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Cultural ideology and the lanscape of Confucian China : the traditional si he yuan Samuels, Carmencita Marioano 1986

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CULTURAL IDEOLOGY AND THE LANSCAPE OF CONFUCIAN CHINA THE TRADITIONAL SI HE YUAN By CARMENCITA MARIANO SAMUELS A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( D e p a r t m e n t of G e o g r a p h y ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J a n u a r y 1986 (?) C a r m e n c i t a M a r i a n o S a m u e l s , 198G In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e at t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e l i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e head of my depar tment or by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . C a r m e n c i t a M a r i a n o Samuels Department of Geography The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 195G Main M a l l V a n c o u v e r , Canada VGT 1Y3 D a t e : F e b r u a r y . 198G ABSTRACT The c u l t u r a l g e o g r a p h y and a r c h i t e c t u r a l h i s t o r y of C h i n a has l o n g been a s u b j e c t of s e p a r a t e and d i s t i n q u i s h e d i n t e r e s t and r e s e a r c h , t h e one f o c u s i n g p r i m a r i l y on t h e v e r n a c u l a r l a n d s c a p e s of p e a s a n t s and f o l k s o c i e t i e s , and t h e o t h e r f o c u s i n g p r e d o m i n a n t l y on t h e g r a n d a r c h i t e c t u r a l monuments of emp i re and r e l i g i o u s o r d e r s . Seldom has t h e impetus f o r b o t h i n t e r e s t s been combined s o t h a t t h e c u l t u r a l l i f e of t h e p e o p l e , r i c h and p o o r , p o w e r f u l and p o w e r l e s s a l i k e , and t h e h i s t o r y of t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t a r e l i n k e d as p r o d u c t s and r e f l e c t i o n s of one a n o t h e r . In t h e l o n g h i s t o r y of t h e deve lopment o f t h e b u i l t env i ronment o f C h i n a , however , a t l e a s t one component of t h e l a n d s c a p e has a lways f i g u r e d e s p e c i a l l y p r o m i n e n t i n t h e i n t e r f a c e between s o c i e t y and a r c h i t e c t u r e , namely t h e v e r n a c u l a r and t h e e l i t e c o u r t y a r d compound h o u s e . The i d e a l and t h e a c t u a l i t y of t h e c o u r t y a r d house r e v e a l s i t s e l f i n h i s t o r y , i n l i t e r a t u r e , and on t h e l a n d as a h a r d e n e d d e p o s i t o r y of t h e most e s s e n t i a l v a l u e s , b e l i e f s and c o d e s of s o c i a l b e h a v i o r i n C o n f u c i a n C h i n a . I t s e x t r a o r d i n a r y d u r a b i l i t y and c o n f o r m i t y , and i t s e c c e n t r i c i t i e s were everywhere and a l m o s t a l w a y s a s t a t e m e n t about t h e i n t e g r i t y of t h e C o n f u c i a n w o r l d v i e w . M o r e o v e r , i t was a s t a t e m e n t on b e h a l f of an o f f i c i a l and encoded c u l t u r a l and s t a t e i d e o l o g y and i t s e s s e n t i a l l_i o r " p r o p r i e t i e s . " I t s d u r a b i l i t y was at one w i t h t h e d u r a b i l i t y of a t o t a l C o n f u c i a n and I m p e r i a l s t a t e - s p o n s o r e d i d e o l o g y and s y s t e m . I t s change and i t s e c c e n t r i c i t i e s w e r e , l i k e t h e i d e o l o g y and s y s t e m i t h o u s e d , g r a m m a t i c a l c o n j u g a t i o n s on a w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d and l e g i t i m a t e theme, f i l l e d w i t h v e r v e 11 and e x c i t e m e n t , but a l w a y s w i t h an i n t r i n s i c o r d e r p r e d i c a t e d on t h e l o g i c of t h e C o n f u c i a n c u l t u r a l i d e o l o g y and s t a t e s y s t e m . I t i s the p r i n c i p a l aim of t h i s s t u d y t o e x p l o r e t h e l i n k a g e between c u l t u r e and a r c h i t e c t u r e i n t h e human l a n d s c a p e of C o n f u c i a n C h i n a as r e v e a l e d by t h e c o u r t y a r d compound. The main t h e s i s o f t h e s t u d y i s t h a t t h e b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t and t h e c o u r t y a r d compound i n p a r t i c u l a r r e v e a l s i t s e l f as a C o n f u c i a n s o c i a l l a n d s c a p e t h e meanings of wh ich a r e a p p a r e n t i n i t s s y m b o l o g y , i n t h e a s s i g n m e n t of s t a t u s p l a c e s w i t h i n i t s b o u n d a r i e s , and i n i t s o v e r a l l d e s i g n , form and s t r u c t u r e . In t h i s way t o o , t h e s t u d y i s a s t u d y i n t h e s o c i a l f a b r i c and i d e o l o g i c a l commitments of a once p o w e r f u l t r a d i t i o n whose h o l d on t h e l a n d s c a p e was v i r t u a l l y w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n , but wh ich has now d i s s i p a t e d or d i s a p p e a r e d i n t o t h e f u r n a c e s and h i g h r i s e s t r u c t u r e s of t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g and r e v o l u t i o n a r y i d e o l o g i e s of t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . CULTURAL IDEOLOGY AND THE LANDSCAPE OF CONFUCIAN CHINA: THE TRADITIONAL COURTYARD COMPOUND TABLE OF CONTENTS DEDICATION PREFACE CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 1. P u r p o s e Z . Some C o n c e p t u a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s 3. L i m i t s CHAPTER I I . CULTURAL IDEOLOGY AND THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT Z 1. C o n t i n u i t y and Change T e c h n o l o g y C r a f t S c h o o l s and Handbooks G u i l d s R e l i g i o n V e r n a c u l a r and O f f i c i a l L a n d s c a p e s 2. O f f i c i a l L a n d s c a p e s and C u l t u r a l I d e o l o g y Amateur E l i t e s C u l t u r a l I d e o l o g y 3. S o c i a l Meaning and t h e B u i l t E n v i r o n m e n t B a s i c Needs F a m i l y S t r u c t u r e The P o s i t i o n of Uomen P r i v a c y and t h e R o l e of t h e I n d i v i d u a l S o c i a l I n t e r a c t i o n : F r i e n d s and S t r a n g e r s CHAPTER I I I . OFFICIAL LANDSCAPES OF CONFUCIAN CHINA 1. C a n o n i c a l S o u r c e s Z . Law and P r o p r i e t y i n C o n f u c i a n S o c i e t y 3. Codes of S o c i a l D i s t i n c t i o n 4. I m p e r i a l B u i l d i n g Codes B. E l i t e s and Handbooks G. B a s i c S t r u c t u r a l Components 7. An O f f i c i a l L a n d s c a p e CHAPTER IV. THE SOCIAL SQUARE 119 1. S p a t i a l Symbol ism and t h e L a n d s c a p e 2 . The B a s i c C o u r t y a r d 3. W a l l s : I n s i d e r s and O u t s i d e r s 4 . The Order W i t h i n 5. Male S p a c e : The House as Temple G. Female Space 7 . The S o c i a l S q u a r e CHAPTER V. ECCENTRICS IN THE ROUND 203 1. The E n s q u a r e d C i r c l e 2 . The Garden and E r e m e t i s m 3. The R o l e of t h e I n d i v i d u a l 4 . The Garden as S o c i a l Space 5. E c c e n t r i c i t y and t h e L a n d s c a p e CHAPTER V I . CONCLUSION Z44 1. T e n s i o n s W i t h i n t h e G a t e BIBLIOGRAPHY. 253 ROMANIZATION .,. .296 GLOSSARY 297 ILLUSTRATIONS 300 v PREFACE T h i s s t u d y began as a t e r n paper i n a c o u r s e t a k e n at t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w i t h P r o f e s s o r James Duncan on t h e c u l t u r a l g e o g r a p h y of t h e b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t . I t g r e u f i r s t under P r o f e s s o r D u n c a n ' s t u t e l a g e and i n s p i r a t i o n , and w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e of many f r i e n d s and t e a c h e r s at t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , e s p e c i a l l y R i c h a r d C o p l e y , Graham J o h n s o n , T e r r y McGee, D a v i d L e y , Nancy D u n c a n , O l a v and M a r g a r e t S l a y m a k e r . L a t e r , w i t h t h e h e l p of many f r i e n d s , t e a c h e r s and c o l l e a g u e s i n C h i n a , i t g r e u i n t o a s t u d y t h e ends o f w h i c h were m a i n l y t o r e c o n s t r u c t t h e s o c i a l meanings of t h e t r a d i t i o n a l C h i n e s e c o u r t y a r d h o u s e . A l o n g t h e way, i t became a l s o a s t u d y i n C o n f u c i a n i s m , i n t h e n a t u r e of t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o l a r - o f f i c i a l e l i t e , i n t r a d i t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e and a r t , i n C h i n e s e e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y , and so o n . One p r i n c i p a l l e s s o n of t h i s s t u d y i s t h a t t h e b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t i s a p r o d u c t o f and has an i n f l u e n c e upon i t s s o c i a l and i d e o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t s . P e r h a p s i r o n i c a l l y , t h e t r u t h of t h a t l e s s o n was made e s p e c i a l l y s e l f - e v i d e n t i n my own a t tempt t o c o m p l e t e t h e r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s s t u d y , r e s e a r c h w h i c h , d e s p i t e t h e p r e s e n t t e x t , r e m a i n s o n g o i n g a n d , g i v e n t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s of C o n f u c i a n s o c i e t y and C h i n e s e h i s t o r y , has no immedia te end i n s i g h t . No s m a l l p a r t of t h e r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s s t u d y was a c c o m p l i s h e d i n t h e e x a m i n a t i o n of s e v e r a l t e n s o f c o u r t y a r d compounds i n t h e c i t i e s of B e i j i n g and Suzhou f rom 1983 t o t h e p r e s e n t . The raw d a t a c o l l e c t e d f rom t h o s e c o u r t y a r d s f i g u r e l e s s i m p o r t a n t l y i n t h e s e pages t h a n t h e e x p e r i e n c e and i n s i g h t g a i n e d i n f r e q u e n t and i n some c a s e s r e p e a t e d e x p o s u r e t o t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l w o r l d w i t h i n t h e c o u r t y a r d . F o r t u n a t e l y , a l t h o u g h the t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l l i f e of t h e c o u r t y a r d had l o n g s i n c e d i s a p p e a r e d , I had t h e company and t h e g u i d a n c e of s e v e r a l l o n g - t i m e r e s i d e n t s , s c h o l a r s and f r i e n d s who were most g e n e r o u s i n s h a r i n g t h e i r knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g of what had once been a l i v i n g t r a d i t i o n . T h e r e a r e many t e a c h e r s who d e s e r v e s p e c i a l t h a n k s . I was e s p e c i a l l y p r i v i l e g e d t o have P r o f e s s o r Hou R e n z h i of B e i j i n g U n i v e r s i t y as my p e r s o n a l t u t o r and l a o s h i i n v i r t u a l l y a l l m a t t e r s c o n c e r n i n g t h e h i s t o r i c a l g e o g r a p h y of B e i j i n g . P r o f e s s o r Wu L i a n g r o n g , Cha i rman of t h e Department o f A r c h i t e c t u r e at Q i n g h u a U n i v e r s i t y p r o v i d e d much e a r l y encouragement and s u p p o r t . Chen Z h a n x i a n g , c h i e f a r c h i t e c t and p l a n n e r f o r t h e C h i n a Academy of Urban P l a n n i n g and D e s i g n was (and i s ) a c o n s t a n t s o u r c e of i n s p i r a t i o n and s u p p o r t . The a r t i s t Uang Daguan whose l o n g s c r o l l p a i n t i n g of " L i f e i n O l d B e i j i n g " i s a s p e c i a l e x p e r i e n c e i n i t s e l f , Zhao S u a n h u a , t h e a d m i n i s t a t o r of t h e f o r m e r I m p e r i a l g a r d e n s , Tang X i a o f a n g , who f r e q u e n t l y a c c o m p a n i e d me i n my p e r e g r i n a t i o n s t h r o u g h t h e h u t o n o s of B e i j i n g , a r e remembered h e r e w i t h deep g r a t i t u d e . B u t , o f t h e many o t h e r s who h e l p e d me immeasurab ly i n t h e i r own u n i q u e and o f t e n t i m e s t o u c h i n g ways , I would l i k e t o t a k e t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y t o m e n t i o n at l e a s t one i n p a r t i c u l a r , Mr. Su T i a n j u n , s e n i o r a r c h i v i s t and a r c h i t e c t u r a l h i s t o r i a n f o r t h e C i t y of B e i j i n g . Mr. Su not o n l y o f t e n a r r a n g e d f o r my v i s i t s t o many o t h e r w i s e c l o s e d c o u r t y a r d compounds, but a l s o welcomed me i n h i s home and spent many h o u r s i n p r i v a t e d i s c u s s i o n s about t h e meanings of what can o n l y be c a l l e d v i i " h i s " a r c h i t e c t u r a l h e r i t a g e . He opened h i s oun p r i v a t e a r c h i v e s , and p r o v i d e d a c c e s s t o much t h a t i s i n t h e p u b l i c domain but not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . But most of a l l he h e l p e d p r o v i d e s o m e t h i n g u n q u a n t i f i a b l e - - t h e i n s p i r a t i o n of someone u i t h u n l i m i t e d s e n s i t i v i t y and a f f e c t i o n f o r t h e l a n d s c a p e . To him e s p e c i a l l y I oue a s p e c i a l debt of g r a t i t u d e . In t h e c a s e of Suzhou and o t h e r c i t i e s i n J i a n g s u P r o v i n c e , t h e J i a n g s u P r o v i n c e C a p i t a l C o n s t r u c t i o n C o m m i s s i o n , J i a n g s u C l a s s i c a l Garden A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and t h e Suzhou C l a s s i c a l Garden C o n s t r u c t i o n C o r p o r a t i o n u e r e a l l i n s t r u m e n t a l i n p r o v i d i n g e s s e n t i a l a s s i s t a n c e , e v e n t o t h e e x t e n t of a l l o w i n g me t o s p e n d many h o u r s a l o n e and u i t h my f a m i l y i n some of t h e most b e a u t i f u l of Suzhou g a r d e n compounds. Of t h o s e a s s o c i a t e d u i t h t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s , s p e c i a l t h a n k s i s oued t h r e e p e o p l e i n p a r t i c u l a r : Wang C h u b i n g , fo rmer D i r e c t o r of t h e J i a n g s u C a p i t a l C o n s t r u c t i o n C o m m i s s i o n ; Wu Z o n g j u n , managing d i r e c t o r of t h e J i a n g s u C l a s s i c a l Garden A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ; and Wang Z u x i n , c h i e f a r c h i t e c t of t h e Suzhou C l a s s i c a l Garden C o n s t r u c t i o n C o r p o r a t i o n . E a c h o f t h e s e t e a c h e r s and f r i e n d s p l a y e d (and c o n t i n u e t o p l a y ) an e s s e n t i a l p a r t i n t h e deve lopment of my oun b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l and s o c i a l h i s t o r y of t h e r e s i d e n t i a l - g a r d e n compounds of t h e J i a n g n a n R e g i o n . Tuo p e o p l e uho have h e l p e d me beyond measure and uho d e s e r v e s p e c i a l m e n t i o n a r e my h u s b a n d , P r o f e s s o r Maruyn S . S a m u e l s , and my s o n , H a i m - D o v i d R i z a l S a m u e l s . B o t h of them, t o g e t h e r and s e p a r a t e l y , u e r e and r e m a i n f u n d a m e n t a l s u p p o r t s i n t h i s and a l l o t h e r e f f o r t s I have made t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d C h i n a and t h e C h i n e s e l a n d s c a p e . v i i i From a l l of these teachers and friends I gained much of what herein constitutes only a beginning, a st a r t toward some greater understanding. That there i s much s t i l l to learn goes without saying. C l e a r l y , whatever i t s other pretensions, t h i s study i s but a prolegomenon to a deeper and more studied analysis of the s o c i a l meaning of the t r a d i t i o n a l landscape of China. i x 5-4 *3Stra^j£*waiB • e e l j i n q : T h e C l a s s i c a l S i h e v u a n o r F o u r - S i d e d C o u r t y a r d House. "X DEDICATION To my h u s b a n d , Maruyn S a m u e l s , who opened my h e a r t and mind t o a u h o l new w o r l d of l e a r n i n g , and t o t h e v i e u t h a t whatever t h e mafan . one must a p p r o a c h t h e w o r l d w i t h a vou b a n f a a t t i t u d e , t h i s work i s d e d i c a t e d w i t h deep and a b i d i n g l o v e . CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Ue shape our buildings, and afterwards our buildings shape us. Winston Churchill The principal inspiration for this study arises from a special concern for the modern fate of the traditional Chinese si he yuan or "four-sided courtyard house." In part, that concern is due to the rapid disappearance of the s i he yuan from the landscape of contemporary China. As Chinese cit i e s now undergo "modernization," their older and now largely dysfunctional traditional built environments undergo abandonment and demolition. One casualty of this process is the traditional, indeed "classic" Chinese courtyard house. Unfortunately, the history and social meanings of the traditional Chinese courtyard house have not been well recorded. Hence, this study is motivated in part by a desire to help record the meaning of the s i he yuan before i t goes the way of the society i t once so adequately housed. In part too, therefore, the modern fate of Confucian China is a concern and interest lying just beneath the surface tension of the main topic of this study. 1. Purpose. S t i l l , however much I may be inspired by that question, the modern fate of the traditional landscape is not the topic of this study. Rather, the main topic of this study is the social meaning of the s i he  yuan and its Confucian underpinnings. The central conceptual interests page 1 of t h i s s t u d y c a n , t h e r e f o r e , a l s o be t r a c e d t o c o n c e r n s t h a t e x t e n d f a r beyond t h e b o u n d a r i e s of C h i n a and t h e u a l l s of i t s s i he y u a n . I t s r o o t s s t r e t c h f a r i n t o t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l f r o n t i e r s of an i s s u e c e n t e r e d a r o u n d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i e t y and t h e b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t — m o s t e s p e c i a l l y a r o u n d t h e ways i n which t h e house everywhere r e v e a l s i t s e l f as a " s o c i a l u n i t o f s p a c e " whose p o s i t i v e p u r p o s e i s t o c r e a t e , t o e n t e r t a i n , t o s u s t a i n and t o s a n c t i o n t h e way of l i f e of t h e p e o p l e i t h o u s e s . By i t s e l f , t h a t c o n c e p t u a l i s s u e i n c o r p o r a t e s a wide range of more s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s i n c l u d i n g t h e ways i n wh ich i n d i v i d u a l s , g r o u p s and c o l l e c t i v e s of a l l k i n d s , r e l a t i o n s among t h e s e x e s , f a m i l y l i f e , s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y and s t a t u s , and so on i n f l u e n c e t h e f o r m , s t r u c t u r e and d e s i g n of t h e b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t i n g e n e r a l ( t h e l a n d s c a p e ) and t h e house i n p a r t i c u l a r . T h e s e , i n t u r n , r a i s e o t h e r q u e s t i o n s about how e l i t e s , heads of h o u s e h o l d s , males or f e m a l e s , e l d e r s o r c h i l d r e n , c e r t a i n c l a s s e s , e c c e n t r i c s and s o on d e f i n e and shape t h e l a n d s c a p e . U l t i m a t e l y , t h e s e t o o c a n be made more s p e c i f i c , r e n d e r i n g the p a r t i c u l a r c a s e e i t h e r a r c h e t y p e or i d i o s y n c r a c y . What t h e n , i f a n y t h i n g , h o l d s a l l of t h e s e e l e m e n t s t o g e t h e r , a s i d e f rom some a r b i t r a r y s c a l e o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n ? In one s e n s e , what h o l d s them t o g e t h e r i s t h e p a r t i c u l a r v iew of t h e b e h o l d e r , whether the " l o o k e r " be someone w i t h i n t h e s o c i e t y i t s e l f o r an o u t s i d e o b s e r v e r . In t h a t s e n s e , a l l l a n d s c a p e s a r e " a u t h o r e d . " ( S a m u e l s , 1979. ) In a n o t h e r s e n s e , however , what h o l d s t h e s e d i v e r s e e l e m e n t s t o g e t h e i — i f and when t h e y a r e h e l d t o g e t h e i — i s t h e more s p e c i f i c c o n c e p t u a l c o n c e r n of t h i s s t u d y . S u f f i c e i t t o s a y h e r e , b o r r o w i n g f rom but a p p l y i n g some l i c e n s e page 2 t o C l i f f o r d G e e r t z ' s I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of C u l t u r e s ( G e e r t z , 1973) , t h a t t h e g l u e h o l d i n g t h e s e and most o t h e r e l e m e n t s o f s o c i e t y t o g e t h e r as a c o h e r e n t " s y s t e m " of r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s what I m i l l d e f i n e as t h e " c u l t u r a l i d e o l o g y . " As I s h a l l a t tempt t o s h o u , t h i s " c u l t u r a l i d e o l o g y " i s complex and p o u e r f u l , somet imes r i g i d , somet imes f l e x i b l e , and somet imes mere ly i m p l i e d , hence " h i d d e n " b e h i n d t h e symbols of s o c i a l p r o p r i e t i e s . Sometimes t o o , as i n modern p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g i e s , i t a p p e a r s t o s u b s t i t u t e d i s i n g e n u o u s s l o g a n s o r a t l e a s t o v e r s i m p l i f i e d p l a t i t u d e s f o r s u b s t a n t i v e t r u t h s . B u t , at b o t t o m , i t i s a l s o a l m o s t a lways f o r m a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l , somewhere c o d i f i e d , r e n d e r e d as c a n o n i c a l t e x t and i n t h e r e g u l a t i o n s and laws of s o c i e t y . I n s o f a r as i t f u n c t i o n s t o s a n c t i o n , i t i s a r e f l e c t i o n and t o o l of s o c i e t y . I n s o f a r as i t g e n e r a t e s , p e r p e t u a t e s , and s a n c t i o n s , i t i s one p r i n c i p a l o r i g i n and c a u s e of s o c i e t y . A n d , i n a l l o f t h i s , i t t o o has an impact on t h e b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t t h r o u g h i t s d e f i n i t i o n s and i t s d e l i n e a t i o n of " o f f i c i a l l a n d s c a p e s , " by which I mean t o i n c l u d e a l l manner of c o n s t r u c t i o n and b u i l d i n g s , and s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e h o u s e . These two p h r a s e s , " c u l t u r a l i d e o l o g y " and " o f f i c i a l l a n d s c a p e , " l i e a t t h e c o n c e p t u a l c o r e of t h i s s t u d y . To be s u r e , t h e y r e q u i r e much f u r t h e r d e f i n i t i o n , some of wh ich I s h a l l a t tempt i n C h a p t e r Two of t h i s s t u d y , and some of wh ich w i l l become c l e a r i n t h e body of t h e s u b s e q u e n t s u b s t a n t i v e c h a p t e r s . F o r my p u r p o s e s h e r e , however , i t s u f f i c e s t o say t h a t t o g e t h e r they c o n s t i t u t e t h e p r i n c i p a l t h e o r e t i c a l o r c o n c e p t u a l p r o p o s i t i o n — h e n c e u n i v e r s a l i s s u e — t h a t t h i s s t u d y r a i s e s . S i m p l y p u t , page 3 I p r o p o s e t o show t h a t much, and i n d e e d p e r h a p s a l l o f t h e b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t of man, i n c l u d i n g t h e house i s a p r o d u c t of and a k i n d of h a r d e n e d d e p o s i t o r y f o r t h e p r i n c i p a l s o c i a l v a l u e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s i n s o c i e t y - v a l u e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s which a r e a l m o s t everywhere a r t i c u l a t e d i n t h e s y m b o l i c l a n g u a g e of c u l t u r a l i d e o l o g i e s . The r e s u l t i n g l a n d s c a p e , f u r t h e r m o r e , i s a l m o s t a lways an " o f f i c i a l l a n d s c a p e " - - t o one d e g r e e o r a n o t h e r . At t h e v e r y l e a s t , I p r o p o s e t o show t h a t t h i s was i n d e e d t h e c a s e i n t r a d i t i o n a l C h i n a where a s t a t e - s p o n s o r e d and h i g h l y a r t i c u l a t e c u l t u r a l i d e o l o g y c a l l e d C o n f u c i a n i s m p r o d u c e d and s a n c t i o n e d an o f f i c i a l l a n d s c a p e , one major component o f wh ich was t h e s i he y u a n . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s t h e i n t e n t i o n of t h i s s t u d y t o examine (1 ) t h e i s s u e of t h e s o c i a l meaning of t h e b u i l t env i ronment i n l i g h t of c u l t u r a l i d e o l o g y , <Z) t h e way i n wh ich c u l t u r a l i d e o l o g i e s c r e a t e and s a n c t i o n o f f i c i a l l a n d s c a p e s , and f i n a l l y (3 ) t h e t r a d i t i o n a l e l i t e C h i n e s e s i he  yuan as a p r o d u c t of and a d e p o s i t o r y f o r C o n f u c i a n i d e o l o g y . In b r o a d c o n c e p t u a l t e r m s , i n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e s i he yuan and t h e c a s e of t r a d i t i o n a l C h i n a s e r v e t o i l l u s t r a t e and d e m o n s t r a t e t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t much, i f not a l l o f t h e b u i l t env i ronment of man i s an " o f f i c i a l l a n d s c a p e " i m p r e g n a t e d by c u l t u r a l i d e o l o g y . Z . Some C o n c e p t u a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s . C l e a r l y , by s e e k i n g t o " e x p l a i n " t h e b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t i n l i g h t of t h e c o n c e p t s of c u l t u r a l i d e o l o g y and o f f i c i a l l a n d s c a p e , a hos t of q u e s t i o n s a r i s e c o n c e r n i n g t h e " e x p l a n a t o r y mode l" a d o p t e d h e r e . Many of t h e most r e l e v a n t and i m p o r t a n t o f t h e s e w i l l be t r e a t e d at l e n g t h i n page 4 C h a p t e r Two, " C u l t u r a l I d e o l o g y and t h e B u i l t E n v i r o n m e n t . " However , some of t h e s e q u e s t i o n s a r e more c o r r e c t l y d e s c r i b e d as b a s i c c o n c e p t u a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s or c o n s t r a i n t s a r i s i n g p a r t l y out of t h e s u b j e c t mat te r and p a r t l y out of t h e body of l i t e r a t u r e I have employed t o f i l l t h e t e x t u r e of t h i s s t u d y . T h e r e f o r e , b e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g , i t i s p e r h a p s o n l y p r u d e n t t o i d e n t i f y and b r i e f l y e x p l a i n some of t h e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and t a c t i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s employed i n t h i s s t u d y . As w i l l become a b u n d a n t l y c l e a r , I have i n f a c t bor rowed c o n c e p t u a l i n s p i r a t i o n f rom s e v e r a l i n t e r r e l a t e d i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a d i t i o n s . P e r h a p s most o b v i o u s l y , I have drawn h e a v i l y f rom t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l and a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l a n a l y s e s of Amos R a p o p o r t , and i n p a r t i c u l a r h i s s t u d y o f t h e c u l t u r a l o r i g i n s and meanings of t h e v e r n a c u l a r h o u s e , House Form and  C u l t u r e . ( R a p o p o r t , 1969. ) A l o n g s i m i l a r l i n e s , I have a l s o d e r i v e d c o n c e p t u a l i n s p i r a t i o n f rom t h e w r i t i n g s and l e c t u r e s of James S . Duncan on t h e c u l t u r a l and g e o g r a p h i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t , and i n p a r t i c u l a r f rom t h e c o l l e c t i o n of e s s a y s he b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r under t h e t i t l e H o u s i n g and I d e n t i t y . ( D u n c a n , J . S . , 1981 . ) F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e c o n c e p t u a l b a s i s f o r t h i s s t u d y can a l s o be t r a c e d t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e of " h u m a n i s t i c g e o g r a p h y " and i t s c o n c e r n s w i t h t h e v a l u e - l a d e n l i n k s between man and l a n d s c a p e . ( L e y and S a m u e l s , 1979. ) Were t h o s e not s u f f i c i e n t , many of t h e f u n d a m e n t a l c o n c e r n s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s s t u d y c a n a l s o be t r a c e d t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e of c u l t u r a l g e o g r a p h y and h i s t o r y , most n o t a b l y p e r h a p s t o t h e work o f D a v i d Sopher on The Geography of  R e l i q i o n s ( 1 9 G 7 ) , Y i - f u Tuan on T o p p p h i l i a ( 1 9 7 4 ) , M i r c e a E l i a d e on page 5 The S a c r e d and t h e P r o f a n e ( 1 9 5 9 ) , and many o t h e r s . A l t h o u g h e a c h o f t h e s e s o u r c e s o f f e r d i f f e r i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s , t h e y a l l u n d e r s c o r e t h e f u n d a m e n t a l e p i s t e m o l o g y of t h i s s t u d y - - t h a t t h e b u i l t env i ronment of man i s a c u l t u r a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l r e s e r v o i r u h i c h , on t h e one h a n d , c o n t a i n s and r e v e a l s i t s v a l u e - l a d e n c o n t e n t s a n d , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , h e l p s s u s t a i n and c o n d i t i o n t h e form and meaning of e v e r y d a y l i f e . The b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t i s h e r e b o t h a c t i v e and r e a c t i v e , a f o r c e t h a t has an impact on t h e forms of d a i l y l i f e and a m i r r o r t h a t r e f l e c t s t h e v a l u e s and c o n c e r n s t h a t domina te t h e s o c i a l l i f e of man. U i t h t h i s i n m i n d , one p r i n c i p a l m e t h o d o l o g i c a l i n f e r e n c e t o be drawn h e r e i s t h a t t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d man i n s o c i e t y , one needs l e a r n how t o " r e a d t h e l a n d s c a p e " . < M e i n i g , 1979. ) In l e a r n i n g how t o " r e a d t h e l a n d s c a p e , " however , t h e r e a r e any number of s e m a n t i c t r a p s a l o n g t h e way. Many of t h e s e w i l l be e n c o u n t e r e d i n my d i s c u s s i o n o f c u l t u r a l i d e o l o g y , the i s s u e of c o n t i n u i t y and c h a n g e , t h e q u e s t i o n of p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t , and i n o t h e r i s s u e s t o u c h e d upon i n C h a p t e r Two o f t h i s s t u d y . But o t h e r s a l s o s t i l l l i e h i d d e n h e r e i n t h e e x p l a n a t o r y i n f e r e n c e s employed t o u n c o v e r t h e meaning of t h e l a n d s c a p e . Not t h e l e a s t of t h e s e i n f e r e n c e s i s the f a c t t h a t i n s e e k i n g t o u n c o v e r t h e s o c i a l c o n t e n t of t h e l a n d s c a p e I have a d o p t e d a k i n d of m o d i f i e d s t r u c t u r a l i s t mode of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . (Keat and U r r y , 1978; N a g e l , 1961; B e r g e r and Luckmann, 1966. ) T a k i n g l e a d i n p a r t h e r e f rom C h r i s t o p h e r A l e x a n d e r ' s a t tempt t o f o l l o w t h e " p a t t e r n l a n g u a g e " of the b u i l t env i ronment t o i t s s t r u c t u r e ( " g r a m m a r " ) , I have l o o k e d , as i t w e r e , f o r t h e u n d e r l y i n g grammar of t h e C o n f u c i a n l a n d s c a p e - - f o r t h e r u l e s t h a t t r a n s c e n d t h e i n d i v i d u a l and t h e p a r t i c u l a r , f o r t h e s t r u c t u r e page 6 t h a t worked toward a c o h e r e n t w h o l e . ( A l e x a n d e r , 1964, 1977, 1979 . ) Even a l l o w i n g f o r d i v e r s i t y of form and f u n c t i o n , i t i s t h e c o n f o r m i t y , the r o u t i n i z a t i o n , and t h e r e l f i c a t i o n of norms , v a l u e s and d e s i g n s t h a t w i l l appear most p r o m i n e n t l y i n t h e s e p a g e s . T h e r e a r e , o f c o u r s e , c e r t a i n d a n g e r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s a p p r o a c h . P e r h a p s most of a l l , i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n of C h i n e s e c u l t u r e or t h e C o n f u c i a n g e n r e de v i e , t h e t e m p t a t i o n t o r e s o r t t o P a r s o n i a n mechanisms or t h e j a r g o n of " s o c i a l s y s t e m s " i s d i f f i c u l t t o a v o i d , s a v e by some e q u a l l y d a n g e r o u s r e s o r t t o what James Duncan d e s c r i b e d e l s e w h e r e as " s u p e r o r g a n i c " a n a l o g i e s and h o l i s t i c p a r a d i g m s . ( D u n c a n , J . S . , 1980) . S i m i l a r l y , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a v o i d t h e t e m p t a t i o n t o speak of C o n f u c i a n norms and v a l u e s e x c e p t i n h o l i s t i c f a s h i o n as i f t h e y were e n t i t i e s or f o r c e s i n d e p e n d e n t of i n d i v i d u a l s . J u s t as Rapopor t s p o k e of " s o c i o - c u l t u r a l f o r c e s " t h a t c o n s t i t u t e and shape t h e s y m b o l i c c h a r a c t e r of t h e h o u s e , s o t o o i s i t t e m p t i n g t o speak of t h e C o n f u c i a n e t h i c as i f i t e x i s t e d a p a r t f rom anyone i n p a r t i c u l a r . The same i s t r u e w i t h t h e l a n d s c a p e . As R a p o p o r t put i t , " t h e fo rms of p r i m i t i v e and v e r n a c u l a r b u i l d i n g s a r e l e s s t h e r e s u l t o f i n d i v i d u a l d e s i r e s t h a n of t h e aims and d e s i r e s of t h e u n i f i e d g r o u p . . . . " ( R a p o p o r t , 1969, p. 4 7 . ) In a s i m i l a r v e i n s o t o o w i l l I speak of t h e t r a d i t i o n a l C h i n e s e c o u r t y a r d house as a p r o d u c t and m i r r o r e d image of C o n f u c i a n i d e o l o g y . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l c l e a r d a n g e r s i n t h i s a p p r o a c h . F o r o n e , i t t e n d s t o p i t i s s u e s of " f r e e d o m " and " c h o i c e " a g a i n s t any number of d e t e r m i n i s m s . A l o n g t h e way, i t a l s o t e n d s t o r e i n f o r c e a much o v e r w o r k e d d e b a t e among s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s about " c o n s c i o u s n e s s " v e r s u s " s t r u c t u r e . " ( D u n c a n , N . , 1981. ) O r , i t t e n d s t o r e i n f o r c e an even more page 7 o v e r w o r k e d d e b a t e among M a r x i s t s and a n t i - M a r x i s t s about s t r u c t u r e s and s u p e r s t r u c t u r e s , and i n t h e p r o c e s s t e n d s t o r e i n f o r c e t h e s o - c a l l e d "dominant i d e o l o g y t h e s i s . " ( A b e r c r o m b i e and T u r n e r , 1978 . ) I n d e e d , as w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r Two, by e m p h a s i z i n g what I c a l l " c u l t u r a l i d e o l o g y , " t h i s i s s u e a r i s e s b e c a u s e I do not i n t e n d t o f o c u s s h a r p l y h e r e on t h e " c o n s c i o u s n e s s " s i d e of t h e e q u a t i o n l i n k i n g m a n - t h e - i n d i v i d u a l t o m a n - i n - s o c i e t y . R a t h e r , by f o c u s i n g on " i d e o l o g y , " I i n t e n d t o s t r e s s t h e r o l e o f f o r m a l c o d e , r e g u l a t i o n and l a w , wh ich i s t o s a y t h e r o l e of l e g a l o r o t h e r s a n c t i o n - d e f i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s i n s o c i e t y . In many r e s p e c t s , d e f i n e d i n t h i s way, " i d e o l o g y " i s not o n l y c o t e r m i n o u s u i t h a p a r t i c u l a r s e t of l e g a l i n s t i t u t i o n s or s t r u c t u r e s , but i s a l s o t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l , r e l i g i o u s , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l framework f o r t h o s e " s t r u c t u r i n g r e l a t i o n s u h i c h s e t much of t h e c o n t e x t f o r a c t i o n " i n s o c i e t y . ( D u n c a n , J . S . , 1981, p . 4 0 . ) Wi thout w i s h i n g t o g i v e r i s e t o a whole neu d e b a t e about s t r u c t u r a l f u n c t i o n a l i s m , by f o c u s i n g on t h e r o l e of c u l t u r a l i d e o l o g y I n o n e t h e l e s s w i s h t o l e a v e t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t i d e o l o g y i s t h e s t r u c t u r e , — t h e s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l g l u e - - t h a t h o l d s s o c i e t y t o g e t h e r . T h i s i s not t o deny t h e i m p o r t a n c e of i n d i v i d u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s or c h o i c e . I n d e e d , i t a l l o w s room f o r i n d i v i d u a l o p i n i o n , c h o i c e and a t t i t u d e . A f t e r a l l , i n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e , t h e c o d e s , r e g u l a t i o n s and laws of a lmost a l l s o c i e t i e s a r e open t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and even i n t h e most r i g i d of p o l i t i c a l sys tems t h e i s s u e of i n d i v i d u a l f reedom of c h o i c e i s d e f i n e d by law as m a t t e r s of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y . B u t , i f t h e i s s u e of c o n s c i o u s n e s s and c h o i c e a r e not d e n i e d i n t h e a p p r o a c h t a k e n h e r e , t h e y a r e a l s o not e m p h a s i z e d . page 8 In p a r t , I have e x p r e s s l y c h o s e n t h i s a p p r o a c h b e c a u s e i t a c c o r d s w e l l w i t h C o n f u c i a n i s m - t h e - i d e o l o g y and w i t h C o n f u c i a n s o c i e t y , f o r t h e C o n f u c i a n "model of man" a l s o p r e s e n t e d a t h e o r y t h a t a s s e r t e d t h e supremacy of s o c i e t y — t h e w h o l e — o v e r t h e i n d i v i d u a l , and s i m i l a r l y l a i d c l a i m t o <as w e l l as p r o m u l g a t e d ) t h e n o t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s i n d e e d a " s o c i a l s y s t e m " worthy of m a i n t e n a n c e and p r o t e c t i o n . Here t o o t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s s e e n p r i m a r i l y as an agent of t h e s y s t e m , more as a t r a n s m i t t e r t h a n as a c r e a t o r . H e n c e , t h e v o c a t i o n o f t h e C o n f u c i a n i n d i v i d u a l was t o l i v e i n harmony w i t h s o c i e t y t h r o u g h a p r e s c r i b e d and h i g h l y o r d e r e d body of b e h a v i o r a l p r i n c i p l e s ( l _ i , o r " p r o p r i e t i e s " ) . T h i s i s not t o s u g g e s t t h a t C o n f u c i a n i s m and s t r u c t u r a l i s m a r e synonymous. T h e r e a r e , o f c o u r s e , i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two, one of wh ich b e i n g t h a t s t r u c t u r a l i s m p r e s e n t s i t s e l f as a t h e o r y o r a s e t of t h e o r i e s a imed t o e x p l a i n s o c i e t y , whereas C o n f u c i a n i s m i s a c u l t u r a l i d e o l o g y t h a t sought not o n l y t o e x p l a i n but a l s o t o c o n t r o l s o c i e t y . M o r e o v e r , t h e model of man p r e s e n t e d by C o n f u c i a n i s m d i d not r e d u c e t h e i n d i v i d u a l or man s u i g e n e r i s t o a mere c o g i n t h e o r g a n i s m o r machine of s o c i e t y . On t h e c o n t r a r y , as a s o c i a l e t h i c , s e c u l a r C o n f u c i a n i s m i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l r e m a i n e d f u l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r as w e l l as t o s o c i e t y . I n d e e d , t h e i d e a l C o n f u c i a n i n d i v i d u a l , t h e i u n z i o r " g e n t l e m a n , " was no mere c o g . He (and i t was a lways a male) had o f t e n t o c h o o s e between s o c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s and p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s , between s e r v i n g i n o f f i c e and r e t i r e m e n t , o r between c o n f l i c t i n g commitments t o s o c i e t y , f a m i l y , and s e l f . S t i l l , i t would be v a s t l y m i s t a k e n t o i n t e r p r e t t h e C o n f u c i a n g e n t l e m a n as a n y t h i n g l i k e some e x i s t e n t i a l f i g u r e f i l l e d w i t h a n g s t and page 9 a l i e n a t i o n or consumed by s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n . He uas not a J o b o r even a S a r t r e . W h i l e s h a r i n g some common g r o u n d u i t h t h e p h i l o s o p h e r s P l a t o and A r i s t o t l e , he had more i n common u i t h t h e P r o p h e t Samuel and t h e D i s c i p l e P e t e r , e x c e p t t h a t h i s uas a l m o s t e n t i r e l y a s e c u l a r e t h i c and he uas a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e t o a g o v e r n m e n t . As W i l l i a m de Bary and o t h e r s have n o t e d i n t h e i r e x a m i n a t i o n s of " s e l f and s o c i e t y " i n l a t e m e d i e v a l C h i n a , u i t h a l l due a l l o u a n c e s f o r a n c i e n t ( m a i n l y D a o i s t ) t r a d i t i o n s o f e r e m i t i s m i n C h i n a , most of t h e C o n f u c i a n g e n t l e m a n ' s c h o i c e s — a n d by e x t e n s i o n most e l i t e s i n C o n f u c i a n s o c i e t y — w e r e not about s e l f - d i s c o v e r y , f reedom and d e l i v e r a n c e , but r a t h e r how b e s t t o i n t e r p r e t , s e r v e and o b s e r v e t h e c o d e s o f s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y handed doun f o r c e n t u r i e s . (de B a r y , 1970. ) In t h a t r e s p e c t , t h e C o n f u c i a n i n d i v i d u a l uas and r e m a i n s an i d e a l f i g u r e f o r s t r u c t u r a l i s t a n a l y s i s . Wi th r e s p e c t t o our c o n c e r n s h e r e , f u r t h e r m o r e , s u c h s t r u c t u r a l i s t a n a l y s i s i s a l s o a p p r o p r i a t e t o C o n f u c i a n i s m - t h e - i d e o l o g y b e c a u s e b o t h s h a r e a common and e s s e n t i a l h i s t o r i c a l c o n s e r v a t i s m , t h e one p r o j e c t i n g a k i n d of c y c l i c a l v i e u of h i s t o r i c a l r e p e t i t i o n s , t h e o t h e r a k i n d of a h i s t o r i c i s m . In b o t h c a s e s , c h a n g e , o r a t l e a s t l e g i t i m a t e c h a n g e , i s c o n j u g a t i o n , not r e v o l u t i o n . In b o t h c a s e s , i n n o v a t i o n s o r i n v e n t i o n s a r e " a c c e p t a b l e " o n l y i n s o f a r as t h e y a r e a b s o r b e d i n t o t h e nexus of t h e c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n or t h e s t r u c t u r e — t o s e r v e t h a t t r a d i t i o n or be put a s i d e as mere c u r i o s i t i e s . C l e a r l y , one danger i n s u c h c o n s e r v a t i v i s m i s t h a t i t t e n d s t o g i v e h i s t o r y a k i n d of u n f o r g i v i n g and n e c e s s a r y look u h i c h , a g a i n s t t h e d a y - t o - d a y u o r l d of d i v e r s e and p r a c t i c a l human a c t i v i t i e s , p r e s e n t s an image of t o t a l i t a r i a n sameness and i m m u t a b i l i t y . In t h e c a s e of C h i n a , page 10 i t a l s o r e i n f o r c e s an a l r e a d y h i g h d e g r e e of r e i f i c a t i o n e v i d e n t i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e about " u n c h a n g i n g " C o n f u c i a n s o c i e t y . ( W i t t f o g e l , 1957. ) Y e t , s u c h c o n s e r v a t i s m i s not i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e h i s t o r y of C o n f u c i a n C h i n a . The a l r e a d y h i g h d e g r e e of r e i f i c a t i o n i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e about u n c h a n g i n g C h i n a and i t s s y m b o l i c forms e x i s t s p a r t l y b e c a u s e , s i m p l y s t a t e d , i t p r e s e n t s a r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l C h i n e s e s o c i e t y . (Dawson, 1964; W r i g h t , 1965, p p . 6 6 7 - 7 9 . ) L i k e most t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s , though not u n c h a n g i n g , C o n f u c i a n C h i n a was e x t r e m e l y s low t o c h a n g e . M o r e o v e r , change i n i t s c u l t u r a l i d e o l o g y was, u n t i l t h e modern e r a , v i r t u a l l y g l a c i a l . Momentuous s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c changes d i d u n d o u b t e d l y o c c u r , as i n t e c h n o l o g i c a l , c o m m e r c i a l , and u r b a n g rowth d u r i n g t h e m i d d l e a g e s . ( E l v i n , 1970 and 1973s H a r t w e l l , 196Z. ) However , t h e C o n f u c i a n s o c i a l s y s t e m was a b l e t o a s s i m i l a t e t h e s e w i t h o u t f u n d a m e n t a l i d e o l o g i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . ( K r a c k e , 1955s E b e r h a r d , 1965s G e r n e t , 196Z. ) Change o c c u r r e d , but a g a i n i t was more i n t h e n a t u r e of c o n j u g a t i o n t h a n r e v o l u t i o n . In p a r t , o f c o u r s e , t h e i s s u e of i m m u t a b i l i t y i s a f u n c t i o n of how one d e f i n e s " t r a d i t i o n . " F o r e x a m p l e , i t i s f r e q u e n t l y c l a i m e d t h a t A m e r i c a n s have a t r a d i t i o n of change o r m o b i l i t y , hence " f a s h i o n " and i n n o v a t i o n a r e e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t s i n A m e r i c a n c u l t u r e . Whether t h i s i s t r u e o r n o t , t h e image and t h e c o n c e p t a r e t h e r e t o i n f l u e n c e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y . Whatever t h e r e a l i t y , I would s u b m i t , t h e i s s u e h e r e i s i n d e e d t h e way i n w h i c h we i n d u l g e h i s t o r i o g r a p h i c a n a l y s i s . In t h i s t o o , I have t o some e x t e n t , a t l e a s t by i n f e r e n c e , drawn some h i s t o r i o g r a p h i c c o n s e r v a t i s m f rom t h e m a t e r i a l s t u d i e d . That i s t o page 11 s a y , as t h e c e n t r a l f o c u s of t h i s s t u d y i s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l C h i n e s e c o u r t y a r d h o u s e , i t i s f i r s t and f o r e m o s t an e x e r c i s e i n h i s t o r i c a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . In t h i s , i t d e r i v e s some of i t s c o n c e p t u a l i n s p i r a t i o n f rom t h e h e r i t a g e of h i s t o r i c a l g e o g r a p h y , e s p e c i a l l y t h a t a s s o c i a t e d u i t h t h e work of J . K. Wr ight ( 1 9 G 6 ) . S i m i l a r l y , i t a l s o bor rows p a r t of i t s method f rom t h e f i e l d of " h i s t o r i c a l a r c h a e o l o g y " ( D e e t z , 1977) , and f rom s u c h a r c h i t e c t u r a l h i s t o r i a n s as C h r i s t i a n N o r b e r g - S c h u l z ( 1 9 8 0 ) , O s v a l d S i r e n (1930 , 1949 , 1 9 7 0 ) , and o t h e r s . In d o i n g s o , t h e s t u d y s h a r e s u i t h e a c h of t h e s e a k i n d of m a t e r i a l i s t i c b i a s i n i t s f o c u s on t h e b u i l t a n d , i n t h i s c a s e , t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l r e m a i n s of s o c i e t y , w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e b e i n g c o n c e r n e d t o i n t e r p r e t t h e m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s i n l i g h t of t h e i r s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l s h a d i n g s . The b u i l t env i ronment i s i n t h i s r e g a r d the o b j e c t of a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n — t h e independent v a r i a b l e about which we seek d e f i n i t i o n and e x p l a n a t i o n f rom a v a r i e t y of s o u r c e s . By i n f e r e n c e s drawn f rom i t s m a t e r i a l f o r m , l o c a t i o n , s i z e and s h a p e , t h e l a n d s c a p e h e l p s p r o v i d e i t s own p a r t i a l e x p l a n a t i o n s . I n d e e d , no s m a l l p a r t of t h e a p p r o a c h employed i n t h i s s t u d y a r i s e s f rom e x t e n s i v e f i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n s of remnant c o u r t y a r d houses i n t h e c i t i e s of B e i j i n g and S u z h o u . D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1983 t o 1985 (and c o n t i n u i n g t o t h e p r e s e n t ) I have e x p l o r e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y s e v e n t y l a r g e t r a d i t i o n a l c o u r t y a r d houses i n t h e s e two c i t i e s , many of wh ich had not p r e v i o u s l y been v i s i t e d by f o r e i g n e r s . A l t h o u g h t h e y no l o n g e r p r o v i d e h o u s i n g f o r C o n f u c i a n f a m i l i e s a n d , t h e r e f o r e , c o u l d o n l y p r o v i d e a page 12 s u r r o g a t e a g a i n s t u h i c h t o measure meanings d e r i v e d e l s e u h e r e i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e and l a n d s c a p e of C h i n a , t h e y n o n e t h e l e s s p r o v i d e d e s s e n t i a l i n s i g h t f o r t h e e f f o r t t o v e r i f y t h e i n t e p r e t a t i o n s and c l a i m s of h i s t o r i a n s , a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , g e o g r a p h e r s and o t h e r s . A l t h o u g h t h e y do not c o n s t i t u t e i n t h e m s e l v e s s u f f i c i e n t m a t e r i a l upon u h i c h t o base t h i s s t u d y , t h e y p r o v i d e d an e s s e n t i a l means f o r i t s a u t h o r t o b e t t e r measure t h e c o m p l i c a t e d meaning of t h e c o u r t y a r d house i n t h e C o n f u c i a n t r a d i t i o n . (The d e t a i l e d r e n d e r i n g of t h e i n t e r i o r s o f t h e s e houses u i l l be t h e s u b j e c t of a n o t h e r s t u d y . ) One advan tage of t h i s a p p r o a c h i s t h a t i t t a k e s n o t i c e of t h e f a c t t h a t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n of s p a c e o r p l a c e i s i t s e l f a n o n - v e r b a l l a n g u a g e t h e meanings of u h i c h c a n be a n a l y z e d and i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms of c u l t u r a l l y and b i o l o g i c a l l y c o n d i t i o n e d b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n s . ( H a l l , 19G1 and 19GG.) But e q u a l l y , and p e r h a p s even more i m p o r t a n t l y , by f o c u s i n g f i r s t and f o r e m o s t on t h e b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t , a u i d e r a n g e of e m p i r i c a l d a t a t h a t may have e s c a p e d t h e a t t e n t i o n o f h i s t o r i a n s i s a t l e a s t p o t e n t i a l l y i n c l u d e d . Much " h i s t o r y , " a f t e r a l l , has been made by n o n - l i t e r a t e s o c i e t i e s and i l l i t e r a t e p e o p l e s i n h i s t o r i c as u e l l as p r e - h i s t o r i c t i m e s . T a k i n g l e a d f rom t h e e c l e c t i c g e o g r a p h e r , h i s t o r i a n , a r c h a e o l o g i s t and f o l k l o r i s t , Henry G l a s s i e , and h i s s e m i n a l s t u d y of F o l k H o u s i n g i n M i d d l e V i r g i n i a , one c a n say o f many d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e s t h a t t h e y " l e f t no u r i t i n g , but t h e y d i d l e a v e a l l t h o s e h o u s e s . " ( G l a s s i e , 1975, p. 178 . ) In o t h e r t e r m s , t h i s i s o n l y t o say t h a t , a s s u m i n g one i s l i t e r a t e , t h e b u i l t env i ronment i s i t s oun book o r t e x t f rom u h i c h t o r e a d . In s h o r t , by t h i s means, ue g a i n a c c e s s t o a u o r l d of v e r n a c u l a r t r a d i t i o n s u h i c h , e x c e p t as uas somet imes r e c o r d e d by page 13 c o n t e m p o r a r y e l i t e s , might o t h e r w i s e have gone u n n o t i c e d . At t h e same t i m e , however , by a d o p t i n g t h e h i s t o r i a n ' s c r a f t we a l s o e n j o y a c c e s s t o t h e h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d and t o a wide r a n g e o f l i t e r a t u r e and a r t t h a t a l l o w r e a s o n a b l y d i r e c t a c c e s s t o t h e s p e c i f i c c o n t e n t of c o n t e m p o r a r y v a l u e s , c o n c e p t s , b e l i e f s , and b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n s t h a t were c o n v e r s a n t w i t h and t h a t g a v e c o l o r t o t h e l a n d s c a p e . One of t h e p r i n c i p a l a d v a n t a g e s o f an h i s t o r i c a l a p p r o a c h t o the s t u d y of t h e b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t i s t h a t , w h i l e t h e b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t i t s e l f p r o v i d e s e m p i r i c a l v e r i f i c a t i o n s a g a i n s t wh ich t o measure t h e c h r o n i c l e r s of s o c i e t y and u i t h wh ich t o f i l l i n t h e gaps of t h e i r m e n t i o n i n g s , t h e w r i t t e n r e c o r d , b r o a d l y c o n c e i v e d , p r o v i d e s b o u n t i f u l e v i d e n c e w i t h wh ich t o i n t e r p r e t t h e meanings of t h e l a n d s c a p e . One need not be c o n f i n e d i n t h i s r e g a r d t o t h e f o r m a l or o f f i c i a l h i s t o r i e s and c h r o n i c l e s of a p l a c e . R a t h e r , i f by t h e w r i t t e n r e c o r d one means a l l manner of r e c o r d i n g , i n c l u d i n g p o e t r y , l i t e r a t u r e , a r t , as w e l l as d i a r i e s , i n v e n t o r i e s , r e l i g i o u s t r a c t s and s o o n , t h e n t h e s o u r c e s of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and a n a l y s i s a r e v i r t u a l l y l i m i t l e s s . By t h i s means t o o , one need not o n l y i n d u l g e t h e i n f e r e n t i a l l o g i c of b e h a v o r i a l s c i e n t i s t s , o r t h e c r e a t i v e g u e s s work of a r c h a e o l o g i s t s i n a t t e m p t i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e meaning of t h e b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t . The l i t e r a t u r e of a t ime s p e a k s r e a s o n a b l y w e l l f o r i t s e l f . To be s u r e , t h e r e a r e any number of m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e use of t h e w r i t t e n , h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d f o r t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t . F o r o n e , s u c h r e c o r d s a r e made by and u s u a l l y f o r e l i t e s a l o n e . F o r a n o t h e r , t h e v a l u e and a c c u r a c y of any one r e c o r d must be p i t t e d a g a i n s t o t h e r s . F o r s t i l l a n o t h e r , t h e page 14 r e c o r d e d i n t e n t i o n s of a w r i t e r o r a b u i l d e r need not a c t u a l l y c o i n c i d e u i t h t h e p e r c e p t i o n s and u n d e r s t a n d i n g s of t h e r e a d e r s and u s e r s o f t h a t u h i c h uas w r i t t e n or b u i l t . A d d i n g comment t o W i n s t o n C h u r c h i l l ' s famous l i n e , we not o n l y shape our b u i l d i n g s , and o u r b u i l d i n g s t h e n shape u s , ue a l s o o f t e n engage i n t h e p r o c e s s of r e s h a p i n g our b u i l d i n g s a c c o r d i n g t o meanings and u s e s not o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d . No one i n t r a d i t i o n a l C h i n a , a t l e a s t t o my k n o w l e d g e , f o r e x a m p l e , e v e r b u i l t a s i he y u a n , or a t e m p l e or a g a r d e n u i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n t h a t i t might be u s e d as a p u b l i c museum. However , of t h e c o n c e p t u a l p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e h i s t o r i c a l - g e o g r a p h i c a l method , two a r e p e r h a p s most p r o b l e m a t i c . The f i r s t o f t h e s e i s t h e p r o b l e m of h i s t o r i c a l - g e o g r a p h i c a l r e l a t i v i t y , u h i c h i f t a k e n t o ex t remes p e r m i t s f e u i f any c o m p a r i s o n s . The s e c o n d and more d i f f i c u l t p r o b l e m i s t h e h i s t o r i a n ' s and t h e g e o g r a p h e r ' s s h a r e d t e n d e n c y t o s e e t h e u o r l d i n te rms o f s p a t i a l and t e m p o r a l w h o l e s . In p a r t , t h i s i s s i m p l y a f u n c t i o n o f the p r a c t i c a l need t o c a r v e s p a c e and t i m e i n t o d i g e s t i b l e u n i t s — e r a s and p l a c e s . H e n c e , h i s t o r i a n s and g e o g r a p h e r s impose o r d e r on t i m e and p l a c e , j u s t as o t h e r s i n s o c i e t y impose s u c h o r d e r i n t h e name of e m p i r e s , k i n g s , g o d s , n a t i o n s , and s o o n , <and o f t e n u i t h s i m i l a r i n t e n t i o n s i n m i n d ) . L i k e t h e l a t t e r , t h e s e u n i t s o f t e n t a k e on t h e c h a r a c t e r of l i v i n g t h i n g s , or " f o r c e s " i n d e p e n d e n t of t h e i r c r e a t o r s . T h u s , f o r e x a m p l e , ue speak i n t h e s e pages of C h i n a o r t h e p r e - i n d u s t r i a l e r a as i f t h e y u e r e " t h i n g s " or " b e i n g s " u h i c h have o r had an e x i s t e n c e a p a r t f rom u s , o f t e n f o r g e t t i n g t h a t t h o s e uho l i v e d p r i o r t o t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n E u r o p e or t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n C h i n a n e v e r s u s p e c t e d t h a t t h e y u e r e l i v i n g i n a page 15 " p r e - i n d u s t r i a l e r a , " anymore t h a n t h o s e uho l i v e d i n t h e " C e n t r a l K i n g d o m , " a t t h e c o r e of t h e u n i v e r s e , c o u l d have thought of t h e m s e l v e s as l i v i n g i n a mere " C h i n a , " j u s t one n a t i o n and c u l t u r e among any number of o t h e r s . In p a r t , o f c o u r s e , t h i s i s t h e p r o b l e m o f i n t e r v e n i n g a n a c h r o n i s m s , i . e . . t h e m i s a p p r o p r i a t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t s and t e r m i n o l o g i e s . In p a r t t o o , i t i s t h e c o n c e p t u a l p r o b l e m of i n t e r v e n i n g " h o i i s m s " a k i n t o or synonymous u i t h t h e p r o b l e m of s t r u c t u r a l i s t d e t e r m i n i s m d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r . ( D u n c a n , J . S . , 1980. ) S i m i l a r l y , t h i s i s a l s o a p r o b l e m of h i s t o r i c a l c o n s e r v a t i s m , a uay o f l o o k i n g at t h e p a s t and t h e p r e s e n t i n t h e l i g h t of t r a d i t i o n s t h a t a r e somehow f i x e d i n t i m e and s p a c e . But most of a l l , t h i s i s a p r o b l e m of a w a r e n e s s — o f b e i n g aware t h a t t h e u n i t s a r e our own, t h a t t h e y a r e u s e f u l b e c a u s e i n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s t h e y p r o v i d e a uay f o r us t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p a s t ( o r t h e p r e s e n t ) i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h o u r s e l v e s , t h a t t h e y a r e f i x e d not o n l y i n t h e r e a l w o r l d of t h e p a s t , but a l s o i n our own minds as c e n t r a l r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s f o r our u n d e r s t a n d i n g . In u s i n g them, and i n s e e i n g them i n t h e t i m e s and p l a c e s we e x p l o r e , we r e n d e r t h o s e t i m e s and p l a c e s i n t e l l i g i b l e . In a C o n f u c i a n way, we a b s o r b them and make them r e l e v a n t t o our w o r l d , o r o t h e r w i s e r e n d e r them mere c u r i o s i t i e s when t h e y a r e n o t . S u c h , I would s u b m i t , i s t h e s t u f f o f a r t o r , a t l e a s t , t h e a r t of h i s t o r y and g e o g r a p h y . In t h i s , w h i l e u s i n g t h e l a n g u a g e of s o c i a l s c i e n c e — o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l a n t h r o p o l o g y and c u l t u r a l g e o g r a p h y — a n d w h i l e e m p l o y i n g t h e t e c h n i q u e s and d a t a o f a r c h a e o l o g y , h i s t o r y and g e o g r a p h y , as w e l l as t h o s e of f o l k l o r i s t and l i t e r a r y s c h o l a r , what i s a t t e m p t e d h e r e i n t h e way of an e x p l i c a t i o n of t h e t r a d i t i o n a l C h i n e s e c o u r t y a r d house i s page 1G p e r h a p s more i n t h e n a t u r e of a r t t h a n s c i e n c e , more i n t h e n a t u r e of an e s s a y i n g e o g r a p h i c a l a e s t h e t i c s t h a n g e o g r a p h i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s . I f s o , t h e n at l e a s t I s h a l l be i n good company. I f n o t , i t i s o n l y b e c a u s e I have not been a b l e t o convey t h e meaning of t h e C h i n e s e c o u r t y a r d h o u s e , i t s l a n d s c a p e and i d e o l o g y f u l l y e n o u g h , o r u i t h t h e r i c h n e s s of l a n g u a g e and i n s i g h t t h a t D o n a l d M e i n i g r e c e n t l y demanded of t h o s e uho u o u l d seek t o i n d u l g e or e x p l o r e t h e " a r t " of g e o g r a p h y . ( M e i n i g , 1983. ) 3. L i m i t s of t h e S t u d y . D e s p i t e s u c h a s p i r a t i o n s , t h e r e a r e of c o u r s e many l i m i t s imposed on t h e s c o p e of t h i s s t u d y . Some o f t h e s e have a l r e a d y e i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y been t r e a t e d i n t h e f o r e g o i n g . Some of them a r i s e out of t h e body of r e s o u r c e s t h a t I have u s e d . O t h e r s a r i s e out of t h e s i m p l e n e c e s s i t y of c a r v i n g t i m e and s p a c e i n t o d i g e s t i b l e u n i t s . S t i l l o t h e r s a r e a f u n c t i o n of p r e f e r e n c e . fit t h e o u t s e t , t h e r e i s t h e b a s i c i s s u e o f t i m e - f r a m e . What does one mean by " t r a d i t i o n a l " C h i n a ? In one p o p u l a r s e n s e , t r a d i t i o n a l C h i n a means e v e r y t h i n g t h a t o c c u r r e d p r i o r t o t h e Western i m p a c t , and i n p a r t i c u l a r p r i o r t o t h e m a s s i v e p e n e t r a t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e Empi re by Western a r m i e s , m i s s i o n a r i e s , b u s i n e s s m e n , a r c h i t e c t s and o t h e r s i n t h e uake o f t h e Opium Wars of 1839-40 . In many uays t h i s i s as good a d e s i g n a t i o n as a n y , and b e t t e r t h a n most i n s o f a r as i t i n t e n d s t o p o i n t t o t h e g r o u t h of an i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y i n C h i n a . T h e r e a r e , o f c o u r s e , i m p o r t a n t e x c e p t i o n s t o be made about t h a t d e s i g n a t i o n , not t h e l e a s t of u h i c h i s t h a t C h i n e s e t r a d i t i o n s l a s t e d u e l l beyond t h e m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y a n d , i n d e e d , c o n t i n u e t o d a y i n page 17 C h i n a , i n T a i w a n , i n Hong K o n g , and i n t h e many O v e r s e a s - C h i n e s e c o m m u n i t i e s a r o u n d t h e w o r l d . F u r t h e r m o r e , C h i n a has l o n g been t h e o b j e c t of Western and o t h e r f o r e i g n a t t e n t i o n s . The impact of f o r e i g n i m p o r t s on C h i n a i n t h e p a s t has not been s m a l l , as i n t h e c a s e of Buddhism and t h e many e a r l y m e d i e v a l f a s h i o n s t h a t , w h i l e d e r i v e d of C e n t r a l A s i a , have l o n g s i n c e become S i n i f i e d . ( S c h a f e r , 1963. ) To be s u r e , i t i s a l s o t h e c a s e t h a t t h r o u g h c o n t a c t u i t h f o r e i g n c u l t u r e s many t r a d i t i o n s have now mutated or c o n j u g a t e d beyond e a s y r e c o g n i t i o n , and what p a s s e s f o r C h i n e s e t r a d i t i o n i n some i n s t a n c e s i s an e r s a t z i n v e n t i o n more s u i t e d t o t h e t a s t e s of M a d i s o n Avenue and H o l l y w o o d , o r f o r t h a t mat te r t o t h e p r o p a g a n d a m i l l s of B e i j i n g and T a i p e i t h a n t o t h e demands of a n c e s t r a l C h i n a . However , t r a d i t i o n s fo rmed t h r o u g h c e n t u r i e s of s o c i a l programming d i e h a r d , and even as t h e y d i e , t h e i r d e a t h t h r o e s a r e u s u a l l y a c c o m p a n i e d by any number of a t t e m p t e d r e v i v a l s , r e s t o r a t i o n s , or p r e s e r v a t i o n s . A more p r o b l e m a t i c q u e s t i o n about t h e d e s i g n a t i o n of an 1840*s e r a - d i v i d e i s t h a t i t t e n d s t o e x a g g e r a t e , r a t h e r t h a n t o i l l u m i n a t e t h e " c h a n g e l e s s n e s s " of t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s i d e of t h e d i v i d e . In t h e l i g h t o f t h e Western i m p a c t , and by r e f e r e n c e s o l e l y t o Western h i s t o r i c a l c o m p a r i s o n s , " u n c h a n g i n g C h i n a " i s p e r h a p s l e s s a " f a c t " t h a n an image p r o j e c t e d by s u c h Weste rn t h i n k e r s as M o n t e s q u i e u and K a r l Marx , a i d e d and a b e t t e d by J e s u i t - t r a n s m i t t e d v e r s i o n s of t h e C o n f u c i a n h i s t o r i o g r a p h i c i d e a l of c y c l i c a l r e p e t i t i o n . ( W i t t f o g e l , 1956; May, 1957 . ) page 18 S t i l l , whatever i t s f a u l t s , t h e 1840 's d i v i d e between " t r a d i t i o n a l " and "modern" C h i n a i s a l s o more t h a n a h i s t o r i o g r a p h i c c o n v e n i e n c e . The Opium Wars p e r i o d i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e d i v i d e b e c a u s e a l o n g w i t h t h e f o r e i g n impact came t h e b e g i n n i n g s of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , and w i t h i t t o o t h e s e e d s f o r s u c h i d e o l o g i e s as n a t i o n a l i s m and s o c i a l i s m . P e r h a p s i r o n i c a l l y , Western i m p e r i a l i s m c a r r i e d w i t h i t t h e s e e d s f o r t h e d e s t r u c t i o n of a l l i m p e r i a l i d e o l o g i e s . In t h e c a s e of C h i n a i t s u c c e e d e d i n b r i n g i n g about t h e c o l l a p s e of t h e C o n f u c i a n i m p e r i a l o r d e r a n d , w i t h i t , t h e d e a t h t h r o e s of t h e o f f i c i a l l a n d s c a p e and i t s i d e o l o g i c a l u n d e r p i n n i n g s . I f f o r no o t h e r r e a s o n , t h e r e f o r e , " t r a d i t i o n a l C h i n a " e f f e c t i v e l y ends w i t h t h e m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e b e g i n n i n g s and e v o l u t i o n o f " t r a d i t i o n a l C h i n a " a r e not s o e a s i l y d e a l t u i t h . Wi th a w r i t t e n h i s t o r y e x t e n d i n g some 2 , 0 0 0 y e a r s , and an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l h i s t o r y e x t e n d i n g some a d d i t i o n a l 3 ,000 y e a r s i n t o t h e p a s t , t h e b e g i n n i n g s and m i d d l e s o f C h i n e s e h i s t o r y a r e f a r t o o e x t e n s i v e t o p e r m i t c a s u a l t r e a t m e n t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , f o r my p u r p o s e s , c e r t a i n o b j e c t i v e l i m i t s a r e t h a n k f u l l y imposed by t h e s u b j e c t under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Not t h e l e a s t of t h e s e i s t h e f a c t t h a t , a l t h o u g h I employ a combined a r c h a e o l o g i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l method , t h e i s s u e of p r i m o r d i a l o r i g i n s i s not of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t h e r e . As n o t e d e a r l i e r , i t i s t h e s o c i a l m e a n i n g s , not t h e o r i g i n s of t h e s i he yuan t h a t c o n s t i t u t e t h e p r i m a r y f o c u s of t h i s s t u d y . A n d , u h i l e o r i g i n s and meanings a r e somet imes t h e same, t h e y a r e not synonymous. M o r e o v e r , a l t h o u g h I u i l l d i s c u s s v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s o r v iews about t h e o r i g i n s o f t h e C o n f u c i a n i d e o l o g y and i t s l a n d s c a p e , as w e l l as the s i he yuan i n p r i m o r d i a l and e a r l y h i s t o r i c a l t i m e s , t h e h i s t o r i c a l page 19 f o c u s of a t t e n t i o n h e r e i s more n a r r o w l y d e f i n e d by t h e Ming (1368-1644) and t h e Q i n g (1644-1911) d y n a s t i e s . T h i s i s p a r t l y n e c e s s i t a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t f e u b u i l d i n g s , l e t a l o n e s i he y u a n , have s u r v i v e d e a r l i e r p e r i o d s . I t i s a l s o due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l l i t e r a t u r e of C h i n a ( i . e . . p a t t e r n b o o k s , t e x t s on d e s i g n p r i n c i p l e s , h i s t o r i e s of p a r t i c u l a r b u i l d i n g s , and so on) e i t h e r d e r i v e f rom t h e s e p e r i o d s , or t h e a v a i l a b l e e d i t i o n s a r e l i m i t e d t o t h e s e p e r i o d s . A n d , even as I d r a u f rom a l i t e r a t u r e and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e b a s e t h a t e x t e n d s u e l l i n t o a n c i e n t t i m e s ( a s i n t h e example of t h e C o n f u c i a n c a n o n ) , t h e f a c t r e m a i n s t h a t t h e bu lk of t h e a v a i l a b l e d a t a about t h e t r a d i t i o n a l b u i l t env i ronment d e r i v e s f rom l a t e m e d i e v a l and e a r l y modern p e r i o d s . F o r t u n a t e l y , h o u e v e r , t h i s p o s e s f e u p r o b l e m s , f o r t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f t h e C h i n e s e l a n d s c a p e i s s u c h t h a t , u i t h some e x c e p t i o n s , t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l l a n d s c a p e o f t h e Ming and Q i n g p e r i o d s , i n c l u d i n g t h e s i he y u a n , i s d e r i v e d f rom and t h e r e f o r e h i g h l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of e a r l i e r p e r i o d s . In a d d i t i o n t o h i s t o r i c a l l i m i t s , t h e r e a r e a l s o some g e o g r a p h i c a l l i m i t s imposed by t h e d a t a and t h e s u b j e c t . F o r t u n a t e l y , i n t h e c a s e o f t h e s i he yuan t h e s e pose f e u s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s . G e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n s as b e t u e e n n o r t h e r n , c e n t r a l and s o u t h e r n C h i n a , o r c o a s t a l and i n l a n d C h i n a d i d p l a y a r o l e i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e form and d e s i g n , though r a r e l y t h e s t r u c t u r e , of t h e s i he y u a n . F o r e x a m p l e , s o u t h e r n r e s i d e n t i a l compounds were o f t e n l a r g e r t h a n t h o s e of t h e n o r t h , r e f l e c t i n g t h e g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e of t h e e x t e n d e d f a m i l y s y s t e m and t h e c l a n i n t h e s o u t h , as u e l l as g r e a t e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of w e a l t h . S i m i l a r l y , u e l l i n t o t h e l a t e Q i n g p e r i o d , s o u t h e r n e r s f a v o r e d d e s i g n s and d e c o r a t i o n s more b e f i t t i n g Ming s t y l e s . T h i s uas l i k e l y due t o t h e page 20 g r e a t e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n of Ming l o y a l i s t s i n r e g i o n s s o u t h of t h e Yangtze R i v e r f o r many decades beyond t h e Q i n g c o n q u e s t . S t i l l , f o r t h e most p a r t , t h e f o r m , s t r u c t u r e and d e s i g n ( h e n c e meanings) of t h e s i he yuan r e m a i n e d v i r t u a l l y t h e same o v e r s p a c e . More o f t e n t h a n n o t , change i n p l a c e meant d i f f e r e n c e s i n e l a b o r a t i o n and e x e c u t i o n , but not changes i n mean ing . H e n c e , t h e examples employed i n t h i s s t u d y a r i s e f rom many r e g i o n s , though p e r h a p s most e m p h a t i c a l l y f rom t h e n o r t h and f rom t h a t p a r t of s o u t h e r n C h i n a l y i n g i n t h e Lower Y a n g t z e B a s i n o r J i a n g n a n R e g i o n . However , as i n t h e c a s e of c h r o n o l o g y , s u c h g e o g r a p h i c a l i s s u e s a r e a l s o not s o much an i s s u e of a c c u r a t e p l a c e m e n t o r s p a t i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n as t h e y a r e i s s u e s about l o c a t i o n a l and s o c i o - g e o g r a p h i c a l c o n t i n g e n c i e s . In l i g h t o f t h e s e c o n t i n g e n c i e s , v a r i o u s more p r o b l e m a t i c g e o g r a p h i c a l i s s u e s a r i s e , as i n how t h e b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t was a f f e c t e d by t h e s p r e a d of e m p i r e , o v e r l a n d v e r s u s o c e a n i c i n f l u e n c e s , t h e r i s e of p a r t i c u l a r p o l i t i c a l , economic and c u l t u r a l c o r e s , t h e h i s t o r i c t e n s i o n between c e n t e r and r e g i o n , t h e s p a t i a l d i f f u s i o n of i d e a s and t h i n g s , and so o n . In e a c h of t h e s e c a s e s , however , t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l i s s u e s r i g h t l y c o n v e r g e w i t h i s s u e s o f h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t . T h e r e f o r e , t h e c o n s t r a i n t s h e r e a r e v i r t u a l l y synonymous w i t h t h o s e c o n s i d e r e d e a r l i e r . S t i l l , of t h e v a r i o u s g e o g r a p h i c a l c o n t i n g e n c i e s i m p l i e d h e r e , one may be p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t t o t h i s s t u d y , namely t h e s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c d i s t i n c t i o n between r u r a l and u r b a n c o n t e x t s , fts w i l l be d i s c u s s e d at g r e a t e r l e n g t h i n C h a p t e r s Two and T h r e e , t h i s s t u d y f o c u s e s a t t e n t i o n p r i m a r i l y on t h e r e s i d e n t i a l c o n t e x t s of e l i t e s , which page 21 means a d o m i n a n t , though by no means e x c l u s i v e , u r b a n f o c u s . The p r i n c i p a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l t r a d i t i o n t r e a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y i s an e l i t e u r b a n t r a d i t i o n , and c a s e s of r u r a l p e a s a n t homes a r e t r e a t e d o n l y i n c i d e n t a l l y . F o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n p o s e s f e u c o n c e p t u a l d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r a s t u d y of C h i n a . In C o n f u c i a n C h i n a , v e r n a c u l a r and e l i t e r e s i d e n t i a l t r a d i t i o n s u e r e so c l o s e l y a l l i e d as t o be i d e n t i c a l s a v e i n e l a b o r a t i o n and e x e c u t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , houever e l s e i t might f u r t h e r be d e f i n e d , t h i s s t u d y i s a imed t o u a r d an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e s o c i a l meanings of t h e f o r m , s t r u c t u r e and d e s i g n of t h e t r a d i t i o n a l , m a i n l y l a t e m e d i e v a l and e a r l y modern e l i t e c o u r t y a r d house i n C h i n a . page 22 CHAPTER TWO CULTURAL IDEOLOGY AND THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT The house i s an i n s t i t u t i o n , not j u s t a s t r u c t u r e , c r e a t e d f o r a complex s e t of p u r p o s e s . B e c a u s e b u i l d i n g a house i s a c u l t u r a l phenomenon, i t s form and o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e c u l t u r a l m i l i e u t o u h i c h i t b e l o n g s . . . I f p r o v i s i o n of s h e l t e r i s t h e p a s s i v e f u n c t i o n of t h e h o u s e , t h e n i t s p o s i t i v e p u r p o s e i s t h e c r e a t i o n of an env i ronment b e s t s u i t e d t o t h e uay of l i f e of a p e o p l e - - i n o t h e r u o r d s , a s o c i a l u n i t o f s p a c e . ( R a p o p o r t , 19G9, p . 46) H a v i n g a c e r t a i n n e c e s s a r y d u r a b i l i t y , even i n an age of r e s t l e s s c h a n g e , t h e b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t of man i s an e n d u r i n g a r t i f a c t of c u l t u r e — a h a r d e n e d d e p o s i t o r y of some of t h e most f u n d a m e n t a l n e e d s , d e s i r e s , b e l i e f s , and v a l u e s of s o c i e t y . And, 4 t h i s i s p e r h a p s nouhere more a p p a r e n t t h a n i n t h e c a s e of t h a t q u i n t e s s e n t i a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l f e a t u r e o f a l l c u l t u r e s and s o c i e t i e s , t h e " t y p i c a l " v e r n a c u l a r h o u s e . P a r t l y f o r t h i s r e a s o n , i n d e a l i n g u i t h t h e form and c o n t e n t of l a t e m e d i e v a l and e a r l y modern E u r o p e a n h o u s e s , F e r n a n d B r a u d e l added i n b r o a d e r , more u n i v e r s a l terms t h a t : . . . Houses a r e b u i l t o r r e b u i l t a c c o r d i n g t o t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n s . Here more t h a n a n y u h e r e e l s e t h e s t r e n g t h of p r e c e d e n t makes i t s e l f f e l t . . . The i n f l u e n c e of custom and t r a d i t i o n i s a l u a y s p r e s e n t f o r ( t h e b u i l d i n g c r a f t s ) a r e a n c i e n t l e g a c i e s t h a t can n e v e r be d i s c a r d e d . . . The f o r c e of t r a d i t i o n i s e v e r more p r e s e n t i n t h e c a s e of c o u n t r y - d u e l l e r s t h r o u g h o u t t h e u o r l d . To have s e e n a v e r y poor p e a s a n t ' s house b e i n g b u i l t f rom i t s f r a i l uooden frame i n t h e r e g i o n of V i t o r i a n o r t h of R i o de J a n e i r o i n 1937 i s t o p o s s e s s an a g e l e s s document , v a l i d f o r c e n t u r i e s b e f o r e t h e p r e s e n t d a y . The same a p p l i e s t o t h e s i m p l e nomad's t e n t : i t has come doun t h r o u g h t h e c e n t u r i e s u i t h o u t c h a n g e , o f t e n uoven on t h e same p r i m i t i v e loom as i n t h e p a s t . In s h o r t , a " h o u s e , " whatever i t may b e , i s an e n d u r i n g t h i n g , and i t b e a r s p e r p e t u a l u i t n e s s t o t h e s l o u p a c e of c i v i l i z a t i o n , o f c u l t u r e s bent on p r e s e r v i n g , m a i n t a i n i n g and r e p e a t i n g . ( B r a u d e l , 1981, p p . Z 6 6 - 6 7 . ) page 23 A s i m i l a r v i e u uas e x p r e s s e d by Amos Rape-port i n h i s s e m i n a l s t u d y of House Form and C u l t u r e uhen he n o t e d t h a t : . . . P r i m i t i v e and v e r n a c u l a r b u i l d i n g s a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d by l a c k of c h a n g e , d i f f e r i n g i n t h i s r e s p e c t f rom t h e more ' n o r m a l ' h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l . These b u i l d i n g s a r e , t h e r e f o r e , b a s i c a l l y n o n - c h r o n o l o g i c a l i n n a t u r e . In f a c t , o r i g i n a l i t y and i n n o v a t i o n i n p r i m i t i v e and v e r n a c u l a r b u i l d i n g s a r e f r o u n e d upon and o f t e n condemned. ( R a p o p o r t , 1969, p. 15 . ) In s h o r t , t h e b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t of man, and p e r h a p s most e s p e c i a l l y h i s r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d s c a p e t e n d s t o change o n l y s l o u l y o v e r t i m e . I t has a k i n d of f i x i t y , d u r a b i l i t y and i m m u t a b i l i t y u h i c h by a n o t h e r name ue a l s o c a l l " t r a d i t i o n . " To uhat c a n one a t t r i b u t e s u c h c o n t i n u i t y amids t t h e a p p a r e n t changes o f h i s t o r y ? 1. C o n t i n u i t y and Change . I m m u t a b i l i t y i n t h e form and s t r u c t u r e of t r a d i t i o n a l , and e s p e c i a l l y v e r n a c u l a r house t y p e s has t y p i c a l l y been a t t r i b u t e d t o a number of f a c t o r s , among u h i c h t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t f i g u r e s p r o m i n e n t l y . To one d e g r e e or a n o t h e r , but e s p e c i a l l y i n s o f a r as t h e " h o u s e " i s d e f i n e d p r i m a r i l y i n te rms of i t s f u n c t i o n as a " s h e l t e r , " t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t has l o n g been r e g a r d e d as t h e p r i n c i p a l s o u r c e of c o n t i n u i t y i n t h e d e s i g n and s t r u c t u r e of h o u s e s e v e r y u h e r e . ( R a p o p o r t , 1969, p p . 1 8 - Z 4 . ) To be s u r e , t h e n a t u r a l s e t t i n g i n t o u h i c h t h e b u i l t env i ronment f i t s o b v i o u s l y a f f e c t s t h e fo rm and s t r u c t u r e of h o u s e s , i f o n l y b e c a u s e i t a l s o h e l p s d e f i n e t h e minimum " n e e d s " of s o c i e t y . S i m i l a r l y , e s p e c i a l l y i n p r e - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s , t h e " s t u f f " of t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n c r a f t s i s , a f t e r a l l , l a r g e l y d e t e r m i n e d by uhat i s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n n a t u r e . H e n c e , f o r e x a m p l e , l i g h t l y f a b r i c a t e d , a i r y bamboo and t h a t c h c o t t a g e s a d d r e s s t h e needs of p e a s a n t s i n s u b - t r o p i c a l S o u t h e a s t A s i a f o r much t h e same r e a s o n t h a t h e a v i e r , b e t t e r i n s u l a t e d l o g c a b i n s a d d r e s s t h e needs of t h e p e a s a n t s page 24 of s u b - a r c t i c S i b e r i a . E a c h r e s o n a t e s r e a s o n a b l y w e l l u i t h t h e c l i m a t e and m a t e r i a l s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e r e g i o n s . In t h i s r e s p e c t , t h e d u r a b i l i t y o f form and t h e c o n t i n u i t y of m a t e r i a l s a r e e a s i l y a s s o c i a t e d u i t h t h e g e o l o g i c a l t i m e f rame of n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . S t i l l , c l i m a t e and n a t u r a l s e t t i n g s a r e o n l y c l u e s t o t h e p u r p o s e f u l c o n t i n u i t i e s o f d e s i g n and s t r u c t u r e i n t h e b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t . On t h e one h a n d , a v a r i e t y of f o r m s and s t r u c t u r e s c a n be f o u n d i n t h e same or l i k e n a t u r a l s e t t i n g s . ( R a p o p o r t , 19G9, p p . 8 3 - 1 0 3 . ) On t h e o t h e r h a n d , m o r e o v e r , " n e e d s " c a n be a d d r e s s e d by a u i d e r a n g e of " m e a n s , " and i t i s p e r h a p s o n l y i n t h e most ext reme c a s e s t h a t t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l argument c a n h o l d a g a i n s t a l l o t h e r s . U s i n g t h e examples c i t e d e a r l i e r , i f i t i s t r u e t h a t t h e p e a s a n t s o f S i b e r i a u o u l d f i n d t h e use o f bamboo c o t t a g e s b o t h i r r e l e v a n t and i m p o s s i b l e t o t h e i r s e t t i n g , t h e p e a s a n t s of S o u t h e a s t A s i a u o u l d not f i n d l o g h o u s e s t o be an e s p e c i a l l y i r r a t i o n a l r e s p o n s e t o t h e need f o r s h e l t e r . W i th r e f e r e n c e t o t r a d i t i o n a l C h i n e s e h o u s e s , i n s o f a r as t i m b e r i s a v a i l a b l e , t h e s t r u c t u r a l t e c h n i q u e i s s u c h t h a t , as C h i n a ' s f o r e m o s t a r c h i t e c t u r a l h i s t o r i a n , L i a n g S s u - c h ' e n g n o t e d : . . . ( i t ) p e r m i t s c o m p l e t e f reedom i n u a l l i n g and f e n e s t r a t i o n a n d , by s i m p l e a d j u s t m e n t of t h e p r o p o r t i o n b e t u e e n u a l l s and o p e n i n g s , r e n d e r s a house p r a c t i c a l and c o m f o r t a b l e i n any c l i m a t e f rom t h a t of t r o p i c a l I n d o c h i n a t o t h a t of s u b a r c t i c M a n c h u r i a . Due t o i t s ext reme f l e x i b i l i t y and a d a p t a b i l i t y , ( t h e t r a d i t i o n a l ) method of c o n s t r u c t i o n c o u l d be employed u h e r e v e r C h i n e s e c i v i l i z a t i o n s p r e a d and u o u l d e f f e c t i v e l y s h e l t e r o c c u p a n t s f rom t h e e l e m e n t s houever d i v e r s e t h e y might b e . ( L i a n g , 1984, p. 8 . ) In s h o r t , t h e c o n t i n u i t y of b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s and fo rms a r e c o n d i t i o n e d not o n l y by n a t u r e and t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of c e r t a i n m a t e r i a l s , but a l s o and o f t e n more i m p o r t a n t l y by o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , not t h e l e a s t of u h i c h a r e t h o s e a s s o c i a t e d u i t h t e c h n o l o g y . page 25 T e c h n o l o g y . That c o n t i n u i t y ( a n d change) i n house form and s t r u c t u r e i s p a r t l y a f u n c t i o n of t e c h n o l o g y i s a l s o p e r h a p s s e l f - e v i d e n t . In p a r t , t h i s i s a q u e s t i o n of t h e t o o l s of t h e e x t r a c t i v e i n d u s t r i e s and t h e b u i l d i n g t r a d e s . R e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e d e v i c e s s u c h as t h e wooden d o u e l , t h e i r o n n a i l , t h e c o r b e l b r a c k e t , t h e h i n g e , t h e door jamb, f i r e d b r i c k , g l a z e , t h e d o u b l e - b l a d e d a x e , t h e tuo -man saw, t h e l e v e l , and s o on have a l l s h a p e d t h e c o n t i n u i t y (and change) of b u i l d i n g form and s t r u c t u r e . S i m i l a r l y , t h e uays i n w h i c h r o o f i s a t t a c h e d t o w a l l , whether t h e c e i l i n g i s b a r r e l - v a u l t e d or n o t , t h e d e g r e e of r o o f p r o j e c t i o n and p i t c h , t h e t y p e of f l o o r i n g and whether t h e f l o o r i s s u s p e n d e d and a t t a c h e d o r s i m p l y a c t s as f o u n d a t i o n , t h e number and s i z e of windows and o t h e r o p e n i n g s , and so on a r e not o n l y m a t t e r s of s t y l e or t a s t e , but a l s o of m a t h e m a t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n dependent on t e c h n i q u e s of p r e c i s i o n measurement t h a t have p e r s i s t e d f o r c e n t u r i e s . Once c u s t o m a r y , s u c h d e v i c e s and b u i l d i n g t e c h n i q u e s a l s o have a way o f e n d u r i n g and l e n d i n g f o r m t o t h e b u i l t env i ronment w e l l beyond t h e i r immedia te p r a c t i c a l n e c e s s i t y and o r i g i n . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l c o r r u g a t e d t i l e r o o f o f many t r a d i t i o n a l C h i n e s e b u i l d i n g s can p r o b a b l y be t r a c e d t o t h e p r i m o r d i a l use of s p l i t bamboo, l a i d l o n g i t u d i n a l l y i n a l t e r n a t e convex and c o n c a v e rows p r o v i d i n g b o t h p r o t e c t i o n f rom and r u n - o f f c h a n n e l s f o r r a i n . As one c a n s e e f rom t h e m i n i a t u r e c l a y tomb houses of t h e Han D y n a s t y ( B . C . Z06 -2Z0 A . D . > , t h e t i l e d v e r s i o n of t h i s r o o f i n g t e c h n i q u e i s i t s e l f one o f t h e o l d e s t f e a t u r e s of C h i n e s e a r c h i t e c t u r e . (Needham, 1971, p. 134s L i a n g , 1984, p . Z B - 3 0 . ) Though o n l y s p e c u l a t i o n , one can p e r h a p s a l s o s u r m i s e t h a t h e r e i n may be t h e r e a s o n why, t y p i c a l l y , t r a d i t i o n a l C h i n e s e b u i l d i n g s l a c k g u t t e r s and d o w n s p o u t s , and r e l y i n s t e a d on e x t e n d e d r o o f o v e r h a n g s f o r p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t i n c l e m e n t wea ther . page 26 C r a f t S c h o o l s and Handbooks . Such c o n t i n u i t y o f b u i l d i n g form and s t r u c t u r e i s h e r e a l s o l a r g e l y d e t e r m i n e d by t h e means whereby c r a f t knowledge and s k i l l s ( t e c h n o l o g y ) a r e p a s s e d f rom one g e n e r a t i o n t o t h e n e x t , g i v i n g r i s e t o c r a f t t r a d i t i o n s t h a t become c u s t o m a r y . F o r t h e most p a r t , i n p r e - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s , t h i s meant l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h a p p r e n t i c e s h i p , t h e b a s i c g o a l of wh ich was r e p l i c a t i o n . I n d e e d , i f , as Rapopor t n o t e s , " o r i g i n a l i t y and i n n o v a t i o n i n p r i m i t i v e and v e r n a c u l a r b u i l d i n g s a r e f rowned upon and o f t e n condemned," t h e r e a s o n i s at l e a s t p a r t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p r i m i t i v e , a n c i e n t and m e d i e v a l p e d a g o g i c methods . L e a r n i n g f rom a " m a s t e r " was l e a r n i n g by r o t e and by s c h o o l e d r e p l i c a t i o n s . In C h i n a , f o r e x a m p l e , as Su G i n - d j i h d e s c r i b e d i t : A r c h i t e c t s . . .were master b u i l d e r s t r a i n e d and r a i s e d t h r o u g h y e a r s o f a p p r e n t i c e s h i p , by memory work and p r a c t i s i n g t h e r u l e s o f t h e t r e a t i s e . They b e l o n g e d t o i n d i v i d u a l g r o u p s and t h e i r s k i l l uas t a u g h t t o them by m a s t e r s , and t h e y i n t u r n i m p a r t e d t h e i r k n o u l e d g e t o t h e i r oun a p p r e n t i c e s . To j o i n one of t h e g u i l d s , t h e y had t o go t h r o u g h e l a b o r a t e c e r e m o n i e s and y e a r s o f l a b o u r u i t h o u t payment . They had a l s o t o s e r v e as a t t e n d a n t s t o t h e i r m a s t e r s . (Su G i n - d j i h , 19G4, p . 1 3 1 . ) T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p between " m a s t e r " and " s t u d e n t " not o n l y e n t a i l e d a r e l a t i o n of " s u p e r i o r and s u b o r d i n a t e , " but a l s o " t e a c h e r " and " d i s c i p l e , " o f t e n c a s t i n e n d u r i n g , q u a s i - f a m i l i a l bonds e x t e n d i n g t h r o u g h g e n e r a t i o n s , c l a n s , and g u i l d s , e n c o m p a s s i n g a l l s u c h d i s c i p l e s i n t o an e x t e n d e d c r a f t - s c h o o l f a m i l y . H e n c e , f o r e x a m p l e , i t was and t o some e x t e n t r e m a i n s t h e c a s e i n C h i n a t h a t t h e maste r was known as s h u f u ( l i t e r a l l y , "book f a t h e r " ) . Next t o t h e b i o l o g i c a l f a m i l y i t s e l f , one of t h e most i m p o r t a n t c a t e g o r i e s of s o c i a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n was known as t o n p x u e ( l i t e r a l l y , " o f t h e same s c h o o l i n g " ) . I n n o v a t i o n or change w o u l d , i n t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , be tantamount t o a c a t a c l y s m i c i r r u p t i o n i n k i n s h i p t i e s . page 27 Not u n t i l l o n g a f t e r t h e i n v e n t i o n of t h e p r i n t i n g p r e s s , and t h e u i d e r d i s s e m i n a t i o n of c r a f t handbooks would a p p r e n t i c e d r e p l i c a t i o n d i m i n i s h as the o n l y mode f o r the t r a n s m i s s i o n of c r a f t knowledge and s k i l l . Even t h e n , c r a f t t r a d i t i o n s d i e d h a r d . I n d e e d , s i n c e t h e e a r l i e s t handbooks s e r v e d t o s t r e n g t h e n and expand t h e i n f l u e n c e of p a r t i c u l a r c r a f t t e c h n i q u e s (and m a s t e r s , or s c h o o l s ) , t h e y a l s o s e r v e d t o promote t h e g r e a t e r c o n t i n u i t y and o s s i f i c a t i o n of b u i l d i n g form and s t r u c t u r e . One of t h e e a r l i e s t examples of a d e t a i l e d c r a f t handbook i n w o r l d h i s t o r y c a n be f o u n d i n C h i n a . T h r e e c e n t u r i e s b e f o r e a n y t h i n g of i t s k i n d can be f o u n d i n E u r o p e , t h e Y i n a Zap F a S h i ( " T r e a t i s e on C o n s t r u c t i o n M e t h o d s " ) , was w r i t t e n by L i J i e about 1100 A . D . and p r i n t e d t h r e e y e a r s l a t e r . An e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y d e t a i l e d o f f i c i a l c o m p i l a t i o n and s y n t h e s i s of o r a l c r a f t t r a d i t i o n s and p r a c t i c e s g a r n e r e d by L i J i e f o r use by t h e Song D y n a s t y Bureau of I m p e r i a l S a c r i f i c e s and t h e D i r e c t o r a t e of B u i l d i n g s and C o n s t r u c t i o n , t h e Y i n a Zao F a S h i became t h e s i n e qua non of handbooks f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of o f f i c e s , p a l a c e s , g a t e s , g a t e - t o w e r s , a n c e s t r a l t e m p l e s , B u d d h i s t t e m p l e s a n d , by e x t e n s i o n , v i r t u a l l y a l l e l i t e , u r b a n r e s i d e n c e s and b u i l d i n g s . (Needham, 1971, p p . 84 , 107; L i a n g , 1984 . ) F o r c e n t u r i e s t h e r e a f t e r , t h e Y i n a Zao F a S h i , o r one or a n o t h e r v a r i a n t , s u c h as t h e Q i n g D y n a s t y ' s K u n g - c h ' e n g T s o - f a ( " S t r u c t u r a l R e g u l a t i o n s " ) p r i n t e d i n 1734, g u i d e d t h e hands of c a r p e n t e r s , b r i c k l a y e r s , and c r a f t - a r c h i t e c t s t o fo rm and s t r u c t u r e b u i l d i n g s t h r o u g h o u t C h i n a . ( L i a n g , 1984. ) G u i l d s . M o r e o v e r , once s u c h c r a f t s m e n were o r g a n i z e d i n t o c r a f t g u i l d s , i t was a l s o i n t h e i n t e r e s t of t h e g u i l d t o p e r p e t u a t e i t s e l f and i t s t a l e n t s , i n c l u d i n g i t s s c h o o l e d t e c h n i q u e s . As J o h n B u r g e s s f o u n d i n h i s famous 1928 s t u d y of The G u i l d s of P e k i n g , c r a f t g u i l d s were i n t e n d e d t o p r o t e c t and page 28 p e r p e t u a t e t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r e s t s of t h e i r members, as u e l l as t h e i r economic i n t e r e s t s . B a s e d on h i s i n t e r v i e w o f t h e fo reman of t h e c a r p e n t e r s ' g u i l d ( u h i c h i n c l u d e d house b u i l d e r s and uood c a r v e r s , but not f u r n i t u r e menders uho had a g u i l d of t h e i r o u n ) , B u r g e s s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e s t a t e d p u r p o s e of t h e g u i l d uas not o n l y t o d i s c o u r a g e c o m p e t i t i o n and s t a n d a r d i z e u a g e s , but a l s o " t o u o r s h i p t h e master and t h u s e x p r e s s g r a t i t u d e t o t h e f o u n d e r f o r o r i g i n a t i n g t h e c r a f t , " and " t o s e c u r e u n i t e d good f e e l i n g and t o u n i f y t h e body of c r a f t s m e n . " A l t h o u g h t h e " m a s t e r " i n t h i s i n s t a n c e uas t h e m y t h i c f i g u r e of Lu Ban ( i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l C o n f u c i a n - T a o i s t p a n t h e o n of q u a s i - m y t h i c a l q u a s i - h i s t o r i c a l d e i t i e s , Lu Ban uas t h e p a t r o n of a l l c a r p e n t e r s and u o o d - u o r k e r s ) , by e m p h a s i z i n g and i n d e e d u o r s h i p p i n g i t s l i n k s u i t h t h e a n c i e n t m y t h o p o e i c p a s t , as t h e g u i l d foreman put i t t o B u r g e s s , t h e g u i l d promoted " a s i n c e r e b e l i e f i n t h e m a s t e r , s t r i c t a d h e r e n c e t o t r a d i t i o n a l c u s t o m , and a s e n s e of u n i t y among t h e members." ( B u r g e s s , 1928, p p . 9 1 - 1 0 2 . ) The " t e s t " of t h e c a r p e n t e r s ' g u i l d ' s p u r p o s e as an e s s e n t i a l a r b i t e r of t e c h n i q u e and s t r u c t u r e came at t h e end of t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y uhen Western m i s s i o n a r i e s opened a s c h o o l near B e i j i n g t o t r a i n c a r p e n t e r s i n t h e methods o f c o n s t r u c t i n g f o r e i g n houses and b u i l d i n g s . As demand f o r t h e l a t t e r i n c r e a s e d d u r i n g t h e e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , t h e c a r p e n t e r s ' g u i l d had t o adapt t o i t s methods . B u t , i n t h e p r o c e s s t o o t h e g u i l d ' s v e r y e x i s t e n c e uas t h r e a t e n e d . As Gamble and B u r g e s s n o t e d i n t h e i r d e t a i l e d 1919 s t u d y , P e k i n g : A S o c i a l S u r v e y , an a t tempt uas made t o merge t h e c a r p e n t e r s ' g u i l d u i t h t h a t of t h e masons and p a i n t e r s t o c r e a t e a modern u n i o n whose l i n k w i t h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l g u i l d would have been mere ly n o m i n a l , i . e . . i t uas t o be c a l l e d t h e " L u Ban I n d u s t r i a l U n i o n . " (Gamble and B u r g e s s , 1921, 175-76; B u r g e s s , 1928, p p . 9 9 , 102 . ) As i t h a p p e n e d , t h e Lu page 29 Ban I n d u s t r i a l U n i o n was a p p a r e n t l y s t i l l b o r n , p e r h a p s t e s t i f y i n g t o t h e s t r e n g t h of t r a d i t i o n a l g u i l d s d u r i n g t h e 1 9 Z 0 ' s . However , as t r a d i t i o n a l g u i l d s a d a p t e d t o n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s , t h e i r r a i s o n d ' e t r e e r o d e d f rom " g u i l d " i n t o " u n i o n , " j u s t as t h e i r members were t r a n s f o r m e d f rom " c r a f t s m e n " i n t o " w o r k e r s " . In t h e p r o c e s s , t h e f o r m , s t r u c t u r e and d e s i g n of t h e b u i l t env i ronment of C h i n a , much as i n o t h e r n o n - W e s t e r n s o c i e t i e s , y i e l d e d t o t h e p r e s s u r e s f o r s o c i a l and a r c h i t e c t u r a l c h a n g e . One g e n e r a l l e s s o n t o be g a i n e d f rom t h i s example i s t h a t b u i l d i n g form and s t r u c t u r e a r e a l s o f u n c t i o n s of t h e way s o c i a l needs a r e d e f i n e d o v e r t ime and i n d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s . As B r a u d e l showed i n t h e c a s e of t h e C i t y of P a r i s , i t was not u n t i l ( a ) t h e r i s e of an u r b a n m i d d l e c l a s s u i t h heavy i n v e s t m e n t s i n t h e i r own market and r e a l e s t a t e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s , (b ) t h e emergence of more e f f i c i e n t e x t r a c t i v e and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t e c h n o l o g i e s , and (c> t h e r e g u l a t o r y i n t e r v e n t i o n of governments c o n c e r n e d about t h e r i s i n g c o s t s of p u b l i c w e l f a r e t h a t t h e b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t of P a r i s was t r a n s f o r m e d f rom a l a n d s c a p e of f i r e - t h r e a t e n e d , wooden b u i l d i n g s i n t o a l a n d s c a p e of f i r e - r e t a r d a n t , s t o n e - c a r v e d and b r i c k e d e d i f i c e s and t i l e d r o o f s . ( B r a u d e l , 1981, p p . 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In p r e - i n d u s t r i a l s e t t i n g s , a l t h o u g h t h e p u r p o s e s and v a l u e s s e r v e d nay d i f f e r , much t h e s a n e can a l s o be f o u n d i n a n c i e n t and i m p e r i a l b u i l d i n g p r a c t i c e s and r e g u l a t i o n s . S i n c e t h e b e g i n n i n g s of o r g a n i z e d s o c i e t y , f o r e x a m p l e , b u i l d i n g r e g u l a t i o n s have been p r o m u l g a t e d t o s e r v e r e l i g i o - p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s . P e r h a p s , as Y i - f u Tuan e x h o r t e d , " t h e u o r l d , t o be l i v a b l e , must be r e c o n s t i t u t e d t o r e f l e c t t h e human need f o r p r i v i l e g e d l o c a t i o n and b o u n d a r i e s . " ( T u a n , 1971, p. 18 . ) P e r h a p s , as M i r c e a E l i a d e a l s o s h o u e d , t h e p r i m o r d i a l i n c l i n a t i o n t o i n v e n t s a c r e d s p a c e " i m p l i e s a h i e r o p h a n y , an i r r u p t i o n of t h e s a c r e d t h a t r e s u l t s i n d e t a c h i n g a t e r r i t o r y f rom t h e s u r r o u n d i n g c o s m i c m i l i e u and making i t q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t . " ( E l i a d e , 19GG, p. 2Q>.) Whatever t h e r e a s o n s , t h e u n i v e r s a l r e s u l t has been t o c r e a t e c u s t o m a r y and o f f i c i a l r e g u l a t i o n s about t h e o r i e n t a t i o n , l o c a t i o n , s t r u c t u r e , s c a l e , and d e s i g n o f t h e human h a b i t a t t o s u i t t h e needs and i n t e n t i o n s of r e l i g i o - p o l i t i c a l ( a n d , by e x t e n s i o n , s o c i a l ) d i s t i n c t i o n s . T r a n s f o r m e d i n t o i m p e r i a l p a l a c e s t h r o u g h t h e i d e o l o g y of d i v i n e k i n g s h i p s , o r shaped i n t o t h e form of z i g g u r a t , s t u p a , pagoda and o t h e r t e m p l e complexes t h r o u g h t h e c o n j u r i n g s of p r i e s t l y a r c h i t e c t s , t h e c o s m i c p o l e - c u m - c e n t e r i s p e r h a p s t h e most u n i v e r s a l means uhereby s i t e s and b u i l d i n g s a r e l i t e r a l l y " s e t a s i d e " and d i s t i n g u i s h e d by custom and r e g u l a t i o n as " s a c r e d " o r s p e c i a l and " u n i q u e . " O r i e n t a t i o n s and a x i s f o c u s e d upon and a r o u n d s u c h c e n t e r s commonly c o n v e y s a c e r d o t a l and m y s t e r i o u s messages and m e a n i n g s . ( W h e a t l e y , 1971; T u a n , 1969 . ) By e x t e n s i o n , t h e p r e c i s e l o c a t i o n , s c a l e and shape of t h e c e n t e r and a l l s t r u c t u r e s o r i e n t e d towards o r auay f rom t h e c e n t e r convey p a r a l l e l and l i n k e d s a c e r d o t a l i n f e r e n c e s . page 31 Such i s t h e s t u f f of shamanism, s o r c e r y , a l c h e m y , geomancy and o t h e r t r a d i t i o n a l " p r o t o - s c i e n c e s . " As shown so f o r c e f u l l y by P a u l Wheat ley i n The P i v o t of F o u r Q u a r t e r s , t h e a r t and s c i e n c e of s a c e r d o t a l d i s t i n c t i o n s i n s p a c e , i n u r b a n d e s i g n , and i n a r c h i t e c t u r e i n C h i n a r e a c h e d monumental p r o p o r t i o n s as an i m p e r i a l c u l t o f d e s i g n f o r a l l p u b l i c and most u r b a n h a b i t a t s . ( U h e a t l e y , 1971. ) In C h i n a t o o , under t h e g e n e r a l t i t l e of f e n q s h u i ( l i t e r a l l y , "w ind and w a t e r " ) , t h e p o p u l a r c u l t o f geomancy became a h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d a s t r o l o g i c a l , g e o g r a p h i c a l , and a r c h i t e c t u r a l p r o t o - s c i e n c e a r t i c u l a t e d t h r o u g h many d i f f e r e n t c r a f t s c h o o l s and h a n d b o o k s . ( E i t e l , 1873 and 1985; Needham, 1969; F e u c h t w a n g , 1974; F r e e d m a n , 19G8; L i p , 1979; R o s s b a c h , 1983) . T o g e t h e r , t h e i m p e r i a l and t h e p o p u l a r c u l t d e f i n e d many of t h e customs and r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of b u i l d i n g s . In t h e p r o c e s s t o o , as t h e s e and o t h e r r e l i g i o - p o l i t i c a l c o d i c i e s became dominant o r p r e v a l e n t , t h e y r e i n f o r c e d and s u s t a i n e d the c o n t i n u i t y of b u i l t fo rms and s t r u c t u r e s . T h e r e a r e , u n d o u b t e d l y many o t h e r f a c t o r s t h a t h a v e , t h r o u g h h i s t o r y and i n d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s , e i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e d t h e c o n t i n u i t y and change of b u i l d i n g f o r m s , s t r u c t u r e s and d e s i g n . That t r a d i t i o n s a r e shaped by c l i m a t e , t e c h n o l o g y , economy, r e l i g i o n , and p o l i t i c s i s i t s e l f not s o much t o answer a q u e s t i o n about t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t and s o c i e t y , as t o g i v e r i s e t o a h o s t of o t h e r q u e s t i o n s . F o r e x a m p l e , t o what e x t e n t i s t h e e v o l u t i o n and i n v e n t i o n o f t e c h n o l o g y a f u n c t i o n of t h e a d a p t a b i l i t y o f c u l t u r e s ? Do t e c h n o l o g i e s r e f l e c t t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f s o c i e t i e s t o borrow fo rms and f u n c t i o n s f rom o t h e r s ? I f t e c h n o l o g y i s i n d e e d b o r r o w e d , t o what e x t e n t a r e " a l i e n " s o c i a l v a l u e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s c a r r i e d a l o n g as n e c e s s a r y e x t r a baggage? Whether bor rowed or i n d i g e n o u s , t o what e x t e n t a r e b u i l t forms and s t r u c t u r e s a page 32 f u n c t i o n of economies of s c a l e , c o s t s of p r o d u c t i o n , c o s t s of l a b o r , c o s t s of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and s o on? P e r h a p s forms and s t r u c t u r e s p e r s i s t s i m p l y b e c a u s e r e p e t i t i o n i s t h e p a t h of l e a s t p r i c e , and d e m o l i t i o n i s t h e p a t h of h i g h e r c o s t . P e r h a p s forms and s t r u c t u r e s change b e c a u s e , once s a v i n g s a r e i n t r o d u c e d t h r o u g h neu t e c h n o l o g i e s , new m a t e r i a l s , and new work f o r c e s , t h e p a t h of l e a s t c o s t c h a n g e s . My p o i n t i s not s o much t o answer t h e s e q u e s t i o n s h e r e as t o n o t e t h a t new fo rms and s t r u c t u r e s o f t e n e n t a i l whole new s y s t e m s of r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n s o c i e t y b e f o r e t h e y t o o s u c c e e d i n g e n e r a t i n g t h e c o n t i n u i t i e s we i d e n t i f y w i t h c u l t u r e s and c i v i l i z a t i o n s , t h e c o n t i n u i t i e s wh ich by any o t h e r name a r e " t r a d i t i o n s . " I f t h e common house o r , f o r t h a t m a t t e r , any p a r t of t h e b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t , " b e a r s p e r p e t u a l w i t n e s s t o t h e s low p a c e of c i v i l i z a t i o n s , of c u l t u r e s bent on p r e s e r v i n g , m a i n t a i n i n g and r e p e a t i n g , " as B r a u d e l t e s t i f i e d , t h e n t h i s i s t r u e b e c a u s e a l l t h e o t h e r c o n t i n u i t i e s of c u l t u r e s and c i v i l i z a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g t h e i r dominant s o c i a l norms , m o r e s , n e e d s , v a l u e s , and i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e a l s o s low t o c h a n g e . T h i s does not mean t h a t t r a d i t i o n s do not c h a n g e . On t h e c o n t r a r y , i t i s o n l y t o say t h a t i f t r a d i t i o n i s t h e grammar of c u l t u r e and c i v i l i z a t i o n , a t l e a s t t o t h e p o i n t where i n v e n t i o n s or a l i e n i n t r o d u c t i o n s b e g i n and f r e q u e n t l y even beyond t h a t p o i n t , t h e p r i n c i p a l means uhereby c u l t u r e s and c i v i l i z a t i o n s change i s c o n j u g a t i o n . Whether one s p e a k s o f " G r e a t e r " f o r m a l or " L e s s e r " f o l k t r a d i t i o n s , change i s not s o much a b s e n t as h i g h l y c o n t i n g e n t , find, not t h e l e a s t of t h e s e c o n t i n g e n c i e s i s t h e e x t e n t t o wh ich t r a d i t i o n i s i t s e l f h i g h l y segmented i n t i m e , p l a c e and by s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . page 33 V e r n a c u l a r and O f f i c i a l L a n d s c a p e s . So f a r , i n s p e a k i n g of - t r a d i t i o n , I have i n t e n d e d t o i n c l u d e b o t h G r e a t e r and L e s s e r t r a d i t i o n s . ( R e d f i e l d , 1953 ) . T h i s i s m a i n l y b e c a u s e most of t h e q u e s t i o n s I have r a i s e d about c o n t i n u i t y and change i n s o c i e t y and t h e b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t a p p l y e q u a l l y u e l l t o b o t h . B u t , no d o u b t , once beyond t h e presumed or i m a g i n a r y s t a g e o f p r i m i t i v e communism, t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s u e r e (and a r e ) h i g h l y segmented i n t o d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l o r d e r s , i f not c l a s s e s of p e o p l e , As a c o n s e q u e n c e , " t r a d i t i o n " i s i t s e l f h i g h l y s e g m e n t e d , not o n l y i n t i m e and s p a c e , but a l s o by v i r t u e of t h e s o c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s t h a t a r i s e i n s o c i e t y , fls a c o n s e q u e n c e t o o , t h e b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t i s a l s o s e g m e n t e d , not o n l y i n t o G r e a t e r and L e s s e r b u i l d i n g t r a d i t i o n s , but a l s o i n t o many v a r i e t i e s of h i e r a r c h i c a l and p a r a l l e l p a t t e r n s . In a r c h i t e c t u r a l t e r m s , R e d f i e l d ' s c l a s s i c d i s t i n c t i o n has i t s e x p r e s s i o n i n t h e form of a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n , on t h e one h a n d , v e r n a c u l a r a n d , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , " p r o f e s s i o n a l " or " a c a d e m i c " o r " g r a n d d e s i g n " t r a d i t i o n i n a r c h i t e c t u r e . A l o n g u i t h John D e e t z , ue can d e f i n e t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i n t h e f o l l o u i n g g e n e r a l f a s h i o n : V e r n a c u l a r b u i l d i n g i s f o l k b u i l d i n g , done w i t h o u t t h e b e n e f i t o f f o r m a l p l a n s . Such s t r u c t u r e s a r e f r e q u e n t l y b u i l t by t h e i r o c c u p a n t s o r , i f n o t , by someone who i s w e l l w i t h i n t h e o c c u p a n t ' s immediate communi ty . V e r n a c u l a r s t r u c t u r e s a r e t h e immedia te p r o d u c t of t h e i r u s e r s and form a s e n s i t i v e i n d i c a t o r of t h e s e p e r s o n s ' i n n e r f e e l i n g s , t h e i r i d e a s of what i s or i s not s u i t a b l e t o them. . . Academic a r c h i t e c t u r e p r o c e e d s f rom p l a n s c r e a t e d by a r c h i t e c t s t r a i n e d i n t h e t r a d e and r e f l e c t s c o n t e m p o r a r y s t y l e s of d e s i g n t h a t r e l a t e t o f o r m a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l o r d e r s . ( D e e t z , 1977, p. 9 3 . ) E x c l u d i n g s o - c a l l e d " p r i m i t i v e " b u i l d i n g s (on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t , by d e f i n i t i o n , " p r i m i t i v e " s o c i e t i e s a r e l a c k i n g i n s o c i a l s e g m e n t a t i o n ) , v e r n a c u l a r b u i l d i n g t r a d i t i o n s a r e a c o m p o s i t e o f s e v e r a l major f a c t o r s i n c l u d i n g , t o borrow f rom R a p o p o r t ' s d i s c u s s i o n , t h e emergence of page 34 s p e c i a l i z e d c r a f t s a l o n g s i d e amateur c o n s t r u c t i o n , a dependence on r e p l i c a t e d models a n d , i n t h a t s e n s e , a d e s i g n t r a d i t i o n l a c k i n g i n " t h e o r e t i c a l o r a e s t h e t i c p r e t e n s i o n s , " d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n u i t h c l o s e a f f i n i t y f o r t h e l o c a l e n v i r o n m e n t , a t r a d i t i o n t h a t p e r m i t s a d d i t i v e change u i t h no premium on n o v e l t y o r o r i g i n a l i t y , and s t y l i s t i c o r a e s t h e t i c d u r a b i l i t y b e i n g handed doun t h r o u g h g e n e r a t i o n s . ( R a p o p o r t , 1969, p p . 1-8. ) P h r a s e d d i f f e r e n t l y , t h e r e a r e no " a r c h i t e c t s " i n the v e r n a c u l a r t r a d i t i o n , o n l y b u i l d e r s and c r a f t s m e n u h o , t o g e t h e r u i t h end u s e r s ( o f t e n b e i n g t h e m s e l v e s ) , d e s i g n and make b u i l d i n g s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r immediate need6 and t h e uay t h e y have done f o r g e n e r a t i o n s . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s s o c i a t e d u i t h t h e v e r n a c u l a r t r a d i t i o n a r e d i a m e t r i c a l l y o p p o s i t e t h o s e of t h e g r a n d d e s i g n , " a c a d e m i c " t r a d i t i o n . H o u e v e r , t h e d i s t i n c t i o n s between v e r n a c u l a r and t h e g r a n d d e s i g n t r a d i t i o n s i n or of a n c i e n t and p r e - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s a r e a l s o more s u b t l e t h a n Deetz and R a p o p o r t i m p l y . To be s u r e , t h e r e a r e f u n d a m e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e way i n which g r a n d p a l a c e s , e l i t e e s t a t e s , c a s t l e compounds, and temple c o m p l e x e s were d e s i g n e d and b u i l t , and t h e uay i n u h i c h peasan t houses u e r e d e s i g n e d and b u i l t . S c a l e and c o m p l e x i t y a l o n e u n d o u b t e d l y r e q u i r e d a d i f f e r e n t o r d e r and magni tude i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e , s k i l l s , l a b o r , and m a t e r i a l s . W e a l t h or t h e pouer t o m o b i l i z e r e s o u r c e s over g r e a t d i s t a n c e s and d e s p i t e n a t u r a l o r human h a z a r d s f i g u r e s p r o m i n e n t l y i n t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n , find, a l t h o u g h p e a s a n t s m i g h t , d i d and do r e l y on t h e a i d of t h e s p e c i a l i z e d c r a f t s , f e u k i n g s , n o b l e s , p r i e s t s , o r merchant p r i n c e s a c t u a l l y d e s i g n e d and b u i l t t h e i r oun homes u i t h t h e i r bun h a n d s . The r o l e of i n t e r m e d i a r i e s i n t h e d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e p r i n c e l y env i ronment i s c l e a r l y one p r i n c i p a l means by wh ich t o d i s t i n g u i s h page 35 t h e common v e r n a c u l a r f rom t h e more s p e c i a l i z e d g r a n d d e s i g n t r a d i t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e y a l s o s h a r e d many common f e a t u r e s . The g r a n d d e s i g n t r a d i t i o n uas a l s o s l o u t o change and changed m a i n l y by a c c r e t i o n or c o n j u g a t i o n . To be s u r e , u e a l t h and pouer a l s o c o n f e r r e d e a s e of a c c e s s t o i n n o v a t i o n s and i n t r o d u c t i o n s f rom a f a r , but not n e c e s s a r i l y a d e s i r e f o r or a u i l l i n g n e s s t o a c c e p t s u c h i n n o v a t i o n s and b o r r o u i n g s . In f a c t , as i s p o i n t e d out b e l o u , t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r s of t h e g r a n d d e s i g n t r a d i t i o n had t h e i r oun good p o l i t i c a l r e a s o n s not t o i n d u l g e i n i n n o v a t i o n s . S i m i l a r l y , t h e g r a n d d e s i g n t r a d i t i o n a l s o s h a r e d a f f i n i t i e s f o r n a t u r e , i f o f t e n on a more g r a n d c o s m i c s c a l e t h a n t h e v e r n a c u l a r . By v i r t u e of i t s r e l i g i o - p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n s , the g r a n d d e s i g n t r a d i t i o n of p r e - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s uas f r a u g h t u i t h a n t h r o p o m o r p h i c and n a t u r a l i s t i c s y m b o l i s m a t t a c h e d not o n l y t o t h e c o s m o s , but a l s o t o l o c a l g e o m a n t i c f o r c e s much i n t h e same uay as t h e v e r n a c u l a r . P e r h a p s more i m p o r t a n t l y , a l t h o u g h t h e g r a n d d e s i g n t r a d i t i o n e n t a i l e d a h o s t of s p e c i a l i z e d c r a f t i n t e r m e d i a r i e s , t h i s i s not t o say t h a t i t employed p r o f e s s i o n a l " a r c h i t e c t s , " at l e a s t not by t h e commonly a c c e p t e d modern d e f i n i t i o n . A n c i e n t and p r e - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s r a r e l y had " a r c h i t e c t s " p e r s e . any more t h a n t h e y had " a s t r o n o m e r s " r a t h e r t h a n " a s t r o l o g e r s , " or " c h e m i s t s " r a t h e r t h a n " a l c h e m i s t s , " or " a g r o n o m i s t s " r a t h e r t h a n " f a r m e r s and p e a s a n t s . " L i k e most o f t h e modern academic p r o f e s s i o n s , p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h i t e c t u r e i s m a i n l y a l a t t e r - d a y p r o d u c t of t h e E u r o p e a n R e n a i s s a n c e and e a r l y I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . I n d e e d , i n a n c i e n t and many p r e - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s , e x c e p t as u o u l d be syonymous u i t h "maste r b u i l d e r " or "maste r c r a f t s m a n , " t h e r e uas no te rm f o r " a r c h i t e c t . " In C h i n a , f o r e x a m p l e , one o f t h e most a n c i e n t and c l a s s i c a l terms u s e d i n c o n n e c t i o n u i t h t h e uork of an " a r c h i t e c t " i s j i a n o r e n B u t , t h e page 36 meaning of t h e term i s more a c c u r a t e l y c o n v e y e d by t h e t r a n s l a t i o n "maste r b u i l d e r , " or more s i m p l y , " c a r p e n t e r " ( t h e components of t h e c h a r a c t e r i t s e l f s i g n i f i n g an ' a x e ' i n s i d e a ' b o x ' ) . Sometimes u s e d i n c l a s s i c a l t e x t s u i t h r e f e r e n c e t o an o f f i c i a l t i t l e d e s i g n a t i n g an o f f i c e o r o f f i c e r i n c h a r g e of c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , t h e term u o u l d somet imes s t i l l b e t t e r be t r a n s l a t e d as " f o r e m a n . " P e r h a p s t h e b e s t t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l t e rm u o u l d be " a r t i f i c e r . " O t h e r , more a r c h a i c terms f o u n d i n t h e S h i J i n a or "Book of P o e t r y " ( c o m p i l e d sometime d u r i n g t h e n i n t h t o t h e f i f t h c e n t u r i e s B . C . ) i n c l u d e a s i t u o r " o f f i c e r i n c h a r g e of stamped e a r t h , " and a s i k o n a or s o - c a l l e d " o f f i c e r i n c h a r g e of u o r k s , " but i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e s e t o o u e r e e i t h e r master a r t i s a n s or o f f i c e r s . I n d e e d , as Ho P i n g - t i p o i n t e d o u t , t h e te rm s i k o n o as f o u n d i n t h e most a n c i e n t o f s h a m a n i s t o r a c l e bone t e x t s and e a r l y - Z h o u d y n a s t y b r o n z e i n s c r i p t i o n s c l e a r l y r e f e r r e d t o " o f f i c i a l s i n c h a r g e of ( r o y a l ) a r t i s a n s , " and uas t h e p r e c u r s o r t o t h e i m p e r i a l " m i n i s t e r of p u b l i c u o r k s . " (Ho P i n g - t i , 1975, p. 301 . ) S i m i l a r l y , t h e modern C h i n e s e te rm f o r t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h i t e c t , 1 i a n z h u Western d e n o t a t i o n , s t i l l c a r r i e s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c o n n o t a t i o n v i a i t s l i t e r a l meaning "maste r of c o n s t r u c t i o n . " In common usage t o d a y , t h e te rm meaning " e n g i n e e r " or l i t e r a l l y " a master of u o r k s . " In none of t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c a s e s i s t h e r e i n t e n d e d t h e a r t i s t i c , d e s i g n , and p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n n o t a t i o n s c a r r i e d by t h e modern term " a r c h i t e c t . " F u r t h e r m o r e , as u i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n some d e t a i l i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r , u h e r e i n t r a d i t i o n a l C h i n a one can f i n d f u n c t i o n a l e q u i v a l e n t s of a r c h i t e c t - c u m - d e s i g n e r s , t h e y u e r e e x c l u s i v e l y members of t h e i m p e r i a l amateur e l i t e , o f f i c i a l s of t h e s t a t e uho u o r k e d f rom a c o r p u s of o r t h o d o x l i t e r a t u r e and l a u . page 37 a d a p t a t i o n u h i c h , i f i n t e n d e d t o convey i t s modern i s also frequently used interchangeably u i t h aonochenQ s h i (J. Vr ), A l t h o u g h i m p o r t a n t e x c e p t i o n s can be f o u n d i n t h e c a s e of t h e C h i n e s e o f f i c i a l amateur e l i t e ( a s i n deve lopment of t h e s c h o o l of j i e h u a or " s h a r p edge" p a i n t e r s famous f o r t h e i r a r c h i t e c t u r a l r e n d e r i n g s ) , the " a r c h i t e c t s " of most p r e - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s u e r e m a i n l y c r a f t s m e n i n t h e b u i l d i n g t r a d e s — c a r p e n t e r s , s t o n e m a s o n s , b r i c k l a y e r s , and so on who brought t h e i r d e s i g n s k i l l s a l o n g u i t h t h e i r t r a d e s . O r g a n i z e d i n t o d i s c r e t e o c c u p a t i o n a l g u i l d s w h i c h , f o r r e a s o n s s t a t e d e a r l i e r , o f t e n f o l l o w e d p a r t i c u l a r " s c h o o l s " or the t e a c h i n g s of p a r t i c u l a r " m a s t e r s , " c r a f t s c h o o l s a l s o somet imes e v o l v e d i n t o d i s t i n c t i v e t e m p o r a l and r e g i o n a l " s t y l e s " b a s e d on t h e o r i g i n s o f t h e f o u n d i n g f a t h e r s o r as a r e s u l t o f a c c r e t i o n s o v e r t i m e . A n d , as v a r i o u s s c h o o l s o r s t y l e s d e v e l o p e d , some came t o p l a y a dominant r o l e p a r t l y t h r o u g h t h e g r e a t e r d i s s e m i n a t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r c r a f t h a n d b o o k s , and o f t e n t h r o u g h " o f f i c i a l " a p p o i n t m e n t s . As Su G i n - d j i h n o t e d u i t h r e f e r e n c e t o C h i n a : The b e s t g r o u p among t h e numerous g u i l d s uas u s u a l l y a p p o i n t e d by t h e Emperor t o be b u i l d e r s t o t h e r o y a l f a m i l y . The b e s t one b e f o r e t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of t h e modern p r a c t i c e of t h e p r o f e s s i o n by t h e w e s t e r n e r , ( i . e . , at t h e t u r n of t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y ) , uas l e d by Yang Tzu L e i and h i s a s s i s t a n t Hou L i a n g C h ' e n g , t h e d e s i g n e r , u h i l e Lee C h ' e n g K i a n g uas the e x p e r t on ' c o l o r s c h e m e s . ' T h e r e u e r e a l s o 27 o t h e r master c r a f t s m e n ( i n t h e l a t e Q i n g C o u r t ) . (Su G i n - d j i h , 1964, p p . 132 -33 , emphas is a d d e d . ) What d e t e r m i n e d t h e d e f i n i t i o n of a " b e s t g r o u p " i n C h i n a ( o r any o t h e r p r e - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y ) i s i t s e l f a much v a r i e g a t e d t a l e . To be s u r e , much depended on t h e i d i o s y n c r a t i c t a s t e s of r u l e r s or d y n a s t i e s . C h i n e s e E m p e r o r s , l i k e o t h e r r o y a l t y , c o u l d and d i d s e t t h e i r own t o n e s i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l t a s t e , somet imes w i t h p e c u l i a r r e s u l t s . The Q i a n Long Emperor ( 1 7 3 6 - 1 7 9 5 ) , f o r e x a m p l e , employed an I t a l i a n J e s u i t p r i e s t - c u m - m a s t e r b u i l d e r t o d e s i g n an e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y o r n a t e C h i n e s e - r o c o c o marb le p l e a s u r e p a l a c e and f o u n t a i n e d g a r d e n t o be s e t w i t h i n t h e g r o u n d s of h i s Yuan Ming page 38 Yuan summer p a l a c e . I f Q i a n Long uas e c c e n t r i c i n s u c h t h i n g s , i t i s n o n e t h e l e s s t h e c a s e t h a t C h i n e s e r u l e r s and d y n a s t i e s d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r a e s t h e t i c t a s t e s . H e n c e , one can d i s t i n g u i s h between the d i f f e r e n t a r c h i t e c t u r a l t r e a t m e n t s of d i f f e r e n t d y n a s t i e s . Q i n g D y n a s t y Emperors ( 1 6 4 4 - 1 9 1 1 ) , f o r e x a m p l e , t e n d e d t o t h e o r n a t e i n c o l o r , c a r v i n g s , and o t h e r d e s i g n e x e c u t i o n s , u h e r e a s t h o s e of t h e Ming Dynas ty (1368-1644) u e r e g i v e n t o s i m p l e r l i n e s , c o l o r s and d e c o r a t i o n s . The d i f f e r e n c e b e t u e e n t h e one and t h e o t h e r i s p e r h a p s b e s t l i k e n e d t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t u e e n an o r n a t e c o l o r p h o t o g r a p h and a s t a r k b l a c k and u h i t e p h o t o g r a p h , t h e one o v e r f l o u i n g u i t h i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e o t h e r more s h a r p l y d e f i n e d . S i m i l a r l y , as compared u i t h t h e N o r t h e r n Song D y n a s t y ( 9 6 0 - 1 1 2 6 ) , t h e p i t c h of t h e r o o f s of Q i n g D y n a s t y b u i l d i n g s u e r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y much s t e e p e r . Whether or not t h i s uas due t o t h e t a s t e s of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e i m p e r i a l o c c u p a n t s i s d i f f i c u l t t o s a y , but i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e d e s i g n d i f f e r e n c e uas m e m o r i a l i z e d by t h e a u t h o r s of t h e p r i n c i p a l and " b e s t " c r a f t handbooks of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p e r i o d s . ( L i a n g , 1984, p . 21 ). H o u e v e r , t h e d e f i n i t i o n of t h e " b e s t g r o u p " of a r t i s a n s and c r a f t s m e n uas i t s e l f a complex a f f a i r dependent not o n l y on t h e immedia te p r o c l i v i t i e s of some e m p e r o r , but a l s o on a h o s t of o t h e r i n t e r v e n i n g c r i t e r i a . As u i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s s t u d y , most i m p o r t a n t of a l l uas t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n s of l e a r n e d e l i t e s by uhose c r i t e r i a not o n l y s t y l e and fo rm u e r e r e n d e r e d a p p r o v a b l e and " b e s t , " but v i r t u a l l y a l l o t h e r m a t t e r s as u e l l . F o r t h e moment, h o u e v e r , uhat c o n c e r n s us h e r e i s not so much t h e c r i t e r i a u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e " b e s t g r o u p " o f c r a f t s m e n o r " b e s t g u i l d , " but r a t h e r t h e f a c t t h a t any g r o u p uas s o d e s i g n a t e d and a u a r d e d u i t h o f f i c i a l a p p o i n t m e n t . page 39 In a w a r d i n g t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f the " b e s t g r o u p " , t h e Emperor o r k i n g o r p r i n c e s u c c e e d e d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g or c o n f i r m i n g an " o f f i c i a l " f o r m , s t r u c t u r e and d e s i g n u h i c h , t r a n s l a t e d i n t o the b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t , became i t s g r a n d d e s i g n t r a d i t i o n . I t became " t r a d i t i o n a l , " m o r e o v e r , not o n l y b e c a u s e i t uas i n t h e i n t e r e s t of t h e " b e s t g r o u p " t o s u s t a i n i t s i m p e r i a l g u i l d a u t h o r i t y , but a l s o b e c a u s e one of t h e b e s t uays f o r s u c c e e d i n g r o y a l t y t o a s s e r t t h e i r l e g i t i m a c y uas a l s o t o a s s e r t c o n t i n u i t y u i t h t h a t u h i c h t h e y s u c c e e d e d , i n c l u d i n g t h e r e s i d e n c e and d e s i g n t r a d i t i o n of t h e fo rmer o c c u p a n t s of t h e s e a t of p o u e r . Such i s one of t h e r e a s o n s uhy i m p e r i a l c a p i t a l c i t i e s t e n d e d t o r e m a i n t h e same even as k i n g s h i p s c h a n g e d . Such t o o i s t h e s t u f f o f u h i c h d y n a s t i e s a r e made a n d , p e r h a p s e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e c a s e of C h i n a , o f u h i c h d y n a s t i e s s u c c e e d i n g d y n a s t i e s a r e made. More t o t h e p o i n t of our i n t e r e s t h e r e , s u c h t o o i s p a r t o f t h e s t u f f out o f u h i c h " o f f i c i a l l a n d s c a p e s " a r e made. Z . O f f i c i a l L a n d s c a p e s and C u l t u r a l I d e o l o g y . In d e a l i n g u i t h p r e - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s at l a r g e and C h i n a i n p a r t i c u l