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Strategic regional planning for the Lower Mainland of British Columbia, 1969-1981 : a systems interpretation Pawsey, Stuart 1987

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STRATEGIC REGIONAL PLANNING FOR THE LOWER MAINLAND OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1969-1981: A SYSTEMS INTERPRETATION by S t u a r t Pawsey B.A., U n i v e r i s t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1978 THESIS SUBMITTED IN THE REQUIREMENTS MASTER PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF FOR THE DEGREE OF OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November, 1987 ® S t u a r t Pawsey In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. School of Community and Department of Regional P l a n n i n g  The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date October 15, 1987 DE-6(3/81) i i ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s p r o v i d e s a l o n g t e r m a n a l y s i s o f s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g f o r the Lower Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969-1981. However, the very nature of such a long term study exposes r e s e a r c h problems that are masked by the t r a d i t i o n a l , s h o r t term or 'snap shot' approach. The f i r s t chapter reviews the problems of the t r a d i t i o n a l approach and argures that the l a c k of a dynamic, systems o r i e n t e d a p proach i n s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g stems from a t h e o r e t i c a l gap between grand, i . e . , g e n e r a l , t h e o r i e s and e m p i r i c a l l y t e s t a b l e hypotheses. In the t h e o r e t i c a l framework, chapter two, F a l u d i ' s (1973) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme i s s e l e c t e d as the most evolved ^example of a middle range or c o n t i n g e n c y theory w i t h i n the ambit of p r o c e d u r a l p l a n n i n g t h e o r y . F a l u d i ' s t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s of p l a n n i n g — t h e b l u e p r i n t v e r s u s p r o c e s s p l a n n i n g s t y l e s ; the r a t i o n a l comprehensive versus d i s j o i n t e d incremental p l a n n i n g s t y l e s ; and the normative versus f u n c t i o n a l p l a n n i n g s t y l e s — a r e t h e n r e l a t e d t o t h e t h r e e b a s i c components o f t h e s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g system: the type of p l a n ; the type o f p l a n n i n g a g e n c y ; and t h e t y p e o f ( o n g o i n g ) p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The v a r i a b l e s that F a l u d i uses to d e f i n e these t h r e e dimensions are a l s o o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d i n the context of the Lower Mainland study. Without any a p r i o r i hypotheses, t h e t h e o r e t i c a l framework i s u s e d i n c h a p t e r t h r e e t o d e s c r i p t i v e l y i n t e r p r e t s h i f t s a l o n g t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s of p l a n n i n g f o r each of the Lower M a i n l a n d s t u d y ' s f o u r time I l l p e r i o d s . The events and i s s u e s of the Lower Mainland study suggest the e x i s t e n c e of a l o n g term p l a n n i n g c y c l e , one d r i v e n by both economic growth and i n t e r a c t i o n s between the components of the s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g system. In the c o n c l u s i o n s to the study, chapter f o u r , t h i s c y c l e i s g e n e r a l i z e d i n t o a p a t t e r n of movements along the dimensions of p l a n n i n g and i s o f f e r e d as an i n i t i a l h y p o t h e s i s f o r e x p l o r i n g s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n other l o c a t i o n s . I t was not p o s s i b l e , however, to d i r e c t l y e s t a b l i s h c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the components o f t h e s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g s y s t e m b e c a u s e t h e movements along the dimensions of p l a n n i n g that were used to measure these components were i n t e r p r e t e d as 'averages' based on the c o n f l i c t i n g i m p a cts of numerous e v e n t s and i s s u e s . W h ile a l o n g term, systems o r i e n t e d a p p roach to a n a l y z i n g s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s s t i l l v a l i d and r e q u i r e d , f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h r e q u i r e s a more d e t a i l e d ( d i r e c t ) and i n t e g r a t e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme or model. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i Table Of Contents i v L i s t Of F i g u r e s v i i i A p p e ndicies x G l o s s a r y x i i Aknowledgments x i v 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Purpose 1 1.2 Working D e f i n i t i o n s 1.2.1 Regional Planning 3 1.2.2 S t r a t e g i c Planning 3 1.2.3 S t r a t e g i c Regional Planning . 4 1.3 The T r a d i t i o n a l Approach 1.3.1 E v a l u a t i o n 6 1.3.2 C r i t e r i a 7 1.4 E n g l i s h S t r u c t u r e P l a n n i n g Problems 1.4.1 A New Planning System 10 1.4.2 Regulatory Problems 12 1.4.3 Content Problems 14 1.4.4 E v a l u a t i o n Problems 18 1.4.5 Economic and O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Problems 21 1.4.6 Time Frame Problems 23 1.4.7 Conclusions 26 1.5 Towards A Systems Approach 1.5.1 A T h e o r e t i c a l Gap 27 1.5.2 Middle Range Theory 29 1.5.3 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Schemes And Contingency Theory . . . 31 1.5.4 Comparison Of Approaches 33 1.6 Information Sources And Case Study L i m i t a t i o n s . . . 33 2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 2.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 37 2.2 A C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Scheme 37 V 2.3 C o n c e p t u a l i z i n g The Pl a n n i n g System Components . . . 42 2.4 O p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g The Dimensions Of P l a n n i n g 47 2.5 The P l a n : B l u e p r i n t P l a n n i n g Versus Process P l a n n i n g 2.5.1 General 49 2.5.2 C e r t a i n t y Of Image 53 2.5.3 Degree Of C o n t r o l 57 2.5.4 Time Lags 64 2.6 The Pl a n n i n g Agency: R a t i o n a l Comprehensive Planning Versus D i s j o i n t e d Incremental P l a n n i n g 2.6.1 General 67 2.6.2 Image Of S o c i e t y 70 2.6.3 Scope Of Images 77 2.7 The Planning P r o c e s s : Normative P l a n n i n g Versus F u n c t i o n a l P l a n n i n g 2.7.1 General 79 2.7.2 Autonomy 82 2.7.3 Role Of Planner 84 3 INTERPRETATION 3.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 3.1.1 A p p l i c a t i o n 87 3.1.2 Overview a) 1969-1974 89 b) 1974-1978 91 c) 1978-1979 91 d) 1979-1981 93 3.2 Prologue: 1942-1969 3.2.1 The Lower Mainland 97 3.2.2 The E a r l y Years 99 3.2.3 Towards A Plan 101 3.2.4 A Concept Plan 103 3.2.5 An O f f i c i a l P l a n 105 3.2.6 The Regiona l D i s t r i c t s 107 3.2.7 LMRPB Demise 109 v i 3.3 The C a l l For An Update Of The ORP: 1969-1978 3.3.1 Chronology I l l 3.3.2 The P l a n : B l u e p r i n t Versus Process Planning a) summary 118 b) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n 119 3.3.3 The Pla n n i n g Agency: R a t i o n a l Comprehensive Versus D i s j o i n t e d Incremental P l a n n i n g a) summary 125 b) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n 126 3.3.4 The P l a n n i n g Process: Normative Versus F u n c t i o n a l Planning a) summary 134 b) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n 135 3.4 The P r e p a r a t i o n For The ORP Update: 1974-1978 3.4.1 Chronology 141 3.4.2 The P l a n : B l u e p r i n t Versus Process Planning a) summary 148 b) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n 149 3.4.3 The P l a n n i n g Agency: R a t i o n a l Comprehensive Versus D i s j o i n t e d Incremental Planning a) summary 157 b) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n 158 3.4.4 The Pla n n i n g Process: Normative Versus F u n c t i o n a l Planning a) summary 167 b) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n 168 3.5 The Formulation Of An Updated ORP: 1978-1979 3.5.1 Chronology 178 3.5.2 The P l a n : B l u e p r i n t Versus Process Planning a) summary 187 b) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n 188 3.5.3 The Pla n n i n g Agency: R a t i o n a l Comprehensive Versus D i s j o i n t e d Incremental Planning a) summary 199 b) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n 200 3.5.4 The Pla n n i n g Process: Normative Versus F u n c t i o n a l Planning a) summary 215 b) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n 216 v i i 3.6 The Adoption Of An Updated ORP: 1979-1981 3.6.1 Chronology 222 3.6.2 The Pl a n : B l u e p r i n t Versus Process Planning a) summary 233 b) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n 234 3.6.3 The Pla n n i n g Agency: R a t i o n a l Comprehensive Versus D i s j o i n t e d Incremental Planning a) summary 247 b) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n 248 3.6.4 The Pla n n i n g Process: Normative Versus F u n c t i o n a l Planning a) summary 261 b) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n 262 3.7 E p i l o g u e : 1981-1983 3.7.1 Pla n n i n g Act-Land Use Act 271 3.7.2 LMPRP P o l i c y Issues 273 3.7.3 A g r i c u l t u r a l Land 279 3.7.4 Repeal Of Regional P l a n n i n g 282 4 CONCLUSIONS 4.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 285 4.2 The Pla n n i n g C y c l e : E m p i r i c a l Observations 4.2.1 The L i t e r a t u r e 285 4.2.2 H i s t o r i c a l Overview a) establishment 288 b) f o r m u l a t i o n 289 c) d i s s o l u t i o n 293 4.3 The Pla n n i n g C y c l e : T h e o r e t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s 4.3.1 P r e s c r i p t i o n Or System? 300 4.3.2 Hypothesis 304 4.3.3 Comments On The Hypothesis 314 4.4 Research Problems And Future D i r e c t i o n s 315 5 BIBLIOGRAPHY 5.1 L i t e r a t u r e 319 5.2 Government 326 5.3 Interviews 344 v i i i LIST OP FIGURES 1 The P o l i t i c a l System 9 2 Comparison Of Approaches 34 3 F a l u d i ' s Opposing S t y l e Of Planning 41 4 Components And Dimensions Of S t r a t e g i c Regional P l a n n i n g 43 5 G i l l i n g w a t e r ' s L e v e l s Of Planning Context 46 6 The B l u e p r i n t Versus Process P l a n n i n g S t y l e s 51 7 Rural To Urban Dens i t y T r a n s i t i o n G r a d i e n t 56 8 Degree Of C o n t r o l And L e v e l Of A u t h o r i t y 58 9 Measurement Of Degree Of C o n t r o l 59 10 The R a t i o n a l Comprehensive Versus D i s j o i n t e d Incremental Planning S t y l e s 68 11 The S t r a t e g i c R e g i o n a l Planning S y s t e m - P o l i t i c a l 73 12 The S t r a t e g i c Regional Planning System-Staff 74 13 The Normative Versus F u n c t i o n a l P l a n n i n g S t y l e s 81 14 Movements Along The Planning Continuum: 1969-1974 . . 90 15 Movements Along The Planning Continuum: 1974-1978 . . 92 16 Movements Along The Planning Continuum: 1978-1979 . . 94 17 Movements Along The Planning Continuum: 1979-1981 . . 96 18 Regional D i s t r i c t s In the Lower Mainland 98 19 Chronology Of Events And Issues 1969-1974 112 20 Chronology Of Events And Issues 1974-1978 142 21 Chronology Of Events And Issues 1978-1979 179 22 Chronology Of Events And Issues 1979-1981 223 23 Canadian Housing S t a r t s And Planning A c t i v i t y . . . . 287 i x 24 The P l a n n i n g C y c l e 287 25 B r i t i s h Columbia And Lower Mainland Housing S t a r t s 299 26 The P l a n n i n g C y c l e And S t r a t e g i c R e g i o n a l Planning . . 301 27 The P l a n n i n g Continuum And C y c l e 307 X APPENDICIES 1 E x c e r p t s From The Town Pla n n i n g Act 346 2 Lower Mainland P l a n n i n g Review Panel 349 3 Exc e r p t s From The M u n i c i p a l Act 350 4 ORP Update Budget 1978 359 5 Plan Instrument E v a l u a t i o n Summary 360 6 Formulation Of The Development S t r a t e g y 361 F i g u r e A6-1: Sc e n a r i o Impact A n a l y s i s 365 F i g u r e A6-2: E v a l u a t i v e C r i t e r i a Weightings 367 F i g u r e A6-3: Composite Impact Ratings 368 F i g u r e A6-4: T o t a l Working Group Scores Reordered . . 371 7 Comparison Of D e s i g n a t i o n s , 1966-1979 375 8 How The Plans F i t Together 376 9 E v o l u t i o n Of The Development S t r a t e g y 377 10 Lower Mainland Development Concept And S t r a t e g y . . . 378 11 The S t r a t e g y I l l u s t r a t e d 379 12 The S t r a t e g y In Numbers 380 13 Lower Mainland Development Concept Map-2001 381 14 From Concept To Implementation 382 15 Centers Map 383 16 E f f e c t Of ORP 384 17 Plan Amendment Procedure 385 18 A n a l y s i s Of The Development Stra t e g y 387 F i g u r e A18-1: Comparison Of GVRD And VRD 388 Growth To 2001 F i g u r e A18-2: Net I n - M i g r a t i o n And P o p u l a t i o n Growth 391 x i F i g u r e A18-3: D i s t r i b u t i o n Of V a l l e y R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t P o p u l a t i o n To V a l l e y Towns. . . 394 19 Comparison Of 1966 ORP, F i r s t D r a f t , And F i n a l D r a f t of Updated ORP 397 20 Court R u l i n g On ORP D e t a i l 398 21 Comparison Of F i n a l D r a f t And Adopted ORP Minimum Lot S i z e s 399 22 Data For F i g u r e 26, B r i t i s h Columbia Housing S t a r t s 400 x i i GLOSSARY Agencies, Committees And Plans A s s o c i a t e d With Lower Mainland P l a n n i n g P r o v i n c i a l (Prov) MOMA ELUC ALC ALR LUA PRP URP RCC UBCM M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , know e a r l i e r as the M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s and Housing (MOMAH) and the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s (DOMA) Environment and Land Use Committee, a C a b i n e t Committee with i t s own S e c r e t a r i a t ( S e c r e t a r i a t e d i s s o l v e d p r i o r to updated ORP adoption) A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission, i n i t i a l l y termed the Land Reserve A g r i c u l t u r a l Land R e s e r v e , i n i t i a l l y terms the Land Reserve Land Use Act, a l s o known as the Plan n i n g A c t, was p r o p o s e d as a- b i l l by MOMA, but d i e d on o r d e r paper P r o v i n c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n s , broad brush r e g i o n a l p l a n s as proposed i n the LUA Urban R e g i o n a l P l a n s , l o c a l p lans as proposed i n the LUA Regional C o o r d i n a t i n g Committee, bodies to oversee r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g as proposed i n the LUA U n i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n , not c o n t r o l l e d by t h e Province Lower Mainland (LM) LMRPB LMPRP LMPCC TORSC Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, 1949-1969 Lower Mainland Planning Review Panel, 1969-1983 Lower M a i n l a n d P l a n C o o r d i n a t i n g Committee, the f u t u r e LMPRP as d e s c r i b e d i n the updated ORP Terms of Reference S t a f f Committee, 1974-1976, see RLC and TLC x i i i RLC Review L i a i s o n Committee, 1976, known e a r l i e r as the TORSC TLC T e c h n i c a l L i a i s o n Committee, 1977-1983, known e a r l i e r as the RLC and TORSC WG Working Group, 1978-1980 Regional D i s t r i c t s (RD) GVRD Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t DARD Dewdney A l o u t t e Regional D i s t r i c t CFVRD C e n t r a l F r a s e r V a l l e y Regional D i s t r i c t RDRC Re g i o n a l D i s t r i c t of Fr a s e r Cheam PC Pla n n i n g Committee ( p o l i t i c a l ) TPC T e c h n i c a l Planning Committee ( s t a f f ) JTPC J o i n t T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g C o m m i t t e e , ad hoc meetings between the fo u r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t TPCs on the i s s u e s of the Update process Plans ORP O f f i c i a l R egional Plan (RD) OSP O f f i c i a l Settlement PLan ( R D - E l e c t o r a l Area) OCP O f f i c i a l Community Plan ( M u n i c i p a l i t y ) LMORPU Lower Mainland O f f i c i a l R egional Plan Update, f u l l t i t l e f o r r e f e r e n c i n g a l l m a t e r i a l s produced as p a r t of the Update process x i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would f i r s t l y l i k e to thank my a d v i s o r s f o r t a k i n g the time t o r e a d my t h e s i s and make e d i t o r i a l comments. A s p e c i a l thanks i s due here to Brahm Wiesman f o r h i s seemingly i n f i n i t e p a t i e n c e and p e r s e v e r a n c e . I would a l s o l i k e t o thank my parents f o r t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the Pawsey S c h o l a r s h i p Fund d u r i n g the f i n a l stages of w r i t i n g t h i s t h e s i s . L a s t l y , f o r DR. M. Poulton (now s a f e l y ensconced i n a p l a n n i n g s c h o o l at the o t h e r s i d e of the country) who o r i g i n a l l y suggested t h i s t o p i c : M i c h a e l , may you be b l e s s e d with a l i f e time supply of i n t r a c t a b l e p l a n n i n g problems. 0 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Purpose The p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o r e v i e w and i n t e r p r e t s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g f o r the Lower Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia. The f o c u s i s on the years between 1969 and 1981, the p e r i o d d u r i n g which the need f o r an updated O f f i c i a l R e gional P l a n (ORP) f o r the Lower Mainland was r e c o g n i z e d and a new p l a n formulated. 1 While not d e l i b e r a t e l y concealed, Lower Mainland p l a n n i n g was c o n d u c t e d q u i e t l y and l a r g e l y out of the p u b l i c eye. The updated ORP f o r the Lower Mai n l a n d was not f o r m u l a t e d i n a pr e d e t e r m i n e d manner. There was no p r o v i n c i a l p l a n n i n g a c t , p r o v i d i n g r e g u l a t i o n s and q u i d e l i n e s , t o d i r e c t t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f the p l a n . Nor, d i d the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o d u c i n g the p l a n have, a t the onset, a mutually agreed upon model p l a n to work towards. In a d d i t i o n , the agency r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o o r d i n a t i n g s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , the Lower Mai n l a n d P l a n n i n g Review Panel (LMPRP), see s e c t i o n 2.5 to 2.7, had no s t a t u t o r y o b l i g a t i o n t o f i l e an a n n u a l r e p o r t o f i t s a c t i v i t i e s as d i d i t s p r e d e c e s s o r , the Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d (LMRPB), see s e c t i o n 3.2. A r e v i e w o f t h i s p e r i o d thus GVRD PD (1980/3) repealed 2 p r o v i d e s a f i r s t time f a c t u a l documentation of what has to date been a r a t h e r obscure and e s o t e r i c a c t i v i t y . The purpose of the t h e s i s , however, i s not j u s t to document the events and i s s u e s of t h i s p e r i o d , but to achieve an under-s t a n d i n g of t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e . G i v e n the seemingly ad hoc process through which a s t r a t e g i c p l a n f o r the Lower Mainland was developed, the q u e s t i o n of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to some common p o i n t of r e f e r e n c e poses a s e r i o u s problem. T h i s t h e s i s takes a systems o r i e n t e d approach to the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g and, i n doing so, attempts to l a y the f o u n d a t i o n s f o r the development of improved t h e o r i e s of p l a n n i n g . In the balance of the chapter, a b r i e f argument i s presented to support t h i s new d i r e c t i o n . The broad c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g are d e f i n e d i n the next s e c t i o n to help p r o v i d e an i n i t i a l b a s i s f o r the approach taken to the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Lower Mainland p l a n n i n g events and i s s u e s . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , i t i s argued that the t r a d i t i o n a l , e v a l u a t i v e a p p r o a c h i s f l a w e d and s e l f -d e f e a t i n g because of the i n h e r e n t c o n f l i c t between the two primary c r i t e r i a that u n d e r l i e a l l such a n a l y s e s of p l a n n i n g : e f f i c i e n c y and e f f e c t i v e n e s s . An e m p i r i c a l b a s i s f o r t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l a s s e r t i o n i s then p r o v i d e d through a b r i e f review of E n g l i s h s t r u c t u r e p l a n n i n g problems. A f t e r o u t l i n i n g the need f o r a dynamic, systems o r i e n t e d approach to i n t e r p r e t i n g s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , a summary comparison of bot h 3 approaches i s presented, and study l i m i t a t i o n s are noted. 1.2 Working D e f i n i t i o n s 1.2.1 Regional P l a n n i n g Because of i t s common p l a c e usage, the term r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s o f t e n t r e a t e d a s l o n g t e r m p l a n n i n g a n d i s u s e d synonymously w i t h the term s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g . T h i s i s not n e c e s s a r i l y so; r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s a h o r i z o n t a l a c t i v i t y t h a t i n v o l v e s the c o o r d i n a t i o n of l a n d use d e c i s i o n making, and r e l a t e d i s s u e s , between the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e sub-areas of a s i n g l e r e g i o n . While i t may i n v o l v e the f o r m u l a t i o n of longer term p l a n s , p o l i c i e s , and programs t o g u i d e the r e g i o n ' s f u t u r e growth, r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g can be as simple as ad hoc meetings between the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e sub-areas, i . e . , R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s , t o d e a l w i t h c r o s s b o u n d a r y i s s u e s s u c h as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n k a g e s . R e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , f r o m t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , c a n be d e f i n e d as an o n g o i n g p r o c e s s o f c o o p e r a t i v e d e c i s i o n making on Lower Mainland l a n d use and development i s s u e s . 1.2.2 S t r a t e g i c Planning The s t r a t e g i c p l a n i s not a s e t of f u t u r e d e c i s i o n s made i n the p r e s e n t , but a framework f o r g u i d i n g f u t u r e d e c i s i o n s . Here, S t e i n e r (1979, p. 13) notes t h a t , "The essence of formal 4 s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g i s t h e s y s t e m a t i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s and t h r e a t s t h a t l i e i n the f u t u r e . " The emphasis i n s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g i s on a l o n g term, systems p e r s p e c t i v e where s t r a t e g y (plan) f o r m u l a t i o n , implementation, and monitoring are seen to be l i n k e d together through time i n an i n t e r a c t i v e c y c l e . With most l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s b e i n g s t r u c t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n t o a t l e a s t two t i e r h i e r a r c h i e s , s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g a c t s as an u n i f y i n g mechanism. S t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g can now be d e f i n e d as a go a l o r i e n t e d and o p t i m i z i n g a c t i v i t y where t h e l o n g term s t r a t e g y o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s upper, managerial l e v e l p r o v i d e s a framework to g u i d e t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s l o w e r , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l and where f e e d b a c k from o p e r a t i o n a l p r o b l e m s a c t s t o m o d i f y t h e l o n g t erm s t r a t e g y o f t h e m a n a g e r i a l l e v e l . I f r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s s e e n as a h o r i z o n t a l a c t i v i t y that i n v o l v e s the c o o r d i n a t i o n of the land use f u n c t i o n over space, then s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g can be seen as a v e r t i c a l a c t i v i t y t h a t i n v o l v e s the c o o r d i n a t i o n of the r e g i o n ' s upper and lower t i e r s over time: between the LMPRP and Regional D i s t r i c t s and between the Regional D i s t r i c t s and t h e i r M u n i c i p a l i t i e s . 1.2.3 S t r a t e g i c Regional P l a n n i n g The use of the term s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s thus a d e l i b e r a t e attempt t o emphasize both the h o r i z o n t a l ( a r e a l ) 5 and v e r t i c a l ( o r g a n i z a t i o n a l ) a s p e c t s of long term la n d use p l a n n i n g . S t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g occurs at a p a r t i c u l a r s t a g e of r e g i o n a l i s m , one where the p h y s i c a l l y w e l l d e f i n e d r e g i o n has e v o l v e d i t s s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i o e c o n o m i c a l l y interdependent sub-areas, but had not yet gained f u l l autonomy over i t s own i n t e r e s t s from the S t a t e , i . e . , P r o v i n c e . At t h i s stage, which i s t y p i c a l l y represented by a ' m e t r o p o l i t a n ' type of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i . e . , a f e d e r a t e d , two t i e r h i e r a r c h y , there i s a balance between what F e s l e r (1969) terms f u n c t i o n a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and a r e a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , i . e . , the e f f i c i e n c y and e f f e c t i v e n e s s ( e q u i t y ) of l a n d use p l a n n i n g . S t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s t h u s c o t e r m i n o u s w i t h the p l a n n i n g system: the p l a n n i n g documents ( i n s t r u m e n t s ) , the p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n , and the ongoing p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The key, a p r i o r i , a s s u m p t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t the f e d e r a t e d or m e t r o p o l i t a n system o f f e r s the best l o n g term b a l a n c e between the f o r c e s of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . Instead of examining the c o n d i t i o n s f o r e q u i l i b r i u m , t h i s t h e s i s seeks to document and understand the process of adjustment over the long term. The dynamics of the s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g system i s thus the s u b j e c t r a t h e r than o b j e c t of the t h e s i s . The elements of the s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g system are more f u l l y d e f i n e d i n chapter 2. 6 1.3 The T r a d i t i o n a l Approach 1.3.1 E v a l u a t i o n The t r a d i t i o n a l a p p r oach t o r e v i e w i n g the a c t i v i t i e s of a g i v e n p l a n n i n g agency has been through e v a l u a t i o n where the p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e a g e n c y i s measured a g a i n s t a s e t o f prede t e r m i n e d c r i t e r i a . A f t e r e v a l u a t i n g the performance of the p l a n n i n g agency, the reviewer u s u a l l y p r o v i d e s a set of recommendations: s t r u c t u r a l and p r o c e d u r a l changes to b r i n g t h e a g e n c y i n t o e q u i l i b r i u m o r how i t o u g h t t o behave a c c o r d i n g to the c r i t e r i a . These p r e s c r i p t i o n s , however, o n l y p r o v i d e a s t a t i c , 'snapshot* view of the p l a n n i n g agency at any one p o i n t i n time. As such, the t r a d i t i o n a l approach i s a r e a c t i o n a r y one t h a t i g n o r e s the long term dynamics of the s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g system. Where l o n g t e r m s t u d i e s o f r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g have been u n d e r t a k e n , an e v o l u t i o n a r y a p p r o a c h has t y p i c a l l y been employed. In su c h c a s e s , a ' s t a n d a r d ' s e t o f n o r m a t i v e c r i t e r i a i s used t o d e f i n e the ' o p t i m a l ' arrangements f o r s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , i . e . , a two t i e r , m e t r o p o l i t a n f o r m o f a d m i n s t r a t i o n , a t the s t a r t o f t h e s t u d y . The e v o l u t i o n a r y approach, however, i s merely the i n v e r s e of the 'snapshot' approach: the former documents progress towards an end s t a t e d w h i l e the l a t t e r measures d e v i a t i o n away from an end s t a t e . In both s i t u a t i o n s , the r e s u l t i s an e v a l u a t i v e 7 judgement r a t h e r than a b e t t e r understanding of the s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g s y s t e m and the knowledge n e c e s s a r y f o r improved t h e o r i e s of p r o c e d u r a l p l a n n i n g . 1.3.2 C r i t e r i a The v a l i d i t y of the t r a d i t i o n a l approach u l t i m a t e l y depends on the c r i t e r i a employed. The c r i t e r i a t h a t are most commonly used i n c l u d e ; the time and c o s t of r e a c h i n g d e c i s i o n s ; the c l a r i t y and c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y of the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s ; the openness and a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the d e c i s i o n making process to t h o s e a f f e c t e d by i t s d e c i s i o n s ; the f l e x i b i l i t y of the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s i n accommodating new and unexpected circumstances; and the c o n s i s t e n c y and e q u i t y of the d e c i s i o n s made. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , these c r i t e r i a have been obtained from two sources: t h e o r i e s of s o c i a l democracy, p a r t i c u l a r l y Rauls (1973), and the laws of n a t u r a l j u s t i c e as e x e m p l i f i e d by the p r i n c i p l e s o f common law. The c r i t e r i a , once d e r i v e d and e s t a b l i s h e d , s u b s e q u e n t l y become a b s o l u t e , the unq u e s t i o n e d s t a n d a r d s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g how p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s ought to be s t r u c t u r e d and how pl a n n i n g ought to proceed. Easton's (1965) systems approach to the a n a l y s i s of p o l i t i c a l l i f e , i . e . , government, p r o v i d e s a common b a s i s f o r exposing the seemingly i n h e r e n t problems of the t r a d i t i o n a l approach. As p a r t of government, any pl a n n i n g agency can be analyzed by the r e l a t i o n s h i p between inputs of p u b l i c support (votes) and 8 r e s o u r c e s ( t a x e s ) , and i t s o u t p u t s o f d e c i s i o n s (laws and r e g u l a t i o n s ) and a c t i o n s ( s e r v i c e s ) . T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme can be used to reduce a l l the t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t e r i a to two b a s i c systems c r i t e r i a : e f f i c i e n c y and e f f e c t i v e n e s s . The e s s e n t i a l s of E a s t o n ' s systems approach a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 1 . E f f i c i e n c y i s a measure of the p l a n n i n g agency's a b i l i t y to make the best use of i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s ; i t i s the r a t i o of the agency's ou t p u t s to i t s i n p u t s that determines e f f i c i e n c y . While e f f i c i e n c y i s p r i m a r i l y c a l c u l a t e d on the b a s i s of time and c o s t , e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s a f u n c t i o n of a l l the othe r c r i t e r i a . E f f e c t i v e n e s s i s the r a t i o of the p l a n n i n g agency's i n p u t s r e l a t i v e to i t s output s ; i t i s a measure of th e e l e c t o r a t e ' s o v e r a l l l e v e l o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e planni n g agency's outputs. With i t s numerous c r i t e r i a reduced t o two s y s t e m s b a s e d c r i t e r i a , i t can be seen t h a t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l approach o f f e r s o n l y an e x t e r n a l p e r s p e c t i v e of the p l a n n i n g agency. The t r a d i t i o n a l approach, measuring o n l y the inputs and outputs to the pl a n n i n g agency and i g n o r i n g the agency's i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e and p r o c e d u r e s , can be termed a 'black box' technique. What q u i c k l y becomes o b v i o u s i n any l o n g term s t u d y o f a p l a n n i n g agency, however, i s that the c r i t e r i a of e f f i c i e n c y and e f f e c t i v e n e s s a re not m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e ; they i n t e r a c t over time. The two c r i t e r i a , i n many i n s t a n c e s , are d i r e c t l y 9 F i g u r e 1 : T h e P o l i t i c a l S y s t e m I N P U T S O U T P U T S S u p p o r t : V o t e s R e s o u r c e s : T a x e s G o v e r n m e n t A n d A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : T h e P l a n n i n g A g e n c y A c t i o n s : S e r v i c e s D e c i s i o n s : L a w s A n d R e g u l a t i o n s E n v i r o n m e n t : E l e c t o r a t e E f f i c i e n c y ( p r o d u c t i v i t y ) O u t p u t s I n p u t s E f f e c t i v e n e s s ( u t i l i t y ) I n p u t s O u t p u t s S o u r c e : F a s h i o n e d f r o m E a s t o n ( 1 9 6 5 ) 10 c o m p e t i t i v e . A p l a n n i n g agency attempting to be e f f e c t i v e by p r e p a r i n g a comprehensive p l a n through an open and a c c e s s i b l e p l a n n i n g process i s l i k e l y t o be i n e f f i c i e n t i n terms of the c o s t and lo n g p e r i o d of time r e q u i r e d to produce the p l a n . Where p u b l i c a c c e s s t o the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s d e n i e d or r e s t r i c t e d to improve e f f i c i e n c y , though, the eventual users o f t h e p l a n w i l l l i k e l y p r o t e s t t h a t t h e p l a n has n o t e f f e c t i v e l y d e a l t w i t h t h e i r p r o b l e m s and n e e d s . The p o l i t i c a l system, i n a democracy, i s a c l o s e d system between t h e e l e c t o r a t e and t h e g o v e r n m e n t . Thus, the p l a n n i n g agency's e f f e c t i v e n e s s , i n terms of the p u b l i c ' s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h i t s o u t p u t s , w i l l u l t i m a t e l y d e t e r m i n e the l e v e l o f in p u t s i n t o the p l a n n i n g agency and hence i t s very e x i s t e n c e . 1.4 E n g l i s h S t r u c t u r e P l a n n i n g Problems 1.4.1 A New Planning System In 1968, B r i t a i n enacted l e g i s l a t i o n that i n c o r p o r a t e d many of the recommendations made i n the P l a n n i n g A d v i s o r y Group's (1965) r e p o r t , The F u t u r e Of Development P l a n s . 2 The new, Town And Country Planning A c t , (GB 1968), r e p l a c e d the s i n g l e , s p a t i a l l y d e t a i l e d development p l a n w i t h a system employing two se p a r a t e , but mutually i n t e r a c t i v e p l a n s : s t r u c t u r e p l a n s , p r o v i d i n g a framework of s t r a t e g i c p o l i c y and land development d i r e c t i o n s , and l o c a l p l a n s , p r o v i d i n g the s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s 2 GB MHLG (1965) 11 necessary f o r the t a c t i c a l c o n t r o l , i . e . , zoning, of land use and development. In o p e r a t i o n , f a i r l y r i g i d s h o r t range l o c a l p l a n s would be f o r m u l a t e d and implemented w i t h i n the l o n g range, but f l e x i b l e framework of the s t r u c t u r e p l a n . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , the Government appointed s e v e r a l commissions to s t u d y the f u n c t i o n s and bo u n d a r i e s of l o c a l government. The recommendations of t h e s e Committees, which formed the b a s i s f o r the, L o c a l Government A c t , (GB 1972), shared two common f e a t u r e s : the g e n e r a l acceptance of the c i t y - r e g i o n as the n a t u r a l u n i t of s o c i a l geography and the c r e a t i o n of a two t i e r s t r u c t u r e f o r l o c a l government. In 1974, the f u l l p r o v i s i o n s of the Act were brought i n t o e f f e c t , and the upper t i e r or county ( r e g i o n a l ) l e v e l was assign e d the f u n c t i o n of pr e p a r i n g s t r u c t u r e p l a n s while the p r e p a r a t i o n of l o c a l p lans became t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e lower t i e r or d i s t r i c t ( m u n i c i p a l ) l e v e l . What had been c r e a t e d was a h i e r a r c h i c a l p l a n n i n g system, l i n k e d from the n a t i o n a l to d i s t r i c t l e v e l through a common l e g i s l a t i v e framework. S t r u c t u r e plans f o r v i r t u a l l y a l l of the c o u n t i e s i n England were prepared under t h i s new p l a n n i n g system d u r i n g the 1970's and e a r l y 1980's. With numerous r e v i e w s o f t h e E n g l i s h s t r u c t u r e p l a n n i n g experience having r e c e n t l y been completed, i t i s now p o s s i b l e t o re v i e w t h e s e reviews and p r o v i d e a g e n e r a l e v a l u a t i o n of how s u c c e s s f u l l y s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g performed i n a s i t u a t i o n where the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and 12 p r o c e d u r a l requirements f o r such p l a n n i n g were co m p a r a t i v e l y w e l l d e f i n e d i n l e g i s l a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g review uses the two b a s i c c r i t e r i a o f e f f i c i e n c y and e f f e c t i v e n e s s t o summarize E n g l i s h s t r u c t u r e p l a n n i n g problems under f i v e key i s s u e s . 1.4.2 Regulatory Problems S t r u c t u r e p l a n s were t o c o n s i s t of t h r e e documents: a key diagram and su p p o r t i n g i l l u s t r a t i o n , a w r i t t e n statement, and the S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e ' s l e t t e r o f a p p r o v a l . To promote e f f i c i e n c y , s t r u c t u r e plans were l e g i s l a t i v e l y p r o h i b i t e d from u s i n g base maps t o document d e t a i l e d l a n d use and o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n . Bristow (1982, p. 249) however, has noted t h a t , "The attempt to m a i n t a i n a l e v e l of a b s t r a c t i o n which g i v e s n o n s p e c i f i c i t y i n the p u b l i s h e d documents i s . . . n o t easy to m a i n t a i n and i n t r o d u c e s an appearance of u n r e a l i t y i n t o the p r o c e s s . . . . " In p r a c t i c e , the s t r u c t u r e p l a n n e r s d i d take s p e c i f i c s i t e s and l a n d uses i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n d u r i n g the f o r m u l a t i o n of s t r u c t u r e p l a n p o l i c i e s and p r o p o s a l s , but the 1974 r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f l o c a l government i n t o two l e v e l s complicated the s i t u a t i o n . A f t e r the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of l o c a l government, notes Solesbury (1983, p. 10), "Counties and d i s t r i c t s had vested i n t e r e s t s i n m a x i m i z i n g or m i n i m i z i n g the degree of d e t a i l i n s t r u c t u r e p l a n s , c r e a t i n g i n many cases t u s s l e s between them...." These 13 ' t u s s l e s ' decreased the e f f i c i e n c y of p l a n n i n g at the county l e v e l . In c e r t a i n p o l i c y a r e a s , s u c h as t h a t o f p u b l i c housing, the lack of feedback from the d i s t r i c t l e v e l c r e a t e d e x t r a work f o r the s t r u c t u r e p l a n n e r s . The d i s t r i c t s , by w i t h h o l d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on the use of e x i s t i n g c o u n c i l housing stock and housing programs, made i t d i f f i c u l t f o r the county l e v e l t o a c c u r a t e l y determine the amount of p u b l i c lands that should be r e l e a s e d . The a s signment of s i t e s p e c i f i c development c o n t r o l to the d i s t r i c t l e v e l reduced the s h o r t term e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the s t r u c t u r e p l a n , and the planners attempts to r e g a i n a u t h o r i t y d e c r e a s e d the e f f i c i e n c y o f p l a n n i n g a t the county l e v e l . While some c o u n t i e s t r i e d to i n c r e a s e the s p a t i a l d e t a i l of t h e i r s t r u c t u r e p l a n s , such attempts were not approved by the S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e . Q u a n t i t a t i v e c o n t r o l s u t i l i z i n g a r e a s p e c i f i c t a r g e t numbers to l i m i t or h a l t the growth of o f f i c e and r e t a i l s p a c e , e t c . , were s i m i l a r l y r e j e c t e d . In the ' d e c i s i o n r u l e ' approach t h a t was f i r s t developed f o r West Y o r k s h i r e ' s s t r u c t u r e p l a n , the county planners formulated a set of c o n s t r a i n t s w i t h i n which development c o u l d take p l a c e and produced c r i t e r i a f o r development pr o p o s a l s to s a t i s f y i n s e c u r i n g county a p p r o v a l . T h i s approach, u t i l i z i n g the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s of s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g , was accepted, but as Bristow (1983, p. 250) has noted, ...even here, there are d i f f i c u l t i e s i n d e c i d i n g j u s t what i s t h e r i g h t b a l a n c e between t h e 14 r i g i d i t y , and p r o b a b l y the e a r l y o b s o lescence, of t i g h t l y drawn p o l i c y r u l e s , and the making of them so l o o s e as to be v i r t u a l l y i n e f f e c t i v e . To p r o v i d e a c o u n t e r v a i l i n g a u t h o r i t y a g a i n s t the d i s t r i c t ' s a c q u i s i t i o n of development c o n t r o l , the c o u n t i e s were g i v e n t h e power t o ' c a l l i n ' , i . e . , h a l t and r e v i e w , t h o s e development p r o p o s a l s repugnant to the aims of t h e i r s t r u c t u r e p l a n s . However, Bristow (1983, p. 250) has noted t h a t , "The p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s o f r e l a t i o n s between c o u n t i e s and d i s t r i c t s a r e t h a t c o u n t i e s have been l o a t h t o use t h e d i r e c t i v e as an enforcement procedure a g a i n s t the d i s t r i c t s . " The e x e r c i s e of the ' c a l l i n ' a u t h o r i t y , which would have damaged t h e d a i l y t e c h n i c a l and p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the two l e v e l s , was l a r g e l y avoided f o r the sake of e f f i c i e n c y and the need to keep the s t r u c t u r e p l a n n i n g process f r o m c o m i n g t o a c o m p l e t e h a l t . I n some i n s t a n c e s , n e g o t i a t i o n between the two l e v e l s l e d t o c o n f l i c t and, u l t i m a t e l y , to settlement by the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e . The net r e s u l t o f s u c h a r b i t r a t i o n , o f c o u r s e , was t h e i m p l i c i t c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of p l a n n i n g a t the n a t i o n a l l e v e l and the weakening of the s t r u c t u r e plan's e f f e c t i v e n e s s at the county l e v e l . 1.4.3 Content Problems In a 1979 manual on s t r u c t u r e p l a n form and c o n t e n t , the M i n i s t r y Of H o u s i n g and L o c a l Government s u g g e s t e d t h a t 15 s t r u c t u r e plans might p r o v i d e a means f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g p u b l i c i n p u t ; a forum f o r d i s c u s s i o n between v a r i o u s p l a n n i n g bodies; and a b a s i s f o r c o o r d i n a t i n g a l l development d e c i s i o n s . There e x i s t e d , notes Solebury (1980, p. 11), "...common e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t the s t r u c t u r e p l a n might take on a wider r o l e i n l o c a l a u t h o r i t y p o l i c y making." S i n c e t h e r e were few l e g i s l a t i v e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r the process of p r e p a r i n g s t r u c t u r e p l a n s , the county planners were f r e e to d e v i s e t h e i r own procedures. The combination of h i g h e x p e c t a t i o n s and l a c k of p r o c e d u r a l r u l e s l e d to a p l a n n i n g process where the e a r l y emphasis was on s a t i s f y i n g c r i t e r i a p e r t a i n i n g to e f f e c t i v e n e s s rather than e f f i c i e n c y . While p r o c e d u r a l r e s t r i c t i o n s were l a t e r put i n p l a c e , i t might be s a i d that the p l a n n i n g process was almost too e f f e c t i v e i n i t s r e s p o n s i v e n e s s or f l e x i b i l i t y to l o c a l c i rcumstances. The, Town And Country Planning Act, (GB 1971), r e q u i r e d that the p o l i c i e s and p r o p o s a l s of the s t r u c t u r e p l a n be supported by 'reasoned j u s t i f i c a t i o n ' i n the form of a re p o r t of survey. While the survey was to support the approval of the s t r u c t u r e p l a n , the survey was not o f f i c i a l l y p a r t of the p l a n and d i d not i t s e l f r e q u i r e a p p r o v a l . The M i n i s t r y of Housing and L o c a l Government, i n 1970, pro v i d e d an a d v i s o r y check l i s t of i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t would t y p i c a l l y be r e q u i r e d t o f a c i l i t a t e p l a n a p p r o v a l , a l i s t t h a t roughly p a r a l l e l e d the s u b j e c t s l i s t e d i n the l e g i s l a t i o n as p o s s i b l e p o l i c y concerns of the s t r u c t u r e p l a n . Since much of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d not be 16 o b t a i n e d from p u b l i s h e d sources, most of the s t r u c t u r e plans r e q u i r e d time consuming and c o s t l y l o c a l surveys. Solesbury (1983, p. 17) n o t e s t h a t , "The o r g a n i z a t i o n of d a t a i n t o i n f o r m a t i o n systems thus became an important p r e o c c u p a t i o n of s t r u c t u r e p l a n n i n g . . . . " The p r e p a r a t i o n of e x p e n s i v e , d e t a i l e d s u r v e y s tended to r e s u l t i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of d r a f t s t r u c t u r e p l a n s w i t h an over abundance of g o a l s , o b j e c t i v e s , and p o l i c y a l t e r n a t i v e s . As B a r r a s (1981, p. 18) notes, " . . . p o l i c i e s were ge n e r a t e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o o f t e n complex and a b s t r a c t h i e r a r c h i e s of s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s which were e s s e n t i a l l y a p r o d u c t of the p l a n n e r ' s i m a g i n a t i o n . " The qrouping of p o l i c y a l t e r n a t i v e s i n t o s p a t i a l l y e x p r e s s e d s t r a t e g i e s reduced the number of a l t e r n a t i v e s , but i t t y p i c a l l y i n c r e a s e d the c o m p l e x i t y and l e n g t h of the e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s . While the f e a s i b l e range of p o l i c y a l t e r n a t i v e s was c o n s t r a i n e d by the slowing of n a t i o n a l economic growth and the accompanying r e d u c t i o n s i n p u b l i c s e c t o r resources to implement p l a n s , the process of e v a l u a t i o n through the steady a t t r i t i o n of p o l i c y a l t e r n a t i v e s was slow and time consuming. The very s e a r c h f o r comprehensiveness thus l e d to a somewhat i n e f f i c i e n t p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . In a d d i t i o n to p r o v i d i n g a comprehensive d e s c r i p t i o n of the s t r u c t u r e p l a n area, the r e p o r t of survey was to analyze the f u t u r e i m p a c t o f s o c i o e c o n o m i c and o t h e r t r e n d s on t h e p o l i c i e s and p r o p o s a l s of the p l a n . Barras (1981) has argued 17 t h a t the use of di s a g g r e g a t e d f o r e c a s t i n g techniques, such as the c o h o r t s u r v i v a l ( p o p u l a t i o n ) and economic base models, r e s u l t e d i n a fragmented, s e c t o r a l approach to a n a l y s i s . In an a t t e m p t t o f o r m l i n k a g e s between p o l i c y a r e a s , many p l a n n e r s used the outputs of one f o r e c a s t i n g e x e r c i s e as the i n p u t s of an o t h e r . P o p u l a t i o n f o r e c a s t s , f o r example, were t y p i c a l l y used to determine a l l other growth f i g u r e s : labour f o r c e , employment, and housing s t a r t s , e t c . In g e n e r a l , t h i s a p p r o a c h t o p o l i c y a n a l y s i s , which Bracken and Hume (1981) term the ' l i n e a r d e d u c t i v e ' approach, p r e s e n t e d a d e c e p t i v e i m p r e s s i o n of p o l i c y i n t e g r a t i o n and f a i l e d to c o n s i d e r the e f f e c t of p l a n implementation i t s e l f on the f o r e c a s t , i . e . , feedback. I f the above, l i n e a r d e ductive techniques were c r i t i c i z e d f o r b e i n g i n e f f e c t i v e , t h e n l a t e r e f f o r t s were c r i t i c i z e d f o r t h e i r i n e f f i c i e n c y . Some s t r u c t u r e p l a n n e r s , a t t e m p t i n g to e n c l o s e the dynamic n a t u r e of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , i n i t i a t e d complex model b u i l d i n g p r o j e c t s . However, e f f o r t s to u t i l i z e m o d e l l i n g techniques were no more s u c c e s s f u l i n England than anywhere e l s e and, i n 1973, the Department of the Environment a d v i s e d s t r u c t u r e planners that the b e n e f i t s of mode l l i n g to a s s i s t p o l i c y e v a l u a t i o n had to be measured a g a i n s t the time and expense of r e a c h i n g d e c i s i o n s through such t e c h n i q u e s . L a t e r , under the, L o c a l Government, Planning And Land Act, (GB 1980), the requirement of subm i t t i n g r e p o r t s of survey to the S e c r e t a r y of St a t e was completely removed. 18 The complexity of the survey and the comprehensive search f o r p o l i c y a l t e r n a t i v e s together r e s u l t e d i n a slow and expensive p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . To counter such i n e f f i c i e n c y , the county p l a n n e r s e v o l v e d t h e key i s s u e s c o n c e p t : s t r u c t u r e p l a n content was to be l i m i t e d to p o l i c y i s s u e s of key s t r u c t u r a l importance to the p l a n n i n g of the area, and these i s s u e s were s p e c i f i c a l l y l i s t e d i n r e g u l a t i o n s adopted by the government i n 1974. "With key i s s u e s , " note Bristow and Cross (1983, p. 31 0 ) , "have come more c o n c r e t e and d i v e r s e p l a n - m a k i n g approaches based upon r e a l l o c a l problems r a t h e r than vague o b j e c t i v e s . " The key i s s u e s concept, though, marked the s t a r t of a s e r i e s of Government e d i c t s that served to c o n s t r i c t the scope of the s t r u c t u r e p l a n to that of a s t r a t e g i c l a n d use p l a n . As Bracken and Hume (1981) have o b s e r v e d , i n c r e a s e d e f f i c i e n c y f o r i n d i v i d u a l plans l e d a g e n e r a l weakening of the e n t i r e s t r u c t u r e p l a n n i n g system. 1.4.4 E v a l u a t i o n Problems The, Town And Country P l a n n i n g A c t , (GB 1971), r e q u i r e d the c o u n t i e s to gi v e adequate p u b l i c i t y to the r e p o r t s of survey and d r a f t p o l i c i e s ; to ensure the o p p o r t u n i t y of i n d i v i d u a l s and groups to make r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s on proposed p o l i c i e s ; and t o t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the views e x p r e s s e d i n t h e s e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . While these requirements were i n t e n d e d to make the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s open and a c c o u n t a b l e , the l a c k of pr o c e d u r a l g u i d e l i n e s to ensure t h i s r e s u l t e d i n c r i t i c i s m s of 19 the new p l a n n i n g system's e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Barras (1983, p. 19) n o t e s t h a t , " . . . e x p e r i e n c e w i t h e a r l y s t r u c t u r e p l a n s c a s t doubt on the a b i l i t y of complex and s o p h i s t i c a t e d e v a l u a t i o n m e t h o d s t o r e f l e c t a d e q u a t e l y t h e l o c a l p o l i t i c a l p r e f e r e n c e s . . . , " Planners using techniques i n v o l v i n g weighted scores and c o m b i n a t o r i a l s e l e c t i o n , i . e . , the p l a n n i n g balance sheet ( L i c h f i e l d , 1966) and g o a l s achievement m a t r i x ( H i l l , 1968), were accused of producing ' p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n s ' i n which the i n p u t of community values had been c a r e f u l l y f i l t e r e d i n o r d e r t o s u p p o r t the p l a n n e r s ' own p r e f e r r e d o p t i o n s . As Barker (1983, p. 269) has observed, " . . . i t i s a t t r a c t i v e to the managers to o f f e r o p t i o n s which are w i t h i n the p o l i t i c a l middle-ground f o r g e n e r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n , and then c l a i m t h e i r endorsement by the p u b l i c c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s . " In e x t r e m e l y c o n t e n t i o u s c i r c u m s t a n c e s , the p u b l i c were t y p i c a l l y d e n i e d a c c e s s to the f o r m u l a t i o n of p l a n p o l i c i e s and s t r a t e g i e s a l t o g e t h e r . Such a s i t u a t i o n o c c u r r e d i n the West Midlands where county amalgamation l e f t p l a n n e r s with a t o t a l of e i g h t s t r u c t u r e plans competing f o r a p p r o v a l . Here, p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n was l i m i t e d to comments on a s i n g l e p l a n p r o p o s a l p r e p a r e d t h r o u g h 'backroom' n e g o t i a t i o n s . B a r r a s (1981, p. 16), however, argues t h a t , "Even where c o u n c i l s have made great e f f o r t s to t e s t p u b l i c o p i n i o n , they have found a widespread lac k of i n t e r e s t . " T h i s lack of i n t e r e s t appears to have been an i n h e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the s t r u c t u r e p l a n . Here, B a r r a s (1981, p. 16) p o i n t s out t h a t , " T h e i r p o l i c i e s 20 are too broad to be seen to a f f e c t i n d i v i d u a l p r o p e r t i e s . . . a n d they do not g e n e r a l l y propose s p e c i f i c investment p r o j e c t s such motorways or a i r p o r t s . " Where s t r o n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n o c c u r r e d , i t tended to come f r o m o r g a n i z e d s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t g r o u p s i n t h e f o r m o f l o b b y i n g . In t h i s regard, Barker (1983, p. 258) notes t h a t , " P u b l i c a t t i t u d e s f r e q u e n t l y seem f a t e d to c o n t r a d i c t each o t h e r . " The c l a s h o f p u b l i c i n t e r e s t g r o u p s and t h e i r p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a c t e d to widen the base of p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n and countermand the p r i n c i p l e s of the 'key i s s u e s ' d i r e c t i v e . Since the s t r u c t u r e p l a n s c o u l d only express one land use s t r a t e g y to s a t i s f y a l l i n t e r e s t s , such c o n f l i c t s had a d i r e c t impact on the p l a n n e r s ' task of reaching concensus. Bristow (1983, p. 237) has observed t h a t , "With more and more c o n s u l t a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h r u s t upon them, the path to t h a t concensus has now become more t o r t u o u s and lengthy, i f a c h i e v a b l e at a l l . " The e f f i c i e n c y of the p l a n n i n g process was f u r t h e r decreased b y m e a s u r e s t h a t w e r e i n t e n d e d t o i m p r o v e t h e comprehensiveness, and hence e f f e c t i v e n e s s , of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Between 1971 and 1977 , t h e Department o f t h e Environment i n c r e a s e d the number of p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s t h a t were always to be c o n s u l t e d on s t r u c t u r e plans from 8 to 16. T h i s expansion o c c u r r e d a t the same time t h a t the scope of s t r u c t u r e p l a n n i n g was being narrowed to shorten the l e n g t h of 21 time r e q u i r e d f o r p l a n p r e p a r a t i o n . While the p u b l i c had the r i g h t to v o i c e t h e i r o b j e c t i o n s once the s t r u c t u r e p l a n had been s u b m i t t e d to the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e , t h i s r i g h t was g r e a t l y l i m i t e d a f t e r the Government's 1973 d e c i s i o n t o e l i m i n a t e the t r a d i t i o n a l p u b l i c h e a r i n g . The new a r r a n g e m e n t , t h e ' e x a m i n a t i o n i n p u b l i c ' , was conducted as a p u b l i c debate, but o n l y persons i n v i t e d by the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e were allowed to speak and o n l y on s e l e c t e d m atters of key importance to the S e c r e t a r y ' s a p p r o v a l of the p l a n . B r i s t o w and C r o s s (1983, p. 315) a r g u e t h a t the e x a m i n a t i o n i n p u b l i c was, "...no more and no l e s s than a f o r m a l i z e d d i s c u s s i o n between p r o f e s s i o n a l s , with o n l y minimal c o n t r i b u t i o n s , i f any at a l l , from p u b l i c p r e s s u r e groups and, even more r a r e l y , i n d i v i d u a l s . " I t thus appears t h a t any i n c r e a s e s i n t h e o p e n n e s s a n d a c c e s s i b i l i t y , i . e . , e f f e c t i v e n e s s , of the p l a n f o r m u l a t i o n process at the county l e v e l were d i s c o u n t e d by the Government's d e s i r e f o r a l e s s time consuming, i . e . , more e f f i c i e n t , process of p l a n a p p r o v a l at the n a t i o n a l l e v e l . 1.4.5 Economic And O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Problems S t r u c t u r e p l a n s , as o r i g i n a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d , were t o be f o r m u l a t e d w i t h i n n a t i o n a l p o l i c y s t r a t e g i e s . D u r i n g the e a r l y 1970's, many c o u n t i e s c h a l l e n g e d the s t a t u s quo and attempted to use t h e i r s t r u c t u r e p l a n s , "...as a medium f o r 22 advocating change i n r e g i o n a l or n a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s which, they a r g u e d , o p e r a t e d t o t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e o f t h e i r a r e a s . " (Solesbury 1983, p. 10). One way f o r the county planners to achieve t h e i r r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o b j e c t i v e s was to i n c l u d e w i t h i n the s t r u c t u r e p l a n a c o r p o r a t e p l a n d e t a i l i n g major p u b l i c works p r o j e c t s and the r e q u i r e d expenditures to f i n a n c e them. In essence, the county l e v e l was a t t e m p t i n g t o d e c e n t r a l i z e s p e n d i n g f r o m t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l and so i n c r e a s e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the s t r u c t u r e p l a n . B r i t a i n ' s economy moved i n t o an ever d e e p e n i n g r e c e s s i o n d u r i n g the l a t e 1970's, and i t s Government, d i s c o v e r i n g that r o u g h l y o n e - t h i r d of a l l n a t i o n a l e x p e n d i t u r e s were b e i n g consumed by the l o c a l l e v e l , q u i c k l y moved to h a l t s t r u c t u r e p l a n n i n g 'advocacy'. In an attempt to r e s t r a i n and j u s t i f y s p e n d i n g , t h e G o v e r n m e n t c r e a t e d a P u b l i c E x p e n d i t u r e Committee and extended i t s f u n c t i o n a l b a s i s down to the l o c a l l e v e l . Where the county l e v e l had p r e v i o u s l y been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l o c a t i n g resources between i t s departments, the v a r i o u s Government m i n i s t r i e s now d e a l t d i r e c t l y w i t h each c o u n t y department i n a separate, zero based budgeting format. T h i s c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i n c r e a s e d e f f i c i e n c y a t the n a t i o n a l l e v e l , but fragmented the o p e r a t i o n s o f l o c a l government, e s p e c i a l l y a t the county l e v e l . While the Government a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d the county p o s i t i o n s of C h i e f E x e c u t i v e O f f i c e r ( a d m i n s t r a t i o n ) a n d P o l i c y a n d R e s o u r c e s C o m m i t t e e 23 ( p o l i t i c a l ) , n e i t h e r of these p o s i t i o n s g r e a t l y a s s i s t e d the c o o r d i n a t i o n of county d e c i s i o n making on a l l those i s s u e s p e r t a i n i n g to land use p l a n n i n g . Here, Barras (1981, p. 15) has observed t h a t , " . . . i n t e r - d e p a r t m e n t a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n at the o p e r a t i o n a l l e v e l has not p r o v i d e d the n e c e s s a r y b a s i s f o r e f f e c t i v e s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g . " 1.4.6 Time Frame Problems In 1974 as p a r t of i t s e f f o r t s t o end s t r u c t u r e p l a n n i n g 'advocacy 1, the Government i s s u e d e d i c t s t h a t c l a r i f i e d the s t a t u s of s t r u c t u r e p l a n s and c o r p o r a t e p l a n s . The former were to be s t a t u t o r y and long term i n nature while the l a t t e r would remain as an o p t i o n a l , inhouse management technique. In theory, there should have bee a balanced, two way r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two p l a n s : the s t r u c t u r e p l a n should have gi v e n the c o r p o r a t e p l a n s a p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e most e f f e c t i v e l o c a t i o n s f o r p r o v i d i n g i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , and the c o r p o r a t e p l a n s s h o u l d have been a b l e to i n d i c a t e the most e f f i c i e n t means of a c h i e v i n g or changing these s t r a t e g i e s g i v e n l i m i t e d p u b l i c r e s o u r c e s . In p r a c t i c e , a fundamental c l a s h arose over d i f f e r i n g p l a n time s c a l e s , between the long term p e r s p e c t i v e of the s t r u c t u r e p l a n and the s h o r t term p e r s p e c t i v e , i . e . , f i v e y e a r s or l e s s , of the r e s o u r c e based c o r p o r a t e p l a n s . Here, Barras (1981, p. 15) has noted t h a t , When they were i n t r o d u c e d , S t r u c t u r e Plans were a unique medium to long-term p l a n to guide the 24 f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f an a r e a . Now they a r e b e i n g s u r r o u n d e d by s h o r t e r - t e r m i n v e s t m e n t p l a n s c o v e r i n g some of the major t o p i c s of the S t r u c t u r e P l a n such as housing and t r a n s p o r t , b u t p r e p a r e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y by s e p a r a t e departments. The f u t u r e r o l e of S t r u c t u r e Plans i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to the new s e c t o r a l programmes i s thus being c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n . With the l e g i s l a t i v e r u l e a g a i n s t s i t e s p e c i f i c i t y , the county p l a n n e r s were not a b l e t o d i r e c t l y i n c o r p o r a t e the s p a t i a l d e t a i l s of d i s t r i c t l e v e l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e i n t o t h e i r s t r u c t u r e p l a n s . Those s t r u c t u r e p l a n n e r s who based t h e i r c o n c e p t d i a g r a m s on g e n e r a l i z e d a g g r e g a t i o n s o f s h o r t t e r m i n f r a s t r u c t u r e programs found t h e i r p lans being q u i c k l y out-dated when these programs were not implemented due to changing f i s c a l p r i o r i t i e s and c u t b a c k s . In essence, the short term plans and programs i m p l i c i t l y d e c e n t r a l i z e d l a n d use p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t y to the d i s t r i c t l e v e l and commensurately decreased the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the s t r u c t u r e p l a n and the county l e v e l . To compete with the s h o r t term approach of the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e p l a n s and i n c r e a s e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the s t r u c t u r e p l a n , the county l e v e l i n i t i a t e d s h o r t e r f o r m a l review p e r i o d s . Three years, r a t h e r than the f i v e years o r i g i n a l l y conceived, became t h e t y p i c a l p e r i o d f o r p l a n r e v i e w . W i t h t h e i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f c o m p l e t e d s t r u c t u r e p l a n s , t h e s h o r t e n i n g of the review p e r i o d switched the t e c h n i c a l focus of s t r u c t u r e p l a n n i n g back to the development of i n f o r m a t i o n based m o n i t o r i n g systems. I t appears, however, that the new emphasis on m o n i t o r i n g systems merely s e r v e d to shorten the 25 review p e r i o d f u r t h e r , r e s u l t i n g i n an annual review p e r i o d t h a t m a t c h e d t h e c o r p o r a t e b u d g e t i n g s y s t e m s . By u n n e c e s s a r i l y i n c r e a s i n g the work and expense of s t r u c t u r e p l a n n i n g , the s h o r t e r review p e r i o d decreased the e f f i c i e n c y of the county l e v e l . A f t e r 1978, i n n e r c i t y d i s t r i c t s f a c i n g l a r g e l y non s p a t i a l problems were g r a n t e d the a u t h o r i t y t o p r e p a r e l o c a l p l a n s b e f o r e t h e a p p r o v a l o f s t r u c t u r e p l a n s a t the c o u n t y or m e t r o p o l i t a n l e v e l . T h i s r e l a x a t i o n of l e g i s l a t i v e l y d e f i n e d procedures r e v e r s e d the top down concept of s t r u c t u r e p l a n n i n g as s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g . L a t e r , the Government's 1980, L o c a l  Government, Pl a n n i n g And Land Use A c t , extended the r e l a x a t i o n t o a l l d i s t r i c t s . The new l e g i s l a t i o n exacerbated the long s t a n d i n g p r o b l e m s o f s i t e s p e c i f i c i t y and v e r t i c a l c o o r d i n a t i o n between county and d i s t r i c t l e v e l p l a n s . In 1982, notes B r i s t o w (1983), a p u b l i c i n q u i r y found that the l a n d r e l e a s e p o l i c i e s of Greater Manchester's s t r u c t u r e p l a n had been undermined by a d i s t r i c t l e v e l green b e l t p l a n . The p r i o r c o m p l e t i o n of s p a t i a l l y d e t a i l e d l o c a l p l a n s t h u s f e t t e r e d the a b i l i t y of county p l a n n e r s to l a t e r f o r m u l a t e independent land use p o l i c i e s . While county p l a n n e r s were s h o r t e n i n g the review p e r i o d s of t h e i r s t r u c t u r e p l a n s to make them more e f f e c t i v e , the new l e g i s l a t i o n i n h e r e n t l y p e r m i t t e d the d i s t r i c t p l a n n e r s t o lengthen the time frames of t h e i r l o c a l p l a n s . Many c r i t i c s 26 now a r g u e t h a t t h i s emphasis on the s h o r t term had made s t r u c t u r e p l a n n i n g too f l e x i b l e , and that long term p l a n n i n g a t the c o u n t y l e v e l i s b e i n g i g n o r e d or c o n d u c t e d w i t h o u t p u b l i c knowledge. Thus, s t a t e s Bristow (1983, p. 253), . . . t h e r e i s a c l e a r c o n f l i c t of i n t e r e s t , even a t the g e n e r a l i z e d s c a l e of the s t r u c t u r e p l a n , between the d e s i r e f o r a f i r m l y known short-term p l a n which i s e f f e c t i v e i n implementation terms and t h e l o n g e r - t e r m o u t l i n e o b j e c t i v e s o f s t r a t e g i c forward p l a n n i n g . 1.4.7 C o n c l u s i o n s D u r i n g some 10 y e a r s o f s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n E n g l a n d , the s t a t u s of the s t r u c t u r e p l a n and the p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t y of the county l e v e l have both s t e a d i l y d e c l i n e d . E f f o r t s t o make the p l a n n i n g system more e f f i c i e n t t y p i c a l l y r e s u l t e d i n the c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of d e c i s i o n making a u t h o r i t y at t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l , a s i t u a t i o n t h a t l e s s e n e d t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s t r u c t u r e p l a n c o o r d i n a t i o n at the county l e v e l . C o n v e r s e l y , t h e i n c r e a s i n g d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f development c o n t r o l measures a c t e d to improve the immediate e f f e c t i v e n e s s of p l a n n i n g at the d i s t r i c t l e v e l while f o r c i n g the county l e v e l i n t o a d e f e n s i v e p o s i t i o n and d e c r e a s i n g i t s e f f i c i e n c y . The l o s s of p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t y up to the n a t i o n a l l e v e l and down to the d i s t r i c t l e v e l s erved to i s o l a t e the c o u n t i e s . Now, E n g l i s h p l a n n i n g c r i t i c s are using the same arguments that were used i n the establishment of the s t r u c t u r e p l a n n i n g s y s t e m t o d e f e n d what remains of the s t r u c t u r e p l a n n i n g system. 27 I f the f o r e g o i n g review of England's p l a n n i n g system appears o v e r l y n e g a t i v e , i t i s b e c a u s e t h e E n g l i s h r e v i e w e r s t h e m s e l v e s have been h i g h l y c r i t i c a l o f s t r u c t u r e p l a n n i n g e f f o r t s . The reviewers, over more than a decade of s t r u c t u r e p l a n n i n g , have a l t e r n a t i v e l y c r i t i c i z e d the e f f i c i e n c y and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the new p l a n n i n g system. Without e x p l i c i t r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s e two c r i t e r i a a r e not m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e , the o n l y c o n c l u s i o n p o s s i b l e from t h i s s e r i e s o f snap s h o t r e v i e w s i s t h a t E n g l a n d ' s s t r u c t u r e p l a n n i n g has been a f a i l u r e and t h a t s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s unworkable. T h i s c o n c l u s i o n , the r e s u l t of the t r a d i t i o n a l a p p r o a c h , i g n o r e s t h e l a r g e r argument t h a t s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , as e nabled by a two t i e r e d , or f e d e r a t e d form of r e g i o n a l i s m , o f f e r s the best p o s s i b l e long term balance between e f f i c i e n c y and e f f e c t i v e n e s s . 1.5 Towards A Systems Approach 1.5.1 A T h e o r e t i c a l Gap The p r e c e d i n g review of England's e x p e r i e n c e w i t h s t r u c t u r e p l a n n i n g p r o v i d e s a measure of e m p i r i c a l s u p p o r t f o r the t h e o r e t i c a l a s s e r t i o n t h a t the c r i t e r i a of e f f i c i e n c y and e f f e c t i v e n e s s a r e not m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e and, i n c e r t a i n i n s t a n c e s , may w e l l be i n d i r e c t c o n f l i c t with each other over 28 t h e l o n g t e r m . I f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a p p r o a c h to r e v i e w i n g s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g emphasizes both i t s i n e f f i c i e n c y and i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s , even i n circumstances where the p l a n n i n g system i s c l e a r l y d e f i n e d i n l e g i s l a t i o n a t the onset, then t h e r e i s even l e s s u t i l i t y i n using such an approach to review s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g where the arrangements, s t r u c t u r a l and p r o c e d u r a l , are l e s s p r e c i s e l y d e f i n e d . A new a p p r o a c h to r e v i e w i n g s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s r e q u i r e d , one that c o n s i d e r s how the system a d j u s t s to change over time. Rather than judging s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g on the b a s i s of a b s o l u t e c r i t e r i a , the elements of the s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g s y s t e m — t h e p l a n , the p l a n n i n g agency, and the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s — m u s t be analyzed r e l a t i v e to each o t h e r . Such a dynamic, systems based approach would pr o v i d e a long term, i n t e r n a l p e r s p e c t i v e i n c o n t r a s t to the s h o r t term, e x t e r n a l p e r s p e c t i v e o f f e r e d by the t r a d i t i o n a l , c r i t e r i a based approach. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , an i n t e g r a t e d theory capable o f f u l l y e x p l a i n i n g t h e l o n g term o p e r a t i o n of s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g has yet to be developed. P r o c e d u r a l p l a n n i n g theory, what Hightower has c a l l e d t h e o r i e s 'of' r a t h e r than t h e o r i e s ' i n ' ( s u b s t a n t i v e ) p l a n n i n g , can be s e e n t o be p a r t o f t h e i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y a r e a o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r . As such, the problems found i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l behavior are r e f l e c t i v e of the problems found i n i t s c o n s t i t u e n t f i e l d s o f p r o c e d u r a l p l a n n i n g t h e o r y , 29 s o c i o l o g y , s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y , and b u s i n e s s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Common to a l l these r e l a t e d f i e l d s i s the dilemma of a 'gap' between t h e o r i e s which attempt to e x p l a i n how the i n d i v i d u a l elements of an o r g a n i z a t i o n f u n c t i o n and t h e o r i e s that attempt to e x p l a i n how the o r g a n i z a t i o n , as a whole, f u n c t i o n s i n the l a r g e r , s o c i e t a l c o n t e x t . Merton (1968), a s o c i o l o g i s t , was the f i r s t to e x p l i c i t l y r e c o g n i z e t h i s gap and c a l l f o r the c r e a t i o n of 'middle range t h e o r i e s ' . 1.5.2 Middle Range Theory In t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l review of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l behavior theory and r e s e a r c h , Pinder and Moore (1980) t r a c k the emergence of middle range theory. E a r l y t h i n k i n g about o r g a n i z a t i o n s , they note, was dominated by e f f o r t s to b u i l d grand t h e o r i e s , i . e . , s c i e n t i f i c management ( T a y l o r , 1934) and b u r e a u c r a t i c theory (Weber, 1947). Throughout t h i s ' c l a s s i c a l ' p e r i o d , t h e o r i s t s maintained a d e t e r m i n i s t i c view of human nature and suggested t h a t a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r c o u l d be understood by the a p p l i c a t i o n of u n i v e r s a l p r i n c i p l e s . The grand t h e o r i e s , observe Pi n d e r and Moore (1980, p. 3), "...were s t a t e d at a l e v e l of a b s t r a c t i o n such that i t was l o g i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e to deduce h y p o t h e s e s amenable to p r o o f . " By the end o f the 1950's, the grand t h e o r i e s had been transformed i n t o a search f o r e m p i r i c a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . Research d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d u t i l i z e d m u l t i - v a r i a t e methods and f o c u s e d on s t u d i e s of i n d i v i d u a l and i n t e r - p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o r . While the former 30 p e r i o d had been c h a r a c t e r i z e d as theory without r e s e a r c h , the l a t t e r p e r i o d emerged as r e s e a r c h without theory. Throughout the 1960's, the p s y c h o l o g i s t s continued to pursue the i n d i v i d u a l b e h a v i o r approach to s t u d y i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s . However, another major r e s e a r c h t h r u s t , known as the complex o r g a n i z a t i o n approach, came from the f i e l d of s o c i o l o g y . The s o c i o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s were not d i r e c t e d a t the b e h a v i o r of i n d i v i d u a l s , but at the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and f u n c t i o n i n g of the o r g a n i z a t i o n as a ' l i v i n g ' e n t i t y . Here, Pin d e r and Moore (1980, p. 6) n o t e t h a t , "The complex i n t e r d e p e n d e n c i e s r e v e a l e d i n these s t u d i e s c o n t r i b u t e d to the p o p u l a r i t y of the systems approach to the f i e l d . " By the 1970's, e f f o r t s to i n t e g r a t e t h e s e two w e l l e n t r e n c h e d f i e l d s had l e a d t o a r e j e c t i o n o f t h e s e a r c h f o r g r a n d t h e o r y and t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of 'middle range' t h e o r i e s . Pinder and Moore (1980, p. 1), i n t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , s t a t e t h a t , "...middle range t h e o r i e s are not d e r i v e d from the grand t h e o r i e s , and t h e y a r e more t h a n summary s t a t e m e n t s o f o b s e r v e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( e m p i r i c a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s ) . " In f u n c t i o n , they s t a t e , "...middle range t h e o r i e s should p r o v i d e for the e f f i c i e n t g e n e r a t i o n , c o n s o l i d a t i o n , and e v a l u a t i o n of e m p i r i c a l evidence and be l i a b l e to m o d i f i c a t i o n , r e f u t a t i o n , and replacement." (Pinder and Moore, 1980 p. 1). Middle range t h e o r i e s s h o u l d p o s s e s s t h r e e b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : they s h o u l d d e a l w i t h a l i m i t e d number of s o c i a l phenomena; they 31 should be l i n k a b l e to each other i n a 'modular' f a s h i o n ; and they s h o u l d p r o v i d e more p o w e r f u l a b s t r a c t i o n s than s i m p l e d e s c r i p t i o n w h i l e being c o n c r e t e enough to p r o v i d e t e s t a b l e hypotheses. In essence, middle range t h e o r i e s are t h e o r i e s of s o c i a l phenomena l y i n g somewhere between the grand t h e o r i e s and c a s u a l l y formulated working hypotheses. 1.5.3 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Schemes And Contingency Theory C o l l e c t i o n s of m i d d l e range t h e o r i e s s u r r o u n d i n g d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n have l e d to what Bigelow (1980) has termed the m u l t i p l e paradigm approach. Where e f f o r t s have been made to i n t e g r a t e and r a t i o n a l i z e , i . e . , l i n k t o g e t h e r , middle range t h e o r i e s p e r t a i n i n g to d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t y p e s , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes have emerged from the m u l t i p l e paradigm approach. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes, i n some f i e l d s of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l behavior, have subsequently l e d to contingency t h e o r i z i n g . Since they attempt to l i n k the i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e and o p e r a t i o n of the o r g a n i z a t i o n to i t s environment and so narrow the t h e o r e t i c a l gap, contingency t h e o r i e s can be seen as a movement towards a t r u e systems approach. An e x c e l l e n t example of m i d d l e range t h e o r y and a systems o r i e n t e d a p p roach can be found i n M i n t z b e r g ' s (1979), The  S t r u c t u r i n g Of O r g a n i z a t i o n s . A f t e r r e d u c i n g the b u s i n e s s o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t o i t s component p a r t s and l i n k a g e s through the use of a d e s c r i p t i v e s e t of design parameters, Mintzberg l i s t s 32 a s et of contingency f a c t o r s , environmental circumstances that i m p inge on t h e f i r m ' s d e s i g n p a r a m e t e r s . M i n t z b e r g then g e n e r a t e s a s e r i e s o f s t r u c t u r a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a r c h e t y p e s by d e s c r i b i n g t h e c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e d e s i g n p a r a m e t e r s a n d t h e contingency f a c t o r s . T hese s t r u c t u r a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s can be seen as dependent v a r i a b l e s w h i l e t h e d e s i g n p a r a m e t e r s f u n c t i o n as t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . The c o n t i n g e n c y f a c t o r s a c t as moderator or i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s . As the c i r c u m s t a n c e s f a c i n g the f i r m change or the f i r m makes a s t r a t e g i c d e c i s i o n to move i n t o a new market and face new circumstances, the f i r m w i l l make the a p p r o p r i a t e changes to i t s design parameters and the o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e o f the f i r m w i l l more away from one o r g a n i z a t i o n a l archetype to another. Thus there i s no c o r r e c t management s t r a t e g y or o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , o n l y an a p p r o p r i a t e match between the two. It i s not p o s s i b l e , however, to apply Mintzberg's t h e o r e t i c a l framework t o s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . In the p u b l i c s e c t o r , the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of land use pl a n n i n g i s t y p i c a l l y fragmented amongst s e v e r a l independent l e v e l s of government and, at any one l e v e l , between d i f f e r e n t government f u n c t i o n s and g e o g r a p h i c a r e a s . M i n t z b e r g ' s t h e o r e t i c a l framework i s t h u s t o o d e t a i l e d f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g a g e n c y , but n o t b r o a d enough t o encompass t h e 33 complexity of the t o t a l system of governmental a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . In the f i e l d of p r o c e d u r a l p l a n n i n g theory, the problem of the t h e o r e t i c a l gap has yet to be f u l l y r e s o l v e d . I t can thus be argued t h a t the e x i s t i n g r e l i a n c e on the t r a d i t i o n a l , c r i t e r i a based approach to e v a l u a t i n g s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the l a c k of adequate theory. 1.5.4 Comparison Of Approaches While p r o c e d u r a l p l a n n i n g theory i s not as evolved as i n the o t h e r f i e l d s of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r , a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme i s s e l e c t e d i n the n e x t c h a p t e r , the t h e o r e t i c a l framework, and o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Lower Mainland events and i s s u e s . T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme, and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n , t h u s h e l p s t o f u l f i l l t h i s s t u d y ' s o b j e c t i v e of a s s i s t i n g the development of a systems o r i e n t e d a p p roach f o r the f i e l d o f p r o c e d u r a l p l a n n i n g t h e o r y . In F i g u r e 2, the e s s e n t i a l s of the two approaches, t r a d i t i o n a l and systems o r i e n t e d , are summarized and c o n t r a s t e d . Item s e v e n i n t h i s c o m p a r i s o n , l o g i c , i s d i s c u s s e d as p a r t of chapter 2, the t h e o r e t i c a l framework, and s e c t i o n 3.1.1., the a p p l i c a t i o n of the framework. 1.6 Information Sources And Study L i m i t a t i o n s The d e t a i l e d s t u d y of s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g f o r the Lower Mainland s t a r t s i n 1969 w i t h the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the 34 F i g u r e 2: C o m p a r i s o n O f A p p r o a c h e s T R A D I T I O N A L A P P R O A C H S Y S T E M S O R I E N T E D A P P R O A C H 1 P u r p o s e P r e s c r i p t i v e ; t o o f f e r s t r u c t u r a l a n d p r o c e d u r a l c h a n g e s t o ' c u r e ' p l a n n i n g s y s t e m D i a g n o s t i c ; t o b r o a d e n k n o w l e d g e o f p l a n n i n g s y s t e m ; r a i s e o r g a n i z a -t i o n a l ' c o n s c i o u s n e s s ' , i . e . , s o c i a l l e a r n i n g 2 L e v e l O f A n a l y s i s G e n e r a l i z e d ; e x t e r n a l p e r s p e c t i v e o f p l a n n i n g s y s t e m a s a ' b l a c k b o x ' D e t a i l e d ; i n t e r n a l p e r s p e c t i v e o f p l a n n i n g s y s t e m ' s i n d i v i d u a l c o m p o n e n t s 3 S t a t e o f S y s t e m S t a t i c ; f o c u s o n e q u i l i b r i m D y n a m i c ; f o c u s o n d i s e q u i l i b r i u m 4 T i m e F r a m e S h o r t t e r m ; a s e r i e s o f s e p a r a t e o b s e r v a t i o n s o r ' s n a p s h o t s ' L o n g t e r m ; o n g o i n g , c o n t i n u o u s o b s e r v a -t i o n s 5 C r i t e r i a A b s o l u t e ; i n t e r -a c t i o n b e t w e e n c r i t e r i a i g n o r e d R e l a t i v e ; i n t e r -a c t i o n b e t w e e n c r i t e r i a r e c o g n i z e d 6 A p p l i c a t i o n J u d g e m e n t a l ; e v a l u a t i o n o f p l a n n i n g s y s t e m a c c o r d i n g t o f i x e d c r i t e r i a I n t e r p r e t a t i v e ; a n a l y s i s o f p l a n n i n g s y s t e m c o m p o n e n t a d j u s t m e n t s a n d i n t e r a c t i o n s 7 L o g i c D e d u c t i v e ; c r i t e r i a u s e d t o a s s e s s c a u s e o f p r o b l e m a n d t o p r e d i c t w h a t c h a n g e s ( e f f e c t s ) w i l l f o l l o w f r o m p r e -s c r i p t i v e m e a s u r e s D e d u c t i v e ; c o m p i l i n g k n o w l e d g e o n t h e p l a n n i n g s y s t e m , m o v i n g f r o m i m p a c t s ( e f f e c t s ) o f e v e n t s a n d i s s u e s t o c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s 8 D e v e l o p m e n t O f M e t h o d S t a t i o n a r y ; c o n s t a n t r e f e r e n c e t o ' g r a n d ' t h e o r i e s , m e t h o d a n d t e c h n i q u e s r e m a i n s i m i l a r a n d v i r t u a l l y u n c h a n g e d f r o m s t u d y t o s t u d y E v o l u t i o n a r y ; c o n t i n -u o u s e f f o r t s t o i m p r o v e m e t h o d s a n d t e c h n i q u e s a n d t o e v o l v e u n d e r l y i n g t h e o r y 35 Lower Mainland P l a n n i n g Review Panel (LMPRP) and ends i n 1981 with the adoption of an updated s t r a t e g i c p l a n , the 1980 ORP. While a t r u l y dynamic study of s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g r e q u i r e s an even l o n g e r t i m e h o r i z o n , i t has o n l y been p o s s i b l e here to summarize the main events a f f e c t i n g l a n d use pl a n n i n g i n the Lower Mainland beyond t h i s time p e r i o d . The p e r s p e c t i v e o f the Lower Mainland study c o r r e s p o n d s to t h a t of the LMPRP i t s e l f , and the study i s s u b j e c t to the b i a s e s of the LMPRP. As such, the study i s l i m i t e d to those events and i s s u e s p e r c e i v e d by the LMPRP and i t s subordinate committees as being of importance to land use pl a n n i n g f o r the Lower M a i n l a n d . O n l y where the d e c i s i o n s and a c t i o n s of M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s , and the Provinc e entered i n t o the sphere of the LMPRP's 'consciousness' have they been c o n s i d e r e d f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e s t u d y . S i n c e i t s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e ORP Update p r o c e s s was l i m i t e d t o o b s e r v e r s t a t u s , t h e r o l e o f the F e d e r a l Government was ignored. The b a s i c source of i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the case study has been t h e m i n u t e s , r e p o r t s , and p l a n s o f t h e LMPRP and i t s s u b o r d i n a t e committees. Interviews with the p r i n c i p l e s t a f f members r e s p o n s i b l e f o r producing the updated ORP were used to help i n t e r p r e t the w r i t t e n r e c o r d . I t has not been p o s s i b l e t o document and i n t e r p r e t a l l LMPRP i n f o r m a t i o n . In the LMPRP's e a r l y y e a r s , t h i s study's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of p l a n n i n g 36 e v e n t s and i s s u e s t a k e s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the P a n e l ' s r e v i e w o f a p p l i c a t i o n s t o amend t h e e x i s t i n g p l a n f o r t h e Lower M a i n l a n d . T h i s l e v e l o f d e t a i l i s r e q u i r e d a t the s t a r t o f t h e s t u d y f o r i t h e l p s e x p l a i n t h e c a u s e s l e a d i n g t o t h e i n i t i a t i o n o f the Update p r o c e s s . S u b s e q u e n t l y , though, the s t u d y f o c u s e s on the e v e n t s and i s s u e s o f the Update p r o c e s s , i g n o r i n g the ever i n c r e a s i n g number o f amendment a p p l i c a t i o n s h a n d l e d by t h e LMPRP. The s t u d y t h u s f o l l o w s t h e o v e r a l l c o u r s e o f the Update p r o c e s s . 37 2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 2.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s chapter p r o v i d e s a t h e o r e t i c a l framework f o r condensing and i n t e r p r e t i n g Lower Mainland events and i s s u e s , 1969-1981. In the next s e c t i o n , F a l u d i ' s (1973) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme i s s e l e c t e d and o u t l i n e d as p r o c e d u r a l p l a n n i n g t h e o r y ' s most e v o l v e d example of m i d d l e range t h e o r y . F a l u d i ' s t h r e e dimensions of p l a n n i n g — t h e b l u e p r i n t versus p r o c e s s s t y l e s of p l a n n i n g , t h e r a t i o n a l c o m p r e h e n s i v e v e r s u s d i s j o i n t e d i n c r e m e n t a l s t y l e s of p l a n n i n g , and the n o r m a t i v e v e r s u s f u n c t i o n a l s t y l e s of p l a n n i n g — a r e then t i e d to the components of the p l a n n i n g system that they are used to measure: the type of p l a n , the type of p l a n n i n g agency, and the type of p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . A s i n g l e continuum of p l a n n i n g , i n c o r p o r a t i n g a l l t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s , i s a l s o p r o p o s e d . L a s t l y , each of the p l a n n i n g d i m e n s i o n s i s r e v i e w e d i n more d e t a i l , and t h e v a r i a b l e s t h a t F a l u d i employs to d e s c r i b e the dimensions are o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d i n the c o n t e x t of the Lower M a i n l a n d study. 2.2 A C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Scheme P r o c e d u r a l p l a n n i n g theory i s not completely without i t s own m i d d l e range t h e o r i e s or d e c i s i o n making p a r a d i g m s . In a d d i t i o n t o the r a t i o n a l - s c i e n t i f i c t r a d i t i o n of p l a n n i n g , 38 w e l l known d e c i s i o n making p a r a d i g m s i n c l u d e i n c r e m e n t a l p l a n n i n g (Lindblom 1959), advocacy p l a n n i n g (Davidoff 1965), and t r a n s a c t i v e p l a n n i n g (Friedman 1973). Attempts to f u l l y i n t e g r a t e these paradigms, however, have t y p i c a l l y r e s u l t e d i n h i g h l y g e n e r a l i z e d t h e o r i e s t h a t a r e s i m i l a r t o t h e forementioned grand t h e o r i e s . P r o c e d u r a l p l a n n i n g ' s v a r i o u s d e c i s i o n making paradigms have b e e n m o r e s u c c e s s f u l l y u n i t e d t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes. In p a r t i c u l a r , F a l u d i (1973) has d e v e l o p e d a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme t h a t moves beyond pure d e s c r i p t i o n towards c o n t i n g e n c y t h e o r y . F a l u d i ' s (1973, p. 54) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme i s based on a s i n g l e framework, "...an analogy between p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s and the human mind engaged i n o p e r a t i o n a l (purposive) t h i n k i n g . " In d e v e l o p i n g t h i s c y b e r n e t i c model, F a l u d i moves beyond p l a n n i n g as merely a g u i d a n c e - c o n t r o l system and c o n s i d e r s the p l a n n i n g agency as a l e a r n i n g system capable of m o d i fying i t s own feedback. By c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the p l a n n i n g agency as a ' t h i n k i n g machine' w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n i n p u t s , a memory ( i m a g e ) , and d e c i s i o n o u t p u t s , F a l u d i e s t a b l i s h e s a systems framework that enables him to c l a s s i f y the d i f f e r e n t p r o c e d u r a l paradigms as 'system s t a t e s ' or s t y l e s o f p l a n n i n g . The i n t e r n a l p e r s p e c t i v e o f f e r e d by F a l u d i ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme does not p r o v i d e as much s t r u c t u r a l d e t a i l as the t h e o r i e s from the complex o r g a n i z a t i o n a l approach, but i t does p r o v i d e an improvement 39 over E a s t o n ' s (1965) b r o a d e r , e x t e r n a l view of the e n t i r e p o l i t i c a l system. More i m p o r t a n t l y , F a l u d i ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme a l l o w s the d i f f e r e n t p r o c e d u r a l paradigms of p l a n n i n g to be seen as complementary r a t h e r than competing t h e o r i e s . F a l u d i ' s systems approach g e n e r a t e s e x p l i c i t d e f i n i t i o n s of t h e v a r i a b l e s u s e d t o i d e n t i f y t h e d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s of p l a n n i n g . To r e s o l v e the dilemma between o v e r - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and i n s u f f i c i e n t d i s t i n c t i o n , the s i x s t y l e s of p l a n n i n g are arranged i n t o three s e t s or dimensions. F a l u d i (1973, p. 173) d e s c r i b e s t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s o f p l a n n i n g as p o s s e s s i n g t h e , "...observable f e a t u r e s of the conduct of p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s . " Each d i m e n s i o n i s thus d i f f e r e n t i a t e d on the b a s i s of the v a r i a b l e s t h a t d e f i n e i t w h i l e t h e s t y l e s w i t h i n e a c h d i m e n s i o n a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d by t h e measurement of t h e s e v a r i a b l e s . The d e s i g n o f F a l u d i ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme i n h e r e n t l y j u x t a p o s i t i o n s p r o c e d u r a l t h e o r i e s , d e f i n i n g each dimension i n terms of s t y l e s that are p o l a r o p p o s i t e s . Through the use of s u c h p o l a r o p p o s i t e s , e a c h s t y l e i s e s t a b l i s h e d as an archetype. These 'pure' s t y l e s of p l a n n i n g are not t y p i c a l l y found i n p r a c t i c e , but F a l u d i ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme can be used to determine the s t a t e of the s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g s y s t e m r e l a t i v e t o t h e s t y l e s o f p l a n n i n g a n d , more i m p o r t a n t l y , i t can be used to document changes over time. The s i x s t y l e s and three dimensions of F a l u d i ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n 40 scheme are documented i n F i g u r e 3. S h i f t s between the s t y l e s along F a l u d i 1 s three dimensions of pla n n i n g are r e g u l a t e d by two types of v a r i a b l e s : determinants and c o n s t r a i n t s . The determinants a c t as f o r c e s that 'push' the p l a n n i n g agency's s t y l e of p l a n n i n g towards one mode or the o t h e r a l o n g each d i m e n s i o n o f p l a n n i n g . Because they l i m i t the extent to which a pl a n n i n g s t y l e may be p r a c t i c e d , the c o n s t r a i n t s may be seen as e x e r t i n g a ' p u l l i n g ' f o r c e : the more c o n s t r a i n e d a g i v e n p l a n n i n g mode becomes, the more i t w i l l be t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o i t s p o l a r o p p o s i t e . F a l u d i ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme i s t h u s an e l e m e n t a r y f o r m o f conting e n c y theory i n which there i s no s i n g l e c o r r e c t s t y l e of p l a n n i n g . The s t y l e s o f p l a n n i n g , t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s , a r e a f u n c t i o n o f the d e t e r m i n a n t and c o n s t r a i n t v a r i a b l e s . In ge n e r a l , the determinants operate as the independent v a r i a b l e s w h i l e t h e c o n s t r a i n t s a c t as m o d e r a t i n g v a r i a b l e s . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , however, i s not always c o m p l e t e l y c l e a r , and t h i s l a c k o f d i s t i n c t i o n r e v e a l s a w e a k n e s s o f t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme. The v a r i a b l e s , both determinants and c o n s t r a i n t s , used i n F a l u d i ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme a r e d e s c r i b e d i n s e c t i o n s 2.5 to 2.7. Figure 3s F a l u d i ' s Opposing S t y l e s Of Planning RANGE BLUEPRINT PLANNING • PROCESS PLANNING RATIONAL COMPREHENSIVE ^ ^ DISJOINTED INCREMENTAL PLANNING PLANNING NORMATIVE PLANNING ; • FUNCTIONAL PLANNING Source: Fashioned from F a l u d i (1973) 42 2.3 C o n c e p t u a l i z i n g The Planning System Components Each of F a l u d i ' s dimensions of p l a n n i n g r e f l e c t a fundamental a s p e c t o f t h e s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g s y s t e m . The b l u e p r i n t v e r s u s p r o c e s s s t y l e s of p l a n n i n g p r i m a r i l y d e a l w i t h t h e t y p e o f document the p l a n i s : whether i t i s a d e t a i l e d and r i g i d b l u e p r i n t or a more f l e x i b l e , c o n c e p t u a l s t r a t e g y that may not even be expressed i n s p a t i a l terms. The r a t i o n a l comprehensive versus d i s j o i n t e d incremental s t y l e s of p l a n n i n g correspond to the type of p l a n n i n g agency t h a t i s i n p l a c e : whether i t i s a c e n t r a l i z e d p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n with a comprehensive p e r s p e c t i v e of what i t p l a n s f o r or whether i t i s one a s e r i e s of i s o l a t e d p l a n n i n g bodies with a p a r t i a l or f r a g m e n t e d p e r s p e c t i v e of what i s p l a n s f o r . W h i l e the normative versus f u n c t i o n a l s t y l e s of p l a n n i n g d e a l with the type of p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , the term 'process' i n t h i s dimension r e f e r s to the p o l i t i c a l ends r a t h e r than the t e c h n i c a l means of p l a n n i n g . T h i s dimension c o n s i d e r s whether the p l a n n e r s seek to c h a l l e n g e or modify the g o a l s set f o r t h e i r p l a n n i n g agency, i . e . , n o r m a t i v e p l a n n i n g , or whether the p l a n n e r s m e r e l y f o r m u l a t e o b j e c t i v e s , t h r o u g h p l a n s , p o l i c i e s , and programs, to s a t i s f y these g o a l s , i . e . , f u n c t i o n a l p l a n n i n g . It i s now p o s s i b l e to d e f i n e s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g as a s y s t e m whose c o m p o n e n t s - - t h e t y p e o f p l a n , the t y p e o f p l a n n i n g agency, and the type of p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s — c a n be m e a s u r e d a g a i n s t F a l u d i ' s t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s of p l a n n i n g . F i g u r e 4 i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . F i g u r e 4 : Components And Dimensions Of S t r a t e g i c Regional Planning COMPONENT OF STRATEGIC REGIONAL PLANNING CORRESPONDING DIMENSION OF PLANNING 1 Type Of Plan B l u e p r i n t S t y l e Versus Process S t y l e Of Planning of Planning 2 Type Of Planning Agency Ra t i o n a l Versus D i s j o i n t e d Comprehensive Incremental S t y l e Of Planning S t y l e Of Planning 3 Type Of Planning Process (ongoing) Normative S t y l e Versus F u n c t i o n a l Of Planning S t y l e Of Planning 44 Comment ing on r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l c h a n g e , Gi l l ingwater (1975, p. 72) states that, "Government determines the nature and p r a c t i c e of planning qua what i s planned and pub l i c planning qua agencies in turn inf luence the nature and p r a c t i c e of p l a n n i n g . " G i l l i n g w a t e r uses the r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between p lanning and government to s t r u c t u r e F a l u d i ' s (1973) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme. In p a r t i c u l a r , G i l l i ngwater develops a schema where planning in teracts with government at four l e v e l s . These four l e v e l s of p lanning c o n t e x t , f rom most g e n e r a l to most s p e c i f i c , i n c l u d e , i d e o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i n s t i t u t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , o p e r a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . G i l l i n g w a t e r argues that these l e v e l s o v e r l a p and can be nested i n t o th ree t i e r s of p l a n n i n g -governmental i n t e r a c t i o n that correspond to F a l u d i ' s three dimensions of p l ann ing r . rb luepr in t versus process p lann ing o c c u r s at an i d e o l o g i c a l - i n s t i t u t i o n a l l e v e l ; r a t i o n a l comprehensive versus d i s jo in ted incremental planning occurs at an i n s t i t u t i o n a l - o p e r a t i o n a l l e v e l ; and normative versus f u n c t i o n a l planning occurs at an ope ra t i ona l - adm in i s t r a t i ve l e v e l . G i l l i ngwater ' s analys is of Fa lud i ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme a lso p r o v i d e s support for h i s s t u d y ' s assignment of p l a n n i n g dimensions to the components of s t ra teg i c regional planning. The i d e o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between government and planning w i l l determine the type of p lan that i s prepared, e i ther a 45 b l u e p r i n t o r p r o c e s s ( c o n c e p t ) p l a n . S i m i l a r l y , t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l l e v e l corresponds to the type of p l a n n i n g agency and the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e t y p e o f ongoing p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . G i l l i n g w a t e r ' s a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e s a more s t r u c t u r e d s y n t h e s i s than that p r o v i d e d by F i g u r e s 3 and 4, however. By o b s e r v i n g that the i d e o l o g i c a l context of p l a n n i n g i s much broader than i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n t e x t , G i l l i n g w a t e r i s a b l e to arrange F a l u d i ' s three dimensions of p l a n n i n g i n t o a nested h i e r a r c h y : see F i g u r e 5. The key p o i n t made by G i l l i n g w a t e r i s t h a t F a l u d i ' s t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s o f p l a n n i n g a c t u a l l y c o m p r i s e d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of a l a r g e r , s i n g l e p l a n n i n g 'continuum'— t h e s y s t e m o f s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . J u s t as a d m i n i s t r a t i o n - o p e r a t i o n s (the type of p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ) i s s e t w i t h i n an i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n t e x t (the type of p l a n n i n g agency), the normative v e r s u s f u n c t i o n a l s t y l e s of p l a n n i n g can be subsumed w i t h i n the r a t i o n a l comprehensive v e r s u s d i s j o i n t e d i n c r e m e n t a l s t y l e s o f p l a n n i n g . O p e r a t i o n a l d e t a i l s and i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements s i m i l a r l y f o l l o w from the b a s i c i d e o l o g y u n d e r l y i n g p l a n n i n g and so the r a t i o n a l comprehensive versus d i s j o i n t e d incremental s t y l e s of p l a n n i n g can be set w i t h i n those of b l u e p r i n t versus process p l a n n i n g . F a l u d i ' s (1973) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme can be c o n s i d e r e d indeterminant i n the sense that i s not capable of g e n e r a t i n g any a p r i o r i hypotheses, of being a b l e to p r e d i c t i n t e r a c t i o n s F i g u r e 5: G i l l i n g w a t e r ' s L e v e l s Of P l a n n i n g C o n t e x t B l u e p r i n t S t y l e Of P l a n n i n g IDEOLOGICAL-I n s t i t u t i o n a l P r o c e s s S t y l e Of P l a n n i n g R a t i o n a l Comprehensive S t y l e Of P l a n n i n g INSTITUTIONAL-O p e r a t i o n a l D i s j o i n t e d I n c r e m e n t a l S t y l e of P l a n n i n g Normative S t y l e Of P l a n n i n g OPERATIONAL-A d m i n i s t r a t i v e F u n c t i o n a l S t y l e Of P l a n n i n g Source: Fashioned from G i l l i n g w a t e r (1975, p. 75) 47 between the dimensions of p l a n n i n g or what p a t t e r n of s h i f t s w i l l r e s u l t f r o m a g i v e n s t a r t i n g p o i n t . H o w e v e r , G i l l i n g w a t e r 1 s (1975) d e p i c t i o n of F a l u d i ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme as a s i n g l e p l a n n i n g c o n t i n u u m o f f e r s a u s e f u l framework f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g s h i f t s a l o n g the d i m e n s i o n s of p l a n n i n g . The alignment of the p l a n n i n g dimensions p r o v i d e s two common ends or p o l a r i t i e s : a ' s t r o n g ' end and a 'weak' end. At the s t r o n g end of the p l a n n i n g continuum, the s t y l e s of p l a n n i n g i n c l u d e b l u e p r i n t , r a t i o n a l comprehensive, and n o r m a t i v e p l a n n i n g . C o n v e r s e l y , the p r o c e s s , d i s j o i n t e d i n c r e m e n t a l , and f u n c t i o n a l s t y l e s of p l a n n i n g are found at the o t h e r , 'weak' end of the p l a n n i n g continuum. The terms s t r o n g and weak, of c o u r s e , are o n l y a b s t r a c t concepts l i k e the pure s t y l e s of p l a n n i n g themselves. I t i s the d i r e c t i o n of movement ra t h e r than a b s o l u t e p o s i t i o n s that i s importance i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Lower Mainland events and i s s u e s . 2.4 O p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g The Dimensions Of Planning The remainder of t h i s chapter p r o v i d e s a method f o r a p p l y i n g F a l u d i ' s (1973) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme, a typology of p l a n n i n g s t y l e s , to the events and i s s u e s of Lower Mainland p l a n n i n g . S i n c e F a l u d i ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme i s not c a p a b l e of g e n e r a t i n g hypotheses of how the dimensions of p l a n n i n g might i n t e r a c t over time, the l e v e l of a n a l y s i s i n t h i s study i s p r i m a r i l y d e s c r i p t i v e . The approach to i n t e r p r e t i n g the case study i s thus an i n d u c t i v e one i n which the o b j e c t i v e i s to 48 use a s i n g l e t h e o r e t i c a l framework to s y n t h e s i z e r e c o g n i z a b l e p a t t e r n s from a l a r g e number of seemingly independent i s s u e s and events. G i l l i n g w a t e r ' s (1975) h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r i n g of F a l u d i ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme p r o v i d e s an i n d i c a t i o n of the order and emphasis to be p l a c e d on the p l a n n i n g dimensions d u r i n g the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Lower Mainland study. Since the most g e n e r a l or a b s t r a c t l e v e l s of p l a n n i n g p r o v i d e a context f o r the more s p e c i f i c l e v e l s or dimensions of p l a n n i n g , the four time p e r i o d s of the study, see s e c t i o n 3.1, are i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h i s o r d e r : b l u e p r i n t v e r s u s p r o c e s s p l a n n i n g , r a t i o n a l c o m p r e h e n s i v e v e r s u s d i s j o i n t e d i n c r e m e n t a l p l a n n i n g , and normative versus f u n c t i o n a l p l a n n i n g . While the dimensions of p l a n n i n g i n h e r e n t l y o v e r l a p , t h i s o r d e r i n g helps to reduce the r e p e t i t i o n of p l a n n i n g events and i s s u e s . Each of the e i g h t v a r i a b l e s t h a t F a l u d i uses t o d e f i n e the three dimensions of p l a n n i n g are themselves broad concepts or paradigms composed of numerous s u b - v a r i a b l e s . S i n c e F a l u d i a l s o d e s c r i b e s the v a r i a b l e s i n terms of p o l a r o p p o s i t e s , each of the v a r i a b l e s c o u l d be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a semi-independent dimension. I t i s thus necessary to b r i e f l y r e s t a t e F a l u d i ' s v a r i a b l e s and o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e them i n the context of the Lower Mainland study. These o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s , which are p r o v i d e d f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n s of each p l a n n i n g dimensions's b a s i c concepts, serve two purposes. F i r s t l y , the 49 d e f i n i t i o n s d e s c r i b e the t h e o r e t i c a l nature and range of each v a r i a b l e . T h i s makes i s p o s s i b l e to decide which study events and i s s u e s ought to be i n t e r p r e t e d under which v a r i a b l e s and dimensions of p l a n n i n g . Secondly, the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s h e l p to e s t a b l i s h the parameters or c o n d i t i o n s that i n d i c a t e the d i r e c t i o n and magnitude of s h i f t s along the dimensions of p l a n n i n g . A background review of the events and i s s u e s l e a d i n g up to the s t a r t of the main, 1969-1981 study of Lower Mainland p l a n n i n g i s p r o v i d e d i n the next chapter: see s e c t i o n 3.2. A l l of the agencies and committees i n v o l v e d with Lower Mainland p l a n n i n g i n t h i s study are l i s t e d i n the G l o s s a r y , p. x i v , along with t h e i r a b b r e v i a t i o n s . The p o l i t i c a l and s t a f f p o s i t i o n s of the Lower M a i n l a n d ' s system of s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g are charted i n F i g u r e s 11 and 12, r e s p e c t i v e l y : see s e c t i o n 2.6. 2.5 The P l a n : B l u e p r i n t Versus Process Planning 2.5.1 General The primary i s s u e u n d e r l y i n g the p o l a r i t y of b l u e p r i n t versus p r o c e s s p l a n n i n g i s t h a t of f l e x i b i l i t y . In g e n e r a l , the b l u e p r i n t s t y l e of p l a n n i n g i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l o n g term p l a n n i n g and r i g i d , d e t a i l e d plans while the process s t y l e of p l a n n i n g i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s h o r t term p l a n n i n g and, i f any document e x i s t s a t a l l , w i t h l e s s s p e c i f i c c o n c e p t p l a n s . 50 E n g i n e e r i n g p r o j e c t s and d e t a i l e d l a n d use r e g u l a t i o n s , i . e . , zoning by-laws, are products of a b l u e p r i n t s t y l e of p l a n n i n g . C o n c e p t p l a n s f o r the r e g i o n a l d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of urban growth and the l e s s f o r m a l , ongoing programs a s s o c i a t e d with ' u r b a n r e n e w a l ' a r e e x a m p l e s o f p r o c e s s p l a n n i n g . In d e t e r m i n i n g which s t y l e o f p l a n n i n g w i l l p r e v a i l , F a l u d i (1973) employs two i n t e r d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s : c e r t a i n t y o f image and degree of c o n t r o l . Movement t o e i t h e r s t y l e of p l a n n i n g , however, may be c o n s t r a i n e d by a t h i r d v a r i a b l e : i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l time l a g s . F i g u r e 6 i l l u s t r a t e s the e f f e c t s of these v a r i a b l e s on the b l u e p r i n t and process s t y l e s of p l a n n i n g . The b l u e p r i n t s t y l e of p l a n n i n g s t a t e s F a l u d i (1973, p. 131) i s an a p p r o a c h , "...whereby a p l a n n i n g agency o p e r a t e s a programme though to a t t a i n i t s o b j e c t i v e s with c e r t a i n t y . " A h i g h d e g r e e o f c o n t r o l i s needed t o e n s u r e the l e v e l of c e r t a i n t y r e q u i r e d i n b l u e p r i n t p l a n n i n g and, commensurately, the assumption that the o b j e c t i v e s of the b l u e p r i n t p l a n w i l l be a t t a i n e d i s o f t e n used to j u s t i f y a high degree of c o n t r o l . With no feedback p e r m i t t e d to modify i t d u r i n g implementation, the b l u e p r i n t p l a n remains s t a t i c over time u n t i l i t s image i s f u l l y r e a l i z e d on t h e g r o u n d . F a l u d i ( 1 973, p. 132) c r i t i c i z e s the b l u e p r i n t s t y l e o f p l a n n i n g , n o t i n g t h a t , "Where b l u e p r i n t p l a n n i n g i s p r a c t i s e d , u n c e r t a i n t i e s n o t w i thstanding, i t i s based on g r o s s l y s i m p l i f i e d assumptions making f o r i t s i n e f f i c i e n c y and heavy-handedness." F i g u r e 6: The B l u e p r i n t V e r s u s P r o c e s s S t y l e s O f P l a n n i n g B l u e p r i n t P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s P l a n n i n g DETERMINANTS F i r m "*• — Image • U n c e r t a i n C o m p l e t e ^. C o n t r o l O v e r E n v i r o n m e n t I n c o m p l e t e CONSTRAINTS S h o r t _ I n t e r n a l T i m e _ L a g s _^ L o n g S h o r t * . _ E x t e r n a l T i m e — L a g s L o n g S o u r c e : F a s h i o n e d f r o m F a l u d i (1973, p . 138) 52 In c o n t r a s t , the p r o c e s s s t y l e of p l a n n i n g i s an approach, "...whereby programmes are adopted d u r i n g t h e i r implementation as and when i n c o m i n g i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e s such changes." ( F a l u d i 1973, p. 132). Feedback d u r i n g implementation means tha t the process p l a n w i l l undergo a continuous 'process' of m o d i f i c a t i o n . 1 Because there i s l e s s c e r t a i n t y that the p l a n w i l l a t t a i n i t s i n i t i a l o b j e c t i v e s , l e s s c o n t r o l i s j u s t i f i e d . Less c o n t r o l , i n t u r n , s u b j e c t s the p l a n n e r s to a higher l e v e l o f u n c e r t a i n t y , i n h e r e n t l y making them r i s k t a k e r s . The s t r e n g t h o f p r o c e s s p l a n n i n g i s t h a t i t a v o i d s s t a l l s or c o m p l e t e f a i l u r e s h o u l d the p l a n not a t t a i n i t s o r i g i n a l o b j e c t i v e s . Here F a l u d i (1973, p. 132) notes t h a t , . . . r a t h e r t h a n l a p s i n g i n t o i n a c t i o n w h i l e s t r i v i n g t o p r o v i d e a f i r m image, p r o c e s s p l a n n i n g proceeds by implementing some elements of a programme and hopes t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n thus g e n e r a t e d w i l l r e s u l t i n more knowledge concerning the next stages. While the v a r i a b l e s c e r t a i n t y of image and degree of c o n t r o l are d e f i n e d s e p a r a t e l y below, i t i s the combination of both s p a t i a l d e t a i l and r e g u l a t o r y a u t h o r i t y t h a t d e t e r m i n e s movements b e t w e e n t h e b l u e p r i n t and p r o c e s s s t y l e s o f p l a n n i n g . F a l u d i ' s schema does not s p e c i f i c a l l y take i n t o a c c o u n t t h e s i t u a t i o n where a c o n c e p t p l a n , h a v i n g a g e n e r a l i z e d , somewhat f u z z y image, may a c t u a l l y r e q u i r e an 1 The term 'process' as a s t y l e of p l a n n i n g r e f e r s to the changing s t a t e of the p l a n ' s contents r a t h e r than the nature of the ongoing p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i t s e l f which i s d e a l t w i t h under normative versus f u n c t i o n a l p l a n n i n g , s e c t i o n 2.7 53 i n c r e a s e d degree of c o n t r o l to ensure implementation. With a v e t o or ' c a l l i n ' a u t h o r i t y over l o c a l , i . e . , m u n i c i p a l , z o n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t b y - l a w s , t h e s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g a g e n c y c a n a f f o r d t o s t e p back from t h e d a i l y o p e r a t i o n s o f the m u n i c i p a l l e v e l and c o n c e n t r a t e o f the b r o a d e r i m p l i c a t i o n s o f i t s p l a n p o l i c i e s . S u c h a c o u n t e r v a i l i n g balance between c e r t a i n t y of image and degree of c o n t r o l d e f i n e s a mode of p l a n n i n g that l i e s between the b l u e p r i n t and process s t y l e s . 2.5.2 C e r t a i n t y Of Image ( o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n ) F a l u d i (1973, p. 143) d e f i n e s the v a r i a b l e c e r t a i n t y of image a s , " I n d i c a t i o n s i n p l a n n i n g r e p o r t s and from p l a n n e r s of f i r m n e s s of assumptions u n d e r l y i n g programmes." Here, the image of the s t r a t e g i c p l a n i s o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d as the f u t u r e p a t t e r n of urban s e t t l e m e n t , i . e . , development concept, that the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g agency i s committed to implement by the end of the p l a n ' s time h o r i z o n , t y p i c a l l y some 25 y e a r s . In r e g i o n s w i t h p h y s i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s t o u r b a n g r o w t h , i n c l u d i n g the Lower M a i n l a n d , s t r a t e g i c p l a n s have u s u a l l y been f o r m u l a t e d w i t h a development concept t h a t expresses a nodal p a t t e r n of urban s e t t l e m e n t . The b a s i c goal of such a d e velopment c o n c e p t i s t o a c h i e v e a c l e a r s e p a r a t i o n , a dichotomy, between urban nodes or c e n t e r s and the surrounding r u r a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a s i n which t h e s e c e n t e r s a r e embedded. By implementing a nodal s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n where 54 growth i s d i s t r i b u t e d to the most s u i t a b l e urban c e n t e r s and staged to r a d i a t e outward from these c e n t e r s , the r e g i o n i s able to make the most e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e use of i t s l a n d r e s o u r c e s . The c e r t a i n t y o f the development c o n c e p t ' s image can be measured, at any p o i n t i n time, by the l e v e l of s p a t i a l d e t a i l c o n t a i n e d i n the p l a n . Implementing i t s development concept t h r o u g h t h e use o f l a n d use d e s i g n a t i o n s or zones w i t h r e g u l a t o r y p o l i c i e s , (use, l o t s i z e , and r e d e s i g n a t i o n ) and c o r r e s p o n d i n g s m a l l s c a l e p l a n maps, the b l u e p r i n t type of p l a n has a d e t a i l e d or c e r t a i n image. The concept type of p l a n , w i t h i t s development concept d e s c r i b e d by diagrams or l a r g e s c a l e maps and supported by g e n e r a l p o l i c i e s , i n c l u d i n g such t o o l s as growth share t a r g e t s , has a l e s s d e t a i l e d and c e r t a i n image. In essence, both the b l u e p r i n t and p r o c e s s ( c o n c e p t ) p l a n s c a n be s e e n as s t r a t e g i c p l a n s , but a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of s p a t i a l and p o l i c y d e t a i l . W hile the f o r m u l a t i o n of l a n d use d e s i g n a t i o n s p r o v i d e s an i n d i c a t i o n of a s h i f t towards a b l u e p r i n t s t y l e of p l a n n i n g , i t i s p o s s i b l e to r e t a i n such d e s i g n a t i o n s and s t i l l s h i f t back towards a p r o c e s s s t y l e of p l a n n i n g . The c e r t a i n t y of the p l a n ' s image and, commensurately, the type of p l a n can t h u s be m e a s u r e d by t h e ' t i g h t n e s s ' o f t h e l a n d u s e d e s i g n a t i o n s ; how w e l l t h e y c o l l e c t i v e l y r e f l e c t t h e development concept's image of a nodal settlement p a t t e r n with 55 a sharp dichotomy between urban c e n t e r s and surrounding r u r a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a s . F i g u r e 7 i l l u s t r a t e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the e f f e c t i v e number of r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d use d e s i g n a t i o n s and the o v e r a l l s t e e p n e s s of what can be termed the ' r u r a l to urban d e n s i t y t r a n s i t i o n g r a d i e n t ' : the s l o p e c o l l e c t i v e l y d e f i n e d by the minimum l o t s i z e s , i n d w e l l i n g u n i t s per a c r e , of the l a n d use d e s i g n a t i o n s ' s u b d i v i s i o n p o l i c i e s . With few d e s i g n a t i o n s , the s l o p e or g r a d i e n t i s s t e e p , and the s h a r p n e s s of the u r b a n - r u r a l d i c h o t o m y i s p r e s e r v e d . An i n c r e a s e i n t h e e f f e c t i v e number of d e s i g n a t i o n s ' f l a t t e n s ' the g r a d i e n t and ' s o f t e n s ' the u r b a n - r u r a l dichotomy. The former s i t u a t i o n d e s c r i b e s a c e r t a i n image and b l u e p r i n t s t y l e of p l a n n i n g while the l a t t e r s i t u a t i o n d e s c r i b e s a l e s s c e r t a i n or 'fuzzy' image and a process s t y l e of p l a n n i n g . I f the development concept l o s e s a l l c r e d i b i l i t y , then the s t r a t e g i c p l a n i s e f f e c t i v e l y r e p e a l e d . The image of the r e g i o n , from t h i s stage onwards, i s d e f i n e d through whatever ad hoc p l a n n i n g f o r the r e g i o n may take p l a c e . A f f o r d i n g l i t t l e c e r t a i n t y , ad hoc p l a n n i n g i s perhaps the most pure form of p r o c e s s p l a n n i n g t h a t can be a c h i e v e d w h i l e s t i l l b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d as p l a n n i n g . The e x t e n s i o n of the r e g i o n a l p l a n downwards, to completely r e p l a c e m u n i c i p a l zoning, would s i m i l a r l y r e s u l t i n the s t r o n g e s t form of b l u e p r i n t p l a n n i n g p o s s i b l e . S t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g thus occupies a range 56 F i g u r e 7: R u r a l To Urban D e n s i t y T r a n s i t i o n G r a d i e n t Steep Slope: Sharp Urban-Rural Dichotomy +J <D • H U CO u C < CD Q U CD 6 O-i 6 cn • H 4-> RURAL URBAN Number Of Land Use D e s i g n a t i o n s F l a t Slope: S o f t Urban-Rural Dichotomy Number Of Land Use D e s i g n a t i o n s 57 between these two extremes. 2.5.3 Degree Of C o n t r o l ( o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n ) F a l u d i (1973, p. 143) d e f i n e s c o n t r o l over the environment i n terms o f , " L e g a l powers; a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s o u r c e s ; f i n a n c i a l a s s e t s ; type of power s t r u c t u r e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system; i n f o r m a l c o n t r o l s . " Here, degree of c o n t r o l i s o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d as the power or ' t e e t h ' behind the s t r a t e g i c p l a n : the f o r m a l or l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t i e s g r a n t e d to the p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s a d m i n i s t e r i n g the p l a n . Land use p l a n n i n g i n the Lower Mainland, i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 8, i n v o l v e s four l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t a d m i n s t r a t i o n . From t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f b l u e p r i n t versus process p l a n n i n g , the degree of c o n t r o l can be measured at two l e v e l s : Lower Mainland (LMPRP) and Regional D i s t r i c t . At the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l , land use p l a n n i n g c o n t r o l s i n h e r e n t l y d i s p l a c e the a u t h o r i t i e s of the Lower Mainland and Re g i o n a l D i s t r i c t l e v e l s . P r o v i n c i a l l y i n t r o d u c e d l e g i s l a t i v e changes or proposed changes wi t h the p o t e n t i a l to c o n s t r a i n l o c a l l a n d use p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s and a c t i o n s are thus d e a l t with under the v a r i a b l e autonomy, s e c t i o n 2.7.2. The Lower Mainland P l a n n i n g Review Panel (LMPRP) and Reg i o n a l D i s t r i c t ' s l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t i e s over l a n d use p l a n n i n g , summarized i n column B of F i g u r e 9, remained constant d u r i n g Figure 8: Degree Of C o n t r o l And Le v e l Of A u t h o r i t y I 1 I AGRICULTURAL LAND RESERVE | I and other resource area | plans , I I OFFICIAL REGIONAL PLANS: 1 . development concept and ' s t r a t e g y ' r — - _ - J i 1 . OFFICIAL REGIONAL PLANS: ( land use desi g n a t i o n s .,-*-r " X OFFICIAL COMMUNITY PLANS I & zoning by-laws I ~1 I r j PROVINCE: l e g i s l a t u r e and m i n i s t e r i e s r i L__ I ORDER-IN- j I I COUNCIL I 4116/68 L , L LMPRP (Review Panel) REGIONAL DISTRICTS I I 1 MUNICIPAL | ACT RSBC 1979 ' MUNICIPALITIES Figure 9: Measurement Of Degree Of C o n t r o l (A) DECREASING CONTROLi de lega ted formal a u t h o r i t y (B) EXISTING CONTROL! 1969-81 formal / l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y (C) INCREASING CONTROLl i n f o r m a l or u l t r a v i r e s a u t h o r i t i e s t LMPRP fo rmua la t lon of c r i t e r i a to c l a s s i f y RD ORP amendment app-l i c a t i o n s and the d e l e g a t i o n of minor amendments to the s o l e J u r i s d i c t i o n of RD Boards to no LMPRP rev iew f u n c t i o n p r o t e c t i o n of LM development concept through rev iew of and recommendations on RD ORP amendment a p p l i c a t i o n s , an a d v i s o r y r o l e pe r suas ion and i n f l u e n c e w i t h RD Boards to a veto a u t h o r i t y or ' c a l l I n ' r o l e over RD ORP amendment! to f u l l approva l r o l e a u t h o r i t y over the adopt ion and amendment o f RD ORPi TORY AOTHORJ' n u f o r m u l a t i o n of c o n d i t i o n a l l y s t r u c t u r e d land use de s igna -t i o n p o l i c i e s to the r e l a x a -t i o n of the c r i t e r i a ( s e r v i c -i n g standards) and/or l i m i t s p laced on such c o n d i t i o n a l development fo rmula t ion of g e n e r a l i z e d 'broad brush ' l and use d e s i g n a t i o n . p o l i c i e s and p l a n maps to ensure the implementa-t i o n of the LM development concept attempts to Increase l e v e l of s p a t i a l r e s o l u t i o n beyond ' a genera l scheme wi thout d e t a i l ' and t rans form RD ORPs i n t o zoning type plana O U a Region Dlstrl d e l e g a t i n g a u t h o r i t y to the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s by p e r m i t t i n g ORP amendments to occur w i t h -out going through the formal amendment process (making amendments by r e s o l u t i o n ra ther than by by-law) and f a l l i n g to take to c o u r t those m u n i c i -p a l i t i e s w i th development by-laws repugnant to the ORP a u t h o r i t y to amend the p o l i c i e s and p lan maps of ORP l and use des igna t ions and enforcement of these de s igna t i ons by t a k i n g to cour t those m u n i c i -p a l i t i e s pass ing development by-laws not In confo rmi ty w i t h the ORP f a i l i n g to make e x p l i c i t p r o v i -s ions for ORP t ex t ( p o l i c y ) amendments, e s t a b l i s h i n g c r i t e r i a w i t h which to deero m u n i c i p a l development by - l awt ' t o conform' to the ORP (veto a u t h o r i t y ) and a t t empt ing to b r i n g non-conforming m u n i c i p a l development by- laws In to agree-ment w i t h the ORP (approva l r o l e ) THORITY LMPRP not a p p l i c a b l e an un incorpora t ed , a d v i s o r y agency, l a c k i n g the a u t h o r i t y to p rov ide i n f r a s t r u c t u r e a t t empt ing to use, or b e l i e f i n , the LM development concept ( r e g i o n a l s t r u c t u r e map and growth share t a rge t s ) as a means of s t i m u l a t i n g or f o s t e r i n g growth i n p a r t i c u l a r areas POSITIVE AU Regional District not a p p l i c a b l e a u t h o r i t y to p rov ide i n f r a -s t r u c t u r e through J o i n t mun ic ipa l agreement, but l a c k i n g a u t h o r i t y to impose taxes e f f o r t s to i n c l u d e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e p r o v i s i o n s i n land use d e s i g n a -t i o n p o l i c i e s and p l a n map schedules and so r e q u i r e m u n i c i -p a l i t i e s to p rov ide I n f r a s t r u c -ture that they have not i n d i v i d u a l l y agreed to KO 60 the 1969-1981 stud y p e r i o d . 2 With each R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t h a v i n g a d o p t e d i t s own O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n (ORP), th e LMPRP's f u n c t i o n was t o m a i n t a i n the i n t e g r i t y of the Lower Mainland's development concept as c o n t a i n e d i n the 1966 ORP and the e a r l i e r concept p l a n , Chance And Challenge; see image of s o c i e t y , s e c t i o n 2.6.2. The LMPRP, e s t a b l i s h e d by Order-I n - C o u n c i l 4116/68, d i d not have any a u t h o r i t y over R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t l a n d use p l a n n i n g , but i t d i d have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to review m u n i c i p a l a p p l i c a t i o n s to amend the ORPs and to make recommendations on these a p p l i c a t i o n s before any d e c i s i o n was taken by the Regional D i s t r i c t Board concerned. Lacking the v e t o a u t h o r i t y n e c e s s a r y f o r e x e r c i s i n g c o n t r o l over ORP amendments, th e LMPRP was thus c r e a t e d to be an a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g agency. The Regional D i s t r i c t s had a s t a t u t o r y , ' s h a l l ' o b l i g a t i o n t o p r e p a r e R e g i o n a l P l a n s and c o u l d , by by-law, adopt them as O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n s (ORP): see Appendix 3. To adopt or amend a ORP r e q u i r e d a m a j o r i t y vote on the Regional D i s t r i c t Board. S e c t i o n 807 (1) of the, M u n i c i p a l Act, (RSBC 1979), d e f i n e d an R e g i o n a l P l a n as a, " . . . g e n e r a l scheme w i t h o u t d e t a i l f o r the p r o j e c t e d uses of l a n d w i t h i n the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t , i n c l u d i n g the l o c a t i o n of major highways." With regard to form, s e c t i o n 807 (2) s t a t e d t h a t , "A r e g i o n a l p l a n or plans may be expressed i n maps, p l a n s , r e p o r t s , or by other 1 The Regional D i s t r i c t s ' p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n was r e p e a l e d i n 1983, see s e c t i o n 3.7. 61 means." The A c t , however, d i d not s p e c i f y the l e v e l of s p a t i a l r e s o l u t i o n , and t h u s t h e t e r m ' g e n e r a l scheme' i m p l i c i t l y l i m i t e d the four Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s and t h e i r ' o v e r s e e i n g ' LMPRP to a 'broad b r u s h ' , c o n c e p t u a l type of p l a n . Here, i t can be seen that the s t r a t e g i c p l a n ' s l e v e l of s p a t i a l r e s o l u t i o n , i . e . , p l a n map s c a l e s , e f f e c t s degree of c o n t r o l i n a d d i t i o n to c e r t a i n t y of image. The l e g i s l a t i o n d i d n o t g r a n t t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s a c o u n t e r v a i l i n g veto or a p p r o v a l r o l e a u t h o r i t y over m u n i c i p a l d e v e l o p m e n t b y - l a w s t o compensate f o r t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o e x e r c i s e c o n t r o l t h r o u g h s p a t i a l l y d e t a i l e d l a n d use r e g u l a t i o n s . S e c t i o n 812 (1) of the, M u n i c i p a l A c t , (RSBC .1979), o n l y s t a t e d t h a t M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , " . . . s h a l l not enact any p r o v i s i o n or i n i t i a t e any work which would i m p a i r or impede the u l t i m a t e r e a l i z a t i o n of the o b j e c t i v e s of the o f f i c i a l r e g i o n a l p l a n . . . . " Thus, the onus was on the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s t o p r o v e , i n C o u r t , t h a t an o f f e n d i n g m u n i c i p a l development by-law, i n c l u d i n g z oning or O f f i c i a l Community Plans (OCP), had v i o l a t e d the o b j e c t i v e s of the ORP. The l e g i s l a t i v e p r o v i s i o n s f o r OCPs, i n f a c t , had been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the, M u n i c i p a l Act, i n 1977, the year j u s t p r i o r t o the onset of the Update p r o c e s s . Since the p o l i c y contents of OCPs were more e x t e n s i v e l y d e f i n e d i n the Act than f o r ORPs, t h e P r o v i n c e ' s c r e a t i o n o f OCP's, w i t h o u t commensurately i n c r e a s i n g the a u t h o r i t y of ORPs, a l s o c r e a t e d the p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n f l i c t between the m u n i c i p a l and R e g i o n a l 62 D i s t r i c t l e v e l s . While the p r e p a r a t i o n of an ORP was a s t a t u t o r y o b l i g a t i o n f o r the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s , s e c t i o n 809 (6,a) of the, M u n i c i p a l  A c t , (RSBC 1 9 7 9 ) , c l e a r l y s t a t e d t h a t an ORP, does not "...commit the R e g i o n a l Board or any o t h e r l o c a l government body to undertake any p r o j e c t suggested or o u t l i n e d i n i t . " The R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s ' a u t h o r i t i e s to r e s t r i c t or r e g u l a t e development, a l b e i t l i m i t e d , were st r o n g e r than i t s p o s i t i v e a u t h o r i t i e s or a b i l i t y t o c a u s e d e v e l o p m e n t t h r o u g h t h e p r o v i s i o n of i n f r a s t r u c t u r e : roads, water, sewer, and other p u b l i c works. In keeping with t h e i r c r e a t i o n , 1965, as ' j o i n t s e r v i c e boards', see s e c t i o n 3.2, the Regional D i s t r i c t s c o u l d o n l y p r o v i d e any g i v e n f a c i l i t y or s e r v i c e on a c o s t s h a r i n g b a s i s w i t h the support of a m a j o r i t y vote from t h e i r member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . No e x c e p t i o n was made f o r ORPs; s e c t i o n 809 (6,b) of t h e , M u n i c i p a l A c t , (RSBC 1979 ), s t a t e d t h a t the a d o p t i o n o f a OSP ( o r ORP) does n o t , " . . . a u t h o r i z e t h e R e g i o n a l B o a r d . . . t o p r o c e e d w i t h a p r o j e c t e x c e p t i n accordance w i t h the procedures and r e s t r i c t i o n s l a i d down by any A c t . " The f o r m a l , l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t i e s g r a n t e d to the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s i n h e r e n t l y d e f i n e d a l e v e l of c o n t r o l somewhere between the b l u e p r i n t and p r o c e s s s t y l e of p l a n n i n g . With l e s s formal a u t h o r i t y , the LMPRP's degree of c o n t r o l was more b i a s e d towards t h e p r o c e s s s t y l e of p l a n n i n g . Movement 63 between the two s t y l e s of p l a n n i n g , as based on degree of c o n t r o l , can be determined by measuring changes i n e f f e c t i v e a u t h o r i t y . Movement towards a b l u e p r i n t s t y l e of p l a n n i n g , a t e i t h e r the Lower Mainland or Regional D i s t r i c t l e v e l s , w i l l be a s s i s t e d by i m p l i c i t and e x p l i c i t e f f o r t s t o i n c r e a s e the e x i s t i n g degree of c o n t r o l . During the f o r m u l a t i o n or implementation of the s t r a t e g i c p l a n , the p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s may i m p l i c i t l y e x t e n d t h e i r a u t h o r i t y t h r o u g h p e r s u a s i o n a n d t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of any seemingly ambiguous wordings or s e c t i o n s i n the l e g i s l a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o l a n d use p l a n n i n g . Such e f f o r t s are a k i n to the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of precedents i n case law. In a d d i t i o n , t h e p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s may e x p l i c i t l y c h a l l e n g e t h e l e g i s l a t i o n g o v e r n i n g l a n d use p l a n n i n g by f o r m u l a t i n g more e x t e n s i v e p o s i t i v e and r e g u l a t o r y a u t h o r i t i e s i n t o a new s t r a t e g i c p l a n . T h i s approach o f f e r s the p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s the o p p o r t u n i t y to ' t e s t case' d e s i r e d i n c r e a s e s i n a u t h o r i t y without d i r e c t l y b reaking the law: u n t i l the d r a f t s t r a t e g i c p l a n c o n t a i n i n g the proposed i n c r e a s e s i n a u t h o r i t y i s adopted, i t can not be found u l t r a v i r e s , i . e . , u n l a w f u l , w i t h r e s p e c t to e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n . The s p e c i f i c elements of i n c r e a s e d c o n t r o l , l i s t e d i n column C of F i g u r e 9 , are i d e n t i f i e d and expanded upon i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Lower Mainland p l a n n i n g events and i s s u e s . Where t h e LMPRP and R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s i m p l i c i t l y or 64 e x p l i c i t l y d e l e g a t e t h e i r f o r m a l p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t i e s downwards, the r e s u l t i n g decrease i n c o n t r o l w i l l c o n t r i b u t e to a s h i f t towards the p r o c e s s s t y l e of p l a n n i n g . I m p l i c i t d e l e g a t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y i n v o l v e s the s u b t l e weakening of r e g u l a t o r y ORP p o l i c i e s through amendments or r e f o r m u l a t i o n s t h a t expose t h e s e r e g u l a t o r y p o l i c i e s to f u r t h e r amendment p r e s s u r e s and r e l a x a t i o n s . E x p l i c i t d e l e g a t i o n occurs where the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t l e v e l of p l a n n i n g , by ORP amendment or r e f o r m u l a t i o n , s p e c i f i c a l l y d e l e g a t e s i t s l e g i s l a t i v e l y a s s i g n e d r e g u l a t o r y a u t h o r i t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to the m u n i c i p a l l e v e l of p l a n n i n g . Since the Lower Mainland and Regional D i s t r i c t l e v e l s were not s p e c i f i c a l l y a s s i g n e d p o s i t i v e a u t h o r i t i e s , i . e . , i n f r a s t r u c t u r e p r o v i s i o n s , t h i s a u t h o r i t y c o u l d n o t be d e l e g a t e d . D e c i s i o n s not t o c o n t i n u e w i t h e f f o r t s t o i n c o r p o r a t e p o s i t i v e a u t h o r i t i e s i n t o the ORP can be seen as a decrease or l o s s of p o t e n t i a l a u t h o r i t y , though. Again, the s p e c i f i c elements of decreased c o n t r o l , l i s t e d i n column A of F i g u r e 9, a r e i d e n t i f i e d a n d e x p a n d e d u p o n i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Lower Mainland pla n n i n g events and i s s u e s . 2.5.4 Time Lags ( o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s ) I n t e r n a l time l a g s can be d e f i n e d as the l e n g t h of time taken by the s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g agency t o r e s p o n d t o feedback from the l o c a l l e v e l . F a l u d i (1973, p. 143) measures 65 i n t e r n a l t ime l ag s a s , "Time taken f o r programme f o r m u l a t i o n e x t r a c t e d from r e p o r t s , case s t u d i e s , i n t e r v i e w s , s t a t i s t i c s . " In t h e Lower M a i n l a n d s t u d y , i n t e r n a l t i m e l a g s c a n be m e a s u r e d f r o m two p e r s p e c t i v e s : t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e t h a t feedback p r e s s u r e s a re h e l d back from p l a n n i n g s t a f f by s e n i o r o f f i c i a l s and p o l i t i c i a n s , i . e . , the ' p o l i t i c a l c o m p o n e n t ' , and the l e n g t h o f t ime that i s taken by the p l a n n i n g s t a f f i n f o r m u l a t i n g a p p r o p r i a t e p l a n s , p o l i c i e s , and programs t o r e s o l v e feedback p r o b l e m s , i . e . , the ' t e c h n i c a l ' component. Long i n t e r n a l t ime l ags are e s s e n t i a l f o r b l u e p r i n t p l a n n i n g s i n c e t h i s s t y l e o f p l a n n i n g r e q u i r e s the p l a n ' s image t o remain c o n s t a n t u n t i l the p l a n i s f u l l y implemented. Where i n t e r n a l t ime l a g s a r e s h o r t , m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o the p l a n ' s image w i l l c o n s t r a i n the s t y l e o f p l a n n i n g towards p r o c e s s p l a n n i n g . E x t e r n a l t ime l ag s can be d e f i n e d as the l e n g t h of t ime taken by the l o c a l p l a n n i n g agency to respond to the p l a n , p o l i c i e s , and programs f o rmu la ted by the s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g agency once t h e s e documents have been c o m p l e t e d and r e l e a s e d . F a l u d i (1973, p. 143) measures e x t e r n a l t ime l ags a s , "Time earmarked f o r comp le t i on of p r o j e c t s ; t ime a f t e r which f i r s t r e s u l t s a re expec ted to become a v a i l a b l e . " In the Lower Ma in land s tudy , e x t e r n a l t ime l a g s can a l s o be measured from two p e r s p e c t i v e s : the l e n g t h of t ime taken by the m u n i c i p a l l e v e l to a s ses s the p o t e n t i a l impact of the s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g a g e n c y ' s d e c i s i o n s and the f u r t h e r l eng th of t ime taken to f o rmu l a te a 66 r e s p o n s e . The two components of feedback i n e x t e r n a l time l a g s are thus recorded o b j e c t i o n s to the p l a n and a p p l i c a t i o n s to amend the p l a n . To ma i n t a i n a b l u e p r i n t s t y l e of p l a n n i n g l o n g e x t e r n a l t i m e l a g s a r e r e q u i r e d . The f a s t e r t h e m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g agency can assess the p o t e n t i a l impact of the p l a n and p r o v i d e feedback, the sooner the c e r t a i n t y of the pla n ' s image w i l l be undermined. I n t h o s e i n s t a n c e s where a s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g a g e n c y f o r m u l a t e s a p l a n amendment, e i t h e r a m o d i f i c a t i o n or new p o l i c y , on b e h a l f of a l o c a l p l a n n i n g agency, the feedback, i . e . , a s o l u t i o n to a p e r c e i v e d problem, i s c o n s i d e r e d to be p a r t of the s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g agency's work program and i s t r e a t e d as an i n t e r n a l time l a g . I t can thus be seen t h a t i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l time l a g s are not s e p a r a t e v a r i a b l e s , but i n t e r a c t i v e ones. In p a r t i c u l a r , the r e l a t i v e b a l a n c e between the l e n g t h of i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l time l a g s may serve as a c o n s t r a i n t to e i t h e r s t y l e of p l a n n i n g . Changes to the plan's image and the c e r t a i n t y w i t h which i t i s e x p r e s s e d w i l l be a c c e l e r a t e d , i . e . , p o s i t i v e feedback, when the s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g agency makes changes to the p l a n as f a s t or f a s t e r than the l o c a l l e v e l can respond to the p l a n changes. In these s i t u a t i o n s , where the l e n g t h of the i n t e r n a l time l a g s a re equal t o or s h o r t e r than the e x t e r n a l time l a g s , the s t y l e of p l a n n i n g w i l l l i k e l y be c o n s t r a i n e d towards p r o c e s s p l a n n i n g . A 67 b l u e p r i n t s t y l e of p l a n n i n g r e q u i r e s t h a t the i n t e r n a l time l a g s be l o n g e r than the e x t e r n a l time l a g s . Under t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , where the s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g agency i s slower t o r e s p o n d t o c r i t i c i s m s t h a n t h e l o c a l l e v e l t a k e s t o generate such c r i t i c i s m , the p l a n ' s image and the c e r t a i n t y with which i t i s expressed w i l l be s t a b i l i z e d , i . e . , n e g a t i v e or 'dampened' feedback. 2.6 The Planning Agency: R a t i o n a l Comprehensive Versus D i s j o i n t e d Incremental P l a n n i n g 2.6.1 General F a l u d i (1973) u s e s L i n d l b l o m ' s (1959, 1965) a n a l y s i s o f r a t i o n a l d e d u c t i v e or s y n o p t i c p l a n n i n g t o o u t l i n e t h e r a t i o n a l comprehensive versus d i s j o i n t e d incremental s t y l e s of p l a n n i n g . Here, the key i s s u e i s comprehensiveness and the breadth of p l a n n i n g at any one p o i n t i n time rather than any one p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t y over time. The incremental aspects of Braybrook and Lindblom's (1963) ' d i s j o i n t e d incrementalism' i s thus d e a l t w i t h under F a l u d i ' s f l e x i b i l i t y dimension, i . e . , b l u e p r i n t v e r s u s p r o c e s s p l a n n i n g . To o u t l i n e t h e ' c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y ' dimension, F a l u d i uses three v a r i a b l e s , of which one, image of s o c i e t y , i s a determinant: see F i g u r e 10. The other two v a r i a b l e s , scope of image and r e l a t i v e autonomy are c o n s t r a i n t s . Since ( r e l a t i v e ) autonomy i s a l s o the prime determinant of the l a s t p l a n n i n g dimension, normative versus f u n c t i o n a l p l a n n i n g , see s e c t i o n 2.7, i t i s not o p e r a t i o n a l l y Figure 1 0 : The R a t i o n a l Comprehensive Versus D i s j o i n t e d Incremental S t y l e s Of Planning Rat i o n a l Comprehensive Planning D i s j o i n t e d Incremental P l a n n i n g DETERMINANT H o l i s t i c « Image Of S o c i e t y _ A t o m i s t i c CONSTRAINT Narrow — Scope Of Image — Wide Source: Fashioned from F a l u d i ( 1 9 7 3 , p. 1 5 6 ) 69 d e f i n e d here or a p p l i e d to the Lower Mainland study as p a r t of the c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y dimension. F a l u d i (1973, p. 155) d e f i n e s the r a t i o n a l comprehensive s t y l e of p l a n n i n g as an approach, "...whereby the programmes put forward f o r e v a l u a t i o n cover the a v a i l a b l e a c t i o n space and where t h e a c t i o n s p a c e has i t s e l f been d e r i v e d f r o m an e x h a u s t i v e d e f i n i t i o n of the problem to be s o l v e d . " While F a l u d i ' s ' a c t i o n space' r e f e r s t o both ends and means, the emphasis i n t h i s d i m e n s i o n i s on means, t h o s e a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n s , p o l i c i e s , and programs t h a t l i e w i t h i n the p l a n n i n g a g e n c y ' s mandate. The f u l l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f ends, t h e l e g i s l a t i v e l y d e f i n e d goals of the p l a n n i n g agency i t s e l f , i s the s u b j e c t of the next dimension, see s e c t i o n 2.7, where the v a r i a b l e of autonomy i s d e a l t w i t h . R e f l e c t i n g a s i n g l e image of s o c i e t y , r a t i o n a l comprehensive p l a n n i n g i s d e t e r m i n e d by the e x i s t e n c e of 'macro d e c i s i o n makers' and c e n t r a l i z e d p l a n n i n g . The p l a n n i n g agency's a b i l i t y to engage i n a r a t i o n a l comprehensive s t y l e w i l l be c o n s t r a i n e d where i t l a c k s complete i n f o r m a t i o n about the environment that i t plans f o r . I f the p l a n n i n g agency's scope does n o t encompass t h e e n t i r e e n v i r o n m e n t e f f e c t i n g t h e a g e n c y ' s m a n d a t e , t h e n t h e r e q u i r e m e n t f o r c o m p l e t e i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l l a r g e l y be dependent on the p l a n n i n g agency's connections with other r e l e v a n t a g e n c i e s . 70 In c o n t r a s t t o r a t i o n a l comprehensive p l a n n i n g , d i s j o i n t e d i n c remental p l a n n i n g i s an approach, "...where the programmes c o n s i d e r e d by any one p l a n n i n g agency are l i m i t e d to a few which d e l i b e r a t e l y do not exhaust the a v a i l a b l e a c t i o n space, and where t h a t a c t i o n space i s i t s e l f i l l - d e f i n e d . " ( F a l u d i 1973, p. 1 5 5 ) . The b a s i c p r a c t i s e , t h e n , o f d i s j o i n t e d i n c remental p l a n n i n g i s to l i m i t the a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n o p t i o n s , a n d a s s o c i a t e d p o l i c i e s and p r o g r a m s , c o n s i d e r e d f o r e v a l u a t i o n to a s m a l l number that do not g r e a t l y d i f f e r from the s t a t u s quo, a s t r a t e g y the Braybrooke and Lindblom (1963) r e f e r to as 'margin dependent c h o i c e ' . Moreover, the range of a l t e r n a t i v e s c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s s t y l e of p l a n n i n g i s f u r t h e r r e d u c e d t o t h o s e f o r w h i c h s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e . The l a c k of complete i n f o r m a t i o n , r e f l e c t i n g an a b s e n c e o f c e n t r a l i z e d p l a n n i n g , r e s u l t s i n a s e r i e s o f f r a g m e n t e d , a t o m i s t i c images of s o c i e t y t h a t a r e h e l d by numerous p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s . By working together and c r e a t i n g numerous i n f o r m a t i o n l i n k a g e s with each o t h e r , i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r o t h e r w i s e i s o l a t e d p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s t o s e r v e as a c o n s t r a i n t a g a i n s t d i s j o i n t e d incremental p l a n n i n g . 2.6.2 Image Of S o c i e t y ( o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n ) Image of s o c i e t y , the determinant of r a t i o n a l comprehensive v e r s u s d i s j o i n t e d i n c r e m e n t a l p l a n n i n g , i s o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d h e r e as the image of the Lower M a i n l a n d t h a t i s c o l l e c t i v e l y h e l d by i t s s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s . In 71 p a r t i c u l a r , t h i s image i s not only c o n t a i n e d i n p l a n s , but i n r e v i e w r e p o r t s , d i s c u s s i o n p a p e r s , and m e e t i n g m i n u t e s . Images o f s o c i e t y , s t a t e s F a l u d i (1973, p. 176) can be measured i n terms of the, " C e n t r a l i z a t i o n or d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g s t r u c t u r e and p r o c e d u r e s . " In the Lower M a i n l a n d s t u d y , the s t r u c t u r e and p r o c e d u r e s o f s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g a r e i n t e r p r e t e d as i n t e r d e p e n d e n t sub-v a r i a b l e s . P r i o r t o 1969, one p l a n n i n g a g e n c y , t h e Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d (LMRPB), was c h a r g e d w i t h t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of p r o v i d i n g s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g f o r the p h y s i c a l l y l i m i t e d Lower Mainland and i t s 28 se p a r a t e , but f u n c t i o n a l l y i n t e r d e p e n d e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e sub a r e a s , i . e . , C i t e s , M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , and E l e c t o r a l Areas ( u n i n c o r p o r a t e d ) . The LMRPB, f u n c t i o n i n g as an o r g a n i z a t i o n , prepared two pl a n s t h a t c o l l e c t i v e l y e x p r e s s e d a h o l i s t i c , 'top down' image of the Lower M a i n l a n d : a c o n c e p t p l a n , Chance And C h a l l e n g e , (1963), and a more s p a t i a l l y d e t a i l e d zoning or b l u e p r i n t type of p l a n , the 1966, O f f i c i a l R egional P l a n , (ORP): see s e c t i o n 3.2.4 to 3.2.5. By O r d e r - I n - C o u n c i l 4116, December 1968, see Appendix 2, the P r o v i n c e disbanded the LMRPB and r e p l a c e d i t with the Lower Main l a n d P l a n n i n g Review Panel (LMPRP). The Panel's purpose was t o c o o r d i n a t e the l a n d use p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s of the Lower M a i n l a n d ' s f o u r new R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s : G r e a t e r 72 V a n c o u v e r (GVRD), C e n t r a l F r a s e r V a l l e y (CFVRD), Dewdney A l o u e t t e (DARD), and F r a s e r Cheam (RDFC). The R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s , c r e a t e d as j o i n t m u n i c i p a l ' s e r v i c e boards' under a p r e v i o u s l y e n a c t e d amendment t o t h e , M u n i c i p a l A c t , (SBC 1965), i n h e r i t e d the g e n e r a l p r o v i s i o n s , i . e . , t e x t , of the 1966 ORP and the p l a n maps p e r t a i n i n g to t h e i r s p e c i f i c a r e a s . The p o l i t i c a l and s t a f f s t r u c t u r e o f t h e LMPRP-Regional D i s t r i c t p l a n n i n g system are i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e s 11 and 12. By r e v i e w i n g and making recommendations on a p p l i c a t i o n s to amend the Reg i o n a l D i s t r i c t s ' ORPs, the LMPRP was to maintain t h e h o l i s t i c image o f t h e Lower M a i n l a n d t h a t had been formulated i n the 1966 ORP. The LMPRP, a s t a n d i n g committee composed of e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s appointed from w i t h i n each R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t Board,.was thus e s t a b l i s h e d i n an a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c a p a c i t y . Under the p r o v i s i o n s of O r d e r - I n - C o u n c i l 4116/68, t h e LMPRP was empowered t o e s t a b l i s h i t own p r o c e d u r a l by laws and share c o s t s ' i n c i d e n t a l ' to i t s review f u n c t i o n between the Reg i o n a l D i s t r i c t s on a per c a p i t a b a s i s . The post 1969 arrangements thus l e f t a somewhat ambiguous, but p o t e n t i a l l y f l e x i b l e s e t of d e c i s i o n making s t r u c t u r e s and procedures i n p l a c e to conduct long term land use p l a n n i n g i n the Lower M a i n l a n d . More than an ad hoc p l a n n i n g body, ye t l e s s than a f o r m a l p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n , the LMPRP can be c l a s s i f i e d as a s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g agency. I t has been noted t h a t the degree of c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i n the 73 F i g u r e 1 1 : The S t r a t e g i c R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g System-P o l i t i c a l Chairman E l e c t LOWER MAINLAND PLANNING REVIEW PANEL (8members) Chairman E l e c t Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t Board Of D i r e c t o r s D i r e c t o r s E l e c t M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l s Municipal Voters Chairman E l e c t C e n t r a l F r a s e r V a l l e y R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t B o ard Of D i r e c t o r s D i r e c t o r s E l e c t M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l s M u n i c i p a l V o t e r s Chairman E l e c t Dewdney A l o u e t t e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t Board Of D i r e c t o r s D i r e c t o r s E l e c t M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l s M u n i c i p a l V o t e r s Chairman E l e c t R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t F r a s e r Cheam Board Of D i r e c t o r s D i r e c t o r s E l e c t M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l s M u n i c i p a l V o t e r s * While not a r e g u l a t i o n , the second, a l t e r n a t e , R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t Board a p p o i n t e e t o the LMPRP was t y p i c a l l y the Planning Committee Chairman F i g u r e 1 2: 74 The S t r a t e g i c R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g System- S t a f f MOMA LOWER MAINLAND PLANNING REVIEW PANEL (LMPRP S e c r e t a r y ) ^ ELUCS TECHNIC7AL LIAISON COMMITTEE i WORKING I GROUP r T i t i l l ) 4 g l I • i I I I • • i 1 2 3 4 GVRD CFVRD DARD RDFC 1 Coquitlam/Burnaby M u n i c i p a l i t i e s 2 L a n g l e y C i t y / M u n i c i p a l i t y 3 Maple Ridge M u n i c i p a l i t y 4 C h i l l i w h a c k M u n i c i p a l i t y Dashed l i n e s i n d i c a t e a l l t h e p o s i t i o n s f i l l e d by a s i n g l e s t a f f p e r s o n S e n i o r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g S t a f f _ R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r and TPC Member M u n i c i p a l P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r and TPC Member S e n i o r P r o v i n c i a l S t a f f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s T 75 d e c i s i o n making s t r u c t u r e has a d i r e c t impact on the image of s o c i e t y . In p a r t i c u l a r , a c o l l e c t i o n o f s e p a r a t e p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s , i . e . , R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s , whose g e o g r a p h i c a r e a s cover o n l y a p o r t i o n of the t o t a l environment, i . e . , the Lower M a i n l a n d , w i l l l i k e l y l e a d t o a s e t of s e p a r a t e , a t o m i s t i c images and a d i s j o i n t e d i n c r e m e n t a l s t y l e of p l a n n i n g . The c r e a t i o n of a s t r a t e g i c or c o o r d i n a t i n g p l a n n i n g agency such as t h e LMPRP i n h e r e n t l y c e n t r a l i z e s the d e c i s i o n making s t r u c t u r e ; o f f e r s the p o t e n t i a l to b u i l d a h o l i s t i c image; and i n i t i a t e s a s h i f t towards a r a t i o n a l comprehensive s t y l e of p l a n n i n g . From t h i s s t a g e onwards, t h e s t y l e o f p l a n n i n g w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d by the c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of the s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g agency's i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e . A h o l i s t i c image and a r a t i o n a l comprehensive s t y l e of p l a n n i n g i s more l i k e l y to r e s u l t when the s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g agency a c q u i r e s i t s own independent s t a f f p lanners and has a s t a f f e x e c u t i v e to manage the s t a f f p l a n n e r s w h i l e expanding upon d i r e c t i v e s from the agency's p o l i t i c a l board. In c o n t r a s t , the d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n or l o s s of the s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g agency's i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e w i l l l i k e l y f r a g ment i t s image of s o c i e t y and cause a s h i f t toward a d i s j o i n t e d incremental s t y l e of p l a n n i n g . The s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g agency's image of s o c i e t y and s t y l e of p l a n n i n g w i l l a l s o be determined by how c e n t r a l i z e d i t s data bases and pl a n n i n g procedures a r e . Through a c e n t r a l i z e d or 76 j o i n t work program, the s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g agency w i l l be a b l e t o c o o r d i n a t e the f o r m u l a t i o n and implementation of a s i n g l e s t r a t e g i c p l a n from the top down: from a r e g i o n a l development concept to a s e t of r e g u l a t o r y l a n d use d e s i g n a t i o n s and to p l a n maps that p r o v i d e a broad s p a t i a l framework of land use a l l o c a t i o n s f o r the a d o p t i o n of l o c a l z o ning by-laws. Top down procedures, r e f l e c t i n g a r a t i o n a l comprehensive s t y l e of p l a n n i n g , m a i n t a i n an h o l i s t i c image of s o c i e t y . Where the p l a n n i n g agencies being c o o r d i n a t e d by the s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g agency pursue p a r a l l e l , but independent work programs, the s t r a t e g i c p l a n , i f one emerges, w i l l l i k e l y be a c o l l e c t i o n of separate, a t o m i s t i c images l i n k e d by a minimal l e v e l of common i n t e r e s t , i . e . , a 'common d e n o m i n a t o r ' p l a n . T h e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of the s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g agency's data base and p l a n n i n g p r o c e d u r e s t h u s l e a d s towards a d i s j o i n t e d i ncremental s t y l e of p l a n n i n g . The s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g a g e n c y ' s i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e and p l a n n i n g procedures i n t e r a c t i n determining the agency's s t y l e of p l a n n i n g . Where the s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g agency s t r i v e s f o r a h o l i s t i c image and a t t e m p t s to use c e n t r a l i z e d p l a n n i n g p r o c e d u r e s , i t w i l l i n h e r e n t l y be f o r c e d t o e v o l v e and i n t e r n a l l y s t r u c t u r e i t s e l f i n t o a p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n . The s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n t u r n , w i l l be more capable of g e n e r a t i n g c e n t r a l i z e d procedures and a h o l i s t i c image of s o c i e t y . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p can a l s o work i n r e v e r s e , causing a s h i f t away from r a t i o n a l comprehensive p l a n n i n g towards 77 d i s j o i n t e d i n c r e m e n t a l p l a n n i n g . Where the s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s s t a f f f u n c t i o n s a r e r e d u c e d i n s i z e o r e l i m i n a t e d , the 'devolved' p l a n n i n g agency w i l l be l e s s a b l e t o m a i n t a i n c e n t r a l i z e d p l a n n i n g p r o c e d u r e s and a h o l i s t i c image of s o c i e t y . And, the s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t does n o t f u l f i l l i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f c o n d u c t i n g c e n t r a l i z e d p l a n n i n g may w e l l f i n d i t s e l f o v e r t a k e n by a t o m i s t i c images from the l o c a l l e v e l and thus l o s e i t s s t a f f f u n c t i o n due to i n a c t i v i t y . 2.6.3 Scope of Images ( o p e r a t i o n d e f i n i t i o n ) F a l u d i (1973, p. 167) d e f i n e s t h e scope o f the p l a n n i n g agency's image i n terms of t h e , "Number of known l i n k a g e s between the a r e a s o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s . " Given the nature of the land use d e c i s i o n making s t r u c t u r e i n the Lower Mainland, the v a r i a b l e scope of image can a c t as a powerful c o n s t r a i n t on e i t h e r the r a t i o n a l comprehensive or d i s j o i n t e d i n cremental s t y l e s of p l a n n i n g . The image of the Lower M a i n l a n d h e l d by the LMPRP w i l l be g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d by the t i e s or l o y a l t i e s between the LMPRP members. Where the members e x c l u s i v e l y support the i n t e r e s t s of the Regiona l D i s t r i c t Boards from which they were appointed to the LMPRP, the LMPRP's image of the Lower Mainland w i l l be fragmented and so c o n s t r a i n the agency's a b i l i t y to p l a n i n a r a t i o n a l comprehensive s t y l e . Strong t i e s between the LMPRP 78 members, where the i n d i v i d u a l members support the long term i n t e r e s t s o f the Lower Mainland over the immediate i n t e r e s t s of t h e i r Regional D i s t r i c t , w i l l h e l p to support an h o l i s t i c image and so serve as a c o n s t r a i n t to d i s j o i n t e d i n c r e m e n t a l p l a n n i n g . Thus, l i n k a g e s are o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d here as i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l l o y a l t i e s or t i e s r a t h e r t h a n j u s t i n f o r m a t i o n exchanges. The concept of i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l l i n k a g e s can a l s o be a p p l i e d to the s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n whose s t a f f has been seconded from the r e g i o n a l sub a r e a s , i . e . , R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s . S t r o n g i n t e r n a l l i n k a g e s amongst the s t a f f members w i l l tend t o c o n s t r a i n the r i s e of a t o m i s t i c i m a g e s a n d any p o t e n t i a l s h i f t t o w a r d s a d i s j o i n t e d i n c r e m e n t a l s t y l e of p l a n n i n g . In c o n t r a s t , s t r o n g e x t e r n a l l i n k a g e s between the s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g s t a f f and t h e i r own r e s p e c t i v e p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s may w e l l f r a g m e n t t h e s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s image and s e r v e as a c o n s t r a i n t a g a i n s t r a t i o n a l comprehensive p l a n n i n g . In m e a s u r i n g the scope of the LMPRP's image, i . e . , of the Lower Mainland, i t i s not the a b s o l u t e number of l i n k a g e s , but the r e l a t i v e b a l a n c e between t h e number of i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l l i n k a g e s t h a t i s of importance. The c e n t r a l i z e d , s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l be c o n s t r a i n e d from p l a n n i n g i n a r a t i o n a l comprehensive s t y l e when the i n t e r n a l l i n k a g e s amongst i t s p o l i t i c i a n s and planners are weaker than 79 the p o l i t i c i a n ' s and p l a n n e r ' s e x t e r n a l l i n k a g e s w i t h the p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e a r e a s . C o n v e r s e l y , a l e s s c e n t r a l i z e d d e c i s i o n making s t r u c t u r e , i . e . , s e p a r a t e p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s , w i l l be c o n s t r a i n e d from a d i s j o i n t e d i n c r e m e n t a l s t y l e o f p l a n n i n g when the e x t e r n a l l i n k a g e s between t h e i r p o l i t i c i a n s and planners are stronger than the i n t e r n a l l i n k a g e s amongst the p o l i t i c i a n s and p l a n n e r s of each i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n i n g a g e n c y . A wide s c o p e o f image i s o p e r a t i v e i n the l a t t e r i n s t a n c e and a s e r i e s of fragmented, narrow images i s o p e r a t i v e i n the former. 2.7 The Planning Process: Normative Versus F u n c t i o n a l P l a n n i n g 2.7.1 General The terms n o r m a t i v e and f u n c t i o n a l p l a n n i n g , c o i n e d by Friedmann (1966, 1967), bear t h e i r o r i g i n i n the work of two German s o c i o l o g i s t s , Weber (1947, 1965), and Mannheim (1940). Both Mannheim and Weber have argued that the i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l s o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and t a s k d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y has l e d t o p o o r c o o r d i n a t i o n and ' f u n c t i o n a l i r r a t i o n a l i t y ' where the planners take t h e i r agency's g o a l s as g i v e n and are r a t i o n a l w i t h r e s p e c t to i t s means o n l y . In e s s e n c e , t h e key i s s u e u n d e r l y i n g t h i s d i m e n s i o n i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; the p l a n n i n g agency's w i l l i n g n e s s to analyze both ends and means s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . F a l u d i (1973) uses two v a r i a b l e s to measure the normative versus f u n c t i o n a l s t y l e s of 80 p l a n n i n g : see F i g u r e 13. The determinant, r e l a t i v e autonomy, measures the p l a n n i n g agency's formal a b i l i t y to c o n s i d e r and p u r s u e a l t e r n a t e ends or g o a l s . However, the r o l e of the i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n e r s can serve to c o n s t r a i n movement to e i t h e r s t y l e of p l a n n i n g . F a l u d i (1973 p. 175) s t a t e s t h a t t h e n o r m a t i v e s t y l e . o f p l a n n i n g i s an approach, "...whereby the goals and o b j e c t i v e s d e f i n i n g , i n t e r a l i a , the l i m i t s of the a c t i o n space of a p l a n n i n g a g e n c y , a r e t h e m s e l v e s the o b j e c t s o f r a t i o n a l c h o i c e , and whereby that c h o i c e i s reviewed as and when the need a r i s e s . " With a h i g h degree of r e l a t i v e autonomy, the p l a n n i n g agency has the mandate to c o n s i d e r a l t e r n a t i v e ends i n terms of reviewing and s e l e c t i n g means, i . e . , s o l u t i o n s i n the form of p l a n s , p o l i c i e s , and programs, that are beyond the agency's immediate g o a l s . The p l a n n i n g agency's mandate, under the normative s t y l e of p l a n n i n g , avoids the 'means t r a p ' where the means themselves are seen as g o a l s . However, the p l a n n i n g agency's a b i l i t y to engage i n a normative s t y l e of p l a n n i n g w i l l be c o n s t r a i n e d i f i t s p l a n n e r s a c t i n b u r e a u c r a t i c r o l e s and f a i l to f u l l y e x e r c i s e the agency's r e l a t i v e autonomy. In c o n t r a s t to the normative s t y l e of p l a n n i n g , the f u n c t i o n a l s t y l e of p l a n n i n g i s an approach, "...whereby the goals and o b j e c t i v e s d e f i n i n g , i n t e r a l i a , the l i m i t s of the a c t i o n s p a c e a r e not q u e s t i o n e d . " ( F a l u d i 1973, p. 1 7 5 ) . The Figure 13: The Normative Versus F u n c t i o n a l S t y l e s Of Pla n n i n g Normative Planning F u n c t i o n a l P l a n n i n g DETERMINANT Great ^ _ R e l a t i v e _ Autonomy _»» Small CONSTRAINT Bure a u c r a t i c _ Role Of The -Planner -•> P o l i t i c a l Source: Fashioned from F a l u d i (1973, p. 177) 82 p l a n n i n g agency, under a f u n c t i o n a l s t y l e o f p l a n n i n g can n e i t h e r seek out a l t e r n a t i v e ends, nor apply i t s res o u r c e s to these ends. Because the p l a n n i n g agency's image of the f u t u r e t y p i c a l l y changes over time, the p l a n n i n g agency may be f a c e d with s i t u a t i o n s where i t can not adopt new goals and val u e s to s a t i s f y c h a n g i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s and demands. Any p o t e n t i a l movement towards a f u n c t i o n a l s t y l e of p l a n n i n g , however, may be c o n s t r a i n e d by p l a n n e r s who a s s u m e i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the p l a n n i n g agency's ends and a c t i n a p o l i t i c a l r o l e . 2.7.2 Autonomy ( o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n ) F a l u d i (1973, p. 183) d e f i n e s autonomy on the b a s i s of the p l a n n i n g agency's, "Range of l e g a l powers; f l e x i b i l i t y i n the use of r e s o u r c e s f o r a l t e r n a t e purposes." F a l u d i uses the term ' r e l a t i v e ' autonomy t o emphasize the f a c t t h a t t h e a u t o n o m y o f t h e p l a n n i n g a g e n c y i s d e p e n d e n t on i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s . " I n a h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e , " notes F a l u d i (1973, p. 178), "the r e l a t i v e autonomy of the l o w e r - t i e r agency i s a p p r e c i a b l y l e s s than t h a t of the h i g h e r t i e r because the h i g h e r - t i e r agency g i v e s d i r e c t i v e s to the lower one." The autonomy of lan d use p l a n n i n g i n the Lower Mainland i s l a r g e l y i n t e r p r e t e d on the b a s i s of p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n , e x e c u t i v e o r d e r s , and p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e s . 83 As d e f i n e d by Or d e r - I n - C o u n c i l 4116/68, the LMPRP's autonomy, i t s freedom to q u e s t i o n i t s ends and pursue a l t e r n a t e ends, was r e l a t i v e l y l i m i t e d . The LMPRP c o u l d not engage i n such p o s i t i v e p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s such as p u b l i c housing, t r a n s i t , o r l a n d b a n k i n g ; i t s mandate was e x c l u s i v e l y t o r e v i e w a p p l i c a t i o n s t o amend t h e 1 9 6 6 ORP a n d make i t s recommendations t o the c o n c e r n e d R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t B o a r d . However, O r d e r - I n - C o u n c i l 4116/68 d i d a u t h o r i z e the LMPRP to e s t a b l i s h i t s own p r o c e d u r e s a n d t o a p p o r t i o n c o s t s ' i n c i d e n t a l ' to the LMPRP amongst the Regional D i s t r i c t s on a per c a p i t a b a s i s . The LMPRP, through, j o i n t Regional D i s t r i c t agreements, thus had the autonomy t o i n i t i a t e development m o n i t o r i n g , p o l i c y a n a l y s i s , and p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n programs. To the extent that the LMPRP c o u l d chose to use or not to use t h i s autonomy, i t had some d e t e r m i n a t i o n over i t s s t y l e of p l a n n i n g , e i t h e r normative or f u n c t i o n a l . In g e n e r a l , the s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g agency can i n c r e a s e i t s autonomy by i n t e r p r e t i n g any a m b i g u i t i e s i n i t s l e g i s l a t i v e mandate i n a manner t h a t w i l l s a t i s f y i t s own ends. The s e n i o r l e v e l of Government, however, has two b a s i c o p t i o n s of i t s own f o r r e g u l a t i n g l o c a l autonomy. F i r s t l y , i t can d e c r e a s e l o c a l autonomy by t a k i n g over c o n t r o l and, thus c e n t r a l i z i n g , c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f the s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g agency's p l a n n i n g mandate, i . e . , a g r i c u l t u r a l or i n d u s t r i a l l a n d u s e s . S e c o n d l y , the s e n i o r l e v e l o f Government can a s s i s t or r e s t r i c t l o c a l autonomy by e i t h e r p r o v i d i n g or 84 w i t h d r a w i n g s p e c i a l f u n d s , i . e . , g r a n t s , f o r the s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g agency's p l a n n i n g programs. While the v a r i a b l e s c o n t r o l and autonomy are c l e a r l y r e l a t e d , t h e y e x p r e s s d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f t h e p l a n n i n g s y s t e m . L e g i s l a t i v e c h a n g e s i n t r o d u c e d by t h e P r o v i n c e may r e d i s t r i b u t e a u t h o r i t y at the l o c a l l e v e l , between the LMPRP, Regional D i s t r i c t s , and M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , without a f f e c t i n g the o v e r a l l autonomy o f Lower M a i n l a n d l a n d use p l a n n i n g . C o n v e r s i l y , m u n i c i p a l attempts to a c q u i r e more autonomy over t h e i r l a n d use p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s may t r a n s l a t e i n t o a l o s s o f c o n t r o l f o r the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s - L M P R P . The l a t t e r a s p e c t s of the p l a n n i n g system are p r i m a r i l y d e a l t with under the dimension of b l u e p r i n t versus process p l a n n i n g . 2.7.3 Role Of Planner ( o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n ) I f autonomy determines the extent to which a p l a n n i n g a agency may engage i n a normative s t y l e of p l a n n i n g or be r e s t r i c t e d t o a f u n c t i o n a l s t y l e of p l a n n i n g , t h e n the r o l e of the p l a n n e r can s e r v e as a c o n s t r a i n t a g a i n s t e i t h e r s t y l e of p l a n n i n g . F a l u d i (1973, p. 183) d e f i n e s the r o l e of the planner through, "Terms of r e f e r e n c e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r u l e s ; i n f o r m a l a r r a n g e m e n t s ; o c c u r r e n c e of p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t i n v o l v i n g p l a n n e r s . " Where the planners q u e s t i o n the ends of t h e i r a g e n c y , t h e y assume a p o l i t i c a l r o l e and h e l p t o c o n s t r a i n any s h i f t towards a f u n c t i o n a l s t y l e of p l a n n i n g . 85 Planners who a c t i n a b u r e a u c r a t i c r o l e , c o n s i d e r i n g o n l y the o p t i m a l means of a c h i e v i n g o n l y c e r t a i n ends, may c o n s t r a i n t h e a g e n c y ' s a b i l i t y t o engage i n a n o r m a t i v e s t y l e o f p l a n n i n g even i f t h e agency has a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree of autonomy. The p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and p l a n n e r s of the s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g a g ency can use t h r e e b a s i c p o l i t i c a l t a c t i c s t o defend or emphasize the autonomy of t h e i r agency. F i r s t l y , t h e y c a n d e l a y t h e a c t i o n s and d e c i s i o n s t a k e n by t h e s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g a g e n c y so as t o e n c o u r a g e g r e a t e r c o o p e r a t i o n f r o m o t h e r p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s . The s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g agency's members can a l s o attempt to m o b i l i z e p u b l i c support i n f a v o u r of the agency's p o s i t i o n on c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s . L a s t l y , they can r e f e r p o l i t i c a l l y s e n s i t i v e i s s u e s upwards i n a manner that p u l l s the s e n i o r l e v e l of government i n t o the s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g agency's d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . During the f o r m u l a t i o n of a new or updated p l a n , the s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g agency has an o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n c r e a s e i t s f u t u r e autonomy. The agency's p l a n n e r s , t a k i n g on a p o l i t i c a l r o l e , may attempt to i n c o r p o r a t e p r o v i s i o n s i n t o the d r a f t p l a n t h a t would g i v e t h e s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g agency a u t h o r i t i e s and f u n c t i o n s beyond i t s e x i s t i n g mandate. While these p r o v i s i o n s would be u l t r a v i r e s or i l l e g a l i f adopted, the s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g agency can use them as a ' t r i a l b a l l o o n ' or t e s t case f o r seeking new ends. 86 The s e n i o r l e v e l of Government, however, can block the st r a t e g i c planning agency's e f f o r t s by refusing to recognize the new s t r a t e g i c plan and f a i l i n g to commit i t s m i n i s t r i e s to the plan as o f f i c i a l p o l i c y . Retreating into a bureaucratic r o l e , the planners w i l l then d e l e t e the a u t h o r i t i e s and funct i o n s d e s i r e d by the s t r a t e g i c planning agency as they conform to the e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i v e l i m i t s of the agency's autonomy. Thus, the new, 'test case' authorities incorporated i n the d r a f t s t r a t e g i c plan are measures of future c o n t r o l while the a c t u a l d e c i s i o n to include or delete them i s a measure of the planner's role. 3 INTERPRETATION 87 3.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 3.1.1 A p p l i c a t i o n T h i s c h a p t e r u s e s t h e t h e o r e t i c a l framework d e s c r i b e d i n chapter 2, F a l u d i ' s (1973) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme, to condense and i n t e r p r e t the study of Lower Mainland events and i s s u e s from 1969 to 1981. E x c l u d i n g the prologue (1942-1969) and the e p i l o g u e (1981-1983), the balance of t h i s chapter i s d i v i d e d i n t o four time p e r i o d s : 1969-1974 The C a l l For An Update Of The ORP ( s e c t i o n 3.3, p. I l l ) 1974-1978 The P r e p a r a t i o n For The Update Of The ORP ( s e c t i o n 3.4, p. 141) 1978- 1979 The Formulation Of An Updated ORP ( s e c t i o n 3.5, p. 178) 1979- 1981 The Adoption Of An Updated ORP ( s e c t i o n 3.6, p. 222) At the s t a r t of each of t h e s e time p e r i o d s , a c h r o n o l o g y p r o v i d e s a time l i n e and s e q u e n t i a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the b a s i c events and i s s u e s found i n the Lower Mainland study. A c r o s s -s e c t i o n a l approach i s then taken, and the events and i s s u e s are analyzed on the b a s i s of the e s s e n t i a l components of any p l a n n i n g s y s t e m : t h e p l a n , t h e p l a n n i n g a g e n c y , and t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . C o r r e s p o n d i n g to t h e s e p l a n n i n g system 8 8 components, F a l u d i ' s t h r e e dimensions of p l a n n i n g — b l u e p r i n t v e r s u s p r o c e s s , r a t i o n a l c o m p r e h e n s i v e v e r s u s d i s j o i n t e d i n c r e m e n t a l , and n o r m a t i v e v e r s u s f u n c t i o n a l - - a r e used t o i n t e r p r e t system changes over time. For each time p e r i o d and component of the p l a n n i n g system, the r e l e v a n t e v e n t s and i s s u e s a r e i n t e r p r e t e d i n view of the v a r i a b l e s t h a t d e f i n e t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g d i m e n s i o n s o f p l a n n i n g . Movements along the dimensions of p l a n n i n g caused by the events and i s s u e s of the case study are noted i n these i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , and the o v e r a l l p a t t e r n of movements, i n terms of s h i f t s towards a p a r t i c u l a r end of a given dimension, are summarized at the beginning of each time p e r i o d - p l a n n i n g component s e c t i o n . In the next s e c t i o n of t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n , an o v e r v i e w i s p r o v i d e d o f t h e s h i f t s a l o n g a l l t h r e e dimensions of p l a n n i n g f o r a l l four time p e r i o d s — a summary of summaries. While the v a r i a b l e s were d e f i n e d s e p a r a t e l y i n the t h e o r e t i c a l framework, chapter 2, they are a p p l i e d c o l l e c t i v e l y to each of the case study's four time p e r i o d s i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . E a c h p l a n n i n g d i m e n s i o n ' s v a r i a b l e s a c t t o g e t h e r i n d e t e r m i n i n g and c o n s t r a i n i n g s h i f t s between the dimension's o p p o s i n g s t y l e s of p l a n n i n g . In a s s e s s i n g the c o n f l i c t i n g impacts of numerous p l a n n i n g events and i s s u e s , the v a r i a b l e s can be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as ' v e c t o r s ' t h a t , 'added' t o g e t h e r , y i e l d an o v e r a l l or averaged movement along any dimension of 89 p l a n n i n g f o r any g i v e n t i m e p e r i o d . The d i s c u s s i o n o f v a r i a b l e s r e l e v a n t t o a g i v e n dimension of p l a n n i n g i s not conducted i n a s t a n d a r d format, but i s unique to each time p e r i o d of the Lower M a i n l a n d study. In essence, the b a s i c l o g i c of the study i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s i n d u c t i v e : b u i l d i n g from t h e i m p a c t s o f t h e e v e n t s and i s s u e s t o e s t a b l i s h i n g fundamental changes i n the s t y l e of p l a n n i n g a s s o c i a t e d with the components of the s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g system. 3.1.2 Overview a) 1969-1974 Between the 1969 d i s s o l u t i o n of the LMRPB and the LMPRP 1s 1974 c a l l f o r a review and update of the 1966 ORP, t h e r e was an o v e r a l l movement t o w a r d s t h e weak end o f t h e p l a n n i n g c o n t i n u u m . T he LMPRP a t t e m p t e d t o be f l e x i b l e i n accommodating urban growth and t h i s l e d to a s h i f t away from a b l u e p r i n t s t y l e of p l a n n i n g and towards a p r o c e s s s t y l e of p l a n n i n g . Without a c e n t r a l i z e d d e c i s i o n making s t r u c t u r e , the LMPRP found i t d i f f i c u l t to promote c e n t r a l i z e d p l a n n i n g p r o c e d u r e s , and the s t y l e of p l a n n i n g s h i f t e d from r a t i o n a l comprehensive t o d i s j o i n t e d i n c r e m e n t a l . There was a l s o a h a l t i n g s h i f t towards a f u n c t i o n a l s t y l e of p l a n n i n g , but one c o n s t r a i n e d by the LMPRP's assumption of a p o l i t i c a l r o l e . F i g u r e 14 i n d i c a t e s t h e o v e r a l l p a t t e r n o f s h i f t s t h a t o c c u r r e d along the dimensions of p l a n n i n g d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . Figure 14.: Movements Along The Planning Continuum 1969-1974 B l u e p r i n t Planning THE PLAN Process P l a n n i n g 'Strong' End R a t i o n a l Comprehensive Planning THE PLANNING AGENCY D i s j o i n t e d Incremental P l a n n i n g Normative Planning THE PLANNING PROCESS F u n c t i o n a l P l a n n i n g b) 1974-1978 91 From the M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s ' 1974 d e c i s i o n t o support an updating of the 1966 ORP to the f i n a l , S p ring 1978 arrangements f o r i n i t i a t i n g the Update p r o c e s s , there was a c o n s i d e r a b l e o s c i l l a t i o n of movement along the dimensions of p l a n n i n g . The movements were i n i t i a l l y to the str o n g end of the p l a n n i n g continuum, then, r e v e r s i n g , towards the weak end and, f i n a l l y , ending a t a s t r o n g e r p o s i t i o n than e x i s t e d i n 1974. Along the b l u e p r i n t versus process p l a n n i n g dimension, the s h i f t s i n the s t y l e of p l a n n i n g were t i e d to the type of p l a n t h a t was e n v i s i o n e d i n t h e terms o f r e f e r e n c e f o r u p d a t i n g the 1966 ORP. The terms of r e f e r e n c e , d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the s t r u c t u r e and pr o c e d u r e s of the LMPRP, a l s o e f f e c t e d s h i f t s a l o n g the r a t i o n a l c o m p r e h e n s i v e v e r s u s d i s j o i n t e d i n c r e m e n t a l dimension of p l a n n i n g . F i n a l l y , s h i f t s a l o n g the normative v e r s u s f u n c t i o n a l dimension of p l a n n i n g were l a r g e l y dependent on i s s u e s r e l a t i n g to the funding and f u t u r e of Lower M a i n l a n d p l a n n i n g . F i g u r e 15 i n d i c a t e s the o v e r a l l p a t t e r n of s h i f t s that o c c u r r e d along the dimensions of p l a n n i n g d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . c) 1978-1979 From t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h e WG i n Summer, 1978 t o the c o m p l e t i o n of the f i r s t , J u l y 18, 1979 d r a f t of the updated ORP, there was a c l e a r movement towards the strong end of the Figure 15: Movements Along The Planning Continuum 1974-1978 B l u e p r i n t Planning THE PLAN Process P l a n n i n g KO 1 S t r o n g 1 End R a t i o n a l Comprehensive Planning THE PLANNING AGENCY D i s j o i n t e d Incremental P l a n n i n g 'Weak' End Normative Planning THE PLANNING PROCESS F u n c t i o n a l P l a n n i n g 93 p l a n n i n g continuum. The s h i f t towards a b l u e p r i n t s t y l e of p l a n n i n g l a r g e l y r e s u l t e d from the LMPRP's d e c i s i o n to r e t a i n the c o n t r o l p r o v i d e d by l a n d use d e s i g n a t i o n s and t o d r a f t more d e t a i l e d p l a n maps. While the movement was somewhat ' j e r k y ' , t h e LMPRP's o p e r a t i o n as a c e n t r a l i z e d p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h c e n t r a l i z e d p l a n n i n g p r o c e d u r e s l e d to a s h i f t towards a r a t i o n a l comprehensive s t y l e o f p l a n n i n g . There was a l s o a minor s h i f t towards a normative s t y l e of p l a n n i n g , one that was e s s e n t i a l l y a completion of the s h i f t away from f u n c t i o n a l p l a n n i n g that o c c u r r e d at the end of the l a s t p e r i o d . F i g u r e 16 i n d i c a t e s the o v e r a l l p a t t e r n o f s h i f t s t h a t o c c u r r e d along the dimensions of p l a n n i n g d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . d) 1979-1981 Between m u n i c i p a l reviews of the f i r s t , J u l y 18, 1978 d r a f t of the updated ORP and the l e g a l adoption of the f i n a l d r a f t of the p l a n at the end of 1981, there was a ge n e r a l s l i d e back to the weak end of the p l a n n i n g continuum. The s h i f t towards a pr o c e s s s t y l e of p l a n n i n g came as feedback to the d r a f t s of t h e u p d a t e d ORP u n d e r m i n e d t h e c e r t a i n t y o f t h e p l a n ' s development c o n c e p t . With the d i s s o l u t i o n o f the WG, the LMPRP no l o n g e r had a c e n t r a l i z e d d e c i s i o n making s t r u c t u r e c a p a b l e of m a i n t a i n i n g c e n t r a l i z e d p l a n n i n g p r o c e d u r e s , and th e r e was a s h i f t towards a d i s j o i n t e d i n c r e m e n t a l s t y l e of p l a n n i n g . L a s t l y , a s h i f t towards a f u n c t i o n a l p l a n n i n g s t y l e Figure 1 6 : Movements Along The Planning Continuum 1978-1979 B l u e p r i n t Planning THE PLAN Process P l a n n i n g 'Strong'< End R a t i o n a l Comprehensive Planning THE PLANNING AGENCY D i s j o i n t e d Incremental P l a n n i n g 'Weak' End Normative Planning THE PLANNING PROCESS F u n c t i o n a l P l a n n i n g 95 of p l a n n i n g r e s u l t e d when the LMPRP f a i l e d to secure the l e v e l of p r o v i n c i a l commitment to the p l a n t h a t i t had o r i g i n a l l y a n t i c i p a t e d . F i g u r e 17 i n d i c a t e s the o v e r a l l p a t t e r n o f s h i f t s t h a t o c c u r r e d along the dimensions of p l a n n i n g d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . Figure 17: Movements Along The Planning Continuum 1979-1981 B l u e p r i n t Planning THE PLAN Process P l a n n i n g ID ' Strong'< End R a t i o n a l Comprehens i v e planning THE PLANNING AGENCY D i s j o i n t e d Incremental Planning •Weak' End Normative Planning THE PLANNING PROCESS F u n c t i o n a l P lanning 97 3.2 Prologue: 1942-1969 3.2.1 The Lower Mainland L o c a t e d i n the south-west c o r n e r of B r i t i s h C o lumbia, the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e areas of the Lower Mainland covers some 6,600 square m i l e s of t e r r i t o r y . Only 15 percent of t h i s l a n d i s h a b i t a b l e , and v i r t u a l l y a l l of i t l i e s i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y which runs some 90 m i l e s from Hope to the S t r a i t s of G e o r g i a : s e e F i g u r e 18. B o x e d i n by an o c e a n t o t h e w e s t , an i n t e r n a t i o n a l boundary t o the s o u t h , and mountains to the n o r t h a n d e a s t , t h e F r a s e r V a l l e y i s an o a s i s i n a p r e d o m i n a n t l y mountainous and u n i n h a b i t a b l e P r o v i n c e . The F r a s e r V a l l e y , from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , has been the s u b j e c t of an h i s t o r i c a l c o n f l i c t between the urban and a g r i c u l t u r a l use of l a n d . The Lower Mainland has been the dominant p o p u l a t i o n center of B.C.: between 1951 and 1981, i t s p o p u l a t i o n more than doubled to 1.4 m i l l i o n persons. The p o p u l a t i o n of the Lower Mainland, though, has remained remarkably c o n s t a n t i n r e l a t i o n to the P r o v i n c e ; i t has a l w a y s c o m p r i s e d j u s t o v e r h a l f o f t h e P r o v i n c e ' s t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . W i t h i n the Lower M a i n l a n d , Vancouver has been the major f o c a l p o i n t of urban growth. From V a n c o u v e r , growth has s p r e a d e a s t a l o n g the B u r r a r d P e n i n s u l a and then i n l a n d as f a r as Maple Ridge. Bridges and tunnels have p e r m i t t e d and encouraged urban development to the Figure 18: Regional D i s t r i c t s In The Lower Mainland R E G I O N A L D I S T R I C T S IN T H E L O W E R M A I N L A N D Source: LMORPU-TLC (1978/15) 99 n o r t h and south of Vancouver. Highway c o n s t r u c t i o n has a l s o helped s t i m u l a t e growth up the F r a s e r V a l l e y i n such p l a c e s as Langley, A l d e r g r o v e , and C h i l l i w a c k . The p a t t e r n s o f u r b a n growth and s e t t l e m e n t i n the Lower Main l a n d have been documented i n f u r t h e r d e t a i l i n numerous other p u b l i c a t i o n s . Here, i t i s s u f f i c i e n t to note that Lower M a i n l a n d p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s have been f a c e d w i t h two b a s i c problems. F i r s t l y , t h e r e has been the problem of c o n t i n u e d growth and the a l l o c a t i o n of l i m i t e d l a n d r e s o u r c e s amongst competing urban, a g r i c u l t u r a l , and r e s e r v e - p a r k uses. T h i s p r o b l e m has b een c o m p l i c a t e d by t h e Lower M a i n l a n d ' s h e a r t l a n d - h i n t e r l a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p with the P r o v i n c e ' s h i g h l y v o l a t i l e resource based economy. Secondly, there has been the problem of attempting to d i s t r i b u t e growth to l e s s developed but h i g h l y s u i t a b l e areas i n the Lower Mainland and elsewhere i n the P r o v i n c e . 3.2.2 The E a r l y Years P r i o r t o WWII, the i d e a of a Lower Mainland p l a n had been suggested by the Lower Mainland Regional Planning A s s o c i a t i o n , a v o l u n t a r y c o l l e c t i o n of m u n i c i p a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s c o n c e r n e d w i t h p l a n n i n g . No f o r m a l a c t i o n , however, was taken u n t i l 1942 when the P r o v i n c e e s t a b l i s h e d the Bureau of Post War R e h a b i l i t a t i o n and R e c o n s t r u c t i o n . A p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t on the proposed p l a n f o r the Lower Mainland 100 was prepared by the Regional P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n of the Bureau i n 1945. Amongst ot h e r t h i n g s , the r e p o r t p r o v i d e d a s h o r t range p r o j e c t i o n of p o s t war demands f o r p u b l i c works. As South (1983/1, p. 19) notes, " I t was a remarkable document f o r i t s time...." In t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , 1946, the Vancouver Town P l a n n i n g Commission prod u c e d a f u r t h e r r e p o r t , D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n And  R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g . T h i s r e p o r t p r o v i d e d a more comprehensive j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r Lower Mainland p l a n n i n g based on the need to d e a l w i t h the e f f e c t s of a c c e l e r a t i n g r a t e s of urban growth and unplanned d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , i . e . , sprawl. The r e p o r t made recommendations on the f u n c t i o n s that a Lower Mainland agency s h o u l d u n d e r t a k e , i n c l u d i n g t h e e n c o u r a g e m e n t o f l o c a l p l a n n i n g and zoning, and how the agency should be o r g a n i z e d . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the r e p o r t recommended that the P r o v i n c e c r e a t e an o f f i c i a l r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g agency t h r o u g h a R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g A c t . S u c h an a g e n c y was t o be composed o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the v a r i o u s m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , 25 t o 30 persons, who would e l e c t t h e i r own e x e c u t i v e . The Bureau of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n and R e c o n s t r u c t i o n was disbanded i n 1947 and i t s Regional Planning D i v i s i o n t r a n s f e r r e d to the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . Yet another year l a t e r , the, Town P l a n n i n g A c t , (RSBC 1948), was amended to c r e a t e an agency, the Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board (LMRPB), s i m i l a r to t h a t which had been recommended by the Vancouver 101 Town P l a n n i n g Commission. While the l e g i s l a t i o n ordered the LMRPB to prepare a p l a n , i n a s y s t e m a t i c and coherent manner, f o r the f u t u r e p h y s i c a l development of the Lower Mainland and o u t l i n e d t h e f u n c t i o n s t h a t t h e B o a r d was t o t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n p r e p a r i n g t h i s p l a n , i t d i d not p r o v i d e any r e g u l a t i o n s or g u i d e l i n e s as t o how t h e B o a r d ought t o a c c o m p l i s h t h i s t a s k . Here, South (1983/2, p. 14) comments t h a t , The m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n B.C. had m a i n t a i n e d a s t r o n g a t t i t u d e of l o c a l autonomy....This meant a resentment of p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r f e r e n c e of any s o r t . The F r a s e r R i v e r f l o o d of May 1948 s t i m u l a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n a mongst t h e Lower M a i n l a n d M u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The f l o o d emphasized the b e n e f i t s of c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n , "...which l e d to an a c c e p t e d and r e a l i s t i c b a s i s f o r some l a n d use p l a n n i n g concerns, such as the c o n t r o l of f l o o d l a n d s . " (South 1983/2, p. 14). Thus, the b oundaries p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d by the Bureau were l e g a l l y d e s i g n a t e d by the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , i n 1949, as t h e o f f i c i a l b o u n d a r i e s f o r Lower Mainland p l a n n i n g . 3.2.3 Towards A Plan By 1952, the s t a f f r e s p o n s i b l e to the LMRPB E x e c u t i v e had produced i t s f i r s t major work, The Lower Mainland Look Ahead. T h i s r e p o r t p r o v i d e d a more d e t a i l e d s o c i a l and economic 102 review of the Lower Mainland. I t a d d i t i o n , i t surveyed lan d use, s o i l c a p a b i l i t i e s , and p h y s i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s t o u rban growth, i . e . , the f l o o d p l a i n . With res p e c t to the f u t u r e , the r e p o r t l i s t e d the p r i n c i p l e s of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , one of the most i m p o r t a n t b e i n g t h e need t o a l l o c a t e l i m i t e d l a n d r e s o u r c e s amongst competing l a n d uses so as to a c h i e v e the g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e b e n e f i t s at the lowest p u b l i c c o s t . Another im p o r t a n t p r i n c i p l e was the need to l i m i t c i t y s i z e and to d i s t r i b u t e f u t u r e u r b a n growth between u r b a n c e n t e r s , a p r i n c i p l e based on Lewis Mumford's (1938) i d e a t h a t l a r g e c i t i e s were i n h e r e n t l y i n e f f i c i e n t with negative economies of s c a l e i n the p r o v i s i o n of p u b l i c s e r v i c e s . The r e p o r t a l s o l i s t e d s u b - p r i n c i p l e s f o r each b a s i c type of land use and then p r e s e n t e d a g e o g r a p h i c compendium of l a n d use problems and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the Lower M a i n l a n d based on t h e s e sub-p r i n c i p l e s . T h i s compendium, t o g e t h e r w i t h a c o n c e p t map proposing a p a t t e r n of c i t i e s , development areas, and highway l i n k a g e s , was, i n f a c t , the f i r s t rough d r a f t of a p l a n f o r the Lower Mainland. The LMRPB 1s 1952 r e p o r t noted t h a t r e g i o n a l plans were long range i n nature and not immediately capable of implementation. I t a r g u e d t h a t t h e p a t t e r n o f l a n d s e t t l e m e n t amongst ' i n t e r l o c k e d ' M u n i c i p a l i t i e s should be c o o r d i n a t e d through the adoption of g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s r a t h e r than the f o r m u l a t i o n of s p a t i a l l y d e t a i l e d p l a n s . In accordance with i t s emphasis on d a i l y p l a n n i n g o p e r a t i o n s , the r e p o r t recommended t h a t the 103 LMRPB, " . . . s h o u l d e x t e n d i t s a c t i v i t i e s f rom t h e p u r e l y r e g i o n a l to d i r e c t and a s s i s t p l a n n i n g programs i n the s m a l l e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . " (LMRPB 1952, p.54). F o l l o w i n g from t h i s , the r e p o r t suggested that r u r a l zoning by-laws be enacted i n non-urban a r e a s and recommended t h a t the LMRPB c o n s i d e r r u r a l zoning as one of i t s f u n c t i o n s . The r e p o r t ' s most important recommendation, though, was that an independent study be made of the need f o r some k i n d of r e g i o n a l government and what form and scope i t might assume. 3.2.4 A Concept Plan However, the d e s i r e f o r l o c a l autonomy remained s t r o n g at the m u n i c i p a l l e v e l , e s p e c i a l l y i n unorganized areas, s u p p r e s s i n g the formation of any type of r e g i o n a l government f o r the Lower M a i n l a n d . Over the next 10 y e a r s , the LMRPB worked on a v o l u n t a r y c o n t r a c t b a s i s w i t h M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , p r o v i d i n g p l a n n i n g s e r v i c e s and producing a number of r e p o r t s on v a r i o u s r e g i o n a l f u n c t i o n s r e l a t e d to r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . By the e a r l y 1960's, the p r e s s u r e s of urban growth had begun to emphasize the Lower M a i n l a n d ' s p l a n n i n g problems: many of the most s u i t a b l e s i t e s f o r i n d u s t r i a l development were being p r e c l u d e d by u r b a n u s e s ; a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d was b e i n g consumed a t i n c r e a s i n g r a t e s ; u r b a n l a n d was b e i n g d e v e l o p e d i n i n e f f i c i e n t p a t t e r n s , p r e v e n t i n g r e s u b d i v i s i o n t o h i g h e r , u r b a n d e n s i t i e s l a t e r ; and more l a n d was g e n e r a l l y b e i n g s u b d i v i d e d f o r urban use than c o u l d economically be s e r v i c e d 104 and a b s o r b e d by the market. To c o u n t e r t h e s e t r e n d s , the LMRPB produced, i n 1963, a concept p l a n , Chance And C hallenge, f o r the s y s t e m a t i c development of the Lower Mainland. Quit e simply, the r e g i o n a l concept was that the Lower Mainland develop, "...as a s e r i e s of c i t i e s i n a sea of g r e e n — a v a l l e y of s e p a r a t e c i t i e s surrounded by p r o d u c t i v e c o u n t r y s i d e and l i n k e d by a r e g i o n a l freeway network." (LMRPB 1963, p. 6 ) . T h i s s t r a t e g y was based on two i d e a s — b u i l d l i v a b l e c i t i e s and r e s p e c t t h e l a n d - - t o which a l l o f t h e p r e v i o u s r e g i o n a l development p r i n c i p l e s of the 1952 r e p o r t were subordinated. Through the a p p l i c a t i o n of these p r i n c i p l e s , urban development would be d i r e c t e d to l e s s a r a b l e , upland areas and away from the p r o d u c t i v e farmland of the f l o o d p l a i n . The concept p l a n expressed the r e g i o n a l s t r a t e g y not o n l y as a diagram, but as a map w i t h proposed l a n d uses on i n a t a h i g h l y g e n e r a l i z e d s c a l e . For each of the b r o a d l y d e s c r i b e d l a n d uses was a set o f p r o p o s e d d e v e l o p m e n t p o l i c i e s t h a t i n c l u d e d d e s i r a b l e s e r v i c e s and minimum l o t s i z e s . Most i m p o r t a n t l y , though, 'Chance and C h a l l e n g e ' was a c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d and e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d c o n c e p t p l a n , one s u i t a b l e f o r b u i l d i n g p u b l i c support f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . The s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l p l a n proposed by 'Chance and Challenge' was to be, "...a reasonably f l e x i b l e t h i n g , to be i n t e r p r e t e d and amended by m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n c o n s u l t a t i o n with the Board." (LMRPB 1963, p. 21). As a framework f o r l o c a l development, 105 the p r o p o s e d p l a n was t o be dependent on t h e s u b s e q u e n t a c t i o n s of the M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , i n d e v e l o p i n g f u l l y s e r v i c e d communities w i t h i n the p l a n ' s g u i d e l i n e s , f o r i t s s u c c e s s . The p l a n was t o be c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y reviewed not l e s s than every f i v e years once adopted; 3.2.5 An O f f i c i a l Plan Within three y e a r s , the LMRPB had garnered enough support f o r a s t r a t e g i c p l a n amongst the M u n i c i p a l i t i e s to formulate the, O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n , (LMRPB 1966) and have i t adopted. The 1966 ORP was a refinement of the p l a n proposed i n 'Chance and C h a l l e n g e ' ; i t set out the p r i n c i p l e s of the e a r l i e r concept p l a n i n p r e c i s e l e g a l terms. L i k e 'Chance and C h a l l e n g e ' , the ORP had a s e t of l o n g range map s c h e d u l e s d e p i c t i n g broad c l a s s e s of land use at a h i g h l y g e n e r a l i z e d s c a l e , 1:204,000. The ORP, though, a l s o had a set of short range map schedules at a s u f f i c i e n t l y d e t a i l e d s c a l e , 1:60,000, t o o b l i g e the M u n i c i p a l i t i e s to t r e a t the p l a n as a s e r i o u s g u i d e l i n e when f o r m u l a t i n g l o c a l zoning by-laws. Corresponding to the l a n d uses of the s h o r t range map s c h e d u l e s , were a s e t of a r e a d e s i g n a t i o n p o l i c i e s t h a t s p e c i f i e d , i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l than b e f o r e , p e r m i t t e d l a n d u s e s , s e r v i c i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s , and p o s s i b l e use m o d i f i c a t i o n . The c o n d i t i o n a l d e s i g n of the c u r r e n t s t a g e a r e a d e s i g n a t i o n s , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the broader development area p o l i c i e s of the long range schedules, i n h e r e n t l y p r o v i d e d f o r staged urban growth. 106 In essence, the s t r a t e g y behind the ' c i t i e s i n a sea of green' concept was d i r e c t l y b u i l t i n t o the 1966 ORP's s e t of l a n d use p o l i c i e s . There were no diagrams i n the ORP; the town cente r p l a n and the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n k a g e s p l a n , schedules D and E, were s t i l l i n p r e p a r a t i o n when the ORP was p u b l i s h e d and would, i n f a c t , n e ver be c o m p l e t e d . O c c u p y i n g a m i d d l e p o s i t i o n between b e i n g a d e t a i l e d zoning by-law and being a co n c e p t u a l , broad brush p l a n , the ORP was c r i t i c i z e d f o r doing n e i t h e r job s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . The LMRPB attempted t o g i v e the ORP a degree of f l e x i b i l i t y though i t s p l a n amendment s e c t i o n . On a p p l i c a t i o n to the LMRPB, a M u n i c i p a l i t y was to be a b l e t o make an o u t r i g h t change t o a map s c h e d u l e d e s i g n a t i o n , but o n l y where the m o d i f i c a t i o n p o l i c i e s of the e x i s t i n g and d e s i r e d d e s i g n a t i o n so p e r m i t t e d . The amendment s e c t i o n p l a c e d the onus on the M u n i c i p a l i t y t o p r o v i d e r e a s o n e d j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r any proposed changes not i n accordance with the s t a g i n g s t r a t e g y c o n t a i n e d i n the d e s i g n a t i o n p o l i c i e s . In a h i e r a r c h i c a l manner, an amendment to any p a r t of the p l a n would have to be j u s t i f i e d i n v i e w o f t h e p l a n ' s n e x t h i g h e r l e v e l o f a u t h o r i t y : from c u r r e n t s t a g e d e s i g n a t i o n s , t o l o n g range d e v e l o p m e n t a r e a p o l i c i e s , t o g e n e r a l p l a n p o l i c i e s ( s u p p o r t i n g o b j e c t i v e s ) , to r e g i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s ( g o a l s ) . I t was the t i e r e d s t r u c t u r e of the p l a n , i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the design of the amendment s e c t i o n , that was to p r o v i d e the p l a n with ' r a t i o n a l i z e d ' f l e x i b i l i t y i n o p e r a t i o n . 107 The s t a t u t o r y n a t u r e o f t h e 1966 ORP gave the LMRPB the a u t h o r i t y t o p r o c e s s amendment a p p l i c a t i o n s and p l a c e d the LMRPB i n a q u a s i - j u d i c i a l r o l e . The appeal procedure of the amendment s e c t i o n , however, c o n t a i n e d an i n h e r e n t weakness. While the appeal committees were to c o n s i s t of three persons, the t h i r d appointee was to be s e l e c t e d by an agreement between the other two ap p o i n t e e s . In the event of a disagreement, the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s was to appoint the t h i r d appeal committee member. T h i s c l a u s e e f f e c t i v e l y t r a n s f e r r e d the b a l a n c e o f power out of the LMRPB and up to the P r o v i n c e r a t h e r than a s t r o n g e r , l o c a l l y accountable r e g i o n a l body. W h i l e m u n i c i p a l z o n i n g and l a n d development by-laws were r e q u i r e d t o conform t o the ORP, South has argued t h a t the R e g i o n a l B o a r d s were n o t g e n e r a l l y s e e n as p o l i t i c a l l y important or powerful. South (1983/3, p. 5) notes t h a t , "In almost a l l cases the mayor a p p o i n t e d the j u n i o r alderman to the Regi o n a l P l a n n i n g Board." The LMRPB was a l s o beset with q u e s t i o n s of b i a s and e q u i t y . While the r u r a l M u n i c i p a l i t i e s f e l t that the urban i s s u e s of m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver dominated the LMRPB, the m e t r o p o l i t a n M u n i c i p a l i t i e s argued that the one m u n i c i p a l i t y - o n e vote system d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y r e p r e s e n t e d the r u r a l M u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n . 3.2.6 The Regional D i s t r i c t s W i t h i n Vancouver's m e t r o p o l i t a