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Resource allocation and control on the Lummi Indian reservation : a century of conflict and change in… Boxberger, Daniel L. 1986

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RESOURCE ALLOCATION AND CONTROL ON THE LUMMI INDIAN RESERVATION A CENTURY OF CONFLICT AND CHANGE IN THE SALMON FISHERY B.A., The Evergreen S t a t e C o l l e g e , 1973 M.A., Western Washington U n i v e r s i t y , 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Anthropology/Sociology) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1986 Cc)Daniel L. Boxberger, 1986 DANIEL L. BOXBERGER DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of A n t h r o p o l o g y / S o c i o l o g y The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date 25 November 1986 DE-6(3/81) S u p e r v i s o r : Dr. J.E M i c h a e l Kew a b s t r a c t RESOURCE ALLOCATION AND CONTROL ON THE LUMMI INDIAN RESERVATION: V A CENTURY OF CONFLICT AND CHANGE IN THE SALMON FISHERY T h i s study focuses on the Lummi Indian f i s h e r s of Northwest Washington S t a t e , and the manner i n which they have been i n c l u d e d i n and e x c l u d e d from the c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y over the p a s t one hundred y e a r s . The a p p r o a c h to be t a k e n i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n o f i n t e r n a l d e p e n d e n c y i s t o e x a m i n e a c c e s s t o resources. The c o n t r o l of p r o d u c t i v e resources — land, water, timber, m i n e r a l s , and f i s h . — t h a t Indians own or have access to, p r e s e n t s an i d e a l s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g I n d i a n underdevelopment. P r i o r t o and i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r the t i m e the Lummi were c o n f i n e d to a r e s e r v a t i o n , t h e y were engaged i n a t r a d i t i o n a l f i s h e r y t h a t met t h e i r n e e d s f o r s u b s i s t e n c e and had t h e p o t e n t i a l t o d e v e l o p i n t o a v i a b l e c o m m e r c i a l endeavor. The p e n e t r a t i o n o f c a p i t a l i n t o the c o m m e r c i a l salmon f i s h e r y o f N o r t h Puget Sound i n i t i a l l y u t i l i z e d Lummi l a b o r , but the development of new e x t r a c t i v e t e c h n o l o g i e s and an i n c r e a s e i n the a v a i l a b i l i t y of l a b o r of other e t h n i c i t i e s r a p i d l y circumvented the need f o r Indian l a b o r . Concomitantly, throughout the e a r l y 1900s, e f f o r t s by the S t a t e o f W a s h i n g t o n to c u r t a i l I n d i a n f i s h i n g r e s u l t e d i n t h e Lummi b e i n g c o n f i n e d t o a s m a l l r e s e r v a t i o n f i s h e r y o f i n s i g n i f i c a n t c o m m e r c i a l p o t e n t i a l . In the 1940s, when Lummi e x c l u s i o n from the f i s h e r y was a l m o s t t o t a l , the need f o r f i s h e r s suddenly became acute, and the Lummi were once again i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the commercial salmon f i s h e r y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the post-war era again saw new developments i n the salmon i n d u s t r y , and, no l o n g e r needed by the p r o c e s s o r s , the Lummi were once again squeezed out of the i n d u s t r y . S y m p a t h e t i c c o u r t c a s e s i n the l a t e 1960s and e a r l y 1970s guaranteed c o m m e r c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t f i s h i n g o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the Lummi. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the p r e s e n t Lummi salmon f i s h e r y i s not g o i n g t o p r o v i d e the Lummi w i t h a v i a b l e economic base. The manner i n which the f i s h e r y has developed i s causing the m a j o r i t y o f the economic y i e l d o f the f i s h e r y t o be s i p h o n e d o f f t o non-Lummi i n t e r e s t s . U t i l i z i n g e t h n o h i s t o r i c a l and ethnographic data, t h i s study e x a m i n e s a d e p e n d e n c y a p p r o a c h t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g Lummi u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t . By f o c u s i n g p r i m a r i l y on e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l dependency on the U n i t e d S t a t e s F e d e r a l Government, t h i s study shows how the Lummi community was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the dominant s o c i e t y and became a dependent community s u f f e r i n g from c h r o n i c underdevelopment, d e s p i t e access to and u t i l i z a t i o n o f a v a l u a b l e n a t u r a l resource. i i i RESOURCE ALLOCATION AND CONTROL ON THE LUMMI INDIAN RESERVATION A CENTURY OF CONFLICT AND CHANGE IN THE SALMON FISHERY TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I I n t r o d u c t i o n Statement of the Problem 1 T h e o r e t i c a l Background 4 Methods and O b j e c t i v e s 23 Sources of Data 27 Chapter II The P r e - R e s e r v a t i o n Lummi I n t r o d u c t i o n 31 P r i o r to Contact 32 Resource Procurement 36 O r g a n i z a t i o n o f Labor 46 E t h n o h i s t o r i c a l Sketch 1792-1854 54 The T r e a t y E r a 1855-1859 62 P o s t - R e s e r v a t i o n and A l l o t m e n t 1860-1884 72 Summary 79 Chapter I I I The Lummi and the Development of the Commercial Salmon F i s h e r y 1885-1900 I n t r o d u c t i o n 81 The T e c h n o l o g i c a l Growth of the Salmon Fishery..88 C a r l i s l e Packing Company 107 Summary 114 Chapter IV The Era of Commercial Salmon F i s h i n g 1901-1935 I n t r o d u c t i o n 116 T e c h n o l o g i c a l Growth i n the Salmon Industry....119 Indian Labor i n the Salmon Industry 140 S t a t e and F e d e r a l A c t i v i t y and the Lummi 146 Lummi F i s h i n g 1901-1935 166 Summary 172 Chapter V The Indian New Deal 1936-1950 I n t r o d u c t i o n 175 S t a t e and F e d e r a l A c t i v i t y and the Lummi 177 T e c h n o l o g i c a l Change i n the Salmon F i s h e r y 191 The Re-Entry o f Lummi i n t o the Commercial F i s h e r y 201 Summary 212 i v Chapter VI From Termination to S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n 1951-1973 I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . 215 State and F e d e r a l A c t i v i t y and the Lummi 216 T e c h n o l o g i c a l Change i n the Salmon F i s h e r y 231 The D e c l i n e of Lummi Purse Seine F i s h i n g 245 Summary 257 Chapter VII The B o l d t D e c i s i o n and Beyond 1974-1985 I n t r o d u c t i o n 259 United S t a t e s y_^ St a t e of Washington 260 St a t e and F e d e r a l A c t i v i t y and the Lummi 263 The P o s t - B o l d t Growth of the Lummi F i s h e r y 279 Summary 309 Chapter V I I I C o n c l u s i o n s 311 References C i t e d 318 v TABLES Table 1 S e a s o n a l A v a i l a b i l i t y and U t i l i z a t i o n o f Salmon 41 2 S t r a i t s S a l i s h Reef Net L o c a t i o n s 46 3 White and I n d i a n P o p u l a t i o n s o f Whatcom County, Washington, 1860-1910 69 4 Commercial Salmon Cannery P r o d u c t i o n on Puget Sound, 1877-1900 84 5 Traps Operated i n Puget Sound, 1893-1900 92 6 Puget Sound Purse Seine L i c e n s e s , 1897-1900 95 7 Seasonal A v a i l a b i l i t y of Salmon i n the Nooksack River 106 8 C a r l i s l e Packing Company Annual Pack, 1896-1928 I l l 9 Puget Sound Purse Seine L i c e n s e s , 1901-1935... 125 10 Puget Sound T r o l l i n g L i c e n s e s , 1917-1935 126 11 Puget Sound G i l l Net L i c e n s e s , 1901-1935 129 12 Puget Sound Reef Net L i c e n s e s , 1915-1935 133 13 Puget Sound Trap L i c e n s e s , 1901-1935 134 14 Puget Sound Salmon Pack, 1901-1935 139 15 Cannery Labor, by E t h n i c i t y , i n the Puget Sound F i s h i n g I n d u s t r y , 1902-1935 144 16 Puget Sound Commercial Salmon F i s h i n g L i c e n s e s , 1935-1950 194 17 P r o p o r t i o n a l Catch of each Salmon Species by User Group, i n Percentages f o r Four Year P e r i o d s , 1936-1951 195 18 Puget Sound Commercial Salmon Pack, 1936-1950.198 19 Puget Sound Commercial Salmon Canneries, 1936-1950 200 20 Numbers of F i s h Taken by Lummi i n Nooksack River and Bellingham Bay, 1935-1950 202 21 Puget Sound Commercial Salmon F i s h i n g L i c e n s e s , 1951-1974 232 22 Salmon and Steelhead Sport Catch, 1939-1974... 239 23 Puget Sound Salmon Canneries, 1951-1974 241 24 Puget Sound Salmon Pack, 1951-1974 242 25 Catches of Salmon on Puget Sound, 1951-1974... 248 26 Numbers of F i s h Taken by Lummi, Bellingham Bay and Nooksack R i v e r , 1951-1974..250 27 A Comparison of Average Y i e l d and Expenses of the Lummi F i s h i n g F l e e t , 1981 to 1984 291 28 Average Earnings of Lummi Salmon F i s h e r s , 1981 to 1984 •. 298 29 Lummi A d m i n i s t r a t i v e O r g a n i z a t i o n and A f f i l i a t i o n with F i s h i n g I n t e r e s t s 305 v i MAPS AND FIGURES Maps Map 1 Areas of P r i n c i p l e Resource C o - U t i l i z a t i o n 53 2 Western Washington, c a. 1855 71 3 Lummi R e s e r v a t i o n , c a. 1873 74 4 North Puget Sound Trap S i t e s , 1913 136 5 Lummi Indian R e s e r v a t i o n and V i c i n i t y , c a . 1930 150 6 G i l l Net D r i f t s , Mouth of the Nooksack River...170 7 Western Washington Commercial F i s h i n g Areas, 1935 178 8 Land Ownership on the Lummi R e s e r v a t i o n , 1971..224 9 Puget Sound Salmon Management Areas, 1950 226 10 Western Washington T r e a t y T r i b e s 284 F i g u r e s F i g u r e 1 I l l u s t r a t i o n of a Salmon Trap 93 2 Salmon Traps at P o i n t Roberts, 1895 ; 99 3 Salmon Traps at V i l l a g e P o i n t , 1895.. 109 4 Lummi and non-Indian Purse Seine V e s s e l s , c a . 1949 205 5 Puget Sound Salmon Catch, 1913-1974 244 6 Lummi Operated Purse Seine V e s s e l s , 1945-1985..247 7 Lummi Salmon Catch, 1935-1974 251 8 Lummi P o p u l a t i o n , 1780-1980 253 9 Lummi Salmon Catch, 1974-1985 281 10 Comparison of Lummi F i s h i n g V e s s e l s , 1980s 287 11 Growth of Lummi Salmon F i s h i n g F l e e t , 1974-1985 289 12 Indian and non-Indian Share of the T o t a l Salmon Catch, 1974-1984 293 13 Lummi and non-Lummi Share of the Indian Catch, 1974-1984 294 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I was f o r t u n a t e i n making the acquaintance of s e v e r a l Lummi e l d e r s who spoke f r e e l y of the e a r l y days and t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the commercial f i s h e r y . Of p a r t i c u l a r note were A l o y s i u s and Dorothy C h a r l e s , w i t h whom I spent many d e l i g h t f u l hours v i s i t i n g i n the r e s t home; Herman Olson, r e e f n e t t e r par e x c e l l e n c e and a t r e a s u r e d f r i e n d ; Leo S e n i o r ; Ben H i l l a i r e , Sr.; Dutch K i n l e y ; and Mary H i l l a i r e , who was one o f my i n s t r u c t o r s a t E v e r g r e e n S t a t e C o l l e g e . These i n d i v i d u a l s are s o r e l y missed. Often i n a work o f t h i s n a t u r e the i n f o r m a n t s a r e d i s p e n s e d w i t h as "too numerous to mention" but I owe a debt of g r a t i t u d e to many Lummi who c o n t r i b u t e d d i r e c t l y t o t h i s work and I am o f the b e l i e f t h a t t h e y s h o u l d not r e m a i n anonymous. They a r e Joe and M a r t h a W a s hington; I s a d o r e and 'Auntie J a c k i e ' Tom; S o l l i e and L i z z i e S c h o l t z ; A l v i n and J e a n n e t t e C a s i m i r ; A l v i n C a s i m i r , J r . ; Charlene C a s i m i r Boxberger; Buck Washington, who f i r s t welcomed me i n t o h i s home; C l i f f o r d and L i l a K e l l y ; D i c k Greene, whose i n s i g h t i n t o the i n t r i c a c i e s o f the I n d i a n c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r y c l e a r e d up many of my c o n f u s i o n s ; Joe B i l l ; Margaret Greene; Ken and W i l l i e Cooper; Dave and J u a n i t a J e f f e r s o n ; F l o r e n c e Johnnie; L a r r y K i n l e y , Lummi T r i b a l C h a i r m a n s i n c e 1978; Mike and P o l l y Wilson; Jim Wilson; Jimmy Adams; Sam Cagey; Vernon Lane; Gordon Wilson; George Adams; J e w e l l James; G.I. James; Dean Washington, who f i r s t took me f i s h i n g i n the Nooksack R i v e r ; Dean M a r t i n ; Armour Jo and Irene James; C h a r l i e S c o t t ; Ray Olson; B i l l Cagey; Teen T a l l y ; Wesley Bob; Henry M a r t i n ; W i l l i e J o n e s ; R a l p h and R o s a l i e S c o t t ; E a r l J o n e s ; John and B.J. Greene; B i l l B a l l e w ; Eugene DeCoteau; V i v i a n P l a s t e r ; A r t Humphreys, Sr.; V e r n Johnson; Ron F i n k b o n n e r ; Gary W i l s o n ; M e r l e J e f f e r s o n ; L a r r y P r i e s t ; and Wayne B a l l e w . I am s u r e I have m i s s e d some and I ap o l o g i z e . Dozens of other Lummi t r i b a l members have c o n t r i b u t e d i n d i r e c t l y to t h i s study. In a d d i t i o n to my Lummi informants the f o l l o w i n g people were a l s o c o n s u l t e d : Richard Poole, g i l l n e t t e r and f o r m e r P r e s i d e n t o f the Lummi C o l l e g e o f F i s h e r i e s ; J e r r y A n d e r s o n , C h a i r m a n o f the W a s h i n g t o n Reef N e t t e r s A s s o c i a t i o n ; P aul Hage, Lummi T r i b a l F i s h e r i e s B i o l o g i s t ; and P a t r i c k Johnson and Gary Davis o f the Washington S t a t e Department of F i s h e r i e s . The f i n a l d r a f t s o f t h i s t h e s i s were w r i t t e n w h i l e I was a f a c u l t y member o f the Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y a t W e s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n U n i v e r s i t y . I would l i k e t o e x t e n d my g r a t i t u d e t o the f a c u l t y , s t a f f , and s t u d e n t s o f the d e p a r t m e n t f o r t h e i r u n f a i l i n g c o n f i d e n c e and support. Of s p e c i a l note are P r o f e s s o r Herbert C. T a y l o r , P r o f e s s o r Joan Stevenson, E i l e e n Smith, L a u r i e D o n a l d s o n , and C o l l e e n Murray, who each, i n t h e i r own way, c o n t r i b u t e d to the completion of t h i s t h e s i s . I am a l s o deeply indebted to P r o f e s s o r s J.E. M i c h a e l Kew and D a v i d F. A b e r l e f o r t h e i r h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s and warm s u p p o r t over the years. In a d d i t i o n other members of my committee, past and p r e s e n t , d e s e r v e r e c o g n i t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y P r o f e s s o r s N e i l Guppy and B l a n c a M u r a t o r i o . Of c o u r s e I assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s t h a t f o l l o w and the e r r o r s t h a t remain. i x CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Statement of the Problem In 1974 U n i t e d S t a t e s F e d e r a l D i s t r i c t C o u r t Judge George B o l d t handed down a d e c i s i o n d e f i n i n g Indian f i s h i n g r i g h t s and guaranteeing t r e a t y Indians-*- 50 percent of the a l l o w a b l e h a r v e s t o f salmon. T h i s r e v e r s e d a c e n t u r y o f p o l i c y and p r a c t i c e t h a t had come t o e x c l u d e the Lummi and n i n e t e e n o t h e r t r e a t y t r i b e s from the commercial salmon f i s h e r y of Western Washington. Most I n d i a n t r i b e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s have a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the F e d e r a l government based on m u t u a l l y agreed upon t r e a t i e s . For the most p a r t Indian t r e a t i e s r e served some p a r t of the n a t u r a l environment f o r the Indian s i g n a t o r s to use f o r t h e i r sustenance. In W e s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e the r e s o u r c e s r e s e r v e d i n the t r e a t i e s were an " e x c l u s i v e r i g h t " t o a l l r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n the b o u n d a r i e s o f the r e s e r v a t i o n s and an " i n common" r i g h t t o o f f -r e s e r v a t i o n f i s h i n g a t a l l " u s u a l and accustomed grounds and s t a t i o n s " . T h i s s t u d y w i l l f o c u s on the Lummi I n d i a n f i s h e r s o f Northwest Washington S t a t e and the manner i n which they have been i n c l u d e d i n and e x c l u d e d from the c o m m e r c i a l h a r v e s t o f salmon ove r t h e p a s t one hundred y e a r s . The a p p r o a c h t o be t a k e n to t h i s case of i n t e r n a l dependency, s i m i l a r to t h a t of most Indian communities i n the United S t a t e s , w i l l be to examine the access 1. D e s p i t e the abhorrence some people v o i c e over the use of the term "Indian" as opposed to "Native" or "Native American", Indian w i l l be used t h r o u g h o u t t h i s work. In f i f t e e n y e a r s o f w o r k i n g w i t h t h e Lummi and o t h e r Puget Sound g r o u p s I have y e t t o e n c o u n t e r anyone who o b j e c t s to b e i n g r e f e r r e d t o as an I n d i a n and, i n f a c t , t h a t i s the t erm commonly used by the N a t i v e p e o p l e of Puget Sound to r e f e r to themselves. 1 t o r e s o u r c e s . The c o n t r o l o f p r o d u c t i v e r e s o u r c e s , i . e . , l a n d , w a t e r , t i m b e r , m i n e r a l s , and f i s h t h a t I n d i a n s own or have r i g h t s to, r e p r e s e n t s a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r understanding Indian underdevelopment. T h i s s t u d y w i l l c o n c e n t r a t e on a l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n , but one whi c h o p e r a t e s w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f e x t r a l o c a l p o l i t i c a l and economic s y s t e m s . The Lummi w i l l be t r e a t e d as an " i n t e r n a l colony", one which i s dependent on the Un i t e d S t a t e s government f o r p o l i t i c a l e x i s t e n c e and one which has been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the dominant economic system but has remained underdeveloped f o r l a c k o f c o n t r o l o f i t s own r e s o u r c e s . As w i l l be made c l e a r below, i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o examine the Lummi c a s e from an h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Over the p a s t one hundred y e a r s the Lummi have been i n c l u d e d and s u b s e q u e n t l y e x c l u d e d from the commercial h a r v e s t of, salmon with s t a r t l i n g r e g u l a r i t y . The 1974 B o l d t D e c i s i o n i s m e r e l y one o f a l o n g s e r i e s o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s a f f e c t i n g Lummi access to salmon. Because the Lummi are the most p o w e r f u l f i s h i n g t r i b e i n W e s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n , i f not i n a l l o f N o r t h A m e r i c a , the Lummi c a s e i s i n s t r u c t i v e . The Lummi c a s e demonstrates t h a t access to a co m m e r c i a l l y v a l u a b l e resource does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean economic w e l l - b e i n g nor economic s e l f -s u f f i c i e n c y f o r the t r i b a l group. W i t h t h e s e p o i n t s i n mind, t h i s s t u d y w i l l examine the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s , each f a l l i n g w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r p e r i o d o f time. 1. P r i o r to and immediately a f t e r t r e a t y n e g o t i a t i o n s the Lummi were engaged i n a t r a d i t i o n a l f i s h e r y t h a t adequately met t h e i r s u b s i s t e n c e needs and had the p o t e n t i a l t o d e v e l o p i n t o a 2 l u c r a t i v e economic endeavor. What was the t r a d i t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l and economic o r g a n i z a t i o n and how d i d i t manage the resource? 2. The e a r l y r e s e r v a t i o n f i s h e r y c o n t i n u e d i n t o the 1890s d e s p i t e attempts by the F e d e r a l government to f o r c e the Lummi to become a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s . The Lummi were not o n l y p r o d u c i n g enough f o r t h e i r s u s t e n a n c e but were p r o d u c i n g a s u r p l u s f o r market. What s t a t e p o l i c i e s and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d a f f e c t e d the Lummi use of t h e i r n a t u r a l resources? 3. The g r o w t h and dev e l o p m e n t o f the c o m m e r c i a l salmon f i s h e r y i n the e a r l y t w e n t i e t h century tended to d i s p l a c e Lummi fro m t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l f i s h i n g l o c a t i o n s and methods. What s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s combined to a l l o w t h i s to happen? 4. E v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t the I n d i a n p e o p l e were more n e a r l y s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , a l b e i t at a s u r v i v a l l e v e l , p r i o r to and d u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n o f the 1930s than s u b s e q u e n t l y . What f a c t o r s d i d the "Indian New Deal" i n t r o d u c e t h a t caused the Lummi to become more dependent on the F e d e r a l government and l e s s able to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the salmon f i s h e r y ? 5. I n d i s c u s s i n g p r e s e n t - d a y U n i t e d S t a t e s I n d i a n r e s e r v a t i o n s , J o r g e n s e n (1972:11) made the f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n which a p p l i e s w e l l to the Lummi: "Unlike i n d i v i d u a l s , t r i b e s a r e not and c a n n o t be s e l f - d i r e c t i n g , do not and c a n n o t c o n t r o l t h e i r r e s o u r c e s , and do not p r o v i d e s u s t e n a n c e f o r a l l t h e i r members". Why a r e t r i b e s u n a b l e t o c o n t r o l t h e i r own resources? What p o l i t i c a l and economic f a c t o r s keep the Lummi from being s e l f - d i r e c t i n g and s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g ? 6. The Lummi f i s h e r y has ap p a r e n t l y been g e n e r a t i n g s e v e r a l 3 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s each year s i n c e 1974 — y e t the people are s t i l l p o o r. Who i s the f i s h e r y b e n e f i t i n g i f not the Lummi? What i s happening to the economic s u r p l u s being generated by the Indian commercial f i s h e r y ? T h e o r e t i c a l Background T h i s s t u d y w i l l c o n c e n t r a t e on the p o l i t i c a l and economic f a c t o r s i n h e r e n t i n the h i s t o r y of the salmon f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y of Puget Sound" 1 and the r e s u l t a n t e f f e c t s on the Lummi I n d i a n s . Although economic change may occur without change i n technology, i n the commercial salmon f i s h e r y growth i n technology has been an important element of economic change. By documenting t h i s growth i n f i s h i n g t e q h n o l o g y i n t e n d e d t o i n c r e a s e h a r v e s t , i n c o n c e r t w i t h v a r y i n g p o l i c y , we can p r o v i d e a p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e t o i n v e s t i g a t e the Lummi as a s p e c i f i c user group w i t h i n the salmon i n d u s t r y . The v a r y i n g p a t t e r n s i n the u t i l i z a t i o n o f the r e s o u r c e and the c o n c o m i t a n t changes i n the s o c i e t y can be seen as the d i r e c t r e s u l t o f the d o m i n a t i o n o f the Lummi by the l a r g e r s o c i e t y . B esides p o l i t i c a l and economic a c t i v i t i e s the dominant s o c i e t y b r i n g s i t s own t e c h n o l o g y . Modern t e c h n o l o g y does not appear as a n e u t r a l f a c t o r . I t t e n d s t o s u p p o r t the i n t e r e s t s and p r i o r i t i e s o f t h e s y s t e m t h a t i n t r o d u c e s i t ( B o s s e n 1975:599) . W i t h i n the con t e x t of the l a r g e r s o c i e t y the Lummi have been 2. The term "Puget Sound" as used throughout t h i s study r e f e r s to more than Puget Sound proper. As d e f i n e d by the Washington S t a t e Department of F i s h e r i e s , "Puget Sound" i n c l u d e s Puget Sound, the S t r a i t o f Juan de F u c a , G e o r g i a S t r a i t , a l l the t i d e w a t e r s o f Puget Sound and a l l other t i d e waters emptying i n t o Puget Sound (Washington S t a t e Department of F i s h e r i e s 1947:7). v a r i o u s l y i n c l u d e d i n and e x c l u d e d f r o m the salmon f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y . I t i s the f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y t o u n d e r s t a n d the v a r i o u s f a c t o r s a t work over the p a s t one hundred y e a r s t h a t have a f f e c t e d Lummi use and c o n t r o l of the salmon resource. W i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f p o l i t i c a l and economic change t h e r e are s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s t h a t w i l l be d e a l t with w i t h i n each of s i x h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d s . These a r e : Lummi a c c e s s t o c o n t r o l and use o f the salmon r e s o u r c e ; t e c h n o l o g i c a l change i n the salmon i n d u s t r y ; t h e r e g i o n a l p o l i t i c a l economy, e s p e c i a l l y t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f the salmon f i s h e r y i n t o the market economy; and the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the Lummi t o the v a r i o u s b r a n c h e s o f the Un i t e d S t a t e s and Washington S t a t e governments. T h i s s t u d y w i l l t a k e a d e p e n d e n c y a p p r o a c h t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f Lummi e t h n o h i s t o r y . In the p a s t , dependency approaches t h a t have looked at United S t a t e s Indian t r i b e s have u t i l i z e d t h e o r i e s of underdevelopment. I am of the o p i n i o n t h a t t h e o r i e s o f u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t a r e b e s t c o n s i d e r e d as p a r t o f dependency theory. The underdevelopment theme was f i r s t a p p l i e d to the s i t u a t i o n of North American Indians by Ab e r l e (1969; 1983) and J o r g e n s e n (1971; 1972; 1978). U n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t i s a r e s u l t of dependency and the poverty and l a c k o f o p p o r t u n i t y f o r Indians i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s c a n be d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e i r p o l i t i c a l and economic dependence on the l a r g e r s o c i e t y . The dependency approach p r o v i d e s an understanding o f underdevelopment o f U n i t e d S t a t e s I n d i a n r e s e r v a t i o n s because o f p o l i t i c a l and economic f a c t o r s . A b e r l e p o i n t e d o u t how the u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t approach helped to understand the s i t u a t i o n of the Navajo. 5 E c o n o m i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e N a v a j o c o n s t i t u t e an underdeveloped group. They are an underdeveloped, i n t e r n a l U.S. c o l o n y . They show the marks o f i t . T h e i r p o v e r t y and t h e i r u n d e r e d u c a t i o n a r e n o t c a u s e s o f t h e i r u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t but r e s u l t s o f i t . The u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t r e s u l t s from t h e i r r e l a t i o n s with the l a r g e r s o c i e t y , which l i m i t the economic o p t i o n s open to them, d r a i n o f f t h e i r r e s o u rces, and f a i l to p r o v i d e them wi t h the education, the t e c h n o l o g i c a l base, and the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l forms necessary f o r s a t i s f a c t o r y development (Aberle 1969:228). J o r g e n s e n has a l s o p l a c e d the s i t u a t i o n o f U n i t e d S t a t e s I n d i a n s w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f p o l i t i c a l and economic change o f t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y . He has p o i n t e d o u t how p r e v i o u s a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s o f change among I n d i a n g r o u p s have p r i m a r i l y c o n s i s t e d o f a t t e m p t s to show how the l e v e l o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n of those groups r e l a t e s to the norms hypothesized f o r Western European s o c i e t y . The u n d e r l y i n g assumption i s t h a t a l l I n d i a n s o c i e t i e s a r e somewhere a l o n g a d e v e l o p m e n t a l p a t h which w i l l e v e n t u a l l y i n t e g r a t e them i n t o the dominant s o c i e t y . Jorgensen b e l i e v e s t h i s approach to be misguided and i n h i s view the s i t u a t i o n of N a t i v e Indians i s a r e s u l t of i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n t o the c a p i t a l i s t economy. Un d e r d e v e l o p m e n t , i n my v i e w , has been c a u s e d by the development of the w h i t e - c o n t r o l l e d n a t i o n a l economy and the p o l i t i c a l , economic and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s of Indians are not i m p r o v i n g because the A m e r i c a n I n d i a n i s , and has been f o r over one hundred y e a r s , f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l economy (Jorgensen 1971:68). Jorgensen uses the m e t r o p o l i s / s a t e l l i t e concept formulated by Andre Gunder Frank (1967) to d e s c r i b e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the dominant s o c i e t y and U n i t e d S t a t e s I n d i a n r e s e r v a t i o n s , e x p l a i n i n g t h a t s a t e l l i t e s are the l a b o r and resources of r u r a l areas t h a t do not c o n c e n t r a t e p o l i t i c a l and economic power, the m e t r o p o l i s e s , on t h e o t h e r hand, do c o n c e n t r a t e p o l i t i c a l and economic power. The s a t e l l i t e s p r o v i d e resources and labor but 6 do not s h a r e p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y i n the economic b e n e f i t s . The economic s u r p l u s generated i s used by those i n the m e t r o p o l i s e s , to continue economic development, u s u a l l y to the d e t r i m e n t of the s a t e l l i t e s . A m e r i c a n I n d i a n s have p e r h a p s s u f f e r e d more from t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p than any o t h e r group i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s because b e s i d e s b e i n g e c o n o m i c a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d due t o the i n h e r e n t c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of a c a p i t a l i s t economy, Indian groups have a l s o been s u b j e c t to p o l i t i c a l domination by l o c a l , S t a t e , and F e d e r a l governments. Jorgensen r e f e r s to t h i s as "domestic domination" (1972:10) and i n c l u d e s s u c h r e l a t i o n s h i p s as m i l i t a r y s u b j u g a t i o n , v a r y i n g and o f t e n c o n t r a d i c t o r y F e d e r a l p o l i c i e s due to a d m i n i s t r a t i v e changes i n the Bureau of Indian A f f a i r s , S t a t e and F e d e r a l d i s a g r e e m e n t s ov e r c o n t r o l o f r e s e r v a t i o n l a n d and r e s o u r c e s , and g e n e r a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ( b o t h s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l ) . More r e c e n t l y , White (1983) a p p l i e d dependency theory to an h i s t o r i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h r e e U n i t e d S t a t e s I n d i a n t r i b e s , the Pawnee, the Choctaw, and the N a v a j o . White a t t e m p t e d t o u n d e r s t a n d why I n d i a n g r o u p s who p r e v i o u s l y s u p p o r t e d t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n s " w i t h some s e c u r i t y " were u n a b l e t o do so a f t e r c o n t a c t . White p o i n t s out t h a t we w i l l o n l y understand the cause o f dependency by l o o k i n g a t the h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f each s i t u a t i o n . O n l y t h e n can we u n d e r s t a n d how the c o l l a p s e o f Indian s u b s i s t e n c e economies and t h e i r i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o the world s y s t e m b r o u g h t i n c r e a s i n g dependence, "a p o p u l a t i o n w i t h o u t c o n t r o l o v e r r e s o u r c e s , s u s t a i n e d i n p o v e r t y by p a y m e n t s 7 c o n t r o l l e d by the l a r g e r s o c i e t y " (White 1983:xix). A p p l i c a t i o n o f the dependency a p p r o a c h i n the Lummi c a s e r e s t s on the premise t h a t Indian underdevelopment i s r e l a t e d to an h i s t o r i c a l process of p o l i t i c a l and economic domination which has g i v e n r i s e to a s t r u c t u r e of dependency. The r e s t r i c t i o n of the Lummi to a r e s e r v a t i o n was a c h i e v e d by d i r e c t p o l i t i c a l dominance, t h r o u g h the n e g o t i a t i o n o f a t r e a t y , and has l e d to f u r t h e r domination of t h e i r l i v e s by e x t e r n a l f o r c e s . Subsequent F e d e r a l p o l i c i e s c a u s e d the breakdown o f the t r a d i t i o n a l Lummi s o c i a l and economic s y s t e m s . T h i s v o i d was f i l l e d by the c r e a t i o n o f new dependent t r i b a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , new forms o f t r i b a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , and the adoption of new economic p r a c t i c e s . In e f f e c t , the Lummi had become an " i n t e r n a l colony". Today the Lummi r e m a i n u n d e r d e v e l o p e d d e s p i t e m a s s i v e i n j e c t i o n s o f F e d e r a l f u n d s and d e s p i t e g u a r a n t e e d a c c e s s t o a ' com m e r c i a l l y v a l u a b l e resource. T h i s study w i l l demonstrate t h a t over time F e d e r a l and St a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y tended to i n s t i t u t e p o l i c i e s t h a t favored the owners of c a p i t a l ( p a r t o f the m e t r o p o l i s or " c e n t e r " ) and worked a g a i n s t l o c a l p r o d u c e r s ( p a r t o f the s a t e l l i t e or " p e r i p h e r y " ) . The U n i t e d S t a t e s government, p a r t i c u l a r l y as e x e m p l i f i e d by the Bureau of Indian A f f a i r s , has i n s t i t u t e d p o l i c i e s , and a c t i o n s designed to a s s i m i l a t e Indians i n t o American s o c i e t y . The government of the S t a t e o f W a s h i n g t o n has managed the salmon r e s o u r c e i n such a manner t h a t Indians f i s h i n g under F e d e r a l t r e a t y were g r a d u a l l y e x c l u d e d f r o m p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e s e two branches of government, o f t e n i n c o n f l i c t with one another, has f o s t e r e d c o n f u s i o n . The i n t e r a c t i o n o f S t a t e and F e d e r a l 8 government has a l s o f o s t e r e d disagreement over Lummi, and other Indian, use of n a t u r a l resources. There are many t h e o r i e s t h a t attempt to e x p l a i n the problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m o d e r n i z a t i o n and development. While each theory of development and underdevelopment has i t s own l i m i t a t i o n s , the dependency approach f o l l o w e d here o f f e r s an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the p e r s i s t e n c e o f I n d i a n p o v e r t y a f t e r s u b j u g a t i o n and c o n t i n u i n g i n t o the modern era when expenditures on Na t i v e American programs has r i s e n (Anders 1980:695). Dependency t h e o r y can be b r o a d l y s e p a r a t e d i n t o two main b r a n c h e s , t h o s e w hich f o c u s on the " s t r u c t u r e o f p r o d u c t i o n " (e.g., T a y l o r 1979) and t h o s e which f o c u s on the " s t r u c t u r e o f exchange" (e.g., Frank 1967). I t i s the "exchange" a p p r o a c h w h i c h w i l l g u i d e t h i s s t u d y . B o t h t h e e x c h a n g e and t h e p r o d u c t i o n approaches i n dependency theory arose i n the 1960s as a c r i t i q u e o f the then common e x p l a n a t i o n s o f the p r o b l e m s o f T h i r d W o r l d c o u n t r i e s . The m o d e r n i z a t i o n a p p r o a c h v i s u a l i z e d T h i r d W o r l d economies (and c e r t a i n segments i n some d e v e l o p e d n a t i o n s ) as " d u a l economies", the u n d e r d e v e l o p e d segments o f which have f a i l e d t o " c a t c h up" w i t h the d e v e l o p i n g w o r l d . As V e l t m e y e r (1980:199) p o i n t s o u t , t h e r e a r e a g r e a t many v a r i a t i o n s on t h i s model but a l l s u g g e s t t h a t the s o l u t i o n t o p r o b l e m s o f u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t l i e i n the r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f t h o s e elements of the t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s which i n h i b i t development or by an i n j e c t i o n of c o n d i t i o n s from the developed r e g i o n s . I t i s p r o b a b l y s a f e t o s a y t h a t t h i s a p p r o a c h h a s been t h e i d e o l o g i c a l b a s i s o f most U n i t e d S t a t e s I n d i a n p o l i c y . The 9 dependency view a t t a c k e d t h i s p o s i t i o n by p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t c e r t a i n areas are not underdeveloped because they have f a i l e d to i n c o r p o r a t e c a p i t a l i s m b u t , r a t h e r , b e c a u s e t h e y have i n c o r p o r a t e d c a p i t a l i s m and the c a p i t a l i s t p e n e t r a t i o n i n t o T h i r d World areas has caused the underdevelopment of those areas. The t r a d i t i o n a l M a r x i s t view a l s o came under a t t a c k by dependency t h e o r i s t s . The t r a d i t i o n a l M a r x i s t view s u g g e s t e d t h a t as the gr o w t h o f c a p i t a l i s m i n c o r p o r a t e s new a r e a s the r e s u l t would be the break down o f p r e - c a p i t a l i s t modes o f p r o d u c t i o n and i n i t i a t i o n of a developmental process which would e v e n t u a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e these p r e - c a p i t a l i s t modes of p r o d u c t i o n i n t o the c a p t a l i s t system. Dependency t h e o r i s t s , however, p o i n t o u t t h a t d e v e l o p e d and u n d e r d e v e l o p e d n a t i o n s a re not p a r t o f separate systems, nor do they r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t stages i n the p r o c e s s o f growth t o w a r d s the c a p i t a l i s t mode o f p r o d u c t i o n . "They a r e , r a t h e r , p a r t o f the p e r i p h e r y o f a s t r u c t u r e which d e f i n e s the w o r l d c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m " ( V e l t m e y e r 1980:200). A m a j o r c o n t r i b u t i o n o f d e p e n d e n c y t h e o r y h a s b e e n t h e c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t d e v e l o p m e n t and underdevelopment are p a r t of the same process. Both take p l a c e i n t he c o n t e x t o f the g r o w t h o f c a p i t a l i s m as a w o r l d system. Of the two main branches of dependency theory, exchange and p r o d u c t i o n , t h e a p p r o a c h e s t h a t l o o k a t t h e s t r u c t u r e o f p r o d u c t i o n suggest t h a t the proper focus of study o f T h i r d World f o r m a t i o n s i s the mode of pr o d u c t i o n . I t i s , says T a y l o r (1979), o n l y t h r o u g h an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f modes o f p r o d u c t i o n and the examination of the h i s t o r y of s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n s which have come under the c a p i t a l i s t mode o f p r o d u c t i o n , t h a t we w i l l b e g i n t o 10 understand how a c a p i t a l i s t mode of p r o d u c t i o n came to e x i s t and how i t has come to be dominant over the p r e v i o u s l y dominant non-c a p i t a l i s t modes. A common c r i t i c i s m t h a t t h i s approach l e v i e s a g a i n s t o t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n s i s t h a t t h e y do not go f a r enough i n e x p l a i n i n g dependency and e x p l o i t a t i o n and, e s p e c i a l l y , t h a t they i g n o r e the i n t e r n a l c l a s s s t r u c t u r e which a l s o b e a r s on the f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n keeping segments of a s o c i e t y underdeveloped and dependent. By c o n c e n t r a t i n g e x c l u s i v e l y on the mode o f p r o d u c t i o n , however, c e r t a i n aspects of importance to an understanding o f the dependent n a t u r e o f I n d i a n t r i b e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s would be ignored. S i n c e Indian t r i b e s i n the United S t a t e s are under the d i r e c t p o l i t i c a l domination of the Un i t e d S t a t e s government the r o l e o f v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s i s an e s s e n t i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n d e t e r m i n i n g c a u s e s o f dependency. The c o n t r o l o f and a c c e s s t o p r o d u c t i v e r e s o u r c e s t h a t I n d i a n s a r e g u a r a n t e e d c a n n o t be adequately addressed by l o o k i n g at the a r t i c u l a t i o n of modes of p r o d u c t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e d e b a t e on the p o s i t i o n o f f i s h e r s i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y (see S i n c l a i r 1984), p a r t i c u l a r l y as t o how f i s h e r f o l k f i t i n t o the c l a s s s t r u c t u r e . I t i s n o t the g o a l o f t h i s s t u d y t o c l a r i f y the deb a t e . For the p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y i t i s t a k e n as a w o r k i n g a s s u m p t i o n t h a t the Lummi are f u l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the c l a s s s t r u c t u r e o f the Northwest Washington r e g i o n , granted as an underdevloped segment, but n e v e r t h e l e s s f u l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the dominant c l a s s s t r u c t u r e . T h i s s t u d y i s d i r e c t e d a t u n d e r s t a n d i n g why the Lummi, as a d i s t i n c t p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l e n t i t y , a r e 11 underdeveloped and dependent, d e s p i t e a t r e a t y - a s s u r e d resource base and d e s p i t e r e c e n t l y a c q u i r e d g u a r a n t e e d a c c e s s t o t h a t r e s o u r c e . C o n c e i v a b l y the salmon r e s o u r c e c o u l d p r o v i d e the Lummi w i t h the b a s i s f o r economic s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y but i t has not. I t i s my p o s i t i o n t h a t t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s the r e s u l t o f an h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s o f p o l i t i c a l and economic d o m i n a t i o n o v e r I n d i a n p e o p l e and not m e r e l y the r e s u l t o f t r a d i t i o n a l and c a p i t a l i s t modes of p r o d u c t i o n coming i n t o c o n f l i c t . For the p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y , the view w i l l be f o l l o w e d t h a t the w o r l d c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m p r o d u c e s d e v e l o p m e n t i n the c e n t e r s or d e v e l o p e d n a t i o n s , and u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t i n the p e r i p h e r i e s or underdeveloped n a t i o n s . F u r t h e r , t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e i s j u s t as a p p l i c a b l e to r e g i o n s w i t h i n d e v e l o p e d n a t i o n s . U n d e r d e v e l o p e d r e g i o n s a re such because o t h e r r e g i o n s a r e d e v e l o p e d . The p r i n c i p a l cause o f u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t i s the e x t r a c t i o n , by the cen t e r , of the economic s u r p l u s c r e a t e d i n the p e r i p h e r y , but the s i t u a t i o n f o r n a t i v e I n d i a n s i s f u r t h e r e x a c e r b a t e d by the f a c t t h a t I n d i a n r e s e r v a t i o n s a r e " d o m e s t i c dependent n a t i o n s " . T h i s term, f i r s t a p p l i e d by C h i e f J u s t i c e M a r s h a l l to the Cherokee i n 1831, r e f e r s to the f a c t t h a t Indian t r i b e s , a l t h o u g h t h e y e x e r c i s e some de g r e e o f s o v e r e i g n t y , a r e dependent on the U n i t e d S t a t e s F e d e r a l Government f o r t h e i r p o l i t i c a l e x i s t e n c e . In t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the F e d e r a l government I n d i a n t r i b e s have g i v e n up the m a j o r i t y o f t h e i r t e r r i t o r y and r e s o u r c e s i n e x c h a n g e f o r r e c o g n i t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e . Some " r e s o u r c e s , or r i g h t s t o r e s o u r c e s , were r e t a i n e d f o r t h e i r needs. T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , however, has d e v e l o p e d such t h a t I n d i a n r e s o u r c e s a r e r a r e l y d e v e l o p e d by 12 Indians f o r Indians. Indian land, water, timber, f i s h , and other n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s a r e u t i l i z e d under the i n f l u e n c e o f the c a p i t a l i s t system and as such Indians remain underdeveloped due t o l a c k o f a c c e s s t o t h e e c o n o m i c s u r p l u s g e n e r a t e d . I n a d d i t i o n , s i n c e I n d i a n s have been, and s t i l l a r e , d o m i n a t e d p o l i t i c a l l y , p e r i o d i c changes i n I n d i a n p o l i c y have f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t e d Indian use of Indian resources. G e n e r a l l y , although I n d i a n a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s has v a r i e d w i d e l y , the te n d e n c y has been f o r reso u r c e s to be e x p l o i t e d by o u t s i d e i n t e r e s t s . Indian t r i b e s g e n e r a l l y have not u t i l i z e d t h e i r r e s o u r c e s t o c r e a t e economic s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , and probably cannot under the 1 present s ystem. I n d i a n t r i b e s have found t h e m s e l v e s w i t h o u t a c c e s s t o c a p i t a l , markets, or o p p o r t u n i t y and, t h e r e f o r e , without access to d e v e l o p m e n t t h r o u g h the use o f the r e s o u r c e s t h e y own. Thus Indians are dependent upon e x t e r n a l agents to develop r e s e r v a t i o n r e s o u r c e s and r a r e l y , i f ever, are these resources developed such t h a t the t r i b a l u n i t , as a whole, b e n e f i t s . In the Puget Sound f i s h e r y the massive c a p i t a l o u t l a y s , and subsequent t e c h n o l o g i c a l a d v ances, d i s p l a c e d the s m a l l o p e r a t i o n s and i n c r e a s i n g l y r e s t r i c t e d I n d i a n a c c e s s t o the r e s o u r c e . T h e r e b y the t r i b a l r e s o u r c e s w e r e d e v e l o p e d b u t t h e Lummi t r i b e b e c a m e underdeveloped. T h i s a p p r o a c h p r o v i d e s an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t i e s o f Lummi d o m i n a t i o n by the U n i t e d S t a t e s government, t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c i n s t i t u t i o n s , t h e i r e x c l u s i o n from p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the dominant economy, and t h e i r e x p l o i t a t i o n by o u t s i d e r s . 13 In t a k i n g a dependency a p p r o a c h t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g Lummi underdevelopment we w i l l examine both the economic and p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s a t work t h a t keep the Lummi i n a s t a t e o f dependency. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the Lummi are under the i n f l u e n c e of the dominant economy o f the N o r t h w e s t W a s h i n g t o n r e g i o n , e s p e c i a l l y the f i s h i n g s e c t o r , w hich o f t e n u t i l i z e d Lummi l a b o r and r e s o u r c e s but never p r o v i d e d the Lummi wit h an avenue f o r economic growth. The Lummi are dominated p o l i t i c a l l y through t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s F e d e r a l government which has a t r u s t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the Lummi t r i b e . The F e d e r a l government has not, i n t h i s t r u s t r e l a t i o n s h i p , e n c o u r a g e d f i s h i n g as an economic endeavor. T h e r e f o r e , p o l i t i c a l and economic f a c t o r s worked, b o t h i n c o m b i n a t i o n and s e p a r a t e l y , t o i n h i b i t Lummi economic growth and s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y through the f u l l u t i l i z a t i o n of t h e i r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , e s p e c i a l l y the f i s h e r y r e s o u r c e s . The Lummi presen t an i d e a l focus f o r t h i s type of study f o r two r e a s o n s . Lummi i s a f i s h i n g community and a r e s e r v a t i o n community. As a f i s h e r f o l k the Lummi were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the c a p i t a l i s t system as commodity producers to provide raw m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e p r o c e s s o r s . Once the Lummi were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the domi n a n t economy t h e r e was no t u r n i n g back, f o r i t meant t h a t when t h e i r l a b o r and resources were no longer needed, they were i n a s i t u a t i o n where they were dependent on the dominant economy but no l o n g e r a b l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e . To p a r a p h r a s e J o r g e n s e n (1978:50), the Lummi never had a c c e s s t o the c a p i t a l needed t o use t h e i r own resources, the s k i l l s needed to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the burgeoning f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y , adequate coun s e l to use the f i s h e r y resources, nor c o n t r o l over t h e i r own resources. As a t r i b e the 14 Lummi a r e s u b j e c t t o a s p e c t s o f i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f v i r t u a l l y a l l F e d e r a l l y - r e c o g n i z e d I n d i a n t r i b e s i n the Un i t e d S t a t e s . The c o n t r o l the F e d e r a l government e x e r c i s e s over Indians extends f a r beyond t r i b a l government and the l o c a l o f f i c e o f the Bureau o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . U l t i m a t e l y c o n t r o l r e s t s with the Congress of the Un i t e d S t a t e s , but between t h e s e l e v e l s o f government t h e r e i s a m y r i a d o f a g e n c i e s and o f f i c e s , a l l o f w h i c h e x e r c i s e some c o n t r o l o v e r the l i v e s o f the Lummi. The government i n t e r v e n e s i n e v e r y a s p e c t o f modern-day e x i s t e n c e , but i t s a c t i v i t i e s a r e e s p e c i a l l y n o t i c e a b l e i n the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f n a t u r a l resources and i n the r o l e i t p l a y s i n the c o n t i n u e d d o m i n a t i o n o f N a t i v e I n d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s . F e d e r a l a g e n c i e s , State-* and l o c a l g o vernments, and S t a t e and F e d e r a l c o u r t s y s t e m s have a l l p l a y e d a r o l e i n s h a p i n g the manner i n which the Lummi have u t i l i z e d the salmon r e s o u r c e . F e d e r a l a g e n c i e s have worked, l a r g e l y u n s u c c e s s f u l l y , t o "mainstream" Indians i n t o the dominant s o c i e t y . V a r i o u s a c t i o n s and p o l i c i e s have been i n s t i t u t e d o v e r the p a s t one hundred y e a r s t o a i d i n t h i s p r o c e s s . At the same t i m e the F e d e r a l government was w o r k i n g t o m a i n s t r e a m t h e Lummi, the l o c a l government was i n s t i t u t i n g p o l i c i e s and r e g u l a t i o n s t h a t worked to the b e n e f i t of c a p i t a l i s t i n t e r e s t s i n the Puget Sound f i s h e r y and r e s u l t e d i n the e x c l u s i o n of Indian f i s h e r s . 3. T h r o u g h o u t the r e m a i n d e r o f t h i s work " s t a t e " w i t h a lower case "s" w i l l r e f e r to a system of i n s t i t u t i o n s and "State" w i t h a c a p i t a l "S" w i l l r e f e r s p e c i f i c a l l y to the State of Washington. In o r d e r t o r e m a i n c o n s i s t e n t , " F e d e r a l " , when r e f e r r i n g t o the United S t a t e s F e d e r a l Government, w i l l a l s o be c a p i t a l i z e d . 15 The s t a t e , as a s y s t e m o f i n s t i t u t i o n s , i s a m u l t i - f a c e t e d f o r c e , branches of which are o f t e n i n c o n f l i c t with one another. The r e l a t i o n s h i p the Lummi have w i t h the s t a t e i s e x t r e m e l y complex. In t h i s context, the s t a t e c o n s i s t s of n a t i o n a l , S t a t e , and r e g i o n a l governments, each wi t h e x e c u t i v e , l e g i s l a t i v e , and j u d i c i a l b r a n c h e s , and each o f t h o s e w i t h complex s y s t e m s o f c o n t r o l t h a t shape d e c i s i o n s and a c t i o n s . Although Indian t r i b e s i n the Un i t e d S t a t e s e x i s t as " q u a s i -n a t i o n s " , t h e i r primary source of p o l i t i c a l power comes through a F e d e r a l government agency — the Bureau o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . I n d i a n t r i b e s a r e i n an u n u s u a l p o s i t i o n i n the F e d e r a l s ystem. They a r e not f o r e i g n n a t i o n s , a l t h o u g h t h e y do e x e r c i s e some degree o f s o v e r e i g n t y . They a r e not S t a t e s , a l t h o u g h t h e y e x e r c i s e some of the same powers t h a t S t a t e s do (e.g., t a x a t i o n ) . I t i s from t h i s p o s i t i o n t h a t many of the problems stem, such as problems of j u r i s d i c t i o n , problems of resource use and c o n t r o l , and p r o b l e m s c o n c e r n i n g the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f d e v e l o p m e n t programs. These a r e j u s t a few o f the m a t t e r s t h a t c o n c e r n I n d i a n t r i b e s and t h e i r use o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . B a r s h and Henderson (1980) have d i s c u s s e d how the Bureau of Indian A f f a i r s , the C o n g r e s s o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s , and the S t a t e s form a t r i a d w h i c h e x e r c i s e s c o n t r o l o v e r r e s e r v a t i o n I n d i a n s . I t i s the n a t u r e o f t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t c o n t r o l s and d i r e c t s I n d i a n p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t y . The t r i b e s a r e not a p a r t o f t h i s t r i a d and a l t h o u g h t h e y may l o b b y each o f the t h r e e t h e y have no power i n d e p e n d e n t o f them. C o n t r o l u l t i m a t e l y r e s t s w i t h C o n g r e s s which has e x c l u s i v e power over t r i b e s . "But the p r i c e of c o n t r o l 16 i s h i g h : f o r m a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s e r v i c e s t o t r i b a l I n d i a n s " (Barsh and Henderson 1980:223). The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y the F e d e r a l government has f o r I n d i a n s i s c o m p l i c a t e d by the i s o l a t i o n , p o v e r t y , and r e s i s t a n c e o f t r i b a l g r o u p s . One manner i n which the F e d e r a l government has d e a l t w i t h these c o m p l i c a t i o n s i s to t r a n s f e r some o f the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o the S t a t e s . As w i l l be d e m o n s t r a t e d below, a l l o t m e n t and t e r m i n a t i o n a r e examples o f t h i s p r o c e s s . The " p a r a m e t e r s o f , c o n g r e s s i o n a l a c t i o n a r e supremacy and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " (Barsh and Henderson 1980:223). The parameters o f St a t e a c t i o n , however, are r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and revenue. The S t a t e s p r e f e r t o m i n i m i z e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r I n d i a n s and can d i r e c t l y b e n e f i t by moving I n d i a n l a n d and resou r c e s out of F e d e r a l c o n t r o l . T h i s F e d e r a l / S t a t e dichotomy i s n o t , o f c o u r s e , j u s t l i m i t e d t o I n d i a n l a n d and r e s o u r c e s . The use and c o n t r o l o f F e d e r a l l y - o w n e d l a n d e s p e c i a l l y i s a s e n s i t i v e i s s u e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the We s t e r n S t a t e s . The v a s t m a j o r i t y of Indian r e s e r v a t i o n s are a l s o i n the Western S t a t e s . Looking a t the Un i t e d S t a t e s as four g e o g r a p h i c a l r e g i o n s — the N o r t h e a s t , M i d w e s t , South, and West — the F e d e r a l government owns l e s s t h a n 5 p e r c e n t o f the l a n d i n the f i r s t t h r e e but 60 p e r c e n t o f the l a n d i n the W e s t e r n r e g i o n ( U n i t e d S t a t e s Bureau of t he Census 1985:196). In W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e t h e F e d e r a l government owns 29.1 p e r c e n t o f the l a n d i n the S t a t e o u t r i g h t , such areas as m i l i t a r y r e s e r v a t i o n s , n a t i o n a l parks, and n a t i o n a l f o r e s t s , but F e d e r a l c o n t r o l extends even f u r t h e r , f o r example, of s p e c i a l i m p o r t a n c e h e r e , o v e r I n d i a n r e s e r v a t i o n s and over f i s h e r y r e s o u r c e s t h a t are not bound to the land. There are tw e n t y - s i x Indian r e s e r v a t i o n s i n Washington S t a t e 17 and they r e p r e s e n t 7.6 percent of the t o t a l acreage of the S t a t e (3.2 m i l l i o n a c r e s o f 42 m i l l i o n a c r e s ) . F u r t h e r m o r e I n d i a n r e s e r v a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y i n W e s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n , a r e l o c a t e d i n areas of extreme importance i n terms of resource u t i l i z a t i o n , f o r example the mouths o f r i v e r s , and, i n a d d i t i o n , t r e a t y I n d i a n s r e t a i n F e d e r a l l y - a s s u r e d o f f - r e s e r v a t i o n r i g h t s t o p o r t i o n s o f c e r t a i n resources they were using at the time the t r e a t i e s were n e g o t i a t e d . B e t w e e n t h e F e d e r a l a n d S t a t e g o v e r n m e n t s b o t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and c o n t r o l of resources are shared but the degree o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and c o n t r o l changes t h r o u g h t i m e as s p e c i f i c c i r c u m s t a n c e s change. These changes i n p o l i c y may have a decided impact on Indian use of resources even though t h a t impact may not have been a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the lawmakers. T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s c o m p l i c a t e d by the i n f l u e n c e o f the Bureau o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . The Bureau o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s i s a n s w e r a b l e t o C o n g r e s s , not the S t a t e s . Congress can a f f o r d to respond f a v o r a b l y to agency [Bureau o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s ] r e q u e s t s . C e r t a i n o t h e r a s p e c t s o f Indian a d m i n i s t r a t i o n are, however, p a r t i c u l a r l y obnoxious t o the s t a t e s . R e s e r v a t i o n s r e d u c e tax bases a l r e a d y weakened by f e d e r a l t a x a t i o n , and c r e a t e demands f o r uncompensated s e r v i c e s . They t i e up r e s o u r c e s t h a t c o u l d e n e r g i z e s t a t e economic growth. I n d i a n programs a r e t h e r e f o r e p a r t i c u l a r l y v u l n e r a b l e to a t t a c k s by s t a t e government. P o l i c y seesaws between p l e a s i n g the bureau and not d i s p l e a s i n g the s t a t e s (Barsh and Henderson 1980:224). The t r i b e s a r e i n a no-win s i t u a t i o n . They b e l i e v e t h a t w i t h o u t t h e B ureau o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s t h e y would c e a s e t o e x i s t , w hich i s p l a u s i b l e but not n e c e s s a r i l y t r u e . A l t h o u g h t h e y d i s l i k e the i n t e r f e r e n c e of the Bureau of Indian A f f a i r s i n t h e i r l i v e s they put up w i t h i t because the p e r c e i v e d a l t e r n a t i v e s seem 18 so much worse. The Bureau o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , as a b u r e a u c r a c y , depends upon t r i b a l I n d i a n s t o p e r p e t u a t e i t s e l f . I f I n d i a n s were to become t o t a l l y s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t and s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g , there would be no reason f o r the Bureau of Indian A f f a i r s to e x i s t . So even though t r i b a l s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y i s the u l t i m a t e g o a l of the Bureau o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , t h a t g o a l w i l l never be a t t a i n e d as l o n g as t h e B u r e a u o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s i s d i r e c t i n g i t s f u l f i l l m e n t . The manner i n which these three governmental bodies a f f e c t and i n t e r a c t w i t h Indian r e s e r v a t i o n s i s complex and c o n f u s i n g . F e d e r a l c o u r t s g e n e r a l l y u p h o l d the t r u s t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y the F e d e r a l government has f o r I n d i a n s . S t a t e c o u r t s and S t a t e agencies g e n e r a l l y i n t e r p r e t and enact r e g u l a t o r y measures to the b e n e f i t o f St a t e c i t i z e n s . The c o n t r o l o f p r o d u c t i v e resources, as p e r c e i v e d by F e d e r a l government, the I n d i a n s , and the Bureau of Indian A f f a i r s , i s o f t e n i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n w i t h the p e r c e p t i o n o f the S t a t e . T h e r e i n l i e s much o f the p r o b l e m the Lummi have faced i n attempting to u t i l i z e the salmon resource over the past one hundred y e a r s . A p o l i t i c a l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y dependent group, l i k e t h e Lummi, c a n n o t u t i l i z e t h e i r r e s o u r c e s t o t h e i r own b e n e f i t . T h i s was ev i d e n t from the time the Lummi were f i r s t i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the dominant economy and i t r e m a i n s e v i d e n t even now t h a t the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t r e a t y f i s h i n g r i g h t s has been r e s o l v e d . A l t h o u g h the Lummi have been i n c o n t a c t w i t h w h i t e s s i n c e t h e e a r l y 1800s, i t was n o t u n t i l a f t e r 1884, when t h e r e s e r v a t i o n l a n d s were a l l o t t e d i n s e v e r a l t y , t h a t the Lummi 19 became f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the dominant economic system. P r i o r t o t h i s t i m e the Lummi p a r t i c i p a t e d i n some a c t i v i t i e s o f the market economy and entered i n t o t r e a t i e s with the United S t a t e s government, but i t was not u n t i l the salmon f i s h e r y became c o m m e r c i a l i z e d t h a t the Lummi abandoned t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l s u b s i s t e n c e economy. C o i n c i d i n g w i t h the d e v e l o p m e n t o f the salmon i n d u s t r y was i n c r e a s i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and l e g i s l a t i v e c o n t r o l of the Un i t e d S t a t e s government over the Lummi. As the f i s h e r y d e v e l o p e d , the Lummi were i n a p o s i t i o n t o a c t as commodity producers f o r the ca n n e r i e s . A we l l - d e v e l o p e d f i s h i n g technology was r e a d i l y adapted to commercial endeavors, and knowledge o f the f i s h runs and f i s h i n g l o c a t i o n s made the Lummi a d e s i r a b l e l a b o r f o r c e . As f i s h i n g t e c h n o l o g y advanced and the i n c r e a s i n g v a l u e o f the salmon r e s o u r c e a t t r a c t e d more n o n - I n d i a n s t o the i n d u s t r y , the Lummi found t h e i r s e r v i c e s no l o n g e r needed. In some c a s e s , t h e i r a c c e s s t o the r e s o u r c e was a l s o r e s t r i c t e d through d i r e c t i n t e r v e n t i o n by the c a n n e r i e s and by State r e g u l a t i o n . Thus, with i n c r e a s i n g F e d e r a l c o n t r o l over t h e i r l i v e s , the Lummi were a dependent, dominated group by 1900. Through the e a r l y 1900s the Lummi continued to f i s h salmon, but d e c r e a s i n g access and i n c r e a s i n g r e g u l a t o r y measures hampered u t i l i z a t i o n of the resource. Any f i s h i n g c a r r i e d out was on the r e s e r v a t i o n and attempts were made, by the Lummi, to ensure t h a t every r e s e r v a t i o n i n h a b i t a n t had equal access to t h i s s h r i n k i n g resource. Meanwhile, among non-Indians, the commercial salmon f i s h e r y was becoming the most i m p o r t a n t s i n g l e i n d u s t r y i n the S t a t e o f W a s h i n g t o n , and t h e N o r t h P u g e t Sound a r e a , t r a d i t i o n a l l y f i s h e d by the Lummi, became the most p r o d u c t i v e i n 20 the S t a t e . T e c h n o l o g i c a l change and i n n o v a t i o n continued to widen the gap between the Lummi and non-Indian f i s h e r s , and r e - e n t r y to the commercial salmon f i s h e r y by the Lummi became more d i f f i c u l t . As a r e s u l t t h e Lummi p e r s i s t e d i n a s t a t e o f p o v e r t y and s u b j u g a t i o n , u n a b l e t o f i s h c o m m e r c i a l l y and w i t h o u t any o t h e r means of making a decent l i v i n g . D u r i n g W o r l d War I I t h i s s i t u a t i o n was s u d d e n l y r e v e r s e d . Faced w i t h shortages o f f i s h producers the p r o c e s s o r s urged t h a t Lummi be r e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the salmon f i s h e r y . A change took p l a c e , b ut because t h e y were p r o v i d e d w i t h outmoded gear t h e y were u n a b l e , w i t h the d r a m a t i c t e c h n o l o g i c a l change a f t e r the war, to remain c o m p e t i t i v e . T e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n continued to change the face of the salmon f i s h e r y , and as the salmon runs began to show n o t i c e a b l e d e p l e t i o n , Indian f i s h i n g was once again c u r t a i l e d . D u r i n g the 1930s and 1940s the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a t r i b a l government b r o u g h t t h e Lummi more e f f e c t i v e l y under F e d e r a l Bureau o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s c o n t r o l . As i n p r e v i o u s h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d s , Lummi c o n t r o l and use o f r e s o u r c e s was shaped by t e c h n o l o g i c a l and economic change i n the salmon i n d u s t r y and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the Lummi to the S t a t e and F e d e r a l governments. Through the 1950s the c o n t i n u i n g changes i n p o l i c y o f the Bureau o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s b r o u g h t e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g government c o n t r o l o v e r the Lummi and i n c r e a s i n g dependency. Of s p e c i a l note was t h e " R e l o c a t i o n Program", which urged r e s e r v a t i o n Indians to move to urban areas where they c o u l d f i n d jobs. T h i s 21 program was entered i n t o by a s i g n i f i c a n t number of Lummi, for i t c o i n c i d e d with the r a p i d d e c l i n e o f Lummi f i s h i n g o p p o r t u n i t y i n the e a r l y 1950s. W i t h the g r a d u a l r e t u r n o f many r e l o c a t e e s t o the r e s e r v a t i o n i n the 1960s, the Lummi a g a i n were f a c e d w i t h i n c r e a s i n g needs, y e t were unable to u t i l i z e the salmon resource as a b a s i s f o r e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . O t h e r a v e n u e s o f development were attempted, but l a r g e l y f a i l e d . P a r t l y s u s t a i n e d by p e r i o d i c wage la b o r and t r a n s f e r payments, the Lummi remained dependent and p o v e r t y - s t r i c k e n . In the l a t e 1960s, s e v e r a l W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e I n d i a n t r i b e s c o n f r o n t e d t h e S t a t e o v e r a c c e s s t o t h e s a l m o n r e s o u r c e . E v e n t u a l l y t h i r t e e n W e s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n t r i b e s , among them the Lummi, entered a c o u r t s u i t a g a i n s t the S t a t e of Washington, and the U n i t e d S t a t e s government i n t e r v e n e d on the I n d i a n s ' b e h a l f . The c o n t r o v e r s y between the Indians and the S t a t e expanded i n t o a F e d e r a l / S t a t e c o n t r o v e r s y over access, c o n t r o l , and management of the salmon r e s o u r c e . When the c o u r t d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t r e a t y Indian f i s h e r s of Western Washington were e n t i t l e d to 50 percent of the h a r v e s t of salmon, the Lummi once again found themselves needed by the p r o c e s s o r s . The Lummi responded by r a p i d l y d e v eloping t h e i r commercial f l e e t , but t h i s development has been uneven. F u l l y 90 percent of the Lummi f i s h e r s remain below the " p o v e r t y l e v e l " , f o r a l a r g e s h a r e o f the r e s o u r c e i s h a r v e s t e d by a s m a l l percentage of the p o p u l a t i o n . In the ten year p e r i o d a f t e r t h e f i s h i n g r i g h t s d e c i s i o n the a c c e s s and c o n t r o l o f the salmon resource has become conc e n t r a t e d w i t h i n the hands of a few i n d i v i d u a l s , t h o s e who use c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e g e a r . T h i s s t u d y suggests t h a t t h i s c o n t r o l i s both p o l i t i c a l and economic and has 22 r e s u l t e d i n a segment o f the Lummi p o p u l a t i o n u t i l i z i n g t h e i r p o l i t i c a l p o s t i o n t o e x e r c i s e c o n t r o l o v e r the t r i b a l s h a r e o f the salmon resource. The a p p r o a c h t o be f o l l o w e d i n t h i s s t u d y can be v e r y s i m p l y summarized. The prese n t s i t u a t i o n o f Lummi underdevelopment and dependency i s the d i r e c t r e s u l t of the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the Lummi i n t o the dominant s o c i e t y as a d i s t i n c t and s e p a r a t e segment. The Lummi were used as labor when needed as commodity producers, but t h e i r community r e m a i n e d a p e r i p h e r a l one s u f f e r i n g from u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s e x a c e r b a t e d by t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p the Lummi have w i t h the F e d e r a l government. T h i s study w i l l examine the process of t h i s development through time as an a i d to understanding how t h i s s i t u a t i o n came about and what f a c t o r s are at work t h a t p e r m i t i t to continue. Methods and O b j e c t i v e s E r i c Wolf (1982) has suggested t h a t we s h a l l not understand the p r e s e n t world unless we t r a c e the growth of the world market economy and the course o f c a p i t a l i s t development. We must have a t h e o r y o f t h a t g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t i s h i s t o r i c a l l y i n f o r m e d , and we must be a b l e t o r e l a t e b o t h the h i s t o r y and theory o f t h a t u n f o l d i n g development to processes t h a t a f f e c t and change the l i v e s of people i n l o c a l areas. In a n t h r o p o l o g y t h i s a p p r o a c h may be i n c l u d e d i n the f i e l d o f " e t h n o h i s t o r y " , which u n t i l r e c e n t l y has p r i m a r i l y been used t o u n d e r s t a n d a s p e c t s o f p r e - c o n t a c t I n d i a n g r o u p s t h r o u g h the w r i t i n g o f e a r l y e x p l o r e r s and g o v e r n m e n t a g e n t s . The 23 e t h n o h i s t o r i c a l approach> can do much more than s u p p l e m e n t e t h n o g r a p h i c d a t a . In o r d e r to u n d e r s t a n d the s i t u a t i o n o f modern-day r e s e r v a t i o n I n d i a n s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s we must u n d e r s t a n d the p o l i t i c a l and economic f a c t o r s t h a t have shaped t h e i r s o c i e t i e s . Anthropology and h i s t o r y are brought together i n the f i e l d o f e t h n o h i s t o r y . H i s t o r i c a l ethnology, as i t i s sometimes c a l l e d , combines a c u l t u r a l a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l t h e o r e t i c a l framework wi t h h i s t o r i o g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h procedures f o r the study of c u l t u r e and c u l t u r e process (Spores 1980:575). We assume t h a t s o c i e t i e s may change and have c o n t i n u i t y . Change d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e d u c e i d e n t i t y nor l e a d t o d i s s o l u t i o n o f a s o c i a l s y s t e m . A modern I n d i a n s o c i e t y i s no l e s s " r e a l " than the p r e - c o n t a c t s o c i e t y i t descended from. As Fenton has p o i n t e d out: T h e r e i s a r o m a n t i c f a l l a c y t h a t I n d i a n c u l t u r e s changed l i t t l e b e f o r e the coming o f the w h i t e s . U n t i l r e c e n t l y i t was shared e q u a l l y by h i s t o r i a n s and a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s . Many of us have been g u i l t y of seeking a c u l t u r a l s t a b i l i t y based on a p r e - C o l u m b i a n c u l t u r e t h a t was more or l e s s s t a t i c (Fenton 1978:924). Change, whether b r o u g h t about i n t e r n a l l y , by i n f l u e n c e o f o t h e r n a t i v e g r o u p s , or E u r o p e a n s , does not make N a t i v e I n d i a n s o c i e t i e s l e s s worthy o f our s t u d y . O v e r c o n c e r n w i t h s t a t i c models o f c u l t u r e may be c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v e , as Adams o b s e r v e d about r e c e n t " a c c u l t u r a t i o n " s t u d i e s of Northwest Coast s o c i e t i e s which: ... t e n d to be d i s a p p o i n t i n g because t h e y so o f t e n p r e s e n t the I n d i a n s i n a " d e c u l t u r a t e d " p r e s e n t w i t h no sense f o r the s t r u c t u r e s o f i n t e r a c t i o n which can be o b s e r v e d i n any s o c i e t y , not s i m p l y t h o s e w i t h a b o r i g i n a l t r a i t s (Adams 1981:382). The pr e s e n t study, adopting an e t h n o h i s t o r i c a l approach, attempts t o o v e r c o m e s u c h b i a s and p r e s e n t t h e Lummi s o c i e t y as a 24 continuum — a c o n s t a n t l y changing, c o n s t a n t l y adapting group of p e o p l e who are d i s t i n c t today as t h e y were i n 1790. For the purposes of t h i s study the g o a l s of e t h n o h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h were best d e f i n e d by Hi c k e r s o n . E t h n o h i s t o r i a n s ... a p p l y the methods o f h i s t o r i o g r a p h y t o the c u l t u r e s i n which they are i n t e r e s t e d i n l i g h t of t h e i r g e n e r a l a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l experience; to gauge change t h a t has taken p l a c e i n them and to comprehend the h i s t o r i c a l f a c t s i n v o l v e d i n and determining change (Hickerson 1970:7). The data to be presented i n t h i s study f a l l n e a t l y i n t o s i x p e r i o d s d i s c u s s e d i n as many c h a p t e r s . C h a p t e r I I , "The P r e -Re s e r v a t i o n Lummi" examines what we know of the p r o t o - h i s t o r i c Lummi s o c i e t y as i t r e l a t e s t o the u t i l i z a t i o n o f the salmon r e s o u r c e . The s h a r i n g o f p r o d u c t i v e r e s o u r c e s and the methods f o r t h e i r e x p l o i t a t i o n w i l l be o u t l i n e d and f o l l o w e d by a d i s c u s s i o n of the impact o f Europeans i n the e a r l y h i s t o r i c era. Both the p e r i o d o f the t r e a t i e s and the e a r l y r e s e r v a t i o n y e a r s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n , because i t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t the r e s e r v a t i o n s y s t e m was not a dominant f a c t o r i n the l i f e o f the Lummi u n t i l the r e s e r v a t i o n lands were a l l o t t e d i n s e v e r a l t y i n 1884. C h a p t e r I I I , "The Lummi and t h e D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e C o m m e r c i a l Salmon F i s h e r y " , examines the d e v e l o p m e n t o f the salmon i n d u s t r y o f Puget Sound. Of p a r t i c u l a r importance during t h i s p e r i o d was the i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f the Lummi i n t o the market economy as p r i m a r y p r o d u c e r s i n the salmon f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y . C e r t a i n aspects of the s t a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p are d i s c u s s e d i n order to understand the mechanisms i n v o l v e d i n the subsequent e x c l u s i o n o f the Lummi from the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y . The h i s t o r y o f one p a r t i c u l a r p r o c e s s o r , C a r l i s l e Packing Company, i s d i s c u s s e d i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between one segment o f the p r o c e s s i n g s e c t o r and the Lummi. C h a p t e r I V , "The E r a o f C o m m e r c i a l S a l m o n F i s h i n g " , d i s c u s s e s the p e n e t r a t i o n o f monopoly c a p i t a l i s m and the growt h o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n the salmon i n d u s t r y . The r o l e o f t h e s t a t e , as e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h t h e c o u r t s y s t e m and t h e W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t o f F i s h e r i e s , was t o s q u e e z e t h e Lummi o u t o f the c o m m e r c i a l a s p e c t s o f the f i s h e r y j u s t as i t was b e c o m i n g e c o n o m i c a l l y l u c r a t i v e . The Lummi were e c o n o m i c a l l y d e s t i t u t e d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d as the Lummi f i s h e r s were c o n f i n e d t o an o n - r e s e r v a t i o n , p r i m a r i l y s u b s i s t e n c e f i s h e r y and were u n a b l e t o f i n d a d e q u a t e wage l a b o r i n any o t h e r f o r m . S e a s o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s s u c h as l o g g i n g and f a r m l a b o r s u p p l e m e n t e d t h e s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s . C h a p t e r V, "The I n d i a n New D e a l " , e x a m i n e s t h e i n c r e a s e d d o m i n a t i o n o f t h e F e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t o v e r I n d i a n r e s e r v a t i o n s . The most i m p o r t a n t F e d e r a l a c t i o n was the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the I n d i a n R e o r g a n i z a t i o n A c t , which e s t a b l i s h e d t r i b a l governments and c o n s t i t u t i o n s . T h i s p e r i o d c o n t i n u e d p a s t W o r l d War I I , d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e the Lummi f i s h e r y e x p e r i e n c e d a r e v i v a l due t o an i n c r e a s e d need f o r f i s h e r s . The f i r s t Lummi p u r s e s e i n e f l e e t d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , coming t o employ a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f the Lummi male l a b o r f o r c e . As F e d e r a l p o l i c y s h i f t e d once a g a i n and f i s h i n g t e c h n o l o g y went i n t o another g r o w t h s p u r t , the Lummi were once a g a i n squeezed o ut o f the salmon f i s h e r y . C hapter V I , "From T e r m i n a t i o n t o S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n " , w i l l d i s c u s s the "pendulum" o f F e d e r a l I n d i a n p o l i c y and the r e s u l t a n t 26 e f f e c t s on the a b i l i t y of the Lummi to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the salmon f i s h e r y . The r o l e o f the c o u r t s i n d e f i n i n g the Lummi r i g h t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the salmon f i s h e r y w i l l be c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the e f f o r t s o f t h e S t a t e o f Wa s h i n g t o n t o b l o c k i n t e r v e n t i o n by the F e d e r a l Government i n the management of the salmon f i s h e r y . C h a p t e r V I I , "The B o l d t D e c i s i o n and Beyond", w i l l l o o k a t the impact of the c o u r t case United S t a t e s y_;_ St a t e of Washington on the Lummi community. The gr o w t h o f the Lummi f i s h i n g f l e e t w i l l be d e t a i l e d , as w i l l the dilemmas the f i s h e r y w i l l l i k e l y face i n the near f u t u r e . The reasons f o r the growth to the p o i n t o f o v e r - c a p a c i t y w i l l be e x a m i n e d , a s w i l l p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s . Chapter V I I I , the c o n c l u s i o n s , w i l l review the i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d and d i s c u s s t h e r e l e v a n c e o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e used and p o s s i b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the Lummi c a s e study. Sources of Data The d a t a t h i s s t u d y i s based upon come from t h r e e main sources: ethnographic, a r c h i v a l , and f i e l d w o r k . The e t h n o g r a p h i c d a t a were p r i m a r i l y from S u t t l e s (1951) a l t h o u g h s u p p l e m e n t a r y d a t a on n e i g h b o r i n g g r o u p s were used t o pla c e the Lummi i n proper a r e a l context. The supplementary data were from the Saanich (Jenness n.d.); the Songhees, Saanich, and o t h e r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o a s t S a l i s h ( B a r n e t t 1938; 1955); the K l a l l a m ( G u n t h e r 1927); t h e S t a l o ( D u f f 1 9 5 2 ) ; t h e S k a g i t ( C o l l i n s 1974); and the Twana ( E l m e n d o r f 1960). In a d d i t i o n comparative data by Jorgensen (1969; 1980) were used. 27 The a r c h i v a l d a t a come f r o m t h r e e m a i n s o u r c e s ; t h e W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e A r c h i v e s ; the U n i t e d S t a t e s F e d e r a l A r c h i v e System; and the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were p r i m a r i l y used t o pr o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on the fur trade e r a, c i r c a 1827 to 1860, as they house the m a n u s c r i p t s and p u b l i s h e d works o f the dominant f o r e i g n power i n the N o r t h w e s t d u r i n g t h a t t i m e , the B r i t i s h Hudson's Bay Company. The records and accounts of the Bureau of I n d i a n A f f a i r s , e s p e c i a l l y the E v e r e t t a r e a o f f i c e under which the Lummi a r e subsumed, a r e housed a t the F e d e r a l A r c h i v e s and R e c o r d s C e n t e r a t Sand P o i n t i n S e a t t l e . Many o f the F e d e r a l r e c o r d s t h a t p e r t a i n s p e c i f i c a l l y t o the Lummi were d u p l i c a t e d and p l a c e d i n the Lummi T r i b a l A r c h i v e s i n the e a r l y 1970s, and as a r e s u l t some m a t e r i a l s were a c c e s s e d a t t h e Lummi T r i b a l A r c h i v e s r a t h e r than the F e d e r a l A r c h i v e s . F o r t u n a t e l y , the F e d e r a l A r c h i v e s and Record s C e n t e r i n S e a t t l e has c a t a l o g s o f some of the m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e i n the N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s . Some d a t a , e s p e c i a l l y on the I n d i a n New D e a l , were o b t a i n e d from the N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s and R e c o r d s S e r v i c e i n Washington, D.C. but t h i s was accomplished through the m a i l . H i s t o r i c a l data on Lummi f i s h i n g and the e a r l y commercial salmon f i s h e r y were found i n the p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t s o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s Bureau o f C o m m e r c i a l F i s h e r i e s . These r e p o r t s were o b t a i n e d f o r me by the F e d e r a l Records D e p o s i t o r y , Wilson L i b r a r y , Western Washington U n i v e r s i t y i n Bellingham. The W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e A r c h i v e s i n O l y m p i a were u s e f u l f o r accounts and records of the development of the commercial salmon 28 f i s h e r y o f P u g e t Sound. The S t a t e f i s h e r i e s r e p o r t s and s t a t i s t i c s , the l e g i s l a t i v e r e c o r d s , and v a r i o u s other documents p e r t a i n i n g to the f i s h e r y and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Washington S t a t e and the Indian t r i b e s , were reviewed. The Northwest branch of the Washington State A r c h i v e s i n Bellingham a l s o p r o v i d e d data on f i s h e r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y N o r t h Puget Sound f i s h t r a p s . In a d d i t i o n m a t e r i a l was obtained from the Northwest C o l l e c t i o n a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington, the N a t i o n a l M a r i n e F i s h e r i e s S e r v i c e i n S e a t t l e , the Whatcom County Courthouse, the Northwest I n d i a n F i s h e r i e s C o m m i s s i o n i n O l y m p i a , and the h o l d i n g s o f p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s . The f i e l d w o r k undertaken f o r t h i s study was not of the u s u a l k i n d , i f t h e r e i s a u s u a l k i n d . I suppose t h a t I am as much a member o f the Lummi community as a n o n - I n d i a n can become. Residence on the Lummi r e s e r v a t i o n , with two i n t e r r u p t i o n s , has been c o n t i n u o u s s i n c e 1971. I have been i n the employ o f the Lummi T r i b e a t o t a l of e i g h t years, one year as t r i b a l h i s t o r i a n and seven y e a r s a t the Lummi C o l l e g e o f F i s h e r i e s (now Lummi Community C o l l e g e ) b o t h as an i n s t r u c t o r and an a d m i n i s t r a t o r . T h e r e f o r e much o f the i n f o r m a t i o n u t i l i z e d i n t h i s s t u d y was o b t a i n e d d u r i n g the c o u r s e o f e v e r y d a y l i f e and not d u r i n g any i n t e n s e f i e l d e x c u r s i o n . F i e l d n o t e s were never kept. I have been i n the h a b i t o f k e e p i n g a j o u r n a l which i n c l u d e s b i t s and p i e c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t were of use here, but i n t e r v i e w s , when c o n d u c t e d , were i n f o r m a l . My Lummi f r i e n d s and a f f i n e s a r e * o b v i o u s l y uncomfortable being i n t e r v i e w e d i n a f o r m a l s i t u a t i o n , and i n most cases n o t e - t a k i n g or tape r e c o r d i n g would have been ou t o f p l a c e . A c o u r s e I t a u g h t a t the Lummi C o l l e g e f o r f i v e 29 years e n t i t l e d "Indian P o l i c y and T r i b a l Government" brought out many o f the i s s u e s d e a l t w i t h i n t h i s s t u d y , e s p e c i a l l y the I n d i a n New D e a l , R e l o c a t i o n and T e r m i n a t i o n , I n d i a n S e l f -D e t e r m i n a t i o n , and the f i s h i n g r i g h t s c o n t r o v e r s y . In i n f o r m a l c l a s s r o o m d i s c u s s i o n s my students (ranging i n age from 18 to 60) e n l i g h t e n e d me on t h e i r v i e w s o f how t h e s e p o l i c i e s a f f e c t e d t h e i r l i v e s , e s p e c i a l l y r e l o c a t i o n and the p o s t - B o l d t f i s h e r y . The Lummi I n d i a n B u s i n e s s C o u n c i l , the g o v e r n i n g body o f the Lummi t r i b e , was i n f o r m e d e a r l y on o f my i n t e n t i o n t o c o n d u c t t h i s r e s e a r c h , and s e v e r a l c o u n c i l members have taken an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n i t s progress. In a d d i t i o n , members of the Lummi F i s h Commission and t r i b a l members i n g e n e r a l were aware of t h i s study and v o l u n t e e r e d t h e i r o p i n i o n s on oc c a s i o n . Whenever two or more Lummi g e t t o g e t h e r the c o n v e r s a t i o n i n v a r i a b l y s t e e r s t o w a r d s salmon f i s h i n g . C o n s e q u e n t l y I was p r i v y t o many d i s c u s s i o n s t h a t were of use to my understanding the Lummi f i s h e r y and a l s o t o o t h e r s t h a t I c a n n o t use i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the p r i v a c y o f i n d i v i d u a l s who o f f e r e d t h e i r comments i n t r u s t . 30 CHAPTER I I THE PRE-RESERVATION LUMMI I n t r o d u c t i o n B e f o r e c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t h e i n t r o d u c e d e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l e l e m e n t s t h a t have a f f e c t e d the Lummi up t o the present, t h i s chapter w i l l draw together what we know of the p r e -c o n t a c t and p o s t - c o n t a c t s o c i e t y t h a t p e r t a i n s t o r e s o u r c e p r o c u r e m e n t and d i s p e n s a t i o n . The c a s e w i l l be made t h a t the p r e - r e s e r v a t i o n Lummi s o c i e t y c o n s i s t e d o f e c o n o m i c a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t f a m i l y u n i t s t h a t c o o p e r a t e d i n c e r t a i n t y p e s o f l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e salmon f i s h i n g , i . e . , r e e f n e t t i n g and w e i r f i s h i n g . I t was i n these two types o f f i s h i n g t h a t ownership of p r o d u c t i v e resources was most evident. Although the procurement s i t e was vested i n the c o n t r o l of an i n d i v i d u a l , t h a t i n d i v i d u a l had the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to manage access to the resource on b e h a l f o f a l a r g e r k i n group. Through the s t e w a r d s h i p o f p r o d u c t i v e resources i n d i v i d u a l s t a t u s was enhanced. F o l l o w i n g the d i s c u s s i o n of the p r o t o - h i s t o r i c Lummi w i l l be an overview o f the Lummi i n the context of the e a r l y development of the Western Washington area. Although Lummi were introduced to v a r i o u s elements of white s o c i e t y , they remained separate and s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t . T h i s continued i n t o the f i r s t years a f t e r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the r e s e r v a t i o n . Not u n t i l the r e s e r v a t i o n l a n d s were a l l o t t e d i n 1884 d i d the Lummi b e g i n t o undergo i dramatic change and adjustment to the dominant s o c i e t y . At t h i s p o i n t the c o n t r o l e x e r c i s e d over the Lummi by the F e d e r a l government through the Bureau of Indian A f f a i r s was strengthened. The Bureau o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n t r o d u c e d a new economic system, 31 farming, and new concepts of education and r e l i g i o n , and began to e x e r c i s e i n c r e a s i n g l y r e s t r i c t i v e c o n t r o l s over the everyday l i f e and a c t i v i t i e s of the Lummi. P r i o r to Contact The Lummi community of today i s populated by descendants of the former i n h a b i t a n t s of the San Juan A r c h i p e l a g o and adjacent m a i n l a n d . S e v e r a l Lummi v i l l a g e s (e.g. l e q a m a s , s w e l a x , ' e l a l a n g , x w l o l a m a s (from which comes the word "Lummi")) and p a r t s o f the Semiahmoo and Samish (s'emas) were moved t o the Lummi R e s e r v a t i o n a t the mouth o f the Nooksack R i v e r a f t e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the Lummi signed the T r e a t y of P o i n t E l l i o t t on 22 J a n u a r y 1855 and i t was r a t i f i e d i n 1859. L a t e r , members o f t h e N o o k s a c k b a n d s were u r g e d t o move t o t h e Lummi Re s e r v a t i o n , but few a c t u a l l y d i d so ( S u t t l e s 1954:98). P r i o r t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the r e s e r v a t i o n , the Lummi r e s i d e d i n semi-permanent v i l l a g e s t h r o u g h o u t the San Juan I s l a n d s and a d j a c e n t m a i n l a n d a r e a , t r a v e l l i n g s e a s o n a l l y t o v a r i o u s r e s o u r c e p r o c u r e m e n t s i t e s . T h e s e v i l l a g e s were composed o f p o l i t i c a l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t houses u n i t e d by bonds o f k i n s h i p t o o t h e r , s i m i l a r houses. In t h i s s t u d y "house" r e f e r s t o a s e t o f i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l i e s , u s u a l l y r e l a t e d , who s h a r e d the same s t r u c t u r e but were e c o n o m i c a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t . A l t h o u g h t h e f a m i l i e s w i t h i n a h o u s e m i g h t c o o p e r a t e i n c e r t a i n t y p e s o f r e s o u r c e p r o c u r e m e n t a c t i v i t i e s t h e y kept t h e i r own s t o r e s and cooked s e p a r a t e l y ( S u t t l e s 1951a:494). G e n e r a l l y , w i t h i n the v i l l a g e , s e v e r a l h o u s e h o l d s 32 f o r m e d a c o m m u n i t y o f s o r t s , w h i c h B a r n e t t (1955:21) a p p r o p r i a t e l y termed a "household c l u s t e r . " According t o Lummi testimony i n 1927 hearings (Duwamish, et a l . v^ United S t a t e s 79 c t . c l . 530, 604 (1934)) a t the t i m e o f the t r e a t y t h e r e were nineteen " c l u s t e r s " , t o t a l i n g t w e n t y - s i x houses of from e i g h t to t e n "compartments" ( i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l y u n i t s ) each. When the t r e a t y was r a t i f i e d , o n l y t h r e e o f t h e s e houses were l o c a t e d on what was l a t e r to become the Lummi Re s e r v a t i o n . The Lummi are one of s e v e r a l groups speaking a Coast S a l i s h l a n g u a g e c a l l e d lak'ongenang by i t s s p e a k e r s ( S u t t l e s 1951a:6), Lkungen by Boas (1890:563). S u t t l e s has r e f e r r e d to the speakers o f the l a n g u a g e as " S t r a i t s S a l i s h " , and t h a t term has become c o n v e n t i o n a l . B e s i d e s the Lummi, S t r a i t s S a l i s h i n c l u d e s the Semiahmoo, who r e s i d e d i n the Boundary Bay, Drayton Harbor, B i r c h Bay area; the Saanich, who r e s i d e d on the west and east s i d e s of the Saanich P e n i n s u l a and nearby G u l f I s l a n d s ; the Songhees, who r e s i d e d i n the a r e a around V i c t o r i a ( P a r r y Bay, E s q u i m a l t Harbour, V i c t o r i a Harbour, Oak Bay), D i s c o v e r y I s l a n d and the west shore of San Juan I s l a n d ; the Sooke, who r e s i d e d i n the area of Sooke I n l e t ; the K l a l l a m , who r e s i d e d along the south shore of the S t r a i t of Juan de Fuca from Hoko R i v e r to P o r t D i s c o v e r y , and i n h i s t o r i c a l t i m e s a t Beecher Bay on Vancouver I s l a n d ; and the Samish, who r e s i d e d on the southern San Juan I s l a n d s , Samish Bay, and the n o r t h e r n p a r t o f F i d a l g o I s l a n d . W i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f minor d i a l e c t a l d i f f e r e n c e s a l l o f t h e s e g r o u p s spoke the same language (Jorgensen 1969:18; Thompson 1979:695). I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o say w i t h any degree o f c e r t a i n t y t h a t these l o c a l named groups were autonomous t r i b e s or bands. There 33 was a g r e a t d e a l o f i n t e r m a r r i a g e and i n t e r a c t i o n among a l l of t h e s e named u n i t s (see S u t t l e s 1963; E l m e n d o r f 1971), more so than w i t h neighboring groups speaking d i f f e r e n t languages. The c o n c e p t o f " t r i b e s " or "bands" among t h e C o a s t S a l i s h i s a term t h a t g a i n e d u s a g e a f t e r t h e g r o u p s were r e s t r i c t e d t o r e s e r v a t i o n s , and i n the United S t a t e s the term " t r i b e " has come to have meaning i n a l e g a l sense i n the d e a l i n g s I n d i a n g r o u p s have w i t h the F e d e r a l government. In p r e - t r e a t y times the named groups were much l e s s cohesive than they are today. T h i s has l e d some modern r e s e a r c h e r s to suggest t h a t the language group i s a more u s e f u l u n i t t o use than the s o - c a l l e d t r i b e (Kew 1981:62-63). E l m e n d o r f has used the c o n c e p t o f "speech community" when speaking o f the Twana and Skokomish. The c h i e f bonds between the v a r i o u s v i l l a g e s w i t h i n the s p e e c h c o m m u n i t y were a common l a n g u a g e n o t s p o k e n elsewhere, common customs, a common, s i n g l e drainage-area t e r r i t o r y , and a common e t h n i c and l i n g u i s t i c name ... Other u n i f y i n g f a c t o r s were l a c k i n g . T h e r e was no p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the speech community, nor any t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n s o f u n i f i e d a c t i o n among i t s c o n s t i t u e n t v i l l a g e communities (Elmendorf 1960:255). For the purposes o f t h i s study, when we speak of "Lummi" we w i l l be r e f e r r i n g t o t h o s e p e o p l e who were l a t t e r l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Lummi Re s e r v a t i o n . Although i t has j u s t been suggested t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l l y t h e S t r a i t s S a l i s h s p e a k e r s s h o u l d be co n s i d e r e d as one u n i t , we f i n d t h a t very e a r l y on a d i s t i n c t i o n was made between v a r i o u s S t r a i t s S a l i s h g r o u p s , e s p e c i a l l y the K l a l l a m , the S a a n i c h , and l a t e r , t he Lummi. I t i s most l i k e l y t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l would i d e n t i f y w i t h the group w i t h which he or she was r e s i d i n g a t the time, but an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a l l e g i a n c e and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n c o u l d , and o f t e n d i d , e x i s t w i t h any of the l o c a l 34 named S t r a i t s S a l i s h g r o u p s . H e n c e f o r t h we w i l l r e f e r t o the Lummi as the f o c a l g roup o f t h i s s t u d y but i t must be borne i n mind t h a t p r i o r t o 1855 an i d e n t i f i a b l e and s e p a r a b l e Lummi " t r i b e " d i d not e x i s t . T h i s i s a d i a c h r o n i c s t u d y p r i m a r i l y c o n c e n t r a t i n g on resource procurement. For a complete ethnographic overview the r e a d e r i s r e f e r r e d t o s e v e r a l works t h a t d e a l w i t h the S t r a i t s S a l i s h . Boas (1890) g i v e s a b r i e f a c c o u n t o f the gro u p s i n and around V i c t o r i a . Boas's work d i s c u s s e s s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and r e s o u r c e u t i l i z a t i o n t o some e x t e n t but was not as u s e f u l f o r t h i s study as were many of the works t h a t f o l l o w e d . H i l l - T o u t ' s (1907) a c c o u n t o f t h e I n d i a n s o f S o u t h e a s t Vancouver I s l a n d d e s c r i b e s the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and r e c o r d s s e v e r a l myths. Gunther (1927) p u b l i s h e d a s h o r t work on the K l a l l a m , and i n the 1930s a s o c i o l o g i s t , B e r n h a r d J . S t e r n , p u b l i s h e d a b r i e f monograph on the Lummi (Stern 1934). The Canadian a n t h r o p o l o g i s t Diamond Jenness produced an as yet unpublished manuscript on the S a a n i c h i n the 1930s, a copy o f which i s a v a i l a b l e f o r r e s e a r c h a t the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n V i c t o r i a . B a r n e t t ' s a r t i c l e on t h e C o a s t S a l i s h o f Canada ( B a r n e t t 1938) and h i s l a t e r monograph ( B a r n e t t 1955) d e a l w i t h the S t r a i t s S a l i s h o f S o u t h e a s t Vancouver I s l a n d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the other Coast S a l i s h of B r i t i s h Columbia. L a s t , S u t t l e s ' s (1951a) d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n looks a t the economic l i f e of the S t r a i t s S a l i s h , p r i n c i p a l l y the Lummi and Semiahmoo, although the Sooke, S o n g i s h , S a a n i c h , Samish, and t o some e x t e n t , the K l a l l a m , a re a l s o d e a l t w i t h . I t i s S u t t l e s ' s work t h a t was found most 35 u s e f u l , as he d e a l t w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l S t r a i t s S a l i s h c u l t u r e i n so f a r as i t c o u l d be r e c o n s t r u c t e d from informants' memories. The focus of S u t t l e s ' s work was on the t r a d i t i o n a l economic l i f e o f t h e p e o p l e whom t h i s s t u d y w i l l e x a m i n e f r o m an e t h n o h i s t o r i c a l p o i n t of view. The d i s c u s s i o n t h a t i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w s w i l l c o v e r o n l y t h o s e a s p e c t s o f S t r a i t s S a l i s h c u l t u r e , a t the t i m e o f i n i t i a l c o n t a c t , t h a t have t o do w i t h the c o n t r o l o f a c c e s s t o and d i s p e n s i n g o f p r o d u c t i v e r e s o u r c e s -- p a r t i c u l a r l y the salmon f i s h e r y . I t w i l l make the c a s e t h a t the i m p a c t o f Western economy and p o l i t y was n e g l i g i b l e p r i o r to the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the r e s e r v a t i o n , c o n f i n e m e n t o f the Lummi t h e r e o n , and the a l l o t m e n t of r e s e r v a t i o n lands. Resource Procurement A S t r a i t s S a l i s h i n d i v i d u a l ' s i m m e diate a l l e g i a n c e was t o the house i n which he or she r e s i d e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the members o f houses d i d not a l w a y s c o o p e r a t e i n e f f o r t s a t r e s o u r c e p r o c u r e m e n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y f i s h i n g . The n u c l e a r f a m i l y was the b a s i c u n i t i n the a c q u i s i t i o n , p r e p a r a t i o n , and c o n s u m p t i o n o f food. I n d i v i d u a l f a m i l i e s prepared t h e i r own food s e p a r a t e l y and ke p t t h e i r p r o v i s i o n s i n t h e i r own s t o r a g e c o n t a i n e r s ( S u t t l e s 1951a:494). E f f o r t s r e q u i r i n g much l a b o r , f o r example, c e r t a i n types o f salmon f i s h i n g , would see work crews r e c r u i t e d from the extended k i n group, e s p e c i a l l y from w i t h i n the house. The S t r a i t s S a l i s h k i n s h i p s y s t e m has been d e a l t w i t h i n some d e t a i l (e.g. see S u t t l e s 1960; J o r g e n s e n 1969; E l m e n d o r f 1 9 7 1 ) , e s p e c i a l l y as i t r e l a t e s t o t h e p r o c u r e m e n t and 36 d i s p e n s a t i o n of resources. The k i n system has been c h a r a c t e r i z e d as b i l a t e r a l w i t h g e n e r a t i o n a l e m p h a s i s p r e d o m i n a t i n g . R e l a t i o n s h i p s c o u l d be l a t e r a l l y e x t e n d e d as f a r as t w e l v e g e n e r a t i o n a l steps (six ascending and s i x descending, or g r e a t -g r e a t - g r e a t - g r e a t grandparent i n common) although i n d i v i d u a l s who c o u l d recount k i n t h i s e x t e n s i v e l y were uncommon. Recognizable r e l a t i o n s h i p s beyond a common gr e a t grandparent were r a r e . These e x t e n s i v e c o l l a t e r a l k i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s meant t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l would have r e l a t i o n s i n dozens of d i f f e r e n t v i l l a g e s . I t was not uncommon f o r an i n d i v i d u a l to have g r a n d p a r e n t s from f o u r d i f f e r e n t l o c a l named groups, but a person's primary a l l e g i a n c e was t o the g r o u p where he or she was l i v i n g a t the t i m e . Terminology r e f l e c t s the e x t e n s i v e k i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A l l f i r s t c o u s i n s were equated with s i b l i n g s , and the terms f o r other c o u s i n s were c l e a r l y d e r i v e d from s i b l i n g terms. Aunt and uncle t erms were the same f o r f a t h e r ' s and mother's s i b l i n g s but d i s t i n c t f rom f a t h e r and mother. O f t e n i n d i v i d u a l s o f the p a r e n t ' s g e n e r a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y mother's and f a t h e r ' s f i r s t c o u s i n s , w o u l d a l s o be r e f e r e d t o as " a u n t " and " u n c l e " . S i m i l a r l y i n d i v i d u a l s of c h i l d ' s g e n e r a t i o n c o u l d be r e f e r r e d to as " n i e c e " or "nephew" r e g a r d l e s s o f whether t h e y were the c h i l d r e n of ego's s i b l i n g s . L a r g e , m u l t i - f a m i l y houses p r e d o m i n a t e d , and r e s i d e n c e t e n d e d t o be p a t r i l o c a l . The houses were u s u a l l y headed by one man, who o f t e n oversaw c e r t a i n s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y the more l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e types of salmon f i s h i n g . The c o m p o s i t i o n of houses was not permanent, and a component 37 f a m i l y m i g h t change i t s a l l e g i a n c e f o r c o n v e n i e n c e ( S u t t l e s 1 9 5 1 a : 4 9 4 ) . The d a t a on who m i g h t i n h a b i t a h o u s e a r e fragmentary, but i t appears t h a t s e v e r a l nuclear f a m i l i e s j o i n e d by bonds o f k i n s h i p ( e i t h e r t h r o u g h the house owner or t h r o u g h h i s wife) would come together to form a house. The houses seemed most o f t e n t o be composed o f an owner and h i s sons, b r o t h e r s , or male c o u s i n s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s ( S u t t l e s 1951a:273; B a r n e t t 1955:242; and C o l l i n s 1949:155). Houses w i t h i n a c l u s t e r were q u i t e independent of one another, although they might cooperate f o r v a r i o u s purposes, such as defense. The most important means of s u b s i s t e n c e to the Lummi were, i n o r d e r o f i m p o r t a n c e , r e e f n e t f i s h i n g f o r salmon, w e i r s i t e f i s h i n g f o r salmon, s h e l l f i s h g a t h e r i n g , o t h e r f orms o f salmon f i s h i n g , o t h e r f orms o f f i s h i n g ( i . e . , f i s h i n g o t h e r s p e c i e s ) , g a t h e r i n g p l a n t foods, waterfowl hunting, sea mammal hunting, and land mammal hunting. Salmon were by f a r the most important food s o u r c e t o the Lummi p e o p l e . Hewes (1973:136) has e s t i m a t e d the a n n u a l per c a p i t a i n t a k e o f salmon, f o r the Lummi, a t s i x hundred pounds, one of the h i g h e s t i n the Northwest Coast c u l t u r e area. Evidence presented below w i l l show t h a t the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t f i s h i n g economy of the S t r a i t s S a l i s h was a complex i n t e r a c t i o n between f r e e - a c c e s s resources and c e r t a i n procurement l o c a t i o n s t h a t were h e l d i n t r u s t by i n d i v i d u a l s f o r a l a r g e r k i n group. An i n d i v i d u a l was guaranteed access to f i s h i n g l o c a t i o n s as f a r as h i s (and h i s w i f e ' s ) k i n s h i p n e t w o r k s e x t e n d e d . F o r p r a c t i c a l l y e v e r y o n e , t h i s i n c l u d e d v i r t u a l l y t he e n t i r e t y o f the t e r r i t o r y o c c u p i e d by the S t r a i t s S a l i s h s p e a k e r s . The k i n group was the primary u n i t i n terms of resource procurement. 38 Among anadromous f i s h f i v e s p e c i e s o f salmon and one o f t r o u t were c o n s i s t e n t l y e x p l o i t e d by the Lummi, u t i l i z i n g a t l e a s t t w e l v e methods ( B e r i n g e r 1982). To some e x t e n t , the l i f e c y c l e o f t h e f i s h d e t e r m i n e d t h e m e t h o d e m p l o y e d and t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f the r e s o u r c e . The d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s were-a v a i l a b l e a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s o f the yea r and a t d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , some s p e c i e s were more d e s i r a b l e than o t h e r s . I n t h e f a m i l y S a l m o n i d a e two g e n e r a , S a l m o and Oncorhynchus, i n c l u d e s p e c i e s of importance to the n a t i v e people o f t h e N o r t h P a c i f i c C o a s t . Among t h e v a r i o u s s p e c i e s o f the genus Salmo t h e r e i s an anadromous s p e c i e s commonly known as st e e l h e a d (S. g a i r d n e r i i ) . The genus Oncorhynchus i n c l u d e s f i v e s p e c i e s o f salmon n a t i v e to the Lummi area: 0. tschawytscha Common names i n c l u d e : king, tyee, s p r i n g , blackmouth, and chinook; 0. k i s u t c h Common names i n c l u d e : coho and s i l v e r ; 0. gorbusche Common names i n c l u d e : pink, humpback, and humpies; 0. keta Common names i n c l u d e : chum and dog; 0. nerka Common names i n c l u d e : red, blueback and sockeye; T h e r e a r e two r a c e s or runs o f c h i n o o k salmon, s p r i n g runs and f a l l r u n s , b o t h n a t i v e t o t h e Lummi a r e a . T h e r e a r e some d i s t i n c t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s e two r a c e s o f salmon, the p r i m a r y one b e i n g the t i m e o f yea r t h e y e n t e r f r e s h water t o spawn and hence become more r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e to human p r e d a t i o n . Spring chinooks enter f r e s h water i n March or A p r i l and spawn i n l a t e summer or e a r l y f a l l . F a l l c h i n o o k s e n t e r f r e s h water i n September or October and spawn i n f a l l and e a r l y winter. Chinook 39 a r e the l a r g e s t o f the salmon s p e c i e s , w i t h a v e r a g e w e i g h t s i n the Lummi area of 20 to 30 pounds (9 to 14 k i l o g r a m s ) . Coho salmon enter f r e s h water from September to November and spawn i n l a t e f a l l or e a r l y w i n t e r . Coho ar e somewhat s m a l l e r t h e n c h i n o o k a v e r a g i n g between 8 and 10 pounds (3.5 t o 4.5 k i l o g r a m s ) . Humpback salmon r e t u r n to spawn onl y i n odd-numbered years i n the Lummi a r e a (e.g. 1979, 1981, 1983, e t c . ) . They e n t e r f r e s h water duri n g August and September and spawn i n e a r l y f a l l . Humpback ar e a l s o a c c e s s i b l e t o r e e f n e t f i s h e r s as e a r l y as J u l y . A v e r a g i n g between 5 and 6 pounds (2 t o 2.5 k i l o g r a m s ) , they are the s m a l l e s t of the salmonids. Chum salmon runs a r e g e n e r a l l y more s p r e a d o u t than the o t h e r s a l m o n s p e c i e s . E n t e r i n g f r e s h w a t e r as e a r l y as September, they are s t i l l e v i d e n t l a t e i n December. Chum salmon spend l i t t l e t i m e i n f r e s h water, u s u a l l y spawning w i t h i n 30 days. The a v e r a g e w e i g h t o f chum salmon i s between 10 and 12 pounds (4.5 to 5.5 k i l o g r a m s ) . Sockeye e n t e r r i v e r s f e d by l a k e s and u s u a l l y spawn i n t r i b u t a r y streams of those l a k e s . Whereas the other four s p e c i e s of salmon have r e s i d e n t runs w i t h i n the Lummi area the sockeye do not. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the s o c k e y e l i k e l y c o n t r i b u t e d the h i g h e s t percentage of salmon p r o t e i n to the p r e - r e s e r v a t i o n Lummi. T h i s i s due t o the h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d t e c h n o l o g y o f r e e f n e t t i n g t h a t e n a b l e d the Lummi to e x p l o i t the F r a s e r R i v e r runs o f s o c k e y e t h a t p a s s t h r o u g h the San Juan I s l a n d s and G e o r g i a S t r a i t a r e a during the annual m i g r a t i o n . Sockeye become a c c e s s i b l e as e a r l y 40 as June, and s u b s e q u e n t runs c o n t i n u e w e l l i n t o September, a l t h o u g h the p r i n c i p a l f i s h i n g t a k e s p l a c e i n J u l y and August. The a v e r a g e w e i g h t o f so c k e y e i s between 5 and 7 pounds (2 t o 3 k i l o g r a m s ) . Table 1. Seasonal a v a i l a b i l i t y and u t i l i z a t i o n of salmon. F i s h i n g Method Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun J u l Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec T r o l l i n g Traps G a f f s , Harpoons, Dip Nets Weirs G i l l Nets Seines Trawls Reef Nets Maximum A v a i l a b i l i t y by Spe c i e s Species Chinook Coho Humpback Chum Sockeye Steelhead 41 Steelhead runs begin i n e a r l y December and continue through the w i n t e r months w e l l i n t o the summer months. As w i t h c h i n o o k salmon t h e r e a re two runs o f s t e e l h e a d i n the Lummi a r e a , a winter run from December through March and a summer run from l a t e March i n t o August. Towards the end o f the w i n t e r run and the beginning o f the summer run the two runs blend together. U n l i k e salmon, s t e e l h e a d do not a l w a y s d i e a f t e r spawning, and i t i s b e l i e v e d a s m a l l number s u r v i v e t o spawn a g a i n . In the Lummi a r e a , the a v e r a g e w e i g h t o f s t e e l h e a d i s between 10 and 12 pounds (4.5 t o 5.5 k i l o g r a m s ) . According to data presented by Bering e r (1982) the Lummi and o t h e r S t r a i t s S a l i s h s p e a k e r s u t i l i z e d a l l the salmon f i s h i n g t e c h n o l o g i e s known to the Northwest Coast peoples and appear to be the o n l y group known t o u t i l i z e a l l o f t h e s e t e c h n o l o g i e s . For the p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y the f i s h i n g methods used w i l l be brok e n down i n t o e i g h t t y p e s i n c r e a s i n g i n c o m p l e x i t y and s o p h i s t i c a t i o n . (For a c o m p l e t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f the v a r i o u s a b o r i g i n a l methods see S u t t l e s 1951a; Stewart 1977; and Bering e r 1982.) S i m p l e i n s t r u m e n t s , such as ha r p o o n s , g a f f s , and d i p - n e t s were g e n e r a l l y used i n the f a l l when the f i s h were near the spawning l o c a t i o n s . These d e v i c e s were most s u c c e s s f u l i n s h a l l o w water or when used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a t r a p or w e i r . Chinook, coho, and chum salmon were most o f t e n taken w i t h these t o o l s . T r o l l i n g was a c c o m p l i s h e d i n s a l t w ater, and o n l y c h i n o o k and coho c o u l d be t a k e n i n t h i s manner. T r o l l i n g c o u l d be pursued d u r i n g any time of year, but to the Lummi i t was u s u a l l y 42 a s p r i n g and summer a c t i v i t y ( S u t t l e s 1951a:135). The S t r a i t s S a l i s h o f t e n t r o l l e d l i n e s w h i l e t r a v e l i n g from p l a c e to p l a c e , and t h e r e a r e even d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t r o l l i n g l i n e s a t t a c h e d t o canoe paddles. Both b a i t and l u r e s were used i n t r o l l i n g . T r a p s were most o f t e n made o f b a s k e t r y and were u s u a l l y , a l t h o u g h not a l w a y s , used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a w e i r . Most commonly used i n s m a l l streams i n the f a l l , t r a p s were used f o r b o t h salmon and s t e e l h e a d . Other t y p e s o f t r a p s , such as t i d a l t r a p s and w a t e r f a l l t r a p s , w hich were used i n some a r e a s , were not common among the S t r a i t s S a l i s h , at l e a s t not f o r salmon. According to Lummi t r a d i t i o n they d i d not know how to b u i l d or use a w e i r p r i o r t o t h e i r m i g r a t i o n t o the mouth o f the Nooksack River and the displacement of the Sk'alexan who f o r m e r l y r e s i d e d there. The s t o r y of t h i s movement has been p u b l i s h e d at l e a s t four times ( C u r t i s 1913:25-30; S t e r n 1934:115-120; S u t t l e s 1951a:33-36; and R i l e y 1955:133-140). C u r t i s p l a c e s the date of the movement at approximately 1730. W e i r s were known t o have been b u i l t i n a t l e a s t h a l f a dozen p l a c e s : a t the mouth o f the S amish R i v e r , p o s s i b l y two s i t e s on the Nooksack R i v e r , among the Semiahmoo on the C a m p b e l l and Nickomekl R i v e r s , and, as suggested by a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence, perhaps a t Dakota Creek (Grabert, p e r s o n a l communication). The l a r g e w e i r on t h e Nooksack R i v e r was owned by one f a m i l y , a l t h o u g h "everyone" p a r t i c i p a t e d i n b u i l d i n g i t and i n f i s h i n g i t ( S u t t l e s 1951a:149). The w e i r s were p r o b a b l y used most h e a v i l y i n the f a l l when the major runs had e n t e r e d f r e s h water and r e e f n e t t i n g was n e a r l y f i n i s h e d , a l t h o u g h e v i d e n c e 43 suggests t h a t a t l e a s t the Nooksack River weir may have been used throughout the season i n some years ( S u t t l e s 1951a:150). S e i n e s were used i n a r e a s where the water was f r e e o f o b s t r u c t i o n s , u s u a l l y i n the t i d a l f l a t s or around the mouths of s t r e a m s . S e i n e s were l a r g e n e t s t h a t c a p t u r e d f i s h by surrounding them. The mouth of the Samish River and probably the mouths o f the Nooksack R i v e r and the s t r e a m s e m p t y i n g i n t o D r a y t o n Harbor were s e i n i n g a r e a s . S e i n e s were l i k e l y used i n the f a l l as the f i s h c o n g r e g a t e d around the mouths o f s t r e a m s p r i o r to ascending to the spawning grounds. U n l i k e s e i n e s , which captured the f i s h by surrounding them, g i l l n e t s . e n t a n g l e d the f i s h i n the mesh, which was made i n s p e c i f i c s i z e s f o r the d i f f e r e n t s i z e d s p e c i e s o f salmon. G i l l nets were used most o f t e n along the shore or near stream mouths where the cloudy water would make them more e f f e c t i v e . G i l l nets took c h i n o o k , coho, and humpback and were used p r i m a r i l y i n the s p r i n g and summer. Traw l s were used d i r e c t l y i n the streams, employing a bag-typ e n e t towed between two canoes. T r a w l s c o u l d be u t i l i z e d whenever s u f f i c i e n t numbers o f f i s h were r u n n i n g u p s t r e a m , but were most commonly used i n the s p r i n g f o r s t e e l h e a d ( S u t t l e s 1951a:145). By f a r the most important salmon f i s h i n g method of the Lummi was r e e f n e t t i n g , one of the most h i g h l y evolved and s p e c i a l i z e d t e c h n i q u e s employed i n a p r e - c o n t a c t f i s h e r y . Reef n e t s were s t a t i o n a r y , b e i n g s e t anew each y e a r . They c o n s i s t e d o f a l o n g n e t , the l e a d , which was a n c h o r e d t o the sea bottom a t the 44 f o r w a r d end and t i e d between the bows o f two canoes a t the back end. A s m a l l e r net was strung between the two canoes. The f i s h , swimming a l o n g the sea bottom, f o l l o w e d the l e a d n e t up (as i f swimming over an underwater reef) and i n t o the s m a l l e r net, where they would be hauled aboard the canoes. Reef n e t t i n g i n v o l v e d a g r e a t d e a l of l a b o r , as w e l l as s k i l l . Upwards of s i x to twelve men c o u l d be employed on a s i n g l e gear ( S u t t l e s 1951a:160). The gear were g e n e r a l l y s e t i n June and f i s h e d t h r o u g h September. Evidence from the l a t e 1800s suggests t h a t an enormous amount of f i s h c o u l d be t a k e n i n a r e e f n e t g e a r . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t the amount o f f i s h t a k e n was l i m i t e d o n l y by the a b i l i t y t o p r o c e s s i t . Reef n e t s were d e s i g n e d t o f i s h the so c k e y e t h a t m i g r a t e t h r o u g h the, Lummi a r e a on t h e i r way t o the F r a s e r R i v e r where t h e y spawn. In y e a r s when humpbacks were r u n n i n g t h e y , t o o , would be t a k e n i n the r e e f n e t s . P o s s i b l y t wenty r e e f n e t l o c a t i o n s were i n use by the Lummi and o t h e r S t r a i t s S a l i s h g r o u p s p r i o r t o the s i g n i n g o f the t r e a t y , w i t h up t o a dozen s e t s o f gear a t some l o c a t i o n s . The l o c a t i o n s were s c a t t e r e d throughout the San Juan and Gulf I s l a n d s , o f f Southeast Vancouver I s l a n d , a l o n g the m a i n l a n d s o u t h o f Boundary Bay, and a t P o i n t Roberts. Only the S t r a i t s S a l i s h speakers u t i l i z e d the ree f net. The Lummi c o n t r o l l e d the most s i t e s by f a r , some l o c a t i o n s having s e v e r a l s i t e s (sets of gear). 45 Table 2. S t r a i t s S a l i s h r e e f net l o c a t i o n s . Reef Net L o c a t i o n s U t i l i z e d By The F o l l o w i n g L o c a l Named Groups Otte r P o i n t O'Brien P o i n t Beechey Head Beecher Bay San Juan I s l a n d S t u a r t I s l a n d John's I s l a n d Pender I s l a n d South Pender A c t i v e Pass C h a r l e s I s l a n d Lopez I s l a n d Shaw I s l a n d Orcas I s l a n d Waldron I s l a n d Lummi I s l a n d Cherry P o i n t B i r c h P o i n t P o i n t Roberts Sooke Sooke Beecher Bay K l a l l a m Beecher Bay K l a l l a m , Sooke. Songhees, K l a l l a m , Saanich, Lummi, Saanich, Lummi. Saanich Saanich Saanich Saanich Saanich Samish, Lummi, K l a l l a m . K l a l l a m Lummi Lummi Lummi, Semiahmoo. Semiahmoo, Lummi. Semiahmoo Saanich, Lummi, Semiahmoo St e r n 1934:126; S u t t l e s 1951a:192-212; B a r n e t t 1955:86-SOURCES: 87. I t i s h i g h l y probable t h a t much more c o - u t i l i z a t i o n of the r e e f n e t s i t e s took p l a c e among t h e s e g r o u p s p r i o r t o t h e i r s e t t l e m e n t on r e s e r v e s and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the i n t e r n a t i o n a l boundary than o c c u r r e d l a t e r . O r g a n i z a t i o n o f Labor As m e n t i o n e d the k i n group was the p r i n c i p a l u n i t o f c o o p e r a t i o n i n terms of u t i l i z i n g salmon resources. Reef n e t t i n g and w e i r f i s h i n g b o t h r e q u i r e d a g r e a t d e a l o f l a b o r and o r g a n i z a t i o n and were by f a r the most p r o d u c t i v e methods o f t r a d i t i o n a l S t r a i t s S a l i s h f i s h i n g . The s i t e s were owned and 46 c o n t r o l l e d by i n d i v i d u a l s on b e h a l f o f a l a r g e r k i n group. S u t t l e s (1951a:149) b e l i e v e s t h a t a l t h o u g h the o w n e r s h i p o f a w e i r m i g h t be i n the c o n t r o l o f a k i n group, e v e r y o n e had a r i g h t to take f i s h from i t . A l s o , f o r the Saanich: A w e i r b e l o n g e d t o the f i v e or s i x men who b u i l t i t , each o f whom commonly s e t a g a i n s t i t t h r e e or f o u r t r a p s . I t was u n d e r s t o o d , however, t h a t o t h e r men i n the same community might s e t t h e i r own t r a p s a t the weir as soon as the owners had s a t i s f i e d t h e i r needs (Jenness n.d.:25). Whether S u t t l e s and Jenness are saying the same t h i n g i s not c l e a r . S u t t l e s c o u l d be r e f e r r i n g to the f a c t t h a t o t h e r s i n the community c o u l d use the weir only a f t e r the owners had s a t i s f i e d t h e i r n e e d s . F u r t h e r d a t a on t h e a c t u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s t a k e n by t h e Lummi w e i r s i s l a c k i n g . I t would seem r e a s o n a b l e to doubt t h a t anyone c o u l d use the w e i r , a t l e a s t without the owner's p e r m i s s i o n , without having c o n t r i b u t e d some of the l a b o r and m a t e r i a l s towards the c o n s t r u c t i o n . Some weirs were very complex undertakings, s t r e t c h i n g a c r o s s an e n t i r e r i v e r and i n c l u d i n g walkways and s e v e r a l t r a p s . Since d e b r i s and d r i f t w o u l d o f t e n hamper e f f i c i e n t u s e o f t h e w e i r s , c o n s t a n t m a i n t e n a n c e was n e c e s s a r y w h i l e t h e y were i n use. O f t e n w e i r s were c o n s t r u c t e d near winter v i l l a g e s i t e s and although p r i m a r i l y used f o r the f a l l runs o f salmon t h e y m i g h t be used t h r o u g h the w i n t e r months as w e l l ( S u t t l e s 1951a:149-150). P e r h a p s use r i g h t s were granted by the owners when they were through f i s h i n g or were not using the weir. The o n l y d e s c r i p t i o n we have o f a Lummi w e i r i s from an o b s e r v a t i o n by Theodore W i n t h r o p . W i n t h r o p , accompanied by Lummi, t r a v e l e d through the area i n August of 1853. 47 Our c o u r s e was i n l a n d , up a g o o d - s i z e d r i v e r , t h i c k l y shrouded with almost t r o p i c a l v e g e t a t i o n . P r e s e n t l y we came to an Indian salmon weir, a high framework of p o l e s reaching a c r o s s the stream, and s e r v i n g a l s o as a l i g h t f o o t - b r i d g e . A t i n t e r v a l s , w i c k e r - w o r k s h i e l d s are suspended i n the w a t e r , and j u s t a g a i n s t them, b a s k e t s l i k e a l o b s t e r p o t ; t h e salmon, r u s h i n g up s t r e a m , i s met by the s h i e l d , and t u r n i n g , f a l l s i n t o the pot. The f i s h e r y belonged to one of my men, and as we came, an I n d i a n was j u s t t a k i n g a n o b l e salmon out (Winthrop 1913:265). W i n t h r o p a l s o n o t e d Lummi r e e f n e t t i n g i n the San Juan I s l a n d s the same month (1913:27-28). For the Lummi w e i r f i s h i n g was s e c o n d a r y t o r e e f n e t t i n g which was c o n s i d e r e d more important and l i k e l y c o n t r i b u t e d much more f i s h . O w n e r s h i p o f r e e f n e t s i t e s was c o n s i d e r e d an i n d i v i d u a l , i n h e r i t e d r i g h t . Ownership i m p l i e d more than merely a l o c a t i o n to s e t a r e e f net gear. I t a l s o r e q u i r e d knowledge of t h e t e c h n o l o g y and t h e r i t u a l i s m i n v o l v e d i n s e t t i n g and o p e r a t i n g the gear. I f an i n d i v i d u a l who owned access to a s i t e l a c k e d t h e s e s k i l l s or was too o l d or i n f i r m to e x e r c i s e them, t h e n o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s c o u l d a c t on the owner's b e h a l f . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t i n p r e - c o n t a c t times the owner was o b l i g e d to s e l e c t crew members from amongst h i s kinsmen and house-mates ( S u t t l e s 1951a:487). The crew p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of r e c e i v i n g a c e r t a i n p o r t i o n of the c a t c h . The r e e f n e t gear had t o be made anew each y e a r , the crew members and t h e i r w i v e s making s e c t i o n s o f the n e t , w hich the owner j o i n e d t o g e t h e r . A n c h o r s a l s o had t o be s e t anew each y e a r , r e q u i r i n g a g r e a t d e a l o f e f f o r t . W h i l e the gear was i n o p e r a t i o n the f i s h were d i v i d e d among the crew members i n an e q u i t a b l e manner. I t a p p e a r s t h a t the owner would a s s u r e t h a t the crew members had enough f i s h f o r t h e i r needs b e f o r e he kept 48 any f o r h i m s e l f . Sut.tles s t a t e s t h a t when the crew members had s u f f i c i e n t f i s h , the remainder was the owner's, wi t h the f a m i l i e s of the crew members a s s i s t i n g i n the p r e s e r v a t i o n . "The wives of the crew members, who u n t i l t h i s time had been d r y i n g t h e i r own f i s h , now h e l p e d d r y the owner's f i s h " ( S u t t l e s 1951a:545). Through t h i s arrangement, ownership of a re e f net s i t e became a way i n which s t a t u s c o u l d be enhanced by the a c c u m u l a t i o n o f s u r p l u s food, and with food f o r trade, the a c q u i s i t i o n of wealth g o o d s f o r e v e n t u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n (see S u t t l e s 1968 f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s s o c i a l phenomenon). No m e n t i o n i s made o f what m i g h t have happened had t h e r e not been enough f i s h t o s a t i s f y the needs o f the crew. We would presume t h a t the owner w o u l d t a k e some anyway. T h i s p o s s i b l e s c e n a r i o i s n o t encountered i n the l i t e r a t u r e ; perhaps i t never occurred. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o note t h a t the needs o f the crew were t a k e n c a r e o f f i r s t , b e cause, as we s h a l l see l a t e r , t h i s d i f f e r s r a d i c a l l y f r om the manner i n which s h a r e s a r e d i s t r i b u t e d i n the modern commercial salmon f i s h e r y . While i t might seem t h a t the number of S t r a i t s S a l i s h people b e n e f i t i n g from the r e e f net f i s h e r y was l i m i t e d , when examined more c l o s e l y , the evidence suggests t h a t most, i f not a l l , o f the S t r a i t s S a l i s h people p a r t i c i p a t e d i n and a c q u i r e d resources from the r e e f net f i s h e r y . P o p u l a t i o n e s t i m a t e s f o r the p r e - c o n t a c t Lummi range from seven hundred (Gibbs 1854:42) to e i g h t hundred (Kroeber 1947:135). G i v e n the minimum o f t h i r t y r e e f n et l o c a t i o n s known t o have been used by the Lummi, i t would appear t h a t the e n t i r e a v a i l a b l e l a b o r f o r c e would be needed i n o r d e r t o have a minimum of s i x crew members on each gear. Assuming t h a t 49 the a v a i l a b l e l a b o r f o r c e f o r r e e f n e t gear o p e r a t i o n was one-quar t e r o f the p o p u l a t i o n (one-half the p o p u l a t i o n i s male, one-h a l f o f the males a r e o f w o r k i n g age), s u g g e s t s s t r o n g l y t h a t r e e f n e t t i n g was a v a i l a b l e t o a l l o f the Lummi. According to data from the l a t e 1800s r e e f nets were e a s i l y capable o f t a k i n g over a thousand f i s h per day (Rathbun 1900:314; K e r r 1917:60), and the gear a t Lopez I s l a n d and P o i n t R o b e r t s were s a i d to be capable of ta k i n g an enormous q u a n t i t y of f i s h . There i s a s m a l l but p r o d u c t i v e r e e f i n s i d e of Iceberg P o i n t a t the s o u t h e r n end o f Lopez I s l a n d , on w h i c h a few n e t s a r e used, and where d a i l y c a t c h e s o f 3,000 t o 4,000 salmon a r e sometimes made (Rathbun 1900:315). When f i s h are running i n good numbers ten to f i f t e e n Indians form a crew f o r ' a r e e f n e t , and a h a u l can be made e v e r y m i n u t e or two i f n e c e s s a r y . Some o f the I n d i a n s a r e v e r y e x p e r t a t t h i s k i n d o f f i s h i n g , and have t a k e n as many as 2,000 s a l m o n i n a day. I n s u c h c a s e s t h e c l u t c h m e n ["klootchmen" or women] come o u t w i t h canoes and bo a t t h e f i s h a s h o r e so t h a t the o p e r a t i o n s o f t h o s e engaged i n f i s h i n g w i l l not be i n t e r r u p t e d ( C o l l i n s 1892:260). No d a t a e x i s t t o s u g g e s t how much l a b o r i t would t a k e t o process four thousand f i s h . Salmon s p o i l s r a p i d l y i n the summer months and must be p r o c e s s e d w i t h i n a day or two a t most. I f Hewes's (1973:136) e s t i m a t e of annual consumption r a t e s f o r the Lummi i s c o r r e c t , t h e n one day o f f i s h i n g a t the Lopez I s l a n d s i t e would have p r o v i d e d enough f i s h f o r 33.3 i n d i v i d u a l s (5 pounds low a v e r a g e s o c k e y e w e i g h t X 4,000 f i s h / 600 pounds per p e r s o n per annum = 33.3). I t i s not l i k e l y t h a t t h e r e were many days when so many salmon would be taken, but i t c e r t a i n l y shows t h a t the S t r a i t s S a l i s h were not l a c k i n g f o r f i s h . Many other-v a r i a b l e s must, o f c o u r s e , be c o n s i d e r e d . Sockeye runs are s u b j e c t to q u a d r e n n i a l f l u c t u a t i o n s , w i t h an extremely good year 50 f o l l o w e d by subsequent l e a n , y e a r s . One y e a r o u t o f f o u r w i l l have a heavy run w h i l e the n e x t w i l l be s h a r p l y r e d u c e d and the r e m a i n i n g two, s m a l l e r s t i l l . The same order of high, moderate and low years w i l l be repeated, and the d i f f e r e n c e s between peak and low years may be i n a r a t i o as g r e a t as s e v e r a l t h o u s a n d to one (Kew 1976:3-4). Since a l l of our e s t i m a t e s concerning salmon run s i z e s date from a time when unregulated f i s h i n g and environmental d e g r a d a t i o n had a l r e a d y had p r o f o u n d e f f e c t s on the anadromous f i s h r u n s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to say whether p r e - c o n t a c t human p r e d a t i o n would have been s i g n i f i c a n t enough t o be a f f e c t e d by t h e r u n s i z e f l u c t u a t i o n s ( c f . Kew 1976:2). T h e r e f o r e i t a p p e a r s t h a t the most s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r concerning the amount of f i s h harvested was the a b i l i t y t o p r o c e s s i t . A modern f i s h c u t t e r i s c a p a b l e o f f i l l e t i n g one thousand salmon i n an e i g h t hour day. I t i s u n l i k e l y p r e - c o n t a c t p r o c e s s o r s c o u l d approach t h i s number, but s i n c e l i t t l e k n o w l e d g e e x i s t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e p r e - c o n t a c t techniques employed, i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to say w i t h any degree of c e r t a i n t y . S ince the crew members' f a m i l i e s were cu t o f f from access to f i s h a f t e r t h e y had s u f f i c i e n t numbers put away, any s u r p l u s -would go t o the s i t e owner and be used t o enhance h i s s o c i a l s t a n d i n g ( S u t t l e s 1960:30). S i n c e , by a s s o c i a t i o n , a s i t e -owner's k i n and house-mates would a l s o b e n e f i t from h i s enhanced s t a t u s , t h e y were not h e s i t a n t to a s s i s t h i s a c q u i s i t i o n o f wealth. Besides, they were o b l i g e d as b e n e f i c i a r y crew members to c o n t i n u e f i s h i n g u n t i l i t was t i m e t o c e a s e . Some r e e f net s i t e s were more p r o d u c t i v e than o t h e r s . Hence, over a p e r i o d of years c e r t a i n f a m i l i e s would r i s e i n s t a t u s . 51 Map number 1 d i s p l a y s the most important resource l o c a t i o n s o f the S t r a i t s S a l i s h . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e r e were no c l e a r -c u t l i n e s d e m a r c a t i n g " t e r r i t o r y " between the S t r a i t s S a l i s h g r o u p s . S o - c a l l e d t r i b a l t e r r i t o r i e s a r e more a m odern c o n v e n i e n c e n e c c e s s i t a t e d by l e g i s l a t i v e and p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n s t h a n t h e y a r e a p r e - c o n t a c t r e a l i t y . A c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s among the S t r a i t s S a l i s h appeared to i n c l u d e the e n t i r e area u t i l i z e d by the speech community. Although the named u n i t s f a r t h e s t from one another, e.g. the Semiahmoo i n the n o r t h and the Sooke i n the s o u t h w e s t , p r o b a b l y d i d not i n t e r a c t or s h a r e r e s o u r c e s , the g r o u p s i n c o n t i g u o u s a r e a s c e r t a i n l y d i d , and t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e o f g r o u p s , most n o t a b l y t h e K l a l l a m , r a n g i n g f a r from t h e i r w i n t e r v i l l a g e s t o f i s h . For example, the San Juan I s l a n d s and B e l l i n g h a m Bay areas are mentioned: The most p o w e r f u l and w a r l i k e o f a l l the S a l i s h t r i b e s on the c o a s t of Washington were the C l a l l a m , a group c o m p r i s i n g about a dozen populous v i l l a g e s on the southern shore of the S t r a i t o f Juan de Fuca from P o r t D i s c o v e r y on. the e a s t to Hoko c r e e k on the west, as w e l l as some s e t t l e m e n t s on the upper west c o a s t of Whidbey i s l a n d and the southern shores of San Juan and Orcas i s l a n d s ( C u r t i s 1913:19). A few y e a r s b e f o r e 1850 a group o f K l a l l a m from C l a l l a m Bay, who a l w a y s went to Lummi t e r r i t o r y t o f i s h , s e t t l e d near M a r i e t t a [ a d j a c e n t to the Lummi R e s e r v a t i o n ] (Gunther 1927:179). The a r e a near the town o f Sehome ( l a t e r i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o B e l l i n g h a m ) was a l s o i n h a b i t e d by K l a l l a m when w h i t e s f i r s t s e t t l e d t h e r e . The e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t r e s o u r c e s were c o -u t i l i z e d by a l l members o f the speech community o f the S t r a i t s S a l i s h , but access to p a r t i c u l a r l y p r o d u c t i v e s i t e s was r e g u l a t e d and s t r i c t l y c o n t r o l l e d by k i n g r o u p s . The s i t e s o f s i m p l e r types of f i s h i n g t h a t d i d not r e q u i r e s i g n i f i c a n t investment of 52 Map 1. Areas of p r i n c i p a l r e source c o - u t i l i z a t i o n . SOURCES: B a r n e t t (1955:24); S u t t l e s (1951a:7-45). 53 l a b o r were c o n s i d e r e d f r e e - a c c e s s a r e a s . Anyone c o u l d g a f f a f i s h o u t o f a s t r e a m or t r o l l f o r salmon w h i l e t r a v e l i n g from p l a c e t o p l a c e , but to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n and o p e r a t i o n o f a w e i r or the p i e c i n g t o g e t h e r and use o f a r e e f n e t an i n d i v i d u a l had t o be a member o f the e x t e n d e d k i n group or an a f f i n e . I n t e r e s t s i n the most i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e s were g r a n t e d and e x e r c i s e d t h r o u g h the k i n group, because u t i l i z i n g c e r t a i n r e s o u r c e s i n v o l v e d more than a c c e s s t o a means o f s u b s i s t e n c e . S u b s i s t e n c e , although of paramount importance, was o n l y p a r t o f the o v e r a l l e x e r c i s e o f an i n h e r i t e d p r i v i l e g e . P r e s t i g e , r i t u a l i s m , s o c i a l i d e n t i t y , and s t a t u s were a l l p a r t of the use o f salmon r e s o u r c e s as w e l l . The k i n group e x e r c i s e d c o n t r o l o v e r a c c e s s t o the i m p o r t a n t means o f p r o d u c t i o n and t h e r e f o r e , to a l a r g e extent, e x e r c i s e d c o n t r o l over the resource i t s e l f . The k i n group a s s u r e d t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i n g members were a l l o c a t e d a share of the harvest. E t h n o h i s t o r i c a l Sketch 1792-1854 The f i r s t r e c o r d e d e n c o u n t e r s o f S t r a i t s S a l i s h w i t h E u r o p e a n e x p l o r e r s d a t e from the l a s t y e a r s o f the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The d i s c o v e r y o f the S t r a i t o f Juan de Fuca (1787) and the subsequent e x p l o r a t i o n by Spanish and B r i t i s h v e n t u r e r s g i v e us some g l i m p s e s i n t o the l i v e s o f t h e s e p e o p l e d u r i n g the e r a o f the f i r s t c o n t a c t s . The n a t i v e p e o p l e o f the i n l a n d w a t e r s o f Puget Sound and the G u l f o f G e o r g i a were s h e l t e r e d from the l u c r a t i v e f u r trade i n progress along the Northwest P a c i f i c Coast duri n g the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h and e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . The 54 e a r l i e s t r e c o r d e d e x p l o r a t i o n s i n the Lummi a r e a were by the Spanish e x p l o r e r s E l i z a i n 1791, and G a l i a n o and Valdez i n 1792. The B r i t i s h C a p t a i n Vancouver was a l s o i n the a r e a i n 1792, and i t was i n t h e Lummi a r e a t h a t the e x p l o r e r s from the two c o u n t r i e s "discovered" one another and exchanged i n f o r m a t i o n on the w a t e r s o f the G u l f o f G e o r g i a . S i n c e t h e y found o n l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t numbers o f f u r - b e a r i n g a n i m a l s i n the i n l a n d waters, the e x p l o r a t i o n s a f t e r 1792 were few. B o t h the S p a n i s h and the B r i t i s h took n o t i c e o f the Lummi area , but the c o n t a c t s w i t h n a t i v e peoples were remarkably few. Of the San Juan a r c h i p e l a g o , P a n t o j a , a member o f the E l i z a e x p e d i t i o n , remarked: B e t w e e n F i d a l g o and L o p e z de A r o t h e s e i s a g r e a t a r c h i p e l a g o o f i s l a n d s which was named "San Juan" ... N e i t h e r on the i s l a n d s nor on the a d j a c e n t c o a s t s were any s e t t l e m e n t s seen, but i n the Seno de P a d i l l a [ P a d i l l a Bay near A n a c o r t e s ] some I n d i a n s a f t e r s h e l l f i s h were seen i n the s h a l l o w s (Wagner 1933:187-188). In J u l y o f 1791 Pantoja d i d n o t i c e n a t i v e s at P o i n t Roberts, w h ich he took t o be an i s l a n d ( I s l a de Zepeda). Most l i k e l y t he Indians were r e e f n e t t i n g . A t the I s l a de Zepeda t h e s e i s an i n c r e d i b l e q u a n t i t y o f r i c h s a lmon and numerous I n d i a n s , much more d o c i l e and t r a c t a b l e than those a t the entrance [to the S t r a i t of Juan de Fuca]. They speak an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t language and i n s p i t e o f the f a c t t h a t t h e y d i d not u n d e r s t a n d i t the y e x p l a i n e d with e n t i r e c l e a r n e s s t h a t there had been v e s s e l s w i t h i n the c a n a l much l a r g e r than the schooner (Wagner 1933: 186-187). Vancouver r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the " I s l a de Zepeda" was not an i s l a n d and renamed i t P o i n t Roberts. At P o i n t Roberts Vancouver made no m e n t i o n o f n a t i v e s nor o f a n a t i v e v i l l a g e (Vancouver 1798:298-300), although he was there j u s t one year a f t e r Pantoja. 55 C u r i o u s l y , Menzies, a member of Vancouver's e x p e d i t i o n , records t h a t V a n c o u v e r m e n t i o n e d a l a r g e d e s e r t e d v i l l a g e a t P o i n t Roberts, but a review of Vancouver's j o u r n a l f i n d s t h a t Vancouver h i m s e l f d i d not r e c o r d i t . When t h e y l e f t the S h i p on the M o r n i n g o f the 12th t h e y f i r s t e x p l o r e d a l a r g e s h o a l water Bay t i l l t h e y came t o a c o n s p i c u o u s White B l u f f o f a moderate h e i g h t f o r m i n g the western p o i n t of i t & which a f t e r w a r d s obtained the Name of Cape R o b e r t s . H e r e t h e y l a n d e d t o d i n e n e a r a l a r g e d e s e r t e d V i l l a g e c a p a b l e o f c o n t a i n i n g a t l e a s t 4 or 500 I n h a b i t a n t s , tho i t was now i n p e r f e c t r u i n s — n o t h i n g but the s k e l e t o n s o f the houses r e m a i n d , t h e s e however were s u f f i c i e n t to shew t h e i r g e n e r a l form s t r u c t u r e & p o s i t i o n . E ach house appeard d i s t i n c t & c a p a c i o u s o f the form o f an oblong square, & they were arrangd i n three separate rows of c o n s i d e r a b l e l e n g t h ; the Beams c o n s i s t e d of huge long p i e c e s o f Timber p l a c e d i n N o t c h e s on the t o p o f s u p p o r t e r s 14 f e e t f r o m the ground, but by what m e c h a n i c a l power the N a t i v e s had r a i s d t h e s e b u l k y beams to t h a t h e i g h t t h e y c o u l d not c o n j e c t u r e . T h r e e s u p p o r t e r s s t o o d a t each end f o r the l o n g i t u d i n a l beams, & an equal number were arranged on each s i d e f o r the s u p p o r t o f s m a l l e r c r o s s beams i n each house (Menzies 1923:60). These d i s c r e p a n c i e s are d i f f i c u l t to account f o r . I t c o u l d be t h a t i n June, when Vancouver was i n the a r e a , the I n d i a n s were i n the i s l a n d s or u p - r i v e r , where th e y would not be n o t i c e d . Whether f i s h i n g was the reason f o r the lac k of n a t i v e s elsewhere i n the Lummi a r e a i s d i f f i c u l t t o say. Vancouver commented on the f a c t t h a t t h e r e were few I n d i a n s t o be seen anywhere, a l t h o u g h t h e r e a p p e a r e d t o have p r e v i o u s l y been a d e n s e r p o p u l a t i o n . I t may be somewhat p r e m a t u r e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t t h i s d e l i g h t f u l country has always been thus t h i n l y i n h a b i t e d ; on the c o n t r a r y , t h e r e a r e r e a s o n s to b e l i e v e i t has been i n f i n i t e l y more populous...Not many y e a r s s i n c e , each o f t h e s e v a c a n t p l a c e s m i g h t have been a l l o t t e d t o t h e h a b i t a t i o n s o f d i f f e r e n t s o c i e t i e s . . . I n o u r d i f f e r e n t e x c u r s i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those i n the neighbourhood of P o r t D i s c o v e r y , the s c u l l , l i m b s , r i b s , and back bones, or some other v e s t i g e s of the human body, were found i n many p l a c e s p r o m i s c u o u s l y s c a t t e r e d a b o u t t h e b e a c h , i n g r e a t numbers...these c i r c u m s t a n c e s do not amount to a d i r e c t 56 p r o o f o f the e x t e n s i v e p o p u l a t i o n t h e y i n d i c a t e , y e t , when combined with other appearances, they warranted an o p i n i o n , t h a t a t no v e r y remote p e r i o d t h i s c o u n t r y had been f a r more populous than a t presen t (Meany 1957:123-124). The n e x t E u r o p e a n c o n t a c t s w i t h the Lummi came t h i r t y - t w o years l a t e r . A f t e r a c q u i r i n g the American Fur Company h o l d i n g s at A s t o r i a , at the mouth of the Columbia R i v e r , and e s t a b l i s h i n g F o r t V ancouver e i g h t y m i l e s f u r t h e r up t h a t same s t r e a m , the Hudson's Bay Company s e t o u t to expand t h e i r t r a d i n g o p e r a t i o n s northward. F o r t Langley, on the F r a s e r R i v e r , the c l o s e s t to the Lummi, was,founded i n 1827, and F o r t V i c t o r i a , on S o u t h e a s t V ancouver I s l a n d , i n 1843. The e x p e d i t i o n t h a t d e c i d e d on the l o c a t i o n t o e s t a b l i s h F o r t L a n g l e y t r a v e l e d t h r o u g h the Lummi a r e a i n the w i n t e r o f 1824. John Work, a Hudson's Bay Company c l e r k , kept a j o u r n a l of t h a t e x p e d i t i o n . L i t t l e mention i s made of n a t i v e s i n the v i c i n i t y , although Work camped near l o c a t i o n s t h a t c o n t a i n e d s i z e a b l e v i l l a g e s i n the mid-1800s (Semiahmoo S p i t , 11 and 12 December; and B i r c h Bay 20 December). Work d i d r e c o r d an " o l d I n d i a n v i l l a g e " a t P o i n t R o b e r t s , but i t would l i k e l y have on l y been occupied during the ree f net f i s h i n g season i n J u l y and August. Of the Halkomelem people Work encountered on the F r a s e r River he n o t i c e d : A p a i r o f o l d b l a n k e t s and an o l d k n i v e [ s i c ] were the o n l y European a r t i c l e s observed among these people, they seemed to have no arms, t h e i r c l o t h i n g was b l a n k e t s o f t h e i r own manufacture ( E l l i o t t 1912:223). Work d i d encounter "Coweechin" near B i r c h Bay who "had j u s t c r o s s e d over from Vancouver's I s l a n d " ( E l l i o t t 1912:224), but d i d not m e n t i o n any i n h a b i t a n t s or s i g n s o f v i l l a g e s i n the a r e a . How Work knew where the Indians came from i s not made c l e a r . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to avoid s p e c u l a t i n g on the apparent l a c k o f 57 n a t i v e people dur i n g t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d of e x p l o r a t i o n . P o p u l a t i o n e s t i m a t e s p l a c e the number o f Lummi a t around seven hundred to e i g h t hundred ( i n c l u d i n g the Samish and Semiahmoo) p r i o r t o c o n t a c t . By the a r r i v a l o f the f i r s t E u r o peans the a r e a had a l r e a d y been decimated by introduced d i s e a s e s . S u t t l e s (1954:42) e s t i m a t e s the f i r s t s m a l l p o x e p i d e m i c s t r u c k t h e Lummi a r e a by 1782 w i t h d e v a s t a t i n g r e s u l t s . Vancouver noted t h a t many n a t i v e s he e n c o u n t e r e d i n P u g e t Sound b o r e t h e s c a r s o f s m a l l p o x (Vancouver 1798:254). Smallpox tends to recur every twenty years or so as a new g e n e r a t i o n o f non-immune p e o p l e c o n t r a c t the d i s e a s e , and t h e r e f o r e i t keeps reducing the p o p u l a t i o n f o r many y e a r s . C o u p l e d w i t h the e p i d e m i c s were the number o f r a i d s by " N o r t h e r n " I n d i a n s ( p r o b a b l y K w a k i u t l ) , w hich seem t o have i n c r e a s e d d u r i n g the l a t e 1700s/early 1800s, probably because of i n t r o d u c e d f i r e a r m s . T h i s p r a c t i c e of r a i d i n g may suggest why so few n a t i v e s were e n c o u n t e r e d by e a r l y e x p l o r e r s . P e r h a p s th e S t r a i t s S a l i s h h i d when any s t r a n g e v e s s e l s were s i g h t e d . Even a f t e r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of F o r t Langley mentions of the Lummi remain few. Large numbers of S k a g i t and K l a l l a m are noted i n the j o u r n a l s , but i n the e a r l y years at F o r t Langley there are o n l y p a s s i n g mentions of Lummi, f o r example: S a s h i a i n f o r m s us t h a t he h e a r d a r e p o r t i n t h e Holumma C o u n t r y t h a t Mr. McKenzie and h i s l i t t l e p a r t y o f f o u r men were murdered by the T l a l a m s somewhere i n the v i c i n i t y o f • Whidbey I s l a n d (McMillan, 13 February 1828.) M c M i l l a n was r e f e r r i n g to the murder of s e v e r a l Hudson's Bay Company men by K l a l l a m (see Dye 1907). C e r t a i n l y the f i r s t European e x p l o r a t i o n of the Nooksack River a l s o o r i g i n a t e d from F o r t Langley. 58 Mr Annace w i t h f o u r men and the Q u a i t l i n e C h i e f g o t to the Osaak or Whullummy r i v e r t h e i r 1 s t day from Canoe e a r l y w h i c h p r o v e d l a r g e r than he e x p e c t e d ; but found n o t h i n g t h e r e but abandoned Lodges - the v e r y p l a c e where t i s s a i d the S chachads l a t e l y k i l l e d 4 o f them, f o r g i v i n g t h e i r Beaver to the Q u a i t l i n e s (McDonald 5 February 1830). Numerous p a s s a g e s from the F o r t L a n g l e y j o u r n a l s m e n t i o n Indians a t P o i n t Roberts but as "Sanch" (Saanich). The Sanch are r e f e r r e d to as camping and f i s h i n g i n the Boundary Bay area which would have been f i s h i n g v i l l a g e s f o r r e e f n e t t i n g (see a l s o Duff 1952:25-26). Some Saanich seemed to have wintered over near the f o r t , c o n s t r u c t e d a weir and e s t a b l i s h e d trade r e l a t i o n s w i t h the Hudson's Bay Company. A l i t t l e Red Deer's meat was p u r c h a s e d t o d a y from Sanch I n d i a n s who have t h e i r l o d g e s not f a r from t h i s up the l i t t l e Portage River (McMillan 6 October 1827). T h e r e a r e a few o f the Sanch t r i b e encamped not f a r from us, upon the L i t t l e P o r t a g e R i v e r , where th e y take Salmon by b a r r i n g up t h e R i v e r . They k i l l a few Beaver a l s o w i t h wooden t r a p s (McMillan 12 October 1827). I t i s not u n l i k e l y t h a t the p e o p l e i n h a b i t i n g P o i n t R o b e r t s d u r i n g the e a r l y 1800s r e f e r r e d t o t h e m s e l v e s as " S a a n i c h " . As f u r t h e r evidence Gibbs (1856) i d e n t i f i e s the people r e s i d i n g near B i r c h Bay as " S a a n i t c h " on h i s 1856 map. 1 I t i s known t h a t Saanich from Vancouver I s l a n d f i s h e d a t P o i n t Roberts w e l l i n t o h i s t o r i c times ( S u t t l e s 1951a:202). F u r t h e r , the Semiahmooo, the t r i b e to whom P o i n t Roberts i s g e n e r a l l y a s c r i b e d , d e r i v e t h e i r name from one o f t h e i r l e a d e r s d u r i n g the mid 1800s, " C h i e f Semiahmoo", not from an a p p e l l a t i o n of t h e i r own. The r e f e r e n c e s 1. S u t t l e s s t a t e s t h a t the p e o p l e a t B i r c h Bay may have been Songhees (1951a) or a t l e a s t Songhees from Cadboro Bay came t o B i r c h Bay to d i g clams (1951a:19). There i s probably no c o n f l i c t between t h e s e v a r y i n g r e p o r t s , i t j u s t f u r t h e r s u p p o r t s the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t the p r o d u c t i v e resources of the area were shared by many loca l l y - n a m e d Coast S a l i s h groups. 59 to Sanch a t F o r t L a n g l e y s u g g e s t t h a t t h e y p a r t i c i p a t e d t o some extent i n the developing f u r trade, but i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t trade w i t h the Hudson's Bay Company d i d not d o m i n a t e t h e i r economic a c t i v i t y . F a m i l i e s from the Sanch v i l l a g e at P o i n t Roberts have been pa s s i n g i n continued s u c c e s s i o n during the day a l l bound f o r the Salmon F i s h e r y (McMillan 25 August 1827). A few I n d i a n s about - one o f them - the C h i e f from P o i n t R o b e r t s V i l l a g e t r a d e d 20 B e a v e r S k i n s - he and h i s f o l l o w e r s a l s o b r o u g h t us one hundred o f the S m a l l Salmon and 10 or 12 o f the v e r y l a r g e ones - t h e y now t a k e them i n g r e a t abundance i n the l i t t l e r i v e r s (McDonald 21 O c t o b e r 1828). C h i c h e , n o o k s / t h e C h i e f o f P o i n t R o b e r t s / h i s young men again brought us two hundred which w i l l make 4 Casks of good S a l t e d Salmon (McDonald 22 October 1828). By an I n d i a n j u s t a r r i v e d from the mouth o f the r i v e r the assemblage of n a t i v e s i n t h a t quarter i s immense - On P o i n t R o b e r t s a l o n e he Says t h a t no l e s s t h a n 200 Canoes l a n d e d the o t h e r day (McDonald 20 August 1829). The Lummi must have v i s i t e d the Hudson's Bay Company t r a d i n g p o s t s t o o , but i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e i r . p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the f u r t r a d e was l i m i t e d . The l o w e r F r a s e r R i v e r f u r t r a d e was never too l u c r a t i v e , and around the same time as the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of F o r t V i c t o r i a i n 1843, the f u r t r a d e i n the a r e a o f the Lower Fr a s e r R iver began to d e c l i n e . I r e g r e t to say t h a t F o r t L a n g l e y i s l o w e r i n g f a s t i n the s c a l e o f i m p o r t a n c e ; I t s f u r r e t u r n s a r e t r i f l i n g t o an extreme (Yale 17 December 1845). The r e t u r n s of F o r t Langley are t h i s year very poor, shewing a d e c l i n e i n v a l u e o f about L700. as compared w i t h l a s t y e a r , w hich i s supposed t o a r e i s e e n t i r e l y from want o f e x e r t i o n on the p a r t o f the N a t i v e s (Ogden and D o u g l a s 19 March 1846). S u t t l e s (1954:39) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e f u r t r a d e p e r i o d (roughly 1827-1841) was one i n which n a t i v e people were needed by 60 the t r a d e r s to hunt f o r f u r s and to pro v i d e food. "The a d d i t i o n s t h a t they [the fur t r a d e r s ] made to n a t i v e c u l t u r e were mainly i n m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e r a t h e r than i n s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n or r e l i g i o n . " The e v i d e n c e from the j o u r n a l s o f the f u r t r a d e r s t e n d s t o c o r r o b o r a t e t h i s a s s e r t i o n and to make i t c l e a r t h a t the Lummi were l e s s i n c o n t a c t w i t h the t r a d e r s than were the groups l i v i n g c l o s e r to the t r a d i n g posts. With the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f F o r t V i c t o r i a i n 1843, the Lummi and o t h e r S t r a i t s S a l i s h l i k e l y s p e n t much more t i m e t r a d i n g t h e r e than i n the l e s s f a m i l i a r a r e a o f F o r t L a n g l e y on the Fr a s e r R i v e r . The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n d i s c u s s i n g N a t i v e Americans i n g e n e r a l seems t o a p p l y t o the Lummi i n p a r t i c u l a r . As long as the n a t i v e Americans were able to d i r e c t most of the s o c i a l labor a v a i l a b l e through k i n - o r d e r e d r e l a t i o n s to the t a s k o f g u a r a n t e e i n g t h e i r s u b s i s t e n c e , the goods obtained by p a r t - t i m e f u r hunting supplemented rather than r e p l a c e d t h e i r own means of p r o d u c t i o n (Wolf 1982:193). From the h i s t o r i c a l d a t a i t does not appear t h a t the Lummi p a r t i c i p a t e d t o any g r e a t e x t e n t i n the f u r t r a d e o f the f i r s t h a l f o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . T h e r e i s o n l y one m e n t i o n o f them a t the next nearest post, F o r t N i s q u a l l y , and t h a t not u n t i l 1849 when W.F. T o l m i e n o t e s t h a t a " p a r t y o f Lummies a r r i v e d down the beach" (1920:61). The pu r p o s e o f the v i s i t i s not made c l e a r . T h e r e i s no m e n t i o n o f Lummi i n the F o r t V i c t o r i a r e c o r d s e i t h e r , but s i n c e F o r t V i c t o r i a very r a p i d l y became a g a t h e r i n g p l a c e f o r Indians a l l the way from South Puget Sound to Southeast A l a s k a , i t i s not s u p r i s i n g t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r group would escape n o t i c e . There are numerous n a t i v e accounts o f Lummi t r a v e l i n g to V i c t o r i a d u r i n g the-1800s f o r t r a d e and v i s i t i n g , and s i n c e the V i c t o r i a a r e a was w e l l w i t h i n the n o r m a l range o f the S t r a i t s S a l i s h s o c i a l network, i t i s to be expected t h a t the t r a d i n g post a t V i c t o r i a would be f r e q u e n t e d by the Lummi. For example, the Indian Agent assigned to B e l l i n g h a m Bay r e p o r t e d i n J u l y of 1856 t h a t most of the Indians there had gone to V i c t o r i a on a " v i s i t " ( F i t z h u g h 1856). Y e t , as p o i n t e d o u t , the i m p a c t o f the f u r t r a d e on the Lummi was n e g l i g i b l e . I t was not u n t i l the Lummi came under the d o m i n a t i o n o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s government and were f o r c e d to accommodate -the market economy t h a t the impact of the Western economy began to become a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r . The t r a v e l e r s through the Lummi t e r r i t o r y i n the mid-1800s found no such d e a r t h o f n a t i v e i n h a b i t a n t s as d i d the e a r l y e x p l o r e r s . In 1853, T r o w b r i d g e n o t e d t h a t near B e l l i n g h a m Bay was t h e l a r g e s t I n d i a n encampment t h a t he had e v e r s e e n (Trowbridge 1942:398), and a l s o t h a t : The t r i b e c a l l e d Lummys i s the l a r g e s t - an I n d i a n t o l d me t h a t t h e y have f o r t y c h i e f s ("Laket t a t i l u m hyas Tyees") (Trowbridge 1942:399). The T r e a t y E r a 1855-1859 As p r o v i d e d by the t r e a t y of 1846 between the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Great B r i t a i n , the area i n h a b i t e d by the Lummi, Samish, p a r t of the Semiahmoo, and K l a l l a m , became the t e r r i t o r y of the United S t a t e s . I t was not l o n g a f t e r the c o n f i r m a t i o n o f t h i s t r e a t y t h at the area began to a t t r a c t white s e t t l e r s . As e a r l y as 1852 s e t t l e m e n t o f the B e l l i n g h a m Bay a r e a had begun, f i r s t a t the mouth of Whatcom Creek and l a t e r a t Squalicum Creek and Sehome. The mouth o f Whatcom Creek was the s i t e o f a s i z e a b l e Lummi 62 v i l l a g e . The f a l l s there made i t an i d e a l s i t e f o r the l o c a t i o n of a saw m i l l , which was what the f i r s t s e t t l e r s proposed to use i t f o r . Under the Oregon Land D o n a t i o n A c t o f 1850 (9 S t a t . 496), any a d u l t U n i t e d S t a t e s c i t i z e n c o u l d stake a c l a i m of 320 a c r e s , and i t was p o s s i b l e f o r a man and w i f e t o c l a i m 640 a c r e s . What i s now the S t a t e o f W a s h i n g t o n was p a r t o f the Oregon T e r r i t o r y f r o m 1846 t o 1853. The Oregon Land D o n a t i o n A c t was made a p p l i c a b l e to Washington T e r r i t o r y a f t e r the s e p a r a t i o n (10 S t a t . 305). The same year as the Oregon Land D o n a t i o n A c t , Congress passed an Indian T r e a t y Act, which a u t h o r i z e d funds to n e g o t i a t e t r e a t i e s and l i q u i d a t e any c l a i m the Indians of Oregon T e r r i t o r y had to t i t l e t o the land. The Un i t e d S t a t e s h e l d to the c o n c e p t o f a b o r i g i n a l o w n e r s h i p and t h e r e f o r e , a t l e a s t i n t h e o r y , o w n e r s h i p had t o be e x t i n g u i s h e d b e f o r e t i t l e t o l a n d c o u l d be g r a n t e d t o w h i t e s e t t l e r s . Even b e f o r e t i t l e t o the l a n d was c l e a r e d , n i n e t e e n l a n d c l a i m s had b e e n f i l e d on Bell i n g h a m Bay (Edson 1968:47), and ac c o r d i n g to the census there were a l r e a d y t w e n t y - f i v e s a w m i l l s i n o p e r a t i o n on Puget Sound by 1855, a l l t a k i n g timber from unclaimed lands. I s s a c I. Stevens was appointed governor of the newly formed W a s h i n g t o n T e r r i t o r y i n 1853. In a d d i t i o n t o h i s p o s t as governor, Stevens was a l s o major-general o f the T e r r i t o r i a l army, l e a d e r o f t h e N o r t h e r n P a c i f i c R a i l r o a d S u r v e y , a n d S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . I t was S t e v e n s ' s d u t y , as S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , t o a c q u i r e t i t l e t o the l a n d from t h e I n d i a n s on b e h a l f o f t h e F e d e r a l government. S t e v e n s took t h i s task s e r i o u s l y and wasted l i t t l e time i n executing h i s d u t i e s . Stevens a r r i v e d i n Washington T e r r i t o r y i n November of 63 1853. By December o f 1854 he had met w i t h h i s newly a p p o i n t e d t r e a t y c o m m i s s i o n and had worked o u t the d e t a i l s o f the t r e a t y n e g o t i a t i o n s . D u r i n g December and J a n u a r y o f 1854/1855 f o u r t r e a t i e s were n e g o t i a t e d and s i g n e d w i t h I n d i a n s o f W e s t e r n Washington. One t r e a t y f a i l e d i n n e g o t i a t i o n s . Some o f the groups who r e f u s e d l a t e r signed the "Treaty With the Q u i n a i e l t " i n J u l y of 1855 (Boxberger 1979:112). In f a c t , Stevens met w i t h and n e g o t i a t e d t r e a t i e s w i t h most o f the n a t i v e g r o u p s o f W a s h i n g t o n T e r r i t o r y w i t h i n one y e a r o f December/January 1854/1855 (S t e v e n s 1900:478). One o f the i n i t i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l W e s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n t r e a t i e s was the T r e a t y o f P o i n t E l l i o t t , w hich i n c l u d e d the Lummi, Samish, and e i g h t e e n o t h e r named groups. A l t h o u g h n e g o t i a t e d and s i g n e d by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the I n d i a n g r o u p s and the U n i t e d S t a t e s Government, the W e s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n t r e a t i e s s t i l l had t o w a i t f o r r a t i f i c a t i o n by the U n i t e d S t a t e s Senate before they became e f f e c t i v e . Approval was r e f u s e d u n t i l 1859, the f e e l i n g b e i n g t h a t S t e v e n s had been too l i b e r a l w i t h the Indians (Stevens 1900:449). Stevens h i m s e l f had been e l e c t e d to Congress as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from the T e r r i t o r y of W a s h i n g t o n i n 1857 and was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n g a i n i n g e v e n t u a l r a t i f i c a t i o n of the t r e a t i e s (Stevens 1940:403). The T r e a t y o f P o i n t E l l i o t t c o n t a i n s f i f t e e n a r t i c l e s o u t l i n i n g the p o l i c i e s by which the s i g n a t o r i e s agreed to abide (see B o x b e r g e r 1979:123-128). A r t i c l e 1 d e s c r i b e d the l a n d s ceded by the t r e a t y ; A r t i c l e 2 d e s c r i b e d the l a n d s r e s e r v e d f o r " e x c l u s i v e use" by the Indians; A r t i c l e 3 s e t a s i d e a r e s e r v a t i o n 64 f o r a s c h o o l ; A r t i c l e 4 s t a t e d t h a t the t r i b e s were to move onto the r e s e r v a t i o n w i t h i n one yea r o f r a t i f i c a t i o n o f the t r e a t y ; A r t i c l e 5 reserved hunting, f i s h i n g , s h e l l f i s h i n g , and ga t h e r i n g r i g h t s ; A r t i c l e 6 o u t l i n e d a n n u i t i e s ; A r t i c l e 7 g a v e t h e P r e s i d e n t the r i g h t t o remove I n d i a n s f r o m the r e s e r v a t i o n s or a l l o t the r e s e r v a t i o n s to i n d i v i d u a l s ; A r t i c l e 8 forbade the use o f the a n n u i t i e s f o r the payment o f i n d i v i d u a l d e b t s ; A r t i c l e 9 s t a t e d t h a t the Indians promised not to commit any depredations a g a i n s t the c i t i z e n s o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s ; A r t i c l e 10 e x c l u d e d a l c o h o l from the r e s e r v a t i o n s ; A r t i c l e 11 a b o l i s h e d s l a v e r y ; A r t i c l e 12 p r o h i b i t e d trade at Vancouver I s l a n d or elsewhere "out o f the d o m i n i o n s o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s " ; A r t i c l e 13 s e t a s i d e f u n d s t o e s t a b l i s h a g r i c u l t u r e on the r e s e r v a t i o n s ; A r t i c l e 14 e s t a b l i s h e d an agency, s c h o o l , and m e d i c a l f a c i l i t i e s a t the g e n e r a l agency; and A r t i c l e 15 s t a t e s t h a t the t r e a t y was to become o b l i g a t o r y on the s i g n a t o r s when r a t i f i e d by the P r e s i d e n t and the Senate. Even p r i o r t o r a t i f i c a t i o n o f the P o i n t E l l i o t t T r e a t y , s p e c i a l Indian Agents were assigned to c e r t a i n areas i n Western W a s h i n g t o n where I n d i a n s c o n c e n t r a t e d . The f i r s t I n d i a n Agent a s s i g n e d t o t h e Lummi a r e a was E.C. F i t z h u g h i n J u l y o f 1856 a t B e l l i n g h a m Bay. F i t z h u g h r e p o r t e d t h a t the Lummi were s e l f -s u f f i c i e n t d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , owing t o t h e i r f i s h e r i e s and an abundance o f o t h e r t r a d i t i o n a l f o o d s ( F i t z h u g h 1856; 1857). Potato farming and c e r t a i n items o f European manufacture had been a d o p t e d , b ut t h e s e a d a p t a t i o n s were i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n terms o f connecting the Lummi wit h the market economy. Potatoes had been i n t r o d u c e d by the Hudson's Bay Company a t F o r t L a n g l e y as e a r l y 65 as 1827 and had s p r e a d t h r o u g h the C o a s t S a l i s h a r e a w i t h i n a few y e a r s ( S u t t l e s 1951b). P o t a t o e s seemed t o have r e p l a c e d n a t i v e p l a n t foods w i t h l i t t l e or no adjustment necessary on the p a r t of the Lummi. White (1980:32-33) has suggested t h a t the t r a d i t i o n a l g a t h e r i n g p r a c t i c e s of the Coast S a l i s h ( e s p e c i a l l y i n regard to camas, b r a c k e n f e r n , and n e t t l e s ) had so a p p r o a c h e d t r u e a g r i c u l t u r e t h a t the p o t a t o was adopted " w i t h o u t any d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n i n i t s care and p l a n t i n g " . The Lummi r a i s e d potatoes as a s u b s i s t e n c e c r o p and s o l d v e r y few t o the w h i t e s ( F i t z h u g h 1856). One i t e m o f w h i t e i n t r o d u c t i o n t h a t d i d c a u s e some c o n s t e r n a t i o n f o r t h e I n d i a n Agent a t B e l l i n g h a m Bay was the s e l l i n g o f l i q u o r . L i q u o r t r a f f i c had been s u p p r e s s e d by the Hudson's Bay Company w h i l e they were i n charge of the t e r r i t o r y . In f a c t , the Hudson's Bay Company had e x p l i c i t p o l i c i e s a g a i n s t s e l l i n g l i q u o r t o I n d i a n s . As A m e r i c a n s began t r a d i n g i n the area however, they found t h a t l i q u o r was one item f o r which they c o u l d c o n s i s t e n t l y f i n d a n a t i v e market. Less p e r i s h a b l e goods such as b l a n k e t s , guns, p o t s , e t c . , m e r e l y r e p l a c e d i t e m s o f n a t i v e technology and q u i c k l y s a t u r a t e d the market so the white t r a d e r s o f t e n t u r n e d t o l i q u o r i n o r d e r t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r t r a d e o p e r a t i o n s (see White 1983:318 f o r a c o m p a r a b l e c a s e ) . Much o f the agent's time was spent i n the attempt to suppress the l i q u o r trade, but he f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t e d t h a t l i q u o r boats were i n the area or, more o f t e n , t h a t s o l d i e r s s t a t i o n e d a t F o r t B e llingham were s e l l i n g l i q u o r to the Indians. F o r t B e l l i n g h a m was e s t a b l i s h e d j u s t e a s t o f the mouth o f 66 the Nooksack R i v e r i n 1856. The pu r p o s e o f the f o r t was t o p r o t e c t the s e t t l e r s and the l o c a l I n d i a n s from marauding " N o r t h e r n I n d i a n s " ( p r o b a b l y K w a k i u t l a l t h o u g h v a r i a b l y i d e n t i f i e d as " H y d e r s " ( H a i d a ) , " S t i k i n e s " ( T l i n g i t ) , and Tsimshian). F i t z h u g h o f t e n complained to Governor Stevens t h a t the s o l d i e r s were no l e s s an e v i l than the northern r a i d e r s , and the i n t r o d u c t i o n of l i q u o r t r a f f i c i n the Lummi area was l a r g e l y a t t r i b u t e d t o the m i l i t a r y p o s t . The f o r t , however, was s h o r t -l i v e d , the s o l d i e r s being r e - s t a t i o n e d to San Juan I s l a n d d u r i n g the boundary c o n t r o v e r s y o f 1859, but the l i q u o r t r a f f i c f rom w h i t e t r a d e r s d i d not d e c l i n e , r a t h e r i t c o n t i n u e d t o i n c r e a s e , p r i m a r i l y as a r e s u l t o f the next i n f l u x o f Americans. A b r i e f but no doubt i n f l u e n t i a l o c c u r r e n c e was the g o l d r u s h o f t h e upper F r a s e r R i v e r i n 1858. I t has been e s t i m a t e d t h a t upwards o f 100,000 p e o p l e came t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and Washington T e r r i t o r y i n the summer of 1858 (Edson 1968:74), most pa s s i n g through Bellingham Bay and many s t a y i n g on i n the s m a l l s e t t l e m e n t of Whatcom. Expanding from a p o p u l a t i o n of l e s s than one hundred to n e a r l y ten thousand, the s e t t l e m e n t on Bellingham Bay s u d d e n l y became a c i t y , s p o r t i n g s a l o o n s , b r o t h e l s , h o t e l s , and a newspaper. I t a p p e a r s t h a t many o f the g o l d s e e k e r s came t o the a r e a from C a l i f o r n i a ( J e f f c o t t 1949:58), where the g o l d was beginning t o p l a y o u t and p r o s p e c t o r s were r e s t l e s s f o r new f i n d s . The C a l i f o r n i a p r o p e c t o r s a p p a r e n t l y b r o u g h t w i t h them a f r o n t i e r a t t i t u d e t h a t the I n d i a n s o f Wa s h i n g t o n T e r r i t o r y had not y e t e n c o u n t e r e d . In 1858 F i t z h u g h r e p o r t e d some a n x i e t y among the 67 I n d i a n s i n t h e a r e a . A c c o r d i n g t o F i t z h u g h some o f t h e t r a n s i e n t s p a s s i n g through t o the g o l d f i e l d s had been i n f o r m i n g t h e I n d i a n s t h e y met a l o n g t h e way t h a t g r e a t h o r d e s o f w h i t e s were coming i n t o the a r e a and were g o i n g t o wipe out t h e I n d i a n s as t h e y had done i n C a l i f o r n i a ( w h i c h i n d e e d t h e y had done, see N o r t o n 1979). L a t e r t h a t y e a r A g e n t F i t z h u g h r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e Lummi were " d e s t i t u t e o f t h e means o f f i s h i n g " , h a v i n g s o l d a l l t h e i r canoes t o the w h i t e s t o make t h e t r i p t o the F r a s e r R i v e r . The p r o s p e c t o r s u s e d B e l l i n g h a m Bay as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r t h e up p e r F r a s e r R i v e r g o l d f i e l d s , e i t h e r t a k i n g p a s s a g e t o F o r t Hope by w a t e r , t r a v e l i n g o v e r l a n d , or more commonly, making t h e i r way up the Nooksack R i v e r by canoe, thence o v e r l a n d t o C h i l l i w a c k and t h e F r a s e r g o l d f i e l d s beyond. I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o i m a g i n e t h a t t h e I n d i a n s w o u l d p a r t w i t h a l l o f t h e i r c a n o e s , b u t F i t z h u g h r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e t e m p t a t i o n o f t h e l a r g e p r i c e s t h e p r o s p e c t o r s were p a y i n g was t o o g r e a t . R e g a r d l e s s , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t the Lummi would have been a b l e t o a c q u i r e new canoes b e f o r e too l o n g . The e n t i r e g o l d r u s h l a s t e d l e s s than s i x months. A l t h o u g h the s e t t l e m e n t s o f Whatcom and Sehome had t e m p o r a r i l y grown i n t o t o w n s , t h e y s h r a n k a g a i n t o a s m a l l e r s i z e n e a r l y as r a p i d l y as they had grown. By the census o f 1860 the t o t a l w h i t e p o p u l a t i o n o f Whatcom County was 352, 108 o f whom were s o l d i e r s a t San Juan I s l a n d a n d g o v e r n m e n t a l p e r s o n n e l s u r v e y i n g t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s / G r e a t B r i t a i n boundary a t Camp Semiahmoo (near p r e s e n t day B l a i n e ) . 68 T a b l e 3. White and I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n s o f Whatcom County, Washington, 1860-1910. Year Indian White 1860 600 352 Includes what i s now Whatcom, San Juan and p a r t s o f I s l a n d and S k a g i t C o u n t i e s . 1870 600 534 ti II 1880 275 3,137 Includes p a r t of what i s now S k a g i t County. 1890 269 18,192 Includes a l l Indians of Whatcom County, not j u s t Lummi. 1900 519 22,512 II II 1910 658 48,464 II II SOURCES through : U n i t e d 1910. S t a t e s Census 1860 t h r o u g h 1910; ARCIA 1860 The f i n a l e l e m e n t i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f w h i t e s o c i e t y t o the Lummi durin g t h i s p e r i o d was the work of m i s s i o n a r i e s . The e a r l i e s t known c o n t a c t w i t h m i s s i o n a r i e s was i n the e a r l y 1840s. The C a t h o l i c P r i e s t s B l a n c h e t and Demers m i s s i o n i z e d among the n a t i v e s i n the v i c i n i t y o f the Hudson's Bay Company p o s t s , e s p e c i a l l y a t F o r t Vancouver, and made o c c a s i o n a l v i s i t s to the v a r i o u s t r i b e s i n the t e r r i t o r y . A m i s s i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d a t C o w l i t z S t a t i o n as e a r l y as 1839, and the m i s s i o n e x p e d i t i o n s r a d i a t e d out from t h i s c e n t r a l i z e d l o c a t i o n . S u t t l e s (1954:40) b e l i e v e s t h a t the f i r s t p r i e s t the S t r a i t s people saw was Demers i n 1841, when he v i s i t e d Whidbey I s l a n d . A l t h o u g h K l a l l a m a re mentioned as v i s i t i n g the p r i e s t at Whidbey I s l a n d i n the f a l l o f 69 1841, t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t the Lummi a l s o v i s i t e d t h e r e . However, Demers p a s s e d t h r o u g h the Lummi a r e a en r o u t e t o F o r t Langley. Of the Indians he met along the way, he s a i d , A l m o s t a l l knew how to make the s i g n o f the c r o s s and s i n g some c a n t i c l e s ... Those n a t i o n s s c a t t e r e d i n v a s t areas had communicated mutually among themselves what they had lear n e d (Landerholm 1956:104). The S t r a i t s p e o p l e a p p e a r e d t o be i m p r e s s e d w i t h C h r i s t i a n i t y , s i n c e the p r i e s t s i n v a r i a b l y a t t r a c t e d crowds o f s e v e r a l hundred t o be b a p t i s e d and a t t e n d mass. I n d i a n s from "beyond the Bay of St. George" (Georgia S t r a i t ) are known to have t r a v e l e d a l l the way to the C o w l i t z M i s s i o n to v i s i t the p r i e s t s , and F a t h e r B o l d u c s t a t e s t h a t 1,200 " K a w i t s h i n s , K l a l a m s , and Tsamishes" came to attend s e r v i c e s at F o r t V i c t o r i a i n March of 1843. Y e t , the l a c k o f c o n s t a n t c o n t a c t w i t h the p r i e s t s kept the S t r a i t s p e o p l e from f u l l y a d o p t i n g C h r i s t i a n i t y u n t i l the l a t e 1850s or e a r l y 1860s. The p r i e s t s r e p o r t e d t h a t ... the n a t i v e s o f Puget Sound show q u i t e a z e a l f o r prayer; y e t t h e y h a r d l y u n d e r s t a n d the meaning o f the word. I f i t had o n l y been a m a t t e r o f knowing some p r a y e r s , o f s i n g i n g c a n t i c l e s t o be a C h r i s t i a n , t h e r e would not have been one not d e s i r i n g to be one (Landerholm 1956:198). In support o f t h i s view the agent F i t z h u g h r e p o r t e d t h a t as long as the p r i e s t s were among the Lummi the Indians were pious and devout. When the p r i e s t s departed however, t h e i r i n f l u e n c e would wane. As the C a t h o l i c P r i e s t s have been here f o r about 2 weeks, there has been a g r e a t improvement i n my Indians. I can not say how l o n g i t w i l l l a s t , a f t e r t h e y make t h e i r d e p a r t u r e (Fitzhugh 1856). Father Eugene C a s i m i r Chirouse was assigned to the T u l a l i p Agency i n 1857, and a f t e r r a t i f i c a t i o n o f the t r e a t i e s i n 1859, s e r v e d as su b - a g e n t i n c h a r g e o f the T u l a l i p , S w i n o m i s h , and 70 Ft Vancouver Columbia| River Map 2. Western Washington, c i r c a 1855. 71 Lummi R e s e r v a t i o n s . F a t h e r C h i r o u s e h e l d p r a y e r s e r v i c e s a t Lummi p e r i o d i c a l l y and i n 1861 had a c h u r c h b u i l t on t h e r e s e r v a t i o n . In the p r i e s t ' s absence the " c h i e f " o f the Lummi, Davy C r o c k e t t , was appointed to hold s e r v i c e s . A f t e r the Oregon Land Donation Act white s e t t l e m e n t of the Northwest r e g i o n a c c e l e r a t e d . The W i l l a m e t t e V a l l e y i n Oregon, and l a t t e r l y the Puget Sound r e g i o n , a t t r a c t e d l a r g e numbers of s e t t l e r s . The U n i t e d S t a t e s government f e l t i t was e s s e n t i a l t h a t c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f l a n d o w n e r s h i p be a c c o m p l i s h e d . Through the n e g o t i a t i o n of t r e a t i e s the United S t a t e s government removed ownership of land and resources from the n a t i v e people. However, the r e s o u r c e s t h a t were c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l to the l i v e l i h o o d o f the I n d i a n s were r e s e r v e d f o r t h e i r use. In the c a s e o f the Lummi, and other P o i n t E l l i o t t t r e a t y t r i b e s , i t was the f i s h e r y r e s o u r c e t h a t was s e c u r e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , as we s h a l l see, even though the f i s h e r i e s resources were secured by t r e a t y , the Lummi l o s t a c c e s s t o t h o s e r e s o u r c e s j u s t as the y d i d the o t h e r r e s o u r c e s (e.g., timber, land, minerals) t h a t were not p r o t e c t e d by t r e a t y . P o s t - R e s e r v a t i o n and Al l o t m e n t 1860-1884 R a t i f i c a t i o n o f the P o i n t E l l i o t t T r e a t y meant t h a t the Lummi R e s e r v a t i o n became the permanent home o f the Lummi. A r e s i d e n t farmer was assigned to teach them " c i v i l i z e d p u r s u i t s " . Much of the e f f o r t o f the farmer-in-charge during the 1860s was s p e n t i n u r g i n g t h e Lummi t o s e t t l e and s t a y w i t h i n t h e r e s e r v a t i o n . There were two Lummi v i l l a g e s on r e s e r v a t i o n land a t the t i m e o f r a t i f i c a t i o n , one a t G o o s e b e r r y P o i n t and one a t 72 the Portage. Sometime duri n g the 1850s the Nooksack River formed a new c h a n n e l on t h e e a s t s i d e o f the r e s e r v a t i o n , and s h o r t l y a f t e r t h a t a new v i l l a g e was e s t a b l i s h e d a t i t s mouth near F i s h P o i n t ( S u t t l e s 1 9 5 4 : 5 8 - 5 9 ) , p r o b a b l y c o m p o s e d o f p e o p l e r e l o c a t i n g f r o m the o f f - r e s e r v a t i o n v i l l a g e s . By t r e a t y , the r e s e r v a t i o n was to be the " I s l a n d o f Cha-choo-sen" which was formed by the two mouths of the Nooksack R i v e r , one emptying i n t o Georgia S t r a i t and one i n t o B e llingham Bay. L a t e r , i n 1873, the northern boundary was r e - e s t a b l i s h e d to conform more c l o s e l y w i t h the township l i n e s (ARCIA 1882:293). At the new v i l l a g e near F i s h P o i n t , the f a r m e r - i n - c h a r g e , C C . F i n k b o n n e r , e s t a b l i s h e d h i s r e s i d e n c e , and t h e r e F a t h e r C h i r o u s e b u i l t the C a t h o l i c C h urch. A c c o r d i n g t o the a n n u a l r e p o r t s o f t h e I n d i a n Agents the Lummi took t o f a r m i n g q u i t e r a p i d l y . S p e a k i n g o f the Lummi R e s e r v a t i o n i n 1871, F a t h e r Chirouse r e p o r t e d : T h i s r e s e r v a t i o n c o m p r i s e s a f i n e body o f l a n d , and the I n d i a n s a r e c o n t e n t e d and i n d u s t r i o u s , r a i s i n g e v e r y t h i n g t h e y need ... T h i s r e s e r v a t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n t o t h e I n d i a n s i n s e v e r a l t y as t h e y a r e e n t i r e l y c a p a b l e o f managing a l i t t l e farm f o r themselves, and a l l are anxious and eager t o have t h e i r l a n d s s u r v e y e d i n t o s m a l l f a r m s , t h a t each may know what belongs to him (ARCIA 1871:273). The 1870s were a time when the Lummi were adopting farming as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r many t r a d i t i o n a l s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e i r method of farming d i f f e r e d from t h a t of white farmers. The crops were p l a n t e d and tended as long as there was no f i s h i n g a c t i v i t y , but as soon as the salmon were r u n n i n g or the t i d e was low, they l e f t to f i s h or gather s h e l l f i s h as they had done b e f o r e . In f a c t , f i s h i n g c o n t i n u e d t o p r o v i d e most o f t h e i r sustenance. 73 74 The d e v e l o p m e n t o f the c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r y o f W estern Washington w i l l be d i s c u s s e d more f u l l y i n the next chapter, but i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e h e r e t h a t s a l m o n were o f l i t t l e i m p o r t a n c e t o the e a r l y s e t t l e r s i n the N o r t h w e s t . In f a c t , t o some they were ra t h e r a nuisance, and v a r i o u s ways were t r i e d to u t i l i z e the abundant f i s h f o r purposes other than food. As l a t e as 1890 many farmers of Whatcom County p i t c h f o r k e d the l o r d l y salmon o u t o f the s t r e a m s d u r i n g the s p r i n g and summer spawning season, and used them by the wagonloads as f e r t i l i z e r f o r t h e s o i l , o r as f e e d f o r h o g s (R o t h 1926:661). U n t i l p r e s e r v a t i o n methods were improved salmon had l i t t l e commercial value to the non-Indians. C e r t a i n l y the n a t i v e people t r a d e d an o c c a s i o n a l f i s h t o the w h i t e s t o a c q u i r e o t h e r f o o d s or i t e m s o f w h i t e m a n u f a c t u r e , but t h i s form o f i n t e r a c t i o n was c e r t a i n l y not an a s p e c t o f a market economy. There was no p r o f i t motive nor was there a r e l a t i o n s h i p of "producer" and "consumer". The Indian Agent r e p o r t s from 1856 to the 1880s are r e p l e t e w i t h n o t i c e o f the f a c t t h a t a g r e a t d e a l o f t h e Lummi's t i m e was s p e n t i n f i s h i n g or i n p r e p a r i n g f o r f i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s was no s m a l l annoyance to the Indian Agent. Throughout the 1870s and 1880s he was u r g i n g the Bureau o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s t o a l l o t the r e s e r v a t i o n l a n d i n s e v e r a l t y as a f u r t h e r inducement t o the Lummi t o c o n t i n u e f a r m i n g . A t t h i s t i m e , the p o l i c y o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s was backed by the b e l i e f t h a t i f I n d i a n s would become farmers they would e v e n t u a l l y abandon t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e s t y l e s and become "good c i t i z e n s " . And the a l l o t m e n t of the r e s e r v a t i o n l a n d t o i n d i v i d u a l s was seen as a n e c e s s a r y s t e p i n the c i v i l i z a t i o n a l process. 75 I t i s f a i r l y obvious t h a t the farmer-in-charge of the Lummi R e s e r v a t i o n was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n the a d o p t i o n o f f a r m i n g i n the economy. Although potato farming had been p r a c t i c e d f o r a long time, the farmer i n charge of t h e i r l i v e s on the r e s e r v a t i o n was a b l e t o pursu a d e them t o pu r s u e o t h e r f orms o f a g r i c u l t u r e . These became important supplements to s u b s i s t e n c e as the Indian agent observed. The a s s i s t a n t f a r m e r o f t h i s t r e a t y has f o r a number o f y e a r s been i n c h a r g e o f t h e Lummi R e s e r v a t i o n , and t h e i r m o r a l and p h y s i c a l improvement, and s u p e r i o r i t y over the poor Indians of the Swinomish and P o r t Madison, where there i s no government employe 1 [ s i c ] , a r e v e r y a p p a r e n t (ARCIA 1873:299). The Lummi R e s e r v a t i o n was e v e n t u a l l y a l l o t t e d i n s e v e r a l t y i n 1884, three years p r i o r to the General A l l o t m e n t Act, or Dawes A c t o f 1887 (24 S t a t . L., 338). A l l o t m e n t meant f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t i o n s over the o f f - r e s e r v a t i o n movements of the Lummi and gre a t e r c o n t r o l over t h e i r l i v e s by the Indian Agents. A l l o t m e n t s o f 80 a c r e s were made t o e v e r y a d u l t male, and male heads of households were a l l o t t e d 160 acres. In comparison, the Oregon Land D o n a t i o n A c t a l l o w e d c i t i z e n s o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s t o take o u t c l a i m s o f 320 a c r e s f o r s i n g l e men or 640 a c r e s f o r a man and w i f e . The l a n d l e f t over was h e l d i n t r u s t by t h e B u r e a u o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , and e v e n t u a l l y , as t h e p o p u l a t i o n grew, was a l l o t t e d as w e l l , although Lummis t e s t i f i e d i n 1927 t h a t many i n d i v i d u a l s never r e c e i v e d a l l o t m e n t s . On other r e s e r v a t i o n s u n a l l o t t e d land r e v e r t e d to the p u b l i c domain (Washburn 1975:30). T h i s was not the case a t Lummi, although the r e s e r v a t i o n was s m a l l e r than they had been l e d to b e l i e v e . 76 ... the b e g i n n i n g p o i n t was down here a t what i s known as T r e a t y Rock [east bank of the mouth of the Nooksack R i v e r ] , t h e n due n o r t h , t h e n way up by a c e r t a i n c o r n e r way up near B a l l a r d ' s Lake [ B a r r e t t ' s Lake?] and then due west t o Bay S t a t i o n [ C h e r r y P o i n t ] ... He s a i d he seen the [ s u r v e y ] p o s t s ... a t Bay S t a t i o n ( T e s t i m o n y o f L o u i s Mike f o r Duwamish e t a l . v. U n i t e d S t a t e s 79 C t . C I . 530, 604 (1934)). The above d e s c r i p t i o n would have encompassed over twice the area the r e s e r v a t i o n a c t u a l l y i n c l u d e d . The a l l o t t e d land was to be r e s t r i c t e d f o r t w e n t y - f i v e years, but a f t e r t h a t the s t a t u s o f the a l l o t m e n t s c o u l d be changed t o f e e p a t e n t , and the l a n d c o u l d be s o l d . Of c o u r s e , n ot a l l Lummi r e c e i v e d a l l o t m e n t s . The a g e n t - i n - c h a r g e hoped t o move a l l I n d i a n s c o v e r e d by the P o i n t E l l i o t t T r e a t y A r e a t o the Lummi R e s e r v a t i o n (ARCIA 1874:80), b u t t h e s e p l a n s n e v e r m a t e r i a l i z e d . The Lummi R e s e r v a t i o n was t o become the home o f the S t r a i t s S a l i s h on the A m e r i c a n s i d e o f the b o r d e r ( w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the K l a l l a m , who were p a r t y t o t h e T r e a t y o f P o i n t No P o i n t ) , and t h e Nooksack. In a c t u a l i t y most of the Semiahmoo moved north of the United States/Canadian border by the 1860s; the Samish stayed on Samish I s l a n d u n t i l the 1870s, when they moved to Guemes I s l a n d (then a f t e r the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y t o the Lummi and Swi n o m i s h R e s e r v a t i o n s ) ; some o f t h e N o o k s a c k moved t o t h e Lummi R e s e r v a t i o n , b ut most e v e n t u a l l y found t h e i r way back t o t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l homelands, where they took o u t l a n d c l a i m s i n the 1880s under the Indian Homestead Act; and some Lummi found t h e i r way back t o the San Jua n I s l a n d s ( S u t t l e s 1954:56). As many as 375 Lummi, i n c l u d i n g "San Juan" and " M i t c h e l l Bay" (on San Juan Island) Indians were l i v i n g o f f the r e s e r v a t i o n when a survey was conducted i n 1919 (Roblin 1919). 77 A l t h o u g h many p e o p l e p r e f e r r e d to d r i f t away fr o m the r e s e r v a t i o n and make t h e i r l i v i n g much the way they had before, the a l l o t m e n t s were a t t r a c t i v e t o a l a r g e number. Many Lummi stayed and were granted a l l o t m e n t s and, i n a d d i t i o n , Indians from B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and some K l a l l a m came to Lummi and r e c e i v e d a l l o t m e n t s as w e l l (Gunther 1927:179). L i t t l e work has been done i n the N o r t h w e s t c o n c e r n i n g the i m p a c t o f r e s e r v a t i o n a l l o t m e n t s on t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . C l e a r l y , the o v e r t p u rpose was t o break up the t r i b a l groups and extended households, and coerce the i n d i v i d u a l s i n t o becoming farmers. The e f f e c t o f the a l l o t m e n t s y s t e m , so f a r as t i t l e t o a separate t r a c t of land goes, i s most b e n e f i c i a l , and i n c i t e s the I n d i a n to g r e a t e r i n d u s t r y , g i v e s him more i n d i v i d u a l i n d e p e n d e n c e , and t e n d s g r e a t l y t o weaken t h e t r i b a l r e l a t i o n (ARCIA 1882:504). N a t i o n a l l y the push f o r a l l o t m e n t o f I n d i a n l a n d s began as e a r l y as 1870 ( O t i s 1973:4), but i t was u n c l e a r f o r many y e a r s whether C o n g r e s s had the a u t h o r i t y t o change the p r o v i s i o n s i n I n d i a n t r e a t i e s (Washburn 1975:35). T h i s was not a s e r i o u s problem i n Western Washington, s i n c e the t r e a t i e s , as w r i t t e n by S t e v e n s , a l l i n c l u d e d a p r o v i s i o n - g i v i n g the P r e s i d e n t the a u t h o r i t y t o a l l o t the r e s e r v a t i o n l a n d s (e.g. see B o x b e r g e r 1979:126). The a l l o t m e n t of the r e s e r v a t i o n marked the end of the time when i t c o u l d be s a i d t h a t the Lummi were l i v i n g as t h e y had p r i o r to white contact. The Western economic system had not yet f u l l y p e n e t r a t e d t h e i r l i v e s , although c e r t a i n aspects of i t had. The U n i t e d S t a t e s government e x e r c i s e d a c e r t a i n amount o f 78 c o n t r o l o v e r t h e Lummi, b u t i t was d u r i n g t h e 1880s t h a t i n c r e a s i n g n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t i n I n d i a n a f f a i r s and c o n t i n u a l waves o f l e g i s l a t i o n d r a m a t i c a l l y i n c r e a s e d the c o n t r o l o f government over n a t i v e people. The General A l l o t m e n t Act was the most i n f l u e n t i a l and the most c o e r c i v e of these l e g i s l a t i v e a c t s and, u n t i l subsequent developments, had the most profound impact. I t was a f t e r a l l o t m e n t s were made t h a t the r e s e r v a t i o n became the dominant f a c t o r i n the l i f e o f the Lummi. Summary T h i s c h a p t e r h a s c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e t r a d i t i o n a l and t r a n s i t i o n a l Lummi s o c i e t y up t o the t i m e t h a t the r e s e r v a t i o n became t h e d o m i n a n t f a c t o r i n t h e i r l i v e s . I t h a s been d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t p r i o r t o 1884, a l t h o u g h s u b j e c t e d t o v a r i o u s o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e s such as the f u r trade, m i s s i o n i z i n g e f f o r t s , the F r a s e r River g o l d rush, and governmental pressure to become a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s , the Lummi p e r s i s t e d as a f i s h e r f o l k d e r i v i n g t h e i r p r i m a r y s u b s i s t e n c e from the sea and m a i n t a i n i n g an e x t e n s i v e salmon f i s h e r y . So l o n g as the Lummi were a b l e t o d i r e c t and c o n t r o l t h e i r own s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s , c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f the dominant s o c i e t y c o u l d p e n e t r a t e t h e i r economy without c o m p l e t e l y r e o r d e r i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l economic s t r u c t u r e based on kin - o r d e r e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The r a t i f i c a t i o n o f the T r e a t y o f p o i n t E l l i o t t meant t h a t the Lummi were d e s t i n e d f o r dependence. The t r e a t y r e s t r i c t e d the Lummi t o a s m a l l p o r t i o n o f t h e i r f o r m e r t e r r i t o r y , i t r e s t r i c t e d t h e i r a c c e s s t o p r o d u c t i v e r e s o u r c e s , and i t 79 r e s t r i c t e d o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the Lummi t o compete i n the g r o w i n g dominant economic system. The r a p i d i n f l u x o f immigrants caused the U n i t e d S t a t e s government, t o n e g o t i a t e t r e a t i e s w i t h the n a t i v e p e o p l e o f W e s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e i n o r d e r t o open the area to s e t t l e m e n t . T h i s move, i n e f f e c t , s e t the stage f o r the underdevelopment of the Lummi as a t r i b e . 80 CHAPTER III THE LUMMI AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMMERCIAL SALMON FISHERY 1885-1900 I n t r o d u c t i o n The account which f o l l o w s w i l l p r i m a r i l y cover those aspects o f s a l m o n f i s h i n g t e c h n o l o g y t h a t g a v e r i s e t o t h e r a p i d c a p i t a l i z a t i o n o f the salmon f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y o f Puget Sound. U s i n g C a r l i s l e P a c k i n g Company as an e x a m p l e , i t w i l l be d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h i s took p l a c e t o the i n i t i a l i n c l u s i o n and su b s e q u e n t e x c l u s i o n o f the Lummi. The Lummi were i n an i d e a l s i t u a t i o n when the c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n o f salmon f i s h i n g took p l a c e i n North Puget Sound. They were a l r e a d y e x p l o i t i n g the resource w i t h the p o t e n t i a l t o prod u c e a s u r p l u s f o r market; t h e y were s k i l l e d as p r o c e s s o r s ; and they were i d e a l l y l o c a t e d to h a r v e s t the most abundant salmon runs — the F r a s e r R i v e r s o c k e y e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , as the i n d u s t r y d e v e l o p e d , the Lummi were pushed a s i d e . The development of new e x t r a c t i v e t e c h n o l o g i e s o b v i a t e d the need f o r Lummi f i s h e r s and the i n f l u x o f C h i n e s e l a b o r r e p l a c e d most of the Indian cannery l a b o r . The i n s i s t e n c e on the p a r t o f the Bureau o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s t h a t the Lummi pu r s u e a g r i c u l t u r e a l s o worked t o s e p a r a t e them f r o m p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the salmon i n d u s t r y . The combined i m p a c t o f t h e s e f a c t o r s was t h a t the Lummi were a l m o s t t o t a l l y e x c l u d e d from c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g by 1900, as q u i c k l y as they had been i n c o r p o r a t e d only a few years before. A l t h o u g h t h e r e were s e v e r a l a t t e m p t s a t e s t a b l i s h i n g a commercial salmon f i s h e r y i n the Northwest p r i o r to the 1880s, i t was not u n t i l the canning process was developed and r e f i n e d t h a t 81 commercial o p e r a t i o n s became e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e . As e a r l y as the 1830s the Hudson's Bay Company at F o r t Langley had attempted to i n t r o d u c e s a l t e d salmon i n t o the i n t e r n a t i o n a l market, but l o n g v oyages and poor p r e s e r v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s made the p r o d u c t l e s s t h a n d e s i r a b l e . The o n l y r e l i a b l e market f o r s a l t salmon was i n H a w a i i , where i t soon became so p o p u l a r t h a t i n 1832 members o f t h e Hudson's Bay Company o p e n e d a s u b s i d i a r y c o r p o r a t i o n , P e l l y Simpson and Co., to market N o r t h w e s t C o a s t salmon and o t h e r p r o d u c t s ( C r a i g and Hacker 1940:148). S a l t e d salmon q u i c k l y became an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the Hawaiian d i e t and, to some e x t e n t , r e m a i n s so t o d a y ( T i t c o m b 1972:22, 86). S i n c e the H a w a i i a n t r a d e was i n s u f f i c i e n t t o m a i n t a i n a c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r y , the Hudson's Bay Company c u r t a i l e d i t s a t t e m p t s a t d e v e l o p i n g the f i s h e r y . Because s a l t e d salmon d i d not t r a v e l w e l l and t h e r e was i n s u f f i c i e n t l o c a l demand, a t t e m p t s a t e s t a b l i s h i n g c o m m e r c i a l s a l t e r i e s i n N o r t h Puget Sound were doomed. In terms o f the numbers o f f i s h t a k e n , t h e s e e a r l y endeavors were i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n comparison with the f i s h Indians were t a k i n g f o r t h e i r own s u b s i s t e n c e . The e v e n t s t h a t e v e n t u a l l y l e d to the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c o m m e r c i a l s a l m o n o p e r a t i o n s i n t h e Lummi a r e a b e g a n i n C a l i f o r n i a on the Sacramento R i v e r . I t was t h e r e t h a t Hapgood, Hume, and Co. s e t up the f i r s t salmon c a n n e r y i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . In the 1860s the c a n n i n g i n d u s t r y was s t i l l i n i t s i n f a n c y . The f i r s t year of o p e r a t i o n i n Sacramento produced on l y two t h o u s a n d c a s e s 1 o f s a l m o n , and l a c k o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l 1. In the salmon i n d u s t r y a "case", as a u n i t of measurement, i s the e q u i v a l e n t of f o r t y - e i g h t one pound cans. 82 s o p h i s t i c a t i o n and f a u l t y equipment caused the l o s s of at l e a s t h a l f o f t h i s f i r s t pack. In sub s e q u e n t y e a r s t h i s f l e d g l i n g company f o u n d t h a t due t o o v e r f i s h i n g and e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e g r a d a t i o n r e s u l t i n g from h y d r a u l i c m i n i n g , t h e r e were not enough salmon i n the Sacramento R i v e r t o a l l o w an i n c r e a s e i n pack s i z e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i n 1866, W i l l i a m Hume moved t o the C o l u m b i a R i v e r (Smith 1979:15), where he c r e a t e d the f i r s t c o m m e r c i a l s a l m o n o p e r a t i o n i n what i s now t h e S t a t e o f Washington. B e f o r e l o n g Hume was f o l l o w e d by dozens o f o t h e r s . E l e v e n years l a t e r , salmon c a n n e r i e s appeared on Puget Sound, the f i r s t , owned by J a c k s o n , Meyers, and Company, a t M u c k i l t e o (near E v e r e t t ) i n 1877. In the Lummi a r e a c a n n e r i e s were b u i l t a t Semiahmoo (Blaine) i n 1891, P o i n t Roberts i n 1893, F r i d a y Harbor (San J u a n I s l a n d ) i n 1894, B e l l i n g h a m i n 1895, and Lummi I s l a n d i n 1896 (Rathbun 1900:320; R o u n s e f e l l and K e l e z 1938:697). The i n d u s t r y was o f f to a slow s t a r t u n t i l i t was found t h a t sockeye c o u l d be t a k e n i n abundance by the use o f t r a p s . Because o f t h e i r b r i g h t r e d f l e s h s o c k e y e soon became the most d e s i r a b l e s p e c i e s t o can, as red-meated salmon b r o u g h t a h i g h e r p r i c e i n the market. The entrepreneurs who developed the salmon i n d u s t r y i n t he l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y found v i r t u a l l y an u n l i m i t e d supply of n a t u r a l resources i n the form of sockeye salmon. Lack o f r e g u l a t o r y l i m i t a t i o n s meant u n b r i d l e d use o f the sockeye f i s h e r i e s . Because s o c k e y e c o u l d be r e a d i l y t a k e n i n t r a p s and because s o c k e y e were more m a r k e t a b l e than o t h e r s p e c i e s o f salmon, the number o f c a n n e r i e s d r a m a t i c a l l y i n c r e a s e d a f t e r 1895, a l t h o u g h t h i s was a l s o due, i n p a r t , t o the i n c r e a s e i n 83 t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n the c a n n i n g i n d u s t r y . In 1899 Whatcom County contained eleven of the l a r g e s t salmon c a n n e r i e s i n the S t a t e o f Washington, s i x near B l a i n e and f i v e near Fa i r h a v e n (Wilcox 1902:522). T a b l e 4. C o m m e r c i a l salmon c a n n e r y p r o d u c t i o n on Puget Sound, 1877 to 1900, i n cases of 48 one pound cans. P r o d u c t i o n by Species Average per Year Canneries Chinook Sockeye Coho Chum Humpback T o t a l Cannery 1877 1 5000 500 5500 5500 1878 1 238 238 238 1879 1 1300 1300 1300 1880 1 5100 5100 1881 1 8500 8500 1882 1 7900 7900 1883 1 1500 1500 1884 1 5500 5500 1885 1 12000 12000 1886 1 17000 17000 1887 1 22000 22000 1888 4 21975 5934 1889 2 240 7480 1145 2809 11674 5837 1890 1 1000 3000 4000 8000 8000 1891 2 382 5538 5869 3903 5647 20529 10265 1892 2 86 2954 7206 16180 26426 13213 1893 3 1200 47852 11812 11380 17530 89774 29925 1894 3 41781 22418 22152 9049 95400 31800 1895 7 1542 65143 50865 38785 23633 179968 25710 1896 11 13495 72979 82640 26550 195664 17788 1897 12 9500 312048 91900 23310 57268 494026 41168 1898 18 11200 252000 98600 38400 400200 22234 1899 19 24364 499646 111387 31481 252733 919611 48401 1900 19 22350 229800 128200 89100 469450 24708 SOURCE: PFY 1918:62, 65. 84 As T a b l e 4 i n d i c a t e s , the a n n u a l p r o d u c t i o n o f salmon i n c r e a s e d f a s t e r than the i n c r e a s e i n the number of c a n n e r i e s — that i s , average annual cannery p r o d u c t i o n tended to r i s e i n the l a s t decade of the n i n e t e e n t h century. T h i s was due to the r a p i d development i n the i n d u s t r y of f i s h i n g and canning methods. I n d i a n l a b o r was n e c e s s a r y i n the f o r m a t i v e y e a r s o f the i n d u s t r y , as t h e y had the r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s as f i s h e r s and p r o c e s s o r s . The e a r l i e s t c o m m e r c i a l o p e r a t i o n s o b t a i n e d the m a j o r i t y o f t h e i r f i s h f rom I n d i a n f i s h e r s (Rathbun 1900:294; R o u n s e f e l l and Kelez 1938:705). Very r a p i d l y , during the 1890s, the Lummi became p a r t of the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y and began f i s h i n g f o r cash as w e l l as s u b s i s t e n c e ( S u t t l e s 1954:77). Although wage lab o r was an aspect of Lummi l i v e l i h o o d from the 1860s to 1880s, i t d i d not become a dominant p a r t of the Lummi economy u n t i l the c a n n e r i e s began to employ I n d i a n l a b o r b o t h as f i s h e r s and as c a n n e r y w o r k e r s . Some Lummi had w o r k e d as c o a l m i n e r s , lumberjacks, or migrant farm l a b o r e r s throughout the p e r i o d , i n o r d e r t o s u p p l e m e n t t r a d i t i o n a l f i s h i n g and g a t h e r i n g , but the i n t e g r a t i o n o f a few i n d i v i d u a l s i n t o the l a b o r f o r c e d i d not mean a s h i f t of the e n t i r e s o c i e t y . S p e c i a l i z e d l a b o r l i n k e d the Lummi t o the n e t w o r k s o f the market s y s t e m p r i o r t o the 1890s, but as o c c a s i o n a l s u b o r d i n a t e p r o d u c e r s not as p a r t n e r s . The development of the commercial f i s h e r y was to change a l l that. In 1890 o n l y twenty men were employed i n the e n t i r e f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y o f "Whatcom and v i c i n i t y " (Washington S t a t e Department o f F i s h e r i e s 1890:14). W i t h i n the n e x t few y e a r s t h i s changed d r a m a t i c a l l y . In 1891 there were 108 Indians engaged i n f i s h i n g f o r the c a n n e r i e s and "80 C h i n e s e and I n d i a n s " w o r k i n g f o r the 85 c a n n e r i e s (Washington State Department of F i s h e r i e s 1892:14). In 1893 t h e r e were 420 employees i n the Whatcom County f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y , 120 o f whom were I n d i a n s (Roth 1929:662). The r e p o r t to the U n i t e d S t a t e s Commissioner of F i s h and F i s h e r i e s f o r 1893 shows 115 I n d i a n s employed i n the 1892 c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r y o f Whatcom County, 100 o f whom were f i s h e r s and 15 o f whom were employed i n the c a n n e r i e s ( W i l c o x 1895:258). A v i s i t o r t o a P o i n t Roberts cannery i n the 1890s r e p o r t e d t h a t Indian women and C h i n e s e men were w o r k i n g as c a n n e r y l a b o r e r s , a l t h o u g h the women's t r i b e was not s p e c i f i e d (Herring 1913:171). T h i s new r o l e as primary producers i n the market system of the 1890s meant t h a t the Lummi were d r i f t i n g f u r t h e r and f u r t h e r away from the c o n t r o l of the Indian agent. The high hopes of the government agent f o r the Lummi through the 1880s was s h a t t e r e d as th e y abandoned f a r m i n g i n f a v o r o f c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g i n the 1890s. As e a r l y as 1891 the Indian agent r e m o r s e f u l l y r e p o r t e d : One o f the l a r g e s t and n a t u r a l l y most f e r t i l e o f the f i v e r e s e r v a t i o n s i s the Lummi, but, being more remote and l e s s a c c e s s i b l e from the agency than a r e the o t h e r s , the same d i s c i p l i n e c a n n o t e a s i l y be m a i n t a i n e d w i t h t h e s e I n d i a n s ... They a r e more i n d e p e n d e n t and show l e s s i n c l i n a t i o n t o c u l t i v a t e t h e i r l a n d than do the I n d i a n s o f most o f the r e s e r v e s , t h o u g h n o t a few o f t h e y o u n g e r men have i n d u s t r i o u s l y c u l t i v a t e d t h e i r s e v e r a l h o l d i n g s and have c o m f o r t a b l e f a r m homes. For the most p a r t , however, t h e y engage i n f i s h i n g , s e a l i n g , and lo g g i n g (ARCIA 1891:459). W h i l e i t may n o t be p r e d i c t a b l e t h a t a t r a d i t i o n a l f i s h e r f o l k would be a t t r a c t e d by the o p p o r t u n i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a developing i n d u s t r y l i k e the commercial salmon f i s h e r y , i t i s not s u p r i s i n g t h a t they would choose commercial f i s h i n g over a g r i c u l t u r e . By the mid-1890s farming seems to have been a l l but f o r g o t t e n , although migrant l a b o r was supplementing the f i s h i n g . 86 The Indians, as a r u l e , are not s y s t e m a t i c farmers. Farming i s w i t h them the i n c i d e n t and not the b u s i n e s s o f e v e r y d a y l i f e ... A l a r g e m a j o r i t y spend most o f t h e i r t i m e i n t h e i r c a n o e s , f i s h i n g , e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g the salmon s e a s o n ... In the e a r l y f a l l , w i t h few e x c e p t i o n s , a l l , l i t t l e and b i g , young and o l d , go t o the hop f i e l d s , where th e y meet o l d f r i e n d s f r o m a l l over the sound and e a s t o f the m o u n t a i n s (ARCIA 1895:319). A c c o r d i n g t o B a l l a r d (1950:85), the hop p i c k i n g s e a s o n was i n l a t e A u g ust and September. The peak o f the N o r t h Puget Sound sockeye f i s h i n g season was i n J u l y and e a r l y August. Perhaps because many of the t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s were no l o n g e r p o s s i b l e , due to the r a p i d g r o w t h o f the n o n - I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n and the e f f o r t s o f the I n d i a n agent to r e s t r i c t the Lummi t o the r e s e r v a t i o n , 2 or j u s t because o f a d e s i r e f o r c a s h and market goods, t h e Lummi were eager t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the market economy. Subsistence a g r i c u l t u r e on the r e s e r v a t i o n d i d not i n t e r f e r e w i t h c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s a l t h o u g h the Indian agent d i d anguish over the f a c t t h a t farming was n e g l e c t e d i n f a v o r o f f i s h i n g . Hop p i c k i n g , an e a r l y f a l l a c t i v i t y , was e n t e r e d i n t o a f t e r the f i s h i n g s e a s o n was o v e r . What t h i s suggests i s t h a t the Lummi were pursuing a number of a l t e r n a t i v e s t o t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l means o f s u b s i s t e n c e . T hey c h o s e a l t e r n a t i v e s w hich were s e a s o n a l , which d i d not o v e r l a p t o any g r e a t extent, and which allowed them to work f o r cash as w e l l as s u b s i s t e n c e . Thus, i n a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t p e r i o d of time the Lummi became enmeshed i n t h e market economy and began t o e x p l o i t the salmon 2. The I n d i a n agent a t t e m p t e d to r e s t r i c t o f f - r e s e r v a t i o n movement f o r g a t h e r i n g and o t h e r t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . The agent, however, encouraged the Lummi to leave f o r hop p i c k i n g and cannery work. Apparently working f o r a wage was c o n s i d e r e d the more a c c e p t a b l e way of making a l i v i n g . 87 r e s o u r c e s f o r c a s h as w e l l as s u b s i s t e n c e . T h i s degree o f i n t e g r a t i o n d i d not l a s t l o n g , however, and as we s h a l l see the i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n and r a p i d c a p i t a l i z a t i o n o f the f i s h e r y soon l e f t t he Lummi on the p e r i p h e r y r a t h e r t h a n a t the c e n t e r o f the i n d u s t r y . To u n d e r s t a n d why t h i s happened i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o l o o k a t t h e gr o w t h o f the salmon i n d u s t r y from 1890 t o 1900, a p e r i o d when a l a r g e number o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s took p l a c e . The T e c h n o l o g i c a l Growth of the Salmon F i s h e r y The methods adopted by the c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r s o f the N o r t h w e s t i n the e a r l y y e a r s o f the i n d u s t r y were the same as t h o s e p r e v i o u s l y d e v e l o p e d i n o t h e r f i s h e r i e s o f the w o r l d . Salmon had been f i s h e d i n N o r t h e r n Europe and N o r t h e a s t N o r t h A m e r i c a l o n g b e f o r e t h e f i s h e r i e s o f t h e N o r t h w e s t were d i s c o v e r e d by Europ e a n s . Hence, most o f the e a r l y c o m m e r c i a l gear i n Puget Sound were t r a n s p l a n t s from t h e s e e s t a b l i s h e d f i s h e r i e s . A l t h o u g h the salmon f i s h i n g gear was t r a n s p l a n t e d , i t was s i m i l a r t o I n d i a n g e a r . In f a c t , most o f the gear t h a t came t o be used i n the Puget Sound salmon f i s h e r y , when broken down t o t h e i r b a s i c t e c h n o l o g y , r e s e m b l e d t r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a n g e a r . T r a d i t i o n a l Indian gear was d e s c r i b e d i n the preceding s e c t i o n . I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e I n d i a n gear and the gear o f European i n t r o d u c t i o n were so s i m i l a r the same E n g l i s h names have come to be used f o r b o t h s e t s . T h e r e a r e a few d i f f e r e n c e s but by and l a r g e we f i n d p a r a l l e l developments. As w i t h the Indian gear the e a r l y white gear was p r i m a r i l y 88 l a b o r i n t e n s i v e , but, as we s h a l l see, the w h i t e gear v e r y r a p i d l y became mec h a n i z e d . In f a c t , many o f the t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s i n w o r l d - w i d e c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g t e c h n o l o g y were c r e a t e d by i n d i v i d u a l s w o r k i n g i n t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t salmon f i s h e r y . The f i r s t gear to be used by n o n - I n d i a n s i n the t a k i n g o f s a l m o n i d s was the g i l l n e t. As d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r , the g i l l n e t entangles the f i s h i n the mesh of the net. The s i z e of the mesh v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g to the s p e c i e s of f i s h . The e a r l i e s t non-Indian g i l l nets were f i s h e d from s m a l l double-ended boats t h a t c o u l d be b o t h rowed and s a i l e d . The n e t s were s e t out and a l l o w e d to d r i f t f o r a t i m e , t h e n h a u l e d i n by hand. Sometimes g i l l n e t s were s e t i n a s t a t i o n a r y l o c a t i o n , being t i e d to the shore or to p o l e s . T h i s method was p r i m a r i l y employed i n or near the r i v e r mouths. G i l l n e t s a r e most e f f e c t i v e a t n i g h t when the f i s h have d i f f i c u l t y seeing the net. G i l l n e t s seem t o have been used by n o n - I n d i a n s f i r s t on the C o l u m b i a (Smith 1979:27) and F r a s e r R i v e r s , a p p e a r i n g a t the l a t t e r as e a r l y as 1873 (R o u n s e f e l l and Kelez 1938:701). Rathbun (1900:307) d e s c r i b e s the g i l l n e t b o a t s i n use i n N o r t h Puget Sound as about t w e n t y f e e t i n l e n g t h , manned by two, sometimes t h r e e , p e r s o n s . U s u a l l y one or two would work the o a r s w h i l e one worked the net. D u r i n g the 1890s the gear was owned by the c a n n e r i e s and f i s h e d by i n d i v i d u a l s on a s h a r e b a s i s . Because, at t h a t t i m e , t h e y were p r i m a r i l y used near or i n the r i v e r mouths, g i l l n e t s were not used t o any g r e a t e x t e n t to take s o c k e y e . As was m e n t i o n e d above, most sockeye t a k e n i n N o r t h 89 Puget Sound were bound f o r the F r a s e r R i v e r and t h e r e f o r e o n l y a c c e s s i b l e i n the open water. In 1899, o f the 322 g i l l n e t l i c e n s e s i s s u e d i n W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e , 81 were f o r use i n the N o r t h Puget Sound (Bellingham Bay, Boundary Bay, and Samish River) area ( R o u n s e f e l l and Kelez 1938:712-713). They were used p r i m a r i l y to take coho and c h i n o o k , which, w h i l e c e r t a i n l y o f c o m m e r c i a l v a l u e , were not n e a r l y as s o ught a f t e r i n N o r t h Puget Sound as were sockeye. The g i l l n e t b o a t s changed v e r y l i t t l e d u r i n g the 1890s. Some were e q u i p p e d w i t h motor power as e a r l y as the l a t e 1890s (PFY 1919:59), and most were motor powered by 1914, but t h i s d i d not i n c r e a s e t h e i r e f f i c i e n c y t o any g r e a t e x t e n t . As l o n g as the more e f f e c t i v e f i s h i n g methods, to be d i s c u s s e d below, were i n use the g i l l net remained of minor importance. C e r t a i n l y the most i m p o r t a n t i n n o v a t i o n i n the c o m m e r c i a l salmon f i s h e r y was the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the "pound n e t " or as i t came t o be known i n Puget Sound, the f i s h t r a p . The t r a p d i d more to change the economic v i a b i l i t y of the salmon f i s h e r y than any other t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n except canning. Traps worked on s a l m o n , e s p e c i a l l y s o c k e y e , b e c a u s e d u r i n g t h e a n n u a l m i g r a t i o n s they passed through the area along known routes. In the Lummi area the t r a p s were e s p e c i a l l y important because there the F r a s e r - b o u n d s o c k e y e were most c o n c e n t r a t e d b e f o r e t h e y c r o s s e d the Canadian border and entered the F r a s e r River. The f i r s t t r a p s were c o p i e s o f the pound n e t s i n use i n the G r e a t L a k e s . A l o n g l e a d (one s u c c e s s i o n o f t r a p s a t P o i n t R o b e r t s had a l e a d one and o n e - q u a r t e r m i l e s i n l e n g t h ) would t u r n the f i s h i n t o a t r a p or pound where the y would be b r a i l e d 90 o u t as needed, o r , i n many c a s e s , when the t r a p became too f u l l . C o l l i n s (1892b:258) r e p o r t s t h a t the t r a p s a t P o i n t R o b e r t s c a u g h t more f i s h t h an c o u l d be h a n d l e d . Hence the p o t s i n the t r a p s were c l o s e d p a r t o f the days when the f i s h were r u n n i n g h e a v i l y . The t r a p s were very e f f i c i e n t , low-maintenance d e v i c e s t h a t i n 1900 were t u r n i n g an a v e r a g e o f $2.50 p r o f i t f o r e v e r y $1.00 i n v e s t e d (Barsh 1977:12). The net l e a d s were c o n s t r u c t e d o f p i l e s d r i v e n i n t o the bottom, s t r u n g w i t h c o t t o n t w i n e or g a l v a n i z e d w i r e mesh. The t r a p , or c r i b , was c o n s t r u c t e d o f p i l i n g and n e t t i n g ( R a t h b u n 1900:297). A t y p i c a l t r a p i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 1. A f t e r the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y some f l o a t i n g t r a p s appeared, but these were not as common. P r i o r to 1890 t r a p s were p r i m a r i l y experimental. The f i r s t known t r a p i n Western Washington north of the Columbia River was p l a c e d at P o i n t Roberts i n 1880 (Rathbun 1900:301; Cobb 1921:81). But such e a r l y attempts were i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n comparison with the e x p a n s i o n o f t r a p f i s h i n g d u r i n g the 1890s. By 1895 t h e r e were t h i r t y - t h r e e t r a p l o c a t i o n s i n the P o i n t Roberts area alone and around t e n i n the San Juan I s l a n d s ( i n c l u d i n g Lummi I s l a n d ) . A few other t r a p s were found i n Samish Bay and along the mainland a r e a between the Lummi R e s e r v a t i o n and P o i n t R o b e r t s (Rathbun 1900:298-300). The m a j o r i t y of the t r a p s were c o n s t r u c t e d on or near Lummi f i s h i n g l o c a t i o n s (Boxberger 1980:51) and, as w i l l be d i s c u s s e d below, became a p o i n t of s e r i o u s c o n t e n t i o n between the w h i t e s and the I n d i a n s ( a l s o see F i g u r e s 2 and 3). The t o t a l number of t r a p s i n Puget Sound s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s e d from 1893 (the year of f i r s t l i c e n s i n g ) to 1900. Table 5 shows t h i s i n c r e a s e . 91 Table 5. Traps operated i n Puget Sound, 1893 to 1900 ( e x c l u s i v e of dummy t r a p s ) . SOURCE: R o u n s e f e l l and Kelez 1938:717. The numbers i n T a b l e 5 e x c l u d e "dummy t r a p s " , which were s e t m e r e l y t o h o l d a l o c a t i o n but n o n e t h e l e s s would have been a b a r r i e r to Indian f i s h i n g . As i n d i c a t e d by the a v a i l a b l e evidence, the m a j o r i t y of the tr a p s f i s h e d i n Puget Sound were i n the Lummi t r a d i t i o n a l f i s h i n g a r e a s (Rathbun 1900:295-296; Cobb 1911:78; R o u n s e f e l l and K e l e z 1938:718-719) and i n d i r e c t c o n f l i c t w i t h Lummi f i s h i n g l o c a t i o n s . More than any other method the t r a p s rendered Indian f i s h i n g u s e l e s s and, because most o f the t r a p s were owned and operated by the ca n n e r i e s and r e q u i r e d l i t t l e l a b o r , the need f o r Indian fishermen was obv i a t e d . In the 1890s p u r s e s e i n e s were not y e t d e v e l o p e d t o the p o i n t where th e y were an e f f e c t i v e method o f f i s h i n g . Cobb (1921:78) s t a t e s t h a t the f i r s t gasoline-powered purse s e i n e boat a p p e a r e d i n 1898, but t h e r e were a few p u r s e s e i n e b o a t s i n o p e r a t i o n i n Puget Sound i n the 1890s t h a t must have had motor Year Number of Traps 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 13 19 21 26 71 45 112 163 92 Maximum 2500 Feel F i g u r e 1. I l l u s t r a t i o n o f a Puget Sound s a l m o n t r a p (adapted from C o l l i n s 1892b) . 93 power as w e l l ( p r o b a b l y steam). Cobb (1911:26) a t t r i b u t e s the appearance of purse s e i n e s i n Puget Sound to Chinese f i s h e r s and g i v e s a d a t e of 1886. I t i s l i k e l y however, t h a t t h e s e e a r l y d e v i c e s were drag or beach s e i n e s , not t r u e p u r s e s e i n e s , w hich d e r i v e t h e i r name fr o m the manner i n which the net i s o p e r a t e d , the bottom o f the n e t b e i n g drawn i n t o a bag, as w i t h the s t r i n g s of a purse. I t i s g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d t h a t purse s e i n i n g i n Puget Sound was an i n n o v a t i o n brought by Scandinavians and "Slavonians" ( Y u g o s l a v s ) i n the l a t t e r p a r t o f the n i n e t e e n t h and e a r l y t w e n t i e t h century. Regardless of when or how the purse seine was i n t r o d u c e d , i t i s c l e a r t h a t i t was not an e f f e c t i v e hindrance to Indian f i s h i n g u n t i l a f t e r 1900. Purse s e i n e s were most f r e q u e n t l y used fo r sockeye, at l e a s t by 1909, a t the "Salmon Banks" o f f the s o u t h e r n end o f San Juan I s l a n d (Cobb 1911:26). P u r s e s e i n e f i s h i n g i n the San Juan I s l a n d s , according to R o u n s e f e l l and Kelez (1938:727), " r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e impetus from the l o c a t i o n o f a c a n n e r y a t F r i d a y Harbor i n 1894 and t h r e e a t A n a c o r t e s i n 1896". A c o m p l e t e change to power p u r s e s e i n e s was c o m p l e t e d by 1907 and a l l i n d i c a t i o n s s u g g e s t t h a t the change to power was a post-1900 development (Ro u n s e f e l l and Kelez 1938:728; PFY 1919:59-60). The p u r s e s e i n e s u t i l i z e d p r i o r t o 1900 were o f t e n "scow seines", which had to be moved about by steam-powered tow boats or human power. These v e s s e l s worked nets of approximately two hundred fathoms by t w e n t y - f i v e fathoms which were p u l l e d by hand a l t h o u g h some employed hand winches to p u l l the p u r s e l i n e ( C o l l i n s 1892a:254; 1892b:40). These e a r l y p u r s e s e i n e v e s s e l s 94 were d e s c r i b e d as "clumsy" and so were not f i s h e d too f a r from the c a n n e r i e s . Table 6. Puget Sound purse seine l i c e n s e s , 1897 to 1900. Year Number of L i c e n s e s 1897 47 1898 40 1899 72 1900 57 SOURCE: R o u n s e f e l l and Kelez 1938:728. As was t r u e o f the p u r s e s e i n e , t r o l l i n g d i d not become co m m e r c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t u n t i l power boats became commonplace. L i t t l e changed i n the a c t u a l f i s h i n g gear i t s e l f but the change from human power to motor power made the gear more c o m m e r c i a l l y v i a b l e . G e n e r a l l y o n l y coho and c h i n o o k a r e t a k e n by t r o l l e r s . U n t i l 1900 t r o l l i n g was p r i m a r i l y p r a c t i c e d by I n d i a n f i s h e r s , w i t h white t r o l l e r s being of minor importance. C o l l i n s d i d not i n c l u d e t r o l l i n g among c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g methods employed i n Puget Sound i n the e a r l y 1890s, but s t a t e d , The I n d i a n s employ t r o l l i n g hooks and s p e a r s i n the Sound and s m a l l streams t r i b u t a r y t h e r e t o , and p a r t i e s f i s h i n g f o r p l e a s u r e a l s o use spoon hooks and t r o l l i n g l i n e s ( C o l l i n s 1892a:254). T h i s i s one o f the f i r s t m e n t i o n s we f i n d o f an a s p e c t o f the s almon f i s h e r y t h a t w i l l l a t e r become o f major i m p o r t a n c e , the s p o r t f i s h e r y . Of the c o m m e r c i a l t r o l l f i s h e r y R o u n s e f e l l and K e l e z (1938:751) s t a t e t h a t "we may assume t h a t the f i s h e r y 95 was of l i t t l e importance u n t i l about 1910, and t h a t the number of boats i n c r e a s e d t h e r e a f t e r to a maximum i n 1919". G e n e r a l l y I n d i a n f i s h e r s o n l y t r o l l e d i n t e r m i t t e n t l y , n ot f o r c o n s i d e r a b l e numbers o f f i s h t o p r e s e r v e o r t o s e l l . T r o l l i n g was not as p r o d u c t i v e as o t h e r methods o f f i s h i n g b u t , because i t was a method whereby f i s h c o u l d be o b t a i n e d any time of year, e s p e c i a l l y during the winter months, i t was employed f o r the o c c a s i o n a l food f i s h . Rathbun notes Indians t r o l l i n g among the San Juan I s l a n d s i n November, December, January, and February (Rathbun 1900:281). C e r t a i n l y none o f the methods m e n t i o n e d t h u s f a r were as s i g n i f i c a n t t o t h e Lummi as was the r e e f n e t f i s h e r y . What the t r a p s were t o the w h i t e f i s h e r s , the r e e f n e t s were t o the I n d i a n f i s h e r s . I t i s the c o n f l i c t between t h e s e two gear t y p e s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s the development of the commercial f i s h e r y of North Puget Sound and, during the 1890s, the r a p i d demise of the Lummi f i s h e r y . During the l a t t e r p a r t of the ni n e t e e n t h century by f a r the most important economic a c t i v i t y of the Lummi was ree f n e t t i n g . Reef n e t t i n g r e p r e s e n t s a unique method o f f i s h i n g d e s i g n e d t o i n t e r c e p t the annual runs of sockeye during t h e i r m i g r a t o r y pass t h r o u g h N o r t h Puget Sound and the G u l f o f G e o r g i a on t h e i r way to the F r a s e r River watershed, where they spawn. The sockeye runs g e n e r a l l y pass through the Lummi area i n J u l y and August. There are no c o m m e r c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t runs of sockeye i n Puget Sound, and the r e e f n e t r e p r e s e n t s a h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d t e c h n i q u e d e s i g n e d t o i n t e r c e p t an o t h e r w i s e u n a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e . In 96 a d d i t i o n to sockeye, the r e e f nets a l s o take s i g n i f i c a n t numbers of humpback and the o c c a s i o n a l salmon of the other s p e c i e s . The most important r e e f net l o c a t i o n s were at P o i n t Roberts and V i l l a g e P o i n t (Lummi I s l a n d ) . The Lummi a l s o u t i l i z e d s e v e r a l o t h e r s i t e s t h r o u g h o u t the San Juan I s l a n d s , a l t h o u g h t h e s e were l a r g e l y abandoned a f t e r a l l o t m e n t s were made on t h e Lummi R e s e r v a t i o n (Boxberger 1980:52). Some r e e f net s i t e s i n the San Juans, e s p e c i a l l y those on San Juan I s l a n d , continued to be f i s h e d by S t r a i t s S a l i s h coming over from the Canadian s i d e of the border (Boxberger 1979:112). Rathbun (1900:320) s t a t e s t h a t the c a n n e r y a t F r i d a y Harbor o b t a i n e d s o c k e y e from I n d i a n r e e f n e t t e r s o f f the s o u t h end o f San J u a n I s l a n d who must have been Songhees or S a a n i c h who came t o f i s h t h e r e . W i l c o x (1898:596) n o t e s t h a t 419,960 pounds o f salmon were p u r c h a s e d from the Indians on San Juan I s l a n d by the cannery l o c a t e d there i n 1895, and the Whatcom County newspaper The Weekly Blade of 23 October 1895 m e n t i o n e d t h a t Lummi f i s h e r s o p e r a t e d n i n e r e e f n e t s a t Lummi I s l a n d and were s e l l i n g t h e i r f i s h t o nearby p r o c e s s o r s (The Weekly Blade 1895:4). As the f i s h t r a p s i n c r e a s e d i n i m p o r t a n c e and s i z e d u r i n g the 1890s, the a b i l i t y of the r e e f nets to remain p r o d u c t i v e was j e o p a r d i z e d . A t b o t h P o i n t R o b e r t s and V i l l a g e P o i n t , c a n n e r y owned f i s h t r a p s were c o n s t r u c t e d d i r e c t l y i n f r o n t of the Lummi r e e f net g r ounds, r e n d e r i n g the r e e f n e t s u s e l e s s . C h a r t s o f P o i n t Roberts (Figure 2) and V i l l a g e P o i n t (Figure 3), d e p i c t i n g the t r a p s i n 1895, i l l u s t r a t e t h i s q u i t e c l e a r l y . In 1895 the r e e f nets were t a k i n g only a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of the commercial c a t c h a t P o i n t R o b e r t s and V i l l a g e P o i n t . s A t P o i n t R o b e r t s 97 5,116,272 t o t a l pounds of salmon were taken. N e a r l y a l l the c a t c h i s made by pound n e t s , the e x c e p t i o n b e i n g 184,239 pounds by I n d i a n r e e f n e t s and 46,971 pounds by g i l l n e t s . On the r e e f s o f Lummi I s l a n d 350,805 pounds a d d i t i o n a l were t a k e n by r e e f n e t s , the use o f which i s c o n f i n e d t o I n d i a n s . The I n d i a n s a l s o t a k e q u i t e a l a r g e amount which t h e y p r e p a r e f o r t h e i r w i n t e r f o o d s u p p l y (Wilcox 1898:592). Rathbun s t a t e s t h a t i n 1894 and 1895, when salmon were being p u r c h a s e d f r o m the c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r s f o r t e n t o f i f t e e n c e n t s per f i s h t he I n d i a n s were b e i n g p a i d o n l y f i v e to e i g h t c e n t s (Rathbun 1900:321). The u s u r p a t i o n of the r e e f net f i s h e r y by the t r a p s d i d not go uncontested by the Lummi, who as e a r l y as 1894 p e t i t i o n e d the Commissioner of Indian A f f a i r s to in t e r v e n e on t h e i r b e h a l f , as evidenced by the f o l l o w i n g l e t t e r . L i v i n g as we do on the s h o r e s o f Puget Sound our p r i n c i p a l means of s u b s i s t e n c e , e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g c e r t a i n seasons of the year, i s f i s h i n g our best grounds s i t u a t e d near the r e e f of P o i n t Roberts o f t h i s s t a t e . S e v e r a l years ago white men began t o e n c r o a c h on our ground. We were w i l l i n g t o have them share w i t h us the r i g h t to f i s h but not s a t i s f i e d with equal r i g h t s they have y e a r l y made a d d i t i o n a l o b s t r u c t i o n s to prevent our c a t c h i n g f i s h , by s e t t i n g t r a p s , and p l a c i n g p i l i n g around the grounds. They have d r i v e n us from our o l d camping ground on the beach and have so t r e a t e d us t h a t we f e e l we must now a p p e a l t o you f o r a s s i s t a n c e . In our t r e a t y w i t h the government we were g i v e n the f i r s t r i g h t to hunt and f i s h on our o l d grounds and we know too w e l l t h a t the good government t h a t has so f a r p r o t e c t e d our r i g h t s w i l l riot p e r m i t us to be trodden upon simply because we are I n d i a n s . We the I n d i a n s o f t h i s r e s e r v a t i o n do t h e r e f o r e e a r n e s t l y p r a y t h a t you w i l l c a l l upon the U.S. D i s t r i c t A t t o r n e y o f S e a t t l e t o p r o s e c u t e t h o s e who a r e r o b b i n g us of our l a w f u l r i g h t s (Lummi T r i b a l A r c h i v e s 1894). N o t h i n g was done by the Bureau o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , and the n e x t y e a r t h e Lummi s o u g h t l e g a l c o u n s e l on t h e i r own. B e l l i n g h a m a t t o r n e y s J.A. K e r r and W.B. McCord r e p r e s e n t e d the Lummi and pressured the Bureau of Indian A f f a i r s to request the 98 SALMON TRAP LOCATIONS AT POINT ROBERTS, 1895 F i g u r e 2. Salmon t r a p s at P o i n t R o b e r t s , 1895 (adapted from Rathbun 1900) . 99 A t t o r n e y General to take the case to c o u r t , which they e v e n t u a l l y d i d . The Un i t e d S t a t e s , et a l . v^ The Al a s k a Packers A s s o c i a t i o n (C.C. Wash., 79F 152 (1897)) was h e a r d by Judge C H . H a n f o r d . 3 Judge H a n f o r d r u l e d t h a t under the T r e a t y o f P o i n t E l l i o t t t he I n d i a n s r e t a i n e d e q u a l f i s h i n g r i g h t s , not s p e c i a l f i s h i n g p r i v i l e g e s , such as permanent, p r o t e c t e d l o c a t i o n s . F u r t h e r , Judge Hanford reasoned t h a t the Al a s k a Packers A s s o c a t i o n t r a p s d i d n ot i n f r i n g e on the Lummis' a b i l i t y t o take salmon because t h e r e were s t i l l abundant runs i n the water. L a s t l y , he h e l d t h a t because the Lummi were s e l l i n g f i s h t o the A l a s k a P a c k e r s A s s o c i a t i o n , to f o r c e the cannery out would be doing the Indians a d i s s e r v i c e . In 1897 the Lummi again sought the a s s i s t a n c e o f the Bureau of Indian A f f a i r s i n appealing the case. We the Indians of the Lummi R e s e r v a t i o n i n Whatcom County, s t a t e of Washington, seeing t h a t our r i g h t s under the T r e a t y o f 1855 b e t w e e n t h e U.S. and t h e I n d i a n s a r e b e i n g t h r e a t e n e d by o u r w h i t e n e i g h b o r s , h a v e come t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n of addressing the Department i n t h i s matter as we l o o k t o the government o f the U.S. to p r o t e c t us i n our r i g h t s under t h a t T r e a t y . In the f i r s t p l a c e we w i s h t o m e n t i o n t h a t a b o u t two y e a r s ago t h e A l a s k a P a c k e r s A s s o c i a t i o n , a f i s h canning Co., o p e r a t i n g i n P o i n t Roberts, Wash, have been i n t e r f e r i n g i n many d i f f e r e n t ways to prevent the Indians to f i s h on the P o i n t Roberts r e e f , which from time immemorial, had been occupied by our an c e s t o r s and o u r s e l v e s f o r f i s h i n g p u r p o s e s . By the a d v i s e o f some o f our W h i t e f r i e n d s we were i n d u c e d t o f i g h t f o r our r i g h t s i n the S t a t e c o u r t s , as, t h e y s a i d , by the T r e a t y we had.been g u a r a n t e e d the r i g h t s o f t a k i n g f i s h i n common w i t h the c i t i z e n s o f the S t a t e . The ca s e was begun i n New Whatcom, 3. Judge C H . H a n f o r d was a p p a r e n t l y i n v o l v e d i n the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y of Whatcom County but perhaps not to a p o i n t t h a t c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a c o n f l i c t o f i n t e r e s t i n the Al a s k a Packers case. The P a c i f i c F i s h e r m a n o f J a n u a r y 1905 r e p o r t e d t h a t "Judge C H . H a n f o r d has i n v e n t e d a can c r i m p e r and capper f o r use i n a Bellingham cannery" ( P a c i f i c Fisherman 1905). 100 Wash., and f i n a l l y d e c i d e d a g a i n s t us by F e d e r a l Judge H a n f o r d , o f S e a t t l e , Wash. In the second p l a c e we w i s h to m e n t i o n a n o t h e r c a s e , t h a t i s the' c a s e o f V i l l a g e P o i n t on Lummi I s l a n d , Wash. The C h i c a g o F i s h Co., r e p r e s e n t e d by one J o s e p h A l s o p i s a l s o t r y i n g t o p r e v e n t us to t a k e f i s h on t h a t r e e f by d r i v i n g p i l e s b o t h i n f r o n t and back o f us, thus d e p r i v i n g us of any chance of c a t c h i n g f i s h and even of e r e c t i n g temporary houses to s h e l t e r us w h i l e f i s h i n g . So we now f i n d o u r s e l v e s excluded from earning an honest l i v i n g f o r our s e l v e s and our f a m i l i e s . We would t h e r e f o r e r e q u e s t the Department to p r o t e c t us i n our r i g h t s by, a t once s e n d i n g an I n s p e c t o r to i n v e s t i g a t e the f a c t s i n the c a s e , and a p p l y a speedy and e f f e c t u a l remedy and your p e t i t i o n e r s w i l l ever pray. (Lummi T r i b a l A r c h i v e s 1897). An appeal was made i n the case, which u l t i m a t e l y reached the U n i t e d S t a t e s Supreme Court. However, the U n i t e d S t a t e s A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l , upon r e v i e w , a d v i s e d the Bureau o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s t o drop the case, and on 22 May 1899 the A t t o r n e y General submitted a m o t i o n t o the Supreme C o u r t to d i s m i s s the a p p e a l , w hich was granted (ARCIA 1899:140). As a r e s u l t o f the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the A l a s k a P a c k e r s A s s o c i a t i o n case, the Lummi had to abandon t h e i r r e e f net grounds a t P o i n t R o b e r t s and Lummi I s l a n d and r e s o r t to s m a l l - s c a l e s u b s i s t e n c e f i s h i n g i n t h e Nooksack R i v e r a d j a c e n t to the r e s e r v a t i o n . A few r e e f n e t s c o n t i n u e d to o p e r a t e , but t h e s e were m a r g i n a l to Lummi f i s h i n g . As the number o f t r a p s c o n t i n u e d to grow, the p r e s s u r e on the salmon s t o c k s became more i n t e n s e . As e a r l y as 1894 t r a p s had been c o n s t r u c t e d adjacent to r e s e r v a t i o n lands, most notabl y by the B e l l i n g h a m Bay F i s h Company a t Sandy P o i n t (Rathbun 1900:300; Roth 1926:663). The t r a p s even encroached on the t i d e l a n d s o f the r e s e r v a t i o n , as the I n d i a n Agent Buchanan r e p o r t e d f o r 1900. 101 C o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y has been o c c a s i o n e d by a c t s o f t r e s p a s s upon the p a r t of the trap-men. Both t r a p s and men have t r e s p a s s e d upon t h e t i d e l a n d s a b u t t i n g t h e r e s e r v a t i o n s o f t h i s a g e n c y . I n some i n s t a n c e s t h e t r e s p a s s e s were c o m m i t t e d upon the u p l a n d s as w e l l (ARCIA 1901:391). T r a p s were c o n s t r u c t e d a t the mouth o f the Nooksack R i v e r and near the P o r t a g e . In 1899, o f the 112 t o t a l t r a p s i n o p e r a t i o n i n P u g e t S o u n d , 82 were i n use i n Whatcom C o u n t y ( W i l c o x 1902:523) . U n t i l 1884, the manner i n which the salmon r e s o u r c e was u t i l i z e d by the Lummi assured t h a t the resource was d i s t r i b u t e d e q u i t a b l y among the p a r t i c i p a n t s , w i t h the s i t e owners g a r n e r i n g a l i t t l e more f o r t h e m s e l v e s . The I n d i a n f i s h e r y c o n t i n u e d t o t h r i v e i n the f o r m a t i v e years of the canning i n d u s t r y , as Indian l a b o r was needed t o p r o v i d e f i s h and was c a p a b l e o f p r o d u c i n g a s u r p l u s beyond s u b s i s t e n c e needs f o r the market. As the common p r o p e r t y n a t u r e o f the r e s o u r c e began to become e v i d e n t , t h o s e w i t h a c c e s s to c a p i t a l , and t h e r e b y more e f f i c i e n t f i s h i n g d e v i c e s , very r a p i d l y dominated the f i s h e r y and came to c o n t r o l a c c e s s to the f i s h e r y . The most common form o f c a p i t a l i s t p e n e t r a t i o n i n t o a f i s h e r y i s to c o n t r o l p r o c e s s i n g v e n t u r e s , such as the c a n n e r i e s , thereby removing c o n t r o l of the f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t from the p r i m a r y p r o d u c e r s ( P a r i s 1977:246). For example, the Chicago-based p r o c e s s o r , P a c i f i c American F i s h e r i e s , s p e n t o v e r $1 m i l l i o n i n 1899 i n an a t t e m p t to m o n o p o l i z e the Puget Sound t r a p f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y (Barsh 1977:13). I n d i v i d u a l t r a p l o c a t i o n s were b e i n g s o l d i n 1899 a t p r i c e s r a n g i n g from $35,000 to $90,000 (Wilcox 1902:523). An i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f the s almon f i s h e r y i s t h a t as a 102 common p r o p e r t y r e s o u r c e ^ i t i s one i n which o w n e r s h i p i n the r e s o u r c e i s u n d e f i n e d u n t i l such t i m e as s a i d r e s o u r c e i s p r o c u r e d . U n l i k e o t h e r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s l i k e t i m b e r o r a g r i c u l t u r a l land, which are i n v e s t e d i n pr o p e r t y r i g h t s , no one "owns" the salmon resource u n t i l i t i s harvested. Consequently the development of gear to get at the f i s h f i r s t l e aves those "at the end of the l i n e " , i n t h i s case the r e s e r v a t i o n f i s h e r s , with e i t h e r no a c c e s s or s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d a c c e s s . A common p r o p e r t y r e s o u r c e , such as the salmon f i s h e r y o f N o r t h Puget Sound, s e l e c t s f o r i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of f i s h i n g e f f o r t i n order to maximize b e n e f i t s from the resource. The r e s u l t i n g over-use i s known as the " t r a g e d y o f the commons" ( H a r d i n 1968:1244-1245). F i s h e r i e s are e s p e c i a l l y s u s c e p t i b l e to over-use (Berkes 1985). I n t e n s i f i c a t i o n g e n e r a l l y t a k e s p l a c e i n the form o f more t i m e spent f i s h i n g or more e f f e c t i v e gear. In the case of the salmon f i s h e r y o f North Puget Sound no gear was more e f f e c t i v e than the salmon t r a p s . Where farmers or t i m b e r - l a n d owners might take a p o r t i o n o f t h e i r p r o f i t s t o r e i n v e s t i n the r e s o u r c e (e.g., i n the c a s e o f the f a r m e r , by f e r t i l i z i n g , i n the ca s e o f the t i m b e r - l a n d owner by r e p l a n t i n g ) , i n the c a s e o f a common p r o p e r t y r e s o u r c e , t h e r e i s no i n c e n t i v e t o r e i n v e s t s u r p l u s i n the r e s o u r c e ( C r u t c h f i e l d 1968:23) because no one e n t r e p r e n e u r can be a s s u r e d o f h a r v e s t i n g a p a r t i c u l a r p o r t i o n o f the c a t c h . In a f i s h e r y t h e r e a r e no g u a r a n t e e s t h a t i n v e s t m e n t i n the 4. Marchak has c o r r e c t l y n o t e d t h a t the term "common p r o p e r t y r e s o u r c e " i s " i n h e r e n t l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y s i n c e p r o p e r t y by d e f i n i t i o n c o n n o t e s s p e c i f i c o w n e r s h i p r i g h t s " , and r e s t r i c t e d l i c e n s i n g removes the r e s o u r c e from any commons or p u b l i c o w n e r s h i p (Marchak 1984:4). Y e t , i t i s c l e a r t h a t r i g h t s i n a f i s h e r y r e s o u r c e a r e not the same as r i g h t s t o s t a t i o n a r y r e s o u r c e s . 103 resource w i l l be returned. Thus, any s u r p l u s generated tends to be i n v e s t e d i n the i n s t r u m e n t s o f p r o d u c t i o n . The means to higher p r o d u c t i v i t y were b e t t e r and f a s t e r boats, more e f f i c i e n t nets, bigger and more e f f e c t i v e t r a p s , or b e t t e r t r a p l o c a t i o n s . So e f f e c t i v e were the f i s h t r a p s i n the 1890s, t h a t f o r the f i r s t t i m e i n the h i s t o r y o f the f i s h e r y , a t t e n t i o n was t u r n e d to b i o l o g i c a l concerns. F i s h e r i e s b i o l o g i s t s began to p o i n t out the need f o r a g u a r a n t e e d escapement f o r r e p r o d u c t i v e p u r p o s e s . Salmon h a t c h e r i e s were b u i l t i n the Puget Sound area as e a r l y as 1896 because i t was recognized t h a t the f i s h were being e x p l o i t e d t o the maximum p o t e n t i a l . By 1900 t h e r e were f i v e salmon h a t c h e r i e s i n o p e r a t i o n i n the North Puget Sound area alone (Cobb 1911:168) . The i n t e r v e n t i o n of the s t a t e , here r e f e r r i n g to the complex whole o f a s y s t e m o f government i n s t i t u t i o n s w hich make up the s t a t e s y s t e m , the l e g i s l a t i v e , e x e c u t i v e , and j u d i c i a r y , l e d t o f u r t h e r e x c l u s i o n of Indian f i s h e r s from access to the resource. S t a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n i n f i s h i n g t a k e s s e v e r a l f o r m s : l i c e n s i n g , which l i m i t s f i s h i n g t o c e r t a i n gear t y p e s ( g e n e r a l l y c a p i t a l i n t e n s i v e gear t y p e s ) ; r e f u s a l o f the s t a t e to r e c o g n i z e t r e a t y f i s h i n g r i g h t s and not a l l o c a t i n g escapement e x c l u s i v e l y f o r t r e a t y f i s h e r s ; and e n f o r c e m e n t o f r e g u l a t i o n s , o s t e n s i b l y t o p r o t e c t the r e s o u r c e , but u s u a l l y f a v o r i n g the u s e r s o f c a p i t a l i n t e n s i v e gear. Beginning i n 1890 the S t a t e of Washington began to r e g u l a t e the salmon f i s h e r y by e s t a b l i s h i n g a S t a t e agency to oversee the s a l m o n and o t h e r f i s h e r i e s ( A u s t i n 1972). In 1897 t h e p r o h i b i t i o n o f n e t s i n any s t r e a m was one o f t h e f i r s t 104 r e g u l a t i o n s to be enforced. Indians f i s h i n g on the r e s e r v a t i o n s were s p e c i f i c a l l y exempt from S t a t e r e g u l a t i o n s , a l t h o u g h the S t a t e of Washington enforced r e g u l a t i o n s on Indians f i s h i n g o f f r e s e r v a t i o n . G r a d u a l l y t h r o u g h the 1890s, the numbers o f r e g u l a t i o n s i n c r e a s e d , as d i d e n f o r c e m e n t a c t i v i t i e s . P u b l i c i n d i g n a t i o n a b o u t I n d i a n f i s h i n g grew, and t h e S t a t e o f W a s h i n g t o n began to e n f o r c e r e g u l a t i o n s on I n d i a n R e s e r v a t i o n s d e s p i t e e x p l i c i t exemption of Indians from such laws. According t o the R e p o r t o f the S t a t e F i s h C o m m i s s i o n e r f o r 1899/1900, I n d i a n f i s h i n g on salmon s t r e a m s was one o f the major p r o b l e m s with which he had to contend. The g e n e r a l f i s h e r i e s law p a s s e d by the l a s t l e g i s l a t u r e p r o v i d e s t h a t any I n d i a n r e s i d i n g i n t h i s s t a t e may t a k e salmon or o t h e r f i s h by any means and a t any t i m e f o r the use o f h i m s e l f and h i s f a m i l y ... the I n d i a n s have t a k e n t h i s c l a u s e t o mean t h a t t h e y have a r i g h t t o do as t h e y p l e a s e w i t h r e g a r d t o the t a k i n g o f salmon, and have b u i l t t r a p s e n t i r e l y across the r i v e r s on which are l o c a t e d some o f our h a t c h e r i e s ... T h i s p r o v i s i o n , i n s t e a d o f b e i n g a b e n e f i t t o the I n d i a n s , has r e s u l t e d i n a l o s s t o them, as on a c c o u n t o f t h e i r a t t e m p t i n g t o f i s h i n a manner and a t t i m e s when the law p r o h i b i t e d the same, t h e y have been put to c o n s i d e r a b l e expense and have f a i l e d to get as many f i s h as they have under other circumstances. T h i s c l a u s e i n the law s h o u l d be r e p e a l e d . I t has been the p o l i c y o f t h i s d e p a r t m e n t to be v e r y l e n i e n t w i t h t h e s e p e o p l e , and no t r o u b l e would ever have a r i s e n w i t h them had t h e y not been i l l - a d v i s e d as t o t h e i r r i g h t s u n d e r t h i s s t a t u t e (Washington S t a t e Department of F i s h e r i e s 1899/1900:21-22). The method o f e s t i m a t i n g escapement needs and run s i z e s was an u n r e f i n e d s c i e n c e i n the 1890s. G e n e r a l l y the e a s i e s t way to i n s u r e a spawning escapement was to p r o t e c t those f i s h t h a t made i t p a s t the c o m m e r c i a l t r a p s and i n t o the s t r e a m s or r i v e r s . The Lummi, c u t o f f from t h e i r a c c e s s to s o c k e y e , t u r n e d to the Nooksack R i v e r to meet t h e i r needs f o r salmon, but due t o o v e r f i s h i n g and i n t e n s i f i e d r e g u l a t o r y measures t h i s resource too 105 was becoming l e s s a c c e s s i b l e . The Nooksack River supports f i v e runs of salmon and two runs o f s t e e l h e a d . T h e r e a r e no runs o f sockeye i n the r i v e r but i t s u p p o r t s a l l the o t h e r salmon s p e c i e s , i n c l u d i n g a f a l l and s p r i n g r u n o f c h i n o o k salmon. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows the approximate time the v a r i o u s runs are i n the Nooksack R i v e r . Table 7. Seasonal a v a i l a b i l i t y of salmon i n the Nooksack R i v e r . Specie Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun J u l Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec F a l l Chinook Sp r i n g Chinook Coho Humpbacks (odd-numbered years only) Chum Winter Steelhead Summer Steelhead U n t i l a f t e r the tu r n of the century the Lummi had access to adequate f i s h to secure t h e i r s u b s i s t e n c e needs. C e r t a i n l y the Nooksack R i v e r runs were nowhere near as v a l u a b l e a resource as the sockeye f i s h e r y , but the Lummi, although r e s t r i c t e d to t h e i r r e s e r v a t i o n f i s h e r y , were s t i l l a b l e t o c a t c h enough f i s h f o r s u b s i s t e n c e and some f o r s a l e . W i l c o x n o t e s t h a t even the Nooksack River f i s h e r y a t t r a c t e d non-Indian commercial o p e r a t i o n s 106 i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h the Lummi. The waters of the Nooksack R i v e r , which have t h e i r r i s e and o u t l e t i n the county, added 1,997,180 pounds a d d i t i o n a l [to the commercial f i s h e r y ] . Commercial f i s h i n g on t h i s stream i s o f l a t e o r i g i n and worthy of n o t i c e . P r i o r to 1893 what l i t t l e f i s h i n g was c a r r i e d on i n the Nooksack was by ranchers and Indians f o r home consumption, but the waters o f the r i v e r a r e y e a r l y more and more f i s h e d f o r salmon t h a t a r e d i s p o s e d o f t o the c a n n e r i e s o f Puget Sound and the wholesale f i s h - d e a l e r s of S e a t t l e , New Whatcom, or Fa i r h a v e n (Wilcox 1892:594). A l t h o u g h c u t o f f from f i s h i n g f o r soc k e y e a few Lummi found wage la b o r i n the c a n n e r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y those i n o p e r a t i o n on Lummi I s l a n d . Lummi Bay Packing Company ( l a t e r Beach Packing Company), i n o p e r a t i o n f r o m 1911 t o 1946, Nooksack P a c k i n g Company, 1915 t o 1928, and C a r l i s l e P a c k i n g Company a t V i l l a g e P o i n t , 1897 to 1934, employed a few Lummi workers. Elsewhere on the Northwest Coast Indian women pro v i d e d a g r e a t d e a l of cannery l a b o r d u r i n g the l a t e 1800s and e a r l y 1900s (e.g., see K n i g h t 1978:87) but i n the Lummi area the abundant Chinese labor f o r c e was o f t e n p r e f e r r e d because they p r o v i d e d t h e i r own o v e r s e e r s and w o u l d work d i l i g e n t l y f o r l o n g h o u r s a t low pay ( R a t h b u n 1900:320) . A s h o r t h i s t o r y of one of these c a n n e r i e s , C a r l i s l e Packing Company, w i l l i l l u s t r a t e some of these p o i n t s . C a r l i s l e Packing Company Salmon t r a p s at Lummi I s l a n d were f i r s t known with c e r t a i n t y t o have been s e t a t Legoe Bay i n 1895, a l t h o u g h t h e r e may have been s m a l l t r a p s t h e r e e a r l i e r . J u s t as t h e y had done a t P o i n t Roberts, the Lummi Indians immediately p r o t e s t e d the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the t r a p s , w hich were i n c o n f l i c t w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l r e e f 107 n e t g r ounds (see F i g u r e 3). The Lummi were s u c c e s s f u l i n o b t a i n i n g a temporary i n j u n c t i o n a g a i n s t the t r a p s i n 1895, but i t was s h o r t - l i v e d , and a l t h o u g h the t r a p s m i s s e d p a r t o f the 1895 season they were o p e r a t i n g a t f u l l c a p a c i t y i n 1896. On the west s i d e o f Lummi I s l a n d , s o u t h o f V i l l a g e P o i n t , t h r e e t r a p - n e t s i t e s , e q u a l d i s t a n c e s a p a r t , had been occupied up to the c l o s e of 1895, the f a r t h e s t being about 1 1/4 m i l e s f r o m the p o i n t , the n e a r e s t w i t h i n o n e - f o u r t h m i l e . They l e a d o f f from the s h o r e from 637 t o 725 f e e t i n t o d e p t h s o f 6 1/2 t o 8 fathoms. One was b u i l t upon f o r the f i r s t time i n 1895 but the o t h e r s are of o l d e r date. One o f t h e l a t t e r , t h e f a r t h e s t f r o m t h e p o i n t , h a s b e en abandoned. The r e m a i n i n g two, however, a r e s a i d t o be f a v o r a b l y p l a c e d , but w h i l e b o t h were put to use i n 1895, an i n j u n c t i o n obtained a g a i n s t them by the Indians prevented t h e i r employment duri n g most of the season. T h i s was due to t h e i r l o c a t i o n i n s i d e of and adjacent to one of the f a v o r i t e r e e f - n e t f i s h i n g - g r o u n d s , w hich the I n d i a n s c l a i m e d was b e i n g i n j u r e d by t h e i r p r o x i m i t y . Here a l s o , i n 1897, a marked i n c r e a s e was shown i n the extent of t r a p - n e t f i s h i n g (Rathbun 1900: 299-300). When the success of these t r a p s became evident, A r t i c l e s of 1 I n c o r p o r a t i o n were f i l e d f o r the Lummi I s l a n d Packing Company on 12 May 1896, w i t h a c a p i t a l base of $100,000, and by J u l y of t h a t y e a r a c a n n e r y was c o n s t r u c t e d a t V i l l a g e P o i n t c o n s i s t i n g o f t h r e e b u i l d i n g s and h a v i n g the c a p a c i t y to p r o c e s s one hundred f i s h per hour. The f o l l o w i n g y e a r o w n e r s h i p o f the c a n n e r y o p e r a t i o n went i n t o f o r e i g n hands w i t h a change o f name to C a r l i s l e P a c k i n g Company, L t d . The manager's o f f i c e was e s t a b l i s h e d i n V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b u t a l l o f t h e i n v e s t o r s were i n G r e a t B r i t a i n . The f o r e i g n i n v e s t o r s , w i t h a c a p i t a l o f $125,000, c a r r i e d on the b u s i n e s s f o r the n e x t f i v e y e a r s . As f o r a l l c a n n e r i e s o f t h i s e a r l y e r a , the a n n u a l pack was s m a l l , but g r a d u a l l y C a r l i s l e i n c r e a s e d i t s output. 108 F i g u r e 3. Salmon t r a p s a t V i l l a g e P o i n t , 1895 (adapted from Rathbun 1900) . 109 I t became d i f f i c u l t f o r the f o r e i g n owners to continue the business, and i n 1902 C a r l i s l e Packing Company was s o l d to l o c a l owners f o r the p u r c h a s e p r i c e o f $100,000. By c o m p a r i s o n , the A l a s k a P a c k e r s A s s o c i a t i o n had an o p e r a t i n g c a p i t a l o f $7.5 m i l l i o n i n 1909 (PFY 1909:23). A r t i c l e s o f I n c o r p o r a t i o n were f i l e d i n January of 1902 f o r the purpose o f : ... f i s h i n g i n the S t a t e o f W a s h i n g t o n , and o t h e r w a t e r s , f o r salmon and o t h e r f o o d f i s h e s , and t o c a p t u r e such f i s h w i t h pound n e t s , t r a p s , w e i r s , s e i n e s , and o t h e r f i s h i n g a p p l i a n c e s ; to s e l l and dispose of the f i s h so caught ... to a c q u i r e , h o l d , s e l l , and t r a n s f e r l i c e n s e s f o r such f i s h i n g a p p l i a n c e s ; to a c q u i r e , e s t a b l i s h , h o l d , s e l l , l e a s e , and l e t f i s h i n g l o c a t i o n s ... t o a c q u i r e , b u i l d o r l e a s e , c h a r t e r , and operate s h i p s , steamers, and other water c r a f t ... d e a l i n r e a l e s t a t e ... t o a c q u i r e , b u i l d , own, l e a s e , and l e t c a n n e r i e s ... and o t h e r w i s e m a n u f a c t u r e f i s h p r o d u c t s f r o m the f i s h t a k e n i n the S t a t e o f W a s h i n g t o n ( C a r l i s l e Packing Company 1902). The Whatcom, Wa s h i n g t o n newspaper, The Weekly B l a d e o f 5 F e b r u a r y 1902 s t a t e s t h a t C a r l i s l e c a n n e r y owned s i x o p e r a t i n g t r a p s (1902:6). These t r a p s were on Lummi I s l a n d a t Legoe Bay and P o i n t M i g l e y , and along the mainland between Sandy P o i n t and P o i n t Whitehorn. The head o f f i c e of C a r l i s l e Packing Company was e s t a b l i s h e d i n the town o f Whatcom (Whatcom, New Whatcom, F a i r h a v e n and Sehome, were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e c i t y o f B e l l i n g h a m i n 1904) and moved t o S e a t t l e i n 1912. By t h i s t i m e p r i n c i p a l ownership of C a r l i s l e had passed to Frank Wright (798 shares out of 800), who ran the company u n t i l the 1930s. 110 Table 8. C a r l i s l e Packing Company annual pack, 1896 to 1928, i n cases o f 48 one pound cans. Year P r o d u c t i o n 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 10,000 28,000 9,000 45,000 11,200 50,425 12,265 14,950 cases (approx.) cases " cases cases " cases " cases cases cases (did not operate) 23,618 cases, (did not operate) 30,325 cases (did not operate) 37,000 cases (no i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e ) 79 ,658 cases 26 ,539 cases 134 ,935 cases 37 ,831 cases 36 ,274 cases 8,071 cases 82 ,779 cases 2 ,826 cases 61 ,635 cases (did not operate) 51,282 cases (did not operate) 45,503 cases (did not operate) 34,180 cases (did not operate) (d i d not operate) (did not operate) SOURCES: For 1896 t o 1900, fo r 1901 to 1928, PFY (1903 p e r s o n a l p a p e r s through 1929). o f M. Peggy A i s t o n ; 111 As w i l l be e x p l a i n e d i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r , the salmon i n d u s t r y of the West Coast of North America r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e impetus from World War I. C a r l i s l e expanded d r a m a t i c a l l y during t h i s p e r i o d and opened t h r e e o t h e r c a n n e r i e s , a l l i n A l a s k a , on the K v i c h a k R i v e r near B r i s t o l Bay, on the Yukon R i v e r , and a t the mouth o f the Copper R i v e r i n C ordova ( C a r l i s l e P a c k i n g Company 1925). By 1918, a f t e r s e v e r a l good seasons, the C a r l i s l e Packing Company was able to i n c r e a s e i t s stock value from $80,000 to $1,000,000 ( C a r l i s l e Packing Company 1918). As shown on the c a n n e r y pack c h a r t , C a r l i s l e o p e r a t e d a t a r e l a t i v e l y high c a p a c i t y • through the e a r l y 1920s. Although the c a n n e r y d i d not a l w a y s o p e r a t e on " o f f " y e a r s f o r humpback salmon, the t r a p s o p e r a t e d , and the c a t c h was s o l d t o o t h e r c a n n e r i e s i n B e l l i n g h a m . By 1928, however, the c a n n e r y was f e e l i n g the e f f e c t s of a f a l l i n g salmon market. In 1928 C a r l i s l e s o l d o f f the A l a s k a h o l d i n g s and c l o s e d the V i l l a g e P o i n t Cannery (PFY 1928:62) but c o n t i n u e d to s e l l f i s h f rom the Puget Sound t r a p s t o P a c i f i c A m e r i c a n F i s h Company c a n n e r y o p e r a t i o n s . In September of 1930 the stock value was reduced from $1,000,000 to $80,000 ( C a r l i s l e P a c k i n g Company 1930), and f o u r y e a r s l a t e r bankruptcy proceedings began. W i t h the l o s s o f the c a n n e r i e s , the d e p r e s s e d economy and the o u t l a w i n g o f the t r a p s by the S t a t e o f W a s h i n g t o n i n 1934 (to be d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r ) , i t became i m p o s s i b l e f o r C a r l i s l e P a c k i n g Company to r e m a i n s o l v e n t , and s i n c e the o p e r a t i o n of t r a p s was made i l l e g a l , Wright c o u l d not l i q u i d a t e the o n l y c a p i t a l h o l d i n g s of the company. 112 H a v i n g a p p r o p r i a t e d some o f the b e s t f i s h i n g s i t e s o f the Lummi durin g the r i s e of the North Puget Sound commercial salmon f i s h e r y , C a r l i s l e P a c k i n g Company, i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h o t h e r c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e f i s h e r y o p e r a t i o n s , e f f e c t i v e l y ended I n d i a n f i s h i n g on any l a r g e s c a l e . C e r t a i n l y some i n d i v i d u a l Lummis were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the c o m m e r c i a l o p e r a t i o n s as l a b o r , but Lummi l a b o r was f a r l e s s numerous than e i t h e r w h i t e or C h i n e s e l a b o r . Even much o f the C h i n e s e l a b o r was t h i n n e d o u t w i t h i n c r e a s i n g automation i n the e a r l y 1900s and during the 1920s i t was a s t a t e d p o l i c y o f C a r l i s l e P a c k i n g Company t h a t " i n our ca n n e r i e s we endeavor to use onl y white l a b o r " ( C a r l i s l e Packing Company 1925). D e s p i t e t h i s s t a t e m e n t , many e l d e r l y Lummi remember Fr a n k W r i g h t as a k i n d man who would p u r c h a s e f i s h f r o m them when the y were i n need o f c a s h , or g i v e them or t h e i r p a r e n t s some work i f t h e y were d e s p e r a t e . B u t t h i s o n l y s t r e n g t h e n s the p o i n t t h a t the economic s y s t e m i t s e l f , n ot i n d i v i d u a l s , was the f o r c e a t work a g a i n s t the Lummi. The c a n n e r y owners and o p e r a t o r s may have been k i n d p e o p l e , but the e x p r o p r i a t i o n o f the Lummi a c c e s s t o salmon has n o t h i n g t o do with p e r s o n a l i t i e s . C a r l i s l e was j u s t one o f dozens o f s m a l l companies i n the North Puget Sound area, a l l o f which usurped t r e a t y f i s h i n g s i t e s and c a p i t a l i z e d the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y o n l y to be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o l a r g e companies themselves as the commercial o p e r a t i o n s became f u r t h e r c e n t r a l i z e d . In the subsequent chapter we w i l l see t h a t by the 1930s, a f t e r the heyday of commercial f i s h i n g , the Lummi were p e r i p h e r a l to the commercial f i s h e r y , p r i m a r i l y engaged i n 113 s u b s i s t e n c e f i s h i n g s u p p l e m e n t e d by wage l a b o r i n s e a s o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . Summary The p e r i o d o f the d e v e l o p m e n t o f the c o m m e r c i a l salmon f i s h e r y , 1884 to 1900, was one i n which p o l i t i c a l and economic f a c t o r s combined to exclude Indian f i s h e r s from p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f the r e s o u r c e . W i t h o u t a c c e s s t o c a p i t a l , under p r e s s u r e f r o m the Bureau o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s t o con c e n t r a t e on a g r i c u l t u r a l endeavors, and c o n s i d e r e d the l e a s t d e s i r a b l e o f the a v a i l a b l e l a b o r f o r the c a n n e r i e s , the Lummi were f o r c e d i n t o a s t a t e of dependency. In attempting to c o n t e s t the u s u r p a t i o n o f t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l , t r e a t y - p r o t e c t e d , f i s h i n g l o c a t i o n s the Lummi found they were p o w e r l e s s t o c o n f r o n t the c o m m e r c i a l i n t e r e s t s . The Bureau o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , w h ich supposedly looked a f t e r t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , d i d nothing to support them i n t h i s c o n f l i c t . The c o m b i n a t i o n o f S t a t e and F e d e r a l a c t i v i t i e s worked to exclude the Lummi from commercial f i s h i n g o p p o r t u n i t y . A t t h e same t i m e , i n c r e a s i n g t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y made i t d i f f i c u l t , i f not i m p o s s i b l e , f o r Lummi f i s h e r s t o r e m a i n c o m p e t i t i v e . Cannery o p e r a t i o n s were i n v e s t i n g i n t h e i r own instruments o f p r o d u c t i o n to the e x c l u s i o n of Indian f i s h e r s and c a n n e r i e s were employing non-Indian l a b o r . Independent o p e r a t o r s were u t i l i z i n g c a p i t a l -i n t e n s i v e gear t h a t was beyond the means o f any r e s e r v a t i o n f i s h e r t o a c q u i r e . The c l o s i n g y e a r s o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y found the Lummi r e s t r i c t e d t o a s m a l l p a r t o f t h e i r f o r m e r 114 t e r r i t o r y and w i t h a c c e s s to j u s t a f r a c t i o n o f the salmon resource f o r m e r l y a v a i l a b l e to them. 115 CHAPTER IV THE ERA OF COMMERCIAL SALMON FISHING 1901-1935 Introduction The p e r i o d from roughly the turn of the century u n t i l the mid-1930s was a time during which the Lummi came to be almost t o t a l l y excluded from p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the commercial salmon fi s h i n g industry. In t h i s chapter we w i l l document th i s process through an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g : the t e c h n o l o g i c a l growth of the salmon fishery; the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of Lummi in the salmon f i s h i n g i ndustry; and the a c t i v i t y of the s t a t e i n i n s t i t u t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n and fo r m u l a t i n g p o l i c i e s which tended further to l i m i t Indian f i s h i n g . Many of the t e c h n o l o g i c a l innovations i n the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y were f u r t h e r developed during t h i s p e r i o d . This resulted in the increased c a p i t a l i z a t i o n of the industry, making i t v i r t u a l l y impossible for reservation Indians to pa r t i c i p a t e . Rarely, i f ever, d i d Lummi have the c a p i t a l necessary to enter the f i s h e r y on a c o m p e t i t i v e b a s i s , and o t h e r avenues of f i n a n c i n g , such as lending i n s t i t u t i o n s or cannery-backed v e s s e l s , were not open to them. By documenting t h i s technological growth we w i l l demonstrate how the Lummi came to be r e s t r i c t e d to an on-reservation fishery. The c o n t r a c t i o n of the Lummi f i s h e r y to a s m a l l p o r t i o n of i t s former magnitude was in s t r u m e n t a l i n c r e a t i n g a dependent s o c i e t y that began to r e l y on e x t e r n a l agencies to d i r e c t i t s a c t i v i t i e s . Unable to compete in the commercial fishery, Indian labor found that i t was no longer needed i n canneries as people 116 of other e t h n i c i t i e s became more r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . Many Lummi s u b s i s t e d by t r a v e l i n g to E a s t e r n Washington or the F r a s e r V a l l e y to work as migrant farm l a b o r e r s , as they had i n the l a t e 1800s. Logging and l o c a l a g r i c u l t u r e a l s o provided some employment, but f o r the most p a r t t h i s p e r i o d was one i n which the Lummi were e c o n o m i c a l l y d e s t i t u t e . They continued to f i s h , although f i s h i n g was l i m i t e d to r e s e r v a t i o n waters, and even there they s u f f e r e d harassment from S t a t e o f f i c i a l s . From the t u r n of the century to 1935 the Lummi were r e b u f f e d i n s e v e r a l a t t e m p t s to r e - e n t e r the f i s h e r y on a c o m p e t i t i v e b a s i s . A t the same t i m e the c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y was becoming more mechanized, thereby r e q u i r i n g more h i g h l y s k i l l e d l a b o r , and I n d i a n s had t o compete w i t h l a b o r o f o t h e r e t h n i c g r o u p s ( w h i t e , C h i n e s e , J a p a n e s e ) , which was becoming more r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . The continued growth of the salmon f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d a l s o began to take i t s t o l l on the s almon s t o c k s . W i t h more f i s h e r s e n t e r i n g the f i s h e r y and fewer f i s h b e i n g a v a i l a b l e , the S t a t e of Washington was f o r c e d i n t o a p o s i t i o n of c u r t a i l i n g s a lmon f i s h i n g t h r o u g h v a r i o u s l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n s . The e a s i e s t p l a c e to l i m i t or e l i m i n a t e f i s h i n g was i n the s t r e a m s and r i v e r s , the t e r m i n a l a r e a s o f m i g r a t i o n . B e i n g i n the r i v e r s , the I n d i a n f i s h e r y was h i g h l y v i s i b l e , and when the maximum s u s t a i n a b l e y i e l d was taken i n the open water commercial f i s h e r y , the t e r m i n a l a r e a f i s h e r y had a c r i t i c a l e f f e c t on the a b i l i t y o f salmon runs to s u s t a i n t h e m s e l v e s . The S t a t e o f W a s h i n g t o n c o n s i s t e n t l y r e f u s e d t o a l l o w an e s c a p e m e n t 117 s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r an I n d i a n f i s h e r y , c l a i m i n g t h a t the t r e a t y f i s h e r s s h o u l d compete f o r the f i s h a l o n g w i t h the o t h e r u s e r groups. S e v e r a l f i s h i n g - r e l a t e d Lummi a r r e s t s occured d u r i n g the f i r s t q u arter of t h i s century, and e a r l y i n t h i s p e r i o d the St a t e p u b l i c l y announced t h a t i t would a r r e s t a l l I n d i a n s f i s h i n g i n d e f i a n c e o f St a t e law, whether on or o f f r e s e r v a t i o n . During t h i s p e r i o d the best f i s h i n g l o c a t i o n s , p r i m a r i l y the t r a p s i t e s , were b e c o m i n g v a l u a b l e i n v e s t m e n t s . By 1917 i n d i v i d u a l t r a p s i t e s were s e l l i n g f o r over $100,000, w i t h expected recovery of the investment i n two or three years. More s o p h i s t i c a t e d technology a l s o appeared a t t h i s time, most n o t a b l y the purse s e i n e s and g i l l nets, w i t h the mobile f i s h e r s e n t e r i n g i n t o d i r e c t c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h t h e s t a t i o n a r y t r a p s . T h i s d e v e l o p e d i n t o a c o n f l i c t which c u l m i n a t e d w i t h the S t a t e o f Washington p a s s i n g I n i t i a t i v e 77 i n 1934 e l i m i n a t i n g the use of f i x e d gear i n the St a t e . Although I n i t i a t i v e 77 and p r i o r S t a t e r e g u l a t o r y a c t i o n s p e c i f i c a l l y exempted Indian gear from f i s h i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s , user' g r o u p s demanded t h a t the S t a t e f i s h e r i e s o f f i c i a l s t a ke a c t i o n a g a i n s t the t r i b e s . The S t a t e o b l i g e d , d e f e n d i n g i t s p o s i t i o n by c l a i m i n g t h a t t h e I n d i a n s were i n f r i n g i n g on the r i g h t s of the State. The combined r e s u l t of S t a t e and l o c a l r e g u l a t i o n , decreased f i s h i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and an u n w i l l i n g n e s s on the p a r t o f the Bureau of Indian A f f a i r s to support any v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s , was a marked i n c r e a s e i n Lummi economic underdevelopment, making 1901 to 1935 one of the most d e s t i t u t e p e r i o d s i n Lummi h i s t o r y . 118 T e c h n o l o g i c a l Growth i n the Salmon F i s h e r y A r o u n d t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y many U n i t e d S t a t e s i n d u s t r i e s , such as i r o n , c o a l , c o p p e r , s u g a r , meat, and o i l , were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o g i a n t c o n g l o m e r a t e s t h r o u g h numerous mergers. De s p i t e the Sherman A n t i - T r u s t Act of 1890, or i n some c a s e s i n d e f i a n c e o f the A c t , l a r g e m o n o p o l i e s began t o f o r m , b u y i n g o u t or f o r c i n g b a n k r u p t c y on s m a l l e r , i n d e p e n d e n t e n t r e p r e n e u r s . T h i s b u s i n e s s t r e n d was a l s o e v i d e n t i n the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y . For example, s e v e r a l s m a l l c a n n e r i e s j o i n e d to form P a c i f i c A m e r i c a n F i s h e r i e s i n 1895. S i m i l a r l y , i n 1893, t w e n t y - t w o s m a l l c a n n e r y o p e r a t o r s j o i n e d f o r c e s t o form t h e A l a s k a P a c k e r s A s s o c i a t i o n , w h i c h , by the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y , had grown to c o n t r o l over t h r e e dozen c a n n e r i e s (Greenberg 1983:2). Canneries a t Semiahmoo (Blaine) and P o i n t Roberts were i n v o l v e d i n the A l a s k a P a c k e r s merger, and the l a r g e s t salmon c a n n e r y i n the w o r l d , a t F a i r h a v e n , was p a r t o f the P a c i f i c American F i s h e r i e s merger. During the l a t e p a r t of the 1890s the A l a s k a Packers A s s o c i a t i o n accounted f o r an average of 80 percent o f the t o t a l A l a s k a salmon pack and a s i z e a b l e p o r t i o n o f the Puget Sound sockeye pack, and even t o t h i s day i t r e m a i n s a strong f o r c e i n the P a c i f i c Coast salmon f i s h e r y as a s u b s i d i a r y of the D e l Monte C o r p o r a t i o n . The t r a d i t i o n a l f i s h i n g grounds of the Lummi were c e r t a i n l y the most p r o d u c t i v e i n the S t a t e o f W a s h i n g t o n n o r t h o f the Columbia R i v e r . In 1899, e l e v e n of the " l a r g e s t salmon c a n n e r i e s i n the S t a t e " were l o c a t e d i n Whatcom County ( W i l c o x 1902:522), s i x near B l a i n e and f i v e at F a i r h a v e n (Fairhaven was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o B e l l i n g h a m i n 1904). In 1901 t w e l v e o f the n i n e t e e n Puget 119 Sound c a n n e r i e s were l o c a t e d i n Whatcom County, and those twelve a c c o u n t e d f o r t w o - t h i r d s o f the t o t a l Puget Sound salmon pack (Roth 1926:666). In the e a r l y y e a r s o f the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y the c a n n e r i e s r e l i e d upon Indian f i s h e r s and Indian l a b o r . T h i s demand f i t t e d w e l l w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l d i v i s i o n of l a b o r , where men f i s h e d and women p r o c e s s e d t h e c a t c h . H owever, as t h e t r a p s became prominent and other e t h n i c groups entered the labor f o r c e , the Indians found themselves pushed a s i d e . Perhaps the most important i n n o v a t i o n i n the c a n n e r i e s was the S m i t h B u t c h e r i n g Machine, b r a z e n l y c a l l e d t h e " I r o n C h i n k " because i t r e p l a c e d so many C h i n e s e w o r k e r s i n the c a n n e r i e s . T h i s mac