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Policies to mitigate the social problems caused by the tourist industry : application to Penticton Anderson, David Brian 1987

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POLICIES TO MITIGATE THE SOCIAL PROBLEMS CAUSED BY THE TOURIST INDUSTRY: APPLICATION TO PENTICTON By DAVID BRIAN ANDERSON B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977 THESIS SUBMITTED IN THE REQUIREMENTS MASTER THE FACULTY OF SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF FOR THE DEGREE OF OF ARTS i n GRADUATE STUDIES AND REGIONAL PLANNING We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February 1987 ® David B r i a n Anderson, 1987 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. David Anderson Department of Community and Regional Planning The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 D a t e F e b r u a r y 7.1. 1 QS7  DE-6(3/81) THHEt MILE HO AD , James Si. 3-C Jermyn Ave. 4-C Johnson Rd. 3-B Juniper Dr. 2-F Kamloops Ave. 5-C Kendall Ores. 2-C Kensington St. 3-C Killarney Si. 3-C Kilwinning St. 3-C King St. 3-C Kinney At Edgewood p.. 3-C Ki.Kpauick Ave. 4-E Edmonton Ave. 4.C K ( u g e f P l ;j.B Edna Ave. 4-C Lakeshore Dt. 5-B Ellis St. 4B Lakeside Rd. 3-H Elm Ave. 4-G , a k a v i 6 M t st SB Eraut Si. 4-F Estabrook Ave. 4-B UureTprj-E Evergreen Cl. 2-E Laurel St 3-E Evergreen Cres. 2-E Lawrence Ave. 2-C Evergreen Dc. 2-E Lawrence PI. l-C Fa ir tor a Or. 4-D Lee Ave. 4-G Fairview Hd. 4C Leir St. 3-D Fairway Ave. 5-C Lower Bench Hd. 3-A T.mmins St. 5-C Falcon Cl. 4-E Lower Townley 4-B "Toronto Lyon St. 3-C Forbes SI. 4-B MacCleave Ave. 2-D Tioy Pi. Forestbrook Or. 3-CMacDonald PI. 3-B Troy Ci. Ffasei Cl. 1-C MacDonald St. 3-B * From St. 4-B McCauley PI. 3-B Gahan Ave. 3-C McCullocfi Or. 4-E Gall Ave. 3-E McDougall Ave. 3-E Glen Cres. 1-C McGraw Cl. 4-E Glen PI. 1-C McGraw SI 4-E Gordon Ave. 2-F McGregor Or. 4-E Ponderosa P Power St. 5-B Piustou Am. 4C Quail Riagu fid, t Quml Ridgu P<. F_-Queen St. 3-C /Railway Si. 5-C I Redlanfls Ra. 3t ' Regina Ave. 4-C Rene Ave. 5B Httservoir.Ra. 2-A Revelstoke Avu. : Hidgedale Ave. : Rigsby St. 6-6 Riverside Dr. 6-B Robinson St. 4-B Roolin St. 3-F Rosetown A.c. 3 Ross Ave. 3-0 Roy Ave. 4-E Roy Cf. 4-E Roy PI. 4-E Scott Ave. 4-C Scolia SI. 4-D Secresl Ave. 3-E Secresl PI. 3-E Ska ha Lake Ro. -Skaha Pl. 4-G South Beach Di. Soulh Mam St. 3 Spruce Ra. 3-G Spruce Pl. 3-G Steward Pi. 2D Stevens Cr. 2-E SudBury Ave. 4-G Sumac St. 3-D Sunset PI, 1-C Swill St. 5-6 Sydney St. 6-B Taber Rd. 3 E Tennis St.' St. 3-B Tupper Ave. 3-A Uplands Ave. 3-fc Uplands PI. 3-B Upper Bench Rd Upper Townit/ i Valley View Ro. : Vancouver Ave, -Vancouver PI, 3 -Van Home Si. 4-i Vernon Ave. 5-B Government SI. 3-CMcKeen PI, Granby Ave. 4-D McKenzie Pi. 4-E „,,.„..„.„... Granuy PI. 4-D McKemie SI. 4-E Commercial Way 2-D Grandview St. 3-B McLean Ave. 1-D Como* St. 6-C Green Ave. 4-F McMillan Ave. 2-A Conklin Ave. 4-C Green Ave. E. 3-F McPherson Ave. 2-C WaOe Ai Corbishley Ave. 2-A 9,een C 1 , McPherson Cies. 2-C Walden Cres Cornwall St, 4-F Green PI. 3-F McPherson PI. 2-C ~ " Coify PI- 3-E Greenwood Dr. 3-F M A I N S T . «-B Cossac Ave 4-D S'0*' S r 4 0 ~ Manitoba Si. 3-C Water ford Ave. t Craig Dr. 3-E Guelph Ave, 4-G M a n o r p d f K A v e . 4.0 Waterloo Ave. 4 Cruukside Rd. 3-B Guernsey Ave. 4-B M u p , „ S L 6 _ a W.ilimglon Si Creighlon Cres. 2-D Gwyer St. 4-B Martin St, 4-B Wosimmsiei An Crescent Hill Rd. 3-G Halila* SI. 3-D Matson Ave. 2-C Westminster Pi Creston Ave. 5-B Hansen St. 5-B Maunce St. 5-B Westvie* Dr. 21. 15 Cypress St. 3-G Hastings Ave. « ; Middle Bench Rd. 3-A Westview PI. 2 L Datoe PI. 3-F Hastings PI. 5-C M i l | a r P l 3 .g Weyburn St. 4-C ABSTRACT T o u r i s m has e x c e l l e n t p o t e n t i a l f o r f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l , n a t i o n a l a n d w o r l d e c o n o m i e s . However, t o u r i s t a c t i v i t y a l s o has t h e p o t e n t i a l t o be a s o c i a l l y d i s r u p t i v e f o r c e . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o f i n d w o r k a b l e p o l i c i e s w h i c h p l a n n e r s c a n e m p l o y t o m i t i g a t e t h e s o c i a l p r o b l e m s c a u s e d b y t o u r i s m i n s m a l l c i t i e s . S u c h p o l i c i e s w i l l a l l o w g r o w t h t o t a k e p l a c e i n t h e t o u r i s m s e c t o r o f t h e economy w h i l e r e d u c i n g r e s i d e n t i n t o l e r a n c e o r h o s t i l i t y . B e f o r e p o l i c i e s c a n be d e v e l o p e d , i t must be e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t s u c h p r o b l e m s e x i s t a n d may become c r i t i c a l . T h i s t h e s i s e x a m i n e s t h e t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y a n d i t s b e n e f i t s and c o s t s . The l i t e r a t u r e makes i t c l e a r t h a t t h e r e a r e s o c i a l c o s t s i n v o l v e d i n t o u r i s m a n d a l s o s o c i a l l i m i t s t o t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t . A g u i d e l i n e f o r e v a l u a t i n g t h e s o c i a l p e r f o r m a n c e o f t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t i s u s e d . " S a t u r a t i o n " i s d e f i n e d a s t h e l e v e l o f t o u r i s m a c t i v i t y a t w h i c h t h e r e s i d e n t s i n g e n e r a l f e e l t h a t a n y i i f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e i n t o u r i s t numbers and t o u r i s t - r e l a t e d d e v e l o p m e n t w o u l d be u n d e s i r a b l e . The s o c i a l s a t u r a t i o n l e v e l i s t h e p o i n t a t w h i c h t h e number o f t o u r i s t s c a u s e s r e s i d e n t s t o become i n t o l e r a n t t o t o u r i s t s . S i n c e t h e m e a s u r e m e n t s o f s a t u r a t i o n f o u n d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e a r e u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , v a g u e , and n o t o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d , t h i s s t u d y u s e s i n d i c a t o r s t h a t s u g g e s t c a p a c i t y i s b e i n g a p p r o a c h e d . T h e s e i n d i c a t o r s a r e b a s e d on q u e s t i o n s f o r e v a l u a t i n g t h e s o c i a l p e r f o r m a n c e o f t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t f o u n d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e s p e c i f i c a r e a s o f c o n c e r n w h i c h Young (1973) t h o u g h t l e d t o " p s y c h o l o g i c a l s a t u r a t i o n " o f r e s i d e n t s . C h a p t e r 4 d i s c u s s e s t h e l i t e r a t u r e on p o l i c i e s f o r m i t i g a t i n g t h e a d v e r s e s o c i a l e f f e c t s o f t o u r i s m . T h e s e e f f e c t s r e s u l t f r o m i n a d e q u a t e f a c i l i t i e s a n d s e r v i c e s , u n d e s i r a b l e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , l o w l e v e l s o f p u b l i c a c c e p t a n c e o f t o u r i s m , and l i t t l e p l a n n i n g t o a t t r a c t o r e x p a n d t o u r i s m . Once t h e s e g e n e r a l s t r a t e g i e s have b e e n l i s t e d , t h e y a r e a p p l i e d t o P e n t i c t o n , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . P e n t i c t o n has had a l e n g t h y h i s t o r y a s a t o u r i s t d e s t i n a t i o n a nd t o d a y t h e t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y i s t h e m a i n s t a y o f t h e l o c a l economy. i i i A c c o r d i n g t o D'Amore ( 1 9 8 0 ) , t h e m a j o r p r o s p e c t f o r f u t u r e e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t i n P e n t i c t o n i s t h e f u r t h e r e x p a n s i o n o f a y e a r - r o u n d t o u r i s t t r a d e . Y e t , b y e x a m i n i n g t h e f a c t o r s l i s t e d b y Young ( 1 9 7 3 ) l e a d i n g t o s a t u r a t i o n , a nd r e v i e w i n g t h e q u e s t i o n l i s t f r o m C h a p t e r 2, i t w o u l d a p p e a r P e n t i c t o n i s a p p r o a c h i n g s a t u r a t i o n . C h a p t e r 6 a p p l i e s t h e s t r a t e g i e s d e v e l o p e d i n C h a p t e r 4 t o t h e s i t u a t i o n i n P e n t i c t o n . The p o l i c i e s f o r P e n t i c t o n i n c l u d e : - t h e a d d i t i o n o f e x t r a s e r v i c e s a nd f a c i l i t i e s t o s e r v i c e a much l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n d u r i n g t o u r i s t s e a s o n s ; - i m p r o v e m e n t o f b e a c h a r e a s ; - s e p a r a t i o n o f t o u r i s t a r e a s and d e v e l o p m e n t f r o m t h e m a i n s t r e a m o f t h e c i t y ; - b e t t e r a e s t h e t i c s t a n d a r d s i n b u i l d i n g a r c h i t e c -t u r e ; - p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s p r o g r a m s t o c o n v i n c e r e s i d e n t s t h a t t o u r i s m i s b e n e f i c i a l t o them a n d t h e i r c i t y ; - more p u b l i c i n p u t a t a l l p l a n n i n g s t a g e s f o r t o u r i s m p o l i c y a n d d e v e l o p m e n t ; - s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s f u n d e d by t o u r i s m r e v e n u e ; - g r e a t e r e x p a n s i o n o f t h e t o u r i s t s e a s o n i n t o t h e f a l l , w i n t e r , a nd s p r i n g months t o b e t t e r u t i l i z e e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s a n d g a i n w i d e r a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e i n d u s t r y a s a y e a r - r o u n d j o b p r o d u c e r . i v T h e r e h a s b e e n a n i m p l i c i t a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e e n d s o f t o u r i s t s a n d i n v e s t o r s a r e more i m p o r t a n t t h a n p u b l i c w e l f a r e . R e c e n t l y , v a r i o u s f o r c e s have been a c t i n g t o p l a c e i n c r e a s i n g i m p o r t a n c e on e n v i r o n m e n t a l g o a l s i n s t e a d o f s t r i c t l y e c o n o m i c g o a l s . I f f u t u r e t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t i s t o be b o t h e c o n o m i c a l l y a nd s o c i a l l y v i a b l e , I t must be i n t e n t i o n a l l y p l a n n e d . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e v i t a l n a t u r e o f t h e i n d u s t r y t o c i t i e s l i k e P e n t i c t o n a nd t h e e q u a l l y v i t a l n eed t o p r e v e n t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f n e g a t i v e r e s i d e n t - v i s i t o r i n t e r a c t i o n s , m ethods have been i n v e s t i g a t e d t o m a i n t a i n a b a l a n c e b e t w e e n t h e i m p a c t s o f t o u r i s m a n d t h e a b i l i t y o f l o c a l s t o d e a l w i t h t h e s e i m p a c t s . I n c o n c l u s i o n i t was d e c i d e d t h a t p l a n s s h o u l d be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n i n t e r m s o f t r a v e l l e r f a c i l i t i e s ( s u p p l y ) , o f t h e m a r k e t (demand), a n d o f s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s . P l a n s s h o u l d have some r e g a r d t o s a t u r a t i o n l e v e l s b e y o n d w h i c h t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l o b j e c t i v e s w o u l d be j e o p a r d i z e d . F u r t h e r work n e e d s t o be done i n s e v e r a l a r e a s : - f i n d i n g ways o f f u n d i n g t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y r e -s e a r c h ; v - o r g a n i z i n g t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y o f f i c e s i n t o u r i s t a r e a s t o c e n t r a l i z e a l l a s p e c t s o f d e v e l o p m e n t , p r o m o t i o n and p l a n n i n g ; - d e s i g n i n g a r e s i d e n t s u r v e y t o a c c u r a t e l y a p -p r a i s e r e s i d e n t a t t i t u d e s ; - i m p r o v i n g m e t h o d o l o g y t o i n c r e a s e l o c a l p a r t i c i -p a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s o f a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y . P l a n n i n g f o r t o u r i s m c a n be done by p r i v a t e e n t r e p r e n e u r s by means of f a c i l i t y d e v e l o p m e n t and p r o m o t i o n ; by government p l a n n i n g , s u c h as l a n d use c o n t r o l s , p u b l i c d e v e l o p m e n t s , and o v e r a l l p r o m o t i o n o f a d e s t i n a t i o n ; o r b y a c o m b i n a t i o n o f government a g e n c i e s and p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e . v i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A b s t r a c t i i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s v i i L i s t o f T a b l e s x i L i s t o f F i g u r e s x i i C h a p t e r 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 1.1 P u r p o s e 5 1.2 The C o n t e x t 6 1.3 J u s t i f i c a t i o n 9 1.3.1 R e a l w o r l d 9 1.3.2 A c a d e m i c 10 1.3.3 P u b l i c P o l i c y 17 1.4 M e t h o d o l o g y 18 1.4.1 M a c r o - p h i l o s o p h y 18 1.4.2 T e c h n i q u e s 19 1.5 Scope a n d L i m i t a t i o n s 21 1.6 O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e T h e s i s 23 Summary 24 C h a p t e r 2 T o u r i s m 26 2.1 D e f i n i t i o n 26 v i i Page 2.2 L i t e r a t u r e 28 2.2.1 I n t e r n a t i o n a l T o u r i s m 29 A. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f I m p a c t s .... 29 B. F a c t o r s o f C o n c e r n 33 C. S u c c e s s f u l D e v e l o p m e n t s 40 2.2.2 D o m e s t i c T o u r i s m 43 2.3 T o u r i s m I m p a c t s 53 2.3.1 B e n e f i t s 53 2.3.2 C o s t s 55 2.3.3 M e a s u r e m e n t o f I m p a c t s 57 2.4 Q u e s t i o n s f o r E v a l u a t i n g t h e S o c i a l P e r f o r m a n c e o f T o u r i s m D e v e l o p m e n t 59 Summary 61 C h a p t e r 3 S a t u r a t i o n 63 3.1 D e f i n i t i o n 64 3.1.1 C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y a n d R e c r e a t i o n P l a n n i n g 64 3.1.2 S a t u r a t i o n a n d T o u r i s m P l a n n i n g .. 71 3.2 M e a s u r e m e n t o f S a t u r a t i o n 84 3.3 M e a s u r e m e n t o f S a t u r a t i o n U s e d I n T h i s S t u d y 88 Summary 90 C h a p t e r 4 P o l i c i e s t o M i t i g a t e t h e A d v e r s e S o c i a l E f f e c t s o f T o u r i s m 91 4.1 P l a n n i n g f o r T o u r i s m 92 4.2 L i t e r a t u r e 99 v i i i Page 4.2.1 P o l i c i e s t o M i t i g a t e P r o b l e m s o f I n a d e q u a t e F a c i l i t i e s a n d S e r v i c e s 99 4.2.2 P o l i c i e s t o M i t i g a t e P r o b l e m s o f U n d e s i r a b l e E n v i r o n m e n t a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ... 106 4.2.3 P o l i c i e s t o I n c r e a s e P u b l i c A c c e p t a n c e 109 4.2.4 P o l i c i e s t o A t t r a c t o r E x p a n d T o u r i s m 119 Summary 124 C h a p t e r 5 T o u r i s m i n P e n t i c t o n 126 5.1 L o c a t i o n 126 5.2 B r i e f H i s t o r y 130 5.3 Economy 133 5.4 P e n t i c t o n ' s P o p u l a t i o n 135 5.5 O r i g i n o f T o u r i s t s 137 5.6 Community P l a n 137 5.7 A d v e r s e S o c i a l E f f e c t s o f T o u r i s m i n P e n t i c t o n 141 5.7.1 L a n d Use 142 5.7.2 Employment L e v e l s 147 5.7.3 U r b a n I n f r a s t r u c t u r e 149 A. P o l i c e and F i r e S e r v i c e 149 B. H o s p i t a l and H e a l t h S e r v i c e s . 155 C. W a t e r S u p p l y and E n v i r o n m e n t a l Q u a l i t y 156 D. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 158 5.7.4 S p e c i a l P o p u l a t i o n G r o u p s 159 i x EsLSe 5.7.5 P s y c h o l o g i c a l S a t u r a t i o n 160 5.8 P e n t i c t o n - A p p r o a c h i n g S a t u r a t i o n 162 5.8.1 R e v i e w o f t h e " Q u e s t i o n s f o r E v a l u a t i n g S o c i a l P e r f o r m a n c e .... 165 Summary 167 C h a p t e r 6 P o l i c i e s t o M i t i g a t e t h e  A d v e r s e S o c i a l E f f e c t s o f T o u r i s m i n P e n t i c t o n 169 6.1 P o l i c i e s t o M i t i g a t e P r o b l e m s o f I n a d e q u a t e F a c i l i t i e s a n d S e r v i c e s 170 6.2 P o l i c i e s t o M i t i g a t e U n d e s i r a b l e E n v i r o n m e n t a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 178 6.3 P o l i c i e s t o I n c r e a s e P u b l i c A c c e p t a n c e 180 6.4 P o l i c i e s t o A t t r a c t o r E x p a n d T o u r i s m 185 Summary 189 C h a p t e r 7 Summary & C o n c l u s i o n s 191 7.1 S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r I n v e s t i g a t i o n 197 B i b l i o g r a p h y 199 x L I S T OF TABLES T a b l e Page I A c c o m m o d a t i o n F i g u r e s f o r 1 9 5 3 , 1974, and 1986 143 I I L a b o u r F o r c e S t a t i s t i c s 147 I I I P o l i c e I n c i d e n t s F o r P e n t i c t o n : 1985 - J u n e , 1986 148 I V F i r e D e p a r t m e n t C a l l s , 1985 150 \ x i L I S T OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1 H y p o t h e t i c a l E v o l u t i o n o f a T o u r i s t A r e a 3 2 M e x i c o s e t s o u t t o woo t o u r i s t s 11 3 T o u r i s t L u r e S e t A b r o a d 12 4 New t o u r i s m image n e e d e d , M u r t a s a y s ... 13 5 P o o r t o u r i s t p l a n n i n g c i t e d 14 6 T o u r i s t i n d u s t r y n e e d s p l a n n i n g 15 7 B e n n e t t t o u t s t o u r i s t t r a d e o v e r f o r e s t r y a s j o b c r e a t o r 16 8 T h e s i s C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n 21 9 L e t t e r f r o m H a w a i i ' s R e e f H o t e l s 112 10 M a j o r P o p u l a t i o n C e n t r e s W i t h i n a 400 M i l e R a d i u s o f P e n t i c t o n 127 11 P e n t i c t o n ' s L o c a t i o n R e l a t i v e t o t h e R e s t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 128 12 P e n t i c t o n 129 13 P o p u l a t i o n o f P e n t i c t o n : 1951 - 1981 .. 136 14 Community P l a n o f P e n t i c t o n 140 15 T o u r i s t R e s o u r c e s o f P e n t i c t o n 145 16 Mob h u r l s r o c k s , b o t t l e s a t M o u n t i e s i n P e n t i c t o n 152 17 R i o t i n g y o u t h s s t o n e t r a f f i c 153 18 R i o t t o r n c i t y t o g e t t o u g h 154 19 160 j a i l e d i n P e n t i c t o n 154 x i i Figure Page 20 Skaha Area Improvements 175 21 Locations of Needed Improvements in Penticton 177 22 Tourism es sent ia l c i t y business 182 x i i i CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION Tourism revenue reached $2.3 b i l l i o n in B r i t i s h Columbia in 1984, and is the t h i r d largest revenue generating industry in B r i t i s h Columbia (Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, B r i t i s h Columbia: Facts and Sta t i s t i c s , . 1986). The t o u r i s t industry in B r i t i s h Columbia has excel lent potent ia l for further development, e s p e c i a l l y considering the q u a l i t y and v a r i e t y of natural and man-made a t t rac t ions that are a v a i l a b l e . Tourism is considered clean and renewable compared to other resource-based indus tr i e s . However, t o u r i s t a c t i v i t y has the potent ia l to be a s o c i a l l y d i srupt ive force . Wherever tourism develops, l o c a l residents may be expected to exhib i t a c e r t a i n s e n s i t i v i t y to the pace and scale of t o u r i s t a c t i v i t y . As tourism grows, r e s i d e n t - v i s i t o r tensions or c o n f l i c t s may develop. Eventual ly , tourism may l e v e l off and decl ine i f t our i s t s perceive a d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the experience. Tourism is an industry which uses the community as a resource, s e l l s i t as a product, and, in the process, a f fects the l i ve s of everyone. 1 The saturat ion l e v e l in the growth of the t o u r i s t industry occurs when the costs of tourism to the residents outweight the benef i t s . Exceeding th i s l e v e l w i l l have detrimental e f fects upon the host populat ion, the v i s i t o r population and even upon the industry in general , s ince an unfr iendly atmosphere w i l l reduce an area's a t t rac t iveness . The concept of sa tura t ion , to be discussed in more d e t a i l l a t e r , is important because i t i d e n t i f i e s s o c i a l l i m i t s to tourism development. A t , or before th i s l i m i t , steps are needed to contro l tourism. Of course, i f the industry in any area could be developed knowing the condit ions which could lead to sa tura t ion , then an order ly and healthy growth would be more poss ib le . V i s i t o r s i n i t i a l l y come to an area in small numbers, r e s t r i c t e d by lack of access, f a c i l i t i e s , and knowledge about the area . As f a c i l i t i e s are provided and awareness grows, v i s i t o r numbers w i l l increase. With marketing, information dissemination, and further f a c i l i t y p r o v i s i o n , the area's popular i ty w i l l grow r a p i d l y . Eventual ly , the rate of increase in v i s i t o r numbers w i l l decl ine as l eve ls of sa turat ion are reached. These leve ls can be i d e n t i f i e d in terms of environmental factors ( e . g . , t ranspor ta t ion , accommodation, other s e r v i c e s ) , or of s o c i a l factors ( e . g . , crowding, resentment by the l o c a l populat ion) . As the 2 attract iveness of the area decl ines r e l a t i v e to other areas, because of overuse and the impacts of v i s i t o r s , the actual number of v i s i t o r s may also eventual ly decl ine (But ler , 1978), as shown in Figure 1. FIGURE 1: HYPOTHETICAL EVOLUTION OF A TOURIST AREA The t o u r i s t industry can introduce other problems that stem from the very nature of the industry: i t has a short , two month season with a peak summer period which prevents f u l l e s t u t i l i z a t i o n of c a p i t a l investments; i t provides mostly supplementary employment which is intermittent and of 3 low pay; i t i s s ens i t ive to the ups and downs of the cont inent 's economy and even to weather; and i t s returns are uncerta in . The problems are more noticeable in small towns where tour i s t s s i g n i f i c a n t l y increase the population s ize at any time of the year. In a c i t y the s ize of V i c t o r i a , large numbers of v i s i t o r s can be e a s i l y absorbed into the c i t y . The largest concentration of hotel rooms in the world i s in New York c i t y ; tourism is a s i zab le part of the c i t y ' s economy (Lundberg, 1976, 150). Yet, there are never more t o u r i s t s in New York C i t y than res idents , so the residents never get that "over-run" f e e l i n g . One c i t y in B r i t i s h Columbia where the saturat ion l eve l might be near is in Pent ic ton. Situated in the heart of the Okanagan V a l l e y , with a population of about twenty-three thousand persons, i t has had a lengthy h i s t o r y as a t o u r i s t des t inat ion area . Today, the c i t y is economically dependent upon the industry . The inflow of v i s i t o r s has had numerous ef fects upon resident l i f e s t y l e and there is increasing evidence that the saturat ion l e v e l i s near. 4 1.1 Purpose The o v e r a l l purpose of th i s study is to f ind workable p o l i c i e s which planners can employ to mitigate (make less severe) the s o c i a l problems caused by tourism in small c i t i e s . These p o l i c i e s w i l l then be i l l u s t r a t e d using the s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n in Pent ic ton. Put simply, the underlying thesis i s : Soc ia l problems can be caused by the t o u r i s t industry . What are the problems and how can they be mitigated? These problems are f e l t by t o u r i s t s , res idents , investors , and government o f f i c i a l s (elected o f f i c i a l s , planners, p o l i c y makers). The main concern of th i s thes is is to develop a t h r i v i n g t o u r i s t industry that w i l l cause the least discomfort to res idents , with a maximum economic gain and healthy growth p o t e n t i a l . To develop p o l i c i e s to stop the problems from occurring or increas ing , d i scuss ion w i l l include the fo l lowing: a) the concept of "tourism", inc luding costs , benef i t s , and the ir measurement; b) methods employed to deal with the s o c i a l problems caused by tourism in other areas of the world; c) the concept of "saturat ion." This i s important because saturat ion is what must be avoided. It w i l l be explored as a measurement of the upper l i m i t s of l o c a l tolerance 5 to tourism. An understanding of Penticton as a c i t y in a s o c i a l , economic and environmental sense is e s sent ia l to th i s study. It i s in th i s way that the saturat ion point for the c i t i z e n s of Penticton can be understood, since i t is a combination of factors which leads to the l i m i t s of l o c a l tolerance to tourism. Once i t has been ascertained that there are problems caused by tourism in Pent ic ton, and that the resident saturat ion l eve l is being approached, then the general p o l i c i e s developed from the l i t e r a t u r e can be employed to a l t e r the s i t u a t i o n . A major contr ibut ion to th i s study w i l l be an organizat ion of the l i t e r a t u r e on tourism impacts and sa turat ion . This has not been done in a c l e a r , concise manner in any of the ava i lab le l i t e r a t u r e . It w i l l not be necessary in th i s study to prove that the saturat ion point has been reached, only that i t is being approached. 1.2 The Context The areas covered by th i s thes is have been touched on in numerous other studies found in the l i t e r a t u r e . There are studies of tourism (some of which mention costs and 6 benef i t s ) , t o u r i s t s , and marketing and development s t ra teg i e s . The subject of saturat ion leve ls in tourism planning is seldom mentioned and needs further research. Another area lacking research is in the so lu t ion to many of the negative impacts c i t ed as being evident in the t o u r i s t industry . This thes is w i l l gather ex i s t ing knowledge on tourism and saturat ion condit ions and ref ine i t in a c lear and concise manner. The r e s u l t w i l l be to offer p o l i c y proposals to a id in the development of s o c i a l l y appropriate tourism development for small towns experiencing large influxes of t o u r i s t s . Penticton w i l l be used as an example of such a c i t y . A study done in 1980 by L . J . D'Amore concluded that saturat ion was being approached in Penticton and offered some general guidel ines to be followed for s o c i a l l y appropriate tourism development in B r i t i s h Columbia. However, D'Amore did not deal s p e c i f i c a l l y with improving the t o u r i s t industry in Penticton nor did he offer an o v e r a l l plan of t o u r i s t development. Spec i f i c p o l i c i e s which might help Penticton and other small t o u r i s t towns w i l l be developed in th i s thes i s . 7 An emphasis w i l l be placed on s o c i a l problems, rather than environmental or economic, though the l a t t e r two w i l l great ly a f fec t s o c i a l condi t ions . Soc ia l impact i s defined as "the change in the a c t i v i t y , i n t e r a c t i o n , or sentiment of a u n i t . . . as i t responds to the changes on i t from the surrounding environment and the resul tant changes which occur due to the inter-dependent re la t ionsh ips of the s y s t e m . . . . A project w i l l a l t e r one or more of these elements in the units to d i f f e r i n g degrees, and those changes w i l l in turn a l t e r other elements and units" (Soderstrom, 1981, 11). Various s o c i a l indicators can be used to measure s o c i a l impacts. They can be both q u a l i t a t i v e or quant i ta t ive . Determining the s ign i f i cance of impacts i s u l t imate ly a p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n , but s o c i a l jus t i ce t e l l s us that those reaping benefits should bear the costs . The D'Amore study was the c losest attempt found in the l i t e r a t u r e of deal ing sys temat ica l ly with the problems of tourism. This study w i l l bu i ld on th i s and e a r l i e r s tudies . 8 1.3 J u s t i f i c a t i o n 1.3.1 "Realworld" The work in th i s thesis deals with a r e a l problem. Rajotte (1982, 76) explains "resident f r i end l ines s is an important determinant of both des t inat ion se l ec t ion and p o s t - v i s i t s a t i s f a c t i o n by t o u r i s t s . Even more impressive to many is the power of res ident h o s t i l i t y to destroy an establ ished v i s i t o r industry ." For example, Clevendon (1979, 74) wri tes , "it is abundantly c lear that the reasons why misunderstanding of, or by, t o u r i s t s may lead to resentment on the part of some of the host population is imperfect ly understood." Rajotte (1982, 256) f e l t that "urgent research is needed to e s tab l i sh the c r i t i c a l r a t i o between tour i s t s and res idents , beyond which point hos t i l e react ions are generated among res idents ." Tourism is very important to the C i t y of Penticton but there are problems associated with i t as evidenced by resident surveys, a government study ( L . J . D'Amore, 1980), and several " r i o t s . " In th i s study, suggestions w i l l be made to enhance the e f f i c i e n c y and s o c i a l l y appropriate growth of the t o u r i s t industry . 9 More importance is placed on the t o u r i s t industry in general , as i t s economic importance increases (Figures 2, 3, 4 are examples of t h i s ) . It is c lear that planning is needed to guide i t . The newspaper a r t i c l e s on the fol lowing pages i l l u s t r a t e th i s point (Figures 5, 6, 7). 1.3.2 Academic A problem has been i d e n t i f i e d (lack of p o l i c i e s to mitigate s o c i a l problems caused by the t o u r i s t indus try ) , various impacts w i l l be s tudied , research through l i t e r a t u r e and interviews w i l l be undertaken, and p o l i c i e s w i l l be developed to help ease the problem and provide some r a t i o n a l planning for tourism development. The concept of t o u r i s t saturat ion l eve l s and t h e i r measurement in the f i e l d of tourism research is r e l a t i v e l y new. A study of sa turat ion is he lp fu l in order to know what would happen i f the problems of tourism (overcrowding, l o c a l into lerance , e tc . ) were simply ignored. This study w i l l gather information from in ternat iona l and domestic l i t e r a t u r e and make a l i s t of impacts. From t h i s , a l i s t of questions w i l l be developed to a id in evaluat ing s o c i a l l y appropriate t o u r i s t development. 10 * ThcI ' rOVil ieC Sunday, April 6,1986 _ Mexico sets out to woo tourists Newhouae New* Service MEXICO CITY — President Miguel de la Madrid of Mexico recently proclaimed a revolutionary, no-holds-barred policy to attract more visitors to his country. He is trying to stop the nation's terri-ble economic slide, which has been greased by falling international oil prices. It probably was the first time in history that the leader of so substantial a country, in a nationally televised speech, publicly placed tourism among his top priorities. Here is what de la Madrid's "Tourism Action Program" could mean to travel-lers: • Less expensive vacations. • Expanded air service from more gateways and to more destinations in Mexico. • More vacation packages to more places. • More security and aid for visitors. • More gas station services for motor-ists driving their own cars. • Upgraded services at hotels and res-taurants. "This is the most significant, compre-hensive and far-reaching policy concern-ing tourism in our country's history " said Guillermo Grimm, Mexico's under-secre-tary of tourism, in spelling out de la Madrid's new program. One of the first government orders was for its national air carriers (Aeromexico and Mexicana) to come up with a wide range of promotional programs, including hotel as well as airfare rates, that will result in 20-per-cent to 40-per-cent price reductions. While much of the new program con-cerns the air, land and sea haven't been overlooked. "We're going to correct one of the major problems motorists driving across the border have been running into — the lack of unleaded gasoline," Grimm said. Now more than 100 gas stations, "strate-gically located" along main tourist roads, will have unleaded gasoline available. Other improvements include: • Increased service by the Green Angels Highway Patrol to help motorists in distress. • A faster response system for the cur-rent tourist hotline, which offers 24-hour-a-day aid anywhere in Mexico for visitors who telephone 250-0123. Mexican government wants to make the country more appealin 1 F i g u r e 2. T O U R I S T L U R E S E T A B R O A D The federal and provincial gov-ernments will join in a $375 million campaign to sell Canada to the rest of the world. The campaign, along with the creation of an advertising council, involving the private sector, to ad-vise on a coordinated approach to marketing Canada internationally, was announced here Wednesday by federal Tourism Minister Jack Murta. The announcement came at the close of a conference of tourism ministers. The agreement sets out the basis for co-operative roles and responsi-bilities in the public and private sector. The industry, which had a.bad year in 1983, now generates $20 billion annually and employs 600,000 people. It has been growing at an annual rate of eight per cent for the past decade. "It's not that the industry is de-clining," Murta said. "It's not growing as fast as it can." A year ago, the federal govern-ment took a look at the tourism in-dustry and felt it needed more di-rection, greater cooperation and more focus on advertising of spe-cific product lines, Murta said. The $375 million in subsidiary agreements will help the private JACK MURTA . . . S375-million campaign sector develop a broader range of tourism attractions over the next five years, he said. Murta said a budget of $19 million is earmarked to promote tourism in the U.S. on three major campaign themes of Canada as an old world, a wild world and a new world. "Largely, the Americans don't see us (as a tourist destination) at all," Murta said. A market survey of 9,000 people interviewed for an average of 30 minutes showed only • one in 50 Americans who planned to travel indicated they'd come tp< Canada. "We have to beef up our advertis-ing. They like our culture and they see us as comfortably different. But they have no idea we have safe world-class cities and restaurants and Canada doesn't generally pro-mote the difference in the dollar," he said. ., F i g u r e 3 12 C16 & §Un TUES.,OCTOBER8,1985 ***C OTTAWA (CP) — Americans are not as thrilled with our moose and moun-tains as the Canadian tourism indus-try once thought and that means a whole new marketing strategy iS i needed to lure them north on holidays, says Tourism Minister Jack Murta. , ' "They are not as taken up with our wilderness experience, you know the Rockies and the mountains and all this, as we had once thought;" Murta; said in an interview Monday. These findings — the results of a study based on 9,000 ih-home inter-views with Americans— will be avail-able to tourism industry members starting today when a huge computer database full of market information is unveiled at a federal tourism confer-ence. ' :-;-.-..;/'^ V Murta said the database represents the first time people have had access to such a huge source of tourism infor-mation and it will help the $20 billion a year industry grow. More than 600*000-people are directly employed in about. 60,000 tourism businesses, most of them small, in Canada. F i g u r e 4, He said the fesultslpf the U.S: plea-sure travel study show some of the 61c assumptions Canadians have- had about their country's attractions have1 been wrong.' ;••' •;-,. "One of things we've found out is! that they don't think a lot about us at any time, which is a problem," said Murta; "When they do, they have a tendency to think we're a bit dulla We're friendly but dull." • f ; | : Details of the study will be made public at the conference. : \ ./Thefederal tourism department, inl •| cooperation with provincial govern--I ments, will analyse the study results to come up with better advertising strategies designed to sell Canada to the American market. , •• ;•-.>; 4 "An attribute we've,got that we're going to be marketing in a more posi? tive way is the fact that we've got cos| mopolitancities, world-class cities up here in Canada. That's not generally; thought of by the Americans. And the cities are safe, which is a very big aw traction for many many tourists at.thtj ! present time;"" y- < Murta said most of the large feder ' tourism marketing budget will b spent in the United States and he wil travel extensively there in the nexl few months to market Canada. I Although Canada's tourism, indus trythas had respectable growth ovei the last, decade — it grew eight pei ceht from 1975 to 1985 — it has laggec . behind the world tourism industrj vjhich grew 13: per cent during the ..teperwd^he: s a i d ^ ^ ^ J | | 13 CONSULTANTS REPORT TO VICTORIA , VICTORIAN ^  row planning by the provincial government and low qual-ity aecoinmodation and ;jservicea"are;: hampering ; the B.a tourist iatoistiy/: ; says a report ou the isdos^ -ltiy prepared bytmieee» £ gnittegflmtfi, ^ i ^ j ^ r ^ G .The stodysaystlat if i- toorism, touted as B.C.'s third industry after forest-ry and mining, is to keep ; growing, - the current emphasis ::%/on>"' the automobileHarienterltra-1 veDerwiflhavetochange tourist Diannin 195 •P. The report was prepared' The report says much of by Marshall Maeklin Monaghan LUL, Stevenson and Kellogg and LJ. Tftr moor and Associates/who were asked last April tor velopedVin the come up with a develop-- 1960s and " '' strategy for the next ^  20 yetors and to draw op plans tor nine tourist re-;1 gions. •; The pYovincfal govern- "proacn '!- ment hasnot gtfren tourism c development, "the attenUonit deserves, % .the study says oat, be-:| the study saysJV^^v- eause vacation prefer-The B.C\ government /enciesare changing,it.may I has bounced/the toorism be unwise to concentrate B.C.'s existing tourist fa-cilities developed, m' re-sponse to -the astrmiobfle» * based market thaC de-' and" concent trated along nufjor roads; V' \ , It says tb/highly com-; petitive td'urism industry ; demand/ a stronger ap-to planning and. portfolio from ministry to • ministry, deprived it of I .staff and had-lt c o » & . ;trate mostly on research, r [ marketing and. promotion; ; 'while neglecting long-term • planning and development, j 'thefinna'aayH?"*'^ '^?' f C After noting that most. ': tourist attractions are et:; | tAer on Vancouver Island or in the soutbwestera cor-ner of B.C., the repbrtsay* services and accoinmoda- -. tion elsewhere is generally i "The ac'coinmodation ; ; base of the remainder of-the province, with the [ exception of the regional ' urban centres such as : Kamloops and "Prince George, can best be de-scribed as fragmented, unorganized and substand-vard in relation to other "' competing areas of Norm America.- ~: -.-;-. - > [ "Similarly, the visual i appeal of several urban f centres throughout the ! province is very low due to | haphazard or poorly-plan-• ned mam highway routes," -itsayv F i g u r e 5 . on improvement of exist-ing facilities. Instead, inte-grated all-season resorts are the type of facility - needed fbrtnefrture ? , The study says tourism provides 5.4 per cent of the gross provincial product, ' compared to seven per cent for mining and 20 per • cent for forestry. v : ; . ? . 7 , There are about 10,000 tourism businesses in B.C. employing about 04,000 people. The industry paid about $200 million in provmciaftaxesin 1978. 14-If tourism is to become a full-fledged, reliable part of the Canadian economy, gov-ernment had better start taking, it. more seriously. Too little attention is paid to proper funding of tourism ministries or to i^ntegrated planning with other depart-ments. . The Vancouver: Board of Trade has told Ottawa, that national tourism promotion should be taken out of government hands arid given to private enterprise. Whether ; private enterprise could do a much better job is open to speculation. Much more is involved, than promoting, scenery or sports or festivals. We are running a huge travel deficit and being thrashed in the competition of world tourism. And that seems to us to call for government involvement -> The British Tourism Authority in private hands is doing a good job. Yet only last ) month the Confederation of British Industry complained, that government efforts on 4 tourism have not kept pace with its grow-ing importance. . That's the problem.in Canada, especially B.C. Tourism is B.C.'s second or third lar-gest private sector industry. Yet the tour-ism ministry has an $85-million budget — 0.1 per cent of the provincial budget There seems to be no hand on the tiller: Take a simple.example. Much road signing in B.C. is confusing to travellers. Turn-off arrows are often found beyond the actual tumoff, too late for the unwary driver. Other-similar problems, could: easily be listed. ; " Tourism involves economic planning, tax policy, transportation, promotion and: development of entertainment and cultural policy and, not least, firm supervision of the. travel agency business to protect tour-ists. Those imperatives.cover a number of ministries, yet there is little sign of coordi-nation either in Ottawa or Victorian It's too big a job for private enterprise alone. What is needed is more government guidance on what to do about the problems in tourism. "- .-jW' V Japan has integrated tourism through an inter*ministerial council covering con-struction; environment, agriculture, for-estry, labor, international trade and indus-try and. economic planning. As in so many other ways,, the Japanese have shown the way with tourism too. •. ;.. ... F i g u r e 6 . 15 A 14 SUR THURS.,SEPTEMBER5,1985 • • * > Bennett touts tourist trade over forestry as job creator By LISA FITTERMAN Sun Victoria Bureau - 1 « WHISTLER — Tourism will soon over-i take forestry as the province's "number j one industry," Premier Bill Bennett said I Wednesday. It is time, he said, to turn B.C. into a ;.world-class "destination resort" that is -.known for more than just the timber in-'< dustry and undeveloped scenery. | The premier made his comments dur-: ing the signing of a partnership agree1 '.ment with the municipality of Whistler. It was the 50th agreement the provincial 1 government signed since introducing the partnership program last March. Bennett, here to attend cabinet and cau-cus meetings and to open the Whistler convention centre on the weekend, said . the prediction of first spot for tourism | doesn't bode ill for the forest industry. "I wouldn't read anything negative into ! what I said." t But even highly-industrialized, wealthy 'countries such as Japan have recognized that tourism will be the money-making in-I dustry of the future and the answer to a high demand for employment, he said. The province must become a "large and diverse area where, we can have both summer and winter recre-ation that gives you year-round stability," he said. MOWAT "That's what we have to do — at-tract the type of in-dustry that's com-patible with our environment and at the same time, create employment for our people." Tony Shebbeare, vice-president of for-ests and environment for the Council of Forest Industries of B.C., agreed B.C. should not rely on one industry. But he .said it is too early to write off forestry. "I wish him all the best. I have abso-lutely nothing against tourism. But we've done our best to keep the forest industry a viable one. Through the recession, we have become more efficient. Don't count us out. We will continue to be an impor-tant industry for a long, long time." The whole question of job creation was a hot topic for conversation during the 11-hour Socred caucus meeting, said caucus chairman Doug Mowat. "What we are seeing is the government looking at jobs as a No. 1 priority," he said. "There will be job creation pro-grams announced in the next year and these will be long-term permanent jobs." Caucus said they also discussed the timing of a provincial vote, although the premier said Tuesday he, hasn't thought about an election. It has been widely speculated the Socreds will try to capitalize on publicity surrounding Expo 86, despite having more than 2Vi years remaining in their mandate. There is also speculation Bennett might shuffle his cabinet before a brief fall sit-ting of the legislature. Several senior ministers have hinted that they might not seek re-election and some caucus mem-bers say this would be a good time for the premier to give new cabinet members some exposure before the election. F i g u r e 7. The study of saturat ion w i l l show how the concept has been adopted for tourism planning from work in recreat ion planning. A method for measuring saturat ion w i l l be examined. Some general p o l i c i e s w i l l be derived from the l i t e r a t u r e . These p o l i c i e s w i l l then be appl ied to the s i t u a t i o n in Pent ic ton . From t h i s , some comments on the ent ire tourism industry and i t s s o c i a l problems can be s tated. Though planning for tourism is not undertaken to a great degree in th is province, the topics of concern covered in th i s study could help to form a basis for further academic study of the tourism industry . 1.3.3 Publ ic P o l i c y It has been recognized from the l i t e r a t u r e , by events in Penticton (seasonal overcrowding, resident a t t i t u d e s ) , and government commissioned studies (D'Amore, 1980), that there are problems associated with the t o u r i s t industry . Methods of a l l e v i a t i n g these problems could lead to p o l i c i e s useful to planners and other affected groups in promoting a healthy t o u r i s t industry for v i s i t o r s and residents a l i k e . 17 These p o l i c i e s could be used for other t o u r i s t s i tuat ions in B r i t i s h Columbia, or further a f i e l d , e s p e c i a l l y where v i s i t o r s outnumber l o c a l res idents . Since tourism is such an important and growing part of the B r i t i s h Columbia economy, research and planning for th i s industry should be great ly strengthened to give the province more of a competitive edge. 1.4 Methodology 1.4.1 Macro-philosophy Though very l i t t l e s p e c i f i c work has been done on the subject of s o c i a l problems caused by the t o u r i s t industry , some help is ava i lab le from the l i t e r a t u r e . The idea that major problems could be caused by the t o u r i s t industry was overlooked in most studies because of the great economic expectat ions. For the most part , the methodology w i l l be a deductive narrowing of problems i d e n t i f i e d through observations and interviews, with an a p p l i c a t i o n of some planning p o l i c i e s that could at least p a r t i a l l y resolve or mitigate problems. 18 Phys ica l and s o c i a l problems are very much i n t e r r e l a t e d , as described below: We are coming to comprehend the c i t y as an extremely complex s o c i a l system, only some aspects of which are expressed as phys ica l bui ld ings or as l o c a t i o n a l arrangements. As the p a r a l l e l , we are coming to understand that each aspect l i e s in a r e c i p r o c a l causal r e l a t i o n to a l l others, such that each is defined by, and has meaning only with respect to i t s r e la t i ons to a l l others . As a resu l t of th i s broadened conception of the c i t y system, we can no longer speak of the phys ica l c i t y versus the s o c i a l c i t y or the economic c i t y or the p o l i t i c a l c i t y or the i n t e l l e c t u a l c i t y . We can no longer d i s soc ia te a phys ica l b u i l d i n g , for example, from the s o c i a l meanings that i t c a r r i e s for i t s users and viewers from the s o c i a l and economic functions of the a c t i v i t i e s that are conducted within i t . If d i s t inguishable at a l l , the d i s t i n c t i o n is that of const i tuent components, as with metals comprising an a l l o y . . . . Planning for the l o c a t i o n a l and phys ica l aspects of our c i t i e s must therefore be conducted in concert with planning for a l l programs that governmental and non-governmental agencies conduct (Webber, 1968, 299). The interrelatedness of a c i t y ' s components is the basis of the methodology of th i s thes i s . Structures , high d e n s i t i e s , economic condi t ions , and a changed environment can af fec t the s o c i a l wel l -being of a community, leading to s o c i a l problems and "psychological" sa tura t ion . 1.4.2 Techniques The techniques which w i l l be employed include: 19 a) a l i t e r a t u r e review to f ind background to the subject of tourism, i t s problems, and any appl icable programs which have been t r i e d to enhance the potent ia l of th i s industry . b) interviews with people employed in po tent ia l problems areas, inc luding p o l i c e , h o s p i t a l , f i r e , and environmental spokesmen. Planners from the Regional D i s t r i c t of Okanagan-Similkameen w i l l a lso be interviewed. Since i t i s often "lay" views that are important in terms of psychological costs , interviews with "the man on the street" w i l l also be conducted. c) two surveys have already been done in Pent ic ton. In 1971, and again in 1975, questions were posed regarding the future of tourism for the area . The resu l t s of these were not thorough but are included as add i t i ona l evidence of res ident a t t i t u d e s . d) a programme of planning p o l i c i e s w i l l be determined from interviews, the l i t e r a t u r e , h i s t o r i c a l data, and observat ion. This study was conceptualized by r e a l i z i n g there were problems with tourism in Pent ic ton. A general look at 20 tourism was then followed by a look at the problems of tourism (impacts and sa tura t ion ) . From t h i s , some general p o l i c i e s w i l l be developed to mitigate the s o c i a l problems caused by tourism. A s p e c i f i c study of Pent icton's problems with the t o u r i s t industry is then followed by an a p p l i c a t i o n of the general p o l i c i e s to the s i t u a t i o n in Penticton (Figure 8). FIGURE 8: THESIS CONCEPTUALIZATION P e n + i c t on ourism impacts _ saturation General S peci £ic f« or Problems in Perdictorv Sources: L i t e r a t u r e Interviews 1.5 Scope and Limitat ions This study draws together information on in ternat iona l and domestic tourism problems and develops p o l i c i e s to 21 mitigate the s o c i a l problems. Since s o c i a l problems are in t erre la t ed with environmental, p h y s i c a l , and economic, a l l of these areas must be examined. Once the p o l i c i e s have been developed, they can then be appl ied to the s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n in Pent ic ton . The general p o l i c i e s for s o c i a l l y appropriate tourism development should be appl icable province wide at the minimum, and poss ib ly throughout North America and even beyond. At present there i s no tourism development plan as such for Penticton or B r i t i s h Columbia. This study could provide some input into such a p lan . There are two basic l imi ta t ions to th i s study. The f i r s t i s that there has not been a recent , comprehensive surrvey done in Penticton on resident a t t i tude towards tourism. Such a survey would be c o s t l y and time consuming. The questions would have to be very pointed in order to discover the exact reasons for the fee l ings (pos i t ive or negative) that a resident might have. The second l i m i t a t i o n to of s p e c i f i c information on a l l problems. It would appear unrecognized by a l l l eve ls of th i s study is the general lack ev ia t ing t o u r i s t caused s o c i a l to be an area conveniently p a r t i c i p a n t s . 22 1.6 Organization of the Thesis This thes is w i l l begin by examining tourism, inc luding i t s costs and benef i t s . The l i t e r a t u r e study w i l l d i f f e r e n t i a t e between in ternat iona l and domestic tourism. Chapter 3 w i l l examine the concept of sa tura t ion . Can saturat ion be measured? What happens when the costs to the residents exceed the benefits? Chapter 4 w i l l look at p o l i c i e s or methods of mit igat ing the adverse s o c i a l e f fects of tourism from the l i t e r a t u r e , both domestic and i n t e r n a t i o n a l . Some general p o l i c i e s w i l l then be proposed. Chapter 5 w i l l deal with tourism in Pent ic ton, inc luding i t s present f a c i l i t i e s and programs. A b r i e f h i s tory of Penticton w i l l be included to a id in understanding economic and s o c i a l patterns of growth up u n t i l the present. The adverse s o c i a l e f fects of tourism in Penticton w i l l be examined, with an estimation of the l e v e l of sa tura t ion . Chapter 6 w i l l apply the p o l i c i e s developed in Chapter 4 to the s i t u a t i o n in Pent ic ton. 23 Chapter 7 w i l l summarize and conclude the thes i s . Summary Chapter 1 introduced tourism as an important, growing industry with immense potent ia l and promise. However, there are problems associated with i t that are not very well understood or not well documented. These problems have to do with tourism as a s o c i a l l y d i srupt ive force . The o v e r a l l purpose of th i s study is to f ind some workable p o l i c i e s which planners can employ to mitigate the s o c i a l problems caused by tourism in small c i t i e s . In order to address th i s purpose, several contr ibutory items w i l l have to be s tudied: a) the descr ip t ion of "tourism", tourism's impacts, and how these impacts are to be measured; b) the concept of "saturation" and how i t is to be measured; c) the development of some general p o l i c i e s to avoid negative tourism impacts and sa turat ion; d) the t e s t ing of these measurements and p o l i c i e s on a c i t y with a tourism industry . 24 The t e c h n i q u e s u s e d t o d e v e l o p t h e s e p o l i c i e s and e x p l o r e t h e c o n t r i b u t o r y c o n c e p t s w i l l be l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w s , i n t e r v i e w s and p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n . 25 CHAPTER TWO: TOURISM Before studying problems caused by the t o u r i s t industry , i t i s e s sent ia l to understand what "tourism" i s . The object ive of th i s chapter is to review the work of various researchers in order to accumulate an o v e r a l l view of the problems associated with tourism. Some of the researchers' proposals for successful tourism are also included; however, these w i l l be dealt with in more d e t a i l in Chapter 4. Chapter 2 begins by def in ing "tourism" and then reviews l i t e r a t u r e on in ternat iona l and domestic tourism. A l i s t of benefits and of costs due to tourism are then derived from the l i t e r a t u r e . F i n a l l y , a l i s t of questions is developed as a method of organizing some of the s o c i a l impacts of t o u r i s t development. The l i s t can also be used as a guidel ine to e s tab l i sh the s o c i a l performance of the tourism industry in t o u r i s t des t inat ions . 2.1 D e f i n i t i o n The concept of tourism is d i s t i n c t from recreat ion in that recreat ion does not necessar i ly imply t r a v e l . 26 Tourism in a l l cases involves two elements: a dynamic one - the journey; and a s t a t i c one - the s tay. This implies the removal of a person away from his habitual place of residence and his stay in another l o c a t i o n . This stay or removal is temporary and is motivated by a search for personal pleasure in the shape of r e s t , re laxat ion and self-improvement (Matley, 1976, 2). From the above c r i t e r i a , i t is c lear that a l l movement does not const i tute tourism. Anyone taking up permanent residence or paid employment in another town or country is not a t o u r i s t but a migrant. Migrant or seasonal labor is a lso c l e a r l y d is t inguished from tourism. Elements of recreat ion and of t r a v e l are , thus, contained in tourism. There are two basic d i s t i n c t i o n s drawn in tourism. In domestic tourism, people t r a v e l outside the i r normal domicile to other areas within the country. They normally f ind i t easy to do so because there are usua l ly neither language (Canada is one of the exceptions) nor currency nor documentation b a r r i e r s . "When people t r a v e l to a country other than that in which they normally l i v e , and which is a separate nat ional unit with i t s own p o l i t i c a l and economic system, they are involved in in ternat iona l tourism" (Burkart and Medlik, 1981, 43). The di f ference between domestic and foreign tourism depends on the extent to which the country v i s i t e d 27 has a d i f f e r e n t language, a d i f f e r e n t currency, and whether obstacles to free movement ex i s t between the country of residence and the country v i s i t e d . Both v a r i e t i e s are quite s i m i l a r in problem areas. Domestic tourism is harder to contro l and involves greater seasonal i ty . 2.2 L i t e r a t u r e For purposes of organizat ion , the l i t e r a t u r e study of tourism problems w i l l be div ided into in ternat iona l and domestic sec t ions . Since the problems are very s i m i l a r , pert inent information on impacts can be extracted from e i ther s ec t ion . As there i s more l i t e r a t u r e on in ternat iona l tourism, i t w i l l be organized into three sub-sect ions . The f i r s t sub-sect ion w i l l i d e n t i f y and discuss the impacts of tourism. The next part w i l l discuss some of the factors of concern to tourism development and reasons for res ident resentment. The f i n a l sub-sect ion w i l l document some ideas for successful development. 28 2.2.1 Internat ional Tourism U n t i l perhaps twenty years ago, tourism was seen as a pos i t ive economic step, e s p e c i a l l y in Third World countr ies . It provided needed currency but more subtle s o c i a l changes were not addressed. Authors such as Young (1973), Bosselman (1978), and Turner and Ash (1975) popularized d iscuss ion of tourism impacts and the p o s s i b i l i t y of c o n t r o l l i n g negative e f f ec t s . Young discussed tourism capaci ty e x p l i c i t l y by arguing that emphasis should be placed on how many v i s i t o r s want to , or can be, persuaded to come to an area. A. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Impacts An example of some impacts caused by the t o u r i s t industry are evident in F i j i (Rajotte, 1982). Tourism placed environmental demands on the land, foreshore, freshwater supplies and on the capaci ty of the environment for waste d i s p o s a l . To contro l coastal resource a l l o c a t i o n in F i j i , l o c a l planners recommended an inventory of land resources be undertaken inc luding a l t e r n a t i v e uses. "Setback l ines" for coastal development were encouraged as were construct ion phase gu ide l ines . It was f e l t , in th i s example, that contro l of the phys ica l environment would cause fewer s o c i a l problems and a heal th ier t o u r i s t industry . 29 Bosselman (1978) also takes th i s phys ica l approach. In Jerusalem, tourism o f f i c i a l s , seeking to achieve numerical goals , persuaded municipal au thor i t i e s to give away publ ic parks to hotel developers who were allowed to destroy the appearance of the c i t y . The changes were caused by the random sca t t er ing of subsidies and incentives together with the e f f ec t ive removal of planning c o n t r o l s . Bosselman f e l t that well-planned tourism could , in fac t , help both to j u s t i f y and safeguard the q u a l i t y of the environment. Aside from both the pos i t ive and negative economic aspects of tourism, there are external diseconomies created. These can be tangible ( i . e . , p o l l u t i o n , congestion, s t r a i n of amenities) and intangible ( i . e . , corros ion of l o c a l va lues) . Bryden (1973) feels that the possible growth of resentment towards t o u r i s t s could develop from residents f ee l ing depr ivat ion compared to v i s i t o r consumption patterns . While tourism can provide substant ia l economic benefits above and beyond the economic costs , numerous s o c i a l costs or e x t e r n a l i t i e s are imposed on people who are penalized for benefits accruing to others . Desirable ef fects might include generation of scarce foreign exchange ( in the nat ional economy), increased economic and development 30 growth, and increased employment. These benefits could be offset by damage to the environment ( i . e . eros ion, p o l l u t i o n , des truct ion and mismanagement), misa l locat ion of resources, uncontrol led and d i srupt ive s o c i a l change, l o c a l i n s t a b i l i t y , minimization of s o c i a l welfare, and negative effects on l o c a l cul ture (Internat ional Geographical Union Working Group, 1974). Although the intended purpose and use of tourism development i s general ly p o s i t i v e , the s o c i a l benefits and costs of tourism development must be determined in order to evaluate i t s performance. The development of a resort within or adjacent to an ex i s t ing population centre could r e s u l t in major changes in the s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n over time. A c q u i s i t i o n of land, development of accommodation, transportat ion and other t o u r i s t s erv ices , poss ible re loca t ion of, or r e s t r i c t i o n s upon l o c a l people, s i g n i f i c a n t employment of l o c a l s , and penetration into l o c a l markets can be expected to take p lace . Spat ia l penetrat ion, and thus frequent contact with loca l s because of the presence of large numbers of t o u r i s t s s taying for considerable periods , and t r a v e l l i n g over wider areas, are also l i k e l y . Local involvement i n , and dependence upon, the t o u r i s t industry are l i k e l y to be at a high l e v e l , and react ion and change in the s o c i a l arrangements almost inev i tab le ( Internat ional Geographical Union Working Group, 1974, 85). A committee in Honolulu ( F a r r e l l , 1982) i d e n t i f i e d two categories of major problems for Waik ik i : inadequate 31 f a c i l i t i e s and services ( e . g . , s t ree t s , transport , r ecrea t ion , beaches and s o c i a l services) and undesirable environmental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( e . g . , crowding, lack of open space and poor ae s the t i c s ) . The problems, the 1970 committee s a i d , arose from inappropriate zoning, inadequate planning, p o l i t i c a l inact ion and e r r o r . F a r r e l l emphasizes that since the residents have a much greater commitment to the Hawaiian Islands than e i ther investors or v i s i t o r s , a care fu l study of t h e i r needs is much more important than those of the others . The resident must deal with the l a s t i n g consequences of poorly planned development while v i s i t o r s and the industry enjoy a mobi l i ty that allows them to escape an unpopular s i t u a t i o n . In the future, current problems on Maui may i l l u s t r a t e th i s po in t . Hodge-podge development, over-dependence on tourism, sewage system problems, lack of affordable housing, an inadequate water supply, mounting crime l e v e l s , congested roads, and the problem of energy might eventual ly dr ive t o u r i s t s and investors away. The encounter between t o u r i s t and host i s character ized by i t s t r a n s i t o r y nature, constra ints in time and space, and re la t ionsh ips that are both unequal and lacking in 32 spontaneity. For the t o u r i s t , the tour i s t -hos t encounter is not only b r i e f but i t is a lso a unique event in the year. Whereas for the host, i t i s simply one of a ser ies of encounters that fol low one another almost throughout the whole year - a l l of them equal ly b r i e f and s u p e r f i c i a l . Residents are more l i k e l y to bu i ld up a general l i k i n g or d i s l i k i n g for t o u r i s t s than are t o u r i s t s for res idents . This is because f i r s t - t i m e v i s i t o r s often do not have enough time to decide whether they l i k e residents as a c l a s s . The most f r i e n d l y behavior would be expected from people who fee l they have something economically to gain from the t o u r i s t s , but who do not fear the complete loss of the i r l i v e l i h o o d by an occasional d i sp lay of honest, personal d i s l i k e for p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l s . B. Factors of Concern This sect ion reviews the l i t e r a t u r e on factors which may cause some of the negative impacts of tourism. Factors encouraging or discouraging f r i e n d l y in teract ions are (Rajotte, 1982): a) scale of tourism - mass tourism has impersonal encounters; b) types of tourism - i f the res ident people themselves — t h e i r cu l ture or h i s tory - - are a major t o u r i s t 33 a t t r a c t i o n , a larger proportion of the t o u r i s t s w i l l a r r i v e with interes t and respect for l o c a l people; c) phys ica l i s o l a t i o n of t o u r i s t s - th i s acts as a b a r r i e r to any type of i n t e r a c t i o n ; d) length of stay - short-term v i s i t o r s do not c u l t i v a t e an interes t in the i r hosts; e) novelty of t o u r i s t s - res idents grow less interested as they grow used to having t o u r i s t s around; f) t o u r i s t transience - there is l i t t l e motivation to adapt behaviour i f t o u r i s t s do not expect to re turn; g) s o c i a l norms of the p a r t i c u l a r country on f r i end l ines s to s trangers . The largest s ingle cause of l o c a l , a n t i - t o u r i s t f ee l ings , according to Rajotte , is resentment over the gradual appropriat ion of economic benefits and d e c i s i o n -making by ex terna l ly based corporations or nat ional government agencies. The process of s o c i a l change induced by t o u r i s t development is re lated to the tour i s t s themselves and the ir a c t i v i t i e s , and those involv ing the des t inat ion area and i t s populat ion. The fol lowing l i s t s explain the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the v i s i t o r s and the des t inat ion area that a f fec t s o c i a l impacts in a community. These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are important factors as a basis for recognizing and categor iz ing impacts. 34 a. V i s i t o r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i ) Number of v i s i t o r s - a small number of v i s i t o r s in a large l o c a l population w i l l have r e l a t i v e l y few, i f any, impacts and r e s u l t in l i t t l e change. Actual numbers of v i s i t o r s as a percentage of res idents , both at any one time, and over a hol iday season, i s therefore a major v a r i a b l e ; i i ) Length of stay of v i s i t o r s - the longer any one v i s i t o r is in an area , the greater the l i k e l i h o o d of his making a deeper penetration into the l o c a l area - s p a t i a l l y , economically and s o c i a l l y ; i i i ) Rac ia l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of v i s i t o r s - the impact w i l l be greater with increas ing dif ferences in race , cu l ture , r e l i g i o n and appearance between the t o u r i s t and the l o c a l populat ion; iv) Economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t o u r i s t s - "the greater the di f ference in economic leve ls between the t o u r i s t s and the l o c a l populat ion, the greater i s l i k e l y to be resentment and desire for equa l i ty , poss ib ly r e s u l t i n g in demands for economic and p o l i t i c a l , i f not s o c i a l , change in the l o c a l area" (Internat ional Geographical Union Working Group, 1974, 85); 35 v) A c t i v i t i e s of t our i s t s - the amount of contact between t o u r i s t s and the l o c a l people is often determined by t o u r i s t a c t i v i t i e s . Water a c t i v i t i e s and sunbathing might re su l t in minimal contact , while tour ing , s ight -see ing and a c t i v i t i e s needing l o c a l assistance may re su l t in extensive contact . b. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Dest inat ion Area i ) Economic development of the area - an area in an advanced state of economic development w i l l experience less impact of tourism than an area with a pr imi t ive economy. In addi t ion to i t s impact on incomes, tourism af fects the range, pr ice and q u a l i t y of goods and services ava i lab le for consumption. i i ) Level of l o c a l involvement in tourism - there may be minimal economic benefit for loca l s i f the development has been conducted by outside agencies or companies. The opportunity for contact with t o u r i s t s might also be reduced. i i i ) S p a t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s for contact between loca l s where the t o u r i s t development with, l o c a l settlements rather of development - opportunit ies and tour i s t s w i l l be greater is part of, or contiguous than separated from them. 36 iv) Strength of l o c a l cul ture - an area with a strong l o c a l c u l t u r e , inc luding i t s own language, is p o t e n t i a l l y better able to withstand the impact of a foreign cul ture than an area with few unique or c lear c u l t u r a l t r a i t s . The strength of l o c a l cul ture is great ly affected by the degree of i s o l a t i o n from other cul tures ( e . g . , remote P a c i f i c i s l a n d s ) . v) Other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s - distance between the des t inat ion and o r i g i n areas has been i d e n t i f i e d as an a d d i t i o n a l factor in explaining the l eve l of impact of tourism with the hypothesis suggested that the shorter the distance involved, the less l i k e l i h o o d of c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t or change. The process of s o c i a l change, induced by char-a c t e r i s t i c s of v i s i t o r and des t inat ion area, i s f e l t by the residents of the des t inat ion area . The process can be a l t ered by changing c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (such as economic development and the l e v e l of l o c a l involvement). This i s eas iest to do with the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the des t inat ion area since a r e l a t i v e l y stable population and a f ixed area would be more convenient to deal with than changing the type of v i s i t o r . 37 A study of Hawaii by F a r r e l l (1982) concluded that continuing agr i cu l ture is e s sent ia l to a healthy t o u r i s t industry; that the p u b l i c , the government and the operators are together co-equal components of the t o u r i s t industry; that successful tourism can be expected in the future only i f the publ ic i s deeply involved in every facet of planning and d i scuss ion; and that baseline research, continuous monitoring and the se t t ing of l i m i t s must be done now. Loukissas (1982), in a study of the Greek Is lands, concluded that factors such as the l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l capaci ty to absorb development and the potent ia l in terac t ion of loca l s and t o u r i s t s should be considered in the making of t o u r i s t p o l i c y . Clevendon (1979) found that the lower and middle c lasses were supportive of the promotion of tourism development because of i t s economic gains. On the otherhand, the upper c lass tends to be against excessive and uncontrol led development because of i t s s o c i o - c u l t u r a l and environmental costs . He a lso suggests that more at tent ion should be paid to factors such as the l o c a l capaci ty to absorb development, the potent ia l in terac t ion between loca l s and t o u r i s t s , and the in tegrat ion of the tourism industry with the rest of the economy. 38 Hovinen (1982) feels that the magnitude of possible future decl ine is influenced by r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n , d i v e r s i t y of the t o u r i s t base, and effect iveness of planning. The report by UNESCO (1976) points out the ease with which the economist can deal with the q u a n t i f i c a t i o n of the advantages of the s o c i a l impact of tourism. These advantages include jobs created, the c i r c u l a t i o n of income from tourism, the development of community in fras truc ture and f a c i l i t i e s , the favourable ef fects on the standard of l i v i n g , and the improvements in working condi t ions . However, as soon as th i s s o c i a l impact enters the non-economic spheres, i t is only possible to evaluate i t q u a l i t a t i v e l y . When discuss ing future development of tourism, or problems of ex i s t ing tourism development, the l i t e r a t u r e c l e a r l y points out four main factors of concern: a) economic - seasonal employment, higher prices for residents on land and commodities, d i s t r i b u t i o n of income; b) environmental - p o l l u t i o n , w i l d l i f e habitat des truc t ion , construct ion ef fects on the land and scenery; c) publ ic concern a) access to recreat ion and amenities - congestion; b) in fras tructure - u t i l i t e s , t ransportat ion; 39 d) s o c i a l values - erosion of l o c a l t r a d i t i o n ; - housing; - t rans ient ( t o u r i s t ) / r e s i d e n t i n t e r a c t i o n ; The t o u r i s t / r e s i d e n t in t erac t ion and o v e r a l l res ident a t t i tude to tourism are shaped by a l l the other factors in addi t ion to some dependent var iab les on the res ident . These might include the res ident ' s a b i l i t y to i n t e r a c t , motivation to i n t e r a c t , and perceptions of t o u r i s t s (Rajotte, 1982, 81) . C. Successful Developments Bosselman (1978) explains that the two goals establ ished for Mexican tourism were (1) increased economic y i e l d from tourism; (2) a higher q u a l i t y of l i f e for the r u r a l peasantry. These e f for t s involved land-use planning, p o l i c y co -ord ina t ion , contro l of development and integrated regional s o c i a l and economic s t ra teg i e s . This strategy was t r i e d at Cancun and was l a r g e l y success fu l . The Mexicans did not want another unplanned Acapulco. The R i v i e r a of southern France i s renowned for tourism, but is too expensive, crowded and po l lu ted . Untreated sewage i s dumped into the sea. There are massive t r a f f i c jams and l i t t l e parking. Bosselman compared two regions in 40 France where R i v i e r a . communities were planned as a l t ernat ives to the Languedoc, on the Mediterranean, west of the Rhone River , shows that even when there is planning for t o u r i s t development, i t does not ensure a harmonious r e l a t i o n s h i p between development and environment. Bosselman feels th i s lack of harmony can often be a t t r ibuted to pressure put on the planners to produce quick v i s i b l e r e s u l t s . The Aquitaine region of France, on the southwest corner of the A t l a n t i c coast , was developed on a small scale consistent with the type of development that had existed in the past . Development was d irected to the least e c o l o g i c a l l y sens i t ive areas and water q u a l i t y of lakes was protected by s t r i c t regu la t ion . The plan s trongly encouraged mult iple use of the nat ional forests for recrea t iona l purposes. The Aquitaine example shows that a successful development must simply be sens i t ive to l o c a l environmental and s o c i a l concerns. F a r r e l l (1982, 54) l i s t s Waik ik i , Poipu Beach, Kai lua - Kona and Hi lo as examples where "no complex is planned in r e l a t i o n to i t s neighbours and, o v e r a l l , the ent ire d i s t r i c t usual ly lacks manageable 41 coherence. Such regions make for high bu i ld ing and human dens i t i e s , unaesthetic design, and l imi ted recrea t iona l faci1 i t i e s . " F a r r e l l feels that , except for locat ion and associated phys ica l amenities, there is a degree of sameness which may s t i f l e character in large-sca le pro jec t s . In smal l - sca le developments, no matter how b i g , l o c a l people c i r c u l a t e as a matter of course because i t is a l l part of the i r town. This does not happen to the same extent in large , planned unit developments. Hudman (1978), ignoring the element of character mentioned by F a r r e l l , proposes a strategy for t o u r i s t growth involv ing the development of s p e c i f i c and planned areas as t o u r i s t development centers . This protects other areas from adverse t o u r i s t impact. The resu l t s of th i s s trategy are the l i m i t a t i o n of c u l t u r a l impact to a few areas, and a r e l a t i v e l y s tab le , growing economy in areas not d i r e c t l y affected by tourism which provide goods and services to the t o u r i s t development centers . Some research shows that l e i sure communities w i l l be div ided into competing groups, one which favors the expansion of recreat iona l f a c i l i t i e s ranged against those 42 who seek to l i m i t commercial a c t i v i t y . These c o n f l i c t i n g views are l i k e l y to be a r t i c u l a t e d in e l ec t ions , annexation, zoning ac t ions , referendum, and land-use dec i s ions . The outcomes of these decis ions w i l l determine the scope and nature of growth in the community. 2.2.2 Domestic Tourism Research re lated to the s o c i a l e f fects of domestic tourism, e s p e c i a l l y in North America, has been l i m i t e d . This may be due to a concentration on the more dramatic e f fects seen in exotic des t inat ions . A study by Brian Archer (1978) explored the p o l i t i c a l , c u l t u r a l , s o c i a l and moral, environmental and con-s e r v a t i o n a l , and economic ef fects of domestic tourism. Archer f e l t that by t r a v e l l i n g to other parts of the same country, people could begin to experience pride in the i r nat ional heri tage , then a sense of nat ional uni ty could help to prevent reg ional fragmentation. One of the s o c i a l e f fects which Archer mentions is that many of the s o c i a l conventions and constra ints imposed upon t o u r i s t s in t h e i r home areas are absent when they v i s i t another region and, as a consequence, t h e i r moral behaviour can deter iorate without undue censure. 43 Archer found that many of the problems associated with domestic tourism are re la ted to the degree of i n t e n s i t y of tourism development. Overcrowding reduces the value of the hol iday experience and creates a d d i t i o n a l s t r a i n for the res ident populat ion. In extreme cases, l o c a l people may be barred from enjoying the natural f a c i l i t i e s of the ir own region. Archer f e l t that sound planning could overcome these problems. In many countr ies , for example, beaches remain l arge ly under publ ic ownership and private development is severely r e s t r i c t e d . In other areas, s treets have been closed to vehicular t r a f f i c during the daytime and turned into pedestrian areas for v i s i t o r s and residents a l i k e . Excessive and badly planned tourism development also af fects the phys ica l and c u l t u r a l environment of the hol iday areas. In many areas the uncontrol led commercial e x p l o i t a t i o n of tourism has produced unsight ly hotels of a l i e n design which intrude into the surrounding c u l t u r a l and scenic environment. In such cases, the a r c h i t e c t u r a l design has been planned to meet the supposed wishes of the v i s i t o r rather than to blend into the l o c a l environment (Archer, 1978, 130). Many of the disadvantages of tourism can be offset by high q u a l i t y planning, design and management and by educating 44 t o u r i s t s to appreciate the environment. Some of the money spent by t o u r i s t s in the region can be used to conserve and improve the natural man-made heri tage . From the point of view of a region's economy, Archer explained that domestic tourism is a form of i n v i s i b l e export. The expenditure of money by v i s i t o r s from other regions creates a flow of money into the area . This is analogous to the flow of foreign currency received by a nat ional economy from in ternat iona l t o u r i s t s . The money spent by t o u r i s t s creates a d d i t i o n a l employment and higher incomes within the hol iday area, and, in most cases, through the m u l t i p l i e r e f f ec t , the benefits are d i f fused widely through the regional economy. To provide f a c i l i t i e s for v i s i t o r s from other areas, investment in in fras truc ture i s required and much of th i s may benefit v i s i t o r s and residents a l i k e . The growth of tourism may also provide a monetary incentive for the continuance of many l o c a l c r a f t s , while the t o u r i s t hotels may create a market for l o c a l produce, p a r t i c u l a r y milk and vegetables. A 1980 study by Cheng points out some s o c i a l impl icat ions of too much tourism development. It offers lessons to Canmore, Alberta from Banff 's experience. Adverse change has been f e l t in Banff owing to continued 45 tourism development. In response, more t o u r i s t s and residents have been seeking accommodations in Canmore. Some centres become known as t o u r i s t towns; others are towns with tourism because the t o u r i s t industry is only one of many industr ies that may be accommodated in a population centre . Its r e l a t i v e importance to the l o c a l economy determines i t s degree of impact on the phys ica l and s o c i a l environment and on the way of l i f e . Therefore, gradual expansion in the number of t o u r i s t services and f a c i l i t i e s has the po tent ia l to a l t e r subt ly the s o c i a l environment, owing to the in f lux of people, both s ta f f and v i s i t o r s , that i t engenders. As the population s h i f t s , community values and object ives may change (Cheng, 1980, 73). Cheng goes on to say that change is often d i f f i c u l t to pinpoint because t o u r i s t developments are of varying magnitude, and new services and f a c i l i t i e s may be phased in incremental ly as they are completed. The changes in the s o c i a l environment may not be t i ed to a s p e c i f i c development but may r e s u l t from the cumulative e f fect of incremental change. Control or co-ordinat ion could contro l incremental change with a management body ( i . e . , publ ic agnecy, private a l l i a n c e or a combination of people from the publ ic and private sectors) empowered to make decis ions on o v e r a l l tourism development. Cheng discusses changes that have occurred in the s o c i a l environment of Banff without d i s t i n g u i s h i n g s p e c i f i c 46 tourism impacts from those that accrue to growing population centres with tourism development. Tangible changes include: a) Congestion - a "no-hurry" mood by the tour i s t s accentuates the f r u s t r a t i o n for people with errands or time cons tra in t s . Banff residents have learned adaptive behaviour patterns . They reduce t h e i r journeys downtown, time the i r necessary t r i p s to coincide with rhythmical l u l l s in v i s i t o r use, use lanes and back s treets for faster access by car or foot, and park in r e s t r i c t e d zones. b) Commercialization - th i s manifestation of too much t o u r i s t development may be recognized by "an abundance of souvenir shops; sales of "junk" which, as Banff shopkeepers admit, o u t s t r i p the sales of other items in volumes of sa les ; conspicuously high prices for accommodation and other goods and serv ices ; and the double pr ice system in which a commodity has a regular pr ice for tour i s t s and a discounted pr ice for known residents" (Cheng, 1980, 78). c) Transience in the population - businesses in Banff r e l y on a trans ient labor force to provide seasonal s t a f f . When a high proportion of the residents of a community 47 are trans ients ( i . e . , temporary or not permanent), community i n s t i t u t i o n s , organizations and a c t i v i t i e s may be d i f f i c u l t to maintain due to rapid turnover of ro le players or a low l eve l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Since the t o u r i s t industry is a heavy employer of young, trans ient labor , disproport ionate growth in th i s sector could resu l t in the creat ion of a h ighly unstable economy. d) Loss of d i s c r e t i o n a r y time - as increased tourism development brings more t o u r i s t s , service personnel expect to lose l e i sure time. They are , thus, less able to enjoy the f a c i l i t i e s which at tracted them to the area in the f i r s t p lace . Intangible changes that can occur are: a) Development of a resort atmosphere - when t o u r i s t s tend to adopt behaviour patterns such as d r i n k i n g , c r u i s i n g in cars and holding loud p a r t i e s , they d isrupt the community oriented l i f e s t y l e . b) Lack of "real people" in town - permanent res idents fee l that they are not among "real people" when large numbers of t o u r i s t s and transients are in town. The experience 48 for them is too s u p e r f i c i a l . c) Loss of fee l ings of s e c u r i t y and t rus t - as more trans ients and t o u r i s t s f i l l the town, a sense of s e c u r i t y i s los t as petty theft and vandalism grow. This has happened in Banff. d) Growing impersonality - the f r i e n d l y , personal service experienced in a small town can become impersonal with an increased use of trans ient s ta f f rather than rooted proprie tors and permanent s t a f f . e) Development of unhealthy at t i tudes towards t o u r i s t s - in Banff, t our i s t s "are not always treated with courtesy by the l o c a l community" (Cheng, 1980, 79). Prolonged exposure to masses of d i sor iented people in unfamil iar surroundings, "stupid" questions and uneven temperaments may be p a r t l y accountable, but the a t t i tude i s , nonetheless, learned. Cheng concludes that congestion and commercialization are the most conspicuous t r a i t s of tourism growth, but transience in the population seems to be an important negative impact to res idents . Not only does transience in ter fere with community s t a b i l i t y but i t a lso seems to 49 re late most d i r e c t l y to changes in res ident a t t i tudes and behaviour. She points out that "host communities are home environments, as well as r ecrea t iona l environments, and i t cannot be assumed that unco-ordinated growth w i l l be an unalloyed bless ing to everyone. Community values and goals need to be evaluated against these values and goals" (Cheng, 1980, 79). Bosselman (1978) examined Torquay, an Engl i sh seaside resort o r i g i n a l l y receptive to tourism. Then residents began to change. New structures were unattract ive or interfered with t r a d i t i o n a l views. Planners saw modern-i z a t i o n as a tonic for the tax base but f a i l e d to ant i c ipate the side effects stemming from the loss of community character . C i t i zens saw new development as benef i t t ing outsiders and the munic ipa l i ty at the ir expense. It was concluded that improved communication between planners and the c i t i z e n s was needed. Rothman (1978) studied community react ion to seasonal v i s i t o r s in two U.S . east coast resort towns. He found that the residents f e l t a heightened tension during summer months and perceived an increase in crime. About half the residents in each community f e l t that the o v e r a l l pace of l i f e became less s a t i s f a c t o r y during the period in which 50 vacationers were present. Residents a lso noted t r a f f i c and parking problems in the summer. As w e l l , they also reduced a c t i v i t i e s such as d r i v i n g in town, shopping, using the beach and d in ing in restaurants . Pizam (1978) f e l t that the res idents ' a t t i tudes towards t o u r i s t s and tourism would be a function of the res idents ' economic dependency on tourism. He examined th i s theory with an a t t i tude quest ionaire in Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Pizam found that a res ident ' s economic dependency on tourism, his income and his occupation were the best predicators of his a t t i tude towards tourism. The f indings of Pizam and Rothman were confirmed by Thomason, Crompton and Kamp (1979) in a study of winter v i s i t o r s in Corpus C h r i s t i , Texas. In the study by D'Amore (1980) and a subsequent paper in 1983, seven communities throughout B r i t i s h Columbia were selected and an attempt was made to i d e n t i f y the l o c a l s o c i a l s e n s i t i v i t y to ex i s t ing and ant ic ipated future leve ls of tourism. An interview program was designed to assess resident perceptions of t o u r i s t and the tourism industry within the community. This information was evaluated to determine whether tourism was approaching the l i m i t s of s o c i a l carry ing capac i ty . 51 The conclusions a r i s i n g from D'Amore's case studies were used to make generalized statements about " s o c i a l l y appropriate" tourism development. Two potent ia l avenues were developed: one suggesting those condit ions associated with p o s i t i v e , community enhancing development; the second suggesting condit ions associated with inappropriate development. On the basis of these paradigms, a number of guidel ines were developed to indicate how tourism development might proceed in a manner that is s o c i a l l y responsive to the community. D'Amore used two basic techniques in his study. The f i r s t was a l i t e r a t u r e review in which inferences were drawn from previous research. The second technique was a f i e l d work interview programme using a se l ec t ion of representative community res idents . The most important guidel ine developed in the D'Amore study was to have as much publ ic input into the planning process for tourism as was poss ib le . 52 2.3 Tourism Impacts There appears to be three d i s t i n c t views on the tourism industry's impacts on development. According to the t r a d i t i o n a l view, tourism brings socio-economic change and encourages development. According to the second view, tourism brings hordes of invaders to small communities, destroying the indigenous cul ture and environment (Turner and Ash, 1975). The t h i r d view sees tourism as a form of d i r e c t economic exp lo i ta t ion and neo-co lonia l domination (Mathews, 19 74). These views examine the same phenomenon from d i f f erent p o l i t i c a l or i en ta t ions . They also look at d i f f eren t s o c i a l processes under varying condi t ions . In order to study the impacts created by tourism development, the impacts need to be i d e n t i f i e d and measured in a quant i tat ive way, where poss ib le . The fol lowing l i s t s of benefits and costs have been derived from the l i t e r a t u r e . 2.3.1 Benefits The primary benefit of tourism follows from the fact that i t is an export. Export of " inv i s ib l e" services (such 53 as tourism insurance and shipping) is not q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f erent from export of material goods. The renta l of a hotel room to a foreign resident has the same economic effects as the ren ta l of a fre ighter to a foreign shipper. There are many benefits derived from tourism besides just economic ones. The introduct ion of many innovations and improvements in l i f e s t y l e s could be a d i r e c t re su l t of tourism development. Improvements in such s o c i a l services as medical care , f i r e and pol ice protec t ion , and transportat ion may be made to meet the needs of large numbers of t our i s t s ( e spec ia l ly where tourism is a year-round industry) and l o c a l res idents as w e l l . Factors operating against economic benefits from tourism development are mul t i -na t iona l corporat ions , foreign labor , package tours and imports (food for t o u r i s t s , for example). Well-planned tourism can also help both to j u s t i f y and safeguard the q u a l i t y of the environment. 54 Possible Benefits of Tourism 1. Generation of scarce foreign exchange. 2. Increased economic and development growth. 3. Increased employment and income. 4. Increased standard of l i v i n g . 5. Innovations and improvements in l i f e s t y l e s . 6. Increased understanding of d i f f eren t people and cu l tures . 7. Improvements in s o c i a l serv ices : - q u a l i t y of f i r e , po l ice and health serv ices ; - a v a i l a b i l i t y of recrea t iona l f a c i l i t i e s . 8. Opportunity for shopping. 9. An establ ished in fras truc ture from tourism for development of other indus tr i e s . 2.3.2 Costs One di f ference between a normal export a c t i v i t y and tourism as an export a c t i v i t y is that tourism produces many side e f fects that are not exported with the product, but stay in the country. This means that the community is l e f t with the phys ica l and sometimes s o c i a l by-products produced by the industry i t s e l f . While tourism can provide subs tant ia l economic benefits above and beyond the economic costs , numerous s o c i a l costs or e x t e r n a l i t i e s are imposed on people who are penalized for benefits accruing to others. 55 Unlike many other economic a c t i v i t i e s , the success of tourism depends on maintenance of those environmental q u a l i t i e s which a t t r a c t t o u r i s t s . Possible Costs of Tourism 1. Damage to environment - eros ion , p o l l u t i o n , noise, l i t t e r . 2. M i s a l l o c a t i o n of resources - acquis i ton of land. 3. Uncontrolled and d i srupt ive s o c i a l change: - vandalism, drug abuse, a lcohol i sm, crime. 4. Seasonal unemployment. 5. Local i n s t a b i l i t y . 6. Minimization of s o c i a l welfare. 7. Negative ef fects of l o c a l c u l t u r e . 8. Costs to loca l s for increased serv ices . 9. Loss of amenities and f a c i l i t i e s to res idents : - congested roads, sewage system problems, water supply, parks. 10. Loss of affordable housing. 11. Increased prices for goods and serv ices . 12. Diminished open space. 13. "Eye-sore" development. 56 2.3.3 Measurement of Impacts The economic effects of tourism are r e l a t i v e l y easy to measure q u a n t i t a t i v e l y . Many theories and methods of measurement have been proposed in benef i t -cost s tudies . The measurement of economic and environmental impacts ( p o l l u t i o n , water and sewer use, erosion) i s important because these impacts help to create the ensuing s o c i a l problems. Though there might be many changes caused by tourism in a community, i t is the changes to the s o c i a l environment for l o c a l res idents which is of most in t ere s t . This s o c i a l change is the hardest to measure in a quant i tat ive way. There are indicators to the growth of resentment towards tourism mentioned in the l i t e r a t u r e . Bryden (1973) mentions indicat ions that there may be a r e l a t i o n s h i p between tourism density (expressed in the annual numbers of t o u r i s t as a proportion of the population or as a proportion of the land area) and the growth of resentment towards t o u r i s t s . The inference is that tourism densi ty is an indicator of the degree of confrontat ion between t o u r i s t s and res idents , and th i s confrontat ion gives r i s e to resentment of t o u r i s t s . This resentment may occur because of "corrosive" ef fects of tourism on the native cul ture and value system. 57 Clevendon (1979) attempts to i d e n t i f y and measure the impacts c r e a t e d by t o u r i s m development and to i s o l a t e the extent to which the change can be a t t r i b u t e d to tourism. He found four i n d i c a t o r s : a) change i n community s i z e as measured by the r a t e of growth; b) a t t i t u d e s of r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n towards t o u r i s t development; c) the degree of s e g r e g a t i o n of l o c a l uses from t o u r i s t uses and the degree of i n t e r a c t i o n between t o u r i s t s and l o c a l s ; d) the development of c o n t r o l s , measured by the degree to which man-made environments i n the c i t y have been d e c l a r e d as preserved n a t i o n a l monuments and the extent of l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n making that p o s s i b l e . Clevendon f e l t t h a t the average number of beds per h o t e l would i n d i c a t e the s i z e and complexity of development while the r a t e of growth of h o t e l beds i n d i c a t e s the dynamics of development. The percentage of upper c l a s s h o t e l beds over t o t a l beds c h a r a c t e r i z e s the q u a l i t y of accommodations. The i n t e g r a t i o n of t o u r i s m development with the l o c a l economy i s shown by c l a s s i f y i n g the ownership of h o t e l s and t o u r i s t shops as l o c a l or n o n - l o c a l . 58 2.4 Questions for Evaluat ing the S o c i a l Performance of Tourism Development After reviewing the l i t e r a t u r e on in ternat iona l and domestic tourism and l i s t i n g the costs and benefits of tourism, i t is now possible to construct a guidel ine ( in the form of a question l i s t ) for evaluat ing the s o c i a l performance of tourism development. These questions are not meant to provide measurement in any exact way. They are included as a way of summarizing the information in th i s chapter. They can also be used to review some of the impacts of tourism in any p a r t i c u l a r area . Themes or concerns that indicate any sort of s o c i a l change w i l l be included. Though there are four "players" involved in tourism ( loca l res idents , government, t o u r i s t , and inves tors ) , these questions w i l l only involve indicators of s o c i a l change to the res idents . These questions are: a) What is the proportion of t o u r i s t s in r e l a t i o n to the res ident population? This can indicate the degree of confrontat ion between t o u r i s t and res idents . b) To what degree does the number or type of t o u r i s t a f fec t the environmental des truct ion of: - water; - a i r ; - l i v i n g or recrea t iona l space; 59 - food p r o d u c t i o n space? c) To what degree does the number or type of t o u r i s t degrade or upgrade the l o c a l c u l t u r e : Tourism could enhance the p r e s e r v a t i o n of l o c a l c u l t u r e ( i . e . , P o l y n e s i a n C u l t u r a l Centre, Hawaii) or d e s t r o y or hinder i t ( i . e . , Spanish t r a d i t i o n of c o n s e r v a t i s m on the Spanish " R i v i e r a " ) . d) To what degree does the type of development a f f e c t : - a e s t h e t i c s of the area; - a r c h i t e c t u r e ? I f t o u r i s m development has not been p r o p e r l y planned, " s t r i p " developments c o u l d occur, as w e l l as u n a t t r a c t i v e b u i l d i n g s and s i t e s . T h i s tends to make r e s i d e n t s l e s s f avourable to f u r t h e r developments. e) To what degree does t o u r i s m development enhance or d e t r a c t from: - l o c a l s t a b i l i t y ; - usual l i f e s t y l e s ? f) Is the urban i n f r a s t r u c t u r e adaptable enough to handle e x t r a loads placed on i t as a r e s u l t of tourism? For example: - roads, p a r k i n g ; - h o s p i t a l s , c l i n i c s ; - f i r e s e r v i c e ; - p o l i c e ; - water, sewer; - r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . 60 Summary Thi s chapter has d e f i n e d t o u r i s m and reviewed some of the p e r t i n e n t l i t e r a t u r e on the impacts of tour i s m . There i s a d e f i n i t e s c a r c i t y of l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y with the impacts of to u r i s m and methods of c o n t r o l l i n g the negative e f f e c t s . The impacts of t o u r i s t development on a r e g i o n can be d i v e r s e and of c o n s i d e r a b l e magnitude. P o s s i b l e r e s u l t s of such impacts may be changes i n the s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l arrangments of the d e s t i n a t i o n area. Changes i n the s o c i a l m i l i e u are l i k e l y t o take plac e much more r a p i d l y and on a l a r g e r s c a l e where development i s r a p i d , where i t i n v o l v e s l a r g e numbers of t o u r i s t s , and where l o c a l or n o n - l o c a l c o n t a c t i s frequent. Some of the b e n e f i t s from t o u r i s m i n c l u d e i n c r e a s e d economic and development growth, improvements i n s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , and i n c r e a s e d employment and income. Costs i n c l u d e d i s r u p t i v e s o c i a l change, damage to the environment and seasonal unemployment. Residents can become r e s e n t f u l of t o u r i s t s and develop negative a t t i t u d e s towards the t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y . 61 A method of l i s t i n g these impacts i s with the "Questions f o r E v a l u a t i n g the S o c i a l Performance of Tourism Development." By reviewing t h i s l i s t , an i n d i c a t i o n of the s o c i a l performance of the t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y i n any l o c a t i o n should be p o s s i b l e . 62 CHAPTER THREE: SATURATION The previous chapter d i s c u s s e d t o u r i s m and i t s impacts. I t a l s o provided a q u a l i t a t i v e framework f o r a s s e s s i n g the s o c i a l performance of t o u r i s m development. If the s o c i a l performance i s found to be l e s s than adequate f o r l o c a l r e s i d e n t s , two questions a r i s e : what should be done about i t and what would happen i f nothing were done? This chapter w i l l study the second q u e s t i o n . The concept of s a t u r a t i o n i s being s t u d i e d as a method of gauging when the s o c i a l problems of t o u r i s m become c r i t i c a l . I f a formula f o r measuring s a t u r a t i o n can be found, i t can be used to c o n t r o l and p r o p e r l y p l a n f o r t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y growth. The purpose of t h i s chapter w i l l be to review the l i t e r a t u r e on s a t u r a t i o n and i t s a l t e r n a t e term, " c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y . " C a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y has been the term u s u a l l y used i n r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g , and subsequently i n t o u r i s m p l a n n i n g S a t u r a t i o n i s the p o i n t when the c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y has been reached. S a t u r a t i o n w i l l be the term used i n t h i s study to d e s c r i b e the c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y concept as a p p l i e d to t o u r i s m p l a n n i n g . In t h i s way, i t w i l l be e a s i e r to d i f f e r e n t i a t e 63 between carry ing capaci ty as used in recreat ion planning, and as used in tourism planning. 3.1 D e f i n i t i o n 3.1.1 Carrying Capacity and Recreation Planning There are several concepts which need to be discussed in th i s s ec t ion . Before d iscuss ing each concept, however, a d e f i n i t i o n w i l l be given. CARRYING CAPACITY is the l e v e l of use beyond which impacts exceed acceptable leve ls spec i f i ed by evaluative standards (Shelby, 1984, 433). The determination of carry ing capaci ty involves two separate components. The descr ip t ive component documents the observable workings of the recreat ion system ( e . g . , types of use, amount of use, s i t e f a c t o r s ) , while the evaluative component integrates value judgements into the capacity determination. Value judgements are based on personal s a t i s f a c t i o n . The re la t i onsh ip between personal s a t i s f a c t i o n and use leve ls in any environment is dependent upon the a c t i v i t i e s in which an i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t e d , and the needs or desires that a c t i v i t y was to f u l f i l l . 64 "Whatever the method used to determine carry ing capaci ty , u l t imate ly the measures are based on value judgements" (Jaakson et a l . , 1976, 360). S a t i s f a c t i o n of v i s i t o r s to any area can be explained by expectations and personal norms. EXPECTATIONS are the q u a l i t y of experience v i s i t o r s are looking forward to . They influence the perception of a recreat ion experience at several l eve ls ( i . e . , s tress re lease , autonomy, achievement, l earn ing , e t c . , or , more s p e c i f i c a l l y , with pr is t ineness of the environment or the number of other v i s i t o r s to the area) . PERSONAL NORMS s i g n i f y se l f -expectat ions for s p e c i f i c act ion in p a r t i c u l a r s i tuat ions that are constructed by the i n d i v i d u a l (Graefe et a l . , 1984, 398). Personal norms are simply the normal type of react ions an i n d i v i d u a l carr i e s with him into any s i t u a t i o n . The p r i n c i p l e of" capaci ty management is common in a l l sorts of f a c i l i t i e s . The number of seats determines the capaci ty of a conference centre and of an a i r c r a f t . A f i n i t e capaci ty for these f a c i l i t i e s is easy to understand. The concept becomes more d i f f i c u l t to accept and to apply in 65 publ ic spaces, which have conditioned people's minds to regard them as unres tr ic ted and unlimited in capac i ty . The concept of carry ing capacity is used in planning but there is no general ly accepted d e f i n i t i o n of i t and no standard approach of how i t should be c a l c u l a t e d . The most widespread a p p l i c a t i o n of carry ing capacity is in outdoor recreat ion planning and in natural resources management. The concept of carry ing capaci ty has evoked mixed f ee l ings . On one hand, i t catered to the need to l i m i t and contro l threats to the resource (synonymous with r e c r e a t i o n ) . On the other, i t ran c o u n t e r - i n t u i t i v e l y to the fundamental assumption that one maximizes benefits by maximizing output of the product (Schreyer, 1984, 387). Carrying capacity is based on an analogy drawn at least twenty years ago between b i o l o g i c a l carry ing capaci ty and the ef fects of user densi ty on v i s i t o r s a t i s f a c t i o n in natural areas. Important studies have been done by Wagar (1964), Lucas (1964), and Stankey (1973, as c i t ed by Becker, Jubenvi l l e and Burnett , 1984). The term "carrying capacity" is borrowed from w i l d l i f e ecology and range management where the term has a prec i se , and sometimes measurable use. Its d e f i n i t i o n in th i s area is "the largest number of organisms of a p a r t i c u l a r species that can be maintained i n d e f i n i t e l y in a given part of the 66 e n v i r o n m e n t " ( W i l s o n , 1975 i n B u r c h , 1 9 8 4 ) . The fol lowing are other concepts that perta in to use and over-use in capaci ty planning. DENSITY refers to a measure of a phys ica l space condit ion (Reynolds, 1984, 9) , l i k e the number of ind iv idua l s in a p a r t i c u l a r s e t t i n g . CROWDING is the negative evaluation of a c e r t a i n densi ty - a value judgement which spec i f i e s that there are too many people (Graef et a l . , 399). In general , the number of contacts influences perceived crowding. OVER-CROWDING in a negative, emotional term, often used, though erroneously, to indicate an excessive and harmful densi ty l e v e l ; i t i s a separate and d i s t i n c t term from "crowding"; i t is a lay term not used by scholars in th i s f i e l d (Reynolds, 1984, 10). There needs to be a s i t u a t i o n of high densi ty for crowding to be experienced. However, crowding w i l l not occur in every high densi ty s i t u a t i o n unless there is d i srupt ion to the i n d i v i d u a l , which creates s t re s s . 67 STRESS i s an emotional s t r a i n which can i n f l u e n c e e l e v a t e d blood pres s u r e , u r i n a r y t r a c t d i s o r d e r s , hay f e v e r , asthma, e t c e t e r a . There are i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t human needs and s t r e s s response best e x p l a i n the c h a i n of events which i n t e r r e l a t e d e n s i t y and crowding (Reynolds, 1984). A term used to d e s c r i b e c o n d i t i o n s of high d e n s i t y i s CONGESTION. Congestion can be thought of as "mutual i n t e r f e r e n c e among people using a common f a c i l i t y . The i n t e r f e r e n c e can be of a p h y s i c a l type where people p h y s i c a l l y o b s t r u c t each o t h e r . . . . The i n t e r f e r e n c e can a l s o take the form of negative p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s from p r o x i m i t y of people even when p h y s i c a l movements are i n no way interdependent. The prime example would be the degradation of the pe r c e i v e d q u a l i t y of a wilderness r e c r e a t i o n experience caused by the s i g h t i n g or pa s s i n g of other persons" (Howe, 246). Congestion c o u l d occur i n the form of we l l - a t t e n d e d beaches, accommodation f a c i l i t i e s , and s e r v i c e s . A negative impact would be f e l t on the u t i l i t i e s of the use r s , on t h e i r enjoyment, and on t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s to pay f o r such r e c r e a t i o n . Whether or not an area i s crowded i s a s u b j e c t i v e 68 judgement of an i n d i v i d u a l , not an object ive f ac t . It varies from i n d i v i d u a l to i n d i v i d u a l depending on a var i e ty of s o c i a l and psychological fac tors . Individuals can modify the i r expectations and preferences as a means of reducing the negative ef fects of perceived crowding. Environmental and eco log ica l constraints l i m i t the amount of human a c t i v i t y that any given area can e f f i c i e n t l y accommodate. There is a lso an acceptable density of people engaged in any a c t i v i t y , as perceived by users themselves. This is where the concepts of s a t i s f a c t i o n , expectations and personal norms, and stress and crowding are concerned. There are general ly four types of carry ing capac i t i e s used in recreat ion sett ings (Shelby, 1984): a) eco log i ca l capaci ty - concerned with impacts on the ecosystem (plants , animals, s o i l , water, a i r ) . b) phys ica l capaci ty - the amount of space in undeveloped natural areas. c) f a c i l i t y capaci ty - involves man-made improvements intended to handle v i s i t o r needs. These can always be increased by spending more money. d) s o c i a l capaci ty - involves impacts which impair or a l t e r human experiences. Soc ia l carry ing capaci ty is the l e v e l of use beyond which s o c i a l impacts exceed acceptable l eve ls spec i f i ed by evaluative standards. Soc ia l capaci ty is most concerned with the impact of people on people. Graefe et a l . (1984, 423) have concluded in the i r study 69 on carry ing capac i ty , that "there is no s ingle capaci ty inherent to any given area . There may be as many potent ia l capac i t ies as there are combinations of impacts and types of experiences to be o f fered ." E a r l y appl ica t ions of recrea t iona l carry ing capacity sought to determine leve ls or types of use which could be to l era ted , and l i m i t s beyond which the resource base would be destroyed or unacceptably a l t e r e d . A la ter i n t e r -pretat ion of the carry ing capaci ty concept (Godschalk and Parker, 1975) found i t useful in ident i fy ing thresholds beyond which act ion must be taken to avoid or correct problems. As we l l , the use of capaci ty thresholds can help in focusing the at tent ion of users , managers, or the general publ ic on key issues (Schreyer, 1984). Graefe et a l . (1984, 396) sum up the l a t er in terpre ta t ions : " v i r t u a l l y a l l relevant recent a r t i c l e s suggest that carry ing capaci ty is not an absolute value waiting to be discovered, but is rather a range of values which must be re lated to s p e c i f i c management object ives for a given area ." After th i s r e l a t i o n s h i p has been es tabl i shed , some form of planning act ion must be proposed to remedy the s i t u a t i o n . 70 3.1.2 S a t u r a t i o n and Tourism Planning As Chapter 2 e x p l a i n e d , t o u r i s m i s not e x c l u s i v e l y an economic phenomenon, i t a l s o i n v o l v e s s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , p o l i t i c a l and environmental a s p e c t s . S o c i a l and c u l t u r a l impacts of t o u r i s m are the ways i n which t o u r i s m c o n t r i b u t e s to changes i n value systems, i n d i v i d u a l behaviour, f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s , c o l l e c t i v e l i f e s t y l e s , moral conduct, c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n s , t r a d i t i o n a l ceremonies, and community o r g a n i z a t i o n . In other words, these impacts are the e f f e c t s t h a t the people i n host communities experience, a f t e r d i r e c t or i n d i r e c t a s s o c i a t i o n with t o u r i s t s . SOCIAL SATURATION i s the p o i n t i n the growth of t o u r i s m where l o c a l r e s i d e n t s p e r c e i v e , on balance, an unacceptable l e v e l of s o c i a l d i s b e n e f i t s from t o u r i s m development. The s a t u r a t i o n l e v e l i s the l i m i t of l o c a l t o l e r a n c e to to u r i s m (the e q u i v a l e n t of s o c i a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y i n r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g ) . The concept of s a t u r a t i o n p l a n n i n g i s to t r y and e s t a b l i s h , i n measurable terms, the number of v i s i t o r s and the degree of development t h a t can take p l a c e without d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s on r e s o u r c e s . The negative f a c t o r s become predominant when the number of v i s i t o r s reach a p a r t i c u l a r t h r e s h o l d a f t e r which b e n e f i t s p r o g r e s s i v e l y 71 decrease. T h i s t h r e s h o l d i s the s a t u r a t i o n l e v e l . In tourism, the p o t e n t i a l f o r r e s i d e n t - v i s i t o r s t r e s s i n c r e a s e s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y to the volume of t o u r i s t s . Greater numbers of v i s i t o r s produce more co n g e s t i o n , r e q u i r e more f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s , and invade the p r i v a c y of the d a i l y l i f e of r e s i d e n t s . The idea of s a t u r a t i o n i n t o u r i s m p l a n n i n g i s based on the f a c t t h a t there i s a f i n i t e supply of a given r e s o u r c e . Most t o u r i s m p l a n n i n g i s concerned with demand ( i . e . , number of t o u r i s t s a n t i c i p a t e d over a given p e r i o d ) . Few s t u d i e s begin from the supply s i d e or even c o n s i d e r l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s . Other components of the supply s i d e of t o u r i s m resources are the a t t i t u d e s and behaviour of the hosts, s i n c e these q u a l i t i e s form a s i g n i f i c a n t part of the t o u r i s t e x perience. L . J . D'Amore (1983) e x p l a i n s t h a t the c a p a c i t y concept i s u s e f u l f o r two purposes: a) The r e c o g n i t i o n of a s a t u r a t i o n l e v e l f o r t o u r i s t a c t i v i t y emphasizes t h a t there i s a l i m i t to t o l e r a n c e , to the supply of p o s i t i v e and f r i e n d l y i n t e r a c t i o n or go o d w i l l toward v i s i t o r s ; 72 b) The concept of s a t u r a t i o n provides a framework w i t h i n which to assess the r e l a t i v e s o c i a l impacts of t o u r i s m on a given community. If s o c i a l l i m i t s to t o u r i s m development could be i d e n t i f i e d , then i t would be p o s s i b l e to judge whether t h i s l i m i t was being approached and whether steps should be taken to c o n t r o l tourism to some extent. S a t u r a t i o n p l a n n i n g can be used to enable governments to p l a n ahead i n order to a v o i d f u t u r e s a t u r a t i o n problems i n d e v e l o p i n g t o u r i s t areas, and to overcome the disadvantage where s a t u r a t i o n a l r e a d y e x i s t s or i s being approached. S a t u r a t i o n l e v e l s are determined by, among other t h i n g s , the amount of land s u i t a b l e f o r h o t e l development, a v a i l a b i l i t y of l a b o r , and the c a p a c i t y of the roads or of the main t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n s of the r e g i o n . " I t i s easy to demonstrate the concept of s a t u r a t i o n f o r t o u r i s t f a c i l i t i e s such as r e s t a u r a n t s , beaches and s c e n i c areas, but more d i f f i c u l t f o r c i t i e s or r e g i o n s . . . t h e r e are four main ways i n which s a t u r a t i o n of a l o c a l i t y of a r e g i o n can take p l a c e " a c c o r d i n g to Young (1973), though the f o u r t h way i s simply the r e s u l t of any of the f i r s t t h r e e . These four ways a r e : 73 a) The d i v e r s i o n of land to t o u r i s t uses denies i t s use f o r other purposes, such as s c h o o l s , r e s i d e n t i a l housing, or open space. b) The adverse e f f e c t of the t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y on the l o c a l employment s t r u c t u r e . A growing p r o p o r t i o n of the labour f o r c e being employed i n the t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y can have a d e p r e s s i n g e f f e c t on r e g i o n a l economic growth because of the lower p r o d u c t i v i t y p o t e n t i a l of work i n the t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y . Employment i n h o t e l s and motels i s l a r g e l y seasonal with l o w - s k i l l e d and low-paid workers. The impact depends e n t i r e l y on the o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t s of l a b o r . I f there are no other jobs f o r labor to enter anyway, then the e f f e c t s on the l o c a l employment s t r u c t u r e c o u l d be p o s i t i v e . c) Pressure on the urban i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , such as water supply, e l e c t r i c i t y , p o l i c e , h o s p i t a l , waste d i s p o s a l , f i r e p r o t e c t i o n , and e s p e c i a l l y the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system. d) The combination of the preceding f a c t o r s can cause a " p s y c h o l o g i c a l s a t u r a t i o n " l e v e l among the l o c a l r e s i d e n t s . T h i s can lead to negative f e e l i n g s towards the t o u r i s t s s i n c e r e s i d e n t s have to compete with 74 t o u r i s t s for a given supply of s erv i ces . This sa turat ion l eve l is the l i m i t of l o c a l tolerance to tourism. This way for saturat ion to occur f i t s the d e f i n i t i o n of saturat ion used in th i s study. I n d i v i d u a l l y , the preceding three ways would lead to phys ica l or f a c i l i t y saturat ion (as explained in Chapter 3.1.1) . Getz (1983) i d e n t i f i e s s ix concepts of capacity to absorb tourism: a) Tangible Resource L i m i t s : This method of determining capaci ty to absorb tourism involves conducting inventories of ex i s t ing resources and ident i fy ing obstacles to development, such as poor transport l inks or a a lack of s erv i ces . These obstacles can t h e o r e t i c a l l y be overcome so that the capaci ty of a tangible resource might be seen as merely an obstac le . 75 b) S a t i s f a c t i o n of V i s i t o r s : The at t i tudes and experiences of v i s i t o r s , i f negative, can act to r e s t r i c t the growth of tourism or cause a decl ine in the popular i ty of a des t inat ion area. V i s i t o r s a t i s f a c t i o n can be re lated to the at t i tudes of a host population and crowding, although for some l e i sure pursu i t s , crowding is a c t u a l l y a pos i t ive fac tor . Assessing v i s i t o r s a t i s f a c t i o n is very d i f f i c u l t s ince , usua l ly , only a small sample of the year ly v i s i t o r population is ava i lab le at any one time. Therefore, time w i l l change the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the des t in a t ion . As w e l l , v i s i t o r s might have preconceived ideas of a hol iday . Problems might be indicated by reduced s tar t s on tourism development or reduced numbers of v i s i t o r s . c) Excessive Rate of Growth: The rate of growth or change is a factor which can influence a l l other v a r i a b l e s , but rapid change in i t s e l f can have detrimental impacts (de Kadt, 1979). The receptiveness of host populations can be adversely affected i f change is r a p i d , or i f i t is bel ieved that there ex is ts l i t t l e or no l o c a l contro l over 76 development. Al so , the s o c i a l interests of host communities are probably better served by f a c i l i t i e s that are small in scale (s ingle bu i ld ing or s i t e developments) and widely dispersed, than by developments at a large scale (de Kadt, 1979 as c i t ed by Getz) . d) Capacity Based on the Evaluat ion of Costs and Benef i ts : Since i t would be unusual for any one factor to lead d i r e c t l y to the a p p l i c a t i o n of l i m i t s on growth or change, some form of cost -benef i t analys i s might be required in the context of establ ished goals and objec t ives . Getz l i s t s three considerations l inked to costs and benef i t s . The f i r s t is to determine i f a l i m i t i n g factor to tourism growth can and should be overcome. The second considerat ion is whether or not c e r t a i n costs or problems are to be to lerated in pursuit of object ives ( i . e . , should s o c i a l problems be to lerated in pursuit of economic growth). T h i r d , an attempt can be made to f ind the best possible a l t e r n a t i v e of a l l costs and benef i t s . e) Tolerance by the Host Populat ion: Many factors can determine the a t t i tudes of host populat ions , and i t can be suggested that at some point , 77 there might ar i se a predominantly negative react ion which w i l l threaten the t o u r i s t industry . Outright h o s t i l i t y towards the v i s i t o r s can r u i n the i r experiences and discourage potent ia l t o u r i s t s (Rajotte, 1982). Once a f r i e n d l y a t t i tude has soured, i t is enormously d i f f i c u l t to remedy the s i t u a t i o n . Doxey (1975) suggests res ident annoyance and outright antagonism w i l l always r e s u l t unless act ive monitoring and counter measures are taken. Residents are more l i k e l y to b u i l d up a general l i k i n g or d i s l i k i n g for t o u r i s t s than are t o u r i s t s for residents since f i r s t time v i s i t o r s often do not have enough time to decide whether they l i k e residents as a c l a s s . The most f r i e n d l y behaviour would be expected from people who fee l they have something to gain economically from t o u r i s t s , but who do not fear the complete loss of the i r l i v e l i h o o d by an occasional d i s p l a y of honest, personal d i s l i k e for p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l s . Doxey (1975) constructed an index of the l eve l of i r r i t a t i o n (" irr idex") . Doxey's " irr idex" covers four l eve l s of expression of react ions on the part of the host populat ion: a) euphoria - i n i t i a l phase, both v i s i t o r s and 78 investors welcomed. b) apathy - t r a n s i t i o n to th i s stage var ies in length depending on the speed and amount of development. A gradual formal izat ion of contacts takes place . Tour is t s are seen as stereotypes and are taken for granted. c) annoyance - host population begins to express doubts. d) antagonism - overt expression of i r r i t a t i o n where a l l s o c i a l and personal problems are a t t r ibuted to the t o u r i s t . The causes of i r r i t a t i o n are numerous and are in t erre la t ed - s o c i a l , economic, c u l t u r a l and environmental. According to Doxey, some of the var ia t ions g iv ing r i s e to the i r r i t a t i o n s are: a) fear that hosts are being treated as second c lass to tour i s t s . b) fear of threat to l o c a l values and cu l ture ; c) loss of access to f a c i l i t i e s (crowded transpor-t a t i o n , pr ivate beaches); d) d i s l i k e of t o u r i s t s ' dress ( p a r t i c u l a r l y that of women) and behaviour. Although mere numbers of t o u r i s t s do not, by themselves, const i tute the reason for the speed and i n t e n s i t y of the development of resentment on the part of l o c a l res idents , there is a point at which i r r i t a t i o n grows r a p i d l y . Clevendon (1979) feels th i s happens because of: 79 a) c o n t r a s t of l i f e s t y l e s and c u l t u r e s ; b) socio-economic d i s p a r i t i e s between t o u r i s t and host; c) land mass of r e c e i v i n g country; d) h i s t o r i c a l background; e) language; f) s t r u c t u r e of economy; g) l e v e l of dependence on tourism. There are problems i n v o l v e d i n us i n g a t t i t u d e s to s e t l i m i t s on development. A t t i t u d e s themselves are d i f f i c u l t to measure and are l i k e l y to change over time (Cheng, 1980). Other problems stem from the f a c t t h at imperfect knowledge and biased p e r c e p t i o n s o f t e n shape a t t i t u d e s . Residents should be given adequate input i n t o the decision-making process and a forum provided to s o r t out c o n f l i c t s . f ) The Role of C a p a c i t y i n a Systems Approach: This i s an approach which emphasizes compre-hensiveness, the assessment of c o s t s and b e n e f i t s through ongoing a n a l y s i s and p r e d i c t i o n of impacts, and the establishment of e x p l i c i t goals f o r pl a n n i n g and management. One of the major d i f f e r e n c e s from the other i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of c a p a c i t y a l r e a d y mentioned, i s t h a t 80 i t does not e n t a i l an exact imposit ion of l i m i t s , although i t does al low for the use of l i m i t s as one form of contro l on the system. It is the l eve l of user a c t i v i t y that best achieves the given purposes of the system. Goals are often more d iverse , and the system broader. As w e l l , the perspectives of hosts and v i s i t o r s , and r e g i o n a l , n a t i o n a l , and in ternat iona l interests must a l l be evaluated. In a systems approach, capacity thresholds must be seen as part of a dynamic process aimed at overcoming barr i er s where poss ib le , but one in which i t i s a lso possible to exert controls (such as l i m i t s ) when necessary to s a t i f y objec t ives . Getz sees capacity not as "a formula or as a mechanistic approach to determining the inherent or opt ional l i m i t s on growth and change. Rather, capacity is useful within a compre-hensive, systematic planning process as a means to i d e n t i f y thresholds which require a t t en t ion , and as an opt ional form of c o n t r o l l i n g the system through the imposit ion of p a r t i a l or complete l i m i t s " Getz, 1983, 250). Hovinen (1982), as Getz, feels an area's saturat ion l e v e l consis ts of d i f f e r e n t elements, each of which may have i t s own population l i m i t . For purposes of a n a l y s i s , Hovinen feels sa turat ion can be subdivided into various categories: 81 biophys ica l and behavioural; phys ica l and psycholog ica l ; p h y s i c a l , e c o l o g i c a l , f a c i l i t i e s and s o c i a l ; and p h y s i c a l , b i o l o g i c a l and managerial. A useful d i s t i n c t i o n to make is between, on the one hand, an area's phys ica l space, ecology, and man-made f a c i l i t i e s (such as motels and parking l o t s ) , and, on the other, the area's behavioural or psychological capaci ty , or the threshold at which v i s i t o r s , as well as res idents , f ee l d i sp leasure . The psychological threshold may be lower than the phys ica l carry ing capaci ty of the countryside . Wall (1983), taking an opposing view to the carry ing capacity concept, feels research has shown that only tenuous re la t ionsh ips ex is t between crowding and the q u a l i t y of recrea t iona l experience. He feels the term has l i t t l e meaning in the absence of c l e a r l y spec i f i ed goals . The number of v i s i t o r s , the a c t i v i t i e s which are acceptable , and the q u a l i t i e s of the experiences which are obtained, can be manipulated to meet planning and management goals . Wall argues that while capaci ty implies a f ixed l i m i t , the notion of resort cycles (as explained by Young in Chapter 1) implies change. Such changes might include the numbers and types of v i s i t o r s and the experiences which they 82 s e e k ; t h e r e c e p t i v i t y o f permanent r e s i d e n t s t o t o u r i s t s , t h e o r i g i n s o f i n v e s t m e n t s ; t h e l a n d s c a p e o f r e s o r t s ; and t h e n a t u r e o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e s w h i c h t h e y can p r o v i d e . Thus, t h e r e a r e a number o f c y c l e s w h i c h may or may n o t be l i n k e d t o v a r y i n g d e g r e e s . T h e r e a r e l i k e l y t o be d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e d e s i r a b l e number o f v i s i t o r s , a p p r o p r i a t e e x p e r i e n c e s , and p l a n n i n g and management p r o b l e m s b o t h w i t h i n and between g r o u p s o f h o s t s , g u e s t s , and i n v e s t o r s a t a n y s t a g e o f d e v e l o p m e n t . Q u e s t i o n s m i g h t a r i s e , s u c h a s , whose c a p a c i t y i s t o be paramount, and, i f c a p a c i t y i s e x c e e d e d , e x a c t l y what i s t o be done a b o u t i t ? W a l l c o n c l u d e s t h a t i f t h e use o f t h e c o n c e p t e n c o u r a g e s t o u r i s m p l a n n e r s and managers t o g i v e g r e a t e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l m a t t e r s , t o t h e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e s a v a i l a b l e t o b o t h h o s t s and g u e s t s , and t o s p e c i f y t h e i r g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s , t h e n i t w i l l s e r v e a u s e f u l p u r p o s e . T h i s e c h o e s D'Amore's f e e l i n g s t h a t t h e c o n c e p t o f s o c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s t o t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t must be r e c o g n i z e d , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e c r i t i c a l e a r l y s t a g e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t . From t h e l i t e r a t u r e a v a i l a b l e , i t would seem t h a t W a l l m i g h t be c o r r e c t i n h i s a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e c o n c e p t o f an a r e a ' s s a t u r a t i o n l e v e l f o r t o u r i s m . As t h e n e x t s e c t i o n 83 w i l l ind i ca te , there is no r e l i a b l e measuring concept for the saturat ion po int . 3.2 Measurement of Saturation The volume of tourism is one of the several factors leading to resentment towards t o u r i s t s by l o c a l res idents . Bryden (1973) feels tourism densi ty is an indicator of the degree of confrontat ion between t o u r i s t s and res idents . Young (1973) states that rather than simply s ta t ing the number of t o u r i s t s , or the number of nights they spend, t o u r i s t s ' numbers should be expressed as ./a percentage of res idents . Another method would be to ca lcu la te t o u r i s t dens i t i es by expressing the number of t our i s t s per square mi le . The simple volume technique does not take into account the seasonal pattern of highs and lows of tourism densi ty , nor socio-economic and c u l t u r a l fac tors . A formula c i t ed by Clevendon (1979) attempted to ca lcu la te the optimal c e i l i n g of tourism, after which adverse s o c i a l impact occurs. The basic elements in the formula are the number of t o u r i s t s (t) and the host 84 country's population (p), area in square kilometers (a), and per capi ta income measured in d o l l a r s (c): S = t X 10 4 p o . i s x a o . 3 S x C 1 . 7 9 Where S is the l e v e l at which adverse s o c i a l impact occurs. Of seventy-one countries examined in 1970, the average value was 189. The highest or worst countries were Rwanda (456) and Grenada (326). This formula is not very e f fec t ive for analyzing domestic tourism since per capi ta income w i l l not usual ly vary as much within a country as between countr ies . It i s not relevant to tourism in B r i t i s h Columbia. Al so , there is no explanation given as to how the exponents in the equation are determined. Another proposal for determining the carry ing capacity of t o u r i s t dest inat ions was proposed by P. Stanev in Bosselman (1978). His formula was: K = S X k Q N where K = the maximum capaci ty of the t o u r i s t area; S = the t o t a l area; k 0 = the correc t ion fac tor , which var ies between 85 0.5 and 1, and is determined as a function of hypsometric (e levat ion measurements) charac-t e r i s t i c s , taking into account engineering, geo log i ca l , h y d r o l o g i c a l , landscape and other cons iderat ions; N = the standard area per person in m2 per person. The t o t a l capaci ty of the area in question must s a t i s f y the fol lowing requirements: £K > t where £K = the t o t a l capaci ty of i n d i v i d u a l t o u r i s t areas; t = the volume of the stream of t our i s t s (number of t our i s t s to the area) . Not only is Stanev's formula subject to "hypsometric" c o r r e c t i o n , but he notes in his commentary that there is "no accepted method" of determining the "standard" area required per t o u r i s t . Both these formulas f a i l because they do not consider values such as eco log ica l balance, urban aes thet ics , community cohesion, res ident a t t i t u d e s , e tce tera . Both models are vague, have unexplained exponents, and re la te unmeasurable v a r i a b l e s , g iv ing them l i t t l e value . 86 One p a r t i c u l a r d i f f i c u l t y in determining an area's sa turat ion l e v e l , e s p e c i a l l y the psycholog ica l /behaviora l component, is that d i f f eren t ind iv idua l s and groups are affected by congestion in various ways. V i s i t o r s have d i f f eren t expectations and perceptions; what s a t i s f i e s one person w i l l not s a t i s y someone e l se . V i s i t o r s ' tolerance for greater numbers may also become greater over time as expectations are a l tered as a re su l t of changing circumstances or s h i f t s in v i s i t o r type. Defining the psychological threshold , and even the phys ica l capaci ty , is of necess i ty an a r b i t r a r y dec i s ion based in part on a value judgement about how many v i s i t o r s and f a c i l i t i e s are enough. Some research shows that l e i sure communities w i l l be div ided into competing groups, one which favors the expansion of r ecrea t iona l f a c i l i t i e s , ranged against those seeking to l i m i t commercial a c t i v i t y . These c o n f l i c t i n g views are l i k e l y to be a r t i c u l a t e d in e l ec t ions , annexation, zoning ac t ions , referendum, and land-use dec i s ions . Outcomes w i l l determine the scope and nature of growth in the community. 87 3•3 Measurement of Saturation Used in th i s Study It has been shown that there are several approaches to capaci ty planning, but th i s study w i l l concentrate on the l i m i t s of l o c a l tolerance to tourism, or the s o c i a l sa turat ion l e v e l . The point at which the capaci ty is reached w i l l be termed the saturat ion l e v e l . As explained by Young (1973) and Getz (1983), i t is usual ly when other sectors (for example, phys ica l in fras truc ture or recreat ion services) in the community begin to approach saturat ion leve ls that the s o c i a l sa turat ion l eve l begins to r i s e . It responds to the events taking place in the community as a re su l t of tourism. Exceeding the saturat ion l e v e l can cause a decrease in tourism as a re su l t of negative host-guest i n t e r a c t i o n . While there does not seem to be any accurate quant i f iab le approach to carry ing -capac i ty planning, the best poss ible so lut ion might be to incorporate some subject ive values into the a n a l y s i s . By observing and measuring the use and over-use of c e r t a i n f a c i l i t i e s , s erv ices , and the environment, along with publ ic opinion surveys taken at such times, the phys ica l condit ions in existence when the surveys indicate a negative a t t i tude to tourism can be used for future forecast ing of approaching 88 resident saturat ion po ints . Impact studies are seen as complementary rather than as an a l t e r n a t i v e to saturat ion eva luat ion . By studying phys ica l and environmental problems occurr ing , indicat ions of r i s i n g s o c i a l intolerance might be observed. The saturat ion concept i s considered to be an important concept to understand because i t simply shows that there are upper l i m i t s to s o c i a l tolerance of tourism. It is a method for gauging when a c r i t i c a l point has been reached for problems re lated to the t o u r i s t industry . Since the measurement of saturat ion found in the l i t e r a t u r e is unsat i s fac tory , vague, and not operat iona l ly def ined, th i s study w i l l use indicators to show that capaci ty is being approached. These indicators w i l l be based on the "Guidelines for Evaluat ing the Soc ia l Performance of Tourism Development" in Chapter 2, and by reviewing Young's (1973) reasons for s o c i a l sa turat ion . It is not c r i t i c a l to th i s thes i s , however, to operat ional ize or adopt "saturation" planning as a method of tourism planning. It is not necessary to prove that saturat ion has been reached, only that such a s i t u a t i o n could occur. The concern centra l to th i s thes is i s : i f capaci ty is exceeded, exact ly what is to be done about i t ? 89 Summary This chapter reviewed the concept of sa tura t ion , in hopes of using i t as a measure to contro l and properly plan for t o u r i s t industry growth. Though no workable formula was found to measure such a saturat ion l e v e l , the concept is s t i l l considered important in order to emphasize the fact that there are l i m i t s of l o c a l tolerance to tourism. If a general methodological approach to the study and measurement of tourism's s o c i a l impacts is developed in la ter s tudies , i t would enable a better analys is and make comparative studies poss ib le . Carrying capacity / as defined in recreat ion planning, involves many concepts based upon personal perceptions of s a t i s f a c t i o n , expectations, and crowding. The la tes t studies on carry ing capaci ty seem to indicate i t is a range of values which must be re la ted to s p e c i f i c management object ives . Since no acceptable formula has been found to measure sa turat ion , indicators of approaching saturat ion w i l l be based on the guidel ines developed in Chapter 2, and on a review of the spec i f i ed areas of concern which Young (1973) thought led to "psychological saturat ion" of res idents . 90 CHAPTER FOUR:  POLICIES TO MITIGATE THE ADVERSE SOCIAL EFFECTS OF TOURISM This chapter examines ava i lab le l i t e r a t u r e for s p e c i f i c p o l i c i e s that have been used to mitigate impacts of tourism. The previous two chapters examined tourism and i t s impact, then studied how these impacts could cause a saturat ion l eve l to be reached. When th i s happens, the l i m i t of l o c a l tolerance to tourism w i l l have been reached. Chapter 3 did not f ind a su i table measurement of saturat ion but two methods of ind ica t ing impending saturat ion were mentioned (Young's reasons for saturat ion occuring, and the l i s t of question from Chapter 2). Though no measurements for saturat ion were found, the d e f i n i t i o n of saturat ion can be a useful tool in tourism planning. One must keep in mind, then, that there are l i m i t s to the amount of t our i s t s and tourism development that a host population w i l l t o l e r a t e . This chapter w i l l discuss the goals of planning for tourism and the roles that planners and government should play . It w i l l a lso present the three players involved in the t o u r i s t industry ( i . e . , investors , t o u r i s t s , and residents) and w i l l out l ine the ir goals . This sect ion of 91 Chapter 4 is necessary in order to understand who makes the p o l i c i e s , with what t o o l s , and for whom these p o l i c i e s are made. This d iscuss ion w i l l consider the methods that have been employed to mitigate the negative impacts of tourism (Chapter 2) and to avoid saturat ion (Chapter 3). The purpose of th i s chapter is to categorize the problems re lated to the t o u r i s t industry and then l i s t the s trategies designed to a l l e v i a t e the problems. 4 .1 Planning For Tourism To begin the d iscuss ion of planning for tourism, i t should be made c lear that l o c a l asp irat ions and needs must be incorporated into the planning process, since i t is v i t a l for a community to preserve i t s i d e n t i t y , l i f e s t y l e , and needs and p r i o r i t i e s in the face of tourism development. In order to be e f f e c t i v e , o v e r a l l tourism planning must foster the accomplishment of several goals at the same time. These goals are: a) rewards to owners - p r o f i t s , f a i r taxat ion , f a i r development guide l ines ; b) better user s a t i s f a c t i o n s - present a good product for 92 tour i s t s ; c) s o c i a l and phys ica l environmental balance - tourism development must not progress at the expense of the s o c i a l and phys ica l environment. To do t h i s , the divergencies between s o c i a l benefit and private benefit must be c o n t r o l l e d . Soc ia l benefits are the benefits (or costs) accruing to the population at large as opposed to owner/investors. It i s the ro le of the planner to promote a better f i t between behavioral needs and the environment. Publ ic planning for tourism is done by f edera l , p r o v i n c i a l and municipal agencies and involves two main elements: a) regulat ion and contro l of t o u r i s t development - these measures include the se t t ing of some areas off l i m i t s to t o u r i s t development, imposit ion of r e s t r i c t i o n s on the maximum number of t our i s t s in an area, contro l of land-use and b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t i e s in t o u r i s t l o c a l i t i e s , regulat ion of type, height and appearance of t o u r i s t accommodations, and prevention of over-commercial ization of t o u r i s t s i t e s and over -exp lo i ta t ion of t o u r i s t resources . Though such measures are not usual ly aimed to prevent t o u r i s t development, they nevertheless put r e s t r i c t i o n s on i t s unhampered growth. 93 The p r i c i n g mechanism, as an instrument of strategy and as a means of ensuring a return for the cost of providing f a c i l i t i e s , offers obvious scope for regulat ing demand in tourism, as elsewhere. Price can be adjusted to stimulate or r e s t r a i n demand to an acceptable l e v e l . The p r i c i n g mechanism can be affected outside the market by costs to developers or investors of increased business taxes, l icense fees, and development costs . b) general protect ive measures - these are for the protect ion and conservation of amenities such as beaches, fores t s , and wilderness areas. This type of ac t ion does not impose r e a l r e s t r i c t i o n s upon t o u r i s t development and a c t u a l l y protects the environment for tourism. It simply sets aside areas of preservation for general publ ic use or future government development. The ro le of government, besides i t s input through the planning process, i s to provide in fras truc ture and u t i l i t i e s , help set up s t a f f t r a i n i n g and promotional a c t i v i t i e s through t o u r i s t boards and ho t e l / r ecrea t ion schools , and regulate f i s c a l p o l i c i e s governing various components of the t o u r i s t industry ( i . e . , tax incentives to h o t e l i e r s ) . For example, since 1958, government loans have 94 supplied some 44 . 5 percent of the t o t a l investment in tourism in I s r a e l . Of I s r a e l ' s hotels b u i l t during that per iod , 90 percent have received such loans, in amount up to 67 percent of the net investment, at an interes t rate of as low as 6.5 percent. In contrast , because of the high rate of i n f l a t i o n , I s r a e l i banks have charged up to 36 percent interes t on loans (Bosselman, 1978). The development of the t o u r i s t industry could take three d i r e c t i o n s . In the end, each need must be modified by the others, but the fol lowing w i l l present an optimal course of development for each sector: A) Investors - these are the people whose businesses set out to a t t r a c t , accommodate, and service the t o u r i s t . Their interests are p r o f i t oriented with a natural aim to please the i r c l i e n t e l e , not necessar i ly l o c a l res idents or government agencies. The p r i o r i t i e s of investors are t o u r i s t - o r i e n t e d . They must be allowed enough room to operate by regulatory agencies in order for growth to occur in th i s industry . The s o c i a l and economic performance of t o u r i s t development can increase or decrease the v i t a l i t y of competition by inducing changes in t o u r i s t l o c a l i t y preferences, a f f ec t ing length of stay of t o u r i s t s , and inf luencing accommodation a t t r a c t i o n . 95 A good environment can be created for investors in the t o u r i s t industry by: a) Creat ing a pos i t ive and e f f i c i e n t development process within l o c a l government. If developers are encouraged by a lack of red-tape in the development stage, they w i l l f ee l encouraged to return for future pro jec t s . b) Providing some form of f i n a n c i a l assistance at the p r o v i n c i a l or federal l eve l where the needs could not be covered by f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s in the pr ivate sector . The existence of these spec ia l f i n a n c i a l needs prompted the introduct ion of the Development Corporation of B r i t i s h Columbia at the p r o v i n c i a l l eve l and two separate measures at the federal l e v e l , the Small Business Loans Act and the I n d u s t r i a l Development Bank Act . In Bosselman's study of I s r a e l , publ ic land is often sold or leased to hotel developers at reduced rates . Grants are given for purchase of I s r a e l i -made equipment (15 percent of value) and in fras truc ture (10 percent of c o s t ) . Income tax, property tax, customs duty, purchase tax, excise 96 l ev ies - a l l are s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduced. As we l l , the government often bui lds new roads and sewers to f a c i l i t a t e hotel cons truct ion . They view tourism as a business, the largest s ingle item in the world's foreign trade. B a s i c a l l y , pr ivate sector requirements for invest ing funds in any area is a product (which the Penticton region has), demand (people want nice vacation experiences) , the r ight investment climate (created by at t i tudes towards development by l o c a l government and res ident s ) , and a labour force capable and w i l l i n g to be employed in the t o u r i s t industry . If i t has a l l these things , with a p r o f i t p o t e n t i a l , then development should occur. Touris ts - people w i l l t r a v e l to areas where they can have fun, fee l safe, where there are a t t r a c t i v e phys ica l features , both natural and man-made (sun, beaches, shopping, cas inos) , and where they fee l welcome. A l l the man-made features are usua l ly provided by investors or l o c a l government. A welcome fee l ing from the residents is a lso requ ired . 97 C) Residents - the benefits of tourism accrue to many people in varying degrees, but the s o c i a l costs are borne by the res idents . In order not to af fect residents of Penticton (as an example) but s t i l l bring in needed revenue, se l f -conta ined t o u r i s t resorts would have to be developed along the more remote shores of Okanagan or Skaha Lake, much l i k e the Lake Okanagan Resort near Kelowna. However, at th i s stage in the evolut ion of Penticton and the t o u r i s t industry , such development would not ease Pent icton's present s i t u a t i o n given the amount of i t s t o u r i s t accommodation and serv i ce s . Whatever plans investor/developers have to "improve" the industry for themselves and the i r ultimate c l i e n t s , the "touris ts" , must be c a r e f u l l y studied by planners for the c i t y and/or region to al low a harmonious co-existence at a l l l e v e l s . Without appropriate zoning, adequate planning, and p o l i t i c a l ' a c t i o n , ex i s t ing problems could become more severe. Local and foreign investor/entrepreneurs involved in tourism can be expected to be engaged in aggressive promotion, while a smal l , vocal group can often be expected to lead aggressive opposit ion to t o u r i s t induced change. 98 The majority of the population can be expected to f a l l into the categories of s i l e n t or resigned acceptance of change, e i ther because of some benefits such as employment or new markets, or because they see no way of ha l t ing or revers ing a trend. 4.2 L i t e r a t u r e The l i t e r a t u r e provides some scattered e f for t s at improving the s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n around tourism des t inat ion areas. No one has dealt with th i s problem in any great d e t a i l or in a concise form. The e f for t s general ly f a l l into four categories . 4.2.1 P o l i c i e s to Mit igate Problems of Inadequate F a c i l i t i e s and Services This category of problems includes s t ree t s , t ransport , r ecrea t ion , beaches, f a c i l i t y loca t ion and s o c i a l s erv i ces . If problems at th i s l eve l and the environmental l eve l are dealt with, then resident acceptance of tourism w i l l become more poss ib le . 99 Rajotte (1982, 96) mentions a phys ica l planning approach to a f fec t the nature of in terac t ion between residents and t o u r i s t s . He acknowledges that the locat ion of hote l s , t o u r i s t a t t rac t ions and l i n k i n g transportat ion routes can have a major impact on long-run resident a t t i t u d e . The usual so lu t ion is to i so la te t o u r i s t s in resort 'ghettoes' , but th i s runs counter to the t o u r i s t s ' des ire to see the des t inat ion area and also increases the r i sk of negative l o c a l stereotypes springing from non-contact. He feels that in terms of r e s i d e n t - v i s i t o r i n t e r a c t i o n , "small scale and family type accommodation is preferrable to the development of the 'sunny playpen' cater ing to mass tourism" (p. 253). In Hawaii, the phys ica l impact that Rajotte discussed has been recognized and addressed. To prevent "helter skel ter" development ("Proposed Goals and Objectives for a Long-Range Comprehensive Plan for Maui County," (1977) as c i t ed by F a r r e l l , 1982), a proposal on Maui c a l l e d for a guided development, continued excellence and resort development that maintained the s o c i a l , economic and phys ica l environments of the county. Certa in guidel ines and s t ra teg i e s , which would hopeful ly 100 achieve these goals , are out l ined as follows (p. 151): - des t inat ion areas should be c l e a r l y defined to pre-vent overflow to undesignated areas; - obstructions to ocean views should be prevented; - landscaping should be required; l i g h t i n g and heights would have l imi ta t ions imposed; - an a r c h i t e c t u r a l review board should review con-s t r u c t i o n to ensure excellence and q u a l i t y ; - no d i r e c t mainland f l i g h t s to Maui should be per-mitted ; - construct ion should blend with the environment; - education and t r a i n i n g for the v i s i t o r industry would be provided to res idents; and - charges and fees would be assessed on new development for the prov i s ion of water. F a r r e l l f e l t that a uniform high q u a l i t y could be maintained in large-sca le projects which are l i k e l y to respond to community views and to l o c a l government d i r e c t i o n . The large-sca le development would be appropriate in des t inat ion areas with a small base populat ion. A large-scale development could be segregated from the community, be l a r g e l y s e l f s u f f i c i e n t , and not increase pressures on l o c a l systems. If these developments were in an area where cul ture was not a major a t t r a c t i o n , then these designated t o u r i s t areas could work to a l l e v i a t e some of the v i s i t o r -resident s t re s s . This is the view shared by Hudman (1978), mentioned in Chapter 2. If l o c a l / n o n - l o c a l contact is less 101 frequent, less f r i c t i o n w i l l be created. Bosselman (1978) has written about the planning strategy for Lake Kinneret in I s r a e l . Only a c e r t a i n amount of the hotel development was permitted in the two ex i s t ing c i t i e s along the lake shores. In th i s way i t was assured that the hotels would not p r o l i f e r a t e along the ent ire shore l ine . At the same time th i s made more v i s i t o r - r e s i d e n t in terac t ion necessary. In th i s case the environmental ef fects of the development took precedent over the possible s o c i a l e f f ec t s . Other problems of f a c i l i t i e s and services and some possible so lut ions are l i s t e d below: a) Transportat ion - t o u r i s t vehic les put added s t r a i n on s treet t r a f f i c and parking f a c i l i t i e s . Solutions include better use of a l t e r n a t i v e forms of t r a n s i t (buses, t a x i s ) , e f f i c i e n t t r a f f i c flow patterns (by-pass roads, one-way streets) and overflow parking f a c i l i t i e s . A l so , pedestrian and b icyc le t r a f f i c can be encouraged by walk-ways, bike paths, and the locat ion of recrea t iona l f a c i l i t i e s . 102 b) Recreational F a c i l i t i e s - the only way to s a t i s f y the needs of t o u r i s t s and residents is to have enough f a c i l i t i e s to s a t i s f y peak demand periods . Since t o u r i s t s usua l ly have some reason for a r r i v i n g at any p a r t i c u l a r des t ina t ion , these a t t rac t ions should be expanded, developed, or contro l l ed to gain the i r most e f f i c i e n t use. Any new, large-sca le developments should be encouraged to provide some form of recrea t iona l f a c i l i t i e s and services to t h e i r customers and residents of the area . c) Infrastructure i) Po l i ce and F i r e Services - an increase in population brought by t o u r i s t s would be expected to bring at least a proportionate increase in po l ice and f i r e protect ion requirements. This increase would probably be more than proportionate because of the reduced constraints on tour i s t s as mentioned by Archer (1978) in Chapter 2. A seasonal bo l s ter ing of po l i ce and f i r e protect ion services could be achieved by the use of 103 a u x i l i a r y s t a f f , a l t ered hol iday scheduling procedures, or transfers from quieter areas. Rothman (1978) found that residents in two east coast resort towns did not fee l po l i ce protect ion was less adequate in the summer despite the fact that most residents perceived summer to be a period of more crime. Rothman explained th i s apparent contrad ic t ion as the res idents ' awareness of the h i r i n g of a large contingent of seasonal po l i ce o f f i c e r s who were concentrated in h ighly v i s i b l e a c t i v i t i e s such as foot patrols and t r a f f i c c o n t r o l . These a c t i v i t i e s constant ly remind residents of the phys ica l presence of po l i ce pro tec t ion . A recurr ing problem for pol ice in t o u r i s t des t inat ion areas is the trans ients in the populat ion. These are people who remain for a short time, then move on to no where in p a r t i c u l a r . Cheng (1980) a lso notes that they are a sore point to permanent res idents . This could be changed by e i ther attempting to add to the permanent population by helping to persuade trans ients to s e t t l e in the area, by p r i c i n g them out of the area , h i r i n g l o c a l res idents f i r s t , or simply learning to l i v e with 104 them. i i ) Hospi ta l and Health Services - these f a c i l i t i e s would c e r t a i n l y be overtaxed with a seasonal population f l u c t u a t i o n . A seasonal or permanent c l i n i c could be set up using part-t ime or student help. This would ease any congestion of f a c i l i t i e s for l o c a l res idents . i i i ) Water Supply and Sewage Disposal - water supply must be considered when expanding services for t o u r i s t s as i t must f i t into an o v e r a l l water-use s trategy. An adequate sewage system is e s sent ia l whether i t is for a constant t o u r i s t population as in Hawaii or a seasonal peak t o u r i s t des t inat ion such as Pent ic ton. D'Amore (1983) f e l t that attempts to mitigate general growth problems in a given community should precede the introduct ion of tourism or any increase in ex i s t ing leve ls of t o u r i s t a c t i v i t y . "Otherwise l o c a l people tend to associate growth problems with tourism and to fee l some resentment of the tourism industry" (p.157). 105 4.2.2 P o l i c i e s to M i t i g a t e Problems of Undesirable Environmental C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Examples of u n d e s i r a b l e environmental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n c l u d e crowding, lack of open space, and poor a e s t h e t i c s . a) Crowding (high d e n s i t y ) - t h i s can be a negative or p o s i t i v e c o n d i t i o n (as d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 3), depending on the e x p e c t a t i o n s of the people i n v o l v e d . U s u a l l y , people w i l l come to an area l i k e W a i k i k i , Acapulco, or P e n t i c t o n , and expect crowds. This does not give the r e s i d e n t s of the d e s t i n a t i o n area any such c h o i c e . Residents who f e e l the e f f e c t s of crowding should have the choice of shopping and l e i s u r e f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n a neighbourhood or r e s i d e n t i a l enclave, or going i n t o the t o u r i s t zone. Beaches could be handled as i n Europe (Bosselman, 1978), where fences are e r e c t e d and spots can be r e s e r v e d . Season passes a t reduced r a t e s c o u l d be s o l d to r e s i d e n t s . b) Lack of Open Space - i t i s important f o r a c i t y to maintain open space. I t provides the parkland needed 106 for a c i t y ' s people to maintain heal th , enjoy the greenspace and for recrea t iona l f a c i l i t i e s . Bosselman (1978) f e l t that the q u a l i t y of the environment was great ly reduced in Jerusalem when publ ic parks were given away to hotel developers. c) Aesthet ics - reasons for d e s i r i n g good aesthet ics are explained by Porteous (1977, 231): adul t s , in fants , and laboratory animals have a fundamental perceptual preference for ambiguous, complex, v i s u a l patterns . Second, both lack of work on the other senses and experiments comparing several senses suggest that v i s i o n is dominant in human percept ion. T h i r d , and most import-ant, Rappoport and Kantor have put forward the notion that for each i n d i v i d u a l there is an optimal perceptual ra te . Too few and too simple s t i m u l i lead to saturat ion and chaos in comprehension. If the optimal perceptual rate var ies with the i n d i v i d u a l , then bui ldings and townscapes must be s u f f i c i e n t l y complex to provide a v a r i e t y of s t i m u l i , only some of which are perceived by any one i n d i v i d u a l . There should be a range of meanings and p o s s i b i l i t i e s for an i n d i v i d u a l to perceive , se lect and organize to his s a t i s f a c t i o n in a r c h i t e c t u r e . V a r i a t i o n , novelty , surpr is ingness , and incongruity are needed. 107 Optimum design occurs when the "design is s u f f i c i e n t to permit a choice of behaviors on the part of the user, and enhances rather than hinders the choice made, s a t i s f a c t i o n on the part of the user may r e s u l t . If th i s occurs without reducing the s a t i s f a c t i o n s of other users or potent ia l users, then good design has indeed promoted human welfare" (Porteous, 1977, 310). As F a r r e l l (1980, 80) expla ins , "in Hawaii unrestrained investment in r e a l estate , taste less design, and thoughtless development can destroy the phys ica l and human resources on which tourism is based." What F a r r e l l feels i s needed is enough understanding of aesthet ics to al low bu i ld ing and design to be compatible with surroundings and in accord with the c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s of long-time res idents . His views are seconded by Archer (1978), who found that some bu i ld ing designs were created for v i s i t o r s rather than for the residents who had to look at them year-round. Qua l i ty new t o u r i s t development should be required to have design appeal . This requirement should be de ta i l ed at the time of development a p p l i c a t i o n . Landscaping should be an i n t e g r a l part of the aesthet ics of a development. It should also be used to hide parking lo ts and service areas. 108 Other environmental impacts might include coastal and marine resources and a i r q u a l i t y . Unlike many other economic a c t i v i t i e s , the success of tourism depends on maintenance of those environmental q u a l i t i e s which a t t r a c t t o u r i s t s . This was done in F i j i (Rajotte, 1982) by: - contro l of dredging; - protect ing coasta l wetlands; - c o n t r o l l i n g run-of f from bu i ld ing s i t e s ; - c o n t r o l l i n g p o l l u t i o n , such as sewage; - avoiding destruct ion of cora l reefs ; - regulat ing hunting, f i sh ing and c o l l e c t i n g ; - e s tab l i sh ing reserves or nat ional parks. 4 . 2 . 3 P o l i c i e s to Increase Publ ic Acceptance There are several ways of increasing publ ic acceptance of the t o u r i s t industry . a) A publ ic r e la t ions program needs to be undertaken to increase resident awareness. This has been mentioned in studies by Rajotte (1982), and D'Amore (1983), F a r r e l l (1982) and Lundberg (1976), to name only a few. This 109 program co u l d approach the problem i n s e v e r a l d i r e c t i o n s . F i r s t , by simply making the p u b l i c , through the media, more aware of t h e i r r o l e i n the i n d u s t r y and the importance of t o u r i s m to the economy, r e s i d e n t s would be put i n a more p a r t i c i p a t o r y mood. Improvement i n the d e s t i n a t i o n ' s l e g i b i l i t y c o u l d be u s e f u l i n improving the c i t i z e n s ' q u a l i t y of l i f e through enhanced awareness, i n c r e a s e d i n t e r a c t i o n , and reduced s t r e s s . Improvement i n the community from t o u r i s t development could happen by i n c r e a s i n g the exposure of people to a v a r i e t y of environmental s e t t i n g s and p o t e n t i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s , by f a c i l i t a t i n g and s t i m u l a -t i n g e x p l o r a t i o n throughout the c i t y , and improving the p o t e n t i a l f o r p e r s o n a l attachment to p l a c e s . T h i s c o u n t e r a c t s r o o t l e s s n e s s , improves c h o i c e , and enhances the p o s s i b i l i t y of environmental manipula-t i o n by the i n d i v i d u a l . The l e g i b i l t y or ' f e e l ' of a c i t y can be improved f o r example by: i ) enhancing the q u a l i t y of the c i t i z e n s ' image of downtown; i i ) improving p e r s o n a l m o b i l i t y ; i i i ) " o r i e n t a t i o n and p a t h f i n d i n g w i t h i n the c i t y are fundamentally necessary s k i l l s which might 110 be enhanced by improvements in transport system l e g i b i l i t y and the imageab i l i t i y of areas and nodes" (Porteous, 1977, 126). A second approach is to involve the v i s i t o r s in a program that gives them input into t h e i r vacation experiences and also makes the residents more aware of what i s happening in t h e i r c i t y (Rajotte, 1982). An example of th i s is the fol lowing l e t t e r (Figure 9) appearing in the rooms of a hotel chain in Hawaii. There are without a doubt c e r t a i n amenities e x i s t i n g in many t o u r i s t des t inat ion areas which are there because of the t o u r i s t industry . These are also enjoyed by the general populat ion, who should be informed of these benef i t s . Specia l taxes from t o u r i s t projec t s , parking, and recrea t iona l f a c i l i t i e s should be put into a fund to finance community pro jec t s . If res idents saw these f a c i l i t i e s and were aware of the source of funds, they could see how the t o u r i s t industry was benef i t t ing them. This might increase resident tolerance of otherwise annoying problems. Porteous (1977, 219) explains that "a given stimulus may at f i r s t produce a strong response. When the same 111 F i g u r e 9 . November 1983 To Our Guests: We take pleasure in welcoming you to Hawaii and wish you a pleasant stay on our enjoyable iislands. ;We want you to know that the owner and management of your hotel is desirous of insuring the enjoyment of your stay by making sure Waikiki remains attractive and desirable. We are actively involved in efforts to guarantee that our visitors are free from nuisances on our streets. However, like everywhere else we sometimes experience temporary setbacks. A law prohibiting street peddling has been upheld by the courts but the law cannot be put into effect at this moment. Due to this legal technicality, you may presently experience the unfortunate nuisance of street peddling on Kalakaua and other Waikiki streets. Because of our concern for your vacation, we wish to alert you to this possibility as well as to apologize for any inconvenience imposed upon you by such activity. We fully expect to restore the proper "Aloha Spirit" to our streets in the very near future. iln the meantime, we suggest that you exercise discretion in any contact you may have with street peddlers or solicitors. They pass out handbills which litter our streets; some promote what appears to be a "free" meal, show or tour which can turn into an unwanted extended sales pitch. Others gain your attention by giving you a flower in order to sell plaques or solicit monetary contributions for their "religious" organization. i We believe that as vacationing guests in the State of Hawaii, you should be free of any personal imposition of this kind. jou can also help us abate these practices by voicing your opinion on this matter. This can be done by writing a personal letter to: If you are so inclined, a letter to the Editor of either of Honolulu's daily papers would also be helpful. Their addresses are: We appreciate your assistance in helping to keep Waikiki and Hawaii a special place known for its Aloha Spirit! Mahalo, The Management of the Reef Hotels i l l Judge Samuel P. King Senior Judge U.S. District Court Prince Kuhio Federal Building Honolulu, Hawaii 96813 Editor Honolulu Advertiser 605 Kapiolani Blvd. Honolulu, Hawaii 96813 Editor Honolulu Star Bulletin 605 Kapiolani Blvd. Honolulu, Hawaii 96813 REEF HOTEL • WAIKIKI TOWER of the REEF • -REEF TOWERS HOTEL • EDGEWATER HOTEL ON THE BEACH AT WAIKIKI • HONOLULU, HAWAII 96815 • TELEPHONE (808) 923-3111 For Reservations Call TOLL FREE (800) 367-5610 stimulus i s r e p e a t e d l y presented, the o r i g i n a l response may e v e n t u a l l y decrease or disappear. The i n d i v i d u a l i s then s a i d to be h a b i t u a t e d to the s t i m u l u s . " In regards to tourism, t h i s c ould be i n t e r p r e t e d two ways. F i r s t , r e s i d e n t s should become hab i t u a t e d to the problems of tourism, so s a t u r a t i o n would subside or not be a t t a i n e d . T h i s does not seem to occur, s i n c e enough time e l a p s e s between the summer s t i m u l i each year ( i n seasonal d e s t i n a t i o n areas) t h a t y e a r - l o n g h a b i t u a t i o n does not occur. Secondly, i n the case of b e n e f i t s , p u b l i c a t i o n of b e n e f i t s would appear to be a good p o l i c y . Porteous goes on to e x p l a i n t h a t meaning and value of the stimulus are other f a c t o r s . Experiments have been done i n which c h i l d r e n were asked to estimate the s i z e of poker c h i p s . When the c h i p s were given as a reward f o r performing a task, and c o u l d then be used to buy candy, t h e i r s i z e was g r e a t l y over-estimated. When the rewards ceased, s i z e o v e r - e s t i m a t i o n decreased, r i s i n g again when the rewards were r e - i n s t a t e d . The s i z e e s t i m a t i o n s of c o n t r o l groups which d i d not r e c e i v e rewards d i d not v a r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y . 113 c) Residents would accept tourism easier i f there were no p o l i c i n g problems associated with i t . E a r l i e r c los ing hours for pubs and night clubs would reduce potent ia l for late night dr inking p a r t i e s . The t o u r i s t is often seen as an easy crime v i c t i m . Hawaii ( F a r r e l l , 1982) has s tarted a program where i t supplies funds to bring witnesses back to Hawaii for t r i a l s . d) If the publ ic had more input into the planning and policy-making process (not just at the implementation and employment stage), i t would ease some negative res ident a t t i tudes (Bosselman, 1978, Loukissas , 1982, and Clevendon, 1979). Several techniques have long been in use for assessing publ ic preferences. These include publ ic opinion p o l l s , referendums, vot ing at several government l eve l s , publ ic hearings, l e t t e r s sent to newspaper edi tors or publ ic o f f i c i a l s , and the statements of a var i e ty of pressure groups. In planning terms, i n d i v i d u a l and group enlightenment may be achieved by d iscover ies that perceptions of both problems and so lut ions d i f f e r between ind iv idua l s and groups. Knowledge of a p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i -dual ' s or group's a t t i tudes and values, and t h e i r antecedents, may be a powerful input into planning. At the very l eas t , i t may 114 r e s u l t i n a more humanistic approach to pla n n i n g f o r others on the p a r t of s e n s i t i v e d e s i g n e r s (Porteous, 1977, 232). In t h i s statement, Porteous i n d i c a t e s the importance of understanding and a l l o w i n g a group, l i k e a n t i - t o u r i s m r e s i d e n t s , to be heard. People have the r i g h t to be co n s u l t e d about plans and d e c i s i o n s which not o n l y may prof o u n d l y a f f e c t t h e i r way of l i f e , but which they are a l s o paying f o r through p u b l i c funds. A d r o p - i n c e n t r e , where c i t i z e n - g e n e r a t e d p l a n n i n g ideas c o u l d be worked out, and where d e c i s i o n s might be made about zoning, d e n s i t i e s , housing, and open space, as w e l l as to u r i s m p l a n n i n g , would be b e n e f i c i a l . The t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s of a planner would be needed a t such a ce n t r e , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e i n f o r m a t i o n d e r i v e d s o l e l y from t o u r i s t a s s o c i a t i o n s and the Chamber of Commerce are o f t e n viewed as s l a n t e d (Thomason, Crompton & Kamp, 1979). Though there i s a chance t h a t s e l f - i n t e r e s t groups c o u l d c o n t r o l such a c e n t r e , and that such a concept c o u l d d e l a y decision-making, planners would a t l e a s t be more aware of the p u b l i c they are pl a n n i n g f o r . P l a n n i n g must s t r e s s p u b l i c c o n t r o l of p r i v a t e investment and development d e c i s i o n s . Ideas are t r a n s m i t t e d w i t h i n a c u l t u r e by agencies 115 i n c l u d i n g : e d u c a t i o n systems and r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u -t i o n s ; d i v e r s e i n t e r e s t groups, both p o l i t i c a l and n o n p o l i t i c a l ; and the mass media and the persons who s e l e c t the ideas and i d e a l s they t r a n s m i t . Clevendon (1979) f e e l s i t i s the development of mass, i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d tourism, where c o n t r o l of decision-making and ownership of t o u r i s m f a c i l i t i e s passes out of the hands of the host p o p u l a t i o n , which c r e a t e s the circumstances where a r i f t occurs between t o u r i s t and l o c a l r e s i d e n t . He f e e l s there are "three e s s e n t i a l elements f o r the balanced growth of t o u r i s m f r e e of d e l e t e r i o u s s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l e f f e c t s (p. 6): i ) the number of t o u r i s t s must not grow at a r a t e beyond the c a p a c i t i e s of the l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n to manage and c a t e r to them; i i ) the country's t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n s ( n a t u r a l and man-made) should a l r e a d y e x i s t to meet l o c a l needs so t h a t t o u r i s m supplements l o c a l demand; i i i ) p l a n n i n g must be undertaken i n c o - o p e r a t i o n with 116 the l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n . Such an approach to p l a n n i n g w i l l a l l l o w the t o u r i s t s e c t o r to be developed i n c l o s e alignment with other s e c t o r s and i n c l o s e harmony with l o c a l c u l t u r e ; i t w i l l f a c i l i t a t e the p r o t e c t i o n of p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s , the o r g a n i z a t i o n of t r a i n i n g and r e s e a r c h programmes and the gauging of the c o r r e c t pace of development, i . e . , the optimal l e v e l of t o u r i s t f l o ws." Of course i t i s not j u s t r e s i d e n t s who must be c o n s i d e r e d . I f t o u r i s t s are not t r e a t e d to a good product, i n a d d i t i o n to a f r i e n d l y welcome, they w i l l not be back. E f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g must be based on a constant assessment of problems as p e r c e i v e d by resource s p e c i a l i s t s , v i s i t o r s , and r e s i d e n t s a l i k e . E f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g to improve the q u a l i t y of the environment and to meet the needs of a v a r i e t y of groups can help to stop a major permanent r e d u c t i o n i n t o u r i s t a c t i v i t y . e) P u b l i c acceptance of the t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y would be b e t t e r i f problems of inadequate f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s and u n d e s i r a b l e environmental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were d e a l t with. Often normal growth problems are blamed on tourism, so i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t l o c a l people's needs 117 are addressed before any i n c r e a s e i n t o u r i s t a c t i v i t y . A l i e n a t i o n of r e s i d e n t s towards t o u r i s t s c o u l d be reduced by o r g a n i z i n g more o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r community p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t o u r i s t events and a c t i v i t i e s . Residents w i l l view t o u r i s t s i n a f r i e n d l i e r manner i f perso n a l r a t h e r than commercialized r e l a t i o n s h i p s can be developed. One way of i n v o l v i n g more r e s i d e n t s would be to encourage "bed and b r e a k f a s t " accommodations. This would a l l o w more r e s i d e n t - v i s i t o r i n t e r a c t i o n , ease ho t e l / m o t e l overcrowding d u r i n g peak p e r i o d s , and help the average r e s i d e n t e c o n o m i c a l l y . Although t h i s recommendation might seem to c o n t r a d i c t a p o l i c y of s e g r e g a t i o n of v i s i t o r and r e s i d e n t , i t i s probably the best p o s s i b l e s t r a t e g y . I f l a r g e , s p a c i a l l y separated or zoned developments were allowed i n re g i o n s of l i t t l e h i s t o r i c a l or c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t , i t would reduce the p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t by red u c i n g the amount of c o n t a c t . Bed and b r e a d f a s t s t y l e accommodation would a l l o w s m a l l -s c a l e i n t e r a c t i o n to occur, making the t o u r i s t s seem more human. Economic involvement between t o u r i s t and r e s i d e n t i s t o l e r a t e d much more than a s h a r i n g of f a c i l i t i e s and neighbourhoods. 118 f) Improving employee t r a i n i n g and working c o n d i t i o n s ( R a j o t t e , 1982) would encourage employees to be f r i e n d l y and aware of the v a r i o u s f o r c e s a f f e c t i n g the i n d u s t r y . A t o u r i s m i n d u s t r y s c h o o l would a l s o help i n the development of t e c h n i c a l and a s s o c i a t e d s k i l l s . Tourism employment i s u s u a l l y s e l f - s e l e c t i n g i n t h a t f r i e n d l y , outgoing people are most l i k e l y to want, and to keep, jobs i n v o l v i n g d i r e c t c o n t a c t with v i s i t o r s . 4.2.4 P o l i c i e s to A t t r a c t or Expand Tourism Since the t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the economic, p h y s i c a l , and s o c i a l environment of any t o u r i s t d e s t i n a t i o n , i t i s i n e v i t a b l e t h a t growth w i l l take p l a c e . T h i s growth can occur: a) with the same f a c i l i t i e s but i n c r e a s e d u t i l i z a t i o n i n the o f f - s e a s o n s ; b) with i n c r e a s e d i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and f a c i l i t y growth; and c) by a combination of p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t y growth and b e t t e r u t i l i z a t i o n . Increased u t i l i z a t i o n could be achieved by a promotional campaign f o r o f f - s e a s o n t r a v e l . T e c h n i c a l and 119 f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e c o u l d be provided f o r c o - o r d i n a t i n g arrangements f o r p u b l i c i t y , promotion, and r e s e r v a t i o n s to help s m a l l , l o c a l h o t e l / m o t e l s and other t o u r i s m e n t e r p r i s e s . Since the type of promotion determines the type and number of v i s i t o r s who w i l l be a t t r a c t e d , and what t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s w i l l be, a process should be e s t a b l i s h e d to enable i n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n groups to a c t as c r i t i c s of a d v e r t i s i n g and promotional campaigns. The marketing e f f o r t should be r e l a t e d to the c a p a c i t y to absorb t o u r i s t s . Few t o u r i s t areas have a management body, be i t a p u b l i c agency, a p r i v a t e a l l i a n c e , or a combination of people from the p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s , which i s empowered to make d e c i s i o n s on o v e r a l l t o u r i s m development. It i s more common to f i n d mechanisms to de a l with s p e c i f i c a p p l i c a t i o n s . For example, zoning and b u i l d i n g r e g u l a t i o n s govern the forms of development i n s p e c i f i c areas, and development approval processes e s t a b l i s h o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p a r t i e s other than the proponent of a p r o j e c t to make environmental and s o c i a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s . O v e r a l l p l a n n i n g and management, however, r a r e l y e x i s t . The second way f o r growth to occur - expanding the f a c i l i t i e s f o r t o u r i s m - would probably occur n a t u r a l l y i f b e t t e r year-round use were made of present f a c i l i t i e s . 120 If tourism is part of an area's industry, i t might as well be healthy for the benefit of a l l p layers , due to the many sp in -o f f e f f ec t s . The use of l o c a l c a p i t a l , entrepreneuria l a b i l i t y and labor should be encouraged in the t o u r i s t industry (D'Amore, 1983, 155). This allows a degree of l o c a l contro l over the d i r e c t i o n of tourism development and increases employment and economic benefits to the community. Expanding or a t t r a c t i n g more tourism can ra i se the employment opportunit ies within a c i t y , and create a fee l ing of v i t a l i t y . The saturat ion l e v e l could be lowered at the same time by properly introducing new development into the c i t y while continuing to t r y some of the other p o l i c i e s designed to mitigate negative s o c i a l impacts. In other words, i f there i s going to be new development, i t should be done s e n s i t i v e l y with the knowledge that saturat ion must be avoided. Certa in problems, re lated to the t o u r i s t industry , are beyond governmental contro l (high construct ion costs , c r e d i t d i f f i c u l t i e s ) while others can be solved by order ly t o u r i s t planning and development. Strategies to solve some of these problems have already been discussed. These include: 121 F a c i l i t i e s and S e r v i c e s : - b o l s t e r p o l i c e f o r c e , make them ve r y v i s i b l e , d e a l with t r a n s i e n t s ; - t o u r i s t h e a l t h c l i n i c s ; - improved sewage d i s p o s a l ; - t r a f f i c and parking improvements; - i n c r e a s e organized t o u r i s t / r e s i d e n t s p o r t and l e i s u r e programs; - b e t t e r c o - o r d i n a t i o n of accommodation s e c t o r ; - designated t o u r i s t areas or near s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t l a r g e - s c a l e developments are p r e f e r r e d . Environment: - development of neighbourhood shopping areas so r e -s i d e n t s do not have to compete with t o u r i s t crowds; - p r e s e r v a t i o n of open space; - improved a e s t h e t i c s i n a r c h i t e c t u r e and landscape; - pursuance of a programme of t o t a l land use p l a n n i n g and land use c o n t r o l s , zoning, and r e g u l a t o r y measures to ensure a q u a l i t y environment; - p r e s e r v a t i o n of water q u a l i t y at beaches and p r i v a c y options f o r r e s i d e n t s a t beaches. P u b l i c Acceptance: - a p u b l i c r e l a t i o n program to i n c r e a s e p u b l i c accep-tance and awareness of tourism; - f a c i l i t i e s provided or funded by t o u r i s m should be a d v e r t i s e d as such; - an upgrading of f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s would improve p u b l i c acceptance; - improve p o l i c i n g problems; - p u b l i c input i n t o the p l a n n i n g process f o r t o u r i s m 122 and o v e r a l l development should be a p r i o r i t y ; - proper employee t r a i n i n g c l a s s e s should be g i v e n . A t t r a c t i n g or Expanding Tourism: - lengthen the t o u r i s t season; - encourage v i s i t o r s to s t a y longer and to spend more money per day; - ensure good land use and high q u a l i t y f a c i l i t i e s ; - r a i s e the p r o f i t a b i l i t y of the i n d u s t r y by improved management i n government and i n d u s t r y ; - promotion and a d v e r t i s i n g by a s i n g l e agency; - educating l o c a l people f o r employment and i n -volvement ; - a "theme" f o r t o u r i s m c o u l d be developed; - l e g a l i z a t i o n of gambling. T h i s e n t i r e l i s t of s t r a t e g i e s does not n e c e s s a r i l y a p p l y i n a l l contexts where there i s t o u r i s m development. Each i s s u e should be a p p l i e d as a p p r o p r i a t e . For i n s t a n c e , some t o u r i s t d e s t i n a t i o n areas might not be able to assemble group s p o r t programs. This would be the case i n K i h e i , Hawaii, where h o t e l s are spread a t i n t e r v a l s down the beach and q u i e t , t r a n q u i l , low-density h o l i d a y s are o f f e r e d . 123 Summary The main purpose of Chapter 4 was to c a t e g o r i z e the problems r e l a t e d to the t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y and then l i s t some p o l i c i e s to m i t i g a t e the problems. The c a t e g o r i e s of problems f e l l i n t o four groups. These were: Problems of Inadequate F a c i l i t i e s and S e r v i c e s ; Problems of Undesirable Environmental C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; Problems of P u b l i c Acceptance; and Problems of A t t r a c t i n g or Expanding Tourism. A v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e was reviewed f o r methods t h a t could d e a l with the adverse s o c i a l e f f e c t s of tourism. I t was found t h a t p u b l i c acceptance of t o u r i s m would be gr e a t e r i f there were fewer problems r e l a t e d to f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s , and the environment. T h i s can be accomplished most e a s i l y with l a r g e - s c a l e development that i s segregated from the community. A f t e r d e a l i n g with f a c i l i t i e s , s e r v i c e s , and the environment, the most important way to av o i d s a t u r a t i o n i s to i n c r e a s e r e s i d e n t awareness of the t o u r i s m i n d u s t r y and in v o l v e r e s i d e n t s a t a l l l e v e l s . 124 The l i s t of s t r a t e g i e s developed can be used (where a p p r o p r i a t e ) to improve the t o u r i s m i n d u s t r y i n de v e l o p i n g t o u r i s m areas, or areas where s a t u r a t i o n i s a l r e a d y being approached. The g e n e r a l p o l i c i e s developed i n t h i s chapter can now be a p p l i e d to a s i t u a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia where t o u r i s m i s a major f a c t o r i n the l o c a l economy. 125 CHAPTER FIVE: TOURISM IN PENTICTON The purpose of th i s chapter is to demonstrate the f e a s i b i l i t y of the p o l i c i e s developed in Chapter 4 by applying them to a community experiencing subs tant ia l tourism impacts. Penticton is a small c i t y where tourism is very important, e s p e c i a l l y in the summer months. It has been selected for th i s study because of the amount of t o u r i s t a c t i v i t y within the c i t y and the surrounding area, because of i t s reputat ion as a t o u r i s t de s t ina t ion , and because there are problems associated with Pent icton's tourism industry . In order to understand Penticton in a s o c i a l sense, i t is necessary to have an economic and h i s t o r i c a l background of the c i t y . 5.1 Location Penticton is located in the Okanagan V a l l e y , 398 kilometres from Vancouver, 676 kilometres from Calgary, 370 126 WITHIN A FIGURE 10 MAJOR POPULATION CENTRES EOUR HUNDRED MILE RADIUS OF PENTICTON 127 FIGURE 11: PENTICTON'S LOCATION RELATIVE TO THE REST OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Source: P e n t i c t o n community p r o f i l e , 1986. 129 PENTICTON (D PEACH BOWL © MEMORIAL ARENA © QUEENS PARK KINGS PARK PENTICTON GOLF ft COUNTRY CIU8 © LAKAWANNA PARK LAWN BOWLING C L U B © MCLAREN PARK MCNICOLL PARK © COLUMBIA PARK © KI WAN 13 PARK ANO POOL @ PENTICTON HIGH SCHOOL © PRINCESS MARGARET SI 5NOWOEN SCHOOLS S K A H A L A K E PARK ® HORSESHOE C L U 8 OKANAGAN L A K E S K A H A L A K E P E N T I C T O N YACHT CLUB © FISH GAME ft R IFLE CLUB kilometres from Spokane and 476 kilometres from Seatt le (Figure 10). Other major towns in the region include Kelowna, Vernon and Summerland (Figure 11). Penticton is s i tuated between two lakes - Okanagan and Skaha - with f ive miles of sandy beach. The c i t y , b u i l t on an a l l u v i a l p l a i n , comprises 8,101 acres and is 1,150 feet above sea l eve l (Figure 12). East and west of the c i t y are f e r t i l e benchlands dotted with orchards and subdiv i s ions . Beyond these are r o l l i n g h i l l s that shel ter the c i t y from storms. 5 . 2 Br ie f His tory A b r i e f h i s t o r y of Penticton and i t s urbanizat ion process is e s sent ia l in order to understand the evolut ion of the c i t y ' s economy. The f i r s t white men t r a v e l l e d through the Okanagan on the Hudson's Bay Fur Brigade T r a i l in 1813. However, i t was not u n t i l 1865 that the f i r s t s e t t l e r , Thomas E l l i s , a r r i v e d . E l l i s acquired 650 acres and b u i l t i t into a c a t t l e empire of 30,000 acres . He b u i l t his home near the heart of present-day Penticton (named for the Indian word 130 "Pen-tak-ten" meaning a place to l i v e forever ) . The Southern Okanagan Land Company was incorporated in 1906 with a c a p i t a l i z a t i o n of f ive hundred thousand d o l l a r s . The object ive was to purchase land from Tom E l l i s and develop i t into a townsite subdiv i s ion and for use as farmland. In 1872, E l l i s planted the f i r s t orchard and the Land Company r e a l i z e d that , provided with an adequate supply of water, the Penticton d i s t r i c t could become one of the f inest fru i t -growing areas in Canada. To th i s end, a large-scale grav i ty i r r i g a t i o n system, complete with intake dams and storage s i t e s , was developed. Penticton was incorporated as a D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t y in 1908. In 1915, the Kett le Va l l ey Railway, a subs id iary of C . P . R . , completed a l i n k to the mainline and tr i -weekly service to Vancouver establ ished a pro f i tab le market for Okanagan produce. Transportat ion of f r u i t required packing cases and more industr ies began to develop, inc luding sawmills and wood-working p lants . Packing houses and canneries were establ ished to process surplus products which were not immediately sa leable . Lumbering and sawmill industr ies were st imulated to greater production by the bu i ld ing needs of 131 new s e t t l e r s and new business enterpr i ses , as well as the continued demand for r a i l r o a d t i e s by the s t i l l expanding rai lway system ( h i s t o r i c a l data from Economic Development  Commission, 1983). In 1949, completion of the Hope-Princeton Highway e f f e c t i v e l y opened the south Okanagan to t o u r i s t t r a f f i c from the populated centres of the coast . The t o u r i s t industry overtook the frui t -growing industry in economic importance. However, there was s t i l l a dwindling 2,300 acres of orchards within c i t y l i m i t s . With the transportat ion improvements a f ter World War I I , and the r e s u l t i n g increase in the number of t o u r i s t s , auto courts began to take over favourable locat ions along the main roads and along the shores of the Okanagan and Skaha Lakes. This added to the ordinary r e s i d e n t i a l ribbon growth. The opening of the Roger's Pass sect ion of the Trans-Canada Highway brought the Okanagan within comfortable d r i v i n g distance of Calgary and Edmonton. The r e s u l t i n g increase in t o u r i s t trade was comparable to that occasioned by the opening of the Hope-Princeton Highway. 132 5.3 The Economy Although the service industry is the backbone of the economy, other industr ies are of considerable importance. The forest industry employs about four hundred l o c a l people ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1981) in logging and sawmil l ing. With four plants in the area producing mobile and modular housing u n i t s , Penticton has become the centre for mobile home manufacturing in B r i t i s h Columbia. Addi t iona l manufacturing a c t i v i t i e s include f r u i t processing and canning, a winery, and concrete products. Agr icu l ture continues to contribute to the economy of the area . Apples, pears, peaches and cherr ies are grown, as well as grapes for wine production. Pent ic ton's beaches and climate are the main a t t r a c t i o n during the summer. E f f o r t s are being made to promote conventions in spr ing , and f a l l and winter s k i i n g at Apex Alpine (twenty-three miles west of Pent ic ton) . Ski ing is a lso ava i l ab l e at Big White (Kelowna) and S i l v e r Star (Vernon). 133 The convention f a c i l i t i e s offered by Penticton are impressive. The Peach Bowl Convention Centre contains almost t h i r t y thousand square feet of f l e x i b l e meeting space, with a main h a l l capable of seating two thousand people. A $2,500,000 expansion is planned for the near future in order to accommodate up to 4,500 delegates. E i g h t y - s i x percent of convention delegates a r r i v e in months other than J u l y and August. In 1985 convention attendance was 16,000, down from the peak year of 1978 in which there was 23,500 delegates. Another se l f -conta ined convention area, capable of handling groups of ten to f ive hundred people, is located in the Delta Lakeside Hote l . In 1986, the Delta and the Sandman Inn had for ty smaller conventions booked with fourteen thousand delegates. The convention industry has grown in importance making Penticton the t h i r d most attended locat ion af ter V i c t o r i a and Vancouver (Corporation of the C i t y of Pent ic ton, 1986). Other a t t rac t ions provided by the c i t y and region include the Okanagan Game Farm, where v i s i t o r s can drive through acres of land to view a v a r i e t y of animals in a natural s e t t ing ; the Continuing Education Centre at Naramata, which sponsors an annual Summer School of A r t ; the 134 Peach F e s t i v a l , held in late Ju ly ; the Septober Wine F e s t i v a l ; two water s l i d e s ; the Dominion Radio Astrophys ica l Observatory; three eighteen-hole gol f courses; three Par-3 go l f courses; two marinas; a yacht c lub; a c u r l i n g r i n k ; the Okanagan River Channel for r a f t r i d e s ; and two ice arenas. 5.4 Population The population of Penticton (23,400 in 1981) experienced an increase of eight percent between 1976 and 1981 (Figure 13). One author i ta t ive forecast , by B . C . Research (as c i t ed in Corporation of the C i t y of Pent ic ton, 1986, 7), projects a 1.2 percent annual rate of increase between 1981 and 1991, to a 1991 population of about 26, 000. The largest population increase between 1976 and 1981 in Penticton (for ten-year age group) was in the s i x t y to s ix ty -n ine age group, r e f l e c t i n g the popular i ty of Penticton as a retirement area . F i f t een percent of Pent icton's population in 1976 was s i x t y - f i v e years of age and over. By 1981, th i s had r i s en to eighteen percent while the population over s i x t y - f i v e years in a l l of B r i t i s h Columbia was 10.8 percent up from 9.8 percent in 1976 ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1981). 135 FIGURE 13 POPULATION OF PENTICTON: 1951 - 1981 PopuilaT*ion Z4-000 Z00OD 1 bOOO 12.000 QOOb 4-000 H5I 5fc £>l Lie 1\ 81 Source: S t a t i s t i c s Canada In 1978, there were 370 persons l i v i n g on the Penticton Indian Band reserve (Regional D i s t r i c t of Okanagan-Similkameen, 1983). A sawmill located on reserve property provides employment for many band members. Sometimes during the summer months there are as many t o u r i s t s as permanent residents in Pent ic ton. For example, during the J u l y 1st long weekend in 1979 (when the permanent population would have been around 22,000 people) , there were s i x t y - f i v e to seventy thousand people in the c i t y (D'Amore & Associates L t d . , 1980). Though the accommodation sector could not handle th i s many v i s i t o r s , i t is probable that 136 many v i s i t o r s were staying with res ident fr iends or were there for a day v i s i t only. 5.5 O r i g i n of Touris t s The majority of t o u r i s t s coming to Penticton have been other B r i t i s h Columbians, Albertans , and some United States c i t i z e n s (22%). The business created by tourism for the Okanagan-Similkameen Region in 1981 was 230,000,000 d o l l a r s in revenue and 1,600,000 person-tr ips or overnight stops (Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Tourism High l ight s , 1983). 5.6 Community Plan The o f f i c i a l community plan for Penticton was prepared by the Planning Department of the Regional D i s t r i c t of Okanagan-Similkameen and was adopted in 1982. The plan sets out goals and l i v a b i l i t y standards as d irected by the c i t i z e n s and community leaders , and serves as a basis for municipal land use by-laws which regulate development. A l i s t of th i r t een goals is included in the p lan . Only one of these goals mention tourism d i r e c t l y - ". . .encourage v i s i t o r s to the c i t y during off season months by providing 137 winter sports and a wider v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s . " Other s o c i a l l y important goals l i s t e d in the plan include: - implement a phased program of development projects to ensure order ly growth. - maintain a high q u a l i t y of l i v i n g environment through the protect ion of natural assets , b e a u t i f i c a t i o n of roadways, improvement of recrea t iona l opportunit ies and promotion of the commercial and i n d u s t r i a l base. - preserve i n d u s t r i a l land to accommodate ant ic ipated demand. At t rac t new industr ies and promote ex i s t ing ones. - provide a choice of locat ions and a var i e ty of r e s i d e n t i a l accommodations, ( inc luding new r e s i d e n t i a l ) such as Campbell Mountain-Eastern H i l l s i d e . - secure an open space system of greenbelts and walkways l i n k i n g neighbourhoods with parks, community f a c i l i t i e s and natural assets . Within th i s set of goals are fourteen planning object ives coupled with development p o l i c i e s for each. Some 138 of these are for the protect ion and preservat ion of productive farmland, and for lands which are capable of a g r i c u l t u r e , for the provis ion of c u l t u r a l and recrea t iona l opportuni t i e s , services and f a c i l i t i e s , and for ensuring c o m p a t i b i l i t y among the various land uses. The commercial areas of Penticton are divided into seven d i f f e r e n t types. Tour i s t commercial areas "meeting the projected short-term accommodation, service and recrea t iona l needs of v i s i t o r s " are provided for in the Central Business D i s t r i c t ; in areas re la ted to the a r t e r i a l road network; and in other locat ions des irable because of the i r proximity to recreat ion and convention f a c i l i t i e s and/or the a i r p o r t t erminal . To secure f l e x i b i l i t y in design and v i s u a l l y a t t r a c t i v e development, and in keeping with promoting the c i t y as a competitive t o u r i s t centre, development permit area designations w i l l be provided for along major a r t e r i a l s and lakeshores (Corporation of the C i t y of Pent ic ton, 1982, 14). Another d i v i s i o n is Tour i s t Commercial-Sales Lot s . This recognizes the ex i s t ing mix of auto-oriented land uses of motels, service s ta t ions , d r i v e - i n restaurants , and inter im uses such as sales lo ts for automobiles, recreat ion vehic les and mobile homes. As some uses are of an inter im 139 N j JL IF Scale S t" • 4000' FIGURE 14: COMMUNITY PLAN OE PENTICTON Source: P e n t i c t o n O f f i c i a l Community Plan, 1982 LEGENO T o u r i s t Commercial Comprehensive Development Area - T o u r i s t Commercial Base-n a t u r e , and a r e s i t u a t e d a l o n g t h e m a i n t h r o u g h - r o u t e , i n o r d e r t o s e c u r e v i s u a l l y a t t r a c t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t and p r o t e c t t h e more p e r m a n e n t u s e s , d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t a r e a s w i l l be d e s i g n a t e d a l o n g t h e t h r o u g h - r o u t e s ( F i g u r e 1 4 ) . T o u r i s t C o m m e r c i a l - R e s i d e n t i a l a r e a r e a s c a t e r i n g t o r e s o r t c o n d o m i n i u m s o r h o l i d a y a p a r t m e n t s . 5.7 A d v e r s e S o c i a l E f f e c t s o f T o u r i s m i n P e n t i c t o n The m a j o r p r o s p e c t ( b e c a u s e o f t h e p r o v i n c e - w i d e g r o w t h o f t h i s i n d u s t r y and t h e p o t e n t i a l o f u s i n g t h e e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s d u r i n g months o u t s i d e o f J u l y a n d A u g u s t ) f o r f u t u r e e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t i n P e n t i c t o n i s t h e f u r t h e r e x p a n s i o n o f a y e a r - r o u n d t o u r i s t t r a d e ( i . e . , p r o m o t i o n o f t o u r i s m a t t r a c t i o n s t h a t a r e o u t s i d e o f J u l y and A u g u s t o r p r o m o t i o n t o m a r k e t s t h a t t e n d t o t r a v e l i n o t h e r m o n t h s ) . J u l y and A u g u s t a t l e a s t w o u l d a p p e a r t o be a p p r o a c h i n g a s a t u r a t i o n l e v e l ( a s e x p l a i n e d by Young (1973) i n C h a p t e r 3) . By f o l l o w i n g Young's i n d i c a t o r s f o r s a t u r a t i o n o c c u r r i n g ( c h a n g e s i n l a n d u s e , employment l e v e l s , and p r e s s u r e on t h e u r b a n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e ) , and a p p l y i n g them t o 141 P e n t i c t o n , the s a t u r a t i o n problems of t o u r i s m can be i l l u s t r a t e d . Study of these problem areas w i l l show that t o u r i s m i n P e n t i c t o n i s approaching s a t u r a t i o n f o r the r e s i d e n t s . I t i s not necessary f o r s a t u r a t i o n to occur before implementing p o l i c i e s f o r s o c i a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e development of the t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y . However, i n the absence of development p o l i c i e s i n the past, t o u r i s m as an i n d u s t r y has not evolved i n a planned manner. Th e r e f o r e , i t i s necessary to determine i f there are any e x i s t i n g problems i n the i n d u s t r y . In the f u t u r e , i f the t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y i n any l o c a t i o n i s p r o p e r l y planned u s i n g p o l i c i e s s i m i l a r to the ones developed i n t h i s t h e s i s , i t may be p o s s i b l e to avoid some of the s o c i a l c o s t s f e l t by the r e s i d e n t s . A simple awareness of the p o s s i b l e problems w i l l be a b e n e f i t to t o u r i s m p l a n n e r s . 5.7.1 Land Use The e v o l u t i o n of land use i n P e n t i c t o n i n d i c a t e s a growing p r o p o r t i o n of land being used by the t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y . Since the development of a u t o - c o u r t s i n the 1940's, t o u r i s t accommodation has i n c r e a s e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y . Not o n l y have they taken over favourable l o c a t i o n s i n the c i t y , but they have added to the r i b b o n growth along Main S t r e e t and Skaha Lake Road as w e l l (Figure 15). In 1953, P e n t i c t o n had s i x h o t e l s with 276 u n i t s , and twenty-eight 142 auto-courts with 335 units (Wahl, 1955). In 1974, there were nine hotels with 246 u n i t s , f i f t y - e i g h t motels with 1,333 u n i t s , and fourteen campsites with 1,302 units (Corporation of the C i t y of Pent ic ton, 1974). By 1986, these f igures had expanded to include eight hotels with 752 u n i t s , f i f ty - two motels with 1,410 u n i t s , and f i f t een campsites with 1,416 units (Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Accommodation Guide 1986). This represents an increase of 697 units since 1974 even though there were s ix fewer establishments (Table I ) . This indicates a trend to fewer but larger hotel and motel u n i t s . Prime s i t e s along both Skaha and Okanagan Lakes are taken by such establishments. Table I : Accomodations f o r 1953. 1974 and 1986 NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS UNITS 1953 1974 1986 1953 1974 1986 HOTELS 6 9 8 276 246 752 HOTELS 28 58 52 335 1333 1410 CAMPGROUNDS - 14 15 - 1302 1416 TOTALS 34 81 75 611 2881 3578 Units - s l e e p i n g roons i n h o t e l s , s i n g l e rooms and s u i t e s i n Hotels, and i n d i v i d u a l campsites o i BV pads i n campgrounds. Sonrces: Wahl, 1955. •Community Information," 1974. "Accommodation Guide 1986". 14-3 In add i t ion to the short-term accommodation use of land, there are a lso large tracts of land being used for the service and recrea t iona l needs of t o u r i s t s . Examples include the many (over f i f t y ) restaurants and shops, convention centres , t h i r t y - s i x service s ta t ions , and two watersl ide developments. Other areas of the c i t y have resort condominiums or hol iday apartments that cater to v i s i t o r s s taying for a longer per iod . The population of Penticton (23,400 in 1981) is i t s e l f not large enough to support the number of services and f a c i l i t i e s i t has created. As a r e s u l t , many restaurants and motels shut down in the off-season. The land u t i l i z e d by the t o u r i s t industry takes up a large port ion (Figure 15) of Pent ic ton. This land may otherwise have been used for continued a g r i c u l t u r e or as l i v i n g space. However, the residents do benefit from having extra recrea t iona l f a c i l i t i e s provided by the t o u r i s t industry . The c i t y of Penticton is constrained in i t s growth potent ia l by i t s phys ica l s e t t i n g . Unable to expand north or south by the two lakes , or west because of the Penticton Indian Band Reserve, development must take place on the eastern slopes 144 r N fi- J 1 L r Sctle = I -- 40Q0' a? 5 ZZ ml\ej A*5i—" Tut \ Aftfi£22—• FIGURE 15: TOURIST RESOURCES OF PENTICTON LE6EN0 Accommodation Restaurants Sports & R e c r e a t i o n 14-5 a b o v e t h e c i t y . T h i s a r e a has l i m i t a t i o n s f o r d e v e l o p m e n t b e c a u s e o f i t s s t e e p t o p o g r a p h y , and b e c a u s e o f t h e l a n d t a k e n up by t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l L a n d R e s e r v e . I n d u s t r i a l l a n d I s c o n c e n t r a t e d I n two l a r g e a r e a s : t h e E a s t P e n t i c t o n I n d u s t r i a l A r e a , and t h e i n d u s t r i a l a r e a r u n n i n g a l o n g t h e e a s t s i d e o f t h e Okanagan R i v e r C h a n n e l f r o m F a i r v i e w Road t o t h e v i c i n i t y o f t h e H a s t i n g s A v e n u e -R a i l w a y S t r e e t j u n c t i o n . T h e r e a r e a d d i t i o n a l i s o l a t e d s i t e s s c a t t e r e d a r o u n d t h e c i t y . T h e r e a r e a b o u t f o r t y -e i g h t h e c t a r e s (120 a c r e s ) o f v a c a n t i n d u s t r i a l l a n d a v a i l a b l e i n P e n t i c t o n w i t h s u i t a b l e t o p o g r a p h y , d r a i n a n g e , and a c c e s s ( E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t C o m m i s s i o n , 1 9 8 3 ) . The i n d u s t r i a l l a n d i s s i t u a t e d w e l l away f r o m t o u r i s t - o r i e n t e d u s e s b u t s t i l l u t i l i z e s l a n d t h a t i s s u i t a b l e f o r r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y . I t seems c l e a r t h a t l a n d d e v e l o p m e n t i n P e n t i c t o n , now a n d i n t h e f u t u r e , i s b e i n g l a r g e l y a f f e c t e d by c u r r e n t t o u r i s t - o r i e n t e d l a n d d e v e l o p m e n t . I t shows t h e r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e a r e a o f l a n d z o n e d i n P e n t i c t o n a s " t o u r i s t c o m m e r c i a l . " O t h e r a r e a s o f l a n d a r e a l s o u s e d f o r t o u r i s t p u r p o s e s . T h e s e i n c l u d e , p a r k s , c o m m e r c i a l a r e a s , and e v e n r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s where v i s i t o r s s t a y w i t h f r i e n d s o r r e l a t i v e s . 146 5.7.2 Employment Levels A growing p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e h a v i n g e m p l o y m e n t i n t h e t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y c o u l d i n d i c a t e a d e p r e s s i n g e f f e c t on r e g i o n a l e c o n o m i c g r o w t h (Chapter 3 ) . Table II shows employment t r e n d s i n d i c a t e d b y census d a t a f o r 1 9 6 1 , 1971 a n d 1 9 8 1 . TABLE I I : LABOUR FOBCB STATISTICS T o t a l Labour Force S e r v i c e B i p l o y i e n t H F H \ F X B.C. 423,92) 157,466 82,024 19.4 54,374 13.8 19(1 O.S. - - - - - -PBIT. 3,375 1,40) 465 13.8 128 9.1 B.C. 602,335 307,755 61,515 10.2 57,915 18.8 1971 O.S. 11,435 5,))5 1,010 8.8 1,270 21.2 PBHT. 4,710 2,640 500 10.6 665 25.2 B.C. 822,645 566,565 79,025 9.6 104,045 18.4 1)81 O.S. 26,070 16,755 1,865 7.2 3,935 23.5 PBHT. 6,135 4,585 605 9.9 1,030 22.5 \ - Is coipared to t o t a l H/F i n labor force B.C. - B r i t i s h C o l o i b i a O.S. - Ok a n a g a n - S i i i U a i e e n PBHT. - Pe n t i c t o n •Source: S t a t i s t i c s Canada 147 T a b l e I I shows t h e l a b o r f o r c e s t a t i s t i c s f o r 1 9 6 1 , 1971 a n d 1981 f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e Okana g a n -S i m i l k a m e e n , a n d P e n t i c t o n . S e r v i c e e m ployment a s a p e r c e n t o f t o t a l l a b o r f o r c e h a s d e c l i n e d f o r m a l e s i n P e n t i c t o n a n d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n b o t h i n t e r c e n s a l p e r i o d s , a n d f o r t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t i n t h e d e c a d e f o r w h i c h d a t a a r e a v a i l a b l e . F o r f e m a l e s t h e r e was o u t s t a n d i n g g r o w t h i n s e r v i c e s e c t o r e m p l o y m e n t b e t w e e n 1961 a n d 1971 i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d P e n t i c t o n . T h i s p r o p o r t i o n h a s d e c l i n e d s l i g h t l y i n t h e more r e c e n t d e c a d e . The P r o v i n c e n e w s p a p e r r e p o r t e d J u n e 2, 1 9 8 3 , t h a t " t h e s e r v i c e s e c t o r i n c l u d i n g r e s t a u r a n t s , h o t e l s , m o t e l s , r e s o r t s , d e n t i s t s , and t h o u s a n d s o f o t h e r p e r s o n a l a n d b u s i n e s s s e r v i c e s - now a c c o u n t s f o r 66 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l wages a n d s a l a r i e s . " I n a d d i t i o n , "women f i l l e d more t h a n h a l f o f a l l new j o b s c r e a t e d i n B.C. d u r i n g t h e p a s t 20 y e a r s . " A l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e s e new j o b s were c r e a t e d i n t h e s e r v i c e s e c t o r . P e n t i c t o n h a s a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f i t s t o t a l l a b o u r f o r c e e m p l o y e d i n t h e s e r v i c e s e c t o r ( e s p e c i a l l y a m o ngst women) t h a n t h e p r o v i n c e a s a w h o l e . O t h e r 1981 s t a t i s t i c s show t h a t o c c u p a t i o n s i n l o d g i n g a n d a c c o m m o d a t i o n a c c o u n t e d f o r 15.8 p e r c e n t o f male s e r v i c e s e c t o r e m p l o y m e n t (6.9 p e r c e n t p r o v i n c i a l l y ) a n d 19.7 p e r c e n t o f f e m a l e (13.9 p e r c e n t p r o v i n c i a l l y ) . A l s o , 148 a c c o m m o d a t i o n a n d f o o d s e r v i c e s a c c o u n t e d f o r 58 p e r c e n t o f s e r v i c e l o c a t i o n s i n P e n t i c t o n (40.7 p e r c e n t p r o v i n c i a l l y ) . T hough t h e r e i s a g r e a t p r o p o r t i o n o f P e n t i c t o n r e s i d e n t s e m p l o y e d i n t h e s e r v i c e s e c t o r , t h e f i g u r e s i n T a b l e I I I n d i c a t e t h a t g r o w t h i n t h e s e r v i c e s e c t o r ( i f i t o c c u r r e d ) was n o t r e f l e c t e d i n s e r v i c e e m ployment as a p e r c e n t a g e o f l a b o r f o r c e d u r i n g t h e 1970 i n t e r c e n s a l d e c a d e . 5.7.3 U r b a n I n f r a s t r u c t u r e A. P o l i c e a n d F i r e S e r v i c e s : The R o y a l C a n a d i a n M o u n t e d P o l i c e (R.C.M.P.) I n P e n t i c t o n p r o v i d e l a w e n f o r c e m e n t w i t h i n t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e c i t y , t o t h e s o u t h e r n b o u n d a r y o f T r o u t C r e e k , a n d t o t h e n o r t h e r n b o u n d a r y o f Okanagan F a l l s . T h e r e a r e f i f t y members s t a t i o n e d i n P e n t i c t o n , f i f t e e n o f w h i c h f o r m t h e r u r a l d e t a c h m e n t . T h e r e a r e a l s o t w e n t y - s i x a u x i l i a r i e s ( C o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e C i t y o f P e n t i c t o n , 1 9 8 6 ) . T a b l e I I I b e l o w shows t h e number o f i n c i d e n t s f o r 1985 and t h e f i r s t h a l f o f 1986. 149 TABLE H I : POLICE INCIDENTS FOR PBHTICTOH Jan. Feb. l i a r . Apr. Hay Jane J u l y Aug. Sept. Oct. Ho v. Dec. 1)85 865 1,045 1,012 1,132 1,337 1,811 1,465 1,566 1,315 1,266 96) 937 1986 1,01) )44 1,0)3 1,085 1,250 1,337 % 5.) 7.1 6.) 7.7 9.7 12.3 10.0 10.6 8.) 8.6 6.6 6.4 Tot a l i n c i d e n t s i n 1985 - 14,720 •Source: P e n t i c t o n R.C.M.P. It shows the greatest number of Incidents occurring in June, J u l y , and August when the population of Penticton can more than double. S t a t i s t i c s show that most crimes, inc luding assau l t , breaking and enter ing , and vandalism, increase in the summer (these s t a t i s t i c s do not compare s i m i l a r s ize communities with l i t t l e or no tourism impact; th i s i s because the s t a t i s t i c s are just point ing out a heavier workload for the R . C . M . P . in the summer because of any number of reasons). The R . C . M . P . have taken preventative measures to reduce problems: beaches and parking lots are closed af ter midnight; beach areas are pa tro l l ed by po l i ce ; and a u x i l i a r y s t a f f add to the force 's effect iveness (D'Amore & Associates L t d . , 1980). Two p a r t i c u l a r problems are associated with tourism: thefts from t o u r i s t campsites and recrea t iona l veh ic les ; and wild part ies or r i o t s which 150 a t t r a c t hundreds of young people. The two Vancouver Sun newspaper a r t i c l e s of 1974 ( F i g u r e 16) and 1976 ( F i g u r e 17) i n d i c a t e the s e v e r i t y of these d i s t u r b a n c e s . One a r t i c l e from The Province newspaper (August 12, 1986) r e p o r t recommendations f o r a c t i o n f o l l o w i n g a r i o t i n Kelowna (Figure 18), an Okanagan c i t y near P e n t i c t o n ; another a r t i c l e (August 5, 1986) r e p o r t s p o l i c e a c t i o n s d u r i n g P e n t i c t o n ' s Peach F e s t i v a l ( F i g u r e 19). The P e n t i c t o n F i r e Department (P.F.D.) c o n s i s t s of twenty f u l l - t i m e f i r e f i g h t e r s and f o r t y v o l u n t e e r s i n two f i r e h a l l s . P r o t e c t i o n i s provided to i n d u s t r i e s o u t s i d e the c i t y by c o n t r a c t . The number of c a l l s f o r 1985, i n c l u d i n g both f i r e and rescue o p e r a t i o n s , i s l i s t e d i n Table IV. TABL8 IV: FIRE DEPARTHEHT CALLS. 1985 Jan. Feb. Kar. Apr. Nay June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Hov. Dec. Total 1985 46 49 52 64 50 46 33 4? 24 31 44 33 519 \ 8.9 9.4 10.0 12.3 9.6 8.9 6.4 9.1 4.6 6.0 8.5 6.4 100.1 •Source: Penticton Fire Department 1 5 1 BLOCKED DRIVERS TERRORIZED (lc^\SCo Mob hurls rocks, bottles, at Moun^%r^enticto| I By Statt Reporter _/ PENTICTON —Twelve per-, sons', "most of them from the i. Lower Mainland^  wilL be :t charged'; with unlawful- assem-& bly^ and- causing M disturbance» if following? a; Sunday- morning:: rfracas in which an RCMP tac-t^icat;&squad^ wass:t^ te<Ei'Witai; "rocks'and bottles. " > Av police spokesman said £ Monday? the persons to1 be > charged — one-from Pentic-fbnv one from Alberta and the srest from the Lower •Mainlands r — have been issued appear-anceinotices for July 15 He said the melee occurred * shortly after midnight Satur-•> day aa> Highway 97 at the south end of the- town when |* about"* 300 persons blocked i traffic in both directions, re^  ''suiting m lineups several, miles long ' ^ 'i tv(ft " Twelve officers suffered' 4 J'rmnor"" cuts and bruises" ' Cfrom, thrown bottles anoV6 & rocks, the spokesman said. * & He ^aid the rocks- and 'bat-' t^les-^ were* throwrijmainly by 'persons in an additional icrowd, of* about 400 who took [.advantage of nearby camp-sites and moteL roofs to; pelf fleers, went mun response'Td ' at the next- regional boan m^otorists" complajmng of bro~ meeting July Iff- <->• ken windshields- ana\ head- v The regional district ha lights, v , %? - ** pearlier demed ,a permit for, sometidea^  ToKgivefryou" what theseC'good citizens' ci.were^ like;vone-youngs woman?Sy ~ car was surrounded' *Whila J^ she sat terrified lnside^ hey" n^ppecL outf all the wir$g in ?; the-engine compartm said. ->~TBer problems about 1 ajn. ~ £^ about.'*i traffic "A handful the road J' cleared; spokesman.: the festival because of con-eem about a.forest flre'haz• ; ard;overcrowded. facilities, crowd, control and noise. w > -^•.Traffics-- on the narrow -road to- the fair- site became hope-«lessly snarled when several c^ars. stalled and motorists abandoned them- to continue: on foot' - ^ S<«f*ff$_ Policerepor^ d;no;ma]or.m-cidents. at the fair/which fea-1 tured eight bands from East em Canada playing from noon: fat about midnight ' N6> trouble was. reported! from a band of motorcyclists, including members of the 10L „ Knights, the Gypsy Wheelers * and the Satan's Angels '• RCMP-%at Osoyoos,! who wer& supported by additional officers-/brought in from v^ otheEi-idetachments;: saidi the;: bikers .spent the night Satur-, _ day ore private property nearF 4 fcpohces !• T^het spokesman, said the a "r"'—~ — police/ estimated there were 124-man tactical squad, sup-< about 2000 persons attending ffiSMSii^A^^^nara)t.cS arrests ;.were; numeral ;incideni5 during, the; day:? Saturdayyclimaxing- m>,the-disturbarfe early Sunday,, spokesman estimated^  iwn's-population over the weekend; at-^ about three times.-normaLThe: 35 regnlar police vtast- bolstered'1 by. 12 extras, ! mostly frooLvChuliwacle-;,'.^ :^:? .Many* persons, were be- . Osoyooaand reft without lncr-tieved. to* have' been in town dentin the mornings w-"3 for a rock festiwar held Sun- ^Ther spokesman, ^ wbo. said day, about two miles east oC (j^ tactical squad was wear-Penticton., , ^ „f {V 8 3 ^ ujgfcrashr helmets and carry-. At the" peak oFthe festrvaf. weremade overi the weekend. " minutes1. ing. batons during? Sunday; morning's meleer said police were in actual confrontation^  with, the crowd for- aboutdght ^ Okanagan Similkameen* Re- ^ "After that1 we stood back |gional^ Distnct actings chair-^  and they> finally got fared of* man 'J "B\Shaw said today standing1 around and watching,] ^ matterT will be discussed*"'us watching them," he said F i g u r e 16. 152. s s tone / ; Sun Staff Reporter. .. PENTICTON — Motorists were forced to run. a gantlet of. rocks and beer bottles early Saturday when .about 150 youths . went on a rampage just south of here. . When RCMP sealed off traffic, the mob pelted police cruisers with missiles and built a large bonfire on the highway with . fences, signs, picnic tables and benches. \ It took,police 90 minutes to quell.the. melee but; no injuries were reported. Two men, both from the Lower Main-land, have.been:charged with obstructing police. as a result of the disturbance. They were scheduled, to appear, in Penticton: pro~ vincial court later today.'• \ Cph Ken Jones described the incidents a "near riot'^ am said it'was the wSrst disturbance; since \ similar, incidejf two years ago; when RflyviP donned rjiSt gear to disperse, a mob of Jones said the ihcitent begafi about 11 p.m. .. Friday near V' priyately^ owned campsite W Highway 9Vjyst outside the city; limits. It was almost me same site as the 1974 riot, he said. f* He said; the majority of the youths were from": the:. Greater Vancouver-area, and} were spending the • long. weekend here Mostwerem.their early 20s,' he said. F i g u r e 17. some-volved had • "l£wis a spon1 body got going. Most of those V been drinking,'' he said. The party quickly Jafned from mere boisterousness to wild destruction, with passing motorists^ main targets. RCMP responded by closing the highway and re-routing traffic along the East Side road. But. tha^ ouths countered by building a bonfire^ m the road and throwing rocks and beer/oottles at the police:cruisers. The sidff window of. one car was smashed, jlones said. ' -. 1 . "We letit blow its limit and then moved in and apprehended' the trouble:makers," he said. ' - ".>.';-S--• Jones said- the youths. offered ho resist tance. Fire trucks were called into extin-guish the blaze: and public works vehicles to clean debris off. the highway. , Police stayed on the scene until 4 ajn. "to make sure things didn't flare up again," he said. 153 The Province Tuesday, Aug. 12, 1986 News Services KELOWNA — Edgy civic offi-cials hope a beefed-up show of force will be enough to defuse trouble at future Kelowna Regattas. A committee appointed by Kelowna Mayor Dale Hammill investigating last month's regatta riot has called for more RCMP foot patrols in the down-town area during the summer. During the early hours of July 2.7, drunken vandals smashed windows and looted" stores, resulting in more than 100 ., arrests. • - ••' •< - .'; Damage was estimated at $250,000. • "• - \ : .  - . Hammill read the Riot Act after rioters threw, bottles and clashed with police, who dis-persed the crowd with tear gas. The committee, made up of police, citizens, businessmen and aldermen, also called on the liquor board to conduct tougher ID checks on its customers. Other recommendations by HammiH's committee called for cabarets and beer parlors to sell, beer only in cans.. For the long term, council was asked-to seek a provincial gov-ernment review of liquor legisla-tion with a view to giving police more authority to> deal with . such incidents.; The city has already increased police patrols since the riot and Hammill said there have been no more problems. F i g u r e 18, _ F i g u r e 19, By IAN AUSTIN . arrest • Staff Reporter: j'Or a vcivil suit could be filed-J Penticton RCMP made sure the for embarassment or loss of a day's Peach Festival wasn't the pits. holiday." With last week's- Kelowna riot Penticton RCMP Corp. Brian Sar-.: firmly in mind, police arrested 160 necki was pleased that things never people during the three-day week- got out of hand. ..-end fesL . V . - He said total damage for the i • But not one of them was charged, weekend was less than $100. "and Penticton lawyer Wilson Ruth- . In Kelowna, about 1,000 people erford said suits probably will be rampaged through the downtown filed. . . area a week earlier causing thou-'Tve already heard a couple of sands of dollars in damage. people mention it" About 60 officers were on duty \ Police could be liable if persons in Penticton each night; including.' were detained with no reasonable some from other centres, or probable grounds for arrest, he "We learned from'Kelowna," said-; said. , Sarnecki. "Any that got out of line, J ' "They could be charged with we took them in and sobered them ] false imprisonment and unlawful up. They slept it oft" . ; \ 1 5 4 -P r o m T a b l e I V , and f r o m a n i n t e r v i e w w i t h F i r e C h i e f B. H o d g i n s ( P . F . D . ) , t h e r e seems t o be no s p e c i f i c t o u r i s t r e l a t e d p r o b l e m . The d o l l a r s l o s t , due t o f i r e , shows no s e a s o n a l p a t t e r n s . However, t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r l i f e t h r e a t e n i n g o c c u r r e n c e s i n c r e a s e s a s t h e p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y p e r b u i l d i n g ( h o u s e , h o t e l o r m o t e l ) i n c r e a s e s . B. H o s p i t a l a n d H e a l t h S e r v i c e s : The P e n t i c t o n a n d D i s t r i c t R e g i o n a l H o s p i t a l c u r r e n t l y has 201 a c u t e c a r e b e d s , 63 e x t e n d e d c a r e b e d s , p l u s 85 e x t e n d e d c a r e b e d s , p l u s t h e f a c i l i t i e s f o r a f u r t h e r 45 beds t o be a d d e d a t a l a t e r d a t e . S i x t y - s e v e n p h y s i c i a n s a n d t h i r t e e n d e n t i s t s have h o s p i t a l p r i v i l e g e s ( C o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e C i t y o f P e n t i c t o n , Community P r o f i l e , 1 9 8 6 ) . The h o s p i t a l e m e r g e n c y s e r v i c e s a r e g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d i n J u l y a n d A u g u s t . I n r e s p o n s e t o t h i s , a n d t o t h e p r o b l e m o f t o u r i s t s b e i n g u n a b l e t o g e t a p p o i n t m e n t s w i t h l o c a l d o c t o r s , t h e h o s p i t a l e s t a b l i s h e d a t o u r i s t c l i n i c . A r o t a t i n g t e a m o f d o c t o r s d e a l w i t h a b o u t n i n e t y t o u r i s t p a t i e n t s e a c h d a y . A l t h o u g h most t o u r i s t a i l m e n t s a r e m i n o r , t h e y do i n c r e a s e t h e w o r k l o a d f o r t h e h o s p i t a l (D'Amore & A s s o c i a t e s L t d . , 1 9 8 0 ) . 155 C. Water S u p p l y and E n v i r o n m e n t a l Q u a l i t y : D u r i n g t h e summer, t h e i n c r e a s e d p o p u l a t i o n o f P e n t i c t o n (due t o t o u r i s t s ) o v e r t a x e s t h e sewage d i s p o s a l s y s t e m ( I a n S t o u t , Mgr. - Sewer & W a t e r , C i t y o f P e n t i c t o n ) . W i t h a c a p a c i t y o f 1,800,000 g a l l o n s p e r d a y , t h e sewage t r e a t m e n t s y s t e m s e r v e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 23,000 r e s i d e n t s a n d 3,600 t o u r i s t a c c o m m o d a t i o n u n i t s . C a s a b e l l o W i nes i s t h e o n l y m a j o r i n d u s t r y s e r v e d by t h e s y s t e m . The sewage i s g i v e n a d v a n c e d , a c t i v a t e d s l u d g e t r e a t m e n t ( p r i m a r y , s e c o n d a r y and t e r t i a r y ) a t t h e P e n t i c t o n W a t e r Q u a l i t y C o n t r o l C e n t r e . I t i s t h e n d i s c h a r g e d i n t o t h e Okanagan R i v e r C h a n n e l a b o u t two m i l e s s o u t h o f Okanagan L a k e . A new " B e n e f i c i a l W a t e r Re-Use" s y s t e m i s i n t h e p l a n n i n g s t a g e s f o r t h e c i t y . P e n t i c t o n ' s w a t e r s u p p l y i s t a k e n f r o m P e n t i c t o n C r e e k w i t h Okanagan L a k e a s t h e s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e o f s u p p l y . T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be no p r o b l e m s w i t h m a i n t a i n i n g a n a d e q u a t e w a t e r s u p p l y . T r e a t m e n t i s by s c r e e n i n g a n d c h l o r i n a t i o n . The a v e r a g e d a i l y c o n s u m p t i o n i s t e n m i l l i o n g a l l o n s o f w a t e r . The p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n programme c o n d u c t e d f o r t h e C a n a d a - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Okanagan B a s i n A g r e e m e n t (A S u r v e y o f R e s i d e n t A t t i t u d e s T o w a r d s Water & R e l a t e d R e s o u r c e Management i n t h e Okanagan V a l l e y , 1 9 7 3 ) , showed t h a t 156 e n v i r o n m e n t a l p o l l u t i o n was f e l t t o be t h e s i n g l e most i m p o r t a n t p r o b l e m i n t h e Oka n a g a n . A c o n c e r n t o p r o t e c t t h e u n i q u e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t a n d t h e w a t e r q u a l i t y o f t h e l a k e s was a l s o e x p r e s s e d . A g r i c u l t u r e , s t o r m d r a i n a g e , a nd weed g r o w t h ( E u r a s i a n m i l f o i l ) s e r v e t o d e g r a d e w a t e r q u a l i t y , a s d o e s g a s o l i n e a n d o i l s p i l l s b y t h e many p l e a s u r e b o a t s . The s u r v e y o f r e s i d e n t a t t i t u d e s a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t s h o r e l i n e r e c r e a t i o n i s a m a j o r f a c t o r i n t h e e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l l i f e s t y l e s o f Okanagan r e s i d e n t s and t o u r i s t s . H i g h q u a l i t y w a t e r a n d t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c l e a n , u n c r o w d e d b e a c h e s were i d e n t i f i e d a s t h e k e y f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e e n j o y m e n t o f b e a c h r e c r e a t i o n . C o n s t r a i n t s , s u c h a s t r a f f i c , p a r k i n g , a c c o m m o d a t i o n a v a i l a b i l i t y , a n d u r b a n c r o w d i n g , were i d e n t i f i e d a s l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s t o t o u r i s t g r o w t h . P u b l i c a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s b e a c h c r o w d i n g a r e d i v e r s e . U s e r s o f t e n a c c e p t i n c r e a s i n g l y c r o w d e d c o n d i t i o n s p r o v i d e d t h e s e o c c u r g r a d u a l l y a n d a r e a c c o m p a n i e d b y o t h e r e x p e r i e n c e s i n c r o w d i n g - i n u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t s o r i n t r a f f i c . I t was f o u n d t h a t r e s i d e n t s c o m p r i s e t h i r t y - s i x p e r c e n t o f b e a c h u s e r s , w i t h t h e a v e r a g e r e s i d e n t s p e n d i n g t w e n t y d a y s a t t h e b e a c h d u r i n g t h e summer. I n c r e a s i n g l y , r e s i d e n t s a r e c o p i n g w i t h b e a c h c r o w d i n g b y c o n s t r u c t i n g s w i m ming p o o l s i n t h e i r b a c k y a r d s . A b o u t t h i r t y - t h r e e 157 percent of a l l homes i n the area have swimming pools ("Swimming Pools add home z e s t , " P e n t i c t o n Herald, A p r i l 29, 1982, p. 3 c ) . D. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n : The i n c r e a s e d l o c a l t r a f f i c caused by t o u r i s t s puts a s t r a i n on roadways, pa r k i n g and c o n g e s t i o n . To cope with c o n g e s t i o n , the c i t y has designated s e v e r a l downtown s t r e e t s as one-way. On the road i n t o the c i t y from the south, Highway 97 (which turns i n t o Skaha Lake Road), there are 35,000 v e h i c l e s per day i n J u l y and August with an average of 10,000 i n the other months of the year (Dave Gold, T r a f f i c Manager, C i t y of P e n t i c t o n ) . The Department of Highways c o n t r o l s the main road through the c i t y . A p a r t i a l by-pass a l o n g the Okanagan R i v e r Channel has helped downtown t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n a great d e a l . P a r k i n g i s o f t e n a problem along the beaches. Two more areas are being sought a l o n g Skaha Lake f o r p a r k i n g . No p a r k i n g i s permitted a l o n g beach areas between midnight and s i x o'clock i n the morning. 158 5.7.4 Spec ia l Population Groups; The retirement population is one group that may be affected by tourism. At least nineteen percent (1981) of the c i t y ' s res idents are s i x t y - f i v e years of age or over. Pent ic ton, and the ent ire Okanagan v a l l e y is becoming a major retirement centre for B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a . A recent ly constructed retirement centre houses 255 persons and has about 2,000 members who use the f a c i l i t i e s and p a r t i c i p a t e in courses and events. Though benef i t t ing from many t o u r i s t f a c i l i t i e s , such as the wide range of shopping and restaurant establishments, seniors could view extensive t o u r i s t development as a threat to a sought a f t e r , quie ter , more relaxed way of l i f e . The teenage population of the c i t y could also be affected by tourism, e s p e c i a l l y i f they are influenced by the l i f e s t y l e s of young t o u r i s t groups which a r r i v e each summer. The many pubs, lounges, night clubs and part ies create a c a r n i v a l s ty le atmosphere. The only r e a l evidence of problems is the fact that l o c a l young people get involved in petty crimes against t o u r i s t s (Penticton R . C . M . P . ) . They a l s o , l i k e a s i m i l a r minori ty of kids elsewhere, get involved in petty crime against residents and t h e i r property. Crimes against t o u r i s t s are a higher p r o f i l e item because of the bad p u b l i c i t y that ensues. 159 The P e n t i c t o n Indian Band leas e s some wate r f r o n t l o t s f o r p r i v a t e campsite developments but otherwise i s not i n v o l v e d i n the t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y . T o u r i s t s do c r o s s reserve land on the way to Apex Mountain and the Band appears opposed to any other i n t r u s i o n s . Recent c l a i m s by the Band f o r c u t - o f f lands have meant they w i l l r e c e i v e 13.2 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s from Ottawa and one m i l l i o n d o l l a r s from B r i t i s h Columbia. As w e l l , i t w i l l get 4,991 h e c t a r e s (12,335 ac r e s ) of mostly vacant land near P e n t i c t o n (The P r o v i n c e , March 7, 1984, p. 4). 5.7.5 P s y c h o l o g i c a l S a t u r a t i o n ; The combination of the preceding f a c t o r s can cause r e s i d e n t s to t u r n a g a i n s t t o u r i s t s and the t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y . Two community wide surveys were undertaken i n P e n t i c t o n , posing questions r e g a r d i n g the f u t u r e of tourism. In 1971, r o u g h l y four hundred households throughout the Okanagan V a l l e y were surveyed. The data were not d i s s a g g r e g a t e d by c i t i e s , but the m a j o r i t y of South Okanagan r e s i d e n t s p o l l e d p r e f e r r e d no r e s t r i c t i o n s on the development of the t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y ( C a n a d a - B r i t i s h Columbia Okanagan Basin Agreement, 1974, 81). However, i n 1975 the 160 Regional D i s t r i c t conducted a household survey i n P e n t i c t o n and asked "are you i n favour of encouraging more t o u r i s m development i n P e n t i c t o n ? " Some 887 persons (41%) responded "yes," 1,120 persons (52%) responded "no"; and 145 (7%) d i d not answer. These r e s u l t s suggest a changing a t t i t u d e and perhaps a growing sense of c a u t i o n towards development f o r tourism. A more e x t e n s i v e survey i s needed so as to pose quest i o n s t h a t determine the u n d e r l y i n g causes of such negative responses. An important d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e of t o u r i s m i s the f a c t t h a t t o u r i s t s have to come to the a t t r a c t i o n i n order to consume the product. T h i s i s i n c o n t r a s t with other e x p o r t i n g a c t i v i t i e s , and indeed most exchange r e l a t i o n s , where producers and consumers are separated and r a r e l y c o n f r o n t each other i n person. T h i s c o n f r o n t a t i o n i n P e n t i c t o n has become i n d i f f e r e n t due l a r g e l y to the c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n of the i n d u s t r y . I n d i v i d u a l i z e d c o n t a c t s , then, cannot be maintained because the t o u r i s t p o p u l a t i o n i s too l a r g e , the season too long, and the s o c i a l impacts too e x t e n s i v e . The r e s u l t i s apathy towards t o u r i s t s and d i s i n t e r e s t towards the t o u r i s m i n d u s t r y as a whole. Few l o c a l people are i n v o l v e d i n o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g f o r t o u r i s m (e.g., land use, development p l a n n i n g ) , or i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of events and a t t r a c t i o n s t h a t take p l a c e a t 161 t h e s m a l l b u s i n e s s l e v e l o f t h e t o u r i s m s e c t o r . 5.8 P e n t i c t o n - A p p r o a c h i n g S a t u r a t i o n On t h e b a s i s o f a v a i l a b l e d a t a , i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t s a t u r a t i o n p r o b l e m s a r e e m e r g i n g i n P e n t i c t o n . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o c o n c l u s i v e l y s t a t e t h a t a s a t u r a t i o n l e v e l has b e e n r e a c h e d a s d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s may g i v e d i f f e r e n t a n s w e r s . S p e c i f i c s s u c h a s w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s , t i m e o f y e a r , age a n d o c c u p a t i o n o f r e s p o n d e n t s on a t t i t u d e q u e s t i o n a i r e s , age a n d b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s o f v i s i t o r s , s t a t e o f p o l i c i n g , a n d s o o n , a l l h ave a b e a r i n g on t h e r e s p o n s e . However, o n c e a n a t t i t u d e h a s d e v e l o p e d among l o c a l r e s i d e n t s , i t w i l l be s l o w t o c h a n g e d e s p i t e d e c r e a s i n g l e v e l s o f p h y s i c a l s a t u r a t i o n ( R a j o t t e , 1 9 8 2 ) . E v i d e n c e o f e m e r g i n g s a t u r a t i o n p r o b l e m s i n c l u d e : a ) The s h e e r numbers o f t o u r i s t s a t t r a c t e d t o t h e a r e a s b y t h e c l i m a t e , o r c h a r d s , a nd b e a c h - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s n e a r l y d o u b l e s t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f P e n t i c t o n d u r i n g J u l y a n d A u g u s t . D u r i n g t h e J u l y 1 s t l o n g weekend i n 1 9 7 9 , t h e r e were 65,000 t o 70,000 p e o p l e i n t h e c i t y , w i t h a r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n o f a b o u t 22,000 (D'Amore & 162 A s s o c i a t e s L t d . , 1980, 8 8 ) . The p o t e n t i a l f o r r e s i d e n t - v i s i t o r s t r e s s i s r e l a t e d t o t h e v o l u m e o f t o u r i s t s . G r e a t e r numbers o f v i s i t o r s p r o d u c e more c o n g e s t i o n , r e q u i r e more f a c i l i t i e s a n d s e r v i c e s , i n v a d e t h e p r i v a c y o f r e s i d e n t s ' d a i l y l i f e , a n d t e n d t o a d a p t l e s s r e a d i l y t o t h e l o c a l s t a n d a r d s o r c u s t o m s . The q u a l i t y o f i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n h o s t and g u e s t s u f f e r s f r o m t h e m onotony o f c a t e r i n g t o v i s i t o r s ( t h i s i s d i f f e r e n t i n t o u r i s m t h a n i n s i m i l a r s e r v i c e s t o r e s i d e n t s b e c a u s e o f s c a l e ) , a n d f r o m t h e t e n d e n c y f o r c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n o f t h e i n d u s t r y t o d e h u m a n i z e c o n t a c t s . b) E mployment l e v e l s i n t h e t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y a r e r i s i n g , t h e r e b y a f f e c t i n g t h e e m p l o y m e n t s t r u c t u r e o f t h e c i t y . c ) I n c r e a s i n g amounts o f l a n d a r e b e i n g d e v o t e d t o t o u r i s t -r e l a t e d u s e s i n a c i t y w i t h a l i m i t e d l a n d a r e a . T h i s l i m i t s p o t e n t i a l g r o w t h , o r e v e n n o n - g r o w t h p r e s e r v a t i o n ( p a r k s , n a t u r a l a r e a s , o r c h a r d s ) i n o t h e r l a n d a r e a s . d) P r e s s u r e s a r e b e i n g f e l t on t h e u r b a n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , 163 i n c l u d i n g p o l i c e and f i r e s e r v i c e s , h o s p i t a l and h e a l t h s e r v i c e s , w a t e r a n d s e w e r , e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y , and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . e) C e r t a i n g r o u p s w i t h i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g r e t i r e d p e o p l e a n d t e e n a g e r s , a r e b e i n g a f f e c t e d b y t o u r i s m . £) S u r v e y s w h i c h were c o n d u c t e d showed a m a j o r i t y o f p e o p l e d i d n o t want more t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t . g) C r i t i c i s m o f t o u r i s m i s g r o w i n g . F o r e x a m p l e , "many l o c a l p e o p l e f e e l t h a t t o u r i s t s a r e c a t e r e d t o a h e a d o f r e s i d e n t s t h r o u g h t h e s u p p o r t o f s u c h d e v e l o p m e n t s a s l a k e s h o r e m o t e l s o r c a m p s i t e s , w h i c h may d e n y l o c a l s a c c e s s t o b e a c h e s . T h e r e i s a l s o w i d e s p r e a d h o s t i l i t y t o w a r d a s p e c i f i c t o u r i s t g r o u p , n a m e l y y o u n g t r a n s i e n t s . I t i s c l e a r t h a t r e s i d e n t t o l e r a n c e o f t r a n s i e n t s has b e e n e x c e e d e d b e c a u s e t h e r e i s a l a c k o f s u p p o r t f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a y o u t h h o s t e l a s w e l l a s a p o l i c y p r o h i b i t i n g s i n g l e s f r o m c a m p i n g i n p r i v a t e c a m p s i t e s " (D'Amore & A s s o c i a t e s L t d . , 1 9 8 0 , 1 0 3 ) . The r e s e a r c h c a r r i e d o u t by L. J . D'Amore an d A s s o c i a t e s L i m i t e d a l s o came t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t s a t u r a t i o n was b e i n g a p p r o a c h e d ; t h a t i s " t h e i n f l u x o f 164 v i s i t o r s has had numerous e f f e c t s upon r e s i d e n t l i f e s t y l e and t h e r e i s I n c r e a s i n g e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e l i m i t s t o s o c i a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y a r e b e i n g a p p r o a c h e d " (D'Amore & A s s o c i a t e s L t d . , 1 9 8 0 , 8 3 ) . 5.8.1 R e v i e w o f t h e " Q u e s t i o n s f o r E v a l u a t i n g S o c i a l P e r f o r m a n c e The q u e s t i o n l i s t f o r e v a l u a t i n g t h e s o c i a l p e r f o r m a n c e o f t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t ( d e v e l o p e d i n C h a p t e r 2 ) , a l s o p o i n t s t o t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r p r o b l e m s i n P e n t i c t o n . The p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n has a n s w e r e d most o f t h e q u e s t i o n s . As a c h e c k on t h i s p o i n t , h o w e v e r , some o f t h e m a j o r p o i n t s w i l l be r e v i e w e d . I n r e v i e w i n g t h e q u e s t i o n l i s t f o r l o c a l r e s i d e n t s a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s , a n d e v a l u a t i n g them s u b j e c t i v e l y , i t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t P e n t i c t o n i s l i k e l y i n t h e d a n g e r z o n e o f s o c i a l p e r f o r m a n c e . a) What i s t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t o u r i s t s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e t o u r i s t p o p u l a t i o n ? P e n t i c t o n h a s been e s t i m a t e d t o have d o u b l e d i t s p o p u l a t i o n a t c e r t a i n t i m e s i n t h e summer, and p r o b a b l y h a s a t o u r i s t - r e s i d e n t r a t i o g r e a t e r t h a n 1:1 f o r most 165 o f t h e summer. T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s n o t a s marked d u r i n g o t h e r s e a s o n s . b) To what d e g r e e d o e s t h e t y p e o f d e v e l o p m e n t a f f e c t a e s t h e t i c s a n d a r c h i t e c t u r e ? Due t o t h e p a s t u n p l a n n e d d e v e l o p m e n t , much o f t h e a c c o m m o d a t i o n s e c t o r i s u n a t t r a c t i v e , s m a l l - s c a l e , a n d o f t e n w i t h l i t t l e g r e e n s p a c e i n b e t w e e n s i t e s . S t r i p d e v e l o p m e n t s have o c c u r r e d w i t h t r a f f i c p r o b l e m s a nd u n p l a n n e d l o o k s . c ) To what d e g r e e d o e s t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t e n h a n c e o r d e t r a c t f r o m l o c a l s t a b i l i t y a n d l i f e s t y l e s ? T o u r i s t d e v e l o p m e n t i n P e n t i c t o n d o e s d e t r a c t f r o m l o c a l s t a b i l i t y a s t h e " r i o t s " d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r i n d i c a t e . P e o p l e a r e a l s o c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t r a n s i e n t s a n d t h e a d o p t i o n o f a " v a c a t i o n " l i f e s t y l e b y P e n t i c t o n ' s y o u n g e r a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n . A l t h o u g h a l l i n d i c a t i o n s may p o i n t t o t h e e x h a u s t i o n o f t h e t o l e r a n c e o f t h e l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n o r i t s c a p a c i t y t o a d a p t , t h i s may n e v e r h a p p e n b e c a u s e o f : - a r e s i g n e d acceptance of the way th i n g s a r e; - implementation of some p o l i c i e s , d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 6, which should m i t i g a t e some of the adverse s o c i a l e f f e c t s of tourism; - a r e a l i z a t i o n of the economic importance of t o u r i s m to the c i t y and i t s r e s i d e n t s . Since the economic r e c e s s i o n of 1982-1984, many r e s i d e n t s have changed t h e i r o p i n i o n s of the " t o u r i s t hordes" ( K e i t h Bevington, P r e s i d e n t - P e n t i c t o n Chamber of Commerce, August, 1986). Summary Chapter 5 has reviewed the t o u r i s m i n d u s t r y i n P e n t i c t o n . T h i s review Included a b r i e f look a t the c i t y ' s h i s t o r y , economy, and p o p u l a t i o n . By i n v e s t i g a t i n g areas of concern r e g a r d i n g problems of s a t u r a t i o n , as v o i c e d by Young (1973), i t would appear t h a t there are adverse s o c i a l e f f e c t s caused by t o u r i s m i n P e n t i c t o n . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s supported by the most re c e n t survey from P e n t i c t o n , and by re s e a r c h c a r r i e d out by L. J . D'Amore and A s s o c i a t e s L i m i t e d . As w e l l , a s e l e c t i v e review of the q u e s t i o n l i s t 167 f o r e v a l u a t i n g t h e s o c i a l p e r f o r m a n c e o f t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t , d e v e l o p e d i n C h a p t e r 2, a l s o p o i n t s t o a n a p p r o a c h i n g s a t u r a t i o n p o i n t f o r l o c a l t o l e r a n c e t o t o u r i s m . 168 CHAPTER S I X : P O L I C I E S TO MITIGATE THE ADVERSE SOCIAL EFFECTS OF TOURISM IN PENTICTON A s s u m i n g t h e s a t u r a t i o n l e v e l has b e e n r e a c h e d o r i s a p p r o a c h i n g i n a t l e a s t c e r t a i n t i m e s o f t h e y e a r l n P e n t i c t o n , t h e n e x t most i m p o r t a n t s t e p i s t o f o r m u l a t e some p o l i c i e s t o m i t i g a t e t h i s p r o b l e m f o r t h e a r e a s o f s o c i e t y a f f e c t e d . S t r a t e g i e s t o h e l p r e d u c e t h e l e v e l s o f s a t u r a t i o n h a v e b e e n d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 4 a n d w i l l now be a p p l i e d t o t h e s i t u a t i o n i n P e n t i c t o n . T h e s e s t r a t e g i e s s h o u l d h e l p t o r e d u c e t h e n e g a t i v e r e s i d e n t f e e l i n g s t o w a r d s t o u r i s m . T h e y w i l l a l s o h e l p t o c r e a t e a b e t t e r a t m o s p h e r e f o r t h e c o n t i n u e d , s o c i a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e g r o w t h o f t o u r i s m i n P e n t i c t o n . M o s t o f t h e p o l i c i e s r e q u i r e o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d i n i t i a t i v e b y a c e n t r a l t o u r i s m o f f i c e . O t h e r p o l i c i e s , w h i c h r e q u i r e f i n a n c i a l c a p i t a l t o i m p l e m e n t , must e i t h e r r e c e i v e f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f r o m t h e c i t y o r t h e p r o v i n c e . I n some c a s e s ( e . g . , t h e t o u r i s t c l i n i c ) , a " u s e r p a y s " s y s t e m w o u l d work. 169 S.1 P o l i c i e s t o M i t i g a t e P r o b l e m s o f I n a d e q u a t e F a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s a) Any new t o u r i s m p r o j e c t s h o u l d be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h t h e p l a n n i n g o f a d d i t i o n a l l o c a l s e r v i c e s a n d f a c i l i t i e s . As w e l l , s u c h p r o j e c t s s h o u l d be p a i d f o r p r i n c i p a l l y b y t h e i n v e s t o r s o r d e v e l o p e r s . P e n t i c t o n must have f a c i l i t i e s a n d s e r v i c e s c a p a b l e o f h a n d l i n g a c i t y a t l e a s t t w i c e i t s s i z e ( t o f o r t y - e i g h t t h o u s a n d a t a n y one t i m e ) i n t h e summer m o n t h s . D u r i n g peak w e e k e n d s , t h i s f i g u r e i s much h i g h e r b u t i t i s h a r d t o j u s t i f y m a j o r e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r o n l y s e v e r a l d a y s o f t h e y e a r . I n P e n t i c t o n ' s c a s e , e x t r a manpower i s n e e d e d b y t h e p o l i c e d u r i n g t h e summer months f o r b e a c h p a t r o l s a n d p o s s i b l e w i l d p a r t i e s . The v i s i b i l i t y o f p o l i c e c a n o f t e n s t o p p o s s i b l e p r o b l e m s f r o m e v e n b e g i n n i n g . The p r o b l e m s o f b r e a k i n g a n d e n t e r i n g , a n d v a n d a l i s m , c o u l d be d e a l t w i t h b y s t r i c t e r c o n t r o l o f ca m p g r o u n d a r e a s b y owners a n d more a w a r e n e s s p r o g r a m s f o r v i s i t o r s . E a r l i e r c l o s i n g h o u r s f o r pubs and n i g h t c l u b s m i g h t a l s o r e d u c e p r o b l e m s . C i t i z e n g r o u p s s i m i l a r t o t h e " G u a r d i a n A n g e l s " c o u l d a l s o be i n i t i a t e d d u r i n g t h e summer m o n t h s , a l l o w i n g l o c a l p e o p l e t o become more I n v o l v e d i n l o c a l i s s u e s . The G u a r d i a n A n g e l s i s a n a s s o c i a t i o n begun i n t h e U n i t e d 170 S t a t e s , i n w h i c h g r o u p s o f c i t i z e n s p a t r o l t r o u b l e a r e a s i n a c i t y a n d r e p o r t d i s t u r b a n c e s t o t h e p o l i c e . The c o m m i t t e e o f c i v i c o f f i c i a l s i n K e l o w n a , who were a p p o i n t e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e R e g a t t a r i o t ( C h a p t e r 5, F i g u r e 1 8 ) , c a l l e d f o r more R.C.M.P. f o o t p a t r o l s i n t h e summer m o n t h s , t o u g h e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n c h e c k s i n l i q u o r s t o r e s , and t h e s a l e o f c a n n e d b e e r o n l y f r o m c a b a r e t s and b e e r p a r l o r s . T h e s e m e a s u r e s s h o u l d a l s o be a d o p t e d by P e n t i c t o n . b) The t o u r i s t c l i n i c f o r h e a l t h s e r v i c e s a t t h e P e n t i c t o n R e g i o n a l H o s p i t a l seems t o be a good method o f d e a l i n g w i t h t h e summer i n f l u x o f v i s i t o r s . T h i s w o u l d be a good t i m e t o u t i l i z e m e d i c a l s t u d e n t s n e e d i n g sumnmer w o r k . A l s o , some v i s i b l e a nd w e l l - e q u i p p e d f i r s t - a i d s t a t i o n s c o u l d be u s e d a t t h e b e a c h e s . c ) The sewage d i s p o s a l s y s t e m i n P e n t i c t o n s h o u l d be a s t a t e - o f - t h e - a r t s y s t e m . S i n c e P e n t i c t o n d e p e n d s on t h e w a t e r q u a l i t y o f i t s l a k e s f o r e c o n o m i c s u r v i v a l , a l l a t t e m p t s s h o u l d be made t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e l a k e s a r e n o t p o l l u t e d . A t h i r t y - t h r e e m i l l i o n d o l l a r l a n d d i s p o s a l s y s t e m has b e e n p l a n n e d (The P e n t i c t o n H e r a l d , A p r i l 29, 1 9 8 2 , p. 8a) t o p r e v e n t a n y i n c r e a s e i n t h e amount o f d i s c h a r g e i n t o t h e l a k e s y s t e m . E x i s t i n g l e v e l s o f 171 d i s c h a r g e s h o u l d a l s o be r e d u c e d . d) The t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p r o b l e m s i n P e n t i c t o n have b e e n p a r t i a l l y a l l e v i a t e d b y t h e Okanagan R i v e r b y - p a s s , w h i c h a l l o w s t r a f f i c t o be d i v e r t e d away f r o m t h e downtown a r e a . An e v e n more e f f i c i e n t r o u t e f o r t h e h i g h w a y w o u l d be a l o n g t h e w e s t e r n m o s t edge o f t h e c i t y t h r o u g h t h e I n d i a n R e s e r v e ( F i g u r e 2 0 ) . I f t h i s a l i g n m e n t i s p o s s i b l e , i t w o u l d d i v e r t t r a f f i c away f r o m t h e c i t y c e n t r e a r e a , a nd w o u l d f r e e t h e r o a d a l o n g S k a h a L a k e f o r s l o w e r l o c a l t r a f f i c . An a c t u a l r o a d s e t b a c k ( i n t h e marked a r e a on F i g u r e 20) w o u l d a l l o w more p a r k i n g a n d g r e a t e r p o t e n t i a l f o r use o f t h e b e a c h a r e a i n t h e a i r p o r t s e c t i o n o f S k a h a L a k e . A n o t h e r l e s s e x p e n s i v e a l t e r n a t i v e w o u l d be t h e use o f s e v e r a l p e d e s t r i a n o v e r p a s s e s . T h i s b e a c h a r e a i s w i d e , s a n d y , a n d c u r r e n t l y u n d e r - u t i l i z e d . More p a r k i n g i s p l a n n e d f o r t h e e a s t e r n p o r t i o n o f S k a h a L a k e . T h i s p a r k i n g s h o u l d be s e t b a c k f r o m t h e b e a c h a r e a b y a s e t o f v a c a n t l o t s w h i c h c o u l d be c o n v e r t e d i n t o p a r k l a n d . I n t h i s way, a b u f f e r zone c o u l d be c r e a t e d b e t w e e n t h e b e a c h a n d p a r k i n g a r e a ( F i g u r e 2 0 ) . I n t h e downtown a r e a , t h e s y s t e m o f one-way s t r e e t s i s a n e f f e c t i v e means o f c h a n n e l l i n g t r a f f i c t o a v o i d c o n g e s t i o n . 172 P u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n I s p r o v i d e d b y t h e P e n t i c t o n T r a n s i t S e r v i c e , w h i c h i s a j o i n t p r o g r a m o f t h e C i t y o f P e n t i c t o n a n d t h e P r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . D u r i n g t h e summer m o n t h s , a s p e c i a l bus o p e r a t e s b e t w e e n t h e b e a c h a r e a s o f S k a h a a nd Okanagan L a k e s . e) The r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s i n P e n t i c t o n a r e g e n e r a l l y g o o d . More p r o g r a m s a n d b e t t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r v i s i t o r s c o u l d be p l a n n e d . The most p o p u l a r b e a c h i s on S o u t h B e a c h D r i v e on S k a h a L a k e . Many y o u n g p e o p l e , r e s i d e n t s a n d v i s i t o r s , f r e q u e n t t h i s b e a c h . V o l l e y b a l l a n d t e n n i s t o u r n a m e n t s , w i t h on t h e s p o t s i g n - u p o r i n t e r - h o t e l , i n t e r -c a m pground t o u r n a m e n t s , w o u l d be good f o r o r g a n i z i n g y o u t h s and b u r n i n g o f f e n e r g y . T h e r e a r e a l s o many h o t e l / m o t e l swimming p o o l s , a s w e l l a s o t h e r r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , w h i c h s h o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e t o P e n t i c t o n r e s i d e n t s . Q u i e t r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e i n s h o r t s u p p l y ( C o l l i n s , 1 9 8 1 ) . N a t u r e w a l k s , d e s e r t e d b e a c h a r e a s , a n d w i l d l i f e t r a i l s w o u l d e n a b l e r e s i d e n t s t o have a n a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e c o n g e s t e d t o u r i s t a r e a s . 173 f ) The b e a c h a r e a s o f P e n t i c t o n c o u l d use some i m p r o v e m e n t s . The u n d e r - u t i l i z e d , w e s t e r n p o r t i o n o f t h e b e a c h a t S k a h a L a k e c o u l d be made more a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e p u b l i c . One way o f d o i n g t h i s w o u l d be t o r e - a l i g n t h e r o a d ( F i g u r e 20) a s m e n t i o n e d i n C h a p t e r 6 . 1 ( d ) . The Okanagan L a k e B e a c h i s t o o s h a d e d a l o n g t h e L a k e s h o r e D r i v e p o r t i o n . The b e a u t i f u l t r e e s l i n i n g t h i s b e a c h s h o u l d be t h i n n e d o u t a n d w i d e r e x p a n s e s o f s a n d a d d e d a t t h e e a s t e r n e nd t o c r e a t e a good s u n t a n n i n g a r e a . The Okanagan R i v e r i s a n e x c e l l e n t r e c r e a t i o n p o s s i b i l i t y . I t i s u s e d b y many p e o p l e t o f l o a t down on a i r m a t t r e s s e s o r i n n e r t u b e s f r o m Okanagan L a k e t o S k a h a L a k e . I f t h e r i v e r was c l e a n e d up, b e n e f i t t i n g t h e l a k e s i n t h e p r o c e s s , a n d t h e r i v e r b a n k s made v i s u a l l y p l e a s i n g , t h i s l e i s u r e l y r o u t e w o u l d become a m a j o r a t t r a c t i o n . Some i m p r o v e m e n t s have a l r e a d y b e e n made b u t much more c o u l d be d o n e . The J u n i o r Chamber o f Commerce has c o n s t r u c t e d a w i d e s t a i r w a y i n t o t h e w a t e r a t e a c h e nd o f t h e r i v e r , a l o n g w i t h a p a r k i n g l o t . The r i v e r bank a l o n g t h e e n t i r e r o u t e c o u l d f e a t u r e a w a l k w a y a n d / o r c y c l e p a t h w i t h p i c n i c a r e a s a n d s m a l l p a r k s . E x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s a l s o e x i s t f o r 174 w-JL 1 r Sctlt • I - 4000 FIGURE 2 0 : SKAHA AREA IMPROVEMENTS LEGEND • •New Parking New Park ^ " P e d e s t r i a n Overpass Highway Bypass r i v e r s i d e r e s t a u r a n t s a n d e n t e r t a i n m e n t . g) T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a d e q u a t e amounts o f a c c o m m o d a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s d u r i n g most t i m e s o f t h e y e a r i n P e n t i c t o n , a l t h o u g h t h e a e s t h e t i c s ( t o be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r ) o f t h e f a c i l i t i e s a r e o f t e n s u b s t a n d a r d . C o n v e r s i o n o f some t e n t a n d t r a i l e r p a r k s t o p r i v a t e m e m b e r s h i p , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e c l o s i n g down o f a few c a m p g r o u n d s , due t o i n a d e q u a t e s u p e r v i s i o n , a n d c o n v e r s i o n o f some g r o u n d s t o o t h e r u s e s , have l e d t o o v e r c r o w d i n g a t t h e r e m a i n i n g c a m p g r o u n d s . T h i s h a s r e s u l t e d i n i l l e g a l c a m p i n g , f r u s t r a t e d v i s i t o r s , a n d a l a r m e d a f f e c t e d l a n d o w n e r s a nd r e s i d e n t s . T h i s p r o b l e m i l l u s t r a t e s t h e ne e d f o r a c o - o r d i n a t e d a c c o m m o d a t i o n a g e n c y w i t h i n t h e c i t y , w i t h s e r v i c e c e n t r e s a t e i t h e r c i t y e n t r a n c e . D u r i n g t h e peak s e a s o n , t o u r i s t s w o u l d be a b l e t o o b t a i n a c c o m m o d a t i o n i f t h e r e were a n y l e f t i n t h e c i t y . I f none were a v a i l a b l e , t h e y c o u l d t h e n be d i r e c t e d t o a n o v e r f l o w f a c i l i t y w h i c h c o u l d be s i t u a t e d a t one o f t h e t h r e e g o l f c o u r s e s a r o u n d P e n t i c t o n . W i t h t h e us e o f p r o t e c t i v e n e t t i n g , t h i s c o u l d be t h e m a r r i a g e o f two v e r y c o m p a t i b l e l a n d u s e s . S i n c e c a m p e r s do n o t add t o t h e economy a s much a s o t h e r a c c o m m o d a t i o n s e r v i c e u s e r s , 176 J L 1 r Sccle : I - 4000 FIGURE 21: LOCATIONS .OF NEEDED IMPROVEMENT^ IN PENTICTON. LEGEND T o u r i s t I n f o . Booth Beach cleanup & expansiofi T o u r i s t Health C l i n i c Neighbourhood Shopping Area Organized Beach Sports 6 . Okanagan Ri v e r R e c r e a t i c i p o t e n t i a l G o l f course accommodatici P o s s i b l e T o u r i s t Resort Development Zone a l l o w i n g s u c h c a m p i n g o n l y a s a l a s t r e s o r t w o u l d r e d u c e t h e i n d u s t r y ' s p r o b l e m o f a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f c a m p e r s . h) I f f u r t h e r l a r g e o r medium s c a l e d e v e l o p m e n t i s t o be a l l o w e d , i t s h o u l d be i n a n a r e a s l i g h t l y r emoved f r o m t h e c i t y , o r i n s t r i c t l y z o n e d " T o u r i s t C o m m e r c i a l " a r e a s . T h e s e a r e a s s h o u l d e v e n be e n c l o s e d w i t h a " g a t e w a y , " l a n d s c a p e d f e n c i n g , o r i n some o t h e r way t o show a c l e a r d e m a r k a t i o n . F i g u r e 21 shows t h e l o c a t i o n s o f some n e e d e d i m p r o v e m e n t s t h a t have been d i s c u s s e d . 6.2 P o l i c i e s t o M i t i g a t e U n d e s i r a b l e E n v i r o n m e n t a l  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a) C r o w d i n g o c c u r s i n P e n t i c t o n d u r i n g t h e summer mo n t h s . T h i s d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o be much o f a p r o b l e m t o t o u r i s t s , a s t h e y a r e s t i l l a t r a c t e d t o t h e a r e a . I n f a c t , t h e c r o w d i n g , w h i c h o c c u r s i n t h e l e i s u r e a r e a s ( b e a c h e s , w a t e r s l i d e s , e t c . ) , seems t o be a n a t t r a c t i o n i n i t s e l f . I f p e o p l e a r e p l e a s a n t , o r i f t h e y e x p e c t t h e s i t u a t i o n t o be p l e a s a n t , t h e i r p r e s e n c e c a n add t o t h e s t i m u l a t i o n a n d e x c i t e m e n t o f t h e moment. 178 However, c r o w d e d b e a c h e s c a n be a c o n c e r n t o r e s i d e n t s . B e a c h a r e a s known m a i n l y t o r e s i d e n t s a l l o w t h e m t h e o p t i o n o f a t t e n d i n g t h e c r o w d e d t o u r i s t b e a c h e s , o r more s e c l u d e d , l e s s known b e a c h e s , s u c h a s S o n o c o B e a c h , T h r e e M i l e B e a c h , o r Okanagan F a l l s . A n o t h e r o p t i o n w o u l d be t o e r e c t f e n c e d a r e a s ( a s m e n t i o n e d i n C h a p t e r 4.3) f o r r e s i d e n t s o r p a s s h o l d e r s o n l y . b) L a c k o f open s p a c e i s g e t t i n g t o be a p r o b l e m , t h o u g h n o t a s e v e r e one. W i t h o u t a p p r o p r i a t e p l a n n i n g now, i t w i l l be t o o l a t e t o p r e s e r v e a r e a s o f open s p a c e i n t h e downtown a r e a , a l o n g t h e s o u t h e r n p o r t i o n o f M a i n S t r e e t a n d S k a h a L a k e R o a d . O r c h a r d a r e a s on t h e e a s t and w e s t b e n c h l a n d s a r e p r e s e n t l y p r e s e r v e d by t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l L a n d R e s e r v e ( A L R ) . An a r e a o f p a r k l a n d s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d a l o n g t h e Okanagan R i v e r C h a n n e l and p e d e s t r i a n a nd c y c l i n g p a t h s s h o u l d be u s e d t o j o i n up d i f f e r e n t a r e a s o f t h e c i t y . c ) A e s t h e t i c s i s a m a j o r i s s u e i n P e n t i c t o n . Many o f t h e a c c o m m o d a t i o n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s were b u i l t i n t h e 1950's and 60's f o r s m a l l numbers o f v i s i t o r s . " S t r i p " s t y l e d e v e l o p m e n t and a r c h i t e c t u r e d e v e l o p e d , r e s u l t i n g i n a p o o r v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e c i t y f o r t o u r i s t s a n d r e s i d e n t s a l i k e . R e s i d e n t s , h o w e v e r , must l i v e w i t h t h e d e s i g n o f t o u r i s t a r c h i t e c t u r e y e a r - r o u n d . U n t i l t h e b u i l d i n g o f t h e 179 D e l t a Lakeside H o t e l , there was no q u a l i t y accommodation to a t t r a c t a wider range of c l i e n t e l e . As mentioned i n Chapter 4 . 3 , any new t o u r i s t development, whether f o r r e c r e a t i o n , accommodation, or d i n i n g , should be a p p e a l i n g i n d e s i g n . T h i s should be taken i n t o account a t the time of the development a p p l i c a t i o n under a p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e developed by the c i t y p o l i t i c i a n s and p l a n n e r s . T h i s g u i d e l i n e c o u l d c a l l f o r any number of items, i n c l u d i n g hidden p a r k i n g , p l e a s i n g l a n d s c a p i n g , unique b u i l d i n g d e s i g n , p u b l i c a c c e s s , and s i z e r e g u l a t i o n . Some c i t i e s have a theme f o r t h e i r new developments. For example, Kimberley has a Bavarian theme, and San Antonio, Texas has a Spanish theme. T h i s i s not to suggest a theme should be developed f o r P e n t i c t o n , but i t does draw a t t e n t i o n to d e s i g n s t r a t e g i e s . 6 . 3 P o l i c i e s t o Increase P u b l i c Acceptance a) An on-going p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s program i s needed i n P e n t i c t o n to i n c r e a s e p u b l i c acceptance and awareness of tourism. S e v e r a l programs have a l r e a d y been t r i e d i n P e n t i c t o n and have been q u i t e s u c c e s s f u l ( K e i t h Bevington, 180 1986). A "People Pleaser" program was run in the spring of 1986. It was i n i t i a t e d by the Chamber of Commerce and involved businesses which catered to t o u r i s t s . The campaign taught employees the benefits of being f r i e n d l y and gave weekly prizes to people who were extra f r i e n d l y and h e l p f u l . Another program, which ended in the spr ing of 1986, was the p r o v i n c i a l "Super Host" program. This was b a s i c a l l y a t r a i n i n g program for those involved in the h o s p i t a l i t y or tourism industry . "Partners in Tourism" is another p r o v i n c i a l l y funded program. It cost shares ( f i f t y percent) marketing s trateg ies with pr ivate industry through, in th i s case, the Okanagan-Similkameen Tour i s t Assoc ia t ion . A program l i k e "People Pleaser" should be run every year. Good media coverage of the program is e s s e n t i a l . The involvement of seniors and young people i s a lso necessary. The fol lowing newspaper a r t i c l e (Figure 22) shows an example of good publ ic r e l a t i o n s for Pent icton's t o u r i s t industry . b) Penticton gains a great deal of revenue through taxes on t o u r i s t establishments. A port ion of these taxes should be put to use for spec ia l projects that would d i r e c t l y 181 SOMETIMES HARD TO ACCEPT _ , , , ^ „ . . — j _ r~iri Tourism essential Directors of the Penticton Motel Association say it is sometimes difficult for Pen-ticton residents to accept that the tourist industry is an essential factor in the economy of the city. The directors said in a-news release that this is par-ticularly true during certain times of the year when the residents' lifestyles are in- , terrupted considerably by the influx of holidayers. Directors say the ac-*, commodation aspect of the 1 tourism business is probably f.\ the most misunderstood and misinterpreted facet of the , industry that employs about 550 people in Penticton. • "A good percentage of the ' people operating motels, hotels and campgrounds in Penticton have been dealing with the public for many years," they said. ..." . "Most owners make their homes in penticton and con-tribute to community life ex-tensivelyin many areas out-• side the tourist industry. Because these people direct-ly involved with tourists are also residents, they feel it is essential that a good rapport be maintained between 'operators and residents." LON6 HOURS Directors say it takes a' certain kind of person to work the long hours required . to keep people coming to Penticton and that the upkeep and maintenance of rooms in Penticton is generally very good. "The members of the association all agree that pride of ownership is respon-sible for their good condition and the friendly atmosphere that prevails at their businesses. The industry-is catering to holidayers who' are in Penticton to enjoy the beautiful facilities that Pen-ticton is proud to offer. The association is working hard to maintain a good reputa-tion for its members and the community." OFFICERS NAMED At the annual general meeting of the association held recently, Ursula Uh was elected president. Barry /Wilson is vice-president and Beth Wilson, secretary-ness U R S U L A U H . . new president treasurer. Directors elected for fwo-year terms were Al Webert and Jim Campbell. Elected for single-year terms were Linda Lawrence and Ray McCormick. "With the election of the new officers, the association will endeavor to continue to maintain a good relationship with the residents of Pen-ticton and to offer the tourist industry maximum efficien-cy in accommodation." The association has a representative on the Pen-ticton Chamber of Com merce and the Convention Bureau and many of the association's members are supporters of the Okanagan-Similkameen Tourist Association. F i g u r e 22. b e n e f i t t h e r e s i d e n t s . P r o j e c t s m i g h t i n c l u d e p a r k f a c i l i t i e s , a t h e a t r e , w a l k w a y s , o r e v e n a p r o p e r t y t a x r e d u c t i o n . Downtown b e a u t i f I c a t i o n w o u l d a l s o be a w o r t h w h i l e p r o j e c t . I m p r o v e m e n t s t o t h e s t r e e t s c a p e m i g h t i n c l u d e t h e u s e o f a w n i n g s , p a v i n g s t o n e s i d e w a l k s , l a n d s c a p i n g , s t o r e f r o n t u p k e e p , e x t r a l i t t e r b a s k e t s , a n d bus s h e l t e r s . P r o j e c t s o f a n y k i n d , f u n d e d w i t h t o u r i s t r e v e n u e , s h o u l d be m e n t i o n e d b y t h e m e d i a and on c e r e m o n i a l p l a q u e s d e s c r i b i n g where t h e f u n d i n g was o b t a i n e d . c ) P u b l i c a c c e p t a n c e o f t o u r i s m w o u l d be e a s i e r i f t h e r e were no p o l i c i n g p r o b l e m s ( C h a p t e r 5.7.3) a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t . T h e s e i n c i d e n c e s g i v e t o u r i s t s , i n g e n e r a l , a bad name. d) The most i m p o r t a n t p o l i c y p r o p o s a l i s f o r more p u b l i c i n p u t i n t o t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . T h i s s h o u l d o c c u r a t e v e r y s t a g e o f d e v e l o p m e n t and be c o - o r d i n a t e d t h r o u g h a c e n t r a l t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y o f f i c e . T h i s s t u d y recommends a p e r m a n e n t o f f i c e be e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h a d i r e c t i n g c o m m i t t e e made up o f p o s s i b l y t h e mayor, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m t h e Chamber o f Commerce, P e a c h B o w l , H o t e l / M o t e l A s s o c i a t i o n , M e r c h a n t s A s s o c i a t i o n , and a 183 p l a n n e r f r o m t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t . The p u b l i c s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d t o d r o p i n t o t h e o f f i c e a n d o f f e r t h e i r o p i n i o n s . I t s h o u l d be up t o t h e d i r e c t i n g c o m m i t t e e , w i t h i n p u t f r o m p u b l i c m e e t i n g s and p u b l i c o p i n i o n s u r v e y s , t o f o r m u l a t e some p o l i c i e s f o r t h i s i m p o r t a n t i n d u s t r y . T h e n , i n t r u e d e m o c r a t i c f a s h i o n , t h e s e p o l i c i e s s h o u l d o n l y be a d o p t e d a f t e r a c i t y - w i d e r e f e r e n d u m v o t e . A t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y o f f i c e c o u l d a l s o h a n d l e many o f t h e d a y - t o - d a y o p e r a t i o n s o f c o - o r d i n a t i o n i n a l l f a c e t s o f t h e t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y i n P e n t i c t o n . T h i s w o u l d i n c l u d e c o l l e c t i n g t h e s t a t i s t i c s n e e d e d t o f o r m u l a t e f u t u r e p o l i c y . e) I m p r o v i n g e m p l o y e e t r a i n i n g s h o u l d a l s o be u n d e r t a k e n . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l " S u p e r H o s t " p r o g r a m , a h o s p i t a l i t y c o u r s e has b e e n o f f e r e d t h r o u g h t h e Okanagan C o l l e g e . T h i s c o u r s e w o u l d n o t o n l y h e l p p e o p l e t o q u a l i f y f o r j o b s i n t h e t o u r i s t i n d d u s t r y b u t c o u l d c r e a t e a n o t h e r s p e c i a l t y f o r P e n t i c t o n t o o f f e r o u t s i d e a r e a s - a s p e c i a l t y e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m . f ) Programmes s h o u l d be i n i t i a t e d i n P e n t i c t o n t o i n v o l v e more r e s i d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t o u r i s t e v e n t s a n d 184 a c t i v i t i e s . These programmes could involve the resident retirement community/ sport ing a c t i v i t i e s and competitions throughout the year, education programmes with out-of-town students, and enhancement of current , successful programmes, l i k e the annual square-dancing jamboree. 6.4 P o l i c i e s to At t rac t or Expand Tourism Better u t i l i z a t i o n of e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s could occur by promoting more tourism in the f a l l , winter, and spr ing . This would e n t a i l promoting areas of a t t r a c t i o n that are not as well known to t o u r i s t s as Pent icton's hot summer sun and beaches. E f f o r t s are being made in the f a l l to promote "Septober" ("Swirl ing, s n i f f i n g and s i p p i n g . " 21 August 1983), a time when condit ions are uncrowded, accommodations are offered at reduced ra te s , and the f r u i t and wine industry are at the ir bus ies t . The winter months are being promoted for s k i i n g at Apex A l p i n e , where the development of resort f a c i l i t i e s to a t t r a c t sk iers has been ongoing since 1979. The mountain capaci ty w i l l eventual ly be able to accommodate 3,425 sk iers a day. Because of the o n - h i l l expansion and increased a d v e r t i s i n g , Ski Penticton was organized. It looks af ter 185 t h e new d e s t i n a t i o n s k i e r m a r k e t by b o o k i n g s k i p a c k a g e s i n t o P e n t i c t o n h o t e l s and m o t e l s . P r o m o t i o n a l m a t e r i a l was s e n t t o e v e r y t r a v e l a g e n t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , A l b e r t a , and S a s k a t c h e w a n . E v e n t s b e i n g p r o m o t e d i n t h e s p r i n g i n c l u d e t h e M i d -W i n t e r B r e a k o u t P a r t y and t h e S p r i n g B l o s s o m F e s t i v a l . The i m p a c t o f c o n v e n t i o n a c t i v i t y on t h e t r a v e l i n d u s t r y i s a c c e n t u a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t e i g h t y - s i x p e r c e n t ( P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 3 , 52) o f t h e d e l e g a t e s a r r i v e i n months o t h e r t h a n J u l y and A u g u s t . I n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e t o u r i s m i n t h e o f f - s e a s o n s , i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t a p r o m o t i o n a l j o b n e e d s t o be done by a s i n g l e P e n t i c t o n a g e n c y i n m a j o r m a r k e t a r e a s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e c i t y . T h e s e a r e a s m i g h t i n c l u d e V a n c o u v e r , S e a t t l e , P o r t l a n d , S p o k a n e , C a l g a r y , a n d Edmonton. I n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h T o u r i s m B.C., t h i s p r o m o t i o n c o u l d e x t e n d t o o t h e r a r e a s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , e a s t e r n C a n a d a , and J a p a n . V a r i o u s c o m p o n e n t s ( S k i P e n t i c t o n , t h e h o t e l / m o t e l a s s o c i a t i o n , e t c . ) o f t h e i n d u s t r y w i l l h a ve t o o r g a n i z e , t o g e t h e r , a n a t t r a c t i v e p a c k a g e f o r v a c a t i o n e r s . An o r g a n i z a t i o n l i k e t h e P e n t i c t o n Chamber o f Commerce ( o r a t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y o f f i c e , a s m e n t i o n e d i n C h a p t e r 6.3) m i g h t make a n e f f o r t t o p a c k a g e and s e l l P e n t i c t o n and i t s 186 f a c i l i t i e s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e T o u r i s t a n d C o n v e n t i o n B u r e a u . F a c i l i t i e s w h i c h w o u l d a t t r a c t more t o u r i s t s m i g h t i n c l u d e some f i r s t - c l a s s h o t e l s a n d d i n i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , weekend h i d e a w a y s ( f o r e x a m p l e , s m a l l , q u a i n t h o t e l s , o r bed an d b r e a k f a s t s a l o n g t h e l a k e s h o r e ) , a d d i t i o n a l b e a c h a r e a s c r e a t e d b y r e c l a m a t i o n o f s h a l l o w f o r e s h o r e a r e a s , a n d s p e c i a l t y a r e a s . S p e c i a l t i e s c o u l d i n c l u d e a l a r g e number o f a p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f s p o r t i n g f a c i l i t y , l i k e s q u a s h , c u r l i n g , w a t e r s l i d e s ( i n d o o r a n d o u t d o o r ) , r a c q u e t b a l l , o r t e n n i s . I f s u c h f a c i l i t i e s were a v a i l a b l e a n d p r o m o t e d , P e n t i c t o n c o u l d become known a s t h e " R a c q u e t b a l l C a p i t a l " o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , f o r e x a m p l e , a nd h o s t o f many t o u r n a m e n t s . The c i t y h a s h o s t e d a t r i a t h a l o n ( " I r o n Man") f o r t h e l a s t t h r e e y e a r s . As w e l l , t h e c i t y a l s o b o u g h t t h e r i g h t s f r o m t h e H a w a i i a n I r o n Man e v e n t a n d e x p e c t s m a s s i v e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o v e r a g e s t a r t i n g i n 1986. A n o t h e r s p e c i a l t y a r e a w h i c h P e n t i c t o n c o u l d p r o m o t e i s e d u c a t i o n . The P e n t i c t o n c e n t r e o f t h e Okanagan C o l l e g e e n r o l l e d a b o u t 4,400 s t u d e n t s i n 1982 ( " P e n t i c t o n c o l l e g e c e n t r e s e e k s t o e x p a n d on r a n g e o f c o u r s e s . " 29 A u g u s t 1 9 8 2 ) . By a d d i n g c o u r s e s on b u s i n e s s a n d v o c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s , e s p e c i a l l y t o do w i t h t o u r i s m , r e c r e a t i o n a n d 187 hotel /motel management, Penticton could a t t r a c t students from a wide area . The motel industry could be helped in the winter months by o f f er ing rooms as dormitories to students. Students could a lso provide a seasonal labour force in the summer. An area of expansion which the c i t y of Penticton could consider to round out i t s t o u r i s t industry , is the addi t ion of l ega l i zed gambling. This would, of course, involve not only care fu l considerat ion on the part of l o c a l res idents , but a l so much government red-tape. The resu l t s of t h i s crowd-attract ing formula could well be worthwhile to Penticton and the province of B r i t i s h Columbia. Penticton is s i tuated in a n a t u r a l l y bordered area , with a d e s e r t - l i k e c l imate , c lose to several large population centres . It would make an a t t r a c t i v e Canadian a l t ernat ive to Reno or Las Vegas. The example of A t l a n t i c C i t y and the resort cycle of devleopment shows the p o s s i b i l i t y of l ega l i zed gambling. A t l a n t i c C i t y had an apparent cycle of resort development: expansion, t r a n s i t i o n , and eventual d e c l i n e . The s o c i a l and economic p l i g h t of A t l a n t i c C i t y spurred a v a r i e t y of e f for t s to r e v i t a l i z e the c i t y . A 1976 referendum to l ega l i ze casinos was passed when i t was promised that state revenues from casinos were to be devoted 188 t o p r o p e r t y t a x and u t i l i t y b i l l r e l i e f f o r t h e e l d e r l y a nd p o o r . The c r e a t i o n o f t w e n t y - o n e t h o u s a n d p e r m a n e n t new j o b s was a l s o i n v o l v e d . S t a n s f i e l d ( 1 9 7 8 , 250) c o n c l u d e s t h a t " t h e r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f A t l a n t i c C i t y c a n be a c c o m p l i s h e d by e m p h a s i z i n g a u n i q u e ( f o r t h e r e g i o n ) p o l i t i c a l / c u l t u r a l l o c a t i o n a d v a n t a g e w h i c h w i l l a t t r a c t t h e n e c e s s a r y c a p i t a l f o r m a j o r m o d e r n i z a t i o n a s w e l l a s t h e r e t u r n o f t h e g o l d e n h o r d e s o f a f f l u e n t t o u r i s t s . . . t h e a r t i f i c i a l a m e n i t y w i l l s u p p l e m e n t t h e n a t u r a l a m e n i t i e s i n a t t r a c t i n g v a c a t i o n e r s . " P e n t i c t o n c o u l d l e g a l i z e g a m b l i n g f o r s i x months o f t h e y e a r , when t h e d r a w o f n a t u r a l a m e n i t i e s i s a t i t s l o w e s t . I n t h i s way, f a c i l i t i e s a n d e c o n o m i c r e t u r n s c o u l d be s p r e a d a t a h i g h l e v e l t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r . Summary C h a p t e r 6 h a s t a k e n t h e work o f C h a p t e r s 2 and 3, a n d t h e p o l i c i e s d e v e l o p e d i n C h a p t e r 4, and a p p l i e d them t o t h e s i t u a t i o n i n P e n t i c t o n . I t i s recommended t h a t e x t r a f a c i l i t i e s a n d s e r v i c e s be a d d e d t o h a n d l e t h e l a r g e t o u r i s t p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e summer. 189 These could be u t i l i z e d more e f f i c i e n t l y by promoting more tourism during other times of the year. Any large-sca le development should be done outside the c i t y to reduce impacts on the res idents . Aesthet ics i s a major issue in Pent ic ton . Developments in the past have l e f t the c i t y with many poorly designed bui ld ings and l i t t l e character . By improving phys ica l and environmental charac-t e r i s t i c s , i t w i l l be easier to convince res idents that tourism is good for them and t h e i r c i t y . This can help to ease condit ions of saturat ion and make for easier growth in the t o u r i s t industry of Pent ic ton. 190 CHAPTER SEVEN: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS This t h e s i s has s e t out to develop some p o l i c i e s to m i t i g a t e the s o c i a l problems caused by the t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y , u s i n g P e n t i c t o n , B r i t i s h Columbia as an example. In order to do so, s e v e r a l questions had to be answered: a) What i s tourism? What are the impacts of tourism? How are these impacts measured? b) Is there a p o i n t when t o u r i s m begins to d e c l i n e and r e s i d e n t s grow i n t o l e r a n t ? I f there i s a s o c i a l l i m i t to t o u r i s m development, how could t h i s be i d e n t i f i e d ? If there i s no l i m i t to the amount of t o u r i s m development t h a t can be t o l e r a t e d i n any area, then there would be no p o i n t i n making p o l i c i e s to ease the problems. Once these ideas were d i s c u s s e d , general p o l i c i e s were developed from the l i t e r a t u r e to ease the s o c i a l e f f e c t s of tourism, and to a l l o w f o r s o c i a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e t o u r i s m development. These p o l i c i e s were then a p p l i e d s p e c i f i c a l l y to P e n t i c t o n , a c i t y where s a t u r a t i o n i n the t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y might be approaching. 191 The purpose of th i s approach to planning for tourism is to improve the planner's a b i l i t y to enhance the q u a l i t y of l i f e in tourism des t inat ion areas, e s p e c i a l l y in small c i t i e s . The l i v a b i l i t y of t o u r i s t dest inat ions for residents has been l e f t l arge ly to chance. The p o l i c i e s developed here w i l l help to ensure a more l i v a b l e environment for residents and present the opportunity for growth to a s o c i a l l y sens i t ive tourism industry . To know which d i r e c t i o n a community wishes to take, i t must be decided: a) whether the community wishes to become an important t o u r i s t des t ina t ion , and what are i t s options; b) how to maximize the economic and other advantages of tour ism; c) how to meet the problems presented by the growth and development of tourism. The work in th i s study concentrates on the problems that tourism presents. In th i s study, i t was found that , in order to maintain a healthy resident s o c i a l a t t i t u d e , three things are necessary. F i r s t , the phys ica l environment of the residents must be cared for so they have few or no complaints that can be blamed on the t o u r i s t s . This includes problems of 192 f a c i l i t i e s and serv ices , aes thet ics , and undesirable environmental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . This would also enhance the environment for t o u r i s t s a t i s f a c t i o n . Second, any benefits accruing to residents from tourism should be p u b l i c l y acknowledged so residents r e a l i z e they are benef i t ing from tourism. In other words, the costs to the residents must be reduced and/or downplayed, while the benefits should be increased and/or acknowledged. T h i r d , and most important, is to involve the residents in every possible stage of the industry , from i n i t i a l proposals for new developments to helping with implementation. Most tourism development studies measure the potent ia l for development in terms of resource a v a i l a b i l i t y , phys ica l capac i ty , and a c c e s s i b i l i t y to markets. The f indings of th i s study suggest that more a t tent ion should be paid to a d d i t i o n a l fac tors , such as the l o c a l capaci ty to absorb development, the po tent ia l in t erac t ion between residents and t o u r i s t s , and the integrat ion of the tourism industry with the rest of the economy. In developing tourism as a major industry , care must be taken not to exceed c r i t i c a l t o u r i s t - r e s i d e n t r a t i o s , beyond which l i m i t hos t i l e react ions are generated among res idents , both towards tourism as an industry and towards tour i s t s as 193 people. Plans should have some regard to saturat ion leve ls beyond which the r e a l i z a t i o n of economic, s o c i a l or environmental object ives would be jeopardized. Though the measurement of a saturat ion l e v e l seems unatta inable , methods have been developed in th i s thesis that have given an ind ica t ion of approaching saturat ion problems in Pent ic ton. These methods include an examination of the factors leading to saturat ion as explained by Young (1973) and a review of the guidel ine for l o c a l residents developed in Chapter 2. This study began by introducing the importance of tourism to the B r i t i s h Columbia economy. The concept of saturat ion and s o c i a l l i m i t s to tourism was a lso mentioned. Chapter 1 noted that more planning is needed to guide the t o u r i s t industry . The methodology was developed on the basis that a c i t y ' s components are very much i n t e r r e l a t e d . P h y s i c a l , environmental, and economic factors can a f fec t the s o c i a l wel l -being of a community. It was decided that a programme of planning p o l i c i e s could be developed from interviews, the l i t e r a t u r e , h i s t o r i c a l data, and observation. 194 Chapter 2 examined the concept of tourism and l i s t e d possible costs and benefits of tourism found in the l i t e r a t u r e . Some of the costs include d i srupt ive s o c i a l change, l o c a l i n s t a b i l i t y , diminished open space and "eye-sore" development. A method of gauging these impacts was developed in the form of "Guidelines for Evaluat ing the Soc ia l Performance of Tourism Development." Chapter 3 studied the concept of "saturat ion." It was a concept developed in recreat ion planning where i t was termed "carrying capac i ty ." The methods found in the l i t e r a t u r e for measuring saturat ion were found to be unsat i s factory because of vagueness and the use of immeasurable v a r i a b l e s . It was concluded that the best use of saturat ion for th i s study would be to r e a l i z e that such a s i t u a t i o n could happen and should be avoided. As we l l , i t could be predicted as to whether or not a town was approaching saturat ion by studying the factors that Young (1973) l i s t e d as leading to a "psychological" sa tura t ion . Chapter 4 once again examined the l i t e r a t u r e and categorizes some p o l i c i e s that w i l l mitigate the adverse s o c i a l e f fects of tourism. These p o l i c i e s deal with 195 f a c i l i t i e s and serv ices , the environment, publ ic acceptance, and future expansion of tourism. Chapter 5 introduced the C i t y of Penticton and then reviews the s i t u a t i o n there in terms of Young's saturat ion c r i t e r i o n and the guidel ine for evaluat ing the s o c i a l performance of tourism development. Evidence of emerging saturat ion problems include pressures on the urban i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , growing c r i t i c i s m of tourism, sheer numbers of t o u r i s t s in r e l a t i o n to the res ident populat ion, and increasing use of land for t o u r i s t - r e l a t e d uses. In Chapter 6, the p o l i c i e s developed in Chapter 4 were used for the s i t u a t i o n in Pent ic ton. Measures used to mitigate the adverse s o c i a l impacts in Penticton include: - planning of any new tourism projects should be i n -tegrated with the planning of a d d i t i o n a l services and f a c i l i t i e s ; - improving sewage d isposa l and transportat ion systems; - more recrea t iona l a c t i v i t y involv ing t o u r i s t s and res idents ; - l arge - sca le tourism development should be l a r g e l y s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t and segregated from the c i t y ; - new tourism development should be pleasing in design; - a centra l tourism planning o f f i ce should be estab-l i shed to handle planning, promotion, and publ ic involvement; 196 - spec ia l projects should be funded by tourism taxes; - more publ ic input into a l l phases of the tourism industry; - promotion of year-round tourism to better use f a c i l i t i e s . 7•1 Suggestions for Further Invest igat ion The methodology of th i s thes is was d i f f i c u l t to develop as saturat ion and s o c i a l impact mit igat ion for tourism are not well documented. It is hoped that th i s study w i l l make i t easier for future researchers . Further work needs to be done in designing a res ident survey to get an accurate appra i sa l of res ident a t t i t u d e s . Work also needs to be done to organize a t o u r i s t industry o f f i ce in t o u r i s t areas, and to f ind ways of funding t o u r i s t industry research and spec ia l developments. If future tourism development is to both economically and s o c i a l l y v i a b l e , i t must be i n t e n t i o n a l l y planned. Planners and planning p o l i c y must s tress publ ic contro l of pr ivate investment and development decis ions rather than simply c i v i c b e a u t i f i c a t i o n and publ ic investment in monuments and parks. Penticton has the po tent ia l to have a healthy, t h r i v i n g t o u r i s t industry i f i t is developed in 197 conjunction with the wishes and goals of the res idents . 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