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Elementary teachers, art education, and arts networking : a comparative study Whelan, Leslie Michael 1986

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ELEMENTARY TEACHERS, ART EDUCATION, AND ARTS NETWORKING: A COMPARATIVE STUDY by LESLIE MICHAEL WHELAN Dip. Arts (Painting), Queensland College of Art, 1983 B. Ed., Armidale College of Advanced Education, 1985 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of V i s u a l and Performing Arts i n Education We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1986 (c) L e s l i e Whelan, 1986 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department or by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f V i s u a l ft. P e r f o r m i n g A r t s i n 'Education The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date i i ABSTRACT Art education i s part of the curriculum of elementary schools i n Queensland, Vancouver, and Seattle and teachers i n a l l three systems have problems, p r i o r i t i e s and emphases within t h e i r art education programs. Arts networking as a means of mutual aid and assistance has been t r i e d i n two of the systems and t h i s study attempts to a s c e r t a i n whether, i n the perception of the teachers involved, i t i s a v i a b l e method of dissemination of ideas and solutions to problems. Information on the problems, p r i o r i t i e s , and emphases of the teachers i n the three systems was sought through a questionnaire and p r i n c i p a l s were interviewed for perceptions on arts networking. This comparative study shows that elementary teachers i n the three systems share many problems, have s l i g h t l y d i f f e r i n g emphases and p r i o r i t i e s and those involved perceive networking to be a v i a b l e means of art education support provided continued funding and administrative encouragement are a v a i l a b l e . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract i i Table of contents i i i L i s t of tables v Acknowledgements v i i i CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY ' 1 Statement of problem 4 Research questions 5 Purpose of study 6 Design of study 7 Population and se t t i n g 8 Data analysis 9 Limitations and delimitations 9 C l a r i f i c a t i o n of terms 10 2. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 11 3 TEACHER PRACTICE: THE QUEENSLAND SAMPLE 22 4 NETWORKS IN ACTION: THE VANCOUVER SAMPLE 33 Interviews with p r i n c i p a l s 34 Results 35 Summary and conclusions 37 Teachers' questionnaires 38 Results (Network 1: Vancouver) 41 Summary of r e s u l t s (Network 1: Vancouver) 51 i v Results (Network 2: Vancouver) 52 Summary of r e s u l t s (Network 2: Vancouver) 61 S i m i l a r i t i e s and differences between Network 1 and Network 2 62 The Vancouver sample 65 5 NETWORKS OVER TIME: THE SEATTLE SAMPLE 76 Interviews with p r i n c i p a l s 77 Results 77 Summary and conclusions 80 Teachers' questionnaires 81 Results (Seattle) 83 Summary of r e s u l t s (Seattle) 92 S i m i l a r i t i e s and differences between Seattle and Vancouver 93 6 NETWORKING: BETWEEN GROUP COMPARISONS 97 Summary 106 7 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 108 References 113 Appendix A - Tables reprinted from Queensland survey 118 Appendix B - Responses to teachers' questionnaire (Vancouver sample) 127 Appendix C - Responses to teachers' questionnaire (Seattle sample) 146 Appendix D - Network p r i n c i p a l interview protocol 156 Appendix E - Teachers' questionnaire 158 Lett e r s of permission 163 LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Influences upon content: sources of information (C) 24 2 Emphasis given to c e r t a i n objectives (C) 25 3 Integration with other curriculum areas (C) 26 4 P r i o r i t i e s for assistance (C) 27 5 Classroom organization (C) 28 6 Personal problems perceived (C) 29 7 School problems perceived (C) 30 8 Sex of respondents: Vancouver sample 39 9 Age of respondents: Vancouver sample 39 10 Teaching experience of respondents: Vancouver sample 40 11 Influences upon the content of teachers' programs (Al) 41 12 Emphasis given to c e r t a i n objectives i n teachers' ar t programs (Al) 42 13 Integration of a r t with other curriculum areas (Al) 43 14 Teachers' p r i o r i t i e s f o r assistance (Al) 44 15 Methods of class organization (Al) 45 16 Personal problems perceived by teachers (Al) 47 17 School problems perceived by teachers (Al) 48 18 Teachers' perceptions of personal changes due to networking (Al) 49 19 Teachers' perceptions of school changes due to networking (Al) 50 20 Influences upon the content of teachers' programs (A2) 52 21 Emphasis given to c e r t a i n objectives i n teachers' art programs (A2) 53 v i 22 I n t e g r a t i o n of a r t w i t h o ther c u r r i c u l u m areas (A2) 54 23 Teachers ' p r i o r i t i e s f o r a s s i s t a n c e (A2) 55 24 Methods of c l a s s o r g a n i z a t i o n (A2) 56 25 P e r s o n a l problems pe rce ived by teachers (A2) 57 26 School problems pe rce ived by teachers (A2) 58 27 Teachers ' pe rcep t ions of p e r s o n a l changes due to ne tworking (A2) 59 28 Teachers ' pe rcep t ions of s c h o o l changes due to ne tworking (A2) 60 29 Time i n networking 62 30 In f luences upon the content of t eache r s ' programs (Combined Vancouver) 66 31 Emphasis g i v e n to c e r t a i n o b j e c t i v e s i n t eachers ' a r t programs (Combined Vancouver) 67 32 I n t e g r a t i o n of a r t w i t h o ther c u r r i c u l u m areas (Combined Vancouver) 68 33 Teachers ' p r i o r i t i e s f o r a s s i s t a n c e (Combined Vancouver) 69 34 Methods of c l a s s o r g a n i z a t i o n (Combined Vancouver) 70 35 P e r s o n a l problems pe rce ived by teachers (Combined Vancouver) 71 36 School problems pe rce ived by teachers (Combined Vancouver) 72 37 Teachers ' pe rcep t ions of p e r s o n a l changes due to ne tworking (Combined Vancouver) 73 38 Teachers ' pe rcep t ions of s choo l changes due to ne tworking (Combined Vancouver) 74 39 Sex of respondents ( S e a t t l e sample) 81 40 Age of respondents ( S e a t t l e sample) 82 v i i 41 Teaching experience of respondents (Seattle sample) 82 42 Influences upon the content of teachers' programs (B) 83 43 Emphasis given to c e r t a i n objectives i n teachers' a r t programs (B) 84 44 Integration of a r t with other curriculum areas (B) 85 45 Teachers' p r i o r i t i e s f o r assistance (B) 86 46 Methods of class organization (B) 87 47 Personal problems perceived by teachers (B) 88 48 School problems perceived by teachers (B) 89 49 Teachers' perceptions of personal changes due to networking (B) 90 50 Teachers' perceptions of school changes due to networking (B) 91 51 Comparison of rank orders (1-8): Question 1 97 52 Comparison of rank orders (1-7) : Question 2 99 53 Comparison of rank orders (1-6): Question 3 100 54 Comparison of rank orders (1-6): Question 4 101 55 Comparison of rank orders (1-3): Question 5 102 56 Comparison of rank orders (1-8): Question 6 (School problems only) 103 57 Comparison of rank orders (1-6): Question 7 105 58 Comparison of rank orders (1-5): Question 8 106 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to express my sincere appreciation to my adviser, Dr R. MacGregor, and my committee members, Dr J. Gray and Dr R. C a r l i s l e f o r t h e i r invaluable advice and assistance. Miss Betty Wellburn, Art Coordinator of the Vancouver School Board i s acknowledged f or her continuous assistance during the project. The Queensland Education Department i s extended sincere thanks f o r making t h i s research possible. Special thanks are extended to my family who put up with my absence, i n the f i r s t instance, and my sing l e mindedness i n the second, but p a r t i c u l a r l y to my wife who helped type t h i s report and kept me on the r i g h t path when I was ready to wander. 1 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY Art educators have long bemoaned the state of a r t education i n elementary schools, describing i t as "minds-off a c t i v i t y " (Sloan-Snow, 1983), a "d i v e r s i o n " (Lansing, 1984), and i t s p o s i t i o n i n education as "precarious" (Hamblen, 1983) and "pe r i p h e r a l " (Eisner, 1972). Often the elementary classroom teacher who has r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for art education i s c r i t i c i z e d , both f o r the q u a l i t a t i v e shortcomings and the li m i t e d character of the elementary art program. Eisner has characterized United States elementary teachers as being concerned mostly with exposing pupils to a wide range of materials to c u l t i v a t e t h e i r s e n s i b i l i t i e s and c r e a t i v i t y . He suggests i t may be inappropriate to place such emphasis on the making of a r t as "the assumption that making art projects w i l l automatically y i e l d high l e v e l c r i t i c a l a b i l i t i e s i s questionable" (Eisner, 1972, p. 26). But i t can be argued that teachers are unable to o f f e r other types of programs because they lack the art knowledge and s k i l l s to do so. In 1976, Tainton found the s i t u a t i o n i n Queensland, A u s t r a l i a was very s i m i l a r to that described by Eisner, with teachers concentrating on the making of art with the aim of developing or c u l t i v a t i n g c r e a t i v i t y . Tainton, a researcher with the Queensland 2 Education Department, had c a r r i e d out a survey with 396 elementary teachers at the request of the Primary Art Syllabus Committee. He went on to suggest that "a teacher must possess an adequate knowledge of a subject i n order to teach i t s u c c e s s f u l l y " (Tainton, 1976, p. 3). Lack of art knowledge and s k i l l s was a major concern among the teachers surveyed by Tainton. Since preservice education i s reportedly inadequate i n preparing elementary teachers to teach art (Blatherwick, 1985; Lansing, 1976) f i e l d - r e l a t e d means need to be developed to service teachers' requirements for information and ideas to overcome t h i s perceived lack of a r t knowledge and s k i l l s . Tainton suggests that action i s required because "a point could be reached where growth i n the development of an i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l i s stunted because of a lack of expertise...on the part of the teacher" (p. 3). He o f f e r s a school-based curriculum development model as an innovative approach to art education i n s e r v i c e . T r a d i t i o n a l methods of i n s e r v i c e have proved both inadequate and of poor q u a l i t y (Broyles & Tillman, 1985) and because of the large number of elementary teachers already i n service, they are u n l i k e l y to change the current s i t u a t i o n . Tainton's observation that teachers said they learnt many of t h e i r ideas for art programming from fellow teachers i s supported by Remer (1982), and o f f e r s support f o r the search for a possible s o l u t i o n to the problem of perceived lack of art knowledge and s k i l l s . 3 S i m i l a r i t i e s between.the ways i n which ar t education i s c a r r i e d out i n elementary schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada, the United States , and Queensland, A u s t r a l i a are evident from l o c a l representat ive l i t e r a t u r e (Blatherwick, 1985; Chapman, 1978; Journa l of the I n s t i t u t e of A r t Educat ion , 1984). Although many s p e c i f i c examples could be provided of i n d i v i d u a l , system, and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s , i t i s general that i n a l l three countr ies most a r t education i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the general classroom teacher; curr icu lum gu ide l ines are provided by the State , Prov ince , d i s t r i c t , or board; some funds are provided for ar t i n s t r u c t i o n ; and a r t educators are d i s s a t i s f i e d with what happens i n elementary classrooms and i n the ways teachers are t ra ined to teach ar t i n elementary schools . There are examples of teachers taking advantage of what ta l ent s are a v a i l a b l e to them i n the c r e a t i o n of be t ter elementary ar t programs. One such example, employed i n some Vancouver School Board schools , and some Seat t l e schools , i s ar t s networking. Networking: The regular and vo luntary coming together of people with common or overlapping concerns to discuss i s sues , share so lu t ions to problems, and generate new ideas . Networking i s an e s s e n t i a l s trategy i n the planning and development of comprehensive a r t s i n general education programs that have as t h e i r goal " a l l the a r t s for a l l the c h i l d r e n " . I t provides a nonthreatening, c o s t - e f f e c t i v e mechanism for 4 communication, mutual support, p r o f e s s i o n a l growth, and concerted a c t i o n . (Remer, 1982, p. 98) Remer has w r i t t e n extens ive ly on the p o s i t i v e aspects of networking i n the United States , p a i n t i n g a rosy p i c t u r e of Seat t l e P u b l i c Schools' involvement i n a r t , due, i n her es t imat ion , to the a r t s i n general education networking process . Th i s view i s supported by Goodlad i n the preface to Remer's book. Networking c a p i t a l i z e s on • the sharing aspect of informal teacher i n s e r v i c e , and appears to cons t i tu te an exce l l ent form of peer ass i s tance or mutual a i d . A number of Vancouver schools have formed networks. No networks have been i n s t i g a t e d i n Queensland schools . Statement of the problem and research questions  What i s the problem? The problem i s that elementary classroom teachers , unaided and often unsupported, face d i f f i c u l t i e s i n organiz ing and adminis ter ing t h e i r own ar t programs, and perce ive they l ack ar t knowledge and s k i l l s which prevents them from changing present p r a c t i c e s . Support serv ices need to be a v a i l a b l e to them yet the t r a d i t i o n a l channels, t y p i c a l l y represented by government sponsored i n s e r v i c e , are l e ss a v a i l a b l e than ever. The a l t e r n a t i v e to be explored i n t h i s study involves the c r e a t i o n and make-up by elementary school teachers of ar t s networks. Evidence i s already a v a i l a b l e on elementary teachers' perceptions of some aspects of art education i n Queensland primary schools (Tainton, 1976). It indicates that the teachers surveyed perceived that they had problems i n a r t education ranging from a lack of a r t knowledge and s k i l l s to an uncertainty i n i d e n t i f y i n g sequences of presenting art experiences to chil d r e n . One of Tainton's conclusions that "influences upon the classroom teacher's preparation of h i s art program appeared to come from within the school s e t t i n g rather than from...external sources" (p. 23) seems to support the need to investigate processes such as networking. Some of the same questions posed by Tainton might be posed to teachers i n Vancouver and Seattle who are involved i n arts networking. The intent would be to gather information about s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences i n the perceptions of elementary teachers i n the three systems and information on changes which the North American teachers perceive are the r e s u l t of involvement i n arts networking. This can be phrased as four research questions. Research questions: 1. What s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences as measured by the Tainton Art Survey ex i s t among the p r i o r i t i e s , emphases, and problems i n art education of a sample of Queensland elementary teachers and a sample of Seattle and Vancouver elementary teachers who belong to 6 a r t s networks? 2. What s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s occur i n the responses of the S e a t t l e sample and the Vancouver sample to i tems on the T a i n t o n A r t Survey? 3. What s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s occur i n the responses of Vancouver teachers w i t h long- te rm involvement (Network 1) and recen t involvement (Network 2) to items on the Ta in ton A r t Survey? 4. What do teachers i n the Nor th American sample p e r c e i v e i s the extent of changes to themselves and to t h e i r schools as a r e s u l t of involvement i n a r t s networking? Purpose of the s tudy: The purpose of t h i s study was to gather i n f o r m a t i o n which w i l l a i d d e c i s i o n making i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g a r t educa t ion i n elementary schoo ls i n Queensland, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e l a t i o n to the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a r t s ne tworking as f i e l d - b a s e d t r a i n i n g . 7 Design of the study A questionnaire was devised by the researcher for use by three North American samples which r e p l i c a t e d s i x s i g n i f i c a n t sections of Tainton's survey of 1976, with some s l i g h t modifications for l o c a l c l a r i t y . The sections of Tainton's survey not used pertained p a r t i c u l a r l y to the Queensland curriculum guide and were not relevant to t h i s study. The researcher added two sections on arts networking to gather information f o r Research Question 2: S i m i l a r i t i e s and Differences of North American Samples, and asked two a d d i t i o n a l background information questions on length of a r t s network involvement. The questionnaire required an anonymous response and sought information of the following type: 1. Background information including age, sex, years of teaching experience, grade/grades presently taught, length of involvement of school i n a r t s networking, length of involvement as a teacher i n a r t s networking; 2. Sources of information used i n planning art programs, including use of provided curriculum guide/guides; 3. Emphasis given i n a r t programs to such aspects as sequencing, techniques, concepts, c h i l d s a t i s f a c t i o n ; 4. Frequency of i n t e g r a t i o n with Language Arts, Music, S o c i a l Studies, Science, Mathematics, and P h y s i c a l Education; 5. Degree of p r i o r i t y given to sources of assistance ranging 8 from more a r t consultants to long-term i n s e r v i c e ; 6. Frequency of use of classroom organization models such as small groups; 7. The extent of perceived problems i n eleven areas ranging from a v a i l a b i l i t y of funds to lack of art knowledge and s k i l l s ; 8. Perceived changes brought about by p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n arts networking at a personal l e v e l ; and 9. Perceived changes at a school l e v e l . The questionnaire required Likert-type responses. The format of the questionnaire appears as Appendix E. Population and s e t t i n g Interviews were conducted with the p r i n c i p a l s of three Seattle elementary schools with long-term involvement i n arts networking, and four Vancouver schools with a r t s network involvement. The teacher sample was drawn from these schools. Interviews were also conducted with a r t supervisors of the two systems to gather comments on the responses of t h e i r teachers which might further i l l u m i n a t e any impressions gained. The interview protocol appears as Appendix D. Twenty-four Vancouver teachers were surveyed and twelve teachers i n Seattle Public Schools. Teachers i n Vancouver were selected i n two equal groups, Group A l comprising twelve teachers from schools i n Network 1 (longest operating network) and Group A2, twelve teachers from schools i n Network 2 (recently started network). A l l the Seattle teachers, Group B, were selected from schools 9 involved i n networking over a per iod of four or more years . T a i n t o n ' s sample of 396 Queensland elementary teachers , none of whom had been exposed to networking comprised the t h i r d group, Group C. Data ana lys i s Responses to the quest ionnaire were analysed and are presented i n the same manner as the Tainton survey, d e s c r i p t i v e l y using percentages i n each category and c a l c u l a t i n g mean r a t i n g s which are reported i n rank order , as suggested by O r l i c h (1978). L i m i t a t i o n s and d e l i m i t a t i o n s 1. I t i s not the purpose of t h i s study to seek a d e f i n i t i o n of ar t education as i t i s perceived by elementary teachers , although such would be an i n t e r e s t i n g exerc i se , or to make value judgments on those perceptions reported by the teachers i n the three systems, but simply to compare responses to the same questions among three samples. 2. The small samples used, whi le s i g n i f i c a n t for the purposes of the study, do not permit g e n e r a l i z a t i o n on a large s ca l e . Resul t s should be regarded as i n d i c a t i v e of trends , ra ther than p r e s c r i p t i o n s for change or adaption of e x i s t i n g programs. C l a r i f i c a t i o n of terms Those schools c l a s s i f i e d as elementary schools i n North America are designated primary schools i n Queensland. Primary schools normally cater to pupils from Years 1 to 7, that i s from age s i x years to age t h i r t e e n . ' Where possible the term elementary w i l l be used throughout. The term preservice i s used i n t h i s study to designate those programs of teacher preparation and t r a i n i n g offered i n u n i v e r s i t i e s and colleges of advanced education which lead to c e r t i f i c a t i o n as a teacher. Inservice i s defined as courses or programs designed to provide employee/staff growth i n job r e l a t e d competencies or s k i l l s , often sponsored by employers, usually at the p r o f e s s i o n a l l e v e l . (ERIC) 11 Chapter 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The problem of elementary.teachers' perceived concerns i n art education, such as a lack of a r t knowledge and s k i l l s , and ways and means of d e l i v e r i n g and r e c e i v i n g regular assistance, forms part of a number of basic issues which i n v i t e explanation. These include: 1 . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between knowledge of, and a t t i t u d e towards, a subject area and the elementary teacher's degree of willingness to teach that subject area; 2. The elementary teachers' s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n that they lack art knowledge and s k i l l s ; 3 . The manner of a c q u i s i t i o n of a r t knowledge and s k i l l s and art program ideas by elementary teachers; 4. The r a t i o n a l e f o r and scope of networking; 5. The advantages, i f any, of networking over regular, c e n t r a l l y devised i n s e r v i c e programs i n meeting the needs of elementary teachers for assistance i n art education programming. Each of these f i v e issues w i l l be elaborated further through a review of the l i t e r a t u r e of a r t education, curriculum change, and a t t i t u d e theory. 12 Relationship between subject knowledge, at t i t u d e and teaching Many elementary teachers acknowledge the value of art for children's growth and development but excuse themselves from ac t i v e involvement i n art education because of t h e i r self-perceived lack of a r t knowledge and s k i l l s . "General cl a s s teachers have enough to do keeping up with trends i n English, Maths, etc., without t r y i n g to cope with the i n t r i c a c i e s of a r t " (Cassin & Duck, 1977). Because of a lack of personal a r t experiences and t h e i r perceived lack of s k i l l s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n drawing, they f e e l uncomfortable and have negative at t i t u d e s towards art and art education. They sense t h e i r inadequacy i n o f f e r i n g experiences of an i n s t r u c t i v e nature to chil d r e n . Grossman (1971) conducted a study "to explore the r e l a t i o n s h i p between teachers' at t i t u d e s about t h e i r own a r t i s t i c a b i l i t y , t h e i r a b i l i t y to teach a r t and the behavioral consequences of these a t t i t u d e s " (p. 64). He concluded that "teachers with p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s as measured i n t h i s study do spend more time on art a c t i v i t i e s " (p. 66) but that the q u a l i t y of the a c t i v i t i e s was v a r i a b l e . Grossman's report i s very b r i e f and suggests the need for further study. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e and behavior has been discussed by Fishbein (1967), who o f f e r s a "theory of behavioral p r e d i c t i o n " , (p. 491) and N o l l and Scannell (1972) who point out that a t t i t u d e s condition behavior (p. 435). Stuckhardt and Morris (1980) have developed a scale to measure attitudes held towards art education suggesting that, " t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n between a t t i t u d e and behavior provides a basis for i n f e r r i n g that teachers holding p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards arts education are l i k e l y to p a r t i c i p a t e c o n s t r u c t i v e l y i n an arts education program" (p. 50). Heyfron (1980) goes as f a r as to suggest that the important l i n k i s that of the teacher's concept of a r t . " I t i s obvious that together with other considerations (e.g. knowledge of c h i l d development and pedogogic methods), the teacher's concept of a r t regulates the type of a c t i v i t i e s , programs, and methods he introduces (or does not introduce) into the classroom" (p. 80). Lansing (1976) agrees, suggesting that "before teaching art to c h i l d r e n i t i s necessary to develop a reasonable point of view about the nature of a r t " (p. 25). It would seem then that any demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e change i n a t t i t u d e may be r e f l e c t e d i n changes i n teacher behavior and u l t i m a t e l y i n an improvement i n a r t education programs. According to F u l l a n (1982), Huberman characterized teachers' duties as " f i n d i n g and using recipes for busy kitchens" (p. I l l ) which would suggest that teachers would prefer quick a c t i v i t i e s and ideas for creating art products, with l i t t l e concern for the needs of the learners. Tainton (1976) however, found that providing for c h i l d s a t i s f a c t i o n , a r t as a means of s e l f expression, and providing 14 f o r i n d i v i d u a l thinking were the major objectives of most teachers. Teaching art concepts as an objective, was ranked l a s t , with only 11.6% giving i t great to very great emphasis. In the classrooms surveyed by Tainton the types of a c t i v i t i e s , programs, and methods emanating from these objectives were c l o s e l y aligned with a concept of a r t as s a t i s f y i n g , creative s e l f expression, which appears to support Heyfron's contention that p r a c t i c e and concept are r e l a t e d . Elementary teachers' lack of a r t knowledge and s k i l l s Chapman (1978) suggests that " v i r t u a l l y a l l our a r t i s t i c perceptions, actions, and observations are channeled through a few basic concepts...These concepts are fundamental; they are the tools f or your own understanding of a r t and for communicating art to c h i l d r e n " (p. 22). But as Lansing (1976) characterizes teacher t r a i n i n g , "our future teachers [are givenj the impression that students are taught simply by bringing them into the aura of the a r t i s t " (p. 18). This suggests that there are c l e a r l y defined, teachable, fundamental concepts of or about a r t which preservice courses do not impress upon teachers, and the perception that preservice i s poor i s born out i n the research. "Teachers thought that t h e i r college courses were most inadequate for teaching i n such areas as t e x t i l e s (52.8%), modelling and carving (52.2%), and construction (48.2%)" (Tainton, p. 7). Blatherwick (1985) found that elementary teachers perceived t h e i r p r e t r a i n i n g as inadequate. Yet Broudy (1978) suggests "preservice t r a i n i n g . . . i s a s u r v i v a l k i t fashioned to keep the teacher a l i v e u n t i l the in - s e r v i c e rescue squad can supply f i r s t a i d and r e s u s c i t a t i o n " (p. 58). Added to th i s perceived lack of knowledge i s another weakness, namely that " i n s t r u c t i o n i s usually devoid of sequence and continuity" (Lovano-Kerr, 1985, p. 219). The National Art Education Association has promoted s p e c i f i e d standards of teacher t r a i n i n g which include "the s p e c i a l i z e d study of...the content of art to be taught to p u p i l s " (Wygant, 1979, p. 3), but as Cassin and Duck (1977) found, "the majority of primary teachers are not highly q u a l i f i e d i n the a r t s " , and one teacher expressed the view that " i t i s d i f f i c u l t to teach an arts subject when you have no personal talent or i n t e r e s t f o r some subjects. Some arts subjects belong to the s p e c i a l i s t " (Cassin & Duck, 1977, p. 94). F i n a l l y , 81.8% of the teachers surveyed by Cassin and Duck expressed a need for information on s p e c i f i c techniques i n a r t . It i s clear from the Tainton, Cassin and Duck, and Blatherwick surveys that elementary teachers believe that they lack the art knowledge, s k i l l s , and techniques they perceive are necessary f o r teaching a r t . 16 Acquiring art knowledge, s k i l l s , and program ideas If teachers are inadequately trained i n art education, then how do they acquire knowledge, s k i l l s , and ideas f o r use i n t h e i r classrooms where c h i l d r e n are l i k e l y to receive f i f t e e n to t h i r t y hours of art i n s t r u c t i o n per year at the elementary l e v e l i n North America ( M i l l s & Thompson, 1981), and f o r t y to eighty hours i n Queensland, A u s t r a l i a (Cassin & Duck, 1977)? It appears they acquire knowledge, s k i l l s , and ideas from a number of sources. " I t may be seen...that the sources of ideas f o r the content of teachers' art programs come mostly from within the school i t s e l f " (Tainton, p. 13). Tainton found that these sources were, at the highest r a t i n g , children's i n t e r e s t s , personal books and/or notes, and ideas suggested by fellow teachers. The lowest r a t i n g was given to ideas gathered from art resources i n the community. L o r t i e (1975), i n h i s s o c i o l o g i c a l study of teachers found that "when teachers do get help the most e f f e c t i v e source tends to be fellow teachers." (p. 108) This view i s supported i n the l i t e r a t u r e , f o r as F u l l a n (1982) suggests, A much larger body of research c l e a r l y proves that when teachers do use resources beyond t h e i r own ingenuity, i t i s other teachers and i n some cases d i s t r i c t s p e c i a l i s t s whom they f i n d most h e l p f u l . (See Aoki et a l . , 1977; Berman & McLaughlin, 1976; Fu l l a n , 1981b; House, 1974; L i t t l e , 1981; Loucks & Melle, 1980; S t a l l i n g s , 1980). (Fullan, p. 122) F u r t h e r , much of the l i t e r a t u r e i n innovat ion and change i n schools suggests that teachers are the key to success fu l program change (Goodlad, 1969; H o l t , 1979) and some s tress the importance of the teachers' r o l e ( C r a n d a l l , 1983). Staf f developers , admin i s t ra t ors , and other change f a c i l i t a t o r s often attend c l o s e l y to the trappings and technology of the innovat ion but ignore the perceptions and f ee l ings of people. The personal dimension i s often more c r i t i c a l to the success of the change e f f o r t than are the t echno log ica l dimensions. Change i s brought about by i n d i v i d u a l s so t h e i r personal s a t i s f a c t i o n s , f r u s t r a t i o n s , concerns, mot ivat ions , and percept ions a l l p lay a part i n determining the success or f a i l u r e of a change i n i t i a t i v e . (Loucks & P r a t t , 1979, p . 214) It i s not d i f f i c u l t to charac ter i ze elementary teachers' needs for new ideas and informat ion , and e f f o r t s to improve ar t education i n elementary schools as a change or innovat ion . Rat ionale for and scope of networking Goodlad has suggested that the networking described by Remer (1982) was an i d e a l way of disseminat ing ideas and p r a c t i c e s i n the a r t s , and necessary because "the impression I get of the ar t s programs i n the schools s tudied i s that they go l i t t l e beyond c o l o r i n g , p o l i s h i n g , and p l a y i n g - and much of t h i s as c o r o l l a r y of or instrumental to something thought to be of greater importance" 18 (Goodlad, 1983, p. 13). In the introduction to Remer's book, Goodlad describes networking i n the following terms, This i s not a new technique but the h i s t o r y of i t s use i n schooling i s short. The elements are f a m i l i a r . The units to be linked can be scattered geographically but share some common goal, such as using the a r t s , to look afresh at ways to rejuvenate schools grown s t a i d through the preservation of long-established p r a c t i c e s . Some ce n t r a l agency establishes i t s e l f as a hub. (Goodlad, i n Remer, 1982) Fineberg (1980) suggests that networking i n art education " i s rather s p e c i f i c . I t r e l i e s upon several 'givens'" (p. 584). The "givens* 1 are that network members are peers; the network i s serviced by an administrative ''hub*1; • and leadership r e f l e c t s a commitment to the course of action. Remer (1982) defines networking as "the regular and voluntary coming together of people with common or overlapping concerns to discuss issues, share solutions to problems, and generate new ideas" (p. 98). Although Remer stresses the "coming together", Long (1985) has described a network which r e l i e s more on a catalogue of p r a c t i c a l ideas and a c c e s s i b i l i t y of pa r t i c i p a n t s through telephoning. The important commonality i s however, the peer sharing of solutions to problems and the generation of new ideas. 19 Networking and other forms of i n s e r v i c e Although networking as described by Goodlad, Remer, Fineberg, and Long appears to have a l l the q u a l i t i e s required to a s s i s t elementary teachers to become comfortable with art education, i t s q u a l i t i e s only become f u l l y evident when compared with more conventional means of service d e l i v e r y . Schmid and McAdams (1985) o f f e r three categories of i n s e r v i c e types that sometimes overlap: Information transmission, s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n , and behavior change (p. 34). Networking i s an amalgam of these three types and should therefore meet the c r i t e r i a f o r "best p r a c t i c e s " i d e n t i f i e d by Schmid and McAdams. They l i s t fourteen statements of best p r a c t i c e and suggest that eight of them rank highest i n the l i t e r a t u r e on i n s e r v i c e they reviewed. They found that e f f e c t i v e i n s e r v i c e i s usually school-based rather than college based; that administrators should be involved with the t r a i n i n g and f u l l y support i t ; and that rewards and reinforcements should be an i n t e g r a l part of the i n s e r v i c e program. In addition, they suggest that i n s e r v i c e should be planned i n response to assessed needs, and that p a r t i c i p a n t s should help plan the goals and a c t i v i t i e s of the i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g . Individualized programs were noted as usu a l l y more e f f e c t i v e than using the same a c t i v i t i e s f o r the en t i r e group, and should permit p a r t i c i p a n t s to r e l a t e the in s e r v i c e content to t h e i r "back home" s i t u a t i o n s . F i n a l l y , 20 they i d e n t i f i e d a need to b u i l d eva luat ion in to i n s e r v i c e a c t i v i t y . (Schmid ScMcAdams, 1985, p. 35) Networking could be considered to ra te h igh ly on f i v e of these e ight c r i t e r i a , because networking features a school base, i s a response to needs, involves p a r t i c i p a n t p lann ing , i s an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d program, and has a strong r e l a t i o n s h i p to back home s i t u a t i o n s . The other three c r i t e r i a are a l so components of networking, p a r t i c u l a r l y admin i s t ra t ive commitment and involvement, but i n a l e s ser degree. Thus networking appears to s a t i s f y the major i ty of best p r a c t i c e s proposed by Schmid and McAdams. F u l l a n (1982) suggests that i t i s e s s e n t i a l for teachers "to r e f l e c t , i n t e r a c t with each other , share, l e a r n , develop on the j o b " , (p. 118) and that "when such i n t e r a c t i o n does take place on a regu lar b a s i s , as i t does i n some schools or among some teachers , i t has a p o s i t i v e e f fec t on l earn ing condi t ions and outcomes" (p. 118). This i s supported by the research of Rutter et a l . (1979), and L i t t l e (1981). Networking by i t s d e f i n i t i o n i s concerned with i n t e r a c t i n g , shar ing , and l earn ing among teachers . Networking would appear to have some c l e a r advantages over convent ional i n s e r v i c e . 21 Networking iri a r t education Within a r t education networking has had many advocates. The use of networking was f i r s t supported through the Arts i n Education Project of the JDR 3rd Fund from 1968 to 1979 and was expected to i n i t i a t e change through arts advocacy. A second network was the League of C i t i e s f o r the Arts i n Education set up by the same fund, which was the chief f a c t o r f o r Seattle Public Schools' involvement. "The mission of th i s network was to urge c i v i c groups or arts councils to i n i t i a t e a comprehensive plan f o r arts education within t h e i r communities" (Chapman, 1982, p. 123). Chapman, 1982, has c r i t i c i z e d some of these i n i t i a t i v e s for placing emphasis on the " l i v i n g a r t i s t as star performer" (p. 126) with l i t t l e concern f o r the "kind or amount of arts education r e g u l a r l y offered i n the school curriculum" (p. 127). Remer (1982) on the other hand suggests that the League of C i t i e s experience with networking provided "authentic documentation and a tangible demonstration of programs-in-progress" (p. 99). The value of networking among art educators i s i n overcoming what Chapman c a l l s "a d i s p o s i t i o n to be g r a t e f u l f o r crumbs and l e f t o v e r s ; we have an a f f i n i t y f o r the casual, improvised, teaching s i t u a t i o n " (p.129). She recommends that " a r t teachers need to become more act i v e i n t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l associations and to form l o c a l communication networks to share t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and solutions to problems" (Chapman, pp. 152-153). 22 Chapter 3 TEACHER PRACTICES: THE QUEENSLAND SAMPLE In Queensland, A u s t r a l i a , i n 1976 B. E. Tainton surveyed 396 randomly selected elementary teachers i n state schools. His survey was at the request of the then Art Syllabus Committee, which asked f o r an i n v e s t i g a t i o n into the context i n which a r t i s taught, teachers' perceptions of t h e i r own art programs, the problems that teachers experience i n teaching a r t , and teachers' p r i o r i t i e s f o r assistance. This questioning was prompted by the Committee's desire to gather information on the usefulness of the curriculum guide, Program i n Art, introduced four years previously. Tainton characterized t h i s curriculum guide as "the precursor of modern primary c u r r i c u l a i n Queensland" (p. 3). He l i s t e d f i v e important developments which brought about the introduction of the Program i n Art. They were: the "increased willingness of teachers to structure group learning s i t u a t i o n s " ; the use of multiple-area designs f o r classrooms which provided "the p o t e n t i a l i t y f o r a more f l e x i b l e use of space, time, and teaching technique"; the introduction of team teaching arrangements; the r i s e of support services such as advisory teachers; and the "extension and development of teacher education courses" (p. 3). These f i v e developments paint an accurate p i c t u r e of Queensland 23 elementary schools i n 1976. In the decade since then several of these developments have not been sustained. Support services i n the form of advisory teachers have not been maintained. Teacher education courses have changed but i n the case of art education the time a l l o c a t e d has been reduced. L i t t l e has changed i n the emphases and p r i o r i t i e s of the a r t education segments of preservice courses (Mason, 1983) and teachers s t i l l perceive t h e i r p r e t r a i n i n g as inadequate. Noting that Queensland elementary classroom teachers were responsible f o r compiling i n d i v i d u a l a r t programs " s u i t a b l e f or providing appropriate a r t experiences f o r the p u p i l s " , Tainton suggested several influences or constraints on the content of such programs. "The teachers personal i n t e r e s t s , a b i l i t i e s , and p r o f e s s i o n a l background i n a r t " and "school f a c t o r s " were i d e n t i f i e d (p. 4). These factors became some of the v a r i a b l e s used i n the analysis of the survey data and the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s calculated. This present study focuses on s i x sections of Tainton's survey, deleting those sections s p e c i f i c a l l y concerned with the Program i i i A r t. Those sections used are concerned with the p r i o r i t i e s , emphases, and problems of elementary teachers who have some part i n the a r t education of t h e i r p u p i l s . I t should be noted that there are no s p e c i a l i s t a r t teachers i n Queensland elementary schools, art education being the sole r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the classroom teacher. The r e s u l t s of Ta in ton ' s survey on the s i x sect ions are summarized below, whi le an expanded v e r s i o n of the per t inent sect ions of Ta in ton ' s study appears as Appendix A. Table 1 Influences upon content: sources of informat ion (C)* Influences Mean Rating** 1. Ideas developed from c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r e s t s 3.64 2. Personal books and/or notes 3.55 3. Ideas suggested by fe l low teachers 3.41 4. Reference books from school l i b r a r y 3.27 5. Ideas suggested by advisory teachers 3.11 6. Curriculum guide 3.00 7. A u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l 2.29 8. A r t resources i n the community 1.54 * (C) i n d i c a t e s Queensland sample * * L i k e r t sca le 1-5 "Sources of ideas for the content of teachers' ar t programs came mostly from w i t h i n the school i t s e l f : from c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r e s t s , personal l i t e r a t u r e , school reference books, and from the suggestions of fe l low teachers" (Tainton, p . 13). 25 Table 2 Emphasis given to c e r t a i n obj ec t ives (c) Object ive Mean Rat ing* 1. Prov id ing for c h i l d s a t i s f a c t i o n 4.30 2. A r t as a means of s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n 4.02 3. Prov id ing for i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d th ink ing 3.92 4. A c q u i s i t i o n of c e r t a i n s k i l l s by c h i l d r e n 3.54 5. Teaching of ar t techniques 3.11 6. P r o v i d i n g a sequence of ar t a c t i v i t i e s 3.06 7. Teaching ar t concepts 2.61 * L i k e r t sca le 1-5 This "would seem to i n d i c a t e that the major i ty of teachers perceived the ar t curr iculum to be very much c h i l d - c e n t r e d " (p. 12). Q u a l i f y i n g t h i s statement Tainton noted "there were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f erences among teachers according to grade taught. Teachers i n the lower school (Grades 1 and 2) reported greater emphasis upon these two object ives [ 1 . and 2 above] than d id middle school teachers (Grades 3-5) or those teaching upper grades (6 and 7)" (p. 12). Further ana lys i s showed no negative c o r r e l a t i o n s , that i s "great emphasis upon one objec t ive was not c o n s i s t e n t l y associated with a l ack of emphasis upon others" (p. 12). 26 Table 3 Integration with other curriculum areas (c) Curriculum area Mean Rating* 1. S o c i a l studies 3.97 2. Language arts 3.90 3. Science 3.27 4. Music 2.61 5. Mathematics 2.38 6. P h y s i c a l education 1.95 * L i k e r t scale 1-5 "More than h a l f the teachers reported that a r t was often integrated with a c t i v i t i e s i n s o c i a l studies and language a r t s " (p. 17). It should be stressed, however, that, as Tainton notes, the responses show the frequency, not the nature of integr a t i o n . 27 Table 4 P r i o r i t i e s for ass i s tance ( c ) Type of ass i s tance Mean Rat ing* 1. Greater range of suppl ied ar t mater ia l s and equipment 4.53 2. Inserv ice workshops and seminars i n ar t 3.72 3. More advisory teacher v i s i t s 3.72 4. A d d i t i o n a l ar t reference books i n school l i b r a r y 3.70 5. More d e t a i l e d sy l labus guide 3.28 6. Long-term i n s e r v i c e courses i n a r t 2.94 * L i k e r t sca le 1-5 "It was d i f f i c u l t to d i s c e r n any general pat tern i n teachers' responses i n terms of personal or school v a r i a b l e s . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t grade d i f f erences ; nor were there d i f ferences due to the sex, age or teaching experience of the teacher" (p. 19). Tainton ca l cu la ted c o r r e l a t i o n s between p r i o r i t i e s for ass i s tance and perce ived personal problems, with the hypothesis "that the. more concerned a teacher f e l t about h i s personal inadequacies i n ar t educat ion, the greater would be the need for var ious types of ass is tance" (p.19) . Only more d e t a i l e d s y l l a b u s , more school re ferences , and long-term i n s e r v i c e showed s i g n i f i c a n c e at the p<C.01 l e v e l . S u r p r i s i n g l y , increase i n the number of advisory teacher v i s i t s appeared to make no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , despite the r o l e of advisory teachers at that time being one mainly concerned with curriculum i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and teaching methods advice. Table 5 Classroom organization (C) Method Mean Rating* 1. A l l p u p i l s work on the same i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t y at the same time 3.29 2. Groups of pupils work on d i f f e r e n t projects at the same time 3.06 3. Individual p u p i l s work on d i f f e r e n t projects at the same time 2.83 * L i k e r t scale 1-4 It would appear that t r a d i t i o n a l classroom procedures were the most popular but more f l e x i b l e methods were not rare. There were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences among the respondents i n terms of age, experience, grade v a r i a b l e s . 29 Table 6 P e r s o n a l problems pe rce ived ( c ) Problem area Mean R a t i n g * I n s u f f i c i e n t background knowledge o f : 1. T e x t i l e s 3.01 2 . Des ign 2.98 3 . M o d e l l i n g and c a r v i n g 2.96 4. C o n s t r u c t i o n 2.87 5. Enjoyment of a r t 2.82 6. Be ing unsure of the sequences of l e a r n i n g exper iences 2.75 7. I n s u f f i c i e n t background knowledge of p r i n tmaking 2.71 8. Lack of knowledge of app rop r i a t e t each ing methods 2.70 9. I n s u f f i c i e n t knowledge of c h i l d r e n ' s a r t development 2.55 10. I n s u f f i c i e n t background knowledge of p a i n t i n g and drawing 2.54 11. I n t e r p r e t i n g the o b j e c t i v e s of the s y l l a b u s guide 2.47 * L i k e r t s c a l e 1-5 30 Teachers reported they were more concerned with a " f e e l i n g of i n s u f f i c i e n t background knowledge... than with problems r e l a t i n g to teaching methods, children's art development or objectives of the program guide" (p. 8). Analyses of teacher subgroups showed that there was no s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b i l i t y i n teachers' perceptions with respect to sex or grade, however, those having longer, more recent teacher education courses saw i n s u f f i c i e n t knowledge i n t e x t i l e s , painting and drawing, and printmaking as le s s of a problem. Table 7 School problems perceived (C) Problem area . . . . . . . . Mean Rating* 1. I n s u f f i c i e n t display areas 3.90 2. Lack of s u i t a b l e working areas 3.83 3.. I n s u f f i c i e n t storage or shelving 3.75 4. Lack of s u i t a b l e materials and equipment 3.63 5. A v a i l a b i l i t y of funds 3.54 6. Lack of s u i t a b l e a r t works 3.40 7. Lack of s u i t a b l e f i l m s t r i p s , s l i d e s 3.24 8. Lack of s u i t a b l e reference books 2.89 * L i k e r t scale 1-5 L a c k o f a c c o m m o d a t i o n , e q u i p m e n t a n d f u n d s , a n d r e s o u r c e s f o r a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n w e r e r e p o r t e d a s m a j o r p r o b l e m s . T h e r e w e r e n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b y g r a d e . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t a c o m p a r i s o n o f p e r s o n a l v e r s u s s c h o o l p r o b l e m s s h o w s t h a t " s c h o o l i s s u e s w e r e , i n g e n e r a l , o f g r e a t e r c o n c e r n t o t e a c h e r s t h a n p e r c e i v e d p e r s o n a l i n a d e q u a c i e s " ( p . 9 ) . T a i n t o n r e p o r t e d s e v e n m a j o r c o n c l u s i o n s w h i c h e m e r g e d f r o m a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a . T h e y w e r e : 1. T e a c h e r s t e n d e d t o g i v e g r e a t e r e m p h a s i s t o p a i n t i n g a n d d r a w i n g i n t h e i r a r t p r o g r a m s t h a n t h e l e s s " t r a d i t i o n a l " a r e a s o f t e x t i l e s o r m o d e l l i n g a n d c a r v i n g . 2. T e a c h e r s d i s p l a y e d g r e a t e s t i n t e r e s t , p e r c e i v e d t h e m s e l v e s t o b e b e s t t r a i n e d , a n d r e p o r t e d r e s o u r c e s t o b e m o s t a v a i l a b l e i n p a i n t i n g a n d d r a w i n g ; a g a i n , l e a s t e m p h a s i s w a s g i v e n t o t e x t i l e s o r m o d e l l i n g a n d c a r v i n g . 3. T h e s e l e c t i o n o f a r t a r e a s i n t e a c h e r s ' c u r r i c u l a w a s m o s t l y i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e d e g r e e o f t e a c h e r i n t e r e s t i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r a r e a , a n d t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t b y t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f r e s o u r c e s . 4. I n v i e w o f t h e d i v e r s i t y i n t e a c h e r s ' p h i l o s o p h y o f a r t e d u c a t i o n , a n y a t t e m p t t o p r o d u c e a p r e s c r i p t i v e s y l l a b u s t o s e r v i c e t h e w h o l e S t a t e w o u l d p r o b a b l y s a t i s f y o n l y a s m a l l m i n o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s . 5. A l t h o u g h t h e u s e o f t h e a r t s y l l a b u s g u i d e w a s n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y e x t e n s i v e i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r s o u r c e s o f p l a n n i n g at the teachers' d i s p o s a l , i t was being used according to need. 6. Of a l l the problems c i t e d , teachers f e l t most concerned about classroom accommodation and the mater ia l s a v a i l a b l e for a r t a c t i v i t i e s . Personal problems encountered by teachers r e f e r r e d l a r g e l y to a l ack of background knowledge of the less " t r a d i t i o n a l " a r t areas and uncerta inty i n sequencing ar t experiences for c h i l d r e n . 7. Teachers' greatest p r i o r i t i e s for ass i s tance were, i n order of importance: more suppl ied mater ia l s and equipment; more i n s e r v i c e seminars and advisory teacher v i s i t s ; and a d d i t i o n a l reference books. (p. v) 33 Chapter 4 NETWORKS IN ACTION: THE VANCOUVER SAMPLE In January, 1984 the Deputy Superintendent of the Vancouver School Board reported that an arts network had "been a l i v e and we l l i n Vancouver f o r more than a year". Six of the d i s t r i c t ' s eighty-seven elementary schools had joined a network i n i t i a t e d by the p r i n c i p a l s of the s i x schools. By 1986 two a d d i t i o n a l networks had been organized and others planned. This study set out to obtain information from two sources -classroom teachers and p r i n c i p a l s - from two of the networks operating. This chapter reports the responses of each. The responses to the interview questions by two p r i n c i p a l s from Network 1 and two p r i n c i p a l s from Network 2 are reported f i r s t followed by the responses to the teacher questionnaire of teachers from each network. S i m i l a r i t i e s and differences between Network 1 and Network 2 are then discussed i n reference to time i n networking. F i n a l l y , the teacher responses are combined to give a larger sample f or comparison with the Queensland sample. The teacher questionnaire responses are reported i n tabular form, with mean ratings derived from L i k e r t scales, i n rank order. The complete breakdown of responses, incl u d i n g the percentages of responses i n each of the L i k e r t categories, appears as Appendix ;B. 34 Interviews with p r i n c i p a l s , It was decided to sample the longest operating network, Network 1 , and one of the more recent ones, Network 2 . Since the networks are r e a l l y a group of p r i n c i p a l s who have committed themselves to improving the q u a l i t y of education f o r a l l c h i l d r e n by incorporating a l l the arts into the d a i l y teaching and learning process, two p r i n c i p a l s from each network were interviewed i n depth. Five other p r i n c i p a l s of Network 2 schools were also asked b r i e f l y f o r t h e i r general impressions of networking. Each of the p r i n c i p a l s interviewed i n depth was asked the same questions but was encouraged to elaborate or extend answers where possible. Predictably, there was close agreement among the responses, since the network p r i n c i p a l s had s i m i l a r i d e a l s , philosophies, and i n t e r e s t s i n the a r t s . The interview questions sought s p e c i f i c primary information as w e l l as opinions on teachers' responses to networking. The p r i n c i p a l s were interviewed at a pre-arranged, convenient in-school time. Each interview lasted f i f t e e n to twenty minutes, and followed a s p e c i f i c format. A short preamble on the purpose of the study and the background of the researcher was given. The interviews were conducted i n the p r i n c i p a l ' s o f f i c e of each school. Appendix D contains the i n i t i a l questions posed to the p r i n c i p a l s . 35 Results In response to "Why the arts and why networking?" a l l the p r i n c i p a l s responded i n terms of common as w e l l as personal i n t e r e s t i n the a r t s . Two p r i n c i p a l s had connections with community arts groups, opera and art g a l l e r y , which f u e l l e d t h e i r i n t e r e s t and one p r i n c i p a l suggested that the arts were a given as part of l i f e and education. One p r i n c i p a l had experience as an arts teacher and one suggested that s i x heads were better than one. Networking as a formal e n t i t y seemed not to be important. I t was a case of natural confluence rather than f i t t i n g a c t i o n to a model. There was no discernable d i f f e r e n c e i n responses from p r i n c i p a l s from the d i f f e r e n t networks. In response to "How successful do you perceive networking to have been i n meeting i t s goals?" the p r i n c i p a l s from both networks rated i t successful to very successful. One p r i n c i p a l f e l t i t s success was a t t r i b u t a b l e to the p e r s o n a l i t i e s of the group of p r i n c i p a l s involved, while another suggested that f o r m a l i z a t i o n under the t i t l e "Network1*, kept the goals and commitment i n mind. In response to "How successful do you think teachers perceive networking to have been?" the responses were less sure. One p r i n c i p a l from Network 2 thought i t successful i n l i g h t of a recently held network pr o f e s s i o n a l development day but the others 36 were eit h e r unsure or f e l t i t was too early to see any observable impact on teachers. P r i n c i p a l s ' perceptions of the degree of impact of networking did not seem to be re l a t e d to the time already spent i n networking. In response to "What has changed because of networking?" the general agreement was that the arts were more valued than previously i n the schools. One p r i n c i p a l from Network 2 saw a more cre a t i v e approach i n the school with more in t e g r a t i o n , while another from Network 1 saw l i t t l e change i n programs but a discernable change i n a t t i t u d e among teachers. In response to "How committed have teachers become to the id e a l s of networking?" none of the p r i n c i p a l s was able to respond p o s i t i v e l y other than to suggest that such commitment was e s s e n t i a l but took time to achieve. This was equally true of both networks. Teachers were reported as not being, deeply involved currently other than i n p r o f e s s i o n a l days. In response to a question on teachers' actual involvement, the unanimous response was through p r o f e s s i o n a l development days and s t a f f meetings. The p r i n c i p a l s were the network and funnelled ideas and enthusiasm v i a meetings of s t a f f . Where a l l schools combined for p r o f e s s i o n a l days, as Network 2 had done, p r i n c i p a l s unanimously rated them highly successful. Each of the schools had a teacher designated as an art teacher, with some also having a music and p h y s i c a l education teacher. In one Network 1 school the p h y s i c a l education teacher had involved 37 the p u p i l s extensively i n modern dance. The designated art teachers generally taught the middle and upper grades. In each school classroom teachers were responsible f o r at le a s t some a r t i n s t r u c t i o n and i n the lower grades usually a l l the a r t education. I t was reported by p r i n c i p a l s from both networks that the only time when a l l teachers were generally involved i n a r t education was when s p e c i a l whole school projects were undertaken. Summary and Conclusions Networks 1 and 2 i n Vancouver were the r e s u l t of meetings of like-minded p r i n c i p a l s who saw the need to share ideas co n t i n u a l l y . Only one p r i n c i p a l , from Network 1, reported pressure from parents f or arts involvement but a l l p r i n c i p a l s were themselves deeply committed to the a r t s . Teachers were perceived to be less involved and les s enthusiastic and t h i s appears to be supported by the teachers' responses to the questionnaire. The use of s p e c i a l i s t teachers appeared to have divorced art education from some classrooms. One p r i n c i p a l saw a need f o r these s p e c i a l i s t teachers to become .. leaders of classroom teachers rather than someone who, "took the kids away f o r a while!" High personal i n t e r e s t and commitment of the p r i n c i p a l s appeared to be e s s e n t i a l but t h i s commitment took time to 38 trans f e r to s t a f f i n the school i n the opinion of the p r i n c i p a l s . Teachers' questionnaires The p r i n c i p a l of each of the four schools v i s i t e d f o r interview was requested to pass questionnaires randomly to classroom teachers. This i s acknowledged as being an inadequate d i s t r i b u t i o n method but i t was not possible to approach teachers i n d i v i d u a l l y . The designated a r t teachers of s i x of the network schools were approached separately. From Network 1 twelve usable questionnaires were returned and twelve from Network 2. This represents a ninety-two per cent return. It may be suggested that what i s represented may be a biased sample i n that only seven of the t h i r t e e n schools involved i n arts networking are represented and three of these are represented by designated art teachers. However, the designated a r t teachers are also classroom teachers and the sample consisted of s i x per cent of teachers involved i n arts networking. This seems therefore a f a i r r e f l e c t i o n of the thinking of the network teachers as a whole. The majority of responses were from female teachers (83.3%), older teachers of 35-54 years (83.3%) and teachers with generally more than eleven years teaching experience (41.6% had more than 21 years teaching experience). The majority (75%) were teachers with general classroom r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , the remainder being designated art teachers with some classroom r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Table 8 Sex of respondents: Vancouver sample 39 Sex Network 1 Network 2 To t a l N % N % . N % Male 2 16.7 2 16.7 4 16.7 Female 10 83.3 10 83.3 20 83.3 12 100.0 12 100.0 24 100.0 Table 9 Age of respondents: Vancouver sample Age Network 1 Network 2 To t a l N ...... .% N . . % N % 25-34 1 8.3 - 1 4.2 35-44 6 50.0 5 41.7 11 45.8 45-54 4 33.4 5 41.7 9 37.5 55+ 1 8.3 2 16.6 3 12.5 12 100.0 12 100.0 24 100.0 40 Table 10 Teaching experience of respondents: Vancouver sample Teaching Network 1 Network 2 T o t a l Experience Years N % N % N % 4-5. 1 8.3 - - 1 4.2 6-10 - - 1 8.3 1 4.2 11-20 7 58.4 5 41.7 12 50.0 21+ 4 33.3 6 50.0 10 41.6 12 100.0 . . . . 1 2 . 100.0 24 100.0 41 Results (Network 1: Vancouver) Table 11 Influences upon the content of teachers' programs ( A l ) * Influences Mean Rating** 1. Personal books and/or notes • 3.58 2. Ideas developed from children's i n t e r e s t s 3.58 3. Ideas suggested by fellow teachers 3.33 4. Reference books from school l i b r a r y 2.92 5. Ideas suggested by a r t consultants 2.92 6. Curriculum guide 2.83 7. Art resources i n the community 2.83 8. Audio-visual material 2.67 * (Al) in d i c a t e s Vancouver Network 1 (established) sample ** L i k e r t scale 1-5 Table 11 shows the r e l a t i v e importance of eight possible sources of ideas for teachers. I t may be seen that sources from within the school, that i s , from children's i n t e r e s t s , from suggestions by fellow teachers, and from personal l i t e r a t u r e , are the greatest influences. Since one of the aims of arts networking i s to increase the i n t e r e s t , support, and involvement of the l o c a l community (Remer, 1982), i t i s noteworthy that Network 1 respondents ranked "Art resources i n the community" at the lower end of the scale. 42 Table 12 Emphasis g iven to c e r t a i n bbj e c t i v e s i n t eache r s ' a r t programs (Al) O b j e c t i v e Mean R a t i n g * 1. A r t as a means of s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n 4.17 2. P r o v i d i n g f o r i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d t h i n k i n g 4.00 3. A c q u i s i t i o n of c e r t a i n s k i l l s by c h i l d r e n 4.00 4. P r o v i d i n g f o r c h i l d s a t i s f a c t i o n 3.83 5. Teaching of a r t techniques 3.83 6. Teaching of a r t concepts 3.67 7. P r o v i d i n g a sequence of a r t a c t i v i t i e s 3.58 * L i k e r t s c a l e 1-5 A l l of the o b j e c t i v e s r e c e i v e d r a t i n g s i n the p o s i t i v e end of the s c a l e ("Some" to "Very Great" ) and those o b j e c t i v e s r a t ed h ighes t are those which r e l a t e most to the f i r s t three goa ls of the p r o v i n c i a l elementary f i n e a r t s c u r r i c u l u m . These goa l s a r e : To f o s t e r the c h i l d ' s enthusiasm f o r the a r t s through involvement i n a r t , drama, and mus ic ; to develop the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y to e x p l o r e , express , communicate, i n t e r p r e t , and c r e a t e ; and to develop the c h i l d ' s s k i l l and t e c h n i c a l a b i l i t y i n the a r t s . Other goa l s i n the guide i n c l u d e the nu r tu re of the A3 c h i l d ' s capacity f o r c r i t i c a l and s e n s i t i v e response to the a r t s ; encouragement of the c h i l d ' s appreciation of the interrelatedness of the a r t s ; and advancement of the c h i l d ' s knowledge of the way i n which the a r t s influence and are influenced by society and the environment. (Ministry of Education, 1985) The f i r s t three goals are also c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the aim of developing c r e a t i v i t y , the predominant goal of a r t education i n the 1960s and 1970s. Table 13 Integration of a r t with other curriculum areas (Al) Curriculum area Mean Rating* 1. Language ar t s 3.83 2. S o c i a l studies 3.25 3. Science 2.58 4. Music 2.58 5. Mathematics 2.67 6. P h y s i c a l education 2.25 * L i k e r t scale 1-5 The p r o v i n c i a l curriculum guide stresses the i n d i v i d u a l teacher's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n deciding "the extent to which learning i n the f i n e a r t s i s integrated into the curriculum i n the sciences and the humani t ies as pa r t of the process of p r e sen t i ng the r e l a t i o n between a l l areas of l e a r n i n g " ( M i n i s t r y of Educa t i on , 1985, p . v i ) . F u r t h e r , the themes suggested f o r a r t p l a n n i n g "approximate t i t l e s g i v e n i n the S o c i a l S tud ies C u r r i c u l u m Guide" (p. 12) . However, respondents ranked language a r t s ahead of s o c i a l s t u d i e s . P h y s i c a l educa t ion was the subjec t r a t ed lowest by the m a j o r i t y of teachers (66.7%). Table 14 Teachers ' p r i o r i t i e s f o r a s s i s t a n c e (Al ) Type of a s s i s t a n c e Mean R a t i n g : 1. Grea ter range of s u p p l i e d a r t m a t e r i a l s and equipment 3.83 2. I n s e r v i c e workshops and seminars i n a r t 3.58 3. Long-term i n s e r v i c e courses i n a r t 3.25 4. A d d i t i o n a l a r t re ference books i n s choo l l i b r a r y 3.17 5. More a r t consu l t an t v i s i t s 2.58 6. More d e t a i l e d c u r r i c u l u m guide 2.58 * L i k e r t s c a l e 1-5 Table 14 shows respondents ' pe rce ived importance f o r s i x types of assistance. The high ranking given to i n s e r v i c e together with that given to in-school sources of assistance previously noted i n Table 11, could be seen as i n d i c a t i n g networking i s an i n s e r v i c e mode most s u i t a b l e to these teachers needs. They appear to have rejected outsider assistance i n the form of a r t consultants or a more de t a i l e d curriculum guide. Although networking would not provide the type of assistance ranked highest - more materials and equipment - i t does aim at peer assistance i n an i n s e r v i c e mode, encouraging sharing for greater understanding. Table 15 Methods of class organization (Al) Method Mean Rating* 1. A l l p u p i l s work on the same i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t y at the same time 3.42 2. Individual p u p i l s work on d i f f e r e n t projects at the same time 2.83 3. Groups of p u p i l s work on d i f f e r e n t projects at the same time 3.06 * L i k e r t scale 1-4 Vancouver Network 1 respondents chose the t r a d i t i o n a l method as being used most often. However they appear also to adopt other o r g a n i z a t i o n a l methods "sometimes", with only a small m i n o r i t y (8.3%) "never" using group or i n d i v i d u a l classroom models of organ iza t ion . Problems perceived by teachers were subdivided in to two groups, as Tainton had done. These are personal problems and school problems. A l l of the school problems were ranked higher than the personal problems, suggesting that the respondents perceived externa l agencies had c o n t r o l over many of the concerns which they considered problems. 47 Table 16 P e r s o n a l problems pe rce ived by teachers (A l ) Problem area Mean R a t i n g * I n s u f f i c i e n t background knowledge o f : 1. Des ign elements and p r i n c i p l e s 2.50 2. A r t processes 2.50 3. Being unsure of the sequence of l e a r n i n g exper iences 2.42 I n s u f f i c i e n t background knowledge o f : 4. C h i l d r e n ' s a r t development 2.33 5. Image development 2.33 6. A r t e v a l u a t i o n 2.33 ,7 . Lack of knowledge of app rop r i a t e t each ing methods 2.33 8. I n t e r p r e t i n g the o b j e c t i v e s of the c u r r i c u l u m guide 2.25 9. I n s u f f i c i e n t background knowledge of responding to a r t 2.17 * L i k e r t s c a l e 1-5 A l l of the pe r sona l problems i n Table 16 were ranked low ("some" to "very l i t t l e " ) . The r ank ing of "sequence of l e a r n i n g exper iences" i s of i n t e r e s t i n tha t respondents ranked "sequence 48 of a r t a c t i v i t i e s " as l a s t i n the extent of emphasis given i n Table 12, which may i n d i c a t e the respondents are unfamiliar with t h i s aspect of art education. The low r a t i n g given to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of curriculum objectives appears to agree with the previously noted ranking of respondents' perceptions of the extent of influence of the curriculum guide (Table 11) and t h e i r lack of perceived need for a more d e t a i l e d curriculum guide (Table 14). Table 17 School problems perceived by teachers (Al) Problem area Mean Rating* 1. Lack of s u i t a b l e materials and equipment 3.17 2. A v a i l a b i l i t y of funds 3.08 3. Lack of s u i t a b l e a r t works 3.00 4. I n s u f f i c i e n t storage or shelving 2.92 5. Lack of s u i t a b l e reference books 2.92 6. Lack of s u i t a b l e f i l m s t r i p s , s l i d e s 2.92 7. Lack of s u i t a b l e working areas 2.83 8. I n s u f f i c i e n t d i splay areas 2.67 * L i k e r t scale 1-5 Lack of funds, materials, and equipment are the most frequently perceived problems and one might speculate that t h i s would be the response regardless of the subject area concerned. "Lack of a r t works" rated as somewhat a problem, although network schoo ls v i s i t e d d i s p l a y e d c h i l d r e n ' s a r t i n every a v a i l a b l e space. Perhaps the low r a t i n g g i v e n to " i n s u f f i c i e n t d i s p l a y areas" may r e f l e c t a d e s i r e on the pa r t of teachers to supplement c h i l d r e n ' s work w i t h r ep roduc t ions of famous a r t i s t s ' works . Table 18 Teachers ' pe rcep t ions of pe r sona l changes due to networking (A l ) Changes Mean R a t i n g * 1. A t t i t u d e to a r t s educa t ion 3. 33 2. Awareness of the p l a c e of a r t s i n educa t ion 3. 25 3. A s s i s t a n c e w i t h a r t programming 2. 92 4. A l t e r a t i o n to t each ing content 2. 75 5. Unders tanding of a r t knowledge, p rocesses , and s k i l l s 2. 75 6. A l t e r a t i o n to t each ing methods 2. 50 * L i k e r t s c a l e 1-5 Those i n t a n g i b l e s of a t t i t u d e and awareness mentioned by the p r i n c i p a l s i n t h e i r i n t e r v i e w s are the changes pe rce ived by the respondents to have been most n o t i c e a b l e . A r t s networking i s not p e r c e i v e d to have had much e f f e c t on the p r a c t i c a l i t i e s of the t each ing r o l e . Respondents r a t ed s c h o o l changes h igher than p e r s o n a l changes. Th i s i s s i m i l a r to the responses noted i n Tables 16 and 17. A l l of the changes l i s t e d i n Table 19 r a t ed h ighe r than the h ighes t p e r s o n a l change. Table 19 Teachers ' pe rcep t ions of s c h o o l changes due to networking (Al ) Network Outcome Statement Mean R a t i n g * 1. Commitment to the i d e a l s of a r t s networking by the p r i n c i p a l i s e s s e n t i a l 4.42 2. The a r t s are now an i n t e g r a l pa r t of the d a i l y exper ience of every c h i l d i n the s c h o o l 3.92 3. F e l l o w teachers r e a d i l y share ideas and approaches f o r t each ing a r t 3.58 4. I n t e r e s t , suppor t , and involvement of the l o c a l and gene ra l community i n the s c h o o l has inc reased 3.58 5. The c l i m a t e of the s choo l has become l i v e l i e r and more v i t a l 3.58 * L i k e r t s c a l e 1-5 The respondents ' p e r c e p t i o n of the importance of the p r i n c i p a l i n t h i s process i s i n accord w i t h the view expressed by some resea rchers i n schoo l change and i n n o v a t i o n that the r o l e of the p r i n c i p a l i s v i t a l (Goodlad, 1969; C r a n d a l l , 1983; H o l t , 1979). The lower r a t i n g g i v e n to the statement on community involvement i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n the r a t i n g of the 51 community as a resource noted i n Table. 11. Summary of r e s u l t s (Network 1: Vancouver). In general respondents from Network 1 perceived that in-school sources influenced t h e i r programming more than outside influences. They rated highest those objectives which are i n accord with some of the p r o v i n c i a l f i n e arts curriculum guide goals r e f l e c t i n g an i d e a l of developing c r e a t i v i t y . Language arts was the subject reported most integrated with a r t while p h y s i c a l education was almost never integrated. The assistance Network 1 respondents sought most was i n the form of materials and equipment, although i n s e r v i c e ranked highly. T r a d i t i o n a l methods of classroom organization were preferred but other methods used. Few personal problems were perceived by the respondents but school problems ranked high. Again materials, equipment, and funds led the ranking. Respondents thought they had changed t h e i r a t t i t u d e towards, and t h e i r awareness of a r t education but l i t t l e had changed i n t h e i r d a i l y teaching r o l e . The highest r a t i n g of the survey was given to the importance of the p r i n c i p a l ' s commitment which was perceived as an e s s e n t i a l r e q u i s i t e f o r successful a r t s networking. Community involvement and school climate were not perceived to have changed greatly due to arts networking. 52 Results (Network 2: Vancouver) Table 20 Influences upon the content of teachers' programs (A2)* Influences Mean Rating** 1. Personal books and/or notes 4.00 2. Ideas developed from children's i n t e r e s t s 3.67 3. Ideas suggested by fellow teachers 3.17 4. Ideas suggested by a r t consultants 3.08 5. Curriculum guide 2.92 6. Reference books from school l i b r a r y 2.58 7. Audio-visual material 2.42 8. Art resources i n the community 2.25 * (A2) indicates Vancouver Network 2 (new) sample ** L i k e r t scale 1-5 There i s close s i m i l a r i t y between the responses of the two groups (Network 1 and Network 2) on this question except for one item - reference books i n the school l i b r a r y . However, th i s may be a r e f l e c t i o n on the a v a i l a b i l i t y of t h i s resource rather than a perception of i t s usefulness. Network 2 respondents tended to spread t h e i r rankings more than Network 1 with a higher high and a lower low. 53 Table 21 Emphasis given to c e r t a i n objectives i n teachers' art programs (A2) Objective Mean Rating* 1. Providing f o r c h i l d s a t i s f a c t i o n 4.33 2. Providing f o r i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d thinking 4.08 3. Art as a means of self-expression 4.00 4. A c q u i s i t i o n of c e r t a i n s k i l l s by c h i l d r e n 3.67 5. Teaching of a r t concepts 3.50 6. Teaching of a r t techniques 3.33 7. Providing a sequence of a r t a c t i v i t i e s 3.33 * L i k e r t scale 1-5 On t h i s question there i s again one item of difference. Network 1 respondents ranked c h i l d s a t i s f a c t i o n t h i r d (M 3.83) while Network 2 respondents have given i t f i r s t ranking. However both groups l e f t the teaching aspects i n the lower categories. Sequencing i s given the lowest ranking by both Network 1 and Network 2. 54 Table 22 Integration of a r t with other curriculum areas (A2) Curriculum area Mean Rating* 1. Language arts 4.00 2. So c i a l studies 3.75 3. Science 3.50 4. Music 3.25 5. Mathematics 2.83 6. Phys i c a l education 2.08 * L i k e r t scale 1-5 The order from Network 2 respondents i s almost i d e n t i c a l to that from Network 1. The spread of the Network 2 mean ratings i s greater than that from Network 1 but only p h y s i c a l education received a majority (83.3%) of negative responses ("rarely" to "never"). 55 Table 23 Teachers' p r i o r i t i e s for assistance (A2) Type of assistance Mean Rating* 1. Greater range of supplied art materials and equipment 3.92 2. Inservice workshops and seminars i n a r t 3.83 3. Long-term i n s e r v i c e courses i n a r t 3.33 4. A d d i t i o n a l a r t reference books i n school l i b r a r y 3.08 5. More de t a i l e d curriculum guide 2.42 6. More a r t consultant v i s i t s 2.33 * L i k e r t scale 1-5 The responses are ranked almost the same f o r the two groups with the exception of a r t consultant v i s i t s which Network 2 ranked s l i g h t l y lower than Network 1. Although Network 2 respondents ranked reference books low as an influence on t h e i r programs (Table 20) they do not appear to perceive the need f o r more to be a v a i l a b l e . 56 Table 24 Methods of cla s s organization (A2) Method Mean Rating* 1. A l l p u p i l s work on the same i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t y at the same time 3.42 2. Individual p u p i l s work on d i f f e r e n t projects at the same time 3.08 3. Groups of pu p i l s work on d i f f e r e n t projects at the same time 3.08 * L i k e r t scale 1-4 Network 2 respondents appear to make greater use of i n d i v i d u a l and group approaches than do Network 1 respondents although both groups gave an i d e n t i c a l r a t i n g to the t r a d i t i o n a l method of class organization. One respondent reported never using the whole class approach. 57 Table 25 Personal problems perceived by teachers (A2) Problem area Mean Rating* I n s u f f i c i e n t background knowledge of: 1. Design elements and p r i n c i p l e s 2.67 2. Art processes 2.67 3. Art evaluation 2.67 4. Image development 2.58 5. Children's a r t development 2.33 6. Interpreting the objectives of the curriculum guide 2.25 7. I n s u f f i c i e n t background knowledge of responding to art 2.25 8. Lack of knowledge of appropriate teaching methods 2.25 9. Being unsure of the sequence of learning experiences 2.17 * L i k e r t scale 1-5 The lack of a r t knowledge ranks high with Network 2 respondents, f i l l i n g the f i r s t f i v e places, and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of curriculum objectives was ranked somewhat higher than was the case i n Network 1 (See Table 16) although the mean r a t i n g was 58 the same at 2.25. The l a s t place given to sequencing also d i f f e r s from Network 1 where i t ranked t h i r d . Table 26 School problems perceived by teachers (A2) Problem area Mean Rating* 1. A v a i l a b i l i t y of funds 3.42 2. Lack of sui t a b l e materials and equipment 3.17 3. I n s u f f i c i e n t storage or shelving 3.08 4. Lack of su i t a b l e working areas 3.00 5. Lack of sui t a b l e a r t works 2.75 6. I n s u f f i c i e n t display areas 2.67 7. Lack of su i t a b l e reference books 2.58 8. Lack of sui t a b l e f i l m s t r i p s , s l i d e s 2.50 * L i k e r t scale 1-5 There are a number of differences i n the order given by Network 2 from that of Network 1. There i s also a wider spread. Reference books are ranked low, perhaps i n d i c a t i n g agreement with the previously noted comment that they are not needed nor do they influence programming (See Tables 20 and 23). Lack of sui t a b l e a r t works i s seen as less of a problem by Network 2 respondents than Network 1. 59 Table 27 Teachers' perception of personal changes due to networking (A2) Changes Mean Rating* 1. Understanding of art knowledge, processes, and s k i l l s 2. 92 2. Awareness of the place of arts i n education 2. 92 3. Att i t u d e to arts education 2. 83 4. Assistance with a r t programming 2. 75 5. A l t e r a t i o n to teaching content 2. 67 6. A l t e r a t i o n to teaching methods 2. 42 * L i k e r t scale 1-5 Awareness and understanding ranked highest with Network 2 0 but l i k e Network 1 they perceived l i t t l e change to t h e i r teaching r o l e . On t h i s question the responses were more c l o s e l y clustered than those of Network 1, r e f l e c t i n g perhaps the shorter time i n networking and thus unsureness regarding outcomes. Half the respondents saw " l i t t l e " to "very l i t t l e " change i n t h e i r teaching methods. 60 Table 28 Teachers ' pe rcep t ions of s choo l changes due to networking (A2) Network Outcome Statement Mean Ra t ing ' 1. Commitment to the i d e a l s of a r t s ne tworking by the p r i n c i p a l i s e s s e n t i a l 4.42 2. F e l l o w teachers r e a d i l y share ideas and approaches f o r t each ing a r t 3.75 3. The a r t s are now an i n t e g r a l pa r t of the d a i l y exper ience of every c h i l d i n the s choo l 3.58 4. The c l i m a t e of the s choo l has become l i v e l i e r and more v i t a l 3.25 5. I n t e r e s t , suppor t , and involvement of the l o c a l and gene ra l community i n the s c h o o l has inc reased 2.92 * L i k e r t s c a l e 1-5 Network 2 respondents ranked p r i n c i p a l commitment i d e n t i c a l l y w i t h tha t of Network 1 w i t h a mean r a t i n g of 4 .42 . There i s l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the responses other than the lower mean g i v e n to c l i m a t e and community involvement which may be i n d i c a t i v e of the sho r t e r t ime i n network involvement . Summary of r e s u l t s (Network 2: Vancouver). Network 2 respondents perceived influences from within the school as most important but saw l i t t l e use f o r more reference books i n the school l i b r a r y . Very l i t t l e use was made of community resources. While they tend to emphasize c h i l d s a t i s f a c t i o n , Network 2 respondents rated highly objectives usually associated with a free, self-expressive type of program with teaching aspects less emphasized. Network 2 respondents integrated art with a l l subjects except p h y s i c a l education where a large majority r a r e l y or never linked the two subjects. More materials and i n s e r v i c e courses are seen as highest p r i o r i t i e s f o r assistance, with reference books again ranked low. Respondents from Network 2 usually worked i n t r a d i t i o n a l classroom organizational patterns but used other method at l e a s t some of the time. Lack of a r t knowledge, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n design elements and p r i n c i p l e s , concerned Network 2 respondents but l i t t l e concern was seen for sequencing of a c t i v i t i e s . School problems outranked personal problems with lack of funds and lack of materials and equipment highest but reference books again ranked low. Respondents perceived networking to have made l i t t l e change to t h e i r teaching s t y l e or manner although they credited networking with having changed t h e i r understanding, awareness, and a t t i t u d e somewhat. The commitment of the p r i n c i p a l was seen by Network 2 respondents as very important but l i t t l e seemed to have changed i n regard to community involvement i n the perception of the respondent 62 S i m i l a r i t i e s and differences between Network 1 and Network 2 The two networks i n Vancouver were chosen i n the expectation that differences i n t h e i r length of operation would a f f e c t teacher responses. However, the Vancouver networks are networks of p r i n c i p a l s and therefore when p r i n c i p a l s change schools, the networks' compositions change. One of the schools surveyed had thus been i n both networks and i t i s therefore not possible to make any assumptions regarding the time i n networking. Table 29 Time i n Networking Years Network 1 Network 2 T o t a l School i n 1 2 4 6 Networking 2-4 10 8 18 12 12 24 Teacher i n 1 3 4 7 Networking 2-4 9 8 17 12 12 24 63 However some points of i n t e r e s t do emerge. There were general s i m i l a r i t i e s among the responses on most questions although the respondents from Network 2 tended to give a wider spread of responses than those from Network 1. For example, on the question of influences upon content, Network 2 mean ratings ranged from 2.25 to 4.00 while Network 1 ranged from 2.67 to 3.58. Because of the small sample t h i s might simply be due to chance. With a larger sample differences might even out. One item of di f f e r e n c e between the networks on t h i s and two subsequent questions was the perceived r e l a t i v e importance of a r t reference books i n the school l i b r a r y . Network 2 saw them as a l e s s e r influence on content; le s s of a p r i o r i t y f o r assistance; and less of a school problem than did Network 1 respondents. In general the respondents from both networks emphasized those objectives which Chapman (1978) characterized as " a r t as self-expression". L i t t l e emphasis seems to be given to teaching art concepts and techniques and even less to providing a sequence of a c t i v i t i e s . These respondents appear to be l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t from those i n the United States described by Eisner (1972) or those i n Queensland described by Tainton (1976). Only three of the goals of the p r o v i n c i a l curriculum guide seem to be emphasized by the respondents. It has to be pointed out, however, that this guide has not been f u l l y introduced into Vancouver School Board schools at t h i s time. 64 Both networks' respondents indicated they integrated a r t with most of the other subjects but p a r t i c u l a r l y language arts and s o c i a l studies. Neither set of respondents reported i n t e g r a t i o n to any meaningful degree with p h y s i c a l education. On the question of p r i o r i t i e s f o r assistance a consistent pattern emerged which indicates that, other than more materials and equipment, the respondents sought both long-term and short-term i n s e r v i c e . Neither set of respondents saw a great need f o r a more d e t a i l e d curriculum. Both sets of respondents reported the t r a d i t i o n a l organizational model of a l l pupils working as a whole class on the same a c t i v i t y was most used. However, both i n d i v i d u a l and group work with d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s was reported as being used some of the time. The mean ratings f o r the less t r a d i t i o n a l methods were s l i g h t l y higher f or Network 2 than f o r Network 1. Both Network 1 and Network 2 respondents perceived they lacked a r t knowledge p a r t i c u l a r l y of those areas emphasized i n the p r o v i n c i a l curriculum guide. Network 1 respondents reported being somewhat unsure on sequencing a c t i v i t i e s , however Network 2 respondents rated t h i s the l e a s t of t h e i r problems. School problems perceived by the respondents of both networks outranked personal problems. Network 2 respondents seem to perceive a lack of f a c i l i t i e s such as work space, storage, and shelving to a s l i g h t l y greater extent than Network 1. The low r a t i n g given to the need 65 for d isplay areas might be explained by the Board's assistance to network schools i n the p r o v i s i o n of frames f o r p u p i l s ' a r t work. These frames were used to display children's art work i n every network school v i s i t e d . Arts networking aims at giving teachers a better understanding of the value and place of the arts i n education and the respondents perceived networking as having achieved t h i s goal. Changes i n a t t i t u d e and awareness ranked high i n both sets of responses. However, changes to teaching methods and content were not perceived to have occurred to any great extent. The response to the question of perceived school changes due to networking show complete agreement on one point -p r i n c i p a l ' s commitment - and moderate agreement on the others. Community involvement was ranked much lower by Network 2 (mean r a t i n g 2.92) than Network 1 (mean r a t i n g 3.58). The Vancouver Sample So as to give a larger sample for comparison with the Tainton Queensland sample, the responses of the two networks were combined to give the mean ratings of each item for the twenty-four Vancouver teachers involved i n the survey. 66 Table 30 In f luences upon the content of t eache r s ' programs (Combined  Vancouver) In f luences Mean R a t i n g * 1. P e r s o n a l books and/or notes 3.79 2. Ideas developed from c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r e s t s 3.63 3. Ideas suggested by f e l l o w teachers 3.25 4. Ideas suggested by a r t consu l t an t s 3.00 5. C u r r i c u l u m guide 2.88 6. Reference books from schoo l l i b r a r y 2.75 7. A u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l 2.54 8. A r t resources i n the community 2.54 * L i k e r t s c a l e 1-5 The combining of the two sets of the responses has not a l t e r e d the r ank ing of the f i r s t three items but d i d g ive s l i g h t changes to the order d e r i v e d f o r Network 1. The combined order i s the same as tha t f o r Network 2. 67 Table 31 Emphasis g i v e n to c e r t a i n o b j e c t i v e s i n t eache r s ' a r t programs  (Combined Vancouver) O b j e c t i v e Mean Ra t ing : 1. P r o v i d i n g f o r c h i l d s a t i s f a c t i o n 4.08 2. A r t as a means of s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n 4.08 3. P r o v i d i n g f o r i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d t h i n k i n g 4.04 4. A c q u i s i t i o n of c e r t a i n s k i l l s by c h i l d r e n 3.83 5. Teaching of a r t techniques 3.58 6. Teaching of a r t concepts 3.58 7. P r o v i d i n g a sequence of a r t a c t i v i t i e s 3.46 * L i k e r t s c a l e 1-5 A g a i n the c h i l d - c e n t r e d o b j e c t i v e s remain a t the top w h i l e t each ing aspects are r a t ed lower . However a l l the responses were "some" (3 ) ; "grea t" (4 ) ; or "very grea t" (5) i n d i c a t i n g perhaps a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e to a l l the o b j e c t i v e s g i v e n . 68 Table 32 Integration of art with other curriculum areas (Combined  Vancouver) Curriculum Area Mean Rating* 1. Language arts 3.92 2. So c i a l studies 3.50 3. Science 3.04 4. Music 2.92 5. Mathematics 2.75 6. Phy s i c a l education 2.17 * L i k e r t scale 1-5 Combining the responses of both networks has alte r e d the means, but not the order of p r i o r i t i e s established i n the i n d i v i d u a l network tables. 69 Table 33 Teachers' p r i o r i t i e s f o r assistance (Combined Vancouver) Type of assistance Mean Rating* 1. Greater range of supplied a r t materials and equipment 3.88 2. Inservice workshops and seminars i n a r t 3.71 3. Long-term i n s e r v i c e courses i n art 3.29 4. A d d i t i o n a l art reference books i n school l i b r a r y 3.13 5. More de t a i l e d curriculum guide 2.50 6. More a r t consultant v i s i t s 2.46 * L i k e r t scale 1-5 The combined respondents i n d i c a t e l i t t l e to moderate p r i o r i t y on a more detai l e d curriculum or art consultant v i s i t s , but see more a r t materials and equipment as t h e i r highest p r i o r i t y . The r a t i n g of i n s e r v i c e may be connected with the reported successful experiences i n a r t most of the network teachers have had at p r o f e s s i o n a l development day a r t workshops. 70 Table 34 Methods of class organization (Combined Vancouver) Method Mean Rating* 1. A l l p u p i l s work on the same i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t y at the same time 3.42 2. Individual p u p i l s work on d i f f e r e n t projects at the same time 2.96 3. Groups of pupils work on d i f f e r e n t projects at the same time 2.92 * L i k e r t scale 1-4 Three respondents indicated that they never used one of these methods while the majority indicated they used a l l the methods at le a s t sometimes. However, the t r a d i t i o n a l whole c l a s s , one a c t i v i t y , model was rated highest. 71 Table 35 Personal problems perceived by teachers (Combined Vancouver) Problem area Mean Rat ing* I n s u f f i c i e n t background knowledge of: 1. Design elements and p r i n c i p l e s 2. A r t processes 3. A r t eva luat ion 4. Image development 5. C h i l d r e n ' s a r t development 6. Lack of knowledge of appropriate teaching methods 7. Being unsure of the sequence of l earn ing experiences 8. In terpre t ing the object ives of the curr icu lum guide 9. I n s u f f i c i e n t background knowledge of responding to a r t * L i k e r t sca le 1-5 None of these problems were seen as being great , a l l of them r a t i n g i n the " l i t t l e " to "some" categor ies . Only 2.8% of the responses were i n the "very great" category even though many respondents i n d i c a t e d a need for more i n s e r v i c e (Table 33). Again 2.58 2.58 2.50 2.46 2.33 2.29 2.29 2.25 2.21 72 i t seems that the curriculum guide, whether i t be Board or P r o v i n c i a l , gives teachers few problems. Table 36 School problems perceived by teachers (Combined Vancouver) Problem area Mean Rating* 1. A v a i l a b i l i t y of funds 3.25 2. Lack of s u i t a b l e materials and equipment 3.17 3. I n s u f f i c i e n t storage or shelving 3.00 4. Lack of s u i t a b l e working areas 2.92 5. Lack of s u i t a b l e a r t works 2.88 6. Lack of s u i t a b l e reference books 2.75 7. Lack of s u i t a b l e f i l m s t r i p s , s l i d e s 2.71 8. I n s u f f i c i e n t display areas 2.67 * L i k e r t scale 1-5 A l l school problems received higher mean ratings than any personal problem. Within the context of general constraint i n school funding i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the highest ratings being given to funding and materials and equipment are understandable. 73 Table 37 Teachers' perceptions of personal changes due:to networking (Combined Vancouver) Changes Mean Rating* 1. A t t i t u d e to ar t s education 3.08 2. Awareness of the place of ar t s i n education 3.08 3. Ass i s tance with a r t programming 2.83 4. Understanding of a r t knowledge, processes , and s k i l l s 2.83 5. A l t e r a t i o n to teaching content 2.71 6. A l t e r a t i o n to teaching methods 2.46 * L i k e r t sca le 1-5 Changes i n a t t i t u d e , awareness, and understanding are goals of ar t s networking and i t therefore appears that Vancouver network respondents see these goals being met. These were a l so the goals most commented on by the p r i n c i p a l s interviewed. Changes to what was taught and how i t was taught are not so easy to arrange. "A new approach to a s u b j e c t . . . m i g h t prescr ibe changes i n content which imply changes i n method: even so, the signs are that t r a d i t i o n a l methods are not r e a d i l y abandoned" (Hol t , 1979, p. 57). 74 Table 38 Teachers' perceptions of school changes due to networking  (Combined Vancouver) Network Outcome Statement Mean Rating* 1. Commitment to the i d e a l s of arts networking by the p r i n c i p a l i s e s s e n t i a l 4. 42 2. The arts are now an i n t e g r a l part of the d a i l y experience of every c h i l d i n the school 3. 75 3. Fellow teachers r e a d i l y share ideas and approaches f o r teaching art 3. 67 4. The climate of the school has become l i v e l i e r and more v i t a l 3. 42 5. Interest, support, and involvement of the l o c a l and general community i n the school has increased 3. 25 * L i k e r t scale 1-5 F i f t y percent of the respondents reported strong agreement with the statement on p r i n c i p a l commitment, and a further 41.7% agreed with the statement. This strong perception of the importance of the p r i n c i p a l i n change strategies i s i n accord 75 with research i n the area (Goodlad, 1968; Lieberman, 1973; Myers, 1968; Novotney, 1968.; Tye, 1974). F o r t y - f i v e percent of respondents were undecided on the quest ion of community involvement. 76 Chapter 5 NETWORKS OVER TIME: THE SEATTLE SAMPLE Networking i n the arts under the Arts i n General Education program began i n Seattle i n January, 1974, "with the major impetus coming from the c i t y ' s a r t s i n s t i t u t i o n s , the D i s t r i c t ' s Curriculum Department, and the Junior League" (Remer, 1982). Networks expanded r a p i d l y "due to the d i s t r i c t ' s f i n a n c i a l commitment" (Remer, p.93). By 1980 there were "thirty-one elementary and secondary arts i n education schools i n the d i s t r i c t ' s 106 schools" (Remer, p. 103). The then Superintendent was able to claim, The arts are basic. They are a s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , and educational p r i o r i t y f o r Seattle. As superintendent, I've got to be personally involved i n the f i g h t to maintain not j u s t standards but f l e x i b i l i t y i n t h i s urban school system. The arts are a good weapon to have i n my arsenal. Besides, they're good for our public image (Remer, p. 104). By 1986 the process had slowed dramatically with f i n a n c i a l cutbacks and loss of personnel. At an arts network meeting organized by Educational Service D i s t r i c t No. 121, i n March, 1986, one teacher expressed concern at the lack of opportunities a v a i l a b l e f or i n s e r v i c e i n the arts and only one p r i n c i p a l of the several present was able to claim continuous arts networking involvement. The Washington A l l i a n c e f o r Arts Education has 77 attempted to a s s i s t by p r o v i d i n g funds f o r such resources as a source book of a r t s s e r v i c e s f o r s c h o o l s . T h i s was p r e v i o u s l y funded and s u p p l i e d s o l e l y by the S e a t t l e P u b l i c Schoo l s . The involvement of community a r t s groups appears to have remained s t rong and the use of a r t i s t s i n schools was e n e r g e t i c a l l y promoted a t t h i s network meet ing. T h i s chapter r epo r t s the r e s u l t s of p r i n c i p a l i n t e r v i e w s and t eache r s ' responses to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n the same manner as was done w i t h the Vancouver sample. In te rv iews w i t h p r i n c i p a l s Three p r i n c i p a l s were i n t e r v i e w e d u s i n g the same schedule and under s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s as were used w i t h the Vancouver p r i n c i p a l s , that i s , i n the o f f i c e of t h e i r s choo l at a convenien t , pre-ar ranged t ime. The p r i n c i p a l s and schools were chosen by the s choo l board i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the A r t s Resource C o o r d i n a t o r . R e s u l t s In response to "Why the a r t s and why ne tworking?" the S e a t t l e p r i n c i p a l s , u n l i k e the Vancouver p r i n c i p a l s , gave d i f f e r i n g answers. One p r i n c i p a l who had been i n v o l v e d i n a r t s networking f o r f i f t e e n yea r s , had entered through pe r sona l i n t e r e s t but a l s o to grasp the oppor tun i ty fo r h i s schoo l to j o i n the J u n i o r League. The second p r i n c i p a l saw networking as a means of access to grants from the A r t s Commission, w h i l e the t h i r d became 78 involved when transferred to the school which was already declared a m u l t i - a r t s school. Underlying these responses, however, was a commitment to the value of the arts i n education exhibited i n the numerous displays of children's art occupying a l l a v a i l a b l e wall space i n these schools. A l l three p r i n c i p a l s stressed the sharing of resources aspect of networking. In response to "How successful do you perceive networking to have been i n meeting i t s goals?" again the responses varied although there was general agreement that networking had been successful. The p r i n c i p a l with longest involvement had a wider and more comprehensive view and spoke of the time when networking overcame i s o l a t i o n and gave more exposure to the a r t s . There was leadership given, and personal contacts were easy to make. This, he maintained, was not the case at present because of f i n a n c i a l constraints. The fact that a new superintendent had been appointed had slowed down a l l a ction by the networks as p r i n c i p a l s waited to see what would happen. In response to "How successful do you think teachers perceive networking to have been?" the general response was that although i t was a network of p r i n c i p a l s and teachers had l i t t l e r e a l involvement i n the actual process, teachers gained great s a t i s f a c t i o n from the r e s u l t s of the networking process. This included such a c t i v i t i e s as a r t i s t s i n schools, f e s t i v a l s , and v i s i t s by touring companies. One p r i n c i p a l suggested that the major impact of arts networking had been 79 on the administration. In response to "What has changed because of networking?" the p r i n c i p a l with long-term involvement spoke of cycles. He stressed that i n the early part of the cycle v i t a l i t y was the word, with respect given to arts endeavours, but as the cycle was completed, such as i t was at that time, "Not much seems to have l a s t e d ! " The other p r i n c i p a l s saw that sharing ideas and information was, fo r them, an improved outcome and one p r i n c i p a l thought that teachers' awareness of the arts had been raised and c h i l d r e n had been exposed to a r t i s t s as r o l e models. Like Vancouver p r i n c i p a l s , Seattle p r i n c i p a l s were unable to respond p o s i t i v e l y to the question of teachers' commitment. Teachers seemed to r e l y on the p r i n c i p a l ' s commitment, involvement, and e f f o r t s and because of f i n a n c i a l constraints were not even involved i n pro f e s s i o n a l development days. Several art s p e c i a l i s t teachers were reported to have joined p r i n c i p a l s i n network meetings. Classroom teachers i n Seattle have played a passive r o l e . I t i s a network of p r i n c i p a l s so response to the question on teachers' actual involvement was that there was none. In e a r l i e r times some teacher involvement had been evident but t h i s had not been sustained. There has been no i n s e r v i c e recently i n the arts according to one p r i n c i p a l . Two of the three schools had a designated a r t teacher. One of these schools also had a multi-arts coordinator who spent some time 80 w r i t i n g applications f o r grants f o r arts involvement. A l l three p r i n c i p a l s reported that classroom teachers c a r r i e d out some ar t i n s t r u c t i o n . The p r i n c i p a l of the one school without a s p e c i a l i s t designated a r t teacher reported that a l l h i s teachers were comfortable with and aware of the a r t s and t h e i r value. This was the p r i n c i p a l with f i f t e e n years network involvement. In the other two schools the designated a r t teachers were described as leaders and helpers. Summary and conclusions The state of the s i t u a t i o n i n Seattle w ell i l l u s t r a t e s how removal of any element i n what i s an i n t r i c a t e network of people, actions, and supports can change a p i c t u r e dramatically. When Remer wrote her book, Changing Schools Through the Arts, Seattle was a shining beacon of the process and program she described but at the time of t h i s study the s i t u a t i o n appeared gloomy. It was not that the arts had disappeared, there were enough committed i n d i v i d u a l s to prevent that, but the uncertainty of funding and the unknown att i t u d e of a new superintendent had placed everything i n a neutral gear. One p r i n c i p a l suggested that i t was necessary to wait and see even though he thought the new superintendent had made "kind noises about the a r t s . " The involvement of such community groups as the Arts A l l i a n c e had remained and annual arts f e s t i v a l s i l l u s t r a t e d how e f f e c t i v e the o r i g i n a l program had been. 81 Teachers ' ques t i onna i r e s The p r i n c i p a l of each of the three schools v i s i t e d f o r i n t e r v i e w was requested to pass ques t i onna i r e s randomly to t eache r s . Twenty-four ques t i onna i r e s were d i s t r i b u t e d and 50% were r e tu rned . The response r a t e i s low because, due to s c h o o l board r e s t r i c t i o n s , d i s t r i b u t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e d i d not take p l a c e u n t i l the l a s t week of the s choo l yea r . The m a j o r i t y of responses were from female teachers (91.6%), t h i r t y - f i v e years or o l d e r w i t h more than e leven years t each ing exper ience . E i g h t y - t h r e e per cent of the respondents were c lass room teachers . Table 39 Sex of respondents : S e a t t l e sample Sex N % Male 1 8.4 Female 11 91.6 12 100.0 Table. 40 Age of respondents: Seattle sample Age N % 25-34 1 8.3 35-44 6 50.0 45-54 3 25.0 55+ 2 16.7 12 100.0 Table 41 Teaching experience of respondents: Seattle sample Teaching Experience Years N % 2-3 1 8.3 4-5 - -6-10 1 8.3 11-20 6 50.0 21+ 4 33.4 12 100.0 83 Results (Seattle) Table 42 Influences upon the content of teachers' programs (B)* Influences Mean Rating** 1. Personal books and/or notes 4.25 2. Ideas suggested by fellow teachers 4.00 3. Ideas developed from children's i n t e r e s t s 3.83 4. Art resources i n the community 3.67 5. Ideas suggested by a r t consultants 3.25 6. Reference books from school l i b r a r y 3.08 7. Audio-visual material 2.67 8. Curriculum guide 2.42 * (B) indicates Seattle sample ** L i k e r t scale 1-5 Seattle respondents rated in-school influences as "great" to "very great" but rejected the curriculum guide as having only " l i t t l e " to "some" influence. "Art resources i n the community" received a higher ranking than from the respondents i n the other samples perhaps because of the emphasis on such resources by the League of C i t i e s networking process i n which Seattle i s involved. The goal of the League of C i t i e s i s to support and f a c i l i t a t e the e f f o r t s of i t s members as they seek to improve the effectiveness of education and the q u a l i t y of l i f e f o r a l l c h i l d r e n and youth 84 by incorporating a l l the arts i n the teaching-learning process, and to make.results a v a i l a b l e to others. (Remer, 1982, p. 88) Table 43 Emphasis given to c e r t a i n objectives i n teachers' art programs (B) Obj ective Mean Rating' 1. Art as a means of self-expression 4.42 2. Providing for c h i l d s a t i s f a c t i o n 4.00 3. Providing for i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d thinking 3.75 4. A c q u i s i t i o n of c e r t a i n s k i l l s by c h i l d r e n 3.75 5. Teaching of a r t techniques 3.75 6. Teaching of a r t concepts 3.67 7. Providing a sequence of a r t a c t i v i t i e s 3.50 * L i k e r t scale 1-5 A child-centred approach appears to be the choice of Seattle respondents, with an emphasis on self-expression. A l l objectives rated p o s i t i v e l y ("some" to "very great") although Lovano-Kerr's observation that " i n s t r u c t i o n i s usually devoid of sequence" (Lovano-Kerr, 1985, p. 219) seems supported by the lower r a t i n g given to t h i s aspect. 85 Table 44 Integration of a r t with other curriculum areas (B) Curriculum area Mean Rating* 1. So c i a l studies 3.92 2. Language arts 3.83 3. Science 3.33 4. Music 3.08 5. Mathematics 2.83 6. Phy s i c a l education 2.00 * L i k e r t scale 1-5 F i f t y percent of the respondents indicated that they never integrated a r t with p h y s i c a l education. Elementary teachers, as Goodlad noted (1983, p. 13) tend to treat art education as instrumentalist to something more important and t h i s appears to be supported by the ratings given to s o c i a l studies and language a r t s . 86 Table 45 Teachers' p r i o r i t i e s f o r assistance (B) Type of assistance Mean Rating' 1. Greater range of supplied art materials and equipment 4.17 2. Inservice workshops and seminars i n a r t 3.67 3. Long-term i n s e r v i c e courses i n a r t 3.42 4. More a r t consultant v i s i t s 3.42 5. A d d i t i o n a l a r t reference books i n school l i b r a r y 3.25 6. More de t a i l e d curriculum guide 2.58 * L i k e r t scale 1-5 Having rated the curriculum guide as being only " l i t t l e " to "some" use (Table 42) the respondents saw " l i t t l e " to "moderate" p r i o r i t y f o r a more d e t a i l e d curriculum. Chapman's (1982) observation on networking concerning i t s e l f overly with the artist/performer with l i t t l e concern f o r curriculum content or continuity seems to be supported here. F i n a n c i a l constraints i n Seattle have led to cutbacks i n i n s e r v i c e i n the arts and t h i s may explain the higher ratings given to i n s e r v i c e as a p r i o r i t y . 87 Table 46 Methods of class organization (g) Method Mean Rating* 1. A l l pup i l s work on the same i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t y at the same time 3.50 2. Groups of pupils work on d i f f e r e n t projects at the same time 3.00 3. Ind i v i d u a l p u p i l s work on d i f f e r e n t projects at the same time 2.92 * L i k e r t scale 1-4 Only three respondents reported never using group or i n d i v i d u a l organizational methods while 66% reported using the t r a d i t i o n a l whole class method. A l l three methods were used i n most respondents' classrooms. 88 Table 47 Personal problems perceived by teachers (B) Problem area Mean Rating* I n s u f f i c i e n t background knowledge of: 1. Design elements and p r i n c i p l e s 2.67 2. Art processes 2.58 3. Image development 2.58 4. Responding to a r t 2.50 5. Children's art development 2.50 6. Art evaluation 2.42 7. Being unsure of the sequence of learning experiences 2.33 8. Lack of knowledge of appropriate teaching methods 2.08 9. Interpreting the objectives of the curriculum guide 1.83 * L i k e r t scale 1-5 None of the personal problems ranked above "some", although i n d i v i d u a l respondents indicated "great" to "very great" problems with some knowledge areas, i n p a r t i c u l a r "Design elements and p r i n c i p l e s " . Interpretation of curriculum objectives was seen as very l i t t l e of a problem, which i s i n accord with responses noted i n Tables 42 and 45. Knowledge of sequencing was not perceived as a problem to any extent nor was i t perceived as a major objective i n programming (Table 43). Table 48 School problems perceived by teachers (B) Problem area Mean Rating* •1. A v a i l a b i l i t y of funds 4.00 2. I n s u f f i c i e n t storage or shelving 3.83 3. Lack of s u i t a b l e working areas 3.83 4. Lack of s u i t a b l e materials and equipment 3.67 5. Lack of s u i t a b l e f i l m s t r i p s , s l i d e s 3.17 6. Lack of s u i t a b l e a r t works 3.17 7. Lack of s u i t a b l e reference books 2.92 8. I n s u f f i c i e n t d i splay areas 2.83 L i k e r t scale 1-5 As has been noted e a r l i e r Seattle schools are experiencing a period of f i n a n c i a l constraint. This i s r e f l e c t e d i n the responses on funding where four of the respondents (33.3%) saw i t as a very great problem. Physical problems of storage, shelving, and working areas rated highly and a l l school problems rated higher than any personal problem. The comments noted 90 p r e v i o u s l y by the p r i n c i p a l s i n t e r v i e w e d rega rd ing f inances and d e c l i n e i n a r t s emphasis appear to support the t eache r s ' pe rcep t ions tha t e x t e r n a l agencies determine many of t he i r , problems. Table 49 Teachers ' pe rcep t ions of p e r s o n a l changes due to networking (B) Changes Mean R a t i n g * 1. A s s i s t a n c e w i t h a r t programming 3.25 2. Awareness of the p l a c e of a r t s i n educa t ion 2.92 3. A t t i t u d e to a r t s educa t ion 2.83 4. Unders tanding of a r t knowledge, p rocesses , and s k i l l s 2.83 5. A l t e r a t i o n to t each ing methods 2.67 6. A l t e r a t i o n to t each ing content 2.67 * L i k e r t s c a l e 1-5 S e a t t l e respondents pe rce ived networking to have had some p r a c t i c a l e f f e c t w i t h t h e i r programming but l i t t l e on changing t h e i r unders tanding and knowledge or t h e i r t e a c h i n g . Only one respondent r epor ted that a r t s networking had ve ry g r e a t l y changed what was taught . Most respondents saw some change i n a l l c a t e g o r i e s . 91 Table. 50 Teachers ' pe rcep t ions of s choo l changes due to networking (B) Network Outcome Statement Mean R a t i n g * 1. Commitment to the i d e a l s of a r t s networking by the p r i n c i p a l i s e s s e n t i a l 4. 33 2. The c l i m a t e of the s choo l has become l i v e l i e r and more v i t a l 4. 00 3. F e l l o w teachers r e a d i l y share ideas and approaches f o r t each ing a r t 4. 00 4. The a r t s are now an i n t e g r a l pa r t of the d a i l y exper ience of every c h i l d i n the s choo l 3. 75 5. I n t e r e s t , suppor t , and involvement of the l o c a l and gene ra l community i n the s c h o o l has inc reased 3. 33 * L i k e r t s c a l e 1-5 In the p e r c e p t i o n of respondents networking has changed the c l i m a t e of the s choo l and the degree of coope ra t ion among teachers . The p r i n c i p a l ' s commitment i s seen as v i t a l (50% s t r o n g l y agreed w i t h t h i s statement) but l i t t l e i nc r ea se i s r epor ted i n community involvement . Two respondents d i sagreed w i t h t h i s statement on 92 community support. Summary of r e s u l t s ( S e a t t l e ) . Seventy-five per cent of respondents have been involved i n networking for four or more years so t h e i r responses can be seen as r e f l e c t i n g experience of the process over time. They indicated that in-school sources were important influences on t h e i r programming but used art resources such as g a l l e r i e s , museums, and a r t i s t s from the community some of the time. The curriculum guide seems to have l i t t l e use among respondents. Seattle respondents rated highest child-centred objectives and rated sequencing lowest. Art as self-expression appears to have maintained i t s place as the major objective of these elementary teachers. S o c i a l studies and language arts which art a c t i v i t i e s can ill u m i n a t e are integrated most frequently while p h y s i c a l education i s almost never linked with a r t . The respondents saw a great need for more art materials and services which the d i s t r i c t might fund but rated the need for a more det a i l e d curriculum guide lowest. They organized t h e i r classrooms mostly i n the t r a d i t i o n a l whole cla s s manner but used group and i n d i v i d u a l project methods at l e a s t some of the time. They reported having few personal problems of any s i g n i f i c a n t magnitude, le a s t of a l l i n t e r p r e t i n g curriculum objectives. Knowledge of sequencing ranked at the low end. For school problems respondents indicated a need f o r funds and p h y s i c a l improvements, which was 93 perhaps a r e f l e c t i o n of lack of funding within the d i s t r i c t reported by the p r i n c i p a l s . Seattle respondents thought networking had helped t h e i r a rt programming but had done l i t t l e to a l t e r t h e i r methods or content of teaching. They saw the commitment of the p r i n c i p a l as e s s e n t i a l and reported a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n school climate, but community support was not seen to have changed. S i m i l a r i t i e s arid d ifferences between Vancouver and Seattle The major differ e n c e between the Vancouver sample and the Seattle sample i s i n t h e i r time i n networking. The three schools i n Seattle had been involved i n the process f o r over f i v e years while the Vancouver schools sampled had been networking for one to four years. There were no major differences i n sex, age, or teaching experience of the teacher respondents. While many s i m i l a r i t i e s between the two systems emerged there were a number of s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y with regard to the curriculum guide and issues r e l a t e d to funding and network involvement. On the question of influences on the content of t h e i r ar t programs, Seattle respondents rated the curriculum guide lowest (mean r a t i n g 2.42) whereas Vancouver respondents ranked i t f i f t h out of the eight p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Seattle respondents also ranked "Personal books and/or notes" at a higher mean (4.25) than Vancouver respondents (3.79), although both gave i t f i r s t ranking. 94 The use of ideas from fellow teachers ranked higher and had a higher mean (4.00) with respondents from Seattle. The highest di f f e r e n c e between means was on the use of art resources from the community where Seattle respondents ranked i t fourth compared to "Vancouver respondents' eighth ranking. The longer time i n networking and the stated aims of the League of C i t i e s program could account f o r t h i s d i f f e r e n c e . Both samples ranked the objectives they emphasized i n the same order with the pro v i s i o n f o r c h i l d s a t i s f a c t i o n f i r s t and pro v i s i o n of a sequence of art a c t i v i t i e s l a s t . The mean ratings were over a s i m i l a r range. For int e g r a t i o n , although both samples gave a s i m i l a r order of subject areas there were two minor differences. Seattle respondents ranked s o c i a l studies f i r s t , ahead of language arts and Vancouver respondents the reverse. Seattle respondents also gave music, science, and mathematics s l i g h t l y higher mean ratings than did Vancouver respondents but a lower r a t i n g to phys i c a l education. Seattle respondents' p r i o r i t i e s f o r assistance were headed by the need for a greater range of materials and equipment, with a mean r a t i n g higher than the Vancouver sample's, r e f l e c t i n g the stronger f i n a n c i a l r e s t r a i n t s evident i n Seattle schools. Another differ e n c e was i n the ranking of art consultant v i s i t s which Seattle respondents placed t h i r d but Vancouver respondents placed l a s t of the s i x p r i o r i t i e s . Both samples saw l i t t l e need for a 95 more d e t a i l e d c u r r i c u l u m gu ide . Both samples appear to adopt a v a r i e t y of c lassroom management p r a c t i c e s w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l whole c l a s s method most favoured. S e a t t l e respondents saw i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the o b j e c t i v e s of the c u r r i c u l u m as l e s s of a problem than the Vancouver sample but l a c k of knowledge of des ign elements and p r i n c i p l e s was ranked f i r s t by both samples w i t h s i m i l a r mean r a t i n g s ( S e a t t l e : 2 .67 ; Vancouver: 2 . 5 8 ) . N e i t h e r sample admit ted to any pe r sona l problem above the "some" (3) ca tegory . Wi th s c h o o l problems there were some d i f f e r e n c e s . S e a t t l e respondents gave " a v a i l a b i l i t y of funds" a h ighe r mean (4.00) than Vancouver ( 3 . 2 5 ) . Both samples saw problems w i t h the p h y s i c a l p r o v i s i o n s of space, s to rage , and s h e l v i n g but S e a t t l e respondents g e n e r a l l y gave these h igher mean r a t i n g s . Vancouver respondents ranked l a c k of f i l m s t r i p s and s l i d e s at seventh (2.71) but S e a t t l e respondents ranked t h i s i tem f i f t h ( 3 . 1 7 ) . On the ques t ion of pe r sona l changes due to networking S e a t t l e respondents c r e d i t e d networking w i t h a s s i s t i n g them w i t h t h e i r a r t programming to a g rea te r degree (3.25) than d i d Vancouver respondents ( 2 . 8 3 ) . Th i s cou ld be r e l a t e d to the time spent i n ne twork ing . Both samples r a t ed p r i n c i p a l commitment ve ry h i g h l y w i t h the h ighes t mean r a t i n g s of the survey (S: 4 . 3 3 ; V : 4 . 4 2 ) . The S e a t t l e sample, aga in perhaps i n d i c a t i n g a r e l a t i o n s h i p to time i n ne twork ing , r a t ed changes to s choo l c l i m a t e h ighe r and with a higher mean than d id the Vancouver sample. Both samples saw less of a change i n the involvement of the community, both ranking i t l a s t . The two systems appear to have s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t h e i r d i f f erences may be a t t r i b u t a b l e to the current s i t u a t i o n i n Sea t t l e where f i n a n c i a l cons tra in t i s more severe than i n Vancouver. 97 Chapter 6 NETWORKING: BETWEEN GROUP COMPARISONS From the r e s u l t s reported i n the previous chapters i t i s now p o s s i b l e to consider the quest ion of s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f ferences among the three systems invo lved . Are the p r i o r i t i e s , emphases, and problems s i m i l a r or are there s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ferences? What do the North American respondents perce ive to be changes i n t h e i r programs and a t t i t u d e s that are a t t r i b u t a b l e to networking? This chapter w i l l explore these two i s sues . Table 51 Comparison of rank orders (1-8): Question 1 Influences Q V S Personal books and/or notes 2 1 1 Reference books from school l i b r a r y 4 6 6 State , p r o v i n c i a l , or d i s t r i c t curr iculum guide 6 5 8 Ideas suggested by fe l low teachers 3 3 2 Ideas suggested by ar t consultants 5 4 5 Ideas developed from c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r e s t s 1 2 3 A u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l 7 7 7 A r t resources i n the community 8 8 4 Q = Queensland; V = Vancouver; S = Seat t l e 98 The s i m i l a r i t i e s of the three systems are obvious and two d i f f erences emerge between the Seat t l e sample and the other two. The low order given to the use of the curr icu lum guide by the Sea t t l e teachers i s i n contrast to the other responses. Both Queensland and Vancouver had r e l a t i v e l y new c u r r i c u l a at the time of surveying and novelty may have had a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t . The second d i f f e r e n c e , i n use of community resources , may be a t t r i b u t a b l e to ar t s networking. Queensland teachers reported "very l i t t l e " to " l i t t l e " use of community resources (1 .54) and Vancouver respondents gave " l i t t l e " to "some" (2.54). Seat t l e respondents gave t h i s item a mean r a t i n g of 3.67 ("some" to "great" use) . This progress ion of r a t i n g s appears to be r e l a t e d to average time i n networking. Queensland has had no involvement, Vancouver two to four years involvement and Seat t l e f i v e or more years . 99 Table 52 Comparison of rank orders ( 1 - 7 ) : Ques t ion 2 O b j e c t i v e Q V S P r o v i d i n g f o r c h i l d s a t i s f a c t i o n 1 1 2 P r o v i d i n g f o r i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d t h i n k i n g 3 3 3 A r t as a means of s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n 2 2 1 The sequence of a r t a c t i v i t i e s 6 7 7 A c q u i s i t i o n of c e r t a i n s k i l l s by c h i l d r e n 4 4 4 Teaching of a r t techniques 5 5 5 Teaching of a r t concepts 7 6 6 Responses i n d i c a t e the c l o s e s i m i l a r i t i e s of the three systems showing tha t c h i l d - c e n t r e d o b j e c t i v e s are ranked h igher by these elementary teachers than are a r t knowledge and s k i l l s o b j e c t i v e s . These p e r c e p t i o n s , i f g e n e r a l , might make i t d i f f i c u l t to expand elementary programs i n t o areas of c r i t i c i s m , a e s t h e t i c s , and a r t h i s t o r y . 100 Table 53 Comparison of rank orders ( 1 - 6 ) : Ques t ion 3 C u r r i c u l u m area Q V S Language a r t s 2 1 2 Music 4 4 4 S o c i a l s t u d i e s 1 2 1 Science 3 3 3 Mathematics 5 5 5 P h y s i c a l educa t ion 6 6 6 I t should be noted that t h i s q u e s t i o n addressed the frequency and not the q u a l i t y or nature of i n t e g r a t i o n . A r t s networking s t r e s s e s " a l l the a r t s f o r a l l the c h i l d r e n " , but the respondents i n v o l v e d i n networking i n d i c a t e d they i n t e g r a t e d v i s u a l a r t w i t h music on ly sometimes or r a r e l y , r ank ing i t below s c i e n c e , s o c i a l • s t u d i e s and language a r t s . Th i s i s the same rank ing g i v e n by the non-networking respondents . 101 Table 54 Comparison of rank orders (1-6): Question 4 Type of ass i s tance Q V S More a r t consultant v i s i t s 3 6 3 More d e t a i l e d curr icu lum guide 5 5 6 A d d i t i o n a l a r t reference books i n school l i b r a r y 4 4 5 Greater range of suppl ied a r t mater ia l s and equipment 1 1 1 Long-term i n s e r v i c e courses i n ar t 6 3 4 Inserv ice workshops and seminars i n a r t 2 2 2 Vancouver respondents placed lowest p r i o r i t y on more ar t consultant v i s i t s which i s qu i te d i f f e r e n t from the other groups. Queensland respondents ranked long-term i n s e r v i c e lowest, perhaps r e f l e c t i n g t h e i r oppos i t ion at the time to upgrading courses i n contrast to the North American acceptance of summer schools and cont inuing or fur ther study. 102 Table 55 Comparison of rank orders (1 -3 ) : Ques t ion 5 Method Q V S A l l p u p i l s work on the same i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t y a t the same time 1 . 1 1 I n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s work on d i f f e r e n t p r o j e c t s at the same time 3 2 3 Groups of p u p i l s work on d i f f e r e n t p r o j e c t s a t the same time 2 3 2 Desp i t e the ten year d i f f e r e n c e between the time of the Queensland survey and the Nor th American survey , t r a d i t i o n a l whole c l a s s methods s t i l l seem favoured. A l l three samples repor ted u s ing the other methods at l e a s t some of the t ime. 103 Table 56 Comparison of rank orders (1-8): Question 6 (School problems only) Problem area Q V S Lack of s u i t a b l e materials and equipment 4 2 4 Lack of s u i t a b l e working areas 2 4 3 I n s u f f i c i e n t storage or shelving 3 3 2 I n s u f f i c i e n t display areas 1 8 8 A v a i l a b i l i t y of funds 5 1 1 Lack of s u i t a b l e reference books 8 6 7 Lack of s u i t a b l e f i l m s t r i p s , s l i d e s 7 7 5 Lack of su i t a b l e a r t works 6 5 6 With school problems two issues of d i f f e r e n c e emerge. Queensland teachers ranked lack of display space f i r s t while the North American respondents ranked i t l a s t . This may be due simply to p h y s i c a l b u i l d i n g requirements and environment. Because of c l i m a t i c conditions, Queensland elementary schoolrooms have large numbers of windows with usually only one wall a v a i l a b l e for display purposes. Corridors and verandas are usually open. This i s i n stark contrast to North American schools. Thus Queensland teachers are always seeking areas on which to display children's work. On the problem of funding, 1976 was a year i n which the f e d e r a l government i n A u s t r a l i a provided generous funds to education. Thus when the Queensland teachers were sampled, 104 s u p p l i e s of m a t e r i a l s , equipment, and funds were more than adequate. By 1986, funding cut backs had e l i m i n a t e d a l l m a t e r i a l s s u p p l i e d and reduced fund ing . I t i s l i k e l y that the three responses would be s i m i l a r i f Queensland teachers were surveyed a t t h i s t ime . A l l o ther responses are s i m i l a r . Seve ra l p e r s o n a l problems i n v i t e comparison. None of the respondents i n d i c a t e d tha t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m o b j e c t i v e s was a major problem, rank ing i t l a s t (Queensland and S e a t t l e ) or second l a s t (Vancouver) . Queensland teachers f e l t they l acked knowledge of app rop r i a t e t each ing methods to a g rea te r degree than Vancouver or S e a t t l e respondents . A l l three groups ranked l a c k of background knowledge h i g h l y , f i l l i n g at l e a s t the f i r s t f i v e p l aces i n the rank o rde r . The three systems appear to be ve ry s i m i l a r i n the pe rcep t ions of the respondents . 105 Changes due to a r t s ne twork ing . Two s e c t i o n s of the Whelan survey were used only w i t h the Nor th American samples i n an attempt to determine those respondents ' pe rcep t ions of changes due to ne twork ing . Table 57 Comparison of rank orders ( 1 - 6 ) : Ques t ion 7 Changes V S A t t i t u d e to a r t s educa t ion 1 3 Awareness of the p l a c e of a r t s i n educa t ion 2 2 A l t e r a t i o n to t each ing methods 6 5 A l t e r a t i o n to t each ing content 5 6 A s s i s t a n c e w i t h a r t programming 3 1 Unders tanding of a r t knowledge, p rocesses , and s k i l l s 4 4 S e a t t l e respondents , perhaps because of longer networking exper ience , ranked a s s i s t a n c e w i t h a r t programming f i r s t . Vancouver respondents ranked a l t e r a t i o n to a t t i t u d e towards a r t educa t ion f i r s t . A l l other items were s i m i l a r . 106 Table 58 Comparison of rank orders (1-5): Question 8 Network Outcome Statement V S Fellow teachers r e a d i l y share ideas and approaches for teaching art 3 3 Interest, support, and involvement of the l o c a l and general community i n the school has increased 5 5 The climate of the school has become l i v e l i e r and more v i t a l 4 2 Commitment to the i d e a l s of arts networking by the p r i n c i p a l i s e s s e n t i a l 1 1 The a r t s are now an i n t e g r a l part of the d a i l y experience of every c h i l d i n the school 2 4 Although Seattle respondents rated p o s i t i v e changes to the climate of the school higher than Vancouver respondents they rated d a i l y i n t e g r a t i o n of arts experiences lower. A l l other items were ranked s i m i l a r l y . Summary. In general the respondents from the three systems gave very s i m i l a r responses. Elementary teachers appear to have s i m i l a r problems, emphases, and p r i o r i t i e s despite differences of geography, environment, and administration. Seattle respondents 107 s a w l i t t l e p r o b l e m i n i n t e r p r e t i n g c u r r i c u l u m o b j e c t i v e s , u s e d p e r s o n a l n o t e s a n d b o o k s i n p l a n n i n g , u s e d a r t r e s o u r c e s i n t h e c o m m u n i t y , i n t e g r a t e d a r t w i t h o t h e r s u b j e c t s i n a t r a d i t i o n a l c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g b u t d i d n o t s e e t h e n e e d f o r a m o r e d e t a i l e d c u r r i c u l u m . T h e y s a w a n e e d f o r m o r e f u n d s a n d a g r e a t e r r a n g e o f a r t m a t e r i a l s a n d e q u i p m e n t . V a n c o u v e r r e s p o n d e n t s h a d p r o b l e m s o f i n s u f f i c i e n t w o r k i n g a r e a s a n d s t o r a g e b u t d i d n o t s e e k m o r e a r t c o n s u l t a n t v i s i t s . T h e y a l s o s a w l i t t l e n e e d f o r a m o r e d e t a i l e d c u r r i c u l u m . T h e y i n t e g r a t e d a r t w i t h m o s t s u b j e c t s a n d s t r e s s e d c h i l d - c e n t r e d o b j e c t i v e s i n t h e i r a r t p r o g r a m s . A l t h o u g h t h e y u s e d p e r s o n a l b o o k s a n d n o t e s , t h e y a l s o g a t h e r e d i d e a s f r o m f e l l o w t e a c h e r s . Q u e e n s l a n d r e s p o n d e n t s u s e d v e r y f e w c o m m u n i t y a r t r e s o u r c e s , s t r e s s e d c h i l d - c e n t r e d o b j e c t i v e s a n d g a v e l i t t l e e m p h a s i s t o t e a c h i n g a r t c o n c e p t s . T h e y i n t e g r a t e d a r t w i t h o t h e r s u b j e c t s i n t r a d i t i o n a l c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g s . T h e y s o u g h t m o r e a r t m a t e r i a l s a n d e q u i p m e n t b u t d i d n o t w a n t l o n g - t e r m i n s e r v i c e . L a c k o f d i s p l a y a r e a s w a s a g r e a t c o n c e r n . S e a t t l e r e s p o n d e n t s s a w n e t w o r k i n g a s h a v i n g i m p r o v e d t h e c l i m a t e o f t h e i r s c h o o l s a n d g i v e n t h e m a s s i s t a n c e w i t h a r t p r o g r a m m i n g . V a n c o u v e r t e a c h e r s t h o u g h t t h e a r t s w e r e a m o r e i n t e g r a l p a r t o f d a i l y s c h o o l l i f e b u t n e i t h e r s a m p l e s a w m u c h i n c r e a s e i n c o m m u n i t y i n v o l v e m e n t . 108 Chapter 7 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Th i s study se t out to answer four ques t ions on the pe rcep t ions of elementary teachers i n three systems. F i r s t l y , what s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t among the p r i o r i t i e s , emphases, and problems i n a r t educa t ion of Queensland elementary teachers and S e a t t l e and Vancouver elementary teachers who belong to a r t s networks? Secondly , what s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s occur i n the responses of the S e a t t l e teachers and the Vancouver teachers? T h i r d l y , are there any s i m i l a r i t i e s or d i f f e r e n c e s i n the responses of teachers from the two Vancouver networks? F i n a l l y , what do Nor th American teachers p e r c e i v e a r t s networking to have done f o r them and to t h e i r schools? Queensland respondents appeared to d i f f e r from t h e i r Nor th American counte rpar t s on s e v e r a l i s s u e s . Queensland teachers tended to make l e s s use of community resources than e i t h e r S e a t t l e or Vancouver respondents . They r e j e c t e d long- te rm i n s e r v i c e as a means of a s s i s t a n c e and were g r e a t l y concerned w i t h a l a c k of d i s p l a y space. S e a t t l e respondents r epor ted l i t t l e need f o r a more d e t a i l e d c u r r i c u l u m , but used community a r t s resources to a g rea te r extent than the o ther respondents . Vancouver respondents r a ted more a r t consu l t an t v i s i t s low as a p r i o r i t y fo r a s s i s t a n c e , u n l i k e the o ther samples. On ques t ions of o b j e c t i v e s used , frequency of 109 i n t e g r a t i o n , classroom o r g a n i z a t i o n a l models used, and school problems encountered, there were great s i m i l a r i t i e s . A number of d i f ferences between the Seat t l e and Vancouver responses were i n d i c a t e d on inf luences upon programming, funding, and network involvement. Seat t l e respondents rated the curr icu lum guide lowest as a source of ideas i n planning ar t programs whi le the Vancouver sample ranked i t s i x t h of the e ight in f luences . Community a r t resources was ranked higher by the Seat t l e respondents than by Vancouver respondents, perhaps r e f l e c t i n g S e a t t l e ' s longer involvement i n networking. Lack of funds was a greater problem for Seat t l e respondents than the Vancouver respondents. Vancouver respondents saw less of a need for ar t consultant v i s i t s . The respondents from the two Vancouver networks gave s i m i l a r responses except for questions concerning a r t reference books i n the school l i b r a r y . Network 2 respondents i n d i c a t e d they were less of a p r i o r i t y for ass i s tance; a l e s s e r inf luence upon content; and l e s s of a school problem. Seat t l e respondents, with longest involvement i n networking, perceived two changes they a t t r i b u t e d to ar t s networking - a l i v e l i e r and more v i t a l school c l imate and some ass i s tance with t h e i r a r t programming. Vancouver respondents perceived the ar t s to be a more i n t e g r a l part of each c h i l d ' s d a i l y school l i f e because of networking, but ne i ther sample perceived networking to have given them more f i n a n c i a l or m a t e r i a l a s s i s tance . Although 110 Seat t l e respondents used community a r t s resources more than the other samples, ne i ther Vancouver nor Seat t l e respondents reported any increase i n community involvement i n t h e i r schools . The a r t education problems and p r i o r i t i e s of the respondents have c lose s i m i l a r i t y even though the responses from Queensland teachers were gathered ten years before the others . Di f ferences between the two Vancouver samples were not as evident as expected because of changes to network composit ion, but the longer network involvement of Seat t l e schools provided some evidence of the perce ived e f fec t s of a r t s networking. A r t s networking appears to have some advantages i n the percept ion of the North American respondents although i t appears not to have overcome problems of funding or supply of mater ia l s and equipment which were common to a l l three systems. Networking does not appear to have af fected classroom management p r a c t i c e s , or i n t e g r a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s . Object ives of a r t education programs of a l l three samples were f i r m l y c h i l d - c e n t r e d and l i t t l e need was seen for d e t a i l e d curr icu lum guides. As a method of changing school p r a c t i c e s i n the a r t s , networking has many advantages i n that i t br ings together people with common concerns and problems to discuss i s sues , share s o l u t i o n s , and generate new ideas . I t promotes c lo ser t i e s between the school and i t s community and more involvement of a r t s p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n schools . I t i s school-based, i n d i v i d u a l i z e d , and r e l i e s on admin i s t ra t ive commitment. T h i s study shows that un less adequate funding and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e support are p rov ided the process becomes s tagnant . I t has s u r v i v e d through the d e d i c a t i o n of those i n v o l v e d and S e a t t l e schoo ls have shown what the a r t s i n educa t ion are capable of i n i t i a t i n g as i s evidenced by the inc reased use of community a r t s resources and the q u a l i t y of the p u b l i c a r t s f e s t i v a l s h e l d a n n u a l l y i n S e a t t l e . Vancouver schools are embracing networking because of the commitment of p r i n c i p a l s . As a method of renewing s c h o o l s , ne tworking i n the a r t s cont inues a l though t h i s study tends to i n d i c a t e tha t changes are min imal and t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s remain. Current approaches to reform are most o f t en r e a c t i o n s to the t r a d i t i o n a l system, w h i c h , as soon as they g a i n acceptance, tend to be caught up aga in i n t o the t r a d i t i o n a l system, o f ten d i l u t e d and d i s t o r t e d . P romis ing i nnova t i ons are eva lua ted before they have had an oppor tun i ty to be proven successes or f a i l u r e s . Often teachers have not ye t had time to become thoroughly comfortable w i t h new techniques or programs, but an impa t i en t p u b l i c judges them premature ly and u s u a l l y f i n d s f a u l t . The average l i f e span of an e d u c a t i o n a l i n n o v a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S ta tes i s three y e a r s . (Ignas & C o r s i n i , 1981, p . 11) . Networking has a l ready surpassed t h i s average l i f e span and even w i t h the min ima l changes noted i n t h i s study and elsewhere , i t appears to be h e l p i n g elementary teachers become more comfor table w i t h a r t educa t i on . Networking allows educational administrators to encourage those factors which writers i n curriculum change and innovation have been urging are e s s e n t i a l f or school improvement. Networking i s concerned with people and t h e i r problems and the mutual support each can provide another. I t can be a continuing source of e x p l i c a t i o n and encouragement. I t i s school-based, and "teachers are more l i k e l y to f i n d the actions of t h e i r colleagues c r e d i b l e than the measured words of academics" (Dow, 1985, p. 217). Small gains such as t h i s study has found should not b l i n d us to the value of a process which has as i t s outcomes improved attitudes towards school among both teachers and students; climbing morale; better programs emerging and ideas more widely shared; and a l i v e l i e r and more v i t a l atmosphere i n our schools. (Remer, 1982, pp. ,54-55). Elementary teachers have busy schedules and a multitude of pressures upon them. They appreciate the needs of t h e i r p u p i l s and attempt to meet them, but when problems occur they are often offered l o f t y words and remote solutions. Networking attempts to make them comfortable, giving them the opportunity to share with t h e i r peers t h e i r f r u s t r a t i o n s and problems. 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The p r i n c i p a l : the key to educational change. The P r i n c i p a l . IDEA, USA. O r l i c h , D. C. (1978). Designing Sensible Surveys. P l e a s a n t v i l l e , NY: Redgrave. Remer, J . (1982). Changing Schools Through the Arts. New York: McGraw-Hill. Rutter, M., Maugham, B., Mortimer, P., Ouston, J . , & Smith, A. (1979). F i f t e e n thousand hours: Secondary schools and t h e i r  e f f e c t s oii chi l d r e n. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Un i v e r s i t y Press. 117 Schmid, L. K. & McAdams, M. (1985). Inservice types and best p r a c t i c e s . Journal of Research and Development i n Education, 18(2), 33-38. Sloan-Snow, D. (1983). Teaching elementary school art with formal q u a l i t i e s f o r the Department of Defence Dependent Schools. Art Education, 36_(5), 32-34. Stuckhardt, M. H. & Morris, J . W. (1980). The development of a scale to measure at t i t u d e held toward a r t education. Studies i n Art Education, 21(2), 50-56. Tainton, B. E. (1976). Art Education i n Primary Schools: Some Perceptions of Queensland Teachers. Brisbane: Department of Education. Tye, K. A. (1974). The culture of the school. In J . I. Goodlad (Ed.), Toward a Mankind School: An Adventure i n Humanistic Education. New York: McGraw-Hill, 37. Wygant, F. (Ed.) (1979). Standards for Art Teacher Preparation  Programs. Reston, VA: NAEA. 118 Appendix A The fo l lowing tables are r e p r i n t e d from T a i n t o n , B. E . (1976). Art Education i n primary schools: Some perceptions of Queensland  teachers . Brisbane: Department of Educat ion. Copyright Department of Educat ion , Queensland. Reprinted by permiss ion. 119 Table 1.1 Comparison of sample arid p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Sex Sample P o p u l a t i o n N % N % Male 126 31.8 2958 35.5 Female 270 68.2 5367 64.5 TOTALS 396 100.0 8325 100.0 X 2 = 2 .28 ; d . f . = 1; p > .10 Note - P o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s de r i ved from August Census, 1975. Table 1.4 D i s t r i b u t i o n of teachers by grades Grade Taught T o t a l s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Composite N 53 54 50 39 43 36 40 81 396 % 13.4 13.6 12.6 9.8 10.9 9.1 10.1 20.5 100.0 Table 4 Personal problems perceived by teachers Extent of Problem Problem Area Very Great (5) % Great (4) % Some (3) % L i t t l e (2) % Very L i t t l e (1) % Mean Rating N I n s u f f i c i e n t background knowledge of: 1. T e x t i l e s 11.5 22.1 34.1 20.3 12.0 3.01 ,:390 2. Design 12.9 18.8 34.2 21.5 12.6 2.98 389 3. Modelling and carving 12.0 21.7 30.9 20.5 14.9 2.96 382 4. "Construction 11.3 16.4 32.3 27.7 12.3 2.87 390 5. Enjoyment of art 11.9 17.4 29.5 23.6 17.6 2.82 386 6. Being unsure of the sequence of learning experiences 5.6 18.3 35.2 27.1 13.8 2.75 378 7. I n s u f f i c i e n t background knowledge of printmaking 9.2 15.9 29.7 26.7 18.5 2.71 390 8. Lack of knowledge of appropriate teaching methods 5.7 14.8 38.2 26.8 14.5 2.70 385 9. I n s u f f i c i e n t knowledge of children's art development 4.4 12.2 35.9 28.4 19.1 2.55 384 10. I n s u f f i c i e n t background knowledge of painting and drawing 9.0 11.8 26.6 29.0 23.6 2.54 390 11. Interpreting the objectives of the syllabus guide 3.7 6.3 40.0 32.9 17.1 2.47 380 Table 5 School problems perce ived by teachers Extent of Problem Problem Area Very Great (5) % Great (4) % Some (3) % L i t t l e (2) % Very L i t t l e (1) % Mean Ra t ing N 1. I n s u f f i c i e n t d i s p l a y areas 44.2 23.7 15.2 11.5 5.4 3.90 389 2. Lack of s u i t a b l e working areas 44.1 20.8 17.5 9.7 7.9 3.83 390 3. I n s u f f i c i e n t s torage or s h e l v i n g 38.9 23.5 18.3 12.7 6.6 3.75 391 4. Lack of s u i t a b l e m a t e r i a l s and equipment 33.1 19.0 31.8 10.5 5.6 3.63 390 5. A v a i l a b i l i t y of funds 31.0 19.5 28.4 14.3 6.8 3.54 384 6. Lack of s u i t a b l e a r t works 23.4 24.2 29.3 15.4 7.7 3.40 389 7. Lack of s u i t a b l e f i l m s t r i p s , s l i d e s 17.6 25.8 28.9 18.2 9.5 3.24 391 8. Lack of s u i t a b l e reference books 9.5 17.0 38.2 23.7 11.6 2.89 388 Table 8 Emphasis g iven to c e r t a i n o b j e c t i v e s i r i t eachers ' a r t programs Ob jec t ive Extent of Emphasis Very Great Some L i t t l e Very Mean Great L i t t l e Ra t i ng (5) % (4) % (3) % (2) % (1) % 1. P r o v i d i n g for c h i l d s a t i s f a c t i o n 2. A r t as a means of s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n 3. P r o v i d i n g for i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d t h i n k i n g 4. A c q u i s i t i o n of c e r t a i n s k i l l s by c h i l d r e n 5. Teaching of a r t techniques 6. P r o v i d i n g a sequence of a r t a c t i v i t i e s 7. Teaching of a r t concepts 41.8 47.2 10.5 29.3 46.3 22.1 26.0 10.8 6.4 4.4 1.3 44.2 41.2 23.1 23.8 10.3 26.5 39.5 50.3 49.8 48.2 0.2 1.8 2.5 7.7 15.6 17.1 28.9 0.3 0.5 0.8 0.8 4.6 4.9 11.3 4.30 4.02 3.92 3.54 3.11 3.06 2.61 390 389 389 388 390 387 388 Table 9 Influences upon the content of teachers' programs Extent of Influence Influences Very Great Some Great (5) % (4) % (3) % L i t t l e Very Mean N L i t t l e Rating (2) % (1) % 1. Ideas developed from children's i n t e r e s t s 2. Personal books and/or notes 3. Ideas suggested by fellow teachers 4. Reference books from school l i b r a r y 5. Ideas suggested by advisory teachers i n art 6. Program i n art for primary schools 7. Audio-visual material 8. Art resources i n the community 16.5 38.7 39.2 •21.2 31.9 33.9 8.8 33.8 49.0 •6.7 33.9 44.2 9.6 28.3 39.6 2.1 0.8 4.1 6.9 6.3 10.1 8.5 4.9 18.7 56.0 12.8 6.2 32.7 36.3 0.5 11.6 25.8 1.5 6.1 2.1 5.1 14.0 7.6 22.7 61.3 3.64 3.55 3.41 3.27 3.11 3.00 2.29 1.54 388 392 388 389 364 391 388 388 Table 12 Integrat ion of ar t with other curriculum areas Extent of Integrat ion Curriculum Area Very Often Sometimes Rarely Never Mean N Often Rating (5) % (4) % (3) % (2) % (1) % 1. S o c i a l studies 28.2 44.4 24.3 2.6 0.5 3.97 387 2. Language arts 29.6 37.3 27.5 4.8 0.8 3.90 389 3. Science 13.9 26.2 38.0 16.7 5.2 3.27 389 4. Music 3.4 12.3 38.6 33.9 11.8 2.61 389 5. Mathematics 1.3 6.4 38.6 36.5 17.2 2.38 389 6. P h y s i c a l education 0.3 3.5 20.4 42.0 33.8 1.95 390 Table 13 Methods of c l a s s o r g a n i z a t i o n Extent of Use Method Very Sometimes R a r e l y Never Mean N Often Ra t ing (4) % (3) % (2) % (1) % 1. A l l p u p i l s work on the same i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t y at the same time 51.9 37.2 8.4 2.5 3.29 395 2. Groups of p u p i l s work on d i f f e r e n t p r o j e c t s at the same time 28.2 53.5 14.7 3.6 3.06 393 3. I n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s work on d i f f e r e n t p r o j e c t s at the same time 14.2 61.1 18.1 6.6 2.83 394 to Table 14 Teachers' p r i o r i t i e s for ass is tance Perceived Importance Type of Assistance Very Great (5) % Great (4) % Moderate (3) % L i t t l e (2) % Very L i t t l e (1) % Mean N Rating 6. Greater range of suppl ied ar t mater ia l s and equipment In - serv ice workshops and seminars i n ar t More advisory teacher v i s i t s A d d i t i o n a l ar t reference books for school l i b r a r y More de ta i l ed sy l labus guide Long-term i n - s e r v i c e courses i n art 65.5 25.4 6.2 29.6 30.6 26.2 24.6 36.4 29.3 25.5 33.2 29.9 14.7 25.8 37.0 14.5 14.5 35.9 2.3 9.0 5.6 17.8 20.6 0.6 4.6 4.1 3.1 4.53 3.72 3.72 3.70 4.7 3.28 386 389 390 385 387 14.5 2.94 387 Appendix B RESPONSES TO TEACHERS' QUESTIONNAIRE (VANCOUVER SAMPLE) Table B l Influences upon the content of teachers' programs (Network 1) Extent of Influence Influences Very Great (5) % Great (4) % Some (3) % L i t t l e (2) % Very L i t t l e (1) % Mean Rating N 1. Personal books and/or notes 16.7 33.3 41.7 8.3 - 3.58 12 2. Ideas developed from c h i l d r e n ' s in teres t s 8.3 50.0 33.3 8.3 - 3.58 12 3. Ideas suggested by fe l low teachers 16.7 16.7 50.0 16.7 - 3.33 12 4. Reference books from school l i b r a r y 8.3 8.3 58.3 16.7 8.3 2.92 12 5. Ideas suggested by art consultants - 16.7 58.3 25.0 - 2.92 12 6. Curriculum guide - 16.7 50.0 33.3 - 2.83 12 7. A r t resources i n the community - 8.3 66.7 25.0 - 2.83 12 8. A u d i o - v i s u a l mater ia l 8.3 - 58.3 16.7 16.7 2.67 12 ho 00 Table B2 Influences upon the content of teachers' programs (Network 2) Extent of Influence Influences Very Great (5) % Great (4) % Some (3) % L i t t l e (2) % Very L i t t l e (1) % Mean Rating N 1. Personal books and/or notes 25.0 50.0 25.0 - - 4.00 12 2. Ideas developed from c h i l d r e n ' s in teres t s 33.3 16.7 41.7 8.3 - 3.67 12 3. Ideas suggested by fe l low teachers 8.3 16.7 66.7 - 8.3 3.17 12 4. Ideas suggested by art consultants - 41.7 25.0 33.3 - 3.08 12 5. Curriculum guide - 25.0 50.0 16.7 8.3 . 2.92 12 6. Reference books from school l i b r a r y - 16.7 33.3 41.7 8.3 2.58 12 7. A u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l - 16.7 25.0 41.6 16.7 2.42 12 8. A r t resources i n the community - 8.3 41.7 16.7 33.3 2.25 12 Table B3 Emphasis given to c e r t a i n object ives i n teachers' ar t programs (Network 1) Extent of Emphasis Obj ec t ive Very Great (5) % Great (4) % Some (3) % L i t t l e (2) % Very L i t t l e (1) % Mean Rating N 1. A r t as a means of s e l f - express ion 33.3 50.0 16.7 _ _ 4.17 12 2. Prov id ing for i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d th inking 41.7 16.6 41.7 - - 4.00 12 3. A c q u i s i t i o n of c e r t a i n s k i l l s by c h i l d r e n 16.7 66.6 16.7 - - 4.00 12 4. Prov id ing for c h i l d s a t i s f a c t i o n 8.3 66.7 25.0 - - 3.83 12 5. Teaching of ar t techniques 8.3 66.7 25.0 - - 3.83 12 6. Teaching of ar t concepts 8.3 50.0 41.7 - - 3.67 12 7. Prov id ing a sequence of ar t a c t i v i t i e s 8.3 41.7 50.0 3.58 12 Table B4 Emphasis given to c e r t a i n objectives i n teachers' art programs (Network 2) Objective Extent of Emphasis Very Great Some L i t t l e Very Mean Great L i t t l e Rating (5) % (4) % (3) % (2) % (1) % 1. Providing for c h i l d s a t i s f a c t i o n 2. Providing for i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d thinking 3. Art as a means of self-expression 4. A c q u i s i t i o n of c e r t a i n s k i l l s by children 5. Teaching of art concepts 6. Teaching of art techniques 7. Providing a sequence of art a c t i v i t i e s 58.4 33.3 8.3 25.0 58.3 16.7 25.0 50.0 25.0 8.3 50.0 41.7 50.0 50.0 33.3 66.7 33.3 66.7 4.33 4.08 4.00 3.67 3.50 3.33 3.33 12 12 12 12 12 12 Table B5 I n t e g r a t i o n of a r t w i t h other c u r r i c u l u m areas (Network 1) Extent of I n t e g r a t i o n Cur r i cu lum Area Very Often Sometimes R a r e l y Never Mean N Often R a t i n g (5) % (4) % (3) % (2) % (1) % 1. Language a r t s 16.7 50.0 33.3 - - 3.83 12 2. S o c i a l s tud ies 8.3 8.3 83.4 - - 3.25 12 3. Music - 8.3 50.0 33.3 8.3 2.58 12 4. Science 8.3 8.3 41.7 16.7 25.0 2.58 12 5. Mathematics 8.3 8.3 33.3 41.7 8.3 2.67 12 6. P h y s i c a l educat ion - 8.3 25.0 50.0 16.7 2.25 12 ho Table B6 I n t e g r a t i o n of a r t w i t h other c u r r i c u l u m areas (Network 2) Extent of I n t e g r a t i o n Cur r i cu lum Area Very Often Sometimes R a r e l y Never Mean N Often R a t i n g (5) % (4) % (3) % (2) % (1) % 1. Language a r t s 33.3 41.7 16.7 8.3 - 4.00 12 2. S o c i a l s tud ies 25.0 33.3 33.3 8.4 - 3.75 12 3. Science 25.0 16.7 41.6 16.7 - 3.50 12 4. Music 16.7 8.3 58.3 16.7 - 3.25 12 5. Mathematics 16.7 8.3 33.3 25.0 16.7 2.83 12 6. P h y s i c a l educat ion 8.3 8.3 - 50.0 33.3 2.08 12 Table B7 Teachers ' p r i o r i t i e s f o r a s s i s t ance (Network 1) Pe rce ived Importance Type of A s s i s t a n c e Very Great (5) % Great (4) % Moderate (3) % L i t t l e (2) % Very L i t t l e (1) % Mean Ra t ing N 1. Greater range of supp l i ed a r t m a t e r i a l s and equipment 25.0 41.7 25.0 8.3 3.83 12 2. I n s e r v i c e workshops and seminars i n a r t 8.3 50.0 33.4 8.3 — 3.58 12 3. Long-term i n s e r v i c e courses i n a r t - 41.7 41.7 16.6 _ 3.25 12 4. A d d i t i o n a l a r t reference books fo r school l i b r a r y 8.3 33.3 41.7 16.7 3.17 12 5. More a r t consu l tan t v i s i t s - 16.7 33.3 41.7 8.3 2.58 12 6. More d e t a i l e d c u r r i c u l u m guide - 16.7 33.3 41.7 8.3 2.58 12 Table B8 Teachers ' p r i o r i t i e s f o r a s s i s t ance (Network 2) Type of A s s i s t a n c e Perce ived Importance Very Great (5) % Great (4) % Moderate (3) % L i t t l e Very L i t t l e (2) % (1) % Mean N R a t i n g 1. Greater range of supp l i ed a r t m a t e r i a l s and equipment 2. I n s e r v i c e workshops and seminars i n a r t 3. Long-term i n s e r v i c e courses i n a r t 4. A d d i t i o n a l a r t reference books fo r school l i b r a r y 5. More d e t a i l e d c u r r i c u l u m guide 6. More a r t c o n s u l t a n t ; v i s i t s 33.3 25.0 41.7 16.7 50.0 33.3 8.3 33.4 50.0 8.3 16.7 58.4 16.7 33.3 8.3 41.7 8.3 8.3 3.92 3.83 3.33 8.3 3.08 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 2.42 2.33 12 12 12 12 12 12 Table B9 Methods of c lass organizat ion (Network 1) Extent of Use Method Very Often (4) % Sometimes (3) % Rarely (2) % Never (1) % Mean Rating N 1. A l l p u p i l s work on the same i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t y at the same time 41.7 58.3 - - 3.42 12 2. I n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s work on d i f f e r e n t projects at the same time 16.7 58.3 16.7 8.3 2.83 12 3. Groups of pup i l s work on d i f f e r e n t projects at the same time 8.3 66.7 16.7 8.3 2.75 12 CO cn Table BIO Methods of c l a s s o r g a n i z a t i o n (Network 2) Extent of Use Method Very Sometimes R a r e l y Never Mean N Often R a t i n g (4) % (3) % (2) % (1) % 1. A l l p u p i l s work on the same i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t y a t the same time 2. I n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s work on d i f f e r e n t p r o j e c t s at the same time 3. Groups of p u p i l s work on d i f f e r e n t p ro j ec t s at the same time 58.3 33.3 16.7 75.0 8.3 25.0 58.3 16.7 8.4 3.42 12 3.08 12 3.08 12 Table B l l P e r s o n a l problems perce ived by teachers (Network 1) Extent of Problem Problem Area Very Great (5) % Great (4) % Some (3) % L i t t l e (2) % Very L i t t l e (1) % Mean R a t i n g N I n s u f f i c i e n t background knowledge o f : 1. Design elements and p r i n c i p l e s - 25.0 16.7 41.6 16.7 2.50 12 2. A r t processes - 8.3 41.7 41.7 8.3 2.50 12 3. Being unsure of the sequence of l e a r n i n g experiences - 16.7 33.3 25.0 25.0 2.42 12 I n s u f f i c i e n t background knowledge o f : 4. C h i l d r e n ' s a r t development - - 41.7 50.0 8.3 2.33 12 5. Image development - 8.3 25.0 58.4 8.3 2.33 12 6. A r t e v a l u a t i o n - 16.7 25.0 33.3 25.0 2.33 12 7. Lack of knowledge of appropr i a t e teaching methods - 8.3 41.7 25.0 25.0 2.33 12 8. I n t e r p r e t i n g the o b j e c t i v e s of the c u r r i c u l u m guide - - 41.7 41.7 16.6 2.25 12 9. I n s u f f i c i e n t background knowledge of responding to a r t 8.3 25.0 41.7 25.0 2.17 12 Table B12 Pe r sona l problems perce ived by teachers (Network 2) Extent of Problem Problem Area Very Great (5) % Great (4) % Some (3) % L i t t l e (2) % Very L i t t l e (1) % Mean Ra t ing N I n s u f f i c i e n t background knowledge o f : 1. Design elements and p r i n c i p l e s 8.3 - 58.3 16.7 16.7 2.67 12 2. A r t processes 8.3 8.3 41.7 25.0 16.7 2.67 12 3. A r t e v a l u a t i o n 8.3 16.7 33.3 16.7 25.0 2.67 12 4. Image development 8.3 8.3 41.7 16.7 25.0 2.58 12 5. C h i l d r e n ' s a r t development - 8.3 41.7 25.0 25.0 2.33 12 6. I n t e r p r e t i n g the o b j e c t i v e s of the c u r r i c u l u m guide - - 50.0 25.0 25.0 2.25 12 7. I n s u f f i c i e n t background knowledge of responding to a r t 8.3 - 41.7 8.3 41.7 2.25 12 8. Lack of knowledge of appropr ia te teaching methods - 16.7 25.0 25.0 33.3 2.25 12 9. Being unsure of the sequence of l e a r n i n g experiences 8.3 33.3 16.7 41.7 2.17 12 Table B13 School problems perce ived by teachers (Network 1) Extent of Problem Problem Area Very Great (5) % Great (4) % Some (3) % L i t t l e (2) % Very L i t t l e (1) % Mean R a t i n g N 1. Lack of s u i t a b l e m a t e r i a l s and equipment 16.7 16.7 41.6 16.7 8.3 3.17 12 2. A v a i l a b i l i t y of funds 8.3 33.4 25.0 25.0 8.3 3.08 12 3. Lack of s u i t a b l e a r t works - 16.7 66.6 16.7 - 3.00 12 4. I n s u f f i c i e n t s torage or s h e l v i n g 8.3 25.0 33.3 16.7 16.7 2.92 12 5. Lack of s u i t a b l e re ference books - 8.3 75.0 16.7 - 2.92 12 6. Lack of s u i t a b l e f i l m s t r i p s , s l i d e s - 16.7 58.3 25.0 - 2.92 12 7. Lack of s u i t a b l e working areas 8.3 25.0 25.0 25.0 16.7 2.83 12 8. I n s u f f i c i e n t d i s p l a y areas 8.3 25.0 16.7 25.0 25.0 2.67 12 Table B14 School problems perceived by teachers (Network 2) Extent of Problem Problem Area Very . Great (5) % Great (4) % Some (3) % L i t t l e (2) % Very L i t t l e (1) % Mean Rating N 1. A v a i l a b i l i t y of funds 16.7 41.7 8.3 33.3 - 3.42 12 2. Lack of su i tab le mater ia l s and equipment 8.3 33.3 33.3 16.7 8.3 3.17 12 3. I n s u f f i c i e n t storage or shelving 8.3 33.3 25.0 25.0 8.3 3.08 12 4. Lack of su i tab le working areas 16.7 16.7 33.3 16.7 16.7 3.00 12 5. Lack of su i tab le ar t works - 25.0 33.3 33.3 8.3 2.75 12 6. Insu f f i c i en t d i sp lay areas 8.3 16.7 25.0 33.3 16.7 2.67 12 7. Lack of su i tab le reference books - 8.3 58.3 16.7 16.7 2.58 12 8. Lack of su i tab le f i l m s t r i p s , s l i d e s - 8.3 50.0 25.0 16.7 2.50 12 Table B15 Teachers' perceptions of personal changes due to networking (Network 1) Extent of Changes Changes Very Great Some L i t t l e Great (5) % (4) % (3) % (2) % Very Mean N L i t t l e Rating (1) % 1. A t t i t u d e to ar t s education 2. Awareness of the p lace of arts i n education 16.7 16.7 58.3 16.7 25.0 33.3 16.7-8.3 8.3 3.33 3.25 12 12 Ass is tance with ar t programming 8.3 8.3 50.0 33.4 2.92 12 A l t e r a t i o n to teaching content 8.3 •8.3 41.7 33.3 8.3 2.75 12 Understanding of ar t knowledge, processes and s k i l l s 16.7 33.3 41.7 8.3 2.75 12 A l t e r a t i o n to teaching methods 8.3 8.3 16.7 58.4 8.3 2.50 12 Table B16 Teachers' perceptions of personal changes due to networking (Network 2) Extent of Changes Changes Very Great (5) % (4) % Great Some L i t t l e (3) % (2) % Very L i t t l e (1) % Mean Rating 1. Understanding of ar t knowledge, processes and s k i l l s 2. Awareness of the place of ar t s i n education 3. A t t i t u d e to ar t s education 4. Ass i s tance with ar t programming 5. A l t e r a t i o n to teaching content 6. A l t e r a t i o n to teaching methods 8.3 8.3 8.3 16.7 41.7 25.0 33.3 41.7 8.3 16.7 58.3 16.7 8.3 50.0 16.7 50.0 33.3 8.3 2.92 16.7 8.3 16.7 8.3 2.92 2.83 2.75 2.67 41.7 25.0 25.0 2.42 12 12 12 12 12 12 Table B17 Teachers' perceptions of school changes due to networking (Network 1) Extent of agreement Network Outcome Statement Strongly Agree (5) % Agree (4) % Undecided (3) % Disagree (2) % Strongly Disagree (1) % Mean Rating 1. Commitment to the idea l s of ar t s networking by the p r i n c i p a l i s e s sent ia l 50.0 41.7 .8.3 - - 4.42 12 2. The ar t s are now an : . i n t e g r a l part of the d a i l y experience of every c h i l d i n the school 25.0 41.7 33.3 - - 3.92 12 3. Fel low teachers r e a d i l y share ideas and approaches for teaching art 16.7 33.3 41.7 8.3 - 3.58 12 4. In teres t , support, and involvement of the l o c a l and general community i n the school has increased 25.0 16.7 50.0 8.3 - 3.58 12 5. The cl imate of the school has become l i v e l i e r and more v i t a l 16.7 41.7 33.3 8.3 - 3.58 12 Table B18 Teachers ' percep t ions of schoo l changes due to networking (Network 2) Extent of agreement Network Outcome Statement S t rong ly Agree (5) % Agree Undecided Disagree (4) % (3) % (2) % S t r o n g l y Disagree (1) % Mean Ra t ing 1. Commitment to the i d e a l s of a r t s networking by the p r i n c i p a l i s e s s e n t i a l 50.0 41.7 i8;3 - - 4.42 12 2. F e l l o w teachers r e a d i l y share ideas and approaches f o r teaching a r t 8.3 58.3 33.3 - - 3.75 12 3. The a r t s are now an i n t e g r a l pa r t of the d a i l y exper ience of every c h i l d i n the schoo l 16.7 41.6 25.0 16.7 - 3.58 12 4. The c l i m a t e of the school has become l i v e l i e r and more v i t a l - 33.3 58.4 8.3 - 3.25 12 5. I n t e r e s t , support , and involvement of the l o c a l and genera l community i n the school has increased - 25.0 41.7 33.3 - 2.92 12 Appendix C RESPONSES TO TEACHERS* QUESTIONNAIRE (SEATTLE SAMPLE) Table C l Influences upon the content of teachers' programs (Seatt le) Extent of Influence Influences Very Great Some L i t t l e Very Mean N Great L i t t l e Rating (5) % (4) % (3) % (2) % (1) % 1. Personal books and/or notes 50.0 25.0 25.0 - - 4.25 12 2. Ideas suggested by fe l low teachers 33.3 41.7 16.7 8.3 - 4.00 12 3. Ideas developed from c h i l d r e n ' s in teres t s 25.0 33.3 41.7 - - 3.83 12 4. A r t resources i n the community 33.3 16.7 41.7 - 8.3 3.67 12 5. Ideas suggested by ar t consultants 16.7 33.3 25.0 8.3 16.7 3.25 12 6. Reference books from school l i b r a r y 8.3 25.0 41.7 16.7 8.3 3.08 12 7. A u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l - 16.7 41.7 33.3 8.3 2.67 12 8. Curriculum guide 8.3 8.3 25.0 33.3 25.0 2.42 12 Table C2 Emphasis g iven to c e r t a i n o b j e c t i v e s i n t eachers ' a r t programs ( S e a t t l e ) Extent of Emphasis Ob jec t i ve Very Great (5) % Great (4) % Some (3) % L i t t l e (2) % Very L i t t l e (1) % Mean Ra t ing N 1. A r t as a means of s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n 50.0 41.7 8.3 _ — 4.42 12 2. P r o v i d i n g for c h i l d s a t i s f a c t i o n 41.7 50.0 8.3 - - 4.00 12 3. P r o v i d i n g for i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d t h i n k i n g 25.0 33.3 33.3 8.3 - 3.75 12 4. A c q u i s i t i o n of c e r t a i n s k i l l s by c h i l d r e n 16.7 50.0 25.0 8.3 - 3.75 12 5. Teaching of a r t techniques 25.0 41.6 16.7 16.7 - 3.75 12 6. Teaching of a r t concepts 25.0 33.3 25.0 16.7 - 3.67 12 7. P r o v i d i n g a sequence of a r t a c t i v i t i e s 16.7 41.7 25.0 8.3 8.3 3.50 12 Table C3 Integrat ion of ar t with other curriculum areas (Seattle) Extent of Integrat ion Curriculum Area Very Often Sometimes Rarely Never Mean N Often Rating (5) % (4) % (3) % (2) % (1) % 1. S o c i a l studies 33.3 33.3 25.0 8.3 - 3.92 12 2. Language arts 25.0 41.7 25.0 8.3 - 3.83 12 3. Science 16.7 33.3 33.3 - 16.7 3.33 12 4. Music 25.0 16.7 16.7 25.0 16.7 3.08 12 5. Mathematics 8.3 16.7 41.7 16.7 16.7 2.83 12 6. P h y s i c a l education 8.3 8.3 8.3 25.0 50.0 2.00 12 Table C4 Teachers ' p r i o r i t i e s fo r a s s i s t ance (Sea t t l e ) Pe rce ived Importance Type of A s s i s t a n c e Very Great Moderate L i t t l e Very Mean N Great L i t t l e Ra t i ng (5) % (4) % (3) % (2) % (1) % 1. Greater range of s u p p l i e d a r t m a t e r i a l s and equipment 33.3 50.0 16.7 4.17 12 2. I n s e r v i c e workshops and seminars i n a r t 25.0 25.0 41.7 8.3 3.67 12 3. Long-term i n s e r v i c e courses i n a r t 25.0 16.7 41.7 8.3 8.3 3.42 12 4. More a r t consu l tan t v i s i t s 33.3 16.7 25.0 8.3 16.7 3.42 12 5. A d d i t i o n a l a r t reference books fo r schoo l l i b r a r y 50.0 25.0 25.0 3.25 12 6. More d e t a i l e d c u r r i c u l u m guide 16.7 41.7 25.0 16.7 2.58 12 Table C5 Methods of c lass organizat ion (Seattle) Extent of Use Method Very Sometimes Rarely Never Mean N Often Rating (4) % (3) % (2) % (1) % 1. A l l pup i l s work on the same i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t y at the same time 2. Groups of pup i l s work on d i f f e r e n t projec t s at the same time 3. I n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s work on d i f f e r e n t projects at the same time 66.7 16.7 16.7 50.0 16.7 16.7 33.3 33.3 25.0 3.50 12 16.7 3.00 12 8.3 2.92 12 Table C6 P e r s o n a l problems perce ived by teachers (Sea t t l e ) Extent of Problem Problem Area Very Great (5) % Great (4) % Some (3) % L i t t l e (2) % Very L i t t l e (1) % Mean R a t i n g N I n s u f f i c i e n t background knowledge o f : 1. Design elements and p r i n c i p l e s 8.3 25.0 25.0 8.3 33.3 2.67 12 2. A r t processes 8.3 16.7 33.3 8.3 33.3 2.58 12 3. Image development 8.3 16.7 33.3 8.3 33.3 2.58 12 4. Responding to a r t 8.3 16.7 33.3 - 41.7 2.50 12 5. C h i l d r e n ' s a r t development 8.3 8.3 41.7 8.3 33.3 2.50 12 6. A r t e v a l u a t i o n 8.3 16.7 25.0 8.3 41.7 2.42 12 7. Being unsure of the sequence of l e a r n i n g experiences - 16.7 41.7 - 41.7 2.33 12 8. Lack of knowledge of appropr ia te teaching methods - - 50.0 8.3 41.7 2.08 12 9. I n t e r p r e t i n g the o b j e c t i v e s of the c u r r i c u l u m guide 33.3 16.7 50.0 1.83 12 Table C7 School problems perceived by teachers (Seattle) Extent of Problem Problem Area Very Great (5) % Great (4) % Some (3) % L i t t l e (2) % Very L i t t l e (1) % Mean Rating N 1. A v a i l a b i l i t y of funds 33.3 41.7 16.7 8.3 - 4.00 12 2. I n s u f f i c i e n t storage or shelving 41.7 8.3 41.7 8.3 - 3.83 12 3. Lack of su i tab le working areas 33.3 25.0 33.3 8.3 - 3.83 12 4. Lack of su i tab le mater ia l s and equipment 8.3 58.4 25.0 8.3 - 3.67 12 5. Lack of su i tab le f i l m s t r i p s , s l i d e s - 33.3 50.0 16.7 - 3.17 12 6. Lack of su i tab le ar t works 8.3 16.7 58.3 16.7 - 3.17 12 7. Lack of su i tab le reference books - 25.0 • 50.0 16.7 8.3 2.92 12 8. I n s u f f i c i e n t d i sp lay areas 8.3 8.3 50.0 25.0 8.3 2.83 12 Cn CO Table C8 Teachers' perceptions of personal changes due to networking (Seatt le) Changes Extent of Changes Very . Great Some Great (5) % (4) % (3) % L i t t l e Very Mean N L i t t l e Rating (2) % (1) % 1. Ass is tance with ar t programming 2. Awareness of the place of ar t s i n education 3. A t t i t u d e to ar t s education 4. Understanding of ar t knowledge, processes and s k i l l s 5. A l t e r a t i o n to teaching methods 6. A l t e r a t i o n to teaching content 8.3 25.0 58.3 33.3 33.3 25.0 16.7 58.3 16.7 83.3 16.7 8.3 58.3 25.0 50.0 33.3 8.3 8.3 8.3 8.3 8.3 3.25 2.92 2.83 2.83 2.67 2.67 12 12 12 12 12 12 Table C9 Teachers' perceptions of school changes due to networking (Seatt le) Extent of agreement Network Outcome Statement Strongly Agree Undecided Agree (5) % ( 4 ) % (3) % Disagree Strongly Mean Disagree Rating (2) % (1) % Commitment to the i d e a l s of ar t s networking by the p r i n c i p a l i s e s s en t ia l 50.0 33.3 16.7 4.33 12 2. The c l imate of the school has become l i v e l i e r and more v i t a l 33.3 33.3 33.3 4.00 12 3. Fel low teachers r e a d i l y share ideas and approaches for teaching art 25.0 50.0 25.0 4.00 12 4. The ar t s are now an i n t e g r a l part of the d a i l y experience of every c h i l d i n the school 25.0 33.3 33.3 8.3 3.75 12 In teres t , support, and involvement of the l o c a l and general community i n the school has increased 50.0 33.3 16.7 3.33 12 Appendix D NETWORK PRINCIPAL INTERVIEW PROTOCOL 157 School Network P r i n c i p a l Date .. Number of classroom teachers 1. Why the arts and why networking? 2. How successful do you perceive networking to have been i n meeting i t s goals? 3. How successful do you think teachers perceive networking to have been? 4. What has changed because of networking? 5. How committed have teachers become to the id e a l s of networking? 6. How involved have teachers been? 7. Does the school have a designated a r t teacher? 8. How much a r t i s taught by classroom teachers? Appendix E TEACHERS* QUESTIONNAIRE 160 ART SURVEY Background information (Please mark the appropriate box) A , SEX Male LZJ Female | ) B. AGE Under 25 years • 25: - 3h [ZI 55 - Q • C. TEACHING EXPERIENCE ("Count t h i s year as one year) 1 y e a r O 2 - 5 years f } •i - 5 years I I o - 10 years I I I 1 11 - 20 years | | 21. n POSITION IN SCHOOL Pr inc ipa l [ [ Class teacher [ | Spec ia l i s t arts teacher JZl WHICH GRADE, OR GRADES, DO YOU NOV TEACH? Grade 1 • Grade 2 • Grade 3 • Grade 4 • Grade 5 • Grade 6 • Grade 7 • HOW LONG HAS YOUR SCHOOL BEEN INVOLVED IN AN ARTS NETWORK? 1 year | | 2 - 4 years | | 5+ years j J HOW LONG HAVE YOU BEEN IN AN ARTS NETWORK SCHOOL? 1 year | | 2 - u years | '| 5+ years • WHEN PLANNING YOUR ART PROGRAM WHAT USE (1) Personal books and/or notes DO YOU HAKE OP: ^ U l t S o m a L l t t t i U m U u Llt t l i 'Ju (2) Reference books from the school l i b r a r y (5) State, Prov inc ia l , or D i s t r i c t Curriculum Guide (4) Ideas suggested by fellow teachers (5) Ideas suggested by a r t consultants (6) Ideas developed from c h i l d r e n ' s interests (7) A u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l (B) Art resources i n the community (e.g. museums, g a l l e r i e s , v i s i t s bv a r t i s t s )  161 2. WHAT EMPHASIS I S GIVEN TO EACH OF THE FOLLOWING IN TOUR ( 1 ) ART PROGRAM? v e r y Greet G r i n S o m i LrnJt V » r y Little P r o v i d i n g f o r c h i l d s a t i s f a c t i o n (2) P r o v i d i n g f o r i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d t h i n k i n g ( 5 ) A r t as a means o f s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n W The s e q u e n c e o f a r t a c t i v i t i e s ( 5 ) A c q u i s i t i o n o f c e r t a i n s k i l l s by c h i l d r e n ( 6 ) T e a c h i n g o f a r t t e c h n i q u e s ( ? ) T e a c h i n g o f a r t c o n c e p t s 3. ; i ) KOW O F T E N DO YOU R E L A T E A R T WORK TO: Very O d i n L a n g u a g e A r t s O f t e n S o m e t i m e i R e r e l y N e v e r (2) M u s i c (3) S o c i a l S t u d i e s ( M S c i e n c e (5) M a t h e m a t i c s ( 6 ) P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n 4 . WHAT PRIORITY DO YOU PLACE UPON THE FOLLOWING SOURCES OF ASSISTANCE: V e r y G r M t Moderete Lit t le Great Very Little (1) More a r t c o n s u l t a n t v i s i t s (2) A more d e t a i l e d c u r r i c u l u m guide (3) A d d i t i o n a l a r t r e f e r e n c e books i n the school l i b r a r y W A g r e a t e r range of s u p p l i e d a r t m a t e r i a l s and e q u i p m e n t (•5) L u z i ( s— utr'.C£ii i u - * B 6 * v i « 6 C O u X u r b . j.T* C; — t ( 6 ) I n - s e r v i c e w o r k s h o p s and s e m i n a r s i n a r t 5 . I N ART HOW OFTEN DO YOU Vecy S o m e t i m e * Rere ly N e v e r O f t e n >-( i ) Have a l l p u p i l s w o r k i n g o n t h e same i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t y a t t h e same t i m e (2) Have i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s w o r k i n g o n d i f f e r e n t p r o j e c t s a t t h e same t i m e • (3) Have g r o u p s o f p u p i l s w o r k i n g on d i f f e r e n t p r o j e c t s a t t h e same t i m e 162 , 6. INDICATE THE EXTENT TO WHICH EACH OF THE FOLLOWING Vtry GrMt GrMt Som« Llttlt V»fY Unit CONSTITUTES A PROBLEM FOR YOU: O) u Interpreting the objectives of the curriculum guide (2) Having ineufficient.knowledge of children's art development (3) Having insuff ic ient background knowledge of: design elements and pr inc ip les art processes image development responding to art art evaluation CO Lack of knowledge of appropriate teaching methods (5) Being unsure of the sequence of learning experiences (6) Lack of suitable materials and equipment (7) Lack of suitable working areas (8) Insufficient storage or shelving (9) Insufficient display areas CO) A v a i l a b i l i t y of funds Lack of suitable: reference books • film s t r i p s , f i lm s l ides art works V»ry GrMt Som« llttlt V « Y ?. TO WHAT EXTENT HAS ARTS NETWORKING: G r M t Llttli (•D Altered your attitude to artB education (2) Made you more aware of the place of arts in education (3) Changed the way you teach Changed what you teach Helped your art programming CG) Given you a better understanding of art knowledge, processes and s k i l l s 8. -AS A RESULT OF ARTS NETWORK INVOLVEMENT - Agr.e U o d t c l d e d D i i . g r e e S t r o o j l j d U a g r . t (1) Fellow teachers have readi ly shared ideas and approaches for teaching ar t . (2) Interest, support, erid involvement of the local and general community in the BCbool has increased. (3) The climate of the school has become livelier and more v i t a l . 00 Commitment to the ideals of arts networking by the pr inc ipa l i s essent ia l . (5) The arts are now an integral part of the daily experience of every ch i ld in the school. LETTERS OF PERMISSION 

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