UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The French trio for two dessus and bass 1686-1706 Page, Janet Kathleen 1986

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1986_A8 P33.pdf [ 12.2MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0097141.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0097141-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0097141-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0097141-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0097141-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0097141-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0097141-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0097141-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0097141.ris

Full Text

THE FRENCH TRIO FOR TWO DESSUS AND BASS 1686-1706 By JANET KATHLEEN PAGE B.Mus., Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , 1979 Mus.M., U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, 1982 THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Music) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the req u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February 1986 ©Janet Kathleen Page, 1986 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood th a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of Music The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date March g, 1986 )E -6 (3/81) ABSTRACT Trios f o r two t r e b l e i n s t r u m e n t a l parts and bass began to appear i n France during the f i n a l years of the seventeenth century. Between 1686, when the f i r s t t r i o s appeared as movements w i t h i n Marc-Antoine C h a r p e n t i e r 1 s "Sonata," and 1706, when the q u a r r e l over French and I t a l i a n musical s t y l e s had reached i t s height and I t a l i a n a t e t r i o s had begun to be composed i n France, many prominent French composers i n c l u d i n g Marin Marais, Francois Couperin and Jean-Fe"ry Rebel wrote works f o r t h i s combination. Taken as a group, these new French t r i o s m i r r o r the musical m i l i e u w i t h i n which they were composed; some are predominantly French i n s t y l e , r e f l e c t i n g the c o n t i n u i n g s t r e n g t h of French musical t r a d i t i o n s i n the period f o l l o w i n g the death of L u l l y , a few from the end of the period are h i g h l y I t a l i a n a t e , showing the i n f l u e n c e of the i n c r e a s i n g l y popular I t a l i a n i n strumental s t y l e , and a number are experimental works of mixed s t y l e , r e f l e c t i n g the ongoing d i s c u s s i o n of the merits of each s t y l e and the attempts of composers to come to terms w i t h the dichotomy between them. In t h i s t h e s i s , the French t r i o f o r two dessus and bass i s examined from a number of d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s . Chap-t e r 1 i s an examination of the musical m i l i e u of the t r i o , i n c l u d i n g performance t r a d i t i o n s and musical thought, through documents and l i t e r a r y sources of the per i o d . In Chapter 2 , the French and I t a l i a n musical t r a d i t i o n s that i n f l u e n c e d the new t r i o s are described. Chapter 3 i s a d i s c u s s i o n of the composers, the sources and the musical s t y l e of the new t r i o s . Here the dichotomy between the French and I t a l i a n s t y l e s serves as the main poin t of reference, from which elements such as form, terminology, inst r u m e n t a t i o n , t e x t u r e , melodic s t y l e and harmony are examined. The Appendix con-t a i n s a s e l e c t i o n of t r i o s not a v a i l a b l e i n modern e d i t i o n s . While i t i s not always p o s s i b l e to e s t a b l i s h a d i r e c t l i n e of i n f l u e n c e f o r each s t y l i s t i c element i n each t r i o , many s p e c i f i c l i n k s can be shown, and i n t e r e s t i n g patterns are revealed. Each composer uses a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t com-b i n a t i o n of elements, and the r e s u l t i n g body of works i s va r i e d and i n t e r e s t i n g , i l l u s t r a t i n g the v i t a l i t y of French musical l i f e during t h i s p e r i o d . TABLE OP CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i LIST OF EXAMPLES v i i PREFACE -x Chapter 1 . THE TRIO AND ITS MUSICAL MILIEU 1 The T r i o i n Performance 1 French and I t a l i a n M u s i c a l S t y l e s i n France 1686-1706 16 French Music vs I t a l i a n Music: The Quarrel between Francois Raguenet and Jean-Laurent Le Cerf de l a V i e V i l l e 20 2. MUSICAL INFLUENCES ON THE NEW FRENCH TRIO . . . . 28 The French M u s i c a l T r a d i t i o n 28 T r i o t e x t u r e i n the L u l l i a n s t y l e 28 The French dance t r a d i t i o n 36 Elements of French musical s t y l e 41 The French chamber music t r a d i t i o n 45 The f a n t a s i a s t y l e 46 The bass v i o l t r a d i t i o n 47 The I t a l i a n Instrumental S t y l e i n France . . . 50 The v i o l i n 50 The continuo 54 Formal aspects of the C o r e l l i a n sonata . . . 57 Other I t a l i a n composers 61 3. THE FRENCH TRIO' 1 686-1 706 67 The Composers and the Sources 67 Formal Concepts: The S u i t e and the Sonata . . . 83 Instrumentation and Instrumental S t y l e . . . . 102 Texture 109 Melodic S t y l e 119 Harmonic Language . . . 128 i v BIBLIOGRAPHY 133 APPENDIX: AN ANTHOLOGY OF FRENCH TRIOS FOR TWO DESSUS AND BASS 1686-1706 144 Sebastien de Brossard, Suonata 1 A a 2 vv e v i o l e d i gamba o b l i g a t a con organo 145 M i c h e l de l a Barre, Pieces en t r i o pour l e s v i o l o n s , f l u s t e s et hautbois (1694), S u i t e IV . . . 159 Jean-F^ry Rebel, Sonates a I I et a I I I p a r t i e s , Sonata I I I 175 Toinon, R e c u e i l de t r i o nouveaux pour l e v i o l o n * h autbois. f l u t e , T r i o Sommeil 192 Michel Lambert, Pieces en t r i o pour l e s v i o l o n s , f l u t e s ou hautbois 196 Trouver sur l ' h e r b e t t e 196 Ma Bergere 197 v LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Dances i n French Dramatic Music 1656-1718 . . . . 38 2. French T r i o s f o r Two Dessus and Bass 1686-1706 68 v i LIST OF EXAMPLES Example 1. Lambert, " I I est v r a i , " Pieces en t r i o , 1-6 . . . 25 2. ' L u l l y , " R i t o u r n e l l e pour l e s f l u t e s , " Les Amants magnifiques, Scene d e r n i e r e , T^IO 30 3. L u l l y , "Que tout r e t e n t i s s e , " A l c e s t e , Prologue, 1 -30 • 30 4. L u l l y , "Malgre' tant d'orages," A l c e s t e , act 1 , sc. 7, 1-8 32 5. L u l l y , "Nous. ne~' saurions - c h o i s i s , ".-Amadis , Prologue, 1-5 V 34 6. L u l l y , "J'en v a i s perdre l a v i e , " "Trios de l a chambre," 1-8 34 7. F r e i l l o n Ponce i n , "De l a mlience en fugue," La V e r i t a b l e maniere, p. 61, 1-9 42 8. Marais, "81. F a n t a i s i e en echo," Pieces a. une et a deux v i o l e s , 1-6 42 9. Louis Couperin, Symphonie, 1-6 47 10. C o r e l l i , Op. 111/12:6 A l l e g r o , 5-6 51 11. C o r e l l i , Op. 111 / 4 :4 P r e s t o , 2-4 51 12. C o r e l l i , Op. IV/3:2 Corrente a l l e g r o , 1-12 . . . 52 13. C o r e l l i , Op. V/4:1 Adagio, 1-2 53 14. C o r e l l i , Op. 111/6:3 A l l e g r o , 29 - 3 0 55 15. C o r e l l i , Op. 111/1:2 A l l e g r o , 29-31 56 16. C o r e l l i , Op. 111/7:2 A l l e g r o , 13-17 56 17. C o r e l l i , Op. 1/12:4 A l l e g r o , 26-28 57 18. Bassani, Sonata f o r 2 v i o l i n s , v i o l o n c e l l o (ad l i b i t u m ) and organ a: Adagio, 1-4 63 b: P r e s t i s s i m o , 1-4 63 c: Adagio e f o r t e , 1-4 64 d: P r e s t i s s i m o , 1-4 64 19. Dandrieu, Sonate en t r i o I I , Adagio 82 20. Toinon, " T r i o Sommeil," R e c u e i l de t r i o nouveaux, 21-23 86 21. De l a Barre, Prelude, Pieces en t r i o (1694), S u i t e V I , 1-12 89 22. Dandrieu, Sonate en t r i o V a : Adagio, 1-3 92 b: Vivace, 1-6 92 23. Dandrieu, Adagio, Sonate-en t r i o IV, 1-12 . . . . 93 24. Dandrieu, Adagio, Sonate en t r i o VI, 1-5 . . . . 94 25. Duval, Gay-Lentement, Seconde L i v r e de Sonates, Sonate V, 74-78 95 v i i 26. Rebel, Gay-Air s e u l , Sonates a I I et a I I I p a r t i e s , Sonate I 98 27. Couperin, Gayement, La V i s i o r m a i r e , 1-5 . . . . 100 28. Marais, P e t i t e P a s s a c a i l l e , Pieces en t r i o , S u i t e I , 57-60 103 29. De l a Barre, Chaconne, Pieces en t r i o (1694), S u i t e V I, 138-42 103 30. Marais, P a s s a c a i l l e , Pieces en t r i o , S u i t e V, 49-53 103 31. Dandrieu, Vivace, Sonate en t r i o V I, 18-22 . . . 104 32. Dandrieu, Pre s t o , Sonate en t r i o I I , 2-4 . . . . 105 33. Duval, Gay, Seconde L i v r e de Senates, Sonate I I , 14-16 105 34. Rebel, Vivement, Sonates a. I I et a I I I p a r t i e s , "Le Tombeau de L u l l y , " - 2 6 7 - 7 0 . . . . 105 35. La Guerre, A l l e g r o e pr e s t o , "Suonatas a 2 vv. , Sonata 1,1-4 105 36. Couperin, Legerement, L 1 A s t r 6 e , 1-3 106 37. Bros sard, A l l e g r o , ^Suonata 2 a," 25-26 107 38. Rebel, Vivement, Sonates a I I et a I I I p a r t i e s , "Le Tombeau de L u l l y f » 375-74 %. . . . 107 39. Rebel, Recit-Gravement, Sonates a I I et a I I I p a r t i e s , Sonate V, 21-22 . . . 108 40. La Guerre, Vivace, "Suonatas a 2 vv.," Sonata I I , 14 108 41. Duval, Grave, Seconde L i v r e de Sonates, Sonate 1,1-6 111 42. De l a Barre, Sarabande, Pieces en t r i o (1700), Sui t e IV, 19-24 111 43. Marais, P a s s a c a i l l e , Pieces en t r i o , S u i t e V, 49-52 113 44. Toinon, V i t e , R e c u e i l de t r i o nouveaux, "T r i o Sommeil," 36-45 114 45. Rebel, Vivement, Sonates a. I I et a I I I p a r t i e s , »JLe Tombeau de L u l l y , " 239-43 . . . . 116 46. La Guerre, A r i a a f f e t t u o s o bemol, "Suonatas a 2 vv.," Sonata I I I , 4-7 117 47. Brossard, Rondeau, "Suonata 2a," 1-8 117 48. L u l l y , " L ' A i r des hautbois" 118 49. Marais, Caprice, Pieces en t r i o , S uite V, 1-5 120 50. Marais, Symphonie, Pieces en t r i o , Suite I I I , 1-4, 14-17 121 51. Marais, Prelude, Pieces en t r i o , Suite V, 38-42 122 52. a: Brossard, A l l e g r o , "Suonata l a , " 1-5 . . . . 123 b: Rebel, Gay, Sonates a. I I et a I I I p a r t i e s , Sonate IV, 1-7 123 c: La Guerre, A l l e g r o , "Suonatas a 2 vv.," Sonata I I I , 1-2 123 d; Duval, V i t e , Seconde L i v r e de Sonates, Sonate I , 1-2 123 v i i i 53. a: Couperin, Le"gerement, La Superbe. 1 124 b; Couperin, Gayement, L' Astrge, T~ . 124 c: Couperin, Le'gerement, La P u c e l l e , 1-2,. . . . . 124 d: Couperin, L6g£rement, La V i s i o n n a i r e , 2 . . . 125 54. a: Rebel, Gay, Sonates a I I et a. I l l p a r t i e s , Sonate I , 1-3 125 b: Couperin, Gayement, La p u c e l l e , 1-3 125 55. C o r e l l i , Op. 1/12:4 A l l e g r o , 1-3 126 56. a: "L'Ordonnance pour l a P i f r e " 127 b: Couperin, Mouvement de f a n f a r e s , Le Steinquerque, 4-5 127 57. Marais, P l a i n t e lentement, Pieces en t r i o , S u ite I I I , 11-14 129 58. Toinon, T r i o - P r e l u d e , R e c u e i l de t r i o nouveaux, 11-16 129 i x PREFACE Trio s f o r two t r e b l e parts and bass began to appear as independent compositions i n France during the f i n a l years of the seventeenth century. Related i n texture both to the I t a l i a n t r i o sonata, which reached France around t h i s time, and to the t r a d i t i o n a l t r i o i n t e r l u d e of L u l l i a n opera, the new French t r i o provided an opening f o r the appearance of I t a l i a n i n s t r u m e n t a l s t y l e i n French music and a v e h i c l e f o r the c o n t i n u a t i o n of French t r a d i t i o n s . The death of Jean B a p t i s t e L u l l y i n 1687 paved the way f o r a more open d i s c u s s i o n of French and I t a l i a n s t y l e s . During the period between 1686 and 1706, French composers dis p l a y e d an awareness of the dichotomy between these two s t y l e s , choosing to maintain the French s t y l e , adopt the I t a l i a n or to develop a personal sy n t h e s i s of the two. The s o l u t i o n s reached by the composers of the new t r i o s r e s u l t e d i n a c o l l e c t i o n of i n t e r e s t i n g chamber music l i t t l e known today. A comparison of the s o l u t i o n s reached by d i f f e r e n t composers w i t h i n t h i s common t e x t u r a l framework provides an i n s i g h t i n t o a t t i t u d e s towards these d i f f e r e n t s t y l i s t i c t r a d i t i o n s i n France around the end of the seventeenth century. Although i t s i n f l u e n c e was d e c l i n i n g , the court remained the centre of French musical l i f e during t h i s p e r i o d . Louis XIV heard chamber music concerts as often as s e v e r a l x times a week. These concerts were r e l a t i v e l y p r i v a t e events at which the pomp and ceremony that surrounded the monarchy — e x p r e s s e d i n part through t r a d i t i o n a l French m u s i c — c o u l d be r e l a x e d somewhat. Louis enjoyed performances of music i n both French and I t a l i a n s t y l e s , and probably heard the newest compositions i n the mixed s t y l e ; many of the composers experimenting w i t h the t r i o and the solo sonata appeared at these concerts as performers. The p o p u l a r i t y of I t a l i a n music i n France increased r a p i d l y during t h i s p e r i o d . Many Frenchmen v i s i t e d I t a l y , and brought back with them not only a t a s t e f o r I t a l i a n music, but the music i t s e l f . The Duke of Orleans enjoyed I t a l i a n music and employed I t a l i a n - t r a i n e d musicians, and the Abbe Mathieu, Cure' of Saint-Andre-des-Arts, sponsored concerts at which the works of C o r e l l i were apparently f i r s t heard i n P a r i s . Composers who had not had the opportunity to v i s i t I t a l y could become f a m i l i a r w i t h I t a l i a n s t y l e s i n P a r i s , and had a r e c e p t i v e audience f o r t h e i r experimental new works. The reawakened i n t e r e s t i n I t a l i a n music prompted a r e v i v a l of the l i t e r a r y q u a r r e l over the merits of French and I t a l i a n music. Francois Raguenet and Jean-Laurent Le Cerf de l a V i e v i l l e were the p r i n c i p a l spokesmen, the former f o r I t a l i a n and the l a t t e r f o r French music. I t a l i a n music was now l i n k e d w i t h the "moderns" and French music w i t h the "ancients"; t h i s q u a r r e l was, i n e f f e c t , a debate over x i the old and the new. While s i n g i n g and o p e r a t i c s t y l e were the focus of a t t e n t i o n , as they had been i n previous out-breaks of the q u a r r e l , the i n c l u s i o n of in s t r u m e n t a l chamber music i n the debate t e s t i f i e d to the increased p o p u l a r i t y and importance of t h i s medium. The c o n t r a s t i n g views of the opposing camps and the r e a c t i o n s of others to these views o f f e r important i n s i g h t s i n t o French concepts of I t a l i a n musical s t y l e . The t r i o s of t h i s period show the i n f l u e n c e of a number of French t r a d i t i o n s . The t r i o c d e s hautbois, the woodwind t r i o i n t e r l u d e used i n L u l l i a n opera as a co n t r a s t to the usual f i v e - p a r t o r c h e s t r a l t e x t u r e , was the p r i n c i p a l i n s t r u -mental t r i o t exture i n use i n France during the time of l u l l y ; many t r i o s w r i t t e n between 1686 and 1706 e x h i b i t f e a t u r e s derived from t h i s source. The French v o c a l a i r , s u i t e f o r s o l o keyboard or l u t e and v i r t u o s i c bass v i o l s t y l e were a l s o important i n f l u e n c e s . I t a l i a n i n s t r u m e n t a l music was represented i n France during t h i s period p r i m a r i l y by the t r i o sonata. The I t a l i a n composer who a t t r a c t e d the most a t t e n t i o n i n that country was Arcangelo O o r e l l i (1653-1713). The works of Giovanni B a t t i s t a Bassani (c. 1657-1716) were a l s o admired. The I t a l i a n t r e a t -ment of the v i o l i n as a v i r t u o s o s o l o instrument, and the terminology, movement types, form, melodic s t y l e , treatment of instruments and harmony of the I t a l i a n sonata a l l had an i n f l u e n c e on the new French t r i o . With the appearance of x i i I t a l i a n chamber music i n France, the compositional resources of French composers were g r e a t l y increased. The l i s t of t r i o composers from the period 1686-1706 includes many of the l e a d i n g French musicians of the day: Francois Couperin, Marin Marais, Jean-Pe'ry Rebel and E l i z a b e t h -Claude Jacquet de l a Guerre. The f i r s t i n s t r u m e n t a l l y -conceived t r i o s f o r two dessus and bass to be published i n France were the Pieces en t r i o (1692) by Marais. The Sonata a t t r i b u t e d to Marc-Antoine Charpentier, probably w r i t t e n A around 1686, contains movements i n t r i o texture as w e l l as movements i n s o l o and m u l t i - p a r t ensemble t e x t u r e s . Of the other t r i o s composed before the end of the century, many r e -mained, l i k e the Charpentier Sonata, i n manuscript form. The reasons f o r t h i s are probably r e l a t e d to the newness of the s t y l e and to the problems of p r i n t i n g monopolies. The importance of the t r i o f o r two dessus and bass i n France during t h i s period has been acknowledged, and t r i o s by i n d i v i d u a l composers have received some a t t e n t i o n . Those of La Guerre are examined w i t h i n the context of her l i f e and works by C a r o l Henry Bates i n "The Instrumental Music of 2 Elizabeth-Claude Jacquet de l a Guerre" .while those .of.De -la Barre are tr e a t e d b r i e f l y by Jane Bowers as e a r l y works of J u l i e Anne Sadie, "Charpentier and the E a r l y French Ensemble Sonata," E a r l y Music 7 (1979):330. 2 Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Indiana U n i v e r s i t y , 1975. x i i i the French F l u t e School i n "The French F l u t e School 1700-1760."^ Monte"clair' s Serenade ou Concert i s discussed i n Charles Gower P r i c e ' s r a t h e r one-sided study, "The C o d i f i c a t i o n and Perseverance of a French N a t i o n a l S t y l e of Instrumental Composition between 1687 and 1735: MontSclair's Serenade ou  C o n c e r t , a n d Charpentier's Sonata i s described i n J u l i e Anne Sadie's a r t i c l e "Charpentier and the French Ensemble Sonata." However, there has been no attempt to t r e a t the t r i o f o r two dessus and bass as a genre and to examine i t s musical sources and place i n French musical l i f e . This study i s an examination of the French t r i o f o r two dessus and bass as a genre w i t h i n the musical m i l i e u of l a t e seventeenth- and e a r l y eighteenth-century France. The dichotomy between French and I t a l i a n s t y l e s , an important f a c e t of t h i s m i l i e u , serves as the main point of reference, and the i n f l u e n c e of the two s t y l e s on elements such as form, terminology, instrumentation, t e x t u r e , melodic s t y l e and harmony i s discussed. This new point of view provides an expanded p i c t u r e of French music and musical l i f e during the period f o l l o w i n g the death of L u l l y . •7. "Th.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a a t Berkeley, 1971. ^Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Stanford U n i v e r s i t y , 1973. x i v CHAPTER 1 THE TRIO AND ITS MUSICAL MILIEU The T r i o i n Performance In the two decades f o l l o w i n g the death of Jean-Baptiste L u l l y i n 1687, the t r i o combination of two dessus w i t h bass gained a prominent p o s i t i o n i n chamber music i n the musical m i l i e u centred around the r o y a l court and the c i t y of P a r i s . This combination had not p r e v i o u s l y been common there i n instrumental chamber music. A few works w r i t t e n s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t r i o had appeared before 1690, but i t was only during the f i n a l decade of the century that such works began to be reg-u l a r i l y composed, played and discussed. By the end of the f i r s t decade of the eighteenth century, t h i s combination had 2 become very popular and many new t r i o s were being w r i t t e n . The court of Louis XIV ( r . 1643-1715) was the f o c a l D e s c r i p t i o n s of chamber music concerts from the preceding p e r i o d are found i n F r e d e r i c Robert, "La Musique a t r a v e r s Le Mercure g a l a n t , " Recherches sur l a musique  fra n g a i s e c l a s s i q u e 2 \1961 ) :174-90; Yolande de Brossard, "La Vie musicale en France d'apres Loret et ses continu-a t e u r s : 1650-1688," Recherches sur l a musique fr a n g a i s e  c l a s s i q u e 10 (1 969): 117-73; Marie B o b i l l i e r [ M i c h e l B r e n e t ] , Les Concerts en France sous 1'ancien re*gime ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e Fischbacher, 1900; r e p r i n t ed., New York: Da Capo Press, 1970). James R. Anthony, French Baroque Music from Beau- joyeulx to Rameau, Revised ed. (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1978), p. 304. 1 2 point of t h i s musical m i l i e u . Chamber music concerts were frequent at court during the f i n a l years of the seventeenth century and the opening years of the eighteenth; they assumed a more important place i n court entertainment during t h i s period than e a r l i e r i n the r e i g n . Less expensive and more p r i v a t e than l a r g e - s c a l e entertainments, they s u i t e d the mood of the k i n g and the temper of the times. The r i s e of the instrumental t r i o was part of t h i s trend. Court chamber music concerts of the period are doc-umented i n a number of sources: l e t t e r s and memoires such as those of Madame de Sevigne and the Marquis de Sourches,^ r e p o r t s i n Le Mercure g a l a n t , Dangeau's Journal and other 5 c h r o n i c l e s of the p e r i o d , the prefaces and ded i c a t i o n s attached by composers to t h e i r works, and a r c h i v a l doc-^Robert M. Isherwood, Music i n the Service of the  King ( I t h a c a : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1973), pp. 310-11. ^Madame de Sevigne*, Correspondance, 4 v o l s . , ed. Roger Duchene ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s G a l l i m a r d , 1978) and Norbert Dufourcq, ed., La Musique a. l a cour de Louis XIV et de  Louis XV d'apres l e s Memoires de Sourches et Luynes 1681- 1738 ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s A. & J . P i c a r d , 1970). Le Mercure g a l a n t , the o f f i c i a l court j o u r n a l , was issued monthly between 1672 and 1791. Dangeau's Journal reported court events between 1684 and 1720. Dangeau, a nobleman and a member of the Dauphin's household, was i n a p o s i t i o n to be w e l l informed. E x t r a c t s d e a l i n g w i t h musical l i f e from the Jou r n a l are c o l l e c t e d i n Chantal Masson, "Journal du Marquis de Dangeau," Recherches sur l a musique f r a n c a i s e c l a s s i q u e 2 (1961 ):197-226. 3 uments.^ A p i c t u r e of court chamber music l i f e , and the place of the t r i o i n i t , can be pieced together from t h i s m a t e r i a l . Chamber music was a part of d a i l y l i f e at court. In Dangeau's Journal there are many references s i m i l a r to the f o l l o w i n g : Sceaux, Thursday 11 September 1704 At nine o'clock the k i n g heard a concert of I t a l i a n music sung by the musicians of the Duke of Orleans . . . then there was a l i t t l e i n s t r u m e n t a l concert [un p e t i t concert d 1 i n s t r u m e n t s ] . 7 Francois Couperin, i n h i s "Preface" to the Concerts Royaux (1722), says that Louis XIV had c a l l e d on him to perform i n " p e t i t s concerts de chambre" almost every Sunday.^ Many of B o b i l l i e r , Les Concerts en France i n c l u d e s evidence from a r c h i v a l sources. M a r c e l l e Benoit, Musiques de cour: cnacelle., chambre. ec u r i e ) P a r i s : A. & J. P i c a r d , 1970)-is a c o m p i l a t i o n of court documents r e l a t i n g to music. Sebastien de Brossard, "Catalogue des l i v r e s de, musique . . . qui sont dans l e cabinet de Sr. Sebastien de Brossard . . . e s c r i t en l'anne'e 1724" B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e , Res. Vm8 21) con-t a i n s much val u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n about music, musicians and performances. 7 'Masson, "Journal de Dangeau," P. 211. "A 9 heures l e Roi entendit une musique i t a l i e n n e chante'e par l e s musiciens de Monsieur l e Due d'Orleans. . . . ensuite i l y eut un p e t i t concert d•instruments." Q Frangois Couperin, Oeuvres completes, ed.^Maurice Cauchie, v o l . 7: Concerts Royaux (1722) ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s de l'Oiseau l y r e , 1933), "Preface." "Les pieces qui Suivent sont d'une autre Espece que c e l l e s que j'ay donne"es jusqu'au present . . . Je l e s avois f a i t e s pour l e s p e t i t s concerts de chambre ou Louis quatorze me f a i s o i t V e n i r Presque tous l e s dimanches de l'annee. " 4 the concerts mentioned "by Dangeau are described i n s i m i l a r terms: as " p e t i t s concerts" or "une p e t i t e musique." Judging from those concerts that are more f u l l y d escribed, these terms r e f e r r e d to concerts of chamber music. I t i s unfortunate that Dangeau, l i k e many other observers of the p e r i o d , r a r e l y names the performers, composers or the com-b i n a t i o n of instruments. Many chamber music performances were sponsored by court personnages other than the k i n g . According to Dangeau, P h i l i p p e , Duke of Orleans ( 1 6 7 4 - 1 7 3 3 ) maintained a l a r g e musical household which included many well-known performers, and held concerts f r e q u e n t l y . The I t a l i a n - t r a i n e d v i o l i n i s t <Jean-Baptiste Anet, noted f o r h i s performances of C o r e l l i ' s q music i n the e a r l y eighteenth century, served him, as d i d the I t a l i a n v i o l i n i s t M i c h e l M a s c i t t i , the v i o l i n i s t Fran-c o i s Duval and the o r g a n i s t and h a r p s i c h o r d i s t Francois Dandrieu. The l a t t e r three musicians wrote t r i o s f o r two dessus w i t h bass as w e l l as other chamber music during the e a r l y years of the eighteenth century. L i k e Couperin, these composer-performers were probably expected to p a r t i c i p a t e i n performances of t h e i r own works before t h e i r patron. 1 0 The Duchess of Maine, the P r i n c e s s of C o n t i , the Duke and Duchess of Bourgogne and Madame de Maintenon were g M i c h e l Antoine, "Notes sur l e s v i o l i n i s t e s Anet,". Recherches sur l a musique f r a n c a i s e c l a s s i q u e 2 ( 1 9 6 1 ) : 8 6 . 1 0 Rene' V i o l l i e r , "La Musique a l a cour de l a Duchess du Maine," Revue musicale 2 0 , i i ('1 9 3 9 ) : 9 6 - 1 0 5 , 1 3 3 - 3 8 . 5 c i t e d i n Le Mercure galant. Dangeau's Journal and other sources as frequent sponsors of concerts. In 1701, Monseig-11 neur, the Duke of Bourgogne and other noblemen held a hunting party a t S a i n t Maur. The f o l l o w i n g entertainment was presented one evening: In the i n t e r v a l s of the promenade and the.;:idinner we were agreeably e n t e r t a i n e d by a very good concert performed by Couperin, Vizee, Forcroy [Forqueray] , Rebel and F a v r e , 1 2 P h i l i b e r t and Descoteaux and a l i t t l e g i r l about ei g h t or nine years old who sings very n i c e l y . 1 3 Concerts of chamber music are thus seen to have been l i n k e d w i t h other l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s of the n o b i l i t y . At t h i s con-c e r t , the f o r c e s were a v a i l a b l e to provide composer-performers w i t h the opportunity to try/out new works such as t h e i r newly-composed t r i o s . I f concerts were as frequent as has been suggested, the performers would have needed a s u b s t a n t i a l r e p e r t o i r e . Instrumental chamber music was sometimes performed Monseigneur was the t i t l e given to the Dauphin. 1 2 P o s s i b l y the v i o l i n i s t Antoine Favre ( c . 1670-c. 1737), who was a member of the orchestra of the Academie  Royale i n 1713, or h i s f a t h e r , Durand Favre, a v i o l i n i s t from Lyons. There i s no d i r e c t evidence l i n k i n g e i t h e r to court concerts during the e a r l y eighteenth century, 1 ^Le Mercure galant ( J u l y 1707):247. "Dans l e s i n t e r v a l e s de l a promenade & de souper, on f u t agr£ablement d i v e r t i par un t r e s beau concert compose* des Sieurs Couperin, Vize*e, Forcroy, Rebel & Favre, P h i l i b e r t & Descoteaux & d'une p e t i t e f i l l e agee de h u i t a. neuf ans, qui chante avec beaucoup d'ordre & de p r o p r e t e . " 6 as one part of a l a r g e r entertainment. The concert spon-sored by the French ambassador to the Danish court i n c e l e b r a t i o n of h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n to the new Danish k i n g , F r e d e r i c k IV, i n 1700 was described as f o l l o w s : Madame the Ambassadress, who, without being able to read music, sings a l l the operas w i t h an e x t r a o r d i n a r y accuracy, was the f i r s t a t t r a c t i o n of the concert. Mademoiselle de Malorty . . . was admired f o r the neatness of her p l a y i n g and the d e l i c a c y of her v o i c e . The v i o l i n s , f l u t e s and oboes and the other v o i c e s made the concert complete . . . At the concert, operas by L u l l y and a qu a n t i t y of b e a u t i f u l I t a l i a n pieces were sung. Simphonies and the most d i f f i c u l t sonatas were played.''*-While t h i s concert took place outside France, the performers were French, the r e p e r t o i r e i n the French t a s t e and the sponsor of the concert a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the French court. Thfii.concert' format most c e r t a i n l y i m i t a t e s French p r a c t i c e . Instrumental chamber music could a l s o serve a u t i l i t a r i a n purpose, that of e n t e r t a i n i n g the audience while a c t o r s i n a play changed t h e i r costumes: In the evening, the tragedy of Absalon was performed f o r the second time. A f t e r the tragedy there was "une p e t i t e musique" to give the ac t o r s time to change t h e i r costumes.15 4 L e Mercure galant (May 1700) :97 [ 6 7 ] . ."Madame 1'Ambassadrice q u i , sans sgavoir l a musique, chante tous l e s opera d'une justesse e x t r a o r d i n a i r e , f a i s o i t l e premier charme du concert. Mademoiselle de Malorty . . . f a i s o i t admirer l a proprete de son jeu & l a d e l i -catesse de sa v o i x . Les V i o l o n s , F l u t e s & Hautbois & l e s autres v o i x rendoient ce concert complet. . . . On y c h a n t o i t l e s opera de L u l l y & quantite de beaux mor-ceaux I t a l i e n s , on y j o u o i t a u s s i des Simphonies & des Sonates des plus d i f f i c i l e s . " 1 5 Masson, "Journal de Dangeau," p. 2 1 2 . 7 Most of the musicians who played chamber music at the r o y a l court were members of Louis X I V s Musique de chambre 16 or h i s Musique de cabinet. Other performers included f o r e i g n a r t i s t s , promising young musicians and c h i l d prod-i g i e s ; t h e i r concerts were recorded as unusual events. Eminent personnages such as the Duke of Orleans and the Duchess of Maine maintained separate musical establishments and o c c a s i o n a l l y borrowed musicians from the king's house-h o l d . Some musicians held p o s i t i o n s i n more than one house-1 7 hold a t the same time. Ensembles c o n s i s t i n g o f - a . p a i r of transverse f l u t e s w i t h bass seem to have been popular. A concert by one such ensemble, w i t h a theorbo t a k i n g the bass p a r t , was described i n Dangeau's Jo u r n a l i n November 1694: "1702 Vendredi 3 f e v r i e r Le s o i r , on joua pour l a deuxieme f o i s l a tragedie d'Absalon. Apres l a trag£die i l y eut une p e t i t e musique pour donner l e temps aux acteurs de changer d'habits." 16 The Musique de chambre was one of a number of groups of court musicians. Musicians of the Chambre provided music f o r suppers, b a l l s and the p r i v a t e entertainment of the k i n g . The Musique de chambre included among i t s members the Vingt-quatre V i o l o n s , the P e t i t s V i o l o n s , s i n g e r s and i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s . The Musique de Cabinet was a small and e x c l u s i v e s u b d i v i s i o n of the Chambre. Members of t h i s group performed f o r the p r i v a t e entertainment of the k i n g i n h i s Cabinet•and followed him when he t r a v e l l e d . They seem to have s p e c i a l i z e d i n the performance of chamber music. See Benoit, V e r s a i l l e s , pp. 194-207 and 2 3 2 - 3 4 . I b i d . , pp. 117-17-8 Monseigneur went to the opera i n P a r i s and there met the Duchess of Orleans. A f t e r the opera, he went with her f o r supper to the p e t i t Luxembourg, where the Duke c a l l e d on Descoteaux, F i l b e r t [ P h i l i b e r t ] and Vize* to play some music. 1^ The same group, with the a d d i t i o n of a: bass ..viol played by Marin Marais, presented a chamber concert as part of the amusements c e l e b r a t i n g the wedding of the Duke of A l b r e t and Mi l e de l a Tremouille i n 1696: The young people, to amuse themselves, could dance the most popular dances t o the accompaniment of chansons, '; play cards, and l i s t e n to a b e a u t i f u l concert performed by V i z e , Marais, Descoteaux and P h i l i b e r t . With these amusements, the time passed q u i c k l y u n t i l midnight. 1 9 The f l u t i s t s Descoteaux and P h i l i b e r t were among the most popular performers of the p e r i o d , and played together f r e q u e n t l y a t court. P a i r s of v i o l i n s had been used i n chamber music con-c e r t s i n France since at l e a s t the 1670s. A p a i r of v i o l i n s Masson, "Journal de Dangeau," p. 206. "1694 Vendredi 26 novembre Monseigneur a l i a a 1'Opera a. P a r i s trouver Madame l a Duchesse. Apres l 1 O p e r a , i l a l i a souper avec e l l e au p e t i t Luxembourg, ou Monsieur l e Due f i t v e n i r Descoteaux, F i l b e r t et Vize pour l a musique." 1 9 ^Madame de Se'vigne', Correspondance, v o l . 3 (septembre 1 6 8 0 - a v r i l 1690), p. 1140. "Les jeunes gens, pour s'amuser, danserent aux chansons ce q u i est pr£sentement f o r t en usage a l a cour, joua q u i v o u l u t , et a u s s i pr£ta 1 ' o r e i l l e au j o l i concert de Vize", Marais, Descoteaux et P h i l i b e r t ; avec c e l a l'on a t t r a p a m i n u i t . " 20 was considered e s s e n t i a l f o r v o c a l accompaniment. In March 1707, Rebel and Lalande, two v i o l i n i s t s i n the orch-e s t r a of the Academie Royale de Musique, performed i n a p r i v a t e concert w i t h three s i n g e r s , one of whom was a l s o 21 a v i o l i n i s t . Two v i o l i n i s t s appeared i n a concert w i t h two f l u t i s t s , a keyboard p l a y e r , a gambist and a theorbo 22 p l a y e r i n the same year. At these concerts, the resources were a v a i l a b l e f o r the performance of t r i o s with a p a i r of v i o l i n i s t s performing the dessus p a r t s , as was common i n the I t a l i a n t r a d i t i o n newly introduced i n t o t h i s musical m i l i e u . The bass part i n a t r i o f o r two dessus with bass was taken by a harpsichord, a bass v i o l , a basse de v i o l o n or some combination of these instruments. In the opinion of the f l u t i s t M i c h e l de l a Barre, the theorbo was the pr e f e r r e d 23 accompanying instrument f o r the f l u t e . J The g u i t a r and theorbo p l a y e r Robert de Vize was l i s t e d f r e q u e n t l y as a per-former i n chamber music ensembles that could have performed t r i o s . Among the h a r p s i c h o r d i s t s reported to have taken part i n chamber music concerts during.: this, period are E l i z a b e t h -20 s Jean-Baptiste L u l l y , Oeuvres completes de J-B L u l l y , ed. Henry P r u n i l r e s , v o l . 5: MoliSre and L u l l y , Le Bour-geois gentilhomme ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s de l a Revue musicale, 1938), p. 76. ?1 Le Mercure galant (March 1701 ):357-58. 2 2 I b i d . ( J u l y 1701):247. See note 13 above. 23 Mich e l de l a Barre, Pieces pour l a f l u t e t r a v e r s i e r e  avec l a basse-continue: Oeuvre quatrieme ( P a r i s : Christophe B a l l a r d , 1703; r e p r i n t ed., Florence: Studio per Edizione S c e l t e , 1980), "Avertissement.» 1 0 Glaude Jacquet de l a Guerre and Prangois Couperin, both of 24 whom wrote works f o r t r i o , and Jean Buterne. The chordal instrument was often joined on the bass l i n e by a bass v i o l ; the names of Marin Marais and Antoine Forqueray appear i n a number of concert r e p o r t s . De l a Barre considered the bass 25 v i o l as e s s e n t i a l i n the performance of chamber music. The basse de v i o l o n was ..one of the instruments i n a t r i o ensemble described by Jean-Laurent Le Cerf de l a V i e v i l l e i n h i s Gomparaison de l a musique i t a l i e n n e et de l a musique  f r a n c o i s e of 1704. 2^ The names that appear i n the preceding reports are those of the most popular and p r e s t i g i o u s performers. I t i s apparent that these musicians played together f r e q u e n t l y and were w e l l known t:o those who c h r o n i c l e d court l i f e . Most references to chamber music performances do not i n c l u d e names, and one can only speculate about the music performed and the i d e n t i t y of the musicians who played i t . Musical l i f e outside court c i r c l e s during t h i s period has been l i t t l e i n v e s t i g a t e d , and the, p o s i t i o n of chamber music i n the l i v e s of the P a r i s i a n bourgeoisie i s - l i t t l e Jean Buterne ( c . 1650-1727) became an o r g a n i s t of the Royal Chapel i n 1678. He performed f r e q u e n t l y as a h a r p s i c h o r d i s t at court. de l a Barre, Oeuvre quatrieme, "Avertissement." i n P i e r r e Bourdelot and P i e r r e Bonnet, H i s t o i r e de  l a musique et de ses e f f e t s , 4'V.ols. (Amsterdam, 1717; r e p r i n t ed., Graz: Akademische Druck, 1966), v o l . I l l , p. 98. 11 understood. However, the i n f o r m a t i o n that we have re v e a l s that music, p a r t i c u l a r i l y chamber music, held an important place i n some households. I t i s known, f o r example, that concerts were held weekly a t the home of Monsieur de Melebrande, " C o n s e i l l e r au Parlement de P a r i s , " during the year 1689..'27 The best-known music l o v e r outside court c i r c l e s was the Abb£ N i c o l a s Mathieu, Cure of Saint-Andr£-des-Arts. Mathieu held concerts a t h i s hame up to the time of h i s death i n 1706, and i s known to have owned a number of musical instruments and a large q u a n t i t y of music, i n c l u d i n g chamber „ 29 works by Jean-Pery Rebel and sonatas by I t a l i a n composers. He was l a t e r r e c a l l e d as a key f i g u r e i n the development of the t a s t e f o r I t a l i a n i n strumental music i n Prance a t that time. M i c h e l C o r r e t t e , w r i t i n g i n 1753, maintained t h a t i t was a t Mathieu's concerts that the sonatas of C o r e l l i had 30 been f i r s t heard i n Prance. Much music making outside court c i r c l e s seems to have been centred around the teaching of music. That there were many music teachers a c t i v e i n P a r i s during the l a t e seventeenth 27 B o b i l l i e r , Les Concerts en France, p. 6 8 . p o M i c h e l l e Moe'l, "Un Foyer d 1 i t a l i a n i s m e a l a f i n du X V I I e s i e c l e : N i c o l a s Mathieu, Cure" de Saint-Andre'-des-A r t s , " Recherches sur l a musique f r a n c a i s e c l a s s i q u e 3 ( l 9 6 3 ) : 4 3 - 4 8 . ' 2 9 I b i d . , pp. 4 3 - 4 8 . ^0 A J M i c h e l C o r r e t t e , Le Maitre de C l a v e c i n pour l'Accom- pagnement ( P a r i s , 1753; r e p r i n t ed., New~York: Broude•Brothers, 1 9 7 6 ) , "Preface," p. A. See a l s o Anthony, French Baroque  Music, p. 110. 12 century i s apparent from the number of "Maitres" and "Maitresses" of the c l a v e c i n , v i o l , theorbo, basse de v i o l o n , l u t e or wind instruments l i s t e d i n the L i v r e commode des 31 adresses de P a r i s pour 1692. Young people, according to Le Cerf de l a V i e v i l l e , learned to play the c l a v e c i n , the 32 bass v i o l or the theorbo. Concerts were held at the homes of prominent teachers and performers such as the h a r p s i c h o r d i s t M ile C e r t a i n . She owned an extensive musical l i b r a r y which contained works of chamber music that could have appeared on her concert p r o g r a m m e s . T h e s i n g e r M i c h e l Lambert presented concerts f e a t u r i n g h i s best p u p i l s a t h i s country house and the v i o l p l a yer Antoine Porqueray gave concerts at h i s home i n order 34-to a t t r a c t new p u p i l s . ^ These concerts seem to have been on a small scales consisting'-mainly. of-solos- and . chamber • music.- : ".•••» Le Cerf de l a V i e v i l l e r e v e a l s that some amateur per-formers staged concerts i n which they could take part f o r t h e i r own amusement: People of rank used to leave the business of accompaniment to those who were musicians by b i r t h and p r o f e s s i o n . Today i t i s a supreme honour for vthem . . . to chain ^ N i c o l a s de Blegny [Abraham du P r a d e l ] , Le L i v r e  commode des adresses de P a r i s pour 1692, ed. Edouard Fournier ( P a r i s : P. Daf f i s , 1878), v o l . 1, pp. 205-H. ^ 2Le Cerf de l a V i e v i l l e , Comparaison, v o l . I l l - , p. -98. 33 l e Moel, "Chez l ' i l l u s t r e C e r t a i n , " Recherches sur  l a musique f r a n c a i s e c l a s s i q u e 2 (1961) :71-80. 34-Anthony, French Baroque Music, p. 283 and B o b i l l i e r , Les Concerts en France, pp. 69 and 72-73. 13 themselves f o r three or f o u r years to a c l a v e c i n to a t t a i n a t l a s t the g l o r y of heing part of', a concert, of being seated between two v i o l i n s and a basse de  v i o l o n of the opera, and of e m b e l l i s h i n g , w e l l or badly, a few chords that w i l l not be heard by anyone; that i s t h e i r noble ambition!3 5 In t h i s i n s t a n c e , the amateur was joined by a group of p r o f e s s i o n a l players h i r e d to complete the ensemble. Music seems to have been a fashionable pastime among the wealthy; the subjects i n many p o r t r a i t s of the period hold 36 musical instruments. Concerts seem g e n e r a l l y to have been s m a l l - s c a l e . Chamber music was probably the main f a r e , and new works f o r s m a l l groups, such as the new t r i o s , would no doubt have been welcomed. Four known composers of instrumental t r i o s during t h i s period worked outside court c i r c l e s . P i e r r e G a u l t i e r worked i n M a r s e i l l e and Louis Heudelinne i n Rouen. Both had t r i o s published i n P a r i s , the former i n 1699 and the •57 l a t t e r i n 1705 or s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r . Sebastien de -^Le Cerf de l a V i e ' v i l l e , Comparai son, v o l 1 . I l l , p; ' 9 8 . "Autre f o i s l e s gens de q u a l i t e l a i s s o i e n t aux Musiciens de naissance & de p r o f e s s i o n l e metier d'accompagner. Aujourd'hui i l s s'en f o n t un honneur supreme . . . Mais se c l o u e r t r o i s ou quatre ans sur l e C l a v e s s i n , pour pa r v e n i r e n f i n a l a g l o i r e d ' e t r e membre d'un Concert, d ' e t r e a s s i s entre deux v i o l o n s & une basse de v i o l o n de 1'Opera, & de broder, bien ou mai, quelques accordes qui ne seront entendus de personne; v o i l a l e u r noble ambition." 5 6 J a n e Bowers, "The French F l u t e School from 1700 to 1760" (ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a at Berkeley, 1 9 7 1), p. 2 1 . •^7 ^ ' P i e r r e G a u l t i e r , R e c u e i l de t r i o nouveaux pour l e  v i o l o n , hautbois, f l G t e . sur l e s d i f f e r e n t s tons et mou- vements de l a musique ( P a r i s : Roussel, l699)''-and Louis Heudelinne, Second l i v r e de pieces pour l e dessus et basse 1 4 Brossard had connections w i t h the court c i r c l e , but does not seem to have been a part of i t . The composer known only as "Toinon" from comments w r i t t e n by Brossard i n an engraved set of t r i o s from 1699 i s not mentioned i n any of the court musical documents or l i s t s of seventeenth-century examined. The f a c t that he d i d not have h i s name engraved on the music would seem to i n d i c a t e that he was an amateur r a t h e r than a p r o f e s s i o n a l musician. The compositions performed i n chamber concerts a t court and elsewhere are r a r e l y i d e n t i f i e d . I t appears from some of the more s p e c i f i c accounts a v a i l a b l e that v o c a l a i r s — " p e t i t s a i r s tendres" or " a i r s i t a l i e n s " — w e r e played by i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s . ^ 8 A c o l l e c t i o n of v o c a l a i r s by M i c h e l Lambert, one of the most popular composers of such p i e c e s , was published i n a v e r s i o n f o r an i n s t r u m e n t a l t r i o 3 9 of two dessus and bass i n 1700. y Excerpts from operas and b a l l e t s could a l s o have been performed by a t r i o ensemble a t concerts. Many c o l l e c t i o n s of excerpts from L u l l y ' s dramatic works such as the f o l l o w i n g were published around de v i o l l e , et pour l e v i o l o n et c l a v e s s i n , t r i o t s [ s i c j et  sonatas ( P a r i s :.Poucault, [1705]), " E x t r a i t du P r i v i l e g e du Roy." •^8Le Mercure galant (November 1701 ): 207. Louis heard "un concert exquis d ' a i r s i t a l i e n s , executees par l e s S i e u r s Porcroy pour l a v i o l e , Couperin pour l e c l a v e s s i n et l a jeune B a p t i s t e [Anet] . . . pour l e v i o l o n . " See a l s o Bowers, "The French P i u t e School," p. 24. 3 9 M i c h e l Lambert, Pieces en T r i o pour l e s Violons  F l u t e s ou Hautbois composTes par Mons r Lambert (Amsterdam: Estienne Roger, [1 700]). 15 1690: Les a i r s de l a Traggdie de Persee propres a chantee  et" a .jouer sur toutes sortes d' instruments, seconde  p a r t i e s des a i r s . . . a deux & a t r o i s . Amsterdam: Antoine P o i n t e l , 1688. Other c o l l e c t i o n s are preserved i n manuscript A ® Works t r a n s f e r r e d from non-vocal media might a l s o have been played. A book of harpsichord pieces published by Gaspard l e Roux i n 1705 i n c l u d e s arrangements of many of the pieces f o r a t r i o of two dessus and bass. Although they were made f o r the b e n e f i t of those who "wish to s i n g and accompany themselves before l e a r n i n g the pieces according 41 to the n o t a t i o n , " these arrangements, which include a second part "pour l e concert," are w e l l s u i t e d i n range and s t y l e to a t r i o ensemble l i k e those mentioned above. Many of the chamber music performers whose names appear above were a l s o composers. Their new t r i o s were probably w r i t t e n f o r t h e i r own use, to be performed i n concerts i n which they took p a r t . The t r i o of two dessus w i t h bass was a popular combination, and the growing body of t r i o l i t e r a t u r e t e s t i f i e s to i t s p o p u l a r i t y . 4 0 H e l e n Meredith E l l i s , "The Dances of L u l l y " (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Stanford U n i v e r s i t y , 1967), pp. 2 2 3 - 3 2 . 4 1 Gaspard l e Roux, Pieces de C l a v e s s i n ( P a r i s : Foucault, 1705; r e p r i n t ed., Geneva: Minkoff, 1982), "Preface." "Ce qui sera d'un grand secours a ceux qui voudront chanter et accompagner avant que de l e s apprendre par t a b l a t u r e . " 16 French and I t a l i a n M u s i c a l S t y l e s i n France 1 6 8 6 _ 1 7 Q 6 -During the seventeenth century, French and I t a l i a n musical s t y l e s rose and f e l l i n favour i n the French musical c i r c l e s centred around the r o y a l court and the c i t y 4-2 of P a r i s . This f l u c t u a t i o n was due as much to p o l i t i c s as to musical t a s t e . The backlash against I t a l i a n music which followed the death of C a r d i n a l Mazarin i n 1661 — Mazarin had been an a v i d champion of I t a l i a n music and had used h i s p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n to promote i t — o p e n e d the way f o r the establishment of a new French musical s t y l e by Jean-B a p t i s t e L u l l y . In the two and a h a l f decades that f o l l o w e d , the L u l l i a n s t y l e dominated music a t court and i n the t h e a t r e , and was recognized as the o f f i c i a l French s t y l e . In s p i t e of h i s powerful p o s i t i o n , L u l l y could not keep the country i s o l a t e d from European musical develop-ments. An I t a l i a n p a s t o r a l , Nicandro e F i l e n o , by the Roman composer Paulo Lorenzani (1640 -1713) was performed i n 1684 43 i n the presence of Louis XIV. Lorenzani, who had a r r i v e d i n France i n 1678, had by t h i s time e s t a b l i s h e d himself i n P a r i s as Maitre de chapelle of the chapel of the Theatins. Marc-Antoine Charpentier (1634-1704), who had studied i n I t a l y , was employed by the Duchess of Guise (d. 1688), and ^ 2Anthony, French Baroque Music, pp. 47-53 and Georgia Cowart, The Ori g i n s of Modern M u s i c a l C r i t i c i s m : French and  I t a l i a n Music 1600-1750 (Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1981), pp. 1-26. 43 -\Anthony, French Baroque Music, p. 110. 17 composed music f o r concerts at her h o t e l . A sonata f o r e i g h t instruments thought to have been w r i t t e n by him f o r one of these concerts ds obviously I t a l i a n - i n f l u e n c e d . ^ I t a l o p h i l e s such as the Abbe* Mathieu and P h i l i p p e of Orleans a c t i v e l y supported the performance of I t a l i a n music. Frenchmen were exposed to non-French musical s t y l e s while t r a v e l l i n g i n Europe. V i s i t o r s to Rome—a common d e s t i n a t i o n f o r p i l g r i m s — c o u l d have heard music i n the new I t a l i a n s t y l e of C o r e l l i and h i s contemporaries at p r i v a t e concerts or at the church of Sa i n t - L o u i s - d e s - F r a n c a i s , the n a t i o n a l church of the French i n Rome, where C o r e l l i per-45 formed r e g u l a r i l y . Francois-. Raguenet, -a-.churchman, who t r a v e l l e d to I t a l y i n the 1690s with h i s patron, the C a r d i n a l of B o u i l l o n , returned to France w i t h a strong enthusiasm f o r I t a l i a n music. T r a v e l l e r s apparently returned to France w i t h p r i n t e d or manuscript copies of new I t a l i a n music. Once i n France, t h i s music was copied by others. P r i n t e d music a l s o reached P a r i s through Amsterdam; 47 the two c i t i e s had strong musical l i n k s . Estienne Roger, J u l i e Anne Ve r t r e e s , "The Bass V i o l i n French Baroque Chamber Music" Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1978), pp. 277-80. 45 -A l b e r t o Cometti, "Arcangelo C o r e l l i a S a i n t - L o u i s -des-Francais a Rome," Le Revue musicale 3, 3 (1922):25-28, Aft This may e x p l a i n the two copies of Giovanni B a t t i s t a Bassani's Op. V t r i o sonatas, one i n score -(Vm7 1475) and -one i n parts { V m 7 1098), i n the hand of Sebastien de Brossard that are preserved i n the Bibliot h e q u e N a t i o n a l e , P a r i s . 47 'Many sets of excerpts from L u l l y scores were pub-l i s h e d i n Amsterdam i n the l a t e 1680s and the 1690s. The Pieces en t r i o by Marais ( P a r i s , 1694) were re-engraved i n 1 8 one of the most important p u b l i s h e r s of the p e r i o d , s o l d music p r i n t e d i n I t a l y , Germany, France and England as w e l l as h i s own p u b l i c a t i o n s from h i s Amsterdam p u b l i s h i n g house. W r i t i n g i n 1 7 0 1 , Raguenet says that such works could e a s i l y AO be obtained from Roger by post. Through these channels, French music l o v e r s had op p o r t u n i t i e s to become f a m i l i a r w ith the works of C o r e l l i and other I t a l i a n s long before the f i r s t P a r i s i a n p u b l i c a t i o n of C o r e l l i ' s music (Op. V) i n 1 7 0 1 , 4 9 Arcangelo C o r e l l i ( 1 6 5 3 - 1 7 1 3 ) was the name most s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d with the new I t a l i a n i nstrumental s t y l e by the French. Indeed, i t was the music of C o r e l l i t hat 50 had i n s p i r e d Couperin to compose h i s f i r s t t r i o sonatas. C o r e l l i i s mentioned by both Raguenet and Le Cerf de l a V i e v i l l e i n t h e i r q u a r r e l over musical s t y l e s . W r i t i n g i n 1 7 5 3 , long a f t e r the i n t r o d u c t i o n of C o r e l l i ' s sonatas i n France, M i c h e l C o r r e t t e r e c a l l e d C o r e l l i as the " i n v e n t o r " of the sonata, and considered the appearance of hi s music i n Amsterdam by Estienhe Roger i n 1 6 9 7 . Trios by Michel de l a Barre were r e p r i n t e d there i n 1 6 9 6 . Francois Lesure, B i b l i o g r a p h i e des E d i t i o n s musicales publie'es par Estienne  Roger et Michel-Charles l e Cene (Amsterdam 1696-174-5) ( P a r i s : Heugel et Cie, 1 9 6 9 ) , pp . 35 and 7 3 . Francois Raguenet, Les Monuments de Rome ( 1 7 0 1 ) , quoted i n Lesure, B i b l i o g r a p h i e , p. 2 2 . 4_q Marc P i n c h e r l e , C o r e l l i : His L i f e , His Work, t r a n s . Hubert Russel (.New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 1 6 9 . 50 Francois Couperin, Les Nations: Sonades et s u i t e s de  simphonies en\.trio ( P a r i s : Author, 1 7 2 6 ; r e p r i n t ed., Madrid, A r t e Triumpharia, 1982), "Aveu de l'Auteur au P u b l i c . " 19 51 France as the beginning of a new era i n French music. The name of Giovanni B a t t i s t a Bassani (1657-1716) a l s o appears i n French sources. He i s included among the I t a l i a n masters by both Raguenet and Le Cerf,* and h i s Op. V t r i o sonatas are described by Brossard as "completely charming and e x c e l l e n t and not too d i f f i c u l t to perform, 52 i n c ontrast to those of the t y p i c a l I t a l i a n s . " No other names of I t a l i a n t r i o sonata composers are known to have appeared i n contemporary French sources, but i t would appear, from Brossard's reference to " t y p i c a l I t a l i a n s , " that he, at l e a s t , was f a m i l i a r with the works of others. The works of C o r e l l i , and perhaps those of other I t a l i a n i n strumental composers, seem to have become known i n court and P a r i s i a n musical c i r c l e s around 1690; i t was at t h i s time that the i n f l u e n c e of the new I t a l i a n s t y l e began to appear i n the works of French composers who, u n l i k e Charpentier, had not studied abroad. During the period f o l l o w i n g the death of L u l l y , the new I t a l i a n s t y l e gained p o p u l a r i t y i n France while the L u l l i a n s t y l e maintained i t s dominant p o s i t i o n . French composers now had an extended S1 J C o r r e t t e , Le Maitre de C l a v e c i n , "Preface," p. A. "Depuis que C o r e l l i a invente l e genre de l a Sonate et du Concerto l a Musique a f a i t des progres etonants dans toute 1'Europe . . . avant l u y l e s Concerts en France S t o i e n t me'diocres." S2 J Sebastien de Brossard, "Catalogue," p. 545, t r a n s -l a t e d i n Anthony, French Baroque Music, p. 328. Although the "Catalogue" i t s e l f was w r i t t e n i n 1724, Brossard had acquired most of the works i n h i s c o l l e c t i o n before 1700. 20 range of techniques and ideas from which to choose, and the stage was set f o r a c o n f l i c t over the merits of the two d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s . French Music vs I t a l i a n Music  The Quarrel "between Francois Raguenet and  Jean-Laurent Le Cerf de l a V i e ' v i l l e The debate over the r e l a t i v e merits of French and I t a l i a n music and musicians that appeared i n w r i t t e n form i n the w r i t i n g s of Francois Raguenet and Jean-Laurent Le Cerf de l a V i e v i l l e i s symptomatic of the i n t e r e s t taken by the French during t h i s period i n the d i f f e r e n c e s between the two n a t i o n a l s t y l e s . The debate c a r r i e d on by these two w r i t e r s between 1702 and 1706 can be seen to represent a culmination of the a t t i t u d e s developed during the period of experiment-a t i o n that followed the death of L u l l y . Raguenet, i n h i s P a r e l l e l e des I t a l i e n s et des Francais en ce q u i regarde  l a musique et l e s opera and h i s Defense du P a r a l l e l e des  I t a l i e n s et des F r a n c a i s , served as spokesman f o r the group that claimed s u p e r i o r i t y f o r the I t a l i a n s t y l e , while Le Cerf, i n h i s Comparaison de l a musique i t a l i e n n e et de  l a musique f r a n e o i s e , represented those who p r e f e r r e d the French L u l l i a n s t y l e . In t h i s musical q u a r r e l , elements from two ongoing French i n t e l l e c t u a l d e b a t e s — t h e argument over the r e l a t i v e 53 P a r a l l e l e des I t a l i e n s et des Francais en ce qui  regarde l a musique et l e s opera ( P a r i s , 1702; r e p r i n t ed., Geneva: Minkoff, 1976), t r a n s l a t e d i n O l i v e r Strunk, Source  Readings i n Music H i s t o r y (.New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1950). Defense du P a r a l l e l e ( P a r i s , 1705; r e p r i n t e d w i t h P a r a l l e l e des I t a l i e n s et des F r a n c a i s ) . 21 merits of contemporary French c u l t u r e and the c u l t u r e of 54 the ancient Greeks and Romans, and the debate over the merits of French and I t a l i a n music and performance prac-55 t i c e s " ^ — a r e combined. The supporters of French music equate themselves w i t h the "Ancients," b e l i e v i n g that the music of L u l l y , l i k e the c u l t u r e of the a n c i e n t s , was a high point to which the most modern developments could not compare. The supporters of I t a l i a n music equate themselves w i t h the "Moderns," the group that argued that the c u l t u r e of the modern age was the culmination of progress through the c e n t u r i e s . L i k e previous French comparisons between French and I t a l i a n musical s t y l e s , the q u a r r e l between Raguenet and Le Cerf focuses on opera and v o c a l performance. Raguenet r e s t r i c t s h i s d i s c u s s i o n to opera, but a l s o o f f e r s comments on many general aspects of musical s t y l e , d i s c u s s i n g t o n a l i t y and modulation i n the f o l l o w i n g terms: The French, im t h e i r a i r s , aim a t the s o f t , the easy, the f l o w i n g and coherent; the whole a i r i s of the same tone, or i f they sometimes venture to vary i t , they do i t w i t h so many preparations, they so q u a l i f y i t , that s t i l l the a i r seems to be as n a t u r a l and c o n s i s t e n t as i f they had attempted no change at a l l , . . . but the I t a l i a n s pass b o l d l y and i n an i n s t a n t from b-sharp to b - f l a t and from b - f l a t to b-sharp;* they venture the boldest cadences and the most i r r e g u l a r dissonance; and t h e i r a i r s are so out of the way that they resemble the compositions of no other n a t i o n i n the world. That i s , from major to minor and from minor to major. 54 ^ Cowart, O r i g i n s of Modern M u s i c a l C r i t i c i s m , pp. 3 5 - 3 9 . 5 5 I b i d . , p. 481. 22 That Raguenet gives some thought to instrumental music i s shown by h i s i n c l u s i o n of C o r e l l i and Bassani i n a l i s t of I t a l i a n masters: L u l l y i s the only man ever to appear i n France w i t h a genius so s u p e r i o r f o r music; whereas I t a l y abounds i n masters, the worst of which may be compared to him. . . . They have t h e i r L u i g i [ R o s s i ] , t h e i r C a r i s s i m i , t h e i r M e l a n i , and t h e i r L e g r e n z i ; to these succeed t h e i r Buononcini, t h e i r C o r e l l i , and t h e i r Bassani who are s t i l l l i v i n g and charm a l l Europe w i t h t h e i r e x c e l l e n t productions. 5 7 He o f f e r s some d i s c u s s i o n of the t r i o t e x t u r e , but i t i s not c l e a r whether he i s r e f e r r i n g to v o c a l music, i n s t r u -mental music or both: But i f we now proceed from the simple a i r to a con-s i d e r a t i o n of those pieces that c o n s i s t of many p a r t s , we there s h a l l f i n d the mighty advantages the I t a l i a n s have over the French. I never met with a master i n France but what agreed that the I t a l i a n s knew b e t t e r how to tu r n and vary a t r i o than the French. Among us, the f i r s t upper part i s g e n e r a l l y b e a u t i f u l enough, but the second u s u a l l y descends too low to deserve our a t t e n t i o n . In I t a l y the upper parts are g e n e r a l l y three or f o u r notes higher than i n France, so that t h e i r seconds are high enough to have as much beauty as the very f i r s t w i t h us. Besides, a l l t h e i r three parts are so eq u a l l y good that i t i s often d i f f i c u l t to f i n d which i s the subject. L u l l y has composed some a f t e r t h i s manner, but they are few i n number, whereas we hardly meet w i t h any i n I t a l y that are otherwise.5 8 As Raguenet maintains, the upper parts i n French instrumental music i n the L u l l i a n s t y l e g e n e r a l l y c a r r i e s the melodic l i n e . The second part often serves to e n r i c h the upper l i n e by f o l l o w i n g i t a t h i r d or s i x t h below r a t h e r 56 Raguenet, P a r a l l e l e , t r a n s . Strunk, p. 4 7 7 . 57 I b i d p. 4 8 1 . 58 I b i d pp. 4 7 9 - 5 0 . 23 than having an independent and e q u a l l y important melodic p a r t . By c o n t r a s t , the second part and the bass of a polyphonic t r i o movement by C o r e l l i are often as m e l o d i c a l l y and r h y m i c a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g as the top l i n e , and have a melodic independence that i s r a r e l y found i n the c o r r e s -ponding parts of a L u l l i a n i n s t r u m e n t a l piece. The two upper parts i n C o r e l l i ' s t r i o sonatas often move i n the same range and cross f r e q u e n t l y ; they are e q u a l l y important t e x t u r a l l y and m e l o d i c a l l y . In the L u l l i a n s t y l e the emphasis i s g e n e r a l l y on the outer p a r t s . Le Cerf f i n d s Raguenet's comments about t r i o s ambiguous, and decides that they r e f e r to both v o c a l and i n s t r u m e n t a l music: "What do you t h i n k the Abbe means by pieces of s e v e r a l p a r t s ? " asked the C h e v a l i e r q u i c k l y , "symphonies or pieces to be sung?" "By my f a i t h , " r e t o r t e d the Count, "I'm not r e a l l y sure. . . . but l e t us suppose that M l'Abbe' meant both."59 Through these remarks, Le Cerf acknowledges the p o s i t i o n of the instrumental t r i o ; i t i s worthy of being discussed alongside opera. A f t e r making i t c l e a r t h a t both v o c a l and i n s t r u m e n t a l music are meant, Le Cerf continues h i s d i s c u s s i o n : Le Cerf, Comparaison, t r a n s l a t e d i n Mary Beeson E l l i s o n , "The Comparaison de l a musique i t a l i e n n e et de l a  musique frango i s e of Le Cerf de l a V i e v i l l e : An Annotated T r a n s l a t i o n of the F i r s t Four Dialogues" (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Miami, 1 9 7 3 ) , p. 9 9 . Le Cerf's Comparaison i s set i n the form of a conversation among f i v e persons: the C h e v a l i e r , r e p r e s e n t i n g the author h i m s e l f , the Countess du B., the Marquis des E., M de ____ and Mademoiselle M,•-a- supporter:.of I t a l i a n music. 24 " I t i s t r u e , " r e p l i e d M de "that . . . [the] second parts [of the I t a l i a n s ] are higher, but as to t h e i r being more b e a u t i f u l , that must be proved. They are more b e a u t i f u l i f one sings them i n d i v i d u a l l y , I can b e l i e v e t h a t . But are they more b e a u t i f u l even i n the t r i o ? I cannot agree. The: .highest, parts^squeak..because: they are too h i g h . Their second parts have the f a u l t of being too near the f i r s t s and too f a r removed from the bass, which i s the t h i r d p a r t . I f i n d i t advan-tageous and p r o f i t a b l e to make of the second part only a t a i l l e as we do, and not a haut-contre as do the I t a l i a n s . For the t a i l l e holds the middle part between the bass and the f i r s t part and thus binds together the chords of the t r i o . . . . i t i s no great misfortune f o r us that the second parts of our t r i o s are only t a i l l e s . On the contrary. I i n s i s t that the body of the t r i o i s b e t t e r f o r i t . " 6 0 Le Cerf then goes on to discuss Raguenet's second p o i n t : "A second marvel," says M l'Abbe " i s that the three parts of the I t a l i a n t r i o are so e q u a l l y b e a u t i f u l that one cannot t e l l which i s the s u b j e c t ! " I admit to you, Count . . . that there i s much s k i l l and beauty there. I w i l l s t i l l maintain, however, that i f such s k i l l makes more b e a u t i f u l songs when considered i n d e t a i l , i t makes a l e s s b e a u t i f u l song considered as a whole . . . M l'Abbe adds that L u l l y composed only a very s m a l l number of t r i o s i n which the three parts are e q u a l l y b e a u t i f u l . . . . He composed s e v e r a l . . . as f o r instance the " T r i o des Paques" i n I s i s , . . . that of Cadmus, "Gardons-nous bien d 1 a v o i r envie" and the one i n Les FeHes de 1'Amour et Bacchus, "Dormez, dormez beaux yeux" . . . and L u l l y i s not the only one: Lambert, B o i s s e t , l a Barre, e t c . have a l s o composed i n t h i s genre.61 Mary Beeson E l l i s o n notes t h a t , of these three examples, only the piece fr;om Les Fe^tes de 1'Amour et Bacchus r e a l l y 62 has three v o i c e s of equal i n t e r e s t . Le Cerf would have done b e t t e r to choose other examples; pieces w i t h three I b i d . , pp. 100-101 . 1 1 b i d . , p. 101 . 2 I b i d . , p. 102. v o i c e s of equal i n t e r e s t can be found, f o r example, among the a i r s of Lambert. The a i r " I I est v r a i " (Example 1) i s one such piece. Example 1: Lambert, " I I est v r a i ^ " Pieces en T r i o pour  l e s Y i o l o n s , F l u t e s ou Hautbois [1700], T-6. - ^ r r — r** -^ -f» >" $f—{' f k 1 "— ftr t—I—t-% r r — l -, s =H*T= 1 f-=Hf= i > | 1 J L-f i # — 4J^L *k& — J 1 1 i——1 Le Cerf's choice serves to i l l u s t r a t e h i s bias towards the L u l l i a n s t y l e , i n which the top voice i n u s u a l l y the most important m e l o d i c a l l y . Le Cerf a l s o considers the instrumental p l a y i n g 6^ techniques of the French and the I t a l i a n s , y and discusses the increased s t a t u r e of the v i o l i n i n France, brought about to a great extent by the p o p u l a r i t y of the I t a l i a n sonata i n that country: This instrument i s not noble i n France . . . That i s to say . . . that one sees few musicians of q u a l i t y who play i t and many lowly musicians who make t h e i r l i v i n g from i t . _But s t i l l a man of rank who takes i t i n t o h i s head to play the v i o l i n doesn't lower h i m s e l f , i t seems to me,, and, .provided that he plays e x c e l l e n t l y without -\Le Cerf, Comparaison, t r a n s l a t e d i n Strunk, Source  Readings, p. 502. See Le Cerf, Comparaison, v o l I I I , pp. 20 and 94. 26 yet becoming too c a r r i e d away, he w i l l f i n d many occasions when h i s v i o l i n w i l l b r i n g him l e s s shame than honour.^4 The v i o l i n was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the I t a l i a n sonata through-out the p e r i o d . Le Cerf mentions Jean-Baptiste Anet as a performer, and C o r e l l i , Bassani and Jean-Fery Rebel, a l l v i o l i n i s t s , as sonata composers. Rebel i s the composer that Le Cerf considers to have most s u c c e s s f u l l y combined the 65 French and I t a l i a n s t y l e s i n h i s music. Raguenet, i n h i s answer to Le Cerf's Comparaison, the Defense du P a r a l l e l e , u n f o r t u n a t e l y does not t r y to defend himself by presenting h i s own views on the points r a i s e d by Le Cerf. Instead, he attempts to d i s c r e d i t Le Cerf by c r i t i c i z i n g h i s w r i t i n g s t y l e and manner of expressing h i s . . 66 opinions. Raguenet and Le Cerf express s t r o n g l y opposing views about the same music. Through t h e i r q u a r r e l , a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e of musical l i f e emerges and some of the questions : f a c i n g the composers of the new French t r i o s are revealed. The musical s t y l e of L u l l y remained a powerful force i n France throughout the p e r i o d , while I t a l i a n music was the subject of both enthusiasm and disapproval... These two s t y l e s ^ L e Cerf, Comparaison, v o l . I I , pp. 104-105. 6 5 I b i d . , v o l . I I , pp. 95-96. 66 See, f o r example, Raguenet's answer to Le Cerf's s a r c a s t i c remarks about C o r e l l i ' s music: "What joy, what high opinion of h i m s e l f i s possessed by a man who knows something of.the f i f t h opera of C o r e l l i ! " Raguenet d e l i b e r a t e l y mis-i n t e r p r e t s Le Cerf's use of the word opera and r i d i c u l e s him f o r t h i n k i n g that C o r e l l i wrote operas! Le Cerf, Comparaison, v o l . I I , p. 55 and Raguenet, Defense du P a r a l l e l e , pp. 50-51. 27 were considered to be i n d i r e c t c o n f l i c t w i t h one another. In w r i t i n g t h e i r t r i o s , French composers had to consider the c o n f l i c t i n g t a s t e s w i t h i n t h e i r audience, and the way i n which the resources of the French and I t a l i a n s t y l e s could best be used w i t h i n t h e i r own musical s t y l e . CHAPTER 2 MUSICAL INFLUENCES ON THE NEW FRENCH.TRIO The French M u s i c a l T r a d i t i o n Jean B a p t i s t e L u l l y (1632-87), a F l o r e n t i n e by b i r t h , -was the c e n t r a l f i g u r e i n French music during the second h a l f of the seventeenth century. His e a r l y compositions r e f l e c t e d h i s I t a l i a n h e r i t a g e and the p o p u l a r i t y of I t a l i a n music a t i the French court during h i s youth. The I t a l i a n elements were reduced, or absorbed by the French elements, i n h i s l a t e r works, and by the time of h i s death h i s s t y l e was e s t a b l i s h e d as the French n a t i o n a l s t y l e . I t remained a v i t a l presence 2 i n French musical l i f e w e l l i n t o the eighteenth century. T r i o Texture i n the L u l l i a n S t y l e T r i o texture appears f r e q u e n t l y i n the work's of L u l l y , h i s contemporaries and successors. The t r i o des hautbois, i n which a p a i r of oboes, or a l t e r n a t i v e l y of transverse f l u t e s , recorders or v i o l i n s , i s combined with a bassoon or bowed bass to create a s e c t i o n i n t r i o t e x t u r e , i s an important part 1 Anthony, French Baroque Music, p. 37-2 L u l l y ' s dramatic works were performed r e g u l a r i l y i n France up to the R e v o l u t i o n . Volumes of excerpts from h i s operas and b a l l e t s were published from the 1680s i n t o the e a r l y eighteenth century. The New Grove D i c t i o n a r y of Music and  Musicians, s.v. " L u l l y , Jean B a p t i s t e , " by James R. Anthony. 28 29 of t h i s s t y l e . Such s e c t i o n s are used to vary the i n s t r u -mental colour and to provide a c o n t r a s t to the usual f i v e -part ensemble t e x t u r e . T r i o des hautbois s e c t i o n s are dance-like i n character, w i t h strong rhythms, r e g u l a r phrases and simple melodic p a t t e r n s . The two dessus parts move most f r e q u e n t l y i n t h i r d s i n note-against-note s t y l e , coming together a t the ends of s e c t i o n s ; they a c t more as a s i n g l e enriched melodic l i n e than as two separate p a r t s . Melodic motion i s p r i m a r i l y stepwise, i n c l u d i n g some sm a l l i n t e r v a l s . The bass p a r t i often i n c l u d e s l a r g e r i n t e r v a l s such as f o u r t h s and f i f t h s , which emphasize the harmonic motion, as w e l l as stepwise p a t t e r n s . There i s f r e q u e n t l y a l a r g e s e p a r a t i o n i n range between the dessus parts and the bass, contrary to the i d e a l described by Le C e r f . 5 The t r i o des hautbois i s only one of a number of uses of the t r i o texture i n L u l l i a n musical s t y l e . Music s i m i l a r i n character to that of the t r i o des hautbois often appears as a r i t o u r n e l l e to a v o c a l piece i n a s c o r i n g f o r a p a i r of v i o l i n s , l e s s f r e q u e n t l y of f l u t e s , recorders or oboes, wi t h bass. A r i t o u r n e l l e may be a complete piece i n i t s e l f (Example 2 ) , or a short instrumental s e c t i o n that introduces a v o c a l piece and reappears between the verses (Example 3 ) . In the l a t t e r type, the t r i o s e c t i o n s serve both to u n i f y the a i r m u s i c a l l y and to provide contrasts i n timbre and texture w i t h i n i t . 3 See pages 2 3 - 2 4 abo.v.e. 30 Example 2: L u l l y , " R i t o u r n e l l e pour l e s f l u t e s , " Les  Amants magnifiques, Scene derniere (1670), 1-10. ik j i 7 H— i 1.1. N , it—JH— j H 1 er J i 1+ *— Ixi fn— rf< I IM f M ^ f — J j ,* / \f ^ I r | 1 IK J. h H J J \ \ ' 1 1 "h 1 1 , . M .ii fr*r — i f i _ l j i i tt \ £ 7 J V : 1'k f 1 f J * * T 1 11 • Example 3: L u l l y , "Que tout r e t e n t i s s e , " A l c e s t e , Prologue (1674), 1-30. B , I { * f i r*-^i mm TO -P -j ' PtXC 1 J + — 31 Example 3 - C o n t i n u e d La G'oire. , -It flue tout l-t- " pkg. de. la Se.iV.ft tt's- Sc, <| tout" rC +"«v tit- se, Que t o u t Que tout re- T t n - t."s- »e. Que tout re i 1 5 P et VOix: Qu.e. tout Tien Dans no* jar - »<ns 2—^ 4&£> 3 DOIS , i ft 7E. fcEEfe ft i f <5ue l« — P ni's- I«j A- V«er le dc^X # 6 5 5 L • ! i f f i r f i (r( i i - f f — I f ? ' , p • ! U—1 Hautbois { *f ' f f r f - .11 f*ffr— -1 Son d<=S koi«V \ J :^=i= — J ' Ur - t=y— Y r E _ — , 9 Example 4: L u l l y , "Malgre tant d'orages," Alceste, act 1, sc. 7, 1-8. Les HailVbo I -vf— 1^" 1 4-* i 1 i J ~? f 7 f ) - ? I Crtaci'cuseffi ^ ^ 4 M — 1 . J 1 f f - f 1 h [ I I I {> J fU-J.— 1 4 J 4 - ^ i i j , ->—^ J-> | i \ H F j ^ if r i -i J 1 Ocux "Tri'"TDn* GracieKSOweritv saw5 -» Mai- qre er ET +TOnf Je OGU-i * -f—r tW tant J 10 • ha- qeS E \ "tbriV Jc nau-i i a Son tbur S'tm- bar- f e n - vec mouv Q SOU Tour 's'em - War - o - vec I'fV i 33 Instrumental t r i o s appear i n connection with dance songs. In such pieces, intended to be both sung and danced,^ a complete dance-like piece, often i n t r i o t e x t u r e , i s played by an ins t r u m e n t a l group, then repeated by a group of vo c a l soloists.(Example 4 ) . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the melodic s t y l e of L u l l y ' s instrumental t r i o w r i t i n g and that of some of h i s v o c a l w r i t i n g can be seen i n the dance song. In "Malgre ta n t d'orages," the t e x t i s set s y l l a b i c a l l y i n short phrases and the melodic l i n e moves smoothly w i t h i n a small range. In L u l l y ' s i n s t r u m e n t a l t r i o s , the dessus parts are set i n a note-against-note s t y l e , which resembles a s y l l a b i c t e x t s e t t i n g . The phrases are s h o r t , and the melodic l i n e moves smoothly w i t h i n a small range. T r i o t e x t u r e a l s o occurs i n the L u l l i a n genre r e f e r r e d 5 to as the " a r i a w i t h doubled c o n t i n u e " In pieces of t h i s type, two dessus v o i c e s , u s u a l l y taken by v i o l i n s , are heard over a bass v o c a l s o l o , which i s doubled by the continuo (Example 5 ) . In t h i s s c o r i n g , the bass voice serves both as a melodic part and as support f o r the t r e b l e instrumental p a r t s . The two dessus parts are melodic i n character, and resemble those of L u l l y f s purely i n s t r u m e n t a l t r i o s . L u l l y ' s t r i o s f o r a p a i r of soprano voices over a basso continuo and f o r a ^The term "dance song" o r i g i n a t e d w i t h Paul-Marie Masson i n L'Opera de Rameau ( P a r i s : H. Laurens, 1 9 3 0 ) ; see Anthony, French Baroque Music, p. 5 6 . ^Manfred Bu f o f z e r , Music i n the Baroque Era (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1 9 4 7 ) , p. 158 . 34 Example 5: "Nous ne saurions c h o i s i r , " Amadis,"Prologue" (1684), 1-5. Violent r i f r If n rr Ir rf jr le -*—•*- m 4=t- I LLLI -a-•\\o I -SiV Je De-• 7 * * * be I Example 6: "J'en v a i s perdre l a v i e , " T r i o s de l a Chambre (1660), 1-8. Francois D e l s a r t e , ed., A r c h i v e s  du chant ( P a r i s : Choadens, 1856-61), v o l . 7, pp. 2-3. i <5il VO)r»-<Ve <31-e/- cn boi s Si i ^ 1 e Dahs nos bois Se- vern- <)re S't - on 5g 5 Dons r>os bois It re- <S>^  cw>\* » .» . 5 ^ 1 5 W»5 1\ DOY\S nos Wis t\ r<.-M c«*ft V is 35 p a i r of soprano voices and a bass voice adopt the same musical s t y l e . L u l l y g e n e r a l l y makes l i t t l e attempt to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the various instruments, or between instruments and voices i n h i s t r i o w r i t i n g ; much of t h i s music could be e a s i l y t r a n s f e r r e d from one medium to the other. Such t r a n s f e r s can be seen i n a c o l l e c t i o n of "Trios pour l e coucher du R o i , " preserved i n manuscript w i t h a s e r i e s of b a l l e t excerpts.^ A t r i o of the " a r i a with doubled continuo" type,' "Voy ma Climene," from Le Bourgeois gentilhomme (1 670 ) 7. and-a . v o c a l t r i o , "J'en va i s perdre l a v i e " (Example 6 ) , appear i n i n s t r u -mental s e t t i n g s i n t h i s c o l l e c t i o n . I t i s not known when the "Tri o s pour l e coucher du R o i " were c o l l e c t e d , nor who c o l -l e c t e d and arranged them. Some of these pieces may have been conceived as ins t r u m e n t a l pieces by L u l l y , but i t i s p o s s i b l e that others were taken from v o c a l sources as yet u n i d e n t i f i e d . There i s other evidence that L u l l y * s t r i o s t y l e was considered as having a performance p o t e n t i a l outside i t s r o l e i n stage and o r c h e s t r a l music. Trios from L u l l y f s operas were published i n c o l l e c t i o n s , the earliest-known of which i s Les t r i o s des opera, mis en ordre pour l e s concerts, propres  a chanter & a jouer sur l a f l u t e , l e v i o l o n & autres instruments B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e , P a r i s Vm 4. 7 '"Voy ma Climene" appears among the music f o r "Les Poitevens" i n the B a l l e t des n a t i o n s . o E l l i s i d e n t i f i e s only these two T r i o s as appearing i n other sources w i t h t e x t . 36 9 (Amsterdam, 1690). A subsequent c o l l e c t i o n issued i n 1691 was r e p r i n t e d i n Prance by Christophe B a l l a r d , suggesting that such music was i n demand i n Prance. The p o p u l a r i t y of these pieces may have l e d to the composition of new instrumental t r i o s i n a s i m i l a r musical s t y l e . The t r i o texture of two dessus w i t h bass was w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n Prance, and the i n -strumental t r i o had already begun to take on a l i f e of i t s own before the a r r i v a l of the I t a l i a n sonata. The French Dance T r a d i t i o n Dance played a v i t a l r o l e i n the music of L u l l y and h i s 10 French contemporaries. I t s importance was the combined r e s u l t of the strong dance t r a d i t i o n of the French and Louis 11 XIV's personal fondness f o r dance. B a l l s f i g u r e d prominently among the amusements of the c o u r t , operas contained frequent dance scenes, and s u i t e s of dance.;pieces were heard as concert 1 2 entertainment during dinners and leve'es. A number of the new t r i o s r e f l e c t . F r e n c h i n t e r e s t i n the dance. Ed. A. C h e v a l l i e r (Amsterdam: P. & J . Blaeu, 1690). 1 0 L u l l y ' s e a r l i e s t works, the B a l l e t s de cour, were focused p r i m a r i l y on the dance, and the l a t e r Comedies-ballets and T r a g e d i e s - l y r i q u e s fused music, dance, verse and s t a g i n g . French musical-dramatic works composed i n the period f o l l o w i n g the death of L u l l y wexe- a l s o s t r o n g l y dance-influenced, f o l l o w i n g the l a t t e r p a t t e r n . Anthony, French Baroque Music, pp. 27-129 and "Some uses of the Dance i n the French Opera-b a l l e t , " Recherches sur l a musique f r a n c a i s e c l a s s i q u e 9 (1969):75-90. 11 Wendy H i l t o n , Dance of Court & Theater: The French Noble S t y l e 1690-1723. ed.. C a r o l i n e Gaynor ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n Book Company, 1981), Preface. 1 2 M i c h e l - R i c h a r d Delalande's "Symphonies pour l e s soupers du r o i " ( P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e Nationale Res. F. 581) i s one such s u i t e . 37 There were many dances i n use i n Prance during the l a t e seventeenth and e a r l y eighteenth c e n t u r i e s . Each dance type had i t s own character, and could be i d e n t i f i e d through i t s metric and rhythmic p a t t e r n s , which were r e l a t e d to the p h y s i c a l movements of the dance. Helen Meredith E l l i s ' s Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , "The Dances of J . B. L u l l y , " 1 5 i s a d e t a i l e d study of the dances of the pe r i o d . The frequency with which the various dances were used i n dramatic works of the period can be seen as a r e f l e c t i o n of t h e i r p o p u l a r i t y . An inventory of L u l l y ' s t i t l e d dance pieces taken by E l l i s r e v e a l s that a v a r i e t y of dance types was i n use, and th a t some, such as the minuet, were extremely popular, while others were used i n f r e q u e n t l y . ^ A s i m i l a r inventory of the dances used i n the dramatic works of Andre Campra (1660 - 1 7 4 4 ) , one of the most important composers i n France during the period f o l l o w i n g the death of L u l l y , "adequately summarizes the dance types used i n a l l ' f i r s t 1 5 p e r i o d ' o p e r a - b a l l e t s . " Table 1, a comparison between these two i n v e n t o r i e s , r e v e a l s trends i n the p o p u l a r i t y of dance types during the l a t e seventeenth and e a r l y eighteenth cen-t u r i e s . These trends are a l s o apparent i n the new t r i o s . The dance pieces of the period are a l l w r i t t e n i n a l 5(Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Stanford U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 6 7 ) . ^ E l l i s , "Inventory of the Dances of Jean B a p t i s t e L u l l y . " Recherches sur l a musique f r a n c a i s e c l a s s i q u e 9 (1969}:21-55. 1 5 ^Anthony, "The Dance i n French Opera-ballet," p. 7 5 . TABLE 1 DANCES IN FRENCH DRAMATIC MUSIC 1656-1718 DANCE LULLY •UAMPRA. B a l l e t s T r agedies-iyriques Other Opera-Dane ts 1656-1673 1673-1686 1673-1686 1697-1718 Minuet 36 47 ( i n s t . 10 works) Bourre'e 28. 8 (none a f t e r 2 1684) Sarabande 24 4 1 ( i n s t . • 3 work) Gavotte 19 17 1 ( i n s t . 2 work) Canarie 10 5 1 Chaconne 9 8 2 (ins t . 5 10 (3 i n Roland, works) Gigue 5 2 ( i n s t . 4 3 i n A c i s ) wo rks ) Loure 3 2 3 G a l l i a r d 3 0 0 Passepied 2 2 2 ( i n s t . 12 works) P a s s e c a i l l e 0 4 ( a l l a f t e r 2 1682) Rigaudon 0 2 6 Allemande 0 (1 i n an i n - 0 0 strumental wo rk ) Pavane 0 (1 i n an i n - 0 0 s trumental wo rk ) TABLE 1-continued MNCE LULLY CAMPRA B a l l e t s 1656-1673 Tragedies 1673 - l y r i q u e s -1686 Other 1673-1686 Opera-ballets 1697-1718 Branle 0 0 0 2 Contredanse 0 0 0 2 Forlana 0 0 0 3 i Marche 13 Musette 0 0 0 2 V i l l a n e l l e 0 0 0 1 SOURCES Helen Meredith E l l i s , "Inventory of the Dances of Jean-Baptiste L u l l y , " Recherches  sur l a musique f r a n c a i s e classique 8 (1968):21. James R. Anthony, "Some Uses of the Dance i n the French Opera-ballet," Recherches  sur l a musique f r a n c a i s e classique 9 (1969):76. NOTES 1 The Marche i s used frequently by L u l l y . E l l i s does not in c l u d e i t i n her inven t o r y . 40 common s t y l e b a s e d on t h e i r p r i m a r y p u r p o s e t o p r o v i d e "a 1 6 s t r o n g a n d c l e a r a c c o m p a n i m e n t f o r t h e d a n c e r s . " T h e r e i s a s t r o n g r h y t h m i c p u l s e , a n d t h e d e s s u s p a r t s a r e u s u a l l y o n l y s l i g h t l y more a c t i v e t h a n t h e b a s s , w h i c h p r o d u c e s a n a l m o s t h o m o p h o n i c t e x t u r e . W h i l e t h e r e may be some r h y t h m i c v a r i a t i o n i n i n n e r v o i c e s o r b r i e f i m i t a t i o n a t t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f p h r a s e s , m e l i s m a t i c p a s s a g e s o r p u r e l y d e c o r a t i v e r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n s a r e a v o i d e d . P h r a s e s a r e o f r e g u l a r l e n g t h , e n d i n g w i t h w e l l - d e f i n e d c a d e n c e s . The m e l o d i c s t y l e o f t h e d a n c e s r e s e m b l e s t h a t o f t h e t r i o d e s h a u t b o i s . The m e l o d i c l i n e s move s m o o t h l y w i t h i n p h r a s e s , i n w h i c h s t e p w i s e m o t i o n a n d s m a l l i n t e r v a l s p r e -d o m i n a t e . A f e w d a n c e s — t h e s a r a b a n d e a nd g a v o t t e a r e p r i m e e x a m p l e s — o f t e n i n c l u d e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c l a r g e r i n t e r v a l s . P a i r s o f p h r a s e s w i t h s i m i l a r b e g i n n i n g s b u t d i f f e r e n t e n d i n g s a r e f r e q u e n t . E l l i s e s t i m a t e s t h a t 8 0 % o f L u l l y ' s d a n c e s a r e i n b i - p a r t i t e f o r m , e i t h e r w i t h two e q u a l - l e n g t h s e c t i o n s o r w i t h a l o n g e r B s e c t i o n . The m e l o d i c w r i t i n g i s s o m e t i m e s more e l a b o r a t e i n t h e B s e c t i o n , j u s t a s t h e movements o f 1 7 t h e d a n c e a r e more c o m p l e x . Of t h e r e m a i n i n g 2 0 % , most a r e e i t h e r i n r o n d e a u o r p a s s a c a g l i a f o r m . M a n y . c h o r u s e s , •so l o s , a n d - i n s t r u m e h t a l - p i e c e s i n t h e . w o r k s o f L u l l y h a v e d a n c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , b u t a r e n o t g i v e n " d a n c e t i t l e s . A. ;. l 6 E l l i s , "The D a n c e s o f J . B. L u l l y , " p. 1 4 1 . 1 7 I b i d . , p. 1 40. 41 Most of the dances i n L u l l y ' s dramatic works are scored 1 8 f o r a f i v e - p a r t o r c h e s t r a l ensemble. Only a small pro-p o r t i o n are scored f o r t r i o , but some dances i n f i v e - p a r t s c o r i n g — e s p e c i a l l y chaconnes and p a s s a c a g l i a s — c o n t a i n c o n t r a s t i n g s e c t i o n s i n t r i o t e x t u r e . Although the idea of t e x t u r a l change had some e f f e c t , o n the .new. t r i o s , the . i n f l u e n c e of dance music was"primarily melodic and rhythmic. Elements of French Musical S t y l e The dances and t r i o s i n French dramatic works of the l a t e seventeenth and e a r l y eighteenth c e n t u r i e s are u s u a l l y q u i t e homophonic i n t e x t u r e , but i m i t a t i v e w r i t i n g i s frequent i n other French music of the pe r i o d . The French overture i n c l u d e s both homophonic and i m i t a t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n . The a i r s of Michel Lambert, which were extremely popular during the l a t e seventeenth century, often begin i m i t a t i v e l y ; i n s e c t i o n a l a i r s , subsequent s e c t i o n s may a l s o begin i n t h i s manner. There a l s o e x i s t s a French "fugue," which resembles / , i q a simple canon (Example 7 ). A piece i n t h i s s t y l e e n t i t l e d " F a n t a i s i e en echo" appears i n the s i x t h s u i t e of Marais's x 20 Pieces a une et "h. deux v i o l e s (1686-89; Example 8 ) . Although t h i s i m i t a t i v e element may have been derived o r i g i n -al o Anthony, French Baroque Music, p. 106. i Q % ^Jean-Pierre F r e i l l o n Poncein, La V e r i t a b l e maniere d'apprendre a .jouer en p e r f e c t i o n du haut b o i s , de l a f l G t e , et du f l a g e o l e t ( P a r i s : Jacques Collombat, 1700; r e p r i n t ed., Geneva: Minkoff, 1971), pp. 60-61. 20 Marin Marais, The Instrumental Works, ed. John Hsu, v o l . 1 : Pieces a une et a deux v i o l e s (1686-89) (New York: Broude Brothers L i m i t e d , 1980), pp. 116-17. a l l y from I t a l i a n music, i t had become part of the French s t y l e . Example 7: F r e i l l o n Poncein, "De l a muence en fugue," La V e r i t a b l e maniere, p. 61, 1-9. Example 8: Marais, "81. F a n t a i s i e en echo," Pieces a  une et a. deux v i o l e s (1686-89), 1-6. The harmonic s t r u c t u r e of L u l l y ' s music i s based on progressions of two-note i n t e r v a l s . Harmony was considered to be the r e s u l t of i n t e r a c t i o n between the melody and bass, the two most important p a r t s . Other p a r t s , i n c l u d i n g the second dessus, were used to f i l l i n and e n r i c h the harmony. This system i s described i n t r e a t i s e s by Guillaume Nivers ( T r a i t e de l a composition de musique), M i c h e l P i g n o l e t de / 22 M o n t e c l a i r (Nouvelle methode pour apprendre l a musique) and Jean-Pierre F r e i l l o n Poncein (La V e r i t a b l e maniere). In the L u l l i a n s t y l e , t r i a d s and s i x t h chords, both of which contain t h i r d s , appear most f r e q u e n t l y ; according to F r e i l l o n Poncein, t h i r d s , f i f t h s , s i x t h s and octaves are the 24 "good" i n t e r v a l s . Extended sequences of s i x t h or seventh chords are not part of the s t y l e . In the note-against-note s t y l e used i n dances and the trio.,des hautbois, the harmony g e n e r a l l y changes whenever the bass note moves. Within a piece , there may be movement to r e l a t e d keys: the dominant, the t o n i c minor or major, or the dominant of the dominant. This movement i s c a r r i e d out through melodic motion and co-ordinated w i t h the phrase s t r u c t u r e of the piece. L u l l y does not u s u a l l y prepare the new key g r a d u a l l y w i t h p i v o t chords. He merely ends a phrase";in one key, then begins the next i n a d i f f e r e n t , but c l o s e l y r e l a t e d key. The appearance of the new key i s not g e n e r a l l y marked by a s o l i d V-I cadence; t h i s cadence appears at the end of the phrase. A l t e r n a t i o n between major and minor keys on a common t o n i c i s frequent, e s p e c i a l l y i n chaconnes and pa s s a c a g l i a s . 21 ( P a r i s , 1 6 6 7 ; t r a n s . A l b e r t Cohen, Brooklyn: I n s t i t u t e of Mediaeval Music, 1 9 6 1 ) . 2 2 ( P a r i s , 1 7 0 9 ) . 23 ^The p r i n c i p l e s of t h i s system are summarized by Charles Gower P r i c e i n h i s Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , "The Codif-i c a t i o n and Perseverance of a French N a t i o n a l S t y l e of Instrumental Composition between 1687 and 1 7 3 7 : Monte'clair 1 s Serenade ou Concert ( 1 6 9 7 ) " (Stanford U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 2 ) . 44 The s c o r i n g of many of the dances i n L u l l y ' s dramatic works i s not c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d , and i t i s not known which instruments apart from the s t r i n g s would have p a r t i c i p a t e d . Chamber works w r i t t e n f o r one p a r t i c u l a r instrument during the l a t e seventeenth and e a r l y eighteenth c e n t u r i e s were 25 ad v e r t i s e d as s u i t a b l e f o r performance on others. J While t h i s may have been an attempt to boost sales of these public-c a t i o n s , i t i s apparent from contemporary sources that per-formers were expected to have the a b i l i t y to transpose at s i g h t and to a l t e r works intended f o r other instruments to O f s u i t t h e i r own. In s p i t e of t h i s apparent l a c k of concern about i n s t r u -mentation, French composers sometimes chose to score pieces or p a r t i c u l a r passages f o r s p e c i f i c instruments. In the works of L u l l y , i t i s apparent that these choices were made on the basis of instrum e n t a l colour or extra-musical a s s o c i a t i o n s ; there i s nothing i n the s t y l e of the music that r e s t r i c t s the s c o r i n g . 2 ^ " F r e i l l o n Poncein, La V e r i t a b l e maniere, pp. 58-59. 2 5 Marin Marais, Pieces de v i o l e s Second L i v r e ( P a r i s , 1701), "Avertissement." Marais s t a t e s that these pieces were w r i t t e n w i t h the v i o l i n mind, but i n such a way that they could be played on other instruments. "J'ay en a t t e n t i o n en composant a. l e s rendre propres pour etre jouees sur toutes sortes d'instrumens comme l'Orgue, C l a v e c i n , Theorbe, Luth, V i o l o n , P l u t t e A l l e -mande . . . " ? f See, f o r example, Jacques H o t t e t e r r e l e romain, Premier l i v r e de pieces pour l a f l u t e - t r a v e r s i e r e ( P a r i s , 1715; r e p r i n t ed., Florence: Studio per Edizione S c e l t e , 1980), "Avertissement." 45 The French Chamber Music T r a d i t i o n S u i t e s — g r o u p s of s e l f - c o n t a i n e d pieces w i t h a common t o n i c key—were w r i t t e n , or arranged, and performed i n France before the development of the new t r i o . The s u i t e was espec-i a l l y important i n chamber music, and much of the mid- to late-seventeenth century music f o r so l o instruments such as harpsichord, l u t e , g u i t a r and bass v i o l i s i n t h i s form. Some French s u i t e s from t h i s period c o n s i s t of groups of dances arranged i n an a r b i t r a r y order. This type, long popular i n France, w i l l be r e f e r r e d to as the old s u i t e . Others, e s p e c i a l l y those newly composed f o r s o l o instruments beginning i n the 1680s, f o l l o w the pa t t e r n of the " c l a s s i c a l " 27 s u i t e : Prelude-Allemande-Courante-Sarabande-Gigue. Some composers, Marais among them, used the " c l a s s i c a l " s u i t e as a framework to be f i l l e d out with a l t e r n a t e versions of the basic dances, other dances, character pieces or f a n t a s i a s . Thus, the s u i t e s i n Marais Pieces a une et a. deux v i o l e s contain between nine and twenty-seven separate pieces. The added pieces could be grouped together a f t e r the gigue, as . they are i n Marais's P i e c e s , or i n t e r s p e r s e d with the bas i c dances. There were two types of Prelude i n use: a r h y t h m i c a l l y f r e e , l o o s e l y s t r u c t u r e d type and a s t r o n g l y rhythmic type, i n which the dotted patterns of the French overture were prominent. The basic dances, even the Sarabande and Gigue 27 The New Grove D i c t i o n a r y of Music and Musicians, s.v.. " S u i t e , " by David F u l l e r . 46 which were s t i l l i n the a c t i v e dance r e p e r t o i r e , had become s t y l i z e d ; the r e l a t i o n s h i p to the: movements of the dance was no longer of primary importance. The F a n t a s i a S t y l e The polyphonic f a n t a s i a had gone out of use i n France by the l a t e seventeenth century, and the term " f a n t a s i a " had come to mean a piece i n which the composer "does not t i e him-s e l f to a f i x e d scheme, or a p a r t i c u l a r k ind of metre." The F a n t a i s i e s de v i o l e s and Symphonies of Louis Couperin (c. 1626-1661) c o n s i s t of two or three c o n t r a s t i n g s e c t i o n s too short to be considered as i n d i v i d u a l movements. ? .These sections are often l i n k e d together through the device of using the f i n a l note of the cadence i n one s e c t i o n as the f i r s t note of the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n (Example 9). This device i s used to l i n k c o n t r a s t i n g s e c t i o n s i n the French overture and throughout the operas of L u l l y . p o Sebastien de Brossard, D i c t i o n a i r e de musique ( P a r i s : Christophe B a l l a r d , 1703; r e p r i n t ed., Amsterdam: Antiqua Amsterdam, 1964), " F a n t a s i a . " "Fantasia veut d i r e F a n t a i s i e , ou espece de Composition, q u i est l e pur e f f e t du genie sans que l e Compositeur s'assu j e t t i s s e a un nombre f i x e , ou a. une c e r t a i n qualite* de mesure, se servant de toutes sortes de Modes, & c." 29 Louis Couperin, Qeuvres completes de Louis Couperin, ed. Paul Brunold ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s de l 1 O i s e a u l y r e , 1936). 47 Example 9: Louis Couperin, Simphonie, Qeuvres completes  de Louis Couperin, p. 132, 1-6. i f I | -ib The Bass V i o l T r a d i t i o n The bass v i o l was a popular chamber music instrument i n court and P a r i s i a n c i r c l e s during the seventeenth century, and by the period 1686-1706, a w e l l - d e f i n e d i d i o m a t i c v i o l s t y l e f o r s o l o and chamber music had developed. This s t y l e was f u r t h e r r e f i n e d i n the music and p l a y i n g of Marais and Antoine Porqueray (1672-1728), both of whom were a c t i v e as performers and composers during the period of the composition of the new t r i o s . The word " i d i o m a t i c " i s . f r e q u e n t l y .used-to describe the musical s t y l e of the Prench bass v i o l composers of the 30 late-seventeenth century. The i d i o m a t i c s t y l e of Marais and Porqueray i n v o l v e s not only the w r i t i n g of passages that are " w i t h i n the t e c h n i c a l range of the accomplished p l a y e r " but "are often q u i t e impossible to render on another i n s t r u -5 0 S a d i e ( V e r t r e e s ) , "The Bass V i o l , " pp. 188-236. Sadie discusses the concept of i d i o m a t i c s t y l e i n Chapter IV, " R e f l e c t i o n s of Solo V i o l P l a y i n g . " 48 31 ment," but a l s o the use of s p e c i f i c p r o p e r t i e s of the instrument to hide t e c h n i c a l problems and to create unique and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c sounds. Included i n t h i s d e f i n i t i o n are the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t y l e of ornamentation and passage-work, the development of the high r e g i s t e r , chordal p l a y i n g and the use of the open s t r i n g s to hide s h i f t s and to e n r i c h the timbre. In the case of the bass v i o l , s t y l e and technique developed together; the p h y s i c a l p r o p r e t i e s of the instrument and the musical s t y l e a s s o c i a t e d with i t were c l o s e l y r e l a t e d . One element of bass v i o l s t y l e that had an i n f l u e n c e on the composers of the new t r i o s was the concept of " r o l e s " — d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s of p l a y i n g adapted to s u i t d i f f e r e n t functions — i n bass v i o l p l a y i n g . This concept was recognized by the t h e o r i s t and pedagogue Jean Rousseau (1644-c. 1700), who organized the second part of h i s Traite" de l a v i o l e (1687) around the f i v e d i f f e r e n t " r o l e s " used i n bass v i o l p l a y i n g : Jeu de melodie, Jeu d'harmonie (chordal p l a y i n g ) , Jeu de s'accompagner (accompanying the v o i c e ) , Jeu de 1'accompagne-ment (accompanying a group of voices or instruments) and Jeu de l'on a p p e l l e t r a v a i l l e r sur un su.jet ( i m p r o v i s i n g on a sub-32 j e c t ) . In music of the p e r i o d , the bass v i o l p l ayer could be c a l l e d upon to play a v a r i e t y of r o l e s i n a s i n g l e piece. The v i o l p layers i n Marais's Pieces a, une et a. deux v i o l e s f i l l 3 1 I b i d . , p. 1 9 2 . 5 2 ( P a r i s , 1687; r e p r i n t ed., Geneva: Minkoff, 1978), "Table" and pp. 5 5 - 7 1 . 49 many r o l e s : p l a y i n g a m e l o d y i n t h e h i g h r e g i s t e r , f i l l i n g i n t h e h a r m o n y w i t h c h o r d s , d o u b l i n g t h e b a s s a n d p l a y i n g a a s e c o n d a r y a c c o m p a n y i n g p a r t . The l a r g e r a n g e o f t h e i n s t r u -m e n t — o v e r l a p p i n g w i t h t h a t o f t h e t r e b l e i n s t r u m e n t s a t t h e h i g h e n d , y e t e x t e n d i n g l o w e n o u g h t o f i l l a b a s s r o l e — a p p e a r s t o h a v e b e e n a c r u c i a l f a c t o r i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s c o n c e p t . The v e r s a t i l i t y o f t h e b a s s v i o l was f u l l y r e c o g n i z e d b y t h e l a t e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , a n d p l a y e r - c o m p o s e r s s u c h a s M a r a i s a n d F o r q u e r a y w e r e e x p l o i t i n g t h e l a r g e r a n g e a n d t h e t e c h n i c a l , m e l o d i c a n d c h o r d a l c a p a b i l i t i e s o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t . M o s t o f t h e t r i o c o m p o s e r s moved i n t h e same c i r c l e s a s t h e s e v i r t u o s i , a n d some a r e k n o w n t o h a v e p l a y e d w i t h t h e m . The s t y l e o f b a s s v i o l p e r f o r m i n g a n d c o m p o s i n g u s e d by t h e s e v i r t u o s i b r o u g h t t o F r e n c h t r i o c o m p o s e r s r e s o u r c e s o f t e x t u r e a n d s o n o r i t y t h a t w e r e s p e c i f i c a l l y F r e n c h . 50 The I t a l i a n Instrumental S t y l e i n France The I t a l i a n instrumental s t y l e t hat became popular i n France during the f i n a l years of the seventeenth century was a s s o c i a t e d with the sonata, the p r i n c i p a l I t a l i a n chamber music genre of the p e r i o d . The t r i o sonata, predominant i n I t a l y at t h i s time was the focus of French a t t e n t i o n . The sonata had developed to maturity during a period i n which I t a l i a n music had been out of f a s h i o n i n France, and thus came to the French as a completely formed new-style. The French found i n t e r e s t i n the formal aspects of the genre and i n the i d i o m a t i c s t y l e of s t r i n g w r i t i n g that was an i n t e g r a l p art of i t . The V i o l i n The v i o l i n i s t - c o m p o s e r Arcangelo C o r e l l i was the most well-known I t a l i a n instrumental composer i n l a t e seventeenth-and e a r l y eighteenth-century France. He was known there p r i m a r i l y as a composer r a t h e r than a v i o l i n i s t , and h i s music was held as a model of the I t a l i a n s t y l e . C o r e l l i ' s four sets of t r i o sonatas were published i n Rome between 1681 and 1694. While he d i d not use a l l of the most advanced t e c h n i c a l developments of the period i n these works, C o r e l l i wrote i n a s t y l e that i s h i g h l y i d i o m a t i c f o r the v i o l i n and that had not p r e v i o u s l y been known i n France. C o r e l l i and other I t a l i a n v i o l i n i s t s of h i s generation g e n e r a l l y played w i t h i n the range d' to d 1 1 ' . In C o r e l l i ' s t r i o sonatas, as i n the French music associated with v i o l i n s , 51 the lowest s t r i n g i s used only o c c a s i o n a l l y . The v i o l i n p a r t s i n C o r e l l i ' s t r i o s do not go higher than t h i r d p o s i t i o n , although higher p i t c h e s were used o c c a s i o n a l l y by a few of 33 h i s predecessors and contemporaries. J Within t h i s range, the s t y l e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the use of s c a l a r p a t t e r n s , arpeggios and s t r i n g c r o s s i n g s . As i s the case i n much of the w r i t i n g i n C o r e l l i ' s t r i o s , these patterns are often organized so that they " f i t under the hand" and can be played w i t h r e l a t i v e ease (Example 1 0 ) . Sometimes patterns that " f i t under the hand" are i m i t a t e d w i t h more t e c h n i c a l l y awkward combinations of notes; t h i s a l s o became part of the i d i o m a t i c s t y l e (Example 1 1 ) . Example 1C :; C o r e l l i , Opus 111/12:6 A l l e g r o , 5 - 6 . O f ^ F f l H-[LH J Example 1 . C o r e l l i , Opus I I l / 4 : 4 4 P r e a t o , 2-4. J f — M f 1 f H — f — i + M w —f— — W •^Marc P i n c h e r l e , C o r e l l i : His L i f e , h i s Work (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1956), p. 105. 52 C e r t a i n t e c h n i c a l elements a s s o c i a t e d more with the so l o sonata than with the t r i o had an i n f l u e n c e on the new French t r i o . The element of stamina i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h perpetuum mo "bile movements, which are frequent i n C o r e l l i ' s Opus V. In these movements, the so l o v i o l i n plays f a s t notes continuously w i t h few, i f any, r e s t s or changes i n note v a l -ues. Opus IV/3:2 Corrente A l l e g r o , i n which the second v i o l i n takes an accompanying r o l e , i s one of the few perpetuum  mobile movements i n C o r e l l i ' s t r i o sonatas (Example 12). Example 12: C o r e l l i , Opus IV/3:2 Corrente A l l e g r o , 1-12, 1 » J + * j j f i y 'I ITi I iti Ilu i An element concerned with both technique and musical s t y l e , but not apparent from the notated music i s that of v i r t u o s i c ornamentation, which was used by the I t a l i a n s i n both s o l o and ensemble music. The l a t e seventeenth century improvisatory s t y l e of the I t a l i a n i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s , d i s -cussed by R a g u e n e t L e Cerf and others who had heard I t a l i a n 34 music performed, came to France w i t h the I t a l i a n sonata. T 34 J Raguenet, P a r a l l e l e , t r a n s . Strunk, Source Readings, p. 477 and Le Cerf, Comparaison, Book I I , pp. 95-96. 53 The i m p r o v i s a t i o n of embellishments had not been a part of 35 v i o l i n technique under L u l l y , although i t had survived i n l a t e seventeenth-century France i n the i m p r o v i s a t o r y t r a d -i t i o n s of s o l o v o i c e , v i o l and woodwinds.-^ A v e r s i o n of C o r e l l i ' s Opus V was published ca. 1710-11 i n Amsterdam i n which the adagios of the Sonate da c h i e s a were embellished "as C o r e l l i played them." Even i f the embellishments are not C o r e l l i ' s own, they date from the e a r l y eighteenth century and represent the s t y l e of embellishment i n use at that time (Example 1 3 ) . 37 Example 1 3 : C o r e l l i , Opus V / 4 :1 Adagio, 1 - 2 . Cordis Graced Violin 5 i i i P p 35 L u l l y had founded the P e t i t s V i o l o n s because he d i s -l i k e d the p l a y i n g s t y l e of the Vingt-quatre V i o l o n s , which in c l u d e d improvised ornamentation. ^ Benigne de B a c i l l y , Remarques curieuses sur l ' a r t de  bie n chanter ( P a r i s , 1668), Rousseau, T r a i t e de l a v i o l e and and Jacques-Martin H o t t e t e r r e , p r i n c i p l e s of the F l u t e ,  Recorder and Oboe, t r a n s . Paul M a r s h a l l Douglas ( P a r i s , 1707; E n g l i s h ed., New York: Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s Inc., 1968). 37 P i n c h e r l e , C o r e l l i , pp. 110-12. This embellished v e r s i o n i s r e p r i n t e d i n Les Oeuvres de Arcangelo C o r e l l i , 54 These embellishments, which were i m i t a t e d i n w r i t t e n -out form by French composers, co n s i s t e d of scale and arpeggio p a t t e r n s , t r i l l s and passages that wound around the p r i n c i p a l melodic notes. A s i n g l e quarter or ei g h t h note could be embellished w i t h a group of many r a p i d notes. To a person such as Le Cerf, who was not accustomed to the s t y l e , such embellishments might indeed have sounded l i k e a c o l l e c t i o n of " f r i g h t e n i n g and monstrous chutes." The Gontinuo 39 According to the part books of the f i r s t e d i t i o n , the continuo parts of C o r e l l i ' s Opus I I and Opus Ty were to be played by "Violone, o cimbalo. " ^ Since the bass l i n e never d i v i d e s , t h i s part could be played by a s i n g l e i n s t r u -ment. Two bass parts were issued w i t h the o r i g i n a l e d i t i o n s ed. J . Joachim and F. Chrysander, v o l 3, part I: Vl/Sonate  a V i o l i n o s o l o (London: Augener, 1888-91). 5 8 L e Cerf, Comparaison, Book I I , p. 96. "de ces chutes e f f r a y a n t e s & monstrueuses, qui sont l e s d e l i c e s des I t a l i e n s . " 39 ^ N i e l s M a r tin Jensen, "The Performance of C o r e l l i ' s Chamber Music Reconsidered," Nuovissimi S t u d i C o r e l l i a n i :  A t t i d e l t e r z o Congresso I n t e r n a z i o n a l e Fusignano 4-7  settembre 1980 (Florence: Leo S. O l s c h k i . 1982);241. According to Jensen, there was a t r a d i t i o n of unaccompanied s t r i n g music l i n k e d to C o r e l l i ' s Sonate da camera. ^The term " v i o l o n e " seems to have been used very l o o s e l y i n seventeenth- and eighteenth-century I t a l y . I t could be used to r e f e r to a v i o l o n c e l l o or to a l a r g e r s t r i n g e d bass instrument. See The New Grove, s.v. "Violone," by Thorald B o r g i r . The term "bowed bass," a t r a n s l a t i o n of Couperin*s basse d.'archet, w i l l be used here when the instrument i s not s p e c i f i e d . While the bass l i n e seems to have been played most f r e q u e n t l y by a bowed instrument, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t i n some of the new French t r i o s the bassoon might have been used a f t e r the model of the t r i o des hautbois. 55 of Opus I and Opus I I I . In many of these sonatas, there are sec t i o n s i n which the bass d i v i d e s i n t o two p a r t s . The independent bowed bass part often takes the form of d i v i s i o n s on the bass (Example T4). In some cases, the d i v -i s i o n s i m i t a t e the m a t e r i a l of the upper voices independently of the keyboard part (Example 15;). There are a l s o passages i n which C o r e l l i uses the independence of the two bass parts to create v a r i a t i o n s i n s o n o r i t y . In Opus 111/7:2, the appearance of the theme i n the t r e b l e voices i s accompanied by organ alone. The bowed bass j o i n s i n only when the bass takes the subject (Example 16). The bowed bass appears o c c a s i o n a l l y as a s o l o i s t , causing an expansion of the three-part t e x t u r e to four p a r t s . The s o l o part i n Example 17 i s l i n k e d c l o s e l y to the organ p a r t , but f i l l s a d i s t i n c t i v e space i n range and has an independent rhythmic p a t t e r n . These v a r i a t i o n s i n texture are part of C o r e l l i ' s t r i o s t y l e . Example 14: C o r e l l i . Opus 111/6:3 A l l e g r o , 29-30. 56 Example 15: C o r e l l i , Opus 111/1:2 A l l e g r o , 29-31. m *—*—-re-P n J r - y — mm 3 Example 16: C o r e l l i , Opus 111/7:2 A l l e g r o , 13 -17 . Q J J | ra <—*— f Tt f 1 —fZ ^ —MS. i— J h i i i — t — NF== —r-f— i . r 1 ' J J , Miff. , 1 LJ I ~~~ f~ — i 1 r * *? " r f j -J—* 0«y '1 ' 1 \ 57 Example 17: C o r e l l i , Opus 1/12:4 A l l e g r o , 26-28. I to f I i f f ff-~j / f » J - ! J :4 T T 0 f f r * X -J -f— / 1 - 1 - ^ — > l > j / # — 6 — £ f-J s s 1 M £ C C 6, S 5 Formal Aspects of the C o r e l l i a n Sonata C o r e l l i wrote t r i o sonajtas i n both the Sonata da chiesa and the Sonata da camera forms. In the former, used i n Opus I and Opus I I I , there are u s u a l l y f o u r movements, although there may be as few as three or as many as seven. The most common arrangement i s s l o w - f a s t - s l o w - f a s t , often set as Grave-Allegro-Adagio-Allegro. Most movements are through-composed; a: few dance-related movements have repeated s e c t i o n s . The Sonata da camera, l i k e the French s u i t e , i s composed l a r g e l y of dance piece s . However, there are u s u a l l y only three or f o u r movements while the French s u i t e may contain many more. The C o r e l l i a n Sonata da camera begins w i t h a Prelude and/or Allemande- and concludes w i t h a group of binary 58 dances. The movements of the Sonate da chiesa are u s u a l l y given tempo t i t l e s while those of the Sonate da camera are given dance t i t l e s , but the d i v i s i o n between the types i s not always c l e a r - c u t . Some movements of the Sonate da chiesa have dance c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and the through-composed Preludes of the Sonate da camera resemble the Grave movements of the Sonate da c h i e s a . The C o r e l l i a n sonata was conceived as a whole. The movements are l i n k e d together through harmonic and m e l o d i c ^ r e l a t i o n s h i p s , by key and o c c a s i o n a l l y through the use of short l i n k i n g passages such as the four-bar Adagio th a t appears between two A l l e g r o s i n Opus l / 9 . P a i r s of movements, u s u a l l y i n a slo w - f a s t order, are f r e q u e n t l y l i n k e d by con-c l u d i n g the slow movement on the dominant chord and completing the expected harmonic motion with the opening chord of the f a s t movement. This l i n k i n g device i s based on a s t r o n g l y e s t a b l i s h e d sense of t o n a l i t y , a feat u r e of the C o r e l l i a n sonata. C o r e l l i uses a number of d i f f e r e n t movement types i n h i s sonatas. These types are b u i l t upon patterns common i n the music of C o r e l l i and h i s I t a l i a n contemporaries, and are a l t e r n a t e d f o r v a r i e t y w i t h i n the sonatas, according to the conventions of the s t y l e . The Grave type, with which most of the Sonate da chiesa ^ D e n n i s Libb y , " I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n C o r e l l i , " J o u r n a l o f the American M u s i c o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y 26 (1973); 263-87. 59 open, i s through-composed. Such movements f r e q u e n t l y begin w i t h a phrase of two to four bars which concludes w i t h a pause. This phrase i s then repeated on the dominant, and the movement continues w i t h successions of s e q u e n t i a l p a t t e r n s — often descending—and suspensions. The bass sometimes moves wi t h a steady quarter-.or'eighth-note motion. The "Fugal" type u s u a l l y stands second i n the Sonata  da chiesa. In t h i s polyphonic type, a phrase of d i s t i n c t i v e character i s i m i t a t e d , elaborated and va r i e d as the piece moves through a succession of c l o s e l y - r e l a t e d keys. The theme often c o n s i s t s of melodic p a t t e r n s — s c a l e s , arpeggios and tonic-to-dominant motion—which define and e s t a b l i s h the main key. I t may r e t u r n i n i t s o r i g i n a l form a t points through-out the piece i n a l t e r n a t i o n with s e c t i o n s of s e q u e n t i a l m a t e r i a l , or i t may undergo v a r i a t i o n . In some f u g a l move-ments, the thematic m a t e r i a l i s broken i n t o s e c t i o n s which are themselves the subject of v a r i a t i o n and e l a b o r a t i o n ; the o r i g i n a l thematic m a t e r i a l pervades the e n t i r e movement, making i t almost monothematic. Many f u g a l movements end wi t h a short Adagio s e c t i o n — a w r i t t e n - o u t r i t a r d . Movements i n homophonic s t y l e , often i n 3/2 time, appear as slow t h i r d movements or as opening movements i n the sonatas of C o r e l l i . In t h i s type, the v i o l i n s often move i n p a r a l l e l t h i r d s . Pieces c o n s i s t i n g of i m i t a t e d patterns and suspensions a l s o appear as slow t h i r d movements. Dance-like movements form a large, p r o p o r t i o n of the pieces i n the Sonate da camera. They a l s o appear i n the 60 Sonate da ch i e s a . Such movements are u s u a l l y "binary i n form, wit h two s e c t i o n s of equal l e n g t h or a longer second s e c t i o n ; sometimes the two s e c t i o n s contain s i m i l a r melodic m a t e r i a l . Elements found i n the other movement t y p e s — i m i t a t i o n , sequen-t i a l patterns and s u s p e n s i o n s — a r e used i n these dance move-ments, while the melodic c o n s t r u c t i o n i s often s i m i l a r to that of the French dances. Free .. f a n t a s i a - l i k e movements a l s o appear i n C o r e l l i ' s sonatas. Some (e.g. Opus 1 1 1 / 1 2 : 1 ) give the impression•of improvised f i g u r a t i o n . Others (e.g. Opus 1 / 5 : 3 ) c o n s i s t of two c o n t r a s t i n g musical ideas a l t e r n a t e d i n short s e c t i o n s ; tempo changes are sudden and the m a t e r i a l i s not developed e x t e n s i v e l y . C o r e l l i ' s harmonic idiom i s s t r o n g l y based i n t o n a l i t y . One of the most n o t i c e a b l e features of t h i s idiom i s the use of chains of s i x - t h r e e or seventh chords. The chains of sevenths are often organized according to the c i r c l e of f i f t h s , each seventh chord a c t i n g as a l o c a l i z e d dominant to the f o l l o w i n g chord. Suspensions are frequent i n movements of a l l types. Many movements contain ornamental passages i n which the t r e b l e voices move i n s c a l a r patterns over a more slowly-moving .bass, c r e a t i n g many b r i e f l y - h e a r d dissonances. Pedal points are used o c c a s i o n a l l y , as are passages i n which the bass moves c h r o m a t i c a l l y by step,to create a harmonically complex s e c t i o n c o n t a i n i n g chords both common to and f o r e i g n to the key. 61 W i t h i n the movements, C o r e l l i moves to keys c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the main k e y — t h e dominant, the dominant of the dominant and the r e l a t i v e major or minor. This motion i s c a r r i e d out through i n t e r r u p t e d sequences and the use of chords common to both the old key and the new. Inner slow movements are f r e q u e n t l y set i n the dominant or the r e l a t i v e major or minor of the p r i n c i p a l key; such movements can be seen as i l l u s t r a t i o n s of t o n a l modulation on a l a r g e r s c a l e . Other I t a l i a n Composers The only other I t a l i a n chamber music composer named i n French sources of the period i s Giovanni B a t t i s t a Bassani, who was respected i n France f o r both h i s church and h i s i e r 42 41 chamber music. '';• -Both Brossard and Le Cerf mention "other I t a l i a n s , " but i t i s not known to whom they were r e f e r r i n g . The extent to which music by I t a l i a n , composers other than C o r e l l i and Bassani was known i n l a t e seventeenth- and e a r l y eighteenth-century France i s l i t t l e understood. The music of Bassani resembles that of C o r e l l i i n many 43 r e s p e c t s . ^ The s t y l e of s t r i n g w r i t i n g , i n c l u d i n g the use ^ S e e page 19 above and Chapter 1, note 53. "^Brossard, "Catalogue," p. 545, t r a n s l a t e d i n Anthony,. French Baroque Music, p. 328, and Le Cerf, Comparaison, Book ^ B a s s a n i ' s Opus V t r i o sonatas were h i s best known instrumental works. A s e l e c t i o n of works from Opus I , which has o p t i o n a l second v i o l i n p a r t s , and from Opus V can be found i n the f o l l o w i n g sources: L u i g i T o r c h i , L'Art musicale  i n I t a l i a ( M i l a n : R i c o r d i , 1897-1908; r e p r i n t ed., M i l a n : R i c o r d i , 1968), v o l . 7, Joseph Wilhelm von Wasielewski, Anthology of Instrumental Music from the End of the S i x t e e n t h 62 of s c a l e and arpeggio patterns and the l i m i t e d range, i s s i m i l a r to C o r e l l i ' s p r a c t i c e . As i n C o r e l l i ' s t r i o s , the two upper voices are treated as equals, and cross f r e q u e n t l y . The movement types and harmonic s t y l e are s i m i l a r to those used .by C o r e l l i , f o r they are both based i n a common I t a l i a n idiom. Movements of c o n t r a s t i n g tempos and s t y l e s are a l t e r -nated i n Bassani's sonatas as they are i n C o r e l l i ' s . 4 4 However, the p a t t e r n used by ' C o r e l l i i n h i s Sonate da chiesa i s not as common i n the works of Bassani; there i s more var-i e t y i n the grouping of movements. The l i n k i n g of movements i s s i m i l a r to C o r e l l i ' s p r a c t i c e . Within one of Bassani's sonatas, there i s a group of movements tha t i s l i n k e d both harmonically and m e l o d i c a l l y (Example 18). The sequence begins w i t h the f o u r t h movement of the sonata, an Adagio i n D minor. The f o l l o w i n g P r e s t i s s i m o i s a l s o i n D minor. I t concludes on a pause, and i s followed Century to the End of the Seventeenth Century (n.p., 1905; r e p r i n t ed., New York: Da Capo Press, 1974). Opus V/9 has been published independently i n a modern e d i t i o n as Sonata  a t r e per due V i o l i n i e Basso continuo Op. V/9, ed. E r i c h Schenk (Vienna: O s t e r r e i c h i s c h e Bundesverlag, 1955). 4 40pus V /7 A l l e g r o - G r a v e - A l l e g r o (gigue ) Adagio-Allegro Opus V/6a Largo-Allegro Grave-Adagio P r e s t i s s i m o Opus V/2a Grave-Prest0-3/2-3/4 Opus V / 9 Presto-Grave-Allegro (gigue)-Presto by the A d a g i o - f o r t e , which moves from D minor to A minor, the p r i n c i p a l key of the Sonata, and i s t h e m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d to the previous Adagio. The second P r e s t i s s i m o completes the i n t e r l o c k i n g s t r u c t u r e . Example 18: Bassani, Sonate f u r 2 V i o l i n e n , V i o l o n c e l l o  (ad l i b i t u m ) und Orgel (Wasielewski, pp. 61-63T. a: Adagio, 1-4. aqio mm m b: P r e s t i s s i m o , 1-4. m 3 64 c; Adagio e f o r t e , 1-4. \U r > r i •f—\r~(^~ i <y -V& !— - H — — d: P r e s t i s s i m o , 1-4. i £5 E g 3=3: = £ = 3 : In Bassani's sonatas, as i n those of C o r e l l i , the v i o l o n c e l l o i s sometimes given independent p a r t s . Bassani's independent parts are most often decorations of the bass l i n e , but there are a few passages i n which the organ drops out, and the v i o l o n c e l l o takes the bass l i n e alone. Although the v i o l o n c e l l o i s not given v i r t u o s i c passages i n the t r i o sonatas of Bassani that have been examined, there are works by other I t a l i a n composers of the period i n which i t i s ; t h i s 65 45 i s a l s o part of the I t a l i a n i n s t r u m e n t a l t r a d i t i o n . Extended passages of p a r a l l e l t h i r d s are given to the v i o l i n s i n Bassani's sonatas. Such passages appear i n C o r e l l i ' s music, hut he u s u a l l y v a r i e s the texture by breaking the p a t t e r n every few bars. The two v i o l i n s i n Bassani's sonatas, aside from these passages, act as equal partners; melodic m a t e r i a l i s shared, and voice crossings are frequent. The French and I t a l i a n t r a d i t i o n s had many elements i n common, among them the chamber music t r a d i t i o n , the use of t r i o t e x t u r e , s i m i l a r harmonic resources and the dance s t y l e , which the I t a l i a n s had probably learned from the French. Both t r a d i t i o n s had a strong presence i n France during the l a t e seventeenth and e a r l y eighteenth c e n t u r i e s . There are some elements which seem to be a s s o c i a t e d more c l o s e l y w i t h one s t y l e than with the other. The concept of the sonata as a form, treatment of the two t r e b l e voices as equal p a r t n e r s , use of s e q u e n t i a l passages and harmonic l i n k i n g devices, t o n a l l y - o r i e n t e d melodic s t y l e , f u g a l c o n s t r u c t i o n , indepen-dence of the bowed bass w i t h i n the t r i o texture and advanced v i o l i n technique belong to the I t a l i a n t r a d i t i o n . The s u i t e of extended l e n g t h w i t h o p t i o n a l movements, the f a n t a s i a , the emphasis on the outer voices i n a t r i o t e x t u r e , vocal melodic s t y l e , concept of r o l e s i n w r i t i n g f o r the bass and an awareness of texture and tone colour belong to the French. 45 See, for-example, the l a t e seventeenth-century sonata f o r v i o l i n s o l o , , o b b l i g a t o v i o l o n c e l l o and basso continuo by Giuseppe T o r e l l i (1658-1709), which appears i n Wasielewski, Anthology, pp. 64-67. 66 B o t h t r a d i t i o n s w e r e a v a i l a b l e t o t h e F r e n c h t r i o c o m p o s e r s o f t h e l a t e s e v e n t e e n t h a n d e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . E a c h c o m p o s e r s e l e c t e d e l e m e n t s f r o m t h e s e two t r a d i t i o n s a n d f o r m e d them i n t o a p e r s o n a l s t y l e . CHAPTER 3 THE FRENCH TRIO 1686-1706 The Composers and the Sources French i n s t r u m e n t a l t r i o s w r i t t e n s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r a p a i r of t r e b l e instruments w i t h bass and conceived as s e l f -contained works began to appear i n the f i n a l decade of the seventeenth century. Most of the composers of the s u r v i v i n g t r i o s were i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s who played one of the instruments a s s o c i a t e d w i t h these works: v i o l i n , transverse f l u t e , oboe, organ, harpsichord and bass v i o l . They experimented i n the new genre using instruments w i t h which they were f a m i l i a r , probably w r i t i n g t h e i r t r i o s f o r t h e i r own use and t a k i n g p a r t i n the e a r l i e s t performances. A l i s t of the new t r i o s , t h e i r sources and p u b l i c a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n appears i n Table 2. The f i r s t of these t r i o s to be published i n France were the Pieces en t r i o pour l e s f l u t e s , v i o l o n s . & dessus de v i o l e by Marais. This set of s i x s u i t e s appeared i n 1692. Marais, described on the t i t l e page as "Ordinaire de l a musique de l a 1 Marais never used the term " s u i t e " i n connection w i t h these works. However, the Pieces are organized i n t o groups by key, each group beginning w i t h a Prelude. 67 TABLE 2 FRENCH TRIOS FOR TWO DESSUS 1686-1706 AND BASS Composer Work Date Format Copyist Engraver P u b l i s h e r Sebastien de Brossard "Suonata 1 a a deux vv. e V i o l a d i gamba con organo" "Suonata 2 a a deux vv. e V i o l a d i gamba con organo" 1695 Score: copied Brossard Francois Couperin "La P u c e l l e " "La V i s i o n n a i r e " "Le Steinquerque" "L'Astree" 1692? 1 692? 1 692? 1692? Score: copied P a r t s : copied Brossard "La Superbe" 7 P a r t s : copied Jean-Francois L i v r e de Sonates en T r i o 1705 Score: P u b l i s h e r - F o u c a u l t Dandrieu engraved Engraver-Roussel M i c h e l De l a Barre Pieces en T r i o pour l e s 1694 P a r t s : Christophe B a l l a r d v i o l o n s , f l u s t e s et haut- typeset bois Pieces en t r i o pour l e s 1700 P a r t s : Christophe B a l l a r d v i o l o n s , f l u s t e s et haut- typeset bois L i v r e seconde TABLE 2-Continued Copyist Composer Work Date Format Engraver P u b l i s h e r Franijois Duval J e a n - P i e r r e F r e i l l o n Poncein P i e r r e G a u l t i e r de M a r s e i l l e ( u n a v a i l a b l e ) E l izabeth-Claude Jacquet de l a Guerre Marin Marais Seconde L i v r e de sonates 1706 a t r o i s partie's ' " T r i o pour l a f l u t e " i n 1700 La V e r i t a b l e maniere  d'apprendre a ,jouer~en  p e r f e c t i o n du Hautbois,  de l a FlGte et du F l a g e o l e t R e c u e i l de t r i o nouveaux 1699 pour l e v i o l o n * hautbois•  f l C t e , sur l e s diffe'rents  tons et mouvements de l a  musique, avec l e s proprie*tes  qui conviennent a ces  instruments et l e s marques  qui peuvent donnes 1 ' i n - t e l l i g e n c e a chaque piece "Suonatas a 2 vv. e 1695? V i o l o n c e l l o o b l i g a t o con organo" Pieces en t r i o pour l e s 1692 f l u t e s , v i o l o n & dessus de v i o l e P a r t s : engraved Score: engraved engraved Score: copied P a r t s : copied P a r t s : engraved Roussel Colombat Roussel Brossard La Guerre Bonneuil TABLE 2-Continued Composer Work Date Format Copyist Engraver P u b l i s h e r Jean-Fery Rebel Toinon "Sonates a I I et a I I I 1695 p a r t i e s " '• R e c u e i l de t r i o nouveaux 1699 pour l e v i o l o n * hautbois*  f l f l t e , sur l e s d i f f e r e n t s  tons et mouvements de l a  musique, avec l e s proprie'tes  qui conviennent a ces  instruments et l e s marques  qui peuvent donner 1 ' i n - t e l l i g e n c e a chaque piece copied Score: engraved Published by B a l l a r d i n 1 7 1 2 : typeset Roussel-apprentice? o Lost Works Fouquet l ' a i n e M i c h e l P i g n o l e t de M o n t e c l a i r ( e d i t o r ) two t r i o sonatas R e c u e i l de t r i o i t a l i e n s  et f r a n c o i s des m e i l l e u r s  auteurs, pour deux f l f i t e s  t r a y e r s i e r e s ou violons avec l a basse chifre'e^ Brossard before 1709 TABLE 2-Continued Copyist Composer Work Date Format Engraver P u b l i s h e r Works c o n t a i n i n g Trio movements and movements f o r other combinations Marc-Antoine Charpentier "Sonata pour 2 f l u t e s allemande, 2 dessus de v i o l o n , une basse de v i o l e , une basse de v i o l o n a 5 cordes, un c l a v e c i n et un teorbe" ca. 1686 Louis Heudelinne Second l i v r e de pieces pour [1705]' Michel P i g n o l e t de M o n t e c l a i r l e dessus et basse de v i o l e  et pour l e v i o l o n et clave- c i n , t r i o t s [ s i c ] et sonates Sgre*nade ou Concert,  Divise' en t r i o s s u i t e s  de Pieces pour l e s V i o l o n s , Fltrtes & Hautbois P a r t s : copied Score engraved 1697 typeset •5 Charpentier^ P u b l i s h e r - P o u c a u l t Engraver-H. de Baussen Christophe B a l l a r d TABLE 2-Continued Composer Work Date Format Copyist Engraver P u b l i s h e r T r i o s derived from other sources Michel Lambert Jean B a p t i s t e L u l l y Pieces en t r i o pour l e s  v i o l o n s , f l u t e s ou  hautbois Les t r i o s des opera  mis en ordre pour l e s  concerts, propres "a  chanter & a jouer sur  l a f l f i t e , l e v i o l o n &  autres instruments  Part I I "Trios pour l e coucher'-. du R o i " 1 700 4 1690 1691 P a r t s : engraved Parts Parts Score: copied Parts : copied Estienne Roger Amsterdam P.& J . Blaeu, Amsterdam P.& J . Blaeu, Amsterdam Christophe B a l l a r d Brossard, "Catalogue," quoted i n l a Laurencie, L'E'cole f r a n c a i s du v i o l o n , p. 143, 2 Bowers, "The French Flute School,",p. 455. 5 S a d i e ( V e r t r e e s ) , "The Bass V i o l , " p. 278. 4 T h i s date i s hand-written on the t i t l e page. 73 2 Chambre du R o i , " was an important f i g u r e i n the French school of bass v i o l p l a y i n g that reached i t s height around the t u r n of the eighteenth century, and a prominent performer, teacher and composer i n the court musical establishment under Louis XIV and Louis XV. Most of Marais's chamber music was w r i t t e n f o r h i s own instrument.^ Francois Couperin's e a r l i e s t sonatas, "La P u c e l l e , " • 5 "La V i s i o n n a i r e , " J'Le Steinquerque" and "L'Astree,"^ are thought to date from 1692.f Another t r i o sonata, La Superbe, Marin Marais, Pieces en t r i o pour l e s f l u t e s , v i o l o n  & dessus de v i o l e ( P a r i s : Bonneuil, 1692; r e p r i n t ed., Florence: Studio per E d i z i o n i S c e l t e , 1982), t i t l e page. 3 ^Hans .Bdl:,. La Basse de v i o l e du temps de Marin Marais et  d'Antoine Forqueray ( B i l t h o v e n : A. B. Creyton, 1973); C e l i a Pond, "Ornamental S t y l e and the V i r t u o s o : Solo Bass V i o l Music i n France ca. 1680-1740," E a r l y Music 6 (1978):512-18; Sadie, "The Bass v i o l " ; Clyde H. Thompson, "Marin Marais 1656-1728" (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan, 1956). 4 Marais's f i v e c o l l e c t i o n s of bass v i o l p i e c e s , pub-l i s h e d between 1686 and 1725, contain works f o r one, two and three bass v i o l s w i t h f i g u r e d bass. The bass v i o l i s used i n combination w i t h other melodic instruments such as the v i o l i n i n a few chamber works. ^In l a t e r w r i t i n g s , Couperin r e f e r r e d to these works as Sonades. He explains the reason f o r t h i s i n the i n t r o -d u c t i o n to the f i n a l movement of h i s Concert instrumental  sous l e t i t r e d'Apotheose Compose" a, l a Memoire immortelle  de 1 1 incomparable Monsieur de L u l l y ( P a r i s , 1725; r e p r i n t ed., Published w i t h Les GoAts-re'iinis, Geneva: Minkoff, 1975), p. 16. "La P a i x du Parnasse f a i t e aux Conditions Sur l a Remont-rance des Muses f r a n c o i s e s que lossqu'on y p a r l e r o i t l e u r langue, on d i r o i t dorenavant Sonade, Cantade, a i n s i qu'on prononce B a l l a d e , Serenade; & c." ^ l a Laurencie, L'Ecole f r a n c a i s du v i o l o n , v o l . 1, p. 63, Three of these Sonades"! "La P u c e l l e , " "La V i s i o n n a i r e " and "L'Astre'e," were l a t e r incorporated w i t h only a few changes i n t o Les Nations (1726), where they serve as i n t r o d u c t o r y son-atas to La Franpoise, L'Espagnol and La Pigmontoise r e s p e c t i v e l y . 74 a l s o appears to be an e a r l y work, although the manuscript p a r t -7 books i n which i t i s preserved have not been dated. Couperin was a c t i v e both as an or g a n i s t and h a r p s i c h o r d i s t by t h i s v. time. He was s u f f i c i e n t l y weifcl-known and respected to have been appointed Organiste du r o i i n 1693, and h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n chamber music concerts both at court and elsewhere i s doc-umented i n r e p o r t s and i n h i s own w r i t i n g s . I t i s apparent from h i s w r i t i n g s that Couperin devoted much thought to the Q p o s s i b i l i t i e s of combining the French and I t a l i a n s t y l e s . The two "Sonatas a deux v i o l o n s , basse de v i o l o n et basse continue"by Sebastien de Brossard (1655-1730) are preserved i n an autograph manuscript dated 1695. Brossard, a c l e r i c , com-poser and c o l l e c t o r of music, and the author of the f i r s t d i c t i o n a r y of music published i n France, i s an important f i g -ure among the t r i o composers of the pe r i o d . He a c t i v e l y promoted I t a l i a n and other f o r e i g n music i n France, and copied P i e r r e C i t r o n dates "La Sultane," which appears i n the same MS c o l l e c t i o n of partbooks (Lyons, B i b l i o t h l q u e Municipale 129.949), "as l a t e as 1 7 1 0 . " Newman and T e s s i e r b e l i e v e that "La Superbe" was w r i t t e n about the same time as the other e a r l y Sonades, but was the l a s t of the group to be w r i t t e n . M e l l e r s assigns both "La Superbe" and "La Sultane" to the year 1695, hut o f f e r s no ex p l a n a t i o n . P i e r r e C i t r o n , Couperin (n.p.: E d i t i o n s du S e u i l , 1956), pp. 52-53; W i l f r i d M e l l e r s , Francois Couperin and the French C l a s s i c a l T r a d i t i o n (London: Dennis Dobson. 1950).p. 105; W i l l i a m S. Newman, The~Sonata i n the Baroque E r a , 4th ed. (Chapel H i l l : U n i v e r s i t y of North C a r o l i n a Press, 1983), p. 355; Andre" T e s s i e r , Couperin ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e Renouard, 1926), p. 84. o Couperin, Les Nations: Sonades et Suites de Simphonies  en T r i o ( P a r i s , 1726; r e p r i n t ed., Madrid: A r t e T r i p h a r i a , 1982), "Aveu de l'Auteur au P u b l i c , " Les G-outs-reunis, "Pre'-f a c e , " L'Art de toucher l e c l a v e c i n ( P a r i s , 1717; r e p r i n t ed., New York: Broude Brothers, 1969), pp. 38-42. 75 9 and c o l l e c t e d music by both French and f o r e i g n composers. Thus, Brossard was probably f a m i l i a r with musical s t y l e s not ge n e r a l l y known i n France. The f i r s t set of Pieces en t r i o pour l e s v i o l o n s , f l u s t e s et hautbois by Michel De l a Barre (c. 1675-c. 1 7 4 3 ) 1 0 11 was published i n 1 6 9 4 . De l a Barre was most famous as a pla y e r of the transverse f l u t e , i n which capacity he held p o s i t i o n s at the Academie Royale de Musique ( 1 7 0 0 - 2 1 ) , i n the Chambre du Roi ( a f t e r 1705 ) and i n the Hautbois et musettes 1 2 de P o i t o u ( 1704-30). Most of De l a Barre's chamber music was w r i t t e n w i t h the transverse f l u t e i n mind; the t r i o s , w r i t t e n during the e a r l y part of h i s career, o f f e r a choice Brossard's c o l l e c t i o n contains many works not found i n any other French sources. The- Rost Codex, which contains s o l o and t r i o sonatas from I t a l y , Germany and c e n t r a l Europe, became part of t h i s c o l l e c t i o n i n the l a t e 1 6 9 0 s . The t r i o s of La Guerre, the e a r l y MS of Couperin's sonatas and the t r i o s of Toinon were a l s o part of t h i s c o l l e c t i o n , which i s now i n the B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e , P a r i s . Unfortunately,, some of the items l i s t e d by Brossard i n h i s "Catalogue" of the c o l -l e c t i o n are now missing. 1 0 L i t t l e i s known about De l a Barre's e a r l y l i f e . His date of b i r t h has, i n f a c t , been c a l c u l a t e d from the date of h i s f i r s t published work, the 1694 set of Pieces en t r i o ! Bowers, "The French F l u t e School," p. 3 9 . 11 De l a Barre'a three books of t r i o s were very popular; according to Le Cerf, he was " s i connu pour ses t r i o . " Comparaison, Book I I I , p. 1 3 5 . 1 2 The Hautbois et musettes de Poit o u was one of the groups belonging to the musical E c u r i e at~~the court of Louis XIV. By the l a t e seventeenth century, a number of appointments i n t h i s group had been awarded to recorder and transverse f l u t e p l a y e r s . Benoit, V e r s a i l l e s , pp. 2 2 3 - 2 5 . On the use of the term " f l u t e , " see Bowers, "The French F l u t e School," pp. 2 9 - 3 4 . 76 1 3 of i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . Elizabeth-Claude Jacquet de l a Guerre (1666 or 1667-1729), the composer of four "Senates: a;':deux'rviol'dns' e ^ v i o l o n -c e l l o o b l i g a t o con organo," 1^ was well-known i n court c i r c l e s 1 5 and i n P a r i s as a h a r p s i c h o r d i s t , s i n g e r and composer. She was one of Louis X I V s f a v o u r i t e performers from the time of her f i r s t court appearance as a c h i l d prodigy, and was mentioned i n Le Mercure galant as a performer i n court chamber music concerts. La Guerre's output r e v e a l s an i n t e r e s t i n both French and I t a l i a n musical forms, and an awareness of musical f a s h i o n . The set of "Sonates a I I et a I I I p a r t i e s " by Jean-Fery 1 7 Rebel i s dated 1695. Rebel was a v i o l i n i s t , h a r p s i c h o r d i s t , o r c h e s t r a l dire.ctor ana. composer. He. was ' singledr-out. .by Le Cerf as one composer who had s u c c e s s f u l l y combined the French and I t a l i a n s t y l e s : 1 3 De l a Barre's t h i r d and f i n a l book of t r i o s f o r two dessus and bass was published i n 1707. ^ T h i s i s Brossard's t i t l e . 1 5 The most comprehensive biography of La Guerre i s found i n C a r o l Henry Bates, "The Instrumental Music of E l i z a b e t h -Claude Jacquet de l a Guerre" Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Indiana U n i v e r s i t y , 1978), pp. 1-21. See a l s o E d i t h B o r o f f , An I n t r o - d u c t i o n to Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet de l a Guerre (Brooklyn: I n s t i t u t e of Mediaeval Music, 1966). 16 According to Bates (p. 13), l a Guerre's opera, Cephale  et P r o c r i s ( P a r i s , 1694), was s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e s by L u l l y . l a Guerre a l s o wrote a b a l l e t , which i s now l o s t . L i k e Couperin, she wrote both Pieces de c l a v e c i n and t r i o sonatas. She a l s o wrote solo sonatas and, a f t e r 1708, cantatas. 17 ' ' l a Laurencie, L'Ecole f r a n c a i s du v i o l o n , v o l . I , p. 77, 77 Rebel has,indeed caught some of the f l a r e and f i r e of the I t a l i a n s , but he has had the good t a s t e and sense to^g temper these by the wisdom and gentleness of the French. A R e c u e i l de t r i o nouveaux pour l e v i o l o n ' hautbois* f l u t e 'of 1699 i s as c r i b e d to Toinon (or Toinan), about whom 1 9 almost nothing i s known. The name of the composer i s not p r i n t e d on the t i t l e page or i n the copy; the only source of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s the handwritten comments at the f r o n t and 20 back of the score. The d e t a i l e d t a b l e of ornaments that accompanies the music r e v e a l s that the composer had d e f i n i t e ideas about the performance of h i s music, and suggests t h a t he was a performer h i m s e l f . Since Toinon does not seem to have been concerned with becoming known as a composer, he was probably a musical amateur, one of those a c t i v e i n the P a r i s i a n musical scene outside court. 1 8 Le Cerf, Comparaison, t r a n s . Newman, The Sonata i n the Baroque E r a , pT 361. 19 N This R e c u e i l was published under a P r i v i l e g e du Roi by Claude Roussel. The P r i v i l e g e w a s ^ n o t ^ r e g i s t e r e d i i n the sources reproduced i n Michel Brenet, "La L i b r a i r i e musicale en Prance de 1630 a 1780," SammelbSnde der I n t e r n a t i o n a l e n  M u s i k - G e s e l l s c h a f t 6 (1904-05):1-31. 20 Toinon i s described here as "maitre de pension a P a r i s pres l e c o l l e g e des quatre n a t i o n s . " The w r i t e r of the comments (probably Brossard) a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t the composer had given the copy to him. I t i s st a t e d on.,the p r i n t e d t i t l e page that the composer had a l s o w r i t t e n a motet; t h i s work e i t h e r was never published, or has since disappeared. Judging from the appearance of the score, Toinon's R e c u e i l was en-graved by an amateur or perhaps a j u n i o r a p p r e n t i c e . Perhaps Roussel engraved only the t i t l e page, t u r n i n g the music over to someone l e s s s k i l l e d , whose s e r v i c e s were l e s s i n demand and less, expensive. 78 Jean-Pierre F r e i l l o n Poncein's t r e a t i s e , yL-a V e r i t a b l e maniere d'apprendre a .jouer en p e r f e c t i o n du Hautbois, de l a Flftte et du F l a g e o l e t contains one single-movement t r i o 21 "pour l a f l u t e . " F r e i l l o n Poncein was l i s t e d by Brossard 22 among the "authors who have w r i t t e n i n French" about music. I t seens probable from the d e t a i l e d treatment given to the oboe i n the t r e a t i s e t h a t he played that instrument, and 23 probably other wind instruments as w e l l , as was customary. Jean-Francois Dandrieu (c . 1682-1738), whose L i v r e de Sonates en t r i o was published i n 1705, was an organist and h a r p s i c h o r d i s t , and. one of the most prominent French harp-24 sic h o r d composers of the e a r l y eighteenth century. Through h i s p o s i t i o n i n the house of Madame, the Duchess of Orleans, he was connected w i t h the Orleans f a m i l y , who were generous 21 F r e i l l o n Poncein discusses the recorder, which he r e f e r s to as the f l u t e , and not the transverse f l u t e i n h i s t r e a t i s e . The t r i o i s w i t h i n the range of the recorder as w r i t t e n . 22 Brossard, D i c t i o n a i r e de musique ( P a r i s : B a l l a r d , 1703; r e p r i n t ed., Amsterdam: Antiqua Amsterdam, 1964), "Catalogue des Auteurs," p. 3 • 23 "jacques H o t t e t e r r e l e romain devotes only a short s e c t i o n of h i s P r i n c i p e s de l a f l u t e t r a v e r s i e r e ou f l u t e d'Allemange, de l a f l u t e a. bee ou f l u t e douce et du hautbois ( P a r i s , 1707) to the oboe, saying that i t i s almost the same as the recorder. F r e i l l o n Poncein recognizes and discusses some of the s p e c i a l problems of the oboe. 24 The most complete biography of Dandrieu appears i n B r i g i t t e Francois-Sappey, Jean-Francois Dandrieu 1682-1758:  Organiste du Roy ( P a r i s : A. & J . P i c a r d , 1982). 79 patrons of music. Francois Duval, l i k e Dandrieu, served the Orleans f a m i l y ; he was i n the s e r v i c e of the younger P h i l i p p e of Orleans (Duke of Orleans, 1701) by 1 7 0 4 . Duval, a v i o l i n i s t p a r t i c u l a r i l y noted f o r h i s performances of C o r e l l i ' s sonatas, wrote sonatas f o r - s o l o v i o l i n and continuo.as w e l l as t r i o 2 6 sonatas. His Seconde L i v r e de Sonates a t r o i s was published i n 1 7 0 6 . Through h i s knowledge of C o r e l l i ' s music, Duval would have been w e l l acquainted w i t h the I t a l i a n i n s t r u m e n t a l s t y l e . Three f u r t h e r composers wrote sets of pieces i n which t r i o movements are mixed with movements of other t e x t u r e s . Marc-Antoine Charpentier ( 1 6 3 4 - 1 7 0 4 ) , the composer of a Sonata" ca. 1686, studied i n I t a l y before t a k i n g up a post as composer to the Duchess of Guise (d. 1686 )..«>• He was best known as a stage composer and was L u l l y ' s only s e r i o u s r i v a l i n t hat f i e l d . Michel P i g n o l e t de Mo n t e c l a i r ( 1 6 6 7 - 1 7 3 7 ) , the composer of the Serenade ou Concert ( 1 6 9 7 ) , was a v i o l -i n i s t who l a t e r played the I t a l i a n double bass. He, l i k e Rebel and De l a Barre, was connected with the Academie Royale  de Musique. Louis Heudelinne ( f l . 1 7 0 0 - 1 0 ) , whose Second  L i v r e de Pieces ( 1 7 0 5 ) includes three t r i o movements among 2^Madame„(Elisabeth-Charlotte of Bavaria 1 6 5 2 - 1 7 2 2 ) was the second wife of the king's brother P h i l i p p e of Orleans ( 1640 -1701 ). Madame- was .the ..court.': t i t l e ' g i v e n to the wife of the king's brother. 26 l a Laurencie, L'Ecole f r a n c a i s du v i o l o n , v o l . I , p. 1 0 2 . 80 the pieces f o r dessus de viole and continuo, was a dessus de 27 v i o l e player who l i v e d i n Rouen. Rouen was the birthplace of both Raguenet and Le Cerf; the l a t t e r maintained connections with that c i t y and was acquainted with Heudelinne's patron, Monseigneur de Becdelievre. A l l the composers about whom information has been found played instruments that could have been used i n the perfor-mance of th e i r t r i o s . Most t r i o composers had connections with the court, where there were many s k i l l e d performers and where chamber music concerts were frequent. With the exception of Couperin, none of these composers wrote t r i o s f o r two 29 dessus and bass a f t e r 1707, although other composers took up the genre and wrote many new works during the period that followed. The t r i o composers of 1686-1706 continued to compose, but for other combinations. The new t r i o s seem to have been written as experimental works by many of these composers. Of the new French t r i o s , only the sets of Pieces by De l a Barre and the Sgrenade of Monteclair were published i n typeset form during this period. The t r i o s of Marais, Toinon, 27 'Sharie Atley, "The Music f o r Dessus de Viole of Louis Heudelinne" (M.A. thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1980), pp. 40-41. 2 8 I b i d . , p. 41. 29 ^Couperin's L'Imperiale waa written l a t e r than the other sonatas of Les Nations. The Apothgose de L u l l y and the Apothgose de C o r e l l i (1726) are also l a t e r works. Even the l o s t work by Monteclair was written before 1709. See Bowers, "The French Flute School," p. 455. 81 G a u l t i e r , F r e i l l o n Poncein, Duval , Dandrieu and Heudelinne were engraved, and those of Charpentier, Brossard, Couperin, "50 La Guerre and R e b e l — a l l sonatas—remained i n manuscript. The p u b l i c a t i o n of these t r i o s r e f l e c t s the s t a t e of the p r i n t i n g trade i n Prance a t that time. The long-held monopoly of the B a l l a r d f i r m over music p r i n t i n g was being challenged by other p r i n t e r s , e s p e c i a l l y those using the f a s t e r , more p r a c t i c a l process of engraving. In s p i t e of the objections of Christophe B a l l a r d , engraving became f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n 31 F r a n c e / By the end of the period of the composition of the new t r i o s , s k i l l e d engravers had consolidated t h e i r p o s i t i o n through the production of elegant, h i g h - q u a l i t y p u b l i c a t i o n s . The page from Dandrieu's second sonata shown as Example 19 i s an example of the a r t of Claude Roussel, one of the most prominent French engravers of the pe r i o d . Hand copying, the time-honoured method of reproducing music, remained popular during t h i s period of c o n f l i c t and 32 t r a n s i t i o n i n the p r i n t i n g i n d u s t r y . I t was inexpensive 30 Rebel's t r i o s were published i n typeset format i n 1 7 1 2 , seventeen years a f t e r they were composed, and three of Couperin's sonatas were published i n Les Nations i n 1 7 2 6 . -^Anik Devries, E d i t i o n et Commerce de l a musique gravle  a P a r i s dans l a premiere moitie d u X V I I I e s i e c l e (Geneva: E d i t i o n s Minkoff, n.d.), pp. 3 - 1 0 , A. Hyatt King, Four Hun- dred Years of Music P r i n t i n g , 2nd ed. (London: The Trustees of the B r i t i s h Museum, 1 9 6 8 ) , pp. 17-21 and Die Musik i n Geschichte und Gegenwart, s.v. " B a l l a r d , " by V l a d i m i r Fedorov and Francois Lesure, t r a n s , Hans A l b r e c h t . 5 2 B e n o i t , V e r s a i l l e s . pp. 2 0 7 - 1 0 . 83 and p r a c t i c a l i f only a few copies were r e q u i r e d , J and so was the method often chosen by young, unestablished composers. I t would a l s o have been a s u i t a b l e method f o r the reproduction of experimental works or music f o r p r i v a t e performance. That i t was the method chosen by French composers of sonatas before 1700 emphasizes both the experimental nature and the l i m i t e d c i r c u l a t i o n of these p a r t i c u l a r works. Formal Concepts  The Suite and the Sonata The new French t r i o s can be grouped i n t o f i v e formal c a t e g o r i e s : 1. The old s u i t e a Prelude followed by an a r b i t r a r y c o l l e c t i o n of dance and character p i e c e s , a l l i n a common key. 2. The " c l a s s i c a l " s u i t e Allemande-Sarabande-Courante-Gigue 3. The C o r e l l i a n sonata three to f i v e w e l l - d e f i n e d i n d i v i d u a l movements which f o l l o w C o r e l l i a n models, are of c o n t r a s t i n g tempo and character, and are l i n k e d by melodic or t o n a l r e l a t i o n -ships . 4. The mixed sonata/suite a mixture of formal t r a i t s from the sonata and the s u i t e . 5. The single-movement t r i o a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d t r i o of one movement-which:may.contain s h o r t , l i n k e d s e c t i o n s , but which i s not l i n k e d by key or other means to the pieces preceding and f o l l o w i n g i t . 33 " J Devri&s, E d i t i o n et Commerce, p. 3. -^Couperin's Pieces d' orgue (1689), h i s f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n , appeared i n hand-copied form with an engraved t i t l e page. This type of p u b l i c a t i o n was apparently quite common. 84 C a t e g o r i z a t i o n i s determined by type, order and number of movements, the methods through which movements are l i n k e d together and the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between them, and the formal o r g a n i z a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l movements. The t r i o s of De l a Barre and Marais f a l l i n t o the old s u i t e category, which was p r i m a r i l y a French method of o r g a n i z a t i o n by the l a t e seventeenth century. Neither com-poser uses the term " s u i t e , " r a t h e r , the i n d i v i d u a l movements are r e f e r r e d to as P i e c e s , with no term to i n d i c a t e a group of k e y - r e l a t e d movements. The Pieces are grouped together by key, each group, or s u i t e , c o n t a i n i n g about ei g h t to twelve movements. The common k e y — b o t h major and minor forms may be u s e d — i s the primary l i n k i n g device i n the old s u i t e . Each s u i t e begins with a prelude. The prelude i s often followed by a sarabande, and a s i g n i f i c a n t number of s u i t e s end w i t h an extended formal d i s p l a y of compositional s k i l l such as a p a s s a c a g l i a or a non-dance piece. While t h i s plan appears f r e q u e n t l y , i t i s set aside i n many s u i t e s ; there i s r e a l l y no standard order. The pieces used to f i l l out the s u i t e include examples of the popular dances of the day, the o b l i g a t o r y minuet, ^ doubles and non-dance pieces such as a i r s , p l a i n t e s , f a n t a i s i e s and character pieces. No con-s i s t e n t attempt i s made to create o v e r a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t r a s t s ; dances of the same type o f t e n appear i n succession. The dances do have i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , through which •55 There i s a t l e a s t one minuet i n each of these s u i t e s . 85 c o n t r a s t s of a d i f f e r e n t type would be created i n performance. The " c l a s s i c a l " s u i t e used by French composers of key-board music and v i o l i m u s i c , i n c l u d i n g Marais h i m s e l f , and by C o r e l l i i n h i s Sonate da camera i s not the basis f o r the t r i o s u i t e s of De l a Barre and Marais. There i s only one Allemande 36 among these p i e c e s , and the Courante does not appear at a l l . The o r g a n i z a t i o n of these t r i o s i s based on the old French s u i t e used i n the c o l l e c t i o n s of dances drawn from the operas and b a l l e t s of L u l l y and i n French chamber music before the 1680s. The three s u i t e s i n Mon t e c l a i r ' s Serenade ou Concert, the "Sonata" of Charpentier and a number of the s u i t e s i n Heudelinne's Second L i v r e a l s o f a l l i n t o t h i s category. The only " c l a s s i c a l " s u i t e i n t h i s r e p e r t o r y i s a work that i s e s s e n t i a l l y a solo s u i t e : the f o u r t h s u i t e of Heu-delinne's Second L i v r e . This s u i t e f o l l o w s the plan used by «. 37 Marais i n h i s Pieces a. une et a deux v i o l e s , w i t h the two t r i o s belonging to the added piece s . The t r i o by F r e i l l o n Poncein and a number of those by Toinon are single-movement t r i o s . The " t r i o " by F r e i l l o n Poncein was included i n La V e r i t a b l e maniSre as an example of t r i o des hautbois s t y l e . Each of Toinon's t r i o s i s given the t i t l e " T r i o " and an i n d i c a t i o n of a f f e c t (e.g. " T r i o - t e n d r e " ) . Some are grouped by key i n the p r i n t e d score, but the groups The Allemande appears i n De l a Barre's Book I , Suite 4. There i s a l s o a s i n g l e Allemande i n Dandrieu's s i x t h sonata, a Sonata da camera. 37 See page 45 above. 86 have no p a r t i c u l a r p a t t e r n . Others are not c l o s e l y r e l a t e d by key to the surrounding movements and stand by themselves. One p a i r of t r i o s i s l i n k e d by a w r i t t e n d i r e c t i o n . The players are t o l d that the "Trio-Prelude" "goes very w e l l before 38 and a f t e r the preceding a i r , " ^ which i s i n the same key. While a few of Toinon's t r i o s have two l i n k e d , c o n t r a s t -i n g s e c t i o n s , the " T r i o Sommeil" i s unique among the s i n g l e -movement t r i o s i n that i t c o n s i s t s of f o u r : Lent(C)-' , Tendrement(3)-Vite(3)-Lent(G). These se c t i o n s are l i n k e d through a device that i s common i n French music and that a l s o appears i n the vo c a l works a f Bassani: that of p l a c i n g the f i n a l note or chord of a s e c t i o n i n s i d e the f o l l o w i n g one ., so that no break between the sec t i o n s i s p o s s i b l e (Example 20). Although the se c t i o n s of t h i s t r i o are c o n t r a s t i n g i n character, they are not long enough to be considered as i n d i v i d u a l move-ments. In o r g a n i z a t i o n , l i n k i n g methods and treatment of m a t e r i a l , t h i s work resembles the F a n t a i s i e s of Louis Couperin. Example 20: Toinon, " T r i o Sommeil," R e c u e i l de t r i o  nouveaux, 21-23. - — I — w A; -T r* f * , • < 1 TH* —J J J Ti \ 1 L £ _ ? TTT J , M -J / I T i i d. 1—2-_ .j — 4 = 87 W i t h i n t h e o l d s u i t e s a nd t h e s i n g l e - m o v e m e n t t r i o s , m o st o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l p i e c e s b e l o n g t o t h e F r e n c h t r a d i t i o n . The d a n c e p i e c e s a r e s e l e c t e d f r o m among t h e p o p u l a r d a n c e s o f t h e d a y , a s s e e n i n T a b l e I , and r e s e m b l e the d a n c e p i e c e s o f L u l l i a n o p e r a i n f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e . The d a n c e s o f t h e t r i o s , l i k e t h o s e i n t h e o p e r a s , a r e w r i t t e n i n a s t y l e s u i t a b l e f o r d a n c i n g ; t h e y a r e s t r o n g l y r h y t h m i c and c o n t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a t t e r n s . B o t h M a r a i s and De l a B a r r e i n c l u d e n o n - d a n c e p i e c e s i n t h e i r s u i t e s ; t h e F a n t a i s i e a nd C a p r i c e a r e t h e most common t y p e s . T hese p i e c e s o f t e n f i t t h e d e s c r i p t i o n g i v e n by •*q B r o s s a r d . J The F a n t a i s i e s o f De l a B a r r e c o n t a i n l i n k e d s e c t i o n s o f c o n t r a s t i n g m e t r e and tempo, a n d t h o s e o f b o t h c o m p o s e r s may i n c l u d e i r r e g u l a r p h r a s e s , p a s s a g e s o f i m i t a t i o n , r a p i d c h a n g e s i n t e x t u r e o r u n u s u a l m e l o d i c s t r u c t u r e s . The t r i o s o f T o i n o n a n d F r e i l l o n P o n c e i n a r e a l l n o n - d a n c e p i e c e s , most o f them i n t h e t r i o d e s h a u t b o i s s t y l e . The i n c l u s i o n o f d e s c r i p t i v e movements among t h e P i e c e s o f t h e s e c o m p o s e r s l i n k s them w i t h t h e F r e n c h t r a d i t i o n . De l a B a r r e , i n h i s " F a n t a i s i e l a b a b i l l a r d e " ( B o o k I , S u i t e V I ) , u s e s p a t t e r n s o f r e p e a t e d e i g h t h n o t e s t o i m i t a t e t h e p r a t t l e o f t h e " o l d g o s s i p . " T o i n o n ' s " T r i o S o m m e i l " b e g i n s a n d ends l e n t e m e n t a n d i n c l u d e s t h e s l u r r e d p a i r s o f e i g h t h n o t e s t h a t 5 8 " C e P r e l u d e v a f o r t b i e n d e v a n t e t a p r e s l ' a i r pre-c e d e n t . " T o i n o n , R e c u e i l de t r i o n o u v e a u x , p. 5. xq -^See page 46 a b o v e . 88 40 became as s o c i a t e d w i t h the French Sommeil t r a d i t i o n . The "Sommeil" t r i o i n M o n t e c l a i r ' s second s u i t e i n c l u d e s passages scored f o r the f l u t e , an instrument often a s s o c i a t e d with 41 sleep i n French opera. Among the works of De l a Barre, Marais and M o n t e c l a i r there are a number of pieces w i t h t i t l e s t h at a s s o c i a t e them wi t h r u s t i c or p a s t o r a l l i f e : " A i r .-r u s t i q u e , " "Branle du v i l l a g e , " " F a n t a i s i e champestre." The i m i t a t i o n of p a s t o r a l l i f e was a popular pastime among the 42 French a r i s t o c r a c y of the p e r i o d . Many of these pieces are m e l o d i c a l l y simple and somewhat r e p e t i t i v e , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that represent the "simple" l i f e of the country. The P l a i n t e s are instrumental versions of French o p e r a t i c vocal P l a i n t e s . The i n s t r u m e n t a l P l a i n t e s have a number of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n common wit h t h e i r o p e r a t i c counterparts: the use of l a r g e , a f f e c t i v e i n t e r v a l s , minor mode, chromaticism, slow tempo, repeated notes and dropping melodic l i n e s . These elements express the lamenting mood of the P l a j n t e . ^ ^The New Grove D i c t i o n a r y of Music and Musicians, s.v. "Sommeil," by James R. Anthony. 41 I b i d . See L u l l y , Les Amants magnifiques (1670), Troisieme interm^de, sc. i v and Atys (1677), Act I I I , sc. i v . 4 2While the p a s t o r a l idea seems to have been I t a l i a n i n o r i g i n , i n t e r e s t i n i t had waned i n I t a l y by the l a t e seventeenth century. French i n t e r e s t i n t h i s t r a d i t i o n began to gain mom-entum i n the mid-seventeenth century, and i t remained popular i n t hat country w e l l i n t o the eighteenth. Richard D. Leppert, A r c a d i a a t V e r s a i l l e s (Amsterdam: Swets & Z e i t l i n g e r , 1978), pp. 35-38. 43 ^Anthony, French Baroque Music, p. 41. 89 Although De l a B a r r e 1 s s u i t e s of Pieces are organized i n the French manner, a number of i n d i v i d u a l movements do not seem e n t i r e l y French i n conception. In the "Prelude" of Book I , Suite VI, the bass, i n the opening phrases, moves i n steady quarter notes beneath more slowly-moving dessus p a r t s , a s t y l e seen i n a number of C o r e l l i ! s Preludes. The move-ment i s organized i n the C o r e l l i a n manner; the twelve-bar opening phrase (Example 21) i s immediately repeated at the f i f t h , then the movement continues w i t h short phrases that are i m i t a t i v e or based on a walking bass p a t t e r n . Example 2V: De l a Barre, "Prelude," Pieces en t r i o (1694), S u i t e VI, 1-12. , Pre W e PHI ¥= r& j S 0 + -T? -T$> n " ¥ = > >• j j . f 9 * f f , * f { f f M — i ' *—f— 6 => N f f C 1 1 4-f r f f \ 1 6 — M — 1 f t M 1 -\ r-'l f M + M i l — 1 4.1 \ 1 1 1 J -> \ f f M + n-c 1 1 1 i f f* + /J + r-e-4 j -u '): » f N=t=H I I . f 11 r i 1 f r r \* i r i 6 G S _ i ^—i— — U - l — # - 1 <5> 90 The "Fugue" i n De l a Barre's Book I , S u i t e VI does not seem to belong e n t i r e l y to the French t r a d i t i o n . This piece begins i m i t a t i v e l y . The theme returns a number of times i n keys c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the t o n i c , and i s t r e a t e d i n i m i t a t i o n . In s e c t i o n s between these i m i t a t i v e passages, the dessus parts move together, p r i m a r i l y i n p a r a l l e l t h i r d s . This fugue seems c l o s e r i n concept to a C o r e l l i a n a l l e g r o movement than to the French "Fugue" described by F r e i l l o n P o n c e i n . 4 4 De l a Barre, a t a s l i g h t l y l a t e r date, viewed the fugue as a s p e c i f i c a l l y I t a l i a n movement type; he included a t l e a s t one i n each of h i s Sonates pour l a f l u t e t r a v e r s i e r e i n the Troisieme l i v r e des '.trio ( 1 7 0 7 ) , while none appears i n the s u i t e s i n the same book. These l a t e r "Fugues" are s i m i l a r to the 1694 "Fugue" i n c o n s t r u c t i o n . The s u i t e to which t h i s "Fugue" belongs may represent an attempt by De l a Barre to w r i t e a d i f f e r e n t k i n d of concert 45 s u i t e . J Besides the fugue, i t contains the only allemande among the e a r l y t r i o s , an extended prelude, a rondeau without a c l e a r dance a s s o c i a t i o n and a f i n a l piece with an a u t r e . Only three of the usual dance pieces are i n c l u d e d : a gavotte, a sarabande and a minuet. Thus, the s u i t e i s l e s s dance-oriented than u s u a l ; i t i s c l e a r l y a concert r a t h e r than a set of pieces f o r dancing. 4 4 S e e pages 41 -42 above. 45 This s u i t e i s included i n the anthology, pp. 1 5 9 - 7 4 . 91 The Sonatas by Dandrieu and Duval are organized i n the C o r e l l i a n manner. Each Sonata c o n s i s t s of -four: or f i v e . •- •. pieces with I t a l i a n tempo t i t l e s or dance t i t l e s , although i n Duval's Sonatas the I t a l i a n t i t l e s are F r e n c h i f i e d (e.g., Sonate, un peu trop l e n t ) . Both of these sets were published a t the end of the period under d i s c u s s i o n , i n 1705 and 1706 r e s p e c t i v e l y . By t h i s time, the I t a l i a n s t y l e was w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n P a r i s i a n and court musical c i r c l e s ; works by C o r e l l i had been published i n France, I t a l i a n s such.-.as M i c h e l M a s c i t t i were l i v i n g , working and p u b l i s h i n g music i n P a r i s and the q u a r r e l over the merits of French and I t a l i a n music was at i t s height. The I t a l i a n sonata was no longer novel. The movements of these Sonatas a l t e r n a t e i n tempo and a f f e c t , and p a i r s of movements i n slo w - f a s t order are f r e q u e n t l y l i n k e d i n the I t a l i a n manner, by ending the slow movement on the dominant. Dandrieu, i n h i s Sonata V, uses thematic i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p to l i n k consecutive movements (Example 22), a device used o c c a s i o n a l l y by both C o r e l l i and Bassani. The i n d i v i d u a l movements i n the t r i o s of these two composers are predominantly I t a l i a n i n s t y l e . Many, l i k e the opening Adagio of Dandrieu's f o u r t h Sonata (Example 23), f o l l o w C o r e l l i a n procedures c l o s e l y . However, some elements that may be r e l a t e d to the French t r a d i t i o n can be seen. The opening of movements wi t h i m i t a t i o n of a phrase i s common i n both t r a d i t i o n s , but i s r a r e l y used by C o r e l l i and Bassani i n opening slow movements. The Preludes of De l a Barre and 92 Example 22a:' Dandr.ie.u, "Adagio," L i v r e de Sonates en  T r i o , Sonata V, 1-3. j-— K( - >J1 i <£ c # 7v- - pir i [/ 1* Example 22b: Dandrieu, "Vivace," Sonata V, 1-6. 4s 7 \ M =r=r=n * ^ 4 =|= Vivace Jr 1 ™> -y—*— • J - f — * P 1 —X—\— 1 * ll M—*- L-4ML P 1 r J A 1^ it \ J m m / sf 4-? Mfff ff --J f —-M ,ffff * -P r * C 1 1111 Ij/I P 93 Example 2'3: Dandrieu, "Adagio," L i v r e de Sonates en  T r i o , Sonata IV, 1-12. 94 Marais often begin i m i t a t i v e l y , as does the opening Prelude of Dandrieu's Sonata VI (Example 24), which a l s o contains f u r t h e r i m i t a t i v e passages. The " S i c i l i a n a " of the same s u i t e does not f i t the I t a l i a n mould completely. S i c i l i a n a s are common i n I t a l i a n music of the per i o d , e s p e c i a l l y operas, but the time signature i s u s u a l l y 6/8 or 12/8 r a t h e r than the 6/4 used by Dandrieu. 6/4 i s uncommon i n I t a l i a n , but frequent i n French music of the p e r i o d . 46 Example 24: Dandrieu, ."Adagio7".'Livre de Sonates en  T r i o , Sonata VI,1-5. > f J V t'f • 0 -f—+' 0 t~*f'-f-Vt,' - n~ N # t - * •J = =3 — -P- rV> NI U P u n Ul • I — L - — u r o i * \ / f ' f M ' U l : 6 > G ^ 3 ' — * *4 3 ' — — In the Sonatas of Duval, the chromatic passage that l i n k s the "Gay" of Sonata V to the f o l l o w i n g "Lentement" would be u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of C o r e l l i (Example 2 4 ) . The "Lentement" i s somewhat l i k e an I t a l i a n a t e slow ending, but i s more extended. I t seems to be a combination of the slow 46 C o r e l l i uses a 6/4 signature only once i n h i s pub-l i s h e d w o r k s — i n the A l l e g r o of Opus I I I / 3 . 95 ending convention of the I t a l i a n s t y l e and the f a n t a i s i e and a i r t r a d i t i o n s of the French. Of the new French t r i o s , Dandrieu's are the most I t a l i a n -ate i n both form and outward appearance. Duval's Sonatas are I t a l i a n a t e i n o r g a n i z a t i o n , hut French i n outward dress; he uses F r e n c h i f i e d forms of I t a l i a n tempo t i t l e s , French time signatures and white n o t a t i o n , a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y French s t y l e used a l s o by Couperin and Rebel (Example 2 5 ) . The use of t h i s French dress may have had i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the per-47 formers of the period that are now l o s t to us. Example 2 5 : Duval, "Gay-Lentement," Seconde L i v r e de  Sonates, -Sonate V, 7 4 - 7 8 . letYtement I m fax 3r | tt '*> The works by Brossard, Couperin, La Guerre and Rebel belong to the mixed sonata/suite category, although a l l considered t h e i r works to be sonatas. Brossard uses both ^See, f o r example, Georg Muffat's d i s c u s s i o n of the performance i m p l i c a t i o n s of time signatures and movement headings i n France i n F l o r i l e g i u m Primum ( 1 6 9 5 ) , t r a n s . Strunk, Source Readings, p. 4 4 4 . 96 French and I t a l i a n movement t i t l e s while Couperin and Rebel use F r e n c h i f i e d I t a l i a n t i t l e s . I t a l i a n t i t l e s are given to a l l movements, even the French A i r s , i n the score of La Guerre's sonatas. Both Couperin and Rebel give d e s c r i p t i v e t i t l e s to t h e i r sonatas, and two—Couperin's Le Steinquerque and Rebel^s Le Tombeau de L u l l y T - a r e o v e r t l y programmatic. This concern with extra-musical a s s o c i a t i o n s i s not'a part of the l a t e seventeenth-century I t a l i a n sonata, and probably had i t s roots i n the t r a d i t i o n a l French character piece. Couperin, who, among these t r i o composers expressed himself the most f u l l y on the subject of French and I t a l i a n s t y l e s and was most conscious of h i s p o s i t i o n as an innovator, uses French n o t a t i o n a l d e v i c e s — i n c l u d i n g white n o t a t i o n — t h e most f r e q u e n t l y . The sonatas of Brossard, Couperin, La Guerre and Rebel are v a r i e d i n formal o r g a n i z a t i o n , but a l l mix French and I t a l i a n t r a i t s . Each of these composers shows a concern f o r the l i n k i n g together of movements i n a s p e c i f i c order, a con-cern f o r each sonata as an e n t i t y that seems more I t a l i a n than French. Brossard uses the I t a l i a n device of ending a move-ment on the dominant to imply a c o n t i n u a t i o n to the f o l l o w i n g movement and the device of running one movement i n t o the next. He i n d i c a t e s t h a t movements are to f o l l o w one another i n quick A O , Rebel, according to l a Laurencie (L'Ecole du v i o l o n , v o l . I , p. 9 3 ) , gave h i s sonatas the f o l l o w i n g t i t l e s i n the 1695 v e r s i o n : ;":La F l o r e , " "L'Apollon," "La V£nus," "La P a l l a s , " ."LI.Imm.ortelle" and "Le Tombeau de L u l l y . " Since there are seven sonatas, but o n l y " s i x t i t l e s i n l a Laurencie's l i s t , i t i s impossible to determine to which sonata each t i t l e belongs. Only "Le Tombeau de L u l l y " r e t a i n s i t s t i t l e i n the p r i n t e d e d i t i o n . 97 succession by marking r e s t s at the ends of movements wi t h pauses; only a short break i s to be taken here. The-"•pieces w i t h i n each sonata have a common t o n i c , and a t o n i c major-minor c o n t r a s t i s used i n the Second Sonata. In the sonatas of a l l f o u r composers, movements con-t r a s t i n g i n tempo and character are a l t e r n a t e d . The sonatas of La Guerre and Couperin contain many more movements than i s usual i n the C o r e l l i a n sonata. The f o l l o w i n g p a t t e r n i s common i n the t r i o s of these two composers: slow opening movement quick contrapuntal movement other c o n t r a s t i n g movements A i r Gigue The I t a l i a n Sonata da chiesa plan i s used here i n decorated form, j u s t as the " c l a s s i c a l " s u i t e was used w i t h i n the s u i t e s of Marais. Some of the Sonatas of Rebel are close to the I t a l i a n Sonata da chiesa i n plan. The F i f t h Sonata, f o r example, has f o u r movements i n s l o w - f a s t - s l o w - f a s t order. Others have a l a r g e r number of movements and a plan that r e -veals the i n f l u e n c e of the French s u i t e . Couperin, La Guerre and Rebel use various l i n k i n g devices i n t h e i r sonatas. La Guerre seems p a r t i c u l a r i l y concerned w i t h the o v e r a l l plan; almost a l l movements are l i n k e d i n her sonatas. The device of concluding one movement w i t h i n the next i s used by these three composers as w e l l as by Toinon, and the I t a l i a n device of concluding a movement 98 on the dominant i s used by Couperin and La Guerre. The use of a melodic bridge to j o i n movements together i s seen i n sonatas by Rebel and Couperin. In t h i s method, a short mel-odic p a t t e r n leads from the end of one movement to the beg-i n n i n g of the melodic m a t e r i a l of the next (Example 26). This p r a c t i c e i s not a part of the C o r e l l i a n s t y l e , and may .-per-haps, be.related,to; t h e - u s e , o f . s i m i l a r l i n k i n g devices i n L u l l y ' s dramatic music. The l i n k i n g of movements through thematic i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a- device -, used* by-Corelli'. and Bassani, i s seen i n works by Rebel and La Guerre. The most u n i f i e d example i s Rebel's Le Tombeau de L u l l y . A number of movements are based on the descending tetrachord p a t t e r n that serves i n i t i a l l y as the theme of the opening movement, and the opening movement i t s e l f r e t u rns at the end, now e n t i t l e d "Les Regrets." Example 26: Rebel, "Gay'-'-.VAir . s e u l , " Sonates a I I et a I I I p a r t i e s , Sonate I , "Gay," 1 5-"Air," 1-3. i 2 . -3-fli'r seul m i 99 A m a j o r i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l movements i n La Guerreis t r i o s are I t a l i a n i n conception. Opening movements are homo-phonic, l i k e C o r e l l i ' s , or i m i t a t i v e , and the quick movements are i m i t a t i v e i n c o n s t r u c t i o n . Some of the l a t t e r are mo t i v i c i n c o n s t r u c t i o n and almost monothematic. La Guerre's m o t i v i c c o n s t r u c t i o n i s more concentrated than that used by C o r e l l i i n pieces such as Opus 111/2:2. The f i r s t A l l e g r o of the F i r s t Sonata i s b u i l t e n t i r e l y on a s i n g l e melodic p a t t e r n which i s i m i t a t e d , extended, broken apart and transformed. Even the s e q u e n t i a l patterns used are derived from t h i s i n i t i a l theme. La Guerre does not merely i m i t a t e I t a l i a n techniques, she r e f i n e s them and develops a personal s t y l e from them. Nothing l i k e t h i s i s seen i n the French t r a d i t i o n . Many of Couperin's i n d i v i d u a l movements are, l i k e La Guerre's, I t a l i a n i n conception. The most common type of quick movement, the through-composed piece b u i l t on the i m i t a t i o n of a theme, i s exemplified by the "Gayement" of "La P u c e l l e , " the f i r s t of Couperin's sonatas to be composed. Couperin's themes are sh o r t , more l i k e motives than f u l l themes i n comparison with those of C o r e l l i . The theme, or motive, i s ofte n heard almost c o n t i n u a l l y throughout the movement, but unrelated m a t e r i a l may a l s o appear, as i n C o r e l l i ; the c o n s t r u c t i o n i s not as monothematic as that of La Guerre. Slow opening movements, l i k e C o r e l l i ' s c o n s i s t of a repeated melodic p a t t e r n followed by sequences, or are melodic and i m i t a t i v e l i k e a C o r e l l i a n inner slow movement. 100 A "Gayement" i n "La V i s i o n n a i r e " begins l i k e some of C o r e l l i ' s f a n t a s i a movements (Example 27 ) . Example 27: Couperin, "Gayement," La V i s i o n n a i r e . 1-5. -M-J + emerT 3° f mm P Z£ EZZJ 1 6 + C s Rebel's opening movements are i m i t a t i v e and s e q u e n t i a l , using procedures common i n the I t a l i a n .s.tyle, but/have .-a. mel-odic q u a l i t y that l i n k s them to the Preludes of Marais and De l a Barre. The quick movements are a mixture of French and I t a l i a n techniques. I m i t a t i o n i s common, but i t i s not the only method of c o n s t r u c t i o n , and movements may be made up of r e g u l a r melodic phrases or sec t i o n s i n which the m a t e r i a l r e c e i v e s v a r i e d treatment (e.g., i m i t a t i v e , homophonic). Some inner slow movements are very s h o r t , and serve more as l i n k i n g passages than as i n d i v i d u a l movements. One movement i n the Second Sonata i s i n the t r a d i t i o n a l French rondeau form. The sonatas of Couperin, La Guerre and Rebel contain 101 movements that stem from the French melodic t r a d i t i o n . These pieces, which are given t i t l e s such as " A i r " or " A r i a , " c o n t r a s t w i t h the I t a l i a n - b a s e d c o n s t r u c t i o n of many of the other movements. The a i r s often have repeated phrases, i m i t a t i n g the s e c t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of the French dances. They are p r i m a r i l y melodic, not based on i m i t a t i o n or sequen-t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n . The t i t l e " A i r " l i n k s these pieces with the " A i r s " of French opera and voc a l chamber music. The vocal chamber a i r was most f r e q u e n t l y scored f o r a vo c a l s o l o i s t w i t h basso continuo, and the a i r s w i t h i n the sonatas of Couperin, La Guerre and Rebel f r e q u e n t l y have the texture of a s i n g l e accompanied melodic v o i c e . The new French t r i o s vary from p r i m a r i l y French to p r i m a r i l y I t a l i a n i n o r g a n i z a t i o n . Works i n the French s t y l e span the e n t i r e p e r i o d , and continued to appear a f t e r 1706. The most I t a l i a n a t e works date from the end of the per i o d , by which time the I t a l i a n s t y l e was w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n France, Ne i t h e r the set by Duval nor the set by Dandrieu are very in n o v a t i v e i n form; these composers were f o l l o w i n g popular t a s t e , not s e t t i n g i t . The v a r i e t y i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of works c a l l e d sonatas reveals t h a t , to these composers, a work d i d not have to f o l l o w the C o r e l l i a n p a t t e r n to be a sonata. The sonata was r a t h e r a concept i n v o l v i n g many f a c -t o r s , of which the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the movements and the l i n k s between them were but two. 102 Instrumentation and Instrumental S t y l e The choice and use of instruments i n the new French t r i o s r e f l e c t the i n f l u e n c e of both French and I t a l i a n t r a d -i t i o n s . In the matter of choice, the use of wind instruments, dessus de v i o l e and bass v i o l suggest French i n f l u e n c e while the use of a combination of two v i o l i n s and v i o l o n c e l l o or basse de v i o l o n suggests I t a l i a n . Three basic s t y l e s of instr u m e n t a l w r i t i n g are used i n the t r i o s : 1. v o c a l s t y l e , r e l a t e d to the L u l l i a n t r i o des hautbois and dance song 2. i n s t r u m e n t a l s t y l e , non-vocal i n conception, but not i d i o m a t i c to one p a r t i c u l a r instrument ' 3. i d i o m a t i c s t y l e , stemming from e i t h e r the French bass v i o l t r a d i t i o n or the I t a l i a n v i o l i n t r a d i t i o n Idiomatic s t y l e and s p e c i f i c i nstrumentation are often r e l a t e d ; composers who s p e c i f y i nstrumentation tend to use the i d i o m a t i c s t y l e , while those who do not s p e c i f y tend to use the v o c a l and general i n s t r u m e n t a l s t y l e s . In the c o l l e c t i o n s of De l a Barre, Marais and Toinon, 49 a l i s t of suggested instruments i s given on the t i t l e page. The a c t u a l choice, however, i s l e f t up to the performers, and an a p p r o p r i a t e l y n e u t r a l s t y l e , the vocal s t y l e , i s predominant. Such works were performed i n France by mixed i n s t r u m e n t a l ensembles w i t h more than one p l a y e r on a part as w e l l as by 50 three- or four-member t r i o ensembles. Instrumental s t y l e 4 9 S e e Table 2, pp. 68-72. 50 Anthony, French Baroque Music, pp. 304-306. 103 i s a l s o used, p a r t i c u l a r i l y i n P a s s a c a i l l e s . (Examples 28-30). In the passage shown i n Example 28, the dessus parts are are ornamented i n an instrumental manner wi t h r a p i d s c a l a r p a t t e r n s . In the passages shown i n Examples 29 and 30, the high range of the bass instrument i s used. The bass i n s t r u -ment, i n these movements, has a range of three octaves, much larger.::than the one to two octave range of. the parts i n L u l l i a n v o c a l s t y l e . Example 28: Marais, " P e t i t e P a s s a c a i l l e , " Pieces en t r i Suite I , 57-6.0'. " Example 29: De l a Barre, "Chaconne," Pieces en t r i o (1694), S u i t e VI, 138-42. i i f f i f f ^ r f if i t f f i r Example 30: Marais, " P a s s a c a i l l e , " Pieces en t r i o , S u i t e V, 49-53. [i-^ff i f M | f % f f n? Por some pieces i n the vocal s t y l e , p a r t i c u l a r i n s t r u -ments are s p e c i f i e d : De l a Barre's "Caprice" i n Book 2, Su i t e IV i s marked " f l u t e s t r a v e r s i e r e s , " P r e i l l o n Poncein's T r i o i s "pour l a f l u t e " and Heudelinne's t r i o s are f o r dessus de 104 v i o l e and basse de v i o l e . The s c o r i n g i s c a r e f u l l y marked throughout Charpentier's Sonata and Mon t 6 c l a i r ' s S£r£nade; Charpentier c a l l s f o r f l u t e s allemandes, v i o l i n s , basse de v i o l o n and bass v i o l , while M o n t e c l a i r c a l l s f o r oboes, v i o l i n s and re c o r d e r s . In the l a t t e r work, the parts are su i t e d i n range to the instruments c a l l e d f o r , but are not otherwise i d i o m a t i c to one p a r t i c u l a r instrument. The choice of instruments i s made on the b a s i s of instrumental c o l o u r , perhaps w i t h the extra-musical a s s o c i a t i o n s of the instruments 51 m mind. This p r a c t i c e seems to be derived from the French t r a d i t i o n r a t h e r than from the I t a l i a n sonata s t y l e , which was focused on a s i n g l e instrument, the v i o l i n . In the t r i o s by Duval, Dandrieu, Rebel, La Guerre and, to a l e s s e r extent, those of Brossard, a C o r e l l i a n s t y l e of s t r i n g w r i t i n g appears i n the dessus p a r t s , which are id e n -t i f i e d as being s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r the v i o l i n . V i r t u o s i c passages of r a p i d s c a l a r motion, l e a p i n g patterns i n v o l v i n g s t r i n g c r o s s i n g s , and repeated patterns are used, e s p e c i a l l y i n I t a l i a n - i n s p i r e d i m i t a t i v e movements„(Examples 5 1 - 3 5 ) . Example 3 1 : Dandrieu, "Vivace," L i v r e de' ' Sonates, Sonate VI, 18-22. I Violin 1 1*^1 f-r f—r 'W'~ UJL_ #— —1— - H -T- - H : 1 ' 4 — See Raguenet's comments i n the P a r a l l e l e ( t r a n s . Strunk, Source Readings, pp. 4 7 5 . '. 105 Example 32: Dandrieu, "Presto," L i v r e de Sonates, Sonate I I , 2 -4 . Example 33: Duval, "Gay," Seconde L i v r e de Sonates, Sonate I I , 14-16. i s Example 34: Rebel, "Vivement," Sonates a I I et a I I I p a r t i e s , : ' Le Tombeau de L u l l y , 267-70. Viol;*, -! Example 35: La Guerre, " A l l e g r o e pr e s t o , " i'Suonatas a 2 vv.," Sonata I , 1-4. 1 £2" re These passages c a l l f o r a g i l i t y of the l e f t hand and bow arm r a t h e r than the r e f i n e d a r t i c u l a t i o n of the French s t y l e . L i k e C o r e l l i , these composers avoid the most advanced t e c h n i c a l developments of the time i n t h e i r t r i o s . Most of these passages are of moderate d i f f i c u l t y , and the v i o l i n i s t 106 i s never asked to play above t h i r d p o s i t i o n . Nevertheless, the s t y l e i s d i s t i n c t l y i n s t r u m e n t a l , and i d i o m a t i c to the v i o l i n . In the sonatas of Couperin the s c o r i n g i s not 52 s p e c i f i e d . However, i t seems that he too was infl u e n c e d by the C o r e l l i a n s t y l e of s t r i n g writing,(Example 3 6 ) . Example 3 6 : Couperin, .".Legerement, " L'Astree, 1 - 3 . I'" Jli r w^t r rfiiiiiiki'arfT • The bass parts i n works wi t h i d i o m a t i c dessus parts a l s o show the i n f l u e n c e of various i d i o m a t i c instrumental s t y l e s . Brossard makes use of double stops (Example 3 7 ) , a technique found i n the French s t y l e and, to some extent, i n the I t a l i a n . In the t r i o s by Couperin, La Guerre, Duval, Dandrieu and Brossard, the i d i o m a t i c patterns of the dessus parts a l s o appear i n the bass. V i o l o n c e l l o i s s p e c i f i e d i n the t r i o s of La Guerre, Duval and Dandrieu and basse de v i o l o n i s s p e c i f i e d i n those of Brossard. Rebel, however, c a l l s f o r a bass v i o l . The l a t t e r ' s use of t h i s instrument stems from the French t r a d i t i o n ; he uses i t i n the solo high r e g i s t e r w i t h i n the ensemble as w e l l as i n bass and accompanying r o l e s . In Le Tombeau de L u l l y , Rebel assigns passages of quick repeated notes to both the dessus and the bass. This s t y l e of w r i t i n g i s l i n k e d w i t h French o p e r a t i c and o r c h e s t r a l 52 Even i n the 1726 e d i t i o n he i s l e s s than s p e c i f i c , marking the parts only as dessus and basse d'archet. 107 t r a d i t i o n s r a t h e r than w i t h the I t a l i a n sonata s t y l e (Example 3 8 ) . Example 3 7 : Brossard, " A l l e g r o , " "Suonata 2 a , " 25-26. ..» i s / Example 3 8 : Rebel: "[Vivement]," Le Tombeau de L u l l y . 3 7 3 - 7 4 . , Violin X The p r a c t i c e of i m p r o v i s i n g ornamental d i v i s i o n s on a melody was recognized as part of the C o r e l l i a n s t y l e by the 53 F r e n c h . J J Examples 39 and 40 i l l u s t r a t e attempts by Rebel and La Guerre to i m i t a t e t h i s improvised s t y l e i n notated form; Rebel ornaments a complete movement, which i s scored as an accompanied v i o l i n s o l o , and La Guerre provides a wri t t e n - o u t cadenza a t the end of a movement. That these ornamental passages r e f l e c t the i n f l u e n c e of the I t a l i a n s t y l e i s shown i n t h e i r resemblance to the e a r l y eighteenth-century embellishments a t t r i b u t e d to C o r e l l i . ^ Rebel and La Guerre 53 54 See pp. 52-54 above. See Example 12 . 108 may have w r i t t e n out these passages to introduce the s t y l e to French performers u n f a m i l i a r w i t h i t . Example 39: Rebel, "Recit-Gravement," • Sonates a, I I et  a I I I parties/. • Sonata V, 21-22. VioU 1 & I i 109 The French v o c a l s t y l e predominates i n the t r i o s of Marais, De l a Barre, Toinon, F r e i l l o n Poncein, Monte'clair and Heudelinne and i n the t r i o movements of Charpentier's Sonata. I t a l i a n i n f l u e n c e , p r i m a r i l y from the s t y l e of w r i t i n g a s s o c i a t e d with the v i o l i n , i s seen i n works by Couperin, Rebel, La Guerre, Brossard, Duval and Dandrieu. The r e s t r a i n e d use of i d i o m a t i c s t y l e by the l a t t e r composers i s perhaps the r e s u l t of French i n f l u e n c e ; they were composing i n France where the French s t y l e was s t i l l strong and where r e s t r a i n t i n musical s t y l e was noted as a n a t i o n a l character-55 i s t i c . With the exception of h i s embellished "Gravement"— even that i s l e s s ornate than the I t a l i a n s t y l e — a n d parts of Le Tombeau de L u l l y . Rebel uses the I t a l i a n idiom with great r e s t r a i n t . I t may perhaps have been t h i s that earned him the 56 commendation of Le Cerf. Texture The m a j o r i t y of works considered i n t h i s study are i d e n t i f i e d as t r i o s through t h e i r t i t l e s . In such works, there are three basic p a r t s : two dessus and a bass p a r t , which serves as the foundation of the ensemble. The bass part was g e n e r a l l y played by two instruments: a melodic bass and a chordal instrument. Three part texture i s the most frequent, 55 ^ Raguenet, P a r a l l e l e , t r a n s . Strunk, Source Readings, p. 477 and Le Cerf, Comparaison, t r a n s . Strunk, Source Readings, pp. 4 9 3 - 9 4 . 56 J See p. 26 above. 110 "but some of the other t e x t u r a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the ensemble are used. A few of the works considered are not s p e c i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d as t r i o s . The works by Charpentier and M o n t e c l a i r are ensemble works w i t h movements of varying textures and instrum e n t a l c o l o u r s . The sonatas of Brossard and La Guerre are not c a l l e d " T r i o s , " but belong to the t r i o type; the f o u r -instrument group of two v i o l i n s , bowed bass and keyboard s p e c i f i e d i n the t i t l e s was common i n t r i o performance. Brossard, who copied these two works, perhaps d i d not f e e l comfortable with the idea of a f o u r - p a r t " T r i o . " Both Raguenet and Le Cerf comment on the three-part 57 textu r e i n t h e i r comparisons of French and I t a l i a n music. Although t h e i r opinions d i f f e r , both seem to give a s i m i l a r d e s c r i p t i o n of each s t y l e ; i n the French t r i o , the upper parts do not reach the extreme high range and the three parts are f a i r l y evenly spaced; i n the I t a l i a n s t y l e , the upper parts 58 are higher than those of the French and f a r t h e r from the bass. While i t i s not p o s s i b l e to i n t e r p r e t t h e i r general s t y l e d e s c r i p t i o n s w i t h c e r t a i n t y , i t seems that the s t y l e described as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y French appears only i n i s o l a t e d s e c t i o n s of the new French instrumental t r i o s . In the opening Grave of Duval's f i r s t Sonata (Example 41), both dessus voices are low, and the second dessus f i l l s the space between the f i r s t 5 7 S e e pp. 22-25. 58 This space would g e n e r a l l y be f i l l e d by the continuo r e a l i z a t i o n i n performance. 111 dessus and. the bass. A s i m i l a r texture i s achieved when the bass r i s e s i n t o i t s high r e g i s t e r , c r e a t i n g a more even spacing between the parts (Example 4 2 ) . In general, the French t r i o s go almost as high as the I t a l i a n — t h e highest note i n the former i s u s u a l l y c 1 ' ' or d' 1' while C o r e l l i goes up to e 1 1 ' — b u t the upper range i s used l e s s f r e q u e n t l y . Example 4 1 : Duval, "Grave," Seconde L i v r e de Sonates, Sonate I , 1 - 6 . m •&— 1 f zr m V6 X T Example 42: De l a Barre, "Sarabande," Pieces en t r i o ( 1 7 0 0 ) , S u i t e IV, 1 9 - 2 4 . f r r -4 • # j j i II N / t i i f — * -4=^ -til S J • .9 112 The "bass parts i n the French t r i o s often have a l a r g e r range than i s usual i n the t r i o s of C o r e l l i . While the l a t t e r never goes above f 1 , De l a Barre, Marais and Rebel, probably i n f l u e n c e d by the bass v i o l t r a d i t i o n , go as high as c 1 1 . Notes i n t h i s r e g i s t e r are e a s i l y obtainable on the bass v i o l ; the highest s t r i n g on t h i s instrument i s d', as opposed to g on the basse de v i o l o n and a on the v i o l o n c e l l o , and the bass v i o l i s f r e t t e d , which f a c i l i t a t e s the accurate placement of notes i n high p o s i t i o n s . Neither De l a Barre nor Marais s p e c i f y a bass instrument i n t h e i r t r i o s , but the use of t h i s r e g i s t e r i n d i c a t e s that they probably had the bass v i o l i n mind. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the dessus parts v a r i e s from composer to composer, and i s t i e d to melodic s t y l e . In the t r i o s of De l a Barre, Toinon, F r e i l l o n Poncein and Heudelinne the two dessus move f r e q u e n t l y i n p a r a l l e l t h i r d s or s i x t h s , the second dessus below the f i r s t . There i s some i m i t a t i o n ; t h i s technique i s p a r t i c u l a r i l y notable i n the preludes. The Pieces en t r i o of Marais are s i m i l a r i n t e x t u r e , but i n c l u d e a greater number of voice crossings between the two dessus. Sections of p a r a l l e l motion a l s o appear i n movements by Brossard, Rebel and l a Guerre. The texture of a p a i r of dessus voices moving together i n t h i r d s or s i x t h s as a s i n g l e enriched melodic l i n e i s seen i n both French and I t a l i a n s t y l e s . I t s use i n the new t r i o s i s probably due to the i n f l u e n c e of the dance, which was the basis f o r both the French s t y l e and the C o r e l l i a n Sonate da camera. 113 Duval and Dandrieu, as w e l l as Couperin, Rebel, Brossard and La Guerre, consider the dessus voices as equals, a t l e a s t i n i m i t a t i v e movements. The voices cross, i n t e r t w i n e and share m a t e r i a l i n the C o r e l l i a n manner. Couperin, however, r e t a i n s a tendency to keep.the upper dessus on top. The bass may take part i n the i m i t a t i o n , sharing the m a t e r i a l of the upper v o i c e s . In some pieces i t provides a steadily-moving bass l i n e below slower-moving dessus p a r t s ; the l a t t e r I t a l i a n - i n f l u e n c e d texture appears i n movements by Le l a Barre, Rebel, Couperin and Dandrieu. O c c a s i o n a l l y the bass r i s e s i n t o the dessus to serve as an a d d i t i o n a l dessus part of c o n t r a s t i n g tone colour (Example 4 3 ) . This change i n f u n c t i o n may be r e l a t e d to the French concept of " r o l e s " i n bass v i o l p l a y i n g . Example 4 3 : Marais, " P a s s a c a i l l e , " Pieces en t r i o , S u i t e V, 4 9 - 5 2 . JL. Within a three-part t e x t u r e , one of the dessus may take the r o l e of an accompanied s o l o i s t . Passages i n t h i s s t y l e appear i n the t r i o s of Toinon, Couperin, Duval and Dandrieu-114 (Example 4 4 ) . The same texture appears i n the works of C o r e l l i , and may have entered the new French t r i o from that source. I t does not seem to have been a favoured texture i n the French t r a d i t i o n . Example 4 4 : Toinon, " V i t e , " R e c u e i l de t r i o nouveaux, T r i o Sommeil, 3 6 - 4 5 . T e x t u r a l v a r i a t i o n i s created i n the new French t r i o s through changes i n the number of p a r t s . In the chaconnes and passacaglias of Marais and De l a Barre, two-part texture i s used as a c o n t r a s t to the p r e v a i l i n g three-part t e x t u r e . Both the combination of two dessus and the combination of one dessus and one bass part i n dessus range are used. C o n t r a s t i n g t e x t u r e s appear i n blocks r e l a t e d to the length of the repeated harmonic p a t t e r n . This d i f f e r s from the I t a l i a n s t y l e , i n which changes i n texture r e s u l t p r i m a r i l y from the motion and i m i t a t i o n of the v o i c e s . The t r i o s of Rebel, La Guerre and Couperin contain " A i r s " f o r a solo dessus with bass accompaniment. These " A i r s " appear between movements of f u l l e r t e x t u r e , c r e a t i n g a d i s t i n c t t e x t u r a l c o n t r a s t w i t h i n 11 5 the work of a type not seen i n the C o r e l l i a n t r i o sonata. The " A i r " texture probably stems from the French v o c a l a i r , which was most f r e q u e n t l y set f o r s o l o voice and f i g u r e d bass Another method used by the French t r i o composers to create v a r i a t i o n i n texture i s the d i v i s i o n of the bass, played by two or more instruments, i n t o two separate p a r t s . The composers of the s u i t e s and single-movement t r i o s do not use t h i s t e x t u r a l p o s s i b i l i t y , but a l l the composers of sonatas, w i t h the exception of Duval, do. D i v i s i o n of the bass i s common i n the Sonate da chiesa of C o r e l l i and the sonatas of Bassani, but i s not used i n the L u l l i a n s t y l e or m the Sonate da camera of C o r e l l i . J In the C o r e l l i a n Sonate da c h i e s a , the separate Violone part may embellish the fundamental bass w i t h ornamental notes or take part i n i m i t -a t i o n i n a contrapuntal movement. Through these procedures, the three-part texture can be expanded to four p a r t s . Rebel, C o u p e r i n ^ and Dandrieu use the bowed bass, s i m i l a r i l y , as a separate p a r t . Serving as a s o l o i s t , according to Jean Rousseau, was one of the " r o l e s " that could be f i l l e d by a bass v i o l p l ayer Both Rebel and La Guerre use the bowed bass as a s o l o i n s t r u -59 -^The bass l i n e i n the L u l l i a n t r i o des hautbois seems to have been played by a s i n g l e melodic instrument. The bass l i n e i n the C o r e l l i a n Sonata da camera may a l s o have been performed by a s i n g l e instrument; see pp. 54-55 above. fin Couperin experiments f u r t h e r w i t h t h i s texture i n the quartet sonata La Sultane. He a l s o adds more independent bowed bass sections i n the 1726 e d i t i o n of h i s e a r l y sonatas. The " V i s t e " of ?»La P u c e l l e " ("Gayement" La Francoise) and the f i n a l movement of "La V i s i o n n a i r e " (L'Espagnol) contain such a l t e r a t i o n s . 116 merit i n t h e i r t r i o s ; the former uses the bass v i o l as a s o l o i s t w i t h i n a f o u r - p a r t texture (Example 45 ) while the l a t t e r uses a bowed b a s s — b o t h v i o l o n c e l l o and bass v i o l are c a l l e d f o r a t d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s — a s the solo voice i n a s o l o / bass tex t u r e (Example 4 6 ) . In l a Guerre's t r i o s + f o u r - p a r t t e x t u r e i s heard only once: i n the a l l e g r o presto of the f i r s t sonata. U s u a l l y , one or both of the dessus voices drop out when the bass d i v i d e s . La Guerre thus uses the d i v i d e d bass p r i m a r i l y to create two- and three-part textures of v a r i e d s o n o r i t y r a t h e r than to expand the three-part t e x t u r e . Example 4 5 : Rebel, "Vivement," Le Tombeau de L u l l y , 2 3 9 - 4 3 . i l l i -+-— <):\r > [_-* : rtffifr * / V ) ' ^ Bass , ^ = ••^=\ ii^i u 1— -t5> V5 See pp. 4 8 - 4 9 above. 117 Example 46 : La Guerre, " A r i a a f f e t t u o s o bemol," "Suonatas a 2 vv.," Sonata I I I , 4 - 7 . Brossard d i v i d e s the bass l i n e to give an i l l u s i o n of greater contrapuntal a c t i v i t y to the opening bars of i m i t a t i v e movements, and to create v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n movements. As shown i n Example 47, he uses the basse de v i o l o n as a separate inner t a l l l e p a r t ; t h i s rondeau resembles i n texture and melodic s t y l e the pieces played by l a t e seventeenth-century French double reed ensembles .  (Example 48). Example 47: Brossard, "Rondeau," !'Suonata 2 a," 1-8. •6- ? E g p £ f—t i -+—it 1 i m m 1 [*i m P—] Li] w [i] 118 Example 48: l u l l y , " L ' A i r des hautbois," i n G. Kastner, Manuel g e n e r a l • ( P a r i s , 1848; r e p r i n t ed., Geneva: Minkoff, 1973), Appendix: "Marches, B a t t e r i e s et Sonneries de l'Arme'e f r a n c a i s e regne de Louis XIV," p. 5. ft 0 -0— ~f—f f =I=N= •=~=y= 7» ^ - p » -6 -IT—f-~¥ T=*= H *= •+— * — — * The use of the bowed bass instrument to create var-i a t i o n s i n t e x t u r e , and the expansion of the t r i o to four parts are probably r e l a t e d to C o r e l l i ' s p r a c t i c e . The extent to which the bowed bass instruments are used independently and the v a r i e t y of r o l e s assigned to them r e f l e c t the French t r a d i t i o n . V a r i a t i o n i n texture between movements seems to be a French c o n t r i b u t i o n to the t r i o , perhaps i n s p i r e d by L u l l y * s p r a c t i c e of d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g l i n k e d sections i n opera through t e x t u r a l change. 119 Melodic S t y l e Melody i s a d i f f i c u l t s ubject to discuss i n terms of n a t i o n a l s t y l e s . While c e r t a i n melodic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the new French t r i o s can be a t t r i b u t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y to the i n f l u e n c e of e i t h e r the French s t y l e or the I t a l i a n s t y l e , or to a combined i n f l u e n c e , the dance elements upon which the L u l l i a n melodic s t y l e was founded formed the basis of a common Baroque melodic s t y l e , which was used by C o r e l l i and h i s I t a l i a n contemporaries as w e l l as the French. The char-a c t e r of melodic l i n e s i n t h i s s t y l e can be a t t r i b u t e d to French or I t a l i a n i n f l u e n c e only when there i s other c o r r o b o r a t i v e evidence. Those composers who use French dance s t r u c t u r e s most f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e i r t r i o s — M a r a i s , De l a Barre, Toinon, F r e i l l o n Poncein, Monte"clair, Heudel'inne and C h a r p e n t i e r — o f t e n employ a melodic s t y l e l i n k e d to the dance and the t r i o des hautbois. In t h i s s t y l e , the rhythmic and metric patterns a s s o c i a t e d w i t h various dances are prominent and phrases are of r e g u l a r l e n g t h , u s u a l l y two or f o u r bars. The range of each phrase i s s m a l l , and melodic motion i s predominantly stepwise w i t h i n the phrase. Winding, melodic patterns are frequent. Successive phrases may use s i m i l a r melodic m a t e r i a l , or they may begin w i t h an i d e n t i c a l p a t t e r n and conclude d i f f e r e n t l y . From the simultaneous appearance of these elements, i t would appear t h a t the melodic s t y l e of these t r i o s was derived from French dance music. 1 20 While the i n f l u e n c e of the dance i s often apparent i n non-dance movements w i t h i n the t r i o s of these composers, other i n f l u e n c e s are seen. Marais i n p a r t i c u l a r explores other p o s s i b i l i t i e s . His use of passages of l a r g e r i n t e r v a l s (Example 4 9 ) probably stems from the instrumental s t y l e s of French v i o l and o r c h e s t r a l music. The instrumental s t y l e of ornamentation i n the " P e t i t e p a s s a c a g l i a " of the f i r s t s u i t e may be the r e s u l t of s i m i l a r i n f l u e n c e s or, p o s s i b l y , of I t a l i a n i n f l u e n c e ; t h i s type of w r i t t e n - o u t ornamentation i s seen o c c a s i o n a l l y i n v i o l music and i n the French overture, but i s otherwise infrequent i n the French t r a d i t i o n . The l a r g e leaps and repeated patterns of the "Symphonie" i n the t h i r d s u i t e (Example 50) may have been i n f l u e n c e d by the French o r c h e s t r a l s t y l e used i n opera; Marais h i m s e l f wrote a number of operas, and instrumental pieces i n operas were often given the t i t l e "Simphonie." The "Prelude" of S u i t e V "Un peu plus v i s t e " contains passages of f i g u r a t i o n over a slower-moving bass t h a t might have been i n f l u e n c e s by e i t h e r t r a d i t i o n or both (Example 5 1 ) . Example 4 9 : Marais, "Caprice," Pieces en t r i o , S u i t e V, 1 - 5 . rk 1 1 — f - * r 4=W3| 4= ^ f^e i U f -f F s J—^A 1 ~t*— 1 21 Example 5 0 : Marais, "Symphonie," Pieces en t r i o , S u i t e I I I , 1 - 4 , 1 4 - 1 7 -\\SrT | 0= f r ^ "J Leritie merit J L= JU u -—t? i ) 9 L i : f ! )>-' f~F— ~n-\ r -"ff —7 = ^ Trr ^ f Wf P.M. 1 * s- 3 Fflf —J— =M ft*-' - - t — 7 7 u U J-U- 1= -rJ*ff-u / ^  J : % 56 * $ * 9 % 6 k* J 7 £+2 t5> * 1 6 122 Example 51: Marais, "Prelude," Pieces en t r i o . S u i t e V, 38-42. i mm I n d i v i d u a l movements w i t h i n the t r i o s of other composers a l s o show L u l l i a n melodic t r a i t s . The " A i r s " of Couperin, La Guerre and Rebel are melodic i n c o n s t r u c t i o n , b u i l t of short phrases that move i n predominantly stepwise motion w i t h i n a s m a l l range. A few movements i n Brossard's sonatas, although not c a l l e d " A i r s , " contain s i m i l a r melodic p a t t e r n s . Some movements by Rebel, La Guerre, Brossard and Couperin are very s e c t i o n a l i n c o n s t r u c t i o n ; short phrases are repeated.exactly, or at a d i f f e r e n t p i t c h level.. This type of c o n s t r u c t i o n may be r e l a t e d to the r e g u l a r phrase s t r u c t u r e of the French:, dance. In a few movements by Brossard, La Guerre, Rebel and Duval, the melodic l i n e moves forward i n patterns of equal note v a l u e s — u s u a l l y eighth!:.:or quarter n o t e s — w i t h an occas-i o n a l s et of s h o r t e r notes. Both stepwise motion and l a r g e r i n t e r v a l s are used, and patterns of repeated notes may appear (Example 52). When such themes are used i n i m i t a t i o n , i t i s 123 often d i f f i c u l t to hear the shape of the new e n t r i e s . This s t y l e , which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the e a r l y French sonata, may be an attempt to combine the homophonic motion of the t r i o des hautbois w i t h the I t a l i a n i m i t a t i v e s t y l e . Example 52a: Brossard, [ " A l l e g r o " ] , "Suonata 1 a," 1 -5 . iv:*/fjfrrrriffffffifJ^jyjJjJ h 52b: Rebel, "Gay," Sonates a 2 et a 5. Sonata IV, 1-7. r H F=t=N=] n-+rh ft t f w • • M i — +1 -* i — # - r ^ — Lc—^—1—! 52c: La Guerre, " A l l e g r o , " "Suonatas a 2 vv.," Sonata " I I I , 1. 52d: Duval, " V i t e , " Seconde L i v r e de sonates, Sonata I , 1-2. • ff * fff f • J In the "Sonata" by Charpentier and the Seconde L i v r e  de pieces of Heudelinne, t r i o movements are int e r m i n g l e d w i t h pieces f o r so l o dessus w i t h bass and, i n the Charpentier, f o r l a r g e r combinations. In both works, the t r i o s f o l l o w the French s t y l e while the so l o movements show I t a l i a n i n f l u e n c e . 124 For both of these composers, i t seems, t r i o texture was l i n k e d w i t h the French melodic s t y l e , and solo/bass texture w i t h the I t a l i a n . The themes of i m i t a t i v e movements i n the new French sonatas are often I t a l i a n i n character; the melodic p a t t e r n may define the t o n i c chord of the piece while the rhythmic p a t t e r n has a d i s t i n c t i v e character s u i t e d to i m i t a t i v e t r e a t -ment. Some of the themes used by Couperin and Rebel e s p e c i a l l y are very s h o r t — n o more than a bar or so i n l e n g t h . More l i k e motives than f u l l themes, they are tr e a t e d i n i m i t a t i o n during the course of the movement. A s e l e c t i o n of themes from the sonatas of Couperin i s shown i n Example 5 3 . Example 5 3 a : Couperin, "Legerement," La Superbe, 1 . Le^erconeht Example 5 3 h : Couperin, "Gayement," L' Astre"e, 1 . dfc 3 ^ JL basse d'arclrict T nExample 5 3 c : Couperin, "Legerement," La P u c e l l e , 1 - 2 . Le^ererrierit' dessus I bqss CWMJ bass ( ' H r it ffrrri # < # f—f-» I l — 3 4=U 6 t 3 1 25 53d: Couperin, "Legerement," La V i s i o n n a i r e , 2. 1> \ " ( ' , 3 La Guerre tends to use longer themes that can be d i v i d e d i n t o s e c t i o n s . The i n d i v i d u a l s e c t i o n s are treated i m i t a t i v e l y and m o t i v i c a l l y . Some of the themes of La Guerre., Rebel and Couperin contain short melodic patterns that are repeated at d i f f e r e n t p i t c h l e v e l s (Example 54), a type of melodic organ-i z a t i o n used by C o r e l l i (Example 55). ^Such themes have a b u i l t - i n p o t e n t i a l f o r s e q u e n t i a l treatment; the repeated p a t t e r n provides a basis f o r l a t e r s e q u e n t i a l motion. The melodic patterns i n the t r i o s of Couperin, Rebel, La Guerre, Duval and Dandrieu are f r e q u e n t l y r e l a t e d to the i d i o m a t i c v i o l i n s t y l e of the I t a l i a n s , of which passages of running s i x t e e n t h notes, l e a p s , arpeggios and sequences are a p a r t . Example 54a: Rebel, "Gay," Sonates a 2 et a 5, Sonata I, 1-3. H E E 54b: Couperin, "Gayement," La P u c e l l e , 1-3. rH r i f • fed L~t~l 126 Example 55: C o r e l l i , Opus 1/12:4 A l l e g r o , 1-3. In a few pieces w i t h i n the new French t r i o s , the mel-odic s t y l e i s based on an extra-musical id e a , which the composer attempts to r e a l i z e m u s i c a l l y . De l a Barre i m i t a t e s the p r a t t l e of the " o l d gossip" through repeated notes i n the " F a n t a i s i e l a b a b i l l a r d e " ( B o o k I, S u i t e V I ) . Couperin, i n the "Mouvement de f a n f a r e s " of l e Steinquerque, uses melodic patterns s i m i l a r to those a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the f i f e , 6^ which was used as a m i l i t a r y instrument (Example 56). J Conventions of melodic s t y l e were used to portray s p e c i f i c e xtra-musical ideas i n pieces such as p l a i n t e s and s.bmme.ll movements. Rebel's Tombeau de L u l l y shows the i n f l u e n c e of such conventions; the f a l l i n g melodic l i n e s and f^ f i g u r e s of t h i s work a l s o appear i n French p l a i n t e s of the p e r i o d . This d e s c r i p t i v e melodic s t y l e belongs to the French t r a d i t i o n r a t h e r than to the new I t a l i a n sonata s t y l e . ^Marie B o b i l l i e r [ M i c h e l Brenet] , "French M i l i t a r y Music i n the Reign of Louis XIV," M u s i c a l Quarterly 3 (1917): 345-48. There i s a " F a n t a i s i e " i n Montgclair's Serenade that c a r r i e s the i n d i c a t i o n f i f r e s . I t a l s o i m i t a t e s t h i s s t y l e . 64 D e s c r i p t i v e passages do appear i n I t a l i a n m u s i c — t h e i r presence i s mentioned by Le C e r f — b u t they are not a part of the C o r e l l i a n sonata s t y l e . 1 27 Example 56a: "L 1Ordonnance pour l a F i f r e , " i n G. Kastner, Manuel g e n e r a l , Appendix: "Marches, B a t t e r i e s et S o n n e r i e s d e l'Arme'e f r a n 9 a i s e r§gne de Louis XIV," p. 3. s 56"b: Couperin, "Mouvement de f a n f a r e s , " Le Steinquerque, 4-5. nrr- i FP=N J T H 9 * JJ J v rf> ^ >—1 i -y-Most of these t r i o composers mix dance, d e s c r i p t i v e and I t a l i a n melodic s t y l e s to some degree. The t r i o s of F r e i l l o n Poncein and Monte'clair and the t r i o movements of Charpentier and Heudelinne appear to he e n t i r e l y French, while the t r i o s of De l a Barre, Marais and Toinon have traces of I t a l i a n i n f l u e n c e . French and I t a l i a n t r a i t s are blended i n the t r i o s of Couperin, La Guerre and Rebel, and those of Duval and Dandrieu are almost e n t i r e l y I t a l i a n i n s t y l e . 128 Harmonic Language Most of the chords i n the vocabulary of the composers of the new French t r i o s belong to a common Baroque musical language, and t h e i r presence cannot be a t t r i b u t e d to s p e c i f i c French or I t a l i a n i n f l u e n c e s . However, some of the ways i n which these chords are used can be l i n k e d to a p a r t i c u l a r n a t i o n a l s t y l e . In works i n the t r i o des hautbois s t y l e , the dessus voices move p r i m a r i l y i n t h i r d s or s i x t h s and the harmony changes two or three times i n each bar. A m a j o r i t y of the chords are consonant, c o n s i s t i n g of t h i r d s and s i x t h s , but chains of t r i a d s or s i x - t h r e e chords are r a r e . Phrases are short and cadences are frequent. More complex harmonic motion i s sometimes seen i n non-dance pieces. Here, the composer may use chromaticism or con t r a s t the major and minor t h i r d or the major and minor seventh of the key (Example 57). The concept of modulation i s not present i n the t r i o des  hautbois s t y l e , although each movement u s u a l l y moves through a v a r i e t y of c l o s e l y r e l a t e d keys. There are oc c a s i o n a l passages of c i r c l e - o f - f i f t h s motion. In the new t r i o s , t h i s French s t y l e appears i n i t s purest form i n the works of De l a Barre, Marais and F r e i l l o n Poncein. 129 Example 57: Marais, " P l a i n t e lentement," Pieces en t r i o , S u i t e I I I , 11-14. riT' rf\ ** | / | ~f ff*' f—I > if l,*' c f) 'HI U <* + + ^ J p rj J X t *7 i ^ — Toinon's harmonic p r a c t i c e f o l l o w s that descrihed above, but he a l s o makes use o c c a s i o n a l l y of devices such as extended sequences and c i r c l e - o f - f i f t h s patterns,'which' are character-i s t i c of the I t a l i a n style.. (Example 58). The sequence i n Example 58 i s most evident i n the bass part since the upper parts are not repeated e x a c t l y . Example 58: Toinon, "Tr i o - P r e l u d e , " R e c u e i l de t r i o  nouveaux. 11-16. Trie- Pr-Acje. 0 a ===? i m w z z 1 2 i 1 30 The harmonic s t y l e of Brossard i s a mixture of French and I t a l i a n . A number of movements f o l l o w French p r a c t i c e ; they have short phrases and move to a new key w i t h every phrase. His harmony i s l e s s c o l o u r f u l than that of Marais or De l a Barre, however, and he tends to emphasize the t o n i c and dominant. Brossard uses c i r c l e - o f - f i f t h s patterns and extended sequences. The c i r c l e - o f - f i f t h s motion and succession of r e s o l v i n g dominant sevenths i n the "Largo" of the f i r s t 6S sonata are indebted to C o r e l l i . J The harmonic s t y l e of Rebel i s mixed, and l e a n s , l i k e Brossard's towards French p r a c t i c e . Some movements c o n s i s t of short phrases c o n t a i n i n g a v a r i e t y of chords, while others contain chains of s i x - t h r e e chords or suspensions. Couperin and La Guerre i n t e g r a t e French and I t a l i a n 66 s t y l e s more f u l l y . Movements i n the French s t y l e are con-t r a s t e d with those i n the mixed s t y l e , i n which chromatic progressions, sequences and contrapuntal motion are used. The chords, however, do not always move i n a manner that r e i n f o r c e s t o n a l i t y . Both Couperin and La Guerre make use of a chord that i s common i n French music of the p e r i o d , the 6 5 S e e p. 150 below. 66 W i l f r i d M e l l e r s , Francois Couperin and the French  C l a s s i c a l T r a d i t i o n (London: Dennis Dobs on, 1950), pp. 104-12 examines the harmonic vocabulary of these sonatas i n d e t a i l . A summary of La Guerre's harmonic p r a c t i c e appears i n Bates, "Jacquet de La Guerre," pp. 109-13. 131 mediant nine-seven-sharp f i v e . Of the two composers, Couperin's harmonic s t y l e i s the r i c h e s t . I t a l i a n harmonic p r a c t i c e i s followed c l o s e l y i n the t r i o s of Duval and Dandrieu. Extended sequences, c i r c l e - o f -f i f t h s p a t t e r n s , suspensions and chains of s i x - t h r e e and seventh chords are common, and the harmony i s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d and g e n e r a l l y d i a t o n i c . Some movements i n the t r i o s of Duval and Dandrieu are b u i l t e n t i r e l y of successions •, of.. s e q u e n t i a l p a t t e r n s ; s i m i l a r movements are seen i n the sonatas of C o r e l l i . In Dandrieu's sonatas, traces of French harmonic i n f l u e n c e can be seen i n the use of the mediant nine-seven-sharp f i v e chord and the t o n i c major/minor c o n t r a s t . The development of an in t e g r a t e d s t y l e does not seem to have been a primary concern f o r these two f i n a l composers; the I t a l i a n s t y l e was now accepted i n France and no longer novel. Within the twenty-year period 1686-1706, t r i o s f o r two dessus w i t h bass were w r i t t e n i n a v a r i e t y of s t y l e s by mus-i c i a n s working at the French court and i n the c i t y of P a r i s . These t r i o s can be d i v i d e d roughly i n t o three s t y l i s t i c groups: 1 . P r i m a r i l y French F r e i l l o n Poncein, Monte'clair Marais, De l a Barre, Toinon + Charpentier, Heudelinne 2. More evenly mixed Rebel Couperin, La Guerre 3. P r i m a r i l y I t a l i a n Duval, Dandrieu The most I t a l i a n a t e works were w r i t t e n a t the end of t h i s p e r i o d , while the works i n mixed s t y l e appeared during the ^Anthony, French Baroque Music, p. 3. 132 e a r l y 1690s. Works p r i m a r i l y French i n s t y l e were composed throughout the pe r i o d . This v a r i e t y of s t y l e w i t h i n a s i n g l e medium t e s t i f i e s to the v i t a l i t y of French musical l i f e between l u l l y and Rameau. BIBLIOGRAPHY Sources before 1800 Music Bassani, Giovanni B a t t i s t a . S i n f o n i e a due e t r e in s t r u m e n t i con i l basso continuo per 1 'organo opera q u i n t a . Bologna: Giacomo Monti, 1683. . Sonata a t r e per due v i o l i n i e basso continuo ,/. Op. V/9. Edited by E r i c h Schenk. Vienna; D s t e r r e i c h -isches Bundesverlag, 1955. Brossard, Sebastien de. "Suonata 1 a a 2 vv e v i o l a d i gamba o b l i g a t a con organo" and "Suonata 2 a a 2 vv e v i o l a d i gamba o b l i g a t a con organo." P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e N a f i o n a l e , Vm7 1477. Clerambault, Louis N i c o l a s . "Sonates et symphonies a p l u s -i e u r s instruments." P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e , Vm7 11 51 . C o r e l l i , Arcangelo. Les Oeuvres de Arcangelo C o r e l l i . - 5 v o l s . E d i t e d by J . Joachim and P. Chrysander. London: Augener & Co., 1888-91. Couperin, F r a n c o i s . "La P u c e l l e , " "La V i s i o n n a i r e , " "Le Steinquerque" and "L'Astree." P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e , Vm7 1156. . Les Gouts-reunis ou Nouveaux Concerts a 1'usage de toutes l e s sortes d'instrumens de Musique augmente*es  d'une grande Sonade en T r i o i n t i t u l g e Le Parnasse ou  L'Apothgose de C o r e l l i . :-Paris: Author, 1724; r e p r i n t ed., Geneva: Minkoff, 1979. . Concert instrumentale sous l e t i t r e d'Apotheose Compose' a l a me"moire immortelle de 1' incomparable  Monsieur de L u l l y . P a r i s : Author, 1725; r e p r i n t ed., wi t h Les Gouts-reunis, Geneva: Minkoff, 1979. ... Les Nations: Sonades et s u i t e s de simphonies en t r i o . P a r i s : Author, 1726; r e p r i n t ed., Madrid: Arte Triumpharia, 1982. . Oeuvres Completes de Francois Couperin. 12 v o l s . E d i t e d by Maurice Cauchie. P a r i s : l'Oiseau l y r e , 1932-3. 133 134 Couperin, L o u i s . "Manuscrit Bauyn." P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e , Res. Vm7 675; f a c s i m i l e ed., Geneva: Min-k o f f , 1977. Dandrieu, Jean F r a n c o i s . L i v r e de sonates en t r i o , premier  oeuvre. P a r i s : Roussel, 1705. Duval, F r a n c o i s . Premier l i v r e de sonates et autres p ieces  pour l e v i o l o n et l a basse. P a r i s : Author, 1704. . Second l i v r e de sonates a I I I p a r t i e s pour I I v i o l o n s et l a basse. P a r i s : Author, 1706. / • E c o r c h e v i l l e , J u l e s , ed. Vingt s u i t e s d'orchestre du X V I I I e  s i e c l e f r a n c a i s . P a r i s : L.-M. F o r t i n & C i e , 1906; r e p r i n t ed., New York: Broude Brothers L i m i t e d , 1971. Heudelinne, L o u i s . Second l i v r e de pieces pour l e dessus et  basse de v i o l l e , et pour l e v i o l o n et c l a v e s s i n , t r i o t s et sonates. P a r i s : Foucault, |~1 705"]. l a Barre, M i c h e l de. Pieces en t r i o pour l e s v i o l o n s , f l u s t e s  et hautbois. P a r i s , 1694. . Pieces en t r i o pour l e s v i o l o n s , f l u s t e s et haut- b o i s , L i v r e seconde. P a r i s , 1700. . Pieces pour l a f l u t e t r a v e r s i ^ r e oeuvre quatrieme. P a r i s , 1702; r e p r i n t ed., Florence: Studio per Edizione S c e l t e , 1980. . Troisieme l i v r e des t r i o pour l e s v i o l o n s , f l u t e s et hautbois, mglez de sonates pour l a f l u t e t r a v e r s i e r e . P a r i s , 1707; r e p r i n t ed., Florence: Studio per E d i z i o n i S c e l t e , 1980. La Guerre, Elizabeth-Claude Jacquet de. "Sonates a v i o l i n o s o l o e v i o l e de gamba o b l i g a t a con organa" and "Sonates a due v i o l i n i e v i o l o n c e l l o o b l i g a t o con organo." P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e , Vm7 1111. Lambert, M i c h e l . Pieces en t r i o . Amsterdam: Estienne Roger, 1700. Le Roux, Gaspard. Pieces de c l a v e s s i n . P a r i s , 1705; r e p r i n t ed., Geneva: Minkoff, 1982. L u l l y , Jean-Baptiste. B a l l e t s i n the C o l l e c t i o n P h i l i d o r : "La N u i t , " " A l c i d i a n n e , " "La R a i l l e r i e ,;" "L' Impatience, " "Les Amours deguisez," "Le Marriage f o r c e , " "La N a i s -sance de Venus," "Le B a l l e t de F l o r e , " " L'Amour malade," "Revante des h a b i t s , " " Xerces," "Le b a l l e t des Muses," " l e s P l a i s i r s t r o u b l e , " "Les Facheux," 155 "Les Saisons," "Hercule amoreux," "Les sept p i a n e t t e s , " "Les Nopces du v i l l a g e , " "L'Amour medecin," 'Jla G-rotte de V e r s a i l l e s , V " Armide," " La Princesse d ' E l i d e , " Le B a l l e t des gardes," "La Mascarade de V e r s a i l l e s " and "Le Feste de V e r s a i l l e s . " P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e . . Les t r i o s des opera mis en ordre pour l e s c o n c e r t s , propres a chanter & a jouer sur l a f l u t e , l e v i o l o n &  autres instruments. Amsterdam: P. & J . Blaeu. 1690. . Qeuvres completes de J.-B. L u l l y 1652-1687. 10 v o l s . E d i t e d by Henry P r u n i e r e s . P a r i s : E d i t i o n s de • l a Revue musicale, 1950-59. Marais, Marin. Pieces en t r i o pour l e s f l u t e s , v i o l o n &  dessus de v i o l e . P a r i s , 1692. . Pieces de v i o l e s 2 e l i v r e . P a r i s , 1701. . Marin Marais: The Instrumental Works. E d i t e d by John Hsu. V o l . 1: Pieces a une et a deux v i o l e s (1686-89). New York: Broude Brothers l i m i t e d , 1980. M a s c i t t i , M i c h e l . Sonate a v i o l i n o s o l o c o l v i o l o n e o.'cimbalo  "o.sohate/.av due, v i o l i n i , v i o l o n c e l l o & J ;basso continuo  . . . opera prima. P a r i s : Foucault, 1704. Rebel, Jean-Fery. Pieces pour l e v i o l o n avec l a basse continue divise'es par s u i t e s de tons, qui peuvent  a u s s i se jouer sur.»-le c l a v e c i n et sur l e v i o l e . P a r i s : Christophe B a l l a r d , 1705. . R e c u e i l de douze sonates, a I I et a I I I p a r t i e s avec l a basse c h i f f r g e . " P a r i s : Christophe B a l l a r d , 1 712. Toinon. R e c u e i l de t r i o nouveaux pour Ie v i o l o n , h autbois,  f l u t e . P a r i s , 1699. T o r c h i , L u i g i , ed. L'Arte musicale i n I t a l i a . 1 v o l s . M i l a n : R i c o r d i , 1897-1908; r e p r i n t ed., M i l a n : R i c o r d i , 1968. Wasielewski, Joseph Wilhelm von. Anthology of Instrumental  Music from the End of the S i x t e e n t h Century to the End of the Seventeenth Century. 1 36 L i t e r a t u r e on Music B a c i l l y , Benigne de. L'Art de bien chanter. P a r i s , 1679. Translated and edited by A u s t i n B. Caswell as The A r t  of Proper S i n g i n g . Brooklyn: I n s t i t u t e of Medieval Music, 1 9 6 8 . Brossard, Sebastien de. D i c t i o n n a i r e de musique. P a r i s , 1703; r e p r i n t ed., Amsterdam: Antiqua Amsterdam, 1 9 6 4 . C o r r e t t e , M i c h e l . Le Maitre de c l a v e c i n pour 1'accompagnement. P a r i s , 1753; r e p r i n t ed., New York: Broude Brothers, 1 9 7 6 . Couperin, F r a n c o i s . L'Art de toucher l e c l a v e c i n . P a r i s , 1716; r e p r i n t ed., New York: Broude Brothers, 1 9 6 9 . Dangeau, l e Marquis de. 'IJournal du Marquis de Dangeau (1684-1720): E x t r a i t s concernant l a v i e musicale a l a Cour." Ed i t e d by Chantal Masson. Recherches sur l a musique  f r a n c a i s e c l a s s i q u e 2 ( 1 9 6 2 ) : 1 9 3 - 2 2 3 . de Blegny, N i c o l a s [Abraham du PradelJ . Le L i v r e comm&de  des adresses de P a r i s pour 1 6 9 2 . 2 v o l s . E d i t ed by Edouard F o u r n i e r . P a r i s : P. D a f f i s , 1 8 7 8 . F r e i l l o n Poncein, J e a n - P i e r r e . La v e r i t a b l e maniere d'apprendre  a ,-jouer en p e r f e c t i o n du hautbois, de l a f l u t e et du f l a g e o l e t . P a r i s , 1700; r e p r i n t ed., Geneva: Minkoff, 1971 • H o t t e t e r r e , Jacques. P r i n c i p l e s of the F l u t e , Recorder and Oboe. P a r i s , 1-707. Translated by Paul M a r s h a l l Douglas. New York: Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s Inc., 1 9 6 8 . L. T., M de. " D i s s e r t a t i o n sur l a musique I t a l i e n n e & Fran-c o i s . " Le Mercure galant (November 1 7 1 3 ) . l a Barre, M i c h e l x d e . "Memoire sur l e s musettes et -lesyhaufe 1, • b o i s . " In E c r i t s des musiciens ( X V e - X V I I I e s i e c l e s ) . E d i t e d by J.-G. Prod'homme. P a r i s : Mercure de France, 1 9 1 2 . Le Cerf de l a V i e v i l l e , Jean l a u r e n t . Comparaison de l a musique i t a l i e n n e et de l a musique f r a n c o i s e . 3 v o l s . B r u s s e l s , 1704-06. Reprinted i n Bourdelot, P. and Bonnet, J . H i s t o i r e de l a musique et de ses e f f e t s . 4 v o l s . Amsterdam, 1725; r e p r i n t ed., Graz: Akademische Druck, 1966. Masson, Charles. Nouveau t r a i t e des r e g i e s pour l a composition  de l a musique. 2nd ed. P a r i s , 1699; r e p r i n t ed., 137 New York: Da Capo Pr e s s , 1967. Muffat, Georg. F l o r i l e g i u m Pfimum. Augsburg, 1695; r e p r i n t ed., Denkmaler der Tonkunst i n d s t e r r e i c h 12 Vienna, 1894. Translated i n O l i v e r Strunk, Source Readings i n  Music H i s t o r y . New York: W. W. Norton & Company Inc., 1950. Raguenet, F r a n c o i s . P a r a l l e l e des I t a l i e n s et des Francais en  ce qui regarde l a musique et l e s operas. P a r i s , 1702; r e p r i n t ed., Geneva: Minkoff, 1976. Translated i n O l i v e r Strunk, Source Readings i n Music H i s t o r y . New York: W. W. Norton & Company Inc., 1950. . Defense du P a r a l l e l e des I t a l i e n s et des Francais en ce qui regarde l a musique et l e s operas. P a r i s , 1705; r e p r i n t ed. wi t h P a r a l l e l e des I t a l i e n s et des F r a n c a i s , Geneva: Minkoff, 1976. Rousseau, Jean. T r a i t e de l a v i o l e . P a r i s , 1687; r e p r i n t ed., Geneva: Minkoff, 1975. Sourches et Luynes. La Musique a l a cour de Louis XIV et  Louis XV d'apres l e s memoires de Sourches et Luynes  C1698-1757). Edited by Norbert Dufourcq. P a r i s ; A.& J . P i c a r d , 1970. T i t o n du T i l l e t , Evard. D e s c r i p t i o n du Parnasse f r a n c o i s . New e d i t i o n . P a r i s , 1732. 138 Sources a f t e r 1800 Anthony, James R. "Some Uses of the Dance i n French Opera-B a l l e t . " Recherches sur l a musique f r a n c a i s e c l a s s i q u e 9 (l969):209-20. . French Baroque Music from Beau.ioyeulx to Rameau. Revised ed. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1 9 7 8 . Antoine, M i c h e l . "Notes sur l e s v i o l o n i s t e s Anet." Recherches  sur l a musique f r a n c a i s e c l a s s i q u e 2 ( 1 9 6 2):81 - 9 4 . A p e l , W i l l i . "Studien uber die fruhe V i o l i n m u s i k IX: die i t a l i e n i s c h e n Hauptquellen von 1690 h i s 1 7 0 0 . " A r c h i v  f u r Musikwissenschaft 38 (1981 ): 110-41 . A t l e y , S h a r i e . "The Music f o r Dessus de V i o l e of Louis Heudelinne." M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l -umbia, 1 9 8 0 . Bates, Carol Henry. "The Instrumental Music of E l i z a b e t h -Claude Jacquet de l a Guerre: T r a n s c r i p t i o n and Com-mentary." 3 v o l s . Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Indiana Univer-s i t y , 1 9 7 5 . Benoit, M a r c e l l e . V e r s a i l l e s et l e s musiciens du r o i 1661- 1 7 5 5 . P a r i s : A. & J . P i c a r d , 1 9 7 1 . , ed. Musiques de cour: c h a p e l l e , chambre, ec u r i e 1661 - 1735 . P a r i s : A. & J . P i c a r d , 1 9 7 1 . B o b i l l i e r , Marie [ M i c h e l B r e n e t ] . Les Concerts en France  sous 1'ancien regime. P a r i s , 1 9 0 0 ; r e p r i n t ed., New York: Da Capo Press, 1 9 7 0 . . "La L i b r a i r i e musicale en France de 1655 a 1 7 9 0 , d'apres l e s r e g i s t r e s de p r i v i l e g e s . " Sammelbande der I n t e r n a t i o n a l e n M u s i k g e s e l l s c h a f t 8 ( 1 9 0 6 - 7) :401 -466 . B o l , Hans. La Basse de v i o l e du temps de Marin Marais et d'Antoine Forqueray. B i l t h o v e n : A. B. Creyghton, 1 9 7 3 . B o r r o f f , E d i t h . An I n t r o d u c t i o n to Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet  de l a Guerre. Brooklyn: I n s t i t u t e of Medieval Music, Boulay, Laurence. "La Musique instrumentale de Marin Marais." La Revue musicale, numero s p e c i a l 226 (1 9 5 5):61 - 7 5 . Bowers, Jane. "The French F l u t e School from 1700 to 1 7 6 0 . " Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a at Berkeley, 1 9 7 1 • 139 . "A Catalogue of French Works f o r the Transverse Fl u t e 1692-1761." Recherches sur l a musique f r a n c a i s e  c l a s s i q u e . "'Flauste t r a v e r s i e n n e ' and 'Flute d'Allemange•: The F l u t e i n France from the l a t e Middle Ages through 1702." Recherches sur l a musique f r a n c a i s e c l a s s i q u e  1 9 (1980,):7-50. Boyden, David. The H i s t o r y of V i o l i n P l a y i n g from i t s O r i g i n s  to 1761.London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1965. Brossard, Yolande de. "La Vie musicale en France d'apres Loret et ses continuateurs 1650-1688."' Recherches sur  l a musique f r a n c a i s e c l a s s i q u e 10 (1970): 117-93. Bukofzer, Manfred. Music i n the Baroque Era. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1947. Cametti, A. "Arcangelo C o r e l l i a, Saint-Louis-des-Francais a Rome." Revue musicale 3 (1922):25-28. C i t r o n , P i e r r e . "Notes sur l a Musique de chambre a. V e r s a i l l e s . " XVIie s i e c l e 34 (March 1 9 5 7 ) :26 - 3 2 . Cohen, A l b e r t . "The F a n t a i s i e f o r Instrumental Ensemble i n 1 7 t h-century France: I t s O r i g i n and S i g n i f i c a n c e . " M u s i c a l Quarterly 48 (1 962)-.234-43. Cowart, Georgia. The Origins of Modern Mu s i c a l C r i t i c i s m :  French and I t a l i a n Music 1600-1750. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1981. Devries, Anik. E d i t i o n et Commerce de l a musique gravee a,  P a r i s dans l a premiere moi t i e du X V I I I e s i e c l e . Geneva: Minkoff, 1976. Dufourcq, Norbert. " L u l l y , l'oeuvre, l a d i f f u s i o n , l ' h e r i t a g e . " XVIie s i e c l e -98 (1 973) :109-21 . E l l i s , Helen Meredith. "Inventory of the Dances of Jean-B a p t i s t e L u l l y . " Recherches sur l a musique f r a n c a i s e  c l a s s i q u e , 9 (1965):21-55. . "The Dances of J.-B. L u l l y " Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Stanford U n i v e r s i t y , 1967. i; • . "The Sources of Jean-Baptiste L u l l y ! s Secular Music." Recherches sur l a musique f r a n c a i s e c l a s s i q u e 8 (1968)-.89-95. E l l i s o n , Mary Beeson. "The Comparaison de l a musique i t a l i e n n e  et de l a musique f r a n c a i s e of Le Cerf de l a V i e ' v i l l e : 140 An Annotated T r a n s l a t i o n of the F i r s t Four Dialogues." Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Miami, 1 9 7 3 . Eppelsheim, Jurgen. Das Orchester i n den Werken Jean-Baptiste  L u l l y s . T utzing: Hans Schneider, 1961. F l e u r y , L o u i s . "The F l u t e and F l u t i s t s i n the French A r t of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries." M u s i c a l  Quarterly 9 (October 1923):51 5-37. Francois-Sappey, B r i g i t t e . Jean-Francois Dandrieu 1682-1758: Organiste du R o i . P a r i s : A.&;:J. P i c a r d , 1982. Garros, Madeleine. "Mme de Maintenon et l a musique." Revue  de musicologie, S e r i e s p e c i a l e no. 1 (January 1945): 8 - 1 7 . H i l t o n , Wendy. Dance of Court and Theater: The French Noble  S t y l e . E d i t e d by C. Gaynor. P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n Book Company, 1981. Hopkinson, C e c i l . A D i c t i o n a r y of P a r i s i a n Music P u b l i s h e r s  1700-1950. London: Author, 1954. Hyatt King, A. Four Hundred Years of Music P r i n t i n g . Second e d i t i o n . London: The Trustees of the B r i t i s h Museum, 1968. Isherwood, Robert. Music i n the Service of the King. Ithaca: C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1975. Jensen, N i e l s M a r t i n . "Solo Sonata, Duo Sonata and T r i o Sonata: Some Problems of Terminology and Genre i n 1 7 t h Century I t a l i a n Instrumental Music." In F e s t s c h r i f t  Jens Peter Larsen. E d i t e d by N. Schigirring. Copenhagen Wilhelm Hansen, 1982. . "The Performance of C o r e l l i ' s Chamber Music Re-considered." In Nuovissimi S t u d i C o r e l l i a n i : A t t i d e l  t e r z o Congresso I n t e r n a z i o n a l e Fusignano 4-7 settembre  1980. E d i t e d by Sergio Durante and P i e r l u i g i P e t r o b e l l F lorence: Leo S. O l s c h k i , 1982. J u s t , M a r t i n . "Le Cerf de l a V i e v i l l e : Comparaison de l a  musique i t a l i e n n e et de l a musique f r a n e o i s e . " In B e r i c h t uber den I n t e r n a t i o n a l e n M u s i k v i s s e n s c h a f t - l i c h e n Kongress, L e i p z i g 1966. Edited by C a r l Dahlhaus K a s s e l : B a r e n r e i t e r , 1970. l a Laurencie, L i o n e l de. "Un l£mule de L u l l y : P i e r r e G a u l t i e r de M a r s e i l l e . " Sammelbande der I n t e r n a t i o n a l e n Musik- g e s e l l s c h a f t 13 (1911-12):33-69. 141 . L'Ecole f r a n c a i s e du v i o l o n de L u l l y a V i o t t i . 3 v o l s . P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e Delagrave, 1 9 2 2 . . "Les Debuts de l a musique de chambre en Prance." Revue de musicologie 1 5 ( 1 9 3 4 ) : 2 5 - 3 4 , 86-96, 1 5 9 - 6 7 , 204-31 . l e Moel, M i c h e l . "Chez l ' i l l u s t r e C e r t a i n . " Recherches sur  l a musique f r a n c a i s e c l a s s i q u e 2 ( 1 9 6 2 ) : 7 1-80. . "Un Foyer d ' i t a l i a n i s m a l a f i n du X V I I e s i e c l e : N i c o l a s Mathieu, C u r l de Saint-Andre"-des-Arts . " Recherches sur l a musique f r a n c a i s e c l a s s i q u e 3 ( 1 9 6 3 ) : 4 3 - 4 8 . Leppert, Richard. Arcadie at Ve r s a i l l e s , 1 6 6 0 - 1 7 9 0 . Amsterdam: Swets & Z e i t l i n g e r , 1 9 7 8 . Lesure, F r a n c o i s . "Marin Marais: sa c a r r i e r e , sa f a m i l l e . " Revue beige de musicologie 7 ( 1 9 5 3 ) : 1 2 9 - 3 6 . . B i b l i o g r a p h i e des e d i t i o n s musicales publiees par Estienne Roger et Michel-Charles l e Cene, Amsterdam  (1696 - 1 7 4 3 ) . P a r i s ;.:-Heugel et Ci e . 1969. Libby, Dennis. " I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n C o r e l l i . " Journal of  the American M u s i c o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y 26 ( 1 9 7 3 ) : 2 6 3 - 8 7 . L i t t l e , Meredith E l l i s . "The C o n t r i b u t i o n of Dance Steps to Musical A n a l y s i s and Performance: La Bourgogne." Journal of the American M u s i c o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y 28 ( 1 9 7 5 ) : 1 1 2 - 2 4 . ."Dance under Louis XIV and XV." E a r l y Music 3 ( 1 9 7 5 ) : 3 3 1 - 4 0 . See a l s o E l l i s , Helen Meredith. McDowell, Bonney. "Marais and Forqueray: A H i s t o r i c a l and A n a l y t i c a l Study of t h e i r Music f o r Solo Basse de V i o l e . " Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 4 . M e l l e r s , W i l f r i d . Francois Couperin and the French C l a s s i c a l  T r a d i t i o n . London: Dennis Dobson, 1 9 5 0 . M i l l i o t , S y l v e t t e . "Reflexions et recherches sur l a v i o l e da gamba et l e v i o l o n c e l l e en France." Recherches sur  l a musique f r a n c a i s e c l a s s i q u e 4 ( 1 9 6 4 ) : 1 7 9-238. Morche, Gunther. " C o r e l l i und L u l l y : Uber den N a t i o n a l s t i l . " In Nuovi S t u d i C o r e l l i a n i : a t t i d e l secondo congresso  i n t e r n a z i o n a l e Fusignano 5 -8 settembre 1 9 7 4 . E d i t e d by G i u l i a G i a c h i n . Florence: Leo S. O l s c h k i , 1 9 7 8 . 142 Newman, W i l l i a m S. The Sonata i n the Baroque E r a . 4 t h ed. Chapel H i l l : U n i v e r s i t y of North C a r o l i n a Press, 1983. P i n c h e r l e , Marc, " l a Technique du v i o l o n chez l e s premiers s o n a t i s t e s f r a n c a i s ( 1 6 9 5 - 1 7 2 3 ) . " B u l l e t i n Francais  de l a Societe I n t e r n a t i o n a l e de Musique 7 (August 1911 ) : 1 - 3 2 . (October 1 9 1 1 ) : 1 9 - 3 5 ; r e p r i n t ed., Geneva: Minkoff, 1 9 7 4 . . C o r e l l i : His L i f e , His Work. Translated by Hubert Rus;.sel. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1 9 5 6 . . "Francois Couperin et l a c o n c i l i a t i o n des 'gouts' f r a n c a i s et i t a l i e n . " Chigiana 25 ( 1 9 6 8 ) : 6 9-80. . " C o r e l l i et l a France." In S t u d i C o r e l l i a n i : a t t i d e l primo congresso i n t e r n a z i o n a l e Fusignano 5 - 8  settembre 1968. Florence: Leo S. O l s c h k i , 1 9 7 2 . Pond, C e l i a . "Ornamental S t y l e and the V i r t u o s o : Solo Bass V i o l Music i n France c.1680-1740." E a r l y Music 6 ( 1 9 7 8 ) : 5 1 2-18. P r i c e , Charles Gower. "The C o d i f i c a t i o n and Perseverance of a French N a t i o n a l S t y l e of Instrumental Composition between 1687 and 1 7 3 3 : M o n t e c l a i r ' s Serenade ou Con- c e r t ( 1 6 9 7 ) . " Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Stanford U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 3 . P r u n i e r e s , Henry. "Le Cerf de l a V i e v i l l e et 1 ' e s t h e t i q u e musicale c l a s s i q u e au X V I I I e s i e c l e . " B u l l e t i n f r a n - c a i s de l a Societe I n t e r n a t i o n a l e de Musique 4 (1908): 6 1 9 - 5 4 . Sadie, J u l i e Anne. "Bowed Continuo Instruments i n French Baroque Chamber Music." Proceedings of the Royal Music  A s s o c i a t i o n 1 0 5 ( 1 9 7 8 - 7 9 ) : 3 7 - 4 9 . . "Charpentier and the E a r l y French Ensemble Sonata." E a r l y Music 7 ( 1 9 7 9 ) : 3 3 0 - 3 5 . See a l s o V e r t r e e s , J u l i e Anne. Schenk, E r i c h . "Beobachtungen uber die modenische Instrumental-musikschule des 1 7 . Jahrhunderts." Studien zur Musik- wissenschaft 26 ( 1 9 6 4 ) : 2 5 - 4 6 . Semmens, Richard. "Woodwind Treatment i n thw E a r l y B a l l e t s of Jean-Baptiste L u l l y . " M. Mus. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 7 5 . S t i l l i n g s , Frank S t u a r t . "Arcangelo C o r e l l i . " Ph.D. d i s s e r -t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan, 1956. U 3 Strunk, O l i v e r . Source Readings i n Music H i s t o r y . New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1950. Thompson, Clyde H. "The Music of Marin Marais." Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan, 1957. . "Instrumental S t y l e i n Marin Marais's Pieces de v i o l e s . " Recherches sur l a musique f r a n c a i s e c l a s s i q u e 3 (l963):73-89. T i e r s o t , J u l i e n . "Les Nations, Sonates en t r i o de Francois Couperin." Revue de musicologie new s e r i e s (2;. June 1922):50-58. V e r t r e e s , J u l i e Anne. "The Bass V i o l i n French Baroque Chamber Music." Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1978. V i o l l i e r , Renee. " l a Musique a l a cour de l a Duchesse du Maine." Revue musicale (1939):96-105, 133-38. Wintle, Christopher. " C o r e l l i ' s Tonal Models: The T r i o Sonata Op. I l l , no. 1." In Nuovissimi S t u d i C o r e l l i a n i : a t t i d e l t e r z o congresso i n t e r n a z i o n a l e Fusignano  4-7 settembre 1980. E d i t e d by Sergio Durante and P i e r -l u i g i P e t r o b e l l i . Florence: Leo S. O l s c h k i , 1982. APPENDIX AN ANTHOLOGY OF FRENCH TRIOS FOR TWO DESSUS AND BASS 1686-1706 U 4 H 5 Suonata 1 a a 2 vv e v i o l e d i gamba o b l i g a t a .con .organo k Lorqo M . •< ^ *-f—f-f—i i* r f' V—hf -f K f ff • 0- JTTIi i ) - f — * f ^,_L _1_ JL._ K [ j'J J] j -X.-- l \ \ ' • i r _ ^ — ^ . ]J i 1 M ) r f *r-— # -^—J— - #. r f f—1 f c l f — 6mrtf f ? it f I'TfQl If M 1 1 + —— i f'-f *'• J 9 tf 1 _ p f— L= 1 i- •; V ..0 —„ _„ £ f t -M m= 'j 1 4—! f-l—! , 1 J i l l j t • & r J \LX irfrf" V •+• , . T # i — j — 1 ifTf ffi N= j f ff r 1 feM •-1" -&—j. •* ^ 11 J 1 «u—U—1— i — I iVr — o J ? if l i v 1 — * — (, (# H tr~ -> V — - — — « — — — 1 — " s — \ — ^ — i -4—r-I )• ,~ —1 ^ 1 -^f > — — ^ — — J — * — J b — A -ft * \ * # / e 1 J " ' * 1 • , — £ _ J t / : — i — 1 ' ' 1 1 " 1 19-146 Fu^o Allegro |K - | —#J?—f + i / * i 0 "p •*-ff~f" • f + \)\ -fe. 1 ^ 1 L — L 1— \*\ r '-'-fr-f 1 * P T — 3 T ~ ,—«— _ Jr. T^T =^ —^, L. 3 — f  — p — 4 1 4—*-— ffff= —i J L I' 1 "« h ^ " - - f f i - -J j ] — y J— J-4— • 1  i . / P" 7 1 "* 1 ^ l i i l (TfT ^ mi • w — rt~tfM i * * —tn—^ / [ 7P <-t— ,ttr. . M , — i ty* j 1 * —H—H f # y 'tiif =te== L i _ to ro to f f r =3= + + - f c - ^ — : f l i -Tn rrh •+ , f u » M —#•*— t-=Lf- — 1 1—!—!—1 f — t— 1— —y 1 -* f— — 1 — ft* : f ^ 2- Bj» 1 I,. .... 147 -t- l'.»qzz: r r rfrr . ..  Tfr-fi if 1 . J = =|=?=== — f — :__[_4__1—1 1 1 !_1 1 — 1 — — — * i \ 7 e " *~? 7~*F" r - CfffT 1 — t ^ - f „ — =-,11" ' ' 7 y •> >• L _ - * — ( — -—LL^—1— CO / *t f '(V • ^,_y=y 1 u -fa r-f 2* r rfff r f j r J j i) — i i . Tfff f : f f f f f M •\* f r 0— V- ( flVf 1 i . r f * ZJ J i -r—\ — i — fftfr'f 1 ffffff •4-i+J ' rr f f Iti" • 9 UU-U t ' - H — 3-4-== 1 |; I :- - — £ ,i L-U [J v — J J i ' 1 ; U=_J ' M l r f c ^ ^ f ^  ^—* A- < r W ^ z> J 1 f 1 -If LLL-P to .1 Li__L,, ft'* 1. 1 4 8 r f f f f •fV-* -rf$f =—| •Hh*—F f-i*-^-r V * T rf~ fa* f> frtfr,,n 1 sS r f rr tQTr (r-^ r- — U J — f * ' —* \JJ m i l |JP " 1 J f~+0 f f T ffrrr — * 4 1 1 If . ffrf iMrf J-Ur— - * — & — —y& & r i i t J 5, s «h if r i t * M * - L L U -i& — P 3= = : - t : 1 U l i cr H — 4 -=f= d - \ — 1 — NfflrT V—< < 6*-I I 1 <S> — J ffrfff/ -/—^  &-I f a-f— -jtS C9 irrrffr J — , ^ f T T T f # # r f J 0 P> rr r I, -J_LI—=_l_=_ i r ' r uUJ==j y-r £ 11U f 11 -1 V f 1 m -t—i £— c 1 6 — i — i — * — fc r r i — i — i — * [c] C O p o C O 149 f t * - T n r r r n r j n | 7 D 1 i n n U M I ^ j f> i'* *lP.~ U 1* . * * 0-t> a. -i^=f- rT — r r r n n n J t 1 v J 1 i i i J i, : — * = •-m-.—t—| «— i * '— ? 1 r -•«—j-*— i" c _ v ' \ ^ , fe- i ; J « • — U g 11 l l f t ^ 1 50 x r f i f f f * + \ f r if 1 i<-£-vJ -Ac \ , — f — ^ < — - 4 r 4 i i i :T . -1 r J (, j m n i> (- 1 1 ' M r ^ f M t f s> -T5> / C. —1—L = 1 f [ i 1 1/ ^ 1 - * \ * r / f ' / r r j t — ^ — 1 g> II h W - L — u - ^ - 7 7 J M 3 . 3 - _ = ^ — -^ 4r-=d y-f — * f *r * \ -—£f-p 1 c c O 1 1 F 4 L r * u ft I ) " ^ -G> |^_J g_ JfhT i T — * — i -> -*— —f \\** • J— 4 ¥= > ; 7^  9 f¥~rnt •f1—r* + • r --ft**,? T» *T r J -f. ^ 1 • J •/ T~* - y — 4 1-* t = 1*—n f~T~ ^ * -f--3 r i * — * — w 1 r • r - ^ - S 7TP * u f— 4— ' - i - i — f • ^ * > — — * > * ^ ^ f— ( { * -f—f-— H ' f [' — r — i — -f - f - *— •=X-z r * * z # IM —#— / ^ * .... I' I r — ' U J J L i - J , - = t = i 153 ¥f f --f r * 5 f f f || # -p = 0 K— r — — — * — 1 fc 1—r- ~ -LJ—i -» 1 a i -p * -h—I-u f - — y ?— _ 1 £ # e '• "" " r 0 . f f J J 1 = T \w4 if] > . I t. \i L fat •f- •f- _ * ^ ~f *~T / l» f 1 A —0-f> <•— 0 Mr r T T ~ 1 » —*— 4 = U — iff f f -f *— * . [» f L 1 ff-'I ' v f n i • -*— 1 -» i J H ' 1 ' 7~ ~t— ± , — * > — > » i r-0 -J— rr f , J T • -^* ; r -V—• -> • / — I 0 * t W T - ' f * # "r i ^ _ Frr —0--0-6 — L 0 -X—-* 4 f f f -<M 0 f-r i -0— P i , J — 1 — * —*— -/ f —0 * — f / -0-—— T — — r rf-1  4f 1 r 1 •=U— 17 1 155 " i •' O -T-& 1 P — O • ft * r r f Hi - 1 J 1 «#& & o— -#9 0 — ft ^ * -|9 fik— "•— • « " — -3 = - — =f=H= •V—* • n • •• —& 6 • i 9 1 ? -*-1rv— -\ ' a l | — 1 f i * - ^ 1 - a — -0—6—6— \-6 1 I 1 a. <c, u H # g > • f ^ * "J * * \ . 4 = = ^ 4=- r gM-f-J '-rf--f-—^ 1 = b = L 1 s~ 4—^ ffaH" — to 1 . 1 b l>fl 1 i W— -4—1 U t ? — • J — L U -"1—l~h -& 6> I 4 t j r J H - 6 « «5 v a / — - W o * / ^ - t S ^ 1 1 56 ft* J J. I [ ^ 1° J a -e-i J - i |>* 11 i f f M 2 ' 1— A If 1 r •4i*4 i f v ^ 444-' 3 - 0 — -& £ > — i> (? 1 • — i -¥=\ -u HB-zr-. i 1 M i i" p -\ —; • (J • --6^--! & f J i r = L - <> i r-p J—&— (r-\ VVr-u ( W\ \f a> " r 1-4 fr-l u ^ 7 * 7 , p -& j© —u ^—• 1 -1 -& &—f —\ \—4 : 4 T"f" r f " -fJl j 1 — \ 1 ' . <g ' -t r=4 <•-/-j - ^ i t\'*(~\tf '11 1 1 ifgrrfrr 1 _ - I :^ _LJ_^—Lu • f fa» ; fa >^ 0 FrT i — t i t - T -K ' f ' t f 1 .L&A.M1L-4 : & 4 - H — 1 J ff f rf * * —l-' I ' M ' .m~ ** * - #-i r / f$frf=] ?, - — U — L L J p 11^ 1 U U l l l 1 ' 1 1 M l = t = t P f — r r * ? P 0 0 f * f L-LJ-JLJJ. 4 0* 1 j j * > > * ,# * - J - l — L -*-f"pff iff f J Ifn l 11 it _.v -ffi tff 4 f ^ > - i — T e r 1JJJ i .JL ' f f f T-rt-f ~ \ V 1 •f— it--4*-4-WW M i l l — W r f I t \ -f— * * / ^ —L+t^. 4 -t-t—i- 1 1 * 4 * * 4 — - 1 4 4 4-f * M 4 -4—0—M^-4 4 4 0* * 1 1 1 1 un , , , , J j i I.L1 1 M 1 1 • j II 111 4 A * | T' < l •1 J JJJJ ' ; -,., in i 1 ' ' ' i i i ' ' ' 4 * 4' — 7 y- 1 I 1 1 \~ * *• * / # * / / * 4 J 1 1 58 - f f *f V" *~ f f f 7— J Hf #J fit*** f i fr4-J 1 4 I—-1 1 4--3—# — — =t=J —^— — •t^ # -3—^ =1= =±=? — -A—J V —^  flja ij 4= J , . r _ — (b I t—fe-H IfjjJ I 4-=-- 4 -4+ — -A + —#-*" j t *• * -i T—x—h~~ j —© — 0 * ' tfrf r # ^ . . — - h -£ h V —& *' * -=F=H -4- ™ ± •k\x t ' ' "7—f-ci*r < ft * ' **** ' | -• 4-*-M » ' — •7^- •4-1 59 Pieces en T r i o pour l e s v i o l o n s , f l u s t e s et hautbois Suite IV Pr«lu<Je De l a Barre m E E —*• 4--f-0. m 3 — g — ^ F r f F 6 ( • > — — 7—h 1*7" TTT f f' f ~F~ 4-f*ff * t*r\ 4-— — —» f « w fed / - I K 1 . M t » - U — J i , , j. h1" c t a-- 11 11 I f 1 1 1 J ! j [ ' * 7. +-I j f) • w** ' ' ' ' U 4-L#'frf-' ? t ' _ 6 5 * * 6 160 162 i R - trfn 4- + f-—+-A * * 4- 4- . l> L * * f : ^ i J -* \ r M - f * f f H f fl -'(ft' f y - ^ L ^ i — i i K " ' 1 1 r r f i — 4-~ " * ~ f P" t * * *' Jt h j -•' '11 •Hf-f-MJ-, I I I f , f - u f r •LIJ J T\ ^irf--— ^ # i r f -r r n r r mf JL-....0 . ,—f—1—i i H - r r J 1 u f . . -p.: / r T f f i f 1 — 4 f f f J—n • ( • ( ^ - f — i — -I K J , -3 4-f ff T U — + , f r r r - f n -f f it i = H u — - 1 — P - f 1 f fflVf 1 *-f-— * — c ^ a. — ^ u = u - ^ k r f f Af- — & f \ r u 163 I IN . r r r + + f — f — #1 *—4 » — P +• (s -^ 1— 4 t - i — f r ^ — f ~ : — t — ~S i* '- 4 i . o ^ J i I I — 0 h ^ W f — I — f f t * s  * =1= - i — f" T -J 1—, i + #= if f' f i V 1 !• = ^ = £ i j •i i'1 + 'Mr* =#=^ ~ * 7 — ' — * : : 1 : r r r t r ^ f r f • r r, - - f - — — j—i—f— — ex " ^ T 7 T N = * = , (vrf 1 1x ) i > --A * ,«>—(*-\\ \\ 't*~'—TJTi f f : —f-i vJ : f ^ —1 f— •r— *-=¥ 1 li :==fcJ= f * f Pf=f 1 iTtyf f f i f - 5^ f— 3 <—f -1— 1-U—• «=3 t-f-t  ^ 1 1 1 — 1 J —V-f *f f-Tr— ±=1=* •f—r-.—f-4 14 ~~f^— * = = t = p ~f .. ft 1 — 0 — • / - ^ 1 ! ;--J—1 4 — S * s f — 164 -)%cA-—— f—f— —f r * # f + r-i© 1 -\\A • _ j . _ 1 1 _ J I 1 • r f—r. """T 7* =— £r^t= * * * n f - « = - j • ^ •  • 1 f C rr • f f ^ If f f- f ° a ~P f 9 f i r •7 1 r >{* r 1 L-J ? £ -t-, 1 > ir^-k M _ -:>% \ f * f 4-M—*• i + B . **-L f c r T r • r f r r k > i \ d n*.T r ±*=-r — —i—p-7 ^ ^ f &f>.—-I ^ - ? — ' • f 'l 1 1>' , . J ' fi + V. re ? — ? - r r E # f T' 1 f _t4 i f ff • T 9 1—1?-• - p — i — _|J L r 5 +• } 1 y f -—V— J -" f TJ W £-1 f f + h r _ r r -1—1-4-1 P 'T—f 1 i t ' " f — P / J - £ • 4 — - <±- r u 4-*; H f f - r u i ^ 3 4V 6 > ? 165 v9— f—r -r p --r ^—p— k t f r l 1 f H 4 ^ : £ = ± : f 4 <> 4-[9—«^ —f-V g r *f - e—»—*—r— M=f= ^ . jt2 - M M — U -f—r— 1 1 1 J P ^ -&—» X ^ — f c r " J J 1 1 + 0 • 0 ^=*= + ^ — 1 1 1 — 1 ~f—f— tr^—f \\ \ f #J <2 #j D W • p r ff*fL P 17 ^ i r v\ X -ft \ \> U 1 1 Tf. — > i j i i. f iff Y t r *f\ 4. 1 p #75 s>—p— p -& \—w—t 4—*->-J » =M=== * r f / > x J -4—#f r f- f f -- f—M*-6 T 1— •MM—J- 1 f 1 4 1—+-15] 166 -f p + if ff f~ If [• f Ll p r r r 3 1 \)f f (, 1 1 ^fef—p— i i r~ 1 ir f r Ci i « 1 7 s — r * r if it rfi »• # * tf + f - » -+ : 1 \ t 1 1 Pi u u 1 v% r f f f p f tf' t±=t= •/ r f *f -r—^i-tap .—1—k- i —• V 6 ^ — ^ f i r r * * r i 1 b + ?— -f— r £ T — ^ M — i — i — i — c 4 I Y-4—L .—1 ^ X if ff^Tfi —L= J f f f f/ 4—1—4 i - \—V + — — k . y : % v — • ~& \ tir g — "f 19  0 167 * r i 4-f—to ti * 9* mm 1 f i 4 S 6 3 ¥ X f==f -f- f f |* I r f t f=r#=f r * 1 j k, -4 i 4-~—rf— \ H c l f i i 4- P ^ fr?—;— - » — •# • r' r t — f f i f J f — ! — i H f l#f 1 Uf f —t*—1~ + • if /• n — r ^ r r •* * ^ L y l U J \\%r t* 4-f rr f~ Fir, T — — T 4-- 0 0' * i in ¥ 1 0 wtfc—r— . i-T H ^ • f -/—4£ : 1 T U J 1 *— 1 x 168 i f r , f pi -f-4 l"' t n f 1. t 1 1 1 ^— f j ^ f - 1 1-d 1 •0— , i 0— 1— i — i — i — J f ] i i 1 i 1 1 — • V l i r - i h . . . . it==y - — — * -<, • X Ff*T i 0 ; X f—0— - f f • a i f » T i -< »• * -* i —*~t 4-T-—rt— 1 H + 1—#— — y — 1 — i — f f f f j L > — _ <-J J ' •Wkt *— F=H= i f c 0 -0-1 7—2 1 1 4= - / - ^ — * -1 m -i ~f •TM ? ff + to -0—0 1 h =I=N + j . — * - 0-^ 1 •f 1 ffi m U + ¥ — T i i + ft* i ^ - H ^ 0 1 [V- 1—1 •* 1 J — I — i — l ##= —H-m -1 r (_ _4_1 6 rr r en* + » 0 f— k •0- • I 4 y = J = j t\r i — i -V {'%,'• (I I V * - f f ' i f f j t .. 3—f f - f — f ti-i o . c H i o U 1»— 1 J < f f p=N=4 • T D-C. =ffir ^ — 1 — J - J u. 6 E — f = h = 6 «+* 6 -U04-169 Fantaisie . \K ,tffff :i=±z'-'—.Cf= f.ftf r i f > x i ^ — 4 4i J — t f r ff 1 - 1 — p . - ffffTT f r^ ^•t . - f =l=f 4 4 -y « jt m »j# • / ' r -r-*—r-—j1 S t 3 Sf't\ K r f f ... i — r T #. ' 1 1 ; - U - 111 -1—1 L l 1 1 ll I ^ Ilu -3 - i — J > | J V - ^ H 5 6 • s f ff i — i * n - J -r f ~ i - f c l ' f r* _ j — 1 _ (, -r irtfrtrri ' d -$k—o « —^  f=-3= = t = i . * * #*• — i — •=»—bl 1 — p f f f f f f « # 1 ——** • —f— — u \ \ \ \ m : : ± • i " 1 -4-(, 7 % + . . . f 1 i-i ma J—fc=j— L r^ ti f ( U P "J* f+ K 6 : f Q I ^ 1 X \ f 1 x * 5K 170 - - _ j-J ^ — - r - r - • / J * r A i -kJ— i n j n - f - f - f -L CLLf ->% - J f f ' T—rr 1 Sx 1 <T •4-/~f~7~~A £ ff rfrf L fP •tr* j <—i—1 l*w - rfi f ~ n + tr t * s > -J M U +, + i rr !#— u rf : > I L J - I 1 a T*-— — t a*? + A- •"ft-! rrrr t,? trr Ti 6 ? € -Niri— t=ty=i ? — v — r ' / i_i r Tf-'-fT1— i—i i f f f f r f , IS -—: — ^ _ T F T D 1 m r / r *— -t_LJ— / ft ' M f— 6* ff + ff -r <0 i — *r9 = • 7 ? . \fft f © l4.,_fi' ^ryrj 'Jl r rr >• r -1* : \ * * _! - & te= '{('{(( 1 = ^ — * * 4 = -f ffff , • P i . £ — — J 1 L 1 — —tr i h , r f f r 1 -—>,"T ~ T ~ f — * — 1 " f f— $=$=\ r — F — ~P f If r * i T—— r t f s \ U 1 r ^ = / f - 1 ' 1 U j i v i s * J 6 173 i K n r i * i—*t f—*—r • i f? § f~> r 1 !_l \\\Cf • a . • U 1 1 . v * r—*—--i—l—1— f 1 1 i^-A ' >A J J J f U1 i ir i J i r -p * 4—' ** — \ff f / %' * s— - % 4* 1 I T " * — 1 * 1 * — ' — if [ 1 r ?• . i r f ^ : b ^ - f — — ^ J K J J — ' ff f " 4—•—1 L f * h ^ n - — r ~ fH"-*—*— D M i 1 r f r f— i 1 f M -r ^ ~ i tf tgfftCfl ffffffffrrrr ff fff ff f ff L 1—1 = •UH • -^-r—1 >4 1 j fH-'-'-'-frf-f f f -V-oj —1 >f f . / 4M 1—-— IU-U U4tl 1 1 r • 44=-UJ 174 i rftt (Tr fer ?>.*ttt I /I*/,.,/ HiJ. rr IT rtr f P S m i —* A u t a + -4-m n f fj fjrfrrn;ju ->— mm * - M * { + \ * f f * fggr s 6 . ? * T 4 " + + +—M 0- g i 1 *• 4 9 -f-* r rpf >- "7—^~ — r * 1 175 Sonates a I I et a I I I p a r t i e s k . I G o i . Sonate 3 - r — V — f — H ^ f' f | Rebel 4-f t f | J y J v * 1 ^ 1 1 * T—f — 4 = J -57 F P-i— f i H h : , L l f f . f J * ^ ^ (# . j — * -SU i ; r f f i / 1> - ^ ^ — U -1UL r r f i 1 J — 4- v 3 9 f ' ys> L "7? •f * ? M- X 1 h^~7 F 1 ' 1^ i j 1 1 -iU "I— j " f ^ u 1 ^ \ " ^ U f- f f 1 f f ~ t = ± — a-/ 4 J ife f r -ll H 1 |> > f - U - T -.s-r-f> j# } •f ; " f — 7 — ^ ~ r 1 ' 1 1 f * £ £ 1 — \ > f — f ~ f • — — — —+— > > f ^ i 1 J fer-i r 4-0 S 1— ' 1 ' -1 £ -* I c 1 177 178 179 180 r l | | 1 i I | ' j P '* .If ' i f i IWx i n l ' I f i — ; — h ' ( ; > * -* p- # . f 4^ r-(V. 1 ' ^ J - J . ,fff JT7I .,, rd —V-• f— CillflLi fjli j J rill ; ; »1 r '^ <v ^  -<9 •n / t > i 1 — ^ J , - | rr J f - T • h l i n ^ n h f J 1 j 1 i 1 , fft) 6 4 *4 u f rrrj * s :  4ftJt K r.fljf i / * R J L j — 4%*U - A M X V •zr <* x * 7 "f^ f~~ -2 J X T - j L - 7 7 — ? i if M + 4-^ u • • r — -0—! L 9 71 1 1 - J — 1 — " ~ — J — -+f • j —d— 4tt= \ i 1 U j i i f " J » -ar 1JJ1J —77 * ~ r' u — / P !?' * * « ~ 6 T 6 i r 1 6 6 -t H 1 4 181 182 I V J I M I d V 0 •-4-= 1 = 1 1 =t=t= i i - j * * — * -— j -#^ "rViL 6* r r — J — / 1 9 . 4 0 I ff- J MM r ^ — ± .-pj. j— _j 1_ -A U 6x i * -&—* -f j * — I /). 0 rr— i i 1 >— /— ~P~' * ^H-M— U j i n i r rrp if rrn p==H - = t L i J — v *^r>-l 1 -0— —M— —f — i — * * * * -e^ *— ?' f f W 1 — < ~D ff f I 6 to *=*=\ 1 x — t \--u III 1 J i M 1— \ f JS. J 4 - 4 — — L -4-4-— t — i -J^ J — * r 4 + — ' — -a- r r" 1 M f —f— *» * J. - -h—h ^— '\ u \ 1 ^ = H r J x 1 (> * 183 * o 1 - JLJUA! J • — + -5* — f — ^ 0 - -, K — ^ 9 = -=-tffn i m iTp j / t> * ' "»>—1  •J—rJ 1 ' ^ J JJJJ I > JTT1 • • 1 / b 4-f J i J 1 i 1 • ••• - f f l 1 . — T: 0 •y-r r T = = 1  i r i j j j iJE-J ^ - r - r ^ ^ —f—r»-zJ =- •= ' •f sL *— i f f i * f — * V—? y / r # / J1 U 1 1 - : [ ' fjQf I 1 1 1 1 1 j i. j IV—* HLU I I hi -d-: *i L 6 th j ^ — 9 i T" X f- r-^S f — i J n •*J j fl rfU 1 f f J - * 4 -—h-" j f f f A?* " ' 4 ' ;:LU j J . — i i J • j \ -i — ^ — - f ^ — ircfcinciif — r - f " f ~ 1/ H ' 1— -tU *— 6 ^ — * — < —W-i- \— -5-X 184 ... r i -f2 v f IC r ~ C'"— J - 11 fl 1 i 1 fe j j j l r r M l -t 1— — J -r f — J—«— f J- J frf rrn 1 lUllll rf—f~i •i-L4L=-^ — p — \ ' flfl 1 J / t ) 1 1 — f5 *—'—i 6 P — r r f) • i f 4--rf. ••• • • -+ > * - ^ — J J [ 1 1 If 1 J [ f t f i 1 > f j E + =4= [61 "4 a!= U.—*—; Q, «f \—ff & 3 l^ P f 1 f £ -[ft^P \. J l j * - -- t 1 ' 1 ., t * s f 1 , r 4 = ~ T ~ f ~ --fe-^ f ft j J i r r \ •j • 4 2 — L > / V $ — ' — A* — 1 6 4 K (0 p—V • j H r . f—1 1 i i M n — i — r — i r 1 jfw ) " 1 — * ~ — t * s-^— 'ftj • 1 j 1 • A 1-7 6x 6— 3 ? 'i 7 6X 1 -f£ /9— • — £ 3X t f J J iJ 1 1 1 1 1 J —f>— P i # 4 J i — J J r 7T > L !> 4 = (S X -6>— ? 7* -<Z J f> fx *> 6 t>x - p — — = — P £ p — = — r T f T f 4f W I I l ^ H r r ^ , 0 #P ' ~ 1 j i i 1 h p f~ 6. b > 1 t X J — F F 6 X =4=F i J J J A M J. J] I 1 M T£> =M= J ) J ^ 1 / b <>• J 77-6 x S cL 6 S ' u 1 1 ^ T -6> 188 rh*> 1 r- * 4> r .. f 0 W J — 4 — if*.-kr—. f r J—1—1 t 0 9 0 , W '):.LfTTT== '-Tf--\ * f 1/ I? FF X *y-t— "r"—r * #  f—r r » s.—T * f — f — L - . . ' 1 1— 0 " O ' - I I J V -— T — # -4— i 1 — T V T — r n * 1 / b ' f U 5-1 -frf~! 3 P -±— V I T i>— • f — * — ' T ~ f — * — -=M~ J K XLI [ —^ H i — * -J 1 n-.x 1 } 2^ S v—4 i 0 •& f £— * 7 3 V--6? J L , .,. _....... / \> J — £ - fe—I ^ S — -f> fffT f—1 "T— 1— 1 i l l ffrfff 1 6 -*= #= A —1 — 3 = ^ Ml fe-- 1 T — f — -& 0> 190 fe * t * DcK«X 4 = r - 4 — f ?—~f ^ r r r = t=4=t —^ * r — — -f £ -> f A 1 L fe* ^ t f* £— <3 • -f f ^ i f 4 1—7 * - _ _ j i ^_ •Sr $— ir— fe fe4 = f e £ V ~ mrf J 1 j i—I ff— *fff{ f— £_ V — f^ -** * H^T-FO 7 i t - l 1— r i i M= J ^ _ n f~ +-} \ 7 C 4.L rrfpr i i - i 1-— =^#^  — i — V f f f ... g— -f r-J Foff f f "f / 1 1 .1 1 I 1 If | -=M— I r ' 4— f r •J For* - U - J i , 9 A—^_ • f — * ~ / \> d * 1 s 4--73 V -^ i if f f f r h f 'ff. ( < 1 i j f 4— —i—*—#— t * * ?—;—£_ 1—# 4* • 'J ' I * * * * A i-s—i—i 'Jl 1 1 1 191 ' U , f f i r f - f^n r f f 1 - L i _ 1 ,# r — t f * * * = = = i — y — f*=t= L*—j— I1  _ J — ' U-Lf / V I ml I -'•iTf-^ — * * * i J i * J—J * - # — * + * + S p—4 f f f * * — — 4 LLLLLT j 1 1 >^ * i f9  -4 —' o-. - • m i x / •f 7 — — ll 1 5 6 T * r : f 1 o f=F= 1 1 -4* f J€_ J * * -u r p r =fc= j • r / t> " :  6 1 i J — 1 1 — ; 192 R e c u e i l de t r i o nouveaux gour l e v i o l o n * hautbois* f l u t e T r i o Sommeil •4--T^r 1 f-f f fJff—-z Toinon ~ T T f — * — 4—| !—f ' r 7 r r J \ i : L -f 7r i f 1 / |> ^  ' M f ^  f . , + r t J—»- s l, s f t' f.— (<> r*—J—' -h v. —1— =4= + : 7| 1 f " r f f r f r - t i ^ — 1 1 | 1 j j ! j j 1 " L j j j '——! —# #1= Mtt A .i —^  7 —| if i '1 r i»— t r l — -* £-2-— - \ ^ 4 — h =t=t=j —i—I— =1=1= i-J— =F=F =H= -& ••— ^ \ J i l l = 3 = ± = —£ S. 1 ? 193 ~^~7 M N -7 I* i.rtf's/.f* +—> _ Z J L=LLj ^ ^ f r 2 ^ — : J m r J r J _ t J 1 1 — i * p / # J — 4-^ 00 ^ =t== \ ' ' v< 1 ( I V J '1 9 1 - L > * / - H = ^ - ? V v's * 9 J + 'H\,[\. h) J ^ / Pf •* ~r7~P cr-ir—-J 7 J' 1 . 1' t , - 1 ] rr i -AV^ ^ fo- * f A J • •4 -1—0— '~tr f ; M - ^ <i J if i fTtfTf! • C J M 1— 1 k\ \ . \> "1 <-]*'--g— t i f f T f * 1-4 = _ — — - — I'll - b 1 v - 4 — h — + J ~f— •0-=4= A_£—^ — ITTTT 9 # ^ * = ± = T\ V~. t - — 7> — *~ 4 4 -- J — J ^ z Pr / - M A-*— £z — 1 7 > rS 4 ^ , ' 1 9 5 Sbk 0 • 0 < 0 U+ J i V f » ^ -— ffi —* 2 1 imp to * 4 i—&-196 Pieces en t r i o pour l e s v i o l o n s , f l u t e s ou hautbois 3&4 Trouver sur l ' h e r b e t t e + Michel Lambert :  | 1 , | i n i l •+ a s - f (co p t l fc——-M*- - J *- 1 ~7—P—f ^ ' ' f i 4^ M ^ J 1 J> -em t f r r r 4 = 4 = W W - ° 0 \> /V 0 \ t 5 • i. : t s ^4— "T" r ~ f ===[ r p J j > f £ J — 1 J £ -I 2 1 0 f w f _ £ H -U-^r: I.' \ — Is » 2 ( 4-~f u r i Its 0 * ^ — : T r i — ^ - 4 4 1 1 Y j J J> R 1 h i . M l • P ' - tj 0 if i - f ^ f - — i f—* ' J f / ? gi-5 6 >^ •J 4- \>(o i c t 5 2 197 5 ^  • -^ jflf 11 h —i »• ^ -p— #^ / 4 -f 1 :— —T~f~* *~ < J j. =t== 1-j .f b 4^=4# - p — 1 - » — - t r •A 4 = 4 = ^ J "I 3-l> *• 1 ^ J . * * i i. i 1 6 b 3 1 # PP 198 •+ ** *> i 7* 0 i 1,7 t Iv *—r^-* » — * — if f r i 1* 1 W 1 • N =t=±= - *—1~—r»-u — — f ' f p= r-4 f ^ r J n*-^—f" s H* =§= 1 r fr f f i 1 H r •* 4= — K I 1 1.4U V f f f f - J - l — U -r -4 (_! = 4 = 4== 1 ->j ^ ' T U 7 6 ,* tf. *— 1 , 6 3 U-1 I + . . . n r i i * 5 f~~f—f— 4— ' \r ff [ L ^ U Ttftff u r J V ' Tf f ' f r ' - a ^ "T—f ff <T " , f f 1 X 1 J — ^ j j j — u i 4 u ^ 4 Vth 5 6 199 rr--—r-f— »—* r r *• r—?— r^r* -—i*— —^  —*— ULJ Lf L' Lf L f u r f ^ i i 1 — 4 4 _/_^L 6 — ^ — - * = Z ' 5 # r 1 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0097141/manifest

Comment

Related Items