UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Mind, body and experience Woudzia, Lisa 1986

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MIND, BODY AND EXPERIENCE By LISA WOUDZIft B.ft., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1983 ft THESIS SUBMITTED IN THE REQUIREMENTS MASTER PftRTIftL FULFILLMENT OF FOR THE DEGREE OF OF ftRTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f P h i l o s o p h y ) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1986 0 L i s a Woudzia, 198S In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r . a n advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department or by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of \ V M \ O S Q ^ W ^  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 )E-6 (3/81) i i A b s t r a c t I t i s a common n o t i o n t h a t we have minds or s o u l s i n a d d i t i o n t o or d i s t i n c t from our bodies. T h i s common n o t i o n , however, i s c o n s i d e r e d by many to be p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y unacceptable. T h i s toeing the case many p h i l o s o p h e r s have attempted t o account f o r the mental i n terms of the p h y s i c a l . T h i s t h e s i s examines f o u r such attempts. The type i d e n t i t y theory, f u n c t i o n a l i s m and e l i m i n a t i v e m a t e r i a l i s m are examined and r e j e c t e d . A token i d e n t i t y statement i s adopted and defended. The defense of the token i d e n t i t y statement r e s t s on i t s form which takes the s u b j e c t of experience to be c e n t r a l . While consciousness i s not e x p l a i n e d by t h i s i d e n t i t y statement, I argue t h a t i t does enable us to accommodate the mental w i t h i n a p h y s i c a l i s t framework. i i i C o n t e n t s I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . p . l Two P r o b l e m s W i t h t h e Type I d e n t i t y T h e o r y p. 4 F u n c t i o n a l ism I s n ' t V e r y F u n c t i o n a l P'l& The I n e l i m i n a b i l i t y o f t h e Mind/Body P r o b l e m p.43 Accommodating C o n s c i o u s n e s s p. 64 r e f e r e n c e s p. 83 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n A r e we s o m e t h i n g d i s t i n c t f r o m o u r b o d i e s ? I s t h e r e a s u b s t a n c e e x i s t i n g i n t h e w o r l d , a m e n t a l s u b s t a n c e , t h a t i s d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e p h y s i c a l w o r l d ? T h e s e a r e t h e s o r t s o f q u e s t i o n s t h a t p e o p l e w o r k i n g on t h e mind/body p r o b l e m t r y t o answer. One p r o b l e m w i t h a n s w e r i n g t h e s e q u e s t i o n s i n t h e p o s i t i v e i s t h a t c a u s a l i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e m e n t a l and t h e p h y s i c a l c a n ' t be e x p l a i n e d . I t seems t o us t h a t o u r b e l i e f s , d e s i r e s , e t c . , c a u s e us t o behave i n c e r t a i n ways. I b e l i e v e i t i s r a i n i n g o u t s i d e so I t a k e my u m b r e l l a w i t h me when I l e a v e t h e h o u s e . Bu t i f m e n t a l e v e n t s a r e n o t p h y s i c a l e v e n t s , i f t h e y a r e o u t s i d e t h e r e a l m o f p h y s i c s , t h e y c a n n o t be p a r t o f t h e c a u s a l c h a i n o f p h y s i c a l b e h a v i o r . I f you b e l i e v e t h a t b o t h minds and b o d i e s e x i s t and t h a t t h e y a r e d i s t i n c t i n n a t u r e , you a r e a d u a l i s t . And b e c a u s e you a r e l e f t i n t h e u n c o m f o r t a b l e p o s i t i o n o f n o t b e i n g a b l e t o e x p l a i n c a u s a l i n t e r a c t i o n between minds and b o d i e s you w i l l have v e r y l i t t l e company i n t h e p h i l o s o p h i c community. The a l t e r n a t i v e t o d u a l i s m i s monism. T h e r e a r e two s o r t s o f m o n i s t p o s i t i o n s . Phenomenalism and p h y s i c a l i s m o r m a t e r i a l i s m . P h e n o m e n a l i s t s b e l i e v e t h a t e v e r y t h i n g i s m e n t a l . T h i s d o e s n ' t n e c e s s a r i l y i m p l y t h a t p h y s i c s i s f a l s e . What i t does i m p l y i s t h a t p h y s i c s i s n o t t h e f i n a l e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e u n i v e r s e . I t e x i s t s w i t h i n t h e m e n t a l 2 r e a l m w h i c h i s t h e f i n a l e x p l a n a t i o n . W h i l e t h i s p o s i t i o n h a s i t s m e r i t s -- i t a l l o w s us t o h o l d o n t o o u r b e l i e f i n t h e e x i s t e n c e o f m e n t a l l i f e , i t f a c e s no p r o b l e m s a b o u t t h e phenomenal n a t u r e o f e x p e r i e n c e , i t a c c o m o d a t e s c a u s a l i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e mind and body -- i t i s n o t a p o s i t i o n t h a t many p e o p l e a c c e p t . I t seems t o o f a n t a s t i c t o be t r u e . I n o r d e r t o h o l d t h i s p o s i t i o n one must g i v e up h i s o r h e r b e l i e f i n t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e p h y s i c a l u n i v e r s e . I f t h a t ' s n o t enough, a f t e r o n e ' s b e l i e f i n t h e p h y s i c a l u n i v e r s e i s gone, i t ' s a s h o r t s t e p t o s o l i p s i s m w h e r e i n y o u r i n d i v i d u a l s e l f i s t h e whole o f r e a l i t y and n o t h i n g e l s e ( i n c l u d i n g o t h e r p e o p l e ) has an i n d e p e n d e n t e x i s t e n c e . T h i s l e a v e s us w i t h p h y s i c a l i s m a s a p p a r e n t l y t h e o n l y t e n a b l e p o s i t i o n . But p h y s i c a l i s m has i t s p r o b l e m s t o o . T h e r e a r e a v a r i e t y o f p o s i t i o n s , however, open t o t h e p h y s i c a l i s t . T h i s t h e s i s w i l l be an e x a m i n a t i o n o f f o u r o f t h e most w i d e l y h e l d p h y s i c a l i s t p o s i t i o n s . I s h a l l d i s c u s s t h e t y p e i d e n t i t y t h e o r y , f u n c t i o n a l i s m , e l i m i n a t i v e m a t e r i a l i s m and t o k e n p h y s i c a l i s m . The c e n t r a l c o n c e r n o f t h o s e h e s i t a n t a b o u t o r o p p o s e d t o p h y s i c a l i s m i s t h a t i n a r e d u c t i o n o r e l i m i n a t i o n o f t h e m e n t a l t o t h e p h y s i c a l , t h e r e i s no p l a c e f o r t h e phenomenal n a t u r e o f o u r e x p e r i e n c e s . T h i s c o n c e r n w i l l s u r f a c e i n e a c h c h a p t e r o f t h e t h e s i s . I w i l l u l t i m a t e l y answer no t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r we a r e s o m e t h i n g d i s t i n c t f r o m o u r b o d i e s . I w i l l a r g u e t h a t p h y s i c a l i s m c a n a ccomodate o u r m e n t a l e x p e r i e n c e s and t h a t t h i s i s p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h a d o p t i n g t o k e n p h y s i c a l i s m . 4 TWO PROBLEMS WITH THE TYPE IDENTITY THEORY F o r a f u l l d e s c r i p t i o n o f what i s g o i n g on i n a man you would have t o m e n t i o n n o t o n l y t h e p h y s c i c a i p r o c e s s e s i n h i s t i s s u e s , g l a n d s , n e r v o u s s y s t e m and so f o r t h , b u t a l s o h i s s t a t e s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s : h i s v i s u a l , a u d i t o r y , and t a c t u a l s e n s a t i o n s , h i s a c h e s and p a i n s . T h a t t h e s e s h o u l d be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h b r a i n p r o c e s s e s does n o t h e l p , f o r t o s a y t h a t t h e y a r e c o r r e l a t e d i s t o s a y t h a t t h e y a r e s o m e t h i n g ' o v e r and ab o v e ' . ...So s e n s a t i o n s , s t a t e s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s , do seem t o be t h e one s o r t o f t h i n g l e f t o u t s i d e t h e p h y s i c a l i s t p i c t u r e , and f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s I j u s t c a n n o t b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s c a n be s o . T h a t e v e r y t h i n g s h o u l d be e x p l i c a b l e i n t e r m s o f p h y s i c s ... e x c e p t t h e o c c u r e n c e o f s e n s a t i o n s seems t o me t o be f r a n k l y u n b e l i e v a b l e . < 1 ) T h i s s t a t e m e n t f r o m J . J . C . Smart e x p r e s s e s h i s m o t i v a t i o n b e h i n d h i s a t t e m p t t o i d e n t i f y s e n s a t i o n s w i t h b r a i n p r o c e s s e s . The k i n d o f i d e n t i t y t h e o r y Smart a r g u e s f o r i s now r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e t y p e i d e n t i t y t h e o r y . The hope o f t h e t y p e i d e n t i t y t h e o r i s t h a s been t h a t g e n e r a l t y p e s o f p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s ( b r a i n s t a t e s ) would be f o u n d t h a t would match up w i t h p s y c h o l o g i c a l t y p e s . T h i s i s t o be c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e t o k e n i d e n t i t y t h e o r y . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s t h e o r y , g e n e r a l p s y c h o - p h y s i c a l i d e n t i t i e s won't be f o u n d . Thus, w h i l e i t s t r u e t h a t e v e r y m e n t a l e v e n t i s i d e n t i c a l t o some p h y s i c a l e v e n t , t h e c l a s s o f e v e n t s we c a l l p a i n s o r b e l i e f s do n o t c o r r e s p o n d t o any g e n e r a l c l a s s o f d i s t i n c t p h y s i c a l e v e n t s . The t o k e n i d e n t i t y t h e o r y w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d l a t e r . I n t h i s c h a p t e r I w i l l be c o n c e r n e d o n l y w i t h t h e t y p e i d e n t i t y t h e o r y . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , I w i l l be c o n c e r n e d w i t h two o b j e c t i o n s t o t h i s t h e o r y . E v e r y t i m e I have a p a i n c - f i b r e s f i r e . T h e s e e v e n t s a r e p e r f e c t l y c o r r e l a t e d . F u r t h e r m o r e p a i n d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a n y t h i n g e l s e . T h i s i s t h e i d e a l k i n d o f c a s e w h i c h t h e i d e n t i t y t h e o r i s t b e l i e v e d s c i e n c e would be a b l e t o p r e s e n t t o u s . Of c o u r s e , s c i e n c e would l i k e l y n o t g i v e us a n y t h i n g as s i m p l e a s c - f i b r e f i r i n g s . I t would l i k e l y be a complex s e t o f i n t e r a c t i o n s o f n e u r o n s i n t h e b r a i n and r e c e p t o r s i n o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e body. But s c i e n c e would g i v e us a n a t u r a l c a t e g o r y o r k i n d ( a l b e i t complex) s u c h t h a t whenever an e v e n t o f t h i s k i n d t o o k p l a c e an e v e n t o f t h e k i n d we now c a l l p a i n would t a k e p i a c e . A s s u m i n g now t h a t we have f o u n d t h i s ' n a t u r a l k i n d ' , what i s t o p r e v e n t us f r o m a c c e p t i n g t h e i d e n t i t y t h e o r y ? Why s h o u l d we n o t now s a y t h a t p a i n i s i n f a c t a b r a i n s t a t e and t h e i d e n t i t y t h e o r y was r i g h t a f t e r a l l ? Smart c o n s i d e r s t h e o b j e c t i o n s . Smart f i r s t c o n s i d e r s two p r o b l e m s w h i c h a r i s e f r o m c o n c e r n s a b o u t meaning. The f i r s t o b j e c t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h a t I c a n d e s c r i b e and d i s c u s s my s e n s a t i o n s w i t h o u t knowing a n y t h i n g a b o u t b r a i n p h y s i o l o g y . T h i s o b j e c t i o n o n l y s t a n d s i f t h e m i n d / b r a i n i d e n t i t y i s a n e c e s s a r y r a t h e r t h a n c o n t i n g e n t i d e n t i t y - - o n l y i f i t i s a n a l y t i c a l l y t r u e t h a t p a i n = c - f i b r e f i r i n g s . Smart, o f c o u r s e , c o n t e n d s t h a t we w i l l d i s c o v e r i d e n t i t i e s and h e nce t h e y a r e c o n t i n g e n t . The f i r s t o b j e c t i o n t h e n i s 6 answered q u i t e s i m p l y by s a y i n g t h a t t h e i d e n t i t y b e i n g p r o p o s e d i s c o n t i n g e n t , " . . . t h e r e c a n be c o n t i n g e n t s t a t e m e n t s o f t h e f o r m 'A i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h B', and a p e r s o n may w e l l know t h a t s o m e t h i n g i s an A w i t h o u t knowing i t i s a B . " < 2 ) The s e c o n d o b j e c t i o n i s t h a t s i n c e i t i s o n l y a c o n t i n g e n t i d e n t i t y t h a t i s b e i n g p r o p o s e d , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t s e n s a t i o n s a r e n o t b r a i n p r o c e s s e s . T hus, when we r e p o r t a s e n s a t i o n we a r e n o t r e p o r t i n g a b r a i n p r o c e s s . T h i s o b j e c t i o n . Smart p o i n t s o u t , r e s t s on a f a l s e t h e o r y o f meaning. W h i l e i t c e r t a i n l y shows t h a t t e r m s f o r s e n s a t i o n s do n o t mean t h e same t h i n g a s t e r m s f o r b r a i n p r o c e s s e s i t d o e s n ' t show t h a t , i n f a c t , t h e y c o u l d n ' t b o t h r e f e r t o t h e same t h i n g . T h i s o b j e c t i o n c o u l d o n l y s u c c e e d i f t h e meaning o f an e x p r e s s i o n was what t h a t e x p r e s s i o n named. Smart p r e s e n t s an a d m i r a b l e d e f e n s e t o most o f t h e o b j e c t i o n s he c o n s i d e r s . Of t h e two o b j e c t i o n s I s h a l l c o n c e r n m y s e l f w i t h h e r e . Smart c o n s i d e r s o n l y t h e f i r s t . T h i s o b j e c t i o n d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o be s u f f i c i e n t l y a n s w ered. The p r o b l e m has come t o be known as t h e ' p r o p e r t i e s p r o b l e m ' . The p r o b l e m p e r t a i n s t o t h e a p p a r e n t i n a b i l i t y o f t h e i d e n t i t y t h e o r y t o a c c o u n t f o r m e n t a l p r o p e r t i e s . Thus, even i f t h e i d e n t i t y t h e o r i s t s u c c e e d s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g h i s c l a i m t h a t m e n t a l e v e n t s a r e n o t h i n g more t h a n b r a i n e v e n t s , he s t i l l h a s t o e x p l a i n t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f m e n t a l e v e n t s . " T h a t i s , i t may be p o s s i b l e t o g e t o u t o f a s s e r t i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e o f i r r e d u c i b l y p s y c h i c p r o c c e s s e s , but n o t o u t o f a s s e r t i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e o f i r r e d u c i b l y p s y c h i c p r o p e r t i e s . " ( 3 ) P s y c h i c p r o p e r t i e s i n c l u d e s u c h t h i n g s a s an a f t e r image h a v i n g t h e p r o p e r t y o f b e i n g 'a y e l l o w i s h f l a s h ' o r a p a i n b e i n g s h a r p , i n t e n s e o r t h r o b b i n g . Smart d o e s n ' t want t o deny t h a t s t a t e m e n t s e m p l o y i n g t h e s e p r o p e r t y t e r m s a r e c a p a b l e o f b e i n g t r u e o r f a l s e . He d o e s n ' t want t o deny t h e m e a n i n g f u l n e s s o f s u c h s t a t e m e n t s . T h i s b e i n g t h e c a s e he must somehow a c c o u n t f o r t h e s e a p p a r e n t l y i r r e d u c i b l e p s y c h i c p r o p e r t i e s . B e f o r e p r e s e n t i n g S m a r t ' s p r o p o s e d s o l u t i o n t o t h i s p r o b l e m , t h e p r o b l e m i t s e l f n e e d s f u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n . Smart has made a d i s t i n c t i o n between m e n t a l e v e n t s and p r o p e r t i e s . Thus, p a i n i s an e v e n t t h a t h as t h e p r o p e r t y o f b e i n g p a i n f u l . The s e n s a t i o n o f warmth i s an e v e n t t h a t has t h e p r o p e r t y o f b e i n g warm.This d i s t i n c t i o n i s i t s e l f q u e s t i o n a b l e . I n s t e a d o f h a v i n g one t h i n g on t h e m e n t a l s i d e o f t h e i d e n t i t y s t a t e m e n t t o i d e n t i f y , we now have two. But we do n o t have two e x p e r i e n c e s , t h e p a i n and t h e p a i n f u l n e s s . Once t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s made i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s e e how t h e p a i n e v e n t , a s d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e p r o p e r t y o f p a i n f u l n e s s , i s a ' m e n t a l ' e v e n t a t a l l . H a v i n g s e c u r e d an i d e n t i t y between a m e n t a l e v e n t and a b r a i n p r o c e s s d o e s n ' t seem t o amount t o v e r y much i f f e e l i n g o r phenomenal e x p e r i e n c e i s l e f t o u t o f t h e e q u a t i o n . I d e n t i f y i n g o r a c c o u n t i n g f o r t h e phenomenal e x p e r i e n c e i s 8 t h e h a r d p a r t . F o r t h i s r e a s o n t h e s u c c e s s o f S m a r t ' s a c c o u n t o f m e n t a l p r o p e r t i e s i s c e n t r a l t o t h e s u c c e s s o f h i s t h e o r y . T h a t Smart t a k e s t h i s t o be a v e r y s e r i o u s and d i f f i c u l t o b j e c t i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e r a d i c a l n a t u r e o f h i s r e p l y . He a t t e m p t s t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e s e p s y c h i c p r o p e r t i e s by i n t r o d u c i n g what he c a l l s a ' t o p i c - n e u t r a l ' o r ' q u a s i - l o g i c a l ' l a n g u a g e . "When a p e r s o n s a y s - - " I s e e a y e l l o w i s h o r a n g e a f t e r image", he i s s a y i n g s o m e t h i n g l i k e t h i s : " T h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g g o i n g on w h i c h i s l i k e what i s g o i n g on when I have my e y e s open, am awake, and t h e r e i s an o r a n g e i l l u m i n a t e d i n good l i g h t i n f r o n t o f me, t h a t i s , when I r e a l l y s e e an o r a n g e . " " ( 4 ) What c o u n t e d a s a p s y c h i c p r o p e r t y i n t h e f i r s t s e n t e n c e , t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e , i s a c c o u n t e d f o r i n t h e s e c o n d s e n t e n c e by p o s i t i n g an o b j e c t ; an o r a n g e . Thus, t h e s e c o n d s e n t e n c e a p p a r e n t l y c o n t a i n s no p s y c h i c p r o p e r t i e s . I t o n l y c o n t a i n s no p s y c h i c p r o p e r t i e s , however, i f no p s y c h i c p r o p e r t i e s a r e i n v o l v e d when we s e e an o r a n g e . However, e a r l i e r i n t h e a r t i c l e Smart h a s g i v e n an a n a l y s i s o f t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f c o l o u r s w h i c h r e s t s on d i s p o s i t i o n s t o b e h a v e . We w i l l assume f o r now t h a t t h i s k i n d o f a n a l y s i s w orks. T h r o u g h t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n , t h e n , t h e p s y c h i c p r o p e r t i e s d i s a p p e a r and we a r e l e f t w i t h t h e u n p r o b l e m a t i c c a s e o f an o b j e c t b e i n g c o l o u r e d o r a n g e . The e x p e r i e n c e i s no l o n g e r o r a n g e . An o r a n g e i s o r a n g e . And t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f an o r a n g e a f t e r image i s l i k e t h e 9 e x p e r i e n c e o f an o r a n g e . The p r o b l e m w i t h S m a r t ' s p r o p o s a l a r i s e s when we a t t e m p t t o a n a l y s e j u s t what t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s between t h e f i r s t s e n t e n c e and t h e s e c o n d s e n t e n c e o f h i s t r a n s l a t i o n . " I f S m a r t ' s p r o p o s a l i s i n t e n d e d t o mean t h a t t h e s e c o n d s e n t e n c e has t h e same meaning a s t h e f i r s t , o r t h a t we c a n t r a n s l a t e t h e f i r s t s e n t e n c e i n t o t h e s e c o n d a s we m i g h t t r a n s l a t e a Hebrew s e n t e n c e i n t o E n g l i s h , t h e n h i s c l a i m i s c l e a r l y f a l s e . I t c a n be shown t h a t t h e s e c o n d s e n t e n c e d o e s n o t have t h e same meaning a s t h e f i r s t and i t has been a r g u e d t h a t any s o - c a l l e d t o p i c n e u t r a l s e n t e n c e would f a i l t o be an a d e q u a t e t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h o s e s e n t e n c e s we u s e t o make d i r e c t r e p o r t s o f o u r s e n s a t i o n s and feelings." < 5 ) I t seems t o me t h a t i t i s an i n a d e q u a t e t r a n s l a t i o n b e c a u s e when we make s e n s a t i o n s t a t e m e n t s we s i m p l y a r e n o t t a l k i n g a b o u t o b j e c t p r o p e r t i e s . We a r e n o t t a l k i n g a b o u t p r o p e r t i e s o f an o r a n g e o r an o r a n g e o b j e c t when we t a l k a b o u t o r a n g e a f t e r i m a g e s . We a r e t a l k i n g a b o u t p r o p e r t i e s o f o u r e x p e r i e n c e . And we a r e n o t r e l a t e d t o o u r e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h i s o b j e c t i v e k i n d o f way. R o r t y d e s c r i b e s t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way. I b e l i e v e t h a t any a t t e m p t t o d e f e n d t h e t r a n s l a t i o n f o r m w i l l i n e v i t a b l y g e t bogged down i n c o n t r o v e r s y a b o u t t h e ad e q u a c y o f t h e p r o p o s e d t o p i c n e u t r a l t r a n s l a t i o n s o f s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t s e n s a t i o n s . T h e r e i s o b v i o u s l y a s e n s e o f ' a d e q u a t e t r a n s l a t i o n ' i n which t h e t o p i c n e u t r a l i t y o f t h e p u r p o r t e d t r a n s l a t i o n s 10 i p s o f a c t o makes them i n a d e q u a t e . So t h e p r o p o n e n t o f t h e t r a n s l a t i o n f o r m o f t h e t h e o r y w i l l have t o f a l l back on a weaker s e n s e o f " a d e q u a t e t r a n s l a t i o n " . B u t t h e weaker t h i s s e n s e becomes, t h e l e s s i m p r e s s i v e i s t h e c l a i m b e i n g made, and t h e l e s s d i f f e r e n c e between t h e i d e n t i t y t h e o r y and t h e n o n - c o n t r o v e r s i a l t h e s i s t h a t c e r t a i n b r a i n p r o c e s s e s may be c o n s t a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h c e r t a i n s e n s a t i o n s . ( 6 ) And B e r n s t i e n sums i t up as f o l l o w s : " . . . t h e more one s t r e s s e s t h a t o u r n o n - i n f e r e n t i a l f i r s t p e r s o n r e p o r t s o f s e n s a t i o n s c a n be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o t o p i c n e u t r a l l a n g u a g e , t h e more i t l o o k s l i k e one i s t r y i n g t o r e s o l v e t h e a p p a r e n t d i s p a r i t i e s between " s e n s a t i o n t a l k " and " p h y s i c a l i s t t a l k " by a r b i t r a r y s t i p u l a t i o n . " ( 7 ) S i n c e t h e o r i g i n a l and t r a n s l a t i o n f o r m o f t h e s e n s t e n c e p r o p o s e d by Smart d o n ' t mean t h e same t h i n g , we c a n o n l y make them mean t h e same t h i n g by s t i p u l a t i n g t h a t t h e y do. The i d e n t i t y t h e o r i s t , i n h i s a t t e m p t t o d e f e a t d u a l i s m , b e g i n s by c l a i m i n g t h a t s c i e n c e w i l l d i s c o v e r an i d e n t i t y between mind and b r a i n b u t ends up h a v i n g t o s t i p u l a t e an i d e n t i t y . I d e n t i t y a c h e i v e d by t h e s e means i s u n a c c e p t a b l e . What t h e i d e n t i t y t h e o r i s t has i n f a c t done, a t l e a s t i n S m a r t ' s c a s e , i s t o have s h i f t e d t h e d u a l i s m he began w i t h f r o m i t s r o o t i n e v e n t s o r p r o c e s s e s t o a new p o s i t i o n i n p r o p e r t i e s . I n s o l v i n g t h e p r o b l e m o f i d e n t i t f y i n g m e n t a l e v e n t s w i t h p h y s i c a l e v e n t s t h e i d e n t i t y t h e o r i s t i s l e f t w i t h t h e e q u a l l y d i f f i c u l t p r o b l e m o f i d e n t i f y i n g m e n t a l p r o p e r t i e s w i t h p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s . 11 I f we assume t h a t t h e p r o b l e m o f m e n t a l p r o p e r t i e s h a s been s o l v e d , and t h e r e i s no l o n g e r any a p r i o r i p r o b l e m w i t h t h e t y p e i d e n t i t y t h e o r y , we o u g h t s t i l l t o be r e l u c t a n t t o h o l d t h i s t h o e r y and w a i t f o r t h e s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o v e r y o f i t s t r u t h . We s h o u l d be r e l u c t a n t b e c a u s e t h e t h e o r y i s e m p i r i c a l l y h i g h l y i m p l a u s i b l e . T h i s k i n d o f o b j e c t i o n was n o t c o n s i d e r e d by Smart i n h i s a r t i c l e " S e n s a t i o n s and B r a i n P r o c e s s e s " . The r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s p e r h a p s p a r t l y due t o t h e f a c t t h a t Smart l i m i t e d h i s d i s c u s s i o n t o s e n s a t i o n s and d i d n o t c o n s i d e r o t h e r k i n d s o f m e n t a l e v e n t s s u c h a s b e l i e f s and d e s i r e s . The o b j e c t i o n , i t seems t o me, h o l d s much more s t r e n g t h when i n t e n t i o n a l m e n t a l e v e n t s a r e t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . The o b j e c t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d by H i l a r y Putnam i n h i s a r t i c l e "The N a t u r e o f M e n t a l S t a t e s " . W h i l e Putnam a p p e a r s t o a g r e e t h a t t h e o b j e c t i o n i s s t r o n g e r when a l l m e n t a l e v e n t s a r e c o n s i d e r e d , he e v i d e n t l y t a k e s t h e p r o b l e m t o be a s e r i o u s one e v e n i f we o n l y c o n s i d e r s e n s a t i o n s . I w i l l p r e s e n t Putnam's argument and t h e n a t t e m p t t o show t h a t upon e x a m i n a t i o n i t c a n be weakened i n t h e c a s e o f s e n s a t i o n s . C o n s i d e r what t h e b r a i n s t a t e t h e o r i s t must do t o make good h i s c l a i m s . He has t o s p e c i f y a p h y s i c a l - c h e m i c a l s t a t e s u c h t h a t any o r g a n i s m ( n o t j u s t mammal) i s i n p a i n i f and o n l y i f (a) i t p o s s e s s a b r a i n o f s u i t a b l e p h y s i c a l - c h e m i c a l s t r u c t u r e : and (b) i t s b r a i n i s i n t h e p h y s i c a l - c h e m i c a l s t a t e . T h i s means t h a t t h e p h y s i c a l - c h e m i c a l s t a t e i n q u e s t i o n must be a p o s s i b l e s t a t e o f a mammalian b r a i n , a r e p t i l l i a n b r a i n , a m o l l u s c ' s b r a i n ( o c t o p u s e s a r e m o l l u s c a and c e r t a i n l y f e e l p a i n ) , e t c . A t t h e same t i m e i t must n o t be a p o s s i b l e ( p h y s i c a l l y p o s s i b l e ) s t a t e o f t h e b r a i n o f any 12 p h y s i c a l l y p o s s i b l e c r e a t u r e t h a t c a n n o t f e e l p a i n . Even i f s u c h a s t a t e c a n be f o u n d i t must be n o m o l o g i c a l l y c e r t a i n t h a t i t w i l l a l s o be a s t a t e o f t h e b r a i n o f any e x t r a t e r r e s t r i a l l i f e t h a t may be f o u n d t h a t w i l l be c a p a b l e o f f e e l i n g p a i n b e f o r e we c a n even e n t e r t a i n t h e s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t i t may be. p a i n . . . . F i n a l l y , t h e h y p o t h e s i s becomes s t i l l more a m b i t i o u s when we r e a l i z e t h a t t h e b r a i n s t a t e t h e o r i s t i s n o t j u s t s a y i n g t h a t p a i n i s a b r a i n s t a t e ; he i a , o f c o u r s e , c o n c e r n e d t o m a i n t a i n t h a t e v e r y p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e i s a b r a i n s t a t e . Thus i f we c a n f i n d e ven one p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r e d i c a t e w h i c h c a n c l e a r l y be a p p l i e d t o b o t h a mammal and an o c t o p u s ( s a y " h u n g r y " ) , b u t whose p h y s i c a l - c h e m i c a l c o r r e l a t e i s d i f f e r e n t i n t h e two c a s e s , t h e b r a i n s t a t e t h e o r y has c o l l a p s e d . I t seems t o me o v e r w h e l m i n g l y p o s s i b l e t h a t we c a n do t h i s . ( 8 ) P a r t o f t h e s t r e n g t h o i d e n t i t y t h e o r y i s d e r i v e d t h e c o n d i t i o n s he s e t s o u t meet. Hence, w h i l e t h e r e c e f Putnam's a t t a c k on t h e f r o m t h e ambiguous n a t u r e o f f o r t h e i d e n t i t y t h e o r i s t t o r t a i n l y i s some s t r e n g t h t o Putnam's a t t a c k , i t c a n be weakened c o n s i d e r a b l y by a t t e n d i n g more c l o s e l y t o t h e c o n d i t i o n s . The i d e n t i t y t h e o r i s t must f i r s t s p e c i f y a p h y s i c a l c h e m i c a l s t a t e w i t h w h i c h he i d e n t i f i e s p a i n . Once he h a s done t h i s he w i l l be a l l o w e d t o a s c r i b e p a i n o n l y t o t h o s e c r e a t u r e s t h a t have t h e r i g h t k i n d o f b r a i n and whose b r a i n s a r e i n t h a t s t a t e . F i r s t o f a l l t h e s e two c o n d i t i o n s c a n be c o l l a p s e d i n t o one. The f i r s t c o n d i t i o n w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y be met i f t h e s e c o n d one i s met. F o r t o be i n t h e r i g h t k i n d o f b r a i n s t a t e i m p l i e s t h a t t h e c r e a t u r e has t h e r i g h t k i n d o f b r a i n . S e c o n d l y , i t may t u r n o u t t h a t h a v i n g a b r a i n o f s u i t a b l e p h y s i c a l - c h e m i c a l s t r u c t u r e i s n o t a s t r i n g e n t r e q u i r e m e n t . F o r i n s p e c i f y i n g a p h y s i c a l - c h e m i c a l s t a t e 13 t h e b r a i n s t a t e t h e o r i s t would p r e s u m a b l y t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e f a c t t h a t p a i n i s a s c r i b a b l e t o c r e a t u r e s w i t h b r a i n s t r u c t u r e s v e r y d i f f e r e n t f r o m o u r s . The s p e c i f i c a t i o n would t h u s , p r e s u m a b l y , n o t be so n a r r o w a s t o a p p l y t o o n l y one g r o u p o f c r e a t u r e s s u c h a s human b e i n g s . The s p e c i f i c a t i o n i n f a c t c o u l d be v e r y b r o a d . Of c o u r s e , t h e l e s s s t r i n g e n t t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n , t h e l e s s t h e t h e o r y l o o k s l i k e an i d e n t i t y t h e o r y . I f , f o r example, we have a v e r y l e n g t h y s t a t e m e n t o f d i s j u n c t s c l a i m i n g t h a t p a i n = A v B v C v D , e t c . , i t would a p p e a r t h a t we had n o t d i s c o v e r e d a ' k i n d ' o f p h y s i c a l e v e n t i d e n t i c a l t o t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e v e n t we c a l l p a i n b u t r a t h e r t h a t we were s i m p l y l i s t i n g t h e p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s e x i s t i n g i n t h o s e c a s e s we s u s p e c t o f b e i n g p a i n . I t d o e s , however, seem q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t some c r i t e r i o n c o u l d be f o u n d t h a t i s n o t so weak a s t o be v a c u o u s , y e t n o t s o s t r o n g a s t o e x c l u d e c a s e s o f p a i n i n c r e a t u r e s whose b r a i n s t r u c t u r e s a r e d i f f e r e n t f r o m o u r s . Next t h e r e i s t h e p r o b l e m o f e x t r a - t e r e s t r i a l l i f e . To d e a l w i t h t h i s c a s e we c a n i n v o k e a l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g t h a t Putnam h i m s e l f a d v a n c e d i n a n o t h e r o f h i s a r t i c l e s , "Meaning and R e f e r e n c e " . ( 9 ) Putnam d e f i n e s a p l a n e t he c a l l s Twin E a r t h a s e x a c t l y l i k e E a r t h w i t h t h e one e x c e p t i o n t h a t w a t e r on Twin E a r t h i s n o t H 2 0 b u t XYZ. I t i s , however, f u n c t i o n a l l y e q u i v a l e n t t o w a t e r . Twin E a r t h l i n g s d r i n k i t , swim i n i t , w a t e r t h e i r p l a n t s w i t h i t , e t c . Putnam c l a i m s t h a t t h i s s t u f f , "XYZ w a t e r " , i s 14 n o t w a t e r . We c a n ' t be r e f e r r i n g t o i t when we t a l k a b o u t w a t e r . I t c a n o n l y be r e f e r r e d t o a s w a t e r ( T E ) . I t seems t o me t h a t t h e same l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g c a n be a p p l i e d t o t h e p r e s e n t c a s e o f p a i n . U n l e s s e x t r a - t e r r e s t r i a l s f u l l f i l l t h e c o n d i t i o n s we have d i s c o v e r e d a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e t e r m we c a n n o t a s c r i b e p a i n t o them. Of c o u r s e , i f t h e y e x h i b i t p a i n b e h a v i o r o r u n d e r g o s t a t e s w h i c h a r e f u n c t i o n a l l y e q u i v a l e n t t o p a i n we may want t o a s c r i b e t o them p a i n ( E T ) . Thus, t h e e x t r a - t e r r e s t r i a l c a s e d o e s n o t seem t o be much c a u s e f o r c o n c e r n . I have been d e f e n d i n g t h e p l a u s a b i l i t y o f t h e i d e n t i t y t h e o r y a g a i n s t Putnam's a t t a c k o n l y w i t h r e g a r d t o p a i n . I b e l i e v e t h a t s e n s o r y s t a t e s , s u c h a s p a i n , a r e t h e o n l y k i n d s o f c a s e s i n w h i c h t h e t y p e i d e n t i t y t h e o r y i s d e f e n s i b l e a g a i n s t t h e c h a r g e o f e m p i r i c a l i m p l a u s a b i l i t y . I t i s n o t d e f e n s i b l e i n o t h e r c a s e s o f m e n t a l e v e n t s , i . e . , i n c a s e s o f i n t e n t i o n a l m e n t a l e v e n t s . N a g e l p u t s i t t h i s way. I t seems l i k e l y t h a t t h e r e w i l l be g e n e r a l i d e n t i t i e s o f a r o u g h k i n d f o r n o n - i n t e n t i o n a l s t a t e s , s u c h a s h a v i n g p a r t i c u l a r s e n s a t i o n s o r s e n s o r y i m p r e s s i o n s , s i n c e t h e p h y s i c a l c a u s e s o f t h e s e a r e f a i r l y u n i f o r m . B u t one c a n be p r a c t i c a l l y c e r t a i n t h a t i n t e n t i o n a l m e n t a l s t a t e s , e v e n i f i n e a c h p a r t i c u l a r c a s e t h e y a r e i d e n t i c a l w i t h some p h y s i c a l s t a t e , w i l l n o t have g e n e r a l p h y s i c a l c o u n t e r p a r t s , b e c a u s e b o t h t h e c a u s e s and e f f e c t s o f a g i v e n b e l i e f o r d e s i r e o r i n t e n t i o n a r e e x t r e m e l y v a r i o u s on d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n s even f o r t h e same i n d i v i d u a l , l e t a l o n e f o r d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n s . One m i g h t a s e a s i l y hope t o f i n d a g e n e r a l e q u i v a l e n t , i n m o l e c u l a r t e r m s , o f a b u i l d i n g s ' 15 c o l l a p s i n g o r a b r i d e s ' b e i n g u n s a f e . ( 1 0 ) A t h e o r y o f mind s h o u l d be a b l e t o a c c o u n t f o t a l l m e n t a l e v e n t s . A t h e o r y t h a t may h o l d p r o m i s e f o r some k i n d s o f m e n t a l e v e n t s b u t t h a t d o e s n ' t have a c h a n c e w i t h o t h e r s must be c o n s i d e r e d i n c o m p l e t e . T h i s i s t h e s t a t e i n w h i c h Putnam's o b j e c t i o n l e a v e s t h e i d e n t i t y t h e o r y . The e m p i r i c a l i m p l a u s i b i l t i y o b j e c t i o n t h u s s t a n d s a s a s t r o n g and s e r i o u s o b j e c t i o n . Two o j e c t i o n s t o t h e i d e n t i t y t h e o r y have been c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r : t h e t h e o r y i s e m p i r i c a l l y i m p l a u s i b l e and i t o f f e r s no a d e q u a t e a c c o u n t o f m e n t a l p r o p e r t i e s . One o r t h e o t h e r o f t h e s e has c o n v i n c e d j u s t a b o u t e v e r y o n e t h a t t h e t y p e f o r m o f t h e i d e n t i t y t h e o r y d o e s n ' t o r c a n ' t work. 16 Notes DSmart, J.J.C., "Sensations and B r a i n Processes", i n B o r s t , C.V., (ed.), The Mind/Brain I d e n t i t y Theory. S t . M a r t i n ' s Press, New York, 1975, pp.53,54 2) Ibid,p.58 3) I b i d , p.59 4) I b i d , p.60 5) B e r n s t i e n , R i c h a r d , "The Challenge of S c i e n t i f i c M a t e r i a l i s m " , I n t e r n a t i o n a l P h i l o s o p h i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , V.8m 1968, p.261 6) Rorty, R i c h a r d , "Mind-Body I d e n t i t y , P r i v a c y and C a t e g o r i e s " , i n B o r s t , C.V., (ed.). The Mind/Brain  I d e n t i t y Theory, S t . M a r t i n ' s Press, New York, 1975, pp.190,191 7) B e r n s t i e n , R i c h a r d , "The Challenge of S c i e n t i f i c M a t e r i a l i s m " , I n t e r n a t i o n a l P h i l o s o p h i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , V.8, 1968, p.262 S)Putnam, H i l a r y , "The Nature of Mental S t a t e s " i n Block, N., ( e d . ) . Readings i n the Philosophy of Psychology, Vol.1, Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1980, p. 228 9) Putnam, H i l a r y , "Meaning and Reference", The J o u r n a l of  Philosophy, Vol.70, 1973, pp.699-711 10) Nagel, Thomas, " P h y s i c a l i s m " , i n B o r s t , C.V., (ed.), The Mind/Brain I d e n t i t y Theory. S t . Martin's Press, New Y o r k , 1 S 7 5 , p p . 2 2 4 , 2 2 5 18 FUNCTIONALIST ISN'T VERY FUNCTIONAL The t y p e i d e n t i t y t h e o r i s t had f a i t h i n t h e d i s c o v e r y o f p s y c h o - p h y s i c a l l a w s . P s y c h o l o g y would become law - l i k e b e c a u s e p s y c h o l o g y was , i n f a c t , n o t h i n g o v e r and above n e u r o p h y s i o l o g y , w h i c h i s p h y s i c a l and h ence f o l l o w s p h y s i c a l l a w s . We have examined two p r o b l e m s w i t h t h i s v i e w . One i s t h a t i t i s i m p l a u s i b l e t h a t f o r e v e r y t y p e o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e , we w i l l f i n d some d i s c r e t e n e u r o l o g i c a l s t a t e w i t h w h i c h we c a n i d e n t i f y i t . The s e c o n d p r o b l e m was t h a t i n a s s e r t i n g an i d e n t i t y t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f m e n t a l e v e n t s a r e l e f t u n a c c o u n t e d f o r . F u n c t i o n a l i s m o v e r c o m e s t h e f i r s t o b j e c t i o n , w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g f a i t h i n a l a w - a b i d i n g p s y c h o l o g y . Thus, w h i l e m e n t a l e n t i t i e s may have no p h y s i c a l e s s e n c e s t h e y may have f u n c t i o n a l e s s e n c e s . And i f t h i s i s t h e c a s e d i s t i n c t i v e s o r t s o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l l a w s may e x i s t - - n o t p s y c h o - p h y s i c a l l a w s , b u t p s y c h o - f u n c t i o n a l l a w s . F u n c t i o n a l e v e n t s , l i k e n e u r o p h y s i o l o g i c a l e v e n t s , f o l l o w l a w s . F u n c t i o n a l e v e n t s a r e f o r m a l i z a b l e and c a n be r e a l i z e d by m a c h i n e s . The f u n c t i o n a l i s t p r o j e c t i s t o f o r m a l i z e t h e m e n t a l by i d e n t i f y i n g i t w i t h c a u s a l r o l e . I n t h i s r e s p e c t i t i s l i k e t h e t y p e i d e n t i t y t h e o r y . And b e c a u s e o f t h i s l i k e n e s s i t , t o o , i s s u b j e c t t o t h e p r o p e r t i e s p r o b l e m . Any t i m e we t r y t o f o r m a l i z e c o n c e p t s t h a t a r e n o t c u r r e n t l y f o r m a l i z e d , o r make l a w - l i k e e v e n t s i y t h a t d o n ' t p r e s e n t l y a p p e a r t o be l a w - l a k e , we must r e f i n e o u r c o n c e p t s and r e s t r i c t t h e Kinds o f e v e n t s w h i c h a r e t o c o u n t a s g e n u i n e and i n need o f e x p l a n a t i o n . T h a t i s , we n arrow t h e f i e l d o f i n q u i r y . T h e r e i s n o t h i n g wrong w i t h d o i n g t h i s i n p r i n c i p l e , b u t c a u t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y . We must be c a r e f u l n o t t o e x c l u d e from o u r new a n a l y s i s i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s o f o u r o l d v i e w . W h i l e J . J . C . Smart t o o k heed o f t h i s c a u t i o n a r y a d v i c e and r e c o g n i z e d t h e need o f an e x p l a n a t i o n o f m e n t a l p r o p e r t i e s , t h e f u n c t i o n a l i s t s a p p e a r n o t t o be concerned. They don't a p p e a r t o t h i n k t h a t t h e c o n t e n t s o f m e n t a l e v e n t s a r e m need o f an a c c o u n t . In t h i s c h a p t e r I s h a l l examine t h e f u n c t i o n a l i s t p o s i t i o n a s p r o p o s e d by D a n i e l D e n n e t t . 1 w i l l c o n c e n t r a t e on h i s t h e o r y a s i t i s a d v a n c e d i n h i s i n f l u e n t i a l and t h o u g h t p r o v o k i n g c h a p t e r from B r a i n s t o r m s . " I n t e n t i o n a l S y s t e m s " . Of c o u r s e , D e n n e t t ' s p o s i t i o n i s n o t t h e o n l y f o r m t h a t f u n c t i o n a l i s m c a n t a k e . T h i s f a c t w i l l be a d d r e s s e d i n my c o n c l u d i n g r e m a r k s . I w i l l o f f e r two c r i t i s i z m s o f D e n n e t t ' s f u n c t i o n a l i s m . One i s b a s e d on h i s r e d u c t i o n o f i n t e n t i o n a l i t y t o machine o p e r a t i o n s , w h i l e t h e s e c o n d c o n c e r n s t h e f u n c t i o n a l i s t f o r m o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s p r o b l e m t h e c o n t e n t p r o b l e m . The f u n c t i o n a l i s t t a k e s wnat i s c a l i e d a top-down a p p r o a c h t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g m e n t a l e v e n t s . I n s t e a d o f s t a r t i n g w i t h p h y s i o l o g y and a t t e m p t i n g t o show how i t g i v e s r i s e t o b e h a v i o r , he o r she b e g i n s a t t h e t o p w i t h 20 b e h a v i o r and a s k s how t h a t b e h a v i o r c a n b e s t be e x p l a i n e d and p r e d i c t e d . We c a n b e s t e x p l a i n and p r e d i c t t h e b e h a v i o r o f some o f t h e t h i n g s we i n t e r a c t w i t h i n t h e w o r l d by t a k i n g them t o be i n t e n t i o n a l s y s t e m s - - t h a t i s , s y s t e m s t h a t have g o a l s , b e l i e f s and d e s i r e s and t h a t u s e i n t e n t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s . D e n n e t t c l a i m s t h a t t h i s i s how we b e s t e x p l a i n and p r e d i c t human b e h a v i o r and a l s o some c o m p u t e r s . H i s method i s t o b e g i n by g i v i n g i n t e n t i o n a l i t y t o t h o s e s y s t e m s t h a t we c a n b e s t i n t e r a c t w i t h by d o i n g s o , and t h e n t o l o o k f o r mechanisms t h a t w i l l " e x p l a i n " why t h e s y s t e m i s t r e a t e d a s i n t e n t i o n a l . " I n s e e k i n g k nowledge o f i n t e r n a l d e s i g n o u r most p r o m i s i n g t a c t i c i s t o t a k e o u t i n t e l l i g e n c e l o a n s , endow p e r i p h e r a l and i n t e r n a l e v e n t s w i t h c o n t e n t , and t h e n l o o k f o r mechanisms t h a t w i l l f u n c t i o n a p p r o p r i a t e l y w i t h s u c h 'messages' s o t h a t we c a n pay back t h e l o a n s . " ( 1 ) The s u c c e s s o f D e n n e t t ' s p r o p o s a l d e p ends on 1) whether o r n o t t h e l o a n s c a n be p a i d back i n f u n c t i o n a l i s t c o i n and 2) whether c a s e s o f c o r r e c t a s c r i p t i o n s o f m e n t a l e v e n t s a r e c a s e s o f t a k i n g o u t l o a n s . Of c o u r s e i f t h e answer t o t h e s e c o n d c o n d i t i o n i s n e g a t i v e , t h e whole p r o j e c t o f a t t e m p t i n g t o pay back t h e l o a n i s m i s g u i d e d . I t seems t o me t h a t t h e r e a r e s t r o n g r e a s o n s t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s i s i n d e e d t h e c a s e . However, I do f e e l t h a t D e n n e t t ' s p r o p o s a l i s n o v e l and i n t r i g u i n g and t h a t i t i s d e s e r v i n g o f a t t e n t i o n . F o r D e n n e t t a b e l i e f o r d e s i r e i s n o t h i n g o v e r and above t h e m e c h a n i c a l l y r e a l i z e d f u n c t i o n a l r o l e o f t h a t b e l i e f o r d e s i r e . The mechanism i n w h i c h t h a t f u n c t i o n a l r o l e i s r e a l i z e d i s n o t i m p o r t a n t . I t i s o n l y i m p o r t a n t t h a t i t i s m e c h a n i c a l l y r e a l i z a b l e . We p o s i t b e l i e f s and d e s i r e s i n o r d e r t o e x p l a i n b e h a v i o r . In o r d e r f o r them t o c o u n t as e x p l a n a t i o n s t h e y must have c a u s a l f o r c e . I n o r d e r f o r them t o have c a u s a l f o r c e , t h e y must be r e a l i z e d i n a p h y s i c a l s y s t e m . Thus, i n o f f e r i n g e x p l a n a t i o n s i n t e r m s o f f u n c t i o n a l s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , t h o s e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s must i r i p r i n c i p l e be r e a l i z a b l e i n a p h y s i c a l s y s t e m . I t i s i n t h i s way t h a t we a v o i d what J e r r y F o d o r c a l l s ' f u n c t i o n a l p s e u d o - e x p l a n a t i o n s ' . F o d o r g i v e s t h i s e x a m p l e . " H e r e i s a t h e o r y o f t h e ( o c c a s i o n a l ) human c a p a c i t y t o p r o v i d e t r u e a n s w e r s t o q u e s t i o n s p o s e d ; I n s i d e e v e r y o n e ' s head t h e r e i s a u n i v e r s a l q u e s t i o n a n s w e r i n g d e v i c e . The c l a s s o f s u c h d e v i c e s i s f u n c t i o n a l l y s p e c i f i e d a s f o l l o w s . A u n i v e r s a l q u e s t i o n - a n s w e r e r i s a f u n c t i o n f r o m q u e s t i o n s o n t o t h e i r a n s w e r s ; g i v e n a q u e s t i o n a s i n p u t , i t p r o v i d e s t h e answer a s o u t p u t . " (2) T h i s k i n d o f f u n c t i o n a l s p e c i f i c a t i o n i s a v o i d e d by t h e f u n c t i o n a l i s t b e c a u s e i t i s n o t m e c h a n i c a l l y r e a l i z a b l e . The r e l a t i o n s i n t e r m s o f w h i c h p s y c h o l o g i c a l k i n d s c a n be s p e c i f i e d a r e , on t h e f u n c t i o n a l i s t v i e w , r e s t r i c t e d t o t h o s e i n t e r m s o f w h i c h T u r i n g machine program s t a t e s c a n be s p e c i f i e d . I t a p p e a r s , t h e n , t h a t p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e s , d e f i n e d a s f u n c t i o n a l s t a t e s , a r e by d e f i n i t i o n r e a l i z a b l e s i n c e t h e y a r e s p e c i f i e d i n t e r m s o f T u r i n g machine r e a l i z a b l e 22 s t a t e s . D e n n e t t ' s p l a n was t o pay back t h e l o a n s he t o o k o u t on i n t e l l i g e n c e by f i n d i n g mechanisms t h a t would f u n c t i o n a p p r o p r i a t e l y . B u t f r o m what has j u s t been s a i d i t would seem t h a t we d o n ' t r e a l l y have t o l o o k f o r t h e s e mechanisms. The i n t e n t i o n a l m e n t a l e v e n t s t h a t D e n n e t t i s i n t e r e s t e d i n e x p l a i n i n g a r e o n l y t h o s e t h a t a r e m e c h a n i c a l l y r e a l i z a b l e . Thus, w h i l e D e n n e t t i m p l i e s t h a t he i s g o i n g t o go l o o k i n g f o r a p p r o p r i a t e mechanisms --g i v i n g h i s p r o j e c t t h e t o n e o f an e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n -- he r e a l l y b e g i n s w i t h t h e mechanisms. He b e g i n s a t l e a s t , w i t h a f o r m a l i z e d n o t i o n o f i n t e n t i o n a l i t y . I f he a c t u a l l y went l o o k i n g f o r mechanisms o r f o r m a l i z a b l e ( m e c h a n i c a l l y r e a l i z a b l e ) e v e n t s t o i d e n t i f y w i t h o u r c u r r e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l k i n d s , he would i n d e e d be u n d e r t a k i n g an e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n and he c o u l d d i s c o v e r t h i n g s . T h i s i s p r e u m a b l y t h e method, f o r example, by w h i c h an a s s o c i a t i o n between c - f i b r e s and p a i n would be d i s c o v e r e d . What D e n n e t t i s a c t u a l l y d o i n g i s s t a r t i n g o f f w i t h a s t i p u l a t e d n o t i o n o f i n t e n t i o n a l m e n t a l e v e n t s . The m e n t a l e v e n t s he s e t s o u t t o e x p l a i n a r e n o t t h o s e o f o u r common s e n s e f o l k p s y c h o l o g y . They a r e a f o r m a l i z e d v e r s i o n o f them. I f we d o n ' t a c c e p t t h i s f o r m a l i z e d v e r s i o n , D e n n e t t ' s p r o j e c t d o e s n ' t g e t o f f t h e g r o u n d . D e n n e t t ' s p r e m i s e seems t o be s o m e t h i n g l i k e t h e f o l l o w i n g . The n a t u r e o f i n t e n t i o n a l m e n t a l e v e n t s i s e x h a u s t e d by an a n a l y s i s i n w h i c h o n l y t h e i r c a u s a l r o l e 2 3 i s e m p l o y e d . C a u s a l r o l e s a r e f u n c t i o n a l l y s p e c i f i a b l e and machine r e a l i z a b l e . The f u n c t i o n a l i s t c a n be u n d e r s t o o d a s a s s e r t i n g a c o m b i n a t i o n o f two t y p e s o f t h e o r i e s . He o r s h e i s a t once a t o k e n p h y s i c a l i s t and a t y p e i d e n t i t y t h e o r i s t . W h i l e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l t y p e i d e n t i t y t h e o r y i d e n t i f i e s t y p e s o f m e n t a l e v e n t s w i t h t y p e s o f p h y s i c a l e v e n t s , t h e f u n c t i o n a l i s t t a k e s t y p e s o f m e n t a l e v e n t s t o be c o n c e p t s -- a b s t r a c t t h e o r e t i c a l e n t i t i e s , and i d e n t i f i e s them w i t h a n o t h e r c o n c e p t , c a u s a l r o l e . I n a s c r i b i n g m e n t a l e v e n t s t o s o m e t h i n g , t h e n , we a r e r e f e r r i n g t o w h a t e v e r i t i s t h a t i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h a t c a u s a l r o l e . T h i s i s t h e t o k e n p h y s i c a l i s t a s p e c t o f t h e t h e o r y . Mechanisms (wh e t h e r t h e y a r e made o f b i o l o g i c a l s t u f f o r s t e e l ) a r e i d e n t i f i e d t h a t f u n c t i o n a p p r o p r i a t e l y w i t h messages t o f u l l f i l l t h e c a u s a l r o l e s p e c i f i e d by t h e a s c r i p t i o n . I n any p a r t i c u l a r s y s t e m t o w h i c h we a s c r i b e m e n t a l e v e n t s , t h o s e e v e n t s g e t r e d u c e d t o machine o p e r a t i o n s . I would l i k e , a t t h i s p o i n t , t o g r a n t D e n n e t t ' s p r e m i s e and a c c e p t t h e t y p e i d e n t i t y s t a t e m e n t o f t h e t h e o r y . T h i s a l l o w s us t o c o n s i d e r w h e t h e r t h e r e d u c t i o n i s t a s p e c t o f t h e t h e o r y works. G r a n t i n g t h e n , t h a t m e n t a l e v e n t s a r e i d e n t i c a l t o , o r n o t h i n g o v e r and above t h e c a u s a l r o l e we t a k e t h e s e e v e n t s t o p l a y , c a n t h e y , i n t h e p a r t i c u l a r c a s e , be r e d u c e d t o m e c h a n i c a l o p e r a t i o n s ? B e f o r e moving on t o c o n s i d e r t h e r e d u c t i o n I would l i k e t o make i t c l e a r t h a t a r e d u c t i o n i s i n d e e d what 24 D e n n e t t has i n mind. P a r t o f t h e a p p e a l o f f u n c t i o n a l i s m h a s been, I t h i n k , t h a t i t a p p e a r s t o be a t h e o r y t h a t a l l o w s us t o h o l d o n t o i n t e n t i o n a l m e n t a l e v e n t s -- t h a t i s , i t d o e s n ' t r e q u i r e us t o r e d u c e them -- w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e i t o f f e r s us a f o r m a l i z e d p s y c h o l o g y . W h i l e t h e l a t t e r i s t r u e , t h a t i s , i t d o e s o f f e r us a f o r m a l i z e d p s y c h o l o g y , t h e f o r m e r i s a m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f f u n c t i o n a l i s m a s i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e f r o m D e n n e t t . Any t i m e a t h e o r y b u i l d e r p r o p o s e s t o c a l l any e v e n t , s t a t e s t r u c t u r e , e t c . , i n any s y s t e m ( s a y t h e b r a i n o f an o r g a n i s m ) a s i g n a l . message o r command o r o t h e r w i s e endows i t w i t h c o n t e n t , he t a k e s o u t a l o a n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . He i m p l i c i t l y p o s i t s a l o n g w i t h h i s s i g n a l s , messages, o r commands s o m e t h i n g t h a t c a n s e r v e a s a s i g n a l - r e a d e r , m e s s a g e - u n d e r a t a n d e r o r commander. e l s e h i s s i g n a l s w i l l be f o r n a u g h t , w i l l d e c a y u n r e c i e v e d , uncomprehended. T h i s l o a n must be r e p a i d e v e n t u a l l y by f i n d i n g and a n a l y z i n g  away t h e s e r e a d e r s o r c o m p r e h e n d e r s ; f o r f a i l i n g t h i s , t h e t h e o r y w i l l have among i t s e l e m e n t s u n a n a l y z e d m a n - analogues endowed w i t h enough i n t e l l i g e n c e t o r e a d t h e s i g n a l s , e t c . , and t h u s t h e t h e o r y w i l l p o s t p o n e a n s w e r i n g t h e m a j o r q u e s t i o n : what makes f o r i n t e l l i g e n c e ? ...whenever a t h e o r y r e l i e s on a f o r m u l a t i o n b e a r i n g t h e l o g i c a l marks o f i n t e n t i o n a l i t y , t h e r e i s a l i t t l e man c o n c e a l e d , ( 3 ) And f u r t h e r on D e n n e t t c l a i m s " I n t e n t i o n a l t h e o r y i s v a c u o u s a s p s y c h o l o g y b e c a u s e i t p r e s u p p o s e s and d o e s n o t e x p l a i n r a t i o n a l i t y o r i n t e l l i g e n c e . " ( 4 ) D e n n e t t t a k e s r a t i o n a l i t y and i n t e l l i g e n c e t o be e x p l a i n a b l e a t t h e l e v e l o f d e s i g n . I n f a c t , he a p p e a r s t o e q a u t e r a t i o n a l i t y w i t h what he c a l l s ' o p t i m a l d e s i g n ' . We c a n s a y t h a t someone o r s o m e t h i n g i s r a t i o n a l o r o p e r a t i n g f r o m o p t i m a l d e s i g n i f t h a t t h i n g o p e r a t e s a c c o r d i n g t o what r a t i o n a l i t y s u g g e s t s . I t may be t h e c a s e , however, t h a t 2 5 i n t e n t i o n a l i t y p r e c e d e s r a t i o n a l i t y r a t h e r t h a n t h e o t h e r way a r o u n d . I t i s o f t e n ambiguous j u s t what D e n n t t i n t e n d s t o be r e d u c i n g . Sometimes i t l o o k s as t h o u g h he i s c o n c e r n e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e , and a t o t h e r t i m e s , i n t e t i o n a l i t y . I have been t a k i n g him t o be c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e l a t t e r . I t seems, however, t h a t he c a n o n l y s u c c e e d w i t h t h e f o r m e r . R e d u c i n g complex m e n t a l p r o c c e s s e s t o e l e m e n t a r y o n e s t h a t a r e machine r e a l i z a b l e h a s , i n f a c t , a l r e a d y been s u c c e s s f u l l -- h e n c e . A r t i f i c i a l I n t e l l i g e n c e . T h i s k i n d o f r e d u c t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e has p r o v e d h e l p f u l i n d e l i n e a t i n g t h e p r o b l e m s t o be worked o u t i n i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f m e n t a l e v e n t s . F o r i f i n y o u r a n a l y s i s o f m e n t a l e v e n t s , you a p p e a l t o i n t e l l i g e n c e as a d i s t i n g u i s h i n g mark o f t h e m e n t a l , we c a n s i m p l y show you t h a t m a c h i n e s a r e c a p a b l e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . I f you c l a i m t h a t t h e y a r e n o t r e a l l y i n t e l l i g e n t b e c a u s e t h e y l a c k i n t e n t i o n a l i t y , t h e r e p l y w i l l be t h a t t h a t ' s a n o t h e r q u e s t i o n . I f we make a d i s t i n c t i o n between i n t e l l i g e n c e and i n t e n t i o n a l i t y and c l a i m t h a t t h e l a t t e r i s n o t n e c e s s a r y f o r a s c r i p t i o n o f t h e f o r m e r , we w i l l end up a g r e e i n g . F o r m a c h i n e s c a n p e r f o r m p r o c e s s e s s u c h t h a t when t h o s e p r o c e s s e s a r e p e r f o r m e d by a p e r s o n we c a l l them i n t e l l i g e n t . The q u e s t i o n , t h e n , i s n o t o f t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e , b u t o f t h e a r t i f i c i a l i t y , i . e . , o f t h e i n t e n t i o n a l i t y . S i n c e i f we a g r e e t o o p e r a t e w i t h a n o t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e a s d i s t i n c t f r o m i n t e n t i o n a l i t y i t i s 26 p a i n f u l l y o b v i o u s t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e c a n be r e d u c e d t o m achine o p e r a t i o n s ( a d d i n g m c h i n e s , c a l c u l a t o r s , c o m p u t e r s ) D e n n e t t i s t o be t a k e n as c l a i m i n g more t h a n a r e d u c t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y a r e d u c t i o n o f i n t e n t i o n a l i t y i s n o t t o be f o u n d . F o d o r p u t s i t t h i s way. The p o i n t i s t h a t machine o p e r a t i o n s -- i n c l u d i n g  e l e m e n t a r y machine o p e r a t i o n s - - a r e t h e m s e l v e s c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n ways t h a t i n v o l v e i n t e n s i o n a l i d i o m i n s o f a r a a t h e i r s p e c i f i c a t i o n i s r e l e v a n t t o t h e i r r o l e i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s . F o r i n t e n s i o n a l i t y -- as o p p o s e d t o i n t e l l i g e n c e -- i t ' s ( a s you m i g h t s a y ) a d u a l a s p e c t t h e o r y a l l t h e way down, w i t h i n t e n s i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s p e c i f y i n g one o f t h e a s p e c t s and m e c h a n i c a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s p e c i f y i n g t h e o t h e r . B e c a u s e t h i a i s t r u e f r o m t o p t o b o t t o m , r e d u c t i o n o f complex o p e r a t i o n s t o t h e i r e l e m e n t a r y components buys n o t h i n g v i s a v i s t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f i n t e n s i o n a l i t y . ( 5 ) R e c a l l t h a t D e n n e t t ' s method was t o "endow p e r i p h e r a l and i n t e r n a l e v e n t s w i t h c o n t e n t , and t h e n l o o k f o r mechanisms t h a t w i l l f u n c t i o n a p p r o p r i a t e l y w i t h s u c h 'messages'." T h i s was s u p p o s e d t o pay back t h e l o a n . Mechanisms a r e n o t i n t e n t i o n a l s o we were s u p p o s e d t o have g o t t e n r i d o f i n t e n t i o n a l i t y — e x o r c i s e d t h e l i t t l e man t h a t was s u p p o s e d t o have been c o n c e a l e d . B u t i f i n o r d e r f o r b e l i e f s t o be r e d u c e d t o mechanisms, t h o s e mechanisms must be c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n t e n t i o n a l l y t h e m s e l v e s , we h a v e n ' t g o t t e n r i d o f i n t e n t i o n a l i t y . F o r s o m e t h i n g t o c o u n t a s p l a y i n g t h e c a u s a l r o l e o f t h e b e l i e f t h a t P, t h e l a n g u a g e t h a t must be u s e d w i l l i n v o l v e o t h e r b e l i e f s and d e s i r e s . We w i l l n o t be a b l e t o c a l l m e c h a n i c a l e v e n t B t h e b e l i e f t h a t P u n l e s s m e c h a n i c a l e v e n t s A and C ( t h e c a u s e and e f f e c t o f B) a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n i n t e n t i o n a l t e r m s . We c a n t r e a t e v e n t s A, 27 B and C e i t h e r a s m e c h a n i c a l e v e n t s o r i n t e n t i o n a l e v e n t s . We c a n n o t s a y t h a t A and C a r e m e c h a n i c a l and d e r i v e f r o m them B a s an i n t e n t i o n a l e v e n t . T h e r e a r e two l e v e l s o p e r a t i n g -- t h e i n t e n t i o n a l l e v e l and t h e d e s i g n l e v e l . D e n n e t t i s c l a i m i n g t h a t t h e f i r s t i s r e d u c i b l e t o t h e s e c o n d . On t h e f i r s t l e v e l we have b e l i e f s , d e s i r e s , e t c . , and on t h e s e c o n d l e v e l we have m e c h a n i c a l e v e n t s l i k e s w i t c h e s b e i n g f l i p p e d . T h e r e a r e c a u s a l e v e n t s t a k i n g p l a c e on b o t h l e v e l s . We a l s o have what I have c a l l e d a t y p e i d e n t i t y s t a t e m e n t f r o m t h e f u n c t i o n a l i s t . The b e l i e f t h a t P i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h w h a t e v e r p l a y s t h e c a u s a l r o l e o f t h e b e l i e f t h a t P. S o m e t h i n g i s t h e b e l i e f t h a t P i n v i r t u e o f i t s c a u s a l r o l e i n t h e m e n t a l l i f e o f t h e s y s t e m . I f t h e f u n c t i o n a l i s t h o l d s o n t o t h i s n o t i o n o f what i t i s t o be t h e b e l i e f t h a t P, t h e n she c a n ' t a l s o h o l d t h a t mechanism B i s t h e b e l i e f t h a t P b e c a u s e mechanism B d o e s n ' t p l a y t h a t c a u s a l r o l e . L e t s c o n s i d e r a c a s e . We a s c r i b e t o a c h e s s p l a y i n g c o m puter t h e b e l i e f t h a t ' i f I move my k n i g h t f o r w a r d I w i l l win t h e game.' C a l l t h i s t h e b e l i e f t h a t P. I n o r d e r f o r us t o a s c r i b e t h i s b e l i e f we need c o n d i t i o n s A and C ( p l u s an a s s u m p t i o n o f r a t i o n a l i t y ) . A i s t h e d e s i r e t o win t h e game. C i s t h e a c t i o n o f moving t h e k n i g h t . C a l l t h i s l e v e l 1. A t l e v e l 2 we have t h e f o l l o w i n g e v e n t s . A: s w i t c h 1 f l i p s s w i t c h 3; B: s w i t c h 3 f l i p s s w i t c h 6; C: s w i t c h 6 f l i p s s w i t c h 9. On l e v e l 1, 28 e v e n t B f u l l f i l l s t h e f u n c t i o n a l i s t c a u s a l c r i t e r i a . On l e v e l 2, e v e n t B d o e s n o t f u l l f i l l t h i s r o l e . I t c a n o n l y f u l l f i l l t h i s r o l e i f e v e n t s A and C a r e a l r e a d y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h A and C on l e v e l 1. O n l y i f A and C have a l r e a d y been i d e n t i f i e d a s i n t e n t i o n a l e v e n t s and t h e i r  i n t e n t i o n a l i t y i s u t i l i z e d i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f e v e n t s c a n m e c h a n i c a l e v e n t B be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e b e l i e f t h a t P. But i f t h i s i s t h e c a s e t h e n , a s I s a i d e a r l i e r , we h a v e n ' t g o t t e n r i d o f i n t e n t i o n a l i t y . The o n l y way m e c h a n i c a l e v e n t B c a n be t a k e n a s t h e b e l i e f t h a t P i s i f i t s c a u s a l r o l e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n i n t e n t i o n a l t e r m s . Thus, D e n n e t t ' s l o a n on i n t e n t i o n a l i t y d o e s n ' t g e t p a i d b a c k . T h e r e i s a p r o b l e m w i t h t h i s s c e n a r i o . The c omputer b e h a v e s i n a r a t i o n a l manner a s an i n t e n t i o n a l s y s t e m . Y e t when we l o o k i n t o t h e computer a l l we f i n d a r e e v e n t s o f t h e k i n d t h a t t o o k p l a c e on l e v e l 2 - i . e . m e c h a n i c a l , n o n - i n t e n t i o n a l e v e n t s . T h i s f a c t seems t o l e n d i t s e l f t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t no m a t t e r what a r g u m e n t s we a d v a n c e a g a i n s t t h e i d e a , i n t e n t i o n a l i t y must be r e d u c i b l e t o e l e m e n t a r y machine o p e r a t i o n s . The p r o b l e m w i t h t h i s i s t h a t when we l o o k i n t o t h e c omputer we f i n d more t h a n e l e m e n t a r y machine o p e r a t i o n s . We f i n d m achine o p e r a t i o n s t h a t a r e d r i v e n by c e r t a i n p r o g r a m s . I t i s b e c a u s e o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s e p r o g r a m s t h a t t h e c o m p u t e r ' s n o n - i n t e n t i o n a l machine o p e r a t i o n s a p p e a r i n t h e i r e v e n t u a l o u t p u t f o r m , t o be i n t e n t i o n a l . As F o d o r s a y s : 29 c o m p u t e r s a r e s y m b o l - d r i v e n s y m b o l - m a n i p u l a t o r s : t h e i r p r o g r a m s a r e s e t s o f s e m a n t i c a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d f o r m u l a e and t h e i r t y p i c a l o p e r a t i o n s c o n s i s t i n t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f s e t s o f s e m a n t i c a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d f o r m u l a e . . . . I t i s , i n s h o r t , b e c a u s e t h e y a r e i n t h i s s e n s e s e m a n t i c e n g i n e s t h a t d e s c r i p t i o n s o f what c o m p u t e r s do and how t h e y do i t a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y s h o t f u l l o f i n t e n s i o n a i i d i o m . T u r i n g machine f u n c t i o n a l i s m d i s p e n s e s w i t h a p p e a l s t o i n t e l l i g e n c e w i t h o u t d i s p e n s i n g w i t h t h i s i n t e n s i o n a l i t y , v i z by p r o v i d i n g a c l a s s o f f o r m a l i s m s f o r w h i c h m e c h a n i c a l r e a l i z a t i o n s a r e t r i v i a l l y a v a i l a b l e . But i n s o f a r a s we view t h e o p e r a t i o n s o f s u c h m a c h i n e s a s c o m p u t a t i o n s (a f o r t i o r i , i n s o f a r a s we view s u c h mechanisms a s p s y c h o l o g i c a l m o d e l s ) , we a r e t a k i n g t h e s e v e r y m e c h a n i c a l p r o c e s s e s t o be "endowed w i t h c o n t e n t . ( 6 ) W i t h t h i s i n mind we c a n s a y one o f two t h i n g s . We c a n a g r e e t h a t s i n c e t h e computer b e h a v e s l i k e an i n t e n t i o n a l s y s t e m , i t i s i n f a c t an i n t e n t i o n a l s y s t e m , b u t i t i s s o i n v i r t u e o f t h e f a c t t h a t i t o p e r a t e s on s e m a n t i c a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d f o r m u l a e . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , we c a n s a y t h a t w h i l e t h e computer l o o k s l i k e i t i s i n t e n t i o n a l , t h i s a p p e a r a n c e b e i n g due t o t h e f a c t t h a t i t o p e r a t e s on s e m a n t i c a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d f o r m u l a e , i t r e a l l y i s n ' t i n t e n t i o n a l a t a l l and we a r e s i m p l y m i s t a k e n i n t a k i n g i t t o be. I t h i n k t h e l a t t e r i s t h e p r o p e r way t o l o o k a t i t . T h i s i s b e c a u s e t h e i n t e n t i o n a l a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e computer i s due, n o t t o t h e machine o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e c o mputer, b u t t o t h e s e m a n t i c component o f t h e f o r m u l a e , w h i c h t h e c o mputer d o e s n ' t o p e r a t e on. I t o n l y o p e r a t e s on t h e f o r m a l i z e d p r o p e r t i e s o f s y m b o l s . B e f o r e g o i n g on I would l i k e t o summarize what has 3 0 been s a i d s o f a r . We d e c i d e d n e a r t h e b e g i n i n g o f t h e c h a p t e r t h a t two c o n d i t i o n s must be f u l l f i l l e d i n o r d e r f o r D e n n e t t ' s f u n c t i o n a l i s m t o s u c c e e d . The f i r s t was t h a t t h e l o a n t h a t was t a k e n o u t on i n t e l l i g e n c e c o u l d be p a i d b a c k w i t h f u n c t i o n a l i s t c a p i t a l . What I have t r i e d t o show i s t h a t i f i n t e l l i g e n c e i s c o n s i d e r e d d i s t i n c t f r o m i n t e n t i o n a l i t y , t h e n we c a n pay back t h e l o a n . What I have a l s o a r g u e d , however, i s t h a t D e n n e t t d o e s n o t t a k e them t o be d i s t i n c t and i n r e d u c i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e he t a k e s h i m s e l f t o be r e d u c i n g i n t e n t i o n a l i t y . We a l s o d i s c o v e r e d t h a t f u n c t i o n a l i s m i s a c a u s a l a c c o u n t o f t h e n a t u r e o f m e n t a l e v e n t s . S o m e t h i n g i s t h e b e l i e f t h a t P j u s t i n c a s e i t p l a y s t h e c a u s a l r o l e o f t h e b e l i e f t h a t P. I a r g u e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , t h a t t h e l o a n t a k e n o u t on i n t e l l i g e n c e d o e s n ' t g e t p a i d b a c k . I f t h i s i s t h e c a s e , t h e f u n c t i o n a l i s t ' s computer i s j u s t a s much a m y s t e r y a s t h e human mind. We d o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d t h e i n t e n t i o n a l i t y o f e i t h e r . I t h e n o f f e r e d an a l t e r n a t i v e v i e w o f t h i s outcome. The a l t e r n a t i v e i s t o s a y t h a t t h e computer r e a l l y i s n ' t an i n t e n t i o n a l s y s t e m , b u t o n l y a p p e a r s t o be. I t i s t h i s s e c o n d view and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t I w i l l now move on t o d i s c u s s . D e n n e t t h i m s e l f m i g h t o p t f o r t h i s v i e w . He m i g h t a g r e e t h a t t h e computer i s n o t r e a l 1 v i n t e n t i o n a l , b u t he m i g h t add t h a t n o t h i n g ( i n c l u d i n g us) i s r e a l l y i n t e n t i o n a l . I c l a i m e d above t h a t t h e i n t e n t i o n a l a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e computer i s due t o t h e s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t 31 o f i t s f o r m u l a e , w h i c h t h e computer d o e s n ' t o p e r a t e on. The computer o p e r a t e s on s y m b o l s -- s y m b o l s t h a t have meaning f o r u s . A t t h i s p o i n t D e n n e t t may c l a i m t h a t we have no r e a s o n f o r b e l i e v i n g t h a t t h e s y m b o l s have any more meaning f o r us t h a n f o r t h e c o m p u t e r . The computer m a n i p u l a t e s s y m b o l s and a p p e a r s t o be i n t e n t i o n a l and we m a n i p u l a t e s y m b o l s and a p p e a r t o be i n t e n t i o n a l . T h a t t h e computer i s o p e r a t i n g on f o r m a l i z e d s y m b o l s , r e s u l t i n g i n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f i n t e n t i o n a l i t y s h o u l d be t a k e n a s e v i d e n c e t h a t we a l s o o p e r a t e on f o r m a l i z e d s y m b o l s w i t h t h e same r e s u l t . A l l t h i s s t u f f a b o u t s e m a n t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and meaning i s j u s t e x t r a baggage. M o r e o v e r , t h i s e x t r a baggage i s n o t e x p l a i n a b l e . On t h i s p i c t u r e , i n t e n t i o n a l i t y d i d n ' t r e a l l y g e t r e d u c e d when we l o o k e d i n s i d e t h e c o m p u t e r . R a t h e r , we d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e r e i s no s u c h t h i n g a s i n t e n t i o n a l i t y . I t i s j u s t a wa o f t a l k i n g . I t seems t o me t h a t i n t e n t i o n a l i t y i s j u s t a way o f t a l k i n g i n t h e c a s e o f t h e c omputer , b u t n o t i n t h e c a s e o f most human b e i n g s . I o f f e r e d a s e c o n d c o n d i t i o n a t t h e b e g i n i n g o f t h i s c h a p t e r t h a t I c l a i m e d must be f u l l f i l l e i n o r d e r f o r D e n n e t t ' s p r o j e c t t o s u c c e e d . T h i s c o n d i t i o n more f u n d a m e n t a l t h a n t h e f i r s t , was t h a t i t must be t h e c a s e t h a t c o r r e c t a s c r i p t i o n s o f m e n t a l e v e n t s a r e c a s e s o f t a k i n g o u t l o a n s . W h i l e t h i s b a n k i n g t e r m i n o l o g y d o e s seem a p p r o p r i a t e when we a r e t a l k i n g a b o u t c o m p u t e r s , i t d o e s n ' t seem s o , t o me, when we a r e t a l k i n g a b o u t human 32 b e i n g s . Human b e i n g s a r e t h e p a r a d i g m c a s e o f i n t e n t i o n a l i t y . I f we o b s e r v e o t h e r s y s t e m s b e h a v i n g i n a manner t h a t l o o k s l i k e t h e manner i n w h i c h a human b e i n g would b e h a v e , we have r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h a t s y s t e m may a l s o be i n t e n t i o n a l . B u t s i n c e t h a t s y s t e m i s n o t a human b e i n g , and t h e r e f o r e n o t a p a r a d i g m c a s e o f an i n t e n t i o n a l s y s t e m , we a r e making an a s s u m p t i o n t h a t i t p o s s e s s e s a l l o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s t h a t a r e n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r f o r s o m e t h i n g t o c o u n t a s an i n t e n t i o n a l s y s t e m . We do n o t make t h i s a s s u m p t i o n f o r t h e p a r a d i g m c a s e . Even i f we d o n ' t know what t h o s e p r o p e r t i e s a r e , i t i s n e c e s s a r i l y t r u e t h a t we, a s t y p i c a l human b e i n g s , have t h o s e p r o p e r t i e s b e c a u s e we a r e what any o t h e r s y s t e m must be compared w i t h i n d e t e r m i n i n g whether o r n o t i t i s i n t e n t i o n a l . I f we s t a r t w i t h a t h e o r y o±" i n t e n t i o n a l i t y , t h a t i s , a t h e o r y a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f i n t e n t i o n a l s t a t e s , we must b e l i e v e i n t h e e x i s t e n c e o f i n t e n t i o n a l s t a t e s ( w h a t e v e r t h e i r n a t u r e may b e ) . We must b e l i e v e t h a t s o m e t h i n g c l e a r l y h as t h o s e s t a t e s . I f we end by d o u b t i n g t h e i n t e n t i o n a l i t y o f p e o p l e , we a r e n o t t r y i n g t o s o l v e q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f i n t e n t i o n a l m e n t a l e v e n t s . We a r e e n g a g i n g o u r s e l v e s i n t h e p r o b l e m o f o t h e r minds. In o r d e r t o work on t h e mind/body p r o b l e m t h e p r o b l e m o f o t h e r minds must be s e t a s i d e . I f we a r e t r y i n g t o e x p l a i n t h e m e n t a l i t i s g i v e n t h a t minds e x i s t . We a r e t r y i n g t o e x p l a i n s o m e t h i n g a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f human b e i n g s . I t may 33 be a r g u e d that, minds a r e r e d u c i b l e t o s o m e t h i n g e l s e o r t h a t any o r a l l o f o u r t h e o r i e s a b o u t what t h e mind i s a r e f a l s e , b u t t h a t we a r e t r y i n g t o e x p l a i n o r e x p l a i n away s o m e t h i n g i m p l i e s t h a t we a r e t a k i n g i t f o r g r a n t e d t h a t t h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g t o be e x p l a i n e d . S h o u l d f u n c t i o n a l i s m be s e e n as an a t t e m p t t o s o l v e t h e mind body p r o b l e m o r a s an a t t e m p t t o s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m o f o t h e r minds? I t seems t o me t h a t D e n n e t t i s w o r k i n g on t h e f o r m e r p r o b l e m b u t i n v o k i n g t h e l a t t e r f o r s u p p o r t . T h a t i s , i n t r y i n g t o show t h a t c o m p u t e r s a r e i n t e n t i o n a l s y s t e m s , he ends up s a y i n g t h a t we have no r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t p e o p l e a r e . T h i s i s p e r h a p s a b i t u n f a i r t o D e n n e t t a s he a c t u a l l y e n d s up c l a i m i n g t h a t t h e r e a r e no i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between p e o p l e and m a c h i n e s when i t comes t o t h e a s c r i p t i o n o f i n t e n t i o n a l i t y . One c a n o n l y r e a c h s u c h a c o n c l u s i o n , however, i f he i s e i t h e r a b e h a v i o r i s t - - i n w h i c h c a s e f u n c t i o n a l i s m i s no improvement on b e h a v o i r i s m -- o r i f he h o l d s some a c c o u n t o f i n t e n t i o n a l m e n t a l e v e n t s whereby a machine i s a b l e t o have s u c h e v e n t s . The l a t t e r i s t h e c a s e f o r f u n c t i o n a l i s m . I t i s a c a u s a l a c c o u n t o f m e n t a l e v e n t s . We s h o u l d n o t , t h e r e f o r e , t a k e t h e f u n c t i o n a l i s t t o be w o r k i n g on t h e p r o b l e m o f o t h e r minds, b e c a u s e he assumes an a c c o u n t o f i n t e n t i o n a l i t y a t t h e o u t s e t . The f u n c t i o n a l i s t b e l i e v e s t h a t a) an a n a l y s i s o f i n t e n t i o n a l m e n t a l e v e n t s w h i c h i n v o k e s o n l y t h e c a u s a l r o l e o f any g i v e n e v e n t e x h a u s t s t h e a n a l y s i s , and b) i f s u c h an 34 a n a l y s i s i s c o r r e c t , i n t e n t i o n a l i t y c a n be l e g i t i m a t e l y a s c r i b e d t o m a c h i n e s and r e d u c e d t o t h e i r e l e m e n t a r y mechanisms. I have so f a r a r g u e d t h a t b) i s f a l s e . I d o n ' t b e l i e v e t h a t i n t e n t i o n a l i t y c a n be l e g i t i m a t e l y a s c r i b e d t o m a c h i n e s f o r t h e r e a s o n t h a t i n t e n t i o n a l i t y d o e s n ' t g e t r e d u c e d t o e l e m e n t a r y mechanisms. B e f o r e moving on t o a r g u e f o r t h e f a l s i t y o f a ) , I s h o u l d c l a r i f y t h e p o i n t o f t h e p r e s e n t d i s c u s s i o n . U n l e s s t h e f u n c t i o n a l i s t i s engaged i n a f o r m o f t h e p r o b l e m o f o t h e r minds, he o r she c a n n o t c l a i m t h a t we a r e t a k i n g o u t a l o a n on i n t e l l i g e n c e i n t h e c a s e o f t h e i n t e n t i o n a l i t y o f human b e i n g s , i . e . , t h e p a r a d i g m c a s e . S i n c e t h e y have an a c c o u n t o f t h e n a t u r e o f i n t e n t i o n a l m e n t a l e v e n t s , ( w h i c h I e a r l i e r r e f e r r e d t o as t h e i r t y p e i d e n t i t y s t a t e m e n t ) t h e y must assume t h a t t h i s a c c o u n t i s an a c c o u n t o f s o m e t h i n g . The f u n c t i o n a l i s t method i s t o assume t h e c o r r e c t n e s s o f t h e i r a c c o u n t i n t h e p a r a d i g m c a s e and t h e n t o a p p l y i t t o c a s e s o u t s i d e t h e p a r a d i g m , s u c h a s t h e c o m p u t e r . Hence, w h i l e we do t a k e o u t a l o a n on i n t e l l i g e n c e i n t h e c a s e o f t h e computer, we do n o t i n t h e c a s e o f human b e i n g s . I t i s g i v e n t h a t p e o p l e a r e i n t e n t i o n a l s y s t e m s (even t h o u g h on t h e f u n c t i o n a l i s t a c c o u n t t h i s d o e s n ' t t u r n o u t t o mean v e r y much) s i n c e i f a n y t h i n g i s i n t e n t i o n a l , p e o p l e a r e . The l o a n i s t a k e n o u t o n l y f o r t h o s e c a s e s o u t s i d e t h e p a r a d i g m . Anyone who t a k e s h e r s e l f t o be i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e n a t u r e o f m e n t a l e v e n t s , assumes t h a t t h e r e a r e m e n t a l 3 5 e v e n t s . Her p u r p o s e i s t o c a p t u r e t h e i r n a t u r e w i t h i n a t h e o r y . J . J . C . Smart a t t e m p t e d t o do t h i s w i t h h i s i d e n t i t y t h e o r y . F u n c t i o n a l i s m , on t h e o t h e r hand, seems t o be o f f e r i n g a t h e o r y o f s o m e t h i n g a b o u t w h i c h i t d o u b t s t h e e x i s t e n c e . I f i t d o e s n ' t e x i s t , t h e n t h e r e i s no need f o r an a c c o u n t , and i f i t d o e s t h e n any a c c o u n t g i v e n must e x p l a i n i t s n a t u r e . F u n c t i o n a l i s m ' s a t t e m p t t o r e d u c e i n t e n t i o n a l i t y o u t o f e x i s t e n c e i n t h e c a s e o f m a c h i n e s d o e s n ' t work p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e i t has an a c c o u n t o f t h e n a t u r e o f i n t e n t i o n a l i t y t h a t i s i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h m e c h a n i s t i c r e d u c t i o n . I s t h e a c c o u n t o f i n t e n t i o n a l i t y , i . e . t h e t y p e i d e n t i t y s t a t e m e n t , g i v e n by f u n c t i o n a l i s m s a t i s f a c t o r y ? What d e t e r m i n e s w h e t h e r o r n o t s o m e t h i n g i s t o c o u n t a s t h e b e l i e f t h a t P i s t h e c a u s a l r o l e o f t h a t t h i n g i n t h e m e n t a l l i f e o f t h e o r g a n i s m ( s y s t e m ) . Now t h a t we have s e e n t h a t e v e n i f we g r a n t t h e t r u t h o f t h i s a n a l y s i s , we c a n ' t r e d u c e i n t e n t i o n a l i t y , a g r e a t d e a l o f i t s a p p e a l i s l o s t . W h i l e we do want an a n a l y s i s t h a t c a n a c c o u n t f o r t h e c a u s a l e f f i c a c y , i t seems p r i m a f a c i e , t h a t we want more t h a n t h i s . We want an a c c o u n t o f t h e i r c o n t e n t , o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f m e n t a l e v e n t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t seems t h a t we c a n ' t even g e t an a c c o u n t o f c a u s a l e f f i c a c y w i t h t h e f u n c t i o n a l i s t p r o p o s a l . F o r when we a s k i n v i r t u e o f what d o e s a b e l i e f have i t s c a u s a l f o r c e , t h e most p l a u s i b l e r e s p o n s e , i n v i r t u e o f i t s c o n t e n t , i s b l o c k e d . 36 And t h e f u n c t i o n a l i s t s d o n ' t a p p e a r t o have an a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h i s r e s p o n s e . B u t l e t ' s i g n o r e t h e p r o b l e m o f c a u s a l e f f i c a c y f o r t h e moment and c o n s i d e r whether i n d e n y i n g o r i g n o r i n g t h e c o n t e n t s o f m e n t a l e v e n t s , t h e f u n c t i o n a l i s t s a r e i g n o r i n g s o m e t h i n g t h a t i s i n d e e d g e n u i n e and r e l e v a n t t o an a n a l y s i s o f m e n t a l e v e n t s . John S e a r l e , i n h i s a r t i c l e 'Minds, B r a i n s and P r o g r a m s ' a r g u e s t h a t f u n c t i o n a l i s m does i n d e e d l e a v e s o m e t h i n g v e r y i m p o r t a n t o u t o f i t s a c c o u n t . S e a r l e ' s argument i s g e n e r a l l y t a k e n t o be an argument a g a i n s t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f any p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t p r o g r e s s i n a r t i f i c i a l i n t e l l i g e n c e . I w i l l h e r e examine t h i s argument, r e f e r r e d t o a s ' t h e C h i n e s e Room Argument', and t h e n show how i t i s r e l e v a n t t o o u r p e s e n t p u r p o s e s . Many p e o p l e i n t h e f i e l d s o f p h i l o s o p h y and a r t i f i c i a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t a k e t h e u l t i m a t e t e s t o f i n t e l l i g e n c e t o be t h e t e s t p r o p o s e d by A l a n T u r i n g i n h i s 1950 a r t i c l e , 'Computing M a c h i n e r y and I n t e l l i g e n c e ' . In t h e ' T u r i n g t e s t ' we a r e c o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h e t a s k o f d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between a computer and a human b e i n g s o l e l y on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r a n s w e r s t o any q u e s t i o n s we m i g h t want t o a s k . We have no a u d i t o r y o r v i s u a l c u e s t o enhance o u r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n d e c i d i n g . B o t h t h e p e r s o n and t h e com p u t e r a r e b e h i n d drawn c u r t a i n s and t h e i r a n s w e r s t o t h e q u e s t i o n s a s k e d a r e p r i n t e d o u t on a t e l e t y p e m a c h i n e . I f we c a n n o t d i s t i n g u i s h t h e computer a n s w e r s f r o m t h e an s w e r s g i v e n by t h e p e r s o n , t h e n t h e computer p a s s e s t h e 37 T u r i n g t e s t . I t i s c l a i m e d t h a t i f t h e computer p a s s e s t h e t e s t , we have no r e a s o n t o deny t h a t t h e computer i s i n t e l l i g e n t w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g t h a t t h e p e r s o n i s . S e a r l e d e n i e s t h a t t h i s t e s t i s a t e s t o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . He b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e T u r i n g t e s t c o u l d be p a s s e d w i t h o u t t h e computer h a v i n g s o m e t h i n g t h a t we t a k e t o be e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e a s c r i p t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . We a r e a s k e d t o i m a g i n e an E n g l i s h s p e a k e r i n a room and i n p o s s e s s i o n o f a book o f r u l e s i n E n g l i s h t h a t c o n t a i n i n s t r u c t i o n s on how t o match C h i n e s e s y m b o l s . He has a l l t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s s o t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r him t o answer any q u e s t i o n g i v e n t o him by a C h i n e s e s p e a k e r . He l o o k s a t any p i e c e o f p a p e r g i v e n t o him w i t h a q u e s t i o n i n C h i n e s e s y m b o l s , l o o k s i n t h e book f o r a match, s q u i g g l e s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e symbol on a n o t h e r p i e c e o f p a p e r , and hands i t b a c k . I t i s c l e a r i n t h i s c a s e t h a t t h e p e r s o n d o e s n ' t r e a l l y u n d e r s t a n d C h i n e s e , y e t he i s a b l e t o p a s s t h e T u r i n g t e s t . D e n n e t t r e p l i e s t o t h i s argument t h a t w h i l e i t s t r u e t h a t t h e p e r s o n i n t h e room d o e s n ' t u n d e r s t a n d , t h e whole s y s t e m t a k e n t o g e t h e r ; t h e room, t h e i n s r u c t i o n book, t h e p a p e r , e t c . , d o e s u n d e r s t a n d . The p e r s o n i n t h e room, a r g u e s D e n n e t t , i s a n a l o g o u s t o a s m a l l p a r t o f t h e i n n e r w o r k i n g s o f a c omputer, and a s s u c h , i t i s e a s y t o s e e why he w o u l d n ' t u n e r s t a n d C h i n e s e . S e a r l e ' s r e s p o n s e t o t h i s i s t h a t even i f t h e p e r s o n memorized a l l t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s and was t a k e n o u t o f t h e room, s o t h a t t h e whole s y s t e m 38 was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the person, t h a t person s t i l l would not understand Chinese. "What t h i s simple argument shows i s t h a t no formal program by i t s e l f i s s u f f i c i e n t f o r understanding because i t would always be p o s s i b l e i n p r i n c i p l e f o r an agent to go through the steps i n the program and s t i l l not have the r e l e v a n t understanding." ( 7 ) For our present purposes, S e a r l e ' s argument can be taken to show t h a t a complete f o r m a l i z a t i o n of mental events or o p e r a t i o n s , wherein t h e i r contents (semantic) play no r o l e , l eaves out something e s s e n t i a l , v i z . , understanding. Perhaps the most famous argument f o r there being something l e f t out of r e d u c t i o n i s t accounts i s Thomas Nagel's "What i s i t L i k e to Be a Bat". The t h r u s t of Nagel's a r t i c l e i s t h a t f o r concsious beings, beings who have a mental l i f e , t h e r e i s something t h a t i t i s l i k e f o r t h a t being to be what i t i s . I t e x p e r i e n c e s . I t experiences from i t s own s u b j e c t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e . " I t i s u s e l e s s to base the defense of m a t e r i a l i s m on any a n a l y s i s of mental phenomena t h a t f a i l s t o d e a l e x p l i c i t l y with t h e i r s u b j e c t i v e c h a r a c t e r . . . . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e to exclude the phenomenological f e a t u r e s of experience i n the same way t h a t one excludes the phenomenal f e a t u r e s of an o r d i n a r y substance from a p h y s i c a l or chemical r e d u c t i o n of i t — namely, by e x p l a i n i n g them as e f f e c t s on the 39 minds o f human observers."<8> The p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s o f o u r e x p e r i e n c e s , t h e c o n t e n t s o r meanings o f o u r b e l i e f s , a r e t h u s s o m e t h i n g t h a t a t l e a s t some p h i l o s o p h e r s f e e l a r e i n need o f e x p l a n a t i o n . Smart a l s o r e c o g n i z e d t h i s n eed and a t t e m p t e d t o a c c o u n t f o r them. F u n c t i o n a l i s t s , however, have n o t r e c o g n i z e d t h i s n e e d . E l i m i n a t i v e m a t e r i a l i s t s do n o t r e c o g n i z e t h i s need e i t h e r . I n f a c t , t h e y deny t h e e x i s t e n c e o f what we r e f e r t o a s p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l e x p e r i e n c e . S i n c e my n e x t c h a p t e r w i l l d e a l e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h t h i s d e n i a l , I w i l l n o t p u r s u e i t f u r t h e r h e r e . A t t h i s s t a g e i t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o p o i n t o u t t h a t i n t h e i r a t t e m p t t o f o r m a l i z e p s y c h o l o g y , t h e f u n c t i o n a l i s t s have l e f t o u t s e m a n t i c and p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s o f e x p e r i e n c e , and i n d o i n g s o t h e y have done s o m e t h i n g t h a t p o s s i b l y r e n d e r s t h e i r a c c o u n t i n c o m p l e t e . The f u n c t i o n a l i s t ' s t r o u b l e s go on f u r t h e r s t i l l . F o r a s I m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , t h e f u n c t i o n a l i s t d o e s n ' t have an answer a s t o how m e n t a l e v e n t s c a n be c a u s a l l y e f f i c a c i o u s . C o n s i d e r t h e f o l l o w i n g c a s e . ( 9 ) Take t h e s t a t e m e n t 'He w r o t e t h e l e t t e r t o embarass t h e gov e r n m e n t . ' I f we t a k e A t o be d e s i r e , B t h e w r i t i n g o f t h e l e t t e r , and C a s e m b a r a s s i n g t h e government, we g e t t h e c a u s a l c h a i n A->B->C. Now we a s k , 'What i s t h e c a u s e o f A?' A i s t h e d e s i r e t o b r i n g C a b o u t . B u t i f t h i s i s t h e c a s e , A must be s p e c i f i e d i n t e r m s o f a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f C, a d e s c r i p t i o n o f C, o r t h e meaning o f C. In s h o r t , A 40 must have c o n t e n t . An a t t e m p t t o f o r m a l i z e p s y c h o l o g y i s a d m i r a b l e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e f u n c t i o n a l i s t a t t e m p t d o e s n ' t work. I t d o e s n ' t work b e c a u s e i t d o e s n ' t do what i t c l a i m s t o do, i . e . , r e d u c e i n t e n t i o n a l i t y , and b e c a u s e t h e f o r m a l i z a t i o n i t o f f e r s d o e s n ' t a c c o u n t f o r t h i n g s we t a k e t o be i n need o f an a c c o u n t , v i z . , c a u s a l e f f i c a c y and p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l e x p e r i e n c e . T h e r e a r e , i t seems t o me, two t y p e s o f f u n c t i o n a l i s m . O n l y one o f t h e s e , t h e one I e xamined h e r e , p u r p o r t s t o o f f e r a c o m p l e t e a c c o u n t o f m e n t a l e v e n t s . F u n c t i o n a l i s t s c a n e i t h e r be i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s , l i k e D e n n e t t , o r r e a l i s t s a b o u t m e n t a l e v e n t s . The r e a l i s t s t a k e t h e c omputer a s a model o f c o g n i t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and p r o c e s s i n g , b u t d o n ' t b e l i e v e t h a t c o m p u t e r s a c t u a l l y have m e n t a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . S i n c e t h e y h o l d t h a t p e o p l e a c t u a l l y do have m e n t a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s - -t h a t t h e i r b e l i e f s have c o n t e n t - - t h e i r f u n c t i o n a l ism must be s u p p l e m e n t e d w i t h a view on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . S i n c e I have been a r g u i n g f o r t h e need o f s u c h s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n , I have no argument w i t h t h e s e f u n c t i o n a l i s t s . A t l e a s t I have no b a s i s f o r an argument u n t i l I examine t h e i r t h e o r y on t h e n a t u r e o f m e n t a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . My p u r p o s e h e r e was n o t t o examine t h e p r a g m a t i c a p p e a l o f t h e computer model, b u t t o c o n s i d e r f u n c t i o n a l i s t t h e o r y a s a s o l u t i o n t o t h e mind/body p r o b l e m , and i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t f u n c t i o n a l i s m i s t h e o n l y 4 1 f u n c t i o n a l i s m i n t h e r u n n i n g . 42 N o t e s 1) D e n n e t t , D a n i e l , " ' I n t e n t i o n a l S y s t e m s " , i n B r a i n s t o r m s , The WIT P r e s s , C a m b r i d g e , Mass., 1981, p.15 2) F o d o r , J . , " I n t r o d u c t i o n " , i n R e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . The MIT P r e s s , C a m b r i d g e , Mass., 1981, p.12 3) D e n n e t t , D a n i e l , " I n t e n t i o n a l S y s t e m s " , i n B r a i n s t o r m s , The MIT P r e s s , Cambridge, Mass., 1981, p.12 4) I b i d , p.15 5>Fodor, J . , " I n t r o d u c t i o n " , i n R e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , The MIT P r e s s , C a m b r i d g e , Mass., 1981, p.22 6 > I b i d , p.23 7) S e a r l e , J o h n , "Minds, B r a i n s and P r o g r a m s " , B e h a v i o r a l  and B r a i n S c i e n c e s . V o l . 3 , 1 9 8 0 , p . 9 0 8) N a g e l , Thomas, "What i s i t L i k e t o be a B a t ? " , i n B l o c k , N.,Ced.), R e a d i n g s i n t h e P h i l o s o p h y o f P s y c h o l o g y . V o l . 1 , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , C a m b r i d g e , Mass., 1980, p. 160 9) T h i s example was g i v e n t o me by Sam C o v a l . 43 THE INELIMINABILITY OF THE MIND/BODY PROBLEM E l i m i n a t i v e m a t e r i a l i s m i s sometimes v i e w e d a s t h e o n l y p o s s i b l e s c e n a r i o g i v e n t h e f a i l u r e s o f t h e i d e n t i t y t h e o r y and f u n c t i o n a l i s m . S i n c e we c a n ' t i d e n t i f y m e n t a l e v e n t s w i t h e i t h e r b r a i n e v e n t s o r p h y s i c a l e v e n t s p l a y i n g c e r t a i n c a u s a l r o l e s i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f any k i n d o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s h o p e l e s s . E l i m i n a t i v e m a t e r i a l i s t s c l a i m t h a t t h e r e a s o n t h e s e t h e o r i e s f a i l i s b e c a u s e t h e r e r e a l l y a r e no m e n t a l e v e n t s . T h e s e t h e o r i e s a r e t r y i n g t o i d e n t i f y p h y s i c a l s t a t e s , e v e n t s o r p r o c e s s e s w i t h s o m e t h i n g t h a t d o e s n ' t e x i s t . E l i m i n a t i v i s t s v i e w m e n t a l e v e n t s as p o s i t e d e n t i t i e s w i t h i n t h e t h e o r y o f f o l k p s y c h o l o g y . They a r g u e t h a t f o l k p s y c h o l o g y i s a f a l s e t h e o r y and s i n c e i t i s f a l s e t h e e n t i t i e s i t p o s i t s d o n ' t e x i s t . I s h a l l b e g i n t h i s c h a p t e r w i t h an example o f t h e e l i m i n a t i v i s t p o s i t i o n e m p l o y i n g , once a g a i n , an argument o f f e r e d by D a n i e l D e n n e t t . D e n n e t t ' s argument i s d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s e n s a t i o n s . He d i s c u s s e s p a i n s p e c i f i c a l l y . A f t e r c o n s i d e r i n g D e n n e t t ' s p a r t i c u l a r argument I s h a l l d i s c u s s t h e e l i m i n a t i v e m a t e r i a l i s t p o s i t i o n more g e n e r a l l y . I w i l l a g r u e t h a t t h e e l i m i n a t i v i s t p o s i t i o n i s m i s g u i d e d b e c a u s e e l i m i n a t i v i s t s c o n f u s e o r i g n o r e a d i s t i n c t i o n between m e n t a l e v e n t s a s t h e o r e t i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r and m e n t a l e v e n t s a s c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s . I f 44 t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s i g n o r e d t h e t h e o r y a p p e a r s t o be a c o m p l e t e a c c o u n t o f m e n t a l e v e n t s . I t i s t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f c o m p l e t e n e s s t h a t h a s l e d p h i l o s o p h e r s t o a d o p t t h i s p o s i t i o n . Once t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s r e c o g n i z e d , however, i t seems t o me t h a t t h e p o s i t i o n must be r e j e c t e d a s a s o l u t i o n t o t h e mind/body p r o b l e m . D e n n e t t a r g u e s t h e e l i m i n a t i v i s t p o s i t i o n , c o n c e n t r a t i n g on p a i n , i n h i s c h a p t e r f r o m C o n t e n t and  C o n s c i o u s n e s s . 'The A s c r i p t i o n o f C o n t e n t ' . He b e g i n s by a s k i n g how we d i s t i n g u i s h a p a i n f u l s e n s a t i o n f r o m one t h a t i s n o t p a i n f u l . From t h i s he a r g u e s t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e r e a r e no p a i n s , " . . . ' p a i n ' d o e s n o t r e f e r . " C D " I n s i s t i n g t h a t above and beyond o u r a b i l i t y t o d i s t i n g u i s h s e n s a t i o n s a s p a i n f u l , t h e r e i s t h e e x t r a q u a l i t y o f p a i n f u l n e s s , i s t h u s i n s i s t i n g on an u n i n t e l l i g i b l e e x t r a s o m e t h i n g . " ( 2 ) A t t h e o u t s e t o f t h e argument D e n n e t t d o e s n o t deny t h a t we c a n i d e n t i f y p a i n s , b u t t h a t we c a n d i s t i n g u i s h between t h a t w h i c h i s i d e n t i f i e d and t h e a c t o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i t s e l f : " . . . o s t e n s i o n o f t h e q u a l i t y i n t h i s i n s t a n c e c a n n o t be s e p a r a t e d f r o m o s t e n s i o n o f t h e d i s c r i m i n a t i n g . " < 3 ) S u p p o r t f o r h i s c l a i m t h a t we c a n n o t u n i q u e l y i d e n t i f y p a i n s comes f r o m h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t h r e e q u e s t i o n s . i)How do we d i s t i n g u i s h p a i n s f r o m n o n - p a i n s ? i i ) H o w do we l o c a t e p a i n s ? 3)What i s i t a b o u t p a i n t h a t c a u s e s us t o a v o i d i t ? I f we a t t e m p t t o answer t h e s e q u e s t i o n s i n t e r m s o f a m e n t a l e n t i t y o r q u a l i t y 45 D e n n e t t a r g u e s t h a t we end up i n a " c u l - d e - s a c " . A l l m e n t a l q u a l i t y a n s w e r s a r e c i r c u l a r . "When t r y i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o f p a i n , a p p e a l t o t h e q u a l i t y o f p a i n f u l n e s s i s no a d v a n c e o v e r t h e q u e s t i o n ; i t t e l l s us n o t h i n g we d i d n o t a l r e a d y know. When one i s a s k e d how one t e l l s an x f r o m a y and an s w e r s t h a t x ' s have an i n d e f i n a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w h i c h one i s s i m p l y a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e b u t n o t d e s c r i b e , a l l one i s s a y i n g i s : I c a n t e l l - - t h a t ' s a l l . " ( 4 ) On t h e s e c o n d q u e s t i o n , 'How do we l o c a t e p a i n s ? ' , D e n n e t t s a y s t h e f o l l o w i n g . "We do n o t l o c a t e o u r p a i n s w i t h t h e a i d o f any i n d e p e n d e n t l y d e s c r i b a b l e q u a l i t i e s o r ' l o c a l s i g n s ' p r o v i d e d us by t h e s e n s a t i o n s , we j u s t c a n l o c a t e them."(5) And on t h e l a s t q u e s t i o n ; "The q u e s t i o n i s dead b e c a u s e t h e r e i s n o t h i n g a b o u t p a i n f u l n e s s a t a l l ; i t i s an u n a n a l y s a b l e q u a l i t y . We s i m p l y do a b h o r p a i n , b u t n o t i n v i r t u e o f a n y t h i n g ( b u t i t s p a i n f u l n e s s ) . " ( 6 ) D e n n e t t c o n c l u d e s f r o m t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f u n a n a l y s a b l e m e n t a l q u a l i t i e s l e a d s t o a " p r e m a t u r e end t o e x p l a n a t i o n " . ( 7 ) T h i s b e i n g t h e c a s e p e r h a p s t h e b e s t t h i n g t o do would be t o abandon t h e p e r s o n a l l e v e l o f e x p l a n a t i o n and move t o t h e s u b - p e r s o n a l l e v e l . We s h o u l d , i n o t h e r words, abandon t a l k o f p e r s o n s and t h e i r s e n s a t i o n s and move t o b r a i n s and e v e n t s i n t h e n e r v o u s s y s t e m f o r o u r e x p l a n a t i o n s . A b a n d o n i n g t h e p e r s o n a l l e v e l o f e x p l a n a t i o n means t h a t we d o n ' t a t t e m p t t o i d e n t i f y t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r on t h a t l e v e l w i t h t h e 46 s u b j e c t m a t t e r on t h e s u b - p e r s o n a l l e v e l . I n e s s e n c e , we g i v e up p a i n . I n s t e a d o f p a i n we have n e u r a l i m p u l s e s and so f o r t h . The p h y s i c a l a c c o u n t w i l l be an a c c o u n t o f t h e c o m p u l s i o n o f p a i n b e h a v i o r . P a i n i t s e l f w i l l n o t be i d e n t i f i e d s i n c e when we move t o t h i s l e v e l we abandon p a i n . The e x p l a n a t i o n o f p a i n on t h e p e r s o n a l l e v e l , i n t e r m s o f a m e n t a l e n t i t y i s u n a n a l y s a b l e and n o n - m e c h a n i s t i c . From h e r e D e n n e t t ' s r e a s o n i n g c a n be u n d e r s t o o d a s f o l l o w i n g f o u r s t e p s . F i r s t , s i n c e p a i n s a r e n o n - m e c h a n i s t i c t h e y c a n n o t be i d e n t i c a l w i t h n e u r o n s o r n e u r a l i m p u l s e s w h i c h a r e m e c h a n i s t i c . S e c o n d , t o a c c e p t p a i n s , w h i c h a r e n o n - m e c h a n i s t i c , a s r e f e r e n t i a l i s t o commit o n e s e l f t o d u a l i s m - - t o t h e o n t o l o g i c a l a c c e p t a n c e o f b o t h t h e p e r s o n a l and s u b - p e r s o n a l l e v e l s . And we d o n ' t want t o commit o u r s e l v e s t o d u a l i s m . T h i r d , s i n c e p a i n s c a n be n e i t h e r i d e n t i c a l w i t h n o r n o n - i d e n t i c a l w i t h n e u r a l i m p u l s e s ( u n l e s s d u a l i s m i s a c c e p t e d ) , one o f t h e two c a t e g o r i e s o f t e r m s , t h e p e r s o n a l o r s u b - p e r s o n a l , must be n o n - r e f e r e n t i a l . F i n a l l y , t h e c a t e g o r y o f n e u r a l i m p u l s e s g i v e s us b e t t e r e x p l a n a t i o n s s o i t r e f e r s - - t h a t o f p a i n s d o e s n o t . G i v e n t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i t i s i n one s e n s e t r u e t h a t t h e r e i s no r e l a t i o n between p a i n s and n e u r a l i m p u l s e s , b e c a u s e t h e r e a r e no p a i n s ; ' p a i n ' d o e s n o t r e f e r . T h e r e i s no way a r o u n d t h i s . I f t h e r e i s t o be any r e l a t i o n between p a i n and n e u r a l i m p u l s e s , t h e y w i l l have t o be r e l a t e d e i t h e r by i d e n t i t y o r n o n - i d e n t i t y , and i f we want t o r u l e o u t b o t h o f t h e s e r e l a t i o n s we s h a l l have t o d e c i d e t h a t one o f t h e t e r m s i s n o n - r e f e r e n t i a l . ( 8 ) 47 T h i s argument o f f e r e d by D e n n e t t i s an example o f e l i m i n a t i v e m a t e r i a l i s t a r g u m e n t s i n g e n e r a l . The e l i m i n a t i v i s t s t r a t e g y i s t o o f f e r and s u p p o r t t h r e e s t e p s o f r e a s o n i n g . D F o l k p s y c h o l o g y i s a f a l s e t h e o r y . 2 ) S i n c e i t i s f a l s e t h e e n t i t i e s i t p o s i t s d o n ' t e x i s t . 3>we s h o u l d abandon p s y c h o l o g y and g e t on w i t h n e u r o - s c i e n c e . Even t h o u g h 2 ) d o e s n ' t f o l l o w f r o m 1 ) , i f 1) i s t r u e , i t d o e s make t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e e n t i t i e s more q u e s t i o n a b l e . The f i r s t q u e s t i o n we need t o a s k i s i f f o l k p s y c h o l o g y i s a t h e o r y , what i s i t a t h e o r y o f ? S i n c e p s y c h o l o g i s t s a r e i n t h e b u s i n e s s o f e x p l a i n i n g b e h a v i o r , s o t o o , p r e s u m a b l y , a r e f o l k p s y c h o l o g i s t s . We w i l l t a k e t h e e l i m i n a t i v e m a t e r i a l i s t s t h e n t o be c l a i m i n g t h a t f o l k p s y c h o l o g y i s a t h e o r y o f b e h a v i o r . I w i l l l a t e r c o n s i d e r an a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h i s r e a d i n g b u t f o r now l e t ' s assume t h a t t h i s i s what t h e y mean. The e l i m i n a t i v e m a t e r i a l i s t c l a i m s t h a t m e n t a l e v e n t s a r e t h e o r e t i c a l e n t i t i e s p o s i t e d t o e x p l a i n b e h a v i o r and t h e n g o e s on t o a r g u e t h a t t h i s i s a l o u s y t h e o r y o f b e h a v i o r . C h u r c h l a n d , f o r example, p o i n t s t o t h e f a i l u r e s o f t h e t h e o r y . So much o f what i s c e n t r a l and f a m i l i a r t o us r e m a i n s a c o m p l e t e m y s t e r y f r o m w i t h i n f o l k p s y c h o l o g y . We do n o t know what s l e e p i s o r why we have t o have i t , d e s p i t e s p e n d i n g a f u l l t h i r d o f o u r l i v e s i n t h a t c o n d i t i o n . ...We do n o t u n d e r s t a n d how l e a r n i n g t r a n s f o r m s e a c h o f us f r o m a g a p i n g i n f a n t t o a c u n n i n g a d u l t , o r how d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n t e l l e q e n c e a r e g r o u n d e d . We have n o t t h e s l i g h t e s t i d e a o f how memory works, o r how we manage t o r e t r i e v e r e l e v a n t b i t s o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n s t a n t l y f r o m t h e awesome mass we have s t o r e d . We do n o t know what m e n t a l  i l l n e s s i s , n o r how t o c u r e it.<9) 48 I f we combine D e n n e t t ' s and C h u r c h l a n d ' s a r g u m e n t s we end up w i t h a p i c t u r e o f f o l k p s y c h o l o g y a s i m p o v e r i s h e d i n t e r m s o f e x p l a n a t o r y and p r e d i c t i v e power t h r o u g h t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f e n t i t i e s t h a t we c a n ' t i d e n t i f y . T h i s l o o k s l i k e a p r e t t y good r e a s o n f o r c o n c l u d i n g t h a t we s h o u l d abandon t h e t h e o r y . An a t t e m p t t o r e f u t e t h i s c o n c l u s i o n may be made, a t t h i s p o i n t , w h i c h r e s t s on o u r d i r e c t p e r c e p t i o n o f m e n t a l e v e n t s t h r o u g h i n t r o s p e c t i o n . I t may be a r g u e d t h a t D e n n e t t was s i m p l y wrong and t h a t t h e r e i s a method by w h i c h we d i s c r i m i n a t e p a i n f r o m n o n - p a i n and t h a t method i s i n t r o s p e c t i o n . Whether o r n o t t h e o b j e c t s o f o u r i n t r o s p e c t i o n work i n a t h e o r y i s i r r e l e v a n t t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f whether o r n o t t h e y e x i s t . S i n c e we d i r e c t l y p e r c e i v e m e n t a l e v e n t s t h r o u g h i n t r o s p e c t i o n t h e y must e x i s t . A s i d e f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t I t h i n k D e n n e t t ' s argument s t i l l h o l d s , s i n c e I d o n ' t t h i n k t h a t any r e l e v a n t d i s t i n c t i o n i s t o be f o u n d i n t h i s c o n t e x t between i n t r o s p e c t i n g and d i s c r i m i n a t i n g , C h u r c h l a n d has an answer t o t h e c l a i m t o knowledge t h r o u g h i n t r o s p e c t i o n . F i r s t o f a l l , he would a r g u e t h a t none o f us a r e b o r n knowing how t o l a b e l t h e s t a t e s o f o u r i n t r o s p e c t i o n . We have t o l e a r n how t o u s e t h e word ' p a i n ' , f o r example, and t o a p p l y i t i n o u r own c a s e j u s t a s we l e a r n t o a p p l y i t i n t h e c a s e o f o t h e r s . The l a b e l s we use o r t h e s o c a l l e d o b s e r v a t i o n s we make depend on t h e c o n t e x t . We were a l l b r o u g h t up i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e b e l i e f i n t h e t r u t h o f f o l k p s y c h o l o g y . We were t a u g h t t h a t we would o b s e r v e c e r t a i n t h i n g s s o we 49 do. he e l i m i n a t i v e m a t e r i a l i s t w i l l a r g u e t h a t t h i s argument ( t h e argument f r o m i n t r o s p e c t i o n ) makes t h e same m i s t a k e t h a t an a n c i e n t o r m e d i e v a l p e r s o n would be making i f he j u s t i n s i s t e d t h a t he c o u l d s e e w i t h h i s own e y e s t h a t t h e he a v e n s f o r m a t u r n i n g s p h e r e , o r t h a t w i t c h e s e x i s t . The f a c t i s , a l l o b s e r v a t i o n o c c u r s w i t h i n some s y s t e m o f c o n c e p t s , and o u r o b s e r v a t i o n j u d g e m e n t s a r e o n l y a s good a s t h e c o n c e p t u a l framework i n w h i c h t h e y a r e e x p r e s s e d . ( 1 0 ) I f we t a k e e l i m i n a t i v e m a t e r i a l i s m t o be a c r i t i q u e o f a t h e o r y w h i c h p o s i t s m e n t a l e v e n t s t o e x p l a i n b e h a v i o r , i t l o o k s p l a u s i b l e . B u t n o t t o o p l a u s i b l e . The o n l y p l a u s i b i l i t y i t has i s f o u n d i n t h e c l a i m s t h a t G h u r c h l a n d makes a b o u t t h e f a i l u r e s o f t h e t h e o r y . B u t eve n h e r e I t h i n k C h u r c h l a n d g o e s t o o f a r . P s y c h o l o g i s t s do know s o m e t h i n g a b o u t l e a r n i n g , i n t e l l e g e n c e , memory and so f o r t h and a r e c u r r e n t l y i n v e s t i g a t i n g s u c h i s s u e s . F u r t h e r m o r e p s y c h o l o g i s t s have a t t e m p t e d and i n v e s t i g a t e d a t h e o r y t h a t d o e s n ' t i n v o k e m e n t a l e v e n t s i n an e x p l a n a t i o n o f b e h a v i o r , i . e . , b e h a v i o r i s m , and have r e j e c t e d i t a s i n a d e q u a t e . I'm s u r e , however, t h e r e i s s t i l l room f o r c r i t i s i s m and p e r h a p s some e x p l a n a t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r i n t e r m s o f m e n t a l e v e n t s w i l l have t o be e l i m i n a t e d . The c r i t i q u e o f p s y c h o l o g y d o e s n ' t , however, r e c i e v e any s u p p o r t f r o m D e n n e t t ' s argument. T h i s i s b e c a u s e , a s I w i l l a r g u e , D e n n e t t p r e s u p p o s e s a c e r t a i n c o n c e p t i o n o f p a i n and i n v o k e s an i n v a l i d d i s t i n c t i o n . I f we c o n c i e v e o f p a i n i n a manner t h a t d i f f e r s f r o m t h e c o n c e p t i o n D e n n e t t o f f e r s , h i s argument t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t 50 ' p a i n ' d o e s n ' t r e f e r , d o e s n ' t work. But t h e r e a l p r o b l e m w i t h e l i m i n a t i v e m a t e r i a l i s m i s n o t whether o r n o t i t works a s a c r i t i q u e o f p s y c h o l o g y , b u t t h a t i t d o e s n ' t work as a s o l u t i o n t o t h e mind/body p r o b l e m . E a r l i e r I s a i d t h a t we would u n d e r s t a n d t h e e l i m i n a t i v i s t t o be t a k i n g f o l k p s y c h o l o g y a s a t h e o r y o f b e h a v i o r . The a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h i s would be t o t a k e f o l k p s y c h o l o g y a s a t h e o r y o f m e n t a l e v e n t s . And t h e t h e o r y i s t h a t t h e y e x i s t ; t h a t i s , c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s a t h e o r y and i f t h e e l i m i n a t i v i s t s a r e r i g h t , i t i s a f a l s e t h e o r y . T h e r e a r e no c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s . I w i l l f i r s t examine D e n n e t t ' s argument and show t h a t , a s a p a r t i c u l a r argument f o r e l i m i n a t i n g p a i n , i t f a i l s . I w i l l t h e n c o n s i d e r e l i m i n a t i v e m a t e r i a l i s m i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e mind/body p r o b l e m r a t h e r t h a n a s a c r i t i q u e o f p s y c h o l o g y . The e l i m i n a t i v i s t s t a k e t h e m s e l v e s t o be w o r k i n g on t h e mind/body p r o b l e m . As s u c h t h e y t a k e t h e m s e l v e s t o be e l i m i n a t i n g , n o t o n l y m e n t a l e v e n t s a s p o s i t e d e n t i t i e s i n a t h e o r y o f b e h a v i o r , b u t m e n t a l e v e n t s a s c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s . The e l i m i n a t i v i s t s , however, f a i l t o make t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n . I t seems t h a t t h e y assume t h a t i f m e n t a l e v e n t s c a n be e l i m i n a t e d i n a t h e o r y o f b e h a v i o r t h e y w i l l be e l i m i n a t e d a l t o g e t h e r . But t h i s d o e s n ' t f o l l o w . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e i d e a t h a t we r e a l l y a r e n ' t c o n s c i o u s , t h a t c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s a f a l s e t h e o r y , seems t o me t o be s i m p l y a b s u r d . I f i t d i d f o l l o w f r o m 51 t h e i r a r g u m e n t s I t h i n k i t would c o n s t i t u t e a r e d u c t i o o f t h e i r v i e w . S i n c e i t d o e s n ' t f o l l o w , however, t h e p r o b l e m o f a c c o u n t i n g f o r c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e d o e s n ' t g e t a d d r e s s e d . I w i l l show, t h e n , t h a t t h e e l i m i n a t i v i s t s do t a k e t h e m s e l v e s t o be e l i m i n a t i n g c o n s c i o u s n e s s and t h a t t h e i r a r g u m e n t s , i n f a c t , f a i l t o s u p p o r t s u c h an e l i m i n a t i o n . D e n n e t t ' s argument d e p e n d s , l i k e t h e g e n e r a l e l i m i n a t i v i s t argument, on p a i n b e i n g an e n t i t y - - o n b e i n g s o m e t h i n g we b e a r a c e r t a i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o , s o m e t h i n g we c a n o b s e r v e . H e shows t h a t t h e r e i s no method o f l o c a t i n g , i d e n t i f y i n g o r a n a l y s i n g t h i s e n t i t y and t h e r e f o r e t h e r e i s no r e a s o n f o r us t o b e l i e v e t h a t s u c h an e n t i t y e x i s t s . I a g r e e . T h e r e i s no r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e i n s u c h an e n t i t y . I f o u r f o l k p s y c h o l o g i c a l b e l i e f i n t h e e x i s t e n c e o f p a i n d e p e n d s upon o u r t a k i n g p a i n t o be an e n t i t y t h a t we b e a r a c e r t a i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e n p a i n d o e s n o t e x i s t . B u t w h i l e f o l k p s y c h o l o g y d o e s m a i n t a i n a b e l i e f i n t h e e x i s t e n c e o f p a i n i t ' s c e t a i n l y n o t c l e a r t h a t i t o f f e r s any a n a l y s i s o f t h e f o r m o f i t s e x i s t e n c e . The i s s u e o f t h e f o r m o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f p a i n h a s been t a k e n up, n o t by laymen, o r f o l k p s y c h o l o g i s t s , b u t by p h i l o s o p h e r s . And most p h i l o s o p h e r s have g i v e n up t a l k o f s e n s a t i o n s o r b e l i e f s a s e n t i t i e s . I n s t e a d o f t a l k i n g a b o u t p a i n o r a f t e r images t h e y t a l k a b o u t h a v i n g o r e x p e r i e n c i n g p a i n o r a f t e r i m a g e s . The p r o p e r t y o f f e e l i n g p a i n may s t i l l be v e r y r e a l e v e n i f t h e r e a r e no p a i n s . 5 2 To say that, p a i n e x i s t s i s n o t t o s a y t h a t i t i s an e n t i t y t h a t we c a n d i s c r i m i n a t e f r o m o t h e r e n t i t i e s o r t h a t we c a n l o c a t e o r even d e s c r i b e . I t i s t r u e t h a t t h e r e i s no method by w h i c h we d i s c r i m i n a t e p a i n s f r o m n o n - p a i n s o r l o c a t e p a i n s . B u t t h i s i s b e c a u s e we d o n ' t d i s c r i m i n a t e o r l o c a t e p a i n s a t a l l . S e n s a t i o n s a r e n o t t h i n g s p e o p l e f e e l . They a r e t h e f e e l i n g s t h e m s e l v e s . I n h i s argument D e n n e t t makes a d i s t i n c t i o n between d i s c r i m i n a t i n g and h a v i n g a s e n s a t i o n . B u t t o have a s e n s a t i o n i s t o s e n s e o r f e e l . So D e n n e t t i s d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between s e n s i n g o r f e e l i n g and d i s c r i m i n a t i n g . I t seems t o me, t h a t i n t h e c o n t e x t o f D e n n e t t ' s argument t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s i n v a l i d . D i s c r i m i n a t i n g i s n o t a s e p e r a t e a c t . I n t h e c o n t e x t o f D e n n e t t ' s argument s e n s i n g o r f e e l i n g amounts t o t h e same t h i n g a s d i s c r i m i n a t i n g . We d o n ' t b o t h f e e l t h e  d i f f e r e n c e between p a i n and n o n - p a i n and d i s c r i m i n a t e between p a i n and n o n - p a i n . I f we do d i s c r i m i n a t e between p a i n and n o n - p a i n , we f e e l t h e d i f f e r e n c e . And i f we f e e l t h e d i f f e r e n c e , we have d i s c r i m i n a t e d . Thus, i n a s k i n g us how we d i s c r i m i n a t e p a i n f r o m n o n - p a i n , D e n n e t t i s i n e s s e n c e a s k i n g us how we f e e l o r s e n s e t h e d i f f e r e n c e between p a i n and n o n - p a i n . I f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s no method by w h i c h we d i s c r i m i n a t e l e a d s t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e r e a r e no s e n s a t i o n s i t s h o u l d a l s o l e a d t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e r e a r e no d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s . F o r i f , i n t h i s c o n t e x t , f e e l i n g and d i s c r i m i n a t i n g amount t o t h e same t h i n g , we c o u l d a r g u e , f o l l o w i n g D e n n e t t ' s own l i n e 53 o f r e a s o n i n g , t h a t b e c a u s e t h e r e i s no method f o r f e e l i n g , t h e r e a r e no d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s . But t h e r e a r e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s . D e n n e t t t a l k s a b o u t them t h r o u g h o u t h i s c h a p t e r . They d o n ' t e x i s t a s e n t i t i e s any more t h a n p a i n s e x i s t as e n t i t i e s b u t we d o n ' t f i n d D e n n e t t making any a s s e r t i o n s a b o u t t h e n o n - e x i s t e n c e o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s s u c h a s t h o s e he makes a b o u t p a i n s . Whether we c a l l i t an e v e n t , p r o c e s s , s t a t e o r p r o p e r t y , s o m e t h i n g c a l l e d ' f e e l i n g p a i n ' e x i s t s . I t e x i s t s i n t h e same way t h a t d i s c r i m i n a t i n g e x i s t s . I n f a c t , f e e l i n g p a i n i s s i m p l y an example o f d i s c r i m i n a t i n g w h i c h i s a more g e n e r a l t e r m . D e n n e t t a r g u e s a s i f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f p a i n d e pends on t h e r e b e i n g a d i s t i n c t i o n between p a i n and d i s c r i m i n a t i n g . I f t h e r e i s a d i s t i n c t i o n t h e r e s h o u l d be some method by w h i c h we i d e n t i f y p a i n . He c o n c l u d e s t h a t s i n c e t h e r e i s no method t h e r e i s no d i s t i n c t i o n and t h e r e i s no p a i n . A l l t h e r e i s i s d i s c r i m i n a t i n g b e h a v i o r d r i v e n by n e u r a l p r o c e s s e s . I f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f p a i n d o e s n o t r e s t on s u c h a d i s t i n c t i o n , w h i c h I have a r g u e d i t d o e s n o t , t h e n D e n n e t t ' s c o n c l u s i o n i s i n v a l i d . A l s o i v a l i d i s C h u r c h l a n d ' s a n a l o g y between m e n t a l e v e n t s and w i t c h e s o r o b s e r v a t i o n s o f s t a r r y s p h e r e s . I f we d o n ' t c o n c e i v e o f m e n t a l e v e n t s as e n t i t i e s s u b j e c t t o o b s e r v a t i o n — e n t i t i e s t h a t we s t a n d i n a c e r t a i n r e l a t i o n t o - - a n d c o n c e i v e o f them i n s t e a d as s t a t e s o r e v e n t s we u n d e r g o , t h e n we w o u l d n ' t make t h e c l a i m t h a t we d i r e c t l y 54 p e r c e i v e them t h r o u g h i n t r o s p e c t i o n . To a r g u e a g a i n s t t h e c l a i m t o t h e e x i s t e n c e o f m e n t a l e v e n t s b a s e d on d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n t h r o u g h i n t r o s p e c t i o n , C h u r c h l a n d assumes t h a t h i s o p p o n e n t a l r e a d y h o l d s a v i e w o f m e n t a l e v e n t s a s e n t i t i e s we a r e r e l a t e d t o . D e n n e t t t o o k h i m s e l f t o have shown, on t h e b a s i s o f t h e r e b e i n g no n o n - c i r c u l a r a n s w e r s t o t h e q u e s t i o n s he p o s e d , t h a t p a i n i s u n a n a l y s a b l e and, h e n c e , n o n - m e c h a n i s t i c . S i n c e b r a i n e v e n t s a r e m e c h a n i s t i c , p a i n c a n n o t be i d e n t i c a l w i t h b r a i n p r o c e s s e s . And u n l e s s we a r e d u a l i s t s t h i s i s t h e o n l y o p t i o n we h a v e . S i n c e t h i s o p t i o n i s r u l e d o u t p a i n s must n o t e x i s t . So f a r I have been a r g u i n g t h a t t h e c i r c u l a r a n s w e r s t o t h e q u e s t i o n s p o s e d by D e n n e t t c a n p r o v e n o t h i n g s i n c e t h e s e q u e s t i o n s a r e c o u c h e d i n t e r m s o f t h e i n v a l i d d i s t i n c t i o n between f e e l i n g p a i n and d i s c r i m i n a t i n g and t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f p a i n a s an e n t i t y . I f we d o n ' t buy t h i s c o n c e p t i o n i t n e i t h e r f o l l o w s t h a t p a i n i s u n a n a l y s a b l e n o r n o n - m e c h a n i s t i c . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e e v e n t ' f e e l i n g p a i n ' need n o t be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h a b r a i n p r o c e s s i n o r d e r f o r us t o r e j e c t d u a l i s m . S u r e l y t h e r e a r e o t h e r o p t i o n s . We may t a k e t h e e v e n t t o be 'my f e e l i n g p a i n ' , f o r example, w h i c h may be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h my body u n d e r g o i n g some p h y s i c a l p r o c e s s . I n a r g u i n g t h e way he d o e s , t a k i n g s e n s a t i o n s t o be s o m e t h i n g we d i s c r i m i n a t e r a t h e r t h a n s i m p l y a method o f d i s c r i m i n a t i n g , i t d o e s n ' t l o o k l i k e D e n n e t t i s d e n y i n g t h a t we have c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s . I t l o o k s l i k e he i s 5 5 s i m p l y d e n y i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a t h e o r e t i c a l e n t i t y t h a t we have p o s i t e d . However, when t a k e n o u t o f t h e c o n t e x t o f a t h e o r y o f b e h a v i o r , m e n t a l e v e n t t e r m s d o n ' t r e f e r t o t h e o r e t i c a l e n t i t i e s p o s i t e d t o e x p l a i n b e h a v i o r . They r e f e r t o c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s . I t seems t o me t h a t any a t t e m p t t o u n d e r s t a n d e l i m i n a t i v e m a t e r i a l i s m a s a s s e r t i n g any l e s s t h a n t h e d e n i a l o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s i s doomed t o f a i l . B e f o r e e x a m i n i n g how we m i g h t a t t e m p t t o i n t e r p r e t e l i m i n a t i v e m a t e r i a l i s m , l e t ' s c o n s i d e r t h e p r o b l e m t h a t t h e e l i m i n a t i v i s t s a r e s u p p o s e d t o be a d d r e s s i n g - - t h e mind/body p r o b l e m . The mind/body p r o b l e m a r i s e s a s a r e s u l t o f a p p e a r i n g t o be made up o f two k i n d s o f s u b s t a n c e s . We a r e p h y s i c a l b e i n g s h a v i n g arms, l e g s , s k i n and n e r v o u s s y s t e m s . B u t we a r e a l s o p e r s o n s h a v i n g c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s . T h e r e a r e two i s s u e s m o t i v a t i n g us t o r e c o n c i l e t h e s e two v i e w s o f o u r s e l v e s . The f i r s t i s t h e e v e r i n c r e a s i n g p r e s s u r e f r o m t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s w h i c h i s a r e s u l t o f t h e i r c o n t i n i n g s u c c e s s e s i n e x p l a i n i n g t h e u n i v e r s e i n t h e i r t e r m s . The more t h e i r e x p l a n a t o r y power i n c r e a s e s t h e l e s s l i k e l y i t becomes t h a t human b e i n g s e x i s t o u t s i d e t h e s c i e n t i f i c framework o f e x p l a n a t i o n . The s e c o n d i s t h e f a c t t h a t i t a p p e a r s t o us t h a t t h e s e two a s p e c t s o f o u r s e l v e s , t h e m e n t a l and t h e p h y s i c a l , c a u s a l l y i n t e r a c t . But i f t h i s i s t r u e , how c o u l d i t be t h a t s o m e t h i n g n o n - p h y s i c a l c a u s e s s o m e t h i n g p h y s i c a l o r v i s e v e r s a ? I n o r d e r t o a d d r e s s t h e mind/body 5 6 problem one must b e l i e v e t h a t c o n s c i o u s experience e x i s t s . From here he or she can attempt to accommodate co n s c i o u s experience w i t h i n a p h y s i c a l i s t framework or, a l t e r n a t i v e l y , he or she can attempt t o accomodate s c i e n c e w i t h i n a mental framework. E i t h e r way, i f we are to e x p l a i n the apparent c a u s a l i n t e r a c t i o n between the mental and the p h y s i c a l , r e d u c i n g our ontology i s the name of the game. But the e l i m i n a t i v i s t s don't seem t o be p l a y i n g the game. My con s c i o u s experience of f e a r causes me (my body) t o move i n c e r t a i n ways, to run, f o r example. The q u e s t i o n i s 'How can something n o n - p h y s i c a l cause something p h y s i c a l ? ' But i n order to see t h i s as a problem we must see i t as an example of a case i n which a co n s c i o u s mental event causes a p h y s i c a l event. I f we never had any con s c i o u s mental events which cause p h y s i c a l events we wouldn't p o s i t mental events as e x p l a n a t i o n s of behavior i n cases i n which we are not conscious of any mental events. Since i n many cases c o n s c i o u s i n t e n t i o n s , b e l i e f s and d e s i r e s cause us to behave i n c e r t a i n ways i t i s the n a t u r a l next step f o r the p s y c h o l o g i s t , f o l k or otherwise, t o p o s i t such events i n e x p l a i n i n g behavior even when we are not con s c i o u s of them. To argue t h a t the e n t i t i e s p o s i t e d by the p s y c h o l o g i s t don't e x i s t i s not to argue t h a t c o n s c i o u s experiences don't e x i s t . In order t o address the mind/body problem one must address c o n s c i o u s  experience and attempt t o accomodate i t . I f consciousness 57 d o e s n ' t e x i s t t h e n n e i t h e r d o e s t h e p r o b l e m . F o r w i t h o u t c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e i t w o u l d n ' t seem t o us t h a t we have a p r o b l e m . N o t h i n g would seem t o us t o be any way a t a l l . P e r h a p s we c a n u n d e r s t a n d t h e e l i m i n a t i v i s t as a c c e p t i n g t h a t we e x p e r i e n c e , t h a t we have what we r e f e r t o now a s p a i n s , d e s i r e s and b e l i e f s , b u t t h a t t h e s e c o n c e p t s a r e l o o s e - k n i t , ambiguous and a p o o r b a s i s f r o m w h i c h t o b u i l d a t h e o r y a t t e m p t i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d o u r s e l v e s . We s h o u l d t a l k a b o u t o u r c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s n o t i n t e r m s o f p a i n s and s o f o r t h b u t i n t e r m s o f n e u r a l f i r i n g s and o t h e r s u c h p h y s i o l o g i c a l o c c u r r e n c e s . S i n c e t h e c o n c e p t o f p a i n i s somewhat ambiguous, r e p o r t i n g t h a t I have a p a i n would be a somewhat ambiguous r e p o r t . I t would be h e l p f u l , i n c o n v e y i n g my e x p e r i e n c e s t o o t h e r s , i f we had more r e f i n e d c o n c e p t s a v a i l a b l e t o u s . I f we c o u l d e x p r e s s o u r e x p e r i e n c e s t o o t h e r s more p e r s p i c u o u s y we would have a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f o u r s e l v e s . One way o f g a i n i n g c l a r i t y i n o u r r e p o r t s m i g h t be t o r e p o r t t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l e v e n t c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e . Thus, i f we l e a r n t h a t e v e r y o c c u r e n c e o f a s h a r p s t a b b i n g p a i n i s a c c o m p a n i e d by p h y s i o l o g i c a l e v e n t x y z , we would r e p o r t x y z i n s t e a d o f p a i n . S u p p o r t f o r t h i s r e a d i n g o f e l i m i n a t i v e m a t e r i a l i s m i s f o u n d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g r e m a r k s made by C h u r c h l a n d i n w h i c h he i s d i s c u s s i n g t h e n a t u r e o f o u r o b s e r v a t i o n j u d g e m e n t s . " I n a l l t h r e e c a s e s - - t h e s t a r r y s p h e r e , w i t c h e s , and t h e f a m i l i a r m e n t a l s t a t e s — p r e c i s e l y what i s 58 c h a l l e n g e d i s t h e i n t e g r i t y o f t h e b a c k g r o u n d c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k s i n w h i c h t h e o b s e r v a t i o n j u d g e m e n t s a r e e x p r e s s e d . To i n s i s t on t h e v a l i d i t y o f o n e ' s e x p e r i e n c e s , t r a d i t i o n a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d , i s t h e r e f o r e t o beg t h e v e r y q u e s t i o n a t i s s u e . F o r i n a l l t h r e e c a s e s , t h e q u e s t i o n i s w h e t h e r we s h o u l d r e c o n c i e v e t h e n a t u r e o f some f a m i l i a r o b s e r v a t i o n a l d o m a i n . " ( 1 1 ) I t l o o k s l i k e C h u r c h l a n d i s h e r e c a l l i n g f o r a new c o n c e p t i o n o f c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s r a t h e r t h a n an abandonment. But on t h i s p i c t u r e , w h e r i n i t i s a d m i t t e d t h a t we have c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s , t h e mind/body p r o b l e m g e t s n e i t h e r s o l v e d n o r d i s s o l v e d . F o r i t i s n o t o u r l a b e l l i n g o f c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s a s p a i n s o r d e s i r e s t h a t i s t h e p r o b l e m . I t i s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e , w h a t e v e r i t i s c a l l e d , however i t i s r e f e r r e d t o , t h a t i s t h e p r o b l e m . And t h e e x i s t e n c e o f c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e i s n ' t t h e i s s u e on t h i s p i c t u r e . B u t t h e e l i m i n a t i v i s t s do c l a i m t o be w o r k i n g on t h e mind/body p r o b l e m and t h e r e f o r e t h i s p i c t u r e d o e s n ' t j i v e w i t h t h e i r o t h e r c l a i m s . T h i s p i c t u r e h a s i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t t h e e l i m i n a t i v i s t s d eny. F i r s t o f a l l , on t h i s p i c t u r e ' p a i n ' r e f e r s . And a s we saw t h i s i s j u s t t h e n o t i o n D e n n e t t a r g u e s a g a i n s t . The c l a i m t h a t I am h a v i n g p a i n i s n o n s e n s i c a l a c c o r d i n g t o t h e e l i m i n a t i v i s t s . We a r e n o t r e f e r r i n g t o a n y t h i n g . On t h e p i c t u r e I have o f f e r e d h e r e ' p a i n ' would r e f e r . I t w ould r e f e r t o my c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e . The p i c t u r e I have p r e s e n t e d i s a c t u a l l y s i m p l y t h e i d e n t i t y t h e s i s 59 a c c o m p a n i e d by a view on what l a n g u a g e we s h o u l d use ( p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r p h y s i o l o g i c a l ) t o r e p o r t o u r e x p e r i e n c e s . And t h e e l i m i n a t i v i s t s a r e d e n y i n g t h e i d e n t i t y t h e s i s . T h i s p i c t u r e t h e n c a n ' t be t h e one b e i n g a d o p t e d by t h e e l i m i n a t i v i s t s . P e r h a p s t h e e l i m i n i t i v i s t s a r e c l a i m i n g t h a t w h i l e p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e r m s d o n ' t r e f e r t o o u r e x p e r i e n c e s , p h y s i o l o g i c a l t e r m s do. W h i l e t h e c l a i m t h a t I am h a v i n g p a i n i s m e a n i n g l e s s , t h e c l a i m t h a t my c - f i b r e s a r e f i r i n g i s n o t . The p r o b l e m w i t h t h i s i s t h a t ' c - f i b r e f i r i n g s ' r e f e r t o c - f i b r e f i r i n g s , n o t t o my c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e . I f t h e e l i m i n a t i v i s t s want t o c l a i m t h a t t o r e p o r t c - f i b r e f i r i n g s i s t o r e p o r t my c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e t h e y must a r g u e t h a t t h e e v e n t 'my c - f i b r e s f i r i n g ' i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e e v e n t 'my c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e ' . But t h i s i d e n t i t y c a n ' t be e s t a b l i s h e d s i n c e we have no l a n g u a g e i n w h i c h t o t a l k a b o u t o u r c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s . The o n l y c l a i m t h a t t h e e l i m i n a t i v i s t a l l o w s us t o make i s t h a t my c - f i b r e s f i r i n g i s i d e n t i c a l t o my c - f i b r e s f i r i n g . S i n c e t h e r e i s no p l a c e i n t h i s p i c t u r e f o r c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e we c a n ' t t a k e t h e e l i m i n a t i v i s t s t o be a r g u i n g t h a t p h y s i o l o g i c a l t e r m s w i l l r e f e r t o c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s . The o n l y r e a d i n g o f t h e e l i m i n a t i v e m a t e r i a l i s t p o s i t i o n t h a t a c c o r d s w i t h t h e i r c l a i m s i s one i n w h i c h c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s a f a l s e t h e o r y . The e l i m i n a t i v i s t s c l a i m t h a t t h e r e a r e no s u c h t h i n g s a s b e l i e f s , d e s i r e s , i n t e n t i o n s and s e n s a t i o n s . T h e s e t e r m s d o n ' t r e f e r . But 60 what e l s e d o e s c o n s c i o u s n e s s amount t o t h a n t h e h a v i n g o f b e l i e f s , d e s i r e s and s e n s a t i o n s ? We now u s e a c e r t a i n c l a s s o f t e r m s , m e n t a l o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e r m s , t o r e f e r t o o u r c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s . I f t h e s e t e r m s d o n ' t r e f e r t h e i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t t h e r e a r e no s u c h e x p e r i e n c e s . I f a l l t h e e l i m i n a t i v i s t s were c l a i m i n g i s t h a t t h e r e a r e no s u c h t h e o r e t i c a l e n t i t i e s a s p a i n s , b e l i e f s , e t c . , t h a t we p o s i t i n o r d e r t o e x p l a i n b e h a v i o r and t h a t o u r p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e r m s s h o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d a s r e f e r r i n g t o s o m e t h i n g o t h e r t h a n e n t i t i e s , t h e y would n o t be a d v o c a t i n g t h e c o m p l e t e abandonment o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e r m s . The e l i m i n a t i v i s t s n e v e r come o u t and s a y t h a t c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s a f a l s e t h e o r y . They c l a i m t h a t f o l k p s y c h o l o g y i s a f a l s e t h e o r y and t h a t we s h o u l d abandon i t s t e r m s s i n c e t h e y a r e n o n - r e f e r e n t i a l . I t seems t o me, however, t h a t s i n c e we now u s e f o l k p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e r m s t o r e f e r n o t o n l y t o t h e o r e t i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r b u t t o c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s , and s i n c e t h e y c l a i m t h a t t h e s e a r e n o n - r e f e r e n t i a l , and s i n c e t h e y d o n ' t a t t e m p t t o i d e n t i f y p h y s i o l o g i c a l t e r m s w i t h c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e , t h e y a r e f o r c e d t o abandon c o n s c i o u s n e s s a l o n g w i t h f o l k p s y c h o l o g y . E l i m i n a t i v e m a t e r i a l i s m i s n o t a s o l u t i o n t o t h e mind/body p r o b l e m . I t i s an a t t e m p t a t a d i s s o l u t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m . S i n c e o u r p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e r m s d o n ' t r e f e r t h e r e s i m p l y a r e n ' t any e v e n t s o f t h e s o r t we have been w o r r y i n g a b o u t when we worry a b o u t a c c o m o d a t i n g m e n t a l e v e n t s w i t h i n a p h y s i c a l i s t f ramework. I t seems t o me, t h a t when v i e w e d w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e mind/body p r o b l e m , e l i m i n a t i v e m a t e r i a l i s m i s s i m p l y a b s u r d . C l e a r l y we w i l l n o t s t o p h a v i n g c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s i f we change o u r l a n g u a g e f r o m t a l k a b o u t p a i n t o t a l k a b o u t c - f i b r e s f i r i n g . I t i s t r u e , however, t h a t t h e n a t u r e o f o u r e x p e r i e n c e s may c h a n g e . Our p e r c e p t i o n s a r e embedded w i t h i n a c e r t a i n c o n t e x t o f b e l i e f s and d e s i r e s and w i t h i n a c e r t a i n v a l u e s y s t e m . And p e r h a p s , g i v e n a d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t o f b e l i e f s , d e s i r e s and v a l u e s , we would e x p e r i e n c e t h i n g s d i f f e r e n t l y . My e x p e r i e n c e o f h a v i n g my t o o t h d r i l l e d by a d e n t i s t i s n o t a p l e a s a n t one, b u t i f some s t r a n g e r came a t me w i t h a d r i l l and p e r f o r m e d t h e same o p e r a t i o n on my t o o t h as my d e n t i s t d i d , I would l i k e l y have a d i f f e r e n t s e n s a t i o n i n t h e s e c o n d c a s e f r o m t h e one I had i n t h e f i r s t c a s e and t h e s e c o n d c a s e would be much more u n p l e a s a n t t h a n t h e f i r s t . B u t so what? So what i f o u r e x p e r i e n c e s change d e p e n d i n g on t h e c o n t e x t ? T h i s has n o t h i n g t o do w i t h t h e mind/body p r o b l e m . The p r o b l e m i s n o t what k i n d o f c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e t h a t I have, b u t t h a t I have c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s . C o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e o f w h a t e v e r s o r t and however we t a l k a b o u t i t s t i l l n e e d s t o be a c c o m o d a t e d . A c c o m o d a t i n g c o n s c i o u s m e n t a l e x p e r i e n c e w i t h i n a p h y s i c a l i s t framework i s t h e h e a r t o f t h e mind body p r o b l e m . And t h e h e a r t o f t h e p r o b l e m i s l o s t s i g h t o f by 62 t h e e l i m i n a t i v i s t s . They sometimes a p p e a r t o v i e w t h e p r o b l e m a s one c o n c e r n i n g t h e n a t u r e and e x i s t e n c e o f e n t i t i e s we p o s i t t o e x p l a i n b e h a v o i r . Even i f t h e i r v i e w i s r i g h t a s a c r i t i q u e o f p s y c h o l o g y , c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e , t h e h e a r t o f t h e mind/body p r o b l e m d o e s n o t d i s a p p e a r . O n l y m e n t a l e n t i t i e s a s e x p l a n a t o r y e n t i t i e s a r e e l i m i n a t e d . M e n t a l e n t i t i e s a s c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s r e m a i n . I f ' f o l k p s y c h o l o g y ' o n l y r e f e r s t o t h e o r i e s o f b e h a v i o r e m p l o y i n g m e n t a l e n t i t i e s a s e x p l a n a t i o n s t h e n t h e argument t h a t i t i s f a l s e and t h a t t h e s e e n t i t i e s d o n ' t e x i s t i s a p l a u s i b l e argument. I f , h o w v e r e r , f o l k p s y c h o l o g y i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d t o encompass t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f m e n t a l e v e n t s a s c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s , t h e p r o j e c t o f e l i m i n a t i n g f o l k p s y c h o l o g y i s an a b s u r d p r o j e c t t o a d o p t . I f e l i m i n a t i v i s t s t a k e t h e m s e l v e s t o be e n g a g i n g i n t h e f i r s t p r o j e c t t h e n s i n c e t h e y have s a i d n o t h i n g a b o u t c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e t h e y have n o t a d r e s s e d t h r mind/body p r o b l e m . S i n c e t h e y c l a i m t o be w o r k i n g on t h e mind/body p r o b l e m I must c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e y t a k e t h e m s e l v e s t o be e l i m i n a t i n g c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e a l o n g w i t h f o l k p s y c h o l o g y and r e j e c t t h e i r p o s i t i o n a s a b s u r d . We d o n ' t g e t r i d o f t h e p r o b l e m o f a c c o m o d a t i n g c o n s c i o u s m e n t a l e x p e r i e n c e s by c h a n g i n g t h e t e r m s we use t o r e f e r t o t h o s e e x p e r i e n c e s . I n a s e n s e t h i s i s u n f o r t u n a t e . I t would be n i c e i f I c o u l d p r e v e n t m y s e l f f r o m e v e r e x p e r i e n c e i n g p a i n a g a i n s i m p l y by n o t u s i n g t h e word. 63 N o t e s 1) D e n n e t t , D a n i e l , "The A s c r i p t i o n o f C o n t e n t " , i n C o n t e n t and C o n s c i o u s n e s s . R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l L t d . , London, 1969, p.96 2) I b i d , p.92 3) I b i d , p.92 4 > I b i d , p.92 5) I b i d , p.93 6) I b i d , p.93 7 > I b i d , p.93 8 > I b i d , p.96 9) C h u r c h l a n d , P a u l , M a t t e r and C o n s c i o u s n e s s , The MIT P r e s s , C a m b r i d g e , Mass., 1984, pp.45,46 10) I b i d , p.47 l D I b i d , pp.47,48 64 ACCOMMODATING CONSCIOUSNESS Token p h y s i c a l i s m i s more a p r e m i s e t h a n a t h e o r y . The p r e m i s e i s t h a t e a c h t o k e n o f a m e n t a l e v e n t i s i d e n t i c a l t o some p h y s i c a l e v e n t . The p h y s i c a l i s t c a n t a k e one o f two a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e mind/body p r o b l e m . He o r she c a n a t t e m p t t o e x p l a i n c o n s c i o u s n e s s o r c o n s c i o u s m e n t a l e x p e r i e n c e w i t h i n a p h y s i c a l i s t framework o r he o r she c a n a t t e m p t t o a c c o m o d a t e m e n t a l e x p e r i e n c e w i t h i n t h e p h y s i c a l i s t f ramework. I t seems t o me t h a t i n a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h e l a t t e r t a s k we w i l l have s o l v e d t h e mind/body p r o b l e m . Though c e r t a i n l y w o r t h p u r s u i n g , t h e f o r m e r t a s k i s much more f o r m i d a b l e and need n o t be c o m p l e t e d i n o r d e r t o s o l v e t h e mind/body p r o b l e m . The q u e s t i o n , t h e n , t h a t I s h a l l p u r s u e i n t h i s c h a p t e r i s whe t h e r , e q u i p p e d w i t h t h e t o k e n p h y s i c a l i s t p r e m i s e , we c a n a c c o m o d a t e c o n s c i o u s m e n t a l e x p e r i e n c e w i t h i n a p h y s i c a l i s t f ramework. I s h a l l b e g i n by e x p l a i n i n g why I a p p r o a c h t h e p r o b l e m a s a p h y s i c a l i s t - - t h a t i s , why I b e l i e v e t h e b e s t a p p r o a c h t o t h e p r o b l e m i s t o a t t e m p t t o accom o d a t e m e n t a l e x p e r i e n c e w i t h i n a p h y s i c a l i s t f r amework. V a r i o u s r e a s o n s o r b e l i e f s m o t i v a t e m a t e r i a l i s m . Some a r e m a t e r i a l i s t s b e c a u s e t h e y s t r o n g l y b e l i e v e i n t h e t r u t h o f a p a r t i c u l a r t h e o r y o f w h i c h t h e y happen t o be a d v o c a t e s . F o r o t h e r s , however, t h e m o t i v a t i o n f o r a d o p t i n g a m a t e r i a l i s t s t a n c e p r e c e d e s t h e i r a c c e p t a n c e 65 o r p r o p o s a l o f a p a r t i c u l a r t h e o r y . Some, i t seems, a r e s i m p l y awed by t h e p r o g r e s s made i n s c i e n c e and a r e s u r e t h a t s c i e n c e w i l l p r o v i d e a n s w e r s i n t h e a r e n a o f p h i l o s o p h y . F o r o t h e r s , s u c h a s J . J . C . S m a r t , 'awe' i s p e r h a p s t o o s t r o n g a word. He c l a i m s t h a t s i n c e s c i e n c e c a n e x p l a i n e v e r y t h i n g e l s e i n t h e u n i v e r s e , i t i s s i m p l y i m p l a u s i b l e t h a t c o n s c i o u s n e s s s h o u l d be g i v e n a s p e c i a l s t a t u s o u t s i d e t h e r e a l m o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p l a n a t i o n . To t h i s l i n e I am u n s y m p a t h e t i c . B u t my l a c k o f sympathy r e s t s n o t o n l y w i t h my f e e l i n g t h a t c o n s c i o u s n e s s does have a s p e c i a l s t a t u s , b u t w i t h t h e b e l i e f t h a t n o t e v e r y t h i n g e l s e i s e x p l a i n a b l e i n t e r m s o f s c i e n c e . P s y c h o l o g y i s n o t t h e o n l y a r e a i n w h i c h a m a t e r i a l i s t framework seems o u t o f p l a c e . S o c i o l o g y , p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e and o t h e r s o - c a l l e d s o c i a l s c i e n c e s i n v o l v e knowledge t h a t h as no p l a c e f o r , o r c e r t a i n l y f i n d s no e x p l a n a t i o n i n , a m a t e r i a l i s t i c a l l y r e d u c e d framework. A f i n a l m o t i v a t i o n f o r a c c e p t i n g m a t e r i a l i s m , w h i c h happens t o be t h e c o n c e r n t h a t m o t i v a t e d me, i s s i m p l y t h e p r e s s u r e t o r e j e c t d u a l i s m and ph e n o m e n a l i s m . T h i s p r e s s u r e s h o u l d n ' t be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d . D u a l i s m c a n ' t e x p l a i n c a u s a l i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e m e n t a l and t h e p h y s i c a l and phenomenalism d e n i e s us t h e b e l i e f i n p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y . The p h e n o m e n a l i s t may r e p l y t h a t m a t e r i a l i s m d e n i e s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f m e n t a l r e a l i t y . I f t h i s r e a l l y were so I w o u l d n ' t be a m a t e r i a l i s t . But beyond t h i s , i t seems t o me t h a t d u a l i s m and phenomenalism 66 must, be r e j e c t e d b e c a u s e e v e n i f I a c c e p t t h e o n t o l o g i c a l d i s t i n c t n e s s o r u n i q u e n e s s o f t h e m e n t a l one o f t h e major d i f f i c u l t i e s f a c i n g t h e p h y s i c a l i s t i s n o t o vercome. The p r o b l e m i s t h e s u b j e c t i v i t y o f e x p e r i e n c e . The f e e l i n g t h a t ' I ' am t h e s u b j e c t o f my e x p e r i e n c e s , t h a t t h e r e i s an e s s e n t i a l s u b j e c t , i s n o t a c c o m o d a t e d by t h e p h y s i c a l i s t p i c t u r e . Thomas N a g e l e x p r e s s e s t h e p r o b l e m i n t h i s way: S t a t e s o f my body, p h y s i c a l s t a t e s , a r e , a d m i t t e d l y , p h y s i c a l s t a t e s o f me, b u t t h i s i s n o t s i m p l y b e c a u s e t h e y a r e s t a t e s o f t h a t body b u t b e c a u s e i n a d d i t i o n i t i s my body. And i t s b e i n g my body c o n s i s t s i n i t s h a v i n g a c e r t a i n r e l a t i o n , p e r h a p s a c a u s a l one, t o t h e s u b j e c t o f my m e n t a l s t a t e s . T h i s l e a d s n a t u r a l l y t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t I , t h e s u b j e c t o f my m e n t a l s t a t e s , am s o m e t h i n g e l s e - - p e r h a p s a m e n t a l s u b s t a n c e . My p h y s i c a l s t a t e s a r e o n l y d e r i v i t a v e l y mine, s i n c e t h e y a r e s t a t e s o f a body w h i c h i s mine i n v i r t u e o f b e i n g r e l a t e d i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e way t o my p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e s . But t h i s i s p o s s i b l e o n l y i f t h o s e p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e s a r e mine i n an o r i g i n a l , a n d n o t m e r e l y d e r i v a t i v e , s e n s e ; t h e r e f o r e t h e i r s u b j e c t c a n n o t be t h e body w h i c h i s d e r i v a t i v e l y m i n e . ( l ) T h i s o b j e c t i o n seems, p r i m a f a c i e , t o be a v e r y s t r o n g one a g a i n s t p h y s i c a l i s m . However, a s N a g e l h i m s e l f g o e s on t o p o i n t o u t , t h i s s t r o n g i n t u i t i o n o f t h e i r b e i n g an e s s e n t i a l s u b j e c t o f e x p e r i e n c e , an e s s e n t i a l ' I ' , i s n o t a c c o m o d a t e d by any o t h e r t h e o r i e s i n c l u d i n g d u a l i s m . The same argument c a n be r u n a g a i n s t a m e n t a l ' I ' as a p h y s i c a l ' I ' . My p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e s a r e s t a t e s o f me. I t c a n be shown t h a t i f we f o l l o w o u t t h i s argument, i t w i l l p r o v i d e us w i t h e q u a l l y s t r o n g r e a s o n s f o r r e j e c t i n g any view w h i c h i d e n t i f i e s t h e s u b j e c t o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e s w i t h a s u b s t a n c e and c o n s t r u e s t h e s t a t e s a s a t t r i b u t e s o f t h a t s u b s t a n c e . A n o n - c o r p o r e a l s u b s t a n c e seems s a f e o n l y b e c a u s e , i n r e t r e a t i n g f r o m t h e p h y s i c a l s u b s t a n c e a s a c a n d i d a t e f o r t h e s e l f , we a r e s o much 6 7 occupied with f i n d i n g a s u b j e c t whose s t a t e s are o r i g i n a l l y , and not j u s t d e r i v a t i v e l y mine--one t o which the p h y s i c a l body can be r e l a t e d i n a way which expresses how i t can be mine--that we simply p o s t u l a t e such a s u b j e c t without a s k i n g o u r s e l v e s whether the same o b j e c t i o n s w i l l not apply t o i t as w e l l : whether indeed any substance can p o s s i b l y meet the requirement t h a t i t s s t a t e s be u n d e r i v a t i v e l y mine.<2) Si n c e our i n t u i t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s an e s s e n t i a l n o n - d e r i v a t i v e s u b j e c t of experience cannot be accomodated by e i t h e r a p h y s i c a l i s t or n o n - p h y s i c a l i s t theory, i t cannot be s u s t a i n e d as reason t o accept dualism over p h y s i c a l i s m . My m o t i v a t i o n f o r adopting p h y s i c a l i s m , then, i s based not on a b e l i e f i n the m e r i t s of any p a r t i c u l a r p h y s i c a l i s t theory, or out of a r e s p e c t f o r s c i e n c e , but i n a r e j e c t i o n of n o n - m a t e r i a l i s t t h e o r i e s . So I am going to approach the problem as a p h y s i c a l i s t . And the problem, once again, i s of accomodating c o n s c i o u s mental experience w i t h i n a p h y s i c a l i s t framework. Token p h y s i c a l i s m overcomes one of the problems t h a t Smart f a c e d with h i s type i d e n t i t y t heory. In order f o r Smart's theory t o be t r u e i t would have t o be the case t h a t f o r each occurrence of a type of mental event t h e r e would occur some corresponding type of p h y s i c a l event. T h i s k i n d of s c e n a r i o i s avoided by the token p h y s i c a l i s t as he or she c l a i m s only t h a t f o r each occurence of a type of mental event there occurs some p h y s i c a l event. He or she doesn't p r e d i c t t h a t a type of p h y s i c a l event w i l l correspond with the type of mental event. But the type 68 i d e n t i t y t h e o r y f a c e d a n o t h e r k i n d o f p r o b l e m t h a t t h e t o k e n p h y s i c a l i s t t h e o r y d o e s n o t overcome. I t was a r g u e d t h a t w h i l e Smart o f f e r e d a t h e o r y o f t h e i d e n t i t y o f e v e n t s he f a i l e d t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f m e n t a l e v e n t s . He f a i l e d t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e f a c t t h a t t h e e v e n t ' p a i n ' f e e l s p a i n f u l o r t h e f a c t t h a t i n t h e e v e n t o f s e n s i n g a y e l l o w a f t e r image one s e n s e s y e l l o w . M e n t a l e v e n t s , i t was a r g u e d , have phenomenal p r o p e r t i e s . E v e n t s l i k e c - f i b r e s f i r i n g d o n ' t . T h i s o b j e c t i o n i s n o t t a k e n c a r e o f s i m p l y by a d o p t i n g t h e t o k e n p h y s i c a l i s t p r e m i s e . I t h i n k , however, t h a t i t c a n be met. I w i l l f i r s t i n t r o d u c e and i l l u s t r a t e a t o k e n i d e n t i t y s t a t e m e n t and t h e n I w i l l a t t e m p t t o d e f e n d t h e s t a t e m e n t a g a i n s t t h e c h a r g e o f u n a c c o u n t a b i l i t y o f p r o p e r t i e s o r c o n t e n t . F i n a l l y , I w i l l c o n s i d e r some o t h e r o b j e c t i o n s t h a t may be r a i s e d . W o r k i n g w i t h t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t we a r e n o t made up o f two b a s i c k i n d s o f s t u f f , and t h a t t h e one k i n d o f s t u f f t h a t we a r e made o f i s p h y s i c a l , I b e l i e v e t h a t t h e p h y s i c a l i s t framework c a n acco m o d a t e m e n t a l e x p e r i e n c e by a d o p t i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g i d e n t i t y s t a t e m e n t w h i c h was p r o p o s e d by Thomas N a g e l . A p e r s o n ' s h a v i n g a s e n s a t i o n i s i d e n t i c a l t o h i s body b e i n g i n a c e r t a i n p h y s i c a l s t a t e o r u n d e r g o i n g a p h y s i c a l p r o c e s s . " N o t i c e t h a t b o t h t e r m s o f t h i s i d e n t i t y a r e o f t h e same l o g i c a l t y p e , namely ( t o p u t i t i n n e u t r a l t e r m i n o l o g y ) a s u b j e c t ' s p o s s e s s i n g a 69 c e r t a i n a t t r i b u t e . The s u b j e c t s a r e t h e p e r s o n and h i s body ( n o t h i s b r a i n ) and t h e a t t r i b u t e s a r e p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , h a p p e n i n g s , and s o f o r t h , and t h e p h y s i c a l o n e s . " ( 3 ) To i l l u s t r a t e t h e k i n d o f i d e n t i t y b e i n g c l a i m e d l e t ' s c o n s i d e r t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s . How do we g i v e t h e p h y s i c a l c o r r e l a t e o f b e i n g happy o r b e l i e v i n g i n God o r w i s h i n g i t was F r i d a y ? We d o n ' t . We c a n ' t . A s k i n g t h e q u e s t i o n i n t h i s way p r e s u p p o s e s t h a t t h e r e w i l l be a s i n g l e p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n m a t c h i n g e a c h one o f t h e s e s t a t e s . The q u e s t i o n i g n o r e s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s e s t a t e s a r e s t a t e s o f s u b j e c t s . W i s h i n g i t was F r i d a y i s n ' t an e v e n t . Someone's w i s h i n g i t was F r i d a y i s an e v e n t . And Mary's w i s h i n g i t was F r i d a y i s a d i f f e r e n t e v e n t f r o m J a n e ' s w i s h i n g i t was F r i d a y . F u r t h e r m o r e , Mary's w i s h i n g i t was F r i d a y on Monday i s a d i f f e r e n t e v e n t f r o m Mary's w i s h i n g i t was F r i d a y on Wednesday. The more p r o m i s i n g q u e s t i o n t o a s k i s how do we g i v e a p h y s i c a l c o r r e l a t e o f Mary's w i s h i n g i t was F r i d a y now? A c c o r d i n g t o o u r i d e n t i t y s t a t e m e n t a p e r s o n ' s h a v i n g a m e n t a l e v e n t i s i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t p e r s o n ' s body u n d e r g o i n g a p h y s i c a l p r o c e s s . Thus, Mary's w i s h i n g i t was F r i d a y now i s i d e n t i c a l t o Mary's body u n d e r g o i n g a p h y s i c a l p r o c e s s . L e t ' s c o n s i d e r an a n a l o g o u s example. How do we g i v e t h e p h y s i c a l c o r r e l a t e o f a b r i d g e ' s b e i n g u n s a f e o r a c o u c h b e i n g c o m f o r t a b l e o r a c u r v e i n t h e r o a d b e i n g t r i c k y t o ma n u v e r e ? ( 4 ) We c a n ' t . S i n c e e v e r y b r i d g e i s 7 0 d i f f e r e n t and d i f f e r e n t b r i d g e s w i l l be u n s a f e f o r d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n s t h e r e w i l l n o t be a t y p e p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n m a t c h i n g t h e t y p e d e s c r i p t i o n o f ' u n s a f e ' . However, s i n c e e a c h p a r t i c u l a r b r i d g e i s i d e n t i c a l t o a p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h a t b r i d g e , a p a r t i c u l a r u n s a f e b r i d g e w i l l be i d e n t i c a l t o a p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h a t b r i d g e . T h e r e w i l l n o t be a t y p e p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e t y p e p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f w i s h i n g i t was F r i d a y , b u t f o r e a c h t o k e n o f t h a t t y p e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e v e n t , t h e r e w i l l be a p h y s i c a l e v e n t . A p e r s o n w i s h i n g i t was F r i d a y w i l l be i d e n t i c a l t o a p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h a t p e r s o n a t t h e t i m e s h e i s w i s h i n g i t was F r i d a y j u s t a s an u n s a f e b r i d g e w i l l be i d e n t i c a l t o a p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h a t b r i d g e . To t a k e t h e a n a l o g y a s t e p f u r t h e r , o nce we've g o t t h e p a r t i c u l a r b r i d g e t h a t i s u n s a f e , and t h e p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n t h a t i s w i s h i n g i t was F r i d a y we c a n i n v e s t i g a t e t h e p r o c e s s t h a t t h a t p e r s o n ' s body i s u n d e r g o i n g , o r t h e p h y s i c a l c h a n g e s between t h e b r i d g e when i t was s a f e and now t h a t i t i s u n s a f e . We c o u l d d i s c o v e r t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r b r i d g e ' s b e i n g u n s a f e i s i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t p a r t i c u l a r b r i d g e ' s h a v i n g a c r a c k e d f o u n d a t i o n . I t seems u n l i k e l y , however, t h a t we w i l l be a b l e t o s p e c i f y s o c l e a r l y t h e p r o c e s s a p e r s o n ' s body i s u n d e r g o i n g w h i l e she i s w i s h i n g i t was F r i d a y . B u t f r o m what we a l r e a d y know a b o u t t h e body we know i t w i l l be a b r a i n p r o c e s s and t h e more we l e a r n a b o u t n e u r o p h y s i o l o g y , t h e c l o s e r we w i l l come t o 7 1 s p e c i f y i n g t h e p r o c e s s . And w h i l e w i s h i n g i t was F r i d a y i s a v e r y s p e c i f i c m e n t a l e v e n t , some m e n t a l e v e n t s s u c h as b e i n g happy o r s a d o r i n p a i n a r e i n need o f f u r t h e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l c l a r i f i c a t i o n . T h a t i s , we need t o be a b l e t o s p e c i f y t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e s more a d e q u a t e l y and more d i s c r e t e l y i n o r d e r t o s p e c i f y t h e n e u r o l o g i c a l s t a t e s more a d e q u a t e l y and d i s c r e t e l y . B u t even i f we c a n s p e c i f y a p a r t i c u l a r s t a t e o f a p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n , and t h a t s t a t e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y a s s t a t e x, and i s i d e n t i c a l t o p h y s c i a l s t a t e y i n t h a t p e r s o n , i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t s t a t e x w i l l be i d e n t i c a l t o s t a t e y i n a n o t h e r p e r s o n . T h i s i s t r u e a t l e a s t f o r most i n t e n t i o n a l m e n t a l s t a t e s b e c a u s e t h e c a u s e s o f t h e s e s t a t e s w i l l v a r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y between p e r s o n s and w i l l v a r y between t i m e s e v e n f o r t h e same p e r s o n . F o r n o n - i n t e n t i o n a l s t a t e s , s e n s a t i o n s , we w i l l p r o b a b l y f i n d more s y s t e m a t i c i t y between p e r s o n s and w i t h i n p e r s o n s between t i m e s b e c a u s e t h e c a u s e s o f p a i n , f o r example, a r e more u n i f o r m . ( 5 ) I t u r n now t o t h e most d i f f i c u l t p r o b l e m f a c i n g t h e p h y s i c a l i s t , t h e p r o b l e m o f p r o p e r t i e s o r c o n t e n t . Even i f t h e r e i s no t y p e / t y p e i d e n t i t y between m e n t a l e v e n t s and p h y s i c a l e v e n t s an i d e n t i t y between a m e n t a l e v e n t and some p h y s i c a l e v e n t i s b e i n g c l a i m e d and, s o t h e o b j e c t i o n r u n s , m e n t a l e v e n t s have c o n t e n t o r m e n t a l p r o p e r t i e s w h i l e p h y s i c a l e v e n t s do n o t . I t seems t o me t h a t t h e 72 p r o p e r t i e s p r o b l e m c a n o n l y a r i s e i f c e r t a i n a s s u m p t i o n s a r e made a t t h e o u t s e t . We must assume t h a t m e n t a l e v e n t s c a n be s e p e r a t e d f r o m t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s and t h a t t h e y c a n be c o n s i d e r e d w i t h o u t r e f r e n c e t o a s u b j e c t . Smart and o t h e r s have made t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s . I n o r d e r f o r Smart t o b e l i e v e t h a t he had i d e n t i f i e d m e n t a l e v e n t s w i t h p h y s i c a l e v e n t s b u t m e n t a l p r o p e r t i e s were ' l e f t o u t ' and t h u s r e q u i r e d s e p e r a t e t r e a t m e n t , he must have assumed t h a t e v e n t s and p r o p e r t i e s c o u l d be s e p e r a t e d . And t o sp e a k o f p a i n r a t h e r t h a n o f someone's h a v i n g a p a i n a s t h e m e n t a l e v e n t we a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h i s t o assume an o b j e c t i v e n a t u r e o f p a i n . I t seems t o me t h a t b o t h t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s a r e m i s l e a d i n g . An e v e n t u n a c c o m p a n i e d by any phenomenal p r o p e r t i e s w o u l d n ' t seem t o be a m e n t a l e v e n t a t a l l . P a i n u n a c c o m p a n i e d by t h e p r o p e r t y o f p a i n f u l n e s s would s i m p l y be a n o n - c o n s c i o u s p h y s i c a l e v e n t . And f o r a p a i n t o e x i s t i s f o r someone t o have i t so i t s h o u l d n ' t be s e p e r a t e d f r o m t h e s u b j e c t . T h e r e a r e n o t two s o r t s o f m e n t a l phenomena t h a t t h e p h y s i c a l i s t must a c c o m o d a t e - - e v e n t s and p r o p e r t i e s . R a t h e r , a m e n t a l e v e n t i s d e f i n e d o r s p e c i f i e d by m e n t a l p r o p e r t i e s . Any a t t e m p t t o i d e n t i f y a m e n t a l e v e n t w i t h a p h y s i c a l e v e n t where t h e m e n t a l e v e n t i s c o n s i d e r e d a s d i s t i n c t f r o m i t s p r o p e r t i e s ( s u c h a s t h e a t t e m p t made by J . J . C . Smart) i s doomed t o f a i l b e c a u s e a m e n t a l e v e n t w i t h o u t phenomenal p r o p e r t i e s i s n o t r e a l l y a m e n t a l e v e n t a t a l l . The p r o b l e m o f a c c o u n t i n g f o r t h e phenomenal 7 3 p r o p e r t i e s o f m e n t a l e v e n t s was f a c e d by Smart b e c a u s e he began by a t t e m p t i n g t o i d e n t i f y e v e n t s a s d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s . E v e n t s and p r o p e r t i e s were t h u s two a s p e c t s o f o u r m e n t a l l i v e s t h a t t h e i d e n t i t y t h e o r i s t needed t o r e c o n c i l e w i t h t h e p h y s i c a l i s t p i c t u r e . M e n t a l s t a t e s , p r o c e s s e s , e v e n t s , p r o p e r t i e s and e n t i t i e s have a l l been a d o p t e d a t some p o i n t o r a n o t h e r a s t h e p r o b l e m t h a t t h e p h y s i c a l i s t must a c c o m o d a t e . I t seems t o me t h a t i t d o e s n ' t m a t t e r how we l a b e l t h e p r o b l e m as l o n g a s we r e c o g n i z e i t t o be a p r o b l e m a b o u t c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e . What need s t o be r e c o g n i z e d i s t h a t i n w h a t e v e r t e r m s we u s e t o d e s c r i b e m e n t a l e x p e r i e n c e we a r e d e s c r i b i n g one phenomenon. We a r e t a l k i n g a b o u t t h e same t h i n g w hether we t a l k a b o u t i t a s a s t a t e , e v e n t , p r o c e s s o r p r o p e r t y . I p r o p o s e t o t a l k a b o u t c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e a s an e v e n t and t o t r e a t what we c a l l p r o p e r t i e s a s a d e s c r i p t i o n o r s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f t h a t e v e n t r a t h e r t h a n a s s o m e t h i n g i n a d d i t i o n t o i t . The e v e n t s we a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h a r e c o n s c i o u s s e n s i n g , p e r c i e v i n g o r t h i n k i n g . A n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e e x i s t e n c e o f s u c h e v e n t s i s a c o n s c i o u s s u b j e c t . F o l l o w i n g f r o m t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between m e n t a l e v e n t s and p r o p e r t i e s i s t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f m e n t a l e v e n t s f r o m s u b j e c t s . W h i l e t h e p r o p e r t y o f f e e l i n g p a i n c a n ' t e x i s t w i t h o u t a s u b j e c t , i f we c a n s e p a r a t e t h i s p r o p e r t y f r o m t h e e v e n t , t h e e v e n t c a n be c o n s i d e r e d w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s u b j e c t . So we g e t an o b j e c t i v e k i n d o f e v e n t l i k e a 7 4 c - f i b r e f i r i n g . And we g e t t h e k i n d o f i d e n t i t y s t a t e m e n t t h a t Smart o f f e r s , i . e . , p a i n becomes i d e n t i c a l t o c - f i b r e s f i r i n g . And t h e n , o f c o u r s e , we're back t o t h e p r o b l e m o f p r o p e r t i e s . I f , however, we b e g i n by r e c o g n i z i n g t h e e v e n t t o be i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m i t s p r o p e r t i e s , we s i m p l y c a n n o t c o n s i d e r t h e e v e n t w i t h o u t t h e s u b j e c t . I t h i n k t h a t t h i s i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t f o r two r e a s o n s . F i r s t o f a l l , I t h i n k t h a t t h e o b j e c t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e Smart i d e n t i t y s t a t e m e n t i s , i n i t s e l f , a good r e a s o n f o r r e j e c t i n g i t . F o r a p a i n t o e x i s t i s f o r someone t o have i t . P a i n i s i n e x t r i c a b l y t i e d t o a s u b j e c t . C - f i b r e f i r i n g s d o n ' t seem t o be. So w h i l e we have a s u b j e c t a s a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n on one s i d e o f t h e i d e n t i t y s t a t e m e n t i t d o e s n ' t a p p e a r t o be a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n on t h e o t h e r s i d e . Of c o u r s e , i n o r d e r f o r t h e r e t o e x i s t c - f i b r e f i r i n g s t h e r e must e x i s t a b r a i n . B u t u n l e s s we a l s o i d e n t i f y c o n s c i o u s s u b j e c t s w i t h b r a i n s we s t i l l h ave a c o n s c i o u s s u b j e c t on one s i d e and n o t t h e o t h e r . I f Smart h a d n ' t d i s t i n g u i s h e d between e v e n t s and p r o p e r t i e s he w o u l d n ' t have s e p e r a t e d t h e p h y s i c a l e v e n t f r o m t h e s u b j e c t . The s e c o n d r e a s o n t h a t t h e i n c l u s i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t i n t h e i d e n t i t y s t a t e m e n t i s so i m p o r t a n t i s b e c a u s e s u b j e c t s o f e x p e r i e n c e a r e what t h e mind/body p r o b l e m i s a l l a b o u t . R a t h e r t h a n a t t e m p t i n g t o i d e n t i f y m e n t a l e v e n t s w i t h p h y s i c a l e v e n t s and t h e n i n s t a n t i a t i n g t h i s e v e n t i n a s u b j e c t , we s h o u l d be t r y i n g t o i d e n t i f y 75 t h e s u b j e c t ' s m e n t a l e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h a t s u b j e c t ' s p h y s i c a l e x p e r i e n c e . The mind/body p r o b l e m i s n ' t a p r o b l e m a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f e v e n t s o u t i n t h e w o r l d . I t i s a p r o b l e m a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f e v e n t s u n d e r g o n e by a c o n s c i o u s s u b j e c t . The q u e s t i o n i s whether t h e n a t u r e o f some o f t h o s e e v e n t s r e q u i r e s t h a t we, a s s u b j e c t s , a r e made o f two k i n d s o f s t u f f , mind s t u f f and m a t t e r s t u f f , o r w hether we c a n be made o f j u s t m a t t e r . F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s any i d e n t i t y s t a t e m e n t t h a t t r e a t s m e n t a l e v e n t s a s e x i s t i n g d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s and w h i c h , f o l l o w i n g f r o m t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n , s e p e r a t e s m e n t a l e v e n t s f r o m s u b j e c t s , must foe r e j e c t e d . The c e n t r a l r o l e o f t h e s u b j e c t i s c a p t u r e d by t h e i d e n t i t y s t a t e m e n t I am s u p p o r t i n g . The i d e n t i t y p r o p o s e d i s between a s u b j e c t ' s h a v i n g a p a i n , f o r example, and h i s body ' s u n d e r g o i n g a p h y s i c a l p r o c e s s . When we r e a l i z e t h e c e n t r a l r o l e o f t h e s u b j e c t and t h e f a c t t h a t a m e n t a l e v e n t i s n o t an o b j e c t i v e k i n d o f e v e n t t h a t e x i s t s i n and o f i t s e l f , t h e p r o p e r t i e s p r o b l e m d o e s n ' t a r i s e . T h o u g h t s o r s e n s a t i o n s d o n ' t have p r o p e r t i e s i n t h e o r d i n a r y s e n s e b e c a u s e t h e y d o n ' t e x i s t i n and o f t h e m s e l v e s . They e x i s t o n l y i n s o f a r a s p e o p l e have them. The e v e n t , t h e b e l i e f t h a t p, o r t h e e v e n t , p a i n , do n o t have t h e p r o p e r t y o f b e i n g p o r b e i n g p a i n f u l . The e v e n t i s a s u b j e c t ' s e x p e r i e n c e i n g p a i n o r p. T h a t i s , a l t h o u g h we s p e a k o f a p a i n a s b e i n g s h a r p o r a b e l i e f a s b e i n g t h e b e l i e f t h a t p, my h a v i n g a p a i n i s n ' t s h a r p and my b e l i e v i n g t h a t p 76 i s n ' t p. S i n c e we speak o f p a i n s a s b e i n g s h a r p we a r e m i s l e a d t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r e i s some m e n t a l e v e n t o r e n t i t y ' p a i n ' i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e f e e l i n g o f p a i n f u l n e s s . When we speak o f m e n t a l p r o p e r t i e s we must remember t h a t t h e s e p r o p e r t i e s a r e n o t s o m e t h i n g o v e r and above t h e e v e n t . They a r e d e s c r i p t i o n s o r ways o f s p e c i f y i n g t h e e v e n t . Now s i n c e my h a v i n g p a i n i s n ' t p a i n f u l i t i s no m y s t e r y t h a t my body u n d e r g o i n g a c e r t a i n b r a i n p r o c e s s i s n ' t p a i n f u l . N a g e l o f f e r s a more v i v d i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h i s p o i n t " A l t h o u g h I may have a v i s u a l s e n s e i m p r e s s i o n whose a t t r i b u t e s o f f o r m and c o l o u r c o r r e s p o n d c l o s e l y t o t h o s e w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e "Hona L i s a " my h a v i n g t h e s e n s e i m p r e s s i o n d o e s n o t p o s s e s s t h o s e a t t r i b u t e s , and i t i s t h e r e f o r e no c a u s e t o worry t h a t n o t h i n g i n my b r a i n l o o k s l i k e t h e "Mona L i s a " " ( 6 ) I f we c o n s t r u e m e n t a l e v e n t s as p e r s o n s h a v i n g e x p e r i e n c e s o f s u c h and s u c h s o r t s r a t h e r t h a n a s t h e e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h e m s e l v e s t h e p r o p e r t i e s p r o b l e m d o e s n ' t a p p l y . W h i l e I b e l i e v e t h i s t o be t h e r i g h t way o f c o n s t r u i n g m e n t a l e v e n t s I a l s o f e e l t h a t t h e manner i n w h i c h t h i s c o n s t r u a l o f m e n t a l e v e n t s a v o i d s t h e p r o p e r t i e s p r o b l e m i s n ' t c o m p l e t e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y . B u t t h i s f e e l i n g i s no l o n g e r a f e e l i n g o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n o v e r t h e i s s u e o f m e n t a l p r o p e r t i e s . I t i s no l o n g e r a q u e s t i o n o f how we c a n i d e n t i t f y m e n t a l p r o p e r t i e s w i t h p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s . The q u e s t i o n now i s , 'How c a n i t be t h a t we, as p u r e l y p h y s i c a l b e i n g s , have e x p e r i e n c e s o f a 77 phenomenal n a t u r e ? ' . How i s i t t h a t we c a n f e e l p a i n o r have y e l l o w a f t e r images o r t h o u g h t s t h a t p? In o t h e r words, how c a n i t be t h a t we a r e c o n s c i o u s ? An answer t o t h i s q u e s t i o n i s n o t t o be f o u n d i n t h e i d e n t i t y s t a t e m e n t I am c o n s i d e r i n g . But t h a t d o e s n ' t mean t h a t t h e i d e n t i t y s t a t e m e n t i s f a l s e o r even i n c o m p l e t e . We a r e r i g h t i n f e e l i n g t h a t s o m e t h i n g has been l e f t o u t o f t h e p i c t u r e by t h i s i d e n t i t y s t a t e m e n t . But we would be wrong i n b e l i e v i n g t h a t t h i s l a c k o f e x p l a n a t i o n o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s p r e c l u d e s t h e i d e n t i t y s t a t e m e n t i n q u e s t i o n f r o m o f f e r i n g a s o l u t i o n t o t h e mind/body p r o b l e m . T h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e between s h o w i n g how s o m e t h i n g c a n be t h e c a s e and t h a t i t i s t h e c a s e . Showing how i t i s t h a t p u r e l y p h y s i c a l b e i n g s a r e c o n s c i o u s would be t o e x p l a i n c o n s c i o u s n e s s w h i l e s h o w i n g t h a t p u r e l y p h y s i c a l b e i n g s a r e c o n s c i o u s would be t o accomodate c o n s c i o u s n e s s . I n a c h i e v i n g t h i s l a t e r t a s k we would be s o l v i n g t h e mind/body p r o b l e m a s we would no l o n g e r have any r e a s o n f o r p o s i t i n g a mind o r s o u l o r m e n t a l s u b s t a n c e i n a d d i t i o n t o o u r b o d i e s . W h i l e t h e b i g g e s t o b s t a c l e t o e s t a b l i s h i n g a mind/body i d e n t i t y h as been t h e p r o b l e m o f p r o p e r t i e s , s h o w i n g t h i s c o n c e r n t o be m i s p l a c e d d o e s n ' t l e a v e u s c o m p l e t e l y home f r e e . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m o f p r o p e r t i e s , t h e r e a r e two o t h e r o b j e c t i o n s t h a t have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been l e v i e d a g a i n s t t h e p h y s i c a l i s t . The f i r s t c o n c e r n s l o c a t i o n . I t i s a r g u e d t h a t w h i l e p h y s i c a l 78 e v e n t s c a n be s p a t i a l l y l o c a t e d m e n t a l e v e n t s have no l o c a t i o n . On t h e view o f m e n t a l e v e n t s t h a t I have o f f e r e d h e r e , h o w e v e r , p a i n i s n o t an e v e n t b u t my h a v i n g p a i n i s an e v e n t . The e v e n t i s l o c a t e d , t h e n , w h e r e v e r J_ am  l o c a t e d . T h a t i s , t h e m e n t a l e v e n t has been l o c a t e d a s b e s t a s i t c a n be when we l o c a t e t h e s u b j e c t u n d e r g o i n g t h e e v e n t . And t h i s s h o u l d be no s u r p r i s e s i n c e t h e same i s t r u e o f p h y s i c a l e v e n t s , "...we l o c a t e e v e n t s by l o c a t i n g t h e p a r t i c u l a r s o r t h i n g s t h a t " u n d e r g o " them. S o m e t h i n g e x p l o d e s i n an e x p l o s i o n , and t h e e x p l o s i o n i s l o c a t e d where t h e t h i n g t h a t e x p l o d e s i s l o c a t e d ; when t h e r e i s a f i r e , s o m e t h i n g b u r n s , and t h e f i r e i s where t h e b u r n i n g t h i n g i s ; and, s i m i l a r l y , a d e a t h t a k e s p l a c e where t h e d y i n g man i s l o c a t e d . P a r t i c u l a r s a r e l o c a t e d f i r s t ; e v e n t s and s t a t e s a r e l o c a t e d r e l a t i v e l y t o p a r t i c u l a r s . " ( 7 ) I f my h a v i n g a p a i n i s i d e n t i c a l t o my body u n d e r g o i n g a c e r t a i n p r o c e s s , t h e n t h e m e n t a l e v e n t and t h e p h y s i c a l e v e n t a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e same p l a c e , w h e r e v e r I (and my body) happen t o be. The s e c o n d o b j e c t i o n f a c i n g t h e p h y s i c a l i s t c o n c e r n s t h e i s s u e o f t h e p r i v a c y o r s u b j e c t i v i t y o f m e n t a l e v e n t s . T h e r e a r e two a s p e c t s t o t h i s o b j e c t i o n . F i r s t l y , w h i l e i t i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r me t o be i n p a i n and n o t know i t , i t ' s p o s s i b l e f o r a b o d i l y p r o c e s s t o t a k e p l a c e and me n o t know i t . S e c o n d , you c a n o b s e r v e my b o d i l y s t a t e s — t h e y a r e s u s e p t a b l e t o p u b l i c v i e w i n g - - b u t you c a n ' t o b s e r v e my m e n t a l s t a t e s . As f o r t h e s e c o n d a s p e c t o f t h i s 7 9 o b j e c t i o n , i f the i d e n t i t y theory i s r i g h t , we w i l l be abl e t o observe mental events. I f my having a b e l i e f or a s e n s a t i o n i s i d e n t i c a l t o my body undergoing a p h y s i c a l process then o b s e r v i n g my body undergoing t h i s process w i l l be o b s e r v i n g my having a b e l i e f or s e n s a t i o n . Of course, s i n c e i n t e n t i o n a l mental events are u n l i k e l y t o correspond t o any g e n e r a l i z e d p h y s i c a l process, we won't be a b l e t o t e l l t h a t we are ob s e r v i n g my having the b e l i e f t h a t p o t the d e s i r e t h a t q. Perhaps we w i l l be a b l e to t e l l f o r the more g e n e r a l i z a b l e s t a t e s such as p a i n . T h i s i s an e m p i r i c a l q u e s t i o n . Regardless, however, of whether or not we can t e l l t h a t we are obs e r v i n g my having the b e l i e f t h a t p, i f we are obs e r v i n g the r i g h t p h y s i c a l process t h a t my body i s undergoing corresponding t o my having the b e l i e f t h a t p, then we are obs e r v i n g my having the b e l i e f t h a t p. Returning now t o the f i r s t aspect of t h i s o b j e c t i o n , i t seems to me t o amount to no more than the c l a i m t h a t mental events are only c o n t i n g e n t l y , r a t h e r than n e c e s s a r i l y , i d e n t i c a l t o p h y s i c a l events. And t h a t my b e l i e v i n g t h a t p i s c o n t i n g e n t l y i d e n t i c a l to my body undergoing process x i m p l i e s t h a t I can know about the one without knowing about the ot h e r . I can know I'm i n pain without knowing t h a t my c - f i b r e s are f i r i n g . That I n e c e s s a r i l y know t h a t I am i n pa i n i s t r u e i n the same way t h a t 'the morning s t a r i s the Morning s t a r ' i s t r u e . And t h a t 'the Morning s t a r i s i d e n t i c a l t o the Evening s t a r ' 80 i s t r u e i n t h e same way t h a t my h a v i n g a p a i n i s i d e n t i c a l t o my body u n d e r g o i n g p h y s i c a l p r o c e s s x. At t h e b e g i n i n g o f t h i s c h a p t e r I c l a i m e d t h a t I would p u r s u e t h e q u e s t i o n o f whether o r n o t we c o u l d a c comodate c o n s c i o u s m e n t a l e x p e r i e n c e w i t h i n a p h y s i c a l i s t framework. I have d i s c u s s e d why I c h o s e t o a p p r o a c h t h e p r o b l e m as p h y s i c a l i s t and why I b e l i e v e t h e mind/body p r o b l e m t o be a p r o b l e m o f a c c o m o d a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n e x p l a n a t i o n . I would now l i k e t o t u r n t o t h e i s s u e o f why I have l i m i t e d my d i s c u s s i o n t o c o n s c i o u s r a t h e r t h a n c o n s c i o u s and u n c o n s c i o u s m e n t a l e v e n t s . I have done t h i s b e c a u s e I d o n ' t b e l i e v e t h a t u n c o n s c i o u s m e n t a l e v e n t s have a n y t h i n g t o do w i t h t h e mind/body p r o b l e m . What m o t i v a t e s us t o b e l i e v e t h a t we a r e s o m e t h i n g more t h a n o u r b o d i e s i s t h e f a c t t h a t we c o n s c i o u s l y e x p e r i e n c e and t h i n k . U n c o n s c i o u s m o t i v a t i o n s , b e l i e f s and d e s i r e s a r e p r i m a r i l y t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s p s y c h o l o g i s t s have p o s i t e d i n o r d e r t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d human b e h a v i o r . I f we f o u n d t h a t we c o u l d n o t a c c o m o d a t e o u r c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h i n a p h y s i c a l i s t framework and we were f o r c e d t o c o n c l u d e t h a t i n d e e d t h e r e a r e two o n t o l o g i c a l s y s t e m s i n t h e u n i v e r s e , i t would t h e n become a q u e s t i o n a s t o w h i c h s y s t e m u n c o n s c i o u s b e l i e f , d e s i r e s and s o f o r t h , b e l o n g t o . I f , however, c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e c a n be a c c o m o d a t e d , t h e r e would be no r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t u n c o n s c i o u s m e n t a l e v e n t s c o u l d n ' t be. My h a v i n g a p a i n o r c o n s c i o u s l y b e l i e v i n g t h a t p b o t h seem a c e r t a i n way t o 81 me. But an u n c o n s c i o u s m e n t a l e v e n t d o e s n ' t seem any way a t a l l t o me. The c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e o f p a i n , b e c a u s e i t seems a c e r t a i n way t o u s , a l s o seems t o be an e v e n t o u t s i d e t h e p h y s i c a l r e a l m o f e v e n t s I f e v e n t s t h a t seem t o us t o be f u n d a m e n t a l l y n o n - p h y s i c a l c a n be f i t i n t o t h e p h y s i c a l i s t p i c t u r e i t seems t o me t h a t t h e r e i s no q u e s t i o n t h a t u n c o n s c i o u s m e n t a l e v e n t s c a n a l s o be f i t i n t o t h e p i c t u r e . S i n c e i t i s t h e phenomenal n a t u r e o f some m e n t a l e v e n t s t h a t p r o v o k e s us t o b e l i e v e t h a t we a r e s o m e t h i n g more t h a n o u r b o d i e s , i n s h o w i n g t h a t t h i s p h e n o e n a l e x p e r i e n c e c a n be a c c o m o d a t e d , we no l o n g e r have any p r o v o c a t i o n t o h o l d a d u a l i s t i c v i e w . We a r e s o l e l y p h y s i c a l b e i n g s and we a r e c o n s c i o u s . I t seems t o me t h a t n e i t h e r o f t h e s e c l a i m s can be d e n i e d . I have a t t e m p t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r t o show t h a t we a r e n o t f o r c e d t o deny one o r t h e o t h e r o f t h e s e c l a i m s ; t h a t t h e c e n t r a l o b j e c t i o n s t o p h y s i c a l i s m - - p r o p e r t i e s , l o c a t i o n and s u b j e c t i v i t y - - c a n be met. I have n o t a t t e m p t e d t o e x p l a i n o r d i s p e l l t h e m y s t e r y o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . I have i n s t e a d a t t e m p t e d t o show t h a t t h e r e a r e no r e a s o n s f o r n o t t a k i n g t h i s m y s t e r y t o be a m y s t e r y a b o u t c e r t a i n p h y s i c a l e n t i t i e s . The s o l u t i o n t o t h e mind/body p r o b l e m t h a t I have a t t e m p t e d t o d e f e n d i s , t h u s , a s o l u t i o n t h a t a d m i t s t h e m y s t e r y o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s , b u t n e v e r t h e l e s s v i e w s i t a s a m y s t e r y a b o u t c e r t a i n p h y s i c a l e n t i t i e s . 82 Not-es 1) N a g e l , Thomas, " P h y s i c a l i s m " , i n The M i n d / B r a i n  I d e n t i t y T h e o r y , C.V. B o r s t , ( e d . ) , S t . M a r t i n ' s P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1975, p.227 2) I b i d , p.227 3) I b i d , p.216 4) The b r i d g e example i s N a g e l ' s . 5) N a g e l a l s o makes t h i s p o i n t 6) Kim, Jaegwon, "On t h e P s y c h o - P h y s i c a l I d e n t i t y T h e o r y " , A m e r i c a n P h i l o s o p h i c a l Q u a r t e r l y . I l l , 3, J u l y 1966, p.231 83 REFERENCES Books 1) B l o c k , Ned, ( e d . ) . R e a d i n g s i n t h e P h i l o s o p h y o f  P s y c h o l o g y , V o l . 1 » H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Cambridge, Mass., 1980 2) B o r s t , C.V., ( e d . ) , The M i n d / B r a i n I d e n t i t y T h e o r y . S t . M a r t i n ' s P r e s s , New York, 1975 3) C h u r c h l a n d , P a u l , M a t t e r and C o n s c i o u s n e s s . The MIT P r e s s , C a m b r i d g e , Mass., 1983 4) C h u r c h l a n d , P a u l , S c i e n t i f i c R e a l i s m and t h e  P l a s t i c i t y o f Mind. Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Cambridge, Mass., 1979 5) D e n n e t t , D a n i e l , B r a i n s t o r m s . B r a d f o r d Books, The MIT P r e s s , C a m b r i d g e , Mass., 1981 6) D e n n e t t , D a n i e l , C o n t e n t and C o n s c i o u s n e s s , R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l L t d . , London, 1969 7) F o d o r , J . , The Language o f T h o u g h t . H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , C a m b r i d g e , Mass., 1979 8) F o d o r , J . , R e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , The MIT P r e s s , Cambridge, Mass., 1981 9) H o f s t a d t e r , D o u g l a s and D e n n e t t , D a n i e l , ( e d s . ) , The  M i n d ' s I , Bantam Books, New Y o r k , 1982 10) N a g e l , Thomas, M o r t a l Q u e s t i o n s , Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Cambridge, 1979 A r t i c l e s 84 1) B e r n s t i e n , R i c h a r d , J . , ""The C h a l l e n g e o f S c i e n t i f i c M a t e r i a l i s m " , I n t e r n a t i o n a l P h i l o s o p h i c a l  Q u a r t e r l y . v o l . 8 . 1968, pp.259-269 2) B l o c k , N., F o d o r , J . , "What P s y c h o l o g i c a l S t a t e s A r e Not", P h i l o s o p h i c a l Review. LXXXJ, 1972, pp.159-181 3) Boyd, R., " M a t e r i a l i s m W i t h o u t R e d u c t i o n i s m : What P h y s i c a l i s m Does Not E n t a i l " , i n B l o c k , N., ( e d . ) . 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The MIT P r e s s , C a m b r i d g e , Mass., 1981, pp.1-22 6) D e n n e t t , D a n i e l , "The A s c r i p t i o n o f C o n t e n t " , C o n t e n t  and C o n s c i o u s n e s s , R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l L t d . , London, 1969, pp.72-96 7) F e i g l , h e r b e r t , "The ' M e n t a l ' and t h e ' P h y s i c a l ' " , i n F e i g l , H . , S c r i v e n , M . , and M a x w e l l , G., ( e d s . ) , M i n n e s o t a  S t u d i e s i n t h e P h i l o s o p h y o f S c i e n c e , V o l . 2 , U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a P r e s s , M i n n e a p o l i s , 1958, pp.370-479 8) F o d o r , J . , " I n t r o d u c t i o n " , R e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . 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