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Policies to mitigate the social problems caused by the tourist industry : application to Penticton Anderson, David Brian 1987

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POLICIES TO MITIGATE THE SOCIAL PROBLEMS  CAUSED  BY THE TOURIST INDUSTRY: APPLICATION TO PENTICTON By DAVID BRIAN ANDERSON B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia,  1977  THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER  OF ARTS in  THE SCHOOL  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL  We a c c e p t  this  t h e s i s as  to the r e q u i r e d  THE  ® David  Brian  conforming  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH February  PLANNING  COLUMBIA  1987  Anderson,  1987  In  presenting  degree  at  this  the  thesis in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  British Columbia, I agree  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  of  department  this or  publication of  thesis for by  his  or  the  representatives.  that the  It  is  granted  by the that  this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without  David  Department of Community  and  The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  DE-6(3/81)  an advanced  Library shall make  understood  permission.  D a t e  for  F e b r u a r y 7.1. 1 Q S 7  it  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be her  requirements  Anderson  Regional Planning  head of copying  my or  my written  THHEt MILE HO AD ,  Ponderosa P Power St. 5-B Piustou Am. 4C Quail Riagu fid, t Quml Ridgu P<. F_-  James Si. 3-C Jermyn Ave. 4-C Johnson Rd. 3-B Juniper Dr. 2-F Kamloops Ave. 5-C Kendall Ores. 2-C Kensington St. 3-C Killarney Si. 3-C Kilwinning St. 3-C King St. 3-C Kinney At Edgewood p.. 3-C i.Kpauick Ave. 4-E Edmonton Ave. 4.C ;j. Edna Ave. 4-C Lakeshore Dt. 5-B Ellis St. 4B Lakeside Rd. 3-H Elm Ave. 4-G , i st SB Eraut Si. 4-F Estabrook Ave. 4-B UureTprj-E Evergreen Cl. 2-E Laurel St 3-E Evergreen Cres. 2-E Lawrence Ave. 2-C Evergreen Dc. 2-E Lawrence PI. l-C Fa ir tor a Or. 4-D Lee Ave. 4-G Fairview Hd. 4 C Leir St. 3-D Fairway Ave. 5-C Lower Bench Hd. 3-A T.mmins St. 5-C Falcon Cl. 4-E Lower Townley 4-B "Toronto Lyon St. 3-C Forbes SI. 4-B MacCleave Ave. 2-D Tioy Pi. Forestbrook Or. 3-CMacDonald PI. 3-B Troy Ci. St. 3-B Ffasei Cl. 1-C MacDonald St. 3-B * Tupper Ave. 3-A From St. 4-B McCauley PI. 3-B Uplands Ave. 3-fc Gahan Ave. 3-C McCullocfi Or. 4-E Gall Ave. 3-E McDougall Ave. 3-E Uplands PI. 3-B Upper Bench Rd Glen Cres. 1-C McGraw Cl. 4-E Upper Townit/ i Glen PI. 1-C McGraw SI 4-E Valley View Ro. : Gordon Ave. 2-F McGregor Or. 4-E Vancouver Ave, Government SI. 3-CMcKeen PI, Vancouver PI, 3 Granby Ave. 4-D McKenzie Pi. 4-E Van Home Si. 4-i „,,.„..„.„... Granuy PI. 4-D McKemie SI. 4-E Vernon Ave. 5-B Commercial Way 2-D Grandview St. 3-B McLean Ave. 1-D Como* St. 6-C Green Ave. 4-F McMillan Ave. 2-A Conklin Ave. 4-C Green McPherson Ave. 2-C WaOe Ai ,eenAve. E. 3-F Corbishley Ave. 2-A McPherson Cies. 2-C Walden Cres Cornwall St, 4-F Green PI. 3-F McPherson PI. 2-C ~ " Coify PI- 3-E Greenwood Dr. 3-F . «-B Cossac Ave 4-D S'*' ~ Manitoba Si. 3-C Water ford Ave. t Craig Dr. 3-E Guelph Ave, 4-G p . 4.0 Waterloo Ave. 4 Cruukside Rd. 3-B Guernsey Ave. 4-B ,„ _ W.ilimglon Si Creighlon Cres. 2-D Gwyer St. 4-B Martin St, 4-B Wosimmsiei An Crescent Hill Rd. 3-G Halila* SI. 3-D Matson Ave. 2-C Westminster Pi Creston Ave. 5-B Hansen St. 5-B Maunce St. 5-B Westvie* Dr. 21. Cypress St. 3-G Hastings Ave. « ; Middle Bench Rd. 3-A Westview PI. 2 L Datoe PI. 3-F Hastings PI. 5-C | .g Weyburn St. 4-C K  K ( u g e f  P l  a k a v  9 0  B  6 M t  C 1 ,  S  r  4  M A I N  S T  M  r  0  a  n  o  M u p  15  Queen St. 3-C /Railway Si. 5-C I Redlanfls Ra. 3 t ' Regina Ave. 4-C Rene Ave. 5B Httservoir.Ra. 2-A Revelstoke Avu. : Hidgedale Ave. : Rigsby St. 6-6 Riverside Dr. 6-B Robinson St. 4-B Roolin St. 3-F Rosetown A.c. 3 Ross Ave. 3-0 Roy Ave. 4-E Roy Cf. 4-E Roy PI. 4-E Scott Ave. 4-C Scolia SI. 4-D Secresl Ave. 3-E Secresl PI. 3-E Ska ha Lake Ro. Skaha Pl. 4-G South Beach Di. Soulh Mam St. 3 Spruce Ra. 3-G Spruce Pl. 3-G Steward Pi. 2D Stevens Cr. 2-E SudBury Ave. 4-G Sumac St. 3-D Sunset PI, 1-C Swill St. 5-6 Sydney St. 6-B Taber Rd. 3 E Tennis St.'  M i l  d f K  S  a r  P l  L  6  3  A v e  a  ABSTRACT  Tourism in  the  tourist  provincial,  The  purpose  while  to  benefits  the  take  exist  This  a  socially  workable  policies  social  problems  cities.  the  Such  i n the tourism  resident  a n d may  thesis and  to  social  intolerance  costs.  The  costs  tourism  be  policies  sector or  will  which  is  allow  o f t h e economy  hostility.  Before  that  such  critical.  the  tourist  literature  involved  in  development.  performance  at  become  examines  "Saturation" activity  i s to find  to mitigate  i n small place  are social  limits  to  However,  c a n be d e v e l o p e d , i t m u s t be e s t a b l i s h e d  problems  there  economies.  potential  study  can employ  reducing  policies  has t h e  of t h i s  by tourism  growth  and world  development  force.  planners  caused  potential for further  national  activity also  disruptive  which  has e x c e l l e n t  of tourism  defined  i i  makes  tourism  and i t s  i tclear  that  and a l s o  social  A guideline  for evaluating  development  i s used.  as  the residents  industry  the  level  i n general  of  feel  tourism that  any  further  increase  development level  would  is  the  residents  for  i n the  saturation"  mitigating  had  the  the  adverse from  acceptance  saturation causes  that  not  of  in  the  operationally  suggest  are  thought  found  based  capacity on  tourism  questions development  s p e c i f i c areas  led to  is  of  "psychological  literature  social  effects  inadequate  on of  of tourism,  and  policies tourism.  facilities  little  and low  for These  services, levels  planning  to  of  attract  tourism.  lengthy  tourist  v a g u e , and  environmental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  applied a  saturation  i n p a r t i c u l a r the  (1973)  Once t h e s e g e n e r a l are  social  residents.  result  expand  of  indicators  4 discusses  undesirable public  These  Young  of  tourist-related  number o f t o u r i s t s  indicators  literature,  Chapter  The  the s o c i a l performance  which  effects  the  and  intolerant to t o u r i s t s .  t h i s s t u d y uses  evaluating  concern  at which  are unsatisfactory,  approached.  found  or  point  numbers  undesirable.  the measurements  literature  being  tourist  be  t o become  Since  defined,  in  strategies  to Penticton, h i s t o r y as  industry  British  have  been  Columbia.  a tourist destination  i s the mainstay  i i i  of  the  listed,  they  Penticton  has  and  local  today  the  economy.  According  t o D'Amore  economic  development  of  a  year-round  factors  listed  reviewing Penticton  the  tourist by  major  in Penticton  Young  question  6 applies  trade. (1973)  list  i s approaching  Chapter to  (1980), the  prospect for  i s the Yet,  further by  leading  from Chapter  future  expansion  examining  the  to saturation,  and  2,  i t would  appear  saturation.  the s t r a t e g i e s developed  the s i t u a t i o n i n P e n t i c t o n .  The  policies  i n Chapter for  4  Penticton  include:  - the a d d i t i o n of service a much seasons; -  improvement  - separation mainstream - better ture;  extra larger  of beach  services and f a c i l i t i e s to population during tourist  areas;  of t o u r i s t a r e a s and of the city;  aesthetic  standards  development  from  in building architec-  - public relations programs t o convince r e s i d e n t s t o u r i s m i s b e n e f i c i a l t o them and t h e i r city; - more p u b l i c input at a l l planning p o l i c y and development; - special projects  funded  by  the  tourism  stages  for  that  tourism  revenue;  - greater expansion of the tourist season i n t o the fall, w i n t e r , and s p r i n g months to better utilize existing f a c i l i t i e s and g a i n w i d e r a c c e p t a n c e of t h e i n d u s t r y as a y e a r - r o u n d j o b p r o d u c e r .  iv  There  has been  tourists  and  welfare.  Recently,  increasing strictly to  be  economic  development  with  In  and  the v i t a l and  socially  the  nature  been  need  It  must  of  be  investigated to maintain ability  the  interactions,  a balance  of  cities  to prevent  resident-visitor  between  locals  to deal  impacts.  with  i t  was  decided  the e x i s t i n g  attitudes.  Plans  should  have  some  Further  o b j e c t i v e s w o u l d be  work  finding search;  n e e d s t o be d o n e  ways o f f u n d i n g  should  i n terms of  regard  of  social  to saturation  jeopardized.  in several  be  traveller  of economic, s o c i a l  tourist  v  plans  (demand), and  beyond which the r e a l i z a t i o n  environmental  that  situation  ( s u p p l y ) , of the market  -  place  instead  of the i n d u s t r y to  facilities  levels  goals  viable,  equally vital  negative  conclusion  consistent  public  I f future tourism development i s  of t o u r i s m and t h e  these  than  been a c t i n g t o  environmental  goals.  of  impacts  important  of  planned.  Penticton  methods have  more  f o r c e s have  on  economically  Considering  the  are  various  importance  both  i m p l i c i t a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e ends  investors  intentionally  like  an  areas:  industry re-  or  -  organizing t o u r i s t industry o f f i c e s in t o u r i s t areas to c e n t r a l i z e a l l a s p e c t s of development, promotion and planning;  -  designing a resident survey praise resident attitudes;  -  improving methodology to increase l o c a l particip a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g process of a l l a s p e c t s of tourist industry.  Planning  for  entrepreneurs promotion; controls,  private  by by  or  means  government  public  destination;  tourism  can  of  a  accurately  be  done  facility  planning,  developments,  by  to  combination  enterprise.  vi  and of  ap-  by  private  development such  overall  as  and  land  promotion  government  the  agencies  use of  a and  T A B L E OF  CONTENTS  Page Abstract  i i  Table  v i i  of Contents  List  of Tables  List  of F i g u r e s  Chapter  1  xi x i i  Introduction  1  1.1  Purpose  5  1.2  The  6  1.3  Justification  1.4  Context  9  1.3.1  Realworld  9  1.3.2  Academic  10  1.3.3  Public  17  Policy  Methodology  18  1.4.1  Macro-philosophy  18  1.4.2  Techniques  19  Limitations  21  1.5  Scope and  1.6  O r g a n i z a t i o n of the  Thesis  Summary Chapter 2.1  2  23 24  Tourism  26  Definition  26  vii  Page 2.2  Literature 2.2.1  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Tourism  2.2.2 2.3  Tourism  28  A. B.  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Impacts Factors of Concern  C.  Successful  Domestic  29 ....  Developments  40  Tourism  43  Impacts  53  2.3.1  Benefits  53  2.3.2  Costs  55  2.3.3 Measurement of Impacts Questions f o r Evaluating the Social Performance of Tourism Development  2.4  57 59  Summary Chapter  3  3.1  61 Saturation  63  Definition 3.1.1 C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y and Recreation Planning 3.1.2  Saturation  and Tourism P l a n n i n g  3.2  Measurement  3.3  Measurement of S a t u r a t i o n In This Study  of Saturation  4  64 64 ..  71 84  Used  Summary Chapter  29 33  88 90  Policies Adverse  to Mitigate the S o c i a l E f f e c t s of Tourism  4.1  Planning  f o r Tourism  4.2  Literature  91 92 99  viii  Page 4.2.1  Policies to Mitigate Problems of Inadequate F a c i l i t i e s and S e r v i c e s  4.2.2  Policies to Mitigate Problems of Undesirable Environmental Characteristics  4.2.3  4.2.4  99  ...  P o l i c i e s to Increase P u b l i c Acceptance  109  P o l i c i e s to A t t r a c t or Expand T o u r i s m  119  Summary Chapter  5  106  124 Tourism  in Penticton  126  5.1  Location  126  5.2  Brief  130  5.3  Economy  5.4  Penticton's  5.5  O r i g i n of T o u r i s t s  137  5.6  Community P l a n  137  5.7  Adverse of  History  133 Population  135  Social Effects  Tourism  in Penticton  141  5.7.1  Land  Use  142  5.7.2  Employment L e v e l s  147  5.7.3  Urban  149  Infrastructure  A. B. C. 5.7.4  P o l i c e and F i r e S e r v i c e H o s p i t a l and H e a l t h S e r v i c e s Water S u p p l y and Environmental Quality D. Transportation S p e c i a l P o p u l a t i o n Groups  ix  .  149 155 156 158 159  EsLSe 5.7.5 5.8  Penticton 5.8.1  Psychological  Saturation  160  - Approaching  Saturation  162  Review of the "Questions f o r Evaluating  S o c i a l Performance  Summary Chapter  6  6.1  ....  165 167  P o l i c i e s to Mitigate the Adverse S o c i a l E f f e c t s of Tourism i n Penticton  169  P o l i c i e s t o M i t i g a t e Problems of Inadequate F a c i l i t i e s and S e r v i c e s  170  P o l i c i e s to Mitigate Undesirable Environmental Characteristics  178  6.3  P o l i c i e s to Increase  180  6.4  Policies to Attract  6.2  Public  Acceptance  or Expand  Tourism  Summary Chapter 7.1  7  185 189  Summary & C o n c l u s i o n s Suggestions  f o r Further  Bibliography  191 Investigation  197 199  x  L I S T OF  TABLES  Table I  Page Accommodation 1974,  for  1953,  1986  Force  143  II  Labour  III  P o l i c e Incidents For P e n t i c t o n : 1985 - J u n e , 1986 F i r e D e p a r t m e n t C a l l s , 1985  IV  \  and  Figures  Statistics  xi  147  148 150  LIST  OF  FIGURES  Figure 1  Page Hypothetical Tourist  Evolution  of  a  Area sets  3  2  Mexico  out  3  T o u r i s t Lure  4  New  5  Poor  6  Tourist  i n d u s t r y needs p l a n n i n g  7  Bennett  touts  tourism  as  tourists  11  Set Abroad  12  image n e e d e d , M u r t a  tourist  forestry  t o woo  planning  says  cited  tourist  trade  15  over  job creator  16  Thesis  Conceptualization  9  Letter  from H a w a i i ' s Reef  10  Major Population Centres Within a M i l e Radius of P e n t i c t o n Penticton's Location Relative to the  Rest  of B r i t i s h  12  Penticton  13  Population  14  Community P l a n  15  Tourist  16  Mob  21 Hotels  112 400 127  Columbia  128 129  of P e n t i c t o n :  hurls  1951  of P e n t i c t o n  Resources  Mounties  13 14  8  11  ...  rocks,  of P e n t i c t o n  17  R i o t i n g youths  stone  18  Riot  to get  19  160  jailed  city  ..  136 140 145  bottles at  in Penticton  torn  - 1981  152 traffic  153  tough  154  in Penticton xi i  154  Figure  Page  20  Skaha Area Improvements  175  21  L o c a t i o n s of Needed Improvements i n P e n t i c t o n  177  Tourism e s s e n t i a l  182  22  c i t y business  xi i i  CHAPTER ONE:  Tourism Columbia  revenue  in  generating Columbia,  1984,  reached and  is  $2.3  the  billion  third  B r i t i s h Columbia:  potential  for  largest  revenue  Facts and S t a t i s t i c s , .  1986).  i n d u s t r y i n B r i t i s h Columbia has  attractions  available. compared  development,  excellent  q u a l i t y and v a r i e t y of n a t u r a l and man-made are  further  British  considering  renewable  Tourism to  is  other  considered  disruptive  force.  residents the  grows,  may pace  Wherever  be expected and  Eventually, perceive  a  tourism  to be a  socially  develops,  local  activity.  o f f and  if  and,  in  the  process,  everyone.  1  affects  tourists  Tourism i s an  i n d u s t r y which uses the community as a r e s o u r c e , product,  tourism  may develop.  decline  d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the e x p e r i e n c e .  sensitivity As  t e n s i o n s or c o n f l i c t s  t o u r i s m may l e v e l  and  industries.  to e x h i b i t a c e r t a i n  s c a l e of t o u r i s t  resident-visitor  clean  resource-based  However, t o u r i s t a c t i v i t y has the p o t e n t i a l  a  British  especially  that  to  in  i n d u s t r y i n B r i t i s h Columbia (Province of  The t o u r i s t  the  INTRODUCTION  sells  the  it  lives  as of  The s a t u r a t i o n industry  occurs  outweight  level  effects  upon  and  unfriendly  atmosphere  The concept  of s a t u r a t i o n ,  is  any  could  would be more  possible.  Visitors  initially  about  area.  the  grows,  rate  identifies  As  saturation  in  terms  of  accommodation, crowding,  come  to  the  detail  limits  limit,  to  steps are i n d u s t r y in  an area i n small numbers, facilities,  facilities will  and  environmental  knowledge  are provided and awareness increase.  With  and f u r t h e r f a c i l i t y  are reached.  rapidly.  marketing, provision,  Eventually,  the  numbers w i l l d e c l i n e  as  These l e v e l s can be  identified  factors  other s e r v i c e s ) , by  more  growth  in v i s i t o r  resentment  s i n c e an  then an o r d e r l y and h e a l t h y  dissemination,  of  visitor  which  numbers  increase  the  have  knowing the c o n d i t i o n s  a r e a ' s p o p u l a r i t y w i l l grow of  residents will  social  if  tourist  attractiveness. in  this  Of c o u r s e ,  lack of a c c e s s ,  visitor  information the  to be d i s c u s s e d  tourism.  could lead to s a t u r a t i o n ,  by  level  w i l l reduce an a r e a ' s  be developed  restricted  this  A t , or before  control  area  the  industry in general,  important because i t  to  of  the host p o p u l a t i o n ,  even upon the  t o u r i s m development. needed  growth  Exceeding  population  later,  the  when the c o s t s of t o u r i s m to the  the b e n e f i t s .  detrimental  in  (e.g.,  or of s o c i a l  the  local  2  levels  transportation, factors  population).  (e.g., As  the  attractiveness because number  of the area d e c l i n e s  of overuse and the of  visitors  FIGURE 1:  The stem  tourist  from  eventually  the  decline  areas, actual  (Butler,  1.  HYPOTHETICAL EVOLUTION OF A TOURIST AREA  i n d u s t r y can introduce other problems that  the very nature of the  two month season with a peak summer fullest  to other  impacts of v i s i t o r s ,  may a l s o  1978), as shown i n F i g u r e  relative  utilization  of  capital  i n d u s t r y : i t has a s h o r t , period  investments;  mostly supplementary employment which i s  3  which it  prevents provides  i n t e r m i t t e n t and of  low  pay;  it  continent's  i s s e n s i t i v e to  the  ups  and  economy and even to weather;  downs  and i t s  of  the  r e t u r n s are  uncertain.  The problems tourists  are  significantly  time of the y e a r . numbers  of  The l a r g e s t New  York  more n o t i c e a b l e increase  In a c i t y the  visitors  p o p u l a t i o n s i z e at any  size  of  c o n c e n t r a t i o n of h o t e l rooms i n city;  tourism is a s i z a b l e  (Lundberg,  tourists  i n New York C i t y than that  One c i t y  Victoria,  can be e a s i l y absorbed i n t o the  economy  never get  the  i n s m a l l towns where  1976,  "over-run"  150).  part  city.  the world i s of  the  residents,  so the  in  city's  Y e t , there are never  more  residents  feeling.  i n B r i t i s h Columbia where the s a t u r a t i o n  might be near i s  large  in Penticton.  Situated  level  i n the heart of  Okanagan  Valley,  with  thousand  persons,  i t has had a lengthy h i s t o r y as a t o u r i s t  destination upon  the  area.  industry.  a p o p u l a t i o n of about  the  Today, the c i t y  is economically  The i n f l o w of v i s i t o r s  effects  upon  resident  lifestyle  evidence  t h a t the s a t u r a t i o n l e v e l  4  twenty-three  and is  has had numerous  there  near.  dependent  is  increasing  1.1  Purpose  The o v e r a l l policies  purpose  which  of t h i s  planners  severe)  the  cities.  These  specific  situation  study i s to f i n d workable  can employ to m i t i g a t e  s o c i a l problems caused policies  Put s i m p l y ,  by  tourism  (make in  less small  w i l l then be i l l u s t r a t e d using  the  in Penticton.  the u n d e r l y i n g t h e s i s  is:  S o c i a l problems can be caused by the t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y . What are the problems and how can they be m i t i g a t e d ? These investors, planners, is  to  problems and policy  develop  are  government makers).  felt  by  tourists,  residents,  officials  (elected  officials,  The main concern of t h i s  a thriving tourist  the l e a s t d i s c o m f o r t to r e s i d e n t s , g a i n and h e a l t h y growth  To develop p o l i c i e s  thesis  i n d u s t r y t h a t w i l l cause with  a maximum economic  potential.  to stop the problems from o c c u r r i n g  or i n c r e a s i n g , d i s c u s s i o n w i l l  i n c l u d e the  following:  a)  the concept of "tourism", i n c l u d i n g c o s t s , t h e i r measurement;  b)  methods employed to d e a l with the s o c i a l problems by t o u r i s m i n other areas of the world;  c)  the concept of " s a t u r a t i o n . " T h i s i s important because s a t u r a t i o n i s what must be a v o i d e d . I t w i l l be explored as a measurement of the upper l i m i t s of l o c a l t o l e r a n c e  5  benefits,  and  caused  to t o u r i s m . An understanding  of  Penticton  as a c i t y i n a s o c i a l ,  economic and environmental sense i s e s s e n t i a l It  is  in this  way t h a t the s a t u r a t i o n p o i n t for the  of P e n t i c t o n can be understood, factors  which  leads it  to  Once  problems  caused  resident  saturation level  major  organization saturation. manner  the  there  are  and  that  the  approached,  then  the  Penticton,  being from  to  the  literature  this  literature  can  be  on  done  study  be  an  tourism in  a  literature.  will  impacts  clear, It w i l l  o n l y that  it  and  concise not  study to prove t h a t the s a t u r a t i o n  be  point  i s being approached.  The Context  The areas covered  are  that  to  situation.  the  this  has been reached,  in  is  T h i s has not been  in  citizens  i s a combination of  ascertained  tourism in  developed  it  study.  l i m i t s of l o c a l t o l e r a n c e  been  contribution of  since  i n any of the a v a i l a b l e  necessary  1.2  by  policies  employed to a l t e r  A  has  the  tourism.  general  to t h i s  numerous studies  other of  by  this  t h e s i s have been touched on  s t u d i e s found i n the  tourism  literature.  (some of which mention c o s t s  6  There and  benefits),  tourists,  strategies.  The  and  subject  marketing  of s a t u r a t i o n  p l a n n i n g i s seldom mentioned  and  Another area l a c k i n g r e s e a r c h i s the  and  development  levels  needs  in  tourism  further  research.  i n the s o l u t i o n to many of  negative impacts c i t e d as being evident  i n the  tourist  industry.  This thesis and  saturation  concise  tourism influxes  gather e x i s t i n g  conditions  manner.  proposals  will  The  and  knowledge  refine  result  will  it  be  on t o u r i s m  in a clear  to  offer  and  policy  to a i d i n the development of s o c i a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e development of t o u r i s t s .  for  small  towns  Penticton w i l l  experiencing  large  be used as an example  of such a c i t y .  A study done  in  1980  by  L . J . D'Amore concluded t h a t  s a t u r a t i o n was being approached some  general  appropriate However, the  tourism  to  be  Penticton followed  development  in  plan  industry in Penticton of  tourist  development.  which might help P e n t i c t o n and w i l l be developed  in this  nor  other  thesis.  7  and for  British  D'Amore d i d not d e a l s p e c i f i c a l l y  tourist  overall  guidelines  in  did  with he  Specific  small  offered socially Columbia.  improving offer  an  policies  tourist  towns  An emphasis  will  be placed on s o c i a l problems, r a t h e r  than environmental or economic,  though  greatly affect  social conditions.  as  "the change  i n the a c t i v i t y ,  a  unit...  as  surrounding occur  to  system....  changes  responds  environment  due  elements  it  A in  in  Determining political  the  The D'Amore literature tourism.  of  defined  i n t e r a c t i o n , or sentiment  to the changes  and the  on i t  resultant  will alter  from  changes  relationships one  differing  turn  alter  other  or  more  elements  the  which of  of  degrees,  of  the these  and those and  units"  11).  can  i n d i c a t o r s can be used to measure be  both  significance  decision,  reaping b e n e f i t s  S o c i a l impact i s  to  1981,  They  two w i l l  units  Various s o c i a l impacts.  latter  inter-dependent  project the  will  (Soderstrom,  the  the  qualitative of impacts  but s o c i a l  should bear the  justice  social  or q u a n t i t a t i v e . is  ultimately  t e l l s us that  those  costs.  study was the c l o s e s t attempt  found i n the  d e a l i n g s y s t e m a t i c a l l y with the problems  T h i s study w i l l  b u i l d on t h i s and e a r l i e r  8  a  of  studies.  1.3  Justification  1.3.1  "Realworld" The work i n  Rajotte  (1982,  important  this 76)  thesis  explains  determinant  post-visit  of  satisfaction  deals "resident  both  (1979, why  visitor  74) w r i t e s ,  by t o u r i s t s .  misunderstanding  resentment  between  of,  understood."  "urgent r e s e a r c h i s  is  or  Even more impressive  For  by,  needed  of  Rajotte  an  s e l e c t i o n and  to  destroy  example,  tourists the  host  may  reasons lead  to  population is felt  that  to e s t a b l i s h the c r i t i c a l  ratio  t o u r i s t s and r e s i d e n t s ,  (1982,  an  Clevendon  i s abundantly c l e a r t h a t the  on the p a r t of some  imperfectly  friendliness  hostility  industry."  "it  a r e a l problem.  destination  to many i s the power of r e s i d e n t established  with  256)  beyond which p o i n t  hostile  r e a c t i o n s are generated among r e s i d e n t s . "  Tourism i s very there  are  resident and made  problems a s s o c i a t e d surveys,  several to  important to the C i t y of P e n t i c t o n but it  as  evidenced  a government study ( L . J . D'Amore,  "riots."  enhance  with  the  In t h i s s t u d y , suggestions efficiency  growth of the t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y .  9  by  1980),  will  be  and s o c i a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e  More importance general, 4  as  its  placed  economic  are examples  it.  pages i l l u s t r a t e  on the t o u r i s t  importance increases  of t h i s ) .  needed to guide  1.3.2  is  It  is  point  ( F i g u r e s 5,  (Figures 2,  that  The newspaper a r t i c l e s  this  6,  planning  on the  3, is  following  7).  Academic A problem has  mitigate  social  been  identified  problems  interviews  will  be  (lack  of  caused by the t o u r i s t  v a r i o u s impacts w i l l be s t u d i e d , and  clear  industry in  policies  to  industry),  r e s e a r c h through l i t e r a t u r e  undertaken, and p o l i c i e s  will  be  developed  to help ease the problem and provide some r a t i o n a l  planning  for  saturation  tourism  development.  The concept  l e v e l s and t h e i r measurement  in  tourism research is r e l a t i v e l y  new.  A  is  what  would  helpful  problems  in  order to know  of t o u r i s m (overcrowding,  the  study of  local  of  tourist  field  of  saturation  happen  if  intolerance,  the etc.)  were s i m p l y i g n o r e d .  T h i s study w i l l and this,  domestic a  list  gather  literature of questions  i n f o r m a t i o n from i n t e r n a t i o n a l  and make a l i s t will  be  impacts.  developed  evaluating s o c i a l l y appropriate t o u r i s t  10  of  to  development.  aid  From in  *  T h c I ' r O V i l i e C Sunday, April 6,1986 _  Mexico sets out to woo tourists  Newhouae New* Service MEXICO CITY — President Miguel de la Madrid of Mexico recently proclaimed a revolutionary, no-holds-barred policy to attract more visitors to his country. He is trying to stop the nation's terrible economic slide, which has been greased by falling international oil prices. It probably was the first time in history that the leader of so substantial a country, in a nationally televised speech, publicly placed tourism among his top priorities. Here is what de la Madrid's "Tourism Action Program" could mean to travellers: • Less expensive vacations. • Expanded air service from more gateways and to more destinations in Mexico. • More vacation packages to more places. • More security and aid for visitors. • More gas station services for motorists driving their own cars. • Upgraded services at hotels and restaurants. "This is the most significant, comprehensive and far-reaching policy concern-  ing tourism in our country's history " said Guillermo Grimm, Mexico's under-secretary of tourism, in spelling out de la Madrid's new program. One of thefirstgovernment orders was for its national air carriers (Aeromexico and Mexicana) to come up with a wide range of promotional programs, including hotel as well as airfare rates, that will result in 20-per-cent to 40-per-cent price reductions. While much of the new program concerns the air, land and sea haven't been overlooked. "We're going to correct one of the major problems motorists driving across the border have been running into — the lack of unleaded gasoline," Grimm said. Now more than 100 gas stations, "strategically located" along main tourist roads, will have unleaded gasoline available. Other improvements include: • Increased service by the Green Angels Highway Patrol to help motorists in distress. • A faster response system for the current tourist hotline, which offers 24-houra-day aid anywhere in Mexico for visitors who telephone 250-0123. Figure  2.  Mexican government wants to make the country more appealin  1  TOURIST LURE SET ABROAD The federal and provincial governments will join in a $375 million campaign to sell Canada to the rest of the world. The campaign, along with the creation of an advertising council, involving the private sector, to advise on a coordinated approach to marketing Canada internationally, was announced here Wednesday by federal Tourism Minister Jack Murta. The announcement came at the close of a conference of tourism ministers. The agreement sets out the basis for co-operative roles and responsibilities in the public and private sector. The industry, which had a.bad year in 1983, now generates $20 billion annually and employs 600,000 people. It has been growing at an annual rate of eight per cent for the past decade. "It's not that the industry is declining," Murta said. "It's not growing as fast as it can." A year ago, the federal government took a look at the tourism industry and felt it needed more direction, greater cooperation and more focus on advertising of specific product lines, Murta said. The $375 million in subsidiary agreements will help the private  JACK MURTA . . . S375-million campaign  sector develop a broader range of tourism attractions over the next five years, he said. Murta said a budget of $19 million is earmarked to promote tourism in the U.S. on three major campaign themes of Canada as an old world, a wild world and a new world. "Largely, the Americans don't see us (as a tourist destination) at all," Murta said. A market survey of 9,000 people interviewed for an average of 30 minutes showed only • one in 50 Americans who planned to travel indicated they'd come tp< Canada. "We have to beef up our advertising. They like our culture and they see us as comfortably different. But they have no idea we have safe world-class cities and restaurants and Canada doesn't generally promote the difference in the dollar," he said. .,  Figure 3  12  C16  & §Un TUES.,OCTOBER8,1985  ***C  OTTAWA (CP) — Americans are not views with Americans— will be avail- He said the fesultslpf the U.S: pleaas thrilled with our moose and moun- able to tourism industry members sure travel study show some of the 61c tains as the Canadian tourism indus- starting today when a huge computer assumptions Canadians have- had try once thought and that means a database full of market information is about their country's attractions have ;••' •;-,. whole new marketing strategy iSi unveiled at a federal tourism confer- been wrong.' needed to lure them north on holidays, ence. "One of things we've found out is! ' :--.-..;/'^V says Tourism Minister Jack Murta. , ' Murta said the database represents that they don't think a lot about us at "They are not as taken up with our the first time people have had access any time, which is a problem," said wilderness experience, you know the to such a huge source of tourism infor- Murta; "When they do, they have a Rockies and the mountains and all mation and it will help the $20 billion a tendency to think we're a bit dulla • f;| this, as we had once thought;" Murta; year industry grow. More than 600*000-We're friendly but dull." said in an interview Monday. people are directly employed in about. : Details of the study will be made : \ These findings — the results of a 60,000 tourism businesses, most of public at the conference. ./Thefederal tourism department, inl study based on 9,000 ih-home inter- them small, in Canada. •| cooperation with provincial govern-I ments, will analyse the study results F i g u r e 4, to come up with better advertising strategies designed to sell Canada to the American market. , •• ;•-.>; 4 "An attribute we've,got that we're going to be marketing in a more posi? tive way is the fact that we've got cos| mopolitancities, world-class cities up here in Canada. That's not generally; thought of by the Americans. And the cities are safe, which is a very big aw traction for many many tourists at.thtj ! present time;"" y- < Murta said most of the large feder ' tourism marketing budget will b spent in the United States and he wil travel extensively there in the nexl few months to market Canada. I Although Canada's tourism, indus trythas had respectable growth ovei the last, decade — it grew eight pei ceht from 1975 to 1985 — it has laggec . behind the world tourism industrj vjhich grew 13: per cent during the 1  ;  ..teperwd^he: s a i d ^ ^ ^ J |  13  |  CONSULTANTS REPORT TO VICTORIA  tourist Diannin , VICTORIAN ^ row•P. The report was prepared'  The report says much of planning by the provincial by Marshall Maeklin B.C.'s existing tourist fagovernment and low qual- Monaghan LUL, Stevenson cilities developed, m' r e ity aecoinmodation and and Kellogg and LJ. Tftr sponse to -the astrmiobfle» * ;jservicea"are;: hampering moor and Associates/who based market thaC de-' ; the B.a tourist iatoistiy/: were asked last ApriltorvelopedVin the and" ; says a report ou the isdos^- come up with a develop-- 1960s and " '' concent ltiy prepared bytmieee» strategy for the next ^ trated along nufjor roads; V' £ gnittegflmtfi, ^ i ^ j ^ r ^ 20 yetors and to draw op \ , It says tb/highly com-; G .The stodysaystlat if plans tor nine tourist re- petitive td'urism industry ; demand/ a stronger api- toorism, touted as B.C;1 .'s gions. • The pYovincfal govern- "proacn to planning and. third industry after forestry and mining, istokeep '!- ment hasnot gtfrentourismc development, growing, - the current "the attenUonit deserves, % .the study says oat, beeause vacation preferemphasis :: /on>"' the :| the study saysJV^^vThe B.C\ government /enciesare changing,it.may automobileHarienterltra1 veDerwiflhavetochange I has bounced/the toorism be unwise to concentrate portfolio from ministry to on improvement of exist• ministry, deprived it of ing facilities. Instead, inteI .staff and had-lt c o » & . grated all-season resorts ;trate mostly on research, r are the type of facility [ marketing and. promotion; -;needed fbrtnefrture 'while neglecting long-term , The study says tourism • planning and development, provides 5.4 per cent of the j 'thefinna'aayH?"*'^^'?' f gross provincial product, C After noting that most. ' compared to seven per ': tourist attractions are et:; cent for mining and 20 per | tAer on Vancouver Island • cent for forestry. v : . ? . or in the soutbwestera cor- , There are about 10,000 ner of B.C., the repbrtsay* tourism businesses in B.C. services and accoinmoda- - employing about 04,000 . tion elsewhere is generally people. The industry paid about $200 million in i "The ac'coinmodation ;provmciaftaxesin 1978. ; base of the remainder ofthe province, with the [ exception of the regional ' urban centres such as : Kamloops and "Prince George, can best be described as fragmented, unorganized and substandvard in relation to other "' competing areas of Norm America.- ~ -.--. - > [ "Similarly, the visual i appeal of several urban f centres throughout the ! province is very low due to | haphazard or poorly-plan• ned mam highway routes," -itsayv  195  ;  ;  %  ?  ;  :  Figure  ;  5.  14-  7  If tourism is to become a full-fledged, reliable part of the Canadian economy, government had better start taking, it. more seriously. Too little attention is paid to proper funding of tourism ministries or to ^integrated planning with other departments. . The Vancouver: Board of Trade has told Ottawa, that national tourism promotion should be taken out of government hands arid given to private enterprise. Whether ; private enterprise could do a much better job is open to speculation. Much more is involved, than promoting, scenery or sports or festivals. We are running a huge travel deficit and being thrashed in the competition of world tourism. And that seems to us to call for government involvement -> The British Tourism Authority in private hands is doing a good job. Yet only last ) month the Confederation of British Industry complained, that government efforts on 4  tourism have not kept pace with its growing importance. . That's the problem.in Canada, especially B.C. Tourism is B.C.'s second or third largest private sector industry. Yet the tourism ministry has an $85-million budget — 0.1 per cent of the provincial budget There seems to be no hand on the tiller: Take a simple.example. Much road signing in B.C. is confusing to travellers. Turn-off arrows are often found beyond the actual tumoff, too late for the unwary driver. Other-similar problems, could: easily be listed. ;" Tourism involves economic planning, tax policy, transportation, promotion and development of entertainment and cultural policy and, not least, firm supervision of the. travel agency business to protect tourists. Those imperatives.cover a number of ministries, yet there is little sign of coordination either in Ottawa or Victorian It's too big a job for private enterprise alone. What is needed is more government guidance on what to do about the problems in tourism. "- .-jW' V Japan has integrated tourism through an inter*ministerial council covering construction; environment, agriculture, forestry, labor, international trade and industry and. economic planning. As in so many other ways,, the Japanese have shown the way with tourism too. •. ;.. ... :  Figure  15  6.  A  14  SUR THURS.,SEPTEMBER5,1985  ••*>  Bennett touts tourist trade over forestry as job creator By LISA FITTERMAN Sun Victoria Bureau - « WHISTLER — Tourism will soon overi take forestry as the province's "number j one industry," Premier Bill Bennett said I Wednesday. 1  It is time, he said, to turn B.C. into a ;.world-class "destination resort" that is -.known for more than just the timber in< ' dustry and undeveloped scenery.  The province must become a "large and diverse area where, we can have both summer and winter recreation that gives you year-round stability," he said.  "That's what we have to do — at| The premier made his comments durtract the type of ining the signing of a partnership agree dustry that's com'.ment with the municipality of Whistler. It patible with our was the 50th agreement the provincial environment and MOWAT 1 government signed since introducing the at the same time, create employment for our people." partnership program last March. Bennett, here to attend cabinet and caucus meetings and to open the Whistler Tony Shebbeare, vice-president of forconvention centre on the weekend, said ests and environment for the Council of . the prediction of first spot for tourism Forest Industries of B.C., agreed B.C. | doesn't bode ill for the forest industry. "I should not rely on one industry. But he wouldn't read anything negative into .said it is too early to write off forestry. ! what I said." :  1  us out. We will continue to be an important industry for a long, long time." The whole question of job creation was a hot topic for conversation during the 11hour Socred caucus meeting, said caucus chairman Doug Mowat. "What we are seeing is the government looking at jobs as a No. 1 priority," he said. "There will be job creation programs announced in the next year and these will be long-term permanent jobs." Caucus said they also discussed the timing of a provincial vote, although the premier said Tuesday he, hasn't thought about an election.  It has been widely speculated the Socreds will try to capitalize on publicity surrounding Expo 86, despite having more than 2Vi years remaining in their mandate. There is also speculation Bennett might shuffle his cabinet before a brief fall sitting of the legislature. Several senior t But even highly-industrialized, wealthy "I wish him all the best. I have abso- ministers have hinted that they might not 'countries such as Japan have recognized lutely nothing against tourism. But we've seek re-election and some caucus memthat tourism will be the money-making in- done our best to keep the forest industry a bers say this would be a good time for the I dustry of the future and the answer to a viable one. Through the recession, we premier to give new cabinet members have become more efficient. Don't count some exposure before the election. high demand for employment, he said. F i g u r e 7.  The study of been  adopted  planning.  A  saturation  for  will  show how the concept  has  t o u r i s m p l a n n i n g from work i n r e c r e a t i o n  method  for  measuring  saturation  will  be  examined.  Some  general  literature. situation entire  policies  These  policies  in Penticton.  tourism  industry  From and  will will  be  derived  then  this,  be  some  its  from  a p p l i e d to comments  the the  on the  s o c i a l problems can  be  stated.  Though p l a n n i n g great degree in  this  in this  study  for  tourism  is  not  p r o v i n c e , the t o p i c s  could help to  form  a  undertaken to a  of concern covered basis  for  further  academic study of the t o u r i s m i n d u s t r y .  1.3.3  Public Policy I t has been  in and  Penticton  recognized  (seasonal  government  from the l i t e r a t u r e , by events  overcrowding, r e s i d e n t  commissioned s t u d i e s  there are problems a s s o c i a t e d  with  attitudes),  (D'Amore, 1980), the  tourist  industry.  Methods of a l l e v i a t i n g these problems could lead to useful healthy  to planners and other a f f e c t e d tourist  policies  groups i n promoting a  i n d u s t r y for v i s i t o r s and r e s i d e n t s  17  that  alike.  These p o l i c i e s c o u l d be used for other t o u r i s t s i t u a t i o n s British  Columbia,  or  visitors  outnumber l o c a l  Since t o u r i s m  further  afield,  especially  in  where  residents.  i s such an important and growing part of  the B r i t i s h Columbia economy, r e s e a r c h and p l a n n i n g for  this  i n d u s t r y should be g r e a t l y strengthened to give the province more of a c o m p e t i t i v e edge.  1.4  Methodology  1.4.1  Macro-philosophy Though v e r y  subject some major  of  help  little  s p e c i f i c work has been done on the  s o c i a l problems caused by the t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y , i s a v a i l a b l e from the l i t e r a t u r e .  The idea t h a t  problems c o u l d be caused by the t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y  overlooked  in  most  studies  was  because of the great economic  expectat i o n s .  For the most narrowing interviews,  of  part,  problems with  an  the methodology w i l l  be a deductive  i d e n t i f i e d through o b s e r v a t i o n s and a p p l i c a t i o n of some p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s  that c o u l d a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y r e s o l v e or m i t i g a t e problems.  18  Physical  and  social  i n t e r r e l a t e d , as d e s c r i b e d  problems  are  very  much  below:  We are coming to comprehend the city as an extremely complex s o c i a l system, only some aspects of which are expressed as p h y s i c a l b u i l d i n g s or as l o c a t i o n a l arrangements. As the p a r a l l e l , we are coming to understand that each aspect l i e s in a reciprocal c a u s a l r e l a t i o n to all others, such that each i s defined by, and has meaning o n l y with r e s p e c t to i t s r e l a t i o n s to a l l o t h e r s . As a r e s u l t of t h i s broadened conception of the c i t y system, we can no longer speak of the physical city versus the social city or the economic city or the political city or the intellectual city. We can no longer d i s s o c i a t e a p h y s i c a l b u i l d i n g , for example, from the social meanings that i t c a r r i e s for i t s users and viewers from the s o c i a l and economic functions of the activities that are conducted within it. If d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e at a l l , the d i s t i n c t i o n i s t h a t of c o n s t i t u e n t components, as with metals comprising an a l l o y . . . . P l a n n i n g for the locational and p h y s i c a l aspects of our c i t i e s must t h e r e f o r e be conducted i n concert with planning for all programs that governmental and non-governmental agencies conduct (Webber, 1968, 299). The i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s basis  of  a  of the methodology of t h i s  densities, can a f f e c t  economic  conditions,  the s o c i a l w e l l - b e i n g  city's thesis.  components Structures,  of a community, l e a d i n g  problems and " p s y c h o l o g i c a l " s a t u r a t i o n .  1.4.2  Techniques which w i l l  be employed  19  the high  and a changed environment  social  The techniques  is  include:  to  a)  a l i t e r a t u r e review to f i n d background to the s u b j e c t tourism, have  its  been  of  problems, and any a p p l i c a b l e programs which tried  to  enhance  the  potential  of  this  industry.  b)  interviews areas,  with  people  including  environmental District  important  police,  spokesmen.  of  interviewed.  employed i n p o t e n t i a l hospital,  Planners  from  Okanagan-Similkameen Since  in  terms  it  is  often  "lay"  problems  fire, the  will views  of p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o s t s ,  and  Regional also  be  that  are  interviews  with "the man on the s t r e e t " w i l l a l s o be conducted.  c)  two 1971, the  surveys  have  already  and again i n 1975, future  been done i n P e n t i c t o n .  questions  of t o u r i s m for the  these were not thorough but are evidence  d)  of r e s i d e n t  the  were posed r e g a r d i n g  area.  The  included  results  of  as a d d i t i o n a l  attitudes.  a programme of p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s interviews,  In  literature,  w i l l be determined from historical  data,  and  observation.  T h i s study was problems  with  conceptualized  tourism  by r e a l i z i n g there were  in Penticton.  20  A  general  look  at  tourism  was then followed by a  look  t o u r i s m (impacts and s a t u r a t i o n ) . policies  will  with the t o u r i s t the  general  (Figure  A specific  policies  some g e n e r a l  the s o c i a l  problems  study of P e n t i c t o n ' s  problems  to the  situation  ourism  _  in  Penticton  impacts saturation  General  Problems in Perdictorv  f«or  Literature Interviews  Scope and L i m i t a t i o n s  T h i s study draws and  of  THESIS CONCEPTUALIZATION  S peci £ic  1.5  this,  problems  8).  on  Sources:  the  i n d u s t r y i s then followed by an a p p l i c a t i o n  FIGURE 8:  Pen+ict  From  be developed to m i t i g a t e  caused by t o u r i s m .  of  at  domestic  tourism  together i n f o r m a t i o n on i n t e r n a t i o n a l problems  21  and  develops  policies  to  mitigate  the  social  problems.  Since  s o c i a l problems are  i n t e r r e l a t e d with e n v i r o n m e n t a l , p h y s i c a l , and economic, of  these  been  areas  must  be examined.  developed,  they  can  situation  in  appropriate province  Penticton. tourism  Once the p o l i c i e s  then be a p p l i e d to the The general p o l i c i e s  development  should  for  be  all have  specific socially  applicable  wide at the minimum, and p o s s i b l y throughout North  America and even beyond.  At present  there  i s no t o u r i s m development  for P e n t i c t o n or B r i t i s h Columbia.  p l a n as  such  This study c o u l d provide  some input i n t o such a p l a n .  There are two first  is  surrvey tourism. The  that done Such  questions  basic  there in  limitations  P e n t i c t o n on  resident  study.  comprehensive  attitude  would have to be v e r y pointed  negative)  that a r e s i d e n t  exact  reasons  for the f e e l i n g s  might  towards  in  order  (positive  study i s the general  i n f o r m a t i o n on a l l e v i a t i n g t o u r i s t caused would  appear  to or  have.  The second l i m i t a t i o n to t h i s  It  The  a survey would be c o s t l y and time consuming.  the  problems.  this  has not been a r e c e n t ,  discover  of s p e c i f i c  to  to  be  an  area  unrecognized by a l l l e v e l s of p a r t i c i p a n t s .  22  lack  social  conveniently  1.6  O r g a n i z a t i o n of the  This thesis its  costs  w i l l begin by examining t o u r i s m ,  and  differentiate  benefits.  residents  exceed the  Chapter  the  policies  history  its of  understanding until  tourism.  of s a t u r a t i o n .  at  policies  social effects  or  Can the  methods  of  of t o u r i s m from the  domestic and i n t e r n a t i o n a l .  5  will  deal  present Penticton  with  facilities will  be  economic and s o c i a l  the p r e s e n t .  The adverse  tourism and  Some general  in  Penticton,  programs.  included patterns  social effects  P e n t i c t o n w i l l be examined, with an e s t i m a t i o n of  will  w i l l then be proposed.  Chapter including  study  What happens when the c o s t s to  look  adverse  both  including  benefits?  will  4  literature,  literature  examine the concept  be measured?  mitigating  The  between i n t e r n a t i o n a l and domestic  Chapter 3 w i l l saturation  Thesis  to of  A brief aid  in  growth  up  of t o u r i s m i n of the  level  saturation.  Chapter 6 w i l l 4 to the s i t u a t i o n  a p p l y the p o l i c i e s in Penticton.  23  developed  i n Chapter  Chapter 7 w i l l  summarize and conclude the  thesis.  Summary  Chapter 1 introduced  tourism  as an important, growing  i n d u s t r y with immense p o t e n t i a l and promise. are  problems  associated  with  it  understood or not w e l l documented.  However,  there  that are not very  well  These  do with t o u r i s m as a s o c i a l l y d i s r u p t i v e  The o v e r a l l workable p o l i c i e s social to  purpose  of  this  which planners  problems  have  force.  study  is  to f i n d some  can employ to m i t i g a t e  problems caused by t o u r i s m i n s m a l l c i t i e s .  address  this  purpose,  several  to  contributory  the  In order items  will  have to be s t u d i e d :  a)  the d e s c r i p t i o n of "tourism", t o u r i s m ' s these impacts are to be measured;  b)  the  concept of measured;  c)  the  development of some general policies negative t o u r i s m impacts and s a t u r a t i o n ;  d)  the t e s t i n g of these measurements with a t o u r i s m i n d u s t r y .  "saturation"  24  and  how  impacts, and how it  and p o l i c i e s  is to  to  be  avoid  on a c i t y  The explore reviews,  techniques the  used  to  develop  contributory  concepts  i n t e r v i e w s and  personal  25  these will  observation.  policies be  and  literature  CHAPTER TWO:  Before industry, The  studying it  of  this  various researchers of  the  problems  researchers' included;  problems  is essential  objective  chapter  associated  proposals  caused  by  the  tourist  to understand what "tourism"  i n order to  however,  TOURISM  for  i s to review accumulate  with  the  these w i l l be d e a l t  work  an o v e r a l l  tourism.  successful  is.  Some  tourism  of view  of  the  are  also  with i n more d e t a i l  i n Chapter 4.  Chapter 2 begins by d e f i n i n g  "tourism" and then  l i t e r a t u r e on i n t e r n a t i o n a l and domestic b e n e f i t s and of c o s t s due to the  literature.  as  a  method  tourist guideline  Finally, of  development.  The  to e s t a b l i s h  A list  t o u r i s m are then d e r i v e d  a list  of  questions  o r g a n i z i n g some of the s o c i a l  industry in t o u r i s t  2.1  tourism.  reviews  list  can  also  be  is  of  from  developed  impacts used  as  of a  the s o c i a l performance of the t o u r i s m  destinations.  Definition  The concept  of  tourism is d i s t i n c t  that r e c r e a t i o n does not n e c e s s a r i l y  26  from r e c r e a t i o n i n  imply t r a v e l .  Tourism in a l l cases i n v o l v e s two elements: a dynamic one - the journey; and a s t a t i c one - the stay. T h i s i m p l i e s the removal of a person away from h i s h a b i t u a l place of r e s i d e n c e and h i s s t a y i n another l o c a t i o n . T h i s s t a y or removal is temporary and i s motivated by a search for p e r s o n a l pleasure i n the shape of r e s t , r e l a x a t i o n and self-improvement (Matley, 1976, 2). From the above c r i t e r i a , not  constitute  residence not also  or  it  is clear  tourism.  Anyone  taking  up  permanent  paid employment  i n another  a tourist  but a migrant.  Migrant or seasonal labor  is  clearly  distinguished  from  of  r e c r e a t i o n and of t r a v e l a r e ,  There are two domestic  to  find  easy  it  language  thus,  to  travel  do  outside  their  In  normal  They normally  so because there are u s u a l l y  travel  to  which they normally l i v e ,  and  a  neither  nor c u r r e n c y  own p o l i t i c a l and  involved  international The d i f f e r e n c e  t o u r i s m depends on the extent  country other  which  u n i t with i t s  43).  in tourism.  drawn i n t o u r i s m .  one of the e x c e p t i o n s )  is  nor  barriers.  "When people  in  contained  Elements  other areas w i t h i n the c o u n t r y .  (Canada i s  documentation  people  town or c o u n t r y  tourism.  basic d i s t i n c t i o n s  tourism,  domicile  1981,  that a l l movement does  i s a separate  economic  tourism" between to  27  than that  system,  (Burkart domestic  in  national they are  and M e d l i k , and  which the c o u n t r y  foreign visited  has  a d i f f e r e n t language, a d i f f e r e n t c u r r e n c y , and whether  obstacles  to free movement e x i s t  between  r e s i d e n c e and the country v i s i t e d . similar  i n problem a r e a s .  Domestic  c o n t r o l and i n v o l v e s g r e a t e r  2.2  country  of  Both v a r i e t i e s are q u i t e tourism  is  harder  to  seasonality.  Literature  For purposes tourism  be d i v i d e d  Since  information  the  into  international  problems  on impacts  can  and  are v e r y s i m i l a r , be  extracted  from  section.  As there will  tourism.  is  be  sub-section  concern  o r g a n i z a t i o n , the l i t e r a t u r e study of  will  sections.  pertinent either  of  problems  domestic  it  the  organized will  The to  resentment.  more  l i t e r a t u r e on i n t e r n a t i o n a l t o u r i s m , i n t o three s u b - s e c t i o n s .  identify  and  discuss  the  The f i r s t impacts  of  next part w i l l d i s c u s s some of the f a c t o r s of tourism  The  for s u c c e s s f u l  development  final  and  reasons for r e s i d e n t  s u b - s e c t i o n w i l l document some ideas  development.  28  2.2.1  International U n t i l perhaps  positive  Tourism twenty  economic s t e p ,  years ago,  especially  i n T h i r d World  I t provided needed c u r r e n c y but more were not addressed.  Young  want t o ,  or can be,  Identification An  are  of  resources  some  evident  local be  impacts  in  that fewer  on  the  visitors  the  tourist  1982).  Tourism  foreshore,  and on the c a p a c i t y of the  environment  To c o n t r o l c o a s t a l  undertaken coastal  control social  by  (Rajotte,  of  resource  allocation  recommended an i n v e n t o r y of land including  alternative  development  were c o n s t r u c t i o n phase g u i d e l i n e s . example,  by  land,  planners  for  capacity e x p l i c i t l y  caused  Fiji  demands  supplies  "Setback l i n e s "  cause  of  Impacts  waste d i s p o s a l . Fiji,  tourism  should be placed on how many  environmental  freshwater  in  Bosselman  persuaded to come to an a r e a .  example of  industry  for  changes  Ash (1975) p o p u l a r i z e d d i s c u s s i o n  discussed  arguing that emphasis  placed  social  impacts and the p o s s i b i l i t y of c o n t r o l l i n g negative  effects.  A.  subtle  countries.  Authors such as Young (1973),  (1978), and Turner and tourism  t o u r i s m was seen as a  the  problems  industry.  29  It  uses.  were encouraged was  felt,  in  as  this  p h y s i c a l environment would and  a  healthier  tourist  Bosselman (1978) a l s o takes t h i s p h y s i c a l approach. Jerusalem, goals,  to  hotel  appearance random  of  to  achieve  numerical public  developers who were allowed to d e s t r o y the the  city.  The changes were caused  s c a t t e r i n g of s u b s i d i e s and i n c e n t i v e s  effective  that  seeking  persuaded m u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t i e s to give away  parks  the  tourism o f f i c i a l s ,  In  removal of p l a n n i n g c o n t r o l s .  well-planned tourism could,  in  fact,  by  the  together  with  Bosselman  felt  help  both  to  j u s t i f y and safeguard the q u a l i t y of the environment.  Aside from both aspects of t o u r i s m , These of  the  values).  feeling  (i.e.,  negative  economic  and i n t a n g i b l e  (i.e., that  compared  corrosion  the  towards t o u r i s t s c o u l d deprivation  created.  p o l l u t i o n , congestion,  Bryden (1973) f e e l s  resentment  and  there are e x t e r n a l diseconomies  can be t a n g i b l e  amenities)  positive  of  local  p o s s i b l e growth of  develop to  strain  from  visitor  residents  consumption  patterns.  While t o u r i s m can provide s u b s t a n t i a l economic above  and beyond the economic c o s t s ,  or e x t e r n a l i t i e s benefits  benefits  numerous s o c i a l  costs  are imposed on people who are p e n a l i z e d for  accruing  include  generation  national  economy),  to of  others. scarce  increased  30  Desirable  effects  foreign  exchange  economic  and  (in  might the  development  growth,  and i n c r e a s e d employment.  offset  by  pollution,  damage  environment  minimization  on l o c a l c u l t u r e  Working Group, tourism  (i.e.  1974).  of  misallocation  s o c i a l welfare,  development  is  of  local  and negative  ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l Geographical  Although the  be  erosion,  u n c o n t r o l l e d and d i s r u p t i v e s o c i a l change,  instability,  of  the  d e s t r u c t i o n and mismanagement),  resources,  effects  to  These b e n e f i t s c o u l d  Union  intended purpose and use  generally positive,  the  social  b e n e f i t s and c o s t s of t o u r i s m development must be determined i n order to evaluate  its  The development  of  existing  performance.  a  r e s o r t w i t h i n or adjacent to an  p o p u l a t i o n centre c o u l d r e s u l t  the s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n over  i n major changes  in  time.  A c q u i s i t i o n of l a n d , development of accommodation, transportation and other tourist services, p o s s i b l e r e l o c a t i o n of, or r e s t r i c t i o n s upon l o c a l people, significant employment of locals, and p e n e t r a t i o n i n t o l o c a l markets can be expected to take place. Spatial penetration, and thus frequent contact with locals because of the presence of large numbers of t o u r i s t s s t a y i n g for c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r i o d s , and t r a v e l l i n g over wider a r e a s , are a l s o l i k e l y . L o c a l involvement i n , and dependence upon, the t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y are l i k e l y to be a t a high l e v e l , and r e a c t i o n and change i n the social arrangements almost inevitable ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l G e o g r a p h i c a l Union Working Group, 1974, 85). A committee categories  of  i n Honolulu ( F a r r e l l ,  1982)  major  Waikiki:  problems  31  for  identified  two  inadequate  facilities  and  services  (e.g.,  recreation,  beaches and s o c i a l  environmental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s space  and  poor  committee planning,  (e.g.,  transport,  and  undesirable  crowding, lack  The  problems,  commitment or  that since  to  the  visitors,  the r e s i d e n t s  Hawaiian  Islands  inadequate  more important than those of the o t h e r s .  must  deal  with  the  have a much than  l a s t i n g consequences of p o o r l y planned  while v i s i t o r s  that allows  them to escape an unpopular s i t u a t i o n .  future,  point.  and the  i n d u s t r y enjoy a m o b i l i t y  c u r r e n t problems on Maui may i l l u s t r a t e  Hodge-podge  development,  sewage system problems,  over-dependence  lack of a f f o r d a b l e  an inadequate water s u p p l y , mounting crime l e v e l s , roads,  and  tourists  the problem of energy  and i n v e s t o r s  The encounter by i t s  might  that  on  housing, congested  eventually  drive  away.  between t o u r i s t and host i s  t r a n s i t o r y nature, constraints  relationships  is  The r e s i d e n t  development  In the  either  a c a r e f u l study of t h e i r needs  much  tourism,  1970  p o l i t i c a l i n a c t i o n and e r r o r .  investors  this  of open  the  from i n a p p r o p r i a t e z o n i n g ,  F a r r e l l emphasizes greater  services)  aesthetics).  s a i d , arose  streets,  are  both  i n time and space,  unequal  32  characterized  and  lacking  and in  spontaneity.  For the t o u r i s t ,  the t o u r i s t - h o s t  encounter  not only b r i e f but i t  i s a l s o a unique event i n the  Whereas for the h o s t ,  it  encounters  that  is  year.  i s simply one of a s e r i e s of  f o l l o w one another almost throughout  the  whole year - a l l of them e q u a l l y b r i e f and s u p e r f i c i a l .  Residents  are more l i k e l y to b u i l d up a general  or d i s l i k i n g f o r t o u r i s t s This i s  because f i r s t - t i m e  than are t o u r i s t s visitors  for  residents.  often do not have  time to decide whether they l i k e r e s i d e n t s  as a  from  they have something e c o n o m i c a l l y to g a i n  from the t o u r i s t s ,  but who do not fear the complete  t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d by an o c c a s i o n a l d i s p l a y of personal d i s l i k e  B.  enough  class.  The most f r i e n d l y behavior would be expected people who f e e l  liking  l o s s of  honest,  for p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l s .  F a c t o r s of Concern This section  reviews  the  may cause some of the negative  l i t e r a t u r e on f a c t o r s impacts of t o u r i s m .  encouraging or d i s c o u r a g i n g f r i e n d l y i n t e r a c t i o n s (Rajotte,  which Factors  are  1982):  a)  s c a l e of t o u r i s m - mass t o u r i s m has impersonal encounters;  b)  types of t o u r i s m - i f the r e s i d e n t people themselves — t h e i r c u l t u r e or h i s t o r y - - are a major t o u r i s t  33  a t t r a c t i o n , a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of the t o u r i s t s w i l l a r r i v e with i n t e r e s t and r e s p e c t for l o c a l people; c)  p h y s i c a l i s o l a t i o n of t o u r i s t s to any type of i n t e r a c t i o n ;  d)  length of s t a y - s h o r t - t e r m v i s i t o r s do not c u l t i v a t e an interest in t h e i r hosts;  e)  n o v e l t y of t o u r i s t s - r e s i d e n t s grow l e s s i n t e r e s t e d they grow used to having t o u r i s t s around;  f)  t o u r i s t t r a n s i e n c e - there i s l i t t l e m o t i v a t i o n to adapt behaviour i f t o u r i s t s do not expect to r e t u r n ;  g)  s o c i a l norms of the p a r t i c u l a r country on to s t r a n g e r s .  The  largest  feelings,  single  according  to  gradual  appropriation  making  by  government  The  externally  of  - t h i s a c t s as a b a r r i e r  friendliness  cause  of  local,  Rajotte,  is  resentment  economic  based  benefits  anti-tourist over  corporations  or  national  agencies.  process  of  social  change  induced  by  tourist  i s r e l a t e d to the t o u r i s t s  activities,  and those i n v o l v i n g the d e s t i n a t i o n area and  population.  themselves and  The f o l l o w i n g l i s t s e x p l a i n the  i n a community.  f a c t o r s as a b a s i s  their its  characteristics  the v i s i t o r s and the d e s t i n a t i o n area that a f f e c t  impacts  the  and d e c i s i o n -  development  of  as  social  These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are important  for r e c o g n i z i n g and c a t e g o r i z i n g  34  impacts.  a.  Visitor Characteristics  i)  Number  large  of  local  impacts  and  visitors  - a s m a l l number of v i s i t o r s  population  will  result  little  in  v i s i t o r s as a percentage  have r e l a t i v e l y few, change.  of r e s i d e n t s ,  in  i f any,  A c t u a l numbers  of  both at any one time,  and over a h o l i d a y season,  i s t h e r e f o r e a major v a r i a b l e ;  ii)  visitors  Length  visitor  is  of  stay  of  i n an a r e a , the g r e a t e r  -  the  the  making a deeper p e n e t r a t i o n i n t o the  a  longer  any one  likelihood  of  his  l o c a l area - s p a t i a l l y ,  e c o n o m i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y ;  iii) be  Racial characteristics greater  with  of v i s i t o r s  increasing  - the  differences  r e l i g i o n and appearance between  the  impact  in race,  tourist  will  culture,  and the  local  population;  iv)  Economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  difference  for  economic area" 1974,  - "the g r e a t e r  i n economic l e v e l s between the t o u r i s t s  l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n , the greater desire  of t o u r i s t s  equality,  is  possibly  resulting  Geographical  85);  35  the  l i k e l y to be resentment and  and p o l i t i c a l , i f not s o c i a l ,  (International  and  the  i n demands  change i n the  Union  Working  for local  Group,  v)  A c t i v i t i e s of t o u r i s t s  - the  t o u r i s t s and the l o c a l people activities. minimal  amount  of c o n t a c t  between  i s often determined by t o u r i s t  Water a c t i v i t i e s and sunbathing might r e s u l t  contact,  while t o u r i n g ,  needing l o c a l a s s i s t a n c e  sight-seeing  may r e s u l t  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the D e s t i n a t i o n Area  i)  Economic  development of  the  and a c t i v i t i e s  in extensive  b.  area  -  advanced s t a t e of economic development w i l l  an  contact.  area  in  experience  impact of t o u r i s m than an area with a p r i m i t i v e economy. addition range,  to  its  impact  on  in  incomes, t o u r i s m a f f e c t s  p r i c e and q u a l i t y of goods and s e r v i c e s  an less In the  a v a i l a b l e for  consumption.  ii)  Level  minimal been  of  l o c a l involvement i n t o u r i s m - there may  economic b e n e f i t conducted  by  for l o c a l s  outside  i f the development  agencies  or  companies.  be has The  o p p o r t u n i t y for c o n t a c t with t o u r i s t s might a l s o be reduced.  iii) for  S p a t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of development - o p p o r t u n i t i e s contact  between  locals  where the t o u r i s t development with,  and is  tourists will part  of,  or  be g r e a t e r contiguous  l o c a l s e t t l e m e n t s r a t h e r than separated from them.  36  iv)  Strength of  culture, able  l o c a l c u l t u r e - an area with a s t r o n g  including its  to withstand the  own language,  is  potentially  impact of a f o r e i g n c u l t u r e  area with few unique or c l e a r c u l t u r a l t r a i t s . of  local  culture is greatly  isolation  from  other  affected  cultures  by  (e.g.,  local better  than  an  The s t r e n g t h  the  degree  remote  of  Pacific  islands).  v)  Other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  and o r i g i n areas in  explaining  hypothesis the  - distance  the  level  of  impact  process  residents  of  the d e s t i n a t i o n  by  economic  development  and  This  easiest  do  destination area  changing  change,  induced  to  area.  certain the  involved,  or change.  of v i s i t o r and d e s t i n a t i o n a r e a , of  The  is  by  felt  process  characteristics level  of l o c a l  changing the type of  be  convenient  visitor.  37  to  by the can  be as  involvement).  with the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  more  char-  (such  area s i n c e a r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e p o p u l a t i o n would  factor  t o u r i s m with the  conflict  social  altered  fixed  of  suggested that the s h o r t e r the d i s t a n c e  acteristics  is  destination  has been i d e n t i f i e d as an a d d i t i o n a l  l e s s l i k e l i h o o d of c u l t u r a l  The  between the  of  the and a  d e a l with than  A study of Hawaii continuing  agriculture  industry; are  and  Farrell  is  together  co-equal  essential  components  t o u r i s m can be  discussion;  Loukissas concluded  and  that  to a h e a l t h y  expected  i n the  that  tourist  operators  of the t o u r i s t  (1982),  that  industry;  future  only  locals  tourist  and t o u r i s t s  research,  continuous  of l i m i t s must be done now.  in  factors  baseline  a  study  such  c a p a c i t y to absorb development  as  of the  the Greek local  institutional  and the p o t e n t i a l  should be considered  Islands,  interaction  i n the making of  policy.  Clevendon classes  were  development otherhand,  (1979)  found  supportive because  of  that of  the  its  the  lower  promotion  economic  environmental  costs.  because  He  should be paid to f a c t o r s absorb development, tourists,  with the r e s t  its  such  as  the  38  tourism On  the  e x c e s s i v e and  s o c i o - c u l t u r a l and  local  attention  capacity  i n t e r a c t i o n between  i n t e g r a t i o n of the t o u r i s m  economy.  middle  of  a l s o suggests t h a t more  the p o t e n t i a l  and the of the  of  and  gains.  the upper c l a s s tends to be a g a i n s t  u n c o n t r o l l e d development  and  concluded  the p u b l i c i s deeply i n v o l v e d i n every f a c e t of p l a n n i n g  monitoring and the s e t t i n g  of  (1982)  that the p u b l i c , the government and the  that s u c c e s s f u l if  by  to  locals  industry  Hovinen (1982) future d e c l i n e  is  feels  that  the  magnitude of  i n f l u e n c e d by r e l a t i v e  of the t o u r i s t base, and e f f e c t i v e n e s s  The r e p o r t by  UNESCO  which the economist advantages advantages from and  of  can d e a l with  the  social  the  facilities, and  development  the  the  as  soon  economic  spheres,  points  of  tourism.  the c i r c u l a t i o n  of  the  These income  of community i n f r a s t r u c t u r e  favourable e f f e c t s in  as t h i s  social  it  only  is  out the ease with  the q u a n t i f i c a t i o n of  improvements  However,  diversity  of p l a n n i n g .  impact  i n c l u d e jobs c r e a t e d ,  tourism,  living,  (1976)  location,  possible  on the standard  working  impact  of  conditions.  enters  the  non-  possible  to  evaluate  it  of  tourism,  or  qualitatively.  When problems  discussing  future  development  of e x i s t i n g  tourism  development,  c l e a r l y points  out four main f a c t o r s  literature  of concern:  a)  economic residents income;  b)  environmental - p o l l u t i o n , w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t d e s t r u c t i o n , c o n s t r u c t i o n e f f e c t s on the land and scenery;  c)  p u b l i c concern a) b)  -  the  on  seasonal employment, higher prices for land and commodities, d i s t r i b u t i o n of  access to r e c r e a t i o n and amenities - c o n g e s t i o n ; infrastructure - u t i l i t e s , transportation;  39  d)  s o c i a l values  - e r o s i o n of l o c a l t r a d i t i o n ; - housing; - transient (tourist)/resident interaction;  The t o u r i s t / r e s i d e n t attitude  interaction  and o v e r a l l r e s i d e n t  to t o u r i s m are shaped by a l l the other f a c t o r s  a d d i t i o n to some dependent v a r i a b l e s on the r e s i d e n t . might i n c l u d e the r e s i d e n t ' s to  a b i l i t y to i n t e r a c t ,  i n t e r a c t , and p e r c e p t i o n s of  tourists  in  These  motivation  (Rajotte,  1982,  81) .  C.  Successful  Developments  Bosselman established  (1978)  peasantry.  policy  a higher  the  (1)  increased  quality  These e f f o r t s  two  of  life  goals economic f o r the  i n v o l v e d land-use p l a n n i n g ,  c o - o r d i n a t i o n , c o n t r o l of development and i n t e g r a t e d  regional tried  that  for Mexican t o u r i s m were  y i e l d from t o u r i s m ; (2) rural  explains  s o c i a l and economic s t r a t e g i e s .  at Cancun and was l a r g e l y  T h i s s t r a t e g y was  successful.  The  Mexicans  d i d not want another unplanned Acapulco.  The R i v i e r a of southern France i s renowned for t o u r i s m , but  is  too  expensive,  crowded  sewage i s dumped i n t o the s e a . jams and l i t t l e  parking.  and  There  polluted. are  massive  Untreated traffic  Bosselman compared two regions  40  in  France where communities were planned as a l t e r n a t i v e s  to  the  Riviera.  Languedoc, on River,  Mediterranean,  shows t h a t even when there  development, between lack  the  it  does  of  is planning  the Rhone  for  tourist  not ensure a harmonious r e l a t i o n s h i p  development and environment.  Bosselman f e e l s  this  of harmony can often be a t t r i b u t e d to pressure put  the planners to produce quick v i s i b l e  The A q u i t a i n e r e g i o n of F r a n c e , of  west  the  Atlantic  consistent the  coast,  results.  on the southwest corner  was developed  on  a  small  Development  was  directed  to  the  protected  by  strict  encouraged  multiple  recreational  purposes.  Aquitaine  regulation. use  of  example  The  plan  the  national  shows  that  in  least  e c o l o g i c a l l y s e n s i t i v e areas and water q u a l i t y of lakes  The  scale  with the type of development that had e x i s t e d  past.  on  was  strongly  forests  a  for  successful  development  must s i m p l y be s e n s i t i v e to l o c a l environmental  and  concerns.  social  Poipu  Farrell  (1982,  54)  lists  Beach, K a i l u a - Kona and H i l o as examples  complex overall,  is the  planned entire  in  relation  district  to  its  usually  41  Waikiki,  where  "no  neighbours and, lacks  manageable  coherence.  Such  regions  densities,  unaesthetic  make for high b u i l d i n g and design,  and  limited  human  recreational  faci1 i t i e s . "  Farrell physical stifle  feels  that,  amenities,  there  for l o c a t i o n and a s s o c i a t e d  i s a degree of sameness which may  character in large-scale  developments,  not  projects.  In  small-scale  no matter how b i g , l o c a l people c i r c u l a t e as a  matter of course because does  except  it  i s a l l part of t h e i r town.  This  happen to the same extent i n l a r g e , planned  unit  developments.  Hudman  (1978),  ignoring  mentioned by F a r r e l l , involving  tourist  impact.  relatively stable,  Some r e s e a r c h  expansion  character  T h i s p r o t e c t s other areas  The r e s u l t s  of t h i s s t r a t e g y  impact  a  to  growing economy  in  few areas  areas, not  into of  as from are  and a  directly  by t o u r i s m which provide goods and s e r v i c e s  t o u r i s t development  divided  of  the development of s p e c i f i c and planned areas  the l i m i t a t i o n of c u l t u r a l  affected  element  proposes a s t r a t e g y for t o u r i s t growth  t o u r i s t development c e n t e r s . adverse  the  to  the  centers.  shows  competing  that  l e i s u r e communities w i l l be  groups,  one  recreational f a c i l i t i e s  42  which  favors  ranged a g a i n s t  the those  who  seek  to l i m i t commercial a c t i v i t y .  These  views are l i k e l y to be a r t i c u l a t e d i n e l e c t i o n s , zoning  actions,  outcomes  of  referendum, and  these  decisions  land-use  conflicting annexation,  decisions.  The  w i l l determine the scope and  nature of growth i n the community.  2.2.2  Domestic Tourism Research r e l a t e d  tourism, This  to  especially  may  be  due  servational, Archer f e l t  dramatic  destinations.  Archer  (1978) explored the  moral,  economic  effects  that by t r a v e l l i n g to  of  other  national  heritage,  help  prevent r e g i o n a l fragmentation. which  conventions  could  Archer  a  sense  mentions  and c o n s t r a i n t s  is  a consequence, undue  parts  of the same  43  their  of n a t i o n a l u n i t y could One of the  social  that many of the  social  in  their  another r e g i o n and, as  t h e i r moral behaviour can d e t e r i o r a t e  censure.  con-  tourism.  pride in  imposed upon t o u r i s t s  home areas are absent when they v i s i t  and  domestic  begin to experience  then  political,  environmental  people  effects  domestic  to a c o n c e n t r a t i o n on the more  country,  to  has  of  limited.  and  and  effects  been  A study by B r i a n social  social  i n North America,  e f f e c t s seen i n e x o t i c  cultural,  the  without  Archer found domestic  that many of the problems a s s o c i a t e d  t o u r i s m are r e l a t e d to the degree  tourism  development.  holiday  experience  resident barred region. these  from  Archer  felt  largely  development  of  Overcrowding reduces the value of  the  c r e a t e s a d d i t i o n a l s t r a i n for  In extreme c a s e s ,  enjoying  problems.  remain  of i n t e n s i t y  and  population.  that sound  planning  under  public restricted.  for  the  l o c a l people may be  the n a t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s  In many c o u n t r i e s ,  is severely  with  of t h e i r  could  overcome  example,  ownership  own  beaches  and  private  In other a r e a s ,  streets  have been c l o s e d to v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c d u r i n g the daytime and turned  into  p e d e s t r i a n areas  for  visitors  and  residents  alike.  E x c e s s i v e and affects  badly  planned  t o u r i s m development  the p h y s i c a l and c u l t u r a l environment of the  also  holiday  areas.  In many areas the u n c o n t r o l l e d commercial exploitation of t o u r i s m has produced unsightly hotels of a l i e n d e s i g n which i n t r u d e into the surrounding c u l t u r a l and s c e n i c environment. In such c a s e s , the a r c h i t e c t u r a l design has been planned to meet the supposed wishes of the v i s i t o r rather than to blend i n t o the local environment ( A r c h e r , 1978, 130). Many of the disadvantages  of t o u r i s m can  q u a l i t y p l a n n i n g , design and  management  44  be and  offset by  by high  educating  tourists spent  to a p p r e c i a t e the environment.  by t o u r i s t s  Some  of  the money  i n the r e g i o n can be used to conserve and  improve the n a t u r a l man-made h e r i t a g e .  From the p o i n t explained  that  of  view  domestic  of a r e g i o n ' s economy, Archer  tourism  export.  The  regions  c r e a t e s a flow of money  analogous national spent  expenditure  to  the  a  form of  money by v i s i t o r s into  the  invisible  from  area.  other  This  flow of f o r e i g n c u r r e n c y r e c e i v e d  economy  by  of  is  from  tourists  international  tourists.  by  is a  The money  c r e a t e s a d d i t i o n a l employment and higher  incomes w i t h i n the h o l i d a y a r e a , and, i n most c a s e s , through the  multiplier  effect,  the b e n e f i t s  through  the r e g i o n a l economy.  visitors  from other a r e a s ,  To  The  incentive  growth for  the  diffused  provide  investment  r e q u i r e d and much of t h i s may b e n e f i t alike.  are  in  widely  facilities  infrastructure is  v i s i t o r s and r e s i d e n t s  of t o u r i s m may a l s o provide a  monetary  continuance of many l o c a l c r a f t s ,  the t o u r i s t h o t e l s may c r e a t e  a  for  market  while  for l o c a l produce,  p a r t i c u l a r y milk and v e g e t a b l e s .  A  1980  implications  study of  too  Canmore,  by  Cheng  much  lessons  to  Adverse  change has been f e l t  points  out  some  t o u r i s m development.  Alberta  from i n Banff  45  Banff's owing  It  social offers  experience. to  continued  tourism  development.  residents  In  response,  more  have been seeking accommodations  tourists  and  i n Canmore.  Some c e n t r e s become known as t o u r i s t towns; others are towns with t o u r i s m because the t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y i s only one of many i n d u s t r i e s that may be accommodated in a population centre. Its relative importance to the local economy determines i t s degree of impact on the physical and s o c i a l environment and on the way of l i f e . Therefore, gradual expansion i n the number of t o u r i s t s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s has the p o t e n t i a l to a l t e r s u b t l y the s o c i a l environment, owing to the influx of people, both s t a f f and visitors, that it engenders. As the population shifts, community values and o b j e c t i v e s may change (Cheng, 1980, 73). Cheng goes on pinpoint  because  magnitude,  to say that change tourist  is  often d i f f i c u l t  developments  are  and new s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s  incrementally  as  they  are completed.  of  to  varying  may be phased  The changes i n  in the  s o c i a l environment may not be t i e d to a s p e c i f i c  development  but  of  incremental  or c o - o r d i n a t i o n c o u l d c o n t r o l  incremental  may  change.  result Control  from  the cumulative e f f e c t  change with a management body ( i . e . , alliance private tourism  or  a  combination  s e c t o r s ) empowered to  of people make  private  from the p u b l i c  decisions  on  and  overall  development.  Cheng d i s c u s s e s social  p u b l i c agnecy,  changes  that  have  occurred  environment of Banff without d i s t i n g u i s h i n g  46  in  the  specific  t o u r i s m impacts from those that accrue to growing p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e s with t o u r i s m development.  a)  "no-hurry"  -  a  accentuates  the  f r u s t r a t i o n f o r people with errands  behaviour  patterns.  downtown,  time  rhythmical streets  Banff  lulls  access by  -  t o u r i s t development souvenir  shopkeepers volumes  tourists  have learned adaptive their  journeys  t r i p s to c o i n c i d e use  car  or  or  lanes foot,  and  with back  and park  in  shops;  this  manifestation  may be recognized s a l e s of  "junk"  admit, o u t s t r i p the  of  sales;  too  which,  as  high  items i n  prices  system i n which a commodity has a r e g u l a r  residents"  tourists  and a discounted  (Cheng, 1980,  services;  for  double  for  and  Banff  and  price  goods  much  "an abundance  s a l e s of other  conspicuously other  by  of  accommodation  price  c)  necessary  the  zones.  Commercialization  of  by  reduce  i n v i s i t o r use,  for f a s t e r  restricted  residents  They  their  mood  include:  Congestion  time c o n s t r a i n t s .  b)  Tangible changes  price  and the  for  78).  T r a n s i e n c e i n the p o p u l a t i o n - businesses i n Banff on a t r a n s i e n t When  known  labor force to  provide  a high p r o p o r t i o n of the r e s i d e n t s  47  seasonal of a  rely staff.  community  are  transients  (i.e.,  community i n s t i t u t i o n s , be  or  a  permanent),  o r g a n i z a t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s  low  level  of p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  labor,  d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e growth  Loss  in  this  of  discretionary brings  time  more  facilities  i n the  place.  first  I n t a n g i b l e changes  as  tourists,  expect to lose l e i s u r e time. to enjoy the  -  could  economy.  increased service  They a r e , t h u s ,  tourism personnel  less  that can occur a r e :  to adopt behaviour p a t t e r n s such cars  and  as  h o l d i n g loud p a r t i e s ,  drinking, they  tend  cruising  disrupt  the  " r e a l people" i n town - permanent r e s i d e n t s  feel  community o r i e n t e d  Lack of  able  which a t t r a c t e d them to the area  Development of a r e s o r t atmosphere - when t o u r i s t s  in  the  transient  sector  i n the c r e a t i o n of a h i g h l y unstable  may role  Since  i n d u s t r y i s a heavy employer of young,  development  b)  not  tourist  result  a)  or  d i f f i c u l t to maintain due to r a p i d turnover of  players  d)  temporary  lifestyle.  that they are not among " r e a l people" when large numbers of t o u r i s t s  and t r a n s i e n t s  are  48  i n town.  The experience  for them i s  c)  Loss  of  too  superficial.  feelings  transients security  and is  of  security  tourists  fill  and the  l o s t as p e t t y t h e f t  trust town,  and  a  as more sense  vandalism  of  grow.  T h i s has happened i n B a n f f .  d)  Growing  i m p e r s o n a l i t y - the  experienced an  in  increased  a s m a l l town can become use of t r a n s i e n t  p r o p r i e t o r s and permanent  e)  staff  the  tourists  local  exposure  to  be  Cheng  concludes most  transience negative interfere  impact with  (Cheng,  accountable,  towards t o u r i s t s  -  in  1980,  79).  in unfamiliar  and uneven  but  the  Prolonged  temperaments attitude  is,  commercialization  are  learned.  that congestion  conspicuous in  r a t h e r than rooted  t r e a t e d with c o u r t e s y by  "stupid" questions  partly  nonetheless,  impersonal with  masses of d i s o r i e n t e d people  surroundings, may  "are not always  community"  service  staff.  Development of unhealthy a t t i t u d e s Banff,  the  f r i e n d l y , personal  the  traits  and of  p o p u l a t i o n seems  to r e s i d e n t s . community  Not  stability  49  tourism to only  growth,  be  an  does  but  important transience  but i t a l s o seems  to  r e l a t e most d i r e c t l y to changes behaviour.  in  She p o i n t s out that  resident  a t t i t u d e s and  "host communities  are  environments, as w e l l as r e c r e a t i o n a l environments, cannot  be  unalloyed  assumed  that u n c o - o r d i n a t e d growth w i l l  b l e s s i n g to everyone.  need to be evaluated a g a i n s t 1980,  resort  originally to  it  be  an  Community values and goals  these values and goals" (Cheng,  with  examined  receptive  change.  interfered  New  Torquay, an E n g l i s h seaside to  tourism.  structures  traditional  were  views.  Then  side  effects  character.  stemming  Citizens  saw  from  new  the  Planners  loss  development  anticipate  of as  community benefitting  and  the  concluded  that  improved communication between planners  and  life  felt  perceived  residents  studied  community r e a c t i o n to  i n two U . S . east coast  the r e s i d e n t s  r e s o r t towns.  It was and  less  seasonal  He found that  a heightened t e n s i o n d u r i n g summer months an  increase  in  i n each community f e l t  became  at t h e i r expense.  was needed.  Rothman (1978) visitors  or  saw modern-  outsiders  the c i t i z e n s  municipality  residents  unattractive  i z a t i o n as a t o n i c for the tax base but f a i l e d to the  and  79).  Bosselman (1978)  began  home  satisfactory  50  crime. that  the  About  half  the  o v e r a l l pace of  d u r i n g the p e r i o d i n which  v a c a t i o n e r s were p r e s e n t . parking  Residents  problems i n the summer.  activities  such  as  driving  a l s o noted t r a f f i c and  As w e l l ,  they a l s o reduced  i n town, shopping, using  the  beach and d i n i n g i n r e s t a u r a n t s .  Pizam (1978) f e l t  that the r e s i d e n t s '  t o u r i s t s and t o u r i s m would be economic  dependency  with an a t t i t u d e Pizam  found  tourism,  predicators of and  Pizam  Christi,  income of  and  Kamp  in  and  his  towards  residents'  examined t h i s  theory  Cod, Massachusetts.  economic  dependency  occupation  were  towards t o u r i s m .  on  the  best  The f i n d i n g s  Rothman were confirmed by Thomason, Crompton  (1979)  in  a study of winter v i s i t o r s  in  Corpus  by  D'Amore (1980) and a subsequent paper  Texas.  i n 1983,  seven communities throughout B r i t i s h Columbia  selected  and  an attempt was made  social sensitivity tourism.  An  local  to e x i s t i n g and a n t i c i p a t e d future  levels  interview  the community.  determine  whether  to  program and  identify  were  the  r e s i d e n t p e r c e p t i o n s of t o u r i s t within  He Cape  resident's  his attitude  In the study  of  a  f u n c t i o n of the  tourism.  questionaire  that  his  on  a  attitudes  was designed to assess the  This i n f o r m a t i o n  tourism  was  social carrying capacity.  51  tourism was  industry  evaluated  to  approaching the l i m i t s  of  The c o n c l u s i o n s were  arising  from  used to make g e n e r a l i z e d  appropriate"  tourism  were developed: with p o s i t i v e , suggesting development.  one suggesting  On were  development  might  Two  about potential  with  avenues  associated the  second  inappropriate  of these paradigms, a number  developed proceed  to in  indicate a  manner  how that  is  of  tourism socially  to the community.  D'Amore used  two  basic  techniques  in his study.  first  was a l i t e r a t u r e review i n which i n f e r e n c e s  from  previous  research.  community r e s i d e n t s .  of  The most important g u i d e l i n e  for t o u r i s m as was  52  field  representative developed  the D'Amore study was to have as much p u b l i c input  the p l a n n i n g process  The  were drawn  The second technique was a  work i n t e r v i e w programme u s i n g a s e l e c t i o n  in  "socially  development;  associated  the b a s i s  case s t u d i e s  those c o n d i t i o n s  community enhancing  guidelines  responsive  statements  development.  conditions  D'Amore's  possible.  into  2.3  Tourism Impacts  There appears to be three d i s t i n c t views on the t o u r i s m industry's  impacts  t r a d i t i o n a l view, encourages tourism  on  development.  tourism brings  development.  brings  destroying  the  hordes of invaders  to to  the  change and  small  view,  communities,  c u l t u r e and environment  The t h i r d view sees t o u r i s m as  direct  exploitation  and  the  second  and A s h , 1975). economic  to  socio-economic  According  indigenous  According  (Turner  a  form of  n e o - c o l o n i a l domination  (Mathews, 19 74).  These views political  examine the same phenomenon from d i f f e r e n t  orientations.  They a l s o  look at d i f f e r e n t  social  processes under v a r y i n g c o n d i t i o n s .  In  order to  development,  the  study  the  impacts  2.3.1  tourism measured  The f o l l o w i n g  and c o s t s have been d e r i v e d from the  lists  literature.  Benefits The primary  that  by  impacts need to be i d e n t i f i e d and  i n a q u a n t i t a t i v e way, where p o s s i b l e . of b e n e f i t s  created  it  benefit  i s an e x p o r t .  of  t o u r i s m follows  from the  Export of " i n v i s i b l e " s e r v i c e s  53  fact (such  as  tourism  different hotel  insurance  and  shipping)  from export of m a t e r i a l goods.  room  to  a  foreign  resident  e f f e c t s as the r e n t a l of a f r e i g h t e r  There are many just  economic  benefits  ones.  and improvements  The  in l i f e s t y l e s  fire  transportation of  may  and  to a f o r e i g n  in  meet  (especially  operating  t o u r i s m development labor,  package  against  innovations result  protection, needs  and  imports  of  services and  of  large  where t o u r i s m i s a y e a r well.  economic  benefits  are m u l t i - n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s ,  tours  a  shipper.  such s o c i a l  the  round i n d u s t r y ) and l o c a l r e s i d e n t s as  Factors  of  from t o u r i s m besides  police  be made to  tourists  The r e n t a l  could be a d i r e c t  as  care,  qualitatively  i n t r o d u c t i o n of many  Improvements  medical  not  has the same economic  derived  t o u r i s m development.  numbers  is  (food  from  foreign  for t o u r i s t s ,  for  example).  Well-planned safeguard  t o u r i s m can a l s o help both to j u s t i f y and  the q u a l i t y of the  environment.  54  Possible  Benefits  of Tourism  1.  Generation of scarce  foreign  exchange.  2.  Increased economic and development  3.  Increased employment and income.  4.  Increased standard of l i v i n g .  5.  Innovations and improvements i n  6.  Increased understanding cultures.  7.  Improvements i n s o c i a l  growth.  lifestyles.  of d i f f e r e n t  people and  services:  - q u a l i t y of f i r e , p o l i c e and h e a l t h s e r v i c e s ; - a v a i l a b i l i t y of r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s .  2.3.2  8.  O p p o r t u n i t y for shopping.  9.  An e s t a b l i s h e d i n f r a s t r u c t u r e from development of other i n d u s t r i e s .  Costs One d i f f e r e n c e  tourism  stay  between  a  normal  t h a t are not exported  i n the c o u n t r y .  product,  but  This means that the community i s  left  with the p h y s i c a l and sometimes the  substantial costs,  export a c t i v i t y and  as an export a c t i v i t y i s that t o u r i s m produces many  side e f f e c t s  by  t o u r i s m for  industry  itself.  economic b e n e f i t s  with  the  s o c i a l by-products produced While  tourism  can  provide  above and beyond the  economic  numerous s o c i a l c o s t s or e x t e r n a l i t i e s  people who are p e n a l i z e d f o r b e n e f i t s  55  are imposed on  a c c r u i n g to  others.  U n l i k e many tourism  depends  qualities  other on  economic a c t i v i t i e s ,  maintenance  which a t t r a c t  of  the success of  those  environmental  tourists.  Possible  Costs of Tourism  1.  Damage noise,  to environment litter.  -  2.  M i s a l l o c a t i o n of resources  3.  U n c o n t r o l l e d and d i s r u p t i v e s o c i a l - vandalism, drug abuse,  4.  Seasonal  5.  Local  6.  M i n i m i z a t i o n of s o c i a l  7.  Negative  8.  Costs to l o c a l s  9.  Loss of amenities  erosion,  pollution,  - a c q u i s i t o n of  land.  change:  alcoholism,  crime.  unemployment.  instability.  effects  welfare.  of l o c a l c u l t u r e . for increased  services.  and f a c i l i t i e s  to  residents:  - congested r o a d s , sewage system problems, supply, parks. 10.  Loss of a f f o r d a b l e  11.  Increased  12.  Diminished open  13.  "Eye-sore"  prices  housing.  f o r goods and space.  development.  56  services.  water  2.3.3  Measurement of The economic  measure  Impacts  effects  quantitatively.  of t o u r i s m are r e l a t i v e l y easy to Many  theories  and  measurement have been proposed i n b e n e f i t - c o s t measurement  of  (pollution, because  water and  these  problems.  economic sewer  impacts  use,  erosion)  to  create  Though there might  be  many  environment social  for  is  the  local residents  change  q u a n t i t a t i v e way.  is  the  There are  studies.  environmental  help  t o u r i s m i n a community, i t  This  and  methods  impacts  is  important  changes to  caused the  which i s of most to  indicators  The  the ensuing s o c i a l  changes  hardest  of  to  by  social  interest.  measure  in  a  the  growth of  resentment towards t o u r i s m mentioned i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  Bryden (1973) relationship  mentions i n d i c a t i o n s that there may be a  between  tourism  density  (expressed  in  the  annual numbers of t o u r i s t as a p r o p o r t i o n of the  population  or  growth  as a p r o p o r t i o n of the land  resentment density  towards t o u r i s t s .  is  an  indicator  of  between t o u r i s t s and r e s i d e n t s , rise  to  because  resentment of  and  The inference the  effects  system.  57  the  of  i s that t o u r i s m  degree of c o n f r o n t a t i o n  and t h i s  of t o u r i s t s .  "corrosive"  c u l t u r e and value  area)  c o n f r o n t a t i o n gives  This resentment may occur of  t o u r i s m on the  native  Clevendon impacts extent found  (1979)  created  attempts  by t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t  t o w h i c h t h e change four  t o i d e n t i f y and measure t h e and  to i s o l a t e  the  c a n be a t t r i b u t e d  to tourism.  He  size  by t h e r a t e  of  indicators:  a)  change growth;  in  b)  attitudes of development;  c)  the degree of segregation of l o c a l uses from t o u r i s t u s e s and t h e d e g r e e o f i n t e r a c t i o n between t o u r i s t s and locals;  d)  the d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o n t r o l s , measured by t h e d e g r e e to which man-made environments i n the city have been declared as p r e s e r v e d n a t i o n a l monuments and t h e e x t e n t of l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n making t h a t p o s s i b l e . Clevendon  hotel  would  while  the  dynamics hotel  of  beds  local  hotels  and  that  indicate rate  of  the  growth  total The  population  average  t h e s i z e and  development. over  as measured  resident  felt  accommodations. the  community  beds  beds  percentage characterizes  integration  economy i s shown by  number  complexity  of h o t e l The  58  of  tourist  o f beds  indicates of  or  per  development  upper  the class  the q u a l i t y  of t o u r i s m development  classifying  t o u r i s t s h o p s as l o c a l  towards  of with  t h e o w n e r s h i p of  non-local.  Questions  2.4  the  for E v a l u a t i n g  Social  Performance  A f t e r reviewing domestic tourism, form  of  tourism it  is  a  the  and  of Tourism  literature  listing  now p o s s i b l e  question  the  to  provide  included  as  chapter.  They  impacts concerns  of  a  list)  for  tourism  can  indicate  Though (local  investors),  there  evaluating  (in  the  social  These questions  are not  to  They are  information in  this  review some of  the  particular  Themes  or  any s o r t of s o c i a l change w i l l  be  are  in  four  area.  "players"  government,  w i l l only involve  involved tourist,  and  indicators  of  residents.  are:  the p r o p o r t i o n of t o u r i s t s population?  in relation  This can i n d i c a t e the degree of c o n f r o n t a t i o n t o u r i s t and r e s i d e n t s . b)  of  the  i n any exact way.  used  any  these questions  These questions  What i s resident  be  residents,  s o c i a l change to the  a)  in  i n t e r n a t i o n a l and  c o s t s and b e n e f i t s  of summarizing the also  tourism  that  included.  measurement  way  on  to c o n s t r u c t a g u i d e l i n e  performance of t o u r i s m development. meant  Development  To what degree does the number or type of t o u r i s t the environmental d e s t r u c t i o n of: - water; - air; - l i v i n g or r e c r e a t i o n a l  space;  59  to  the  between affect  c)  food  production  space?  To what degree does the d e g r a d e or u p g r a d e t h e l o c a l  number or culture:  type  of  tourist  T o u r i s m c o u l d enhance t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n of l o c a l culture ( i . e . , P o l y n e s i a n C u l t u r a l C e n t r e , H a w a i i ) or d e s t r o y or hinder it (i.e., S p a n i s h t r a d i t i o n of c o n s e r v a t i s m on the Spanish " R i v i e r a " ) . d)  To  what d e g r e e does t h e  - a e s t h e t i c s of t h e - architecture?  type  of d e v e l o p m e n t  affect:  area;  If tourism d e v e l o p m e n t has n o t been p r o p e r l y planned, "strip" developments could occur, as well as u n a t t r a c t i v e b u i l d i n g s and s i t e s . This tends to make r e s i d e n t s l e s s favourable to f u r t h e r developments. e)  To what degree d e t r a c t from: - local - usual  f)  does  tourism  d e v e l o p m e n t enhance  or  stability; lifestyles?  Is t h e u r b a n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e a d a p t a b l e enough t o handle extra loads placed on i t as a r e s u l t of t o u r i s m ? For example: -  roads, parking; hospitals, clinics; fire service; police; w a t e r , sewer; recreation f a c i l i t i e s .  60  Summary  This  chapter  the  pertinent  is  a  with  diverse such  impacts  of t o u r i s m . dealing  methods  There  specifically  of c o n t r o l l i n g the  of  tourist  development  magnitude.  be c h a n g e s  in  the  i n the  social,  local  i t involves  or n o n - l o c a l  Some o f t h e and  services,  and  large  benefits  development increased  disruptive social  seasonal tourists  unemployment. and  from  is  of  cultural  of and  t o take  place  tourists,  and  frequent.  tourism  growth,  results  where d e v e l o p m e n t i s  numbers  contact  c a n be  area.  milieu are l i k e l y  r a p i d l y and on a l a r g e r s c a l e  where  economic  social  on a r e g i o n  Possible  arrangments of the d e s t i n a t i o n  much more  tourist  and  and o f c o n s i d e r a b l e  Changes  include  impacts  effects.  political  where  and r e v i e w e d some o f  s c a r c i t y of l i t e r a t u r e  i m p a c t s may  rapid,  tourism  on t h e  the impacts of t o u r i s m  The  of  defined  literature  definite  negative  and  has  include  improvements  employment  and  increased in social  income.  Costs  c h a n g e , damage t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t Residents  develop negative  industry.  61  c a n become  attitudes  resentful  towards  the  A  method  "Questions  should  By r e v i e w i n g  performance be  listing  for Evaluating  Development." social  of  these  impacts  the S o c i a l this  list,  of the t o u r i s t  possible.  62  is  Performance an  with  of T o u r i s m  indication  industry  the  i n any  of the  location  CHAPTER THREE:  The It  previous  also provided  social  and  will  two  s t u d y the  t o be  questions  second  concept  gauging  critical.  If  a  it  tourist  industry  The  can  be  of  capacity."  Carrying  planning.  assessing If  the  adequate  what s h o u l d  the  social  for  be  were done?  i s being problems  for  used  to  this  local  done a b o u t  This  chapter  studied of  as  a method  tourism  become  measuring s a t u r a t i o n can c o n t r o l and  chapter  s a t u r a t i o n and  i s the  properly  be  plan  for  and  be  carrying capacity this  way,  be  been t h e  subsequently  when the  will  will  to  review  the  i t s a l t e r n a t e term,  c a p a c i t y has  point  Saturation  In  than  i f nothing  social  recreation planning,  the  for  i t s impacts.  growth.  on  describe  and  question.  the  literature  reached.  less arise:  formula  purpose  Saturation  tourism  development.  of s a t u r a t i o n  when  found,  in  tourism  what would happen  The of  of  i s found  residents,  discussed  a q u a l i t a t i v e framework  performance  performance  it  chapter  SATURATION  the  i t will  63  t e r m u s u a l l y used  in tourism  carrying  capacity  t e r m used  c o n c e p t as be  "carrying  in this  applied  easier  to  to  planning has  been  study  to  tourism  differentiate  between and  carrying  capacity  as used i n t o u r i s m p l a n n i n g .  3.1  Definition  3.1.1  C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y and R e c r e a t i o n P l a n n i n g There are s e v e r a l  in t h i s s e c t i o n . definition will  concepts  impacts  exceed  standards  the  is  types  of  1984,  components.  use,  evaluative  levels  of  s p e c i f i e d by e v a l u a t i v e  carrying  capacity  The d e s c r i p t i v e  amount  of use, integrates  determination.  personal  satisfaction.  use beyond which  433).  of  capacity  Value The  component  recreation site  involves  factors),  value judgements judgements  relationship  are  or  two  documents  system  (e.g.,  while  the  into  the  based  on  between p e r s o n a l  and use l e v e l s i n any environment i s  upon the a c t i v i t i e s needs  level  workings of the  component  satisfaction  the  acceptable  (Shelby,  observable  however, a  be g i v e n .  The d e t e r m i n a t i o n separate  which need to be d i s c u s s e d  Before d i s c u s s i n g each concept,  CARRYING CAPACITY  the  as used i n r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g ,  dependent  i n which an i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t e d , and  desires  that  activity  64  was  to  fulfill.  "Whatever the method ultimately  the  used  measures  (Jaakson et a l . , 1976,  Satisfaction  of  to  determine c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y ,  are based  on  value  judgements"  360).  visitors  to any area can be e x p l a i n e d  by e x p e c t a t i o n s and p e r s o n a l norms.  EXPECTATIONS are the q u a l i t y of experience looking  forward  recreation release,  to.  They  experience  at  influence several  autonomy, achievement,  specifically,  PERSONAL NORMS  of  to the  signify  (Graefe et a l . ,  the  are  p e r c e p t i o n of a (i.e., etc.,  stress  or,  more  environment or the  area).  self-expectations  action in particular situations individual  levels  learning,  with p r i s t i n e n e s s  number of other v i s i t o r s  the  visitors  for  t h a t are c o n s t r u c t e d  1984,  398).  simply the normal type of r e a c t i o n s  an  specific by the  P e r s o n a l norms individual  are  carries  with him i n t o any s i t u a t i o n .  The s o r t s of capacity finite The  principle facilities. of  a  of" c a p a c i t y management The number  conference  of  centre  c a p a c i t y for these f a c i l i t i e s  concept  seats and  i s common i n a l l determines  of an a i r c r a f t .  the A  i s easy to understand.  becomes more d i f f i c u l t to accept and to a p p l y i n  65  public  spaces,  which have c o n d i t i o n e d  people's  minds  to  regard them as u n r e s t r i c t e d and u n l i m i t e d i n c a p a c i t y .  The concept  of  carrying  c a p a c i t y i s used i n p l a n n i n g  but there  is  no g e n e r a l l y accepted d e f i n i t i o n of  standard  approach of how i t should be c a l c u l a t e d .  widespread a p p l i c a t i o n of c a r r y i n g  capacity  is  r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g and i n n a t u r a l resources  it  and  no  The most i n outdoor  management.  The concept of carrying capacity has evoked mixed feelings. On one hand, i t c a t e r e d to the need to l i m i t and control threats to the resource (synonymous with recreation). On the o t h e r , i t ran c o u n t e r - i n t u i t i v e l y to the fundamental assumption that one maximizes b e n e f i t s by maximizing output of the product (Schreyer, 1984, 387). C a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y i s based on an analogy drawn at twenty years ago between b i o l o g i c a l the  effects  natural  of  areas.  user d e n s i t y on Important  studies  carrying visitor  least  capacity  satisfaction  and in  have been done by Wagar  (1964), Lucas (1964), and Stankey (1973, as c i t e d by Becker, J u b e n v i l l e and B u r n e t t ,  The term " c a r r y i n g ecology  and  1984).  c a p a c i t y " i s borrowed from w i l d l i f e  range management where the term has a p r e c i s e ,  and sometimes measurable use. is  "the  largest  Its  definition  in  this  area  number of organisms of a p a r t i c u l a r s p e c i e s  that can be maintained i n d e f i n i t e l y  66  in  a given p a r t of  the  environment"  The and  (Wilson,  following  over-use  refers  is  contacts  of  9),  like  negative  density  "crowding"; field  crowding in  use  a  physical the  space  number  of  evaluation  in  (Reynolds,  to  a  level; it  to  399).  a  certain  that there  In g e n e r a l ,  negative,  it  emotional  to i n d i c a t e  an  i s a separate  are  the number  term,  often  excessive  and d i s t i n c t  i s a l a y term not used by s c h o l a r s 1984,  be  a  situation  of  experienced.  However,  every  high d e n s i t y  situation  individual,  and term in  10).  be  d i s r u p t i o n to the  of  p e r c e i v e d crowding.  erroneously,  There needs  occur  measure  (Graef et a l . ,  influences  though  harmful  this  a  1984,  the  OVER-CROWDING  from  that p e r t a i n to  - a value judgement which s p e c i f i e s  too many people  used,  concepts  in a p a r t i c u l a r s e t t i n g .  CROWDING  of  other  to  (Reynolds,  individuals  density  are  1984).  in capacity planning.  DENSITY condition  1975 i nBurch,  high d e n s i t y crowding w i l l  which c r e a t e s  67  unless stress.  there  for not is  STRESS  i s an  elevated  blood  asthma,  etcetera.  and  stress  emotional  pressure,  interrelate  density  A t e r m used CONGESTION.  urinary  There  response  explain  interference  can  describe can  people be  of  be using  a  also  the form of n e g a t i v e  way  of  degradation recreation other  each o t h e r . . . .  of  The  the  persons"  prime  caused  which  1984).  of  density i s as  "mutual  The  where  The  people  interference  psychological  perceived  experience  of events  type  p e o p l e e v e n when p h y s i c a l  interdependent.  needs  common f a c i l i t y .  physical  obstruct  proximity  a  hay f e v e r ,  of high  thought  influence  human  (Reynolds,  conditions  physically take  can  disorders,  the chain  and c r o w d i n g  Congestion among  tract  which  are indications that  best  to  interference  strain  effects  can from  movements a r e i n no  example quality  would of  a  be  the  wilderness  by t h e s i g h t i n g o r p a s s i n g  of  (Howe, 2 4 6 ) .  Congestion could  occur  b e a c h e s , accommodation impact would  be f e l t  enjoyment,  and  on  in  facilities,  the  and s e r v i c e s .  on t h e u t i l i t i e s their  form of w e l l - a t t e n d e d A negative  of the users,  willingness  to  pay  on t h e i r for  such  recreation.  Whether  or not  an  area  is  68  crowded  is  a  subjective  judgement varies  of  an  individual,  not  an  objective  fact.  It  from i n d i v i d u a l to i n d i v i d u a l  depending on a v a r i e t y  of s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s .  I n d i v i d u a l s can modify  t h e i r expectations the negative  and preferences  effects  Environmental  as  a  means of reducing  of p e r c e i v e d crowding.  and  ecological  constraints  amount of human a c t i v i t y that any given area can accommodate. engaged  in  There i s a l s o an acceptable any a c t i v i t y ,  of s a t i s f a c t i o n ,  the  efficiently  density  as p e r c e i v e d by users  This i s where the concepts  limit  of  people  themselves.  expectations  and  personal norms, and s t r e s s and crowding are concerned. There are g e n e r a l l y  four  used i n r e c r e a t i o n s e t t i n g s  types of c a r r y i n g  (Shelby,  capacities  1984):  a)  ecological capacity concerned with impacts ecosystem ( p l a n t s , a n i m a l s , s o i l , water, a i r ) .  b)  p h y s i c a l c a p a c i t y - the amount of space natural areas.  c)  facility capacity involves man-made improvements intended to handle v i s i t o r needs. These can always be i n c r e a s e d by spending more money.  d)  s o c i a l c a p a c i t y - i n v o l v e s impacts which impair or a l t e r human e x p e r i e n c e s . S o c i a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y i s the l e v e l of use beyond which s o c i a l impacts exceed acceptable levels specified by e v a l u a t i v e standards. Social c a p a c i t y i s most concerned with the impact of people on people. Graefe et a l .  (1984, 423)  on  i n undeveloped  have concluded i n t h e i r  69  the  study  on  carrying capacity,  inherent  that  to any given a r e a .  capacities  to be  be  to determine  pretation  beyond  or  of  of  types  unacceptably  the  which  action well,  it  p u b l i c on key issues  et  al.  interpretations:  of  be  the  resource base would A  later  to  thresholds  a v o i d or c o r r e c t  the use of c a p a c i t y t h r e s h o l d s of u s e r s ,  (Schreyer,  396) all  suggest that c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y w a i t i n g to be d i s c o v e r e d ,  but  managers,  can help  or the  general  1984).  (1984,  "virtually  inter-  (Godschalk and  in identifying taken  capacity  use which could be  altered.  useful  must  i n f o c u s i n g the a t t e n t i o n  Graefe  carrying  c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y concept  found  As  capacity  impacts and types of  recreational  l e v e l s or  1975)  problems.  single  There may be as many p o t e n t i a l  and l i m i t s beyond which  destroyed  Parker,  no  offered."  Early applications  tolerated,  is  as there are combinations of  experiences  sought  "there  is is  sum  relevant not rather  an  up  the  recent  later  articles  absolute  value  a range of  values  which must be r e l a t e d to s p e c i f i c  management o b j e c t i v e s  a  relationship  given  area."  After  established,  some  to remedy the  situation.  this  has  for been  form of p l a n n i n g a c t i o n must be proposed  70  3.1.2  S a t u r a t i o n and T o u r i s m As  Chapter  economic  to  and  creative  i n value  i s n o t e x c l u s i v e l y an  involves aspects.  systems,  social, Social  and  SOCIAL SATURATION where l o c a l of  saturation  level  (the e q u i v a l e n t  family  c e r e m o n i e s , and  community  impacts a r e the e f f e c t s experience,  after  direct  tourists.  i s the point  residents perceive, social  contributes  conduct,  communities  a s s o c i a t i o n with  cultural  moral  words, t h e s e  i n host  cultural,  behaviour,  lifestyles,  traditional  In other  the people  indirect  individual  collective  expressions,  organization.  level  also  environmental  relationships,  or  i t  tourism  o f t o u r i s m a r e t h e ways i n w h i c h t o u r i s m  changes  that  explained,  phenomenon,  political impacts  2  Planning  i n the growth of t o u r i s m  on b a l a n c e ,  an  unacceptable  d i s b e n e f i t s from t o u r i s m development. i s the l i m i t  of s o c i a l  of l o c a l  carrying  The  tolerance to tourism  capacity  i n recreation  planning).  The  concept  establish, the  degree  detrimental become  of  i n measurable of  planning  effects  threshold  on when  is  to  t r y and  t e r m s , t h e number o f v i s i t o r s  development t h a t  predominant  particular  saturation  can  resources. the  after  The  number  which  71  take  and  place  without  negative  factors  of v i s i t o r s  benefits  reach  a  progressively  decrease.  This  threshold  In t o u r i s m , increases Greater more  The the  idea  fact  from  factors.  since  planning  i n tourism  is a finite  i s concerned  supply  side  components  tourists. require of  the  of  form  a  resource.  (i.e.,  period).  even  the  i s b a s e d on  of a given  w i t h demand  or  a r e t h e a t t i t u d e s and qualities  planning  supply  a n t i c i p a t e d over a g i v e n the  these  tourist  of  p r o d u c e more c o n g e s t i o n ,  saturation  there  Other  resources  volume  and s e r v i c e s , and i n v a d e t h e p r i v a c y  of  that  tourists  begin  the  of r e s i d e n t s .  Most t o u r i s m of  to  numbers o f v i s i t o r s  life  level.  potential for resident-visitor stress  proportionately  facilities  daily  the  i s the s a t u r a t i o n  Few  consider  supply  behaviour  side of  significant  number studies  limiting of  tourism  the  hosts,  part  of  the  experience.  L.J.  D'Amore  is  useful  f o r two  a)  The  (1983) e x p l a i n s  goodwill  of  emphasizes  to the supply  the c a p a c i t y  concept  purposes:  recognition  activity  that  a that  saturation there  o f p o s i t i v e and  toward  visitors;  72  level  is a limit friendly  for  tourist  to tolerance,  interaction  or  b)  The  concept  of s a t u r a t i o n p r o v i d e s  which to assess on  a  given  tourism  in  disadvantage  framework  impacts  then limit  should  be  tourism  to it  this  within  of  limits  identified,  whether  tourism would  was  be  being  taken to  control  extent.  planning  i n order  developing  social  If s o c i a l  whether s t e p s  t o some  ahead  be  judge and  Saturation to p l a n  could  to  approached  relative  community.  development possible  the  a  can  to a v o i d  tourist  where  be  used  to enable  future  areas,  saturation  governments  saturation  and  to  already  problems  overcome  e x i s t s or  the  is  being  among  other  approached.  Saturation things,  the  amount of  availability the  levels  of  s u c h as  the  land  determined  suitable  l a b o r , and  main t o u r i s t  demonstrate  are  the  capacity  a t t r a c t i o n s of  concept  restaurants,  for  the  beaches  and  scenic  in  saturation  of  a  place"  according  t o Young  simply  the  of any  ways  of t h e  development, roads  locality  four  are:  73  first  three.  to  but  more  main  ways  of a r e g i o n  (1973), though the  of t h e  of  facilities  areas, are  or  " I t i s easy  of s a t u r a t i o n f o r t o u r i s t  f o r c i t i e s or r e g i o n s . . . t h e r e  result  hotel  region.  difficult which  by,  can  f o u r t h way These  take is four  a)  The  d i v e r s i o n of  other open  b)  The  purposes,  s u c h as  tourist  uses d e n i e s  i t s use  schools,  residential  housing,  a d v e r s e e f f e c t of the  labour have  structure.  force  being  a depressing  because  of  the  for  is  largely  seasonal  costs  of  enter  growing i n the  labor.  tourist  regional  Employment with  If there t h e n the  structure  could  Pressure  on  on  the  proportion  or  local  of  the  industry  economic  in  hotels  low-skilled  impact depends e n t i r e l y  anyway,  supply,  industry  can  growth  lower p r o d u c t i v i t y p o t e n t i a l of work  industry.  The  A  e f f e c t on  tourist  workers.  tourist  employed  the  fire  to  space.  employment  c)  land  be  the  no  on  other  e f f e c t s on  and the  jobs  the  motels low-paid  opportunity for  local  labor  to  employment  positive.  urban  electricity,  protection,  are  and  in  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , s u c h as  police,  and  hospital,  especially  waste  the  water  disposal,  transportation  system.  d)  The  combination  "psychological residents. the  the  preceding  saturation"  This  tourists  of  can  since  lead  f a c t o r s can  level  to  negative  residents  74  have  among  the  feelings to  cause  a  local towards  compete  with  tourists  for  saturation tourism.  a  level This  definition  is  the  supply  limit  of  way f o r s a t u r a t i o n  of  Individually,  given  saturation  used  of  services.  local to  p h y s i c a l or f a c i l i t y s a t u r a t i o n  tolerance  occur in  the preceding three ways  This to  fits  this  study.  would  (as e x p l a i n e d  the  lead  to  i n Chapter  3.1.1) .  Getz (1983)  identifies  six  concepts  of  capacity  to  absorb t o u r i s m :  a)  T a n g i b l e Resource This tourism resources as  method involves  Limits: of  determining  conducting  inventories  to of  absorb existing  and i d e n t i f y i n g o b s t a c l e s to development,  poor t r a n s p o r t l i n k s or a a lack of s e r v i c e s .  o b s t a c l e s can t h e o r e t i c a l l y capacity an  capacity  of a t a n g i b l e  be  overcome  so  obstacle.  75  These  that  resource might be seen as  such  the  merely  b)  S a t i s f a c t i o n of V i s i t o r s : The  attitudes  negative,  can  and  experiences  act to r e s t r i c t  cause a d e c l i n e  of  visitors,  the growth of t o u r i s m or  i n the p o p u l a r i t y of a d e s t i n a t i o n a r e a .  Visitor satisfaction  can be r e l a t e d to the a t t i t u d e s  a  and  host  population  leisure  if  pursuits,  crowding,  crowding  is  although actually  for a  of some  positive  factor.  Assessing v i s i t o r since,  usually,  visitor  c)  is  very  sample  available  of  at  difficult the  any  yearly  one  change the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  time. of  the  w e l l , v i s i t o r s might have preconceived  of a h o l i d a y .  reduced s t a r t s of  As  a small  is  time w i l l  destination. ideas  only  population  Therefore,  satisfaction  Problems  might  on t o u r i s m development  be  indicated  by  or reduced numbers  visitors.  E x c e s s i v e Rate of Growth: The r a t e of influence itself The  other v a r i a b l e s ,  can have d e t r i m e n t a l  receptiveness  affected there  all  growth or change i s a f a c t o r which can  impacts  rapid (de  is rapid,  little  or  76  or i f no  it  local  change  Kadt,  of host p o p u l a t i o n s can be  i f change exists  but  in  1979).  adversely  is believed control  that over  development.  Also,  communities that  are  are  in  interests  better  scale  (de Kadt,  of  served by  (single  and widely d i s p e r s e d ,  at a l a r g e s c a l e  d)  social  probably  small  developments)  the  host  facilities  building  or  site  than by developments  1979 as c i t e d by G e t z ) .  C a p a c i t y Based on the E v a l u a t i o n of Costs and B e n e f i t s : Since lead  i t would  be  unusual  for  any one f a c t o r  to  d i r e c t l y to the a p p l i c a t i o n of l i m i t s on growth or  change,  some  required  in  form the  of  cost-benefit  context  of  analysis  established  might be  goals  and  objectives.  Getz l i s t s benefits. factor  to  The  three c o n s i d e r a t i o n s first  tourism  is  to  growth  l i n k e d to c o s t s and  determine  if  a limiting  can and should be overcome.  The second c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s whether or not c e r t a i n c o s t s or problems are to be t o l e r a t e d (i.e.,  should s o c i a l problems be t o l e r a t e d  economic growth). the best p o s s i b l e  e)  i n p u r s u i t of  Third,  objectives  i n p u r s u i t of  an attempt can be made to  alternative  of a l l c o s t s and  find  benefits.  Tolerance by the Host P o p u l a t i o n : Many f a c t o r s  can  determine  the a t t i t u d e s  of host  p o p u l a t i o n s , and i t can be suggested that a t some p o i n t ,  77  there  might  which  will  arise threaten  hostility  towards  experiences 1982).  enormously  and  tourist  the  a  visitors  suggests will  counter  to  remedy  resident  are  than are t o u r i s t s  The most f r i e n d l y people who f e e l from t o u r i s t s ,  has  ruin  their  (Rajotte,  soured,  it  the s i t u a t i o n .  taken.  and  is  Doxey  outright  Residents  liking for  or  enough  as a  are more  disliking  residents  often do not have  whether they l i k e r e s i d e n t s  since  time  for first  to  decide  class.  behaviour would be expected  from  they have something to g a i n e c o n o m i c a l l y but who do not fear the complete  l i v e l i h o o d by an o c c a s i o n a l  personal d i s l i k e  Doxey (1975) irritation  Outright  always r e s u l t unless a c t i v e monitoring  measures  time v i s i t o r s  their  industry.  annoyance  l i k e l y to b u i l d up a g e n e r a l tourists  reaction  can  friendly attitude  difficult  antagonism  the  negative  and discourage p o t e n t i a l t o u r i s t s  Once  (1975)  a predominantly  display  of  loss  of  honest,  for p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l s .  constructed  ("irridex").  an index of the  Doxey's  l e v e l s of e x p r e s s i o n of r e a c t i o n s  level  " i r r i d e x " covers on  the  part  of  of  four the  host p o p u l a t i o n : a)  euphoria  -  initial  phase,  78  both  visitors  and  investors  welcomed.  b)  apathy t r a n s i t i o n to t h i s stage v a r i e s i n length depending on the speed and amount of development. A gradual f o r m a l i z a t i o n of contacts takes place. Tourists are seen as s t e r e o t y p e s and are taken for granted.  c)  annoyance doubts.  d)  antagonism overt e x p r e s s i o n of i r r i t a t i o n where all social and p e r s o n a l problems are a t t r i b u t e d to the t o u r i s t . The  -  host  causes of  interrelated  -  environmental.  population  irritation social,  begins  are  numerous  economic,  According  to  v a r i a t i o n s g i v i n g r i s e to the  to  Doxey,  express  and  cultural  and  some  the  of  i r r i t a t i o n s are:  a)  fear that hosts are being t r e a t e d as second c l a s s tour i s t s .  b)  fear of t h r e a t to l o c a l values and c u l t u r e ;  c)  loss of access to facilities t a t i o n , p r i v a t e beaches);  d)  dislike of tourists' women) and behaviour. Although  themselves, intensity of  mere  constitute of  because  rapidly.  of  the reason  the development  local residents,  grows  dress  numbers  there  Clevendon  ( p a r t i c u l a r l y that of  tourists for  do  the  of resentment  (1979)  79  to  (crowded t r a n s p o r -  i s a p o i n t at which  of:  are  feels  not, speed  by and  on the p a r t irritation  this  happens  a)  contrast  of l i f e s t y l e s  b)  socio-economic d i s p a r i t i e s  c)  land  d)  historical  e)  language;  f)  structure  g)  level  mass o f r e c e i v i n g  difficult (Cheng,  country;  on t o u r i s m . involved  on d e v e l o p m e n t .  i n using attitudes to  Attitudes  t o measure and a r e l i k e l y  1980).  imperfect  and h o s t ;  o f economy;  o f dependence  limits  between t o u r i s t  background;  There a r e problems set  and c u l t u r e s ;  Other  knowledge  problems  t o change  stem  and b i a s e d  themselves over  from the f a c t  perceptions  often  are time that shape  attitudes.  Residents  should  decision-making  be  g i v e n adequate  input  p r o c e s s and a f o r u m p r o v i d e d  into the  t o s o r t out  conflicts.  f)  The R o l e o f C a p a c i t y This  is  hensiveness, through  an  i n a Systems  approach  the  the e s t a b l i s h m e n t management.  which  assessment  ongoing a n a l y s i s  Approach:  and  of e x p l i c i t  of  emphasizes costs  prediction goals  of  planning  and  from the other  c a p a c i t y a l r e a d y mentioned,  80  benefits  o f i m p a c t s , and  for  One o f t h e major d i f f e r e n c e s  interpretations  and  compre-  i s that  it  does  not  entail  an exact  imposition  although i t does a l l o w for the use of of c o n t r o l on the  It  i s the  level  and  perspectives national, evaluated. must  be  and In seen  system  hosts  and  broader.  necessary  form  As  interests  well, and  to exert  to s a t i f y  controls  process  the  regional,  must  systems approach, c a p a c i t y  as p a r t of a dynamic  achieves  are often more  visitors,  international a  Goals  overcoming b a r r i e r s where p o s s i b l e , is also possible  l i m i t s as one  of user a c t i v i t y that best  the of  limits,  system.  the given purposes of the system. diverse,  of  all  be  thresholds aimed  at  but one i n which (such as l i m i t s )  it  when  objectives.  Getz sees capacity not as "a formula or as a mechanistic approach to determining the inherent or o p t i o n a l limits on growth and change. Rather, capacity is useful w i t h i n a compreh e n s i v e , systematic p l a n n i n g process as a means to i d e n t i f y thresholds which require attention, and as an o p t i o n a l form of c o n t r o l l i n g the system through the i m p o s i t i o n of p a r t i a l or complete l i m i t s " G e t z , 1983, 250). Hovinen (1982),  as  Getz,  feels  l e v e l c o n s i s t s of d i f f e r e n t elements, its  own p o p u l a t i o n l i m i t .  feels  an a r e a ' s  saturation  each of which may have  For purposes of a n a l y s i s ,  s a t u r a t i o n can be s u b d i v i d e d i n t o v a r i o u s  81  Hovinen  categories:  biophysical physical,  and  behavioural;  ecological,  physical  facilities  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l ;  and s o c i a l ;  and p h y s i c a l ,  b i o l o g i c a l and m a n a g e r i a l .  A useful hand,  distinction  an  area's  facilities  (such  other, the  the a r e a ' s  to  physical  make space,  ecology,  b e h a v i o u r a l or p s y c h o l o g i c a l c a p a c i t y ,  or  (1983),  relationships  as w e l l as r e s i d e n t s ,  meaning  in  taking  experience. the  qualities  countryside.  opposing view to the  absence  and  the  feels  of  clearly specified  the a c t i v i t i e s  the  term  notion  Chapter 1)  of  has goals.  which are o b t a i n e d ,  i m p l i e s change.  (as  explained  Such changes  numbers and types of v i s i t o r s  by  might  and the experiences  82  The and  can be  goals.  that while c a p a c i t y i m p l i e s a f i x e d resort cycles  of  little  which are a c c e p t a b l e ,  manipulated to meet p l a n n i n g and management  the  carrying  quality  He  of the experiences  Wall argues  than  f e e l s r e s e a r c h has shown that only tenuous  number of v i s i t o r s , the  an  feel  t h r e s h o l d may be lower  e x i s t between crowding  recreational  man-made the  The p s y c h o l o g i c a l  c a p a c i t y concept,  and  one  and, on  the p h y s i c a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of the  Wall  between, on the  as motels and p a r k i n g l o t s ) ,  t h r e s h o l d at which v i s i t o r s ,  displeasure.  is  limit,  Young  in  include  the  which they  seek;  the  receptivity  the  origins  the  nature  there to  of of  are  a  the  and  both  such  capacity  There  within at  as,  any  and  of  available  goals  their  useful  purpose.  This  concept  of  constraints  social  and  to  i f  especially  may  to  be  the  hosts  D'Amore's to  i n the  management  done  of to  the  i t  guests, might  and,  about  i f  it?  the  concept  give  greater  qualities guests, will  feelings  early  of  and  to  serve that  tourism development critical  of  visitors,  hosts,  and  then  linked  Questions  managers to  Thus,  be  of  of  be  and  differences  and  use  matters,  both  not  paramount,  i s to  and  resorts;  number  be  tourists,  provide.  or  groups  objectives, echoes  can  planning  what  environmental  specify  recognized,  likely  to  of  development.  exactly  planners  experiences  may  c a p a c i t y i s to  tourism to  which  between  that  consideration  they  and  concludes  encourages  which  desirable  stage  whose  residents  landscape  are  the  i s exceeded,  Wall  cycles  experiences,  investors  arise,  the  of  concerning  problems  the  experiences  number  appropriate  permanent  investments;  varying degrees.  opinions  of  a  the  must  stages  be of  development.  From might area's  be  the  literature  correct  saturation  in  available, his  level  i t would  assessment  for tourism.  83  seem  that  of  the  concept  As  the  next  Wall of  an  section  will  indicate,  there  the s a t u r a t i o n  3.2  i s no r e l i a b l e  Saturation  The volume of  tourism  to  resentment  is  one  of the s e v e r a l  towards t o u r i s t s  Bryden (1973) f e e l s t o u r i s m d e n s i t y degree Young  of  confrontation  (1973)  number  states  of t o u r i s t s ,  tourists'  densities  between  that  is  for  or the number  expressing  factors  residents.  an i n d i c a t o r of and  of  nights  be  as ./a to  they  the  spend,  percentage  calculate  the number of t o u r i s t s  the  residents.  r a t h e r than s i m p l y s t a t i n g  Another method would by  by l o c a l  tourists  numbers should be expressed  residents.  concept  point.  Measurement of  leading  measuring  of  tourist  per  square  into  account  mile.  The simple volume the seasonal  p a t t e r n of highs  nor socio-economic  A  formula  calculate  technique does not take  the  and c u l t u r a l  cited  by  optimal  adverse  social  formula  are  the  and  factors.  Clevendon  ceiling  impact o c c u r s . number  lows of t o u r i s m d e n s i t y ,  of  of  (1979) tourism,  attempted after  The b a s i c elements tourists  84  (t)  and  to  which in  the  the host  country's population (p),  area i n square k i l o m e t e r s  per c a p i t a income measured i n d o l l a r s  S =  Where S i s the  x  S  This  x  C  examined i n 1970,  The h i g h e s t or worst  and Grenada  domestic  3  X  10  4  1.79  l e v e l at which adverse s o c i a l  Of seventy-one c o u n t r i e s was 189.  a  o .  and  (c):  t po.is  (a),  countries  impact o c c u r s .  the average  value  were Rwanda  (456)  (326).  formula tourism  is  not  since  very  for  analyzing  per c a p i t a income w i l l not  vary as much w i t h i n a country not r e l e v a n t  effective  as  usually  between c o u n t r i e s .  to t o u r i s m i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  Also,  no e x p l a n a t i o n given as to how the exponents i n the  It  is  there  is  equation  are determined.  Another proposal of  tourist  Bosselman  for determining the c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y  destinations  (1978).  was  proposed  S k  X N  k  Stanev  in  Q  = the maximum c a p a c i t y of the t o u r i s t = the t o t a l  0  P.  His formula was:  K = S where K  by  area;  area;  = the c o r r e c t i o n  factor,  85  which v a r i e s  between  0.5 and 1, and i s determined as a f u n c t i o n of hypsometric ( e l e v a t i o n measurements) characteristics, t a k i n g i n t o account engineering, g e o l o g i c a l , h y d r o l o g i c a l , landscape and other cons i d e r a t i o n s ; N  = the standard area per person i n m person.  The t o t a l  c a p a c i t y of the area i n q u e s t i o n  following  requirements:  2  per  must s a t i s f y  the  £K > t where  £K  = the t o t a l areas;  t  Not  only  is  correction,  c a p a c i t y of  tourist  = the volume of the stream of t o u r i s t s (number of t o u r i s t s to the a r e a ) . Stanev's  formula  subject  to  "hypsometric"  but he notes i n h i s commentary that there  accepted method" of determining the per  individual  is  "no  "standard" area r e q u i r e d  tourist.  Both these formulas values  such  community models  are  as  fail  ecological  cohesion, vague,  because they do not balance,  resident have  unmeasurable v a r i a b l e s ,  urban  attitudes,  86  aesthetics,  etcetera.  unexplained exponents,  g i v i n g them l i t t l e  consider  value.  Both  and r e l a t e  One p a r t i c u l a r saturation  level,  component,  is  affected  by  different person for  difficulty especially  that  expectations not  greater  in  numbers are  circumstances  or  determining  an  area's  psychological/behavioral  i n d i v i d u a l s and groups  various  ways.  and p e r c e p t i o n s ;  satisy  expectations  the  different  congestion  will  in  someone e l s e .  are  Visitors  have  what s a t i s f i e s Visitors'  one  tolerance  may a l s o become g r e a t e r over time  altered shifts  as in  a  result  visitor  of  type.  changing  Defining  the  p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h r e s h o l d , and even the p h y s i c a l c a p a c i t y , of  as  is  n e c e s s i t y an a r b i t r a r y d e c i s i o n based i n p a r t on a value  judgement about how many v i s i t o r s and f a c i l i t i e s  Some r e s e a r c h divided  into  expansion seeking  shows  competing  that  l e i s u r e communities w i l l  groups,  one  of r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , limit  which  favors  ranged a g a i n s t  the those  conflicting  views are l i k e l y to be a r t i c u l a t e d i n e l e c t i o n s ,  annexation,  actions,  commercial a c t i v i t y .  be  These  zoning  to  are enough.  referendum,  and  land-use  Outcomes w i l l determine the scope and nature the community.  87  of  decisions. growth  in  3•3  Measurement of S a t u r a t i o n Used i n t h i s  I t has been capacity limits  local  saturation reached by  will  sectors  study w i l l concentrate  tolerance  level.  Young  The  to  point  at  which  (for example, in  it  the  in  the  to the  social  capacity  is  As e x p l a i n e d other  p h y s i c a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e or r e c r e a t i o n  the community begin  r e s u l t of t o u r i s m .  on  i s u s u a l l y when  to  approach  that the s o c i a l s a t u r a t i o n l e v e l  decrease  or  be termed the s a t u r a t i o n l e v e l .  responds to the events t a k i n g  a  tourism,  (1973) and Getz (1983),  services) levels  shown that there are s e v e r a l approaches  p l a n n i n g , but t h i s of  Study  place  begins  in  saturation to r i s e .  the community as a  Exceeding the s a t u r a t i o n l e v e l  tourism  It  can cause  as a r e s u l t of negative  host-guest  interaction.  While  there  quantifiable best  approach  possible  subjective measuring services, surveys existence  does  use  into and  seem  to  be  to c a r r y i n g - c a p a c i t y  solution  values the  not  might the  taken a t such times, when the surveys  to  analysis.  over-use  and the environment,  be  of  along the  any  planning,  incorporate By  observing  certain with  physical  forecasting  88  some and  opinion  conditions  of  the  facilities,  public  i n d i c a t e a negative  t o u r i s m can be used for future  accurate  attitude  in to  approaching  resident  saturation points.  complementary  rather  Impact  than  studies  are  as an a l t e r n a t i v e  to  seen  as  saturation  evaluation.  By  studying  physical  occurring,  indications  observed.  The  environmental  of r i s i n g s o c i a l  saturation  important concept  and  concept  a  method  for  intolerance  is  considered to be an  gauging  tolerance  when  the measurement  of s a t u r a t i o n  unsatisfactory,  vague,  use  approached.  found  and not  i n d i c a t o r s to  These  of t o u r i s m .  a critical  reached for problems r e l a t e d to the t o u r i s t  study w i l l  might be  to understand because i t s i m p l y shows that  there are upper l i m i t s to s o c i a l is  problems  in  p o i n t has  industry.  the  indicators  that  will  be  is  based  It  for s o c i a l  is  not  operationalize tourism  the  Tourism  Young's  (1973)  critical  to  this  thesis,  however,  to  or adopt " s a t u r a t i o n " p l a n n i n g as a method of  planning.  occur.  being  saturation.  It  is  s a t u r a t i o n has been reached, could  is  this  on  "Guidelines for E v a l u a t i n g the S o c i a l Performance of  reasons  Since  defined,  capacity  Development" i n Chapter 2, and by reviewing  been  literature  operationally show  It  The  concern  not  necessary  only central  that  to such  to t h i s  prove a  situation  thesis  is:  c a p a c i t y i s exceeded, e x a c t l y what i s to be done about  89  that  it?  if  Summary  T h i s chapter  reviewed  the  concept  of s a t u r a t i o n ,  hopes of using i t as a measure to c o n t r o l and p r o p e r l y for t o u r i s t found  to  still  i n d u s t r y growth. measure  considered  in  plan  Though no workable formula was  such a s a t u r a t i o n l e v e l ,  important i n  order  that there are l i m i t s of l o c a l  to  the concept  emphasize  tolerance  the  is fact  to t o u r i s m .  If a  general methodological approach to the study and measurement of  tourism's  it  would  studies  social  enable  a  impacts  i s developed  better  analysis  studies,  and make comparative  possible.  Carrying capacity/ involves  many  satisfaction, studies of  in l a t e r  as  defined  in recreation planning,  concepts based upon personal p e r c e p t i o n s expectations,  and  crowding.  on c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y seem to  values  which  must be r e l a t e d  to  indicate  The it  specific  of  latest  i s a range management  objectives.  Since no a c c e p t a b l e saturation, based  on  formula  has been found to  i n d i c a t o r s of approaching the g u i d e l i n e s  review  of the s p e c i f i e d  thought  led to  developed areas  saturation  i n Chapter 2,  measure will  and  on  be a  of concern which Young (1973)  " p s y c h o l o g i c a l s a t u r a t i o n " of  90  residents.  CHAPTER FOUR: POLICIES TO MITIGATE THE ADVERSE SOCIAL EFFECTS OF TOURISM  T h i s chapter examines a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e for policies  that have been used to m i t i g a t e  impacts of t o u r i s m .  The previous two chapters examined t o u r i s m then  s t u d i e d how these impacts  level  to be reached.  When t h i s  tolerance  to t o u r i s m w i l l  not  a  find  methods  of  suitable  for  of  planning.  One  limits  to  the  play. the  It  will  tourist  residents)  will  also  industry  and w i l l  for  l i m i t of  local  Chapter 3 d i d but  and the  list  s a t u r a t i o n were found,  can  be a u s e f u l then,  of t o u r i s t s  that a host p o p u l a t i o n w i l l  t o u r i s m and the r o l e s  saturation  saturation  occuring,  keep i n mind,  amount  This chapter  a  impact,  two  of  2).  saturation must  of  its  impending s a t u r a t i o n were mentioned  Though no measurements definition  cause  have been reached.  saturation  q u e s t i o n from Chapter  and  happens, the  measurement  indicating  (Young's reasons  could  specific  that  in tourism there  are  and t o u r i s m development  tolerate.  discuss  the  that planners present (i.e.,  outline  tool  the  goals of p l a n n i n g for and  government  the three p l a y e r s investors,  their  91  goals.  should  involved in  tourists, This  section  and of  Chapter 4 i s necessary policies,  with  i n order to  what t o o l s ,  understand who makes the  and for whom these p o l i c i e s  are  made.  This discussion been  employed  (Chapter purpose  2) of  to m i t i g a t e and  this  to  designed to a l l e v i a t e  consider  the  the negative  avoid  chapter  r e l a t e d to the t o u r i s t  4 .1  will  methods that impacts of  saturation i s to  (Chapter  categorize  i n d u s t r y and then l i s t  tourism 3).  the the  have  The  problems strategies  the problems.  P l a n n i n g For Tourism  To begin the should  be  discussion  made c l e a r that  of  planning  a  community  to preserve  its  needs and p r i o r i t i e s i n the face order  to be e f f e c t i v e ,  it  l o c a l a s p i r a t i o n s and needs must  be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , for  for tourism,  since  identity,  it  is  vital  lifestyle,  and  of t o u r i s m development.  In  o v e r a l l t o u r i s m p l a n n i n g must  foster  the accomplishment of s e v e r a l goals at the same time.  These  goals a r e :  a)  rewards to owners development g u i d e l i n e s ;  b)  better  profits,  user s a t i s f a c t i o n s  fair  taxation,  - present a good product  92  fair for  tour i s t s ; c)  social and p h y s i c a l environmental development must not progress at s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l environment. To do t h i s ,  private benefit benefits  must be c o n t r o l l e d .  S o c i a l b e n e f i t s are  the  the planner to promote a b e t t e r  fit  owner/investors.  i s the r o l e  of  planning  for t o u r i s m i s done  needs  and  regulation measures  federal,  provincial  building  regulation  of t y p e ,  accommodations, tourist  resources.  of some areas  imposition  number of t o u r i s t s  activities  in  height and  and  and  off  these  limits  restrictions  tourist  appearance  are they  unhampered growth.  93  to  on the land-  localities, of  tourist  over-commercialization  over-exploitation  Though such measures  on i t s  -  i n an a r e a , c o n t r o l of  to prevent t o u r i s t development, restrictions  of  and p r e v e n t i o n of  sites  Public  two main elements:  i n c l u d e the s e t t i n g  and  environment.  and c o n t r o l of t o u r i s t development  t o u r i s t development, maximum  the  by  m u n i c i p a l agencies and i n v o l v e s  of  and  as  behavioral  use  benefit  large  between  a)  between s o c i a l  (or c o s t s ) a c c r u i n g to the p o p u l a t i o n a t  opposed to  It  the d i v e r g e n c i e s  balance - tourism the expense of the  of  tourist  not u s u a l l y aimed nevertheless  put  The p r i c i n g mechanism, as an instrument of and  as  a  means  providing  of e n s u r i n g a r e t u r n for the c o s t  facilities,  offers  r e g u l a t i n g demand i n t o u r i s m , be  adjusted  acceptable outside of  level.  general  business  and  restrain  to  does  development  -  these  of  and wilderness  not and  measures  areas.  impose r e a l r e s t r i c t i o n s actually  protects  government,  process, help  activities schools,  an  affected investors and  are  for  the  such  as  T h i s type  of  upon t o u r i s t  the environment for  It simply s e t s a s i d e areas of p r e s e r v a t i o n for  The r o l e of  utilities,  to  fees,  amenities  g e n e r a l p u b l i c use or f u t u r e government  planning  or  license  for  P r i c e can  demand  developers  taxes,  conservation  forests,  tourism.  elsewhere.  of  costs.  protection  action  scope  The p r i c i n g mechanism can be  protective  beaches,  obvious  as  or  the market by c o s t s  development  b)  to s t i m u l a t e  increased  strategy  set  through and  is  to  up  besides i t s provide  staff  tourist  regulate  fiscal  and  policies  components of the t o u r i s t  industry ( i . e . ,  hoteliers).  since  For example,  1958,  94  input through the  infrastructure  training  boards  development.  and  and  promotional  hotel/recreation governing  various  tax i n c e n t i v e s  government loans  to have  supplied  some  44.5  tourism in I s r a e l . period,  percent of  Of I s r a e l ' s  of  as  6.5  Israeli  on loans  the o t h e r s ,  of  but the  Investors  because  the  tourist  Their interests  industry  could take  sector:  whose  and  businesses  service  clientele,  not  residents  or  government a g e n c i e s .  investors  are  tourist-oriented.  growth  r a t e of as  of the high r a t e  are p r o f i t o r i e n t e d with a  their  room  i n amount up to  f o l l o w i n g w i l l present an optimal course  out to a t t r a c t , accommodate,  enough  that  1978).  - these are the people  please  during  In the end, each need must be modified by  of development for each  for  built  in  banks have charged up to 36 percent  (Bosselman,  three d i r e c t i o n s .  to  investment  at an i n t e r e s t  In c o n t r a s t ,  The development  A)  hotels  investment,  percent.  inflation,  interest  total  90 percent have r e c e i v e d such l o a n s ,  67 percent of the net low  the  the  tourist.  natural  necessarily The They  set  aim local  priorities  of  must be allowed  to operate by r e g u l a t o r y agencies i n order to  occur i n t h i s  industry.  The s o c i a l and  economic performance of t o u r i s t development can  increase  or  inducing  decrease  changes length  in of  the v i t a l i t y of tourist stay  locality of  competition  preferences,  tourists,  accommodation a t t r a c t i o n .  95  by  and  affecting influencing  A good environment the t o u r i s t  a)  Creating  a  positive  and  efficient  process w i t h i n l o c a l government.  If  encouraged  i n the  future  by a lack of red-tape  they  will  feel  development  developers  encouraged  are  development  to  return  for  some form of f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e at  the  projects.  Providing  p r o v i n c i a l or f e d e r a l l e v e l where not  in  i n d u s t r y by:  stage,  b)  can be created for i n v e s t o r s  be  covered by f i n a n c i a l  private  sector.  financial  The  of  federal  l e v e l and two separate  level,  these  introduction  Development C o r p o r a t i o n of B r i t i s h provincial  needs  institutions  existence  needs prompted the  the  the Small Business  could in  special of  Columbia measures  the  the  at  the  at  the  Loans Act and the  I n d u s t r i a l Development Bank A c t .  In Bosselman's  study of I s r a e l ,  often s o l d or leased rates. made  to h o t e l  Grants are given for equipment  infrastructure property  tax,  (15  developers purchase  percent  (10 percent  of  of cost).  customs d u t y , purchase  96  p u b l i c land  is  at reduced  of  Israeli-  value)  and  Income  tax,  tax,  excise  levies  - a l l are s u b s t a n t i a l l y  reduced.  the government often b u i l d s new facilitate a  the  largest  well,  roads and sewers to  hotel construction.  business,  As  They view t o u r i s m as  single  item i n the  world's  foreign trade.  Basically, investing  private  funds i n any area  Penticton region has), experiences), attitudes  things,  the  is  a  requirements product  demand (people  r i g h t investment  towards  residents), employed  sector  (which  want nice  climate  for the  vacation  (created  development by l o c a l government  by and  and a labour force capable and w i l l i n g to be  in  the t o u r i s t  industry.  with a p r o f i t p o t e n t i a l ,  If  i t has a l l these  then development  should  occur.  T o u r i s t s - people w i l l t r a v e l have f u n , f e e l features,  safe,  both  All investors  the r e s i d e n t s  and  man-made  and where they f e e l  the man-made or  areas  where they can  where there are a t t r a c t i v e  natural  shopping, c a s i n o s ) ,  to  features  l o c a l government. is also required.  97  (sun,  physical beaches,  welcome.  are u s u a l l y provided by A welcome  feeling  from  C)  Residents people borne  the  b e n e f i t s of t o u r i s m  i n v a r y i n g degrees, by  residents in  -  the  residents.  of P e n t i c t o n  needed revenue,  but  the  In  order  (as an  accrue social  self-contained  to  tourist resorts  would  Okanagan  much l i k e the Lake  Resort  near  evolution  Lake,  Kelowna.  of  more  However,  Penticton  remote  at t h i s  and the t o u r i s t  development  would not ease P e n t i c t o n ' s  given  amount  the  of  its  affect bring  the  Skaha  are  but s t i l l  have to be developed along or  many  costs  not  example)  to  tourist  shores of Okanagan  stage  in  the  industry,  such  present  situation  accommodation  and  services.  Whatever plans the  investor/developers  have  to "improve"  i n d u s t r y for themselves and t h e i r u l t i m a t e c l i e n t s ,  "tourists",  must be  carefully  studied  the  by planners for  the  c i t y and/or r e g i o n to a l l o w a harmonious c o - e x i s t e n c e at  all  levels.  and  Without a p p r o p r i a t e z o n i n g , adequate  political'  action,  existing  problems  planning,  could  become  more  severe.  L o c a l and f o r e i g n tourism  can  promotion,  be  investor/entrepreneurs  expected  to  be  engaged  involved in  while a s m a l l , v o c a l group can often  to lead a g g r e s s i v e o p p o s i t i o n  to  98  tourist  in  aggressive be  expected  induced  change.  The m a j o r i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n can be expected the c a t e g o r i e s either  because  markets,  of s i l e n t  or r e s i g n e d  of some b e n e f i t s  or because  they see  to f a l l  acceptance  of  such as employment  into  change, or  new  no way of h a l t i n g or r e v e r s i n g  a trend.  4.2  Literature  The  literature  improving  the  areas.  No  one  detail  or  in  i n t o four  4.2.1  social has  some  scattered  efforts  at  s i t u a t i o n around t o u r i s m d e s t i n a t i o n dealt  a concise  with t h i s problem i n any  form.  The e f f o r t s  great  generally  fall  categories.  P o l i c i e s to M i t i g a t e Problems of Inadequate F a c i l i t i e s and S e r v i c e s This c a t e g o r y  recreation, If  provides  of problems i n c l u d e s s t r e e t s ,  beaches,  problems a t t h i s  f a c i l i t y l o c a t i o n and s o c i a l l e v e l and the environmental  d e a l t w i t h , then r e s i d e n t acceptance more p o s s i b l e .  99  transport, services. level  of t o u r i s m w i l l  are  become  Rajotte  (1982,  approach  to  residents  and  of  hotels,  routes  can  96)  affect  mentions  the  nature  tourists.  of  physical  attractions  have  major  planning  interaction  He acknowledges  tourist a  a  between  that the  location  and l i n k i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  impact  on  long-run  resident  attitude.  The usual solution is to i s o l a t e t o u r i s t s i n r e s o r t ' g h e t t o e s ' , but t h i s runs counter to the t o u r i s t s ' d e s i r e to see the d e s t i n a t i o n area and also increases the risk of negative local s t e r e o t y p e s s p r i n g i n g from n o n - c o n t a c t . He  feels  that  in  terms of r e s i d e n t - v i s i t o r  interaction,  "small s c a l e and f a m i l y type accommodation i s p r e f e r r a b l e the  development  tourism" (p.  of the  'sunny  playpen'  catering  to  to  mass  253).  In Hawaii, the  physical  impact that R a j o t t e  discussed  has been recognized and addressed.  To  prevent  "helter  Goals and O b j e c t i v e s Maui County," on  Maui  social, Certain  development  and  for resort  a  guided  that  environments  and s t r a t e g i e s ,  100  1982), a proposal  development,  development  economic and p h y s i c a l guidelines  ("Proposed  for a Long-Range Comprehensive Plan for  (1977) as c i t e d by F a r r e l l ,  called  excellence  skelter"  which  continued  maintained of would  the  the  county.  hopefully  achieve  these g o a l s ,  are o u t l i n e d as follows  (p.  151):  - d e s t i n a t i o n areas should be c l e a r l y d e f i n e d to p r e vent overflow to undesignated a r e a s ; -  obstructions  to ocean views should be prevented;  -  landscaping should be r e q u i r e d ; l i g h t i n g and heights would have l i m i t a t i o n s imposed;  - an a r c h i t e c t u r a l review board should review cons t r u c t i o n to ensure e x c e l l e n c e and q u a l i t y ; - no d i r e c t mainland f l i g h t s mitted ;  to Maui should be p e r -  - c o n s t r u c t i o n should blend with the  environment;  - education and t r a i n i n g for the v i s i t o r be provided to r e s i d e n t s ; and  i n d u s t r y would  - charges and fees would be assessed on new development for the p r o v i s i o n of water. Farrell maintained respond  felt in  to  direction.  a  uniform  large-scale  projects  community  largely self If was  t o u r i s t areas  and  high  quality  which to  development  are  c o u l d be likely  local  would be a p p r o p r i a t e A large-  could be segregated from the community, be  sufficient, these not  to  government  areas with a s m a l l base p o p u l a t i o n .  s c a l e development  culture  views  The l a r g e - s c a l e  in d e s t i n a t i o n  systems.  that  and not increase  developments  were  a major a t t r a c t i o n ,  c o u l d work to a l l e v i a t e  resident  stress.  This i s  mentioned  i n Chapter 2.  If  pressures in  an  then these some  on l o c a l  area  where  designated  of the  visitor-  the view shared by Hudman (1978), l o c a l / n o n - l o c a l contact  101  is  less  frequent,  less f r i c t i o n w i l l  Bosselman  (1978)  be c r e a t e d .  has  written  about  the  strategy  for Lake K i n n e r e t i n I s r a e l .  of  h o t e l development was permitted i n the two  the  cities that  along the  hotels  shoreline. interaction effects social  the lake s h o r e s .  way i t was along  existing assured  the  entire  At the same time t h i s made more v i s i t o r - r e s i d e n t necessary.  In  this  case  the  environmental  over the  possible  services  and some  effects.  solutions  Transportation  of  facilities  are l i s t e d  -  Solutions transit  patterns  tourist vehicles  parking traffic  include  (buses,  (by-pass  and  below:  s t r e e t t r a f f i c and parking  the  In t h i s  of the development took precedent  possible  of  Only a c e r t a i n amount  would not p r o l i f e r a t e  Other problems  a)  planning  on  facilities.  better taxis),  use of a l t e r n a t i v e efficient  r o a d s , one-way  facilities.  put added s t r a i n  Also,  streets)  pedestrian  can be encouraged by walk-ways,  l o c a t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n a l  102  traffic  facilities.  forms flow  and overflow and  bicycle  bike paths, and  b)  Recreational needs  of  tourists  facilities tourists  Facilities  to  - the only way to s a t i s f y  and r e s i d e n t s  satisfy  peak  destination,  expanded,  developed,  efficient  use.  Any  new,  encouraged facilities  to  these  or  for  have  enough  periods. arriving  attractions  Since at any  should  c o n t r o l l e d to g a i n t h e i r  large-scale provide  to  demand  u s u a l l y have some reason  particular  is  the  developments  some  form  of  be most  should  be  recreational  and s e r v i c e s to t h e i r customers and  residents  of the a r e a .  c)  Infrastructure  i)  P o l i c e and F i r e S e r v i c e s brought by t o u r i s t s  - an i n c r e a s e  would  be  expected  l e a s t a p r o p o r t i o n a t e increase protection  requirements.  in  This  Archer  A  constraints  on t o u r i s t s  (1978) i n Chapter  seasonal  and f i r e  increase because as  would of  the  mentioned  by  2.  bolstering  p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e s could be  103  to b r i n g at  police  probably be more than p r o p o r t i o n a t e reduced  in population  of  police  and  fire  achieved by the use of  auxiliary  staff,  altered  procedures,  or t r a n s f e r s  holiday  from q u i e t e r  areas.  Rothman (1978) found t h a t r e s i d e n t s coast r e s o r t towns d i d not was  l e s s adequate  more  crime.  contradiction hiring  of  officers  despite  explained  as the r e s i d e n t s '  such as foot  p h y s i c a l presence  population.  this  of  of  seasonal  in  police  highly  visible  problem is  of  the  protection.  for  the  police  in  transients  tourist in  the  These are people who remain for a s h o r t  then move on to no where i n p a r t i c u l a r .  (1980) a l s o notes that permanent  the  p a t r o l s and t r a f f i c c o n t r o l .  of p o l i c e  areas  fact  apparent  c o n s t a n t l y remind r e s i d e n t s  recurring  destination  the  awareness  who were concentrated  These a c t i v i t i e s  time,  Rothman  protection  summer to be a p e r i o d  a large contingent  activities  A  perceived  i n two east  police  i n the summer  that most r e s i d e n t s of  feel  scheduling  residents.  they This  are  a  could  sore be  Cheng  point  changed  to by  e i t h e r attempting to add to the permanent p o p u l a t i o n by  helping  area,  to persuade t r a n s i e n t s  to s e t t l e  by p r i c i n g them out of the a r e a , h i r i n g  residents  first,  or simply l e a r n i n g  104  to  live  i n the local with  them.  ii)  Hospital would  and H e a l t h S e r v i c e s  certainly  population  or  Water must  be  tourists  with  facilities a  seasonal  permanent c l i n i c c o u l d be set  p a r t - t i m e or student  any congestion  iii)  overtaxed  these  fluctuation.  A seasonal using  be  -  of f a c i l i t i e s  Supply  This  for l o c a l  would  when  i t must f i t  expanding  i n t o an  ease  residents.  and Sewage D i s p o s a l - water  considered as  help.  up  supply  services  overall  for  water-use  strategy.  An adequate it  is  for a constant  a seasonal  problems  introduction of  tourist  system i s  tourist  p o p u l a t i o n as  peak t o u r i s t d e s t i n a t i o n  D'Amore (1983) growth  sewage  of  felt  in  a  such as  whether  i n Hawaii  general  given community should precede  "Otherwise  associate  growth  problems  with  resentment  of the t o u r i s m i n d u s t r y "  105  in existing  local  people  the  levels  tend  t o u r i s m and to f e e l (p.157).  or  Penticton.  that attempts to m i t i g a t e  t o u r i s m or any increase  activity.  essential  to some  4.2.2  P o l i c i e s to M i t i g a t e Problems of U n d e s i r a b l e E n v i r o n m e n t a l Characteristics Examples  include  a)  of  undesirable  crowding,  l a c k o f open s p a c e ,  Crowding  (high  positive  condition  depending Usually,  not  on  density)  give  -  (as  the  people  Acapulco,  environmental  this  come  can  in  an  expect  r e s i d e n t s of the  be  of the  to  or P e n t i c t o n , and the  poor a e s t h e t i c s .  discussed  expectations will  and  characteristics  a negative Chapter  people  area  3),  involved.  like  crowds.  or  Waikiki,  This  d e s t i n a t i o n area  does  any  such  choice.  Residents have  the  within into  who  choice  feel  tourist  Beaches 1978),  where  reserved.  effects  of s h o p p i n g  a neighbourhood  the  the  and  of c r o w d i n g leisure  or r e s i d e n t i a l  should  facilities  enclave,  or  going  zone.  could fences  be  handled are  Season passes  as  erected  a t reduced  i n Europe and  (Bosselman,  spots  can  r a t e s c o u l d be  be sold  to r e s i d e n t s .  b)  Lack  of  maintain  Open  Space  open s p a c e .  -  i t i s important  It provides  106  the  for a c i t y  parkland  to  needed  for  a  city's  greenspace  people  to maintain  and for r e c r e a t i o n a l  Bosselman  (1978)  felt  health,  enjoy  the  facilities.  that  the  quality  of  the  environment was g r e a t l y reduced i n Jerusalem when p u b l i c parks were given away to h o t e l  c)  Aesthetics  -  reasons  e x p l a i n e d by Porteous  developers.  for d e s i r i n g good a e s t h e t i c s (1977,  are  231):  adults, infants, and l a b o r a t o r y animals have a fundamental p e r c e p t u a l preference for ambiguous, complex, v i s u a l patterns. Second, both lack of work on the other senses and experiments comparing several senses suggest that v i s i o n i s dominant in human p e r c e p t i o n . T h i r d , and most i m p o r t a n t , Rappoport and Kantor have put forward the n o t i o n t h a t for each i n d i v i d u a l there i s an optimal p e r c e p t u a l r a t e . Too few and too simple s t i m u l i lead to s a t u r a t i o n and chaos i n comprehension. I f the optimal p e r c e p t u a l r a t e v a r i e s with the i n d i v i d u a l , then b u i l d i n g s and townscapes must be s u f f i c i e n t l y complex to provide a v a r i e t y of s t i m u l i , o n l y some of which are p e r c e i v e d by any one i n d i v i d u a l . There  should  possibilities  be  a  range  for an i n d i v i d u a l  organize  to  his  Variation,  novelty,  surprisingness,  107  meanings  to p e r c e i v e ,  satisfaction  needed.  of  in  and  s e l e c t and  architecture.  and i n c o n g r u i t y  are  Optimum design occurs when the "design is sufficient to permit a choice of behaviors on the p a r t of the user, and enhances r a t h e r than hinders the choice made, s a t i s f a c t i o n on the p a r t of the user may result. If this occurs without reducing the s a t i s f a c t i o n s of other users or p o t e n t i a l u s e r s , then good design has indeed promoted human welfare" (Porteous, 1977, 310). As  Farrell  (1980,  80)  unrestrained  investment  design,  thoughtless  and  explains,  in  real  "in  estate,  development  tasteless  can  d e s t r o y the  p h y s i c a l and human resources on which t o u r i s m i s What F a r r e l l  feels  Hawaii  based."  i s needed i s enough understanding  of  a e s t h e t i c s to a l l o w b u i l d i n g and design to be compatible with  surroundings  traditions  of  and  long-time  seconded by Archer designs  were  residents  have  detailed  accord residents.  (1978), who  created  with  the  His  views  a  are  found that some b u i l d i n g  for v i s i t o r s r a t h e r than for  the  design at  t o u r i s t development should be r e q u i r e d appeal.  the  time  This of  requirement  development  development.  It should  p a r k i n g l o t s and s e r v i c e  areas.  108  also  be  should  be  application.  Landscaping should be an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the of  cultural  who had to look at them y e a r - r o u n d .  Q u a l i t y new to  in  used  aesthetics to  hide  Other environmental  impacts  might i n c l u d e  and marine resources and a i r q u a l i t y . economic  activities,  maintenance  of  U n l i k e many other  the success of t o u r i s m depends  those  attract tourists.  coastal  environmental  qualities  T h i s was done i n F i j i  on  which  (Rajotte,  1982)  by:  - c o n t r o l of d r e d g i n g ; - protecting coastal  wetlands;  - controlling run-off  from b u i l d i n g s i t e s ;  - c o n t r o l l i n g p o l l u t i o n , such as sewage; - a v o i d i n g d e s t r u c t i o n of c o r a l  reefs;  - r e g u l a t i n g h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g and c o l l e c t i n g ; - establishing  4.2.3  Policies  to Increase  There are s e v e r a l industry.  a)  relations  public  increase  or n a t i o n a l p a r k s .  P u b l i c Acceptance  ways of  of the t o u r i s t  A  reserves  i n c r e a s i n g p u b l i c acceptance  program needs to be undertaken  r e s i d e n t awareness.  s t u d i e s by R a j o t t e  This has been mentioned i n  (1982), and  (1982) and Lundberg (1976),  109  to  to  D'Amore  (1983),  Farrell  name  only a few.  This  program  could  directions. the  approach  First,  the  by s i m p l y  importance  of  tourism  would be  put  in  destination's  the  improving awareness,  r o l e i n the  to the  increased  legibility  development  q u a l i t y of l i f e  in  could  the  happen by  Improvement useful  through  reduced  stress.  from  tourist  i n c r e a s i n g the  exposure  t o a v a r i e t y of e n v i r o n m e n t a l  settings  potential  i n t e r a c t i o n s , by  and  e x p l o r a t i o n throughout  the  potential  This  counteracts  enhances tion  for  the  by t h e  The improved  facilitating the  personal  city,  attachment  rootlessness,  possibility  in  enhanced  of p e o p l e  ting  and  residents  be  community  through  industry  mood.  could  i n t e r a c t i o n , and  Improvement  several  economy,  i n a more p a r t i c i p a t o r y  the c i t i z e n s '  in  making t h e p u b l i c ,  m e d i a , more aware o f t h e i r  the  problem  improves  and to  stimulaimproving places.  choice,  of e n v i r o n m e n t a l  and  and  manipula-  individual.  legibilty f o r example  or  'feel'  of  a  city  can  be  by:  i)  enhancing downtown;  the q u a l i t y of the c i t i z e n s '  image o f  ii)  improving personal  iii)  " o r i e n t a t i o n and pathfinding w i t h i n the c i t y are fundamentally necessary skills which might  mobility;  110  be enhanced by improvements i n t r a n s p o r t system l e g i b i l i t y and the i m a g e a b i l i t i y of areas and nodes" (Porteous, 1977, 126). A second approach i s to i n v o l v e the v i s i t o r s a  program  that g i v e s them input i n t o t h e i r  experiences  and  a l s o makes the r e s i d e n t s  of what i s happening i n t h e i r An example of t h i s  i s the  city  in  vacation  more aware  (Rajotte,  following letter  1982).  (Figure 9)  appearing i n the rooms of a h o t e l c h a i n i n Hawaii.  There are without a doubt c e r t a i n amenities many t o u r i s t d e s t i n a t i o n areas of the t o u r i s t general  industry.  which  These  existing  are there  in  because  are a l s o enjoyed by the  p o p u l a t i o n , who should  be  informed  of  these  benefits.  S p e c i a l taxes recreational finance  could see  tourist  facilities  community  facilities  This  from  and  should  projects.  be If  put  p a r k i n g , and  into  residents  a fund to saw  were aware of the source of funds,  how the t o u r i s t  might  projects,  increase  i n d u s t r y was b e n e f i t t i n g  resident  tolerance  of  these they them.  otherwise  annoying problems.  Porteous may at  (1977,  219)  e x p l a i n s that  f i r s t produce a s t r o n g  111  "a given  response.  When  stimulus the same  Figure  9.  November 1983 To Our Guests: We take pleasure in welcoming you to Hawaii and wish you a pleasant stay on our enjoyable iislands. ;We want you to know that the owner and management of your hotel is desirous of insuring the enjoyment of your stay by making sure Waikiki remains attractive and desirable. We are actively involved in efforts to guarantee that our visitors are free from nuisances on our streets. However, like everywhere else we sometimes experience temporary setbacks. A law prohibiting street peddling has been upheld by the courts but the law cannot be put into effect at this moment. Due to this legal technicality, you may presently experience the unfortunate nuisance of street peddling on Kalakaua and other Waikiki streets. Because of our concern for your vacation, we wish to alert you to this possibility as well as to apologize for any inconvenience imposed upon you by such activity. We f u l l y expect to restore the proper "Aloha Spirit" to our streets in the very near future. iln the meantime, we suggest that you exercise discretion in any contact you may have with street peddlers or solicitors. They pass out handbills which l i t t e r our streets; some promote what appears to be a "free" meal, show or tour which can turn into an unwanted extended sales pitch. Others gain your attention by giving you a flower in order to sell plaques or s o l i c i t monetary contributions for their "religious" organization. i  We believe that as vacationing guests in the State of Hawaii, you should be free of any personal imposition of this kind. jou can also help us abate these practices by voicing your opinion on this matter. can be done by writing a personal letter to:  This  Judge Samuel P. King Senior Judge U.S. District Court Prince Kuhio Federal Building Honolulu, Hawaii 96813 If you are so inclined, a letter to the Editor of either of Honolulu's daily papers would also be helpful. Their addresses are: Editor Honolulu Advertiser 605 Kapiolani Blvd. Honolulu, Hawaii 96813  Editor Honolulu Star Bulletin 605 Kapiolani Blvd. Honolulu, Hawaii 96813  We appreciate your assistance in helping to keep Waikiki and Hawaii a special place known for its Aloha Spirit! Mahalo, The Management of the Reef Hotels  i l l  REEF HOTEL • WAIKIKI TOWER of the REEF • -REEF TOWERS HOTEL • EDGEWATER HOTEL O N THE BEACH AT WAIKIKI • HONOLULU, HAWAII 96815 • TELEPHONE (808) 923-3111 For Reservations Call TOLL FREE (800) 367-5610  stimulus may  i s repeatedly presented,  e v e n t u a l l y decrease  then  said  t o be  to  First,  ways.  the  p r o b l e m s of t o u r i s m ,  not  be  enough t i m e (in  not  between t h e  in  benefits  would  goes  on  to  stimulus  are  appear  explain  which c h i l d r e n  become h a b i t u a t e d would  seem  to  summer s t i m u l i areas)  that  case to  be  each  or  year  year-long  a good p o l i c y .  t h a t meaning  factors.  and  value  Experiments  were a s k e d  to  estimate  performing  a t a s k , and  could  then  their  was  be  used  g r e a t l y over-estimated.  ceased,  size  over-estimation  when t h e  r e w a r d s were r e - i n s t a t e d . groups which d i d  significantly.  113  not  the  Porteous of  the  size  a reward t o buy  When t h e  decreased, The  of  have been done  were g i v e n as  vary  to  since  of b e n e f i t s , p u b l i c a t i o n  chips  of c o n t r o l  subside  occur,  When t h e  size  is  occur.  the  other  individual  c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d  saturation  destination  Secondly,  poker c h i p s .  this  T h i s does  h a b i t u a t i o n does n o t  in  so  The  response  stimulus."  residents should  elapses  seasonal  to the  tourism,  two  attained.  original  or d i s a p p e a r .  habituated  In r e g a r d s  the  size  of for  candy, rewards  rising  again  estimations  r e c e i v e rewards d i d  not  c)  Residents  would accept t o u r i s m e a s i e r  p o l i c i n g problems a s s o c i a t e d hours  for  for l a t e  pubs  night d r i n k i n g  (Farrell,  supplies  it.  were  Earlier  and night c l u b s would reduce  The t o u r i s t Hawaii  with  i f there  no  closing  potential  parties.  i s often seen as an easy crime v i c t i m . 1982)  has s t a r t e d a  funds to b r i n g witnesses  program  back  to  where  it  Hawaii  for  input i n t o the p l a n n i n g  and  trials.  d)  If  the  public  had  more  p o l i c y - m a k i n g process and  employment  (not  stage),  resident attitudes  use  public  it  at  would  (Bosselman,  and Clevendon, 1979). in  just  1978,  the  implementation  ease  some  Loukissas,  S e v e r a l techniques  government  levels,  newspaper  editors  referendums,  public or  hearings,  public  1982,  have long been  for a s s e s s i n g p u b l i c p r e f e r e n c e s . opinion p o l l s ,  negative  These  voting  at  letters  officials,  include several sent  and  statements of a v a r i e t y of pressure groups.  In p l a n n i n g terms, i n d i v i d u a l and group enlightenment may be achieved by discoveries that perceptions of both problems and solutions differ between individuals and groups. Knowledge of a particular individ u a l ' s or group's a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s , and their antecedents, may be a powerful input into p l a n n i n g . At the very least, it may  114  to the  result i n a more humanistic approach to p l a n n i n g f o r o t h e r s on t h e p a r t of s e n s i t i v e designers ( P o r t e o u s , 1977, 2 3 2 ) .  In t h i s  statement, Porteous  understanding  and a l l o w i n g  residents,  t o be h e a r d .  consulted  about plans  profoundly  affect  also  paying  could  made a b o u t as  well  centre,  centre,  be worked zoning,  skills  viewed  groups c o u l d concept  delay  life,  but which they a r e  planning might  a n d open  space,  would  be needed a t s u c h a derived of  from  Commerce  are  Crompton  chance  that  centre,  decision-making,  must  stress  i n v e s t m e n t and d e v e l o p m e n t  Ideas a r e t r a n s m i t t e d  public  The  solely  &  Kamp,  self-interest  and  that  such a  p l a n n e r s would  be more aware o f t h e p u b l i c t h e y a r e p l a n n i n g  Planning  be  be b e n e f i c i a l .  (Thomason,  a  may  would  and t h e Chamber  isa  t o be  funds.  information  c o n t r o l such  could  right  which not o n l y  housing,  planning,  of a p l a n n e r  there  the  o u t , and where d e c i s i o n s  as s l a n t e d  Though  have  anti-tourism  where c i t i z e n - g e n e r a t e d  densities,  associations  1979).  least  way o f  the importance of like  and d e c i s i o n s  e s p e c i a l l y since  tourist often  People  their  as t o u r i s m  technical  a group,  f o r through p u b l i c  A drop-in ideas  indicates  control  of  at for.  private  decisions.  within  115  a culture  by a g e n c i e s  including: tions;  education  diverse  nonpolitical; select  the  mass,  interest  and  out  creates  the  tourist  and  He  local  feels  and  the  the  the  there  that  iii)  are  growth  who  where  control  tourism  host  of of  facilities  population,  where a r i f t  occurs  effects  (p.  which between  not  the  of  deleterious  grow  local  at  a  rate  population  to  them;  attractions  already exist  t o u r i s m supplements  be  free  elements f o r  6):  must of  tourist  must  essential  of t o u r i s m  c a t e r to  country's  planning  persons  the development  of  "three  capacities  made) s h o u l d  and  resident.  cultural  manage and  ii)  ownership  number of t o u r i s t s  beyond  political  the  is  tourism,  hands of t h e  institu-  transmit.  it  circumstances  balanced  social  i)  of t h e  both and  they  feels  institutionalized  passes  religious  groups,  ideals  and  and  mass media  (1979)  decision-making  the  the  i d e a s and  Clevendon  systems  to  local  undertaken  116  meet  ( n a t u r a l and local  man-  needs  so  demand;  in co-operation  with  the  local  will  population.  a l l l o w the  close  protection  the  optimal  Of  product, not  be  planning  to  t o meet t h e s t o p a major  e)  Public better and  level  research  If  pace  is  so  be  improve t h e  it  facilitate  will  are  and  the  close the  gauging  i.e.,  planning  the  must  be  the  of  environmental growth  will on  in tourist  resource Effective  can  help  and to  activity.  i n d u s t r y would  facilities  a  and  be  services  characteristics  were d e a l t  problems  blamed  that  117  by  be  good  environment  groups  tourist  inadequate  based  alike. the  a  they  perceived  of  must  to  welcome,  residents  quality  who  treated  friendly  i t is essential  in  in  organization  residents not  permanent r e d u c t i o n  normal  the  development,  needs of a v a r i e t y  of  developed and  just  and  planning  sectors  o f p r o b l e m s as  visitors,  to  flows."  not  Effective  i f problems of  tourism,  to  programmes of  tourists  acceptance  Often  other  of t o u r i s t  it  undesirable  with.  and  assessment  specialists,  sector  culture;  i n a d d i t i o n to a  back.  constant  local  correct  course  considered.  with  approach  of p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s ,  of t r a i n i n g of  tourist  alignment  harmony w i t h  Such an  local  are  people's  on  needs  are  addressed  before  Alienation reduced  of  any i n c r e a s e  residents  by o r g a n i z i n g  participation  in  Residents  will  personal  rather  in tourist  activity.  towards t o u r i s t s  more o p p o r t u n i t i e s tourist  events  view t o u r i s t s  for  and  be  community  activities.  in a friendlier  than commercialized  could  manner  if  r e l a t i o n s h i p s c a n be  developed.  One way o f i n v o l v i n g encourage would  "bed  allow  more  hotel/motel the  best or  potential  or c u l t u r a l conflict  and b r e a d f a s t  scale  by r e d u c i n g style  resident facilities  Economic  is  making  involvement  tolerated  i t i s probably  it  would amount  much more  and n e i g h b o u r h o o d s .  118  the  of  than  the  contact. small-  tourist a  the  little  tourists  between  of  separated  reduce of  help this  policy  i n regions  the  ease  and  accommodation would a l l o w  i n t e r a c t i o n to occur,  more human.  a  If large, spacially  interest,  This  Although  contradict  zoned d e v e l o p m e n t s were a l l o w e d  historical  Bed  peak p e r i o d s ,  and r e s i d e n t ,  strategy.  be t o  interaction,  economically.  m i g h t seem t o  of v i s i t o r  possible  during  would  accommodations.  resident-visitor  resident  recommendation  residents  breakfast"  overcrowding  average  segregation  and  more  sharing  seem and of  f)  Improving  employee  (Rajotte, and A  1982)  aware of tourism  training  of  the  various  friendly,  and  to  conditions  f o r c e s a f f e c t i n g the  school  t e c h n i c a l and  T o u r i s m employment that  working  would e n c o u r a g e e m p l o y e e s t o be  industry  development  and  outgoing  keep,  jobs  is  would  also  associated  usually  people  are  involving  friendly industry.  help  in  the  skills.  self-selecting most  likely  direct  in  to  want,  contact  with  vis itors.  4.2.4  Policies  Since economic,  the  tourist  physical,  destination, This  t o A t t r a c t or Expand  industry and  social  with the same f a c i l i t i e s the off-seasons;  b)  with  c)  by a c o m b i n a t i o n utilization.  increased  Increased  integral  environment  part  o f any  growth w i l l  of  the  tourist  take  place.  occur:  a)  promotional  i s an  i t i s inevitable that  growth can  Tourism  but  increased  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and  campaign  facility  of p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t y  utilization  could  for off-season  119  utilization  be  growth;  g r o w t h and achieved  travel.  in  and better by  a  Technical  and  financial  assistance  arrangements help  local  enterprises.  Since  the  interested  advertising should  type  agency,  people  from  empowered  areas  public  the  parties  For forms  development  environmental  campaigns.  a  and  second  facilities better  of  than and  way  as  c r i t i c s of  The m a r k e t i n g  private  a  effort  tourists.  body,  be i t a  combination  sectors,  which  of is  t o u r i s m development.  to  development  processes  deal with  specific  establish  the proponent social  in  of  specific  a r e a s , and  opportunities for  a  project  interventions.  Overall  to  make  planning  exist.  f o r growth  to  occur  f o r t o u r i s m - would p r o b a b l y  year-round  act  or  mechanisms  and what  be e s t a b l i s h e d  management  alliance,  management, however, r a r e l y  The  to  the  example, z o n i n g and b u i l d i n g r e g u l a t i o n s  approval  other  determines  should  to  tourism  be a t t r a c t e d ,  t o make d e c i s i o n s on o v e r a l l  i s more common t o f i n d  govern  groups  have  a private  the  applications.  other  t o the c a p a c i t y t o absorb  tourist  public  and r e s e r v a t i o n s  of promotion  who w i l l  citizen  for co-ordinating  and  be, a p r o c e s s  and p r o m o t i o n a l  be r e l a t e d  Few  and  hotel/motels  expectations w i l l  to enable  provided  promotion,  and number o f v i s i t o r s  their  It  be  forpublicity,  small,  type  could  occur  use were made o f p r e s e n t  120  - expanding the naturally  facilities.  i f  If  tourism is  part  of an a r e a ' s  w e l l be h e a l t h y for the b e n e f i t  of  many  use  spin-off  effects.  entrepreneurial  The  ability  i n d u s t r y (D'Amore,  degree  local  control  and  increases  development  i t might as  a l l players, of  due to  local  1983,  over  155).  the  This  direction  the  capital,  and l a b o r should be encouraged  the t o u r i s t of  industry,  in  allows a of t o u r i s m  employment and economic  benefits  to the community.  Expanding or  attracting  employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s of  vitality.  same  time  city  while  designed words,  The  more  tourism  within a c i t y ,  saturation level  can  and c r e a t e  to  mitigate  i f there  done s e n s i t i v e l y  is  to  try  negative  a  the  feeling  could be lowered at  by p r o p e r l y i n t r o d u c i n g new development continuing  raise  into  the the  some of the other  policies  social  In other  impacts.  going to be new development,  with the knowledge  i t should be  that s a t u r a t i o n  must be  avoided.  C e r t a i n problems,  r e l a t e d to the t o u r i s t  beyond governmental c o n t r o l difficulties)  while others  p l a n n i n g and development.  i n d u s t r y , are  (high c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s , can be solved by o r d e r l y Strategies  problems have a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d .  121  credit tourist  to s o l v e some of These  include:  these  Facilities  and  Services:  - bolster police force, with t r a n s i e n t s ; - tourist -  health  improved  - traffic -  them v e r y  visible,  deal  clinics;  sewage d i s p o s a l ; and  parking  increase organized programs;  - better  make  improvements; t o u r i s t / r e s i d e n t sport  co-ordination  - designated large-scale  o f accommodation  and  leisure  sector;  tourist areas or near self-sufficient developments are p r e f e r r e d .  Environment: - d e v e l o p m e n t of n e i g h b o u r h o o d s h o p p i n g a r e a s s i d e n t s do n o t have t o compete w i t h t o u r i s t - preservation -  improved  of  open  aesthetics  so r e crowds;  space; i n a r c h i t e c t u r e and  landscape;  - pursuance of a programme o f t o t a l l a n d use planning and land use controls, zoning, and regulatory measures t o e n s u r e a q u a l i t y e n v i r o n m e n t ; - preservation of w a t e r q u a l i t y a t b e a c h e s and options f o r r e s i d e n t s at beaches. Public  Acceptance:  - a p u b l i c r e l a t i o n program to i n c r e a s e t a n c e and a w a r e n e s s o f t o u r i s m ; -  facilities advertised  provided as s u c h ;  or  funded  - an u p g r a d i n g of f a c i l i t i e s public acceptance; -  privacy  improve p o l i c i n g  - public  input  and  by  public  tourism  accepshould  s e r v i c e s would  be  improve  problems;  into  the  planning  122  process  for  tourism  and  overall  - proper Attracting -  development should  employee  training  or E x p a n d i n g  lengthen  the  - encourage money p e r  a  priority;  c l a s s e s should  be  given.  Tourism:  tourist  visitors day;  - e n s u r e good  be  l a n d use  season; to s t a y longer and  and  high q u a l i t y  t o spend facilities;  - r a i s e the profitability o f t h e i n d u s t r y by management i n government and i n d u s t r y ; - p r o m o t i o n and  a d v e r t i s i n g by a s i n g l e  - educating l o c a l volvement ; - a -  legalization  Each  in  list  a l l  contexts  some t o u r i s t  Hawaii, and  sport  be  of  developed;  strategies  where t h e r e  does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  i s tourism  a p p l i e d as a p p r o p r i a t e .  d e s t i n a t i o n areas programs.  where h o t e l s a r e  quiet, tranquil,  in-  gambling.  entire  issue should  group  of  improved  agency;  f o r employment and  "theme" f o r t o u r i s m c o u l d be  This apply  people  more  This  might  not  would  be  spread  at  low-density  123  be  For able  the  intervals  development. instance, to  case  assemble in Kihei,  down t h e  h o l i d a y s are o f f e r e d .  beach  Summary  The  main p u r p o s e  problems  related  policies  The These  of  Problems of  was t o c a t e g o r i z e t h e  fell  of Inadequate  into  four  Facilities  Environmental  some  groups.  and S e r v i c e s ;  Characteristics;  A c c e p t a n c e ; and P r o b l e m s  of A t t r a c t i n g or  Tourism.  Available deal  literature  there  services,  was  reviewed  with the adverse s o c i a l  was f o u n d t h a t  most  problems  Undesirable  of P u b l i c  4  i n d u s t r y and t h e n l i s t  categories  Expanding  if  to the t o u r i s t  the problems.  Problems  could  Chapter  to mitigate  were:  Problems  of  public  were  effects  methods  of t o u r i s m .  a c c e p t a n c e o f t o u r i s m would  fewer  problems  related  and t h e e n v i r o n m e n t .  easily  for  with large-scale  This  development  It  be g r e a t e r  to f a c i l i t i e s  can  that  and  be  accomplished  that  i s segregated  f r o m t h e community.  After environment, to  increase  involve  dealing  with  t h e most resident  residents  facilities,  services,  i m p o r t a n t way t o a v o i d  awareness  of  at a l l levels.  124  and  saturation  the tourism  the is  i n d u s t r y and  The  list  appropriate) tourism areas,  of  strategies  to  improve t h e t o u r i s m  or a r e a s  where  developed  can  be used  (where  industry i n developing  saturation  is  already  being  approached.  The  general  policies  be a p p l i e d t o a s i t u a t i o n i s a major  factor  developed in British  i n the l o c a l  in this Columbia  economy.  125  chapter  c a n now  where  tourism  CHAPTER FIVE:  The  purpose  feasibility applying  of  of  this  the  them  TOURISM IN PENTICTON  chapter  policies  to  a  is  to  developed  community  demonstrate in  Chapter  experiencing  the 4 by  substantial  t o u r i s m impacts.  Penticton important,  is  especially  s e l e c t e d for t h i s activity of  small in  city the  study because  where  tourism  summer months. of  the  is  It has  amount  of  w i t h i n the c i t y and the surrounding a r e a ,  its  there  a  r e p u t a t i o n as a t o u r i s t are  problems  associated  destination, with  and  Penticton's  very been  tourist because because tourism  industry.  In is of  5.1  order to  necessary the  understand P e n t i c t o n i n a s o c i a l  sense,  it  to have an economic and h i s t o r i c a l background  city.  Location  Penticton kilometres  is  located  in  the  Okanagan  from Vancouver, 676 k i l o m e t r e s  126  Valley,  398  from C a l g a r y ,  370  FIGURE 10 MAJOR POPULATION CENTRES WITHIN A EOUR HUNDRED MILE RADIUS OF PENTICTON  127  FIGURE 11: PENTICTON'S LOCATION RELATIVE TO THE REST OF BRITISH  Source:  Penticton  community  129  COLUMBIA  profile,  1986.  PENTICTON  (D  PEACH  ©  MEMORIAL  BOWL  ©  QUEENS KINGS  ARENA  PARK PARK  PENTICTON ©  GOLF ft COUNTRY  LAKAWANNA LAWN  BOWLING  ©  MCLAREN  ©  COLUMBIA  CIU8  PARK CLUB  PARK  MCNICOLL  PARK PARK  ©  KI WAN 13  @  PENTICTON  ©  PRINCESS MARGARET SI 5NOWOEN SCHOOLS  ®  HORSESHOE  SKAHA  PARK ANO  LAKE  OKANAGAN SKAHA FISH  POOL  SCHOOL  PARK CLU8  LAKE  LAKE  PENTICTON ©  HIGH  YACHT  G A M E ft R I F L E  CLUB CLUB  kilometres (Figure  from  10).  Spokane  kilometres the  Kelowna, Vernon and Summerland (Figure  11).  is  Skaha - with f i v e an  fertile  level  towns  situated miles  alluvial plain,  above sea  major  476  in  Penticton  Other  and  comprises  8,101  (Figure 12).  benchlands  dotted  region  between two lakes  of sandy beach.  from S e a t t l e include  - Okanagan and  The  city,  acres and i s  b u i l t on  1,150  East and west of the  feet  c i t y are  with orchards and s u b d i v i s i o n s .  Beyond these are r o l l i n g h i l l s  that  shelter  the  c i t y from  storms.  5.2  Brief  A  History  brief history  process  is essential  the c i t y ' s  of  Penticton  arrived.  men  t r a v e l l e d through the Okanagan on  1865 Ellis  that  the  acquired  first 650  of  i n 1813. settler,  acres  c a t t l e empire of 30,000 a c r e s . heart  urbanization  economy.  the Hudson's Bay Fur Brigade T r a i l until  its  i n order to understand the e v o l u t i o n of  The f i r s t white  not  and  and  However, Thomas built it  He b u i l t h i s home  present-day P e n t i c t o n  130  it  (named for the  was  Ellis, into  near  Indian  a the  word  "Pen-tak-ten" meaning a place to l i v e  The Southern  Okanagan Land Company was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n  1906 with a c a p i t a l i z a t i o n of The  objective  develop  it  farmland.  forever).  was  into  to a  In 1872,  five  hundred thousand d o l l a r s .  purchase  townsite Ellis  land from Tom  subdivision  p l a n t e d the  first  Ellis  and for use orchard  provided with an adequate  of  d i s t r i c t could become one of  the  Penticton  finest  f r u i t - g r o w i n g areas  scale  gravity  i r r i g a t i o n system,  and storage s i t e s ,  was  P e n t i c t o n was in  1908.  of  C.P.R.,  service  In  i n Canada.  complete  supply the  end, a l a r g e -  with intake dams  developed.  incorporated  1915,  To t h i s  as  and the  Land Company r e a l i z e d t h a t , water,  and  as a D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t y  the K e t t l e V a l l e y Railway, a s u b s i d i a r y  completed a l i n k to the mainline and t r i - w e e k l y  to Vancouver e s t a b l i s h e d  a  profitable  market  for  Okanagan produce.  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n of f r u i t r e q u i r e d packing cases and more industries working  began plants.  established  to  to  develop,  Packing process  immediately s a l e a b l e . s t i m u l a t e d to g r e a t e r  i n c l u d i n g sawmills and wood-  houses surplus  and products  canneries which were  were not  Lumbering and sawmill i n d u s t r i e s were production  131  by  the  b u i l d i n g needs of  new  settlers  continued  and  demand  new business e n t e r p r i s e s , for  r a i l r o a d t i e s by the s t i l l  r a i l w a y system ( h i s t o r i c a l data Commission,  In  1949,  the  industry  completion  opened  the  populated overtook  importance. acres  of  auto  centres the  the  Economic  expanding  Development  However,  and the r e s u l t i n g  Hope-Princeton  there  Highway  Okanagan to t o u r i s t of  the  coast.  fruit-growing  of orchards w i t h i n c i t y  courts  the  south  With the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n II,  from  was  The  tourist  a  d w i n d l i n g 2,300  limits.  improvements  increase  i n the  after  number  World War  of  tourists,  began to take over favourable l o c a t i o n s of  the  T h i s added to the  ordinary r e s i d e n t i a l  growth.  opening  Roger's Pass s e c t i o n  of  the  Trans-Canada Highway brought the Okanagan w i t h i n  increase  distance  of  Calgary  and Edmonton.  132  and  ribbon of  the  comfortable  The r e s u l t i n g  i n t o u r i s t trade was comparable to t h a t  by the opening of the Hope-Princeton Highway.  along  Okanagan  Skaha L a k e s . The  traffic  i n d u s t r y i n economic  still  main roads and along the shores  driving  the  1983).  effectively from  as w e l l as  occasioned  5.3  The Economy  Although the economy,  other  The f o r e s t  service industries  1981)  With four p l a n t s  mobile  home  are of c o n s i d e r a b l e  the  area  P e n t i c t o n has become the centre  for  include  Alpine also  producing  processing  and  products.  to c o n t r i b u t e to the economy of  peaches and c h e r r i e s are grown, as  beaches and c l i m a t e are the main a t t r a c t i o n  summer.  Efforts  are  i n s p r i n g , and f a l l  at  Big  White  (Vernon).  133  being  made  to  and winter s k i i n g  (twenty-three miles west of available  fruit  Additional  for wine p r o d u c t i o n .  Penticton's  conventions  continues  Apples, pears,  w e l l as grapes  people  and  canning, a winery, and concrete  the  local  mobile  activities  Agriculture  the  importance.  manufacturing i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  manufacturing  during  the backbone of  i n l o g g i n g and s a w m i l l i n g .  in  housing u n i t s ,  the a r e a .  is  i n d u s t r y employs about four hundred  ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada,  modular  industry  Penticton).  (Kelowna)  promote at  Apex  Skiing  and S i l v e r  is Star  The convention impressive.  The  facilities Peach  offered  Bowl  Convention  almost  thirty  space,  with a main h a l l capable  people.  thousand  square  feet of  A $2,500,000 expansion  future  order  Centre  of  is  two  planned  accommodate  meeting thousand  for  the  near  E i g h t y - s i x percent of convention d e l e g a t e s  a r r i v e i n months  J u l y and August.  up  contains  flexible  seating  are  4,500 d e l e g a t e s .  than  to  Penticton  to  other  in  by  In 1985 convention  was 16,000, down from the peak  year  of 1978  attendance  i n which there  was 23,500 d e l e g a t e s .  Another  self-contained  convention  h a n d l i n g groups of ten to f i v e the  Delta  Sandman fourteen  Lakeside H o t e l .  Inn  had  forty  thousand  area,  hundred people,  In  1986,  smaller  delegates.  the  capable is  located  Delta  conventions  and  booked  after  Victoria  C i t y of P e n t i c t o n ,  the  through acres natural  Okanagan  has  attended  and Vancouver ( C o r p o r a t i o n of  provided Game  of land to view  setting;  the  the  1986).  Other a t t r a c t i o n s include  in  with  The convention i n d u s t r y  grown i n importance making P e n t i c t o n the t h i r d most location  of  the  by  the  city  and  Farm, where v i s i t o r s a  variety  Continuing  of  Education  region  can d r i v e  animals Centre  in a at  Naramata, which sponsors an annual Summer School of A r t ; the  134  Peach  Festival,  Festival;  held  in  late  two water s l i d e s ;  courses;  the  Septober  golf courses;  three  population  experienced 1981  an  (Figure  of  Penticton  increase of e i g h t 13).  One  (23,400  1986,  7),  between  p r o j e c t s a 1.2 1981  and  The l a r g e s t Penticton  sixty-nine  authoritative  1991,  percent  annual  a  reflecting  increase  By 1981,  retirement  area.  Canada,  years  percent up from 1981).  135  to  popularity  of  Fifteen  percent  of  t h i s had r i s e n to eighteen  p o p u l a t i o n over s i x t y - f i v e 10.8  26,  the  p o p u l a t i o n i n 1976 was s i x t y - f i v e  (Statistics  of  i n c r e a s e between 1976 and 1981  Penticton's  was  by B . C .  (for t e n - y e a r age group) was i n the s i x t y group,  and  of P e n t i c t o n ,  rate  as  Columbia  1981)  to a 1991 p o p u l a t i o n of about  population  age  and o v e r .  in  forecast,  Penticton  the  arenas.  percent between 1976  Research (as c i t e d i n C o r p o r a t i o n of the C i t y  in  the  Population  The  000.  Par-3  two marinas; a yacht c l u b ; a c u r l i n g r i n k ;  Okanagan R i v e r Channel for r a f t r i d e s ; and two i c e  5.4  Wine  the Dominion Radio A s t r o p h y s i c a l  Observatory; three e i g h t e e n - h o l e golf  July;  in 9.8  all  years  of age  percent while of  percent  British in  1976  FIGURE 13 POPULATION OF PENTICTON:  1951 -  1981  PopuilaT*ion  Z4-000 Z00OD 1 bOOO 12.000 QOOb 4-000 H5I  5fc  Source:  In 1978, Indian  Band  Similkameen,  £>l  Lie  Statistics  1983).  (Regional  81  Canada  there were 370 persons reserve  1\  l i v i n g on the  District  A sawmill l o c a t e d on  of  Penticton Okanagan-  reserve  property  provides employment for many band members.  Sometimes d u r i n g tourists  the  summer  as permanent r e s i d e n t s  d u r i n g the J u l y 1st  long weekend  months there are as many  in Penticton. i n 1979  For example,  (when the  permanent  p o p u l a t i o n would have been around 22,000 p e o p l e ) ,  there were  sixty-five  (D'Amore &  to seventy thousand people  i n the c i t y  Associates  Ltd.,  1980).  Though the  could  handle  this  many v i s i t o r s ,  not  136  accommodation it  i s probable  sector that  many  visitors  there  for a day v i s i t  5.5  were  staying  with r e s i d e n t  only.  O r i g i n of T o u r i s t s  The m a j o r i t y other  of t o u r i s t s  coming to P e n t i c t o n have  (22%).  The  business  c r e a t e d by t o u r i s m for  Okanagan-Similkameen Region i n 1981 was revenue  and  1,600,000  person-trips  or o v e r n i g h t  stops  1983).  Community P l a n  The o f f i c i a l by  the  230,000,000 d o l l a r s  (Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Tourism H i g h l i g h t s ,  5.6  been  B r i t i s h Columbians, A l b e r t a n s , and some United States  citizens  in  f r i e n d s or were  the  Planning  community p l a n for P e n t i c t o n was prepared Department  of  the Regional D i s t r i c t  Okanagan-Similkameen and was adopted i n 1982. out  goals  citizens municipal list these  and and  l i v a b i l i t y standards community l e a d e r s ,  land  use  visitors  mention  The plan s e t s  directed  by  the  and serves as a b a s i s  for  by-laws which r e g u l a t e  of t h i r t e e n goals i s goals  as  development.  i n c l u d e d i n the p l a n .  tourism  directly  to the c i t y d u r i n g o f f  137  of  season  -  A  Only one of "...encourage  months by p r o v i d i n g  winter  sports  socially  -  and a wider v a r i e t y  important goals l i s t e d  of  activities."  i n the p l a n i n c l u d e :  implement a phased program of development ensure  Other  projects  to  o r d e r l y growth.  - maintain a high q u a l i t y protection  of l i v i n g environment through the  of n a t u r a l a s s e t s ,  beautification  of  roadways,  improvement of r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s and promotion of the commercial and i n d u s t r i a l base.  - preserve demand.  industrial  land  to accommodate  anticipated  A t t r a c t new i n d u s t r i e s and promote e x i s t i n g  - provide a choice  of l o c a t i o n s  accommodations,  (including  and a v a r i e t y of new  ones.  residential  residential)  such  as  Campbell Mountain-Eastern H i l l s i d e .  - secure an open space linking  system  neighbourhoods  of  with  greenbelts  and walkways  p a r k s , community  facilities  and n a t u r a l a s s e t s .  Within objectives  this  set  of  goals  coupled with development  138  are  fourteen  policies  planning  for each.  Some  of  these  are  for  the  protection  p r o d u c t i v e farmland, and f o r agriculture,  lands  and which  preservation  of  are  of  capable  for the p r o v i s i o n of c u l t u r a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l  opportunities,  services  and  facilities,  and for ensuring  c o m p a t i b i l i t y among the v a r i o u s land uses.  The commercial seven d i f f e r e n t the  areas  types.  projected  of  Penticton  Tourist  short-term  commercial  D i s t r i c t ; i n areas  road network; and i n other their  proximity  to r e c r e a t i o n  the  airport  design  and v i s u a l l y a t t r a c t i v e promoting  development along  major  permit  This r e c o g n i z e s of  motels,  secure  the  of  facilities in  and i n  keeping  tourist  centre,  w i l l be provided  for  (Corporation  the  of  14).  is  the e x i s t i n g  service  in  flexibility  development,  a r t e r i a l s and lakeshores  division  and  because  convention  area d e s i g n a t i o n s  1982,  for  desirable  the c i t y as a c o m p e t i t i v e  C i t y of P e n t i c t o n ,  Another  To  "meeting  r e l a t e d to the a r t e r i a l  and  terminal.  into  service  provided  locations  and/or  with  are  divided  areas  accommodation,  r e c r e a t i o n a l needs of v i s i t o r s " C e n t r a l Business  are  Tourist  Commercial-Sales  mix of a u t o - o r i e n t e d  stations,  drive-in  uses such as s a l e s l o t s for automobiles,  vehicles  and mobile homes.  As  some  139  land uses  restaurants,  interim  Lots.  and  recreation  uses are of an i n t e r i m  N  j  JL  IF S  Scale  t" • 4000'  FIGURE 14: COMMUNITY PLAN OE PENTICTON Source: Penticton O f f i c i a l Community P l a n , 1982  LEGENO  Tourist  Commercial  Comprehensive Development Area - Tourist C o m m e r c i a l Base-  nature, order the  and  are  to secure  along  Tourist resort  the  Adverse  future  during  of  July  and  (Figure  level  (as  Tourism  of  in  protect will  be  14).  areas  c a t e r i n g to  in Penticton  the  province-wide of  of  using  July  trade  outside  and  to travel  by  to  Young  the  July  August)  for  further  promotion  of  and  or  August  i n other be  growth existing  i s the  (i.e.,  of  would appear  explained  areas  Penticton  tourist  that tend  least  are  outside  that are  markets  August a t  saturation  permit  potential  development  a year-round  to  of  the  months  tourism attractions promotion  d e v e l o p m e n t and  in  apartments.  (because  and  main t h r o u g h - r o u t e ,  development  holiday  prospect  economic  expansion  attractive  Effects  industry  facilities  the  through-routes  or  Social  major  this  along  Commercial-Residential  condominiums  The of  visually  more p e r m a n e n t u s e s ,  designated  5.7  situated  months).  approaching  (1973)  in  a  Chapter  3) .  By  following  occurring pressure  (changes on  the  urban  Young's in  land  indicators use,  employment  infrastructure),  141  for  and  saturation levels,  a p p l y i n g them  and to  Penticton,  the  illustrated. tourism  Study  in  of  It  i s not  absence  of  the  policies  for  socially  is  necessary  to determine  in  the  the  avoid  some  simple  In t h e  5.7.1  Land The  of  the  and  Penticton  appropriate  existing  tourist  costs  it  may  felt  in  the  as  an  Therefore, i t  in  similar  to  be  by t h e  problems  industry  using p o l i c i e s  thesis,  occur  p o s s i b l e to residents.  p o s s i b l e problems w i l l  be  A  a benefit  Use  Since  of  land  of  the  use  land  they  taken  over  have added  had  has  s i x h o t e l s with  Penticton indicates a used  of  well 276  142  by  the  tourist  auto-courts  increased  favourable  to the  Skaha Lake Road as  in  being  development  accommodation  o n l y have t h e y  Street  f u t u r e , i f the  the  planners.  1940's, t o u r i s t  but  any  that  to  tourism  manner.  be  for  However,  past,  i f there are  social  proportion  industry.  i n the  i n a planned  in this  evolution  growing  city,  industry.  i s p r o p e r l y planned  a w a r e n e s s of t h e  to tourism  Not  evolved  ones d e v e l o p e d  saturation saturation  tourist  can show  for  not  location  will  necessary  i n d u s t r y has  any  tourism  problem areas  of d e v e l o p m e n t p o l i c i e s  industry.  of  i s approaching  implementing  development  problems  these  Penticton  residents. before  saturation  in  substantially.  locations  in  r i b b o n growth a l o n g (Figure units,  the  15). and  In  the Main 1953,  twenty-eight  auto-courts were  with  335  units,  and  (Corporation these  with  motels 1,416  Accommodation Guide units  since  establishments larger  of  with  1986).  1,410  units  By  1986,  h o t e l s with 752  units,  and  fifteen  (Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, This  represents  an increase  there  six  1974 even though  (Table I ) .  with  1,302  1974).  include eight  there  motels  with  Penticton,  units  In 1974,  fifty-eight  campsites  had expanded to  fifty-two  campsites  fourteen  of the C i t y  figures  units,  but  (Wahl, 1955).  nine h o t e l s with 246 u n i t s ,  1,333  697  units  were  This indicates a trend  h o t e l and motel u n i t s .  fewer  to  fewer  Prime s i t e s along  both  Skaha and Okanagan Lakes are taken by such  establishments.  Table I : Accomodations f o r 1953. 1974 and 1986 NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS  UNITS  1953 1974 1986  1953  1974  1986  HOTELS HOTELS CAMPGROUNDS  6 28 -  9 58 14  8 52 15  276 335 -  246 1333 1302  752 1410 1416  TOTALS  34  81  75  611  2881  3578  Units - sleeping roons i n hotels, s i n g l e rooms and suites i n Hotels, and i n d i v i d u a l campsites o i BV pads i n campgrounds. Sonrces: Wahl, 1955. •Community Information," 1974. "Accommodation Guide 1986".  14-3  of  In a d d i t i o n land,  to  the  there are a l s o  short-term  large t r a c t s  service  and  recreational  include  the  many  convention  centres,  waterslide  developments.  resort  of  fifty)  thirty-six  tourists.  restaurants service  Other  areas  condominiums or h o l i d a y  use of  of land being used for  needs  (over  accommodation  Examples  and  stations, of  the  apartments  that  the  shops, and  city  two have  cater  to  v i s i t o r s s t a y i n g for a longer p e r i o d .  The p o p u l a t i o n not  of P e n t i c t o n  l a r g e enough to support  facilities and motels  it  has  created.  shut down i n the  The land u t i l i z e d large  portion  otherwise living  by  (Figure  have  the  been  used  number  of  As a r e s u l t ,  recreational  tourist  services  and  many r e s t a u r a n t s  of  i n d u s t r y takes up a  Penticton.  This  land  may  for continued a g r i c u l t u r e or as  residents  facilities  do  provided  benefit  from having e x t r a  by  tourist  the  The c i t y of P e n t i c t o n i s c o n s t r a i n e d i n i t s  the  itself  space.  However, the  by i t s  is  off-season.  the  15)  (23,400 i n 1981)  physical setting.  two l a k e s ,  industry.  growth p o t e n t i a l  Unable to expand north or south by  or west because  of the P e n t i c t o n Indian Band  Reserve, development must take place on the  144  eastern  slopes  r  N  fi-  JL 1r  Sctle = I -- 40Q0'  FIGURE 15: TOURIST RESOURCES OF PENTICTON  A*5i—"  a?  5  Tut  \  Aftfi£22—•  LE6EN0 Accommodation  ZZ ml\ej  Restaurants Sports & Recreation  14-5  above  the  because  of  t a k e n up  by  city.  This  its  steep  the  Industrial the  East  running from  the  Fairview  Railway  land  Is  east to  (120  uses  in Penticton  but  (Economic  It and  the  area  residential  of  of  the  the  large  areas:  industrial  area  River  Channel  Hastings  Avenue-  additional are  vacant  isolated  about  forty-  industrial  s u i t a b l e topography,  Development  that  future,  of  commercial." purposes.  land  land  drainange,  Commission,  1983).  The  land  that  is  suitable  for  property.  tourist-oriented large  with  utilizes  seems c l e a r  in  acres)  the  i s s i t u a t e d w e l l away f r o m t o u r i s t - o r i e n t e d  s t i l l  residential  vicinity  the  development of  two  Okanagan  There  hectares  land  the  city.  eight  industrial  the  and  are  around  access  Area,  of  because  In  There  scattered  and  concentrated  side  for  Reserve.  junction.  sites  available  limitations  Land  Industrial  Road  Street  has  t o p o g r a p h y , and  Agricultural  Penticton  along  area  land land  Other  These areas  is  land  development  being  largely affected  development. zoned  areas  of  in land  include, parks, where  146  by  I t shows the Penticton  are  also  used  stay  with  now  current  relatively  as  "tourist  for  commercial areas,  visitors  relatives.  in Penticton,  tourist and  friends  even or  5.7.2 A  growing  employment depressing Table for  Levels  Employment  proportion  in  the  effect  II shows  tourist  the  labour  industry  on r e g i o n a l e c o n o m i c  employment  1961, 1971 and  of  trends  force  could growth  indicated  by  1981.  TABLE I I : LABOUR FOBCB STATISTICS Total Labour Force H  F  Service Biployient \  H  F  X  19(1  B.C. 423,92) 157,466 O.S. PBIT. 3,375 1,40)  82,024  19.4  54,374  13.8  465  13.8  128  9.1  1971  B.C. 602,335 307,755 O.S. 11,435 5,))5 PBHT. 4,710 2,640  61,515 1,010 500  10.2 8.8 10.6  57,915 1,270 665  18.8 21.2 25.2  1)81  B.C. 822,645 566,565 O.S. 26,070 16,755 PBHT. 6,135 4,585  79,025 1,865 605  9.6 7.2 9.9  104,045 3,935 1,030  18.4 23.5 22.5  -  -  \ - Is coipared to t o t a l H/F i n labor force B.C. - B r i t i s h C o l o i b i a O.S. - Okanagan-SiiiUaieen PBHT. - Penticton •Source: S t a t i s t i c s Canada  147  -  -  having  indicate  a  (Chapter  3).  census  data  Table 1971  I I shows  and  1981  Similkameen, percent Penticton periods,  and  Penticton. labor  i n  British  sector  has  Okanagan-  employment  declined  Columbia  i n  district  both the  decade f o r  For females there  was  outstanding  employment between  1961 and 1971 i n  Penticton.  proportion  i n t h e more r e c e n t  decade.  newspaper  reported  June  "theservice  accounts  f o r 66  addition,  "women  created  i n  proportion sector. labour  of other  and  during  the  new j o b s  has a higher  employed  i n  the province  1981 s t a t i s t i c s  percent  employment of  female  (6.9  half  past  20  service as a  148  i n  - now  A  In jobs large  the service  of  sector  i t s total (especially  whole.  occupations  f o r 15.8 p e r c e n t  (13.9 percent  services  years."  percentage  percent  sector  o f a l l new  created  show t h a t  accommodation accounted  sector  the  Province  wages a n d s a l a r i e s . "  than  were  The  has  resorts, dentists,  and business  more  a m o n g s t women) t h a n  Other  personal  motels,  filled  Penticton force  hotels,  of total  of these  This  2, 1 9 8 3 , t h a t  percent  B.C.  in  i n  slightly  thousands  a  intercensal  declined  and  as  f o r males  Columbia  restaurants,  f o r 1961,  the  British  including  and  statistics  Service  force  are available.  i n service  force  Columbia,  and f o rthe r e g i o n a l  which data growth  labor  for British  and  of total  the  i n lodging  o f male  provincially)  service  and  provincially).  19.7 Also,  a c c o m m o d a t i o n and service  locations  Though  there in  Indicate  that  not  labor  A.  the  growth  Fire  Royal provide  the  city,  to  the  northern  the  percent of  the  service  of  provincially).  figures  sector  intercensal  percent  Penticton  employment  of  Mounted  enforcement  boundary of  shows the of  1970  southern  stationed  (Corporation  half  i n the  58  residents  i n Table  II  ( i f i t occurred)  as  a  percentage  of  decade.  Services:  law  detachment.  below  sector,  Canadian  Penticton  rural  (40.7  for  Infrastructure  P o l i c e and The  the  accounted  proportion  service  during  Urban  members  great  reflected in service  force  5.7.3  services  in Penticton  is a  employed  was  food  the  in  Police  within  boundary Okanagan  Penticton,  There are City  number o f  of  of  of  Trout  C r e e k , and  to  fifteen  of  incidents  149  boundaries  There  for  1986). 1985  are  which  twenty-six  Penticton,  In  the  Falls.  also  1986.  (R.C.M.P.)  and  fifty  form  the  auxiliaries Table the  III first  TABLE H I : POLICE INCIDENTS FOR PBHTICTOH Jan. Feb. 1)85 1986  liar.  Apr.  Hay Jane  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.  865 1,045 1,012 1,132 1,337 1,811 1,465 1,566 1,315 1,01)  %  )44 1,0)3 1,085 1,250  Ho v. Dec.  1,266  96)  937  1,337  5.) 7.1 6.) 7.7 9.7 12.3  10.0  10.6  8.) 8.6 6.6  6.4  Total incidents i n 1985 - 14,720 •Source: Penticton R.C.M.P.  I t shows the g r e a t e s t number of  Incidents  J u l y , and August when the p o p u l a t i o n of than d o u b l e . assault,  Statistics  show  that  communities  most  are  The  not no  can more  crimes, including  compare  tourism  just  i n the R.C.M.P.  to reduce problems:  auxiliary  staff  are a s s o c i a t e d  add  of  the  L t d . , 1980).  with t o u r i s m :  recreational vehicles;  thefts  force's  are  police;  effectiveness  Two p a r t i c u l a r problems from t o u r i s t  campsites  and w i l d p a r t i e s or r i o t s  150  any  preventative  beaches and p a r k i n g l o t s  to  is  out a heavier  because  have taken  in size  impact; t h i s  pointing summer  similar  midnight; beach areas are p a t r o l l e d by  (D'Amore & A s s o c i a t e s  and  or  the R . C . M . P .  reasons).  closed after and  little  statistics  for of  measures  with  the  workload number  Penticton  breaking and e n t e r i n g , and v a n d a l i s m , i n c r e a s e  the summer (these s t a t i s t i c s do  because  o c c u r r i n g i n June,  which  attract  hundreds  of  newspaper a r t i c l e s indicate from  the  The  article  (August  Penticton's  an  action  5,  contract.  f i r e and  rescue  TABL8  \  Jan.  Feb.  Kar.  Apr.  46  49  52  64  (Figure  and  17)  article  1986)  report  in  Kelowna  Penticton;  another  a  riot  actions  (P.F.D.) forty  to  during  July  Aug.  46  33  4?  consists  volunteers  in  industries outside f o r 1985,  is listed  June  i n Table  of two the  including IV.  1985 Sept.  24  8.9 6.4 9.1 4.6  151  (Figure  19).  IV: FIRE DEPARTHEHT CALLS.  Penticton Fire Department  Sun  One  12,  number o f c a l l s  50  Vancouver  1976  police  Department  8.9 9.4 10.0 12.3 9.6 •Source:  reports  operations,  Nay  and  near  i s provided  The  two  (August  city  firefighters  Protection  16)  following  1986)  Fire  The  these disturbances.  Okanagan  Penticton  firehalls.  1985  of  Peach F e s t i v a l  twenty f u l l - t i m e  both  (Figure  newspaper  for  18),  by  1974  Province  (Figure  city  of  severity  recommendations  The  young p e o p l e .  Oct.  31  Hov.  44  Dec.  Total  33 519  6.0 8.5 6.4  100.1  BLOCKED  (lc^\SCo  DRIVERS TERRORIZED  Mob hurls rocks, bottles, at Moun^%r^enticto|  I  fleers, went mun response'Td ' at the next- regional boan By Statt Reporter _/ PENTICTON —Twelve per- ^motorists" complajmng of bro~ meeting July Iff- <> -• , sons', "most of them from the ken windshields- ana\ headThe regional district ha i. Lower Mainland^ wilL be lights, v , ? - ** pearlier demed ,a permit for, :t charged'; with unlawful- assemToKgivefryou" sometidea^ the festival because of con& bly^and- causing M disturbance» what theseC'good citizens' eem about a.forest flre'haz• if following? a; Sunday- morning::ci.were^like;vone-youngs woman?Sy ; ard;overcrowded. rfracas in which an RCMP tac- ~ car was surrounded' *Whila facilities, crowd, control and > ^ticat;&squad^wass:t^te<Ei'Witai J^she sat terrified lnside^hey" noise. ^-•.Traffics- on the narrow -road "rocks'and bottles. ^nppecL outf all the wir$g in to- the fair- site became hope" > Av police spokesman said ? «lessly snarled when several £ Monday? the persons to be ; the-engine compartm ^cars. stalled and motorists > charged — one-from Pentic- said. abandoned them- to continue: fbnv one from Alberta and the >~TBer problems on foot' - ^ S<«f* f$_ srest from the Lower •Mainlands about 1 ajn. ~ Policerepor^d;no;ma]or.mr — have been issued appear- £^about.'*i traffic cidents. at the fair/which feaanceinotices for July 15 cleared; tured eight bands from East "A handful He said the melee occurred spokesman.: em Canada playing from noon: * shortly after midnight Satur- the roadJ' fat about midnight ' > • day aa> Highway 97 at the ;.were; numeral N6> trouble was. reported! south end of the- town when ;incideni5 during, the; day:? from a band of motorcyclists, |* about"* 300 persons blocked i traffic in both directions, re^ Saturdayyclimaxing- m>,the- including members of the 10L ''suiting m lineups several, disturbarfe early Sunday,, „ Knights, the Gypsy Wheelers miles long ' ^ 'i (ft * and the Satan's Angels '• 4 spokesman estimated^ " Twelve officers suffered' RCMP-%at Osoyoos,! who iwn's-population over the wer& supported by additional J'rmnor"" cuts and bruises" ' Cfrom, thrown bottles anoV weekend; at-^about three times.- officers-/brought in from & rocks, the spokesman said. *normaLThe: 35 regnlar policev^otheEi-idetachments;: saidi the;: ! & He ^aid the rocks- and 'bat-' vtast- bolstered' by. 12 extras, bikers .spent the night Satur-, ^tles-^were* throwrijmainly by mostly frooLvChuliwacle-;,'.^^::? _ day ore private property nearF .Many* persons, were be- . Osoyooaand reft without lncr'persons in an a d d i t i o n a l -"3 icrowd, of* about 400 who took tieved. to* have' been in town dentin the mornings [.advantage of nearby camp- for a rock festiwar held Sun- ^Ther spokesman, ^wbo. said sites and moteL roofs to; pelf day, about two miles east oC (j^ tactical squad was wearPenticton., , ^ „f { V ^ ujgfcrashr helmets and carry-. fcpohces At the" peak oFthe festrvaf. ing. batons during? Sunday; !• ^Thet spokesman, said the "r"'—~ — police/ estimated there were morning's melee said police 124-man tactical squad, sup-< about 2000 persons attending were in actual confrontation^ ffiSMSii^A^^^nara)t.cS arrests with, the crowd for- aboutdght weremade overi the weekend. " minutes. ^ Okanagan Similkameen* Re- ^ "After that we stood back |gional^Distnct actings chair-^ and they> finally gotfaredof* man 'J "B\Shaw said today standing around and watching,] ^ matterT will be discussed*"'us watching them," he said v  %  w  ;  -  1  f  1  tv  4  6  1  w  83  a  r  1  1  1  F i g u r e 16.  152.  s stone • "l£wis a spon / ; Sun Staff Reporter. somebody got going. Most of those volved had .. PENTICTON — Motorists were forced to run. a gantlet of. rocks and beer bottles V been drinking,'' he said. early Saturday when .about 150 youths The party quickly Jafned from mere . went on a rampage just south of here. boisterousness to wild destruction, with . When RCMP sealed off traffic, the mob passing motorists^ main targets. RCMP pelted police cruisers with missiles and responded by closing the highway and rebuilt a large bonfire on the highway with . fences, signs, picnic tables and benches. \ routing traffic along the East Side road. But. tha^ouths countered by building a It took,police 90 minutes to quell.the. melee but; no injuries were reported. bonfire^m the road and throwing rocks and Two men, both from the Lower Main- beer/oottles at the police:cruisers. The land, have.beencharged with obstructing sidff window of. one car was smashed, police. as a result of the disturbance. They jlones said. ' -. were scheduled, to appear, in Penticton: pro~ . "We letit blow its limit and then moved vincial court later today.'• \ in and apprehended' the troublemakers," Cph Ken Jones described the incidents he said. ' ".>.';-S-a "near riot'^am said it'was the wSrst • Jones said- the youths. offered ho resist disturbance; since \ similar, incidejf two tance. Fire trucks were called into extinyears ago; when RflyviP donned rjiSt gear guish the blaze: and public works vehicles to disperse, a mob of to clean debris off. the highway. Jones said the ihcitent begafi about 11 , Police stayed on the scene until 4 ajn. p.m. .. Friday near V' priyately^owned "to make sure things didn't flare up campsite W Highway 9Vjyst outside the again," he said. city limits. It was almost me same site as the 1974 riot, he said. f* He said; the majority of the youths were from": the:. Greater Vancouver-area, and} were spending the • long. weekend here Mostwerem.their early 20s,' he said. 1  :  1  :  ;  Figure  17.  153  The Province News Services KELOWNA — Edgy civic officials hope a beefed-up show of force will be enough to defuse trouble at future Kelowna Regattas. A committee appointed by Kelowna Mayor Dale Hammill investigating last month's regattariothas called for more RCMP foot patrols in the downtown area during the summer.  Tuesday, Aug. 12, 1986 clashed with police, who dispersed the crowd with tear gas. The committee, made up of police, citizens, businessmen and aldermen, also called on the liquor board to conduct tougher ID checks on its customers. Other recommendations by HammiH's committee called for cabarets and beer parlors to sell, beer only in cans..  For the long term, council was During the early hours of July asked-to seek a provincial gov2.7, drunken vandals smashed ernment review of liquor legislawindows and looted" stores, tion with a view to giving police resulting in more than 100 more authority to> deal with ., arrests. • ••' < • - .';. such incidents.; Damage was estimated at $250,000. • "• -\: . - . Hammill read the Riot Act after rioters threw, bottles and  The city has already increased police patrols since the riot and Hammill said there have been no more problems.  F i g u r e 18, _  F i g u r e 19,  By IAN AUSTIN . arrest • Staff Reporter: j'Or a civil suit could be filed-J Penticton RCMP made sure the for embarassment or loss of a day's Peach Festival wasn't the pits. holiday." With last week's- Kelowna riot Penticton RCMP Corp. Brian Sar-.: firmly in mind, police arrested 160 necki was pleased that things never people during the three-day week- got out of hand. .end fesL . V . - He said total damage for the i • But not one of them was charged, weekend was less than $100. "and Penticton lawyer Wilson Ruth- . In Kelowna, about 1,000 people erford said suits probably will be rampaged through the downtown filed. . . area a week earlier causing thou'Tve already heard a couple of sands of dollars in damage. people mention it" About 60 officers were on duty \ Police could be liable if persons in Penticton each night; including.' were detained with no reasonable some from other centres, or probable grounds for arrest, he "We learned from'Kelowna," said-; said. , Sarnecki. "Any that got out of line, J ' "They could be charged with we took them in and sobered them ] false imprisonment and unlawful up. They slept it oft" . ; \ v  15 4-  Prom T a b l e Hodgins related seasonal  IV, and from an  (P.F.D.), problem.  there  threatening  B.  H o s p i t a l and H e a l t h  201  Penticton acute  extended  care  beds  be  and of  to  The  beds, plus  no  life density  increases.  Regional  Hospital currently care  the f a c i l i t i e s date.  beds,  for a  plus  85  further  45  Sixty-seven  of P e n t i c t o n , Community P r o f i l e ,  physicians (Corporation  1986).  h o s p i t a l emergency s e r v i c e s a r e g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d i n In response  tourists  being  doctors,  the  rotating  team of d o c t o r s  patients  each  (D'Amore  shows  as the population  63 e x t e n d e d  added a t a l a t e r  J u l y and August.  minor,  tourist  for  t h i r t e e n d e n t i s t s have h o s p i t a l p r i v i l e g e s the C i t y  B.  Services:  and D i s t r i c t  beds,  Chief  to fire,  potential  hotel or motel)  care  Fire  specific  due  the  occurrences increases  b u i l d i n g (house,  has  t o be n o  lost,  However,  per  The  seems  The d o l l a r s  patterns.  interview with  they  unable hospital  day. do  to  get  and t o t h e problem  appointments  established  a  with  about  Although  most  tourist  the  workload  L t d . , 1980).  155  with  tourist  deal  increase  & Associates  to this,  for  local  clinic.  ninety  A  tourist  ailments the  of  are  hospital  C.  Water  S u p p l y and  During Penticton system With  the (due  major  Control  and  Channel  the  supply. average  The  about  Water  23,000  two  miles  Re-Use"  the  Wines The  treatment  Penticton into  sewage  residents  Casabello  sludge  disposal  Penticton).  per day,  the system.  a t the  of  and  i s the  sewage i s (primary,  Water the  Quality Okanagan  s o u t h of Okanagan Lake.  system  of  A  i s i n the planning  new  stages  city.  t o be  no  water  daily  as  with  maintaining  i s by s c r e e n i n g  Columbia  the  and  an adequate  gallons  programme  of  Agreement  Towards  &  Okanagan  Valley,  156  water  Related  1973),  The  water.  conducted  Okanagan B a s i n Water  There  chlorination.  i s ten million  participation  Resident Attitudes in  Creek  the secondary source of supply.  consumption  public  Management  supply i s taken from Penticton  problems  Treatment  Canada-British of  by  sewage  City  I t i s then discharged  Okanagan Lake  appears  served  tertiary)  Penticton's with  & Water,  units.  activated  Centre.  "Beneficial for  - Sewer  accommodation industry  population  overtaxes the  o f 1,800,000 g a l l o n s  advanced,  secondary  River  Mgr.  increased  system serves approximately  3,600 t o u r i s t  given  the  to tourists)  capacity  treatment  only  summer,  (Ian Stout, a  Environmental Quality:  f o r the (A  Survey  Resource  showed  that  environmental important unique  pollution  problem  was a l s o  weed  growth  quality, pleasure  does  and  be  the single  most  A concern to protect the  the  water  quality  of the  Agriculture, storm drainage, milfoil)  gasoline  survey of  shoreline  and  lifestyles water  beaches  were  serve  to  o i l spills  growth.  i s a major  identified  degrade by  and water  the  many  o f beach  accommodation  attitudes  these occur gradually  twenty days residents  accept  crowding  users,  a t t h e beach  i n  High  uncrowded  such and  beach  urban  residents  crowding  comprise  beach back  157  crowding yards.  by o t h e r  by  About  or  in  thirty-six  resident  summer.  are  conditions  environments  the average the  urban  factors to tourist  and a r e accompanied  during  their  Constraints,  limiting  in  with  are coping with pools  clean,  i n c r e a s i n g l y crowded  -  was f o u n d t h a t beach  of  towards  provided  of  and t o u r i s t s .  availability,  as  Users often  percent  and  as  Public  I t  i n the economic  recreation.  diverse.  traffic.  that  to  identified  in  indicated  as the key factors c o n t r i b u t i n g  were  experiences  also  factor  the a v a i l a b i l i t y  parking,  crowding,  attitudes  o f Okanagan r e s i d e n t s  and  enjoyment  traffic,  resident  recreation  quality  swimming  to  boats.  The  social  expressed. (Eurasian  as  felt  i n t h e Okanagan.  p h y s i c a l environment  lakes  the  was  spending  Increasingly, constructing thirty-three  percent  of  a l l  homes  ("Swimming P o o l s add 1982,  D.  p.  increased  on  have  swimming  home z e s t , " P e n t i c t o n H e r a l d ,  the  one-way.  Highway  97  10,000  city  On  Manager,  pools  April  29,  parking  congestion.  into  into in  July  months  City  of  the  city  and of  from the  year  through  The the  Okanagan R i v e r C h a n n e l has  with  south,  there  are  average  (Dave  Gold,  Department  city. helped  A  a  streets  A u g u s t w i t h an the  puts  cope  Road),  Penticton).  main r o a d  To  s e v e r a l downtown  Skaha Lake  other  by t o u r i s t s  of  partial downtown  congestion a great deal.  Parking areas  the  caused  designated  turns  Highways c o n t r o l s t h e  traffic  traffic  road  per day  i n the  by-pass a l o n g  has  the  (which  35,000 v e h i c l e s  Traffic  local  r o a d w a y s , p a r k i n g and  congestion,  six  area  Transportation:  strain  of  the  3c).  The  as  in  are  i s o f t e n a problem along being  sought  i s permitted  o'clock  i n the  along  along  the  Skaha Lake  beach areas  morning.  158  beaches.  Two  more  for parking.  No  between m i d n i g h t  and  5.7.4  S p e c i a l P o p u l a t i o n Groups; The r e t i r e m e n t  affected  by  the c i t y ' s  tourism.  residents  Penticton,  population  and  is  one  group  At l e a s t nineteen percent  are s i x t y - f i v e  years  the e n t i r e Okanagan v a l l e y  major r e t i r e m e n t centre  that may be  of  (1981)  age or o v e r .  is  becoming  a  f o r B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a .  A  r e c e n t l y constructed retirement  centre  and  who use the f a c i l i t i e s  has  about  participate many  2,000  members  i n courses and e v e n t s .  tourist  facilities,  The teenage affected  by  summer.  population  of  c o u l d view  the  of young t o u r i s t  extensive  that  i n p e t t y crimes a g a i n s t  tourists  in  property.  similar petty  quieter,  be  i f they are i n f l u e n c e d  by  Crimes a g a i n s t  could  which  arrive  night  clubs  and  The only r e a l  against tourists  of the bad p u b l i c i t y that  parties  involved  (Penticton R . C . M . P . ) . of  kids  elsewhere,  residents  and  are a higher p r o f i l e ensues.  159  each  evidence  l o c a l young people get  minority  crime  city  groups  lounges,  of problems i s the f a c t  involved  from  also  c r e a t e a c a r n i v a l s t y l e atmosphere.  a  and  life.  The many pubs,  like  persons  Though b e n e f i t t i n g  seniors  tourism, e s p e c i a l l y  the l i f e s t y l e s  because  255  development as a t h r e a t to a sought a f t e r ,  more r e l a x e d way of  also,  houses  such as the wide range of shopping  and r e s t a u r a n t e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , tourist  of  They get their item  The for  Penticton  private  involved land  the  opposed for  t o any  cut-off  dollars  acres)  way  As  1984,  intrusions.  well,  and it  combination  residents  Two  of  community  roughly  four  Valley  were  residents  by  polled  development of the Okanagan B a s i n  get  4,991  preceding  t o u r i s t s and  wide  In  dissaggregated  reserve  Band  appears  by  the  13.2  Band  million  d o l l a r s from hectares  near P e n t i c t o n  the  to t u r n a g a i n s t  posing  Okanagan  land  receive  not  cross  Recent c l a i m s  million  will  the  is  (The  British (12,335  Province,  Saturation;  Penticton, 1971,  and  lots  4).  Psychological  The  one  otherwise  T o u r i s t s do  have meant t h e y w i l l  Ottawa  some w a t e r f r o n t  but  t o Apex M o u n t a i n  other  p.  leases  industry.  of m o s t l y v a c a n t  March 7,  Band  developments  tourist  lands  from  Columbia.  5.7.5  campsite  i n the  on  Indian  surveys  questions  cities,  preferred tourist  the no  81).  160  The  majority  industry  Agreement, 1974,  the  can  tourist  cause  industry.  undertaken  future  households  surveyed. but  the  were  regarding  hundred  factors  of  tourism.  throughout data of  were  South  restrictions (Canada-British However,  in  in  the not  Okanagan on  the  Columbia 1975  the  Regional and  District  asked  "are  development "yes," not  a  (52%)  These  results  negative  fact  and  growing sense of c a u t i o n towards development  for  determine the  important  is  and  needed  underlying  distinguishing  product.  producers each  and  This  be  l a r g e , the  extensive.  people land  organization  of  the  season too result  towards are use, of  in  indeed  145  so a s  causes  to  pose  of  the  such  apathy  and  order  with  other  relations, and  largely  tourist the  to  i n d u s t r y as  in the  is too  tourists  and  a whole.  Few  planning  planning),  impacts  for  or  a t t r a c t i o n s t h a t take  161  rarely  population  social  towards  in overall  development  in  Individualized contacts,  and  tourism  i s the  confrontation  due  because the  involved  events  separated This  industry.  is  attraction contrast  are  person.  long,  of t o u r i s m  most e x c h a n g e  indifferent  maintained  The  disinterest  in  become  commercialization cannot  and  is  consumers  other  has  feature  have t o come t o the  activities,  Penticton  (e.g.,  survey  "no";  responded  responses.  confront  local  responded  (41%)  suggest a changing a t t i t u d e  that  exporting  too  persons  tourism  did  t o consume t h e  then,  in Penticton  (7%)  that t o u r i s t s  where  survey  o f e n c o u r a g i n g more  Some 887  A more e x t e n s i v e  questions  An  i n favour  persons  answer.  tourism.  you  in Penticton?"  1,120  perhaps  conducted a household  tourism in place  the at  the  small  5.8  business  Penticton  On  difficult  problems  reached  year,  as  age  and  state  such  in  that  weather of  Penticton.  a saturation  variables  as  occupation  i t would appear  may  age and b e h a v i o u r  patterns  once  residents, levels  i t  sheer  the  and there  August.  resident  be s l o w t o  saturation  numbers  doubles  were  has  change  (Rajotte,  and  the population During  65,000  the July  population  of  despite  162  response. local  decreasing  1982).  include:  to the  Penticton  1st long  about  state  among  beach-related  t o 70,000 p e o p l e  of  attitude  on t h e  problems  of  time  of v i s i t o r s ,  of t o u r i s t s attracted  orchards,  has  different  on  developed  of emerging s a t u r a t i o n  climate,  nearly  attitude  will  of p h y s i c a l  Evidence  The  an  i s  level  give  respondents  that  It  conditions,  p o l i c i n g , and so on, a l l have a b e a r i n g  However,  a)  data,  emerging  different  sector.  Saturation  available are  Specifics  questionaires, of  of  to conclusively  answers.  of the tourism  - Approaching  the basis  saturation  been  level  in  areas  activities during  weekend  in  the c i t y ,  22,000  by  July 1979,  with  (D'Amore  a &  Associates  The  Ltd.,  to  visitors  the  for  volume of  produce  facilities residents'  and daily  life,  residents  or  of  from the  different  tourists.  and  invade tend  interaction  in tourism of  commercialization  to  stress  is  numbers  of  require  the  more  privacy  adapt  less  of  readily  to  customs.  monotony of  because  Greater  congestion,  services,  quality  suffers  resident-visitor  more  l o c a l standards  The  is  88).  potential  related  the  1980,  catering  than  scale), of  b e t w e e n h o s t and  in and  the  to  guest  visitors  (this  similar  services  from the  tendency  industry  to  to for  dehumanize  contacts.  b)  Employment  levels  thereby affecting  c)  Increasing related limits (parks,  d)  in a  potential natural  Pressures  the  amounts  uses  are  i n the  of city  tourist  industry  employment s t r u c t u r e  land  are  with  growth,  or  a  being  of  devoted  limited  land  even non-growth  areas,  orchards)  being  felt  on  163  in other  the  are  urban  rising,  the  to  city.  tourist-  area.  This  preservation  land  areas.  infrastructure,  including  police  services,  water  and and  fire  services,  hospital  sewer, environmental  and  health  quality,  and  transportation.  e)  Certain  groups w i t h i n  p e o p l e and  £)  g)  teenagers,  the  population,  are  being  Surveys  w h i c h were c o n d u c t e d  did  want more t o u r i s m  not  Criticism local  of  tourism  people  feel  residents  through  lakeshore  motels  access  to  toward  a  transients. transients support as  a  for  Associates saturation  or  has the  is  support  of  Limited  There  tourist clear  that  was  of  people  came  being approached;  164  developments  as  deny  a  locals  hostility  namely  resident  tolerance  there youth  young  is a  hostel  as  in  Ltd.,  103).  L.  the  that  1980,  J.  "the  of  well  private  D'Amore  conclusion is  of  lack  from camping  by  to  of  may  to  "many  ahead  group,  of  out  example,  widespread  because  construction  carried  such  is also  been exceeded  also  tourism.  catered  which  (D'Amore & A s s o c i a t e s  research  For  t o u r i s t s are  specific  by  majority  growing.  campsites,  beaches.  It  showed a  policy prohibiting singles  campsites"  The  the  affected  retired  development.  is  that  including  influx  and that of  visitors and  has had numerous e f f e c t s  there  i s Increasing  carrying  capacity  Associates  Ltd.,  5.8.1  evidence  are  upon that  being  resident  lifestyle  the limits  approached"  to  social  (D'Amore  &  1980, 8 3 ) .  Review of the "Questions f o r Evaluating S o c i a l Performance The  question  list  of  tourism  to  the p o t e n t i a l f o r problems  section this  development  for evaluating  has  answered  point,  (developed  the social  i n Chapter  in  2), also  Penticton.  most o f t h e q u e s t i o n s .  however,  some o f t h e  major  performance  The  points  preceding  As a check  points  will  on be  reviewed.  In  reviewing  the question  environmentalists, concluded social  a)  that  and e v a l u a t i n g  Penticton  for local  r e s i d e n t s and  them s u b j e c t i v e l y ,  i t is  i s likely  i n t h e danger  zone  of  of t o u r i s t s  in relation  to the  performance.  What  i s the proportion  tourist  population?  Penticton  has  population  a t c e r t a i n times  has  list  a  been  estimated in  tourist-resident ratio  165  to  have  doubled  t h e summer, a n d greater  than  1:1  i t s  probably f o r most  of  t h e summer.  other  b)  To  degree  aesthetics  to  often  the  with  unplanned  what  does  past  does  Tourist  development  younger  as  are  adoption  of adult  this  i n  of development  affect  much  between  with  tourism  s t a b i l i t y and  i n Penticton  of  the  sites.  and Strip  t r a f f i c problems and  development  also a  concerned "vacation"  enhance  or  lifestyles?  does  the " r i o t s " discussed about  detract earlier  transients  lifestyle  by  from  local  indicate. and  the  Penticton's  population.  Although a l l indications tolerance  type  looks.  from l o c a l  adapt,  during  i s unattractive, small-scale,  occurred  detract  People  the  greenspace  have  degree  stability  the  n o t a s marked  unplanned development,  sector  little  developments  To  i s  and a r c h i t e c t u r e ?  accommodation  c)  situation  seasons.  what  Due  This  of the local  may p o i n t  population  may n e v e r h a p p e n  t o the exhaustion or  because o f :  i t s capacity  of to  - a resigned  -  acceptance  implementation  o f some p o l i c i e s ,  6, w h i c h s h o u l d effects  mitigate  some  discussed  of  of the  economic  the adverse  importance  t h e c i t y and i t s r e s i d e n t s .  recession their  i n Chapter social  of tourism;  - a realization to  o f t h e way t h i n g s a r e ;  o f 1982-1984, many  opinions  Bevington, August,  of  the  President  Since  the  residents  "tourist  - Penticton  of t o u r i s m economic  have  hordes"  changed (Keith  Chamber o f Commerce,  1986).  Summary  Chapter Penticton. history,  5 This  reviewed  the  review Included  (1973),  supported  by  look  industry  in  a t the c i t y ' s  By i n v e s t i g a t i n g  areas of  problems of s a t u r a t i o n , as v o i c e d  b y Young  i t would a p p e a r caused  tourism  a brief  economy, and p o p u l a t i o n .  concern regarding  effects  has  by t o u r i s m  that  by  are  i n Penticton.  t h e most r e c e n t out  there  research  carried  L.  Limited.  As w e l l , a s e l e c t i v e  survey J.  social  This conclusion  is  f r o m P e n t i c t o n , and b y  D'Amore  review of  167  adverse  and  the  Associates  question  list  for  evaluating  development, approaching  the  developed  social in  saturation point  performance  Chapter for local  168  2,  also  of points  tolerance  to  tourism to  an  tourism.  CHAPTER S I X : M I T I G A T E THE A D V E R S E S O C I A L OF T O U R I S M I N P E N T I C T O N  P O L I C I E S TO  Assuming approaching Penticton, policies  the in  the  saturation at  least  n e x t most  to  mitigate  level  certain  important  this  has  been reached  times step  problem  for  EFFECTS  of  i s to the  the  or  year  formulate  areas  of  is ln  some  society  affected.  Strategies been d i s c u s s e d situation  in  These resident create  Most initiative  better growth  of by  the a  would  work.  4 and  should  towards  l e v e l s of  will  (e.g.,  help  tourism.  atmosphere of  tourism  for in  policies central  financial  financial  cases  the  saturation  now  be  applied  to  reduce  have  to  the  Penticton.  require  some  reduce  i n Chapter  feelings a  receive  help  strategies  appropriate  which  to  the  also  help  continued,  require  tourism to  from the  tourist  the  negative to  socially  Penticton.  capital  support  They w i l l  the  office.  Other  implement, city  clinic),  169  organization  or a  the "user  and  policies,  must  either  province. pays"  In  system  S.1  Policies to Mitigate  and  a)  services  A n y new t o u r i s m  planning well,  of  such  project  additional  projects  or developers.  services  capable  forty-eight  months.  During  but  i s  i t  several  In police possible stop  peak  hard  days  extra  during  summer  months  the  wild  parties. problems  control  pubs and n i g h t  one  time)  this  figure  As  by t h e and  its size  i n t h e summer i s much  expenditures  become  Angels  similar during more  is  for  and vandalism,  higher  f o r only  an  reduce  by t h e  patrols  of p o l i c e  by  Earlier  i s needed  beach  could  areas  might a l s o  groups  manpower  from even b e g i n n i n g .  forvisitors.  clubs  initiated to  the  facilities  a t least twice  The v i s i b i l i t y  o f campground  awareness programs  Citizen  principally  must have  major  case,  stricter  Guardian  any  with  and f a c i l i t i e s .  for  a city  Penticton's  and e n t e r i n g ,  people  paid  justify  breaking  be  services  weekends,  to  be i n t e g r a t e d  Penticton  at  Facilities  of the year.  possible  also  be  of handling  thousand  of Inadequate  should  local  should  investors  (to  Problems  can  be d e a l t owners  closing  with  and  by  more  hours f o r  problems.  t h e summer  months, a l l o w i n g  Involved  in  170  often  The p r o b l e m s o f  t o the "Guardian Angels"  association  and  local  begun  in  issues. the  could local The United  States, a  city  i n which and  The  report  to  called  sale  of  of  The  canned  beer  the  Hospital  summer  medical  visible  and  the  c)  well-equipped  (Chapter  adopted  be  a  in  by  and  5,  Figure  the  summer  beer  services at method  This  would  sumnmer  first-aid  were  and  parlors.  Penticton.  good  needing  in  in liquor stores,  from cabarets  for health  areas  i n K e l o w n a , who  patrols  checks  visitors.  students  the  of be  dealing  a  good  work.  stations  Penticton with  time  Also,  could  to  some  be  used  beaches.  The  sewage  d i s p o s a l system  state-of-the-art water  of  trouble  police.  riot  foot  be  seems t o  influx  utilize  at  clinic  the  Regatta  only  also  patrol  officials  identification  tourist  Regional  civic  to  f o r m o r e R.C.M.P.  These measures s h o u l d  b)  citizens  i n v e s t i g a t e the  months, tougher the  of  disturbances  committee  appointed 18),  groups  quality  attempts  system. of  should  its be  A  s y s t e m has  been planned  1982,  8a)  discharge  lakes  made t o  polluted.  p.  Since  thirty-three  to  into  Penticton for  ensure  economic that  million  (The  p r e v e n t any the  in Penticton  lake  be  a  on  the  survival,  a l l  lakes  dollar  land  increase  171  depends  the  Penticton  system.  should  are  not  disposal  Herald,  April  in  amount  of  levels  of  the  Existing  29,  discharge  should  d)  transportation  The  partially allows An  a l s o be  alleviated  traffic  t o be  westernmost  edge  If this  problems  by  route  traffic  away f r o m t h e c i t y Skaha  road  setback  more p a r k i n g in  the  and  Lake  overpasses.  would  beach  be  area  portion  Lake.  beach  area into  be  between  In an  parkland.  means  area.  be  of  would  traffic.  on F i g u r e f o r use  20)  along  Reserve divert  free An  t h e use  of s e v e r a l  the  actual  would  allow  of the beach  Lake.  area  Another  less  pedestrian  i s wide, sandy, and c u r r e n t l y is  planned  parking  In this  area,  and  Skaha  the beach and  t h e downtown  effective  This  local  by a s e t of v a c a n t  converted created  area  of  More p a r k i n g  the  area,  potential  under-utilized. of Skaha  would  through the Indian  centre  section  This  the highway  f o r slower  greater  alternative  been  by-pass, which  alignment i s p o s s i b l e , i t would  ( i n t h e marked  airport  expensive  for  of the c i t y  20).  along  P e n t i c t o n have  the Okanagan R i v e r  (Figure  road  in  d i v e r t e d away f r o m t h e downtown  e v e n more e f f i c i e n t  the  reduced.  for  should lots  way,  parking  be  the  s e t back  which  from  could  a b u f f e r zone area  eastern  (Figure  be  could 20).  t h e s y s t e m o f one-way s t r e e t s i s channelling  congestion.  172  traffic  to  avoid  Public Transit  Service,  Penticton During  transportation  could Drive  o f Skaha and Okanagan  recreational facilities  More  programs  be p l a n n e d . on  Skaha  visitors,  campground burning  with  other  available  this  the  Affairs.  between t h e  i n Penticton  are generally  organization beach  for visitors  i s on South  Beach  residents  Volleyball  and  and tennis  sign-up  or i n t e r - h o t e l , inter-  tournaments, would  be g o o d  f o r organizing  youths  swimming p o o l s ,  as w e l l  o f f energy.  many h o t e l / m o t e l  recreation 1981).  alternative  of  on t h e s p o t  to Penticton  wildlife  City  Municipal  young people,  beach.  Penticton  Lakes.  better  Many  recreational  Quiet (Collins,  and  Lake.  There a r e a l s o as  the  program of  The most p o p u l a r  frequent  tournaments,  and  i sa joint  by  t h e summer m o n t h s , a s p e c i a l b u s o p e r a t e s  The  good.  provided  and the P r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y of  beach areas  e)  which  Is  trails  facilities,  which  should  be  made  residents.  opportunities  are  Nature  walks,  deserted  would  enable  residents  t o the congested  tourist  173  areas.  in  short  supply  beach areas, to  have  and an  f)  The  beach  improvements. beach  at  public.  could  way o f d o i n g  Drive  beach should  The  possibility. mattresses the river  process,  River  was c l e a n e d  route  improvements  a good  b y many  too  shaded  become  have a l r e a d y  to  the  the road  the this  expanses  of sand  added  suntanning  area.  excellent  people  to float  major  recreation down  on a i r  t o Skaha  the  visually a  along lining  an  made  the  trees  up, b e n e f i t t i n g  would  p o r t i o n of  from Okanagan Lake  and t h e r i v e r b a n k s  leisurely  i s  i s  some  6.1(d).  out and wider  tubes  use  be t o r e - a l i g n  The b e a u t i f u l  I t i s used or inner  would  Beach  end t o c r e a t e  Okanagan  western  i n Chapter  portion.  could  b e made m o r e a c c e s s i b l e  this  Lake  be t h i n n e d  the eastern  Penticton  under-utilized,  Okanagan  Lakeshore  If  of  20) a s m e n t i o n e d  The  at  The  Skaha Lake  One  (Figure  areas  lakes  Lake. i n the  pleasing,  this  attraction.  Some  b e e n made b u t m u c h m o r e c o u l d  be  done.  The stairway a  Junior into  parking  feature small  the water  lot. a  Chamber  of  The r i v e r  Excellent  has c o n s t r u c t e d  a t each end of t h e r i v e r ,  walkway and/or  parks.  Commerce  bank a l o n g cycle  path  wide  along  with  the e n t i r e route with  opportunities  174  a  picnic also  areas exist  could and for  w-  JL 1r  Sctlt •• I - 4000  FIGURE 2 0 : SKAHA AREA IMPROVEMENTS  LEGEND • •New New  Parking Park  ^"Pedestrian Highway  Overpass  Bypass  riverside  g)  r e s t a u r a n t s and  There  appears  facilities although  t o be a d e q u a t e a m o u n t s  during the  facilities  most  Conversion  of  due  some  tent  with  the  be  year  discussed  i n Penticton, later)  of  the  and t r a i l e r  parks  to private  closing  down  of  the  t o inadequate  of  some g r o u n d s t o o t h e r  the  remaining  camping,  (to  of  of accommodation  substandard.  coupled  campgrounds,  times  aesthetics  are often  membership,  entertainment.  uses,  campgrounds.  frustrated  s u p e r v i s i o n , and have  This  resulted  and  few  conversion  l e d t o overcrowding  has  visitors,  a  in  alarmed  at  illegal affected  landowners and r e s i d e n t s .  This  problem  accommodation at  either  would in  city  entrance.  city.  If  none were  t o an overflow  one  the  use very  During  three  compatible  golf  as  land  much  as  fora  this  they  uses. other  were could  Since  any  left be  be s i t u a t e d  at  With t h e  be t h e m a r r i a g e  o f two  campers do n o t add t o t h e  accommodation  176  tourists  then  around Penticton. could  centres  season,  i f there  available,  courses  co-ordinated  with service  f a c i l i t y which could  of protective netting,  economy  need  t h e peak  t o o b t a i n accommodation  directed of  the  agency w i t h i n the c i t y ,  be a b l e  the  illustrates  service  users,  JL 1r Sccle : I - 4000  FIGURE 2 1 : LOCATIONS .OF NEEDED IMPROVEMENT^ IN PENTICTON.  LEGEND  6.  T o u r i s t I n f o . Booth Beach c l e a n u p & e x p a n s i o f i T o u r i s t Health C l i n i c Neighbourhood Shopping Area O r g a n i z e d Beach S p o r t s Okanagan R i v e r Recreatici potential Golf course accommodatici P o s s i b l e T o u r i s t Resort Development Zone  allowing  such  industry's  h)  camping  problem  I f further  allowed, or  in  These  areas  landscaped  resort  would  reduce  the  of a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of campers.  large  i tshould  city,  only as a l a s t  o r medium s c a l e  be i n a n a r e a  strictly should  zoned  even  fencing,  or  be  development  slightly  i s  removed  from  "Tourist  Commercial"  enclosed  with a  in  some o t h e r  the  locations  to  be the  areas.  "gateway,"  way t o show a  clear  demarkation.  Figure  21  improvements  shows  Crowding  This  does  occurs  not appear  Undesirable  t o be much o f a p r o b l e m  atracted  which  i n the leisure  occurs  their the  t o the area. areas  seems t o be a n a t t r a c t i o n  pleasant,  needed  or  presence  i f  Environmental  i n P e n t i c t o n d u r i n g t h e summer  they are s t i l l  etc.),  some  t h a t have been d i s c u s s e d .  6.2 P o l i c i e s t o M i t i g a t e Characteristics a)  of  they expect  as  the crowding,  (beaches,  waterslides,  in itself.  c a n add t o t h e s t i m u l a t i o n  178  to tourists,  In fact,  the situation  moment.  months.  I f people  are  t o be p l e a s a n t ,  and excitement  of  However, crowded Beach of less  the crowded  known b e a c h e s , Okanagan F a l l s .  areas  (as mentioned  holders  b)  Lack  too  Road.  (ALR).  An  should  used  be  Aesthetics  accommodation for  development  tourist  Another  option  i n Chapter  would  4.3)  i s getting  residents.  them the  option  o r more s e c l u d e d , Three be  Mile  Beach,  to erect  fenced  for residents  t o be  Without appropriate  preserved  or  a problem,  planning  pass  Channel to join  should  and  establishments  and  architecture  perception Residents,  of the c i t y however,  architecture  be  pedestrian  issue  numbers  Street west  the A g r i c u l t u r a l  up d i f f e r e n t  i s a major  small  of Main  must  year-round.  179  and  Land  and  Skaha  Reserve  cycling  paths  city.  Many  of  i n t h e 1950's  visitors.  "Strip"  developed, r e s u l t i n g for  downtown  developed along the  in Penticton.  of  i t will  benchlands  areas of the  were b u i l t  though  now,  i n the  t h e e a s t and  by  area of parkland River  alike.  Sonoco Beach,  O r c h a r d a r e a s on  Okanagan  visual  beaches,  the southern p o r t i o n  presently  60's  tourist  allow  t o p r e s e r v e a r e a s of open space  along  Lake  c)  a concern to  such as  of open space  late  area,  are  be  only.  not a s e v e r e one. be  can  a r e a s known m a i n l y t o r e s i d e n t s  attending  or  beaches  in  and style  a  tourists  and  live  the design  Until  with  the  poor  residents  the b u i l d i n g  of  of the  Delta  Lakeside  attract  a w i d e r r a n g e of  As  mentioned  development, dining, into  H o t e l , t h e r e was  should  be  account  4.3,  Chapter for  the  in design.  time  and  This guideline could c a l l  including  hidden  unique b u i l d i n g d e s i g n ,  Some c i t i e s For  example,  Antonio,  Policies  a)  An  tourism.  to  has  a  for  number  of  landscaping,  size regulation.  new  Bavarian  theme. T h i s  taken  politicians  f o r any  and  be  or  application  city  pleasing  developments.  theme,  i s not  Penticton,  and  to suggest  but  San a  i t does draw  strategies.  P u b l i c Acceptance  public  relations  program  increase p u b l i c acceptance  Several  P e n t i c t o n and  the  theme f o r t h e i r  a Spanish  to Increase  on-going  parking,  a  developed  to design  6.3  Penticton  be  by  public access,  Kimberley  T e x a s has  theme s h o u l d attention  have  to  tourist  accommodation,  of t h e d e v e l o p m e n t  g u i d e l i n e developed  items,  new  This should  under a p o l i c y planners.  any  recreation,  appealing  at  q u a l i t y accommodation  clientele.  in  whether  no  programs  have  already  have been q u i t e s u c c e s s f u l  180  and  i s needed  in  awareness  of  been  (Keith  tried  in  Bevington,  1986).  A "People P l e a s e r "  1986.  It  was i n i t i a t e d  program was run i n the s p r i n g of  by  the  Chamber  of  Commerce  i n v o l v e d businesses which c a t e r e d to t o u r i s t s . taught employees the b e n e f i t s weekly p r i z e s  of  being  The campaign  friendly  and gave  to people who were e x t r a f r i e n d l y and h e l p f u l .  Another program, which ended i n the s p r i n g of the p r o v i n c i a l "Super Host" program.  This  was  t r a i n i n g program for those i n v o l v e d  in  tourism  Tourism"  industry.  "Partners  p r o v i n c i a l l y funded program.  in  the  I t c o s t shares  marketing s t r a t e g i e s with p r i v a t e case,  and  1986,  was  basically a  hospitality is (fifty  i n d u s t r y through,  or  another percent) in  this  the Okanagan-Similkameen T o u r i s t A s s o c i a t i o n .  A program l i k e year.  "People  Good media coverage  involvement  of s e n i o r s  The f o l l o w i n g example  of  good  Pleaser"  be run every  of the program i s e s s e n t i a l .  and young people  newspaper public  should  article  relations  The  is also necessary.  (Figure 22)  shows an  for P e n t i c t o n ' s  tourist  industry.  b)  Penticton  on  tourist  be  put  to  gains a great d e a l of revenue through  establishments. use  for  taxes  A p o r t i o n of these taxes should  special  projects  181  that would d i r e c t l y  SOMETIMES H A R D T O _  1  ACCEPT r~iri  ness  Tourism essential ,  ,  ,  ^  „..—j_  hotels and campgrounds in Directors of the Penticton Penticton have been dealing Motel Association say it is with the public for many sometimes difficult for Penyears," they said. ..." . ticton residents to accept "Most owners make their that the tourist industry is an homes in penticton and conessential factor in the tribute to community life execonomy of the city. The directors said in a- tensivelyin many areas outnews release that this is par- • side the tourist industry. Because these people directticularly true during certain ly involved with tourists are times of the year when the residents' lifestyles are in- , also residents, they feel it is essential that a good rapport terrupted considerably by be maintained between the influx of holidayers. Directors say the ac-*, 'operators and residents." LON6 HOURS commodation aspect of the tourism business is probably f.\ Directors say it takes a' certain kind of person to the most misunderstood and work the long hours required misinterpreted facet of the , industry that employs about . to keep people coming to 550 people in Penticton. • Penticton and that the "A good percentage of the ' upkeep and maintenance of rooms in Penticton is people operating motels,  generally very good. "The members of the association all agree that pride of ownership is responsible for their good condition and the friendly atmosphere that prevails at their businesses. The industry-is catering to holidayers who' are in Penticton to enjoy the beautiful facilities that Penticton is proud to offer. The association is working hard to maintain a good reputation for its members and the community." OFFICERS NAMED At the annual general meeting of the association held recently, Ursula Uh was elected president. Barry /Wilson is vice-president and Beth Wilson, secretary-  F i g u r e 22.  URSULAUH  . . new president  treasurer. Directors elected for fwo-year terms were Al Webert and Jim Campbell. Elected for single-year terms were Linda Lawrence and Ray McCormick. "With the election of the new officers, the association will endeavor to continue to maintain a good relationship with the residents of Penticton and to offer the tourist industry maximum efficiency in accommodation." The association has a representative on the Penticton Chamber of Com merce and the Convention Bureau and many of the association's members are supporters of the OkanaganSimilkameen Tourist Association.  benefit  the  facilities,  residents. a  theatre,  Projects  walkways,  might or  include  even a  park  property  tax  reduction.  Downtown b e a u t i f I c a t i o n project.  Improvements  use  awnings,  of  storefront  be  These  d)  The  input  into  every  stage  with  by  the  funding  of  the of  tourist  study  a directing  representatives Hotel/Motel  baskets,  with  media and  on  was  worthwhile include  the  landscaping, bus  shelters.  tourist  revenue,  ceremonial  be  5.7.3)  process. be  easier  plaques  i f  bad  i s f o r more  This  there  associated  in general, a  proposal  d e v e l o p m e n t and  should  co-ordinated  with name. public  occur through  at a  office.  recommends a  permanent o f f i c e  c o m m i t t e e made from the  a  obtained.  tourists,  policy  industry  and  funded  (Chapter  planning  be  sidewalks,  t o u r i s m would  problems  important  also  s t r e e t s c a p e might  stone  kind,  incidences give most  This  any  acceptance  policing  it.  central  of  where the  Public  w e r e no  paving  mentioned  describing  c)  the  upkeep, e x t r a l i t t e r  Projects should  to  would  Chamber  Association,  up of  Merchants  183  of  be e s t a b l i s h e d  p o s s i b l y the  Commerce,  mayor,  Peach  Association,  and  Bowl, a  planner  from the  The and  public  should  offer their  committee, opinion  regional  be  encouraged  to  drop  opinions.  I t should  be  up  with  input  surveys,  important policies  to  industry. should  district.  only  from  public  formulate Then, be  adopted  to  the  meetings  some  in true  i n t o the  directing and  policies  democratic  after a  office  public  for  this  fashion,  these  city-wide  referendum  vote.  A  tourist  industry  day-to-day operations tourist  e) In  the  addition  College. jobs  in  the  course  This  been  tourist  education  program.  Programmes s h o u l d resident  to  handle  This  to  be  only  also  inddustry  but  offer outside  initiated  participation  184  in  be  undertaken.  the  people  could areas  a  Okanagan  to  qualify  create  another  - a  in Penticton tourist  the  policy.  program,  through  the  include  future  Host"  help  of  would  formulate  offered  not  many o f  in a l l facets  t r a i n i n g should  would  for Penticton  more  needed  has  course  i n the  also  p r o v i n c i a l "Super  specialty  f)  Penticton.  employee to  could  co-ordination  statistics  Improving  hospitality  for  of  industry  collecting  office  to  specialty  involve  events  and  activities.  These  retirement  programmes  community/  could  sporting a c t i v i t i e s  throughout the y e a r , education students,  involve  and enhancement  programmes  the  and  resident  competitions  with  out-of-town  of c u r r e n t , s u c c e s s f u l  programmes,  l i k e the annual square-dancing jamboree.  6.4  Policies  to A t t r a c t or Expand Tourism  Better u t i l i z a t i o n by  of  existing  promoting more t o u r i s m i n the  facilities  fall,  winter,  c o u l d occur and  spring.  T h i s would e n t a i l promoting areas of a t t r a c t i o n that are not as w e l l known to t o u r i s t s beaches.  Efforts  "Septober"  are  ("Swirling,  as P e n t i c t o n ' s  being  made  sniffing  1983), a time when c o n d i t i o n s are  offered  at  reduced  and  rates,  and  1979.  accommodate  Because advertising,  sipping."  the  to promote 21  August  accommodations fruit  and wine  will  being  where the development  to a t t r a c t s k i e r s  The mountain c a p a c i t y  fall  sun and  The winter months are  promoted f o r s k i i n g at Apex A l p i n e , facilities  the  are uncrowded,  i n d u s t r y are at t h e i r b u s i e s t .  resort  in  hot summer  has been ongoing  eventually  be  of  since  able  to  3,425 s k i e r s a day.  of Ski  the  on-hill  expansion  P e n t i c t o n was o r g a n i z e d .  185  and It  increased  looks  after  the  new  d e s t i n a t i o n s k i e r market  into  Penticton  sent  to  every  hotels  and  by  motels.  t r a v e l agent  booking  ski  Promotional  in British  packages  material  Columbia,  was  Alberta,  and  Saskatchewan.  Events Winter  being  promoted  Breakout Party  impact  of  convention  accentuated British  and  by  the  the  1973,  than  J u l y and  In  to  increase  single the  Penticton  city.  Portland, with  that  of  Various  the  together,  make  an  etc.) an  organization tourist  United  (Ski of  industry effort  the  the  to  The  travel industry  as  in  the  needs  market  include  and  is  (Province  of  arrive  in  off-seasons,  i t  In  eastern  mentioned  186  sell  Seattle,  to  other  C a n a d a , and  Japan.  have t o  for  Chamber  a  collaboration  the  industry will  done by  surrounding  extend  Penticton,  p a c k a g e and  be  Vancouver,  could  package  to  areas  Edmonton.  Penticton  office,  Festival.  delegates  job  promotion  attractive like  the  tourism  States,  components  association,  of  might  this  Mid-  August.  Spokane, Calgary, B.C.,  the  the  eighty-six percent  i n major  areas  include  Blossom  on  promotional  agency  These  Tourism  areas  a  spring  Spring  52)  months o t h e r  would appear  the  activity  fact that  Columbia,  order  in  hotel/motel organize,  vacationers. of  Commerce  i n Chapter Penticton  6.3) and  An  (or  a  might its  facilities  in  conjunction  with  the T o u r i s t and  Convention  Bureau.  Facilities include  some  weekend and  breakfasts by  specialty a  reclamation  If  British  the  type  (indoor  Hawaiian  Iron  enrolled  coverage  specialty The  seeks  1982).  By  programs,  facility,  4,400 to  adding  the c i t y Man  and  area  Man")  and  squash, or  promoted, Capital"  of  tournaments. for  the  the rights  expects  which P e n t i c t o n could centre  on  number  last from  massive  i n 1986.  students  courses  o f many  a l s o bought  event  starting  expand  especially  like  and  racquetball,  available  ("Iron  areas  areas,  include a large  and o u t d o o r ) , were  beach  known a s t h e " R a c q u e t b a l l  Penticton  about  centre  could  a triathalon  As w e l l ,  education.  h o t e l s , o r bed  foreshore  f o r example, and host  years.  Another  shallow  might  establishments,  small, quaint  of s p o r t i n g  become  has hosted  international  of  facilities  Columbia,  city  three  could  tourists  h o t e l s and d i n i n g  Specialties  such  more  the lakeshore), additional  waterslides  Penticton  The  along  particular  tennis.  attract  ( f o r example,  areas.  curling,  would  first-class  hideaways  created  of  which  of  i n 1982  range on  t o do w i t h  187  promote i s  t h e Okanagan  College  ("Penticton  college  of courses."  29  August  business  and  vocational  tourism,  recreation  and  hotel/motel  management,  from a wide a r e a .  Penticton  The motel  attract  students  i n d u s t r y c o u l d be helped i n the  winter months by o f f e r i n g rooms Students  could  as d o r m i t o r i e s to  c o u l d a l s o provide a seasonal  labour  students.  force  i n the  summer.  An area of expansion  which the c i t y of P e n t i c t o n c o u l d  c o n s i d e r to round out i t s  tourist  of  T h i s would, of c o u r s e ,  legalized  only but  gambling.  careful also  c o n s i d e r a t i o n on the p a r t of  much  government  crowd-attracting Penticton  and  is situated climate,  formula  red-tape. could  the  addition  involve  local  well  be  to  several  large  not  residents,  The r e s u l t s  of  this  worthwhile  i n a n a t u r a l l y bordered a r e a , with a  close  to  Penticton desert-like  population centres.  Canadian a l t e r n a t i v e  It  to Reno or Las  The example of A t l a n t i c C i t y and the r e s o r t c y c l e  devleopment  shows the p o s s i b i l i t y of l e g a l i z e d  Atlantic  City  development:  had  expansion,  an  apparent  transition,  of  referendum  efforts to  to  legalize  revitalize casinos  promised that s t a t e revenues  was  City  of  resort decline.  spurred  city.  passed  from casinos  188  cycle  the  of  gambling.  and eventual  The s o c i a l and economic p l i g h t of A t l a n t i c variety  is  the province of B r i t i s h Columbia.  would make an a t t r a c t i v e Vegas.  industry,  when  A it  a  1976 was  were to be devoted  to  p r o p e r t y t a x and  poor.  The  jobs  creation  was  that  also  "the  by  of  artificial  the  of  location for  golden  amenity  will  f o r the  thousand  Stansfield  emphasizing  capital  relief  of twenty-one  involved.  political/cultural  return  bill  revitalization  accomplished  necessary  utility  a  unique  advantage  permanent  (1978,  Atlantic  250) City  (for  which  will  m o d e r n i z a t i o n as  hordes  of  affluent the  and new  concludes can  the  major  supplement  elderly  be  region)  attract  the  well  the  as  tourists...the  natural  amenities  in  f o r s i x months of  the  attracting vacationers."  Penticton year,  could legalize  when t h e d r a w o f n a t u r a l  In  this  at  a  way,  high  facilities  level  and  throughout  gambling  amenities  i s at  i t s lowest.  e c o n o m i c r e t u r n s c o u l d be the  year.  the  work  spread  Summary  Chapter the  policies  situation  It added  in  6 has  taken  developed  of Chapters  i n Chapter  4,  and  applied  that  facilities  2 and  3,  and  them t o  the  Penticton.  i s recommended  to handle  the  large  extra  tourist  189  and  services  p o p u l a t i o n i n the  be  summer.  These c o u l d be u t i l i z e d more e f f i c i e n t l y tourism  d u r i n g other times of  development  should  impacts on the  Aesthetics in  the  past  it  outside  have  will  left  the t o u r i s t  more  large-scale  city  to  reduce  Developments  the c i t y with many p o o r l y designed  character.  physical be e a s i e r  and to  t o u r i s m i s good for them and t h e i r ease c o n d i t i o n s  the  Any  i s a major issue i n P e n t i c t o n .  improving  teristics,  done  year.  promoting  residents.  b u i l d i n g s and l i t t l e  By  be  the  by  environmental convince city.  residents This  of s a t u r a t i o n and make for e a s i e r  i n d u s t r y of  Penticton.  190  characthat  can help  to  growth  in  CHAPTER SEVEN:  This mitigate  thesis  SUMMARY AND  has  the s o c i a l  set  out  CONCLUSIONS  to develop  problems caused  u s i n g P e n t i c t o n , B r i t i s h Columbia to  a)  b)  do s o , s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s  What  i s tourism?  are  these  Is  there  residents to  tourism  If  there  by t h e t o u r i s t as  industry,  an example.  In order  had t o be a n s w e r e d :  What a r e t h e i m p a c t s  of tourism?  How  i m p a c t s measured?  a  point  when t o u r i s m  grow i n t o l e r a n t ?  If  begins  there  d e v e l o p m e n t , how c o u l d is  development there  some p o l i c i e s t o  no  that  limit can  be  would be no p o i n t  to  the  this  is a social be  and limit  identified?  amount  tolerated  i n making  to decline  of  tourism  i n any a r e a ,  policies  then  t o ease the  problems.  Once t h e s e  ideas  were d i s c u s s e d ,  developed  from the l i t e r a t u r e  tourism,  and  development. to  Penticton,  to These a  i n d u s t r y m i g h t be  allow  city  where  approaching.  191  policies  t o ease the s o c i a l  for socially  policies  general  were t h e n  effects  appropriate  were of  tourism  applied s p e c i f i c a l l y  saturation  in  the  tourist  The purpose of t h i s approach to p l a n n i n g for t o u r i s m i s to improve the p l a n n e r ' s a b i l i t y life  in  tourism d e s t i n a t i o n  cities.  The  livability  residents  has been l e f t  developed  here  environment  will  for  to  areas,  of  residents  especially  tourist  largely  help  enhance the q u a l i t y of  to  to  and present  small  destinations  chance.  ensure  in  a  for  The  policies  more  livable  the o p p o r t u n i t y  for  growth to a s o c i a l l y s e n s i t i v e t o u r i s m i n d u s t r y .  To know which  d i r e c t i o n a community wishes to t a k e ,  it  must be d e c i d e d :  a)  whether the community tourist destination,  b)  how to maximize the economic and other advantages tour ism;  c)  how  The  in this  study concentrates  on the  problems  and  that  presents.  In t h i s a  of  to meet the problems presented by the growth development of t o u r i s m .  work  tourism  wishes to become an important and what are i t s o p t i o n s ;  healthy  necessary.  study,  i t was found t h a t ,  resident First,  social  attitude,  i n order to maintain three  things  the p h y s i c a l environment of the  are  residents  must be cared for so they have few or no complaints that can be  blamed  on  the  tourists.  This  192  includes  problems  of  facilities  and  services,  aesthetics,  environmental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  to  residents  acknowledged tourism. reduced  so r e s i d e n t s  and/or  acknowledged.  from  initial  development  capacity,  the Third,  and  additional  proposals  development  publicly from  must be  should  and most  be  important,  stage of  for new developments  s t u d i e s measure the  the to  accessibility  such  the p o t e n t i a l  and the of the  potential  i n terms of resource a v a i l a b i l i t y ,  factors,  development,  benefits  i n every p o s s i b l e  to markets.  study suggest that more a t t e n t i o n  the r e s t  be  implementation.  Most t o u r i s m  tourists,  should  the  benefits  r e a l i z e they are b e n e f i t i n g  to i n v o l v e the r e s i d e n t s  h e l p i n g with  this  tourism  and/or downplayed, while  industry,  for  Second, any  In other words, the c o s t s to the r e s i d e n t s  increased is  from  undesirable  T h i s would a l s o enhance  environment for t o u r i s t s a t i s f a c t i o n . accruing  and  as the  physical  The f i n d i n g s  should  be  paid  l o c a l c a p a c i t y to  of  to  absorb  i n t e r a c t i o n between r e s i d e n t s  integration  of  and  the t o u r i s m i n d u s t r y with  economy.  In d e v e l o p i n g t o u r i s m as a major i n d u s t r y , care must be taken not to exceed c r i t i c a l t o u r i s t - r e s i d e n t which l i m i t h o s t i l e  reactions  are generated  ratios,  among  beyond  residents,  both towards t o u r i s m as an i n d u s t r y and towards t o u r i s t s  193  as  people.  Plans  beyond  which  should have some regard to s a t u r a t i o n the  realization  environmental o b j e c t i v e s  that  have  of  the  (1973)  i n Chapter  saturation  developed of  of  the  in  this  seems thesis  saturation  for l o c a l  residents  2.  by  introducing  to the B r i t i s h Columbia and s o c i a l  the  economy.  importance The  concept  l i m i t s to t o u r i s m was a l s o is  needed  of of  mentioned.  to guide  the  industry.  The methodology city's  or  include an examination  guideline  Chapter 1 noted that more p l a n n i n g tourist  level  approaching  These methods  study began  saturation  social  l e a d i n g to s a t u r a t i o n as e x p l a i n e d by Young  and a review  This tourism  a  given an i n d i c a t i o n  factors  developed  of  methods have been  problems i n P e n t i c t o n .  economic,  would be j e o p a r d i z e d .  Though the measurement unattainable,  of  levels  components  environmental, well-being  and  are  developed very  It  on  the  basis  much i n t e r r e l a t e d .  economic f a c t o r s  of a community.  of p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s literature,  was  can a f f e c t  that a  Physical, the  social  was decided that a programme  c o u l d be developed  from i n t e r v i e w s ,  h i s t o r i c a l d a t a , and o b s e r v a t i o n .  194  the  Chapter 2 examined possible  costs  literature. change, sore"  and  Some  the  concept  benefits  of  the  of  costs  of t o u r i s m and tourism  found  listed in  the  include d i s r u p t i v e  social  d i m i n i s h e d open space and  "eye-  gauging these impacts was developed  i n the  local instability,  development.  A method of form of  "Guidelines for E v a l u a t i n g the S o c i a l Performance of  Tourism Development."  Chapter 3 s t u d i e d a  concept  termed  the concept  developed  "carrying  literature  for  unsatisfactory  i n r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g where  capacity." measuring  because  of s a t u r a t i o n f o r t h i s could  could  predicted  be  approaching  The  methods  saturation  of  immeasurable v a r i a b l e s .  situation  of " s a t u r a t i o n . "  vagueness  found  were  found  and  the  was  it  was  in  the  to  be  use  of  It was concluded that the best study would be to r e a l i z e  as  to  whether  or  by s t u d y i n g the  not factors  use  that such a  happen and should be a v o i d e d .  saturation  It  As w e l l , a  town that  it was  Young  (1973) l i s t e d as l e a d i n g to a " p s y c h o l o g i c a l " s a t u r a t i o n .  Chapter categorizes social  4  once  some  effects  again  policies of  tourism.  examined that  literature  w i l l mitigate  These  195  the  policies  the  and  adverse  deal  with  facilities  and s e r v i c e s ,  the environment,  public  acceptance,  and future expansion of t o u r i s m .  Chapter 5 introduced reviews  the  criterion  s i t u a t i o n there  and  the  of  saturation  problems  infrastructure, tourists  City  tourism  of  P e n t i c t o n and then  i n terms of Young's s a t u r a t i o n  guideline  performance  of  the  for  evaluating  development.  include  Evidence of  pressures  i n r e l a t i o n to the  In Chapter 6, for  mitigate  the  on  social emerging  the  urban  growing c r i t i c i s m of t o u r i s m , sheer numbers resident  i n c r e a s i n g use of land for t o u r i s t - r e l a t e d  used  the  the p o l i c i e s  situation  the adverse  social  developed  in Penticton. impacts  population,  and  uses.  i n Chapter 4 were Measures  in Penticton  used  to  include:  - p l a n n i n g of any new t o u r i s m p r o j e c t s should be i n t e g r a t e d with the p l a n n i n g of a d d i t i o n a l s e r v i c e s and facilities; -  improving sewage d i s p o s a l and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems;  - more r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y residents; -  i n v o l v i n g t o u r i s t s and  large-scale t o u r i s m development should be s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t and segregated from the c i t y ;  - new t o u r i s m development  should be p l e a s i n g  - a central tourism planning lished to handle planning, involvement;  196  largely  in design;  o f f i c e should be e s t a b promotion, and p u b l i c  - special  projects  should be funded by t o u r i s m taxes;  - more p u b l i c input i n t o a l l phases of the industry;  tourism  - promotion of year-round t o u r i s m to b e t t e r facilities.  7•1  Suggestions for Further  Investigation  The methodology of t h i s as not  s a t u r a t i o n and s o c i a l w e l l documented.  i t easier  for future  Further work survey Work  to also  office  t h e s i s was d i f f i c u l t to  is  hoped that t h i s  needs  to be done i n d e s i g n i n g a  future t o u r i s m viable,  simply  investment civic  healthy,  thriving  must  be  and development  i s to both e c o n o m i c a l l y i n t e n t i o n a l l y planned.  and  public  decisions public  c o n t r o l of rather  industry i f  197  it  than  investment  P e n t i c t o n has the p o t e n t i a l tourist  tourist  developments.  development  beautification  monuments and p a r k s .  industry  and to f i n d ways of funding  it  resident  attitudes.  needs to be done to organize a t o u r i s t  Planners and p l a n n i n g p o l i c y must s t r e s s private  study w i l l make  get an accurate a p p r a i s a l of r e s i d e n t  socially  are  researchers.  i n d u s t r y r e s e a r c h and s p e c i a l  and  develop  impact m i t i g a t i o n for t o u r i s m  It  in t o u r i s t areas,  If  use  to have  i s developed  in a in  c o n j u n c t i o n with the wishes and goals of the r e s i d e n t s . mitigatory  policies  developed  to towns s i m i l a r to P e n t i c t o n , factor  i n the  local  The  i n t h i s t h e s i s can be a p p l i e d where  economy.  198  tourism  is  a  major  BIBUQgRAPHX  Archer, Brian H. 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