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The housing consumption of empty nest households Weikum, Gary Lester 1986

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THE HOUSING CONSUMPTION EMPTY NEST  OF  HOUSEHOLDS  BY GARY LESTER  WEIKUM  B.A., UNIVERSITY OF VICTORIA, A THESIS  SUBMITTED  IN PARTIAL  1977  FULFILLMENT  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE MASTER OF  OF  ARTS  IN THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE  STUDIES  SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL We accept this thesis as (  to the required^  conforming  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH SEPTEMBER  PLANNING  COLUMBIA  1986  (c) Gary Lester Weikum,  1986  OF  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  thesis  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an of  British  it  freely  for  available  understood for  Library  shall  for reference  and  study.  I  f o r extensive copying of  that  financial  h i s or  be  her  g r a n t e d by  gain  shall  not  the  be  of  this  D e p a r t m e n t o f 'Cxfflnw'pj * The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3  Date  )E-6  (3/81)  GzJf  Z^/Oh  further this  (lE&iodevL- pLpdhli Columbia  thesis my  It is thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  make  head o f  representatives.  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  the  University  the  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may by  the  of  I agree that  permission  department or  fulfilment  advanced degree at  Columbia,  agree t h a t  in partial  written  ii  ABSTRACT The  purposes  empty  nesters  number  of empty  of this  and  study  describe  nesters  are  their  who  to develop housing  are occupying  a demographic  consumption; family  to  housing;  profile  of  determine  the  and  provide  summary of the housing needs of empty nesters which cause them to occupy type of housing which they do. policy  to encourage  This study is not intended to develop  some fundamental questions about the impact of empty nesters on the  family  housing  empty  nester  housing consumption in the Vancouver, CM.A.  Canada was conducted  through  analysis  of  Sample  indicate  that empty nesters  1981  owner-occupied perception, couples.  areas.  Census  A  Canada  rather,  detailed  Public  it attempts  public answer  in urban  to move,  the  to  supply  empty nesters  a  examination  Use  have a high propensity^to  Empty  arrangements  have  nesters  not attracted  appear  to  large  retain  Tapes.  The  findings  live independently  family type single detached dwellings. condominiums  of  Contrary to numbers  their  in  popular  of empty  nest  independent  and family type housing for as long as possible.  living  Income,  more  than any other variable tested, influences the size of dwelling occupied this group., and relatively  low monthly housing costs caused by high  by  equity  situations may counteract any desire to economize space after the  children  have  of  left the family  apparent  home.  This  lack of empirical  data  study was regarding  conducted empty  as a result  nesters  and the  assumptions that they were contributing to family housing shortage It is important that researchers empty nesters.  various problems.  not pre-judge what is adequate housing  Rather, researchers  should focus on the resources and  of this group and attempt to supply appropriate housing from this  the  for needs  direction  i i i  rather units.  than  implement  policies  to get them out of their  current  housing  i v  TABLE OF  CONTENTS  Title Page Abstract Table of Contents List of Tables List of Figures Acknowledgements CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Purpose Key Terms Scope Problem Goal Method of R a t Organizati CHAPTER II DEMOGRAPH Histor Housin Empty Living Housin  TO EMPTY  i ii iv vi vii viii NESTERS 1  Research i o n a l e on and Sequence of Presentation  1 1 2 3 5  7  6  11  IC PROFILE AND HOUSING CONSUMPTION OF EMPTY NESTERS...13 ical Perspective of Empty Nesters 13 g Characteristics 19 Nesters in Vancouver 22 Arrangements of Empty Nesters 25 g Consumption of Two Person Empty Nest Households 29 Age of Empty Nesters 29 Income 30 Housing Costs 32 Dwel 1 ing Type 34 Tenure 35 Condition of Dwelling Unit 37 Length of Occupancy 37 Period of Construction 38 Number of Persons Per Room 39 Size of Dwell ing 39 Mobility 41 One Person Empty Nest Households 43 Income 44 Housing Costs 44 Tenure 44 Dwel 1 ing Type 45 Length of Occupancy 46 Number of Rooms 46  V  CHAPTER III EMPTY NEST Gr Nu Ho  HOUS ade A mber using  EHOLDS AND FAMILY HOUSING ccess Units of Rooms Cost  CHAPTER IV HOUSING NEEDS OF EMPTY NESTERS Life Cycle and Housing Cons Empty Nest Non-movers Space Tenure and Structure T Neighbourhood Empty Nest Movers Space and Housing Cost Structure Type and Ten Neighbourhood CHAPTER IV SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary Conclusions REFERENCES  umption ype s ure  48 49 51 56 60 60 63 63 65 69 70 70 72 73 76 76 79 83  vi  Table I: Table II:  LIST OF TABL Canada: Husband-Wife Families, Home, Husband Aged 45 Years or Families with No Children Under as a Percentage  of all Families  ES No Children at Older Age 25 at Home by Age Cohort  Table III:  Demographic Changes, 1951-1981  Table IV:  Canadian Demographic Characteristics  T a b l e V :  15 16 17  1981  18  E m p t y N e s t C o u p l e s - L i v i n g A r r a n g e m e n t s by Age of Wife  28  Table VI:  Ethnic Origin of Empty Nest Families  28  Table VII:  Age of Empty Nest Husbands  30  Table VIII:  Mean Income of Empty Nest Husband by Age  31  Table IX:  Dwelling Type Occupied by Empty Nest Couples  34  Table X:  Number of Rooms by Household Type  40  Table XI:  Number of Rooms by Age of Empty Nester  41  Table XII:  Dwelling Type of Empty Nest Couples  42  Table XIII:  Grade Access Empty Nest Housing  by  Number of Rooms  51  Table XIV:  Empty Nesters and Under-housed Families  52  Table XV:  Comparison of Size of Family and Number of Rooms in Dwelling Family Housing Requirements by Housing  54  Occupied by Families  54  Value of Dwellings by Occupancy  57  Table XVIII: Actual Occupancy of Empty Nest Grade Access Housing and Maximum Family Occupancy at n + 2  59  Table XVI: Table XVII:  vn  LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e 1: S u m m a r y o f L i f e c y c l e s  vii  i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Many thanks to Dr. Henry Hightower and Dr. David Hulchanski for their assistance and thoughts during the preparation of this thesis. A special place in my heart is reserved for Debra, Alexis and Aaron for their support and patience.  CHAPTER  I  INTRODUCTION  Purpose The purpose of this thesis is to describe  the housing consumption  empty nest households, and to determine the number of empty nest  of  households  in metropolitan Vancouver, who occupy single family detached dwellings.  The  findings will be used to assess ways in which empty nesters impact on housing needs,  supply. desires  Suggestions and  will be made  motivations  which  regarding empty nester  cause  them  to  occupy  housing type  of  housing which they do, and which must be considered if any public policy  or  market strategy is to be successfully oriented towards this Key  the  family  group.  Terms For  the  purposes  of  this  requires that the following terms  study,  data  limitations  and  study  focus  mean:  E m p t y N e s t F a m i l y - a m a r r i e d c o u p l e w h o s e c h i l d r e n h a v eg r o w n - u p a n d home, and wife is aged 40 years couple present, present.  may  include  a) maintenance  or b) residence  or more. of  in a dwelling  The living arrangements  a household with  with  no  of  the  other  persons  one or more non-family  persons  2  E m p t y N e s tC o u p l e - a m a r r i e d c o u p l e w h o s e c h i l d r e n h a v eg r o w n - u p a n home,  and  present  the wife  is aged  in the household.  40 years  or more,  and  This is a sub-category  no other  persons  of empty nest  family.  are  S i n g l e F e m a l e E m p t y N e s t e r - t h i si s a f e m a l e m a i n t a i n i n g h e r o w n h o u with no other persons present, age 40 years or more, who has had  children  which are no longer living at home.  occurred  before  or  after  departure  Absence  of  children  married, separated, divorced or  widowed.  of spouse may have  and marital  status  may  be  never  S i n g l e M a l e E m p t y N e s t e r - t h i si s a m a l em a i n t a i n i n g h i s o w n h o u s e h o l d w no other persons present, age 45 years or older, who has ever been Current marital status may include separated, divorced or  married.  widowed.  F a m i l y H o u s i n g - m e a n s s i n g l e d e t a c h e d a n d m o b i l e h o m e , g r housing,  containing  at least two bedrooms.  Data  limitations  meant  oriented duplexes and townhouses were excluded, even though these forms are family  grade housing  oriented.  Scope The study regards  to  statistics  is limited  the  and a review  of empty nesters. Metropolitan  impacts  Area  to a brief of  empty  of literature  introduction nester  households.  are used to provide  A detailed  statistical  analysis  is conducted  to develop  a profile  empty nest households on family  to housing  housing.  problems  National  housing  a general  overview  of the Vancouver of the local  with  Census  impact  of  3  This empty  study  nesters  to  is not move,  intended rather,  to develop  public  it attempts  to  policy  answer  to  encourage  some  fundamental  questions about the impact of empty nesters on the family housing supply urban areas.  In particular,  how many empty nest households are there,  what type of housing do they occupy? pre-policy  in and  Further, this study identifies  some  issues which must be addressed by those interested in empty  nest  housing. Problem Recent trends in demographic and housing data suggests that any shortage  in Canada  is being  compounded  by a mismatch  households and of dwelling units (Blumenfeld,  1984).  speculation  suggests  number  in the  of  empty  dwellings,  housing nest  freezing  literature  households  are  a substantial  stock (Johnson and Schanbacher,  which  occupying  portion 1983).  of the  between  the size  There is that  single  housing  wide-spread  a  significant  family  existing  detached  family  housing  It has been assumed by many  housing  life-cycle authors that parents require less housing after the children grown and left home (Rossi 1955, MacLeod and Ellis 1982). the assumption physical  that those  housing  unnecessarily children.  consuming  A number  This has lead  after  housing  of authors  the  which  children is  well  have suggested  have  left  suited  to  families  that a substantial  which  be with  portion  of  contributing  problems.  First, empty nesters may cause under-utilization of the family stock  to  their  home, may  the existing family housing stock is occupied by empty nesters, to three major  have  couples who do not adjust the amount of  consumption  of  results  in  inefficient  use  of  publicly  funded  housing ancillary  4  residential parks,  facilities  etc.  This  and  infrastructure,  argument  is  very  associated with deconversion and  such  similar  as  to  schools,  some  of  utilities,  the  problems  gentrification.  Secondly, competition from empty nesters reduces the amount of housing  available  to young  families  at  prices  most  of them  family  can  afford,  forcing many of these young families to accept less suitable housing or locations.  Empty nesters are thought to be concentrated  in the  suburbs, and therefore occupy the most desirable family housing Silver  (1981)  indicates  strong  preference  they were raised. being  'squeezed'  that the current  for suburban  family  communities,  formation  similar  post-WWII locations.  generation  to the type  has  in  out to the fringe  suburbs  as an increasing  and elderly  people  (age 55 and over)  are  share of Silver  the states  have low rates  of  residential mobility, and that growth in the elderly population tightens supply of housing suitable for young families.  Consequently, young  such as inner-city multi-family  high density housing or exurban low  living,  separation  a geographical  households (typically the Finally, for  duplication  suburbanization  externalities to  of community facilities,  transportation  families  density  and  facilities,  and  accommodate  are created young  families,  increased commuting  destruction  by the  neighbourhood  other  of valuable  times,  pressure such  studies  (Gutowski  and  Field  as,  expensive  agricultural  (Gober, 1981). The aging in place of empty nesters has been alluded previous  type,  elderly).  a number of negative  additional  between young  the  families  may increasingly be limited to extreme choices of location and housing creating  a  which  However, Myers (1978) speculates that young families  post-war housing stock is becoming frozen by empty nesters. that middle-aged  types  1979)  and  land to  by  presumably  5  results  in new  family  construction  in the  fringe  suburban housing becomes scarce and expensive. in the exurbs, and demands for duplication soft and hard services increases, pressure increase  densities  or redevelop  facilities and slow exurban  area  suburbs  as  As young families  of under-utilized  inner  establish  inner  suburb  is placed on existing suburbs  as a method  to make better  use of  existing  growth.  Some argue that it may be more efficient from society's viewpoint encourage empty nesters to downsize, i.e. to trade their larger family for  smaller  units,  dwelling.  it  apartment,  townhouse,  or  a  smaller  In this way, the demand for new construction  dwellings spatial  be  in new fringe subdivisions integration of different  would be eased,  more  can be assessed  information  consumption and  regarding  or even suggested, the  numbers  of  family  and existing  nesters,  more public  However,  there is a distinct empty  homes  there would be  types of households,  to  detached  of larger  infrastructure and services could be more efficiently used. such polices  to  before need  for  their  housing  occupying  family  motivations.  Goal The housing  above are  three  identified  assumed in the  effects  of  literature  empty  nesters  as problems.  To date  however,  these remain hypothetical effects based upon untested assumptions that are significant  numbers of family housing units occupied by empty  The goal of this thesis is to examine these assumed  problems by  there  nesters. assessing:  a) to what extent empty nesters are occupying family housing, b) explore  the  impacts  to  determine  which  empty  nesters  have  on  family  housing,  and  c)  the extent to which it is feasible to view empty nest  attempt  residences  6  as a potential of empty  source of family housing by reviewing  the housing  motivations  nesters.  Method of  Research  The method of research  for this study consisted  of two phases.  First  literature  search regarding empty nesters and housing was conducted.  resultant  information  was  compiled  and  reviewed  in  order  to  consumption.  Wherever  recorded  and  conducted  at the national  reviewed.  possible,  A cursory  review  The  develop  general overview of the perceived housing problems related to empty housing  a  nester  statistical  support  data  was  of  Canada  Census  was  the  1981  level in order to determine  the potential  impact  of the empty nest demographic groups and intuitively judge the relevance perceptions provided  offered  the  determine  by previous authors.  necessary  the direction  second phase of this The  second  metropolitan  This first stage of study  information  to  formulate  for further  research  a problem  phase  consisted  of  B.C.  Census  to be undertaken  a detailed  and  during  statistical  analysis  the local impact of empty  Metropolitan  detailed  study for a number of reasons.  need  optimize  the  existing  housing  Area  (CM.A.)  A laudable stock  in  the  land in the path of growth;  a strong central  the desire for residential  a  nesters.  base. for  case can be made for  the  core employment  centrality;  of  chosen  this  was area  constraints imposed by limited land supplies due to topography; accentuated  also  statement  The 1981 Census Canada Public Use Sample Tapes provided the data  to  of  study.  area in order to demonstrate  Vancouver,  a  because  of  agricultural base which  increasingly  has  congested  7  transportation  facilities; under-utilized  family housing  costs.  For example,  in 1984  the  City  increase the housing unit density  utility infrastructure; and  of  Vancouver  was  reviewing  high  plans  in the central core of the city to  better use of the existing land base.  make  The Coreplan researched areas of  city which were not being used to maximum capacity in terms of housing capacity.  This  study  provides  a complementary  units which are not being used to their maximum  role by identifying  to the unit  housing  capacity.  Rationale There timely.  are a number First,  of reasons  in view  why this study  of the numerable  is both  comments  significant  regarding  the  and housing  choice of empty nesters in both housing trade and academic literature,  one  would  the  expect  contrary,  to find a significant  with  the exception  little  empirical  nesters  have been identified  of condominiums  amount  of Miron  study of empty  of work  on this group.  and Schiff  nesters  and  (1982), there has  housing.  (though not distinctly) Planners  in a number of aging  1982), housing and  (MacLeod and Ellis, 1983), and making better use of the existing stock (Hulchanski 1982, and Johnson and Schanbacher 1983). these studies They  generally  answer. family  have not been designed raise  more  questions  to specifically about  empty  study empty  nesters  what  prevents  them from downsizing?  empty studies  (Gutowski life-cycle housing  However, most than  For example, if significant numbers of empty nesters are housing,  been  Indirectly,  (Hitchcock and Lewis, 1981), neighbourhood  and Field 1979, Vischer Skaburskis  On  If it is  of  nesters. they  can  occupying determined  that it would be better for others in society if empty nesters made way  for  8  young families, what problems are then imposed upon empty nesters by them move?  Alternatively, little is known about why empty nesters  to occupy family housing in existing suburbs meet the needs of households  suburban areas.  empty nesters is  continue  Also, do these  older  who are now in a later life cycle  stage  and do not conform to the conventional these suburbs were planned?  having  nuclear family structure  for  which  Hence further detailed work directed  towards  warranted.  Second, there is concern in the housing literature regarding the of family  housing.  households  and  housing Myers  related  'crunch' 1978,  generation  A number of authors housing  in terms  Silver  1960's to mid 1980's  demand  have  The  (Miron 1979).  age of the post-war 'baby boom  of demand  Silver  events of this century, comparable  rural  urban  suburbanization  migration  the  post-war  for  housing  (1981) describes  coming  family  (Miron  1983,  'baby  boom  from  the  of  the  19th  century,  with  the  of major great  post-war fertility  Silver anticipates that  impact of the baby boom on family  1  mid  the coming  phenomenon, and with the large secular declines in  until the mid 1990's.  family  in its impact with the  and mortality which have occurred since 1900. quantitative  a  of  generation as one of the three or four  1  demographic to  to  and availability  maturing  an unprecedented  the formation  alluded  of affordabi1ity  1981).  has created  researching  supply  housing, demand will  the last  About 2.3 million Canadians will reach age 30 in  the  five year period 1986 to 1991, compared to 1.2 million in both 1961-66  and  1966-71  and  some  1.6  million  in  1971-76  (Silver).  Thus  the  relative  stability of current occupants of family housing (many of whom may be nesters) compounds 'baby  boom  1  the shortage of housing for families.  generation  responsible  for  a  rapid  rise  empty  Not only is in  family  the  housing  9  demand,  but the general  expected While  population  growth of the country  to result in unprecedented  families  approximately  are expected  absolute  increases in family  in Canada,  and this  million in 2001 (Perreault and George, 1982 p. Thirdly, to  there  encourage  is a growing  residential  residential  neighbourhoods,  and Housing  Corporation  trend  land  use  1984).  through infill development, to  increase  the  neighbourhoods demand  for  community  facilities  base.  The  of  in  the  existing  (Central  Mortgage  Planning Department  of  residential  intensification  dwelling  units  areas.  where  the  Presumably, facilities,  infrastructure,  to affordable  in  this will better  residential help  utilize  increase  be  a  significant  is  existing of  housing and make more intense use of  the  or existing  the  reduce  supply  topographic  help  older  spatial  The incidence of empty nesters in family housing in the existing may  1983, Building  extent  further spatial growth undesirable, the above issues are important areas  areas  1983, Burnaby Planning and goal  8.3  metropolitan  in inner suburbs  transportation and  In areas  to grow to  conversions and in some cases redevelopment,  of metropolitan  housing, contribute land  number  expensive  Canadian  1982, City of Vancouver  Department  6.25  X).  intensification  especially  between  In 1981 there were  is expected  in many  Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs Inspection  households,  1.8 to 2.1 million additional families will be formed  family households  is  formation.  to grow at a lower rate than total  1976 and 1991 (Statistics Canada, 1981a pp. 13-14). million  in the future  factor  to  be  addressed  by  makes  factors. residential  intensification  policies. While empty nesters may not be occupy  relatively  large  dwelling  the only group in urban areas which units  per capita,  there  are a number  may of  10  reasons  why they deserve  speculation  has  been  policies  suggested,  example,  it has been  study. made  yet  First,  and  many  little  they are a group unsubstantiated  empirical  suggested  work  in the popular  upon which  trends  and  future  has  been  conducted.  press  that  there  For  will  large future market among empty nesters during the period 1981-2001 1983b).  much  be (Miron,  While some will be affluent, and it is suggested will 'upscale'  'downsized' condominium units, it has been documented by many studies older couples are notoriously new housing.  Secondly,  to be a large enough  impact on the family housing market. Vancouver,  empty  nester  couples  an  For example, this study found that  in  consisting  of  husband-wife  families with children no longer at home, wherein the husband is aged represent  11  percent  of  all  to  to have  (households  group  to that  immobile and are unlikely to want to move  they appear  a  households  and  19  percent  of  all  45+) family  households. Third,  empty  nest households  family size and entered  have undergone  a new life cycle stage.  a significant  reduction  Both factors would  in  suggest  that some type of housing re-evaluation and possibly adjustment, may  occur.  There has been some suggestion that empty nesters may not be the over-consumers of housing, that infact, childless couples may occupy housing as well. is thought subject would  However, this group was not considered  they have occupied  to significant trigger  husband-wife  a desire  their housing  life events to evaluate  by choice,  such as children housing  adjustments.  only family  in the study as and have not leaving  home,  Further,  it been  which childless  couples, wherein the wife is aged 45 or more, account for  only  2.5 percent of the total households used in the sample for this study.  This  would  this  indicate  that their potential  impact  is not as significant  at  11  time.  Popular perception would suggest that there are now greater  numbers  of younger  couples who have decided to not have children and they may  contribute  to  childless  decreases  couples,  in the  between  ages  supply  of  family  housing.  35 to 54, for example  Husband-wife a category  in  which 'never nesters' are likely to emerge. However, this group accounts  for  only 0.9 percent of total households is not considered  significant  are  also  in the Vancouver  to warrant  inclusion  sample.  Again,  in the study.  Another  group, those couples aged below 35, also contain couples who have not  to  have  children.  However,  as  this  is a  this  relatively  high  decided fertility  group, whose opinions may change, it is difficult to speculate on how will actually enter the non-fertile period without having born Organization and Sequence of empty  children.  Presentation  Chapter  I provides  nest  households  within  Chapter  II provides  efficiency.  many  a brief  introduction the context  to the perceived of housing  a demographic  influence  shortages  profile  of empty  of  and  urban  nesters  be used primarily as background information for subsequent analysis in chapters. empty  This Chapter  nesters  Vancouver CMA Chapter empty nesters comparisons accommodation under-housed.  and  also provides  their  housing  a much needed  characteristics  demographic using  both  to later  summary  of  national  and  consumption  of  information. III includes  a detailed  analysis  in terms of suitability are  made and  between  families  for families with children.  empty with  of the housing  nesters  children  who who  occupy are  Direct  family  perceived  type to  be  12  Chapter  IV examines  the motivations  of empty nesters and attempts  explain why they occupy the type of housing which they do. the stated  purpose  characteristics  and goals,  Chapter  of empty nest households,  II describes  In parallel  the housing  Chapter III describes the  impact  discusses  the factors which cause empty nesters to occupy the housing which they the relevance perceived  Chapter  V provides  of the finding,  opinions.  a summary  of the entire  based upon empirical  study and  knowledge  with  occupancy  which empty nesters have relative to family housing and Chapter IV Finally,  to  do.  discusses  rather  than  13  CHAPTER  II  DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE AND HOUSING OF EMPTY The first research  objective  CONSUMPTION  NESTERS  of this study is to develop  a  demographic  profile of empty nesters and describe their housing consumption. was  approached  in  two  phases.  conducted  a  of  Then an analysis of the 1981 Statistics Canada Public Use CMA.  In terms difficult  of  one  existence,  to detail  the extent  a literature  review,  to observe,  but  because  not  from  statistics  and  nest  empty  nester  standpoint housing  research which  focuses  on  group  of  Sample in  recognizing  families  populations, no children  subpopulation  and may include  family  at home is considered  often  do  or the  Historical Perspective of Empty Wargon and  (1979,  demographic  between  p. 100-103) trends  1941 and 1971.  the disappearance  Empty  households  couple  (i.e. a married  elderly with  Census).  Nesters presents  in Canada, During  not  elderly,  and  in 1981  a  generations.  which spans both middle-age a family  the  their  appears to generally be the best source of empty nester information. nesters are a distinct  and  is often  or elderly  life cycles,  data  households  literature  separate them from the overall adult, middle-aged Housing  available  of empty the  the  of  task  published  analysis. Vancouver  the extent  available  was  employed  determine  review  literature tape was  to  First  This  a detailed  including  a  analysis  study  of  of  population  Census  families  this period there was a marked trend  of very large families  (that is, of women who had  towards borne  14  six or more families  children),  and a striking  declines  in the  convergence  relative  on the two child family.  1971, Canadians were marrying more and at younger Concurrent  with  these  changes,  importance  there  was  also  of  childless  During 1941  ages than ever  a shift  in the  before.  timing  spacing of birth so that children were born soon after the marriage of parents and spaced within Along with  the declining  shorter trend  intervals of one another  in the age at marriage,  this  than  the age of mortality  older couples  also  increased,  and there  to live apart from their unmarried  was  children.  of empty  nester  households.  Table  I presents  a historical  relative numbers of empty nest households in the Canadian  their  resulted  in  All of summary  population  a  fathers.  a trend  factors described by Wargon would be expected to lead to increased  and  earlier.  marked lowering of the age of child bearing for both mothers and Further,  to  for these  incidence of  the  15  TABLE I:  Canada, Husband-Wife Families, No Children at Husband 45 Years or Older (empty nesters)* Empty Nest Husband-Wife Families  Total Families  Year 1951 1961 1971 1981  3,287,384 4,147,444 4,933,450 6,231,490  6 7 9 1,2  2 9 9 4  6 4 2 8  , , , ,  Home,  Empty Nest as Empty Nest as % T o t a l % T Famil ies Population  058 431 645 640  19.04 19.15 20.12 20.03  o  t  a  l  8.94 8.71 9.20 10.26  * N O T E : E m p t y n e s t e r f a m i l y i s n o t a c a t e g o r y i n C e n s u s C a n a d a d a t a . T provide consistency from 1951-1981, the data provided in Tables I to III use a category described as Husband-wife families, no children present, husband aged 45 or more. This category also includes husband, wife, couples who have never had children and therefore are 'never nesters' rather than empty nesters. In 1981 a new category was introduced which excluded the latter group. This data is used in Table IV. Source: 1951 Volume 11 Par 61 and 93-703 92-935 Table  Census of Canada, Volume X Table 86; 1961 Census of Canada, t I, Table 73; 1971 Census of Canada, Catalogue 93-720 Table Table 7; 1981 Census of Canada, Catalogue 92-904 Table 1 and 12.  It can be seen that there was empty  nest  category and  as  between  1951  1981.  nesters  have increased  compared As  a  an increase  to  total  proportion  by over 1 percent  in the proportion  families of  the  of  almost  total  in the same 30 year  to empty nest households,  husband-wife  have  may  never  borne  percent empty  period.  This  as it  children.  the  includes In  1981,  husband-wife couples who were childless wherein the wife was aged 45  years  or more, proportionately  who  1  population,  data is not confined exclusively families  of  represented 16% of the empty nest category and  3.2%  o f t o t a l f a m i l i e s , u s e di n T a b l e s I - I I I . B e c a u s e o f d a t aa g g r e g a t i o n this time it is difficult to determine if empty nesters or older  childless  couples  relative  increase  are  responsible  of the empty  for nester  changes category  between  years.  compared  While  to other  the  families  or  the  16  total population  has not been substantial,  the absolute  increase  has  been  great. TABLE II:  Families with no Children Under Age 25 At Home, as a Percentage of all Families by Age Cohort Age of Family  Year 1951 1961 1971 1981 Source: 1951 Census of Canada, Volume 11 Part I, Table 73; 19 61 and 93-703 Table 7.  45-54  55-64  65+  21.9 19.0 17.3  49.5 51.7 49.5  76.4 86.6 87.0  V lo  °/ h  -  -  potential  empty  steadily  declined  Examination nest  category  of Table  families  _  in the age  of  II indicates that the proportion  of  in younger  cohort  groups  (i.e. 45-54)  be in the older cohort group (65+) where the proportion of empty nesters  has  been  to  The  cause  of  this  Meanwhile,  has to  growing.  of all families.  has occurred  it appears  steadily  as a proportion  °i h  Volume X Table 86; 1961 Census of Canada, 71 Census of Canada, Catalogue 93-720 Table  A change in empty nester households the family head.  Head  trend  demographic and social trends discussed earlier (Wargon,  may  be  1979).  related  17  TABLE  III: D e m o g r a p h i c C h a n g e s , 1 9 5 1 - 1 9 8 1 Percent Change  Year 1951-1961 1961-1971 1971-1981  Population +30 +18 +13  Source: 1951 Volume 11 Par 61 and 93-703 92-935 Table Table to 1981. while  Households +34 +33 +37  Famil +2 +1 +2  Empty Nest Families  ies 6 9 6  +21 +25 +26  Census of Canada, Volume X Table 86; 1961 Census of Canada, t I, Table 73; 1971 Census of Canada, Catalogue 93-720 Table Table 7; 1981 Census of Canada, Catalogue 92-904 Table 1 and 12.  III presents  a summary  of population  change  in Canada  The data indicates that the rate of population  the  rate  of  household  formation  is  from  growth is  increasing.  There  1951 slowing  has  fluctuations  in the rate of change in total number of families, however,  demographic  category  increasing since Table population.  IV  in which  empty  nesters  are  found has been  been the  steadily  1951. identifies  the  In 1981 a new Census  significant category  size was  of  the  introduced  husband-wife couples with children no longer at home.  empty which  nester identified  This category is  r e f i n e d t h a n t h e d a t a u s e d i n T a b l e s I—1 1 1 w h i c h o n l y husband-wife families, no children present, husband age 45+.  more  i d e n t i f i e s  18  T A B L E I V : C a n a d i a n D e m o g r a p h i c C h a HusbandChildren Present Total  Population  r a c t e r i s t i c s - 1 9 wife couples, no longer as a Percentage  24,343,180  9  Total Households  8,281,530  13  Total Families  6,231,490  18  Husband-Wife Families children no longer present Husband-W w i t hJ present husband Husband-W with c present husband  1,090,830  ife Families T O c h i l d r e n , wherein aged 45+ ife Families hildren wherein aged 45+  1,248,640  1,332,900  Husband-Wife Families childless wherein wife aged 45+ 203,115 SOURCE: 1981 Census of Canada, Catalogue and 95-942 Table 1.  92-904 Table 1, 92-935 Table  Analysis of this data indicates that in 1981 empty nesters 9  percent  of  the  total  population  and  accounted  for  13  represented  percent  households and 18 percent of all family households.  Thus, in both  numbers  may  be  a  indicates  a  large  demographic  and  relative group  in  proportions, Canada.  Table  empty IV  nesters also  potential empty nesters, as another 1.3 million households are  12  of  all  absolute significant pool  of  husband-wife  families wherein the husband is aged 45 or more and the children are  still  19  at  home.  However,  for  the  purposes  of  consumption characteristics which are of Housing  this  study,  it  is  the  housing  importance.  Characteristics  Priest national  (1983)  examined  perspective  on empty  the  1981  Canada  Census  nest families.  and  provides  Priest found  a  brief  that in  1971,  27.1% of Canadian families had no children in contrast to 31.8% in 1981. attributes this increase to two groups:  He  families in which the wife was  aged  45 years and over whose children had matured and left home, and families which the wife was aged less than 35 but had remained childless. also found that 80 percent of husband-wife  to maintain  this shows a certain  ownership  and speculates  Priest  families with children at  owned their own homes, while 76 percent of empty nesters were Priest suggests  in  homeowners.  inertia on the part of older they may  tend  home  homeowners  to stay on  in  their  family homes, consuming more housing than they really require, or they simply find that maintaining against  their investment  may  in their home is a good  hedge  inflation.  Priest approximately dwellings.  also  found  that 72.4 percent  of families with  children,  and  68 percent of empty nesters, live in single family  detached  Thus there appears to be little change in dwelling type  between  families with children and those whose children have left home. In terms crude  of the average  of persons  per room,  often  as  a with  children present, have an average of 0.6 persons per room while empty  nest  and families  0.4 persons per room.  Priest found that husband-wife  used  families  families  indicator of crowding,  number  who have never had children This calculation excludes  have a similar average bathrooms.  of  20  In 1981, homeowners were asked to report their income and on shelter in the Canada Census. proportion  While experts may disagree on exactly  of income spent on shelter  is general  agreement  stressful.  Priest  families.  While  that found  empty  puts a family  expenditures striking  nest  expenditure  in excess  differences  families  at economic  had  of  between  a relatively  35  what  risk,  there  percent various  can  be  types  of  low average  income  ($23,486) only 6.5 percent of those owning homes spent 35 percent or more their  income  in  shelter.  Childless  families  on  the  other  hand  relatively high incomes ($30,738) but 9.6 percent of them spent 35 or more of their income on shelter. have  the  highest  monthly  payments  while  couples  have  the  lowest  monthly  payments  in  contrast  to owners,  homeowning  actual  childless empty  dollar  interesting view of the empty nest population. a strong  propensity  for  Thus Priest provides  homeownership  and  equally,  housing  than  demographic  populations.  empty  nest  description and  Schiff  households  concluded  portrayed  in  the  renters.  empty  Aside  strong  Empty nesters generally  from  have housing  nest owners  pay less  Priest,  only  the  of empty nesters found in the literature  that by Miron and Schiff Miron  Further,  an that  a  less persons per room than families with children and spend less on family  35  families  His analysis indicates  tendency to occupy single detached dwellings. than other  In  16.1 percent of empty nest renters paid more than  renting paid more than 35 percent towards shelter. remains  nest  terms.  percent of their income towards shelter, while 19.8 percent of all  there  had percent  Priest found that homeowning  couples  of  review  for other is  (1982). (1982)  in a national  that much building  study  of the popular  trade  magazines,  of Canadian  empty  image of empty for  example,  is  nesters  nest as  inaccurate  21  because  it  proportion  is to  simplistic.  of empty  Miron  nest households  and move  Schiff  found  in a typical  that  only  year.  a  small  Surprisingly,  among those moving, more than 30% relocate to units which are larger their previous  unit  (up-sizing).  Thus  the popular  perception  than  of  parents  moving to smaller quarters after the children leave home is not true for all empty  nesters. Miron and Schiff only studied empty nesters who were between the  ages  of 45 and 64, on the premise that empty nesters are most likely to be  active  in the housing market while they are still fully employed  and at or  peak career earnings.  of 1971  Canada  Census information and 1974 Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation  Survey  of  Housing  Units.  Schiff  as  families, children no longer at home wherein husband is age  45  Miron and Schiff found that 84 percent of empty nest families live  by  husband-wife to  The data for their study consisted (Empty  nesters  are  defined  by  Miron  and  near  64.)  themselves. person  Another 14 percent maintained their own dwelling with  present,  household.  and  the  remaining  2 percent  did  not  maintain  their  It might be speculated that older empty nesters might choose  move in with relatives or take lodgers because of health or income However,  another  there  is little evidence,  above  information  concludes  the study, that this  own to  concerns. is  the  case. The families. local  provides  a national  perspective  of  empty-nest  The next step in this study is to examine empty nesters at  level.  the  22  Empty Nesters in  Vancouver  The 1981 Canada Census was used to determine the number of empty families Census  in the Vancouver Canada  percent  Public  area.  Use Sample  sample of Canadian  Specificly, computer  what was  tape.  households  used was  The Public  enumerated  nest  the  Use Sample  1981 is a 1  in the 1981 census.  The  tape allows access to over 150 variables which the user can manipulate construct  tables and identify demographic  limitations.  Geographic  detail  is  groups as desired, with  limited  to  provinces  Metropolitan Areas (CMA) with populations greater than  to  certain  and  Census  250,000.  The census data does not provide an explicit category for empty households.  However, through specific selection of various variables  categories nesters  within  Census  can be achieved.  variables,  a  fairly  In this study,  first  husband-wife  selection  empty  technique  nest families.  accurate  three  used to identify the total number of empty The  nest  account  selection  and  of  empty  techniques  were  nesters. involved  (Note:  the  The Census  identification defines  of  a family  as  husband-wife couple, regardless of whether children are present or ever been  present).  This  was  achieved  by  selection  sample, those husband-wife  families  in which  from  which  children  empty  nest  are wards  manner  and may  of the state return),  have  Vancouver  CMA  it was recorded "children  longer at home" and the wife is aged 40 years or more. minor flaws with this selection technique,  the  as it may  There are  and there  is the  possibility  to bear or does bear another  child.  in  usual that  child who has previously left may return home, or the remote chance that wife intends  no  several  include families  (i.e. did not leave home in  a  a the  23  The  second  selection  technique  person empty nest females.  involved  the  identification  of  For the purposes of this study, it was  decided  to classify females living alone, over age 40, who had ever born as a category  within  widowed,  separated,  household  without  the empty  nest study group.  divorced  and  children,  This category  represents  married  females  who  maintain  present.  There  is some  room  for  inaccuracy in this selection technique as it includes females who may  have  the child  never  one  (children)  left the nest before the children did (i.e. departed or divorced). children  are still  empty nester. either  still  living  with  the  husband,  then  the wife  Further, there remains the possibility bear  children  or  remarry  to  become  If  is not a in  the true  that the female  the mother  a  may  another  family. Also, the limitations cited for the first selection technique  also  apply. The final selection empty nest households.  technique was meant  to identify one person  male  The intent was to estimate the number of empty  nest  households in which the female spouse was no longer present. technique limitations  This  selection  is subject to error more than the previous two techniques. of the Census data reduced the selection criteria to male  person households, aged 45 or older who had ever been married.  The one  Thus  there  include  those  males, while although once married, may not have fathered children, or  males  who left the nest prior to the children leaving.  males  is possibility  for error  as this  selection  technique  will  Further, it includes  who may in the future marry again and become the father to existing in another family or even father This is an exploratory  children  children.  study, and time and resource constraints  some limitations, nevertheless it is felt that the first selection  impose technique  24  for husband-wife  empty  nest households  base for a reasonable selections person  will  empty  demographic  be useful  only  nest household  their potential  provides  a more  than  adequate  and housing  profile.  The final  in generating  limited  descriptions  characteristics  and broadly  data  two  data  of  one  speculating  upon  impact.  The above  selection techniques  used by other authors.  deviate  from the empty nest  criteria  Generally, previous studies have defined the  empty  nest period from the time in which children have left home until age 65 the household retired as  head.  person,  such,  has  Beyond  age 65, the empty  senior citizen, entered  a  new  or a member family  life  nester  is often considered  of the elderly stage  of  (Mcleod  population, and  Others have suggested that reduced income at retirement  Ellis  a and  1982).  seriously  affects  the ability of empty nesters to participate in the housing market (Miron  and  Schiff,  1982),  age  65.  However,  for the  to include  all  husband-wife  thus  purposes  of whether  stage may  not occur and  further  of this  study,  that  aged 65 or more. in some families  housing  consumption  though retirement age has been In  no  empty nest households wherein  regardless female,  warrants  addition  to  the  it was  decided  after  the wife was aged 40 or  over,  It was felt that the empty  nest  till after age 65 of the male may  be  subject  to alteration  deviations  from  previous  definitions,  empty nesters who were maintaining  in which the other spouse was not present.  It was felt that such  a  even an  household household  arrangements warranted study in view of the purposes of this study, which to examine the housing consumption of parents after the children have home.  or  reached.  above  attempt was made to identify  consideration  is left  25  The 1981 Public Use Sample tape has records for 5,517 households the Vancouver CMA. families.  Within the total households, there are records for  Husband-wife  empty nest families,  according  to the  all  families  in  the  Vancouver  CMA  sample.  Of  these  percent  families,  maintain their own household with no other persons present and are considered as empty nest  3,294  definitions  used for this study, account for 623 families, which represents 18.9 of  from  552  therefore  couples.  Records were also retrieved for empty nest households in which one the spouses was no longer present.  From the sample, 333 one person  of  female  and 108 one person male empty nest households were  identified.  Thus  the  total number of one and two person empty households  in the Vancouver  CMA  sample equals 993 or 18 percent of all CMA Empty  nest  significant potential  households  according  households.  to the above  proportions  represent  proportion of total households and families and therefore to  significantly  impact  the  Vancouver  housing  of empty nesters in  have  market.  following section describes the living arrangements and housing  The  consumption  Vancouver.  Living Arrangements of Empty  Nesters  There are 623 husband-wife empty nest families recorded on the Use  Sample  (89%)  maintain their own household with no other persons present, while 71  (11%)  a dwelling  to Miron  and  national  level.  for  the  Vancouver  unit in which  Schiff s findings  CMA.  other persons using  the  Of  these  families,  Public  552  occupy  tape  a  are present. 1971  Public  This is Use  similar  Sample  at  the  It was found that 29 percent of all other families  in  the  Vancouver CMA sample have other persons present in the dwelling unit.  Thus  26  empty  nest  families  appear  to  have  a  greater  propensity  independently than other families in the CMA sample. families  in the Vancouver  households well  with  as two  children  parent  sample  from  this  present, which  families.  However,  families wherein no children are  to  live  The reference to  other  paragraph  hereonin  refers  to as  includes  lone parent  families  it does  not  husband-wife  include  present.  Of the empty, nesters who  do not live  independently,  43 percent  living in the same dwelling unit as another family and 57 percent are with non-family persons in the same unit. without  children.  The definition  living  These other families may  parents, married children and other related or unrelated for a non-family  are  include  couples, with  person  is  wide-ranging  and includes such possibilities as, boarders, parents, and children over 25.  From  the data  husband-wife  it would  appear  that  virtually  all  (98 %) of  In general, independently  age those  empty nesters living with non-family persons are living  only one non-family person  or  with  present.  it would  appear  have higher  that those empty  nest couples who live with  other  living empty  nest  couples have annual incomes less than $15,000, almost 30 percent of  empty  nesters  than  persons and families. living with  incomes than empty nesters who  live  While 17 percent of independently other persons  present  have annual  incomes  less  $15,000. To further live  investigate  independently,  statistical  analysis  indicated  that  presence  of  persons.  other  the relationship  there  tests may  be  However,  were a the  of income and performed  relationship Chi-square  on  propensity  to  data.  The  income  and  Kendall's  Tau  the  between and  produced while adequately significant, are uninterestingly small.  However,  27  the analysis  did discover  a stronger  relationship  when  empty nest couples who have other persons present.  viewing  only  The analysis  those  indicates  that among those who share, the lower income couples tend to live with or more other persons than just one other person.  Chi-square is  significant  at the 0.0810 level and Kendall's Tau is significant at the 0.0014 The definition who  may  have  associated  level.  of empty nest couples, for this study, includes  a spouse  over  with declining  the age  of 65.  As advancing  health, one might  two  years  those  is  often  speculate that many of  those  empty nest couples who are reaching advanced years exhibit declining  health.  This in turn may lead them to live in situations with other persons  present.  This  type  of living  situation  may  offer  actual  health  care,  or  reduced  responsibility for domestic duties.  Further, the older the couple, the  likely  more,  that  children  in  interesting a sharp  children the  aged  tests  were  significant  association  performed between  of empty  left  no  longer  nesters  on the data the  propensity to live with other persons.  age  of  home.  considered be  Statistical  have  are  to note in Table V, that only at age 80 does there appear to number  will  which  is  in the  data,  or  it  decrease  Census  25  more  who  However, live  to determine husband  or  No significance was  independently. if there wife found.  and  is  a the  28  TABLE A 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85  g +  e 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8  V: E m p t y N e s t F a m i l i e s - L i v i n g A r r a by Age of Wife % L i v i n g % L i v i n g W i t h A Independently Person or Family 80 20 88 12 93 7 86 14 89 11 88 12 92 8 90 10 62 38 67 33  4 9 4 9 4 9 4 9 4 A  review  of  level  of  schooling, number  of  children ever  n g e m e n t s T o nt a l o t h e r Cases 20 41 84 129 127 91 73 39 13 6 born  and  religion indicated no significant differences between the two groups would  account  for  why  However, there appears as  shown in Table  TABLE  nesters choose  to be a possible  % L i v i Independently 91 100 58 81 95 77 100 83 72 84  Origin h e n navian ian  There those  not  difference  to  live independently.  related  to ethnic  origin  VI.  VI: Ethnic Origin of Empty Nest  Ethnic Britis French Chines Dutch German Itaiia Polish Scanda Ukrain Other  among  empty  which  Families n  g % L i v i n Others Present 9 0 42 19 5 23 0 17 28 16  appears  to be  less  French,  British  empty  nesters  who  live with  other  and German persons.  g T wo t a il Cases 380 20 24 16 42 13 7 30 18 73  t  h  representation And,  there  considerably larger proportion of Chinese empty nest families who choose  is  a to  29  live with  other persons.  These variations  Vancouver has concentrations is possible  Also, concentrations  towards  significance  as  in the inner suburbs.  It  empty  nesters may wish  in ethnic origins, as this may affect  being well  implementation.  used by empty nesters  The Oneway Analysis  of Variance  living with  other  indicates that the Chinese  from those of French, German  in which  no other  persons  focus of this study. nest households  Age of Empty The aged  50  made.  was conducted  of husband-wife  are present.  These  empty nest  couples  are the  primary  households  There are 552 cases of two person husband-wife in the  empty  16% of all families  and  sample.  Nesters  sample  nesterhood  Further  Households  in the sample and this represents  10% of all households  different  interpretation,  study is required in this area before any definite conclusions are  examination  or  moving.  and British origins.  Housing Consumption of Two Person Empty Nest  is  persons, are  from the other ethnic groups, or at the most conservative  A detailed  the  is hoped to be freed for families  is occupied by empty nesters who have no intention of  are different  to  of empty nest ethnic households in certain areas of  CMA may mean that the housing which alternatively  have potential  of ethnic communities  that any policy developed  recognize differences  actually  1'  data  appears  does not begin to  husband-wife approximately  54.  Those percent  indicate  to occur  under  empty nest couples. 52  to age  that  the  in large amounts 50  account  See Table VII.  of husband-wife  empty  for  occurrence  of  empty  until the husband  only  of  all  It is worthy to note  that  nest  5  percent  is  couples  are  in  the  30  category wherein sample  which  the husband is aged 64 years or less. includes  empty  nest  husbands  over  Consequently, the  age  of  65,  this is  considerably larger that which definitions of empty nesters used in  previous  studies would have produced.  For example Miron and Schiff did not  consider  empty nesters over the age of  64.  TABLE AGE 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 85  +  0 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 0  VII: -  4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8  A G E O F E M P T Y- N E S T E R H U S B A N D S PERCENT CUMULATIVE PERCENT  4 9 4 9 4 9 4 9 4  1.5 3.5 11.6 17.9 17.9 17.4 14.9 9.2 3.5 2.6  TOTAL  CASES  9 22 71 110 110 107 92 57 22 16  1.5 5.0 16.6 34.5 52.4 69.8 84.7 93.9 97.4 100.0  Income Empty groups. have  nest couples  may  not be as cash wealthy  as other  For example while 34 percent of two person empty nest  an average  income  of  less  than  $15,000,  only  to the total households 1981 incomes  in the Vancouver CMA, of which 28 percent  reported  Similarly,  27 percent of the empty  This compares with other  and total households which recorded 41 percent and 30 percent of those sampled as having incomes greater than a  other compares  less than $15,000.  that  of  This  couples had incomes greater than $30,000.  fact  households  15 percent  families in the Vancouver sample have incomes below $15,000.  The  demographic  large  proportion  of  the  nest  families  respectively  $30,000. empty  nest  couples  includes persons over the age of 65 (i.e. retired) would help to explain  sample the  31  relatively lower income status of the empty nest group.  For example, 48%  of  t h e m a l e si n t h e s a m p l e a n d 3 5 % o f t h e f e m a l e s a r e a g e 6 5 o r m o r e . T h e data  also  nesters  indicates  a relatively  as age increased.  steady  See Table VIII.  substantial drop in mean income at year TABLE VIII: Age 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74 75-79 80-84 85+  decline  in income  of male  empty  It can be noted that there is  65.  MEAN INCOME OF EMPTY NEST HUSBAND BY AGE OF HUSBAND Mean Income Total Cases $45,500 9 32,500 22 35,000 71 29,000 110 32,500 110 22,000 107 19,000 92 12,000 57 13,500 22 15,000 16  This is also reflected by the fact that those empty nest couples the age of 65 in the sample had a mean family  income of $32,200  65 and older  of $18,600.  Further,  varies.  example,  for  empty  a  had a mean nest  income  couples  also  payments and investment  For  under  while  those  the source of  income  government  transfer  income are the two major sources of family  income  which amount to 70% of all empty nest couples with male 65 years or  older.  However,  for those males  major source of family  under age 65, 77% list wages and salary as  income.  However, it should be noted that annual income should not be confused total wealth. other  families,  their  homes.  the  While many empty nesters may appear cash poor relative a significant  number  are asset  rich in terms  of equity  with to in  32  Housing  Costs  Annual financial  income  is  well-being  not  necessarily  is influenced  major monthly payments.  representative  by amount  of wealth.  of assets,  One's  indebtedness  and  For example, of those empty nest couples who  own  their dwelling, 82 percent have major monthly housing payments of less $400  (major  monthly  payments  include  mortgage,  utility  and  taxes).  contrast, only 42 percent of other families had monthly homeowner less than $400 and 54 percent this level.  of total households  had payments  which  is worth  less than that occupied  households  in the sample, or alternatively,  by other  In  payments less  than  This would indicate that either empty nest couples are  in housing homes.  than  living  families  and  they have more equity in  their  Since the empty nest couples in the sample are an older group  than  the general population,  it is safe to assume they have been homeowners  for  longer periods of time, worked more years, and have therefore been able acquire more equity than younger It is interesting  homeowners.  to note that the modal category  for owners  monthly  payments was $100-199 for empty nest couples, which represents 30% of empty nest couple homeowners  in the sample.  families and total households  In contrast, only 13% of  in the sample were included in this  Also worthy of note is the fact that the average monthly payments for all households  in the CMA was $472  are not as great as for owners.  homeowners  population,  other major 1981  Characteristics).  in the sample who rent appear to also  lower housing costs than the general  all  category.  (Statistics Canada,  Catalogue 95-978 Table 1, Selected Social and Economic Those empty nest couples  to  however, the  have  differences  For example, 74 percent of the empty  couples in the sample who rented had major housing costs of less than  nest $400.  33  This compares to other families in which 45 percent of renters had  housing  costs less than $400 per month, and the total population of which 67  percent  of renters had costs less than It is somewhat  $400.  surprising  that empty nest renters have lower  housing costs than other families and households. this  could  be the  discussed  later,  groups.  result empty  of a combination nesters  are  not  One might speculate  of factors. as  monthly  mobile  as  that  First,  as will  other  demographic  It is possible that many empty nest renters in 1981 were in  buildings which were governed by government imposed rent control  be older  regulations  and therefore on the whole, had lower housing rent than those in the  general  population who rent. For example, while only 2.6% of all family renters  in  t h e C M A s a m p l e h a d l i v e d i n t h e i r d w e l l i n g f o r m o r et h a n1 0 y e a r s , 1 8 . 4 % o empty  nest  renters  had been  in their  present  dwelling  for more  than  10  years. Second, the cash flow of empty nest couples, as represented family  income is less than other demographic  amount  of income available  nesters  to choose  less  the mean  in 1981 (Statistics  less, forcing  In Vancouver,  Canada, 1981).  the  In  who rented had a mean income of $19,750 according  Third,  the data  indicates  smaller  units  than  other  renting  occupy  units  with  renters  that there  that empty  families. 5 rooms  mean  contrast,  is a positive  relationship  to sample  nest data.  nest couples  are generally  For  example,  51%  of  empty  or less,  while  only  26%  of all  have units of 5 rooms or less. between  This is assuming, rent and number of  the empty  income for empty nest couples was $26,000, and those empty  families  family  accommodation.  annual  and consequently  for rent is substantially  expensive  family income was $31,634  groups,  by  of  in  nesters other course,  rooms.  34  Fourth, the type of unit rented may be reflected in the different costs.  For  example,  13%  dwellings.  This  compares  sample  rent  occupy  of  empty  renters  occupy  single  detached in  the  is assuming  of  course that single detached dwellings generally rent for more than units  in  who  multiple  with  nest  rent  the fact that 34% of all families  single  detached  This  dwellings.  While this data is not sufficient above  dwellings.  hypothesis,  it does nevertheless  to provide indicate  be found in this area if further research were Dwel1ing  conclusive a possible  the  explanation  may  conducted.  Type  Single  detached  dwellings  are  occupied  by  greater degree than any other housing form.  empty  nest  to Priest's findings at the national level. TABLE IX:  Det ent Mult Dwe  See Table  Dwelling Type Occupied by Empty Nest  Type ach 5+ ipl lli  This is  All Families  62.1 9.4 24.3 4.2  78.9 1.4 19.3 0.4  is larger  than the proportion  of all households  than  proportion  by all  mobile  occupied  homes and apartments  families.  over 5 stories  a 62%  similar  IX.  All Households 58.7 8.6 31.4 1.3  While the proportion of empty nest couples in single detached the  to  Couples  Empty Nest Couples ed Stories e Dwelling ngs  families  The sample indicates that  of empty nest couples are housed in single detached units.  Single Apartm Other Mobile  proof of  in the sample, Table  IX  are proportionally  dwellings it is  less  indicates  that  more  popular  35  with empty nest families than other families or households. it appears housing  that  mode  occupancy  of  empty  of  single  nest  couples  detached as  dwellings  it  Nevertheless, is the  dominant  is  with  families  and  condominiums  are  a popular  all  households. Tenure Popular  perceptions  suggest  that  choice among empty nest couples. all dwellings of families  in the Vancouver  popular  The sample indicates that 4.7 percent  CMA are condominiums.  occupy condominiums,  sample occupy condominiums. with  empty  housing  While almost 3  percent  9 percent of the empty nest couples  in  nest  couples  than  they  are  with  the  in  However, empty nest couples do  not  couples, and an even greater number 60 (23 %) were occupied by families  with  children.  nest  indicates  couples choose condominiums there  are  more  families  50 that  with  contrast  national  study  by  commissioned 51%  of  greater  children  This is in distinct determined  a  occupied proportion  than do families however,  couples. which  (19 %) were  the nest  data  sample,  Of  by empty  The  in the  more  population  appear to dominate the condominium market as some have suggested. condominiums  the  This would indicate that condominiums are  general, and especially other families. 259  of  all  in  Canada  Mortgage  condominium  and  units  are  empty  in absolute  condominiums  to an impression  of than  numbers,  empty  nest  one may form from Housing  Corporation,  occupied  by  older  pre-retired and retired couples (Skaburskis, 1984). This leads one to ask condominiums  a  if  are less popular to Vancouver empty nest couples, or are  many  of the couples in the national survey ones who never have had children?  The  Public  Use  Sample  Tape  for  Vancouver  indicates  only  7  percent  of  36  condominiums  in Vancouver  are occupied  by empty  nest couples  ages of 40 and 65 while the national condominium condominium  units were  pre-retired  noted that 15% of all condominiums one  person  empty  nest  households,  between  the  study found over 30%  of  older couples.  However,  it should  be  in the Vancouver  sample are occupied  by  therefore,  condominiums are occupied by empty nesters.  a  total  of  34%  of  all  Only when single empty  nesters  are considered, does the proportion of empty nesters in condominiums  appear  dramatic. In the Vancouver data, no statistical relationship was found between age of empty nesters and propensity to occupy  the  condominiums.  Almost 75 percent of empty nest couples own their home.  This  compares  with 78 percent of families with children who own homes and 58 percent total households who own their homes. These are nearly identical with proportions  found  It would income.  appear  by Priest that  The results  square  significant  empty  nest  there  (1983) is  a  of a crosstab at 0.0004  couples.  As  in a national strong between  and a Kendall  income  For instance,  renters  these  between  two variable  Tau C significant the  proportion  the Census.  tenure produced  a  at 0.0000 of  empty  had generally  between empty nest renters lived for a shorter  period  time in their dwelling, occupied smaller units and were likely to have greater  distances  in the 5 years  Tau C were significant In addition, owners.  at the 0.0000  and Chi for nest  decrease.  This study found distinct differences owners.  association  increases,  homeownership increases and renters  study of the 1981  of  previous.  Both  Chi-square  level for the above  and  and of moved  Kendall's  associations.  empty nest renters were likely to have less income  The mean income of owners was $28,215 while for renters, it  than was  37  $19,755.  Similarly,  those in condominiums were in generally  smaller  units  than owners and were more likely to have moved greater distances than  other  owners in the five years previous to the Not surprisingly, dwelling  there  and tenure.  census.  is a strong  Single  relationship  family dwellings  between  the type  are generally  owned  of  rather  than rented, while multiple housing units are generally rented rather  than  owned. Condition of Dwelling  Unit  The Public Use Sample tape records the condition of the dwelling as  reported  by  maintenance  the  occupant  into  one  needed,  b) minor  repairs  of  three  needed,  categories:  or c) major  unit  a)  regular  repairs  needed.  Virtually, identical responses were received when comparing total  households  t of a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n , ( i . e . 7 9% ,1 6% ,a n d 5 % r e s p e empty  nest couples  maintenance minor  accounted  repairs  respectively.  Length of Empty  and  differently.  for 87  major  percent  repairs  Those  of the empty  accounted  for  themselves  nest  10 percent  regular  responses, and  3  while percent  as living in housing of slightly better  at  repair  families. Occupancy nest  couples  have  generally  lived  longer than the general population of Vancouver. of  in need of only  This would indicate that empty nest couples are living, or  least perceived than other  responded  husband-wife  empty  nest households  in their  current  Approximately  in the sample  have  lived  dwelling 44  percent in  their  38  current  dwelling  for more  than  10 years,  and 62 percent  for more than  years.  In contrast, only 23 percent of the total population  and 23  percent  of families with children at home had lived in their current dwelling for more than 10 Period of  6 unit  years.  Construction  P o p u l a r p e r c e p t i o n s h a v e s u g g e s t e d t h a t e m p t y.n e s t located in large numbers in the post-WWII suburbs. percent  of  between  1946 and  which  64  all  empty  nest  1975.  percent  couples  This  are  in  are  varies  living  little  dwellings  This study found that in  dwellings  from the total  constructed  constructed population  between  1946  and  dwellings  constructed  constructed before 1960.  1946-1960  and  This supports  82%  are  partially  occupying  the statement  absolute number of empty nest couples in single detached housing 1946  proportionate  and  1975  totals  212  in  the  Public  Use  are  dwellings of  Silver  (1981), that empty nesters are occupying inner suburb post-war housing. between  in 1975.  However, of those empty nest couples in single detached dwellings, 32% in  66  The  constructed  Sample.  to 26% of all families in single detached housing  This  is  constructed  1946-1975. In  comparison,  housing  equals  families  and  proportionate housing.  the  proportion  13% of post-1975 the  30%  of  of the  single  empty  nest  pre-1945  empty  nest  detached couples family  couples  housing in  in  occupied  pre-1945  occupied  post-1975 by  all  units  is  single  detached  While the pre-1960 single detached housing appears to be  occupied  by significant  to  number  of  numbers of empty nest couples (26%), it should also be  in perspective that this represents 8.7% of all CMA detached  units.  kept  39  Number of Persons Per Empty households,  Room  nesters  generally  as  been  has  have  shown  by  more  space  MacLeod  per  and  capita  Ellis,  than  other  (1982).  In  Vancouver sample, 85 percent of empty nest couples had 0.5 or less per  room.  Compared  to families  with  children  and the total  the  persons  population,  only, 45 percent and 65 percent respectively had ratios this low. This  would  indicate that while the size of the house which empty nest couples as discussed person is  Size of  below, are not substantially  occupy,  larger, the number of rooms  per  greater.  Dwel1ing  An indication of the size of dwelling can be achieved from the data by examining the number of rooms recorded for the household.  Census Families  with children are located in six room dwellings (18.1 %) more often than other size unit. in six choice  Similarly, more empty nest couples (20 %) are also  room dwellings of the general  Some bedrooms,  of the  than any other population  literature  has  size unit.  is a 4 room dwelling suggested  that  kitchen and living room or dining  fact,  18 percent over  48  of empty percent  nest  couples  of all empty  are nest  (15.3  located  the  modal  %).  a 4 room  room/living  would be the ideal unit for empty nest couples. only  In contrast, dwelling room  with  couples  larger than that which is considered ideal for empty  a sized are  dwelling.  in a dwelling nesters.  2  combination  The sample indicates  in such  any  that In unit  40  TABLE X: Rooms 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 or more  Number of R P Em C  and the mean  frequency is 5.4  similar sample  sized  nesters  difference  nest couples  rooms, while units.  the modal  frequency  only 28 percent  Further,  14 percent  for families  is 6.6 rooms  per  with children  of empty  units  nest  with  household. in  are in  of empty nest couples  than 4 rooms, while  in smaller  couples  only 4 percent  the units  are  in  in  the  of  families  There appears  to be a trend  towards  than  with  families  could be caused by a number of factors  children.  ranging from an  that current empty nest couples may have raised their children in houses, that empty nesters are living in older housing which smaller than newer housing, or alternatively have already down-sized.  (20.1%)  in the size of units as presented  are in such sized units. being  is a six room unit  55 percent of families  are in units smaller  with children empty  differences  For example,  with 7 or more  for empty  2.2 4.3 14.1 15.3 14.2 14.1 12.3 10.9 6.2 6.4  sized unit but the mean  There are significant  Percent Total Households  0.3 0.6 13.2 9.6 13.1 18.1 17.7 16.4 10.7 10.4  rooms, while  is a similar  Table X.  By Household Type nt Percent Nest Families with es Children  1.4 2.0 10.7 18.7 19.0 20.1 13.0 8.9 2.3 3.6  The modal children  ooms erce pty oupl  is  This  assumption smaller generally  that many empty nesters  An analysis was conducted of the size of  dwelling  occupied by those empty nest couples aged 65 years and older and those less  than  65.  See  Table  XI.  A  Chi-square  significant  at  .0310  may aged  and  a  41  negative  Kendall's  Tau  C  significant  at  .0005  indicates  an  association  between those over age 65 and smaller dwelling units, while those under  age  65 are generally associated with larger units. However, it is not known  if  this difference  is cross-sectional  TABLE XI:  Number of MALE Rooms Age less than 65 1 4 2 5 3 26 4 47 5 48 6 60 7 42 8 33 9 7 10 or more 15 C h i - s q u a r e Kendalls Tau C-Sig. 0  or  longitudinal.  Rooms by Age of  Empty Nester FEMALE  Age 65 or more 4 6 33 56 57 51 29 16 7 5 s i g 0 . 0 3 1 0 .0005  Age less than 65 5 5 30 61 61 78 54 39 9 15 C h i - s Kendalls Tau C-Sig.  Age 65 or more 3 6 29 42 44 33 18 10 5 5 q u a r e s i g . 0 0.0000  Mobility The  Census  Vancouver 1981.  tape  CMA headed Within  households  the  headed  indicates  that  by a male, families  moved  with  by a male moved  48  percent  of  the  households  at least once in the period  children  category,  in the period  43  1976  to  of  the  Within  the  percent  1976 to 1981.  empty nest households, only 34 percent of the households moved in the 1976 to  1981,  families  or  households.  approximately older  the  particular  indicating  that  empty  Of  those  nesters empty  are nest  dwelling  the  more  for a longer  likely length  that  the  of  time.  period  less mobile  than  other  couples  did  move,  64 percent made moves with the Vancouver CMA.  husband,  in  family  had  who  Further, occupied  the their  42  Table  XII  summarizes  the  type  couples which moved between 1976 and TABLE XII:  Movers  single detached apartment 5+ other multiple mobile dwelling  41 14 39 _6 100  data  dwelling  the  by  empty  Non-Movers %  73 7 17 _3 100  Vancouver  sample  is markedly  different  from  results attained by Miron and Schiff, who concluded that apartment are popular locations for empty nesters who are movers. and Schiff  found that only 27% of empty nest movers  Of all empty nest homeowners, is consistent  the  dwellings  For example,  single  27% moved, while 55% of renters  moved.  with other housing  re-located  Miron  to a  detached dwelling, compared to 41% in the Vancouver This  nest  Couples  %  from  occupied  1981.  Dwelling Type of Empty Nest  Dwelling Type  The  of  sample.  studies which  that renters are more mobile than owners.  have generally  shown  One interesting finding of  this  study is that not only are renters more mobile, but they are also likely move greater distances than owners. records  the location  Census  and  Census  sub-division  data  in which  classifies  produced  significant at Mobility  a  For example, the Public Use Sample  the respondent  it into one of  to outside Chi-square  Canada.  resided  during  six categories,  ranging  Statistical  tests  at  and  significant  0.0000  the  tape  previous from  applied  same  to  Kendall's  the  Tau  C  0.0000. is an important  aspect  of this study.  It is important  only to know how mobile empty nesters are, but what encourages them to and what  to  type of dwelling  do they desire.  The Census data provides  not move, some  43  clues  to these questions.  during  First, of those empty nest couples who  1976-1981, 60% moved to owner occupied dwellings  rental dwellings. recorded towards  moved  and 40% moved  This ratio is somewhat less than the 75/25 tenure  for all empty ownership,  nest  however,  couples.  This would  indicate  to split  a strong  trend  not as strong as those who chose not to  move.  The difference may be the result of the fact that renters are more likely move and thus proportionately  are a larger share of  movers.  Of those who moved into owner-occupied units, 23 percent relocated condominiums.  As  condominiums,  and  only  9%  of  empty  13% of movers  moved  nest  families  to this  shift towards condominiums may be occurring.  type  in the  into  sample  of tenure,  occupy  a  popular  However, statistical  of the data does not indicate that condominiums  to  analysis  are associated with the  age  of movers. No relationship was found between age of movers and propensity  to  move into condominiums, or to prefer one type of tenure over another.  Mean  age of condominium occupancy for husband was 67, while for the entire  empty  nest couple sample, mean age was 64. Condominium owners are slightly but this is not statistically ONE PERSON EMPTY NEST  significant.  HOUSEHOLDS  As mentioned previously, the 1981 Public Use Sample Tape for CMA contains  older,  Vancouver  records for 333 single female households who have ever  born  children, ever been married, aged 40 years or more, wherein the children no longer at One precisely. had  ever  are  home.  person  identity  as  Consequently, 108 one person male households were identified  who  been  male married  empty and  nesters were  aged  were 45  not or  possible more  and  to were  used  as  an  44  indication of the likely number and characteristics of male empty  nesters.  These two groups were considered  important as they represent two  distinct  life stages, that of loss of spouse and/or loss of  children  and critical from the  household.  Income Whereas  two person  empty  nest couples  reported  total  family  incomes  w i t h a m o d a lf r e q u e n c y o f $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 - 1 5 , 0 0 0 , b o t h m a l e a n d f e m a l e s i n g  e m p t y n e s t e r s r e p o r t e d m o d a l f r e q u e n c y i n c o m e o f $ 5 , 0 0 0 - 1 0 , 0 0 percent of females reported incomes of less than $15,000, only 53 percent males had incomes below this Housing  of  level.  Costs  For both single male and female empty nesters, the modal frequency  for  h o u s i n g c o s t s f o ro w n e r s w a s$ 2 0 0 - 3 0 0p e rm o n t h . C o m p a r e d w i t h e m p t y c o u p l e s , i n w h i c h t h em o d a l f r e q u e n c y f o ro w n e r s w a s$ 1 0 0 - 2 0 0 , a n d r o f $ 2 0 0- 3 0 0 ,i t a p p e a r s t h a ti n g e n e r a l , e m p t y n e s tc o u p l e s w h oa owners have housing costs less than single owners and renters and who are  couples  renters.  Tenure The ratio between owners and renters is identical for both single and female empty nesters.  Owners account for 44 percent of all single  nest households, which is considerable empty  nest  couples.  The  reasons  less than the 75 percent recorded  for ownership  nesters being lower than even the total population  patterns  of single  (58 %) may be  male empty for empty  numerous.  45  For example,  many  in the sample may  represent  broken  homes, wherein  one  spouse leaves the family home and rents, or both leave family home and it is sold,  both  obvious  continue  recognition  and therefore maintenance result  to rent.  Loss of spouse and children  may create  that the family home is too large in terms of  a housing  adjustment  of a single family  in loss of  income,  is made.  The  home too onerous  therefore  the house  loss of spouse  space,  may  make  or loss of spouse may  also  is sold for equity.  Also,  singles may be generally older and there is need for access to the from home to supplement Dwel1ing  an  equity  income.  Type  Whereas  single detached housing was the most popular choice of  empty  n e s t c o u p l e s ( 6 2% ) , o n l y 3 4 % o f s i n g l e m a l e s a n d f e m a l e s c h o o s e t o l i v single  detached  attached,  housing.  rowhouse,  Instead, multiple  townhouse  and apartments  dwellings,  including  up to four  storeys  duplex, are  the  m o d a l f r e q u e n c y o fb o t h m a l e s a n d f e m a l e s ( 4 4 % a n d 4 1% The greater  trend  towards  proportion  multiple  of single  family empty  dwellings  nesters  helps  to explain  than empty  why  nest couples  a rent  rather than own their own home. The  sample  condominiums.  indicates This  that  is almost  8.8%  identical  couples who occupy condominiums (9%). are no more  popular  However,  should  it  with be  single  noted  of  that  single  to the  empty  nesters  proportion  of empty  This would indicate that  empty  nesters  single  empty  than  empty  nesters  occupy  condominiums nest  in  nest  couples.  condominiums  a c c o u n t f o r1 5 % o f a l lc o n d o m i n i u m s r e c o r d e d i n t h es a m p l e a n de m p t  46  couples in condominiums account for 19% of such housing consumers. proportion of condominiums owned by empty nesters is rather Length of  Thus  the  dramatic.  Occupancy  The majority  of single males  and females  (36 %) have lived in  current dwelling unit for 10 years or longer. large as empty  nest couples  their  While this number is not  (44 %) it nevertheless  represents  a  as  significant  number. Number of  Rooms  The modal room dwelling, room  dwelling.  frequency  of room numbers  the modal  choice  In essence,  for empty  for single  this  empty  is a one  nest couples  nesters  bedroom  appears  dwelling.  was a  six  to be a The  3  sample  i n d i c a t e s t h a t 7 0 % o f s i n g l e s l i v e i n a u n i t o f 4 r o o m so r l e s s , c o m p a r e d t o o n l y3 3 % o f e m p t y n e s tc o u p l e s . H o w e v e r , t h e f a c tt h a t3 0 % o f s i n g l female and male empty nesters live in dwellings a strong  desire  or attachment  to  of 5 rooms or more  indicates  space.  The primary reason for this brief analysis of single empty nesters to  demonstrate  households.  their  Single  contribution  empty  nesters  to  the  aggregate  are in a different  of  all  position  empty  nester  in the  family  life cycle than empty nest couples as not only are the children present, but neither is the spouse present.  is  no  longer  The effects which this  latter  life stage has on housing has not been analyzed.  Much of the  differences  cited earlier between single empty nesters and empty nest couples may  be  47  attributed to aging or widowing so that comparisons at this level are  almost  meaningless. The demographic and housing analysis of empty nesters presented in chapter  provides  a basis  on which  to  continue  the  study.  The  findings  indicate that indeed the total numbers of empty nests at both the and Vancouver housing how  CM.A.  consumption.  empty  nesters  Importantly, which  level are of such size to have a significant The use of Crosstabs differ  this chapter  is to provide  data provided  from addresses  a demographic  empty  nesters.  families  the first  and housing  has enabled in  research  the goal  report on empty  national impact  on  a review  of  Census  Sample.  in Chapter nesters.  in this chapter will be used to assist in the final  goals which are to determine and resulting  other  analysis  this  the number of empty nesters in family  I, The  research housing  impact, and to discuss the housing needs and motivations  of  48  CHAPTER  III  Empty Nest Households and Family  Housing  The second research objective of this study is to determine the  number  of empty nest households which occupy housing suitable for families children. housing'  To properly address this question, one must first define and second, must  empty nest For  for now, ignore the issue of what  is  with 'family  adequate  housing. the  purposes  of  this  study,  the method  used  housing will largely be based upon three criteria.  to  define  family  First, any units  which  do not presumably  allow for direct grade access with at grade play  space  will be excluded.  Other criteria used to aid definition of family  are; secondly, number of rooms and thirdly, Obviously considered  in  there the  schools,  volume  of  cultural  environment,  are a large definition traffic  derive this data directly that  the  above  three  of on  etc.  number abutting  However,  cost.  of other  family  will  factors  housing,  such  streets,  it is difficult  from the Census data.  criteria  provide  which as  should  be  proximity  to  surrounding  social  if, not  impossible  Nevertheless, sufficient  accuracy  to felt  for  a  housing  children.  It has been noted that the issue of what is adequate empty nest must be ignored for now.  and  it is  realistic estimate of the number of empty nest households occupying suitable for families with  housing  The reason for this is that it is always  housing possible  that what is considered appropriate housing for families with children, be similar to that considered appropriate for empty nesters. rather than just considering  For  only grade access, number of rooms and  may  example, cost,  49  other  factors  neighbourhood, the mind  such  as  length  economic  occupancy,  room for material possessions,  of empty nesters.  next chapter.  of  to  the  old  etc., may be as important  the  For now, the study will only concern itself with physical  and and  The limitations of the Census data means that only single detached  and  Grade Access mobile storeys Census  can  be  or more.  storeys,  investigation  of  social,  considerations.  assumed  very few grade  data  delay  Units  homes  probability  will  in detail  cultural  psychological  and  issue will be examined  in  in  criteria  This  attachment  provide  grade  access  access units will be located  (See Table  is classed  to IX).  The remaining  as "other multiple"  as well as duplexes  In  all  in apartments  category  and included  and townhouses  units. offered  apartments  which would  of by  the  up to  5  be grade  access.  The number of empty nest couples in the "other multiple" category amounts 24 percent of all units occupied by this group. that  the  actually  number  of  considerably  grade-oriented larger  than  units that  Therefore,  occupied in  the  it is  empty  to  probable  nesters  is  following  analysis.  Similarly, the number of families with children who occupy "other  multiple"  units equals 19% of all families with  used  by  5  children.  The Public Use Sample records 5517 households in the Vancouver CMA, which 3,239 (59%) occupy single detached and 71 (1.3%) mobile homes. are  2,060  families  with  children,  including  lone-parent  of  There  families.  In  addition, there are 441 childless families in the sample wherein the wife aged 44 or less. children.  These are potential families as the wife may still  Total existing  and potential  families  is bear  then totals 2,501 (2,060  +  50  441).  Thus  dwelling  there  is at least  units not counting  a maximum  townhouses  of 3,310  and duplexes,  families in need of family accommodation. numbers,  there  units.  is a gross  surplus  potential  grade  access  and a maximum of  2,501  Upon initial examination of  gross  of over 809 grade access  family  housing  This surplus represents 32% of existing and potential families  children.  Without further study, this may lead to the assumption that  families are adequately  housed and there is no need to consider the  housing consumption of empty nesters. oriented  However, while total numbers of  units may indicate an adequate  children,  in  (79%)  are  detached and mobile homes). in apartments  housed  grade  oriented  units  with single  The remaining 426 (21%) of families are  either  include walk-up  apartments,  The analysis of empty nest households and 162 single empty nest households  or are  townhouses,  and semi-detached dwellings, some of which may provide grade couples  of  (i.e.  of at least 5 storeys with no grade access assumed,  dwellings which  grade  supply, it is the distribution  For example, of the 2,060 families  1,634  all  family  the housing stock which is crucial.  multiple  with  duplexes  access.  indicates that 366 empty  nest  occupy grade access units for  total of 528 (i.e. single detached and mobile homes). of all single detached and mobile homes in the CM.A.  in  This represents  a 16%  sample.  Thus, only considering absolute number of grade access units, the total number of empty nesters families cannot shortage  in such units (528) is sufficient  to offset  (less than 426) who may not be in grade access units. conclude  that empty nesters  of grade  access  units  hold the key to solving  for families.  conducted of dwelling sizes and their  An  distribution.  analysis  Again,  those one  any  perceived  must  also  be  51  Number of For  Rooms this  analysis,  defined  by the Census)  child.  This  Following  would  this argument,  (See Blumenfeld, be  suggested  recreation,  is  suggested  is the minimum allow  size can be assumed may  it for  two  a rough  as number  1984).  bedrooms guide  of persons  However,  four  room  dwelling  (as  size for a family with  plus  kitchen  of minimum  plus one  interpretation would  and  or  dwelling  (i.e. n +  of minimum  allow  one  livingroom.  room number  in family,  as n + 2, which  guests or crafts.  a  acceptable  A more liberal  by some  that  room  an extra  1). size  room  for the purposes of this  for  analysis  the conservative estimate will be used in order to not appear to inflate perceived as to assumed  shortage liberal. that each  of housing. However, child  for  Some the  is entitled  may even purposes  consider of this  to a separate  the n + 1 analysis, room.  definition it will  It will  TABLE XIII: Room Number 1 - 3* 4 5 6 7 8 9 10  be size  children.  Grade Access Empty Nest Housing by Number of Two-person Empty Nest Couples 8 35 78 95 70 48 14 18  be  also  assumed that lone parents with children have the same minimum housing requirements as two parent families with  any  Female Male Empty Nest Empty Nest Single Single 8 4 33 10 31 11 28 6 11 3 8 4 3 1 1  Rooms  Total Empty Nesters in Grade-Oriented Units Suitable for Families  78 120 129 84 60 17 20 508 * T o o s m a l l f o r f a m i l y a c c o m m o d a t i o n .  52  Table XIII indicates  that in the sample,  access units of a suitable the housing  consumption  shortage of family  size for families.  children  who  Again, this indicates  of empty nesters may be sufficient  are  is to calculate  "under-housed"  according  Empty Nesters and Under-housed  n + Grade Units Units R Occupied by for Und Empty Nesters Famil  Room Number  1  equired er-Housed ies  78 62 120 53 1 2 9 4 0 8 4 1 4 60 15 1 7 1 6 20 19 508 219 ( * c a l c u l a t e d f r o m l a r g e s t t o s  room  for families  according  size  empty  there  nesters.  203 1 4 2 8 1 55  -109 - 2 6 - 1 3 - 16 2 0 - 2 1 - 18  38 539 m a l l e s t u n i t s - r e a d f r o m b o t t o m t o  and allows comparison appears  and  n + 2 Units Required for UnderCumulative* housed Surplus/ Families Deficit  +281 +273 + 2 0 6 + 1 1 7 + 47 + 2 + 1  to the n + 1 definition.  categories, with children.  nest  families  any  families  in grade access  units  of  with all families who  are  It can be seen  to be a sufficient  supply  that of  in  category  In fact, the cumulative  amounts  proportionately  to 281  represent  units 43%  family size occupied by empty nesters.  which  surplus means  of the grade  available that  access  all  housing  occupied by empty nesters which could satisfy any perceived shortage families  of  Families  Table XIV is a summary of those empty nesters under-housed  to offset  to the n + 1 definition  Cumulative* Surplus/ Deficit  4 5 6 7 8 9 10  a size suitable  that  the number of  compare these figures with the housing occupancy of empty TABLE XIV:  grade  units.  The next step in the analysis with  there are a total of 508  among in  the  under-housed dwellings  of  The cumulative surplus/deficit  was  53  calculated assumed than  a  by working  from  that a family  would  smaller  in  outweighed  one  the  largest  units  to the  be more adequately  cases  where  the  housed  demand  smallest  as  in a larger  for  a  the  more  was  dwelling,  certain  category  supply.  Next,  a comparison  definition  was  indicated  of empty  conducted  that  as  nest also  if it is assumed  housing shown  that  and in  Table  XIV.  liberal  n + 2 is an adequate  analysis  indicates  that  according  to the  n + 1  2  analysis  definition  housing shortage, however, they still have potential to make some above  n +  This  family housing, then empty nesters do not hold the solution to any The  it  of  perceived impact. definition,  10.6% of all families with children in the sample are underhoused  and  using  t h e n + 2 d e f i n i t i o n , t h e n 2 6 . 1 % o f a l l f a m i l i e s a r e u n d e r h o u s e d . this analysis  does not offer  underhoused families. number of  is any insight  into the perception  of  Do they perceive themselves as not having an  these  adequate  rooms?  It is worth noting that during the course of this study an analysis also conducted of "adequately housed" and "over-housed" to the presented  W h a t  more  liberal for  n + 2 definition.  information  purposes  The only  results  in Table  families  of this XV.  according  analysis  According  to  Table, 55% of families with children could be classed as overhoused. amounts to an over-consumption  of some 1141 housing units, which in  terms is considerably larger than the 430 overhoused empty nesters  was are this This  absolute presented  i n T a b l eX I V a s b e i n gi n u n i t so f 5 - 1 0 r o o m si n s i z e . T o f u r t h e r e x a m i n e the "over-consumption"  of housing  by families,  Table XVI was designed  compare total units required for families by size of dwelling with already occupied by families.  to  dwellings  From this Table, it was calculated that  even  54  if there was a redistribution each  family  occupied  a dwelling  of units within of  a size  shortage of 564 adequately sized units.  the family  n + 2, there  category would  so  still  that be  In this view, the 430 empty  a  nesters  i n u n i t s o f 5 - 1 0 r o o m s w o u l d n o tt o t a l l y o f f s e t t h i s d e f i c i e n c y . TABLE XV: Comparison of Size of Fam Family Total Under% o f Size Families Housed Total Families Families n + 2 821 2 - 3 * 203 9.8 4 728 142 6.9 5 296 81 3.9 6 138 55 2.7 7 34 20 1.0 8 24 19 0.9 9 6 6 0.3 10 13 13 0.6 2,060 539 26.1 *Lone parent families are assumed to parent families TABLE XVI: Room Number 1 - 4 5 6 7 8 9 10  ily Ad Ho Fa =  and Num equately used milies n + 2 138 138 61 31 7 5 0 0 380 have same  ber of Rooms in Dwelling % o fOver% o f Total Housed Total F a m i l i e s F a m i l i e s F a m i 1 ii n + 2 6.7 480 23.3 6.7 448 21.7 3.0 154 7.5 1.5 52 2.5 0.3 7 0.3 0.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 18.4 1,141 55.4 unit size requirements as two  Family Housing Requirements by Housing Already Occupied Families Family Housing Requi rements 0 821 728 296 138 34 43 2,060  Units Occupied by Families 282 270 372 365 337 220 214 2,060  Cumul Surplus + + + + +  ative /Defi 5 6 2 8 269 625 556 357 171  by * cit 4 2  ^ c a l c u l a t e d f r o m l a r g e s t u n i t t o s m a l l e s t - r e a d f r o m b o t t o m t  55  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t even the n + 2 d e f i n i t i o n 55% o f f a m i l i e s have more space T h i s f a c t may suggest  than  the  definition  indicates  suggests  is  that  adequate.  that:  a) a l a r g e number o f f a m i l i e s have bought a l a r g e r house i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f h a v i n g more c h i l d r e n , b) many f a m i l i e s have purchased housing l a r g e r than r e q u i r e d f o r investment  purposes,  c) a d e q u a t e l y s i z e d d w e l l i n g s are u n a v a i l a b l e on the m a r k e t , l a r g e r u n i t s are p u r c h a s e d , d) the n+2 d e f i n i t i o n of It  In  any  or  i s not r e f l e c t i v e o f the r e a l o r p e r c e i v e d needs  families.  is  difference sample.  therefore  likely between  that the  alternative  utilized  (d)  is  definition  the  and the  reason  for  the  distribution within  case  further  study  in this  area  while  interesting,  is  beyond  the  study.  W h i l e the above data p r o v i d e s a s i m p l e comparison o f a b s o l u t e  numbers,  i n d i c a t e s t h a t even i f a l l empty n e s t e r s i n f a m i l y accommodation v a c a t e d  t h e i r d w e l l i n g s , i t would s t i l l In  the  A l t e r n a t i v e (d) would i n c l u d e a l l t h e o t h e r o p t i o n s l i s t e d above.  scope o f t h i s  it  large  fact,  another  even  suggest  all  empty  nesters  in  grade-oriented  units  families.  relocated  form o f h o u s i n g , not a l l f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n c o u l d be  by the n + 2 The  if  not s u p p l y enough housing f o r a l l  to  satisfied  definition.  results  of  empty n e s t e r s  the are  analysis  so  far  would  indicate  that  over-consuming housing and c a u s i n g  those  who  problems  for  56  families  with  children,  are  not  aware  that  over-consumers of family housing may be families Housing  fact,  the  greatest  themselves.  Cost  The being  in  next area of consideration  that  if empty  nest  was  the cost of housing.  grade-oriented  units,  of  a  size  The  issue  suitable  families were made available, would families be able to afford these  for  units?  The Public Use Sample tape is not very useful for determining the of dwelling units.  Census catalogue 95-978 Table 1, lists the 1981  dwelling price in Vancouver as $171,726. tape categorizes which  is $150,000  Vancouver  Meanwhile,  value average  the Public Use  Sample  the value of housing into eight groupings, the highest and over.  Unfortunately,  CMA sample fall within  58% of the dwellings  this category,  of  in  the  thus further analysis  is  meaningless. However, publishes  another  source  a Metropolitan  of  Atlas  data  was  series  in  consulted. which  Statistics  Vancouver  is  Canada included.  Within the Atlas, is the estimated market value of owned dwellings by tract.  census  The value of dwellings are placed in one of five categories,  which  range from 'less than $100,000' to '$340,000 or more".  While still not  detailed,  of Vancouver  this data provides  a more realistic  portrayal  very  housing  prices. Next, the published  catalogue  series was consulted  which lists a  of variables for each census tract with the Vancouver CMA. Households,  Families and Husband/Wife  For this  Families with Children  home were recorded for each census tract.  study,  no longer  As mentioned earlier, the  category is estimated to be closely related to empty nest  number  households.  at  latter  57  A comparison presented  of the value  in Table  TABLE XVII:  of dwellings  Total Families %  340+ 240-340 160-240 100-160 less 100  2.9 4.7 34.2 57.0 1.2 100.0  2.6 4.6 32.9 57.7 2.2 100.0  From examination  3.2 6.0 35.0 54.6 1.2 100.0  of each of these three demographic  each category of dwelling value. families.  Husband/Wife Families Children No Longer A t H o m e  of Table XVII, it would appear that there is  in the proportion  which  little  groups  Thus empty nesters are not necessarily  is any more expensive  than that of a proportionate  It would be safe to assume that empty nest housing  value to that housing already occupied  by families.  definition of housing adequacy, and not housing In any  case,  there  is a pool  single empty nest households grade  access  family  oriented  of  housing  is similar  in  families  according  or  personal  in the  sample  occupied  amounts  to  to the n + 2 definition  presumably could be occupied by families with children and thus reduce demand  for additional  family  housing  units.  they  distribution.  and empty nest couples which units,  in of  But can the  If they cannot, then it is an issue of affordability,  for  number  who are short of housing afford to upgrade, or if given the money would upgrade?  is  Occupancy  Value Total of Dwelling Households ( $ , 0 0 0 ) %  housing  and families  XVII.  Value of Dwellings by  difference  and households  Of the 2,060  families  by 430 which the with  58  children,  the supply of empty nest family housing units equals 20% of  family housing  demand.  The previous discussion is meant to answer those who view empty housing  as a potential  comparison,  source  of family  housing.  nester  But irregardless  of  the impact of empty nest housing consumption on family  is staggering  the  if one assumes  that this  represents  the  housing  an over-consumption  of  For example, while empty nesters may not necessarily hold the key to  any  housing. perceived  family  housing  shortage,  they  nevertheless  have  impact on the intensity to which the housing stock is used. sample  reveals  that 430 single detached  of 5 rooms or more are occupied all  dwelling  demonstrating  units  in  the  the  number  of  and mobile  considerable The Public  home dwellings  by empty nesters.  This represents  sample.  Table  XVIII  provides  family  person with  children  a which  accommodated in empty nest grade access housing using the n+2 These calculations of  what  the  population to  the  reveal that the actual empty nest occupancy  maximum  family  occupancy  could  be.  The  total  in single detached and mobile homes equals 753, while  n + 2 definition,  this  same  persons consisting of families with  housing children.  of a  could  be  occupied  7.8%  Use size of  calculation could  be  definition. is only empty  39% nest  according by  1,935  59  TABLE XVIII:  Actual Occupancy of Empty Nest Grade Access Housing Maximum Family Occupancy at n + 2 Grade Access Dwellings Occupied by Empty Nesters  Number of Rooms 5 6 7 8 9 10  Couples 120 129 84 60 17 20  Empty Nest Population 198 224 154 108 31 38 753  Single 42 34 14 12 3 2  and  Maximum Family Occupancy 360 516 420 360 119 160 1,935  Another method of demonstrating the amount of housing occupied by nesters is to consider their extent in terms of land and housing with regard to the entire 100% Vancouver CMA data. 476,755 occupied dwellings  in the Vancouver CMA.  area  detached  of 37,186  are  single  occupied by empty nesters.  and mobile  empty  consumption  For example, there  are  Of these, 7.8% or in  the  homes  of 5 rooms or  more,  Assuming an average lot size of say 3,600  square  feet, the total land consumption would amount to some 3,073 acres, or square miles for the residential  land alone.  Further,  if these  were  CMA  of  persons  occupied  conceivably, efficiency  at 98,000  position  the  Vancouver  average  persons could be housed alone,  the housing  which  chapter  has addressed  is to determine  assess the impact. motivations  the number  the second of empty  dwellings per  unit,  in these units. Thus from  consumption  significant impact on the Vancouver CMA land This  2.66  4.8  of empty  nesters  an  has  a  consumption. research nesters  goal  of this  in family  housing  The final research goal, which is to discuss the  of empty nesters is presented in the next  chapter.  thesis and  housing  60  CHAPTER  IV  Housing Needs of Empty Mere identification  of significant  Nesters  numbers of empty nest families  housing which appears suitable for families with children is not reason to develop people's need  mind,  to  public policy or a market  may appear  redistribute  understanding  of  the  to be over-consumption  the  housing  motivations  of empty  needs  and desires,  can  sufficient  to alter what,  of housing,  stock.  occupy the type of housing which they do. their  strategy Rather,  in  or at least  there  an  causes  them  to  Only after an understanding  of  nesters  which  if an effort  at  housing  is warranted,  or it in fact it could even be  effective.  A review  of literature  related  consumption  cycle  related  housing  adjustments  nest is  housing useful  understanding of the possible housing motivation of this Life Cycle and Housing There  are many  for  gaining  dimensions  of the various  stages  rates and assumed housing needs. young  mobility adulthood,  household  as to what  might  be termed  a general  a period and  of job family  life  I n t h i s g e n e r a l i z e d  of life development,  it is assumed  that  mobility  For example, the period of life having  rate is characterized  formation  an  group.  certain life cycle characteristics are associated with high and low highest  and  Consumption  c y c l e , s e v e r a lo f w h i c h a r e s h o w n i n F i g u r e 1 . depiction  a  be  redistribution life  some  must  it be established to empty  in  by transition  experimentation formation.  It  from adolescence  and occupational is  the  thought  that  to  choice, reaching  critical points on these dimensions in the life cycle produces changes  in  F I G U R E I n f a n c y  I  Summary  1:  .  C h i l d -  |  I  h o o d  '  1  L i f e c y c l e s  O l d Y o u n g  1  A d u l t  .  1  M i d d l e  A g e  L a t e r  "  1  P r e p a r a t i o n  [  A g e  L I F E COURSE  f  R e t i r e m e n t  t a t i o n  O c c u p a t i o n | C h o i c e  Maximum  P h a s i n g  \ I n v o l v e m e n t O c c u p a t i o n a l  I M a r r i a g e  On  Y o u r Own  |  b e g i n  O C C U P A T I O N A L  C a r e e r  ^  R e t i r e m e n t  C Y C L E  H e r e  /  L a s t  /  c a n  Out  U s u a l l y  O c c u r s  Home*  M a t u r i t y  '  J o b E x p e r i m e n -  ' A t  o f  A d o l e s c e n c e  P a r e n t h o o d  C h i l d  E m p t y  L e a v e s  W i d o w h o o d  n e s t  / f r o m  h e r e  l i k e l y on  F A M I L Y CYCLE  D e p e n d e n t  ^  I n d e p e n d e n t |  M a j o r  P u r c h a s e s  I  ^  D e p e n d e n t  M a i n t e n a n c e  |  ,  ECONOMIC  I  CYCLE  P u r c h a s e s  ft  HOUSING AND  L I F E C Y C L E B a c h e l o r p r o b a b l y  d w e l l i n g ,  m o d e s t  c o s t ,  L a r g e  r e n t a l . S m a l l  d w e l l i n g ,  t r a n s i t  d w e l l i n g ,  m o d e s t  m o d e s t  t o  1  t o  f a c i l i t i e s  S m a l l e r  l a r g e r  c h i l d r e n s c o s t .  t e e n a g e  c o s t  G r o u n d - o r i e n t e d , c l o s e  a n d  a c c e s s  d w e l l i n g ,  t r a n s i t ,  d w e l l i n g , s e n i o r  a c c e s s  t o  f a c i l i t i e s  I  f a c i l i t i e s , S m a l l  u n i t  c l o s e  t o  d e s i g n e d  c o m m u n i t y  f o r  NEEDS  F A M I L Y  s e n i o r s  f a c i l i t i e s  62  housing  needs  and  preferences  decision to move. other dimensions change.  and  stimulates  a strong  consideration  Thus, when abrupt changes occur in family structure or of the life cycle, there is the likelihood  of  and  retirement,  the  probabilities  of  moving  are  a in  residential  So upon graduation, career initiation, marriage, family  promotion  of  expansion,  high.  Rossi  (1955) and others since have demonstrated that the majority of moves  within  the same labour market or community area are associated with change from life stage to  one  another.  Since most elderly  stable relative to  other  segments of the general population, many of the triggering mechanisms  which  stimulate  a move  must  people are residentially be critical  life events.  Thus  retirement,  loss  health, loss of income, loss of spouse or even the children leaving the may trigger enhanced  a consideration  or diminished  to move.  by a number  facilitating/inhibiting  factors.  However,  the resolve  of considerations These  factors  do  to move  that might not  affect  home  can  be each  location  and health, ties to friends and relatives  or elsewhere,  etc.  whether or not to move.  These  factors  play a role  be  called life  cycle stage in the same manner, but may include: personal resources such income, self-concept  of  in  as  present  in the decision  Unfortunately, data limitations of the Census  of make  it impossible to determine if and when empty nesters move upon reaching  this  life stage.  may  facilitate  The data also allows no insight into what other factors such a move.  In recognition  of the data results  which  indicate  that many empty nesters occupy family type accommodation, it is assumed  that  either  last  a) empty  nesters  child leaving home or but  many  may  move  do not necessarily  move  as a result  of the  b) empty nesters do move after the last child to  family  type  accommodation.  In any  case,  leaves, either  63  alternative suggests that the housing motivation of empty nesters should examined  be  further.  Non-movers Morris and Winter  (1975) suggest that families evaluate their  in terms of cultural norms and family norms. norm, dissatisfaction may occur.  When housing does not meet  To reduce the dissatisfaction, the  may move, adjust the existing residence, or adapt to the existing Morris and Winter identify five important norms: norms,  c)  structure  norms.  These  type  norms  have  housing  norms,  d)  relevance  quality to empty  nesters  and  e)  family  residence.  a) space norms, b)  norms,  the  tenure  neighbourhood  and can be used as  a  framework to speculate upon why so many empty nesters may choose not to  move  after  type  reaching  this  life  stage  and  continue  to  occupy  family  accommodation. Space Many empty nesters may have originally  purchased housing suitable  their family needs when their children were living at home.  to  Analysis of  the  empty nest data for Vancouver indicates that when their children grow up  and  leave home, the parents may continue to occupy the large family Although  Rossi  (1955) demonstrated  related to housing adjustment. resorted  to after  discrepancy suggests  between  the  children  space  needs  that life cycle is an important  factor  He also suggests that mobility is less have  left  home,  and existing  that it is easy to adjust without  it is much more difficult,  homestead.  even  space  though (Rossi  there 1980).  often is  a  Rossi  moving to a surplus of space,  for example, during family formation stages  but to  64  adjust  to a shortage  of space.  during  child  years,  dwellings  rearing  once children  Hence,  but  do  families  move  to larger  not  necessarily  relocate  have left home.  Life cycle  literature  dwellings to  smaller indicates  that as families grow and their need for space increases, moves will  occur  if suitable housing is available and the family has the resources to  obtain  this  housing.  While  families  research  shows that families  surplus  (Winnik  1957,  may  move  when  there  rarely move to economize  Foote  1960,  Donnison  1961,  is  a  space  deficit,  space when there is Needleman  1965,  a  Doling  1974). There are a number of reasons why empty nesters as not constituting recently vacated  sufficient  rooms as excess space.  can be accommodated  of furniture for  children  which and  space  reason to move, and in fact may not view Their perceptions  may be such that a large home is desirable possessions  may view excess  to  needs  as a life time of accumulation  in larger homes, particularly  may not be suitable grandchildren  of space  the  in a smaller  visit  may  also  dwelling. be  a  large  of pieces  Extra  room  disincentive  to  moving. Miron and Schiff (1982) examined the National Survey of Housing collected  by CMHC  in 1974 and isolated  empty  nest families  Units,  in the  data.  From this survey recent empty nest movers were asked to give the two important  reasons  for moving.  desire for more living space.  The reason for moving most often cited was This was offered by 20% of the  Movers are not necessarily typical of all empty nest families, the most popular reason for moving is somewhat surprising. less  space/maintenance  was  most  given  by  only  13%  of  represented the fifth most popular reason for moving.  the  a  respondents. nevertheless, The desire  respondents  Therefore, it  for and  cannot  65  be automatically  assumed  that there is a desire or need for less space  after  the children have left home. Tenure and Structure  Type  There are several reasons why empty nesters may prefer to remain in family  homestead,  consumer  good,  but  homeownership until  or at least in family type housing. is a capital  investment.  As a purely  provides the owner with attractive  recently,  owner-occupied  excellent  potential  for  Housing  not only is physical  financial advantages  appreciation.  Capital  a wide range of subsidies,  homeowners  and  homeownership  single  detached  incentives  dwellings  and  and  gains  on  has  (McClain 1980, Fulton 1981, Dowler 1983).  nesters to retain ownership of single family dwellings by the expected return on investment. unmatched by alternative investment is a strong  motivation  years  tax expenditures  which  thus  for  encouraged  The trend for is no doubt  empty spurred  Through the 1970's, this return  was  opportunities. for empty  nesters  to retain more  housing  than is needed strictly for shelter.  Empty nesterhood appears to often  reached near the time of retirement.  Savings thus become important in  of impending  years  of not working.  a  asset,  homes are tax free and the federal government in recent  has offered  There  the  The home may therefore  be view  be viewed  as  a  c r u c i a l i n v e s t m e n t - p a r t o f t h ea s s e t p a c k a g e t o p r o v i d e s e c u r 'golden'  years.  In* general,  tenure options are limited largely to rental  for those who choose not to live in single detached dwellings. Wolf  (1983)  disadvantageous  in  a  study  of  older  persons  position compared to owners.  found  renters  accommodation 0'Bryant to  Housing deficiencies  be of  and in  a  every  66  kind  are  more  Vancouver  frequent  data,  as  renters  were  higher  percentage  in  rented  it was  in dwellings  found  dwellings. that  requiring  This  a greater repair.  is  supported  proportion  Also  renters  of their incomes for housing.  by  the  of empty  nest  generally  0'Bryant  pay  and Wolf  also  suggest that renters face the threat of future rent increases, and do have as much  freedom  to make changes or improvements  to their  a not  dwellings.  Thus there are many advantages related to homeownership, and this tenure  can  generally be equated with single detached dwellings.  the  75% of empty  nesters who are owners  single detached housing  in the Vancouver  sample, 80%  than  sample indicated that empty nesters generally other  demographic  greater equity positions. rental tenure would  groups,  assumed  pay  Many alternative types of housing which  result in monthly  Renting  homeownership.  may  offer  equal  income,  if  not  the  currently  greater  than  a paid for home  may  be perceived as offering more certainty and security than rents which  may  rise as housing costs rise.  or fixed  to,  of  involve  housing costs which may exceed  uncertainty  For those on a limited  less  to be as a result  cash outlay of the single family home in which the empty nester resides.  occupy  dwellings.  The Vancouver for  For example, of  Condominium owners also have some  though not as great as renters, with regards to maintenance fees.  Owners of condominiums  do not have much opportunity  uncertainty,  and  improvement  to postpone  neglect maintenance costs, thus this form of tenure may appear better renting but not as good as 'real' ownership home.  Thus faced with uncertainty,  the least unknown and familiar. single family  dwelling.  offered by the owned  the most prudent decision is to  or than  detached choose  So the empty nester may opt to stay in  the  67  This is supported by an analysis of the difference between full costs to elderly homeowners, rent  of  good  expenditure  quality burden  their actual out-of-pocket  adequately  is  highly  Struyk, as in the Vancouver in large units compared expenditures  because  units,  important  sample,  to  the mortgages  which the  expenses, indicates  elderly  and  the  that  the  (Struyk  1980).  found elderly homeowners to be  living  to their household  that this is viewed by homeowners full  sized  housing  size, but at low  have been paid off.  as preferable  out-of-pocket  Struyk  concludes  to renting units at a  cost. This  finding  relates  to  the  previous  discussion  of  space  needs.  Because of low housing costs, the extra, under-used space of spare recreation the  higher  rooms, etc, may be viewed as an almost free consumer  perception  However,  that  it  there are many  contributes  marginally  other factors which  to  may  total  is a strong  desire  has to a certain  extent  to own their become  own detached  a cultural  norm.  item,  shelter  costs.  For many  parting cannot  with be  said  investment of their lives. the  family of  homestead  renters.  may  In a study  dwelling.  In fact,  it  Many couples  spend much  of  amounts  Thus, it is understandable be difficult. of older  However,  homeowners  set of predictors  of the residential  and  satisfaction  than for that of homeowners.  For homeowners, attachment to their  home was a strong phenomenon  and one that was helpful  that  the  of  in explaining  same  renters,  O'Bryant and Wolf (1983) found that physical housing characteristics to be a better  to  families,  their working lives in order to pay for this asset, which for most to the biggest  with  influence the desire  remain in the family home, or at least in a family home. there  bedrooms,  appear renters  particular much  of  68  their housing satisfaction.  For homeowners, as opposed to renters,  satisfaction increased less gradually as housing quality It has been  generally  recognized  that  older  housing  improved.  persons  are  attached  to  their homes and that their high levels of satisfaction, may be the result  of  subjective  a  interpretations  rather  than objective  recent study, four factors measuring  (Lawton  'attachment to home  identified and found useful in the explanation satisfaction  ones  1  were  are: a) feelings  b) traditional family orientation,  In  empirically  of older homeowners  (0'Bryant 1983) rather than physical housing  These four factors  1980).  of competence  housing  characteristics.  in a familiar  environment,  c) the status value of homeownership,  and  d ) a c o s tc o m f o r t t r a d e - o f f - t h a ti s , w h e t h e r r e s p o n d e n t s f e l tt h e getting their monies For homeowners,  worth. attachment  to home was a strong phenomenon  was helpful in explaining much of their housing This set of four psychological  and one  that  in regards  to  satisfaction.  factors was more useful  explaining why homeowners were satisfied than either personal variables  or housing  characteristic  variables.  Many owners  their dwelling  a long time and thus had an opportunity  and  associated  feelings  with  those  dwellings.  demographic had lived  to establish Their  homes  memories often  significance for them in terms of family longevity and tradition.  had  Also,  was not surprising that they saw themselves as having influence and in the  it  status  community.  Among the implications of the 0'Bryant and Wolf study, it appears relocation  decisions  of  the  older  homeowner  may  seldom  be  due  dissatisfaction with the physical characteristics of their housing. improved  in  conditions  in alternative  housing,  many elderly  homeowners  that to  Despite will  69  remain  in  their  homes  significance of those  because  of  the  great  psychological  value  and  homes.  Neighbourhood The  empty  nester,  just  considerable  emotional  dwelling  neighbourhood  and  possessions 1977).  security  the  elderly  by living  which  can  homeowner,  may  in a familiar  accommodate  experience  and memory  a lifetime  of  laden collected  and encourage the visitation of friends and relatives  Goldscheider  mobility  as  in  old  (1971) has also hypothesized  age  can  be  explained  by  a  (Golant,  that much of the  higher  level  of  reduced  social  economic investment in their home communities relative to other life The  findings  statement  of  as they  McCauley found  that  and  Nutty  some  (1982) would  segments  of  support  the population  and  stages.  the  above  have  high  thresholds with respect to mobility and that such individuals are likely neither seek out those amenities they desire nor to act upon such if they should encounter thresholds.  It  may  availability  of  desired  present  neighbourhood  them.  be  amenities  Older persons appear to have such  that  older  features  persons  because  adequately  match  are  the  less  higher  responsive  characteristics  of  their residential preferences.  freedom to choose the ideal area for their households  describe what  it would be like.  likely to give 'right here  1  Those  in Burnaby, B.C., (Vischer, 1982)). nest  households,  expressed  Vischer  resistance  found  to various  a  This is similar to  and  forms  on  the  part  of neighbourhood  of  to more  findings  In an area of large proportion of desire  An they  in older categories were far  as their response.  to their  open-ended question by McCauley and Nutty asked respondents to suppose had absolute  to  residents,  redevelopment,  empty who to  70  want to move into higher density dwellings (that were currently in order to stay in the same neighbourhood. that 31% of the respondents  What is further significant,  in the Vischer  study did not expect  ever, and 39% want to stay in their present neighbourhood Thus  the  importance  of  neighbourhood  factor in the decision to  unavailable)  attachment  is  to  move  if they did  move.  appears  to  be  a  strong  relocate.  Movers The discussion large  proportion  to this point has been oriented of empty  movers  continue  towards explaining  to occupy  family  housing.  order to understand what may motivate an empty nester to accept accommodations,  a review  is now  provided  of  empty nesters who have moved away from family  the  possible  why  In  alternative  motivations  of  accommodation.  Once a family has decided to move, it must then determine where to and what  type of unit to move  to.  decision  of where  again  be similar  earlier  (i.e.  structure  type,  to move  space,  likely that various  may  tenure,  combinations  The factors which  and weights  The  findings  may  to the  and  norms  the  described  neighbourhood).  It  is  to  these  suggestions  that  empty  Johnson and  Schanbacher  category.  Costs of the Vancouver  nesters have considerable  equity  study  support  in their homes.  (1983) suggest it is not until the owners are financially strapped for do they take advantage or smaller  move  influence  will be attributed  factors by sub-populations within the empty nest Space and Housing  a  of their housing  owner occupied  unit.  investment  by downsizing  As has been described  earlier,  to a a paid  cash rental for  71  home, where maintenance can be delayed, if necessary, is the least  expensive  housing  the  most  considering  its  for many  appropriate costs  to  older  persons.  surroundings, the  Such  nevertheless,  homeowner.  Thus,  not  it is a  'bargain'  of  Macleod and Ellis found that in household formation and expansion  and  then  reduction  income effect  stages  space  represent  result  desiring some other housing  any  a home may reduction  may  be  a  feature.  that  a statistically  on per-capita  space  significant  consumption  positive  occurs.  Macleod  household and  Ellis  conclude from their results that household consumption is more influenced wealth and income constraints than by the family The results series  of  of the Vancouver  crosstabs  was  CMA sample  conducted  by  life-cycle. support  to determine  this latter  the  view.  relationship  A  between  number or rooms (size of dwelling) and other variables such as age  (assuming  this may represent health) children ever born (assuming this may  influence  size of  The  family  and  hence  determine  size of  unit  needed)  etc.  one  overwhelming variable which was associated with room count for empty  nesters  was  at  total  income.  Chi-square  and Kendall's  Tau B were  significant  the  0.0000 level and indicates that higher income empty nesters generally  occupy  larger dwellings while lower income empty nesters generally occupy  smaller  dwellings. were  Similar results were also achieved when all families and  crosstabulated.  variable determines nesters.  Thus  it appears  that  income,  any  other  the size of dwelling which is occupied for some  empty  This finding should not be surprising  income (wealth) and life cycle.  more  than  income  in view of related work  King and Dicks-Mireaux  (1982) have  on shown  that asset holdings peak during the ages 45 to 60 while Goldsmith and Linger (1975)  have  found  a direct  relationship  between  economic  status  and  life  72  cycle.  As the  life  cycle  progresses,  economic  status  increases.  Thus  larger home may actually be more affordable to empty nesters than when had children at  they  home.  Other reasons for downsizing desiring  less  space  either.  may not necessarily  Rather,  empty  be a direct  nesters  who  result  of  may  be  do move  searching for units requiring less outdoor maintenance or security.  These  types of attributes are generally found in multiple housing units which generally  considered  some other housing  feature.  Structure Type and  Tenure  Thus, acquiring  Wieler (1973) concluded that the desire to retain homeownership but of a type  suitable  to that  maintenance  and responsibility.  search  away  is  co-operative  from  life  stage which  remains  requires  minimal  He found that for empty nest movers, family  units.  dwellings  towards  the  condominium  and  important  as  to scaled down accommodation  and  to be a relationship  age  Rental  apartments  housing allowing adjustments  to new geographic Wieler  single  ownership  transitional  are  to be smaller than say detached family units.  any reduction in space may actually occur as an indirect result of  strong,  seem  settings.  also found that there appeared  of the head and the couples housings goals.  between  For example, if couples  were  over 55 years of age, they tended to be more inflexible and conservative their attitudes towards testing new forms of housing, while younger nest  couples  seemed  to  be  more  interested  in  be  related  possibilities.  Though  this  could  suggests  it  be  related  that  a  may  an to  age  generational  exploring  new  phenomenon, influences  in empty  housing Wieler such  as  73  pre-depression  and  post-depression  life  result  in  (1983) have speculated that empty nesters  who  differing attitudes towards new housing Johnson and Schanbacher  experiences  which  ventures.  do move are motivated by physical limitations of old age which makes maintenance advancing either  a formidable years  have  task.  who wished  This would  to remain  relocate  maintenance.  The results of this study, however, do not indicate that  is a primary  motive,  dwelling  as reflected  for  maintenance,  type/tenure  in the relationship  ignore  which  included  of age and  this dwelling  There was found to be no significant association between age of  nesters and dwelling Community and Its Housing  Location  location  in  community  is also purchased.  particular  empty  type.  is a locationally the  of would  or  a  others  dwellings  maintenance  to  upon  detached  nesters  employ  a  rely  in single  that empty  to  type.  or  indicate  routine  surrounding  unit  could  fixed  asset,  and when  neighbourhood  and  that asset  membership  in  couples  enter  the  easily  be  superseded  housing  preferences.  Ph.D. dissertation,  empty  nester  stage,  He suggests  increasing  desire  for  preference  for geographic  bought,  the  larger  Thus the desire for a given amount of space by  environmental  towards the current residence or available alternative downsize In an unpublished  is  independence  units.  are  significant  of the change is expressed  from family.  once  changes  in  is related  to  partially  through  There is a preference  for  proximity towards married adult children with young families and away  from  aging parents.  separation  that much which  concerns  Wieler (1970) concluded that there  in  Empty nesters seem to prefer to be separate and  independent  74  yet within easy access to other members of their family. results  of  the  Vancouver  CMA  analysis,  living independently among empty McCauley  there  As shown by  is a strong  trend  the  towards  nesters.  (1982) in a study of life-cycle  and housing  consumption,  found  that older couples with no children at home (empty nesters) have  significant  residential  McCauley s  analysis,  preferences it  appears  from that  neighbourhood  character  neighbourhood,  kind  other empty  (i.e. of  nesters  becoming the  concluded  people  an empty  community  in  and  with  mid-life  social  family  costs  From  concerned  much  neighbours,  and  in housing  1  more  with  reputation  of  appearance  of  as a result  of  for less commitment  to  general  persons.  preference  to a desire  connection in the  stages.  stages.  changes  closer  of  area  nester may be related  associated and  that  are  friendliness  neighbourhood) than other life-cycle Wieler  life-cycle  to  social  Wieler region  and  housing  identified  influenced  that  arrangements the extent  the movement  of  of empty  nesters. McCauley interested  (1982) however, found that empty nesters were generally in  the  availability  of  cultural  Understandably,  any  preference  related  to  significantly  less preferred  Preston and Taylor  than  and  child  in earlier  recreation rearing  life-cycle  stages.  simply solution.  a case  of empty of  while only a brief overview nesters,  identifying  over  nevertheless consumption  increase  commitments.  of the housing  indicates and  were  However,  (1981) found that leisure activities actually  The above discussion, and motivations  facilities.  facilities  after the children have left home, as there is less family time  then  that finding  less  it is a  There are a number of complex factors which must be considered  needs not simple to  75  ascertain whether it is desirable to reduce the housing consumption of nesters.  empty  76  CHAPTER  V  SUMMARY AND  CONCLUSIONS  Summary This  study  addressed  three  research  objectives:  a)  to  develop  demographic profile of empty nesters and describe their housing  consumption,  b) to determine the number of empty nesters who are occupying family of the housing  a  needs of empty nesters  housing  and c) provide  a summary  which  cause  them to occupy  the type of housing which they do and which needs must  considered of policy intervention or market strategies regarding the nester issue are to be The growing  findings  both  empty  considered.  indicate  group,  be  that  historically,  within  been  a  population, and that in the Vancouver CMA, empty nester households  represent  nesters  relatively  have  national  Empty  and  nesters  the  as much as 18% of all  absolutely  empty  households.  maintain  a strong  propensity  to live  independently  as  indicated by 89% of empty nest couples in Vancouver who live in  households  without  does  influence  any  other  persons  the decision  present.  It  appears  to live independently,  that  however,  income  not  among those  empty  nesters living with other persons, the lower income empty nesters tend  to  live  is  no  relationship between independently living empty nesters and age, number  of  with  children  more ever  persons born,  than or  higher  religion.  income There  ethniticity that may be worthy of further Empty nest families wherein generally  empty are  nesters. some  There  differences  among  study.  the household head is age 65 or older  'cash poor' as indicated by annual  income, relative to those  are who  77  are  below  retirement  age.  However,  empty  nesters  generally  have  lower  housing costs than the general population, particularly other families. lower costs are assumed to occur because of greater equity in the Single empty  detached  nesters.  moving,  While  there  are the most  is a strong  popular  tendency  form  home.  of housing  for  ownership  upon  to retain  it is not quite as great as those families with children  Condominiums other  dwellings  are not as popular destinations  housing  tendency  forms  such  to retain  as  single  home.  for empty nest movers as  detached  housing.  income appears  There  is a  are strong  tenure,  with higher income empty nesters owning, while lower income empty  nesters  rent.  Empty better  and  at  to influence  generally  homeownership  The  nesters  perceive  themselves  repair than other households.  other  households  periods of  and generally  as  occupying  housing  in  slightly  Empty nesters are not as mobile  have lived  in their  dwellings  for  as  longer  time.  One-quarter of pre-1960 single detached housing in the Vancouver CMA occupied  by empty  demographic larger units  group than  nest  families,  in the  inner  required  indicating suburbs.  for shelter  that Empty  for empty nesters.  are  nesters  alone.  nesters are in units larger than the literature  they Almost  are  a  significant generally  one-half  of  in empty  indicates is the ideal  Empty nesters in single detached dwellings occupy 19%  all such dwellings in the Vancouver accommodation,  this analysis accommodation^is  indicates  contributing  size of  CMA.  While some may argue that empty nesters are occupying large amounts family  is  to family housing supply  that the number  of empty  nesters  of  difficulties, in family  only roughly equal to the number of families who appear  type to  78  be  under-housed.  However,  the  study  also  found  that  the  greatest  over-consumers  of housing does not appear to be empty nesters, but  with children  themselves.  Life  cycle  housing  literature  adjustments  one  However,  in  locations  are not available,  family  some  as  generally  adjusts  particularly  cases, to  progresses  where  the  of  There  appears  or  picture  housing  the  of  currently  housing  to be a number  to some as excess  children and grandchildren  types  occupied.  and the  This  is  it acceptable  to  of social  norms  such as space,  tenure,  norms which must be satisfied  entice empty nesters to move from owner occupied family type appears  stages.  adjustment,  to find  of  space.  structure type, quality and neighbourhood What  series  cycle  a housing  appear  a  life  suitable  than making  nesters who  adapt to an excess of housing  a  through  resources  rather  type  true for empty  depicts  families  space may  to  accommodation.  in fact be space  when visiting, space for material  reserved  for  possessions,  etc. Tenure investment empty  and who  detached  relative  type  play  an  potential of housing, which  nesters  single  structure  security  are  retired  housing  is  compared  or approaching  familiar  to  to other  equity  in their  homes  most  housing and  housing costs compared to alternative  role  is particularly  appear as too risky to experiment with. significant  important this  defining  the  important for  many  state.  empty  nesters  and  offers  Further, many empty nesters  have  relatively  low  monthly  tenures.  Neighbourhood satisfaction and identity are important considerations empty nesters as living in a particular  of may  have  and  Ownership  tenure which  thus  types  in  dwelling  also equates with living  to in  79  a  particular  neighbourhood.  surroundings  become  Ties  difficult  to  with  discharge  friends, when  familiarity  contemplating  with  a  housing  adjustment. Conclusions When reviewing the results of this thesis, it should be noted that 1981 Census data is cross-sectional, demographic 1981.  and housing  and as such is only an indication  characteristics  for the empty  as being longitudinal.  of  nest population  Although the data is often analyzed based upon age groups, the  should not be interpreted  the  For example,  in study  differences  between age groups should not be interpreted as age related, rather, it quite  possible  that these differences  may be generational.  empty  nesters  born  may well  during  the  1930's  have  developed  attitudes towards housing than those born in other decades. has not been addressed  in the  regarding  contributing  empty  as a result  nesters  what  of the apparent  and the various  to family housing problems.  not pre-judge  It is important  researchers  should  focus  attempt  supply  appropriate  housing  from  this  to get  out  their  current  phenomenon  that that  empirical they  were  researchers  appropriate on  the  resources of  for and  this needs  group. of  this  direction housing  Rather, group rather  and than In  essence, policy or market strategy should represent pull factors rather  than  factors.  them  housing  value  units.  push  policies  This  is 'adequate housing' for empty nesters or make  regarding  implement  different  lack of  assumptions  judgements to  example,  study.  The study was conducted data  For  is  80  Efforts aimed at encouraging housing may be difficult. low housing addressed  costs, or  especially dwelling  at  of  It would appear that financial obstacles such  as  concern least  for  investment  satisfied  highlighted size.  empty nesters to move to other types  by  the  Certainly  by  there  positive  government  is a strong  which must be considered. wish  to  eventually  neighbourhood,  move  limited  new  housing  the  association  housing  contributed to the financial benefits of Further,  and  policy  cash flow must types.  This  is  income  and  in recent years  has  between  homeownership.  commitment  to neighbourhood  and  community  It is ironic that while many empty nesters to  alternative  their current attitudes  housing  forms  in their  oppose the construction  family  influences  homeownership  Uncertainty changes  in a society may  be  a  and unfamiliarity  which  barrier with  has been geared to  many  alternative  in tenure, size of dwelling,  may  present  of  housing  which will bring about these changes (Vischer Skaburskis Planners, Cultural  1982).  towards  current  single  empty  nesters.  housing which may  loss of ground orientation  densities must be alleviated before housing adjustments will  involve  and  higher  occur.  The analysis of the Vancouver CMA indicates that there are distinct marked  differences  example,  the  in regional  popularity  of  areas  from  that of national  condominiums  in  Vancouver  trends.  appears  considerable less than the national average, while single detached appear  more popular.  sensitive  This highlights  the need of housing  Housing Consequently,  and For  to  be  dwellings  analysts  to regional trends for it not only suggests differing  but differing  be  to  be  problems,  treatments. in our  society  it is difficult  is viewed  as being more  to objectively  measure  than  basic  shelter.  'adequate'  housing.  81  Many subjective and personal considerations this  consumer  neighbourhood.  item  and  the  are involved in the purchase  automatic  inclusion  in  the  Empty nesters are concentrated Vancouver the  and therefore  existing  issue which nesters  adjacent  The review of empty nest housing consumption highlights  space requirements alone are not sufficient to judge housing  family must  housing  be  stock  addressed  are encouraged  is  consideration.  'will society  to move?'.  Metropolitan  that this is an inefficient  warrants  be  In a democratic  that  adequacy.  in inner suburban areas in  the allegations  of  use  However,  better  off  free market  of the  if  empty  society,  it  would be politically unacceptable to force redistribution by overt  coercive  measures,  encourage  and  it  may  also  be  economically  redistribution through market or public  infeasible  to  policy.  Empty nesters have been found to occupy significant amounts of which  is well suited for families with children.  research  should  not occur within  a framework  may be perceived as an over-consumption  The emphasis on  of attempting  of housing.  consider what type of housing empty nesters  of family type housing,  remain on how to satisfy For excessive,  those  who  research  view  the  those  who  may  wish  should  The primary benefit the focus  be may  should encourage  stock.  consumption  may be better  what  Rather, research  however,  directed  of empty  to  nest  to a population  'over-consumers' of family housing, namely families For  to reduce  the needs of empty nesters as a means to  better use of the existing housing  further  require and how can they  encouraged to adopt such housing if made available. well be the freeing-up  housing  further  housing who are  as  being greater  themselves.  pursue  the  merits  of  a  redistribution policy for empty nesters in order to make more efficient  use  82  of the existing housing stock, the following questions must be First, what would  it take to encourage  make way for families with children? directed  to housing  forms which  risk and low out-flow maintained  and  housing  neighbourhood.  empty nesters to move It is suggested  offer financial  of personal  assets.  location  considered.  may  to  that the search  be  security  Personal best  in order  be  in terms  independence near  their  Also to be considered is whether any housing  of  low  must  be  existing  redistribution  program would be cost effective.  Could enough empty nesters be enticed  to  move  worth  a  to  make  redistribution  any  redistribution  than housing  by many as a consumer physical may  population.  effort?  And  finally,  shelter. have  no  It should be noted that housing has  item that is related  Therefore,  relationship  to social  prestige  one  persons  definition  to the  housing  desires  of  will been rather  adequate  of the  general  'Keeping up with the Joneses' means that some persons  housing  desires may never be satisfied, in which case redistribution  of the  stock to better match household size with dwelling size may be an task.  can  program guarantee that the vacated empty nest dwelling  actually be more intensely used? viewed  the  housing impossible  83  REFERENCES Blumenfeld, H., (1984) "Mismatch Between Size of Households and of Units", City Magazine, Volume VI, Number 3, pp.28-32. 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A Profile of the Emerging Empty-Nester for Urban and Community Studies, University of the Large Household: Implications for ntre For Urban and Community Studies,  Miron, J.D., (1983b) Demographic Change and Housing Demand in the 1980's and 1990's, Toronto: Centre for Urban and Community Studies, University of  85  Toronto. Morris, E.W. and M. Winter, (1975) "A Theory of Family Housing Journal of Marriage and the Family, Volume 37, pp. 79-88.  Adjustment",  Myers, D., (1978) "A New Perspective on Planning for More Balanced Metropolitan Growth", Growth and Change, Volume 9, pp. 8-19. Needleman, L., (1965) The Economies of Housing, London:  Staples.  0'Bryant, S.L., (1983) "The Subjective Value of 'Home' to Older Homeowners", Journal of Housing for the Elderly, Volume 1, Number 1, pp. 29-43. O'Bryant, S.L. and S.M. Wolf, (1983) "Explanations of Housing Satisfaction of Older Homeowners and Renters", Research on Aging, Volume 5, pp. 217-233. 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Demographic  Impacts  of in  Skaburskis and Associates, (1984) National Condominium Market Study, Summary, prepared for Research Division, Policy Development and Research Section, Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Ottawa. Statistics Canada, (1981a) Households and Family Projections: Canada, Provinces and Territories, 1979-2001, Ottawa, Catalogue 91-522. Statistics Canada, (1981b) Selected Social and Economic Vancouver, Ottawa, Catalogue 95-978.  Characteristics:  Struyk, R.J., (1980) "Housing Adjustments of Relocating Elderly Gerentologist, Volume 20, pp. 45-55.  Households",  86  Vancouver, City of, (1983) Coreplan, Vancouver Planning  Department.  Vischer Skaburskis, Planners, (1982) The Changing Canadian Suburb: A Study of Burnaby B.C., Prepared for Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation: Ottawa. Wieler, V.J., (1970) Market Responses to Life Stage Needs: A Study Mid-life Housing Preferences, unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington, Seattle. Winnick, L., (1957) American Housing and Its Use, New York:  Case of  Wiley.  Wiseman, R.F., (1978) Spatial Aspects of Aging, Resource Papers for College Geography Number 78-4, Washington D.C: Association of American Geographers.  


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