c a , was c o n s i d e r e d t o be i n a s u p e r p o w e r ' s s p h e r e o f i n f l u e n c e . " A r e v i e w o f C a n a d i a n - L a t i n A m e r i c a n r e l a t i o n s , 1 8 6 6 - 1 9 6 8 , r e v e a l s t h a t . . . B r i t i s h a n d U . S . i n f l u e n c e s h a v e a l s o d e t e r m i n e d t h e e x t e n t o f C a n a d a ' s t i e s w i t h t h e r e g i o n . " ( 1 4 ) B o t h o f t h e s e c o u n t r i e s h a d s i g n i f i c a n t e c o n o m i c a n d p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t i n L a t i n A m e r i c a i n t h i s p e r i o d . U . S . a n d B r i t i s h i n t e r f e r e n c e i n N i c a r a g u a b e g a n a s a r i v a l r y o v e r r a i l r o a d s , b a n k l o a n s , a n d t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r a n i n t e r o c e a n c a n a l . B y t h e s t a r t o f t h e T r u d e a u e r a , a n u p s w i n g i n C a n a d i a n i n v o l v e m e n t i n L a t i n A m e r i c a was d i s c e r n a b l e . The r e a s o n s h a d o n l y a l i t t l e t o d o w i t h C a n a d i a n t r a d e a n d b u s i n e s s t i e s . W h i l e c o m m e r c i a l t i e s d i d g r o w s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n a b s o l u t e t e r m s , a s a p e r c e n t a g e o f t o t a l C a n a d i a n e x p o r t s , L a t i n A m e r i c a ' s s h a r e i n c r e a s e d o n l y m a r g i n a l l y , f r o m 5.0% i n 1965 a n d 5.2% i n 1 9 8 0 . A s a p e r c e n t a g e , i m p o r t s f r o m t h a t r e g i o n a c t u a l l y d r o p p e d s l i g h t l y o v e r t h i s p e r i o d , f r o m 6.3% t o 5 . 9 % . The same m e a s u r e s f o r C e n t r a l A m e r i c a show s u b s t a n t i a l d r o p s i n t r a d e . ( 1 5 ) - 1 0 -T a b l e I I I . C a n a d i a n - C e n t r a l A m e r i c a n T r a d e / 4 6 5 mo MIS 33 2.3 2. / 2.1 i . r /.2 S o u r c e : M u r r a y , 1 9 8 1 - 8 2 H o w e v e r , b y t h e l a t e 1 9 7 0 s a n o t h e r f a c t o r b e g a n t o demand m o r e o f O t t a w a ' s a t t e n t i o n : t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s i g n i f i c a n t t h r e a t s t o t h e s t a b i l i t y o f t h e c o u n t r i e s o f C e n t r a l A m e r i c a . C a n a d a h a d b o t h p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c r e a s o n s t o be c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t u r m o i l i n t h e r e g i o n . T o t a l C a n a d i a n i n v e s t m e n t t o p p e d $300 m i l l i o n , a n d t r a d e " g r e w n e a r l y 200% b e t w e e n 1975 a n d 1 9 7 9 . I n 1980 i t s h o t u p b y an a d d i t i o n a l 34%" . ( 1 6 ) The C a n a d i a n A m b a s s a d o r ' s p o s t i n S a n J o s e , w h i c h h a d b e e n v a c a n t f o r a l m o s t a y e a r , was f i l l e d i n 1979 b y D o u g l a s S i r r s . H i s b a c k g r o u n d was c o m m e r c i a l r a t h e r t h a n d i p l o m a t i c , a n d o n e r e p o r t c l a i m e d t h a t S i r r s ' " t h i n k i n g r u n s more t o w a r d s d o l l a r s a n d c e n t s t h a n human r i g h t s " . S i r r s h i m s e l f s t r e s s e d t h a t " t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s a r e a i n e c o n o m i c t e r m s " f o r C a n a d a was " a v e r y d e f i n i t e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r u s t o become i n v o l v e d i n t h i s p a r t o f t h e w o r l d , w h e r e t h e r e i s a n e e d f o r t h e t e c h n o l o g y , s k i l l s , a n d e x p e r t i s e w e ' v e d e v e l o p e d a n d w h i c h l e n d t h e m s e l v e s t o t h e k i n d o f d e v e l o p m e n t r e q u i r e d h e r e . " S i r r s a d d e d t h a t C a n a d a d i d n ' t " g e t t o o i n v o l v e d " w i t h t h e p o l i t i c s o f t h e r e g i o n b e c a u s e O t t a w a d i d n o t w a n t t o " i n t r u d e " . ( 1 7 ) The o v e r t h r o w o f t h e U . S . - b a c k e d N i c a r a g u a n d i c t a t o r A n a s t a c i o S o m o z a , " t h e l a s t M a r i n e " , u n d e r l i n e d t h e s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h e u n r e s t - 1 1 -t h a t was g r o w i n g i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a . A s t h e c a s u a l t y t o l l r o s e i n N i c a r a g u a ' s c i v i l w a r , t h e p r i m a r y r e s p o n s e o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e g o v e r n m e n t was t h r o u g h C I D A , w h i c h p r o v i d e d $ 4 3 4 , 5 1 4 i n h u m a n i t a r i a n a s s i s t a n c e . " A $ 1 . 8 m i l l i o n p e t i t i o n f r o m t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o m m i t t e e o f t h e R e d C r o s s was met w i t h a $ 1 8 0 , 0 0 0 g r a n t f r o m C I D A . . . " ( 1 8 ) M e a n w h i l e , E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s s u p p o r t e d t h e p r o p o s a l s made b y U . S . S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e V a n c e t o t h e OAS o n J u n e 21 f o r a " p e a c e - k e e p i n g f o r c e " , u n d e r U . S . c o n t r o l , t o be d i s p a t c h e d t o N i c a r a g u a . H o w e v e r , no o t h e r OAS member b a c k e d t h e p l a n , w h i c h t h e y p e r c e i v e d t o be a t h i n l y d i s g u i s e d f o r m o f U . S . i n t e r v e n t i o n t o p r e v e n t a S a n d i n i s t a v i c t o r y . W a s h i n g t o n h o p e d t o e n s u r e a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e o l d " S o m o c i s t a " s y s t e m , w i t h o u t t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e d i c t a t o r h i m s e l f . O t t a w a c o n t i n u e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h e Somoza r e g i m e w h i l e i s s u i n g s t a t e m e n t s d e p l o r i n g t h e v i o l e n c e a n d b l o o d s h e d . " I n a J u n e 2 2 n d m e e t i n g w i t h M r . P a s t o r V a l l e - G a r a y , r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e N i c a r a g u a n P r o v i s i o n a l G o v e r n m e n t , E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s s a i d t h e r e was p r e c e d e n t n e i t h e r f o r w i t h d r a w i n g r e c o g n i t i o n f r o m a g o v e r n m e n t l i k e S o m o z a ' s n o r f o r r e c o g n i z i n g a p r o v i s i o n a l o n e l i k e t h e N i c a r a g u a n g o v e r n m e n t - i n - e x i l e . " ( 1 9 ) M o r e o v e r , t h e C l a r k g o v e r n m e n t d i d n o t o p p o s e a $66 m i l l i o n l o a n f r o m t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l M o n e t a r y F u n d t o Somoza a s l a t e a s J u n e , 1 9 7 9 , o n l y one m o n t h b e f o r e t h e d i c t a t o r f l e d t o M i a m i . Many N i c a r a g u a n s w a r n e d t h a t t h e money w o u l d e n d up i n S o m o z a ' s p o c k e t s . (When he f l e d , Somoza l e f t o n l y $ 3 . 5 m i l l i o n i n t h e T r e a s u r y a n d a f o r e i g n d e b t o f $ 1 . 6 b i l l i o n . ) I n J u l y , F l o r a M a c D o n a l d , S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , s a i d t h a t h e r " g o v e r n m e n t h a s v i e w e d w i t h g r o w i n g c o n c e r n t h e g r o w t h a n d p e r s i s t a n t v i o l a t i o n o f human r i g h t s b y t h e N i c a r a g u a n a u t h o r i t i e s " a n d s t a t e d t h a t C a n a d a h a d - 1 2 -e x p r e s s e d t h i s p o s i t i o n a t t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s a n d t h e O A S , b u t t h e r e was no r e f e r e n c e t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n f o r N i c a r a g u a o r t o p o s t - w a r a i d . N e i t h e r d i d M a c D o n a l d c r i t i c i z e W a s h i n g t o n ' s p o l i t i c a l m a n o u v e r s . C a n a d a w i t h h e l d r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e p r o v i s i o n a l S a n d i n i s t a g o v e r n m e n t u n t i l J u l y 2 4 , a f t e r W a s h i n g t o n e s t a b l i s h e d r e l a t i o n s , a n d a f u l l week a f t e r Somoza h a d e s c a p e d t o M i a m i . ( 2 0 ) - 1 3 -b) P o l i t i c a l R e l a t i o n s The d e f e a t o f t h e s h o r t - l i v e d C l a r k g o v e r n m e n t a n d t h e r e t u r n o f P i e r r e T r u d e a u d i d n o t i m m e d i a t e l y r e s u l t i n a c h a n g e o f p o l i c y t o w a r d s t h e S a n d i n i s t a s . A s s i s t a n c e f o r r e c o n s t r u c t i o n r e m a i n e d m i n i m a l . A t t h e p o l i t i c a l l e v e l , A m b a s s a d o r S i r r s , f o r e x a m p l e , d e p l o r e d t h e p o w e r o f t h e " M a r x i s t " S a n d i n i s t a s a n d e x p r e s s e d s u p p o r t f o r " m o d e r a t e e l e m e n t s " . (He a l s o s t a t e d t h a t t h e j u n t a i n E l S a l v a d o r was " s e e k i n g a d e m o c r a t i c s o l u t i o n " i n t h a t c o u n t r y a n d r e p r e s e n t e d " t h e o n l y v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e " . ) ( 2 1 ) S t i l l , many members o f t h e L i b e r a l g o v e r n m e n t , i n c l u d i n g t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r , w e r e i n c l i n e d t o v i e w t h e N i c a r a g u a n r e v o l u t i o n a s a p r o d u c t o f i n t e r n a l f a c t o r s s u c h a s p o v e r t y a n d o p p r e s s i o n , r a t h e r t h a n a s p a r t o f " c o m m u n i s t c o n s p i r a c y " o r c h e s t r a t e d b y t h e U . S . S . R . a n d C u b a . C a n a d a ' s a t t i t u d e c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f m o s t L a t i n A m e r i c a n g o v e r n m e n t s . F o r i n s t a n c e , when M e x i c a n P r e s i d e n t L o p e z P o r t i l l o v i s i t e d O t t a w a i n May 1 9 8 0 , he a n d P r i m e M i n i s t e r T r u d e a u i s s u e d a j o i n t c o m m u n i q u e w h i c h n o t e d " w i t h c o n c e r n t h e i n c r e a s i n g s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i n s t a b i l i t y " i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a , a n d e x p r e s s e d t h e h o p e t h a t t h e s e p r o b l e m s w o u l d b e o v e r c o m e " t h r o u g h t h e f r e e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e w i l l o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e p e o p l e s a n d w i t h o u t f o r e i g n i n t e r f e r e n c e . " ( 2 2 ) A l t h o u g h t h i s s t a t e m e n t was a m b i g u o u s , i t d i d s i g n i f y C a n a d a ' s g r o w i n g c o n c e r n o v e r d e v e l o p m e n t s i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n i s m a n d e s c a l a t i n g v i o l e n c e . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e n U n d e r - S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s A l l a n G o t t l i e b , 1980 was " t h e moment o f m a j o r - 1 4 -c h a n g e . . . i n C a n a d i a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y (when) we i d e n t i f i e d t h e C a r i b b e a n r e g i o n , i n c l u d i n g C e n t r a l A m e r i c a , a s a k e y a r e a o f i n t e r e s t f o r C a n a d a . " ( 2 3 ) The i n a u g u r a t i o n o f t h e R e a g a n r e g i m e i n 1981 b r o u g h t t o p o w e r a g o v e r n m e n t w h i c h was d e t e r m i n e d t o f i g h t a "new c o l d w a r " a n d w h i c h , a s p a r t o f i t s s t r a t e g y , d e c i d e d t o " p r e v e n t c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f a S a n d i n i s t a r e g i m e " b y c u t t i n g o f f e c o n o m i c a i d a n d b y e n d o r s i n g a' " c o v e r t " C I A p l a n t o d e s t a b i l i z e N i c a r a g u a . ( 2 4 ) C a n a d a d i d n o t s h a r e t h e e n t h u s i a s m f o r s u c h a n i d e o l o g i c a l c r u s a d e . I n a n i n t e r v i e w p u b l i s h e d i n J a n u a r y , 1 9 8 1 , E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s M i n i s t e r M a r k M a c G u i g a n s eemed t o t r y t o d i s t a n c e h i s g o v e r n m e n t somewha t f r o m U . S . p o l i c y i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a . T h e M i n i s t e r commen ted t h a t " [ t ] h e d a n g e r i s t h a t a n A m e r i c a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n m i g h t , a s some h a v e i n t h e p a s t , t e n d t o s e e t h e N o r t h - S o u t h r e l a t i o n s h i p o n t h e same E a s t - W e s t l i n e s , a n d t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e y h a d t o be h a w k i s h t o w a r d s c o u n t r i e s i n t h e T h i r d W o r l d t h a t a r e n o t d i r e c t e d b y M o s c o w . " (25 ) B u t M a c G u i g a n l a t e r i n d i c a t e d t h a t C a n a d a w o u l d a c q u i e s c e i n W a s h i n g t o n ' s p l a n s w h e n , i n M a r c h , he t o l d P a r l i a m e n t : " I am n o t a w a r e t h a t we h a v e a n y s e r i o u s o b l i g a t i o n i n t h a t p a r t o f t h e w o r l d , i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a , w h i c h i s n o t a n a r e a o f t r a d i t i o n a l C a n a d i a n i n t e r e s t . " ( 2 6 ) When R e a g a n v i s i t e d O t t a w a o n M a r c h 1 0 , M a c G u i g a n saw a c o n v e r g e n c e o f C a n a d i a n a n d U . S . a p p r o a c h e s t o C e n t r a l A m e r i c a : " T h e r e was no d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e p o s i t i o n s o f o u r t w o g o v e r n m e n t s , a n d i n d e e d , t h e r e was no e m p h a s i s i n A m e r i c a n t h o u g h t a n d p l a n n i n g o n a m i l i t a r y s o l u t i o n . " ( 2 7 ) T h i s f o r m u l a t i o n , w i t h t h e i m p l i e d h o p e ( o r n a i v e b e l i e f ) t h a t t h e - 1 5 -U n i t e d S t a t e s w o u l d n o t p u r s u e " a m i l i t a r y s o l u t i o n " i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a , e x e m p l i f i e s t h e d i f f i c u l t t a s k f a c i n g t h e T r u d e a u g o v e r n m e n t . I t f e a r e d t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f W a s h i n g t o n ' s b e l l i g e r e n c e t o w a r d s t h e S a n d i n i s t a s , b u t i t was w a r y o f a n g e r i n g t h e new R e a g a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . C a n a d a ' s n e x t m a j o r i n o l v e m e n t i n t h e r e g i o n came i n J u l y w h e n , a l o n g w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , M e x i c o , a n d V e n e z u e l a , i t h e l p e d o r g a n i z e t h e N a s s a u G r o u p , ( a f o r e r u n n e r o f t h e C a r i b b e a n B a s i n I n i t i a t i v e ) . The a v o w e d i n t e n t i o n was t o i n c r e a s e a i d a n d s t a b i l i t y i n t h a t r e g i o n , b u t s k e p t i c s w e r e s u s p i c i o u s o f W a s h i n g t o n ' s m o t i v e s . I n t e s t i m o n y t o a P a r l i a m e n t a r y S u b - c o m m i t t e e , C o n s e r v a t i v e MP D o u g l a s R o c h e s p e c u l a t e d t h a t " t h e n e t e f f e c t o f t h i s j o i n t e f f o r t . . . w i l l h a v e b e e n f o r C a n a d a t o h a v e b e e n u s e d i n t h r o w i n g a c l o a k o f r e s p e c t a b i l i t y o v e r t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e U . S . p o l i c y o f m i l i t a r y a i d " t o t h e r e g i o n . ( 2 8 ) B u t a s t h e y e a r w e n t o n , d i f f e r e n c e s b e g a n t o e m e r g e b e t w e e n C a n a d a ' s v i e w o f N i c a r a g u a a n d t h a t o f t h e R e a g a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h i s c h a n g e was due p r i m a r i l y t o t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y m i l i t a r i s t i c a p p r o a c h t a k e n b y t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e C I A ' s c r e a t i o n o f t h e a n t i - S a n d i n i s t a " C o n t r a s " , who w e r e a t t a c k i n g N i c a r a g u a f r o m s a n c t u a r i e s i n H o n d u r a s a n d C o s t a R i c a . T h i s d i v e r g e n c e w i t h t h e U . S . s e t t h e t o n e f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h e s t h a t s u b s e q u e n t l y e v o l v e d . W h i l e C a n a d a was h o p i n g t h a t a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e S a n d i n i s t a s w o u l d h e l p t o " m o d e r a t e " t h e i r p o l i c i e s , W a s h i n g t o n was r e l y i n g o n v a r i o u s t y p e s o f e c o n o m i c a n d m i l i t a r y c o e r c i o n . S u c h t a c t i c s w e n t a g a i n s t C a n a d a ' s t r a d i t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e f o r - 1 6 -d i p l o m a t i c s o l u t i o n s a n d c o m p r o m i s e s . I n t h i s v e i n , M a c G u i g a n t o l d t h e H o u s e o n D e c e m b e r 2 t h a t , d e s p i t e some "human r i g h t s " c o n c e r n s , C a n a d a s h o u l d c o n t i n u e t o p r o v i d e a i d t o N i c a r a g u a . S p e a k i n g t o t h e E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s C o m m i t t e e , M a c G u i g a n c i t e d t h e a l l e g e d c l o s u r e o f a n e w s p a p e r , d i s r u p t i o n o f o p p o s i t i o n p a r t y r a l l i e s , a n d a r r e s t s o f p r o m i n e n t b u s i n e s s m e n a s t h e c a u s e s o f w o r r y . B u t t h e m i n i s t e r s a i d t h a t he f e a r e d a n a i d c u t - o f f m i g h t p u s h N i c a r a g u a " i n a d i r e c t i o n we w o u l d n o t w a n t t o s e e i t g o . " ( 2 9 ) P a r l i a m e n t was a l s o g r o w i n g c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e way i n w h i c h t h e t r o u b l e s i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a w e r e m u l t i p l y i n g . A n a l l - p a r t y d e l e g a t i o n o f M P s , i n c l u d i n g B o b O g l e ( N D P ) , M a u r i c e D u p r a s ( L ) , a n d F l o r a M a c D o n a l d ( P C ) , made a f a c t - f i n d i n g t o u r i n l a t e J a n u a r y 1982 t h a t i n c l u d e d C o s t a R i c a , N i c a r a g u a a n d E l S a l v a d o r . T h e y met w i t h g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s , c h u r c h l e a d e r s , a n d b u s i n e s s m e n , a n d , t h o u g h t h e v i s i t " d i d n o t m o d i f y t h e i r v i e w s v e r y m u c h . . . m a n y o f t h e members w e r e d i s e n c h a n t e d . . . w i t h t h e b r i e f i n g o n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a f r o m C a n a d a ' s a m b a s s a d o r i n C o s t a R i c a , who c o v e r s t h e s i x c o u n t r i e s . T h e y f e l t O t t a w a m u s t be g e t t i n g a v e r y o n e - s i d e d v i e w o f t h e c h a n g e s g o i n g on t h e r e i f t h e d i s s e r t a t i o n t h e y r e c e i v e d o n t h e S o v i e t - C u b a n ' m a s t e r p l a n ' f o r N i c a r a g u a , E l S a l v a d o r , a n d G u a t e m a l a was a n e x a m p l e o f h i s r e p o r t i n g " . ( 3 0 ) C a n a d a ' s u n e a s i n e s s w i t h R e a g a n ' s h a w k i s h a p p r o a c h c o n t i n u e d t o m o u n t , a s o u t l i n e d i n a s p e e c h M a c G u i g a n d e l i v e r e d t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o Law F a c u l t y i n M a r c h , 1 9 8 2 : " I d o n ' t b e l i e v e t h a t when a c o u n t r y c h o o s e s a s o c i a l i s t o r e v e n a M a r x i s t p a t h i t n e c e s s a r i l y b u y s a ' p a c k a g e ' w h i c h a u t o m a t i c a l l y i n j e c t s i t i n t o t h e - / 7 -S o v i e t o r b i t . T h i s . . . i s w h e r e o u r v i e w s a n d t h o s e o f t h e USA may d i v e r g e . T h e i n t e r n a l s y s t e m s a d o p t e d b y t h e c o u n t r i e s o f L a t i n A m e r i c a a n d t h e C a r i b b e a n , w h a t e v e r t h e s e s y s t e m s may b e , do n o t i n t h e m s e l v e s p o s e a s e c u r i t y t h r e a t t o t h i s h e m i s p h e r e . " ( 3 1 ) T h i s was t h e c l e a r e s t p r e s e n t a t i o n y e t o f how d i f f e r e n t l y t h e t w o c o u n t r i e s v i e w e d t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f c h a n g e i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a . C a n a d a ' s e s t r a n g e m e n t f r o m U . S . p o l i c i e s i n c r e a s e d when A l l a n M a c E a c h e n , t h e D e p u t y P r i m e M i n i s t e r , r e p l a c e d M a c G u i g a n a s S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s i n O c t o b e r 1 9 8 2 . W i t h t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f M a c E a c h a n , C a n a d i a n p o l i c y t o w a r d s t h e S a n d i n i s t a c h a n g e d " s l i g h t l y " . ( 3 2 ) M a c E a c h e n , a l t h o u g h w a r y o f S a n d i n i s t a " M a r x i s m " , u n d e r s t o o d t h a t t h e w a r a g a i n s t t h e C I A - s u p p o r t e d C o n t r a s n e c e s s i t a t e d t h e p r o c l a m a t i o n o f a " S t a t e o f E m e r g e n c y " . He was i m p r e s s e d w i t h t h e i m p r o v e m e n t s t h a t t h e S a n d i n i s t a j u n t a h a d made i n h e a l t h a n d e d u c a t i o n , a n d e s p e c i a l l y h e a r t e n e d b y t h e d e c i s i o n t o h o l d n a t i o n a l e l e c t i o n s i n N o v e m b e r 1 9 8 4 . M a c E a c h e n a l s o a p p r o v e d t h e i d e a o f s e n d i n g o b s e r v e r s t o m o n i t o r t h e v o t i n g . H i s h a n d was s t r e n g t h e n e d b y t h e f i n a l r e p o r t o f t h e P a r l i a m e n t a r y S u b - c o m m i t t e e o n C a n a d a ' s R e l a t i o n s w i t h L a t i n A m e r i c a a n d t h e C a r i b b e a n , w h i c h h a d b e g u n i t s w o r k i n May 1 9 8 1 . The c r e a t i o n o f t h e S u b - c o m m i t t e e was a n i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e new i m p o r t a n c e o f L a t i n A m e r i c a t o t h e p u b l i c , t o b u s i n e s s , a n d t o t h e g o v e r n m e n t . The f i r s t s u c h g r o u p i n C a n a d i a n h i s t o r y , i t was c o m p o s e d o f e i g h t L i b e r a l s , f i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e s , a n d t w o New D e m o c r a t s . T h e i r r e p o r t , i s s u e d i n N o v e m b e r 1 9 8 2 , u r g e d f u n d a m e n t a l c h a n g e s i n C a n a d i a n p o l i c y t o w a r d s t h a t p a r t o f t h e w o r l d . The s t u d y r e c o m m e n d e d , i n t e r a l i a : * A h e m i s p h e r i c c o n f e r e n c e o n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a a n d t h e C a r i b b e a n t o p r o t e c t t h e a r e a f r o m s u p e r p o w e r i n t e r v e n t i o n ; * U s i n g a i d s e l e c t i v e l y t o p r o m o t e human r i g h t s ; * T h a t C e n t r a l A m e r i c a a n d t h e C a r i b b e a n be made r e g i o n s o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n C a n a d a ' s f o r e i g n p o i c y ; * T h a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s s h o u l d b a s e t h e i r a i d p r o j e c t s o n d e v e l o p m e n t a l r a t h e r t h a n i d e o l o g i c a l g r o u n d s ; * T h a t a t l e a s t o n e m o r e C a n a d i a n e m b a s s y s h o u l d be o p e n e d i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a ; * T h a t t h e u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r a l c a u s e s f o r t h e r e g i o n ' s p r o b l e m s b e g i v e n g r e a t e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n s e e k i n g t o p r o m o t e s t a b i l i t y ; * T h a t n e g o t i a t i o n s b e t w e e n c o u n t r i e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e U . S . , C u b a , a n d o t h e r s , b e a c t i v e l y e n c o u r a g e d i n o r d e r t o r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t s ; * T h a t human r i g h t s , d e f i n e d a s " b o t h t h e r i g h t t o a d e c e n t m a t e r i a l e x i s t e n c e , s u c h a s a c c e s s t o f o o d , s h e l t e r , e m p l o y m e n t , a n d h e a l t h c a r e , a n d c i v i l a n d p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s " , become " o n e o f t h e e s s e n t i a l p u r p o s e s a n d g u i d i n g l i g h t s " o f f o r e i g n p o l i c y ; a n d * T h a t C a n a d a j o i n t h e O A S . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h e S u b - c o m m i t t e e d e s c r i b e d " t h e p r o m o t i o n o f s t a b i l i t y " a s " t h e c e n t r a l , m e d i u m - t e r m o b j e c t i v e o f C a n a d i a n p o l i c y " . ( 3 3 ) M e a n w h i l e , t h e T r u d e a u g o v e r n m e n t t r i e d t o c a r r y o n a b a l a n c i n g a c t b e t w e e n w h a t i t saw a s u n w a r r e n t e d i n t e r f e r e n c e b y W a s h i n g t o n i n t h e s o v e r e i g n a f f a i r s o f a n o t h e r c o u n t r y a n d i t s f e a r o f a n t a g o n i z i n g t h e R e a g a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . F o r i n s t a n c e , i n D e c e m b e r M a c E a c h e n p u b l i c l y o p p o s e d U . S . p l a n s t o o v e r t h r o w t h e S a n d i n i s t a s , w h i l e s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t i n g ^ M e x i c a n - V e n e z u e l a n i n i t i a t i v e f o r t a l k s b e t w e e n W a s h i n g t o n , T e g u c i g a l p a , a n d M a n a g u a . S p e a k i n g f o r M a c E a c h e n , DEA o f f i c i a l C h a r l e s L a P o i n t e t o l d t h e H o u s e t h a t C a n a d a "made r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o t h e A m e r i c a n s t o e x p r e s s o u r c o n c e r n a n d c o n s t e r n a t i o n v i s - a - v i s d e s t a b i l i z i n g i n t e r f e r e n c e b y f o r e i g n p o w e r s i n N i c a r a g u a ' s d o m e s t i c a f f a i r s . " ( 3 4 ) S e v e r a l m o n t h s l a t e r T r u d e a u e c h o e d t h a t p o s i t i o n when he s a i d t h a t C a n a d i a n s " o b j e c t t o t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e i n t h e i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s o f o t h e r c o u n t r i e s b y a n y m a j o r p o w e r , e v e n i f t h a t p o w e r i s o u r f r i e n d " . ( 3 5 ) I t was t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r ' s s t r o n g e s t s t a t e m e n t t o d a t e . B u t r h e t o r i c was a s f a r a s T r u d e a u was p r e p a r e d t o go i n o p p o s i n g t h e U . S . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , O t t a w a was s t i l l w o r r i e d b y i t s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e c o u r s e o f d o m e s t i c e v o l u t i o n i n N i c a r a g u a . When N i c a r a g u a n F o r e i g n M i n i s t e r M i g u e l d ' E s c o t o p a i d a v i s i t t o Ijttawa F e b r u a r y 1 4 - 1 6 , 1 9 8 3 , M a c E a c h e n r e m a r k e d d u r i n g one m e e t i n g t h a t "many C a n a d i a n s " a r e c o n c e r n e d t h a t t h e S a n d i n i s t a g o v e r n m e n t was a b a n d o n i n g " n o b l e d e m o c r a t i c p r i n c i p l e s " i n f a v o r o f " r e p r e s s i v e M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m " . ( 3 6 ) A s a n e x p r e s s i o n o f s o l i d a r i t y a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e v i s - a - v i s t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e C o n t a d o r a g r o u p i n J a n u a r y was a r e m a r k a b l e e v e n t i n L a t i n A m e r i c a n h i s t o r y , a n d o n e w h i c h p r o v i d e d C a n a d a w i t h a c h a n c e t o p r e s s i t s c o n c e r n s t h r o u g h a m u l t i l a t e r a l f o r u m . The C o n t a d o r a c o u n t r i e s , M e x i c o , V e n e z u e l a , P a n a m a , a n d C o l o m b i a , w e r e h o p i n g t o f i n d a - 2 0 -d i p l o m a t i c s o l u t i o n t o f o r e i g n i n t e r v e n t i o n i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a w h i l e d e m i l i t a r i z i n g t h e r e g i o n . A l t h o u g h T r u d e a u h a d s e n t p e r s o n a l l e t t e r s o f e n c o u r a g e m e n t t o t h e p r e s i d e n t s o f M e x i c o a n d V e n e z u e l a when t h e y s u g g e s t e d t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e g r o u p , O t t a w a , a g a i n , t o o k a c a u t i o u s a p p r o a c h : I n t h e Commmons, T r u d e a u s t a t e d t h a t C o n t a d o r a ' s g o a l o f e n d i n g o u t s i d e i n t e r f e r e n c e i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a i s s h a r e d b y C a n a d a a n d t h e U . S . " a n d c e r t a i n l y we a r e p r e p a r e d t o a s s i s t t h e m i n t h e o b t a i n i n g o f t h a t o b j e c t i v e " . He d i d n o t e l a b o r a t e . A s e n i o r E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s o f f i c i a l s a i d . . . C a n a d a w o u l d b e r e a d y t o t a k e p a r t i n p e a c e i n i t i a t i v e s i n E l S a l v a d o r a n d N i c a r a g u a b u t o n l y a t t h e i n v i t a t i o n o f t h o s e c o u n t r i e s . T r u d e a u h a s come u n d e r f i r e f o r h i s s t a t e m e n t s o n U . S . i n v o l v e m e n t i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a f o l l o w i n g a m e e t i n g w i t h U . S . P r e s i d e n t R o n a l d R e a g a n l a s t w e e k . U . S . a n d C a n a d i a n o f f i c i a l s r e p o r t e d a f t e r t h e m e e t i n g t h a t t h e p r i m e m i n i s t e r s p e c i f i e d t h a t a n y n a t i o n h a s a r i g h t t o c h o o s e i t s own p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m , " b u t when t h a t s o c i e t y e x p o r t s t r o u b l e , t h a t i s a d i f f e r e n t m a t t e r . " ( 3 7 ) I n M a y , f o u r m o n t h s a f t e r i t s i n c e p t i o n , M a c E a c h e n a n n o u n c e d C a n a d a ' s f u l l s u p p o r t f o r t h e C o n t a d o r a p r o c e s s . ( 3 8 ) The g r o w i n g d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n C a n a d i a n a n d U . S . p o l i c i e s was e v i d e n t w h e n , i n l a t e J u l y , M a c E a c h e n r e f e r r e d t o a s i x - p o i n t N i c a r a g u a n p e a c e p r o p o s a l a s , " a n e n c o u r a g i n g a n d p o s i t i v e s t e p . " ( 3 9 ) B u t O t t a w a s a i d n o t h i n g when t h e U . S . s u m m a r i l y r e j e c t e d t h e i n i t i a t i v e . F u r t h e r d i s a g r e e m e n t s s u r f a c e d when t h e R e a g a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n c r e a s e d i t s e f f o r t s t o p o l i t i c i z e I n t e r n a t i o n a l F i n a n c i a l I n s t i t u t i o n s ( I F I s ) : t h e W o r l d B a n k G r o u p , t h e I M F , a n d t h e I n t e r - A m e r i c a n D e v e l o p m e n t B a n k ( I A D B ) . N i c a r a g u a was a s p e c i a l t a r g e t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The c o n s e n s u s a t t h e I F I s was t o o p p o s e moves b y W a s h i n g t o n t o o b s t r u c t " h a r d " l o a n s t o M a n a g u a . (The U . S . h a d v e t o p o w e r o v e r " s o f t " l o a n s , i . e . l o n g - t e r m , l o w - i n t e r e s t l o a n s ) . - 2 1 -" D e c i s i o n s t a k e n b y t h e b o a r d o f t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e g e n e r a l l y b a s e d o n c o n s e n s u s . C a n a d a h a s a l w a y s j o i n e d t h a t c o n s e n s u s w i t h r e s p e c t t o l o a n s t o N i c a r a g u a . " ( 4 0 ) W h i l e a t t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s i n O c t o b e r , T r u d e a u met w i t h Commandan te O r t e g a w h i l e b o t h w e r e a t t h e U N , b u t n o t h i n g a p p a r e n t l y came o f t h i s e n c o u n t e r . A m i n o r r o w e r u p t e d i n t h e Commons a f t e r a n o f f i c i a l w i t h C a n a d a ' s e m b a s s y i n C o s t a R i c a r e v e a l e d o n N o v e m b e r 14 t h a t C a n a d a p l a n n e d t o a s k t h e U . S . t o e v a c u a t e C a n a d i a n n a t i o n a l s f r o m N i c a r a g u a i n t h e e v e n t o f w a r o r i n v a s i o n . C a n a d i a n s i n N i c a r a g u a o b j e c t e d s t r o n g l y t o a n y scheme " t o be s a v e d b y t h e g o v e r n m e n t t h a t h a s p u t o u r l i v e s , a n d t h o s e o f N i c a r a g u a n s , i n d a n g e r . " ( 4 1 ) A s W a s h i n g t o n ' s i n t e r v e n t i o n i n c r e a s e d , O t t a w a was b e c o m i n g m o r e c o n c e r n e d a n d m o r e w i l l i n g t o d i s a g r e e o p e n l y w i t h R e a g a n ' s a n t i - S a n d i n i s t a c r u s a d e . I n t h e H o u s e o n D e c e m b e r 2 0 , M a c E a c h e n a g a i n e m p h a s i z e d t h a t , " C a n a d a h a s o p p o s e d t h e m i l i t a r i z a t i o n o f C e n t r a l A m e r i c a . We h a v e e x p r e s s e d t h o s e v i e w s t o t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o n a n u m b e r o f o c c a s i o n s . " The m i n i s t e r a d d e d t h a t he h a d r e a c h e d no c o n c l u s i o n r e g a r d i n g h a l t i n g a i d t o H o n d u r a s b e c a u s e o f t h a t c o u n t r y ' s s u p p o r t f o r t h e C o n t r a s . ( 4 2 ) The v i s i t o f C o l o m b i a n F o r e i g n M i n i s t e r R o d r i g o L l o r e d a i n F e b r u a r y 1984 was t h e o c c a s i o n f o r M a c E a c h e n t o o u t l i n e t h e m a j o r e l e m e n t s o f C a n a d a ' s c h a n g i n g p o s i t i o n . He e m p h a s i z e d t h e n e e d f o r e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a i n o r d e r t o o v e r c o m e s o c i a l i n e q u i t i e s . T h e M i n i s t e r r e i t e r a t e d O t t a w a ' s s u p p o r t f o r t h e C o n t a d o r a p r o c e s s , i n d i c a t e d t h a t - 2 2 -Canada would seek o b s e r v e r s t a t u s w i t h i t s commissions, and r e s t a t e d h i s o p p o s t i t i o n t o t h i r d p a r t y i n t e r v e n t i o n i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a . The S e c r e t a r y t h e n a t t a c k e d some elements o f t h e r e c e n t l y - r e l e a s e d K i s s i n g e r R e p o r t because " m i l i t a r y a i d i s a major c o m p o n e n t . . . M i l i t a r i z a t i o n engenders p o l i t i c a l p o l a r i z a t i o n . . . w e a k e n i n g t h o s e moderate p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s w h i c h . . . a r e i n d i s p e n s a b l e i f n a t i o n a l r e c o n c i l i a t i o n i n t h e s e c o u n t r i e s i s t o be a c h i e v e d . " He a d m i t t e d t h a t " [ t ] h e r e i s a g rowing Canadian p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a . There i s e v e r y r e a s o n f o r Canadians t o be i n t e r e s t e d and c o n c e rned. Geography a l o n e i s a r e a s o n . I t i s t h e c l o s e s t a r e a t o us of  i n s t a b i l i t y and East/West c o n f r o n t a t i o n . . . We oppose c o n t i n u e d m i l i t a r y s u p p o r t f o r a n t i - S a n d i n i s t a i n s u r g e n t s . . . " (My emphasis) ( 4 3 ) T h i s was t h e M i n i s t e r ' s s t o n g e s t statement t o d a t e on t h e u n r e s t i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a , and i n d i c a t i v e o f a g rowing f e a r about th e p o t e n t i a l dangers of Washington's e s c a l a t i o n o f h o s t i l i t i e s . F o r h i s p a r t , L l o r e d a welcomed i n c r e a s e d Canadian i n t e r e s t i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a , s a y i n g t h a t t h e OAS was e f f e c t i v e l y p a r a l y z e d . S t a t i n g t h a t he d i d not want t o see t h e r e g i o n become a superpower b a t t l e g r o u n d , L l o r e d a added, "We want t h e i r p r e s e n c e t o c r e a t e , not destroy...Among i n d u s t r i a l i z e d n a t i o n s , Canada has t h e b e s t t i t l e t o e x e r c i s e a p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a . " ( 4 4 ) S e e k i n g t o use t h a t " p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e " , MacEachen announced t h a t he would v i s i t N i c a r a g u a and s e v e r a l o t h e r C e n t r a l American c o u n t r i e s i n A p r i l , t h e f i r s t Canadian m i n i s t e r t o do so. The t r i p was a r e s ponse t o "mounting -23-c o n c e r n i n P a r l i a m e n t and t h e media about d e t e r i o r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e r e g i o n t h a t t h r e a t e n t o t u r n i n t o w i d e s p r e a d c o n f l i c t s . . . C e n t r a l A m e r i c a and the C a r i b b e a n a r e key a r e a s f o r Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y . . " (45) MacEachen c o n s u l t e d f o r two days i n Washington w i t h U.S. S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e S c h u l t z b e f o r e h e a d i n g t o C e n t r a l A m erica. MacEachen r e f u s e d a p u b l i c r e q u e s t from S c h u l t z t o add E l S a l v a d o r t o h i s i t i n e r a r y . He i n d i c a t e d t h a t he hoped t o g e t a f i r s t - h a n d l o o k a t t h e s i t u a t i o n and " t o t e s t Canadian p o l i c y a g a i n s t t h e r e a l i t y " . (46) D u r i n g t h e t a l k s , U.S. o f f i c i a l s d e n i e d any i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e m i n i n g of N i c a r a g u a n p o r t s , which had j u s t come t o l i g h t . (U.S. o f f i c i a l Langhorn M o t l e y t o l d [now] Ambassador A l l a n G o t l i e b t h e same s t o r y on March 24.) (47) D u r i n g h i s t h r e e - d a y v i s i t t o N i c a r a g u a , MacEachen h e l d d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h deputy f o r e i g n m i n i s t e r s Nora A s t o r g a and V i c t o r T i n o c o , A g r i c u l t u r e M i n i s t e r Jaime Wheelock, t h e d i r e c t o r of t h e N i c a r a g u a n R e c o n s t r u c t i o n Agency, and j u n t a member D a n i e l O r tega. He a l s o met w i t h c h u r c h o f f i c i a l s and l e a d e r s of o p p o s i t i o n groups. MacEachen s t a t e d t h a t h i s government was c o n s i d e r i n g t h e opening of a d i p l o m a t i c m i s s i o n i n Managua, b u t t h a t b u d g e t a r y r a t h e r t h a n p o l i t i c a l r e a s o n s were h o l d i n g up t h e p r o c e s s . R e g a r d i n g t h e N i c a r a g u a n e l e c t i o n s , t h e M i n i s t e r r e j e c t e d Reagan's condemnations, s a y i n g he p r e f e r r e d t o w a i t and see, t h e n "judge them by o b s e r v i n g . . . not b l i n d e d by i d e o l o g i c a l b l i n d e r s . " A t t h e same time he warned N i c a r a g u a n F o r e i g n M i n i s t e r D 'Escoto t h a t c r i t i c i s m o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s might a l t e r Canadian a t t i t u d e s . But Canadian o f f i c i a l s took p a i n s t o s t a t e t h a t t h e y would "not -24-a l t e r Canadian p o l i c y a t Washington's b e h e s t . " (48) Speaking i n T e g u c i g a l p a a t t h e end o f h i s t r i p , MacEachen c o n t i n u e d t o m a i n t a i n t h a t Honduran s u p p o r t f o r t h e C o n t r a s would not a f f e c t t h e $90 m i l l i o n i n proposed Canadian a i d t o t h a t c o u n t r y . He j u s t i f i e d t h i s p o s i t i o n by d e c l a r i n g , "What would we do t h e n i n N i c a r a g u a about t h e a l l e g a t i o n s t h a t t h e y a r e a c t i v e l y s u p p o r t i n g the S a l v a d o r a n g u e r r i l l a s ? " , t h e n r e i t e r a t e d h i s v i e w t h a t Canadian economic a s s i s t a n c e s h o u l d not be used t o p r e s s u r e o t h e r n a t i o n s . (49) Canada r e a c t e d n e g a t i v e l y t o t h e m i n i n g of N i c a r a g u a n p o r t s by agents of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . W h i l e i n Managua, MacEachen p u b l i c l y denounced th e m i n i n g as "an element of t e n s i o n t h a t doesn't c o n t r i b u t e i n t h e l e a s t t o r e s o l v i n g t h e s i t u a t i o n i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a . " (50) On A p r i l 10, I n t e r n a t i o n a l Trade M i n i s t e r G e r a l d Regan t o l d t h e Commons t h a t Canada's "concern...has been conveyed t o t h e U.S. government... We s u p p o r t t h e r u l e o f law, and we b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r u l e of law s h o u l d a p p l y i n r e l a t i o n t o t h i s m a t t e r " . But Regan a d m i t t e d t h a t , w h i l e Canada co m p l a i n e d t o t h e U.S. about t h e v i o l e n c e a g a i n s t N i c a r a g u a i n g e n e r a l , t h e m i n i n g i t s e l f was not mentioned d u r i n g MacEachen's t a l k s w i t h S c h u l t z . * (51) * Trudeau s a i d t h a t Canada would not h e l p w i t h t h e removal of t h e mines because of a p r a c t i c e o f not s e n d i n g s h i p s i n t o dangerous a r e a s w i t h o u t a U n i t e d N a t i o n s mandate. (Canadian s h i p p i n g t o N i c a r a g u a was not s e r i o u s l y impeded.) (52) -25-n the 1 1 t h , Trudeau r e f u s e d t o condemn the U.S., c l a i m i n g t h a t he d i d not know who was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r " t h i s a c t of t e r r o r i s m . " S t i l l s t r i v i n g t o keep a " b a l a n c e d " approach, Trudeau went on t o say t h a t , " I f we can a s c e r t a i n t h a t t h e a c t s a r e coming s p e c i f i c a l l y from th e U.S. a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , we w i l l condemn them, as we have condemned the use o f arms i n t h e a r e a by t h e U.S. and Cuba." * (53) As was t y p i c a l i n h i s s t a t e m e n t s on N i c a r a g u a , Trudeau was u n a b le t o say a n y t h i n g n e g a t i v e about U.S. p o l i c y w i t h o u t making i t c l e a r t h a t he h e l d t h e U.S.S.R. and/or Cuba e q u a l l y c u l p a b l e . A nother example o c c u r e d when the Prime M i n i s t e r t o l d t h e House on May 7 t h a t C e n t r a l American problems " . . . a r e more of a s o c i o - e c o n o m i c n a t u r e and s h o u l d not be t u r n e d i n t o a ( n ) . . . i d e o l o g i c a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n between E a s t and West. That meant r e g r e t t i n g any m i l i t a r y p r e s e n c e , not o n l y from Washington but from Cuba i n t e r p o s i n g i t s e l f f o r t h e S o v i e t Union." (54) In a CBC i n t e r v i e w upon h i s r e t u r n , MacEachen s a i d t h a t Canada's d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h Washington "have become even c l e a r e r on t h i s m i n i n g q u e s t i o n " . T h i s emphatic p o s i t i o n was u n d e r l i n e d by t h e M i n i s t e r ' s p r a i s e o f the S a n d i n i s t a s : " I t h i n k t h a t we have t o acknowledge t h a t r e q u i r e d changes have t a k e n p l a c e i n N i c a r a g u a . . . t h a t improvements have t a k e n p l a c e . " (55) T h i s statement was t h e most p o s i t i v e remark t h a t any h i g h Canadian o f f i c i a l had made t o d a t e about th e S a n d i n i s t a s . MacEachen's words and a c t i o n s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e M i n i s t e r f e l t * On t h e p r e v i o u s day, t h e U.S. Senate o v e r w h e l m i n g l y condemned th e m i n i n g a f t e r c o n c l u d i n g t h a t i t was d i r e c t e d by t h e CIA. -26-h i m s e l f f o r c e d t o be more c a n d i d about Canadian d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h t h e U.S. ov e r N i c a r a g u a . The m i n i n g , a l o n g w i t h t h e r e c e n t U.S. i n v a s i o n o f Grenada, r a i s e d f e a r s t h a t t h e U.S. might i n c r e a s e i t s "gunboat d i p l o m a c y " towards N i c a r a g u a . One o f Canada's concerns was i t s dependence on U.S. s o u r c e s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n about N i c a r a g u a , and t h i s problem was an i m p o r t a n t r e a s o n f o r c o n s i d e r i n g t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a Canadian embassy i n Managua. When q u e s t i o n e d i n t h e House on A p r i l 16 by P a u l i n e J e w e t t about t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y , MacEachen responded t h a t Canadian p e r s o n n e l i n C o s t a R i c a were a t t e m p t i n g t o keep Ottawa i n t o u c h w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n i n N i c a r a g u a . MacEachen a d m i t t e d t h a t " i t would be b e t t e r i f we c o u l d e s t a b l i s h a f u l l - t i m e embassy i n Managua... However, t h a t d e c i s i o n w i l l have t o be t a k e n i n t h e l i g h t of b u d g e t a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and p r i o r i t i e s e l s e w h e r e . . . " (56) A sp o k e s p e r s o n f o r E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s c l a i m e d t h a t Canada's new ambassador t o C o s t a R i c a , F r a n c i s F i l l e u l , "spends a t l e a s t one week a month ( i n N i c a r a g u a , a n d ) . . . t h e Canadian government i s q u i t e i n f o r m e d . " (57) Only a few months e a r l i e r , however, a c c o r d i n g t o NDP MP Ian W a d d e l l , t h e Mexican Ambassador t o N i c a r a g u a s a i d t h a t he had not heard from t h e Canadian ambassador f o r a y e a r and a h a l f . (58) Canada's s u p p o r t f o r a n e g o t i a t e d s e t t l e m e n t i n C e n t r a l America prompted Canada t o send o b s e r v e r s t o t h e t h r e e Contadora w o r k i n g groups, w h i l e MacEachen d e n i e d a r e p o r t t h a t he was c o n s i d e r i n g t h e use of Canadian t r o o p s t o m o n i t o r any c e a s e f i r e . (59) Canada's i n c r e a s i n g w i l l i n g n e s s t o o p e n l y c h a l l e n g e t h e assumptions and m i l i t a r i s t i c a c t i o n s o f t h e U.S. -27-towards N i c a r a g u a was a l s o i l l u s t r a t e d a t a forum h e l d on A p r i l 30 a t t h e Woodrow W i l s o n C e n t r e i n Washington. L i b e r a l MP M a u r i c e Dupras was j o i n e d by Ambassador G o t l i e b and Claude C h a r l a n d , A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r ( E x t e r n a l ) , i n o u t l i n i n g Canada's d i s a g r e e m e n t s . W h i l e t h e s e remarks g e n e r a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d one of the c l e a r e s t p u b l i c b r e a k s y e t w i t h t h e Reagan a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , C h a r l a n d made a p o i n t o f s t a t i n g t h a t , " . . . I do not see t h a t our o b j e c t i v e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o N i c a r a g u a a r e so w i d e l y d i f f e r e n t . " (60) The t h r e e - d a y v i s i t o f Mexican P r e s i d e n t de l a M a d r i d t o Ottawa i n May was seen by some o b s e r v e r s as an i m p o r t a n t g e s t u r e a c k n o w l e d g i n g Canada's o p p o s i t i o n t o U.S. p o l i c y and Contadora's need f o r Canadian s u p p o r t . De l a M a d r i d e x p r e s s e d t h e need f o r t h e " c o l l a b o r a t i o n and j o i n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f Canada and Mexico i n s o l v i n g r e g i o n a l problems". He urged "a new d i a l o g u e " between N o r t h and C e n t r a l American c o u n t r i e s t o ensure peace. "Mexico and t h e Contadora group r e j e c t ( t h e i d e a ) t h a t t h e C e n t r a l American problem s h o u l d become a b a t t l e g r o u n d between t h e two g r e a t w o r l d powers. Canada has e x p r e s s e d t h e same o p i n i o n . I b e l i e v e t h a t Canada can be a v e r y i m p o r t a n t element i n w o r k i n g w i t h t h e Contadora group." (61) A j o i n t communique e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n o v e r "the i n c r e a s i n g t e n s i o n , t h e r e g i o n a l arms r a c e , d e s t a b i l i z i n g a c t i v i t i e s and t h e f o r e i g n m i l i t a r y p r e s e nce i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a " . (62) N e v e r t h e l e s s , n e i t h e r man b r o u g h t up the q u e s t i o n of c o o p e r a t i n g t o p r e s s u r e t h e U.S. t o withdraw i t s m i l i t a r y p r e s e n c e from C e n t r a l A m e r i c a , o r r e p o r t s t h a t "the U.S. a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s p l a n n i n g t o p r e s s u r e Canada and Mexico i n a - 2 8 -b i d t o get some s u p p o r t f o r i t s own approach i n L a t i n A m e r i c a " . (63) Prime M i n i s t e r Trudeau l e f t o f f i c e s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r . -29-c) Development A s s i s t a n c e The Canadian I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Agency was formed i n 1968. I t s immediate p r e d e c e s s o r was t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e Department of E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s i n 1960 from t h e Department of Trade and Commerce. I t s mandate i s t o o p e r a t e and a d m i n i s t e r Canada's o f f i c i a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l development a s s i s t a n c e program. Canada's L a t i n American a i d program commenced i n 1970, but l i t t l e a i d was p r o v i d e d t o Managua because of t h e c o r r u p t and o p p r e s s i v e n a t u r e o f Somoza's r u l e . A l t h o u g h i t r e c o g n i z e d the d i c t a t o r s h i p , "Canada d i d not s u p p o r t t h e regime". (64) T o t a l b i l a t e r a l a i d d i s b u r s e m e n t s t o N i c a r a g u a from 1971 t o 1980 were $3,740,000. (65) (No E x p o r t Development C o r p o r a t i o n l o a n s o r c r e d i t s were g i v e n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . ) An e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s p o l i c y o c c u r e d a f t e r a d e v a s t a t i n g e a r t h q uake s t r u c k N i c a r a g u a on 23 December 1972. Canada responded t o t h i s emergency w i t h a f o o d - a i d package wor t h o v e r $1 m i l l i o n , p l u s $2.5 m i l l i o n i n " g r a n t s and c o n c e s s i o n a r y l o a n s f o r t r u c k s , f i r e e n g i n e s , o t h e r heavy equipment, and p r e f a b r i c a t e d b u i l d i n g s f o r use as h o s p i t a l s . . . " S u b s e q u e n t l y , $90,000 was p r o v i d e d by CIDA t o t r a i n 400 a p p r e n t i c e c o n s t r u c t i o n w o r k e r s . (66) D i r e c t Canadian b i l a t e r a l a i d s u b s e q u e n t l y dropped o f f , so t h a t by f i s c a l y e a r 1976/77, f o r example, i t t o t a l e d j u s t $570,000. ( F i s c a l y e a r s b e g i n on A p r i l 1.) T h i s f i g u r e f e l l t o $400,000 the f o l l o w i n g y e a r , and no d i r e c t a i d a t a l l was g i v e n i n FY 78/79, as t h e d i c t a t o r s h i p i n c r e a s e d i t s r e p r e s s i o n i n t h e e f f o r t t o c r u s h t h e a n t i - S o m o z a r e b e l l i o n . CIDA d i d , however, c o n t r i b u t e $185,000 d u r i n g t h i s -30-p e r i o d under i t s " I n t e r n a t i o n a l Emergency R e l i e f " program t o h e l p t h e v i c t i m s of t h e c i v i l c o n f l i c t . (67) Even a f t e r d i p l o m a t i c r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e new S a n d i n i s t a government, r e c o n s t r u c t i o n a i d from Canada was slow i n coming. An u n o f f i c i a l group from N i c a r a g u a was t o l d t h a t a i d t o t h e war-ravaged c o u n t r y was s m a l l because of "budgetary r e s t r a i n t s . " (68) CIDA's a t t i t u d e t o the new l e a d e r s h i p i n N i c a r a g u a seems t o have been c a u t i o u s a t f i r s t . "The Canadian government t o d a t e [Oct. 31, 1979] has not made N i c a r a g u a a c o u n t r y of p r i o r i t y f o r b i l a t e r a l a i d , and most Canadian a s s i s t a n c e i n i t i a t i v e s have been t a k e n by non-governmental a s s o c i a t i o n s i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h community a g e n c i e s i n N i c a r a g u a i t s e l f " . (69) The f i r s t o f f i c i a l Canadian a s s i s t a n c e t o post-war N i c a r a g u a c o n s i s t e d o f $655,000 f o r a s t u d y o f f o o d s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y and $107,000 c h a n n e l l e d t h r o u g h the Red C r o s s . (70) I n June 1980 CIDA agreed t o p r o v i d e $250,000 i n m atching funds t o Canadian NGiQ's which were r a i s i n g money t o h e l p t h e N i c a r a g u a n L i t e r a c y Campaign. CIDA had o r i g i n a l l y b a l k e d a t t h e p l a n due t o i t s p e r c e p t i o n o f "Cuban i n f l u e n c e " and a " r a d i c a l c u r r i c u l u m " . " F o l l o w i n g l e t t e r s of c o n c e r n and v i s i t a t i o n s from many... Canadian o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l s , and upon r e c e i v i n g t h e r e p o r t of t h e A p r i l v i s i t by a team of f o u r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o YMCA", CIDA r e v e r s e d i t s p o l i c y and agreed t o p r o v i d e t h e f u n d s . (71) In t h i s p e r i o d (FY 1979/80), CIDA p r o v i d e d o n l y $200,000 i n d i r e c t a i d and about th e same f o r r e l i e f p r o j e c t s . (72) But w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f one f i s c a l y e a r , (1982/83, when no f o o d -31-a i d was g i v e n ) , Canadian a i d t o .Nicaragua showed a s t e a d y i n c r e a s e t h a t t o t a l e d o v e r $24 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s by FY 1983/84. These f i g u r e s i n c l u d e d i r e c t a i d , M i s s i o n A d m i n i s t e r e d Funds, NG|| c o n t r i b u t i o n s ( i n c l u d i n g m a tching CIDA g r a n t s ) , f o o d a i d , and f u n d i n g from th e I n d u s t r i a l C o o p e r a t i o n and I n s t i t u t i o n a l C o o p e r a t i o n programs. * (Appendix 2) The i n i t i a l low l e v e l o f a s s i s t a n c e from th e Trudeau government towards Managua i n v i t e d charges t h a t Ottawa was d e l i b e r a t e l y i g n o r i n g N i c a r a g u a ' s d e s p e r a t e need f o r a i d . In a r e p o r t p u b l i s h e d i n J u l y , Ambassador S i r r s d e n i e d t h a t Canada was b o y c o t t i n g t h e S a n d i n i s t a government. " I t h i n k what has happened i s no p o l i c y , r a t h e r t h a n any d e c i s i o n t o b o y c o t t . " S i r r s added, " N i c a r a g u a has never been d e s i g n a t e d as an a i d - r e c e i v i n g n a t i o n and t h a t d a t e s b a c k . . . t o t h e Somoza e r a , because of h i s d r e a d f u l human r i g h t s r e c o r d . " (73) A team of Canadian a i d e x p e r t s v i s i t e d N i c a r a g u a i n November 1980 and a g a i n e a r l y i n 1981 t o l o o k i n t o a t h r e e - t o - f i v e y e a r a i d package f o c u s i n g on f o r e s t r y and water problems. The team was i m p r e s s e d w i t h t h e N i c a r a g u a n s w i t h whom t h e y worked, and f e l t t h a t t h e N i c a r a g u a n government had l a r g e l y e l i m i n a t e d t h e p r e v i o u s l y endemic c o r r u p t i o n . Ambassador S i r r s , however, i n s i s t e d t h a t a i d would be c o n t i n g e n t upon N i c a r a g u a m a i n t a i n i n g a mixed economy, p o l i t i c a l p l u r a l i s m , and a p o l i c y o f n o n - i n t e r v e n t i o n . He * These f i g u r e s do not i n c l u d e m u l t i l a t e r a l a s s i s t a n c e p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h a g e n c i e s such as the I n t e r - A m e r i c a n Development Bank and t h e Red C r o s s . (75) -32-acknowleged t h a t Canada was "a l i t t l e slow" t o respond t o e v e n t s i n N i c a r a g u a and t h a t t h e embassy's r e s o u r c e s were a t t h e same l e v e l as i n 1979. The ambassador added, "There's always a payback ( f o r Canada) i n t r a d e . There's a h u m a n i t a r i a n element as w e l l . We need an e n l i g h t e n e d v i e w of development a i d . " (74) These c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , and t h e i n c r e a s i n g p r e s s u r e on t h e government by C a n a d i a n s , l e d j|ttawa t o r e c l a s s i f y N i c a r a g u a as a " p r o j e c t c o u n t r y " i n 1981, " a l t h o u g h i m p l e m e n t a t i o n has been slow due t o p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e w i t h i n E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s " . (76) But i t was Honduras which r e c e i v e d t h e h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y d e s i g n a t i o n as a "core c o u n t r y " . T h i s a c t i o n was d e c i d e d "not by p o l i t i c a l whim but by s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l s o f development", a c c o r d i n g t o CIDA. (77) " P r o j e c t c o u n t r y " s t a t u s opens the way f o r Canadian a s s i s t a n c e on a p r o j e c t - b y - p r o j e c t b a s i s , w h i l e a " c o r e " c o u n t r y i s e n t i t l e d t o "a c o n c e n t r a t e d program of development a s s i s t a n c e . . . o ver a m u l t i - y e a r p l a n n i n g p e r i o d . . . " (78) (Appendix 1) I n F e b r u a r y 1982 CIDA announced i t s i n t e n t i o n . a l m o s t t o t r i p l e t h e amount of Canadian a s s i s t a n c e t o C e n t r a l A m e r i c a . CIDA a l l o c a t e d $106 m i l l i o n f o r the r e g i o n o ver th e n e x t f i v e y e a r s , i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e $40 m i l l i o n spent i n t h e p r e v i o u s f i v e y e a r s , (and o n l y $20 m i l l i o n from 1972 - 1977). The government a s s e r t e d t h a t i t s d e c i s i o n was based on " i t s deep c o n c e r n f o r t h e c o n d i t i o n s of p o v e r t y and economic d i s l o c a t i o n i n C e n t r a l America which l i e beneath th e c u r r e n t i n s t a b i l i t y and t r a u m a t i c s o c i a l change t h e r e . " (79) The a c t u a l v a l u e o f t h i s i n c r e a s e , however, was v e r y l i t t l e once i n f l a t i o n and t h e -33-d e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e Canadian d o l l a r were c o n s i d e r e d . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h i s a i d package r e f l e c t e d Canadian p r i o r i t i e s f o r C e n t r a l A m e r i c a . Honduras, th e o n l y c o r e c o u n t r y i n t h e r e g i o n , was a l l o t e d t h e most a i d , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 40% o f t h e t o t a l . T h i s a s s i s t a n c e was a l l o c a t e d d e s p i t e t h e knowledge t h a t Honduras was s e r v i n g as a base f o r armed a t t a c k s on N i c a r a g u a by t h e e x - s o l d i e r s i n Somoza's hated N a t i o n a l Guard ( i n c l u d i n g thousands who had been pardoned by t h e S a n d i n i s t a government). Democratic C o s t a R i c a would be g i v e n 30%, w h i l e w a r - t o r n N i c a r a g u a would r e c e i v e o n l y 20%. (80) ( A i d t o b o t h Guatemala and E l S a l v a d o r had been t e r m i n a t e d because of l a r g e - s c a l e and s y s t e m a t i c human r i g h t s abuses, as w e l l as w i d e - s p r e a d c o r r u p t i o n . ) In June, MacGuigan announced t h a t t h e Canadian government was p r o v i d i n g N i c a r a g u a w i t h $4.5 m i l l i o n i n f o o d a i d . The 16,000 t o n s o f g r a i n was "a response t o N i c a r a g u a ' s c r i t i c a l f o o d s i t u a t i o n , " w hich i t s e l f was p a r t l y due t o the c a n c e l l a t i o n o f a $9.6 m i l l i o n U.S. l o a n i n F e b r u a r y . (81) S u b s e q u e n t l y , i n FY 1983/84, d i r e c t b i l a t e r a l a i d t o N i c a r a g u a topped $4 m i l l i o n (compared w i t h a q u a r t e r m i l l i o n the p r e v i o u s y e a r ) , w h i l e NGp funds more t h a n doubled t o over $3 m i l l i o n . (82) On 13 J a n u a r y 1984, t h e Canada approved a l o n g s t a n d i n g (3 y e a r s ) N i c a r a g u a n r e q u e s t f o r a $13.4 m i l l i o n l i n e o f c r e d i t f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l s u p p l i e s and equipment. T h i s a i d package was t h e l a r g e s t e v e r g i v e n t o N i c a r a g u a , but t h e funds were t i e d t o t h e s a l e o f Canadian goods such as f e r t i l i z e r s , f a r m equipment, and H o l s t e i n c a l v e s . A $5 m i l l i o n p l a n f o r p o t a b l e water -34-p r o j e c t was s t i l l s t a l l e d a t CIDA. The i n t e r e s t - f r e e l o a n was r e p a y a b l e i n 50 y e a r s a f t e r a 10-year g r a c e p e r i o d . (83) CIDA f i g u r e s (Appendix 3) can g i v e a f a l s e i m p r e s s i o n o f i t s a i d p r i o r i t i e s . C o n s i d e r i n g government-to-government ( b i l a t e r a l ) a i d from FY 80/81 t o FY 83/84, (a f u n c t i o n o f e x p l i c i t CIDA d e c i s i o n s ) , e v e r y o t h e r C e n t r a l American c o u n t r y e x c e p t Panama r e c e i v e d more d i r e c t a i d t h a n d i d N i c a r a g u a . " N i c a r a g u a ended up w i t h more CIDA d o l l a r s o n l y because Canadian N G 0 s c o n c e n t r a t e d p r o j e c t s t h e r e which i n t u r n r e c e i v e m a t ching funds from CIDA. I n f a c t , d i r e c t CIDA b i l a t e r a l a i d was l e s s t h a n h a l f t h e CIDA a i d p a s s i n g t h r o u g h Canadian non-governmantal a g e n c i e s . " (84) (Funding r a t i o s can be as h i g h as 3:1.) W h i l e t h e low l e v e l o f a i d given d u r i n g t h e Somoza e r a was r e p l a c e d by an uneven but s i g n i f i c a n t growth, t h e s m a l l amount of d i r e c t , b i l a t e r a l a i d f o r N i c a r a g u a (compared t o o t h e r C e n t r a l American n a t i o n s ) , i s a r e v e a l i n g i n d i c a t i o n o f Canadian p o l i c i e s . (85) T a b l e IV. T o t a l Canadian B i - l a t e r a l A i d t o C e n t r a l America 1980/81-83/84 ($ m i l l i o n s ) EL SALVADOR Co^ra 'RICA GUATEMALA 'PANAMA II. £5" 7.<?7 ¥ . 2 1 o i Source: C e n t r a l America Update J u l y / A u g . 1984. - 3 5 -I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h e CIDA w i l l c o n s i d e r h i g h e r l e v e l s o f a i d t o N i c a r a g u a when peace i s r e s t o r e d , i . e . i f and when the U n i t e d S t a t e s ceases i t s o v e r t h o s t i l i t y t o t h e S a n d i n i s t a government. I t i s n e c e s a r y t o c o n s i d e r t h e p a t t e r n o f d i s t r i b u t i o n o f Canadian a i d t o N i c a r a g u a i n t h e l i g h t o f the g r e a t e r l e v e l s o f c o r r u p t i o n and i n e f f i c i e n c y i n Honduras, w h i c h r e c e i v e s t h e l i o n ' s s h are o f a s s i s t a n c e . I n c o n t r a s t , " N i c a r a g u a has a good a b s o r b i n g c a p a c i t y " , an o f f i c i a l a t E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s n o t e d . "The NGOs a r e w e l l - o r g a n i z e d . C o r r u p t i o n , b r i b e r y , and t h e l i k e have a l l been wiped o u t . I t ' s a r e m a r k a b l e t h i n g i n t h e L a t i n American c o n t e x t . " (86) E c h o i n g t h i s judgement, a CIDA r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d e s c r i b e d t h e S a n d i n i s t a government as an "honest a d m i n i s t r a t i o n " . Asked i f CIDA had any problems w i t h t h e way N i c a r a g u a h a n d l e d Canadian a s s i s t a n c e , she r e l i e d , "None whatsoever." (87) She c o n f i r m e d t h a t t h e p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n N i c a r a g u a was a major f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g a i d l e v e l s . But s i n c e t h e U.S.-backed regime i n Honduras r e c e i v e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more a s s i s t a n c e t h a n N i c a r a g u a , th e q u e s t i o n o f what c o n s t i t u t e s an a c c e p t a b l e " p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n " f o r Canada i s u n c l e a r . T h i s p o l i c y seems t o c o n t r a d i c t t h e a s s e r t i o n s t h a t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f Canadian development a s s i s t a n c e i s not based on i d e o l o g i c a l grounds. F u r t h e r , CIDA admits t h a t "...Canada has not d e v e l o p e d a s i n g l e , a b s o l u t e n o r m a t i v e s t a n d a r d a g a i n s t which t o judge th e human r i g h t s b e h a v i o u r of o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . . . The approach has been t o t r y t o a s s i m i l a t e human r i g h t s c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n t o t h e b r o a d e r m a t r i x o f f o r e i g n p o l i c y . . . " (88) I t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t good r e l a t i o n s - 3 6 -w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a r e a key element of t h i s " m a t r i x " , and t h a t t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n may have p l a y e d a p a r t i n t h e d e c i s i o n t o g i v e so much a i d t o Honduras. Indeed, i t can be argued t h a t Canada's a i d p o l i c y r e f l e c t s U.S. p r i o r i t i e s i n t h e r e g i o n r a t h e r t h a n a c o n c e r n f o r t h e l o n g - t e r m development of C e n t r a l A m e r i c a , s i n c e N i c a r a g u a has demonstrated t h a t i t uses i t s a i d more e f f i c i e n t l y . W h i l e th e a l l o t m e n t o f any a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e S a n d i n i s t a government would not p l e a s e t h e U.S., t h e o v e r a l l p a t t e r n o f Canadian a i d t o t h e two c o u n t r i e s was not u n a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e Reagan a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . However, Canada " l i n e d up w i t h a m a j o r i t y of member c o u n t r i e s i n t h e I n t e r - A m e r i c a n Development Bank a g a i n s t moves by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o c u t o f f funds f o r N i c a r a g u a . . . " (89) and, as mentioned, has c o n s i s t e n t l y oppossed th e p o l i t i c i z a t i o n of t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l F i n a n c i a l I n s t i t u t i o n s . F i n a l l y , i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t , a l o n g w i t h p o l i t i c a l and h u m a n i t a r i a n m o t i v e s , commercial c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n Canada's O f f i c i a l Development A s s i s t a n c e (ODA) s t r a t e g y . O v e r a l l , 80% o f Ottawa's a i d i s " t i e d " t o t h e p urchase of Canadian goods, and CIDA c l a i m s t h a t t h e ODA programme has brought s u b s t a n t i a l r e t u r n s t o Canada, opened up new markets abroad, and s p u r r e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e . (90) G i v e n t h e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l p o t e n t i a l f o r t r a d e w i t h N i c a r a g u a as w e l l as t h e p r e f e r e n c e s of t h e Reagan a d m i n i s t a t i o n , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t Honduras was t h e r e c i p i e n t o f t h e l a r g e s t Canadian a i d package i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a . -37-Chapter 2 - Domestic A c t o r s a) Commercial R e l a t i o n s A l t h o u g h t r a d e w i t h C e n t r a l America i n t h e 1970s and e a r l y 1980s d i d not i n c r e a s e as a p r o p o r t i o n o f Canada's t o t a l t r a d e , t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f Canadian b u s i n e s s had been growing s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n a b s o l u t e terms. As noted above, Canadian i m p o r t s and e x p o r t s w i t h t h e r e g i o n grew about 200% between 1975 and 1979, and by an a d d i t i o n a l 34% i n 1980. Canadian i n v e s t m e n t i n C e n t r a l America topped $300 m i l l i o n by 1981. (1) By l a t e 1979, t h e Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r L a t i n America and t h e C a r i b b e a n had grown t o 215 c o r p o r a t e members, from 50 j u s t a decade e a r l i e r , an i n c r e a s e o f o v e r 400%. I n a s u b m i s s i o n t o t h e f e d e r a l government, CALA s t a t e d : "We m a i n t a i n c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h a l l n a t i o n s o f t h e r e g i o n , and i n t h e major c o u n t r i e s have s u p p o r t e d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s p e c i a l b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between th e b u s i n e s s communities of t h o s e c o u n t r i e s and our own." (2) Canadian i n v e s t m e n t and t r a d e w i t h N i c a r a g u a , which had never been v e r y h i g h , s u f f e r e d a s h a r p d e c r e a s e as t h e c i v i l war e n t e r e d i t s l a s t y e a r . At t h e t i m e o f t h e S a n d i n i s t a v i c t o r y , Canada's R o y a l Bank was N i c a r a g u a ' s t h i r d l a r g e s t p r i v a t e c r e d i t o r . "The R o y a l had l e n t o v er $42.8 m i l l i o n t o N i c a r a g u a . . . and h e l d about 15% t o 20% o f N i c a r a g u a ' s debt t o p r i v a t e f o r e i g n banks. (3) Three months a f t e r v i c t o r y , t h e S a n d i n i s t a s n a t i o n a l i z e d t h e Empresa M i n e r a E l S e t e n t r i o n , N i c a r a g u a ' s l a r g e s t g o l d and s i l v e r mine, and a s u b s i d i a r y of -38-Noranda. "In 1975 Noranda's p r o f i t s h are was $3.9 m i l l i o n . However, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e company, p r o f i t s r e c e i v e d i n the t h r e e y e a r s p r e c e e d i n g t h e t a k e - o v e r t o t a l e d o n l y $4.7 m i l l i o n . " (4) The r a t e o f pay under Somoza " f o r Noranda's N i c a r a g u a n workers [was] 56 c e n t s / h o u r , under w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s t h a t [ f o r m e r ] N i c a r a g u a n congressman E. M o l i n a [ c a l l e d ] 'subhuman - t h e w o r s t i n t h e c o u n t r y ' . " I n 1977 Noranda " c a l l e d i n t h e N a t i o n a l Guard t o end w o r k e r s ' p r o t e s t s f o r b e t t e r wages and w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s . The p r o t e s t l e a d e r s were j a i l e d and b e a t e n . " (Wages were t r i p l e d a f t e r n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n . ) (5) I n 1980, A r t u r o Cruz e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e t a k e o v e r was p a r t o f a p o l i c y o f g i v i n g N i c a r a g u a ownership of i t s own n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . But he a s s s u r e d w o r r i e d s t o c k h o l d e r s t h a t "we a r e not b a n d i t s . Our a u d i t o r s a r e now c o m p l e t i n g an a n a l y s i s o f t h e v a l u e o f t h e Noranda p r o p e r t i e s and t h e y w i l l be a d e q u a t e l y compensated." (6) As r e l a t i o n s between t h e U.S. and t h e S a n d i n i s t a s d e t e r i o r a t e d , new o p p o r t u n i t i e s opened up i n N i c a r a g u a f o r Canadians, and b o t h e x p o r t s and i m p o r t s i n c r e a s e d d r a m a t i c a l l y . (7) T a b l e V. C a n a d i a n - N i c a r a g u a n Trade 1979, 1980, 1984 (4f millions) (to Nicaragua) £/r\VOF>TS (fro* Nt'caraQvd) 19 8 V IF.) 11.5" HH.O Source: Murray, 1981/82; Vancouver Sun (24 May 1985 - 3 9 -The t r a d e b a l a n c e b e t w e e n t h e t w o c o u n t r i e s f a v o r e d N i c a r a g u a , p a r t l y b e c a u s e o f C a n a d i a n e f f o r t s t o i n c r e a s e t r a d e w i t h d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s a n d p a r t l y b e c a u s e o f N i c a r a g u a ' s d i f f i c u l t i e s i n o b t a i n i n g f i n a n c i n g . C a n a d a was a n x i o u s t o i m p r o v e t r a d e w i t h M a n a g u a , b u t N i c a r a g u a n a m b a s s a d o r P a s t o r V a l l e - G a r a y f e l t t h a t C a n a d i a n - N i c a r a g u a n t r a d e " h a s a l m o s t b e e n i g n o r e d " b y O t t a w a . He a d d e d , "We f e l t t h a t C a n a d a w o u l d be a b l e t o d e a l w i t h u s f a i r l y , t h a t p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g i e s w o u l d n o t make v e r y much d i f f e r e n c e , a s l o n g a s we a r e a b l e t o p a y " . A s t h e q u a n t i t y o f t r a d e i n c r e a s e d , s o d i d t h e v a r i e t y . C a n a d i a n i m p o r t s f r o m N i c a r a g u a i n c l u d e d s h r i m p , l o b s t e r , c o f f e e , a n d s e s a m e s e e d s , a s w e l l a s b a n a n a s a n d g o l d a l l o y s . " C a n a d a i s b e c o m i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t t o N i c a r a g u a a s a s u p p l i e r o f b a s i c c o n s u m e r g o o d s . . . s u c h a s p o w d e r e d m i l k , w h e a t , p h a r m a c e u t i c a l s , p a p e r , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n e q u i p m e n t a n d e l e c t r i c a l a p p l i a n c e s . " I r o n o r e , a i r c r a f t p a r t s , m a l t , a l u m i n u m , a n d c h e m i c a l s w e r e a l s o e x p o r t e d t o N i c a r a g u a . ( 8 ) S i n c e N i c a r a g u a ' s d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s f o c u s o n l o c a l i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , a n i m p o r t a n t p o t e n t i a l m a r k e t e x i s t s f o r " C a n a d i a n s u p p l i e r s o f m o t o r s , p u m p s , m e t a l w o r k i n g a n d f o o d p r o c e s s i n g e q u i p m e n t , a g r i c u l t u r a l t o o l s a n d i m p l e m e n t s a n d many o t h e r c a p i t a l g o o d s a n d t e c h n o l o g i e s s u i t a b l e t o s m a l l s c a l e i n d u s t r y . . . " C o m p a n i e s w h i c h d e a l t w i t h N i c a r a g u a i n c l u d e d I B M C a n a d a , C a n a d a P a c k e r s , R . A . C h i s h o l m , J o h n s - M a n v i l l e C a n a d a , S h e r r i t t M i n t , C o n n a u g h t L a b o r a t o r i e s , B r i s t o l - M e y e r s C a n a d a I n c . , S m i t h K l i n e & F r e n c h C a n a d a , W e s t i n g h o u s e C a n a d a , C a n r o n I n c . , N o r c a s t I n c . , a n d S c i n t r e x -40-L t d . , and o t h e r s . To encourage t r a d e , t h e f e d e r a l government o f f e r e d i m p o r t e r s and e x p o r t e r s a number of programs and s u b s i d i e s which t o t a l l e d o v e r $750,000 f o r N i c a r a g u a n p r o j e c t s d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1980/84 (out o f about $2.8 m i l l i o n f o r a l l of C e n t r a l A m e r i c a . But i n 1984, a number of Canadian b u s i n e s s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who had i n d i c a t e d an i n t e r e s t i n e x p o r t i n g t o N i c a r a g u a c i t e d t h e " d i f f i c u l t y o f o b t a i n i n g i n s u r a n c e from t h e E x p o r t Development C o r p o r a t i o n (EDC) f o r commercial e x p o r t c r e d i t s as a s e r i o u s o b s t a c l e t o i n c r e a s e d t r a d e . . . A t t h a t t i m e , a l l of C e n t r a l America...was ' o f f c o v e r ' f o r r e g u l a r EDC e x p o r t c r e d i t i n s u r a n c e . . . " (9) The f i g u r e s c i t e d above i n d i c a t e how economic r e l a t i o n s between Canada and N i c a r a g u a (and a l l o f C e n t r a l America) i n c r e a s e d . Moreover, f o r r e a s o n s of geography, r e s o u r c e s , and development needs, t h e r e was a g r e a t e r p o t e n t i a l f o r t r a d e and i n v e s t m e n t t h a t would have b e n e f i t e d b o t h c o u n t r i e s . The-p i c t u r e f o r t r a d e between Canada and N i c a r a g u a improved as U.S. h o s t i l i t y c l o s e d t r a d i t i o n a l markets i n t h a t c o u n t r y . S t i l l , t h e d i v e r s i o n o f N i c a r a g u a n r e s o u r c e s t o t h e C o n t r a war and t h e t h r e a t o f a U.S. i n v a s i o n s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d t h e a b i l i t y o f N i c a r a g u a t o buy o r s e l l t o Canada. An i m p o r t a n t d i s t i n c t i o n between p r o s p e c t s f o r t r a d e and f o r i n v e s t m e n t s h o u l d be noted h e r e . A l t h o u g h i n s t a b i l i t y hampers b o t h forms of commercial r e l a t i o n s , i t d e p r e s s e s i n v e s t m e n t t o a g r e a t e r degree s i n c e t h e r i s k f a c t o r i s i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y . Growing t r a d e w i t h N i c a r a g u a and t h e r e s t o f t h e r e g i o n c r e a t e d i n t e r e s t s w i t h i n t h e Canadian p r i v a t e s e c t o r t h a t f a v o r e d a p e a c e f u l r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e t u r m o i l t h e r e . However, - 4 1 -t h e dominant c o n c e r n of t h e b u s i n e s s e l i t e i n Canada remained good r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , c o r p o r a t i o n s which depended on "peace, o r d e r , and good government" i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l a rena as p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r t h e i r c o m m e r i c i a l a c t i v i t i e s r e c o g n i z e d t h e danger t o t r a d e and i n v e s t m e n t t h a t accompanied s t r i f e and u n r e s t . G i v e n t h e s e v a r i o u s c o n c e r n s , i t was t o be e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e " b u s i n e s s community" would not speak w i t h a s i n g l e v o i c e as t h e m i l i t a r i z a t i o n o f C e n t r a l America i n t e n s i f i e d . b) Non-Governmental O r g a n i z a t i o n s Canadian Non-Governmental O r g a n i z a t i o n s (NGOs) have p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t i n t h e e v o l u t i o n o f C a n a d i a n - N i c a r a g u a n r e l a t i o n s . But w i t h a few e x c e p t i o n s (such as t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h ) , NGOs had l i t t l e i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h N i c a r a g u a b e f o r e the 1979 S a n d i n i s t a r e v o l u t i o n . Perhaps th e most i m p o r t a n t r e a s o n f o r t h i s l a c k o f i n t e r e s t was t h e n a t u r e o f t h e Somoza d i c t a t o r s h i p : most NGOs was f e l t t h a t v e r y l i t t l e c o u l d be a c c o m p l i s h e d i n c o n d i t i o n s o f such c o r r u p t i o n and o p p r e s s i o n . The growing s t r e n g t h of t h e s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t Somoza i n t h e l a t e 1970s not o n l y f o c u s e d more a t t e n t i o n on N i c a r a g u a , but gave NGOs hope t h a t f u t u r e c o n d i t i o n s might prove f a v o r a b l e f o r development a s s i s t a n c e . The S a n d i n i s t a v i c t o r y s p a r k e d new e n t h u s i a s m among many NGOs, whi c h p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r d r a m a t i c s o c i a l change might p r e s e n t an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a t h o r o u g h - g o i n g a t t a c k on underdevelopment. T h i s response mushroomed t o the p o i n t t h a t , by 1984, one o b s e r v e r c o u l d r e p o r t , "Thousands of Canadians a r e showing t h e i r c o n c e r n . . . i n modest ways, and hundreds a r e r i s k i n g t h e i r s e c u r i t y , t h e i r incomes, and t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n s by g o i n g t o ( N i c a r a g u a ) . . . t o do e x h a u s t i n g work, t o w i t n e s s b o r d e r r a i d s and r e f u g e e camps, t o s e t up peace camps, and t o r e t u r n t o Canada i n o r d e r t o s p r e a d t h i s f i r s t - h a n d i n f o r m a t i o n . . . " (10) Labour Even b e f o r e Somoza's o u s t e r , t h e Canadian Labour Congress (CLC), r e p r e s e n t i n g two m i l l i o n t r a d e u n i o n i s t s , asked the - 4 3 -f e d e r a l government t o r e c o g n i z e t h e N i c a r a g u a n P r o v i s i o n a l Government of R e c o n s t r u c t i o n , s e v e r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e d i c t a t o r s h i p , p u b l i c l y speak out on human r i g h t s abuses, and i n c r e a s e h u m a n i t a r i a n a i d t o v i c t i m s o f t h e c i v i l war. As mentioned, t h e C l a r k government's response was l i m i t e d t o g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s d e p l o r i n g t h e s u f f e r i n g . Immediately f o l l o w i n g t h e S a n d i n i s t a t r i u m p h , a d e l e g a t i o n from t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n f e d e r a t i o n of F r e e Trade Unions (ICFTU), which i n c l u d e d t h e CLC's E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y , v i s i t e d N i c a r a g u a . They r e p o r t e d f i n d i n g N i c a r a g u a n s " s t a r v i n g , d e s t i t u t e , and e c o n o m i c a l l y r u i n e d . " In r e s p o n s e , t h e CLC l a u n c h e d a d r i v e t o r a i s e $500,000 i n r e l i e f f o r N i c a r a g u a . S h e l t e r s , baby f o o d , c l o t h i n g , and a m i l l i o n doses of v a c c i n e were among c o n t r i b u t i o n s c o l l e c t e d , w h i l e j|ttawa p r o v i d e d t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . (11) Unions i n Quebec h e l p e d by such a c t i o n s as t h e d o n a t i o n o f hundreds of thousands o f d o l l a r s towards t h e N i c a r a g u a n L i t e r a c y Campaign, which commenced i n F e b r u a r y 1980. I n A p r i l , a member of t h e CLC's I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s Committee s t a t e d t h a t "the CLC's s u p p o r t f o r a s m a l l t r a d e u n i o n c e n t r a l [CUS] t h a t has been d e n i e d o f f i c i a l b a c k i n g i n N i c a r a g u a would not p r e v e n t c o n t i n u e d s t r o n g s u p p o r t " . ( A l l CLC a i d had been c h a n n e l e d t h r o u g h CUS.) (12) Soon a f t e r w a r d , however, t h e CLC began t o back away from i t s s u p p o r t o f t h e S a n d i n i s t a s . The C o n g r e s s ' D i r e c t o r f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s , John H a r k e r , c o m p l a i n e d t h a t S a n d i n i s t a Commandante Tomas Borge "and h i s c l o s e s t a s s o c i a t e s a r e g a t h e r i n g power unto t h e m s e l v e s " a t t h e expense of more moderate i n t e r e s t s . " There was a l s o ^ c o n c e r n about the s t a u s o f CUS. Harker r e j e c t e d c a l l s from a n a t i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e r e p r e s e n t i n g 4 2 NGOs t h a t the CLC i n c r e a s e i t s s u p p o r t f o r N i c a r a g u a . (13) C o n t a c t w i t h developments i n N i c a r a g u a were m a i n t a i n e d i n s p i t e o f t h i s t r e n d i n the CLC h i e r a r c h y . B.C. t r a d e u n i o n i s t s , f o r example, t o u r e d N i c a r a g u a i n F e b r u a r y 1981 and met w i t h government o f f i c i a l s and u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . T h i s t r i p l e d t o t h e f i r s t " T o o l s f o r Peace" campaign i n September 1981, when the N i c a r a g u a n g r a i n c a r r i e r Monimbo l e f t Vancouver w i t h an e x t r a c a r g o o f 2,000 pounds of f i s h i n g gear and n e t s donated by members of t h e U n i t e d Fisherman and A l l i e d Workers Union. (14) The f i s h i n g gear s y m b o l i z e d l a b o u r ' s s h i f t back t o s t r o n g but not u n c r i t i c a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e S a n d i n i s t a s . Over t h e n e x t few y e a r s , many u n i o n s and l a b o u r c o u n c i l s deepened t h e i r s u p p o r t f o r t h e N i c a r a g u a n r e v o l u t i o n and demanded t h a t Canada t a k e c o n c r e t e a c t i o n t o oppose Washington's h o s t i l e p o l i c i e s . Labour groups c o n t i n u e d t o v i s i t N i c a r a g u a t o a p p r a i s e t h e s i t u a t i o n f o r t h e m s e l v e s . As i n t e r v e n t i o n by the U n i t e d S t a t e s grew, so d i d l a b o u r ' s c o n c e r n s . I n November 1983, CLC P r e s i d e n t Dennis McDermott i s s u e d h i s s t r o n g e s t d e n u n c i a t i o n y e t o f U.S. i n t e v e n t i o n i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a and d e c l a r e d Labour's s u p p o r t of t h e Contadora p r o c e s s . McDermott s a i d t h a t , "The Canadian Labour Congress i s . . . a p p a l l e d a t the p r e s e n t U.S. p o l i c y v i s - a - v i s N i c a r a g u a , which i s undoubtedly d e s i g n e d t o t u r n t h e c l o c k back on one o f t h e most p r o m i s i n g developments towards s o c i a l and economic j u s t i c e i n C e n t r a l American h i s t o r y . " (15) On December 7, James Donaldson o f t h e I r o n w o r k e r s i n T o r o n t o , a l o n g w i t h twenty l e a d e r s o f most major i n d u s t r i a l and -45-p u b l i c s e c t o r u n i o n s i n Canada made a s i m i l a r d e c l a r a t i o n . D e s p i t e p r e s s u r e s from the U.S. and c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y f o r c e s , t h e S a n d i n i s t a government's N a t i o n a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n Program has made g r e a t s t r i d e s i n e d u c a t i o n , h e a l t h c a r e , and a g r a r i a n r e f o r m . Based on t h e independent r e p o r t s o f many Canadian t r a d e u n i o n i s t s who have v i s i t e d N i c a r a g u a , we ar e c o n v i n c e d t h a t i t i s t h e w o r k i n g p e o p l e o f N i c a r a g u a who have b e n e f i t e d from the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n program. Through t h e i r own unique r e v o l u t i o n , t h e w o r k i n g p e o p l e o f N i c a r a g u a have g a i n e d a v o i c e i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e i r d e s t i n y t h r o u g h f r e e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t r a d e u n i o n s , i n t h e C o u n c i l o f S t a t e , and i n o t h e r d e m o c r a t i c and p o p u l a r l y s u p p o r t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The r e s o l u t i o n a l s o c a l l e d on t h e government t o " a c t i v e l y s u p p o r t t h e Contadora Peace I n i t i a t i v e . " S i g n i t o r i e s i n c l u d e d Jean-Claude P a r r o t ( p o s t a l w o r k e r s ) , J e f f Rose ( p u b l i c e m p l o y e s s ) , P i e r r e Samson ( p u b l i c s e r v i c e ) , Mike Rygus ( m a c h i n i s t s ) , C l i f f P i l k e y (OFL), R o b e r t White (UAW), and Dave P a t t e r s o n ( s t e e l w o r k e r s ) . (16) The t w i n p o l i c i e s o f p r o v i d i n g m a t e r i a l a s s i s t a n c e and demanding t h a t t h e Canadian government t a k e s t r o n g e r a c t i o n s i n defense o f N i c a r a g u a were r e i t e r a t e d a t the CLC annual c o n v e n t i o n i n M o n t r e a l i n mid-1984, which a l s o c a l l e d on Canada t o w i t h h o l d a i d t o c o u n t r i e s (such as Honduras) which s e r v e as bases f o r U.S. m i l i t a r y i n t e r v e n t i o n i n N i c a r a g u a . (17) C o n t i n u i n g s o l i d a r i t y w i t h N i c a r a g u a from l a b o u r i n Quebec was e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e N a t i o n a l Trade Unions (CSN) d o n a t i o n o f 45 to n s o f n e w s p r i n t t o N i c a r a g u a , r e p r e s e n t i n g "a growing sense by Quebec u n i o n i s t s o f t h e i r a f f i n i t y w i t h t h e s o c i a l change o c c u r i n g i n N i c a r a g u a . " (18) S e v e r a l a s p e c t s o f l a b o u r ' s p o s t u r e toward t h e S a n d i n i s t a r e v o l u t i o n s h o u l d be noted. The f i r s t c oncerns t h e depth of p r o - N i c a r a g u a n s e n t i m e n t , which was not c o n f i n e d t o the l a b o u r -46-h i e r a r c h y . Those l a b o u r l e a d e r s who s u p p o r t e d t h e S a n d i n i s t a s e n j o y e d w i d e s p r e a d s u p p o r t a t t h e g r a s s - r o o t s l e v e l . I n many c a s e s , o f which t h e "Tools f o r Peace" campaign (see below) i s t h e most d r a m a t i c , i n d i v i d u a l t r a d e u n i o n i s t s and t h e i r l o c a l s p l a y e d key r o l e s . Those l a b o u r l e a d e r s who b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e S a n d i n i s t a s were S o v i e t stooges who had b e t r a y e d t h e i r r e v o l u t i o n and were c o n s t r u c t i n g an a u t h o r i t a r i a n , M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t s t a t e , were a m i n o r i t y . The o t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n c o ncerns l a b o u r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e i n t e r n a l e v o l u t i o n o f N i c a r a g u a n s o c i e t y under S a n d i n i s t a l e a d e r s h i p . Some u n i o n i s t s argued t h a t t h e S a n d i n i s t a s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y L a t i n S t a l i n i s t s who smashed f r e e t r a d e u n i o n s , c e n s o r e d t h e p r e s s , and r e f u s e d t o t o l e r a t e p o l i t i c a l p l u r a l i s m . But t h e predominant i n t e r p r e t a t i o n found l i t t l e t o j u s t i f y the such a v i e w , and s t r e s s e d t h e hope t h a t N i c a r a g u a would be a l l o w e d t o f i n d i t s own p a t h t o a more humane and d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y . Labour's a t t i t u d e was summarized by John F r y e r , p r e s i d e n t of t h e N a t i o n a l Union of P r o v i n c i a l Government Employees, a f t e r r e t u r n i n g from N i c a r a g u a i n May 1984: To u n d e r s t a n d t h e N i c a r a g u a n s i t u a t i o n f a i r l y one must b a l a n c e t h e d i s q u i e t i n g t h i n g s one sees and h e a r s -such as p r e s s c e n s o r s h i p , t h e ban on p o l i t i c a l c a n v a s s i n g and t h e discouragement of independent t r a d e u n i o n i s m - a g a i n s t t h e f a c t t h a t t h e U.S.-backed a g g r e s s i o n i s i n v a r i a b l y c i t e d by a l l s i d e s t o be t h e s i n g l e major r o a d b l o c k s t a n d i n g i n the way o f making p r o g r e s s toward p l u r a l i s m . (19) The Canadian l a b o u r movement, as a whole, c o n t i n u e d t o champion the o v e r a l l t h r u s t o f t h e S a n d i n i s t a R e v o l u t i o n and t h e r i g h t o f N i c a r a g u a n s t o d e t e r m i n e f o r t hemselves th e t y p e of s o c i e t y i n which t h e y would l i v e . -47-Churches Canadian churches had l o n g been i n t h e f o r e f r o n t o f NGO a c t i v i t y r e g a r d i n g N i c a r a g u a . I n November 1978, c h u r c h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s accompanied F a t h e r E r n e s t o C a r d e n a l , N i c a r a g u a n poet and p r i e s t , d u r i n g t a l k s w i t h E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s o f f i c i a l s and members o f P a r l i a m e n t . A l s o i n November, a d e l e g a t i o n from t h e I n t e r - C h u r c h Committe on Human R i g h t s i n L a t i n America (ICCHRLA) p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e f i r s t o f a number o f v i s i t s t o N i c a r a g u a . I n June 1979, t h e A n g l i c a n , U n i t e d , and C a t h o l i c c h u r c h e s , among o t h e r s , urged the government t o v o t e a g a i n s t t h e $66 m i l l i o n IMF l o a n t o t h e Somoza regime and t o break d i p l o m a t i c r e l a t i o n s . They a l s o r e q u e s t e d t h a t F l o r a MacDonald, t h e n C o n s e r v a t i v e E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s m i n i s t e r , p r e s s the U n i t e d S t a t e s and the U n i t e d N a t i o n s t o condemn the d i c t a t o r s h i p , r e c o g n i z e t h e p r o v i s i o n a l government, and t e r m i n a t e a l l b i l a t e r a l agreements w i t h Somoza. (20) A f t e r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h e new government i n ' N i c a r a g u a , churches took t h e l e a d i n t r y i n g t o p r o c u r e government a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e d e v a s t a t e d c o u n t r y . John F o s t e r , U n i t e d Church o f f i c i a l and co-chairman of ICCHRLA, s a i d i n October 1979, t h a t Canada s h o u l d a t l e a s t match th e $20 m i l l i o n g i v e n t o N i c a r a g u a by t h e N e t h e r l a n d s . He s t r e s s e d t h a t NGOs can do l i t t l e compared t o t h e f e d e r a l government and urged Ottawa t o make the p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n t o h e l p N i c a r a g u a by making a i d a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h CIDA. (21) A d e l e g a t i o n r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e Canadian C o n f e r e n c e of C a t h o l i c B i s h o p s and t h e Canadian C o n f e r e n c e on Development and Peace v i s i t e d N i c a r a g u a from November 1-11 1980. They i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e -48-e v o l u t i o n o f N i c a r a g u a n s o c i e t y , government p o l i c i e s , f o r e i g n i n t e r f e r e n c e , and t h e r o l e o f c h u r c h e s , and t h e i r r e p o r t c a l l e d on Canada " t o i n c r e a s e i t s a i d and t r a d e w i t h t h e C e n t r a l American c o u n t r y and urged c o n t i n u e d s o l i d a r i t y w i t h N i c a r a g u a ' s p e o p l e from p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s and t h e Churches." (22) ICCHRLA o u t l i n e d t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f i t s member churches t o t h e P a r l i a m e n t a r y Sub-committee on L a t i n A m e r i c a i n 1981, d e c l a r i n g t h a t , "Canadian p o l i c y s h o u l d be geared toward a i d i n g t h e development of governments t h a t a r e more e q u i t a b l e and p a r t i c i p a t o r y , l e s s m i l i t a r i s t i c and r e p r e s s i v e . We f u r t h e r b e l i e v e t h a t Canadian p o l i c y m a k e r s must b u i l d l i n k s w i t h t h e p o p u l a r movements which a r e coming t o s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s and m a t u r i t y i n L a t i n A m e r i c a , and g i v e up t h e s h o r t - t e r m g a i n s which might d e r i v e from t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n of t h e p o l i c y o f b u s i n e s s as u s u a l w i t h m i l i t a r y d i c t a t o r s and o u t r i g h t a l l i a n c e w i t h some o l i g a r c h i e s . " (23) In October 1983, ICCHRLA p r e s e n t e d MacEachen w i t h a b r i e f c a l l i n g on 0:.ttawa t o " p l a y a f r e s h , independent and e n e r g e t i c r o l e i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a . " They asked how Canada c o u l d remain s i l e n t i n t h e f a c e o f open U.S. and Honduran i n t e r v e n t i o n i n N i c a r a g u a . The c h u r c h l e a d e r s s a i d t h a t , " c l e a r , p u b l i c and s u s t a i n e d o p p o s i t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e v e r s e t h e s e a g g r e s s i v e i n i t i a t i v e s . " (24) Canadian churches made a s p e c i a l e f f o r t t o t e l l t h e p u b l i c t h a t , c o n t r a r y t o U.S. c l a i m s , freedom of r e l i g i o n was not t h r e a t e n e d i n N i c a r a g u a . Moreover, a c h u r c h o f f i c i a l who v i s i t e d N i c a r a g u a f o r t h e World C o u n c i l o f Churches s a i d t h a t h i s group's i m p r e s s i o n was t h a t most of t h e c l e r g y and l a i t y i n N i c a r a g u a s u p p o r t t h e S a n d i n i s t a s . (25) Church members p a r t i c i p a t e d i n v i g i l s , c o n d ucted e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , -49-p r o v i d e d m a t e r i a l s u p p o r t , and undertook a v a r i e t y of o t h e r s o l i d a r i t y e f f o r t s . One o f t h e most d r a m a t i c examples o f t h i s committment were th e v i s i t s made i n 1984 by s c o r e s o f Canadians, many of whom were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c h u r c h e s , t o N i c a r a g u a as "Witnesses f o r J u s t i c e and Peace" i n e a r l y 1984. The W i t n e s s e s went t o N i c a r a g u a t o work, t o see t h e S a n d i n i s t a R e v o l u t i o n , and t o " s t a n d a l o n g s i d e t h e N i c a r a g u a n s . " They p l a n n e d t o spend up t o a month i n a war zone, h o p i n g t o d e t e r a U.S. i n v a s i o n . (26) Upon r e t u r n i n g t o Canada, they, used t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e t o educate Canadians t h r o u g h s l i d e - s h o w s , t a l k s , and o t h e r p u b l i c e v e n t s . Many of t h e f a c t o r s which prompted o t h e r NGOs t o s u p p o r t t h e S a n d i n i s t a s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e promise o f development w i t h democracy, a t t r a c t e d c h u r ches as w e l l . The l a r g e number of p r i e s t s i n t h e N i c a r a g u a n government and t h e i m p o r t a n c e of r e l i g i o n i n t h e S a n d i n i s t a movement added t o t h e c h u r c h e s ' i n t e r e s t . Such c h u r c h a c t i v i s m i s r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t i n Canada, d a t i n g from t h e l a t e 1960s. B e f o r e t h a t t i m e , Canadian churches were g e n e r a l l y c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h t h e main t h r u s t o f Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y , and s o c i a l advocacy was not common. But new i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s s u e s , from Vietnam t o a p a r t h e i d t o underdevelopment, began t o g a l v a n i z e c h u r c h p e o p l e . The easy r e l a t i o n between c h u r c h and s t a t e i n Canada became s t r a i n e d . Developments i n e c c l e s i a s t i c a l c i r c l e s a l s o i n f l u e n c e d the c h u r c h e s . The appearance o f " l i b e r a t i o n t h e o l o g y " i n p a r t i c u l a r , w i t h i t s " p r e f e r e n t i a l o p t i o n f o r t h e p o o r " , had r e p e r c u s s i o n s beyond i t s C a t h o l i c o r i g i n s . O v e r a l l , i t was -50-" . . . t h e more g e n e r a l a c t i v i s m o f t h e c h u r c h i n the T h i r d World and i n t h e World C o u n c i l o f Churches t h a t had a p r o f o u n d impact on the way Canadian churches viewed i n t e r n a t i o n a l development and w o r l d p o l i t i c s . " (27) A i d and S o l i d a r i t y Groups The N i c a r a g u a n r e v o l u t i o n s e r v e d as a c a t a l y s t f o r the f o r m a t i o n o f many a i d and s o l i d a r i t y groups i n Canada. As e a r l y as August 1979, f o r example, Canadian A c t i o n f o r N i c a r a g u a (CAN) and M e d i c a l A i d t o N i c a r a g u a (MATN) were formed f o r t h e d u a l purposes of s u p p o r t i n g m e d i c a l p r o j e c t s i n N i c a r a g u a and l o b b y i n g t h e Canadian government t o i n c r e a s e a l l forms o f a i d . MATN s e n t t h e f i r s t Canadian m e d i c a l team t o post-war N i c a r a g u a i n J a n u a r y 1980, t o e s t a b l i s h a system of m o t h e r - a n d - c h i l d c a r e f a c i l i t i e s . (28) A l a r g e number of s u p p o r t groups s p r a n g up i n Quebec, such as t h e M o n t r e a l C o o r d i n a t i n g Committee f o r S o l i d a r i t y w i t h N i c a r a g u a , which opened an o f f i c e w i t h f u l l - t i m e s t a f f , funded by Quebec u n i o n s . With t h e S a n d i n i s t a v i c t o r y , t h e N i c a r a g u a n Human R i g h t s Committee i n Vancouver became th e C e n t r a l American Support Committee (CASC), whose p r i m a r y g o a l was t o a s s i s t w i t h r e c o n s t r u c t i o n e f f o r t s . CASC a l s o brought r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the FSLN on a s p e a k i n g t o u r , d i d p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n , and p u b l i s h e d t h e p e r i o d i c a l , "Centro America L i b r e " . ||ne of CASC's f i r s t e f f o r t s c o l l e c t e d $28,000 i n d o n a t i o n s f o r the L i t e r a c y Campaign from the B.C. Teacher's F e d e r a t i o n . M a t e r i a l a i d from Canadian NGp's i n 1980 was " w e l l o v er $1.5 m i l l i o n e x c l u s i v e of t h e v e r y s i z a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f v a r i o u s Canadian -51-l a b o u r c e n t r a l s . I n a d d i t i o n t o e x t e n s i v e s u p p o r t f o r (the) l i t e r a c y (campaign) coming from t h e c h u r c h e s , Oxfam, p r o v i n c i a l t e a c h e r s ' f e d e r a t i o n s , and t h e YWCA...Canadians a r e a s s i s t i n g a wide v a r i e y of s e l f - h e l p . . . " p r o j e c t s . (29) Oxfam-Canada was a n o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n whose i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h N i c a r a g u a began t o grow i n 1979. Oxfam e s t a b l i s h e d a c l i n i c i n a b a r r i o where none had e x i s t e d b e f o r e ; began a program t o t e a c h women a g r i c u l t u r a l w orkers about o c c u p a t i o n a l h e a l t h and s a f e t y ; and funded a c l o t h i n g / s e w i n g c o o p e r a t i v e and day c a r e c e n t r e s , as w e l l as p r o j e c t s t o h e l p s m a l l f a r mers i n c r e a s e p r o d u c t i o n . Oxfam s e l e c t e d C e n t r a l America as "the r e g i o n o f p r i n c i p a l emphasis", and d e s c r i b e d N i c a r a g u a i n p a r t i c u l a r as "a c o u n t r y whose p o l i c i e s and l e v e l o f p o p u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e v e r y f a v o r a b l e t o a development p r o c e s s which b e n e f i t s t h e p o p u l a t i o n a t l a r g e " . (30) Oxfam a l s o worked t o i n f o r m Canadians about N i c a r a g u a and l o b b i e d t h e government t o i n c r e a s e a i d and oppose U.S. i n t e r v e n t i o n . Canadian e n t e r t a i n e r s Bruce Cockburn and Nancy White d e l i v e r e d m e d i c a l s u p p l i e s t o N i c a r a g u a i n F e b r u a r y 1983 w h i l e on a t o u r s p o n s o red by Oxfam. Both have been outspoken s i n c e t h e i r r e t u r n and have w r i t t e n songs and a r t i c l e s about t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s . Only two weeks a f t e r i t s f i r s t shipment (see a b o v e ) , " T o o l s f o r Peace" s e n t a second one worth $70,000, t h a t was o r g a n i z e d by s e v e r a l NGOs and c o - o r d i n a t e d by CAN. Donations i n c l u d e d m e d i c a l s u p p l i e s , o f f i c e and p h o t o g r a p h i c equipment, c l o t h i n g , and more f i s h i n g g e a r . A Canadian who was i n t h e N i c a r a g u a n p o r t of C o r i n t o when t h e second s h i p a r r i v e d w r o t e : -52-L i g i a V i r g i l , o f t h e Augusto Cesar Sandino F o u n d a t i o n , w h i c h i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f o r e i g n a i d t o be c h a n n e l e d t o p o p u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n s . . . s a i d t h a t , a t t h e l e v e l o f NGOs and t h e p u b l i c , Canadians l e a d a l l o f t h e c i t i z e n s of th e A mericas i n t h e i r s u p p o r t o f N i c a r a g u a . j|n her l a s t v i s i t t o Canada, she was i m p r e s s e d by how w e l l - i n f o r m e d about, and i n t e r e s t e d i n N i c a r a g u a , t h e Canadian p u b l i c was... Spokesmen f o r t h e two l a r g e s t t r a d e u n i o n c e n t r a l s w h i c h w i l l r e c e i v e some of t h e s u p p l i e s , s a i d t h a t t h e s e p e o p l e - t o - p e o p l e d o n a t i o n s a r e i m p o r t a n t b o t h i n th e m a t e r i a l and i n t h e moral sense..." (31) " T o o l s f o r Peace" became an annual e f f o r t w hich demonstrated t h e depth o f p u b l i c c o n c e r n f o r N i c a r a g u a . CAN c o l l e c t e d about $125,000 worth o f a i d f o r N i c a r a g u a i n December 1982. Most of t h e a i d , which i n c l u d e d farm equipment, a new j e e p , f i s h i n g equipment, m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s , m e d i c a l s u p p l i e s , t o o l s , s p o r t i n g goods, t o y s , and s c h o o l s u p p l i e s , was c o l l e c t e d i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia, w i t h s u p p o r t coming from a number of t r a d e u n i o n s , i n c l u d i n g t h e B.C. Government Employees, Telecommunications Workers, and t h e P u l p , Paper, and Woodworkers of Canada. B u s i n e s s donors,, i n c l u d i n g CP T r a n s p o r t and B a r b e r - E l l i s , j o i n e d i n c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e d r i v e , which s u r p a s s e d i t s i n i t i a l g o a l . (32) The 1983 " T o o l s f o r Peace" campaign, now a n a t i o n - w i d e e f f o r t , c o l l e c t e d o v e r $1 m i l l i o n i n cash and m a t e r i a l a i d , more t h a n t h r e e t i m e s t h e amount of non-food a i d g i v e n by the Canadian government i n t h e p r e v i o u s t h r e e y e a r s combined. The l a r g e s t m a t e r i a l d o n a t i o n came from the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s (over $300,000), w h i l e B.C. added o v e r $100,000 w o r t h . (33) The 1984 t o t a l approached $2 m i l l i o n and was c h a n n e l e d t o h o s p i t a l s , s c h o o l s , d a y c a r e c e n t r e s , and o t h e r community s e r v i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . CAN a l s o conducted a "Music f o r N i c a r a g u a ! " d r i v e , t o s u p p l y equipment f o r the f l o u r i s h i n g i n d i g e n o u s music scene. C o r p o r a t e donors i n 1984 i n c l u d e d CP -53-R a i l and T i l d e n Rent-A-Car, w h i l e the C i t y o f Vancouver donated warehouse space. T h i s "Boat P r o j e c t " was o n l y one f o c u s i n a l a r g e r e f f o r t of s o l i d a r i t y w i t h t h e N i c a r a g u a n r e v o l u t i o n which went beyond r e l i e f a i d . T o o l s f o r Peace a l s o t r i e d t o r a i s e p u b l i c awareness about N i c a r a g u a , ( f o r example, b r i n g i n g former CIA a n a l y s t D a v i d MacMichael on a s p e a k i n g t o u r i n 1984). The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s o aimed " t o persuade th e Canadian government t o re-examine f o r e i g n p o l i c y towards N i c a r a g u a . T o o l s f o r Peace encourages th e government t o e s t a b l i s h a Canadian embassy i n N i c a r a g u a ; t o oppose U.S. m i l i t a r y i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t h e r e g i o n ; and t o s u p p o r t th e Contadora p r o p o s a l s f o r peace i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a . " (35) Sue M i t c h e l l , p r o j e c t c o - o r d i n a t o r , d e c l a r e d , " T h i s i s u l t i m a t e l y our most i m p o r t a n t work". (36) N o n - i n t e r v e n t i o n i n C e n t r a l America (NICA) began i t s work i n December 1983 w i t h an open l e t t e r p r i n t e d as a f u l l page ad i n t h e Globe & M a i l . The l e t t e r c a l l e d on Prime M i n i s t e r Trudeau t o t a k e s t e p s t o h e l p p r e v e n t t h e e s c a l a t i o n o f t h e c o n f l i c t i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a . A second ad was p u b l i s h e d on t h e eve of MacEachan's t r i p t o t h e r e g i o n and t h e q u e s t i o n s i t r a i s e d were used by t h e CBC t o q u i z t h e M i n i s t e r p r i o r t o h i s t r i p . (37) NICA a l s o commissioned a G a l l u p p o l l l a t e r t h a t y e a r which i n d i c a t e d t h a t Canadians opposed U.S. m i l i t a r i z a t i o n i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a by o ver 2 t o 1 (a f i n d i n g d e s c r i b e d by a G a l l u p r e p r e s e n t a t i v e as " v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t " ) . (38) S i n c e J u l y 1979 d e m o n s t r a t i o n s i n s u p p o r t of the S a n d i n i s t a s and a g a i n s t U.S. i n t e r v e n t i o n have o c c a s i o n a l l y t a k e n p l a c e i n Canada. I n one of the l a r g e s t , o v e r 15,000 p e o p l e marched on P a r l i a m e n t H i l l on 30 October 1982. (39) j|n 30 September 1983, c i v i l d i s o b e d i e n c e aimed a t Canadian s i l e n c e over Washington's p o l i c i e s took p l a c e a t DEA o f f i c e s i n Ottawa. F i f t e e n p e o p l e were a r r e s t e d w h i l e 50 o t h e r s s u p p o r t e d t h e p r o t e s t o r s . (40) S i x hundred p e o p l e t u r n e d up o u t s i d e o f t h e h o t e l i n Vancouver where Henry K i s s i n g e r was s p e a k i n g a t a $ 1 5 0 - a - p l a t e d i n n e r i n Vancouver i n F e b r u a r y 1984. They came t o r e g i s t e r t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e m i l i t a r i s t i c and a n t i - N i c a r a g u a n elements t h a t Nixon's former S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e recommended i n t h e r e p o r t o f t h e B i p a r t i s a n Committee on C e n t r a l A m e r i c a . Throughout t h i s p e r i o d , as n oted above, s e v e r a l thousand Canadians went t o see N i c a r a g u a f o r t h e m s e l v e s . I n a d d i t i o n t o c h u r c h t o u r s , a number of work b r i g a d e s were o r g a n i z e d t o h e l p w i t h such t h i n g s as p i c k i n g c o f f e e , b u i l d i n g a c a r p e n t e r y s c h o o l , and p r o v i d i n g m e d i c a l a s s i s t a n c e . Other Canadians p a i d $1300-1500 f o r t h e chance t o p i c k c o t t o n and show t h e i r s u p o r t f o r t h e N i c a r a g u a n r e v o l u t i o n . Up-to-date i n f o r m a t i o n and a n a l y s i s about developments c o n c e r n i n g N i c a r g u a was produced by r e s e a r c h groups such as t h e C a n a d a - C a r i b b e a n - C e n t r a l America P o l i c y A l t e r n a t i v e s (CAPA) and t h e L a t i n American Working Group (LAWG). A l t h o u g h b o t h of t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s had a w i d e r scope, much of t h e i r work s i n c e 1979 was s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o N i c a r a g u a . They a l s o c onducted s e m i n a r s , l o b b i e d government o f f i c i a l s , and c a r r i e d on r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s i n s u p p o r t o f t h e S a n d i n i s t a r e v o l u t i o n . (One r e s u l t o f t h e o r g a n i z i n g done by NGOs was a c o n f e r e n c e on 8 December 1984, when a p p r o x i m a t e l y 140 p e o p l e - 5 5 -met i n T o r o n t o t o l a u n c h an broad-based A n t i - I n t e r v e n t i o n C o a l i t i o n w hich f o c u s e d on t h e t h r e a t of d i r e c t m i l i t a r y i n v o l v e m e n t by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n N i c a r a g u a [and E l S a l v a d o r ] ) . (41) T h i s b r i e f summary om i t s f a r more th a n i t i n c l u d e s o f t h e h i s t o r y o f non-governmental a c t i v i t i e s i n s u p p o r t o f N i c a r a g u a . I t i s s a f e t o say t h a t t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e Candian p u b l i c ' s i n t e r e s t and i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e S a n d i n i s t a r e v o l u t i o n i s unprecedented. No o t h e r comparable T h i r d World i s s u e has been so s a l i e n t s i n c e t h e S p a n i s h C i v i l War. ( I n f a c t , b o t h i s s u e s i n v o l v e d s i m i l a r mixes o f p e r s o n a l , p o l i t i c a l , and h u m a n i t a r i a n elements.) N e i t h e r t h e Cuban nor C h i n e s e r e v o l u t i o n s , nor t h e B i a f r a n war, nor even t h e U.S. war a g a i n s t I n d o c h i n a aroused such e x t e n s i v e and l o n g - t e r m i n v o l v e m e n t by Canadians. The hopes ar o u s e d by t h e S a n d i n i s t a s , t h e h o s t i l i t y o f t h e Reagan a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h e r e l a t i v e a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f N i c a r a g u a , and the i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e ev e n t s f o r the f u t u r e o f development and peace a l l c o n t r i b u t e d t o c a t c h i n g t h e a t t e n t i o n o f Canadians. T h e i r work r e s u l t e d i n a i d p r o j e c t s f o r N i c a r a g u a whose t o t a l v a l u e as o f F e b r u a r y , 1984, was o v e r $80 m i l l i o n . (42) The en t h u s i a s m o f t h e s e Canadians was summed up by one a i d worker: " I t i s s m a l l wonder t h e n t h a t so many of Canada's v o l u n t a r y a i d a g e n c i e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s were e x c i t e d about t h e i r work i n N i c a r a g u a . T h i s i s i n d e e d , i n t h e t r u e s t sense of t h e word, a d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r y . Things happen. E s s e n t i a l needs r e c e i v e a t t e n t i o n . P e o p l e a re o r g a n i z e d f o r development." (43) T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e -56-NGOs, as e x p r e s s e d i n t h e f i n a l communique o f t h e " F i r s t I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e o f Non-Governmental O r g a n i z a t i o n " t h a t was h e l d i n Managua December 6-10, 1983. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of 100 NGOs ( i n c l u d i n g I n t e r p a r e s , CUSO, SUCO, Oxfam, Development and Peace, and CANSAVE) from 23 n a t i o n s d e c l a r e d : We m a i n t a i n t h a t N i c a r a g u a , d e s p i t e t h e l i m i t a t i o n s caused by t h e economic and m i l i t a r y b l o c k a d e , i s an a l t e r n a t i v e model f o r s o c i a l and economic development and t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e p e o p l e , which b e n e f i t s t h e m a j o r i t y and has s t a r t e d t o s o l v e t h e b a s i c problems of underdevelopment. (44) As f o r t h e S a n d i n i s t a s , t h e y f e l t t h a t t h e NGOs had p l a y e d two v e r y i m p o r t a n t r o l e s . "The f i r s t i s t o h e l p s m a l l community development p r o j e c t s , l i k e i n a g r i c u l t u r e and t h e l i t e r a c y campaign." The second f a c t o r has been i n c r e a s e d p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n i n Canada. "The NGOs have p l a y e d a key r o l e i n making t h e Canadian p u b l i c aware o f what i s g o i n g on i n N i c a r a g u a by o r g a n i z i n g t o u r s , ( i n f o u r y e a r s we have r e c e i v e d 1,000 o r 1,500 C a n a d i a n s ) , o r s e n d i n g m e d i c a l teams, o r e s t a b l i s h i n g . . . a v e r y s u c c e s s f u l 'Boat P r o j e c t ' . (45) (As no t e d , Canadians were more a c t i v e t h a n any o t h e r p e o p l e i n t h e Western Hemisphere.) T h i s l a s t element, t h e impact o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n on government a i d f o r Managua, was c r u c i a l , s i n c e NGOs o b v i o u s l y c o u l d n o t , by t h e m s e l v e s , make t h e N i c a r a g u a n economy s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t i n terms o f e x p o r t c r o p s o r a t t r a c t i n g f o r e i g n revenue o r c u r r e n c y . That i s why N i c a r a g u a a t t a c h e d g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e t o p u b l i c e f f o r t s t o p r e s s u r e Ottawa t o g r a n t generous b i l a t e r a l a i d . -57-c) P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s The New Democrats The New D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y had s u p p o r t e d t h e S a n d i n i s t a r e v o l u t i o n w h i l e Somoza was s t i l l i n power, and m a i n t a i n e d t h a t p o s i t i o n a f t e r w a r d s . A f t e r t h e FSLN v i c t o r y , t h e NDP c o n t i n u e d t o p r e s s t h e Canadian government i n t h e Commons t o do more f o r N i c a r a g u a , w h i l e h e l p i n g w i t h campaigns such as t h e L i t e r a c y Crusade and " T o o l s f o r Peace". Many NDPers v i s i t e d N i c a r a g u a . In 1982, f o r i n s t a n c e , a d e l e g a t i o n o r g a n i z e d by Dan Heap from h i s S padina NDP R i d i n g A s s o c i a t i o n spent two weeks i n N i c a r a g u a . Robert Ogle, MP f o r Saskatoon E a s t v i s i t e d N i c a r a g u a l a t e i n 1982 as p a r t o f a S o c i a l i s t I n t e r n a t i o n a l d e l e g a t i o n . Upon r e t u r n i n g , Ogle s a i d , "There must be some p r e s s u r e brought t o bear a g a i n s t Honduras by V e n e z u e l a , M e x i c o , Canada, and o t h e r c o u n t r i e s c h a l l e n g i n g . . . t h e i r r i g h t t o s u p p o r t Somocistas on t h e i r b o r d e r s . " (44) The p a r t y ' s p r o - S a n d i n i s t a p o l i c e s r e c e i v e d s t r o n g g r a s s - r o o t s s u p p o r t . For example, d e l e g a t e s a t t h e 1983 NDP n a t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n v o t e d unanimously t o send t h e f o l l o w i n g t e l e g r a m t o t h e N i c a r a g u a n government: The NDP, r e p r e s e n t i n g o v e r 100,000 Canadians, extends t h e warmest g r e e t i n g s t o t h e p e o p l e and government of N i c a r a g u a on t h e f o u r t h a n n i v e r s a r y o f t h e o v e r t h r o w o f t h e Somoza d i c t a t o r s h i p . The NDP i s committed t o s u p p o r t i n g your s t r u g g l e and k e e p i n g N i c a r a g u a d e m o c r a t i c and f r e e o f U.S. i n t e r v e n t i o n . We w h o l e h e a r t e d l y commend the achievements o f your p e o p l e and government s i n c e 1979. In h i s keynote a d d r e s s , Broadbent added h i s v o i c e , s t a t i n g -58-t h a t , "The c o u n t r y and t h e government d e s e r v e our t o t a l s u p p o r t . " (45) M.P. P a u l i n e J e w e t t , E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s C r i t i c , was one of th e most outspoken a d v o c a t e s o f Canadian s u p p o r t f o r N i c a r a g u a . She l e d t h e NDP d e l e g a t i o n t o t h e f o u r t h a n n i v e r s a r y c e l e b r a t i o n i n Managua and, upon her r e t u r n , denounced U.S. p o l i c i e s i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a w h i l e c r i t i c i z i n g t h e Canadian government f o r f a i l i n g t o e x e r c i s e i t s i n f l u e n c e t o b r i n g peace t o the r e g i o n . " I w i l l urge Prime M i n i s t e r Trudeau t o get i n t o u c h w i t h t h e Contadora group...so t h a t t h e government l e n d s i t s s u p p o r t o p e n l y and p u b l i c l y t o t h e i r e f f o r t s t o b r i n g peace". J e w e t t added t h a t , " I t i s c r u c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t f o r Canada t o d i s t a n c e i t s e l f from U.S. p o l i c y " . (46) She a l s o p r a i s e d t h e s i x - p o i n t peace p l a n put f o r w a r d on ( J u l y 19) by D a n i e l Ortega...as " r e f l e c t i v e and t h o u g h t f u l " . (As n o t e d , t h e government of Canada a l s o p r a i s e d t h i s p r o p o s a l . ) The NDP's c o n c e r n o v e r t h e l a c k o f a m e a n i n g f u l Canadian p r e s e n c e i n N i c a r a g u a was u n d e r l i n e d when word l e a k e d out t h a t Canada was c o u n t i n g on Washington t o guarantee t h e s a f e t y o f Canadians i n N i c a r a g u a i n t h e event o f a U.S. i n v a s i o n . J e w e t t was o u t r a g e d , s a y i n g , "The l a s t t h i n g ( t h e Canadians) need i s t o be used as a p r e t e x t f o r an A m e r i c a n - i n s p i r e d i n v a s i o n . . . " (47) Dan Heap l a i d out t h e s p e c i f i c s o f New Democratic p o l i c y on N i c a r a g u a when he c a l l e d on t h e Canadian government " t o e s t a b l i s h our independent p r e s e n c e i n N i c a r a g u a by s e n d i n g our S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s t o N i c a r a g u a t o d i s c u s s t h e i r r e c e n t p r o p o s a l s . . . and by opening an embassy i n Managua -59-t o p r o v i d e d i r e c t , independent day-to-day i n f o r m a t i o n . . . and by w o r k i n g c l o s e l y w i t h t h e Contadora group t o b l o c k U.S. p l a n s f o r war and t o i n c r e a s e economic a i d t o N i c a r a g u a " . (48) In 1984, Heap l e d a n o t h e r group of h i s c o n s t i t u e n t s t o N i c a r a g u a and, on J a n u a r y 14, met w i t h P r e s i d e n t o f t h e C o u n c i l o f S t a t e i n Managua. Upon h i s r e t u r n , Heap made a unique p r o p o s a l : t h a t the NDP send a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t o Managua i f the f e d e r a l government r e f u s e d t o s e t up a Canadian embassy t h e r e . " I t ' s i m p o r t a n t t o have much b e t t e r , more d i r e c t communication", he s a i d . (49) I n A p r i l , J e w e t t r e i t e r a t e d t h a t her p a r t y wanted t o e s t a b l i s h "our own Canada House, c o u r t e s y o f t h e NDP, i n Managua." She added t h a t t h e NDP had a f a v o r a b l e r e sponse from N i c a r a g u a n o f f i c i a l s , and t h a t t h e l e g a t i o n would be s t a f f e d by Canadians w i t h N i c a r a g u a n backgrounds. (50) Such a move would have been t h e f i r s t t i m e a Canadian p o l i t i c a l p a r t y i n v o l v e d i t s e l f d i r e c t l y i n the d i p l o m a t i c a f f a i r s o f a f o r e i g n government, but t h e e x p e r i m e n t was not c a r r i e d o u t . The NDP t o o k t h e l e a d i n denouncing th e m i n i n g of N i c a r a g u a n p o r t s by t h e CIA. Broadbent p r e s s e d t h e L i b e r a l government t o condemn t h e a c t i o n , c a l l i n g i t " l e g a l l y i n d e f e n s i b l e " . (51) Other New D e m o c r a t i c M.P.s p r e s s e d the i s s u e . J i m F u l t o n d e c l a r e d t h e m i n i n g "an a c t o f war which i s i n r e a l i t y no d i f f e r e n t from th e S o v i e t i n v a s i o n of A f g a n i s t a n " . (52) P r o v i n c i a l New Democrats a l s o v o i c e d t h e i r s u p p o r t f o r N i c a r a g u a . The l e a d e r o f t h e B r i t i s h Columbia NDP, Robert S k e l l y , s p e a k i n g a t a r a l l y o r g a n i z e d by t h e B.C. N i c a r a g u a S o l i d a r i t y Committee, d e c l a r e d , "We must change the o p i n i o n of - 6 0 -t h e f e d e r a l government and i t s a p p r o v a l o f t h e a t t i t u d e [ o f ] t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . . . " ( B e f o r e becoming p a r t y l e a d e r , S k e l l y spent 5 weeks i n N i c a r a g u a ) . (53) The C o n s e r v a t i v e s W h i l e P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e s have been the most h o s t i l e t o t h e S a n d i n i s t a s , one can d i s t i n g u i s h between the approach of Tory r i g h t - w i n g e r s and t h a t o f t h e moderates, i n c l u d i n g B r i a n Mulroney and Joe C l a r k . Sometimes the remarks o f r i g h t - w i n g T o r i e s came c l o s e t o c a r i c a t u r e , as when John Gamble, d u r i n g a Commons debate over t h e p o s s i b i l t y o f s e n d i n g o l d f i s h i n g b o a t s t o N i c a r a g u a , demanded a s s u r a n c e from MacGuigan t h a t t h e v e s s e l s would not "be used as gunboats f o r t h e purpose of s p r e a d i n g r e v o l u t i o n i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a " . (54) E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s c r i t i c S i n c l a i r S t e v e n s , who, l i k e Gamble, i s on t h e PC r i g h t - w i n g , r i d i c u l e d any t a l k o f a U.S. i n v a s i o n o f N i c a r a g u a as " S o c i a l i s t propaganda". (55) S t e v e n s ' v i e w s , l i k e t h o s e o f many of h i s c o l l e g u e s , g e n e r a l l y m i r r o r e d U.S. p o s i t i o n s . He a s s e r t e d i n March 1984 t h a t , "We i n t h e P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y s u p p o r t t h e e f f o r t s o f the Contadora Group..." b u t , l i k e t h e Reagan a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , he c l a i m e d t h a t "the S a n d i n i s t a s have b e t r a y e d t h e i r own r e v o l u t i o n . . . ( a n d ) moved t o m o n o p o l i z e p o l i t i c a l power, t o d e s t r o y freedom o f t h e p r e s s , and t o suppress t h e i ndependent l a b o u r movement...The m i l i t a r i z a t i o n i n Honduras p a l e s b e s i d e t h e m i l i t a r y b u i l d u p i n N i c a r a g u a . E m u l a t i n g t h e - 6 / -Cuban model, N i c a r a g u a has b u i l t t he l a r g e s t m i l i t a r y f o r c e i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a , f a r beyond any l e g i t i m a t e d e f e n s e needs..." (56) S t e v e n s ' i d e a s were not c o n f i n e d t o o f f e r i n g r h e t o r i c a l s u p p o r t f o r U.S. p o l i c y . When he accompanied Mulroney, t h e n l e a d e r o f t h e O p p o s i t i o n , t o Washington, Stevens d i s c u s s e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f Canada e s t a b l i s h i n g a s p e c i a l m i l i t a r y u n i t t o accompany t h e Americans on m i l i t a r y m i s s i o n s , such as t h e i n v a s i o n o f Grenada. (57) But, as new C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y l e a d e r , M u l r o n e y , a l t h o u g h w i l l i n g t o g i v e t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t h e " b e n e f i t o f t h e doubt", seemed t o p e r c e i v e t h e u n r e s t i n C e n t r a l America i n a s l i g h l y d i f f e r e n t l i g h t t h a n Washington d i d . He w r o t e : I b e l i e v e t h a t i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e p o l i t i c a l , economic, and s o c i a l autonomy of a l l C e n t r a l American c o u n t r i e s be r e s p e c t e d as t h e i r governments n e g o t i a t e r e s o l u t i o n s t o c i v i l and r e g i o n a l d i s p u t e s . I t has always been t h e P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y ' s p o l i c y t o encourage i n d i v i d u a l o r c o l l e c t i v e t h i r d - p a r t y m e d i a t i o n and t o d i s c o u r a g e t h i r d p a r t y i n t e r v e n t i o n . . . w e have commended t h e Contadora group... (58) The emphasis on n e g o t i a t i o n was n o t , of c o u r s e , a u n i q u e l y C o n s e r v a t i v e i d e a . Canada has always s t r o n g l y f a v o r e d d i a l o g u e o v er t h e use o f f o r c e i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l d i s p u t e s . L i k e w i s e , Canadians h i s t o r i c a l l y have been s u s p i c i o u s o f excuses f o r i n t e r v e n t i o n i s m . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f Mulroney's s t a t e m e n t was t h a t much o f h i s p a r t y would not a c c e p t t h e argument t h a t t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l Canadian a t t i t u d e was a p p r o p r i a t e i n t h e case o f U.S. i n t e r f e r e n c e i n t h e a f f a i r s of C e n t r a l A m e r i c a . But d u r i n g t h e 1984 e l e c t i o n campaign, Tory p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s on N i c a r a g u a tended t o r e f l e c t t h i s moderate view. One PC -62-e l e c t i o n document conceded t h a t , s i n c e "many o f t h e problems i n C e n t r a l America a r e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i n o r i g i n . . . Canada must t a k e a more a c t i v e r o l e t h r o u g h o f f i c i a l development a s s i s t a n c e . . . " The paper a d m i t s t h a t Canadian d i p l o m a t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n N i c a r a g u a i s "somewhat i n a d e q u a t e " and commits t h e p a r t y t o "a major f o r e i g n p o l i c y r e v i e w " which would i n c l u d e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f an i n c r e a s e i n "embassies, c o n s u l a t e s and s t a f f " i n i n t h e r e g i o n . (59) The L i b e r a l s L i k e t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s but u n l i k e t h e New Democrats, t h e g o v e r n i n g L i b e r a l s never a c h i e v e d a concensus on t h e b e s t way t o d e a l w i t h t h e S a n d i n i s t a s on t h e one hand and t h e U.S. on the o t h e r . A l t h o u g h i n d i v i d u a l L i b e r a l MPs g e n e r a l l y echoed government p o l i c y , a few were outspoken i n t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o elements o f Canada's p o s i t i o n . L i b e r a l MP Warren A l l m a n d , f o r i n s t a n c e , urged MacEachen t o "withdraw a l l f o r e i g n a i d t o Honduras u n t i l i t s t o p s p e r m i t t i n g t h e C o n t r a s t o use i t s t e r r i t o r y . . . " He a l s o asked t h a t "the M i n i s t e r make c l e a r t o Honduras and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t h a t Canada opposes... t h e f u n d i n g o f t h e s e C o n t r a t r o o p s which c o n s t i t u t e a v i o l a t i o n o f th e U n i t e d N a t i o n s C h a r t e r " . (60) In e a r l y 1984, MP M a u r i c e Dupras, a n o t h e r m a v e r i c k L i b e r a l , condemned U.S. a c t i o n s i n C e n t r a l America and accused the Reagan a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f "a l a c k o f s e n s i t i v i t y t o t h e w i l l of t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y of t h e p e o p l e " i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a . (61) In A p r i l , Dupras even c r i t i c i z e d h i s own government's t i m i d i t y -63-o v e r C e n t r a l A m e r i c a . S p e a k i n g a t a c o n f e r e n c e on "Canada, th e U n i t e d S t a t e s , and L a t i n A m e r i c a " , the former chairman o f t h e Commons subcommittee on r e l a t i o n s w i t h L a t i n A m e r i c a and t h e C a r i b b e a n s a i d t h a t Canada's r o l e s h o u l d be " t o put p r e s s u r e on t h e p r e s e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n Washington" t o d e m i l i t a r i z e C e n t r a l A merica. (62) There were r e p o r t s t h a t t h e s e remarks were encouraged by S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e MacEachen who, by t h i s t i m e , was growing i n c r e a s i n g l y a p p r e h e n s i v e about U.S. p o l i c i e s toward N i c a r a g u a . (63) As e v e n t s p r o g r e s s e d and MacEachen began p u b l i c l y t o d i s t a n c e Ottawa's p o l i c i e s from t h o s e o f t h e U.S., o t h e r L i b e r a l s were encouraged t o speak o u t . D u r i n g t h e 1984 L i b e r a l l e a d e r s h i p r a c e , even Mark MacGuigan was r e p o r t e d t o have " c a s t i g a t e d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s f o r i t s p o l i c i e s i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a . . . " (64) Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e s t a n d s o f Canada's t h r e e main p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s toward t h e S a n d i n i s t a s tended t o c o r r e s p o n d w i t h t h e i r p o s i t i o n on t h e p o l i t i c a l spectrum. The C o n s e r v a t i v e s were t h e most r e s e r v e d toward t h e new government i n Managua, w h i l e t h e New Democrats s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t e d N i c a r a g u a . L i b e r a l s were g e n e r a l l y a m b i v a l e n t , w i t h some elements s y m p a t h e t i c and o t h e r s s u s p i c i o u s . The L i b e r a l l e a d e r s h i p p a i d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e views r e g a r d i n g government, p o l i c y toward N i c a r a g u a , p a r t l y because t h e r e was not a s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s e p a r t i e s f o r most of t h i s p e r i o d , and p a r t l y because t h e T o r i e s never t o o k t h e i s s u e v e r y s e r i o u s l y i n P a r l i a m e n t . N i c a r a g u a was never a major i s s u e , e i t h e r i n P a r l i a m e n t o r w i t h t h e -64-e l e c t o r a t e . A t t a c k s on Trudeau's p o l i c y from t h e NDP were more c o n s i s t e n t and p r o b a b l y had a g r e a t e r e f f e c t . Towards t h e end . of i t s term, f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e L i b e r a l government's a t t i t u d e toward N i c a r a g u a drew c l o s e r t o t h a t o f t h e NDP i n terms of opening an embassy, i n c r e a s i n g a i d , and o p p o s i n g t o Washington's a c t i o n s . The NDP made more o f an i s s u e of N i c a r a g u a t h a n d i d t h e T o r i e s , and th e y had c r e d i b l e a l l i e s among c h u r c h e s , NGOs, and l a b o u r . Indeed, o n l y t h e NDP was s u f f i c i e n t l y c oncerned about N i c a r a g u a t o work w i t h non-governmental groups i n p r e s s i n g t h e government t o a l t e r i t s approach. N i c a r a g u a , l i k e most o t h e r f o r e i g n p o l i c y i s s u e s , p l a y e d no s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the C o n s e r v a t i v e e l e c t o r a l sweep o f September 1984. 4) The P r e s s I t i s beyond t h e scope o f t h i s work t o p r o v i d e a comprehensive a c c o u n t o f t h e media's t r e a t m e n t o f e i t h e r N i c a r a g u a o r Canadian p o l i c i e s towards t h e S a n d i n i s t a r e v o l u t i o n . T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l o f f e r an i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c s u r v e y of mainstream o p i n i o n as r e f l e c t e d i n t h e two most p o p u l a r n a t i o n a l p u b l i c a t i o n s , t h e Tor o n t o Globe & M a i l and Maclean's magazine, b o t h o f which g e n e r a l l y t a k e a m i d d l e - o f - t h e - r o a d approach, e d i t o r i a l l y and i n t h e i r news cov e r a g e . An u n s c i e n t i f i c sample o f o t h e r newspapers and magazines i s a l s o i n c l u d e d . There was e x t r e m e l y l i t t l e news o f N i c a r a g u a b e f o r e 1978, -65-when the f i n a l s t r u g g l e t o o v e r t h r o w Somoza began. R e f e r r i n g t o t h e a t t e n t i o n t h a t d e v e l o p e d i n 1978 and 1979, one a n a l y s i s a s s e r t e d t h a t , " . . . t h e Canadian media have not promoted t h e development o f a p r o g r e s s i v e p o l i t i c a l r o l e f o r Canada", and p o i n t e d t o a Globe & M a i l e d i t o r i a l w hich s u p p o r t e d t h e U.S. p r o p o s a l f o r an OAS "peacekeeping" f o r c e under de f a c t o U.S. c o n t r o l t o be s e n t t o N i c a r a g u a . (65) Other Globe e d i t o r i a l s c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l e d the s t a n d t a k e n by t h e f e d e r a l government. For i n s t a n c e , a l t h o u g h i t condemned th e most f l a g r a n t U.S. i n t e r v e n t i o n , such as t h e m i n i n g o f N i c a r a g u a n p o r t s , t h e Globe has g e n e r a l l y backed Washington's o v e r a l l aims i n N i c a r a g u a . An e d i t o r i a l p u b l i s h e d on J u l y 1983, f o r example, warned a g a i n s t t h e " M a r x i s t , a u t h o r i t a r i a n b e n t " o f the S a n d i n i s t a s . The e d i t o r i a l a l s o a c c e p t e d t h e Reagan a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s unproved charge t h a t arms were r e a c h i n g S a l v a d o r a n g u e r r i l l a s v i a N i c a r a g u a and Cuba. (66) L a t e r , t h e e d i t o r s c l a i m e d t h a t o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e S a n d i n i s t a s w i t h i n N i c a r a g u a d e v e l o p e d p r i m a r i l y because t h e S a n d i n i s t a s "abused" t h e i r power, a charge l e v e l e d by t h e U.S. and a c c e p t e d f o r a t i m e by t h e Canadian government. (67) Another e d i t o r i a l r i d i c u l e d what i t termed t h e " S a n d i n i s t a c h e e r i n g s e c t i o n i n Canada", (68) and d e c r i e d "the w i l l f u l b l i n d n e s s o f much of t h e Canadian L e f t " which does not c a r e about such a t r o c i t i e s as f o r c i n g "the s m a l l J e w i s h community i n t o e x i l e , " (69) (an event which never took p l a c e ) . But the Globe was g e n u i n e l y alarmed when Washington o r g a n i z e d t h e m i n i n g o f N i c a r a g u a n h a r b o u r s . The paper p o i n t e d out t h a t " N i c a r a g u a has shown no i n t e r e s t i n becoming a S o v i e t - 6 6 -beachhead"; r a t h e r , "the U.S. a p p l i e s m i l i t a r y p r e s s u r e t h a t d r i v e s t h e S a n d i n i s t a s i n t o t h e S o v i e t camp, t h e n c i t e s t h i s ' h e m i s p h e r i c s e c u r i t y t h r e a t ' as j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e i r o v e r t h r o w " . (70) The Globe's a t t i t u d e i s summed up i n t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s from an e d i t o r i a l i n May 1 9 8 4 : N i c a r a g u a i s a l r e a d y c o n t r o l l e d by a M a r x i s t - o r i e n t e d regime which has been heavy-handed toward M i s k i t o i n d i a n s , t h e C a t h o l i c Church, and o t h e r s e c t o r s o f N i c a r a g u a n s o c i e t y . But w h i l e U.S. h o s t i l i t y toward such t r e n d s i s j u s t i f i e d , t h a t does not make U.S. i n t e r v e n t i o n i n C e n t r a l America a sound p o l i c y , e i t h e r e t h i c a l l y o r s t r a t e g i c a l l y . . . ( b u t ) The U.S. cannot be i n d i f f e r e n t t o t h e s e c u r i t y t h r e a t t h a t would be posed by Communist s u b v e r s i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e hemisphere and by t h e mass exodus toward t h e U.S. of C e n t r a l Americans f l e e i n g Communist r u l e . " * (71) News coverage about N i c a r a g u a i n t h e Globe & M a i l was more v a r i e d . W h i l e some o f t h e Globe's c o l u m n i s t s agreed w i t h Washington's p o r t r a y a l o f N i c a r a g u a as a s i m p l e C o l d War i s s u e , o t h e r s , such as R i c h a r d J . Doyle and L a t i n American c o r r e s p o n d e n t Oakland Ross, demonstrated a more complex u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e f o r c e s a t work i n N i c a r a g u a . By and l a r g e , t h e s e w r i t e r s had a v i e w o f t h e S a n d i n i s t a s t h a t i s more i n a c c o r d w i t h Ottawa's p o s i t i o n t h a t the t r o u b l e s o f C e n t r a l A merica have more t o do w i t h i n d i g i n o u s f a c t o r s t h a n w i t h S o v i e t s u b v e r s i o n . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e Globe & M a i l , o t h e r d a i l y newspapers * The w r i t e r seems t o have been unaware t h a t the overwhelming m a j o r i t y o f C e n t r a l American r e f u g e e s were f l e e i n g from U.S. c l i e n t s t a t e s [ e . g . E l S a l v a d o r and G u a t e m a l a ] , w h i l e N i c a r a g u a a c t u a l l y e x p e r i e n c e d a net i n f l u x o f d i s p l a c e d p e r s o n s . -67-have t a k e n e d i t o r i a l p o s i t i o n s l e s s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h o s e o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The T o r o n t o S t a r r e g u l a r l y slammed Washington's i n t e r f e r e n c e i n N i c a r a g u a . When N i c a r a g u a ' s h a r b o u r s were b e i n g mined, th e S t a r e d i t o r i a l i z e d : W i t h East-West r e l a t i o n s a t t h e i r l o w e s t p o i n t i n 20 y e a r s , Canadians and everyone e l s e have an enormous s t a k e i n not s e e i n g t h e U.S. government i n d u l g e i n any i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e c k l e s s n e s s . . . Yet Washington i s i n c r e a s i n g l y p u r s u i n g j u s t t h a t c o u r s e , w i t h i t s . . . u n d e c l a r e d war a g a i n s t N i c a r a g u a . . . (72) The S t a r a l s o d e c l a r e d t h a t "the Canadian government s h o u l d p u b l i c l y l o b b y " i n f a v o r o f C o n t a d o r a . (73) W h i l e th e S t a r a c c e p t e d as f a c t t h e charge t h a t t h e r e was s i g n i f i c a n t " S o v i e t - b a c k e d . . . m i l i t a r y m e d d l i n g " i n C e n t r a l America ( 7 4 ) , i t n e v e r t h e l e s s d e c l a r e d t h a t , "No regime i n t h e a r e a poses a s e r i o u s t h r e a t t o U.S. i n t e r e s t s . (75) A number o f o t h e r major Canadian newspapers d i s a g r e e d w i t h U.S. p o l i c y . N i c a r a g u a ' s 1983 peace p r o p o s a l , a l o n g w i t h i d e a of e s t a b l i s h i n g a Canadian embassy i n Managua, were applauded i n a e d i t o r i a l i n t h e Ottawa C i t i z e n . (76) The M o n t r e a l G a z e t t e d e c l a r e d Reagan's p o l i c i e s i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a " s t u p i d " ( 7 7 ) , w h i l e t h e Vancouver Sun d e s c r i b e d Washington's i n v o l v e m e n t as "one of t h e s o r r i e r c h a p t e r s o f U.S. i n t e r v e n t i o n i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a " . (78) Wire s e r v i c e s t o r i e s were a s o u r c e o f a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of c o v e r a g e . Those from th e A s s o c i a t e d P r e s s and UPI g e n e r a l l y r e f l e c t e d a U.S. b i a s , w h i l e t h o s e from R e u t e r s were u s u a l l y more b a l a n c e d and had more d e p t h . To c i t e o n l y one example o f t h i s b i a s : i n F e b r u a r y 1984, when D a n i e l Ortega announced t h e date of N i c a r a g u a ' s f i r s t f r e e e l e c t i o n , he added t h a t -68-" C h r i s t i a n i t y and Marxism a r e p a r t o f S a n d i n i s t a democracy". The A s s o c i a t e d P r e s s s t o r y began w i t h the statement t h a t , " N i c a r a g u a ' s l e f t i s t l e a d e r s say t h e y w i l l not abandon Marxism r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e outcome of t h e p r e s i d e n t i a l and l e g i s l a t i v e e l e c t i o n s . . . " (79) As might be e x p e c t e d o f a we e k l y , Maclean's had t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r o v i d e more i n - d e p t h i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g N i c a r a g u a . A s t o r y i n e a r l y 1981 which d e s c r i b e d b o t h t h e t r i u m p h s and t h e h a r d s h i p s o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n s t a t e d t h a t t h e " s a c r i f i c e s a r e not g i v e n b e g r u d g i n g l y , but r a t h e r w i t h f i e r c e p r i d e . " A f t e r p o i n t i n g out t h e l a c k o f e v i d e n c e f o r some of Washington's a c c u s a t i o n s , the a r t i c l e c o n c l u d e d t h a t N i c a r a g u a n s " w i l l not g i v e up t h e independence t h e y won a t a c o s t o f an e s t i m a t e d 50,000 l i v e s . " (80) A l a t e r p i e c e about t h e s t r i f e i n C e n t r a l America d e t a i l e d b o t h Washington's a c c u s a t i o n s and t h e l a c k o f e v i d e n c e f o r t h o s e c h a r g e s . I t co v e r e d t h e o r i g i n of t h e C o n t r a s , t h e s o - c a l l e d K i s s i n g e r Commission, t h e Contadora t a l k s , and i n t e r n a l developments i n N i c a r a g u a (such as p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r n a t i o n a l e l e c t i o n s ) . (81) Maclean's a g a i n p r i n t e d a s u b s t a n t i a l account o f C e n t r a l A merica w i t h s p e c i a l emphasis on N i c a r a g u a i n August 1983. T h i s s t o r y c o n t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t e r r o r s , such as d e s c r i b i n g Commandante D a n i e l Ortega as " h a r d - l i n e , " when, i n f a c t , he r e p r e s e n t s a moderate element i n t h e S a n d i n i s t a l e a d e r s h i p . More s e r i o u s was the statement t h a t " e l e c t i o n s have been r e p e a t e d l y postponed". ( A c t u a l l y , t h e S a n d i n i s t a s k e p t t h e i r p r omise t o h o l d e l e t i o n s w i t h i n 5 y e a r s a f t e r t h e o u s t e r o f Somoza.) The a r t i c l e a l s o s t a t e d t h a t , " D e s p i t e t h e -69-S a n d i n i s t a s ' r e p u t a t i o n f o r M a r x i s t f a n a t i c i s m " , N i c a r a g u a has "been n o t a b l y f r e e o f i n t e r n e c i n e v i o l e n c e . . . i n marked c o n t r a s t t o i t s r i g h t i s t n e i g h b o u r s . . . " ( 8 2 ) An accompanying a r t i c l e d e s c r i b e d Canada's p o s i t i o n as "the m i d d l e p a t h " . The r e p o r t e r n o t e d , however, t h a t , w h i l e N i c a r a g u a was a l l o c a t e d $6.8 m i l l i o n i n a i d from 1980 t o 1983, "$58 m i l l i o n has gone t o t h e r i g h t i s t regimes i n Guatemala, E l S a l v a d o r , and Honduras o v e r th e same p e r i o d . " (83) I n December, Maclean's c l a i m e d t h a t t h e r e were "2,000 l e f t - w i n g r e b e l l e a d e r s [ s i c ] from n e i g h b o r i n g E l S a l v a d o r " i n Managua, a number which would r e p r e s e n t a s i z a b l e p e r c e n t a g e of t h e e n t i r e FMLN g u e r r i l l a f o r c e . (84) Maclean's p r o v i d e d d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n about th e m i n i n g of N i c a r a g u a n p o r t s i n t h e S p r i n g o f 1984 and p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e s e developments "took p l a c e a g a i n s t t h e background of Washington's s t e a d y m i l i t a r y b u i l d u p " i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a . But t h e a r t i c l e took a t f a c e v a l u e Washington's c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e U.S. "openly s u p p o r t s t h e slow-moving Contadora p r o c e s s " . (85) A s t o r y i n August 1984 about th e a p p r o a c h i n g N i c a r a g u a n e l e c t i o n was headed, "The o p p o s i t i o n c a l l s a b o y c o t t , " and i n c l u d e d a quote from an unnamed d i p l o m a t who r e f e r r e d t o "the a b s t e n t i o n o f t h e o p p o s i t i o n . . . " Nowhere was t h e r e any i n d i c a t i o n t h a t o n l y 4 of t h e 11 p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s were p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e b o y c o t t , o r t h e t i e s o f t h e s e n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h t h e C I A - d i r e c t e d c o n t r a s . (86) The impact of s m a l l - c i r c u l a t i o n magazines on Canadian o p i n i o n must not be o v e r l o o k e d . P u b l i c a t i o n s such as C e n t r a l  A merica Update, Canadian Dimension, Our Times, C e n t r o America -70-L i b r e , Our G e n e r a t i o n , and Canadian Forum s e r v e d as a l t e r n a t i v e s o u r c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n f o r many Canadians who s u p p o r t e d N i c a r a g u a n independence. These p e r i o d i c a l s a l s o p r o v i d e d a means o f communication bewteen i n t e r e s t e d elements o f t h e Canadian p u b l i c , p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , and f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e work of NGOs. Wh i l e t h e Canadian p r i n t media i n g e n e r a l appeared somewhat s k e p t i c a l o f U.S. i n t e n t i o n s toward N i c a r a g u a , t h e y u s u a l l y p r o v i d e d l i t t l e background i n f o r m a t i o n . Unproven U.S. pronouncements were o f t e n a c c e p t e d a t f a c e v a l u e and went u n c h a l l e n g e d , w h i l e t h e N i c a r a g u a n s i d e o f t h e argument o f t e n went unheard. S t i l l , t h o u g h t f u l p i e c e s d i d appear and i n t e r e s t i n N i c a r a g u a , as r e f l e c t e d by t h e number o f l e t t e r s - t o - t h e - e d i t o r , was not i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r s m a l l c o u n t r i e s . I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n t h e S a n d i n i s t a s has been h i g h e r t h a n t h a t shown f o r many o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y s m a l l T h i r d World n a t i o n s . The e x t e n t t o which t h i s i n t e r e s t a f f e c t e d t h e q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of media coverage o f N i c a r a g u a i s an unanswered b u t i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o gauge w i t h any c e r t a i n t y t h e impact of the p r i n t media i n Canada on p u b l i c o p i n i o n about N i c a r a g u a . One s t u d y o f t h e media i n g e n e r a l c o n c l u d e d t h a t , r e l a t i v e t o t e l e v i s i o n , newspapers "are used a t l e a s t e q u a l l y and perhaps more s e r i o u s l y f o r news." S i g n i f i c a n t l y , " a t t e n t i v e p u b l i c s a r e more l i k e l y i n f l u e n c e d by newspapers t h a n by t e l e v i s i o n o r r a d i o . " (87) To t h e e x t e n t t h a t i t i n f l u e n c e s p u b l i c p e r c e p t i o n and b e h a v i o u r , t h e media has an i n d i r e c t a f f e c t on - 7 1 -d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s . S t a i r s argues t h a t w h i l e t h e p r e s s has v e r y l i t t l e e f f e c t upon the s u b s t a n c e o f f o r e i g n p o l i c y per s e . . . i t e x e r t s a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t impact upon the...men who make i t . . . ( t h r o u g h ) coverage of e x t e r n a l e v e n t s t h e m s e l v e s , r e p o r t s o f p u b l i c debate on s p e c i f i c i s s u e s , and e d i t o r i a l o p i n i o n . ( 8 8 ) I f t h e s e f i n d i n g s a r e a c c u r a t e , t h e n i t i s p r o b a b l y s a f e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e g e n e r a l l y n e g a t i v e s t a n c e t a k e n by newspaper e d i t o r i a l i s t s a g a i n s t U.S. i n t e r v e n t i o n i n N i c a r a g u a h e l p e d t o r e i n f o r c e t h e p u b l i c ' s p r e - e x i s t i n g s k e p t i c i s m about t h e s e a c t i o n s . However, t h e r e l i a n c e on U.S. news s o u r c e s , a l o n g w i t h t h e u s u a l d e f i c i e n c i e s i n r e p o r t i n g f o r e i g n news i n Canada, p r o b a b l y r e s u l t e d i n a pro-Washington b i a s i n t h e news coverage i t s e l f , w h ich would r e f l e c t t h e agenda and d e f i n i t i o n s p r e f e r r e d by t h e Reagan regime. The mass media g e n e r a l l y based any o p p o s i t i o n t o U.S. p o l i c y l e s s on s u p p o r t f o r t h e S a n d i n i s t a s t h a n on a sense t h a t Washington was v i o l a t i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n and a g g r a v a t i n g the b l o o d s h e d i n t h e r e g i o n . T h i s tendency may have been the r e s u l t o f i g n o r a n c e about t h e r e a l i t i e s i n N i c a r a g u a , o r an i n a b i l i t y on t h e p a r t o f N o r t h Americans t o u n d e r s t a n d th e v a l u e s , t r a d i t i o n , and c i r c u m s t a n c e s of a s m a l l S p a n i s h - s p e a k i n g n a t i o n . T h i s a m b i v a l e n c e i n t h e p r i n t media r e f l e c t e d t h i s u n f a m i l i a r i t y , w h i c h i n t u r n p r o b a b l y d i l u t e d t h e media's e f f e c t s on t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c and on t h e Canadian government. But i t s o v e r a l l e f f e c t on t h e i n t e r e s t e d p u b l i c seems t o have been t o h e l p s t i r i n t e r e s t i n and sympathy f o r N i c a r a g u a , t h e r e b y i n c r e a s i n g p r e s s u r e on Ottawa w h i l e c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e e f f o r t s o f v a r i o u s non-governmental o r g a n i z a t i o n s . -72-Chapter 3 - I n t e r n a t i o n a l A c t o r s I n t r o d u c t i o n The a c t i o n s o f s e v e r a l c o u n t r i e s p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n i n f l u e n c i n g t h e n a t u r e o f Canada's r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e S a n d i n i s t a s . A l o n g w i t h developments i n N i c a r a g u a i t s e l f , t h e p o l i c y o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s was t h e most s a l i e n t f o r Ottawa. I t i s t h e r e f o r e i m p o r t a n t t o examine Canada's b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e s e two n a t i o n s . The a t t i t u d e s o f t h e Contadora c o u n t r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y Mexico and C o l o m b i a , and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , o f B r a z i l , were not i n s i g n i f i c a n t , and h e l p e d t o c o u n t e r t h a t o f t h e U.S. a) N i c a r a g u a Even b e f o r e t h e o u s t e r o f Somoza, the S a n d i n i s t a s l o o k e d t o Canada as a p r o m i s i n g s o u r c e o f f r i e n d s h i p and s u p p o r t , as demonstrated by F a t h e r C a r d e n a l ' s v i s i t . I n October 1979, an u n o f f i c i a l d e l e g a t i o n from N i c a r a g u a a r r i v e d i n ||ttawa t o t a l k w i t h Canadian o f f i c i a l s about debt r e l i e f and l o n g - t e r m development a i d . The two-week t o u r was a l s o d e s i g n e d t o i n f o r m Canadians about t h e s i t u a t i o n i n N i c a r a g u a . The d e l e g a t e s were d i s a p p o i n t e d i n t h e r e sponse of t h e C l a r k government. A s p o k e s p e r s o n f o r t h e group t o l d r e p o r t e r s t h a t he d i d not u n d e r s t a n d why Canada " c o u l d a s s i g n o n l y $200,000 i n a i d t o N i c a r a g u a . . . " (1) Over t h e n e x t few y e a r s , a number of N i c a r a g u a n s made e f f o r t s t o e x p l a i n t h e i r c o u n t r y ' s needs t o C anadians. In J u l y 1980, A. Cruz d i s c u s s e d some of t h e s p e c i f i c ways i n which Canada c o u l d h e l p N i c a r a g u a . "You s h o u l d open an embassy here and not r e l y on an ambassador who has t o l i v e i n C o s t a R i c a . We need d i r e c t i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h Canada, e s p e c i a l l y from your Canadian I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Agency (CIDA) and we u r g e n t l y need your h e l p i n c e r t a i n t e c h n i c a l a r e a s where you have a c h i e v e d w o r l d renown." Cruz s a i d h i s government was p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n w o r k i n g w i t h such i n d u s t r i e s as paper and f o r e s t r y companies, r a i l w a y o p e r a t i o n s , t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , and a g r i c u l t u r e . "We a r e t r u l y p l u r a l i s t i c h e r e . I t i s a mixed economy, something l i k e your own, t h a t we seek. We a r e honest p e o p l e i n t h e S a n d i n i s t a government and we w i l l c r e a t e , i f we a r e a l l o w e d , a s t a b l e c l i m a t e f o r f o r e i g n i n v e s t m e n t . Canada has a c r u c i a l r o l e t o p l a y i n i n f l u e n c i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f our development, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f i t can p r o v i d e t e c h n i c a l c o - o p e r a t i o n and c a p i t a l . I u n d e r s c o r e c a p i t a l because i t i s j o i n t v e n t u r e s t h a t we need most u r g e n t l y . " (2) N i c a r a g u a a l s o l o o k e d t o Canada f o r p o l i t i c a l s u p p o r t i n i t s s t u g g l e w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n March 1981, a h i g h o f f i c i a l i n t h e M i n i s t r y o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s i n Managua e x p l a i n e d t h a t , from a N i c a r a g u a n p e r s p e c t i v e , "Canada has c l o u t and i n f l u e n c e more t h a n any o t h e r c o u n t r y i n t h e A m e r i c a s " . The o f f i c i a l was h o p e f u l t h a t Canada and Mexico would c o o p e r a t e t o moderate U.S. h o s t i l i t y . (3) And a t a speech d e l i v e r e d t o t h e UN S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l on March 25, 1982, Commandante D a n i e l Ortega made a p o i n t o f p r a i s i n g Canada ( a l o n g w i t h Mexico and V enezuela) f o r p r o p o s i n g "a g l o b a l and -74-n o n - d i s c r i m i n a t o r y programme t o p e r m i t a j o i n t r e s p onse i n t h e economic f i e l d t h a t would h e l p a l l e v i a t e t h e s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t s stemming from economic i n j u s t i c e s . " Ortega c o n t r a s t e d t h i s a t t i t u d e towards the "North-South" d i a l o g u e w i t h t h a t o f Washington, which i g n o r e d t h e i n i t i a t i v e . (4) F o r e i g n M i n i s t e r M i g u e l D'Escoto's 3-day v i s i t t o Canada i n F e b r u a r y 1983, f o c u s e d on b i l a t e r a l p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s as w e l l as t r a d e and o t h e r economic r e l a t i o n s . "We a r e not here t o beg...we a r e here t o seek, t h r o u g h d i a l o g u e , mutual u n d e r s t a n d i n g so t h a t r e l a t i o n s between our two c o u n t r i e s deepen and s t r e n g t h e n , " he t o l d a p r e s s c o n f e r e n c e . F a t h e r D 'Escoto d e n i e d c h a r g e s t h a t t h e N i c a r a g u a n p a t h was u n d e m o c r a t i c and b r i e f e d MacEachen on t h e p r o f o u n d h i s t o r i c a l causes o f t h e S a n d i n i s t a r e v o l u t i o n and t h e r e a s o n s b e h i n d t h e h o s t i l e a t t i t u d e o f t h e U.S..." (5) A l t h o u g h he s t i l l h a r b o u r e d doubts about the n a t u r e o f S a n d i n i s t a d o m e s t i c p o l i c y , MacEachen s t r e s s e d t h e need f o r s t r o n g e r . C a n a d i a n - N i c a r a g u a n r e l a t i o n s , w hich he c h a r a c t e r i z e d as v e r y good. N i c a r a g u a n non-governmental groups l o o k e d t o t h e i r C anadian c o u n t e r p a r t s f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e i r t a s k of r e b u i l d i n g . F o r i n s t a n c e , a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e S a n d i n i s t a ' s t r a d e u n i o n , t h e CST, t o u r e d Canada i n e a r l y 1982. Her t r i p was an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e t h a t N i c a r a g u a p l a c e d on s u p p o r t from Canada's l a b o u r movement, which had been h e l p f u l i n t h e p a s t and which was p e r c e i v e d as a p o w e r f u l f r i e n d i n Canada. One chance t o cement C a n a d i a n - N i c a r a g u a n r e l a t i o n s was -75-l o s t when a v i s i t by FSLN Commandante Tomas Borge was postponed i n d e f i n i t e l y due t o s e c u r i t y problems. A d i p l o m a t i c s o u r c e r e p o r t e d t h a t Borge was a prime t a r g e t f o r t h o s e opposed t o t h e S a n d i n i s t a government and t h a t h i s l i f e would *be i n danger even i n Canada. "'The Canadian i n v i t a t i o n d a t e s back t o 1980. Tomas Borge has k e p t i n v e r y c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h Canadian groups. When he was d e n i e d a U.S. v i s a , t h e Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s jumped a t t h e chance, s a i d a n o t h e r d i p l o m a t i c s o u r c e . " (6) L a t e r t h a t y e a r , a d e l e g a t i o n o f N i c a r a g u a n a g r i c u l t u r a l o f f i c i a l s , l e d by the deputy m i n i s t e r o f a g r a r i a n r e f o r m , v i s i t e d Canada t o l e a r n about Canadian f a r m i n g methods. T h i s t r i p a g a i n " r e f l e c t e d a d e s i r e t o s t r e n g t h e n t i e s " w i t h Canada, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e M i n i s t e r . (7) Ottawa's a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e S a n d i n i s t a s as a l e g i t i m a t e government was w e l l - r e c e i v e d i n N i c a r a g u a . The independent newspaper E l Nuevo D i a r i o commented t h a t "the Canadian p o s t u r e towards N i c a r a g u a c o n t r a s t s w i t h t h a t o f i t s ponderous n e i g h b o u r t o t h e s o u t h . . . " (8) A f t e r Canada approved t h e a i d package o f F e b r u a r y 1984 t h e S a n d i n i s t a w e e k l y , B a r r i c a d a  I n t e r n a c i o n a l wrote t h a t , "The Canadian government and p e o p l e have extended a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of a i d t o N i c a r a g u a . . . " , c i t i n g t h e " l o n g - t e r m , i n t e r e s t - f r e e l o a n w o r t h US $13.4 m i l l i o n . " (9) Because t h e S a n d i n i s t a s b e l i e v e d t h a t U.S. economic l e v e r a g e o v e r Canada l i m i t e d Ottawa's o p t i o n s , t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e l i n e o f c r e d i t was seen by Managua as a s i g n i f i c a n t g e s t u r e . R e f e r r i n g t o U.S. economic and p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e o v e r Canadian p o l i c y , a c o u n s e l l o r a t t h e N i c a r a g u a n - 7 6 -embassy i n Ottawa, Jamie D a v i l a s a i d : "We know t h a t f o r Canada i t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t p o l i t i c a l l y , v e r y c o s t l y , t o have g i v e n a l i n e o f c r e d i t . . . ( a n d i t t o ok) an u n u s u a l l y l o n g t i m e . " Indeed, i t t o o k about 2 1/2 y e a r s , d e s p i t e t h e s m a l l s i z e of t h e l o a n . So t h e J u n t a o f N a t i o n a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n was " g r a t e f u l about Canada's s t e p f o r w a r d " , a l t h o u g h t h e d e l a y "doesn't show us an independent f o r e i g n p o l i c y " . (10) For Managua, a n o t h e r s i g n o f U.S. i n f l u e n c e was the Canadian promise of g r e a t e r a i d t o Honduras even though t h a t c o u n t r y was a base f o r A m e r i c a n - s u p p o r t e d C o n t r a a t t a c k s a g a i n s t N i c a r a g u a . "We f i n d i t h a r d t o u n d e r s t a n d why a c o u n t r y w h i c h i s b e i n g used by the USA t o a s s a s i n a t e N i c a r a g u a n s i s b e i n g h e l p e d by Canada." (11) D e s p i t e t h i s t y p e of problem, N i c a r a g u a a p p r e c i a t e d t h e i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t e x i s t e d between the U.S. and Canada. For i n s t a n c e , D a v i l a n o t e d h o p e f u l l y t h a t , "Canadians a r e not l e a v i n g t h e r e s t o f t h e hemisphere t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . . . t h e h o r i z o n f o r Canadians i s no l o n g e r t h e U.S. b o r d e r . " (12) And a t t h e end o f MacEachen's t a l k s i n Managua, Commandante Ortega s a i d t h a t , "The government of Canada has a c o n s t r u c t i v e a t t i t u d e towards C e n t r a l America which i s t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t from the p o l i c y of a g g r e s s i o n implemented by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . " (13) But t h e S a n d i n i s t a s needed more h e l p from Canada. D a v i l a e x p l a i n e d t h a t s u p p o r t f o r peace e f f o r t s as w e l l as economic and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e "are t h e two main a r e a s i n which we have e x p e c t a t i o n s from Canada". He p o i n t e d out t h a t N i c a r a g u a had i n v i t e d Canada t o j o i n t h e Contadora e f f o r t s t o b r i n g peace t o t h e r e g i o n . "We were v e r y -77-e n t h u s i a s t i c about t h e statement made by M i n i s t e r MacEachen i n F e b r u a r y (1984) t h a t he would send c o n s u l t a n t s t o t h e t h r e e committees o f t h e Contadora group and t h a t Canada sees ,a-nother s o l u t i o n f o r C e n t r a l America t h a n t h e m i l i t a n t p o i n t ,of v i e w t h a t , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i s t a k i n g a g a i n s t N i c a r a g u a . " (14) I n A p r i l 1984, N i c a r a g u a p r e s e n t e d a r e q u e s t f o r a t o t a l of $162 m i l l i o n i n Canadian a i d o v e r a f i v e y e a r p e r i o d (1984-89). The p r o j e c t s i n c l u d e d : 1) A Geothermal p r o j e c t ($11 M i l l i o n ) ; 2) C o o p e r a t i v e development ($8 m i l l i o n ) ; Vs* r 3) A new p o t a b l e water system ($11.7 m i l l i o n ) ; 4) Maintenance o f p r e s e n t water s e r v i c e ($5 m i l l i o n ) ; 5) The second s t a g e o f d a i r y p r o j e c t ($12 m i l l i o n ) ; and 6) I n c r e a s e d a g r o - e x p o r t c a p a b i l i t y and b a s i c g r a i n p r o d u c t i o n ($114.3 m i l l i o n ) . "Canada i s a v e r y r i c h c o u n t r y w i t h g r e a t knowledge i n m i n i n g , f o r e s t r y , i n d a i r y p r o d u c t s " , D a v i l a added, and N i c a r a g u a wanted h e l p t h r o u g h a l i n e o f c r e d i t and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e s e a r e a s . S i n c e 1980, N i c a r a g u a has made e f f o r t s t o e s t a b l i s h good r e l a t i o n s w i t h Canadian i n d u s t r i e s as a s o u r c e o f b a s i c equipment. A Canadian embassy i n Managua would be e s p e c i a l l y welcome, he s a i d . (15) The r e c o r d demonstrates t h a t N i c a r a g u a viewed Canada as a p o t e n t i a l l y i m p o r t a n t a l l y i n i t s s t r u g g l e f o r development. Canada p o s s e s s e d t h e n e c e s s a r y e x p e r t i s e and r e s o u r c e s t o be o f g r e a t b e n e f i t , and i s a w e a l t h y c o u n t r y , e s p e c i a l l y by C e n t r a l American s t a n d a r d s . But S a n d i n i s t a hopes were tempered by an - 7 8 -u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t C a n a d a was r e l u c t a n t t o a n t a g o n i z e t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The S a n d i n i s t a s a l s o h o p e d t h a t C a n a d a ( . a long w i t h o t h e r U . S . a l l i e s ) w o u l d t r y t o d i s c o u r a g e t h e U . S . f r o m c o n t i n u i n g i t s e c o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l , a n d m i l i t a r y a t a c k . s o n N i c a r a g u a . T h i s e f f o r t was c r i t i c a l i n N i c a r a g u a n r e l a t i o n s w i t h O t t a w a a s " t h e M e x i c a n p o s i t i o n a n d C a n a d a ' s p o s i t i o n may v e r y w e l l b e t h e l a r g e s t o b s t a c l e t o d i r e c t i n t e r v e n t i o n i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a b y t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . " ( 1 6 ) S a n d i n i s t a f o r e i g n p o l i c y h a s a t t e m p t e d t o e n l i s t t h e s u p p o r t o f o t h e r n a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g C a n a d a , i n b u i l d i n g a d i p l o m a t i c w a l l t o r a i s e t h e c o s t s o f W a s h i n g t o n ' s a c t i o n s . T h i s w a l l i s "made u p o f a n e t w o r k o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h W e s t e r n g o v e r n m e n t s , s o c i a l d e m o c r a t i c p a r t i e s , a n d t r a n s n a t i o n a l b o d i e s . . . " A c c o r d i n g t o o n e s e n i o r N i c a r a g u a n o f f i c i a l , " T h e U n i t e d S t a t e s h a s n o t i n v a d e d N i c a r a g u a . . . n o t b e c a u s e i t h a s n o t w a n t e d t o . I t i s b e c a u s e i t h a s n o t b e e n p o l i t i c a l l y e x p e d i e n t " . ( 1 7 ) C a n a d a ' s s l o w l y e v o l v i n g s k e p t i c i s m o v e r t h e U . S . p o l i c y t o w a r d s N i c a r a g u a was p r o b a b l y - o f some i m p o r t a n c e i n d e n y i n g W a s h i n g t o n t h a t c r u c i a l p o l i t c a l s u p p o r t , w h i l e t h e ( g r a d u a l ) i n c r e a s e i n C a n a d i a n a s s i s t a n c e was c e r t a i n l y w e l c o m e d b y N i c a r a g u a . B u t t h e S a n d i n i s t a s h o p e d t h a t C a n a d a w o u l d make a m o r e d e t e r m i n e d e f f o r t , b o t h e c o n o m i c a l l y a n d p o l i t i c a l l y , t o make p o s s i b l e t h e r e b u i l d i n g o f t h e i r c o u n t r y . b ) The U n i t e d S t a t e s The e l e m e n t s o f C a n a d i a n - U . S . r e l a t i o n s w h i c h a r e d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y r e l e v e n t t o N i c a r a g u a a r e l e g i o n a n d c o m p l e x . -79-Th e f o c u s o f t h i s s e c t i o n w i l l be t h e a c t i o n s and p e r c e p t i o n s o f b o t h c o u n t r i e s which s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e t o Canada's N i c a r a g u a n p o l i c y . A d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e e v o l u t i o n o f U.S. p o l i c i e s i s not d i r e c t l y r e l e v e n t t o t h i s work: i t w i l l be t r e a t e d as a g i v e n . More g e n e r a l f a c t o r s (e.g. Canada's i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n and o b j e c t i v e s ) w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . The U n i t e d S t a t e s n a t u r a l l y w i shed t o have t h e s u p p o r t o f i t s c l o s e s t a l l i e s on q u e s t i o n s t h a t i t deemed v i t a l . Because Canada d i d not f u l l y s u p p o r t U.S. p o l i c y toward N i c a r a g u a , Ottawa had t o c o n s i d e r Washington's r e a c t i o n when d e c i d i n g on i t s approach t o t h e S a n d i n i s t a s . Canada had t o weigh th e p o s s i b l e b e n e f i t s t h a t might a c c r u e i n o t h e r b i l a t e r a l m a t t e r s i f i t a c q u i e s c e d i n Washington's a c t i o n s , as w e l l as t h e p o t e n t i a l harm t o Canadian i n t e r e s t s i f t h e U.S. was "provoked" by t h e l a c k o f s u p p o r t . T h i s worry o v e r " l i n k a g e " was a form of a n t i c i p a t e d r e a c t i o n , s i n c e "poor Canada-United S t a t e s p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s do o f t e n s p i l l o v e r i n t o o t h e r a r e a s . . . " ( 1 8 ) , such as t r a d e , a c i d r a i n t a l k s , o r q u e s t i o n s of s o v e r e i g n t y i n t h e A r c t i c . Statements by t o p Canadian o f f i c i a l s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d i n d i c a t e d j u s t how i m p o r t a n t good r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e U.S. were t o o v e r a l l Canadian g o a l s . (19) H o s t i l i t y c o u l d r e s u l t i n a l a c k o f c o o p e r a t i o n by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s on b i l a t e r a l i s s u e s ( " l i n k a g e by o m i s s i o n " ) as w e l l as d i r e c t r e t a l i a t i o n . The problem was made more a c u t e by .the g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e i n t e n s i o n t h a t had d e v e l o p e d i n t h e " s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p " by the l a t e 1970s and e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e e a r l y 1980s. The e v e n t s of t h e f i r s t y e a r o f t h e Reagan -80-a d m i n i s t r a t i o n "demonstrated how t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s between Washington and Ottawa were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a c u t e s t r e s s i n whi c h . . . b o t h s i d e s r e a c t e d w i t h h y s t e r i a , p a n i c , and o t h e r i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t t h e y f e l t t h e i r v a l u e s were t h r e a t e n e d by what the o t h e r s i d e was d o i n g t o them". (20) A l t h o u g h i t i s h a r d t o g e t i n f o r m a t i o n about how t h e U.S. t r i e d t o i n f l u e n c e Canada o v e r N i c a r a g u a ( s i n c e b o t h governments would be d i s c o m f i t t e d i f i t s e x i s t e n c e was made p u b l i c ) , the l a c k o f " o v e r t p r e s s u r e " does not p r e c l u d e s u b t l e r methods. Canadian o f f i c i a l s knew t h a t Washington would be more i r r i t a t e d by open and f o r c e f u l d isagreement t h a n by a q u i e t , d i p l o m a t i c approach. T h i s was t h e predominant s t y l e o f t h e Canadian government when i t f i r s t became d i s e n c h a n t e d w i t h Reagan's a n t i - S a n d i n i s t a p o s t u r e , ( d a t i n g from e a r l y 1982 t o l a t e 1983). But i n c r e a s i n g U.S. s u p p o r t f o r t h e C o n t r a s , t h e m i n i n g of N i c a r a g u a n p o r t s , and t h e i n v a s i o n o f Grenada were among t h e a c t i o n s which i m p e l l e d Canada t o be more v o c a l o v e r i t s d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h Washington. An o f f i c i a l a t E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s conceded t h a t , as a consequence o f t h e Canadian s t a n d , Ottawa now e n j o y e d "more l i m i t e d a c c e s s t o t h e U.S. S t a t e Department. 0!ur views have been heard and f i l e d away." But he s t a t e d c a t a g o r i c a l l y t h a t , "There's no o v e r t p r e s s u r e f o r us t o toe a p a r t i c u l a r l i n e . What t h e y t r i e d t o do was t o pursuade us t h r o u g h argument t h a t t h e y ' r e r i g h t . " (21) . ;V. Fo r i t s p a r t , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h r o u g h i t s I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e a t i t s Ottawa embassy, m a i n t a i n e d t h a t "the U.S. government does not w i s h t o i n t e r f e r e i n p o l i c y m a t t e r s of an a l l i e d f o r e i g n government and would not go beyond t h i s f r i e n d l y -81-p e r s u a s i o n i n most cases (my e m p h a s i s ) . R e g a r d i n g the amount of i n f l u e n c e t h e U.S. has o v er Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y , " t h i s i s e n t i r e l y a m a t t e r of o p i n i o n . " (22) Other r e p o r t s , however, suggest a d i f f e r e n t s t o r y . X a b i e r G o r o s t i a g a , a s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t now w o r k i n g i n Managua, wrote t h a t i t was U.S. p r e s s u r e w h i c h caused Canada t o g i v e t h e b u l k of i t s C e n t r a l American a i d t o Honduras i n s t e a d o f N i c a r a g u a . (23) "Canada's a i d programme ( t o Honduras) can be seen as b u t t r e s s i n g U.S. aims." (24) Newspaper r e p o r t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t Washington was t r y i n g t o " i n f l u e n c e " Canada and Mexico t o f o l l o w i t s l i n e i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a . (25) One p u b l i c m a i n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h i s p r e s s u r e on Canada was t h e open l e t t e r from S c h u l t z t o MacEachen i n 1984, a s k i n g t h e l a t t e r t o add E l S a l v a d o r t o h i s C e n t r a l American i t i n e r a r y . T h i s move seems t o have been c a l c u l a t e d t o put MacEachen on t h e s p o t by f o r c i n g him t o demonstrate o p e n l y h i s government's p o s i t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o U.S. a c t i o n s i n t h e r e g i o n . By l a t e 1981, as t h e Reagan a d m i n i s t r a t i o n began t o i n c r e a s e i t s s u p p o r t th e C o n t r a s , "the p r e s s u r e from Washington f o r i t s Western a l l i e s t o t o e t h e l i n e on C e n t r a l America was i n t e n s e . " A European d i p l o m a t was quoted as s a y i n g t h a t , " I t i s a v e r y , v e r y d e l i c a t e i s s u e r i g h t now," w i t h governments t r y i n g t o "walk a t h i n l i n e between t h e i r committment t o s o c i a l j u s t i c e and t h e i r d e s i r e f o r a w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . " (26) P r e s s r e p o r t s from Mexico i n 1984 t o l d of t h e i n c r e a s i n g s u c c e s s of U.S. p r e s u r e on t h a t c o u n t r y . An o i l d e a l w i t h N i c a r a g u a was suspended, o s t e n s i b l y because the Managua had t r o u b l e p a y i n g i t s b i l l s . I n f a c t , Reagan s i g n e d a -82-document i n mid-May which o r d e r e d an i n c r e a s e i n p r e s s u r e on Mexico t o f o r c e i t t o reduce i t s "economic and d i p l o m a t i c s u p p o r t f o r t h e N i c a r a g u a n government." (27) On t h e o c c a s i o n o f Mexican P r e s i d e n t de l a M a d r i d ' s t r i p t o Ottawa t h a t same month, Canadian o f f i c i a l s a d m i t t e d t h a t Washington was " p l a n n i n g t o p r e s s u r e Canada and Mexico i n a b i d t o g e t some su p p o r t f o r i t s own approach t o L a t i n A m e r i c a . . . the i s s u e o f how t o d e a l w i t h the U . S . . . w i l l l i k e l y be d i s c u s s e d b e f o r e de l a M a d r i d l e a v e s Ottawa". (28) The s u c c e s s f u l e f f o r t t o f o r c e t h e F r e n c h t o c a n c e l a s m a l l ($16 m i l l i o n ) arms s a l e i n 1982 and t h e u n s u c c e s s f u l b i d t o g e t t h e EEC not t o i n c r e a s e "economic o r any p o l i t i c a l s u p p o r t f o r N i c a r a g u a " (29) i n 1984 suggest t h a t Canada t o o f a c e d some p r e s s u r e o ver i t s s t a n d on t h e S a n d i n i s t a s . One o v e r t way i n which th e U.S. attempted t o a f f e c t Canadian p o l i c y was t o p r e s e n t i t s case t o i n f l u e n t i a l C a n a dians. T h i s p r a c t i c e , o f c o u r s e , goes on a l l t h e t i m e , f o r m a l l y and i n f o r m a l l y . For i n s t a n c e , i n March 1983 , t h e U. S embassy c i r c u l a t e d i t s v e r s i o n o f peace t a l k s w i t h t h e S a n d i n i s t a s t o a number of prominent Canadians, i n c l u d i n g John Harker of t h e CLC and T e r r y M i l e s k i , a CBC j o u r n a l i s t . (30) I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on U.S. p r e s s u r e aimed a t Canada. So f a r , t h e r e i s no i n f o r m a t i o n about s p e c i f i c t h r e a t s t o Canada from th e U.S. on t h i s m a t t e r . But t h e r e a r e p r e c e d e n t s i n t h e h i s t o r y o f U.S.-Canadian r e l a t i o n s w hich seem analogous t o t h e d i s p u t e o ver N i c a r a g u a . Canada's response t o t h e Cuban r e v o l u t i o n seems t o p r o v i d e t h e c l o s e s t p a r a l l e l . As J o c e l y n Ghent w r o t e , "Canadians were more -83-f l e x i b l e and p r a g m a t i c i n d e a l i n g " w i t h t h e C a s t r o government t h a n was t h e U.S. (31) S e v e r a l f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n Ottawa's a t t i t u d e t o Cuba a r e r e l e v e n t t o t h e case of N i c a r a g u a : Canada's dependence on f o r e i g n t r a d e made i t r e l u c t a n t t o use economic s a n c t i o n s ; c o n c e r n t h a t p r e s s u r e would f o r c e Havana i n t o a c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e S o v i e t Union; and t h e f e a r t h a t f u r t h e r U.S. i n t e r v e n t i o n "would s t i r up a h o r n e t ' s n e s t i n L a t i n America and t h e UN and not s e t t l e the problem i n t h e l o n g r u n . " (32) These i d e n t i c a l c o n cerns have been a r t i c u l a t e d by t h e Canadian government r e g a r d i n g U.S. a c t i o n s toward Managua. In t h e Cuban c a s e , Washington r e s e n t e d what i t c o n s i d e r e d Canada's l a c k o f c o o p e r a t i o n by c o n t i n u i n g ( n o n - s t r a t e g i c ) t r a d e , and making a p u b l i c o f f e r t o mediate between t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Cuba. (33) U.S. d i p l o m a t i c p r e s s u r e r e s u l t e d i n " s i l e n c i n g " E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s M i n i s t e r Howard Green's c r i t i c i s m s of Washington's Cuban p o l i c y , as w e l l as i n f o r c i n g a change of emphasis i n Canadian s t a t e m e n t s on t h e m a t t e r of "communist s u b v e r s i o n " i n the hemisphere. (34) A p o s s i b l e example of a n t i c i p a t e d r e a c t i o n was Prime M i n i s t e r D i e f e n b a k e r ' s hope t h a t g i v i n g more s u p p o r t t o t h e Kennedy a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s l i n e about Cuba would cause th e U.S. t o ease i t s p r e s s u r e on Canada t o a c c e p t n u c l e a r arms, a key i s s u e f o r D i e f e n b a k e r . (35) Canadian s u p p o r t f o r t h e a d m i s s i o n o f m a i n l a n d C h i n a t o t h e UN was a n o t h e r i n s t a n c e where f e a r o f U.S. r e t a l i a t o r y measures ( i n t h i s c a s e , r e g a r d i n g t h e Auto P a c t , and lumber and o i l e x p o r t s ) caused Ottawa t o p r o c e e d w i t h c a u t i o n . (36) More r e c e n t l y , i n t h e c o n t e x t o f C e n t r a l A m e r i c a and t h e Reagan regime, MacGuigan, who had condemned "the a t r o c i t i e s p e r p e t r a t e d by t h e j u n t a [ i n E l S a l v a d o r ] i n s u p p r e s s i n g t h e peasant r e v o l t . . . a p p a r e n t l y responded t o d i r e c t p r e s s u r e from A l e x a n d e r H a i g and gave t a c i t s u p p o r t " t o t h e m i l i t a r y government. (37) I t would be s u r p r i s i n g i f Canada, u n l i k e o t h e r n a t i o n s , had not been s u b j e c t e d t o s i m i l a r p r e s s u r e s over i t s d e a l i n g s w i t h N i c a r a g u a , a c o u n t r y which i s c o n s i d e r e d by U.S. s t r a t e g i c p l a n n e r s t o be t h e "hegemonic c o r e o f ( i t s ) n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y zone". (38) R o b e r t White, former U.S. Ambassador t o E l S a l v a d o r , went so f a r as t o say t h a t , "Canadian p o l i c y i n C e n t r a l America i s . . . u s u a l l y d i c t a t e d by t h e degree of p r e s s u r e imposed by R o n a l d Reagan's White House". (39) Ottawa's t r a d i t i o n a l d e f e r e n c e t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s over " s e c u r i t y " m a t t e r s i n C e n t r a l America was a f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e narrow l i m i t s w i t h i n which Canada would d i s s e n t from U.S. h o s t i l i t y t o the S a n d i n i s t a s . But improved b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h Washington (seen by Canada as a " s i n e qua non" f o r t h e achievment of Ottawa's o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e s ) , a l o n g w i t h g e n e r a l l y q u i e t d i p l o m a t i c p r e s s u r e from t h e U.S., seems t o have been a key f a c t o r i n r e s t r i c t i n g t h e r o l e t h a t Canada was a b l e t o p l a y r e g a r d i n g N i c a r a g u a . As we have seen, Canada has t r a d i t i o n a l l y tended t o i g n o r e e v e n t s s o u t h o f t h e R i o Grande i f t h e r e was a chance of a n g e r i n g U n c l e Sam. c) Other C o u n t r i e s E x c e p t i n g t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , Canada had more c o n t a c t w i t h -85-M e x i c o t h a n any o t h e r c o u n t r y r e g a r d i n g N i c a r a g u a . S e v e r a l f a c t o r s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s s i t u a t i o n . Both c o u n t r i e s s h are l o n g b o r d e r s w i t h t h e U.S. and a r e a f f e c t e d s t r o n g l y by Washington's p o l i c i e s . Both see t h e t u r m o i l i n C e n t r a l America as r o o t e d p r i m a r i l y i n d o m e s t i c s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t r u c t u r e s r a t h e r t h a n as an e x t e n s i o n o f an " e v i l empire". Moreover, Mexico i s a p o w e r f u l a c t o r i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a i n i t s own r i g h t . I t was o n l y n a t u r a l t h a t Canada and Mexico would l o o k t o each o t h e r f o r mutual s u p p o r t and c o o p e r a t i o n when i n p r o f o u n d d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e i r p o w e r f u l n e i g h b o u r . R e l a t i o n s between Mexico and Canada have g e n e r a l l y been q u i t e c o r d i a l . F o r i n s t a n c e , i n 1977, Mexico chose Canada as one o f t h e f i v e c o u n t r i e s w i t h which i t most wanted t o expand r e l a t i o n s , a development w h i c h would have i n c r e a s i n g i m p o r t a n c e t h r o u g h o u t the 1980s., and Canada r e c i p r o c a t e d t h e honor. J u s t as s i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h e two c o u n t r i e s share a s i m i l a r o u t l o o k on many T h i r d World i s s u e s . D u r i n g de l a M a d r i d ' s v i s i t t o Ottawa, f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e Mexican p r e s i d e n t s a i d t h a t he wanted t o "show t h e r e c o g n i t i o n Mexico g i v e s t o Canada and Prime M i n i s t e r P i e r r e Trudeau" f o r h i s " b a l a n c e d " p o s i t i o n on r e l a t i o n s between t h e d e v e l o p i n g and d e v e l o p e d w o r l d . (40) ( T h i s s e n t i m e n t was a l s o emphasized when when P r e s i d e n t Lopez P o r t i l l o came t o Canada -- see above). R e g a r d i n g C e n t r a l A m e r i c a , de l a M a d r i d and Trudeau "warned t h a t f o r e i g n i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t h e r e g i o n i s u n d e r m i n i n g M e x i c a n - l e d e f f o r t s t o f i n d p e a c e f u l s o l u t i o n s . " (41) The Mexican l e a d e r r e j e c t e d t h e "domino t h e o r y " as a p p l i e d t o C e n t r a l America and "seemed t o be a t t e m p t i n g t o e s t a b l i s h Canada and Mexico as n a t u r a l -86-a l l i e s . . . " R e f e r r i n g t o Canada's s u p p o r t f o r t h e Contadora group, de l a M a d r i d o f f e r e d , "The c o o p e r a t i o n of Canada i s a p o s i t i v e f a c t o r i n our e f f o r t s . " (42) But a l t h o u g h Canada had o f f e r e d t o p l a y a p e a c e k e e p i n g r o l e i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a once a d e m i l i t a r i z a t i o n agreement was r e a c h e d , Trudeau d i d not o f f e r any h e l p t o a c h i e v e such a b r e a k t h r o u g h , and de l a M a d r i d d i d not make such a r e q u e s t . Nor d i d t h e Mexican P r e s i d e n t ask Canada t o j o i n C o n t a d o r a . Canada and Mexico e s p e c i a l l y f e a r e d t h e e s c a l a t i o n o f m i l i t a r y a c t i v i t y i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a . At a d i n n e r w i t h Canada's b u s i n e s s and p o l i t i c a l e l i t e , de l a M a d r i d warned t h a t "the o u t b r e a k o f a g e n e r a l i z e d war i s b e g i n n i n g t o become a r e a l i t y " i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a . (43) Y e t , t h e two l e a d e r s d i d not d i s c u s s "any p o s s i b l e moves t o j o i n t l y p r e s s u r e Washington t o p u l l i t s m i l i t a r y f o r c e s out o f t h e r e g i o n " . They d i d agree t h a t i t would be a m i s t a k e t o i s o l a t e N i c a r a g u a e i t h e r e c o n o m i c a l l y o r p o l i t i c a l l y . (44) So, w h i l e Mexico remained a more a c t i v e d e f e n d e r of t h e S a n d i n i s t a r e v o l u t i o n t h a n Canada, the s p e c t r e o f U.S. power seemed t o temper t h e words and deeds of b o t h c o u n t r i e s . A nother Contadora c o u n t r y , C o l o m b i a , a l s o hoped f o r Canadian s u p p o r t f o r the peace e f f o r t . I n A p r i l 1984, Colombian F o r e i g n M i n i s t e r R o d e r i g o L l o r e d a welcomed MacEachen's statement t h a t Canada was p r e p a r e d t o t a k e a more a c t i v e p a r t i n t h e qu e s t f o r peace i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a . "Canada has a r o l e t o p l a y . I t i s a c o u n t r y t h a t i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d w e l l i n L a t i n A m e r i c a . I t has a good image and t r u s t . . . ( C a n a d a ) can h e l p o t h e r L a t i n American c o u n t r i e s l i k e - 8 7 -o u r s t o do a job f o r which o u t s i d e h e l p i s e s s e n t i a l . " (.45) Only t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , M e x i c o , Colombia, and V e n e z u e l a appear t o have had s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t a c t w i t h Ottawa r e g a r d i n g N i c a r a g u a . There i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t Canada has made an e f f o r t t o l i n e up w i t h o t h e r c o u n t r i e s which s h a r e d i t s m i s g i v i n g s o v e r U.S. a c t i o n s toward N i c a r a g u a , a l t h o u g h such e f f o r t s were recommended i n t h e r e p o r t o f t h e P a r l i a m e n t a r y Sub-committee on L a t i n A m erica. I n f a c t , Trudeau and de l a M a d r i d seem t o have gone out o f t h e i r way t o a v o i d j o i n t a c t i o n s t h a t might u p s e t t h e Reagan a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . S t i l l , many L a t i n Americans hoped t h a t Canada would p l a y a l a r g e r and more independent r o l e i n th e hemisphere. I n p r i v a t e , a Mexican o f f i c i a l c o m p l a i n e d t h a t , "Sometimes L a t i n A m e r i c a w i s h e s f o r more from Canada r e g a r d i n g t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . When ac c o u n t s a r e s e t t l e d , Canada i s always i n f a v o r o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . " (46) - 8 8 -Chapter 4 - A n a l y s i s I n t r o d u c t i o n Canadian c o n t a c t s w i t h N i c a r a g u a b e f o r e the S a n d i n i s t a R e v o l u t i o n were e x t r e m e l y l i m i t e d . "We i g n o r e d t h e s i t u a t i o n . . . I n f a c t , a l l o f C e n t r a l America was a b i t o f a w a s t e l a n d f o r Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y . " (1) Even w i t h t h e o v e r t h r o w o f Somoza, the immediate Canadian r e s p o n s e , a p a r t from th e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e l a b o u r movement, some p r i v a t e g r oups, and s e v e r a l c h u r c h e s , was m i n i m a l . The C l a r k government, whose " l i m i t a t i o n s were most e v i d e n t i n . . . f o r e i g n a f f a i r s " , t ended t o m i r r o r t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e C a r t e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , which was c o o l but not c o m p l e t e l y h o s t i l e t o t h e new Government of N a t i o n a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n Managua. (2) Canada welcomed the t h r e e b a s i c S a n d i n i s t a p r i n c i p l e s : n o n - i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t h e a f f a i r s o f o t h e r c o u n t r i e s ; t h e committment t o a mixed economy; and p r o m i s e s of p o l i t i c a l p l u r a l i s m . N i c a r a g u a ' need f o r a s s i s t a n c e was enormous. D u r i n g the c i v i l war, about 50,000 p e o p l e had been k i l l e d , 40,000 c h i l d r e n orphaned, and o n e - f i f t h o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n l e f t homeless. Somoza had d e l i b e r a t e l y bombed t h e i n d u s t r i a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e b e f o r e f l e e i n g , and s a d d l e d N i c a r a g u a w i t h a f o r e i g n debt o f US $1.5 b i l l i o n . "The c o u n t r y was l i t t l e more tha n a r u i n . " (3) But i n s p i t e of t h e enormous d e v a s t a t i o n wrought i n N i c a r a g u a , C l a r k government p r o v i d e d no d i r e c t b i l a t e r a l a i d . The r e t u r n of the L i b e r a l s under P i e r r e Trudeau d i d not -89-s i g n a l any immediate change of p o l i c y towards Managua. "The Canadian government, under b o t h th e L i b e r a l and C o n s e r v a t i v e m i n i s t r i e s , has been e x t r e m e l y slow i n r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e N i c a r a g u a n emergency". (4) Reagan's i n a u g u r a t i o n i n J a n u a r y 1981 brought t o power an a d m i n i s t r a t i o n d e t e r m i n e d t o " r o l l back" t h e S a n d i n i s t a r e v o l u t i o n . Canada's i n i t i a l r esponse was, i n t h e words of E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s M i n i s t e r Mark MacGuigan, " q u i e t a c q u i e s c e n c e " . (5) A l t h o u g h not c o m p l e t e l y u n s y m p a t h e t i c t o t h e S a n d i n i s t a s , Canada d i d not want t o put f o r t h a p o l i c y t h a t would anger th e U n i t e d S t a t e s . But MacGuigan a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t moves s h o u l d not be made whi c h would h e l p t o d r i v e t h e S a n d i n i s t a s i n t o a S o v i e t o r b i t . T h i s s t r a t e g y was m a n i f e s t e d by Ottawa's 1981 d e c i s i o n t o d e s i g n a t e N i c a r a g u a as a " p r o j e c t c o u n t r y " f o r development a s s i s t a n c e and i n t h e subsequent i n c r e a s e s i n development a s s i s t a n c e t o Managua. Canada, however, m a i n t a i n e d i t s p o l i c y o f g r a n t i n g h i g h e r l e v e l s o f a s s i s t a n c e t o Honduras, a c o u n t r y w i t h "no r e s p e c t f o r human r i g h t s " and which s u p p o r t e d t h e C o n t r a war a g a i n s t N i c a r a g u a . (6) Yet MacGuigan had s t a t e d t h a t Canada opposed any c o u n t r y " d e s t a b i l i z i n g t h e i r n e i g h b o u r s o r u s i n g t h e i r t e r r i t o r y t o i n j e c t East-West r i v a l r i e s i n t o t h e r e g i o n . . . ( o r f a i l i n g ) t o c a r r y out t h e s o c i a l and economic r e f o r m s u r g e n t l y needed..." (7) These a i d d e c i s i o n s seemed t o c o n t r a d i c t Canada's n o b l e r h e t o r i c . Canadian e n t h u s i a s m f o r t h e Contadora peace p r o c e s s was based on t h e assessment t h a t i t o f f e r e d t h e o n l y r e a l i s t i c a l t e r n a t i v e t o i n c r e a s e d U.S. m i l i t a r i z a t i o n . MacEachen, f o r h i s p a r t , grew i n c r e a s i n g l y w o r r i e d about Washington's p l a n s , -90-e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r t h e i n v a s i o n o f Grenada, which shook h i s c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e U.S. He began t o speak of t h e need f o r Canada t o "go a f t e r c o u n t r i e s t h a t a r e impeding th e p r o c e s s , t h e o u t s i d e c o u n t r i e s t h a t a r e s u p p l y i n g arms and m i l i t a r y a d v i s o r s . . . So i t ' s up t o us t o put p r e s s u r e on them t o get out so t h e p r o c e s s can get g o i n g . " (8) I t was c l e a r t h a t MacEachen was r e f e r r i n g t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The M i n i s t e r had never been more o p e n l y c r i t i c a l o f U.S. p o l i c y towards N i c a r a g u a or so c a n d i d about d i f f e r i n g w i t h t h e U.S. But r e a l i z i n g t h a t Canada a l o n e c o u l d do l i t t l e , he s t r e s s e d , upon h i s r e t u r n from N i c a r a g u a i n 1984, t h a t what was r e q u i r e d was "a major i n t e r n a t i o n a l e f f o r t t h r o u g h t h e e x p r e s s i o n of w o r l d o p i n i o n t o put p r e s s u r e on t h e c o u n t r i e s i n t h e r e t o move out under some o r d e r l y c o n d i t i o n s . . . " (9) E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s never "worked out t h e c o n c r e t e ways t o do t h i s . " (10) W h i l e th e L i b e r a l government e v e n t u a l l y made a few moves t o implement i t s own p o l i c y toward N i c a r a g u a (some a i d , s t r o n g e r r h e t o r i c ) , Ottawa d i d not t a k e any s i g n i f i c a n t u n i l a t e r a l o r m u l t i l a t e r a l i n i t i a t i v e s t o h e l p N i c a r a g u a r e b u i l d o r t o r e s t r i c t i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t h e r e g i o n . One a n a l y s t m a i n t a i n e d , "the t r a g e d y i s t h a t . . . Canada c o u l d have made a modest, i f l i f e - s a v i n g d i f f e r e n c e by p l a y i n g a c o n s t r u c t i v e m e d i a t i o n r o l e " . (11) W ith th e e x c e p t i o n o f some s t a t e m e n t s towards th e end of MacEachen's t e n u r e a t E x t e r n a l , Canadian p o l i c y was e s s e n t i a l l y c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h a t o f t h e U.S. For i n s t a n c e , Ottawa a c c e p t e d th e U n i t e d S t a t e s ' c l a i m t o have l e g i t i m a t e s e c u r i t y i n t e r e s t s i n N i c a r a g u a and m a i n t a i n e d t h a t Washington was s i n c e r e l y concerned w i t h t h e problems of development, s e c u r e b o r d e r s , d e m i l i t a r i z a t i o n , and democracy. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e DEA, t h e main d i f f e r e n c e between th e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada was t h e q u e s t i o n o f how t o a c h i e v e t h e i r mutual g o a l s . Because of c o n f l i c t i n g p r e s s u r e s on Ottawa, Canadian government p o l i c y towards N i c a r a g u a was i n e f f e c t i v e and c o n t r a d i c t o r y . I t s r e s p o n s e s tended t o be p i e c e m e a l , "governed by no apparent s t r a t e g y o t h e r t h a n t o r e t a i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ' g o o d w i l l " ( 1 2 ) , moderated by f e a r of t h e e f f e c t s of an e s c a l a t i n g c r i s i s on t r a d e and w o r l d o r d e r and, t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , by Canadian p u b l i c o p i n i o n . A h o s t o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l , n a t i o n a l , d o m e s t i c , and i n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r s went i n t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f Canada's response t o the S a n d i n i s t a r e v o l u t i o n . T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l t r y , i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e p r e c e e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n , t o b r i n g t o g e t h e r and summarize t h e major elements of t h i s p o l i c y . Canada's p o s i t i o n v i s - a - v i s t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l system of s t a t e s ( i . e o r i e n t a t i o n and r o l e s ) and i t s p o l i t i c a l and economic o b j e c t i v e s w i t h i n t h a t system w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d as t h e y a r e c e n t r a l t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e d e t e r m i n a n t s of t h e Canadian p o l i c y . Domestic Canadian f a c t o r s w i l l t h e n be c o n s i d e r e d , b o t h i n terms of t h e a c t o r s i n v o l v e d and t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s i n Ottawa. As t h e Canadian p o s i t i o n e v o l v e d , some f a c t o r s remained c o n s t a n t (such as a g e n e r a l a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e " r i g h t " of Washington t o m a i n t a i n hegemony i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a and c o n c e r n over l i n k a g e i n b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e U.S.), w h i l e o t h e r s showed marked e v o l u t i o n ( i n c l u d i n g Canada's - 9 2 -d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s p e c i f i c U.S. a c t i o n s , i t s w i l l i n g n e s s t o d i s a g r e e o p e n l y w i t h t h e Reagan a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and t h e i n c r e a s e i n development a s s i s t a n c e t o Managua). Both changes and c o n t i n u i t e s w i l l be a n a l y z e d and t h e d i s c u s s i o n w i l l c o n c l u d e w i t h a c r i t i q u e o f Canadian p o l i c y , i n c l u d i n g s u g g e s t i o n s of p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s . -93-a) O r i e n t a t i o n , R o l e s , O b j e c t i v e s Canada's contemporary o r i e n t a t i o n towards t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l system o f s t a t e s grew d i r e c t l y out o f t h e Second World War. The i s o l a t i o n i s m o f t h e pre-war e r a was r e p l a c e d by a s t r o n g sense o f Canadian i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e w i t h t h e r e s t o f t h e w o r l d , e s p e c i a l l y i n economic and m i l i t a r y m a t t e r s . T h i s i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m was based on a p e r c e p t i o n t h a t " o n l y w i t h a s t r o n g committment by s t a t e s t o an i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o l l e c t i v e l y s e c u r i n g t h e peace, c o u l d a r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e carnage of t o t a l war be a v o i d e d " . (13) Canada's s t r o n g s u p p o r t f o r t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s was a prime example o f Ottawa's approach t o peace and s e c u r i t y i n t h e w o r l d . True t o Canada's t r a d i t i o n a l s t a t u s as a Western c o u n t r y , Ottawa was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f NATO i n 1949, as w e l l as a prominent member o f t h e Commonwealth, and a p a r t i c i p a n t i n many o t h e r m u l t i l a t e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . Canada viewed such i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s as s e r v i n g i t s own n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e b e n e f i t i n g t h e r e s t of t h e w o r l d . A l t h o u g h some elements o f Canada's f o r e i g n p o l i c y g o a l s s h i f t e d d u r i n g t h e nex t f o u r decades, (as a r e s u l t of changes i n t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e S o v i e t t h r e a t , o r a f t e r t h e 1973 o i l embargo, f o r example) t h i s i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t , Western o r i e n t a t i o n remained f u n d a m e n t a l . S i n c e World War Two, Canadian o f f i c i a l s have p e r c e i v e d Canada as a "middle power". As such, Ottawa has t a k e n on a number o f r o l e s w i t h i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l system, sometimes s t r e s s i n g one o r two a t t h e expense o f o t h e r s , sometimes making - 9 4 -a p r e v i o u s l y minor a s p e c t i n t o a major one. S e v e r a l o f t h e s e r o l e c o n c e p t i o n s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v e n t i n t h e c o n t e x t of t h e N i c a r a g u a n c r i s i s . Canada has sometimes a c t e d a peacekeeper (e.g. i n C y p r u s , I n d o c h i n a ) , a " h e l p f u l f i x e r " ( t h e Commonwealth and South A f r i c a ) , o r b r i d g e b u i l d e r between n a t i o n s ( C h i n a and t h e U.S.). Moreover, Ottawa has o f t e n been u n c o m f o r t a b l e when t h e t e n s i o n s i n c r e a s e between the U.S.S.R. and Washington. "Thus, when superpower r e l a t i o n s d e t e r i o r a t e , Canada o f t e n t r i e s t o r e v e r s e t h a t s l i d e and r e s t o r e a sense of p r o p o r t i o n and b a l a n c e . " (14) Canada's s e c u r i t y a l l i a n c e w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Europe has been a c e n t r a l f e a t u r e o f t h e post-war y e a r s , and a l t h o u g h some d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h Ottawa was o c c a s i o n a l l y e x p r e s s e d by i t s NATO a l l i e s , Canada's committment has never wavered. One r e a s o n t h a t Canada v a l u e s t h i s i d e n t i t y as a f a i t h f u l a l l y i s t h e hope t h a t i t s c r e d i b i l i t y as a key member of th e Western b l o c would i n c r e a s e i t s i n f l u e n c e , e s p e c i a l l y i n terms of the U.S. Because of Canada's t i e s t o t h e A l l i a n c e , and because i t s p o t e n t i a l i n f l u e n c e o v e r S o v i e t p o l i c y i s n e g l i g i b l e , " [ t ] h e n a t i o n t o be 'moderated' has most o f t e n been the U n i t e d S t a t e s . . . " (15) A nother c o n s t a n t r o l e has been t h a t of f r i e n d t o d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s i n a l m o s t e v e r y p a r t o f t h e w o r l d . A l t h o u g h Canada has not been e s p e c i a l l y generous i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r donor c o u n t r i e s , i t has p r o v i d e d s t e a d y a i d and has spoken up f o r t h e LDCs i n many i n t e r n a t i o n a l f o r a . These r o l e s were p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v e n t i n l i g h t o f t h e -95"-deepening c r i s i s i n C e n t r a l America and h e l p e d shape Canada's r e a c t i o n t o i t . The Trudeau government had t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o t r y t o use Canada's i n f l u e n c e and c r e d i b i l i t y w i t h t h e n a t i o n s o f t h e Americas t o ease t h e mounting t e n s i o n s between N i c a r a g u a and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . B u i l d i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and regimes and a committment t o f u n c t i o n a l ism ( t h e n o t i o n t h a t a c o u n t r y ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s s h o u l d be commensurate w i t h i t s c a p a b i l i t i e s ) were c e n t r a l f o r e i g n p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s i n t h e f i r s t decades f o l l o w i n g WW I I . The d e c l i n e o f i d e a l i s t i c i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m as the dominant theme of Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y came w i t h t h e e l e c t i o n o f Trudeau i n 1968 r e s u l t e d i n a f o r e i g n p o l i c y r e v i e w . The new Trudeau D o c t r i n e s u g g e s t e d t h a t Canadian e f f o r t s i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l a rena had o f t e n been made a t t h e expense o f t h e n a t i o n a l and d o m e s t i c i n t e r e s t s which must now t a k e p r i o r i t y . F o s t e r i n g d o m e s t i c economic growth and s a f e g u a r d i n g s o v e r e i g n t y and independence headed t h e l i s t of t h e s i x themes t h a t formed t h e new framework o f Canada's f o r e i g n p o l i c y g o a l s . Working f o r peace and s e c u r i t y t h r o u g h "peacekeeping, t h e r e l a x a t i o n o f t e n s i o n s , i n t e r n a t i o n a l law, o r improvement o f b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s " was a n o t h e r major g o a l . The p r o m o t i o n o f s o c i a l j u s t i c e f o c u s e d on t h e problems o f r a c i s m and d e v e l o p m e n t a l a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e LDC's. (16) W h i l e a l l f o u r o f t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s i n f l u e n c e d Canada's response t o the c r i s i s o v e r N i c a r a g u a , economic and s e c u r i t y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s seemed t o be t h e most s a l i e n t t o p o l i c y m a k e r s i n Ottawa. - 9 6 -b) D e t e r m i n a n t s o f Canada's P o l i c i e s Toward t h e S a n d i n i s t a s G i v e n Canada's i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n , r o l e , and o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e s , how can t h e h i s t o r y of Canadian a c t i o n s towards N i c a r a g u a and t h e S a n d i n i s t a r e v o l u t i o n be e x p l a i n e d ? T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l examine f i v e broad c a t a g o r i e s o f e x p l a n a t i o n , s e e k i n g t o h i g h l i g h t t h o s e elements which were most s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f Canadian p o l i c y . 1) The I n t e r n a t i o n a l System W i t h i n t h e contemporary m u l t i p o l a r i n t e r n a t i o n a l e nvironment, Canada i s f i r m l y a l l i e d t o t h e West, under t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . But Canada i s not an u n c r i t i c a l a l l y , e s p e c i a l l y when i t p e r c e i v e s t h a t i t s own i n t e r e s t s a r e t h r e a t e n e d , as i s sometimes t h e case when Washington o v e r r e a c t s t o a " c r i s i s " . When such problems o c c u r , Ottawa i s n e c e s s a r i l y t a c t f u l i n i t s approach, a s t y l e known as " q u i e t d i p l o m a c y " . I t has l o n g been a t e n e t o f Canadian p o l i c y t h a t "the degree o f c o n f l i c t and c o m p e t i t i o n i n East-West r e l a t i o n s can be moderated and a m e l i o r a t e d by sound d i p l o m a c y and n e g o t i a t i o n s " . (17) When t e n s i o n s between t h e superpowers i n c r e a s e , Canada sometimes a t t e m p t s t o moderate U n i t e d S t a t e s a c t i o n s , but not i n such a way as t o pose a s e r i o u s t h r e a t t o Canadian-U.S. r e l a t i o n s . Ottawa cannot i g n o r e demands f o r a l l i a n c e s o l i d a r i t y ( i . e . s u p p o r t i n g U.S. p o l i c i e s ) . As t h e Reagan a d m i n i s t r a t i o n sought t o r e e s t a b l i s h Washington's - 9 7 -p r e - V i e t n a m i n f l u e n c e i n t h e w o r l d , i t p l a c e d renewed emphasis on t h e l o y a l t y o f i t s a l l i e s . Canada's s t r o n g m i l i t a r y , c u l t u r a l , s o c i a l , and e s p e c i a l l y , economic r e l a t i o n s w i t h Washington l e a v e s i t v u l n e r a b l e t o s u b t l e and n o t - s o - s u b t l e p r e s s u r e s t o conform t o U.S. p o l i c i e s . " I n g e n e r a l , a c o u n t r y t h a t needs something from a n o t h e r i s v u l n e r a b l e t o i t s a c t s of i n f l u e n c e . " (18) As p a r t o f i t s s t r a t e g y f o r s u c c e s s f u l b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h Washington, Canada a l s o needed t o c u l t i v a t e f a v o r w i t h t h o s e elements w i t h i n t h e U.S. government (e.g. the White House, the S t a t e Department) which might be e x p e c t e d t o d e f e n d Canadian i n t e r e s t s a g a i n s t demands from v a r i o u s d o m e s t i c a c t o r s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . T h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n a l s o m i t i g a t e d a g a i n s t a s t r o n g e r Canadian s t a n c e a g a i n s t Washington's a g r e s s i v e N i c a r a g u a n p o l i c i e s . The d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o v e r N i c a r a g u a were based on c o n f l i c t i n g p e r c e p t i o n s o f how t o d e a l w i t h t h e S a n d i n i s t a r e v o l u t i o n . Washington's p e r c e p t i o n t h a t t h e S a n d i n i s t a s were a t h r e a t t o U.S. hegemony i n C e n t r a l America c l a s h e d w i t h t h e Canadian v i e w th e t h a t , f o r a l l i t s f a u l t s , t h e S a n d i n i s t a government was l e g i t i m a t e and t h a t t h e use of f o r c e t o o v e r t h r o w i t would be c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v e i n t h e l o n g term. The U n i t e d S t a t e s , w h i c h i n s i s t e d on c a s t i n g N i c a r a g u a as a S o v i e t / C u b a n puppet bent on s p r e a d i n g "communist s u b v e r s i o n " , g r a d u a l l y came t o be seen by t h e Trudeau government as t h e main e x t e r n a l s o u r c e o f i n s t a b i l i t y i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a , but whose c o o p e r a t i o n was e s s e n t i a l i f t h e r e was t o be any chance of peace i n t h e r e g i o n . -98-The s t r a i n s on t h e NATO a l l i a n c e from U.S. p o l i c i e s towards N i c a r a g u a was a n o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r Canada. Moreove, "any l a r g e - s c a l e m i l i t a r y i n t e r v e n t i o n by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n C e n t r a l America would put s e v e r e s t r a i n s on t h e NATO a l l i a n c e , " a c c o r d i n g t o t h e U.S. C o u n c i l on F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s . (19) The a l m o s t t o t a l l a c k of s u p p o r t by NATO c o u n t r i e s f o r U.S. p o l i c y a g a i n s t N i c a r a g u a , such as t h e i r r e f u s a l t o go a l o n g w i t h Washington's t r a d e embargo, g i v e no r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t e i t h e r NATO governments o r t h e i r c i t i z e n s would s u p p o r t an i n v a s i o n . On t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e s e governments would p r o b a b l y be under c o n s i d e r a b l e d o m e s t i c p r e s s u r e t o d i s t a n c e t h e m s e l v e s from U n i t e d S t a t e s a c t i o n s . Most o f Washington's a l l i e s would l i k e l y v i e w an i n v a s i o n as m i s g u i d e d because t h e y t e n d t o vi e w t h e g r e a t e r t h r e a t t o t h e West as coming from such f a c t o r s as t h e d i v i s i o n o f Europe, t h e arms r a c e , mass p o v e r t y , o r economic s t a g n a t i o n - none o f which were a d d r e s s e d by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ' h o s t i l e a c t i o n s a g a i n s t N i c a r a g u a . "A major c l a s h between t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Europe over C e n t r a l America c o u l d soon l e a d t o overwhelming p r e s s u r e s w i t h i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s f o r a r e d e f i n i t i o n o f i t s r o l e i n NATO - even t o t h e p o i n t o f t h e w i t h d r a w a l o f U.S. f o r c e s from the European c o n t i n e n t " , a c c o r d i n g t o one U.S. commentator. (20) Canada and Europe see danger t o w o r l d o r d e r , n o t from S o v i e t s u b v e r s i o n i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a , but i n t h e chance t h a t t h e c r i s i s c o u l d produce a r e g i o n a l war ("a U.S. i n v a s i o n o f N i c a r a g u a would q u i c k l y provoke a war o f g u e r r i l l a s t h r o u g h o u t a l l o f C e n t r a l A m e r i c a , from Guatemala t o Panama...[and] d e s t a b i l i z e t h e c o u n t r i e s i m m e d i a t e l y n o r t h and s o u t h of t h e e m b a t t l e d r e g i o n . . . " a c c o r d i n g t o an a n a y l s i s i n t h e New York Times) ( 2 1 ) ; undermine t h e p o l i t i c a l economy o f Mexico and o t h e r p r o x i m a t e s t a t e s ; d i s c r e d i t t h e U.S. i n L a t i n and Western p u b l i c o p i n i o n ; d i v e r t U.S. f o r c e s t o t h e r e g i o n , e n d a n g e r i n g o t h e r a r e a s ; " r i s k superpower c o n f r o n t a t i o n ; and d e f l e c t c o n c e r n away from o t h e r s e c u r i t y problems. (22) Indeed, many a n a l y s t s b e l i e v e t h a t a n u c l e a r war i s much more l i k e l y t o be t r i g g e r e d by i n s t a b i l i t y i n t h e underdeveloped w o r l d t h a n by a S o v i e t a t t a c k i n Europe. Canada c o u l d not a f f o r d t o i g n o r e t h e growing t u r m o i l i n v o l v i n g N i c a r a g u a f o r o t h e r r e a s o n s . As Ambassador G o t l i e b o b s e r v e d , " L a t i n A m e r i c a , C e n t r a l A m e r i c a , and t h e C a r i b b e a n -t h e s e a r e now [1984] seen by al m o s t a l l Canadians as a r e a s o f s p e c i a l i m p o r t a n c e t o Canada and t o our own w e l l - b e i n g and s e c u r i t y . " (23) Canada's a t t i t u d e toward C e n t r a l America i n p a r t i c u l a r has undergone a d r a m a t i c e v o l u t i o n o v er t h e l a s t few decades. As one h i g h - r a n k i n g DEA o f f i c i a l p ut i t : " I t i s not now a q u e s t i o n o f whether we w i s h t o become i n v o l v e d i n t h e r e g i o n , but how." (24) Canada's dependence on i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e and commerce a l s o e x p l a i n s p a r t o f t h e a n x i e t y i n Ottawa o v e r t h e more b e l l i g e r e n t a c t i o n s o f t h e U.S. a g a i n s t t h e S a n d i n i s t a s . "Canada i s a major t r a d i n g n a t i o n . ||ur p r o s p e r i t y . . . depends not a l i t t l e on t h e f u t u r e o f w o r l d t r a d e , " (25) ( e x p o r t s g e n e r a t e about 30% o f Canada's GNP). (26) W h i l e t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s remains Canada's l a r g e s t t r a d i n g p a r t n e r , t h e Canadian economy does a s i g n i f i c a n t amount o f b u s i n e s s w i t h t h e r e s t of the w o r l d ( e . g . about 35% o f Canadian e x p o r t s i n 1979). (27) -loo-As a m i d d l e power whose r e l a t i v e l y open economy i s bound up w i t h w o r l d t r a d e , Canada i s dependent on c o n t i n u i n g p e a c e f u l i n t e r n a t i o n a l commerce, w h i l e U.S. a c t i o n s i n C e n t r a l America were i n c r e a s i n g t h e u n r e s t and l e v e l o f c o n f l i c t . Trade i s i m p o r t a n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e n a t i o n s s o u t h o f t h e R i o Grande. Numerous government o f f i c i a l s have e x p r e s s e d th e v i e w t h a t , "the Canadian government and Canadians i n g e n e r a l have a v e s t e d p o l i t i c a l and s e c u r i t y i n t e r e s t i n . . . t h e f u r t h e r i n g o f l o n g term s t a b i l i t y and development i n L a t i n A m erica and t h e C a r i b b e a n . . . because o f our r e a l mutual i n t e r e s t s i n economic development, t r a d e , f i n a n c e , and i n v e s t m e n t . . . " (28) The development o f t h e s e k i n d s o f m u t u a l l y b e n e f i c i a l r e l a t i o n s was s e r i o u s l y t h r e a t e n e d by t h e c o n t i n u i n g u n r e s t and impoverishment t h a t e x i s t e d i n t h e r e g i o n . Peace and s t a b i l i t y a r e needed i f w o r l d t r a d e i s t o f l o u r i s h , b u t p o v e r t y and t h e absence of economic development a r e major causes o f s o c i a l u n r e s t i n t h e w o r l d t o d a y . A g l a r i n g example i s C e n t r a l A m e r i c a , where t h e wide gap between t h e economic e l i t e and t h e peasant c l a s s c r e a t e s s t r e s s e s t h a t p r o v i d e f e r t i l e ground f o r e x t e r n a l f o r c e s t o i n t e r f e r e . Such p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l s t r e s s e s , even i f t h e y do not l e a d t o armed c o n f l i c t , i n e v i t a b l y d i v e r t economic r e s o u r c e s t o m a i n t a i n i n g a m i l i t a r y c a p a b i l i t y , and money t h a t c o u l d go i n t o development goes i n s t e a d t o buy arms. (29) The Trudeau government u n d e r s t o o d t h a t t h e e s c a l a t i o n o f t h e c o n f l i c t s i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a would not be i n Canada's economic i n t e r e s t s . P e a c e f u l i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s a r e a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r expanding t r a d e and commercial r e l a t i o n s h i p s . "Canada has a c r u c i a l s t a k e i n t h e development o f s t a b l e i n t e r n a t i o n a l economic arrangments... E f f o r t s t o promote s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g growth i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s w i l l pay d i v i d e n d s i n terms o f t h e c r e a t i o n o f markets f o r Canadian raw -101-m a t e r i a l s and manufactured goods, as w e l l as t h e c r e a t i o n o f a d d i t i o n a l s o u r c e s o f s u p p l y f o r . . . g o o d s not produced i n Canada." (30) F o r e i g n i n v e s t m e n t s were a n o t h e r f a c t o r . Canadian banks had o v e r $22 b i l l i o n d o l l a r s i n a s s e t s i n L a t i n America and t h e C a r i b b e a n by 1982, r e p r e s e n t i n g o ver 20% of t h e wor l d - w i d e t o t a l . But "the i n s t a b i l i t y of C e n t r a l America makes major p r o j e c t f u n d i n g u n l i k e l y " w h i l e t h e c r i s i s remains u n r e s o l v e d . (31) In r e f e r e n c e t o t h e S a n d i n i s t a s t h e m s e l v e s , w h i l e Ottawa d i d n o t h e s i t a t e t o v o i c e i t s c o n c e r n t h a t N i c a r a g u a ' s d o m e s t i c p o l i c i e s might be t u r n i n g r e p r e s s i v e , t h e r e was a growing awareness t h a t t h e S a n d i n i s t a s were s t r i v i n g t o p r o v i d e a s t a b l e and p o p u l a r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , one w i t h which Canada c o u l d l i v e and do b u s i n e s s . Because t h e Canadian government's a t t i t u d e t o a l t e r n a t e p a t h s t o development was g e n e r a l l y t o l e r a n t , Ottawa saw no v i r t u e i n d e s t a b i l i z i n g l e g i t i m a t e r e v o l u t i o n a r y governments and has been w i l l i n g t o a s s i s t such n a t i o n s d e v e l o p t o t h e p o i n t where s t a b i l i t y and t h e growth of t r a d e and i n v e s t m e n t have a "moderating" e f f e c t . As d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , Canadian o p p o s i t i o n t o U.S. p o l i c y was made i n t h e c o n t e x t o f g e n e r a l l y h e i g h t e n e d t e n s i o n s between t h e two c o u n t r i e s . N e i t h e r one wanted t o add an o t h e r c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p , but t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f N i c a r a g u a and t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n v o l v e d made i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r Canada t o i g n o r e Washington's a c t i o n s , even though N i c a r a g u a i t s e l f was o f l i t t l e d i r e c t consequence t o Ottawa. A l o n g w i t h t h e n a t i o n a l and d o m e s t i c f a c t o r s a l r e a d y mentioned, t h e s e economic and g e o p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were -102-c r i t i c a l t o the e v o l u t i o n o f Canada's response t o t h e S a n d i n i s t a s . 2) Canadian N a t i o n a l A t t r i b u t e s Geography had an o b v i o u s r e l a t i o n t o t h e i n t e r e s t shown i n N i c a r a g u a by Canada and C a nadians. I n a d d i t i o n t o s h a r i n g a l o n g b o r d e r w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s , Canada sh a r e s a c o n t i n e n t w i t h C e n t r a l America and t h e hemisphere w i t h t h e r e s t o f t h e L a t i n c o u n t r i e s . These f a c t o r s made the t u r m o i l i n c e n t r a l America h a r d e r t o i g n o r e . S e v e r a l elements of Canadian p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e and v a l u e s , i n c l u d i n g "a n o n - m i l i t a r y t r a d i t i o n . . . ( a n d ) a fondness f o r l e g a l i s t i c and d i p l o m a t i c s o l u t i o n s " i n c l i n e f o r e i g n p o l i c y makers t o be wary of t h e use o f f o r c e t o s e t t l e i n t e r n a t i o n a l d i s p u t e s . (32) I t i s f e l t t h a t , w h i l e c o n f l i c t cannot be t o t a l l y e l i m i n a t e d , i t can be c o n t r o l l e d . Indeed, th e v a l u e of p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n i s o f t e n seen t o l i e l e s s i n i t s ends and more i n t h e degree t o which i t promotes p a c i f i c s o l u t i o n s t o problems. I n f l u e n c e d t o a l a r g e degree by e x p e r i e n c e s of d o m e s t i c p o l i t i c a l b a r g a i n i n g , Canadians t e n d t o b e l i e v e t h a t "peace, o r d e r , and good government", based on l e g a l p r i n c i p l e s and d i p l o m a c y , a r e t h e keys t o t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l s t r i f e . Q u a l i t i e s such as p a t i e n c e , f l e x i b i l i t y , t o l e r a n c e , m o d e r a t i o n , and t h e a b i l i t y t o empathize w i t h o t h e r s a r e a l s o p a r t o f t h e Canadian p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e . ( T h i s t y p e of p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s , however, "may a l s o r e q u i r e . . . a r e s i g n e d a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e i n c o n v e n i e n c e of b e i n g weak - a r e c o g n i t i o n , - 1 0 3 -t h a t i s , o f t h e r e a l i t i e s o f power".) (33) I n t e r n a t i o n a l l y , Canada f a v o r s t h e p r i n c i p l e s of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n and n o n - i n t e r v e n t i o n , and saw i n N i c a r a g u a a case where v i o l a t i o n o f t h o s e p r i n c i p l e s by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s c o u l d l e a d t o an even g r e a t e r d i s a s t e r . Canada i s h e i r t o t h e v e n e r a b l e t r a d i t i o n t h a t t r a d e between n a t i o n s i s not o n l y p r e f e r r a b l e t o war between n a t i o n s , but t o t h e c o r o l l a r y t h a t such t r a d e may f u n c t i o n as a d i s i n c e n t i v e t o a d v e n t u r i s m by h e l p i n g t o "moderate" governments w h i l e i n c r e a s i n g mutual i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e . Canadian r e l a t i o n s w i t h E a s t e r n Europe, C h i n a , Cuba, as w e l l as N i c a r a g u a , e x e m p l i f y t h i s approach. The norms and v a l u e s o f one's own c u l t u r e c e r t a i n l y i n f l u e n c e t h e p e r s p e c t i v e s o f i t s c i t i z e n s . Most h i g h - l e v e l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s i n Ottawa would n a t u r a l l y h o l d Canada's mixed c a p i t a l i s t economy and i t s l i b e r a l - d e m o c r a t i c p o l i t i c a l system as a model and s t a n d a r d w i t h which t o judge th e p o l i t i c a l economy of o t h e r n a t i o n s . Canadian p o l i c y - m a k e r s would t e n d t o s h a r e t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and t o be s u s p i c i o u s o f emerging systems whose v a l u e s d i f f e r e d t o any s i g n i f i c a n t degree. They would n a t u r a l l y be wary of t h e avowed Marxism of t h e S a n d i n i s t a l e a d e r s h i p , t h e o c c a s i o n a l p r e s s c e n s o r s h i p , t h e n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f some p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s e s , and t h e f r a t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h Cuba. j|n t h e o t h e r hand, Ottawa has f r e q u e n t l y d e c l a r e d i t s openess t o v a r i o u s p o l i t i c a l and economic systems i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g w o r l d , and was i m p r e s s e d by such N i c a r a g u a n s u c c e s s e s as t h e l i t e r a c y campaign, th e drop i n i n f a n t m o r t a l i t y , t h e g r e a t amount of p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s freedom, and t h e promise of f r e e e l e c t i o n s . I t i s not - 1 0 4 -s u r p r i s i n g , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e r e were mixed f e e l i n g s i n Ottawa about t h e n a t u r e o f "Sandinismo", w h i c h would c o n t r i b u t e t o the d i f f i c u l t y o f a s s e s s i n g e v e n t s i n N i c a r a g u a and t o a tendency t o " w a i t and see" b e f o r e making s i g n i f i c a n t committments. F i n a l l y , t h e Canadian economy, b a t t e r e d though i t may have been a t t i m e s , gave Ottawa t h e p o t e n t i a l t o p l a y an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n terms f o r development a s s i s t a n c e , i n f l u e n c e , and t h e f i n a n c i n g and t e c h n o l o g i c a l s u p p o r t o f any peace p r o c e s s t h a t grew out o f t h e work o f C o n t a d o r a . -105-c) D e c i s i o n Making I n t r o d u c t i o n There i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e Canadian P a r l i a m e n t p l a y e d more t h a n a v e r y s m a l l r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e government's N i c a r a g u a n p o l i c i e s . Major d e c i s i o n s were made i n t h e Department of E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s and C a b i n e t under the l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e Prime M i n i s t e r and the SSEA. Such a c o n c l u s i o n i s not u n x p e c t e d , s i n c e "the f o r m u l a t i o n and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y i s l a r g e l y t h e p e r o g a t i v e o f t h e e x e c u t i v e b r a n c h . " (34) T h i s p a t t e r n seems t o have h e l d i n t h e case of N i c a r a g u a , where p a r t y s o l i d a r i t y , q u i e t d i p l o m a c y and s e c r e c y , and t h e l a c k of f e a r o f s u f f e r i n g a t the p o l l s k e p t t h i n g s r e l a t i v e l y q u i e t . These f a c t o r s a r e t r a d i t i o n a l i n t h e Canadian system, w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t " . . . n o n - c a b i n e t members of P a r l i a m e n t (even of t h e p a r t y i n power) p l a y a v e r y minor r o l e i n p o l i c y - m a k i n g , and p a r l i a m e n t a r y committees w i e l d l i t t l e e f f e c t i v e l e g i s l a t i v e power". (35) The Sub-committee r e p o r t s on L a t i n America d i d not seem t o have made any s i g n i f i c a n t impact on e i t h e r the House o r t h e government, a l t h o u g h t h e y might have s e r v e d t o r a i s e t h e awareness of some MPs and m i n i s t e r s . C o n f r o n t e d by t h e demands of v a r i o u s " e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s , by p r e s s u r e s from Canadian b u s i n e s s not t o upset t h e A m e r icans, and by demands from c h u r c h and s o l i d a r i t y groups f o r g r e a t e r d i s t a n c i n g from Reagan's p o l i c y , t h e L i b e r a l s were t r y i n g t o f i n d a way o f t a k i n g a p o s i t i o n t h a t would be independent , but not so -106-independent as t o o f f e n d t h e Reagan a d m i n i s t r a t i o n more th a n m i l d l y . " (36) But as t h e White House e s c a l a t e d i t s h o s t i l i t y toward t h e S a n d i n i s t a government, Ottawa was f o r c e d t o make i t s d i s a g r e e m e n t s s h a r p e r and more o p e n l y . 1) The Government The Department of E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s was t h e main b u r e a u c r a t i c arena i n which N i c a r a g u a n p o l i c y was worked o u t . W h i l e i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e and development a s s i s t a n c e were a l s o r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f E x t e r n a l ( t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s i s t h e m i n i s t e r d e s i g n a t e d f o r CIDA), th e g e o p o l i t i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e N i c a r a g u a n q u e s t i o n were t h e most s a l i e n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , so major d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g a l l a s p e c t s o f N i c a r a g u a n p o l i c y were c e n t e r e d i n DEA. "No o t h e r m i n i s t r y has an o p p o s i n g v i e w , i f t h e y have a view a t a l l . There's no i n t e r - d e p a r t m e n t a l debate - i t ' s l e f t t o us." (37) CIDA i t s e l f was u n l i k e l y t o be a s i g n i f i c a n t s o u r c e of p o l i c y a t t h e C a b i n e t l e v e l because i t i s w i t h o u t i t s own m i n i s t e r and because of i t s l i m i t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . A l t h o u g h t h e Prime M i n i s t e r has t r a d i t i o n a l l y had a s t r o n g hand i n f o r e i g n p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s , t h i s does not seem t o have been t h e case w i t h r e s p e c t t o N i c a r a g u a . R a t h e r , Trudeau's r o l e seems t o have been c o n s i s t e n t w i t h h i s approach t o f o r e i g n p o l i c y i n g e n e r a l : t o d e l i n e a t e b road p o l i c y o u t l i n e s w h i l e l e a v i n g day-to-day a f f a i r s t o h i s m i n i s t e r s . (38) P a r t o f t h e r e a s o n was Trudeau's l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e , w hich he d i d not c o n s i d e r v i t a l . But the PM s e t t h e tone w i t h -107-h i s p e r c e p t i o n t h a t "the overwhelming t h r e a t t o Canada w i l l not come from... f o r e i g n i d e o l o g i e s , o r even ... n u c l e a r weapons. I t w i l l come i n s t e a d from t h e t w o - t h i r d s o f the p e o p l e who a r e s t e a d i l y f a l l i n g f u r t h e r and f u r t h e r b e h i n d i n t h e s e a r c h f o r a decent s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g " . (39) The p r i m a r y d e c i s i o n - m a k e r i n the Trudeau government w i t h r e s p e c t t o N i c a r a g u a appears t o have been MacGuigan and, f o l l o w i n g him, MacEachen, " w i t h t h e a d v i c e o f C a b i n e t and a s t r o n g prime m i n i s t e r i a l i n f l u e n c e . S i n c e MacEachen a r r i v e d , he has been the d e c i s i o n - m a k e r . As Deputy Prime M i n i s t e r , he's been the major s o u r c e o f p o l i c y f o r t h e r e g i o n . " (40) I f Trudeau p a i d r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o N i c a r a g u a , t h e n i t i s l i k e l y t h a t p a r t o f the g rowing r i f t between the U.S. and Canada can be t r a c e d t o the r e p l a c e m e n t of MacGuigan as SSEA by A l l a n MacEachen. MacEachen's p e r c e p t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s d i f f e r e d i n i m p o r t a n t ways from t h o s e o f h i s p r e d e c e s s o r . F o r i n s t a n c e , "MacGuigan wasn't a l l t h a t c o m f o r t a b l e d e a l i n g w i t h L a t i n A m e r i c a n s . He was much more i n the Western European-American c i r c u i t . " (41) MacEachen on t h e o t h e r hand, had a more " i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t " o u t l o o k and was more s k e p t i c a l o f the Manichean w o r l d - v i e w e x p r e s s e d by the Reagan regime. I n a d d i t i o n t o p o s e s s i n g wide e x p e r i e n c e i n government and a somewhat more s o p h i s t i c a t e d p e r s p e c t i v e , MacEachen was concerned w i t h N i c a r a g u a and C e n t r a l America as an u n s t a b l e region caught up i n an East/West confrontat ion . Other f a c t o r s i n c l u d e d t h e M i n i s t e r ' s v iew t h a t t h e r e was a c l e a r l i n k between Canadian in teres t s and those o f th e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y " h i s e f f o r t s t o l i n k Canada's economic - 1 0 8 -i n t e r e s t s w i t h t h o s e o f an i n c r e a s i n g l y a s s e r t i v e t h e T h i r d W o r ld." (42) The M i n i s t e r ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r o o t causes o f t h e u n r e s t i n C e n t r a l America was a n o t h e r element. MacEachen o b s e r v e d , "The fundamental problems o f C e n t r a l America a r e the r e s u l t o f a l o n g h i s t o r y o f p o l i t i c a l , economic, and s o c i a l r e p r e s s i o n . S t a b i l i t y cannot be r e s t o r e d u n t i l t h e f o r c e s f o r change have been accomodated, u n t i l s o c i a l and economic p r o g r e s s can remove t h e e x p l o s i v e p r e s s u r e s o f p o p u l a r f r u s t r a t i o n . " (43) Other s t a t e m e n t s demonstrated h i s disagreement w i t h t h e m i l i t a r y s o l u t i o n t h a t was i n c r e a s i n g l y b e i n g p u r s u e d by t h e U.S. Over t i m e , a number o f lower r a n k i n g o f f i c i a l s a t DEA became more concerned about t h e d i r e c t i o n o f U n i t e d S t a t e s p o l i c i e s , t h u s p r o v i d i n g a base o f s u p p o r t f o r MacEachen's i n c r e a s i n g l y c r i t i c a l a t t i t u d e . 2) Non-Governmental A c t o r s B u s i n e s s Some a n a l y s t s have argued t h a t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s from t h e c o r p o r a t e s e c t o r get much more of a h e a r i n g from government o f f i c i a l s t h a n t h o s e from " i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y - o r i e n t e d p u b l i c i n t e r e s t g r o u p s " , so t h a t t h e net a f f e c t i s a " b i a s toward b u s i n e s s " i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y . "The government does not d e a l w i t h c r i t i c a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y - o r i e n t e d p u b l i c i n t e r e s t groups i n t h e same way as i t d e a l s w i t h b u s i n e s s and i n d u s t r y because i t n e i t h e r a t t a c h e s t h e same - 1 0 9 -i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e i s s u e s t h e y r a i s e nor i s i t s e r i o u s l y c o n c erned t o i n c o r p o r a t e them i n t o t h e government-led concensus." (44) Even so, i t i s argued, non-commercial NGOs are t o o i m p o r t a n t t o appear t o i g n o r e , so t h e government has d e v e l o p e d s t r a t e g i e s t o co-opt them. Whatever t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h a t p e r c e p t i o n as a g e n e r a l r u l e , i m p o r t a n t q u a l i f i c a t i o n s must be made r e g a r d i n g N i c a r a g u a . F i r s t , N i c a r a g u a and t h e r e s t o f t h e r e g i o n were not i n s i g n i f i c a n t c oncerns t o t h e government. I n f a c t , t h e g e o p o l i t i c a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s were p o t e n t i a l l y v e r y s e r i o u s w h i l e , i n c o n t r a s t , t h e r e was l i t t l e b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a as a whole, o r i n N i c a r a g u a i n p a r t i c u l a r . (U.S. i n v e s t m e n t s and t r a d e w i t h C e n t r a l America were much g r e a t e r . ) Second, t h e l a c k of a s t r o n g consensus i n t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r a l l o w e d t h e government w i d e r l a t i t u d e t o c o n s i d e r t h e demands of o t h e r d o m e s t i c a c t o r s . The t h i r d c o n s i d e r a t i o n was the s t r e n g t h o f p u b l i c s u p p o r t f o r N i c a r a g u a . The muted v o i c e of b u s i n e s s r e l a t i v e t o t h e NGOs gave the l a t t e r c o m p a r a t i v e l y s t r o n g e r i n f l u e n c e t h a n one might o t h e r w i s e p r e d i c t . P u b l i c O p i n i o n P u b l i c o p i n i o n about f o r e i g n r e l a t i o n s has r a r e l y been i m p o r t a n t i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f p o l i c y . I n Canada, f o r e i g n a f f a i r s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y had low s a l i e n c e w i t h t h e p u b l i c , and " f o r e i g n p o l i c y remains th e p r e s e r v e o f t h e s t a t e and i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y embedded c o m p e t i t o r s , P a r l i a m e n t [ s i c ] and t h e p r o v i n c e s , r a t h e r t h a n of t h e a c t o r s w i t h i n s o c i e t y i t s e l f " . - 1 1 0 -(45) The Prime M i n i s t e r ' s a t t i t u d e toward t h o s e c i t i z e n s who a r e a t t e n t i v e has u s u a l l y been one o f c o n d e s c e n s i o n t o t h o s e whom he f e e l s a r e not knowledgable and who a r e m o t i v a t e d more by p a s s i o n t h a n r e a s o n . The government g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t i n f o r e i g n i s s u e s meddlesome and a burden, but as an element w h i c h c o u l d be u s e f u l t o s u p p o r t p o l i c i e s w hich were a l r e a d y f a v o u r e d , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e f a c e o f p r e s s u r e from e x t e r n a l a c t o r s ( t h e U.S. i n p a r t i c u l a r ) . Canadian o p i n i o n about N i c a r a g u a was m a n i f e s t e d i n p o l l s , m eetings and d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , t h e work of NGOs, and communications w i t h t h e media and t h e government. As n o t e d above, t h e r e a c t i o n o f l a r g e numbers of Canadians t o t h e S a n d i n i s t a R e v o l u t i o n , U.S. i n t e r v e n t i o n , and t h e government's response was unique i n many ways. Two out o f t h r e e Canadians su r v e y e d i n 1984 opposed U.S. a t t a c k s on N i c a r a g u a (see a b o v e ) . An o f f i c i a l w i t h t h e DEA a d m i t t e d : S i n c e 1979, t h e r e has been a much more s u s t a i n e d i n t e r e s t by t h e Canadian p u b l i c . I t ' s s u r p r i s i n g because th e Canadian p u b l i c i s g e n e r a l l y , from our p e r c e p t i o n , i s s u e c o n s c i o u s f o r v e r y s h o r t p e r i o d s . . . A f g a n i s t a n i s a v e r y good example. C e n t r a l A m e r i c a i s d i f f e r e n t . There has been a s u s t a i n e d , g r o w i n g , and c o n s t a n t i n t e r e s t i n t h e r e g i o n , and a v e r y w e l l - o r g a n i z e d network of i n t e r e s t groups t h a t a r e s t u d y i n g t h e a r e a v e r y c a r e f u l l y . I t ' s a v e r y i n f o r m e d p u b l i c . So t h a t has been an i n f l u e n c e on Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y . (46) The i n f l u e n c e o f Canadian p u b l i c o p i n i o n on t h e government, a l t h o u g h not d e c i s i v e , seems t o have been s i g n i f i c a n t . W h i l e MacGuigan p a i d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e NGOs, MacEachen, who had some sympathy w i t h t h e i r g o a l s , was l e s s h o s t i l e . P u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n N i c a r a g u a was s t r o n g e r d u r i n g MacEachen's t e n u r e as M i n i s t e r , and t h i s growth gave the NGOs - I l l -more i n f l u e n c e as t h e y were not r e p r e s e n t i n g o n l y t h e i r o r g a n i z a t o n s , but a much l a r g e r c o n s t i t u e n c y . T h i s i n f l u e n c e was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n g e t t i n g N i c a r a g u a i n c r e a s e d a i d by p u r s u a d i n g t h e government t o d e s i g n a t e i t as a " p r o j e c t c o u n t r y " . ( 4 7 ) Another a s p e c t o f t h i s i n f l u e n c e stems' from th e dependence of E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s on non-governmental s o u r c e s f o r much of i t s i n f o r m a t i o n about N i c a r a g u a , a l l o w i n g t h e Department t o g e t a w i d e r p e r s p e c t i v e t h a n would be p o s s i b l e i f i t r e l i e d s o l e y on o f f i c i a l Canadian o r U.S. c h a n n e l s . The DEA r e c e i v e d i t s most r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n from r e t u r n i n g m i s s i o n a r i e s , academics, development w o r k e r s , and o t h e r s who had f i r s t - h a n d knowledge o f t h e s i t u a t i o n i n N i c a r a g u a . T h i s dependency i n c r e a s e d t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h o s e Canadians who s u p p l i e d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n , most of whom f a v o r e d more p o l i t i c a l and economic s u p p o r t f o r N i c a r a g u a . But i t would be a m i s t a k e t o c r e d i t p u b l i c o p i n i o n , even as m a n i f e s t e d by v a r i o u s NGOs, w i t h h a v i n g a l o t o f p o l i t i c a l c l o u t i n Ottawa. The most common demands a r t i c u l a t e d by t h e c h u r c h e s , s o l i d a r i t y g roups, and l a b o u r were the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a Canadian embassy i n Managua, a s t r o n g p u b l i c condemnation of t h e p o l i c i e s o f the Reagan a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( e s p e c i a l l y t h e i r s u p p o r t f o r t h e C o n t r a s ) , and a r e f o c u s i n g o f o f f i c i a l development a s s i s t a n c e from Honduras t o N i c a r a g u a . When Ottawa d i d b e g i n t o e x p r e s s some d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h U.S. p o l i c i e s , most o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s tended t o be m i l d and/or ambiguous. B i l a t e r a l l o a n s t o N i c a r a g u a were i n c r e a s e d , but o n l y a f t e r s e v e r a l y e a r s , w h i l e t o t a l a i d was s t i l l much l e s s t h a n t h a t p r o v i d e d t o Honduras. The embassy i n N i c a r a g u a never - 1 1 2 -m a t e r i a l i z e d . P u b l i c p r e s s u r e d i d s u p p o r t t h o s e government o f f i c i a l s who, because o f t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s mentioned above, were t r y i n g t o a l t e r Candian p o l i c y . P u b l i c o p i n i o n was u s e f u l because i t a l l o w e d t h e government, i n t h e f a c e o f s t r o n g d i s a p p r o v a l from t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t o j u s t i f y i t s d e c i s i o n t o c o n t i n u e and even expand b i l a t e r a l a i d t o N i c a r a g u a . The o v e r a l l f e e l i n g among many NGOs was f r u s t r a t i o n i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e government, and "most p e r c e i v e d t h e i r i n f l u e n c e t o be f a i r l y s m a l l . " (48) S t i l l , a l t h o u g h Ambassador G o t l i e b may have been e x a g g e r a t i n g t h e l e v e l o f governmental r e s p o n s i v e n e s s f o r d o m e s t i c r e a s o n s , t h e r e was p r o b a b l y some t r u t h t o h i s remark t h a t : S t a t i s t i c s have been c i t e d about t h e e x t e n t o f our t r a d e and i n v e s t m e n t and t h e s i z e o f our a i d program. The s t a t i s t i c s a r e i m p r e s s i v e , i n Canadian terms. The s t a t i s t i c s a r e not as i m p o r t a n t , however, as t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a growing concensus among Canadians about t h e c r u c i a l i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e r e g i o n t o Canada and t o Canadian i n t e r e s t s . (49) - 1 1 3 -d) C r i t i q u e and C o n c l u s i o n s When t h e elements d i s c u s s e d above a r e c o n s i d e r e d i n the l i g h t o f t h e s u b s t a n c e o f Canadian p o l i c y towards t h e S a n d i n i s t a s , i t appears t h a t t h e s e d e c i s i o n s were u l t i m a t e l y d e t e r m i n e d l e s s by d o m e s t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and more by e x t e r n a l a c t o r s (e.g. N i c a r a g u a , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ) and e x t e r n a l s i t u a t i o n s (e.g. g e o p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , commercial r e l a t i o n s ) . The i n t e r n a t i o n a l environment i s a p e r v a s i v e , day-to-day i n f l u e n c e on Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y , w hich tends t o be r e a c t i v e i n n a t u r e . I t t h e r e f o r e c o n s t r a i n s t h e a b i l i t y o f i n t e r e s t groups t o i n f l u e n c e the b r o a d e r , major i s s u e s on which e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s must be responded t o . I n g e n e r a l , t h e d e c i s i o n c o s t s of f o r e i g n p o l i c y c h o i c e a r e g r e a t l y d e t e r m i n e d a t t h i s l e v e l , s e t t i n g t h e c o n t e x t w i t h i n w h i c h i n t e r e s t group a c t i v i t y must t a k e p l a c e . . . ( 5 0 ) V a r i o u s p o l i c y o p t i o n s towards N i c a r a g u a were c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e s e e l e m e n t s , each o f which tended r e s t r i c t t h e number o f a l t e r n a t i v e s open t o Canada. I n d i s c u s s i n g t h e f o r m a t i o n o f Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y , John Holmes sums up a v i e w which c o u l d a l s o be a p p l i e d i n t h e case o f N i c a r a g u a : Canadian p o l i c i e s i n r e c e n t y e a r s have been d e t e r m i n t e d more by what has happened i n Washington o r Houston, B r u s s e l s o r T e g u c i g a l p a , t h a n by what has been d e c i d e d o r sought i n Ottawa... Canadian p o l i c i e s would not have been v e r y d i f f e r e n t i f t h e r e had been a n o t h e r L i b e r a l l e a d e r o r a l o n g e r C o n s e r v a t i v e government... The range of Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c i e s i s c o n s i d e r a b l y . . . 1 i m i t e d by b a s i c g e o p o l i t i c a l , economic and c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s . . . and t h e room f o r r a d i c a l change i s c i r c u m s c r i b e d . (51) The Trudeau government was much more concerned about t h e p o t e n t i a l e s c a l a t i o n o f t h e c o n f l i c t i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a , and - I m -p o s s i b l e damage t o Canadian i n t e r e s t s from a n g e r i n g t h e Reagan a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h a n by any f o r e s e e a b l e d o m e s t i c consequences. A l t h o u g h Trudeau had always t r i e d t o a v o i d u p s e t t i n g t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s u n n e c e s s a r i l y , g rowing b i l a t e r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n a number of a r e a s , a l o n g w i t h t h e renewed emphasis on economic n a t i o n a l i s m m a n i f e s t e d by t h e L i b e r a l s i n t h e 1980 e l e c t i o n campaign, r a i s e d t h e l e v e l s o f t e n s i o n between Ottawa and Washington t o t h e p o i n t where MacGuigan warned t h a t "normal r e l a t i o n s between t h e two c o u n t r i e s may no l o n g e r be p o s s i b l e " . (52) I n t h e l i g h t o f t h e s e p r e s s i n g c o n c e r n s , Trudeau seemed t o go out o f h i s way t o a v o i d p i c k i n g a f i g h t w i t h Washington over what began as a r e l a t i v e l y minor problem i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ' " b a c k y a r d " . (The t o u g h e r s t a t e m e n t s were l e f t t o MacEachen.) The i n c r e a s i n g s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h e Reagan a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s a c t i o n s a g a i n s t N i c a r a g u a was the p r i m a r y cause o f Ottawa's g r a d u a l move away from s u p p o r t i n g t h e U.S. Domestic Canadian o p i n i o n , a l t h o u g h i t a n t i c i p a t e d t h e subsequent d r i f t o f o f f i c i a l p o l i c y , was a secondary, r e i n f o r c i n g f a c t o r i n t h a t e v o l u t i o n . W i t h i n t h i s o v e r a l l c o n t e x t , p u b l i c o p i n i o n seemed t o have had more o f an impact on Canadian a i d p o l i c y t h a n on s t r i c t l y p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n s . As C r a n f o r d P r a t t o b s e r v e d , "The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f development t o s t a b i l i t y i n t h e C a r i b b e a n and C e n t r a l A m e r i c a , p a r t i c u l a r l y the r e l a t i o n s h i p between e x t e r n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n , i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l change, and fundamental economic r i g h t s , i s unaddressed by t h e Canadian government, no doubt f o r f e a r of r a i s i n g y e t a n o t h e r c o n f l i c t w i t h Washington..." (53) The Canadian d e c i s i o n t o f o c u s i t s e f f o r t s on development -115-a s s i s t a n c e , f o r i n s t a n c e , was due i n l a r g e measure t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t i t was not l i k e l y t o o v e r l y a n t a g o n i z e the Reagan a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The s m a l l amount of a i d p r o v i d e d t o N i c a r a g u a , not t o mention i t s u n u s u a l l y l o n g d e l a y f o l l o w i n g t h e d o w n f a l l of Somoza, e x e m p l i f i e d Ottawa's h e s i t a n t approach. The r e s u l t has been a p o l i c y f u l l o f i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s , w h i c h , i n t u r n , have r e n d e r e d Canadian a c t i o n s r e l a t i v e l y i n e f f e c t i v e . Canadian " q u i e t d i p l o m a c y " had no e f f e c t on t h e Reagan a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h e i r r e a c t i o n was: " T h i s i s t h e way our p o l i c y i s . Take i t o r l e a v e i t . " (54) Canadian s u p p o r t f o r v a r i o u s peace p l a n s and i t s a t t e m p t s t o promote d i a l o g u e between the v a r i o u s a c t o r s i n t h e r e g i o n have been l i k e w i s e f r u i t l e s s . Canada must t a k e some o f t h e blame f o r t h i s f a i l u r e , s i n c e i t s s u p p o r t f o r Contadora was l i t t l e more th a n r h e t o r i c a l . No m a t t e r how s i n c e r e l y meant, Canadian a c t i o n s l a c k e d s i g n i f i c a n t , c o n c r e t e e f f o r t s and t h e f o l l o w - t h r o u g h n e c e s s a r y t o make a p r o c e s s l i k e Contadora succeed. The 6 - p o i n t N i c a r a g u a n peace p l a n o f 1983, f o r example, was endorsed i n p r i n c i p l e by Ottawa and p r o m p t l y f o r g o t t e n when Washington i g n o r e d i t . These f a i l u r e s a r e e s p e c i a l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n l i g h t o f t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t h a t Canada c o u l d have made w i t h a more c o h e r e n t and d e t e r m i n e d p o l i c y (see b e l o w ) . One r e a s o n f o r Ottawa's ad hoc approach has been the l a c k o f knowledge of N i c a r a g u a among Canadian o f f i c i a l s who, u n t i l t h e e a r l y 1980s, hadn't "had t o d e v e l o p d i s t i n c t Canadian p o l i c i e s towards ... i n d i v i d u a l C e n t r a l American r e p u b l i c s . . . N i c a r a g u a i s an enigma t o Canadian p o l i c y - m a k e r s . " -116-(55) The s h o r t a g e of knowledgable s t a f f a t E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , w h i l e c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e absence o f an o v e r a l l s t a t e g y , was i t s e l f a symptom of Canada's r e f u s a l t o become s e r i o u s l y i n v o l v e d i n w o r k i n g toward a p e a c e f u l s o l u t i o n i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a . T h i s r e f u s a l i n d i c a t e d t o t h e U.S. t h a t Ottawa was not p r e p a r e d t o make a s e r i o u s i s s u e o v er Washington's e f f o r t s t o d e s t r o y t h e S a n d i n i s t a r e v o l u t i o n i f i t would f u r t h e r damage Canadian-U.S. r e l a t i o n s . D e s p i t e t h i s ad hoc a pproach, however, a number of c o n s i s t e n t themes can be d i s c e r n e d i n t h e h i s t o r y o f Canada's approach t o t h e S a n d i n i s t a s . The f i r s t , and most o b v i o u s , i s Canada's c o n c e r n about th e r e a c t i o n o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . T h i s f e a r may not have been based on any s p e c i f i c t h r e a t : " t h r e a t s a r e e x t r e m e l y r a r e among Canadian and American a c t i o n s " , and " s p i l l o v e r " from one i s s u e a r e a t o a n o t h e r i s u n u s u a l . (56) S t i l l , no n a t i o n i n Canada's v u l n e r a b l e p o s i t i o n c o u l d a f f o r d not t o c o n s i d e r t h e a t t i t u d e of so p o w e r f u l a n e i g h b o u r . The S a n d i n i s t a r e v o l u t i o n "impinges on (Canada's) o v e r a l l r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e U.S., and t h a t ' s been a v e r y c o n s t r a i n i n g f a c t o r i n our whole approach t o C e n t r a l A m e r i c a . " (57) The f e a r o f p r o v o k i n g t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and t h e c o n c u r r e n t hope f o r a " s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p " r u n t h r o u g h o u t t h i s c h a p t e r (and many o t h e r s ) o f t h e h i s t o r y of Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y . Indeed, i n t h e MacGuigan p e r i o d i t can be f a i r l y s a i d t h a t Canada was f o l l o w i n g a p o l i c y o f " n o n d e c i s i o n " i n r e g a r d t o b o t h N i c a r a g u a and U.S. p o l i c y towards t h a t c o u n t r y . L a t e r , Ottawa made no s i g n i f i c a n t d e c i s i o n s about N i c a r a g u a w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g p o s s i b l e U.S. - 1 1 7 -r e s p o n s e s , as " [ t ] h e f e a r o f r e t a l i a t i o n l u r k s below t h e s u r f a c e o f Ottawa's p o l i t i c a l d i s c o u r s e . " (58) Fear o f t h e t u r m o i l t h a t might r e s u l t from U n i t e d S t a t e s heavy-handedness towards N i c a r a g u a was the o t h e r major r e c u r r i n g theme. Foremost among t h e s e f e a r s was t h e r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e war a g a i n s t N i c a r a g u a c o u l d d e s t a b i l i z e t h e r e g i o n , e s p e c i a l l y "Mexico and V e n e z u e l a , two c o u n t r i e s i n v e r y c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o t h e a r e a o f c o n f l i c t " . (59) The war a g a i n s t Vietnam, which e s c a l a t e d t o a war a g a i n s t a l l t h r e e c o u n t r i e s o f I n d o c h i n a , was a r e c e n t reminder o f how h o s t i l i t i e s , once begun, c o u l d be d i f f i c u l t t o c o n t a i n . T h i s p o s s i b i l i t y , and t h e consequences i t might engender (see above) was t h e s i n g l e most p o w e r f u l f a c t o r i n e n c o u r a g i n g o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e U.S. Canadian s u p p o r t f o r some elements o f Washington's N i c a r a g u a n p o l i c y , based as i t was on common p e r c e p t i o n s and t r a d i t i o n s , was c o n s i s t a n t t h r o u g h t h i s p e r i o d . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e r e was agreement t h a t N i c a r a g u a was i n t h e l e g i t i m a t e s e c u r i t y sphere o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h a t b o t h c o u n t r i e s p r e f e r r e d t o see change t a k e p l a c e i n a " n o n - r e v o l u t i o n a r y way" ( 6 0 ) , and t h a t a b o u r g o i s regime was p r e f e r a b l e t o a " M a r x i s t " one. F o r most o f t h i s p e r i o d , Canada a c c e p t e d U.S. charges t h a t t h e S a n d i n i s t a s were a c t i v e l y t r y i n g t o promote r e v o l u t i o n a r y s t r u g g l e t h r o u g h o u t C e n t r a l A m e r i c a , e s p e c i a l l y i n E l S a l v a d o r . A l t h o u g h Canada's assessment o f N i c a r a g u a ' s i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l development v a r i e d s l i g h t l y d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , s u s p i c i o n s t h a t t h e FSLN was t r y i n g t o c o n s t r u c t an a u t h o r i t a r i a n M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t s t a t e remained a c o n c e r n from -119-t h e day t h a t t h e S a n d i n i s t a s s e i z e d power. "The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f C e n t r a l American h i s t o r y s i n c e 1979 which sees 'Nicaragua as p l a t f o r m f o r r e v o l u t i o n ' w i t h t h e S a n d i n i s t a s h a v i n g ' b e t r a y e d ' t h e i r i d e a l s , has g a i n e d many a d h e r e n t s among Canadian o f f i c i a l s . " (61) Canada's d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h Washington stemmed from s e v e r a l f a c t o r s : i t s "middle power" s t a t u s , some d i f f e r e n c e s i n p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e , d i s a g r e e m e n t about the n a t u r e and causes o f the S a n d i n i s t a r e v o l u t i o n and, most of a l l , f e a r o f the consequences o f Washington's m i l i t a r i s t i c approach. Canadian o f f i c i a l s had a more t o l e r a n t , more "European" v i e w o f change i n t h e T h i r d World, and d i d not see an " e v i l empire" b e h i n d e v e r y d i s t u r b a n c e . Canada saw t h e problems of p o v e r t y , d i s e a s e , p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s s i o n , and s o c i a l j u s t i c e as t h e r e a l dangers t o C e n t r a l A m e r i c a . Ottawa was concerned t h a t Washingtons's h o s t i l i t y t o t h e S a n d i n i s t a s would d r i v e them i n t o t h e S o v i e t b l o c , much as was t h e case w i t h Cuba twenty y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y . As i n t h e case o f Cuba, Canada r e j e c t e d "the U.S. assumption t h a t i n t e r n a l change i n t h e c o u n t r i e s o f t h e C a r i b b e a n B a s i n t h r e a t e n s US s e c u r i t y . " (62) W i t h t h e p o s s b i l e e x c e p t i o n o f a s h o r t p e r i o d d u r i n g MacGuigan's t e n u r e a t E x t e r n a l , Canada m a i n t a i n e d t h a t N i c a r a g u a was not a S o v i e t o r Cuban c l i e n t s t a t e and t h a t S o v i e t e x p a n s i o n i s m was not an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r . ( A l t h o u g h as l a t e as May 1984, Trudeau remarked t h a t b o t h t h e U.S. and t h e S o v i e t s were " t r y i n g t o t u r n t h e m i s e r y o f t h e r e g i o n i n t o a c o n t e s t between communist and d e m o c r a t i c i d e a l s " . ) (63) Because Ottawa d i d not b e l i e v e t h a t N i c a r a g u a was a S o v i e t puppet o r a s e r i o u s t h r e a t t o t h e - I n -s e c u r i t y o f C e n t r a l A m e r i c a , i t viewed U.S. a c t i o n s and t h e r i s k s t h a t were i n v o l v e d as a g r a v e m i s c a l c u l a t i o n . Canada's p r i m a r y r esponse was t h e use o f " q u i e t d i p l o m a c y " t o t r y t o moderate W a s h i n g t o n ' s , a n t i - S a n d i n i s t a c r u s a d e . These elements were the most c o n s i s t e n t themes i n Canadian p o l i c y towards N i c a r a g u a . But t h e r e were i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s between Ottawa's r h e t o r i c and p r a c t i c e , and between some a c t i o n s and o t h e r s . Development a s s i s t a n c e i s a case i n p o i n t . The Canadian government spoke of "human s o l i d a r i t y " , and "the p o w e r f u l h u m a n i t a r i a n m o t i v e " upon which i t based i t s e f f o r t s t o h e l p t h o s e " t r a p p e d i n w o r l d p o v e r t y t o e x p e r i e n c e a more decent l i f e . . . " ( 6 4 ) . But Ottawa t i e d 80% of i t s a i d t o t h e purchase of Canadian goods (one o f t h e h i g h e s t r a t e s i n t h e w o r l d ) , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t Managua was not a b l e t o "shop around" f o r t h e l o w e s t p r i c e s o r h i g h e s t q u a l i t y . T i e d a i d a l s o f a v o u r s " i m p o r t e d t e c h n o l o g i e s . . . and makes i t e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o employ a i d f o r d i r e c t p o v e r t y - a l l e v i a t i n g p r o j e c t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r u r a l a r e a s . . . " (65) A n other problem l a y w i t h Canada's c o n t e n t i o n t h a t " a i d i s not d e s i g n e d as a t o o l t o reward o r p u n i s h f o r e i g n governments" and i s "not d e t e r m i n e d by p o l i t i c a l whim but by s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l s o f development". (66) These p r i n c i p l e s were a p p l i e d d i f f e r e n t l y i n t h e c ases of N i c a r a g u a and Honduras. Canada used N i c a r a g u a ' s need f o r development a s s i s t a n c e as a l e v e r t o push f o r a r e v e r s a l o f Managua's a l l e g e d " a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m " and " s u b v e r s i o n " o f n e i g h b o u r i n g c o u n t r i e s (e.g. MacEachen's remarks d u r i n g h i s t r i p t o C e n t r a l A m e r i c a , comments from CIDA - 1 2 0 -o f i c i a l s and Amb. S i r r s , above) Honduras, however, which had a much worse human r i g h t s r e c o r d , was g r a n t e d more Canadian a s s i s t a n c e t h a n any o t h e r c o u n t r y i n t h e r e g i o n . T h i s l a r g e s s e was g r a n t e d even though "Canada does not approve of t h e s u p p l y of armaments by any c o u n t r y t o o p p o s i n g f a c t i o n s i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a " (67) and Honduras was t h e p r i m a r y s u p p l y and s t a g i n g base f o r C o n t r a a t t a c k s on N i c a r a g u a n s . When q u e s t i o n e d about t h i s p r a c t i c e , E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s responded t h a t Canada has r e i t e r a t e d i t s " s e r i o u s c o n c e r n about t h e e s c a l a t i o n o f t h e c o n f l i c t " t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s , Honduras, and Cuba ( s i c ! ) . The DEA m a i n t a i n e d t h e dubious p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e a i d w i l l g i v e Canada more l e v e r a g e w i t h t h e Honduran government i n o r d e r t o promote a " p e a c e f u l s o l u t i o n " . (68) In any c a s e , t h i s " b e n e f i t o f t h e doubt" was not extended t o t h e S a n d i n i s t a s . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r c o n t r a d i c t i o n i s g r e a t e r s i n c e N i c a r a g u a i s a d m i t t e d l y a b l e t o use t h e a i d i t r e c e i v e s more e f f i c i e n t l y t h an Honduras. A r e p o r t from ICHRLA i n 1984 n o t e s "the e x c e l l e n t t r a c k r e c o r d o f t h e N i c a r a g u a n government i n d e l i v e r i n g a i d t o t h e g r a s s r o o t s p o p u l a t i o n . . . " and adds t h a t t h e need f o r a s s i s t a n c e i s " r e i n f o r c e d by t h e c r i p p l i n g a t t a c k s " t h r o u g h b o t h th e " d i r t y war" and t h e economic b o y c o t t promoted by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . (69) The d e s i g n a t i o n of Honduras as a "core c o u n t r y " f o r a i d , w h i l e g r a n t i n g N i c a r a g u a o n l y " p r o j e c t c o u n t r y " s t a t u s does not f i t w i t h Canada's p r o f e s s e d i n t e n t i o n o f m a x i m i z i n g th e impact of i t s a i d programs t o b e n e f i t t h e w o r l d ' s poor. Not o n l y does the r e c o r d demonstrate t h a t t h e funds would be used more e f f e c t i v e l y i n N i c a r a g u a i t s e l f , b u t t h e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t a r e found t h e r e , such — lav -as a g r a r i a n r e f o r m , mass m o b i l i z a t i o n , and t h e v e r i t a b l e absence of c o r r u p t i o n , might s e r v e as i n s p i r a t i o n s f o r s u c c e s s f u l development i n o t h e r poor c o u n t r i e s - i f t h e S a n d i n i s t a s were a l l o w e d t o e x p e r i m e n t w i t h s o c i a l r e f o r m i n peace. * T h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n was a n a l y z e d by Edgar Dosman: S i n c e Honduras i s t h e o n l y d e s i g n a t e d c o r e c o u n t r y f o r Canadian a i d i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a , a m e a n i n g f u l s i g n a l f o r showing d i s p l e a s u r e toward t h a t c o u n t r y f o r i t s p a r t i n t h e c o v e r t war a g a i n s t N i c a r a g u a would be e i t h e r t o c u r t a i l f u r t h e r a i d o r t o s c a l e i t back t o t h e N i c a r a g u a n l e v e l . A l t h o u g h p r e s s e d t o be c o n s i s t e n t i n i t s a c t i o n i n c u r t a i l i n g a i d t o Cuba i n r e t a l i a t i o n f o r t h a t c o u n t r y ' s " a d v e n t u r i s m " and i n t e r v e n t i o n i n A f r i c a n a f f a i r s , t h e Trudeau government c o n s i s t e n t l y r e f u s e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h e p a r a l l e l i n t h e m i l i t a r i z a t i o n o f Honduras and i t s use as a base f o r the a n t i - S a n d i n i s t a " c o n t r a s . . . " (71) The o t h e r major i n c o n s i s t e n c y was t h e d i s p a r i t y between the Canada's t r a d i t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e f o r a m u l t i l a t e r a l approach t o p e a c e f u l l y r e s o v i n g c o n f l i c t s when a superpower, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , * One o b s e r v e r h o l d s t h a t U.S. h o s t i l i t y t o t h e S a n d i n i s t a s stems from th e f a c t t h a t " . . . t h e p r i o r i t i e s o f t h e new government 'meant t h a t N i c a r a g u a ' s poor m a j o r i t y would have a c c e s s t o , and be t h e p r i m a r y b e n e f i c i a r i e s o f , p u b l i c programs,' the f a c t t h a t i n f a n t m o r t a l i t y f e l l so d r a m a t i c a l l y t h a t N i c a r a g u a won an award from th e World H e a l t h O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r t h e b e s t h e a l t h achievement i n a T h i r d World n a t i o n , h e a l t h s t a n d a r d s and l i t e r a c y s h a r p l y improved, a s u c c e s s f u l a g r a r i a n r e f o r m was c a r r i e d o u t , GDP expanded by 5% i n 1983 i n c o n t r a s t t o o t h e r c o u n t r i e s i n t h e r e g i o n , p r o d u c t i o n and consumption of c o r n , beans, and r i c e r o s e d r a m a t i c a l l y and N i c a r a g u a came c l o s e r t o s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y t h a n any o t h e r C e n t r a l American n a t i o n and made the most i m p r e s s i v e g a i n s o f any L a t i n American n a t i o n i n t h e Q u a l i t y o f L i f e Index of t h e Overseas Development C o u n c i l , based on l i t e r a c y , i n f a n t m o r t a l i t y , and l i f e e x p e c t a n c y . . . 'Nicaragua s h o u l d , i n many ways, s t a n d as an example f o r C e n t r a l A m e r i c a , not i t s o u t c a s t . The g r i m s o c i a l s t a t i s t i c s from Honduras... s t a n d i n s h a r p c o n t r a s t t o the r e c e n t achievements i n N i c a r a g u a . (70) -122-i s i n v o l v e d , and i t s f a i l u r e t o work s e r i o u s l y w i t h such o r g a n i z a t i o n s as the U n i t e d N a t i o n s , t h e European Economic Community, and e s p e c i a l l y Contadora i n o r d e r t o t r y t o b r i n g peace t o C e n t r a l A m e r i c a . (Canada had made such e f f o r t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e Korean War, C h i n a , Cuba, t h e Vietnam War, arms c o n t r o l t a l k s , and i n o t h e r c o n t e x t s . ) (72) But a l t h o u g h Canadian s u p p o r t f o r t h e Contadora e f f o r t was s i n c e r e , i t was l i t t l e more t h a n words. There i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e Canadian government made any s e r i o u s e f f o r t t o h e l p m o b i l i z e t h e r e s o u r c e s and i n f l u e n c e o f t h i s o r o t h e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and t h e i r member s t a t e s i n an e f f o r t b r i n g p r e s s u r e t o bear f o r an end t o h o s t i l i t i e s , o r t o moderate t h o s e elements o f U.S. p o l i c y t o N i c a r a g u a which Canada opposed. Canada has more i n f l u e n c e as p a r t o f a l a r g e r team, and c o u n t r i e s l i k e Mexico and V e n e z u e l a might have been h e l p f u l a l l i e s . By h e l p i n g t o s t r e n g t h e n w o r l d o p i n i o n i n f a v o r o f a n e g o t i a t e d s e t t l e m e n t w i t h N i c a r a g u a and by e n c o u r a g i n g c o n t i n u e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e S a n d i n i s t a s , Canada might have h e l p e d t o f o r c e Washington t o r e t h i n k t h e c o s t s and r i s k s o f i t s p o l i c y o f o v e r t h r o w i n g t h e government of N i c a r a g u a . The o p p o r t u n i t y was t h e r e . " I n a ti m e o f American m i l i t a r y and economic d e c l i n e , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i s s u f f i c i e n t l y weakend t h a t i t i s now f o r c e d t o l i s t e n t o i t s a l l i e s , s i n c e i t can no l o n g e r impose on them i t s p r e f e r r e d s o l u t i o n s t o w o r l d problems...America cannot a f f o r d n o t t o g e t on w e l l w i t h i t s c o n t i n e n t a l p a r t n e r . " (73) Canada's f a i l u r e t o use i t s i n f l u e n c e i s a l l t h e more s i g n i f i c a n t because - 1 2 3 -Among t h e d i s p a r a t e group o f "middle powers", from b o t h t h e N o r t h and South, w i t h enough c l o u t and c r e d i b i l t y t o l e a d i n d e f i n i n g new c o l l e c t i v e management, and i n r a d i c a l l y i m p r o v i n g e x i s t i n g m u l t i l a t e r a l systems, Canada re-emerges, i n s i s t e n t l y and n a t u r a l l y , because of b o t h i t s t r a d i t i o n s and i t s i n t e r e s t s . (74) Had t h e Canadian government so d e s i r e d , t h e r e was room t o a c t u n i l a t e r a l l y . Ottawa c o u l d have been more e x p l i c i t about i t s s e r i o u s d i s a g r e e m e n t s w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a c t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e b a c k i n g f o r t h e C o n t r a s and t h e m i n i n g o r N i c a r a g u a n h a r b o u r s . By c l e a r l y o p p o s i n g Reagan's a c t i o n s , Canada, as one o f Washington's c l o s e s t a l l i e s , would have d e n i e d t h e U.S. i m p o r t a n t p o l i t i c a l s u p p o r t w h i l e u n d e r c u t t i n g t h e " l e g i t i m a c y " o f i t s p o l i c i e s . But Canada tended t o a v o i d d i r e c t condemnations about t h e s e a c t s o f war, and, as n o t e d , when vague statement were made denouncing " o u t s i d e i n t e r f e r e n c e " , t h e S o v i e t Union and Cuba were u s u a l l y added t o t h e U.S. f o r " b a l a n c e " . The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a Canadian embassy i n Managua would have u n d e r l i n e d Canada's d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h Washington, demonstrated i t s s u p p o r t f o r N i c a r a g u a n s o v e r e i g n t y and independence, w h i l e p r o v i d i n g Canada w i t h a v a l u a b l e s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n . Such a move was needed because of t h e u n i q u e , r e v o l u t i o n a r y s i t u a t i o n i n N i c a r a g u a , as w e l l as t h e a n t i - S a n d i n i s t a d i s i n f o m a t i o n campaign o r c h e s t r a t e d by t h e White House. The t r a n s f e r o f a i d funds t o N i c a r a g u a from Honduras was a n o t h e r p o s s i b l e o p t i o n , and one whose e f f e c t would be b o t h c o n c r e t e and s y m b o l i c . O f f e r r i n g such s u p p o r t t o t h e N i c a r a g u a n economy would reduce some of t h e damage caused by t h e U.S.-backed C o n t r a s . By p r o v i d i n g g r a n t s ( i n s t e a d o f l o a n s ) , p r e f e r e n t i a l t r a d e agreements, t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e , and o t h e r forms o f a s s i s t a n c e (e.g. c r e d i t i n s u r a n c e f o r Canadian companies t h r o u g h t h e E x p o r t Development C o r p o r a t i o n ) , Canada c o u l d have backed i t s r h e t o r i c about s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t deeds. As i t was, t h e modest i n c r e a s e i n Canadian a i d t o N i c a r a g u a a l s o s e r v e d Ottawa as an excuse f o r not d o i n g more and as a sop t o p u b l i c o p i n i o n . More use c o u l d have been made of NGOs f o r t h i s work. CIDA found t h a t "NGOs... r e p r e s e n t one o f t h e most p r a c t i c a l and e f f e c t i v e forms o f human c o o p e r a t i o n i n t h e w o r l d . They have the p o t e n t i a l t o be i n s t r u m e n t s o f change, t o p r o v i d e l e a d e r s h i p and b u i l d b r i d g e s o f p r a c t i c a l a c t i o n between N o r t h and South." (75) A c t i o n s such as t h e m u l t i l a t e r a l and u n i l a t e r a l ones l i s t e d above would c e r t a i n l y have h e l p e d N i c a r a g u a t o s u r v i v e . By s e t t i n g such an example, Canada might have encouraged o t h e r c o u n t r i e s t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r : o w n a i d programs t o N i c a r a g u a and t o be more o p e n l y c r i t i c a l o f U.S. p o l i c y . A t t h e v e r y l e a s t , Canada would have been p r o v i d i n g v i t a l h e l p t o a s m a l l c o u n t r y i n i t s s t r u g g l e f o r n a t i o n a l independence and development. As i t was, Ottawa's e f f o r t s were i n a d e q u a t e a t b e s t . An E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s o f f i c i a l conceded t h a t Canadian a t t e m p t s t o moderate Washington's m i l i t a r y approach w i t h " q u i e t d i p l o m a c y " had f a i l e d . "We don't have much i n f l u e n c e " , he a d m i t t e d . (76) Of c o u r s e , Ottawa's i n f l u e n c e on Washington has always been l i m i t e d and i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o draw any f i r m c o n c l u s i o n s as t o what impact a s t r o n g e r p o s i t i o n might have had on t h e U.S., i f any. But "Canada i s b e t t e r p l a c e d t h a n any o t h e r c o u n t r y t o - 1 2 5 -a c t as a moderate m e d i a t i n g i n f l u e n c e between the'U.S. ,and L a t i n A m e r i c a " p r e c i s e l y because o f i t s t i e s t o t h e U.S., i t s i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e p u t a t i o n , i t s w e a l t h , and o t h e r f a c t p r s . (77) Canada's o p p o s i t i o n t o an o u t r i g h t U.S. i n v a s i o n was a not i n s i g n i f i c a n t element i n d e t e r r i n g such a move. Y e t , Canada's own c o n t r i b u t i o n t o p e a c e f u l l y r e s o l v i n g t h e c r i s i s o v e r N i c a r a g u a was m i n i m a l . No s u s t a i n e d o r d e t e r m i n e d e f f o r t was made t o f i n d a m u l t i l a t e r a l s o l u t i o n . A i d was s l o w i n a r r i v i n g and cannot be deemed generous. Trudeau d i d not l a u n c h a "peace i n i t i a t i v e " f o r C e n t r a l A m e r i c a , not o n l y because he d i d n ' t c o n s i d e r t h e c r i s i s s e r i o u s enough, bu t because he seemed t o s u b s c r i b e t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l Canadian n o t i o n t h a t , i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s , power c o u l d "be a f f e c t e d o n l y m a r g i n a l l y by t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f l e g a l r u l e s o r by i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s . " (78) One can o n l y s p e c u l a t e about what might have been a c c o m p l i s h e d had Canada a l l o c a t e d more r e s o u r c e s e i t h e r t o a s s i s t N i c a r a g u a u n i l a t e r a l l y o r t o pursue a m u l t i l a t e r a l approach w i t h t h o s e L a t i n and European n a t i o n s which share Canada's c o n c e r n s . The i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f s t r a t e g i e s such as t h o s e s u g g e s t e d above, because t h e y would have c l e a r l y run c o u n t e r t o U.S. p o l i c y , would c o n s t i t u t e s t r o n g e v i d e n c e o f an independent f o r e i g n p o l i c y . The f a i l u r e t o p l a y a v i t a l and independent r o l e i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a , however, " c a s t s doubt upon Canada's i d e n t i t y as a ( n independent) member-nation of t h e c o n t i n e n t o f t h e A m e r i c a s . . . " (79) C o n s i d e r i n g a l l t h e l i m i t a t i o n s on Canada's o p t i o n s , i t would be u n r e a l i s t i c t o t h i n k t h a t Ottawa c o u l d have pursued - 1 2 6 -r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t p o l i c i e s . Indeed, g i v e n t h e f a c t o r s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s t u d y , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t Canada r e a c t e d as i t d i d . However, had some of t h e c o n d i t i o n s been changed, a markedly a l t e r e d p o l i c y might have been p o s s i b l e . F o r example, had t h e Prime M i n i s t e r ( o r perhaps t h e M i n i s t e r f o r E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s ) , been w i l l i n g t o r i s k Washington's anger, he might have adopted one o r more o f the p o l i c i e s mentioned above. A s t r o n g e r and more o r g a n i z e d p u b l i c e f f o r t i n s u p p o r t of t h e S a n d i n i s t a s might have r e s u l t e d i n a more f o r t h r i g h t s t a n d by t h e Canadian government. W h i l e some elements of Canada's r e l a t i o n s w i t h N i c a r a g u a (e.g t i e d a i d , s u s p i c i o n of " M a r x i s t " t e n d e n c i e s ) would have e x i s t e d even w i t h o u t Washington's h o s t i l i t y t o t h e government i n Managua, Canada's t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e r n f o r d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , a l o n g w i t h t h e growing s u p p o r t o f t h e Canadian p u b l i c , s u g g e s t s t h a t Ottawa might have been s i g n i f i c a n t l y more generous and s u p p o r t i v e of the S a n d i n i s t a e x p e r i m e n t i n s o c i a l development. To say t h a t Canada pursued a more e n l i g h t e n e d p o l i c y toward N i c a r a g u a than t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s d i d i s t o say l i t t l e . A more r e a s o n a b l e , and damning, comparison i s w i t h t h e a c t i o n s of o t h e r m i d d l e powers, such as M e x i c o , t h e N e t h e r l a n d s , and Sweden, whi c h o f f e r e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y more p o l i t i c a l and economic s u p p o r t t o the S a n d i n i s t a s . Canadian p o l i c y , i n t h e l a s t a n a l y s i s , o p t e d f o r p r o f i t s o v e r p r i n c i p l e , t r a d e over i n t e r n a t i o n a l law, and narrow s e l f - i n t e r e s t o v er t h e l i v e s o f N i c a r a g u a n s . Examining N i c a r a g u a as a f o r e i g n p o l i c y q u e s t i o n can i l l u m i n a t e t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s i n o t h e r c a s e s , but -127-some unique a s p e c t s o f t h i s i s s u e ( e . g . t h e l a c k o f any str.on.-g i n p u t from b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s ; t h e depth o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n ; t h e u n u s u a l l y h i g h l e v e l s o f t e n s i o n w i t h t h e U.S..; and t h e seeming absence o f major d i f f e r e n c e s among v a r i o u s m i n i s t r i e s ) r e q u i r e c a u t i o n b e f o r e g e n e r a l i z i n g t o o t h e r f o r e i g n p o l i c y o u t p u t s . More complete answers about t h e d e t e r m i n a n t s o f Canada's N i c a r a g u a n p o l i c y (and i t s r e l a t i o n t o v a r i o u s d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g models) w i l l c e r t a i n l y be p o s s i b l e as more documents, p a p e r s , and memoires become a v a i l a b l e . I n a d d i t i o n , r e s e a r c h w i l l be needed on q u e s t i o n s such a s : 1) To what e x t e n t d i d a n t i c i p a t e d r e a c t i o n , d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t p r e s s u r e s , " s p i l l o v e r " , and o t h e r a s p e c t s o f Canadian-U.S. r e l a t i o n s a f f e c t Ottawa's N i c a r a g u a n p o l i c y ? 2) What a c t i o n s d i d Canada u n d e r t a k e i n i t s " q u i e t d i p l o m a c y " w i t h Washington i n o r d e r t o t r y t o moderate the l a t t e r ' s p o l i c y towards t h e S a n d i n i s t a r e v o l u t i o n ? 3) D i d Canada pursue any as y e t u n d i s c l o s e d a t t e m p t s t o r a l l y i n t e r n a t i o n a l and/or m u l t i l a t e r a l s u p p o r t f o r i t s o p p o s i t i o n t o U.S. i n t e r v e n t i o n a g a i n s t N i c a r a g u a ? 4) What e f f o r t s d i d t h e S a n d i n i s t a s make t o t r y t o win Canadian s u p p o r t ? 5) What recommendations d i d CIDA make about a i d t o N i c a r a g u a , and how much i n f l u e n c e d i d i t have a) w i t h i n t h e Department o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s ? b) i n C a b i n e t ? 6) D i d t h e media i n f l u e n c e t h e views o f e i t h e r t h e p u b l i c or t h e d e c i s i o n makers i n Ottawa? I n what ways? 7) Who was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r making d e c i s i o n s ( o r n o n d e c i s i o n s ) f o r a g i v e n p o l i c y ? The development o f a more - 1 2 8 -complete u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s and p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e p o l i c y - m a k e r s t h e m s e l v e s would p r o b a b l y y i e l d t h e g r e a t e s t i n s i g h t i n t o the e v o l u t i o n o f Canada's p o l i c y towards t h e S a n d i n i s t a r e v o l u t i o n . -129-Notes C h a p t e r 1 1) D a v i d B i c k f o r d , (DEA), p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 7 May 1984. 2) J .CM. O g i l s b y , G r i n g o s from the Far N o r t h ( T o r o n t o : M a c M i l l a n , 1976) 101. 3) O g i l s b y 326. 4) CIDA, 1983-84 Annual R e p o r t ( H u l l , 1984) 4. 5) C a n a d a - C a r i b b e a n - C e n t r a l America P o l i c y A l t e r n a t i v e s ( h e n c e f o r t h CAPA), B r i e f on Canada and C e n t r a l A m e r i c a ( T o r o n t o , 1984) 20. 6) CAPA, C a n a d a - C e n t r a l A m e r i c a R e l a t i o n s ( T o r o n t o , 1984) 20. 7) CAPA, Canada 11. 8) CAPA, Canada 10-11. 9) CIDA, Canada and t h e M u l t i l a t e r a l Development Banks ( H u l l : MSS, 1984) 11. 10) "Canadian A i d t o L a t i n A m e r i c a " , LAWG L e t t e r May-August 1981: 35. 11) L a t i n A merica Working Group ( h e n c e f o r t h LAWG), Resource  K i t 37. 12) Tim D r a i m i n , "Canada and C e n t r a l A m e r i c a " , LARU S t u d i e s , V (1982) : 84 . 13) D.R. 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Speeches C h a r l a n d , C l a u d e . "A Canadian View o f L a t i n A merica and the C a r i b b e a n " . Washington, 30 A p r i l 1984. Dupras, M a u r i c e . "Canada's P o l i t i c a l and S e c u r i t y I n t e r e s t s i n L a t i n A m e r i c a and the C a r i b b e a n " . Washington, 30 A p r i l 1984. G o t l i e b , A l l a n . "Canada, The U n i t e d S t a t e s and L a t i n A m e r i c a : Independence and Accomodation". Washington, 30 A p r i l 1984. MacEachen, A l l a n . "Notes f o r a Speech",. UNA seminar, Ottawa, 3 June 1983. . "Notes f o r a Toast O f f e r e d by the Honourable A l l a n J . MacEachen on the O c c a s i o n o f the V i s i t o f the F o r e i g n M i n i s t e r of C o l o m b i a , H.E. L l o r e d a C a i c e d o " . Ottawa: 20 F e b r u a r y 1984. MacGuigan, Mark. " C e n t r a l America and Canadian F o r e i g n P o l i c y " . U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , 31 May 1982. "Notes f o r an Ad d r e s s " . Law F a c u l t y , U of T o r o n t o , 31 March 1982. A r t i c l e s Canadian Dimension. "The Pe o p l e on the Offensive". Jan./Feb. 1979: 25-6. C e n t r a l America Update. " A i d Notes". June 1980: 119. -149-"Canada and C e n t r a l A m e r i c a " . December 1982: 9. "Canadian D e l e g a t i o n Lauds L i t e r a c y Campaign". June 1980: 119. " C i v i l D i s o b e d i e n c e a t E x t e r n a l " . October 1983. - . "MacEachen T r i p P r o f i l e s Ottawa's O p p o s i t i o n t o U.S.". May 1984: 46. " M e d i c a l A i d t o N i c a r a g u a " . March 1980: 105. " S o l i d a r i t y C oast t o C o a s t " . December 1982: 4. "Turner Takes Charge". J u l y / A u g u s t 1984: 2. "U.S. Neighbours Oppose I n t e r v e n t i o n " . December 1980: 22. F i n l a y s o n , Ann. "The o p p o s i t i o n c a l l s a b o y c o t t t " . Maclean's. 6 August 1984: n.p. Hopkins, Thomas. " C e n t r a l America a t t h e a b y s s " . Macleans. 29 March 1982: 28-34. N o r t h , D a v i d . "Managua moves t o l i m i t t h e dangers". Maclean's. 5 December 1983 : 42. P i p e r , John, and J a c q u e l i n e T o u p i n . "The S a n d i n i s t a s r i d e t h e wave of a shaky v i c t o r y " . M a c l e a n s ' s . 30 March 1981: 10-12. Posner, M i c h a e l . "The d a r k e n i n g war c l o u d s " , Maclean's. 7 May 1984: 26-27. R i l e y , Susan. "Canada's uneasy s t a n d on a t r i c k y i s s u e " . M aclean's. 8 August 1983 : 22. Ross, Val"The c a s t of a dangerous drama". Maclean's. 8 August 1983: 20-1. P e r i o d i c a l s  Canada Weekly. Canadian T r i b u n e . C e n t r o America L i b r e ! [ V a n c o u v e r ] . The Fisherman [ V a n c o u v e r ] . L a t i n America Weekly Report [London]. S o c i a l i s t V o i c e . -150-Newspapers  B a r r i c a d a [Managua]. B a r r i c a d a I n t e r n a c i o n a l [Managua]. E l Nuevo D i a r i o [Managua]. The G a z e t t e [ M o n t r e a l ] . Globe and M a i l [ T o r o n t o ] . L e n n o x v i l l e Record [Quebec]. New York Times• Ottawa C i t i z e n . San J o s e News [C o s t a R i c a ] . T o ronto S t a r . The Ubyssey [ U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C.]. Vancouver Sun. West Ender [ V a n c o u v e r ] . Western Producer [ S a s k a t o o n ] . Winnipeg Free P r e s s . M i s c e l l a n e o u s B i c k f o r d , D a v i d . P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w . 7 May 1984. Canadian A c t i o n f o r N i c a r a g u a . N e w s l e t t e r . T o r o n t o . Canadian C a t h o l i c O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r Development and Peace. P r e s s r e l e a s e . n.d. Canadian Labour Congress. "CLC Statement on USA I n t e r v e n t i o n i n N i c a r a g u a " . P r e s s r e l e a s e . 22 November 1983. D a v i l a , Jamie. P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w . 8 May 1984. D r a i m i n , Tim. I n t e r v i e w . Sunday Morning. CBC r a d i o . CBO, To r o n t o . 18 December 1983. Gander, Cathy. L e t t e r t o Oxfam, CUSO. 18 F e b r u a r y 1982. Ghent, J o c e l y n M. "Canadian-American R e l a t i o n s and t h e N u c l e a r Weapons C o n t r o v e r s y , 1958-1963". D i s s . U of I l l i n o i s , 1976. -151-H a r b i n , W i l l i a m . H i s t o r y of U.S. p o l i c y on t a l k i n g t o the  N i c a r a g u a n s . Ottawa: U.S. embassy, 28 March 1984. L a t i n American Working Group. "Canadian A i d t o L a t i n A m e r i c a " . LAWG L e t t e r . T o r o n t o . M i l o , F r a n c i n e [CIDA]. P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w . 8 May 1984. N i c a r a g u a Update. n.p.: 25 June 1979. "Report on t h e F i r s t I n t e r n a t i o n a l Non-Govermental A g e n c i e s C o n f e r e n c e i n N i c a r a g u a , December 1983". P r e s s s t a t e m e n t . 15 December 1983. T o o l s f o r Peace. Help us f i l l a s h i p f o r N i c a r a g u a 1. Vancouver: 19 84. U n i t e d S t a t e s I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e . L e t t e r t o the a u t h o r . 23 May 1984. Appendi x I Country E l i g i b i l i t y - B i l a t e r a l Development A s s i s t a n c e F a c t o r s b e a r i n g on a c o u n t r y ' s e l i g i b i l i t y s t a t u s : - i n terms o f a p a r t i c u l a r d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r y , f a c t o r s i n c l u d e i t s l e v e l o f need, i t s commitment t o development, t h e human r i g h t s s i t u a t i o n , a b s o r p t i v e c a p a c i t y , e t c . - i n terms o f Canadian i n t e r e s t s , t h e f a c t o r s i n c l u d e p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s - such as Canada's b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s , t h e r o l e of t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r y i n t h e r e g i o n a l and w o r l d community, the s t a t u s o f t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r y as a member of t h e Commonwealth o r l a f r a n c o p h o n i e , i n v o l v e m e n t o f Canadian b u s i n e s s , i n s t i t u t i o n s , NGOs o r r e l i g i o u s groups i n t h e c o u n t r y - as w e l l as commercial c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . - s p e c i a l c r i s i s f a c t o r s might i n c l u d e p e r i o d s of r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , p o l i t i c a l u p h e a v a l s , n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r s , e t c . Canadian p o l i c y i n c l u d e s a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f a s s i s t a n c e on the p o o r e s t c o u n t r i e s -- 80 p e r c e n t o f b i l a t e r a l a i d i s p r o v i d e d t o low-income d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . Canada u n d e r t a k e s b i l a t e r a l a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the f o l l o w i n g e l i g i b i l i t y s t r u c t u r e ( p a r t i a l l i s t i n g ) : C a t a g o r y I - Core ("program c o u n t r y " ) A l o n g - t e r m s u b s t a n t i v e commitment t o development i s e n v i s a g e d , and i s r e p r e s e n t e d by r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e b u d g e t a r y a l l o c a t i o n s , l o n g - t e r m , e x t e n s i v e , on-going a n a l y s i s and p l a n n i n g , and s i g n i f i c a n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s o u r c e s . Canadian i n t e r e s t s a r e p r i m a r i l y d e v e l o p m e n t a l , w i t h g e o p o l i t i c a l and commercial i n t e r e s t s as e s s e n t i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . M u l t i - y e a r commitments and t h e use' o f a l l t r a n s f e r mechanisms a r e p e r m i s s a b l e f o r c o u n t r i e s i n t h i s c a t a g o r y . C a t a g o r y I I - Non-core ( " p r o j e c t c o u n t r y " ) T h i s c a t a g o r y i s composed o f c o u n t r i e s where a s i g n i f i c a n t Canadian p r e s e n c e i s r e q u i r e d f o r d e v e l o p m e n t a l , p o l i t i c a l , and c o m m e r i c i a l r e a s o n s , but where - because t h e s e c o u n t r i e s a re r e l a t i v e l y l e s s i m p o r t a n t f o r the 0'DA programme, a r e i n a s t a t e of p o l i t i c a l u n c e r t a i n t y , o r because t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s o u r c e c o n s t r a i n t s - a f u l l - f l e d g e d l o n g - t e r m ODA programme i s n o t a p p r o p r i a t e o r f e a s i b l e a t p r e s e n t . Source: CIDA - Elements of Canada's O f f i c i a l Development  A s s i s t a n c e S t r a t e g y (1984). - 1 5 3 -Appendix I I CIDA has d i v i d e d t h e a i d i n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g c a t a g o r i e s : B i l a t e r a l - d i r e c t government t o government a i d , e i t h e r g r a n t s o r l o a n s u s u a l l y t i e d t o d i r e c t l y t o t h e purchase of Canadian goods and s e r v i c e s . MAF - M i s s i o n A d m i n i s t e r e d Funds h a n d l e d by t h e Canadian embassies f o r s m a l l , g r a s s r o o t s p r o j e c t s . I n d u s t r i a l C o o p e r a t i o n - p r o j e c t s w h i c h a s s i s t a c o u n t r y i n d e v e l o p i n g i t s b u s i n e s s s e c t o r t h r o u g h f i n a n c i n g Canadian i n i t i a t i v e s i n f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d i e s f o r l a r g e c a p i t a l p r o j e c t s o r j o i n t b u s i n e s s v e n t u r e s , o r s u p p o r t t o t e s t new t e c h n o l o g y . I n s t i t u t i o n a l C o o p e r a t i o n - c o o p e r a t i v e p r o j e c t s between a Canadian i n s t i t u t i o n ( h o s p i t a l , u n i v e r s i t y , e t c . ) and t h e l o c a l c o u n t e r p a r t . Food A i d - the v a l u e o f i n k i n d d o n a t i o n s o f Canadian f o o d p r o d u c t s , u s u a l l y g r a i n . NGO - t h i s r e p r e s e n t ' s CIDA's c o n t i b u t i o n t o a Canadian non-governmental agency's p r o j e c t s . The i n i t i a t i v e f o r t h s e s p r o j e c t s i s t h a t of the NGO, not CIDA, (which e x p l a i n s why t h e l a r g e s t r e c i p i e n t o f t h e s e funds i n C e n t r a l America has been N i c a r a g u a ) . SUMMARY OF CANADIAN AID TO CENTRAL AMERICA  BILATERAL ASSISTANCE, MAF,  SPECIAL 'PROGRAMS AND FOOD AID DISBURSEMENTS IN $000 80/81 81/82 82/83 83/84 TOTAL HONDURAS Bilateral 3,626.0 3,048.3 3,306.0 1,666. 9 11,647.2 *MAF 50.0 200.0 275.0 350. 0 875.0 *NC0 900.0 1,400.0 2025.1 2,443. 2 6,768.3 *Indust. Co-op. 68.0 4 5.0 52.1 128. 0 293.1 *Inst. Co-op. - - 55.0 11. 2 66.2 Food Aid — — - — -TOTAL 4,644.0 4,693.3 5,713.2 4,599. 3 19,649.8 NICARAGUA Bilateral 4.8 1.3 233.7 3,970. 0 4,209.8 MAF 199.6 164.6 350.0 350. 0 1,064.2 NCO 1,500.0 1,820.0 1,450.0 3,102. 4 7,872.4 Indust. Coop. 365.0 165.0 91.2 142. 8 764.0 Inst. Coop. 87.0 640.C 911.7 1,047. .0 2,685.7 Food Aid — 4,500.0 — 3,000. .0 7 ,500. 0 TOTAL 2,156.4 7,290.9 3,036.6 11,612, .2 24,096.1 * MAF: Mission Administered Fund NGO: Non-Governmental Organization Industrial Cooperation Institutional Cooperation May 1984 /C*?A l - / S T -80/81 81/82 82/83 83/84 TOTAL EL SALVADOR Bilat e r a l 2,809.9 6,377.9 435.5 347.4 9,970.7 MAT 20.0 50.0 275.0 350.0 695.0 NGO 157.0 229.0 279.7 598.7 1,264.4 Indust. Coop 10.0 - - - 10.0 Inst. Coop - - — 4.5 4.5 TOTAL 2,996.9 6,656.9 990.2 1,300.6 11,944.6 GUATEMALA Bilateral 1,264.5 850.2 2,187.1 511.3 4,813.1 MAF 60.0 313.0 350.0 350.0 1,073.0 NGO 525.0 396.0 300.0 700.5 1,921.5 Indust. Coop 123.0 154.0 234.3 105.9 617.2 Inst. Coop. — - 73.0 55.9 128.9 TOTAL 1,972.5 1,713.2 3,144.4 1,723.6 8,553.7 COSTA RICA Bilateral 33.7 4.6 2,878.1 6,000.1 8,916.5 MAF 101.0 341.0 350.0 350.0 1,142.0 NGO 60.0 260.0 81.0 211.0 612.0 Indust. Coop. 109.0 254.0 279.5 180.6 823. 1 Inst. Coop. — - 106.0 286.1 392.1 TOTAL 303.7 859.6 * MAF: Mission Administered Fund NGO: Non-Governmental Organization 3,694.6 7,027.8 11,855.7 Industrial Cooperation Institutional Cooperation May '.(984 80/81 81/82 82/83 83/84 TOTAL PANAMA MAF 40.0 150.0 150.0 150.0 490.0 NGO 88.0 210.0 155.0 205.9 658.9 Indusc Coop. 270.0 46.0 20.0 11.7 347.7 Inst. Coop. - 281.0 72.9 353.9 TOTAL 398.0 406.0 606.0 440.5 1850.5 Multilateral assistance to refugees of Central America. The Multilateral Branch of CIDA made the following contributions for Central American refugees: 1981/82: $ 500,000 to the UNHCR* for refugees of C .A. 1982/83: $2,000,000 to the UNHCR for refugees of C. A. $ 250,000 to the UNHCR for refugees in Honduras 1983/84: $3,000,000 to the UNHCR for refugees of C A. Multilateral assistance for displaced persons in E l Salvador. The Multilateral Branch of CIDA made the following contribution to the ICRC (International Committee of the Red Cross) in support of i t s efforts to help displaced persons in E l Salvador. 1981/82:' $550,000 1983/84: $975,000 * UNHCR: United Nations High Commission for Refugees May 1984 / 

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