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Some dimensions of a planning problem : residential-agricultural land use conflict in metropolitan rural-urban… Yeomans, Martin Gregory 1987

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SOME DIMENSIONS OF A PLANNING PROBLEM: RESIDENTIAL-AGRICULTURAL LAND USE CONFLICT IN METROPOLITAN RURAL-URBAN FRINGE AREAS By MARTIN GREGORY YEOMANS B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1984 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School of Community and Regional P l a n n i n g We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standards THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA OCTOBER, 1987 (c) M a r t i n Gregory Yeomans, 1987 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of Community and Regional P l a n n i n g The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main M a l l Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T-1Y3 Date October 13, 1987 SOME DIMENSIONS OF A PLANNING PROBLEM: RESIDENTIAL-AGRICULTURAL LAND USE CONFLICT IN METROPOLITAN RURAL-URBAN FRINGE AREAS ABSTRACT R e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l land use c o n f l i c t i n the r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e of m e t r o p o l i t a n areas i s commonly mentioned as a p l a n n i n g problem. The i n i t i a l i n t e n t of t h i s r e s e a r c h was to c o r r e l a t e types of c o n f l i c t and l o c a l p l a n n i n g responses i n order to i d e n t i f y e f f e c t i v e approaches to the management of such problems. The a n t i c i p a t e d method would have combined t h e o r y which addresses the cause and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of r e s i d e n t i a l -a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t along with data from Vancouver suburbs having s u b s t a n t i a l a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y and p l a n n i n g departments re s p e c t e d f o r t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i t i e s . However, the i n v e s t i g a t i o n showed t h a t the academic l i t e r a t u r e and the a c c e s s i b l e data would not support such r e s e a r c h . On the other hand, c o n s u l t a t i o n s with l o c a l planners and a review of a v a i l a b l e documentation i n the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s of Richmond, D e l t a and Surrey, B r i t i s h Columbia, showed t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l land use c o n f l i c t i s t r e a t e d as a p l a n n i n g problem and i s a source of complaints to m u n i c i p a l o f f i c i a l s . Three kinds of c o n c l u s i o n s r e s u l t e d from t h i s r e s e a r c h . The f i r s t and second are a p p r o p r i a t e to the underdeveloped s t a t e of the academic l i t e r a t u r e , while the f i r s t and t h i r d r e l a t e to p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e i n the absence of a p p l i c a b l e s c i e n t i f i c knowledge. i i i The f i r s t i s a d e s c r i p t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which are p e r c e i v e d as c o n s t i t u t i n g a p l a n n i n g problem and a governmental response. Secondly, there are recommendations f o r development of data to support f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . M u n i c i p a l governments i n the three communities have no comprehensive monitoring system or s e t of c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e d records of complaints a s s o c i a t e d with land use c o n f l i c t s . Instead, c o n f l i c t s are r e c e i v e d , i d e n t i f i e d and acted on by a v a r i e t y of departments i n the l o c a l government. From the d e s c r i p t i v e m a t e r i a l a t e n t a t i v e t y p o l o g y i s o f f e r e d to guide data c o l l e c t i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . T h i r d l y , there are suggestions which may be u s e f u l to planners who must r e l y on non-systematic methods to i d e n t i f y c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a p l a n n i n g response and to develop t h a t response. The summaries of problems and responses r e p o r t e d are used to develop a t e n t a t i v e c r i t i q u e of present c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s of a p p r o p r i a t e p l a n n i n g measures. I t i s observed t h a t planners have used o n l y a few of the p o s s i b l e responses to r u r a l - u r b a n c o n f l i c t . In p a r t i c u l a r , i t i s c l e a r t h a t f o r a wide range of c o n f l i c t types there has been a r e l i a n c e on land b u f f e r s to separate p o t e n t i a l l y c o n f l i c t i n g a c t i v i t i e s . A l t e r n a t i v e and supplementary approaches which may improve the management of t y p i c a l c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s are suggested. These approaches focus on p r e v e n t i n g the development of c o n f l i c t through i n c r e a s i n g the mutual understanding of the i v c o n f l i c t i n g p a r t i e s ' p o i n t s - o f - v i e w . Examples i n c l u d e p u b l i c involvement i n problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and r e s o l u t i o n , as w e l l as programs to f a c i l i t a t e communication between the government, farmers and non-farm r e s i d e n t s . V TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS V LIST OF TABLES v i i LIST OF FIGURES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i x CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1 Purpose 1 Research O b j e c t i v e s 2 Problem Statement 4 Methods And Data 4 Thesis Overview 7 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 9 D e f i n i t i o n : The Rural-Urban F r i n g e 9 Rural-Urban Land Use Conversion And Urban Growth 10 Canada 10 B r i t i s h Columbia 11 Vancouver Centred Region 12 The D i v e r s i t y Of Urban F r i n g e A c t i v i t i e s 17 Regional Land Use 21 Farming In The F r i n g e 24 ALR Exemptions 27 Farming And The Land Market 29 CHAPTER THREE: THE DATA AND FINDINGS 32 Data C o l l e c t i o n 32 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Records 33 F i n d i n g s On The Incidence Of C o n f l i c t 36 F i n d i n g s On The Types Of C o n f l i c t 38 Environmental P o l l u t i o n 38 Mu n i c i p a l S e r v i c e s And Taxa t i o n 39 Negative Impacts On Farming 42 Negative Impacts On Residences 44 S o c i a l A l i e n a t i o n 46 Rural-Urban C o n f l i c t And The Pla n n i n g Agenda 48 F i n d i n g s On Pla n n i n g Responses 51 Re g u l a t i n g Land Use P r a c t i c e s 51 B u f f e r s 54 B a r r i e r s As B u f f e r s 56 Open Space As B u f f e r s 56 T r a n s i t i o n a l Land Uses As B u f f e r s 57 Land Reserves As B u f f e r s 59 L i m i t e d C a p a c i t y I n f r a s t r u c t u r e 60 P u b l i c D i s c u s s i o n 61 Co n c l u s i o n 62 v i CHAPTER 4: ALTERNATIVE RESPONSES AND CONCEPTUALIZATIONS 64 I n t r o d u c t i o n 64 L o c a l L e v e l Data C o l l e c t i o n 66 Increased P u b l i c Involvement 70 An On-Going Process 73 C o n s t r a i n t s To P u b l i c Involvement 74 Making E x p e c t a t i o n s More R e a l i s t i c 75 Regional P l a n n i n g 78 The Green-Zone Committee 80 The A g r i c u l t u r a l Environmental S e r v i c e s Program 84 Con c l u s i o n 85 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 8 6 I n t r o d u c t i o n 86 Conclusio n s 87 Recommendations 87 C l o s i n g Remarks 88 BIBLIOGRAPHY 90 v i i LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1: P o p u l a t i o n And Area 14 Table 2: Common Urban-Associated Land Space-Resource A c t i v i t i e s Of The Urban F r i n g e 18 Table 3: Land Use C o n f l i c t s : E x t e r n a l i t i e s 20 Table 4: Land Use Areas 23 Table 5: Area Excluded From The ALR (1981-1985) 28 v i i i LIST OF FIGURES Page F i g u r e 1: Vancouver Urban-Centred Region 13 F i g u r e 2: Extent Of Urban Development 1961 And 1981 . 15 F i g u r e 3: E x i s t i n g Land Use, 1981 22 F i g u r e 4: A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve: Greater Vancouver 25 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to thank Dr. Henry Hightower f o r h i s constant support, i n s i g h t , and good a d v i c e , a l l of which were e s s e n t i a l f o r the completion of t h i s study. Dr. W i l l i a m Rees provided comments t h a t proved i n v a l u a b l e , and Brahm Wiesman helped add substance to the t h e s i s i n i t s formative s t a g e s . My g r a t i t u d e i s a l s o extended to the f o l l o w i n g people f o r t h e i r e n t h u s i a s t i c c o n t r i b u t i o n s of time and knowledge: A r t Cowie, D i r e c t o r of Pla n n i n g S e r v i c e s i n D e l t a ; B r i a n Jackson, Community Planner i n Richmond; How Yin Leung, Community Planner i n Surrey; Graham Murchie, D i r e c t o r of Pla n n i n g and Development S e r v i c e s i n Surrey; and David Sands, Green Zone Committee Chairman. My f i n a l thanks go to Stevan Rageesh, who helped keep me on the r i g h t t r a c k . 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION I began t h i s t h e s i s w i t h an I n t e r e s t i n m u n i c i p a l l a n d use p l a n n i n g i n a r e a s e x p e r i e n c i n g r a p i d growth. P r e l i m i n a r y r e s e a r c h i n t o g e n e r a l l a n d use p l a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e , d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h p r a c t i c i n g p l a n n e r s , and m o n i t o r i n g of r e l a t e d t o p i c s d i s c u s s e d i n the media l e d me t o c o n c e n t r a t e my s t u d y on the r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e . Of p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n were t h e ways i n which l o c a l governments b a l a n c e p r e s s u r e s t o d e v e l o p and expand the urban l a n d base a g a i n s t the p e r c e i v e d need t o p r e s e r v e f a r m l a n d and t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r . R e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d use c o n f l i c t s became the f o c u s of my r e s e a r c h because t h i s s u b j e c t embodied many of the i s s u e s which c r e a t e d my i n t e r e s t i n l a n d use p l a n n i n g . T h i s t h e s i s p o i n t s out the need f o r more e x t e n s i v e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n on the o c c u r r e n c e of r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t and t h e use of more v a r i e d p l a n n i n g t e c h n i q u e s i n the management of such c o n f l i c t s . Purpose I n broad terms t h i s t h e s i s i s i n t e n d e d t o c o n t r i b u t e towards i m p r o v i n g the management of r u r a l - u r b a n c o n f l i c t s a t the l o c a l l e v e l , w i t h the u l t i m a t e g o a l b e i n g t o p r e s e r v e t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d base w h i l e p r o v i d i n g adequate s t o c k s of l a n d f o r urban e x p a n s i o n . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e t h e s i s i s i n t e n d e d t o show how l o c a l p l a n n i n g departments t r y t o e s t a b l i s h a p o l i c y and 2 l a n d use framework t h a t b oth p r e s e r v e s f a r m l a n d and reduces the chance f o r r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s t o o c c u r . The f o c u s i s on r a p i d l y e xpanding urban f r i n g e communities t h a t have been e x p e r i e n c i n g an i n t e r p e n e t r a t i n g p a t t e r n of r e s i d e n t i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d u s e s . I t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t such a p a t t e r n would g e n e r a t e s u b s t a n t i a l d a t a on l a n d use c o n f l i c t s and c o m p l a i n t s between n e i g h b o u r i n g f a r m e r s and s u b u r b a n i t e s , as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g a number of r e c e n t l y i n t r o d u c e d p l a n n i n g r e s p o n s e s t h a t c o u l d be c r o s s - c l a s s i f i e d w i t h the t y p e s of c o n f l i c t s and t h e n e v a l u a t e d . However, t h e a v a i l a b l e d a t a proved t o be in a d e q u a t e t o meet t h i s g o a l . A r e - e v a l u a t i o n of the c e n t r a l t h e s i s purpose was r e q u i r e d , and i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n c o n c e r n i n g r e s e a r c h o b j e c t i v e s . R e search O b j e c t i v e s At the o u t s e t i t was assumed t h a t l o c a l p l a n n i n g r e s p o n s e s t o c o n f l i c t c o u l d be t e s t e d a g a i n s t the t h e o r y and c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s i n the l i t e r a t u r e i n o r d e r t o a s s e s s the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e r e s p o n s e s , and t o i d e n t i f y a l t e r n a t i v e c o n f l i c t management t e c h n i q u e s t h a t might be i n d i c a t e d . Much of the t h e o r y would have come from O n t a r i o - b a s e d l i t e r a t u r e , as many of the pre-eminent Canadian a u t h o r i t i e s c o n c e n t r a t e t h e i r a t t e n t i o n i n t h a t p r o v i n c e . As p u b l i c a t i o n s became a v a i l a b l e t o me i t became c l e a r t h a t t h e academic l i t e r a t u r e , when combined w i t h the a c c e s s i b l e d a t a , would not s u p p o r t a case s t u d y approach which f o c u s e d on t h e Lower M a i n l a n d . The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w s e c t i o n and o t h e r p a r t s of 3 t h i s t h e s i s e x p l a i n more f u l l y why t h i s approach c o u l d not be used. A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e purpose of t h i s t h e s i s became u s i n g an account o f l o c a l p l a n n i n g e x p e r i e n c e t o document t h e l a c k of r e s e a r c h the i s s u e i s r e c e i v i n g i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d w i t h r e g a r d s t o d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o a l t e r n a t i v e c o n f l i c t management t e c h n i q u e s . The main o b j e c t i v e became t h e g e n e r a t i o n of d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a and o b s e r v a t i o n s t h a t c o u l d be used t o s u p p o r t more s u b s t a n t i v e and c o n t r o l l e d a n a l y s i s . The t h e s i s uses the t h e o r y which i s a v a i l a b l e i n the l i t e r a t u r e , combined w i t h an acc o u n t of c u r r e n t p l a n n i n g approaches t o r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d , i n o r d e r t o su g g e s t a l t e r n a t i v e ways of c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g b o t h the problems and s o l u t i o n s as a s t e p towards r a i s i n g the awareness of t h i s a s p e c t of l a n d use p l a n n i n g as w e l l as i m p r o v i n g d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and management. I t s h o u l d be emphasized t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h has ge n e r a t e d d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a and c o n c l u s i o n s i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e t h e b a s i s f o r more s y s t e m a t i c s t u d i e s of r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t . 4 Problem Statement The l i t e r a t u r e and p r a c t i c i n g p l a n n e r s have e s t a b l i s h e d the s i g n i f i c a n c e of r u r a l - u r b a n c o n f l i c t i n the c o n t e x t of urban e x p a n s i o n and the l o s s of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . Yet the l i t e r a t u r e c o n t a i n s v e r y l i t t l e t h e o r y t h a t l e n d s i t s e l f t o a p p l i e d a n a l y s e s of c e r t a i n c l a s s e s of c o n f l i c t o c c u r r i n g i n t h e r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e . F u r t h e r , w h i l e t h e r e i s c l e a r e v i d e n c e of p l a n n i n g r e s p o n s e s t o c o n f l i c t , t h e r e i s a d e a r t h of l o c a l l e v e l d a t a on the i n c i d e n c e , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and geography of c o n f l i c t s . T h i s t h e s i s expands on and documents t h i s problem i n an e f f o r t t o p r o v i d e c o n c l u s i o n s and s u g g e s t i o n s t h a t c o u l d be used t o guide f u t u r e r e s e a r c h aimed a t i m p r o v i n g the s t a t e of t h e l i t e r a t u r e and a s s i s t i n g p l a n n e r s who must d e a l w i t h r u r a l - u r b a n c o n f l i c t i s s u e s . Methods And Data The r e s e a r c h method f o l l o w e d i n t h i s t h e s i s i s o u t l i n e d below. Whi l e the method i s p r e s e n t e d as a s e r i e s of i n c r e m e n t a l s t e p s , t h e r e were s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s when e a r l i e r s t a g e s had t o be r e t u r n e d t o and r e v i s e d because of new i n f o r m a t i o n or a l a c k of d a t a . S t e p 1: L i t e r a t u r e Review The f i r s t s t e p i n t h i s t h e s i s i n v o l v e d a r e v i e w of Canadian and o t h e r r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e c oncerned w i t h r u r a l - u r b a n l a n d use c o n v e r s i o n , urban f r i n g e geography, r u r a l - u r b a n c o n f l i c t s and t e c h n i q u e s t o r e s o l v e them, e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s of c o n f l i c t o c c u r r e n c e and the r e s u l t s of 5 government r e s p o n s e s , t h e r o l e of l o c a l government I n l a n d use d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , and c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n t h e o r y . S tep 2; P u r p o s e , O b j e c t i v e s and P r o b l e m Statement F o l l o w i n g t h e i n i t i a l l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w , the purpose, o b j e c t i v e s and problem statement g i v e n above were p r e p a r e d and used t o g u i d e subsequent r e s e a r c h . As a l r e a d y n o t e d , the purpose and accompanying o b j e c t i v e s were l a t e r r e - e v a l u a t e d based on f u r t h e r s t u d y of t h e l i t e r a t u r e and l o c a l p l a n n i n g s i t u a t i o n s . Step 3: S e l e c t i o n of Communities The next s t e p i n v o l v e d a s e l e c t i o n of communities on which t h e r e s e a r c h would be based. The community s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a were as f o l l o w s : a) the communities had t o c o n t a i n s u b s t a n t i a l a r e a s of farm and r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y ; b) t h e y had t o be e x p e r i e n c i n g r e g u l a r f a r m l a n d c o n v e r s i o n ( i . e. urban a r e a g r o w t h ) ; c) the l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s had t o have a p l a n n i n g s t a f f t h a t was l a r g e enough t o have the e x p e r t i s e n e c e s s a r y t o a s s i s t t h e a u t h o r i n the r e s e a r c h ; d) t h e s e l e c t i o n of communities was l i m i t e d t o t h o s e which had s i z a b l e s t o c k s of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d ; 6 e) t h e communities had t o be c l o s e enough t o Vancouver t o a l l o w the a u t h o r t o make r e p e a t e d v i s i t s t o the r e s p e c t i v e p l a n n i n g d e p artments. Based on t h e s e c r i t e r i a , the s e l e c t e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were Richmond, D e l t a and S u r r e y , B r i t i s h C o lumbia. T h e i r community p l a n s and s u p p o r t i n g documents were then r e v i e w e d , p a y i n g p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o p o l i c i e s and p l a n n i n g mechanisms t h a t a f f e c t e d l a n d use a l o n g t h e r u r a l -urban i n t e r f a c e . S tep 4 : S e l e c t i o n of Respondents and C o n s u l t a t i o n s I t was t h e n n e c e s s a r y t o i d e n t i f y t h e l o c a l government o f f i c i a l s who c o u l d p r o v i d e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h r e g a r d s t o r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s i n each j u r i s d i c t i o n . The i n i t i a l t a r g e t s f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n were the d i r e c t o r s of p l a n n i n g and s t a f f p l a n n e r s who were f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e i s s u e s . D i s c u s s i o n s w i t h a v a i l a b l e p e r s o n n e l o f t e n l e d t o c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of o t h e r d e p a r t m e n t s , such as the l o c a l p o l i c e detachment, P e r m i t s and L i c e n s e s , E n v i r o n m e n t a l H e a l t h and B u i l d i n g I n s p e c t i o n . The c o n s u l t a t i o n s were not conducted i n a s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w format due t o t h e e x p l o r a t o r y n a t u r e of t h e r e s e a r c h , hence t h e y were n o t , and were not i n t e n d e d t o be, r e p r o d u c i b l e . Step 5: C o n c l u s i o n s and Recommendations The f i n a l major s t e p was t o p r o v i d e a t e n t a t i v e c r i t i q u e of c u r r e n t p l a n n i n g approaches t o r e s i d e n t i a l -7 a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t management, and t o make c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendations based on t h i s a n a l y s i s . T h e s i s Overview The s t r u c t u r e of t h i s t h e s i s i s l a i d out t o f o l l o w a l o g i c a l sequence from problem d e f i n i t i o n t o c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendations. Chapter 2 i s the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w and p r o v i d e s much of t h e background I n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s used t h r o u g h o u t the s t u d y . The main purpose of t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o e s t a b l i s h the c o n t e x t i n which r e s i d e n t i a l -a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s a r i s e . T h i s i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by p r o v i d i n g a w o r k i n g d e f i n i t i o n of the r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e , i d e n t i f y i n g the range of l a n d uses observed i n a t y p i c a l urban f r i n g e r e g i o n , and d e s c r i b i n g how t h e r e g u l a r a c t i v i t i e s of one i n t e r e s t can a f f e c t t h e a c t i v i t i e s of a n o t h e r . Chapter 3 d e a l s w i t h t h e d a t a and f i n d i n g s based on r e s e a r c h i n t h e t h r e e Lower M a i n l a n d communities. Major t o p i c s which a r e c o v e r e d i n c l u d e t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n method used i n t h i s t h e s i s , m u n i c i p a l r e c o r d s , the i n c i d e n c e and t y p e s of c o n f l i c t s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e communities, t h e placement of r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s on t h e p l a n n i n g agenda, and the t y p e s of p l a n n i n g r e s p o n s e s o b s e r v e d . The f o u r t h c h a p t e r b r i n g s the l i t e r a t u r e and t h e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s t o g e t h e r i n an e f f o r t t o suggest a l t e r n a t i v e and s u p p l e m e n t a r y c o n f l i c t management t e c h n i q u e s . Of e s p e c i a l c o n c e r n i s c u r r e n t d a t a c o l l e c t i o n 8 p r a c t i c e s w i t h r e g a r d s t o r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t . The s u g g e s t i o n s and c o n c e p t s d e a l t w i t h i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e i n t e n d e d t o s t i m u l a t e f u r t h e r , more s y s t e m a t i c r e s e a r c h i n t o p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c s r a i s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . Chapter 5 c o n t a i n s t h e r e s e a r c h c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendations, and o f f e r s some c l o s i n g remarks on the f u t u r e of l a n d use p l a n n i n g i n the r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e . 9 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s t h e r e s u l t s of t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w , and as such p r o v i d e s much of t h e background i n f o r m a t i o n used t h r o u g h o u t th e t h e s i s . The main purpose of t h i s r e v i e w i s t o e s t a b l i s h the l a n d use c o n t e x t i n which r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s o c cur i n t h e r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e . Some a d d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w w i l l be brought i n t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n i n l a t e r c h a p t e r s . D e f i n i t i o n : The R u r a l - U r b a n F r i n g e The l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t the r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e has s e v e r a l b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . These i n c l u d e : (a) f o r m i n g a t r a n s i t i o n between the c o n t i n u o u s b u i l t - u p c i t y and t h e unbroken c o u n t r y s i d e ; (b) c o n t a i n i n g a d i v e r s e and dynamic m i x t u r e of urban and r u r a l l a n d u s e s ; and (c) b e i n g t h e r e g i o n where most e x p a n s i o n of t h e urban a r e a o c c u r s , which t y p i c a l l y i n v o l v e s t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t of r u r a l a c t i v i t i e s by urban a c t i v i t i e s ( B r y a n t e t a l , 1982, M a r t i n , 1975, P r y o r , 1968, and Russwurm, 1974). Based on t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n by Russwurm (1974, 1977, 1980), th e f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s h a l l be used t h r o u g h o u t t h i s s t u d y : 10 The r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e i s a zone of s e m i -r u r a l c o u n t r y s i d e e x t e n d i n g beyond the c o n t i n u o u s suburbs t o t h e r e g i o n of unbroken r u r a l l a n d . The f r i n g e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a m i x t u r e of r u r a l and urban l a n d use a c t i v i t i e s , and more t h a n f i f t y p e r c e n t of i t s p o p u l a t i o n w i l l t y p i c a l l y be c o m p r i s e d of non-farm r e s i d e n t s . I n most i n s t a n c e s r u r a l l a n d uses i n t h e f r i n g e w i l l over time become d i s p l a c e d by urban l a n d u s e s . R u r a l - U r b a n Land Use C o n v e r s i o n And Urban Growth In a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e c o n t e x t i n which r e s i d e n t i a l -a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s a r i s e i t i s u s e f u l t o u n d e r s t a n d how f a s t Canadian c i t i e s have been expanding t h r o u g h l a n d use c o n v e r s i o n . I t s h o u l d be emphasized t h a t t h i s t h e s i s i s not concerned w i t h urban e x p a n s i o n and t h e l o s s of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d per s e . As w i l l become c l e a r i n l a t e r pages, t h e s e s u b - t o p i c s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s c o r e t h e f a c t t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s a r e g e n e r a t e d and m a i n t a i n e d by c o n t i n u a l r e s i d e n t i a l development i n and around f a r m l a n d . Canada D u r i n g the s i x y e a r p e r i o d between 1976-1981 a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50,000 ha of prime CLI c l a s s 1-3 a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d was c o n v e r t e d t o urban ( i . e. non-farm) uses i n Canada (Lands D i r e c t o r a t e F a c t Sheet 85-4, 1985). About h a l f of t h i s c o n v e r s i o n o c c u r r e d i n the 33 u r b a n - c e n t r e d r e g i o n s of 11 B r i t i s h Columbia and O n t a r i o , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e r e g i o n s c e n t r e d around Vancouver and T o r o n t o . Over t h e same p e r i o d on t h e n a t i o n a l s c a l e t h e r e has been an i n t e r e s t i n g i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e r a t e of c o n v e r s i o n and t h e s i z e of urban c e n t r e s (Lands D i r e c t o r a t e P a c t Sheet 85-4, 1985). The h i g h e s t r a t e of r u r a l - u r b a n c o n v e r s i o n , 341 ha per 1,000 i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n , o c c u r r e d i n tho s e c e n t r e s w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o f between 25,000-50,000. C o n t r a s t i n g t h i s , i n t h o s e urban c e n t r e d r e g i o n s w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n g r e a t e r t h a n 500,000 p e o p l e , the c o n v e r s i o n r a t e was the l o w e s t a t 61 ha per 1,000 i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n . Thus the s m a l l e r c i t i e s appear t o have been consuming l a n d a t a f a s t e r r a t e per c a p i t a i n r e c e n t y e a r s (Lands D i r e c t o r a t e F a c t Sheet 85-4, 1985). B r i t i s h Columbia Over 90% of B r i t i s h Columbia i s mountainous and non-a r a b l e , w i t h t h e r e m a i n i n g 10% of p o t e n t i a l l y a r a b l e l a n d o c c u r r i n g i n the I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u , the Peace R i v e r a r e a i n t he n o r t h e a s t , and i n s c a t t e r e d p o c k e t s l o c a t e d p r e d o m i n a n t l y i n the p r o v i n c e ' s f e r t i l e f l o o d p l a i n s . L e s s t h a n one p e r c e n t of the p r o v i n c e ' s t o t a l a r e a i s c l a s s one prime a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d between 1976-1981, 23,372 ha of l a n d used f o r "renewable r e s o u r c e p r o d u c t i o n " was c o n v e r t e d t o urban u s e s , of which 5,272 ha was prime a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d of c l a s s 1-3 (Lands D i r e c t o r a t e F a c t Sheet 85-4, 1985). 12 Vancouver C e n t r e d R egion The Lower M a i n l a n d , l i k e much of Canada, e x p e r i e n c e d a p o p u l a t i o n boom i n the 1950s-1970s. The f o r m e r l y r u r a l communities i n Richmond, D e l t a and S u r r e y began t o r e c e i v e an unprecedented i n f l u x of people from Vancouver and more d i s t a n t p l a c e s . At t h e e a r l y s t a g e s of t h e boom the o n l y major a u t o m o b i l e l i n k p r o v i d i n g a c c e s s between t h e s e towns and Vancouver was t h e P a t t u l l o B r i d g e j o i n i n g New Westminster and S u r r e y . I n o r d e r t o accommodate and encourage t h e movement of peopl e t o t h e o t h e r s u b u r b s , a s e r i e s of c r o s s i n g s were c o n s t r u c t e d over th e F r a s e r D e l t a . B e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e Oak S t r e e t B r i d g e i n 1957 and t h e George Massey (Deas I s l a n d ) Tunnel i n 1959, and c o n t i n u i n g w i t h t h e r e c e n t l y completed A l e x F r a s e r B r i d g e and t h e planned r a p i d t r a n s i t l i n k t o S u r r e y , the a r e a has become i n t e g r a t e d i n t o m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver and more g e n e r a l l y u r b a n i z e d (see F i g u r e 1 ) . However, i n the t h r e e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o f i n t e r e s t h e r e , f a r m i n g has remained an i m p o r t a n t l a n d use and economic a c t i v i t y . As of 1982, 28% of t h e r e g i o n was c l a s s i f i e d urban u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , 24% of t h e l a n d was used f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , 22% was unused, 12% was d e s i g n a t e d r e c r e a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n , and 7% was used f o r d w e l l i n g s . Most of t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d c o n t i n u e s t o be l o c a t e d i n e i t h e r Vancouver Urban-centred Region Source: Lands Directorate, 1985. FIGURE 1 14 Richmond, D e l t a , S u r r e y , P i t t Meadows, or L a n g l e y (Lands D i r e c t o r a t e F a c t Sheet 85-5, 1985). Between 1961 and 1981 the p o p u l a t i o n s of Richmond and S u r r e y more th a n d o u b l e d , and D e l t a e x p e r i e n c e d y e a r l y growth r a t e s as h i g h as 17% (GVRD, 1975). Rates i n r e c e n t y e a r s have been more modest, h o v e r i n g around the 1%-1.5% range. S u r r e y c o n t i n u e s t o grow r a p i d l y , w i t h i t s p o p u l a t i o n h a v i n g expanded by r o u g h l y 22% between t h e 1981 and 1986 censuses ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1986 Census I n t e r i m C o u n t s ) . C u r r e n t p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s and l a n d a r e a s t a t i s t i c s t a k e n from o f f i c i a l r e g i o n a l and community p l a n s (OCPs) a r e g i v e n below i n Table 1. Table 1 P o p u l a t i o n and Area POPULATION AREA (ha) GVRD 1,256,075 228,577 C i t y of Vancouver 427,131 11,690 Richmond 107,763 13,311 D e l t a 79,166 18,679 S u r r e y 180,075 32,226 The u r b a n i z a t i o n which accompanied t h e p o p u l a t i o n growth i n the r e g i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 2. I n t h i s map, "urban development" r e f e r s t o any l a n d use change i n v o l v i n g t h e development of non-urban ( i . e. r u r a l ) l a n d , and so a l s o g i v e s an i n d i c a t i o n of t h e c o n v e r s i o n o f 16 f a r m l a n d t o o t h e r uses (GVRD, 1982). D u r i n g the p e r i o d c o v e r e d by F i g u r e 2 G r e a t e r Vancouver's urban a r e a expanded by a p p r o x i m a t e l y 18,000 ha, or r o u g h l y t h e same a r e a as Vancouver C i t y and Burnaby combined. T h i s f i g u r e i s r e m a r k a b l y s i m i l a r t o t h e 17,787 ha of l a n d t h a t was u r b a n i z e d i n t h e Toronto a r e a between 1966-1976, n i n e t y - s i x p e r c e n t of which was c l a s s 1-4 a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d (McCuaig and Manning, 1982). N e a r l y t w o - t h i r d s of t h e a d d i t i o n t o urban l a n d i n the Vancouver r e g i o n o c c u r r e d i n the t h e n r a p i d l y d e v e l o p i n g communities s o u t h of Vancouver, e s p e c i a l l y i n the form of s i n g l e - f a m i l y h o u s i n g (GVRD, 1982). D u r i n g the f i v e y e a r p e r i o d between 1976-1982 n e a r l y 20% of t h e 7,345 ha of l a n d t h a t became u r b a n i z e d was good q u a l i t y c l a s s 1-3 a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , much of which had been w i t h i n t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve (Lands D i r e c t o r a t e a c t Sheet 85-5, 1985). In terms of a r e a S u r r e y has c l e a r l y u r b a n i z e d the most, a l t h o u g h much of t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s u r b a n i z e d zone c o n t a i n s s c a t t e r e d p o c k e t s o f f a r m l a n d t h a t a r e t o o s m a l l t o be r e p r o d u c e d on t h e map ( E v e r i t t , 1981, Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, 1962). S i n c e much of the l a n d which has become u r b a n i z e d i n Richmond, D e l t a and S u r r e y e i t h e r was once f a r m l a n d or I s a d j a c e n t t o f a r m l a n d , t h e r e i s t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r numerous l a n d use c o n f l i c t s between r e s i d e n t i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . 17 The D i v e r s i t y o f urban F r i n g e A c t i v i t i e s I n the decades f o l l o w i n g World War I I Canada's urban p o p u l a t i o n grew d r a m a t i c a l l y , p u s h i n g c i t y b o u n d a r i e s outwards i n t h e form of r i b b o n development, " s c a t t e r a t i o n , " and g e n e r a l urban s p r a w l . The a c t i v i t i e s u n d e r t a k e n i n t h e s e developments were d i v e r s e and h a p h a z a r d l y d i s t r i b u t e d as landowners e n j o y e d g r e a t freedom i n the ways t h e y c o u l d use t h e i r l a n d ( B r y a n t e t a l , 1982). G r a d u a l l y p l a n n i n g c o n t r o l s i n t r o d u c e d a sense of o r d e r t o t h e booming development, y e t t h e s p r e a d of urban and u r b a n - a s s o c i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s c o n t i n u e d . Indeed i t might be argued t h a t , a t l e a s t i n i t i a l l y , development and p l a n n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d t o complement th e e x p a n s i o n of the urban a r e a . S i m i l a r l y , a r ea-based p l a n n i n g i n the r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e of Toronto has been c r i t i c i z e d f o r c o n t r i b u t i n g towards an " i n e f f i c i e n t " use of l a n d encouraged by " a d m i n i s t r a t i v e chaos" (Bourne, 1984). E v e n t u a l l y t h e urban f r i n g e grew t o c o n t a i n a v a r i e t y of l a n d uses unmatched anywhere e l s e i n t h e urban r e g i o n , w i t h waste d i s p o s a l s i t e s , q u a r r i e s , i d l e p l o t s , houses, farms, s h o p p i n g m a l l s , and i n d u s t r y u n s u i t a b l e f o r a c i t y l o c a t i o n s i t u a t e d v i r t u a l l y s i d e by s i d e ( B r y a n t e t a l , 1982). For a more complete i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of common urban or u r b a n - a s s o c i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s , see T a b l e 2. T a b l e 2 Common U r b a n - A s s o c i a t e d Land Space-Resource A c t i v i t i e s Of The Urban F r i n g e RESIDENTIAL EXTRACTION I s o l a t e d s u b d i v i s i o n C r o s s r o a d c l u s t e r s Ribbons I s o l a t e d M o b i l e c o u r t s COMMERCIAL Animal h o s p i t a l s A u c t i o n barns Auto body r e p a i r Auto w r e c k e r s P a r k s B u i l d i n g s t o n e C a b i n s C a r p e t s and f l o o r i n g Dance h a l l s D r i v e - i n t h e a t e r s Farm equipment Farm s u p p l i e s F e r t i l i z e r s u p p l i e s F r u i t s t a n d s F u r n i t u r e Lumber y a r d s Marine s u p p l i e s Meat markets M o b i l e homes M o t e l s R e s t a u r a n t s S e r v i c e s t a t i o n s Taverns Used c a r l o t s W holesale g r o c e r i e s INDUSTRIAL Ani m a l s l a u g h t e r i n g Auto assembly p l a n t s Cement p l a n t s C o n s t r u c t , equipment C h e m i c a l p l a n t s O i l and gas s t o r a g e Amusement park O i l r e f i n e r i e s S i l o s T r u c k i n g t e r m i n a l s WASTE DISPOSAL I n c i n e r a t o r s Land f i l l s i t e s Sewage lagoons Treatment p l a n t s TRANSPO., COMM., and UTILITIES A i r p o r t s Hydro s t a t i o n s Microwave towers Pumping s t a t i o n s R a dio towers S w i t c h i n g y a r d s T e l e v i s i o n towers Water s u p p l i e s INSTITUTIONAL Churches Community c o l l e g e s M e n t a l h o s p i t a l s S p e c i a l s c h o o l s U n i v e r s i t i e s MINERAL Ground water Aggregate p i t Stone q u a r r i e s RECREATION R a c e t r a c k s Beaches Campgrounds W i l d l i f e c l u b s G o - c a r t t r a c k s G o l f c o u r s e s P a r k s S k i r e s o r t s W a l k i n g t r a i l s AGRICULTURE Dog k e n n e l s Fur farms Game farms N u r s e r i e s R i d i n g s t a b l e s Sod farms OTHER F l o w e r s Greenhouses Market gardens Mushroom farms P o u l t r y S t o c k y a r d s S o u r c e : Russwurm, L.H. "The S u r r o u n d i n g s Of Our C i t i e s , " 1977. 19 As I s e v i d e n t from T a b l e 2, t h e r e a r e many i n t e r e s t s o p e r a t i n g i n t h e r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e , each w i t h i t s own rea s o n s f o r b e i n g t h e r e , and each a f f e c t i n g the a c t i v i t i e s of t h e o t h e r s I n a d i f f e r e n t way. Land use c o n f l i c t s w i l l not n e c e s s a r i l y a r i s e j u s t because t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n t groups o p e r a t i n g i n t h e same v i c i n i t y . Such c o n f l i c t w i l l o c cur when: (a) one type of l a n d use i s i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h or d e t r i m e n t a l t o the q u a l i t y of t h e l a n d r e s o u r c e ; (b) when a l a n d use a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t s a n o t h e r a c t i v i t y because of s p a t i a l p r o x i m i t y ; or (c ) when t h e r e i s a c l a s h of v a l u e s between " e x i s t i n g " and newly e s t a b l i s h e d i n t e r e s t s ( P h i p p s , 1981, B e e s l e y , 1981). The s t r e s s e s which l e a d t o c o n f l i c t a f f e c t b o t h the l o n g - t i m e r e s i d e n t s and workers who watch t h e i r community change i n c h a r a c t e r , as w e l l as the i n d i v i d u a l s who move t o t h e f r i n g e o n l y t o f i n d the r e a l i t i e s of l i v i n g i n t h i s dynamic environment t o be much l e s s f a v o r a b l e t h a n t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s (Clawson, 1955). Table 3 h e l p s t o i d e n t i f y some of t h e p e r c e i v e d p h y s i c a l e x t e r n a l i t i e s a r i s i n g from a v a r i e t y o f common l a n d use c o n f l i c t s . 20 Tab l e 3 Land Use C o n f l i c t s : E x t e r n a l i t i e s Land Use A c t i v i t i e s Land Use A c t i v i t i e s E x t e r n a l i t i e s I m p i n g i n g B e i n g Impinged Upon R e s i d e n t i a l A g r i c u l t u r e Overconsumption development o f l a n d Loss of a g r i c . p r o d u c t i v i t y Crop t h e f t and v a n d a l i s m I n c r e a s e d l a n d p r i c e s I n t e r r u p t i o n of f a r m i n g Reduced q u a l i t y of r u r a l l i f e s t y l e Tax i n e q u i t i e s S e r v i c e demands I n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s A g r i c u l t u r e Land, a i r , and water p o l l u t i o n Land c l e a r i n g and d r a i n a g e R e c r e a t i o n W i l d l i f e N a t u r a l d r a i n a g e p a t t e r n L o s s of p o t e n t i a l r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s D e g r a d a t i o n of h a b i t a t s L o c a l i z e d d r a i n a g e problems A g r i c u l t u r e Nearby r e s i d e n c e s S m e l l s and n o i s e s from c r o p p r o d u c t i o n O b s t r u c t i o n of t r a f f i c by farm v e h i c l e s Use of p e s t i c i d e s R e c r e a t i o n A g r i c u l t u r e W i l d l i f e L o s s of a g r i c . p r o d u c t i v i t y D e g r a d a t i o n of h a b i t a t s S o urce: a f t e r P h i p p s , A.G. "Land Use C o n f l i c t s I n Urban-R u r a l F r i n g e A r e a s , " 1981. 21 The v a r i o u s c o n f l i c t s may be c a t e g o r i z e d i n many ways, but g e n e r a l l y t h e y a r e between i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t a l i n t e r e s t s , p r e s e n t v e r s u s f u t u r e u s e s , and market v e r s u s non-market u s e s . W i t h i n t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s , i n d i v i d u a l s may c o n f l i c t , i n t e r e s t groups may c o n f l i c t , and d i f f e r e n t economic a c t i v i t i e s may c o n f l i c t ( B r y a n t e t a l , 1982, Russwurm, 1974). D i f f e r e n t branches of t h e government have a l s o been known t o compete between t h e m s e l v e s . Bourne notes t h a t the s c a t t e r e d m i x t u r e of l a n d uses ob s e r v e d i n the r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e of T oronto has i n p a r t been the r e s u l t of what he c a l l s t h e " c o n f u s e d " a c t i o n s of the v a r i o u s l e v e l s of government and "the f r e q u e n t i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t s , w a s t e f u l c o m p e t i t i o n , c o n t r a d i c t o r y p o l i c y a c t i o n s , a l m o s t random p o l i t i c a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s by t h e p r o v i n c e and l i t t l e i n t h e way of i n t e g r a t e d r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g " (Bourne, 1984, p.139). A s i m p l e c o n f l i c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme d e v e l o p e d by Russwurm w i l l be used i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r as a means of p r e s e n t i n g t h e f i n d i n g s of t h e community-based r e s e a r c h . R e g i o n a l Land Use The G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t (GVRD) l a n d use p a t t e r n as of 1981 i s shown i n F i g u r e 3. Though l a r g e l y s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y , a few p o i n t s about the o b s e r v e d p a t t e r n s s h o u l d be noted i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s . The l a r g e zone of r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d i n S u r r e y i s the r e s u l t of d i s p e r s e d , low d e n s i t y h o u s i n g , much of which i s d e s i g n a t e d " r u r a l - r e s i d e n t i a l " i n the S u r r e y OCP. Existing Land Use,1981 I Residential I Commercial ^ Agricultural | Industrial | Institutional | Parks and Recreation ^ Open and Undeveloped Areas Icala in Kilometre* i a i i l i ii Greater Vancouver Regional District Planning tlnpnrtmiwl ftoptnmtxii, IDS? FIGURE 3 23 P u n c t u a t i n g t h i s zone a r e numerous s m a l l farms and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s w h ich do not show up on the r e g i o n a l l a n d use map. The s u b s t a n t i a l " i n d u s t r i a l " zone i n n o r t h e a s t D e l t a i d e n t i f i e s the r e g i o n ' s s o l i d waste d i s p o s a l f a c i l i t y l o c a t e d w i t h i n Burns Bog, s e v e r a l p e a t - c u t t i n g o p e r a t i o n s , and a s t r i p of heavy i n d u s t r y a l o n g t h e F r a s e r R i v e r . A c omparison of t h e a r e a o c c u p i e d by r e s i d e n t i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i s shown below i n T a b l e 4. Note t h a t t h e s e f i g u r e s were t a k e n from t h e r e s p e c t i v e community p l a n s , and so do not c o m p l e t e l y conform t o t h e a r e a s r e p r e s e n t e d on the GVRD l a n d use map. There a r e two s e t s of f i g u r e s g i v e n f o r S u r r e y : t h e f i r s t b e i n g t h e g e n e r a l r e s i d e n t i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l break-down, and t h e second h a v i n g been c a l c u l a t e d a f t e r the " r u r a l - r e s i d e n t i a l " a r e a was f a c t o r e d out o f the t o t a l . T h i s was done because o f the d i f f i c u l t y i n a s s e s s i n g whether such r e s i d e n c e s c o n s t i t u t e s m a l l farms or l a r g e - l o t homes. Tab l e 4 Land Use Areas RESIDENTIAL AGRICULTURAL Richmond 26.4% 49.1% D e l t a 14.2% 51.6% S u r r e y - 1 35.0% 29.2% S u r r e y - 2 14.3% 38.5% 24 The g e n e r a l p a t t e r n of l a n d use i n Richmond, D e l t a , and S u r r e y h e l p s t o e s t a b l i s h t h e n a t u r e and e x t e n t o f r u r a l - u r b a n c o n f l i c t s . I t i s a l o n g t h e boundary l i n e s between r e s i d e n t i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d where most of t h e s e c o n f l i c t s w i l l o c c u r , and as i s u s u a l l y the case i n B.C., most of t h e f a r m l a n d has been i n c l u d e d w i t h i n the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve (ALR) system. Farming I n The F r i n g e Most of B r i t i s h Columbia's p o t e n t i a l l y p r o d u c t i v e f a r m l a n d i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve system, the b o u n d a r i e s of which were e s t a b l i s h e d a f t e r t h e c r e a t i o n of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission i n 1973. As a r u l e of thumb, a l l Canada Land I n v e n t o r y c l a s s 1-4 l a n d not a l r e a d y i n urban uses was i n c l u d e d , p l u s c e r t a i n t r a c t s of c l a s s 5-7 l a n d i f t h e y were t r a d i t i o n a l l y farmed. E s t i m a t e s v a r y , but a p p r o x i m a t e l y 80% of the p r o v i n c e ' s c l a s s 1-4 f a r m l a n d i s i n c l u d e d w i t h i n the ALRs (Manning and Eddy, 1978). F i g u r e 4 i s a s i m p l e map i n d i c a t i n g the ALR b o u n d a r i e s i n G r e a t e r Vancouver. Though g e n e r a l i z e d , t h e ALR d e s i g n a t i o n s r o u g h l y c o r r e s p o n d t o the a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a s i n d i c a t e d on the d e t a i l e d l a n d use map p r e s e n t e d as F i g u r e 3. The r e s e r v e b o u n d a r i e s demarcate where most r e s i d e n t i a l -a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s w i l l o c c u r , a l t h o u g h some problems w i l l t r a n s c e n d t h e s e d i v i d i n g l i n e s , and o t h e r s may a r i s e w e l l i n s i d e the r e s i d e n t i a l or a g r i c u l t u r a l zones. AGRICULTURAL LAND RESERVE: GREATER VANCOUVER Source: Evenden, 1978. Figure 4 26 The ALRs shown i n F i g u r e 4 do not r e p r e s e n t a l l of t h e l a n d a c t u a l l y used f o r f a r m i n g , as some 15% of t h e r e g i o n ' s a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i s i n t h e form of s m a l l p l o t s s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e urban a r e a s , most of which a r e l o c a t e d i n S u r r e y . F u r t h e r , not a l l o f the l a n d l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e ALRs i s a c t u a l l y farmed. I t has been e s t i m a t e d t h a t as l i t t l e as 65% of t h e t o t a l ALR a r e a i n G r e a t e r Vancouver i s c u r r e n t l y farmed, the r e m a i n i n g b e i n g used f o r r o a d s , i n s t i t u t i o n s , h o u s i n g , r e c r e a t i o n , or s i m p l y l e f t v a c a n t (GVRD, 1982). I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e how much of t h e 18,000 ha of l a n d u r b a n i z e d i n G r e a t e r Vancouver between 1961 and 1981 i n v o l v e d a c o n v e r s i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . Runka de t e r m i n e d t h a t over t h i s 20 year p e r i o d the a r e a of f a r m l a n d i n Richmond d e c l i n e d from 6,421 ha (15,867 a c r e s ) t o 4,478 ha (11,065 a c r e s ) , or a drop of about 30% (Runka, 1985). S i m i l a r f i g u r e s a r e not a v a i l a b l e f o r D e l t a or S u r r e y , a l t h o u g h D e l t a ' s OCP i n d i c a t e s t h a t s i n c e 1971, l a r g e farms between 28 ha and 97 ha i n a r e a have d e c l i n e d from 39% t o 32% of the t o t a l number of farms, w h i l e s m a l l e r farms between 4 ha and 28 ha have i n c r e a s e d i n number from 38% t o 43% of t h e t o t a l ( D e l t a OCP, 1981). I n s p i t e of t h e amount of f a r m l a n d l o s t i n r e c e n t decades, t h e s e t h r e e communities s t i l l c o n t a i n n e a r l y 93% of t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d w i t h i n t h e GVRD (GVRD, 1982). 27 ALR Exemptions The ALR b o u n d a r i e s i d e n t i f i e d i n F i g u r e 4 a r e not permanent, a l t h o u g h t h e y t e n d t o change r a t h e r s l o w l y . Below a r e summaries of t h e key s e c t i o n s of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission A c t which p e r m i t exemptions from an ALR ( A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission, 1982). 1) Under S e c t i o n 11(1) t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission, a r e g i o n a l d i r e c t o r , or a m u n i c i p a l i t y may make a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e L i e u t e n a n t Governor i n C o u n c i l f o r e x c l u s i o n of p r i v a t e or Crown l a n d s from an ALR, or t h e L i e u t e n a n t Governor i n C o u n c i l may i n i t i a t e s uch a c t i o n on h i s own. 2) Under S e c t i o n 12(1) an i n d i v i d u a l l a n d owner may a p p l y t o the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission f o r e x c l u s i o n of h i s p r o p e r t y from an ALR. 3) S e c t i o n 20(1) a p p l i c a t i o n s a r e f o r p e r m i s s i o n t o s u b d i v i d e or use a p a r c e l of l a n d i n an ALR f o r purposes o t h e r t h a n t h o s e p e r m i t t e d by t h e A c t or i t s r e g u l a t i o n s . The l a n d remains i n the ALR, and the Commission may impose whatever terms and c o n d i t i o n s i t c o n s i d e r s a d v i s a b l e . The number of a p p l i c a t i o n s under t h e s e s e c t i o n s r e f l e c t s the development p r e s s u r e s b e i n g p l a c e d on a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d by government and p r i v a t e b o d i e s , as do t h e number of a p p e a l s s h o u l d the a p p l i c a t i o n s be 28 r e j e c t e d . The amount of l a n d a c t u a l l y approved f o r e x c l u s i o n would be a u s e f u l i n d i c a t o r of u r b a n i z a t i o n , s i n c e u n d o u b t e d l y a p o r t i o n of t h e exempted l a n d would e v e n t u a l l y be d e v e l o p e d . Such d a t a a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l a r e u n f o r t u n a t e l y e i t h e r u n a v a i l a b l e or out of d a t e , making i t d i f f i c u l t t o a c c u r a t e l y a s s e s s the l o s s of f a r m l a n d i n s p e c i f i c c ommunities. T a b l e 5 l i s t s t he a r e a e x c l u d e d from the ALR under S e c t i o n s 1 1 ( 1 ) , 1 2 ( 1 ) , and 20(1) w i t h i n t h e GVRD and the p r o v i n c e over the l a s t f i v e y e a r s ( A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission, 1986). I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t not a l l l a n d e x c l u d e d from t h e ALR i s prime f a r m l a n d . For example, i n 1985 a p p r o x i m a t e l y 16% of e x c l u d e d l a n d was CLI c l a s s 1-3, and of t h i s amount o n l y a f r a c t i o n may become b u i l t - u p ( A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission, 1985). T a b l e 5 Area E x c l u d e d From The ALR (1981-1985) SEC. 11(1) SEC. 12(1) SEC. 20(1) GVRD 441 ha 110 ha 919 ha P r o v i n c i a l T o t a l 30,355 ha 9,153 ha 71,921 ha Sour c e : A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission, 1986. While t h e 1,470 ha of l a n d removed from the l a n d r e s e r v e i n the GVRD r e p r e s e n t s o n l y about 1.3% of the p r o v i n c i a l t o t a l d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , the GVRD l a n d c o n t a i n s some of t h e most p r o d u c t i v e s o i l s found i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia, making the l o s s f a r more s i g n i f i c a n t than the r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l number i m p l i e s . A break-down of exemptions by s o i l 29 c l a s s e s , were t h e s e d a t a a v a i l a b l e , would no doubt show how s i g n i f i c a n t a r e t h e e x c l u s i o n s i n the Lower M a i n l a n d . Farming and t h e Land Market One must be c a u t i o u s t o a v o i d s a y i n g t h a t farmers a r e t h e o n l y ones who s u f f e r because of development p r e s s u r e s i n t h e f r i n g e . I n f a c t f a r m i n g i s o f t e n t h e s o u r c e of some problems, e s p e c i a l l y f o r nearby r e s i d e n t s . But i t seems s a f e t o s a y t h a t s i n c e f a r m i n g i s a l o n g -e s t a b l i s h e d r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e a c t i v i t y t h a t i s immobile and c l o s e l y t i e d t o h i g h l y p r i z e d t r a c t s of l a n d , i t may w e l l be t h e a c t i v i t y which s u f f e r s the most from r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s . The problems a r i s i n g from a d j a c e n t r e s i d e n t i a l developments a r e the s u b j e c t of t h e n e x t c h a p t e r , but s e v e r a l b r i e f p o i n t s s h o u l d now be made about th e i n f l u e n c e of p r o p e r t y t a x a t i o n and t h e l a n d market on m a i n t a i n i n g the v i a b i l i t y of a f a r m i n g o p e r a t i o n . A g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y g e n e r a l l y y i e l d s a lower d o l l a r r e t u r n per h e c t a r e t h a n urban r e v e n u e - g e n e r a t i n g u s e s , but due t o t h e p r o x i m i t y of t h e s e two c l a s s e s of uses i n t h e f r i n g e t h e y a r e commonly a s s e s s e d s i m i l a r p r o p e r t y t a x r a t e s . T h i s p l a c e s a p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y h e a v i e r t a x burden on t h e f a r m e r , t h u s r e d u c i n g h i s p o t e n t i a l e a r n i n g s and a d d i n g i n c e n t i v e f o r him t o s e l l . A s i d e from h i g h a s s e s s m e n t s , t h e r e i s s t r o n g e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e market has tended t o : (a) u n d e r v a l u e t h e s o c i a l b e n e f i t s d e r i v e d from f a r m i n g and open space; (b) i n a d e q u a t e l y c o n s i d e r the e x t e r n a l i t y e f f e c t s of f r i n g e 30 developments on f a r m i n g a c t i v i t y ; and (c) h e a v i l y d i s c o u n t f u t u r e r e t u r n s from f a r m i n g i n the l i g h t of h i g h e r s h o r t - r u n b e n e f i t s from urban a c t i v i t i e s ( B r y a n t e t a l , 1982, Lyon, 1983, and Russwurm, 1977). S p e c u l a t o r s a l s o p l a y a r o l e i n l a n d p r i c e s , but t h e i r p r e c i s e i n f l u e n c e i s u n c l e a r , as t h e y e x e r t n e i t h e r m o n o p o l i s t i c c o n t r o l , nor i s s p e c u l a t i o n per se n e c e s s a r i l y a r a i s e r of p r i c e s (Brown e t a l , 1980). Each of t h e s e f a c t o r s can i n f l u e n c e the p e r c e i v e d v a l u e of f a r m l a n d , and i n g e n e r a l w i l l p l a c e a d d i t i o n a l p r e s s u r e on t h e farmer t o c o n s i d e r a change i n l a n d use. Are t h e s e p r e s s u r e s u n u s u a l or a l a r m i n g ? That would depend on one's p o i n t of view. Some would s u g g e s t t h a t i f a farmer i s not a b l e t o s u c c e s s f u l l y compete, he or she s h o u l d move on t o ano t h e r p r o f e s s i o n , r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g b a i l e d - o u t by government s u p p o r t . A f t e r a l l , we f r e q u e n t l y hear of farm o v e r - p r o d u c t i o n , which c o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e a r e t o o many far m e r s g i v e n c u r r e n t l e v e l s of t e c h n o l o g y and p r o d u c t demand. E i t h e r way, p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l governments have seen f i t t o d e v e l o p a number of s t r a t e g i e s aimed a t r e d u c i n g the r a t e of r u r a l - u r b a n l a n d c o n v e r s i o n and m a i n t a i n i n g a g r i c u l t u r e as a v i a b l e l a n d use a c t i v i t y i n the urban f r i n g e . These s t r a t e g i e s come i n many forms, but most r e p r e s e n t v a r i a t i o n s on two b a s i c approaches: (a) t a x compensation p o l i c i e s d e s i g n e d t o make i t more a t t r a c t i v e f o r f a r m e r s t o c o n t i n u e o p e r a t i n g i n t h e f r i n g e and r e s i s t 31 p r e s s u r e s t o s e l l or d e v e l o p t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s ; and (b) d i r e c t government r e g u l a t i o n t o c u r b s p e c u l a t i o n and p l a c e l a r g e amounts of p r o d u c t i v e f a r m l a n d i n some form of r e s e r v e or land-bank. Some a n a l y s t s would p r e f e r t o e l i m i n a t e t h o s e p o l i c i e s t h a t work t o keep farms and urban l a n d uses i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y , r e p l a c i n g them i n s t e a d w i t h p o l i c i e s i n t e n d e d t o d i s s o l v e the r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e and c r e a t e a r u r a l - u r b a n " f e n c e , " one t h a t would encourage the s e p a r a t i o n of the two c l a s s e s of a c t i v i t i e s (Evenden, 1978). 32 CHAPTER 3 THE DATA AND FINDINGS Data C o l l e c t i o n Data c o n c e r n i n g r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s and p l a n n i n g r e s p o n s e s were c o l l e c t e d t h r o u g h c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h p l a n n e r s and o t h e r government o f f i c i a l s i n Richmond, D e l t a and S u r r e y , and t h r o u g h an a n a l y s i s of a v a i l a b l e p l a n n i n g documents p r e p a r e d by the r e s p e c t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s . These d a t a were used t o i n d i c a t e t h e t y p e s of c o n f l i c t s o c c u r r i n g i n t h e t h r e e communities, and t h e e x t e n t t o which t h e l o c a l governments c o l l e c t d a t a on c o n f l i c t s and i n v e s t i g a t e a l t e r n a t i v e c o n f l i c t management t e c h n i q u e s . The p r i m a r y s o u r c e s of d a t a were the c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h p r a c t i c i n g p l a n n e r s . I n i t i a l c o n s u l t a t i o n s were conducted i n an u n s t r u c t u r e d format i n o r d e r t o g a r n e r background i n f o r m a t i o n . Subsequent d i s c u s s i o n s were more f o c u s e d , but r e t a i n e d some of the g e n e r a l i z e d and u n s t r u c t u r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the e a r l i e r c o n v e r s a t i o n s . T h i s format was f o l l o w e d because of t h e e x p l o r a t o r y n a t u r e of t h e r e s e a r c h , t h e l a c k of d e t a i l e d guidance from t h e l i t e r a t u r e , and t h e i n h e r e n t c o m p l e x i t y of the i s s u e s . I n - p e r s o n c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h p l a n n i n g s t a f f were taped i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e l a t e r a n a l y s i s , a l t h o u g h the names of some s o u r c e s c o u l d not be c i t e d due t o the s e n s i t i v e n a t u r e of the m a t e r i a l . A number of t h e c o n s u l t a t i o n s were conducted v i a t he t e l e p h o n e , e s p e c i a l l y when the purpose was t o 33 c l a r i f y c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of the more l e n g t h y i n - p e r s o n d i s c u s s i o n s . S e v e r a l c r i t e r i a were used t o s e l e c t the government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o be c o n s u l t e d . These c r i t e r i a i n c l u d e d p r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e community, e x p e r t i s e w i t h r e g a r d s t o the t h e s i s s u b j e c t , and knowledge of p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e i n t h e p a r t i c u l a r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The numbers of p e o p l e c o n s u l t e d were kept r e l a t i v e l y low i n o r d e r t o a v o i d o v e r l y d i s r u p t i n g normal s t a f f d u t i e s . The g e n e r a l s u b j e c t s of d i s c u s s i o n i n c l u d e d t h e o c c u r r e n c e and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s w i t h i n t h e community, the p r o c e s s t h r o u g h which the government i d e n t i f i e s c o n f l i c t s , the methods which the p l a n n i n g department uses t o a d d r e s s the problems, and the s t r e n g t h s and d e f i c i e n c i e s of c u r r e n t c o n f l i c t management t e c h n i q u e s . The l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e d t h a t most r e s i d e n t i a l -a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s o c c u r a l o n g the r u r a l - u r b a n i n t e r f a c e , and i t p r o v i d e d a broad d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e t y p e s of c o n f l i c t s t h a t may o c c u r . F u r t h e r , the l i t e r a t u r e p r o v i d e d an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of some of the f a c t o r s which l e a d t o a c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n a s s i s t e d i n r e f i n i n g t h e g e n e r a l s u b j e c t s i n t o somewhat more s p e c i f i c t o p i c s t o be e x p l o r e d d u r i n g the c o n s u l t a t i o n s . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Records The c o n s u l t a t i o n s r e v e a l e d t h a t one of the most common means of i d e n t i f y i n g c o n f l i c t s used by each of the t h r e e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i s t h e f o r m a l c o m p l a i n t s p r o c e s s . 34 E s s e n t i a l l y , a p e r s o n w i t h a c o m p l a i n t c a l l s or goes t o m u n i c i p a l h a l l i n - p e r s o n and o u t l i n e s t h e e s s e n t i a l s of t h e problem, sometimes f i l l i n g out a c o m p l a i n t form or s u b m i t t i n g the c o m p l a i n t i n w r i t i n g . The c o m p l a i n t i s p r o c e s s e d by t h e " l i n e " department, such as E n v i r o n m e n t a l H e a l t h or B u i l d i n g I n s p e c t i o n , which has j u r i s d i c t i o n over t h e problem. Bylaw enforcement o f f i c e r s or o t h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h e s e departments make the d e c i s i o n t o a c t on t h e problem, i n f o r m t h e i r s u p e r i o r s , or make some o t h e r r e s p o n s e . O f t e n an i n i t i a l d i s c u s s i o n w i t h the c o m p l a i n a n t w i l l remedy t h e problem or w i l l prompt the per s o n t o a d d r e s s the i s s u e w i t h o u t government i n t e r v e n t i o n . I f the p e r s o n wishes t o pursue t h e c o m p l a i n t , a r e c o r d of i t i s u s u a l l y p l a c e d w i t h i n the c i v i c a d d r e s s f i l e s m a i n t a i n e d f o r a l l m u n i c i p a l a d d r e s s e s ( t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h t e l e p h o n e c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h bylaw enforcement o f f i c e r s i n Richmond, D e l t a and S u r r e y ) . I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e c i v i c a d d r e s s f i l e s a r e not the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of t h e p l a n n i n g department. As s u c h , p l a n n e r s may not hear of the c o m p l a i n t s u n l e s s p l a n n i n g e x p e r t i s e i s r e q u i r e d t o r e s o l v e t h e problem, or u n t i l a bylaw enforcement o f f i c e r i d e n t i f i e s a t r e n d or p e c u l i a r i t y i n the c o m p l a i n t s and makes the i s s u e known t o o t h e r departments. The p l a n n e r s c o n s u l t e d i n d i c a t e d t h a t the a r e a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s was a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e of i n f o r m a t i o n about c o n f l i c t s (Cowie, 1987, J a c k s o n , 1987, and Leung, 1987). T h i s p r o c e s s , which i n v o l v e s p r o d u c i n g d e t a i l e d l a n d use 35 p l a n s f o r s p e c i f i c s u b - r e g i o n s i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y , i s c u r r e n t l y underway i n Richmond and S u r r e y , and i s i n p r e p a r a t o r y s t a g e s i n D e l t a . The p u b l i c meetings which a r e a p a r t of the p r o c e s s p r o v i d e , amongst o t h e r t h i n g s , a forum f o r people t o v o i c e t h e i r c o n c e r n s over t h e i r n e i g h b o u r ' s l a n d use a c t i v i t i e s . P l a n n e r s i n a t t e n d a n c e make note of t h e s e c o m p l a i n t s and so g e t a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of what c o n f l i c t s a r e o c c u r r i n g i n the community. These and o t h e r " f o r m a l " s o u r c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n about c o n f l i c t s , a l o n g w i t h the more " i n f o r m a l " s o u r c e s such as t h e newspaper, t e l e v i s i o n , or c a s u a l c o n v e r s a t i o n , do not p r o v i d e the d e t a i l e d and c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e d d a t a b a s e n e c e s s a r y t o d e v e l o p an h i s t o r i c a l and c u r r e n t l i s t of s p e c i f i c c o n f l i c t s , t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and t h e i r l o c a t i o n s ( J a c k s o n , 1987, Leung, 1987). F i l e s i n each department g e n e r a l l y c o n t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on f o r m a l government a c t i o n s and not on c o m p l a i n t s which were passed t o o t h e r departments or f o r which no response was f o r t h c o m i n g . These f i l e s a r e not l i n k e d t o a c e n t r a l i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g f a c i l i t y t h a t c o u l d be used t o match the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c o m p l a i n t c a s e s or p r o v i d e l i s t s based on d e f i n e d c r i t e r i a . And s i n c e many r e c o r d s of c o m p l a i n t s end up i n t h e c i v i c a d d r e s s f i l e s or some s i m i l a r s t o r a g e system, t h e r e would be no way t o e x t r a c t i n f o r m a t i o n on the o c c u r r e n c e of c o n f l i c t s w i t h o u t a p r o h i b i t i v e i n v e s t m e n t of time and o t h e r r e s o u r c e s i n o r d e r t o s i f t 36 t h r o u g h a f i l e s ystem not c o n d u c i v e t o such r e s e a r c h . The one p o t e n t i a l e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s o c c u r s i n Richmond's m u n i c i p a l h a l l , which f o r the p a s t s e v e r a l y e a r s has had a G e o g raphic Database Management System t h a t i s l i n k e d t o i t s o n - l i n e c i v i c a d d r e s s f i l e s . T h i s open-ended system i s a b l e t o p r o c e s s f i l e s based on s p e c i f i e d g e o g r a p h i c c r i t e r i a such as z o n i n g , p o l l i n g d i v i s i o n s and s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , and t h e n m a n i p u l a t e the g e o g r a p h i c a l l y d i s p l a y e d d a t a as r e q u i r e d . An I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n d i c a t e d t h a t the system sees broad use w i t h i n v a r i o u s departments of the l o c a l government (Cordon!, 1987). However, as complete r e c o r d s of a l l r e p o r t e d r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s a r e not kept and i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the program, t h i s e x c e l l e n t i n f o r m a t i o n s y s t e m i s a p p a r e n t l y unable t o p r o v i d e d e t a i l e d and comprehensive o u t p u t r e g a r d i n g such c o n f l i c t s . I n s h o r t , c u r r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n s o u r c e s p r o v i d e p l a n n e r s w i t h o n l y a broad p e r s p e c t i v e on the k i n d s of c o n f l i c t s t h a t o c c u r , supplemented by more i n - d e p t h knowledge of a few examples which a r e of prominent p u b l i c c o n c e r n . F i n d i n g s On The I n c i d e n c e Of C o n f l i c t None of the p l a n n e r s c o n s u l t e d c o u l d p r o v i d e any s p e c i f i c d a t a on the numbers of c o m p l a i n t s r e l a t e d t o r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s , a l t h o u g h t h e y a l l acknowledged the e x i s t e n c e of such problems. A s e n i o r p l a n n e r i n S u r r e y i n d i c a t e d t h a t most c o m p l a i n t s he was aware of concerned mushroom f a r m i n g p r a c t i c e s , t r a f f i c d i s r u p t i o n s by farm equipment on p u b l i c roadways and c r o p 37 p i l f e r a g e , w h i l e o t h e r p o t e n t i a l s o u r c e s of c o n f l i c t r e s u l t e d i n r e l a t i v e l y few c o m p l a i n t s . However, he was unable t o p r o v i d e any numbers. S i m i l a r l y , a s t u d y produced i n Richmond s t a t e d t h a t i n c e r t a i n a r e a s of t h a t community t h e r e were "numerous" c o m p l a i n t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the use of n o i s y farm machinery (Richmond P l a n n i n g Department, 1986), and a p l a n n e r c o n s u l t e d i n Richmond s a i d t h a t t h e i n c i d e n c e of c o n f l i c t v a r i e d w i t h the i n t e n s i t y of development i n and around the r u r a l - u r b a n i n t e r f a c e . But a g a i n , no s p e c i f i c d a t a were a v a i l a b l e . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of l o c a l RCMP detachments i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e a r e r e c o r d s of r e p o r t e d t r e s p a s s , t h e f t and v a n d a l i s m i n c i d e n t s t h a t r e l a t e t o r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t , but u n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was not a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c . From the r e s e a r c h i t i s c l e a r t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l -a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s a r e a c o n t i n u i n g s o u r c e of c o m p l a i n t s t o the v a r i o u s departments of the t h r e e m u n i c i p a l governments. I t seems l i k e l y t h a t a d d i t i o n a l c o n f l i c t s w i l l not be brought t o the a t t e n t i o n of the l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , w h i l e o t h e r s may be r e p o r t e d but become f o r g o t t e n because no o f f i c i a l a c t i o n was i n i t i a t e d . There appears t o be no way of d e t e r m i n i n g the i n c i d e n c e of r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s w i t h o u t a s ystem of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e c o r d s t h a t : a) c o u l d e f f i c i e n t l y s u p p o r t such i n v e s t i g a t i o n ; and b) i s p r o v i d e d w i t h comprehensive d a t a on c o n f l i c t s r e p o r t e d t o each government department. 38 F i n d i n g s On The Types Of C o n f l i c t The i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n was p r o v i d e d by the p l a n n e r s c o n s u l t e d and by an a n a l y s i s of community p l a n s and s u p p o r t i n g documents. I n most ca s e s t h e c o n f l i c t s i d e n t i f i e d below a r e common t o each m u n i c i p a l i t y , a l t h o u g h some problems which a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y pronounced i n c e r t a i n a r e a s a r e a l s o i d e n t i f i e d . P l a n n i n g and urban f r i n g e l i t e r a t u r e i s a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y d e v o i d of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes or systems i n which c o n f l i c t s may be c a t e g o r i z e d and a n a l y z e d . Russwurm has d e v e l o p e d the most u s e f u l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , a l t h o u g h t h e y t o o a r e g e n e r a l and do not r e a d i l y f a c i l i t a t e f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s . The f i v e c a t e g o r i e s p r e s e n t e d below r e f l e c t Russwurm's work but have been a d j u s t e d t o f i t the c o l l e c t e d d a t a . E n v i r o n m e n t a l P o l l u t i o n The r e g u l a r a c t i v i t i e s of e i t h e r the r e s i d e n t i a l or f a r m i n g communities can g e n e r a t e p o l l u t a n t s which degrade the q u a l i t y of the environment e n j o y e d by the o t h e r . For example, one r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e s o u r c e of p o l l u t i o n i s t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of p e s t i c i d e s t o v a r i o u s c r o p s . Though h i g h l y r e g u l a t e d i n most i n s t a n c e s , p e s t i c i d e s can n e v e r t h e l e s s l e a c h i n t o t h e s o i l and e v e n t u a l l y r e a c h b o d i e s of f l o w i n g or s t a t i o n a r y water. A p o r t i o n of t h e c h e m i c a l s may remain a i r b o r n e and blow i n t o r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , c r e a t i n g a n x i e t y over the p o t e n t i a l h e a l t h h a z a r d s . The a e r i a l a p p l i c a t i o n of p e s t i c i d e s t o b l u e b e r r y f i e l d s i s a prominent p u b l i c c o n c e r n i n the 39 McLennan a r e a of c e n t r a l Richmond, and has become a key i s s u e i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of the McLennan Area P l a n (Richmond, McLennan Area P l a n , 1986). Less f r i g h t e n i n g , but s t i l l t r o u b l e s o m e , i s a form of p e s t c o n t r o l i n v o l v i n g the p e r i o d i c f l o o d i n g of f a r m l a n d . Common i n the p r o d u c t i o n of many c r o p s , t h i s t a c t i c can r e s u l t i n o v e r f l o o d i n g i n t o a d j a c e n t h o u s i n g i f i t i s a t -grade or below the farm and not s e p a r a t e d by a d r a i n a g e c h a n n e l . The problem i s e s p e c i a l l y pronounced a l o n g the r u r a l - u r b a n i n t e r f a c e near t h e n o r t h w e s t e r n t i p of Richmond, and i n the s o u t h - c e n t r a l p o r t i o n of t h e community near Highway 499 (Runka, 1985). C o n v e r s e l y , a p l a n n e r c o n s u l t e d i n Richmond i n d i c a t e d t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l i n f i l l a l o n g major s e c t i o n - l i n e r o a d s has caused d r a i n a g e problems f o r a d j a c e n t farmers who must cope w i t h the i n c r e a s e d o v e r l a n d f l o w of r a i n w a t e r ( J a c k s o n , 1987). At a more s i t e s p e c i f i c l e v e l , t h e r e i s the p o t e n t i a l f o r a range of p o l l u t a n t s t o escape from t h e p o r t i o n of Burns Bog i n N o r t h D e l t a used as a s o l i d waste d i s p o s a l s i t e . Nearby c r a n b e r r y farms and more d i s t a n t r e s i d e n t i a l developments c o u l d be a f f e c t e d s h o u l d underground or o v e r l a n d water f l o w become co n t a m i n a t e d a f t e r p a s s i n g over the waste m a t e r i a l s . M u n i c i p a l S e r v i c e s And T a x a t i o n There a r e d i f f e r e n t d r a i n a g e and water s u p p l y system demands f o r r e s i d e n t i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a s . B a s i c a l l y , t h e c a p a c i t i e s and d i s c h a r g e r a t e s f o r each g e n e r a l l a n d use a r e e s t a b l i s h e d u s i n g d i f f e r e n t volume maxima and 40 minima over d i f f e r e n t time p e r i o d s . T h i s means t h a t i n t e g r a t i n g the community network i n o r d e r t o s a t i s f y each group's r e q u i r e m e n t s i s an ongoing and c o s t l y problem f o r the m u n i c i p a l e n g i n e e r i n g and p l a n n i n g departments (Runka, 1985). P l a n n e r s c o n s u l t e d i n Richmond and D e l t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e m u n i c i p a l water works systems have h i s t o r i c a l l y been o r i e n t e d towards urban needs, as the h i g h c o s t s of f u l l y s e r v i c i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a s has proven t o be c o s t -p r o h i b i t i v e i n most c a s e s (Cowie, 1987, J a c k s o n , 1987, Richmond P l a n n i n g Department, 1986). A g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a s a r e u s u a l l y the l a s t t o r e c e i v e s a n i t a r y sewer s e r v i c e s , sometimes f o r c i n g p e o p l e i n t h e s e a r e a s t o r e l y on more p r i m i t i v e s e p t i c tank t e c h n o l o g y . While the f a r m e r s may p r e f e r lower t a x e s a l o n g w i t h reduced l e v e l s of l o c a l s e r v i c e s , as suburbs grow around them and t h e i r p r o p e r t y v a l u e s i n c r e a s e f o r non-farm u s e s , t h i s p r e f e r e n c e becomes u n r e a l i s t i c . M u n i c i p a l p r o p e r t y t a x e s a r e based on the p r o p e r t y v a l u e assessments made by the Assessment A u t h o r i t y of B r i t i s h C olumbia. T h i s agency n o r m a l l y a s s e s s e s the v a l u e of p r o p e r t y based on i t s " b e s t use" market v a l u e . However, farmers a r e a b l e t o a p p l y f o r the Farmland C l a s s i f i c a t i o n , w hich makes them e l i g i b l e f o r a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e i r a s s e s s m e n t s . The two b a s i c c r i t e r i a t o be e l i g i b l e a r e t h a t the f arm must be l a r g e r t h a n two a c r e s ( a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e e x c e p t i o n s ) , and the farmer must e a r n more t h a n $1,600 from farm gate p r i c e s (revenue from the s a l e of farm 41 p r o d u c t s ) . The Farmland C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s based on the t h e o r e t i c a l p r o d u c t i v i t y of t h e farm, which i s i n f l u e n c e d by farm s i z e , s o i l q u a l i t y , s l o p e and o t h e r f a c t o r s . As s u c h , t h e r e I s no g e n e r a l assessment r e d u c t i o n f o r f a r m e r s , s i n c e i t w i l l depend on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p a r t i c u l a r farms ( M a c k i e , 1987). The g r e a t e s t r e d u c t i o n s w i l l i n g e n e r a l be g i v e n t o tho s e low p r o d u c t i v i t y farms which a r e c l o s e t o h i g h v a l u e urban l a n d u s e s , w h i l e the l o w e s t r e d u c t i o n s w i l l be g i v e n t o h i g h p r o d u c t i v i t y farms more d i s t a n t from urban development. An extreme example p r o v i d e d by a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e B.C. Assessment A u t h o r i t y i s an assessment r e c e n t l y awarded t o a landowner near the Lansdowne Park Shopping C e n t r e i n Richmond. I f d e v e l o p e d , t h e p r o p e r t y c o u l d have a market v a l u e of up t o $300,000 per a c r e , w i t h a comparable assessment. Having o b t a i n e d a Farmland C l a s s i f i c a t i o n , t he landowner now has h i s p r o p e r t y a s s e s s e d a t between $3,000-$4,000 per a c r e ( M a c k i e , 1987). The person's s a v i n g s on m u n i c i p a l p r o p e r t y t a x e s ( i . e. s c h o o l t a x , h o s p i t a l t a x , d r a i n a g e l e v i e s e t c . ) w i l l t h e r e f o r e be s u b s t a n t i a l . The key p o i n t t o be drawn from t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s t h a t some fa r m e r s who do not get f a v o r a b l e assessments such as those j u s t d e s c r i b e d have v o i c e d p r o t e s t over t h e i r h i g h t a x e s and low l e v e l s of m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s r e l a t i v e t o t h e i r urban n e i g h b o u r s . From the o t h e r p e r s p e c t i v e , some non-farm r e s i d e n t s i n Richmond and D e l t a have c o m p l a i n e d t h a t f armers a r e b e i n g u n f a i r l y s u b s i d i z e d by the 42 government, and s h o u l d not be "rewarded" w i t h low assessments because t h e y "choose" not t o d e v e l o p t h e i r l a n d f o r more more l u c r a t i v e u s e s . As a r e s u l t , each s i d e i s a c c u s i n g the o t h e r of g e t t i n g u n f a i r l e v e l s of s e r v i c e s or t a x e s . N e g a t i v e Impacts On Farming P l a n n e r s and p l a n n i n g documents i n d i c a t e t h a t one of the most f r e q u e n t problems f a c i n g f a r mers i n t h e t h r e e communities i s the d i f f i c u l t y of moving farm equipment between f i e l d s a l o n g w e l l used p u b l i c roads ( D e l t a OCP, 1986, J a c k s o n , 1987, Leung, 1987, Richmond P l a n n i n g Department, 1986). T h i s problem can m a n i f e s t i t s e l f i n many ways: heavy t r a f f i c may p r e v e n t s l o w moving machinery from g e t t i n g onto or a c r o s s the r o a d ; the p o s s i b i l i t y of b e i n g h i t by f a s t moving c a r s i s r e a l and r e s u l t s i n a number of a c c i d e n t s e v e r y y e a r ; and p r o p e r f i e l d a c c e s s may not have been p r o v i d e d i n s t r e e t d e s i g n , c a u s i n g d e l a y s and i r r i t a t i o n f o r the busy farm e r . Though he was p r i m a r i l y r e f e r r i n g t o the D e l t a s i t u a t i o n , Evenden r e c o g n i z e d the g e n e r a l problem of "a d i s r u p t i v e network of highways, r a i l w a y s , h y d r o e l e c t r i c and gas l i n e s , as w e l l as s u b d i v i s i o n r o a d s " l a i d out w i t h o u t apparent compromise f o r t h e needs of farmers (Evenden, 1978, p.190). The same k i n d of problems a r i s e out of poor s i t i n g and a l a c k of c o r r i d o r approach i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of s e r v i c e and u t i l i t y r i g h t s - o f - w a y which t r a v e r s e f a r m l a n d , c a u s i n g c o n t i n u a l f i e l d management 43 d i f f i c u l t i e s i n a r e a s such as G i l m o r e i n South Richmond (Runka, 1985). Another major c o n f l i c t r e v o l v e s around the i n f r i n g e m e n t of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y r i g h t s . The p l a n n e r s c o n s u l t e d , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of l o c a l p o l i c e detachments, and p l a n n i n g a n a l y s t s have noted t h a t i n c i d e n c e of farm equipment v a n d a l i s m , t h e f t of c r o p s , harming of a n i m a l s , and g e n e r a l t r e s p a s s have been on the i n c r e a s e i n G r e a t e r Vancouver and t h e lower F r a s e r V a l l e y ( D e l t a OCP, 1986, Diamond, 1985, Richmond P l a n n i n g Department, 1986, Runka, 1985). Some of the a r e a s where t h e s e problems a r e most pronounced i n c l u d e the r u r a l - u r b a n i n t e r f a c e s i n South Ladner, n o r t h w e s t e r n Richmond ( T e r r a Nova N o r t h ) , and the G i l m o r e d i s t r i c t of South Richmond (Runka, 1985). P o s s i b l y the most c o n f o u n d i n g a s p e c t of t h e s e i s s u e s i s t h a t w h i l e each i n c i d e n t t e n d s t o be r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l , the c u m u l a t i v e e f f e c t s can be q u i t e l a r g e and c o s t l y f o r the f a r m e r . Yet because t h e p o l i c e and c o u r t s must d e a l w i t h each case as t h e y a r i s e , t h e r e i s u s u a l l y l i t t l e i n c l i n a t i o n by the a u t h o r i t i e s t o charge the p e r s o n , owing t o t h e p e t t y n a t u r e of t h e c r i m e s and the c o s t s of p r o s e c u t i o n ( J a c k s o n , 1987). One f u r t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t a r e a of c o n f l i c t a r i s e s out of the s p r e a d i n g of p e s t s and weeds from t h e u n c o n t r o l l e d b a c k y a r d gardens of houses b o r d e r i n g f a r m l a n d ( D e l t a OCP, 1986). S i m i l a r l y , p e o p l e i n t h e suburbs o f t e n l e t t h e i r dogs roam f r e e from t h e i r y a r d s , a l l o w i n g the a n i m a l s t o do c o n s i d e r a b l e damage t o c a r e f u l l y tended c r o p s and l i v e s t o c k . 44 N e g a t i v e Impacts On R e s i d e n c e s The e x i s t e n c e of h e a l t h h a z a r d s from the a e r i a l a p p l i c a t i o n of p e s t i c i d e s was b r i e f l y noted e a r l i e r , but a r e l a t e d r i s k i d e n t i f i e d by a p l a n n e r i n Richmond i s the danger a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e g u l a r l o w - l e v e l p asses by c r o p -s p r a y i n g a i r c r a f t . The p o t e n t i a l damage caused by a c r a s h i n a r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t need not be d i s c u s s e d h e r e , but i t i s a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n c e r n f o r f r i n g e r e s i d e n t s . I n some p a r t s of Richmond where r e s i d e n t i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s a r e i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y , most n o t a b l y the McLennan a r e a , p e s t i c i d e a p p l i c a t i o n by f i x e d - w i n g a i r c r a f t has been banned by T r a n s p o r t Canada i n response t o t h e s a f e t y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s (Richmond, McLennan Area P l a n , 1986). At the c r u x of the i s s u e i s the need t o a p p l y the p e s t i c i d e s from a low enough a l t i t u d e t o reduce the chance of s p r e a d i n g t o n o n - t a r g e t p r o p e r t i e s . As l o w - f l y i n g a i r p l a n e s have been banned i n s e v e r a l a r e a s , a number of farmers i n Richmond have begun t o use h e l i c o p t e r s t o p e r f o r m the same t a s k s , o c c a s i o n a l l y h a v i n g t o f l y below the minimum h e i g h t r e s t r i c t i o n s i n o r d e r t o e f f e c t i v e l y s p r e a d the c h e m i c a l s . The use of h e l i c o p t e r s f o r c r o p - d u s t i n g and s p r a y i n g i s l i k e l y t o i n c r e a s e i n the f u t u r e , e s p e c i a l l y as r i s i n g i n s u r a n c e c o s t s f o r f i x e d - w i n g c r o p - d u s t i n g a i r c r a f t d r i v e more f a r m e r s t o a l t e r n a t i v e means. Not a l l p e s t i c i d e s a re a p p l i e d by a e r i a l s p r a y i n g . Some ar e i n t r o d u c e d i n t o i r r i g a t i o n systems and s p r e a d i n tandem w i t h the water. Some r e s i d e n t s a r e concerned t h a t h i g h 45 winds c o u l d blow the t a i n t e d d r o p l e t s i n t o t h e i r yards, posing unknown h e a l t h r i s k s . Less dangerous, but p o s s i b l y more of a c o n t i n u a l i r r i t a t i o n f o r some urban f r i n g e r e s i d e n t s , are the s m e l l s and n o i s e s which i n v a r i a b l y accompany farming p r a c t i c e s (Webster, 1987). A planner i n Surrey s a i d t h a t while the m a j o r i t y of people who l i v e near a farm probably become accustomed to the range of odors emanating from t h e i r neighbour's barns and f i e l d s , some f i n d i t more d i f f i c u l t to cope with aromas such as those produced when the mushroom farmers of Surrey s e a s o n a l l y t u r n over t h e i r m a n u r e - f i l l e d p l o t s to r e l e a s e n u t r i e n t s and a e r a t e the s o i l s (Leung, 1987). A study prepared i n Richmond r e f e r r e d to the " c o n s i s t e n t l e v e l s of complaints" r e l a t e d to s m e l l s and other byproducts of swine and p o u l t r y o p e r a t i o n s w i t h i n t h a t community (Richmond P l a n n i n g Department, 1986). The n o i s e s coming from farms can be j u s t as v a r i e d and bothersome as the s m e l l s . Gas generators and pumps running e a r l y i n the morning and l a t e a t n i g h t i s a common complaint along the e a s t e r n boundary of Richmond's ALR, as are the i n c r e a s i n g o u t c r i e s over the use of h e l i c o p t e r s f o r crop s p r a y i n g i n c e n t r a l Richmond. A more unusual source of noise comes from a type of timed mechanism c a l l e d a "banger," used to s c a r e away b i r d s . Common i n the p r o d u c t i v e b l u e b e r r y f i e l d s of c e n t r a l and e a s t e r n Richmond, these d e v i c e s p e r i o d i c a l l y emit a loud popping sound which d r i v e s the c r o p - s t e a l i n g pests away. 46 U n f o r t u n a t e l y they a l s o d i s t u r b nearby r e s i d e n t s who, i f p a r t i c u l a r l y s e n s i t i v e , w i l l await each subsequent "pop" with as much z e a l as the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a n c i e n t water t o r t u r e s . Indeed, along with concerns about the a e r i a l a p p l i c a t i o n of p e s t i c i d e s , the widespread use of bangers has become the most common source of c o n f l i c t i n Richmond (Jackson, 1987). S o c i a l A l i e n a t i o n F r u s t r a t i o n about what i s p e r c e i v e d to be unjust t a x a t i o n , vandalism, t h e f t , t r e s p a s s , drainage d i s r u p t i o n s , and a host of l e s s e r d i f f i c u l t i e s has compelled a number of farmers i n the r e g i o n , i n c l u d i n g some important d a i r y o p e r a t o r s i n D e l t a and Surrey, to move up the F r a s e r V a l l e y out of the Lower Mainland ( D e l t a OCP A g r i c u l t u r a l Statement, 1986, Richmond P l a n n i n g Department, 1986). Many other farmers with s i m i l a r complaints remain behind, trapped i n what i s becoming an e c o n o m i c a l l y unsound l i v e l i h o o d without any apparent a l t e r n a t i v e s (Diamond, 1985). Having r e s i d e n t i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l land uses so c l o s e i n the urban f r i n g e i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t a sense of antagonism would form i n some areas. Such antagonism i s pronounced i n Richmond between people l i v i n g i n the predominantly r u r a l e a s t e r n h a l f of the m u n i c i p a l i t y , and those l i v i n g i n the more developed, urban r e g i o n i n the west (Runka, 1985). L i k e l y many f a c t o r s p l a y a p a r t i n c r e a t i n g t h i s a t t i t u d i n a l s p l i t , but an important element 47 Is the resentment some r u r a l r e s i d e n t s f e e l about the b e t t e r m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s e n j o y e d by people i n the more populous w e s t e r n p a r t of town. F u r t h e r , as t h e urban west s i d e i s seen t o be expanding e a s t w a r d , r u r a l r e s i d e n t s may f e e l t h a t t h e i r " t e r r i t o r y " i s t h r e a t e n e d and u n p r o t e c t e d ( J a c k s o n , 1987). I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t t h o s e who have s e t t l e d near the r u r a l - u r b a n i n t e r f a c e g e n e r a l l y frown upon any f u r t h e r r e s i d e n t i a l development i n the a r e a . T h i s i s a Catch-22 s i t u a t i o n , s i n c e the v e r y p e o p l e who move t o the urban f r i n g e t o e n j o y the open space and a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s of t h e s e t t i n g c o n t r i b u t e t o the r e d u c t i o n and d e g r a d a t i o n of t h e s e same v a l u e s . Another c o n f l i c t r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l a l i e n a t i o n i s the f r u s t r a t i o n many members of the f o o d - p r o d u c i n g community f e e l i n b e i n g unable t o get t h e i r o p i n i o n s and needs heard or u n d e r s t o o d by the l o c a l government. T h i s problem was r a i s e d c o n t i n u a l l y d u r i n g d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h p l a n n e r s i n Richmond, D e l t a and S u r r e y . As one of them put i t : "We don't t a l k t o the farm community, and t h e y don't t a l k t o us." The farmers f e e l l e f t out of the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , and p o i n t t o the urban r e s i d e n t s who appear t o get t h e i r v iews known t o the p l a n n i n g department and c o u n c i l . T h i s problem i s of c o u r s e t h e r e s u l t of a two-way l a c k of communication. While t h e r e a r e fewer l i n k s from m u n i c i p a l h a l l t o the f a r m i n g community t h a n t o the urban r e s i d e n t s , u n d o u b t e d l y the n a t u r e of f a r m i n g , w i t h i t s n e a r l y c o n s t a n t demands on t h e f a r m e r s ' t i m e , i n h i b i t s them 48 from g e t t i n g I n v o l v e d i n the l o c a l p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s . T h i s d i s p a r i t y between how w e l l t h e urban and r u r a l communities get t h e i r v o i c e s heard i s one of the b i g g e s t c h a l l e n g e s f a c i n g the l o c a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . R u r a l - U r b a n C o n f l i c t And The P l a n n i n g Agenda In a t t e m p t i n g t o e s t a b l i s h a l a n d use c o n t e x t which i n h i b i t s the o c c u r r e n c e of c o n f l i c t , p l a n n e r s have t o d e c i d e what f a c t o r s need t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n the d e s i g n of such a c o n t e x t . The r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t two key f a c t o r s a r e the s c a l e and t i m i n g of t h e l a n d use change a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each k i n d of c o n f l i c t . For i n s t a n c e , i n the s i t u a t i o n where a l a r g e development p r o p o s a l i s b e i n g r e v i e w e d by the p l a n n i n g department, c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n w i l l be p l a c e d on t r y i n g t o a d j u s t the p r o j e c t ' s d e s i g n i n o r d e r t o reduce the chance of c o n f l i c t , or a t l e a s t m i t i g a t e i t s e f f e c t s . I f soon a f t e r the p r o j e c t has been completed u n f o r e s e e n c o n f l i c t s a r i s e , g e n e r a l l y t h e r e w i l l be an e f f o r t by the p l a n n e r s t o work out a s o l u t i o n w i t h t h e d e v e l o p e r t h a t w i l l r e s o l v e the problems as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e ( M u r c h i e , 1987). S m a l l changes i n l a n d use t h a t l e a d t o a c o n f l i c t , such as the a d d i t i o n of bangers t o a b l u e b e r r y f i e l d , can a l s o r e c e i v e a response from the l o c a l p l a n n e r s . I f s u f f i c i e n t c o m p l a i n t s a r e r e c e i v e d and brought t o the a t t e n t i o n of t h e p l a n n i n g department, th e l e n g t h y p r o c e s s of p u b l i c meetings and t h e d r a f t i n g of a new by-law may be i n i t i a t e d , a l t h o u g h , as w i l l be seen i n the next s e c t i o n , t h i s response 49 i s g e n e r a l l y not f a v o r e d by l o c a l governments i f o t h e r o p t i o n s a r e a v a i l a b l e . E s s e n t i a l l y , c o n f l i c t s t h a t a r i s e from s m a l l changes i n l a n d use r e s u l t i n l e s s prompt p l a n n i n g r e s p o n s e s t h a n c o n f l i c t s a r i s i n g from l a r g e -s c a l e l a n d use changes. A d d i t i o n a l l y , c o n f l i c t s i d e n t i f i e d d u r i n g t h e p r e - a p p r o v a l phase of a development p r o p o s a l r e c e i v e more a t t e n t i o n than t h o s e t h a t have a r i s e n a f t e r l a n d use changes not r e v i e w e d by the p l a n n i n g department. T h i s i s l a r g e l y e x p l a i n e d by the f a c t t h a t proposed developments under r e v i e w can be d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the department, whereas the p l a n n e r s have l e s s c o n t r o l over how people change the use of t h e i r l a n d i f t h e change does not r e q u i r e p r e - a p p r o v a l and conforms t o a l l e x i s t i n g r e g u l a t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e the m a j o r i t y of p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t s "get caught i n the development a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s " and a r e a c t e d on a t t h i s s t a g e (Leung, 1987). In some c a s e s the c o n f l i c t may have d e v e l o p e d g r a d u a l l y a f t e r a l a n d use change i n t h e p a s t , becoming one of t h o s e on-going annoyances t h a t plague many people a l o n g the r u r a l - u r b a n i n t e r f a c e . These s i t u a t i o n s r e c e i v e even l e s s a t t e n t i o n t h a n the c a s e s mentioned above, p r i m a r i l y because t h e y a r e n e i t h e r i d e n t i f i e d d u r i n g the p l a n n i n g phase of development, nor a r e t h e y "new" problems r e s u l t i n g from a r e c e n t change i n l a n d use. C o n f l i c t s t h a t l e n d t h e m s e l v e s t o d e t a i l e d d e s i g n s o l u t i o n s such as s e t b a c k s or s c r e e n i n g command most of the p l a n n e r ' s a t t e n t i o n i n t h e t h r e e communities because t h e s e problems a r e r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e , and re s p o n s e s tend t o y i e l d immediate r e s u l t s . The p l a n n e r s who were c o n s u l t e d g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t t h e s e were the most common k i n d s of c o n f l i c t s . Those problems which a r e more " p r o c e d u r a l " i n n a t u r e , l i k e e q u i t a b l y b a l a n c i n g d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t s d u r i n g d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , a r e ha r d e r t o d e f i n e and r e s o l v e , and a r e u s u a l l y put a s i d e owing t o the p r e s s u r e s of more r o u t i n e m a t t e r s . One p l a n n e r s a i d t h a t when the p r o c e d u r a l problems a r e not r e s o l v e d , the people who "scream the l o u d e s t and have the most p o l i t i c a l l e v e r a g e " w i l l c o n t i n u e t o g e t t h e i r c o m p l a i n t s l i s t e n e d t o and a c t e d upon, p o s s i b l y t o the d e t r i m e n t of o t h e r more " q u i e t " i n t e r e s t s . The p l a n n e r s were c o n f i d e n t t h a t the system p r o v i d e s f o r the e l e c t e d c o u n c i l and the p u b l i c t o a c t as checks on the p l a n n i n g department t o ensure t h a t the w e i g h t i n g of p r i o r i t i e s does not become e x c e s s i v e l y skewed. However, when asked about s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a on which th e s e p r i o r i t i e s a r e based, the g e n e r a l r e s ponse was t h a t d e t e r m i n i n g p r i o r i t i e s " i s a judgmental c a l l made w i t h o u t s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a " (Leung, 1987). I n summary: (a) c o n f l i c t s t h a t a r i s e from s m a l l - s c a l e l a n d use changes g e n e r a l l y r e s u l t i n l e s s prompt p l a n n i n g r e s p o n s e s t h a n c o n f l i c t s a r i s i n g from l a r g e - s c a l e l a n d use changes; 51 (b) c o n f l i c t s i d e n t i f i e d d u r i n g the p r e - a p p r o v a l phase of development u s u a l l y r e c e i v e more a t t e n t i o n t h a n those t h a t have a r i s e n a f t e r l a n d use changes not r e v i e w e d by the p l a n n i n g department; (c) most p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t s a r e i d e n t i f i e d d u r i n g the development a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s ; (d) c o n f l i c t s t h a t l e n d themselves t o d e t a i l e d d e s i g n s o l u t i o n s a r e e a s i e r t o d e f i n e and a c t on th a n " p r o c e d u r a l " problems, and so r e c e i v e more a t t e n t i o n from t h e p l a n n i n g department. F i n d i n g s On P l a n n i n g Responses T h i s s e c t i o n p r o v i d e s the r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s c o n c e r n i n g p l a n n i n g r e s p o n s e s t o r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s i n Richmond, D e l t a and S u r r e y . The i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d i n f o u r c a t e g o r i e s d e v e l o p e d by the a u t h o r , as the l i t e r a t u r e c o n t a i n s no a l t e r n a t i v e system f o r c l a s s i f y i n g or d i s c u s s i n g p l a n n i n g t e c h n i q u e s which a d d r e s s the i s s u e s of c o n c e r n . L i k e i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , the f i n d i n g s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n a r e l a t i v e l y g e n e r a l and n o n - s y s t e m a t i c f a s h i o n due t o the l a c k of more d e t a i l e d and comprehensive d a t a a v a i l a b l e i n the t h r e e communities. R e g u l a t i n g Land Use P r a c t i c e s One form of response t o r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t has been t h e use of r e g u l a t o r y bylaws t o r e s t r i c t t h e l a n d use p r a c t i c e which has prompted t h e c o n f l i c t . For 52 example, i n order to reduce the number of complaints from nearby r e s i d e n t s , planners i n Richmond have supported the passage of bylaws t h a t r e s t r i c t farmers from o p e r a t i n g bangers and other n o i s y farm machinery d u r i n g the evening and e a r l y morning hours. In t h i s case, the r e g u l a t i o n s were used to m i t i g a t e the negative e f f e c t s of these farming p r a c t i c e s while s t i l l acknowledging the farmer's need to take advantage of the technology. Often the o p t i o n of implementing a r e g u l a t o r y bylaw to r e s o l v e a c o n f l i c t i s not a v a i l a b l e to the m u n i c i p a l i t y . The l e g a l powers of l o c a l government are narrow and e x p l i c i t l y s e t out i n the M u n i c i p a l A c t . For i n s t a n c e , Transport Canada i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e g u l a t i n g a i r t r a f f i c , so i n 1983 when Richmond r e s i d e n t s became concerned about low f l y i n g c r o p - d u s t i n g a i r c r a f t , i t was t h i s agency which banned the technique i n some p a r t s of the community. In c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s l o c a l o f f i c i a l s have the l e g a l a u t h o r i t y to address the c o n f l i c t but w i l l choose not to do so e i t h e r because they lack data or the e x p e r t i s e , or f e e l t h a t the i s s u e i s too p o l i t i c a l l y "hot" f o r them to handle. L o c a l planners c o n s u l t e d d u r i n g r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s t h e s i s c o n s i s t e n t l y r a i s e d three b a s i c concerns about the use of r e g u l a t o r y bylaws to r e s o l v e r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s . The f i r s t r e l a t e s to the common p u b l i c p e r c e p t i o n t h a t r e g u l a t i o n s are i n f l e x i b l e and o f t e n b i a s e d . Because r e g u l a t i o n s r e s t r i c t or p r o h i b i t c e r t a i n land use p r a c t i c e s , some resentment i s unavoidable. Yet the bylaw 53 must appear t o be as o b j e c t i v e as p o s s i b l e , and a f f e c t o n l y t h o s e a s p e c t s of the problem t h a t r e q u i r e i n t e r v e n t i o n . The p l a n n e r s c o n s u l t e d r e c o g n i z e d t h a t c o m p l e t e l y s a t i s f y i n g t h e s e two c r i t e r i a i s not always p o s s i b l e . A c c o r d i n g l y , a l t e r n a t i v e methods f o r r e s o l v i n g the c o n f l i c t a r e u s u a l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d b e f o r e a d d r e s s i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y of d r a f t i n g new r e g u l a t i o n s . Indeed one p l a n n e r s a i d t h a t he had "a r e a l a n t i p a t h y towards r e g u l a t i o n s , " c a l l i n g them "a cop- o u t " i f used w i t h o u t f i r s t c o n s i d e r i n g o t h e r approaches t o s o l v i n g the problem. The second c o n c e r n i s w i t h the d i f f i c u l t y of e n f o r c i n g some bylaws. P l a n n e r s and o t h e r o f f i c i a l s who pr e p a r e r e g u l a t o r y bylaws g e n e r a l l y s t r i v e t o make the t e x t as s p e c i f i c and c l e a r - c u t as p o s s i b l e . However, due t o the n a t u r e of c e r t a i n i s s u e s which demand r e g u l a t i o n the wording of some bylaws may not be v e r y p r e c i s e , l e a v i n g enforcement a d i f f i c u l t t a s k . For example, w h i l e b u i l d i n g s e t b a c k s and r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h e time of o p e r a t i o n of farm machinery can be c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d and e n f o r c e d , r e g u l a t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o ad d r e s s p u b l i c n u i s a n c e problems can be v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o produce (Webster, 1987). Vague or i l l d e f i n e d t e r m i n o l o g y , sometimes r e f l e c t e d i n s i m i l a r l y ambiguous p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n , can make enforcement d i f f i c u l t or even i m p o s s i b l e under the law, and c o u l d l e a d t o e x p e n s i v e l e g a l p r o c e e d i n g s . The t h i r d c o n c e r n i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e time and c o s t s i n v o l v e d i n " r e - e d u c a t i n g " the p u b l i c when new 54 r e g u l a t o r y bylaws a r e passed by c o u n c i l . T h i s e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s i n v o l v e s i n f o r m i n g the a f f e c t e d i n d i v i d u a l s about the changes, and t h e n e x p l a i n i n g the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the r e g u l a t i o n s . While on t h e s u r f a c e t h i s e x e r c i s e seems s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , i t may i n v o l v e c o n t a c t i n g a l a r g e number of people t h r o u g h an e x t e n s i v e p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n program. I n e v i t a b l y some people w i l l not hear of t h e news and may c o n t i n u e t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s i n c o n t r a v e n t i o n of the bylaw, s e t t i n g the s t a g e f o r f u r t h e r c o n f l i c t and p o s s i b l e f i n e s . And i n s p i t e of a l l e f f o r t s , t h e r e a r e some people who w i l l remain d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h any bylaw. G i v e n t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , p l a n n e r s have i n d i c a t e d t h a t w h i l e the power t o impose r e g u l a t o r y bylaws i s e s s e n t i a l t o l o c a l government, t h e y r e g a r d the use of t h i s method t o r e s o l v e r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s as a " l a s t r e s o r t " when no o t h e r o p t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e . As a r e s u l t , t h e r e have been " v e r y few" of t h e s e k i n d s of bylaws adopted i n S u r r e y i n r e c e n t y e a r s (Leung, 1987), and i n Richmond the a d o p t i o n of a r e a p l a n s i s the main k i n d of " r e g u l a t o r y " response used by t h i s m u n i c i p a l i t y ( J a c k s o n , 1987). B u f f e r s Land use z o n i n g i s one of the most p o w e r f u l t o o l s a v a i l a b l e t o p l a n n e r s w i s h i n g t o e s t a b l i s h a l a n d use c o n t e x t t h a t i n h i b i t s t h e o c c u r r e n c e of r e s i d e n t i a l -a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t . One of the ways z o n i n g i s a p p l i e d t o a c h i e v e t h i s o b j e c t i v e i s t h r o u g h the use of l a n d b u f f e r s . Based on c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h p l a n n e r s and a 55 review of community plans and s u p p o r t i n g documents, the r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n Richmond, D e l t a and Surrey the use of b u f f e r s has become the most common pl a n n i n g response to r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t . B u f f e r s may be d e f i n e d as any land use, s t r u c t u r e , or o b j e c t whose l o c a t i o n and d e s i g n i s intended to separate c o n f l i c t i n g or incompatible land use a c t i v i t i e s and m i t i g a t e any a s s o c i a t e d negative e x t e r n a l i t i e s . T h i s r a t h e r g e n e r a l d e f i n i t i o n underscores the f a c t t h a t b u f f e r s can come i n many forms, depending l a r g e l y on the nature of the c o n f l i c t being addressed. The importance of b u f f e r s i n l o c a l land use p l a n n i n g i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s from community p l a n p o l i c y statements. 1) I t i s C o u n c i l ' s p o l i c y to ... a c q u i r e a b u f f e r between urban and r u r a l uses where e x i s t i n g r i g h t -of-ways are not adequate (Richmond OCP, 1986, p.25). 2) An e f f e c t i v e i n t e r f a c e s h a l l be e s t a b l i s h e d and maintained to a c t as a b u f f e r between urban and a g r i c u l t u r a l land ... (Delta OCP, 1986, p.12). 3) ... t h a t the a g r i c u l t u r a l area be preserved as a d i s t i n c t s ub-region, separated from the more inte n s e urban areas by suburban areas (Surrey OCP Update, 1986, p.4). The f o l l o w i n g s u b - s e c t i o n s provide a simple t y p o l o g y of b u f f e r s t h a t have been used i n the s e l e c t e d communities, and notes some of the f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e i r use. 56 B a r r i e r s As B u f f e r s A b u f f e r may a c t as a b a r r i e r a g a i n s t people and animals moving between r e s i d e n t i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o p e r t i e s . Common examples i n c l u d e rows of t r e e s , d i t c h e s , sloughs, w a l l s , fences and dense v e g e t a t i o n such as hardhack or s t i n g i n g n e t t l e s (Richmond P l a n n i n g Department, 1986). While these b u f f e r s serve to reduce the o p p o r t u n i t y to t r e s p a s s and v a n d a l i z e , they a l s o help to d e f i n e p r o p e r t y ownership boundaries. T h i s second f e a t u r e can be q u i t e important, e s p e c i a l l y i n s i t u a t i o n s where the backyards of houses and adjacent f i e l d s have no apparent d i v i s i o n . One of the a t t r a c t i v e f e a t u r e s of these kinds of b u f f e r s i s t h e i r r e l a t i v e l y low c o s t s and modest up-keep requirements. F u r t h e r , t r e e s and other v e g e t a t i o n used as b u f f e r s have an a e s t h e t i c value t h a t helps to d i s g u i s e t h e i r b a r r i e r f u n c t i o n , and can work to reduce noise l e v e l s i f p r o p e r l y placed and designed. A l i m i t a t i o n of these b u f f e r s i s th a t they cannot prevent t r e s p a s s by determined i n d i v i d u a l s . Sometimes a second b a r r i e r i s used as an a d d i t i o n a l d e t e r r e n t , and i n a few cases high fences have been e r e c t e d as a l a s t r e s o r t . C o l l e c t i v e l y , b a r r i e r -b u f f e r s are the most commonly used type of b u f f e r . Open Space As B u f f e r s The next most common kind of b u f f e r used i n the three communities attempts to separate c o n f l i c t i n g land uses by d i s t a n c e r a t h e r than by b a r r i e r . T h i s can have the e f f e c t of re d u c i n g the i n t e n s i t y of i r r i t a t i n g n o i s e s , 57 d u s t s , and s m e l l s , lowering the chances of a c c i d e n t a l p r o p e r t y f l o o d i n g , and i n c e r t a i n cases w i l l separate the d i f f e r e n t land uses s u f f i c i e n t l y to dissuade would-be t r e s p a s s e r s . The width of a s t r e e t can perform some of these b u f f e r i n g f u n c t i o n s , as do many of the s e c t i o n - l i n e roads i n c e n t r a l Richmond (Jackson, 1987), while i n other cases g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e s are r e q u i r e d to produce a n o t i c e a b l e e f f e c t . Parks and pastures have been s u c c e s s f u l l y used i n t h i s regard a t s e v e r a l l o c a t i o n s i n the three communities, with the r e c r e a t i o n a l area i n n o r t h - e a s t D e l t a being the l a r g e s t example. Two of the major drawbacks to these kinds of b u f f e r s are the s u b s t a n t i a l c o s t s of a c q u i s i t i o n i f the m u n i c i p a l i t y does not a l r e a d y own the land, and the d i f f i c u l t y of p r e s e r v i n g the b u f f e r i f market c o n d i t i o n s d i c t a t e an a l t e r n a t i v e use f o r the pr o p e r t y . Legal measures such as r e s t r i c t i v e covenants are being c o n s i d e r e d i n each of the communities as a means of adding some permanence to the b u f f e r s and en s u r i n g t h a t they w i l l be used f o r the intended purpose. T r a n s i t i o n a l Land Uses As B u f f e r s T r a n s i t i o n a l land uses are sometimes used as b u f f e r s . In t h i s c o n t e x t , a t r a n s i t i o n a l land use i s an a c t i v i t y t h a t does not pose s i g n i f i c a n t problems f o r e i t h e r the farmers or the nearby r e s i d e n t s . Two b a s i c examples i n c l u d e Christmas t r e e p l a n t a t i o n s i n South Surrey, and a g o l f course l o c a t e d next to some farmland i n West Richmond. In 58 communities such as Burnaby, a l l o t m e n t gardens have proven to be another p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e (Diamond, 1985). An advantage to t r a n s i t i o n a l land use b u f f e r s i s t h a t the space s e p a r a t i n g the p o t e n t i a l l y c o n f l i c t i n g a c t i v i t i e s i s put t o a p r o d u c t i v e use by p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s . M u n i c i p a l c o f f e r s are not d e p l e t e d , and maintenance of the b u f f e r becomes a r e g u l a r f u n c t i o n of the land use a c t i v i t y . Another b e n e f i t of these kinds of b u f f e r s i s the s t a b i l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e they can have on the farming community by r e d u c i n g the l i k e l i h o o d of f u r t h e r s h o r t - r u n urban encroachment, as opposed to an open s t r i p of land t h a t c o u l d e a s i l y accommodate a more intense use (Schiffman, 1983) . T r a n s i t i o n a l land use b u f f e r s may be encouraged by the establishment of s p e c i a l i z e d zoning a r e a s . For in s t a n c e , the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of hobby farms i n D e l t a has made planners i n t h a t community c o n s i d e r c r e a t i n g a zoning c l a s s f o r these part-time farms t h a t w i l l c oncentrate them i n t o a pre-planned area, p o s s i b l y near the e a s t e r n edge of Ladner where they could serve as a b u f f e r between housing and commercial farming o p e r a t i o n s . A l r e a d y D e l t a has rec o g n i z e d two a g r i c u l t u r a l i n t e n s i t y zones i n i t s land use pl a n , and Surrey has made use of s i m i l a r zoning to d i s t i n g u i s h between the a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s t h a t can occur i n f l o o d p l a i n and n o n - f l o o d p l a i n areas. 59 Land Reserves As B u f f e r s Given t h a t pressures t o convert a g r i c u l t u r a l land to urban uses w i l l p e r s i s t i n the f u t u r e , most m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have sought to i d e n t i f y s t o c k s of land t h a t c o u l d be developed, e s p e c i a l l y i f the a n t i c i p a t e d demand i s f o r land hungry s i n g l e - f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s r a t h e r than higher d e n s i t y i n f i l l . In many i n s t a n c e s those b u f f e r s t h a t comprise r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e t r a c t s of land have the a d d i t i o n a l r o l e of a c t i n g as r e s e r v e s f o r p o t e n t i a l growth to the urban a r e a . When asked about t h i s r o l e , the planners c o n s u l t e d were quick to p o i n t out th a t the purpose of land r e s e r v e b u f f e r s i s not to promote the c o n v e r s i o n of these lands. Rather the i n t e n t i o n i s to r e l i e v e the t h r e a t of encroachment by e s t a b l i s h i n g s p e c i f i c zones o u t s i d e of the a g r i c u l t u r a l area where higher d e n s i t y development could take plac e i f the need was warranted. Surrey has prepared a land use pla n which p r o t e c t s i t s l a r g e ALR from encroachment and separates the farmland from high d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l zones. By surrounding the ALR with zones of l a r g e l o t housing ( i . e . one and one-half acre l o t s ) , c o n s i d e r a b l e s t o c k s of land capable of s u b d i v i s i o n are maintained, and the occurrence of c o n f l i c t s i s thought to be reduced because of the s e m i - r u r a l l i f e s t y l e s common of the people who l i v e i n these areas (Leung, 1987). 60 L i m i t e d C a p a c i t y I n f r a s t r u c t u r e In order to prevent f u t u r e r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s i t i s p o s s i b l e to add design f e a t u r e s to housing developments t h a t i n h i b i t f u r t h e r encroachment Into the a g r i c u l t u r a l zone. One of the ways t h i s i s being done i n p r o j e c t s i n South D e l t a and i n Surrey's Nico-Wynd E s t a t e s i s through the i n s t a l l a t i o n of l i m i t e d c a p a c i t y i n f r a s t r u c t u r e . Intended f o r use i n concentrated or c l u s t e r e d r e s i d e n t i a l developments t h a t are adjacent to farmland and parks, the idea i s to i n s t a l l water and sewer l i n e s t h a t because of t h e i r low c a p a c i t y can o n l y serve the u n i t s they were i n i t i a l l y designed f o r , and cannot support any a d d i t i o n a l loads or e x t e n s i o n s . T h i s p r o v i d e s a d i s i n c e n t i v e f o r new developments due to the p r o h i b i t i v e c o s t s of upgrading the p i p i n g or e s t a b l i s h i n g an independent l i n k back to the main l i n e s t h a t s e r v i c e the r e g i o n (Cowie, 1987). In a d d i t i o n , the reduced c a p a c i t y pipes are sometimes looped away from the a g r i c u l t u r a l boundary without p r o v i d i n g any r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t e r m i n a t i o n p o i n t s or access v a l v e s from which extensions c o u l d be made. These two approaches would seem to be good ways to d e f i n e the l i m i t to urban expansion, but planners r e c o g n i z e t h a t they o n l y make f u t u r e developments more c o s t l y , and t h e r e f o r e cannot a c t u a l l y prevent a d d i t i o n a l encroachment. Each planner c o n s u l t e d noted t h a t l i m i t e d c a p a c i t y i n f r a s t r u c t u r e can o n l y i n h i b i t the occurrence of c o n f l i c t s 61 i n the long-run i f they are accompanied by s u f f i c i e n t p o l i t i c a l w i l l to ensure t h e i r long-term e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Many new developments i n D e l t a and Surrey are being designed with c u l - d e - s a c roads t h a t , a s i d e from t h e i r b a s i c f u n c t i o n of s e r v i n g the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n needs of the r e s i d e n t s , a l s o help to keep urban t r a f f i c away from nearby farmland. S i m i l a r l y , p e d e s t r i a n s are discouraged from g a i n i n g access to p r i v a t e f i e l d s when sidewalks and paths are o n l y provided on the r e s i d e n t i a l s i d e s of roads (Jackson, 1987). These s t r a t e g i e s are thought to be q u i t e e f f e c t i v e i n redu c i n g the occurrence of c o n f l i c t s when they are accompanied by one or more of the b u f f e r s mentioned e a r l i e r . P u b l i c D i s c u s s i o n No response to r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t can be completely s a t i s f a c t o r y without some input from the people i n v o l v e d i n the d i s p u t e . Yet as noted e a r l i e r the pl a n n i n g process i s not n e c e s s a r i l y conducted with balanced p u b l i c i n p u t . The problem i s not a lack of w i l l i n g n e s s to l i s t e n on the p a r t of the p l a n n i n g departments; i t i s r e a l l y more of a dea r t h of o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r people to get together and d i s c u s s t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s i n the presence of muni c i p a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s (Jackson,1987, Murchie, 1987). When pl a n n i n g responses are designed without p u b l i c i n p u t , they may onl y s a t i s f y one s i d e of the argument, and cou l d i n f a c t address on l y p e r i p h e r a l i s s u e s r a t h e r than the r e a l source of the c o n f l i c t . 62 E s s e n t i a l l y , d i r e c t p u b l i c input i n the three communities comes i n the form of telephone c a l l s to community pl a n n e r s , through i r r e g u l a r forums provided by re z o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s and p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , and v i a neighbourhood meetings as p a r t of the area and community pl a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s . One of the b i g g e s t concerns i d e n t i f i e d d u r i n g r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s chapter was t h a t these o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n , while p o t e n t i a l l y e f f e c t i v e , are too i n f r e q u e n t and are p r i m a r i l y intended to a l l o w people to s t a t e t h e i r o p i n i o n s , r a t h e r than to come to some form of consensus. Often the emotions vented i n these meetings serve to f u r t h e r entrench opposing s i d e s and reduce the chances f o r an improved understanding of each other's needs, g o a l s , and v a l u e s . C o n c l u s i o n T h i s chapter has d e s c r i b e d the main r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s r e g a r d i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e c o r d s of r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s , the types of c o n f l i c t s observed i n the three communities, and the b a s i c methods c u r r e n t l y being employed by planners to e s t a b l i s h a land use context t h a t prevents and r e s o l v e s c o n f l i c t s . A l l the planners c o n s u l t e d agreed t h a t the p l a n n i n g process has been e f f e c t i v e i n red u c i n g the occurrence of c o n f l i c t . Yet i n s p i t e of the widespread use of b u f f e r s , the f a c t s of i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y , encroachment, and misunderstanding continue to transcend the boundaries between farmland and housing. The next chapter o u t l i n e s a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n n i n g responses and c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s which 63 address some of the p o i n t s r a i s e d i n t h i s chapter and w i l l h o p e f u l l y a s s i s t a n a l y s t s seeking to develop improved c o n f l i c t management s t r a t e g i e s . 64 CHAPTER 4 ALTERNATIVE RESPONSES AND CONCEPTUALIZATIONS I n t r o d u c t i o n The management of r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s i s d i s p e r s e d between v a r i o u s agencies and departments w i t h i n the l o c a l government. While i n many cases planners do not d i r e c t l y respond to s p e c i f i c complaints, they n e v e r t h e l e s s t r y to keep a b r e a s t of the Issues and use the means they have a v a i l a b l e t o help reduce the occurrence of c o n f l i c t . The use of land b u f f e r s has been the main p l a n n i n g approach to p r e v e n t i n g and r e s o l v i n g r e s i d e n t i a l -a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s i n Richmond, D e l t a and Surrey. Through the use of t h i s technique the planners c o n s u l t e d expressed confidence t h a t the occurrence of c o n f l i c t i s l e s s than i t would have been without the use of b u f f e r s . The p l a n n i n g departments of the three m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have i n v e s t i g a t e d v a r i a t i o n s i n b u f f e r d e s i g n t h a t would a l l o w a degree of a d a p t a t i o n to the v a r i o u s kinds of c o n f l i c t s . However, by r e l y i n g on b u f f e r s f o r a wide range of c o n f l i c t types the planners may not be t a k i n g advantage of other techniques t h a t c o u l d improve c u r r e n t s t r a t e g i e s . The planners i n t e r v i e w e d were aware of t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y , as one s a i d " b u f f e r s are e f f e c t i v e , but must be accompanied by other s t r a t e g i e s . " While b u f f e r s have l i k e l y been e f f e c t i v e i n r e d u c i n g the numbers of c o n f l i c t s , they do not a c t u a l l y make the c o n f l i c t i n g a c t i v i t i e s more 65 compatible. Instead they prevent the " i n c o m p a t i b l e " a c t i v i t i e s from g e t t i n g c l o s e enough to each other to s t a r t a c o n f l i c t . Other s t r a t e g i e s are t h e r e f o r e needed to i n c r e a s e the c o m p a t i b i l i t y of r u r a l and urban land uses, e s p e c i a l l y i f an e f f e c t i v e b u f f e r cannot be p l a c e d between them. As Runka (1985) notes, "the key c o m p a t i b i l i t y f a c t o r i s a t t i t u d i n a l , dependent upon a mutual understanding of both r u r a l and urban users to the needs of the o t h e r . " I f a t t i t u d e s and mutual understanding are key f a c t o r s i n determining c o m p a t i b i l i t y , then p l a n n i n g responses which address these f a c t o r s c o u l d improve the management of c o n f l i c t s . From the f i n d i n g s presented i n Chapter 3 i t appears t h a t there has been r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e emphasis on b r i n g i n g the p u b l i c i n t o the c o n f l i c t management process beyond the minimum requirements s e t f o r t h i n the M u n i c i p a l A c t . T h i s chapter o u t l i n e s a number of pl a n n i n g responses and c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s t h a t c o u l d help a n a l y s t s review c u r r e n t c o n f l i c t management s t r a t e g i e s and perhaps improve on them. The f i r s t s u b j e c t addresses a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n and expansion of c u r r e n t data c o l l e c t i o n methods with regards to r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t . The remaining s e c t i o n s focus on responses t h a t help to prevent the development of c o n f l i c t through i n c r e a s i n g the mutual understanding of the c o n f l i c t i n g p a r t i e s ' p o i n t s - o f - v i e w . I t should be emphasized t h a t these are not immediately implementable s o l u t i o n s : they are simply ideas and concepts t h a t have 66 a r i s e n out of the t h e s i s f i n d i n g s , and which can serve as the s t a r t i n g p o i n t towards more s t r u c t u r e d and focused r e s e a r c h aimed at d e s i g n i n g remedies to s p e c i f i c problems. L o c a l L e v e l Data C o l l e c t i o n Chapter 3 o u t l i n e d the b a s i c means through which planners i n the three communities i d e n t i f y r e s i d e n t i a l -a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s . I t was found t h a t while there are l i m i t e d r e c ords kept on complaints t h a t r e s u l t e d i n government a c t i o n , there are no d e t a i l e d and c r o s s -r e f e r e n c e d systems of f i l e s c o n t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on a l l r e p o r t e d complaints r e l a t e d to r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t . In order to improve the understanding of r e s i d e n t i a l -a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s i t would seem u s e f u l to have a more comprehensive and i n t e g r a t e d data c o l l e c t i o n system t h a t could be used i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . One of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of such a system would be t h a t i t must acknowledge the compartmentalization of l o c a l governments i n t o separate departments, each with i t s own j u r i s d i c t i o n w i t h i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y . As G r i e s e n e r notes: " l o c a l government's o r g a n i z a t i o n i s d e c e n t r a l i z e d with i n f o r m a t i o n s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t — c o l l e c t i n g these data can be, i f not i m p o s s i b l e , extremely time consuming and expensive" ( G r i e s e n e r , 1983, p.24). Griesener u n d e r l i n e s some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with manual searches through paper-packed f i l e c a b i n e t s which have not n e c e s s a r i l y been maintained with an eye towards the p a r t i c u l a r r e s e a r c h s u b j e c t . While 67 m u n i c i p a l i t i e s such as Richmond have taken s i g n i f i c a n t steps towards remedying t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l problem, most n o t a b l y through i t s computerized Geographic Database Management System (GDMS) and i t s department of Information S e r v i c e s , there remains the b a s i c problems of c o l l e c t i n g the raw data at v a r i o u s p o i n t s w i t h i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and then i n t r o d u c i n g i t i n t o a system of c o o r d i n a t e d f i l e s . At the very l e a s t there i s a need f o r a w r i t t e n r e c o r d of complaints. The r e c o r d should i n d i c a t e when and where the c o n f l i c t has taken p l a c e , who i s i n v o l v e d , who i n the government d e a l t with i t , what are the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the c o n f l i c t , how i t was d e a l t with, and a n o t a t i o n on the r e s u l t s a f t e r government a c t i o n was i n i t i a t e d . The s i m p l e s t way of m a i n t a i n i n g such a r e c o r d i s through the use of a departmental l o g of telephone, w r i t t e n and p e r s o n a l complaints r e l a t e d to r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s . Minutes of p u b l i c hearings and other meetings c o u l d be p e r i o d i c a l l y reviewed f o r r e l e v a n t data and added to the l o g when a p p r o p r i a t e . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the O n t a r i o Right To Farm A d v i s o r y Committee experienced many of the problems t h i s author faced i n t r y i n g to c o l l e c t data on r e s i d e n t i a l -a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s . In i t s 1986 r e p o r t to the O n t a r i o M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Food the Committee s a i d t h a t i t "had d i f f i c u l t y i n g e t t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on the nature and extent of nuisance complaints" (Ontario Right To Farm A d v i s o r y Committee, 1986, p.21). Although the Committee conducted an e x t e n s i v e survey to c o l l e c t data on these 68 c o n f l i c t s , i t came to the c o n c l u s i o n that "there i s an e s s e n t i a l need f o r m a i n t a i n i n g more complete r e c o r d s on a l l farm p r a c t i c e complaints and d i s p u t e s i n the f u t u r e " (Ontario Right To Farm A d v i s o r y Committee, 1986, p.31). The r e c o r d of complaints c o u l d f o l l o w the t y p o l o g y of c o n f l i c t s o u t l i n e d i n the previous chapter, p o s s i b l y r e f i n i n g i t to conform with the p a r t i c u l a r s of the l o c a l s i t u a t i o n . For example, the negative impacts on farms and r e s i d e n c e s c a t e g o r i e s could be expanded i n t o c h e c k l i s t s having elements such as s m e l l s , n o i s e s , drainage, l o t a c c e s s , t h e f t , t r e s p a s s , vandalism, b u i l d i n g d e s i g n , b u i l d i n g l o c a t i o n , p o l l u t i o n , t r a f f i c d i s r u p t i o n s and others l i s t e d out and given simple c l a s s i f i c a t i o n c r i t e r i a f o r the person who r e c o r d s the complaints. Perhaps once a month cop i e s of each department's l o g could be brought together and then entered i n t o a d e d i c a t e d f i l e . A one-time meeting with a l l r e l e v a n t departments, i n c l u d i n g the l o c a l p o l i c e detachment, could e s t a b l i s h and implement the s t r a t e g y . C a r e f u l p l a n n i n g would be r e q u i r e d i n order to f i t the program i n t o the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and make use of e x i s t i n g r e s o u r c e s . In order to reduce c o s t s i t would be necessary to minimize s t a f f time a s s o c i a t e d with keeping these r e c o r d s to the p o i n t where the r e c o r d keeping procedure i s both e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e . The r e s u l t i n g database c o u l d be used f o r a one-time study of c o n f l i c t s and how to improve t h e i r management, or i t c o u l d be used f o r an on-going review of the i s s u e s i n v o l v e d . As was noted above, Richmond a l r e a d y has i n - p l a c e a computer system which, i f provided with the data, c o u l d e a s i l y f a c i l i t a t e such r e s e a r c h . Furthermore, the Richmond Pl a n n i n g Department has taken the i n i t i a t i v e and prepared a background study t h a t i d e n t i f i e s many kinds of c o n f l i c t s which have been observed i n the community, and prov i d e s suggestions on how b u f f e r s may be used to r e s o l v e some of them. D e l t a too has taken a f f i r m a t i v e a c t i o n by p r e p a r i n g an a g r i c u l t u r a l statement as a supplement to i t s o f f i c i a l community p l a n . T h i s document addresses c o n f l i c t i s s u e s and o u t l i n e s many of the concerns of the farming community. Systems such as the complaint logs d e s c r i b e d above, or the more advanced r e c o r d management p o t e n t i a l of Richmond's GDMS, co u l d s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o n t r i b u t e towards i n c r e a s i n g the understanding of r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s as a step towards improving p l a n n i n g responses. In h i s d i s c u s s i o n of management i n f o r m a t i o n systems (MIS), Newkirk notes t h a t two important c h a l l e n g e s f a c i n g planners a r e : a) the development of a department i n f o r m a t i o n p o l i c y . . . . ; and b) t o f i n d i n n o v a t i v e ways t h a t computers and MIS can be used to improve the q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n f o r p l a n n i n g , management and d e c i s i o n -making (Newkirk, 1987, pp.98-99). 70 Increased P u b l i c Involvement The choice of a p l a n n i n g response depends on how the problem i s d e f i n e d , and each p a r t y w i l l come up with a d e f i n i t i o n t h a t best supports i t s i n t e r e s t s ( R o n d i n e l l i , 1973, C h r i s t e n s e n , 1985). Homeowners w i l l see r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t as an i s s u e of n o i s e s , s m e l l s , p r o p e r t y f l o o d i n g and slow t r a f f i c ; farmers see i t as a continued t h r e a t to t h e i r way of l i f e , l e a d i n g to l o s s e s of l a n d , crop t h e f t , vandalism, and r e s t r i c t i v e demands being placed on " l e g i t i m a t e " work p r a c t i c e s ; and community groups see the i s s u e as one which thr e a t e n s neighbourhood c h a r a c t e r and s t a b i l i t y . Planners i n Richmond, Del t a and Surrey t r y to see the i s s u e s from a l l of these p e r s p e c t i v e s i n order to a r r i v e a t a g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t a b l e c o n f l i c t response s t r a t e g y . P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n managing c o n f l i c t s can be used to help the people i n v o l v e d take a s t e p o u t s i d e of t h e i r narrow focus and search f o r some common ground t h a t may be present (Schon, 1980). Through the use of " p r i n c i p l e d n e g o t i a t i o n , " developed at the Harvard N e g o t i a t i o n P r o j e c t , the people i n v o l v e d i n a c o n f l i c t can be helped to r e a l i z e any mutual gains t h a t might be p o s s i b l e by a v o i d i n g the p o s i t i o n a l arguments which o f t e n prevent such progress ( F i s h e r and Ury, 1981). In t h e i r n e g o t i a t i o n handbook G e t t i n g To Yes, F i s h e r and Ury emphasize t h a t i n c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s the people must be encouraged to work together i n r e s o l v i n g the problem, f o c u s i n g on t h e i r mutual 71 i n t e r e s t s and ge n e r a t i n g a v a r i e t y of p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s t h a t can be judged based on some o b j e c t i v e standard ( F i s h e r and Ury, 1981). Planners are i n a p o s i t i o n to b r i n g competing p a r t i e s together i n order to f a c i l i t a t e agreement on a d e f i n i t i o n of the problem to be so l v e d as p a r t of t h i s n e g o t i a t i o n and m i t i g a t i o n process. When a r r i v e d a t by consensus, the new problem d e f i n i t i o n may r e s u l t i n an unexpected s e t of s o l u t i o n s to the c o n f l i c t i n q u e s t i o n . For in s t a n c e , i t has been suggested t h a t a g r e a t e r i n t e g r a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l and n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s would e l i m i n a t e some of the apparent i n c o m p a t i b i l i t i e s by f o s t e r i n g g r e a t e r understanding on both s i d e s of the c o n f l i c t (Bryant and Russwurm, 1979). When asked about t h i s n o t i o n , one of the planners c o n s u l t e d s a i d t h a t i t could not work because people's i n f l e x i b l e p e r s p e c t i v e s and s e l f - i n t e r e s t s would prevent them from engaging i n e f f e c t i v e n e g o t i a t i o n s . T h i s planner b e l i e v e d t h a t r u r a l and urban land uses must be separated i f c o n f l i c t s are to be avoided. P u b l i c involvement i n the d r a f t i n g of community plans i s an accepted norm i n the three communities and i s r e q u i r e d by the M u n i c i p a l A c t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , most of t h i s p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n ends with the p u b l i c a t i o n of the OCP. For example, three out of four p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n methods adopted as p o l i c i e s i n Surrey's OCP promote input o n l y d u r i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n of the pla n (Surrey OCP, 1983, p.236). The f o u r t h method, q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , i s n o t o r i o u s f o r 72 producing m i s l e a d i n g r e s u l t s , and o n l y r e p r e s e n t s a l i m i t e d , one-way form of communication. As noted i n Chapter 3, the main sources of p u b l i c input a f t e r community plans are completed are through telephone c a l l s and i n f r e q u e n t hearings or panel d i s c u s s i o n s where r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s may be of o n l y p e r i p h e r a l concern. There i s general agreement among the planners c o n s u l t e d t h a t the farming community has much l e s s input i n t o m u n i c i p a l decision-making than t h e i r urban c o u n t e r p a r t s . T h i s i s i n p a r t due to t h e i r lack of a c o o r d i n a t e d v o i c e i n m u n i c i p a l h a l l , but the main reason f o r t h e i r low p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e i s t h e i r r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l numbers. C o u n c i l skews i t s a t t e n t i o n i n favour of the l a r g e r and more v o c a l c o n s t i t u e n c y : the non-farm r e s i d e n t s along the r u r a l - u r b a n i n t e r f a c e . I t makes a kind of good p o l i t i c a l sense when a r e s t r i c t i v e bylaw i s implemented to "zone-out" c e r t a i n important but " o f f e n s i v e " farm p r a c t i c e s w i t h i n an ALR, as long as there i s evidence t h a t the m a j o r i t y supports the d e c i s i o n (Glover, 1979). U n f o r t u n a t e l y the farmers tend to be i n the m i n o r i t y . Such responses are inadequate when a l l i n t e r e s t s have not been f a i r l y r epresented i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . A balance of input from each of the c o n f l i c t i n g p a r t i e s i s e s s e n t i a l i f c o n f l i c t s are to be r e s o l v e d from more than j u s t one p e r s p e c t i v e (Cooley, 1979). I t should a l s o not be assumed t h a t each member of the p u b l i c w i l l have o n l y one p e r s p e c t i v e on the i s s u e . People l i v i n g i n r u r a l 73 e a s t e r n Richmond have a c l o s e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with t h e i r p o r t i o n of the m u n i c i p a l i t y , but many a l s o have s i m i l a r f e e l i n g s f o r Richmond as a whole. Where there are s t r o n g neighbourhood and m u n i c i p a l i d e n t i t i e s , there i s a need f o r a balance of area-wide and neighbourhood i n t e r e s t s i n c o n f l i c t management (Lang, 1976). An On-Going Process I f the p u b l i c i s to be i n v o l v e d i n c o n f l i c t management, hence i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of problems, the g e n e r a t i o n of s o l u t i o n s , and i n the p r o v i s i o n of feedback, an " a c t i v e p r o c e s s " i s r e q u i r e d , where input i s r e g u l a r , s t r u c t u r e d , and y i e l d s v i s i b l e r e s u l t s . By p u r s u i n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , even from those groups who seem r e l u c t a n t to get i n v o l v e d , planners w i l l not o n l y r e c e i v e more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n p u t , they w i l l help to make people b e t t e r understand t h e i r community pla n s , they w i l l generate t r u s t towards mu n i c i p a l h a l l and b u i l d p o l i t i c a l support f o r t h e i r a c t i o n s , and they w i l l get v a l u a b l e feedback about how w e l l the c o n f l i c t s are being handled ( F o r e s t e r , 1980, G l a s s , 1979). One planner suggested t h a t r e g u l a r p u b l i c involvement i s a good i d e a , but should be s t r u c t u r e d around p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e s of concern to the a f f e c t e d people (Jackson, 1987). He warned t h a t a program of r e g u l a r meetings to d i s c u s s the g e n e r a l t o p i c of r e s i d e n t i a l -a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t would not get as high a turn-out as would more focused, i s s u e - s p e c i f i c meetings. 74 C o n s t r a i n t s To P u b l i c Involvement Few people would d i s p u t e the a s s e r t i o n t h a t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l o c a l government i s a good t h i n g : q u e s t i o n s mainly s t a r t a r i s i n g when i t i s necessary to determine how much p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a p p r o p r i a t e , and how s h a l l i t be conducted. There are a t l e a s t two b a s i c c o n s t r a i n t s to the kind of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n d e s c r i b e d above. The f i r s t i s the l i m i t e d budget of the l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . There are s i g n i f i c a n t c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d with a d v e r t i s i n g , s t a f f s a l a r i e s , handout and p r e s e n t a t i o n m a t e r i a l s , r e n t a l of meeting space and other c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . Costs would i n c r e a s e i f a p r o f e s s i o n a l n e g o t i a t o r was brought i n to he l p the c o n f l i c t i n g p a r t i e s s o r t out t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s , and the o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t s of the time spent on conducting p u b l i c meetings d u r i n g normal o f f i c e hours must a l s o be taken i n t o account. As one planner remarked d u r i n g the course of re s e a r c h f o r t h i s t h e s i s , a government sponsored on-going p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n process t h a t i s o r i e n t e d e x c l u s i v e l y towards r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s would be "a lu x u r y the m u n i c i p a l i t y c o u l d n ' t a f f o r d . " The second b a s i c c o n s t r a i n t i s th a t most members of the p u b l i c would have l i t t l e t e c h n i c a l understanding of e i t h e r the p l a n n i n g process or the wide range of laws, r e g u l a t i o n s and p o l i t i c a l d i c t a t e s under which planners must a c t . C e r t a i n l y there are some people who would have no t r o u b l e c o n t r i b u t i n g input t h a t takes these concerns i n t o 75 c o n s i d e r a t i o n , but t h i s i s l i k e l y the ex c e p t i o n r a t h e r than the norm. I f people with v a l i d o p i n i o n s but l i t t l e t e c h n i c a l knowledge were to be i n s t r u c t e d i n t h i s regard, the p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n process could take longer than the p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n process, making the c o s t s of the p r o j e c t p r o h i b i t i v e and u n r e a l i s t i c . For p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n to work, i t must have many of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r while t a k i n g advantage of e x i s t i n g communication channels w i t h i n the community. Where new l i n k s between the government and the p u b l i c are r e q u i r e d , the process should encourage the c o n f l i c t i n g p a r t i e s to work together and l a y the groundwork f o r a s o l u t i o n p r i o r to b r i n g i n g the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n to s o r t out the d e t a i l s of law and a p p l i c a t i o n . Making E x p e c t a t i o n s More R e a l i s t i c Each of the planners c o n s u l t e d noted t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l -a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s o f t e n a r i s e because new r e s i d e n t s are u n c e r t a i n about what to expect i n t h e i r r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e neighbourhood. People move to the f r i n g e f o r many reasons, i n c l u d i n g the search f o r the amenity values of the r u r a l s e t t i n g and the d e s i r e to get away from the pressures of c i t y l i v i n g . These and other f e a t u r e s are indeed present i n abundance, yet they must o f t e n be taken along with the n o i s e s , s m e l l s and other annoyances d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter 3. The r e a l i t i e s of l i v i n g along the r u r a l - u r b a n i n t e r f a c e may be unacceptable to some r e s i d e n t s who had not a n t i c i p a t e d them, and i f they are u n w i l l i n g to move 76 aga i n , they may choose to f i g h t f o r what i s p e r c e i v e d to be t h e i r " r i g h t s " to an environment t h a t f i t s t h e i r p r e c o n c e p t i o n s . In some cases these p r o t e s t s would be based on farming p r a c t i c e s t h a t are t r u l y i n c o n s i d e r a t e or even i r r e g u l a r , but the problems might not have a r i s e n a t a l l i f the people had been prepared f o r the above c o n d i t i o n s . Conversely, c e r t a i n c o n f l i c t s , e s p e c i a l l y those i n v o l v i n g s m e l l s and n o i s e s , may not have a r i s e n i f the farmers were more aware of t h e i r suburban neighbours' p e r s p e c t i v e s on t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . Some t r a d i t i o n a l techniques, such as the d i s c h a r g e of f i r e a r m s to f r i g h t e n away b i r d s , have been continued without any adjustments to the f a c t s of having many non-farm r e s i d e n t s nearby, prompting Richmond C o u n c i l to pass a bylaw r e s t r i c t i n g t h i s p r a c t i c e (Diamond, 1985). A r e g u l a t o r y s o l u t i o n might have been avoided i f the farmers had v o l u n t a r i l y r e s t r i c t e d the p r a c t i c e , e x p l a i n e d i t s n e c e s s i t y to t h e i r neighbours, or found another l e s s c o n t r o v e r s i a l technique to r e p l a c e i t . Planners are j u s t now s t a r t i n g to r e a l i z e the r o l e they c o u l d p l a y i n r a i s i n g the p u b l i c ' s awareness about l i f e near the r u r a l - u r b a n i n t e r f a c e . C h i l l i w a c k has a simple program a l r e a d y i n - p l a c e t h a t may serve as model f o r s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s i n Richmond, D e l t a and Surrey. C a l l e d Agri-Scope, i t i s a p u b l i c awareness program aimed a t i n c r e a s i n g people's understanding of farming p r a c t i c e s and the c o n t r i b u t i o n a g r i c u l t u r e makes to the community (Richmond P l a n n i n g Department, 1986). Information booths are 77 s e t up and pamphlets are d i s t r i b u t e d , e s p e c i a l l y i n those areas which experience a s i g n i f i c a n t turn-over of households and new development. The program c o u l d e a s i l y be expanded to i n c l u d e the a g r i c u l t u r a l community, e x p l a i n i n g how both farm and non-farm r e s i d e n t s need to adapt to each other's presence near the r u r a l - u r b a n i n t e r f a c e . Even more p r o a c t i v e i s the a g r i c u l t u r a l use n o t i c e s e e i n g growing a p p l i c a t i o n i n s e v e r a l C a l i f o r n i a and Oregon communities. The a g r i c u l t u r a l use n o t i c e i s a warning n o t i c e , a requirement imposed by l o c a l ordinance, to be p l a c e d i n c o n t r a c t s of s a l e and p a r c e l deeds; along with other a c t i o n s , i t w i l l forewarn p r o s p e c t i v e purchasers of p r o p e r t y a d j a c e n t to commercial a g r i c u l t u r a l land of the p o t e n t i a l problems a s s o c i a t e d with such purchases, i n c l u d i n g the sounds, odours, dust and chemicals t h a t accompany a g r i c u l t u r a l o p e r a t i o n s (Schlffman, 1983) . The a g r i c u l t u r a l use n o t i c e serves two purposes. I t l e t s the buyers of p r o p e r t y near the r u r a l - u r b a n i n t e r f a c e know what they are g e t t i n g i n t o , and because i t i s read and signed by the buyer, i t serves as a l e g a l document t h a t the farmer might use i n h i s defense should nuisance complaints be lodged a g a i n s t him by h i s new neighbours. The t i m i n g of the n o t i c e i s of s p e c i a l importance. In i t s c u r r e n t a p p l i c a t i o n i t i s read and acknowledged at the time of t i t l e conveyance. Yet i t would best serve i t s purpose p r i o r to any formal d e c i s i o n to buy the p r o p e r t y i n q u e s t i o n . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed to a s c e r t a i n the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the n o t i c e i n the B.C. 78 c o n t e x t . Agri-Scope and the a g r i c u l t u r a l use n o t i c e are but two of many techniques f o r r a i s i n g p u b l i c awareness about what can be expected when l i v i n g i n the r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e . Planners i n the r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e of Vancouver c o u l d adapt these t o o l s to s u i t the c o n d i t i o n s of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e communities, and f o r a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l investment they could w e l l see a s i g n i f i c a n t r e d u c t i o n i n the occurrence of r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s . Regional P l a n n i n g The powers of B r i t i s h Columbia's r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s have always been l e s s than what one might expect i n a tr u e r e g i o n a l government. Over the past decade these powers have been reduced to the p o i n t where the o f f i c i a l r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n of the d i s t r i c t s was e l i m i n a t e d a few years ago. The end of r e g i o n a l plans was greeted with mixed reviews, but d i d not seem to s t i m u l a t e any great r e g r e t i n mu n i c i p a l governments. When asked about the value of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n the context of c o n f l i c t management, one of the planners c o n s u l t e d made the f o l l o w i n g statement, which was c o n s i s t e n t l y echoed by the other p l a n n e r s : "Regional d i s t r i c t s are u s e f u l f o r s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y , and r e g i o n a l land use pl a n n i n g i s a good idea i n theory, but i n our s i t u a t i o n r e g i o n a l plans would o n l y i n h i b i t the ( l o c a l ) p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . " 79 Some a n a l y s t s have taken the opposite p e r s p e c t i v e . They would suggest that many of the f a c t o r s which l e a d to r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s transcend m u n i c i p a l boundaries and operate a t the l e v e l of the urban r e g i o n . T h e r e f o r e , i n order to c o n t r o l these f a c t o r s and f a c i l i t a t e e f f e c t i v e l o c a l responses, a r e g i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e on land use p o l i c y must be p a r t of the p l a n n i n g process (Russwurm, 1977, Jackson, 1973, Bryant et a l , 1982, Furuseth and P i e r c e , 1982). One c l e a r f a c t i s t h a t r e g i o n a l plans are no longer being made i n B.C. How then can urban f r i n g e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s b e n e f i t from the e x i s t i n g r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s t r u c t u r e ? F i r s t l y , the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t can be a v e h i c l e through which the v a r i o u s communities can get together and co-o r d i n a t e t h e i r management s t r a t e g i e s . Manitoba's P l a n n i n g Act l a y s out c r i t e r i a f o r j o i n t p l a n n i n g a t the l o c a l l e v e l (Selwood, 1981), and though s i m i l a r l e g i s l a t i o n does not e x i s t i n B.C., there i s nothing p r o h i b i t i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s from c o - o p e r a t i n g amongst themselves on a v o l u n t a r y l e v e l through the auspices of the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t . Working with the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t c o u l d help b r i n g people together to d i s c u s s i s s u e s of common concern and to see how the v a r i o u s m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a pply t h e i r s o l u t i o n s . The r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t c o u l d provide some guidance to l o c a l land use d e c i s i o n s t h a t a f f e c t r e g i o n a l growth management. Furthermore, a c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t between m u n i c i p a l i t i e s 80 and the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t c o u l d be used to promote g r e a t e r understanding about the needs, values and r i g h t s of farmers and r e s i d e n t s i n h a b i t i n g the r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e . I t would be simple to s t a t e "we need more r e g i o n a l p l a n s , " but given the c u r r e n t p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e , these " s o f t e r " forms of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g and c o o p e r a t i o n would seem to be p r a c t i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e s . The Green Zone Committee B r i t i s h Columbia i s f o r t u n a t e to have an agency d i r e c t l y concerned with the r e l a t i o n s h i p between farming and urban land uses. Formed i n 1977, the Green Zone Committee represented a p r o v i n c i a l response to what was p e r c e i v e d to be inadequate m u n i c i p a l r e g u l a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g to the s i t i n g of farm b u i l d i n g s , l i v e s t o c k and p r o c e s s i n g equipment. Meeting approximately e i g h t times per year, the Committee i s comprised of four i n d i v i d u a l s : the chairman, who i s a f u l l - t i m e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and F i s h e r i e s ; an appointee from the B.C. F e d e r a t i o n of A g r i c u l t u r e ; a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission; and an appointee from the A g r i c u l t u r a l E n g i n e e r i n g Branch. Though there i s no longer a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , there remains a c l o s e l i a i s o n between the Committee and t h i s M i n i s t r y . One of the Committee's e a r l i e s t achievements was the development of the Minimum Distance S e p a r a t i o n Formulas. These c o u l d be used to determine how f a r b u i l d i n g s along the r u r a l - u r b a n i n t e r f a c e should be s e t back from t h e i r l o t 81 l i n e s , and to e s t a b l i s h the minimum d i s t a n c e s t h a t should separate farm and non-farm a c t i v i t i e s . The formulas were intended as g u i d e l i n e s f o r l o c a l governments i n t h e i r d r a f t i n g of bylaws to reduce c o n f l i c t s between farms and adjacent p r o p e r t i e s (Glover, 1979). S i m i l a r minimum d i s t a n c e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s have been i n c l u d e d i n the O n t a r i o government's p o l i c y statement on a g r i c u l t u r e and r u r a l land use p l a n n i n g e n t i t l e d Foodland P r e s e r v a t i o n , a document which r e p l a c e s the Food Land G u i d e l i n e s adopted i n 1978. Since the enactment of B i l l 62, the Committee has expanded i t s scope of concern and become more of an a d v i s o r y body f o r p r o v i n c i a l a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y w i t h i n the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and F i s h e r i e s (Sands, 1987). The Green Zone Committee has been i n s t r u m e n t a l In s e v e r a l r e c e n t changes to the M u n i c i p a l A c t . One such change t h a t has p a r t i c u l a r relevance to r e s i d e n t i a l -a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s i s the r e v i s i o n of S e c t i o n 977 ( I n t e n s i v e A g r i c u l t u r e ) . T h i s S e c t i o n a l l o w s the M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e and F i s h e r i e s , or a l o c a l government with approval of the M i n i s t e r , to designate i n t e n s i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l areas w i t h i n the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve. T h i s r e p r e s e n t s a r e d u c t i o n i n m u n i c i p a l government's powers to independently zone and r e g u l a t e land use a c t i v i t i e s i n s i d e the ALR. Indeed, one planner suggested t h a t the l e g i s l a t i o n i s so r e s t r i c t i v e f o r l o c a l government t h a t i t i n e f f e c t " i n t r o d u c e d another element of c o n f l i c t " 82 i n t o the process of land management i n the urban f r i n g e (Leung, 1979). The i n t e n s i v e a g r i c u l t u r e d e s i g n a t i o n i s s p e c i f i c a l l y aimed at p e r m i t t i n g c e r t a i n a g r i c u l t u r a l uses ( i . e. p o u l t r y and mushroom farming) t h a t are commonly i n v o l v e d i n c o n f l i c t s . While the d e s i g n a t i o n would p r o t e c t farmers on one l e v e l , i t i s complemented by the M i n i s t e r ' s a b i l i t y to make c e r t a i n the o p e r a t i o n s are conforming to a s e t of farming p r a c t i c e g u i d e l i n e s developed by the Committee (Sands, 1987). L o c a l governments t h e r e f o r e have the o p p o r t u n i t y , i f they wish, t o p r o t e c t the i n t e g r i t y of t h e i r i n t e n s i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l areas and ensure t h a t nearby r e s i d e n t i a l areas are not being s u b j e c t e d to the e f f e c t s of unacceptable farming p r a c t i c e s . The major d i f f e r e n c e between the o l d and new v e r s i o n s of S e c t i o n 977 i s t h a t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s must now work more c l o s e l y with the M i n i s t r y i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to achieve these o b j e c t i v e s . T h i s p o r t i o n of the M u n i c i p a l Act i s now being changed once agai n i n order to make i t work w i t h i n the context of mu n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g and decision-making (Sands, 1987). E s s e n t i a l l y the Green Zone Committee has been l a y i n g the groundwork f o r comprehensive r i g h t to farm l e g i s l a t i o n . Such l e g i s l a t i o n has been used i n the United S t a t e s s i n c e 1971, and more r e c e n t l y i n pr o v i n c e s such as Manitoba and Quebec, as a means of p r o t e c t i n g farms from r e s t r i c t i v e bylaws and nuisance a c t i o n s . In O n t a r i o , the Right To Farm A d v i s o r y Committee has s t u d i e d r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l 83 c o n f l i c t s and how they a f f e c t the a g r i c u l t u r e i n d u s t r y . T h i s committee has prepared a number of recommendations to the p r o v i n c i a l government r e g a r d i n g the i n t r o d u c t i o n of r i g h t to farm l e g i s l a t i o n . The Green Zone Committee, i t s code of farming p r a c t i c e g u i d e l i n e s , and the a n t i c i p a t e d r i g h t to farm l e g i s l a t i o n i n B.C. r e p r e s e n t a resurgence of i n t e r e s t i n p r o v i n c i a l involvement i n l o c a l land use management (Lyon, 1983, Robinson, 1979). F u r t h e r changes to the M u n i c i p a l Act along these l i n e s c ould occur i n the near f u t u r e , and would s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t c o n f l i c t management p r a c t i c e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Some a n a l y s t s see a s i m i l a r t r end i n O n t a r i o , where the O n t a r i o P l a n n i n g Development Act of 1973 and, depending on how i t i s i n t e r p r e t e d , the P l a n n i n g Act of 1983 r e c a p t u r e c e r t a i n land use d e c i s i o n -making powers to the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e ( C u l l i n g w o r t h , 1984, Wronski and T u r n b u l l , 1984). L o c a l governments are not d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n forming p r o v i n c i a l a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y . Yet they are a b l e to make t h e i r concerns heard through the Union of B.C. M u n i c i p a l i t i e s and the M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , both of which are i n r e g u l a r c o n t a c t with the Green Zone Committee and other r e l e v a n t a g e n c i e s . The r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e communities p l a y a more d i r e c t r o l e i n the d e s i g n a t i o n of i n t e n s i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l areas and the a p p l i c a t i o n of l o c a l setback and farm p r a c t i c e r e g u l a t i o n s . L o c a l decision-making autonomy i n these matters i s now l e s s than i t was p r i o r to B i l l 62, but m u n i c i p a l governments 84 are s t i l l a ble to exert i n f l u e n c e on the c o n d i t i o n s t h a t lead to c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s . The A g r i c u l t u r a l Environmental S e r v i c e s Program The a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y has developed and sponsored i t s own procedure f o r d e a l i n g with r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s . C a l l e d the A g r i c u l t u r a l Environmental S e r v i c e s Program (AESP), i t has proven to be an e f f e c t i v e way to r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t s without having to t u r n to government-imposed s o l u t i o n s . The procedure i s q u i t e simple. A complaint about a farming o p e r a t i o n i s f i r s t r e c e i v e d by the m u n i c i p a l i t y , then passed on to the AESP. Next, a B.C. F e d e r a t i o n of A g r i c u l t u r e - a p p r o v e d i n s p e c t o r i s sent to the s i t e to see i f Green Zone Committee, Waste Management, M u n i c i p a l and other g u i d e l i n e s f o r a c c e p t a b l e p r a c t i c e s are being f o l l o w e d . I f the g u i d e l i n e s are complied with, such a f i n d i n g w i l l work i n the farmer's favour when the l o c a l government decides on a course of a c t i o n . Should the g u i d e l i n e s not be met, the i n s p e c t o r and h i s c o l l e a g u e s , a l l of whom are i n v o l v e d i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y , w i l l f i r s t c o n s u l t with the farmer i n an e f f o r t to come up with a workable s o l u t i o n . Most o f t e n t h i s has proven to be p o s s i b l e , and the farmer has made adjustments i n order to comply with the g u i d e l i n e s . In those cases where compliance does not ensue, the i n f o r m a t i o n i s given to the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and F i s h e r i e s , which may then r e q u i r e compliance v i a the i s s u i n g of a c o n d i t i o n a l o p e r a t i n g permit. In extreme cases, the M i n i s t r y may 85 suspend o p e r a t i o n s f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d of time (Sands, 1987). The AESP i s a province-wide program and has seen some l i m i t e d a p p l i c a t i o n i n the Lower Mainland, most r e c e n t l y i n cases i n v o l v i n g the o p e r a t i o n of greenhouses i n D e l t a . Increased use of the - program i s f e a s i b l e , and could provide an e f f e c t i v e supplement to l o c a l p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g i e s . C o n c l u s i o n T h i s chapter has b r i e f l y o u t l i n e d s e v e r a l a l t e r n a t i v e responses and c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s to c u r r e n t c o n f l i c t management s t r a t e g i e s employed i n Richmond, D e l t a and Surrey. The responses d i s c u s s e d above arose out of a b r i n g i n g together of the l i t e r a t u r e and the r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s ; more study i s r e q u i r e d to a c c u r a t e l y determine t h e i r need, t h e i r f e a s i b i l i t y , and how they c o u l d be implemented. H o p e f u l l y by r a i s i n g these p o i n t s a n a l y s t s w i l l be s t i m u l a t e d i n t o conducting such r e s e a r c h . 86 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS I n t r o d u c t i o n In the o r i g i n a l o u t l i n e of t h i s t h e s i s i t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t a number of c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendations would f o l l o w from the r e s e a r c h . The c o n c l u s i o n s would address the s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses of c u r r e n t p l a n n i n g responses to r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t , and the recommendations would d e a l with s p e c i f i c means to improving the management of these c o n f l i c t s , and as such, improving t h a t p a r t of mun i c i p a l p l a n n i n g which i n f l u e n c e s land use i n the r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e . As was d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter 1, the t h e s i s purpose and o b j e c t i v e s had to be r e v i s e d i n the l i g h t of a v a i l a b l e data, l i t e r a t u r e support and other c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . I t i s now a p p r o p r i a t e to repeat the r e v i s e d purpose and o b j e c t i v e f o r t h i s study. Purpose: using an account of l o c a l p l a n n i n g experience to document the lack of r e s e a r c h r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s are r e c e i v i n g i n the Lower Mainland with regards to data c o l l e c t i o n and i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o a l t e r n a t i v e c o n f l i c t management tec h n i q u e s . O b j e c t i v e : the g e n e r a t i o n of d e s c r i p t i v e data and obs e r v a t i o n s t h a t c o u l d be used to support more s u b s t a n t i v e and c o n t r o l l e d a n a l y s i s . 87 The r e s e a r c h and f i n d i n g s have stayed w i t h i n the intended scope of the study and have achieved the purpose and o b j e c t i v e as s t a t e d above. Below are the c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendations based on the t h e s i s f i n d i n g s . C o n c l u s i o n s Two main c o n c l u s i o n s r e s u l t from t h i s t h e s i s . The f i r s t i s t h a t i n the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s of Richmond, D e l t a and Surrey the l o c a l governments do not have comprehensive records on the i n c i d e n c e of r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s o c c u r r i n g i n the r e s p e c t i v e communities. While some records are kept on complaints which prompt government responses, i n none of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s i s there a system of d e t a i l e d and c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e d f i l e s c o n t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on a l l r e p o r t e d complaints a s s o c i a t e d with such c o n f l i c t s . Secondly, i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the p l a n n i n g departments of the three m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have r e l i e d on the use of land b u f f e r s to both prevent and m i t i g a t e the e f f e c t s of r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s . The r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t a number of a l t e r n a t i v e and supplementary responses to these c o n f l i c t s have yet to be t r i e d . Recommendations I t i s recommended t h a t the p l a n n i n g departments of Richmond, D e l t a and Surrey become more aware of the p r e c i s e extent and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n t h e i r communities. A s s o c i a t e d with t h i s , i t would be u s e f u l to have a more d e t a i l e d 88 understanding of the numbers and types of complaints generated by these c o n f l i c t s . I t i s f u r t h e r recommended t h a t the three p l a n n i n g departments c o n s i d e r the a p p l i c a t i o n of new and perhaps i n n o v a t i v e c o n f l i c t management techniques. T h i s may i n v o l v e changing the emphasis from one type of response to another, i t may i n v o l v e t r y i n g an a l t o g e t h e r new approach to p r e v e n t i n g and r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t s , or i t may be some combination of both of these. Regardless of the method employed, experimentation with or at l e a s t a study of new c o n f l i c t management t a c t i c s may c o n t r i b u t e towards r e d u c i n g the occurrence of c o n f l i c t i n the f u t u r e . C l o s i n g Remarks As the urban area expands I t Is becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t to maintain t r a d i t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s of what i t means to l i v e and work i n the r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e . Farmers must respond to continued urban encroachment t h a t c h a l l e n g e s t h e i r l i f e s t y l e and t h r e a t e n s to make t h e i r a l r e a d y unstable farms n o n - v i a b l e . Suburban non-farm r e s i d e n t s are being s u b j e c t e d to e x t e r n a l i t i e s generated by i n t e n s i f y i n g farm o p e r a t i o n s , and may soon see some of t h e i r l e g a l r e c o u r s e s d i m i n i s h with changes to e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n . M u n i c i p a l planners are f o r c e d to temper t h e i r d e s i r e to help these groups adapt to each other with the r e a l i t i e s of o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n the framework of p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n , a f i x e d budget, and an imposed p o l i t i c a l agenda. The v e r y nature of p l a n n i n g , with i t s constant 89 stream of " r o u t i n e " problems, precludes planners from spending much time r e f l e c t i n g on how w e l l r e a l - w o r l d p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g matches the i d e a l s presented i n the l i t e r a t u r e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i f there i s a d e s i r e to improve the management of r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s and prepare f o r i n c r e a s e d development pressures i n the r u r a l -urban f r i n g e , planners w i l l have to a p p l y t h e i r s k i l l s to improving the process through which these complex i s s u e s are addressed. 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