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Teacher bias towards visible ethnic groups in special education referrals Myles, David 1987

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TEACHER BIAS TOWARDS VISIBLE ETHNIC MINORITY GROUPS IN SPECIAL EDUCATION REFERRALS by D A V I D M Y L E S B.A. , B.Ed. The University of British Columbia A THESIS S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T OF T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR T H E D E G R E E OF M A S T E R OF ARTS in T H E F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES E D U C A T I O N A L P S Y C H O L O G Y & S P E C I A L E D U C A T I O N We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard T H E U N I V E R S I T Y OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A September 1987 © D A V I D M Y L E S , 1987 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of e A H r .tx-Vm ^ The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date Pr^oWr,, V % ABSTRACT Previous r e s e a r c h has demonstrated that students from some v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups may be d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t by teachers and p o l i c i e s of many school systems. T h i s r e s e a r c h has reviewed evidence i n d i c a t i n g how Black, Mexican-American and Native Indian students are accorded d i f f e r e n t i a l treatment by t e a c h e r s . Some of the r e s e a r c h has shown how students from some c u l t u r a l m i n o r i t y groups are at gre a t e r r i s k of being i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y r e f e r r e d or pl a c e d i n s p e c i a l c l a s s e s . T h i s form of e t h n i c d i s c r i m i n a t i o n can be harmful to those c u l t u r a l m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n who are removed from the r e g u l a r c l a s s s e t t i n g . T h i s problem has not been adequately researched in. Canada. Through the use of a resear c h e r designed q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h i s t h e s i s has reviewed teacher b i a s toward v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups i n s p e c i a l education r e f e r r a l s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t e d of nine q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g respondent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a f i c t i t i o u s case h i s t o r y of a grade f i v e male student d e s c r i b e d as having some academic and behaviour problems, and nine response items r e g a r d i n g e d u c a t i o n a l placement. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were i d e n t i c a l except f o r the b r i e f r e f e r e n c e to the e t h n i c i t y of the c h i l d d e s c r i b e d i n the case study. The c h i l d was d e s c r i b e d as e i t h e r Native Indian, O r i e n t a l , East Indian or Caucasian. A i i L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e was used f o r the s u b j e c t s to r a t e agreement or disagreement to the nine items. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were sent to 591 Vancouver p u b l i c elementary school teachers w i t h i n 29 randomly s e l e c t e d elementary s c h o o l s . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were ret u r n e d from 396 s u b j e c t s . Some q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were returned blank or incomplete, t h e r e f o r e , data a n a l y s i s was performed on the responses of 347 s u b j e c t s (58.54% of a l l the teach e r s who r e c e i v e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ) . T h i s sample re p r e s e n t e d about 20% of the p o p u l a t i o n of Vancouver p u b l i c elementary school t e a c h e r s . The r e s u l t s p r o v i d e d evidence of teacher d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t the c h i l d d e s c r i b e d as Native Indian. In a d d i t i o n , a p o s i t i v e b i a s was observed i n the teacher responses f o r the Caucasian c h i l d and e s p e c i a l l y f o r the O r i e n t a l c h i l d . The teacher's responses to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e items r e v e a l e d that the c h i l d d e s c r i b e d as Native Indian tended to be r a t e d as being more s u i t a b l e f o r placement i n a s p e c i a l c l a s s f o r b e h a v i o r a l l y d i s o r d e r e d , would not be as l i k e l y to graduate from high school and had parents who would not be as cooperat i v e . Female teachers were more l i k e l y to r e f e r the c h i l d to a c l a s s f o r b e h a v i o r a l l y d i s o r d e r e d c h i l d r e n and l e s s l i k e l y to expect c o o p e r a t i o n from the c h i l d ' s parents, than male te a c h e r s . Teachers who taught f o r 21 years or longer were more l i k e l y to c o n s i d e r the c h i l d i n the case study as being * a detriment to the the education of the other c h i l d r e n . Teachers who spoke E n g l i s h as second language were more l i k e l y to r e f e r the c h i l d to a c l a s s f o r slow l e a r n e r s and expect g r e a t e r c o o p e r a t i o n from the c h i l d ' s p a r e n t s , than teachers who spoke E n g l i s h as t h e i r f i r s t language. In a d d i t i o n , S p e c i a l education t e a c h e r s , t e a c h e r s more f a m i l i a r with s p e c i a l education programs and teach e r s who had u n i v e r s i t y c r e d i t s i n s p e c i a l education, r a t e d the c h i l d r e n in a s i g n i f i c a n t l y more o p t i m i s t i c manner than r e g u l a r t e a c h e r s . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i i I . THE PROBLEM 1 A . I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 B. Purpose Of The Study 15 1. Research Ques t ion 15 C . Scope Of The Study . . . 16 D. D e f i n i t i o n Of Terms 17 I I . REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE . . 20 A. Teacher E x p e c t a t i o n s And S e l f F u l f i l l i n g Prophecy 20 1. Rosenthal Reviewed 20 2. Teacher Expectancy Model 23 B. Teacher Bias In The Regular Classroom S e t t i n g 27 1. Non-North American S t u d i e s 27 2. American S t u d i e s 35 3. Canadian S t u d i e s 44 C . Teacher Bias In The S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n S e t t i n g 60 1. American S t u d i e s 60 D. C h i l d r e n From V i s i b l e E t h n i c M i n o r i t y Groups and Vancouver Schools 74 E . Summary Of Research C r i t i c i s m s 85 I I I . METHODOLOGY 86 A . Overview 86 B. Design 86 1 . Case Study 86 2. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 87 3. Pi l o t Study 89 C . Dependent And Independent V a r i a b l e s . . . 91 D. P o p u l a t i o n And Sample 91 1 . Popul a t i on 91 2. Sample 92 E . Procedure 93 1. D i s t r i b u t i o n And C o l l e c t i o n Of The Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 94 2. Data P r e p a r a t i o n 95 F . Data A n a l y s i s 95 1. D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s 95 2. I n f e r e n t i a l A n a l y s i s 95 IV. RESULTS 97 A . P i l o t Study R e s u l t s 97 v B. D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s 98 1. Respondent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 99 2. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e items 102 C. I n f e r e n t i a l A n a l y s i s 102 1. Main e f f e c t ( e t h n i c group) 103 2. T e a c h e r ' s p o s i t i o n 103 3. Grade taught 104 4. Gender 104 5. To ta l years employed 105 6. T e a c h e r ' s age 105 7. E n g l i s h f i r s t language 105 8. U n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g 106 9. F a m i l i a r i t y with programs 106 10. U n i v e r s i t y c r e d i t s 108 11. Summary o f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s 109 D. Tab les - 110 V . DISCUSSION 122 A. Summary Of The F i nd ing s 122 1. O v e r a l l t eacher responses 122 2. Item by i tem summary of f i n d i n g s . . 125 B. L i m i t a t i o n s Of The Study 134 C. Areas For Future Research 136 D. Summary 140 E. Conc lu s i ons 141 VI . REFERENCES 143 VI I . APPENDIX A 156 V I I I . APPENDIX B: „ 162 vi LIST OF TABLES Tabl e Page 1. D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s f o r the O v e r a l l : Responses f o r each of the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Items 110 2. I n f e r e n t i a l and D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s f o r E t h n i c Groups by Items 111 3. I n f e r e n t i a l and D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s f o r T e a c h e r ' s P o s i t i o n by Items 112 4 . I n f e r e n t i a l and D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s f o r Grades P r e s e n t l y Teach ing by Items 113 5. I n f e r e n t i a l and D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s f o r T e a c h e r ' s Gender by Items 114 6. I n f e r e n t i a l and D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s f o r T o t a l Years Employed by Items 115 7. I n f e r e n t i a l and D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s f o r T e a c h e r ' s Age by Items 116 8 . I n f e r e n t i a l and D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s f o r E n g l i s h F i r s t Language by Items 117 9. I n f e r e n t i a l and D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s f o r U n i v e r s i t y T r a i n i n g by Items 118 10. I n f e r e n t i a l and D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s f o r F a m i l i a r i t y with Sped, by Items 119 11. I n f e r e n t i a l and D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s f o r C r e d i t s in Sped, by Items 120 12. Summary of S i g n i f i c a n t D i f f e r e n c e s (*) f o r Items by Demographic V a r i a b l e s 121 vi i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S I thank the f o l l o w i n g f o r the support r e c e i v e d to complete t h i s t h e s i s : Dr. David K e n d a l l , who gave me encouragement to undertake t h i s p r o j e c t and who agreed to act as my t h e s i s c h a i r p e r s o n . Dr. Harold R a t z l a f f , who spent much time reviewing d r a f t s of the paper and a s s i s t i n g me with the methodology. Dr. Buff O l d r i d g e , who shared with me, some of h i s knowledge and background i n educating students from v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups. Dr. Margaret Csapo, who a s s i s t e d me i n the e a r l i e r stages of my study and Dr. Nand K i s h o r , who a s s i s t e d me i n e d i t i n g the l a s t c h a p t e r s of my t h e s i s . I a l s o thank the Vancouver School Board Research Department f o r g r a n t i n g me permission to conduct t h i s study i n t h e i r school d i s t r i c t and a s s i s t i n g i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n and c o l l e c t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . In a d d i t i o n , I am g r a t e f u l to a l l the teachers who took the time to complete and r e t u r n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . S p e c i a l thanks goes to my wife (Irene F i n n s o n ) , stepdaughter ( S t e f a n i e ) and son (Daniel) f o r c h e e r f u l l y a c c e p t i n g the time t h i s p r o j e c t kept me absent from the f a m i l y . (I know they are pleased I no longer have an excuse to a v o i d the household c h o r e s ) . I a l s o thank my mother (Dolores) and s p e c i a l f r i e n d ( L u c i Baja) f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t and a s s i s t a n c e . v i i i I . THE PROBLEM A. INTRODUCTION As a m u l t i c u l t u r a l and e t h n i c a l l y d i v e r s e e n t i t y , the Canadian school system has e x t o l l e d the p r i n c i p l e of " U n i v e r s a l i s m " ( C l i f t o n , Munoz, Perry, Parsonson, and Hryniuk, 1982). U n i v e r s a l i s m i m p l i e s t h a t c h i l d r e n are educated e q u a l l y among t h e i r school age peers, and d i f f e r e n t i a l treatment w i l l only be accorded i n terms of a b i l i t y and/or performance (Dreeben, 1968). However there i s concern that t e a c h e r s do not always adhere to u n i v e r s a l i s t i c p r i n c i p l e s ( C l i f t o n , et a l . 1982). Research has shown that some c h i l d r e n have been and continue to be d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t by educators and the e d u c a t i o n a l system (Chinn, 1979; C l i f t o n et a l . , 1982; Grant, 1975). For numerous reasons, many c h i l d r e n are denied a p p r o p r i a t e e d u c a t i o n a l programming and are excluded from some aspects of the s c h o o l system. Passow (1970) argued that these excluded p u p i l s are from a n e g l e c t e d segment of the p o p u l a t i o n that are i d e n t i f i e d as "poor", "disadvantaged", or " c u l t u r a l l y d e p r i v e d . " Passow f u r t h e r suggests that these disadvantaged c h i l d r e n are u s u a l l y those of r a c i a l or e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups or of low s o c i o economic s t a t u s (SES). 1 THE PROBLEM / 2 The t r a d i t i o n a l concept of a s s i m i l a t i o n i n the Un i t e d S t a t e s (U.S.), r e f e r r e d to as the "melting pot", maintained that c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y was u n d e s i r a b l e and not i n the best i n t e r e s t of the na t i o n (Klassen & G o l n i c k , 1977). As a r e s u l t , the white m a j o r i t y became the dominant c u l t u r e . To speak unconventional E n g l i s h or another language was c o n s i d e r e d u n p a t r i o t i c and was dis c o u r a g e d (Chinn, 1979; Gonzales, 1979). C u r r e n t l y , there i s some debate that c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t c h i l d r e n should a l s o be co n s i d e r e d " e x c e p t i o n a l " c h i l d r e n (Chinn, 1979). That i s , c h i l d r e n from v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups such as Native Indian, East Indian, Chinese, e t c . , who r e q u i r e a mo d i f i e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l program c o u l d be con s i d e r e d handicapped. Thus t h e i r e x c e p t i o n a l i t y i s not a f a c t o r of t h e i r race per se but a r e s u l t of being c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t from the m a j o r i t y c h i l d . An American r e s e a r c h e r (Mercer, 1977) suggested that c h i l d r e n from e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups are f o r c e d to conform to white middle c l a s s values and as a r e s u l t are v i c t i m i z e d by the f o l l o w i n g e f f e c t s : 1. E d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s that have been r e s t r i c t e d when a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number of non-Anglo c h i l d r e n appeared i n i s o l a t e d THE PROBLEM / 3 e d u c a t i o n a l programs. 2. These c h i l d r e n have r e c e i v e d s t i g m a t i z i n g l a b e l s as a r e s u l t of c e r t a i n p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s or b e h a v i o r s which are c o n s i d e r e d d e v i a n t from the dominant c u l t u r e of the s c h o o l . 3. Assessment of non-Anglo c h i l d r e n remains u n i d i m e n s i o n a l . They a r e a s s e s s e d i n terms of one s o c i a l system, the p u b l i c s c h o o l . 4 . Non-Anglo c h i l d r e n ' s h e r i t a g e has been d e v a l u e d as d i f f e r e n t and i n f e r i o r . 5. The b i l i n g u a l and b i c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s of these c h i l d r e n have been seen as u n a c c e p t a b l e s i n c e the assessment p r o c e s s i s o n l y c a p a b l e of a s s e s s i n g l i n q u i s t i c and c o g n i t i v e development i n terms of the A n g l o m a j o r i t y , (p. 12) Mercer c o n c l u d e s , t h a t t h e s e e t h n i c a l l y d i s s i m i l i a r c h i l d r e n have been t r e a t e d as d e v i a n t and t h u s e x c e p t i o n a l . I f i t i s a c c e p t e d t h a t our c u r r e n t s c h o o l system i s g u i l t y of d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a g a i n s t c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t c h i l d r e n , then we a r e l e f t w i t h the q u e s t i o n , who i s the c u l p r i t ? However, i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t the blame can be c a s t on any p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p ( s ) of p e o p l e , f o r i t THE PROBLEM / 4 appears many d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s , past and present, have knowingly or unknowingly, c o n t r i b u t e d to the problem of e t h n i c d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Another American researcher (Grant, 1975) s t a t e d : It would be c o m f o r t i n g to most of us to be a b l e to p o i n t a f i n g e r and d e c l a r e , "Racism in the schools i s your problem, not mine." U n f o r t u n a t e l y none of us can - i n a l l honesty -do t h i s ; f o r i f we are not the p e r p e t r a t o r s of racism, we are i t s supporters, a c t i v e and t a c i t , and i t s v i c t i m s , (p. 184) Grant suggests that racism, as an i n s t i t u t i o n , has not o n l y permeated our e d u c a t i o n a l system but has become so thoroughly i n t e g r a t e d i n t o s o c i e t y that many people, e s p e c i a l l y i t s non-victims, are unable to recognize the guises i t assumes. Kehoe (1982) f u r t h e r supported Grant's p o s i t i o n by suggesting that modern educators don't r e a l i z e how p r e j u d i c e d they are. Grant (1975) f u r t h e r suggested that s u b t l e r a c i s t a t t i t u d e s among the s t a t u s quo can become f o r m a l i z e d s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s . I f these p r a c t i c e s become entrenched in the p e r s o n a l value system of those who i n f l u e n c e the education system, v i s i b l e m i n o r i t y students w i l l remain at a s e r i o u s disadvantage. In a d d i t i o n , there i s c o n s i d e r a b l e pressure p l a c e d on c h i l d r e n from v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y THE PROBLEM / 5 groups to denounce t h e i r c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . For example, as Roe (1982) e x p l a i n s , many schools i n a d v e r t e n t l y coerce students from e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups t o deny t h e i r background and h e r i t a g e i n order to be s u c c e s s f u l . He suggested that these e t h n i c students are f o r c e d to denounce t h e i r c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y i n order to o b t a i n e d u c a t i o n a l , s o c i a l , and economic m o b i l i t y . As a r e s u l t , most c h i l d r e n come to accept the values i n s t i l l e d by the sch o o l s and s o c i e t y . If such values f a i l t o i n c l u d e t o l e r a n c e towards e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups, i t i s l i k e l y these w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n the behavior of the students. Or, to quote Grant (1975), The schools became very important i n the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of racism because they p r o v i d e d the o p p o r t u n i t y to c o n t i n u a l l y and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y teach the concepts necessary to maintain racism, p. 185) H i s t o r i c a l l y , c h i l d r e n from v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups have been d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t i n North American s c h o o l s by e s t a b l i s h e d school p o l i c i e s and by a c t s of i n d i v i d u a l teachers i n the classroom. D i s c r i m i n a t i o n has ranged from students r e c e i v i n g inadequate teacher i n s t r u c t i o n , to being educated i n substandard schools with l i m i t e d or outdated m a t e r i a l s and resources THE PROBLEM / 6 (Jackson and Cosca, 1974). Evidence of racism can be found i n the p r e s c r i b e d textbooks used i n the schools (Chinn, 1979), or i n the lack of employment of school teachers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s from m i n o r i t y groups (Grant, 1975). F i n a l l y , the misuse of t e s t i n g m a t e r i a l s that r e s u l t i n i n a p p r o p r i a t e l a b e l l i n g and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and the o v e r - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n , are i s s u e s of concern (Chinn, 1979). Cursory examination of 18th and 19th century North American schoolbooks y i e l d numerous examples of r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n (Grant, 1975). Racism i n modern textbooks i s s t i l l s u b t l e l y e v i d e n t . For example, Kane (1970) researched r e f e r e n c e s made to m i n o r i t y groups i n American textbooks. He found that the h i s t o r y , c o n t r i b u t i o n s , and achievement of Blacks i n modern day s o c i e t y was r e c e i v i n g g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n . However, the few textbook r e f e r e n c e s and d e s c r i p t i o n s of American e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups remain inadequate. Chinn (1979) argued that s t e r e o t y p i n g , d i s t o r t i o n s , and omissions c o n t i n u a l l y s u r f a c e i n c u r r e n t U.S. h i s t o r y books. These same concerns are v o i c e d i n Canada. For example, Dora Nipp, the d i r e c t o r of the Chinese-Canadian c o u n c i l t o l d the Provinc e newspaper ("Racism a b a r r i e r , group t o l d " , 1983), that some of there r e s e a r c h r e v e a l e d THE PROBLEM / 7 that Canadian e d u c a t i o n a l textbooks continue to r e i n f o r c e s t e r e o t y p e s because they exclude or ignore the c o n t r i b u t i o n s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n of members of v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups i n Canadian s o c i e t y . Another i s s u e of concern i s the type of r e f e r e n c e s that are made towards members of v a r i o u s e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups, i n books, magazines, c l a s s l e c t u r e s and the media. These r e f e r e n c e s tend to dwell on the massacres, misery, and oppression e a r l y m i n o r i t y groups s u f f e r e d while i g n o r i n g the many p o s i t i v e undertakings and c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by these same people. Misguided sentimentalism and a sense of c o l l e c t i v e g u i l t i s a l s o e v i d e n t i n some of the school textbooks. The .tone of such books suggests a f a l s e sense of sympathy towards these e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups (Roe, 1982). Well known examples of textbook racism i n Canada are evidenced by the h i s t o r i c a l d e p i c t i o n s of e a r l y Native Indians who were d e s c r i b e d as blood t h i r s t y savages, the Metis leader L o u i s R i e l , who was d e s c r i b e d i n some textbooks as a t r a i t o r and murderer, the omission of the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of the Chinese who helped b u i l d Canada's f i r s t r a i l r o a d , and the omissions of the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of many other A s i a n , Russian, and Spanish s e t t l e r s to North America (Kane, 1970). THE PROBLEM / 8 Evidence of r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s not c o n f i n e d to textbooks. For example, i n a study conducted by Granzberg (1982), c i t e d i n ("Prime time T.V. not always kind to m i n o r i t i e s " , 1984), American and Canadian prime time t e l e v i s i o n networks were accused of m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n how they p o r t r a y e d members from v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups. The i n v e s t i g a t o r examined 360 hours of evening shows broadcast i n Winnipeg on CBC, CTV, and the American CBS network. The researcher noted that t e l e v i s i o n c h a r a c t e r s , of e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups tend to be po r t r a y e d as being l e s s s u c c e s s f u l than white c h a r a c t e r s . In a d d i t i o n , B l a c k s , Asians and Native Indians were d e p i c t e d as being i g n o r a n t , l a z y , d e c e i t f u l or i n other s t e r e o t y p e d r o l e s . Racism was a l s o c i t e d as the reason members of et h n i c groups were excluded from government and p r i v a t e s e c t o r Canadian t e l e v i s i o n commercials. The B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Government Committee on C u l t u r a l H e r i t a g e ("Increase i n racism f e a r e d i n B.C. s c h o o l s " , 1982) d e s c r i b e d how t e l e v i s i o n commercials by Canadian P a c i f i c , The Workers Compensation Board (B.C.) and the B.C. Dairy Foundation d e p i c t e d only h e a l t h y , happy white faces and d i d not i n c l u d e members from v i s i b l e e t h n i c THE PROBLEM / 9 m i n o r i t y groups. The committee a l s o warned that racism in the B.C. school system w i l l i n c r e a s e i f s u b t l e r a c i s t p r a c t i c e s such as the e x c l u s i o n of e t h n i c groups from the media i s allowed to p r e v a i l . E t h n i c d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n the schools i s evidenced by the very low percentage of t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s from m i n o r i t y groups (Grant, 1975). For example, the U.S. N a t i o n a l Center For Education S t a t i s t i c s examined t e a c h e r / p u p i l r a t i o of v a r i o u s m i n o r i t y groups i n s e v e r a l U.S. s t a t e s . Many U.S. s t a t e s which had between 20% and 30% e t h n i c m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n had only between 5% and 10% employed e t h n i c m i n o r i t y t e a c h e r s . However, simply h i r i n g more e t h n i c m i n o r i t y teachers w i l l not n e c e s s a r i l y reduce the amount of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n may be e x p e r i e n c i n g i n the classroom. Aragon (1973) argued that e t h n i c m i n o r i t y t e a c h e r s o f t e n c l o s e l y i d e n t i f y with t h e i r own c u l t u r e and may have l i t t l e s e n s i t i v i t y towards other e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups or the dominant c u l t u r e . Aragon f u r t h e r argued that the g r e a t e s t impediment to c u l t u r a l p l u r a l i s m i n the schools i s that too many c u l t u r a l l y i n e p t educators are attempting to teach d i f f e r e n t types of e t h n i c c h i l d r e n . A s i m i l a r concern was a l s o d i s c u s s e d i n a study by G u t h r i e , K l e i n d o r f e r , L e v i n , & Stout, (1971). These r e s e a r c h e r s argued that l e s s educated, i n e x p e r i e n c e d and THE PROBLEM / 10 inept teachers are more o f t e n found i n school d i s t r i c t s of e t h n i c m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n . They a l s o s t a t e d that the f a c i l i t i e s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s tend to e i t h e r be u n a v a i l a b l e , substandard and/or outdated in these school d i s t r i c t s . R a c i s t undertones i n school textbooks, substandard school f a c i l i t i e s , inadequate t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s , and the u n d e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of m i n o r i t y educators has been re c o g n i z e d . However, there i s much concern that a l e s s overt form of racism has been a c t i v e i n the sch o o l system over the l a s t t h i r t y y e a r s . T h i s form of racism i s evidenced i n the t e s t i n g , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , r e f e r r a l and placement of c u l t u r a l m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n (Gonzales, 1979; Chinn, 1979; A l g o z z i n e & Ysseldyke, 1981; P r i e t o & Zucker, 1981). With the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of s p e c i a l education programs in the mid 1950s' and e a r l y 1960s', there was optimism that the many c h i l d r e n who were not f u n c t i o n i n g adequately in the r e g u l a r classroom c o u l d b e n e f i t by these new programs (Gonzales, 1979). However, education c r i t i c s became i n c r e a s i n g l y aware that an u n u s a l l y l a r g e number of e t h n i c a l l y d i s - s i m i l i a r c h i l d r e n were being p l a c e d i n s p e c i a l education programs (Richmond & Waits, 1978). Such placement of many of these c h i l d r e n was THE PROBLEM / 11 found to be d e t r i m e n t a l to t h e i r s e l f concept and a b i l i t y to r e a l i z e t h e i r l e a r n i n g p o t e n t i a l (Grant, 1975) . In the l a t e 1960's and e a r l y 1970's educators and re s e a r c h e r s began to r e a l i z e the i n j u s t i c e that was o c c u r i n g i n the e d u c a t i o n a l system (Gonzales, 1979). Research was c l e a r l y r e v e a l i n g that s p e c i a l c l a s s e s were over-represented with e t h n i c m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n , and i n some cases such placements were causing "deep p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n j u r y " to some of these m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n (Burke, 1975). One of the e a r l i e s t c r i t i c s of s p e c i a l education contended that s p e c i a l education c l a s s e s , supposedly f o r the educable mentally r e t a r d e d (EMR), were d e p o s i t o r i e s fo r low SES and e t h n i c m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n (Dunn, 1968). He f u r t h e r argued that s o c i o c u l t u r a l l y d e p r i v e d c h i l d r e n with m i l d l e a r n i n g problems were being l a b e l l e d EMR. He estimated that between 60% and 80% of the c h i l d r e n i n these s p e c i a l c l a s s e s were from low s t a t u s backgrounds c o n s i s t i n g of Bl a c k s , Native Indians, Mexicans, and Puerto Ricans. In a d d i t i o n many of these c h i l d r e n d i d not speak standard E n g l i s h and were from broken, d i s o r g a n i z e d , and economically d e p r i v e d homes. Furthermore, these m i n o r i t y groups were not e f f e c t i v e l y THE PROBLEM / 12 a b l e to prevent v i o l a t i o n s of t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l r i g h t s by the school system. In s h o r t , as an American researcher s t a t e d (Gonzales, 1979) s t a t e d : S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n became the dumping ground for the c u l t u r a l l y and 1 i n q u i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t c h i l d whose be h a v i o r s d i d not conform to the standards of the dominant core c u l t u r e , (p. 14) It soon became ev i d e n t that these e a r l y s p e c i a l educators were no b e t t e r equipped to educate these c u l t u r a l l y and l i n q u i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t c h i l d r e n than those r e g u l a r t e a c h e r s who o r i g i n a l l y r e f e r r e d to them as deviant (Gonzales, 1979). Other res e a r c h throughout the 1970's and 1980's has demonstrated the negative e f f e c t s that i n a p p r o p r i a t e s p e c i a l education placement can have on c h i l d r e n from v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups. Some of these r e s e a r c h a r t i c l e s are examined i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n the l i t e r a t u r e review. I n a p p r o p r i a t e placement of e t h n i c m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n to s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n l e d to an i n c r e a s i n g d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n among or g a n i z e d e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups over the e d u c a t i o n a l r i g h t s of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The i s s u e s were brought before U.S. c o u r t s , and with l e g a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , some of the members of these m i n o r i t y groups s u c c e s s f u l l y c h a l l e n g e d some of the THE PROBLEM / 13 d i s c r i m i n a t i n g p r a c t i c e s i n the e d u c a t i o n a l system. Some e a r l i e r c o u r t cases c a l l e d a t t e n t i o n to the r a c i a l l y b iased t e s t i n g instruments that were used in c l a s s i f y i n g and p l a c i n g students from e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups in s p e c i a l c l a s s e s (e.g. Diana Vs. The S t a t e Board Of Education-1970). Such court cases combined with p u b l i c pressure were s u c c e s s f u l i n changing p o l i c i e s that were r u l e d to be d i s c r i m i n a t o r y . However, there remains great concern that there i s not enough progress being made in r e c t i f y i n g f a u l t y e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s a f f e c t i n g students from e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups. For example, at a recent Canadian school conference, an A u s t r a l i a n educator (Garth Brown) t o l d the Province newspaper ("School T e s t s U n f a i r " , 1984) that the s t a n d a r d i z e d school t e s t s used ac r o s s Canada continue to d i s c r i m i n a t e a g a i n s t students from v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups and are being used i l l e g a l l y . He s t a t e d that i t was " r i d i c u l o u s " to compare the r e s u l t s of students from e t h n i c neighbourhoods with white c h i l d r e n from p r i v i l e g e d homes. He f u r t h e r s t a t e d that the wording of q u e s t i o n s on s t a n d a r d i z e d exams can confuse students from e t h n i c backgrounds or who speak E n g l i s h as a second language. THE PROBLEM / 14 At present s p e c i a l education maintains a v i t a l r o l e in p r o v i d i n g e d u c a t i o n a l programming f o r both m i n o r i t y and non-minority e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n (Richmond & Waits, 1981). However, there continues to be much co n t r o v e r s y regarding the placement of e t h n i c m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n i n many of these s p e c i a l education programs (Argulewicz & Sanchez, 1983). E q u a l l y , there i s much concern that the e d u c a t i o n a l needs of e t h n i c m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n r e f e r r e d to s p e c i a l education are not being met (Chinn, 1979). To compound matters, there appears to be a s e r i o u s shortage of r e s e a r c h i n v e s t i g a t i n g the p l i g h t of m i n o r i t y students i n today's s p e c i a l education c l a s s e s . Or as Rueda & P r i e t o (1979) e x p l a i n e d : There i s c u r r e n t l y a s i g n i f i c a n t l a c k of res e a r c h on c r o s s - c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s with e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n , (p. 8) Th i s a l s o supports the apprehension expressed by Brophy & Good (1974) that d e s p i t e the n a t i o n a l concern towards school i n t e g r a t i o n , there i s i n s u f f i c i e n t r e s e a r c h on the i n t e r a c t i o n of teachers and m i n o r i t y students. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h examining these and other i s s u e s r e g a r d i n g v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n r e f e r r e d and/or p l a c e d i n s p e c i a l education programs i s warranted. B. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY THE PROBLEM / 15 T h i s study reviewed s a l i e n t l i t e r a t u r e that examined tea c h e r s ' expectancies r e g a r d i n g the academic achievement and behavior of students from v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups. Both Canadian and non-Canadian r e s e a r c h that i n v e s t i g a t e d teacher d i s c r i m i n a t i o n towards students from v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups was reviewed. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the paper examined r e s e a r c h that demonstrated how educators and/or student teachers have accorded d i f f e r e n t i a l treatment to t h e i r students from v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups compared with c h i l d r e n not from v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups. I t was of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to d i s c o v e r i f there was evidence to i n d i c a t e whether educators d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t students because of t h e i r e t h n i c i t y e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n s to r e f e r c h i l d r e n f o r placement i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . Examining t h i s i s s u e f u r t h e r , has l e d to the development of the f o l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n . 1. Research Question T h i s study examined whether teachers demonstrate an et h n i c b i a s i n t h e i r s e l e c t i o n of students f o r s p e c i a l education placement. That i s , when given a f i c t i t i o u s case study, d e s c r i b i n g a ten year o l d boy demonstrating academic and behavior problems, would te a c h e r s ' r a t i n g of the c h i l d THE PROBLEM / 16 be a f f e c t e d by the c h i l d ' s e t h n i c i t y ? C. SCOPE OF THE STUDY To address the re s e a r c h q u e s t i o n a q u e s t i o n n a i r e was designed and d i s t r i b u t e d to teach e r s from randomly s e l e c t e d s c h o o l s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n c l u d e d a respondent i n f o r m a t i o n sheet, a f i c t i t i o u s case study and nine items i l l i c i t i n g t e a c h e r s ' o p i n i o n s regarding e d u c a t i o n a l placement. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were i d e n t i c a l except f o r the b r i e f r e f e r e n c e , i n the case study, to c h i l d ' s e t h n i c i t y . The s t a t i s t i c a l h y p o thesis of the study was that are no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s in the means of the tea c h e r s ' responses r e g a r d i n g c h i l d r e n d e s c r i b e d as belonging to one of four e t h n i c groups. Any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n tea c h e r s ' responses c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d to an e t h n i c b i a s i n teac h e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s of the students' d e s c r i b e d i n the case study. A f i v e p o i n t L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e was used to q u a n t i f y and analyze the te a c h e r s ' responses to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e items. (See chapter 3, methodology). The r e s u l t s were analyzed using a oneway ANOVA, Student Newman Keuls (SNK) m u l t i p l e comparison procedure, and t - t e s t s , as a p p r o p r i a t e . The p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e was set at 0.05. The r e s u l t s are r e p o r t e d i n chapter 4. THE PROBLEM / 17 Chapter 5 summarizes the f i n d i n g s and d i s c u s s e s i m p l i c a t i o n s and l i m i t a t i o n s of the study. In a d d i t i o n , chapter 5 d i s c u s s e s areas f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h and presents a summary and c o n c l u s i o n s . D. DEFINITION OF TERMS Anglo (Children): The term i s used i n the Southwestern U n i t e d S t a t e s to r e f e r to White persons who are not of Spanish speaking backgrounds (Jackson & Cosca, 1974). Discrimination: The c onscious act of d e a l i n g with a person or persons on the b a s i s of p r e j u d i c i a l a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s ( r a t h e r than on the b a s i s of i n d i v i d u a l m e r i t ) . T h i s p r e j u d i c e i s a s t a t e of mind, while d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s an a c t i o n ( E q u a l i t y Now, 1984, p. 143). Ethnocentric: Regarding one's own race or c u l t u r e as the most important and judging other c u l t u r e s as wrong or i n f e r i o r simply because they do t h i n g s d i f f e r e n t l y ( E q u a l i t y Now, 1984, p. 143). Prejudice: L i t e r a l l y to prejudge; a mental s t a t e i n which an i n d i v i d u a l passes judgement ( g e n e r a l l y unfavourable) to another person, u s u a l l y a t t r i b u t i n g to that person a v a r i e t y of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which are a t t r i b u t e d to a group of which the person i s a member. It i s an a t t i t u d e THE PROBLEM / 18 i n c o n t r a s t to a behavior ( E q u a l i t y Now, 1984, p. 144). Racism: D i s c r i m i n a t i o n on the basis, of r a c i a l / n a t i o n a l / e t h n i c o r i g i n or c o l o u r ( E q u a l i t y Now, 1984, P.144). Teacher Expectancies: I n f e r e n c e s teachers make regarding the c u r r e n t and f u t u r e academic success and the t y p i c a l c l a s s behavior of t h e i r p u p i l s (Brophy & Good, 1974). Visible Ethnic Minorities: For the purpose of t h i s paper t h i s term i s synonomous with the term, " V i s i b l e M i n o r i t i e s " d e f i n e d i n the Canadian Royal Commission on V i s i b l e M i n o r i t i e s . V i s i b l e m i n o r i t i e s are d e s c r i b e d as Non-whites who are not p a r t i c i p a t i n g f u l l y i n Canadian s o c i e t y . Not p a r t i c i p a t i n g f u l l y in Canadian s o c i e t y suggests v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y people who u n f a i r l y r e c e i v e l e s s o p p o r t u n i t y f o r e d u c a t i o n a l , s o c i a l and economic advancement as the m a j o r i t y members of s o c i e t y . The approximate non-white p o p u l a t i o n of Canada i s 1,864,000 or 7 per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n . These f i g u r e s i n c l u d e the a b o r i g i n a l people, Canadians with o r g i n s i n A f r i c a , Arab c o u n t r i e s , China, I n d i a , P a k i s t a n , Japan, Korea, South East A s i a , L a t i n America, The P a c i f i c I s l a n d s , The West Indies and the P h i l l i p i n e s ( E q u a l i t y Now, 1984, p. 143). White(chi I dren): T h i s term has been commonly used to d e s c r i b e c h i l d r e n who are p r i m a r i l y from f a m i l i e s of THE PROBLEM / 19 Northern European e x t r a c t i o n . The term "White" ( i n t h i s paper) has been used synonomously with "status-quo", " m a j o r i t y " and "dominant c u l t u r e . " In summary, chapter I i n c l u d e d the i n t r o d u c t i o n , purpose of the study, research q u e s t i o n , scope of the study and d e f i n i t i o n s of terms used i n t h i s paper. Chapter I p r o v i d e s a focus f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the r e s e a r c h and r a t i o n a l e f o r the study i t s e l f . The next chapter presents the review of the l i t e r a t u r e . II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Chapter II i s d i v i d e d i n t o four s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n examines some of the l i t e r a t u r e on tea c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s and the s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g prophecy. The second s e c t i o n reviews v a r i o u s s t u d i e s that examined teacher b i a s towards t h e i r students from v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups in the r e g u l a r classroom s e t t i n g . The t h i r d s e c t i o n reviews v a r i o u s s t u d i e s that examined teacher b i a s towards t h e i r students from v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups, in the s p e c i a l education s e t t i n g . T h i s s e c t i o n a l s o reviews s t u d i e s that examined i f c h i l d r e n from v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups were overrepresented i n s p e c i a l education c l a s s e s and i f r e g u l a r classrooom teachers were bia s e d i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n s . as to the types of students they would r e f e r f o r s p e c i a l education placement. The l a s t s e c t i o n reviews some d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d i e s r e g a r d i n g e t h n i c c h i l d r e n i n Vancouver s c h o o l s . A. TEACHER EXPECTATIONS AND SELF FULFILLING PROPHECY 1. Rosenthal Reviewed One of the most important and c o n t r o v e r s i a l books i n e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h appeared with the p u b l i c a t i o n of Rosenthal and Jacobson's (1968) "Pygmalion In The Classroom" 20 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 21 (St. George, 1983). T h i s c l a s s i c study demonstrated how tea c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s can markedly a f f e c t a student's performance r e g a r d l e s s of the student's true academic a b i l i t y . The s u b j e c t s c o n s i s t e d of 18 teachers from of an elementary school s e r v i n g an urban lower c l a s s community. The teachers were t o l d the purpose of the experiment was to i d e n t i f y l a t e i n t e l l e c t u a l bloomers and those who would be expected t o e x c e l a c a d e m i c a l l y d u r i n g the coming school year. At the beginning of the school year the students were a d m i n i s t e r e d a gen e r a l IQ t e s t . The s u b j e c t s were than informed that a few of t h e i r students were l a t e bloomers (treatment s u b j e c t s ) and would do e x c e p t i o n a l l y w e l l that coming school year. The c h i l d r e n i d e n t i f i e d as l a t e bloomers were students with average IQs, which d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the average IQ of the c l a s s . No f u r t h e r c o n t a c t was made with the s u b j e c t s u n t i l the end of the school year, when student IQ t e s t s were rea d m i n i s t e r e d to compare the progress of the treatment s u b j e c t s with t h e i r c l a s s m a t e s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that the treatment s u b j e c t s s i g n i f i c a n t l y outperformed t h e i r classmates. However, only the r e s u l t s of the students i n grades one and two were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . In a d d i t i o n , the r e s u l t s were more pronounced f o r the female than male treatment s u b j e c t s . The grades one and two treatment s u b j e c t s a l s o outperformed REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 22 t h e i r classmates i n reading achievement and were d e s c r i b e d by t h e i r teachers as more l i k e l y to experience school success and be b e t t e r a d j u s t e d . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s concluded that t h e i r hypothesis was c o r r e c t , that teachers e x p e c t a t i o n s f u n c t i o n as s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g p r o p h e c i e s . S e v e r a l c r i t i q u e s of Rosenthal's work appeared s h o r t l y a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n s of h i s f i n d i n g s (Thorndike, 1968; E l a s h o f f & Snow, 1971; T a y l o r , 1971). As a r e s u l t , many f a u l t s were found with the o r i g i n a l study. For example, C l a i b o r n (1969) who r e p l i c a t e d Rosenthal's study f a i l e d to f i n d any support that induced teacher expectancies had f u n c t i o n e d as s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g p r o p h e c i e s . C l i f t o n et a l . (1982) suggested that the impact of Rosenthal's study was so great that even i n recent times i t may be d i f f i c u l t to conduct r e s e a r c h regarding teachers e x p e c t a t i o n s and student performance. He argues that the p u b l i c i t y generated by t h i s book alone, c o u l d make teachers s u s p i c i o u s towards r e s e a r c h e r s a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s about t h e i r s t udents. Brophy (1983) a l s o supports t h i s concern, by suggesting that Rosenthal's work i s l i k e l y to have i n c r e a s e d t e a c h e r s ' awareness of e x p e c t a t i o n phenomena and have made teache r s l e s s l i k e l y to accept at face value i n f o r m a t i o n an experimenter g i v e s them about t h e i r students. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 23 In summary, Rosenthal's study served as a forerunner and gave impetus to numerous other s t u d i e s on t e a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s and s t e r e o t y p i n g behavior (Cooper, Baron & Lowe, 1975; St. George, 1983). Rosenthal's study a l s o made r e f e r e n c e to some i s s u e s that plague the e d u c a t i o n a l system even today. That i s , by i m p l i c a t i o n h i s study gave credence to the concern that the poor academic performance and achievement of e c o n o m i c a l l y disadvantaged and e t h n i c m i n o r i t y group students c o u l d r e s u l t from negative s t e r e o t y p e s and low teacher e x p e c t a n c i e s . 2. Teacher Expectancy Model Numerous s t u d i e s u t i l i z i n g a v a r i e t y of methods d e s c r i b i n g both e x p e r i m e n t a l l y manipulated and n a t u r a l l y o c c u r i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s have demonstrated that teachers e x p e c t a n c i e s can o f t e n a c t as s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g prophecies (Cooper, 1979). Most of these s t u d i e s attempted to induce teacher e x p e c t a t i o n s through the p r o v i s i o n of f a l s e i n f o r m a t i o n (Brophy, 1983). However as Brophy (1983) e x p l a i n e d , most of these e a r l i e r s t u d i e s used b i a s e d procedures i n attempting to gain evidence of s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g prophecy e f f e c t s . Another problem with many of these e a r l i e r s t u d i e s was that they were not a b l e to d e f i n e " e x p e c t a t i o n e f f e c t s . " As a r e s u l t , c r i t i c s of t h i s concept (teacher e x p e c t a t i o n s f u n c t i o n i n g as s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g prophecies) REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 24 argued that the theory governing t h i s phenomena, was p o o r l y understood. Teachers' e x p e c t a t i o n s are u s u a l l y formed upon a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the student's IQ and achievement t e s t s c o r e s , p r e v i o u s school performance, impressions of other educators, or knowledge about the student's f a m i l y . A s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g prophecy was o r i g i n a l l y d e s c r i b e d by Merton (1948) as a p r e d i c t i o n or e x p e c t a t i o n to become r e a l i z e d . Brophy & Good (1974) suggest that when a t e a c h e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n acts as a s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g prophecy, i t becomes the antecedent,or cause, of a student's behavior, thus i n h i b i t i n g the true or t y p i c a l behavior that c o u l d have been observed. Some teachers may h o l d i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y h i g h or low e x p e c t a t i o n s of a student's a b i l i t y or performance. Overly high teacher e x p e c t a t i o n s can r e s u l t i n students being pushed beyond t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s and e x p e r i e n c i n g f r u s t r a t i o n and discouragement. Low teacher e x p e c t a t i o n s can r e s u l t i n students performing below t h e i r p o t e n t i a l and s t u n t i n g t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l growth. In a d d i t i o n , a v i c i o u s c i r c l e of low e x p e c t a t i o n s and f a i l u r e responses can r e s u l t in students a c h i e v i n g c o n s i d e r a b l y below l e v e l s they may have achieved i f the teachers had o r i g i n a l l y set higher e x p e c t a t i o n s . Not only can these low teacher e x p e c t a t i o n s r e s u l t i n d i m i n i s h e d academic achievement, but they can erode the student's s e l f - e s t e e m and emotional s t a b i l i t y . REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 25 T h i s can a l s o r e s u l t i n l e s s t e a c h e r / p u p i l i n t e r a c t i o n , i n c r e a s e d c r i t i c i s m by peers, lower IQs, and school f a i l u r e (Brophy and Good, 1974). In 1970 Brophy & Good o u t l i n e d a very u s e f u l model for d e s c r i b i n g the process u n d e r l y i n g the e f f e c t s of teacher e x p e c t a t i o n s on student behavior. I t was l a t e r summarized by Brophy (1983) as f o l l o w s : 1. E a r l y i n the year, t e a c h e r s form d i f f e r e n t i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r student performance. 2. C o n s i s t e n t with these d i f f e r e n t i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s , teachers behave d i f f e r e n t l y toward d i f f e r e n t s tudents. 3. T h i s d i f f e r e n t i a l teacher behavior communicates to each i n d i v i d u a l student something about how he or she i s expected to behave i n the classroom and perform on academic t a s k s . 4. I f teacher treatment i s c o n s i s t e n t over time, and i f students do not a c t i v e l y r e s i s t or change i t , i t w i l l l i k e l y a f f e c t student s e l f - c o n c e p t , achievement m o t i v a t i o n , l e v e l of a s p i r a t i o n , classroom conduct, and i n t e r a c t i o n s with the teacher. 5. These e f f e c t s g e n e r a l l y w i l l complement and r e i n f o r c e the teacher' e x p e c t a t i o n s , so that students w i l l conform to these e x p e c t a t i o n s more REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 26 than they might have otherwise. 6. U l t i m a t e l y , t h i s w i l l make a d i f f e r e n c e i n student achievement and other outcomes, i n d i c a t i n g that teacher e x p e c t a t i o n s can f u n c t i o n as s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g p r o p h e c i e s . (P. 651) In summary, o r i g i n a t i n g with s t u d i e s such as Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968), there i s c o n s i d e r a b l e evidence that t e a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s of students a b i l i t i e s or behavior can have p o s i t i v e as w e l l as negative e f f e c t s upon the a c t u a l performace, academic achievement, and classroom behavior of these students (Cooper, 1979; Brophy and Good, 1974). Furthermore, students who are regarded p o s i t i v e l y by t h e i r teachers w i l l show g r e a t e r academic and s o c i a l success then students who are regarded n e g a t i v e l y . There i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e body of research which has attempted to i d e n t i f y f a c t o r s which may account f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the d i f f e r e n t i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s of teachers and the e f f e c t s on students achievement and behavior (Cooper, Baron, & Lowe, 1975; St. George, 1983; P r i e t o & Zucker, 1981). At the same time r e s e a r c h has attempted to determine the f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e t e a c h e r s ' expectat i o n s . I t appears such e x p e c t a t i o n s can be as s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by i r r e l e v a n t student c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 27 e t h n i c i t y , SES, gender, and f a c i a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s , as w e l l as r e l e v a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as academic achievement and pre v i o u s performance ( C l i f t o n et a l . 1981). Of these s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s which may determine teacher e x p e c t a n c i e s , only a few have been s y s t e m a t i c a l l y examined ( C l i f t o n et a l . 1981). For example, research has shown that t e a c h e r s ' expectancies can be a f f e c t e d by such f a c t o r s as: c o g n i t i v e s t y l e (DiStafano, 1970), p h y s i c a l appearance, (Brophy and Good, 1974), gender (Jaeger and F r e i j o , 1975), socioeconomic s t a t u s , ( R i s t , 1970; Argulewicz, & Sanchez, 1983), and e t h n i c o r i g i n (Jackson & Cosca, 1974; C l i f t o n et . a l . , 1982). The next s e c t i o n reviews some of the s t u d i e s that have examined teacher b i a s towards t h e i r students, from v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups, i n the r e g u l a r classroom s e t t i n g . B. TEACHER BIAS IN THE REGULAR CLASSROOM SETTING 1. Non-North American s t u d i e s S t u d i e s conducted o u t s i d e North America examining e t h n i c b i a s i n t h e i r s c h o o l s , may prove d i f f i c u l t to g e n e r a l i z e to North American school p o p u l a t i o n s . However, a few f o r e i g n s t u d i e s have been i n c l u d e d f o r review, because, they i n c o r p o r a t e d strong methodology and reported i n t e r e s t i n g REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 28 r e s u l t s . In a study i n I s r a e l , Guttman and B a r - T a l (1982) examined the e f f e c t of te a c h e r s ' s t e r e o t y p i c p e r c e p t i o n s on t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s of A s i a n - A f r i c a n and European Jewish c h i l d r e n . The authors c i t e d e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h in which A s i a n - A f r i c a n Jewish c h i l d r e n (Eastern c h i l d r e n ) were p e r c e i v e d by teach e r s to be l e s s i n t e l l i g e n t , l e s s motivated to l e a r n , l e s s s o c i a b l e , but more emotional, generous and p e a c e f u l than European-American Jewish c h i l d r e n (Western c h i l d r e n ) . The authors conducted three s t u d i e s examining teachers' s t e r e o t y p i c p e r c e p t i o n s . The f i r s t study i n v e s t i g a t e d the degree i n which teachers would form s t e r e o t y p i c impressions of students' academic performance, when only p r o v i d e d with i n f o r m a t i o n on the e t h n i c i t y and gender of the student. The second study, was s i m i l i a r to the f i r s t but i n c l u d e d i n f o r m a t i o n on students' performance, along with e t h n i c i t y and gender. The t h i r d study examined whether d i f f e r e n t s t e r e o t y p i c impressions would p e r s i s t even when teachers were f a m i l i a r with the students and t h e i r performance. In the f i r s t study, the s u b j e c t s c o n s i s t e d of 101 female teachers of grades one to four who were part of an i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g program, p r o v i d e d by the I s r a e l i REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 29 M i n i s t r y Of Educa t i o n . The average age of the teachers was 32 and they had an average of 9 to 10 years of teaching experience. The s u b j e c t s were randomly assigned i n t o one of four groups, and were given case s t u d i e s d e s c r i b i n g Eastern or Western, male or female Jewish students. Other than gender and e t h n i c i t y the d e s c r i p t i o n of the c h i l d r e n in the four groups was i d e n t i c a l . The s u b j e c t s were than asked to rate t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s on a f i v e - p o i n t L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e regarding the students a b i l i t y , d i l i g e n c e , i n t e r e s t i n stud y i n g , l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s at home, d i s c i p l i n e , e f f o r t i n studying, and s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , s u b j e c t s were asked t o r a t e t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n regarding the student's achievement i n the f u t u r e . A n a l y s i s of the data i n d i c a t e d that a c h i l d ' s gender was not a f a c t o r on any of the r a t i n g s . However, Eastern students were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r a t e d as having lower a b i l i t y , lower i n t e r e s t , and worse home c o n d i t i o n s , than Western Jewish students. The E a s t e r n Jewish c h i l d r e n were a l s o expected to show s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower achievement than Western Jewish c h i l d r e n . In the second study,the s u b j e c t s c o n s i s t e d of 59 female students i n a u n i v e r s i t y teacher t r a i n i n g program. The average age of the s u b j e c t s was twenty-one. The s u b j e c t s were randomly assigned t o one of three groups. In the f i r s t REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 30 group the case study d e s c r i b e d Western Jewish c h i l d r e n , the second group Eastern Jewish c h i l d r e n , and the t h i r d group served as a c o n t r o l group, (the o r i g i n of the students was not r e v e a l e d ) . The s u b j e c t s i n each group were given a booklet d e s c r i b i n g demographic i n f o r m a t i o n on student type and c o n t a i n e d a short composition which they were to e v a l u a t e . I d e n t i c a l compositions were given to each of the s u b j e c t s , who were t o l d the composition was w r i t t e n by a male student, where i n f a c t , i t had been w r i t t e n by an e i g h t h grade teacher. The s u b j e c t s were.than asked to rate the v a r i o u s f a c t o r s t hat might be a t t r i b u t e d to the grade given on the composition, as w e l l as the grade they would expect the student to achieve i n f u t u r e composition w r i t i n g . The r e s u l t s of the study i n d i c a t e d that the Western c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher grades (x=75.5%) on compositions than e i t h e r the E a s t e r n c h i l d r e n (x=64.0%) or the c o n t r o l student (x=65.5%). Western c h i l d r e n were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y r a t e d as being b e t t e r prepared, more i n t e r e s t e d i n the composition and expected to achieve higher grades i n f u t u r e composition w r i t i n g than E a s t e r n c h i l d r e n . In a d d i t i o n , the s u b j e c t s a t t r i b u t e d g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e to composition d i f f i c u l t y f o r the E a s t e r n c h i l d r e n than f o r the Western c h i l d r e n . In the t h i r d study, the s u b j e c t s c o n s i s t e d of seven REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 31 female Western Jewish grade seven and e i g h t t e a c h e r s . The average age of the teachers was 29 and they had an average of f i v e y e ars t e a c h i n g experience. S i x t y four p a i r s of students were s e l e c t e d , with each p a i r c o n s i s t i n g of a Western and Eastern Jewish student. The p a i r s were matched as having s i m i l i a r f i n a l course grades and IQ s c o r e s . The teachers were asked to e v a l u a t e the students' grade as success or f a i l u r e . They were than requested to r a t e , on a f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e , the extent to which each of a l i s t of eleven causes i n f l u e n c e d the achievement of the grade. In a d d i t i o n , the teach e r s were requested to rate how s u c c e s s f u l they expected the student to be in f u t u r e academic achievement. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d there were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s in the r a t i n g s given to Ea s t e r n or Western Jewish c h i l d r e n . Thus, the s u b j e c t s d i d not a s c r i b e d i f f e r e n t causes to the academic success of Ea s t e r n or Western Jewish students. However, the success of the Western students was a t t r i b u t e d more to the parents' h e l p , where the success of E a s t e r n students was a t t r i b u t e d more to the teachers' a t t i t u d e s and s p e c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . The r e s u l t s of these s t u d i e s demonstrated that teachers h e l d s t e r e o t y p i c p e r c e p t i o n s that i n f l u e n c e d the e v a l u a t i o n s REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 32 and e x p e c t a t i o n s of t h e i r students. Study one showed that when teach e r s were given i n f o r m a t i o n regarding only students' e t h n i c i t y they responded i n a s t e r e o t y p i c manner. Study two demonstrated that s t e r e o t y p i c p e r c e p t i o n s a l s o d i f f e r e n t i a l l y i n f l u e n c e d teachers' e v a l u a t i o n s . Although teachers were given i d e n t i c a l compositions to grade, the knowledge of a students e t h n i c o r i g i n r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t gradings, f a v o u r i n g Western over E a s t e r n Jewish c h i l d r e n . Study three demonstrated that although teachers w i l l s t e r e o t y p e e t h n i c a l l y d i s s i m i l i a r c h i l d r e n , i n the a c t u a l classroom s e t t i n g , students are u s u a l l y e v a l u a t e d on the b a s i s of t h e i r performance and not on the b a s i s of i n a p p r o p r i a t e i n f o r m a t i o n such as e t h n i c i t y . The authors conclude, t h a t although teachers s t e r e o t y p e students of d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c o r i g i n , p ersonal c o n t a c t can o v e r r i d e the impact of such s t e r e o t y p i c p e r c e p t i o n s . In another study ( St. George, 1983) the i n v e s t i g a t o r examined t e a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s and p e r c e p t i o n s of Po l y n e s i a n (Maori) and Pakeha (White) students' classroom behavior and school achievement. The s u b j e c t s c o n s i s t e d of f i v e t e a c h e r s from d i f f e r e n t New Zealand urban primary s c h o o l s . In a l l these s c h o o l s , P o l y n e s i a n c h i l d r e n made up approximately 25% of the student p o p u l a t i o n . Six students were s e l e c t e d from h i g h , middle, and low e x p e c t a t i o n groups w i t h i n each of the f i v e c l a s s e s . Student e x p e c t a t i o n l e v e l REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 33 had been p r e v i o u l s y determined by teacher e v a l u a t i o n s of classroom achievement. Thus, s u b j e c t s were to rate 90 c h i l d r e n , of which 67 were Pakeha and 23 were P o l y n e s i a n . The measures used i n the study c o n s i s t e d of; a f i f t e e n item, seven-point r a t i n g s c a l e ( P u p i l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) d e v i s e d from a p i l o t study with a s i m i l i a r sample; the Brophy-Good (1974) dyadic i n t e r a c t i o n o b s e r v a t i o n system, which i s a m u l t i - f a c e t e d c a t e g o r i c a l system u s e f u l f o r coding classroom behavior and measuring dyadic t e a c h e r - p u p i l c o n t a c t s ( R e l i a b i l t y = . 8 5 ) ; two s t a n d a r d i z e d school achievement measures, and year end grade r e p o r t s . A f t e r , the f i r s t month of school they were than requested to rank t h e i r students i n terms of general a b i l i t y . T h i s served as the e x p e c t a t i o n measure. L a t e r i n the school year the other measures were administered to the t e a c h e r s . The teachers were not aware u n t i l the end of the study which eighteen c h i l d r e n were s e l e c t e d from t h e i r c l a s s f o r the experiment. The r e s u l t s of the study i n d i c a t e d that Polynesian c h i l d r e n were s i g n i f i c a n t l y p e r c e i v e d as: being l e s s i n t e r e s t e d and unmotivated towards l e a r n i n g , having poorer E n g l i s h and reading s k i l l s , more negative towards l e a r n i n g new concepts, being l e s s independent, having poorer c o n c e n t r a t i o n and study s k i l l s than Pakeha students, and REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 34 having parents with poorer a t t i t u d e s towards school and edu c a t i o n , There was a l s o a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of P o l y n e s i a n and Pakeha students i n the three e x p e c t a t i o n groups. Almost o n e - t h i r d of the Pakeha students compared to o n e - s i x t h of the Po l y n e s i a n students were as s i g n e d to the high e x p e c t a t i o n group. In the classroom o b s e r v a t i o n measure, there were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s recorded i n the frequecy of dyadic t e a c h e r - p u p i l i n t e r a c t i o n between e t h n i c groups. On the achievement measures the Po l y n e s i a n students tended to score lower than the Pakeha s t u d e n t s . In a d d i t i o n , achievement scores d e c l i n e d as te a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s d e c l i n e d and w i t h i n each e x p e c t a t i o n group P o l y n e s i a n students r e c e i v e d lower achievement r a t i n g s by t h e i r t e a c h e r s . The i n v e s t i g a t o r concluded that P o l y n e s i a n students were p e r c e i v e d more n e g a t i v e l y than White students i n r e g u l a r classroom s e t t i n g s . He a l s o noted that i t was s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t e a c h e r s would make i n f e r e n c e s about the q u a l i t y of the home environment of Poly n e s i a n c h i l d r e n as only a few of these teachers had met these students' p a r e n t s . Furthermore, the o b s e r v a t i o n a l data r e v e a l e d that there was l i t t l e d i r e c t evidence to suggest that teachers' expectancies or p e r c e p t i o n s r e s u l t i n a s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g prophecy f o r student REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 35 performance or a b i l i t y . However, i t was shown that teachers do make s t e r e o t y p i c judgements of d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c c h i l d r e n without regard to t h e i r a c t u a l performance and a b i l i t y . The few c r o s s c u l t u r a l s t u d i e s reviewed have demonstrated that many teachers i n c o u n t r i e s such as I s r a e l and New Zealand hold lower e x p e c t a t i o n s and s t e r e o t y p i c p e r c e p t i o n s towards some students from v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups i n the r e g u l a r classroom. C l e a r l y , more c r o s s c u l t u r a l research needs to be conducted on the e f f e c t s and extent of race b i a s i n the r e g u l a r classroom. The next s e c t i o n reviews s t u d i e s conducted in the Un i t e d S t a t e s . 2. American Studi e s In a study by Coates (1972) a group of a d u l t s were asked to teach b a s i c a r i t h m e t i c problems to one of four nine year o l d boys, of which two were White and two were Black. The a d u l t s u b j e c t s had v i s u a l contact with the boy while t u t o r i n g him but c o u l d not see the boy's responses to t h e i r q u e s t i o n s . The boys' were coached to behave and respond i n a s i m i l i a r manner and the a d u l t s were t o l d the boys were g r a d u a l l y l e a r n i n g the problems. A f t e r each of the boy's responses a l l a d u l t s were t o l d whether the boy had answered c o r r e c t l y or i n c o r r e c t l y . The same i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the boys' progress was given to a l l of the s u b j e c t s . The REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 36 s u b j e c t s were a l s o r e q u i r e d to give each c h i l d a feedback statement f o l l o w i n g each of t h e i r responses. The feedback comments were to be chosen among a l i s t of f i v e statements ranging from p r a i s e to c r i t i c i s m . At the end of the experiment each s u b j e c t was requested to rate the c h i l d they had t u t o r e d , using a l i s t of nineteen a d j e c t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s . A n a l y s i s of the data i n d i c a t e d , that female a d u l t s d i d not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the White and Black c h i l d r e n d u r i n g the t e a c h i n g s e s s i o n s . Male a d u l t s , on the other hand, were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more negative towards the Black c h i l d r e n than the White c h i l d r e n . The r e s u l t s from the a d j e c t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s c a l e i n d i c a t e d that both male and female a d u l t s r a t e d Black c h i l d r e n s i g n i f i c a n t l y more n e g a t i v e l y ( d u l l , p a s s i v e , u n f r i e n d l y ) than White c h i l d r e n on s i x t e e n of the nineteen items on the t r a i t r a t i n g s c a l e . In a s i m i l i a r experimental study, Rubovits and Maehr (1973) examined teacher-student i n t e r a c t i o n s i n an experimental m i c r o t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n . The s u b j e c t s c o n s i s t e d of 66 White female student-teachers e n r o l l e d i n an undergraduate c h i l d development course. The s u b j e c t s were r e q u i r e d to give a l e s s o n to a group of four Grade Seven or Eight students. Each group of students c o n s i s t e d of two Black and two White students. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 37 The r e s u l t s of the study i n d i c a t e d that on s i x of the e i g h t measures of teacher-student i n t e r a c t i o n , the s u b j e c t s favored the White student. In a d d i t i o n , the student teachers tended to ignore the Black c h i l d r e n and c r i t i z e d them more f r e q u e n t l y than White c h i l d r e n . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s concluded that white female undergraduates have a tendency to t r e a t Black students i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y . In a study by Cooper, Baron & Lowe, (1975) students race and SES backgrounds were examined to see what e f f e c t s they had on the formation of t e a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a n c i e s . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s examined the p e r c e i v e d locus of c o n t r o l , expected academic performance, and r e l a t i v e importance of f i v e c a u s a l f a c t o r s ( a b i l i t y , luck, e f f o r t , task d i f f i c u l t y , and q u a l i t y of i n s t r u c t i o n ) . Locus of c o n t r o l was d e f i n e d as an i n d i v i d u a l ' s e x pectancies r e g a r d i n g the c o n t r o l l i n g f a c t o r f o r the rewards ( p e r s o n a l l y or e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y c o n t r o l l e d ) . S u b j e c t s i n c l u d e d 64 elementary education students and 64 i n t r o d u c t o r y psychology students. A l l s u b j e c t s were d e s c r i b e d as White, middle c l a s s females a t t e n d i n g the U n i v e r s i t y of C o n n e c t i c u t . The true purpose of the experiment was d i s g u i s e d as a study on impression formation. The two groups of students were randomly a s s i g n e d to one of four c o n d i t i o n s , d e s c r i b i n g e i t h e r a middle or low SES, REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 38 White or Black elementary school c h i l d . The s u b j e c t s were given i d e n t i c a l case study i n f o r m a t i o n except f o r the students race and SES. They were than asked to complete the f o l l o w i n g measures; The C r a n d a l l I n t e l l e c t u a l - A c a d e m i c R e s p o n s i b i l i t y S c a l e , (which was designed to measure locus of c o n t r o l e x p e c t a n c i e s ) , a h y p o t h e t i c a l r e p o r t c a r d , ( i n which s u b j e c t s were asked to estimate what l e t t e r grade they would expect the c h i l d i n the s c r i p t t o r e c e i v e ) and f i v e c a u s a l f a c t o r s . The s u b j e c t s were requested to estimate on seven-point s c a l e how important they b e l i e v e d each c a u s a l f a c t o r to be f o r the c h i l d d e s c r i b e d i n t h e i r case s c r i p t . The r e s u l t s of the study i n d i c a t e d that middle c l a s s students were expected to o b t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher grades than lower c l a s s s tudents. In a d d i t i o n , White middle c l a s s students were c o n s i d e r e d to be more i n t e r n a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f a i l u r e than any other student group. The education students estimated higher grades g e n e r a l l y than the psychology students. A l s o , education s u b j e c t s viewed q u a l i t y of i n s t r u c t i o n as a more important f a c t o r i n academic performance, and task d i f f i c u l t y as l e s s important f o r middle c l a s s Black c h i l d r e n . Psychology s u b j e c t s regarded task d i f f i c u l t y and q u a l i t y of i n s t r u c t i o n as more important f o r White lower c l a s s c h i l d r e n than any other student type. The authors concluded that the r e s u l t s of t h e i r study support the general h y p o t h e s i s that teacher expectancies REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 39 regarding a student's academic performance are i n f l u e n c e d by the student's race and SES. In study by Jaeger and F r e i j o (1975) race and gender as concomitants of "Composite Halo" i n t e a c h e r s was examined to see what e f f e c t they had on t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s of students. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the i n v e s t i g a t o r s examined the h y p o t h e s i s that teachers can more r e a d i l y d i s t i n q u i s h among a v a r i e t y of student behaviors i f the teacher and student are of the same race and or the same gender. "Composite Halo" was d e f i n e d as teachers' d e c i s i o n s of students based upon the race and gender of the teacher and student. Such d e c i s i o n s are c o n s i d e r e d i n a c c u r a t e assessments which occur when students are r a t e d h o l i s t i c a l l y without c o n s i d e r a t i o n to i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s a c r o s s other r a t e d behavior. The i n v e s t i g a t o r noted that p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h had i n d i c a t e d t h a t t e a c h e r s , r e g a r d l e s s of gender or race were l i k e l y to evaluate students of t h e i r own gender and race more a c c u r a t e l y and with l e s s composite h a l o than they do those students of d i f f e r e n t gender and/or race. Futhermore, r e s e a r c h has suggested that i t can be hypothesized that a rank o r d e r i n g on the composite halo of a teacher's r a t i n g s of students i s a f u n c t i o n of the teacher's gender and race r e l a t i v e to those students being r a t e d . A l a r g e sample of t e a c h e r s and students were randomly REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 40 s e l e c t e d from a l a r g e r n a t i o n a l survey ( N a t i o n a l Survey On Compensatory Ed u c a t i o n , U n i t e d S t a t e s O f f i c e Of Education, 1969). The re s e a r c h sample s e l e c t e d anywhere from 10% to 100% of each of the subgroups from the n a t i o n a l survey sample. T h i s allowed comparisons to be made f o r d i f f e r e n t combinations of teachers and students a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r race and gender. The measures used i n the study a l s o i n c l u d e d items « s e l e c t e d from the 1969 " N a t i o n a l Survey On Compensatory Education." These items i n c l u d e d a teacher q u e s t i o n n a i r e , which asked f o r demographic i n f o r m a t i o n on the teachers and t h e i r c l a s s e s and; a p u p i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e , which asked f o r information on each i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l as w e l l as 21 items r e l a t e d to behavior changes. A p r i n c i p a l component a n a l y s i s and m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g system were used to examine composite halo and s o c i a l d i s t a n c e using teacher r a t i n g s of over 8,000 grade four students. The r e s u l t s of the study i n d i c a t e d that the degree of composite halo e x h i b i t e d by tea c h e r s ' r a t i n g s of students was p r o p o r t i o n a l to the tea c h e r s ' p e r c e i v e d s o c i a l d i s t a n c e from the students being r a t e d . However, c o n t r a r y to e a r l i e r r e search, t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e i v e d s o c i a l d i s t a n c e was not found to be a f u n c t i o n of t h e i r gender and race and the gender and race of the student being r a t e d . However, Black female REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 41 teache r s were found to e x h i b i t a h i g h degree of composite halo when r a t i n g students of the same race. Data was not i n c l u d e d f o r Black male teacher r a t i n g s of White male and female students because t h i s sample group was too s m a l l . The authors conclude, that u n l i k e the gen e r a l p o p u l a t i o n , t e a c h e r s , by v i r t u e of t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g and background, are l e s s l i k e l y to demonstrate s o c i a l d i s t a n c e and composite halo towards c h i l d r e n of d i f f e r e n t gender and/or r a c e . In another study, K l e i n f i e l d (1972) d e s c r i b e d how Native Indian and Eskimo students i n A l a s k a , were being d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t by teachers and the school system. He argued t h a t although these m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n a t t e n d elementary schools i n t h e i r home communities, they were o f t e n r e q u i r e d to t r a v e l long d i s t a n c e s to a t t e n d high s c h o o l s i n urban d i s t r i c t s . T h i s o f t e n r e s u l t e d i n these c h i l d r e n being separated from t h e i r n a t u r a l f a m i l i e s . The i n v e s t i g a t o r noted that these c h i l d r e n were f o r c e d to a t t e n d schools i n a l i e n d i s t r i c t s , where they had few f r i e n d s , and were t r e a t e d with h o s t i l i t y and n e g a t i v i t y by many of t h e i r t e a c h e r s . The i n v e s t i g a t o r argued t h a t most teachers t r e a t e d these c h i l d r e n i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y , and i f they were not h o s t i l e or a p a t h e t i c , they would be p a t r o n i z i n g or p i t y i n g these s t u d e n t s . A l s o , i n the s i t u a t i o n s where teachers h e l d f a v o u r a b l e a t t i t u d e s towards Indian and Eskimo students, REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 42 they u s u a l l y h e l d low e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r performance and academic achievement. Although t h i s study p o i n t e d out some s e r i o u s problems in how Indian and Eskimo students are t r e a t e d i n Alaskan high s c h o o l s , the o b s e r v a t i o n s were s u b j e c t i v e and anecdotal and not e m p i r i c a l l y d e r i v e d . In a study by Jackson and Cosca (1974) teac h e r s were found to p r a i s e and encourage the comments of White students at a s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher r a t e than they d i d to Mexican-American students. The sample i n c l u d e d 52 southern American s t a t e s c h o o l s , randomly s e l e c t e d from a pool of 430 e l i g i b l e s c h o o l s . The only s c h o o l s not i n c l u d e d in the sample were those with s p e c i a l education programs, that had l e s s than two c l a s s e s per grade l e v e l and those that were being i n v e s t i g a t e d f o r a l l e g e d c i v i l r i g h t s v i o l a t i o n s . The data c o l l e c t i o n c o n s i s t e d of having f i v e t r a i n e d observers v i s i t i n g each c l a s s f o r 45 minutes and coding v e r b a l classroom behavior using the F l a n d e r s I n t e r a c t i o n A n a l y s i s System ( R e l i a b i l i t y = . 8 5 ) . T h i s coding procedure was designed to measure seven c a t e g o r i e s of teacher behavior ranging from p r a i s e to c r i t i c i s m , and three student b e h a v i o r s ; response t a l k , i n i t i a t e d t a l k , and s i l e n c e / c o n f u s i o n . The coding system was m o d i f i e d so as to d i s t i n q u i s h among behaviors a s s o c i a t e d with i n d i v i d u a l students from d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 43 backgrounds. In a d d i t i o n , demographic and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n was recorded f o r each s c h o o l , classroom, and teacher, and c o r r e l a t e d with the o b s e r v a t i o n a l d ata. T - t e s t comparisons were conducted to measure whether or not Mexican-American and Anglo students were e q u a l l y represented i n each category of i n t e r a c t i o n . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t hat on s i x of the twelve measures of i n t e r a c t i o n , s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were observed between the two e t h n i c groups of c h i l d r e n . Teachers were found to p r a i s e and encourage the Anglo students 35% more than they d i d the Chicanos. They a l s o used Anglo ideas 40% more o f t e n and d i r e c t e d 21% more q u e s t i o n s to Anglo than Chicano students. The classroom data a l s o r e v e a l e d that the average school achievement of Chicanos was s i g n i f i c a n t l y below that of Anglos i n a l l three American s t a t e s . A l s o , 40% of Chicanos, as compared with 15% of Anglos would, e i t h e r f a i l to graduate or would drop out of h i g h s c h o o l . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s concluded that the l a c k of p r a i s e or encouragment by teachers may w e l l have accounted f o r some of the poor academic achievement of Chicano s t u d e n t s . In a d d i t i o n , other f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d i n the study that may have c o n t r i b u t e d to the poor academic achievement and performance of Chicanos were: (1) lack of a p p r o p r i a t e school programs. (2) the tendency f o r teachers to respond REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 44 d i f f e r e n t l y to the same behaviors by students of d i f f e r e n t race, SES, or academic a b i l i t y and (3) inadequate teacher t r a i n i n g programs, that were not p r o v i d i n g course work and practicum experiences designed to prepare teachers i n s t r u c t i n g these c h i l d r e n . 3. Canadian Studies Most of the s t u d i e s reviewed t h i s f a r , have been conducted with American samples i n the United S t a t e s . Many of these s t u d i e s have demonstrated that teachers' e x p e c t a t i o n s can be i n f l u e n c e d by r a c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e i r students (Rubovits and Maehr, 1973; Jackson and Cosca, 1974; P r i e t o and Zucker, 1981). Many of the c o n c l u s i o n s drawn from s t u d i e s i n American schools are a p p l i c a b l e to Canadian s c h o o l s , as there are many s i m i l a r i t i e s shared between both c u l t u r e s . However, there are a l s o some d i f f e r e n c e s that need to be noted. For example, C l i f t o n (1982) argues that American based res e a r c h has focused upon r a c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s , while Canadian based res e a r c h has focused upon e t h n i c d i f f e r e n c e s . Moreover, Canada has h e l d d i f f e r e n t h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s which have g e n e r a l l y been more su p p o r t i v e of m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m . For example, i n 1971 the Canadian Government passed a p o l i c y of m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m ( w i t h i n a b i l i n g u a l framework) with the purpose of a s s i s t i n g members from v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 45 groups i n m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e and guaranteeing a l l Canadians that e t h n i c i t y would not be a c r i t e r i a i n determining the b e n e f i t s they would r e c e i v e . Equal treatment of a l l e t h n i c groups was f u r t h e r entrenched i n the 1980 Canadian Charter Of Human R i g h t s . However, i n s p i t e of such government l e g i s l a t i o n , there remains much concern that school c h i l d r e n from v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups are not t r e a t e d e q u a l l y when compared to n o n - v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n ( C l i f t o n , et a l . 1982). The d i s c r i m i n a t i o n these c h i l d r e n are e x p e r i e n c i n g i n the schools may be a gr e a t e r problem than many educators would expect. For example, Vancouver's School Board Racism Committee Coordinator (Edwin May, B.C.T.F. Newsletter, 1984) p o i n t s out that a recent F e d e r a l Government r e p o r t , ( " E q u a l i t y Now", the re p o r t of the Commons Committee on V i s i b l e m i n o r i t i e s i n Canadian s o c i e t y , 1984) c h a l l e n g e s educators to meet the needs of t h i s m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y or r i s k being swept a s i d e as i r r e l e v a n t . May e x p l a i n s that i n r e s e a r c h i n g t h i s r e p o r t the i n v e s t i g a t o r s (an a l l - p a r t y p a r l i a m e n t a r y committee) conducted p u b l i c hearings a c r o s s Canada and l i s t e n e d to hundreds of b r i e f s . The committee concluded that v i s i b l e m i n o r i t i e s are b e t t e r d e s c r i b e d as the i n v i s i b l e members of s o c i e t y . The r e p o r t a l s o accuses the p u b l i c school system of f a i l i n g to provide equal e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r non-white Canadians. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 46 The report concludes that the few i n d i v i d u a l teachers can no longer be expected to s i n g l e - h a n d e d l y combat d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n the s c h o o l s . Furthermore, i t warns that d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s on the r i s e i n Canada and that t h i s c o u l d l e a d to f r u s t r a t e d e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups s t a r t i n g t h e i r own school systems. Johnstone (1981) a l s o expressed concern in t h i s a r ea. He s t a t e d , i n the p r e f a c e to the H a l i f a x School Board's r e p o r t on " I n t e g r a t i o n and the teacher", H i s t o r i c a l l y , the p u b l i c schools have perpetuated, c o n s c i o u s l y or u n c o n s c i o u s l y , the e t h n o c e n t r i c s o c i e t a l a t t i t u d e s of the dominant s e c t o r towards other e t h n i c c u l t u r a l groups. Educators are now beginning to r e c o g n i z e , however, that unless the s c h o o l s p l a y a l e a d i n g and d e c i s i v e r o l e i n working towards r a c i a l harmony, p r o v i d i n g a v e h i c l e f o r the t r a n s f e r of understanding, respect and t o l e r a n c e , and m i n i m i z i n g p o l a r i z a t i o n , our s o c i e t y w i l l almost c e r t a i n l y face a c h a l l e n g e with which i t might w e l l not be able to cope. (p. 1) To compound matters there i s a c r i t i c a l shortage of Canadian s t u d i e s that have examined teacher b i a s i n e d u c a t i o n . In f a c t , C l i f t o n (1982) argues, that there have only been two Canadian s t u d i e s which have i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t s of e t h n i c i t y upon t e a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s . In both cases these s t u d i e s were conducted by C l i f t o n h i m s e l f , i n REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 47 1981. (These two s t u d i e s demonstrated that teachers expected b e t t e r performances from E n g l i s h and Y i d d i s h speaking students than from French speaking s t u d e n t s ) . In s p i t e of the shortage of s t u d i e s examining teachers' e x p e c t a t i o n s a c r o s s v a r i o u s e t h n i c groups i n Canadian s c h o o l s , there has been a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of Canadian based l i t e r a t u r e examining e t h n i c r e l a t i o n s and m u l t i c u l t u r a i i s m (Roe, 1982; Mackie, 1974; Gardner & K a l i n , 1981; Berry, K a l i n and T a y l o r , 1977; P o r t e r , 1965). For example, i n P o r t e r ' s (1965) book, the " V e r t i c a l Mosaic", the c l a s s s t r u c t u r e and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the e l i t e i n Canada, were examined. His d i s t u r b i n g study r e v e a l e d that some people are more equal than others and that our s o c i e t y has f a i l e d to achieve p l u r a l i s m on the b a s i s of m e r i t . Thus, many people r e g a r d l e s s of a b i l i t y and performance may w e l l be l i m i t e d i n the economic, academic and s o c i e t a l m o b i l i t y and success they c o u l d r e a l i z e because of t h e i r e t h n i c i t y . In a d d i t i o n , P o r t e r d e s c r i b e s the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e i n Canada as a " V e r t i c a l Mosaic" in which the e d u c a t i o n a l system p l a y s an a c t i v e r o l e i n a l l o c a t i n g people to v a r i o u s s o c i a l p o s i t i o n s depending on t h e i r e t h n i c i t y . Another important Canadian study (Berry et a l . , 1977) examined the views of Canadians on e t h n i c d i v e r s i t y . During 1974, a random sample of over 1800 a d u l t s a c r o s s Canada were REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 48 inte r v i e w e d regarding t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards; v a r i o u s e t h n i c groups, c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y , immigration, p r e j u d i c e and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . (The s u b j e c t s responses were recorded on a seven-point L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e ) . As the study was very l a r g e and d e t a i l e d only a few of the r e s u l t s are h i g h l i g h t e d . They ar e : (1) the mean score of the sample i n d i c a t e d a tendency towards t o l e r a n c e on ethnocentrism and other items regarding e t h n i c a t t i t u d e s . (2) a t t i t u d e s towards m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m were g e n e r a l l y noted to be p o s i t i v e . A l s o , most respondents i n d i c a t e d they were more i n favour of r e t a i n i n g c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y than a s s i m i l a t i o n or s e g r e g a t i o n . However, almost 20% of the respondents i n d i c a t e d they were a g a i n s t the m u l t i c u l t u r a l i d eology and there were some members of m i n o r i t y groups who expressed o v e r t l y r a c i s t views. (3) the data r e p o r t e d from the Per c e i v e d E t h n i c H i e r a r c h y S c a l e r e v e a l e d that most respondents c l e a r l y p r e f e r e d some e t h n i c groups over o t h e r s . For example, Canadian Indians, B l a c k s , and East Indians r e c e i v e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower r a t i n g s than European e t h n i c groups and (4) there was a tendency to d i s c r i m i n a t e a g a i n s t people with f o r e i g n a c c e n t s , or those who d i d not have a good command of the E n g l i s h language. In a follow-up study ( K a l i n , 1979) to the n a t i o n a l study p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d , the i n v e s t i g a t o r examined the a t t i t u d e s of school c h i l d r e n , i n an attempt to compare t h e i r REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 49 responses with those of a d u l t s on the n a t i o n a l survey. The s u b j e c t s were 453 students from Grades F i v e to T h i r t e e n e n r o l l e d i n p u b l i c and p r i v a t e schools in Thunder Bay, Ontar i o . The a t t i t u d e s of the c h i l d r e n were found to p a r a l l e l those of the a d u l t s i n the n a t i o n a l survey. C h i l d r e n were found to be more p o s i t i v e towards m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m and l e s s e t h n o c e n t r i c , but b e l i e v e d the consequences of immigration to be more negative than the a d u l t respondents. In a d d i t i o n , ethnocentrism was found to decrease p r o g r e s s i v e l y as the grade l e v e l of the students i n c r e a s e d . S t u d i e s such as the above suggest that Canadians are g e n e r a l l y e t h n i c a l l y t o l e r a n t , and b e l i e v e i n the ideology of m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m . However, the r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d in other Canadian based rese a r c h has c o n t r a d i c t e d the f i n d i n g s of some of these s t u d i e s . For example, F r i d e r e s (1975) conducted a study on the a t t i t u d e s of Western Canadian u n i v e r s i t y students on e t h n i c r e l a t i o n s . The i n v e s t i g a t o r r e p o r t e d that the s u b j e c t s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d they were p r e j u d i c e d a g a i n s t both Native Indians and French Canadians. In another study, Mackie (1974) examined the a t t i t u d e s of 290 a d u l t s i n Edmonton, A l b e r t a , towards 24 e t h n i c groups. The s u b j e c t s were ad m i n i s t e r e d a q u e s t i o n n a i r e REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 50 (Bogardus S o c i a l D i s t a n c e S c a l e ) , designed by Bogardus (1958) which measured p r e j u d i c e . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that the respondents f e l t the g r e a t e s t s o c i a l d i s t a n c e f o r Metis and H u t t e r i t e s as w e l l as Native and East Indians. In a d d i t i o n , the r e s u l t s r e v e a l e d that the more h i g h l y educated the s u b j e c t s were, the more l i k e l y they were to s t e r e o t y p e e t h n i c groups. However, the sample d i d not i n c l u d e t e a c h e r s . In a s e r i e s of i n t e r n a l government r e p o r t s submitted to M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m M i n i s t e r James Fleming (Hume, 1983), v i o l e n c e d i r e c t e d towards r a c i a l m i n o r i t i e s was c o n s i d e r e d to be i n c r e a s i n g and a p e r s i s t e n t n a t i o n a l problem. During 1982 data were c o l l e c t e d from r e s e a r c h e r s based i n eleven of Canada's major c i t i e s . The r e p o r t concluded that racism i s a p e r v a s i v e and s i n i s t e r f a c t of l i f e f o r m i l l i o n s of non-white Canadians. The r e s e a r c h e r s c i t e d such examples as "Paki-bashing" i n B.C., black/white gang f i g h t s i n Quebec schoolyards and deeply i n g r a i n e d p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t Native Indians l i v i n g i n the P r a i r i e s . Based on t h i s and other r e p o r t s M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m M i n i s t e r James Fleming, t o l d the press ("Hard Times," 1983) that surveys r e c e i v e d by h i s m i n i s t r y i n d i c a t e d that approximately e i g h t to eleven per cent of Canadians are "rock hard b i g o t s . " Fleming f u r t h e r s t a t e d that r a c i a l REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 51 i n t o l e r a n c e was i n c r e a s i n g because of "hard economic times." He s t a t e d that human r i g h t s a c t i v i s t s have maintained that many white people are blaming v i s i b l e r a c i a l m i n o r i t i e s f o r t a k i n g away t h e i r jobs. He a l s o c i t e d the example of a school teacher (Jim Keegstra) from E c k v i l l e , A l b e r t a , who was f i r e d f o r t e a c h i n g a n t i - s e m i t i s m to h i s students, as a "shocking" example of b i g o t e d sentiment. T h i s teacher was charged under the Canadian C r i m i n a l Code of w i l l f u l l y s preading hatred a g a i n s t an i d e n t i f i a b l e m i n o r i t y group. The case r e c e i v e d much p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n as students of the former grade 12 S o c i a l ' s teacher claimed that he f r e q u e n t l y taught a n t i - s e m i t i s m d u r i n g c l a s s l e c t u r e s ("Keegstra P r a i s e d H i t l e r " , 1984). He was c o n v i c t e d the f o l l o w i n g year (June, 1985) by a p r o v i n c i a l c o u r t i n A l b e r t a and f i n e d $5000.00. Undoubtedly Canada s t i l l has a long way to go i n promoting m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m and ensuring e q u a l i t y among a l l Canadians r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r e t h n i c o r i g i n . In a d d i t i o n , there remains a great need f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h on e t h n i c r e l a t i o n s i n Canada and p a r t i c u l a r l y , on the treatment of v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n i n the e d u c a t i o n a l system. Some of the Canadian experimental s t u d i e s that p e r t a i n d i r e c t l y to teacher d i s c r i m i n a t i o n towards students from v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups i s reviewed i n the next REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 52 s e c t i o n . In a recent study C l i f t o n , McDonald and D o r o t i c h (1981) examined the e f f e c t s of p e r c e i v e d students' e t h n i c i t y and sex upon the e x p e c t a t i o n s of student t e a c h e r s . The s u b j e c t s c o n s i s t e d of 655 student teachers randomly s e l e c t e d from three u n i v e r s i t i e s i n three d i f f e r e n t p r o v i n c e s (Newfoundland, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan). Twenty-six percent of the sample were males and 74% females. The s u b j e c t s were requested to e v a l u a t e two short s t o r i e s which were a s c r i b e d to e t h n i c a l l y d i s s i m i l i a r c h i l d r e n . The two s t o r i e s were i d e n t i c a l i n every q u e s t i o n n a i r e except f o r the name of the student which was c l e a r l y l i s t e d at the beginning of the s t o r y . The names of the students were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of E n g l i s h , French, Canadian Indian, and U k r a i n i a n e t h n i c groups. The s t o r i e s i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were presented as being w r i t t e n by e i t h e r a male or female student from one of the four e t h n i c groups. The student authors were i d e n t i f i e d , at the beginning of the s t o r y , by such t y p i c a l e t h n i c names as: Joseph or Lucy Walking Bear, (Canadian I n d i a n ) ; Edward or E d i t h Blake, ( E n g l i s h ) ; Marcel or Paula F o r n i e r , (French); and Orest or Olga Starchuk, ( U k r a i n i a n ) . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s t a t e d that e a r l i e r s t u d i e s ( G o l d s t e i n , 1978; Mackie, 1974) had demonstrated that members of e t h n i c groups as i n d i c a t e d by t h e i r names are a l l o t e d d i f f e r e n t degrees of p r e s t i g e i n Canadian s o c i e t y REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 53 and have experienced p r e j u d i c e and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Thus, i t was hypothesized that E n g l i s h names p r i n t e d above the s t o r i e s would r e s u l t i n more p o s i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n by student teachers, than other e t h n i c names p r i n t e d above the s t o r i e s . In a d d i t i o n , i t was hypothesized that the s t o r i e s with Indian names, would r e c e i v e the l e a s t p o s i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n s , because they have been rated lowest on p r e s t i g e s c a l e s and are h i g h l y d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t i n Canadian s o c i e t y (Berry et a l . 1977; Mackie, 1974). The two s t o r i e s used in the experiment were w r i t t e n by f i f t h grade students and s e l e c t e d from a l a r g e r pool of s t o r i e s because they d i f f e r e d i n content and s t y l e and c o n s i d e r e d above average i n compo.sition. A f t e r reading the s t o r y the s u b j e c t s were requested to p r i n t the student's name and the name of the s t o r y on an e v a l u a t i o n form. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that there were no s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s f o r e t h n i c i t y or gender of the student, i n the s u b j e c t ' s e v a l u a t i o n s of these s t o r i e s . Some s p e c i f i c c r i t i c i s m s of t h i s study a r e : (1) the two s t o r i e s used i n the study were very short (about a 100 words) and o b v i o u s l y w e l l w r i t t e n . Perhaps i f the s t o r i e s were of poorer q u a l i t y or not so w e l l w r i t t e n , s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s f o r e t h n i c i t y may have been observed and (2) simply REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 54 usi n g e t h n i c names does not n e c e s s a r i l y r e s u l t i n the s u b j e c t s b e l i e v i n g that the c h i l d who wrote the s t o r y was of the c u l t u r e the name would t y p i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t . A l s o , i t i s p o s s i b l e the s u b j e c t s d i d not even c o n s i d e r the e t h n i c i t y of the c h i l d , even when they recorded the c h i l d ' s name on t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n forms. In a l a t e r study, C l i f t o n , P e rry, Parsonson, and Hryniuk (1982) examined p r e j u d i c e behavior among j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . The s u b j e c t s were 502 Grade Seven to Nine students from a l a r g e school d i s t r i c t i n Winnipeg. Two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were used i n the study. One was ad m i n i s t e r e d to teachers and the other to t h e i r s tudents. The te a c h e r s q u e s t i o n n a i r e was designed to measure t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r t h e i r home-room stude n t s . The students' q u e s t i o n n a i r e requested i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e i r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a b i l t i t i e s , a t t i t u d e s and s o c i a l and academic achievement. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e a l s o i n c l u d e d ; The Bogardus S o c i a l Distance S c a l e , The Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l S c a l e , and Raven's P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s . These measures were i n c l u d e d to eval u a t e students' a t t i t u d e s towards t h e i r own and other e t h n i c groups. The measures were designed to eva l u a t e these a t t i t u d e s as being e i t h e r ; e t h n o c e n t r i c , m u l t i c u l t u r a l , n i h i l i s t i c , or s e l f d e p r e c i a t i v e . M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m was d e f i n e d as the p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e that an eth n i c group had fo r t h e i r own and other e t h n i c groups. Ethnocentrism was REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 55 d e s c r i b e d as the p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s a group he l d f o r themselves, but negative a t t i t u d e s towards other groups. N i h i l i s m was descibed as a t t i t u d e s i n which ones own group as w e l l as other groups are p e r c e i v e d n e g a t i v e l y . F i n a l l y , s e l f d e p r e c i a t i o n was d e s c r i b e d as a t t i t u d e s i n which a group devalues i t s own eth n i c i d e n t i t y , but r a t e s other e t h n i c groups more p o s i t i v e l y . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t : the highest c o r r e l a t i o n s were g e n e r a l l y the r a t i n g s each e t h n i c group h e l d f o r i t s e l f , B r i t i s h and French g e n e r a l l y r e c e i v e d the next hi g h e s t r a t i n g s , Canadian Indians r e c e i v e d the lowest and most negative r a t i n g s and there was no evidence suggesting any of the e t h n i c groups h e l d n i h i l i s t i c or s e l f d e p r e c i a t i v e a t t i t u d e s . The i n v e s t i g a t o r concluded that ethnocentrism or m u l t i c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s vary with the t a r g e t group being evaluated and that e t h n o c e n t r i c a t t i t u d e s tended to be a p p l i e d to Canadian Indians and F i l i p i n o s . In a d d i t i o n , the authors noted, that p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s g e n e r a l l y decrease, rather than i n c r e a s e with age i n s c h o o l . The r e s u l t s of t h i s study are p a r t i c u l a r i l y d i s t u r b i n g , i n that they suggest that todays' Canadian e d u c a t i o n a l system has not been very e f f e c t i v e towards promoting mult i c u l t u r a l ism. Within the same study d e s c r i b e d above, C l i f t o n et a l . REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 56 (1982) examined e t h n i c i t y and sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n t e a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s of j u n i o r high school students. However, u n l i k e the previous study, t h i s study focused on the r e s u l t s of the t e a c h e r s ' q u e s t i o n n a i r e and compared t h i s with the r e s u l t s observed i n the students' q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The t e a c h e r s ' q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t e d of f i v e items designed to measure e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r each student on both normative and c o g n i t i v e dimensions of classroom behavior. Normative e x p e c t a t i o n s p e r t a i n to the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s and performances of students whereas c o g n i t i v e e x p e c t a t i o n s p e r t a i n to t h e i r academic performances and a b i l i t i e s . These two dimensions were d e s c r i b e d as the two major types of e x p e c t a t i o n s w i t h i n the "teacher expectancy framework." The sample in t h i s study c o n s i s t e d of the s i x most common student e t h n i c groups from a school i n Winnipeg. (The author of t h i s r e s e a r c h s t a t e d that Winnipeg i s one of the most e t h n i c a l l y d i v e r s e c i t i e s i n Canada). The s i x e t h n i c groups s e l e c t e d were; B r i t i s h , (n=78), F i l i p i n o , • ( n = 4 9 ) , Canadian Indian, (n=38), French, (n=45), German, (n=75), and Portuguese, (n=74). The t o t a l number of s u b j e c t s s e l e c t e d f o r the study was 359. Twenty-one teachers agreed to v o l u n t e e r f o r the study, r e p r e s e n t i n g 308 of the 359 students sampled. The normative e x p e c t a t i o n s were measured by q u e s t i o n s regarding each student's c o o p e r a t i o n , i n d u s t r y , and r e l i a b i l i t y (over a three year p e r i o d ) . C o g n i t i v e REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 57 e x p e c t a t i o n s were measured by q u e s t i o n s regarding the l i k e l i h o o d that each student would complete grade twelve E n g l i s h and mathematics. The items were eva l u a t e d u s i n g a f i v e - p o i n t L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e with responses ranging from, much below to much above average. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the e t h n i c i t y and gender main e f f e c t s were s i g n i f i c a n t f o r both teachers' normative and c o g n i t i v e e x p e c t a t i o n s . But, n e i t h e r of the i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s were found to be s i g n i f i c a n t . The teachers r a t e d the F i l i p i n o female students as having the highest normative e x p e c t a t i o n s and the Portuguese female students as having the lowest e x p e c t a t i o n s . For the male students, F i l i p i n o s were r a t e d highest and the Canadian Indian lowest. A d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n was observed f o r the c o g n i t i v e e x p e c t a t i o n s . In t h i s case, the teacher r a t e d the German female students h i g h e s t and the Portuguese females lowest. For the male students, F i l i p i n o males had the hi g h e s t r a t i n g s , and Canadian Indians lowest. In a d d i t i o n , the female students w i t h i n each e t h n i c group r e c e i v e d higher r a t i n g s than male students i n the same e t h n i c group. C l i f t o n concluded that teachers' e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r t h e i r students were a f f e c t e d by such f a c t o r s as t h e i r students' e t h n i c i t y and gender. T h i s b i a s i s s t i l l e vident even when i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y , academic performance and the students' REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 58 e x p e c t a t i o n s were h e l d c o n s t a n t . Furthermore, t e a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s of t h e i r students were found to be h i g h l y c o n s i s t e n t across v a r i o u s s o c i a l and academic norms of ed u c a t i o n . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s a l s o suggested that e t h n i c i t y and gender may have even gre a t e r e f f e c t s on tea c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s than t h i s study r e v e a l e d . Because, many of the teache r s who refused to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study, may have done so, because of the b i a s they knew they h e l d f o r some of t h e i r own students. In a d d i t i o n , many of the teachers may have been aware of the "pygmalion e f f e c t " and may not have recorded t h e i r true f e e l i n g s . The authors a l s o argued that by the time students have reached j u n i o r high s c h o o l , they may have been shaped by teachers' e x p e c t a t i o n s over the ye a r s . If the s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g prophecy i s a c t i v e , these students may have been working at l e v e l s c o n s i s t e n t with t e a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s and not t h e i r true p o t e n t i a l . T h e r e f o r e , i t may appear teachers are r e a c t i n g to academic or performance f a c t o r s , when i n f a c t , they have had t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s i n f l u e c e d by the e t h n i c i t y of some of t h e i r students over a p e r i o d of ye a r s . In summary, t h i s s e c t i o n has reviewed s t u d i e s examining teacher b i a s towards students from v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups i n the r e g u l a r classroom s e t t i n g . Most of the re s e a r c h reviewed was conducted i n the United S t a t e s . Two s t u d i e s reviewed were conducted o u t s i d e of North America REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 59 ( I s r e a l and New Zealand) and the few Canadian s t u d i e s conducted, were a l s o d i s c u s s e d . C o l l e c t i v e l y these s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t students from some v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups are at g r e a t e r r i s k of being t r e a t e d u n f a i r l y or i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y , by t e a c h e r s . The s t u d i e s conducted o u t s i d e of North America suggested that many teachers h o l d negative p e r c e p t i o n s and st e r e o t y p e students from v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups. The m a j o r i t y of the American s t u d i e s p r o v i d e d evidence to suggest that Black and Mexican-American students are more l i k e l y to be d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t than White stu d e n t s . For example, v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n were r a t e d as being more negative i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e towards school and school work, more l i k e l y to demonstrate negative or i n a p p r o p r i a t e behavior, more l i k e l y to be f u r t h e r behind i n t h e i r school work and to r e c e i v e poorer grades or f a i l than White students. The few Canadian s t u d i e s cannot be c o n s i d e r e d c o n c l u s i v e , but are i n d i c a t i v e of e t h n i c d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n Canadian s c h o o l s . The next s e c t i o n of t h i s paper reviews v a r i o u s s t u d i e s t h a t have examined teacher b i a s towards students from v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups i n the s p e c i a l education s e t t i n g . REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 60 TEACHER B I A S IN THE S P E C I A L EDUCATION SETTING A m e r i c a n S t u d i e s The problem of r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s not c o n f i n e d to the r e g u l a r classroom. Rather, many s t u d i e s have demonstrated that r a c i a l b i a s may w e l l be a f a c t o r in the r e f e r r a l and placement of students i n s p e c i a l education (Prieto«& Zucker, 1981; Richmond & Waits, 1978; Burke, 1975; Chinn, 1979). A study conducted by Burke (1975) p r o v i d e d evidence that v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n were s i g n i f i c a n t l y o v e r r e p r e s e n t e d i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . The i n v e s t i g a t o r compared the number of Black and White c h i l d r e n in c l a s s e s f o r EMR versus the number of Black and White c h i l d r e n i n c l a s s e s f o r LD. The sample c o n s i s t e d of a l l the EMR and LD i n a combined elementary and high school i n a northern c i t y i n I l l i n o i s . Approximately, 10,600 of the c i t i e s p o p u l a t i o n of 81,000 were B l a c k s . The m a j o r i t y of the c i t i e s ' p o p u l a t i o n were p r i m a r i l y Northern European. The s u b j e c t s examined i n the study i n c l u d e d 107 EMR students and 73 LD students. Placement data c o n s i s t e d of the r e s u l t s on the WISC and/or the Whechsler Adult I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e . Some a d d i t i o n a l t e s t s were a l s o given to those considered LD. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 61 A c h i square a n a l y s i s was used i n comparing the numbers of Black and White school c h i l d r e n p l a c e d i n LD and EMR c l a s s e s , with the Black and White c h i l d r e n who l i v e d i n the c i t y . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that s i g n i f i c a n t l y more Black c h i l d r e n were observed i n the EMR c l a s s e s , than White c h i l d r e n and s i g i f i c a n t l y more White c h i l d r e n were observed i n the LD c l a s s e s , than Black c h i l d r e n . Although the study d i d not pr o v i d e any evidence as to why d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e numbers of Black and White students were r e f e r r e d t o EMR and LD c l a s s s e s , i t appears the students e t h n i c i t y was a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r . In another study (Richmond & Waits, 1978) the i n v e s t i g a t o r s examined teacher r e f e r r a l s of students to s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s examined the types of student problems teachers were most l i k e l y to r e f e r to s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . The sample c o n s i s t e d of a l l p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e f e r r a l s of elementary students d u r i n g one academic year i n a Southern U.S. school d i s t r i c t of about 11,000 s t u d e n t s . The s u b j e c t s s e l e c t e d were 335 c h i l d r e n p r i m a r i l y from an urban background. The SES l e v e l s of the s u b j e c t s were s i m i l i a r to the SES l e v e l s of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of students i n the school d i s t r i c t (the m a j o r i t y being REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 62 middle SES). Within the school p o p u l a t i o n 60% of the students were White and 40% Black. Each of the students r e f e r r e d for s p e c i a l education were admi n i s t e r e d a b a t t e r y of t e s t s to measure; IQ, (Slosson I n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t ) , academic achievement (Peabody I n d i v i d u a l Achievement T e s t ) , and b e h a v i o r a l problems, (Walker Problem B e h a v i o r a l C h e c k l i s t ) . In a d d i t i o n , demographic data such as gender, grade, age, and race were noted. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t male and female Black students were r e f e r r e d more than expected, White females were r e f e r r e d l e s s than expected, but the expected number of White males were r e f e r r e d . A n a l y s i s of the data on the IQ l e v e l i n d i c a t e d that s i g n i f i c a n t l y more students than expected were r e f e r r e d from the slow l e a r n e r category and l e s s students than expected were r e f e r r e d from the average and above average c a t e g o r i e s . The expected number of students were r e f e r r e d from g i f t e d and EMR groups. A n a l y s i s of the b e h a v i o r a l data i n d i c a t e d that there was a higher number of Black students r e f e r r e d as having behavior problems than White students. The i n v e s t i g a t o r s concluded that a c h i l d ' s race and gender are concomitant with a disadvantaged s t a t u s i n the school system. Furthermore, r e g u l a r classroom REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 63 t e a c h e r s continue to experience d i f f i c u l t y i n coping with Black students, e s p e c i a l l y males. As a r e s u l t , r e g u l a r teachers are more l i k e l y to r e f e r these c h i l d r e n to s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s a l s o suggest t h a t educators and p s y c h o l o g i s t s s t i l l do not understand why these students are e d u c a t i o n a l l y disadvantaged and how such a disadvantage can be e l i m i n a t e d . In a study conducted by Zucker and P r i e t o (1977) the e f f e c t s of race and gender on teachers' d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g s p e c i a l education placement were examined. The s u b j e c t s c o n s i s t e d of 280 s p e c i a l education teachers randomly s e l e c t e d from a p o p u l a t i o n of 361 s p e c i a l e ducation teachers e n r o l l e d i n a graduate c l a s s i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . The s u b j e c t s were given a f i c t i t i o u s case study d e s c r i b i n g an e i g h t year o l d c h i l d f u n c t i o n i n g approximately one year below grade l e v e l . The data p r o v i d e d i n the case study were designed so as not to provide any c o n c l u s i v e evidence that would j u s t i f y r e f e r r i n g a c h i l d to a s p e c i a l education c l a s s . The s u b j e c t s were than requested to respond to a q u e s t i o n , on a cover sheet, r e g a r d i n g how a p p r o p r i a t e they b e l i e v e d i t would be, to r e f e r the c h i l d to a s p e c i a l education c l a s s f o r EMR. A L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e with responses ranging from d i s a g r e e very s t r o n g l y , to agree very s t r o n g l y was used to record the s u b j e c t s REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 64 responses. The s u b j e c t s were randomly d i v i d e d i n t o one of four groups. Each group r e c e i v e d i d e n t i c a l case s t u d i e s except t h a t ; the case study i n group one d e s c r i b e d a White male, group two a White female, group three a Mexican-American male, and group four a Mexican-American female. A n a l y s i s of the data i n d i c a t e d that s i g n i f i c a n t l y more teachers r a t e d s p e c i a l c l a s s placement more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r Mexican-American c h i l d r e n than f o r White c h i l d r e n . In a d d i t i o n , n e i t h e r the main e f f e c t f o r gender nor the race times gender i n t e r a c t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t . Thus, s p e c i a l c l a s s placement was deemed more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r Mexican-American c h i l d r e n than f o r White c h i l d r e n . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s conducted a s i m i l i a r study (Zucker, P r i e t o , and R u t h e r f o r d , 1979) except that the su b j e c t s c o n s i s t e d of a randomly s e l e c t e d sample of 60 grade two and three r e g u l a r classroom teachers from an Arizona urban school d i s t r i c t . The r e s u l t s observed i n t h i s study, were s i m i l i a r t o the r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d i n the p r e v i o u s study. However, the r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d i n t h i s study were more d i s t u r b i n g i n that r e g u l a r classroom teachers are normally r e s p o n s i b l e REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 65 f o r r e f e r r i n g c h i l d r e n to s p e c i a l e ducation. Thus, these r e s u l t s may have s e r i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the r e f e r r a l p r ocess. Because, e t h n i c a l l y d i s s i m i l i a r s chool c h i l d r e n may be at a d i s t i n c t disadvantage in that they are more l i k e l y to be uprooted from the r e g u l a r classroom than White c h i l d r e n . Observing the apparent b i a s demonstrated i n the p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , the i n v e s t i g a t o r s conducted a more recent study ( P r i e t o and Zucker, 1981). T h i s study examined i f s p e c i a l e ducation teachers would r e a c t d i f f e r e n t l y to i d e n t i c a l case h i s t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n depending upon the race of the c h i l d . The authors noted that examining the judgement of s p e c i a l education teachers r e g a r d i n g placement f o r e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n was e s p e c i a l l y i n t r i g u i n g , s i n c e the c r i t e r i a f o r placement of ED i s even more s u b j e c t i v e than the c r i t e r i a f o r placement of EMR c h i l d r e n . A sample of 119 randomly s e l e c t e d s p e c i a l education graduate students, were given a f i c t i t i o u s case study of an e i g h t year o l d m i l d l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d . The c h i l d was d e s c r i b e d as having a number of minor d i f f i c u l t i e s , but nothing s e r i o u s enough to j u s t i f y placement i n a s p e c i a l c l a s s f o r the ED. The s u b j e c t s were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The case s t u d i e s were i d e n t i c a l REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 66 except that i n group one the c h i l d i n the case study was d e p i c t e d as a Mexican-American student, while the c h i l d in group two was d e p i c t e d as White. (The s u b j e c t s were informed that the purpose of the study was to c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n regarding teachers' judgements about student performance). A response sheet i n c l u d e d with the case study, contained the f o l l o w i n g statement, "Placement i n a s p e c i a l c l a s s f o r e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d students would be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h i s c h i l d . " The s u b j e c t s were than asked to rate on a seven-point s c a l e , the degree they agreed or d i s a g r e e d with the statement. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that there was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e betweeen groups and that s p e c i a l education teachers considered placement i n a c l a s s f o r ED more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r Mexican-American students than White stu d e n t s . In a study conducted by Matuszek and Oakland (1979) v a r i o u s f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t e a c h e r s ' and s c h o o l p s y c h o l o g i s t s ' recommendations regarding s p e c i a l c l a s s placement were examined. The s u b j e c t s c o n s i s t e d of 76 r e g u l a r elementary t e a c h e r s and 53 p s y c h o l o g i s t s from southern U n i t e d S t a t e s urban school d i s t r i c t s . The s u b j e c t s were given REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 67 s e v e r a l case s c r i p t s d e s c r i b i n g an e i g h t - y e a r - o l d boy of normal h e a l t h . The f a c t o r s that v a r i e d i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of the boy were: e t h n i c i t y (Black or Anglo); SES (high or low); IQ (average, slow, r e t a r d e d ) ; achievement t e s t scores (grade l e v e l , below grade l e v e l ) ; classroom achievement (passing, f a i l i n g ) ; s e l f - c o n c e p t (no problems, some problems, many problems); a n x i e t y at home or school (does not e x h i b i t a n x i e t y , does e x h i b i t a n x i e t y ) ; classroom management (not d i f f i c u l t to manage, sometimes d i f f i c u l t , u s u a l l y d i f f i c u l t ) ; language p r e f e r e n c e of c h i l d (standard E n g l i s h , non-standard E n g l i s h ) ; home school values ( c o n s i s t e n t , d i s c r e p a n t ) ; a d a p t i v e behavior ( c o n s i s t e n t with age, not c o n s i s t e n t with age); and i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s (good, f a i r , p o o r ) . Three content v a l i d i t y procedures were c a r r i e d out on these above d e s c r i p t i o n s using 10 teachers and 10 p s y c h o l o g i s t s i n a p i l o t study. Thus, a high degree of r e l i a b i l i t y was e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the use of the above f a c t o r s i n the present study. One hundred and s i x case s t u d i e s were prepared which d e s c r i b e d students i n terms of the above c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Within each p a i r of f a c t o r s a l l combinations of l e v e l s were a s s i g n e d . T h i s enabled the i n v e s t i g a t o r s to examine the i n f l u e n c e of each v a r i a b l e independently. Thus, s u b j e c t s were a s s i g n e d s p e c i f i c REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 68 case s t u d i e s to read and they were requested to read 10 or 11 of the 106 case s t u d i e s . They were then requested to i n d i c a t e which of f i v e education s e t t i n g s , would best serve the c h i l d d e s c r i b e d i n the case study. The f i v e placement c h o i c e s the s u b j e c t s c o u l d s e l e c t were: (1) Regular c l a s s . (2) Regular c l a s s p l u s c o n s u l t a t i o n . (3) Regular c l a s s p l u s resource room. (4) Part-time r e g u l a r c l a s s and (5) F u l l time s p e c i a l c l a s s or s p e c i a l s c h o o l . The data were analyzed using l i n e a r model techniques. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h at p s y c h o l o g i s t s were p r i m a r i l y i n f l u e n c e d by IQ and achievement data i n t h e i r recommendations f o r s p e c i a l c l a s s placement. However, they were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d by high SES, home a n x i e t y and low c l a s s achievement. Teachers were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i k e l y t o r e f e r c h i l d r e n t o s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n on the b a s i s of low t e s t and c l a s s achievement, IQ, s e l f - c o n c e p t , adaptive behavior, high home r e l a t e d a n x i e t y and i f they spoke non-standard E n g l i s h . N e i t h e r t e a c h e r s or p s y c h o l o g i s t s were a f f e c t e d by the e t h n i c i t y of the c h i l d . In a d d i t i o n , teachers u n l i k e p s y c h o l o g i s t s were not a f f e c t e d by the SES of the c h i l d i n r e f e r r i n g c h i l d r e n to s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s concluded that there were g r e a t e r s i m i l a r i t i e s than d i f f e r e n c e s i n the responses of the REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 69 teachers and p s y c h o l o g i s t s . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s a l s o noted that although teachers have been c r i t i c a l of IQ and achievement t e s t i n g , they were s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d by such data i n t h e i r recommendations f o r s p e c i a l c l a s s placement. While both groups c o n s i d e r e d e t h n i c i t y unimportant i n placement d e c i s i o n s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s d i d demonstrate a b i a s towards p l a c i n g high SES c h i l d r e n i n s p e c i a l education. Although not s i g n i f i c a n t , teachers d i d tend to demonstrate a b i a s towards non-standard E n g l i s h speaking c h i l d r e n (p=.06). In another recent study (Tobias, Cole, Z i b r i n , & Bodlakova, 1982) the i n v e s t i g a t o r s examined i f e t h n i c m i n o r i t y students were judged as needing r e f e r r a l to s p e c i a l education c l a s s e s more o f t e n than non-ethnic m i n o r i t y students. In a d d i t i o n , the i n v e s t i g a t o r s attemped to determine whether teachers from v a r i o u s e t h n i c backgrounds d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r recommendations of students to s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . The s u b j e c t s used i n the study c o n s i s t e d of 199 teachers r e c r u i t e d from graduate education c l a s s e s and f a c u l t y meetings i n a v a r i e t y of New York s c h o o l s . The sample c o n s i s t e d of 81 black teachers, 87 white teachers and 31 Hi s p a n i c t e a c h e r s . The s u b j e c t s were a l s o s e l e c t e d from elementary s c h o o l s (n=33), secondary REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 70 sch o o l s (n=135) and a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s (n=3l). The s u b j e c t s were given a f i c t i t i o u s case h i s t o r y of a 16-year-old male student e n r o l l e d i n Grade 10. He was d e s c r i b e d as being about a year behind i n grade l e v e l while i n elementary schools and i n h i s 10th grade was c o n t i n u i n g to demonstrate l e a r n i n g and behavior problems. He was a l s o d e s c r i b e d as being v e r b a l l y and p h y s i c a l l y abusive towards h i s c l a s s mates. The case h i s t o r i e s given to the teach e r s to read were i d e n t i c a l except f o r the r e f e r e n c e , at the beginning of the s c r i p t , which d e s c r i b e d the student as being e i t h e r b l a c k , H i s p a n i c , white, or of no s p e c i f i e d e t h n i c background. Using a f o u r - p o i n t , L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e the respondents were asked to r a t e v a r i o u s statements r e g a r d i n g the students IQ, emotional h e a l t h and whether the c h i l d should be recommended f o r r e f e r r r a l to s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t white teachers recommended s p e c i a l education r e f e r r a l (except f o r white c h i l d r e n ) more o f t e n than black or h i s p a n i c t e a c h e r s . In a d d i t i o n , there were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the r a t e of s p e c i a l education r e f e r r a l f o r any p a r t i c u l a r student e t h n i c group. However, when the data f o r the teacher e t h n i c groups were combined, the i n t e r a c t i o n REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 71 between student i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and teacher e t h n i c background was repo r t e d to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s concluded that teachers were more l i k e l y to recommend students, f o r s p e c i a l education, from other e t h n i c groups more o f t e n than c h i l d r e n from t h e i r own e t h n i c groups. In a l a t e r study, Tobias, Z i b r i n , and Menell (1983), f a i l e d to r e p l i c a t e the student-teacher e t h n i c i t y i n t e r a c t i o n r e p o r t e d i n the study conducted by Tobias et a l . (1982). The authors of the c u r r e n t study i n v e s t i g a t e d the i n f l u e n c e of students' and teachers' gender and teaching l e v e l , as w e l l as students' and te a c h e r s ' e t h n i c i t y , to assess i f these were f a c t o r s i n recommendations f o r s p e c i a l education r e f e r r a l . The sample c o n s i s t e d of 362 students e n r o l l e d in summer s e s s i o n graduate education courses at s i x d i f f e r e n t branches of a New York u n i v e r s i t y . Only s u b j e c t s who had teaching experience i n elementary, secondary or s p e c i a l education c l a s s e s were i n c l u d e d i n the sample. Data a n a l y s i s was conducted on only 320 of the s u b j e c t s f o r whom complete data were a v a i l a b l e . The procedure was s i m i l i a r to the Tobias et a l . (1982) experiment. However, the case h i s t o r y used i n REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 72 t h i s study d e s c r i b e d a t e n - y e a r - o l d p u p i l a t t e n d i n g f i f t h grade. The p u p i l was d e s c r i b e d as two years below, average grade l e v e l achievement and s u f f e r i n g a v a r i e t y of b e h a v i o r a l problems. There were e i g h t v e r s i o n s of the case study u t i l i z e d . A l l were i d e n t i c a l except, h a l f of the v e r s i o n s d e s c r i b e d the student as male and the other h a l f as female. Within each gender the p u p i l was d e s c r i b e d as e i t h e r being H i s p a n i c , black or white and in a f o u r t h v e r s i o n no e t h n i c background was g i v e n . Teachers were requested to respond to the case study by r a t i n g 11 L i k e r t - t y p e q u e s t i o n s . Two items were used from the previous study ( r e l i a b i l i t y = . 5 9 ) and the other nine items used were unique to t h i s study ( r e l i a b i l i t y = . 7 7 ) . The q u e s t i o n s asked the teacher to judge whether the p u p i l should remain i n a r e g u l a r classroom or be p l a c e d i n a s p e c i a l education c l a s s . The teachers were a l s o asked to judge the s e v e r i t y of the problems d e s c r i b e d and i n d i c a t e i f they b e l i e v e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l e v a l u a t i o n would be a p p r o p r i a t e . The e i g h t v e r s i o n s of the case h i s t o r y were randomly a s s i g n e d to the s u b j e c t s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that secondary school t e a c h e r s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s l i k e l y to r e f e r the student to s p e c i a l education than elementary or s p e c i a l education t e a c h e r s . REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 73 The nine item q u e s t i o n n a i r e requested teacher judgements on such i s s u e s as the a p p r o p r i a t n e s s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l or p s y c h i a t r i c e v a l u a t i o n s and the degree they b e l i e v e d the student to be s e v e r e l y d i s t u r b e d . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d there were s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s f o r teacher e t h n i c i t y and te a c h i n g l e v e l . In these two cases black teachers and secondary school teachers had the lowest means. The only other s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n was between teacher e t h n i c i t y and student gender. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h at H i s p a n i c , teachers had lower scores on the nine item s c a l e when the p u p i l was d e s c r i b e d as male. The authors concluded that secondary school teachers tend to make fewer r e f e r r a l judgements f o r s p e c i a l education and there appeared to be no d i f f e r e n c e s i n recommendations f o r r e f e r r a l a t t r i b u t a b l e to the students' e t h n i c i t y . In summary, the s t u d i e s reviewed i n t h i s s e c t i o n have demonstrated that students from v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups are over-represented i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , u s i n g f i c t i t i o u s case s t u d i e s , some teachers and s p e c i a l educators appear more w i l l i n g to r e f e r e t h n i c m i n o r i t y students, than White students to c l a s s e s f o r the EMR and ED. There i s a l s o some REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 74 evidence to suggest that White c h i l d r e n are more o f t e n r e f e r r e d to LD c l a s s e s than Black c h i l d r e n . These i s s u e s need to be f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e d . The next s e c t i o n of t h i s paper reviews some of the s t u d i e s conducted re g a r d i n g v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n and Vancouver s c h o o l s . D. CHILDREN FROM VISIBLE ETHNIC MINORITY GROUPS AND VANCOUVER SCHOOLS To the best of t h i s author's knowledge there i s an absence of resea r c h s t u d i e s conducted in B r i t i s h Columbia that have s p e c i f i c a l l y examined teachers' e x p e c t a n c i e s or b i a s towards students from v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups. There has been, however, some d e s c r i p t i v e r e s e a r c h on e t h n i c d i s t r i b u t i o n and the s t a t u s and treatment of m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n i n Vancouver s c h o o l s . For example, LaTorre (1983) conducted a survey of students i n Vancouver schools f o r whom E n g l i s h was a second language. The i n v e s t i g a t o r s e l e c t e d a sample of teachers from a l l of the Vancouver p u b l i c schools (the response rate was repor t e d to be 100%). The s u b j e c t s were admininstered a survey r e q u e s t i n g the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ; the name of a l l students f o r whom E n g l i s h was a second language, (an ESL student was d e s c r i b e d as a person who l e a r n e d another language before l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h ) , REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 75 grade, b i r t h p l a c e , f i r s t language, a b i l i t y to speak, read, w r i t e , and comprehend E n g l i s h ( t h i s was r a t e d on a three p o i n t s c a l e ) . The t e a c h e r s were a l s o asked to estimate the E n g l i s h language a s s i s t a n c e needs of t h e i r students as w e l l as the language a s s i s t a n c e c u r r e n t l y being given to t h e i r s tudents. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that a t o t a l of 24,524 students (46.5% of the d i s t r i c t s t o t a l enrollment) were ESL c h i l d r e n . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s t a t e d that t h i s r e presented a steady i n c r e a s e from 1974 i n the numbers of c h i l d r e n r e q u i r i n g lanquage a s s i s t a n c e . In a d d i t i o n , one out of twenty of these ESL students could not comprehend, speak, read or w r i t e E n g l i s h . (Most of these were immigrant c h i l d r e n who spoke, Chinese, Vietenamese or Punjabi as a f i r s t language). The author a l s o p o i n t e d out that the g r e a t e s t need in elementary school programs, in Vancouver, was more ESL c l a s s e s and at the Secondary l e v e l , E n g l i s h language a s s i s t a n c e support. Furthermore, because of the shortage of ESL c l a s s e s , some ESL students were being p l a c e d i n i n a p p r o p r i a t e s p e c i a l education c l a s s e s , such as those f o r slow l e a r n e r s . In a recent survey conducted by Hunter and Stevens ( c i t e d i n Csapo, 1981), the i n v e s t i g a t o r s i d e n t i f i e d 1,210 N a t i v e Indian students (about 2% of the student p o p u l a t i o n ) e n r o l l e d i n Vancouver schools d u r i n g 1980. Approximately 81% REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 76 were e n r o l l e d i n the elementary and 19% i n the secondary s c h o o l s . Over 20% of the Native Indian students repeated one or more grades compared to about 5% for non-Native Indian students. Only Native Indian students repeated grades twice or three more times, u n l i k e the comparison group. The number of Native Indians to graduate were h a l f those of non-Native Indian p o p u l a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , Native Indian students on an average were absent from school more of t e n at every grade than the comparison group. A l s o c o n s i d e r a b l y more Native Indians dropped out of secondary school than any other e t h n i c group. In an a n t i - r a c i s m seminar conducted by the Surrey D e l t a Immigrant S e r v i c e s S o c i e t y i n a Surrey J u n i o r Secondary s c h o o l , r a c i s t a t t i t u d e s were repo r t e d i n the responses by many of the 300 students who completed the survey and who a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the seminar. The responses of the students were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o three c a t e g o r i e s : (1) Extreme p r e j u d i c e , (24%) (2) Mixed, t h i s i n d i c a t e d some q u e s t i o n i n g of deeply held p r e j u d i c e s or s t e r e o t y p e s , (24%) and (3) P o s i t i v e , t h i s i n d i c a t e d e i t h e r a lack of p r e j u d i c e or a m u l t i c u l t u r a l viewpoint, (32%). The s o c i e t y e x e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r Adrienne Montani concluded that the r e s u l t s of the survey showed t h a t r a c i s t REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 77 a t t i t u d e s among high school students was very p r e v a l e n t . She f u r t h e r claimed that many of the r a c i s t responses of the student's i n d i c a t e d they had support from t h e i r parents and the community at l a r g e f o r t h e i r v i e w p o i n t s . However, she a l s o warned that the r e s u l t s of the survey c o u l d not be g e n e r a l i z e d to other school p o p u l a t i o n s because the s o c i e t y d i d not fo l l o w s c i e n t i f i c procedures i n survey sampling. As a remedial i n s t r u c t o r i n a c o r r e c t i o n a l program, f o r f i r s t o f f e n d e r s (ages = 16 to 21) and a s u b s t i t u t e teacher i n many s p e c i a l education c l a s s e s s i n c e 1982, the author of t h i s paper, has made a number of anecd o t a l o b s e r v a t i o n s about the treatment of v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n i n the s c h o o l s . Some of these a r e : 1 . As a remedial and r e g u l a r teacher at New Haven C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e , I have noted that approximately 30% to 35% of a l l inmates are Native Indians. In a d d i t i o n , at l e a s t 50% of the remedial students, with the most s e r i o u s l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s ( l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d , non-readers, e t c . ) are a l s o N a t i v e I n d i a n s . 2. Some of the Native Indian boys have recounted such common experiences as being k i c k e d out of c l a s s e s and sc h o o l s , passed on to the next grade without r e c e i v i n g any a s s i s t a n c e to keep up with the other students, f o r c e d to atte n d schools not w i t h i n t h e i r home communities, being o v e r t l y d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t , and REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 78 overhearing or d i r e c t l y i n s u l t e d by derogatory remarks from t e a c h e r s , as w e l l as other students. Many Native Indian students have d e s c r i b e d schools i n which they have always been a s m a l l m i n o r i t y , and were e i t h e r ignored, d i s l i k e d , or m i s t r e a t e d by non-Indian c h i l d r e n . In a d d i t i o n , as c h i l d r e n , they remember white c h i l d r e n not being allowed to p l a y with them or i n v i t e them i n t o t h e i r homes. As a s u b s t i t u t e teacher sent to many d i f f e r e n t s p e c i a l c l a s s e s i n the elementary s c h o o l s , I have n o t i c e d an u n u s u a l l y high number of N a t i v e Indian c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d in c l a s s e s f o r slow l e a r n e r s , EMR, and ED. In some s p e c i a l c l a s s e s , more than h a l f the students were from v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups. In the r e g u l a r as w e l l as s p e c i a l c l a s s e s some e t h n i c c h i l d r e n were not known to t h e i r peers by t h e i r true e t h n i c names r a t h e r , by western names or nicknames. A l s o , i n some cases such e t h n i c c h i l d r e n have requested that I address them by t h e i r western name ra t h e r than t h e i r r e a l name l i s t e d i n the c l a s s r e g i s t e r . In some c o n v e r s a t i o n s with r e g u l a r classroom t e a c h e r s , I have sometimes heard teachers not only make r a c i s t remarks, but more o f t e n , t e a c h e r s have been unable to d i s t i n q u i s h Hindu students from S i k h students, even though they may have c h i l d r e n from both s e c t s i n t h e i r REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 79 classrooms. In summary, few s t u d i e s have been conducted examining e t h n i c r e l a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. However, a few d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d i e s have been conducted i n the lower mainland. These s t u d i e s suggest that students from v i s i b l e m i n o r i t y groups, such as Native Indian, or those who speak E n g l i s h as a second language, such as East Indian, are not r e c e i v i n g adequate e d u c a t i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e . There i s a l s o some evidence suggesting that students from v i s i b l e m i n o r i t y groups are d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t , by other students. C l e a r l y , there remains a c r i t i c a l shortage of res e a r c h on the treatment of v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n i n the Vancouver school system. The next s e c t i o n presents a. c r i t i q u e of a l l of the major s t u d i e s reviewed i n t h i s paper. Criticisms of the Studies Conducted with Regular Classroom Teachers and/or Students AUTHOR(S) And Date Of Study TITLE (Ss) RANDOMLY VALIDITY AND SAMPLE SELECTED RELIABILITY SIZE PURPOSE RESULTS CAN OF STUDY BE MASKED GENERALIZED OTHER Berry et al Multiculturalism and ethnic (1977) attitudes in Canada Yes Yes (n = 1800) No No The study was not experimental but, rather, a survey interview. The sample also included the views of non-educators Clifton et al (1981) Ethnicity, sex, year of university and the expectations of student teachers Yes No (n = 655) Yes Yes The stories to be evaluated by the subjects were obviously well-written. The subjects may not have noticed the ethnic names of the students presumed to have written the stories TO m < m Clifton et al (1982) Prejudice in Canadian schools: An examination of ethnocentrism in multicultural classrooms Yes Yes, for some (n = 502) measures No Yes Some of the measures used in the study may be outdated m m so > Coats (1972) White adult behavior toward Black and White children No No Very small (n=4) Yes No Subjects selected were adults from non-teaching professions oo o AUTHOR(S) And Date Of Study TITLE (Ss) RANDOMLY VALIDITY AND SAMPLE PURPOSE RESULTS CAN SELECTED RELIABILITY SIZE OF STUDY BE MASKED GENERALIZED OTHER Cooper, Baron & The importance of race Lowe (1975) and social class information of expectancies about academic performance No No (n = 128) Yes No (Subjects Participation in the study consisted of only was mandatory as students female education were enrolled in the and psychology investigators class, students) Guttman & Stereotypic perceptions of No No Small Yes, except Yes, but only to In the third study Bar-tal (1982) teachers especially for for third female teachers teachers may have been third study study of Western aware that the purpose (n = 7) Jewish orgin was to examine ethnic stereotyping Jackson & Cosca The inequality of (1974) educational opportunity in the South West: An observational study of ethnically mixed classrooms Yes Yes Large No Yes Federal Agency Civil Rights employees served as classroom observers. The act of being observed by agency may have affected the teacher's behavior TO m < Jaeger & Freijo (1975) Race and sex concomitants of composite halo in teacher's evaluative rating of pupils Yes Yes, but only for some measures Large No Yes Items used in this study may have been used inappropriately as they were copied from items used in a national survey TO > 73 m 00 AUTHOR(S) And Date Of Study TITLE (Ss) RANDOMLY VALIDITY AND SAMPLE PURPOSE RESULTS CAN SELECTED RELIABILITY SIZE OF STUDY BE MASKED GENERALIZED OTHER Kalin (1979) Ethnic and multicultural attitudes among children in a Canadian city Yes Not reported (n=453) No Yes The study was not experimental but, rather, consisted of a survey interview Kleinfield (1972) Instructional style and the No No Not Not No The study was based on intellectual performance of applicable applicable subjective opinion and not Indian and Eskimo empirically derived students Mackie (1974) Ethnic stereotypes and Yes Yes (n = 290) No No The sample did not prejudices towards Alberta include teachers Indians, Hutterites and Ukrainians Rubovits & Pygmalion, Black and Maehr (1973) White No No (n = 66> No No, the study The teaching situation was consisted of only contrived and conducted female student in a non-school setting teachers St. George (1983) Teacher expectations and No Yes Very small Yes Yes, but only to Selection of students for perceptions of Polynesian n=5 Polynesian achievement groups was and Pakela pupils and students based on subjective the relationship to opinions of teachers classroom behavior and school achievement Criticisms Of The Studies Conducted With Special Education Teachers and/or Students AUTHOR(S) And Date Of Study TITLE (Ss) RANDOMLY VALIDITY AND SAMPLE SELECTED RELIABILITY SIZE PURPOSE RESULTS CAN OF STUDY BE MASKED GENERALIZED OTHER Burke (1975) No Yes (n = 180) Not No The study was not applicable experimental but, rather, consisted of analysing placement data. Matuszek & Oakland (1979) Factors influencing teacher's and psychologists recommendations regarding special class placement No Yes (n = 129) No No It remains unclear if teachers would actually be affected by the factors listed in the study, in special education placement decisions Prieto & Zucker (1981) Teacher perception as a factor in the placement of behaviorally disordered children Yes No (n = 119) Yes Yes The sample consisted of only special education teachers. The significant differences reported may not have been practical differences 7S m < Richmond & Waits (1978) No Not reported (n = 335) No Yes The study did not separate the effects of students gender and SES TO > 00 AUTHOR(S) And Date Of Study TITLE (Ss) RANDOMLY VALIDITY AND SAMPLE PURPOSE RESULTS CAN SELECTED RELIABILITY SIZE OF STUDY BE MASKED GENERALIZED OTHER Subjects may have been aware the study was examining racial bias Tobias et al (1982) Teacher student ethnicity and recommendations for special education referrals No No (n = 199) Yes Yes Tobias et al (1983) Special education referrals: Failure to replicate student teacher ethnicity interaction No Yes (n = 362) Yes Yes Subjects were asked to indicate their ethnic background which may have made them aware the study was examining racial bias Zucker & Prieto (1977) Ethnicity and teacher bias in educational decisions Yes No (n = 280) Yes Yes The sample used only special education teachers Zucker, Prieto & Rutherford (1979) Racial determinants of teacher's perceptions of placement of the educable mentally retarded Yes No (n = 60) Yes Yes The significant differences reported may not have been practical significant differences REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE / 85 E. SUMMARY OF RESEARCH CRITICISMS The r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s reviewed in t h i s paper tended to c o n t a i n weaknesses i n s i m i l i a r a reas. Review of these s t u d i e s l e d to f i v e main areas i n which methodological weaknesses c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d . These weaknesses most f r e q u e n t l y observed i n the resea r c h reviewed were: non-randomized s e l e c t i o n of the s u b j e c t s ; no v a l i d i t y or r e l i a b i l i t y data r e p o r t e d f o r the measures used i n the s t u d i e s ; small sample s i z e s ; the purposes of the study not being masked from the respondents and r e s u l t s that c o u l d not be g e n e r a l i z e d to the classroom s e t t i n g . Other s p e c i f i c weaknesses were a l s o b r i e f l y reviewed. Few of the s t u d i e s reviewed i n c o r p o r a t e d methodology that adequately addressed a l l f i v e problem areas. I t remains d i f f i c u l t , however, to assess how much these methodological weaknesses may have compromised the o v e r a l l q u a l i t y of the resea r c h f i n d i n g s . The author has undertaken to recognize the weaknesses of the p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s and i n c o r p o r a t e a methodology that overcomes such weaknesses. T h i s i s d i s c u s s e d i n the next chapter. I I I . METHODOLOGY A. OVERVIEW Thi s s e c t i o n of the paper d e s c r i b e s the des i g n , p o p u l a t i o n , sample, procedure, p i l o t study and the c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s of the data. The type of r e s e a r c h conducted f o r t h i s paper was d e s c r i p t i v e . The study i n c o r p o r a t e d the use of a case study and q u e s t i o n n a i r e designed by the i n v e s t i g a t o r . Some of the f e a t u r e s of the case study and q u e s t i o n n a i r e were p a t t e r n e d - a f t e r s i m i l i a r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s used by r e s e a r c h e r s d e s c r i b e d in the l i t e r a t u r e review ( P r i e t o & Zucker, 1981; Tobias, Z i b r i n & Menell , . 1983). B. DESIGN 1 . Case Study The case study used i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t e d of a h y p o t h e t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n of a grade f i v e male student whose homeroom teacher had i n d i c a t e d concern about whether he should be assigned to the next grade of the r e g u l a r education program. The c h i l d was d e s c r i b e d as having a number of b e h a v i o r a l problems and was at l e a s t four months to a year behind the c l a s s average i n academic achievement. 86 METHODOLOGY / 87 The case study was d e s i g n e d t o be ambiguous so t h a t t e a c h e r s would not have a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n i f the c h i l d would be b e t t e r r e f e r r e d t o a s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s . I n f a c t , the o p i n i o n of the Vancouver S c h o o l Board S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n C o o r d i n a t o r (1985) was t h a t the case study d e s c r i b e d a c h i l d i n what appeared t o be a b o r d e r l i n e s i t u a t i o n . However, the c o o r d i n a t o r d i d not f e e l t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n i n the case s t u d y would j u s t i f y r e f e r r i n g the c h i l d t o a s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s . The case d e s c r i p t i o n i s i n c l u d e d i n Appendix A. 2. Questionnaire The q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t e d of n i n e i t e m s . The f i r s t seven items i n c l u d e d s t a tements r e g a r d i n g e d u c a t i o n a l p l acement. The l a s t two items r e q u e s t e d the s u b j e c t s t o r a t e the l i k e l i h o o d of p a r e n t a l s u pport and i f they b e l i e v e d the c h i l d was i n need of p s y c h o l o g i c a l or p s y c h i a t r i c e v a l u a t i o n . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e items were: (1) "Placement i n a s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h i s c h i l d . " (2) " T h i s c h i l d ' s presence i n the r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m would be d e t r i m e n t a l t o the e d u c a t i o n of the o t h e r c h i l d r e n i n the c l a s s r o o m . " METHODOLOGY / 88 (3) "This c h i l d should remain i n the r e g u l a r c l a s s and r e c e i v e some s p e c i a l a s s i s t a n c e from the r e g u l a r classroom t e a c h e r . " (4) "This c h i l d should be p l a c e d i n a s p e c i a l c l a s s f o r b e h a v i o r a l l y d i s o r d e r e d . ( C h i l d r e n who are a c t i n g - o u t or who have severe behavior problems)." (5) "This c h i l d should be p l a c e d i n a s p e c i a l c l a s s f o r slow l e a r n e r s . " (6) "This c h i l d should be promoted to the next grade." (7) "This c h i l d i s most l i k e l y to graduate from high s c h o o l . " (8) "Cooperation from the c h i l d ' s parents can be expected." (9) "This c h i l d should be r e f e r r e d f o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l and/or p s y c h i a t r i c e v a l u a t i o n . " These nine items were chosen because e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e d that s i m i l i a r items c o u l d y i e l d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s suggesting teacher b i a s ( P r i e t o & Zucker, 1981; Tobias, Z i b r i n & M e n e l l , 1983; St George, 1983). Although, i n c l u d i n g more qu e s t i o n s may have been d e s i r a b l e , i t was a requirment of the Vancouver School Board Research Department, that the q u e s t i o n n a i r e be kept short i n l e n g t h . A L i k e r t - t y p e f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e was used f o r the s u b j e c t s to r a t e t h e i r responses to the q u e s t i o n s . ( l = s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e , 2=disagree, 3=neither agree or d i s a g r e e , 4=agree, METHODOLOGY / 89 a n d 5 = s t r o n g l y a g r e e ) . The u s e - o f t h i s t y p e o f s c a l e p r o v i d e d f o r t h e q u a n t i f i c a t i o n a n d a n a l y s i s o f d a t a . The i n f o r m a t i o n i n a l l f o u r c a s e s t u d i e s was i d e n t i c a l e x c e p t f o r t h e b r i e f r e f e r e n c e t o t h e e t h n i c i t y o f t h e c h i l d , a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s c r i p t . I n t h e f i r s t g r o u p t h e c h i l d was d e s c r i b e d a s N a t i v e I n d i a n , i n t h e s e c o n d g r o u p E a s t I n d i a n , i n t h e t h i r d g r o u p C a u c a s i a n , a n d i n t h e f o u r t h g r o u p O r i e n t a l . The p u r p o s e o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t was m a s k e d s o t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s w e r e n o t a w a r e t h a t t h e s t u d y was e x a m i n i n g e t h n i c b i a s . I n s t e a d , t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was d i s g u i s e d a s a s u r v e y o f t e a c h e r s ' o p i n i o n s r e g a r d i n g e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s t h e y w o u l d c o n s i d e r m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a c h i l d d e s c r i b e d i n a c a s e s t u d y . The n e x t s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s t h e p i l o t s t u d y . 3. P i l o t Study I n o r d e r t o a s s e s s t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a p i l o t s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d . The s u b j e c t s c o n s i s t e d o f s t u d e n t s a n d t e a c h e r s e n r o l l e d i n one o f t h r e e u n d e r g r a d u a t e s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s o f f e r e d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y Of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , d u r i n g J u l y a n d A u g u s t . The s a m p l e c o n s i s t e d o f 58 s u b j e c t s e n r o l l e d i n one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s : An i n t r o d u c t o r y c o u r s e METHODOLOGY / 90 in educating e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n (n=1l), a course i n educating l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d students (n=39) and a course in educating mentally handicapped students (n=8). Of the 58 students a v a i l a b l e to complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , two su b j e c t s d e c l i n e d and another three s u b j e c t s ' q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e t u r n s were omitted because they d i d not complete 6 or more of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e items. T h e r e f o r e data a n a l y s i s was performed on the r e t u r n s of 53 s u b j e c t s . A n a l y s i s of the r e s u l t s of the p i l o t study and w r i t t e n comments reg a r d i n g the content and o r g a n i z a t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t e d i n some r e v i s i o n s and c o r r e c t i o n s . In the main study item three was m o d i f i e d and item f i v e was d e l e t e d . Statement three which read, "This c h i l d should remain i n the r e g u l a r c l a s s and r e c e i v e some s p e c i a l a s s i s t a n c e " , was changed to read, "This c h i l d should remain i n the r e g u l a r c l a s s and r e c e i v e some s p e c i a l a s s i s t a n c e from the r e g u l a r classroom t e a c h e r " . Statement f i v e which read, " T h i s c h i l d should be p l a c e d i n a s p e c i a l c l a s s f o r l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n " , was d e l e t e d as i t was decided there was not enough i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d in the case s c r i p t f o r teachers to ev a l u a t e t h i s statement. I t was a l s o decided to s t a n d a r d i z e the statements so that they would read p o s i t i v e l y . In a d d i t i o n , the e t h n i c group "Chinese" was changed to o r i e n t a l and "White" to Caucasian. Other than the r e v i s i o n s d i s c u s s e d above, the q u e s t i o n n a i r e in the main METHODOLOGY / 91 study was i d e n t i c a l to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e used i n the p i l o t study. The next s e c t i o n l i s t s the dependent and independent v a r i a b l e s . C. DEPENDENT AND INDEPENDENT VARIABLES The dependent v a r i a b l e was the teachers' responses to each of the nine q u e s t i o n n a i r e items. The independent v a r i a b l e s was the e t h n i c i t y of the c h i l d d e s c r i b e d i n the case study. D. POPULATION AND SAMPLE 1. Population T h i s study was conducted i n Vancouver, a l a r g e urban school d i s t r i c t i n the prov i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada. Vancouver r e f l e c t s the c u l t u r e of many e t h n i c groups i n c l u d i n g B r i t i s h , Chinese, East Indian, French, German, Greek, I t a l i a n , Japanese and Native Indians. The p o p u l a t i o n of the c i t y i s estimated to be 417,900, (Vancouver Board of Trade, 1986), of which about 40% are of B r i t i s h descent, 15% Chinese descent and 4% Indo Asian (East Indian) descent. Three bands of Native Indians occupy four r e s e r v e s i n me t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver and c o n s t i t u t e about 2% of the p o p u l a t i o n . (Vancouver Board of Trade, 1986). METHODOLOGY / 92 Vancouver school d i s t r i c t (No. 39) has 87 elementary s c h o o l s , 19 Secondary schools and 23 a l t e r n a t e s c h o o l s . The p u b l i c school p o p u l a t i o n i s 51,143. Of t h i s t o t a l almost h a l f are c h i l d r e n who speak E n g l i s h as a second language (Vancouver School Board, 1985). 2. Sample The s u b j e c t s of t h i s study were 602 teachers from 30 randomly s e l e c t e d p u b l i c elementary schools w i t h i n the Vancouver school d i s t r i c t . The sch o o l s s e l e c t e d f o r the study were drawn from the 1985 Ready Reference L i s t , p u b l i s h e d by the Vancouver School Board. T h i s p r o v i d e d an a l p h a b e t i c a l l i s t i n g of a l l the p u b l i c elementary (K-7) scho o l s w i t h i n the d i s t r i c t . T h i r t y schools were randomly s e l e c t e d from t h i s l i s t using numbers from a two d i g i t random t a b l e of numbers (Glass & Hopkins, 1984). A l l of the p u b l i c elementary schools i n the c i t y of Vancouver are d i v i d e d g e o g r a p h i c a l l y i n t o four zones; South (n=23), East (n=23), Center (n=24) and West (n=17). The elementary schools randomly s e l e c t e d f o r the study where from the f o l l o w i n g d i s t r i c t s ; South (n=7), East (n=8), Center (n=10) and West (n=5). The p r i n c i p a l s from each of the t h i r t y s c h ools chosen METHODOLOGY / 93 were con t a c t e d by telephone. They were asked i f they would be w i l l i n g to r e c e i v e and d i s t r i b u t e a q u e s t i o n n a i r e , which was to be d i s t r i b u t e d to a l l teachers at t h e i r s c h o o l . Only one s c h o o l d e c l i n e d to p a r t i c i p a t e . T h i s reduced the o v e r a l l sample s i z e to 591 s u b j e c t s . (This sample represented approximately o n e / t h i r d of the t o t a l number of employed p u b l i c elementary school teachers i n the Vancouver school d i s t r i c t ) . E . PROCEDURE The teachers r e c e i v e d a res e a r c h e r - d e s i g n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Appendix A). The q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t e d of four s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n c o n s i s t e d of a cover sheet e x p l a i n i n g the purpose of the study. The second s e c t i o n c o n s i s t e d of a page r e q u e s t i n g demographic i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the teachers' gender, age group, t o t a l years t e a c h i n g , degree of u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g , grade c u r r e n t l y taught, number of u n i v e r s i t y s p e c i a l education u n i t s (courses) completed, f a m i l i a r i t y with s p e c i a l education elementary programs o f f e r e d w i t h i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t and i f E n g l i s h was t h e i r f i r s t spoken language. (The s u b j e c t s were not requested to gi v e t h e i r names and were assured that the in f o r m a t i o n would be t r e a t e d c o n f i d e n t i a l l y ) . The t h i r d s e c t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t e d of the METHODOLOGY / 94 case study and the f o u r t h s e c t i o n c o n s i s t e d of the nine q u e s t i o n n a i r e items. 1. D i s t r i b u t i o n And C o l l e c t i o n Of The Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were sent to the p r i n c i p a l s at each of the elementary schools v i a the Vancouver School Board i n t e r n a l c o u r i e r system. E n c l o s e d i n a package was a cover l e t t e r to the p r i n c i p a l , separate enclosed envelopes each of which contained a q u e s t i o n n a i r e and a re t u r n envelope. Each of the teaching s t a f f were to r e c e i v e an envelope, complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and pl a c e i t i n the re t u r n envelope. Completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c o u l d then be returned to the Vancouver School Board v i a the same c o u r i e r system. A l l the schools w i t h i n the sample would r e c e i v e the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w i t h i n ten days. A f u r t h e r three weeks were allowed f o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e t u r n s to be sent back to the school board. The i n v e s t i g a t o r c o n t a c t e d (by telephone) each p r i n c i p a l of the randomly s e l e c t e d s c h o o l s and v e r i f i e d t h a t they had r e c e i v e d and d i s t r i b u t e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s to t h e i r t e a c h i n g s t a f f . In a cover l e t t e r (Appendix B) the p r i n c i p a l s were encouraged to p l a c e each of the envelopes c o n t a i n i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n the teacher's m a i l box. METHODOLOGY / 95 2 . Data P r e p a r a t i o n A three week p e r i o d was a l l o t t e d f o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s to be returned to the Vancouver School Board. Afterwards, the data were sent to the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Data P r o c e s s i n g Center. The demographic data and q u e s t i o n n a i r e items were n u m e r i c a l l y coded and recorded by data p r o c e s s o r s . The data was then s t a t i s t i c a l l y a n alyzed. F. DATA ANALYSIS 1. D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s The responses of the teachers to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s e c t i o n r e q u e s t i n g demographic i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d data to d e s c r i b e the f i n a l sample of 347 teachers or 58.54% of the o r i g i n a l sample. The S t a t i s t i c a l Package For S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (SPSS:X) computer program "Frequencies" (SPSS:X Inc., 1986) was used to provide summary d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s of the sample. A p r e s e n t a t i o n of these r e s u l t s i s contained i n the next chapter. 2 . I n f e r e n t i a l A n a l y s i s The nine q u e s t i o n n a i r e item responses were analyzed using SPSS:X computer program "Oneway A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e " METHODOLOGY / 96 (SPSS:X Inc.,1986). These r e s u l t s are presented i n the next chapter. The s t a t i s t i c a l hypotheses f o r t h i s study was that there should be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the means of the teach e r s ' responses, among the four e t h n i c groups, to the nine items. If any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were observed between any two groups t h i s c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d to an e t h n i c b i a s i n teachers' e x p e c t a t i o n s of the students d e s c r i b e d i n the case s t u d i e s . In a d d i t i o n , an a n a l y s i s of the demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the teachers was conducted to see i f there were any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r mean r a t i n g s on any of these items. As s t a t e d i n Chapter One, the c r i t i c a l l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e was set at 5%.. The m u l t i p l e comparison t e s t "Student Newman Keuls", (SNK), was used i n the a n a l y s i s to assess which groups d i f f e r e d f o r any s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s observed. The SNK m u l t i p l e comparison t e s t was s e l e c t e d because; a l l comparisons were among means, only simple c o n t r a s t s were i n v o l v e d and a c o n t r a s t based alpha was d e s i r a b l e , (Glass & Hopkins, 1984). The next chapter presents the r e s u l t s . IV. RESULTS T h i s s e c t i o n of the paper p r e s e n t s the r e s u l t s of the data a n a l y s i s f o r the main and p i l o t study. T h i s chapter i s d i v i d e d i n t o three s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s the r e s u l t s of the p i l o t study. The second s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s the d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s of the sample, and the t h i r d s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s the i n f e r e n t i a l a n a l y s i s . A. PILOT STUDY RESULTS As s t a t e d i n the methodology, data a n a l y s i s was performed on the r e t u r n s of 53 s u b j e c t s . Demographic data on these s u b j e c t s i n d i c a t e d that 76% were females and 23% males. Almost 75% i n d i c a t e d they had a Bachelor of Education degree and 51% i n d i c a t e d they were r e g u l a r t e a c h e r s , 26% s p e c i a l education teachers and 22% were students or student t e a c h e r s . The main purpose of the p i l o t study was to develop the q u e s t i o n n a i r e that would be used i n the main study, t h e r e f o r e , the r e s u l t s are only b r i e f l y reviewed. In the a n a l y s i s of the responses to the ten items i n the p i l o t q u e s t i o n n a i r e , two items were found to y i e l d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . The f i r s t item read, "This c h i l d should be p l a c e d in a s p e c i a l c l a s s f o r b e h a v i o r a l l y 97 RESULTS / 98 d i s o r d e r e d c h i l d r e n . ( C h i l d r e n who are a c t i n g - o u t or who have severe behavior problems)." The main e f f e c t was s i g n i f i c a n t , {F(3, 49)=3. 13, p=0.03}. The "SNK" m u l t i p l e comparison procedure r e v e a l e d that teachers tended to rat e the c h i l d d e s c r i b e d as Native Indian as being more a p p r o p r i a t e l y p l a c e d i n a s p e c i a l c l a s s f o r b e h a v i o r a l l y d i s o r d e r e d , when compared with the c h i l d d e s c r i b e d as O r i e n t a l . The second item read, "This c h i l d should not be promoted to the next grade." The main e f f e c t was s i g n i f i c a n t , (F(3, 49)=3.26, p=0.02}. The "SNK" m u l t i p l e comparison procedure r e v e a l e d that teachers tended to r a t e the c h i l d d e s c r i b e d as East Indian as not being as s u i t e d f o r promotion to the next grade as the O r i e n t a l and Caucasian c h i l d r e n . The r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d i n the a n a l y s i s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e items i n the p i l o t study should be viewed with c a u t i o n because the s u b j e c t s were not randomly s e l e c t e d and the sample s i z e was small (n=53). B. DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were returned from 396 s u b j e c t s (67% of the sample). Of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s returned 49 were unusable. These q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were not used because s i x or RESULTS / 99 more qu e s t i o n s were omitted or they were r e t u r n e d blank. T h i s reduced the sample s i z e to 347 s u b j e c t s (58.54%). Data a n a l y s i s was performed on the data of these 347 t e a c h e r s . T h i s sample of 347 s u b j e c t s represented approximately 20% of the p o p u l a t i o n of p u b l i c elementary school t e a c h e r s . R e l i a b i l i t y f o r the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was assessed to be .25 (Cronbach A l p h a ) . Given that the s c a l e c o n s i s t s of only nine items, a low r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t i s not s u r p r i s i n g . The S t a t i s t i c a l Package For S o c i a l Sciences (SPSS:X) computer program " R e l i a b i l i t y " was used to provide the data on r e l i a b i l i t y (SPSS:X Inc., 1986). "Cronbach Alpha" i s c o n s i d e r e d an a p p r o p r i a t e r e l i a b i l i t y t e s t when a L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e . i s used f o r r a t i n g items (SPSS:X Inc., 1986). 1 . Respondent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The respondent i n f o r m a t i o n the teachers were asked to p r o v i d e c o n s i s t e d of nine q u e s t i o n s . The f i r s t q u e s t i o n asked teachers to i n d i c a t e t h e i r present t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n . The responses i n d i c a t e d that 234 (67.4%) were r e g u l a r elementary school t e a c h e r s , 30 (8.6%) were s p e c i a l education t e a c h e r s , 14 (4.0%) E.S.L. teachers and 66 (19.9%) i n d i c a t e d other s p e c i f i c p o s i t i o n s . RESULTS / 100 In response to the second q u e s t i o n , "Grades p r e s e n t l y t e a c h i n g ? " , 147 (40%) were primary grade t e a c h e r s , 16 (4.6%) i n d i c a t e d they taught k i n d e r g a r t e n , 109 (31.4%) were int e r m e d i a t e grade teachers, 30 (8.6%) taught 5 or more grades, 36 (10.4%) were s p e c i a l education teachers and 17 (4.9%) omitted the q u e s t i o n . For data a n a l y s i s these groups were recombined i n t o three groups, 185 (55.3% ) primary, 109 (31.4%) in t e r m e d i a t e and 36 (10.4%) s p e c i a l education t e a c h e r s . The t h i r d q u e s t i o n asked teachers to i n d i c a t e t h e i r gender. The responses i n d i c a t e d t h a t 233 (69.6%) were female teachers and 102 (29.4%) were male te a c h e r s . In response to the f o u r t h q u e s t i o n , " T o t a l years employed as a school teacher?", the teachers i n d i c a t e d they had taught the f o l l o w i n g lengths of time; 5 years or l e s s , 29 (8.4%), 6 to 10 years, 63 (18.2%); 11 to 15 years, 98 (28.2%); 16 to 20 years, 73 (21.0%); 21 years or longer, 84 (24.2%). When recombined, 157 (45.2%) i n d i c a t e d they had taught 16 years or longer, 98 (28.2%) 11 years to 15 years and 82 (26.6%) i n d i c a t e d they had taught 10 years or l e s s . In response to the f i f t h q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g age; only 4 (1.2%) were under 25 years of age, 86 (24.8%) were 26 to 35 years of age, 152 (43.8%) were 36 to 45 years of age, 77 RESULTS / 101 (22.2%) were 46 to 55 years of age and 28 (8.1%) of the s u b j e c t s i n d i c a t e d they were between 56 to 65 years of age, In response to the s i x t h q u e s t i o n , "Was E n g l i s h your f i r s t spoken language?", 306 (88.2%) of the teachers i n d i c a t e d yes and 39 (11.2%) i n d i c a t e d no. In response to the seventh q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g highest degree obtained i n u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g , 180 (51.9%) of the tea c h e r s i n d i c a t e d they h e l d a Bachelor of Education degree, 57 (16.4%) a Bachelor of A r t s , 52 (15.0%) a Master's degree, and 56 (16.1%) i n d i c a t e d other. In response to the e i g h t h q u e s t i o n , " F a m i l i a r i t y with s p e c i a l education programs i n your d i s t r i c t ? " , 240 (69.2%) of the teachers i n d i c a t e d they were f a m i l i a r , 37 (10.7%) very f a m i l i a r and 67 (19.3%) i n d i c a t e d they were u n f a m i l i a r with such programs. In response to the n i n t h q u e s t i o n regarding the number of u n i v e r s i t y c r e d i t s ( u n i t s ) the subject s u c c e s s f u l l y completed i n s p e c i a l education; 176 (50.7%) of the teachers i n d i c a t e d they had no c r e d i t s , 30 (8,6%) i n d i c a t e d they had 1.5 c r e d i t s , 49 (14.1%) i n d i c a t e d they had 3.0 c r e d i t s , 12 (3.5%) i n d i c a t e d they had 4.5 c r e d i t s and 75 (21.6%) i n d i c a t e d they had 6.0 or more c r e d i t s . RESULTS / 102 2. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Items The q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t e d of nine items that teachers were requested to respond t o , a f t e r reading the case study. Table 1 (presented at the end of the chapter, p. 110) p r o v i d e s a breakdown of the o v e r a l l responses of a l l the te a c h e r s . T h i s i n c l u d e s the frequency, percentages, means and standard d e v i a t i o n s of teachers' responses to each q u e s t i o n n a i r e item. For r e a d a b i l i t y , the f i v e response l e v e l s on the L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e have been recombined to di s a g r e e d , n e i t h e r , or agreed. C. INFERENTIAL ANALYSIS T h i s s e c t i o n d e t a i l s s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s f o r each of the nine items by the main e f f e c t ( e t h n i c group) and f o r each of the nine demographic v a r i a b l e s . The data were analyzed using the s t a t i s t i c a l procedure "oneway ANOVA". Fur t h e r breakdown of s i g n i f i c a n t group d i f f e r e n c e s are evalu a t e d using the "Student Newman Keuls" m u l t i p l e comparison procedure. Frequencies, means, standard d e v i a t i o n s , "F" r a t i o s and p r o b a b i l i t i e s f o r each v a r i a b l e are r e p o r t e d i n t a b l e s f o l l o w i n g t h i s s e c t i o n , (p. 111). 1. Main e f f e c t ( e t h n i c group) RESULTS / 103 For the main e f f e c t ( e t h n i c group) items seven and e i g h t were s i g n i f i c a n t , (see t a b l e 2, p. 111). Item seven read, "This c h i l d i s most l i k e l y to graduate from h i g h s c h o o l " . The "SNK" m u l t i p l e comparison procedure r e v e a l e d the f o l l o w i n g s i g n i f i c a n t group d i f f e r e n c e s ; the c h i l d d e s c r i b e d as Native Indian was r a t e d l e s s l i k e l y to graduate from high s c h o o l when compared with the c h i l d r e n d e s c r i b e d i n each of the other three groups and O r i e n t a l c h i l d r e n were c o n s i d e r e d more l i k e l y to graduate from h i g h school than East Indian c h i l d r e n . Item e i g h t read, "Cooperation from the c h i l d ' s parents can be expected." The "SNK" m u l t i p l e comparison procedure r e v e a l e d that teachers expected more c o o p e r a t i o n from the parents of the O r i e n t a l c h i l d compared to parents of the Native Indian c h i l d . 2 . Teachers p o s i t i o n For the v a r i a b l e t e a c h e r ' s p o s i t i o n item f i v e was s i g n i f i c a n t , (see t a b l e 3, p.112). Item f i v e read, "This c h i l d should be p l a c e d i n a s p e c i a l c l a s s f o r slow l e a r n e r s . " The "SNK" m u l t i p l e comparison procedure r e v e a l e d that s p e c i a l education t e a c h e r s were not as l i k e l y to r e f e r RESULTS / 104 the c h i l d to a c l a s s f o r slow l e a r n e r s , when compared with r e g u l a r t e a c h e r s . 3. Grade taught For the v a r i a b l e , "Grade(s) p r e s e n t l y t e a c h i n g " , item nine was s i g n i f i c a n t , (see t a b l e 4, p. 113). The "SNK" m u l t i p l e comparison procedure r e v e a l e d that primary grade teachers were more l i k e l y to r e f e r the c h i l d f o r c o u n s e l l i n g than s p e c i a l education t e a c h e r s . 4. Gender For the v a r i a b l e teacher's gender items four and eig h t were s i g n i f i c a n t , (see t a b l e 5, p. 114). Item four read, " T h i s c h i l d should be p l a c e d i n a s p e c i a l c l a s s f o r b e h a v i o r a l l y d i s o r d e r e d c h i l d r e n . " The "SNK" m u l t i p l e comparison procedure r e v e a l e d that female teachers were more l i k e l y to r e f e r the c h i l d to s p e c i a l c l a s s f o r b e h a v i o r a l l y d i s o r d e r e d , than male t e a c h e r s . Item e i g h t read, "Cooperation from the c h i l d ' s parents can be expected." The "SNK" m u l t i p l e comparison procedure r e v e a l e d that female teachers were l e s s l i k e l y to expect c o o p e r a t i o n from the c h i l d r e n ' s p a r e n t s , than male teach e r s . RESULTS / 105 5. T o t a l years employed For the v a r i a b l e , " T o t a l years employed as a school teacher", item two was s i g n i f i c a n t , (see Table 6, p. 115). Item two read, "This c h i l d ' s presence i n the r e g u l a r classroom would be d e t r i m e n t a l to the education of the other c h i l d r e n i n the classroom." The "SNK" m u l t i p l e comparison procedure r e v e a l e d that teachers who taught between 6 and 10 years were l e s s l i k e l y to agree that the c h i l d ' s presence would be d e t r i m e n t a l to the education of the other c h i l d r e n , than teachers who taught 21 years or l o n g e r . 6. Teachers Age For the v a r i a b l e teacher's age, no e f f e c t s were s i g n i f i c a n t , (see Table 7, p. 116). 7. E n g l i s h f i r s t language For the v a r i a b l e , "Was E n g l i s h your f i r s t spoken language?", items f i v e and e i g h t were s i g n i f i c a n t , (see Table 8, p. 117). Item f i v e read, "This c h i l d should be p l a c e d i n a s p e c i a l c l a s s f o r slow l e a r n e r s . " The "SNK" m u l t i p l e comparison procedure r e v e a l e d that teachers who spoke E n g l i s h as a second language i n d i c a t e d a g r e a t e r tendency to agree that the c h i l d should be p l a c e d i n a c l a s s RESULTS / 106 fo r slow l e a r n e r s , than teachers who spoke E n g l i s h as t h e i r f i r s t language. Item e i g h t read, "Cooperation from c h i l d ' s parents can be expected." The "SNK" m u l t i p l e comparison procedure r e v e a l e d that teachers who spoke E n g l i s h as t h e i r f i r s t language were more l i k e l y not to expect c o o p e r a t i o n from the c h i l d ' s parents, than teachers who spoke E n g l i s h as a second language. 8. Un ivers i ty t ra in ing For the v a r i a b l e " U n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g " , item nine was s i g n i f i c a n t , (see Table 9, p. 118). Item nine read, "This c h i l d should be r e f e r r e d f o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l and/or p s y c h i a t r i c e v a l u a t i o n . " The "SNK" m u l t i p l e comparison procedure r e v e a l e d that teachers who i n d i c a t e d they had a c q u i r e d a Master of A r t s degree were not as l i k e l y to r e f e r the c h i l d f o r c o u n s e l l i n g , than teachers with l e s s e d ucation. 9. F a m i l i a r i t y with programs For the v a r i a b l e , " F a m i l i a r i t y with s p e c i a l education programs w i t h i n your d i s t r i c t " , items two, fo u r , seven and ei g h t were s i g n i f i c a n t , (see t a b l e 10, p. 119). Item two -RESULTS / 107 read, "This c h i l d ' s presence would be d e t r i m e n t a l to the education of the other c h i l d r e n i n the classroom." The "SNK" m u l t i p l e comparison procedure r e v e a l e d that teachers who were more f a m i l i a r with s p e c i a l education programs i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t , were l e s s l i k e l y to b e l i e v e the c h i l d ' s presence would be d e t r i m e n t a l , than teachers who i n d i c a t e d they were l e s s f a m i l i a r with s p e c i a l education programs i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t . Item four read, "This c h i l d should be p l a c e d i n a s p e c i a l c l a s s f o r b e h a v i o r a l l y d i s o r d e r e d c h i l d r e n . " The "SNK" m u l t i p l e comparison procedure r e v e a l e d that t e a c h e r s who i n d i c a t e d they were very f a m i l i a r with s p e c i a l education programs i n d i c a t e d a g r e a t e r tendency to d i s a g r e e that the c h i l d should be p l a c e d i n a s p e c i a l c l a s s , than t e a c h e r s l e s s f a m i l i a r with s p e c i a l education programs. Item seven read, "This c h i l d i s most l i k e l y to graduate from high s c h o o l . " The "SNK" m u l t i p l e comparison procedure r e v e a l e d that teachers very f a m i l i a r with s p e c i a l education programs were more l i k e l y to expect the c h i l d to graduate from high s c h o o l , than teachers not f a m i l i a r with s p e c i a l education programs. Item e i g h t read, "Cooperation from the c h i l d ' s parents can be expected." The "SNK" m u l t i p l e comparison procedure RESULTS / 108 r e v e a l e d that teachers very f a m i l i a r with s p e c i a l education programs were more l i k e l y to expect c o o p e r a t i o n from the c h i l d ' s parents, than teachers not f a m i l i a r with s p e c i a l education programs. 10. U n i v e r s i t y c r e d i t s For the v a r i a b l e , " I n d i c a t e the number of u n i v e r s i t y c r e d i t s ( u n i t s ) you have s u c c e s s f u l l y completed i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n , " items two, seven and e i g h t were s i g n i f i c a n t , (see t a b l e 11, p. 120). Item two read, "This c h i l d ' s presence i n the r e g u l a r classroom would be d e t r i m e n t a l to the education of the other c h i l d r e n i n the classroom." The "SNK" m u l t i p l e comparison procedure r e v e a l e d teachers who had no c r e d i t s i n s p e c i a l education were more l i k e l y to b e l i e v e the c h i l d ' s presence would be d e t r i m e n t a l , than t e a c h e r s who had 1.5 or more c r e d i t s i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . Item seven read, "This c h i l d i s most l i k e l y to graduate from high s c h o o l . " The "SNK" m u l t i p l e comparison procedure r e v e a l e d that teachers with no c r e d i t s in s p e c i a l education were more l i k e l y to b e l i e v e the c h i l d would not graduate from high s c h o o l , than teachers who had 3.0 c r e d i t s in s p e c i a l education. Item e i g h t read, "Cooperation from the c h i l d ' s parents RESULTS / 109 can be expected." The "SNK" m u l t i p l e comparison procedure r e v e a l e d that teachers with no c r e d i t s i n s p e c i a l education were l e s s l i k e l y to expect c o o p e r a t i o n from the c h i l d ' s p arents, than teachers with c r e d i t s i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . 11. Summary of S i g n i f i c a n t D i f f e r e n c e s Table 12, (p. 121), prese n t s a l l s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r the main e f f e c t ( e t h n i c group) and each of the demographic v a r i a b l e s f o r each of the nine items. In summary, t h i s chapter has presented the r e s u l t s of the study. The chapter was d i v i d e d i n t o three s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n presented the r e s u l t s of the p i l o t study. The second s e c t i o n presented the d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s f o r the demographic v a r i a b l e s and nine q u e s t i o n n a i r e items. The t h i r d s e c t i o n presented the i n f e r e n t i a l a n a l y s i s f o r the nine q u e s t i o n n a i r e items based on the main e f f e c t s ( e t h n i c group of the c h i l d ) and demographic v a r i a b l e s . The t a b l e s p r o v i d e d i n c l u d e d f r e q u e n c i e s , percentages, means, standard d e v i a t i o n s , "F" r a t i o s and p r o b a b i l i t i e s . A oneway Anova i n c o r p o r a t i n g the use of the "Student Newman Keu l s " (SNK) m u l t i p l e comparison procedure was used f o r the s t a t i s t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n of the data. The next chapter p r e s e n t s the D i s c u s s i o n . D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s f o r the Table 1 Ove ra l l Responses f o r each of the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Items Item Di sagreed Neither No Agreed response Total y S 1. Sped, placement 107 (30.8%) 76 (21.9%) 161 (46.4%) 3 (0.9%) 344 3.18 1.18 2. Presence 39 (11.2%) 67 (19.3%) 240 (69.2%) 1 (0.3%) 346 3.79 0.99 3. Regular class 203 (58.6%) 63 (18.2%) 80 (23.0%) 1 (0.3%) 346 2.47 1.14 4. Beh. disorder 131 (37.7%) 64 (18.4%) 148 (42.7%) 4 (1.2%) 343 3.05 1.18 5. Slow learner 148 (71.5%) 56 (16.1%) 37 (10.6%) 6 (1.7%) 341 2.19 0.93 6. Promoted 132 (38.0%) 111 (32.0%) 99 (28.5%) 5 (1.4%) 342 2.79 1.02 7. Graduate 145 (41.8%) 167 (48.1%) 32 (9.2%) 1 (0.9%) 344 2.51 0.87 8. Parent's co-op. 195 (56.2%) 115 (33.1%) 35 (10.1%) 2 (0.6%) 345 2.39 0.87 9. Referral 23 (6.6%) 17 (4.9%) 305 (87.9%) 2 (0.6%) 345 4.29 0.92 Table 2 Inferentia l and Descript ive Stati s t i cs for Ethnic Group by Items Native East Item Indian Oriental Indian Caucasian Total F P 1= 3.28 3.09 3.06 3.35 3.18 1.19 0.31 s= 1.23 1.17 1.17 1.14 1.18 1. Sped, placement n= 89 83 98 74 344 X= 3.80 3.77 3.75 3.86 3.79 0.18 0.90 s= 1.00 1.04 1.03 0.84 0.98 2. Presence n= 89 84 99 74 346 X= 2.30 2.61 2.60 2.35 2.47 1.76 0.15 s= 1.13 1.09 1.23 1.09 1.14 3. Regular class n= 89 83 100 74 346 1= 3.28 2.84 2.95 3.16 3.05 2.43 0.06 s- 1.24 1.20 1.15 1.08 1.18 4. Beh. disorder n= 88 83 98 74 343 X= 2.29 2.21 2.06 2.24 2.19 1.07 0.35 s= 1.05 1.00 0.84 0.81 0.93 5. Slow learner n= 86 83 99 73 341 X= 2.79 2.84 2.75 2.78 2.79 0.10 0.95 s= 1.07 0.94 1.04 1.05 1.02 6. Promoted n= 87 82 99 74 342 X= 2.03 2.86 2.55 2.64 2.50 15.85 0.00 s= 0.90 0.76 0.78 0.83 0.87 7. Graduate n= 88 83 99 74 344 X= 2.17 2.59 2.39 2.41 2.39 3.47 0.01 s= 0.94 0.83 0.84 0.82 0.87 8. Parent's co-op. n= 88 84 99 74 345 X= 4.18 4.19 4.42 4.35 4.28 1.52 0.20 s= 1.04 0.99 0.79 0.85 0.92 9. Referral n= 88 84 99 74 345 Table 3 Inferenti al and Descript ive S t a t i s t i c s for Teacher 1 s Posi t i on by Items Item Regular teacher Sped, teacher ESL teacher Other Total F P X= 3.20 2.93 3.21 3.21 3.18 0.49 0.68 s= 1.24 1.28 1.05 0.96 1.18 1. Sped, placement n= 232 30 14 65 341 X= 3.80 3.46 3.92 3.90 3.80 1.48 0.21 s= 1.02 1.10 0.99 0.77 0.99 2. Presence n= 233 30 14 66 343 X= 2.42 2.76 2.64 2.45 2.47 0.86 0.45 s= 1.20 1.13 1.00 0.99 1.15 3. Reqular class n= 233 30 14 66 343 X= 3.11 2.56 3.28 3.04 3.05 2.06 0.10 4. Beh. disorder s= n= 1.23 233 1.13 30 1.00 14 0.99 63 1.15 340 X= 2.21 1.75 2.07 2.32 2.18 2.68 0.04 s= 0.96 0.73 0.82 0.89 0.93 5. Slow learner n= 231 29 14 64 338 X= 2.81 2.90 2.85 2.64 2.79 0.61 0.60 s= 1.07 0.95 0.77 0.94 1.02 6. Promoted n= 230 30 14 65 339 X= 2.50 2.63 2.78 2.43 2.51 0.80 0.49 s= 0.91 0.76 0.57 0.85 0.87 7. Graduate n= 233 30 14 64 341 X= 2.33 2.50 2.78 2.45 2.39 1.49 0.21 s= 0.89 0.86 0.97 0.77 0.87 8. Parent's co-op. n= 234 30 14 64 342 X= 4.35 3.90 4.50 4.21 4.29 2.48 0.06 S= 0.84 1.37 0.51 1.01 0.92 9. Referral n= 234 30 14 64 342 Table 4 Inferenti al and Descri pti ve S t a t i s t i c s for Grades Presently Teaching by Items Item Primary Intermediate Special education Total F P X= 3.21 3.15 3.11 3.17 0.14 0.86 s= 1.18 1.17 1.30 1.19 1. Sped, placement n= 154 138 36 328 X= 3.84 3.78 3.63 3.79 0.64 0.52 s= 0.96 0.99 1.07 0.99 2. Presence n= 155 138 36 329 X= 2.45 2.46 2.55 2.47 0.10 0.89 s= 1.15 1.16 1.15 1.15 3. Regular class n= 155 138 36 329 T= 3.11 3.13 2.63 3.07 2.65 0.07 s= 1.18 1.20 1.22 1.20 4. Ben. disorder n= 154 137 36 327 X= 2.20 2.23 2.14 2.20 0.14 0.86 s= 0.95 0.89 1.06 0.94 5. Slow learner 153 136 35 324 y= 2.73 2.89 2.75 2.80 0.97 0.37 s= 1.08 0.96 1.07 1.03 6. Promoted n= 153 136 36 325 X= 2.54 2.50 2.50 2.52 0.08 0.92 s= 0.88 0.87 0.87 0.87 7. Graduate n= 155 137 36 328 X= 2.27 2.49 2.50 2.38 2.62 0.07 s= 0.88 0.87 0.91 0.88 8. Parent's co-op. n= 155 138 36 329 4.41 4.25 3.94 4.29 4.12 0.01 s= 0.75 0.95 1.28 0.91 9. Referral n= 155 138 36 329 Table 5 Inferenti al and Descriptive Stati s.ti cs for Teacher s Gender by Items Item Male Female Total F P X= 3.00 3.25 3.17 2.93 0.08 s= 1.16 1.19 1.18 1. Sped, placement n= 102 231 333 X= 3.78 3.79 3.79 0.00 0.93 s= 1.04 0.96 0.99 2. Presence n= 102 233 335 "X= 2.62 2.41 2.47 2.49 0.11 s= 1.17 1.12 1.14 3. Regular class n= 102 232 334 X= 2,81 3.13 3.03 5.28 0.02 s= 1.14 1.18 1.18 4. Ben. disorder n= 102 229 331 X= 2.25 2.18 2.20 0.38 0.53 s= 0.87 0.97 0.94 5. Slow learner n= 102 227 329 X= 2.90 2.75 2.80 1.29 0.25 s= 0.99 1.05 1.03 6. Promoted n= 101 229 330 X= 2.50 2.52 2.51 0.03 0.85 s= 0.90 0.87 0.88 7. Graduate n= 101 231 332 X= 2.51 2.32 2.38 3.72 0.05 s= 0.87 0.86 0.87 8. Parent's co-op. n= 102 231 333 X= 4.16 4.34 4.29 2.60 0.10 s= 1.01 0.90 0.93 9. Referral n= 102 231 333 Table 6 I n f e r e n t i al and D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s f o r Total Years Employed by Items / 5 or 21 or Item less 6-10 11-15 16-20 more Total F P X= 3.34 2.95 3.27 3.12 3.27 3.18 1.03 0.39 s= 0.97 1.22 1.25 1.25 1.06 1.18 1. Sped, placement n= 29 63 96 72 84 344 X= 3.79 3.57 3.69 3.86 4.03 3.79 2.44 0.04 s= 0.81 1.02 1.12 1.01 0.76 0.98 2. Presence n= 29 63 97 73 84 346 X= 2.68 2.52 2.44 2.32 2.51 2.47 0.61 0.65 s= 1.10 1.01 1.22 1.16 1.15 1.14 3. Reqular class n= 29 63 98 73 83 346 X= 2.89 3.03 2.96 3.04 3.25 3.05 0.83 0.50 s= 1.14 1.13 1.20 1.31 1.09 1.18 4. Beh. disorder n= 29 63 96 71 84 343 X= 2.34 2.22 2.25 2.00 2.22 2.19 1.09 0.35 s= 0.85 0.99 0.99 0.91 0.84 0.93 5. Slow learner n= 29 63 95 71 83 341 -X= 2.72 2.87 2.75 2.81 2.78 2.79 0.17 0.95 s= 0.95 1.09 1.08 1.01 0.95 1.02 6. Promoted n= 29 62 96 71 84 342 X= 2.72 2.33 2.56 2.45 2.58 2.51 1.41 0.22 s= 0.75 0.86 0.86 0.89 0.90 0.87 7. Graduate n= 29 63 97 71 84 344 X= 2.41 2.44 2.43 2.33 2.33 2.39 0.28 0.88 s= 0.86 0.92 0.94 0.84 0.79 0.87 8. Parent's co-op. n= 29 63 98 71 84 345 x= 4.10 4.26 4.44 4.16 4.28 4.28 1.32 0.26 s= 0.93 0.91 0.86 1.01 0.92 0.92 9. Referral n= 29 63 98 71 84 345 Table 7 Inferent ia l and Descri pti ve S t a t i s t i c s for Teacher s Age by Items under Item 25 26-35 36-45 46-55 56-65 Total F P X= 3.75 3.08 3.16 3.23 3.48 3.18 0.86 0.48 s= 0.95 1.07 1.28 1.13 1.12 1.18 1. Sped, placement n= 4 86 150 7 27 344 X= 3.75 3.63 3.84 3.81 3.96 3.79 0.85 0.49 s= 1.25 0.96 1.00 0.99 0.92 0.98 2. Presence n= 4 86 151 77 28 346 X= 3.00 2.53 2.51 2.42 2.14 2.47 0.93 0.44 s= 1.41 1.03 1.22 1.08 1.14 1.14 3. Regular class n= 4 86 152 76 28 346 X= 3.00 3.12 2.89 3.19 3.33 3.05 1.37 0.24 s= 0.81 1.14 1.20 1.19 1.14 1.18 4. Beh. disorder n= 4 86 149 77 27 343 X= 2.25 2.33 2.12 2.14 2.28 2.19 0.84 0.49 s= 0.50 0.91 0.97 0.84 1.04 0.93 5. Slow learner n= 4 86 147 76 28 341 X= 3.00 2.78 2.81 2.75 2.75 2.79 0.10 0.97 s= 1.41 0.98 1.05 1.00 1.04 1.02 6. Promoted n= 4 85 149 76 28 342 X- 3.00 2.50 2.48 2.62 2.37 2.51 0.83 0.50 s= 0.81 0.79 0.87 0.94 0.88 0.87 7. Graduate n= 4 85 151 77 27 344 X= 2.00 2.48 2.35 2.38 2.37 2.39 0.54 0.70 s= 1.41 0.85 0.85 0.93 0.83 0.87 8. Parent's co-op. n= 4 86 151 77 27 345 X= 4.25 4.22 4.33 4.29 4.22 4.28 0.25 0.90 s= 0.50 0.95 0.86 1.02 1.01 0.92 9. Referral n= 4 86 151 77 27 345 Table 8 I n f e r e n t i al and Descri p t i ve S t a t i s t i c s f o r E n g l i s h F i r s t Language by Items Item Yes No Total F P X= 3.16 3.28 3.17 0.33 0.56 s= 1.20 0.99 1.17 1. Sped. piacement n= 303 39 342 X= 3.79 3.76 3.79 0.02 0.87 2. Presence s= n= 0.98 305 1.03 39 0.99 344 X= 2.47 2.43 2.47 0.04 0.82 3. Regular class s= n= 1.16 305 1.07 39 1.15 344 1= 3.07 2.94 3.05 0.38 0.53 4. Beh. disorder s= n= 1.17 302 1.21 39 1.17 341 X= 2.16 2.48 2.20 4.22 0.04 s= 0.93 0.82 0.93 5. Slow learner n= 301 39 340 X= 2.82 2.53 2.79 2.72 0.09 6. Promoted s= n= 1.00 301 1.14 39 1.02 340 X= 2.51 2.58 2.52 0.27 0.59 7. Graduate s= n= 0.86 303 0.93 39 0.87 342 X= 2.34 2.79 2.39 9.48 0.00 8. Parent's co-op. s= n= 0.83 304 1.05 39 0.87 343 X= 4.29 4.20 4.28 0.32 0.56 9. Referral s= n= 0.93 304 0.92 39 0.93 343 • Table 9 I n f e r e n t i al and D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s f o r Uni v e r s i ty T r a i n i n g by Items Item B.A. B.Ed M.Ed M.A. Other Total F P X= 3.07 3.21 3.27 2.93 3.1/ 3.18 U.38 U.H1 s= 1.35 1.17 0.97 1.27 1.14 1.18 1. Sped. piacement n= 56 179 36 15 56 342 X= 3.71 3.86 3.97 3.56 3.58 3.79 1.40 0.23 s= 1.04 0.97 0.81 1.15 1.02 0.98 2. Presence n= 57 179 36 16 56 344 X= 2.66 2.37 2.41 2.62 2.60 2.47 0.98 0.41 s= 1.13 1.11 0.99 1.54 1.21 1.14 3. Regular class n= 57 179 36 16 56 344 X= 2.78 3.19 3.11 2.73 2.91 3.04 1.84 0.12 s= 1.13 1.19 1.06 0.88 1.28 1.18 4. Beh. disorder n= 56 178 36 15 56 341 x= 2.12 2.26 2.08 2.18 2.10 2.19 0.59 0.66 s= 1.01 0.97 0.78 0.83 0.83 0.93 5. Slow learner n= 56 178 35 16 55 340 x= 2.94 2.77 2.61 2.60 2.92 2.80 0.97 0.42 s= 0.97 1.01 1.04 1.18 1.06 1.02 6. Promoted n= 55 179 36 15 55 340 X= 2.54 2.50 2.41 2.33 2.69 2.52 0.85 0.49 s= 0.82 0.91 0.77 0.81 0.85 0.87 7. Graduate n= 57 179 36 15 55 342 2.45 2.35 2.66 2.20 2.35 2.39 1.26 0.28 s= 0.80 0.90 0.89 0.86 0.84 0.87 8. Parent's co-op. n= 57 179 36 15 56 343 1= 4.28 4.30 4.55 3.46 4.26 4.28 3.81 0.00 s= 0.95 0.88 0.77 1.24 0.96 0.93 9. Referral n= 57 179 36 15 56 343 Table 10 I n f e r e n t i al and Descri p t i ve S t a t i s t i e s f o r F a m i l i a r i t y with Sped. by Items Very Item Unfamiliar Familiar Familiar Total F P X= 3.11 3.24 2.97 3.19 0.97 0.37 s= 1.18 1.18 1.13 1.18 1. Sped, placement n= 67 238 36 341 x= 3.85 3.84 3.40 3.79 3.26 0.03 s= 0.94 0.95 1.21 0.99 2. Presence n= 67 239 37 343 X= 2.41 2.43 2.86 2.47 2.36 0.09 s= 1.22 1.10 1.25 1.15 3. Reqular class n= 67 239 37 343 X= 3.35 3.04 2.51 3.05 6.05 0.00 s= 1.21 1.15 1.09 1.18 4. Beh. disorder n= 67 ?™ 35 340 X= 2.19 2.24 1.85 2.19 2.70 0.06 s= 0.92 0.94 0.84 0.93 5. Slow learner n= 67 237 35 339 X= 2.74 2.77 2.97 2.79 0.66 0.51 s= 1.01 0.99 1.08 1.02 6. Promoted n= 66 237 36 339 X= 2.29 2.57 2.62 2.52 2.92 0.05 s= 0.88 0.86 0.84 0.86 7. Graduate n= 67 239 35 341 X= 2.22 2.40 2.68 2.39 3.28 0.03 s= 0.79 0.90 0.75 0.87 8. Parent's co-op. n= 67 240 35 342 X= 4.20 4.35 3.97 4.28 2.82 0.06 s= 0.87 0.85 1.36 0.93 9. Referral n= 67 240 35 342 Table 11 I n f e r e n t i a l and D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s f o r C r e d i t s in Sped, by Items Item None 1.5 3.0 4.5 6.0 or more Total F P 3.32 2.96 3.14 2.66 3.02 3.17 1.75 0.13 s= 1.16 1.24 1.17 1.23 1.16 1.18 1. Sped, placement n= 175 30 49 12 73 339 X= 4.01 3.33 3.59 3.08 3.68 3.79 6.45 0.00 s= 0.88 0.95 1.09 1.24 1.00 0.99 2. Presence n= 176 30 49 12 74 341 X= 2.34 2.83 2.46 3.00 2.57 2.47 2.09 0.08 s= 1.11 1.14 1.22 1.27 1.12 1.14 3. Regular class n= 175 30 49 12 75 341 X= 3.16 2.86 2.95 2.33 3.00 3.04 1.84 0.12 s= 1.18 1.16 1.35 0.77 1.05 1.17 4. Beh. disorder n= 173 30 49 12 74 X= 2.27 2.06 2.42 1.75 2.02 2.20 2.52 0.04 s= 0.98 0.63 1.00 0.62 0.85 0.93 5. Slow learner n= 172 30 49 12 74 337 1= 2.76 3.00 2.57 2.75 2.92 2.79 1.20 0.30 s= 1.06 1.01 1.02 0.75 0.96 1.02 6. Promoted n= 171 30 49 12 75 337 X= 2.39 2.76 2.79 2.66 2.54 2.52 2.92 0.02 s= 0.89 0.77 0.86 0.98 0.81 0.87 7. Graduate n= 174 30 49 12 74 339 X= 2.25 2.73 2.36 2.66 2.58 2.40 3.41 0.00 s= 0.84 0.94 0.75 1.07 0.92 0.87 8. Parent's co-op. n= 175 30 49 12 74 340 X= 4.28 4.43 4.34 4.41 4.17 4.28 p. 55 0.69 s= 0.90 0.62 0.87 0.66 1.15 0.93 9. Referral n= 175 30 49 12 74 340 Summary o f S i gn i f i c a n t Di f f e r e Table rices (* 12 ) f o r Items by Demogr a p h i c V a r i a b l e s Va r i a b l e s Item 1 Item 2 Item 3 Item 4 I tem 5 Item 6 Item 7 Item 8 I tem 9 1 . E t h n i c groups * * 2. T e a c h e r ' s p o s i t i o n * 3. Grades t e a c h i n g * 4. T e a c h e r ' s gender * * 5 . Y e a r ' s employed * 6. T e a c h e r ' s age 7. E n g l i s h 1 s t Language * * 8. U n i v e r s i t y T r a i n i n g * 9. F a m i l i a r i t y i n Sped. * * * * 10 . C r e d i t s i n Sped. * * * * V. DISCUSSION T h i s chapter p r e s e n t s a summary and d i s c u s s i o n of the r e s u l t s of the study. Included i s a d i s c u s s i o n of the l i m i t a t i o n s of the study and suggested areas f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . T h i s chapter a l s o presents the summary and c o n c l u s i o n s . A. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS 1. Overall teacher responses T h i s s e c t i o n presents the d i s c u s s i o n on the o v e r a l l teacher responses to each of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e items. The h i g h l i g h t s of these f i n d i n g s a r e : (1) With the exception of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e items s i x , seven and e i g h t , l e s s than 20% of teachers responded n e u t r a l l y to the other s i x items. T h e r e f o r e , even though the case study was l i m i t e d i n d e t a i l , most teachers responded e i t h e r a g r e e i n g or d i s a g r e e i n g with the q u e s t i o n n a i r e items. (2) P o l a r i z e d o p i n i o n s of teacher responses were observed f o r f i v e items. The f o l l o w i n g items are l i s t e d i n order of hig h e s t p o l a r i t y . In q u e s t i o n nine, 77.9% of the teachers i n d i c a t e d agreement that the c h i l d should be r e f e r r e d f o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l or p s y c h i a t r i c i n t e r v e n t i o n . C l e a r l y , teachers i n d i c a t e d that p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t e r v e n t i o n would appear j u s t i f i e d f o r any student, with the problems d e s c r i b e d i n 1 22 DISCUSSION / 123 the c h i l d i n t h i s case study. In q u e s t i o n f i v e , 71.5% of the teachers i n d i c a t e d disagreement that the c h i l d should be r e f e r r e d to a c l a s s f o r slow l e a r n e r s . Many teachers had i n d i c a t e d they would r e f e r the c h i l d to a c l a s s f o r b e h a v i o r a l l y d i s o r d e r e d c h i l d r e n and would not be l i k e l y to a l s o r e f e r the c h i l d to a c l a s s f o r slow l e a r n e r s . In q u e s t i o n two, 69.2% of the teachers i n d i c a t e d agreement that the c h i l d ' s presence i n the classroom would be d e t r i m e n t a l to the education of the other c h i l d r e n . Although the r e s u l t i s not s u r p r i s i n g , of the approximately 30% of the teachers who d i s a g r e e d , most were s p e c i a l education t e a c h e r s . In q u e s t i o n three, 58.6% of the teachers i n d i c a t e d disagreement that the c h i l d should remain in the r e g u l a r c l a s s and r e c e i v e s p e c i a l a s s i s t a n c e from the r e g u l a r classroom teacher. T h i s r e s u l t i s probably due to the f a c t that c h i l d r e n with behaviour and academic problems c r e a t e c o n s i d e r a b l e s t r e s s oh r e g u l a r classroom teachers ( K e l l y et a l , 1977). T h e r e f o r e , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that the m a j o r i t y of teachers would not want t h i s c h i l d to remain in t h e i r classroom. In q u e s t i o n e i g h t , 56.2% of the teachers i n d i c a t e d disagreement that they would get c o o p e r a t i o n from the DISCUSSION / 124 c h i l d ' s p a r e n t s . P o s s i b l y , teachers have experienced a l a c k of c o o p e r a t i o n from the parents of c h i l d r e n with behaviour problems. In a d d i t i o n , no p o s i t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the c h i l d ' s parents was provided i n the case study. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e items one, four and s i x teachers were most d i v i d e d i n t h e i r o p i n i o n s . In item one, 30.8% of the t e a c h e r s d i s a g r e e d , 21.9% i n d i c a t e d a n e u t r a l response and 46.4% agreed that the c h i l d should be p l a c e d i n a s p e c i a l e ducation c l a s s . These r e s u l t s were probably due to the f a c t t h a t the case study was d e l i b e r a t e l y designed to be ambiguous, so teachers would not be c l e a r as to whether the c h i l d should or should not be p l a c e d i n a s p e c i a l education c l a s s . In item four, 37.7% of the teachers d i s a g r e e d , 18.4% i n d i c a t e d a n e u t r a l response and 42.7% agreed that the c h i l d should be p l a c e d i n a s p e c i a l c l a s s f o r the b e h a v i o r a l l y d i s o r d e r e d . Although the Vancouver School Board s p e c i a l e ducation c o - o r d i n a t o r (1985) d i s a g r e e d that the c h i l d d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s case study should be r e f e r r e d to a s p e c i a l c l a s s f o r b e h a v i o r a l l y d i s o r d e r e d , p o s s i b l y the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that many teachers are not c l e a r as to what c o n d i t i o n s c o n s t i t u t e a c h i l d being r e f e r r e d to t h i s type of s p e c i a l education c l a s s . In item s i x , 38.0% of the teachers agreed, 32% i n d i c a t e d DISCUSSION / 125 a n e u t r a l response and 28.5% d i s a g r e e d that the c h i l d should be promoted to the next grade. P o s s i b l y , because of the ambiguity of the case study i n f o r m a t i o n , i t was d i f f i c u l t f o r t e a c h e r s to assess t h i s item. 2 . Item by i t e m summary of f i n d i n g s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e item one read "Placement i n a s p e c i a l e ducation c l a s s i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h i s c h i l d . " As p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d , t e a c h e r s were d i v i d e d i n t h e i r o p i n i o n s as to whether they agreed or d i s a g r e e d with t h i s statement. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e item two read "This c h i l d ' s presence i n the r e g u l a r classroom would be d e t r i m e n t a l to the education of the other c h i l d r e n i n the classroom." Four of the demographic v a r i a b l e s y i e l d e d s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s . In The f i r s t v a r i a b l e , " t o t a l years employed as a school teacher", the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that t e a c h e r s who taught f o r longer p e r i o d s of time were more l i k e l y to agree that the c h i l d ' s presence would be d e t r i m e n t a l to the education of the other c h i l d r e n i n the classroom. P o s s i b l y teachers who have taught c o n t i n u o u s l y f o r many years might become l e s s t o l e r a n t of the demands placed on them by students with academic and behaviour problems. In the second and t h i r d v a r i a b l e s , the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d DISCUSSION / 126 that t e a c h e r s who were more f a m i l i a r with s p e c i a l education programs i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t and who had more u n i v e r s i t y c r e d i t s i n s p e c i a l education tended to d i s a g r e e that the c h i l d ' s presence would be d e t r i m e n t a l , when compared with teachers who r a t e d themselves l e s s f a m i l i a r with s p e c i a l e ducation programs i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t and who had l e s s u n i v e r s i t y c r e d i t s i n s p e c i a l education. I t seems probable that s p e c i a l education teachers and teachers more f a m i l i a r and s k i l l e d i n s p e c i a l education are more l i k e l y to p e r c e i v e the student's presence as not being d e t r i m e n t a l t o the education of other students. Item three read, "This c h i l d should remain i n the r e g u l a r c l a s s and r e c e i v e s p e c i a l a s s i s t a n c e from the r e g u l a r classroom teacher." S i m i l a r r e s u l t s were observed as in item two. I t appears that teachers more f a m i l i a r with s p e c i a l education programs and who have u n i v e r s i t y c r e d i t s in s p e c i a l education tend to agree that the c h i l d should remain i n the r e g u l a r c l a s s . P o s s i b l y teachers more exposed to or s k i l l e d i n s p e c i a l education do not p e r c e i v e the c h i l d , d e s c r i b e d in the case study, as p r e s e n t i n g a h i s t o r y to warrant s p e c i a l c l a s s placement. Item four read, "This c h i l d should be p l a c e d i n a s p e c i a l c l a s s f o r b e h a v i o r a l l y d i s o r d e r e d c h i l d r e n . ( C h i l d r e n who are a c t i n g out or who have severe behavior DISCUSSION / 127 problems)." The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that f o r the main e f f e c t ( c h i l d ' s e t h n i c i t y ) there was a g r e a t e r tendency f o r the Native Indian c h i l d to be p e r c e i v e d as being most s u i t e d f o r s p e c i a l c l a s s placement. In a d d i t i o n , O r i e n t a l c h i l d r e n were p e r c e i v e d as being l e a s t s u i t e d f o r s p e c i a l c l a s s placement when compared with c h i l d r e n from the other three groups. C l e a r l y , teachers tended to i n d i c a t e a b i a s towards the O r i e n t a l and the N a t i v e Indian c h i l d . I t i s probable teachers may have had previous experiences with c h i l d r e n from these e t h n i c groups r e s u l t i n g i n t h e i r making s t e r e o t y p i c p r e d i c t i o n s . Previous r e s e a r c h has shown that Native Indian students are more l i k e l y to be p e r c e i v e d , by t e a c h e r s , as prone to demonstrating academic and behavior problems (Hunter & Stevens, 1980). However, l i t t l e r e s e a r c h has been conducted to e x p l a i n why O r i e n t a l c h i l d r e n might be p e r c e i v e d as being l e s s s u i t e d f o r s p e c i a l c l a s s placement as compared with c h i l d r e n from the other groups. P o s s i b l y , O r i e n t a l c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e g r e a t e r encouragement, from t h e i r parents to conduct themselves i n a q u i e t e r and well-behaved manner. Therefore, teachers may be l e s s l i k e l y to r a t e O r i e n t a l students as being prone to demonstrate maladaptive classroom behavior. Two demographic v a r i a b l e s were a l s o found to y i e l d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . The f i r s t v a r i a b l e , t e a c h e r ' s gender, revealed that female teachers were more l i k e l y to DISCUSSION / 128 r e f e r the c h i l d to a c l a s s f o r b e h a v i o r a l l y d i s o r d e r e d than male t e a c h e r s . The second v a r i a b l e r e v e a l e d that teachers more f a m i l i a r with s p e c i a l education programs i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t tended to d i s a g r e e that the c h i l d should be p l a c e d i n a s p e c i a l c l a s s compared with t e a c h e r s l e s s f a m i l i a r with s p e c i a l education programs. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e item f i v e read, "This c h i l d should be p l a c e d i n a s p e c i a l c l a s s f o r slow l e a r n e r s . " The demographic v a r i a b l e , " t e a ching p o s i t i o n " , was s i g n i f i c a n t . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h at s p e c i a l education teachers were not as l i k e l y to r e f e r the c h i l d to a c l a s s f o r slow l e a r n e r s as r e g u l a r t e a c h e r s . S p e c i a l education teachers by v i r t u e of t h e i r t r a i n i n g probably f e l t that a c l a s s f o r slow l e a r n e r s was not the a p p r o p r i a t e c h o i c e f o r the c h i l d d e s c r i b e d i n the case study. The demographic v a r i a b l e , "was E n g l i s h your f i r s t spoken language", r e v e a l e d that teachers who i n d i c a t e d they spoke E n g l i s h as a second language were more l i k e l y to r e f e r the c h i l d to a c l a s s f o r slow l e a r n e r s . T h i s item i s d i f f i c u l t to i n t e r p r e t . Item s i x read, "This c h i l d should be promoted to the next grade." No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were observed f o r the main or secondary e f f e c t s . However, as p r e v i o u s l y DISCUSSION / 129 d i s c u s s e d , teacher o p i n i o n s were most d i v i d e d on t h i s item. Almost o n e - t h i r d agreed, o n e - t h i r d i n d i c a t e d a n e u t r a l response and o n e - t h i r d d i s a g r e e d . I t i s p o s s i b l e that t e a c h e r s are d i v i d e d on the i s s u e of promoting c h i l d r e n to the next grade whose academic a b i l i t y f o r succeeding i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . Item seven read, "This c h i l d i s most l i k e l y to graduate from high s c h o o l . " The main e f f e c t (the c h i l d ' s e t h n i c i t y ) was s i g n i f i c a n t . F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d that the Native Indian c h i l d was c o n s i d e r e d l e s s l i k e l y to graduate than the c h i l d d e s c r i b e d in each of the other three groups. In a d d i t i o n , O r i e n t a l c h i l d r e n were c o n s i d e r e d more l i k e l y to graduate than East Indian c h i l d r e n . These r e s u l t s appear to be due to an e t h n i c b i a s a g a i n s t East Indian and e s p e c i a l l y Native Indian c h i l d r e n . Conversely, the r e s u l t s c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d to a p o s i t i v e b i a s i n teacher o p i n i o n f o r c h i l d r e n who are O r i e n t a l and Caucasian. That i s , teachers may a t t r i b u t e some c u l t u r a l advantage to Caucasian and O r i e n t a l c h i l d r e n , and b e l i e v e that these students are g e n e r a l l y more l i k e l y to graduate than East Indian or Native Indian students. Two demographic v a r i a b l e s were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t . These v a r i a b l e s , f a m i l i a r i t y with s p e c i a l education and u n i v e r i s i t y c r e d i t s i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n , r e v e a l that DISCUSSION / 130 teachers more f a m i l i a r with s p e c i a l education and who have u n i v e r s i t y c r e d i t s i n s p e c i a l education are more l i k e l y to b e l i e v e the c h i l d would graduate than teachers l e s s f a m i l i a r or who do not have c r e d i t s i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . The above demographic v a r i a b l e s suggest that teachers t r a i n e d or f a m i l i a r with s p e c i a l education are l e s s l i k e l y to prejudge the l i k e l i h o o d of f u t u r e graduation of the c h i l d d e s c r i b e d i n the case study. In a d d i t i o n , i t appears that these t e a c h e r s may b e l i e v e that c h i l d r e n s u f f e r i n g from academic and behavior problems at an e a r l y age can b e n e f i t by s p e c i a l programming and s u c c e s s f u l l y r e t u r n to the mainstream school program and e v e n t u a l l y graduate. Item e i g h t read, "Cooperation from the c h i l d ' s parents can be expected." The main e f f e c t (the c h i l d ' s e t h n i c i t y ) was s i g n i f i c a n t . F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d that teachers were more l i k e l y to expect c o o p e r a t i o n from the parents of the O r i e n t a l c h i l d than the parents of the Native Indian c h i l d . As i n item seven, these r e s u l t s appear to be due to an e t h n i c b i a s a g a i n s t Native Indian c h i l d r e n . Four demographic v a r i a b l e s were a l s o found to be s i g n i f i c a n t . The f i r s t v a r i a b l e , teacher's gender, r e v e a l e d that female teachers were l e s s l i k e l y to expect c o o p e r a t i o n from the c h i l d r e n ' s p a r e n t s , than male t e a c h e r s . T h i s DISCUSSION / 131 f i n d i n g i s d i f f i c u l t to i n t e r p r e t . The second v a r i a b l e , "Was E n g l i s h your f i r s t spoken language", r e v e a l e d that teachers who spoke E n g l i s h as a second language were more l i k e l y to expect c o o p e r a t i o n from the c h i l d ' s parents than teachers whose n a t i v e language was E n g l i s h . P o s s i b l y , many of the teache r s who i n d i c a t e d they spoke E n g l i s h as a second language are members of a v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y group and t h e r e f o r e not as l i k e l y to make d i s t i n c t i o n s , r e g a r d i n g p a r e n t a l c o o p e r a t i o n , based on the e t h n i c i t y of the c h i l d . The t h i r d , and f o u r t h v a r i a b l e s , f a m i l i a r i t y with s p e c i a l education programs and u n i v e r s i t y c r e d i t s i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n , r e v e a l e d t h a t t e a c h e r s more f a m i l i a r with s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n programs and who had c r e d i t s i n s p e c i a l education were more l i k e l y to expect c o o p e r a t i o n from the c h i l d ' s p a r ents than teachers l e s s f a m i l i a r and not having u n i v e r s i t y c r e d i t s i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . As i n p r e v i o u s items, i t appears that t e a c h e r s who are more knowledgeable and s k i l l e d i n s p e c i a l education may be l e s s l i k e l y to d i s c o u n t c o o p e r a t i o n from the c h i l d ' s parents unless they have had some p r i o r experience where the c h i l d ' s parents behaved i n an uncooperative manner. In a d d i t i o n , teachers who have taught c h i l d r e n with academic or behavior problems may have found from d i r e c t experience that the c h i l d r e n ' s parents can be as c o o p e r a t i v e as the parents of c h i l d r e n not e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t y i n s c h o o l . DISCUSSION / 132 Item nine read, "This c h i l d should be r e f e r r e d f o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l and/or p s y c h i a t r i c e v a l u a t i o n . " The v a r i a b l e , u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g was s i g n i f i c a n t . F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d that teachers who had a c q u i r e d a Master of A r t s degree, were l e s s l i k e l y to r e f e r the c h i l d , d e s c r i b e d i n the case study, f o r c o u n s e l l i n g , than teachers with l e s s e r degrees. T h i s f i n d i n g i s d i f f i c u l t to i n t e r p r e t . However, the number of s u b j e c t s who i n d i c a t e d they h e l d a Masters of A r t s degree was small (n=15) and may have e f f e c t e d the r e s u l t s . The demographic v a r i a b l e , teacher's p o s i t i o n , r e v e a l e d that s p e c i a l education teachers were not as l i k e l y as other teachers to r e f e r the c h i l d f o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g . However, t h i s f i n d i n g was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . T h i s s e c t i o n has presented the summary of the f i n d i n g s . T h i s i n c l u d e d the o v e r a l l teacher responses to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e items and an item by item summary of the f i n d i n g s . In the s e c t i o n that reviewed the o v e r a l l teacher responses to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e items, the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d almost 80% of the teachers i n d i c a t e d agreement or disagreement to most of the items. A m i n o r i t y of the teachers responded n e u t r a l l y . On f i v e of the items, a hi g h general consensus was observed i n teacher o p i n i o n . However, on items one, four and s i x , t e a c h e r s appeared s p l i t on t h e i r o p i n i o n s . A m a j o r i t y of the teachers i n d i c a t e d that they DISCUSSION / 133 agreed the c h i l d should be r e f e r r e d to s p e c i a l education and that the c h i l d should not remain i n the r e g u l a r c l a s s . Less than 10% of the teach e r s f e l t the c h i l d would graduate and almost 56% of the teach e r s i n d i c a t e d that they d i d not think they would get c o o p e r a t i o n from the c h i l d ' s p a r e n t s . On the item by item summary of the f i n d i n g s , s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s were observed f o r items seven and e i g h t . In item seven and e i g h t , t eachers' responses i n d i c a t e d that they d i d not f e e l the Native and East Indian c h i l d r e n were as l i k e l y to graduate nor co u l d they expect as much co o p e r a t i o n from the parents of these c h i l d r e n as from parents of the O r i e n t a l c h i l d . Of the demographic v a r i a b l e s , s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were observed f o r every item except teacher's age. For the v a r i a b l e s , teacher's p o s i t i o n , u n i v e r s i t y c r e d i t s in s p e c i a l e ducation and f a m i l i a r i t y with s p e c i a l education programs many of the items were found to be s i g n i f i c a n t . These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that s p e c i a l education t e a c h e r s and teache r s more f a m i l i a r with s p e c i a l education and/or having u n i v e r s i t y c r e d i t s i n s p e c i a l education tended to respond in a l e s s b i a s e d manner and were g e n e r a l l y more o p t i m i s t i c about the c h i l d d e s c r i b e d i n the case study. In a d d i t i o n , female teachers were more l i k e l y to r e f e r the c h i l d to a c l a s s f o r b e h a v i o r a l l y d i s o r d e r e d and l e s s l i k e l y to expect DISCUSSION / 134 c o o p e r a t i o n from the c h i l d ' s parents than male t e a c h e r s . Teachers who taught f o r 21 years or longer were more l i k e l y to b e l i e v e the c h i l d i n the case study would be a detriment to the education of the other c h i l d r e n i n the classroom. Teachers who spoke E n g l i s h as a second language were more l i k e l y to r e f e r the c h i l d to a c l a s s f o r slow l e a r n e r s and expect c o o p e r a t i o n from the c h i l d ' s parents. The next s e c t i o n presents the l i m i t a t i o n s of the study. B. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY T h i s study was based on the use of a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t e d of nine demographic q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the teachers c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a case study l e s s than a page in l e n g t h and nine questions or response items. I d e a l l y the l e n g t h and depth of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o u l d have been expanded. (However, because teachers are o f t e n requested to p a r t i c i p a t e i n r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s , the author was requested to keep the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s h o r t , by the Vancouver School Board Research Department. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to assess teachers' o p i n i o n s and p e r c e p t i o n s from q u e s t i o n n a i r e s with l i m i t e d response o p t i o n s and b r i e f case study i n f o r m a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , what teache r s might i n d i c a t e on a q u e s t i o n n a i r e and how they a c t u a l l y behave i n the r e a l classroom s e t t i n g can d i f f e r . DISCUSSION / 135 One of the s t u d i e s reviewed i n the l i t e r a t u r e review a c t u a l l y demonstrated how p e r s o n a l contact with students i n the classroom s e t t i n g , can o v e r i d e what teachers might i n d i c a t e i n a q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Guttman & B a r - T a l , 1982). A l s o , some r e s e a r c h e r s have c r i t i z e d s t u d i e s that have attempted to induce teacher e x p e c t a t i o n s through the p r o v i s i o n of f a l s e i n f o r m a t i o n as provided on q u e s t i o n n a i r e s (Brophy & Good, 1983). The above r e s e a r c h e r s have suggested t h a t f i e l d and case s t u d i e s are a p r e f e r r e d means of a s s e s s i n g s e n s i t i v e i s s u e s such as r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . (However, f i e l d and case s t u d i e s can be very expensive, time consuming and i n t r u s i v e ) . In a d d i t i o n , s t u d i e s which use L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e s are c r i t i z e d f o r having too narrow response c h o i c e s versus open-ended s c a l e s which allow s u b j e c t s a g r e a t e r response. (However, because of the wide range of responses p o s s i b l e on an open ended s c a l e the r e s u l t s can be very d i f f i c u l t to a n a l y z e ) . Another problem with L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e s i s the i s s u e of p r a c t i c a l versus s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s (Brophy & Good, 1983). Another problem of conducting r e s e a r c h i n e t h n i c b i a s i s th a t many teachers are aware of pr e v i o u s s t u d i e s , such as Rosenthal & Jacobson's famous study, which appeared i n the p u b l i c a t i o n of "Pygmalion In The Classroom" (1968). T h i s DISCUSSION / 136 c o u l d r e s u l t in teach e r s being l e a r y of what they i n d i c a t e on a q u e s t i o n n a i r e , e s p e c i a l l y i f they suspect the study i s on e t h n i c b i a s . (This makes i t very important that such s t u d i e s be c a r e f u l l y masked). S p e c i f i c l i m i t a t i o n s observed i n t h i s study were: (1) Almost 41.5% of the o v e r a l l sample d i d not complete or respond to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Had these s u b j e c t s completed the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i t i s p o s s i b l e the r e s u l t s may have been d i f f e r e n t than those observed in t h i s study. (2) I t would have been p r e f e r a b l e t o have a s e l e c t e d panel of judges assess the v a l i d i t y of each of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e items. C. AREAS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH T h i s s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e s areas f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h that have a r i s e n from the s t u d i e s i n the l i t e r a t u r e review and from the resea r c h conducted i n t h i s study. The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t of areas f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h that have a r i s e n from the s t u d i e s d i s c u s s e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e review ( P r i e t o & Zucker, 1979; Guttman & B a r - T a l , 1982; Gonzales, 1979; Rueda & P r i e t o , 1979). Some of these areas a r e : 1. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of teacher c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h at a f f e c t r e t e n t i o n of s t e r e o t y p e s and how teachers can be made aware of the d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s of s t e r e o t y p i c p e r c e p t i o n s . A l s o , how these teacher c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can DISCUSSION / 137 be reduced to prevent the d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t s they might have on the e v a l u a t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s of students' achievement and behavior. 2. The i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s among such v a r i a b l e s as e t h n i c i t y , SES, gender, f a c i a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s , c o g n i t i v e s t y l e , IQ and student achievement, and behavior. 3. The i m p l i c a t i o n s of i n t e r c u l t u r a l and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s with e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n . A l s o , the types of s p e c i a l education programs that would best prepare educators to meet the needs of m u l t i c u l t u r a l e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n i n s p e c i a l e ducation. 4. The r o l e of s p e c i a l education i n regards to e t h n i c m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n and the types of s e r v i c e s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l programs that would be most e f f e c t i v e . For example, as A i e l l o , suggests, there i s a c o n t i n u i n g o b l i g a t i o n f o r res e a r c h e r s and educators to d e f i n e and d e s c r i b e s p e c i a l education c h i l d r e n . 5. Teacher t r a i n i n g programs and s t r a t e g i e s that would maximize the the q u a l i t y of education that e t h n i c m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n c o u l d r e c e i v e i n the r e g u l a r classrooms. (Such programs need to be c o n t i n u a l l y researched, so they can be eval u a t e d and compared with a l t e r n a t i v e programs). 6. Many aspects regarding the q u a l i t y and types of m u l t i c u l t u r a l education programs and DISCUSSION / 138 7. Why c e r t a i n groups of c h i l d r e n are e d u c a t i o n a l l y disadvantaged and how such disadvantages can be removed. T h i s l i s t r e p r e s e n t s only a smal l subset of areas where f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed. However, rese a r c h that i s not c a r e f u l l y conducted, or f a i l s to b u i l d on or i n c l u d e the f i n d i n g s of e a r l i e r r e l e v a n t r e s e a r c h , i s l i k e l y to be no b e t t e r than no re s e a r c h at a l l . T h i s problem i s w e l l expressed i n Kehoe's paper " A l t e r n a t i v e s To Racism" (unpublished paper, not dated) . He argues that much of the res e a r c h and p o l i c y papers, t e a c h e r s guides, workshops e t c . , on m u l t i c u l t u r a l education are being conducted so f r a n t i c a l l y that many of the past mistakes are being repeated today. Some s p e c i f i c c r i t i c i s m s of such r e s e a r c h a r e : 1. Some of these s t u d i e s and assessments are f o c u s i n g on obscure i s s u e s and not determining the c e n t r a l causes or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p r e j u d i c e d or s t e r e o t y p i c b ehavior. 2. Programs are being implemented without c o n s i d e r a t i o n to other r e s e a r c h that might e i t h e r be c o n t r a d i c t o r y or might suggest stronger a l t e r n a t i v e programs and 3. S t u d i e s are being conducted d u p l i c a t i n g other r e s e a r c h . T h i s r e s u l t s i n a waste of time, resources and money. Other areas f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h based on the study conducted i n t h i s paper a r e : DISCUSSION / 1 3 9 1. The d i f f e r e n c e s between the concepts of r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n (American) versus e t h n i c d i s c r i m i n a t i o n (Canadian). 2. The extent and e f f e c t s of e t h n i c d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t N a t ive and East Indian students, i n the school system. 3 . The e f f e c t s of p o s i t i v e teacher b i a s d i r e c t e d towards c e r t a i n c u l t u r a l groups, such as O r i e n t a l s tudents. 4. F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of some of the respondent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the teachers who completed the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . For example, s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were observed f o r such v a r i a b l e s as the teacher's p o s i t i o n and degree of e d u c a t i o n , gender, years employed as a teacher, f a m i l i a r i t y with s p e c i a l education programs, number of c r e d i t s t e a c h e r s had i n s p e c i a l education courses and whether teachers spoke E n g l i s h as a f i r s t language. In summary, more r e s e a r c h i s necessary to assess teacher b i a s towards students from v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups. In a d d i t i o n , i n the area of teacher b i a s towards students from v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups i n s p e c i a l education r e f e r r a l s , t h i s study i s the f i r s t to be conducted i n Canada. The next s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s the summary. DISCUSSION / 140 D. SUMMARY T h i s paper has examined some of the i s s u e s r e g a r d i n g v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y group s t a t u s as a b i a s i n g f a c t o r i n tea c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s of t h e i r s t u d e n t s . The resea r c h suggests that some school students may be t r e a t e d d i f f e r e n t l y by some tea c h e r s , not because of such f a c t o r s as the students' academic a b i l i t y or school performance, but because of the e t h n i c group to which the student belongs. The r e s u l t s of the study p r o v i d e evidence that some teachers do show an e t h n i c b i a s towards students from some v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups. In a d d i t i o n , t h i s study o f f e r e d c l e a r evidence that N a t i v e Indian c h i l d r e n and i n some cases East Indian students are at r i s k at being p e r c e i v e d as: being more h i g h l y s u i t e d f o r s p e c i a l c l a s s placement, being l e s s l i k e l y to graduate and having parents l e s s c o o p e r a t i v e than when compared with Caucasian and O r i e n t a l students. However, the study a l s o p r o v i d e s evidence that s p e c i a l education t e a c h e r s , teachers with c r e d i t s i n s p e c i a l education courses and teach e r s f a m i l i a r with s p e c i a l e ducation programs are l e s s l i k e l y to demonstrate a b i a s a g a i n s t students from v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups than when compared with r e g u l a r classroom t e a c h e r s . DISCUSSION / 141 E. CONCLUSIONS To conclude, t h i s study has s p e c i f i c a l l y examined teacher b i a s towards v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups i n s p e c i a l education r e f e r r a l s . The r e s u l t s suggest that some educators, when given a q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n t a i n i n g a f i c t i t i o u s case h i s t o r y d e s c r i b i n g a c h i l d belonging to one of four e t h n i c groups, w i l l respond to q u e s t i o n n a i r e items d i f f e r e n t l y depending on the e t h n i c i t y of the c h i l d . T h i s study has provided evidence that some teachers w i l l demonstrate a negative b i a s towards a c h i l d d e s c r i b e d as Native Indian and, i n some cases, East Indian and show a p o s i t i v e b i a s towards a c h i l d d e s c r i b e d as Caucasian and e s p e c i a l l y i f d e s c r i b e d as O r i e n t a l . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e items which r e v e a l e d the g r e a t e s t e t h n i c b i a s i n teachers' e x p e c t a n c i e s were those that i n v o l v e d teachers making p r e d i c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g p a r e n t a l c o o p e r a t i o n and the l i k e l i h o o d of high school graduation and the item r e g a r d i n g placement i n a s p e c i a l c l a s s f o r b e h a v i o u r a l l y d i s o r d e r e d . T h i s r e s e a r c h a l s o suggests that some teachers appear l e s s l i k e l y to demonstrate a b i a s towards students from v i s i b l e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups. For example, s p e c i a l education teachers or teachers being more f a m i l i a r with s p e c i a l education programs or having DISCUSSION / 142 some course work i n s p e c i a l education were l e s s l i k e l y to demonstrate e t h n i c s t e r e o t y p i n g and were g e n e r a l l y more o p t i m i s t i c about the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y to f u n c t i o n i n a r e g u l a r c l a s s , graduate from high school and have c o o p e r a t i v e parents when compared with r e g u l a r teachers not as f a m i l i a r or s k i l l e d i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . Teachers who are t r a i n e d i n s p e c i a l education or have taken course work in s p e c i a l education have been exposed to a c u r r i c u l u m that encourages t o l e r a n c e and acceptance of e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n . Such t r a i n i n g may a l s o promote e t h n i c t o l e r a n c e or g r e a t e r p r o p e n s i t y to judge c h i l d r e n a c c o r d i n g to the p r i n c i p l e s of " U n i v e r s a l i s m " ( C l i f t o n et a l , 1982). T h i s p r i n c i p l e i m p l i e s a c c o r d i n g d i f f e r e n t i a l p e r c e p t i o n or treatment of students only i n terms of t h e i r a b i l i t y and/or performance and not i n terms of other f a c t o r s , such as e t h n i c i t y , ( C l i f t o n et a l , 1982). Much re s e a r c h i s s t i l l r e q u i r e d to f i n d b e t t e r methods f o r promoting m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m and e t h n i c t o l e r a n c e i n our school systems and s o c i e t y at l a r g e . Although there remains much work to be done, i t i s p o s s i b l e that e t h n i c s t e r e o t y p i n g and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n Canadian s c h o o l s , can become r a r e l y , i f ever, evidenced. V I . 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Rueda, R., & P r i e t o , A. (1979). C u l t u r a l p l u r a l i s m : I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r teacher t r a i n i n g . Teacher Education and  S p e c i a l Education. 2(4), 4-11. S a l v i a , J . , C l a r k e , G., & Ysseldyke, J . (1973). Teacher r e t e n t i o n of s t e r e o t y p e s of e x c e p t i o n a l i t y . E x c e p t i o n a l  C h i l d r e n , 39, 651-652. Schools t e s t " u n f a i r " (1984, November). The Pr o v i n c e , P. 9. S c h u l t z , R. (1983). S o c i o p s y c h o l o g i c a l c l i m a t e s and t e a c h e r - b i a s expectancy: A p o s s i b l e mediating mechanism. J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, 76(1), 167-173. REFERENCES / 154 Sealy, D. B. (1975). Race, c u l t u r e and e d u c a t i o n . Manitoba  J o u r n a l of Education, j_0(2), 3-10. SPSS:X (June, 1986). S t a t i s t i c a l package f o r s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , r e l e a s e 2.0, by C a l v i n L a i . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. St. George, A. (February, 1983). Teacher e x p e c t a t i o n s and p e r c e p t i o n s of P o l y n e s i a n and Pakeha p u p i l s and the r e l a t i o n s h i p to classroom behavior and school achievement. B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, 52(1), 48-59. T a y l o r , C. (1971). The e x p e c t a t i o n s of pygmalion's c r e a t o r s . In J . Brophy & T. Good, Teacher-student r e l a t i o n s h i p s :  causes and consequences. New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t , & Winston. Thorndike, R. (1968). Review of pygmalipn in the classroom. In J . Brophy & T. Good, Teacher-student r e l a t i o n s h i p s :  Causes and consequences, New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t , & Winston. T r i a l f o r hate (1984, June). The P r o v i n c e , P. 6. Tobias, S., Cole, C , Z i b r i n , M., & Bodlakoa, V. (1982). Teacher-student e t h n i c i t y and recommendations f o r s p e c i a l education r e f e r r a l s . J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l  Psychology, 74, 72-76. Tobias, S., Z i b r i n , M., & M e n e l l , C. (1983). S p e c i a l education r e f e r r a l s : F a i l u r e to r e p l i c a t e student-teacher e t h n i c i t y i n t e r a c t i o n . J o u r n a l of  E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, 75, 705-707. REFERENCES / 155 UNESCO (1971). Research and development in compensatory education abroad. In L. Hoxter, Teacher a t t i t u d e s and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s . The A l b e r t a J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l  Research, 20, 134-135. The Vancouver Board of Trade. (June, 1986). World Trade Center Vancouver. Vancouver i n f o r m a t i o n sheet. Vancouver School Board (September, 1985). Ready r e f e r e n c e l i s t , Vancouver School Board Communications S e r v i c e s . Van Dyke, V. (1973). E q u a l i t y and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n : A comparative and i n t e r n a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d i e s Q u a r t e r l y , J[(17), 375-404. Yee, A. (1968). I n t e r p e r s o n a l a t t i t u d e s of teachers and advantaged and disadvantaged p u p i l s . J o u r n a l of  E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, 3, 327-345. Ysseldyke, J . , & F o s t e r , G. (1978). Bias i n teachers o b s e r v a t i o n s of e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d and l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n . E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , 44, 613-614. Zucker, S., & P r i e t o , A. (1977). E t h n i c i t y and teacher b i a s i n e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s . J o u r n a l of I n s t r u c t i o n a l  Psychology. 4, 2-5. Zucker, S., P r i e t o , A., & Rutherford, R. (1979). R a c i a l determinants of t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of placement of the educable mentally r e t a r d e d . E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d  Education Resources, 11, 1-12. APPENDIX A. / 157 Respondent Information (Confidential) I n s t r u c t i o n s : Please i n d i c a t e your answers using a check-mark [/] on the space p r o v i d e d on the r i g h t hand s i d e of the page. (Please do not omit any q u e s t i o n s ) . Present If P o s i t i o n ? a) b) c) d) other' s p e c i f y : classroom education Regular Spec i a l ESL Other P o s i t i o n teacher_ teacher Grade(s) p r e s e n t l y teaching? .a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) K r 2" 3" 4" 5" 6" 7" i ) S p e c i a l education (no grade determined) Gender?, ,a) Male . b) Female T o t a l years employed as a school teacher? .a) 5 years or l e s s _ b) 6 years to 10 years._ c) 11 years to 15 years_ d) 16 years to 20 years_ e) 21 years or longer.._ Age? a) Under 25_ b) c) d) e) 26 to 35 36 to 45" 46 to 55" 56 to 65" APPENDIX A. / 158 Was E n g l i s h your f i r s t spoken language? a) Yes b) No_ If no, what was your f i r s t language? U n i v e r s i t y T r a i n i n g ? a) B.A._ b) B.Ed_ c) M.Ed_ d) M.A._ e) Ph.D_ f) Other If other, s p e c i f y F a m i l i a r i t y with s p e c i a l education programs w i t h i n your d i s t r i c t a) U n f a m i l i a r . . . b) F a m i l i a r c) Very f a m i l i a r I n d i c a t e the number of u n i v e r s i t y c r e d i t s ( u n i t s ) you have s u c c e s s f u l l y completed i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . (A four month course i s worth 1.5 u n i t s and an 8 month course i s worth 3.0 u n i t s ) . a) None b) 1.5 c) 3.0 d) 4.5 e) 6.0 or more u n i t s (Please check to see i f you omitted any q u e s t i o n s ) APPENDIX A. / 159 Case Study J.S. i s a t e n - y e a r - o l d male student e n r o l l e d in the f i f t h grade. At the end of the school year, h i s teacher was concerned as to what education placement would be most s u i t a b l e f o r J.S. i n the coming s c h o o l year. The teacher noted the f o l l o w i n g problems with J.S. d u r i n g the s c h o o l year. Behavior: The c h i l d was v e r b a l l y and sometimes p h y s i c a l l y abusive towards h i s peers. He had been in more f i g h t s d u r i n g the school year than anyone e l s e i n the c l a s s and he was c o n s i d e r e d to be one of the school b u l l i e s . He would a l s o get i n t o arguments with and tease c l a s s mates. When angry he would y e l l and swear even in the classroom. The c h i l d was p o o r l y s o c i a l i z e d . He would o f t e n behave towards o t h e r s i n an i n s e n s i t i v e and i n c o n s i d e r a t e manner. During group d i s c u s s i o n s he would o f t e n make i n a p p r o p r i a t e , embarrassing remarks or rude n o i s e s . On v a r i o u s occasions he would d i s r u p t the c l a s s and seemed to f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to work d u r i n g q u i e t p e r i o d s . In a d d i t i o n , d u r i n g c l a s s p e r i o d s he would o f t e n be i n a t t e n t i v e and would appear to be daydreaming. He g e n e r a l l y appeared to be unmotivated and l a z y when i t came to completing school work. School Achievement: According to r e s u l t s from the Canadian Test of Basic S k i l l s at the end of the f i f t h grade he was at a 3.5 l e v e l i n reading vocabulary, 4.2 i n reading comprehension, 3.8 i n s p e l l i n g and 4.0 i n a r i t h m e t i c c a l c u l a t i o n s . In other s u b j e c t areas he was c o n s i d e r e d to be at l e a s t h a l f a year behind h i s peers. He appeared to have a d i s o r d e r i n the area of understanding spoken language which i n t e r f e r e d with h i s a b i l i t y to f o l l o w v e r b a l d i r e c t i o n s , s p e l l words and perform mathematical c a l c u l a t i o n s . Although he was a t t e n d i n g a Learning A s s i s t a n c e Center (L.A.C.) on a part time b a s i s , the L.A.C teacher d i d not f e e l he was b e n e f i t t i n g from the program. He was slow but meticulous in h i s hand w r i t i n g and keen in a r t work. In a d d i t i o n , the c h i l d ' s parents d i d not a t t e n d any of the parent-teacher conferences, d u r i n g h i s grade f i v e year. APPENDIX A. / 160 Questionnaire Directions You have j u s t read a case study d e s c r i b i n g a f i f t h grade student with l e a r n i n g and behavior problems. Although you may b e l i e v e that there i s not enough i n f o r m a t i o n provided, use the i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e to make the best c h o i c e p o s s i b l e . Using the inf o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d i n the case study r a t e the f o l l o w i n g statements, u s i n g a check-mark [/]. Check only one answer f o r each q u e s t i o n . Read a l l the q u e s t i o n s f i r s t b e f o r e answering. cc CD UJ < LU UJ CO LU UJ CC _ CC UJ CO Q CD CC < < CD >- UJ < >-_l UJ CC CO — J CD CC LU i — i CD Z CD I Q LU Z O < I — LU O CC CO i — • CC CC CC h- LU O CD I — 1. Placement i n a s p e c i a l <" ° 2 z < 1 / 1 education c l a s s i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h i s c h i l d . [] [] [] [] [] 2. T h i s c h i l d ' s presence i n the re g u l a r classroom would be d e t r i m e n t a l to the education of the other c h i l d r e n i n the classroom. [] [] [] [] [] This c h i l d should remain i n the r e g u l a r c l a s s and r e c e i v e s p e c i a l a s s i s t a n c e from the r e g u l a r classroom teac h e r . [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] APPENDIX A. / 161 UJ UJ cc CD UJ < UJ UJ oo UJ UJ OC l«H OC UJ CD a CD CC < < CD >- UJ < >-_ i UJ OC 00 _ J CD oc UJ H-1 CD z CD x a UJ Z o < i — UJ o OC to i-H Q £ OC OC h- 1—1 U j O CD I— 00 a z z < 00 [3 [] [] [] [] 4. T h i s c h i l d should be p l a c e d i n a s p e c i a l c l a s s f o r b e h a v i o r a l l y d i s o r d e r e d c h i l d r e n . ( C h i l d r e n who are a c t i n g - o u t or who have severe behavior problems). 5. T h i s c h i l d should be p l a c e d i n a s p e c i a l c l a s s f o r slow l e a r n e r s . [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 6. T h i s c h i l d should be promoted to the next grade. [] [] [] [] [] 7. T h i s c h i l d i s most l i k e l y to graduate from high s c h o o l . [] [] [] [] [] 8. Cooperation from the c h i l d ' s p a rents can be expected. [] [] [] [] [] 9. T h i s c h i l d should be r e f e r r e d f o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l and/or p s y c h i a t r i c e v a l u a t i o n . [] [] [] [] [] (Please check to see that you d i d not omit any q u e s t i o n s ) 

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