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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Commissions of inquiry and participation in Canada MacVay, Iain 1986

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COMMISSIONS OF INQUIRY A N D PARTICIPATION IN C A N A D A  By  IAIN M A C V A Y B.A. (Political Science), University of British Columbia, 1980  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF T H E REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January 1986  (c) Iain MacVay, 1986  In presenting  this  degree at the  thesis  in  partial fulfilment  of  University of  British Columbia,  I agree  freely available for reference copying  of  department  this or  publication of  and study.  this  his  or  her  Department The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  DE-6(3/81)  that the  representatives.  may be It  thesis for financial gain shall not  permission.  requirements  I further agree  thesis for scholarly purposes by  the  for  an  advanced  Library shall make it  that permission for extensive granted  is  by the  understood be  allowed  head  that without  of  my  copying  or  my written  ABSTRACT  Commissions of Inquiry have been used as public policy instruments for hundreds of years by governments in Britain and since before confederation by governments in Canada. Over the years, the principle function of commissions has varied from minor investigations of specific instances of wrongdoing, to wide ranging investigations of major public policy issues. In Canada, a shift occurred from the former function to the latter during the 1930s and 1940s. Since the 1930s, Canadian commissions have also begun to actively encourage participation by members of the public in commission hearings. This paper examines participation before commissions of both the traditional type and the modern type, with an emphasis on commissions which held hearings in the 1930s and those which held hearings in the 1970s. Sample commissions were chosen from both periods, and from both federaland provincial jurisdictions. Analysis of the participation data collected reveals that commissions have experienced a shift in the types of participants appearing before them from well-funded, highly organized interest groups and corporations in the hearings of traditional commmissions to voluntary groups and individuals in the hearings of modern commissions. Some consideration is given in the paper to the different mechanisms adopted by modern commissions to encourage and facilitate participation by people and groups with few resources. In particular, it is concluded from an analysis of the participation data that the number of locations at which commissions hold hearings has a substantial impact on participation by people and groups with few resources.  ii  TABLE OF CONTENT  Abstract  i i  Chapter I  1  T a b l e 1 - P a r t i c i p a t i o n B e f o r e Commissions o f t h e T r a d i t i o n a l and the Modern S t y l e Table 2 - P a r t i c i p a t i o n B e f o r e Commissions D e a l i n g With D i f f e r e n t Issue-Areas  22 .  32  F i g u r e A - P a r t i c i p a t i o n by I n d i v i d u a l s B e f o r e Commissions With V a r y i n g Numbers o f L o c a t i o n s f o r Hearings . . .  38  F i g u r e B - P a r t i c i p a t i o n by V o l u n t a r y Groups B e f o r e Commissions With V a r y i n g Numbers o f L o c a t i o n s o f Hearings . ..  40  F i g u r e C - P a r t i c i p a t i o n by I n d i v i d u a l s B e f o r e Commissions With V a r y i n g Numbers o f Days o f Hearings  44  F i g u r e D - P a r t i c i p a t i o n by V o l u n t a r y Groups B e f o r e Commissions With V a r y i n g Numbers o f Days o f Hearings  45  Notes  55  Commissions  58  Bibliography  60  iii  -1 If some Canadians have an interest in an issue, but they cannot afford to hire a lobbyist, and they do not have any good friends in or near Cabinet, how do they articulate their interest? The most likely answer is that they would resort to letterwriting and placard-carrying campaigns in the hope of capturing the attention of the news media or a sympathetic decision-maker. Unfortunately, the hope that letterwriting and placard-carrying campaigns will capture enough attention to allow a meaningful input to any given policy debate is largely futile. There are too many policies and too many interests for either elected or non-elected officials to be able to acknowledge, much less consider, each interest. Furthermore, without the resources needed to hire a professional lobbyist, it is very difficult to know which official might be sympathetic to a specific interest on a given issue. The Canadian Commission of Inquiry is one mechanism which can be used for articulating interests directly to decision-makers without incurring the costs of lobbyists and without requiring social or political contacts with elected decisionmakers. This paper will address the question of whether people and groups with few resources actually use the opportunities which are presented by commissions of inquiry. The thesis of this paper is that people and groups with few resources respond to the participatory opportunities presented by commissions of inquiry and that commissions, therefore, provide a needed supplement to the regular parliamentary mechanisms for interest articulation. The Canadian Commission of Inquiry is a difficult institution to define. Commissions of inquiry are sometimes referred to as Royal Commissions, sometimes as Task Forces. The Law Reform Commission of Canada tried to define commissions by referring to statutory sources of commission mandates, but was not successful. 1 At the federal level, the Public Inquiries Act is a commonly used empowering statute for commissions, but forty-seven other statutues provide for commissions of inquiry with  - 2specific reference to the Inquiries Act, while forty federal statutes provide for commissions without any reference to the Inquiries Act.2 For example, the Berger Commission on the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline proposals was commissioned under the sole authority of the Territorial Lands A c t .  3  The Law Reform Commission finally  defined 'commissions of inquiry' to refer to all government-sanctioned inquiries with a specific mandate to inquire into an issue. The questions raised in this paper will be addressed principally by testing four hypotheses. The first hypothesis is that hearings held by modern commissions of inquiry will attract a larger proportion of participants with few resources than hearings held by traditional commissions, which had a large proportion of well endowed participants. This hypothesis arises from the assertion to be developed below, that modern commissions use public hearings to actively encourage participation by as many interested parties as possible, while the traditional commissions preferred to use hearings primarily as a forum for getting formal input from people and groups who were identified by the commissioners as having a specific expertise which the commissioners wanted to draw upon. The second hypothesis of this paper is that the proportion of participants who have few resources will tend to be greatest for those commissions which deal with issues of broad appeal and which are not perceived as highly technical in nature. The type of issue being considered by a commission should have some effect on the kind of participants appearing before the commission at hearings, but this effect should be overcome by the greater effect of enhanced opportunities for participation which are offered by modern commissions of inquiry. If it could be shown that the greatest effect on participation was merely the issue being considered by the commission, then  -3 the efforts aimed at enhancing participation by people and groups with few resources would have to be considered to be of limited value. The third hypothesis is that participation by people and groups with few resources is greatest as a proportion of participation in commission hearings for those commissions which conduct hearings in the greatest number of locations. The idea of taking the hearing to the participants has been one of the major hallmarks of the modern Canadian commission of inquiry. The argument in support of this hypothesis is that people and groups with few resources always want to participate in commission hearings but cannot afford to if they have to travel to Ottawa or Vancouver, or some other location so remote from Fort St. John or wherever these people and groups are located. The fourth hypothesis is that participation by people and groups with few resources is greatest for commissions which hold hearings on the greatest number of days. This hypothesis is suggested by the argument that people will continue to fill commission hearings as more time is provided for those hearings. According to the thesis of this paper, such an argument should not be supported by the facts except where an extra day makes access to hearings easier due to other commitments on other days by potential participants. The thesis here is that specifically interested people and groups with few resources will respond to enhanced access, not that people will continue to drift in to commission hearings as long as the hearings are open. The four central hypotheses of this paper can be summarized as follows: 1.  The modern style of commission, with its emphasis on participation, attracts a larger proportion of participants who have few resources than the traditional syle of commission which was not very concerned with participation.  2.  Participation by people and groups with few resources is a significant proportion of total participation only for commissions which deal with issues of general appeal which are not perceived as highly technical in nature.  -*3.  P a r t i c i p a t i o n by p e o p l e a n d g r o u p s w i t h f e w r e s o u r c e s is g r e a t e s t f o r c o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h c o n d u c t hearings in the g r e a t e s t n u m b e r of l o c a t i o n s .  4.  P a r t i c i p a t i o n by p e o p l e a n d g r o u p s w i t h f e w r e s o u r c e s is g r e a t e s t f o r c o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h hold hearings for the largest n u m b e r of days.  A l t h o u g h the four hypotheses discussed above w i l l f o r m the c o r e of this p a p e r , s o m e o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h a f f e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n b e f o r e t h o s e c o m m i s s i o n s , b u t w h i c h a r e n o t d i r e c t l y a d d r e s s e d by t h e f o u r h y p o t h e s e s ,  will  be b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d t o w a r d the e n d o f the p a p e r . S o m e o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s u c h as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s o f c o m m i s s i o n e r s a n d f u n d i n g o f i n t e r v e n e r s d e s e r v e e x t e n s i v e empirical treatment.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , for the c o m m i s s i o n s being c o n s i d e r e d h e r e , data  sources are not adequate to provide anything but a brief discussion of these characteristics. T h e f o u r h y p o t h e s e s d e f i n e d a b o v e w i l l be t e s t e d by e x a m i n i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n b e f o r e t h i r t e e n c o m m i s s i o n s o f i n q u i r y , six o f w h i c h w e r e d r a w n f r o m t h e f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n , seven f r o m the p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  Data collected  by e x a m i n i n g t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n b e f o r e t h e s e c o m m i s s i o n s w i l l t h e n be p r e s e n t e d a n d a n a l y z e d i n o r d e r t o a s s e s s v a r i a t i o n s i n the p r o p o r t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h f e w resources appearing before different commissions.  T h e d a t a w i l l be a n a l y z e d i n t e r m s  o f e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r v a r i a t i o n w h i c h a r e s u g g e s t e d by t h e  hypotheses.^  T h e t h i r t e e n c o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h w e r e u s e d to c o l l e c t d a t a on p a r t i c i p a n t s w h o m a d e presentations at c o m m i s s i o n hearings are listed below w i t h their j u r i s d i c t i o n , the date of p u b l i c a t i o n of their final r e p o r t and the names of the c o m m i s s i o n e r s , where the c o m m i s s i o n s a r e c o m m o n l y i d e n t i f i e d by the c o m m i s s i o n e r s l i s t e d in p a r e n t h e s e s : 1.  R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n H e a l t h I n s u r a n c e ( B . C . ; 1981).  2.  R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on S t a t e H e a l t h Insurance a n d M a t e r n i t y B e n e f i t s ( B . C . ; 1932).  - 5 -  3.  R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n C o a l a n d P e t r o l e u m P r o d u c t s ( B . C . ; 1935).  k.  R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n F o r e s t R e s o u r c e s ( B . C . ; 1945).  5.  R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n F a m i l y a n d C h i l d r e n ' s L a w ( B . C . ; 1975).  6.  R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n F o r e s t R e s o u r c e s ( B . C . ; 1976;  7.  R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o f Inquiry i n t o H e a l t h a n d E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n U r a n i u m M i n i n g ( B . C . ; 1980; B a t e s ) . -  Pearce).  5  8.  R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n P r i c e S p r e a d s ( C a n a d a ; 1937).  9.  R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s ( C a n a d a ; Rowell-Sirois).  10.  R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n the S t a t u s of W o m e n ( C a n a d a ; 1969).  11.  R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n C o r p o r a t e C o n c e n t r a t i o n ( C a n a d a ; 1979).  12.  T a s k F o r c e o n C a n a d i a n U n i t y ( C a n a d a ; 1979;  13.  R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n N e w s p a p e r s ( C a n a d a ; 19808; K e n t ) .  The c h o i c e of commissions  Pepin-Robarts).  f o r t h i s p a p e r was c o n s t r a i n e d by the n e e d to t e s t the  h y p o t h e s e s as w e l l as b y the d e f i n i t i o n o f c o m m i s s i o n s b e i n g e m p l o y e d . commissions  1940;  First,  h a d t o be c h o s e n l a r g e l y in p a i r s w h i c h e x a m i n e d r o u g h l y s i m i l a r issues  but in d i f f e r e n t t i m e periods in o r d e r to f a c i l i t a t e  the c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n the e a r l y  and m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s c o n s i d e r e d i n the f i r s t h y p o t h e s e s . substantial problem because commissions  T h i s p r o v e d to be a  did not f o r m c o n v e n i e n t pairs dealing with  i d e n t i c a l i s s u e s in the a p p r o p r i a t e t i m e p e r i o d s .  F o r t u n a t e l y , a s u f f i c i e n t n u m b e r of  e x a m p l e s o f s i m i l a r c o m m i s s i o n s a r e a v a i l a b l e t o c o m p a r e the t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e t o the modern style.  In s o m e i n s t a n c e s , the n a m e s o f t w o c o m m i s s i o n s do n o t s u g g e s t  c o m p a r a b i l i t y , b u t the a c t u a l p r o c e e d i n g s a r e c o m p a r a b l e o n the g r o u n d s o f t h e t y p e of issues b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d a n d the w a y t h e y w e r e  investigated.  T h e s e c o n d c o n s t r a i n t on the c h o i c e o f c o m m i s s i o n s a r i s e s f r o m the n e e d , in t e s t i n g the s e c o n d h y p o t h e s i s , to c o m p a r e the e f f e c t s of d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f issues on participation.  C o m m i s s i o n s h a d t o be c h o s e n t o p e r m i t c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n  - 6-  c o m m i s s i o n s dealing with g e n e r a l , n o n - t e c h n i c a l issues and those dealing with m o r e narrow, m o r e t e c h n i c a l issues.  T h e issues h a d t o be d i f f e r e n t e n o u g h t o p e r m i t  w o r t h w i l e c o m p a r i s o n , b u t n o t so d i f f e r e n t t h a t t h e n a r r o w e r issues p r e c l u d e d a n y p a r t i c i p a t i o n o n t h e g r o u n d s t h a t n o b o d y c o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o be i n t e r e s t e d in t h e issue. A t h i r d c o n s t r a i n t o n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f c o m m i s s i o n s was the d e s i r e t o i n c l u d e b o t h f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l c o m m i s s i o n s in the study.  F o r purposes of the  h y p o t h e s i s , t w o issue a r e a s f r o m e a c h j u r i s d i c t i o n w e r e c h o s e n .  second  O n e p r o v i n c i a l issue  a r e a a n d one f e d e r a l issue a r e a w e r e c h o s e n w h i c h c o u l d be l a b e l l e d t e c h n i c a l , w h i l e o n e p r o v i n c i a l issue a r e a a n d o n e f e d e r a l issue a r e a w e r e c h o s e n w h i c h c o u l d be l a b e l l e d as g e n e r a l . D a t a on p a r t i c i p a t i o n b e f o r e e a c h o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d in t h i s p a p e r was c o l l e c t e d by r e f e r r i n g to l i s t s o f w i t n e s s e s a p p e a r i n g a t h e a r i n g s w h e r e s u c h l i s t s w e r e a v a i l a b l e o r by l o o k i n g up t r a n s c r i p t s o f h e a r i n g s , o r f o r d a t a o n t h e B . C . R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on C o a l a n d P e t r o l e u m P r o d u c t s , by c o m b i n g t h r o u g h t h e handwritten daily notes of a diligent C o m m i s s i o n secretary. T h e n a t u r e o f e a c h p a r t i c i p a n t a n d w h e t h e r or n o t t h e y h a d f e w r e s o u r c e s usually evident from transcripts of hearings.  was  Many group p a r t i c i p a n t s , especially  those  a p p e a r i n g b e f o r e m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s , w e r e s u f f i c i e n t l y w e l l - k n o w n t h a t l i t t l e o r no r e s e a r c h b e y o n d t h e g r o u p n a m e was n e c e s s a r y .  Witnesses appearing before many  c o m m i s s i o n s i d e n t i f i e d t h e i r group's f u n c t i o n a n d g e n e r a l s t r u c t u r e a s a n i n t r o d u c t i o n to their submission.  These introductory c o m m e n t s made c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of  otherwise  unknown groups fairly straightforward and reliable. A v e r y f e w g r o u p s s u c h as G W A N , o r G r o u p W i t h o u t a N a m e , d e f i e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e i r n a t u r e or t h e r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e to t h e m . g a t h e r e d in a r e s i d u a l c a t e g o r y .  These groups were  It is w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t the use o f l i s t s o f w i t n e s s e s  - 7-  h a s i t s t r a p s , s u c h as a p o l i c y b y s o m e c o m m i s s i o n s o f l i s t i n g e v e r y p e r s o n who a p p e a r e d as a witness, a l t h o u g h a n u m b e r of these people m a y have a p p e a r e d t o g e t h e r representing a specific group.  In s u c h i n s t a n c e s , t h e g r o u p was c o u n t e d as h a v i n g  m a d e o n e s u b m i s s i o n a n d t h e p e o p l e r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e g r o u p w e r e n o t c o u n t e d as individual participants.  Where d i f f e r e n t c h a p t e r s of a group m a d e submissions  at  s e p a r a t e h e a r i n g s , u s i n g d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s , the g r o u p was c o u n t e d as h a v i n g m a d e a separate submission at each hearing. T h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n d a t a u s e d in this p a p e r is b a s e d s o l e l y on r e c o r d s o f o r a l submissions m a d e b e f o r e the c o m m i s s i o n s being e x a m i n e d .  P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the f o r m  o f w r i t t e n s u b m i s s i o n s was n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e d a t a b e i n g a n a l y z e d h e r e f o r t w o m a i n reasons.  F i r s t , a c o m p a r i s o n o f the r e c o r d s o f t h e o r a l a n d w r i t t e n  indicates a large amount of o v e r l a p .  submissions  T h i s o v e r l a p is a r e s u l t o f t h e p r a c t i c e o f  presenting a w r i t t e n submission in conjunction with an oral submission.  In t h e r e c o r d s  of the R o w e l l - S i r o i s C o m m i s s i o n , the lists of the two types of submissions were a l m o s t identical. T h e n u m b e r o f w r i t t e n s u b m i s s i o n s does n o t , h o w e v e r , a l w a y s m a t c h the n u m b e r of o r a l s u b m i s s i o n s f r o m d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s .  The Corporate  C o n c e n t r a t i o n C o m m i s s i o n r e c e i v e d 10% m o r e w r i t t e n s u b m i s s i o n s t h a n o r a l s u b m i s s i o n s f r o m c o r p o r a t i o n s , a n d , c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , 10% f e w e r w r i t t e n  submissions  than o r a l submissions from individuals. T h e Status of W o m e n C o m m i s s i o n r e c e i v e d 33% o f t h e i r t o t a l s u b m i s s i o n s in w r i t t e n f o r m o n l y .  O f t h e s e , 70% w e r e f r o m  i n d i v i d u a l s , 22% w e r e f r o m p r o f e s s i o n a l , s t u d e n t , c h u r c h a n d o t h e r a s s o c i a t i o n s ,  and  t h e r e m a i n i n g 8% w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d m o r e o r less e v e n l y a m o n g s t o t h e r t y p e s o f witnesses.  T h e r e c o r d s o f b o t h c o m m i s s i o n s w e r e in f a c t u n u s u a l i n f i n d i n g s u c h a  d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n the w r i t t e n and o r a l submissions.  Nevertheless,  the o v e r l a p o f o r a l  - 8and written submissions received by both commissions was far greater than the number of submissions received in written form only. The second, and most important reason for not including written submissions along with oral submissions is that the records of written submissions are not consistently complete for the commissions being studied. To a considerable extent the usual similarity in commission records between written and oral submissions may be a result of commissions not keeping a record of the many letters which they receive, especially from individuals, and which might be considered to be written submissions. Each of the participants appearing before a commission at a hearing was categorized to allow analysis of the data. The categories used were: 1.  Interest groups with extensive resources, referred to as institutional groups in this paper.  2.  Interest groups which are united primarily by a concern for furthering the interests of a common profession or occupation. These groups are referred to as professional groups in this paper.  3.  Interest groups with few resources which rely primarily on volunteers and strongly held common interests to carry their message. These groups are referred to as voluntary groups.  4.  Individuals who participate on their own behalf in commission hearings.  5.  Corporations which send representatives to hearings to articulate that specific corporation's interest in an issue.  6.  Specific labour unions or union locals not appearing as representatives of an umbrella organization such as a labour federation or a labour council.  7.  Political parties of all sizes which articulate their position on an issue before a commission examining that issue.  8.  Governments. These include representatives of federal and provincial ministries and of municipal governments. Periodically, an elected member of a government will represent the government's concerns before a commission.  9.  Characteristics such as universities, research organizations and churches which often provide expert submissions to commissions.  -9 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a n t s a p p e a r i n g b e f o r e c o m m i s s i o n s is c e n t r a l to t h e a n a l y s i s o f d a t a in this p a p e r . T h e m a i n f u n c t i o n o f t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n b e i n g u s e d h e r e is t o i d e n t i f y p a r t i c i p a n t s w h i c h c a n be d e s c r i b e d , in g e n e r a l t e r m s , as 'people a n d groups w i t h few resources'.  P a r t i c i p a n t s w h i c h c a n n o t be d e s c r i b e d a s ' p e o p l e a n d  groups w i t h few resources' have also been b r o k e n down into s p e c i f i c c a t e g o r i e s  instead  of being l u m p e d into a residual c a t e g o r y in o r d e r to provide a c o m p l e t e p i c t u r e of trends in p a r t i c i p a t i o n before c o m m i s s i o n s . T h e c e n t r a l p o i n t i n t h e q u e s t i o n o f who d o e s a n d w h o d o e s n o t h a v e m a n y r e s o u r c e s is t h a t , f o r p u r p o s e s o f the a n a l y s i s i n this p a p e r , p e o p l e or g r o u p s w i t h f e w resources a r e unable to a r t i c u l a t e their interests e x c e p t through l e t t e r s to M P s a n d M L A s a n d t h r o u g h a t t e m p t s t o a t t r a c t m e d i a a t t e n t i o n , s u c h as p r o t e s t m a r c h e s . A r t i c u l a t i o n o f i n t e r e s t s e i t h e r m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y o r m o r e d i r e c t l y t h a n by l e t t e r w r i t i n g c a m p a i g n s or m a r c h e s is v e r y d i f f i c u l t , i f n o t i m p o s s i b l e , w i t h o u t s u b s t a n t i a l f i n a n c i a l and organizational resources.  T h e people and groups without these resources should  p e r c e i v e t h e g r e a t e s t b e n e f i t s f r o m o p p o r t u n i t i e s to a p p e a r b e f o r e c o m m i s s i o n s o f inquiry. T h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s c h e m e used in this paper to c a t e g o r i z e p a r t i c i p a n t s a p p e a r i n g b e f o r e c o m m i s s i o n s a n d , i n p a r t i c u l a r , to i d e n t i f y 'people a n d g r o u p s w i t h f e w r e s o u r c e s ' n e c e s s a r i l y d e p e n d s u p o n a set o f a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t t h e r e s o u r c e s n e e d e d t o e f f e c t i v e l y a r t i c u l a t e an i n t e r e s t in the regular p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s .  The assumptions  r e l i e d o n in t h i s p a p e r a r e l a r g e l y d r a w n f r o m t h e w o r k o f W . A . W o o t o n a n d A . P . P r o s s . T h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s f o r m a l i s t o f r e s o u r c e s w h i c h f o r m t h e basis o f d e c i s i o n s a b o u t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of groups appearing before c o m m i s s i o n s .  It is a s s u m e d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s  l a c k the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s n e c e s s a r y f o r e f f e c t i v e i n t e r e s t a r t i c u l a t i o n , e v e n though, in rare cases, individuals m a y have the necessary f i n a n c i a l resources.  - 10 The resources which are most important for the purpose of effective interest articulation without the need for mechanisms such as commissions of inquiry include money and credit, some bureaucratic organization, control over jobs, control over votes, control over expertise and prestige in the eyes of decision-makers.6 It is important to recognize that mere access to these resources is not enough for effective interest articulation. The ability or desire to put them to effective use must also be present. The possession of resources should also be supplemented by interests and, therefore, objectives of any campaign of articulation which are specific and definable as opposed to general and poorly focussed.7 Furthermore, there must be a recognition of the importance of organization as a resource to the extent that long-term organizational well-being is paramount to short-term policy goals.8 The resources needed for effective interest articulation are most likely to be found among corporations and among what can be referred to as institutional interest groups. The institutional groups are usually organized by a number of wealthy, powerful members, such as corporations, to act as a voice for the common interests of the members. A good example of such a group is the Canadian Manufacturers Association (CMA). Corporate bodies are not the only good examples of institutional groups; the Canadian Labour Congress is another organization which fits into this category. Generally, the resources possessed by individuals, union locals and what can be referred to as voluntary organizations or citizens groups will be too few to maintain an effective articulation of their interests in the normal political process. A very few individuals and possibly a few union locals possess some of the resources necessary to articulate their interests directly to decision-makers, but these few examples are the rare exception to the rule. The voluntary organizations, by definition, have few resources. Good examples of these groups are local associations of Concerned Parents for National Unity or for  Health Insurance or for any of a number of other issues. Other examples include the Group of Women from St.-Therese, Quebec or the Natural Parents Society or the Nonpartisan Committee for Canadian Unity Through Diversity. All of these groups consist of people who have an informal, general interest in an issue and who formed a rudimentary organization based on that interest. Professional societies, such as those respresenting doctors or lawyers usually possess enough resources to effectively articulate their interests to decision-makers, but they usually lack the ability or desire to make the maximum use of those resources. Unlike the institutional groups, professional groups are very divided on their approach to different issues. While organizations such as the Canadian Manufacturers Association are united by a common self-interest, very few issues, if any, elicit a sense of common cause from professionals. However, because they have more resources to draw upon than voluntary groups, they must be identified by their own category, which can be called, simply, 'professional groups'. Consideration of group resources must take into account the basic question, for present purposes, of whether the group has reasonably good opportunities for interest articulation without the help of commissions. In particular, some groups which lack many of the resources discussed above, are still considered to be institutional groups, for purposes of this paper. For example, the Consumers' Association of Canada do not have the kind of economic, self-interested, basis which most institutional groups have, but they do have national organizations, a long-term policy position, a high public profile and at least some opportunities for articulation of their interests to decisionmakers. In some cases, groups such as the Consumers' Association receive financial assistance from ministries of government which are sympathetic to the goals of that group.9 These groups will be viewed as institutional groups in this paper because they  - 12 a r e g e n e r a l l y a b l e to a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r i n t e r e s t s d i r e c t l y t o d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s w i t h o u t t h e a i d o f m e c h a n i s m s s u c h as c o m m i s s i o n s o f i n q u i r y . A p o t e n t i a l p r o b l e m f o r t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f v o l u n t a r y g r o u p s is the a p p e a r a n c e of p e o p l e w h o c l a i m t o r e p r e s e n t a g r o u p w h i c h is i n f a c t a g r o u p i n n a m e o n l y .  In  t h e s e c a s e s , one or t w o p e o p l e c a l l t h e m s e l v e s a g r o u p a n d a p p e a r b e f o r e c o m m i s s i o n s a n d o t h e r b o d i e s as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h a t g r o u p . T h e r e i s , i n f a c t , no w a y o f identifying such groups without t r a c i n g every group appearing before a c o m m i s s i o n . A s a r e s u l t , it m u s t be h o p e d t h a t i n s t a n c e s o f f a l s e g r o u p s a r e f e w .  It w o u l d be  s u r p r i s i n g i f m a n y f a l s e g r o u p s w e r e a b l e to s u c c e s s f u l l y lie a b o u t t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s during submissions to c o m m i s s i o n s . T h e f i n a l p o i n t w h i c h m u s t be m a d e a b o u t t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s c h e m e u s e d in t h i s p a p e r is t h a t t h e c a t e g o r y w h i c h i n c l u d e s p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p r e s e n t i n g f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l a n d m u n i c i p a l g o v e r n m e n t s does n o t i n c l u d e n a t i v e b a n d c o u n c i l s or s m a l l v i l l a g e councils.  T h e s e b a n d a n d v i l l a g e c o u n c i l s a p p e a r e d b e f o r e the c o m m i s s i o n s b e i n g  e x a m i n e d o n o n l y a f e w o c c a s i o n s , b u t t h e y w e r e c a t e g o r z i e d as v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s b e c a u s e , u n l i k e m o s t g o v e r n m e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s , t h e s e c o u n c i l s do n o t normally have m u c h better avenues of interest a r t i c u l a t i o n than voluntary groups and they often represent v e r y homogeneous ideas within a small c o m m u n i t y .  Most  g o v e r n m e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s , on the other hand, appear before c o m m i s s i o n s to ensure that a p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t o f v i e w is r e p r e s e n t e d or t o p r o v i d e the c o m m i s s i o n w i t h o t h e r w i s e unavailable expertise. G i v e n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the m e t h o d s of analysis being used a n d the g e n e r a l d a t a s o u r c e b e i n g r e l i e d u p o n , i t is now p o s s i b l e to t u r n to a d i s c u s s i o n of e a c h h y p o t h e s i s a n d t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a b e i n g e m p l o y e d to t e s t e a c h h y p o t h e s i s .  The  f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s , a s s t a t e d a b o v e , is t h a t t h e m o d e r n s t y l e of c o m m i s s i o n , w i t h a n e m p h a s i s on p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a t t r a c t s a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a n t s who h a v e  few  - 13 r e s o u r c e s t h a n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e o f c o m m i s s i o n w h i c h was n o t c o n c e r n e d a b o u t providing opportunities for interest a r t i c u l a t i o n . This hypothesis assumes a distinct d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e n a t u r e o f t r a d i t i o n a l a n d m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s , a n d f o c u s e s on the trend t o w a r d providing g r e a t e r opportunities for interest a r t i c u l a t i o n r a t h e r than on s p e c i f i c t o o l s u s e d by c o m m i s s i o n e r s to p r o v i d e t h e s e o p p o r t u n i t i e s . A l l o f t h e t o o l s e m p l o y e d by c o m m i s s i o n s t o e n h a n c e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a r t i c u l a t i o n of interests before modern commissions of inquiry have been made available p r i m a r i l y because m o d e r n g o v e r n m e n t s have r e c o g n i z e d that  commissions  a r e v e r y g o o d f o r u m s f o r i n t e r e s t a r t i c u l a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y by t h o s e p e o p l e a n d g r o u p s who c o u l d n o t n o r m a l l y a f f o r d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s .  The  v a l u e w h i c h m a n y g o v e r n m e n t s h a v e p l a c e d on t h e i n t e r e s t a r t i c u l a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s p r e s e n t e d by c o m m i s s i o n s a r i s e s f r o m t h e r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s c a n h e l p t r e m e n d o u s l y in f o r m i n g p u b l i c s u p p o r t a r o u n d a policy while defusing i m p o r t a n t pockets of opposition.  The very fact of participation  m a y be e n o u g h to c r e a t e s u p p o r t a n d d e f u s e o p p o s i t i o n a s a r e s u l t o f p e o p l e a n d g r o u p s h a v i n g h a d a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o be h e a r d .  Otherwise, a carefully selected commissioner  as w e l l as p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h v a r i e d p o i n t s o f v i e w m a y h e l p t o c o n v i n c e p e o p l e  that  t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o a p o l i c y is n o t as w e l l f o u n d e d as they h a d t h o u g h t p r i o r t o a p p e a r i n g b e f o r e t h e c o m m i s s i o n . 10  O n the other h a n d , p o l i c y - m a k e r s m a y decide  o p p o s i t i o n t o p l a n n e d p o l i c y is o v e r w h e l m i n g o r t h e i r o w n p o s i t i o n w a s n o t w e l l thought out. T h e v a l u e o f e x p a n d i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s b e y o n d the c o n f i n e s o f P a r l i a m e n t w a s r e c o g n i z e d m a n y y e a r s a g o in B r i t a i n .  T h e origins of the  B r i t i s h R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n c a n be t r a c e d b a c k t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e D o m e s d a y B o o k i n 1080 - 1 0 8 6 . H  T h e use o f c o m m i s s i o n s in B r i t a i n s u b s e q u e n t l y d i m i n i s h e d u n t i l  w h e n t h e T u d o r C o m m i s s i o n f o c u s s e d a t t e n t i o n on t h e issue o f l a n d e n c l o s u r e s  1517  despite  -14  -  t h e o p p o s i t i o n o f t h e l a r g e l a n d o w n e r s who c o n t r o l l e d t h e P a r l i a m e n t o f t h a t t i m e . T h i s l e d t o a r e s u r g e n c e i n t h e use o f R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s w h e n t h e m o n a r c h w a n t e d wider representation in p o l i t i c a l dialogue than P a r l i a m e n t p r o v i d e d .  C l o k i e and  R o b i n s o n , i n t h e i r study o f R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s , c o m m e n t t h a t t h e m o n a r c h w a s n o t t h e only i n i t i a t o r of c o m m i s s i o n s .  T h e y argue that the M a g n a C a r t a p r o v i d e d for a  c o m m i s s i o n with powers of inquiry into sheriffs, their servants and the forests they a d m i n i s t e r e d and that this c o m m i s s i o n was p r o b a b ly the first B r i t i s h c o m m i s s i o n of i n q u i r y w h i c h w a s n o t ' R o y a l . 12 T h e use o f c o m m i s s i o n s i n B r i t i a n e b b e d a n d f l o w e d o v e r t i m e , b u t w a s g r e a t e s t during times of social change.  G . M . T r e v e l y a n c o m m e n t e d i n his h i s t o r y o f n i n e t e e n t h  c e n t u r y B r i t a i n t h a t c o m m i s s i o n s w e r e "the c u s t o m a r y p r e l u d e t o l e g i s l a t i o n " . 13  He  c i t e d t h e n e w P o o r L a w s , t h e M u n i c i p a l R e f o r m A c t a n d t h e F a c t o r y A c t as p i e c e s o f l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t w e r e t r a c e d o u t by c o m m i s s i o n s .  R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s were used to  l e g i t i m i z e m a j o r p o l i c y c h a n g e s s u c h as t h o s e c i t e d by T r e v e l y a n b e c a u s e o f a g e n e r a l acceptance of their authoritativeness.  A t the same t i m e , g o v e r n m e n t s w e r e able to  e x e r c i s e a f o r m o f c o n t r o l by j u d i c i o u s use o f the p o w e r o f a p p o i n t m e n t .  The public  m o r e r e a d i l y a c c e p t e d p o l i c i e s w h i c h h a d b e e n c o n s i d e r e d by c o m m i s s i o n s b e f o r e a d o p t i o n as g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y t h a n t h o s e w h i c h w e r e o n l y c o n s i d e r e d by c a b i n e t or by p a r l i a m e n t a r y m e c h a n i s m s such as c o m m i t t e e s of the legislature because  commissions  w e r e w i d e l y p e r c e i v e d to be i n d e p e n d e n t , t h o r o u g h a n d r e l a t i v e l y a c c e s s i b l e to t h e public.  T h i s p e r c e p t i o n l e n t t r e m e n d o u s c r e d i b i l i t y t o the f i n d i n g s o f m o s t R o y a l  C o m m i s s i o n s at that  time.^  C o m m i s s i o n s o f i n q u i r y h a v e n o t a l w a y s b e e n r e c o g n i z e d by C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t s f o r t h e i r v a l u e as m e c h a n i s m s o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the d e c i s i o n making process.  A s a n i n s t i t u t i o n , c o m m i s s i o n s o f i n q u i r y h a v e b e e n c o n d u c t e d in  C a n a d a s i n c e b e f o r e c o n f e d e r a t i o n , b u t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l C a n a d i a n c o m m i s s i o n was  - 15 -  i n t e n d e d to c o n d u c t a n i n q u i s i t i o n i n t o a s p e c i f i c m a t t e r a n d a r r i v e a t a f i n d i n g o f fact.  Nevertheless, commissions not only existed many years ago, but s o m e t i m e s  t r a v e l l e d a n d o f t e n held hearings, although the t r a v e l was v e r y l i m i t e d and the h e a r i n g s w e r e by i n v i t a t i o n o n l y . T h e statute f r o m w h i c h many m o d e r n f e d e r a l c o m m i s s i o n s get their a u t h o r i t y , e i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r t h r o u g h r e f e r e n c e in a n o t h e r s t a t u t e , is t h e P u b l i c Inquiry A c t .  This  A c t w a s p a s s e d in 1846, a l t h o u g h c o m m i s s i o n s o f i n q u i r y w e r e p r o b a b l y c o n d u c t e d in Canada even before then.  D e s p i t e t h e l o n g t r a d i t i o n o f use o f c o m m i s s i o n s o f i n q u i r y  in C a n a d a , t h e r e is no c o m p r e h e n s i v e h i s t o r i c a l s t u d y o f C a n a d i a n c o m m i s s i o n s .  One  s t u d y f o u n d t h a t , up to 1977, t h e r e h a d p r o b a b l y b e e n 1900 c o m m i s s i o n s u n d e r t h e Inquiry A c t s i n c e c o n f e d e r a t i o n . I  5  A n o t h e r study f o u n d 358 c o m m i s s i o n s o f v a r i o u s  k i n d s a t t h e f e d e r a l l e v e l b e t w e e n 1910 a n d 1919 a l o n e . ^ In his h i s t o r i c a l o v e r v i e w o f R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s , w r i t t e n i n 1962, J . C . C o u r t n e y found that the g r e a t e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n of R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s in C a n a d i a n history o c c u r r e d b e t w e e n t h e y e a r s o f 1890 a n d 1919.  C o u r t n e y a r g u e d t h a t this  c o n c e n t r a t i o n w a s p r o b a b l y the r e s u l t o f t h e t r e m e n d o u s p o p u l a t i o n e x p a n s i o n a n d l a n d s e t t l e m e n t w h i c h w a s o c c u r i n g i n C a n a d a a t t h a t t i m e . 17  Most o f the c o m m i s s i o n s o f  t h a t t i m e , h o w e v e r , d e a l t w t h s p e c i f i c i n s t a n c e s o f m a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n or c o r r u p t i o n o r o t h e r m a t t e r s w h i c h w e r e n o t o f any s i g n i f i c a n t p u b l i c i n t e r e s t .  C o m m i s s i o n e r s saw  t h e i r r o l e i n t e r m s o f t h o r o u g h i n v e s t i g a t i o n b u t e v e n w h e r e t h e r e was p u b l i c i n t e r e s t in a n i s s u e , no a t t e m p t w a s m a d e t o e n c o u r a g e p a r t i c i p a t i o n f r o m p e o p l e o t h e r t h a n r e c o g n i z e d e x p e r t s o r d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n d i v i d u a l s . P e o p l e who w e r e n o t m e m b e r s o f t h e c o r p o r a t e , g o v e r n m e n t or a c a d e m i c e l i t e s w e r e r a r e l y c o n s u l t e d b y t h e e a r l y twentieth century commissioners. D u r i n g the 1930s i n C a n a d a , c o m m i s s i o n s o f i n q u i r y w e r e g i v e n a n e w r o l e . C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t s b e g a n to r e c o g n i z e t h e v a l u e o f c o m m i s s i o n s f o r e x p a n d i n g  - 16 -  p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g process.  C o m m i s s i o n s in t h e 1930s, w h i l e not as  n u m e r o u s a s t h o s e in e a r l i e r t i m e p e r i o d s , d e a l t w i t h m u c h b r o a d e r i s s u e s s u c h as f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l relations and e c o n o m i c disruption a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  Depression.  C o m m i s s i o n s b e g a n t o r e c o g n i z e t h e v a l u e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n by p e o p l e w i t h d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t s in an issue.  U n l i k e t r a d i t i o n a l c o m m i s s i o n s , w h i c h used a v e r y f o r m a l and  a d v e r s a r i a l f o r m of hearing in w h i c h a c o u r t r o o m style of questions and answers  was  u s e d to r e s e a r c h i s s u e s , m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s b e g a n to a d o p t a less i n t i m i d a t i n g s t y l e of h e a r i n g . T h i s c h a n g e a c c e l e r a t e d c o n s i d e r a b l y a f t e r t h e 1930s.  Hodgetts described  t h e c h a n g e as "the d i s p l a c e m e n t o f t h e b e n c h a n d the b a r " . 18 T h e m o d e r n s t y l e o f c o m m i s s i o n h a s , s i n c e t h e 1930s, i n c r e a s i n g l y e x p a n d e d t h e opportunities for p a r t i c i p a t i o n before commissions.  The traditional commission  v i e w e d its role as the pursuit of reasoned i n v e s t i g a t i o n leading to a s p e c i f i c conclusion.  T h e m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , h a v e a d o p t e d t h e r o l e , as e x -  c o m m i s s i o n e r B e r g e r has s a i d , o f "opening up issues t o p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n , o f p r o v i d i n g a f o r u m f o r t h e e x c h a n g e o f ideas". 19  T h e r o l e o f t h e m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n has i t s o r i g i n s  a t the t i m e o f t h e R o w e l l - S i r o i s C o m m i s s i o n o n D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s , w h i c h r e p o r t e d in 1940, t h r e e y e a r s a f t e r b e i n g a p p o i n t e d . T h e d e v e l o p m e n t of the idea o f the m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n t r e m e n d o u s l y a f t e r W o r l d W a r 11-20  Qy t h  e  \ xe a  accelerated  1940s, c o m m i s s i o n s w e r e t a k i n g t h e  idea of providing opportunities for participation very seriously.  F o r e x a m p l e , the  1943  R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on T r a n s p o r t a t i o n was n o t g i v e n the a u t h o r i t y t o t r a v e l to the v a r i o u s r e g i o n s o f C a n a d a as p a r t o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s .  D e s p i t e this lack of  a u t h o r i t y , the c o m m i s s i o n t r a v e l l e d to hearings throughout the c o u n t r y . 2 1 D u r i n g t h e 1960s, t h e e n c o u r a g e m e n t o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n b e c a m e  less  i m p o r t a n t to t h e g o v e r n m e n t s o f t h e p e r i o d . C o m m e n t a t o r s , s u c h as J . C . H o d g e t t s , a r g u e d t h a t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n b e f o r e c o m m i s s i o n s s h o u l d be d e - e m p h a s i z e d a n d  - 17 -  a c a d e m i c r e s e a r c h s h o u l d be e m p h a s i z e d b e c a u s e the issues w e r e "so c o m p l e x t h a t the v i e w s o f t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c c a n n o t be e x p e c t e d t o c o n t r i b u t e m u c h t o t h e f o r m u l a t i o n of public policy".22  H o d g e t t s c o m p l a i n e d t h a t " i n s t e a d o f the r i g o r o u s q u e s t i o n a n d  a n s w e r we f i n d a n i m a t e d , i f n o t h e a t e d d e b a t e s g o i n g o n b e t w e e n t h e and the witnesses".23  commissioners  G o v e r n m e n t s o f t h e 1960s a g r e e d w i t h the v i e w s o f  Hodgetts  a n d o t h e r s t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t m o s t o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n s o f t h e 1960s w e r e p r i m a r i l y research o r g a n i z a t i o n s . ^ By t h e e n d o f t h e 1960s, m a n y c o m m e n t a t o r s w e r e c o m p l a i n i n g t h a t  commissions  w e r e b e c o m i n g i n t e r n a l , a l m o s t d e p a r t m e n t a l , r e s e a r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h , as a result, w e r e losing some of their public s t a t u r e .  G . B r u c e D o e r n a r g u e d , in 1967,  that:  "When r e c e n t c o m m i s s i o n s in a r e a s of r e c u r r i n g s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c p r o b l e m s show a p r o n o u n c e d r e l i a n c e o n c l o s e d s t a f f s r a t h e r t h a n o p e n p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , i t m a y be t h o u g h t t h a t t h e d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n o f t h e p o l i c y process, e s p e c i a l l y in this t e c h n o l o g i c a l age of c u m u l a t i v e c h a n g e , might be b e t t e r s e r v e d by a n o p e n h e a r i n g , a p u b l i s h i n g r i g h t b e i n g g i v e n to d i s s e n t i n g v i e w s , o r the d e v e l o p m e n t o f a l t e r n a t i v e s o u r c e s o f p o l i c y i n t e l l i g e n c y by 'outside p a r t i c i p a n t s ' " . ^ F o r t u n a t e l y , at least for purposes of this paper, the t r e n d t o w a r d using c o m m i s s i o n s as m e c h a n i s m s for e n h a n c i n g the o p p o r t u n i t y for a r t i c u l a t i o n of i n t e r e s t s was r e v i v e d i n t h e 1970s.  C o m m i s s i o n s s u c h as t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e S t a t u s o f  W o m e n a n d t h e T a s k F o r c e on N a t i o n a l U n i t y i n the l a t e 1960s s i g n a l l e d t h e r e v i v a l o f this t r e n d .  C o m m i s s i o n s s u c h as the M a c k e n z i e V a l l e y P i p e l i n e C o m m i s s i o n a n d t h e  R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n E l e c t r i c a l P o w e r P l a n n i n g i n O n t a r i o as w e l l as m a n y o t h e r c o m m i s s i o n s , i n c l u d i n g t h e m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h a r e b e i n g e x a m i n e d in t h i s p a p e r , c o n t i n u e d a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e t r e n d t h r o u g h o u t the 1970s. It is i m p o r t a n t t o c o n t r a s t t h e s t y l e o f m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s in w h i c h t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f a n i n t e r e s t b e f o r e a p u b l i c f o r u m w i t h m e d i a a t t e n t i o n s e r v e s as a g o a l in i t s e l f , w i t h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c o m m i s s i o n t o w h i c h s u b m i s s i o n s w e r e m a d e w i t h t h e p u r p o s e o f a f f e c t i n g t h e c a r e f u l l y r e a s o n e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e issue b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d .  - 18 -  M o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s p o s i t i v e l y i n d u c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the g e n e r a l p u b l i c b u t t r a d i t i o n a l c o m m i s s i o n s saw t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t o r y m a n d a t e in m o r e c a u t i o u s t e r m s . T h e d o m i n a n t p o p u l a r a t t i t u d e t o w a r d p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t the t i m e o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c o m m i s s i o n s was e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e c o m m i s s i o n e r s who c o n d u c t e d t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on C o a l a n d P e t r o l e u m P r o d u c t s , w h i c h r e p o r t e d i n 1935.  This  c o m m i s s i o n w e n t t o a t r e m e n d o u s a m o u n t o f t r o u b l e , e s p e c i a l l y by t r a v e l l i n g t o m i n e s i t e s f o r h e a r i n g s , to m a k e i t s e l f a v a i l a b l e f o r o r a l s u b m i s s i o n s , u n l i k e o t h e r traditional commissions.26  xhe a v o w e d p u r p o s e o f t h e t r a v e l i n v o l v e d in t h i s e f f o r t ,  h o w e v e r , w a s to seek the c o r p o r a t e v i e w p o i n t . a p p e a r , b u t no v o l u n t a r y g r o u p s a p p e a r e d .  A small number of individuals did  C o m m i s s i o n e r M a c d o n a l d of the C o a l  c o m m i s s i o n d e s c r i b e d the commission's m a n d a t e in t e r m s of g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m industry about c o a l a n d p e t r o l e u m a n d t h e i r e f f e c t on the r e s p e c t i v e  industries  "and the c o n s e q u e n t i a l e f f e c t t h e r e o f u p o n t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h e P r o v i n c e . " 2 7  in other  w o r d s , M a c d o n a l d , a p r o m i n e n t p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e in t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t , a s s u m e d t h a t the c o m m i s s i o n o n l y n e e d e d to g e t s o m e e x p e r t i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e c o r p o r a t e s e c t o r b e f o r e a c o n c l u s i o n c o u l d be r e a c h e d a b o u t t h e issue a t h a n d .  P a r t i c i p a t i o n was  not i m p o r t a n t for its own sake and the best d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the public interest would be m a d e by the g o v e r n m e n t . M a c d o n a l d ' s a t t i t u d e s h o u l d be c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e v i e w t a k e n by c o m m i s s i o n e r P e p i n o f t h e T a s k F o r c e on N a t i o n a l U n i t y w h i c h r e p o r t e d in 1979.  P e p i n , during an  i n t e r v i e w p u b l i s h e d in M a c l e a n ' s m a g a z i n e , c i t e d t h r e e p a r t s t o t h e  commissions  mandate.  T h e f i r s t p a r t w a s t o "support t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e p u b l i c a t l a r g e  the p r o b l e m s o f n a t i o n a l u n i t y associations in general."28  to r e s o l v e  and within that public p a r t i c u l a r l y unity groups and  H e c i t e d the other two parts of the m a n d a t e as the  p r o d u c t i o n o f i d e a s by t h e c o m m i s s i o n i t s e l f a n d t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a d v i c e t o t h e g o v e r n ment.  T h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t p o i n t h e r e is t h a t , u n l i k e the M a c d o n a l d c o m m i s s i o n , the  - 19 -  N a t i o n a l U n i t y t a s k f o r c e saw t h e e n c o u r a g e m e n t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i t s e l f as p a r t o f its mandate.  A s P e p i n p u t i t i n a less f o r m a l c o m m e n t , " O n e o f o u r f i r s t p r e o c c u p a t i o n s  . . . w i l l be to e s t a b l i s h a d i a l o g u e w i t h the p u b l i c . " 2 9 Many techniques for enhancing opportunities for p a r t i c i p a t i o n before c o m m i s s i o n s w e r e d e v e l o p e d by t h e c o m m i s s i o n s o f t h e 1970s.  These techniques  i n c l u d e d funding of p a r t i c i p a n t s with few resources to a l l o w such p a r t i c i p a n t s to pay f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l l y - d e v e l o p e d b r i e f s t o m a t c h t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f b r i e f s p r e p a r e d by institutional groups and others capable of paying for and organizing professionallyp r e p a r e d b r i e f s out of their own r e s o u r c e s .  C o m m i s s i o n s o f the 1970s p u t a l o t o f  t h o u g h t i n t o how t o d i s t r i b u t e funds t o w i t n e s s e s w i t h o u t a d e q u a t e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e i r own.  T h e s e c o m m i s s i o n s a l s o d i s t r i b u t e d a l o t o f m o n e y f o r this p u r p o s e . A m o n g t h e o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s u s e d b y c o m m i s s i o n s o f t h e 1970s was t r a v e l by  c o m m i s s i o n e r s w h i c h a l l o w e d h e a r i n g s t o be h e l d i n r e g i o n a l c e n t r e s w h i c h , i n t u r n , t r e m e n d o u s l y e n h a n c e d a c c e s s i b i l i t y of c o m m i s s i o n s for those p a r t i c i p a n t s who c o u l d n o t a f f o r d t o t r a v e l t o O t t a w a or V i c t o r i a f o r h e a r i n g s .  Other techniques include  l o n g e r s i t t i n g s f o r h e a r i n g s , c o m m i s s i o n e r s r e p r e s e n t i n g m o s t o f t h e key i n t e r e s t s i n a n issue a n d e x t e n s i v e a d v e r t i s i n g o f l o c a t i o n s a n d d a t e s o f h e a r i n g s , a s w e l l as techniques used during the hearings t h e m s e l v e s , such as o r g a n i z e d m e d i a relations to m a x i m i z e n e w s c o v e r a g e a n d e f f i c i e n t s c h e d u l i n g to e n a b l e p a r t i c i p a n t s to p l a n t h e i r appearances. S o m e c o m m i s s i o n s d e v o t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e to the analysis a n d d e v e l o p m e n t of the t e c h n i q u e s t h e y u s e d to e n h a n c e t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n b e f o r e the commission.  F o r e x a m p l e , the P o r t e r C o m m i s s i o n on E l e c t r i c a l P o w e r P l a n n i n g in  O n t a r i o d e v o t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e s p a c e in i t s f i n a l r e p o r t t o a n a n a l y s i s o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n hearings held by the c o m m i s s i o n , a n d of the reasons for that participation.  - 20 -  A l t h o u g h t h e e f f e c t o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f h o l d i n g h e a r i n g s in r e g i o n a l c e n t r e s a n d of h o l d i n g e x t e n d e d s i t t i n g s in e a c h l o c a t i o n w i l l be t e s t e d by the t h i r d a n d f o u r t h h y p o t h e s e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , o f t h i s p a p e r , the o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s u s e d by m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s f o r e n h a n c i n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c o m m i s s i o n h e a r i n g s w i l l o n l y be b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d a f t e r e a c h o f t h e f o u r h y p o t h e s e s has b e e n c o n s i d e r e d . T h e f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s s e r v e s as a t e s t f o r t h e e f f e c t o f t h e g e n e r a l t r e n d t o w a r d t h e use o f t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s on p a r t i c i p a t i o n b e f o r e c o m m i s s i o n s . T h e d a t a u s e d t o t e s t t h e f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s w a s d e v e l o p e d by b r e a k i n g t h e l i s t o f c o m m i s s i o n s being e x a m i n e d in this paper into two types, ' t r a d i t i o n a l c o m m i s s i o n s ' a n d 'modern commissions', and then c o m p u t i n g both the t o t a l n u m b e r of p a r t i c i p a n t s a p p e a r i n g before a l l the c o m m i s s i o n s of e a c h t y p e , a n d the p e r c e n t a g e of that t o t a l w h i c h f i t i n t o e a c h o f t h e nine c a t e g o r i e s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s d i s c u s s e d a b o v e .  The  'traditional' c o m m i s s i o n s are the R o w e l l - S i r o i s c o m m i s s i o n , the P r i c e Spreads C o m m i s s i o n , t h e H e a l t h I n s u r a n c e C o m m i s s i o n , the S t a t e H e a l t h I n s u r a n c e C o m m i s s i o n and the C o a l and F o r e s t R e s o u r c e s C o m m i s s i o n . A l l of the t r a d i t i o n a l c o m m i s s i o n s r e p o r t e d b e f o r e t h e 1950s.  T h e ' m o d e r n ' c o m m i s s i o n s a r e the P e p i n -  R o b a r t s T a s k F o r c e , the C o r p o r a t e C o n c e n t r a t i o n C o m m i s s i o n , the Status of W o m e n C o m m i s s i o n , t h e K e n t C o m m i s s i o n , the P e a r c e C o m m i s s i o n o n F o r e s t r y , t h e B a t e s C o m m i s s i o n on U r a n i u m M i n i n g a n d t h e F a m i l y L a w C o m m i s s i o n . A l l o f t h e m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s r e p o r t e d in t h e l a t e 1960s or l a t e r . T a b l e 1 p r e s e n t s t h e r e s u l t s o f the a n a l y s i s o f t h e f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s .  T o obtain  these results, the p a r t i c i p a n t s a p p e a r i n g before e a c h c o m m i s s i o n were c a t e g o r i z e d a c c o r d i n g to the nine c a t e g o r i e s discussed a b o v e .  T h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f p a r t i c i p a n t s in  e a c h c a t e g o r y was c o n v e r t e d into p e r c e n t a g e s of the t o t a l n u m b e r of p a r t i c i p a n t s appearing before each commission.  A n a v e r a g e o f t h e s e p e r c e n t a g e s was c a l c u l a t e d  f o r t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c o m m i s s i o n s a n d f o r the m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s .  F o r e x a m p l e , the  - 21 -  percentages of institutional groups appearing before every t r a d i t i o n a l c o m m i s s i o n being studied w e r e a v e r a g e d to get a single p e r c e n t a g e for i n s t i t u t i o n a l group p a r t i c i p a t i o n in t r a d i t i o n a l c o m m i s s i o n s .  T h e s a m e p r o c e s s w a s t h e n r e p e a t e d f o r the  modern commissions. T h e f i g u r e s s h o w n in p a r e n t h e s e s i n T a b l e 1 r e p r e s e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n b e f o r e a l l of the m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s l i s t e d a b o v e , w h i l e the f i g u r e s o u t s i d e t h e p a r e n t h e s e s , b u t in the c o l u m n for m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s represent p a r t i c i p a t i o n b e f o r e the m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s o t h e r than the F a m i l y L a w C o m m i s s i o n . T h e reason for s e p a r a t i n g figures i n c l u d i n g d a t a f r o m the F a m i l y L a w C o m m i s s i o n f r o m figures not i n c l u d i n g it is t h a t this c o m m i s s i o n a t t r a c t e d s u c h a l a r g e n u m b e r o f i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s t h a t p e r c e n t a g e results f r o m the c a t e g o r y of m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s a r e d i s t o r t e d for a l l o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s of p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h e F a m i l y L a w C o m m i s s i o n a t t r a c t e d m o r e t o t a l participants than a l l the other m o d e r n commissions being considered c o m b i n e d , but 2170 o r 93% o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e i n d i v i d u a l s . T h e s e f i g u r e s a r e l a r g e e n o u g h to o v e r w h e l m any c o n t r a r y results f r o m the o t h e r c o m m i s s i o n s .  It i s , h o w e v e r , i m p o r t a n t  to n o t i c e t h a t t h e t r e n d s i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n w h i c h s u p p o r t t h e f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w h e t h e r o r n o t d a t a f r o m t h e F a m i l y L a w C o m m i s s i o n is i n c l u d e d in t h e calculations.  - 22 -  Table 1 P a r t i c i p a t i o n Before C o m m i s s i o n s of the T r a d i t i o n a l a n d the M o d e r n Style P a r t i c i p a t i o n e x p r e s s e d as a n average of the p e r c e n t a g e s of total participation before each commission Style of Commission  Traditional  13. 5 13 2. 5  C a t e g o r i e s of Participants  Modern!  7  (3)  Institutional Groups  16  (9)  Professional Groups  (3.5)  Voluntary Groups  7  23  38. 5  26  17  (68.5)  Individuals  (7.5)  Corporations  5. 5  (4)  Government  5  2  (1)  Unions  0. 5  2  (1)  Political Parties  1. 5  4. 5  (2.5)  Institutions ( R e s e a r c h organizations, churches,  15  1402  1960  (4279)  Total  Representatives  number of P a r t i c i p a n t s  Appearing Before  NB:  etc.)  Commissions  C o m m i s s i o n s c a t e g o r i z e d as T r a d i t i o n a l a r e : R o w e l l - S i r o i s , P r i c e S p r e a d s , H e a l t h I n s u r a n c e , S t a t e H e a l t h I n s u r a n c e , C o a l a n d F o r e s t R e s o u r c e s (1945). C o m m i s s i o n s c a t e g o r i z e d as M o d e r n a r e : P e p i n - R o b a r t s , C o r p o r a t e C o n c e n t r a t i o n , S t a t u s o f W o m e n , K e n t , P e a r s e on F o r e s t r y , B a t e s on U r a n i u m Mining. 1.  T h e figures in p a r e n t h e s e s represent the p a r t i c i p a t i o n before the c o m m i s s i o n s l i s t e d a b o v e w i t h the a d d i t i o n o f t h e F a m i l y L a w Commission.  Modern  - 23 -  A n analysis of the d a t a resulting f r o m inclusion o f the F a m i l y L a w C o m m i s s i o n in the c a t e g o r y o f m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s l e a d s to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s a p p e a r i n g b e f o r e m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s has e x p a n d e d d r a m a t i c a l l y when c o m p a r e d with results for t r a d i t i o n a l c o m m i s s i o n s .  Participation  by v o l u n t a r y g r o u p s has i n c r e a s e d a l i t t l e b u t p a r t i c i p a t i o n by a l l o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s has d i m i n i s h e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i f the d a t a i n c l u s i v e o f t h e F a m i l y L a w C o m m i s s i o n is a n a l y z e d .  A n analysis of the d a t a exclusive of the F a m i l y L a w  C o m m i s s i o n d a t a l e a d s to t h e s a m e g e n e r a l t r e n d s b u t d a m p e n s t h e c o n c l u s i o n a b o u t p a r t i c i p a t i o n by i n d i v i d u a l s , e n h a n c e s the c o n c l u s i o n a b o u t i n c r e a s e d v o l u n t a r y g r o u p p a r t i c i p a t i o n , shows s o m e i n c r e a s e i n p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o u p p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n a d e c r e a s e a n d m a i n t a i n s t h e t r e n d b u t n o t t h e d e g r e e o f v a r i a t i o n i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n by e a c h of the other c a t e g o r i e s of p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h e m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n the F a m i l y L a w C o m m i s s i o n a n d a l l o f t h e o t h e r c o m m i s s i o n s b e i n g e x a m i n e d is t h a t t h e F a m i l y L a w C o m m i s s i o n was f a r m o r e successful at a t t r a c t i n g i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s than the o t h e r c o m m i s s i o n s w e r e .  The  r e a s o n f o r this u n u s u a l s u c c e s s is, e s s e n t i a l l y , t h a t the F a m i l y L a w C o m m i s s i o n u n d e r c o m m i s s i o n e r T o m B e r g e r put a g r e a t d e a l o f e f f o r t i n t o p r o v i d i n g t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e o p p o r t u n i t i e s for p a r t i c i p a t i o n before the c o m m i s s i o n . O n e o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s u s e d b y the c o m m i s s i o n t o i n c r e a s e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n was t o b r e a k t h e f i v e c o m m i s s i o n e r s i n t o t w o t r a v e l l i n g g r o u p s i n o r d e r t o c o v e r m o r e l o c a t i o n s t h a n w o u l d be p o s s i b l e i f a l l f i v e c o m m i s s i o n e r s h a d t o a p p e a r a t e a c h h e a r i n g . T h e c o m m i s s i o n a l s o h e l d s e p a r a t e h e a r i n g s f o r b o t h lay c i t i z e n s a n d professionals, including agency representatives and organized c o m m u n i t y groups with t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s , i n t h e h o p e t h a t l a y c i t i z e n s w o u l d n o t f e e l i n t i m i d a t e d by the l e v e l of  debate.  - 24 -  T h e c o m m i s s i o n a l s o m a d e e x t e n s i v e e f f o r t s t o let p e o p l e k n o w i n a d v a n c e a b o u t commission hearings.  V a r i o u s f o r m s o f m e d i a w e r e u s e d f o r this p u r p o s e , i n c l u d i n g  newspaper and radio advertisements and interviews with commissioners in a l l forms of m e d i a , b u t t h e c o m m i s s i o n f e l t , n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h a t t o o m a n y c o n c e r n e d c i t i z e n s d i d not k n o w a b o u t the h e a r i n g s a n d t h a t e v e n m o r e m o n e y s h o u l d be s p e n t o n a d v e r t i s i n g t h a n they had spent.  T h e c o m m i s s i o n a l s o r e l i e d on l o c a l c o n t a c t p e r s o n s to e n c o u r a g e  as  m a n y professional a n d v o l u n t a r y groups as possible to v o i c e their opinions at the hearings. O t h e r than a very high d e m a n d for opportunities for interest a r t i c u l a t i o n , and a c o r r e s p o n d i n g e f f o r t by the c o m m i s s i o n to p r o v i d e t h o s e o p p o r t u n i t i e s a n d m a k e p e o p l e a w a r e o f t h e m , t h e h i g h l e v e l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n by i n d i v i d u a l s b e f o r e  the  c o m m i s s i o n c o u l d be p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n e d by a p e r c e p t i o n by the c o m m i s s i o n t h a t t h e w o r k s h o p s t h e y c o n d u c t e d in c e r t a i n c o m m u n i t i e s a t t r a c t e d s o m e p e o p l e who w e r e f r u s t r a t e d w i t h t h e s e r v i c e t h e y w e r e g e t t i n g f r o m g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s a n d saw c o m m i s s i o n as a f o r m of o m b u d s m a n . 3 0  the  if people w e r e also d r a w n to public hearings  f o r this p u r p o s e , s o m e o f t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n by i n d i v i d u a l s m i g h t b e e x p l a i n e d by the need for an ombudsman's o f f i c e w h i c h did not e x i s t in B . C . at the t i m e o f the commission.  Nevertheless,  m o s t o f t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n by i n d i v i d u a l s in t h e  commission's  h e a r i n g s c a n o n l y be e x p l a i n e d b y t h e h i g h d e m a n d f o r i n t e r e s t a r t i c u l a t i o n opportunities. N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the unusual s t a t i s t i c s representing p a r t i c i p a t i o n before  the  F a m i l y L a w C o m m i s s i o n , t h e a n a l y s i s o f the r e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 1 s u p p o r t s t h e reasoning of the first hypothesis.  G e n e r a l l y , t h e c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the  h e a r i n g s o f c o m m i s s i o n s o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e a n d in t h o s e o f t h e m o d e r n s t y l e i n d i c a t e s t h a t p e o p l e o r g r o u p s w i t h f e w r e s o u r c e s a r e p a r t i c i p a t i n g m o r e in the m o d e r n style of c o m m i s s i o n .  T h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t results for purposes of the first  - 25 -  hypothesis are those for voluntary groups and individuals. The participants which belong in these categories, except for a few individuals, have the most need of the opportunities presented by commissions in general and modern commissions in particular. In both of these categories, participation has increased significantly from the traditional to the modern commission. On the other hand, the trend for the participants which have many resources and which have fairly good avenues of interest articulation without the need for forums such as commissions of inquiry, is toward a decreasing proportion of total participation. In particular, institutional groups and specific corporations are a significantly smaller proportion of the participants appearing before modern commissions than they were of the participants appearing before traditional commissions.  Representatives of various governments also decreased significantly  their presence in the hearings of modern commissions. It is worth noting that the figures in Table 1 which represent participation before modern commissions but which do not include data from the Family Law Commission slightly understate the trend toward participation by individuals because the level of participation by individuals in hearings held by commissions which dealt with types of issues similar to those dealt with by the F a m i l y Law Commission, specifically the State Health Insurance and Maternity Benefits Commission, and the Health Insurance Commission which are included in the category of traditional commissions, also had very high levels of participation by individuals. Therefore, it is likely that the Family Law Commission would have had higher than average participation by individuals even if it had only maintained the proportion of individuals who appeared before the traditional commissions of the similar issue area. The State Health Insurance Commission received 47% of its oral submissions from individuals, more than double the average for the traditional commissions considered here.  - 26 -  O n e c a t e g o r y o f p a r t i c i p a n t s t h a t m i g h t be e x p e c t e d t o n e e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s for a r t i c u l a t i o n which m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n hearings present, but which had a smaller presence before m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s than b e f o r e t r a d i t i o n a l c o m m i s s i o n s , was unions. In t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c o m m i s s i o n h e a r i n g s , u n i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d 5% o f a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s w h i l e in t h e m o d e r n c o m m m i s s i o n h e a r i n g s t h e y r e p r e s e n t e d o n l y 2% o f a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . O n e p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s r e s u l t is t h a t u n i o n s a r e m o r e w i l l i n g t h a n t h e y p r e v i o u s l y w e r e t o r e l y on c e n t r a l i z e d p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e g r o u p s t o a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r interests.  T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n m a y also apply to c o r p o r a t i o n s .  If c o r p o r a t i o n s a n d u n i o n s  h a v e b e g u n t o r e l y o n c e n t r a l i z e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s , they w i l l no l o n g e r n e e d c o m m i s s i o n s to a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . O n the other h a n d , at least some unions a n d c o r p o r a t i o n s w i l l s t i l l want to p a r t i c i p a t e in c o m m i s s i o n s because, for e x a m p l e , they have few resources and are unable to a r t i c u l a t e their interests e f f e c t i v e l y e v e n within the i n s t i t u t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h a r e s u p p o s e d t o r e p r e s e n t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s as w e l l as t h o s e o f t h e l a r g e r u n i o n s a n d c o r p o r a t i o n s . S o m e t i m e s , unions a n d c o r p o r a t i o n s w i t h e n o u g h r e s o u r c e s m a y w a n t to a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r i n t e r e s t s b e f o r e a c o m m i s s i o n j u s t to be c e r t a i n t h a t t h e i r v i e w p o i n t is d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e i n t e r e s t o f the u m b r e l l a o r g a n i z a t i o n o r b e c a u s e t h e y w a n t t o e n s u r e t h a t the c o m m i s s i o n e r s u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r i n t e r e s t but they f e e l t h a t t h e o n l y way t o be s u r e is i f they a p p e a r  themselves.  P a r t i c i p a t i o n b e f o r e c o m m i s s i o n s by v o l u n t a r y g r o u p s a n d i n d i v i d u a l s s u g g e s t s b o t h a n i n c r e a s e d use o f u m b r e l l a g r o u p s a n d a n i n c r e a s e in p a r t i c i p a t i o n by i n d i v i d u a l s at the same t i m e .  A n y t e n d e n c y a m o n g p e o p l e w i t h f e w r e s o u r c e s to o r g a n i z e i n t o  g r o u p s f o r p u r p o s e s o f i n t e r e s t a r t i c u l a t i o n h a s b e e n e x c e e d e d by the i n c r e a s e d t o t a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n by i n d i v i d u a l s i n c o m m i s s i o n h e a r i n g s .  T h e m o d e r n style of c o m m i s s i o n  has e n c o u r a g e d t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f v o l u n t a r y g r o u p s by p r o v i d i n g f u n d i n g a n d o t h e r  - 27 -  i n c e n t i v e s to o r g a n i z a t i o n s b u t i t h a s a l s o a t t r a c t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s t h a n the t r a d i t i o n a l c o m m i s s i o n s d i d . T h e t r e n d to g r e a t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n by i n d i v i d u a l s is m a s k e d a l i t t l e i n its m a g n i t u d e by t h e use o f a p a r t i c u l a r i n v e s t i g a t o r y t o o l u s e d e x t e n s i v e l y traditional commissions.  by s o m e  T h e P r i c e S p r e a d s C o m m i s s i o n v i e w e d its m a n d a t e as  including the investigation of c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c cases of possible p r i c e f i x i n g . c a s e i n v o l v e d the T . E a t o n C o r p o r a t i o n .  One such  T h e c o m m i s s i o n c a l l e d large n u m b e r s of  e x - e m p l o y e e s and e m p l o y e e s of E a t o n s in o r d e r to get first hand e x p e r i e n c e of p r i c i n g p o l i c i e s in E a t o n s as w e l l a s in o t h e r c o m p a n i e s .  T h e r e is no i n d i c a t i o n i n t h e a v a i l a b l e  t r a n s c r i p t s t h a t a l l or e v e n m a n y o f t h e s e w i t n e s s e s h a d a s t r o n g i n t e r e s t i n t h e i s s u e , b u t t h e y w a n t e d to h e l p t h e c o m m i s s i o n a n d t h r o u g h i t , t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t .  Modern  c o m m i s s i o n s a l s o c a l l s p e c i a l W i t n e s s e s , but n e v e r in s u c h g r e a t n u m b e r s as t h o s e c a l l e d by t h e P r i c e S p r e a d s C o m m i s s i o n . T h e r e is, t h e r e f o r e , a p o s s i b i l i t y o f s o m e o v e r s t a t e m e n t of the n u m b e r o f individual p a r t i c i p a n t s a p p e a r i n g before  the  traditional commissions. T h e l a r g e s t d e c l i n e i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n f r o m t h e t r a d i t i o n a l t o the m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s o c c u r r e d in the c a t e g o r y o f g o v e r n m e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  Government  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f o r m e d 15 p e r c e n t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n b e f o r e t r a d i t i o n a l c o m m i s s i o n s , b u t o n l y 5.5 p e r c e n t b e f o r e m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s e x c l u d i n g t h e F a m i l y L a w C o m m i s s i o n . T h e r e a s o n f o r t h e d e c l i n e i n g o v e r n m e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o b a b l y l i e s in t h e t e n d e n c y o f g o v e r n m e n t s to v i e w m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s a s f o r u m s f o r p e r m i t t i n g t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n of various interests rather than for a c c u m u l a t i n g expert evidence.  Significant  g o v e r n m e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n b e f o r e m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s is e v i d e n t o n l y w h e n a g o v e r n m e n t body f r o m a m i n i s t r y o r a b o a r d has a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n a n i s s u e , s u c h as a c o n c e r n o v e r c o m p e t i n g c l a i m s to a g i v e n j u r i s d i c t i o n by d i f f e r e n t  government  a g e n c i e s a n d m i n i s t r i e s , a s was e v i d e n t i n the h e a r i n g s o f F a m i l y L a w C o m m i s s i o n . 3 1 .  - 28 -  T h e g o v e r n m e n t w i t n e s s e s who a p p e a r e d b e f o r e m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s w e r e  often  M P s a n d M L A s f r o m c o m m u n i t i e s w h i c h w e r e p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e issue being considered.  T h e s e e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s probably felt a need to m a k e their  p r e s e n c e a n d , t h e r e f o r e , t h e i r c o n c e r n a b o u t t h e i s s u e , k n o w n to p e o p l e in the c o m m u n i t i e s they r e p r e s e n t e d .  O n e example of a m o d e r n commission which r e c e i v e d  a b o v e a v e r a g e g o v e r n m e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n (7 p e r c e n t ) m o s t l y in the f o r m o f e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f c o n c e r n e d c o m m u n i t i e s w a s the K e n t c o m m i s s i o n o n n e w s p a p e r s . O t h e r than the l o c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , g o v e r n m e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n before the K e n t c o m m i s s i o n consisted of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of p r o v i n c i a l press c o u n c i l s . T h e i n c r e a s e i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n by p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s in c o m m i s s i o n h e a r i n g s is n o t v e r y substantial but supports the a r g u m e n t that hearings have b e c o m e a m o r e p o l i t i c a l f o r u m as a r e s u l t o f t h e i n c r e a s e d e m p h a s i s on p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A f e w o f t h e p a r t i e s which a p p e a r e d before the m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s were v e r y s m a l l parties with a focus on a s p e c i f i c i s s u e .  T h e s e s m a l l p a r t i e s p a r t i c i p a t e d f o r t h e s a m e r e a s o n s a n d in t h e  s a m e m a n n e r as t h e v o l u n t a r y g r o u p s .  M o s t of the parties w h i c h a p p e a r e d b e f o r e  commissions were, however, major political parties.  The major parties appeared  b e c a u s e o f t h e p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n w h i c h c o m m i s s i o n s a n d , in p a r t i c u l a r , c o m m i s s i o n hearings a t t r a c t .  T h e m e d i a a t t e n t i o n g i v e n to t h e h e a r i n g s is s u b s t a n t i a l , as s h o w n by  s t a t i s t i c s k e p t by the F a m i l y L a w C o m m i s s i o n . 3 2 T h e d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s p a p e r w i t h r e f e r e n c e to the f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s s u p p o r t s t h e v i e w h e l d by m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n e r s , s u c h as P e p i n , t h a t c o m m i s s i o n s o f i n q u i r y a r e v e r y v a l u a b l e f o r t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s w h i c h t h e y c a n p r o v i d e f o r the a r t i c u l a t i o n o f i n t e r e s t s w h i c h m i g h t o t h e r w i s e n e v e r be p u b l i c l y h e a r d in the c o u r s e o f d i a l o g u e l i m i t e d to politicians and recognized experts.  P e o p l e w i t h a n i n t e r e s t i n a n issue b u t  without the resources to e f f e c t i v e l y a r t i c u l a t e that interest have responded f a v o u r a b l y to the e n c o u r a g e m e n t f r o m the m o d e r n s t y l e o f c o m m i s s i o n s to p a r t i c i p a t e in p u b l i c  - 29 -  h e a r i n g s a n d , p r e s u m a b l y , in t h e d i a l o g u e o u t s i d e t h e c o m m i s s i o n w h i c h is c r e a t e d i n p a r t by t h e a t t e n t i o n g i v e n t o t h e c o m m i s s i o n a n d t h e issue b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d .  The  m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s h a v e p r o v i d e d a n a l t e r n a t i v e f o r m o f i n t e r e s t a r t i c u l a t i o n to s u p p l e m e n t l e t t e r - w r i t i n g a n d m a r c h i n g w i t h signs. T h e s e c o n d h y p o t h e s i s o f t h i s p a p e r is t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n by p e o p l e a n d g r o u p s w i t h few r e s o u r c e s is a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n o f t o t a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n o n l y f o r c o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h d e a l w i t h issues o f g e n e r a l a p p e a l w h i c h a r e n o t p e r c e i v e d as h i g h l y t e c h n i c a l in n a t u r e .  T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was t e s t e d b y g r o u p i n g c o m m i s s i o n s i n t o f o u r  ' i s s u e - a r e a ' c a t e g o r i e s a n d d e v e l o p i n g d a t a w h i c h b r o k e the p a r t i c i p a n t s a p p e a r i n g before e a c h c o m m i s s i o n into the nine c a t e g o r i e s of p a r t i c i p a n t s w h i c h w e r e d e s c r i b e d above.  T w o issue-areas were chosen f r o m the f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n , F e d e r a l i s m a n d  P r i c e s a n d C o r p o r a t e B e h a v i o u r , a n d t w o issue a r e a s w e r e c h o s e n f r o m t h e B . C . jurisdiction, N o n - E c o n o m i c F a m i l y Welfare and Resources. F o r the s a m e r e a s o n s c i t e d a b o v e i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f d a t a c o n c e r n i n g t h e f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s , t h e d a t a f r o m t h e F a m i l y L a w C o m m i s s i o n was treated differently.  In T a b l e 2, w h i c h p r e s e n t s t h e d a t a on t h e s e c o n d h y p o t h e s i s ,  the  d a t a f r o m N o n - E c o n o m i c F a m i l y W e l f a r e c o m m i s s i o n s is p r e s e n t e d w i t h t h e F a m i l y L a w C o m m i s s i o n d a t a i n c l u d e d in t h o s e f i g u r e s o u t s i d e t h e p a r e n t h e s e s a n d e x c l u d e d f r o m those figures inside the parentheses.  T h e S t a t u s o f W o m e n C o m m i s s i o n was not  i n c l u d e d in t h e d a t a b e c a u s e it d i d n o t f i t a n y o f t h e i s s u e - a r e a s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d . T h e f i r s t i s s u e - a r e a c h o s e n f r o m the f e d e r a l l e v e l was p r i c e c o n t r o l a n d monopolistic behaviour. category.  T h r e e c o m m i s s i o n s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d w h i c h f a l l into this  T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on P r i c e S p r e a d s r e p o r t e d i n 1937, jtrst a s the  t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e o f c o m m i s s i o n was b e g i n n i n g t o c h a n g e , t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n C o r p o r a t e C o n c e n t r a t i o n r e p o r t e d in 1978, a n d t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on N e w s p a p e r s , p o p u l a r l y k n o w n as t h e K e n t C o m m i s s i o n r e p o r t e d in  1980.  - 30 -  C o r p o r a t e c o n c e n t r a t i o n , n e w s p a p e r s a n d p r i c e s p r e a d s a r e e x a m p l e s o f issues w h i c h m a y n o t a p p e a r to be c o m p a r a b l e but w h i c h a r e in f a c t c o m p a r a b l e w h e n t h e issues a c t u a l l y d e a l t w i t h by t h e c o m m i s s i o n s a r e c o n s i d e r e d .  T h e Price Spreads  c o m m i s s i o n f o u n d t h a t m o s t o f t h e i r w i t n e s s e s w e r e p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of e c o n o m i c power and how it a f f e c t e d p r i c e s .  The Commissioners  w r o t e in the f i n a l r e p o r t o f the c o m m i s s i o n t h a t "it b e c a m e c l e a r t h a t m a n y o f the g r i e v a n c e s c o m p l a i n e d of, a n d the p r o b l e m s d i s c l o s e d , w e r e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of a f u n d a m e n t a l and f a r - r e a c h i n g s o c i a l c h a n g e , the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of e c o n o m i c  power."33  T h e K e n t C o m m i s s i o n a l s o f o c u s s e d t o a l a r g e e x t e n t o n t h e issue o f c o r p o r a t e c o n c e n t r a t i o n w i t h r e f e r e n c e to t h e s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m s o f t h e n e w s p a p e r i n d u s t r y .  The  C o r p o r a t e C o n c e n t r a t i o n C o m m i s s i o n t r i e d to c o n s i d e r the r a m i f i c a t i o n s of c o r p o r a t e c o n c e n t r a t i o n in numerous industries. p o w e r w e r e c e n t r a l to a l l t h r e e  C o n c e r n s about the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of  economic  commissions.  T h e s e c o n d f e d e r a l i s s u e - a r e a b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d is C a n a d i a n f e d e r a t i o n .  This  issue is o n e w h i c h is o f b r o a d a p p e a l b e c a u s e i t is s u c h a p o p u l a r C a n a d i a n t o p i c a n d b e c a u s e i t is n o t n e c e s s a r y f o r s o m e b o d y to be a n e x p e r t b e f o r e t h e y c a n h o l d a s t r o n g opinion a n d discuss the issue.  In t h e issue o f p r i c e s a n d m o n o p o l i s t i c b e h a v i o u r , o n t h e  o t h e r h a n d , m o s t p e o p l e a r e l i k e l y to f e e l c o n f u s e d a b o u t m a n y o f the t e c h n i c a l a r g u m e n t s w h i c h a r e p a r t o f a n y d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i s s u e ; t h e r e f o r e p e o p l e a r e less l i k e l y to h o l d s t r o n g o p i n i o n s on w h a t has to be done a b o u t t h e i s s u e .  The first  c o m m i s s i o n w h i c h d e a l t s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h f e d e r a t i o n was t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s , p o p u l a r l y k n o w n as R o w e l l - S i r o i s c o m m i s s i o n a f t e r successive c h a i r m e n of the c o m m i s s i o n . 1940.  the  T h e R o w e l l - S i r o i s c o m m i s s i o n r e p o r t e d in  T h e s e c o n d c o m m i s s i o n b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d w h i c h d e a l t w i t h t h e f e d e r a t i o n issue is  t h e T a s k F o r c e on N a t i o n a l U n i t y , w h i c h r e p o r t e d in 1979.  T h i s c o m m i s s i o n is  p o p u l a r l y k n o w n a s t h e P e p i n - R o b a r t s c o m m i s s i o n , a f t e r its c o - c h a i r m e n .  These  - 31 -  c o m m i s s i o n s a r e v e r y c o m p a r a b l e on t h e g r o u n d s o f t h e i r s u b j e c t m a t t e r .  The  c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n t h e m is v e r y i m p o r a n t b e c a u s e R o w e l l - S i r o i s was t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the m o d e r n t r e n d w h i l e P e p i n - R o b a r t s in m a n y w a y s r e p r e s e n t s t h e m a t u r i n g o f  the  modern commission. T h e f i r s t issue a r e a d r a w n f r o m t h e B . C . j u r i s d i c t i o n was n o n - e c o n o m i c welfare.  T h r e e c o m m i s s i o n s w e r e c h o s e n f r o m t h i s issue a r e a .  T h e f i r s t was  family the  R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n H e a l t h I n s u r a n c e w h i c h r e p o r t e d i n 1919, t h e s e c o n d was  the  R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on S t a t e H e a l t h I n s u r a n c e w h i c h r e p o r t e d i n 1932 a n d t h e t h i r d was t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n F a m i l y a n d C h i l d r e n ' s L a w w h i c h r e p o r t e d in 1975.  The first  two c o m m i s s i o n s c o n s i d e r e d t h e issue o f w h e t h e r t h e r e s h o u l d be a f o r m o f s t a t e h e a l t h i n s u r a n c e , w h i l e t h e t h i r d c o v e r e d t h e issue o f t h e l a w w h i c h g o v e r n s c a s e s o f f a m i l y p r o b l e m s , w i t h a n e m p h a s i s on c a s e s in w h i c h the w e l f a r e o f c h i l d r e n is involved. T h e s e e m i n g l y d i s t i n c t issues o f s t a t e h e a l t h i n s u r a n c e a n d f a m i l y law w e r e c o m b i n e d u n d e r one c a t e g o r y on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t b o t h issues d e a l w i t h  non-economic  a s p e c t s o f p r o b l e m s w h i c h f a c e f a m i l i e s i n B . C . A n u m b e r o f p a r t i c i p a n t s who a p p e a r e d b e f o r e one o f t h e s e c o m m i s s i o n s a p p e a r e d b e f o r e a n o t h e r in the s a m e issue area.  In f a c t , t h e r e was a f a i r a m o u n t o f o v e r l a p a m o n g t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s who a p p e a r e d  b e f o r e t h e s e c o m m i s s i o n s , w h i c h is p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r i k i n g g i v e n t h e v a s t t i m e between the c o m m i s s i o n s .  difference  G r o u p s such as various residents' o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d the  V i c t o r i a n O r d e r of N u r s e s , for e x a m p l e , a p p e a r e d b e f o r e a l l three  commissions.  T h e s e c o n d B . C . issue a r e a c o n s i s t s o f c o m m i s s i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h r e s o u r c e i s s u e s . T h e r e a r e f o u r c o m m i s s i o n s in t h i s c a t e g o r y w h i c h w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d in this p a p e r : the R o y a l C o m m m i s s i o n o n C o a l a n d P e t r o l e u m P r o d u c t s , w h i c h r e p o r t e d in 1935;  the  R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n F o r e s t R e s o u r c e s w h i c h r e p o r t e d in 1945; t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n F o r e s t r y w h i c h r e p o r t e d in 1976 a n d t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o f Inquiry o n H e a l t h a n d E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n - U r a n i u m M i n i n g , w h i c h r e p o r t e d in  1980.  - 32 -  Table 2 Participation Before Commissions Dealing With Different  Issue-Areas  P a r t i c i p a t i o n e x p r e s s e d as a n a v e r a g e o f t h e Percentages of total participation before each commission Prices and NonCorporate Economic Canadian ConcenFamily Federalism tration Welfare 1 Resources  Issue Areas  C a t e g o r i e s of Participants  23  9.5  4  (6)  8.5  Institutional Groups  16.5  4.5  17  (24)  10.5  Professional Groups  10  2  22  39  56  29  5  1.5 16.5  1.5  (2)  4  (39)  24  Individuals  39  Corporations  11  Government Representatives  (3.5) (12)  Volunteer Groups  7.5  9  0.5  4  6  (9.5)  1.5  Unions  2.5  2  0.5  (1)  0  Political Parties  7  1  2  (2.5)  1.5  Institutions ( R e s e a r c h organizations, churches, etc.)  1007  514  2802  (473)  956  Total Number of Participants  1 N u m b e r s i n p a r e n t h e s e s r e p r e s e n t t h e a v e r a g e o f the p e r c e n t a g e s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h the F a m i l y L a w C o m m i s s i o n e x c l u d e d f r o m c o n s i d e r a t i o n . C o m m i s s i o n s i n c l u d e d in e a c h a) b) c) d)  issue-area:  Canadian Federalism: Rowell-Sirois, Pepin-Robarts P r i c e & C o r p . C o n c e n t a t i o n : P r i c e Spreads, C o r p o r a t e C o n c e n t r a t i o n , K e n t on Newspapers N o n - E c o n o m i c F a m i l y Welfare: H e a l t h Insurance, State H e a l t h Insurance, Family Law R e s o u r c e s : C o a l , F o r e s t R e s o u r c e s (Sloan), F o r e s t R e s o u r c e s ( P e a r s e ) , U r a n i u m Mining (Bates).  - 33 -  T h e s e c o n d h y p o t h e s i s is n o t g e n e r a l l y s u p p o r t e d by a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a r e p r e s e n t i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n in d i f f e r e n t i s s u e - a r e a s .  T h e m o r e g e n e r a l , less t e c h n i c a l  issues d i d n o t c o n s i s t e n t l y a t t r a c t t h e m o s t p a r t i c i p a t i o n f r o m p e o p l e a n d g r o u p s w i t h few resources.  T h e t w o issues w h i c h c a n be t e r m e d b r o a d a n d n o n - t e c h n i c a l a r e  C a n a d i a n federalism and n o n - e c o n o m i c f a m i l y w e l f a r e .  Federalism attracted  the  l a r g e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f v o l u n t a r y g r o u p s , b u t the s m a l l e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f i n d i v i d u a l s , w h i l e the f a m i l y w e l f a r e c o m m i s s i o n s a t t r a c t e d the l a r g e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s , e v e n w i t h o u t t h e f a m i l y law c o m m i s s i o n , b u t t h e s m a l l e s t p e r c e n t a g e voluntary groups.  of  O n the other h a n d , the p r i c e s and c o r p o r a t e c o n c e n t r a t i o n  c o m m i s s i o n s a t t r a c t e d a l m o s t a s l a r g e a p e r c e n t a g e o f i n d i v i d u a l s as the f a m i l y w e l f a r e c o m m i s s i o n s a n d t h e r e s o u r c e s c o m m i s s i o n s a t t r a c t e d the s e c o n d  largest  p e r c e n t a g e of v o l u n t a r y groups. T h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of some c a t e g o r i e s o f i n t e r e s t s w e r e p r e d i c t a b l e along the lines of the second hypothesis.  C o r p o r a t i o n s w e r e f a r m o r e e v i d e n t as a p e r c e n t a g e  t o t a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n b e f o r e c o m m i s s i o n s c o n s i d e r i n g the two t e c h n i c a l issue-areas.  of  This  r e s u l t s h o u l d n o t be s u r p r i s i n g , g i v e n t h a t t h e s e i s s u e - a r e a s h a d a d i r e c t b e a r i n g on corporate interests.  O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l g r o u p s was  by f a r t h e g r e a t e s t i n t h e h e a r i n g s o f t h e n o n - t e c h n i c a l C a n a d i a n f e d e r a l i s m commissions.  T h i s r e s u l t is e x a g g e r a t e d b y t h e 36% p a r t i c i p a t i o n by i n s t i t u t i o n a l  groups b e f o r e the R o w e l l - S i r o i s c o m m i s s i o n .  T h e Pepin-Robarts commission had a  h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l g r o u p p a r t i c i p a t i o n in i t s h e a r i n g s , b u t o n l y s l i g h t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e p e r c e n t a g e s f o r the o t h e r  issue-areas.  P a r t i c i p a t i o n by a l l t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s o f i n t e r e s t g r o u p s w a s e x t r e m e l y h i g h in t h e h e a r i n g s o f the f e d e r a l i s m c o m m i s s i o n s .  T h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n was p r o b a b l y t h e r e s u l t o f  t h e h i g h p r o f i l e a n d w i d e - r a n g i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e issues w h i c h w e r e c a n v a s s e d . issues i n v o l v e d w e r e o f s u c h g e n e r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t g r o u p s w i t h v a r i o u s d i f f e r e n t  The  - 34 -  specific interests would have been a f f e c t e d .  F u r t h e r m o r e , the high public profile of  t h e f e d e r a l i s m c o m m i s s i o n s t h e m s e l v e s a n d o f t h e issue m e a n t t h a t t h e h e a r i n g s w e r e a n u n u s u a l l y g o o d e x t r a - p a r l i a m e n t a r y p l a t f o r m f o r e x p r e s s i n g i n t e r e s t s in the p u b l i c spotlight.  F o r the same reasons, a large n u m b e r o f groups probably f o r m e d  s p e c i f i c a l l y for these c o m m i s s i o n s . C o m p a r e d to t h e c o m m i s s i o n s c o n s i d e r i n g t h e p r i c e s a n d c o r p o r a t e c o n c e n t r a t i o n a n d f a m i l y w e l f a r e i s s u e - a r e a s , the r e s o u r c e s c o m m i s s i o n s a t t r a c t e d a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e of v o l u n t a r y groups to their hearings.  T h e h i g h l e v e l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n by  v o l u n t a r y g r o u p s b e f o r e t h e r e s o u r c e s c o m m i s s i o n s is a t t r i b u t a b l e to t h e d e e p c o n c e r n s w h i c h m a n y p e o p l e h a v e on m a t t e r s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t w h i c h r e l a t e t o r e s o u r c e s . B a t e s c o m m i s s i o n , w h i c h f o c u s s e d on e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n c e r n s , r e c e i v e d  The  submissions  f r o m a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f v o l u n t a r y g r o u p s (10% o f a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s ) , m a n y o f w h i c h had a s p e c i f i c interest in the e n v i r o n m e n t .  A l s o , the d i r e c t e c o n o m i c i m p a c t o f  r e s o u r c e issues on m a n y s m a l l t o w n s i n B . C . g a v e t h e r e s o u r c e s issue a h i g h e r p r o f i l e t h a n it m i g h t h a v e b e e n e x p e c t e d to h a v e . It is a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t the v e r y f a c t o f a n o v e r l y t e c h n i c a l p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n o f a n issue w h i c h has a n o b v i o u s i m p a c t o n p e o p l e ' s l i v e s m i g h t e n c o u r a g e p e o p l e to r e s p o n d t o a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s c u s s t h e issue i n s i m p l e , n o n - t e c h n i c a l t e r m s .  The Bates  C o m m i s s i o n on U r a n i u m M i n i n g e n c o u n t e r e d p a r t i c i p a n t s w h o s e p a r t i c i p a t i o n was p r o m p t e d b y f r u s t r a t i o n w i t h i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l y t e c h n i c a l p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n o f a n issue which affected them personally.  T h e C o m m i s s i o n c o m m e n t e d on the a p p a r e n t n e e d to  i n c l u d e n o n - e x p e r t p a r t i c i p a t i o n in d i s c u s s i o n s o f t e c h n i c a l issues: " M a n y m e m b e r s o f t h e p u b l i c i n d i c a t e d a b e l i e f t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n to p r o c e e d w i t h u r a n i u m m i n i n g is n o t a t e c h n i c a l q u e s t i o n t o be d e t e r m i n e d by e x p e r t s a n d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , b u t r a t h e r a n e t h i c a l o n e . T h e n a t u r e o f e t h i c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g is n e c e s s a r i l y one i n w h i c h a l l c a n p a r t i c i p a t e as s u c h d e c i s i o n s a r e b a s e d on i n d i v i d u a l a s s e s s m e n t s o f m o r a l v a l u e s . " ^  - 35 Despite the fact that the direct impact of the resource issues attracted a larger percentage of voluntary group participation than the other issue-areas except federalism, participation by unions was very low. The family welfare issue-area attracted more union participants than did any of the other three issue-areas; however, all of the participation by unions in hearings held by the family issues commissions was in hearings held by the traditional commissions dealing with state health insurance. Unions participated in hearings held by those traditional commissions because the unions were eager to support the government health insurance schemes which were being considered. The prices and corporate concentration commissions also had a fair percentage of unions appear before them because of the unions' direct involvement in the issue. Another important observation which can be drawn from Table 2 is that there is no evidence to suggest that the trends in participation before federal commissions were different to trends in participation before B.C. commissions. The two federal issue areas, federalism and prices and corporate concentration, do not have any appreciably different pattern of participation in commission hearings than do the two provincial issue-areas, family welfare and resources. In fact, the only category of participants for which participation is higher for the two federal issue-areas than for the two provincial issue-areas is the political parties category. Political parties may appear more before the federal commissions than the provincial commissions because of the need to display their concern over a given issue in each of the regions visited by a federal commission, but may not feel the same need in each of the small communities visited by provincial commissions. Generally, while certain trends are evident between issue-areas, they are not strong and they are often overwhelmed by significant differences between commissions which dealt with similar issues but which had different patterns of  - 36 -  p a r t i c i p a t i o n in t h e i r h e a r i n g s .  T h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n the c o m m i s s i o n s d e a l i n g with  s i m i l a r issues w e r e u s u a l l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a n d the m o d e r n s t y l e o f c o m m i s s i o n .  F o r e x a m p l e , the a p p a r e n t l y high rate of  government  p a r t i c i p a t i o n b e f o r e c o m m i s s i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h the f e d e r a l i s m issue is n o t a t t r i b u t a b l e , as m i g h t be e x p e c t e d , to any p a r t i c u l a r r o l e g o v e r n m e n t s f e e l t h e y h a v e in t h e i s s u e . In f a c t , g o v e r n m e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n b e f o r e t h e t w o c o m m i s s i o n s i n t h e i s s u e - a r e a  differs  w i d e l y w i t h 28% p a r t i c i p a t i o n b e f o r e R o w e l l - S i r o i s , b u t o n l y 5% b e f o r e P e p i n - R o b a r t s . A n y e f f e c t t h e issue m a y h a v e h a d o n g o v e r n m e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n w a s o v e r w h e l m e d by the t r e n d away f r o m g o v e r n m e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n before m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e r e is s o m e r o o m f o r p r e d i c t a b i l i t y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n a c c o r d i n g to i s s u e - a r e a s .  A m o d e r n style of c o m m i s s i o n dealing w i t h an obscure topic  w i l l n o t a t t r a c t as m u c h p a r t i c i p a t i o n a s a m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n d e a l i n g w i t h a t o p i c with broad popular appeal.  T h e d a t a p e r t a i n i n g to the f i r s t a n d s e c o n d h y p o t h e s e s  m e r e l y s u g g e s t t h a t f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f a n a l y z i n g or p r e d i c t i n g p a t t e r n s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n b e f o r e c o m m i s s i o n s , t h e e f f e c t o f t h e m o d e r n as o p p o s e d to t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e o f c o m m i s s i o n is s t r o n g e r t h a n t h e e f f e c t o f t h e i s s u e - a r e a s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d by t h e c o m m i s s i o n . T h e t h i r d a n d f o u r t h h y p o t h e s e s o f t h i s p a p e r f o c u s on t h e q u e s t i o n o f  whether  t h e r e is one p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f c o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h has b e e n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a n y i n c r e a s e s i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n by p e o p l e a n d g r o u p s w i t h f e w r e s o u r c e s .  The particular  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c o n s i d e r e d in t h e t h i r d h y p o t h e s i s is t r a v e l by c o m m i s s i o n s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e t h i r d h y p o t h e s i s s u g g e s t s t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n by p e o p l e a n d g r o u p s w i t h few r e s o u r c e s is g r e a t e s t f o r c o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h c o n d u c t h e a r i n g s in t h e g r e a t e s t number of l o c a t i o n s .  T h e d a t a p e r t a i n i n g to this hypothesis were a n a l y z e d by c o u n t i n g  t h e n u m b e r o f l o c a t i o n s in w h i c h h e a r i n g s w e r e c o n d u c t e d by a p a r t i c u l a r c o m m i s s i o n a n d t h e n c o m p a r i n g t h i s f i g u r e w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n by i n d i v i d u a l s a n d by v o l u n t a r y  - 37 -  g r o u p s , e a c h r e p r e s e n t e d as a p e r c e n t a g e o f t o t a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  T h e results were then  p l a c e d o n t h e s c a t t e r d i a g r a m s s h o w n in F i g u r e s A a n d B , r e s p e c t i v e l y . w a s m a d e t o d e v e l o p a c u r v e b e c a u s e t h e n u m b e r o f c a s e s is t o o s m a l l .  No attempt  - 38 -  Figure A P a r t i c i p a t i o n by I n d i v i d u a l s B e f o r e Commissions with Varying Numbers of L o c a t i o n s for Hearings Participation by i n d i v i d u a l s as a p e r c e n t a g e of  total  participation  100  X 80  60 X X 40  X  X  X  X (Price Spreads X 1935)X  X X  20  X ( C O A L - 1935) X ( R O W E L L - S I R O I S - 1940) 0  5  10  15  20  25  30  N u m b e r of L o c a t i o n s of Hearings  - 39 -  T h e s c a t t e r d i a g r a m p r e s e n t e d in F i g u r e A p r o v i d e s e v i d e n c e to s u p p o r t t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t i n c r e a s e d n u m b e r s o f l o c a t i o n s o f h e a r i n g s r e s u l t in i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n by i n d i v i d u a l s . T h e p a t t e r n w h i c h a p p e a r s s u g g e s t s a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t r a v e l a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n by i n d i v i d u a l s . Interestingly, the c o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h t r a v e l l e d e x t e n s i v e l y are not the m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s .  necessarily  T h e four p r o v i n c i a l c o m m i s s i o n s of the t r a d i t i o n a l style a l l  travelled fairly extensively.  T h e e x a m p l e of the M a c d o n a l d c o m m i s s i o n , w h i c h  t r a v e l l e d e x t e n s i v e l y f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f g e t t i n g i n p u t f r o m c o r p o r a t e p a r t i c i p a n t s who w e r e l i v i n g i n m i n e s i t e s l o c a t e d in t h e o u t l y i n g r e g i o n s o f B . C . was d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r in this paper.  Despite its t r a v e l l i n g , the M a c d o n a l d c o m m i s s i o n a t t r a c t e d v e r y little  p a r t i c i p a t i o n by i n d i v i d u a l s . T h e o t h e r t h r e e p r o v i n c i a l c o m m i s s i o n s a t t r a c t e d a f a i r a m o u n t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n by i n d i v i d u a l s , c o m m e n s u r a t e w i t h the a m o u n t o f t r a v e l b y t h e particular commission. T w o o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t e x c e p t i o n s t o the p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n by i n d i v i d u a l s a n d t r a v e l by c o m m i s s i o n s w e r e f o u n d . e x c e p t i o n s w e r e p r o v i d e d by c o m m i s s i o n s o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e . is p r o v i d e d by t h e R o w e l l - S i r o i s c o m m i s s i o n .  B o t h of these T h e first  exception  L i k e t h e M a c d o n a l d c o m m i s s i o n on c o a l ,  the R o w e l l - S i r o i s c o m m i s s i o n t r a v e l l e d a fair a m o u n t but a t t r a c t e d v e r y little p a r t i c i p a t i o n by i n d i v i d u a l s . T h e P r i c e S p r e a d s c o m m i s s i o n p r o v i d e d a d i f f e r e n t k i n d of e x c e p t i o n .  This c o m m i s s i o n did not t r a v e l at a l l , but it a t t r a c t e d a significant  number of individual participants.  A s d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r in t h i s p a p e r , the P r i c e S p r e a d s  c o m m i s s i o n r e c e i v e d a l a r g e n u m b e r o f i n d i v i d u a l w i t n e s s e s who w e r e r e q u e s t e d by the c o m m i s s i o n to g i v e p e r s o n a l e v i d e n c e a b o u t f i r m s , s u c h as the T . E a t o n C o m p a n y , w h i c h w e r e b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d as c a s e s t u d i e s by the c o m m i s s i o n .  - 40 -  Figure B P a r t i c i p a t i o n by V o l u n t a r y G r o u p s 3efore Commissions with Varying Numbers of L o c a t i o n s of Hearings  Participation by v o l u n t a r y g r o u p s as a percentage of total participation  80  60  40  20 X X(2)  X  X X 0  X X  5  10  X  X  X X  15  20  X 25  30  N u m b e r of L o c a t i o n s of Hearings  - 41 -  A l t h o u g h t h e r e is s o m e e v i d e n c e o f a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t r a v e l by c o m m i s s i o n s a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n by i n d i v i d u a l s b e f o r e t h o s e c o m m i s s i o n s , t h e  results  p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e B p r o v i d e no e v i d e n c e o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t r a v e l by c o m m i s s i o n s a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n by v o l u n t a r y groups.  T h e two commissions which did  t h e l e a s t a m o u n t o f t r a v e l h a d v e r y l i t t l e v o l u n t a r y g r o u p p a r t i c i p a t i o n , but t h e f o u r c o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h h e l d h e a r i n g s in t h e l a r g e s t n u m b e r o f l o c a t i o n s a l s o h a d v e r y l i t t l e v o l u n t a r y g r o u p p a r t i c i p a t i o n . E v e n w h e n the d a t a f r o m t h e F a m i l y L a w c o m m i s s i o n is c o r r e c t e d to r e f l e c t an a v e r a g e l e v e l of i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the l e v e l of v o l u n t a r y g r o u p p a r t i c i p a t i o n b e f o r e t h e c o m m i s s i o n c l i m b s f r o m less t h a n .5 p e r c e n t to o n l y 4 p e r c e n t , d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t the c o m m i s s i o n h e l d h e a r i n g s in 29 l o c a t i o n s . T h e m o s t w h i c h c a n s a f e l y be s a i d a b o u t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n v o l u n t a r y g r o u p p a r t i c i p a t i o n in c o m m i s s i o n h e a r i n g s a n d the n u m b e r o f l o c a t i o n s w h e r e t h o s e h e a r i n g s a r e h e l d is t h a t a r e a s o n a b l e n u m b e r o f l o c a t i o n s is a n e c e s s a r y , b u t n o t a s u f f i c i e n t , p r e r e q u i s i t e for a t t r a c t i n g m o r e than a v e r y few v o l u n t a r y groups to appear before commissions of inquiry.  In f a c t , t h e f o u r c o m m i s s i o n s , i n c l u d i n g o n e t r a d i t i o n a l  c o m m i s s i o n ( R o w e l l - S i r o i s ) , with the g r e a t e s t p e r c e n t a g e s of v o l u n t a r y group p a r t i c i p a t i o n a l l h e l d h e a r i n g s a t b e t w e e n 10 a n d 16 l o c a t i o n s .  O n the other h a n d ,  t h r e e o t h e r c o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h h e l d h e a r i n g s a t b e t w e e n 10 a n d 15 l o c a t i o n s a l l a t t r a c t e d n e g l i g i b l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n by v o l u n t a r y g r o u p s . T h e l i m i t e d e f f e c t o f c o m m i s s i o n t r a v e l on v o l u n t a r y g r o u p p a r t i c i p a t i o n b e f o r e c o m m i s s i o n s s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t s t h a t the o t h e r t o o l s w h i c h m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s use a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t f o r a t t r a c t i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n by v o l u n t a r y g r o u p s .  Some degree  of r e a s o n a b l e a c c e s s m u s t be p r o v i d e d but a c t i v e s o l i c i t a t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n by v o l u n t a r y g r o u p s is n e c e s s a r y in o r d e r t o o v e r c o m e the p o o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s o f s u c h g r o u p s w h i c h r e s u l t i n s u b s t a n t i a l i n e r t i a w h e n it c o m e s to g e t t i n g the g r o u p i n v o l v e d in a c o l l e c t i v e e f f o r t .  A n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a p r e s e n t e d in T a b l e 1 d e m o n s t r a t e s  - kl -  t h a t t h e g e n e r a l e f f o r t s m a d e by m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s h a v e r e s u l t e d i n g r e a t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n by v o l u n t a r y g r o u p s , b u t F i g u r e B s u g g e s t s t h a t t r a v e l by t h e s e c o m m i s s i o n s is n o t t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g to t h a t r e s u l t . It is i m p o r t a n t t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t i f h e a r i n g s a r e h e l d a t a n u m b e r o f l o c a t i o n s but t h e s e l o c a t i o n s a r e not w e l l d i s t r i b u t e d , p a r t i c i p a t i o n by i n d i v i d u a l s p r o b a b l y w i l l n o t increase significantly b e y o n d the numbers that would p a r t i c i p a t e w i t h only one location for hearings.  I n d i v i d u a l s t e n d to p a r t i c i p a t e m o r e in h e a r i n g s w h e n the  h e a r i n g s a r e h e l d in m o r e t h a n o n e l o c a t i o n s i m p l y b e c a u s e t h e y do n o t h a v e t o s p e n d as many s c a r c e resources of t i m e and money t r a v e l l i n g to hearings.  Commissions  cannot c o n d u c t hearings at every location where somebody would like to p a r t i c i p a t e , b u t t h e y c a n a t l e a s t t r a v e l to t h a t person's r e g i o n a n d a t t r a c t a n u m b e r o f o t h e r people from the same region. It is m u c h e a s i e r a n d m u c h c h e a p e r f o r B . C . c o m m i s s i o n s t o p r o v i d e m a x i m u m a c c e s s to c o m m i s s i o n h e a r i n g s t h a n it is f o r f e d e r a l c o m m i s s i o n s s i m p l y b e c a u s e o f the f a c t t h a t B . C . is s m a l l e r t h a n C a n a d a .  O n l y t h o s e f e d e r a l c o m m i s s i o n s , s u c h as t h e  M a c k e n z i e V a l l e y P i p e l i n e c o m m i s s i o n , w h i c h o n l y o p e r a t e in a s p e c i f i c a r e a , c a n readily provide the kind of a c c e s s that p r o v i n c i a l commissions c a n p r o v i d e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , e v e r y f e d e r a l c o m m i s s i o n w h i c h was c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s p a p e r a n d which t r a v e l l e d , went to e v e r y p r o v i n c e .  T h e N a t i o n a l U n i t y Task F o r c e , for e x a m p l e ,  h e l d h e a r i n g s in e v e r y p r o v i n c i a l a n d t e r r i t o r i a l c a p i t a l e x c e p t V i c t o r i a , a n d in M o n t r e a l , V a n c o u v e r a n d C a l g a r y , as w e l l as in O t t a w a a n d H u l l .  The Corporate  C o n c e n t r a t i o n c o m m i s s i o n a l s o h e l d h e a r i n g s i n e v e r y r e g i o n i n the c o u n t r y but d i d n o t d i s t r i b u t e t h e h e a r i n g s i n g e o g r a p h i c a l t e r m s as e v e n l y as m o s t c o m m i s s i o n s done.  have  T h i s c o m m i s s i o n h e l d h e a r i n g s in e i g h t l o c a t i o n s in O n t a r i o , s e v e n l o c a t i o n s in  W e s t e r n C a n a d a , f o u r l o c a t i o n s in the A t l a n t i c p r o v i n c e s , o n l y t h r e e l o c a t i o n s in Q u e b e c , a n d one i n N o r t h e r n C a n a d a .  D e s p i t e a s l i g h t o v e r - e m p h a s i s on O n t a r i o  - 43 -  l o c a t i o n s , a n d s l i g h t u n d e r - e m p h a s i s on Q u e b e c a n d N o r t h e r n l o c a t i o n s , t h e C o r p o r a t e C o n c e n t r a t i o n c o m m i s s i o n s t i l l m a n a g e d to provide f a i r l y good g e o g r a p h i c a l a c c e s s to the h e a r i n g s .  T h e r e is v e r y l i t t l e d o u b t t h a t c o m m i s s i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y o f t h e m o d e r n  style, r e c o g n i z e the need to d i s t r i b u t e hearings to provide m a x i m u m g e o g r a p h i c a l access. T h e d a t a p e r t a i n i n g to the third hypothesis support the proposition that  increased  t r a v e l by c o m m i s s i o n s r e s u l t s in i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n by i n d i v i d u a l s , but d o e s n o t s u p p o r t t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t i n c r e a s e d t r a v e l by c o m m i s s i o n s l e a d s t o i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n by v o l u n t a r y g r o u p s .  E v e n t h o u g h t h e r e is g e n e r a l s u p p o r t f o r the  p a r t i c i p a t i o n b y i n d i v i d u a l s p a r t o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s , t h i s s u p p o r t is m u c h s t r o n g e r w i t h r e f e r e n c e p r i m a r i l y to t h e m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s .  T h e t h r e e e x c e p t i o n s to t h e s u p p o r t  w h i c h w e r e c i t e d w e r e a l l p r o v i d e d by c o m m i s s i o n s o f the t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e . out of seven t r a d i t i o n a l style c o m m i s s i o n s but a l l seven m o d e r n style  Only four  commissions  s u p p o r t the h y p o t h e s i s as i t a f f e c t s p a r t i c i p a t i o n by i n d i v i d u a l s . T h e l i m i t e d s u p p o r t f o r t h e t h i r d h y p o t h e s i s is t h e r e f o r e f u r t h e r l i m i t e d by the o b s e r v a t i o n that the m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s lend m o r e support to the hypothesis than the traditional commissions do.  In p r a c t i c a l t e r m s , the c o n c l u s i o n to be d r a w n f r o m the  t h i r d h y p o t h e s i s is t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s , n o t v o l u n t a r y g r o u p s , g e n e r a l l y r e s p o n d t o t h e e n h a n c e d o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o v i d e d by c o m m i s s i o n s t h a t c o n d u c t h e a r i n g s in d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s .  T h e g e n e r a l a p p r o a c h of the c o m m i s s i o n in t e r m s of the style  of its hearings, and the p u b l i c i t y surrounding those hearings c o u l d , h o w e v e r , probably negate the i m p a c t of those o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  - 44 -  Figure C P a r t i c i p a t i o n by Individuals Before Commissions with Varying Numbers of Days of Hearings  Participation by i n d i v i d u a l s as a p e r c e n t a g e of t o t a l participation  100  80  60 X X  40  X  X  X  X 20  X  X  X X 20  40  60  80  100  120  Number of Days of Hearings  - 45 -  Figure D Participation by Voluntary Groups Before Commissions with Varying Numbers of Days of Hearings  Participation by voluntary groups as a percentage of total participation  80  60  40  20  X  X  X  X X 20  X X  X 40  X  X 60  X 80  100  120  Number of Days of Hearings  - 46 T h e fourth hypothesis, w h i c h suggests that i n c r e a s e d numbers of days of hearings w i l l r e s u l t in i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n by p e o p l e a n d g r o u p s w i t h f e w r e s o u r c e s , is n o t s u p p o r t e d by the e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e s C a n d D . T h e r e is no a p p a r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e n u m b e r o f d a y s o f h e a r i n g s a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n in t h o s e h e a r i n g s by e i t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s o r v o l u n t a r y g r o u p s .  T h e only possibility of a  r e l a t i o n s h i p is a c u r v i l i n e a r one b e t w e e n d a y s o f h e a r i n g s a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n by individuals.  T h e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r s u c h a r e l a t i o n s h i p m i g h t be t h a t l e n g t h y s c h e d u l e s o f  h e a r i n g s f a i l t o a t t r a c t as m u c h a t t e n t i o n as s h o r t e r ones b e c a u s e o f t h e  expectation  t h a t n o b o d y w o u l d be a b l e t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r i n t e r e s t f o r t h e t i m e s p a n i n v o l v e d .  At  m o s t t h e n , t h e r e is o n l y a t e n u o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n the n u m b e r o f d a y s o f h e a r i n g s a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n by i n d i v i d u a l s , but no r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n n u m b e r o f d a y s a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n by v o l u n t a r y g r o u p s . O t h e r than n u m b e r s of l o c a t i o n s of hearings a n d numbers of days of hearings, c o m m i s s i o n s h a v e m a n y s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h m i g h t be p a r t o f t h e r e a s o n f o r i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n h e a r i n g s by p e o p l e a n d g r o u p s w i t h f e w r e s o u r c e s .  Most of  these, such as i n f o r m a l hearings, are part of the m o d e r n style of c o n d u c t i n g c o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h w a s c o n s i d e r e d as p a r t o f the f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s .  Nevertheless,  some  of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of modern commissions are worth brief discussion independent of t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l t r e n d o f m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s . O n e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w h i c h is v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s w h e r e c o m m i s s i o n s a r e w i d e l y u s e d , s u c h a s B r i t a i n , is the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s commissioners themselves.  A hypothesis about participation and  of the  representativeness  would suggest that c o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h i n c l u d e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the various m a j o r p o i n t s o f v i e w on a n issue w o u l d be m o r e l e g i t i m a t e a n d t h e r e f o r e m o r e p o l i t i c a l l y attractive to.participants.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , not enough of the c o m m i s s i o n s c o n s i d e r e d  - 47 in this p a p e r w e r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n t h e i r f o r m a t i o n to p r o v i d e a d e q u a t e d a t a f o r testing such a hypothesis. In C a n a d a , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s is n o t u s u a l l y the t h r u s t o f c o m m i s s i o n e f f o r t s t o appear legitimate.  C a n a d i a n c o m m i s s i o n s t e n d to p r e f e r a n a p p r o a c h w h i c h  e m p h a s i z e s a high p r o f i l e , ' i m p a r t i a l ' c h a i r m a n o f the c o m m i s s i o n a n d two or three other 'impartial' commissioners.  A s a result, m a n y c o m m i s s i o n e r s a r e judges and  p r o f e s s o r s , w i t h the o c c a s i o n a l ' w i d e l y r e s p e c t e d ' p o l i t i c i a n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e is a g r o w i n g n u m b e r of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o m m i s s i o n s in C a n a d a .  In one sense f e d e r a l  c o m m i s s i o n s are usually representative because they usually draw c o m m i s s i o n e r s f r o m d i f f e r e n t regions of the c o u n t r y . T h e two C a n a d i a n f e d e r a l i s m c o m m i s s i o n s were particularly sensitive about regional representativeness.  The Pepin-Robarts Task  F o r c e h a d s o m e t r o u b l e f i n d i n g a c o m m i s s i o n e r of e n o u g h s t a t u r e f r o m Q u e b e c , b u t they finally c o n v i n c e d Solahge C h a p u t - R o l l a n d to join t h e m , m u c h to the commission's and the government's  relief.^  O n e s t r o n g i n d i c a t o r o f a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o m m i s s i o n is t h e n u m b e r o f commissioners.  B r i t i s h c o m m i s s i o n s , for e x a m p l e , tend to include a large n u m b e r of  c o m m i s s i o n e r s i n a n a t t e m p t t o r e p r e s e n t a l l i n t e r e s t s in a n i s s u e . commissions have between three and five commissioners.  In C a n a d a m o s t  T h e two outstanding  c o m m i s s i o n s in the s a m p l e e x a m i n e d here were the P e p i n - R o b a r t s T a s k F o r c e , with nine c o m m i s s i o n e r s , a n d t h e S t a t u s o f W o m e n c o m m i s s i o n , w h i c h h a d s e v e n commissioners.  Both of these commissions made some a t t e m p t at being  representative.  T h e R o w e l l - S i r o i s c o m m i s s i o n had five m e m b e r s , but they were a l l  professors and judges.  T h e 1935 P r i c e S p r e a d s c o m m i s s i o n c o n s i s t e d o f a n e n t i r e  P a r l i a m e n t a r y C o m m i t t e e w h i c h t o o k the s t a t u s o f a R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n to p u r s u e its investigation beyond Parliamentary limitations.  - 48 -  T h e r e is n o t e n o u g h o f a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t r e n d i n C a n a d i a n c o m m i s s i o n s t o be a b l e to d r a w s t r o n g c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t i t s e f f e c t on p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h o s e c o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h did adopt a slightly representative a p p r o a c h to the c o m p o s i t i o n of the c o m m i s s i o n were modern commissions, with some exceptions.  It is p o s s i b l e t h a t  representativeness will become an important part of commissions which are interested in a t t r a c t i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h e r e a r e , h o w e v e r , m a n y f a c t o r s to be c o n s i d e r e d in the c h o i c e o f c o m m i s s i o n e r s , i n c l u d i n g e x p e r t i s e i n the issue b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d , w i l l i n g n e s s t o be a c o m m i s s i o n e r , as w e l l as a g o o d r e l a t i o n s h i p or a t l e a s t s y m p a t h y f o r t h e p a r t y in g o v e r n m e n t .  T o some e x t e n t , h o w e v e r , representativeness of c o m m i s s i o n e r s must  be c o n s i d e r e d , a t l e a s t so t h a t c o m m i s s i o n s a r e n o t p e r c e i v e d by i n t e r e s t e d m e m b e r s of the public as predisposed to a p a r t i c u l a r p o l i c y .  M o s t i m p o r t a n t l y , p e o p l e m u s t be  a b l e t o r e s p e c t t h e c o m m i s s i o n a n d to e x p e c t to be l i s t e n e d t o . W h e n a c o m m i s s i o n d o e s n o t h a v e c o m m i s s i o n e r s who r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t s , c a r e m u s t be t a k e n t o f o s t e r a r e p u t a t i o n o f i n d e p e n d e n c e f r o m  the  g o v e r n m e n t o r t h e c o m m i s s i o n w i l l lose i t s r e p u t a t i o n as a w o r t h w h i l e f o r u m w h i c h to a r t i c u l a t e i n t e r e s t s .  before  T h a t i n d e p e n d e n c e m u s t be m a i n t a i n e d by a v o i d i n g a n y  i n d i c a t i o n s o f p r e - d e t e r m i n e d p o l i c i e s a n d by r e t a i n i n g t h e r i g h t a n d t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f publication of commissions findings. t h e i r r i g h t of p u b l i c a t i o n . 3 6  j  n a  n  In f a c t , m o s t c o m m i s s i o n s h a v e j e a l o u s l y g u a r d e d  i n s t a n c e , the c o u r t s u p h e l d t h e r i g h t of a  c o m m i s s i o n t o p r o d u c e a r e p o r t o f t h e i r f i n d i n g s a n d , a r g u a b l y , to p u b l i s h t h a t r e p o r t . ( C A ) K e l l y v M a t h e r s (1915) 25 M a n L . R . 580, a t p . 603 a n d p . 6 0 9 .  The commission  i n v o l v e d w a s T h e M a n i t o b a R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on t h e N e w P a r l i a m e n t B u i l d i n g s . W h e r e g o v e r n m e n t s t r y t o s u p p r e s s p u b l i c a t i o n o f a c o m m i s s i o n r e p o r t , t h e r e is a l s o t h e d a n g e r o f l e a k s w h i c h i n t h e c a s e o f the G r a y R e p o r t o f F o r e i g n e m b a r a s s e d the g o v e r n m e n t i n t o publishing the e n t i r e r e p o r t .  Investment  - 49 -  A n o t h e r v e r y i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r w h i c h is n o t d i r e c t l y a d d r e s s e d i n t h e h y p o t h e s e s of this p a p e r b u t w h i c h has a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on t h e e x t e n t a n d n a t u r e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n b e f o r e c o m m i s s i o n s is t h e p e r c e i v e d p r o b a b i l i t y o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f c o m m i s s i o n s in t e r m s of future legislative results.  It is v e r y d i f f i c u l t f o r c o m m i s s i o n s  to raise hopes of i m m e d i a t e legislative results because e x a m p l e s of the  legislative  i m p a c t of other c o m m i s s i o n s usually have a substantial t i m e lag b e t w e e n a commission's final report and legislative a c t i o n arising from that report.  One study,  f o r e x a m p l e , a t t r i b u t e d a d e l a y o f 19 t o 30 y e a r s to s t a t u t o r y r e c o g n i t i o n of c o m m i s s i o n reports in B r i t a i n .  It w a s p o i n t e d o u t i n t h a t study t h a t c o m m i s s i o n  r e p o r t s a n d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s u s u a l l y a p p e a r w e l l a h e a d of t h e p o l i t i c a l c o m p r o m i s e s required for a major policy change.37  C a n a d i a n studies have c o m e to similar  conclusions with evidence of significant legislative e f f e c t over time for c o m m i s s i o n recommendations.38  i  n  t h e c o u r s e o f t r y i n g t o e n c o u r a g e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n in  c o m m i s s i o n h e a r i n g s , c o m m i s s i o n e r s h a v e o f t e n c o m m e n t e d on the l o n g t e r m e f f e c t o f c o m m i s s i o n s by c o u c h i n g t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n i n t e r m s o f s h a p i n g f u t u r e d e b a t e a n d p o l i t i c a l c o m p r o m i s e on the issue b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d . O n e v e r y i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h m a k e s these c o m m i s s i o n s a t t r a c t i v e f o r u m s f o r i n t e r e s t a r t i c u l a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y by p e o p l e a n d g r o u p s w i t h f e w r e s o u r c e s , is the c o v e r a g e o f c o m m i s s i o n p r o c e e d i n g s a n d f i n d i n g s by the news m e d i a .  M e d i a c o v e r a g e r e s u l t s in g r e a t e r a d v a n c e p u b l i c i t y f o r c o m m i s s i o n  h e a r i n g s a n d in g r e a t e r p u b l i c i t y o f t h e i d e a s a n d o f t h e m o r e t a n g i b l e r e s u l t s o f t h e commission's proceedings. M o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s a r e v e r y a w a r e o f the i m p o r t a n c e of the m e d i a .  In m o s t  i n s t a n c e s , c o m m i s s i o n e r s t a k e f u l l a d v a n t a g e of o p p o r t u n i t i e s to t a l k a b o u t t h e i r c o m m i s s i o n with reporters f r o m various f o r m s of news m e d i a .  Interviews discussing  u p c o m i n g h e a r i n g s c a n o f t e n be s e e n o r h e a r d on r a d i o a n d t e l e v i s i o n as w e l l as in  - 50 -  newspapers a n d m a g a z i n e s throughout the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the c o m m i s s i o n .  The  h e a r i n g s o f m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s a r e o f t e n b r o a d c a s t on c o m m u n i t y r a d i o or t e l e v i s i o n stations.  A l l o f t h i s p u b l i c i t y is v e r y i m p o r t a n t f o r r a i s i n g t h e p r o f i l e o f c o m m i s s i o n s  a n d , t h e r e f o r e , m a k i n g people a w a r e o f the o p p o r t u n i t i e s for p a r t i c i p a t i o n before commissions. A l t h o u g h v e r y l i t t l e study o f t h e m e d i a c o v e r a g e o f c o m m i s s i o n h e a r i n g s has b e e n u n d e r t a k e n , it is w o r t h n o t h i n g t h a t a t l e a s t one s t u d y f o u n d t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s t h e m s e l v e s t o be t h e o b j e c t o f g r e a t e s t m e d i a i n t e r e s t .  The Family Law Commission  k e p t a r e c o r d o f t h e m e d i a c o v e r a g e o f the c o m m i s s i o n a n d f o u n d t h a t t h e m a x i m u m c o v e r a g e was g i v e n t o t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s .  T h e h e a r i n g s w e r e the s u b j e c t o f a l m o s t  d o u b l e t h e n u m b e r of n e w s i t e m s as t h e n e x t m a j o r issue, d e s p i t e t h e l a r g e n u m b e r o f i n f o r m a t i o n packages a n d press releases w h i c h the c o m m i s s i o n p r e p a r e d a n d d i s t r i b u t e d a b o u t s p e c i f i c issues d e a l t w i t h by t h e c o m m i s s i o n . 3 9 A l t h o u g h people m a y have trouble r e c o g n i z i n g the value of c o m m i s s i o n s f r o m  the  point of v i e w of a n t i c i p a t e d legislative results, m e d i a c o v e r a g e of c o m m i s s i o n hearings c a n f a c i l i t a t e the r e c o g n i t i o n of n o n - l e g i s l a t i v e results of the a r t i c u l a t i o n o f before commissions.  interests  P e o p l e f o l l o w i n g m e d i a c o v e r a g e of ongoing hearings may  r e c o g n i z e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y p r e s e n t e d by p u b l i c h e a r i n g s t o a f f e c t n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l a c t o r s in the policy process.  A n e x a m p l e o f s u c h a n e f f e c t was c i t e d by a study o f the  Barber C o m m i s i o n on F a r m Machinery Costs.  T h e study f o u n d t h a t " M a n y o f the  C o m m i s s i o n ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s n e v e r e m e r g e d as l e g i s l a t i o n a t e i t h e r f e d e r a l o r p r o v i n c i a l levels of g o v e r n m e n t , a l t h o u g h f a r m m a c h i n e r y c o m p a n i e s , suddenly thrust i n t o the p u b l i c s p o t l i g h t , m a d e h a s t y c h a n g e s to t h e i r p r i c i n g s t r u c t u r e s . " ^ M o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s often e x p l o i t the o p p o r t u n i t y to provide a m e c h a n i s m for non-legislative change.  The M a c k e n z i e Valley Pipeline commission asked corporate  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s to t r a v e l with it to hear various native submissions in locations along  - 51 the proposed pipeline route. As a result of hearing the personally expressed feelings of local people, one of the members of the pipeline consortium actually pulled out of the proposal.^ The administrative secretary of the Pearse Commission on Forestry commented that she and the commissioner purposely scheduled hearings so that participants with different points of view had to listen to each other.^2 The commission used this scheduling device because of the understanding and therefore compromise which can result. The advantage of results such as compromise between participants is that the benefit of the commission is obvious. The value of commissions and, therefore, the desire to participate, can be maintained best when results of participation are obvious. Where commissions have been able to raise the hopes of people and groups with few resources that the commission's hearings will provide a focus for different actors to communicate with each other, the results in terms of increased participation have been significant. The Family Law Commission commented that its public hearings, which hadbeen publicized extensively, served as a catalyst to draw participation from various interested groups.^ The commission 3  commented in its final report that many groups operating in various communities used the hearings to re-establish cooperative relationships with other groups having complementary interests.^ In some cases, hearings which show promise of attracting media attention are used by groups as a means of reaching members of the public who might share the group's interest and encouraging those individuals to become active in the policy process if not in the commission hearing themselves.  For example, one participant in  the Mackenzie Valley Commission commented that "The Berger hearings played an important role in politicizing the people in the North. The Dene viewed the inquiry as an organzing tool ... a way of creating political awareness".^  Similarly, a  commentator on the Mackenzie Valley Commission hearings said that "despite the  - 52 -  m o t i v a t i o n governments may have for holding a hearing, c o m m u n i t y groups felt that t h e h e a r i n g i t s e l f a n d t h e p r o c e s s p r i o r t o the h e a r i n g w e r e e x t r e m e l y  valuable".^6  One v e r y i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h m a k e s  the  p r o c e s s l e a d i n g up t o p u b l i c h e a r i n g s s e e m v a l u a b l e f o r v o l u n t a r y g r o u p s is t h e p r o v i s i o n o f funds f o r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f s u b m i s s i o n s to t h e c o m m i s s i o n .  A n y funding  o p p o r t u n i t y is v e r y i m p o r t a n t f o r v o l u n t a r y g r o u p s , but f u n d i n g p r o v i d e d t o p r e p a r e f o r c o m m i s s i o n h e a r i n g s w h e r e m e d i a a t t e n t i o n w i l l be f o c u s s e d is e x t r e m e l y  valuable.  G r o u p s w h i c h a r e u n a b l e to c o m p e t e w i t h t h e s o p h i s t i c a t e d a r g u m e n t s p r e s e n t e d b y i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n t e r e s t g r o p u s i n t h e n o r m a l p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s h a v e a r a r e o p p o r t u n i t y to c o m p e t e on r e l a t i v e l y e v e n t e r m s w i t h w e l l - f u n d e d i n s t i t u t i o n a l g r o u p s w h e n c o m m i s s i o n s p r o v i d e funding for p r e p a r a t i o n of b r i e f s . T h e i d e a o f d i r e c t f u n d i n g was o n l y d e v e l o p e d in t h e 1970s, but is now u s e d e x t e n s i v e l y by c o m m i s s i o n s a t b o t h t h e f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s . ^ 7  The Berger  C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e M a c k e n z i e V a l l e y P i p e l i n e d i s t r i b u t e d 1.8 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s t o g r o u p s w h i c h the c o m m i s s i o n d e c i d e d w e r e i n n e e d o f f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e .  interest  The Porter  C o m m i s s i o n o n E l e c t r i c P o w e r P l a n n i n g i n O n t a r i o spent $360,000 o n i n t e r v e n o r f u n d i n g w h i l e the B a t e s C o m m i s s i o n in B . C . s p e n t $250,000.^8  Unfortunately, exact  f i g u r e s on f u n d i n g p r o v i d e d b y c o m m i s s i o n s a r e v e r y h a r d t o f i n d b e c a u s e f u n d i n g is r a r e l y p r e s e n t e d a s a s p e c i f i c i t e m in c o m m i s s i o n b u d g e t r e p o r t s . O n e f i n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h is e m p l o y e d t o e n h a n c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n by p e o p l e a n d g r o u p s w i t h f e w r e s o u r c e s is a d v e r t i s i n g .  Modern  c o m m i s s i o n s a d v e r t i s e d a t e s , t i m e s a n d l o c a t i o n s o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s in o r d e r t o e n s u r e t h a t a s m a n y p e o p l e as p o s s i b l e a r e a w a r e o f t h e o p p o r t u n i t y to a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r i n t e r e s t s before the c o m m i s s i o n .  A l m o s t e v e r y c o m m i s s i o n now a d v e r t i s e s its p u b l i c  h e a r i n g s on r a d i o a n d t e l e v i s i o n , a n d in t h e n e w s p a p e r s .  A l t h o u g h spending breakdowns  a r e r a r e l y a v a i l a b l e i n c o m p l e t e f o r m f o r c o m m i s s i o n s , the B a t e s C o m m i s s i o n o n  - 53 -  U r a n i u m M i n i n g in B . C . , w h i c h r e p o r t e d in 1981, b e f o r e c o m p l e t i n g i t s p l a n n e d p r o g r a m o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s p r o v i d e d a n e s t i m a t e o f $ 3 1 3 , 5 0 0 s p e n t on a d v e r t i s i n g o u t of a t o t a l b u d g e t o f o v e r $1.8  million.  E a c h o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s is w o r t h y o f m o r e s t u d y than the scope of this paper a l l o w s .  F o r purposes of this p a p e r , a l l of these  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o n s i d e r e d t o g e t h e r a c c o u n t for the o b s e r v e d t r e n d to g r e a t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n by p e o p l e a n d g r o u p s w i t h f e w r e s o u r c e s b e f o r e m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s o f inquiry.  A l t h o u g h e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e was p r e s e n t e d o n l y f o r t h e e f f e c t o f t r a v e l by  c o m m i s s i o n s on p a r t i c i p a t i o n , e a c h o f t h e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d i s c u s s e d  above  c o n t r i b u t e d t o the o b s e r v e d t r e n d s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n b e f o r e m o d e r n c o m m i s s i o n s . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e r e s e a r c h a n d a n a l y s i s of t h e h y p o t h e s e s p r e s e n t e d in t h i s p a p e r c a n be s t a t e d a s  follows:  1.  People or groups with few resources p a r t i c i p a t e d m o r e before c o m m i s s i o n s of the m o d e r n style than they did b e f o r e the commissions of the t r a d i t i o n a l style.  the  2.  People or groups w i t h few resources did not p a r t i c i p a t e only before t h e c o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h d e a l t w i t h issues o f a n o n - t e c h n i c a l n a t u r e a n d a g e n e r a l a p p e a l . P a r t i c i p a t i o n c o u l d n o t be e x p l a i n e d in t e r m s of r e s p o n s e s to b r o a d c a t e g o r i e s o f i s s u e - a r e a s .  3.  A p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p was f o u n d b e t w e e n t h e n u m b e r o f l o c a t i o n s i n w h i c h c o m m i s s i o n s c o n d u c t h e a r i n g s a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n by i n d i v i d u a l s . N o r e l a t i o n s h i p was f o u n d b e t w e e n n u m b e r s o f l o c a t i o n s o f h e a r i n g s a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n by v o l u n t e e r g r o u p s . T h e r e is s o m e e v i d e n c e t h a t a r e a s o n a b l e n u m b e r o f l o c a t i o n s is a n e c e s s a r y b u t n o t a s u f f i c i e n t p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r a t t r a c t i n g m o r e t h a n a few v o l u n t e e r g r o u p s t o appear before commissions.  4.  A c u r v i l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p was f o u n d b e t w e e n t h e n u m b e r o f d a y s o f c o m m i s s i o n h e a r i n g s a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n by i n d i v i d u a l s . N o r e l a t i o n s h i p was f o u n d b e t w e e n t h e n u m b e r o f d a y s o f h e a r i n g s a n d v o l u n t e e r group p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  A s a g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n , i t c a n be s a i d t h a t p e o p l e or g r o u p s w i t h f e w respond to the o p p o r t u n i t i e s for p a r t i c i p a t i o n w h i c h c o m m i s s i o n s  resources  present.  F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s e o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e m o s t c o m m o n l y p r e s e n t e d . b y w h a t is r e f e r r e d t o  - 54 in this paper as the modern style of commission. Modern commissions are more aware of the value of participation as a goal in its own right. They encourage participation in many ways, including less formal hearings, intervenor funding, use of advertising, encouragement of media attention, representativeness where necessary, multiple locations of hearings and use of hearings to promote compromise between antagonists. Most importantly, governments and commissions have adopted an attitude that commissions must provide an opportunity for people and groups without effective means of articulating their interests within the Parliamentary process of government to articulate their views through commissions. Democratization of political dialogue on major issues or at least the appearance of democratization, seems to be the goal of governments and commissions. As commissioner John Robarts said, with reference to the purpose of the Task Force on National Unity: "Our function is not to be a great body that accomplishes a great deal, but one that can help and assist the people of this country to solve their own problems because that is the only way that it will be resolved for any length of time or forever. It will have to be a solution that wells up from within the people. It will not be a solution that will be imposed upon them by anybody from the top."^9 This paper has shown that the efforts made by commissions to provide an opportunity for people to express their views has had tangible results in terms of the response to those opportunities by people and groups which have few resources to draw upon for articulating their interests.  - 55 -  Notes  l L a w R e f o r m C o m m i s s i o n o f C a n a d a , " C o m m i s s i o n s o f Inquiry" ( L . R . C . C . , O t t a w a , 1977) p . 6. 2 l b i d . , p . 5. 3  I b i d . , p . 6.  ^ T h e r e is no w a y o f c h e c k i n g t h e p a t t e r n s o f i n t e r e s t g r o u p e x i s t e n c e in C a n a d a o u t s i d e c o m m i s s i o n s . (See A . P . P r o s s , " C a n a d i a n P r e s s u r e G r o u p s i n t h e 1970's," C a n a d i a n P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , S p r i n g 1975, V o l . 18, p . 125.) In t h i s p a p e r , t h e f o c u s is on g r o u p r e s p o n s e s to o p p o r t u n i t i e s p r o v i d e d by c o m m i s s i o n s . E v e n i f a t r e n d in c o m m i s s i o n s is o n l y a r e f l e c t i o n o f a t r e n d i n s o c i e t y , t h i s p a p e r h o p e s t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t c o m m i s s i o n s c o n t i n u e t o be s e e n as a s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r u m f o r g r o u p s w h i c h w a n t t o a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g g r o u p t r e n d s in s o c i e t y , c o m m i s s i o n s f a i l as p a r t i c i p a t o r y m e c h a n i s m s i f t h e y do n o t p r o v i d e w o r t h w h i l e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r groups. ^ T h e B a t e s C o m m i s s i o n d i d n o t c o m p l e t e i t s p l a n n e d s c h e d u l e o f h e a r i n g s due t o a m o r a t o r i u m on u r a n i u m m i n i n g i m p o s e d by t h e g o v e r n m e n t . T h e m o r a t o r i u m was i m p o s e d b e f o r e t h e c o m m i s s i o n c o m p l e t e d its h e a r i n g s , r e n d e r i n g t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o u r a n i u m m i n i n g in B . C . r e d u n d a n t . F o r t u n a t e l y , enough of the hearings w e r e c o m p l e t e d to a l l o w i n c l u s i o n of data c o l l e c t e d f r o m hearings of the c o m m i s s i o n in this p a p e r . 6  W . A . W o o t o n , I n t e r e s t G r o u p B e h a v i o u r ( T o r o n t o , 1974), p p . 94 - 9 5 .  7 A . P . P r o s s , " C a n a d i a n P r e s s u r e G r o u p s i n t h e 1970's," C a n a d i a n P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , S p r i n g 1975, V o l . 18, p . 124. 8 l b i d . , p . 124. Dawson, "The Consumer's A s s o c i a t i o n of C a n a d a , " C a n a d i a n Public A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , V o l . 6 (1963), p . 698. 10R. K e m p , T . O ' R i o r d a n a n d M . P u r d u e , " I n v e s t i g a t i o n a s L e g i t i m a c y : T h e M a t u r i n g o f the B i g P u b l i c Inquiry". G e o f o r u m V o l 15, N o . 3 (1984) p p . 477 - 8. ^ H .  C l o k i e a n d 3 . R o b i n s o n , R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s o f Inquiry ( S t a n f o r d :  Stanford  U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1937), p . 64. 1 2  1 3  I b i d . , p . 32. G . M . T r e v e l y a n , B r i t i s h H i s t o r y in t h e N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y , 1782-1901 ( L o n d o n ,  1922), p . 242.  - 56 -  l ^ C l o k i e a n d R o b i n s o n , o p . c i t . , p. 25. l ^ L a w R e f o r m C o m m i s s i o n o f C a n a d a , " C o m m i s s i o n s o f Inquiry" ( L . R . C . C . , O t t a w a , 1977) p . 6. 1 6  " W h a t V a l u e i n T h e s e P r o b e s ? " , M o n e t a r y T i m e s , F e b . 1967, p . 15.  1 7 J . C . C o u r t n e y , " C a n a d i a n R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s of I n q u i r y , 1946-1962" ( P h . D . t h e s i s , D u k e U n i v e r s i t y , 1964), p . 12. I S j . E . H o d g e t t s , " T h e R o l e o f R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s in C a n a d i a n G o v e r n m e n t , " C a n a d i a n P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , H o d g e t t s a n d C o r b e t t , e d s . ( T o r o n t o , 1960), p . 483. l ^ T . R . B e r g e r , " C o m m i s s i o n s o f Inquiry a n d P u b l i c P o l i c y . " U n i v e r s i t y S c h o o l o f P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , M a r c h 1, 1978, p . 2.  Speech to C a r l e t o n  2 C o u r t n e y , op. c i t . , p. 81. u  2 1 i d . , p . 94. I b  2 2 j . E . H o d g e t t s , "Should C a n a d a be D e - C o m m i s s i o n e d : A C o m m o n e r ' s V i e w o f R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s , " Q u e e n ' s Q u a r t e r l y , W i n t e r 1964, V o l . 70, p . 488. 2 3 i b i d . , p . 483. 2^F. Schindler and C . Lanphier, "Social Science Research and Participatory D e m o c r a c y in C a n a d a , " C a n a d i a n P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , V o l . 12, 1969, p.  485.  2 5 G . B . D o e r n , " T h e R o l e o f R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s i n the G e n e r a l P o l i c y P r o c e s s a n d i n F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s , " C a n a d i a n P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , V o l . 10, D e c . 1967, p . 425. C o m m i s s i o n S e c r e t a r y i n h e r h a n d w r i t t e n r e c o r d s , c o m m e n t e d t h a t the C o m m i s s i o n was k e e p i n g a r i g o r o u s a n d t h o r o u g h s c h e d u l e of v i s i t s to m a n y of the sites of p r o v i n c i a l c o a l a n d p e t r o l e u m d e v e l o p m e n t . 2 7 B . C . R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on C o a l a n d P e t r o l e u m ( V i c t o r i a , 1935), p . 4 2 7 6 . 2  Products, Final Report  ^ K . S p i c e r , "Interview with John R o b a r t s and J e a n - L u c Pepin," Maclean's, A p r i l  16, 1978, p . 8. 2 9  I b i d . , p . 8.  3 0 . C . R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n F a m i l y a n d C h i l d r e n ' s L a w , " T h e C o m m i s s i o n a n d the B  C o m m u n i t y , " 13th R e p o r t ( V a n c o u v e r , 1975), p p . 21 - 22. 3 1  I b i d . , p . 21.  3 2 i b i d . , p . 32.  - 57 -  .. . 33canada, R o y a l  C o m m i s s i o n on P r i c e S p r e a d s , F i n a l R e p o r t ( O t t a w a ,  1937),  p. 3.  ^ B . C . R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o f Inquiry i n t o H e a l t h a n d E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n U r a n i u m M i n i n g , C o m m i s s i o n e r ' s R e p o r t ( V i c t o r i a , 1980), p . 16.  -  3  3  ^ S p i c e r , o p . c i t . , p . 16.  3 6  K e l l y v . M a t h e r s (1915) 25 M a n . L . R . 603 ( C A ) .  3 7 L a s k i , quoted in C . J . Hanser, G u i d e to Decision: ( T o r o n t o , 1965), p . 198.  The Royal Commission  M a x w e l l , " R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s a n d S o c i a l C h a n g e in C a n a d a : ( U n p u b l i s h e d P h . D . t h e s i s , C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1970), p. 273.  1867-1967,"  3 ^ R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n F a m i l y a n d C h i l d r e n ' s L a w , o p . c i t . , p . 32. ^ O G . Gherson, "Royal Commissions: F i n a n c i a l P o s t , N o v . 25, 1978, p . 6.  T h e G l o r y Y e a r s M a y Be A l m o s t O v e r , "  ^ T o m B e r g e r I n t e r v i e w , A u g u s t 1982. M r . B e r g e r was C o m m i s s i o n e r of M a c k e n z i e Valley Pipeline and F a m i l y L a w C o m m i s s i o n s .  the  ^ i n t e r v i e w ( J u n e , 1982) w i t h H i l a r y M c L o u g h l i n , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e c r e t a r y o f B . C . R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on F o r e s t r y w h i c h r e p o r t e d in 1979. ^interview Association.  the  ( J u l y , 1982) w i t h K i m R o b e r t s o f the W e s t c o a s t E n v i r o n m e n t a l L a w  M r . R o b e r t s and W E L A are o f t e n i n v o l v e d in helping i n t e r e s t groups  present their positions to c o m m i s s i o n s . ^ R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n F a m i l y a n d C h i l d r e n ' s L a w , o p . c i t . , p . 32. ^ Q u o t e d in K . K o n s t a n t y n o w i c z , " C i t i z e n Intervention," (unpublished, p.  1980),  6. * I b i d . , p . 6. 6  ^L. S a l t e r , "The R o l e of the P u b l i c in S c i e n t i f i c D e t e r m i n a t i o n of P o l i c y : C a n a d i a n Inquiry P r o c e s s , " U . o f T o r o n t o L a w J o u r n a l , V o l . 31 (1981), p . 345. ^ F i g u r e s taken from commission ^^Spicer, op. c i t . , pp.  9-10.  reports.  The  - 58 -  Commissions  1.  2.  B . C . R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on C o a l and Petroleum 1935).  Products, Final Report (Victoria,  B . C . R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on F a m i l y a n d Children's L a w , "The C o m m i s s i o n a n d the C o m m u n i t y " , 13th R e p o r t ( V a n c o u v e r ,  1975).  3.  B . C . R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on F o r e s t R e s o u r c e s , F i n a l R e p o r t of H o n . G . M c G . S l o a n , C h i e f J u s t i c e o f B . C . ( V i c t o r i a , 1945).  4.  B . C . R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n F o r e s t R e s o u r c e s , F i n a l R e p o r t ( V i c t o r i a , 1976).  5.  B . C . R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on H e a l t h I n s u r a n c e , F i n a l R e p o r t ( V i c t o r i a , 1921).  6.  B . C . R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o f Inquiry i n t o H e a l t h a n d E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n U r a n i u m M i n i n g , C o m m i s s i o n e r ' s R e p o r t ( V i c t o r i a , 1980).  7.  B . C . R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on State H e a l t h Insurance a n d M a t e r n i t y B e n e f i t s , F i n a l R e p o r t ( V i c t o r i a , 1932).  8.  C a n a d a , T h e M a c k e n z i e Valley Pipeline Inquiry, F i n a l R e p o r t , N o r t h e r n F r o n t i e r , N o r t h e r n H o m e l a n d , V o l . 2, T e r m s a n d C o n d i t i o n s ( O t t a w a ,  1977).  9.  C a n a d a , R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on C o r p o r a t e C o n c e n t r a t i o n , F i n a l R e p o r t 1978).  10.  C a n a d a , R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l Relations, F i n a l R e p o r t ( O t t a w a , 1940).  11.  C a n a d a , R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on Newspapers, F i n a l R e p o r t ( O t t a w a ,  12.  C a n a d a , R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on P r i c e Spreads, F i n a l R e p o r t ( O t t a w a ,  13.  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