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Every man for himself : a translation of Calderon's Cada uno para sí Slawson, Richard Jacobson 1987

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EVERY MAN FOR HIMSELF: A TRANSLATION OF CALDERON'S CADA UNO PARA SI By RICHARD JACOBSON SLAWSON B.A. , Brigham Young University, 1984 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Theatre) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Apr i l 1987 © R i c h a r d J . Slawson, 1987 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Theatre  The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date April 27, 1987  r>F-Gn/ft-n ABSTRACT This t h e s i s c o n s i s t s of a f r e e verse t r a n s l a t i o n of Pedro Calderon de l a Barca's 1653 play Cada uno para s i . I t a l s o i n c l u d e s an i n t r o d u c t i o n by the t r a n s l a t o r g i v i n g a b r i e f h i s t o r y of the play as w e l l as comments on the t r a n s l a t i o n process used i n t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT v INTRODUCTION 1 Calderon and Cada uno para s i . . . 1 D i f f i c u l t i e s Encountered i n the T r a n s l a t i o n 3 Spanish Verse and i t s T r a n s l a t i o n 8 The E d i t i o n of Cada uno para s i 10 Format of the T r a n s l a t i o n 10 The Future of the T r a n s l a t i o n 12 EVERY MAN FOR HIMSELF 14 Act One 16 Act Two 60 Act Three 107 BIBLIOGRAPHY 150 i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to acknowledge the help and support given to me by Dr. Peter L o e f f l e r , who suggested and oversaw t h i s p r o j e c t ; Dr. Isaac Rubio Delgado, who gave me a deeper understanding of Golden Age comedia; and to my w i f e , Karen V a l e n t i n e Slawson, without whose support, encouragement, and sugges-t i o n s t h i s p r o j e c t would never have been f i n i s h . 1 INTRODUCTION T r a n s l a t i o n s and adaptions of plays by Calderon have been part of E n g l i s h t h e a t r e f o r more than three hundred years. In December 1662 John Evelyn recorded i n h i s d i a r y that he went to a r e h e a r s a l of The Adventure  of F i v e Hours, "a play whose p l o t was taken out of the famous Spanish Poet Calderon."1 Before Calderon's death, both Dryden and Wycherly had a l s o made E n g l i s h adaptations of h i s works.2 There has s i n c e been a steady flow of E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n s of Calderon to the present day. However i n the l a s t f i f t y y e a r s , most of the t r a n s l a t i o n s have been of Calderon's serious works. Recently Kenneth Muir t r a n s l a t e d two volumes of Calderon's comedies w i t h the hope to increase the p u b l i c ' s awareness of the comic prowess of Calderon. This t r a n s l a t i o n of Cada uno para s i , the f i r s t i n E n g l i s h , w i l l h o p e f u l l y add to that awareness. Calderon and Cada uno para s i Pedro Calderon de l a Barca i s one of the best known and most masterful dramatists of the Spanish Golden Age. He was born i n 1600 and began 1 W i l l i a m Van Lennep, ed. , The London Stage: 1660-1800 part 1 1660- 1700, i n t r o . by Emmett L. Avery and Arthur H. Scouten (Carbondale: Southern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965), 59. 2 Kurt Reichenberger and Roswitha Reichenberger, eds., B i b l i o g r p h i s c h e  Handbuch der Calderon-Forschung/ Manual B i b o l i o g r a f i c o Calderoniano, i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h Theo Berchen and Henry W. S u l l i v a n , Spanish t e x t by Angel San M i g u e l , 3 v o l . ( K a s s e l : V e r l a y , T h i e l e , & Schwarz, 1979), 1:142, 340. 2 w r i t i n g plays i n the 1620's. Calderon wrote over one hundred plays and se v e n t y auto sacramentales i n h i s l i f e t i m e . Most of these works are extant. While, u n l i k e Lope de Vega, Calderon d i d not make any innovations to the form and s t y l e of Spanish drama, he q u i c k l y mastered the s t y l e p o p u l a r i z e d by Lope and e v e n t u a l l y surpassed h i s o l d e r contemporary i n p o p u l a r i t y . He a l s o mastered the auto sacramental, a short a l l e g o r i c a l r e l i g i o u s p l a y , r e v i v i n g the p o p u l a r i t y of t h i s form and b r i n g i n g r e l i g i o u s drama to i t s g r e a t e s t h e i g h t s . While g e n e r a l l y best known f o r h i s more s e r i o u s works such as La v i d a  es suefio ( L i f e i s a Dream) and E l A l c a l d e de Zalamea (The Mayor of  Zalamea), many of h i s works are l i g h t e r , romantic comedies of the capa y  espada (cape and sword) genre. These plays revolve around the p l i g h t s of young l o v e r s separated through some s o r t of misunderstanding o f t e n caused by c o n f l i c t i n g demands of the r i g i d Spanish code of honour. Cada uno para  s i f a l l s i n t o t h i s genre of p l a y s . I t i s g e n e r a l l y accepted that Cada uno was w r i t t e n i n 1652-53. This would put i t s c r e a t i o n n e a r l y twenty years a f t e r Calderon's b e t t e r known works. At t h i s time Calderon had r e t i r e d from the p u b l i c t h e a t r e s , taken r e l i g i o u s orders and wrote p r i m a r i l y at the request of the Court. Away from the pressures of the p u b l i c t h e a t r e , Calderon appears to have had the time to r e v i s e the play. Jose Ruano de l a Haza, i n h i s c r i t i c a l e d i t i o n of Cada uno, i d e n t i f i e s three d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s of the t h i r d act of the p l a y , i n c l u d i n g one i n a semi-autograph manuscript which appears to c o n t a i n r e v i s i o n s by Calderon himself made some twenty years a f t e r he o r i g i n a l l y 3 wrote the p l a y . ^ Ruano b e l i e v e s that t h i s play represents Calderon's l a s t capa y espada play and shows Calderon's g r e a t e s t domination of the genre.4 While the play i s now not w e l l known, during i t s day i t was very popular. Ruano has discovered numerous records of i t s performance from 1682 t o 1744.-* As f a r as I have been able to d i s c o v e r , the play has never been t r a n s l a t e d i n t o any language. D i f f i c u l t i e s Encountered i n the T r a n s l a t i o n . This t r a n s l a t i o n attempts to create a readable E n g l i s h v e r s i o n of Cada  uno that keeps as much of the s p a r k l e and l y r i c q u a l i t y of the Spanish poetry and yet does not deviate s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the t e x t . This i s a d i f f i c u l t task at best. I t has been s a i d that i f a t r a n s l a t i o n i s b e a u t i -f u l i t i s not t r u e , and i f i t i s true i t i s not b e a u t i f u l . Often to make a passage understandable i n E n g l i s h , the meaning of the passage must be a l t e r e d . For example on page 38 of t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n , Hernando and Simon have an exchange about Juana that would read i f t r a n s l a t e d w i t h s i m i l a r meanings to the o r i g i n a l : SIMON Then understand that the mute i s of v i t r i o l and burns anyone who touches her. -* Jose M. Ruano de l a Haza, Preface to Cada uno para s i by Pedro Calderon de l a Barca, ed. Jose M. Ruano de l a Haza, Teatro del S i g l o de Oro E d i c i ones C r i t i c a s 1 ( K a s s e l : E d i t i o n Reichenberger, 1982), i x . A l l subsequent references to t h i s e d i t i o n and i t s notes w i l l be referenced as Ruano, Cada uno. 4 J o s e M. Ruano de l a Haza, " E s t r u c t u r a e i n t e r p r e t a c i o n de una comedia de capa y espada de Calderon Cada uno para s i , " Hacia Calderon (1979): 106. Ruano, Cada uno, 100-01. 4 HERNANDO Then w i t h only t h i s warning, she w i l l be mute and I w i l l be mum; f o r there's no f e a r that I'd love the mute of another g a l l a n t , even though she was of Ceruse, even more than of V i t r i o l . However, t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n does not r e f l e c t the complex play on the Spanish words, muda (mute or a change of undergarments), soliman (a c a u s t i c substance here t r a n s l a t e d as v i t r i o l , and a Spanish form of a T u r k i s h name) and Albayaldos (white l e a d , and a pseudo-Moorish name). The pun on muda, which i s c e n t r a l to the r o g u i s h f e e l of t h i s passage, i s completely lost.*> Since the Spanish puns do not t r a n s l a t e and the E n g l i s h equivalents are obscure, t h i s passage becomes u n i n t e l l i g i b l e without lengthy explanatory notes. I changed the pun i n t h i s passage to one which r e t a i n e d some of the same sense of w i t as the o r i g i n a l and made i t understandable, though some of the o r i g i n a l r i c h n e s s i s s t i l l l o s t : SIMON Beware f o r the lady borrows her l o v e r ' s sword f o r her tongue. HERNANDO Then w i t h only t h i s warning, she can be h i s mute and I w i l l be mum; f o r there i s no f e a r that I'd love the mute of another l o v e r , even though her looks are as sharp as her tongue. At other times the meaning of a l i n e had to be completely changed. For example on page 19, Hernando, when asked by V i o l a n t e why he does not f o r f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n of these puns see Ruano, Cada uno, 334. 5 f o l l o w Don F e l i x to the sword f i g h t , r e p l i e s : " Ni voy n i vengo" which l i t e r a l l y t h i s means " I n e i t h e r go nor come." This i s an i d i o m a t i c phrase meaning " i t doesn't concern me." However there i s a deeper connotation to t h i s phrase s i n c e the word vengo (I come) a l s o means " I avenge." This dual meaning i s e x p l o i t e d i n the axiom of duelers "con quien vengo, vengo" (with whom I come, I avenge) which means that a man accompanying another w i l l always f i g h t on that man's si d e no matter who h i s opponent i s . ^ Without t h i s understanding the l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n i s meaningless. I changed the l i n e to "Because I keep my p l a c e " which r e l a t e d to the pun i n the l i n e s that f o l l o w e d : VIOLANTE Why don't you a l s o go? HERNANDO Because I keep my pla c e . INES But won't you take your place at your master's side? HERNANDO I t wouldn't be r i g h t to take a place at my master's s i d e , because, no matter what happens, good servants must appear t i m i d and modest, and always take t h e i r place behind t h e i r masters. There have been some occasions where I cut parts of the t e x t . U s u a l l y these c o n s i s t e d of redundancies or grammatical c o n s t r u c t i o n s which d i d not t r a n s l a t e w e l l i n t o E n g l i s h . O c c a s i o n a l l y I f o l l o w e d a r e a d i n g from 7 F e l i x makes reference to t h i s r u l e on page 87 when he has to decide whether to f o l l o w Carlos or Enrique. Calderon a l s o used t h i s r u l e as the premise of a play e n t i t l e d Con quien vengo, vengo i n which a f a t h e r and a son are compelled by t h e i r honour to f i g h t each other simply because each was accompanying a d i f f e r e n t party i n a duel . 6 another e d i t i o n . There were two major cuts that I made to improve the r e a d a b i l i t y of the play. They both occur i n C a r l o s ' long e x p o s i t o r y monologue i n act o n e — a part which w i l l probably have to be cut f u r t h e r f o r a modern audience. The f i r s t cut comes on page 24 at the beginning of the monologue: A f t e r we l e f t Barcelona together, senor don Juan, having obtained, w i t h the va l o u r and the counsel of h i s noble ge n e r a l s , the hopes of a s i e g e , i n which concurred a l l the a c c l a i m and rewards of land and of sea, of a t t a c k and of s e i g e , we separated . . . This i s g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d to be a t o p i c a l a l l u s i o n to the Spanish v i c t o r y at siege of Barcelona which occurred i n 1652. Since t h i s a l l u s i o n has nothing to do w i t h the p l o t of the play and introduces a name which i s not used again (and could be confused by a modern audience w i t h T i r s o de Molina's c h a r a c t e r , don Juan T e n o r i o ) , I decided to cut t h i s passage. The second major cut occurred on page 27 where C a r l o s d e s c r i b e s Leonor's beauty as he saw i t through her l a t t i c e d window. The o r i g i n a l t r a n s l a t i o n of the passage read: She was behind a g r i l l e d window secluded from the secret p u b l i c by a l a t t i c e that made my d e s i r e more forward, because l y i n g i n wait has some p l o t that shines i n g e n i o u s l y , now denying the s i g h t , now conceding i t ; but i f I c a l l e d her dawn, what more than between r e f l e c t i o n s , c o n f u s i n g l y d i s t i n c t 7 and d i s t i n c t l y b l i n d , d i v i n i n g the care, i f I see her or not see her, t w i l i g h t would be f o r the s i g h t hole of the ambush? In order to make t h i s passage more understandable I pared i t down t o : She was behind a g r i l l e d window, secluded from the secret p u b l i c by a l a t t i c e that made my d e s i r e more forward, s h i n i n g i n g e n i o u s l y , now denying the s i g h t , now conceding i t c o n f u s i n g l y d i s t i n c t and d i s t i n c t l y b l i n d . While the passage loses the images of dawn and t w i l i g h t , i t r e t a i n s the Baroque oxymorons w h i l e e l i m i n a t i n g the mixed images that could confuse a modern reader. One d i f f i c u l t y I faced through the whole t r a n s l a t i o n was the question of honour. By the seventeenth century the Spanish had developed a complex code of honour. Most p l o t s i n Golden Age drama centre on a question of honour. Cada uno i s no d i f f e r e n t . Much of the a c t i o n i n the play i s pushed forward by the character's perception of t h e i r duty i n r e l a t i o n to the code of honour.*-" For example, on page 87, F e l i x uses the 'law of the d u e l ' to decide which of h i s f r i e n d s to f o l l o w a f t e r he d i s c o v e r s they are mortal enemies. Since the Golden Age audience would have understood by i m p l i c a t i o n many of the a l l u s i o n s made to the o b l i g a t i o n s that honour held on the c h a r a c t e r , I have had to expand the o r i g i n a l t e x t i n a few places to make i t c l e a r e r to a modern audience. 8 f o r a more d e t a i l e d account of how honour f u n c t i o n s i n Golden Age drama see W.J. E n t w i s t l e , "Honra y duelo," Romanistische Jahrbuch I I I (1950): 404-20. 8 I encountered a s i m i l a r problem w i t h the passages that d e a l t w i t h C a r l o s ' i n f o r m e or e x a m i n a t i o n t o be made a Knight of the Order of Santiago. This i s a key p l o t element of the play as Enrique, Carlo's r i v a l , becomes h i s informante or examiner. Since Calderon was w r i t i n g p r i m a r i l y f o r the court at t h i s time, h i s audience was probably f a m i l i a r w i t h the mechanism of an informe. Calderon himself passed through an informe to become a Knight of Santiago i n 1636. Again I expanded many of the references to the Order of Santiago ( o f t e n c a l l j u s t "the Order" i n the t e x t ) and the process of the i n f orme i n order to make them more f o r a modern audience. Spanish Verse and i t s T r a n s l a t i o n . T r a n s l a t i n g Spanish verse posed unique problems. Spanish v e r s i f i c a -t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t than E n g l i s h v e r s i f i c a t i o n s i n c e i t can use an assonance rhyme r a t h e r than consonance and i s g e n e r a l l y s y l l a b i c r a t h e r than m e t r i c . Assonance rhyme means that the accented vowel i s rhymed desp i t e what the consonants are. For example, c r e c i d a and mentira would be considered an i - a assonance rhyme i n Spanish.9 Cada uno i s mostly w r i t t e n i n romances, which are eig h t s y l l a b l e l i n e s w i t h an assonance rhyme on a l t e r n a t i n g l i n e s . T his form was the most common i n Golden Age Spanish drama, much l i k e blank verse was f o r E l i z a b e t h a n drama. Since the rhyme i s p a r t i a l l y hidden to the E n g l i s h ear, I f e l t that blank verse would be the c l o s e s t E n g l i s h e q u i v a l e n t . 9 f o r f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n of Spanish poetry see Harold K. Moon, Spanish L i t e r a t u r e : A C r i t i c a l Approach (Lexington, Mass.: Xerox College P u b l i s h i n g , 1972), 271-91. 9 Since, the r u l e s of Spanish v e r s i f i c a t i o n a llow f o r a v a r i a t i o n i n the number of s y l l a b l e s i n a l i n e , I have made my t r a n s l a t i o n i n f r e e verse. In Spanish poetry when two or three vowel are found together, they can be l i n k e d i n t o one s y l l a b l e even when the r e g u l a r r u l e s of phonetics would not allow t h i s and counted as separate s y l l a b l e s even when the phonetic r u l e s would l i n k them. For example, the sentence v i a e l ( I saw him) could be counted as one s y l l a b l e , two s y l l a b l e s , or even three s y l l a b l e s . This gives the Spanish poet a f l e x i b i l i t y not a v a i l a b l e to an E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t o r who wishes to f o l l o w s t r i c t m etric r u l e s . However, adapting s l i g h t l y on Edwin Honig's choice of v e r s i f i c a t i o n f o r h i s t r a n s l a t i o n s of C a l d e r o n , ^ I have attempted where p o s s i b l e to keep the l i n e length between s i x and nine s y l l a b l e s . I b e l i e v e t h i s approximates most n e a r l y the v e r s i f i c a t i o n of the o r i g i n a l . About twenty percent the play i s w r i t t e n i n r e d o n d i l l a s , an eight s y l l a b l e l i n e which f o l l o w s an 'abba' consonance rhyme s t r u c t u r e . The change from romances to r e d o n d i l l a s i n Spanish drama u s u a l l y suggests a s h i f t i n mode. Romances are g e n e r a l l y used i n n a r r a t i v e and dramatic s i t u a t i o n s , w h i l e r e d o n d i l l a s where g e n e r a l l y used i n l i g h t e r or more romantic s i t u a t i o n s . This s h i f t i n v e r s i f i c a t i o n i s s i m i l a r to the s h i f t from blank verse to prose i n E l i z a b e t h a n drama. I decided however to keep the s e c t i o n s i n r e d o n d i l l a s i n f r e e v e r s e , s i n c e I wished to keep them i n verse and I could not f i n d a s u i t a b l e E n g l i s h verse form as an a l t e r a t i v e . My attempt at p u t t i n g p a r ts of the play i n t o rhyming couplets d i d not succeed s i n c e the verse q u i c k l y became f l a t and d o g g e r e l — p r o b a b l y a s i g n 10 For a f u l l e r d i s c u s s i o n on Honig's t r a n s l a t i o n of Spanish verse see Edwin Honig, I n t r o d u c t i o n to Calderon de l a Barca: Four P l a y s , by Pedro Calderon de l a Barca, t r a n s . Edwin Honig (New York: H i l l and Wang, 1961), x i i . 10 of my short comings as a poet. Since I was unable to f i n d a s u i t a b l e s h i f t i n the v e r s i f i c a t i o n , I s e t t l e d on a compromise. The p o i n t s i n the play where the s h i f t s occur have been marked by footnotes i n the t r a n s l a t i o n . The E d i t i o n of Cada uno para s i . For t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n I have chosen to f o l l o w the c r i t i c a l e d i t i o n of Cada uno e d i t e d by Jose Ruano de l a Haza. I made t h i s d e c i s i o n because of a l l the e d i t i o n s of Cada uno a v a i l a b l e t h i s one was the most complete. I t contains a l l of the v a r i a n t s from the s i g n i f i c a n t e a r l y e d i t i o n s of the play as w e l l as from the semi-autograph manuscript. Ruano a l s o e x p l a i n s i n the case of many of the s i g n i f i c a n t changes, why he chose one v a r i a n t over another or made h i s own emendation. The e d i t i o n a l s o contained one of the few d e t a i l e d c r i t i c a l analyses of the play as w e l l as explanatory notes on some of the more obscure passages. This e d i t i o n allowed me to see a l l the v a r i a n t s at once of any p a r t i c u l a r passage and allowed me to chose the v a r i a n t I f e l t worked best f o r the t r a n s l a t i o n . Format of the T r a n s l a t i o n . For t h e format of the t r a n s l a t i o n I followed the format f o r play manuscripts found i n Sam Smiley's P l a y w r i t i n g : The S t r u c t u r e of A c t i o n w i t h m o d i f i c a t i o n s necessary to f i t the r e q u i r e d t h e s i s format. The speech headings are i n c a p i t a l l e t t e r s centred above each speech u n i t . A l l stage d i r e c t i o n s are indented to the centre of the page and i n c l o s e d i n paren-theses. A l l character names i n the stage d i r e c t i o n s are i n c a p i t a l s . For the sake of c l a r i t y I have deviated s l i g h t l y from Smiley i n the placement of the ' a s i d e ' stage d i r e c t i o n s . U s u a l l y a one word stage d i r e c t i o n 11 'aside' would be placed " i n the» normal sequence of the speech u n i t . " ^ Since t h i s was confusing i n the verse s t r u c t u r e , I placed the 'aside' stage d i r e c t i o n s i n the same place as the longer stage d i r e c t i o n s . In the o r i g i n a l t e x t there are three types of asides : those heard only by the audience, those heard by only one other c h a r a c t e r , and those heard by a l l the characters on stage. For the sake of c l a r i t y , I have placed a l l the asides heard only by the audience i n parenthesis. In the o r i g i n a l t e x t some, but not a l l , of these asides are i n parenthesis. I have a l s o put the asides to other characters i n p a r e n t h e s i s — a g a i n expanding on the incon-s i s t e n t p r a c t i c e of the t e x t — a n d have designated them as an aside to a p a r t i c u l a r character ( i . e . " ( a s i d e to HERNANDO)"). The t h i r d type of a s i d e — a c t u a l l y a type of p a r e n t h e t i c a l i n j e c t i o n — I have placed w i t h i n dashes. O r i g i n a l l y many of these were placed i n pa r e n t h e s i s , but t h i s made i t d i f f i c u l t to d i s t i n g u i s h between them and the other type of as i d e s . G e n e r a l l y I have l e f t the stage d i r e c t i o n s as they appear i n Ruano's e d i t i o n . H i s emendations of the stage d i r e c t i o n s c o n s i s t e d m a i n l y of r e g u l a t i n g the use of the d i r e c t i o n aparte or "a s i d e " . O c c a s i o n a l l y I v a r i e d from the t e x t when I f e l t an emendation was unnecessary, or when an a l t e r n a t e from another t e x t c l a r i f i e d the a c t i o n b e t t e r . I a l s o added a few stage d i r e c t i o n s d i r e c t i n g a speech to a p a r t i c u l a r character when I f e l t i t was d i f f i c u l t to determine which character was being addressed. F i n a l l y I broke up some of the stage d i r e c t i o n s — f o r example those des-c r i b i n g the a c t i o n s of V i o l a n t e , Leonor and t h e i r maids as they s i g n a l F e l i x at the r i v e r b a n k — t h a t u n l i k e modern p r a c t i c e were placed i n a block H Sam Smiley, P l a y w r i t i n g : The S t r u c t u r e of A c t i o n (Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1971), 267. 12 that described the character's a c t i o n s over s e v e r a l l i n e s . I placed the p a r t s of the l a r g e r block i n the place where I f e l t the dialogue i n d i c a t e d the appropriate a c t i o n . The Future of the T r a n s l a t i o n As the t r a n s l a t i o n stands now i t i s a f a i t h f u l t r a n s l a t i o n of the o r i g i n a l p l a y . I t w i l l g i ve a non-Spanish speaking reader a good idea of the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , p l o t development, and humour of t h i s genre of pla y . However the purpose of drama i s not to be read but to be performed. This t r a n s l a t i o n i s not ready f o r the stage. A modern audience would soon lo s e i n t e r e s t i n the long passages, such as C a r l o s ' t a l e , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e much of the p o e t i c beauty of those passages does not t r a n s l a t e i n t o E n g l i s h . There are s t i l l many obscure a l l u s i o n s , puns, and a c t i o n s r e l a t e d to honour that would confuse a modern audience. While there are many spots that s p a r k l e , on the whole, a production of t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n would not do j u s t i c e to the comic s p i r i t of the o r i g i n a l . However, I f e e l that the t r a n s l a t i o n has the p o t e n t i a l to become a b r i l l i a n t comic piece. I plan to rework the t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o an adaption that r e t a i n s the comic s p i r i t of the o r i g i n a l , but i s b e t t e r s u i t e d to modern t h e a t r i c a l t a s t e s . To do t h i s , I w i l l have to take much more l i b e r t i e s i n c u t t i n g , adding, and adapting the t e x t . C a r l o s ' long n a r r a -t i v e speech w i l l have to be condensed conside r a b l y and perhaps p a r t i a l l y replaced by other forms of e x p o s i t i o n . The problems of the informe and the questions of honour would have to be explained more c l e a r l y . The major c h a l l e n g e of t h i s a d a p t a t i o n w i l l be to make the necessary cuts and a d d i t i o n s w i t h out t u r n i n g i t i n t o an out and out f a r c e . In order f o r an adaption to do j u s t i c e to Calderon's dramatic prowress, i t would have r e t a i n as much of the p o e t i c s p i r i t of the o r i g i n a l as p o s s i b l e . The Famous Comedy of Every Man For Himself by Pedro Calderon de l a Barca t r a n s l a t e d by Richard J . Slawson Don F e l i x Don Carlos Hernando V i o l a n t e Ines Don Enrique Cast of Characters Simon Don L u i s Don Diego Leonor Juana Three Constabl 16 Act One (Enter DON FELIX and HERNANDO, dressed f o r a journey.) DON FELIX T e l l the p o r t e r , Hernando, to hurry w i t h h i s mouthful, f o r I w i l l not stay here any longer than i t takes me to see the C a t h edral; f o r i t would be l i t t l e C a t h o l i c z e a l f o r me to pass through Toledo without v i s i t i n g i t s Sanctuary. HERNANDO He's already been advised. And I'd l i k e to advise the d e v i l to c a r r y that p o r t e r o f f to H e l l . DON FELIX What has he s a i d or done to you to put you at such odds w i t h him? HERNANDO Y o u ' l l know a l l i n good time . . . (aside) ( i f Juana doesn't f i x things f i r s t ) ; but t e l l me, I pray you, sin c e i t i s almost n i g h t , why do you want to go now? DON FELIX F o o l , I wish to a r r i v e i n Madrid by dawn, — t h o u g h I l a y aside Don Enrique, my f r i e n d so t r u e , who wi t h pleasure awaits my coming, to go to her whom I most l o v e . — f o r I cannot wait f o r the hour i n which I see Leonor and see i f , when spoken, her love i s as b e a u t i f u l as when w r i t t e n . But who could doubt i t , having read i n her l e t t e r s so many pledges that her heart remains steadfastly pure i n my absence? HERNANDO I doubt i t and I double doubt i t , seeing that for doubt and for double doubt there are two strong arguments: the f i r s t , which i s her part, woman, faithfulness and Madrid; and the second, which i s yours, love and poverty. These extremes imply a contradiction; and more so today, since you've lost the inheritance on which you based your suit for her i n marriage. DON FELIX Love can overcome that and any other problem, because I see i n the l e t t e r s she writes me a thousand and one words that she w i l l be my wife. HERNANDO And what do we do with the proverb that says: words, l i k e feathers, are carried away by the wind? DON FELIX Leave i t for the common beauties, for peerless lovers need not l i s t e n to such uncouth r e f r a i n s . VIOLANTE (within) Heavens! W i l l no one here protect a l i f e ? DON FELIX Isn't that a woman's voice I hear? HERNANDO Unless i t ' s some castrato, who's i n the midst of composing a lamentation, then i t seems to be a woman; but i f i t i s or i s n ' t , what does i t matter? DON FELIX How can you say that? How could I j u s t i f y myself not going 18 to her aid? (from w i t h i n , the sound of sword fighting) HERNANDO By not going; and more so since after her cry comes the noise of sword fights. Die tyrant! A VOICE (within) DON CARLOS (within) Traitors! HERNANDO Stop! Don't go! DON FELIX Stand aside! (Enter VIOLANTE and INES, veiled) VIOLANTE Senor, aid a woman who begs for your assistance and lets fortune choose her champion. Take courage and command me. (sword fighting within) DON FELIX VIOLANTE Help a single man in danger who finds himself assailed by three, not for the injustice of the odds, but because, as a woman, I invoke the privilege that honour gives me and ask i t of you. DON FELIX To both suits I respond with one single reply. Traitors! Three against one? (exits, drawing his sword) HERNANDO That's exactly what the sick man said, when he saw three doctors enter 19 h i s room. VIOLANTE Why don't you also go? HERNANDO Because I keep my place. INES But won't you take your place at your master's side? HERNANDO It wouldn't be r i g h t to take a place at my master's side, because, no matter what happens, good servants must appear timid and modest, and always take t h e i r place behind t h e i r masters. A VOICE (within) Retreat, we are beaten t h i s time, but we s h a l l come again. ( E n t e r , w i t h swords unsheathed, DON FELIX and DON CARLOS.) DON FELIX Stop, for pursuing those who f l e e shows more baseness than daring. DON CARLOS So not to force further danger on the man I owe t h i s day my l i f e , (sheaves h i s sword.) I w i l l stop; but who do I behold? Don F e l i x ! DON FELIX Who do I see? Don Carlos! DON CARLOS Who but you would a r r i v e at my hour of need? HERNANDO Don Carlos i s i t ? Well then, how can I not f l y a f t e r them and break them in t o a thousand pieces? DON FELIX Hold, f o o l . INES That's for sure. Now, you're angry? HERNANDO Every man becomes angry when he can, for i n the end, the f i r s t movement i s not i n the hand of man. DON CARLOS At such a strange turn of events I marvel again and a thousand times. DON FELIX But do not thank me, f o r , not knowing you who you were, I did i t for my honour, and not for you, being bound as I was by t h i s lady's devoted purpose, I gave the aid to which you owe your l i f e . DON CARLOS (to VIOLANTE) Which i s j u s t as well f o r me, f o r , having misunderstood, my neutral gratitude by going—excuse me—to him, would have offended you. And so, Violante, despite your rash suspicions, which create present contempt from past favours, you were anxious f o r my l i f e . VIOLANTE Don Carlos, I confess my concern; but i t i s one thing f o r your p e r i l to weigh upon the n o b i l i t y of my soul and another f o r your treacheries to weigh upon the f a i t h of my heart; and since now I leave you with your l i f e , and so well guarded that my noble fear may leave me again the injured party, I pray you, do not follow me a second time. DON FELIX Sefiora, I appeal this sentence; for until you are safe, far from this tumult, I cannot let you leave alone. VIOLANTE I thank you for your concern, because you have thought perhaps, with no l i t t l e foundation, that I am the cause of this attack. I am not, but while being followed—much to my disgust— by Carlos, I saw him assailed by three men who did so for reasons known only to themselves; and thus startled, remembering that useless time in which I believed his falsehoods, I entreated you. And since I am in no danger going by myself, I pray you, upon your courteous bravery — t o which I will forever thankfully confess al l that I owe you— stay, and make sure he does not follow me; for I do not wish him, as I said, to attribute affection to my actions, since they came because I loved him once, and not because I love him now. (Exit VIOLANTE and INES) DON FELIX What a strange resolution. DON CARLOS Don't be surprised, for jealousy makes love grow hard. DON FELIX But getting back to this skirmish, i f holding this position isn't important, it seems to me best to leave, especially considering the speed with which the law responds to the commotion of swords. DON CARLOS You're right; and so, come with me through this street, for I desire, thinking of another thing, to make 22 a complaint with my gratitude. (They e x i t through one door and enter through and other.) HERNANDO When, Lord, w i l l come the day that you take me from the forward squadron and make me assistant lackey to an old p r i e s t , who doesn't know that there are more duels i n the world than the duels i n h i s chest, h i s bladder, and h i s cough? DON CARLOS You are i n Toledo and are not staying i n my house, Don F e l i x ? DON FELIX I have reason enough to be excused, f o r when I was i n Granada I inquired a f t e r you, and f i n d i n g you were absent because of a quarrel, and not foreseeing that i t could have come to an end so soon, I thought you had not yet returned. DON CARLOS For the good that i t does to our f r i e n d s h i p , I accept t h i s excuse; and so that we'll have no need of i t again, look sharp, Hernandillo, and bring the trunks to my house. HERNANDO What do you mean Hernandillo? Must I continue to s u f f e r your contempt? DON CARLOS It wasn't contempt, but a f r i e n d l y diminutive. HERNANDO I don't care f o r diminutive f r i e n d s h i p . DON FELIX What difference does i t make? 23 HERNANDO Between Hernando and Hernandillo the difference, i f you measure well, i s the same as you w i l l find — j u s t see i f this i s nothing— between Madrid and Madrilejos.* DON FELIX Now then, stop this foolishness. Don Carlos, i f there i s nothing more I can do to serve you, detain me no longer, because I carry an urgent concern to Madrid, and so I must arrive quickly. DON CARLOS But i t ' s night now, where w i l l you go? DON FELIX I promise you that my concern i s of such urgency that i t w i l l stop for nothing. DON CARLOS I pray you, even i f just for this night, be the worthy guest of my desires, since for countless days I have suffered many pains and had no r e l i e f , don Felix. It would be a cruel twist of Fate to take away the one chance that my good fortune gives, as f i n a l consolation, to rest my sorrows with you. DON FELIX Hernando, go and t e l l Pedro not to wait for me tonight, for I wish to do this favour, even at my expense, for don Carlos; but at the break of dawn I must go. DON CARLOS Go then, senior don Hernando, and return quickly a deliberate corruption of Madridejos, a small town near Toledo (Ruano, Cada uno, 330) which allows Hernando to pun on lejos meaning "far away". 24 for I wish you to also be my guest. HERNANDO This i s as bad as the other. But where am I to return to? Since by day I get l o s t i n Toledo, by night I ' l l be completely i n the dark. DON CARLOS Go toward the Gate of Perdon, between i t and the c i t y h a l l we w i l l wait for you. (Exi t HERNANDO) DON FELIX So that your r e l i e f and my desire are not l o s t i n t h i s short space while we go and wait, t e l l me: i n what quarrel did I f i n d you entrenched between favour and contempt, and so e n c i r c l e d by enemies? DON CARLOS Such unusual events have happened to me that you w i l l think you are l i s t e n i n g to a novel. DON FELIX It w i l l be a pleasure to l i s t e n to such a t a l e . DON CARLOS Li s t e n c l o s e l y . A f t e r we l e f t the siege of Barcelona together,-^ we separated — i f i t i s possible that two bodies which have one soul can s e p a r a t e — to seek our advancement: I to candidacy of the order of Santiago with which h i s Majesty, may Heaven preserve him, honoured my ser v i c e s ; and you, upon the death of a kinsman, to some settlement of an inheritance. see introduction page 6 for the part cut from t h i s speech. With this matter in mind, then, I arrived, Felix, in Toledo: And as I went about seeking social contacts and money —and we soldiers are not always privileged with such fortune— the idleness of city l i f e , freed me of both women and game, until Love, offended by the disinterest I showed in paying tribute to his empire, wished vengeance on me by shooting into my chest the harpoon of a beauty, whose beauty I do not praise because I have need of that praise for another chapter of my tale: i t i s enough to say that even though glory and beauty were joined i n one subject, mixing the noble and the beautiful with the courteous grace of a l l the Toledian empire, Love wasn't satisfied to see me a tributary merely comfortable with love. In this state, then, content and free from pain, I lived an idler of love, until one day in a gaming house, while playing a hand, I had, Felix, an encounter with a wellborn gentleman, whose nobility came more from his money than from his blood: he disputed what I had played. I don't want appear a braggart, so i t i s enough say that, finding myself challenged, he ended up nursing the wound. After I had gathered together my friends and kinsmen, they advised me to hide; and realizing that in no other place was a man more concealed than unconcealed in Madrid — s i n c e in i t s immense sea no man i s known and more so a man who i s so unknown he i s a stranger in his homeland— I went to the house of a kinsman, where I withdrew for several days. And noticing that only the letters 26 from Toledo addressed me by name, I changed my name: not from fear, but d i s t r u s t . I won't t e l l how during t h i s time the examiner from the Order came to Toledo and how v i l e l y my enemy, making better use of h i s tongue than he did of h i s s t e e l , attempted to sow against my honour who knows what sort of l i b e l — a n d g i v i n g these circumstances I hope f o r a new examiner. You are probably wondering, don F e l i x , that given t h i s s i t u a t i o n , why do I return, contrary to a l l I say, to i r r i t a t e the pride of t h i s noble with my s i g h t , giving to h i s audacity the advantageous occasion to seek me, since i t would be a better r e s o l u t i o n to be absent of everything, and seek moderation through friendship and the proper means? But i t i s not always best to oppose Fate since we see there are superior motives which dominate our own. And so that you understand t h i s , l i s t e n , f o r now I enter the newest, the rarest and strangest event of my t a l e . Offended Love seeing that he captured l i t t l e with the f i r s t harpoon, shot a second one, so sweetly v i o l e n t , that an arrow l e f t the bow, a b i r d ran through the wind, and a l i g h t n i n g bolt struck my heart where i t s t i l l nourishes the f i r e . To paint the beauty of that unhoped for owner of my l i f e , I reserved a l l the praise of the past beauty. But even having saved that praise I don't dare enter i n t o her perfection: because even i f the sun gave me i t s b e a u t i f u l rays f o r the pasture ) of her braided h a i r , i f the Alps gave snow for the meadows of her forehead, i f A p r i l gave tender roses for the shades of her complexion, and i f May h e r s e l f gave carnations f o r her l i p s ; 27 May, A p r i l , Alps and Sun would have to stay behind, since, while making comparison, rose, carnation, snow and ray, none of them i s more than her and a l l are l e s s . (Enter HERNANDO.) HERNANDO Senor . . . DON FELIX Yes. HERNANDO . . . now . . . DON FELIX Stop your t a l k i n g , and be quiet. (to DON CARLOS) Go on with your t a l e , for never i n my l i f e I have been more entertained and i n more suspense. DON CARLOS The f i r s t time I saw her — s h e l i v e d bordering the house where I s t a y e d — was one morning, which i s as i t should be, since the dawn i s never seen at another time. She was behind a g r i l l e d window, secluded from the secret public by a l a t t i c e that made my desire more forward,-"-shining ingeniously, now denying the s i g h t , now conceding i t confusingly d i s t i n c t and d i s t i n c t l y b l i n d . Thinking she was not seen by anybody, because I, c a r e f u l to not f r i g h t e n her away, closed my window and entered within, she started to read a l e t t e r , and though she began with a smiling countenance, i n not much time she took from her sleeve a handkerchief to dry her eyes. I wasn't jealous see the Introduction pages 6-7 f o r l i n e s cut from t h i s section 28 of the smile or of the tear, since they happened so quickly, but I don't know what lineage of venom what class of poison, what wrath, what fury, what f i r e entered my senses to see her f i r s t laugh and to see her then cry. I said to myself: what love i s this so unequal that goes from one extreme to the other? How can you love this lady, I asked my feelings, i f you approve of neither neither crying nor laughing? But as that lover-flower, which i s a vegetable magnet of the rays of Phoebus, lives following his north, was I, woe i s me!, don Felix, made a human sunflower, to the g r i l l of her window, by day and by night I constantly watched her lights. I searched for plans, I searched for means, to t e l l her of my love, but none of them were any use. I had to take advantage of time, because at a few days of love, in the tranquil silence of the cool night air of summer, seeing her at her window, I came closer to t e l l her something in passing, for I feared that my whispers would arrive tired from so far away. But hardly had I pronounced the f i r s t sound in the air when out of the doorway of the other house came a gentleman, whom I know only by the cape of the order of Santiago; and with my sword in hand, God wished that I see him, with such good fortune that my sword arrived at his chest before my voice to his ears; even in fainting breath very close he said: ah, traitor, twice you have wounded me! The lady closed the window 29 and the stre e t was aroused by the commotion of swords, the same as now, and fea r i n g that the noise would bring . . . (Enter as many as can of the watch.) A CONSTABLE The law, gentlemen. HERNANDO It seems t h i s constable comes playing at words. DON CARLOS (aside to DON FELIX) You speak, so they won't recognize me. ANOTHER CONSTABLE Who goes there? DON FELIX A t r a v e l l e r that has j u s t now dismounted. ANOTHER CONSTABLE And who are the two we see with you? DON FELIX Two of my servants. A CONSTABLE It w i l l be necessary to i d e n t i f y them, for we are informed that the man we seek was i n t h i s place. DON FELIX Take away the l i g h t , f o r t h i s i s an abuse, since what I say i s enough. ANOTHER CONSTABLE It i s not enough, and less when I discover i t i s don Carlos. DON CARLOS I am here. What do you want? A CONSTABLE You are arrested f o r past 30 violations and today's sword play. DON CARLOS This w i l l be my answer to that. (unsheathe their swords) ANOTHER CONSTABLE In name of the King! Resistance! HERNANDO How did I get myself into this! A CONSTABLE Ay, they have wounded me! (exit) HERNANDO Adios to one. DON FELIX Flee, cowards. HERNANDO Good advice. ANOTHER CONSTABLE Senor secretary, write out the new charges, while I go c a l l the magistrate. (exit) HERNANDO This one goes to make a c a l l to avoid a different c a l l . ANOTHER CONSTABLE Let the devil take my place. (exit) DON CARLOS Since now, Felix, we cannot go to my house, come with me. DON FELIX I w i l l follow you. HERNANDO Who in the world would have accepted an invitation to this? 31 DON FELIX But, where? DON CARLOS To your lodgings, for having wounded a constable, I don't want to tarry here longer. DON FELIX I w i l l take you to Madrid, i f you w i l l leave with me. You can come on the porter's mule. DON CARLOS I cannot go to Madrid, as you heard I have there another enemy, of greater danger to my l i f e , who was the cause of my return to Toledo before i t was safe. DON FELIX But, how can I leave you, Carlos, in this danger? DON CARLOS I w i l l assure my safety by retiring to a convent. DON FELIX Since you w i l l seek sanctuary, I w i l l leave. HERNANDO Now courtesies, when a thousand souls are upon us? A VOICE (within) They went through here. DON CARLOS Where are your lodgings? DON FELIX By the convent of Carmen. DON CARLOS Then we go together, and by the time you are on the road and I w i l l be in the church. 32 DON FELIX Hurry HERNANDO It's not easy through these streets. DON CARLOS What are you afraid of? HERNANDO That i f I tr i p , I won't stop until I f a l l into the river. DON CARLOS Who ever saw so extraordinary events! DON FELIX Who ever saw so strange a circumstance! HERNANDO Who ever saw so violent a guest! (they e x i t . Enter DON ENRIQUE, wearing the costume of the Order of Santiago, a colored sash and cape, and enter SIMON behind him.) SIMON Senor, what i s the matter?^ DON ENRIQUE Simon, in our human misfortune joy does not heal as much as passion a f f l i c t s . If I love Leonor and she, ungrateful, scorns me and hates; i f I see that she favours the man who twice wounds me—since he would not speak to her through her window unless he enjoyed her favour— then let my complaint endure the ages of pain. Felix has not arrived and the wait continues! (Enter JUANA, veiled.) * from here to Juana's exit on page 42 the Spanish verse changes to redondillas. See the Introduction, page 9 for an explanation of the use of redondillas in the play. 33 JUANA (aside) (Is Simon around here?) DON ENRIQUE Who has entered the room? SIMON A veiled woman. DON ENRIQUE A woman in the house! JUANA (aside) (Woe i s me, don Enrique i s here!) DON ENRIQUE Why do you come, senora, so troubled with distrust and uneasiness, to see i f we are here? JUANA (aside) (Since i t i s now inevitable, let us turn necessity into virtue.) I feel neither uneasiness nor distrust; I was concerned for your l i f e and seeing you up and f u l l , of health that may heaven augment many years, I was about to go. DON ENRIQUE I am much amazed that there i s a woman who i s concerned with my health; and so, as a curiosity, I desire to see who shows i t . JUANA She who i s your servant. (unveils herself.) SIMON As heaven lives, i t ' s Juanilla! DON ENRIQUE Juana! You come to my house? 34 JUANA My lady sent me on an errand, and arriving near here, because I had to pass this way, I decided to ask about you; and since you yourself responded, there isn't more to know. Good bye. DON ENRIQUE Wait, for your l i f e , Juana, and for mine t e l l me, did your lady send you? JUANA This would only s t i r her anger! If she knew I came here, i t ' s a sure thing she'd k i l l me immediately. DON ENRIQUE Such cruelty? JUANA She i s so offended by you, that I w i l l not even give her news of your health. DON ENRIQUE I thought that she would be thankful to see how much I have denied, for her reputation and for mine, that she was the cause; and being prudent and alert I have told no one until today, nor in my l i f e w i l l I t e l l , that the quarrel was fought for her and this i s my f i n a l word. Has the gentleman soldier returned to the street? JUANA Since that night I have not seen him, and so I infer he has returned to his own land; so there is no reason to have see him. Where was he from? DON ENRIQUE JUANA I think, from Andalucia. DON ENRIQUE His name? JUANA Don Juan de Lara. DON ENRIQUE And does Leonor feel his absence much? JUANA It'd be a great mistake to think that she could ever give licence to his boldness; and his absence doesn't matter for another absence matters more. DON ENRIQUE What absence does she feel? JUANA (aside) (Woe i s me! By God I was careless; but I ' l l f i x i t . ) She must leave Madrid. DON ENRIQUE But, how? Why must she leave? JUANA Her father desires . . . DON ENRIQUE What? JUANA . . .to retire to a village near Toledo, where he has his estate, and she cries because she goes unwillingly. DON ENRIQUE When does she depart? JUANA Tomorrow morning. DON ENRIQUE I am not distressed by hearing that she w i l l leave—since I must also leave—although she leaves before I can throw my complaints at her scorn; for i f I, woe i s me!, were able to relieve my passion, alleviating my heart, so that she would only hear my two arguments, I would be satisfied. What w i l l we do with this problem, Juana? If your ingenuity can offer me a way to speak to her. this diamond ring w i l l be the least of what I would give you for you would be owner of a l l that I value and a l l that I am. JUANA The diamond i s not necessary since to serve you is enough reward; and thus you shall today, as evening f a l l s , go to the street; I w i l l open the window, and I w i l l t e l l you i f there i s any way to come up to the room, the door having been l e f t , as i f by carelessness, falsely locked and open. DON ENRIQUE You have me given second l i f e ; I w i l l be in the street, and when I hear the opening of the window, I w i l l speak with you, Juana. (noise within.) DON FELIX (within) Stop, Pedro; go up, Hernando, see i f don Enrique i s at home. DON ENRIQUE This i s the guest for whom I wait; I want to show him to his room. Juana, good bye. (exit) JUANA (aside) (What i s happening? It i s Don Felix and Hernando; i f they recognize me here, I am lost!) 37 SIMON Juana, do you have to leave? JUANA Simon, since I came to see you and encountered you and your master, with whom you see I have now wasted more than half the day, don't detain me. SIMON Wait, I only want to know i f you're going to divide the ring with me. JUANA No, I'm going to keep i t whole. SIMON Why whole? What you earn becomes our common property. JUANA Even though I love you, Simon, I don't love you that much. Good bye, for you see i t i s time that I must f l y back home. (aside) (And so that doesn't Hernando see me.) (as she e x i t s , enter HERNANDO with some saddle cushions.) HERNANDO Tell me, gracious sefiora. (aside) (Oh i f I could make enough noise so that my master doesn't miss his bags until I can find Juana who'll know what to do!) Where i s our room? Why are you silent and run away? (She makes signals and exits, veiled.) You don't speak? Are you mute? Yes? Well we'll see each other later, for a silent woman i s without doubt the only type of woman I've ever enjoyed. 38 SIMON Beware for the lady borrows her lover's sword for her tongue. HERNANDO Then with only this warning, she can be his mute and I w i l l be mum; for there's no fear that I'd love the mute of another lover, even though her looks are as sharp as her tongue. SIMON Your wit has captivated me. And yours has redeemed me. Shake, and be welcomed. Shake, and be friends. Simon. Hernando. HERNANDO SIMON HERNANDO DON ENRIQUE (within) DON FELIX (within) SIMON Our masters c a l l for us both. Then let's go at the same time to see what our masters want. Good bye. Thank God I've arrived without being seen or heard. But at my expense, for I've tired myself out by running. But who has entered there? HERNANDO (They exit, her cloak.) JUANA Enter JUANA taking off 39 It i s Hernando; I ' l l hide the cloak — f o r a lady would do the same— and pretend I didn't see him. (enter HERNANDO.) HERNANDO My Juana, my anxious desire overcomes my happiness, even though i t could be from anybody, I am anybody and you w i l l be mine. JUANA That's good enough for insipidness. I want to know how you are. HERNANDO In love and out of money, look in what and out of what. and since we are talking about our things f i r s t rather than about those our masters, I want to t e l l to you a sorrow, which has, Juana, obliged me to move ahead; because even though I have from my master the courteousness and the charge to advise Leonor that he has arrived, and to ask i f for joy he could enter to speak of his love. Not only has this brought me here so quickly, but believing that only you can remove me from a great hardship which threatens both my honour and my l i f e . JUANA What hardship? HERNANDO I ' l l t e l l you. When we le f t Granada my master gave me a draft of a thousand pieces of silver to cover our expenses on the road; I kept the thousand carefully in my saddle bag, until one unfortunate night that saw me sleeping peacefully, so careless and uncouth as i f a l l love and money slept in my power, the demon, who i s a sly devil, convinced me that i f I gambled with the porter, I could win his mules, and with them I could start a business with which, after we got married, I could support you; but, when was adoring you not my greatest ruin? I began betting two by two, and in parries so subtle he removed the whole thousand one by one through the thousand hours of God. And so I had to borrow from him, without my master's knowledge, for the expenses of the journey, Juana, until we arrived here. He lent me, but on arriving, he carried off our luggage to the inn where he waits for his principle with interest! What w i l l I do, when he pulls out with a l l that he has won, leaving for money and clothing my master and I f l a t broke! And since my adoration of you was the cause of this wager, and since we'll get married in the third act, count the aid which you give me as part of your dowry, and let me see how much you love me. JUANA Hernando, may God provide for you; for even though I would willingly cover your loss, lending today i s a bad idea for one who w i l l be gone tomorrow. HERNANDO What do you mean, gone? JUANA Don't you see the house i s turned upside down? HERNANDO Yes, but I thought your master was going to move to another part of town. JUANA No, 41 today the old man has said that we are going to leave tomorrow to live in a village; because, tired of pretensions, he doesn't want more of the court but rather to look after his estate and to make do with i t the best he can. and since the proverb i s f u l f i l l e d in such strictness that says that some come and others go, i t counsels me not lend my money to your love, since in this sad calm i t i s enough that I leave you a soul, without my leaving you two sous. HERNANDO I don't want my estate to owe you two; but i f i t i t has owe you one. let i t be the one of money, Feel for me, Jezebel. JUANA I do feel for you, but i t ' s not good to lend in sorrow. (enter LEONOR.) LEONOR With whom are you chattering so much, Juana? Hernando, be welcomed. HERNANDO Without doubt he who comes to kiss your hand i s welcomed. LEONOR How did i t go for you in Granada? HERNANDO Badly, since we lost the suit above what we spent on i t , and so i t happens we return even poorer than when we l e f t . LEONOR Since, your master has his health, the rest doesn't matter; for wealth neither increases nor decreases the merits of a noble love. 42 If he comes true and faithful there i s no gold that exceeds him. HERNANDO Since he comes broke, i t ' s obvious that he comes in love. LEONOR How? HERNANDO How can the poor man not be? For as I see i t , he who has l i t t l e to give, has much to love. LEONOR That maxim doesn't concern women like me. Where is Felix? HERNANDO He waits at the corner to discover i f he may see you, and I am to advise him. LEONOR Since the clear light of the sun now finishes with the day, and my father i s not here, nor w i l l he return soon, since he walks occupied, go and t e l l Felix to enter. HERNANDO I w i l l . (to JUANA) Won't you fi n a l l y show some concern for my problems? JUANA Hernando, the woman who lends has either troubles or years. (HERNANDO and JUANA exit) LEONOR How my faith waited in another way for the joy of this day! But when was there a happiness that began and did not end? How brief i s the season of goodness! Who in the world would believe A3 that the day of pleasure would be the vespers of sorrow? (enter DON FELIX) DON FELIX Who could judge sorrow and pleasure together, seeing that only in me could sorrow have a shadow without pleasure having a body. Hernando has told me you are leaving, and I don't believe that, others say goodbye when they leave, I must say goodbye when I arrive. What i s this, Leonor? LEONOR Not knowing how to answer you, I am f u l l of anguish, for joy and pain have also found in me condolences disguised in dress of fe l i c i t a t i o n s . DON FELIX Tell me of what, Leonor, this news consists. LEONOR Yes, I w i l l , i f I, woe i s me!, know what i t i s : you already know that my father being persuaded that his honour, his loyalty and faith deserved some reward, let himself be carried by this confidence, in which noble hope he moved his house from Toledo to the court. DON FELIX I was a witness of that day, since my fortune wished that, as your coach reached at the bridge and floundered in a ditch that was there, being myself on the bank, I came to your aid and rescued you in my arms, and giving l i f e , I died i n love. 44 LEONOR My father came to live in Madrid, and finding that attending and disputing did not improve his purpose, he i s ready . . . (Enter HERNANDO and JUANA, agitated) HERNANDO Master! JUANA Mistress! LEONOR Juana, what's the matter? DON FELIX What i s i t , Hernando? JUANA Your father . . . HERNANDO Your father-in-law . . . JUANA . . . as the father in a farce . . . HERNANDO . . . as well now as in other times . . . JUANA . . . i s at the door of the house . . . HERNANDO . . . i s coming up the stairs . . . DON FELIX I am without l i f e ! LEONOR I without soul! JUANA . . . now he's coming down the h a l l . HERNANDO . . . now he's entering the f i r s t room. DON FELIX What shall we do? 45 LEONOR Hide in the bay of this window; (to JUANA.) and while I close the curtain, you get some light. (Exit JUANA.) DON FELIX Come, Hernando. HERNANDO What luck that there are always hiding places at the f i r s t predicament! (Both of them hide and enter DON DIEGO, though one entrance, and through another enter JUANA, with lights.) DON FELIX Inside, you fool. DON DIEGO Leonor, what are you doing? LEONOR (aside) (Heavens! Let me cover my confusion with deception, making i t s cause appear to be another.) What would you want me to do, father. Alone, sad, I was thinking about the l i t t l e foundation with which you make this move. DON DIEGO You want to return, Leonor, to the past theme of not leaving Madrid. Don't quicken my suffering, since you already know you ti r e me talking about this subject. Take one of these lights, Juana, for I must find a paper I need to balance an account, and when I find i t , I must leave the house again. (Exit DON DIEGO and JUANA.) DON FELIX Continue with your appeal, 46 even though you appear stubborn; for you may persuade him, to change his mind. LEONOR Yes, I w i l l . HERNANDO Don't do i t , blast my soul, but let him go, senora, though one may depart there are many who come. (enter DON DIEGO, with a paper, and JUANA.) DON DIEGO This door shall be locked until I return, and think about how as the daybreaks tomorrow you must leave. LEONOR Are not my wishes enough, to oblige you to stay? for since they are a woman's they are not often times important. DON DIEGO No, Leonor; for your wishes are the reason that we must leave quickly. LEONOR In what way? DON DIEGO Don't make me say in what way, because for a thousand days my judgement has been silent at the insistence of my respect; and i f you don't try to obey and be quiet, perhaps I, believing your reluctance i s the desire for my absence, w i l l break the urging and t e l l you that i t i s not my office that takes me from Madrid but . . . I don't want to continue, because my anguish does not compel me to say —despite my anguish 47 for my name and for my honour— that they, my honour and my name, drive me from Madrid. What have I said? It i s now too late. Cursed i s he who throws a word or a stone, when he cannot c a l l back the stone or the word! LEONOR (aside) (What do I hear!) JUANA (aside) (This i s bad!) HERNANDO (aside to DON FELIX) (Undoubtedly he has found out about you.) DON FELIX (aside to HERNANDO) (The die is cast.) HERNANDO (aside to DON FELIX) (Yes, but thrown for a loss.) DON DIEGO And now, Leonor, my anger drags from me that which I never thought to say, everything comes forth. HERNANDO (aside to DON FELIX) (Here i t comes.) DON FELIX (aside to HERNANDO) (Until he says i t , listen and be quiet.) Get out of here, Juana. Watch how I leave! DON DIEGO JUANA (exits) DON DIEGO Do you think I don't know, Jezebel, who the two were, and why they dueled under your window the other night? DON FELIX (aside to HERNANDO) (What do I hear?) HERNANDO (aside to DON FELIX) (This i s worse than before.) DON DIEGO I know a l l about i t ; for i t costs me no less care, ingrate, to know than not to know; and be you or be you not guilty, I don't want to see, Leonor, swords at my doors i l l , cloaked men on my porches nor phantoms in my corners. No more court, and when I return to Toledo, for four days, while the provisions are prepared and brought from the village, you w i l l stay only at the house of your cousin. (exits) DON FELIX Heavens! What do I hear! LEONOR Fortune, what has happened to me? DON FELIX I am wounded! LEONOR I am lost! HERNANDO Look, what perfect pair of faces for a mourning tableau! DON FELIX Where can my anguish, ingrate, tyrannical owner of my l i f e and of my soul, present my grievances to you? But where so many attack, so not to offend by choosing among them, i t i s best to leave them. Hernando, see i f he has already l e f t , for I wi l l also leave. LEONOR Hernando, stay. HERNANDO To do what they both command, I go and I stay. DON FELIX For what purpose, treacherous woman? LEONOR Wait, don't go without hearing me. DON FELIX I've already heard you. LEONOR Before I speak? DON FELIX Yes, Jezebel; since before you speak, I already know you are going to l i e , and your excuse i s vain, since I don't have to hear i t to know i t ; because I know, even before knowing i t , that i t must be, as you are, false. LEONOR Perhaps i t isn't. DON FELIX How could there not have been cloaked men, commotions and sword fights in your house and on your street, since the witness against you cannot suffer falsehood since this affair i s more important to him than i t i s to me? LEONOR He may not be suffering falsehood, as you say, because of me, he could be suffering misunderstanding. DON FELIX Wait; i f he suffers that, why didn't you say anything to him and t e l l me so? Is i t better to satisfy him who i s not mistaken or him who i s mistaken? LEONOR So great was my pain that I could not find the words; besides what chance did I have to do so, since he turned away when I was about to respond? DON FELIX You speak well; and when you have satisfied him, you w i l l satisfy me. Now, i t ends, Hernando, see i f he has already l e f t . LEONOR Don't even move your toes! HERNANDO I go and I stay. DON FELIX What w i l l stopping him achieve? I w i l l go anyway! (enter JUANA) JUANA Wait, that's impossible. DON FELIX Why? JUANA Because he locked the door. from outside, and there's no other way out. DON FELIX Look, tigress, how he keeps you locked in a cage. 51 HERNANDO (to JUANA) You must be her shepherdess. JUANA Shut up, Hernando! HERNANDO Shut up, Juana! LEONOR Even though this new distrust turns against me, I am glad, because you hear me. DON FELIX Torture i s often used to make a man speak; but to make him hear, there i s no greater torture than that I now suffer. LEONOR Listen, I leave tomorrow, and i t is not a torture to make you, before I go, see the truth. DON FELIX How? LEONOR With my excuse. DON FELIX Then, there i s one? LEONOR Yes. DON FELIX Please God! What excuse? LEONOR (aside) (I don't want to endanger him, what anguish! by giving him two enemies, I don't know what to say.) DON FELIX Why so quiet? Are you making up an excuse? LEONOR No. DON FELIX Then t e l l me i t . LEONOR My father deceived himself by thinking that some disgrace that happened in our street was caused by me, when there are so many ladies in the area whose love affairs could have caused i t . DON FELIX Is there another excuse? LEONOR No. DON FELIX Then i t i s an empty excuse, for your father would not say that he knows the cause i s this; and not knowing i t , i t would not make a piece of news so rare without more foundation than that one. LEONOR Perhaps i t i s to excuse his desire to retire from the world. DON FELIX No one puts his interests above his honour; and so, think of another exit, plot another treason, because this one of throwing the guilt on a neighbour, friend, or sister i s very foolish and very old, very frivolous, and very useless. LEONOR Then there i s another of greater value. DON FELIX Which is? I am who I am. LEONOR DON FELIX What more? LEONOR Nothing more. DON FELIX That i s not enough; for, being who you are, you are so traitorously false that you endanger one lover while you write to other; and I don't want more vengeance of you, for you are so convicted in this fight, that despite the lies in which you abound you are one l i e short to decieve me. I want to show you these letters to embarrass you with them. Look, treacherous! Look, ingrate, when in your street there are duels, cloaks and sword wounds, what you write to me! See who you are, Jezebel, and i f i t i s enough to be who you are in order to not be i t . LEONOR Yes, i t i s enough, since i t i s enough for me to be who I am to be so unfortunate that, trying to do what is right, I appear guilty. DON FELIX You cry when you see the witnesses that convict you? Cursed be he who believed them and who, since he cannot execute his rage on you, w i l l not execute his rage on them! (aside) (But, oh sadness!, for in every letter there i s a soul.) (aside to HERNANDO) (Hernando, do you have any paper.) (Yes.) HERNANDO (aside to DON FELIX) 54 (He gives DON FELIX a paper. DON FELIX hides the letters and tears the paper.) DON FELIX (aside to HERNANDO) (Then give i t here.) Take that, treacherous; take that, tigress. HERNANDO (aside) (Tear, for you're tearing up your wealth. Heaven has come to my aid.) DON FELIX These f i n a l ashes of that burning flame . . . LEONOR My, Felix! DON FELIX False Leonor! LEONOR My goodness, my lord, my master. DON FELIX My e v i l , my death, my wrath. LEONOR Don't tear them until I may satisfy you that what they say is true. DON FELIX It i s already late; and so that there are not even ruins l e f t , nor a single l i t t l e piece of them, . . . (aside) (Cunning, give me a plot to get rid of them so she doesn't recognize them.) . . . not even crumbs w i l l remain that the wind cannot carry away, for they are natives of the wind. (opens the window.) LEONOR What are you doing? DON FELIX Throwing, as they say, 55 at the same time out the window your treasons and my complaints you favour and my hope. Is i t time for me to enter? Heaven save me! Answer, i s i t not time for him to enter who awaits for i t to be. DON ENRIQUE (outside the window) LEONOR (As DON ENRIQUE begins to speak outside, DON FELIX drops the papers) DON FELIX LEONOR What i s this? Heavens! What misfortune i s this? DON FELIX You doubt i t , you hear and are quiet? JUANA (aside) (Enrique thinks I've opened the window.) DON ENRIQUE (outside the window) See the door i s locked; come down now and open i t , f u l f i l l i n g the promise you made me today. DON FELIX I can't be the one Oh, that LEONOR Strange sorrow! . . . to go down and open i t . But wait; don't open i t until I have withdrawn for a man i s about to pass by. DON FELIX DON ENRIQUE (outside the window) Are you who you are now? DON FELIX LEONOR Felix, may heaven . . . DON FELIX You dare speak to me? LEONOR . . . destroy me . . . DON FELIX You dare dispute your dishonour? LEONOR . . . i f I know who that i s . DON FELIX You dare deceive me s t i l l ? Oh that this window must be barred, and the door locked, so that I cannot leave and k i l l him at . . . (sword fighting outside) HERNANDO There are swords in the street. LEONOR Who, heavens!, ever saw themselves in so much confusion? DON ENRIQUE (outside) My honour decrees that I must know anyone who has the key to this door to take vengeance on him. DON DIEGO What i s this? Can I not have the key to my own house? LEONOR It i s my father's voice. DON FELIX If he opens the door, I w i l l go out to defend him. 57 LEONOR How can you go out. i f by the act of defending him you offend him? What a strange deception! What confusion! JUANA HERNANDO What sorrow! DON FELIX What disgrace! It i s Don Diego; there i s nothing to do except to turn away. Ah cowards! As you see my hands don't f a i l me. . . Hide, he's coming up now. For respect of his grey hairs I w i l l do i t , but not for you. LEONOR DON ENRIQUE (outside) the speed of your feet, for that I cannot do match. DON DIEGO (outside) LEONOR DON FELIX (DON FELIX and HERNANDO hide. Enter DON DIEGO sheathing his sword.) DON DIEGO . you value Father, what happened? Nothing. LEONOR DON DIEGO (to JUANA) While I seek the master key, take a light, and go down to the door to seek the other one, for there i t f e l l , opening the door, as I went for my sword. Your sword? How? When? Or why? LEONOR DON DIEGO Quiet now, quiet. Get away out of my way. Don't push me so I make a blunder with you. Or I w i l l leave, so that meanwhile with my absence so many misfortunes mend their ways, find comfort i n crying for my sorrows and your infamies. (exit) DON FELIX Did he enter his room? HERNANDO Yes. DON FELIX Since the door i s unlocked for lack of the key, why do I wait? Oh, would Love that there be someone in the street on whom to avenge my jealousy and her fickleness! HERNANDO Oh, heaven protect me from that! (they exit) LEONOR Father, l i s t e n , wait, stay. Felix, listen, stay, wait. Called by two pains, I choose neither one, woe i s me! Help me gather, Juana, these papers, so that when my father comes out to lock the door, he does not notice them, and sees my hand and adds more evidence against me. Broken pieces of my soul, who are a l l truths, are now treated as l i e s . You know well that, without graciousness, there are no words in you, there are no letters . . . Here I say; Item, in this inn four pieces of silver for the waiters. What i s this? JUANA Cheap waiters. But listen, for here i t says: Item, for straw and barley. This i s an account from a journey. LEONOR Even though they a l l oppress me: don Enrique who offends me, the absence that threatens me, my father who believes his sorrows, Felix who believes my unfaithfulness; this sight against a l l has consoled me, for he who did not tear up my letters did not tear up my memories. 60 Act Two (enter DON ENRIQUE and DON FELIX.) DON ENRIQUE (aside) (Who in the world but me, could have experienced so great an accident?) DON FELIX (aside) (Who but me, could experience, Heavens, so many sorrows together?) (Oh, why did her father go to open the door!) DON ENRIQUE (aside) (Oh, why did I open her window and confirm my suspicions!) DON FELIX (aside) Don Felix, up so early? What means this early rising? Has your room treated you so poorly? DON ENRIQUE DON FELIX My good fortune and your hospitality could not result in sleeplessness. There are certain sorrows which keep my dreams awake, and are so anticipated that, before my dreams can sleep, they awaken. But since you are amazed to see me sleepless, I am ju s t i f i e d in asking you the same question. What disturbs you so much that you have arisen 61 at these hours? DON ENRIQUE May heaven grant, don Felix, that my sorrow was of the same lineage as yours! DON FELIX Why? DON ENRIQUE Because I never owed any favour to my adverse fortune, and i t i s more painful not to be deserving of love than to deserve i t and lose i t . (Every man feels his own sorrows.) (aside) DON FELIX (aside) (Every man feels his own misfortunes.) Even though I have not planned to speak to you on this subject, Enrique, so not to touch i t without your pleasure, may I ask you in what quarrel did you receive the wound that prolongs your convalescence? Suspicion causes that question. DON ENRIQUE DON FELIX Of what? DON ENRIQUE When I complain my love brings l i t t l e joy, you draw the conclusion that my love was the cause of my wound. You must t e l l i f i t i s true. DON FELIX Then no, Felix, i t i s not. DON ENRIQUE (aside) (Your honour, Leonor, owes me only this; or i t i s indebt to mine, because there i s no greater baseness than to avenge offenses of the sword with the tongue.) Arriving here late one night, I was ambushed at this door, either taking me for another or attempting to rob me, in any case my love i s a separate annoyance. DON FELIX (aside) (My suspicion, which I formed from the cape and the wound, was alert to see i f this was the affair of Carlos. But, what foolishness to wish to reduce to one point, the happenings of Madrid!) DON ENRIQUE And now that I have satisfied your doubts on this question, let us turn to one of mine, which i s important for me to discover. By chance, did you know in the army an Andulusian gentleman, whose name, i f I remember, is don Juan de Lara? No. (I cannot find clue or sign to lead me to my enemy!) Senor What i s it? DON FELIX DON ENRIQUE (aside) (Enter SIMON) SIMON DON ENRIQUE SIMON There i s at the door an o f f i c i a l of the Order of Santiago who wishes to talk to you. your leave, Felix. the outer room. DON ENRIQUE By (to SIMON) Tel l him to enter (DON ENRIQUE and SIMON exit.) DON FELIX Where w i l l I go, Love, and not find, your well trodden pathway? Hernando, what i s going on? (enter HERNANDO) HERNANDO Leonor has already l e f t . DON FELIX Farewell happiness. Did you see her leave? HERNANDO Yes. DON FELIX How did she appear? HERNANDO In this manner. As you commanded, I arrived at her street before dawn; but the coach was already at her door before I got there. First they loaded the top with two mattresses of s i l k , and upon a turkish rug, a christian stool. And then with l i t t l e trunk of tortoise shell which in magnificent speech proclaimed: "here goes half of this beauty", came Leonor very crestfallen, in two great capes, both red, and neither one of shame, an overflowing hood, from which strayed a lock of hair, half way between a braid and a tress, half tress and half braid. Her dress was f u l l of gold, her petticoat f u l l of silv e r ; her hat was f u l l of feathers, and her presence f u l l of grace. Her father accompanied her at half profile, his face very grave, as i f he wished to look at her without seeing her. She mounted the coach, senor, cape to cape, and hat to eyebrows, soaked through with resolute grace. In my l i f e I never saw her more beautiful. DON FELIX Peasant, don't l i e , for Leonor i s not beautiful. HERNANDO Take heart she was. DON FELIX Then her beauty, i s the beauty of the hyena, her face lovely with treasons, her voice sweet with cunning; for there i s no perfect beauty where there i s not a perfect soul. HERNANDO Well then I ' l l say she was ugly and . . . DON FELIX You l i e , for i t i s not possible that she, who drags away as many souls as she encounters, could be ugly. HERNANDO Then, how do you want her to be i f she isn't beautiful or ugly? DON FELIX Neither ugly nor beautiful, Hernando. And in your l i f e you may exaggerate perfections not defects to him who loves—which i s very r a s h — praise over jealousy, and injury over passion. HERNANDO Then I ' l l say she was so-so; let's s p l i t the difference, since between pretty and not pretty, this i s the middle phrase. And returning to my story, she entered the coach, f i l l e d a l l the back seat, and from a travelling coach she made a royal carriage. What tale do you tell? DON FELIX 65 HERNANDO I t e l l the truth. DON FELIX How? HERNANDO Because her overflowing petticoats added two small wings to the coach, for one royal curtain and for another. I, who was by chance there among the crowd, came close; and scarcely did Leonor see me, and I say she saw me scarcely, since with tears, for love, she trembled, once to stop them and then to pour them out, as one who carries a glass fearing that i t might s p i l l , and said to me, contorted with tears: Hernando, farewell. DON FELIX Wait. Then she spoke to you? HERNANDO She didn't speak to me; but who can stop rouges from sometimes understanding the language of pearls? By signs her weeping spoke to me, and i f I interpret the signs, she continued: Tell your master. . . DON FELIX Continue, for even though i t i s your foolishness, one fool w i l l perhaps show kindness for another fool. What did she seem, alas Hernando, to say to t e l l me? HERNANDO Tell your master that I go to Toledo and, since i t i s so nearby, I w i l l send him in due season . . . DON FELIX You flatter my misfortune and even though I see you deceive me, deceive me well and good. 66 What w i l l she send me? HERNANDO Apricots, quinces and eggplants.--* DON FELIX Curse you, who doesn't know how to distinguish between foolishness and truth! HERNANDO Well what do you want her to send you? Isn't that enough for a poor maiden? Must she send you the stairway of Alcazar, the bridge of San Martin or the tower of the Cathedral? DON FELIX Quiet, quiet, you are a fool; and he who thinks to find r e l i e f in you i s a bigger fool. (enter DON ENRIQUE.) DON ENRIQUE Don Felix, i t gives me great pains to t e l l you what that man wanted of me. DON FELIX Well then, what i s i t ? DON ENRIQUE The Council of Santiago commands me to leave with a l l speed to examine a candidate. And what has caused your pain. That now I cannot serve you; but stay in my house and what l i t t l e there i s here i s as always yours. I understand the intent of your offer; DON FELIX DON ENRIQUE DON FELIX 5 according to Ruano these are typical crops of Toledo. The land marks Hernando names in his next speech are a l l in Toledo (Ruano, Cada uno, 337-38). but I w i l l go to an inn. DON ENRIQUE Though this journey i s more important to me, than you think, because of a certain reason that comes hidden in i t . If you do me a favour, i t would be even more important to me. DON FELIX Which is? DON ENRIQUE Make a truce with love and come with me. DON FELIX How can I turn my back on my claims when, my inheritance lost, I must return to the campaign? DON ENRIQUE Since this w i l l take l i t t l e time and the journey i s short, i t won't cost you much. For your l i f e , come with me. DON FELIX Where, don Enrique, is the examination? DON ENRIQUE In Toledo. HERNANDO Now he softens. DON FELIX In Toledo? HERNANDO Now he gets happy. DON FELIX And who i s the candidate? DON ENRIQUE Don Felix, even though I want to t e l l you i t , I don't know, for my mission has to be secret. I was given a sealed envelope 68 with orders that I should open i t in Toledo, and i t describes what I must do. DON FELIX I could easily go to Toledo with you, but I fear I would embarrass you. DON ENRIQUE Do not worry about that for I do not do this alone, because they have sent a companion to await in Toledo. Think about my request, don Felix, while I respond to my uncle. (exits.) HERNANDO Now he's thinking about i t . DON FELIX How do you know? HERNANDO Because you don't want Leonor to spend her fortune buying produce in Toledo, but you'd rather go there yourself to eat them; because in the garden of the King,'-' senor, you can amuse yourself without paying shipping costs. DON FELIX Look, when I decide, I w i l l not go for Leonor, because I must neither speak to her nor see her . . . HERNANDO That's clear. DON FELIX . . . but I wil l go for Carlos. Go this instant and buy some new boots the same size as these, 6 According to Ruano, the King's Orchard (huerta del Rey) was evi-dently a real place in Toledo (Ruano, Cada uno, 338.), however here i t appears that Hernando i s using i t to mean Toledo in general. because, after so many roads, the boots that I wear are now, Hernando, no good. HERNANDO With what money? DON FELIX Don't you have any? HERNANDO I have any? I'm f l a t broke. DON FELIX You spent a thousand pieces of silver since Granada? Even though i t may be uncivil, this time I have to see the account. Give i t to me. HERNANDO Didn't I already give i t to you? DON FELIX To me? When? HERNANDO Last night. DON FELIX Hernando, you're dreaming: you gave me the account? HERNANDO Didn't I give you a paper? DON FELIX Yes. HERNANDO Well that was the account, senor; and in i t you owe me a lot of money that I spent from my own pocket. DON FELIX That's not possible. HERNANDO Why don't you just DON FELIX Just what? . . . take i t out and look at it? DON FELIX How, i f I tore i t into pieces? HERNANDO Blast my soul! Then i t was the account you tore? DON FELIX Yes. HERNANDO Then what have you to complain about? I shall complain for you tore up my fortune. DON FELIX What fortune? HERNANDO The one I put there. DON FELIX Make up the account again. HERNANDO This i s good! For one with a happy memory i t would not be easy to do, how much more for me, for I am one with an unhappy memory. DON FELIX I don't want them hear us. Quiet! HERNANDO How . . . DON FELIX Hold your tongue! HERNANDO . . . can I be quiet i f I am robbed of. . . Don't strain my patience! DON FELIX 71 HERNANDO . honour and money? DON FELIX Quiet! (enter DON ENRIQUE and SIMON.) DON ENRIQUE Felix, why are you angry with Hernando? DON FELIX It i s nothing. HERNANDO Yes i t i s , and more. You must give the judgement. Does a servant owe, when he takes pride in being loyal, more than to give his master an account of a l l that was given to him? No. Then i f I have given the account in his own hands, nothing i s lef t for me to do. That's true. DON ENRIQUE HERNANDO DON ENRIQUE DON FELIX Leave this foolishness, for this i s a matter to discuss when no one may hear. DON ENRIQUE Have you an answer for my request? DON FELIX Yes, Enrique; but with one condition. DON ENRIQUE Which is? DON FELIX That rather than I be the guest, you w i l l be i t . DON ENRIQUE In what way? DON FELIX I have a friend in Toledo, in whose house I must stay i f I go there, because anything else would be an offense to a friendship so sure that almost equals ours; and so, you must go with me to his house. (aside) (Oh, i f I could enlist him on Carlos' side!) DON ENRIQUE It would be good for me to arrive in secret, since I go to a secret; but since I do not know him, i t wouldn't be a good thing to do. DON FELIX Would I put your honour at risk? It happens that I left him retired in a convent for some small quarrel, and so he can leave us his house without being in i t . DON ENRIQUE If this i s how things stand, i t w i l l be easier. DON FELIX We w i l l settle these matters later, and so, since I must leave once more, (to HERNANDO) pack the bags again. HERNANDO What bags? DON FELIX The ones I brought. And where are they? HERNANDO DON FELIX Another trick? Well, aren't they in the house? HERNANDO No. DON FELIX Where are they? HERNANDO Bring the account, and you w i l l see in i t where and how they were pawned to pay for the mules. Is there greater impudence! My clothing pawned! DON FELIX HERNANDO Well, what was I to do, i f no coin of the Realm came with me? DON FELIX As God lives, i f i t weren't . . . ! Nevertheless, go with God, Hernando. HERNANDO Give me the account, and he who owes, let him pay. DON FELIX This i s not a game, Hernando. HERNANDO By God, i t isn't anything else. DON ENRIQUE Tell me, on your l i f e , did he give you the account? DON FELIX Leave me, by God, for i t i s uncivil baseness to speak of this. HERNANDO Yes, I gave i t , and in his hand; and he knows i t for he tore i t up, saying: take that, ingrate; take that, tigress; and to that tigress and to that ingrate he gave my fortune. DON ENRIQUE Then to me f a l l s the repairing of a l l of this. Go Simon, and carry this letter to my uncle; for in obedience I w i l l put on my spurs. You come, I w i l l give you enough to retrieve the bags. And you, don Felix, think, that you w i l l forever have the gratitude of my love and my graciousness. DON FELIX Our friendship permits that only my color may give you my answer, for I am speechless. DON ENRIQUE With me? (aside) (Because I love you, beautiful Leonor, a twist of Fate drags me behind you; but with such influence from my aspiring star, that I presume my star wishes me to follow you.) (exits) DON FELIX (aside) see me, (exits.) SIMON Hernando, since we're going to Toledo, I ' l l invite you to witness that there i s there a certain smiling beauty who takes care of the person. (Alas, Leonor! Though you may I am no carried by your love, but by that of a friend.) I also have my prize HERNANDO 75 in Toledo, and you must see that dark eyed princess who, even though she lends for her beloved, doesn't lend for the rest. (they exit.) VOICE (within) (Enter DON LUIS, DON DIEGO, LEONOR, VIOLANTE, and INES.) INES Your uncle and your cousin have just arrived. VIOLANTE Then, I w i l l go to the door, Ines, to receive them. DON LUIS Your delay has given me cause for concern. DON DIEGO No one arrives when they wish to. VIOLANTE I do not object to that excuse, since I hoped you would be late, for what I lost i n your delay, Leonor, my preparations gained. LEONOR May God protect you, dear cousin, for I am very indebted for the care and the gracefulness of your love and your beauty, with whose good cheer I come very pleased to receive your favours. VIOLANTE How I wish this house were a palace able, Leonor, to admit such a guest as you; but since my house i s yours, Whoa, whoa. 1 from this point to Carlos' entry on page 78, the Spanish verse i s in redondillas. See the Introduction, page 9. 76 you also share the blame that i t i s not so; and since i t isn't good for my account to argue, from today the defects of the house run to your account. LEONOR Even though I come, f a i r cousin, from Madrid, I am s t i l l Toledian; and so civi c courtesies are, and more so between us, vain. DON LUIS I w i l l resolve the question and make peace by saying that you should enter to rest. DON DIEGO You must give me leave, for f i r s t I must go . .. DON LUIS Where? DON DIEGO . . . on a certain errand that I said I would do for a friend when I arrived here. DON LUIS Not only w i l l I give you leave but I w i l l accompany you, i f you w i l l allow me. DON DIEGO In every way you honour me. Leonor . . . LEONOR What do you wish? DON DIEGO (aside) (Let us not give, even though i t may be ours, cause for concern in another's house. The past i s now passed. No one imagines nor believes there i s displeasure between us: avoid your displays of rashness.) We wi l l return quickly. Goodbye, daughter; goodbye, niece. (exit DON DIEGO and DON LUIS.) VIOLANTE Leonor, i t pains me much to so quickly realize . . . LEONOR What? VIOLANTE . . . that you've arrived at my house in sorrow or in anger. LEONOR Why do you say that? VIOLANTE Because your eyes, though attempting to hide i t , are crying that they w i l l cry and they do not stop. LEONOR My anger, i f I bring i t with me, Violante, I have certainly not found here; and so, since this care doesn't concern you, don't think that anger comes out of my eyes, when i t cannot come out of my mouth. (enter JUANA.) JUANA Tell me, my royal highness, where i s my lady's room? For I wish to put away a few small personal things. INES Come with me and you'll find out. JUANA You have won a friend. I ' l l go with you now. (exit JUANA and INES.) VIOLANTE Even i f your bosom won't rest, let i t ' s troubles rest. (aside) (But isn't that don Carlos 78 who enters the house?) LEONOR (aside) (It appears, heavens, that don Juan de Lara, my foolish neighbour, has followed me to Toledo.) VIOLANTE Dear Leonor, i f you notice a man passing from the patio to the hallway, since as you see he does not come favoured by my love, but abhorred and scorned, you must watch my loyal honour amend a past mistake; and so, at this door, Leonor, listen to what I say to him. LEONOR I w i l l do what you ask to see which i s worth more, the excuse you give me or the suspicion you take from me. (LEONOR hides and DON CARLOS enters.) DON CARLOS Having seen, beautiful Violante, your father leave, I come to know how long this punishment of a non-crime, treated as i f i t were crime, has to last. VIOLANTE Senor don Carlos de Silva . . . LEONOR (aside) (She said Don Carlos de Silva. How could this be, i f he is don Juan de Lara?) VIOLANTE Many times I have told you to do me the favour of covering my memories in forgetfulness. DON CARLOS I do not wish, beautiful Violante, to force your w i l l ; I only ask to clear away your unreasonableness. VIOLANTE Nor that, don Carlos . . . LEONOR (aside) (She said Carlos again. Either he lied to me or to her.) VIOLANTE . . . for he who resolved once to close his ears to reason. could scarcely now want to remove unreasonableness. DON CARLOS I must not leave, Violante, before you have heard me. VIOLANTE This i s taking too much time for my father w i l l surely return soon. DON CARLOS Listen, because, whether he returns or not, I must speak. What scorn, what treason, what offense has suffered a man, for the more devoted he may adore, for the more courteous he may idolize, who in the absence of the one whom he loved most, did not seek the opportunity, but because she came to him, and finding her at a l l hours made the continual object of his windows . . . LEONOR (aside) (Here I enter.) DON CARLOS . . .without more motive, without more intention, without more love, nor without more design than to appear courteous, perhaps he feigned a signal? LEONOR (aside) (I wondered whether he had lied to Violante or to me; but now I understand he lied to both of us.) DON CARLOS The duel of which that rogue told you, was not argument of love, but an indication of valour. And even i f I had fought for love, i t would make l i t t l e difference, since what woman would not forgive a repentant man who has done her a wrong? VIOLANTE I, Carlos, w i l l begin that fashion; for I wish a l l women to have this example of me, so that men won't believe that, with the most lukewarm reconcilement, we easily change from offended to loving. And so, since your chest i s now relieved, go, or I w i l l go, which i s easier. DON CARLOS Listen . . . VIOLANTE I won't hear you. DON CARLOS Notice . . . VIOLANTE There i s nothing to notice. DON CARLOS Look . . . VIOLANTE I have already seen i t a l l . DON CARLOS . . . that I, Violante . . . 81 . desire . . that you know . . . . that only you are the owner . . . of my truth. VIOLANTE This i s vain. DON CARLOS VIOLANTE This i s lost time. DON CARLOS VIOLANTE This i s an error. (VIOLANTE goes to the door, on her last line she exits through one door, leaving the other one open.) DON CARLOS VIOLANTE This i s madness. DON CARLOS VIOLANTE This i s deceit. DON CARLOS VIOLANTE You won't stop me, scoundrel, Behind you DON CARLOS VIOLANTE This i s insanity. DON CARLOS I have to enter. LEONOR This i s nonsense; and since she has l e f t , I w i l l remain to t e l l you the same. 82 DON CARLOS Heavens! What i s this? LEONOR And since that I am here in her place, and since she did not say i t to you, I w i l l say what she did not say: serior don Juan, or don Carlos, here ingrate, there scoundrel, go with God and thank . . . But you have nothing to thank, go, and let pass in silence a l l that I do not say to you. (exits.) DON CARLOS Heavens! What i s this I see? What is this, heavens, I behold? Without doubt, Love you abuse me playing this way with me; since without knowing how, or when, or from where i t came, I encounter Leonor here when I follow Violante here. Confused and disturbed, and not to mention ashamed. without daring to pass forward in my designs, I don't see how to leave this blind labyrinth of love, where at every step I touch lights and I step on shadows. (exits by one door and enters by another.) And now that I am in the street, where I can see neither one nor the other, let us see, i f I can, recovering now, find myself again. What doubts are these? (enter HERNANDO.) HERNANDO Thank God I came across you. DON CARLOS Why have you returned, Hernando? HERNANDO This envelope w i l l t e l l a l l . 83 DON CARLOS (aside) (Make a truce, i f not peace, for a moment my feelings, while I see what this contains.) It says: (reads) "My friend and seiior: Even though I w i l l see you soon, I feel I must warn you that a gentleman w i l l arrive in Toledo with me, who comes on an errand of which secrecy i s needed; and, i f i t i s as I imagine, i t w i l l be important for you to entertain him; and i f not, I ask you do i t for me; and so, i f you are s t i l l in the sanctuary where I left you, give orders to receive us in your house; and i f by chance there i s any way or road, try to be there also for i t i s important for you. Your friend" What could this mean? But in vain discussion I embarrass myself, when he could so quickly t e l l me. Come, Hernando; since the notice finds me near my house, wait an instant while I write to Felix that he and his gentleman friend are welcomed; for i f my hospitality i s not worthy of them, at least desire would be worthy to serve them. HERNANDO But, why do you want to write? DON CARLOS So you can take my answer to him on the road. HERNANDO That's not necessary, for the advantage that I was able to win coming here from Cabanas,^ a small village outside of Toledo (Ruano, Cada uno, 340). 84 while they stopped for a mouthful, I have already lost talking to you. DON CARLOS (aside) (Permit me, whirling imaginations, to look after this obligation, since for i t I am determined not to return to the sanctuary for now. But what noise i s this?) (noise within) HERNANDO See i f I spoke the truth. DON FELIX (within) Hold that stirrup. (enter DON ENRIQUE, DON FELIX, and SIMON.) DON FELIX Carlos, my friend. DON CARLOS Be welcomed Felix. DON FELIX Don't say that this time I did not plan to pay for the lodgings, as I bring you in reward a friend that you must win through me. . DON CARLOS Through you and by me I prize him, since by simply being your friend he shall be mine. (As DON CARLOS and DON ENRIQUE go to embrace each other, they p u l l out their swords, and DON FELIX steps between them.) DON ENRIQUE My arms . . . But, what do I see! DON CARLOS Be you . . . But, what do I behold! DON ENRIQUE Traitor, i s i t you? Fate provides the chance for my vengeance. DON CARLOS And I w i l l satisfy the insult of seeing you s t i l l alive. DON FELIX What i s this, Carlos? Enrique, what i s this? SIMON Heaven and earth! What type of hospitality i s this, Hernando? HERNANDO The type that has the vice of inviting sword fights. DON ENRIQUE Die, traitor! DON CARLOS Die, scoundrel! DON FELIX Enrique, Carlos, what i s this? DON ENRIQUE I w i l l avenge my injuries. DON CARLOS I w i l l satisfy my offenses. DON FELIX Restrain yourself; hold yourself, I say; by God, don Carlos, Enrique comes with me. DON CARLOS This i s vain. DON FELIX Enrique, I have brought you to his house DON ENRIQUE Forgive me, Felix, for having seen an opponent, I must not control myself by reason, nor must I relinquish my advantage. DON CARLOS But I w i l l , to the reason of Felix, but not to you, give i n . And so, sefior don Enrique, always attempting to do proudly the best, even though I know why you come and that you seek me, I s o l i c i t , despite my pain, that the ages never say that he who enters my doors at the side of such a friend, could not rely upon the law of hospitality; and so, I affirm that for as much time as you wish my house to serve you, leaving you for owner of i t , I return to the sanctuary —parenthesis to p a i n — and w i l l do, attempting grace, even more for you than for Felix, to lodge you and attend you. My house, estate, and servants remain at your service. Avail yourself of the faith that turned me against myself, being warned that the day that ends the immunity of hospitality, we must both remain, as before, enemies. (exits. DON ENRIQUE Listen, wait . . . DON FELIX Stop, unless you want to follow him to embrace him for such a noble action. DON ENRIQUE I follow him to teach him, Felix, that I never receive from my enemies favours nor benefits. SIMON Is this the feast, Hernando, we were to prepare ourselves for? HERNANDO Yes, Simon, this i s the feast, and the festival of a playwright, a friend of sword fights, where 87 there i s no veiled woman nor hidden man.y DON FELIX This wish shows. . . DON ENRIQUE What? DON FELIX . . . that he i s more gallant and more gracious than you. DON ENRIQUE He who has the advantage in a question of honour, can be gallant, Felix, but not he who has been offended, because what in one i s praiseworthy, in another i s unworthy. I am offended by this don Carlos, who until now I have known as don Juan de Lara; and, now I t e l l you the truth, he wounded me, with which, i f I desist from my wrath, that which makes him appear noble, would make me appear remiss. And so, since reason doesn't flow equally, I must go to an inn. Simon, bring my clothes and come with me, for I must not receive today, as a friend, benefits of him whom tomorrow I must k i l l as an enemy. (exits.) i DON FELIX Listen, wait. Who, heavens, has seen himself in equal confusion? Enrique i s my friend, but is not Carlos also my friend? I don't know what I should do when I see them as enemies. But I do know, since I know, that the law of the duel says with whom I come, I avenge. and thus, I follow don Enrique. 9 reference to Calderon's play La tapada y el escondido (The Veiled  Woman and the Hidden Man). 88 Where i s he? I imagine he has stopped at the corner, and i s waiting for me. And i s opening an envelope. SIMON HERNANDO DON FELIX Come with me. Enrique! (they exit through one door and enter through the other f o l l o w i n g DON ENRIQUE who enters carries a sealed envelope.) Felix? DON ENRIQUE Where are you going, I follow you. DON FELIX DON ENRIQUE You leave your friend? DON FELIX I don't leave my friend, since you are he, for i t was one thing, when I found myself between both of you, to seek reconciliation between you, but i t would be another, having come with you, to stay without you. DON ENRIQUE I prize your graciousness. DON FELIX Don't do that, for that which i s owed me, no one must prize of me, except only . . . Who? DON ENRIQUE 89 DON FELIX . . . myself. What are you doing? DON ENRIQUE While I waited for Simon, I was opening this envelope. DON FELIX Read, then; and I w i l l withdraw so that afterwards we shall see where we must go. DON ENRIQUE (reads) Petition, genealogy, instructions . . . I ' l l look at that. (reads aside) ("Don Enrique de Mendoza shall arrive in Toledo, and he shall procure with a l l circumspection to make secret investigation to see i f don Carlos de Silva has any declared enemy." To this point my mission has been very easy for me, for i t i s clear that he has one, since I am i t ; but I w i l l continue. (reads) "And having ascertained a l l the circumstances that there are i n the enmities, he shall give account, and he w i l l proceed with his examination of the nature of the genealogy and the petition included." Heavens! What is this? Since I have been offended by don Carlos, you put his honour in my hand?) DON FELIX What has surprised you? DON ENRIQUE The most cunning twist of Fate that has ever happened to anyone. DON FELIX What is it? DON ENRIQUE Listen, since now i t can be told. (enter DON CARLOS) 90 DON CARLOS Sefior don Enrique, I kiss your hands. DON ENRIQUE Be welcomed. DON CARLOS I told you that a l l the time you were my guest, hospitality made a truce to stop our duel; and having heard that you did not wish to receive that small service, and you have lef t my house for an inn, since you are a stranger, and I taken refuge in a monastery, you may not know where to find me, I wish to let you know that I am at the monastery of Carmen, which i s near the castle of San Cervantes. Good bye. DON ENRIQUE I esteem your conscientiousness. DON FELIX I do not, for being in the middle i s much a f f l i c t i o n , and . . . DON ENRIQUE Hear, senor don Carlos. Even though you have with much cause believed that your offence brought me, i t was your honour that brought me. See what goes from one to the other. DON FELIX (aside) (My guess did not l i e , but my desire did.) DON CARLOS My honour? What do you mean? DON ENRIQUE This i s your examination, don Carlos, for until now even I did not known why I came to Toledo. And as I always aspire to do the best, I wish, imitating you, to achieve i t . And so, since of a noble act I am your debtor, I request to free myself with another before seeing that site; for i f you act gallantly with me when you see me in your house, when I see you in my jurisdiction, I must do the same. You have another enemy, and I am too much enemy to give me accompanied; and so, I w i l l defer my complaint until you are rid of him. To which effect I confirm the truce, with faith and word to aid you and assist you in a l l that I can. And so that you see i f I serve you, send to me with don Felix — s i n c e in a truce i t i s customary to have a messenger— a l l those documents and letters, petitions and witnesses, that are important to you; being warned that, the instant that your honour remains pure and clean, the privilege of my office w i l l be finished in me, I w i l l find San Cervantes, and in San Cervantes I w i l l t e l l you that we are as before both enemies. (exits.) SIMON What do you say to that, Hernando? HERNANDO That as they are great enemies, of pure honour, we neither fight nor dine. (exit SIMON.) DON FELIX Your gallantry has been repaid you quickly. DON CARLOS I am ashamed to be the f i r s t in the world to have received his examiner through a quarrel. HERNANDO If this custom were introduced, there would be fewer candidates. DON FELIX Having myself suspected why he came, as he carried the sealed envelope, I sent you notice, and wished you to be his friend. DON CARLOS What does i t matter, i f my misfortune did not wish it? DON FELIX At least heaven opens a way. What was the offence? DON CARLOS I was one night, as I said, at a window; he arrived, fought, and lef t wounded. DON FELIX Were there words? DON CARLOS Not a one. DON FELIX Then this has been easy to resolve. Stay, for I must follow him and not you. DON CARLOS Wait, since you play the part of the messenger in the truce, I have something to t e l l you. Do you remember that lady . . . ? DON FELIX Yes. DON CARLOS Well, her father has come to hear something of my courtship, and he i s only the witness that I s t i l l fear. Go with this, for i t may be important to t e l l . DON FELIX What i s his name? DON CARLOS Don Luis de Acuna. DON FELIX I go forewarned. DON CARLOS Good bye. DON FELIX Good bye. DON CARLOS Wait. HERNANDO What? Another l i t t l e sin? DON CARLOS Do you think I should talk to him, and, surrendering at his feet, put my honour in his hands? DON FELIX What class of man i s he? DON CARLOS Descendant of the most noble gentlemen of Castile. DON FELIX In that case, do i t , because a well born man never avenges himself with his tongue. DON CARLOS Since seeing me in his house would not please him, as he w i l l think i t i s a pretence to enter i t , I w i l l write him a letter immediately saying that he may see me in the monastery. DON FELIX You have spoken well; 94 and since these matters are best given to a friend, I w i l l carry them to him. DON CARLOS I prize your graciousness and love. ( t h e y e x i t . Enter LEONOR and VIOLANTE.) VIOLANTE Now, cousin, that you are summarily informed, while seeing me angry with that gentleman, that favour can turn to scorn, I want you to excuse me with you, and understand the reason of my change of mind, so you may witness that what i s revenge i s not fickleness. Seeing then that i t was . . . LEONOR Say. VIOLANTE . . . by agreement of my father and myself, because of his blood, at the beginning I received his courtship, to be the beloved of Carlos, with those favours that, in l i c i t love, the suitor clearly enjoys who, favoured, walks the pathway of husband. He went to Madrid having changed his name . . . LEONOR (aside) (Now I leave one care.) VIOLANTE . . . and where, entertained, . . . LEONOR (aside) (Now I enter another.) VIOLANTE . . . he forgot my love. There lived—according to a servant who, being paid by my love, told me everything that happened— in front of his house some lady, who, at f i r s t glance, surrendered her liberty. She was beautiful, according to what he said. LEONOR She could have been very ugly. VIOLANTE But thinking I was forsaken for an ugly woman a f f l i c t s me more, for there i s no comfort in that. Fortunately she had . . . LEONOR What? VIOLANTE . . . another suitor who, the f i r s t day she tried to speak to Carlos at her window, attempted to k i l l him, and was badly wounded by Carlos' sword. LEONOR Alas, what a wicked woman! While bound to one, her arms received another. VIOLANTE Not to mention those we don't know of. LEONOR (aside) (If this i s what i s told of me, then with reason, Felix, you reproach me.) And f i n a l l y , how did i t end? VIOLANTE In noble fear of the law, he returned to Toledo making himself very gracious and fai t h f u l . But nothing in his excuse was enough: his love increased a thousand ways, his loyalty . . . Bless me in a l l ! And even though I hated him, I sensed the danger that he was in, so long as my impulsive act was not to want to save his and condemn mine, since obligating for him a gentleman, for by chance a gallant stranger was passing, never in my l i f e was I more indebted or more thankful. If you could see him! How furiously he took out his sword for me! How vigorously, at don Carlos' side, he cleared the street! How temperately he returned to assure me! I say this because were i t possible that you could see him . . . (enter INES) INES Senora. VIOLANTE What news, Ines, makes you so happy? INES To t e l l you . . . VIOLANTE What? INES . . . he has arrived . . VIOLANTE Who? INES . . . the noble stranger from the brawl. VIOLANTE If I could reward you! For I was just speaking of him, praising to Leonor his valour, his courage, his grace and manliness, and I am glad that what my voice has said may be confirmed by what you see, Come with me, Leonor, to the window. INES That, senora, i s useless; he asks for your father, and i s already inside the house. VIOLANTE Heaven joins together unequal extremes, since we have occasion for my offense to find some satisfaction. Since he seeks my father, t e l l him to enter. And you take note of him. LEONOR Yes, I w i l l . (How fic k l e ! But, when was she not crazy?) My master i s not at home; but i f you wish to leave him a letter or message, or i f your business i s so important that you don't trust me, give i t to dona Violante, my lady, who i s here, and she w i l l give i t to her father. (Enter DON FELIX and HERNANDO.) DON FELIX It would be better that I wait for senor don Luis, for I must speak with him in person. VIOLANTE If you must, senor, wait for him, I cannot allow a man of your station to wait in the hallway. Enter, and you may wait in this room. DON FELIX Cowardly, sefiora, I dare not, for I should walk with great respect through these doorways; and are they not the cause of i t since, with presumption of heaven, they have at their door an angel? (aside to HERNANDO) (Hernando?) HERNANDO (aside to DON FELIX) (What i s it?) DON FELIX (aside to HERNANDO) (Is not that Leonor, or does love f a l s i f y her image?) HERNANDO (aside to DON FELIX) (It i s Leonor, but she is poorly done.) (aside) INES LEONOR (aside) (Heavens! Give me courage for i t i s Felix whom Violante praises.) VIOLANTE Even though so l i t t l e of that flattery f i t s me, since you don't say i t for me being, senor, in the presence of my cousin, I thank you for a l l of my part. DON FELIX I said i t for you, for I had not seen (aside) (Strange predicament!) that lady until now, for, i f I had known i t a l i t t l e before, perhaps I would not have entered. VIOLANTE Why? HERNANDO (aside to DON FELIX) (She makes signs to be quiet.) DON FELIX (aside to HERNANDO) (I don't know i f I can.) (to VIOLANTE) Because i t would be great rashness for one to dare two dangers so beautifully equal, since one i s more than enough to k i l l , for i t might be said—don't be surprized— that he fled from rashness; because there i s no valour that equals that which, from pure valiancy, sometimes appears cowardly. VIOLANTE (aside to LEONOR) (How does he appear, Leonor, discreet, gallant and courteous?) LEONOR (aside to VIOLANTE) (Very bad . . . that you declare so much to me, and how much more so to him.) VIOLANTE (aside to LEONOR) (Since you know nothing of love . . .) (Please, heaven!) LEONOR (aside) VIOLANTE (aside to LEONOR) (. . .you are amazed by any l i t t l e thing.) INES Your father. Whom do you seek, sir? He arrived just this instant asking for you. Well, what do you want of me? (enter DON LUIS) DON LUIS VIOLANTE DON LUIS DON FELIX So not to trust to a servant material that i s perhaps important, don Carlos de Silva prays you —and I in his place, because he could not come—, do him the favour of listening to a matter he has with you. DON LUIS Where i s he? DON FELIX In the convent of Carmen. (Don Carlos de Silva? Could i t be that he dares DON LUIS (aside) declare himself, and asks me for Violante in marriage? I w i l l not give her to him not because of his quality and blood, but because he f i r s t , as a crazy and outspoken lover, used such unworthy means as disguises and assignations, and I do not want any one to presume, having seen his f o l l i e s , that the marriage was by force and by not choice. Since he i s an arrogant fellow, not to speak with him would be bad, but so would be to speak to him without a sword, since I know I w i l l deny him what he asks, so that we do not lose our respect in one or another duel.) I w i l l go with you, wait for me an instant, for presently I return. (exits) VIOLANTE (aside to LEONOR) My father i s displeased, and since the paper was from Carlos, I must assure him that I know nothing of i t . Stay here while I go, and talk to this gentleman, Leonor, may God keep you, as i f i t were born of you, not as i f i t were born of me, that he should manage his own affairs, and not another's, because he has a thankful lady that you know who esteems and favours him. You don't have to be modest, for when you do i t for me, you do i t for a cousin. (exits) LEONOR (aside) (A good commission i s lef t me!) DON FELIX (to HERNANDO) See i f anyone can hear us. It would be, Leonor, very vain of you to think that I came to Toledo to seek you, may heaven rebuke me i f I knew you lived here, and i f had I thought I would have seen you or spoke to you, I would not have entered this house. LEONOR You don't have to curse yourself, Felix, to assure me that your arrival i s not for me; I already know that you have sought these pretenses to see Violante. DON FELIX I for Violante? LEONOR Yes, ingrate, i t i s very just that I reward you for the fights that you have already had for her. HERNANDO Careful! Everything w i l l come out, senor. DON FELIX Your fickleness only lacked that you become the offended and I the offender. HERNANDO This i s what Gallacian maids do every day: attack so they aren't attacked. LEONOR Obviously, since the right i s on my side. DON FELIX The one who throws, says the adage, the guilt to the other knows not a l i t t l e . LEONOR What guilt, i f I speak to you, where I have been made a go-between to t e l l you that you have a thankful lady in Toledo? 102 DON FELIX Enough, Leonor, since I do not complain about your jealousy, about your coming to Toledo, about your window to the street, do not complain that . . . VIOLANTE (within) You must not leave. DON LUIS (within) Get out of my way. LEONOR What could that be? (enter JUANA) JUANA Your cousin, seeing her father take his sword, holds him, imagining that he leaves for some quarrel. DON FELIX To what effect does he bring a sword? JUANA What do I see, senor Hernando? LEONOR Quiet, Juana, don't be amazed to see them here, since they come to see an angel at this door. DON FELIX By God, Leonor, don't i r r i t a t e my suffering; and i t i s enough for me not to complain so that you don't complain, for in your laughter you make a harsh examination of my sentiments. LEONOR You said i t , and you would have said more i f I had not been present. DON FELIX I don't know what I would have said, but what I say is easier. I returned your letters; so that a l l would come to an end, and since I have no more to return, neither for your nor for Violante, return mine to me. LEONOR Yes, I w i l l . Juana . . . JUANA What do you wish? the account of my journey, i f you have i t with you, so that in this also we remain both equal. God defend the innocent! She knows i t a l l . LEONOR . . give him HERNANDO DON FELIX Fickle woman! How you take advantage of everything! LEONOR Ah, traitor! How you also take advantage of what you love! DON FELIX You are cruel. You, inconstant. You are treacherous. LEONOR DON FELIX LEONOR You, ingrate. DON FELIX You are Jezebel. LEONOR You, f i c k l e . 104 DON FELIX You are false. LEONOR You, traitor. (enter DON DIEGO) DON DIEGO What i s this? LEONOR (aside) (Woe i s me! My father.) DON FELIX (aside) (Who saw himself in such danger!) JUANA (aside) (Dreadful happening!) HERNANDO (aside) (Strange situation!) (I am dead.) (I am lost.) What would oblige you . . , DON FELIX (aside) LEONOR (aside) DON DIEGO LEONOR (aside) (Woe i s me!) DON DIEGO . . . Leonor, to c a l l anyone traitor? LEONOR You w i l l know, father . . . , (What w i l l she say?) DON FELIX (aside) 105 LEONOR (aside) (Love, defend me.) . . . that this gentleman, whom I don't know . . . , DON DIEGO Go on. LEONOR . . . brought a letter to my uncle, which issued him a challenge because, reading i t , he entered for his sword. I, in that instant, was going to say: "You, traitor, do you seek some one in this house for sorrows?", when, hearing "traitor", you entered. And so you can see that i t i s certain, see how Violante holds her father. (enter VIOLANTE and DON LUIS.) VIOLANTE You must not go. DON LUIS Get out of my way. Let us leave, s i r . DON FELIX You have unnerved yourself without reason for I come in peace. DON LUIS Violante i s the one who i s unnerved, not I. DON DIEGO I w i l l go with you. DON FELIX Come, because the effect might undeceive you, this i s not a quarrel, senor; I think i t i s a matter more of pleasures than of sorrows. DON DIEGO Be i t what i t may, let's go. 106 (Who saw greater obstanance?) (Who saw a better excuse?) (Who saw such a lie?) Did you say something to him? DON FELIX (aside) JUANA (aside) HERNANDO (aside) (exit the men) VIOLANTE LEONOR Much more than you commissioned me. And w i l l he return to see me? Yes. May Love pay you piety. (And may the heavens pay you the displeasure that you do me.) VIOLANTE LEONOR VIOLANTE LEONOR (aside) Act Three (enter DON FELIX and HERNANDO.) DON FELIX What i s Enrique doing? HERNANDO He's locked in his room writing. DON FELIX He has a great desire to finish these examinations. HERNANDO That doesn't surprise me, since he hopes for a duel as his reward; and i t must be a reward, since a reward i s something given to someone and this duel i s a given fact. DON FELIX Yesterday I saw his companion leave on horseback. Where did he go? HERNANDO How should I know? DON FELIX Are we alone? HERNANDO Yes. DON FELIX Then about what has happened to us, let us discuss. HERNANDO Let us discuss, but with one condition. Which is? DON FELIX HERNANDO I must start by giving a prologue to the history. DON FELIX Which is? HERNANDO I neither know nor understand, after don Luis l e f t , accompanied by don Diego, with his sword that was an olive branch for our fright, what happened to you with don Carlos in his retreat. DON FELIX Don Luis had become unnecessarily excited, for he believed Carlos wanted something else of him; but when he realized that the request, laid at his feet, was to put Carlos' honour in his hands and ask him to honour him in the examination, not only did don Luis, nobly courteous, agree, but Carlos also won on the way don Diego; and even with greater result, because he has given Carlos his word to make peace between him and his f i r s t opponent, who I think was a servant of his; and so, as you saw, they parted as friends. HERNANDO Since now I leave my confusion, we'll enter into yours. Let us discuss. DON FELIX Let us discuss. How could i t be that when I went just to seek don Luis, not knowing nor wanting to know anything of Leonor, I find myself facing her? HERNANDO Because she i s his niece and i s by chance in his house. That i s not my question. DON FELIX HERNANDO Then what i s it? DON FELIX Why did I find her so jealous of her cousin? HERNANDO Perhaps Violante told her about the duel you had for her. DON FELIX But, how or when could Leonor know i t was me? HERNANDO In that small moment you stopped at the door of her room; because to say: "That one behaved bravely with me in this occasion or another", doesn't take much time. DON FELIX Woe i s me! For even though I know her treasons, her deceptions, I cannot make myself make an end with her, and put her memory in my forgetfulness, and her offence in my memory; to which end you w i l l see that I w i l l neither see her nor w i l l I speak to her, nor I w i l l cross her doors even i f I am dragged across them. HERNANDO I don't doubt this i s better; but I do doubt you w i l l do i t . And since we go from one incident to another, let us discuss. DON FELIX Let us discuss. HERNANDO How do you plan to reconcile 110 the duel? DON FELIX Where there i s no offence and there are nobilities in both sides, the way appears plain to me, since after the sword has been drawn any duel can be reconciled gracefully. I don't find more than one d i f f i c u l t y . HERNANDO Which is? DON FELIX The lady, for to arrive at a reconciliation both must have l e f t her; and I don't know how each one finds himself nor in what state their love i s . HERNANDO Who could be this nymph of Parnassos, this princess of Cathay that the two of them conceal so much? DON FELIX I don't know, and I would give anything to know. I have not desired anything more in my l i f e . HERNANDO Then, what a f f l i c t s you? DON FELIX No more, Hernando, than foolish curiosity to see what new miracle of beauty and discretion i s the Circe of this spell, who makes a l l of us such beasts. And I have to try at the f i r s t occasion, to make . . . (enter DON ENRIQUE and SIMON.) DON ENRIQUE I kiss your hands, don Felix. I l l DON FELIX Did you pass the hour, Enrique, resting a while? DON ENRIQUE I cannot wait for the hour to finish with this business in the service of don Carlos. DON FELIX Is this graciousness or anger? DON ENRIQUE Leave i t , for time w i l l say what i t was, and quickly, since with both hands my companion and I make the errands; and my desire i s so great that, since he has lef t with some depositions, I go to obtain a signature for one deposition which remains blank. DON FELIX Who i s i t , i f i t can be told? DON ENRIQUE Don Luis de Acuna. He has already spoken, and yesterday he gave himself as my friend. I go to seek his house, and I presume that you know i t . DON FELIX Yes. DON ENRIQUE Then let's go there, i f you don't have anything else to do. DON FELIX If I had, I would leave i t . HERNANDO (aside to DON FELIX) (If they dragged me, I would not cross her doors.) 112 DON FELIX (aside to HERNANDO) (Leave me, by God, Hernando, for I don't go for Leonor.) DON ENRIQUE Is i t far? DON FELIX The neighbourhood i s near, and nothing i s far away in Toledo. HERNANDO That's for sure, but everything's either uphill or underhanded. (they exit through one door and enter through another.) DON FELIX This i s the house. DON ENRIQUE Go, Simon, and discover i f by chance sefior don Luis gives us permission to greet him. And we w i l l wait here, in case he i s not at home, Who knocks at the door? Open i t and you'll find out. DON FELIX (SIMON knocks, and JUANA enters.) JUANA SIMON JUANA Whom do you seek? But who do I see? Simon! SIMON My Juana! JUANA Give me your arms, and be welcomed. (aside) (But alas!, Hernando has seen i t ! ) (HERNANDO crosses and hits JUANA on the arm.) 113 HERNANDO (aside to JUANA) You, ingrate! JUANA Woe i s me! SIMON What's the matter? JUANA I have these days, a humour in this hand and I am raging from pain. What's that matter with you? Here, in my teeth, I also have a humour from which I rage. SIMON HERNANDO SIMON Tell senor don Luis that don Enrique, my master, i s here, and he wishes to speak to him. JUANA I w i l l f l y to advise him. (exit) SIMON Hernando, that's the maid I praised to you. HERNANDO She i s a wonder. SIMON What do you think of her? HERNANDO Very good. May you, s i r , enjoy her a thousand years, for you deserve her. What a waist! What demeanor! What grace! (aside) (Oh, blast her!) (enter DON LUIS) DON LUIS Seiior don Enrique, you offend my good desire to serve you, by remaining in these doorways, when they and their owner are waiting for you to realize the great fortune of honouring them your person. DON ENRIQUE May heaven keep you, I have waited for your leave, because without i t I would not have dared step within them. DON LUIS You treat me very badly, since I told you yesterday, Enrique, when we recognized each other, of the debt I am i n , and how good a friend I was of your father, and how today I am friend of sefior don Fernando, your uncle. DON ENRIQUE I know you try to honour them. You know well why I come. DON LUIS Yes, the same matter we discussed in the holy church yesterday, when my deposition was taken in voice, you wish now I sign i t in writing. DON ENRIQUE So i t i s . DON LUIS Since we are not alone here, enter inside; and forgive an old man an impertinence, which i s to read what I sign, because never in my l i f e have I signed without reading. DON ENRIQUE It i s a proper consideration. DON LUIS Give us leave, and wait in this f i r s t room. DON FELIX I already know that you must be alone, and I came here just to show the house to Enrique. You are friend of Carlos, and do well to assist him; but i f you come so l i c i t i n g me to say what I have said, and i f you distrust in the word that I gave, t e l l him that he offends me, for I am who I am, and understand that I know how to keep my honour, since I keep that which belongs to another. Good, and since you told me that your sweetheart lives here, share your happiness with me. DON LUIS (exit DON LUIS and DON ENRIQUE.) e) SIMON DON FELI3 (asic (He speaks with many meanings.) SIMON Let's go outside, Hernando, so I can see Juana again in the hallway or in the patio, for I want her to get to know you. HERNANDO I've had enough of getting to know her. (exit SIMON) HERNANDO I give you my whole share. (aside) (Ah, infamy, as heaven lives, i f I come to find out or discover that she i s completely his, then the world w i l l be the theatre of the greatest vengeance and of the greatest vindication that the sun ever saw! There 116 would not be woman, or dog, or cat, or other living vermin, from the monkey to the parrot, that I would not put to the sword, being to the registration of years my honour being twenty-five, and his being twenty-four.) (exit HERNANDO.) DON FELIX Who could t e l l me, woe i s me!, that in the house where Leonor stays I would find myself so violent and so strange, that I would resolve not to enter it? Since, as God lives!, I must see, fighting with myself this time, i f I can keep myself, since I find myself here alone, from looking through that door to where the drawing room l i e s , to see i f in i t I might see her. But, alas unhappy!, what do I do, i f not attempting i t i s the means of attempting i t ? (enter VIOLANTE and INES) VIOLANTE Ines, bring the work into this room. But who i s this in the entryway? DON FELIX (aside) (It was a good occasion to do what Hernando said, but I must not lose my complaint.) One who i s waiting for sefior don Luis. VIOLANTE Why have they not advised him? DON FELIX As i t i s not necessary, for the duty that I carry does not consist of talking, but of waiting, VIOLANTE I don't understand. You seek him at his house and do not to have to speak to him, 117 the one appears contrary to another. DON FELIX But i t i s not, senora, when what I claim of him is only to be allowed to wait. (LEONOR enters and stops.) VIOLANTE Now I understand you. LEONOR (aside) (With whom could my cousin be talking? Woe i s me!, i t i s Felix.) DON FELIX I am glad, for now you may be r i d of the question and I of the answer. But, what was i t you thought? VIOLANTE (aside) (Love and vengeance, let us talk.) LEONOR (aside) (Love and jealousy, let us hear.) VIOLANTE That since my cousin told you, because I told i t to her, how thankful I am of the debt which I owe for the danger you risked for me. you, noble, courteous and brave, would come to me for repayment, and occupy me in something in your service; and to do this you would have thought of some excuse, for i f my father were by chance to find you, you would say that while he did not see you i t was permissable to talk, since for your pretention to wait for him i s sufficient. DON FELIX You have put me in strange predicament. VIOLANTE How? DON FELIX I cannot escape being traitorous, uncouth or vain. VIOLANTE Why? DON FELIX Because to I persuade myself that you have to thank me, would be vanity; to deny that I come for that, would be uncouth; to pass from denying i t to granting i t , would be treason to don Carlos. So between three lines, being in danger from each one, i t i s neither good to grant i t , nor i s i t good to deny i t . VIOLANTE Then i f you must declare yourself in one of these three dangers today . . . LEONOR (aside) (You traitoress!) VIOLANTE . . . the least . . . DON FELIX Yes. LEONOR (aside) (You false man VIOLANTE . . . i s vanity. LEONOR (aside) (You tigress!) What are you saying? DON FELIX 119 LEONOR (aside) (You ingrate!) VIOLANTE Listen, and find out. LEONOR (aside) (He'll hear nothing, this i s going too far.) (enter LEONOR.) Violante, how do you dare have so much conversation with your father in the house? VIOLANTE I know he i s occupied with a vi s i t o r . LEONOR Be careful for I think they're about to leave. VIOLANTE I ' l l see what he's doing. Wait for I ' l l return immediately. (exits.) LEONOR Now deny to me that you come for Violante. DON FELIX Holy heavens! Could there be greater pain i n the world than that which one who must calm the complainer feels? Sweet Leonor . . . , but what do I say? Fierce Leonor . . . , but what do I say? I find no quality for you: not sweet, for I abhor you, and not fierce, for I love you. Leonor, for just Leonor i s enough, may lightning take my l i f e i f I come for Violante. The man I am waiting for i s with don Luis; i f you don't believe i t , t e l l me another point in your apology, and you w i l l see how I believe i t ; and when you teach me to offend ( i f i t i s that I offend you), let us divide the road: you learn to calm yourself, seeking some satisfaction, for I, worn out and prostrate, give my word to believe i t . LEONOR I only know one way, since both our jealousies set themselves up as matchmakers, for us to finish with a l l , for i t i s often said to great damage comes a great remedy. I have a fortune that can free us, which I inherited from my mother: ask me formally for my hand in order not to give occasion for censure, and you have my word and my letters to convince my father. I have said enough. DON FELIX No, Leonor, for while I have not received satisfaction for an "isn't i t time I entered?", so blind and so reckless, that you attacked your own father because he opened the door, your remedy i s vain; because I am not a man so v i l e , so low, that I have to pass from true love to husband, bearing the scruples of a true love to be offenses of a husband. VIOLANTE Dear Felix . . . , but what do I say? Traitorous Felix . . . , but what do I speak? Neither I can find your quality, for I recognize that as dear, I lose you and as traitorous, I love you. If I had another lover, would I do this? DON FELIX I don't know; but t e l l me who he was. Perhaps with that, hurrying, inquiring and assisting, I might discover something that would assure me. LEONOR If in that i t i s based, because do as many tests as you wish, he was a boorish gentleman who, proof against my misfortunes, rashly persisted, bribing my maids, whose name . . . DON FELIX Thank God, truth, at last I begin to know you. LEONOR • • • IS • • • DON LUIS (within) Don Enrique, enough of that, I w i l l accompany you to the door. DON ENRIQUE (within) Remain here, I beseech you. LEONOR This voice took his name from my l i p s . (enter VIOLANTE.) VIOLANTE Cousin, you were right . . . LEONOR There you see I don't deceive you. VIOLANTE . . . my father was about to leave; and so, Felix, retire, for i t matters l i t t l e that my cousin and I are alone i n the entryway, and I w i l l seek an occasion in another place to talk to you. DON FELIX (aside) (Oh, for one more word and I, jealous tyrants, would have 122 carried a thousand sorrows less!) (DON FELIX exits. Enter DON LUIS and DON ENRIQUE.) DON ENRIQUE This i s far enough. DON LUIS Enough of that, I say again, for I must serve you and accompany you. Leonor, Violante, why are you here? VIOLANTE We did not think you would leave by this way. DON ENRIQUE (aside) (Heavens! Who do I see?) LEONOR (aside) (Heavens! Who do I behold?) DON ENRIQUE (aside) (Is this a spell?) VIOLANTE (aside) (Is this an illusion?) DON ENRIQUE (aside) (Who could, without drawing attention, examine it?) VIOLANTE (aside) (Who would believe that Enrique, Felix and Carlos would find me here?) DON LUIS My niece and my daughter. DON ENRIQUE I kiss, sefioras, your hands. VIOLANTE and LEONOR May heaven keep you. DON LUIS Come. DON ENRIQUE (aside) (It i s enough to have seen her.) Let us go, since i t i s your wish. (enter DON DIEGO.) DON DIEGO Where are you going so early, don Luis? DON ENRIQUE To serve and accompany senor don Enrique. DON DIEGO Well, what does senor don Enrique want here? DON LUIS He has sought me for an examination he has part of. He i s don Carlos' examiner and son of the best friend I had. (aside to DON DIEGO) (And yes I speak the truth, for his blood i s noble, and he is rich by the inheritance he enjoys, and Violante . . . but we w i l l talk of this later at our leisure.) DON DIEGO (aside) (I am trembling from anger, but I must dissemble.) It i s well that we a l l serve him. Let us go. DON ENRIQUE I, senor . . . (aside) (Confused and disturbed, I cannot guess what to say) do not deserve so many honours. 124 DON DIEGO (aside) (Holy heavens! Must this shadow follow me here? Tyrant honour, i f memories untie me, why do you bind my hands?) (exit DON DIEGO, DON LUIS and DON ENRIQUE.) VIOLANTE Is my father returning, Leonor? LEONOR No, they have both said farewell and l e f t on the street below. VIOLANTE Then give me, cousin, your arms, for with a thousand souls, a thousand lives, I cannot repay what I owe you. What you said to that gentleman about me, clearly has given him hope of seeking me. With this I expect, at the same time bettering myself, to avenge myself on that ingrate who jeopardized my love for a hussy, exchanging the security for duels and graciousness for deceit. LEONOR (aside) (I fear this fool may put me with her angers in occasion to lose myself.) (enter JUANA and INES.) VIOLANTE Hello! INES and JUANA Senora. VIOLANTE Call a servant of those strangers, Ines, and try by chance to find out where their house l i e s . 125 INES Yes, I w i l l . (exits.) LEONOR What are you going to do? VIOLANTE I must speak clearly with you, since you have to help me, what I plan i s this, since a l l of Toledo goes out these afternoons to the banks of the Tagus,H to see, Leonor, i t s navigating crystals, the mistaken wilderness of pines that through the current below the mountains of Cuenca (the f i r s t alabaster cradle of the monarch of the rivers), sent breaking loose pieces in disunited fragments . . . , I ' l l write him a letter which w i l l say that a lady waits for him, next to the ruined palace of Galiana, where she w i l l signal with a kerchief in her hand; he should follow her so that, leaving the crowds aside, she can speak to him; to do this both of us disguised . . . LEONOR Wait, Violante; no don't go on, for I w i l l not dare so much. I an accomplice i n your letters? I i n disguises? VIOLANTE What modesty! LEONOR What do you want? This i s my condition. VIOLANTE Without astonishment, a major river flowing through Toledo and central Spain. 126 for this other i s also mine; and although you may not go, you cannot persuade me not to go. (enter INES.) INES I have got i t . VIOLANTE Then come; I w i l l give you a letter. (exit VIOLANTE and INES.) LEONOR Since I cannot impede so blind a resolution, neither, ah, Jezebel! ah, ingrate!, can I remain with my jealousy —and more when i t matters so much that I cannot deny her treacheries—bring me my v e i l , and put yours on as well. JUANA Is there something in the wind? LEONOR There i s a traitoress on whom, with her own weapons, I try to avenge myself. As the heavens l i v e , the snare with which I avenge must be her own signal, which leaving her to c a l l him, wi l l stumble on her favours, to f a l l in my offenses! (they exit and HERNANDO enters.) HERNANDO As I said of my quarrel,1^ beginning f i n a l l y , i s i t better to be valiant than to make him think I am? No. Then, hey, worries! we shall try to valiantize, hands to the labour, and make a heroic end to my jealousy. Come Simon to the f i e l d of honour, 12 From this point until Carlos and Enrique enter on page 135 the Spanish verse changes to redondillas. See the Introduction, pages 9-10, for an explanation of redondilla. 127 for this, without twisting the proverb, needs more craftiness than strength. (as he i s about to exit, DON FELIX enters.) DON FELIX Why do you need strength and craftiness? HERNANDO Craftiness so that when I see a traitoress, I can leave her; and strength to give her two slaps in the face. DON FELIX I want to know with whom you talk so angrily? HERNANDO With myself without further ado, for certain parties have made me jealous . . . DON FELIX Jealous you? HERNANDO And of love and honour. DON FELIX Leave such foolish worries, for there are no rascals who are jealous. HERNANDO And no gentlemen who are In love. DON FELIX Tell me i f don Enrique has come home. HERNANDO Isn't he with you? DON FELIX A message came to me, which had come from Madrid, and told me don Enrique had things to do, and to wait for him here. Well, he hasn't arrived. HERNANDO 128 DON FELIX (aside) (Heavens, isn't my misfortune odd? But for one word or two, my cruel doubt remains with me . . . (enter INES, crossing the stage. She gives a paper to DON FELIX and exits running.) INES Read this letter, do what i t says, and good bye. DON FELIX Stop that woman. (when HERNANDO tries to stop INES, she hits him and exits running.) INES Don't try i t , for i t w i l l bring more of these. HERNANDO One i s good enough for a sample. DON FELIX What does this letter say? (reads) "From Galiana this afternoon come alone to the river bank, and she who calls you with a kerchief, follow. May God keep you." Tell me, but where i s she who brought the letter? HERNANDO She gave only you an envelope but she gave me a f i s t , and l e f t running. DON FELIX But didn't I order you to stop her? HERNANDO You ordered with your voice, but she ordered with her hands to let her go. and so you see that better service comes to he who gives than he who doesn't. 129 DON FELIX My confusion abounds. The writing i s not Leonor's. Without doubt Violante wrote the letter. What am I to do? But to hesitate i s wrong, for even i f i t i s Violante, Leonor w i l l be with her, and she w i l l see that my love only desires to hear her truth; and since Violante i s Carlos' love, I must be graceful to her. Come with me. HERNANDO Where are you going? DON FELIX Where do you want me to go this afternoon? Where would we find more people or more celebration? Since people resort to the river bank called Galiana desiring to see that spectacle that from the foreign horizon to their own, through crystalline gulfs, in boats of pine, a mountain sails by. HERNANDO By the speed you're making, instead of celebrations, i t appears, sefior, that you bring some bad news. DON FELIX The news I bring i s not very good for me, since today I go after two disillusionments. (enter INES and VIOLANTE, veiled. They cross in front making signals with a kerchief.) INES Don Felix comes there. VIOLANTE Pass in front of him, without observing my action. (they exit.) 130 DON FELIX Those are the signals of which the letter advised me. I w i l l follow her at a distance, until we are somewhat distanced from this concourse of people. (Enter from the same place LEONOR and JUANA who make the same s i g n a l , crossing in front.) JUANA I can see don Felix there. LEONOR How I wish we had arrived f i r s t . JUANA Violante l e f t the house before we did. LEONOR Pass by him nonchalantly and with care, for i f she has not called him, i t matters l i t t l e to have arrived f i r s t . (they exit.) DON FELIX How, i f the letter came from one, can the signal come from two? For i t i s wrong to presume that i t came from Violante, since i t was not Leonor who was with her; nor was i t from Leonor, since i t i s not her handwriting. I don't know which of the two to follow, by God. HERNANDO What's the matter with you? DON FELIX You w i l l know later. And i t i s enough now that in order for my fortune to follow two signals, i t must follow neither. (VIOLANTE and LEONOR both enter with their maids from where they exited.) 131 VIOLANTE Ines, does he come? INES No, sefiora. LEONOR Juana, he isn't following us? JUANA No. VIOLANTE Then we shall pass by again, in case he didn't notice. LEONOR In case he didn't see the signal, let us pass in front again. (As VIOLANTE and LEONOR cross, both make the same signal and once again retire.) But, alas!, i t i s Violante. VIOLANTE But, alas!, i t i s Leonor, since no one else would know what I wrote. LEONOR This venture has gone poorly for me, woe i s me! Who would believe that we arrived at the same time? VIOLANTE Do not move head, suspicions, to presume that jealousy brought her after me. DON FELIX This i s a trick and the best part w i l l be to boast about i t , since neither one can be Violante nor Leonor. Most graciously veiled senoras, i f the ingenuity of Toledo, brings you together in conspiracy to trick a courteous stranger, see by God that, in a good duel, i t i s an importune act for one to issue the challenge and for two to come to fight. HERNANDO Don't worry about that, senor, for i f one lady challenges you and two come, the other lady w i l l have to fight with me. DON FELIX Quiet, id i o t ! Therefore, since I must answer the challenge, I must know who issued i t , t e l l me then: Who wrote me the letter? I did. VIOLANTE and LEONOR DON FELIX Who am I to believe? VIOLANTE and LEONOR Me. Both of you wrote it? And I am not to doubt it? DON FELIX VIOLANTE and LEONOR Yes. DON FELIX VIOLANTE and LEONOR No. Then declare to us now: To what does one or the other calls me? That lady w i l l t e l l you. That lady w i l l t e l l you. You are not to go, nor you, without one answering me, for I w i l l not be called by two and remain without one. DON FELIX LEONOR (going.) VIOLANTE (going.) DON FELIX 133 LEONOR Follow me, I w i l l t e l l you. VIOLANTE And I also, i f you follow after me. DON FELIX How can I i f . . . ? (enter SIMON.) SIMON Thank God I found you! DON FELIX What i s i t , Simon? SIMON My master and don Carlos, commanding me to stay behind, have lef t the house. They go to fight; try to reach them. DON FELIX (aside) (Heavens! Could their duel have come at a worst time? And since I must f i r s t go to my f i r s t obligation, I must withdraw from both these beauties.) Agree among yourselves, while I go, your worships, and good bye. (DON FELIX, HERNANDO, and SIMON exit.) VIOLANTE Leonor, you did not act as a cousin or a friend, when after I had told you my intentions, you came after me and took away a chance that I w i l l never have again. LEONOR And when w i l l you pay me looking after your reputation? When I saw that you were determined to commit an error today so much against your honour, I came after you disguised only to embarrass him. VIOLANTE I could believe that, i f I did not imagine that the care with which I wrote to Don Felix also belongs to you. LEONOR You thought that of me? VIOLANTE Not only have I thought i t , but, whether you accept i t or not, I believed i t . LEONOR You of me? VIOLANTE I of you. LEONOR Well, i f . . . VIOLANTE Well, i f . . . LEONOR • • • I • * * VIOLANTE • • • I • • • JUANA Your father! INES Your father! LEONOR We must make them believe, since we have been gone so long, and later we can resolve this matter, for we w i l l agree on that. (Enter DON DIEGO and DON LUIS.) VIOLANTE You are right. Leonor. DON DIEGO 135 DON LUIS Violante. DON DIEGO After we discovered you had gone to the Tagus, we came here, as a lover comes, seeking his lady. LEONOR Such grace deserves our love. VIOLANTE From the sadness, the rigorous scorn she suffers, I am obliged to divert my cousin. LEONOR She esteems me much. DON LUIS I thank her for that. And since i t i s now late, come; we w i l l accompany you home. VIOLANTE (aside) (Fear, let me dissemble.) LEONOR (aside) (Anguish, be quite and suffer.) INES Juana. JUANA What do you want, Ines? INES Our mistresses are angry at each other. JUANA As the old song goes, we w i l l find out later. (they a l l exit. Enter DON CARLOS and DON ENRIQUE.) DON ENRIQUE Senor don Carlos, as you see a stranger can learn the sights of Toledo, this i s 136 the castle of San Cervantes. DON CARLOS I have known that for days; and i f your seeking me and bringing me here i s to t e l l me i t i s time to break the truce, what do you wait for? We are alone and separated from the people who, from Toledo to this river, descend these afternoons. And so, unsheathe your sword. DON ENRIQUE Pay attention for a moment. (DON FELIX enters, but stays out of sight of the duelists.) DON CARLOS Be brief, for in the f i e l d of honour, the less that i s spoken, the more i s paid attention to. DON FELIX (aside) (Within the broken ruins of these decrepid walls, I w i l l wait for the f i r s t sword they unsheathe before I intervene because i t w i l l be easier to mediate once their honour has been satisfied.) DON ENRIQUE This i s the testimony, Carlos, of your commission. The Counsel has approved your examinations, whose light was concealed by libelous clouds which the sun of truth has now dispelled, so that no coward may avenge himself in your nobility. And so that between the two of this fight there remains no dependency, here i s the money I received for my wages as the examiner, I give to you as a small present, because a soldier does not always find money in hand, and you w i l l need i t for the road, Carlos, i f I happen to be the one who dies 137 and you the one who leaves. Now, unsheathe your sword. DON CARLOS Wait, because after such a noble gesture, f i r s t I must throw myself your feet, and since I find myself so greatly honoured by you (for I must carry the honour which you have given me forward more for you than for me, since i n me i t has now, as your g i f t , second action), concede me time to think of what a gentleman, grateful and of this rank, should do. DON ENRIQUE Think then, and be brief, for in the f i e l d of honour he who works is better than he who thinks. DON CARLOS If you had told me this when you came to see me in my retreat in the city, I would have thrown myself a thousand times at your feet, and I would have desisted from the suit that rashly obliged us, giving you as much satisfactions as were necessary to reconcile the wound given in a current fight. I would do i t but my hands are bound by this f i e l d of honour. And since I am honoured by you and my honour now depends on you, give me the means by which I may be graceful and you satisfied, since, in whatever accident, to leave the vanquished graceful i s glory to the one who vanquishes him. DON ENRIQUE I come not to give counsel, Carlos; what you do wi l l always be best. 138 DON CARLOS But not always the most prudent; and so, I w i l l unsheathe my sword against you, but in such a way that, in careless execution, in weak resistance, without diligence, Enrique, my death may pacify you. (unsheathes his sword and puts the point in the ground.) Come, then, come, my chest i s uncovered; put on me the habit that you give me, so once and for a l l , that the enamel of the red insignia tastes my warm blood. DON FELIX (aside) (I was about to enter, but with this act, I can wait longer.) DON ENRIQUE You repay me poorly, don Carlos, since you put me in a position from which I can neither attack you nor avenge myself, since you are defended by not defending; because he who w i l l not defend himself i s more valiant in s p i r i t than he who defends himself. And so, take up your sword, so i f by chance my anger accommodates your desire, you w i l l not reward me with infamy for the honour I gave you. DON CARLOS By only drawing my sword here, I have done enough; i f from here the outcome runs to account of luck, avenge yourself, for, when they find me dead, they may say I was unfortunate, but they w i l l not say I was without honour. Would you do it? DON ENRIQUE DON CARLOS I don't know: you w i l l always do the best, for I do not come to give counsel. DON ENRIQUE Inasmuch as this incident f a l l s on us, for with the sword in the hand, we would appear cowards to anyone who might see us, Carlos, from pure bravery, listen to the only means that i s offered to my reason. DON CARLOS Which is? DON FELIX (aside) (I must hear this, so I have the means to intercede.) DON ENRIQUE I am here unwillingly, and so the smallest doubt does not remain that I have something that might offset that casual offence, I must let . . . DON CARLOS Speak. DON ENRIQUE . . . my misfortune try to create a small advantage. I must leave tomorrow, and be absent from . . . — I was about to say her name— from this lady, whomever she may be . . . DON FELIX (aside) (The devil take you, seiiora. When w i l l I know who you are?) DON ENRIQUE . . . and since my misfortune contrived that she arrived where you are, i t would not be right for my jealousy to carry me so completely, for while you remain in Toledo, I depart without any protection to alleviate me or console me. DON FELIX (aside) (The lady i s i n Toledo; she doubtlessly followed Carlos.) DON ENRIQUE Your must give me your word that your love w i l l not woo her, and . . . DON CARLOS Hold your tongue. It i s not right to ask anyone for his word on the f i e l d of honour, nor should anyone give i t , although I am the owner of my l i f e and can lay i t at your feet, but I am not the owner of my honour; nor would i t do you no good to give me honour in order to take i t away, since the one hand barely concedes i t , when the other demands i t from me. I confess that i f I resolved to stop the courtship, you would gain l i t t l e , because I am always scorned by her love, my anguish never having seen or heard her frowns without reproach, or her lips without scorn; for that time at the window was the only instance of licentiousness the night permitted, in which she gave to my daring or to your rashness the slightest look. And so, trust me, I am forever grateful to you and abhorred by her. This can console your love in her absence, without me giving my word, because I w i l l not to give my word here neither i f you asked me to love her nor i f you asked me to leave her. DON FELIX (aside) (If Carlos i s scorned by this lady and she comes to Toledo after Enrique, why does he return without her?) DON ENRIQUE If I had, don Carlos, as you mistakenly believe, her favours, i t would be possible that they could make me mistake the hope of your gratitude, or of her love, then I would want to obtain a greater prize than to be favoured and absent; but since I live scorned of her, to her cruel angers so subject that I could never deserve from her a pleasing look . . . DON FELIX (aside) (Whom does this lady love, i f she abhors both of them?) DON ENRIQUE . . . and so much that, enraged, her cruelties cost me, not only that rashness, but another imprudent act that, thinking I saw you, while I waited for the maid I bribed to unlock her door for me, I attacked her . . . But this i s not the time to t e l l of errors . . . DON FELIX (aside) (Oh, what thoughts revolve in my imagination!) DON ENRIQUE . . . and so f i n a l l y , Carlos, know that I must either leave with your word, or return to the original duel. DON CARLOS For he who has made a benefit, i f he does an offence, loses the gratitude of he who made i t . DON ENRIQUE I care nothing of the gratitude. 142 Your honour owes me nothing, since I do not owe you for a lady you lef t for me. DON CARLOS I w i l l defend myself, but I w i l l not give my word that I leave Leonor. (With his sword i n hand, enter DON FELIX.) DON FELIX What i s this of Leonor? False friend, treacherous friend! Are you the one who causes my misfortunes to grow so much? Are you the one who causes beautiful Leonor to suffer so many offenses? DON CARLOS What i s this, Felix? Are you mad? DON ENRIQUE What i s this, Felix? With whom do you fight? DON FELIX With both of you. DON CARLOS Then what compels you? DON ENRIQUE What moves you? DON FELIX Leonor i s whom I love. DON CARLOS Now you come with this? DON ENRIQUE Now you enter with this? DON FELIX Yes, ingrates, double faced and unfaithful friends, you made use of me against myself the times when, accomplice in your love, I went delinquent i n my own. And since now your duel i s not yours, but mine, I begin in this manner: Your word which you would not give to Enrique, Carlos, you must give to me. DON CARLOS He who w i l l not give i t to Enrique w i l l not give i t to you. DON FELIX Then risk a thousand deaths. DON ENRIQUE I w i l l not allow this. I brought him to the f i e l d of honour, he comes with me and while he fights my duel, he i s not to fight with another, nor another with him. DON FELIX I am glad, Enrique, to see you take his side, because this way I avenge myself on both at one time, since the word that you ask for you must also give me. DON CARLOS Don't be glad, for I w i l l leave his side because your duel does not begin until mine comes to an end. DON FELIX Then I w i l l defend him, because your sword must encounter mine f i r s t and his second. DON ENRIQUE I have no need for anyone to defend me. What do you resolve, Carlos? DON CARLOS Not to give my word. DON ENRIQUE I w i l l not leave without i t . DON FELIX I w i l l not leave without yours, and his, for even though my sorrow owes you for the truth that Leonor abhors both of you, no one from today i s to dare to love her, or even see her. DON ENRIQUE Each man sees two enemies present at one time. DON CARLOS A duel of three, how can i t be fought? DON FELIX By the three fighting at once, since i t must be fought every man for himself. DON ENRIQUE and DON CARLOS With what results? DON FELIX With these results. Die he who loves Leonor, die he who adores Leonor. DON ENRIQUE Die he who seeks my oblivion, and he who i s ungrateful for his honour. DON CARLOS Die he who gives honour and takes i t away, and he who my jealousy inflames. HERNANDO (within) Here's the sword fight. ( a l l enter.) DON LUIS Let's make peace among them. VIOLANTE Stop, father! DON LUIS Get away, Violante! LEONOR Stop, father! DON DIEGO and DON LUIS Separate yourselves! What i s this, gentlemen? DON FELIX No man can take away my vengeance. DON ENRIQUE and DON CARLOS Nor mine. LEONOR (aside) (Cruel luck! Don Enrique and Felix together; I pray God my father doesn't return to the suspicion he brought from Madrid.) VIOLANTE (aside) (Heavens, preserve me, i f my father begins to suspect why Carlos and Felix fight!) DON DIEGO What i s this? Is not the arrival of senor don Luis and I enough to make you forbear? DON FELIX To make me forbear, yes, but not to let this duel remain unsettled until a later time. DON ENRIQUE I say the same. DON CARLOS And so do I. DON DIEGO Not that, do not believe that we came here to stop the duel and leave i t unfinished. Tell us the cause, for we seek to know i t as there may be a way for agreement, by chance so that, without v i l e blemish on one, you a l l remain satisfied, and i f a l l cannot be satisfied, we w i l l watch you fight. DON LUIS We w i l l know the cause, then. DON DIEGO What i s it? DON FELIX I w i l l not t e l l . DON CARLOS Nor I. DON ENRIQUE Nor I. DON DIEGO Is i t so secret that you don't trust i t to don Luis and me? DON FELIX, DON CARLOS and DON ENRIQUE No. DON DIEGO Then I w i l l trust you. And since i t i s not enough, Enrique, to throw me from Madrid, and blemish my honour following me to Toledo, where don Luis has extolled your qualities to me, give your hand to Leonor. DON LUIS How, after I told you my intentions, can you want for yourself that which I set apart for myself? DON DIEGO The best i s what i s desired every man for himself. Give your hand to Leonor. DON ENRIQUE (aside) (Since a l l Felix said was he loves her, without obtaining more favour, and since they offer me what I sought, why do I wait?) Here i s my hand. LEONOR But not mine. I w i l l not marry disgraced. 147 DON DIEGO Leonor, you must not resist. Give him your hand. LEONOR I cannot. DON FELIX You cannot? Why not, v i l e daughter, since I order you? DON FELIX Because she has given i t to me, this i s also the way to do business every man for himself. DON DIEGO I w i l l give death to her and to you f i r s t . DON LUIS Careful, Don Diego, for i t i s best to yield reason and pleasure to so great a resolution. DON ENRIQUE Since I see that he i s so determined, I w i l l take his side. DON LUIS Enrique, you f u l l f i l well your role as friend, and i f you lose that prize, think . . . DON ENRIQUE What? DON LUIS . . . that you w i l l gain another, i f not equal in beauty, then equal in a l l the rest, in Violante. DON ENRIQUE (aside) (To avenge myself once and for a l l and to persuade Leonor, since she leaves me, there i s one who prizes me a thousand and one times . . .) I throw myself at your feet. DON LUIS Give her your hand. VIOLANTE I w i l l not, father, be married in place of another. DON LUIS This i s my pleasure, give him your hand. VIOLANTE I cannot. DON LUIS What i s this? Why can you not? DON CARLOS Because she has given i t to me, for this i s also the way to do business every man for himself. DON LUIS I w i l l avenge myself on you and on her with death. DON ENRIQUE (aside) (I w i l l replace both these offenses with valour.) Hold, don Luis, for at his side you w i l l find me. DON DIEGO Careful, for i t i s best to yield reason and pleasure to so great a resolution. DON LUIS I must take for myself the counsel I gave another. Here ends my sorrow. DON FELIX 149 LEONOR At last I have made see the light. DON CARLOS The f i r s t love i s the best love. VIOLANTEx Clearly. SIMON Being i t so, Juana, give me your hand. JUANA Yes I w i l l , but I'm afraid that someone here w i l l stop i t . SIMON Why? HERNANDO Because she has given i t to me, for this i s also the way to do business every man for himself. SIMON Then I w i l l take his side. Who i s there who wants to impede? DON FELIX (to the audience) And I, in name of our playwright who always desires to serve you attentively . . . ALL Are you going to apologize, Felix, for the faults of the play? DON FELIX Yes. That has to done every man for himself. ALL 150 BIBLIOGRAPHY Calderon de la Barca, Pedro. Cada uno para s i . Edited and with introduc-tion and notes by Jose M. Ruano de la Haza. Teatro del Siglo de Oro Ediciones Criticas 1. (Kassel: Edition Reichenberger, 1982). . Calderon de la Barca: Four Plays. Translated by Edwin Honig (New York: H i l l and Wang, 1961). . Four Comedies. Translated by Kenneth Muir (Lexington: Univer-sity of Kentucky Press, 1980). . Three Comedies. Translated by Kenneth Muir (Lexington: Univer-sity of Kentucky Press, 1984). Entwistle, W.J. "Honra y duelo". Romanistische Jahrbuch III (1950): 404-20. Iglesias, Mario and Meiden, Walter. Spanish for Oral and Written Review. 2nd edition (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1981). Moon, Harold K. Spanish Literature: A C r i t i c a l Approach (Lexington, Mass.: Xerox College Publishing, 1972). Reichenberger, Kurt and Reichenberger, Roswitha, eds. Bibliogrphische  Handbuch der Calderon-Forschung/ Manual Biboliografico Calderoniano. In collaboration with Theo Berchen and Henry W. Sullivan. Spanish text by Angel San Miguel. 3 vol. (Kassel: Verlay, Thiele, & Schwarz, 1979) Ruano de la Haza, Jose M. "Estructura e interpretaclon de una comedia de capa y espada de Calderon Cada uno para s i . " Hacia Calderon (1979): 106-116. Ruiz Ramon, Francisco. Estudios sobre teatro espafiol clasico y contem- poraneo (Madrid: Fundacion Juan March y Ediciones Catedra, 1978). Smiley, Sam. Playwriting: The Structure of Action (Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1971). Van Lennep, William, ed. The London Stage: 1660-1800 part 1 1660-1700. Introduction by Emmett L Avery and Authur H. Scouten. (Carbondale: Southern University Press, 1965). 


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