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Every man for himself : a translation of Calderon's Cada uno para sí Slawson, Richard Jacobson 1987

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EVERY MAN FOR HIMSELF: A TRANSLATION OF CALDERON'S CADA UNO PARA SI By RICHARD JACOBSON SLAWSON B.A. , Brigham Young University,  1984  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Theatre)  We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April  1987  © R i c h a r d J . Slawson,  1987  In  presenting  degree  this  at the  thesis  in  partial  fulfilment  of  University of  British  Columbia,  I agree  freely available for reference copying  of  department publication  this or of  thesis by  this  for  his  or  and study. scholarly her  Theatre  The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  Date  r>F-Gn/ft-n  April 27, 1987  requirements that the  I further agree  purposes  representatives.  may be It  thesis for financial gain shall not  permission.  Department of  the  for  an  advanced  Library shall make it  that permission  for extensive  granted  head  is  by the  understood be  that  allowed without  of  my  copying  or  my written  ABSTRACT  This thesis consists  of a f r e e v e r s e t r a n s l a t i o n of Pedro C a l d e r o n  l a Barca's 1653 p l a y Cada uno p a r a s i . the t r a n s l a t o r g i v i n g  I t also includes  a b r i e f h i s t o r y of the p l a y  the t r a n s l a t i o n p r o c e s s used i n t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n .  an i n t r o d u c t i o n  de by  as w e l l as comments on  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  i  i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  v  INTRODUCTION  1  C a l d e r o n and Cada uno p a r a s i . . .  1  D i f f i c u l t i e s Encountered  3  i n the Translation  S p a n i s h V e r s e and i t s T r a n s l a t i o n  8  The E d i t i o n o f Cada uno p a r a s i  10  Format o f t h e T r a n s l a t i o n  10  The F u t u r e o f t h e T r a n s l a t i o n  12  EVERY MAN FOR HIMSELF  14  A c t One  16  A c t Two  60  A c t Three  BIBLIOGRAPHY  107  150  iv  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I w i s h t o acknowledge  t h e h e l p and s u p p o r t g i v e n t o me by D r . P e t e r  L o e f f l e r , who suggested and oversaw t h i s p r o j e c t ; Dr. I s a a c Rubio Delgado, who  gave me a deeper u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f Golden Age comedia; and t o my w i f e ,  Karen V a l e n t i n e Slawson, w i t h o u t whose s u p p o r t , encouragement, t i o n s t h i s p r o j e c t would n e v e r have been  finish.  and sugges-  1  INTRODUCTION Translations  and  adaptions  of  p l a y s by  E n g l i s h t h e a t r e f o r more than t h r e e hundred  C a l d e r o n have been p a r t years.  I n December 1662  E v e l y n r e c o r d e d i n h i s d i a r y t h a t he went t o a r e h e a r s a l of The of  F i v e Hours, "a p l a y whose p l o t was  Calderon."1  Before Calderon's  English  translations  John  Adventure  t a k e n out of t h e famous S p a n i s h Poet  d e a t h , b o t h Dryden and  made E n g l i s h a d a p t a t i o n s of h i s works.2 of  of  Wycherly  had  also  There has s i n c e been a s t e a d y f l o w  of C a l d e r o n t o the p r e s e n t day.  However i n the  l a s t f i f t y y e a r s , most of t h e t r a n s l a t i o n s have been of C a l d e r o n ' s s e r i o u s works.  R e c e n t l y Kenneth M u i r t r a n s l a t e d two volumes of C a l d e r o n ' s comedies  w i t h t h e hope t o i n c r e a s e the p u b l i c ' s awareness of the comic Calderon.  prowess of  T h i s t r a n s l a t i o n of Cada uno p a r a s i , t h e f i r s t i n E n g l i s h ,  h o p e f u l l y add t o t h a t  will  awareness.  C a l d e r o n and Cada uno p a r a s i Pedro C a l d e r o n de l a B a r c a i s one of the b e s t known and most m a s t e r f u l dramatists  of  the  Spanish  Golden  Age.  He  was  born  i n 1600  and  began  W i l l i a m Van Lennep, ed. , The London Stage: 1660-1800 p a r t 1 16601700, i n t r o . by Emmett L. Avery and A r t h u r H. Scouten ( C a r b o n d a l e : Southern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965), 59. 1  2 K u r t R e i c h e n b e r g e r and R o s w i t h a R e i c h e n b e r g e r , eds., B i b l i o g r p h i s c h e H a n d b u c h d e r C a l d e r o n - F o r s c h u n g / Manual B i b o l i o g r a f i c o C a l d e r o n i a n o , i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h Theo Berchen and Henry W. S u l l i v a n , S p a n i s h t e x t by Angel San M i g u e l , 3 v o l . ( K a s s e l : V e r l a y , T h i e l e , & Schwarz, 1979), 1:142, 340.  2 writing  p l a y s i n t h e 1620's.  over  extant.  W h i l e , u n l i k e Lope de Vega, C a l d e r o n d i d n o t make any i n n o v a t i o n s  popularized popularity.  and s t y l e by Lope  of Spanish  drama, he q u i c k l y  and e v e n t u a l l y  He a l s o mastered  Most  p l a y s and  auto  t h e form  i n his lifetime.  one hundred  seventy  to  sacramentales  C a l d e r o n wrote  surpassed  t h e auto  of t h e s e works a r e  mastered  h i s older  the s t y l e  contemporary  sacramental, a short  in  allegorical  r e l i g i o u s p l a y , r e v i v i n g t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f t h i s form and b r i n g i n g r e l i g i o u s drama t o i t s g r e a t e s t h e i g h t s . W h i l e g e n e r a l l y b e s t known f o r h i s more s e r i o u s works such as L a v i d a es  suefio  Zalamea),  (Life  i s a Dream)  and E l A l c a l d e  de Zalamea  (The Mayor of  many o f h i s works a r e l i g h t e r , r o m a n t i c comedies o f t h e capa y  espada (cape and sword) genre.  These p l a y s r e v o l v e around t h e p l i g h t s of  young l o v e r s s e p a r a t e d through some s o r t o f m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t e n by c o n f l i c t i n g demands o f t h e r i g i d S p a n i s h code of honour.  caused  Cada uno p a r a  s i f a l l s i n t o t h i s genre of p l a y s . It would works.  i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d t h a t Cada uno was w r i t t e n i n 1652-53.  put i t s c r e a t i o n n e a r l y At t h i s  religious  twenty  years a f t e r  time C a l d e r o n had r e t i r e d  o r d e r s and wrote  primarily  This  C a l d e r o n ' s b e t t e r known  from t h e p u b l i c t h e a t r e s , t a k e n  a t the request of the Court.  Away  from t h e p r e s s u r e s o f t h e p u b l i c t h e a t r e , C a l d e r o n appears t o have had t h e time t o r e v i s e t h e p l a y .  J o s e Ruano de l a Haza, i n h i s c r i t i c a l e d i t i o n of  Cada uno, i d e n t i f i e s t h r e e d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s of t h e t h i r d a c t o f t h e p l a y , including  one i n a  semi-autograph  manuscript  r e v i s i o n s by C a l d e r o n h i m s e l f made some twenty  which  appears  to contain  y e a r s a f t e r he o r i g i n a l l y  3 wrote t h e p l a y . ^  Ruano b e l i e v e s t h a t t h i s p l a y r e p r e s e n t s C a l d e r o n ' s  last  capa y espada p l a y and shows C a l d e r o n ' s g r e a t e s t d o m i n a t i o n of the genre.4 W h i l e the p l a y i s now Ruano has 1744.-*  not w e l l known, d u r i n g i t s day i t was  d i s c o v e r e d numerous r e c o r d s of  As  very popular.  i t s performance  from  1682  to  f a r as I have been a b l e t o d i s c o v e r , the p l a y has never been  t r a n s l a t e d i n t o any  language.  D i f f i c u l t i e s Encountered i n the T r a n s l a t i o n .  T h i s t r a n s l a t i o n a t t e m p t s t o c r e a t e a r e a d a b l e E n g l i s h v e r s i o n of Cada uno  that  poetry  keeps as much of  and  the s p a r k l e  and  lyric  y e t does not d e v i a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y  d i f f i c u l t task at best.  quality  from the t e x t .  understandable  altered.  Spanish  This i s a  I t has been s a i d t h a t i f a t r a n s l a t i o n i s b e a u t i -  f u l i t i s not t r u e , and i f i t i s t r u e i t i s not b e a u t i f u l . passage  of the  i n English,  t h e meaning  of  the  O f t e n t o make a passage  must  F o r example on page 38 of t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n , Hernando and  have an exchange about  Juana  t h a t would  read i f t r a n s l a t e d  with  be  Simon  similar  meanings t o the o r i g i n a l : SIMON Then u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e mute i s of v i t r i o l and burns anyone who touches h e r .  -* J o s e M. Ruano de l a Haza, P r e f a c e t o Cada uno p a r a s i by Pedro C a l d e r o n de l a B a r c a , ed. J o s e M. Ruano de l a Haza, T e a t r o d e l S i g l o de Oro E d i c i ones C r i t i c a s 1 ( K a s s e l : E d i t i o n R e i c h e n b e r g e r , 1982), i x . A l l subsequent r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s e d i t i o n and i t s n o t e s w i l l be r e f e r e n c e d as Ruano, Cada uno. 4 J o s e M. Ruano de l a H a z a , " E s t r u c t u r a e i n t e r p r e t a c i o n de una comedia de capa y espada de C a l d e r o n Cada uno p a r a s i , " Hacia Calderon (1979): 106. Ruano, Cada uno,  100-01.  4 HERNANDO Then w i t h o n l y t h i s w a r n i n g , she w i l l be mute and I w i l l be mum; f o r t h e r e ' s no f e a r t h a t I'd l o v e the mute of another g a l l a n t , even though she was of C e r u s e , even more than of V i t r i o l . However, t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n does not r e f l e c t the complex p l a y on the words,  muda  (mute  or  a  change  of  undergarments),  s u b s t a n c e here t r a n s l a t e d as v i t r i o l , and a S p a n i s h and  Albayaldos  (white  l e a d , and  soliman  Spanish  (a c a u s t i c  form of a T u r k i s h name)  a pseudo-Moorish name).  The  pun  on muda,  which i s c e n t r a l t o the r o g u i s h f e e l of t h i s passage, i s c o m p l e t e l y Since  the  obscure,  Spanish this  puns do  not  t r a n s l a t e and  the  English equivalents  passage becomes u n i n t e l l i g i b l e w i t h o u t  n o t e s . I changed the pun  lost.*>  lengthy  explanatory  i n t h i s passage t o one w h i c h r e t a i n e d some of  same sense of w i t as the o r i g i n a l of the o r i g i n a l r i c h n e s s i s s t i l l  and  made i t u n d e r s t a n d a b l e ,  are  the  though some  lost: SIMON  Beware f o r the l a d y borrows her l o v e r ' s sword f o r her tongue. HERNANDO Then w i t h o n l y t h i s w a r n i n g , she can be h i s mute and I w i l l be mum; f o r t h e r e i s no f e a r t h a t I'd the mute of a n o t h e r l o v e r , even though h e r l o o k s a r e as sharp as her tongue.  At  other  times  the  love  meaning of a l i n e had  t o be  completely  For example on page 19, Hernando, when asked by V i o l a n t e why  he  f o r f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n of these puns see Ruano, Cada uno,  changed. does 334.  not  5 follow  Don F e l i x  literally meaning  t o t h e sword  fight,  replies:  t h i s means " I n e i t h e r go n o r come."  " i t doesn't c o n c e r n me."  " N i voy n i vengo"  which  T h i s i s an i d i o m a t i c phrase  However t h e r e i s a deeper c o n n o t a t i o n t o  t h i s phrase s i n c e t h e word vengo ( I come) a l s o means " I avenge."  This dual  meaning i s e x p l o i t e d i n t h e axiom o f d u e l e r s "con q u i e n vengo, vengo" whom I come, I avenge) which means t h a t always f i g h t  on t h a t man's s i d e no m a t t e r who h i s opponent  t h i s understanding the l i t e r a l line  a man accompanying  t o "Because  t r a n s l a t i o n i s meaningless.  I keep my p l a c e " which r e l a t e d  another is.^  (with will  Without  I changed t h e  t o t h e pun i n t h e l i n e s  that followed:  VIOLANTE Why don't you a l s o go? HERNANDO Because I keep my p l a c e . INES But won't you t a k e y o u r p l a c e a t your m a s t e r ' s s i d e ? HERNANDO I t wouldn't be r i g h t to t a k e a p l a c e a t my master's s i d e , because, no m a t t e r what happens, good s e r v a n t s must appear t i m i d and modest, and always take t h e i r place behind t h e i r masters.  There have been some o c c a s i o n s where I c u t p a r t s o f t h e t e x t .  Usually  these c o n s i s t e d o f r e d u n d a n c i e s o r g r a m m a t i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s which d i d n o t translate  well  into  English.  Occasionally  I followed  a reading  from  7 F e l i x makes r e f e r e n c e t o t h i s r u l e on page 87 when he has t o d e c i d e whether t o f o l l o w C a r l o s o r E n r i q u e . C a l d e r o n a l s o used t h i s r u l e as t h e premise o f a p l a y e n t i t l e d Con q u i e n vengo, vengo i n which a f a t h e r and a son a r e c o m p e l l e d by t h e i r honour t o f i g h t each o t h e r s i m p l y because each was accompanying a d i f f e r e n t p a r t y i n a d u e l .  6 another e d i t i o n . readability  There were two major c u t s  of t h e play.  They  both  occur  that  I made t o improve t h e  i n Carlos'  long  expository  monologue i n a c t o n e — a p a r t w h i c h w i l l p r o b a b l y have t o be c u t f u r t h e r f o r a modern audience.  The f i r s t c u t comes on page 24 a t t h e b e g i n n i n g  of the  monologue:  A f t e r we l e f t B a r c e l o n a t o g e t h e r , senor don J u a n , having obtained, w i t h t h e v a l o u r and t h e c o u n s e l of h i s n o b l e g e n e r a l s , the hopes o f a s i e g e , i n which c o n c u r r e d a l l the a c c l a i m and rewards of l a n d and o f s e a , of a t t a c k and o f s e i g e , we s e p a r a t e d . . . T h i s i s g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d t o be a t o p i c a l a l l u s i o n t o t h e Spanish at  siege  of Barcelona  which occurred  i n 1652.  Since  this  victory  a l l u s i o n has  n o t h i n g t o do w i t h t h e p l o t o f t h e p l a y and i n t r o d u c e s a name which i s n o t used  again  Molina's The  (and c o u l d  be confused  by a modern a u d i e n c e w i t h  c h a r a c t e r , don Juan T e n o r i o ) , I d e c i d e d second  Leonor's beauty translation  major  cut occurred  Carlos  as he saw i t t h r o u g h h e r l a t t i c e d window.  She was behind a g r i l l e d window s e c l u d e d from t h e s e c r e t p u b l i c by a l a t t i c e t h a t made my d e s i r e more f o r w a r d , because l y i n g i n w a i t has some p l o t t h a t s h i n e s i n g e n i o u s l y , now d e n y i n g t h e s i g h t , now c o n c e d i n g i t ; but i f I c a l l e d h e r dawn, what more than between r e f l e c t i o n s , confusingly d i s t i n c t  de  t o c u t t h i s passage.  on page 27 w h e r e  o f t h e passage r e a d :  Tirso  describes  The o r i g i n a l  7 and d i s t i n c t l y b l i n d , d i v i n i n g the c a r e , i f I see her o r not see h e r , t w i l i g h t would be f o r the s i g h t h o l e of the ambush? I n o r d e r t o make t h i s passage more u n d e r s t a n d a b l e I pared i t down t o : She was b e h i n d a g r i l l e d window, s e c l u d e d from the s e c r e t p u b l i c by a l a t t i c e t h a t made my d e s i r e more f o r w a r d , s h i n i n g i n g e n i o u s l y , now d e n y i n g t h e s i g h t , now c o n c e d i n g i t confusingly d i s t i n c t and d i s t i n c t l y b l i n d . While  the passage  loses  the images of dawn and  Baroque oxymorons w h i l e e l i m i n a t i n g the mixed  twilight,  i t retains  the  images t h a t c o u l d c o n f u s e a  modern r e a d e r . One  d i f f i c u l t y I f a c e d through t h e whole t r a n s l a t i o n was  of honour.  By t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e S p a n i s h had developed a complex  code of honour. honour.  the q u e s t i o n  Cada uno  Most p l o t s i n Golden i s no  different.  Age  drama c e n t r e on a q u e s t i o n of  Much of the a c t i o n  i n the p l a y i s  pushed f o r w a r d by the c h a r a c t e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n of t h e i r duty i n r e l a t i o n t o the code of honour.*-"  F o r example, on page 87, F e l i x uses the 'law of the  d u e l ' t o d e c i d e which of h i s f r i e n d s t o f o l l o w a f t e r he d i s c o v e r s they a r e mortal  enemies.  S i n c e the Golden  Age  audience would  have u n d e r s t o o d  by  i m p l i c a t i o n many of the a l l u s i o n s made t o the o b l i g a t i o n s t h a t honour h e l d on the c h a r a c t e r , I have had t o expand the o r i g i n a l t e x t i n a few p l a c e s t o make i t c l e a r e r t o a modern a u d i e n c e . f o r a more d e t a i l e d account of how honour f u n c t i o n s i n Golden Age drama s e e W.J. E n t w i s t l e , "Honra y d u e l o , " R o m a n i s t i s c h e Jahrbuch I I I (1950): 404-20. 8  8 I  encountered  Carlos'  informe  Santiago. rival,  becomes  primarily with  This  a similar  problem  or examination i s a key p l o t  h i s informante  with  t h e passages  t o be made a K n i g h t  element  of t h e Order  Since  Calderon  was  t i m e , h i s audience was p r o b a b l y  t h e mechanism of an i n f o r m e .  with of  o f t h e p l a y as E n r i q u e , C a r l o ' s  o r examiner.  f o r the court a t t h i s  that dealt  Calderon  h i m s e l f passed  i n f o r m e t o become a K n i g h t o f S a n t i a g o i n 1636.  writing familiar  through  an  A g a i n I expanded many of  the r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e Order o f S a n t i a g o ( o f t e n c a l l j u s t " t h e Order" i n t h e text)  and t h e p r o c e s s  o f t h e i n f orme i n o r d e r  t o make them more f o r a  modern a u d i e n c e .  S p a n i s h V e r s e and i t s T r a n s l a t i o n . T r a n s l a t i n g S p a n i s h v e r s e posed unique  problems.  Spanish  versifica-  t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t than E n g l i s h v e r s i f i c a t i o n s i n c e i t can use an assonance rhyme r a t h e r than consonance and i s g e n e r a l l y s y l l a b i c r a t h e r t h a n m e t r i c . Assonance rhyme means t h a t t h e a c c e n t e d vowel consonants  are.  F o r example, c r e c i d a and m e n t i r a would be c o n s i d e r e d an  i - a assonance rhyme i n Spanish.9 which lines.  are eight s y l l a b l e  lines  Cada uno i s m o s t l y w r i t t e n i n romances, with  an assonance  T h i s form was t h e most common i n Golden  l i k e b l a n k v e r s e was f o r E l i z a b e t h a n drama. hidden  i s rhymed d e s p i t e what t h e  to the E n g l i s h e a r , I f e l t  rhyme on  alternating  Age S p a n i s h drama, much  S i n c e t h e rhyme i s p a r t i a l l y  t h a t b l a n k v e r s e would be t h e c l o s e s t  English equivalent.  9 f o r f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n o f S p a n i s h p o e t r y see H a r o l d K. Moon, S p a n i s h L i t e r a t u r e : A C r i t i c a l Approach ( L e x i n g t o n , Mass.: Xerox C o l l e g e P u b l i s h i n g , 1972), 271-91.  9 S i n c e , t h e r u l e s of S p a n i s h v e r s i f i c a t i o n a l l o w f o r a v a r i a t i o n i n the number of s y l l a b l e s  in a line,  I have made my  I n S p a n i s h p o e t r y when two o r t h r e e vowel  t r a n s l a t i o n i n free verse.  a r e found  t o g e t h e r , they can  be  l i n k e d i n t o one s y l l a b l e even when the r e g u l a r r u l e s of p h o n e t i c s would not a l l o w t h i s and  counted  would l i n k them. counted  as  one  as s e p a r a t e s y l l a b l e s even when the p h o n e t i c r u l e s  F o r example, the sentence v i a e l ( I saw syllable,  two  syllables,  or  even  him)  c o u l d be  three s y l l a b l e s .  This  g i v e s the S p a n i s h poet a f l e x i b i l i t y not a v a i l a b l e t o an E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t o r who  wishes  to f o l l o w s t r i c t  Edwin Honig's  metric rules.  However, a d a p t i n g s l i g h t l y  c h o i c e of v e r s i f i c a t i o n f o r h i s t r a n s l a t i o n s of  I have attempted nine s y l l a b l e s .  where p o s s i b l e t o keep t h e l i n e  on  Calderon,^  l e n g t h between s i x and  I b e l i e v e t h i s approximates most n e a r l y t h e v e r s i f i c a t i o n  of the o r i g i n a l . About syllable  twenty  line  change from shift  which  the  follows  play  an  Romances a r e  while  redondillas  romantic s i t u a t i o n s .  i s written  i n redondillas,  'abba' consonance  romances t o r e d o n d i l l a s  i n mode.  situations,  percent  i n Spanish  generally  used  where g e n e r a l l y  an  eight  rhyme s t r u c t u r e .  The  drama u s u a l l y i n narrative used  suggests  and  i n lighter  dramatic or  T h i s s h i f t i n v e r s i f i c a t i o n i s s i m i l a r t o the  from b l a n k v e r s e t o prose i n E l i z a b e t h a n drama.  a  more shift  I d e c i d e d however t o keep  the s e c t i o n s i n r e d o n d i l l a s i n f r e e v e r s e , s i n c e I wished  t o keep them i n  v e r s e and I c o u l d not f i n d a s u i t a b l e E n g l i s h v e r s e form as an a l t e r a t i v e . My  attempt  succeed  at  putting  p a r t s of  the  play into  s i n c e the v e r s e q u i c k l y became f l a t  rhyming  couplets did  and d o g g e r e l — p r o b a b l y a  not sign  10 F o r a f u l l e r d i s c u s s i o n on Honig's t r a n s l a t i o n of S p a n i s h v e r s e see Edwin H o n i g , I n t r o d u c t i o n t o C a l d e r o n de l a B a r c a : Four P l a y s , by Pedro C a l d e r o n de l a B a r c a , t r a n s . Edwin Honig (New York: H i l l and Wang, 1961), x i i .  10 of my s h o r t comings as a p o e t . in  the v e r s i f i c a t i o n ,  S i n c e I was u n a b l e t o f i n d a s u i t a b l e  I s e t t l e d on a compromise.  shift  The p o i n t s i n t h e p l a y  where t h e s h i f t s occur have been marked by f o o t n o t e s i n t h e t r a n s l a t i o n .  The E d i t i o n o f Cada uno p a r a s i .  F o r t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n I have chosen t o f o l l o w t h e c r i t i c a l Cada uno e d i t e d by J o s e Ruano de l a Haza. all  e d i t i o n of  I made t h i s d e c i s i o n because o f  t h e e d i t i o n s o f Cada uno a v a i l a b l e t h i s one was t h e most complete.  contains  a l l of the v a r i a n t s  from  the s i g n i f i c a n t  p l a y as w e l l as from t h e semi-autograph  manuscript.  early  It  e d i t i o n s of the  Ruano a l s o e x p l a i n s i n  the case o f many o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t changes, why he chose one v a r i a n t over another o r made h i s own emendation. few d e t a i l e d c r i t i c a l  a n a l y s e s o f t h e p l a y as w e l l as e x p l a n a t o r y n o t e s on  some o f t h e more obscure passages. variants  The e d i t i o n a l s o c o n t a i n e d one o f t h e  a t once o f any p a r t i c u l a r  T h i s e d i t i o n a l l o w e d me t o see a l l t h e passage and a l l o w e d me t o chose t h e  v a r i a n t I f e l t worked b e s t f o r t h e t r a n s l a t i o n . Format o f t h e T r a n s l a t i o n . For  t h e format  of the t r a n s l a t i o n  I f o l l o w e d t h e format  f o r play  m a n u s c r i p t s found i n Sam S m i l e y ' s P l a y w r i t i n g : The S t r u c t u r e o f A c t i o n w i t h modifications headings  necessary  to f i t the required thesis  format.  a r e i n c a p i t a l l e t t e r s c e n t r e d above each speech u n i t .  d i r e c t i o n s a r e i n d e n t e d t o t h e c e n t r e o f t h e page and i n c l o s e d theses.  speech  A l l stage i n paren-  A l l c h a r a c t e r names i n t h e s t a g e d i r e c t i o n s a r e i n c a p i t a l s .  the sake o f c l a r i t y I have d e v i a t e d s l i g h t l y of  The  the 'aside' stage  directions.  For  from S m i l e y i n t h e placement  U s u a l l y a one word  stage  direction  11 'aside'  would  be p l a c e d  " i n the» normal  sequence o f t h e speech  unit."^  S i n c e t h i s was c o n f u s i n g i n t h e v e r s e s t r u c t u r e , I p l a c e d t h e ' a s i d e ' stage directions original  i n t h e same p l a c e  text there  audience,  are three  those heard  only  types  stage  directions.  o f a s i d e s : those  by t h e  by o n l y one o t h e r c h a r a c t e r , and those heard  by a l l  F o r t h e sake o f c l a r i t y , I have p l a c e d  by t h e audience i n p a r e n t h e s i s .  to other  sistent  characters i n parenthesis—again  p r a c t i c e of the t e x t — a n d  particular  character  aside—actually dashes.  a type  text  I have a l s o put t h e  expanding on t h e i n c o n -  have d e s i g n a t e d  ( i . e . "(aside  a l l the  In the o r i g i n a l  some, b u t n o t a l l , o f these a s i d e s a r e i n p a r e n t h e s i s . asides  heard  I n the  only  the c h a r a c t e r s on s t a g e . a s i d e s heard  as t h e l o n g e r  them as an a s i d e  t o HERNANDO)").  The t h i r d  of p a r e n t h e t i c a l i n j e c t i o n — I  have  to a  type o f  placed  within  O r i g i n a l l y many o f t h e s e were p l a c e d i n p a r e n t h e s i s , but t h i s made  i t d i f f i c u l t t o d i s t i n g u i s h between them and t h e o t h e r type o f a s i d e s . G e n e r a l l y I have l e f t edition.  t h e s t a g e d i r e c t i o n s as they  H i s emendations o f t h e s t a g e  regulating  t h e use o f t h e d i r e c t i o n  appear i n Ruano's  directions consisted mainly  aparte  or "aside".  of  Occasionally I  v a r i e d from t h e t e x t when I f e l t an emendation was u n n e c e s s a r y , o r when an alternate few  from another  text c l a r i f i e d  stage d i r e c t i o n s d i r e c t i n g  felt  i t was d i f f i c u l t  the a c t i o n b e t t e r .  a speech t o a p a r t i c u l a r  c h a r a c t e r when I  t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h c h a r a c t e r was b e i n g  Finally  I broke up some o f t h e s t a g e  cribing  t h e a c t i o n s o f V i o l a n t e , Leonor  F e l i x at the r i v e r bank—that  N.J.:  I a l s o added a  directions—for and t h e i r  addressed.  example those  maids as they  dessignal  u n l i k e modern p r a c t i c e were p l a c e d i n a b l o c k  H Sam S m i l e y , P l a y w r i t i n g : The S t r u c t u r e o f A c t i o n (Englewood C l i f f s , P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1971), 267.  12 that described  the c h a r a c t e r ' s  actions  over s e v e r a l  lines.  I placed  p a r t s of the l a r g e r b l o c k i n the p l a c e where I f e l t the d i a l o g u e the a p p r o p r i a t e  The  the  indicated  action.  F u t u r e of the T r a n s l a t i o n  As the t r a n s l a t i o n s t a n d s now o r i g i n a l play.  i t i s a f a i t h f u l t r a n s l a t i o n of  the  I t w i l l g i v e a non-Spanish s p e a k i n g r e a d e r a good i d e a  the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , p l o t development, and However the purpose of drama i s not t r a n s l a t i o n i s not  humour of t h i s genre of  t o be r e a d but  ready f o r the s t a g e .  t o be  of  play.  performed.  This  A modern audience would soon l o s e  i n t e r e s t i n the l o n g p a s s a g e s , such as C a r l o s ' t a l e , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e much of  the  poetic  beauty  of  those passages does not  translate into English.  There are s t i l l many obscure a l l u s i o n s , puns, and a c t i o n s r e l a t e d t o honour that  would  sparkle,  c o n f u s e a modern a u d i e n c e .  on  the  whole,  a  production  j u s t i c e t o the comic s p i r i t However, I f e e l brilliant that  comic p i e c e .  r e t a i n s the  modern  that  of the the  I plan  tastes.  speech w i l l  have t o be  challenge  of  To  do  the  this  a d d i t i o n s w i t h out  t r a n s l a t i o n would  the  original,  this, adapting  adaptation  p o t e n t i a l to  I will the  but  will  The  text.  that  not  do  become a  to  suited  to  long  perhaps  t u r n i n g i t i n t o an out and  more c l e a r l y .  make the  necessary  out f a r c e .  to  t a k e much more  Carlos' and  adaption  narra-  partially  problems of the i n f o r m e and  explained be  i s better  have  condensed c o n s i d e r a b l y  of honour would have t o be of  many s p o t s  original.  r e p l a c e d by o t h e r forms of e x p o s i t i o n . questions  this  are  t o rework the t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o an  l i b e r t i e s i n c u t t i n g , a d d i n g , and tive  of  there  t r a n s l a t i o n has  comic s p i r i t  theatrical  While  The  major  cuts  In order  the  for  and an  a d a p t i o n t o do j u s t i c e  to Calderon's  dramatic prowress,  r e t a i n as much of the p o e t i c s p i r i t of the o r i g i n a l as  i t would have  possible.  The Famous Comedy of Every Man F o r H i m s e l f by Pedro C a l d e r o n de l a B a r c a  t r a n s l a t e d by R i c h a r d J . Slawson  Cast of C h a r a c t e r s  Don F e l i x  Simon  Don C a r l o s  Don L u i s  Hernando  Don Diego  Violante  Leonor  Ines  Juana  Don E n r i q u e  Three C o n s t a b l  16  Act  One  ( E n t e r DON FELIX and HERNANDO, d r e s s e d for a journey.) DON FELIX T e l l t h e p o r t e r , Hernando, to h u r r y w i t h h i s m o u t h f u l , f o r I w i l l n o t s t a y here any l o n g e r t h a n i t t a k e s me t o see the C a t h e d r a l ; f o r i t would be l i t t l e C a t h o l i c z e a l f o r me to pass t h r o u g h T o l e d o w i t h o u t v i s i t i n g i t s Sanctuary. HERNANDO He's a l r e a d y been a d v i s e d . And I ' d l i k e t o a d v i s e t h e d e v i l to c a r r y t h a t p o r t e r o f f t o H e l l . DON FELIX What has he s a i d o r done t o you to p u t you a t such odds w i t h him? HERNANDO Y o u ' l l know a l l i n good time . . . (aside) ( i f Juana doesn't f i x t h i n g s f i r s t ) ; but t e l l me, I pray y o u , s i n c e i t i s almost n i g h t , why do you want t o go now? DON FELIX Fool, I w i s h t o a r r i v e i n M a d r i d by dawn, — t h o u g h I l a y a s i d e Don E n r i q u e , my f r i e n d so t r u e , who w i t h p l e a s u r e a w a i t s my coming, to go t o h e r whom I most l o v e . — f o r I cannot w a i t f o r t h e hour i n w h i c h I see Leonor and see i f , when spoken, h e r l o v e i s as b e a u t i f u l as when w r i t t e n . But who c o u l d doubt i t , h a v i n g r e a d i n h e r l e t t e r s so many p l e d g e s  that her heart remains s t e a d f a s t l y pure i n my absence? HERNANDO I doubt i t and I double doubt i t , seeing that f o r doubt and f o r double doubt there are two strong arguments: the f i r s t , which i s her p a r t , woman, f a i t h f u l n e s s and Madrid; and the second, which i s yours, love and poverty. These extremes imply a c o n t r a d i c t i o n ; and more so today, since you've l o s t the inheritance on which you based your s u i t f o r her i n marriage. Love can overcome that and any other problem, because I see i n the l e t t e r s she writes me a thousand and one words that she w i l l be my w i f e .  DON FELIX  HERNANDO And what do we do with the proverb that says: words, l i k e feathers, are c a r r i e d away by the wind? DON FELIX Leave i t f o r the common beauties, f o r peerless lovers need not l i s t e n to such uncouth r e f r a i n s . VIOLANTE (within) Heavens! W i l l no one here protect a l i f e ? DON FELIX Isn't that a woman's voice I hear? HERNANDO Unless i t ' s some c a s t r a t o , who's i n the midst of composing a lamentation, then i t seems to be a woman; but i f i t i s or i s n ' t , what does i t matter? DON FELIX How can you say that? How could I j u s t i f y myself not going  18 to her aid? (from w i t h i n , fighting)  the  sound  of  sword  HERNANDO By not going; and more so since after her cry comes the noise of sword f i g h t s . A VOICE (within) Die  tyrant! DON CARLOS (within) Traitors! HERNANDO Stop! Don't go! DON FELIX  Stand aside! (Enter VIOLANTE and INES, veiled) VIOLANTE Senor, aid a woman who begs for your assistance and l e t s fortune choose her champion. (sword fighting within) DON FELIX Take courage and command me. VIOLANTE Help a single man i n danger who finds himself assailed by three, not for the i n j u s t i c e of the odds, but because, as a woman, I invoke the p r i v i l e g e that honour gives me and ask i t of you.  DON FELIX To both s u i t s I respond with one single r e p l y . T r a i t o r s ! Three against one? ( e x i t s , drawing his sword) HERNANDO That's exactly what the sick man s a i d , when he saw three doctors enter  19 h i s room. VIOLANTE Why don't you a l s o go? HERNANDO Because I keep my p l a c e . INES But won't you take your p l a c e a t your master's s i d e ? HERNANDO I t wouldn't be r i g h t to take a p l a c e a t my master's s i d e , because, no matter what happens, good s e r v a n t s must appear t i m i d and modest, and always take t h e i r p l a c e behind t h e i r masters. A VOICE (within) R e t r e a t , we a r e beaten t h i s time, but we s h a l l come a g a i n . ( E n t e r , w i t h swords unsheathed, FELIX and DON CARLOS.) DON FELIX Stop, f o r p u r s u i n g those who f l e e shows more baseness than d a r i n g . DON CARLOS So not t o f o r c e f u r t h e r danger on t h e man I owe t h i s day my l i f e , (sheaves h i s sword.) I w i l l s t o p ; but who do I behold? Don F e l i x ! DON FELIX Who do I see? Don  Carlos! DON CARLOS  Who but you would a r r i v e a t my hour o f need? HERNANDO Don C a r l o s i s i t ? Well then, how can I not f l y a f t e r them and break them i n t o a thousand p i e c e s ?  DON  DON Hold,  FELIX  fool. INES  Now,  That's f o r sure. you're angry?  HERNANDO Every man becomes angry when he can, f o r i n the end, the f i r s t movement i s not i n the hand of man. DON CARLOS At such a s t r a n g e t u r n of events I marvel a g a i n and a thousand t i m e s . DON  FELIX  But do not thank me, f o r , not knowing you who you were, I d i d i t f o r my honour, and not f o r you, b e i n g bound as I was by t h i s l a d y ' s devoted purpose, I gave the a i d to which you owe your l i f e . DON  CARLOS (to VIOLANTE)  Which i s j u s t as w e l l f o r me, f o r , h a v i n g misunderstood, my n e u t r a l g r a t i t u d e by g o i n g — e x c u s e m e — t o him, would have o f f e n d e d you. And so, V i o l a n t e , d e s p i t e your r a s h s u s p i c i o n s , which c r e a t e p r e s e n t contempt from p a s t f a v o u r s , you were anxious f o r my l i f e . VIOLANTE Don C a r l o s , I c o n f e s s my c o n c e r n ; but i t i s one t h i n g f o r your p e r i l to weigh upon the n o b i l i t y of my s o u l and another f o r your t r e a c h e r i e s to weigh upon the f a i t h of my h e a r t ; and s i n c e now I l e a v e you w i t h your l i f e , and so w e l l guarded t h a t my n o b l e f e a r may l e a v e me a g a i n the i n j u r e d p a r t y , I pray you, do not f o l l o w me a second time.  DON FELIX Sefiora, I appeal this sentence; for until you are safe, far from this tumult, I cannot let you leave alone. VIOLANTE I thank you for your concern, because you have thought perhaps, with no l i t t l e foundation, that I am the cause of this attack. I am not, but while being followed—much to my disgust— by Carlos, I saw him assailed by three men who did so for reasons known only to themselves; and thus startled, remembering that useless time in which I believed his falsehoods, I entreated you. And since I am in no danger going by myself, I pray you, upon your courteous bravery — t o which I will forever thankfully confess a l l that I owe you— stay, and make sure he does not follow me; for I do not wish him, as I said, to attribute affection to my actions, since they came because I loved him once, and not because I love him now. (Exit VIOLANTE and INES) DON FELIX What a strange resolution. DON CARLOS Don't be surprised, for jealousy makes love grow hard. DON FELIX But getting back to this skirmish, i f holding this position isn't important, i t seems to me best to leave, especially considering the speed with which the law responds to the commotion of swords. DON CARLOS You're right; and so, come with me through this street, for I desire, thinking of another thing, to make  22 a complaint  w i t h my g r a t i t u d e . (They e x i t through one door and e n t e r through and o t h e r . )  HERNANDO When, L o r d , w i l l come t h e day t h a t you take me from the forward squadron and make me a s s i s t a n t l a c k e y t o an o l d p r i e s t , who doesn't know t h a t t h e r e a r e more d u e l s i n t h e world than t h e d u e l s i n h i s chest, h i s bladder, and h i s cough?  and Don  DON CARLOS You a r e i n Toledo a r e not s t a y i n g i n my house, Felix?  DON FELIX I have reason enough t o be excused, f o r when I was i n Granada I i n q u i r e d a f t e r you, and f i n d i n g you were absent because o f a q u a r r e l , and not f o r e s e e i n g t h a t i t c o u l d have come t o an end so soon, I thought you had n o t y e t r e t u r n e d . DON CARLOS For t h e good t h a t i t does t o our f r i e n d s h i p , I accept t h i s excuse; and so t h a t w e ' l l have no need o f i t a g a i n , look sharp, H e r n a n d i l l o , and b r i n g t h e trunks to my house. HERNANDO What do you mean H e r n a n d i l l o ? Must I c o n t i n u e to s u f f e r your contempt? DON CARLOS I t wasn't contempt, but a friendly diminutive. HERNANDO I don't c a r e f o r d i m i n u t i v e friendship. DON FELIX What d i f f e r e n c e does i t make?  23 HERNANDO Between Hernando and Hernandillo the difference, i f you measure w e l l , i s the same as you w i l l f i n d — j u s t see i f t h i s i s n o t h i n g — between Madrid and Madrilejos.* DON  FELIX  Now then, stop this foolishness. Don Carlos, i f there i s nothing more I can do to serve you, detain me no longer, because I carry an urgent concern to Madrid, and so I must a r r i v e quickly. But i t ' s night now,  DON CARLOS where w i l l you go? DON  FELIX  I promise you that my concern i s of such urgency that i t w i l l stop for nothing. DON I pray you, even i f just for this night, be the worthy guest of my desires, since for countless days I have suffered many pains and had no r e l i e f , don F e l i x . It would be a cruel twist of Fate to take away the one chance that my good fortune gives, as f i n a l consolation, to rest my sorrows with you.  CARLOS  DON Hernando, go and t e l l Pedro not to wait for me tonight, for I wish to do this favour, even at my expense, for don Carlos; but at the break of dawn I must go.  FELIX  DON  CARLOS  Go then, senior don Hernando, and return quickly a d e l i b e r a t e corruption of Madridejos, a small town near Toledo (Ruano, Cada uno, 330) which allows Hernando to pun on lejos meaning " f a r away".  24 f o r I wish you t o a l s o be my guest. HERNANDO T h i s i s as bad as t h e o t h e r . But where am I t o r e t u r n t o ? S i n c e by day I get l o s t i n T o l e d o , by n i g h t I ' l l be c o m p l e t e l y i n t h e dark. DON CARLOS Go toward t h e Gate o f Perdon, between i t and t h e c i t y h a l l we w i l l w a i t f o r you. (Exit  HERNANDO)  DON FELIX So t h a t your r e l i e f and my d e s i r e are not l o s t i n t h i s s h o r t space w h i l e we go and w a i t , t e l l me: i n what q u a r r e l d i d I f i n d you entrenched between f a v o u r and contempt, and so e n c i r c l e d by enemies? DON CARLOS Such unusual events have happened to me t h a t you w i l l t h i n k you a r e l i s t e n i n g to a novel. DON FELIX I t w i l l be a p l e a s u r e t o l i s t e n to such a t a l e . DON CARLOS Listen closely. A f t e r we l e f t t h e s i e g e o f B a r c e l o n a together,-^ we s e p a r a t e d — i f i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t two b o d i e s which have one s o u l can s e p a r a t e — to seek our advancement: I t o candidacy o f t h e o r d e r of S a n t i a g o w i t h which h i s M a j e s t y , may Heaven p r e s e r v e him, honoured my s e r v i c e s ; and you, upon t h e death o f a kinsman, t o some s e t t l e m e n t of an i n h e r i t a n c e .  see i n t r o d u c t i o n page 6 f o r t h e p a r t c u t from t h i s  speech.  With this matter i n mind, then, I arrived, F e l i x , i n Toledo: And as I went about seeking s o c i a l contacts and money — a n d we s o l d i e r s are not always privileged with such f o r t u n e — the idleness of c i t y l i f e , freed me of both women and game, u n t i l Love, offended by the d i s i n t e r e s t I showed i n paying tribute to his empire, wished vengeance on me by shooting into my chest the harpoon of a beauty, whose beauty I do not praise because I have need of that praise for another chapter of my t a l e : i t i s enough to say that even though glory and beauty were joined i n one subject, mixing the noble and the beautiful with the courteous grace of a l l the Toledian empire, Love wasn't s a t i s f i e d to see me a tributary merely comfortable with love. In this state, then, content and free from pain, I lived an i d l e r of love, u n t i l one day i n a gaming house, while playing a hand, I had, F e l i x , an encounter with a wellborn gentleman, whose n o b i l i t y came more from h i s money than from h i s blood: he disputed what I had played. I don't want appear a braggart, so i t i s enough say that, finding myself challenged, he ended up nursing the wound. After I had gathered together my friends and kinsmen, they advised me to hide; and r e a l i z i n g that i n no other place was a man more concealed than unconcealed i n Madrid — s i n c e i n i t s immense sea no man i s known and more so a man who i s so unknown he i s a stranger i n h i s homeland— I went to the house of a kinsman, where I withdrew for several days. And noticing that only the l e t t e r s  26 from Toledo addressed me by name, I changed my name: not from f e a r , but d i s t r u s t . I won't t e l l how d u r i n g t h i s time the examiner from the Order came t o T o l e d o and how v i l e l y my enemy, making b e t t e r use of h i s tongue than he d i d of h i s s t e e l , attempted to sow a g a i n s t my honour who knows what s o r t of l i b e l — a n d g i v i n g these circumstances I hope f o r a new examiner. You are p r o b a b l y wondering, don F e l i x , that given t h i s s i t u a t i o n , why do I r e t u r n , c o n t r a r y to a l l I say, t o i r r i t a t e the p r i d e of t h i s n o b l e w i t h my s i g h t , g i v i n g to h i s a u d a c i t y the advantageous o c c a s i o n to seek me, s i n c e i t would be a better resolution to be absent of e v e r y t h i n g , and seek moderation through f r i e n d s h i p and the proper means? But i t i s not always b e s t to oppose F a t e s i n c e we see t h e r e are s u p e r i o r motives which dominate our own. And so t h a t you understand t h i s , l i s t e n , f o r now I e n t e r the newest, the r a r e s t and s t r a n g e s t event of my t a l e . Offended Love s e e i n g t h a t he c a p t u r e d l i t t l e w i t h the f i r s t harpoon, shot a second one, so s w e e t l y v i o l e n t , t h a t an arrow l e f t the bow, a b i r d r a n through the wind, and a l i g h t n i n g b o l t s t r u c k my h e a r t where i t s t i l l n o u r i s h e s the f i r e . To p a i n t the beauty o f t h a t unhoped f o r owner of my l i f e , I r e s e r v e d a l l the p r a i s e of the past beauty. But even h a v i n g saved t h a t p r a i s e I don't dare e n t e r i n t o her p e r f e c t i o n : because even i f the sun gave me i t s b e a u t i f u l r a y s f o r the p a s t u r e ) of her b r a i d e d h a i r , i f the A l p s gave snow f o r the meadows of her f o r e h e a d , i f A p r i l gave tender r o s e s f o r the shades of her complexion, and i f May h e r s e l f gave c a r n a t i o n s f o r her l i p s ;  27 May, A p r i l , A l p s and Sun would have t o s t a y b e h i n d , s i n c e , w h i l e making comparison, r o s e , c a r n a t i o n , snow and r a y , none of them i s more than her and a l l a r e l e s s . ( E n t e r HERNANDO.) HERNANDO Senor  . . . DON  FELIX  Yes. HERNANDO . . . now . . .  Stop your  DON FELIX talking,  and be q u i e t . (to Go on w i t h your t a l e , f o r never i n my l i f e I have been more e n t e r t a i n e d and i n more suspense.  DON  CARLOS)  DON CARLOS The f i r s t time I saw her — s h e l i v e d bordering the house where I s t a y e d — was one morning, which i s as i t s h o u l d be, s i n c e the dawn i s never seen a t another time. She was behind a g r i l l e d window, s e c l u d e d from t h e s e c r e t p u b l i c by a l a t t i c e t h a t made my d e s i r e more forward,-"s h i n i n g i n g e n i o u s l y , now denying t h e s i g h t , now conceding i t confusingly d i s t i n c t and d i s t i n c t l y b l i n d . T h i n k i n g she was not seen by anybody, because I , c a r e f u l to not f r i g h t e n her away, c l o s e d my window and e n t e r e d w i t h i n , she s t a r t e d t o read a l e t t e r , and though she began w i t h a s m i l i n g countenance, i n not much time she took from h e r s l e e v e a h a n d k e r c h i e f to d r y h e r eyes. I wasn't j e a l o u s  see t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n pages 6-7 f o r l i n e s c u t from t h i s  section  28 of the smile or of the tear, since they happened so quickly, but I don't know what lineage of venom what class of poison, what wrath, what fury, what f i r e entered my senses to see her f i r s t laugh and to see her then cry. I said to myself: what love i s this so unequal that goes from one extreme to the other? How can you love this lady, I asked my f e e l i n g s , i f you approve of neither neither crying nor laughing? But as that lover-flower, which i s a vegetable magnet of the rays of Phoebus, l i v e s following h i s north, was I, woe i s me!, don F e l i x , made a human sunflower, to the g r i l l of her window, by day and by night I constantly watched her l i g h t s . I searched for plans, I searched for means, to t e l l her of my love, but none of them were any use. I had to take advantage of time, because at a few days of love, in the tranquil s i l e n c e of the cool night a i r of summer, seeing her at her window, I came closer to t e l l her something i n passing, for I feared that my whispers would a r r i v e t i r e d from so far away. But hardly had I pronounced the f i r s t sound i n the a i r when out of the doorway of the other house came a gentleman, whom I know only by the cape of the order of Santiago; and with my sword i n hand, God wished that I see him, with such good fortune that my sword arrived at his chest before my voice to h i s ears; even i n f a i n t i n g breath very close he said: ah, t r a i t o r , twice you have wounded me! The lady closed the window  29 and the s t r e e t was aroused by the commotion o f swords, the same as now, and f e a r i n g t h a t the n o i s e would b r i n g . . . ( E n t e r as many as can of the watch.) A CONSTABLE The law, gentlemen. HERNANDO I t seems t h i s c o n s t a b l e comes p l a y i n g a t words.  You speak, so they won't me.  DON CARLOS ( a s i d e t o DON FELIX) recognize  ANOTHER CONSTABLE Who goes  there? DON FELIX  A traveller t h a t has j u s t now dismounted. ANOTHER CONSTABLE And who a r e t h e two we see w i t h you? DON FELIX Two of my  servants. A CONSTABLE  I t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o i d e n t i f y them, f o r we a r e informed t h a t the man we seek was i n t h i s p l a c e . DON FELIX Take away the l i g h t , f o r t h i s i s an abuse, s i n c e what I say i s enough. ANOTHER CONSTABLE I t i s n o t enough, and l e s s when I d i s c o v e r i t i s don C a r l o s . DON CARLOS I am h e r e .  What do you want? A CONSTABLE  You a r e a r r e s t e d f o r past  30 v i o l a t i o n s and today's sword play. DON CARLOS This w i l l be my answer to that. (unsheathe their swords)  In name of the King!  ANOTHER CONSTABLE Resistance! HERNANDO  How did I get myself into t h i s ! A CONSTABLE Ay, they have wounded me! (exit) HERNANDO Adios to one. DON FELIX Flee, cowards. HERNANDO Good advice. ANOTHER CONSTABLE Senor secretary, write out the new charges, while I go c a l l the magistrate. (exit) HERNANDO This one goes to make a c a l l to avoid a d i f f e r e n t c a l l .  ANOTHER CONSTABLE  Let the d e v i l take my place. (exit) DON CARLOS Since now, F e l i x , we cannot go to my house, come with me.  DON FELIX  I w i l l follow you. HERNANDO Who i n the world would have accepted an i n v i t a t i o n to this?  31 DON FELIX But, where? DON CARLOS To your lodgings, for having wounded a constable, I don't want to tarry here longer. DON FELIX I w i l l take you to Madrid, i f you w i l l leave with me. You can come on the porter's mule. DON CARLOS I cannot go to Madrid, as you heard I have there another enemy, of greater danger to my l i f e , who was the cause of my return to Toledo before i t was safe. DON FELIX But, how can I leave you, Carlos, i n t h i s danger? DON CARLOS I w i l l assure my safety by r e t i r i n g to a convent. DON FELIX Since you w i l l seek sanctuary, I w i l l leave. HERNANDO Now courtesies, when a thousand souls are upon us? A VOICE (within) They went through here. DON CARLOS Where are your lodgings? DON FELIX By the convent of Carmen. DON CARLOS Then we go together, and by the time you are on the road and I w i l l be i n the church.  32 DON FELIX Hurry HERNANDO It's not easy through these streets. DON CARLOS What are you a f r a i d of? HERNANDO That i f I t r i p , I won't stop u n t i l I f a l l into the r i v e r . DON CARLOS Who ever saw so extraordinary events! DON FELIX Who ever saw so strange a circumstance! HERNANDO Who ever saw so violent a guest! (they e x i t . E n t e r DON ENRIQUE, wearing the costume of the Order of Santiago, a colored sash and cape, and enter SIMON behind him.) SIMON Senor, what i s the matter?^ DON ENRIQUE Simon, i n our human misfortune joy does not heal as much as passion a f f l i c t s . I f I love Leonor and she, ungrateful, scorns me and hates; i f I see that she favours the man who twice wounds me—since he would not speak to her through her window unless he enjoyed her f a v o u r — then l e t my complaint endure the ages of pain. F e l i x has not arrived and the wait continues! (Enter JUANA, veiled.) * from here to Juana's exit on page 42 the Spanish verse changes to redondillas. See the Introduction, page 9 f o r an explanation of the use of redondillas i n the play.  33  JUANA (aside) (Is  Simon around here?) DON ENRIQUE  Who has entered  the room? SIMON  A v e i l e d woman. DON ENRIQUE A woman i n the house! JUANA (aside) (Woe i s me, don Enrique i s here!) DON ENRIQUE Why do you come, senora, so troubled with d i s t r u s t and uneasiness, to see i f we are here? JUANA (aside) (Since i t i s now i n e v i t a b l e , l e t us turn necessity into v i r t u e . ) I f e e l neither uneasiness nor d i s t r u s t ; I was concerned for your l i f e and seeing you up and f u l l , of health that may heaven augment many years, I was about to go. DON ENRIQUE I am much amazed that there i s a woman who i s concerned with my health; and so, as a c u r i o s i t y , I desire to see who shows i t . JUANA She who i s your servant. (unveils herself.) SIMON As heaven l i v e s , i t ' s J u a n i l l a ! DON ENRIQUE Juana!  You come to my house?  34 JUANA My lady sent me on an errand, and a r r i v i n g near here, because I had to pass this way, I decided to ask about you; and since you yourself responded, there i s n ' t more to know. Good bye. DON ENRIQUE Wait, for your l i f e , Juana, and f o r mine t e l l me, did your lady send you? JUANA This would only s t i r her anger! I f she knew I came here, i t ' s a sure thing she'd k i l l me immediately. DON ENRIQUE Such cruelty? JUANA She i s so offended by you, that I w i l l not even give her news of your health. DON ENRIQUE I thought that she would be thankful to see how much I have denied, for her reputation and for mine, that she was the cause; and being prudent and alert I have told no one u n t i l today, nor i n my l i f e w i l l I t e l l , that the quarrel was fought f o r her and this i s my f i n a l word. Has the gentleman soldier returned to the street? JUANA Since that night I have not seen him, and so I i n f e r he has returned to his own land; so there i s no reason to have see him. DON ENRIQUE Where was he from?  JUANA I think, from Andalucia. DON ENRIQUE His name? JUANA Don Juan de Lara. DON ENRIQUE And does Leonor f e e l h i s absence much? JUANA It'd be a great mistake to think that she could ever give licence to h i s boldness; and h i s absence doesn't matter for another absence matters more. DON ENRIQUE What absence does she feel? JUANA (aside) (Woe i s me! By God I was careless; but I ' l l f i x i t . ) She must leave Madrid. DON ENRIQUE But, how?  Why must she leave? JUANA  Her father desires . . . DON ENRIQUE What? JUANA . . .to r e t i r e to a v i l l a g e near Toledo, where he has his estate, and she c r i e s because she goes u n w i l l i n g l y . DON ENRIQUE When does she depart? JUANA Tomorrow morning. DON ENRIQUE I am not distressed by hearing that she w i l l l e a v e — s i n c e  I must also leave—although she leaves before I can throw my complaints at her scorn; for i f I, woe i s me!, were able to r e l i e v e my passion, a l l e v i a t i n g my heart, so that she would only hear my two arguments, I would be s a t i s f i e d . What w i l l we do with t h i s problem, Juana? If your ingenuity can offer me a way to speak to her. t h i s diamond ring w i l l be the least of what I would give you for you would be owner of a l l that I value and a l l that I am. JUANA The diamond i s not necessary since to serve you i s enough reward; and thus you s h a l l today, as evening f a l l s , go to the street; I w i l l open the window, and I w i l l t e l l you i f there i s any way to come up to the room, the door having been l e f t , as i f by carelessness, f a l s e l y locked and open. DON ENRIQUE You have me given second l i f e ; I w i l l be i n the street, and when I hear the opening of the window, I w i l l speak with you, Juana. (noise within.) DON  FELIX (within)  Stop, Pedro; go up, Hernando, see i f don Enrique i s at home. DON ENRIQUE This i s the guest for whom I wait; I want to show him to his room. Juana, good bye. (exit) JUANA (aside) (What i s happening? It i s Don F e l i x and Hernando; i f they recognize me here, I am l o s t ! )  37  SIMON Juana, do you have to leave? JUANA Simon, since I came to see you and encountered you and your master, with whom you see I have now wasted more than half the day, don't detain me. SIMON Wait, I only want to know i f you're going to divide the ring with me. JUANA No, I'm  going  to keep i t whole. SIMON Why whole? What you earn becomes our common property. JUANA Even though I love you, Simon, I don't love you that much. Good bye, f o r you see i t i s time that I must f l y back home. (And so that doesn't Hernando see  (aside) me.) (as she e x i t s , enter HERNANDO with some saddle cushions.) HERNANDO  T e l l me,  gracious sefiora. (aside)  (Oh i f I could make enough noise so that my master doesn't miss his bags u n t i l I can f i n d Juana who'll know what to do!) Where i s our room? Why are you s i l e n t and run away? (She makes signals and e x i t s , veiled.) You don't speak? Are you mute? Yes? Well we'll see each other l a t e r , for a s i l e n t woman i s without doubt the only type of woman I've ever enjoyed.  38 SIMON Beware for the lady borrows her lover's sword f o r her tongue. HERNANDO Then with only this warning, she can be h i s mute and I w i l l be mum; for there's no fear that I'd love the mute of another lover, even though her looks are as sharp as her tongue. SIMON Your wit has captivated me. HERNANDO And yours has redeemed me. SIMON  Shake, and be welcomed.  HERNANDO  Shake, and be friends.  DON ENRIQUE (within) Simon. DON FELIX (within) Hernando. SIMON Our masters c a l l for us both. HERNANDO Then l e t ' s go at the same time to see what our masters want. Good bye. (They exit, her cloak.) JUANA Thank God I've arrived without being seen or heard. But at my expense, for I've t i r e d myself out by running. But who has entered there?  Enter  JUANA taking o f f  39 It i s Hernando; I ' l l hide the cloak — f o r a lady would do the same— and pretend I didn't see him. (enter HERNANDO.) HERNANDO My Juana, my anxious desire overcomes my happiness, even though i t could be from anybody, I am anybody and you w i l l be mine. JUANA That's good enough f o r insipidness. I want to know how you are. HERNANDO In love and out of money, look i n what and out of what. and since we are t a l k i n g about our things f i r s t rather than about those our masters, I want to t e l l to you a sorrow, which has, Juana, obliged me to move ahead; because even though I have from my master the courteousness and the charge to advise Leonor that he has arrived, and to ask i f for joy he could enter to speak of h i s love. Not only has this brought me here so quickly, but believing that only you can remove me from a great hardship which threatens both my honour and my l i f e . JUANA What hardship? HERNANDO I ' l l t e l l you. When we l e f t Granada my master gave me a draft of a thousand pieces of s i l v e r to cover our expenses on the road; I kept the thousand c a r e f u l l y i n my saddle bag, u n t i l one unfortunate night that saw me sleeping peacefully, so careless and uncouth as i f a l l love and money slept i n my power,  the demon, who i s a s l y d e v i l , convinced me that i f I gambled with the porter, I could win h i s mules, and with them I could start a business with which, after we got married, I could support you; but, when was adoring you not my greatest ruin? I began betting two by two, and i n parries so subtle he removed the whole thousand one by one through the thousand hours of God. And so I had to borrow from him, without my master's knowledge, for the expenses of the journey, Juana, u n t i l we arrived here. He lent me, but on a r r i v i n g , he carried o f f our luggage to the inn where he waits for h i s p r i n c i p l e with i n t e r e s t ! What w i l l I do, when he p u l l s out with a l l that he has won, leaving for money and clothing my master and I f l a t broke! And since my adoration of you was the cause of this wager, and since we'll get married i n the t h i r d act, count the aid which you give me as part of your dowry, and l e t me see how much you love me. JUANA Hernando, may God provide for you; for even though I would w i l l i n g l y cover your loss, lending today i s a bad idea for one who w i l l be gone tomorrow. HERNANDO What do you mean, gone? JUANA Don't you see the house i s turned upside down? HERNANDO Yes, but I thought your master was going to move to another part of town. JUANA No,  41 today the old man has said that we are going to leave tomorrow to l i v e i n a v i l l a g e ; because, t i r e d of pretensions, he doesn't want more of the court but rather to look after his estate and to make do with i t the best he can. and since the proverb i s f u l f i l l e d i n such s t r i c t n e s s that says that some come and others go, i t counsels me not lend my money to your love, since i n t h i s sad calm i t i s enough that I leave you a soul, without my leaving you two sous. HERNANDO I don't want my estate to owe you two; but i f i t i t has owe you one. let i t be the one of money, Feel for me, Jezebel. JUANA I do f e e l for you, but i t ' s not good to lend i n sorrow. (enter LEONOR.) LEONOR With whom are you chattering so much, Juana? Hernando, be welcomed. HERNANDO Without doubt he who comes to kiss your hand i s welcomed. LEONOR How did i t go for you i n Granada? HERNANDO Badly, since we lost the suit above what we spent on i t , and so i t happens we return even poorer than when we l e f t . LEONOR Since, your master has his health, the rest doesn't matter; for wealth neither increases nor decreases the merits of a noble love.  42  If he comes true and f a i t h f u l there i s no gold that exceeds him. HERNANDO Since he comes broke, i t ' s obvious that he comes i n love. LEONOR How? HERNANDO How can the poor man not be? For as I see i t , he who has l i t t l e to give, has much to love.  LEONOR That maxim doesn't concern women l i k e me. Where i s Felix? HERNANDO He waits at the corner to discover i f he may see you, and I am to advise him. LEONOR Since the clear l i g h t of the sun now f i n i s h e s with the day, and my father i s not here, nor w i l l he return soon, since he walks occupied, go and t e l l F e l i x to enter. HERNANDO I will. (to  JUANA)  Won't you f i n a l l y show some concern for my problems? JUANA Hernando, the woman who lends has either troubles or years. (HERNANDO and JUANA exit) LEONOR How my f a i t h waited i n another way for the joy of t h i s day! But when was there a happiness that began and did not end? How b r i e f i s the season of goodness! Who i n the world would believe  A3 that the day of pleasure would be the vespers of sorrow? (enter DON FELIX) DON FELIX Who could judge sorrow and pleasure together, seeing that only i n me could sorrow have a shadow without pleasure having a body. Hernando has t o l d me you are leaving, and I don't believe that, others say goodbye when they leave, I must say goodbye when I a r r i v e . What i s t h i s , Leonor? LEONOR Not knowing how to answer you, I am f u l l of anguish, for joy and pain have also found i n me condolences disguised i n dress of f e l i c i t a t i o n s . DON FELIX T e l l me of what, Leonor, this news consists. LEONOR Yes, I w i l l , i f I, woe i s me!, know what i t i s : you already know that my father being persuaded that his honour, h i s loyalty and f a i t h deserved some reward, l e t himself be carried by t h i s confidence, i n which noble hope he moved h i s house from Toledo to the court. DON FELIX I was a witness of that day, since my fortune wished that, as your coach reached at the bridge and floundered i n a ditch that was there, being myself on the bank, I came to your aid and rescued you i n my arms, and giving l i f e , I died i n love.  44 LEONOR My father came to l i v e i n Madrid, and finding that attending and disputing did not improve h i s purpose, he i s ready . . . (Enter HERNANDO and JUANA, agitated) HERNANDO Master! JUANA Mistress! LEONOR Juana, what's the matter? DON FELIX What i s i t , Hernando? JUANA Your father . . . HERNANDO Your father-in-law . . . ...  JUANA as the father i n a farce . . .  ...  HERNANDO as well now as i n other times . . .  ...  JUANA i s at the door of the house . . .  ...  HERNANDO i s coming up the s t a i r s . . . DON FELIX  I am without l i f e ! LEONOR I without soul! JUANA . . . now he's coming down the h a l l . HERNANDO . . . now he's entering the f i r s t room. DON FELIX What s h a l l we do?  45 LEONOR Hide i n the bay of this window; (to JUANA.) and while I close the curtain, you get some l i g h t . (Exit JUANA.) DON FELIX Come, Hernando. HERNANDO What luck that there are always hiding places at the f i r s t predicament! (Both of them hide and enter DON DIEGO, though one e n t r a n c e , and through another enter JUANA, w i t h lights.) DON FELIX Inside, you f o o l . DON DIEGO Leonor, what are you doing? LEONOR (aside) (Heavens! Let me cover my confusion with deception, making i t s cause appear to be another.) What would you want me to do, father. Alone, sad, I was thinking about the l i t t l e foundation with which you make t h i s move. DON DIEGO You want to return, Leonor, to the past theme of not leaving Madrid. Don't quicken my suffering, since you already know you t i r e me talking about t h i s subject. Take one of these l i g h t s , Juana, for I must find a paper I need to balance an account, and when I find i t , I must leave the house again. (Exit DON DIEGO and JUANA.) DON FELIX Continue with your appeal,  46 even though you appear stubborn; for you may persuade him, to change h i s mind. LEONOR Yes, I w i l l . HERNANDO Don't do i t , blast my soul, but l e t him go, senora, though one may depart there are many who come. (enter DON DIEGO, with a paper, and JUANA.) DON DIEGO This door s h a l l be locked u n t i l I return, and think about how as the daybreaks tomorrow you must leave. LEONOR Are not my wishes to oblige for since not often  enough, you to stay? they are a woman's they are times important.  DON DIEGO No, Leonor; for your wishes are the reason that we must leave quickly. LEONOR In what way? DON DIEGO Don't make me say i n what way, because for a thousand days my judgement has been s i l e n t at the insistence of my respect; and i f you don't t r y to obey and be quiet, perhaps I, believing your reluctance i s the desire f o r my absence, w i l l break the urging and t e l l you that i t i s not my o f f i c e that takes me from Madrid but . . . I don't want to continue, because my anguish does not compel me to say — d e s p i t e my anguish  47 for my name and for my honour— that they, my honour and my name, drive me from Madrid. What have I said? It i s now too l a t e . Cursed i s he who throws a word or a stone, when he cannot c a l l back the stone or the word! LEONOR (aside) (What do I hear!) JUANA (aside) (This i s bad!) HERNANDO (aside to DON FELIX) (Undoubtedly he has found out about you.) DON FELIX (aside to HERNANDO) (The die i s cast.) HERNANDO (aside to DON FELIX) (Yes, but thrown f o r a loss.) DON DIEGO And now, Leonor, my anger drags from me that which I never thought to say, everything comes f o r t h . HERNANDO (aside to DON FELIX) (Here i t comes.) DON FELIX (aside to HERNANDO) (Until he says i t , l i s t e n and be quiet.) DON DIEGO Get out of here, Juana. JUANA Watch how I leave! (exits) DON DIEGO Do you think  I don't know, Jezebel, who the two were, and why they dueled under your window the other night? DON FELIX (aside to HERNANDO) (What do I hear?) HERNANDO (aside to DON FELIX) (This i s worse than before.) DON DIEGO I know a l l about i t ; f o r i t costs me no less care, ingrate, to know than not to know; and be you or be you not g u i l t y , I don't want to see, Leonor, swords at my d o o r s i l l , cloaked men on my porches nor phantoms i n my corners. No more court, and when I return to Toledo, for four days, while the provisions are prepared and brought from the v i l l a g e , you w i l l stay only at the house of your cousin. (exits) DON FELIX Heavens! What do I hear! LEONOR Fortune, what has happened to me? DON FELIX I am wounded! LEONOR I am l o s t ! HERNANDO Look, what perfect pair of faces for a mourning tableau! DON FELIX Where can my anguish, ingrate, tyrannical owner of my l i f e and of my soul, present my grievances to you?  But where so many attack, so not to offend by choosing among them, i t i s best to leave them. Hernando, see i f he has already l e f t , for I w i l l also leave. LEONOR Hernando, stay. HERNANDO To do what they both command, I go and I stay. DON FELIX For what purpose, treacherous woman? LEONOR Wait, don't go without hearing me. DON FELIX I've already heard you. LEONOR Before I speak? DON FELIX Yes, Jezebel; since before you speak, I already know you are going to l i e , and your excuse i s vain, since I don't have to hear i t to know i t ; because I know, even before knowing i t , that i t must be, as you are, f a l s e . LEONOR Perhaps i t i s n ' t . DON FELIX How could there not have been cloaked men, commotions and sword f i g h t s i n your house and on your s t r e e t , since the witness against you cannot suffer falsehood since t h i s a f f a i r i s more important to him than i t i s to me? LEONOR He may not be suffering falsehood,  as you say, because of me, he could be suffering misunderstanding. DON FELIX Wait; i f he suffers that, why didn't you say anything to him and t e l l me so? Is i t better to s a t i s f y him who i s not mistaken or him who i s mistaken? LEONOR So great was my pain that I could not find the words; besides what chance did I have to do so, since he turned away when I was about to respond? DON FELIX You speak w e l l ; and when you have s a t i s f i e d him, you w i l l s a t i s f y me. Now, i t ends, Hernando, see i f he has already l e f t . LEONOR Don't even move your toes! HERNANDO I go and I stay. DON FELIX What w i l l stopping him achieve? I w i l l go anyway! (enter JUANA) JUANA Wait, that's impossible. DON FELIX Why? JUANA Because he locked the door. from outside, and there's no other way out. DON FELIX Look, t i g r e s s , how he keeps you locked i n a cage.  51 HERNANDO (to JUANA) You must be her shepherdess. JUANA Shut up, Hernando! HERNANDO Shut up, Juana! LEONOR Even though this new d i s t r u s t turns against me, I am glad, because you hear me. DON FELIX Torture i s often used to make a man speak; but to make him hear, there i s no greater torture than that I now s u f f e r . LEONOR L i s t e n , I leave tomorrow, and i t i s not a torture to make you, before I go, see the t r u t h . DON FELIX How? LEONOR With my excuse. DON FELIX Then, there i s one? LEONOR Yes. DON FELIX Please God! What excuse? LEONOR (aside) (I don't want to endanger him, what anguish! by giving him two enemies, I don't know what to say.) DON FELIX Why so quiet? Are you making up an excuse?  LEONOR No. DON FELIX Then t e l l me i t . LEONOR My father deceived himself by thinking that some disgrace that happened i n our street was caused by me, when there are so many ladies i n the area whose love a f f a i r s could have caused i t . DON FELIX Is there another excuse? LEONOR No. DON FELIX Then i t i s an empty excuse, for your father would not say that he knows the cause i s t h i s ; and not knowing i t , i t would not make a piece of news so rare without more foundation than that one. LEONOR Perhaps i t i s to excuse h i s desire to r e t i r e from the world. DON FELIX No one puts h i s interests above his honour; and so, think of another e x i t , plot another treason, because this one of throwing the g u i l t on a neighbour, f r i e n d , or s i s t e r i s very f o o l i s h and very old, very f r i v o l o u s , and very useless. LEONOR Then there i s another of greater value. DON FELIX Which i s ? LEONOR I am who I am.  DON FELIX What more? LEONOR Nothing more. DON FELIX That i s not enough; f o r , being who you are, you are so t r a i t o r o u s l y f a l s e that you endanger one lover while you write to other; and I don't want more vengeance of you, for you are so convicted i n this f i g h t , that despite the l i e s i n which you abound you are one l i e short to decieve me. I want to show you these l e t t e r s to embarrass you with them. Look, treacherous! Look, ingrate, when i n your street there are duels, cloaks and sword wounds, what you write to me! See who you are, Jezebel, and i f i t i s enough to be who you are i n order to not be i t . LEONOR Yes, i t i s enough, since i t i s enough for me to be who I am to be so unfortunate that, trying to do what i s r i g h t , I appear g u i l t y . DON FELIX You cry when you see the witnesses that convict you? Cursed be he who believed them and who, since he cannot execute his rage on you, w i l l not execute his rage on them! (aside) (But, oh sadness!, for i n every l e t t e r there i s a soul.) (aside to HERNANDO) (Hernando, do you have any paper.) HERNANDO (aside to DON FELIX) (Yes.)  54 (He gives DON FELIX a paper. DON FELIX hides the l e t t e r s and tears the paper.) DON FELIX (aside to HERNANDO) (Then give i t here.) Take that, treacherous; take that, t i g r e s s . HERNANDO (aside) (Tear, f o r you're tearing up your wealth. Heaven has come to my aid.) DON FELIX These f i n a l ashes of that burning flame . . . LEONOR My, F e l i x ! DON FELIX False Leonor! LEONOR My goodness, my lord, my master. DON FELIX My e v i l , my death, my wrath. LEONOR Don't tear them u n t i l I may s a t i s f y you that what they say i s true. DON FELIX It i s already l a t e ; and so that there are not even ruins l e f t , nor a single l i t t l e piece of them, . . . (aside) (Cunning, give me a plot to get r i d of them so she doesn't recognize them.) . . . not even crumbs w i l l remain that the wind cannot carry away, f o r they are natives of the wind. (opens the window.) LEONOR What are you doing? DON FELIX Throwing, as they say,  55 at the same time out the window your treasons and my complaints you favour and my hope. DON ENRIQUE (outside the window) Is i t time f o r me to enter? LEONOR Heaven save me! (As DON ENRIQUE b e g i n s to speak outside, DON FELIX drops the papers) DON FELIX Answer, i s i t not time for him to enter who awaits for i t to be. LEONOR Heavens!  What i s this? What misfortune i s this?  DON FELIX You doubt i t , you hear and are quiet? JUANA (aside) (Enrique thinks I've opened the window.) DON ENRIQUE (outside the window) See the door i s locked; come down now and open i t , f u l f i l l i n g the promise you made me today. DON FELIX Oh, that I can't be the one LEONOR Strange sorrow! DON FELIX . . . to go down and open i t . DON ENRIQUE (outside the window) But wait; don't open i t u n t i l I have withdrawn for a man i s about to pass by.  DON FELIX Are you who you are now? LEONOR F e l i x , may heaven . . . DON FELIX You dare speak to me? LEONOR . . . destroy me . . . DON FELIX You dare dispute your dishonour? LEONOR . . . i f I know who that i s . DON FELIX You dare deceive me s t i l l ? Oh that t h i s window must be barred, and the door locked, so that I cannot leave and k i l l him at . . . (sword f i g h t i n g outside) HERNANDO There are swords i n the street. LEONOR Who, heavens!, ever saw themselves i n so much confusion? DON ENRIQUE (outside) My honour decrees that I must know anyone who has the key to t h i s door to take vengeance on him. DON DIEGO What i s this? Can I not have the key to my own house? LEONOR It i s my father's voice. DON FELIX If he opens the door, I w i l l go out to defend him.  57  LEONOR How can you go out. i f by the act of defending him you offend him? JUANA  What a strange deception! HERNANDO What sorrow! DON FELIX What confusion! LEONOR What disgrace! DON ENRIQUE (outside) It i s Don Diego; there i s nothing to do except to turn away. DON DIEGO (outside) Ah cowards! As you see my hands don't f a i l me. . . LEONOR Hide, he's coming up now. DON FELIX For respect of h i s grey hairs I w i l l do i t , but not f o r you. (DON FELIX and HERNANDO hide. DON DIEGO sheathing h i s sword.) DON DIEGO . you value the speed of your feet, for that I cannot do match. LEONOR Father, what happened? DON DIEGO Nothing. (to JUANA)  While I seek the master key, take a l i g h t , and go down to the door to seek the other one, for there i t f e l l , opening the door, as I went f o r my sword.  Enter  LEONOR Your sword? Or why?  How?  When?  DON DIEGO Quiet now, quiet. Get away out of my way. Don't push me so I make a blunder with you. Or I w i l l leave, so that meanwhile with my absence so many misfortunes mend their ways, find comfort i n crying for my sorrows and your infamies. (exit) DON FELIX Did he enter his room? HERNANDO Yes. DON FELIX Since the door i s unlocked for lack of the key, why do I wait? Oh, would Love that there be someone i n the street on whom to avenge my jealousy and her f i c k l e n e s s ! HERNANDO Oh, heaven protect me from that! (they e x i t ) LEONOR Father, l i s t e n , wait, stay. F e l i x , l i s t e n , stay, wait. Called by two pains, I choose neither one, woe i s me! Help me gather, Juana, these papers, so that when my father comes out to lock the door, he does not notice them, and sees my hand and adds more evidence against me. Broken pieces of my soul, who are a l l truths, are now treated as l i e s . You know well that, without graciousness, there are no words i n you, there are no l e t t e r s . . . Here I say; Item, i n t h i s inn  four pieces of s i l v e r f o r the waiters. What i s this? JUANA Cheap waiters. But l i s t e n , f o r here i t says: Item, f o r straw and barley. This i s an account from a journey. LEONOR Even though they a l l oppress me: don Enrique who offends me, the absence that threatens me, my father who believes h i s sorrows, F e l i x who believes my unfaithfulness; this sight against a l l has consoled me, for he who d i d not tear up my l e t t e r s did not tear up my memories.  60  Act Two (enter DON ENRIQUE and DON FELIX.) DON ENRIQUE (aside) (Who i n the world but me, could have experienced so great an accident?) DON FELIX (aside) (Who but me, could experience, Heavens, so many sorrows together?) DON ENRIQUE (aside) (Oh, why did her father go to open the door!) DON FELIX (aside) (Oh, why did I open her window and confirm my suspicions!) DON ENRIQUE Don F e l i x , up so early? What means t h i s early rising? Has your room treated you so poorly? DON FELIX My good fortune and your h o s p i t a l i t y could not result i n sleeplessness. There are c e r t a i n sorrows which keep my dreams awake, and are so anticipated that, before my dreams can sleep, they awaken. But since you are amazed to see me sleepless, I am j u s t i f i e d i n asking you the same question. What disturbs you so much that you have arisen  61 at these hours? DON ENRIQUE May heaven grant, don F e l i x , that my sorrow was of the same lineage as yours! DON FELIX Why? DON ENRIQUE Because I never owed any favour to my adverse fortune, and i t i s more painful not to be deserving of love than to deserve i t and lose i t . (aside) (Every man feels h i s own sorrows.) DON FELIX (aside) (Every man f e e l s h i s own misfortunes.) Even though I have not planned to speak to you on t h i s subject, Enrique, so not to touch i t without your pleasure, may I ask you i n what quarrel did you receive the wound that prolongs your convalescence? DON ENRIQUE Suspicion causes that question. DON FELIX Of what? DON ENRIQUE When I complain my love brings l i t t l e joy, you draw the conclusion that my love was the cause of my wound. DON FELIX You must t e l l i f i t i s true. DON ENRIQUE Then no, F e l i x , i t i s not. (aside) (Your honour, Leonor, owes me only t h i s ; or i t i s indebt to mine, because there i s no greater baseness than to avenge offenses  of the sword with the tongue.) A r r i v i n g here late one night, I was ambushed at this door, either taking me for another or attempting to rob me, i n any case my love i s a separate annoyance. DON FELIX (aside) (My suspicion, which I formed from the cape and the wound, was a l e r t to see i f t h i s was the a f f a i r of Carlos. But, what foolishness to wish to reduce to one point, the happenings of Madrid!) DON ENRIQUE And now that I have s a t i s f i e d your doubts on this question, l e t us turn to one of mine, which i s important for me to discover. By chance, did you know i n the army an Andulusian gentleman, whose name, i f I remember, i s don Juan de Lara? DON FELIX No. DON ENRIQUE (aside) (I cannot f i n d clue or sign to lead me to my enemy!) (Enter SIMON) SIMON Senor DON ENRIQUE What i s i t ? SIMON There i s at the door an o f f i c i a l of the Order of Santiago who wishes to talk to you. DON ENRIQUE By your leave, F e l i x . (to SIMON) T e l l him to enter the outer room.  (DON ENRIQUE and SIMON exit.) DON FELIX Where w i l l I go, Love, and not f i n d , your well trodden pathway? Hernando, what i s going on? (enter HERNANDO) HERNANDO Leonor has already l e f t .  Did  DON FELIX Farewell happiness. you see her leave? HERNANDO Yes. DON FELIX  How did she appear? HERNANDO In t h i s manner. As you commanded, I arrived at her street before dawn; but the coach was already at her door before I got there. F i r s t they loaded the top with two mattresses of s i l k , and upon a turkish rug, a c h r i s t i a n s t o o l . And then with l i t t l e trunk of t o r t o i s e s h e l l which i n magnificent speech proclaimed: "here goes half of this beauty", came Leonor very c r e s t f a l l e n , i n two great capes, both red, and neither one of shame, an overflowing hood, from which strayed a lock of h a i r , half way between a braid and a tress, half tress and half braid. Her dress was f u l l of gold, her petticoat f u l l of s i l v e r ; her hat was f u l l of feathers, and her presence f u l l of grace. Her father accompanied her at half p r o f i l e , h i s face very grave, as i f he wished to look at her without seeing her. She mounted the coach, senor,  cape to cape, and hat to eyebrows, soaked through with resolute grace. In my l i f e I never saw her more b e a u t i f u l . DON FELIX Peasant, don't l i e , for Leonor i s not b e a u t i f u l . HERNANDO Take heart she was. DON FELIX Then her beauty, i s the beauty of the hyena, her face lovely with treasons, her voice sweet with cunning; for there i s no perfect beauty where there i s not a perfect soul. HERNANDO Well then I ' l l say she was ugly and . . . DON FELIX You l i e , f o r i t i s not possible that she, who drags away as many souls as she encounters, could be ugly. HERNANDO Then, how do you want her to be i f she i s n ' t beautiful or ugly? DON FELIX Neither ugly nor b e a u t i f u l , Hernando. And i n your l i f e you may exaggerate perfections not defects to him who loves—which i s very r a s h — praise over jealousy, and injury over passion. HERNANDO Then I ' l l say she was so-so; l e t ' s s p l i t the difference, since between pretty and not pretty, this i s the middle phrase. And returning to my story, she entered the coach, f i l l e d a l l the back seat, and from a t r a v e l l i n g coach she made a royal carriage. DON FELIX What tale do you t e l l ?  65 HERNANDO I t e l l the truth. DON FELIX How? HERNANDO Because her overflowing petticoats added two small wings to the coach, for one royal curtain and f o r another. I, who was by chance there among the crowd, came close; and scarcely did Leonor see me, and I say she saw me scarcely, since with tears, f o r love, she trembled, once to stop them and then to pour them out, as one who carries a glass fearing that i t might s p i l l , and said to me, contorted with tears: Hernando, farewell. DON FELIX Wait. Then she spoke to you? HERNANDO She didn't speak to me; but who can stop rouges from sometimes understanding the language of pearls? By signs her weeping spoke to me, and i f I interpret the signs, she continued: T e l l your master. . . DON FELIX Continue, f o r even though i t i s your foolishness, one fool w i l l perhaps show kindness f o r another f o o l . What did she seem, alas Hernando, to say to t e l l me? HERNANDO T e l l your master that I go to Toledo and, since i t i s so nearby, I w i l l send him i n due season . . . DON FELIX You f l a t t e r my misfortune and even though I see you deceive me, deceive me well and good.  66 What w i l l she send me? HERNANDO Apricots, quinces and eggplants.--* DON FELIX Curse you, who doesn't know how to d i s t i n g u i s h between foolishness and truth! HERNANDO Well what do you want her to send you? Isn't that enough for a poor maiden? Must she send you the stairway of Alcazar, the bridge of San Martin or the tower of the Cathedral? DON FELIX Quiet, quiet, you are a f o o l ; and he who thinks to find r e l i e f i n you i s a bigger f o o l . (enter DON ENRIQUE.) DON ENRIQUE Don F e l i x , i t gives me great pains to t e l l you what that man wanted of me. DON FELIX Well then, what i s i t ? DON ENRIQUE The Council of Santiago commands me to leave with a l l speed to examine a candidate. DON FELIX And what has caused your pain. DON ENRIQUE That now I cannot serve you; but stay i n my house and what l i t t l e there i s here i s as always yours. DON FELIX I understand the intent of your o f f e r ; 5 according to Ruano these are t y p i c a l crops of Toledo. The land marks Hernando names i n h i s next speech are a l l i n Toledo (Ruano, Cada uno, 337-38).  but I w i l l go to an inn. DON ENRIQUE Though this journey i s more important to me, than you think, because of a c e r t a i n reason that comes hidden i n i t . If you do me a favour, i t would be even more important to me. DON FELIX Which i s ? DON ENRIQUE Make a truce with love and come with me. DON FELIX How can I turn my back on my claims when, my inheritance l o s t , I must return to the campaign? DON ENRIQUE Since this w i l l take l i t t l e time and the journey i s short, i t won't cost you much. For your l i f e , come with me. DON FELIX Where, don Enrique, i s the examination? DON ENRIQUE In Toledo. HERNANDO Now he softens. DON FELIX In Toledo? HERNANDO Now he gets happy. DON FELIX And who i s the candidate? DON ENRIQUE Don F e l i x , even though I want to t e l l you i t , I don't know, for my mission has to be secret. I was given a sealed envelope  68 with orders that I should open i t i n Toledo, and i t describes what I must do. DON FELIX I could e a s i l y go to Toledo with you, but I fear I would embarrass you. DON ENRIQUE Do not worry about that for I do not do t h i s alone, because they have sent a companion to await i n Toledo. Think about my request, don F e l i x , while I respond to my uncle. (exits.) HERNANDO Now he's thinking about i t . DON FELIX How do you know? HERNANDO Because you don't want Leonor to spend her fortune buying produce i n Toledo, but you'd rather go there yourself to eat them; because i n the garden of the King,'-' senor, you can amuse yourself without paying shipping costs. DON FELIX Look, when I decide, I w i l l not go for Leonor, because I must neither speak to her nor see her . . . HERNANDO That's c l e a r . DON FELIX . . . but I w i l l go f o r Carlos. Go this instant and buy some new boots the same size as these, 6 According to Ruano, the King's Orchard (huerta del Rey) was e v i dently a real place i n Toledo (Ruano, Cada uno, 338.), however here i t appears that Hernando i s using i t to mean Toledo i n general.  because, after so many roads, the boots that I wear are now, Hernando, no good. HERNANDO With what money? DON FELIX Don't you have any? HERNANDO I have any?  I'm f l a t broke.  You spent a thousand since Granada? Even u n c i v i l , t h i s time I to see the account.  DON FELIX pieces of s i l v e r though i t may be have Give i t to me. HERNANDO  Didn't I already give i t to you? DON FELIX To me? When? HERNANDO Last night. DON FELIX Hernando, you're dreaming: you gave me the account? HERNANDO Didn't I give you a paper? DON FELIX Yes. HERNANDO Well that was the account, senor; and i n i t you owe me a l o t of money that I spent from my own pocket. DON FELIX That's not possible. HERNANDO Why don't you just  DON FELIX Just what? . . . take i t out and look at i t ? DON FELIX How, i f I tore i t into pieces? HERNANDO Blast my soul! Then i t was the account you tore? DON FELIX Yes. HERNANDO Then what have you to complain about? I s h a l l complain for you tore up my fortune. DON FELIX What fortune? HERNANDO The one I put there. DON FELIX Make up the account again. HERNANDO This i s good! For one with a happy memory i t would not be easy to do, how much more f o r me, for I am one with an unhappy memory. DON FELIX I don't want them hear us. Quiet! HERNANDO How . . . DON FELIX Hold your tongue! HERNANDO . . . can I be quiet i f I am robbed of. . . DON FELIX Don't s t r a i n my patience!  71 HERNANDO . honour and money? DON FELIX Quiet! (enter DON ENRIQUE and SIMON.) DON ENRIQUE F e l i x , why are you angry with Hernando? DON FELIX It i s nothing. HERNANDO Yes i t i s , and more. You must give the judgement. Does a servant owe, when he takes pride i n being l o y a l , more than to give h i s master an account of a l l that was given to him? DON ENRIQUE No. HERNANDO Then i f I have given the account i n his own hands, nothing i s l e f t for me to do. DON ENRIQUE That's true. DON FELIX Leave this foolishness, for t h i s i s a matter to discuss when no one may hear. DON ENRIQUE Have you an answer for my request? DON FELIX Yes, Enrique; but with one condition. DON ENRIQUE Which i s ? DON FELIX That rather than I be the guest, you w i l l be i t .  DON ENRIQUE In what way? DON FELIX I have a friend i n Toledo, i n whose house I must stay i f I go there, because anything else would be an offense to a friendship so sure that almost equals ours; and so, you must go with me to h i s house. (aside) (Oh, i f I could e n l i s t him on Carlos' side!) DON ENRIQUE It would be good f o r me to arrive i n secret, since I go to a secret; but since I do not know him, i t wouldn't be a good thing to do. DON FELIX Would I put your honour at risk? It happens that I l e f t him r e t i r e d i n a convent for some small quarrel, and so he can leave us h i s house without being i n i t . DON ENRIQUE If this i s how things stand, i t w i l l be easier. DON FELIX We w i l l s e t t l e these matters l a t e r , and so, since I must leave once more, (to HERNANDO) pack the bags again. HERNANDO What bags? DON FELIX The ones I brought. HERNANDO And where are they?  DON FELIX Another trick? Well, aren't they i n the house? HERNANDO No. DON FELIX Where are they? HERNANDO Bring the account, and you w i l l see i n i t where and how they were pawned to pay for the mules.  DON FELIX Is there greater impudence! My clothing pawned! HERNANDO Well, what was I to do, i f no coin of the Realm came with me? DON FELIX As God l i v e s , i f i t weren't . . . ! Nevertheless, go with God, Hernando. HERNANDO Give me the account, and he who owes, l e t him pay. DON FELIX This i s not a game, Hernando. HERNANDO By God, i t i s n ' t anything else. DON ENRIQUE T e l l me, on your l i f e , did he give you the account? DON FELIX Leave me, by God, for i t i s u n c i v i l baseness to speak of t h i s . HERNANDO Yes, I gave i t ,  and i n h i s hand; and he knows i t for he tore i t up, saying: take that, ingrate; take that, t i g r e s s ; and to that t i g r e s s and to that ingrate he gave my fortune. DON ENRIQUE Then to me f a l l s the repairing of a l l of t h i s . Go Simon, and carry this l e t t e r to my uncle; f o r i n obedience I w i l l put on my spurs. You come, I w i l l give you enough to r e t r i e v e the bags. And you, don F e l i x , think, that you w i l l forever have the gratitude of my love and my graciousness. DON FELIX Our friendship permits that only my color may give you my answer, for I am speechless. DON ENRIQUE With me? (aside) (Because I love you, beautiful Leonor, a twist of Fate drags me behind you; but with such influence from my aspiring s t a r , that I presume my star wishes me to follow you.) (exits) DON FELIX (aside) (Alas, Leonor! Though you may see me, I am no carried by your love, but by that of a friend.) (exits.) SIMON Hernando, since we're going to Toledo, I ' l l i n v i t e you to witness that there i s there a certain smiling beauty who takes care of the person. HERNANDO I also have my prize  75 i n Toledo, and you must see that dark eyed princess who, even though she lends for her beloved, doesn't lend f o r the rest. (they exit.) VOICE (within) Whoa, whoa. (Enter DON LUIS, DON DIEGO, LEONOR, VIOLANTE, and INES.) INES Your uncle and your cousin have just arrived. VIOLANTE Then, I w i l l go to the door, Ines, to receive them. DON LUIS Your delay has given me cause f o r concern. DON DIEGO No one arrives when they wish to. VIOLANTE I do not object to that since I hoped you would for what I lost i n your Leonor, my preparations  excuse, be l a t e , delay, gained. LEONOR  May God protect you, dear cousin, for I am very indebted f o r the care and the gracefulness of your love and your beauty, with whose good cheer I come very pleased to receive your favours. VIOLANTE How I wish this house were a palace able, Leonor, to admit such a guest as you; but since my house i s yours, 1 from t h i s point to Carlos' entry on page 78, the Spanish verse i s i n redondillas. See the Introduction, page 9.  76  you also share the blame that i t i s not so; and since i t i s n ' t good for my account to argue, from today the defects of the house run to your account. LEONOR Even though I come, f a i r cousin, from Madrid, I am s t i l l Toledian; and so c i v i c courtesies are, and more so between us, vain. DON LUIS I w i l l resolve the question and make peace by saying that you should enter to rest. DON DIEGO You must give me leave, for f i r s t I must go . .. DON LUIS Where? DON DIEGO . . . on a certain errand that I said I would do for a friend when I arrived here. DON LUIS Not only w i l l I give you leave but I w i l l accompany you, i f you w i l l allow me. DON DIEGO In every way you honour me. Leonor . . . LEONOR What do you wish? DON DIEGO (aside) (Let us not give, even though i t may be ours, cause f o r concern i n another's house. The past i s now passed. No one imagines nor believes there i s displeasure between us: avoid your displays of rashness.) We w i l l return quickly. Goodbye, daughter; goodbye, niece. (exit DON DIEGO and DON LUIS.)  VIOLANTE Leonor, i t pains me much to so quickly r e a l i z e . . . LEONOR What? VIOLANTE . . . that you've arrived at my house i n sorrow or i n anger. LEONOR Why do you say that? VIOLANTE Because your eyes, though attempting to hide i t , are crying that they w i l l cry and they do not stop. LEONOR My anger, i f I bring i t with me, Violante, I have certainly not found here; and so, since t h i s care doesn't concern you, don't think that anger comes out of my eyes, when i t cannot come out of my mouth. (enter JUANA.) JUANA T e l l me, my royal highness, where i s my lady's room? For I wish to put away a few small personal things. INES Come with me and y o u ' l l find out. JUANA You have won a f r i e n d . I ' l l go with you now. (exit JUANA and INES.) VIOLANTE Even i f your bosom won't r e s t , let i t ' s troubles rest. (aside) (But  i s n ' t that don Carlos  78 who enters the house?) LEONOR (aside) (It appears, heavens, that don Juan de Lara, my f o o l i s h neighbour, has followed me to Toledo.) VIOLANTE Dear Leonor, i f you notice a man passing from the patio to the hallway, since as you see he does not come favoured by my love, but abhorred and scorned, you must watch my loyal honour amend a past mistake; and so, at this door, Leonor, l i s t e n to what I say to him. LEONOR I w i l l do what you ask to see which i s worth more, the excuse you give me or the suspicion you take from me. (LEONOR hides and DON CARLOS enters.) DON CARLOS Having seen, beautiful Violante, your father leave, I come to know how long this punishment of a non-crime, treated as i f i t were crime, has to l a s t . VIOLANTE Senor don Carlos de S i l v a . . . LEONOR (aside) (She said Don Carlos de S i l v a . How could t h i s be, i f he i s don Juan de Lara?) VIOLANTE Many times I have told you to do me the favour of covering my memories i n forgetfulness. DON CARLOS I do not wish, beautiful Violante, to force your w i l l ; I only ask to clear away  your unreasonableness. VIOLANTE Nor that, don Carlos . . . LEONOR (aside) (She said Carlos again. Either he l i e d to me or to her.) VIOLANTE . . . f o r he who resolved once to close his ears to reason. could scarcely now want to remove unreasonableness. DON CARLOS I must not leave, Violante, before you have heard me. VIOLANTE This i s taking too much time for my father w i l l surely return soon. DON CARLOS L i s t e n , because, whether he returns or not, I must speak. What scorn, what treason, what offense has suffered a man, for the more devoted he may adore, for the more courteous he may i d o l i z e , who i n the absence of the one whom he loved most, did not seek the opportunity, but because she came to him, and f i n d i n g her at a l l hours made the continual object of h i s windows . . . LEONOR (aside) (Here I enter.) DON CARLOS . . .without more motive, without more intention, without more love, nor without more design than to appear courteous, perhaps he feigned a signal?  LEONOR (aside) (I wondered whether he had l i e d to Violante or to me; but now I understand he l i e d to both of us.) DON CARLOS The duel of which that rogue told you, was not argument of love, but an i n d i c a t i o n of valour. And even i f I had fought for love, i t would make l i t t l e difference, since what woman would not forgive a repentant man who has done her a wrong?  VIOLANTE I, Carlos, w i l l begin that fashion; for I wish a l l women to have this example of me, so that men won't believe that, with the most lukewarm reconcilement, we e a s i l y change from offended to loving. And so, since your chest i s now r e l i e v e d , go, or I w i l l go, which i s easier. DON CARLOS Listen . . . VIOLANTE I won't hear you. DON CARLOS Notice  . .. VIOLANTE There i s nothing to notice. DON CARLOS  Look . . . VIOLANTE I have already seen i t a l l . DON CARLOS . . . that I, Violante . . .  81 VIOLANTE This i s vain. DON CARLOS . desire . VIOLANTE This i s lost time. DON CARLOS . that you know . VIOLANTE This i s an e r r o r . (VIOLANTE goes to the door, on her l a s t l i n e she exits through one door, leaving the other one open.) DON CARLOS . . . that only you VIOLANTE This i s madness. DON CARLOS are the owner VIOLANTE This i s deceit. DON CARLOS . . . of my truth. VIOLANTE You won't stop me, scoundrel, DON CARLOS Behind you VIOLANTE This i s insanity. DON CARLOS I have to enter. LEONOR This i s nonsense; and since she has l e f t , I w i l l remain to t e l l you the same.  82 DON CARLOS Heavens!  What i s this?  LEONOR And since that I am here i n her place, and since she did not say i t to you, I w i l l say what she did not say: serior don Juan, or don Carlos, here ingrate, there scoundrel, go with God and thank . . . But you have nothing to thank, go, and l e t pass i n silence a l l that I do not say to you. (exits.) DON CARLOS Heavens! What i s this I see? What i s t h i s , heavens, I behold? Without doubt, Love you abuse me playing this way with me; since without knowing how, or when, or from where i t came, I encounter Leonor here when I follow Violante here. Confused and disturbed, and not to mention ashamed. without daring to pass forward i n my designs, I don't see how to leave t h i s blind labyrinth of love, where at every step I touch l i g h t s and I step on shadows. ( e x i t s by one door another.) And now that I am i n the s t r e e t , where I can see neither one nor the other, l e t us see, i f I can, recovering now, find myself again. What doubts are these? (enter HERNANDO.) HERNANDO Thank God I came across you. DON CARLOS Why have you returned, Hernando? HERNANDO This envelope w i l l t e l l a l l .  and e n t e r s by  83 DON CARLOS (aside) (Make a truce, i f not peace, for a moment my f e e l i n g s , while I see what this contains.) It says: (reads) "My friend and seiior: Even though I w i l l see you soon, I f e e l I must warn you that a gentleman w i l l arrive i n Toledo with me, who comes on an errand of which secrecy i s needed; and, i f i t i s as I imagine, i t w i l l be important for you to entertain him; and i f not, I ask you do i t for me; and so, i f you are s t i l l i n the sanctuary where I l e f t you, give orders to receive us i n your house; and i f by chance there i s any way or road, try to be there also for i t i s important for you. Your f r i e n d " What could this mean? But i n vain discussion I embarrass myself, when he could so quickly t e l l me. Come, Hernando; since the notice finds me near my house, wait an instant while I write to F e l i x that he and h i s gentleman f r i e n d are welcomed; for i f my h o s p i t a l i t y i s not worthy of them, at least desire would be worthy to serve them. HERNANDO But, why do you want to write? DON CARLOS So you can take my answer to him on the road. HERNANDO That's not necessary, f o r the advantage that I was able to win coming here from Cabanas,^  a small v i l l a g e outside of Toledo (Ruano, Cada uno, 340).  84 while they stopped f o r a mouthful, I have already lost talking to you. DON CARLOS (aside) (Permit me, whirling imaginations, to look a f t e r t h i s obligation, since for i t I am determined not to return to the sanctuary for now. But what noise i s t h i s ? ) (noise within) HERNANDO See i f I spoke the truth. DON FELIX (within) Hold that s t i r r u p . (enter DON SIMON.)  ENRIQUE, DON FELIX, and  DON FELIX Carlos, my f r i e n d . DON CARLOS Be welcomed F e l i x . DON FELIX Don't say that this time I did not plan to pay f o r the lodgings, as I bring you i n reward a friend that you must win through me.  .  DON CARLOS Through you and by me I prize him, since by simply being your friend he s h a l l be mine. (As DON CARLOS and DON ENRIQUE go to embrace each o t h e r , they p u l l out t h e i r swords, and DON FELIX steps between them.) DON ENRIQUE My arms . . . But, what do I see! DON CARLOS Be you . . . But, what do I behold! DON ENRIQUE T r a i t o r , i s i t you? Fate provides the chance for my vengeance.  DON CARLOS And I w i l l s a t i s f y the i n s u l t of seeing you s t i l l a l i v e . DON FELIX What i s t h i s , Carlos? what i s this?  Enrique,  SIMON Heaven and earth! What type of h o s p i t a l i t y i s t h i s , Hernando? HERNANDO The type that has the vice of i n v i t i n g sword f i g h t s . DON ENRIQUE Die, t r a i t o r ! DON CARLOS Die,  scoundrel! DON FELIX  Enrique, Carlos, what i s this? DON ENRIQUE I w i l l avenge my i n j u r i e s . DON CARLOS I w i l l s a t i s f y my offenses. DON FELIX Restrain yourself; hold yourself, I say; by God, don Carlos, Enrique comes with me. DON CARLOS This i s vain. DON FELIX Enrique, I have brought you to his house DON ENRIQUE Forgive me, F e l i x , f o r having seen an opponent, I must not control myself by reason, nor must I r e l i n q u i s h my advantage. DON CARLOS But I w i l l , to the reason  of F e l i x , but not to you, give i n . And so, sefior don Enrique, always attempting to do proudly the best, even though I know why you come and that you seek me, I s o l i c i t , despite my pain, that the ages never say that he who enters my doors at the side of such a f r i e n d , could not r e l y upon the law of h o s p i t a l i t y ; and so, I affirm that f o r as much time as you wish my house to serve you, leaving you for owner of i t , I return to the sanctuary — p a r e n t h e s i s to p a i n — and w i l l do, attempting grace, even more for you than for F e l i x , to lodge you and attend you. My house, estate, and servants remain at your service. Avail yourself of the f a i t h that turned me against myself, being warned that the day that ends the immunity of h o s p i t a l i t y , we must both remain, as before, enemies. (exits. DON ENRIQUE L i s t e n , wait . . . DON FELIX Stop, unless you want to follow him to embrace him for such a noble action. DON ENRIQUE I follow him to teach him, F e l i x , that I never receive from my enemies favours nor benefits. SIMON Is t h i s the feast, Hernando, we were to prepare ourselves for? HERNANDO Yes, Simon, this i s the feast, and the f e s t i v a l of a playwright, a friend of sword f i g h t s , where  87 there i s no v e i l e d woman nor hidden man.  y  DON  FELIX  This wish shows. . . DON ENRIQUE What? DON FELIX . . . that he i s more gallant and more gracious than you. DON ENRIQUE He who has the advantage i n a question of honour, can be g a l l a n t , F e l i x , but not he who has been offended, because what i n one i s praiseworthy, i n another i s unworthy. I am offended by this don Carlos, who u n t i l now I have known as don Juan de Lara; and, now I t e l l you the truth, he wounded me, with which, i f I desist from my wrath, that which makes him appear noble, would make me appear remiss. And so, since reason doesn't flow equally, I must go to an inn. Simon, bring my clothes and come with me, for I must not receive today, as a f r i e n d , benefits of him whom tomorrow I must k i l l as an enemy. i  (exits.)  DON FELIX L i s t e n , wait. Who, heavens, has seen himself i n equal confusion? Enrique i s my f r i e n d , but i s not Carlos also my friend? I don't know what I should do when I see them as enemies. But I do know, since I know, that the law of the duel says with whom I come, I avenge. and thus, I follow don Enrique. 9 reference to Calderon's Woman and the Hidden Man).  play La tapada y e l escondido  (The Veiled  88 Where i s he? SIMON I imagine he has stopped at the corner, and i s waiting f o r me. HERNANDO And i s opening an envelope. DON FELIX Come with me. Enrique! (they exit through one door and enter through t h e o t h e r f o l l o w i n g DON ENRIQUE who enters carries a sealed envelope.) DON ENRIQUE Where are you going, Felix? DON FELIX I follow you. DON ENRIQUE You leave your friend? DON FELIX I don't leave my f r i e n d , since you are he, for i t was one thing, when I found myself between both of you, to seek r e c o n c i l i a t i o n between you, but i t would be another, having come with you, to stay without you. DON ENRIQUE I prize your graciousness. DON FELIX Don't do that, for that which i s owed me, no one must prize of me, except only . . . DON ENRIQUE Who?  89 DON FELIX . . . myself. What are you doing? DON ENRIQUE While I waited f o r Simon, I was opening t h i s envelope. DON FELIX Read, then; and I w i l l withdraw so that afterwards we s h a l l see where we must go. DON ENRIQUE (reads) P e t i t i o n , genealogy, instructions . . . I ' l l look at that. (reads aside) ("Don Enrique de Mendoza s h a l l arrive i n Toledo, and he s h a l l procure with a l l circumspection to make secret investigation to see i f don Carlos de S i l v a has any declared enemy." To this point my mission has been very easy for me, for i t i s clear that he has one, since I am i t ; but I w i l l continue. (reads) "And having ascertained a l l the circumstances that there are i n the enmities, he s h a l l give account, and he w i l l proceed with h i s examination of the nature of the genealogy and the p e t i t i o n included." Heavens! What i s this? Since I have been offended by don Carlos, you put h i s honour i n my hand?) DON FELIX What has surprised you? DON ENRIQUE The most cunning twist of Fate that has ever happened to anyone. DON FELIX What i s i t ? DON ENRIQUE Listen, since now i t can be t o l d . (enter DON CARLOS)  90 DON CARLOS Sefior don Enrique, I kiss your hands. DON ENRIQUE Be welcomed. DON CARLOS I told you that a l l the time you were my guest, h o s p i t a l i t y made a truce to stop our duel; and having heard that you did not wish to receive that small service, and you have l e f t my house f o r an inn, since you are a stranger, and I taken refuge i n a monastery, you may not know where to f i n d me, I wish to l e t you know that I am at the monastery of Carmen, which i s near the castle of San Cervantes. Good bye. DON ENRIQUE I esteem your conscientiousness. DON FELIX I do not, for being i n the middle i s much a f f l i c t i o n , and . . . DON ENRIQUE Hear, senor don Carlos. Even though you have with much cause believed that your offence brought me, i t was your honour that brought me. See what goes from one to the other. DON FELIX (aside) (My guess did not l i e , but my desire did.) DON CARLOS My honour?  What do you mean? DON ENRIQUE  This i s your examination, don Carlos, f o r u n t i l now even I did not known why I came to Toledo. And as I always aspire  to do the best, I wish, imitating you, to achieve i t . And so, since of a noble act I am your debtor, I request to free myself with another before seeing that s i t e ; for i f you act g a l l a n t l y with me when you see me i n your house, when I see you i n my j u r i s d i c t i o n , I must do the same. You have another enemy, and I am too much enemy to give me accompanied; and so, I w i l l defer my complaint u n t i l you are r i d of him. To which effect I confirm the truce, with f a i t h and word to aid you and a s s i s t you in a l l that I can. And so that you see i f I serve you, send to me with don F e l i x — s i n c e i n a truce i t i s customary to have a messenger— a l l those documents and l e t t e r s , petitions and witnesses, that are important to you; being warned that, the instant that your honour remains pure and clean, the p r i v i l e g e of my o f f i c e w i l l be finished i n me, I w i l l find San Cervantes, and i n San Cervantes I w i l l t e l l you that we are as before both enemies. (exits.) SIMON What do you say to that, Hernando? HERNANDO That as they are great enemies, of pure honour, we neither f i g h t nor dine. (exit SIMON.) DON FELIX Your gallantry has been repaid you quickly. I am ashamed to be the f i r s t i n the world to have received  DON CARLOS  his examiner through a quarrel. HERNANDO If this custom were introduced, there would be fewer candidates. DON FELIX Having myself suspected why he came, as he carried the sealed envelope, I sent you notice, and wished you to be h i s f r i e n d . DON CARLOS What does i t matter, i f my misfortune did not wish i t ? DON FELIX At least heaven opens a way. What was the offence? DON CARLOS I was one night, as I said, at a window; he arrived, fought, and l e f t wounded. DON FELIX Were there words? DON CARLOS Not a one. DON FELIX Then this has been easy to resolve. Stay, f o r I must follow him and not you. DON CARLOS Wait, since you play the part of the messenger i n the truce, I have something to t e l l you. Do you remember that lady . . . ? DON FELIX Yes. DON CARLOS Well, her father has come to hear something of my courtship, and he i s only the witness that I s t i l l fear. Go with t h i s ,  for i t may be important  to t e l l . DON FELIX  What i s h i s name? DON CARLOS Don Luis de Acuna. DON FELIX I go forewarned. DON CARLOS Good bye. DON FELIX Good bye. DON CARLOS Wait. HERNANDO What?  Another l i t t l e sin?  DON CARLOS Do you think I should talk to him, and, surrendering at h i s feet, put my honour i n h i s hands? DON FELIX What class of man i s he? DON CARLOS Descendant of the most noble gentlemen of C a s t i l e . DON FELIX In that case, do i t , because a well born man never avenges himself with h i s tongue. DON CARLOS Since seeing me i n h i s house would not please him, as he w i l l think i t i s a pretence to enter i t , I w i l l write him a l e t t e r immediately saying that he may see me i n the monastery. DON FELIX You have spoken w e l l ;  94 and since these matters are best given to a f r i e n d , I w i l l carry them to him.  I prize your graciousness  DON CARLOS and love. (they exit. VIOLANTE.)  VIOLANTE Now, cousin, that you are summarily informed, while seeing me angry with that gentleman, that favour can turn to scorn, I want you to excuse me with you, and understand the reason of my change of mind, so you may witness that what i s revenge i s not fickleness. Seeing then that i t was . . . LEONOR Say. VIOLANTE . . . by agreement of my father and myself, because of h i s blood, at the beginning I received his courtship, to be the beloved of Carlos, with those favours that, i n l i c i t love, the suitor c l e a r l y enjoys who, favoured, walks the pathway of husband. He went to Madrid having changed his name . . .  (Now  LEONOR (aside) I leave one care.)  VIOLANTE . . . and where, entertained, . . . LEONOR (aside) (Now  I enter another.)  VIOLANTE . . . he forgot my love. There l i v e d — a c c o r d i n g to a servant who, being paid by my love, told me everything that happened— i n front of his house some lady, who, at f i r s t glance,  Enter  LEONOR and  surrendered her l i b e r t y . She was b e a u t i f u l , according to what he said. LEONOR She could have been very ugly. VIOLANTE But thinking I was forsaken for an ugly woman a f f l i c t s me more, for there i s no comfort i n that. Fortunately she had . . . LEONOR What? VIOLANTE . . . another suitor who, the f i r s t day she t r i e d to speak to Carlos at her window, attempted to k i l l him, and was badly wounded by Carlos' sword. LEONOR Alas, what a wicked woman! While bound to one, her arms received another. VIOLANTE Not to mention those we don't know of. LEONOR (aside) (If t h i s i s what i s told of me, then with reason, F e l i x , you reproach me.) And f i n a l l y , how did i t end? VIOLANTE In noble fear of the law, he returned to Toledo making himself very gracious and f a i t h f u l . But nothing i n h i s excuse was enough: his love increased a thousand ways, his loyalty . . . Bless me i n a l l ! And even though I hated him, I sensed the danger that he was i n , so long as my impulsive act was not to want to save h i s and condemn mine, since obligating for him a gentleman, for by chance a gallant stranger was passing, never i n my l i f e was I more indebted or more thankful. If you could see him! How furiously he took out h i s sword for me! How vigorously, at don Carlos' side,  he cleared the street! How temperately he returned to assure me! I say this because were i t possible that you could see him . . . (enter INES) INES Senora. VIOLANTE What news, Ines, makes you so happy? INES To t e l l you . . . VIOLANTE What? INES ...  he has arrived . . VIOLANTE  Who? INES . . . the noble stranger from the brawl. VIOLANTE If I could reward you! For I was just speaking of him, praising to Leonor h i s valour, h i s courage, his grace and manliness, and I am glad that what my voice has said may be confirmed by what you see, Come with me, Leonor, to the window. INES That, senora, i s useless; he asks f o r your father, and i s already inside the house. VIOLANTE Heaven joins together unequal extremes, since we have occasion f o r my offense to f i n d some s a t i s f a c t i o n . Since he seeks my father, t e l l him to enter. And you take note of him. LEONOR Yes, I w i l l .  (aside) (How f i c k l e ! But, when was she not crazy?) INES My master i s not at home; but i f you wish to leave him a l e t t e r or message, or i f your business i s so important that you don't trust me, give i t to dona Violante, my lady, who i s here, and she w i l l give i t to her father. (Enter DON FELIX and HERNANDO.) DON FELIX It would be better that I wait for senor don Luis, f o r I must speak with him i n person. VIOLANTE If you must, senor, wait for him, I cannot allow a man of your station to wait i n the hallway. Enter, and you may wait i n this room. DON FELIX Cowardly, sefiora, I dare not, for I should walk with great respect through these doorways; and are they not the cause of i t since, with presumption of heaven, they have at t h e i r door an angel? (aside to HERNANDO) (Hernando?) HERNANDO (aside to DON FELIX) (What i s i t ? ) DON FELIX (aside to HERNANDO) (Is not that Leonor, or does love f a l s i f y her image?) HERNANDO (aside to DON FELIX) (It i s Leonor, but she i s poorly done.)  LEONOR (aside) (Heavens! Give me courage f o r i t i s F e l i x whom Violante praises.) VIOLANTE Even though so l i t t l e of that f l a t t e r y f i t s me, since you don't say i t f o r me being, senor, i n the presence of my cousin, I thank you f o r a l l of my part. DON FELIX I said i t f o r you, f o r I had not seen (aside) (Strange predicament!) that lady u n t i l now, f o r , i f I had known i t a l i t t l e before, perhaps I would not have entered. VIOLANTE Why? HERNANDO (aside to DON FELIX) (She makes signs to be quiet.) DON FELIX (aside to HERNANDO) (I don't know i f I can.) (to  VIOLANTE)  Because i t would be great rashness for one to dare two dangers so b e a u t i f u l l y equal, since one i s more than enough to k i l l , for i t might be s a i d — d o n ' t be s u r p r i z e d — that he f l e d from rashness; because there i s no valour that equals that which, from pure valiancy, sometimes appears cowardly. VIOLANTE (aside to LEONOR) (How does he appear, Leonor, discreet, gallant and courteous?)  LEONOR (aside to VIOLANTE) (Very bad . . . that you declare so much to me, and how much more so to him.) VIOLANTE (aside to LEONOR) (Since you know nothing of love . . .) LEONOR (aside) (Please, heaven!)  by any l i t t l e  VIOLANTE (aside to LEONOR) (. . .you are amazed thing.) INES Your father. (enter DON LUIS) DON LUIS  Whom do you seek, s i r ? He arrived just t h i s instant asking f o r you.  VIOLANTE  Well, what do you want of me?  DON LUIS  DON FELIX So not to trust to a servant material that i s perhaps important, don Carlos de S i l v a prays you — a n d I i n h i s place, because he could not come—, do him the favour of l i s t e n i n g to a matter he has with you. DON LUIS Where i s he? DON FELIX In the convent of Carmen. DON LUIS (aside) (Don Carlos de Silva? Could i t be that he dares  declare himself, and asks me for Violante i n marriage? I w i l l not give her to him not because of his quality and blood, but because he f i r s t , as a crazy and outspoken lover, used such unworthy means as disguises and assignations, and I do not want any one to presume, having seen his f o l l i e s , that the marriage was by force and by not choice. Since he i s an arrogant fellow, not to speak with him would be bad, but so would be to speak to him without a sword, since I know I w i l l deny him what he asks, so that we do not lose our respect i n one or another duel.) I w i l l go with you, wait for me an instant, for presently I return. (exits) VIOLANTE (aside to LEONOR) My father i s displeased, and since the paper was from Carlos, I must assure him that I know nothing of i t . Stay here while I go, and talk to t h i s gentleman, Leonor, may God keep you, as i f i t were born of you, not as i f i t were born of me, that he should manage his own a f f a i r s , and not another's, because he has a thankful lady that you know who esteems and favours him. You don't have to be modest, for when you do i t for me, you do i t for a cousin. (exits) LEONOR (aside) (A good commission i s l e f t me!) DON FELIX (to HERNANDO) See i f anyone can hear us. It would be, Leonor, very vain of you to think that I came to Toledo  to seek you, may heaven rebuke me i f I knew you l i v e d here, and i f had I thought I would have seen you or spoke to you, I would not have entered this house. LEONOR You don't have to curse yourself, F e l i x , to assure me that your a r r i v a l i s not f o r me; I already know that you have sought these pretenses to see Violante. DON FELIX I f o r Violante? LEONOR Yes, ingrate, i t i s very just that I reward you for the f i g h t s that you have already had f o r her. HERNANDO Careful! Everything w i l l come out, senor. DON FELIX Your fickleness only lacked that you become the offended and I the offender. HERNANDO This i s what Gallacian maids do every day: attack so they aren't attacked. LEONOR Obviously, since the right i s on my side. DON FELIX The one who throws, says the adage, the g u i l t to the other knows not a l i t t l e . LEONOR What g u i l t , i f I speak to you, where I have been made a go-between to t e l l you that you have a thankful lady i n Toledo?  102 DON FELIX Enough, Leonor, since I do not complain about your jealousy, about your coming to Toledo, about your window to the street, do not complain that . . . VIOLANTE (within) You must not leave. DON LUIS (within) Get out of my way. LEONOR What could that be? (enter JUANA) JUANA Your cousin, seeing her father take h i s sword, holds him, imagining that he leaves for some quarrel. DON FELIX To what effect does he bring a sword? JUANA What do I see, senor Hernando? LEONOR Quiet, Juana, don't be amazed to see them here, since they come to see an angel at this door. DON FELIX By God, Leonor, don't i r r i t a t e my s u f f e r i n g ; and i t i s enough for me not to complain so that you don't complain, f o r i n your laughter you make a harsh examination of my sentiments. LEONOR You said i t , and you would have said more i f I had not been present.  DON FELIX I don't know what I would have said, but what I say i s easier. I returned your l e t t e r s ; so that a l l would come to an end, and since I have no more to return, neither for your nor for Violante, return mine to me. LEONOR Yes, I w i l l . Juana . . . JUANA What do you wish? LEONOR . . give him the account of my journey, i f you have i t with you, so that i n this also we remain both equal. HERNANDO God defend the innocent! She knows i t a l l . DON FELIX F i c k l e woman! How you take advantage of everything! LEONOR Ah, t r a i t o r ! How you also take advantage of what you love! DON FELIX You are c r u e l . LEONOR You,  inconstant. DON FELIX  You are treacherous. LEONOR You,  ingrate. DON FELIX  You are Jezebel. LEONOR You,  fickle.  104 DON FELIX You are f a l s e . LEONOR You, t r a i t o r . (enter DON DIEGO) DON DIEGO What i s this? LEONOR (aside) (Woe i s me!  My father.)  DON FELIX (aside) (Who saw himself i n such danger!) JUANA (aside) (Dreadful happening!) HERNANDO (aside) (Strange situation!) DON FELIX (aside) (I am dead.) LEONOR (aside) (I am l o s t . ) DON DIEGO What would oblige you . . , LEONOR (aside) (Woe i s me!) DON DIEGO . . . Leonor, to c a l l anyone traitor? LEONOR You w i l l know, father . . . , DON FELIX (aside) (What w i l l she say?)  105 LEONOR (aside) (Love, defend me.) . . . that t h i s gentleman, whom I don't know . . . , DON DIEGO Go on. LEONOR . . . brought a l e t t e r to my uncle, which issued him a challenge because, reading i t , he entered for his sword. I, i n that instant, was going to say: "You, t r a i t o r , do you seek some one i n t h i s house for sorrows?", when, hearing " t r a i t o r " , you entered. And so you can see that i t i s c e r t a i n , see how Violante holds her father. (enter VIOLANTE and DON LUIS.) VIOLANTE You must not go. DON LUIS Get out of my way. Let us leave, s i r . DON FELIX You have unnerved yourself without reason for I come i n peace. DON LUIS Violante i s the one who i s unnerved, not I. DON DIEGO I w i l l go with you. DON FELIX Come, because the effect might undeceive you, this i s not a quarrel, senor; I think i t i s a matter more of pleasures than of sorrows. DON DIEGO Be i t what i t may, l e t ' s go.  106 DON FELIX (aside) (Who saw greater obstanance?) JUANA (aside) (Who saw a better excuse?) HERNANDO (aside) (Who saw such a l i e ? ) (exit the men) VIOLANTE Did you say something to him? LEONOR Much more than you commissioned me. VIOLANTE And w i l l he return to see me? LEONOR Yes. VIOLANTE May Love pay you piety. LEONOR (aside) (And may the heavens pay you the displeasure that you do me.)  Act Three (enter DON FELIX and HERNANDO.) DON FELIX What i s Enrique doing? HERNANDO He's locked i n h i s room writing. DON FELIX He has a great desire to f i n i s h these examinations. HERNANDO That doesn't surprise me, since he hopes for a duel as h i s reward; and i t must be a reward, since a reward i s something given to someone and this duel i s a given f a c t . DON FELIX Yesterday I saw h i s companion leave on horseback. Where did he go? HERNANDO How should I know? DON FELIX Are we alone? HERNANDO Yes. DON FELIX Then about what has happened to us, l e t us discuss. HERNANDO Let us discuss, but with one condition. DON FELIX Which i s ?  HERNANDO I must start by giving a prologue to the h i s t o r y . DON FELIX Which i s ? HERNANDO I neither know nor understand, after don Luis l e f t , accompanied by don Diego, with his sword that was an o l i v e branch for our f r i g h t , what happened to you with don Carlos i n h i s r e t r e a t . DON FELIX Don Luis had become unnecessarily excited, for he believed Carlos wanted something else of him; but when he realized that the request, l a i d at h i s feet, was to put Carlos' honour i n h i s hands and ask him to honour him i n the examination, not only did don L u i s , nobly courteous, agree, but Carlos also won on the way don Diego; and even with greater r e s u l t , because he has given Carlos his word to make peace between him and his f i r s t opponent, who I think was a servant of h i s ; and so, as you saw, they parted as f r i e n d s . HERNANDO Since now I leave my confusion, we'll enter into yours. Let us discuss. DON FELIX Let us discuss. How could i t be that when I went just to seek don Luis, not knowing nor wanting to know anything of Leonor, I find myself facing her? HERNANDO Because she i s his niece and i s by chance i n his house.  DON FELIX That i s not my question. HERNANDO Then what i s i t ? DON FELIX Why did I find her so jealous of her cousin? HERNANDO Perhaps Violante told her about the duel you had for her. DON FELIX But, how or when could Leonor know i t was me? HERNANDO In that small moment you stopped at the door of her room; because to say: "That one behaved bravely with me i n this occasion or another", doesn't take much time. DON FELIX Woe i s me! For even though I know her treasons, her deceptions, I cannot make myself make an end with her, and put her memory i n my forgetfulness, and her offence i n my memory; to which end you w i l l see that I w i l l neither see her nor w i l l I speak to her, nor I w i l l cross her doors even i f I am dragged across them. HERNANDO I don't doubt this i s better; but I do doubt you w i l l do i t . And since we go from one incident to another, l e t us discuss. DON FELIX Let us discuss. HERNANDO How do you plan to reconcile  110 the duel? DON FELIX Where there i s no offence and there are n o b i l i t i e s i n both sides, the way appears p l a i n to me, since after the sword has been drawn any duel can be reconciled gracefully. I don't find more than one d i f f i c u l t y . HERNANDO Which is? DON  FELIX  The lady, for to arrive at a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n both must have l e f t her; and I don't know how each one finds himself nor i n what state their love i s . HERNANDO Who could be this nymph of Parnassos, this princess of Cathay that the two of them conceal so much? DON FELIX I don't know, and I would give anything to know. I have not desired anything more i n my l i f e . HERNANDO Then, what a f f l i c t s you? DON FELIX No more, Hernando, than f o o l i s h c u r i o s i t y to see what new miracle of beauty and discretion i s the Circe of t h i s s p e l l , who makes a l l of us such beasts. And I have to try at the f i r s t occasion, to make . . . (enter DON DON ENRIQUE I kiss your hands, don  Felix.  ENRIQUE and SIMON.)  Ill  DON FELIX Did you pass the hour, Enrique, resting a while? DON ENRIQUE I cannot wait f o r the hour to f i n i s h with this business i n the service of don Carlos. DON FELIX Is this graciousness or anger? DON ENRIQUE Leave i t , for time w i l l say what i t was, and quickly, since with both hands my companion and I make the errands; and my desire i s so great that, since he has l e f t with some depositions, I go to obtain a signature for one deposition which remains blank. DON FELIX Who i s i t , i f i t can be told? DON ENRIQUE Don Luis de Acuna. He has already spoken, and yesterday he gave himself as my f r i e n d . I go to seek his house, and I presume that you know i t . DON FELIX Yes. DON ENRIQUE Then l e t ' s go there, i f you don't have anything else to do. DON FELIX If I had, I would leave i t . HERNANDO (aside to DON FELIX) (If they dragged me, I would not cross her doors.)  112 DON FELIX (aside to HERNANDO) (Leave me, by God, Hernando, for I don't go for Leonor.) DON ENRIQUE Is i t far? DON FELIX The neighbourhood i s near, and nothing i s f a r away i n Toledo. HERNANDO That's f o r sure, but everything's either u p h i l l or underhanded. (they exit through one door and enter through another.) DON FELIX This i s the house. DON ENRIQUE Go, Simon, and discover i f by chance sefior don Luis gives us permission to greet him. DON FELIX And we w i l l wait here, i n case he i s not at home, (SIMON knocks, and JUANA enters.) JUANA Who knocks at the door? SIMON Open i t and y o u ' l l find out. Whom do you seek? Simon!  JUANA But who do I see? SIMON  My Juana! JUANA Give me your arms, and be welcomed. (aside) (But alas!, Hernando has seen i t ! ) (HERNANDO crosses the arm.)  and h i t s  JUANA on  113 HERNANDO (aside to JUANA) You, ingrate! JUANA Woe i s me! SIMON What's the matter? JUANA I have these days, a humour i n this hand and I am raging from pain. SIMON What's that matter with you? HERNANDO Here, i n my teeth, I also have a humour from which I rage. SIMON T e l l senor don Luis that don Enrique, my master, i s here, and he wishes to speak to him. JUANA I w i l l f l y to advise him. (exit) SIMON Hernando, that's the maid I praised to you. HERNANDO She i s a wonder. SIMON What do you think of her? HERNANDO Very good. May you, s i r , enjoy her a thousand years, f o r you deserve her. What a waist! What demeanor! What grace! (aside) (Oh, blast her!) (enter DON LUIS)  DON LUIS Seiior don Enrique, you offend my good desire to serve you, by remaining i n these doorways, when they and their owner are waiting for you to r e a l i z e the great fortune of honouring them your person. DON ENRIQUE May heaven keep you, I have waited f o r your leave, because without i t I would not have dared step within them. DON LUIS You treat me very badly, since I told you yesterday, Enrique, when we recognized each other, of the debt I am i n , and how good a friend I was of your father, and how today I am friend of sefior don Fernando, your uncle. DON ENRIQUE I know you try to honour them. You know well why I come. DON LUIS Yes, the same matter we discussed i n the holy church yesterday, when my deposition was taken i n voice, you wish now I sign i t i n writing. DON ENRIQUE So i t i s . DON LUIS Since we are not alone here, enter i n s i d e ; and forgive an old man an impertinence, which i s to read what I sign, because never i n my l i f e have I signed without reading. DON ENRIQUE It i s a proper consideration.  DON LUIS Give us leave, and wait i n this f i r s t room. DON FELIX I already know that you must be alone, and I came here just to show the house to Enrique. DON LUIS You are friend of Carlos, and do well to a s s i s t him; but i f you come s o l i c i t i n g me to say what I have said, and i f you distrust i n the word that I gave, t e l l him that he offends me, for I am who I am, and understand that I know how to keep my honour, since I keep that which belongs to another. (exit DON LUIS and DON ENRIQUE.) DON  FELI3  (asic e) (He speaks with many meanings.) SIMON Let's go outside, Hernando, so I can see Juana again i n the hallway or i n the patio, for I want her to get to know you. HERNANDO I've had enough of getting to know her. SIMON Good, and since you told me that your sweetheart l i v e s here, share your happiness with me. (exit SIMON) HERNANDO I give you my whole share. (aside) (Ah, infamy, as heaven l i v e s , i f I come to f i n d out or discover that she i s completely h i s , then the world w i l l be the theatre of the greatest vengeance and of the greatest vindication that the sun ever saw! There  116 would not be woman, or dog, or cat, or other l i v i n g vermin, from the monkey to the parrot, that I would not put to the sword, being to the r e g i s t r a t i o n of years my honour being twenty-five, and his being twenty-four.) (exit HERNANDO.) DON FELIX Who could t e l l me, woe i s me!, that i n the house where Leonor stays I would find myself so v i o l e n t and so strange, that I would resolve not to enter i t ? Since, as God l i v e s ! , I must see, f i g h t i n g with myself t h i s time, i f I can keep myself, since I f i n d myself here alone, from looking through that door to where the drawing room l i e s , to see i f i n i t I might see her. But, alas unhappy!, what do I do, i f not attempting i t i s the means of attempting i t ? (enter VIOLANTE and INES) VIOLANTE Ines, bring the work into t h i s room. But who i s this i n the entryway? DON FELIX (aside) (It was a good occasion to do what Hernando said, but I must not lose my complaint.) One who i s waiting for sefior don Luis. VIOLANTE Why have they not advised him? DON FELIX As i t i s not necessary, for the duty that I carry does not consist of t a l k i n g , but of waiting, VIOLANTE I don't understand. You seek him at his house and do not to have to speak to him,  117 the one appears contrary to another. DON FELIX But i t i s not, senora, when what I claim of him i s only to be allowed to wait. (LEONOR enters and stops.) VIOLANTE Now I understand you. LEONOR (aside) (With whom could my cousin be talking? Woe i s me!, i t i s F e l i x . ) DON FELIX I am glad, for now you may be r i d of the question and I of the answer. But, what was i t you thought? VIOLANTE (aside) (Love and vengeance, l e t us talk.) LEONOR (aside) (Love and jealousy, l e t us hear.) VIOLANTE That since my cousin t o l d you, because I t o l d i t to her, how thankful I am of the debt which I owe for the danger you risked for me. you, noble, courteous and brave, would come to me for repayment, and occupy me i n something i n your service; and to do this you would have thought of some excuse, for i f my father were by chance to f i n d you, you would say that while he did not see you i t was permissable to t a l k , since f o r your pretention to wait for him i s s u f f i c i e n t . DON FELIX You have put me i n strange predicament. VIOLANTE How?  DON FELIX I cannot escape being traitorous, uncouth or vain. VIOLANTE Why? DON FELIX Because to I persuade myself that you have to thank me, would be vanity; to deny that I come f o r that, would be uncouth; to pass from denying i t to granting i t , would be treason to don Carlos. So between three l i n e s , being i n danger from each one, i t i s neither good to grant i t , nor i s i t good to deny i t . VIOLANTE Then i f you must declare yourself i n one of these three dangers today . . . LEONOR (aside) (You t r a i t o r e s s ! ) VIOLANTE . . . the least . . . DON FELIX Yes. LEONOR (aside) (You f a l s e man VIOLANTE ...  i s vanity. LEONOR (aside) (You t i g r e s s ! ) DON FELIX  What are you saying?  119 LEONOR (aside) (You ingrate!) VIOLANTE L i s t e n , and f i n d out. LEONOR (aside) (He'll hear nothing, this i s going too f a r . ) (enter LEONOR.) Violante, how do you dare have so much conversation with your father i n the house? VIOLANTE I know he i s occupied with a v i s i t o r .  for  LEONOR Be careful I think they're about to leave. VIOLANTE  I ' l l see what he's doing. Wait for I ' l l return immediately. (exits.) LEONOR Now deny to me that you come for Violante. DON FELIX Holy heavens! Could there be greater pain i n the world than that which one who must calm the complainer feels? Sweet Leonor . . . , but what do I say? Fierce Leonor . . . , but what do I say? I f i n d no quality for you: not sweet, f o r I abhor you, and not f i e r c e , for I love you. Leonor, for j u s t Leonor i s enough, may lightning take my l i f e i f I come f o r Violante. The man I am waiting for i s with don Luis; i f you don't believe i t , t e l l me another point i n your apology, and you w i l l see how I believe i t ; and when you teach me to offend  ( i f i t i s that I offend you), let us divide the road: you learn to calm yourself, seeking some s a t i s f a c t i o n , for I, worn out and prostrate, give my word to believe i t . LEONOR I only know one way, since both our jealousies set themselves up as matchmakers, for us to f i n i s h with a l l , for i t i s often said to great damage comes a great remedy. I have a fortune that can free us, which I inherited from my mother: ask me formally for my hand i n order not to give occasion for censure, and you have my word and my l e t t e r s to convince my father. I have said enough. DON FELIX No, Leonor, for while I have not received s a t i s f a c t i o n for an " i s n ' t i t time I entered?", so b l i n d and so reckless, that you attacked your own father because he opened the door, your remedy i s vain; because I am not a man so v i l e , so low, that I have to pass from true love to husband, bearing the scruples of a true love to be offenses of a husband. VIOLANTE Dear F e l i x . . . , but what do I say? Traitorous F e l i x . . . , but what do I speak? Neither I can find your q u a l i t y , for I recognize that as dear, I lose you and as t r a i t o r o u s , I love you. If I had another lover, would I do this? DON FELIX I don't know; but t e l l me who he was. Perhaps with that, hurrying, inquiring and a s s i s t i n g , I might discover something  that would assure me. LEONOR If i n that i t i s based, because do as many tests as you wish, he was a boorish gentleman who, proof against my misfortunes, rashly persisted, bribing my maids, whose name . . . DON FELIX Thank God, truth, at last I begin to know you. LEONOR •  •  • IS  •  •  •  DON LUIS (within) Don Enrique, enough of that, I w i l l accompany you to the door. DON ENRIQUE (within) Remain here, I beseech you. LEONOR This voice took h i s name from my l i p s . (enter VIOLANTE.) VIOLANTE Cousin, you were right . . . LEONOR There you see I don't deceive you. VIOLANTE . . . my father was about to leave; and so, F e l i x , r e t i r e , for i t matters l i t t l e that my cousin and I are alone i n the entryway, and I w i l l seek an occasion i n another place to talk to you. DON FELIX (aside) (Oh, for one more word and I, jealous tyrants, would have  122 carried a thousand sorrows less!) (DON FELIX e x i t s . DON ENRIQUE.) DON ENRIQUE This i s f a r enough. DON LUIS Enough of that, I say again, for I must serve you and accompany you. Leonor, Violante, why are you here? VIOLANTE We did not think you would leave by t h i s way.  (Heavens!  DON ENRIQUE (aside) Who do I see?) LEONOR (aside)  (Heavens!  Who do I behold?) DON ENRIQUE (aside) (Is t h i s a s p e l l ? ) VIOLANTE (aside)  (Is t h i s an i l l u s i o n ? ) DON ENRIQUE (aside) (Who could, without drawing attention, examine i t ? ) VIOLANTE (aside) (Who would believe that Enrique, F e l i x and Carlos would f i n d me here?) DON LUIS My niece and my daughter. DON ENRIQUE I k i s s , sefioras, your hands. VIOLANTE and LEONOR May heaven keep you.  Enter DON LUIS and  DON LUIS Come. DON ENRIQUE (aside) (It i s enough to have seen her.) Let us go, since i t i s your wish. (enter DON DIEGO.) DON DIEGO Where are you going so early, don Luis? DON ENRIQUE To serve and accompany senor don Enrique. DON DIEGO Well, what does senor don Enrique want here? DON LUIS He has sought me for an examination he has part of. He i s don Carlos' examiner and son of the best friend I had. (aside to DON DIEGO) (And yes I speak the truth, for his blood i s noble, and he i s r i c h by the inheritance he enjoys, and Violante . . . but we w i l l talk of t h i s l a t e r at our l e i s u r e . )  DON DIEGO (aside) (I am trembling from anger, but I must dissemble.) It i s well that we a l l serve him. Let us go. DON ENRIQUE I, senor . . . (aside) (Confused and disturbed, I cannot guess what to say) do not deserve so many honours.  124 DON DIEGO (aside) (Holy heavens! Must t h i s shadow follow me here? Tyrant honour, i f memories untie me, why do you bind my hands?) ( e x i t DON ENRIQUE.)  DIEGO, DON  VIOLANTE Is my father returning, Leonor? LEONOR No, they have both said farewell and l e f t on the street below. VIOLANTE Then give me, cousin, your arms, for with a thousand souls, a thousand l i v e s , I cannot repay what I owe you. What you said to that gentleman about me, c l e a r l y has given him hope of seeking me. With this I expect, at the same time bettering myself, to avenge myself on that ingrate who jeopardized my love for a hussy, exchanging the security f o r duels and graciousness f o r deceit. LEONOR (aside) (I fear t h i s fool may put me with her angers i n occasion to lose myself.) (enter JUANA and INES.) VIOLANTE Hello! INES and JUANA Senora. VIOLANTE C a l l a servant of those strangers, Ines, and t r y by chance to find out where their house l i e s .  LUIS and DON  125  INES Yes, I w i l l . (exits.) LEONOR What are you going to do? VIOLANTE I must speak c l e a r l y with you, since you have to help me, what I plan i s t h i s , since a l l of Toledo goes out these afternoons to the banks of the Tagus,H to see, Leonor, i t s navigating c r y s t a l s , the mistaken wilderness of pines that through the current below the mountains of Cuenca (the f i r s t alabaster cradle of the monarch of the r i v e r s ) , sent breaking loose pieces i n disunited fragments . . . , I ' l l write him a l e t t e r which w i l l say that a lady waits for him, next to the ruined palace of Galiana, where she w i l l signal with a kerchief i n her hand; he should follow her so that, leaving the crowds aside, she can speak to him; to do t h i s both of us disguised . . . LEONOR Wait, Violante; no don't go on, for I w i l l not dare so much. I an accomplice i n your l e t t e r s ? I i n disguises? VIOLANTE What modesty! LEONOR What do you want? condition.  This i s my VIOLANTE  Without astonishment,  a major r i v e r flowing through Toledo and central Spain.  126 for and you not  this other i s also mine; although you may not go, cannot persuade me to go. (enter INES.) INES I have got i t .  VIOLANTE Then come; I w i l l give you a l e t t e r . (exit VIOLANTE and INES.) LEONOR Since I cannot impede so blind a r e s o l u t i o n , neither, ah, Jezebel! ah, ingrate!, can I remain with my jealousy — a n d more when i t matters so much that I cannot deny her t r e a c h e r i e s — b r i n g me my v e i l , and put yours on as w e l l . JUANA Is there something i n the wind? LEONOR There i s a t r a i t o r e s s on whom, with her own weapons, I try to avenge myself. As the heavens l i v e , the snare with which I avenge must be her own s i g n a l , which leaving her to c a l l him, w i l l stumble on her favours, to f a l l i n my offenses! (they exit and HERNANDO enters.) HERNANDO As I said of my quarrel,1^ beginning f i n a l l y , i s i t better to be v a l i a n t than to make him think I am? No. Then, hey, worries! we s h a l l t r y to v a l i a n t i z e , hands to the labour, and make a heroic end to my jealousy. Come Simon to the f i e l d of honour, 12 From t h i s point u n t i l Carlos and Enrique enter on page 135 the Spanish verse changes to redondillas. See the Introduction, pages 9-10, for an explanation of r e d o n d i l l a .  127 for t h i s , without twisting the proverb, needs more c r a f t i n e s s than strength. (as he i s about enters.) DON FELIX Why do you need strength and craftiness? HERNANDO Craftiness so that when I see a t r a i t o r e s s , I can leave her; and strength to give her two slaps i n the face. DON FELIX I want to know with whom you talk so angrily? HERNANDO With myself without further ado, for certain parties have made me jealous . . . DON FELIX Jealous you? HERNANDO And of love and honour. DON FELIX Leave such f o o l i s h worries, f o r there are no rascals who are jealous. HERNANDO And no gentlemen who are In love. DON FELIX T e l l me i f don Enrique has come home. HERNANDO Isn't he with you? DON FELIX A message came to me, which had come from Madrid, and told me don Enrique had things to do, and to wait f o r him here. HERNANDO Well, he hasn't arrived.  to e x i t ,  DON FELIX  128 DON FELIX (aside) (Heavens, i s n ' t my misfortune odd? But for one word or two, my cruel doubt remains with me . . . (enter INES, crossing the stage. She gives a paper to DON FELIX and exits running.) INES Read t h i s l e t t e r , do what i t says, and good bye. DON FELIX Stop that woman. (when HERNANDO t r i e s to stop INES, she h i t s him and exits running.) INES Don't t r y i t , for i t w i l l bring more of these. HERNANDO One i s good enough for a sample. DON FELIX What does t h i s l e t t e r say? (reads) "From Galiana t h i s afternoon come alone to the r i v e r bank, and she who c a l l s you with a kerchief, follow. May God keep you." T e l l me, but where i s she who brought the letter? HERNANDO She gave only you an envelope but she gave me a f i s t , and l e f t running. DON FELIX But didn't I order you to stop her? HERNANDO You ordered with your voice, but she ordered with her hands to l e t her go. and so you see that better service comes to he who gives than he who doesn't.  129 DON FELIX My confusion abounds. The writing i s not Leonor's. Without doubt Violante wrote the l e t t e r . What am I to do? But to hesitate i s wrong, for even i f i t i s Violante, Leonor w i l l be with her, and she w i l l see that my love only desires to hear her truth; and since Violante i s Carlos' love, I must be graceful to her. Come with me. HERNANDO Where are you going? DON FELIX Where do you want me to go t h i s afternoon? Where would we find more people or more celebration? Since people resort to the r i v e r bank c a l l e d Galiana desiring to see that spectacle that from the foreign horizon to t h e i r own, through c r y s t a l l i n e g u l f s , i n boats of pine, a mountain s a i l s by. HERNANDO By the speed you're making, instead of celebrations, i t appears, sefior, that you bring some bad news. DON FELIX The news I bring i s not very good for me, since today I go after two disillusionments. (enter INES and VIOLANTE, v e i l e d . They cross i n front making signals with a kerchief.) INES Don F e l i x comes there. VIOLANTE Pass i n front of him, without observing my action. (they exit.)  130 DON FELIX Those are the signals of which the l e t t e r advised me. I w i l l follow her at a distance, u n t i l we are somewhat distanced from t h i s concourse of people. (Enter from the same place LEONOR and JUANA who make t h e same s i g n a l , crossing i n front.) JUANA I can see don F e l i x there. LEONOR How I wish we had arrived first. JUANA Violante l e f t the house before we d i d . LEONOR Pass by him nonchalantly and with care, for i f she has not called him, i t matters l i t t l e to have arrived first. (they exit.) DON FELIX How, i f the l e t t e r came from one, can the signal come from two? For i t i s wrong to presume that i t came from Violante, since i t was not Leonor who was with her; nor was i t from Leonor, since i t i s not her handwriting. I don't know which of the two to follow, by God. HERNANDO What's the matter with you? DON FELIX You w i l l know l a t e r . And i t i s enough now that i n order f o r my fortune to follow two signals, i t must follow neither. (VIOLANTE and LEONOR both enter with their maids from where they exited.)  131 VIOLANTE Ines, does he come? INES No, sefiora. LEONOR Juana, he i s n ' t following us? JUANA No. VIOLANTE Then we s h a l l pass by again, i n case he didn't notice. LEONOR In case he didn't see the s i g n a l , let us pass i n front again. (As VIOLANTE and LEONOR cross, both make the same signal and once again retire.) But, alas!, i t i s Violante. VIOLANTE But, alas!, i t i s Leonor, since no one else would know what I wrote. LEONOR This venture has gone poorly f o r me, woe i s me! Who would believe that we arrived at the same time? VIOLANTE Do not move head, suspicions, to presume that jealousy brought her a f t e r me. DON FELIX This i s a t r i c k and the best part w i l l be to boast about i t , since neither one can be Violante nor Leonor. Most graciously v e i l e d senoras, i f the ingenuity of Toledo, brings you together i n conspiracy to t r i c k a courteous stranger, see by God that, i n a good duel, i t i s an importune act f o r one to issue the challenge and f o r two to come to f i g h t .  HERNANDO Don't worry about that, senor, for i f one lady challenges you and two come, the other lady w i l l have to f i g h t with me. DON FELIX Quiet, i d i o t ! Therefore, since I must answer the challenge, I must know who issued i t , t e l l me then: Who wrote me the letter? VIOLANTE and LEONOR I did. DON FELIX Who am I to believe? VIOLANTE and LEONOR Me. DON FELIX Both of you wrote i t ? VIOLANTE and LEONOR Yes. DON FELIX And I am not to doubt i t ? VIOLANTE and LEONOR No. DON FELIX Then declare to us now: To what does one or the other c a l l s me? LEONOR That lady w i l l t e l l you. (going.) VIOLANTE That lady w i l l t e l l you. (going.) DON FELIX You are not to go, nor you, without one answering me, for I w i l l not be c a l l e d by two and remain without one.  133 LEONOR Follow me, I w i l l t e l l you. VIOLANTE And I also, i f you follow after me. DON FELIX How can I i f . . . ? (enter SIMON.) SIMON Thank God I found you! DON FELIX What i s i t , Simon? SIMON My master and don Carlos, commanding me to stay behind, have l e f t the house. They go to f i g h t ; try to reach them. DON FELIX (aside) (Heavens! Could t h e i r duel have come at a worst time? And since I must f i r s t go to my f i r s t obligation, I must withdraw from both these beauties.) Agree among yourselves, while I go, your worships, and good bye. (DON FELIX, HERNANDO, and SIMON exit.) VIOLANTE Leonor, you did not act as a cousin or a f r i e n d , when after I had t o l d you my intentions, you came after me and took away a chance that I w i l l never have again. LEONOR And when w i l l you pay me looking after your reputation? When I saw that you were determined to commit an error today so much against your honour, I came after you disguised only to embarrass him.  VIOLANTE I could believe that, i f I did not imagine that the care with which I wrote to Don F e l i x also belongs to you. LEONOR You thought that of me? VIOLANTE Not only have I thought i t , but, whether you accept i t or not, I believed i t . LEONOR You of me? VIOLANTE I of you. LEONOR Well, i f . . . VIOLANTE Well, i f . . . LEONOR • • • I • * * VIOLANTE • • • I  • •• JUANA Your father! INES Your father!  LEONOR We must make them believe, since we have been gone so long, and l a t e r we can resolve t h i s matter, for we w i l l agree on that. (Enter DON DIEGO and DON LUIS.) VIOLANTE You are r i g h t . DON DIEGO Leonor.  135 DON LUIS Violante. DON DIEGO After we discovered you had gone to the Tagus, we came here, as a lover comes, seeking h i s lady. LEONOR Such grace deserves our love.  VIOLANTE From the sadness, the rigorous scorn she s u f f e r s , I am obliged to divert my cousin. LEONOR She esteems me much. DON LUIS I thank her f o r that. And since i t i s now l a t e , come; we w i l l accompany you home. VIOLANTE (aside) (Fear, l e t me dissemble.) LEONOR (aside) (Anguish, be quite and suffer.) INES Juana. JUANA What do you want, Ines? INES Our mistresses are angry at each other. JUANA As the o l d song goes, we w i l l f i n d out l a t e r . (they a l l e x i t . DON ENRIQUE.) DON ENRIQUE Senor don Carlos, as you see a stranger can learn the sights of Toledo, this i s  Enter DON CARLOS and  136 the castle of San Cervantes. DON CARLOS I have known that for days; and i f your seeking me and bringing me here i s to t e l l me i t i s time to break the truce, what do you wait for? We are alone and separated from the people who, from Toledo to this r i v e r , descend these afternoons. And so, unsheathe your sword. DON ENRIQUE Pay attention f o r a moment. (DON FELIX enters, but stays sight of the d u e l i s t s . ) DON CARLOS Be b r i e f , f o r i n the f i e l d of honour, the less that i s spoken, the more i s paid attention to. DON FELIX (aside) (Within the broken ruins of these decrepid walls, I w i l l wait f o r the f i r s t sword they unsheathe before I intervene because i t w i l l be easier to mediate once their honour has been s a t i s f i e d . ) DON ENRIQUE This i s the testimony, Carlos, of your commission. The Counsel has approved your examinations, whose l i g h t was concealed by libelous clouds which the sun of truth has now d i s p e l l e d , so that no coward may avenge himself i n your n o b i l i t y . And so that between the two of t h i s f i g h t there remains no dependency, here i s the money I received for my wages as the examiner, I give to you as a small present, because a s o l d i e r does not always f i n d money i n hand, and you w i l l need i t for the road, Carlos, i f I happen to be the one who dies  out of  137 and you the one who leaves. Now, unsheathe your sword. DON CARLOS Wait, because a f t e r such a noble gesture, f i r s t I must throw myself your feet, and since I f i n d myself so greatly honoured by you (for I must carry the honour which you have given me forward more f o r you than f o r me, since i n me i t has now, as your g i f t , second action), concede me time to think of what a gentleman, grateful and of this rank, should do. DON ENRIQUE Think then, and be b r i e f , f o r i n the f i e l d of honour he who works i s better than he who thinks. DON CARLOS If you had told me this when you came to see me i n my retreat i n the c i t y , I would have thrown myself a thousand times at your feet, and I would have desisted from the suit that rashly obliged us, giving you as much s a t i s f a c t i o n s as were necessary to reconcile the wound given i n a current f i g h t . I would do i t but my hands are bound by this f i e l d of honour. And since I am honoured by you and my honour now depends on you, give me the means by which I may be graceful and you s a t i s f i e d , since, i n whatever accident, to leave the vanquished graceful i s glory to the one who vanquishes him. DON ENRIQUE I come not to give counsel, Carlos; what you do w i l l always be best.  138 DON CARLOS But not always the most prudent; and so, I w i l l unsheathe my sword against you, but i n such a way that, i n careless execution, i n weak resistance, without d i l i g e n c e , Enrique, my death may pacify you. (unsheathes h i s sword point i n the ground.) Come, then, come, my chest i s uncovered; put on me the habit that you give me, so once and f o r a l l , that the enamel of the red i n s i g n i a tastes my warm blood. DON FELIX (aside) (I was about to enter, but with this act, I can wait longer.) DON ENRIQUE You repay me poorly, don Carlos, since you put me i n a position from which I can neither attack you nor avenge myself, since you are defended by not defending; because he who w i l l not defend himself i s more valiant i n s p i r i t than he who defends himself. And so, take up your sword, so i f by chance my anger accommodates your desire, you w i l l not reward me with infamy for the honour I gave you. DON CARLOS By only drawing my sword here, I have done enough; i f from here the outcome runs to account of luck, avenge yourself, f o r , when they f i n d me dead, they may say I was unfortunate, but they w i l l not say I was without honour. DON ENRIQUE Would you do i t ?  and puts the  DON CARLOS I don't know: you w i l l always do the best, for I do not come to give counsel. DON ENRIQUE Inasmuch as t h i s incident f a l l s on us, for with the sword i n the hand, we would appear cowards to anyone who might see us, Carlos, from pure bravery, l i s t e n to the only means that i s offered to my reason. DON CARLOS Which i s ? DON FELIX (aside) (I must hear t h i s , so I have the means to intercede.) DON ENRIQUE I am here u n w i l l i n g l y , and so the smallest doubt does not remain that I have something that might offset that casual offence, I must l e t . . . DON CARLOS Speak. DON ENRIQUE . . . my misfortune t r y to create a small advantage. I must leave tomorrow, and be absent from . . . — I was about to say her name— from t h i s lady, whomever she may be . . . DON FELIX (aside) (The d e v i l take you, seiiora. When w i l l I know who you are?) DON ENRIQUE . . . and since my misfortune contrived that she arrived where you are, i t would not be right for my jealousy to carry me  so completely, for while you remain i n Toledo, I depart without any protection to a l l e v i a t e me or console me. DON  FELIX (aside)  (The lady i s i n Toledo; she doubtlessly followed Carlos.) DON  ENRIQUE  Your must give me your word that your love w i l l not woo her, and . . . DON CARLOS Hold your tongue. It i s not right to ask anyone for his word on the f i e l d of honour, nor should anyone give i t , although I am the owner of my l i f e and can lay i t at your feet, but I am not the owner of my honour; nor would i t do you no good to give me honour i n order to take i t away, since the one hand barely concedes i t , when the other demands i t from me. I confess that i f I resolved to stop the courtship, you would gain l i t t l e , because I am always scorned by her love, my anguish never having seen or heard her frowns without reproach, or her l i p s without scorn; for that time at the window was the only instance of licentiousness the night permitted, i n which she gave to my daring or to your rashness the s l i g h t e s t look. And so, trust me, I am forever grateful to you and abhorred by her. This can console your love i n her absence, without me giving my word, because I w i l l not to give my word here neither i f you asked me to love her nor i f you asked me to leave her. DON (If Carlos i s scorned by this lady  FELIX (aside)  and she comes to Toledo after Enrique, why does he return without her?) DON ENRIQUE If I had, don Carlos, as you mistakenly believe, her favours, i t would be possible that they could make me mistake the hope of your gratitude, or of her love, then I would want to obtain a greater prize than to be favoured and absent; but since I l i v e scorned of her, to her cruel angers so subject that I could never deserve from her a pleasing look . . . DON FELIX (aside) (Whom does this lady love, i f she abhors both of them?) DON ENRIQUE . . . and so much that, enraged, her c r u e l t i e s cost me, not only that rashness, but another imprudent act that, thinking I saw you, while I waited for the maid I bribed to unlock her door for me, I attacked her . . . But t h i s i s not the time to t e l l of errors . . . DON FELIX (aside) (Oh, what thoughts revolve i n my imagination!) DON ENRIQUE . . . and so f i n a l l y , Carlos, know that I must either leave with your word, or return to the o r i g i n a l duel. DON CARLOS For he who has made a benefit, i f he does an offence, loses the gratitude of he who made i t . DON ENRIQUE I care nothing of the gratitude.  142 Your honour owes me nothing, since I do not owe you for a lady you l e f t f o r me. DON CARLOS I w i l l defend myself, but I w i l l not give my word that I leave Leonor. (With h i s sword FELIX.) DON FELIX What i s t h i s of Leonor? False f r i e n d , treacherous f r i e n d ! Are you the one who causes my misfortunes to grow so much? Are you the one who causes beautiful Leonor to suffer so many offenses? DON CARLOS What i s t h i s , Felix? mad?  Are you DON ENRIQUE  What i s t h i s , Felix? With whom do you fight? DON FELIX With both of you. DON CARLOS Then what compels you? DON ENRIQUE What moves you? DON FELIX Leonor i s whom I love. DON CARLOS Now you come with this? DON ENRIQUE Now you enter with this? DON FELIX Yes, ingrates, double faced and u n f a i t h f u l friends, you made use of me against myself the times when, accomplice i n your love, I went delinquent i n my own. And since now your duel  i n hand, enter DON  i s not yours, but mine, I begin i n t h i s manner: Your word which you would not give to Enrique, Carlos, you must give to me. DON CARLOS He who w i l l not give i t to Enrique w i l l not give i t to you. DON Then r i s k a thousand  FELIX  deaths.  DON ENRIQUE I w i l l not allow t h i s . I brought him to the f i e l d of honour, he comes with me and while he fights my duel, he i s not to f i g h t with another, nor another with him. DON FELIX I am glad, Enrique, to see you take h i s side, because t h i s way I avenge myself on both at one time, since the word that you ask for you must also give me. DON CARLOS Don't be glad, for I w i l l leave his side because your duel does not begin u n t i l mine comes to an end. DON FELIX Then I w i l l defend him, because your sword must encounter mine f i r s t and h i s second. DON ENRIQUE I have no need for anyone to defend me. What do you resolve, Carlos? DON CARLOS Not to give my word. DON ENRIQUE I w i l l not leave without i t . DON FELIX I w i l l not leave without yours, and h i s , for even though my sorrow owes you  for the truth that Leonor abhors both of you, no one from today i s to dare to love her, or even see her. DON ENRIQUE Each man sees two enemies present at one time. DON CARLOS A duel of three, how can i t be fought? DON FELIX By the three f i g h t i n g at once, since i t must be fought every man for himself. DON ENRIQUE and DON CARLOS With what results? DON FELIX With these r e s u l t s . Die he who loves Leonor, die he who adores Leonor. DON ENRIQUE Die he who seeks my o b l i v i o n , and he who i s ungrateful f o r h i s honour. DON CARLOS Die he who gives honour and takes i t away, and he who my jealousy inflames. HERNANDO (within) Here's the sword f i g h t . ( a l l enter.) DON LUIS Let's make peace among them. VIOLANTE Stop, father! DON LUIS Get away, Violante! LEONOR Stop, father! DON DIEGO and DON LUIS Separate yourselves! What i s t h i s ,  gentlemen? DON FELIX No man can take away my vengeance. DON ENRIQUE and DON CARLOS Nor mine. LEONOR (aside) (Cruel luck! Don Enrique and F e l i x together; I pray God my father doesn't return to the suspicion he brought from Madrid.) VIOLANTE (aside) (Heavens, preserve me, i f my father begins to suspect why Carlos and F e l i x f i g h t ! ) DON DIEGO What i s this? Is not the a r r i v a l of senor don Luis and I enough to make you forbear? DON FELIX To make me forbear, yes, but not to l e t t h i s duel remain unsettled u n t i l a later time. DON ENRIQUE I say the same. DON CARLOS And  so do I.  DON DIEGO Not that, do not believe that we came here to stop the duel and leave i t unfinished. T e l l us the cause, for we seek to know i t as there may be a way for agreement, by chance so that, without v i l e blemish on one, you a l l remain s a t i s f i e d , and i f a l l cannot be s a t i s f i e d , we w i l l watch you f i g h t . DON LUIS We w i l l know the cause, then.  DON DIEGO What i s i t ? DON FELIX I w i l l not t e l l . DON CARLOS Nor I. DON ENRIQUE Nor I. DON DIEGO Is i t so secret that you don't trust i t to don Luis and me? DON FELIX, DON CARLOS and DON ENRIQUE No. DON DIEGO Then I w i l l trust you. And since i t i s not enough, Enrique, to throw me from Madrid, and blemish my honour following me to Toledo, where don Luis has extolled your q u a l i t i e s to me, give your hand to Leonor. DON LUIS How, after I t o l d you my intentions, can you want f o r yourself that which I set apart f o r myself? DON DIEGO The best i s what i s desired every man f o r himself. Give your hand to Leonor. DON ENRIQUE (aside) (Since a l l F e l i x said was he loves her, without obtaining more favour, and since they o f f e r me what I sought, why do I wait?) Here i s my hand. But not mine.  I w i l l not marry  LEONOR disgraced.  147 DON DIEGO Leonor, you must not r e s i s t . Give him your hand. LEONOR I cannot. DON FELIX You cannot? Why not, v i l e daughter, since I order you? DON FELIX Because she has given i t to me, this i s also the way to do business every man for himself. DON DIEGO I w i l l give death to her and to you f i r s t . DON LUIS Careful, Don Diego, for i t i s best to y i e l d reason and pleasure to so great a resolution. DON ENRIQUE Since I see that he i s so determined, I w i l l take h i s side. DON LUIS Enrique, you f u l l f i l well your r o l e as f r i e n d , and i f you lose that p r i z e , think . . . DON ENRIQUE What? DON LUIS . . . that you w i l l gain another, i f not equal i n beauty, then equal i n a l l the rest, i n Violante. DON ENRIQUE (aside) (To avenge myself once and for a l l and to persuade Leonor, since she leaves me,  there i s one who prizes me a thousand and one times . . .) I throw myself at your feet. DON LUIS Give her your hand. VIOLANTE I w i l l not, father, be married i n place of another. DON LUIS This i s my pleasure, give him your hand. VIOLANTE I cannot. DON LUIS What i s this? Why can you not? DON CARLOS Because she has given i t to me, for t h i s i s also the way to do business every man f o r himself. DON LUIS I w i l l avenge myself on you and on her with death. DON ENRIQUE (aside) (I w i l l replace both these offenses with valour.) Hold, don Luis, for at h i s side you w i l l find me. DON DIEGO Careful, f o r i t i s best to y i e l d reason and pleasure to so great a resolution. DON LUIS I must take f o r myself the counsel I gave another. DON FELIX Here ends my sorrow.  149 LEONOR At last I have made see the l i g h t . DON CARLOS The f i r s t love i s the best love. VIOLANTE  x  Clearly. SIMON Being i t so, Juana, give me your hand. JUANA Yes I w i l l , but I'm a f r a i d that someone here w i l l stop i t . SIMON Why? HERNANDO Because she has given i t to me, for t h i s i s also the way to do business every man f o r himself. SIMON Then I w i l l take his side. Who i s there who wants to impede? DON FELIX (to the audience) And I, i n name of our playwright who always desires to serve you attentively . . . ALL Are you going to apologize, F e l i x , f o r the f a u l t s of the play? DON FELIX Yes. ALL That has to done every man f o r himself.  150  BIBLIOGRAPHY Calderon de l a Barca, Pedro. Cada uno para s i . Edited and with introduct i o n and notes by Jose M. Ruano de l a Haza. Teatro del Siglo de Oro Ediciones C r i t i c a s 1. (Kassel: Edition Reichenberger, 1982). . Calderon de l a Barca: Four Plays. Translated by Edwin Honig (New York: H i l l and Wang, 1961). . Four Comedies. Translated by Kenneth Muir s i t y of Kentucky Press, 1980).  (Lexington: Univer-  . Three Comedies. Translated by Kenneth Muir s i t y of Kentucky Press, 1984).  (Lexington: Univer-  Entwistle, W.J. 20.  "Honra y duelo".  Romanistische Jahrbuch III (1950): 404-  I g l e s i a s , Mario and Meiden, Walter. Spanish f o r Oral and Written Review. 2nd edition (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1981). Moon, Harold K. Spanish L i t e r a t u r e : A C r i t i c a l Approach (Lexington, Mass.: Xerox College Publishing, 1972). Reichenberger, Kurt and Reichenberger, Roswitha, eds. Bibliogrphische Handbuch der Calderon-Forschung/ Manual B i b o l i o g r a f i c o Calderoniano. In collaboration with Theo Berchen and Henry W. S u l l i v a n . Spanish text by Angel San Miguel. 3 v o l . (Kassel: Verlay, Thiele, & Schwarz, 1979) Ruano de l a Haza, Jose M. "Estructura e interpretaclon de una comedia de capa y espada de Calderon Cada uno para s i . " Hacia Calderon (1979): 106-116. Ruiz Ramon, Francisco. Estudios sobre teatro espafiol c l a s i c o y contemporaneo (Madrid: Fundacion Juan March y Ediciones Catedra, 1978). Smiley, Sam. Playwriting: The Structure of Action (Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1971). Van  Lennep, William, ed. The London Stage: 1660-1800 part 1 1660-1700. Introduction by Emmett L Avery and Authur H. Scouten. (Carbondale: Southern University Press, 1965).  

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