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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The influence of sex-typed interests on children's social judgments Wood, Carolyn Helen 1986

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THE INFLUENCE OF SEX-TYPED INTERESTS ON CHILDREN'S SOCIAL JUDGMENTS By CAROLYN HELEN WOOD B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1979 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES D i v i s i o n o f F a m i l y S c i e n c e s S c h o o l o f F a m i l y a n d N u t r i t i o n a l S c i e n c e s We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A u g u s t 1986 © C a r o l y n H e l e n Wood, 1986 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department o r by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of ffi#y^ f- A/O.T&77Q*fi<i_ J c/c>Oc€S" The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date & OcjuBS/Z, /?&(, 3E-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT F i n d i n g s f r o m r e s e a r c h on t h e i n f l u e n c e o f s e x s t e r e o t y p e s on i m p r e s s i o n f o r m a t i o n h a v e s u g g e s t e d t h a t y o u n g c h i l d r e n u s e s t e r e o t y p e d i n f o r m a t i o n d i f f e r e n t l y t h a n o l d e r c h i l d r e n a n d a d u l t s . When g e n d e r l a b e l i n g a n d s e x - t y p e d i n d i v i d u a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a r e b o t h a v a i l a b l e ( e . g . , a boy who l i k e s p l a y i n g w i t h d o l l s ) , o l d e r c h i l d r e n a n d a d u l t s u s e b o t h t y p e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o make i n f e r e n c e s a b o u t o t h e r s w h i l e y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n u s e o n l y t h e g e n d e r l a b e l s a n d i g n o r e t h e i n d i v i d u a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . When m a k i n g i n f e r e n c e s a b o u t o t h e r s , why do y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n r e l y on i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e se x o f t h e o t h e r c h i l d when more r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e s e x - t y p i n g o f t h e o t h e r c h i l d ' s s t a t e d i n t e r e s t s a r e a v a i l a b l e ? I s i t b e c a u s e t h e y do n o t see i n t e r e s t s a s p r e d i c t i v e o r do g e n d e r l a b e l s f o r some r e a s o n o v e r p o w e r o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n ? To a n s w e r t h e s e q u e s t i o n s , t h i s s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e w h e t h e r y o u n g c h i l d r e n a r e a b l e t o u s e s e x - t y p e d i n t e r e s t i n f o r m a t i o n , i n t h e a b s e n c e o f g e n d e r l a b e l s , t o make i n f e r e n c e s a b o u t o t h e r c h i l d r e n . F i f t y - s i x g i r l s a n d b o y s (M age = 4.5 y r s . ) were g i v e n s h o r t s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t s i x g e n d e r u n s p e c i f i e d c h i l d r e n ' s s e x - t y p e d t o y i n t e r e s t s ( t h r e e m a s c u l i n e , t h r e e f e m i n i n e ) . T h e s e s t a t e m e n t s v a r i e d i n s a l i e n c e i n f o r m a t i o n ( s i n g l e i n t e r e s t w i t h o u t p i c t u r e s , i i m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t s w i t h o u t p i c t u r e s a n d m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t s w i t h p i c t u r e s ) . C h i l d r e n made r a t i n g s o f how much t h e y t h o u g h t t h e o t h e r c h i l d w o u l d l i k e s i x new t o y s ( t w o f e m i n i n e , two m a s c u l i n e , a n d two t h e same a s i n t h e o r i g i n a l s t a t e m e n t ) . A s e c o n d t e s t i n g s e s s i o n was d e s i g n e d t o a s s e s s w h e t h e r , when g i v e n b o t h g e n d e r a nd i n t e r e s t i n f o r m a t i o n , c h i l d r e n w o u l d make t o y i n f e r e n c e s b a s e d on g e n d e r a s h a s been f o u n d i n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s . C h i l d r e n were r e a d f o u r s h o r t s t o r i e s a b o u t o t h e r c h i l d r e n ' s ( two g i r l s , two b o y s ) c o u n t e r - s t e r e o t y p i c i n t e r e s t s , a n d were a g a i n a s k e d t o p r e d i c t t h e c h i l d ' s o t h e r t o y i n t e r e s t s . A l s o , c h i l d r e n ' s k n o w l e d g e o f s e x s t e r e o t y p e s a n d t o y p r e f e r e n c e s were a s s e s s e d . R e s u l t s showed t h a t , a s i n t h e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , when g e n d e r l a b e l i n g i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e , c h i l d r e n r e l i e d on g e n d e r l a b e l s more t h a n on i n d i v i d u a l s e x - t y p e d i n t e r e s t s t o make t o y i n f e r e n c e s . More i m p o r t a n t l y , when o n l y s e x - t y p e d i n t e r e s t s were a v a i l a b l e , c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o u s e t h e i n t e r e s t i n f o r m a t i o n t o make i n f e r e n c e s . T h i s e f f e c t o c c u r r e d s e l e c t i v e l y h o w e v e r . B o t h g i r l s a n d b o y s made c l e a r s e x -t y p e d i n f e r e n c e s a b o u t t h e i n t e r e s t s o f a n o t h e r c h i l d who was s a i d t o h a v e i n t e r e s t s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r own s e x ( e . g . , when g i r l s made a t t r i b u t i o n s a b o u t a c h i l d who was s a i d t o l i k e s e w i n g m a c h i n e s ) b u t i n f e r e n c e s a b o u t c h i l d r e n who h a d i n t e r e s t s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r own s e x ( e . g . , when g i r l s made a t t r i b u t i o n s a b o u t a c h i l d who was s a i d t o l i k e t r a i n i i i e n g i n e s ) were l e s s c l e a r . S a l i e n c e o f t o y i n t e r e s t s d i d n o t i n f l u e n c e t o y r a t i n g s , i n d i c a t i n g a f i c t i t i o u s c h i l d ' s i n t e r e s t i n one t o y was s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n t o make i n f e r e n c e s . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e r e s u l t s f o r f i n d i n g s f r o m p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , a n d f o r c h i l d r e n ' s i n d e p t h u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s e x s t e r e o t y p e s a n d t h e s a l i e n c e o f g e n d e r schemas a t d i f f e r e n t a g e s a r e d i s c u s s e d . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i L I S T OF FIGURES v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i INTRODUCTION 1 METHOD 23 S u b j e c t s 23 M a t e r i a l s . 23 P r o c e d u r e • • 27 S c o r i n g 32 RESULTS 34 R e p l i c a t i o n T a s k 34 Toy I n f e r e n c e R a t i n g S c o r e s 34 S t e r e o t y p i n g S c o r e s 38 P r e f e r e n c e S c o r e s 41 DISCUSSION 43 I n f e r e n c e s a c r o s s Toy I n f e r e n c e R a t i n g s 43 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r P r e v i o u s S t u d i e s 49 I n f e r e n c e s a c r o s s C o n d i t i o n s 57 FIGURES , 59 FOOTNOTES 61 BIBLIOGRAPHY 62 APPENDICES 66 v L I S T OF FIGURES Page F i g u r e 1. Boys'mean t o y i n f e r e n c e r a t i n g s f o r m a s c u l i n e a n d f e m i n i n e t o y t y p e s 59 F i g u r e 2. G i r l s ' m e a n t o y i n f e r e n c e r a t i n g s f o r m a s c u l i n e a n d f e m i n i n e t o y t y p e s 60 v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k C a r o l L. M a r t i n , Dan P e r l m a n , J i m W h i t e a n d T a n n i s M a c B e t h W i l l i a m s f o r t h e t i m e , i n t e r e s t a n d a d v i c e t h e y h a v e e a c h g i v e n w h i l e s e r v i n g on my M.A. a d v i s o r y o r e x a m i n i n g c o m m i t t e e . I n a d d i t i o n , I w o u l d l i k e t o e x p r e s s s p e c i a l a p p r e c i a t i o n t o my a d v i s o r , C a r o l L. M a r t i n , f o r h e r l i m i t l e s s s u p p o r t , e n t h u s i a s m , a n d h e l p f u l comments g i v e n t h r o u g h o u t t h e numerous d r a f t s o f t h i s t h e s i s . A p p r e c i a t i o n i s a l s o e x t e n d e d t o I s a b e l l a Z a b a v a f o r h e r h e l p i n d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , a s w e l l a s t o t h e d i r e c t o r s , s t a f f a n d p a r e n t s o f t h e U.B.C. a n d V a n c o u v e r d a y c a r e p r o g r a m s f o r p e r m i t t i n g me t o c o n d u c t t h e s t u d y , a n d t o a l l t h e c h i l d r e n who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e t e s t i n g . v i i P e r s o n p e r c e p t i o n , o r t h e p r o c e s s o f f o r m i n g i m p r e s s i o n s a n d g a i n i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s ( F e l d m a n & R u b l e , 1 9 8 1 ) , i s t h o u g h t t o be d i r e c t e d by t h e m o t i v a t i o n t o s t r u c t u r e a n d o r g a n i z e o u r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s i n o r d e r t o c o n t r o l o u r e n v i r o n m e n t a n d t o a c t e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h i n i t . F o r e x a m p l e , u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d p r e d i c t i n g o t h e r s ' b e h a v i o r e n a b l e s us t o p l a n o u r a c t i o n s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h o u r p r e d i c t i o n s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , w i t h i n t h e a r e a o f p e r s o n p e r c e p t i o n , s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n h a s been p a i d t o c o n d u c t i n g r e s e a r c h on i m p r e s s i o n f o r m a t i o n . T h a t i s , how do we come t o o r g a n i z e v a r i o u s i n f o r m a t i o n a l c u e s f r o m o t h e r p e r s o n s a n d f o r m m e a n i n g f u l i m p r e s s i o n s o f them ( s e e L i v e s l e y & B r o m l e y , 1 9 7 3 ; F e l d m a n & R u b l e , 1 9 8 1 ; S h a n t z , 1 9 7 5 , 1 9 8 3 ) ? One w e l l known, t h o u g h n o t f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d , way i n w h i c h i m p r e s s i o n s o f o t h e r s a r e t h o u g h t t o be o r g a n i z e d i s t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f s o c i a l s t e r e o t y p e s . S t e r e o t y p e s , d e f i n e d a s s t r u c t u r e d s e t s o f c o g n i t i v e b e l i e f s , a r e t h o u g h t t o c r e a t e i m p r e s s i o n s a n d e x p e c t a t i o n s a b o u t t a r g e t g r o u p s a n d t o a i d i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p e r s o n a l i t y a t t r i b u t e s one b e l i e v e s i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n t h o s e g r o u p s p o s s e s s (Ashmore & D e l B o c a , 1 9 7 9 ; H a m i l t o n , 1 9 7 9 ; M a r t i n & H a l v e r s o n , 1 9 8 1 ) . S t e r e o t y p i n g , t h e r e f o r e , i s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d a s a p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e m p l o y e d by i n d i v i d u a l s a s p a r t o f t h e i r i m p l i c i t p e r s o n a l i t y t h e o r y o f s o c i a l g r o u p s (Ashmore & D e l B o c a , 1 9 7 9 ) . I n r e s p o n s e t o t h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f 1 s t e r e o t y p e s , d i f f e r e n t q u e s t i o n s g u i d i n g r e s e a r c h i n i m p r e s s i o n f o r m a t i o n h a v e become r e l e v a n t . F o r e x a m p l e , i t i s now t h o u g h t t o be i m p o r t a n t t o know what s t e r e o t y p e s a r e u s e d , u n d e r w h i c h c o n d i t i o n s , a n d w i t h what e f f e c t s on s o c i a l c o g n i t i o n . R e s e a r c h e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e a r e a o f g e n d e r s t e r e o t y p e s h a v e r e c e n t l y begun t o a d d r e s s t h e s e q u e s t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h s t e r e o t y p e s a b o u t m a l e s a n d f e m a l e s i n f l u e n c e t h e p r o c e s s i n g o f s o c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n (Bern,1981; Deaux & L e w i s , 1 9 8 4 ; M a r t i n & H a l v e r s o n , 1 9 8 1 ) . F o r e x a m p l e , s e v e r a l r e c e n t s t u d i e s h a v e been done t o a s s e s s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f g e n d e r on c h i l d r e n ' s s o c i a l e v a l u a t i o n s a n d p r e d i c t i o n s . T h i s i n t e r e s t s t e m s f r o m e v i d e n c e t h a t e v e n v e r y y o u n g c h i l d r e n ( b e f o r e t h e age o f t h r e e y e a r s ) h a v e c a t e g o r i c a l k n o w l e d g e o f g e n d e r ( l a b e l i n g o f s e l f a n d o t h e r s on t h e b a s i s o f g e n d e r ) ( K u h n , N a s h & B r u c k e n , 1 9 7 8 ; S l a b y & F r e y , l 9 7 5 ; T h o m p s o n , 1 9 7 5 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , s t e r e o t y p i c a l b e l i e f s a b o u t s e x d i f f e r e n c e s i n r o l e s , t r a i t s , a c t i v i t i e s , a n d i n t e r e s t s a r e s a l i e n t a n d w e l l d e v e l o p e d i n most y o u n g c h i l d r e n ( E d e l b r o c k & S u g a w a r a , 1 9 7 8 ; H u s t o n , 1 9 8 3 ; Kuhn e t a l . , 1 9 7 8 ; M a r t i n & H a l v e r s o n , 1 9 8 1 ; R e i s & W r i g h t , 1 9 8 2 ; W i l l i a m s , B e n n e t t & B e s t , 1 9 7 5 ) . T h r e e s t u d i e s i n p a r t i c u l a r h a v e e x a m i n e d t h e i s s u e o f how c h i l d r e n make j u d g m e n t s a b o u t o t h e r s when g i v e n 2 i n f o r m a t i o n about a person's gender as w e l l as i n d i v i d u a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about s e x - r e l a t e d i n t e r e s t s (Berndt & Heller,1986; Martin,1985; Zucker, Wilson & Stern,1985). C h i l d r e n were asked, f o r example, what the f u t u r e toy i n t e r e s t s would be of a boy who i n the past has p r e f e r r e d d o l l s and sewing machines. S p e c i f i c p r e d i c t i o n s t e s t e d i n these s t u d i e s d i f f e r (one t e s t e d f r i e n d s h i p e v a l u a t i o n s , two t e s t e d a c t i v i t y and i n t e r e s t p r e f e r e n c e s ) , however, the major f i n d i n g s are g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s t e n t a c r o s s a l l s t u d i e s ; young c h i l d r e n are h i g h l y i n f l u e n c e d by gender l a b e l i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , whereas ol d e r c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s are i n f l u e n c e d more by i n d i v i d u a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . In a s e r i e s of three s t u d i e s , Zucker et a l . (1985) focused on c h i l d r e n ' s ( k i n d e r g a r t e n & grades 1-6) f r i e n d s h i p e v a l u a t i o n s of peers e x h i b i t i n g sex-typed and c r o s s - s e x - t y p e d behaviors and i n t e r e s t s . C h i l d r e n were read s t o r i e s about a same-age boy or g i r l i n which the number of masculine and feminine behaviors and i n t e r e s t s v a r i e d . The sex-typed behaviors and i n t e r e s t s were peer p r e f e r e n c e ( p l a y s with boys or g i r l s ) , d ress up p r e f e r e n c e (dresses up i n f a t h e r ' s or mother's c l o t h e s ) , fantasy hero, and toy p r e f e r e n c e . For each s t o r y c h i l d r e n were asked to r a t e , among other a s p e c t s , how much they would l i k e to be a f r i e n d of the t a r g e t boy (or g i r l ) who, f o r example, p r e f e r r e d to p l a y with g i r l s and to dress-up i n mother's c l o t h i n g , whose fantas y hero was 'Wonder 3 Woman', and whose f a v o r i t e t o y was B a r b i e d o l l . R e s u l t s o f t h e t h r e e s t u d i e s r e v e a l e d a d e v e l o p m e n t a l t r e n d ; f r i e n d s h i p r a t i n g s d i f f e r e d b e t w e e n y o u n g ( k i n d e r g a r t e n a n d g r a d e s 1 & 2) a n d o l d e r ( g r a d e s 3 - 6) c h i l d r e n . Young c h i l d r e n ' s e v a l u a t i o n s were n o t a f f e c t e d by t h e s e x - t y p e d b e h a v i o r and i n t e r e s t s o f t h e t a r g e t ; t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s were b a s e d on g e n d e r a l o n e . T h a t i s , y o u n g c h i l d r e n were most i n t e r e s t e d i n b e i n g f r i e n d s w i t h same-sex c h i l d r e n r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e t a r g e t c h i l d ' s p a t t e r n o f s e x - t y p e d b e h a v i o r . O l d e r c h i l d r e n ' s e v a l u a t i o n s , by c o n t r a s t , were b a s e d b o t h on t h e s e x - t y p e d b e h a v i o r a n d t h e g e n d e r o f t h e t a r g e t c h i l d . W i t h a m a l e t a r g e t c h i l d , f o r e x a m p l e , b o y s p r e f e r r e d t h e e x c l u s i v e l y m a s c u l i n e boy most a s a f r i e n d , a n d t h e e x c l u s i v e l y f e m i n i n e boy was p r e f e r r e d l e a s t , w h i l e g i r l s , c o n v e r s e l y , p r e f e r r e d t h e e x c l u s i v e l y f e m i n i n e boy most a s a f r i e n d , a n d t h e e x c l u s i v e l y m a s c u l i n e boy was p r e f e r r e d l e a s t . S i m i l a r l y , w i t h a f e m a l e t a r g e t c h i l d , g i r l s p r e f e r r e d t h e e x c l u s i v e l y f e m i n i n e g i r l most a s a f r i e n d a n d t h e e x c l u s i v e l y m a s c u l i n e g i r l l e a s t , w h i l e b o y s p r e f e r r e d t h e e x c l u s i v e l y m a s c u l i n e g i r l most a s a f r i e n d a n d t h e e x c l u s i v e l y f e m i n i n e g i r l l e a s t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s s t u d y d i d n o t t e s t b o t h m a l e a n d f e m a l e t a r g e t s a t t h e same t i m e , so no d i r e c t c o m p a r i s o n s o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t a r g e t s ' s e x on p r e f e r e n c e s a r e a v a i l a b l e . B e r n d t a n d H e l l e r ' s ( 1 9 8 6 ) s t u d y on t h e i n f l u e n c e o f 4 g e n d e r s t e r e o t y p e s on r a t i n g s o f a c t i v i t i e s i n c h i l d r e n r e v e a l e d a s i m i l a r , a l t h o u g h n o t i d e n t i c a l , age t r e n d . G i v e n g e n d e r l a b e l s a n d b e h a v i o r a l i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t was e i t h e r c o n s i s t e n t o r i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h g e n d e r s t e r e o t y p e s , c h i l d r e n o f t h r e e a g e s and c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s were a s k e d t o p r e d i c t a ( 3 r d g r a d e ) t a r g e t c h i l d ' s f u t u r e b e h a v i o r . R e s u l t s show t h a t k i n d e r g a r t n e r s u s e d d i f f e r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n f o r m a k i n g p r e d i c t i o n s , d e p e n d i n g on t h e s e x of t h e t a r g e t . T h a t i s , f o r boy t a r g e t s , k i n d e r g a r t n e r s b a s e d t h e i r p r e d i c t i o n s on g e n d e r , w h i l e f o r g i r l t a r g e t s , t h e y b a s e d t h e i r p r e d i c t i o n s on b o t h g e n d e r and p r i o r b e h a v i o r a l i n f o r m a t i o n . C h i l d r e n i n t h i r d g r a d e t e n d e d t o b a s e t h e i r p r e d i c t i o n s m o s t l y on g e n d e r ; t h e r e was a t r e n d f o r them t o u s e t h e b e h a v i o r a l i n f o r m a t i o n a s w e l l , b u t t h i s was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . I n c o n t r a s t , b o t h s i x t h g r a d e r s and c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s t e n d e d t o u s e g e n d e r a n d b e h a v i o r a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o make p r e d i c t i o n s . F o r e x a m p l e , t a r g e t c h i l d r e n whose p a s t b e h a v i o r was i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h s t e r e o t y p e s ( e . g . , a g i r l who f i x e d a b i k e ) , were e x p e c t e d t o show l e s s s t e r e o t y p e d b e h a v i o r i n t h e f u t u r e t h a n e i t h e r t a r g e t s whose p a s t b e h a v i o r was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h s t e r e o t y p e s o r whose p a s t b e h a v i o r was n o t s t a t e d ( s e x o n l y c o n d i t i o n ) . I n a d d i t i o n , c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s t e n d e d t o u s e t h e b e h a v i o r a l i n f o r m a t i o n more t h a n s i x t h g r a d e r s , a l t h o u g h t h e y s t i l l d i d n o t c o m p l e t e l y i g n o r e g e n d e r . B e r n d t a nd H e l l e r s u g g e s t t h e i r f i n d i n g s f o r 5 k i n d e r g a r t n e r ' s i n f e r e n c e s a b o u t g i r l t a r g e t s c a n be e x p l a i n e d i n t e r m s o f t h e k i n d e r g a r t n e r ' s l i m i t e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f g e n d e r s t e r e o t y p e s . B a s e d on t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o t h e " s e x o n l y " c o n d i t i o n (no b e h a v i o r a l i n f o r m a t i o n m e n t i o n e d ) , i t was a p p a r e n t t h a t k i n d e r g a r t e n e r s were n o t c e r t a i n o f t h e s t e r e o t y p i c a l b e h a v i o r s o f b o y s a n d g i r l s , a n d s o t h e y may h a v e been more w i l l i n g t o use p a s t b e h a v i o r s r a t h e r t h a n g e n d e r l a b e l s a s a b a s i s f o r t h e i r p r e d i c t i o n s . T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n i s n o t a d e q u a t e , h o w e v e r , s i n c e i n o r d e r t o make i n f e r e n c e s b a s e d on p a s t b e h a v i o r s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f g e n d e r s t e r e o t y p e s i s s t i l l n e e d e d ; k i n d e r g a r t n e r s w o u l d n e e d t o know how b e h a v i o r s a r e l i n k e d w i t h i n t h e g e n d e r s t e r e o t y p i n g c o m p o n e n t s o f m a s c u l i n i t y a n d f e m i n i n i t y ( s e e Deaux & L e w i s , 1 9 8 4 ) . T h a t i s , c h i l d r e n w o u l d n e e d t o u n d e r s t a n d , f o r e x a m p l e , t h a t b o t h w a s h i n g d i s h e s a n d b a k i n g b r o w n i e s a r e " f e m i n i n e " i n t e r e s t s . P e r h a p s t h e n , a s B e r n d t a n d H e l l e r a l s o s u g g e s t , t h e r e a s o n k i n d e r g a r t n e r s were a b l e t o u s e p r i o r b e h a v i o r s t o make i n f e r e n c e s a b o u t g i r l s b u t n o t a b o u t b o y s i s t h a t c h i l d r e n o f t h i s age a r e l e s s f l e x i b l e i n t h e i r t h i n k i n g a b o u t b o y s ' c r o s s - s e x b e h a v i o r s t h a n g i r l s ' . S i m i l a r l y , t h i r d g r a d e r s i n t h e B e r n d t a n d H e l l e r s t u d y may have h a d r i g i d s t e r e o t y p e s a b o u t b o t h b o y s a n d g i r l s a n d so were more l i k e l y t o b a s e t h e i r p r e d i c t i o n s on g e n d e r t h a n t h e o l d e r , s i x t h g r a d e c h i l d r e n w i t h t h e i r more f l e x i b l e s t e r e o t y p e s . 6 M a r t i n ' s (1985) s t u d y c o n c e r n i n g c h i l d r e n ' s p r e d i c t i o n s o f t a r g e t c h i l d r e n ' s t o y p r e f e r e n c e s a l s o f o u n d age d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e u s e o f g e n d e r - r e l a t e d c a t e g o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . I n t h i s s t u d y , t a r g e t c h i l d r e n ' s s t a t e d s e x -t y p e d t o y i n t e r e s t s were v a r i e d s o t h a t some were t r a d i t i o n a l l y s e x - c o n s i s t e n t , some were t r a d i t i o n a l l y s e x -i n c o n s i s t e n t , a n d o t h e r s were n e u t r a l . C h i l d r e n were a s k e d t o r a t e , among o t h e r a s p e c t s , how much t h e t a r g e t c h i l d w o u l d l i k e t o p l a y w i t h v a r i o u s m a s c u l i n e a n d f e m i n i n e t o y s . As i n t h e Z u c k e r e t a l . s t u d y , y o u n g c h i l d r e n ( 4 - 6 y r s . ) b a s e d p r e d i c t i o n s a b o u t t a r g e t c h i l d r e n c o m p l e t e l y on g e n d e r ; a c r o s s a l l c o n d i t i o n s y o u n g c h i l d r e n r a t e d t h e t a r g e t s ' l i k i n g o f s e x - c o n s i s t e n t t o y s h i g h e r t h a n r a t i n g s o f s e x - i n c o n s i s t e n t t o y s . T h a t i s , y o u n g c h i l d r e n a s sumed b o y s w o u l d l i k e b o y s ' t o y s a n d g i r l s w o u l d l i k e g i r l s ' t o y s , a n d t h e s e r a t i n g s were n o t i n f l u e n c e d i n a n y way by t h e t a r g e t s ' s t a t e d i n t e r e s t s . I n c o n t r a s t - , o l d e r c h i l d r e n ( 7 - 1 0 y e a r s ) were s e n s i t i v e t o t a r g e t s ' i n t e r e s t s ; t h e y b a s e d t o y s e l e c t i o n p r e d i c t i o n s p a r t l y on t h e t a r g e t s ' i n t e r e s t s a n d p a r t l y on t h e s e x o f t h e t a r g e t c h i l d . So, f o r e x a m p l e , o l d e r c h i l d r e n p r e d i c t e d g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n c a r s a n d t r a i n e n g i n e s f o r a g i r l s a i d t o be i n t e r e s t e d i n f o o t b a l l • t h a n f o r a g i r l s a i d t o be i n t e r e s t e d i n make-up k i t s . I n summary, f o r b o t h s o c i a l e v a l u a t i o n a n d i n t e r e s t j u d g m e n t s , t h e t h r e e p r e c e d i n g s t u d i e s s u g g e s t an age 7 d i f f e r e n c e i n use of r e l e v a n t g e n d e r - r e l a t e d i n d i v i d u a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . For younger c h i l d r e n , gender l a b e l s are used i n making i n f e r e n c e s , while i n d i v i d u a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about ot h e r s tends to be ignored. In c o n t r a s t , o l d e r c h i l d r e n tend to use both gender l a b e l s and i n d i v i d u a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n to make p r e d i c t i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n s . F u r t h e r , as Berndt and H e l l e r (1986) found, c o l l e g e students tend to be most s e n s i t i v e to i n d i v i d u a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and almost ignore gender l a b e l i n g . I t should be noted, however, that these proposed changes with i n c r e a s i n g age are not p e r f e c t l y supported i n the three s t u d i e s s i n c e Berndt and H e l l e r ' s t h i r d grade and k i n d e r g e r t e n c h i l d r e n appear to have p a r t i a l l y r e v e r s e d the t r e n d . O v e r a l l , however, an age d i f f e r e n c e i s g e n e r a l l y suggested i n that with age the i n f l u e n c e o f " t a r g e t s ' sex decreases while the i n f l u e n c e of t a r g e t s ' i n t e r e s t s i n c r e a s e s . Recent r e s e a r c h on a d u l t impression formation f u r t h e r h i g h l i g h t s the proposed changes with age; given gender l a b e l s and i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t to p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s ( e . g . , a s s e r t i v e b e h a v i o r ) , a d u l t p r e d i c t i o n s are based more on t r a i t s than on gender i n f o r m a t i o n . For example, L o c k s l e y , Borgida, Brekke and Hepburn (1980) found that a s i n g l e i n s t a n c e of i n d i v i d u a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about the t a r g e t was s u f f i c i e n t to outweigh the e f f e c t s of s o c i a l c a t e g o r y (gender) i n f o r m a t i o n . 8 S p e c i f i c a l l y , s u b j e c t s r a t e d t a r g e t s with masculine behavior (e.g., a s s e r t i v e ) as more l i k e l y to perform masculine behavior i n the f u t u r e than t a r g e t s with feminine behavior, r e g a r d l e s s of the t a r g e t s ' gender. Females who were d e s c r i b e d as a s s e r t i v e were p r e d i c t e d to act and to have more masculine t r a i t s than males who were desci b e d as p a s s i v e . S i m i l a r l y , i n a set of three s t u d i e s , Deaux and Lewis (1984) found that given c a t e g o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n about gender and l a b e l s of e i t h e r r o l e behaviors or t r a i t s (e.g., a l e a d e r or e m o t i o n a l ) , c o l l e g e students' judgments of the t a r g e t a d u l t s ' other t r a i t s or f u t u r e behaviors were i n f l u e n c e d f a r more by the s p e c i f i c g e n d e r - r e l a t e d component i n f o r m a t i o n than by the gender l a b e l i n f o r m a t i o n . More r e c e n t l y , R a s i n s k i , Crocker and H a s t i e (1985) have r e p l i c a t e d the L o c k s l e y et a l . (1980) study. These r e s e a r c h e r s , however, used a d i f f e r e n t method of a n a l y s i s to rate s t e r e o t y p i c a l b e l i e f s than L o c k s l e y et a l . ; c o l l e g e student's p e r s o n a l s t e r e o t y p e s were assessed rather than u s i n g c u l t u r a l s t e r e o t y p e s . F i n d i n g s using t h i s c r i t e r i o n a l s o showed that c o l l e g e students, l i k e the o l d e r c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s i n the p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , were s e n s i t i v e to both b e h a v i o r a l and gender i n f o r m a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , no evidence was found that a d u l t s completely ignore gender l a b e l i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e i r s o c i a l judgments. In r e f e r e n c e to the trend towards d e c r e a s i n g use of gender with age i t i s , 9 t h e r e f o r e , n o t a s c e r t a i n a s L o c k s l e y e t a l . h a v e s u g g e s t e d , t h a t a d u l t s c o m p l e t e l y i g n o r e g e n d e r c a t e g o r y i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f i n d i v i d u a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . What i s known, h o w e v e r , i s t h a t i n c o n t r a s t t o y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n , o l d e r c h i l d r e n a n d a d u l t s a r e f a r more s e n s i t i v e t o i n d i v i d u a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n when m a k i n g i n f e r e n c e s a b o u t o t h e r s . I n summary, i t a p p e a r s t h a t when o t h e r r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e o l d e r c h i l d r e n a n d a d u l t s t e n d t o b a s e p r e d i c t i o n s more on s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e t a r g e t p e r s o n t h a n on g e n d e r l a b e l s . I n c o n t r a s t , y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n g e n e r a l l y t e n d t o b a s e t h e i r p r e d i c t i o n s a n d e v a l u a t i o n s s o l e l y on g e n d e r l a b e l s a n d i g n o r e s e x - r e l a t e d i n d i v i d u a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . G i v e n t h a t y o u n g c h i l d r e n i n t h i s age r a n g e ( 4 -6 y e a r s ) e x h i b i t k n o w l e d g e o f s e x s t e r e o t y p e s a s w e l l a s s e x -t y p e d p r e f e r e n c e s , t h e f i n d i n g s t h a t y o u n g c h i l d r e n i g n o r e s e x - t y p e d i n t e r e s t s a n d a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e s e s t u d i e s seem s u r p r i s i n g . The s t u d i e s t h e r e f o r e r a i s e an i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n . Why do y o u n g c h i l d r e n r e l y c o m p l e t e l y on b i o l o g i c a l g e n d e r i n f o r m a t i o n a n d n o t s e x - t y p e d i n t e r e s t s t o make j u d g m e n t s a b o u t o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s ? One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n i n r e s p o n s e t o t h i s q u e s t i o n i s t h a t c h i l d r e n a r e u s i n g b i o l o g i c a l g e n d e r i n f o r m a t i o n " o v e r -e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y " ( s e e M a r t i n & H a l v e r s o n , 1 9 8 1 ; T a y l o r & C r o c k e r , 1 9 7 9 f o r d i s c u s s i o n ) . T h a t i s , g e n d e r may be so 10 s a l i e n t f o r y o u n g c h i l d r e n t h a t t h e y u s e i t f o r p r o c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n - t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f o t h e r , e v e n more r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n s u c h a s i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s . T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n d e r i v e s f r o m a s c h e m a t i c p r o c e s s i n g m o d e l p r o p o s e d by M a r t i n and H a l v e r s o n ( 1 9 8 1) a s an a p p r o a c h t o t h e s t u d y o f s e x s t e r e o t y p i n g i n c h i l d r e n . The m o d e l i s b a s e d on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t s e x s t e r e o t y p e s f u n c t i o n a s schemas o r a b s t r a c t , o r g a n i z e d k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e s t h a t a u t o m a t i c a l l y " g u i d e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g by s t r u c t u r i n g e x p e r i e n c e s , r e g u l a t i n g b e h a v i o r , and p r o v i d i n g b a s e s f o r m a k i n g i n f e r e n c e s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s " ( p . 1 1 2 0 ) ( s e e a l s o T a y l o r & C r o c k e r , 1 9 7 9 ) . Schemas a r e t h o u g h t t o s t r u c t u r e e x p e r i e n c e s by p r o v i d i n g t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r i n c o m i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . I n f o r m a t i o n i s p r o c e s s e d t o " f i t " t h e schema i n two ways. I n f o r m a t i o n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e schema i s a t t e n d e d t o , e n c o d e d a n d r e c a l l e d , w h i l e i n f o r m a t i o n i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e schema i s e i t h e r i g n o r e d o r d i s t o r t e d . I n t h i s way, i t i s t h o u g h t t h a t schemas i n f l u e n c e what i n f o r m a t i o n i s remembered; i n f o r m a t i o n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h schemas i s remembered b e t t e r t h a n i n f o r m a t i o n i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h schemas ( C o h e n , 1 9 8 1 ; R o t h b a r t , E v a n s & F u l e r o , l 9 7 9 ; S n y d e r & U r a n o w i t z , 1 9 7 8 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t w i t h o u t a p p r o p r i a t e s c h e m a s , some i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l n e v e r be e n c o d e d ( B a r t l e t t , 1 9 3 2 ) . Schemas f u n c t i o n t o p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r m a k i n g i n f e r e n c e s 1 1 and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s when i n f o r m a t i o n i s m i s s i n g o r a m b i g u o u s . Schemas a l l o w t h e p e r c e i v e r t o " f i l l - i n " m i s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n by r e l y i n g on i n f o r m a t i o n a l r e a d y c o n t a i n e d i n t h e schemas ( T a y l o r & C r o c k e r , 1 9 7 9 ) . The i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s s u p p l i e d i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e schema. F o r e x a m p l e , i t w o u l d be e x p e c t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n w o u l d p r e d i c t a g i r l w o u l d h a v e f e m i n i n e i n t e r e s t s when t h e y h a v e no i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h a t g i r l ' s i n t e r e s t s . T h u s , i t i s f r o m M a r t i n a n d H a l v e r s o n ' s ( 1 9 8 1 ) s c h e m a t i c p r o c e s s i n g m o d e l t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n o f s e x s t e r e o t y p e s o r g e n d e r schemas t o f o r m i n g i m p r e s s i o n s a b o u t o t h e r s c a n be s e e n ; g e n d e r schemas p r o d u c e a g e n e r a l i z e d r e a d i n e s s t o p r o c e s s i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e b a s i s o f a n e t w o r k o f k n o w l e d g e r e l e v a n t t o m a l e s a n d f e m a l e s . The r e a s o n why y o u n g c h i l d r e n r e l y c o m p l e t e l y on g e n d e r i n f o r m a t i o n t o make p r e d i c t i o n s a b o u t t h e i r p e e r s may t h e r e f o r e be due t o t h e s e c h i l d r e n u s i n g g e n d e r schemas " o v e r - e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y " . I n o t h e r w o r d s , g e n d e r schemas may be s o s a l i e n t a n d i m p o r t a n t f o r y o u n g c h i l d r e n t h a t t h e y may u s e them t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f any o t h e r i n d i v i d u a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t a p e r s o n . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t i n t h i s c a s e i n t e r e s t i n f o r m a t i o n may be p r e d i c t i v e f o r y o u n g c h i l d r e n , b u t n o t a s s t r o n g l y p r e d i c t i v e a s g e n d e r , r e s u l t i n g i n g e n d e r i n f o r m a t i o n o v e r r i d i n g i n t e r e s t i n f o r m a t i o n . 12 A s e c o n d p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r why y o u n g c h i l d r e n u s e g e n d e r e x c l u s i v e l y a s a p r e d i c t o r o f o t h e r s ' b e h a v i o r i s t h a t c h i l d r e n do n o t s e e i n t e r e s t s a s p r e d i c t i v e ; g e n d e r may be t h e o n l y a v a i l a b l e p r e d i c t o r f o r them. T h e r e a r e two p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s why i n t e r e s t s may n o t be s e e n a s p r e d i c t i v e by y o u n g c h i l d r e n . The f i r s t i s t h a t c h i l d r e n may l a c k a s t r o n g a s s o c i a t i v e n e t w o r k f o r s e x - t y p e d ( t o y ) i n t e r e s t i n f o r m a t i o n . S t e r e o t y p e s a r e t h o u g h t t o be composed o f m u l t i p l e i n d e p e n d e n t c o m p o n e n t s t h a t a r e l i n k e d i n some t y p e o f n e t w o r k (Deaux & L e w i s , 1 9 8 4 ) . S p e c i f i c a l l y , f o r s e x s t e r e o t y p e s , t h i s n e t w o r k i n c l u d e s c o m p o n e n t s s u c h a s t r a i t s , r o l e b e h a v i o r s , o c c u p a t i o n s , p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e a n d i n t e r e s t s , e a c h o f w h i c h h a s a m a s c u l i n e a n d a f e m i n i n e v e r s i o n (Deaux & L e w i s , 1 9 8 4 ) . T h i s n e t w o r k c o n c e p t o f s e x s t e r e o t y p e s makes e x p l i c i t t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n m a s c u l i n i t y a n d f e m i n i n i t y v e r s u s g e n d e r l a b e l s o f m a l e a n d f e m a l e ; e a c h i s a s e p a r a t e a n d i n d e p e n d e n t component u n d e r t h e u m b r e l l a o f t h e s e x s t e r e o t y p e . F o r e x a m p l e , some m a l e s may have f e m i n i n e i n t e r e s t s a n d s o f e m i n i n i t y i s n o t e q u i v a l e n t t o b e i n g f e m a l e . The f i n d i n g s f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s s o c i a l j u d g m e n t s t u d i e s , t h e r e f o r e , may n o t s u g g e s t t h a t y o u n g c h i l d r e n u s e s e x s t e r e o t y p e s f o r t h e i r j u d g m e n t s a n d t h a t a d u l t s do n o t , b u t r a t h e r t h a t y o u n g c h i l d r e n t e n d t o f o c u s on t h e g e n d e r l a b e l component o f s e x s t e r e o t y p e s w h i l e o l d e r c h i l d r e n a n d a d u l t s t e n d t o f o c u s more on t h e m a s c u l i n e a n d f e m i n i n e i n t e r e s t s c o m p o n e n t . I n v i e w o f 13 t h i s , i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t a l t h o u g h y o u n g c h i l d r e n a r e a b l e t o l i n k b i o l o g i c a l g e n d e r t o i n f e r e n c e s a b o u t m a s c u l i n e o r f e m i n i n e t o y i n t e r e s t s , t h e y may s t i l l n o t n e c e s s a r i l y be a b l e t o l i n k m a s c u l i n e o r f e m i n i n e t o y i n t e r e s t s t o i n f e r e n c e s a b o u t o t h e r s e x - t y p e d t o y i n t e r e s t s . T h a t i s , b o t h p r o c e s s e s ( t o y i n f e r e n c e b a s e d on b i o l o g i c a l g e n d e r v s . t o y i n f e r e n c e b a s e d on a n o t h e r m a s c u l i n e o r f e m i n i n e t o y i n t e r e s t ) a r e b a s e d on s e x s t e r e o t y p e s , b u t y o u n g c h i l d r e n may l a c k t h e ( t o y ) i n t e r e s t c omponent o r a s s o c i a t i v e n e t w o r k f o r m a s c u l i n i t y a n d f e m i n i n i t y . The r e s u l t w o u l d be t h a t y o u n g c h i l d r e n may be u n a b l e t o g e n e r a l i z e (due t o l i m i t e d c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s ) f r o m s p e c i f i c s e x - t y p e d i n t e r e s t s t o t h e b r o a d e r c a t e g o r y o f m a s c u l i n i t y o r f e m i n i n i t y . I n t e r e s t s w o u l d c o n s e q u e n t l y n o t h ave p r e d i c t i v e v a l u e . The b i o l o g i c a l l y b a s e d c o m p o n e n t , t h e r e f o r e , w o u l d be u s e d i n s t e a d o f i n t e r e s t s a s a b a s i s f o r y o u n g c h i l d r e n ' s i n f e r e n c e s a b o u t o t h e r s . A n o t h e r r e a s o n why i n t e r e s t s may n o t be s e e n a s p r e d i c t i v e by y o u n g c h i l d r e n r e l a t e s t o d e v e l o p m e n t a l c o n s t r a i n t s . One c o n s t r a i n t i s a p p a r e n t t h r o u g h e v i d e n c e o f a d e v e l o p m e n t a l t r e n d i n c h i l d r e n ' s u s e o f s o c i a l c a t e g o r i e s i n d e s c r i p t i o n s o f p e e r s ( s e e L i v e s l e y & B r o m l e y , 1 9 7 3 ; P e e v e r s & S e c o r d , 1973; S c a r l e t t , P r e s s & C r o c k e t t , 1 9 7 1 ) . K n o w l e d g e o f c o n c r e t e a n d e x t e r n a l c a t e g o r i e s ( e . g . , g e n d e r ) i s a c q u i r e d b e f o r e k n o w l e d g e o f a b s t r a c t a n d i n t e r n a l c a t e g o r i e s ( e . g . , 1 4 i n t e r e s t s ) . I n t h i s way, t o y i n t e r e s t i n f o r m a t i o n may be t o o a b s t r a c t f o r u s e by y o u n g c h i l d r e n i n p r e d i c t i o n o f o t h e r s , a g a i n r e s u l t i n g i n g e n d e r - b a s e d i n f e r e n c e s . To e v a l u a t e t h e s e p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r why yo u n g c h i l d r e n p r o c e s s i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t o t h e r s d i f f e r e n t l y t h a n o l d e r c h i l d r e n a n d a d u l t s , t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o e x p l o r e w h e t h e r y o u n g c h i l d r e n c o u l d u s e s e x - t y p e d i n t e r e s t s t o make p r e d i c t i o n s a b o u t o t h e r s when g e n d e r l a b e l i n g c u e s were n o t g i v e n . F o r p u r p o s e s o f c o m p a r i s o n , t h i s s t u d y t e s t e d v a r i a b l e s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e u s e d i n M a r t i n ' s ( 1 9 8 5) s t u d y , w h i c h u s e d t o y i n t e r e s t s . C h i l d r e n were t o l d a b o u t t a r g e t c h i l d r e n w i t h m a s c u l i n e t o y i n t e r e s t s a n d t a r g e t c h i l d r e n w i t h f e m i n i n e t o y i n t e r e s t s . No i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e g e n d e r o f t h e t a r g e t c h i l d was m e n t i o n e d . C h i l d r e n were t h e n a s k e d t o p r e d i c t t a r g e t c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r e s t i n new t o y s t h a t were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e s e x - t y p e o f p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d t o y s ( t o y - t y p e c o n s i s t e n t ) , a n d t h a t were i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e s e x - t y p e o f p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d t o y s ( t o y - t y p e i n c o n s i s t e n t ) , a s w e l l a s t h e t o y s t h a t were p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d (same t o y s ) . R e s u l t s f r o m t h i s s t u d y s h o u l d h e l p c l a r i f y why c h i l d r e n r e l y s o l e l y on g e n d e r l a b e l s when m a k i n g p r e d i c t i o n s a b o u t o t h e r s . T h e s e r e s u l t s c o u l d t a k e two d i r e c t i o n s ; c h i l d r e n may f i n d t o y i n t e r e s t s p r e d i c t i v e o f o t h e r i n t e r e s t s o r t h e y may n o t f i n d t o y i n t e r e s t s p r e d i c t i v e o f o t h e r i n t e r e s t s . I f 15 t o y i n t e r e s t s a r e f o u n d t o be p r e d i c t i v e f o r yo u n g c h i l d r e n i t w o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t c h i l d r e n h a v e c a t e g o r i c a l o r s c h e m a t i c k n o w l e d g e o f i n t e r e s t s a n d t h e r e may, t h e r e f o r e , be o t h e r r e a s o n s c a u s i n g g e n d e r l a b e l s t o o v e r r i d e i n t e r e s t s a s a p r e d i c t o r f o r y o u n g c h i l d r e n i n t h e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s . W i t h t h i s o u t c o m e , c h i l d r e n s h o u l d p r e d i c t t h a t t a r g e t s w o u l d be most i n t e r e s t e d i n t o y - t y p e c o n s i s t e n t a n d same t o y s , a n d l e a s t i n t e r e s t e d i n t o y - t y p e i n c o n s i s t e n t t o y s . I f c h i l d r e n make i n t e r e s t j u d g m e n t s b a s e d on t a r g e t s ' o t h e r m a s c u l i n e o r f e m i n i n e i n t e r e s t s , i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e y may be i n f e r r i n g t h e g e n d e r o f t a r g e t s f r o m t h e s t a t e d s e x - t y p e d i n t e r e s t s ( e . g . , t h a t a t a r g e t w i t h f e m i n i n e i n t e r e s t s i s a g i r l ) . C h i l d r e n may t h e r e f o r e s t i l l be b a s i n g t h e i r j u d g m e n t s on g e n d e r l a b e l s . E v i d e n c e t h a t c h i l d r e n c a n a s s o c i a t e g e n d e r w i t h s e x - t y p e d o b j e c t s i s d e m o n s t r a t e d i n t h e i r a c c u r a t e r e s p o n s e s t o s e x s t e r e o t y p e m e a s u r e s when a s k e d , f o r e x a m p l e , w h e t h e r b o y s o r g i r l s p l a y most w i t h v a r i o u s s e x - t y p e d t o y s . W h i l e t h i s p o s s i b l e " c o g n i t i v e s w i t c h " i n t o g e n d e r l a b e l f r o m i n t e r e s t i n f o r m a t i o n i s an i m p o r t a n t p r o c e s s t o be a w a r e o f , t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i n e x p l a i n i n g t h e r e s u l t s f r o m p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s a r e n o t a f f e c t e d . T h a t i s , i t i s s t i l l i m p o r t a n t t o f i n d w h e t h e r y o u n g c h i l d r e n c a n make p r e d i c t i o n s i n t h e a b s e n c e o f s p e c i f i c g e n d e r l a b e l i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , e v e n i f t h i s i s a c h i e v e d 1 6 t h r o u g h " s w i t c h i n g " i n t o g e n d e r l a b e l i n g . T h i s r e s u l t w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t M a r t i n ' s y o u n g c h i l d r e n u s e d g e n d e r t o make p r e d i c t i o n s n o t b e c a u s e t h e y c a n n o t u s e i n t e r e s t i n f o r m a t i o n , b u t b e c a u s e i n a c o n t e x t i n v o l v i n g c o n t r a d i c t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n ( e . g . , a boy who l i k e s d o l l s ) c h i l d r e n c a n n o t d e a l w i t h t h e two p i e c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n . T h a t i s , t h e y c a n n o t c o n c e i v e o f a m a l e w i t h f e m i n i n e i n t e r e s t s ( o r v i c e v e r s a ) . T h i s may be b e c a u s e y o u n g c h i l d r e n do n o t h a v e t h e c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y t o c o n s i d e r t h e s e two ( o r any two) c o n t r a d i c t o r y a s p e c t s a t t h e same t i m e , w h e r e a s o l d e r c h i l d r e n do have t h e a b i l i t y . So e v e n t h o u g h b o t h p i e c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n a r e a v a i l a b l e a s p r e d i c t o r s f o r y o u n g c h i l d r e n , t h e y w o u l d be e q u a l l y l i k e l y t o b a s e i n f e r e n c e s on e i t h e r s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n , a n d i g n o r e t h e o t h e r . H owever, s i n c e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s show t h a t y o u n g c h i l d r e n b a s e i n f e r e n c e s on g e n d e r l a b e l i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n s t e a d o f i n d i v i d u a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e i s s u e r e m a i n i n g i s w h e t h e r g e n d e r l a b e l s c o n s i s t e n t l y o v e r p o w e r r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n . C o n v e r s e l y , i f t o y i n t e r e s t s a r e n o t f o u n d t o be p r e d i c t i v e f o r y o u n g c h i l d r e n i t w o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t y o u n g c h i l d r e n do n o t h a v e c a t e g o r i c a l k n o w l e d g e o f i n t e r e s t s , o r t h a t i n t e r e s t s a r e t o o a b s t r a c t f o r them t o u s e . I n t h i s c a s e , c h i l d r e n w o u l d p r e d i c t t h a t t a r g e t s w o u l d be e q u a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n b o t h t o y - t y p e c o n s i s t e n t a n d t o y - t y p e i n c o n s i s t e n t t o y s . H owever, i f i n t e r e s t s a r e n o t f o u n d t o be 1 7 p r e d i c t i v e i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , i t c o u l d be a r g u e d t h a t y o u n g c h i l d r e n d i d n o t f i n d a s i m p l e s t a t e m e n t a b o u t t a r g e t s ' i n t e r e s t s s u f f i c i e n t f o r them t o p e r c e i v e t h o s e i n t e r e s t s a s d i s p o s i t i o n s i n o t h e r s . Young c h i l d r e n may r e q u i r e more " p r o o f " . P r e d i c t i v e u t i l i t y o f i n t e r e s t s may, t h e r e f o r e , be i n f l u e n c e d by how s a l i e n t t h e i n t e r e s t i n f o r m a t i o n h a s been made. I n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s t h e i n d i v i d u a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n was p e r h a p s n o t made s a l i e n t t o t h e c h i l d r e n . F o r e x a m p l e , M a r t i n showed p i c t u r e s o f t h e t a r g e t c h i l d r e n b u t n o t o f t h e i r t o y i n t e r e s t s . So, p r e s e n t i n g t h e t o y i n t e r e s t i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h p i c t u r e s i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , r a t h e r t h a n v e r b a l l y , s h o u l d i n c r e a s e t h e s a l i e n c e o f t a r g e t s ' i n t e r e s t s . S t a t i n g t h a t t h e t a r g e t h a s more t h a n one t o y i n t e r e s t s h o u l d a l s o i n c r e a s e t h e s a l i e n c e o f i n t e r e s t s . T h u s , i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y s a l i e n c e o f t o y i n t e r e s t i n f o r m a t i o n was v a r i e d by u s i n g a s i n g l e i n t e r e s t c o n d i t i o n a s w e l l a s m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t c o n d i t i o n s . A v e r b a l (no p i c t u r e ) d e s c r i p t i o n was u s e d i n t h e s i n g l e i n t e r e s t a n d one m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t c o n d i t i o n a n d t h e n p i c t u r e s o f i n t e r e s t s i n a s e c o n d m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t c o n d i t i o n . T h r e e c o n d i t i o n s were t h e r e f o r e u s e d : s i n g l e i n t e r e s t w i t h o u t p i c t u r e s , m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t s w i t h o u t p i c t u r e s , a n d m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t s w i t h p i c t u r e s . F i n a l l y , t h e p r o p o s e d a b s e n c e o f g e n d e r c u e s i n t h i s s t u d y s h o u l d a l s o i n c r e a s e t h e s a l i e n c e o f i n t e r e s t c u e s . 18 C h i l d r e n ' s k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s t e r e o t y p e d t o y p r e f e r e n c e s o f b o y s a n d g i r l s were a l s o a s s e s s e d . G e n d e r s t e r e o t y p i n g k n o w l e d g e i s i m p o r t a n t s i n c e i t i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be a p r e c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e p r e d i c t i v e u t i l i t y o f s e x - t y p e d i n t e r e s t s . T h a t i s , c h i l d r e n w i t h o u t k n o w l e d g e o f g e n d e r s t e r e o t y p e s s h o u l d n o t be a b l e t o make j u d g m e n t s b a s e d on m a s c u l i n e o r f e m i n i n e i n t e r e s t s . W h i l e s t r o n g e v i d e n c e shows t h a t c h i l d r e n o f t h i s age h a v e g e n d e r s t e r e o t y p i n g k n o w l e d g e o f t o y s , t h i s m e a s u r e e n s u r e d t h a t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s s t u d y have k n o w l e d g e o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r t o y s b e i n g t e s t e d . T h r e e c a t e g o r i e s were i n i t i a l l y a v a i l a b l e f o r c h i l d r e n t o i n d i c a t e who l i k e s t o p l a y most w i t h a t o y ; j u s t g i r l s , j u s t b o y s , o r b o t h g i r l s a n d b o y s . T h e n , u s i n g t h e f o r c e d - c h o i c e p r o c e d u r e , c h i l d r e n d e c i d e d b e t w e e n two c a t e g o r i e s , f o r g i r l s o r f o r b o y s . The s t e r e o t y p e t e s t was a l s o u s e d t o a s s e s s s t e r e o t y p e f l e x i b i l i t y . I n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n f l e x i b i l i t y i n s t e r e o t y p i n g k n o w l e d g e may i n f l u e n c e how i n f e r e n c e s a r e made. F l e x i b i l i t y i s t h o u g h t t o be r e l a t e d - t o c h i l d r e n f i r s t a n s w e r i n g t h a t b o t h g i r l s a n d b o y s l i k e t o p l a y w i t h a t o y , r a t h e r t h a n i m m e d i a t e l y s t a t i n g t h a t o n l y g i r l s o r o n l y b o y s w o u l d l i k e t h e t o y . I t may be t h a t c h i l d r e n h i g h i n f l e x i b i l i t y i n s t e r e o t y p i n g k n o w l e d g e r e s p o n d d i f f e r e n t l y t h a n c h i l d r e n l o w i n f l e x i b i l i t y . No s p e c i f i c p r e d i c t i o n s were p r o p o s e d h o w e v e r . 19 C h i l d r e n were a l s o a s k e d t o s t a t e t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e f o r e a c h o f t h e t o y s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e s t u d y . C h i l d r e n s t a t e d w h e t h e r t h e y l i k e d e a c h t o y "a l o t " , "a l i t t l e " , o r " n o t a t a l l " . S h o u l d c h i l d r e n ' s r e s p o n s e s on t h e t o y i n f e r e n c e r a t i n g s a p p e a r t o be b a s e d on t h e i r own p e r s p e c t i v e r a t h e r t h a n t h e t a r g e t s ' , t h i s m e a s u r e p e r m i t t e d an e x a m i n a t i o n o f w h e t h e r t h e i r r a t i n g s a r e i n f l u e n c e d more by g e n d e r - b a s e d p r e f e r e n c e s ( i . e . , b o y s a t t r i b u t i n g h i g h e s t i n t e r e s t t o m a s c u l i n e t o y s a n d g i r l s a t t r i b u t i n g h i g h e s t i n t e r e s t t o f e m i n i n e t o y s ) o r by i n d i v i d u a l l i k e s a n d d i s l i k e s . F i n a l l y , t o e n s u r e t h a t c h i l d r e n i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e f r o m p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , c h i l d r e n were g i v e n a t a s k t o a s s e s s w h e t h e r , when g i v e n b o t h g e n d e r a n d i n t e r e s t i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e y b a s e t h e i r t o y i n f e r e n c e s on g e n d e r . T h i s t a s k w i l l r e p l i c a t e M a r t i n ' s ( 1 9 8 5 ) s t u d y u s i n g s t o r i e s , , i n w h i c h t a r g e t c h i l d r e n w e r e s a i d t o h a v e c o u n t e r - s t e r e o t y p i c i n t e r e s t s . C h i l d r e n were r e a d f o u r s h o r t s t o r i e s a b o u t t a r g e t c h i l d r e n ' s ( t w o g i r l s , two b o y s ) s e x - t y p e d t o y i n t e r e s t s , a n d t h e n , a s i n t h e t o y i n f e r e n c e t a s k , were a s k e d t o p r e d i c t t h e t a r g e t c h i l d ' s f u t u r e t o y i n t e r e s t s . T h e s e f u t u r e t o y i n t e r e s t s i n c l u d e d p r e d i c t i o n s a b o u t t h e same t o y a s s t a t e d i n t h e s t o r y , a n d two t o y s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e g e n d e r o f t h e t a r g e t c h i l d ( g e n d e r c o n s i s t e n t t o y s ) , a n d two t o y s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e s t a t e d i n t e r e s t s o f t h e t a r g e t c h i l d 20 ( i n t e r e s t c o n s i s t e n t t o y s ) . I n summary, t h e g o a l o f t h i s s t u d y was t o e x p l o r e t h e p r e d i c t i v e u t i l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a t i n g ( t o y ) i n t e r e s t i n f o r m a t i o n f o r y o u n g c h i l d r e n . G e n d e r o f t h e t a r g e t c h i l d was n o t m e n t i o n e d i n o r d e r t o a l l o w f o r t e s t i n g o f c h i l d r e n ' s i m p r e s s i o n s o f o t h e r s i n t h e a b s e n c e o f g e n d e r l a b e l i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . A f t e r h e a r i n g a b o u t a t a r g e t c h i l d ' s i n t e r e s t i n e i t h e r m a s c u l i n e o r f e m i n i n e t o y s , c h i l d r e n w e r e a s k e d t o r a t e t h e t a r g e t ' s i n t e r e s t i n o t h e r t o y s ( t o y - t y p e c o n s i s t e n t , t o y - t y p e i n c o n s i s t e n t , a n d same t o y s ) . S i n c e e v e n v e r y y o u n g c h i l d r e n c a n c a t e g o r i z e a c t i v i t i e s a n d i n t e r e s t s ( e . g . , t o y s , c l o t h i n g , games & w o r k ) a c c o r d i n g t o s e x - s t e r e o t y p e s ( s e e H u s t o n , 1 9 8 3 ) , i t was e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e y w o u l d u s e i n t e r e s t i n f o r m a t i o n t o make p r e d i c t i o n s a b o u t t h e t a r g e t c h i l d ' s o t h e r g e n d e r - r e l a t e d i n t e r e s t s . T h e s e p r e d i c t i o n s w e r e e x p e c t e d t o v a r y w i t h t h e s a l i e n c e o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d ; t o y i n f e r e n c e r a t i n g s b a s e d on s i n g l e i n t e r e s t i n f o r m a t i o n were e x p e c t e d t o be l o w e r t h a n t h o s e b a s e d on m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t i n f o r m a t i o n , a n d i n f e r e n c e r a t i n g s b a s e d on t h e no p i c t u r e c o n d i t i o n s were e x p e c t e d t o be l o w e r t h a n t h o s e b a s e d on t h e p i c t u r e c o n d i t i o n . The d a t a g a t h e r e d f r o m t h i s s t u d y s h o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o e x p l a i n i n g r e s u l t s f r o m t h r e e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s ( B e r n d t & H e l l e r , 1 9 8 6 ; M a r t i n , 1 9 8 5 ; Z u c k e r e t a l . , 1 9 8 5 ) i n w h i c h y o u n g c h i l d r e n , i n c o n t r a s t t o o l d e r c h i l d r e n a n d a d u l t s , u s e d 21 g e n d e r c a t e g o r y i n f o r m a t i o n t o make p r e d i c t i o n s a b o u t o t h e r s and i g n o r e d i n d i v i d u a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . R e s u l t s f r o m t h i s s t u d y s h o u l d a l s o p r o v i d e f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o t h e p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n i m p r e s s i o n f o r m a t i o n i n yo u n g c h i l d r e n a n d s u b s e q u e n t i n f e r e n c e s made a b o u t o t h e r p e o p l e b a s e d on g e n d e r -r e l a t e d c a t e g o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . T h e s e i n f e r e n c e s a r e i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e t h e y i n f l u e n c e c h i l d r e n ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s a n d b e h a v i o r s t o w a r d o t h e r s . 22 METHOD Subjects A t o t a l of f i f t y - s i x c h i l d r e n (26 g i r l s , 30 boys) were r e c r u i t e d from day care c e n t r e s i n the Vancouver r e g i o n . C h i l d r e n ' s ages ranged from 38.5 to 73.0 months (M=54.0 mos., SD=88.7). Mean ages f o r ' g i r l s (M=54.9, SD=84.2) and f o r boys (M=53.2, SD=93.1) d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r , t(54) = 1.22, NS. The m a j o r i t y of c h i l d r e n were Caucasian (88%) and from middle c l a s s homes. M a t e r i a l s The toy i n f e r e n c e task (see Appendix A) was ad m i n i s t e r e d to t e s t young c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y to make i n f e r e n c e s based s o l e l y on toy i n t e r e s t i n f o r m a t i o n when gender of the t a r g e t c h i l d was not s p e c i f i e d . For example, c h i l d r e n were t o l d about "a c h i l d who r e a l l y l i k e s to p l a y with a i r p l a n e s " . The task c o n s i s t e d of three types of c o n d i t i o n s , each with a feminine and masculine v e r s i o n , r e s u l t i n g i n a t o t a l of s i x statements of t a r g e t s ' toy i n t e r e s t s (three feminine, three m a s c u l i n e ) . The three c o n d i t i o n s were used to manipulate s a l i e n c e of the toy i n t e r e s t i n f o r m a t i o n ( s i n g l e i n t e r e s t , m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t s without p i c t u r e s and m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t s with p i c t u r e s ) . In the s i n g l e i n t e r e s t c o n d i t i o n , the t a r g e t c h i l d was s a i d t o have an i n t e r e s t i n p l a y i n g with one toy; no p i c t u r e s were shown. In the m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t without 23 p i c t u r e s c o n d i t i o n , t h e t a r g e t c h i l d was s a i d t o h a v e an i n t e r e s t i n p l a y i n g w i t h two t o y s t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e same g e n d e r c a t e g o r y ( e . g . , a t r u c k a n d an a i r p l a n e ) . A g a i n , no p i c t u r e s were shown. I n t h e m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t s w i t h p i c t u r e s c o n d i t i o n , t h e t a r g e t c h i l d was s a i d t o h a v e an i n t e r e s t i n p l a y i n g w i t h two t o y s t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e same c a t e g o r y , a n d a s w e l l , p i c t u r e s o f t h e two t o y s were shown t o t h e c h i l d r e n . F o r t h e p i c t u r e c o n d i t i o n s , a p i c t u r e o f e a c h t o y was p a s t e d on a w h i t e 3 x 5 i n c h c a r d . F o r t h e t o y i n f e r e n c e t a s k , c h i l d r e n made r a t i n g s a b o u t what t h e y t h o u g h t t h e t a r g e t c h i l d ' s t o y i n t e r e s t s w o u l d be f o r a s many a s s i x t o y s f o r e a c h c o n d i t i o n ( t w o same, two c o n s i s t e n t , two i n c o n s i s t e n t ) . Same t o y s were t h o s e t o y s t h a t t h e g e n d e r u n s p e c i f i e d t a r g e t was s a i d t o l i k e i n t h e s t o r i e s . C o n s i s t e n t t o y s were t o y s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e same t r a d i t i o n a l s e x - t y p i n g c a t e g o r y a s t h e t o y s i n t h e s t o r i e s . F o r i n s t a n c e , i f t h e s t o r y t o y was a f o o t b a l l , t h e n an a i r p l a n e w o u l d be a c o n s i s t e n t t o y s i n c e b o t h a r e m a s c u l i n e s e x - t y p e d . I n c o n s i s t e n t t o y s w e r e t o y s b e l o n g i n g t o a d i f f e r e n t s e x - t y p i n g c a t e g o r y t h a n t h e s t o r y t o y ( s ) . F o r i n s t a n c e , i f a d o l l was t h e t o y s t a t e d i n t h e s t o r y , t h e n r a c e c a r s w o u l d be an i n c o n s i s t e n t t o y , s i n c e d o l l s a r e f e m i n i n e s e x - t y p e d w h i l e r a c e c a r s a r e m a s c u l i n e s e x - t y p e d . 24 The r e p l i c a t i o n o f M a r t i n ' s t o y i n f e r e n c e t a s k ( s e e A p p e n d i x B) was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a s s e s s w h e t h e r , when g i v e n b o t h g e n d e r a n d i n t e r e s t i n f o r m a t i o n , y o u n g c h i l d r e n i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y w o u l d make t o y i n f e r e n c e s i n t h e same p a t t e r n a s t h e y o u n g c h i l d r e n i n M a r t i n ' s s t u d y . The r e p l i c a t i o n t a s k c o n s i s t e d o f f o u r p i c t u r e s o f t a r g e t c h i l d r e n a n d f o u r b r i e f s t o r i e s ( two o f g i r l s , two o f b o y s ) . T h e s e f o u r s t o r i e s , r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d f r o m M a r t i n ' s c o u n t e r - s t e r e o t y p i c c o n d i t i o n s , s t a t e d t h a t t h e t a r g e t h a d a b e s t f r i e n d o f t h e o p p o s i t e s e x a n d an i n t e r e s t i n a t r a d i t i o n a l l y s e x -i n c o n s i s t e n t t o y ( e , g . , " J a s o n ' s b e s t f r i e n d i s a g i r l . J a s o n l i k e s t o p l a y w i t h make-up k i t s . " ) . E a c h s t o r y a l s o c o n t a i n e d n e u t r a l i n f o r m a t i o n ( e . g . , " J a s o n l i v e s i n V a n c o u v e r . " ) , a n d t h e t a r g e t c h i l d ' s name, age a n d s e x . The age o f t h e t a r g e t c h i l d c o r r e s p o n d e d t o t h e age o f t h e c h i l d b e i n g t e s t e d . F o r t h e r e p l i c a t i o n t a s k , c h i l d r e n r a t e d f i v e t o y s f o r e a c h c o n d i t i o n (one same, two g e n d e r c o n s i s t e n t , two i n t e r e s t c o n s i s t e n t ) . G e n d e r c o n s i s t e n t t o y s were t o y s t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e g e n d e r o f t h e t a r g e t c h i l d . F o r i n s t a n c e , f o o t b a l l s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b o y s a n d d o l l s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g i r l s . I n t e r e s t c o n s i s t e n t t o y s were t o y s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e same t r a d i t i o n a l s e x - t y p i n g c a t e g o r y a s t h e s t o r y t o y . S i n c e e a c h c h i l d made 34 t o y r a t i n g s i n t h e t o y i n f e r e n c e t a s k ( s i x r a t i n g s i n e a c h o f f o u r s t a t e m e n t s , a n d 25 f i v e r a t i n g s i n e a c h o f two s t a t e m e n t s ) , a n d 20 t o y r a t i n g s i n t h e r e p l i c a t i o n t a s k ( f i v e r a t i n g s i n e a c h o f f o u r s t o r i e s ) , a t o t a l o f 54 t o y r a t i n g s were made by e a c h o f t h e c h i l d r e n . A t o t a l o f 18 s e x - t y p e d t o y s ( n i n e s t e r e o t y p e d f e m i n i n e t o y s , n i n e s t e r e o t y p e d m a s c u l i n e t o y s ) were r e q u i r e d f o r t h e t o y i n f e r e n c e a n d r e p l i c a t i o n t a s k s . Toy i n f e r e n c e r a t i n g s f o r b o t h o f t h e s e t a s k s i n c l u d e d two m a s c u l i n e s e x - t y p e d t o y s ( c a r , t r a i n e n g i n e ) a n d two f e m i n i n e s e x - t y p e d t o y s ( d o l l , s e w i n g m a c h i n e ) . T h e s e s p e c i f i c t o y s were a l s o u s e d by M a r t i n i n h e r t o y r a t i n g s t a s k . A p i c t u r e o f e a c h t o y was p a s t e d on a w h i t e 3x5 i n c h c a r d . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e f o u r t o y s u s e d f o r t h e i n f e r e n c e r a t i n g s , t h e 18 t o y s a l s o i n c l u d e d t e n s t a t e d t o y i n t e r e s t s ( f i v e f e m i n i n e , f i v e m a s c u l i n e ) o f t a r g e t s i n t h e t o y i n f e r e n c e s t a s k , a n d f o u r s t a t e d t o y i n f e r e n c e s ( t w o f e m i n i n e , two m a s c u l i n e ) o f t a r g e t s i n t h e r e p l i c a t i o n t a s k . T o y s f o r t h i s s t u d y were s e l e c t e d f r o m a p r e v i o u s l y t e s t e d s a m p l e o f 113 t o y s ( H a l v e r s o n & M a r t i n , 1 9 8 5 ) c o n s i d e r e d t o be s e x - t y p e d by a t l e a s t 75 p e r c e n t o f c h i l d r e n ( f o u r t o n i n e y e a r s o l d ) . C h i l d r e n ' s r a t i n g s o f t a r g e t c h i l d r e n ' s t o y p r e f e r e n c e s were made u s i n g t h r e e p i c t u r e s o f f a c e s ( b i g s m i l e , l i t t l e s m i l e , b i g f r o w n ) . The f a c e w i t h a b i g s m i l e r e p r e s e n t e d " l i k e s a l o t " , t h e f a c e w i t h a l i t t l e s m i l e r e p r e s e n t e d " l i k e s a l i t t l e " , a n d t h e f a c e w i t h a b i g f r o w n r e p r e s e n t e d "does n o t 26 l i k e a t a l l " . T h e s e f a c e s were h a n d - d r a w n on 5 x 8 i n c h w h i t e c a r d s . A m e a s u r e o f c h i l d r e n ' s k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s t e r e o t y p e d t o y p r e f e r e n c e s o f g i r l s a n d b o y s was a l s o a d m i n i s t e r e d ( s e e A p p e n d i x C ) . T h i s m e a s u r e t e s t e d f o r s t e r e o t y p i n g k n o w l e d g e o f t h e 18 t o y s u s e d i n t h e s t u d y . S t e r e o t y p i n g k n o w l e d g e o f p i c t u r e s o f s e x - t y p e d t o y s were a s s e s s e d u s i n g t h r e e r a t i n g c a r d s l a b e l e d " f o r b o y s " , o r " f o r g i r l s " , o r " f o r b o y s a n d g i r l s " , a n d s h o w i n g p i c t u r e s o f b o y s o r g i r l s (one c a r d w i t h two b o y s , one c a r d w i t h two g i r l s , one c a r d w i t h one boy and one g i r l t o g e t h e r ) . F i n a l l y , a m e a s u r e o f c h i l d r e n ' s own t o y p r e f e r e n c e s was a d m i n i s t e r e d ( s e e A p p e n d i x D ) . P r e f e r e n c e s o f t h e t o y s u s e d i n t h e s t u d y were a s s e s s e d u s i n g t h e t h r e e p i c t u r e s o f f a c e s a s a r a t i n g s c a l e . C h i l d r e n were a s k e d t o r a t e w h e t h e r t h e y w o u l d l i k e e a c h o f t h e t o y s "a l o t " , "a l i t t l e " o r " n o t a t a l l " . P r o c e d u r e E a c h c h i l d was t e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y i n a s m a l l room o r i n an a r e a away f r o m o t h e r c h i l d r e n . T e s t i n g i n v o l v e d two s e p a r a t e s e s s i o n s , l a s t i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y t e n m i n u t e s e a c h . T h e s e two s e s s i o n s were h e l d b e t w e e n f o u r a n d s e v e n d a y s a p a r t f o r e a c h c h i l d . Two f e m a l e e x p e r i m e n t e r s c o n d u c t e d t h e t e s t i n g ; one e x p e r i m e n t e r a l w a y s a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e f i r s t 27 s e s s i o n a n d t h e o t h e r e x p e r i m e n t e r a l w a y s a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e s e c o n d s e s s i o n . I n t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n c h i l d r e n were t r a i n e d i n u s i n g t h e ( f a c e s ) r a t i n g s c a l e , a n d t r a i n i n g c o n t i n u e d u n t i l t h e y c o u l d a c c u r a t e l y u s e t h e s c a l e . T h e n , f o r t h e r e p l i c a t i o n t a s k , c h i l d r e n were r e a d f o u r b r i e f s t o r i e s ( two o f g i r l s , two o f b o y s ) r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e M a r t i n ( 1 9 8 5) s t u d y . T h e s e s t o r i e s i n c l u d e d t h e t a r g e t c h i l d ' s s e x , a g e , a n d i n t e r e s t i n f o r m a t i o n . F o r a l l s t o r i e s , t h e i n t e r e s t s p r e s e n t e d were c o u n t e r - s t e r e o t y p i c ( e . g . , " L a r r y ' s b e s t f r i e n d i s a g i r l . L a r r y l i k e s t o p l a y w i t h an i r o n a n d an i r o n i n g b o a r d . " ) . A f t e r h e a r i n g e a c h s t o r y , c h i l d r e n were a s k e d t o r a t e how much t h e y t h o u g h t t h e t a r g e t c h i l d w o u l d be i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t o y s : t h e same t o y a s m e n t i o n e d i n t h e s t o r y , two g e n d e r c o n s i s t e n t t o y s , a n d two i n t e r e s t c o n s i s t e n t t o y s . The o r d e r o f a s k i n g t h e s e r a t i n g s was random. T h i s p r o c e d u r e was r e p e a t e d f o r e a c h o f t h e f o u r s t o r i e s . The p r e s e n t a t i o n o f m a l e a n d f e m a l e s t o r y v e r s i o n s w e r e c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d . N e x t , c h i l d r e n were t e s t e d f o r t h e i r k n o w l e d g e o f s t e r e o t y p i c t o y p r e f e r e n c e s o f b o y s a n d g i r l s . C h i l d r e n were shown, one a t a t i m e , p i c t u r e s o f t o y s , a n d a s k e d t o r a t e w h e t h e r o n l y g i r l s , o n l y b o y s , o r b o t h g i r l s a n d b o y s l i k e t o p l a y most w i t h t h e t o y . C h i l d r e n p l a c e d e a c h t o y i n f r o n t o f one o f t h r e e c a r d s t h a t had p i c t u r e s e i t h e r o f g i r l s , o r b o y s , o r b o t h a g i r l a n d a b o y . A f t e r a l l p i c t u r e s h a d been p l a c e d 28 i n one o f t h e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s , t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r u s e d a f o r c e d - c h o i c e p r o c e d u r e f o r t h e i t e m s p l a c e d i n t h e c a t e g o r y " f o r b o y s a n d g i r l s " . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r s a i d , "You s a i d b o t h b o y s a n d g i r l s l i k e ( t o y name), b u t who l i k e s i t m o s t , b o y s o r g i r l s ? " . T h e s e m a s c u l i n e a n d f e m i n i n e s e x -t y p e d t o y s were f i r s t a r r a n g e d i n a random o r d e r , a n d t h e n p r e s e n t e d i n t h a t same o r d e r f o r e a c h t e s t i n g . F i n a l l y , c h i l d r e n were t e s t e d f o r how much t h e y w o u l d l i k e t h e t o y s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e s t u d y . C h i l d r e n were shown, one a t a t i m e , p i c t u r e s o f e a c h o f t h e 18 s e x - t y p e d t o y s . T h e s e t o y s were shown i n t h e same p r e - a r r a n g e d random o r d e r a s i n t h e s t e r e o t y p i n g m e a s u r e . A f t e r e a c h t o y was shown, c h i l d r e n were a s k e d t o r a t e how much t h e y w o u l d l i k e t h e t o y . C h i l d r e n p o i n t e d t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e f a c e f r o m t h e r a t i n g s c a l e t h a t e x p r e s s e d w h e t h e r t h e y l i k e d t h e t o y "a l o t " , "a l i t t l e " o r " n o t a t a l l " . The M a r t i n r e p l i c a t i o n s t o r i e s a l w a y s p r e c e d e d t h e s t e r e o t y p e a n d p r e f e r e n c e t e s t s so a s n o t t o make s t e r e o t y p e s o r p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t o y s s a l i e n t t o t h e c h i l d when m a k i n g t o y i n f e r e n c e r a t i n g s i n t h e r e p l i c a t i o n t a s k . O r d e r o f t h e s t e r e o t y p e a n d p r e f e r e n c e m e a s u r e s were c o u n t e r - b a l a n c e d . The s t e r e o t y p e a n d p r e f e r e n c e m e a s u r e s a n d t h e r e p l i c a t i o n t a s k were n o t g i v e n d u r i n g t h e same s e s s i o n a s t h e t o y i n f e r e n c e t a s k so a s n o t t o i n f l u e n c e t h e c h i l d r e n ' s 29 t o y i n f e r e n c e r a t i n g s f o r a g e n d e r u n s p e c i f i e d t a r g e t c h i l d . I n t h e s e c o n d t e s t i n g s e s s i o n , t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r f i r s t q u i c k l y r e v i e w e d t h e r a t i n g s c a l e u n t i l c h i l d r e n c o u l d a c c u r a t e l y u s e t h e s c a l e . T h e n , t h e t o y i n f e r e n c e s t a s k was a d m i n i s t e r e d by p r e s e n t i n g t h e s i x t o y i n t e r e s t s t a t e m e n t s , one a t a t i m e . F i r s t , c h i l d r e n were p r e s e n t e d w i t h t h e s i n g l e i n t e r e s t c o n d i t i o n ( e i t h e r a m a s c u l i n e o r f e m i n i n e v e r s i o n ) . C h i l d r e n were t o l d a b o u t a g e n d e r u n s p e c i f i e d t a r g e t c h i l d ' s i n t e r e s t i n one s e x - t y p e d t o y ( e . g . , "A c h i l d I know r e a l l y l i k e s t o p l a y w i t h d o l l c l o t h e s . " ) . Then t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r s a i d , "Now I want y o u t o h e l p me d e c i d e what o t h e r t o y s t h i s c h i l d w o u l d l i k e t o p l a y w i t h . Remember, t h i s i s n o t a b o u t what y o u l i k e , b u t a b o u t what t h e o t h e r c h i l d t h a t I t o l d y o u a b o u t w o u l d l i k e t o p l a y w i t h . " . C h i l d r e n t h e n made r a t i n g s a b o u t what t h e y t h o u g h t t h e t a r g e t c h i l d ' s t o y i n t e r e s t s w o u l d be f o r f i v e p i c t u r e s o f t o y s (two c o n s i s t e n t , two i n c o n s i s t e n t , a n d t h e same t o y a s i n t h e t e s t i n g s t a t e m e n t ) . The p r e s e n t a t i o n a n d r a t i n g o f t h e s e t o y s w e r e made i n random o r d e r . Then t h e o t h e r v e r s i o n ( m a s c u l i n e o r f e m i n i n e ) o f t h e s i n g l e i n t e r e s t c o n d i t i o n was r e a d t o t h e c h i l d , a n d a g a i n f i v e t o y i n f e r e n c e r a t i n g s w e r e made o f t h e p i c t u r e s o f c o n s i s t e n t , i n c o n s i s t e n t a n d same t o y s . T h i s g e n e r a l p r o c e d u r e , o f m a k i n g a s t a t e m e n t a b o u t a g e n d e r u n s p e c i f i e d t a r g e t ' s t o y i n t e r e s t a n d t h e n h a v i n g t h e c h i l d make i n f e r e n c e r a t i n g s a b o u t t h a t t a r g e t ' s i n t e r e s t i n o t h e r t o y s , was t h e n 30 r e p e a t e d f o r e a c h o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s i n t h e m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t w i t h o u t p i c t u r e s a n d t h e m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t s w i t h p i c t u r e s c o n d i t i o n s . H o wever, s i n c e t h e m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t c o n d i t i o n s e a c h s t a t e d two t o y i n t e r e s t s , a t o t a l o f s i x t o y i n f e r e n c e r a t i n g s , i n s t e a d o f f i v e , were made f o r e a c h s t a t e m e n t (two same, two c o n s i s t e n t , two i n c o n s i s t e n t ) . F o r t h e m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t w i t h o u t p i c t u r e s c o n d i t i o n ( b o t h t h e m a s c u l i n e a nd f e m i n i n e v e r s i o n ) , c h i l d r e n were t o l d a b o u t a g e n d e r u n s p e c i f i e d t a r g e t c h i l d ' s i n t e r e s t i n two t o y s f r o m t h e same g e n d e r c a t e g o r y ( e . g . , " A c h i l d I know r e a l l y l i k e s t o p l a y w i t h t r u c k s a n d a i r p l a n e s " ) . P i c t u r e s o f t h e s e t o y s were n o t shown. F o r t h e m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t w i t h p i c t u r e s c o n d i t i o n ( b o t h t h e m a s c u l i n e a n d f e m i n i n e v e r s i o n ) , c h i l d r e n were a g a i n t o l d a b o u t a g e n d e r u n s p e c i f i e d t a r g e t c h i l d ' s i n t e r e s t i n two t o y s f r o m t h e same g e n d e r c a t e g o r y , b u t p i c t u r e s o f t h e s e two t o y s were shown. The s i n g l e i n t e r e s t c o n d i t i o n s were a l w a y s a d m i n i s t e r e d b e f o r e t h e m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t s c o n d i t i o n s . T h i s o r d e r was t h o u g h t t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t s a n d p i c t u r e c o n d i t i o n s w o u l d n o t i n f l u e n c e c h i l d r e n ' s i n f e r e n c e s i n t h e s i n g l e i n t e r e s t c o n d i t i o n s . O r d e r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t s w i t h p i c t u r e s a n d t h e m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t s w i t h o u t p i c t u r e s c o n d i t i o n s were c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d . O r d e r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e m a s c u l i n e a n d f e m i n i n e v e r s i o n s w i t h i n 31 e a c h o f t h e t h r e e c o n d i t i o n s was a l s o c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d . S c o r i n g C h i l d r e n ' s i n f e r e n c e r a t i n g s o f t a r g e t s ' t o y i n t e r e s t s were o b t a i n e d u s i n g a 3 - p o i n t s c a l e . The r a t i n g s f r o m t h e f a c e s s c a l e w e re c o n v e r t e d t o numbers w i t h " 3 " g i v e n f o r " l i k e s a l o t " , "2" g i v e n f o r " l i k e s a l i t t l e " a n d " 1 " g i v e n f o r " n o t l i k e a t a l l " . F o r t h e t o y i n f e r e n c e s t a s k , mean t o y i n f e r e n c e r a t i n g s c o r e s were c o m p u t e d f o r c o n s i s t e n t t o y s , i n c o n s i s t e n t t o y s , a n d same t o y s . F o r t h e r e p l i c a t i o n t a s k , mean t o y i n f e r e n c e r a t i n g s c o r e s were c o m p u t e d f o r t o y s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e g e n d e r o f t h e t a r g e t , t o y s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e t a r g e t , a n d t h e same t o y a s s t a t e d i n t h e s t o r y . F o r t h e s t e r e o t y p i n g m e a s u r e , t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s were o r i g i n a l l y u s e d t o i n d i c a t e who most l i k e d t o p l a y w i t h a • t o y ( f o r b o y s , f o r g i r l s , o r f o r b o y s a n d g i r l s ) . T h e n , w i t h t h e f o r c e d - c h o i c e p r o c e d u r e , two c a t e g o r i e s r e m a i n e d . H e r e , t h e " b o y s a nd g i r l s " c a t e g o r y was t a k e n away, a n d c h i l d r e n were f o r c e d t o d e c i d e b e t w e e n " f o r b o y s " o r " f o r g i r l s " . A s c o r e o f " 1 " was g i v e n f o r c h i l d r e n who e i t h e r o r i g i n a l l y g a ve a s t e r e o t y p e d a n s w e r ( e . g . , t h e y s a i d o n l y g i r l s p l a y w i t h make-up k i t s ) o r when f o r c e d t o c h o o s e gave a s t e r e o t y p e d a n s w e r ( e . g . , t h e y s a i d b o t h b o y s a n d g i r l s l i k e t o p l a y w i t h a t o o l k i t , b u t when f o r c e d , s a i d o n l y b o y s ) . A s c o r e o f "0" was 32 g i v e n f o r c h i l d r e n who o r i g i n a l l y g a v e a c o u n t e r - s t e r e o t y p i c a n s w e r ( e . g . , t h e y s a i d o n l y b o y s p l a y w i t h d o l l h o u s e s ) o r when f o r c e d t o c h o o s e gave a c o u n t e r - s t e r e o t y p i c a n s w e r ( e . g . , t h e y s a i d b o t h b o y s a n d g i r l s l i k e t o p l a y w i t h a i r p l a n e s , b u t when f o r c e d , s a i d o n l y g i r l s ) . S c o r e s f o r f l e x i b i l i t y i n s t e r e o t y p i n g were a l s o d e r i v e d f r o m t h e s t e r e o t y p i n g m e a s u r e . T h e s e were c a l c u l a t e d f r o m t h e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s ( f o r b o y s a nd g i r l s , f o r b o y s , f o r g i r l s ) p r e s e n t b e f o r e t h e f o r c e d - c h o i c e p r o c e d u r e . A s c o r e o f "1" was g i v e n f o r a n s w e r i n g t h a t a t o y was most l i k e d by b o t h g i r l s a n d b o y s , a n d a s c o r e o f "0" was g i v e n f o r a n s w e r i n g t h a t a t o y was most l i k e d o n l y by g i r l s o r by b o y s . Summing t h e s e s c o r e s t h e n r e s u l t e d i n t h e t o t a l number o f t o y s e a c h c h i l d f i r s t a n s w e r e d a s b e i n g l i k e d by b o t h g i r l s a n d b o y s . A m e d i a n s p l i t r e s u l t e d i n c h i l d r e n w i t h s c o r e s a b o v e t h e m e d i a n l a b e l e d a s h i g h i n f l e x i b i l i t y i n s t e r e o t y p i n g k n o w l e d g e , a n d c h i l d r e n w i t h s c o r e s b e l o w t h e m e d i a n l a b e l e d a s l o w i n f l e x i b i l i t y i n s t e r e o t y p i n g k n o w l e d g e . 33 RESULTS R e p l i c a t i o n T a s k F o r t h e r e p l i c a t i o n o f M a r t i n ' s ( 1 9 8 5) t o y i n f e r e n c e t a s k , p l a n n e d c o m p a r i s o n s o f means r e v e a l e d t h a t c h i l d r e n t e n d e d t o b a s e t h e i r t o y i n f e r e n c e s on g e n d e r l a b e l s more t h a n on i n d i v i d u a l t o y i n t e r e s t s . F o r a l l t a r g e t c h i l d r e n 1 , y o u n g c h i l d r e n s ' a t t r i b u t e d i n t e r e s t i n t o y s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e g e n d e r o f t h e t a r g e t (M=2.49) was h i g h e r t h a n f o r t o y s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e t a r g e t (M=1.99), t ( 2 9 ) = 4 . 1 3 , p_<.0001. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d b e t w e e n a t t r i b u t e d i n t e r e s t i n t o y s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e g e n d e r o f t h e t a r g e t a n d t h o s e p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d i n t h e s t o r y (same t o y s ) (M=2.39). F o r a l l t a r g e t s t h e n , c h i l d r e n a t t r i b u t e d a s much i n t e r e s t t o t o y s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e g e n d e r o f t h e t a r g e t a s t o same t o y s . I t a p p e a r s t h e n t h a t y o u n g c h i l d r e n i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y a t t r i b u t e d t o y i n f e r e n c e s t o t a r g e t c h i l d r e n i n t h e same manner a s t h e y o u n g c h i l d r e n i n t h e M a r t i n s t u d y ; c h i l d r e n r e l i e d on g e n d e r c a t e g o r i e s more t h a n on i n d i v i d u a l s e x - t y p e d t o y i n t e r e s t s when m a k i n g t o y i n f e r e n c e s a b o u t t a r g e t c h i l d r e n . Toy I n f e r e n c e R a t i n g S c o r e s Toy i n f e r e n c e r a t i n g s c o r e s were d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e s i n a r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e ( s e e A p p e n d i x E ) , w i t h one b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s ' f a c t o r , s e x o f s u b j e c t ( b o y , g i r l ) , a n d 34 t h r e e w i t h i n s u b j e c t s ' f a c t o r s , c o n d i t i o n s ( s i n g l e i n t e r e s t s , m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t s w i t h o u t p i c t u r e s , m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t s w i t h p i c t u r e s ) , t o y t y p e s ( m a s c u l i n e , f e m i n i n e ) , and t o y i n f e r e n c e s o (same, c o n s i s t e n t , i n c o n s i s t e n t ) . The p r e d i c t e d two f a c t o r i n t e r a c t i o n o f t o y i n f e r e n c e s by c o n d i t i o n s was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . However, t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f sex o f s u b j e c t by c o n d i t i o n s was s i g n i f i c a n t , F (2,108)=7.98, 2<.001. W h i l e boys a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e t a r g e t c h i l d r e n an e q u a l i n t e r e s t i n t o y s a c r o s s a l l c o n d i t i o n s , a Newman-Keuls a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t g i r l s a t t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t o y i n f e r e n c e r a t i n g s c o r e s i n t h e s i n g l e i n t e r e s t c o n d i t i o n (M=2.49) t h a n f o r b o t h t h e m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t s w i t h p i c t u r e s c o n d i t i o n (M=2.32) and t h e m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t s w i t h o u t p i c t u r e s c o n d i t i o n (M=2.29) ( 2 < « 0 1 f o r b o t h c o m p a r i s o n s ) . The two m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t c o n d i t i o n s d i d n o t d i f f e r . As p r e d i c t e d , t h e main e f f e c t f o r t o y i n f e r e n c e s was s i g n i f i c a n t , F ( 2,108)=61.78, 2 < ' 0 0 1 « C h i l d r e n were a b l e t o make i n f e r e n c e s b a s e d on s e x - t y p e d t o y i n t e r e s t s i n t h e a b s e n c e o f gend e r i n f o r m a t i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , c h i l d r e n i n d i c a t e d t a r g e t c h i l d r e n would be most i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e same t o y s a s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e o r i g i n a l s t a t e m e n t (M=2.70), m o d e r a t e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n c o n s i s t e n t t o y s (M=2.25), and l e a s t i n t e r e s t e d i n i n c o n s i s t e n t t o y s (M=2.06). P l a n n e d c o m p a r i s o n s o f means r e v e a l e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among 35 a l l toy i n f e r e n c e r a t i n g s c o r e s ; same toy scores were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than both c o n s i s t e n t toy s c o r e s , t(55)=9.37, p_<.000l, a n a i n c o n s i s t e n t toy s c o r e s , t(55)=9.02, 2<.0001, and c o n s i s t e n t toy scores were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than i n c o n s i s t e n t toy s c o r e s , t_(55) = 3.55, p<.00l. The main e f f e c t f o r toy i n f e r e n c e s was subsumed by a s i g n i f i c a n t t h r e e - f a c t o r i n t e r a c t i o n of sex of subject by toy type by toy i n f e r e n c e s , F(2,108)=15.16, 2<.001. Simple e f f e c t s a n a l y s e s r e v e a l e d a s i g n i f i c a n t toy type by toy i n f e r e n c e s e f f e c t f o r both boys, F(2,58)=9.45, p_<.00l, and g i r l s , F(2,50)=6.24, p_<.004. A s c a n D e seen i n F i g u r e 1, I n s e r t F i g u r e 1 about here. f o r b o y s ' t o y i n f e r e n c e s a b o u t m a s c u l i n e t o y s , a Newman-Keuls a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t w h i l e b o y s t h o u g h t t a r g e t c h i l d r e n w o u l d n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r i n t h e i r i n t e r e s t f o r same a n d c o n s i s t e n t t o y s , b o y s d i d t h i n k t h a t t a r g e t c h i l d r e n w o u l d be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n t e r e s t e d i n b o t h same a n d c o n s i s t e n t t o y s t h a n i n c o n s i s t e n t t o y s (p_<.0l f o r b o t h c o m p a r i s o n s ) . F o r f e m i n i n e t o y t y p e s , h o w e v e r , b o y s p r e d i c t e d t a r g e t c h i l d r e n w o u l d n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r i n t h e i r i n t e r e s t f o r c o n s i s t e n t a n d i n c o n s i s t e n t t o y s , a l t h o u g h t h e y t h o u g h t same t o y s w o u l d d i f f e r f r o m b o t h c o n s i s t e n t (p_<.0l) a n d i n c o n s i s t e n t t o y s (p_<.06). C o n v e r s e l y , a s c a n be s e e n i n 36 F i g u r e 2 , f o r t o y i n f e r e n c e s a b o u t m a s c u l i n e t o y s , I n s e r t F i g u r e 2 a b o u t h e r e . g i r l s p r e d i c t e d t a r g e t c h i l d r e n w o u l d n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r i n t h e i r i n t e r e s t f o r c o n s i s t e n t a n d i n c o n s i s t e n t t o y s , a n d w o u l d p r e f e r same t o y s t o b o t h (p_<.0l). However, f o r f e m i n i n e t o y s , a Newman-Keuls a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t g i r l s t h o u g h t t a r g e t c h i l d r e n w o u l d be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n t e r e s t e d i n c o n s i s t e n t t o y s t h a n i n c o n s i s t e n t t o y s (p_<.01), a s w e l l a s more i n t e r e s t e d i n same t h a n b o t h c o n s i s t e n t (p_<.01) a n d i n c o n s i s t e n t t o y s (p_<.00l). A n o t h e r way t o i n t e r p r e t t h e p a t t e r n o f f i n d i n g s f o r t h e t h r e e f a c t o r i n t e r a c t i o n i s t o c o n s i d e r t o y t y p e s a s b e i n g e i t h e r c o n s i s t e n t o r i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e s e x o f t h e c h i l d b e i n g t e s t e d ( i n s t e a d o f t o y t y p e s b e i n g m a s c u l i n e o r f e m i n i n e ) . U s i n g t h i s a p p r o a c h , t h e i n t e r a c t i o n c a n be i n t e r p r e t e d a s b o t h b o y s a n d g i r l s a t t r i b u t i n g a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n o f i n t e r e s t s t o t h e t a r g e t c h i l d r e n . F i r s t , b o y s a n d g i r l s b o t h a t t r i b u t e d h i g h i n t e r e s t t o same t o y s ( w h e t h e r c o n s i s t e n t o r i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r s e x ) . F u r t h e r , when c h i l d r e n r a t e d t o y s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r own s e x ( i . e . , m a s c u l i n e t o y s r a t e d by b o y s a n d f e m i n i n e t o y s r a t e d by g i r l s ) , b o t h s e x e s r a t e d c o n s i s t e n t t o y s a s h a v i n g 37 s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r i n t e r e s t f o r t h e t a r g e t c h i l d t h a n i n c o n s i s t e n t t o y s . H o w e v e r , when c h i l d r e n r a t e d t o y s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r own s e x ( i . e . , f e m i n i n e t o y s r a t e d by b o y s a n d m a s c u l i n e t o y s r a t e d by g i r l s ) , b o t h s e x e s r a t e d c o n s i s t e n t a n d i n c o n s i s t e n t t o y s a s h a v i n g e q u a l i n t e r e s t f o r t h e t a r g e t c h i l d , a n d t h i s i n t e r e s t was r a t e d a s s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r t h a n f o r same t o y s . S t e r e o t y p i n g S c o r e s S c o r e s on t h e s t e r e o t y p i n g m e a s u r e i n d i c a t e d c h i l d r e n h a d 3 h i g h s t e r e o t y p i n g k n o w l e d g e o f t h e 16 t o y s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e two t e s t i n g s e s s i o n s (M=12.78). O n l y f i v e c h i l d r e n a n s w e r e d 50 p e r c e n t o r more o f t h e q u e s t i o n s " i n c o r r e c t l y " ( i . e . , i n d i c a t i n g t h e y d i d n o t c o r r e c t l y a t t r i b u t e t h e s e x -t y p i n g o f t h e t o y s ) . The s t e r e o t y p i n g m e a s u r e , t h e r e f o r e , was n o t u s e d i n t h e c e n t r a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e t o y i n f e r e n c e s t a s k . An a n a l y s i s was done t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t e r e o t y p i n g i n f l u e n c e d t o y i n f e r e n c e r a t i n g s . U s i n g s c o r e s on a t o t a l o f 16 t o y s , a c u t - o f f s c o r e o f 12 o r more was u s e d t o i n d i c a t e h i g h s t e r e o t y p i n g k n o w l e d g e , a nd 2 l e s s t h a n 12 t o i n d i c a t e l o w s t e r e o t y p i n g k n o w l e d g e , ( ( 1 ) = 4 . 0 , p_<.05). Toy i n f e r e n c e r a t i n g s c o r e s were d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e s i n a r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e ( s e e A p p e n d i x F ) , w i t h two b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s ' f a c t o r s , s e x ( b o y s , 38 g i r l s ) a n d s t e r e o t y p i n g k n o w l e d g e ( h i g h , l o w ) , a n d t h r e e w i t h i n s u b j e c t s ' f a c t o r s , c o n d i t i o n s ( s i n g l e i n t e r e s t s , m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t s w i t h o u t p i c t u r e s , m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t s w i t h p i c t u r e s ) , t o y t y p e s ( m a s c u l i n e , f e m i n i n e ) a n d t o y i n f e r e n c e s (same, c o n s i s t e n t , i n c o n s i s t e n t ) . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e t h r e e s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s f o u n d i n t h e o r i g i n a l a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e , a s i g n i f i c a n t t w o - f a c t o r i n t e r a c t i o n o f s t e r e o t y p i n g k n o w l e d g e by t o y i n f e r e n c e s was f o u n d , F(2,104)=4.43, p_<.0l4. F o r c h i l d r e n w i t h h i g h s t e r e o t y p i n g k n o w l e d g e , s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among a l l means f o r t o y i n f e r e n c e r a t i n g s c o r e s were f o u n d . As p r e d i c t e d , c h i l d r e n w i t h h i g h k n o w l e d g e o f s t e r e o t y p e d t o y s were a b l e t o u s e i n d i v i d u a t i n g t o y i n t e r e s t s when m a k i n g t o y i n f e r e n c e s a b o u t a g e n d e r u n s p e c i f i e d t a r g e t c h i l d . S p e c i f i c a l l y , p l a n n e d c o m p a r i s o n s showed t h a t s c o r e s f o r same t o y s (M=2.81) were h i g h e r t h a n s c o r e s f o r c o n s i s t e n t (M=2.30) t o y s t(38) = l2.57, p_<.000l, s c o r e s f o r same t o y s were h i g h e r t h a n f o r i n c o n s i s t e n t (M=2.06) t o y s , t(38)=9.32, p_<.000l, a n d , most i m p o r t a n t , s c o r e s f o r c o n s i s t e n t t o y s were h i g h e r t h a n f o r i n c o n s i s t e n t t o y s , t(38)=3.13, p_<.003. F o r c h i l d r e n w i t h l o w s t e r e o t y p i n g k n o w l e d g e , h o w e v e r , no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was f o u n d b e t w e e n c o n s i s t e n t (M=2.19) a n d i n c o n s i s t e n t (M=2.07) mean t o y i n f e r e n c e r a t i n g s c o r e s . As e x p e c t e d , c h i l d r e n w i t h l o w s t e r e o t y p i n g k n o w l e d g e d i d n o t use t o y i n t e r e s t s t o make i n f e r e n c e s a b o u t a g e n d e r u n s p e c i f i e d t a r g e t 39 c h i l d . C h i l d r e n w i t h l o w s t e r e o t y p i n g k n o w l e d g e d i d , h o w e v e r , r a t e same t o y s (M=2.44) s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n c o n s i s t e n t t o y s (M=2.19), t (1 6) =2 . 1 6 ,p_<. 0 5 , a nd i n c o n s i s t e n t t o y s (M=2.07), t 0 6 ) = 3 . 1 1 , p_<.007. The s i g n i f i c a n t s t e r e o t y p i n g k n o w l e d g e by t o y i n f e r e n c e s i n t e r a c t i o n subsumed a s i g n i f i c a n t m a i n e f f e c t f o r s t e r e o t y p i n g k n o w l e d g e , F ( 1 , 52) =5. 73 , p_<.02. C h i l d r e n w i t h h i g h s t e r e o t y p i n g k n o w l e d g e a t t r i b u t e d t o t a r g e t c h i l d r e n h i g h e r i n t e r e s t i n t o y s (M=2.39) t h a n c h i l d r e n w i t h low s t e r e o t y p i n g k n o w l e d g e (M=2.23). A p o s t hoc e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s t e r e o t y p i n g k n o w l e d g e by t o y i n f e r e n c e s i n t e r a c t i o n r e v e a l e d t h a t t h i s m a i n e f f e c t was due t o h i g h s t e r e o t y p i n g k n o w l e d g e c h i l d r e n a t t r i b u t i n g h i g h e r t o y i n f e r e n c e r a t i n g s c o r e s r e s p e c t i v e l y t o same and c o n s i s t e n t (M=2.81, M=2.30) t o y s t h a n d i d t h e low s t e r e o t y p i n g k n o w l e d g e c h i l d r e n (M=2.44, M=2.19), w h e r e a s s c o r e s f o r i n c o n s i s t e n t t o y s were t h e same f o r h i g h (M=2.06) a n d l o w (M=2.07) s t e r e o t y p i n g k n o w l e d g e c h i l d r e n . I n o t h e r w o r d s , o n l y same a n d c o n s i s t e n t t o y i n f e r e n c e r a t i n g s c o r e s were a f f e c t e d by h i g h a n d l o w s t e r e o t y p i n g k n o w l e d g e ; s c o r e s on i n c o n s i s t e n t t o y i n f e r e n c e r a t i n g s were n o t a f f e c t e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , h i g h s t e r e o t y p i n g k n o w l e d g e c h i l d r e n a t t r i b u t e d a g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n same a n d c o n s i s t e n t s c o r e s ( d i f f e r e n c e = . 5 1 ) t h a n d i d l o w s t e r e o t y p i n g k n o w l e d g e c h i l d r e n ( d i f f e r e n c e = . 2 5 ) . 40 Scores f o r " f l e x i b i l i t y " i n s t e r e o t y p i n g knowledge were a l s o computed from the s t e r e o t y p i n g measure. The number of toys c h i l d r e n f i r s t thought both boys and g i r l s would most l i k e to p l a y with were i n d i v i d u a l l y summed f o r each c h i l d . These " f l e x i b i l i t y " scores r e s u l t e d i n a maximum score of seven toys out of 16 f i r s t answered as being l i k e d by both boys and g i r l s (M=3.93, median=4.00). A median s p l i t was then used to d i v i d e c h i l d r e n i n t o groups with h i g h and low " f l e x i b i l i t y " i n s t e r e o t y p i n g knowledge. The " f l e x i b i l i t y " s cores were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o planned t - t e s t s f o r d i f f e r e n c e s between mean toy i n f e r e n c e r a t i n g scores a c r o s s c o n d i t i o n s and toy i n f e r e n c e s . Across c o n d i t i o n s , d i f f e r e n c e s between a l l means were n o n s i g n i f i c a n t ; c h i l d r e n s 1 h i g h or low " f l e x i b i l i t y " scores had no e f f e c t on toy i n f e r e n c e r a t i n g s . Across toy i n f e r e n c e s , d i f f e r e n c e s between a l l means were s i g n i f i c a n t . Again, toy i n f e r e n c e r a t i n g s were not d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a f f e c t e d by high or low " f l e x i b i l i t y " . I t was concluded t h e r e f o r e t h a t " f l e x i b i l i t y " i n ste r e o t y p e d knowledge of toys had no apparent e f f e c t on c h i l d r e n s ' toy i n f e r e n c e r a t i n g s a c r o s s c o n d i t i o n s or toy i n f e r e n c e s . Preference Scores A n a l y s i s of c h i l d r e n ' s toy p r e f e r e n c e s showed that c h i l d r e n s t r o n g l y p r e f e r r e d same-sex toys over toys f o r the other sex. S p e c i f i c a l l y , f o r the two masculine toys ( c a r s , 41 t r a i n engines) and the two feminine toys ( d o l l s , sewing machines) used i n the toy i n f e r e n c e r a t i n g s , boys p r e f e r r e d masculine toys (M=2.40) more than feminine toys (M=1.80), t(29)=3.60, 2 < « 0 0 1 ' a n d g i r l s p r e f e r r e d feminine toys (M=2.44) more than masculine toys (M=2.02), t(25)=-2.36, £<.026. F u r t h e r , comparison of means f o r a l l masculine toys with a l l feminine toys r e v e a l e d that boys p r e f e r r e d masculine toys most, t(29)=5.31, £<.0001, and g i r l s p r e f e r r e d feminine toys most, t(25)=-5.48, p < ' 0 0 0 1 ' During t e s t i n g of the toy i n f e r e n c e s task, c h i l d r e n ' s spontaneous remarks about the gender of t a r g e t c h i l d r e n were recorded. Three g i r l s and four boys mentioned gender. For example, when the experimenter s a i d , "I know a c h i l d who r e a l l y l i k e s to play with a purse and comb set a l o t and a l s o with a d o l l house a l o t . " , two g i r l s and one boy asked i f the t a r g e t c h i l d was a g i r l ( the experimenter answered t h a t she d i d not know and repeated the statement). A l s o , when the experimenter s a i d she knew a c h i l d who l i k e d to p l a y with a t o o l k i t a l o t and a l s o with an a i r p l a n e a l o t , two boys spontaneously remarked, "That's a boy ". A l l seven gender remarks " c o r r e c t l y " i d e n t i f i e d the gender of the t a r g e t c h i l d who would t r a d i t i o n a l l y be a s s o c i a t e d with the sex-typed toy (e.g., purse and comb s e t s are a s s o c i a t e d with g i r l s , and t o o l k i t s are a s s o c i a t e d with boys). 42 DISCUSSION I n f e r e n c e s A c r o s s Toy I n f e r e n c e R a t i n g s As e x p e c t e d , c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o make i n f e r e n c e s b a s e d on t a r g e t s ' i n t e r e s t s i n t h e a b s e n c e o f g e n d e r l a b e l s . Young c h i l d r e n u s e d s e x - t y p e d t o y i n t e r e s t s t o make i n f e r e n c e s a b o u t t a r g e t s ' f u t u r e t o y i n t e r e s t s , w i t h o u t k n o w l e d g e o f t a r g e t s ' g e n d e r . S p e c i f i c a l l y , a c r o s s a l l c o n d i t i o n s , b o y s a nd g i r l s s a i d t a r g e t s w o u l d be most i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e same t o y s a s s t a t e d i n t h e s t o r i e s , m o d e r a t e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t o y s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s e x - t y p i n g o f t h e t o y s s t a t e d i n t h e s t o r i e s , a n d l e a s t i n t e r e s t e d i n t o y s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s e x - t y p i n g o f t h e t o y s s t a t e d i n t h e s t o r i e s . F o r e x a m p l e , i f a t a r g e t was s a i d t o be i n t e r e s t e d i n make-up k i t s , c h i l d r e n p r e d i c t e d t h a t i n t h e f u t u r e t h e t a r g e t w o u l d be most i n t e r e s t e d i n make-up k i t s , m o d e r a t e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n d o l l s a n d s e w i n g m a c h i n e s , a nd l e a s t i n t e r e s t e d i n c a r s a n d t r a i n e n g i n e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e d i v i s i o n o f c h i l d r e n i n t o h i g h a n d l o w s t e r e o t y p i n g k n o w l e d g e r e v e a l e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n a b i l i t y t o make i n f e r e n c e s b a s e d on i n t e r e s t s . As e x p e c t e d , c h i l d r e n w i t h l o w k n o w l e d g e o f s t e r e o t y p e s d i d n o t r a t e c o n s i s t e n t a n d i n c o n s i s t e n t t o y s a s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t , w h i l e c h i l d r e n w i t h h i g h k n o w l e d g e o f s t e r e o t y p e s d i d r a t e them d i f f e r e n t l y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , o n l y c h i l d r e n w i t h h i g h k n o w l e d g e o f g e n d e r s t e r e o t y p e s were a b l e t o make j u d g m e n t s 43 b a s e d on m a s c u l i n e o r f e m i n i n e i n t e r e s t s . A l t h o u g h c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o make p r e d i c t i o n s b a s e d on s e x - t y p e d i n t e r e s t s , t h i s e f f e c t o c c u r r e d s e l e c t i v e l y . T h a t i s , b o y s made t o y p r e d i c t i o n s b a s e d on t a r g e t s ' i n t e r e s t s i n m a s c u l i n e t o y s , w h i l e t h e i r p r e d i c t i o n s b a s e d on t a r g e t s ' i n t e r e s t s i n f e m i n i n e t o y s were l e s s c l e a r . C o n v e r s e l y , g i r l s made t o y p r e d i c t i o n s b a s e d on t a r g e t s ' i n t e r e s t s i n f e m i n i n e t o y s , w h i l e t h e i r p r e d i c t i o n s b a s e d on t a r g e t s ' i n t e r e s t s i n m a s c u l i n e t o y s were a l s o n o t a s c l e a r . T h u s , c h i l d r e n a p p e a r t o be s u r e a b o u t t h e t o y i n t e r e s t s o f a t a r g e t c h i l d who i s s a i d t o be i n t e r e s t e d i n t o y s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r own s e x ; t h e y a t t r i b u t e t o t h e t a r g e t c h i l d h i g h e s t i n t e r e s t i n t o y s i d e n t i c a l t o t h e t a r g e t ' s s t a t e d t o y i n t e r e s t , m o d e r a t e i n t e r e s t i n t o y s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e s t a t e d t o y i n t e r e s t , a n d l e a s t i n t e r e s t i n t o y s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e s t a t e d t o y i n t e r e s t . T h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g d o e s n o t h o l d f o r s t a t e m e n t s where t a r g e t s a r e s a i d t o be i n t e r e s t e d i n t o y s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e s e x o f t h e c h i l d b e i n g t e s t e d . I n t h e s e c a s e s , w h i l e c h i l d r e n s t i l l u n d e r s t a n d t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n s t a t e d t o y i n t e r e s t s a n d i d e n t i c a l t o y s , t h e y seem u n s u r e a b o u t t h e o t h e r t o y i n t e r e s t s a n d s o t h e t a r g e t c h i l d i s a t t r i b u t e d e q u a l i n t e r e s t i n c o n s i s t e n t a n d i n c o n s i s t e n t t o y s . One c o u l d a r g u e t h a t t h e s e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e c h i l d r e n a r e r e s p o n d i n g e g o c e n t r i c a l l y . T h a t i s , c h i l d r e n may n o t be 44 t a k i n g t h e p o s i t i o n o f t a r g e t s t o i n f e r t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e , b u t i n s t e a d be r e l y i n g on t h e i r own p e r s p e c t i v e . T h i s i n a b i l i t y t o c o n s i d e r , a t t h e same t i m e , b o t h t h e o t h e r p e r s o n ' s p o i n t o f v i e w a s w e l l a s o n e ' s own i s common b e f o r e t h e age o f s i x ( s e e F l a v e l l , 1 9 7 7 ) . C h i l d r e n ' s t o y p r e f e r e n c e s were a s s e s s e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y a n d an a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e p r e f e r e n c e s showed t h a t c h i l d r e n s t r o n g l y p r e f e r r e d same-sex t o y s . A p a t t e r n o f e g o c e n t r i c r e s p o n s e s , t h e r e f o r e , w o u l d e n t a i l t h a t c h i l d r e n a t t r i b u t e h i g h e s t i n t e r e s t t o t o y s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r own s e x a c r o s s same, c o n s i s t e n t a n d i n c o n s i s t e n t t o y r a t i n g s r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e t a r g e t s ' s t a t e d i n t e r e s t s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , a c r o s s a l l t o y i n f e r e n c e r a t i n g s , b o y s r e s p o n d i n g e g o c e n t r i c a l l y w o u l d a t t r i b u t e h i g h e r i n t e r e s t t o m a s c u l i n e t o y s t h a n f e m i n i n e t o y s , a n d g i r l s r e s p o n d i n g e g o c e n t r i c a l l y w o u l d a t t r i b u t e h i g h e r i n t e r e s t t o f e m i n i n e t o y s t h a n m a s c u l i n e t o y s . T h i s g e n d e r - b a s e d e g o c e n t r i c p a t t e r n was n o t e v i d e n t i n t h e p r e s e n t r e s u l t s . F i r s t , f o r i n f e r e n c e s a b o u t same t o y s , b o t h b o y s a n d g i r l s d i d n o t a t t r i b u t e h i g h e s t i n t e r e s t t o same-sex t o y s . I n s t e a d , c h i l d r e n a t t r i b u t e d h i g h e s t i n t e r e s t t o t h e same t o y a s t h e t a r g e t ' s o r i g i n a l s t a t e d i n t e r e s t . F o r e x a m p l e , where t h e t a r g e t ' s s t a t e d i n t e r e s t was a f e m i n i n e s e x - t y p e d t o y , b o y s a t t r i b u t e d h i g h e s t i n t e r e s t t o t h e same f e m i n i n e t o y , and n o t t o o t h e r f e m i n i n e o r m a s c u l i n e t o y s . 45 H o w e v e r , i f b o y s were e g o c e n t r i c t h e y w o u l d a t t r i b u t e low i n t e r e s t t o t h e same f e m i n i n e t o y . So f o r i n f e r e n c e s a b o u t same t o y s , i t a p p e a r s c h i l d r e n d i d n o t b a s e r e s p o n s e s on t h e i r own p e r s p e c t i v e . S e c o n d l y , f o r i n f e r e n c e s f o r w h i c h t a r g e t s ' s t a t e d i n t e r e s t s were i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e s e x o f t h e c h i l d b e i n g t e s t e d ( i . e . , f o r g i r l s , a t a r g e t i n t e r e s t e d i n m a s c u l i n e t o y s a n d f o r b o y s , a t a r g e t i n t e r e s t e d i n f e m i n i n e t o y s ) , c h i l d r e n a t t r i b u t e d v e r y s i m i l a r , i f n o t i d e n t i c a l , i n t e r e s t s c o r e s t o b o t h m a s c u l i n e a n d f e m i n i n e t o y s . H o w e v e r , i f c h i l d r e n were r e s p o n d i n g i n an e g o c e n t r i c manner t h e y w o u l d a t t r i b u t e h i g h e r i n t e r e s t t o same-sex t o y s . F i n a l l y , i f t o y i n f e r e n c e s c o r e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d i n t e r m s o f w h e t h e r c h i l d r e n made r a t i n g s s p e c i f i c a l l y on m a s c u l i n e o r f e m i n i n e t o y s , i n s t e a d o f w h e t h e r c h i l d r e n made r a t i n g s on t o y s c o n s i s t e n t o r i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e t a r g e t s ' p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d t o y i n t e r e s t s , i t i s a g a i n e v i d e n t t h a t c h i l d r e n a r e n o t r e s p o n d i n g e g o c e n t r i c a l l y . S p e c i f i c a l l y , a s e x p e c t e d , a t r e n d i s e v i d e n t f o r g i r l s a n d b o y s b o t h t o r a t e m a s c u l i n e t o y s h i g h e r when t a r g e t s ' s t a t e d i n t e r e s t s a r e m a s c u l i n e t h a n when t a r g e t s ' s t a t e d i n t e r e s t s a r e f e m i n i n e . S i m i l a r l y , a s e x p e c t e d g i r l s a n d b o y s b o t h show a t r e n d t o r a t e f e m i n i n e t o y s h i g h e r when t a r g e t s ' s t a t e d i n t e r e s t s a r e f e m i n i n e t h a n when. t a r g e t s ' s t a t e d i n t e r e s t s a r e m a s c u l i n e . T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n r a t i n g s on m a s c u l i n e t o y s a n d b e t w e e n 46 r a t i n g s on f e m i n i n e t o y s , a c r o s s m a s c u l i n e a n d f e m i n i n e t o y t y p e s , were n o t a l w a y s s i g n i f i c a n t . H o w e v e r , a t r e n d i s e v i d e n t i n t h e e x p e c t e d d i r e c t i o n w h i c h s u g g e s t s c h i l d r e n a r e n o t e g o c e n t r i c . I n sum, t h e s e r e s u l t s do n o t f i t an e g o c e n t r i c r e s p o n s e p a t t e r n . C h i l d r e n ' s r e s p o n s e s were n o t b a s e d on t h e i r own p e r s p e c t i v e f o r e i t h e r same t o y r a t i n g s o r f o r r a t i n g s on t o y s where t a r g e t s ' i n t e r e s t s a r e i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r own s e x , so i t c a n n o t be s a i d t h a t c h i l d r e n i n t h i s s t u d y a r e r e s p o n d i n g e g o c e n t r i c a l l y . How t h e n c a n c h i l d r e n ' s t e n d e n c y t o u s e i n t e r e s t s s e l e c t i v e l y be e x p l a i n e d ? C h i l d r e n a p p e a r e d t o h a v e d i f f i c u l t y m a k i n g s t e r e o t y p e - b a s e d i n f e r e n c e s a b o u t a t a r g e t c h i l d w i t h i n t e r e s t s u n l i k e t h e i r own w h i l e c l e a r l y m a k i n g s t e r e o t y p e - b a s e d i n f e r e n c e s f o r a t a r g e t c h i l d w i t h i n t e r e s t s l i k e t h e i r own. P e r h a p s t h e most p a r s i m o n i o u s e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s f i n d i n g i s t h a t c h i l d r e n h a v e l e s s k n o w l e d g e a b o u t t h e s e x s t e r e o t y p e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e o p p o s i t e s e x t h a n f o r t h e i r own s e x ( M a r t i n & H a l v e r s o n , 1 9 8 1 ) . T h a t i s , a l t h o u g h c h i l d r e n a p p e a r t o l e a r n e q u a l l y w e l l t h e a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n b o t h g e n d e r g r o u p s and a c t i v i t i e s , t h e i r i n d e p t h k n o w l e d g e a b o u t s t e r e o t y p e s may be s e l e c t i v e . P e r h a p s c h i l d r e n l e a r n more a b o u t t h e a c t i v i t i e s a n d i n t e r e s t s t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i r own s e x t h a n f o r t h o s e t r a d i t i o n a l l y 47 a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e o t h e r s e x . E m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e f o r s u c h s e l e c t i v i t y i n s e x s t e r e o t y p i n g k n o w l e d g e h a s been f o u n d w i t h c h i l d r e n ' s k n o w l e d g e o f t o y s ( H a l v e r s o n & M a r t i n , 1985) a n d n o v e l o b j e c t s ( B r a d b a r d , M a r t i n , E n d s l e y , & H a l v e r s o n , i n p r e s s ) . I n t h o s e s t u d i e s , c h i l d r e n showed more d e t a i l e d k n o w l e d g e a b o u t t o y s l a b e l e d f o r t h e i r own s e x t h a n t o y s l a b e l e d f o r t h e o t h e r s e x . S i m i l a r l y , c h i l d r e n i n t h i s s t u d y may h a v e h a d d e t a i l e d k n o w l e d g e a b o u t t o y i n t e r e s t s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r s e x b u t i n s u f f i c i e n t k n o w l e d g e a b o u t i n t e r e s t s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r s e x . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , c h i l d r e n may l a c k k n o w l e d g e o f t h e a s s o c i a t i v e n e t w o r k f o r s t e r e o t y p e d c o m p o n e n t s n o t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i r own s e x ( s e e Deaux & L e w i s , 1 9 8 4 ) . So f o r e x a m p l e , g i r l s may n o t u n d e r s t a n d how f o o t b a l l s , c a r s a n d t r a i n e n g i n e s a r e l i n k e d w i t h i n t h e component o f m a s c u l i n i t y ( i . e . , one i n t e r e s t l i n k e d t o a n o t h e r i n t e r e s t ) . I n t h i s way, c h i l d r e n w o u l d e x h i b i t c o n f u s i o n when t r y i n g t o make i n f e r e n c e s when g i v e n o n l y i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t i n t e r e s t s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r own s e x . As a r e s u l t , c h i l d r e n w o u l d n o t be a b l e t o make c l e a r p r e d i c t i o n s o f t h a t t a r g e t ' s f u t u r e t o y i n t e r e s t s . C o n v e r s e l y , h a v i n g d e t a i l e d k n o w l e d g e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s among t o y i n t e r e s t s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r own s e x , c h i l d r e n w o u l d be a b l e t o make c l e a r i n f e r e n c e s b a s e d on t h e t a r g e t ' s i n t e r e s t s . 48 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Previous S t u d i e s The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t i n g c h i l d r e n were able to make i n t e r e s t - b a s e d judgments i n the absence of gender are p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t given that i n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s (Berndt & Heller,1986; Martin,1985; Zucker et a l . , 1985), where gender i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e , young c h i l d r e n based t h e i r i n f e r e n c e s on gender r a t h e r than i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s . In c o n t r a s t , o l d e r c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s under the same or s i m i l a r circumstances based t h e i r i n f e r e n c e s more on i n d i v i d u a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n (Berndt & Heller,1986; Deaux & Lewis,1984; L o c k s l e y et al.,1980; Martin,1985; Zucker et al.,1985). The reasons f o r young c h i l d r e n and o l d e r c h i l d r e n using i n f o r m a t i o n d i f f e r e n t l y when making s o c i a l judgments had not been c l e a r l y understood i n these s t u d i e s . D i d young c h i l d r e n r e l y s o l e l y on gender i n f o r m a t i o n because they d i d not see i n t e r e s t s as p r e d i c t i v e or did.gender i n f o r m a t i o n f o r some reason overpower other, even more r e l e v a n t , i n f o r m a t i o n ? R e s u l t s from the present study p r o v i d e evidence that a i d s i n answering why young c h i l d r e n r e l i e d on gender i n s t e a d of i n d i v i d u a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n to make i n f e r e n c e s i n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s . The r e s u l t s show that when gender l a b e l s are not present young c h i l d r e n w i l l , i n some cases, use sex-typed i n t e r e s t s to make s o c i a l judgments. I n t e r e s t s , t h e r e f o r e , are not too a b s t r a c t f o r use by young c h i l d r e n i n making p r e d i c t i o n s about o t h e r s . N e i t h e r do c h i l d r e n assume that an 49 i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e r e s t s v a r y a c r o s s t i m e . E v i d e n c e f o r t h i s a s s e r t i o n comes f r o m c h i l d r e n a t t r i b u t i n g t o t a r g e t s a h i g h i n t e r e s t i n t o y s p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d a s b e i n g o f i n t e r e s t t o t h e t a r g e t . I n o t h e r w o r d s , i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , a l l c h i l d r e n u n d e r s t o o d t h a t i f a t a r g e t was s a i d t o l i k e a i r p l a n e s t h a t t h e t a r g e t w o u l d a l s o l i k e a i r p l a n e s i n t h e f u t u r e . C o r r e c t a t t r i b u t i o n s i n t h i s e x a m p l e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t s i n c e t h e y s u g g e s t t h a t c h i l d r e n r e c o g n i z e s t a b i l i t y o f i n t e r e s t s a c r o s s t i m e . C h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e s t a b i l i t y o f i n t e r e s t s i s i m p o r t a n t s i n c e i t i s t h o u g h t t h a t c o n s i s t e n c y o f d i s p o s i t i o n s a c r o s s t i m e ( a n d s i t u a t i o n s ) i s r e l a t e d t o an i n c r e a s e i n t h e i r v a l u e a s a b a s i s f o r p r e d i c t i o n s ( R h o l e s & R u b l e , 1 9 8 4 ) . T h a t i s , i f c h i l d r e n assumed i n t e r e s t s v a r i e d a c r o s s t i m e , t h e n t h e y w o u l d s e e no p r e d i c t i v e v a l u e t o u s i n g i n d i v i d u a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . However, s i n c e c h i l d r e n i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y made p r e d i c t i o n s a b o u t a s p e c i f i c t o y t o t h e same t o y i t i n d i c a t e s c h i l d r e n u n d e r s t a n d t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e r e s t s c a n be s t a b l e . T h e s e f i n d i n g s a r e s u p p o r t i v e o f r e s u l t s f r o m p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s . H e l l e r a n d B e r n d t ( 1 981) a n d R h o l e s a n d R u b l e ( 1 9 8 4 ) h a v e f o u n d t h a t f i v e t o s i x y e a r o l d s a s w e l l a s c h i l d r e n o f a b o u t e i g h t y e a r s e x p e c t s t a b i l i t y o f b e h a v i o r a c r o s s t i m e . A n o t h e r p r o p o s e d e x p l a n a t i o n f o r why y o u n g c h i l d r e n a p p e a r n o t t o f i n d i n t e r e s t s p r e d i c t i v e i n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s 50 was that young c h i l d r e n p o s s i b l y are unable to g e n e r a l i z e from s p e c i f i c s t e r e o t y p i c i n t e r e s t s to broader c a t e g o r i e s (Martin,1985). For example, while a d u l t s p r e d i c t that people ( r e g a r d l e s s of gender) who behaved a s s e r t i v e l y i n the past w i l l perform other "masculine" behaviors i n the f u t u r e (Locksley et a l . , 1980), i t was suggested that young c h i l d r e n perhaps are unable to i n f e r such broad t r a i t s from a few s p e c i f i c b ehaviors or i n t e r e s t s . I f young c h i l d r e n are u n w i l l i n g or unable to make such g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , M a r t i n proposed that gender would n e c e s s a r i l y d i r e c t t h e i r i n f e r e n c e s . However, r e s u l t s from the present study p r o v i d e evidence that young c h i l d r e n are abl e to g e n e r a l i z e from s p e c i f i c g e n d e r - r e l a t e d i n t e r e s t s to broader c a t e g o r i e s , at l e a s t when those i n t e r e s t s are c o n s i s t e n t with own-sex s t e r e o t y p e s . For example, when c h i l d r e n were t o l d of a t a r g e t ' s i n t e r e s t i n a purse and comb s e t , they were w i l l i n g to i n f e r t h a t the t a r g e t would be most i n t e r e s t e d i n other "feminine" i n t e r e s t s , such as, d o l l s and sewing machines, and l e a s t i n t e r e s t e d i n "masculine" i n t e r e s t s , such as, c a r s and t r a i n engines. In r e f e r e n c e to young c h i l d r e n ' s use of i n f o r m a t i o n i n pre v i o u s s t u d i e s , the e x p l a n a t i o n remains incomplete as to why young c h i l d r e n , u n l i k e o l d e r c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s , ignored i n t e r e s t s when gender l a b e l s were a v a i l a b l e . R e s u l t s from the present study have added an important p i e c e of i n f o r m a t i o n 51 t o t h i s p u z z l e : y o u n g c h i l d r e n a r e a b l e t o make i n f e r e n c e s b a s e d on i n t e r e s t s when g e n d e r l a b e l s a r e a b s e n t . So i f i n t e r e s t s a s w e l l a s g e n d e r l a b e l s a r e b o t h p r e d i c t i v e f o r y o u n g c h i l d r e n , why a r e i n t e r e s t s i g n o r e d when g e n d e r l a b e l s a r e p r e s e n t ? P e r h a p s , a s s u g g e s t e d e a r l i e r , t h i s c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d p a r t l y a s a g e n e r a l c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s i n g c o n s t r a i n t . Young c h i l d r e n may b a s e i n f e r e n c e s on o n l y one p i e c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n due t o c o n s t r a i n t s on t h e i r a b i l i t y t o i n t e g r a t e m u l t i p l e p i e c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n a t t h e same t i m e . T h i s i n t e g r a t i o n p r o b l e m h a s been d e m o n s t r a t e d i n e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h . When m u l t i p l e p i e c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n a r e a v a i l a b l e , y o u n g c h i l d r e n t e n d t o r e l y on one p i e c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n w h e r e a s o l d e r c h i l d r e n t e n d t o u s e t h e f u l l r a n g e o f a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n ( s e e H i g g i n s , 1 9 8 1 ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s , c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s i n g c o n s t r a i n t s - f a i l t o e x p l a i n why y o u n g c h i l d r e n c o n s i s t e n t l y p r e f e r g e n d e r l a b e l s o v e r t h e more r e l e v a n t i n d i v i d u a t i n g i n t e r e s t i n f o r m a t i o n . T h a t i s , i f y o u n g c h i l d r e n ' s u s e o f i n f o r m a t i o n i s c o m p l e t e l y d e t e r m i n e d by i n t e g r a t i o n c o n s t a i n t s , we w o u l d n o t e x p e c t a p r e f e r e n c e f o r one t y p e o f i n f o r m a t i o n o v e r a n o t h e r . So w h i l e c o g n i t i v e c o n s t r a i n t s may h e l p e x p l a i n how much i n f o r m a t i o n i s u s e d , t h e y do n o t h e l p e x p l a i n w h i c h p i e c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r e f e r r e d . P e r h a p s p r e f e r e n c e f o r one t y p e o f i n f o r m a t i o n o v e r a n o t h e r i s d e t e r m i n e d by p e r c e i v e d s a l i e n c e . Young 52 c h i l d r e n may not use i n d i v i d u a t i n g i n t e r e s t s because gender may be p e r c e i v e d as a more s a l i e n t and important s t e r e o t y p e or schema f o r them (Martin & Halverson, 1981). One reason young c h i l d r e n may f i n d gender l a b e l s so s a l i e n t and important i s because t h e i r gender schemas are u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d or not f u l l y developed. Ac c o r d i n g to Kohlberg's (1966) c o g n i t i v e developmental theory, c h i l d r e n under seven years may f a i l to r e c o g n i z e the d i v e r s i t y of male and female b e h a v i o r s , i n t e r e s t s and t r a i t s . M a r t i n (1985) r e f e r s to t h i s t h i n k i n g as " g e n d e r - c e n t r i c " or the f a i l u r e to r ecognize v a r i a b i l i t y w i t h i n gender groups. S i m i l a r l y , t h i s t h i n k i n g c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d as a l a c k of " f l e x i b i l i t y " i n knowledge of sex s t e r e o t y p e s and schemas (see Maccoby, 1980). For example, young c h i l d r e n may not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between boys who l i k e "boys" t h i n g s and boys who l i k e " g i r l s " t h i n g s . Consequently, i f these c h i l d r e n are t o l d that a boy l i k e s d o l l s , they would ignore t h i s i n d i v i d u a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n s i n c e i t would be i n c o n s i s t e n t with t h e i r gender schema, and r i g i d l y process i n f e r e n c e s about that boy on the b a s i s of gender. Once c h i l d r e n ' s schemas become more f l e x i b l e and they r e c o g n i z e that some boys l i k e " g i r l s " t h i n g s , they may f i n d i t e a s i e r to process i n f e r e n c e s about a boy on the b a s i s of i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s . For example, they may p r e d i c t that a boy who l i k e s d o l l s would be i n t e r e s t e d i n other " g i r l s " t h i n g s . In t h i s case, paying a t t e n t i o n to i n d i v i d u a l 53 i n t e r e s t s w o u l d be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a more f l e x i b l e schema. T h e r e f o r e , f o r c h i l d r e n p o s s e s s i n g " f l e x i b i l i t y " i n s t e r e o t y p i n g k n o w l e d g e , g e n d e r may n o t o v e r p o w e r more r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n s u c h a s i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s b e c a u s e t h e s e i n t e r e s t s a r e no l o n g e r i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r g e n d e r schema. C o n v e r s e l y , f o r c h i l d r e n n o t p o s s e s s i n g f l e x i b i l i t y i n s t e r e o t y p i n g k n o w l e d g e , g e n d e r i n f o r m a t i o n may be r i g i d l y a d h e r e d t o b e c a u s e i n d i v i d u a t i n g i n t e r e s t s may be i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r g e n d e r schema. P o s t hoc a n a l y s e s o f t h e p r e d i c t i o n s c h i l d r e n made when b o t h g e n d e r a n d i n t e r e s t i n f o r m a t i o n were a v a i l a b l e ( i . e . , t h e r e p l i c a t i o n t a s k ) s u p p o r t t h i s p r o p o s a l c o n c e r n i n g y o u n g c h i l d r e n ' s r i g i d g e n d e r s c h e m a s . As e x p e c t e d , f o r c h i l d r e n l o w i n f l e x i b i l i t y i n s t e r e o t y p i n g k n o w l e d g e ( i . e . , c h i l d r e n who f i r s t r a t e d one t o t h r e e o u t of 16 t o y s a s b e i n g most l i k e d by b o t h b o y s a nd g i r l s ) , g e n d e r s t r o n g l y o v e r p o w e r e d i n t e r e s t i n f o r m a t i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , s c o r e s f o r i n f e r e n c e s b a s e d on g e n d e r (M=2.63) were s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e f o r i n f e r e n c e s b a s e d on p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d i n t e r e s t s (M=1.97), (p_<.007). F o r c h i l d r e n h i g h i n f l e x i b i l i t y i n s t e r e o t y p i n g k n o w l e d g e ( i . e . , c h i l d r e n who f i r s t r a t e d f o u r t o s e v e n o u t o f 16 t o y s a s b e i n g most l i k e d by b o t h b o y s a n d g i r l s ) , s c o r e s f o r i n f e r e n c e s b a s e d on g e n d e r (M=2.39) were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e f o r i n f e r e n c e s b a s e d on 54 i n t e r e s t s (M=1.96), (p_<.03). H o w e v e r , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n s c o r e s b e t w e e n g e n d e r a n d i n t e r e s t s were s m a l l e r f o r h i g h f l e x i b i l i t y c h i l d r e n t h a n f o r l o w f l e x i b i l i t y c h i l d r e n . T h i s was due t o h i g h f l e x i b i l i t y c h i l d r e n a t t r i b u t i n g l o w e r s c o r e s t o i n f e r e n c e s b a s e d on g e n d e r . I n o t h e r w o r d s , f o r h i g h f l e x i b i l i t y c h i l d r e n , g e n d e r s t i l l o v e r p o w e r s i n t e r e s t s b u t by a s m a l l e r m a r g i n t h a n f o r l o w f l e x i b i l i t y c h i l d r e n . T h e s e f i n d i n g s , t h e r e f o r e , show a t r e n d c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e p r o p o s a l t h a t f o r l o w f l e x i b i l i t y c h i l d r e n , g e n d e r i s most l i k e l y t o be u s e d b e c a u s e i n t e r e s t s a r e i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a r i g i d schema, w h i l e f o r h i g h f l e x i b i l i t y c h i l d r e n , g e n d e r i s l e s s l i k e l y t o be u s e d b e c a u s e i n t e r e s t s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a more f l e x i b l e schema. P e r h a p s i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y g e n d e r i n f o r m a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n i n t e r e s t s was s t i l l u s e d more by c h i l d r e n w i t h " h i g h " f l e x i b i l i t y b e c a u s e t h e i r f l e x i b i l i t y s c o r e s were n o t r e a l l y h i g h . T h a t i s , t h e m e d i a n s p l i t u s e d t o s e p a r a t e l o w f r o m h i g h s c o r i n g c h i l d r e n r e s u l t e d i n s c o r e s b e t w e e n f o u r a n d s e v e n o u t o f 16 b e i n g l a b e l e d a s " h i g h " f l e x i b i l i t y . P o s s i b l y o l d e r c h i l d r e n w i t h t r u l y h i g h f l e x i b i l i t y s c o r e s ( e . g . , s c o r e s o f 12 o r more o u t o f 16) w o u l d be l e s s l i k e l y t o u s e g e n d e r i n f o r m a t i o n , a n d w o u l d r e l y more on i n t e r e s t i n f o r m a t i o n . T h i s s u g g e s t i o n i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h K o h l b e r g ' s t h e o r y ( 1 9 6 6 ) , i n a s s e r t i n g t h a t w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o n c r e t e o p e r a t i o n a l t h i n k i n g , c h i l d r e n a r e more r e a d y t o 55 u n d e r s t a n d t h a t s e x s t e r e o t y p e s a r e f l e x i b l e , a n d t h a t m a l e s and f e m a l e s c a n s h a r e a t t r i b u t e s . E m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t s t h e i d e a t h a t s t e r e o t y p e s become more f l e x i b l e w i t h a g e ; c h i l d r e n o l d e r t h a n s e v e n y e a r s a r e more a w a r e t h a n c h i l d r e n u n d e r s e v e n y e a r s o f e x c e p t i o n s i n s e x s t e r e o t y p e s . C h i l d r e n o v e r s e v e n y e a r s u n d e r s t a n d t h a t a c t i v i t i e s a n d i n t e r e s t s c a n be c l a s s i f i e d a s e q u a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r b o t h s e x e s ( s e e H u s t o n , 1 9 8 3 ; L e a h y & S h i r k , 1 9 8 4 ) . I n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i t w o u l d be i n t e r e s t i n g t o i n v e s t i g a t e w h e t h e r g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y i n s t e r e o t y p i n g k n o w l e d g e i s r e l a t e d t o t h e t e n d e n c y t o u s e i n d i v i d u a t i n g i n t e r e s t s when m a k i n g i n f e r e n c e s a b o u t o t h e r s . U n d e r c o n d i t i o n s i n w h i c h g e n d e r i n f o r m a t i o n i s n o t p r e s e n t , a s i n t h e t o y i n f e r e n c e t a s k i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , c h i l d r e n b o t h f l e x i b l e a n d i n f l e x i b l e i n k n o w l e d g e o f s e x -s t e r e o t y p i c b e h a v i o r s s h o u l d n o t h a v e p r o b l e m s p r e d i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s f r o m a s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t ( g i v e n t h a t t h e y b e l i e v e i n t e r e s t s h a v e p r e d i c t i v e v a l u e ) s i n c e t h e r e w o u l d be no g e n d e r i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t w o u l d be i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i n t e r e s t i n f o r m a t i o n . R e s u l t s f r o m t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y s u p p o r t t h i s p r o p o s a l . S c o r e s f o r f l e x i b i l i t y i n s t e r e o t y p i n g k n o w l e d g e o f t o y s were n o t r e l a t e d t o c h i l d r e n ' s t o y i n f e r e n c e s ; a l l h i g h l y s t e r e o t y p e d c h i l d r e n f o u n d p r e d i c t i v e v a l u e i n i n d i v i d u a l s e x - t y p e d t o y i n t e r e s t s . 56 I n f e r e n c e s A c r o s s C o n d i t i o n s C o n t r a r y t o p r e d i c t i o n , c h i l d r e n were n o t i n f l u e n c e d by m a n i p u l a t i o n s o f t h e s a l i e n c e o f t o y i n t e r e s t s . T h i s r e s u l t e m p h a s i z e s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e c e n t r a l f i n d i n g t h a t c h i l d r e n a r e a b l e t o b a s e p r e d i c t i o n s on s e x - t y p e d i n t e r e s t s ; a t a r g e t ' s s t a t e d i n t e r e s t i n o n l y one t o y w i t h no p i c t u r e s shown i s s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n t o make i n f e r e n c e s . M u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t s w i t h o u t p i c t u r e s a n d m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t s w i t h p i c t u r e s d i d n o t , a s e x p e c t e d , i n c r e a s e c h i l d r e n ' s r e l i a n c e on s e x - t y p e d i n t e r e s t s when m a k i n g p r e d i c t i o n s . I n f a c t , m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t s may have d e c r e a s e d g i r l s ' r e l i a n c e on s e x - t y p e d i n t e r e s t s . T h a t i s , g i r l s a t t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r mean t o y i n f e r e n c e " r a t i n g s c o r e s a c r o s s t h e s i n g l e i n t e r e s t c o n d i t i o n s t h a n a c r o s s e i t h e r t h e m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t s w i t h o u t p i c t u r e s o r t h e m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t s w i t h p i c t u r e s c o n d i t i o n s . I n c o n t r a s t , b o y s a t t r i b u t e d t o t a r g e t c h i l d r e n an e q u a l i n t e r e s t i n t o y s a c r o s s a l l c o n d i t i o n s . I t i s n o t c l e a r why g i r l s a t t r i b u t e d h i g h e r i n f e r e n c e r a t i n g s c o r e s t o t h e s i n g l e i n t e r e s t c o n d i t i o n s . I n summary, t h e r e s u l t s h ave a i d e d i n e x p l a i n i n g f i n d i n g s f r o m p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , a n d i n p r o v i d i n g f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o y o u n g c h i l d r e n ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s e x s t e r e o t y p e s a n d t h e i r 57 e f f e c t s on i m p r e s s i o n f o r m a t i o n . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t when g e n d e r l a b e l s a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e , y o u n g c h i l d r e n , i n some c a s e s , a r e a b l e t o make i n f e r e n c e s b a s e d on s e x - t y p e d i n t e r e s t s . T h i s s u g g e s t s n o t o n l y t h a t i n t e r e s t s a r e n o t t o o a b s t r a c t f o r y o u n g c h i l d r e n , b u t t h a t y o u n g c h i l d r e n a r e a b l e t o make g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s f r o m s p e c i f i c s e x - t y p e d i n t e r e s t s t o b r o a d e r c a t e g o r i e s . I n t h i s c a s e , i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t i n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , when g e n d e r l a b e l s were a v a i l a b l e , g e n d e r must h a v e o v e r p o w e r e d i n t e r e s t i n f o r m a t i o n f o r y o u n g c h i l d r e n , b u t n o t f o r o l d e r c h i l d r e n a n d a d u l t s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , age d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e s a l i e n c e a n d i m p o r t a n c e o f g e n d e r a n d i n d i v i d u a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n when f o r m i n g i m p r e s s i o n s a b o u t o t h e r s a r e e v i d e n t . T h a t i s , w i t h age t h e s a l i e n c e o f g e n d e r d e c r e a s e s w h i l e t h e s a l i e n c e o f i n d i v i d u a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n c r e a s e s . F u r t h e r s t u d y i n t o t h e r e a s o n s f o r c h i l d r e n ' s r e l i a n c e on g e n d e r e v e n when t h e y a r e a b l e t o u s e i n d i v i d u a t i n g i n t e r e s t s s h o u l d i n c r e a s e o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f g e n d e r s t e r e o t y p e s a n d t h e i r e f f e c t s on p e r s o n p e r c e p t i o n . 58 Same 3.5 co CD £ 3.0 < LU 2 2.5 LU DC LU Li. Z — 2.0 >-O h-< 1.5 LU ^ Consis tent Inconsistent CTi LD Mascul ine Feminine T O Y T Y P E S FIGURE 1: Boys' mean Coy i n f e r e n c e r a t i n g s Same 3.5 CO O 2 h-< DC 3.0 LU O 2 2 . 5 LU DC LU Lu 2 - 2 . 0 >-O \-< 1.5 LU Consis tent Inconsistent o VO Mascul ine Feminine T O Y T Y P E S FIGURE 2: G i r l s ' mean toy Inference ratings Footnotes Means f o r same, gender c o n s i s t e n t and i n t e r e s t c o n s i s t e n t toy r a t i n g s were summed a c r o s s the four r e p l i c a t i o n s t o r i e s . Since h a l f of the s u b j e c t s were t e s t e d with only one s t o r y and the other h a l f were t e s t e d with four s t o r i e s , t h i s meant a decrease i n s u b j e c t s by 50%. However, when t - t e s t s f o r r a t i n g s c o r e s were i n d i v i d u a l l y computed f o r each s t o r y i t was found that d i f f e r e n c e s between a l l means (except as expected between same & gender c o n s i s t e n t toys) were s i g n i f i c a n t at at l e a s t the .03 l e v e l . An a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e s e l e c t i n g f o r c h i l d r e n whose ages ranged between 43.0 and 73.0 months was a l s o c a l c u l a t e d s i n c e t h i s age range was the most a c c u r a t e match to M a r t i n ' s (1985) young c h i l d r e n . T h i s meant dropping s i x c h i l d r e n between 38.5 and 43.0 months from the present study. The r e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s d i d not r e v e a l s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s d i f f e r e n t from the a n a l y s i s using a l l ages. S e l e c t i n g f o r d i f f e r e n t ages was t h e r e f o r e not used i n any f u r t h e r data a n a l y s i s ; r e s u l t s are re p o r t e d only from the a n a l y s i s u s i n g a l l ages. For the stereotype measure, c h i l d r e n were t e s t e d with unequal numbers of toys (due to unequal s t o r i e s i n t e s t i n g of the r e p l i c a t i o n t a s k ) . T h e r e f o r e , to e q u a l i z e c h i l d r e n s ' toy r a t i n g s when c a l c u l a t i n g the s t e r e o t y p e s c o r e s , two toys were randomly dropped from a n a l y s i s . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n a t o t a l of 16 i n s t e a d of 18 t o y s . 61 BIBLIOGRAPHY Ashmore,R.D.,& D e l B o c a , F . K . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . Sex s t e r e o t y p e s a n d i m p l i c i t p e r s o n a l i t y t h e o r y : T o w a r d a c o g n i t i v e - s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n . Sex R o l e s , 52, 21 9 - 2 4 8 . B a r t l e t t , F . C . ( 1 9 3 2 ) . R e m e m b e r i n g . C a m b r i d g e : C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Bem,S.L. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . G e n d e r schema t h e o r y : A c o g n i t i v e a c c o u n t o f s e x t y p i n g . P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e v i e w , 88, 354-364. B e r n d t , T . , & H e l l e r , K . A . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . G e n d e r s t e r e o t y p e s a n d s o c i a l i n f e r e n c e s : A d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t u d y . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y  a n d S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 5 0 ( 5 ) , 8 8 9 - 8 9 8 . B r a d b a r d , M . R . , & M a r t i n , C . L . , E n d s l e y , R . C . , & H a l v e r s o n , C F . ( i n p r e s s ) . I n f l u e n c e o f s e x s t e r e o t y p e s on c h i l d r e n ' s e x p l o r a t i o n a n d memory: A c o m p e t e n c e v e r s u s p e r f o r m a n c e d i s t i n c t i o n . D e v e l o p m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y . Cohen,C.E. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . P e r s o n c a t e g o r i e s a n d s o c i a l p e r c e p t i o n : T e s t i n g some b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e p r o c e s s i n g e f f e c t s o f p r i o r k n o w l e d g e . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y a n d S o c i a l  P s y c h o l o g y , 40, 4 4 1 - 4 5 2 . Deaux,K.,& L e w i s , L . L . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . The s t r u c t u r e o f g e n d e r s t e r e o t y p e s : I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among c o m p o n e n t s a n d g e n d e r l a b e l . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y a n d S o c i a l  P s y c h o l o g y , 4 6 ( 5 ) , 9 9 1 - 1 0 0 4 . E d e l b r o c k , C . , & S u g a w a r a , A . I . ( 1 9 7 8 ) . A c q u i s i t i o n o f s e x - t y p e d p r e f e r e n c e s i n p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . D e v e l o p m e n t a l  P s y c h o l o g y , 14, 6 1 4 - 6 2 3 . E t a u g h , C , & R i l e y , S . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . K n o w l e d g e o f s t e r e o t y p e s i n p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e p o r t s , 4 4 , 1 2 7 9 - 1 2 8 2 . F e l d m a n , N. S.,& R u b l e , D . N . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f p e r s o n p e r c e p t i o n : C o g n i t i v e a n d s o c i a l f a c t o r s . I n S.S.Brehm, S . M . K a s s i n , & F . X . G i b b o n s ( E d s . ) , D e v e l o p m e n t a l s o c i a l  p s y c h o l o g y . O x f o r d : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . F l a v e l l , J . H . ( 1 9 7 7 ) . C o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t . P r e n t i c e -H a l l , I n c . , E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s : New J e r s e y . 62 H a l v e r s o n , C . F . , & M a r t i n , C L . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . S e x - t y p e d k n o w l e d g e :  Who remembers what? U n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t . H a m i l t o n , D . L . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . A c o g n i t i v e a t t r i b u t i o n a l a n a l y s i s o f s t e r e o t y p i n g . I n L . B e r k o w i t z ( E d . ) , A d v a n c e s i n  e x p e r i m e n t a l s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y ( V o l . 1 2 ) . New Y o r k : A c a d e m i c P r e s s . H e l l e r , K . A . , & B e r n d t , T . J . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . D e v e l o p m e n t a l c h a n g e s i n t h e f o r m a t i o n a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l i t y a t t r i b u t i o n s . C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 52, 6 8 3 - 6 9 1 . H i g g i n s , E . T . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . R o l e t a k i n g and s o c i a l j u d g m e n t : a l t e r n a t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t a l p e r s p e c t i v e s a n d p r o c e s s e s . I n J . H . F l a v e l l a nd L . R o s s ( E d s . ) , S o c i a l c o g n i t i v e  d e v e l o p m e n t . F r o n t i e r s a nd p o s s i b l e f u t u r e s . ( p p . 1 1 9 -1 5 3 ) . C a m b r i d g e : C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . H u s t o n , A . C . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . S e x - t y p i n g . I n E . M . H e t h e r i n g t o n ( E d . ) , Handbook o f c h i l d p s y c h o l o g y ( V o l . 4 . ) . S o c i a l i z a t i o n ,  p e r s o n a l i t y , a n d s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t ( p p . 3 8 7 - 4 6 8 ) . New Y o r k : W i l e y . K o h l b e r g , L.A. ( 1 9 6 6 ) . A c o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t a l a n a l y s i s o f c h i l d r e n ' s s e x r o l e c o n c e p t s a n d a t t i t u d e s . I n E.E. M a c c o b y ( E d . ) , The d e v e l o p m e n t o f s e x d i f f e r e n c e s ( p p . 8 2 -1 7 3 ) . S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Kuhn,D., N a s h , S . , & B r u c k e n , L . ( 1 9 7 8 ) . Sex r o l e c o n c e p t s o f two a n d t h r e e - y e a r - o l d s . C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 4 9 , 4 4 5 - 4 5 1 . L e a h y , R . L . , & S h i r k , S . R . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f c l a s s i f i c a t o r y s k i l l s a n d s e x - t r a i t s t e r e o t y p e s i n y o u n g c h i l d r e n . Sex R o l e s , 10, 2 8 1 - 2 9 2 . L i v e s l e y , W . J . , & B r o m l e y , D . B . ( 1 9 7 3 ) . P e r s o n p e r c e p t i o n i n  c h i l d h o o d a n d a d o l e s c e n c e . L o n d o n : W i l e y & S o n s . L o c k s l e y , A . , B o r g i d a , E . , Brekke,N.,& H e p b u r n , C . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . Sex s t e r e o t y p e s a n d s o c i a l j u d g m e n t . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y  a n d S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 3 9 , 8 2 1 - 8 3 1 . M a c c o b y , E . E . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . S o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e , a n d J o v a n o v i t c h . M a r t i n , C L . ( 1 9 8 5 , A p r i l ) . The i n f l u e n c e o f s e x s t e r e o t y p e s on  c h i l d r e n ' s i m p r e s s i o n f o r m a t i o n . M a n u s c r i p t p r e s e n t e d a t t h e b i e n n i a l m e e t i n g o f t h e S o c i e t y f o r R e s e a r c h i n C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , T o r o n t o . 63 M a r t i n , C . L . , & H a l v e r s o n , C . F . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . A s c h e m a t i c p r o c e s s i n g m o d e l o f s e x t y p i n g a n d s t e r e o t y p i n g i n c h i l d r e n . C h i l d  D e v e l o p m e n t , 52, 1119-1134. M a r t i n , C . L . , & H a l v e r s o n , C . F . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . The e f f e c t s o f s e x - t y p i n g schemas on y o u n g c h i l d r e n ' s memory. C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 54, 5 6 3 - 5 7 4 . P e e v e r s , B . H . , & S e c o r d , P . F . ( 1 9 7 3 ) . D e v e l o p m e n t a l c h a n g e s i n a t t r i b u t i o n o f d e s c r i p t i v e c o n c e p t s t o p e r s o n s . J o u r n a l  o f P e r s o n a l i t y a n d S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 27, 120-128. R a s i n s k i , K . A . , C r o c k e r , J . , & H a s t i e , R . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . A n o t h e r l o o k a t s e x s t e r e o t y p e s and. s o c i a l j u d g m e n t s : An a n a l y s i s o f t h e s o c i a l p e r c e i v e r ' s u s e o f s u b j e c t i v e p r o b a b i l i t i e s . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y a n d S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 4 9 ( 2 ) , 317-326. R e i s,H.T.,& W r i g h t , S . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . K n o w l e d g e o f s e x r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s i n c h i l d r e n a g e d 3-5. Sex R o l e s , 8 , 1049-1056. Rholes,W.S.,& R u b l e , D . L . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . C h i l d r e n ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f d i s p o s i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f o t h e r s . C h i I d D e v e l o p m e n t , 55, 5 5 0 - 5 6 0 . R o t h b a r t , M . , Evans,M.,& F u l e r o , S . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . R e c a l l f o r c o n f i r m i n g e v e n t s : Memory p r o c e s s e s a n d t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f s o c i a l s t e r e o t y p e s . J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l S o c i a l  P s y c h o l o g y , 1 5 , 3 4 3-355. S c a r l e t t , H . H . , P r e s s , A . N . , & C r o c k e t t , W . H . ( 1 9 7 1 ) . C h i l d r e n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f p e e r s : A W e r n e r i a n d e v e l o p m e n t a l a n a l y s i s . C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 4 2 , 4 3 9 - 4 5 3 . S h a n t z , C . U . ( 1 9 7 5 ) . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f s o c i a l c o g n i t i o n . I n E.M. H e t h e r i n g t o n ( E d . ) , R e v i e w o f c h i l d d e v e l o p m e n t  r e s e a r c h ( V o l . 5 ) . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s . S h a n t z , C . U . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . S o c i a l c o g n i t i o n . I n M u s s e n ( E d . ) , Handbook o f c h i l d p s y c h o l o g y ( V o l . I l l , 4 t h e d . ) . New Y o r k : W i l e y & S o n s . S l a b y , R.G., & F r e y , K . S . ( 1 9 7 5 ) . D e v e l o p m e n t o f g e n d e r c o n s t a n c y a n d s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n t o same-sex m o d e l s . C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 4 6 , 8 4 9 - 8 5 6 . Snyder,M.,& U r a n o w i t z , S . ( 1 9 7 8 ) . R e c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e p a s t : Some c o g n i t i v e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f p e r s o n p e r c e p t i o n . J o u r n a l  o f P e r s o n a l i t y a n d S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 36, 9 4 1 - 9 5 0 . 64 T a y l o r , S . E . , & C r o c k e r , J . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . S c h e m a t i c b a s i s o f s o c i a l i n f o r m a t o n p r o c e s s i n g . I n E.T. H i g g i n s , C P . Herman,& M.P.Zanna ( E d s . ) , S o c i a l c o g n i t i o n : The O n t a r i o Symposium on p e r s o n a l i t y a n d s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y ( V o l . 1 ) . H i l l s d a l e , N . J . : E r l b a u m . Thompson,S.K. ( 1 9 7 5 ) . G e n d e r l a b e l s a n d e a r l y s e x r o l e d e v e l o p m e n t . C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 46, 3 3 9 - 3 4 7 . W i l l i a m s , J . E . , B e n n e t t , S . M . , & B e s t , D . L . ( 1 9 7 5 ) . A w a r e n e s s o f e x p r e s s i o n o f s e x s t e r e o t y p e s i n y o u n g c h i l d r e n . D e v e l o p m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 1 , 6 3 5 - 6 4 2 . Z u c k e r , K . J . , W i l s o n , D . N . , & S t e r n , A . ( 1 9 8 5 , A p r i 1 ) . C h i l d r e n ' s  a p p r a i s a l s o f s e x t y p e d b e h a v i o r i n t h e i r p e e r s . M a n u s c r i p t p r e s e n t e d a t t h e m e e t i n g s o f t h e S o c i e t y f o r R e s e a r c h i n C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , T o r o n t o . 65 APPENDIX A TOY INFERENCE TASK SINGLE INTERESTS (No P i c t u r e s ) FEMININE I know a c h i l d who l i k e s t o p l a y w i t h a p u r s e & comb s e t a l o t . How much w o u l d t h i s c h i l d l i k e t o p l a y w i t h t h e s e o t h e r t o y s ? S p u r s e & comb s e t C d o l l s e w i n g m a c h i n e I n c c a r t r a i n e n g i n e MASCULINE I know a c h i l d who l i k e s t o p l a y w i t h a t o o l s e t a l o t . How much w o u l d t h i s c h i l d l i k e t o p l a y w i t h t h e s e o t h e r t o y s ? S t o o l s e t C c a r t r a i n e n g i n e I n c d o l l s e w i n g m a c h i n e 66 TOY INFERENCE TASK MULTIPLE INTERESTS (No P i c t u r e s ) FEMININE I know a c h i l d who l i k e s t o p l a y w i t h a make-up k i t a l o t . d o l l & c r i b How much w o u l d t h i s c h i l d l i k e t o p l a y w i t h t h e s e o t h e r t o y s ? S make -up k i t d o l l & c r i b C d o l l s e w i n g m a c h i n e I n c c a r t r a i n e n g i n e MASCULINE I know a c h i l d who l i k e s t o p l a y w i t h army t a n k a l o t . m o t o r b i k e s How much w o u l d t h i s c h i l d l i k e t o p l a y w i t h t h e s e o t h e r t o y s ? S army t a n k m o t o r b i k e s C c a r t r a i n e n g i n e I n c d o l l s e w i n g m a c h i n e 67 TOY INFERENCE TASK MULTIPLE INTERESTS ( W i t h P i c t u r e s ) FEMININE I know a c h i l d who l i k e s t o p l a y w i t h d o l l c l o t h e s a l o t . t e a s e t w i t h t r a y How much w o u l d t h i s c h i l d l i k e t o p l a y w i t h t h e s e o t h e r t o y s ? S d o l l c l o t h e s t e a s e t w i t h t r a y C d o l l s e w i n g m a c h i n e I n c c a r t r a i n e n g i n e MASCULINE I know a c h i l d who l i k e s t o p l a y w i t h t r u c k s a l o t . G . I . J o e S o l d i e r s How much w o u l d t h i s c h i l d l i k e t o p l a y w i t h t h e s e o t h e r t o y s ? S t r u c k G . I . J o e s o l d i e r s C c a r t r a i n e n g i n e I n c d o l l s e w i n g m a c h i n e 6 8 APPENDIX B REPLICATION TASK 1. H e r e i s a p i c t u r e o f a boy named L a r r y . L a r r y i s y e a r s o l d a n d he was b o r n i n V a n c o u v e r . L a r r y ' s b e s t f r i e n d i s a g i r l . L a r r y l i k e s t o p l a y w i t h an i r o n a n d an i r o n i n g b o a r d . Show me how much L a r r y w o u l d l i k e t o p l a y w i t h .... ( g e n d e r ) a c a r t r a i n e n g i n e ( i n t e r e s t ) d o l l s e w i n g m a c h i n e (same) i r o n & i r o n i n g b o a r d 2. H e r e i s a p i c t u r e o f a g i r l named S u s i e . S u s i e i s y e a r s o l d a n d h a s a p e t d o g . S u s i e ' s b e s t f r i e n d i s a b o y . S u s i e l i k e s t o p l a y w i t h a i r p l a n e s . Show me how much S u s i e w o u l d l i k e t o p l a y w i t h ... ( g e n d e r ) d o l l s e w i n g m a c h i n e ( i n t e r e s t ) c a r t r a i n e n g i n e (same) a i r p l a n e 69 REPLICATION TASK 3. H e r e i s a p i c t u r e o f a boy named J a s o n . J a s o n i s y e a r s o l d a n d he was b o r n i n V a n c o u v e r . J a s o n ' s b e s t f r i e n d i s a g i r l . J a s o n l i k e s t o p l a y w i t h make-up k i t s . Show me how much J a s o n w o u l d l i k e t o p l a y w i t h ... ( g e n d e r ) d o l l s e w i n g m a c h i n e ( i n t e r e s t ) c a r t r a i n e n g i n e (same) b a s e b a l l 4. H e r e i s a p i c t u r e o f a g i r l named C a t h y . C a t h y i s y e a r s o l d arid s h e h a s a p e t d o g . C a t h y ' s b e s t f r i e n d i s a b o y . C a t h y l i k e s t o p l a y b a s e b a l l . Show me how much C a t h y w o u l d l i k e t o p l a y w i t h ... ( g e n d e r ) d o l l s e w i n g m a c h i n e ( i n t e r e s t ) c a r t r a i n e n g i n e (same) b a s e b a l l 70 APPENDIX C STEREOTYPE MEASURE 1. TRUCK 2. DOLL CLOTHES 3. ARMY TANK 4. PURSE & COMB SET 5. SEWING MACHINE 6. TRAIN ENGINE 7. DOLL 8. CARS 9. MAKE-UP K I T 10. MOTOR B I K E 1 1 . TEA SET WITH TRAY 12. DOLL & CRIB 13. AIRPLANE 14. G.I.JOE SOLDIER 15. DOLL HOUSE 16. TOOL K I T 17. IRON & IRONING BOARD 18. BASEBALL B_ B_ B_ B_ B_ B_ B_ B_ B_ B_ B_ B_ B_ B_ B_ B_ B_ B G_ G_ G_ G_ G_ G_ G_ G_ G_ G_ G_ G_ G_ G_ G_ G_ G_ G B+G_ B+G_ B+G_ B+G_ B+G_ B+G_ B+G_ B+G_ B+G_ B+G_ B+G_ B+G_ B+G_ B+G_ B+G_ B+G_ B+G_ B+G 71 APPENDIX D PREFERENCE MEASURE 1. TRUCK 2. DOLL CLOTHES 3. ARMY TANK 4. PURSE & COMB SET 5. SEWING MACHINE 6. TRAIN ENGINE 7. DOLL 8. CARS 9. MAKE-UP K I T 10. MOTOR B I K E 11. TEA SET WITH TRAY 12. DOLL & CRIB 13. AIRPLANE 14. G.I.JOE SOLDIER 15. DOLL HOUSE 16. TOOL K I T 17. IRON & IRONING BOARD 18. BASEBALL 72 APPENDIX E REPEATED MEASURES ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE BETWEEN SUBJECT FACTORS ARE: A - SEX: 1 b o y s , 2 g i r l s WITHIN SUBJECT FACTORS ARE: B - CONDITIONS: 1 s i n g l e i n t e r e s t , 2 m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t s , 3 m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t s w i t h p i c t u r e s C - TOY TYPE: 1 m a s c u l i n e , 2 f e m i n i n e D - RATINGS: 1 same, 2 c o n s i s t e n t , 3 i n c o n s i s t e n t SOURCE DEGREES OF MEAN F PROBA] FREEDOM SQUARES RATIO A 1 .34 .39 NS S-WITHIN 54 .86 B 2 .34 1 .37 NS AB 2 2.00 7.98 .001 BS-WITHIN 108 .25 C 1 .12 .58 NS AC 1 .07 .32 NS CS-WITHIN 54 .21 BC 2 .17 1.19 NS ABC 2 .02 .1 3 NS BCS-WITHIN 108 .14 D 2 35.56 61 .78 .001 AD 2 .97 1 .68 NS DS-WITHIN 108 .58 BD 4 .21 .96 NS ABD 4 .17 .78 NS BDS-WITHIN 216 .22 73 CD 2 ACD 2 CDS-WITHIN 108 BCD 4 ABCD 4 BCDS-WITHIN 216 .25 .51 NS 7.42 15.16 .001 .49 .11 .48 NS .13 .57 NS .22 74 APPENDIX F REPEATED MEASURES ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE BETWEEN SUBJECT FACTORS ARE: A - SEX: 1 b o y s , 2 g i r l s B - STEREOTYPE 1 l o w s t e r e o t y p e , 2 h i g h s t e r e o t y p e KNOWLEDGE WITHIN SUBJECT FACTORS ARE: C - CONDITIONS: 1 s i n g l e i n t e r e s t , 2 m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t s , 3 m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t s w i t h p i c t u r e s D - TOY TYPE: 1 m a s c u l i n e , 2 f e m i n i n e E - RATINGS: 1 same, 2 c o n s i s t e n t , 3 i n c o n s i s t e n t SOURCE DEGREES OF MEAN F PROBABILITY FREEDOM SQUARES RATIO A 1 .02 .02 NS B 1 4.60 5.73 .02 AB 1 .21 .26 NS S-WITHIN 52 .80 C AC BC ABC CS-WITHIN 2 2 2 2 1 04 44 14 02 ,44 ,25 1 .76 8.53 .07 1 .76 NS 001 NS NS D 1 AD 1 BD 1 ABD 1 DS-WITHIN 52 CD 2 ACD 2 BCD 2 ABCD 2 CDS-WITHIN 104 .03 .13 NS .0 .0 NS .02 .08 NS .15 .69 NS .22 .12 .84 NS .01 .04 NS .28 1.98 NS .02 .12 NS .14 75 E 2 20. 10 36.70 .001 AE 2 .25 .46 NS BE 2 2.42 4.43 .014 ABE 2 .06 .12 NS ES-WITHIN 1 04 .55 CE 4 .26 1.21 NS ACE 4 .18 .82 NS BCE 4 .38 1 .74 NS ABCE 4 .09 .42 NS CES-WITHIN 208 .22 DE 2 .44 .88 NS ADE 2 4.33 8.62 .001 BDE 2 .10 .20 NS ABDE 2 .25 .50 NS DES-WITHIN 104 .50 CDE 4 . 1 6 .72 NS ACDE 4 .09 .38 NS BCDE 4 .18 .81 NS ABCDE 4 .10 .46 NS CDES-WITHIN 208 .22 76 

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