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Some dimensions of a planning problem : residential-agricultural land use conflict in metropolitan rural-urban… Yeomans, Martin Gregory 1987

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SOME DIMENSIONS OF A PLANNING PROBLEM: RESIDENTIALAGRICULTURAL LAND USE CONFLICT IN METROPOLITAN RURAL-URBAN FRINGE AREAS  By MARTIN GREGORY YEOMANS B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ,  1984  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER  OF ARTS in  THE School  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  o f Community and R e g i o n a l  Planning  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d s  THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH OCTOBER, 1987  (c)  Martin Gregory  COLUMBIA  Yeomans, 1987  In  presenting  requirements British it  f o r an  Columbia,  advanced  I  agree  freely available  agree for  this thesis  that  permission  or  understood  that  financial  gain  by  degree  the  at  the and  for extensive  copying  copying not  or or be  granted her  study.  by  allowed  o f Community and R e g i o n a l  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 M a i n M a l l V a n c o u v e r , B.C. Canada V6T-1Y3 Date O c t o b e r  13, 1987  Columbia  I  of t h i s the  of  this  without  permission.  Department  shall  head  representatives.  publication  Planning  the  University  Library  for reference  his  shall  f u l f i l m e n t of  that  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be  department  in partial  make  further thesis of  my  It  is  thesis my  of  for  written  SOME DIMENSIONS OF A PLANNING PROBLEM: RESIDENTIALAGRICULTURAL LAND USE CONFLICT IN METROPOLITAN RURAL-URBAN FRINGE AREAS ABSTRACT Residential-agricultural rural-urban  fringe  mentioned  as  a  research  was  planning to  planning to  problem.  i n order  t h e management of s u c h anticipated  addresses  the  agricultural having  However,  cause  conflict  literature  and  research.  On  planners  Columbia, conflict  for  the  other  hand,  of  academic  knowledge.  local  theory  of  would  and  planning  the  not  suburbs  qualities. academic  support  consultations  Delta  which  residential-  Vancouver  that  such  with  local  documentation  in  and  British  Surrey,  residential-agricultural  land  the  use  i s a source  of  officials.  of c o n c l u s i o n s r e s u l t e d  second  this  approaches  professional  available  Richmond, that  of  effective  from  data  to p r o f e s s i o n a l  scientific  intent  activity  their  accessible  review  commonly  and  characteristics  along with data  to municipal  and  is  the  conflict  i s t r e a t e d as a p l a n n i n g p r o b l e m and  first  relate  identify  agricultural  of  Three kinds  of  to  of  the  showed  complaints  state  types  showed  a  municipalities  initial  investigation  the  and  The  areas  in  problems.  and  respected  the  conflict  method would have combined  substantial  departments  use  metropolitan  correlate  responses  The  The  of  land  are  appropriate  literature, practice  to  while  from the the  this  research.  underdeveloped first  and  third  i n the absence of a p p l i c a b l e  iii The are  first  i s a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e  perceived  as  governmental  to  the  system  there  support  three  are  future  set  of  with  received,  identified  land  in  material  tentative  a  and  Thirdly,  the  conflict  situations  of  measures. of  the  on  are  used  i s observed  The  for a  variety  of  the  descriptive  to  that  of  guide  a  been a r e l i a n c e on  conflicting  conflict  approaches focus  on  increasing  data  preventing  the  mutual  useful  problems  appropriate have  used  wide  land  and and  critique planning  only a  few  conflict.  In  range  of  conflict  b u f f e r s to  separate  improve are  to  identify  response  tentative  activities.  situations  the  of  rural-urban  for  be  methods t o  a  planners to  that  may  summaries  s u p p l e m e n t a r y a p p r o a c h e s w h i c h may  through  are  planning  to develop  responses  has  which  non-systematic  appropriate  types  typical  From  complaints  conflicts a  offered  suggestions  i t is clear  of  by  in  monitoring  of  Instead, on  is  governments  records  government.  typology  particular,  potentially  acted  conceptualizations  possible  there  no  conflicts.  response.  reported  It  of  comprehensive  and  are  must r e l y  that  present  f o r development  have  local  there  who  responses  a  classification.  planners  develop  and  Municipal  use  departments  to  problem  research.  cross-referenced  associated  collection  planning  recommendations  communities  or  a  which  response.  Secondly, data  constituting  characteristics  Alternative the  management  suggested.  development understanding  and  of  These conflict of  the  iv conflicting involvement well  as  parties' in  problem  programs  government,  p o i n t s - o f - v i e w . Examples  to  identification  facilitate  f a r m e r s and n o n - f a r m  and  include  resolution,  communication residents.  public  between  as the  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS L I S T OF TABLES L I S T OF FIGURES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  i i V v i i viii ix  CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION  1  Purpose Research Objectives Problem Statement Methods And D a t a T h e s i s Overview  1 2 4 4 7  CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW D e f i n i t i o n : The R u r a l - U r b a n F r i n g e R u r a l - U r b a n Land Use C o n v e r s i o n And U r b a n Growth Canada B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver C e n t r e d Region The D i v e r s i t y Of Urban F r i n g e A c t i v i t i e s R e g i o n a l Land Use F a r m i n g I n The F r i n g e ALR E x e m p t i o n s F a r m i n g And The Land M a r k e t CHAPTER THREE: THE DATA AND FINDINGS Data C o l l e c t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Records F i n d i n g s On The I n c i d e n c e Of C o n f l i c t F i n d i n g s On The Types Of C o n f l i c t Environmental P o l l u t i o n M u n i c i p a l S e r v i c e s And T a x a t i o n N e g a t i v e Impacts On F a r m i n g N e g a t i v e Impacts On R e s i d e n c e s Social Alienation R u r a l - U r b a n C o n f l i c t And The P l a n n i n g Agenda F i n d i n g s On P l a n n i n g R e s p o n s e s R e g u l a t i n g Land Use P r a c t i c e s Buffers B a r r i e r s As B u f f e r s Open Space As B u f f e r s T r a n s i t i o n a l Land Uses As B u f f e r s Land R e s e r v e s As B u f f e r s Limited Capacity Infrastructure Public Discussion Conclusion  9 9 10 10 11 12 17 21 24 27 29 32 32 33 36 38 38 39 42 44 46 48 51 51 54 56 56 57 59 60 61 62  vi  CHAPTER 4: ALTERNATIVE RESPONSES AND CONCEPTUALIZATIONS  64  Introduction L o c a l L e v e l Data C o l l e c t i o n Increased P u b l i c Involvement An On-Going P r o c e s s C o n s t r a i n t s To P u b l i c I n v o l v e m e n t M a k i n g E x p e c t a t i o n s More R e a l i s t i c Regional Planning The Green-Zone Committee The A g r i c u l t u r a l E n v i r o n m e n t a l S e r v i c e s Conclusion  64 66 70 73 74 75 78 80 84 85  Program  CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  86  Introduction Conclusions Recommendations C l o s i n g Remarks  86 87 87 88  BIBLIOGRAPHY  90  vii  L I S T OF  TABLES Page  Table Table Table Table Table  1: P o p u l a t i o n And A r e a 2: Common U r b a n - A s s o c i a t e d Land S p a c e - R e s o u r c e A c t i v i t i e s Of The U r b a n F r i n g e 3: Land Use C o n f l i c t s : E x t e r n a l i t i e s 4: Land Use A r e a s 5: A r e a E x c l u d e d From The ALR (1981-1985)  14 18 20 23 28  viii L I S T OF  FIGURES  Page Figure Figure Figure Figure  1: 2: 3: 4:  Vancouver Urban-Centred Region E x t e n t Of U r b a n Development 1961 And E x i s t i n g Land Use, 1981 A g r i c u l t u r a l Land R e s e r v e : G r e a t e r Vancouver  1981  .  13 15 22 25  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I  would  constant were  like  support,  essential  William Brahm  Rees  following  people  Richmond; Graham  Services  proved  Brian  Jackson, Community of  and D a v i d  Sands,  which  i n v a l u a b l e , and  extended  inits to  contributions  Director  of  Community Planner  Planning  his  s t u d y . Dr.  to the t h e s i s  i s also  Cowie,  for  a l l of  this  enthusiastic  Art  Director  i n Surrey;  of  add substance  Y i n Leung,  Murchie,  that  Hightower  advice,  completion  for their  Delta;  How  and good  My g r a t i t u d e  knowledge: in  Dr. Henry  comments  helped  stages.  Services  the  provided  formative  and  insight,  for  Wiesman  time  t o thank  and  Green  the of  Planning  Planner in  in  Surrey;  Development  Zone  Committee  Chairman. My  final  thanks  me on t h e r i g h t  go t o S t e v a n  track.  Rageesh,  who  helped  keep  1  CHAPTER 1  INTRODUCTION  I began t h i s use  planning  research  related my  i n areas  into  discussions  t h e s i s w i t h an I n t e r e s t i n m u n i c i p a l  e x p e r i e n c i n g r a p i d growth. P r e l i m i n a r y  general  with  practicing  develop  perceived sector.  and  fringe.  local the  t o preserve  focus  of  the  urban  which  and  land  my  monitoring  of  l e d me t o c o n c e n t r a t e  land  farmland  created  literature,  Of p a r t i c u l a r  o f my r e s e a r c h b e c a u s e t h i s issues  and  governments  Residential-agricultural  the  planning  i n t h e media  expand  need  use  planners,  on t h e r u r a l - u r b a n  were t h e ways i n w h i c h to  land  topics discussed  study  land  balance base  concern pressures  against  the  the  agricultural  use c o n f l i c t s  became  s u b j e c t e m b o d i e d many  interest  in  land  use  T h i s t h e s i s p o i n t s o u t t h e need f o r more e x t e n s i v e  data  planning.  collection conflict  on  the  occurrence  of  residential-agricultural  a n d t h e u s e o f more v a r i e d p l a n n i n g  t h e management o f s u c h  techniques  in  conflicts.  Purpose In  broad  terms  this  t h e s i s i s intended  to contribute  towards improving  t h e management o f r u r a l - u r b a n c o n f l i c t s a t  the  local  level,  with  the  agricultural  land  of land f o r urban  planning  base  while  goal  being  to  p r o v i d i n g adequate  preserve stocks  expansion.  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , local  the ultimate  the t h e s i s i s intended  departments  t r y to establish  a  t o show  how  policy  and  2  land the  use framework t h a t  both preserves  chance f o r r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s t o occur. The  focus  is  communities t h a t pattern  data  on  on  rapidly  expanding  have been e x p e r i e n c i n g  of r e s i d e n t i a l  anticipated  that  such a p a t t e r n  land  use  number  could then  be  of  would  conflicts  recently  with  However,  urban  purpose  was  as w e l l as  providing  the types  responses  Research At  that  of c o n f l i c t s  data  is  following section concerning research  substantial between  planning  and  I t was  complaints  the available  required,  uses.  generate  i n a d e q u a t e t o meet t h i s g o a l . A r e - e v a l u a t i o n thesis  fringe  interpenetrating  land  and  introduced  cross-classified  evaluated.  an  and a g r i c u l t u r a l  n e i g h b o u r i n g f a r m e r s and s u b u r b a n i t e s , a  farmland and reduces  proved  and  t o be  of the c e n t r a l  reflected  i n the  objectives.  Objectives the  outset  i t was  responses t o c o n f l i c t could conceptualizations effectiveness  assumed  that  be t e s t e d a g a i n s t  i n the l i t e r a t u r e  local  planning  t h e t h e o r y and  i n order  t o assess the  o f t h e r e s p o n s e s , and t o i d e n t i f y a l t e r n a t i v e  c o n f l i c t management t e c h n i q u e s t h a t m i g h t be i n d i c a t e d . Much of t h e t h e o r y as  w o u l d have come f r o m O n t a r i o - b a s e d  literature,  many o f t h e p r e - e m i n e n t C a n a d i a n a u t h o r i t i e s  concentrate  their  attention  available  to  literature, not  i n that me  when  i t  province. became  combined  with  As  clear  publications that  the  the accessible  became academic  data,  would  s u p p o r t a c a s e s t u d y a p p r o a c h w h i c h f o c u s e d on t h e Lower  Mainland.  The  literature  review section  and o t h e r  parts  of  3 this be  t h e s i s e x p l a i n more f u l l y  why t h i s  approach  could not  used. A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s became u s i n g a n  account of l o c a l planning experience research  the issue  regards  to  objective  collection  conflict became  observations and  i s r e c e i v i n g i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d  data  alternative  t o document t h e l a c k o f  and  management  the generation  investigation  techniques. of  The  d e s c r i p t i v e data  t h a t c o u l d be u s e d t o s u p p o r t  more  with into main and  substantive  controlled analysis. The  t h e s i s uses  literature,  combined  the theory with  an  which  account  i s a v a i l a b l e i n the of c u r r e n t  approaches t o r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t Mainland,  in  conceptualizing towards  raising  planning  as  management. generated provide  order both  to  the problems  t h e awareness well  as  I t should  basis  of t h i s  for  residential-agricultural  and more  conflict.  ways  and s o l u t i o n s a s a  improving  data  i n t h e Lower  alternative  be e m p h a s i z e d  descriptive the  suggest  planning  aspect  of land  of step use  data  collection  and  that  the research  has  conclusions  intended  to  systematic  studies  of  4  Problem  Statement  The the  l i t e r a t u r e and  s i g n i f i c a n c e of  urban expansion literature  applied analyses the  dearth and  of  geography  of  very  little  planners  who  i n the  that  to  on t h e  conflicts.  land.  effort  be  of  Yet  the  itself  to  occurring  in  lends  there  conflict,  is  clear  there  is  a  incidence, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  This  i n an  while  context  thesis to  expands  provide  on  used t o guide f u t u r e  the s t a t e of the  and  conclusions  l i t e r a t u r e and  must d e a l w i t h r u r a l - u r b a n c o n f l i c t  research assisting  issues.  Data  research While  method f o l l o w e d  the  method  incremental  steps, there  stages  to  information  Further,  that could  improving  had  theory  responses  problem  aimed a t  below.  agricultural  l e v e l data  suggestions  The  l o s s of  fringe.  of l o c a l  M e t h o d s And  the  planning  documents t h i s and  conflict  of c e r t a i n c l a s s e s of c o n f l i c t  rural-urban  evidence  have e s t a b l i s h e d  rural-urban  and  contains  p r a c t i c i n g planners  be  or a  is  in this thesis i s outlined  presented  as  a  were s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s  returned l a c k of  to  and  revised  series when  of  earlier  because  of  new  data.  S t e p 1: L i t e r a t u r e R e v i e w The Canadian  first and  rural-urban rural-urban  step other  land  use  conflicts  empirical studies  in  this  relevant  thesis involved a review literature  conversion, and  of c o n f l i c t  urban  techniques  concerned fringe  to  o c c u r r e n c e and  with  geography,  resolve the  of  them,  r e s u l t s of  5 government  responses, the r o l e  of  use d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , and c o n f l i c t S t e p 2;  the  purpose,  objectives  prepared  and  and  used  re-evaluated  to  which  step  the research  c r i t e r i a were as a)  the  areas  subsequent  accompanying  further  above  objectives  study of the  would  farm  and  had  to  farmland  conversion  c)  local  the  planning  staff  expertise  a  be  selection  based.  The  of  the  those  had  to  community  contain  residential  be  land  in  ( i . e.  urban  administrations that  large  necessary to  assist  area  had  to  close  regular growth); have  enough t o h a v e the  author  land;  selection had  of  communities  sizable  stocks  was of  on  selection  substantial  experiencing  was  which  were  communities  a the  i n the  research; d)  As  literature  follows:  they  were  research.  proximity; b)  the  Communities  involved  communities of  review,  situations.  S t e p 3: S e l e c t i o n o f next  on  land  Statement  statement given  guide  In  theory.  literature  problem  based  local planning  The  resolution  initial  a l r e a d y n o t e d , t h e p u r p o s e and  and  government  P u r p o s e , O b j e c t i v e s and P r o b l e m  Following  later  local  limited  to  agricultural  6  e)  the  communities  Vancouver visits  to  to  a l l o w the  be  close  author  were R i c h m o n d , community  Delta  plans  reviewed,  criteria, and  and  paying  the  to  repeated  departments.  selected municipalities  Surrey,  British  supporting  particular  enough  t o make  to the r e s p e c t i v e p l a n n i n g  B a s e d on t h e s e  planning  had  Columbia.  documents  attention  to  m e c h a n i s m s t h a t a f f e c t e d l a n d use  Their  were  then  policies  along  the  and  rural-  urban i n t e r f a c e . Step 4: It  was  then necessary  officials regards  S e l e c t i o n o f R e s p o n d e n t s and  who to  jurisdiction. directors w i t h the led  to  of  The  The  initial  planning  such  research,  specific  targets  and  as  staff  the  format  due  hence t h e y  conflicts  with  in  each  f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n were planners  who  were  not  and  were n o t ,  in  exploratory and  often  of  other Permits  Building Inspection.  conducted  the  the  familiar  p o l i c e detachment,  Health  to  government  information  representatives  local  were  local  with a v a i l a b l e personnel  with  Environmental  consultations  interview  the  residential-agricultural  conversations  Licenses,  identify  provide  issues. Discussions  departments, and  could  to  Consultations  were n o t  a  structured  nature  of  intended  to  the be,  reproducible. S t e p 5: C o n c l u s i o n s The critique  final of  major  current  and  Recommendations  step planning  was  to  provide  approaches  to  a  tentative  residential-  7  agricultural  conflict  management,  and  and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s b a s e d on t h i s Thesis  conclusions  analysis.  Overview  The  structure  follow  a  of t h i s  logical  thesis  is  from  problem  sequence  r e v i e w a n d p r o v i d e s much used t h r o u g h o u t  chapter  of t h e background  the  study.  i s to establish  agricultural providing identifying urban  range  fringe  activities  arise.  of  of land  region, one  The  and  interest  to  Information  main purpose  This  working d e f i n i t i o n the  out  definition  the context i n which  conflicts  a  laid  to  Chapter 2 i s the l i t e r a t u r e  c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendations.  is  t o make  is  that  of t h i s  residential-  accomplished  by  of the r u r a l - u r b a n  fringe,  uses observed i n a  typical  describing  can a f f e c t  how  the  regular  the a c t i v i t i e s  of  another. Chapter research  3 deals  i n the  with  three  the data  Lower  and  findings  Mainland  based  communities.  t o p i c s which a r e covered i n c l u d e the data c o l l e c t i o n used types  in this of  municipal  conflicts  placement planning  thesis,  of  records,  identified  in  agenda,  and  the  types  of  Major method  the incidence  and  communities,  the  the  residential-agricultural  on  conflicts  on  planning  the  responses  observed. The research  fourth  chapter  findings  alternative techniques.  and  brings  together  the  in  supplementary  Of e s p e c i a l  concern  an  literature effort conflict  i s current  data  and  to  the  suggest  management collection  8 p r a c t i c e s with regards The  suggestions  intended  to residential-agricultural  and c o n c e p t s d e a l t w i t h  conflict.  i n t h i s chapter are  t o s t i m u l a t e f u r t h e r , more s y s t e m a t i c r e s e a r c h  particular  topics raised i n this  Chapter  5  recommendations,  contains and  offers  f u t u r e o f l a n d use p l a n n i n g  the  into  thesis. research  some  closing  conclusions remarks  i n the rural-urban  and  on t h e  fringe.  9  CHAPTER 2  LITERATURE REVIEW  This review,  chapter and  as  information this  presents such  used  review  throughout the  i s to  Some  literature later  review  land  use  occur  material  be  of  into  background  main purpose context  i n the  collected  brought  literature  the  t h e s i s . The  conflicts  Rural-Urban  literature  several  forming  the  in  of  which  rural-urban during  the  discussion  in  a  the  1975,  o f u r b a n and  the (b)  typically by  Pryor,  1977,  the  involves  urban a c t i v i t i e s 1968,  and and  include:  (a)  continuous  built-up  city  land of  the  u s e s ; and  the  study:  (c)  urban area  displacement  (Bryant  Russwurm,  the  fringe  These  1974).  of  Based by  following definition  and being  occurs, rural  e t a l , 1982,  further elaboration  1980),  used t h r o u g h o u t t h i s  rural-urban  containing a diverse  rural  where most e x p a n s i o n  characteristics (1974,  between  unbroken c o u n t r y s i d e ;  activities  that  characteristics.  transition  region  which  Fringe  indicates  basic  dynamic mixture the  will  the  chapters.  The  and  much  e s t a b l i s h the  additional  D e f i n i t i o n : The  has  r e s u l t s of  provides  residential-agricultural fringe.  the  Martin, on  these  Russwurm shall  be  10 The  rural-urban  rural  fringe  is  a  zone  c o u n t r y s i d e e x t e n d i n g beyond  suburbs  to the  The  fringe  and  urban  fifty  region  land  activities,  of  i t s population  instances over  of  rural  time  non-farm  land  continuous  rural  and  land.  in  displaced  rural  more  will  than  typically  residents.  uses  become  semi-  by a m i x t u r e of  use  comprised  the  unbroken  i s characterized  percent  be  of  of  In  most  the  fringe  will  by  urban  land  uses. R u r a l - U r b a n L a n d Use In  a  discussion  agricultural fast  C o n v e r s i o n And of  conflicts  Canadian  cities  the  context  arise have  Urban Growth i n which  i t i s useful been e x p a n d i n g  to understand through  c o n v e r s i o n . I t s h o u l d be e m p h a s i z e d  that this  concerned  w i t h urban  the  land  se.  per  sub-topics that  As  are  e x p a n s i o n and  will  become c l e a r  discussed  i n order  residential-agricultural  maintained around  by  continual  l o s s of  residential  use  i s not  pages,  are  how  agricultural  underscore  conflicts  land  thesis  in later to  residential-  these  the  generated  development  in  fact and and  farmland.  Canada During  the  six  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50,000 ha l a n d was (Lands this  year of prime  c o n v e r t e d t o urban Directorate  Fact  period  between  CLI  1-3  ( i . e.  Sheet  agricultural  non-farm) uses  85-4,  c o n v e r s i o n o c c u r r e d i n t h e 33  class  1976-1981  1985).  About  i n Canada half  of  urban-centred r e g i o n s of  11 British centred  Columbia  been an  the  interesting  Directorate  regions  r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e r a t e  size  with  of  urban  85-4, 1985). 341  ha  i n those  the conversion  a  centres  The  per  highest  1,000  centres  with  Contrasting  this,  population  rate  rate  of  increase  in  a population i n those  greater  was t h e  (Lands  than  lowest  of  urban 500,000  a t 61 ha p e r  i n p o p u l a t i o n . Thus t h e s m a l l e r c i t i e s  appear  have been consuming l a n d a t a f a s t e r r a t e p e r c a p i t a i n  recent years British Over arable,  with  the  1985).  Plateau,  and  in  of  the  the  land  t h e Peace R i v e r  area  fertile  province's  and non-  arable  scattered  i n the province's  percent  i s mountainous  10% of p o t e n t i a l l y  Interior  prime a g r i c u l t u r a l  l a n d used  Columbia  the remaining  northeast,  During  Sheet 85-4,  Columbia  i n the  predominantly t h a n one  (Lands D i r e c t o r a t e F a c t  90% of B r i t i s h  occurring  to  Sheet  occurred  1,000 i n c r e a s e  one  the  25,000-50,000.  centred  in  inverse  conversion,  population, between  and  Pact  rural-urban  to  e s p e c i a l l y i n the regions  same p e r i o d on t h e n a t i o n a l s c a l e t h e r e h a s  conversion  people,  Ontario,  around Vancouver and T o r o n t o .  Over  of  and  pockets  located  f l o o d p l a i n s . Less total  area  i s class  land.  period  between  f o r "renewable resource  1 9 7 6 - 1 9 8 1 , 23,372 ha o f production"  was  converted  u r b a n u s e s , o f w h i c h 5,272 ha was p r i m e a g r i c u l t u r a l  o f c l a s s 1-3 ( L a n d s D i r e c t o r a t e F a c t S h e e t 8 5 - 4 , 1 9 8 5 ) .  land  12 Vancouver Centred The  Lower  a population rural  Region  Mainland,  boom  in  communities  the  distant places.  the  only  between Bridge  major  these  accommodate other  the  with  the planned  more  generally  urbanized  municipalities  As  and  was  agriculture,  (Deas  into  of  link  constructed  over  24%  region  of  the  Bridge i n  Tunnel i n 1959, Alex  the a g r i c u l t u r a l  and  7%  land  was  continues  the  Vancouver and i n the  farming  has  activity.  was c l a s s i f i e d land  used  Fraser  to Surrey,  1 ) . However,  l a n d use and economic  to the  here,  the  order to  metropolitan  interest  boom  Pattullo  In  was  2 2 % was u n u s e d , 1 2 % was d e s i g n a t e d  conservation,  to  access  of people  Island)  transit  the  the  Surrey.  (see Figure  o f 1982, 28% o f  undifferentiated,  began  of  w i t h t h e Oak S t r e e t  rapid  h a s become i n t e g r a t e d  remained an important  Surrey  the r e c e n t l y completed  area  three  formerly  providing  t h e movement  Delta. Beginning  and  The  stages  link  Westminster  encourage  continuing  Bridge  of  early  and Vancouver  and t h e George Massey  and  and  and  s u b u r b s , a s e r i e s o f c r o s s i n g s were  the Fraser 1957  At  automobile  New  and  Delta  experienced  i n f l u x o f p e o p l e f r o m Vancouver and  towns  joining  o f Canada,  1950s-1970s.  i n Richmond,  r e c e i v e an unprecedented more  l i k e much  used  for  recreation  for dwellings.  t o be l o c a t e d  urban  Most  i n either  Vancouver Urban-centred Region  Source: Lands D i r e c t o r a t e , 1985.  FIGURE 1  14 Richmond,  Delta,  Directorate  Surrey,  Fact  Sheet  Between 1961 and and  Surrey  more  yearly  growth  recent  years  1981  and  Meadows,  1981  the  than  populations  doubled,  have been  more  h a v i n g expanded  and  of  Delta  experienced  modest, t o grow  by  rapidly,  roughly  (Statistics  22%  Canada,  1986  statistics  regional  plans  official  (OCPs) a r e g i v e n b e l o w  i n Table  in  with i t s  between  f i g u r e s and  from  Rates  hovering around the  Interim Counts). Current population taken  (Lands  Richmond  a s 1 7 % (GVRD, 1 9 7 5 ) .  Surrey continues  1986 c e n s u s e s  or Langley  85-5, 1985).  r a t e s as high  1%-1.5% r a n g e . population  Pitt  Census  land  and  the  area  community  1.  Table 1 P o p u l a t i o n and Area  POPULATION 1,256,075  228,577  C i t y of Vancouver  427,131  11,690  Richmond  107,763  13,311  79,166  18,679  180,075  32,226  GVRD  Delta Surrey  The  urbanization  growth i n the  region  which is  map, " u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t " involving and  AREA ( h a )  accompanied  illustrated refers  t h e development  to  the  population  i n F i g u r e 2. I n t h i s any  of non-urban  land  use  ( i . e. r u r a l )  so a l s o g i v e s an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e c o n v e r s i o n o f  change land,  16 farmland  t o o t h e r u s e s (GVRD,  During  the  period  Vancouver's urban area or  roughly  the  of  l a n d t h a t was  1976,  area  as  (McCuaig  i s remarkably  urbanized  addition the  and  to  land  rapidly  Vancouver, e s p e c i a l l y (GVRD, 1 9 8 2 ) .  During  Figure  2  Greater  was  i n the five  Burnaby  a r e a between  c l a s s 1-4  Nearly  i n the  and  ha,  s i m i l a r t o t h e 17,787 ha 1966-  agricultural  t w o - t h i r d s of  Vancouver  developing  the  City  i n the Toronto  Manning, 1982).  urban  then  by  Vancouver  n i n e t y - s i x percent of which  land  in  covered  e x p a n d e d by a p p r o x i m a t e l y 18,000  same  combined. T h i s f i g u r e  1982).  region  communities  form  of  year  p e r i o d between  the  occurred south  single-family  of  housing  1976-1982  n e a r l y 2 0 % o f t h e 7,345 ha o f l a n d t h a t became u r b a n i z e d  was  good q u a l i t y  had  class  1-3  agricultural  l a n d , much o f w h i c h  been w i t h i n t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve act  S h e e t 85-5, In  most,  terms  1985). of  area  Surrey  be  has  clearly  a l t h o u g h much o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s  contains s c a t t e r e d pockets to  (Lands D i r e c t o r a t e  reproduced  on  of farmland  t h e map  Regional P l a n n i n g Board,  (Everitt,  1962).  that 1981,  become u r b a n i z e d  i n R i c h m o n d , D e l t a and  was  once  Is adjacent  potential residential  for and  or  numerous  land  agricultural  urbanized are  too  Lower  to farmland, use  zone  Mainland which  Surrey  either  there  i s the  conflicts  activities.  the  small  S i n c e much o f t h e l a n d  has  farmland  urbanized  between  17 The D i v e r s i t y o f u r b a n F r i n g e In  the  decades  following  urban p o p u l a t i o n grew outwards and  World  War  urban  these developments  sprawl.  controls  land  The  were d i v e r s e  as landowners enjoyed g r e a t their  (Bryant et  introduced  least  haphazardly d i s t r i b u t e d  freedom  i n t h e ways t h e y c o u l d  a l , 1982).  a sense  established Similarly, Toronto  Gradually  of order  to  the  idle  been  criticized  use  of  variety  urban  plots,  land  of  region,  be  booming  argued  that,  regulations  i n the r u r a l - u r b a n for  for a  identification  et of  waste  farms,  city  s e e T a b l e 2.  anywhere  urban  For  sites,  or  and  virtually a  area. of an  "administrative  unmatched  situated  were  towards  fringe  disposal  at  fringe  the urban  1982).  common  by  shopping malls,  location  a l ,  contributing  encouraged  land uses with  houses,  (Bryant  activities,  the  urban-associated  planning  (Bourne, 1984). E v e n t u a l l y  unsuitable side  and  area-based planning  has  contain a in  i t might  planning  t o complement t h e e x p a n s i o n of t h e u r b a n  "inefficient" chaos"  development  undertaken i n  and  c o n t i n u e d . Indeed  initially,  Canada's  "scatteration,"  activities  d e v e l o p m e n t , y e t t h e s p r e a d o f u r b a n and activities  II  d r a m a t i c a l l y , pushing c i t y boundaries  i n the form of r i b b o n development,  general  use  Activities  more  grew t o else  quarries, industry side  by  complete  urban-associated  Table 2 Common U r b a n - A s s o c i a t e d L a n d S p a c e - R e s o u r c e Of The U r b a n F r i n g e RESIDENTIAL EXTRACTION Isolated subdivision Crossroad c l u s t e r s Ribbons Isolated Mobile courts COMMERCIAL Animal h o s p i t a l s Auction barns Auto body r e p a i r Auto wreckers Parks B u i l d i n g stone Cabins Carpets and f l o o r i n g Dance h a l l s Drive-in theaters Farm equipment Farm s u p p l i e s F e r t i l i z e r supplies F r u i t stands Furniture Lumber y a r d s Marine s u p p l i e s Meat m a r k e t s M o b i l e homes Motels Restaurants Service stations Taverns Used c a r l o t s Wholesale g r o c e r i e s  Activities  INDUSTRIAL  MINERAL  Animal s l a u g h t e r i n g Auto assembly p l a n t s Cement p l a n t s Construct, equipment Chemical plants O i l and gas s t o r a g e Amusement p a r k Oil refineries Silos Trucking terminals  Ground water Aggregate p i t Stone q u a r r i e s  WASTE DISPOSAL Incinerators Land f i l l s i t e s Sewage l a g o o n s Treatment p l a n t s TRANSPO., COMM., a n d UTILITIES Airports Hydro s t a t i o n s Microwave towers Pumping s t a t i o n s Radio towers Switching yards T e l e v i s i o n towers Water s u p p l i e s INSTITUTIONAL Churches Community c o l l e g e s Mental h o s p i t a l s Special schools Universities  RECREATION Racetracks Beaches Campgrounds W i l d l i f e clubs Go-cart tracks Golf courses Parks Ski resorts Walking t r a i l s AGRICULTURE Dog k e n n e l s Fur farms Game f a r m s Nurseries Riding stables Sod f a r m s OTHER Flowers Greenhouses Market gardens Mushroom f a r m s Poultry Stockyards  S o u r c e : Russwurm, L.H. "The S u r r o u n d i n g s Of Our C i t i e s , " 1977.  19 As  Is evident  operating  in  from Table  the rural-urban  reasons f o r being there, of t h e o t h e r s Land because vicinity. of  quality  and  there  will  are different  Such c o n f l i c t use  with  i t s own  not n e c e s s a r i l y a r i s e  groups  will  operating  occur  i s incompatible  with  of the land resource;  when:  just  i n t h e same (a)  one  or d e t r i m e n t a l t o  type the  ( b ) when a l a n d u s e a d v e r s e l y  a c t i v i t y because  ( c ) when t h e r e  i s a c l a s h of  newly  each  interests  each a f f e c t i n g t h e a c t i v i t i e s  a f f e c t s another  and  fringe,  many  I n a d i f f e r e n t way.  use c o n f l i c t s  land  2, t h e r e a r e  of  spatial  values  established interests  proximity; or  between  (Phipps,  "existing"  1981,  Beesley,  1981). The long-time change  stresses  which lead  residents  and w o r k e r s  i n character,  move t o t h e f r i n g e this  dynamic  their identify arising  environment  some  of a  variety  affect their  both the community  the i n d i v i d u a l s  the r e a l i t i e s less  1955).  perceived of  watch  as  t o be much  (Clawson, the  who  well  only to find  expectations  from  as  to conflict  of l i v i n g i n  favorable Table  physical  who  3  than  helps  to  externalities  common l a n d u s e c o n f l i c t s .  20 Table 3 L a n d Use C o n f l i c t s : E x t e r n a l i t i e s L a n d Use A c t i v i t i e s Impinging  L a n d Use A c t i v i t i e s B e i n g I m p i n g e d Upon  Externalities  Residential development  Agriculture  Overconsumption of land Loss of a g r i c . productivity Crop t h e f t and vandalism Increased land prices I n t e r r u p t i o n of farming Reduced q u a l i t y o f rural lifestyle Tax i n e q u i t i e s S e r v i c e demands  Industrial activities  Agriculture  Land, a i r , and water p o l l u t i o n  Land c l e a r i n g and drainage  Recreation  Loss of p o t e n t i a l recreation areas Degradation of habitats Localized drainage problems  Wildlife Natural drainage pattern  Agriculture  Nearby r e s i d e n c e s  S m e l l s and n o i s e s from crop production Obstruction of t r a f f i c by farm vehicles Use o f p e s t i c i d e s  Recreation  Agriculture  Loss of a g r i c . productivity Degradation of habitats  Wildlife  S o u r c e : a f t e r P h i p p s , A.G. "Land Use C o n f l i c t s I n U r b a n R u r a l F r i n g e A r e a s , " 1981.  21 The but  various  generally  c o n f l i c t s may  they  interests,  present  non-market  uses.  conflict,  Within  what he  competition,  of A  land  be  the  Land  The  "the  frequent  by  of  r e s u l t of designated  government  used  in  observed  the  province  the  the  levels wasteful  almost  random  little  in  and  scheme  chapter  notes  r e s u l t of  ( B o u r n e , 1984,  next  have  in  various  actions,  classification  the  p.139).  developed  as  community-based  Vancouver R e g i o n a l  as  o f 1981  a  by  means  of  research.  noted  a  few  large  points  i n order  zone  dispersed,  of  District  i s shown i n F i g u r e  for r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l The  1982,  Use  self-explanatory, be  al,  internal conflicts,  the  may  different  i n p a r t been the  policy  f i n d i n g s of the  Greater  pattern  and et  the  uses  "confused" actions  conflict  will  Regional  should  of  integrated regional planning"  presenting  use  mixture  interventions  Russwurm  versus  individuals  (Bryant of  societal  market  conflict,  conflict  contradictory  simple  and  compete between t h e m s e l v e s . Bourne  the  o f g o v e r n m e n t and  way  may  i n many w a y s ,  u s e s , and  categories,  f r i n g e o f T o r o n t o has  calls  political  future  these  may  scattered  rural-urban  individual  D i f f e r e n t branches  a l s o b e e n known t o the  between  groups  activities  Russwurm, 1 9 7 4 ) .  categorized  versus  interest  economic  that  are  be  about  the  (GVRD)  land  3. Though l a r g e l y observed  to understand t h e i r  patterns  implications  conflicts.  residential  land  in  Surrey  is  the  l o w d e n s i t y h o u s i n g , much o f w h i c h i s  "rural-residential"  in  the  Surrey  OCP.  Existing Land Use,1981 I Residential I Commercial ^  Agricultural  |  Industrial  |  Institutional  |  Parks and Recreation  ^ Open and Undeveloped Areas Icala in Kilometre* i a i i  l  i  ii  Greater Vancouver Regional District Planning tlnpnrtmiwl  ftoptnmtxii, IDS?  FIGURE 3  23 Punctuating  this  recreational  facilities  regional zone  land  use  i n northeast  waste  disposal  zone  are  numerous  which map.  Delta  facility  do The  small  n o t show  located  and  on  the  up  substantial  identifies  farms  the  "industrial"  region's  w i t h i n Burns  Bog,  solid  several  p e a t - c u t t i n g o p e r a t i o n s , and a s t r i p o f heavy i n d u s t r y a l o n g the Fraser R i v e r . A comparison and a g r i c u l t u r a l that these plans,  of  the  land  area  is  shown  f i g u r e s were t a k e n  and  so  do  occupied below  not completely  on t h e GVRD l a n d u s e map.  of  given  residential having was  been  and  f o r Surrey:  agricultural  calculated  the  after  i n assessing  s m a l l farms or l a r g e - l o t  i n Table  the  There  first  such  areas  a r e two  sets  being  the  general  and  the  second area  done b e c a u s e o f t h e  residences constitute  homes.  Table 4 L a n d Use A r e a s RESIDENTIAL  Note  community  "rural-residential"  T h i s was  whether  4.  conform t o the  break-down,  f a c t o r e d out of the t o t a l .  difficulty  residential  from the r e s p e c t i v e  represented figures  by  AGRICULTURAL  Richmond  26.4%  49.1%  Delta  14.2%  51.6%  Surrey-1  35.0%  29.2%  Surrey-2  14.3%  38.5%  24 The and  g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f l a n d use  Surrey  helps  rural-urban between  to  establish  conflicts.  residential  It  is  and  conflicts  will  occur,  B.C.,  most  the  farmland  A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve F a r m i n g I n The Most  the  Richmond,  nature  along  the  agricultural  these  of  in  and  as has  (ALR)  and  Delta,  extent  boundary  land  lines  where most  i s usually  the  case  been i n c l u d e d w i t h i n  of  British  Columbia's  potentially  the A g r i c u l t u r a l  system,  the  which  land  not  boundaries  thumb,  already  t r a c t s of c l a s s Estimates class  of  Eddy,  were  Land  Reserve  established after  approximately  class  1-4  included, plus  certain  traditionally  farmed.  80%  of  the  province's  i s i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h e ALRs ( M a n n i n g  4 i s a s i m p l e map  Greater  indicated 3. The  Vancouver. roughly  on  Though  the d e t a i l e d  conflicts  transcend  these  indicating  correspond  reserve boundaries  agricultural  well  was  Inventory  As  and  1978).  designations  will  uses  Land  l a n d i f t h e y were  but  farmland  Figure in  a l l Canada  i n urban  5-7  vary,  1-4  the  productive  t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l L a n d C o m m i s s i o n i n 1973. of  in  Fringe  i s incorporated into  rule  of  system.  farmland  a  of  t h e ALR  generalized, to  the  l a n d use map  p r e s e n t e d as  occur, although  dividing  i n s i d e the r e s i d e n t i a l  lines,  the  agricultural  d e m a r c a t e where most  will  boundaries  and  or a g r i c u l t u r a l  ALR areas Figure  residential-  some others zones.  problems may  arise  AGRICULTURAL LAND RESERVE: GREATER VANCOUVER  Source: Evenden, 1978.  Figure 4  26 The  ALRs shown i n F i g u r e 4 do  land a c t u a l l y region's plots are  for  agricultural  land  located i n Surrey.  that  the  as  ALRs  little  Vancouver for  It land  (GVRD,  that  the  farmed,  the  ALR  how  Greater  this  figures  between  t o 32%  are  Delta's 28  ha  of 20  farmland  communities  still  a not  OCP and  of the t o t a l  the small  of  which  land located  area  estimated in  remaining  Greater  being  used simply  much o f t h e 18,000 between  agricultural year  period ha  lost  contain  l a n d w i t h i n t h e GVRD (GVRD,  area  of  d r o p of a b o u t 30%  (Runka,  indicates ha  for that  Delta  or  since  1971,  i n area  have d e c l i n e d  number o f f a r m s ,  while smaller  ( D e l t a OCP, in  Runka  acres)  available  97  1961  land. the  ha  (15,867  28 ha h a v e i n c r e a s e d i n  t o 43% of t h e t o t a l  amount o f  of  been  Vancouver  conversion  over  although  farms 39%  of  most  I t has  total  to determine  f a r m s b e t w e e n 4 ha and 38%  farmed.  (11,065 a c r e s ) , or  Similar  Surrey,  form  urban a r e a s ,  i n R i c h m o n d d e c l i n e d f r o m 6,421  t o 4,478 ha  from  of  in  involved a  farmland  the  15%  the  1982).  urbanized  determined  1985).  65%  is difficult  1981  the  is actually as  in  some  i n s t i t u t i o n s , housing, r e c r e a t i o n , or  l e f t vacant  large  is  as  F u r t h e r , not a l l of the  is currently  roads,  and  farming,  s c a t t e r e d throughout  within  of  used  not r e p r e s e n t a l l of  recent  1981).  1982).  In s p i t e  decades,  n e a r l y 93%  of  number  the  these  from of  the  three  agricultural  27 ALR  Exemptions  The  ALR  boundaries  permanent, a l t h o u g h are Land  summaries  of  they tend  the  Commission  identified  Act  key  i n Figure  4 are  not  t o change r a t h e r s l o w l y .  Below  sections  which  permit  of  the  exemptions  Agricultural from  an  ALR  ( A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission, 1982). 1)  Under  Land  Section  Commission,  municipality Lieutenant private  a  may  or  the  regional make  Governor  application  lands  Governor  in  Agricultural  director,  i n Council  Crown  Lieutenant  11(1)  for  from  to  ALR,  or  may  a the  exclusion  an  Council  or  of the  initiate  s u c h a c t i o n on h i s own. 2) Under may  Section  apply  t o the  1 2 ( 1 ) an  Agricultural  f o r e x c l u s i o n of h i s p r o p e r t y 3)  Section  o r use a  for  purposes  Act  o r i t s r e g u l a t i o n s . The and  other  the  The reflects  number the  agricultural the  f r o m an  of  i t considers  applications  development land  number  pressures  by government of  appeals  ALR. permission in  permitted  land remains may  and  should  owner  Commission  for  of land  than those  Commission  t e r m s and c o n d i t i o n s  do  parcel  land  Land  20(1) a p p l i c a t i o n s a r e  to subdivide  ALR,  individual  impose  an  ALR  by  the  in  the  whatever  advisable.  under  these  being private the  sections  placed  on  bodies,  as  applications  be  28 r e j e c t e d . The amount o f l a n d a c t u a l l y a p p r o v e d f o r e x c l u s i o n would  be  a  undoubtedly  useful  indicator  urbanization,  a p o r t i o n o f t h e exempted l a n d would  be d e v e l o p e d . S u c h d a t a either  of  unavailable  accurately  Table  ALR  under  Sections  and  the province  the 5  loss  lists  11(1), over  12(1),  the  making  of the  eventually  level are unfortunately  or out of date,  assess  communities.  a t the local  since  i tdifficult  farmland area  in  excluded  to  specific from t h e  a n d 2 0 ( 1 ) w i t h i n t h e GVRD  last  five  years  (Agricultural  Land Commission, 1986). I t s h o u l d  be n o t e d t h a t n o t a l l l a n d  excluded  farmland.  from  t h e ALR  1985  approximately  and  of t h i s  i s prime  16% of excluded  amount  only  a  land  fraction  F o r example, i n  was C L I c l a s s 1-3, may  become  built-up  ( A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission, 1985). Table 5 A r e a E x c l u d e d F r o m The ALR ( 1 9 8 1 - 1 9 8 5 ) SEC. GVRD Provincial Total  11(1)  SEC. 1 2 ( 1 )  SEC. 2 0 ( 1 )  441 ha  110 ha  919 ha  30,355 h a  9,153 h a  71,921 ha  S o u r c e : A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission, 1986. While reserve  t h e 1,470 ha  i n t h e GVRD  provincial  total  during  small  the loss number  land  represents this  some o f t h e most p r o d u c t i v e making  of  f a r more  removed only  about  from  found i n B r i t i s h  significant  i m p l i e s . A break-down  than  land  1.3% o f t h e  p e r i o d , t h e GVRD l a n d soils  the  contains Columbia,  the r e l a t i v e l y  of exemptions  by  soil  29  c l a s s e s , were t h e s e how  the  data  available,  One  cautious  t o a v o i d s a y i n g t h a t farmers  must be  only  ones  who  i n the  suffer  fringe.  In f a c t  it  seems  safe  established  be  to  say  tied the  to  chapter,  made a b o u t  the  but  farming  developments  several  i n f l u e n c e of  brief  r e t u r n per to  the  fringe rates.  hectare  they This  farmer,  proximity are  property  thus  to  the  these  two  from arising  should  a farming  classes  assessed  of  similar  proportionately heavier  may  subject  t a x a t i o n and  of  now the  be land  operation. dollar  uses, uses  but  in  property tax  burden  the tax on  adding  sell.  from high assessments, there tended t o :  derived  inadequately  i t  most  r e d u c i n g h i s p o t e n t i a l e a r n i n g s and  t h a t t h e m a r k e t has benefits  a  land,  urban revenue-generating  of  immobile  problems are  But  long-  g e n e r a l l y y i e l d s a lower  commonly  places  i n c e n t i v e f o r him Aside  than  source  a  is  the  points  m a r k e t on m a i n t a i n i n g t h e v i a b i l i t y o f Agricultural activity  of  suffers The  is  that  tracts  conflicts.  residential  development  i s o f t e n the  activity  which  of  are  nearby r e s i d e n t s .  since  highly prized  residential-agricultural  next  for  fringe  activity  adjacent  because farming  that  rural-urban  closely  well  the  Mainland.  Market  problems, e s p e c i a l l y  due  show  the Land  some  the  doubt  F a r m i n g and  of  from  no  s i g n i f i c a n t a r e t h e e x c l u s i o n s i n t h e Lower  pressures  and  would  consider  from the  (a)  farming  i s strong  undervalue and  externality  open effects  the  evidence social  space; of  (b)  fringe  30 developments  on  farming  activity;  f u t u r e r e t u r n s from farming b e n e f i t s from urban 1983,  and  in land p r i c e s , but as  they  exert  speculation et  their  a l , 1980).  se  of  Speculators  monopolistic  farmland,  pressure  and  is  nor  of prices can  role  unclear,  control,  factors  Lyon,  also play a  precise influence  these  short-run  e t a l , 1982,  necessarily a raiser  Each  perceived value of  (Bryant  1977).  neither  per  additional  i n the l i g h t of higher  activities  Russwurm,  and ( c ) h e a v i l y d i s c o u n t  is  (Brown  influence the  i n general  will  on t h e f a r m e r t o c o n s i d e r  place  a change i n  land use. Are  these  depend on a  farmer  should  pressures  one's  bailed-out  on  technology municipal  t o another  profession,  over-production,  are  t o o many  and  That  t o s u c c e s s f u l l y compete,  by government s u p p o r t .  hear o f farm there  or alarming?  would  p o i n t o f v i e w . Some w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t i f  i s not able  move  unusual  farmers  product  could  given  or she  r a t h e r than  After a l l ,  which  he  we  being  frequently  indicate  current  that  levels  demand. E i t h e r way, p r o v i n c i a l  g o v e r n m e n t s have s e e n  a number o f  aimed  conversion  and m a i n t a i n i n g a g r i c u l t u r e a s a v i a b l e l a n d use  i n the urban  These  compensation for  farmers  of rural-urban  land  fringe.  strategies  represent v a r i a t i o n s  the rate  and  strategies  activity  a t reducing  f i t t o develop  of  come  on  policies t o continue  two  designed  in basic  many  forms,  b u t most  approaches:  (a) t a x  t o make i t more a t t r a c t i v e  operating  i n the fringe  and  resist  31  pressures (b)  direct  place of  large  reserve  eliminate urban with and the  to  properties;  and  government r e g u l a t i o n t o c u r b s p e c u l a t i o n  and  rural-urban  (Evenden, 1978).  of  Some that  in close  intended  separation  their  of p r o d u c t i v e  policies  uses  policies  develop  land-bank.  those  a  or  amounts or  land  create  sell  farmland  analysts work  to  proximity,  to  dissolve "fence,"  the  two  i n some f o r m  would keep  prefer farms  r e p l a c i n g them the  one  rural-urban  that  classes  to and  instead fringe  would  encourage  of  activities  32  CHAPTER 3  THE DATA AND FINDINGS  Data C o l l e c t i o n Data c o n c e r n i n g  residential-agricultural  c o n f l i c t s and  planning  r e s p o n s e s were c o l l e c t e d t h r o u g h c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h  planners  and o t h e r  and  Surrey,  government  and t h r o u g h  documents prepared data in  officials  an a n a l y s i s  collect  data  on  primary  sources  practicing planners. unstructured  information. retained  some  followed  planning  format  of  t o which the l o c a l and  investigate  techniques.  c o n s u l t a t i o n s were c o n d u c t e d i n  in  order  discussions  the  of  to  the  garner  were  generalized  of the e a r l i e r because  occurring  o f d a t a were t h e c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h  Initial  Subsequent  characteristics was  of c o n f l i c t s  conflicts  a l t e r n a t i v e c o n f l i c t management The  Delta  by t h e r e s p e c t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s . These  communities, and t h e e x t e n t  governments  an  of a v a i l a b l e  were u s e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e t y p e s  the three  i n Richmond,  background  more f o c u s e d , and  unstructured  conversations. exploratory  but  This  nature  format of the  r e s e a r c h , t h e lack of d e t a i l e d guidance from t h e l i t e r a t u r e , and  the  inherent  consultations facilitate sources the via  with  later  could  complexity planning analysis,  n o t be c i t e d  of  staff  the were  although  issues. taped the  i n order  names  telephone,  of  due t o t h e s e n s i t i v e n a t u r e  m a t e r i a l . A number o f t h e c o n s u l t a t i o n s were the  In-person  especially  when  the  purpose  to some of  conducted was  to  33  clarify  certain  aspects  of  the  more  lengthy  in-person  discussions. Several  criteria  representatives  to  were  be  used  consulted.  professional qualifications, expertise with of  planning  numbers order  to  people  select  These  the  government  criteria  f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the  the  p r a c t i c e i n the  of  included community,  t h e s i s s u b j e c t , and particular  consulted  were  knowledge  administration.  kept  relatively  low  general  occurrence  and  conflicts  subjects  within  the  and  techniques.  discussion of  community,  identifies  department  strengths  of  characteristics  government  planning  uses  process  address  d e f i c i e n c i e s of  The  the  literature  through  the  methods  the  problems,  current  conflict  i n d i c a t e d t h a t most  a broad d e s c r i p t i o n of the  of  that  provided  an  understanding  conflict  refining  situation.  the  general  t o p i c s t o be  explored  Administrative The  of  some o f This  subjects  the  Further, the  rural-urban  the  types  literature  f a c t o r s which  information  into  the  residential-  i t provided  occur.  the  management  i n t e r f a c e , and  may  along  which  and  occur  conflicts  the  which  conflicts  a  in  residential-agricultural  conflicts, to  included  agricultural  to  The  t o a v o i d o v e r l y d i s r u p t i n g normal s t a f f d u t i e s . The  the  regards  to  somewhat  assisted more  lead in  specific  d u r i n g the c o n s u l t a t i o n s .  Records  consultations revealed  means  of  identifying  three  municipalities  conflicts is  the  that  one  used formal  of by  the  most common  each  complaints  of  the  process.  34 Essentially,  a  person  municipal h a l l problem,  with  a  complaint  sometimes  filling  out  a  the complaint  processed  by t h e " l i n e " department,  the  or Building problem.  other  response.  complainant  will  remedy  person t o address If  an  as  officers  is  other  the decision  or  to  o r make some  discussion  t h e problem  over  or  superiors,  initial  t o pursue  or  Environmental  will  t h e i s s u e w i t h o u t government  the person wishes  form  has j u r i s d i c t i o n  make  to  of the  complaint  such  departments  inform their  Often  The  enforcement  of these  on t h e p r o b l e m ,  complaint  i n writing.  I n s p e c t i o n , which  Bylaw  representatives act  o r goes  i n - p e r s o n and o u t l i n e s t h e e s s e n t i a l s  submitting  Health  calls  with  the  prompt  the  intervention.  the complaint, a record of i t  is usually placed within the c i v i c  address  for  i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d  a l l municipal  through officers pointed  addresses  telephone  conversations  i n Richmond, out  (this  that  Delta  the c i v i c  and  with  responsibility  of t h e p l a n n i n g department.  may n o t h e a r  of  is  required  enforcement  to  resolve  officer  the  identifies  bylaw  Surrey).  address  the complaints  files  process conflicts This  enforcement  I t should  files  be  are not the  As s u c h ,  planners  unless planning expertise  problem,  or  until  a  a t r e n d or p e c u l i a r i t y  c o m p l a i n t s a n d makes t h e i s s u e known t o o t h e r The  maintained  bylaw i n the  departments.  planners consulted indicated that the area planning was  another  (Cowie,  process,  important  source  1987, J a c k s o n ,  which  of i n f o r m a t i o n about  1987, and Leung,  involves producing  detailed  1987).  land  use  35 plans  f o r s p e c i f i c sub-regions  currently  underway  preparatory stages a  part  forum  i n Delta.  people  neighbour's make  i n Richmond  of the process for  land  note  of  understanding  use  the  municipality, i s  and S u r r e y ,  voice  amongst  their  other  Planners  complaints  and  what  is in  conflicts  things,  concerns  activities.  these  and  The p u b l i c m e e t i n g s w h i c h a r e  provide,  to  of  in  in  so  are  over  a  their  attendance  get  a  better  occurring  i n the  community. These and  other  about c o n f l i c t s , such do  "formal"  along  with  as t h e newspaper, not  provide  t o develop  specific  conflicts,  locations department  or casual  their  conversation,  and c u r r e n t  characteristics,  1987,  generally  information  and c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e d database  an h i s t o r i c a l  (Jackson,  of  t h e more " i n f o r m a l " s o u r c e s  television,  the detailed  necessary  sources  Leung,  contain  1987).  and  Files  information  g o v e r n m e n t a c t i o n s a n d n o t on c o m p l a i n t s  which  to  no  other  departments  forthcoming.  These  files  information processing the  characteristics  based  on  defined  complaints  or  for are  facility  of  not  linked  their  in  each  on  formal  were  passed  response to  of  a  was  central  t h a t c o u l d be u s e d t o m a t c h  complaint  criteria.  which  list  And  cases  or  since  many  e n d up i n t h e c i v i c a d d r e s s  files  provide  lists  records  of  o r some s i m i l a r  s t o r a g e s y s t e m , t h e r e w o u l d be no way t o e x t r a c t i n f o r m a t i o n on  the  investment  occurrence  of  of time  and  conflicts other  without  resources  a  prohibitive  i n order  to  sift  36 through one  a  file  system  potential  municipal  not  exception  hall,  which  conducive  to  to  occurs  this  f o r the  past  such  research. in  Richmond's  several years  has  had  G e o g r a p h i c D a t a b a s e Management S y s t e m t h a t i s l i n k e d on-line c i v i c  address f i l e s .  This  f i l e s b a s e d on s p e c i f i e d  as  polling  manipulate  divisions  Services  system  broad  sees  geographic  school  of  are not  k e p t and  representative  use  government  records  within  criteria  districts,  (Cordon!,  a l l reported  and  In s h o r t , current  1987).  departments  However,  of  as  supplemented  None specific  The  detailed  conflicts.  information sources  Incidence  of  the  data  on  more  in-depth  residential-agricultural acknowledged planner aware  in of  disruptions  the  provide  planners  concerned farm  knowledge  of  a  that few  concern.  Conflict consulted  numbers  of  indicated mushroom equipment  of  could  most  farming on  related  although  such  that  provide  complaints  conflicts,  existence  Surrey  by  Of  planners the  the  conflicts  unable to provide  examples which are of prominent p u b l i c F i n d i n g s On  the  i n t o the program, t h i s e x c e l l e n t  regarding such  by  An  complete  w i t h o n l y a b r o a d p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e k i n d s o f c o n f l i c t s occur,  such then  that  residential-agricultural  introduced  comprehensive output  indicated  various  information system i s apparently and  to i t s  the g e o g r a p h i c a l l y d i s p l a y e d d a t a as r e q u i r e d .  Information  local  and  a  open-ended s y s t e m i s a b l e  to process zoning,  The  problems.  they A  complaints practices,  p u b l i c roadways  any to a l l  senior he  was  traffic and  crop  37  pilferage, resulted unable in  while in  to  other  relatively  provide  Richmond  any  potential few  complaints.  stated that  i n c e r t a i n areas  were  "numerous" c o m p l a i n t s  noisy  farm  machinery  and  planner  (Richmond  consulted  Planning  the  around  rural-urban  i n t e r f a c e . But  were  available.  detachments trespass,  indicated theft  and  From  to  the  there  vandalism  research  w h i l e o t h e r s may  conflicts a)  could  provided  i t  is  departments  be r e p o r t e d  a c t i o n was  community the  use  of  1986),  incidence  no  of  but  specific  local  records  of  that  and  RCMP  reported relate  unfortunately  to this  clear  that  of  the  without  but  incidence a  efficiently  system support  comprehensive  each government department.  residentialof  three  complaints municipal  that additional c o n f l i c t s  initiated.  the  with  again,  incidents  conflict,  produced  Department,  c o n f l i c t s are a c o n t i n u i n g source  various  determining  that  was  of development i n  are  brought t o the a t t e n t i o n of the  official  of  Representatives  g o v e r n m e n t s . I t seems l i k e l y n o t be  study  he  not a v a i l a b l e t o the p u b l i c .  the  agricultural  intensity  that  residential-agricultural i n f o r m a t i o n was  conflict  i n Richmond s a i d t h a t the  varied with  data  a  associated with  of c o n f l i c t the  of  However,  numbers. S i m i l a r l y ,  there  a  sources  local administration,  become f o r g o t t e n b e c a u s e  T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be of  of  no way  such  no of  residential-agricultural  administrative records  data  will  i n v e s t i g a t i o n ; and on  conflicts  that: b)  is  reported  to  38  F i n d i n g s On The by  the  The  T y p e s Of  information presented planners  p l a n s and  consulted  in this  and  by  s u p p o r t i n g documents.  identified  below are  some p r o b l e m s areas  Conflict  are  also  literature  is  each  almost  and  devoid  of  schemes o r s y s t e m s i n w h i c h c o n f l i c t s may analyzed.  Russwurm  classifications, readily  although  facilitate  presented adjusted  below  farming the  reflect  one  the  of  health to  readily of  leach  hazards.  blueberry  fringe  most  general The  five  work  but  and  useful  and  do  not  categories have  most  or  enjoyed  been  soil  and  stationary remain  aerial is a  application  degrade  other.  For  of p o l l u t i o n  is  crops.  Though  eventually  water.  over  or  pesticides  airborne  prominent  the  various  instances,  the  residential  by  source  creating anxiety  The  the  p o l l u t a n t s which  p e s t i c i d e s to  may  fields  either  identifiable  into  flowing  areas,  of  generate  in  chemicals  residential  urban  data.  environment  regulated  nevertheless bodies  can  the  application  highly  Russwurm's  activities  communities  example,  are  certain  Pollution  regular  of  too  in  classification  the  analysis.  to f i t the c o l l e c t e d  quality  the  they  conflicts  be c a t e g o r i z e d  developed  further  Environmental The  has  the  pronounced  Planning  completely  community  m u n i c i p a l i t y , although  particularly  identified.  provided  a n a l y s i s of  I n most c a s e s  common t o  which are  an  s e c t i o n was  A  and  can reach  portion blow  of  into  the  potential  of  pesticides  p u b l i c concern  in  the  39 McLennan issue  area  in  of  the  central  R i c h m o n d , and  preparation  of  the  has  become a  McLennan  Area  key Plan  ( R i c h m o n d , McLennan A r e a P l a n , 1 9 8 6 ) . Less pest  frightening,  control  Common i n  but  involving  the  still  the  production  in overflooding into  grade  or  below the  channel.  The  farm  problem  is  is a  many  adjacent and  not  housing  by a  pronounced  interface  R i c h m o n d , and  i n the s o u t h - c e n t r a l p o r t i o n of the  Highway  consulted  499  in  near  (Runka,  Richmond  adjacent  overland specific  farmers  who  f l o w of r a i n w a t e r level,  pollutants  there  and  is  more  distant  demands  or  the  capacities  use  are  and  established  infill problems  increased  for  a  Nearby  site  range in  of  North  cranberry could  be  w a t e r f l o w become  the waste m a t e r i a l s .  Taxation  and  discharge using  the  developments  overland  d i f f e r e n t drainage  for residential  planner  p o r t i o n o f B u r n s Bog  a f t e r p a s s i n g over  are  a  1 9 8 7 ) . A t a more  potential  residential  M u n i c i p a l S e r v i c e s And There  with  of  community  caused drainage cope  the  tip  residential  waste d i s p o s a l s i t e .  a f f e c t e d should underground contaminated  that  (Jackson, the  along  Conversely,  has  must  t o escape from the  D e l t a used as a s o l i d farms  roads  drainage  northwestern  1985).  indicated  a l o n g major s e c t i o n - l i n e for  the  can  i f i t is at-  separated  especially  of  farmland.  crops, t h i s t a c t i c  rural-urban  near  form  p e r i o d i c f l o o d i n g of of  result  troublesome,  and  water s u p p l y  agricultural rates  for  different  areas. each  system  Basically,  general  volume  maxima  land and  40 minima  over  integrating group's the  different  periods.  the community network  requirements  municipal  1985).  time  the  been  oriented  consulted  towards  ongoing  works  urban  needs,  most  cases  the  last  sometimes  forcing  primitive  septic  prefer  lower  services,  as  to  tank taxes  suburbs  increase  becomes  unrealistic.  Municipal  of  makes  assessments.  reduced  taxes by  uses,  the  t h e f a r m must  farm  gate  eligible basic  larger  a r e e x c e p t i o n s ) , and from  rely  property  on  Farmland  criteria t h a n two  t h e f a r m e r must  prices  (revenue  the  property  Authority the  value  However,  in  their  are  that  (although there  e a r n more t h a n the  of  Classification,  reduction  acres  local  preference  t o be e l i g i b l e  from  may  their  normally assesses  a  more  of  Assessment  for  on  farmers  on i t s " b e s t u s e " m a r k e t v a l u e .  two  be  services,  this  based  are  levels  them and  are  areas  sewer  along with  T h i s agency  them The  1987,  the  farmers are a b l e to apply f o r the which  Jackson,  While  non-farm  of  cost-  technology.  grow around  costs  t o be  to  made  p r o p e r t y based  sanitary  (Runka,  historically  proven 1987,  for  indicated  high  areas  property  Columbia.  the  these  for  assessments  British  in  has  Delta  have  as  each  problem  1986). A g r i c u l t u r a l  receive  people  values  value  costly  and  (Cowie,  Richmond P l a n n i n g Department, usually  and  systems  f u l l y s e r v i c i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l areas in  that  i n order to s a t i s f y  i n Richmond  m u n i c i p a l water  prohibitive  means  e n g i n e e r i n g and p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t s  Planners  that  i s an  This  sale  of  $1,600 farm  41 products).  The  Farmland  Classification  i s based  on t h e  t h e o r e t i c a l p r o d u c t i v i t y of t h e farm, which i s i n f l u e n c e d by farm s i z e , there it  soil  quality,  I s no g e n e r a l will  farms  depend  (Mackie,  As  such,  assessment r e d u c t i o n f o r farmers,  since  on  slope  the  1987).  given  are  t o high value  reductions more  to  will  distant  from  given urban  by  Authority  i s an assessment  his  per  acre,  a Farmland  property  (Mackie,  ( i . e. s c h o o l  etc.)  will The  some those  farmers just  at  comparable  Assessment  to a  in  landowner  Richmond. I f  between  o f up t o  assessment.  Having  t h e landowner  now  $3,000-$4,000  per acre  on m u n i c i p a l  property  savings  tax, hospital  t a x , drainage  has  levies  be s u b s t a n t i a l .  who  do n o t g e t f a v o r a b l e  described  have  and l o w l e v e l s  urban  non-farm that  B.C.  example  k e y p o i n t t o be d r a w n f r o m t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s t h a t  high taxes their  the  have a m a r k e t v a l u e  a  lowest  p r o d u c t i v i t y farms  Centre  Classification,  therefore  while the  r e c e n t l y awarded  The p e r s o n ' s  taxes  of  Shopping  with  assessed  1987).  high  in  farms which  d e v e l o p m e n t . An e x t r e m e  the property could  $300,000 obtained  Park  particular will  productivity  to  representative  t h e Lansdowne  developed,  low  of  reductions  urban land uses,  provided  near  a  those  be  factors.  characteristics  The g r e a t e s t  g e n e r a l be close  and o t h e r  neighbours.  residents  farmers  are  voiced  of municipal From  protest  over  as  their  perspective,  and D e l t a  unfairly  such  services relative to  the other  i n Richmond being  assessments  have  subsidized  some  complained by  the  42  government,  and  should  not  assessments because they for  more  accusing  more the  of  "rewarded"  "choose" not  lucrative  other  be  uses.  As  with  to develop  a  result,  getting unfair  levels  low  their  each of  land  side  is  s e r v i c e s or  taxes.  the  Negative  I m p a c t s On  Planners  and  most  between  is  many  well  1987,  1986).  This  ways: h e a v y t r a f f i c  from g e t t i n g of  problems  along  Jackson,  Department,  being  onto  h i t by  or  fast  have  and  been  provided  irritation Though  he  situation,  Evenden  disruptive  network  gas  l i n e s , as  apparent  moving  in  the  farm  Leung,  1987,  Richmond  problem  can  prevent  across cars  is real  y e a r ; and in  road;  itself  the  and  proper  OCP,  Planning  s l o w moving  the  three  (Delta  manifest  of  equipment  roads  may  one  in  machinery  possibility results  field  in a  access  street design, causing  may  delays  farmer. referring the  to  general  the  Delta  problem  of  "a  o f h i g h w a y s , r a i l w a y s , h y d r o e l e c t r i c and  1978,  p.190).  The  poor  siting  and  traverse  farmers  that  public  recognized  well  of  used  primarily  compromise  establishment  of  f o r the busy was  indicate  facing  moving  number o f a c c i d e n t s e v e r y not  documents  the d i f f i c u l t y  fields  1986,  planning  frequent  communities  Farming  as s u b d i v i s i o n for same a  the  s e r v i c e and  farmland,  needs  kind lack  causing  roads"  of  of  laid  out  farmers  without  (Evenden,  of problems  arise  out  of  corridor  approach  in  the  utility continual  rights-of-way field  which  management  43  difficulties (Runka,  in  areas  private  conflict  property  representatives  of  analysts  noted  have  vandalism, trespass  theft have  Richmond  rights.  local  Richmond South  in  on  the  aspect to  of be  South Ladner,  1985,  northwestern  and t h e G i l m o r e d i s t r i c t  1985). these  Possibly issues  relatively  i s that  small,  and  courts  must d e a l  arise,  there  is  usually  little  the  with  the  most  while  each  cumulative  significant pests  to the p e t t y  of houses  weeds  case by  from  their  the  nature  arises  from the  out  bordering farmland (Delta  yards,  allowing  the  of  uncontrolled OCP,  1986). S i m i l a r l y , people i n the suburbs o f t e n l e t t h e i r free  as  (Jackson, 1987).  area of c o n f l i c t  and  each  inclination  o f t h e c r i m e s and t h e c o s t s o f p r o s e c u t i o n  roam  of  l a r g e and c o s t l y f o r t h e f a r m e r . Y e t  t o charge the p e r s o n , owing  backyard gardens  Diamond,  include  police  of  Vancouver  a r e most p r o n o u n c e d  the  the s p r e a d i n g  equipment  Some o f  in  Runka,  because  further  planning  farm  1986,  be  authorities  quite  and  1985).  North),  (Runka,  tends  1986,  consulted,  i n Greater  e f f e c t s can  One  Richmond  o f a n i m a l s , and g e n e r a l  ( D e l t a OCP,  interfaces Nova  of  increase  these problems  Richmond  incident  detachments,  of c r o p s , harming  (Terra  confounding  they  South  planners  incidence  P l a n n i n g Department,  rural-urban  The  police  that  been  a r e a s where  the  Gilmore  r e v o l v e s around the i n f r i n g e m e n t  and t h e l o w e r F r a s e r V a l l e y  the  as  1985).  Another major of  such  animals  c o n s i d e r a b l e damage t o c a r e f u l l y t e n d e d c r o p s and  dogs  to  do  livestock.  44  N e g a t i v e I m p a c t s On R e s i d e n c e s The  existence  application related  of  identified  danger a s s o c i a t e d  by a  with  aircraft.  The p o t e n t i a l  a residential  it  i s a s i g n i f i c a n t concern  are  i n close  pesticide banned  low  where  application  by  Transport  in  several  have b e g u n t o u s e  areas,  having  restrictions  i n order  t o increase  insurance  farmers Not  are with  costs  in  aircraft to  crash  the  h a s been  1986).  safety At the  of spreading  airplanes  t o perform the the  f o r crop-dusting future,  area,  the p e s t i c i d e s from a  chance  f l y below  the  have  tasks,  minimum  height  chemicals.  and s p r a y i n g  aircraft  is  rising drive  a l t e r n a t i v e means.  into irrigation  the water.  been  same  e s p e c i a l l y as  crop-dusting  to  i n Richmond  a l l p e s t i c i d e s a r e a p p l i e d by a e r i a l s p r a y i n g .  introduced  some lands  the  a number o f f a r m e r s  f o r fixed-wing to  a  here, but  t o e f f e c t i v e l y spread the  use of h e l i c o p t e r s  likely  more  to  crop-  t h e McLennan  i n response  low-flying  helicopters  occasionally  The  notably  a  by  and a g r i c u l t u r a l  i s t h e need t o a p p l y  As  but  i s the  passes  n o t be d i s c u s s e d  fixed-wing  Canada  properties.  aerial  f o r fringe residents. In  enough a l t i t u d e t o reduce  banned  i n Richmond  damage c a u s e d b y  need  most  by  the  earlier,  ( R i c h m o n d , McLennan A r e a P l a n ,  of the issue  non-target  from  low-level  residential  proximity,  considerations crux  district  o f Richmond  planner  regular  in  parts  hazards  o f p e s t i c i d e s was b r i e f l y n o t e d  risk  spraying  health  Some  systems and s p r e a d  residents  a r e concerned  Some  i n tandem that  high  45 winds  could  blow  the  tainted  p o s i n g unknown h e a l t h Less  and  for  noises  (Webster,  which  of  accustomed  cope  mushroom  A  the  range  barns  and  of  to  soils  1987).  A  the  and that  byproducts  community The  and  noises  early  complaint as  unusual called  the  Richmond,  those  i t more  crop  and  these  devices  drives  can  referred  1986).  be  just  as  varied  and  pumps  is a  common  generators at  night  of  outcries  Richmond's over  in central  the  of timed  emit  crop-stealing  A  of more  mechanism  Common i n t h e and  a  ALR,  use  Richmond.  central  periodically  the  the  within  late  of  aerate  related  s c a r e away b i r d s .  fields  their  poultry operations  o f n o i s e comes f r o m a t y p e to  over  the  smells  boundary  spraying  difficult  to  Gas  and  their  when  turn  the  become  from  i n Richmond  farms  smells.  smells  practices  produced  complaints"  from  the  probably  nutrients  s w i n e and  eastern  blueberry  which  of  continual  emanating  prepared  increasing  for  yards,  that while  farm  seasonally  morning  "banger," used  productive  sound  the  i n the  source a  as  the  helicopters  a  some f i n d  as  study  a  farming said  odors  release  coming  along  are  of  of  (Richmond P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t ,  bothersome  running  near  of  "consistent levels  other  accompany  live  Surrey  plots  more  i n Surrey  such  manure-filled  to  their  r e s i d e n t s , are  fields,  aromas  farmers  (Leung,  fringe  planner who  with  possibly  urban  people to  neighbour's  but  invariably  1987).  majority  to  some  into  risks.  dangerous,  irritation  droplets  eastern  loud  popping  pests  away.  46 Unfortunately  they also  particularly with  as  sensitive,  much  tortures.  zeal  Indeed,  application has  of  become  (Jackson,  r e s i d e n t s who,  if  each  subsequent  "pop"  the p a r t i c i p a n t s  in ancient  water  concerns  about  the widespread  common  source  of  use  conflict  the  aerial  of  bangers  i n Richmond  Alienation about  of l e s s e r  in  operators  the  i n Delta  Statement,  theft,  farmers in  and  some  unjust  important the F r a s e r  (Delta  Planning  similar  OCP  an  apparent  of  dairy Valley  Agricultural  Department,  complaints  becoming  any  be  has c o m p e l l e d a number  Mainland  is  to  trespass, drainage disruptions,  S u r r e y , t o move up  with  without  perceived  including  Richmond  what  is  difficulties  Lower  1986,  livelihood  what  region,  the  trapped  await  along with  vandalism,  and a h o s t  other  nearby  1987).  taxation,  of  as  most  Frustration  out  will  pesticides,  the  Social  farmers  disturb  1986).  Many  remain  behind,  economically  unsound  alternatives  (Diamond,  1985). Having r e s i d e n t i a l i n the urban  fringe  of  would  antagonism  pronounced  in  predominantly those west  (Runka,  creating  in 1985).  this  it form  is  more  Likely  attitudinal  half  areas.  split,  uses so  Such  people of  the  developed, many  land  surprising  between  eastern the  not  i n some  Richmond rural  living  and a g r i c u l t u r a l  but  an  a  sense  antagonism  living  is  in  the  municipality,  and  urban  factors  that  close  region  play  a  i n the part i n  important element  47 Is  the  better  resentment municipal  some  rural  s e r v i c e s enjoyed  populous w e s t e r n p a r t of town. side  is  may  seen  feel  those  be their  have  This  "territory"  settled  is  about  people i n  F u r t h e r , as  the  a  is  near  the  the  t h e more  urban  west  residents  threatened  I t i s interesting  f r o w n upon a n y f u r t h e r  area.  by  feel  expanding eastward, r u r a l  ( J a c k s o n , 1987).  who  generally the  to  that  unprotected  residents  and  t o note  rural-urban  that  interface  residential  development  situation,  since  Catch-22  the very  p e o p l e who move t o t h e u r b a n f r i n g e t o e n j o y t h e o p e n and  aesthetic  values  of  the setting  r e d u c t i o n a n d d e g r a d a t i o n o f t h e s e same Another frustration feel  in  conflict many  the  continually  Richmond,  Delta  don't t a l k us."  members  of  The  local  and  their  food-producing  feel  left  views  known  This problem  lack  communication.  undoubtedly  n e a r l y c o n s t a n t demands  the  the  community heard  planners  o f them  put  don't  was in  i t : "We talk  planning  who a p p e a r department  i s of course the r e s u l t  municipal h a l l t o the farming residents,  one  with  residents  the  While  is  to  out of the decision-making  urban to  the  This problem  t o t h e f a r m community, and t h e y farmers  to  o p i n i o n s and needs  discussions  S u r r e y . As  council. of  alienation  government.  during  p r o c e s s , and p o i n t t o t h e get  the  space  values.  to social  being unable t o get t h e i r  or u n d e r s t o o d by raised  related  contribute  in  there  a r e fewer  of  and  o f a two-way  community t h a n t o nature  to  farming,  links the  from urban  with i t s  on t h e f a r m e r s ' t i m e , i n h i b i t s  them  48 from g e t t i n g Involved  i n the  disparity  w e l l the  u r b a n and  is  of  b e t w e e n how  get t h e i r v o i c e s heard f a c i n g the  l o c a l planning  Rural-Urban  C o n f l i c t And  In  attempting  which i n h i b i t s decide of  what  such  factors  The  the  the  Planning  establish  need The  political  the  being  situation reviewed  attention will design  by be  and  a  the  to  completed  will  be  with  an the  by  developer  the If  as  the  receive a complaints the  response  planning department,  m e e t i n g s and although,  the d r a f t i n g  as w i l l  have  i n the  of  conflict.  two  key  the  land  For  instance,  proposal  department,  considerable  of  conflict,  or  generally  at has  there  t o work o u t  a  resolve  problems  the  is  project's  arise,  will  use  development  chance  planners  to  design  conflicts  bangers  are r e c e i v e d  planners  the p r o j e c t  that  from  context  after  solution as  1987).  c h a n g e s i n l a n d use  a d d i t i o n of  use  soon  q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e ( M u r c h i e , Small  land  t r y i n g t o a d j u s t the  reduce  the  challenges  timing  planning  unforeseen  effort  biggest  indicates that  large  least mitigate i t s effects. been  communities  be c o n s i d e r e d  research  p l a c e d on  i n order  rural  of c o n f l i c t ,  to  scale  where  This  Agenda a  change a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each k i n d of in  process.  process.  the occurrence  context. are  one  to  factors  a  local  that lead to a c o n f l i c t ,  to  the and the  a  blueberry  local  planners.  brought  process  b y - l a w may  be s e e n i n t h e n e x t  If  can  be  also  sufficient  t o the a t t e n t i o n  lengthy  o f a new  field,  such  of  of  public  initiated,  section, this  response  49 is  generally  options from  planning  changes  r e c e i v e more a t t e n t i o n  This  is  the  department,  review  whereas  not require  regulations.  the  Therefore  acted  on a t t h i s  change  in  the  annoyances t h a t interface. than  stage  have  past,  proposal after  department.  that  directly  proposed  influenced  have  less  land  by  control  i f t h e change  and conforms t o a l l e x i s t i n g of p o t e n t i a l  conflicts  p r o c e s s " and a r e  (Leung, 1987).  I n some c a s e s t h e  gradually  becoming many  situations  one  after of  a  land  those  use  on-going  people along the rural-urban receive  even  t h e cases mentioned above, p r i m a r i l y  neither  identified  arisen  fact  planners  large-  approval  developed  plague  These  be  the majority  caught i n t h e development  may  the  prompt  from  development have  arise  less  conflicts  t h e use of t h e i r  pre-approval  in  by t h e p l a n n i n g  can  i f other  that  arising  of a  by  "get  conflict  result  than those that  o v e r how p e o p l e c h a n g e does  phase  explained  under  conflicts  conflicts  not reviewed  largely  developments  use  governments  Additionally,  the pre-approval  use changes  local  land  than  use changes.  land  by  Essentially,  in  responses  land  during  favored  are available.  small  scale  not  less  attention  because  they are  i d e n t i f i e d d u r i n g t h e p l a n n i n g phase o f d e v e l o p m e n t ,  n o r a r e t h e y "new" p r o b l e m s r e s u l t i n g  from a  recent  change  to  detailed  design  or screening  command  most o f  communities  because  in land use. Conflicts solutions the  such  planner's  that as  lend  themselves  setbacks  attention  i n the three  these  problems  are  tend  to yield  immediate  consulted kinds  generally  of  different  in  o f more  leverage"  will  acted  planners  problems  system  continue  provides  f o r the elected  a s c h e c k s on t h e p l a n n i n g  weighting  of p r i o r i t i e s  However,  when  determining  specific criteria"  about  a r e based,  priorities  said  political  listened to  of other  confident  council  that the  department t o ensure t h a t t h e  specific  criteria  the general  skewed. on w h i c h  response made  was  I n summary: conflicts  that a r i s e  use  changes  generally  planning  responses  large-scale land  than  from  small-scale  result conflicts  use changes;  i n less arising  that  without  1987).  (a)  more  and t h e p u b l i c t o  " i s a judgmental c a l l  (Leung,  that  the people  d o e s n o t become e x c e s s i v e l y  asked  priorities  complaints  were  to  owing t o t h e  t h e most  t o the detriment  more  a r e harder  One p l a n n e r  and have  i n t e r e s t s . The p l a n n e r s  were  balancing  are not resolved,  to get their  possibly  are  equitably  matters.  problems  who  which  decision-making,  routine  responses  were t h e most common  like  the loudest  upon,  "quiet"  these  and  and r e s o l v e , and a r e u s u a l l y p u t a s i d e  "scream  act  Those  nature,  when t h e p r o c e d u r a l  and  r e s u l t s . The  interests during  pressures  who  identifiable,  agreed that these  conflicts.  "procedural"  define  readily  land prompt from  51  (b)  conflicts  phase  of  than  use  during  development  attention land  identified  usually  those  changes  that  not  the  receive  have  reviewed  pre-approval more  arisen  by  the  after  planning  department; ( c ) most p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t s a r e i d e n t i f i e d the development approval (d)  conflicts  design act more  Findings This planning  that  solutions  lend are  section provides responses  developed  a  categories  the  techniques  o f more  general  One conflict land  and  p r o b l e m s , and s o r e c e i v e department.  the research  findings  The i n f o r m a t i o n by t h e a u t h o r ,  address  the  concerning  conflicts in  i s presented  as t h e  and n o n - s y s t e m a t i c  in  literature  or d i s c u s s i n g  issues  of  concern.  s e c t i o n , the f i n d i n g s are presented  d e t a i l e d and c o m p r e h e n s i v e  fashion data  in  due t o t h e  available i n  communities.  Regulating  the  which  i n the previous  three  define  no a l t e r n a t i v e s y s t e m f o r c l a s s i f y i n g  relatively  lack  to  to residential-agricultural  four  Like  easier  to detailed  Responses  and S u r r e y .  planning  themselves  a t t e n t i o n from the planning  Richmond, D e l t a  contains  process;  on t h a n " p r o c e d u r a l "  On P l a n n i n g  during  form  L a n d Use P r a c t i c e s of  response  to  residential-agricultural  has been t h e use o f r e g u l a t o r y use p r a c t i c e  bylaws  to  restrict  which has prompted t h e c o n f l i c t . F o r  52 example,  i n order  to reduce  nearby  residents,  passage  of  bangers evening  were  to resolve The  the  low  to  is  not  powers  issue  in  the  aircraft, in  the  conflict  lack  data  the "hot"  conflicts.  The  perception  that  Because practices,  are  restrict  resentment  is  narrow For  this  of  basic  and  instance,  air  traffic, about  agency  the  have  during  which  community.  In  the  legal  authority  not  to  so  or  do feel  either  that  the  handle.  research concerns  for  this  about  the  residential-agricultural to  the  inflexible or  the  bylaw  concerned  f o r them t o  relates  regulations  regulations some  i t was  bylaws t o r e s o l v e first  are  expertise,  three  of  municipality.  Act.  choose  consulted  consistently raised  of r e g u l a t o r y  will  effects  regulating  parts  the  regulatory  became  officials  or  politically planners  some  but  a  Municipal for  case,  technology.  government  i s responsible  technique  i s too  thesis  out  the  acknowledging  a v a i l a b l e to the  local  crop-dusting  they  Local  use  set  of  during  negative  of the  a conflict  situations local  address  because  take advantage  the  operating  this  still  implementing  the  certain  the  while  from  In  from  supported  machinery  hours.  when Richmond r e s i d e n t s  flying  banned  farm  mitigate  practices  Canada  i n 1983  to  have  farmers  of  explicitly  so  restrict  option  legal  Transport  i n Richmond  morning  used  f a r m e r ' s need t o  number o f c o m p l a i n t s  noisy  early  farming  Often  that  other  and  regulations these  planners  bylaws  and  the  prohibit  and  common  public  often  biased.  certain  unavoidable.  Yet  land the  use  bylaw  53  must a p p e a r t o be a s o b j e c t i v e a s p o s s i b l e , a n d a f f e c t those  aspects of the problem that require  planners these  consulted  recognized  two c r i t e r i a  alternative usually  is  methods  not  for  investigated  "a r e a l  antipathy  solving The  some  the  addressing  satisfying Accordingly,  conflict the  are  possibility  I n d e e d one p l a n n e r s a i d t h a t he  first  considering  calling other  t h e m "a  approaches  the problem.  second  bylaws.  regulatory specific  possible.  towards r e g u l a t i o n s , "  cop-out" i f used w i t h o u t to  always  before  i n t e r v e n t i o n . The  completely  resolving  o f d r a f t i n g new r e g u l a t i o n s . had  that  only  concern i s with Planners  bylaws and  and  generally  clear-cut  as  the d i f f i c u l t y  other  of  officials  strive  to  possible.  enforcing  who  make  prepare  the text  However,  due  as  t o the  n a t u r e o f c e r t a i n i s s u e s w h i c h demand r e g u l a t i o n t h e w o r d i n g o f some b y l a w s may n o t be v e r y p r e c i s e , a  difficult  task.  restrictions be  F o r example, w h i l e  on t h e t i m e  clearly established  address  public  produce  (Webster,  sometimes  impossible  nuisance  of operation  problems  1987).  can  building  enforcement s e t b a c k s and  of farm machinery can  and e n f o r c e d , r e g u l a t i o n s  reflected  legislation,  leaving  in  make  Vague  c a n be v e r y  or i l l  similarly  difficult  defined  difficult  lead  to  terminology,  ambiguous  enforcement  under t h e l a w , and c o u l d  designed to  provincial or  even  t o expensive  legal  proceedings. The costs  third involved  concern in  i s associated  "re-educating"  the  with  the time  public  when  and new  54  regulatory process the  bylaws are  changes,  and  people  some  the  may  an  extensive  people  will  their  activities  setting  the  stage  who  in spite  will  remain  surface  educational  individuals  about  i m p l i c a t i o n s of this  exercise  public information  not in  for of  This  the  seems  i n v o l v e c o n t a c t i n g a l a r g e number  continue  And  affected  e x p l a i n i n g the  on  i t  through  Inevitably  then  While  straightforward,  fines.  by c o u n c i l .  i n v o l v e s i n f o r m i n g the  regulations.  of  passed  hear  of  the  news  contravention  of  further conflict  a l l efforts,  the and  are  may  bylaw,  possible  some  people these  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , p l a n n e r s have i n d i c a t e d t h a t w h i l e t h e  power  to  local  regulatory  government, they  bylaws  regard  the  residential-agricultural no  other  been in  option  "very  recent  few" years  of area plans  these  the  use  available.  (Leung,  is  is  kinds  as As  of  kind  to  a  "last  resort"  a  result,  in  i n Richmond the of  u s e d by t h i s m u n i c i p a l i t y ( J a c k s o n ,  when  there  bylaws adopted  1 9 8 7 ) , and  main  essential  o f t h i s method t o r e s o l v e  conflicts  is of  w i t h any  and  bylaw. Given  impose  dissatisfied  there  program.  have Surrey  adoption  "regulatory"  response  1987).  Buffers Land  use  available to context  that  agricultural achieve buffers.  this  zoning  is  planners  one  wishing  inhibits  the  c o n f l i c t . One objective  Based  on  of  is  the to  most  establish  occurrence  of  powerful a  tools  land  use  of  residential-  t h e ways z o n i n g  i s applied to  through  the  consultations with  use  of  planners  land and  a  55 review  of  community  plans  research  indicates that  use  buffers  of  response be  to  as  and  incompatible negative  has  any  land  design  use,  the  largely  addressed.  The is  that on  importance  policy  by  planning  Buffers  object  whose  definition  come i n many the  forms,  conflict  in local  following  or  associated  general  buffers  may  conflicting  m i t i g a t e any  of  the  the  Surrey  being  land  excerpts  use from  statements.  between u r b a n and are  of  and  or  rather  nature  the  common  separate  and  documents,  conflict.  b u f f e r s can  the  i s Council's  of-ways  to  This  illustrated  community p l a n It  most  structure,  activities  fact  Delta  the  i s intended  l a n d use  depending  planning  Richmond,  become  externalities.  underscores  1)  in  supporting  residential-agricultural  defined  location  and  policy  rural  not  to  ...  acquire  a buffer  u s e s where e x i s t i n g  adequate  (Richmond  right-  OCP,  1986,  p.25). 2)  An  effective  and  maintained  and  agricultural  shall  t o a c t as a land  ...  ( D e l t a OCP,  ...  t h a t the  agricultural  as  a  distinct  sub-region,  intense  (Surrey The buffers  OCP  urban  areas  U p d a t e , 1986,  following sub-sections that  notes  have  been  some o f t h e  used  factors  be  established  b u f f e r between  3)  more  and  interface  area  1986, be  p.12).  preserved  separated by  urban  from  suburban  the  areas  p.4). provide i n the  a simple selected  influencing  their  typology  of  communities, use.  56  Barriers A  buffer  animals  As B u f f e r s  may  moving  properties. sloughs,  a c t as between  Common  fences  to trespass ownership  these  and v a n d a l i z e ,  One  of  requirements. buffers  these  as  f u n c t i o n , and  can  work  i s that  i n d i v i d u a l s . Sometimes  an a d d i t i o n a l d e t e r r e n t ,  have  been  buffers  cannot  erected  a r e t h e most commonly used  kinds  modest  helps to A  of  up-keep used  to disguise reduce  noise  limitation  of  trespass  by  prevent  a second  resort.  backyards  division.  barrier  and i n a few c a s e s  as a l a s t  quite  vegetation  and d e s i g n e d . they  be  these  other that  placed  can  and  value  buffers  determined  of  costs  and  property  where t h e  an a e s t h e t i c  i f properly  as  Department,  to define  feature  features  trees  such  t o reduce the o p p o r t u n i t y  have no a p p a r e n t  low  ditches,  vegetation  situations  relatively  have  dense  and  agricultural  rows o f t r e e s ,  second  fields  Further,  barrier  levels  in  people  and  they a l s o help  the a t t r a c t i v e  i s their  against  (Richmond P l a n n i n g  This  especially  of houses and a d j a c e n t  their  and  buffers serve  boundaries.  important,  as  include  or s t i n g i n g n e t t l e s  1986). While  buffers  barrier  residential  examples  walls,  hardhack  a  i s used  high  Collectively,  fences  barrier-  type of b u f f e r .  Open Space As B u f f e r s The three by  next  common  communities attempts  distance  effect  most  of  rather reducing  than the  kind  t o separate  by  of buffer  conflicting  b a r r i e r . This  intensity  used  of  can  i n the  land have  irritating  uses the  noises,  57 dusts,  and  property  smells,  flooding,  different  land  trespassers. these  lowering and i n  uses  The  certain  of  functions,  central  Richmond  other  cases  greater  distances  used  communities,  with  at  can perform  some o f  of  the s e c t i o n - l i n e 1987),  are required  several  o f t h e major d r a w b a c k s  not  already  own  preserving  the buffer  alternative  use  restrictive  covenants  communities  a s a means  buffers  would-be  to  locations area  while  in  produce  a  successfully  in  the  i n north-east  three Delta  example.  the s u b s t a n t i a l costs  does  dissuade  (Jackson,  the r e c r e a t i o n a l  the l a r g e s t Two  are  regard  accidental  separate the  e f f e c t . P a r k s and p a s t u r e s have been  in this  being  to  a s do many  in  of  cases w i l l  a street  roads  noticeable  chances  sufficiently  width  buffering  the  t o these  kinds  of  buffers  of a c q u i s i t i o n i f the m u n i c i p a l i t y the i f  land,  and  market  f o r the property. are being  that  Transitional  Land Uses As  difficulty  conditions Legal  i n each  some permanence  they w i l l  be u s e d  of  dictate  measures  considered  of adding  and e n s u r i n g  the  such  an as  of the to  the  f o r the intended  purpose.  Transitional In  this  that  context,  does  farmers  not  a  pose  u s e s a r e sometimes u s e d t r a n s i t i o n a l land significant  or the nearby r e s i d e n t s .  Christmas course  land  tree  located  plantations next  Buffers  t o some  in  use  problems Two b a s i c  as  i s an  buffers. activity  for either examples  South  Surrey,  farmland  i n West  and  the  include a  golf  Richmond. I n  58 communities  such  t o be a n o t h e r An the is  space  allotment  possible alternative  advantage  land  the p o t e n t i a l l y  p u t t o a p r o d u c t i v e use b y p r i v a t e are  becomes  a  not  benefit  stabilizing  use b u f f e r s  conflicting  of  of  individuals.  these  the kinds  the  encroachment, easily  likelihood  of  as  opposed  accommodate  t o an open  a  more  i s that  Municipal  the  land  use  of  buffers  of further  proven  activities  buffer  activity.  i n f l u e n c e t h e y c a n have on t h e f a r m i n g  reducing  could  function  have  1985).  d e p l e t e d , and m a i n t e n a n c e  regular  Another  gardens  (Diamond,  to transitional  separating  coffers  by  as Burnaby,  i s the  community  short-run  strip  intense  urban  of land  use  that  (Schiffman,  1983) . Transitional the  land  establishment  instance, planners  part-time  a  pre-planned  commercial  and  distinguish occur  that w i l l  possibly  between  i n floodplain  zoning  areas.  as  made  by For  the eastern  a  b u f f e r between  of  the a g r i c u l t u r a l  Already zones  class  them  near  intensity use  a zoning  concentrate  operations.  two a g r i c u l t u r a l has  be e n c o u r a g e d  consider creating  farming  Surrey  may  o f hobby f a r m s i n D e l t a has made  where t h e y c o u l d s e r v e  recognized plan,  farms  area,  buffers  specialized  i n t h a t community  these  and  of  the p r o l i f e r a t i o n  for  Ladner  use  edge  into of  housing  Delta  has  i n i t s l a n d use  similar  zoning  activities  and n o n - f l o o d p l a i n a r e a s .  that  to can  59 Land R e s e r v e s As B u f f e r s Given urban have  that  uses  will  sought  role  consulted  reserve  these of  lands.  Rather  could  take  prepared from density  place a  residential  point  where  use  plan  reduced  stocks  because  role, that  higher  have  of  o f t h e p e o p l e who l i v e  the  the growth  the planners  the purpose of  the conversion  zones  which  outside  density  was w a r r a n t e d .  of land  that  of  i s to r e l i e v e the threat  specific  ( i . e . one  higher  buffers  protects  Surrey  one-half  capable  i n these areas  ALR  from  acre  high zones lots),  of s u b d i v i s i o n are  of c o n f l i c t s semi-rural  has  i t s large  the farmland  and  of  development  z o n e s . By s u r r o u n d i n g t h e ALR w i t h  m a i n t a i n e d , and t h e o c c u r r e n c e be  than  land  be  is for  forpotential  out  and s e p a r a t e s  l o t housing  considerable  of  about t h i s  the i n t e n t i o n  encroachment  large  tracts  could  demand  those  i f t h e need  land  that  instances  i s n o t t o promote  area  municipalities  rather  by e s t a b l i s h i n g  agricultural  land  as reserves  to  buffers  of  anticipated  When a s k e d  quick  encroachment  the  of  were  most  dwellings  large  of a c t i n g  the urban area.  land  many  relatively  additional to  stocks  single-family In  a g r i c u l t u r a l land t o  i n the future,  identify  infill.  comprise  t o convert  e s p e c i a l l y i f the  hungry  density  persist  to  developed, land  pressures  is  thought  lifestyles  (Leung,  1987).  to  common  60  Limited In  Capacity  order  conflicts  to  it  prevent  future  i s p o s s i b l e t o add  developments  that  agricultural  zone.  in  in  projects  Estates  Infrastructure  is  inhibit One  through  the  Delta  the  design  features  to  f u r t h e r encroachment  of  South  residential-agricultural  ways  and  this  in  Into  is  of  the  being  Surrey's  installation  housing  done  Nico-Wynd  limited  capacity  infrastructure. Intended residential parks,  the  because  of  were  for  use  in  developments  that  idea  is  their  low  initially  additional  of  region pipes  or new  upgrading  independent  link  (Cowie, are  install  designed  for  are  capacity  loads  disincentive costs  to  concentrated  to  1987).  In  valves  define that  limit  they  only  to  urban  make  future  infrastructure  consulted can  only  but  inhibit  the  that  they any  service  reduced  to  a  an the  capacity  agricultural termination  could be  good  planners  be  made.  ways  and  encroachment.  limited  occurrence  to  recognize  more c o s t l y ,  additional  noted  units  prohibitive  the  developments  cannot a c t u a l l y prevent  planner  the  that  from  expansion,  that  establishing  the  seem  lines  support  readily available  would  and  provides  from which extensions  approaches  the  therefore Each  two  lines  away  points  These  main  addition,  p r o v i d i n g any  to  or  looped  the  This  piping the  farmland  cannot  due  clustered  sewer  serve  and  developments  to  and  only  for,  boundary without or a c c e s s  water  extensions.  back  sometimes  adjacent  can  the  or  of  capacity conflicts  61 in  the  long-run  political  will  Many  are  t o ensure t h e i r  new  being  designed  their  basic  the  i f they  developments with  in  of s e r v i n g  also  help  by  sufficient  long-term e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Delta  cul-de-sac  function  residents,  accompanied  and  roads  Surrey  are  aside  from  that,  the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  to  keep  urban  needs o f  traffic  from nearby farmland. S i m i l a r l y , p e d e s t r i a n s  are  from  sidewalks  gaining  paths  access  are only  (Jackson,  1987).  effective  in  to private  provided These  on t h e  when  residential  the occurrence  discouraged  sides  s t r a t e g i e s are thought  reducing  t h e y a r e accompanied  fields  away  and  of roads  t o be  quite  of c o n f l i c t s  b y one o r more o f t h e b u f f e r s  when  mentioned  earlier. Public No be  Discussion  response  completely  people  process  listen  on t h e p a r t  together  a  of  their  representatives  only  in  fact  real  source  responses satisfy  address  only  for  differences  of  peripheral  earlier with  the the  balanced  i t is really  people  to  get  i n the presence of  (Jackson,1987,  one s i d e  from  of w i l l i n g n e s s t o  departments;  are designed  of the c o n f l i c t .  noted  conducted  opportunities  c o n f l i c t can  input  i s not a lack  of the planning  dearth  planning  t h e y may  problem  and d i s c u s s  municipal When  The  some  Yet as  i s not n e c e s s a r i l y  input.  of  without  i n the d i s p u t e .  public  more  residential-agricultural  satisfactory  involved  planning  to  Murchie,  without  public  t h e a r g u m e n t , and issues  rather  1987). input, could  than the  62 Essentially, communities  direct  comes  in  community  planners,  rezoning  applications  neighbourhood  processes.  during  research  opportunities effective, allow to these and  are  other's  this  chapter  provided  by  and  and  was  discussion,  their  opinions,  serve  to  the chances  community  that  while  Often  further  rather  f o r a n improved  these  potentially intended to  than  the emotions  entrench  via  identified  t o o i n f r e q u e n t and a r e p r i m a r i l y  of consensus.  meetings  to  hearings,  the area  three  calls  of the biggest concerns  for  to state  form  reduce  One  of  the  forums  public  part  in  of telephone  irregular  and as  input  form  through  for public  people some  the  meetings  planning  public  t o come  vented  opposing  understanding  in  sides of each  n e e d s , g o a l s , and v a l u e s .  Conclusion This  chapter  has d e s c r i b e d t h e main r e s e a r c h  findings  regarding a d m i n i s t r a t i v e records of r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l conflicts,  the  communities, by  planners  and that  types  of  conflicts  and t h e b a s i c to establish  resolves  conflicts.  the planning  methods c u r r e n t l y  a l a n d use  process  has been  occurrence  of c o n f l i c t .  use  of b u f f e r s ,  the f a c t s  misunderstanding  between  farmland  alternative  planning  to  and h o u s i n g . responses  employed  that  prevents  consulted  transcend The n e x t  agreed  i n reducing  of the  of i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y ,  three  being  effective  Yet i n s p i t e  continue  i n the  context  A l l the planners  the  and  observed  widespread  encroachment, the  chapter  boundaries outlines  and c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s w h i c h  63 address  some  hopefully conflict  of the p o i n t s r a i s e d  assist management  analysts  in this  seeking  strategies.  to  chapter develop  and  will  improved  64  CHAPTER 4  ALTERNATIVE RESPONSES AND  CONCEPTUALIZATIONS  Introduction The  management  of  residential-agricultural  i s d i s p e r s e d between v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s and the  local  directly try  to  government. While respond  keep  use  approach  agricultural  of  of  land  the  the  the  preventing  use  of  has  Richmond,  confidence  less  i t would have been w i t h o u t  planning  departments  investigated allow  a  conflicts. range  variations  in  buffer  However,  of The  possibility,  as  one  accompanied  by  likely they  do  by  the  techniques  planners said  actually  to  main  on  and  of  is  of b u f f e r s .  The  various  buffers  that  could were  not  be  of  wide taking  current of  this  but  must  buffers  have  effective,  conflicting  a  improve aware  would  kinds  for  may  have  that  i n r e d u c i n g t h e numbers o f the  consulted  conflict  design  interviewed  make  Surrey.  municipalities  planners  " b u f f e r s are  planning  residential-  use  the  they  conflict.  planners  other s t r a t e g i e s . " While  been e f f e c t i v e not  relying  types  other  strategies.  be  adaptation  not  means  Delta  the  three  of  of  occurrence  the  of c o n f l i c t  advantage  the  do  nevertheless  the  the  the  of  degree  use  been  technique  that  they  resolving  expressed than  and  planners  occurrence  and  in  this  many c a s e s  Issues  buffers  conflicts  departments w i t h i n  complaints,  t o h e l p reduce  to  Through  specific  abreast  have a v a i l a b l e The  to  in  conflicts  conflicts,  activities  more  65 compatible. activities start to  a  Instead from  uses,  getting  conflict.  increase  the  between them. As  If  rural  and  attitudes  and  strategies  i f an  Runka  these  "incompatible"  to  are  of  effective  each  rural  and  " t h e key  mutual  users to  factors  then  could  be  are  improve  placed  understanding  key  planning  land  compatibility  t h e needs o f t h e  understanding  to  needed  urban  cannot  d e p e n d e n t upon a m u t u a l  urban  other  therefore  buffer  (1985) n o t e s ,  determining compatibility, address  the  enough  compatibility  is attitudinal,  of both  prevent  close  Other  especially  factor  they  other."  factors  in  responses  the  which  management  of  conflicts. From that  the  t h e r e has  the  public  minimum  findings  been r e l a t i v e l y  into  the c o n f l i c t  requirements  chapter  outlines  first  of  current  on  responses  conflict the  could  through  conflicting  emphasized  that  solutions:  they  that  a  and  are  emphasis  the  are  simply  it on  appears bringing  Municipal  analysts perhaps  methods The  help to prevent  parties'  3  This  responses  and  review  improve  the  with  mutual  ideas  them.  expansion to  sections of  understanding  of  immediately and  on  development  points-of-view. not  current  regards  remaining the  the  Act.  r e o r g a n i z a t i o n and  conflict.  increasing  these  Chapter  planning  help  collection  residential-agricultural focus  in of  strategies  data  little  forth  subject addresses  in  management p r o c e s s beyond  number  that  management  The  set  a  conceptualizations conflict  presented  It  should  be  implementable  concepts  that  have  66  arisen the  out  of  the  starting  research Local  thesis  point  findings,  towards  aimed a t d e s i g n i n g  Level  in  agricultural limited  3  outlined  the  three  government  reported  can  structured  serve  and  remedies to s p e c i f i c  It  kept  action,  the  was  on  of  complaints  means  as  focused  problems.  found  are  files  that  no  to  which  residential-  while  that  there  are  resulted  detailed  containing  related  through  identify  complaints  there  systems  basic  communities  conflicts.  records  referenced  more  which  Data C o l l e c t i o n  Chapter planners  and  and  in  cross-  information  on  all  residential-agricultural  conflict. In  order  agricultural  to  conflicts  comprehensive could of  be  and  used  such  a  improve  each  of  p.24).  time  cabinets eye  with  which  towards  that  its  it  own  with  t h e s e d a t a can and  underlines manual  have n o t the  must  more  system  that  acknowledge into  "local  be,  some  of  through  research  i f not  separate the  government's scattered impossible,  (Griesener, the  the  within  information  n e c e s s a r i l y been  particular  a  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  expensive"  searches  have  jurisdiction  decentralized  consuming  of  governments  notes:  Griesener  associated  One  residential-  to  collection  Griesener  throughout—collecting extremely  data  local  with  As is  be  of  seem u s e f u l  research.  would  compartmentalization  organization  i t would  in future  municipality.  understanding  integrated  system  departments,  the  1983,  difficulties  paper-packed maintained subject.  file  with  an  While  67 municipalities towards  remedying  through System there at  s u c h as  its  remains  various  At  this  and the  basic  very  least  The  conflict  taken  has  dealt  conflict,  how  maintaining  departmental complaints  government such  log  of  related  of  when a p p r o p r i a t e .  author  agricultural Ministry "had  of  in  extent  of  Advisory conducted  record  and  experienced trying  in  nuisance Committee,  to In  getting  a  who  1986,  The  and  the  use  of  a  conflicts. could  be  to the  log  Ontario  Right  To  Farm  of  problems  this  the  data  on  residential-  Committee  information  on  (Ontario  to  on  of  personal  added  Food  survey  the  simplest  meetings  report  p.21).  the  in  and  i t s 1986 the  where  the  written  collect  record  notation  through  other  complaints"  extensive  files.  initiated.  many  then  characteristics  and  is  data  and  residential-agricultural  A g r i c u l t u r e and  an  the  with,  raw  for a written  for relevant data  conflicts.  difficulty  are  a c t i o n was a  the  involved,  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the  Committee faced  is  notably  Services,  i n d i c a t e when and  who  dealt  hearings  p e r i o d i c a l l y reviewed  need  telephone,  to  public  is a  i t , what  i t was  way  Advisory  Information  collecting  steps  Management  administration,  should  place,  with  after  Minutes  the  there  record  results of  within  of of  most  Database  i t i n t o a s y s t e m of c o o r d i n a t e d  of c o m p l a i n t s .  the  problems  significant  problem,  Geographic  i t s department  points  the  government  traditional  computerized  (GDMS)  introducing  Richmond have t a k e n  to  the  Ontario  said  that i t  the  nature  Right  Although  the  collect  data  To  and Farm  Committee on  these  68 conflicts,  it  essential farm  came  need  complaints  (Ontario Right  it  situation.  having  of  to  For  residences  example,  the  categories  out  person  who  copies  of  then A  and  as  be  given  records each  simple the  traffic  complaints.  into a dedicated  file.  with  local  implement  the  strategy. Careful  use be  order  f i t the  of e x i s t i n g necessary  these  The study  of  could  resources.  to  i s both  the  into  In o r d e r  staff point  efficient  resulting  database  conflicts  and  be  used  for  how an  and  time  farms  and  checklists  once  brought  lot  design, others for a  the  month  together  departments, establish  would  be  to reduce c o s t s associated with the  of  local  record  and  required  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and  where  make  i t would keeping keeping  effective.  could to  on  criteria  could  planning the  the  relevant  detachment,  program  to minimize  records  procedure  it  to  police  a l l  the  of  building  be  "  possibly  drainage,  Perhaps  could  meeting  typology  d i s r u p t i o n s and  log  one-time  on a l l  p.31).  into  noises,  vandalism,  including  in  impacts  an  future  chapter,  classification  department's  entered  1986,  expanded  smells,  pollution,  the  particulars  negative  trespass,  location,  listed  the  is  records  f o l l o w the  previous  could  such  "there  in  Committee, could  the with  theft,  building  disputes  complaints in  that  more c o m p l e t e  and  conform  elements  access,  conclusion  Farm A d v i s o r y  outlined  refining  and  To  record  conflicts  the  for maintaining  practice  The  to  be  improve  on-going  used their review  for  a  one-time  management, of  the  or  issues  involved. a  As was n o t e d  computer  easily  system  such  Department  background which  which,  facilitate  Planning  study  have  a b o v e , Richmond  research.  has t a k e n  that  been  i f provided  i n the  and p r e p a r e d  kinds  community,  conflicts  and  provides  them. D e l t a  t o o has t a k e n a f f i r m a t i v e a c t i o n by p r e p a r i n g  an  plan.  This  a  Systems s u c h the  more a d v a n c e d  GDMS, c o u l d  step  of  towards  management  two  important a)  the  logs  contribute  planning  information challenges  official  i s s u e s and  community.  described  above, or  p o t e n t i a l o f Richmond's towards  (MIS),  i n c r e a s i n g the  conflicts  responses.  systems  its  conflict  residential-agricultural  improving  of  to  of the farming  management  significantly  understanding  addresses  as the complaint record  to resolve  supplement  document  o u t l i n e s many o f t h e c o n c e r n s  used  of  a  of  as  be  t h e Richmond  some  statement  may  could  on  community  buffers  the data,  the i n i t i a t i v e many  has i n - p l a c e  suggestions  agricultural  how  with  Furthermore,  identifies  observed  already  of  a  Newkirk  notes  department  information  p o l i c y . . . . ; and b) can  to find  innovative  ways t h a t  c o m p u t e r s and MIS  be u s e d t o improve t h e q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f  information making  f o r planning,  management and d e c i s i o n -  ( N e w k i r k , 1987, p p . 9 8 - 9 9 ) .  a  In h i s d i s c u s s i o n  f a c i n g planners a r e :  development  as  that  70 Increased  Public  The the  choice  problem  with  Involvement  a  is  of  a  planning  defined,  definition  (Rondinelli,  1973,  and  it  as  a  losses  flooding  continued  threat  demands  land,  being  community  placed  groups  neighbourhood Delta  and  in  response  Public used  to  their that  be  by  helped  and to  order  the  up  will  see  noises,  farmers  see  leading  and  to  restrictive  practices;  one  which  Planners  issues  come  interests  and  threatens  i n Richmond,  from  a l l of  to a r r i v e at a g e n e r a l l y  people  in  to r e a l i z e  search  (Schon,  the any  these  acceptable  handbook  Getting  To  Yes,  conflict  situations  together  i n r e s o l v i n g the  the  Fisher people  of  some  common  Through  the  at  involved  and must  in  that  a  In Ury  be  Harvard  their  can  possible  often  prevent  negotiation  emphasize encouraged on  of  conflict  m i g h t be  focusing  ground use  the  which  1981).  problem,  outside  for  arguments  Ury,  be  a  mutual gains  step  can  take  1980).  people  and  conflicts  developed  positional  (Fisher  managing  involved  and  Project,  progress  as  how  of  life,  work  on  strategy.  focus  the  of  vandalism,  stability.  see  issue  traffic;  way  issue  negotiation,"  avoiding  such  try  an  "legitimate" the  present  "principled  be  see  the  narrow  Negotiation  on  its  Homeowners  slow  their  participation  help  may  to  theft,  character  Surrey  perspectives conflict  crop  as  and  will  supports  1985).  conflict  depends  party  best  Christensen,  property  of  each  that  residential-agricultural smells,  response  their  that to  in  work  mutual  71 interests  and  generating  that  c a n be j u d g e d  and  Ury,  based  1981).  a definition  negotiation  are  in  i n order  of the problem mitigation  t h e new  of  possible  on some o b j e c t i v e  together  and  consensus,  variety  Planners  competing p a r t i e s on  a  problem  a  t o be s o l v e d process.  i t has been s u g g e s t e d and  eliminate  some  of  fostering  greater  conflict  (Bryant  and  notion,  could  n o t work  and  self-interests  and be  urban  by  apparent  Russwurm,  because would  land  i n question. For  both  1979).  integration would  sides  When  consulted  said  them  planner  from  believed  u s e s must be s e p a r a t e d  by  of the  asked  inflexible  prevent  This  i n an  activities  on  people's  result  incompatibilities  one o f t h e p l a n n e r s  negotiations.  about that i t  perspectives engaging that  in  rural  i fconflicts  are to  avoided. Public  is  the  a t by  a greater  non-agricultural  understanding  this  effective  that  of t h i s  arrived  may  instance,  bring  agreement  as part  When  definition  (Fisher  to  to f a c i l i t a t e  s e t of s o l u t i o n s t o the c o n f l i c t  agricultural  standard  position  unexpected  of  solutions  involvement  an a c c e p t e d  norm i n t h e t h r e e  the Municipal  participation example, adopted during p.236).  three as  the  i n the d r a f t i n g  out  with  policies preparation  The f o u r t h  most  the p u b l i c a t i o n  of four  public  i n Surrey's of  method,  the  plans  c o m m u n i t i e s and i s r e q u i r e d  Act. Unfortunately,  ends  o f community  of t h i s  o f t h e OCP. F o r  participation OCP promote  plan  (Surrey  questionnaires,  public  methods  input  only  OCP, 1983,  i s notorious f o r  72 producing  misleading  results,  and  only represents  one-way f o r m o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . As main  sources  completed hearings  may  be  hall, is  of  to  but their  than  lack  the  interface.  makes  It  restrictive important  there  to  be  all  interests  planning A  not  only  one  is  minority. have  low  not  consulted  that  the  of  that  good  in  and the  fairly  municipal influence skews  when  "zone-out"  are  a  certain  an  ALR,  supports  the  its vocal  sense  majority  in  rural-urban  practices within the  is  more  political  responses  been  This  Council  along  to  municipal  political  Unfortunately  Such  into  voice  larger  implemented  1979).  is  input  residents  kind  infrequent  There  numbers.  the  are  the  farmers  tend  inadequate  represented  as  when  in  the  process.  is  than  also  a  i s evidence  balance  parties more  the  of  plans  and  counterparts.  for their small  the  concern.  coordinated  " o f f e n s i v e " farm  (Glover,  in  a  3,  residential-agricultural  less  urban  non-farm  bylaw  but  decision  of  favour  constituency:  as  their  main r e a s o n  in  calls  planners  much  limited,  i n Chapter  community  peripheral  the  relatively  attention  long  only  has  their  the  telephone  among  community  decision-making  after  d i s c u s s i o n s where  agreement  due  input  through  or p a n e l  farming  part  public  are  conflicts general  of  noted  a  be  of  input  from  essential i f conflicts just  one  perspective  each are  of to  (Cooley,  assumed t h a t e a c h member of t h e  perspective  on  the  i s s u e . People  the be  conflicting  resolved  1979).  It  from should  public will living  in  have rural  73 eastern  Richmond  portion  of  feelings  the  for  for  a  Richmond  An  and  the  of  an  "active  and  trust for  their  about  how  1980, public  people  input,  the  involvement  their  the  required,  is  a  interests  they  One good  1 9 8 7 ) . He  discuss  agricultural  conflict  would more f o c u s e d ,  are  being  idea, of  would  general not  receive  that  more people  political  support  valuable  feedback  should  as  to  generate  to  (Forester, that  be  of high  i s s u e - s p e c i f i c meetings.  regular  structured  the  program of  topic get  make  handled  a  public  they w i l l  suggested but  regular,  seem r e l u c t a n t  concern  warned  the  get  the  feedback,  is  to  build will  of  pursuing  only help  planner  issues  to  not  and  conflicts  is a  who  conflict  problems,  input  community p l a n s , hall  of  r e s u l t s . By  will  in  provision  where  will  and  particular  meetings  in  they  1979).  (Jackson,  strong  there  involved  identification and  is  actions,  Glass,  around  the  municipal  well  similar  are  neighbourhood  be  yields visible  understand towards  there  their  1976).  to  planners  representative  have  identities, and  with  also  Where  even from t h o s e groups  involved,  better  many  whole.  is  solutions,  participation, get  a  (Lang,  in  process"  structured,  but  area-wide  public  of  identification  Process  management, hence generation  as  management  On-Going  If  close  municipal  balance  in c o n f l i c t  a  municipality,  neighbourhood need  have  affected regular  residentiala turn-out  as  74 Constraints  To P u b l i c  Few  would  people  participation mainly much be  public  dispute  in local  start  Involvement the  government  a r i s i n g when participation  participation  limited  budget  significant salaries,  questions  i t i s necessary  t o determine  i s appropriate,  and how  of  a  the  costs  and  professional parties  opportunity  costs  how  shall i t  research  for this  public  was  out  thesis,  a  process  spent  the m u n i c i p a l i t y second b a s i c  would  planning  have  Certainly  there  contributing  little  process  political  constraint  dictates  under  a r e some input  that  people  increase the  differences,  and  the  on  conducting also  during  the  into  course  sponsored  conflicts  public  be t a k e n  i s oriented  of  on-going  exclusively  would  be  "a  afford." i s that  technical  o r t h e wide  of  help  government  couldn't  staff  i n to  h o u r s must  that  are  rental  C o s t s would  brought  remarked  i s the  There  materials,  their  the time  planner  first  advertising,  considerations.  office  The  with  residential-agricultural  The public  one  participation  towards luxury  of  t o the kind of  administration.  presentation  sort  normal  As  local  negotiator  conflicting  account.  above.  associated  handout  meetings d u r i n g  constraints  described  m e e t i n g s p a c e and o t h e r  and  public  conducted.  public  the  that  i s a good t h i n g :  T h e r e a r e a t l e a s t two b a s i c  if  assertion  understanding  range which who  takes  most members o f t h e of  either  of laws,  regulations  planners  must  would these  have  no  concerns  act.  trouble into  75  consideration, the  but t h i s  norm. I f p e o p l e  knowledge  were  education  process  prohibitive work,  encourage  the exception  in this  take  making  many  regard,  longer the  For  of  than  costs  public  t h e community.  of  Where new  for  administration  in  a  to  parties  sort  the  to  outlined  communication  links  between t h e  the process  prior  out  project  participation  t o work  solution  public  the  existing  and t h e p u b l i c a r e r e q u i r e d ,  groundwork  the p u b l i c the  of  than  technical  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  advantage  the c o n f l i c t i n g  rather  opinions but l i t t l e  unrealistic.  taking  within  government  could  have  while  channels  the  and  valid  instructed  process,  i t must  earlier  with  t o be  participation  is likely  together to  should and l a y  bringing  details  of  the  l a w and  application. Making E x p e c t a t i o n s  More  Each of the p l a n n e r s agricultural are  uncertain  fringe  the  including  rural  pressures indeed along  of  with  Chapter  often what  arise  move  abundance,  in their  f o r the amenity  These  to and  y e t they  t h e n o i s e s , s m e l l s and o t h e r 3. The r e a l i t i e s may  anticipated  of l i v i n g  be u n a c c e p t a b l e them, and  residential-  rural-urban  to the f r i n g e  the d e s i r e  living.  that  b e c a u s e new r e s i d e n t s  t o expect  People  and  city in  c o n s u l t e d noted  the search  setting  present  interface not  about  neighbourhood.  reasons,  in  conflicts  Realistic  get  must  of  from  the  features  are  often  be  taken  annoyances d e s c r i b e d along  t o some  i f they  values  away  other  f o r many  the rural-urban  residents  who had  a r e u n w i l l i n g t o move  76 again,  t h e y may  their  "rights"  preconceptions. on  farming  more  aware  are t r u l y  conflicts,  pass  a  any  bylaw  are just  the r u r a l - u r b a n  program  already  similar  activities  increasing the  even  at a l l  i f  involving  the  farmers  perspectives  away b i r d s , the  prompting this  facts  of  or found  as been  having Council  (Diamond,  been a v o i d e d  the p r a c t i c e ,  neighbours,  have  Richmond  practice  have  i f  conditions.  t e c h n i q u e s , such  to  might  or  i fthe  explained  another  less  technique to replace i t . now  they could play i n r a i s i n g  Agri-Scope,  based  neighbours'  restricted  to their  would be  those  arisen  traditional  solution  voluntarily  necessity  Planners  have  restricting  A regulatory had  especially  nearby,  their  f o r t h e above  adjustments  residents  fits  inconsiderate  suburban  Some  that  n o t have a r i s e n  prepared  of t h e i r  without  controversial  near  might  i s p e r c e i v e d t o be  protests  of firearms t o f r i g h t e n  non-farm  farmers its  been  activities.  continued  1985).  that  certain  the d i s c h a r g e  to  environment  and n o i s e s , may n o t  on t h e i r  many  an  f o r what  I n some c a s e s t h e s e  had  Conversely,  were  to fight  but the problems  people  smells  to  practices  irregular, the  choose  i t  people's  contribution  the  role  the p u b l i c ' s awareness about  life  interface.  in-place  is  starting  that  to  realize  Chilliwack may  serve  i n Richmond, D e l t a and a  public  awareness  understanding agriculture  (Richmond P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , 1 9 8 6 ) .  as  to  simple  model  Surrey.  program  of farming makes  has a  for  Called  aimed  at  p r a c t i c e s and the  community  I n f o r m a t i o n booths a r e  77 set  up and  areas and to  pamphlets are d i s t r i b u t e d ,  which e x p e r i e n c e  new  d e v e l o p m e n t . The  include  farm  and  the  near  Even  more  growing  community,  residents  the  turn-over  need  rural-urban  proactive  is  application  to  in  of  program c o u l d e a s i l y  agricultural  non-farm  presence  seeing  a significant  especially  those  households  be  expanded  e x p l a i n i n g how  adapt  to  both  each  other's  use  notice  interface.  the  agricultural  in several California  and  Oregon  communities. The agricultural use notice i s a warning n o t i c e , a requirement imposed by l o c a l o r d i n a n c e , to be p l a c e d i n c o n t r a c t s of s a l e and parcel deeds; a l o n g with other a c t i o n s , i t w i l l forewarn prospective purchasers of p r o p e r t y a d j a c e n t to commercial agricultural l a n d of t h e potential problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h such purchases, including the sounds, odours, dust and c h e m i c a l s t h a t accompany agricultural operations (Schlffman, 1983) .  The lets  agricultural  the  buyers  they are  signed  the  the  farmer  complaints The  the  the  of  title  prior  property  in  ascertain  the  to  serves  into,  it  use  his  against  him  it  the and  serves  in  notice  application  time  purpose  buyer,  lodged  t i m i n g of  current  getting  might be  notice  of p r o p e r t y near  know what by  use  i s of  conveyance.  because  as  a  legal  by  new  his  and  i t would  formal  decision  question.  Further  research  of  the  and that  nuisance neighbours.  importance.  any  applicability  document  should  It  interface  i t i s read  defense  read Yet  purposes.  rural-urban  special  is  two  In  acknowledged best  serve  to is  notice  buy needed in  the  its at its the to B.C.  78 context. two  Agri-Scope  and t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l  o f many t e c h n i q u e s  what c a n be e x p e c t e d Planners these  when l i v i n g  i n the rural-urban  tools  to suit  communities, could  for raising  for a  of  reduction i n  fringe.  could  their  small  about  adapt  respective  investment the  they  occurrence  conflicts.  Planning  The  powers  have a l w a y s regional  of B r i t i s h  been  less  Columbia's  than  regional  reduced  to  function  years  ago.  The  mixed  reviews,  the of  in  municipal  value  of  regional  following  of  one  where  seem  plans to  governments. planning  of  statement,  the which  i n a true  powers  the o f f i c i a l was  regional  but d i d not  regret  management,  point  the d i s t r i c t s  end  districts  what one m i g h t e x p e c t  g o v e r n m e n t . Over t h e p a s t d e c a d e t h e s e  planning  other  of Vancouver  relatively  of r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l  been  i n the r u r a l - u r b a n  fringe  w e l l see a s i g n i f i c a n t  Regional  p u b l i c awareness  the conditions  and  use n o t i c e a r e b u t  a  was g r e e t e d  When a s k e d  of  consulted  was c o n s i s t e n t l y  any  delivery, good plans  districts and  regional  idea i n theory, would  process."  are  only  useful  land  use  for  made  echoed  is a  b u t i n our s i t u a t i o n r e g i o n a l inhibit  the  (local)  the  the  by t h e  service  planning  with  conflict  planners: "Regional  few  great  about  i n the context  planners  regional  eliminated  stimulate  have  planning  79 Some They to  analysts  would s u g g e s t  taken  that  region.  and  facilitate  effective  perspective planning al,  on  clear  and  fact  made i n B.C.  benefit  from  Firstly, which  the  the  Act  out  lays  level not  exist  municipalities voluntary  level  these  the  be  Jackson,  urban  factors a  must  lead  municipal  of  and  regional part  1973,  r e g i o n a l plans  can  urban f r i n g e  of  the  Bryant  et  can  be  can  joint though  there  no  structure?  vehicle  get  Manitoba's at  and  amongst  co-  Planning the  local  legislation  nothing  auspices  through  together  similar is  the  a  longer  municipalities  planning  co-operating through  are  regional district  strategies.  for  B.C., from  transcend  control  communities  1 9 8 1 ) , and  in  which  P i e r c e , 1982).  management  (Selwood,  factors  level  policy  district  criteria  perspective.  responses,  existing  various  the  the  to  use  then  regional  their  order  i s that  How  the  ordinate  at  (Russwurm, 1977,  Furuseth  One  of  local  land  process  1982,  being  in  opposite  conflicts  operate  Therefore,  the  many  residential-agricultural  boundaries  a  have  does  prohibiting  themselves of  the  on  regional  district. Working people  with  together the  the  regional district  to discuss  see  how  The  regional district  land  use  i s s u e s of common  various municipalities  decisions  could  provide  that affect  Furthermore, a cooperative  could  apply  concern  their  between  bring and  to  solutions.  some g u i d a n c e  r e g i o n a l growth  effort  help  to  local  management.  municipalities  80 and  the  greater of  regional understanding  farmers  fringe.  and  would  plans,"  but  "softer"  G r e e n Zone  and  perceived to  the  t o be  siting  is  given  the  current  is  a  regional  is  with  uses.  the  of  of  of  Agriculture; Land  representative  the  rural-urban  from  the  be  in  cooperation  have  1977,  the  Green  response  eight  times  an a  of the  interface  and  an  how be  is  there  this  chairman,  the from  the  from no  the  longer  remains  a  Ministry.  achievements  Separation  back  of B.C.  from  was  Formulas.  far b u i l d i n g s along set  the  Ministry  from  there  earliest  Minimum D i s t a n c e  should  year,  appointee  Affairs,  Committee and  used t o d e t e r m i n e  per  representative  Municipal  Committee's  processing  the  appointee  was  pertaining  i n d i v i d u a l s : the of  Zone  t o what  regulations  B r a n c h . Though  between t h e  development  These c o u l d  and  climate,  farming  Commission;  Engineering  of  political  more  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  representative  Federation  One  need  agency  four  Fisheries;  liaison  "we  rights  an  approximately  and  close  rural-urban  f a r m b u i l d i n g s , l i v e s t o c k and  Agriculture  a  the  to  a provincial  full-time  Agricultural  promote  and  state  fortunate  Formed  comprised  Agricultural  to  values  planning  inadequate municipal  Meeting  Committee who  to  represented  equipment.  inhabiting simple  Columbia  land  Committee  needs,  used  practical alternatives.  concerned  urban  the  be  Committee  British directly  could  be  forms o f  would seem t o be The  about  residents  It  regional these  district  their  the lot  81 lines,  and  to  e s t a b l i s h the  separate  farm  intended  as  drafting  of  and  and  distance  bylaws  policy  replaces  Since  the  the  scope  of  Ministry  Bill  concern  and  Green  several  recent  change  that  agricultural (Intensive  approval  of  agricultural  and the  areas  represents  powers  to  activities that  the  that  i t in  is  the  a  legislation effect  or  Minister,  the  ALR.  i s so  a  the  zone  advisory  another  One  In such  residentialSection the  with  intensive  Land  Reserve.  government's land  planner  for local element  977  Minister  government  regulate  restrictive  "introduced  to of  the  1987).  designate  one  1978.  an  municipal  Indeed,  in  expanded  allows  and  document  Act.  Agricultural in  land  instrumental  local  to  reduction  independently inside  Section  Ontario  within  Municipal  revision  Fisheries,  within  been  farms  has  of  relevance  their  rural a  policy  has  the  A g r i c u l t u r e ) . This  Agriculture  more  were  minimum  the  adopted  F i s h e r i e s (Sands,  particular  conflicts  in  Committee  become  to  in  Similar  Preservation,  Committee  changes  formulas  a g r i c u l t u r e and  the  should  between  included  agricultural  Zone  has  1979).  Guidelines  62,  o f A g r i c u l t u r e and  The  This  Land  of  provincial  on  Foodland  Food  enactment  body f o r  of  statement  The  conflicts  been  that  governments  (Glover, have  entitled  which  local  reduce  specifications  planning  its  to  distances  activities.  for  properties  government's use  non-farm  guidelines  adjacent  minimum  of  use  suggested government conflict"  82 into  the  (Leung,  intensive  at  poultry in  of  land  management  agriculture  permitting and  mushroom  conflicts.  While  make c e r t a i n t h e o p e r a t i o n s  (Sands,  i t i s complemented  practice guidelines  1987).  opportunity, intensive  Local  farming  municipalities  the  must  planning  make  Such  and  Quebec, bylaws  has  more r e c e n t l y as  a  means  and n u i s a n c e  Advisory  been  Committee  major  nearby of  difference  977  objectives.  being the  i s that  once  again  context  of  municipal  has been  r i g h t t o farm  s u c h as farms  laying  legislation.  i n the United  In O n t a r i o ,  studied  in  1987).  Zone Committee  used  portion  changed  (Sands,  of p r o t e c t i n g  has  the  of t h e i r  that  Section  i n provinces  actions.  have  to the e f f e c t s  The  of  set  Committee  the i n t e g r i t y ensure  a  This  within  Green  the  therefore  subjected  f o r comprehensive  legislation and  the  by  to  these  decision-making  groundwork  1971,  conforming  the M i n i s t r y  i s now  i t work  Essentially the  Act  involved  more c l o s e l y w i t h  e f f o r t s to achieve  Municipal  to  now work  ( i . e.  ability  and  versions  uses  by t h e M i n i s t e r ' s  developed  areas  specifically  farmers  practices.  between t h e o l d and new  order  fringe  protect  are  a r e a s a r e not being  unacceptable  of  would  governments  agricultural  is  a r e commonly  i f they wish, t o p r o t e c t  residential  their  that  the d e s i g n a t i o n  to  in  urban  agricultural  farming)  one l e v e l ,  farming  designation  certain  on  of  i n the  1979).  The aimed  process  States Manitoba  from  since and  restrictive  the Right  To  Farm  residential-agricultural  83 conflicts  and  committee  has  provincial farm  farm  prepared  provincial  practices trend  of  i n B.C.  along  would  and  recommendations introduction  Zone and  Committee,  the  1979).  these  responsibilities.  1973  and,  making 1984,  depending  Act  of  powers  1983  to  W r o n s k i and Local  provincial their  management  occur  to  the  i n the  near  conflict  management  Some a n a l y s t s see  the  which  Committee fringe  are  agricultural  a  similar  are and  other  communities  designation application  of  not  Local  decision-making  than  i t was  prior  land  use  the  decision-  (Cullingworth,  Yet  a  setback  they the  contact  relevant play  involved in  with  and  62,  but  to of  the  Green  The  areas  matters  municipal  make B.C. both Zone  rural-urban  role  farm p r a c t i c e i n these  forming  Affairs,  direct  agricultural  Bill  able  Union  agencies. more  autonomy  are  of M u n i c i p a l  regular  to  interpreted,  legislature  through  intensive  of l o c a l  certain  directly  the M i n i s t r y in  is  Act  1984).  policy.  heard  and  it  provincial  Turnbull,  concerns  how  recapture  governments  Municipalities  on  to  interest  changes  could affect  of  to of  right  use  Further  lines  significantly  land  the  i t s code  resurgence  local  to  of r i g h t  anticipated  represent a in  industry. This  i n O n t a r i o , where t h e O n t a r i o P l a n n i n g D e v e l o p m e n t  Planning  of  Green  Robinson,  Act  and  The  involvement  1983,  future,  number  guidelines,  legislation  Municipal  a  the a g r i c u l t u r e  government r e g a r d i n g t h e  practice  (Lyon,  of  they a f f e c t  legislation.  farming  in  how  in and  the the  regulations. i s now  less  governments  84 are  still  lead The  able  to conflict  influence  its  agricultural  own p r o c e d u r e  conflicts. Program  Called  (AESP),  resolve  i t has  about  to  The  practices complied  with,  favour  industry,  will  come up w i t h  being  other  a  finding  a  is  is  order  to  government  consult  workable  comply  where c o m p l i a n c e to then  the  the  require  operating  of  work  permit.  In  a is  Waste  acceptable  i n the  are  farmer's  on a c o u r s e  of  i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l  with the farmer Most  v i a the  extreme  i n an e f f o r t t o  often made  the g u i d e l i n e s .  this  has  adjustments  In those  the information  Agriculture  compliance  Next,  guidelines  decides  solution.  with  received  Committee, for  A  n o t be met, t h e i n s p e c t o r and  does n o t e n s u e ,  Ministry  first  guidelines  will  to  simple.  inspector  Zone  If  way  t o government-  quite  p r o v e n t o be p o s s i b l e , and t h e f a r m e r has in  effective  to turn  a l l o f whom a r e i n v o l v e d first  Services  on t o t h e AESP.  followed.  the g u i d e l i n e s  colleagues,  an  operation passed  and  the l o c a l  Should  t o be  t o see i f Green  such  when  action. his  are  Environmental  Agriculture-approved  Municipal  and s p o n s o r e d  residential-agricultural  procedure  then  of  the s i t e  Management,  with  having  a farming  Federation  sent  that  Program  has d e v e l o p e d  proven  without  the m u n i c i p a l i t y ,  B.C.  industry  the A g r i c u l t u r a l  solutions.  complaint  Services  for dealing  conflicts  imposed  on t h e c o n d i t i o n s  situations.  A g r i c u l t u r a l Environmental The  by  to exert  is  cases given  and F i s h e r i e s , w h i c h issuing  cases,  of a  the  may  conditional  Ministry  may  85 suspend The  operations  AESP  limited in  is  a  for a short  province-wide  a p p l i c a t i o n i n the  cases  involving  Increased  use  provide  the  of  an  period  program  Lower  (Sands,  and  Mainland,  operation  of  the - program  effective  of time  has most  1987).  seen  some  recently  greenhouses  in  Delta.  feasible,  and  could  is  supplement  to  local  planning  strategies. Conclusion This  chapter  responses  and  management Surrey.  has  strategies  The  findings;  more  of  study  their  stimulated  discussed the is  required  by  raising  into conducting  such  several  to  in  current  above  to and  alternative  Richmond,  literature  feasibility,  implemented. H o p e f u l l y be  employed  responses  together  need,  outlined  conceptualizations  bringing  their  briefly  arose and  conflict Delta out  and of  a  the  research  accurately  determine  how  they  these points research.  could  analysts  be will  86  CHAPTER  5  CONCLUSIONS  AND  RECOMMENDATIONS  Introduction In  the  anticipated would  original  from  the  the strengths  responses  to  the  of these  the  management  of  deal  of municipal  rural-urban  thesis  with  planning  was  would  of current  planning  conflict,  and t h e  means t o  and a s s u c h ,  which  i t  conclusions  specific  conflicts,  fringe.  improving improving  influences land  As was d e s c r i b e d  i n Chapter  use i n 1, t h e  p u r p o s e and o b j e c t i v e s had t o be r e v i s e d i n t h e l i g h t  available  data,  considerations.  literature  I t i s now a p p r o p r i a t e  purpose and o b j e c t i v e f o r t h i s Purpose:  using  experience  to  an  document  the  Lower  collection conflict  Mainland  and  Objective:  substantive  that  t o repeat  the revised  the  local  lack  conflicts with  of  planning research  are receiving  regards into  to  data  alternative  techniques.  the generation  observations  and  of  investigation  management  support  study.  account  residential-agricultural in  The  weaknesses  thesis  and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  residential-agricultural would  part  this  research.  and  recommendations  that  of  t h a t a number o f c o n c l u s i o n s  follow  address  outline  could  o f d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a and be  used  t o support  and c o n t r o l l e d a n a l y s i s .  more  other  87 The  research  intended and  scope  and  of  o b j e c t i v e as  findings  the  study  have  and  have  stayed achieved  s t a t e d a b o v e . Below a r e  recommendations based  on  the  within  the  the  the  purpose  conclusions  and  thesis findings.  Conclusions Two first  main  i s that  Surrey  the  records  i n the  local  on  conflicts  responses,  in  kept  i n none o f  detailed  information  and  on  from  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s of do  incidence  occurring are  result  governments  the  some r e c o r d s  of  conclusions  the  on  have  respective  Delta  and  comprehensive  communities.  which  prompt  administrations  complaints  While  government  i s there  cross-referenced  a l l reported  The  residential-agricultural  complaints  the  thesis.  Richmond,  not  of  this  files  a  system  containing  associated  with  such  conflicts. Secondly, of  the  three  buffers  it  i s evident  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have  to  both  prevent  residential-agricultural that  a  these  that  number  of  conflicts  and  relied  conflicts.  t o be  planning on  mitigate  a l t e r n a t i v e and have y e t  the  The  the the  departments use  of  land  effects  research  of  indicates  supplementary responses  to  tried.  Recommendations It  is  recommended  Richmond, D e l t a extent  and  conflicts with  this,  and  that  Surrey  it  would  within be  planning  departments  become more aware  characteristics  occurring  the  of  the  precise  residential-agricultural  their  useful  of  of  communities. to  have  a  more  Associated detailed  88 understanding generated It  of  by  these  is  conflict  the  it  involve  preventing combination employed, conflict the  of  to  both  type  an  of  the of  complaints  or  may  another,  approach  it  may of  least  involve  to  new  or  at  perhaps  T h i s may  Regardless  with  planning  and  of response  conflicts,  tactics  three new  altogether  these.  urban area  to  maintain  live  and  a  be  the  i n the  to some  method  study  c o n t r i b u t e towards  of  new  reducing  future.  in  and  to  operations,  realities  of  legislation, a g e n d a . The  to  Suburban  and  may  are  see  some  adapt  a  budget, of  the and  challenges already  residents  are  of  their  legal  legislation. their other  framework  planning,  Farmers  intensifying  each  an  it  by  temper  to  what  their  non-farm  forced to  within  nature  make  changes to e x i s t i n g  groups  fixed  of  fringe.  generated  soon  operating  very  rural-urban  externalities  planners  these  expectations  threatens  diminish with  Municipal  the  increasingly  urban encroachment t h a t  non-viable.  subjected  I t Is becoming  traditional  to continued  farms  help  expands  work  lifestyle  recourses  to  one  of c o n f l i c t  the  unstable  farm  of  Remarks  must r e s p o n d  being  from  experimentation  difficult  their  that  management t e c h n i q u e s .  trying  management  As  means  types  application  resolving  occurrence  Closing  the  emphasis  and  and  recommended  consider  changing may  numbers  conflicts.  further  departments innovative  the  desire  with  the  of  provincial  imposed  political  with  its  constant  89 stream  of  "routine"  spending  much  time  problem-solving literature. the  prepare urban  Nevertheless,  skills  the  ideals  i f there  planners  t o improving  researchers w i l l and  strategy.  will  the process  well  desire  through  long-term  to  the  improve and  i n the  rural-  to  apply  their  which  these  complex  p l a n n e r s and  analyses  in  conflicts  enough t o c a r r y  the in-depth effective,  pressures  from  real-world  presented  is a  have  I hope t h a t  be i n t e r e s t e d  perform  b a s i s f o r an  how  planners  of r e s i d e n t i a l - a g r i c u l t u r a l  issues are addressed.  study  the  on  f o r i n c r e a s e d development fringe,  precludes  reflecting  matches  management  problems,  that  independent on f r o m will  this  provide  c o n f l i c t management  90  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Agricultural Land P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h  Commission. 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