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A sobriety movement among the Shuswap Indians of Alkali Lake Furniss, Elizabeth 1987

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A SOBRIETY MOVEMENT AMONG THE SHUSWAP INDIANS OF ALKALI LAKE By  ELIZABETH MARY FURNISS B.Sc,  U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a , 1981  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y )  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required  standards  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1987 ©  E l i z a b e t h Mary F u r n i s s , 1987  In  presenting  degree  at  this  the  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  British Columbia, I agree  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  of  department  this or  publication of  thesis for by  his  or  the  representatives.  that the  It  is  granted  by the that  this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without  fl^Hv^&pcloj^ Osld $6>Cco/^y  The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  DE-6(3/81)  an advanced  Library shall make  understood  permission.  Department of  for  it  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be her  requirements  head of copying  my or  my written  ABSTRACT  Twenty y e a r s ago t h e Shuswap I n d i a n community o f A l k a l i Lake was l i k e many o t h e r  reserve  communities i n the northern  Interior  of B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a , w i t h l i f e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h i g h l e v e l s o f d r i n k i n g , v i o l e n c e , s u i c i d e , a c c i d e n t a l death,  a n d c h i l d a b u s e and n e g l e c t .  p a t t e r n o f l i f e was c h a l l e n g e d by t h e n e w l y - e l e c t e d wife.  I n 1973 t h i s  Band c h i e f a n d h i s  Working a s a team, and by d r a w i n g upon t h e powers o f t h e Band O f f i c e  and a p p l y i n g c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l t a c t i c s , t h e t w o i n i t i a t e d an a n t i - a l c o h o l campaign i n t h e community. persisted, lives.  For three  d e s p i t e extreme h o s t i l i t y  years  t h e c h i e f and h i s w i f e  and o c c a s i o n a l t h r e a t s a g a i n s t  I n 1976 t h e i r e f f o r t s began t o a c h i e v e  success.  their  By 1981 most  a d u l t s on t h e r e s e r v e had become c o m m i t t e d t o a s o b e r l i f e s t y l e , a n d by 1985 t h e r e s e r v e was e s s e n t i a l l y  "dry".  T h i s t h e s i s t r a c e s the development o f the recent events a t A l k a l i Lake. used.  To r e f e r t o t h e s e e v e n t s t h e t e r m " S o b r i e t y movement" h a s been The movement i s a n a l y z e d  l a r g e l y from a p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s u a l p o i n t  of v i e w , w i t h a t t e n t i o n p a i d n o t t o t h e u n d e r l y i n g s o u r c e s o f " d e p r i v a t i o n " o r " s t r e s s " t h a t may have generated  t h e movement, but t o t h e s t r a t e g i e s and  t a c t i c s u t i l i z e d by t h e movement l e a d e r s t o promote t h e i r cause.  In this  manner t h e r e s o u r c e m o b i l i z a t i o n approach t o t h e study o f s o c i a l movements provides  an a n a l y t i c a l framework f o r t h i s  study.  S e v e r a l f a c t o r s a r e i d e n t i f i e d as key i n g r e d i e n t s i n t h e success o f t h e S o b r i e t y movement.  F i r s t , t h e Band c h i e f a n d h i s w i f e  were a b l e t o  use e f f e c t i v e l y t h e powers o f t h e Band O f f i c e t o impose economic s a n c t i o n s on d r i n k e r s . aid  of powerful  Second, a s community l e a d e r s they were a b l e t o s o l i c i t t h e outside agencies,  namely t h e R.C.M.P. and  Human R e s o u r c e s , t o s u p p o r t them i n t h e i r e f f o r t s .  - i i -  the M i n i s t r y of  Third, the personal  r e s o u r c e s o f the two l e a d e r s - t h e i r courage, s t r e n g t h and d e t e r m i n a t i o n  -  were c r u c i a l t o the movement's s u r v i v a l d u r i n g i t s e a r l y y e a r s . The  s u c c e s s of the S o b r i e t y movement can not be understood  simply  by  l o o k i n g at the leaders' a c t i o n s .  The s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t w i t h i n  which  be  they  operated  fundamentally  must  important  also  considered.  f a c t o r s are identified:  Three  underlying  the p r e - e x i s t e n c e o f a  s t r o n g sense of community w i t h i n the A l k a l i Lake v i l l a g e , the r e a d i n e s s o f the A l k a l i Lake people  f o r new  l e a d e r s h i p and  inherent  s o c i a l change,  and the use  by t h e Band c h i e f of a l e a d e r s h i p t r a d i t i o n t h a t p e r m i t t e d  application  o f s t r i c t punishment as a means of s o c i a l c o n t r o l .  - iii  -  and  the  TABLE OF CONTENTS  L i s t of Tables  vi  L i s t o f Maps  v i i  Acknowledgements  CHAPTER ONE:  viii  INTRODUCTION  1  Methodology The S e t t i n g  CHAPTER TWO:  .  THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF SOCIAL MOVEMENTS  8  The Resource M o b i l i z a t i o n Approach .  CHAPTER THREE: INITIATION OF THE SOBRIETY MOVEMENT  .  A l k a l i Lake i n t h e 1960s A P o r t e n t o f Change I n i t i a t i o n o f t h e S o b r i e t y Movement. Tactics Utilized Response o f t h e Community O p p o s i t i o n from t h e C a t h o l i c Church The T u r n i n g P o i n t Summary Notes  CHAPTER FOUR:  .  .  11  .  .  22  .  .  .  .  CONVERSION TO SOBRIETY Routes t o S o b r i e t y Follow-Up S e r v i c e s . . . . . . . A l c o h o l i c s Anonymous M e e t i n g s . . . . P e r s o n a l Growth T r a i n i n g Programs . . . I n d i v i d u a l R e c r u i t m e n t : The D e c i s i o n t o Become Sober Community M o b i l i z a t i o n : S o c i a l S t r u c t u r a l Considerations Summary Notes  - iv-  3 5  22 25 28 29 37 41 44 44 48  51 51 53 63 66 69 72 73 75  CHAPTER FIVE:  ALKALI LAKE IN 1985  78  S o b r i e t y on t h e Reserve The Band O f f i c e The Band O f f i c e and S o c i a l C o n t r o l . . . D i f f e r e n t i a l R e c r u i t m e n t : The Presence •of D r i n k e r s on t h e Reserve . . . . Summary Notes  CHAPTER S I X :  SOME HISTORICAL CONSIDERATIONS  .  .  E a r l y P o s t - C o n t a c t Shuswap C u l t u r e . F i r s t White C o n t a c t The Gold Rush and t h e M i s s i o n a r i e s . The Problem o f A l c o h o l Indian Control of Drinking The Re-emergence o f t h e D u r i e u System The D u r i e u System a t A l k a l i Lake: Elders' Recollections Summary Notes  .  78 87 93 99 105 108  .  110  .  .  .  .  .  .  110 114 114 117 120 121 123 127 128  CHAPTER SEVEN: CONCLUSION  129  Summary The S o b r i e t y Movement a s a S o c i a l Movement L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Resource M o b i l i z a t i o n Perspective N a t i v e I n d i a n D r i n k i n g and A l c o h o l i s m . The C o n t r o l o f D r i n k i n g A H i s t o r i c a l Note on Shuswap Mobilization  129 136  .  140 143 149  .  152  BIBLIOGRAPHY  159  APPENDIX:  164  MAPS  - v -  LIST OF TABLES  T a b l e 1.  T a b l e 2.  T a b l e 3.  T a b l e 4.  T a b l e 5.  On-Reserve R e s i d e n c e Data f o r t h e A l k a l i Lake Band, Even Y e a r s , 1974-1984  49  On-Reserve R e s i d e n c e , i n P e r c e n t a g e , f o r Shuswap Bands i n t h e W i l l i a m s Lake D i s t r i c t , Even Y e a r s , 1974-1984 .  50  A l k a l i Lake Reserve C l i e n t s o f t h e W i l l i a m s Lake Drug and A l c o h o l Program, 1973-1980  57  Work Record o f t h e A l k a l i Lake Reserve C l i e n t s o f t h e W i l l i a m s Lake Drug and A l c o h o l Program, 1973-1980 .  Source o f I n i t i a l R e f e r r a l s o f t h e A l k a l i Lake C l i e n t s to t h e W i l l i a m s Lake Drug and A l c o h o l Program, 1973-1980  - vi -  .  58  59  LIST OF MAPS  Map 1.  R e s e r v e s o f t h e A l k a l i Lake I n d i a n Band, 1985  .  .  165  Map 2.  Shuswap I n d i a n S e t t l e m e n t s i n t h e W i l l i a m s Lake a r e a  .  166  - vii  -  .  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I w i s h t o thank t h e people o f A l k a l i Lake f o r t h e i r h o s p i t a l i t y d u r i n g my s t a y i n t h e community. S p e c i a l thanks go t o F r e d d i e and I r e n e J o h n s o n , B a r b a n d N o e l J o h n s o n , and P h y l l i s a n d Andy C h e l s e a f o r t h e i r t i m e and i n t e r e s t i n t h i s p r o j e c t .  - viii -  CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION  The  village  of A l k a l i  Lake l i e s  i n a picturesque valley  k i l o m e t e r s e a s t o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r and f i f t y  three  k i l o m e t e r s south-west o f  the c i t y o f W i l l i a m s Lake i n t h e C e n t r a l I n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h Columbia. S i t u a t e d on I n d i a n r e s e r v e l a n d  amongst h i l l s c o v e r e d  with  sagebrush,  bunchgrass and a s c a t t e r i n g o f p i n e g r o w t h , t h e v i l l a g e e x i s t s , a s i t has for  over a c e n t u r y ,  a s t h e p r i n c i p a l s e t t l e m e n t f o r Shuswap I n d i a n s o f  t h e A l k a l i Lake band. The A l k a l i Lake Shuswap have r e c e i v e d r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e attention  a p a r t f r o m t h e work o f T e i t  recent success  ethnographic  ( 1 9 0 9 ) and Brow ( 1 9 6 7 ) .  The  o f t h i s Band i n overcoming a s e r i o u s a l c o h o l i s m problem  e v e n t u a l l y t o become a "dry" community - a l l w i t h i n a p e r i o d o f t e n y e a r s - has r e s u l t e d i n a great d e a l of p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n . a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n promoting  s o b r i e t y i n o t h e r N a t i v e c o m m u n i t i e s both  w i t h i n B.C. and a c r o s s Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . and  The Band i s now  V a r i o u s newspaper  magazine a r t i c l e s have d e s c r i b e d t h e Band's a c h i e v e m e n t , and a t w o -  p a r t v i d e o s e r i e s on t h e Band's s u c c e s s f u l f i g h t a g a i n s t a l c o h o l i s m has been c r e a t e d by a p r o f e s s i o n a l f i l m - m a k e r distribution.  and has now gained  world-wide  T h i s t h e s i s p r e s e n t s an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e  p r o c e s s by w h i c h t h e A l k a l i Lake r e s e r v e community a c h i e v e d s o b r i e t y . The r e c e n t e v e n t s a t A l k a l i Lake a r e viewed a s c o n s t i t u t i n g a s o c i a l movement.  This assumption w i l l  be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e c o n c l u d i n g  chapter.  To r e f e r t o t h e s e e v e n t s I h a v e u s e d t h e t e r m " S o b r i e t y movement", term w h i c h was c r e a t e d s i m p l y f o r ease o f d i s c u s s i o n .  At present  a  there  i s no g e n e r a l name g i v e n t o t h e movement by community members t h e m s e l v e s .  1  Alternative  l a b e l s s u c h a s " a n t i - a l c o h o l movement" o r " t e m p e r a n c e  movement" a r e l e s s s a t i s f a c t o r y . problem  A l c o h o l p e r s e was n o t s e e n a s t h e  by t h e movement's l e a d e r s ;  rather,  the problem  l a y i n the  i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e h a v i o u r w h i l e under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f a l c o h o l , and t h e s o l u t i o n t o t h e a l c o h o l p r o b l e m was t o be a c h i e v e d by a s h i f t i n t h e d r i n k e r ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s e l f and o t h e r s .  Use o f t h e w o r d " s o b r i e t y "  r e f l e c t s t h i s emphasis on i n d i v i d u a l a t t i t u d e and comportment. "A.A. movement" i s a l s o l e s s a p p r o p r i a t e . Anonymous program p l a y e d the  Sobriety  philosophy  Although the A l c o h o l i c s  a fundamental r o l e i n shaping the philosophy  movement, i t i s i m p o r t a n t  t o keep i n mind  Other e v e n t s ,  members i n p e r s o n a l  specifically  this  t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f community  g r o w t h t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s , a l s o may h a v e h a d a  s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on t h e p h i l o s o p h y  o f s o b r i e t y as i t now  s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l c h a n g e s t h a t h a v e o c c u r r e d  Lake community s i n c e  1973, t h e y e a r o f i n i t i a t i o n  presents  i n the A l k a l i  This  thesis  o n l y a p r e l i m i n a r y , and l a r g e l y d e s c r i p t i v e , s t u d y o f t h e s e  changes. introduced  exists.  of the Sobriety  movement, h a v e been o f an i m m e n s e a n d c o m p l e x n a t u r e .  Sobriety  that  of  developed t h r o u g h a c u l t u r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e f o r m a l A.A.  philosophy.  The  The term  I n C h a p t e r Two t h e r e s o u r c e as the o r i e n t i n g perspective movement.  In contrast  emphasize the general collective  sense  m o b i l i z a t i o n a p p r o a c h w i l l be i n t h i s s t u d y o f t h e A l k a l i Lake  with  t h e o r e t i c a l approaches  s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s g i v i n g r i s e t o a  of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n ,  perspective focusses  that  t h e resource  mobilization  on t h e c e n t r a l p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s e s o f t h e s o c i a l  movement: how w i t h i n a c e r t a i n s o c i a l c o n t e x t  l e a d e r s can manipulate  c o n d i t i o n s e f f e c t i v e l y t o m o b i l i z e r e s o u r c e s , e n c o u r a g e r e c r u i t s , and create  an o r g a n i z e d  movement.  As N a t i v e  Indian  a l c o h o l abuse i s a  w i d e s p r e a d and p e r s i s t e n t p r o b l e m , i t seems t h a t t h e m o s t  important  question  at this preliminary  s t a g e i s n o t what were t h e u n d e r l y i n g  s o u r c e s o f " d e p r i v a t i o n " o r " s t r a i n " t h a t r e s u l t e d i n t h e movement, but w h a t s t r a t e g i e s and t a c t i c s w e r e u s e d t o t u r n A l k a l i L a k e i n t o a s o b e r community.  The r e s o u r c e  mobilization perspective  provides  a suitable  framework f r o m w h i c h t h e s e i s s u e s can be e x p l o r e d . C h a p t e r s Three and Four p r e s e n t an account o f t h e i n i t i a t i o n o f t h e Sobriety  movement and t h e e v e n t u a l  conversion  of the community t o  s o b r i e t y , w i t h e m p h a s i s on t h e s t r a t e g y and t a c t i c s u s e d , and on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s h i f t s that occurred period. 1985,  Chapter F i v e d i s c u s s e s  with p a r t i c u l a r reference  movement w i t h i n t h e v i l l a g e ,  t h e A l k a l i Lake community a s i t was i n t o the r o u t i n i z a t i o n of the Sobriety  and t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e Band i n p r o m o t i n g  sobriety  i n other  features  of the h i s t o r i c a l  emerged.  A t t e n t i o n i s paid  use  Native  w i t h i n t h e movement t h r o u g h t h i s  communities. context  Chapter S i x examines  i n which the Sobriety  specifically  some  movement  t o t h e development o f a l c o h o l  among t h e A l k a l i Lake Shuswap and f o r m s o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l t h a t were  historically  operative  w i t h i n t h e community.  Chapter Seven summarizes  the f i n d i n g s o f t h i s t h e s i s and s u g g e s t s a r e a s f o r f u r t h e r study.  Methodology My f i r s t v i s i t t o t h e A l k a l i Lake community o c c u r r e d 1984.  Subsequent b r i e f v i s i t s  of 1985, d u r i n g  were made i n F e b r u a r y , May, and August  which a f i e l d w o r k proposal  by t h e Band O f f i c e .  i n October o f  was p r e s e n t e d t o and approved  The f i e l d r e s e a r c h on w h i c h t h i s t h e s i s i s based was  conducted m a i n l y i n a t h r e e month p e r i o d between September and December of 1985, d u r i n g which t i m e I r e s i d e d i n t h e community and p a r t i c i p a t e d i n v a r i o u s r e s e r v e a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d i n g Band m e e t i n g s , community d i n n e r s and  3  d a n c e s , A.A. m e e t i n g s , s h a r i n g s e s s i o n s , and c l e a n s i n g and  ceremonial  sweats. F i e l d w o r k e n t a i l e d f i r s t a s t u d y o f Band O f f i c e and D e p a r t m e n t o f Indian  Affairs  operations,  records  relating  t o Band  and d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a .  e l e c t i o n s , Band  An a l m o s t c o m p l e t e s e t o f t h e  community newspaper " A l k a l i Speaks", w h i c h f i r s t 1973, "The  was e v e n t u a l l y c o m p i l e d  appeared i n October o f  a f t e r many days d i g g i n g t h r o u g h t h e dust i n  Shed", w h i c h h o u s e s a l l Band O f f i c e r e c o r d s  newspapers p r o v i d e d  s i n c e 1971.  These  a v a l u a b l e source o f i n f o r m a t i o n on community e v e n t s  and s e n t i m e n t over t h e l a s t t w e l v e F i f t e e n tape-recorded t h i s research.  Office  years.  i n t e r v i e w s were conducted d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f  Much o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d  and p r e s e n t e d  i n this  t h e s i s , however, was o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h more i n f o r m a l means, such as c a s u a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s and u n s t r u c t u r e d and untaped i n t e r v i e w s .  E s p e c i a l l y as t h e  r e s i d e n t s o f A l k a l i Lake today t a l k f r e e l y and openly  about t h e changes  t h a t have o c c u r r e d i n t h e i r community and t h e i r p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s a l c o h o l , i t becomes v e r y d i f f i c u l t everyday c o n v e r s a t i o n .  with  t o d i s t i n g u i s h " i n t e r v i e w s " from  An e f f o r t was made t o meet and t a l k t o a c r o s s -  s e c t i o n o f t h e r e s e r v e p o p u l a t i o n ( i n t e r m s o f age and i n v o l v e m e n t i n community a c t i v i t i e s ) .  Household s u r v e y s  Band-member households.  were conducted i n 51 o f t h e 65  The t o t a l number o f Band members l i v i n g i n t h e  A l k a l i L a k e v i l l a g e i n t h e Autumn o f 1985 was a p p r o x i m a t e l y process o f conducting  The  t h e s e s u r v e y s was v a l u a b l e i n t h a t I was exposed t o  a v a r i e t y o f p e r c e p t i o n s and o p i n i o n s r e g a r d i n g history.  260.  Conversations  the reserve's  recent  ( o v e r 30 m i n u t e s ) o f a more s t r u c t u r e d n a t u r e  w e r e c a r r i e d o u t w i t h a number o f Band O f f i c e w o r k e r s , among them one Band C o u n c i l l o r , t h e Band S o c i a l Worker, t h e Drug and A l c o h o l C o u n s e l l o r , the Housing C o - o r d i n a t o r ,  and t h e Economic Development A d v i s o r ,  4  as w e l l  as w i t h the two the  l e a d e r s o f t h e S o b r i e t y movement, two l e a d i n g members of  reserve's  A.A.  group,  community groups and  and  s e v e r a l women a c t i v e l y  distorted details.  of i t , i n t h a t  through  in  events.  There i s a danger i n a t t e m p t i n g t o r e c o n s t r u c t h i s t o r y recollections  involved  often these r e c o l l e c t i o n s  t i m e , or w i l l c o n f l i c t w i t h regard to  These dangers a r e e s p e c i a l l y  from  people's  will  become  significant  t r u e i n t h e case of t h e h i s t o r y  of  A l k a l i Lake, f i r s t because the s i g n i f i c a n t events i n the i n i t i a t i o n of t h e S o b r i e t y movement and t h e c o n v e r s i o n o f t h e c o m m u n i t y h a v e attained  almost  mythic  p r o p o r t i o n s , and  today  second because many persons  I  spoke t o w i t h r e g a r d t o s p e c i f i c e v e n t s d u r i n g t h e s e p e r i o d s c l a i m e d t h a t they  were t o o f r e q u e n t l y drunk d u r i n g t h o s e y e a r s t o remember a n y t h i n g  t h a t went on, Wherever  making t h e c r o s s - c h e c k i n g o f d i f f e r e n t  p o s s i b l e I have  attempted  accounts  to cross-check  the  difficult. details  s i g n i f i c a n t e v e n t s ; where t h i s was not p o s s i b l e I have a t t e m p t e d consensus among t h e two  or three i n d i v i d u a l s  i n v o l v e d i n the s p e c i f i c  who  t o get a  were t h e most d i r e c t l y  event.  Pseudonyms have not been used i n t h i s t h e s i s . used w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l s '  of  R e a l names have been  permission.  The S e t t i n g The A l k a l i Lake I n d i a n Band p r e s e n t l y h o l d s 18 s m a l l r e s e r v e s w i t h a t o t a l acreage of situated  9785.9 ( s e e A p p e n d i x , Map  on I.R.#1, on b e n c h l a n d  1).  main v i l l a g e i s  j u s t above A l k a l i Creek.  t h e west t h i s c r e e k f l o w s i n t o A l k a l i Lake, and the F r a s e r R i v e r .  The  One  continues from there t o  To t h e w e s t o f t h e v i l l a g e b u n c h g r a s s and  are predominant forms of v e g e t a t i o n ; t o the e a s t , spruce,  5  mile to  sagebrush pine,  and  d e c i d u o u s t r e e s become dominant. t h i s v a l l e y , has a s p e c t a c u l a r The  visitor  location.  t o the r e s e r v e  the s e t t l e m e n t .  The v i l l a g e , s i t u a t e d a t the bottom o f  i s immediately  s t r u c k by the d e n s i t y of  T h e r e a r e a t o t a l o f 67 h o u s e s on t h e m a i n r e s e r v e .  With the e x c e p t i o n  6 t r a i l e r s , a l l are  of  frame c o n s t r u c t i o n , w i t h a l m o s t h a l f h a v i n g been b u i l t w i t h i n the l a s t  20  years.  The  o f 10 o l d e r l o g h o u s e s and  o l d e r houses a r e s i t u a t e d on e i t h e r s i d e o f the main s t r e e t ,  a d i r t track lined with streetlamps direction.  The  and  running roughly  east-west  newer houses a r e l o c a t e d a t b o t h ends o f t h i s s t r e e t ,  w h i c h branches o f f i n t o a number o f t a n g l e d and the s o u t h - e a s t ,  i n an  c o n f u s i n g t r a c k s , and  at  on a r i d g e o v e r l o o k i n g the v i l l a g e and the v a l l e y .  A number of s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s a r e p r e s e n t on the r e s e r v e , i n c l u d i n g a church,  laundromat, community h a l l , medical t r a i l e r ,  automechanics  shop, Band O f f i c e and Co-op s t o r e , and s c h o o l and gymnasium.  The  school,  gymnasium, Band O f f i c e and Co-op s t o r e a r e main a r e a s o f a c t i v i t y . Band-owned  and  operated  cafe,  located  i n the  store,  is a  The  popular  g a t h e r i n g p l a c e i n the d a y t i m e ; the gymnasium i s a main c e n t e r o f s o c i a l a c t i v i t y i n the evenings, w i t h i n t r a m u r a l s p o r t s scheduled  nightly.  wow  the school  and  a r e used p r i m a r i l y i n the summer months d u r i n g  the  grounds were r e c e n t l y c o n s t r u c t e d i m m e d i a t e l y  the Band O f f i c e , and invitational t h e Band. village.  pow-wows, A.A.  roundups, and  behind  c u l t u r a l gatherings  Pow-  hosted  by  Numerous sheds, barns, and o l d outhouses a l s o e x i s t w i t h i n the The  outhouses  are  rarely  used,  as  the  village  has  had  e l e c t r i c i t y and r u n n i n g water s i n c e the l a t e 1960s. I n r e c e n t y e a r s t h e A l k a l i L a k e Band has p u t much e f f o r t i n t o a g r i c u l t u r a l and h o r t i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e r e s e r v e l a n d s . presents  an  summertime.  impressive  view  to  one  the  reserve  This  in  the  L u s h hay f i e l d s e x i s t on e i t h e r s i d e o f A l k a l i C r e e k  and  6  visiting  the  p r o v i d e a frame f o r the v i l l a g e .  S e v e r a l acres of land at the east end  of the v i l l a g e have been developed as a c o m m e r c i a l vegetable garden. J u s t before the entrance to  the r e s e r v e can be seen a s e r i e s of barns  which house the Band-operated p i g g e r y ; village is  on the n o r t h h i l l  above  the  the Band's greenhouse.  The nearest business center to the A l k a l i Lake v i l l a g e i s the c i t y of W i l l i a m s Lake, f i f t y k i l o m e t e r s to the n o r t h - e a s t .  Virtually a l l  a d u l t s of the v i l l a g e have a v e h i c l e , or have a c c e s s to one, and t r a v e l between A l k a l i Lake and Williams Lake i s almost a d a i l y occurrence. road from W i l l i a m s Lake thirty  kilometers,  potholes.  (Dog Creek Road)  the r e s t  being of  i s paved only f o r the f i r s t  gravel surface  The Dog Creek Indian r e s e r v e  w i t h numerous  is situated a further  kilometers south-west from A l k a l i Lake, and the Canoe Creek reserve s e v e r a l k i l o m e t e r s beyond.  Dog Creek Road,  takes the route of the old Cariboo T r a i l ,  The  f o r p a r t of i t s  sixty lies  length,  used by the early gold seekers  before the c o m p l e t i o n of the Cariboo Waggon Road i n the 1860s.  Thus,  although the Canoe Creek, Dog Creek, and A l k a l i Lake v i l l a g e s are now "off the beaten track", over one hundred years ago they were situated on one of the p r i n c i p a l highways i n the I n t e r i o r .  In addition to Dog Creek  and Canoe Creek, other Shuswap Bands with which the A l k a l i Lake Shuswap have had close h i s t o r i c a l association (or  Sugar Cane),  Big Bar,  include Soda Creek,  High B a r ,  Appendix, Map 2).  7  Clinton,  Williams Lake  and Canim Lake  (see  CHAPTER  TWO:  THE RESOURCE MOBILIZATION APPROACH TO THE STUDY OF SOCIAL MOVEMENTS  In t h i s chapter the resource  m o b i l i z a t i o n approach t o t h e study o f  s o c i a l m o v e m e n t s w i l l be i n t r o d u c e d .  The t e r m " s o c i a l movement" h a s  been d e f i n e d  t o The D i c t i o n a r y o f t h e S o c i a l  Sciences, include social  i n v a r i o u s ways.  According  a s o c i a l movement i s "an i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , w h i c h  organized  sub-units,  o f a l a r g e number o f p e r s o n s t o g a i n a  g o a l " ( R e a d i n g 1976:136).  movement a s "an o r g a n i z e d change i n t h e f a c e  Aberle  (1982:315) d e f i n e s  a  social  e f f o r t by a g r o u p o f human b e i n g s t o e f f e c t  of resistance  by o t h e r  human  beings",  h i g h l i g h t s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e movement. Zald,  major c o n t r i b u t o r s t o t h e r e s o u r c e  and  preferences  mobilization school,  f o r c h a n g i n g some e l e m e n t s  s t r u c t u r e and/or reward d i s t r i b u t i o n Their  definition  intentionally  define  variably defined,  the  a  which social  o f a s o c i e t y " (1977:1217-1218).  avoids  component as a n e c e s s a r y c r i t e r i o n .  of  thus  McCarthy and  s o c i a l movement as "a s e t o f o p i n i o n s and b e l i e f s i n a p o p u l a t i o n represents  may  m e n t i o n o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  The t e r m " s o c i a l  movement",  thus  has been a p p l i e d t o a wide range o f s o c i a l phenomena,  f r o m r e l i g i o u s movements such as m i l l e n a r i a n movements, c a r g o c u l t s , m e s s i a n i c and p r o p h e t i c  movements,  t o modern r i g h t s - s e e k i n g  protests,  t o r e v o l u t i o n a r y movements (Tarrow 1985). With the d i v e r s i t y of s o c i a l processes included i n t h i s  category,  t h e d e r i v a t i o n o f a t h e o r y o f s o c i a l movements b o t h g e n e r a l  enough t o  account f o r a l l movements, and s p e c i f i c  particular  c a s e s , has proven d i f f i c u l t t o a c h i e v e .  enough t o r e l a t e t o  The t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e on  t h e t o p i c i s v a s t , and a c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e v i e w w i l l n o t be a t t e m p t e d .  8  My  intention  here i s r a t h e r to  perspective,  to  briefly  contrast  this  resource  mobilization with  other  that  social  m o v e m e n t s a r i s e as a r e s p o n s e t o d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h e x i s t i n g  social  theoretical  and  i n t r o d u c e the  approach  approaches t o s o c i a l movements.  Virtually  conditions.  a l l social  scientists  I t i s w i t h regard to  the  a c c e p t the  notion  emphasis p l a c e d on  c o n d i t i o n s t h a t g i v e r i s e to  this dissatisfaction  m o b i l i z a t i o n a p p r o a c h may  distinguished  be  the  underlying  t h a t the  from  resource  traditional  social  movement t h e o r i e s . Many  theorists  have  emphasized  c o n d i t i o n s that give r i s e to Consequently, " a n o m i e " , and movements.  concepts  Some b r i e f  importance  a collective  such  "structural  the  as  s e n s e of  "relative  underlying  dissatisfaction.  deprivation",  s t r a i n " abound i n t h e examples w i l l  of  "stress",  l i t e r a t u r e on  serve to  illustrate  social  how  such  c o n c e p t s have been a p p l i e d w i t h i n s o c i a l movement t h e o r y . W a l l a c e (1956), i n h i s that  the  experience  emergence  of  a  of  s t u d y of  individual  movement.  this  becomes  discrepancy  i s not  manifested  not  only  physiologically,  realms.  stress  high  undergoes a r a d i c a l w o r l d and  the  a number of of  the  level  was  arises  the  at but  may  fundamental  initially  "image of the  resolved,  p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y and The  "stress"  Stress  d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s If  r e v i t a l i z a t i o n movements,  w o r l d " and  l e v e l of  the  the  to  the  reality.  level,  s o c i a l and  resolved  to  stress rises  individual  a l s o i n the be  due  claimed  i f the  and both  cultural  individual  "change o f m i n d " , t h r o u g h w h i c h h i s i m a g e o f  " r e a l " system are individuals  w o r l d " w i t h the  brought c l o s e r  c o l l e c t i v e l y to new  m o d i f y and  r e a l i t y i s the  9  together.  The  realign  essence of  the  effort  the of  t h e i r "image  revitalization  movement. A b e r l e (1982) suggested t h a t the lies  at  the  d e f i n e d as "a n e g a t i v e d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n l e g i t i m a t e e x p e c t a t i o n  and  loss  of  ( f a i l u r e to  movements.  anticipated  actuality,  D e p r i v a t i o n can o c c u r i n t h e r e a l m s o f  possession  land,  s o u r c e s of  achieve a desired  e v a l u a t i o n of  an  an  based on  individual  individual's  subsistence,  social  situation.  items);  behaviour  status  (negative  w o r t h ( n e g a t i v e assessment  inherent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  such as  r a c e or  of  gender);  e v e n t s t h r o u g h t r a d i t i o n a l means).  e x p e r i e n c e o f d e p r i v a t i o n i n any  e f f o r t s to change the  luxury  position);  behaviour);  or power ( i . e . , i n a b i l i t y to c o n t r o l The  Relative  between l e g i t i m a t e e x p e c t a t i o n and  or b o t h " (1982:323). (i.e.,  social  deprivation is  or  of  relative  deprivation  actuality,  heart  e x p e r i e n c e of  of t h e s e r e a l m s u s u a l l y l e a d s  Collective  efforts  in this  to  regard  c o n s t i t u t e a s o c i a l movement. S m e l s e r ( 1 9 6 2 ) has c o n d i t i o n i n the  argued t h a t s t r u c t u r a l  essential  e m e r g e n c e o f c o l l e c t i v e b e h a v i o u r (a c a t e g o r y  i n c l u d e s s o c i a l movements). r e a l m of  s t r a i n i s an  social action.  He  refers  which  s p e c i f i c a l l y to s t r a i n i n  Under n o r m a l c o n d i t i o n s , s o c i a l a c t i o n  the is  g u i d e d by f o u r c o m p o n e n t s : v a l u e s , n o r m s , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t e x t ( i . e . social roles),  and  situational  t h e s e f o u r components.  For  a r i s e through c r o s s - c u l t u r a l through c o n f l i c t i n g facilities  may  role  appear  disturbed s o c i a l These  three  may  arise  and  social  may  s t r a i n regarding  means f o r  Collective  i n any  value s t r a i n  contact, o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r a i n  when t h e  a component of  Strain  e x a m p l e , n o r m a t i v e and  expectations,  ambiguous or i n e f f e c t i v e . redefine  facilities.  attaining  a  so  as  to  bring  may  emerge  situational goal  b e h a v i o u r r e p r e s e n t s an  action  of  become  effort  order  to  to the  system. brief  examples 10  serve  to  illustrate  an  essential  similarity  o f many s o c i a l  movement  t h e o r i e s , a s i m i l a r i t y based on t h e  emphasis p l a c e d on e x p l o r i n g t h e u n d e r l y i n g c o n d i t i o n s t h a t g i v e r i s e t o the e x p e r i e n c e the s o c i a l  of c o l l e c t i v e  dissatisfaction,  which l i e s a t the root of  movement.  THE RESOURCE MOBILIZATION APPROACH  The r e s o u r c e  mobilization  (R.M.)  a p p r o a c h t o t h e study o f s o c i a l  movements f o c u s s e s s p e c i f i c a l l y on t h e c e n t r a l p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s e s o f t h e s e movements.  Of p r i m e i m p o r t a n c e a r e t h e s t r a t e g i c  problems that  f a c e s o c i a l m o v e m e n t s : how w i t h i n a c e r t a i n s o c i a l c o n t e x t a c t o r s c a n m a n i p u l a t e c o n d i t i o n s t o m o b i l i z e r e s o u r c e s , o b t a i n r e c r u i t s , and c r e a t e an o r g a n i z e d movement.  The R.M. a p p r o a c h d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y  the t h r e e examples presented dissatisfaction perspective  above i n i t s l a c k o f emphasis on c o l l e c t i v e  and i t s u n d e r l y i n g  causes.  Adherents  of the  c l a i m t h a t t h e mere e x i s t e n c e o f a c o l l e c t i v e  dissatisfaction  from  R.M.  sense of  c a n n o t be u s e d t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e r i s e and f a l l  of  s o c i a l movements, t h e f o r m s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n adopted, and t h e e x i s t e n c e o f d i f f e r e n t i a l recruitment. discontent  may  entrepreneurs  I t i s generally held that  be d e f i n e d ,  created,  and  and o r g a n i z a t i o n s " ( M c C a r t h y  "grievances  manipulated and Z a l d  by  and  issue  1977:1215).  Consequently, t h e presence of a g e n e r a l sense of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  (i.e.,  s t r e s s , r e l a t i v e d e p r i v a t i o n , and so on) i n i t s e l f i s n o t o f c e n t r a l concern. manipulated  I t i s t h e way  i n which  a  sense  of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  is  by movement l e a d e r s t h a t i s o f i n t e r e s t .  The r e s o u r c e m o b i l i z a t i o n p e r s p e c t i v e w i l l be f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t e d t h r o u g h a d i s c u s s i o n o f i t s t h r e e main a s s u m p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g r e c r u i t m e n t , and s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t .  resources,  1. social  The m o s t i m p o r t a n t movement a c t i v i t y  utilization  a s s u m p t i o n o f t h e R.M. p e r s p e c t i v e i s t h a t d e p e n d s on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n and e f f e c t i v e  of resources.  E s s e n t i a l l y , a resource  What  i s anything  i s meant  by t h e t e r m  t h a t can be u t i l i z e d  e f f o r t s o f t h e s o c i a l movement.  resource?  t o further the  O b e r s c h a l l (1973) i n c l u d e s i n t h i s  category:  A n y t h i n g from m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s - j o b s , income, s a v i n g s , and t h e r i g h t t o m a t e r i a l g o o d s and s e r v i c e s - t o n o n m a t e r i a l resources - a u t h o r i t y , moral commitment, t r u s t , f r i e n d s h i p , s k i l l s , h a b i t s o f i n d u s t r y , and s o on (p.28).  There are, however, d i f f e r i n g views about t h e importance o f c e r t a i n resources.  McCarthy and Z a l d , f o r example, i n c o n t r a s t  to Oberschall,  take a p r i m a r i l y economic approach t o i d e n t i f y resources of value t o a s o c i a l movement.  They  focus  on t a n g i b l e r e s o u r c e s  features of a s o c i a l or symbolic  nature,  t o the exclusion of  such as s o c i a l s o l i d a r i t y o r  ideology. The  focus  resources  on r e s o u r c e s  are limited.  i s accompanied  by an a s s u m p t i o n  that  T h i s g e n e r a t e s c o m p e t i t i o n , s i n c e "when one  p a r t y t o t h e c o n f l i c t s u c c e e d s i n o b t a i n i n g some h i t h e r t o u n a l l o c a t e d resources,  t h e s e r e s o u r c e s a r e no l o n g e r a v a i l a b l e t o t h e o p p o s i t i o n "  ( O b e r s c h a l l 1973:28).  Finally,  defined  t o " t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h a d i s c o n t e n t e d  as r e f e r r i n g  a s s e m b l e s and i n v e s t s r e s o u r c e s  2.  A second  critical  t h e term "resource  m o b i l i z a t i o n " may be  f o r t h e p u r s u i t o f group g o a l s "  assumption  i s that  (ibid.).  the experience  d e p r i v a t i o n a l o n e i s i n s u f f i c i e n t t o account f o r i n d i v i d u a l i n t o a movement.  group  of  recruitment  T h i s has emerged from e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e showing t h a t  in a generally deprived  p o p u l a t i o n o n l y some i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l become 12  involved  in social  movement a c t i v i t y .  An  individual's decision  become i n v o l v e d i s a s s u m e d t o be b a s e d on a r a t i o n a l a s s e s s m e n t o f personal  c o s t s and  benefits associated  the  w i t h movement p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  C o n s e q u e n t l y , the p r o c e s s of d i f f e r e n t i a l i s o f p r i m e i n t e r e s t w i t h i n the r e s o u r c e  recruitment  i n t o the  movement  m o b i l i z a t i o n perspective.  Most of the work done on the problem of r e c r u i t m e n t a model Olson's economic theory  to  has  utilized  of c o l l e c t i v e b e h a v i o u r (Olson  as  1968).  T h i s f o r m u l a t i o n i s b a s e d on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s a c t i n a r a t i o n a l , s e l f - i n t e r e s t e d manner, and c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the c o s t s and  that choices  of a c t i o n  involve  b e n e f i t s of each a l t e r n a t i v e c o u r s e ,  t h a t the a c t i o n chosen i s t h a t p e r c e i v e d individual's s e l f i s h interests.  Yet,  and  t o most l i k e l y f u r t h e r t h a t  Olson a s s e r t s ,  i t does not  follow  l o g i c a l l y t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l b e c o m e s a c t i v e i n a g r o u p ( d e f i n e d a s "a number of i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h a common i n t e r e s t " [ i b i d . : 8 ] ) the  group's g o a l s  represent  the  simply  i n d i v i d u a l ' s goals.  because  His  model i s  d i r e c t e d a t the " f r e e - r i d e r " problem.  I n a s i t u a t i o n where an  organized  and  i n existence,  what m o t i v a t e s  enjoying  benefits  a c t i v e s o c i a l movement i s a l r e a d y  i n d i v i d u a l to j o i n , through  the  i f he  i s already  group's a c t i o n s ?  Olson  s e l e c t i v e i n c e n t i v e s e x i s t to provide and  beyond t h o s e o f a c h i e v i n g  an  the  argues that  produced  i t i s only  individual with  an  when  b e n e f i t s above  the group's g o a l s , t h a t t h a t i n d i v i d u a l  w i l l become engaged i n c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n (1968:51). Olson's theory groups pursuing American s o c i e t y .  i s geared toward e x p l a i n i n g recruitment  economic goals  within  the  context  of  into large  contemporary  H i s concept of i n c e n t i v e s r e f e r s m a i n l y t o economic  i n c e n t i v e s , a l t h o u g h m o t i v e s s u c h as t h e d e s i r e f o r s o c i a l s t a t u s s o c i a l a c c e p t a n c e may  a l s o be  i m p o r t a n t as t h e s e r e p r e s e n t  13  and  "individual,  noncollective school his  goods" ( i b i d . : 6 1 ) .  W i t h i n the  selective incentives  m o d e l has  resource  been b o t h c r i t i c i z e d  m o d i f i e d t o a p p l y t o r e c r u i t m e n t i n t o s o c i a l and within  American s o c i e t y  W h i t e 1976;  F i r e m a n and  (see  Oberschall  Gamson 1979  1973;  in  predicting  Although t h e r e are d i f f i c u l t y , i n my incentive.  and  the  t h i s concept  For  r e c r u i t m e n t , we and  must f i r s t then use  to  delimit  be  The  selective incentives  (as we  result i n disproof  the  major  selective  term " c o l l e c t i v e  in  range of  incentives  the  analysis  possible  of  selective  whether t h e s e p o t e n t i a l individual's decision  have d e f i n e d them) and I t may  a selective incentive  d e f i n i t i o n and  mean t h a t o u r  always  e x i s t e n c e of s e l e c t i v e b e n e f i t s  find  and  the  d e f i n i t i o n of Thus we some  could  selective model  argument f o r  the  becomes t a u t o l o g o u s .  t h e r e e x i s t s a wide range of p o t e n t i a l  i n d i v i d u a l f o r j o i n i n g a group,  between  I n d o i n g so, however, the  parsimonious q u a l i t y ,  to  p a r t i c i p a t i o n does not  i s too narrow.  consequently  advantage t o account f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  In r e a l i t y ,  a  absence of such p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n  of the model.  l o s e s i t s p r e d i c t i v e and  the  t h i s d e f i n i t i o n t o d e t e r m i n e whether members i n  j o i n t h e movement.  expand t h e  model,  Selective  useful  were s i g n i f i c a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n the  what c o n s t i t u t e s  questionable.  be g a i n e d o n l y t h r o u g h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  a movement do, i n f a c t , enjoy t h e s e b e n e f i t s , and benefits  is  to the  indiscriminately.  w h i c h can  incentives,  recruitment  problems with h i s  are goods (or b e n e f i t s ) movement.  1976;  the u s e f u l n e s s of Olson's  Olson uses t h i s term i n c o n t r a s t distributed  movements Heath  v i e w , l i e s i n d e f i n i n g what c o n s t i t u t e s  goods", w h i c h a r e  and  f o r examples).  explaining  a number o f  political  Gamson 1975;  As some of t h e s e c r i t i c s have p o i n t e d out, model  mobilization  benefits  14  not  benefits  o n l y of a m a t e r i a l  to  the  nature,  but o f a s o c i a l and  psychological  q u a l i t y as w e l l .  negates the u s e f u l n e s s of the " s e l e c t i v e i n c e n t i v e s " for  This fact  further  model i n a c c o u n t i n g  recruitment. One  incentive  of a s o c i a l n a t u r e , not  Olson's f o r m u l a t i o n , within  the  dealt  with adequately i n  r e l a t e s to s o c i a l s o l i d a r i t y .  resource mobilization  Subsequent work  p e r s p e c t i v e has a t t e m p t e d t o  s o l i d a r i t y a s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n a c c o u n t i n g f o r t h e social  movements ( O b e r s c h a l l  contrast  to the  1973;  "mass s o c i e t y "  F i r e m a n and  theorists,  emergence of  Gamson 1979).  assume t h a t  exist within  In  marginal  i n d i v i d u a l s , i . e . , t h o s e who  do  s o l i d a r i t y , who  anomic, a r e the i n d i v i d u a l s most l i k e l y  a r e a d r i f t and  not  who  include  r e l a t i o n s of  close  p a r t i c i p a t e i n a s o c i a l movement (here achievement of s o l i d a r i t y i s incentive), s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s working w i t h i n approach  claim  the  opposite:  that  the  the  resource  pre-existence  F i r e m a n and  the  mobilization of  solidary  r e l a t i o n s i s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n p r e d i c t i n g w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s become m o b i l i z e d .  to  Gamson (1979), f o r example, s t a t e  will  that:  A p e r s o n whose l i f e i s i n t e r t w i n e d w i t h t h e g r o u p [ t h r o u g h s o l i d a r y r e l a t i o n s ] has a b i g s t a k e i n the group's f a t e . When c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n i s u r g e n t , the person i s l i k e l y t o c o n t r i b u t e h i s or her s h a r e , even i f the i m p a c t of t h a t s h a r e i s not n o t i c e a b l e (1979:22). Here p e r p e t u a t i o n , incentive.  rather  Oberschall  than achievement,  (1973) c o n c u r s  with  of  solidarity, is  this  d e v e l o p e d h y p o t h e s e s i n an e f f o r t t o i d e n t i f y how solidary  relations  movements.  i n h i b i t or  facilitate  the  belief,  d i f f e r e n t types  emergence  of  has of  social  Thus when r e c r u i t m e n t i s v i e w e d as an a t t e m p t t o m a i n t a i n  s o l i d a r y r e l a t i o n s , the emphasis s h i f t s from r e c r u i t m e n t as an r e s p o n s e , as  and  the  i n Olson's model,  individual  t o r e c r u i t m e n t as a group or c o l l e c t i v e  15  phenomenon.  This l a t t e r perspective w i l l  be u s e f u l i n the a n a l y s i s of  t h e S o b r i e t y movement, whereas t h e q u e s t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l will  recruitment  be d i s c u s s e d o n l y b r i e f l y . While  t h e r e i s some d e b a t e among t h e o r i s t s w o r k i n g  w i t h i n the  r e s o u r c e m o b i l i z a t i o n p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e  selective  i n c e n t i v e s model as an e x p l a n a t o r y t o o l , most have agreed on t h e v a l u e o f assuming t h a t c o l l e c t i v e b e h a v i o u r Olson's  has a r a t i o n a l b a s i s .  Herein  lies  main c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e r e s o u r c e m o b i l i z a t i o n approach.  Two  a d d i t i o n a l c o m m e n t s s h o u l d be made r e g a r d i n g t h i s n o t i o n o f  rationality. behaviour,  and  First,  Olson's  understanding  of what c o n s t i t u t e s r a t i o n a l  what v a l u e s u n d e r l y such b e h a v i o u r ,  s i t u a t i o n o f W e s t e r n c a p i t a l i s t i c and  are s p e c i f i c to  i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c society.  the  I f the  problem o f i n d i v i d u a l r e c r u i t m e n t i n t o a movement i s t o be e x p l o r e d u s i n g this  concept  of  rationality,  (and  most w i t h i n the  emphasize the r a t i o n a l i t y of behaviour,  R.M.  school  t o the e x c l u s i o n of  do  social-  p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s ) i t must be done  w i t h c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e s o c i o -  cultural  cultural  context  - specifically  the  d e f i n i t i o n o f r a t i o n a l i t y - i n w h i c h t h i s behaviour Second, i t may for  be found  values  cultural  i s enacted.  problematic to determine  an i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e c r u i t m e n t i n t o a movement.  and  "rational"  reasons  Both the r e s e a r c h e r ' s  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s own a c c o u n t o f h i s b e h a v i o u r , r e f l e c t rationalizations i n hindsight.  may  I t i s o f t e n not p o s s i b l e f o r an  i n d i v i d u a l t o a r t i c u l a t e the r e a s o n i n g u n d e r l y i n g b e h a v i o u r ;  furthermore,  the d e c i s i o n t o a c t o f t e n i n v o l v e s a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a m u l t i t u d e of f a c t o r s , t h u s t h e r e may action.  The  resource  be n u m e r o u s r e a s o n s w h i c h t o g e t h e r l e d t o t h e m o b i l i z a t i o n p e r s p e c t i v e , i n i t s emphasis  r a t i o n a l i t y , can i l l u m i n a t e some o f t h e p o s i t i v e consequences o f  on  joining  a movement, but whether t h e s e were s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s l e a d i n g up t o t h e 16  d e c i s i o n t o j o i n a movement i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t  to determine.  be t r u e e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e c a s e t o be d e s c r i b e d  This  may  h e r e , w h e r e f o r some  i n d i v i d u a l s t h e d e c i s i o n t o j o i n t h e movement i n v o l v e d a p r o c e s s o f conversion, cessation  not o n l y t o s o b r i e t y , w h i c h i n i t i a l l y e n t a i l e d s i m p l y of  c o n s u m p t i o n of a l c o h o l , but  t o an  the  entirely different  l i f e s t y l e and s e t o f a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e s e l f , o t h e r s , and r e a l i t y i n general.  Olson h i m s e l f  p o i n t s out  that h i s  theory  may  be  insufficient  i n d e a l i n g w i t h movements h a v i n g non-economic g o a l s .  3.  The  t h i r d c e n t r a l a s s u m p t i o n o f t h e R.M.  s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l context s o c i a l movement. a r e decided  has  a fundamentally  approach i s that  important  the  r o l e i n shaping a  S t r a t e g i e s and t a c t i c s t o a c h i e v e t h e g r o u p ' s g o a l s  upon t h r o u g h a r a t i o n a l p r o c e s s ,  i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  c o n t e x t u a l f e a t u r e s such as the a v a i l a b i l i t y of t h i r d p a r t y  various  supports,  p o s s i b l e o p p o s i t i o n f r o m e x t e r n a l a g e n t s o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l , and e x i s t i n g n e t w o r k s of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n the group t o be As a movement g r o w s , t h e e f f e c t i v e use c r e a t i o n of a s o c i a l  of r e s o u r c e s  movement o r g a n i z a t i o n t o s e r v e  pre-  mobilized.  necessitates as a  the  co-ordinating  c e n t e r , t h r o u g h w h i c h s u c h s t r a t e g i e s and t a c t i c s w i l l be d r a f t e d  and  revised  the  to  f i t changing  situations.  i n f l u e n c e of c o n t e x t u a l f e a t u r e s w i l l now The  Some b r i e f be  examples of  presented.  mass m e d i a r e p r e s e n t s one o f t h e m o s t p o w e r f u l  party support  forms of t h i r d  a v a i l a b l e t o s o c i a l movement o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  Indeed,  M o l o t c h (1979) a r g u e s t h a t not o n l y can the media i n f l u e n c e s t r a t e g y d e c i s i o n s and  p e r p e t u a t e a movement, b u t  manipulate discontent precipitated.  they can  define issues  and  t o the p o i n t where a s o c i a l movement i s a c t u a l l y  T h i r d p a r t i e s may  p r o v i d e s u p p o r t i n a number o f  17  other  f o r m s , f r o m money o r m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s ,  to t i m e or labour, to  simple  m o r a l encouragement. That e x t e r n a l agents of s o c i a l c o n t r o l a s o c i a l movement i s o b v i o u s . movements s i m p l y  influence  the c o u r s e of  In a r e p r e s s i v e p o l i t i c a l context  would not be p e r m i t t e d  s o c i e t i e s e x t e r n a l s o c i a l c o n t r o l s may ways.  may  to p e r s i s t .  such  In l e s s r e p r e s s i v e  e f f e c t movements i n more  subtle  For example, Marx d e s c r i b e s v a r i o u s e f f o r t s undertaken by the  to q u e l l anti-war  a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e 1960's.  l e t t e r w r i t i n g campaigns t o the  Such e f f o r t s r a n g e d f r o m  p a r e n t s of s t u d e n t a c t i v i s t s ,  requesting  t h a t the p a r e n t s i n t e r v e n e i n the s i t u a t i o n , t o the more e x p l i c i t of i n t i m i d a t i o n , d i r e c t t h r e a t s , and  tactics  even k i d n a p p i n g (Marx 1979).  T i l l y s u g g e s t s the i m p o r t a n c e of some a d d i t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s influence strategy determination.  FBI  The  that  concept of the " r e p e r t o i r e of  c o n t e n t i o n " i s developed on the o b s e r v a t i o n  that:  W i t h i n any p a r t i c u l a r t i m e and p l a c e , the a r r a y of c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n s t h a t p e o p l e e m p l o y i s (1) w e l l d e f i n e d and (2) q u i t e l i m i t e d i n c o m p a r i s o n t o the range of a c t i o n s t h a t are t h e o r e t i c a l l y a v a i l a b l e t o them ( T i l l y 1979:131). He  argues that  the  repertoire i s constrained  according  to both  the  response of a u t h o r i t i e s ( i . e . o n l y some a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be t o l e r a t e d )  and  t o the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h f o r m s of c o n t e n t i o n : r e p e r t o i r e i m p l i e s t h a t the s t a n d a r d and  s c o p e , s l o w l y c h a n g i n g , and  (ibid.).  Thus he  patterns  of  introduces  learned  "the i d e a o f a  forms a r e l e a r n e d , l i m i t e d i n number  p e c u l i a r l y adapted to t h e i r s e t t i n g s "  the n o t i o n  that c u l t u r a l features  b e h a v i o u r ) shape the  f o r m s of c o l l e c t i v e  (that i s , behaviour.  U n l i k e most o t h e r s w o r k i n g w i t h i n the R.M.  perspective, T i l l y denies that  social  a  movement s t r a t e g i e s a r e  premeditated r a t i o n a l choice,  and  always  product  states that  18  only  p r o t e s t s can  of  cool  also  and  derive  from a predominantly Apart  emotional  response.  from t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y  of t h i r d  party supports,  o p p o s i t i o n by  a u t h o r i t i e s , and t h e a w a r e n e s s o f p r e - e x i s t i n g m o d e l s o f c o n t e n t i o n , s o c i a l s t r u c t u r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h a v e a l s o been o f p r i m a r y those  w i t h i n t h e R.M. s c h o o l .  interest to  Most agree t h a t the p r i o r e x i s t e n c e of  a s s o c i a t i o n a l t i e s among t h e t a r g e t g r o u p f a c i l i t a t e s t h e m o b i l i z a t i o n process.  The most e x t e n s i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e and t h e emergence o f s o c i a l movements has been by O b e r s c h a l l ( 1 9 7 3 ) .  presented  I n e s s e n c e , he s u g g e s t s t h a t w i t h i n p l u r a l i s t i c  s o c i e t i e s two s o c i a l s t r u c t u r a l t y p e s c a n be i d e n t i f i e d : s e g m e n t a t i o n " , w h e r e i n d i v i d u a l s may  "superimposed  be p a r t i c i p a t i n g a c t i v e l y i n a  number o f g r o u p s , b u t t h e m e m b e r s h i p o f t h e s e g r o u p s i s d r a w n f r o m one segment o f s o c i e t y , be i t r e l i g i o u s , p o l i t i c a l , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c , o r o t h e r ; and " l i n k e d p l u r a l i s m " , w h e r e i n d i v i d u a l s p a r t i c i p a t e i n a v a r i e t y o f g r o u p s whose m e m b e r s h i p c r o s s - c u t s v a r i o u s c l a s s e s and s o c i a l g r o u p s . I n t h e l a t t e r , a " c h e c k s and b a l a n c e s " mobilization,  while  mechanism  exists to i n h i b i t  i n t h e f o r m e r s u c h a m e c h a n i s m i s l a c k i n g , and  m o b i l i z a t i o n o c c u r s more r e a d i l y .  I n summary, t h e r e l a t i v e l a c k o f emphasis w i t h i n t h e R.M.  approach  on t h e r o l e o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i n g e n e r a t i n g a s o c i a l movement may understood  when we  undertaken.  The R.M.  take  fall  of s o c i a l  account  the l e v e l  of a n a l y s i s  p e r s p e c t i v e i s geared t o w a r d t h e s p e c i f i c  of d i f f e r e n t i a l r e c r u i t m e n t , and  into  be  being issues  movement s t r a t e g y and t a c t i c s , and t h e r i s e  movements  over  time.  In contrast,  e m p h a s i z i n g d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n a r e concerned w i t h t h e more g e n e r a l  theories features  o f t h e s o c i a l movement, and t h e o v e r a l l s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s i n which i t a r i s e s .  F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e R.M.  19  p e r s p e c t i v e , w i t h i t s emphasis  on the manipulation of resources,  including c u l t u r a l b e l i e f s and norms  r e g u l a t i n g s o c i a l behaviour, presents more of a p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s u a l model of s o c i a l movement a c t i v i t y .  "Dissatisfaction" theorists,  on the  other hand, provide a model of s o c i a l movement a c t i v i t y t h a t has l e s s emphasis on manipulation and choice, and greater emphasis on structural constraints on s o c i a l movement a c t i v i t y . I t i s as an o r i e n t i n g p e r s p e c t i v e that the resource m o b i l i z a t i o n approach w i l l movement.  Why  be a p p l i e d to the study  of the  Alkali  Lake S o b r i e t y  use the resource mobilization perspective?  This thesis  i s intended to stand as an i n i t i a l study of the A l k a l i Lake S o b r i e t y movement. widespread  Since e x t e n s i v e a l c o h o l abuse among Native Indians i s a and  persistent  a l c o h o l i s m have met important  problem,  and  efforts  to  reduce  Native  with g e n e r a l l y l i t t l e success, i t seems t h a t the  q u e s t i o n to be asked f i r s t  underlying conditions that resulted  i s not what were the  general  i n the emergence of t h i s movement,  but what s t r a t e g i e s and t a c t i c s were used s u c c e s s f u l l y to t u r n A l k a l i Lake i n t o a sober community.  The R.M. p e r s p e c t i v e provides a s u i t a b l e  framework through which these questions may T h i s t h e s i s , however, should  be posed.  not be considered  as p r o v i d i n g a  formula f o r the s o l u t i o n of a l c o h o l problems i n other Native Indian communities.  I t may  be that the A l k a l i Lake movement presented  a  uniquely Shuswap solution to the problems a s s o c i a t e d with a l c o h o l use. The use i n t h i s thesis of a processual viewpoint does not imply the lack of importance of c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e s i n shaping the S o b r i e t y movement. Some mention of the way  i n which c u l t u r a l  f e a t u r e s i n f l u e n c e d the  leaders' choice of strategy, and contributed to the eventual success of the movement, w i l l be given.  A more in-depth study  20  of the h i s t o r i c a l  and  c u l t u r a l context  i n w h i c h t h e S o b r i e t y movement e m e r g e d  complement t h e l a r g e l y d e s c r i p t i v e and i n t e r p r e t i v e  account  would  presented  here. The  f u n d a m e n t a l q u e s t i o n s t h a t w i l l be posed i n t h e f o l l o w i n g pages  1.  What r e s o u r c e s  are: were c r i t i c a l  i n the i n i t i a t i o n of the Sobriety  movement, and how were they m o b i l i z e d ?  W i t h what c o n t e x t u a l c o n s t r a i n t s  (forms o f e x t e r n a l o p p o s i t i o n ) d i d t h e movement l e a d e r s have t o contend? What r o l e d i d t h i r d p a r t y s u p p o r t s p l a y ?  How d i d t h e l e a d e r s j u s t i f y  the movement? 2.  W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e p e r i o d o f community c o n v e r s i o n :  to have m o t i v a t e d social  (some) i n d i v i d u a l s t o s t o p d r i n k i n g ?  structural  residents?  f a c t o r s play  What appears What r o l e d i d  i n the m o b i l i z a t i o n of the reserve  As t h e number o f r e c r u i t s  g r e w how d i d t h e movement's  o r g a n i z a t i o n change? 3.  W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e S o b r i e t y movement a s o f A u t u m n , 1985:  has t h e movement become r o u t i n i z e d w i t h i n t h e A l k a l i c o m m u n i t y ? there  evidence  today  of d i f f e r e n t i a l  d r i n k e r s ) i n t h e community? 4. Alkali  recruitment  How Is  (the presence of  I f s o , how can we account f o r t h i s ?  With regard t o h i s t o r i c forms of s o c i a l c o n t r o l o p e r a t i v e i n the Lake community:  sobriety  reflect  precedented,  Did that the leaders' e f f o r t s  culturally  acceptable,  or at least  p a t t e r n s o f c o n t e n t i o n , a s suggested  the r e p e r t o i r e o f c o n t e n t i o n (1979)?  21  t o encourage historically  i n T i l l y ' s concept o f  CHAPTER THREE: INITIATION OF THE SOBRIETY MOVEMENT  ALKALI LAKE IN THE 1960s The  v i l l a g e o f A l k a l i Lake has e x i s t e d a s t h e c e n t r a l s e t t l e m e n t f o r  t h e A l k a l i Lake Shuswap f o r more than one hundred y e a r s ( T e i t 1909). t h e decades p r e c e d i n g  In  t h e i n i t i a t i o n o f t h e S o b r i e t y movement t h e r e had  been a g r a d u a l move by f a m i l i e s from t h e o u t l y i n g homesteads t o t a k e up more o r l e s s y e a r round r e s i d e n c e i n t h e v i l l a g e . some  200 Band  members  were  r e p r e s e n t i n g about 77 p e r c e n t During unemployed  residing  I n t h e summer o f 1966  i n the v i l l a g e  (Brow  1967),  o f t h e Band membership.  t h e 1960s t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f t h e a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n was a n d d e p e n d e n t t o a l a r g e d e g r e e on g o v e r n m e n t  payments f o r s u b s i s t e n c e .  Reserve l i f e  transfer  i n t h e 1960s was c h a r a c t e r i z e d  by h i g h l e v e l s o f d r u n k e n n e s s , v i o l e n c e , c h i l d a b u s e and n e g l e c t , and a c c i d e n t a l death and s u i c i d e . disintegrating:  C u l t u r a l b e l i e f s and s o c i a l v a l u e s  e l d e r s w e r e no l o n g e r r e s p e c t e d , and f o r m a l  c o n t r o l mechanisms were i n e f f e c t i v e . s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l upheaval The centered  were  social  I t was i n t h i s g e n e r a l c o n t e x t o f  t h a t a l c o h o l use p r e v a i l e d .  main i n s t a n c e s o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n between community members around a l c o h o l .  Drinking parties occurred v i r t u a l l y  every  weekend on t h e r e s e r v e , f r e q u e n t l y c o n t i n u i n g f o r s e v e r a l days i n t o t h e next  week  o r as long  as t h e l i q u o r  supply  lasted.  Drinking  was  e s p e c i a l l y i n t e n s e a t t h e end o f t h e m o n t h , when s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , f a m i l y a l l o w a n c e and o l d age p e n s i o n s were g i v e n o u t , and d u r i n g c e r t a i n t i m e s of t h e year such as a t C h r i s t m a s Stampede i n J u l y .  and d u r i n g t h e W i l l i a m s L a k e  Those few i n d i v i d u a l s who were employed o f f r e s e r v e -  22  s p e c i f i c a l l y t h o s e employed a t the nearby s a w m i l l - were o f t e n a t t h e center  of d r i n k i n g a c t i v i t i e s , as t h e i r r e g u l a r paychecks provided  steady a l c o h o l  supply.  A l c o h o l was o b t a i n e d early  a  f r o m a number o f s o u r c e s .  I n t h e 1950s and  1960s amendments t o f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n  pertaining  t o i n t o x i c a n t s r e s u l t e d i n B.C. I n d i a n s h a v i n g f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e t h e l e g a l r i g h t t o p u r c h a s e a l c o h o l f r o m l i c e n s e d s t o r e s , a n d t o consume alcohol i n licensed premises.  Consequently, the incidence  purchase and d r i n k i n g i n t h e town o f W i l l i a m s orders f o r alcohol could  be p l a c e d  with  of liquor  Lake i n c r e a s e d .  As w e l l ,  t h e d r i v e r o f t h e Dog C r e e k  Stage, t h e l o c a l bus w h i c h r a n f r o m t h e Dog Creek r e s e r v e , t h r o u g h A l k a l i L a k e a n d on t o W i l l i a m s  Lake.  r e t u r n t r i p t h e same day.  A l c o h o l w o u l d t h e n be d e l i v e r e d on i t s  As few o f t h e v i l l a g e r e s i d e n t s  t h e t w i c e w e e k l y Stage t r i p s p r o v i d e d  owned  a major s o u r c e o f a l c o h o l , a t t i m e s  d e l i v e r i n g t h o u s a n d s o f d o l l a r s w o r t h o f a l c o h o l i n one t r i p . taxis i nWilliams call  cars,  Lake a l s o were used t o s u p p l y a l c o h o l .  Local  On a phone  cab d r i v e r s would buy t h e a l c o h o l r e q u e s t e d and d e l i v e r i t r i g h t t o  the  reserve. Homebrew, made f r o m m a l t , sugar, y e a s t , and d a n d e l i o n s o r "whatever  was  a r o u n d and e a s i l y got",  was a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f a l c o h o l ,  e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e y e a r s p r e c e e d i n g t h e o p e n i n g up o f t h e l i q u o r s t o r e s and  bars t o Indians.  In a d d i t i o n , a l c o h o l could  be purchased f r o m any  of a number o f known b o o t l e g g e r s on t h e r e s e r v e . The  v a s t m a j o r i t y o f a d u l t s o f t h e community - women a s w e l l a s men  - engaged i n t h e s e d r i n k i n g a c t i v i t i e s . Report o f t h e W i l l i a m s 1972,  Lake A l c o h o l  93 p e r c e n t o f t h e a d u l t  The 1981 O u t r e a c h  Services  and Drug Program e s t i m a t e d t h a t i n  ( a g e 16 a n d o v e r ) p o p u l a t i o n  r e s e r v e was d r i n k i n g h e a v i l y ( B i c k f o r d 1981:37).  Informants  on t h e describe  some f e a t u r e s o f r e s e r v e l i f e i n t h e h e i g h t o f i t s d r i n k i n g days:  T h i s r e s e r v e was j u s t a r e a l t o w n t h e n , p e o p l e w a l k i n g a l l o v e r , l i k e , every weekend you seen people w a l k i n g on t h i s whole r e s e r v e , p e o p l e h o l d i n g b o t t l e s and j u g s and h o l l e r i n g around... p e o p l e i n v i t e d e a c h o t h e r t o t h e i r h o u s e s , and t h e y drank... [Female i n f o r m a n t , age 50.]  Everyone used t o g e t t o g e t h e r - t h e f r i e n d s - we used t o o r d e r on t h e S t a g e . The S t a g e u s e d t o go t h r o u g h on F r i d a y , we'd o r d e r i n t h e morning and p i c k i t up a f t e r t h r e e o r whenever i t came. So, we'd l e t some o f o u r f r i e n d s know and they'd come o v e r a n d t h e p a r t y w o u l d s t a r t a n d , a b o u t Sunday o r maybe Monday i t ' d s t o p . T h e r e was nobody s o b e r , I g u e s s . [ F e m a l e i n f o r m a n t , age 36.]  E x c e s s i v e d r i n k i n g was f r e q u e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n s t a n c e s o f c h i l d neglect:  A l o t o f n e g l e c t i o n s I d i d w i t h my k i d s . L i k e e v e r y f a m i l y a l l o w a n c e day I t o o k o f f t o t o w n , me and my h u s b a n d , and come back w i t h booze...Not o n l y t o me i t happened l i k e t h i s , I guess the whole r e s e r v e k i d s were g o i n g around d i r t y , s n o t t y , muddy...I o f t e n t h i n k a b o u t i t t o d a y . I w o n d e r what k i n d o f g r o c e r i e s I l i v e d o n , when I was p r e t t y h e a v y i n t o d r i n k i n g . [Female i n f o r m a n t , age 50.]  My mom and f a t h e r used t o be a l c o h o l i c s . , they used t o be drunk most o f t h e time...I r a i s e d my t h r e e younger, two b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r . [ T h e i n f o r m a n t was i n h i s e a r l y t e e n s a t t h i s t i m e . ] R a i s e d them t h r o u g h t h a t . I had t o c o o k f o r them and do a l l that stuff. T h a t was - I c a l l i t s u r v i v a l . We u s e d t o sometimes we didn't have food i n t h e house, we used t o go s t e a l it. We u s e d t o g e t so t h a t we know w h e r e t o go and w h e r e t o s t e a l i t from. Whoever's d r u n k and you'd know w h e r e t o go. [Male i n f o r m a n t , age 24.]  D r i n k i n g was c o n s i d e r e d a "normal" a c t i v i t y , i n w h i c h a t t i m e s even children  participated:  24  I remember my younger b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s , they were d r i n k i n g a l o n g w i t h us. M y s e l f , when I was 15 I s t a r t e d d r i n k i n g w i t h my Mom when she j u s t s t a r t e d d r i n k i n g . I g u e s s we w e r e h a n g i n g around w i t h h e r , l i k e we used t o t a k e o f f on my Dad because he u s e d t o be p r e t t y mean when he was d r u n k . So we u s e d t o t a k e o f f and h i d e - s i t t i n g around somewhere by o u r s e l v e s but we'd h a v e a b o t t l e and we'd s t a r t t o d r i n k . [ F e m a l e i n f o r m a n t , age 36.]  A l t h o u g h a l c o h o l i n many r e s p e c t s had a f r a g m e n t i n g  e f f e c t on  social  r e l a t i o n s - where i t was r e l a t e d t o v i o l e n c e and c h i l d n e g l e c t - i n o t h e r ways i t had an o p p o s i t e e f f e c t : family  s o c i a l bonds between p e e r s , and  members, w e r e r e a f f i r m e d t h r o u g h  alcohol.  As  such  a  dominant  social  c o n s i d e r e d a l m o s t as a r e q u i r e m e n t  the  reciprocal  activity,  of r e s e r v e  between  sharing  of  drinking could  be  life.  A PORTENT OF CHANGE Before  beginning  d i s c u s s i o n of  movement, I w i s h t o p o i n t o u t one o c c u r r e d i n 1971:  the  initiation  of the  Sobriety  event of c r u c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t  t h e s w i t c h t o Band e l e c t i o n s f o r c h i e f and  a c c o r d i n g t o S e c t i o n 74 o f t h e I n d i a n A c t .  council  P r i o r to t h i s , the  Alkali  Lake Band c h i e f and c o u n c i l l o r s were e l e c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o "Band custom" t h a t i s , they were e l e c t e d by t h e Band membership t o l i f e t i m e t e r m s , u n t i l such t i m e as t h e y w i s h e d 1 9 0 0 s t h e r e had ending  a t about  been t h r e e " l i f e t i m e " c h i e f s , 1940  approximately  1941  about 1951  1971.  The A c t was  to  to r e s i g n from o f f i c e .  S i n c e the e a r l y of the  first  running  from  and t h e t h i r d c h i e f b e i n g i n o f f i c e  from  o r 1941,  t o 1951,  or  the term  the second c h i e f ' s term  major change r e s u l t i n g from a d o p t i o n o f S e c t i o n 74 o f t h e I n d i a n t h a t c h i e f and c o u n c i l were h e n c e f o r t h t o be e l e c t e d t o two  25  year  terms, with t h e i r position being renewed according to the wishes of the Band membership. change?  What were the p o s s i b l e reasons f o r t h i s d e s i r e f o r  The f o l l o w i n g i s a t r a n s c r i p t of the 1971 l e t t e r sent out to  A l k a l i Band members i n which i t was announced that a Band meeting would be held to discuss and decide on the issue of Band elections.  Dear Band member, The f o l l o w i n g i s the agenda f o r Sept. 29 so please read i t c a r e f u l l y before coming to the meeting and be prepared to speak on the topics mentioned i n the agenda. (Agenda means the topics to be talked about during the meeting). Here i s the agenda: (1) The importance of By-Laws on the Reserve so t h a t the Reserve can be run i n a proper way so that the people may be happy i n the place which they c a l l HOME. (2) Are the Band Members s a t i s f i e d with the Chief and Council that are now i n power? I f not l e t us t a l k about i t and decide what the next move i s . The C h i e f and C o u n c i l have a l r e a d y agreed to talk about t h i s and f e e l that the people should have a voice i n the issue. The Chief and Council f e e l that much can be done but i t means t h a t everyone must cooperate and get behind the idea. THIS RESERVE COULD BE ONE OF THE BEST IN B.C. [Emphasis i n the o r i g i n a l . ] (3) I t has been suggested t h a t at an e a r l y date a f t e r the coming Band meeting, that members of the Council meet with the young people of the Reserve to t a l k t h i n g s over r e g a r d i n g the Reserve and to f i n d out t h e i r f e e l i n g s and what should be done to b e t t e r the s i t u a t i o n on the Reserve so that everyone can be proud of the v i l l a g e that they c a l l home. This w i l l be an open and honest meeting and each one w i l l be expected to give his or her idea of what i s wrong on the Reserve and why. (A) Regarding number 1 (on the By-Laws). Some suggestions are: 1. Speeding of c a r s around the Reserve w i t h the danger of safety to the children and others on the Reserve. 2. The broken g l a s s around the r e s e r v e which i s a hazzard to the children and cars as well as to the mess of the reserve i n general. 3. Each home owner be responsible for the cleaning of the home area (inside and out) for the sake of health and cleanliness of the Reserve.  26  4. I f y o u have more s u g g e s t i o n s f o r t h e m e e t i n g p l e a s e b r i n g them a l o n g w i t h y o u and l e t them be known t o t h e r e s t o f t h e meeting. I f y o u w i s h y o u may p l a c e y o u r i d e a s i n a box p r o v i d e d a t t h e door and they w i l l be read a t t h e meeting, (you need n o t s i g n your name u n l e s s you w i s h ) .  NOTE: THIS I S A VERY IMPORTANT MEETING AND YOUR PRESENCE I S URGENTLY REQUESTED. NO ONE DRUNK W I L L BE ADMITTED TO THE ' MEETING BECAUSE I T I S TOO IMPORTANT TO THE FUTURE OF OUR RESERVE. C h i e f and C o u n c i l , and C o o r d i n a t o r .  This l e t t e r reserve l i f e ,  clearly  s p e l l s out a sense of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  with  and t h e i d e a t h a t a r e v i s i o n o f t h e e l e c t i v e system (and a  c h a n g e i n t h e Band c h i e f a n d c o u n c i l ) m i g h t i m p r o v e t h e s i t u a t i o n . E s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g i s the s t r e s s placed  on t h e need f o r a sense o f  p r i d e i n t h e i r v i l l a g e , and t h e i d e a t h a t " t h i s r e s e r v e c o u l d be one o f the best  i n B.C.".  This i n d i c a t e s that,  on t h e p a r t o f t h e l e t t e r  w r i t e r a t l e a s t , t h e r e e x i s t e d a d e s i r e t o i n c r e a s e , o r perhaps renew, a sense o f community s o l i d a r i t y and i d e n t i t y among t h e v i l l a g e r e s i d e n t s . At t h e September 29, 1971 to  decided  change t h e system o f Band e l e c t i o n s t o f o l l o w s e c t i o n 74, s u b s e c t i o n  (3)(a)(i), of the Indian Act.  F o r t y - e i g h t o u t o f a t o t a l o f one h u n d r e d  and s i x e l i g i b l e v o t e r s a t t e n d e d The at  Band meeting i t was unanimously  t h e meeting.  f i r s t e l e c t i o n under t h e new system was h e l d i n F e b r u a r y , 1972,  which time  a new c h i e f was e l e c t e d . I n S e p t e m b e r 1 9 7 3 , a f t e r t h e  r e s i g n a t i o n o f t h i s c h i e f due t o o f f - r e s e r v e w o r k c o m m i t m e n t s , a b y e l e c t i o n was h e l d , and Andy C h e l s e a chief.  27  became t h e new A l k a l i L a k e Band  INITIATION OF THE  SOBRIETY MOVEMENT  Andy C h e l s e a  and  his wife Phyllis  t o d a y a s t h e two i n d i v i d u a l s who  a r e i d e n t i f i e d by Band members  i n i t i a t e d t h e S o b r i e t y movement.  t h i s t i m e both were n e w l y - r e f o r m e d a l c o h o l i c s , h a v i n g stopped 1972.  I n h i s d r i n k i n g d a y s Andy C h e l s e a , who  was  e m p l o y e d a t t h e n e a r b y s a w m i l l , f r e q u e n t l y had drinking parties. reserve.  He a l s o had  P h y l l i s Chelsea  was  At  drinking i n  one o f t h e f e w t o  be  been a t t h e c e n t e r  of  been a w e l l - k n o w n b o o t l e g g e r  on  the  the f i r s t to decide to stop d r i n k i n g , a  d e c i s i o n made a f t e r r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s d r i n k i n g h a v i n g on her f a m i l y . The  two  A few months l a t e r her husband f o l l o w e d s u i t .  began t h e i r e f f o r t s t o reduce d r i n k i n g on t h e r e s e r v e  a f t e r Andy C h e l s e a had  was  been e l e c t e d t o o f f i c e .  C h e l s e a had  only  not run f o r  o f f i c e on an a n t i - a l c o h o l c a m p a i g n , n o r d i d he h a v e a t t h e t i m e a w e l l formulated  p l a n f o r t h e Band.  given a  clear  m a n d a t e . Of t h e t o t a l o f 64 v o t e s c a s t ( r e p r e s e n t i n g a 43 p e r c e n t  voter  turnout), Chelsea received  16 and  I n t h e e l e c t i o n he was  r e c e i v e d 42 v o t e s , w h i l e t h e o t h e r two  candidates  6 votes.*  I n t h e e a r l y 1970s m o s t Band p r o g r a m s w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d  by  the  W i l l i a m s Lake d i s t r i c t o f f i c e of the Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s  and  Northern  Development (commonly r e f e r r e d t o as the D.I.A.), w i t h the Band  a d m i n i s t e r i n g a v e r y s m a l l budget o f about t w e n t y thousand d o l l a r s . w i t h the c h i e f before him, Chelsea's  g e n e r a l g o a l was  As  to i n c r e a s e the  Band's independence from the D.I.A. by g a i n i n g g r e a t e r c o n t r o l over programs.  I n t h e new  t h e r e s e r v e was was  reserve  c h i e f ' s view, however, the major problem f a c i n g  n o t i t s s u p p r e s s i o n by D.I.A..  a l c o h o l i s m , and  The  problem, i n s t e a d ,  the n e g a t i v e consequences d r i n k i n g was  population.  Band  Thus  before  the  Band  could  p o l i t i c a l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y , Andy and P h y l l i s C h e l s e a 28  h a v i n g on  advance  the  itself  b e l i e v e d t h a t the  problem o f a l c o h o l had t o be f a c e d .  TACTICS UTILIZED; The C o n t r o l o f B o o t l e g g i n g In  t h e 1973-76  period  (which  I call  the period  o f movement  i n i t i a t i o n ) t h e Band c h i e f made e x t e n s i v e use o f h i s powers o f o f f i c e i n an a t t e m p t  t o r e d u c e d r i n k i n g on t h e r e s e r v e .  undertaken  by t h e C h e l s e a s  bootleggers.  Bootlegging  The f i r s t m a j o r t a c t i c  was d i r e c t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y a t t h e r e s e r v e was a common a c t i v i t y  on t h e r e s e r v e ,  being  engaged i n by a l m o s t a l l a d u l t s a t one t i m e o r another. A f t e r d i s c u s s i n g t h e problem w i t h t h e R.C.M.P. i n W i l l i a m s Lake, t h e two d e v i s e d a scheme to  have r e s e r v e b o o t l e g g e r s a r r e s t e d : T h e r e was a t i m e when we d e c i d e d - w e l l , l e t ' s go a n d do i t b e c a u s e i t was a f t e r S.A. [ S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e c h e q u e s ] f r o m D.I.A. g o t s e n t o u t , i t was a l l o w a n c e d a y , i t was p e n s i o n e r s ' day, a n d we knew b o o t l e g g e r s w e r e g o i n g t o be i n t h e i r g l o r y ! So we d e c i d e d " W e l l , l e t ' s do i t t h i s weekend". We knew how we were g o i n g t o do i t . So we s a t down and we marked some b i l l s . Some people were w a l k i n g back and f o r t h t h e r e , d r i n k i n g a c r o s s t h e r e and a l l over. I c a l l e d a guy i n and t e l l h i m "Hey go g e t me a b o t t l e o f w i n e " a n d he l o o k a t me a n d s a y "Hey, y o u s t a r t i n g t o d r i n k a g a i n ? " and I s a i d "Go g e t me a b o t t l e o f wine" and he go g e t i t . And I a s k h i m where he g o t i t from and he'd t e l l me, a n d I'd w r i t e t h a t on t h e b o t t l e on t h e l a b e l . And t h e n I a s k h i m "Where d i d t h e guy p u t t h e money" a n d he s a i d " W e l l , he p u t i t i n h i s w a l l e t " s o t h a t ' s a l l I n e e d e d t o know. About t h e same t i m e we were c a l l i n g t h e R.C.M.P. [A.C.],  As p r e a r r a n g e d ,  upon t h e i r a r r i v a l t h e R.C.M.P. w e r e d i r e c t e d by  P h y l l i s and Andy C h e l s e a t o number  of individuals,  t h e houses o f t h e s u s p e c t e d  A  i n c l u d i n g t h e C h i e f ' s mother, were searched f o r  t h e i n c r i m i n a t i n g marked b i l l s . l a t e r t r i e d i ncourt.  bootleggers.  Seven i n d i v i d u a l s were a r r e s t e d and  The c a s e s w e r e e v e n t u a l l y d i s m i s s e d due t o a  l e g a l t e c h n i c a l i t y a r i s i n g f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t t h e charges  29  p u r p o s e l y had  not been l a i d under the I n d i a n A c t . both the R.C.M.P. and t h i s a c t i o n had  T h i s d i s m i s s a l had been expected  the C h i e f and h i s w i f e .  Their intention i n taking  n o t been t o h a v e Band members s e n t o f f t o j a i l ,  i n s t e a d t o d i s c o u r a g e them from f u r t h e r b o o t l e g g i n g  on t h e r e s e r v e had been a d i f f i c u l t one f o r t h e t w o ,  measures were necessary. t h a t the two  bootleggers  e s p e c i a l l y as i t  i n v o l v e d a c t i o n a g a i n s t some v e r y c l o s e r e l a t i v e s .  however, t h a t i f the a l c o h o l problem was  Both b e l i e v e d ,  t o be s e r i o u s l y c h a l l e n g e d , such  T h i s gave v i l l a g e r e s i d e n t s reason  to b e l i e v e  were d e t e r m i n e d i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o d e a l w i t h the  a l c o h o l p r o b l e m , and  but  activity.  T h i s d e c i s i o n t o t a k e such s t r o n g measures a g a i n s t the  had  by  reserve's  t h a t t o f u r t h e r t h i s cause t h e i r c h i e f was  t o u s e h i s p o w e r s o f o f f i c e t o t h e f u l l e s t ( f o r e x a m p l e , by  willing  utilizing  o u t s i d e b o d i e s o f a u t h o r i t y , s u c h as t h e R.C.M.P., a move w h i c h w i t h i n m o s t I n d i a n r e s e r v e c o m m u n i t i e s i s u s u a l l y done o n l y u n d e r circumstances  {Hawthorn e t a l . I 9 6 0 ] ) .  showed t h a t Andy and  P h y l l i s Chelsea  upon c l o s e f a m i l y a s w e l l a s t h o s e believe,  was  a  Band  As w e l l , the b o o t l e g g i n g i n c i d e n t were prepared  t o impose  sanctions  more d i s t a n t l y r e l a t e d .  This, I  of fundamental s i g n i f i c a n c e .  (or a f r e q u e n t c r i t i c i s m , chief w i l l  use  extreme  I t i s a common e x p e c t a t i o n  depending on one's r e l a t i o n t o the c h i e f ) t h a t the  position  to  provide  favours  to  r e l a t i v e s . Through the b o o t l e g g i n g i n c i d e n t the C h i e f broke t h i s  closer implicit  e x p e c t a t i o n , w h i c h f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e d t o t h e Band h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n  to  f i g h t the a l c o h o l problem on the r e s e r v e . F i n a l l y , C h e l s e a , due  t o h i s o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n , b e l i e v e d he had  r i g h t t o t a k e measures t o improve the w e l f a r e of the Band membership. was  the He  i n o f f i c e by the m a j o r i t y v o t e , and i f Band members were unhappy w i t h  h i s a c t i o n s they c o u l d remove him from o f f i c e . I n t h i s f i r s t a c t i o n a g a i n s t a l c o h o l we 30  g e t an i n i t i a l g l i m p s e  of  what may  be c o n s i d e r e d the c r u c i a l r e s o u r c e s i n t h e i n i t i a t o r y p e r i o d o f  t h e S o b r i e t y movement: the s t r e n g t h , courage and  d e t e r m i n a t i o n of  these  two i n d i v i d u a l s t o improve t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f l i f e on t h e r e s e r v e . In another Andy C h e l s e a  measure t o c u t o f f the a l c o h o l s u p p l y t o t h e  c o n f r o n t e d the d r i v e r of t h e Dog  h i s r e g u l a r l i q u o r d e l i v e r i e s and t h a t t i m e on.  village,  Creek Stage d u r i n g one  forbade him  of  t o enter the reserve from  T h i s i s r e p o r t e d by Band members a s one  of the major  s t e p s t a k e n by t h e C h i e f i n t h i s i n i t i a t o r y p e r i o d ; however t h e r e i s some testimony  t o i n d i c a t e t h a t the Stage d i d i n f a c t c o n t i n u e t o t a k e A l k a l i  passengers  t o and f r o m W i l l i a m s Lake.  Further f i e l d w o r k i s necessary  to  by P h y l l i s and Andy C h e l s e a  to  c l a r i f y t h e d e t a i l s of t h i s i s s u e .  The S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Voucher System The  second major step undertaken  c o m b a t a l c o h o l use on t h e r e s e r v e was A s s i s t a n c e (S.A.) program.  to gain c o n t r o l over the  P r i o r t o 1974  t h i s program was  t h r o u g h t h e D.I.A. o f f i c e i n W i l l i a m s L a k e .  to receive Social  directly  officer  of  administrated  T h i s meant t h a t an  L a k e Band member w i s h i n g to a designated  Social  the  Alkali  A s s i s t a n c e would  Department,  who  apply  would  be  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e v a l u a t i n g t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s and d e l i v e r i n g the monthly cheques. Chelsea  A f t e r t r a i n i n g f o r s e v e r a l months, i n A p r i l  became the Band's  Welfare  1974  Phyllis  A i d e ( l a t e r t h i s p o s i t i o n was  called  Band S o c i a l Worker), and assumed t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i n t e r v i e w i n g S.A. c l i e n t s and  d i s t r i b u t i n g t h e S.A.,  f a m i l y a l l o w a n c e and o l d age  pensions  w i t h i n t h e A l k a l i community. The  Chelseas  saw  control  over  the  S.A.  resource i n t h e i r campaign a g a i n s t a l c o h o l .  31  program  as a  critical  S.A. c h e q u e s r e p r e s e n t e d  primary source of cash income f o r the majority of the reserve residents, and thus the main fund from which a l c o h o l was purchased. S.A. a t t i m e s r e s u l t e d  i n neglect  Misuse  of  of the needs of c h i l d r e n on the  reserve: S o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e was f i r s t [the f i r s t program to be taken over by the Band] because i t was the problem, because i t had something to do with the kids, i t had something to do with the parents. The parents were always drunk. When you see k i d s walking into the school that don't have any breakfast or don't even have nothing...Everyone was d r i n k i n g and n e g l e c t i n g k i d s . The person who was here for education was r e a l l y supportive of what we were doing. He was asking us how come these k i d s are coming to school l i k e this?... You know, you go i n t o the home and v i s i t somebody, and i n s t e a d of o f f e r i n g you a c o f f e e or something they offer you a glass of wine, early i n the morning yet. That didn't make sense. I guess i t was r e a l l y why i t was f i r s t [A.C.].  The  Chelseas  were d i s s a t i s f i e d with D.I.A. handling  of the S.A. program.  The D.I.A. employee r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the program d i d not v i s i t the reserve or p e r s o n a l l y i n t e r v i e w the c l i e n t s on a r e g u l a r basis, and when the problem of misuse of the money was pointed out, the D.I.A. employee was r e l u c t a n t to take a c t i o n . On o c c a s i o n  the S.A.  cheques were sent out by m a i l v i a the s t o r e a t the nearby A l k a l i Lake Ranch, and problems related to control of the money arose: There was a l o t of c o m p l a i n t s about the s t o r e down a t the A l k a l i Ranch. We found out where the people were g e t t i n g the money. The Department was sending the S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e cheques d i r e c t l y . When that happened, [the storekeeper] just grabbed them a l l , without authorization from the person that has that S.A. - open i t up, get them to s i g n i t , gather a l l t h e i r money and then the people had nothing. I t was l i k e a bank...the storekeeper was drinking with his own customers. A l l the money t h a t was taken from the s t o r e , money l e f t over f o r groceries and s t u f f - i f the people asked for i t they'd get i t , then they'd turn around and order wine on the Stage [A.C.].  The  store at the A l k a l i Ranch was also the closest grocery store to  the reserve,  and many Band members believed that the store was cheating 32  i t s I n d i a n customers.  I n r e a c t i o n , i n 1973  Band member d e c i d e d t o open t h e i r own reserve.  P h y l l i s C h e l s e a and  s m a l l g r o c e r y s t o r e on the A l k a l i  (The Band assumed o w n e r s h i p o f the s t o r e i n 1976.)  By a c h i e v i n g c o n t r o l o v e r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e S.A. April  another  1974,  and  i n opening  program i n  t h e f o o d s t o r e on t h e r e s e r v e , Andy  and  P h y l l i s C h e l s e a d e c r e a s e d t h e c o n t r o l t h a t t h e A l k a l i Ranch s t o r e  had  over the r e s e r v e r e s i d e n t s .  P h y l l i s C h e l s e a now  had t h e  authority,  i n h e r e n t i n h e r p o s i t i o n a s W e l f a r e A i d e , t o e n s u r e t h a t S.A. w e r e b e i n g u s e d t o s u p p l y t h e b a s i c n e c e s s i t i e s o f f o o d and  cheques  clothing,  i n s t e a d o f b e i n g spent on a l c o h o l . Once t h e S.A.  p r o g r a m was i n t h e Band's c o n t r o l , P h y l l i s C h e l s e a ,  a s t h e W e l f a r e A i d e , began t o t a k e s t e p s i n an a t t e m p t r e s e r v e ' s problems  o f d r i n k i n g and c h i l d n e g l e c t .  to reduce  the  E a r l i e r i n the month  t h e C h e l s e a s had d r a f t e d a s e t o f g u i d e l i n e s f o r a v o u c h e r s y s t e m ,  and  had a r r a n g e d t o h a v e t h e v o u c h e r s p r i n t e d and r e a d y by t h e end o f t h e month.  Andy C h e l s e a had approached  the manager o f a department  store i n  W i l l i a m s Lake, and a f t e r he had p r e s e n t e d h i s p l a n t o reduce t h e a l c o h o l p r o b l e m on t h e r e s e r v e , t h e manager had a g r e e d t o h a v e h i s s t o r e a c c e p t v o u c h e r s f r o m A l k a l i L a k e Band members.  department  Band members  s u b s e q u e n t l y were i n f o r m e d ( e i t h e r by word of mouth, o r when they came t o Phyllis  Chelsea  to  collect  their  S.A.  allottment) that  r e c i p i e n t s who  w e r e " d r i n k i n g up t h e i r money",  r e s e r v e , would  h a v e t h e i r S.A.  Lake.  In the f i r s t  a s s i g n e d t o a l l S.A. r e c i p i e n t s . the  reserve,  this  action  was  S.A.  o r b o o t l e g g i n g on t h e  c h e q u e s r e p l a c e d by f o o d o r  vouchers redeemable a t t h e r e s e r v e s t o r e o r a t Williams  those  t h e department  month o f Band c o n t r o l  clothing store i n  vouchers  were  G i v e n t h e h i g h u n e m p l o y m e n t r a t e on felt  population. 33  by  almost  the  entire  reserve  Band members were outraged Chelsea p e r s i s t e d .  by t h i s a c t i o n .  Nevertheless,  I n t h e second month two e l d e r l y people  p u t on v o u c h e r s b e c a u s e o f t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t came t o P h y l l i s C h e l s e a t o d i s c u s s t h e problem.  Phyllis  who had been  i n bootlegging a c t i v i t i e s They d e c i d e d t o p u t an  end t o t h e b o o t l e g g i n g , and t h a t month r e c e i v e d a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e form o f cheques, w h i l e t h e o t h e r S.A. a p p l i c a n t s remained on vouchers. m o n t h s w o r e on o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s w e r e t a k e n demonstrated drinking.  a w i l l i n g n e s s t o stop  As t h e  o f f v o u c h e r s when t h e y  bootlegging  or to t r y t o stop  I t was up t o t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e W e l f a r e A i d e t o d e t e r m i n e  whether i n d i v i d u a l s were a c t u a l l y making c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t s i n t h e s e regards.  Chelsea's  method o f e v a l u a t i o n was n o t s o much b a s e d on  objective c r i t e r i a of a c t u a l instances of drinking,  b u t r a t h e r on a  c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e p e r s o n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f e a c h i n d i v i d u a l and an assessment o f t h a t person's a t t i t u d e toward  t h e problem o f a l c o h o l .  D e s p i t e t h e extreme u n p o p u l a r i t y o f t h i s measure, and extreme s o c i a l p r e s s u r e on t h e C h e l s e a s , and i s s t i l l  t h e S.A. voucher system c o n t i n u e d  t o operate  u t i l i z e d a t A l k a l i Lake.  Individual Confrontation A method o f i n d i v i d u a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n was a l s o u t i l i z e d  by Andy and  P h y l l i s C h e l s e a i n o r d e r t o c o n t r o l d r i n k i n g b e h a v i o u r on t h e r e s e r v e and to  promote  the value  of sobriety.  A c o n f r o n t a t i o n was  typically after a specific alcohol-related the two f e l t compelled  t o i n t e r v e n e , o r a concerned  (usually a close r e l a t i v e to the i n d i v i d u a l that  the Welfare  problem.  incident,  initiated  a f t e r which  either  c o m m u n i t y member  t o be c o n f r o n t e d )  requested  Aide or the Chief intervene t o t r y t o r e s o l v e the  Incidents of violent  a s s a u l t a n d c h i l d n e g l e c t w e r e common  examples o f t h e e v e n t s w h i c h prompted c o n f r o n t a t i o n .  34  The  approach of  Phyllis  and  Andy  Chelsea  i n d i v i d u a l was generally low-key and personal.  in  confronting  an  The overriding tone was  one of concern f o r the i n d i v i d u a l and f o r "what a l c o h o l was doing to him".  First,  actions,  of the individual's recent  and the negative impact of those a c t i o n s on others would be  pointed out. initiatory  A second component of c o n f r o n t a t i o n emerged l a t e r i n the period.  appropriate, choice:  disapproval would be expressed  When P h y l l i s  or  Andy Chelsea  deemed  the  the i n d i v i d u a l being confronted would be presented  e i t h e r he do something about h i s d r i n k i n g ("doing  about his drinking  time  with a  something"  meant that i n some way the i n d i v i d u a l was to make a  g e n e r a l e f f o r t to stop d r i n k i n g - l a t e r i n the i n i t i a t o r y p e r i o d t h i s became  specified  participate.in  more often  to  mean that  an a l c o h o l i s m  treatment  the  individual  was  program), or accept  to the  consequences that would be imposed. These consequences would be c l e a r l y spelled out.  For example,  the  Human Resources Agency might be called i n to remove the children from his home, the i n d i v i d u a l might lose his job with the Band or his home on the r e s e r v e , or the R.C.M.P. might be c a l l e d i n to l a y charges, depending on the  specific  incident  that  spurred the  confrontation,  and on  Chelsea's assessment of what might be an e f f e c t i v e d e t e r r e n t p a r t i c u l a r case.  in  the the  Again, as with the use of the S o c i a l Assistance voucher  system, the sanctions were applied not so much i n an authoritarian manner (by which I mean as a response s i m p l y to the breaking of a r u l e , or the enactment of " i n a p p r o p r i a t e " behaviour, without c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the person who took such an a c t i o n ) as i n a p e r s o n a l manner, i n which the individual's circumstances and attitude were taken into consideration i n deciding when and what sanctions were to be imposed.  35  I t c a n be s e e n o n c e a g a i n t h a t Andy and P h y l l i s C h e l s e a  d r e w upon  t h e powers o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e o f f i c e s i n o r d e r t o a p p l y t h e s e  controls.  I n t h e p e r i o d between 1973-76 t h e r e were a number o f i n s t a n c e s i n w h i c h t h e Human Resources Agency ( W i l l i a m s Lake o f f i c e )  was  c a l l e d i n by  the  W e l f a r e A i d e t o h e l p d e a l w i t h a s i t u a t i o n of c h i l d n e g l e c t or abuse. The  Agency c o - o p e r a t e d  solution.  w i t h the Welfare  Aide to reach a compromise  I n s t e a d of removing c h i l d r e n f r o m t h e r e s e r v e , w h i c h was  t y p i c a l response  the  o f the Agency i n such c a s e s , c h i l d r e n were p l a c e d i n t h e  homes o f o t h e r r e s e r v e f a m i l i e s where a s a f e r environment e x i s t e d .  Other A c t i o n s I n 1973, a t t h e r e q u e s t o f Andy and P h y l l i s C h e l s e a , a c o u n s e l l o r f r o m t h e W i l l i a m s L a k e A l c o h o l and D r u g P r o g r a m began t o h o l d " A l c o h o l Awareness" m e e t i n g s on t h e A l k a l i r e s e r v e .  weekly  This counsellor  was  a l s o a B r o t h e r o f the O b l a t e s o f Mary Immaculate, an o r d e r o f t h e Roman Catholic  church.  The  A l c o h o l Awareness meetings,  e x p l i c i t r e l i g i o u s content.  During  h o w e v e r , had  no  the meetings v a r i o u s t o p i c s r e l a t e d  t o a l c o h o l i s m w o u l d be d i s c u s s e d o r p r e s e n t e d t h r o u g h f i l m s o r t a p e s . The  m e e t i n g s w e r e o p e n t o a l l Band members, w i t h t h e  receiving  follow-up  Attendance ranged evenings the  visits  by  the  between f i f t e e n  when f i l m s were p r e s e n t e d ,  meeting took  the format  problems (Bickford p e r s i s t e n c e and  1981).  and  participants  counsellor in their twenty  dropping  individuals  on  homes. those  t o perhaps o n l y f i v e when  of group d i s c u s s i o n of  alcohol-related  A number o f Band members c l a i m t h a t  moral support  provided  significant role in their decisions  by t h i s  the  c o u n s e l l o r played  t o become s o b e r .  A f t e r 1976  a  the  A l c o h o l Awareness m e e t i n g s were r e o r g a n i z e d t o assume t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e A l c o h o l i c s Anonymous  meetings.  36  I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t Andy C h e l s e a d i d n o t t r y t o use Band b y - l a w s t o r e d u c e a l c o h o l u s e on t h e r e s e r v e . his part.  T h i s was a c o n s c i o u s d e c i s i o n on  F i r s t of a l l , a by-law r e q u i r e d the approval of the m a j o r i t y  o f t h e Band's e l i g i b l e v o t e r s ( a s s p e c i f i e d i n t h e I n d i a n A c t ) , a n d i t was  unlikely  important, method  that  such  approval  could  have  however, t h e by-law approach was c o n s i d e r e d  of dealing  with  t h e a l c o h o l problem.  a l c o h o l i s m h e l d by Andy and P h y l l i s C h e l s e a was  seen a s a d i s e a s e .  drinking.  been  An a l c o h o l i c  achieved.  More  an i n a p p r o p r i a t e  The p h i l o s o p h y  of  was one i n w h i c h a l c o h o l i s m  could  n o t be f o r c e d  t o stop  O n l y i f t h e a l c o h o l i c h i m s e l f made t h e d e c i s i o n t o s t o p  d r i n k i n g , and c o n s c i o u s l y worked a t p e r p e t u a t i n g h i s s o b r i e t y , c o u l d t h e d i s e a s e be c o n t r o l l e d .  The u s e o f b y - l a w s was s e e n by C h e l s e a a s t o o  extreme a measure, and one t h a t would p r o b a b l y have been i n e f f e c t i v e .  RESPONSE OF THE COMMUNITY The Band C o u n c i l Some d e c i s i o n s e n a c t e d reserve housing required  by Andy C h e l s e a ,  and t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  such as those  regarding  o f t h e S.A. v o u c h e r  system,  t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e Band C o u n c i l ( i . e . t h e p a s s i n g o f a Band  C o u n c i l R e s o l u t i o n ) t o be o f f i c i a l a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e p o w e r s o f C h i e f and C o u n c i l a s s t a t e d i n t h e I n d i a n A c t . t h i s c o n s e n t was a l w a y s r e a d i l y o b t a i n e d which a C o u n c i l l o r attempted t o block C o u n c i l l o r i n t h e 1970s s t a t e d :  37  Apparently,  I know o f no s i t u a t i o n i n  the Chief's d e c i s i o n .  As one  I r e m e m b e r when Andy s t a r t e d . I was on Band C o u n c i l , I was d r i n k i n g when I was on Band C o u n c i l . B u t i f you w e r e t a l k i n g a b o u t a d r u n k , and I was s i t t i n g t h e r e , I n e v e r w o u l d h a v e b e l i e v e d t h a t you were t a l k i n g about me...I'd t e l l m y s e l f "He's n o t t a l k i n g a b o u t me, I'm n o t p a r t o f t h e p r o b l e m . I t ' s them o t h e r guys"... You a l w a y s w o u l d s a y "Yeah", b e c a u s e y o u don't t h i n k a b o u t " W e l l , how was t h i s c o n n e c t e d " , y o u don't t h i n k " W e l l , I'm g o i n g t o be c o n f r o n t e d , b e c a u s e now i t ' s Andy and P h y l l i s looking after this".  The Reserve Community Band members w e r e a l l o u t r a g e d  by t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e C h e l s e a s ,  b e l i e v i n g t h a t t h e s e two had no r i g h t t o t e l l o t h e r Band members what t o do o r how t o l i v e t h e i r l i v e s .  The f i r m p o s i t i o n t a k e n by t h e s e t w o on  a l c o h o l r e s u l t e d i n t h e i r s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n , f i r s t because as n o n - d r i n k e r s they were e x c l u d e d from  a main form o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n - t h a t based  on a l c o h o l -  and s e c o n d b e c a u s e o f t h e h o s t i l i t y o f Band members.  times  lives  their  were  threatened  N e v e r t h e l e s s , they p e r s i s t e d .  for their  anti-alcohol  At  stance.  They c o u n t e r e d t h i s h o s t i l i t y by i n s i s t i n g  t h a t t h e s e a c t i o n s a g a i n s t a l c o h o l were m o t i v a t e d o n l y by a c o n c e r n f o r t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e Band. to  P h y l l i s and Andy C h e l s e a made c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t s  maintain informal s o c i a l contact with the v i l l a g e  r e s i d e n t s , by  c o n t i n u i n g t o drop i n t o v i s i t f a m i l y and f r i e n d s as w e l l a s i n d i v i d u a l s who were h a v i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t t i m e s r e l a t e d t o a l c o h o l .  P h y l l i s would v i s i t . I don't know i f s h e e v e r came when we w e r e o u t o f i t ! B u t on Monday l i k e we w o u l d s o m e t i m e s be a l l s o b e r by t h e n , she'd s t i l l come and v i s i t u s and t a l k w i t h u s , and she'd t e l l us h e r own p r o b l e m s . We'd s a y "Oh, s h e h a s t h e same problems we have" b u t , n o t r e a l l y b a w l i n g us o u t , but j u s t t e l l i n g us how h e r s i d e o f i t was. And t h a t h e l p e d , you'd know t h i s p e r s o n has t h e same problems as you do. What they were i n seemed t o be h e l p i n g t h e m , s o , we g o t more and more t o s e e t h e i r s i d e o f i t . [Female i n f o r m a n t , age 36.]  38  A f u r t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h i s i n t e r e s t i n i n i t i a t i n g and  maintaining  c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e community was t h e c r e a t i o n by Andy and P h y l l i s C h e l s e a o f t h e community newspaper " A l k a l i Speaks". f i r s t introduced  i n O c t o b e r 1973, c o n t a i n e d  well  f r o m t h e Band C o u n c i l ,  as r e p o r t s  news o f r e s e r v e  the reserve  v a r i o u s c l u b s and groups w i t h i n t h e community. a l c o h o l and a l c o h o l i s m  The monthly paper, events as  school,  and t h e  One o r two a r t i c l e s on  w e r e u s u a l l y i n c l u d e d , b u t t h i s t o p i c was n o t a  dominant theme o f t h e newspaper.  Band E l e c t i o n s : 1974-76 The u l t i m a t e  justification  used  by Andy C h e l s e a r e g a r d i n g h i s  e f f o r t s t o combat t h e a l c o h o l problem was t h a t he was a c t i n g w i t h i n h i s official  capacity  as c h i e f .  reasoned, they could paradox t h a t  despite  I f t h e c o m m u n i t y d i d n o t a p p r o v e , he  remove h i m f r o m o f f i c e . t h e i r outrage a t h i s a c t i o n s ,  r e - e l e c t e d C h e l s e a t o o f f i c e i n t h e 1974-76 In  the February  bootlegging  1974 e l e c t i o n s  I t i s somewhat o f a Band members  period.  ( j u s t a few months  a r r e s t s ) C h e l s e a was r e - e l e c t e d  no o t h e r n o m i n a t i o n s f o r t h e p o s i t i o n .  twice  by a c c l a m a t i o n ,  after the there  being  H i s r e - e l e c t i o n may have been a  r e s u l t o f no one e l s e w a n t i n g t h e j o b , i n s t e a d o f b e i n g an e x p r e s s i o n o f support f o r theChief.  I heard from two d i f f e r e n t sources, however,  t h a t a t t h e n o m i n a t i o n s meeting^an e l d e r l y woman, who j u s t a few months ago had been e x t r e m e l y angry w i t h t h e C h i e f because h e r son had been one of t h e seven a r r e s t e d f o r b o o t l e g g i n g , Chelsea, c l a i m i n g  s t o o d up t o v o i c e s u p p o r t f o r Andy  t h a t he was s t r o n g and j u s t what t h e Band needed.  t h e c o u r s e o f my f i e l d w o r k  In  I a s k e d t h i s woman w h a t C h e l s e a was l i k e i n  t h e e a r l y d a y s , when he had j u s t been e l e c t e d , t o w h i c h s h e r e p l i e d "He  39  was a w f u l " , and m e n t i o n e d s u c h e x a m p l e s a s t h e v o u c h e r s y s t e m and t h e bootlegging arrests. he r e - e l e c t e d ? him".  I t h e n a s k e d h e r i f he d i d s u c h t h i n g s , why  She responded s i m p l y "He was mean.  That's \*hy we  was chose  T h i s response i n d i c a t e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e x p l o r i n g t h e expected  r o l e o f t h e Band c h i e f i n s o c i a l c o n t r o l f o r o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f Andy Chelsea's apparent p o p u l a r i t y . In t h e F e b r u a r y 1976 e l e c t i o n s C h e l s e a r e c e i v e d a c l e a r mandate from the  community.  There were s i x c a n d i d a t e s f o r the p o s i t i o n of c h i e f .  Andy C h e l s e a r e c e i v e d 5A o f t h e t o t a l 82 v o t e s c a s t ( r e p r e s e n t i n g a 59 percent voter turn-out).  H i s c l o s e s t c o m p e t i t o r r e c e i v e d o n l y 11 v o t e s .  There were a number o f i n s t a n c e s i n the 1974-76 p e r i o d when C h e l s e a , frustrated  by t h e a p a t h y and  o p p o s i t i o n of the community  threatened to r e s i g n from o f f i c e .  members,  On one o c c a s i o n he w e n t a s f a r a s t o  p r e s e n t t h e Band w i t h a l e t t e r o f r e s i g n a t i o n , a c o n d e n s e d  v e r s i o n of  which f o l l o w s :  June 2,  1976  To whom i t may c o n c e r n : T h i s i s t o l e t e v e r y o n e know t h a t , I w i s h t o be r e l e a s e d from the r o l e as c h i e f . I never l e t t h e name go over what t h e p e o p l e w a n t e d . My i d e a s a r e s t i l l t h e r e , b u t i t [ s e e m s ] t h e p e o p l e w a n t t o d r i n k t h e m s e l v e s t o d e a t h , I f e e l t h a t I am w a s t i n g my t i m e and the people's money on something t h a t they t h e m s e l v e s don't r e a l l y w a n t . What I mean i s t h a t you a r e p a y i n g me, f o r s o m e t h i n g t h a t you don't w a n t , s o why s h o u l d I d r i v e m y s e l f t o where, I'm not wanted by the whole band... Of a l l t h e p r o b l e m s t h a t ... we have had i n t h e p a s t , I h a v e s a t and t h o u g h t t h i s o u t . L a n d C l a i m s b e i n g t h e b i g g e s t t h i n g h a p p e n i n g a l l o v e r B.C. and p o s s i b l y a s e t t l e m e n t o v e r t h e n e x t t w o y e a r s , so I hope you g e t o f f b u t t s and do s o m e t h i n g , o t h e r w i s e you w i l l be s e t t i n g t h e r e u n t i l t h e government w a l k s up t o you and a s k s you, what you want, and i f you t e l l t h e m l a n d t h e n you b e t t e r be r e a d y t o t e l l them w h a t you a r e g o i n g t o use t h a t l a n d f o r o r you w i l l not get i t .  40  And a s f o r y o u p e o p l e t h a t d r i n k e v e r y penny y o u g e t , a f t e r w o r k i n g y o u r a s s o f f , t h e y w i l l hand y o u a c h e q u e a n d t e l l you Okay you a r e n o t an I n d i a n anymore. I f you don't b e l i e v e t h i s , ask some o f t h e O l d t i m e r s t h a t a r e s t i l l around. You a r e e n t i t l e d t o more money and l a n d then you h a v e now. And i f y o u don't p u t y o u r head's t o g e t h e r t h e n you a r e g o i n g t o l o s e i t a l l . I f [ y o u ] don't h a v e a l e a d e r t h a t w i l l work w i t h a l l t h e people you a r e a l s o i n t r o u b l e ; t h e same p e o p l e o r f a m i l y o f t h e l e a d e r a l w a y s expect's something e x t r a because o f t h e f a m i l y r e l a t i o n . . . I e x p e c t t h a t some body w i l l c a l l a m e e t i n g when y o u a l l get t h i s l e t t e r , I hope you w i l l a l l [ a c c e p t ] t h i s a s a t o t a l r e s i g n a t i o n o f a l l band b u s i n e s s , Your So C a l l e d C h i e f , Andy C h e l s e a  A g a i n , i n t h i s l e t t e r we s e e t h a t C h e l s e a was g e n e r a l l y  concerned  w i t h t h e p o l i t i c a l and e c o n o m i c advancement o f t h e Band, b u t b e l i e v e d that from  t h e c o n t i n u e d abuse o f a l c o h o l would  i n h i b i t any such advancement  occuring. Upon r e c e i v i n g t h i s n o t i c e some Band members d i d c a l l a g e n e r a l  meeting i n an a t t e m p t t o d i s c u s s t h e i s s u e and encourage in  o f f i c e ; however,  Chelsea t o stay  t h e m e e t i n g was n o t n e c e s s a r y a s by t h e n he h a d  withdrawn h i s r e s i g n a t i o n .  OPPOSITION FROM THE CATHOLIC CHURCH The presence o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e C a t h o l i c c h u r c h i n t h e A l k a l i Lake v i l l a g e extends back over one hundred  years.  I t i s undeniable that  t h r o u g h t h i s t i m e t h e c h u r c h has had some r o l e i n s o c i a l c o n t r o l w i t h i n the community (see Chapter S i x ) .  B e t w e e n t h e l a t e 1800s a n d t h e m i d -  1900s t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e Band c h i e f a n d t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e c h u r c h 41  seemed t o merge somewhat, a s up u n t i l 1940 the Band c h i e f appeared t o a c t under the a u t h o r i t y o f , o r a t l e a s t i n c o n j u n c t i o n  with, the Catholic  c h u r c h i n c o n t r o l l i n g b e h a v i o u r deemed t o be "immoral", o f t e n w i t h punishment used as a n e g a t i v e control,  operating  sanction.  on t h e r e s e r v e  Another  body  strict  of s o c i a l  s i n c e t h e 1 9 5 0 s , was t h e "Women's  group"; however, t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h i s group appears t o have been l i m i t e d t o t h e a b i l i t y t o impose r u l e s r e g a r d i n g  t h e b e h a v i o u r o f c h i l d r e n on t h e  r e s e r v e ( J o h n s o n 1984). Through  t h e decades  preceding  t h e emergence  of the Sobriety  movement t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e C a t h o l i c c h u r c h , and t h e e f f e c t i v e e x e r c i s e of t h e Band c h i e f ' s a u t h o r i t y , d i m i n i s h e d . generation  o f t h e younger  h a d r e j e c t e d t h e v a l u e s a n d b e l i e f s o f C a t h o l i c i s m , a n d no  l o n g e r a t t e n d e d c h u r c h (Brow 1 9 6 7 ) . was  The m a j o r i t y  The Band c h i e f d u r i n g t h i s  r e l u c t a n t t o a t t e m p t t o c o n t r o l t h e b e h a v i o u r o f o t h e r Band members,  f o r w h i c h he was o f t e n c r i t i c i z e d by t h e e l d e r l y p e o p l e . a t t e m p t such c o n t r o l h i s a u t h o r i t y one  period  was n o t r e c o g n i z e d .  When he d i d Brow r e l a t e s  i n c i d e n t when t h e Band c h i e f d i d c a l l t h e R.C.M.P. t o t h e r e s e r v e t o  b r e a k up a f i g h t , a f t e r w h i c h t h i s c h i e f was s e v e r e l y interference.  Thus, j u s t p r i o r t o t h e i n i t i a t i o n  movement, t h e r e  w e r e no e f f e c t i v e b o d i e s o f f o r m a l  operating  beaten f o r h i s of the Sobriety social  control  on t h e r e s e r v e .  I t was shown a b o v e t h a t t h e S o b r i e t y movement was i n i t i a t e d  with  Andy C h e l s e a ' s e l e c t i o n a s Band c h i e f , a n d t h a t he u s e d h i s p o w e r s o f o f f i c e t o f u r t h e r t h e cause o f s o b r i e t y .  One avenue o f r e c o u r s e f o r t h e  Band members was t o r e m o v e C h e l s e a f r o m frequently  office  (the  reminded t h e Band membership o f t h i s o p t i o n ) ,  a t t e m p t was ever made.  Chief  himself  yet  no such  Another method o f r e s o l u t i o n p o s s i b l e was f o r  42  Band members t o l e a v e the A l k a l i Lake community. any,  took  this  opposition Andy and  measure.^  Instead,  members e x p r e s s e d  t o the a n t i - a l c o h o l t a c t i c s by a p p l y i n g P h y l l i s C h e l s e a , and  on some o c c a s i o n s  d i r e c t t h r e a t s on t h e i r l i v e s .  The  two  p e r s i s t i n g i n the f a c e of such s t r o n g The  Band  Catholic  opposition  to  P r i e s t on  the  Andy C h e l s e a ' s  I t seems t h a t few, i f  personal  pressure  by m a k i n g v e i l e d  month.  women on  the  Alkali  tactics.  A f t e r the  reserve The  also  P r i e s t was  voiced a  The  Priest himself  bootlegger,  was  reportedly  strong  part-time several  composed m a i n l y of the e l d e r l y initiation  of  the  campaign i t g r a d u a l l y became apparent t h a t Andy C h e l s e a w o u l d n o t be a b l e t o w o r k t o g e t h e r  or  pressure.  H i s c o n g r e g a t i o n was  reserve.  on  demonstrated t h e i r f o r t i t u d e i n  r e s i d e n t i n the A l k a l i v i l l a g e , h o l d i n g church s e r v i c e s there t i m e s per  their  anti-alcohol and  the P r i e s t  t o p r o m o t e s o b r i e t y on t h e a h e a v y d r i n k e r and  an  reserve.  occasional  and he s i d e d w i t h t h e Band members i n t h e i r r e s e n t m e n t o f  Chelsea's e f f o r t s to c o n t r o l t h e i r l i f e s t y l e s .  A l t h o u g h t h e r e was  a  t r a d i t i o n i n e x i s t e n c e w i t h i n the C a t h o l i c church to help i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h a l c o h o l problems - t h i s t r a d i t i o n c o n s i s t e d of a ceremony o f f i c i a t e d by  the  P r i e s t i n w h i c h an  i n d i v i d u a l made a p l e d g e on  the  Bible  r e f r a i n from d r i n k i n g a l c o h o l f o r a c e r t a i n p e r i o d of t i m e - i t r e l a t e d t o me  to was  i n s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s t h a t the P r i e s t would not p e r f o r m t h i s  duty when i t had  been r e q u e s t e d .  As community h o s t i l i t y mounted t o w a r d the a n t i - a l c o h o l campaign of P h y l l i s and  Andy C h e l s e a , the P r i e s t became i n c r e a s i n g l y opposed t o  C h i e f , and  attempted to m o b i l i z e the community to oust Chelsea from  office.  These a t t e m p t s were u n s u c c e s s f u l ,  even though t h e  Priest  the  and  the community were u n i t e d i n t h e i r d i s l i k e of Chelsea's a n t i - a l c o h o l tactics.  At one  p o i n t the P r i e s t went so f a r as t o a t t e m p t t o 43  organize  a Band m e e t i n g f o r t h e purpose o f removing t h e C h i e f f r o m o f f i c e . m e e t i n g never m a t e r i a l i z e d .  That  Thus i t was n o t t h e l a c k o f o r g a n i z a t i o n  per se t h a t i n h i b i t e d Band members from t a k i n g c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e i r c h i e f , a f a c t t h a t t h e P r i e s t o n l y l a t e r came t o r e a l i z e . The c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n t h e P r i e s t and C h e l s e a e v e n t u a l l y came t o a head.  One Sunday o u t s i d e t h e c h u r c h C h e l s e a  c o n f r o n t e d t h e P r i e s t and  demanded t h a t he l e a v e t h e r e s e r v e permanently.  A l e n g t h y and v i o l e n t  argument ensued, a f t e r which t h e P r i e s t i m m e d i a t e l y  departed from the  reserve as requested.  THE TURNING POINT I n t h e p e r i o d between 1973 and 1976 e f f o r t s t o promote s o b r i e t y on t h e r e s e r v e met w i t h l i t t l e s u c c e s s .  Only two i n d i v i d u a l s had f o l l o w e d  t h e e x a m p l e s e t by P h y l l i s and Andy C h e l s e a .  A c c o r d i n g t o most Band  members t h e t u r n i n g p o i n t f o r t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e S o b r i e t y movement came i n 1976, when a t o t a l o f t e n Band members a t t e n d e d a l c o h o l i s m programs.  treatment  Upon r e t u r n i n g t o A l k a l i t h e m a j o r i t y d e c i d e d t o a d o p t a  sober l i f e s t y l e .  T h i s trend continued i n the f o l l o w i n g years.  By 1981  i t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t 70 p e r c e n t , o r 115 o f t h e t o t a l o f 165 a d u l t s (over age 16) on t h e r e s e r v e were sober ( B i c k f o r d 1981), and by 1985 about 9095 p e r c e n t o f t h e a d u l t s were c o m m i t t e d t o s o b r i e t y ( f i e l d n o t e s ) .  SUMMARY The  following  questions  were  posed  i n the preceding  chapter  r e g a r d i n g t h e movement's i n i t i a t o r y p e r i o d : 1.  What r e s o u r c e s were c r i t i c a l  movement, and how were they m o b i l i z e d ?  44  i n the i n i t i a t i o n of the Sobriety  2.  W i t h what c o n t e x t u a l c o n s t r a i n t s ( i . e . f o r m s o f o p p o s i t i o n ) d i d  the movement l e a d e r s have t o contend? 3. 4.  What r o l e d i d t h i r d p a r t y s u p p o r t s  play?  How d i d t h e l e a d e r s j u s t i f y t h i s movement ( what image o f t h e  movement was c r e a t e d ) ? These q u e s t i o n s  may now be answered.  i n i t i a t o r y p e r i o d was a c h i e v e d utilization  of t h e i r  t h r o u g h t h e C h i e f ' s and t h e W e l f a r e Aide's  r e s p e c t i v e powers o f o f f i c e .  R.C.M.P. t o t h e r e s e r v e , t a k e o v e r instigation  Resource m o b i l i z a t i o n i n t h e  o f t h e S.A.  o f t h e S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e p r o g r a m and  voucher  system,  and c a l l i n g  R e s o u r c e s Agency were major t a c t i c s t h a t r e f l e c t e d The p e r s o n a l  Summoning t h e  official  powers.  resources  emotional  s t r e n g t h , courage and d e t e r m i n a t i o n ,  i n t h e Human  t h e use of these  of t h e two l e a d e r s ,  their  were a l s o c r i t i c a l i n t h i s  i n i t i a t o r y phase. Opposition  to their  t a c t i c s was i n t e n s e .  by t h e c o m m u n i t y m a i n l y  Opposition  was e x p r e s s e d  i n the form of extreme s o c i a l pressure.  l e a d e r s were s o c i a l l y i s o l a t e d , t h r e a t s w e r e made on t h e i r  and on a few o c c a s i o n s  lives.  veiled  The  or direct  Band members, h o w e v e r , made no  a t t e m p t t o remove Andy C h e l s e a f r o m o f f i c e .  He was r e - e l e c t e d t w i c e i n  the 1974-76 p e r i o d , and h i s o f f e r s o f r e s i g n a t i o n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d were not a c c e p t e d by o t h e r Band members. The  C h i e f encountered s t r o n g o p p o s i t i o n f r o m t h e C a t h o l i c P r i e s t a t  A l k a l i Lake.  The P r i e s t  s i d e d w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y o f Band members i n  t h e i r anger a t t h e Chief's a t t e m p t s t o a l t e r t h e i r d r i n k i n g l i f e s t y l e . The P r i e s t a t t e m p t e d t o m o b i l i z e community members t o have Chelse'a o u s t e d from o f f i c e . support,  This e f f o r t  failed,  despite the groundswell  of p u b l i c  and t h e P r i e s t ' s w i l l i n g n e s s t o l e a d and o r g a n i z e t h e o p p o s i t i o n  45  (and thus t a k e p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t s a c t i o n s ) . T h i r d party support played a c r u c i a l r o l e i n t h i s i n i t i a t o r y  phase.  Andy a n d P h y l l i s C h e l s e a w e r e a b l e t o s e c u r e t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f t h e R.C.M.P., who, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e w i s h e s o f t h e s e two, d e l i b e r a t e l y d i d n o t charge b o o t l e g g e r s under t h e I n d i a n A c t , t h u s making i t l i k e l y t h a t t h e charges  w o u l d be d i s m i s s e d i n c o u r t ; t h e Human R e s o u r c e s A g e n t , who  p e r m i t t e d n e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n t o r e m a i n i n f o s t e r homes on t h e A l k a l i r e s e r v e ; a n d t h e manager o f a d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e i n W i l l i a m s L a k e , who agreed  t o accept  members.  Social  A s s i s t a n c e vouchers from  Alkali  Lake  Band  The t w o a l s o g a i n e d t h e s u p p o r t o f a d e d i c a t e d c o u n s e l l o r  f r o m t h e W i l l i a m s Lake  Drug and A l c o h o l Program, who e s t a b l i s h e d w e e k l y  A l c o h o l A w a r e n e s s m e e t i n g s on t h e r e s e r v e and made p e r s o n a l v i s i t s t o communty members.  Finally,  both P h y l l i s and Andy C h e l s e a  stated  i n t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d they gained a g r e a t d e a l o f m o r a l s u p p o r t  that  from one  o f t h e t e a c h e r s o f t h e r e s e r v e s c h o o l , who became a c l o s e p e r s o n a l friend. The  leaders j u s t i f i e d  t h e i r a n t i - a l c o h o l campaign by c l a i m i n g t h a t  i t was f o r t h e good o f t h e Band members. alcoholism frequent countered  They e x p r e s s e d  the view that  was a d i s e a s e , a n d t h a t p r o b l e m s on t h e r e s e r v e s u c h a s  v i o l e n c e and c h i l d the effect  that  neglect their  were  tactics  i t s consequence. were  having  on  They their  r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h c o m m u n i t y members by m a k i n g p u r p o s e f u l e f f o r t s t o m a i n t a i n i n f o r m a l p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h a l l members o f t h e v i l l a g e .  The  u l t i m a t e j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f Andy Chelsea's a c t i o n s was t h a t a s t h e e l e c t e d Band c h i e f , he h a d t h e m a n d a t e o f t h e c o m m u n i t y t o do a s he saw f i t t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e Band.  When o p p o s i t i o n t o h i s t a c t i c s  became s t r o n g , he r e m i n d e d t h e Band t h a t t h e y c o u l d r e m o v e h i m f r o m o f f i c e i f they chose.  T h i s c o u r s e o f a c t i o n was never t a k e n .  46  A p a r t f r o m t h e a b o v e m e n t i o n e d s t r a t e g i e s and t a c t i c s , t w o o t h e r f a c t o r s may have c o n t r i b u t e d  t o t h e d r a m a t i c change t h a t  began i n 1976.  F i r s t , t h e s t r o n g a n t i - a l c o h o l s t a n c e o f Andy C h e l s e a , p l u s t h e s o b e r example that  he s e t f o r t h e c o m m u n i t y and t h e f a c t t h a t ,  by g e n e r a l  consensus, he used t o be one o f t h e " b i g g e s t drunks" on t h e r e s e r v e ,  may  w e l l have caused r e s e r v e r e s i d e n t s t o r e - e x a m i n e s e r i o u s l y  own  drinking  habits.  f o r new l e a d e r s h i p  Second, t h e r e may have e x i s t e d  their  an i m p l i c i t  readiness  and s o c i a l c h a n g e w i t h i n t h e c o m m u n i t y .  This i s  suggested i n the switch  t o t h e t w o y e a r Band e l e c t i v e s y s t e m , t h e 1971 f  l e t t e r t o Band members ( p a g e s 4 0 - 4 1 ) , and i n t h e c o m m u n i t y ' s a p p a r e n t s u p p o r t f o r Andy Chelsea's a c t i o n s t h r o u g h c o n t i n u a l l y r e - e l e c t i n g him as Band c h i e f  and r e f u s i n g t o s u p p o r t t h e P r i e s t i n h i s e f f o r t s t o have t h e  C h i e f removed f r o m o f f i c e .  47  NOTES TO CHAPTER THREE  1.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t Andy C h e l s e a r a n f o r t h e p o s i t i o n o f c o u n c i l l o r i n t h e 1972 e l e c t i o n s , and r e c e i v e d t h e f e w e s t v o t e s o f t h e f i v e c a n d i d a t e s . A t t h i s t i m e he was s t i l l d r i n k i n g : c o u l d t h i s be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n h i s p o p u l a r i t y ?  2.  I n t h e 1973-74 p e r i o d t h e funds a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e A l k a l i Lake Band t o t a l l e d $21,858.00, a s c o m p a r e d w i t h $221,445.94 j u s t two y e a r s l a t e r , and $1,429,104.90 i n t h e 1984-85 f i s c a l p e r i o d .  3.  The B.C. Region S o c i a l Development P o l i c y 10.2  Manual (1981) s t a t e s :  ASSISTED MANAGEMENT OF ALLOWANCES  A r e c i p i e n t o f f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e has t h e r i g h t and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o manage h i s / h e r own a f f a i r s . H o w e v e r , i f f o r any r e a s o n f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i s n o t used i n t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f t h e r e c i p i e n t and dependents, h e l p i n managing a l l o w a n c e s may be o f f e r e d a s f o l l o w s : ...(c)... t h e r e c i p i e n t may be h e l p e d by p a r t i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . P a r t i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e by t h e A d m i n i s t e r i n g A u t h o r i t y p r o v i d e s a means o f e n s u r i n g t h a t e s s e n t i a l goods and s e r v i c e s a r e a v a i l a b l e t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l o r f a m i l y u n i t . Under t h i s type o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h e A d m i n i s t e r i n g A u t h o r i t y may i s s u e p a r t o f t h e c l i e n t ' s f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e f o r m o f a cheque o r p u r c h a s e o r d e r p a y a b l e t o t h e s u p p l i e r o f goods o r s e r v i c e s , e.g., r e n t , electrical s e r v i c e , f u e l , food, c l o t h i n g , o r i t e m s approved as s p e c i a l n e e d s , o r p a y a b l e t o b o t h c l i e n t and s u p p l i e r , w i t h t h e b a l a n c e o f t h e a l l o w a n c e i s s u e d by s e p a r a t e c h e q u e t o t h e c l i e n t . The A d m i n i s t e r i n g A u t h o r i t y s h o u l d l i m i t i t s income-management a c t i v i t y only t o t h e area(s) i n which severe problems e x i s t , so the c l i e n t may r e t a i n maximum p o s s i b l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s / h e r own a f f a i r s (pp.79-80).  48  4.  The f o l l o w i n g d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e r e has been a s l o w d e c l i n e i n t h e p e r c e n t o f Band members l i v i n g on t h e Band's r e s e r v e l a n d , i n t h e y e a r s between 1974 and 1980, when o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e a n t i - a l c o h o l t a c t i c s was g r e a t e s t , t h e r e was no mass exodus f r o m t h e r e s e r v e .  TABLE 1. ON-RESERVE RESIDENCE DATA FOR THE ALKALI LAKE BAND, EVEN YEARS, 1974-1984  YEAR  TOTAL BAND POPULATION  BAND MEMBERS RESIDENT ON RESERVE NUMBER PERCENT  1974  302  257  85.1  1976  323  265  82.8  1978  328  270  82.3  1980  347  290  83.6  1982  360  293  81.4  1984  382  313  81.9  S o u r c e : " R e g i s t e r e d I n d i a n P o p u l a t i o n by Sex a n d R e s i d e n c e " , D e p a r t m e n t a l S t a t i s t i c s D i v i s i o n , Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n Development, Ottawa.  Compared w i t h t h e percentage o f r e g i s t e r e d I n d i a n s l i v i n g o n - r e s e r v e f o r B.C. a s a w h o l e , w h i c h was 70.2 i n 1971 and i s e x p e c t e d t o d r o p t o 57.6 by 1986 ( S i g g n e r and L o c a t e l l i 1 9 8 0 ) , t h e A l k a l i L a k e o n reserve residence f i g u r e s are high. On-reserve r e s i d e n c e d a t a f o r Shuswap B a n d s i n t h e W i l l i a m s L a k e d i s t r i c t show c o n s i d e r a b l e variation:  49  TABLE 2. ON-RESERVE RESIDENCE DATA, IN PERCENTAGE, FOR SHUSWAP BANDS IN THE WILLIAMS LAKE DISTRICT, EVEN YEARS, 1974-1984.  BAND  YEAR 1974  1976-  1978  1980  1982  1984  ALKALI LAKE  85.1  82.8  82.3  83.6  81.4  81.9  CANIM LAKE  83.1  83.6  82.3  83.4  81.2  81.2  WILLIAMS LAKE  75.0  72.8  66.7  71.9  75.6  77.2  SODA CREEK  70.7  64.2  64.2  61.7  66.1  68.0  CANOE CREEK (Includes Dog C r e e k )  62.7  50.1  46.1  47.3  49.0  49.7  Source: " R e g i s t e r e d I n d i a n P o p u l a t i o n by Sex and R e s i d e n c e " , D e p a r t m e n t a l S t a t i s t i c s D i v i s i o n , Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n Development, Ottawa. For  t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e s e r e s e r v e v i l l a g e s see Appendix, Map  1.  The s i m i l a r i t y i n o n - r e s e r v e r e s i d e n c e b e t w e e n t h e A l k a l i L a k e and C a n i m L a k e B a n d s s h o u l d be n o t e d . T h e s e d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t s i n c e a t l e a s t 1974 t h e r e has e x i s t e d some commitment t o community l i f e among t h e s e two Bands. A second p o i n t o f s i m i l a r i t y i s t h e s i z e o f t h e Bands. A l k a l i Lake and C a n i m L a k e a r e t h e m o s t p o p u l o u s , w i t h A l k a l i L a k e h a v i n g 410 members and Canim Lake h a v i n g 366 members as o f 1985. I n c o m p a r i s o n , the W i l l i a m s Lake Band had 267, Canoe Creek had 311, and Soda Creek had 176 members i n 1985. Today C a n i m L a k e and A l k a l i L a k e a r e s e e n a s t h e t w o m o s t " p r o g r e s s i v e " Bands o f t h e d i s t r i c t , A l k a l i Lake f o r i t s r e c e n t s u c c e s s i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e a l c o h o l p r o b l e m , and Canim Lake f o r i t s e f f i c i e n t Band a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s u c c e s s i n p r o v i d i n g e m p l o y m e n t , modern h o u s i n g , and a B a n d - o p e r a t e d s c h o o l f o r r e s e r v e r e s i d e n t s . Thus t h e i n i t i a l commitment t o community l i f e shared by t h e s e two Bands has been mobilized s i n c e 1974 and t h e development o f t h e r e s e r v e c o m m u n i t i e s , a i d e d by t h e g r e a t e r a v a i l a b i l i t y o f " p e o p l e p o w e r " , h a s been t h e result.  50  CHAPTER FOUR: CONVERSION TO SOBRIETY  A f t e r 1976  the A l k a l i Lake community underwent d r a m a t i c change.  By  1981 a p p r o x i m a t e l y 70 p e r c e n t of t h e a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n on the r e s e r v e were s o b e r ( B i c k f o r d 1 9 8 1 ) , and by 1985 t h i s r a t i o had i n c r e a s e d t o a b o u t 90 percent.  T h i s chapter presents a d i s c u s s i o n of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  s h i f t s t h a t o c c u r r e d w i t h i n the S o b r i e t y movement i n t h i s p e r i o d , and  a  d e s c r i p t i o n of the more g e n e r a l changes t h a t o c c u r r e d i n t h e A l k a l i Lake community consequent t o t h i s i n c r e a s e i n s o b r i e t y .  ROUTES TO SOBRIETY The Treatment Center Through the l a t e 1970s t h e p r o c e s s o f c o n f r o n t a t i o n c o n t i n u e d t o be t h e m a i n p r e c i p i t a t i n g f a c t o r i n t h e d e c i s i o n o f c o m m u n i t y members t o become s o b e r .  Once i n d i v i d u a l s had  indicated a w i l l i n g n e s s to  do  s o m e t h i n g about t h e i r d r i n k i n g , t h e most f r e q u e n t r o u t e t o s o b r i e t y  was  through  The  i n i t i a l attendance  o f an a l c o h o l i s m t r e a t m e n t  program.  W i l l i a m s L a k e D r u g and A l c o h o l P r o g r a m c o n t i n u e d t o p l a y an r o l e as a t h i r d p a r t y support i n c o - o r d i n a t i n g and t o t h e s e and  referring  important individuals  other o f f - r e s e r v e services.  The t r e a t m e n t c e n t e r s a t t e n d e d most commonly by A l k a l i Band members b e t w e e n t h e y e a r s o f 1976 and 1981 w e r e l o c a t e d i n A l b e r t a ( P o u n d m a k e r L o d g e and  B o n n e v i l l e ) , Kamloops ( K i w a n i s House), Vancouver  (Aurora  H o u s e ) , M a p l e R i d g e ( M a p l e R i d g e T r e a t m e n t C e n t e r ) , and V e r n o n (Round Lake).  P o u n d m a k e r L o d g e , B o n n e v i l l e , and  specifically  Round L a k e  were  t o the problem of N a t i v e I n d i a n a l c o h o l i s m , and  i n c l u d e d the Pan-Indian  geared  treatment  r i t u a l s of c e r e m o n i a l sweats ( a t Round Lake o n l y )  51  and  sage and/or  s w e e t g r a s s ceremonies.  Lake Treatment Center instilling heritage.  Indeed, the theme of the Round  i s " c u l t u r e i s treatment".  i n the c l i e n t  Emphasis i s p l a c e d  a s e n s e o f s e l f - w o r t h and  on  pride i n Native  The N e n q a n i T r a i n i n g and T r e a t m e n t C e n t e r , o p e r a t i n g  until  r e c e n t l y out o f the o l d S t . Joseph's M i s s i o n j u s t s o u t h o f W i l l i a m s Lake, opened i n the e a r l y 1980s t o p r o v i d e a more l o c a l  alcoholism  and  W i l l i a m s Lake  counselling service for Natives  i n the  I n d i v i d u a l s f r o m A l k a l i Lake were a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n the of t h i s The  treatment  establishment  center. t y p i c a l treatment  course of t h i s treatment  program l a s t e d about s i x weeks.  p a r t i c i p a n t s were p r e s e n t e d  In  with basic  i n f o r m a t i o n about a l c o h o l i s m , f o l l o w e d by i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the and  area.  behavioural  aspects  of  the  counselling sessions occurred a l c o h o l i s m were d i s c u s s e d .  disease.  One-on-one  the  medical  emotional  and  group  i n which personal problems r e l a t e d  to  Therapy c o n s i s t e d i n r a i s i n g the c l i e n t ' s  s e n s e o f s e l f e s t e e m and d e v e l o p i n g h i s a b i l i t y t o c o m m u n i c a t e o p e n l y h i s thoughts encouraged  and to  emotions t o o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s . adopt  alternate interactive  p a t t e r n s i n o r d e r t o c o p e more e f f e c t i v e l y  As w e l l , and  clients  general  were  behavioural  w i t h problems r e l a t e d  to  alcoholism.  Other Routes S e v e r a l months a f t e r t h e h a s t y d e p a r t u r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , a new  p r i e s t was  of the p r e v i o u s  a s s i g n e d t o the A l k a l i Lake v i l l a g e .  T h i s i n d i v i d u a l was  a b l e q u i c k l y t o e s t a b l i s h a p o s i t i v e and  relationship  the  i n d i v i d u a l s who  with had  Band  Church  Chief  and  the  Alkali  supportive  community.  been heavy d r i n k e r s f o r many y e a r s became sober  52  Two in  1976  by  t a k i n g p l e d g e s from the new  attending  the weekly A.A.  Other  C a t h o l i c P r i e s t and  by  subsequently  meetings o n - r e s e r v e .  individuals claim  that  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n personal  growth  t r a i n i n g programs i n the e a r l y 1980s l e d them t o the d e c i s i o n t o become sober.  S t i l l others,  more common a f t e r 1980  when i t became "the  t o do", s i m p l y made t h e d e c i s i o n t o s t o p on t h e i r own. the weekly A.A.  thing  Some u t i l i z e d  meetings f o r s u p p o r t , w h i l e o t h e r s r e l i e d i n s t e a d on  the  a d v i c e and h e l p o f s o b e r f a m i l y members o r f r i e n d s t o see them t h r o u g h the d i f f i c u l t e a r l y s t a g e s of s o b r i e t y .  FOLLOW-UP SERVICES The  Band O f f i c e The  Band O f f i c e served  as a c o - o r d i n a t i n g c e n t e r  to provide  s e r v i c e s t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l b o t h d u r i n g h i s a b s e n c e f r o m , and r e t u r n t o the r e s e r v e .  The  for  upon h i s  powers of C h i e f and C o u n c i l were u t i l i z e d  a c c e s s s o u r c e s of funding opportunities  support  that permitted  the c r e a t i o n of  individuals returning  from  to  employment  treatment,  and  the  r e n o v a t i o n of homes t o p r o v i d e a more p o s i t i v e environment f o r the n e w l y sober i n d i v i d u a l s .  The  W e l f a r e Aide ensured t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l s '  c h i l d r e n were t a k e n c a r e of d u r i n g h i s absence, and the W i l l i a m s  worked c l o s e l y  Lake Drug and A l c o h o l Program t o c o - o r d i n a t e  with  the a t t e n d a n c e  of Band members i n a l c o h o l i s m t r e a t m e n t programs. The  " I n t e r v e n t i o n Committee" was  t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e Band C o u n c i l .  formed a f t e r 1976 The  and  c o m m i t t e e was  worked under  composed of a  number of Band employees, i n c l u d i n g the W e l f a r e A i d e (now  c a l l e d the Band  S o c i a l W o r k e r ) , t h e C h i e f , one  the  Health  Representative.  confrontation  and  negative  o r more C o u n c i l l o r s , and  Its  specific  sanctioning  Community  responsibility  o f d r i n k e r s on  the  was  the  reserve.  Members o f t h e I n t e r v e n t i o n Committee, as w e l l as t h e Drug and A l c o h o l c o u n s e l l o r and o t h e r concerned i n d i v i d u a l s who had c o n v e r t e d often  dropped  returned  i n to v i s i t  from t r e a t m e n t .  t o become  and t o e n c o u r a g e  t h o s e who had r e c e n t l y  T h i s form o f s u p p o r t - e m o t i o n a l  s u p p o r t - was  c r u c i a l t o t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e S o b r i e t y movement.  Thus we can see t h a t a f t e r 1976 t h e r e o c c u r r e d within  to sobriety,  the Sobriety  movement.  a d i v i s i o n of labour  The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  f o r promoting  s o b r i e t y , and s a n c t i o n i n g d r i n k e r s , became l e s s t h a t o f P h y l l i s and Andy Chelsea, for on  and more t h e domain o f t h e Band O f f i c e , w h i c h became r e s p o n s i b l e  m o b i l i z i n g resources the reserve.  and p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s t o t h e sober  The I n t e r v e n t i o n  Committee,  working  population under t h e  a u t h o r i t y o f t h e Band C o u n c i l , became t h e " o f f i c i a l " u n i t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c o n f r o n t a t i o n and n e g a t i v e s a n c t i o n i n g o f d r i n k e r s i n t h e v i l l a g e . T h i s t r e n d toward r o u t i n i z a t i o n o f t h e S o b r i e t y  movement was e s p e c i a l l y  e v i d e n t a f t e r 1978, when Andy C h e l s e a d e c l i n e d t o r u n f o r r e - e l e c t i o n as C h i e f , and P h y l l i s C h e l s e a r e s i g n e d respective replacements continued  a s Band S o c i a l W o r k e r .  Their  i n w h a t w e r e now p e r c e i v e d a s t h e i r  " o f f i c i a l " d u t i e s ( a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e d u t i e s i s presented  i n Chapter F i v e ) .  W i l l i a m s Lake Drug and A l c o h o l Program The  Drug  and A l c o h o l  Program,  funded  by t h e A l c o h o l  and D r u g  C o m m i s s i o n o f t h e B.C. P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t ' s M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h Welfare,  and o p e r a t i n g o u t o f t h e C a r i b o o F r i e n d s h i p C e n t e r , c o n t i n u e d t o  play a v i t a l for  and  r o l e i n the co-ordination of  A l k a l i Lake Band members.  o f f - r e s e r v e support s e r v i c e s  Program c o u n s e l l o r s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  booking a c l i e n t i n t o a t r e a t m e n t c e n t e r , f o r a r r a n g i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o  54  and  from the treatment  treatment  center, and f o r ensuring that transportation and  c o s t s were covered.  These c o s t s were paid by the Indian  Health Services of the Federal Department of Health and Welfare, and more recently by the National Alcohol and Drug Abuse Program of the Federal government.  The Bands were responsible for providing the c l i e n t s with a  "comfort allowance", to cover items such as cigarettes, candy, magazines, and  so on.  The comfort allowance  amounted to about t h i r t y d o l l a r s per  month, and c o u l d be secured  as an advance from the c l i e n t ' s monthly  S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e payment.  I t was a c r u c i a l f a c t o r i n the therapy of  the a l c o h o l i c .  Some other Bands i n the d i s t r i c t n e g l e c t e d to provide  t h e i r Band members with a comfort  allowance,  f e e l i n g vulnerable and impatient,  (especially those  treatment two  and these c l i e n t s , already who arrived at the  center not having had a meal, f o r lack of money, during their  days of t r a v e l ) ,  treatment  o f t e n d i d not remain f o r the d u r a t i o n of the  program.  The Program also provided information on l o c a l A.A. groups and A.A. activities.  I n d i v i d u a l s (both White and Indian) w i t h i n the W i l l i a m s  Lake A.A. network played major supporting roles i n the development of the A.A. group a t A l k a l i Lake.  Ten to f i f t e e n White A.A. members from  Williams Lake frequently were i n attendance at the weekly A.A. meetings at A l k a l i Lake d u r i n g the e a r l y years (1978-79). proved to be a very p o s i t i v e experience f o r A.A. members. could  share  The A.A.  This  participation  both the Indian and White  meeting provided a forum i n which members  their common, and very personal, experiences  with alcohol.  Through t h i s sharing of experiences r a c i a l barriers were broken down, and the support  offerred by the White A.A. members was greatly appreciated.  A number of A l k a l i Lake A.A. members had non-Indian  sponsors  from  W i l l i a m s Lake, to whom they c o u l d t u r n f o r support i n times of c r i s i s .  55  Through the sponsorship program many c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s were formed between Indian and  White A.A.  members, and  these relationships  persist  today. This situation i s i n contrast with J i l e k - A a l l ' s observations (1972) of Coast Salish Indian p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A.A. groups i n the Fraser Valley area.  There  the  mixed  Indian-White  A.A.  meetings  resulted in  an  i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of f e e l i n g s of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t , and d i d not c r e a t e a conducive  environment f o r therapy of the Indian A.A. members.  These  mixed meetings, however, were not held on Indian r e s e r v e land.  In the  A l k a l i Lake s i t u a t i o n ,  White members t r a v e l l e d  volunteers, with the e x p l i c i t A.A.  group.  A great  Williams Lake d i s t r i c t . and  to the r e s e r v e  as  intention of supporting the newly-formed  deal of r a c i a l  predjudice  exists  within  Indian reserves are viewed, both by the  the  Indians  by many non-Indians as w e l l , as " f o r t r e s s e s " , which Whites are  generally  r e l u c t a n t to enter.  The  w i l l i n g n e s s of the White  A.A.  members to attend meetings on the A l k a l i Lake r e s e r v e t h e r e f o r e was a very important  symbolic gesture, and undoubtedly was an important  factor  in the positive relationships that developed. The Williams Lake Drug and Alcohol Program also offerred a "drop-in" service.  Individuals could stop i n at the Friendship Center to discuss  their problems with the counsellor or just to have coffee. c r i t i c a l form of support.  This was  a  As t r i p s to town were a major s o c i a l event  and were i n the past an occasion for heavy drinking, the Center  provided  an a l t e r n a t e " n o n - a l c o h o l i c " environment where people could c a s u a l l y associate while i n town. The Outreach S e r v i c e s Report ( B i c k f o r d 1981) regarding  the  individuals  from  the  56  Alkali  p r o v i d e s some data  community  who  used  the  p r o g r a m ' s s e r v i c e s b e t w e e n 1973 and 1980.  A t o t a l o f 77 A l k a l i L a k e  Band members a r e r e c o r d e d t o h a v e u s e d t h e P r o g r a m ' s s e r v i c e s i n t h i s period.  (The a c t u a l t o t a l was 8 9 , b u t f i l e s w e r e k e p t f o r o n l y 77 o f  these c l i e n t s . ) t h e 77 c l i e n t s ,  The f o l l o w i n g d a t a were c o m p i l e d from t h e s e f i l e s . 37 w e r e men a n d 40 w e r e women.  The m a j o r i t y o f  c l i e n t s (74 p e r c e n t ) were between t h e ages o f twenty and f o r t y .  TABLE 3. ALKALI LAKE RESERVE CLIENTS OF THE WILLIAMS LAKE DRUG AND ALCOHOL PROGRAM, 1973 - 1980 AGE 15 20 30 40 51  -  ALKALI LAKE CLIENTS Number Percent 19 29 39 50 65  1 30 27 8 11  1.3 39.0 35.0 10.4 14.3  Total:  77  100.00  Source: B i c k f o r d  1 9 8 1 , p.76.  57  Of  TABLE 4. WORK RECORD OF THE ALKALI LAKE RESERVE CLIENTS OF THE WILLIAMS LAKE DRUG AND ALCOHOL PROGRAM, 1973 - 1980 WORK CLASSIFICATION  WORK AT INTAKE Number Percent  WORK AT DISCHARGE Number Percent  F u l l time P a r t time Unemployed^ Homemakers Apprentice/Training Retired Student  20 3 29 20 2 2 1  26.0 3.9 37.6 26.0 2.6 2.6 1.3  28 9 16 19 2 2 1  Totals:  77  100.00  77  1  I n c l u d e s s e a s o n a l employment a t time o f i n t a k e . I n c l u d e s t h o s e on S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e . Women o c c u p i e d i n t h e home r a i s i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Source:  Bickford  1981, p.77.  58  36.3 11.7 20.8 24.7 2.6 2.6 1.3 100.0  TABLE 5. SOURCE OF INITIAL REFERRALS OF ALKALI LAKE CLIENTS TO THE WILLIAMS LAKE DRUG AND ALCOHOL PROGRAM, 1973 - 1980  SOURCE OF REFERRAL  ALKALI LAKE CLIENTS Number Percent  Family Pressure Self-Referral S o c i a l Agency Human Resources Corrections Other Band  17 31 13  22.1 40.2 16.9  7 9  9.1 11.7  Total:  77  3  4  100.00  Includes the C r i s i s Center, the F r i e n d s h i p Center, Mental Health, M e d i c a l S e r v i c e s , d o c t o r s , and Homemakers ( t h i s l a s t c a t e g o r y i s n o t clear). I n c l u d e s ( p r e s u m a b l y ) t h e C o u r t S y s t e m , P r o b a t i o n , l a w y e r s , and Legal Aide. I n c l u d e s " T w e l f t h Step" w o r k e r s ( i n d i v i d u a l s b e l o n g i n g t o A l c o h o l i c s Anonymous), employers, and a g a i n l a w y e r s . I n c l u d e s t h e I n t e r v e n t i o n Committee and s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l s such a s t h e C h i e f , t h e Band S o c i a l W o r k e r , and t h e C o m m u n i t y H e a l t h Representative. Source:  Bickford  1981, p.78.  59  The Alkali  p r e c e d i n g data a r e not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a l l i n d i v i d u a l s a t Lake  who  became s o b e r  e s t i m a t e s t h a t i n 1981  between  1973  and  1980.  The  report  t h e r e were 115 sober a d u l t s on the r e s e r v e .  Of  t h e t o t a l o f 89 c l i e n t s t o have used t h e Center's s e r v i c e s , 64 were known t o be s o b e r i n 1981, w i t h 13 d r i n k i n g and 12 u n a c c o u n t e d  for (Bickford  1981:90). The  data  interest.  regarding sources  The  do something  of  referral  m a j o r i t y of i n d i v i d u a l s from  to  the  Center  A l k a l i Lake who  about t h e i r d r i n k i n g i n the 1973 - 1980  of  decided to  p e r i o d d i d so o n l y  a f t e r c o n f r o n t a t i o n by the C h i e f or t h e W e l f a r e A i d e , and an a l c o h o l i s m t r e a t m e n t c e n t e r a s a f i r s t  are  most  utilized  step to sobriety.  These  i n d i v i d u a l s were r e f e r r e d t o the C e n t e r , where arrangements f o r t r e a t m e n t w e r e made.  ( I n f a c t , 90 p e r c e n t , o r 70 o u t o f 77, o f t h e A l k a l i L a k e  c l i e n t s were r e f e r r e d on t o t r e a t m e n t c e n t e r s . ) t h e d a t a i s t h e l o w number o f c l i e n t s who agent of r e f e r r a l .  i d e n t i f i e d t h e Band a s t h e  F o r t y p e r c e n t (31 out of 77)  t o h a v e been s e l f - r e f e r r e d ,  What i s s t r i k i n g about  of the c l i e n t s  claimed  w h i l e t w e n t y - t w o p e r c e n t (17 o u t o f  i d e n t i f i e d f a m i l y p r e s s u r e as t h e main reason they had sought  77)  treatment.  O n l y t w e l v e p e r c e n t (9 o u t o f 77) s t a t e d t h a t t h e y had been r e f e r r e d t o the Center  by t h e Band.  discussion  with  T h i s supports the i m p r e s s i o n gained  community  members  that  for  most  the  from  process  of  c o n f r o n t a t i o n d i d not r e s u l t i n the i n d i v i d u a l f e e l i n g " f o r c e d " t o a t t e n d treatment. remained  An  ultimatum  presented  to the  individual,  up t o the i n d i v i d u a l t o choose a c o u r s e o f a c t i o n .  alcoholism  treatment  t o be e f f e c t i v e , a s i t was  people from A l k a l i Lake, the  was  Indeed, f o r  f o r the m a j o r i t y of  t h e d e c i s i o n t o change had t o come from  person.  60  but i t  within  The d a t a a l s o i n d i c a t e a g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e i n e m p l o y m e n t a f t e r t h e c l i e n t s ' r e t u r n t o A l k a l i Lake. time  of r e f e r r a l  Twenty-six percent of c l i e n t s a tthe  t o the Center  were employed  full-time,  d i s c h a r g e t h i r t y - s i x p e r c e n t had s e c u r e d f u l l - t i m e  while at  employment.  Part-  t i m e employment among t h e 77 c l i e n t s i n c r e a s e d a t d i s c h a r g e from f o u r t o a l m o s t t w e l v e p e r c e n t , and t h e r a t e o f unemployment dropped e i g h t p e r c e n t t o twenty  one-percent.  from t h i r t y -  These i n c r e a s e s may w e l l  reflect  t h e Band O f f i c e ' s s u c c e s s i n c r e a t i n g employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r n e w l y sober  individuals. At t h i s p o i n t we may ask: To what e x t e n t i s t h e i n c r e a s e i n s o b r i e t y  at  Alkali  Lake  administration  directly  related  to  both i n s e c u r i n g funds  the success  o f t h e Band  t o i n i t i a t e Band  employment,  h o u s i n g , and o t h e r such programs, and i n i m p o s i n g economic s a n c t i o n s t o discourage drinking?  I s t h e S o b r i e t y movement p r i m a r i l y a s t o r y  about  t h e economic power o f t h e Band a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ? In  the preceding  chapter  i t was  noted  that  the t o t a l  a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e A l k a l i Lake Band i n c r e a s e d d r a m a t i c a l l y 1970s.  I n t h e 1973-74 f i s c a l  funds  i n t h e mid  year t h e funds a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t a l l e d  only  $21,858.00, a s c o m p a r e d w i t h $137,926.21 i n 1974-75 and $221,445.94 t h e year l a t e r .  Data p r e s e n t l y a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e y e a r s between 1977  and 1980. I n t h e 1980-81 f i s c a l y e a r  t h e Band a d m i n i s t e r e d a t o t a l o f  $856,527.60. When C h e l s e a  first  took  administrative responsibilities, two  Band o f f i c e  office  i n 1973 t h e Band had v e r y f e w  w i t h core funding ( f o r the s a l a r i e s of  employees) c o m p r i s i n g t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e budget.  The  i n c r e a s e o f over $100,000 a d m i n i s t e r e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g year r e f l e c t s t h e Band's t a k e o v e r  of S o c i a l  Assistance administration  development o f t h e r e s e r v e s c h o o l (about  61  $17,000),  ($73,000),  the  and t h e i r i n i t i a t i o n  o f a Work O p p o r t u n i t y p r o g r a m ( $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 ) .  In the f o l l o w i n g year the  f u n d s a d m i n i s t e r e d a g a i n i n c r e a s e d by a l m o s t $100,000. this  increase  c a n be a c c o u n t e d  f o r by a b o u t  e x p e n d i t u r e s ( f o r h o u s i n g and w a t e r / s a n i t a t i o n ) a d m i n i s t r a t i o n c o s t s o f about $15,000.  The b u l k o f  $60,000 i n c a p i t a l  and a d d i t i o n a l program  Funding f o r t h e Work O p p o r t u n i t y  program remained a t a s i m i l a r l e v e l , but an a d d i t i o n a l $10,000 was spent on Band T r a i n i n g . The h o u s i n g and Band T r a i n i n g  p r o j e c t s c o u l d h a v e had a d i r e c t  i m p a c t on i n c r e a s i n g Band employment l e v e l s .  Although concrete f i g u r e s  a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e , i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t an i n c r e a s i n g number o f men w e r e t r a i n e d and found work i n h o u s i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n on t h e r e s e r v e i n t h e l a t e 1 9 7 0 s and e a r l y 1980s.  With the development of the reserve school i n  t h e 1970s a s m a l l number o f Band members f o u n d s t e a d y e m p l o y m e n t a s janitors,  teacher's  aides,  and  development p r o j e c t s were i n i t i a t e d  Shuswap  instructors.  through t h e 1970s.  Economic  An a g r i c u l t u r a l  c o - o p , c o n s t r u c t i o n company, and l o g g i n g company w e r e f o r m e d . have a c h i e v e d o n l y l i m i t e d  and s h o r t - t e r m  financial  success,  These  and today  o n l y t h e l o g g i n g company p r o v i d e s on-going employment. F o r a p o i n t o f c o m p a r i s o n we may e x a m i n e t h e 1980-81 b u d g e t . t o t a l o f $856,527.60 was a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e Band. t h e b u d g e t was community.  s p e n t on o p e r a t i o n  Of t h i s ,  and m a i n t e n a n c e  and i n a p p r o x i m a t e f i g u r e s ,  A  A b o u t $700,000 o f of the reserve  $350,000 was budgeted  f o r e d u c a t i o n , $25,000 f o r economic and employment development ( w i t h no f u n d s s p e n t on J o b C r e a t i o n ) , $190,000 f o r s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , $32,000 f o r community i n f r a s t r u c t u r e m a i n t e n a n c e , and $98,000 f o r Band g o v e r n m e n t support.  The r e m a i n d e r o f t h e t o t a l b u d g e t ( a b o u t $150,000) was u s e d  f o r c a p i t a l expenses.  Of t h i s , a p p r o x i m a t e l y $126,000 w e n t t o w a r d  62  h o u s i n g and s c h o o l  construction.  What i s c l e a r from t h i s b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n i s t h a t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t y o f t h e Band O f f i c e i n c r e a s e d e a r l y 1980s. S.A.  d r a m a t i c a l l y between 1973 and t h e  The m a j o r p r o j e c t s u n d e r t a k e n i n c l u d e d t h e t a k e o v e r o f  administration,  the development  of the reserve  school,  the  i n i t i a t i o n o f economic development p r o j e c t s , and t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f new homes on t h e r e s e r v e .  T h i s e x p a n s i o n may perhaps have been t o o r a p i d ,  as t h e Band encountered s e v e r e f i n a n c i a l management problems i n t h e e a r l y 1980s. according Affairs,  T h i s was i n p a r t due t o t h e f a c t t h a t funds were being to the s t r i c t but a c c o r d i n g  used not  r e g u l a t i o n s imposed by t h e Department o f I n d i a n t o what t h e C h i e f and C o u n c i l  thought would  best  b e n e f i t t h e community. The  economic power o f t h e Band O f f i c e was an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h e  S o b r i e t y movement. meant t h a t money  The i n c r e a s e i n f u n d s c o m i n g i n t o t h e Band O f f i c e was a v a i l a b l e t o s p o n s o r p r o j e c t s s u c h a s p e r s o n a l  development t r a i n i n g s , even i f t h o s e funds were n o t o f f i c i a l l y for  such p r o j e c t s .  and  t h i s served  employment,  S h o r t - t e r m employment was c r e a t e d  as a t h e r a p e u t i c a c t i v i t y  however,  As i s d i s c u s s e d  earmarked  f o r Band members,  f o r the newly sober.  This  d i d n o t s o l v e t h e problems r e l a t e d t o a l c o h o l i s m .  l a t e r , i n t h e l a t e 1970s and e a r l y 1980s problems o f poor  a t t i t u d e and l a c k o f i n c e n t i v e t o work p r e v a i l e d i n t h e c o m m u n i t y , and t h i s s i t u a t i o n induced t h e C h e l s e a s t o b e l i e v e t h a t "something e l s e was needed".  They sought a s o l u t i o n t h r o u g h e n c o u r a g i n g v i l l a g e  to e n r o l l i n personal  residents  development t r a i n i n g s .  ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS MEETINGS A c r u c i a l form of f o l l o w - u p  s u p p o r t was t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e o n -  r e s e r v e A l c o h o l i c s Anonymous m e e t i n g s . 63  P r i o r t o 1978 t h e s e  meetings  had  been l e d by t h e Drug and A l c o h o l c o u n s e l l o r from W i l l i a m s Lake.  1978  Band members t o o k o v e r  chairing  these  meetings.  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y In keeping  with  e g a l i t a r i a n i s m , t h e meetings were o r g a n i z e d  f o r organizing  t h e A.A. p h i l o s o p h y  In and of  by a s y s t e m o f r e v o l v i n g  c h a i r s h i p s , e a c h i n d i v i d u a l h o l d i n g t h e p o s i t i o n f o r one month.  Any  i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t e d i n becoming i n v o l v e d i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the A.A. a c t i v i t i e s was f r e e t o do s o . The an  l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e A.A. m e e t i n g s r e f l e c t s  a d d i t i o n a l process of f u n c t i o n a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i t h i n the Sobriety  movement.  W h i l e t h e Band O f f i c e r e m a i n e d t h e c e n t r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  u n i t responsible mainly f o r c o - o r d i n a t i n g confronting  d r i n k e r s w i t h i n t h e community, t h e A.A. group, l e d by a c o r e  of d e d i c a t e d Williams  o f f - r e s e r v e s e r v i c e s and f o r  individuals  Lake d i s t r i c t ,  and s u p p o r t e d by o t h e r A.A. members f r o m t h e  assumed t h e v i t a l  r o l e of providing a  personal  s u p p o r t network f o r Band members s t r u g g l i n g t o p e r p e t u a t e t h e i r s o b r i e t y . The  o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e A.A. m e e t i n g s was s e e n t o be c l e a r l y  from the operations The reserve  separate  o f t h e Band O f f i c e .  o r g a n i z a t i o n and p h i l o s o p h y  of s o b r i e t y presented i n the on-  A.A. m e e t i n g s w e r e b a s e d on an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e f o r m a l  A l c o h o l i c s Anonymous  program.  C e n t r a l t o t h i s program a r e t h e "Twelve  Steps''^ and t h e " T w e l v e T r a d i t i o n s " , w h i c h p r o v i d e , r e s p e c t i v e l y , t h e 3  practical  steps  achieved,  and t h e p r i n c i p l e s by w h i c h t h e A.A. g r o u p i d e a l l y  The  through which personal  basic features of t h i s philosophy,  recovery  from a l c o h o l i s m  can be  operates.  a s i t e x i s t e d i n 1985, w i l l be  p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter F i v e . The could  A.A. m e e t i n g s p r o v i d e d  get together  a forum through w h i c h sober i n d i v i d u a l s  t o t a l k about t h e i r p e r s o n a l  64  problems r e l a t e d t o  alcoholism.  F o r t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s who  w h e r e d r i n k i n g was isolated  from  were r e s i d i n g i n  s t i l l o c c u r r i n g , o r who  friends  through  found  reluctance  many A.A.  members c o n t i n u e d  r e g u l a r meetings.  themselves  to  a c t i v i t i e s , t h e s o l i d a r i t y o f t h e A.A. g r o u p was  households  partake  socially  in drinking  a v i t a l resource,  and  t o seek s u p p o r t from each o t h e r o u t s i d e t h e  As t h e s o c i a l d i v i s i o n b e t w e e n d r i n k i n g and  sober  v i l l a g e r e s i d e n t s w i d e n e d , t h e A.A. g r o u p i n c r e a s i n g l y became t h e o n l y v i a b l e u n i t o f s o c i a l s o l i d a r i t y w i t h i n the r e s e r v e . Some c o r e  members o f  the  A.A.  group  at  Alkali  p a r t i c i p a t e i n o f f - r e s e r v e A.A. a c t i v i t i e s a s w e l l .  Lake  began  to  These i n d i v i d u a l s  w o u l d g a t h e r a s many i n t e r e s t e d p e o p l e f r o m t h e r e s e r v e a s t h e y c o u l d , and t r a v e l en masse t o a t t e n d A.A. m e e t i n g s i n W i l l i a m s L a k e and i n t h e o u t l y i n g r e s e r v e communities i n the d i s t r i c t .  F o r some, t h i s meant  sometimes a t t e n d i n g as many as s i x meetings a week. When I came b a c k f r o m t r e a t m e n t one o f t h e t h i n g s t h a t I was encouraged t o do i n the t r e a t m e n t c e n t e r was t o c o n t i n u e , t o go t o A.A. a s a f o l l o w - u p f o r w h a t e v e r I l e a r n e d i n t r e a t m e n t c e n t e r . . . l i k e i f you need f i v e m e e t i n g s a week, t h e n t h e y t e l l you "Go t o f i v e m e e t i n g s a week". U n t i l you c a n g e t on y o u r feet...So one o f t h e t h i n g s t h a t I d i d was go t o A.A. m e e t i n g s h e r e , go t o W i l l i a m s Lake, go t o C l i n t o n , go t o Round Lake...We d i d t h a t f o r , I g u e s s , two y e a r s . We h i t a l l t h e m e e t i n g s , l e a r n and l i s t e n t o p e o p l e . I g u e s s t o hang on t o s o b r i e t y we d i d t h a t . The  Drug and A l c o h o l Program a g a i n p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n p r o v i d i n g  i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the d a t e s ,  t i m e s and  p l a c e s of these  various  A.A.  activities. The  A.A.  m e e t i n g s on  the  Alkali  Lake r e s e r v e  community members, c h i l d r e n as w e l l as a d u l t s , and as d r i n k e r s . sober  A s e c o n d w e e k l y A.A.  population  on  the  reserve  m e e t i n g was grew,  the  w e r e open t o a l l  n o n - d r i n k e r s as  added i n 1978.  As  A.A.  became  meetings  i n c r e a s i n g l y p o p u l a r s o c i a l e v e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y on the o c c a s i o n o f an  65  well the  A.A.  " b i r t h d a y " , when a cake would be presented  t o an i n d i v i d u a l t o c e l e b r a t e  t h e a n n i v e r s a r y o f a d e c i s i o n t o become s o b e r .  Al-anon  and A l a t e e n  g r o u p s , p r o v i d i n g group s u p p o r t f o r t h e a d u l t and teenage r e l a t i v e s o f alcoholics, 1980s.  were i n i t i a t e d by i n t e r e s t e d community members i n t h e e a r l y  With  t h e i n c r e a s i n g number o f s o b e r  i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the  v i l l a g e , a very s t r o n g sense o f "community" developed group.  w i t h i n t h e A.A.  I n d e e d , t h e A.A. g r o u p became t h e new f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e A l k a l i  Lake community. In  a d d i t i o n t o t h e a n n u a l New Y e a r ' s Day p a r t y , begun i n 1974 by  P h y l l i s a n d Andy C h e l s e a  and t h e D r u g and A l c o h o l c o u n s e l l o r , o t h e r  " d r y " e v e n t s s u c h a s c o m m u n i t y d a n c e s began t o a p p e a r on t h e r e s e r v e . W i t h t h e i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t o f some Band members i n N a t i v e spirituality  various a c t i v i t i e s  ceremonial sweatbathing  (Pan-Indian)  s u c h a s Pow-wow d a n c i n g , drumming and  became p o p u l a r .  I t was an i m p l i c i t r u l e , and i n  the case o f t h e Drum and Dance group (formed  i n 1978) i t was an e x p l i c i t  r e q u i r e m e n t , t h a t f o r i n d i v i d u a l s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n these a c t i v i t i e s  they  must be s o b e r , a s a l c o h o l was b e l i e v e d t o be f o r e i g n t o "the I n d i a n way".  PERSONAL GROWTH TRAINING PROGRAMS Implicit  i n t h e A.A.  philosophy  development a s a means o f r e c o v e r i n g f r o m  i s an e m p h a s i s alcoholism.  on  personal  A number o f Band  members ( m o s t o f them c o r e members o f t h e A.A. g r o u p ) began t o a t t e n d p e r s o n a l g r o w t h a n d D r u g and A l c o h o l w o r k s h o p s i n an e f f o r t t o f u r t h e r t h e i r p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t and t o a c q u i r e c o u n s e l l i n g s k i l l s t o h e l p others w i t h a l c o h o l problems.  I n t h e 1979-1980 p e r i o d a b o u t 10 A l k a l i  Lake Band members p a r t i c i p a t e d  i n courses  and  counsellor training) offerred  66  (both i n p e r s o n a l development  by t h e A l b e r t a - b a s e d  and N a t i v e -  oriented  N e c h i I n s t i t u t e on Drug and A l c o h o l E d u c a t i o n .  The t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m t h a t was t o h a v e t h e most d r a m a t i c i m p a c t on t h e A l k a l i c o m m u n i t y was t h a t o f " L i f e s p r i n g " , owned by a C a l i f o r n i a b a s e d company. Lifespring  I n t h e F a l l o f 1980, a f t e r l e a r n i n g f r o m f r i e n d s o f t h e  training  p r o g r a m , P h y l l i s a n d Andy C h e l s e a  Vancouver t o a t t e n d a f i v e completion of  day L i f e s p r i n g  travelled to  "Basic" training.  Upon  t h i s c o u r s e t h e two d e c i d e d t o c o n t i n u e d i r e c t l y i n t o t h e  more i n t e n s i v e L i f e s p r i n g " I n t e r p e r s o n a l E x p e r i e n c e " c o u r s e t h a t was o f f e r r e d t h e f o l l o w i n g week.  These t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s were v e r y p o s i t i v e  experiences f o r the Chelseas.  [ L i f e s p r i n g ] was something I needed a t t h e t i m e . I t was tough. When I went I r e a l l y enjoyed m y s e l f . F o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n my l i f e I s t a r t e d t h i n k i n g about what I'd been d o i n g . When I went b a c k home we w e n t t o a d a n c e . T h o s e g u y s t h o u g h t I s t a r t e d d r i n k i n g a g a i n , o r I was j u s t stoned o r whatever. I r e a l l y had a b a l l ! And I s t a r t e d wondering about what t h e people would be l i k e h e r e i f t h e y f e l t a s good a s I d i d a t t h a t t i m e . [A.C.]. Upon r e t u r n i n g t o A l k a l i t h e C h e l s e a s shared t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h others.  The t w o r e c o g n i z e d t h a t more a n d more p e o p l e w e r e b e c o m i n g  s o b e r , b u t t h a t " n o t h i n g e l s e was h a p p e n i n g " .  Problems of a t t i t u d e  p e r s i s t e d , a s m a n i f e s t e d by j o b d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , r e l u c t a n c e t o work, and neglect  of children.  Phyllis  a n d Andy  Chelsea  thought  that the  community might b e n e f i t from t h e s e t r a i n i n g s , and p u t t h i s s u g g e s t i o n t o t h e Band m e m b e r s h i p .  Heeding t h e i r s u g g e s t i o n , t h a t w i n t e r (1980-81)  t h i r t y - e i g h t A l k a l i Lake Band members t r a v e l l e d t o Vancouver t o a t t e n d a L i f e s p r i n g " B a s i c " t r a i n i n g course.  The c o s t o f t h i s  $15,200.00 ($400.00 p e r p e r s o n ) , w h i c h C a p i t a l funds.  was  A s u b s e q u e n t g r o u p o f 28  training  r e l e a s e d from  training  The c o s t f o r  was $11,200.00 ( a g a i n $400.00 p e r p e r s o n ) ,  67  t h e Band's  Band members a t t e n d e d t h e  " I n t e r p e r s o n a l E x p e r i e n c e " course, a g a i n i n Vancouver. this  totalled  which  was  secured i n i t i a l l y and  from the  M a i n t e n a n c e (O&M)  l a t e r brought up  E d u c a t i o n component of the Band's O p e r a t i o n  budget.  t o the  The  L i f e s p r i n g t r a i n i n g programs were  W i l l i a m s Lake d i s t r i c t ,  seven t r a i n i n g s were h e l d i n the  1981-82  I t i s somewhat d i f f i c u l t t o get participants  actual t r a i n i n g exercises  w i t h those who  value.  of the  t r a i n i n g was  s t a t e d , however, t h a t  t h e r a p y and v a l u e s of  confrontation  patterns,  and  on  and  the  discussing  the  t a k e n the c o u r s e , as  the  t o l i e p a r t l y i n i t s "shock" New  Directions  program  trainings.  the  promoted the  group  Emphasis  adequacy of c e r t a i n "blocks"  that  inhibited  e f f e c t i v e c o m m u n i c a t i o n among f a m i l y  friends.  from  individuals  L i f e s p r i n g t r a i n i n g s (and population) generally how to  listen  to  and  Lake  this constitutes  stated  t o communicate o p e n l y  Alkali  that  others;  participated  m a j o r i t y of the  f e e l i n g s t o o t h e r s , and  i n terms of  personal  growth  p a r t i c i p a n t s c l a i m e d t o have emerged f r o m the t r a i n i n g s w i t h an sense of s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e The would  and  a more p o s i t i v e o u t l o o k on  L i f e s p r i n g company d i s s o l v e d  continue  i n the  district  D i r e c t i o n s " t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m was f a c i l i t a t o r from the  and  i n 1982. at  the  To  in  adult  how the  increased  life.  ensure t h a t  l o c a l reserves,  c r e a t e d i n 1983  trainings the  "New  by P h y l l i s C h e l s e a , a  p r e v i o u s L i f e s p r i n g program, and  68  and  t h r o u g h t h e s e t r a i n i n g s they l e a r n e d  t h e i r t h o u g h t s and  care for  the  who  was  behaviour  r e a l i z a t i o n of one's g o a l s and The  be  existentialist  positive thinking.  emotional  uses  I t may  training sessions u t i l i z e d  t e c h n i q u e s , and  overcoming  not  what t h e s e  to d i s c u s s  Lifespring  p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and  p l a c e d on e x p l o r i n g  had  the  t e c h n i q u e s s i m i l a r to t h o s e i n the generally  were r e q u e s t e d not  believed  T h i s h e s i t a n c y p e r s i s t s as  or  period.  a c l e a r i d e a of e x a c t l y  trainings entailed, since  effectiveness  where a t o t a l of s i x  a third  individual  f r o m one o f t h e o t h e r Shuswap Bands i n t h e d i s t r i c t . formed as a n o n - p r o f i t Native  people.  T h i s company was  o r g a n i z a t i o n geared s p e c i f i c a l l y  New D i r e c t i o n s c o n t i n u e s  t o t h e needs o f  t o o f f e r and h o l d a v a r i e t y o f  t r a i n i n g programs i n t h e W i l l i a m s Lake r e g i o n . ^  Most a d u l t Band members  have t a k e n p a r t i n t h e s e t r a i n i n g s .  INDIVIDUAL RECRUITMENT: THE DECISION TO BECOME SOBER It  became  clear  through  p r e c i p i t a t i n g circumstances, "risk-reward"  this  study  that  although  there  were  i t w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t t o u s e a r a t i o n a l  model t o account f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s d e c i s i o n t o j o i n t h e  Sobriety  movement.  I n f o r m a n t s gave a v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s f o r t h e i r  decision  t o become  sober,  such  as t h e f a c t  that  alcoholism  i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h t h e i r work performance, t h a t i t was c a u s i n g in  family  negative  r e l a t i o n s , o r t h a t a l c o h o l was b e g i n n i n g  a breakdown  t o have  serious  e f f e c t s on t h e i n d i v i d u a l b o t h p h y s i c a l l y and m e n t a l l y .  p r e c i p i t a t i n g i n f l u e n c e of b e i n g c o n f r o n t e d  was  The  by t h e C h i e f , t h e Band S o c i a l  W o r k e r , o r t h e I n t e r v e n t i o n C o m m i t t e e was  a l s o mentioned f r e q u e n t l y .  No i n d i v i d u a l , h o w e v e r , o f f e r r e d one s i m p l e  reason f o r h i s d e c i s i o n .  Many s t a t e d t h a t a v a r i e t y o f f a c t o r s w e r e t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n making t h e d e c i s i o n t o s t o p  drinking,  with  some i n f o r m a n t s e m p h a s i z i n g  d i f f e r e n t u n d e r l y i n g causes when asked on d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n s , and o t h e r s claiming philosophy  that  they  d i d not r e a l l y  of sobriety that  explain the disease Alkali  today  presented  i n this  their  philosophy  " c u l t u r a l " explanation  sobered  d e v e l o p e d a f t e r 1976 s e r v e d  of alcoholism.  explain  know why t h e y  t o become s o b e r  i n other  words  (see example one, below).  69  The  t o d e f i n e and  Many o f t h e s o b e r i n d i v i d u a l s a t  decision -  up.  i n the terms  giving a  post-hoc  In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n I wish t o present, simply f o r i l l u s t r a t i v e purposes, individuals'  two  p e r s o n a l a c c o u n t s o f t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t l e d up t o  decisions  t o g i v e up d r i n k i n g .  Informant # 1, sober s i n c e 1976: I t o o k my f i r s t d r i n k a t t h e age o f 13 - e x p e r i m e n t e d - a n d a f t e r t h a t i t was j u s t t o h a v e f u n . To g e t high...And t h e n l a t e r on I d r a n k t o g e t d r u n k , a n d r e a l l y g e t d r u n k . B u t I n o t i c e d a s I d r a n k on and o n , f r o m 13 y e a r s o l d t o when I was 28, d r i n k i n g s t a r t e d t o t a k e i t s t o l l . You s t a r t e d t o d r i n k now b e c a u s e y o u need t h a t d r i n k . Scary things s t a r t e d t o h a p p e n , l i k e a l l o f a s u d d e n y o u ' r e t h r o w i n g up b l o o d . . . P r e t t y soon there's monsters t a l k i n g t o you f r o m o u t s i d e , c a l l i n g your name, p r e t t y soon you don't l i k e n i g h t t i m e because t h a t ' s when t h i n g s come o u t - bad t h i n g s - a n d somehow deep i n my m i n d I knew t h a t d e a t h was coming... One t i m e I d r a n k f o r t e n d a y s s t r a i g h t . And my hands g o t s t u c k l i k e t h i s [ f i n g e r s c u r l e d up l i k e c l a w s ] , and t h e n your hands a r e bent back l i k e t h i s , because i t must be t h a t a l c o h o l ' s a f f e c t i n g your nervous system or whatever. So i t ' s l i t t l e t h i n g s l i k e t h a t s t a r t s happening...So a l l t h i s k i n d o f t h i n g s when you're s i t t i n g around maybe w i t h a hangover and you're t h i n k i n g about i t , you t h i n k " W e l l , i t ' s s t a r t i n g t o h a v e i t s e f f e c t s " . So t h a t was t h e r e a s o n I s o b e r e d up. What h a p p e n e d was t h e r e was p e o p l e s o b e r i n g u p , a n d y o u w a t c h a n d y o u w a t c h , and t h e y a r e n ' t s u f f e r i n g l i k e I was s u f f e r i n g , and what happens i s you say " W e l l , I wouldn't mind b e i n g l i k e that"... Then I r e a l i z e d my b e h a v i o u r - a t t i t u d e - my b e h a v i o u r s t a r t e d d o w n h i l l a l s o . L i k e that time I didn't connect i t t o a l c o h o l . I t h o u g h t about i t a l o t o f t i m e s , I pushed i t back b e c a u s e I d i d n ' t w a n t t o l e t go o f t h a t b o t t l e . I g u e s s t h e k i n d o f guy I am I had t o h i t r e a l hard b e f o r e I'd open my eyes and s a y "O.K., I ' l l change". B u t a l c o h o l i s l i k e t h a t , y o u go d o w n h i l l a n d y o u h i t b o t t o m - t h a t ' s when p e o p l e r e a l i z e . . . There's a l l k i n d o f i n c i d e n t s t h a t d i f f e r e n t people would wake up, l i k e y o u wake up a n d s a y "O.K., I'm g o i n g t o s t o p d o i n g t h a t " . F o r me, I guess f a m i l y v i o l e n c e i s what d i d i t . . .  From t h i s a c c o u n t we s e e t h a t a v a r i e t y o f f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s i n d i v i d u a l ' s d e c i s i o n t o become s o b e r . perceived  negative e f f e c t s of alcohol  The c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e  on h i s p h y s i c a l a n d m e n t a l  c o n d i t i o n p l u s t h e example s e t by sober i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e community were important considerations.  Comments about t h e g r a d u a l d o w n h i l l s l i d e a s  70  t h e i n d i v i d u a l became more d e p e n d e n t on a l c o h o l , t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t a l c o h o l was  " s t a r t i n g t o t a k e i t s t o l l " , and  p o i n t " , or a "low  p o i n t i n the d r i n k e r ' s c a r e e r " f r o m where the  t o s o b e r up  i s o f t e n made, r e f l e c t  progression  of the d i s e a s e of a l c o h o l i s m .  a f t e r t h i s i n d i v i d u a l was family violence. Chief  the h i t t i n g of a "bottom  confronted  the  common A.A. The  analysis  decision of  a c t u a l d e c i s i o n came  by t h e C h i e f a f t e r an i n c i d e n t o f  A f t e r d i s c u s s i n g the problem w i t h t h i s i n d i v i d u a l ,  p r e s e n t e d him  with  an  the  ultimatum.  He  was  e i t h e r to attend  the an  a l c o h o l i s m t r e a t m e n t p r o g r a m , o r t h e R.C.M.P. w o u l d be c a l l e d i n t o l a y c h a r g e s of a s s a u l t a g a i n s t him.  The  i n d i v i d u a l chose to e n r o l l i n a  t r e a t m e n t program, and has been sober s i n c e .  Informant # 2, sober s i n c e  1976:  [The D r u g and A l c o h o l c o u n s e l l o r ] u s e d t o come v i s i t us... I u s e d t o h i d e on [ t h e c o u n s e l l o r ] , I u s e d t o h i d e on h i m a l l the t i m e . He u s e d t o come o v e r and a s k my k i d s - my k i d s w e r e n ' t t o o b i g t h e n - he u s e d t o a s k my k i d s "Where's y o u r mom?"., and I'd t e l l my k i d s "You t e l l [ t h e c o u n s e l l o r ] and I ' l l b e a t you up!" I d i d n ' t w a n t t o go [ t o t h e Alcohol Awareness meetings]. B u t s o m e t i m e s he u s e d t o c a t c h me, I d i d n ' t e v e n know and he'd come i n , and he'd t e l l me "I'd l i k e t o see you a t t h e m e e t i n g t o n i g h t " and I s a i d "You know, you don't h a v e t o f o r c e p e o p l e . I f I don't w a n t t o go I don't h a v e t o go!"...I d i d n ' t r e a l l y r e a l i z e t h e n t h a t he was t r y i n g t o h e l p o u t t h e r e s e r v e , t r y i n g t o h e l p o u t o u r f a m i l i e s , on account of what we were d o i n g w i t h our c h i l d r e n . So i t seems l i k e a l l of a sudden I s o r t of s t a r t e d r e a l i z i n g what [ t h e c o u n s e l l o r ] was d o i n g , b u t i t seemed l i k e I r e a l l y g o t w o r s e so. I had a f e e l i n g "O.K., i f somebody's g o i n g t o s t a r t bugging me about g o i n g , I might j u s t as w e l l d r i n k h a r d e r - i f t h e y c o n t i n u e d o i n g me t h i s t h e y ' r e g o i n g t o f i n a l l y make me q u i t , q u i t d r i n k i n g . So I j u s t t h o u g h t I m i g h t as w e l l make use of a l l my d r i n k i n g t i m e w h i l e I c o u l d . Anyhow, t h e y g o t a h o l d o f u s , go t o t r e a t m e n t . One day P h y l l i s g o t o v e r h e r e , she s a i d "You know w h a t ? " and I s a i d "No" and she s a i d " I c a r e t h a t you go t o t r e a t m e n t " . I s a i d " I don't h a v e t o , I can s t o p on my own i f I w a n t " and she s a i d "You know, t h i n g s a r e g e t t i n g too far...Your k i d s are s t a r t i n g t o l e a v e you and you're b e a t i n g up on y o u r k i d s " and t h e s e t h i n g s , and I s a i d "That's n o t s o ! " You know, t h a t ' s how I thought I was h i d i n g t h i n g s , but people out t h e r e were w a t c h i n g me, t h e y c a r e d a b o u t w h a t I was d o i n g . So I g u e s s I j u s t had t o go. B u t I was r e a l l y g l a d I d i d .  71  For t h i s i n d i v i d u a l s o c i a l p r e s s u r e seemed t o be an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r contributing evident  to the  i n the  decision  t o become s o b e r , a f a c t o r  r e m a r k a b o u t how  she  believed  the  constant  a p p l i e d on her t o s t o p d r i n k i n g would i n e v i t a b l y cause her decision  to  attend  confrontation  an  alcoholism  especially  to quit.  t r e a t m e n t p r o g r a m was  by the W e l f a r e A i d e , who  pressure  made a f t e r  presented t h i s i n d i v i d u a l w i t h  c h o i c e of e i t h e r e n r o l l i n g i n a t r e a t m e n t program, or h a v i n g her removed  from  her  home.  In  t r e a t m e n t program d i d not  and  t h i s case  correspond w i t h  T h i s i n f o r m a n t r e l a t e d how  she  The  the  decision  to  the  children  attend  the  the d e c i s i o n t o become sober.  brought some a l c o h o l a l o n g f o r the  trip  a r r i v e d a t t h e t r e a t m e n t c e n t e r i n A l b e r t a i n an e x t r e m e l y d r u n k  state.  B o t h she  and  initially  f e l t they had  program.  On  her  husband,  been f o r c e d  who  also  went i n f o r  treatment,  i n t o t a k i n g the a l c o h o l i s m  treatment  r e t u r n i n g t o A l k a l i , however, they both became c o m m i t t e d  to  sobriety.  COMMUNITY MOBILIZATION; SOCIAL STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS I t i s d i f f i c u l t to i d e n t i f y with assurance, without u t i l i z i n g comparative perspective, facilitated  the  the p a r t i c u l a r f e a t u r e s of t h i s s o c i e t y  mobilization  process.  At  t h i s stage information  on  a  that the  s e q u e n c e by w h i c h s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l s w e r e r e c r u i t e d t o t h e movement also  is  lacking,  mobilization  on  the  consequently  we  are  unable  of sub-groups w i t h i n the community.  o u t , h o w e v e r , two research.  and  First,  preliminary  early  discuss  I would l i k e t o  o b s e r v a t i o n s that might d i r e c t  a number of i n t e r e s t and  r e s e r v e i n the  to  the point  further  s e r v i c e groups were a c t i v e  1 9 7 0 s , i n c l u d i n g a men's h o c k e y t e a m , a  W e i g h t W a t c h e r ' s g r o u p , a Homemaker's g r o u p ( a l s o known a s t h e Women's  72  group),  and  a Youth group.  I n t h e l a t e 1970s a d d i t i o n a l c l u b s  were  formed, among them the Drum and Dance group and the Rodeo c l u b , w h i c h a r e still  a c t i v e today.  The  n o t i o n of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community group  a c t i v i t i e s t h e r e f o r e was not f o r e i g n i n t h i s s o c i e t y . A.A.  group was  s t r u c t u r a l l y compatible  and t h i s c o m p a t a b i l i t y may sober  The  on-reserve  w i t h t h i s f e a t u r e of reserve  life,  have f a c i l i t a t e d i t s s u c c e s s i n d r a w i n g n e w l y -  i n d i v i d u a l s i n t o the group.  Second, t h e r e perhaps e x i s t e d a  l a t e n t sense o f "community" among v i l l a g e r e s i d e n t s , as i s suggested the l e t t e r t o Band members r e g a r d i n g the 1971 e l e c t i v e s y s t e m (pages 26-27). m o b i l i z a t i o n process t h e A.A.  and  s w i t c h i n the Band C o u n c i l  T h i s would have f a c i l i t a t e d  the s u c c e s s  in  o f the group therapy  both  techniques  the of  program.  SUMMARY The  p e r i o d b e t w e e n 1976  and  w i t h i n t h e A l k a l i Lake community.  1985  was  a t i m e of immense change  A c c o r d i n g t o most community r e s i d e n t s  the " d r y i n g up" of the r e s e r v e and the e x p e r i e n c e o f L i f e s p r i n g  trainings  were the two e v e n t s t h a t most i n f l u e n c e d r e s e r v e l i f e i n t h a t decade. T h r o u g h t h i s p e r i o d s o b r i e t y e v e n t u a l l y became a g e n e r a l l y h e l d v a l u e . A p r o c e s s o f community development was  initiated.  A v a r i e t y o f economic  development p r o j e c t s were undertaken by the Band O f f i c e ; for  the o p e r a t i o n of the r e s e r v e s c h o o l passed f r o m D.I.A.  responsibility t o the Band's  E d u c a t i o n A u t h o r i t y ; an i n c r e a s i n g number o f Band members e n r o l l e d i n h i g h - s c h o o l and post-secondary came t o e x p e r i e n c e  e d u c a t i o n a l programs; and many i n d i v i d u a l s  a renewed i n t e r e s t i n N a t i v e (Shuswap and  c u l t u r e and s p i r i t u a l i t y .  The  L i f e s p r i n g experience  Pan-Indian)  resulted in a  new  o p e n n e s s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n t h a t i n many c a s e s e n a b l e d o l d " h u r t s " t o be h e a l e d and r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o be mended.  By t h e e a r l y 1980s t h e r e  had  come t o e x i s t among Band members a v e r y s t r o n g sense o f community p r i d e and  solidarity. I n t h i s decade t h e S o b r i e t y movement underwent some d i s t i n c t changes  in  organization.  The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  for controlling  drinking  on t h e r e s e r v e became a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e Band O f f i c e .  behaviour  The I n t e r v e n t i o n  Committee was a s s i g n e d t h e " o f f i c i a l " r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o n f r o n t i n g and imposing  s a n c t i o n s on d r i n k e r s , and f o r p r o v i d i n g n e w l y - s o b e r i n d i v i d u a l s  w i t h f o r m s o f s u p p o r t such a s employment, c h i l d - c a r e , home improvements, as w e l l a s e m o t i o n a l on-reserve and  support i n t h e f o r m o f p e r s o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g .  A.A. group,  operation  from  which a f t e r t h e Band  1978 was independent i n o r g a n i z a t i o n  Office,  comprehensive form of emotional  The  grew  to provide  a much  more  s u p p o r t f o r s o b e r Band members.  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e A.A. m e e t i n g s i n c r e a s e d , t h e s o l i d a r i t y  As  achieved  w i t h i n t h e m e e t i n g s began t o be c a r r i e d i n t o o t h e r a s p e c t s o f community life. The two i n d i v i d u a l s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n i t i a t i n g t h e S o b r i e t y movement r e t a i n e d v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t l e a d e r s h i p s t a t u s w i t h i n t h e community. a f t e r t h e i r resignations i n the l a t e  1970s  Even  from the p o s i t i o n s of c h i e f  and s o c i a l worker t h e two f r e q u e n t l y were approached by community members f o r h e l p and s u p p o r t w i t h p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s .  The s t r e n g t h o f t h e i r  l e a d e r s h i p i s evident e s p e c i a l l y i n the e n t h u s i a s t i c response  by Band  members t o t h e i r s u g g e s t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n L i f e s p r i n g s t r a i n i n g . The t w o h a v e m a i n t a i n e d  an i n v o l v e m e n t  i n community a f f a i r s .  Andy  C h e l s e a a g a i n was e l e c t e d c h i e f on t h e Band C o u n c i l o f 1980-82 (and a g a i n in  1986, by a c c l a m a t i o n ) ,  involvement  i n social  and P h y l l i s  services,  Chelsea  has c o n t i n u e d  i n t h e Autumn o f 1985 a g a i n  e m p l o y e d a s t h e Band S o c i a l W o r k e r .  her being  The t w o c o n t i n u e t o be v i e w e d by  v i r t u a l l y a l l community members w i t h g r e a t a f f e c t i o n and r e s p e c t .  NOTES TO CHAPTER FOUR  1.  A sober i n d i v i d u a l may be d e f i n e d as one who has made t h e d e c i s i o n t o attempt t o r e f r a i n permanently from consuming a l c o h o l . The i m p l i c i t g o a l i s p e r m a n e n t a b s t e n t i o n , b u t i n p r a c t i c e , f o l l o w i n g t h e A.A. p h i l o s o p h y , the i n d i v i d u a l works "one day a t a t i m e " a t m a i n t a i n i n g sobriety.  2.  THE TWELVE STEPS: 1.  We a d m i t t e d we were p o w e r l e s s o v e r a l c o h o l - t h a t o u r l i v e s had become unmanageable.  2.  Came t o b e l i e v e t h a t r e s t o r e us t o s a n i t y .  3.  Made a d e c i s i o n t o t u r n o u r w i l l c a r e o f God as_ we understood Him,  4.  Made a s e a r c h i n g and f e a r l e s s moral i n v e n t o r y o f o u r s e l v e s .  5.  A d m i t t e d t o God, t o o u r s e l v e s and t o a n o t h e r human b e i n g t h e exact nature of our wrongs.  6.  Were e n t i r e l y character.  7.  Humbly asked Him t o remove our shortcomings.  8.  Made a l i s t o f a l l persons we had harmed and became w i l l i n g t o make amends t o them a l l .  9.  Made d i r e c t amends t o s u c h p e o p l e w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e , when t o do so would i n j u r e them o r o t h e r s .  a Power  g r e a t e r than o u r s e l v e s could  and o u r l i v e s  over t o the  r e a d y t o have God remove a l l t h e s e d e f e c t s o f  except  10.  C o n t i n u e d t o t a k e p e r s o n a l i n v e n t o r y and when we were wrong promptly a d m i t t e d i t .  11.  Sought through prayer and m e d i t a t i o n t o improve our c o n s c i o u s c o n t a c t w i t h God as_ we u n d e r s t o o d Him, p r a y i n g o n l y f o r knowledge o f H i s w i l l f o r us and t h e power t o c a r r y t h a t out.  12.  Having had a s p i r i t u a l awakening as the r e s u l t o f these s t e p s , we t r i e d t o c a r r y t h i s message t o a l c o h o l i c s , and t o p r a c t i c e these p r i n c i p l e s i n a l l our a f f a i r s .  75  3.  4.  THE  TWELVE TRADITIONS:  1.  Our common w e l f a r e s h o u l d come f i r s t ; p e r s o n a l r e c o v e r y depends upon A.A. u n i t y .  2.  For our group purpose t h e r e i s but one u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y - a l o v i n g God as He may e x p r e s s H i m s e l f i n o u r g r o u p c o n s c i e n c e . Our l e a d e r s a r e but t r u s t e d s e r v a n t s ; they do not govern.  3.  The o n l y r e q u i r e m e n t drinking.  4.  E a c h g r o u p s h o u l d be a u t o n o m o u s e x c e p t i n m a t t e r s o t h e r g r o u p s o r A.A. as a w h o l e .  5.  Each group has but one p r i m a r y purpose - t o c a r r y i t s message t o the a l c o h o l i c who s t i l l s u f f e r s .  6.  An A.A. g r o u p o u g h t n e v e r e n d o r s e , f i n a n c e , o r l e n d t h e A.A. name t o any r e l a t e d f a c i l i t y o r o u t s i d e e n t e r p r i s e , l e s t p r o b l e m s o f money, p r o p e r t y , and p r e s t i g e d i v e r t us f r o m o u r p r i m a r y purpose.  7.  E v e r y A.A. g r o u p o u g h t t o be f u l l y s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g , d e c l i n i n g outside c o n t r i b u t i o n s .  8.  A l c o h o l i c s Anonymous s h o u l d r e m a i n f o r e v e r n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l , but our s e r v i c e c e n t e r s may employ s p e c i a l workers.  9.  A.A., as s u c h , o u g h t n e v e r be o r g a n i z e d ; b u t we may c r e a t e s e r v i c e boards o r c o m m i t t e e s d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e t o those they serve.  10.  A l c o h o l i c s Anonymous h a s no o p i n i o n on o u t s i d e i s s u e s ; h e n c e the A.A. name ought never be drawn i n t o p u b l i c c o n t r o v e r s y .  11.  Our p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s p o l i c y i s based on a t t r a c t i o n r a t h e r than p r o m o t i o n ; we need a l w a y s m a i n t a i n p e r s o n a l anonymity a t the l e v e l o f p r e s s , r a d i o , and f i l m s .  12.  Anonymity i s the s p i r i t u a l f o u n d a t i o n of a l l our t r a d i t i o n s , e v e r r e m i n d i n g us t o p l a c e p r i n c i p l e s b e f o r e p e r s o n a l i t i e s .  f o r A.A.  membership i s a d e s i r e to  stop  affecting  The Nechi I n s t i t u t e was formed i n 1974 as a n o n - p r o f i t s o c i e t y . I t i s j o i n t - f u n d e d by p r o v i n c i a l ( A l b e r t a n ) and f e d e r a l N a t i v e Drug and A l c o h o l Abuse programs.  76  5.  The c o u r s e s o f f e r r e d by New D i r e c t i o n s i n 1985 i n c l u d e : -  B a s i c and Advanced F i v e Day P e r s o n a l Growth T r a i n i n g s E l d e r s Four Day Awareness T r a i n i n g F a m i l y Four Day T r a i n i n g R e l a t i o n s h i p s and Communication Weight Workshop L e a d e r s h i p Workshop A l c o h o l and C u l t u r a l Awareness C r o s s / C u l t u r a l Workshop S e x u a l i t y Workshops B a s i c A l c o h o l and P e r s o n a l Growth Youth B a s i c and Advanced T r a i n i n g s S t a f f , B o a r d s , and Committee Workshops  77  CHAPTER FIVE: ALKALI LAKE IN 1985  SOBRIETY ON THE RESERVE W i t h i n t h e A l k a l i community s o b r i e t y now has become a f u n d a m e n t a l value.  The A l k a l i Lake r e s e r v e i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y w e l l known f o r  i t s achievement i n overcoming a l c o h o l abuse, and community members a r e a c t i v e l y p r o m o t i n g and e n c o u r a g i n g s o b r i e t y i n o t h e r N a t i v e across  Canada.  Consequently  there  exists  a great  deal  communities of  social  p r e s s u r e on i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n t h e community t o a b s t a i n f r o m a l c o h o l use. I t i s an i m p l i c i t e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t v i s i t o r s t o A l k a l i L a k e a r e n o t t o b r i n g a l c o h o l i n t o the community or d r i n k a l c o h o l d u r i n g t h e i r  stay.  T h i s i s an e x p l i c i t r e q u i r e m e n t o f those t e a c h i n g i n t h e r e s e r v e s c h o o l , who r e s i d e i n t h e community d u r i n g t h e i r term o f employment. D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e community members now a r e sober,  the perpetuation  Indeed,  o f s o b r i e t y f o r some  i t i s p a r t o f t h e A.A. p h i l o s o p h y  s o b r i e t y "one day a t a time". as  sharing  support  i s an o n - g o i n g  task.  t h a t one p e r p e t u a t e s h i s  A form o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n r e f e r r e d t o  h a s e m e r g e d t o become a  fundamental  f o r s o b r i e t y i n the community today.  form of g r a s s r o o t s  Sharing  may be r o u g h l y  d e f i n e d as t h e open and honest e x p r e s s i o n o f t h o u g h t s and f e e l i n g s among two  o r more i n d i v i d u a l s .  session  sharing  a l s o has emerged, where i n a group s e t t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s have t h e  opportunity sharing,  An i n s t i t u t i o n r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e  t o r e l a t e t h e i r t h o u g h t s and f e e l i n g s .  whether  manifested  simply  through  p r o b l e m s , o r t h r o u g h t h e more d r a m a t i c  I t i s believed  that  v e r b a l i z a t i o n o f one's  release of emotional  energy  through c r y i n g , loud w a i l i n g , or other s p e c i f i c a c t i o n s , i s c e n t r a l to  78  the process of recovery from a l c o h o l i s m .  I n s h a r i n g an i n d i v i d u a l c a n  r e l e a s e h i s f e e l i n g s of f r u s t r a t i o n , anger, f e a r , or depression p o s i t i v e and h a r m l e s s manner, i n s t e a d o f t u r n i n g t o t h e b o t t l e h i s sorrows,  i na  t o drown  or i n turning to acts of violence against others.  The  p r o t o t y p i c a l s h a r i n g s e s s i o n i s t h a t o f t h e A.A. meeting.  The  A.A. M e e t i n g s A.A.  meetings continue  S i n c e 1981 t h e attendance  t o be h e l d t w i c e w e e k l y on t h e r e s e r v e .  a t t h e s e m e e t i n g s has d w i n d l e d ,  and today  only  about 15 t o 30 Band members a t t e n d the Thursday m e e t i n g s h e l d i n t h e Band Hall.  A.A. members ( I n d i a n a n d n o n - I n d i a n )  c o m m u n i t y , and f r o m o t h e r attendance  from the W i l l i a m s  reserves i n the d i s t r i c t ,  a t these Thursday meetings.  Lake  a l s o may be i n  The Sunday e v e n i n g  meetings  u s u a l l y a r e h e l d i n t h e home o f a Band member, and t y p i c a l l y no more t h a t 10 i n d i v i d u a l s During meetings.  attend.  the course  of f i e l d w o r k I attended  t h r e e T h u r s d a y A.A.  Based on t h i s somewhat l i m i t e d e x p e r i e n c e , and on d i s c u s s i o n s  w i t h A.A. members, a g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e t y p i c a l i s now  A.A. m e e t i n g  presented.  The T h u r s d a y A.A. m e e t i n g i s s c h e d u l e d t o s t a r t a t a b o u t 7:30 p.m.. M o s t i n d i v i d u a l s a r r i v e b e t w e e n 7:30 a n d 8:00 p.m.. a r e arranged  Chairs i nthe Hall  e i t h e r i n a c i r c l e , o r i n s t r a i g h t rows w i t h an a i s l e up t h e  m i d d l e , d e p e n d i n g on t h e whim o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r c h a i r p e r s o n .  In the  l a t t e r case, t h e c h a i r p e r s o n s i t s a t a t a b l e i n f r o n t o f t h e group; i n t h e f o r m e r , t h e c h a i r p e r s o n s i t s w i t h o t h e r s around t h e c i r c l e .  When he  deems t h e t i m e s u i t a b l e , t h e c h a i r p e r s o n i n i t i a t e s t h e meeting by q u i e t l y handing each o f t h r e e people s e a t e d nearby a sheet o f paper, on w h i c h i s w r i t t e n t h e 12 T r a d i t i o n s , t h e 12 S t e p s , o r a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e  79  A.A. group. contents  The i n d i v i d u a l s ,  of t h e i r  introduction,  sheet  one a f t e r  another,  stand up and read the  out l o u d t o t h e group.  t h e m e e t i n g commences.  With  traditions.  topic  i n theory  f o r the meeting  content  by way o f  The c h a i r p e r s o n w e l c o m e s t h e  p a r t i c i p a n t s , and a n n o u n c e s t h e t o p i c f o r t h e e v e n i n g , f r o m one o f t h e t w e l v e  this  which i s taken  The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a s p e c i f i c  serves  to orient  t o some d e g r e e t h e  o f t h e s p e e c h e s , b u t I was n o t a l w a y s a b l e t o d i s c e r n a c l o s e  connection. The  c h a i r p e r s o n then i n v i t e s an i n d i v i d u a l t o speak t o t h e group by  p o s i n g a q u e s t i o n such as us?"  If willing,  my name i s  (  the speaker )  responds "Hi (  "(  and  )".  ), do y o u want t o s h a r e a n y t h i n g then  I'm  an  i n t r o d u c e s h i m s e l f by s a y i n g " H e l l o , alcoholic",  to  simply  "That's  the  group  The speaker  may end by  a l l I h a v e t o s a y " o r "Thanks f o r my s o b r i e t y " ,  f o l l o w i n g w h i c h he r e s u m e s h i s s e a t . speaker  which  The i n d i v i d u a l may s p e a k a s l o n g a s he d e s i r e s ,  but u s u a l l y t h e speeches l a s t around 15 minutes. saying  with  and c a l l s upon a n o t h e r  person  The c h a i r p e r s o n t h e n t h a n k s t h e t o speak t o t h e group.  O n l y on  r a r e o c c a s i o n s w i l l an i n d i v i d u a l d e c l i n e t h i s r e q u e s t . I t i s up t o t h e c h a i r p e r s o n t o d e c i d e who t o i n v i t e t o speak. is  b e l i e v e d t o choose i n d i v i d u a l s  having  personal d i f f i c u l t i e s  who,  The c h a i r p e r s o n g e n e r a l l y  he s u s p e c t s ,  are presently  - i n t h e s m a l l and c l o s e A l k a l i  the knowledge o f such p e r s o n a l problems i s r a r e l y p r i v a t e .  community, I t appears  t h a t c o r e A.A. members a l s o may be c a l l e d upon t o s p e a k i n o r d e r t o g e t the meeting o f f t o a good s t a r t , p u b l i c speakers. it,  as through  the group.  as such members a r e u s u a l l y p r o f i c i e n t  B e i n g c a l l e d upon t o s p e a k h a s an e l e m e n t o f h o n o r t o  t h i s the i n d i v i d u a l i s p u b l i c l y r e c o g n i z e d as a member o f  The i n v i t a t i o n t o s p e a k g i v e n t o c e r t a i n c o m m u n i t y l e a d e r s  80  with  many  honorary The  years  of  sobriety  a s p e c t o f t h e A.A. speeches  given  in particular  seems  to r e f l e c t  this  speeches. i n the  A.A.  c e n t e r around  meeting  c o n f e s s i o n s , and  typically  often including  r e f e r e n c e s t o r e c e n t p e r s o n a l and  resemble  personal  the speaker's e m o t i o n a l s t a t e , f a m i l y problems,  or  t o n e g a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l went t h r o u g h i n h i s d r i n k i n g days.  When t a l k i n g about r e c e n t problems a person may  t h e i r s p e e c h m i g h t c e a s e f o r a m i n u t e o r two.  b e g i n t o c r y and  The c h a i r p e r s o n a l w a y s  has a box o f K l e e n e x a v a i l a b l e , w h i c h i s p a s s e d t o t h e s p e a k e r . i n d i v i d u a l continues to cry at length a s p e a k e r and  group member may  approach  the  o f f e r p h y s i c a l c o m f o r t by s i m p l y p u t t i n g a hand on h i s  s h o u l d e r o r by p u t t i n g an arm  around  t h e speaker.  Crying i s considered  a c c e p t a b l e b e h a v i o u r , and s p e a k e r s i n f a c t a r e e n c o u r a g e d out",  I f the  as the r e l e a s e of n e g a t i v e e m o t i o n a l energy  p r e f e r r a b l e t o i t s r e l e a s e i n more d e s t r u c t i v e f o r m s ,  to " l e t i t  in this  form  such as  is  violence  toward t h e s e l f o r o t h e r s . The m e e t i n g u s u a l l y l a s t s f o r a b o u t two h o u r s , d u r i n g w h i c h p e r h a p s e i g h t t o t e n i n d i v i d u a l s a r e c a l l e d upon t o s p e a k .  time  A f t e r the  l a s t s p e a k e r has f i n i s h e d , t h e c h a i r p e r s o n thanks a l l the p a r t i c i p a n t s for attending.  The p a r t i c i p a n t s t h e n r i s e , j o i n h a n d s i n a c i r c l e  r e c i t e t h e A.A.  Serenity  and  P r a y e r : "God g r a n t me t h e s e r e n i t y t o a c c e p t  t h e t h i n g s I c a n n o t c h a n g e , t h e c o u r a g e t o c h a n g e t h e t h i n g s I c a n , and the wisdom t o know the d i f f e r e n c e " .  I n u n i s o n t h e group then s a y s "Keep  c o m i n g b a c k ! " and w i t h t h i s t h e c l a s p e d h a n d s a r e r a i s e d and tighter.  T h i s s i g n i f i e s t h e end o f t h e m e e t i n g .  squeezed  Many p a r t i c i p a n t s do  not l e a v e i m m e d i a t e l y , but s t a y behind f o r t e n or f i f t e e n minutes t o drink  coffee  and  visit  with  conversation i s characterized  various friends.  by much l i g h t h e a r t e d 81  The  post-meeting  t a l k and  joking,  in  c o n t r a s t t o t h e s e r i o u s tone o f t h e A.A.  meeting.  The A.A. m e e t i n g s s e r v e t o r e i n f o r c e i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l a s p e c i f i c se.t o f b e l i e f s  and v a l u e s  regarding  t h e problem  of alcoholism.  According t o the philosophy of s o b r i e t y that i s expressed meetings,  a l c o h o l i s m i s s e e n a s an i n c u r a b l e d i s e a s e  controlled  through  the adoption  i n t h e A.A. t h a t may  of the appropriate a t t i t u d e .  be  This  a t t i t u d e c o n s i s t s o f t h i n k i n g p o s i t i v e l y , t a k i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r one's own s i t u a t i o n , and n o t h a r b o u r i n g n e g a t i v e thoughts anger,  hurt, resentment,  and f e a r .  and f e e l i n g s such a s above,  another  f u n c t i o n o f t h e A.A. meeting i s t o p r o v i d e a forum i n w h i c h such  negative  f e e l i n g s may be r e l e a s e d , o r shared.  As i n d i c a t e d  The r o l e o f t h e l i s t e n e r i s n o t so  much t o o f f e r a d v i c e , b u t t o w i t n e s s t h e t e s t i m o n y .  I t i s t h e open  s h a r i n g o f n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s t h a t s e r v e s a s a t h e r a p e u t i c mechanism. A l t h o u g h many o f t h e community members have been sober f o r a number of years, s t i l l  personal problems p e r s i s t ,  and an A.A.  speaker  may  r e l a t e a r e c e n t i n c i d e n t i n w h i c h he r e s p o n d e d "as i f [ h e ] was d r u n k " . The  a c t u a l a b s t e n t i o n f r o m a l c o h o l i s l e s s i m p o r t a n t a s an i n d i c a t o r o f  change.  What i s i m p o r t a n t i s t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t i t u d e toward  o t h e r s and l i f e i n g e n e r a l .  his self,  The A.A. m e e t i n g s f u n c t i o n i n a t h i r d way,  i n c o n t i n u i n g t o p r o v i d e a v i t a l form of s o c i a l support f o r o t h e r s as they a t t e m p t  t o overcome t h e s e problems o f a t t i t u d e .  Undoubtedly t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f s o b r i e t y i s h e a v i l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e b e l i e f s and v a l u e s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e f o r m a l A.A. p r o g r a m .  I n d e e d , many  A.A. members have c o p i e s o f what they r e f e r t o as t h e B i g Book,  meaning  t h e A.A. p u b l i c a t i o n A l c o h o l i c s Anonymous, w h i c h c o n t a i n s t h e b a s i c e l e m e n t s o f t h e A.A. program.  A number o f members have c a s s e t t e tapes  o f r e a d i n g s f r o m t h e B i g Book a n d o t h e r A.A. p u b l i c a t i o n s , w h i c h o f t e n  82  are  p l a y e d i n t h e i r homes.  To what e x t e n t t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f s o b r i e t y  as i t e x i s t s on t h e r e s e r v e today i s a product o f t h e A.A. p h i l o s o p h y ( o r more a c c u r a t e l y , a product o f t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s p h i l o s o p h y ) and t o what e x t e n t i t has been i n f l u e n c e d a l s o by t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f p e r s o n a l g r o w t h t r a i n i n g s , a w a i t s f u r t h e r comparative  s t u d i e s . Some non-Indian  A.A. members who h a v e a t t e n d e d t h e A l k a l i L a k e m e e t i n g s h a v e r e m a r k e d that  these  s e s s i o n s a r e u n i q u e i n t h e i r e m p h a s i s on t h e s h a r i n g o f  f e e l i n g s ; w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e open encouragement and o c c u r r e n c e o f c r y i n g , t h e A l k a l i A.A. s p e e c h e s d i f f e r a l s o f r o m t h o s e i n C o a s t S a l i s h I n d i a n A.A. m e e t i n g s a s r e c o r d e d by J i l e k - A a l l ( 1 9 7 2 ) .  This suggests that the  p e r s o n a l g r o w t h t r a i n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s o f A l k a l i Lake Band members indeed were s i g n i f i c a n t .  F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s I have n o t r e f e r r e d t o t h e A l k a l i  Lake S o b r i e t y movement as an A.A. movement.  Other S h a r i n g  Sessions  The i n s t i t u t i o n o f Alkali  Lake community.  sharing Sharing  e x i s t s i n other contexts w i t h i n the sessions occur  o n c e a week f o r t h e  s t u d e n t s o f t h e h i g h e r grades i n t h e r e s e r v e s c h o o l .  These a r e mandatory  s e s s i o n s , l e d by one o f t h e c o r e members o f t h e A.A. g r o u p .  The b i -  w e e k l y Band O f f i c e s t a f f meetings a l s o t a k e t h e form o f s h a r i n g s e s s i o n s , as do some o f t h e g e n e r a l Band meetings (depending  on t i m e r e s t r i c t i o n s -  i n m e e t i n g s where f i f t y o r s i x t y people a r e i n a t t e n d a n c e , be enough t i m e  t o a l l o w each person  i n t u r n t o speak).  t h e r e may n o t Again, the  speeches g i v e n i n these s e s s i o n s r e l a t e t o r e c e n t e v e n t s i n t h e person's life  and t h e i r  events.  p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e e m o t i o n a l  r e a c t i o n s t o these  W i t h i n t h e Band O f f i c e s t a f f m e e t i n g s t h e s h a r i n g f o r m a t i n  t h e o r y p r o v i d e s a n e u t r a l forum i n w h i c h p e r s o n a l problems between s t a f f can be worked o u t .  83  S h a r i n g s e s s i o n s f r e q u e n t l y a r e i n i t i a t e d or t e r m i n a t e d w i t h a l l the participants  i n turn  greeting  s o m e t i m e s r e f e r r e d t o as t h e  and  each  other  is the  e m b r a c e i s a common f o r m o f g r e e t i n g b e t w e e n i n d i v i d u a l s o u t s i d e  the  These s h a r i n g  Morning ceremony).  (this  In f a c t ,  c o n t e x t o f s h a r i n g s e s s i o n s as  Good  embracing  well.  s e s s i o n s a l s o have i n c o r p o r a t e d as an opening  ritual  the s a g e - b u r n i n g ceremony. T h i s ceremony i s never performed i n the  A.A.  m e e t i n g , as  the  A.A.  g r o u p m u s t h a v e no  produced by as  the ceremony i s a P a n - I n d i a n r e l i g i o u s r i t u a l ,  a  the b u r n i n g  means o f  specific  religious  sage i s c o n s i d e r e d  spiritual  purification.  affiliation.  a sacred In  The  smoke  incense that  serves  these  sharing  p a r t i c i p a n t s always are seated i n a c i r c u l a r formation. the  duration  presented  of  the  ceremony,  i n which  i n t u r n t o each p a r t i c i p a n t ,  who  a  whereas  dish  of  A l l stand f o r  burning  o r an i n d i v i d u a l f l u e n t i n t h e Shuswap l a n g u a g e , may  say a s h o r t p r a y e r .  ( E n g l i s h i s the s t a n d a r d  The  prayer  wafting  An  a s k e d (by t h e C h i e f i n t h e c a s e o f Band and Band O f f i c e s t a f f to  sage i s  "washes" h i m s e l f by  the smoke over h i s hands, arms, head, c h e s t , and l o w e r body. person,  sessions  elderly then  be  meetings)  i s g i v e n i n t h e Shuswap l a n g u a g e .  language used among community r e s i d e n t s ,  with  Shuswap t y p i c a l l y h e a r d o n l y i n r e l i g i o u s c o n t e x t s , s u c h as i n p r a y e r s during a ceremonial  s w e a t b a t h or a p i p e ceremony.)  meeting commences.  The  course,  Following this,  l e n g t h o f the s a g e - b u r n i n g ceremony depends, of  on the number of p a r t i c i p a n t s , but a ceremony i n v o l v i n g 20 t o  i n d i v i d u a l s might l a s t  the  perhaps ten to f i f t e e n  minutes.  o c c a s i o n a l l y i s burned a l o n g w i t h , or i n p l a c e o f , sage. however, cannot be o b t a i n e d l o c a l l y , and  84  i t s use i s l e s s  30  Sweetgrass Sweetgrass,  frequent.  S h a r i n g s e s s i o n s a l s o e x i s t i n a r e l i g i o u s c o n t e x t as p a r t of the r i t u a l of the c e r e m o n i a l most i n t e n s e s y m b o l i c  sweat.  Here the c o n c e p t of s h a r i n g f i n d s i t s  expression.  From two  to twelve  individuals,  upper l i m i t b e i n g dependent on the s i z e o f the s w e a t l o d g e , may i n t h i s ceremony. who  The  ceremony i s l e d by a r e c o g n i z e d  take  spiritual  the part  leader,  b r i n g s i n t o the s w e a t l o d g e a v a r i e t y of r i t u a l p a r a p h e r n a l i a .  Seated  i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y a r o u n d a c e n t r a l p i t o f r o c k s , on a f l o o r o f f i r b o u g h s , and darkness,  i n an  i n t e n s e l y hot  and  humid e n v i r o n m e n t of  complete  the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t u r n a r e g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y t o pray  and  to s h a r e w i t h the C r e a t o r t h e i r p e r s o n a l problems and f e e l i n g s . O f t e n  the  Creator  i s asked f o r f o r g i v e n e s s f o r r e c e n t  behaviour.  In t h i s  respect  the speeches i n the s h a r i n g s w e a t s have an e x p l i c i t l y r e l i g i o u s f o c u s  of  c o n f e s s i o n a s c o m p a r e d t o t h e more g e n e r a l c o n f e s s i o n s i n o t h e r g r o u p sharing contexts.  During  the ceremony p a r t i c i p a n t s may  provide  support  by making q u i e t u t t e r a n c e s o f encouragement, or s i m p l y by l i s t e n i n g witnessing wordless  the  confession;  times  the  leader  may  s o n g t o t h e a c c o m p a n i m e n t o f a hand drum.  w a i l i n g a r e common o c c u r r e n c e s they  at  quietly  and  sing  C r y i n g and  a  loud  d u r i n g the s h a r i n g , and a r e encouraged, as  are a l l s i g n s of the h e a l i n g process.  These a c t s a r e d i r e c t e d  t o w a r d the r o c k s i n the c e n t r a l p i t , w h i c h a c t as the l i n k between the m a t e r i a l w o r l d and and  the s p i r i t u a l w o r l d o f the C r e a t o r .  t r a n s m i t the c o n f e s s i o n  to the C r e a t o r  l e a v i n g the i n d i v i d u a l s t r e n g t h e n e d  and  sweat the c l e a n s i n g and h e a l i n g p r o c e s s confession,  but  by  o c c a s i o n even vomit. physical, emotional  the  and  The  rocks  disperse  c l e a n s e d . Thus i n the i s manifested  p h y s i c a l e x c r e t i o n of  the  accept "hurt",  ceremonial  not o n l y by v e r b a l  sweat,  t e a r s , and  on  P u r i f i c a t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l i s t o t a l , i n v o l v i n g and s p i r i t u a l components of h i s being.  85  Many i n d i v i d u a l s have a p p l i e d t h e concept o f s h a r i n g t o t h e i r lives, can  and have e s t a b l i s h e d c l o s e p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n w h i c h  talk  openly  about t h e i r  p r o b l e m s on a one t o one b a s i s .  r e l a t i o n s h i p s may h a v e been e s t a b l i s h e d s p o n t a n e o u s l y , d i r e c t i o n o f t h e A.A. o r Al-Anon program. paired  into  mutually  supportive  daily they These  o r under t h e  I n t h e s e programs members a r e  sponsorship  relationships,  the  i n t e n t i o n b e i n g t o p r o v i d e members w i t h a f o r m o f s u p p o r t o u t s i d e t h e group c o n t e x t as may be needed i n t i m e s o f c r i s i s . The  initiative  f o r p r o v i d i n g support  t o help i n d i v i d u a l s maintain  t h e i r s o b r i e t y may be t a k e n by community members a s they see f i t . i s evident i n the group, w h i c h was  This  c r e a t i o n i n t h e Autumn o f 1985 o f a women's s u p p o r t formed by a s m a l l number o f women concerned w i t h t h e  s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n o f many o f t h e mothers i n t h e community. W i t h t h e t w i c e w e e k l y A.A. m e e t i n g s , t h e w e e k l y ( o r more ceremonial  frequent)  s w e a t s , t h e s h a r i n g s e s s i o n s i n t h e s c h o o l a n d i n t h e Band  O f f i c e , p l u s t h e i n d i v i d u a l s u p p o r t n e t w o r k s t h a t now e x i s t , t h e r e i s f r e q u e n t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r an i n d i v i d u a l t o share and i n t h i s manner g a i n support however,  f o r maintaining view  development.  sobriety.  the reserve  today  A number o f c o m m u n i t y as being  S o b r i e t y has been a c h i e v e d ,  in a  plateau  and i n most cases  members, phase o f maintained,  but many o f t h e o l d problems b e l i e v e d t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a l c o h o l i s m , s u c h a s l a c k o f e m p l o y m e n t and d e p e n d e n c y on w e l f a r e , l o s s o f c u l t u r a l v a l u e s and i d e n t i t y , and among some p e o p l e t h e l a c k o f i n c e n t i v e , and generally  negative  a t t i t u d e s toward l i f e ,  s t i l l persist.  The need f o r  f u r t h e r p e r s o n a l and c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t i s r e c o g n i z e d by community l e a d e r s as t h e f u n d a m e n t a l i s s u e f a c i n g t h e  86  reserve  today.  THE BAND OFFICE E f f o r t s Toward Community Development The Band C o u n c i l o f t h e 1984-86 p e r i o d r e s p o n d e d t o t h e p e r c e i v e d problem o f t h e r e s e r v e ' s  plateau  p h a s e o f d e v e l o p m e n t by e m p h a s i z i n g  t h e need f o r f u r t h e r s o c i a l , a s c o m p a r e d w i t h e c o n o m i c , d e v e l o p m e n t ( a l t h o u g h n u m e r o u s e c o n o m i c p r o j e c t s h a v e been i n i t i a t e d a s w e l l ) . To t h i s end, a f i v e - y e a r s o c i a l development p l a n was c r e a t e d f o r t h e A l k a l i community (by c o n s u l t a n t s f r o m t h e F o u r W o r l d s D e v e l o p m e n t P r o j e c t , discussed below),  and a v a r i e t y o f workshops on t o p i c s i n c l u d i n g N a t i v e  (Pan-Indian) c u l t u r e , e f f e c t i v e w e l l as New  parenting,  nutrition,  and s e x u a l i t y , as  D i r e c t i o n s t r a i n i n g s and a s e m i n a r by Jon-Lee K o o t n e k o f f  on  d e v e l o p i n g a p o s i t i v e s e l f - i m a g e have been h e l d i n t h e community f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f Band members.  P r o m o t i o n o f S o b r i e t y i n Other C o m m u n i t i e s A second i s s u e o f f u n d a m e n t a l i m p o r t a n c e t o t h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was the community's r o l e i n h e l p i n g o t h e r I n d i a n Bands problem of a l c o h o l i s m .  t o overcome t h e  This i n t e r e s t i n helping others with alcohol  problems i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e f o r m a l A.A. program o f r e c o v e r y (see Step 12 i n t h e n o t e s t o Chapter Four). the  Alkali  Lake community  S i n c e t h e l a t e 1970s i n d i v i d u a l s f r o m  h a v e been  involved  i n drug  and  alcohol  workshops and A.A. programs i n o t h e r r e s e r v e c o m m u n i t i e s i n t h e d i s t r i c t . As A l k a l i  L a k e became b e t t e r known f o r i t s s u c c e s s  a l c o h o l i s m , t h e number o f r e q u e s t s  i n overcoming  f o r speakers from the community  i n c r e a s e d , and today A l k a l i Lake r e s i d e n t s a r e t r a v e l l i n g , on i n v i t a t i o n , t o I n d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s throughout Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s sobriety.  promoting  These d e l e g a t i o n s do not promote a f o r m u l a f o r t h e s o l u t i o n  87  of Native a l c o h o l i s m . importance  With  t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e emphasis p l a c e d on  o f h a v i n g c o m m u n i t y l e a d e r s who  p r o v i d e p o s i t i v e r o l e models and who it  are sober,  and  who  the thus  l e a d by example, i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t  s h o u l d be up t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r community t o d e c i d e w h i c h t a c t i c s  suitable  f o r the  communicated alcoholism  by  encouragement the  Alkali  of  sobriety.  The  primary  Lake d e l e g a t i o n s i s s i m p l y  are  message  that  Indian  c a n be o v e r c o m e , and t h a t t h e A l k a l i c a s e c a n s e r v e a s an  example t o g i v e hope and i n s p i r a t i o n t o o t h e r c o m m u n i t i e s s t r u g g l i n g w i t h t h e problem o f a l c o h o l abuse. Today t h e Band O f f i c e s e r v e s a s a c o - o r d i n a t i n g body f o r activities.  Requests f o r speakers  a r e d i r e c t e d t o t h e Band  s p e c i f i c a l l y t o the Housing C o - o r d i n a t o r , who  then a t t e m p t s  these  Office,  t o l o c a t e an  i n d i v i d u a l t o a c t as a " r e s o u r c e p e r s o n " t o speak a t t h e f u n c t i o n .  The  g r o u p h o l d i n g t h e f u n c t i o n ( t y p i c a l l y a d r u g and a l c o h o l w o r k s h o p o r conference) requested  may  request  a  specific  b e i n g Andy C h e l s e a ,  A t t i m e s a g r o u p may  individual,  the  most  commonly  F r e d Johnson, and  the p r e s e n t Band C h i e f .  c o n t a c t a d e s i r e d speaker  d i r e c t l y , b u t t h e Band  O f f i c e p r e f e r s t o m a i n t a i n i t s c o n t r o l over such a c t i v i t i e s . T r a v e l expenses, accommodation, and that  made t h e r e q u e s t .  h o n o r a r i a a r e p r o v i d e d by t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n  H o n o r a r i a a r e kept by t h e i n v i t e d  speakers.  An e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s model o f Band O f f i c e c o n t r o l i s the work o f o r t h r e e c o r e A.A. the d i s t r i c t  A.A.  and o f t e n may  members a t A l k a l i who network.  speak a t A.A.  f o r y e a r s h a v e been a c t i v e i n  These i n d i v i d u a l s c o n t i n u e t h e i r  visiting  o r may  attendance  f u n c t i o n s o f f - r e s e r v e , o r on t h e r e s e r v e s of  o t h e r Bands, and do so i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e Band O f f i c e . and h o n o r a r i a may  two  not be p r o v i d e d by the h o s t A.A.  T r a v e l expenses group t o these  speakers.  During  the F a l l  o f 1985,  i n a d d i t i o n t o numerous l o c a l 88  invitations  t o such p l a c e s as Center,  W i l l i a m s L a k e , t h e N e n q a n i T r e a t m e n t and T r a i n i n g  nearby I n d i a n r e s e r v e s such as Dog  Creek, Canim Lake, and  Cane, Round Lake T r e a t m e n t C e n t e r , T o f i n o and  Port Alberni,  from A l k a l i a l s o t r a v e l l e d to a f i v e - d a y conference N.W.T., and  Sugar  delegations  a t Norman W e l l s ,  a y o u t h c o n f e r e n c e on d r u g and a l c o h o l a b u s e s p o n s o r e d  by  t h e Gordon I n d i a n Band i n Saskatchewan. As p a r t o f t h e t h e r a p y f o r i n d i v i d u a l s who  h a v e r e c e n t l y become  s o b e r ( a s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r , a number o f t h e y o u n g p e o p l e on  the  r e s e r v e , a g e d b e t w e e n 15 and 25, a r e d r i n k i n g a n d / o r a r e s t r u g g l i n g t o m a i n t a i n s o b r i e t y ) , t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s may company o f an i n v i t e d speaker, and  a l c o h o l workshops.  resource people, group.  This  t o a c t as serves  be s e n t o u t , u s u a l l y i n t h e  r e s o u r c e people as  therapy  they must speak o r share t h e i r own  at l o c a l  i n two  ways.  drug As  experiences w i t h the  T h i s s h a r i n g o f n e g a t i v e e m o t i o n s and e x p e r i e n c e s i s b e l i e v e d t o  be c e n t r a l t o t h e h e a l i n g p r o c e s s .  Second, by b e i n g i d e n t i f i e d as A l k a l i  Lake community members a t t h e s e o u t s i d e a c t i v i t i e s , experience a  the r e s o u r c e  people  sense o f community i d e n t i t y , an i d e n t i t y w h i c h has s o b r i e t y  as i t s f u n d a m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c .  With the i n c r e a s i n g promotion  of t h e  A l k a l i community as a dry r e s e r v e , t h o s e s t r u g g l i n g w i t h s o b r i e t y f e e l a great d e a l of pressure from the  outside  t o l i v e up t o t h i s  image of  sobriety. The A l k a l i community has e x p e r i e n c e d an i n f l u x o f v i s i t o r s i n r e c e n t y e a r s as a r e s u l t o f i t s s u c c e s s f u l f i g h t a g a i n s t a l c o h o l i s m . of v i s i t o r s w i t h a l c o h o l problems  A number  h a v e come i n s e a r c h o f a p o s i t i v e  e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h t o w o r k on t h e i r  own  sobriety.  Such  visitors  g e n e r a l l y a r e welcome t o s t a y as l o n g as they l i k e , p r o v i d e d t h a t housing i s a v a i l a b l e ( h o u s i n g i s i n f a c t i n s h o r t s u p p l y even f o r t h e A l k a l i Band  89  members t h e m s e l v e s ) .  The A l k a l i c o m m u n i t y has had p a r t i c u l a r l y c l o s e  t i e s i n t h i s r e s p e c t w i t h the H a l f w a y R i v e r Band o f Beaver I n d i a n s ,  and  p r e s e n t l y s e v e r a l Halfway R i v e r students are a t t e n d i n g school at A l k a l i Lake.  Other v i s i t o r s t o the r e s e r v e i n c l u d e those  o f d r u g and a l c o h o l a b u s e p r e v e n t i o n , who  working  i n the  field  come i n o r d e r t o o b s e r v e t h e  community and t o l e a r n about the p r o c e s s by w h i c h s o b r i e t y was  achieved,  w i t h the hope o f b e i n g a b l e t o a p p l y t h i s knowledge t o reduce a l c o h o l i s m i n t h e i r own  communities.  The  r e s e r v e r e c e i v e s a number o f v i s i t o r s  i n v o l v e d i n I n d i a n e d u c a t i o n , a s t h e A l k a l i s c h o o l i s one o f t h e Band-operated s c h o o l s i n the p r o v i n c e . news r e p o r t e r s and  welcome.  S t i l l o t h e r v i s i t o r s , s u c h as  w r i t e r s , h a v e come s i m p l y t o d o c u m e n t t h e  h i s t o r y of the community.  few  recent  V i s i t o r s t o t h e r e s e r v e a r e g i v e n a warm  Band members have much p r i d e i n t h e i r r e s e r v e and welcome the  o p p o r t u n i t y t o share t h e i r achievement w i t h o t h e r s .  The A l k a l i Lake Movie and I n t e r n a t i o n a l S h a r i n g Conference The  community o f A l k a l i Lake has  i t s involvement, Project. 1983  and  b e g i n n i n g i n 1984,  According has  gained  immense p u b l i c i t y  through  w i t h the Four Worlds Development  to i t s l i t e r a t u r e ,  t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n was  formed  in  as i t s e x p l i c i t g o a l the e r a d i c a t i o n o f N a t i v e I n d i a n drug  and a l c o h o l a b u s e by t h e y e a r 2000.  The F o u r W o r l d s P r o j e c t i s a n o n -  p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n that i s attached  t o the F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n a t  the  The P r o j e c t r e c e i v e s c o r e f u n d i n g f r o m  the  U n i v e r s i t y of L e t h b r i d g e .  N a t i o n a l N a t i v e A l c o h o l and Drug Abuse Program o f the F e d e r a l Department o f H e a l t h and W e l f a r e . and it  as a p a r t i c u l a r i s requested  F u n d i n g a l s o comes t h r o u g h  p r i v a t e donations,  community becomes i n v o l v e d i n a Four W o r l d s p r o j e c t  t o make f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s f o r the c o n t i n u a t i o n of  the project.  90  In c o n t r a s t t o t h e m e d i c a l model o f a l c o h o l i s m , the P r o j e c t promotes a c o m m u n i t y - b a s e d and  w h o l i s t i c approach to the problem of a l c o h o l  abuse, an approach t h a t emphasizes the i m p o r t a n c e emotional  and  spiritual  development".  L e t h b r i d g e under the d i r e c t i o n o f Pan-Indian philosophy.  spirituality I t sees the  reconstructing  a Native  and  The  spiritual  unity  solution Indian  of " p h y s i c a l ,  mental,  P r o j e c t developed  leaders  and  in  Elders,  and  are fundamental elements i n i t s to N a t i v e a l c o h o l abuse to l i e i n  culture.  This  involves a learning  p r o c e s s , and the Four W o r l d s P r o j e c t sees i t s r o l e as p r o v i d i n g workshops and o t h e r r e s o u r c e s t o f o s t e r t h i s l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e Four W o r l d s P r o j e c t f i r s t v i s i t e d community i n 1984.  They saw  the  Alkali  the community as h a v i n g t h e p o t e n t i a l t o be  a great i n s p i r a t i o n to other communities s t r u g g l i n g w i t h a l c o h o l i s m .  In  o r d e r t o share t h e A l k a l i Lake s t o r y w i t h t h e r e s t of t h e w o r l d , the Band and t h e F o u r W o r l d s P r o j e c t d e c i d e d t o c r e a t e a f i l m on t h e r e s e r v e ' s s u c c e s s f u l s t r u g g l e w i t h a l c o h o l i s m . T h i s p r o j e c t c o n s i s t s o f a two video series.  The  L a k e b e t w e e n 1940 actors;  f i r s t p a r t i s a docu-drama of the h i s t o r y of A l k a l i and  1985  and  f e a t u r e s A l k a l i L a k e Band members a s  the second p a r t p r e s e n t s  members on t h e p a s t , p r e s e n t and g e n e r a l s o l u t i o n s they found  more i n - d e p t h d i s c u s s i o n s by Band f u t u r e o f t h e i r c o m m u n i t y , and  t o the problem of a l c o h o l abuse.  o f t h e v i d e o s e r i e s was c o m p l e t e d i n A u t u m n , 1985. promotional  e f f o r t s of the Four Worlds people,  already achieved widespread  Part  this first  p u b l i c i t y and d i s t r i b u t i o n .  c o m m u n i t i e s throughout  Canada and  the one  L a r g e l y due t o t h e video  I t has  a i r e d on v a r i o u s c a b l e v i s i o n n e t w o r k s and has been shown i n both and non-Native  part  has been  Native  the United S t a t e s ,  and  even as f a r away as Europe. The I n t e r n a t i o n a l  S h a r i n g I n n o v a t i o n s That Work 91  Conference h e l d a t  A l k a l i Lake at the end of May, 1985, was a j o i n t  Four Worlds/Alkali Lake  Band v e n t u r e , w i t h i t s goal again both to i n s p i r e and educate  other  i n d i v i d u a l s and communities working toward the e r a d i c a t i o n of Native a l c o h o l abuse.  Workshops were held by the A l k a l i Lake Band, the  Four  Worlds Development Project, the Nechi I n s t i t u t e , and private consultants, and d e a l t w i t h i s s u e s p e r t a i n i n g to Native a l c o h o l and drug abuse p e r s o n a l and community development.  It i s  estimated  and  t h a t over one  thousand people from Canada and the United States attended the three-day conference. Throughout  the  three  days  a number of P a n - I n d i a n r e l i g i o u s  ceremonies were h e l d i n the c e n t r a l a r b o r , which had been c o n s t r u c t e d e s p e c i a l l y f o r t h i s conference. dancing and s i n g i n g ) o r g a n i z e r s of  were held i n the  the conference  spiritual significance, l e t t e r from  the  Pow-wows (featuring Native drumming,  believed  arbor  i n the  evenings.  the g a t h e r i n g to be of  The great  as i s e v i d e n t i n t h i s excerpt from a g e n e r a l  co-ordinator of the Four Worlds Development Project and  the A l k a l i Band Chief to the conference participants: Dear Friends, We are proud to welcome you to A l k a l i Lake and to the "Sharing Innovations That Work" conference. In the few days that we w i l l spend together history i s being made. The e l d e r s of many t r i b e s long ago prophesied that there would be a day when the Native people would come together l i k e the j o i n i n g of many streams and r i v e r s . They s a i d that t h i s coming together would be a t u r n i n g p o i n t f o r the Native people of North America. They said that when t h i s great coming together happened, i t would signal the end of a period of great suffering and confusion for the people, and the beginning of a time of great progress and development. They a l s o s a i d that t h i s "gathering time" would signal the beginning of a process of Native people sharing t h e i r deep c u l t u r a l understanding of human beings and human development with the whole world. We b e l i e v e that t h i s conference v i s i b l e example of the f u l f i l l m e n t (from the "Camp Crier", May 29, 1985). 92  at A l k a l i Lake i s one of those p r o p h e c i e s . . .  The  Band's i n v o l v e m e n t  w i t h t h e Four Worlds P r o j e c t , as w e l l as  h e l p i n g o t h e r I n d i a n Bands, s e r v e d t h e A l k a l i community i t s e l f i n two g e n e r a l ways.  F i r s t , i n projecting to the outside  image o f the community, i n promoting  a very  positive  thei n s p i r a t i o n a l role that this  c o m m u n i t y o f f e r s t o o t h e r s s t r u g g l i n g w i t h a l c o h o l p r o b l e m s , and i n i n c r e a s i n g t h e a c t u a l frequency o f i n t e r a c t i o n between t h i s community and others s t i l l  working  toward  s o b r i e t y , a means o f r e i n f o r c i n g a sense o f  community i d e n t i t y i s p r o v i d e d .  Not o n l y a r e A l k a l i people  reminded o f  t h e i r a c h i e v e m e n t , b u t t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e i d e n t i t y a s a sober community i s v a l i d a t e d by o t h e r s .  Second, through  t h e Four Worlds a c t i v i t i e s t h e  community members a r e exposed t o a g r e a t d e a l o f P a n - I n d i a n r e l i g i o u s and e t h n i c sentiment.  I n t h e s e two ways t h e o p p o r t u n i t y i s p r e s e n t e d  f o r the  r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f both community i d e n t i t y and t h e development o f c u l t u r a l - Pan-Indian  - v a l u e s and b e l i e f s .  As such,  phase o f development i s addressed economic  THE  of a  plateau  i n s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l r a t h e r t h a n  terms.  BAND OFFICE AND SOCIAL CONTROL The  Band O f f i c e t o d a y  c o n t i n u e s t o be a c t i v e i n t h e c o n t r o l o f  d r i n k i n g b e h a v i o u r on t h e r e s e r v e . operates, the  t h e problem  The I n t e r v e n t i o n C o m m i t t e e  still  t h e p r o c e s s o f c o n f r o n t a t i o n c o n t i n u e s , and i n i s o l a t e d  cases  replacement  description presented  o f S.A. c h e q u e s  with  vouchers  occurs.  A  o f t h e Band O f f i c e s t r u c t u r e a n d o p e r a t i o n w i l l  general now be  t o p r o v i d e t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t h i s Committee o p e r a t e s .  I n t e r n a l S t r u c t u r e and G e n e r a l  Operations  I n 1985 t h e A l k a l i L a k e Band O f f i c e was t h e c e n t e r o f a r e l a t i v e l y  93  high  degree of a c t i v i t y ,  dollars  i n t h e 1984-85 f i s c a l  represented terms.  administering  a total  o f o v e r 1.4  million  p e r i o d . The Band c o n t i n u e s  t o be  by one C h i e f and t h r e e C o u n c i l l o r s , a l l e l e c t e d t o two year  The b a s i c f i n a n c i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s a r e c a r r i e d out by  the Housing C o - o r d i n a t o r  ( t h i s employee i s l e s s o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as t h e  Band Manager), two bookkeepers (one f u l l - t i m e and one p a r t - t i m e ) and t h e secretary.  A l l a r e A l k a l i Lake r e s i d e n t s .  f i n a n c i a l management, a t t h e r e q u e s t  Due t o p a s t d i f f i c u l t y i n  o f t h e Department o f I n d i a n  Affairs  a C o n t r o l l e r was r e c e n t l y h i r e d by t h e Band t o o v e r s e e t h e f i n a n c i a l activities  of both  t h e Band  Office  and t h e R e s e r v e  School.  C o n t r o l l e r i s a n o n - I n d i a n and r e s i d e s i n W i l l i a m s L a k e .  The  Apart from  t h i s one i n s t a n c e o f o v e r l a p ( a n d t h e p r e s e n c e o f one C o u n c i l l o r on t h e Education School  A u t h o r i t y ) , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and o p e r a t i o n o f t h e R e s e r v e  i s separate  from  that  o f t h e Band  Office.  The  Education  A u t h o r i t y , c o m p o s e d o f s e v e n e l e c t e d Band members p l u s one C o u n c i l member, and t h e S c h o o l p r i n c i p a l and t h e E d u c a t i o n responsible  Administrator, are  f o r making d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g t h e o p e r a t i o n  of the school.  A l l a r e A l k a l i Lake Band members. Economic development p r o j e c t s a r e l a r g e l y t h e domain o f t h e Economic Development a d v i s o r , who a l s o i s a n o n - I n d i a n r e s i d e n t o f W i l l i a m s  Lake.  The  Economic Development a d v i s o r has been employed by t h e Band s i n c e 1978  and  works r e l a t i v e l y i n d e p e n d e n t l y  Band  staff.  initiated  f r o m t h e C h i e f and C o u n c i l and o t h e r  A number o f e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t  i n recent  programs have  been  y e a r s . The Band-owned l o g g i n g company, i n o p e r a t i o n  s i n c e t h e e a r l y 1 9 8 0 s , t y p i c a l l y e m p l o y s b e t w e e n e i g h t and t e n Band members. A p i g - r a i s i n g f a c i l i t y , and a h o r t i c u l t u r a l p r o g r a m toward producing developments.  vegetables  geared  f o r t h e W i l l i a m s Lake market, a r e more r e c e n t  These p r o j e c t s c r e a t e d 94  employment f o r s i x i n d i v i d u a l s i n  t h e summer o f 1985.  A g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e t h e management o f a  s m a l l h e r d o f c a t t l e and h o r s e s , a n d c u l t i v a t i o n o f t h e r e s e r v e ' s hay meadows.  Ten Band members were employed i n t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l program i n  t h e summer o f 1985. The meadows o n c e w e r e  considered the property of  i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l y g r o u p s , who h a r v e s t e d t h e hay f o r t h e i r own u s e and e s t a b l i s h e d s e a s o n a l l y - o c c u p i e d h o m e s t e a d s on t h e s e s i t e s .  Since the  e a r l y 1 9 7 0 s , and f o l l o w i n g t h e d e c l i n e o f t h e f a m i l i e s ' u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e meadows, a p r o c e s s o f c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n h a s o c c u r r e d , and t h e Band O f f i c e now c o - o r d i n a t e s t h e h a r v e s t i n g o f t h e s e meadows and s e l l s t h e hay on t h e l o c a l The  market.  Band O f f i c e a l s o d i r e c t s t h e o p e r a t i o n o f a number o f s e r v i c e s  on t h e r e s e r v e , i n c l u d i n g a g r o c e r y s t o r e , c a f e , g a s pump, l a u n d r o m a t , automechanic shop, and day-care  center.  A number o f i n d i v i d u a l s a r e employed by t h e Band under t h e g e n e r a l c a t e g o r y o f s o c i a l development. Worker,  a half-time  Social  T h e s e p o s i t i o n s i n c l u d e a Band Worker  Clerk,  a Community  Social Health  R e p r e s e n t a t i v e , a Drug and A l c o h o l C o u n s e l l o r , and a R e c r e a t i o n Worker. Despite the high l e v e l of a c t i v i t y  o f t h e Band O f f i c e , and t h e  numerous O f f i c e employees, a s p e c i f i c s t r u c t u r e o f j o b r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and  decision-making  Although  amongst  O f f i c e s t a f f i s not immediately  apparent.  f o r m a l j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s h a v e been p r e p a r e d , i n p r a c t i c e t h e  e m p l o y e e f r e q u e n t l y p e r f o r m s a v a r i e t y o f o t h e r d u t i e s a s t h e need a r i s e s , and t h e d u t i e s t h a t he p e r f o r m s may be due l e s s t o h i s o f f i c i a l position  than  due t o h i s p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s and h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s  t h e C h i e f , C o u n c i l l o r s , and o t h e r o f f i c e workers. has  attempted,  hierarchical  w i t h much d i f f i c u l t y ,  order  on t h e Band  95  with  Indeed, t h e C o n t r o l l e r  t o i m p o s e some k i n d o f f o r m a l  Office  operations.  Yet a rather  f l e x i b l e s t r u c t u r e o f j o b r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p e r s i s t s . Thus t h e o p e r a t i o n influenced  of the I n t e r v e n t i o n Committee, described  somewhat by t h e p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l s p r e s e n t l y  next, i s  filling  the  committee p o s i t i o n s .  The I n t e r v e n t i o n Committee The I n t e r v e n t i o n Committee, a l s o known as t h e S o c i a l Development o r S o c i a l S e r v i c e s C o m m i t t e e , p r e s e n t l y i s composed o f t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s holding  the p o s i t i o n s  o f Band S o c i a l W o r k e r , S o c i a l W o r k e r  Community H e a l t h R e p r e s e n t a t i v e , Counsellor,  and R e c r e a t i o n  Committee. Committee  counsel  responsibility  other  of the  and i m p o s e n e g a t i v e  i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e g u i l t y o f d r i n k i n g o r o t h e r (such  Intervention  sanctions  inappropriate  S o c i a l Worker,  At p r e s e n t t h e c o m m i t t e e i s c o - o r d i n a t e d  who  works c l o s e l y w i t h  upon  behaviour  behaviour g e n e r a l l y r e f e r s t o behaviour that leads  n e g l e c t o r abuse).  Alcohol  Worker. One Band C o u n c i l l o r a l s o s i t s on t h e  I t i s the o f f i c i a l to confront,  S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l , D r u g and  Clerk,  to child  by t h e Band  t h e Drug and A l c o h o l  counsellor.  The S o c i a l Worker a c t i v a t e s t h e Committee when she deems i t a d v i s a b l e . The S o c i a l W o r k e r , upon l e a r n i n g o f an i n d i v i d u a l h a v i n g s p e c i f i c a l c o h o l or f a m i l y monthly  Social  p r o b l e m s , may  Assistance  approach the i n d i v i d u a l during  interview,  i f the i n d i v i d u a l i s a  the S.A.  a p p l i c a n t , o r i n more s e r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s may go t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s home, p e r h a p s w i t h a n o t h e r member o f t h e C o m m i t t e e , t o d i s c u s s t h e p r o b l e m . The r e s o l u t i o n s t o emerge from such a d i s c u s s i o n depend on t h e circumstance of the i n d i v i d u a l ,  t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r o b l e m , and t h e  w i l l i n g n e s s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o make an e f f o r t problem.  personal  to  deal  with  the  A f t e r d i s c u s s i n g the matter with the i n d i v i d u a l the S o c i a l  Worker might c a l l i n  outside  people (non Band O f f i c e employees) t o t a l k  96  t o and encourage t h e i n d i v i d u a l . The most common c a l l e d a r e Andy C h e l s e a and Fred Johnson. t h e A.A. g r o u p and a s p i r i t u a l  outside  people t o be  The l a t t e r i s a c o r e member o f  l e a d e r i n t h e community.  As w e l l a s  s h a r i n g h i s p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h a l c o h o l , he m i g h t h o l d a  ceremonial  sweat w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l and t a l k t o h i m about I n d i a n s p i r i t u a l i t y . The i n d i v i d u a l may d e c i d e t o c h a n g e h i s s i t u a t i o n by a t t e n d i n g a p e r s o n a l g r o w t h t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n , by e n r o l l i n g i n f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l o r t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s , o r by g o i n g i n f o r a l c o h o l i s m t r e a t m e n t . Worker would then i n f o r m and  other  s o c i a l s e r v i c e w o r k e r s such a s t h e Drug  A l c o h o l c o u n s e l l o r o r t h e Home-School C o - o r d i n a t o r ,  the a p p r o p r i a t e The  The S o c i a l  who would make  arrangements.  Drug and A l c o h o l C o u n s e l l o r  i s p r i m a r i l y involved i n providing  c o u n s e l l i n g and c o - o r d i n a t i n g o f f - r e s e r v e a l c o h o l i s m t r e a t m e n t  services,  w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e W i l l i a m s Lake Drug and A l c o h o l Program, f o r individuals  with  alcohol  or other  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and t r e a t m e n t National  Alcohol  approached  and Drug  directly  related  problems.  expenses continue Abuse  Program.  by a n i n d i v i d u a l  seeking  client's  t o be c o v e r e d  The C o u n s e l l o r help,  i n d i v i d u a l r e f e r r e d t o h e r v i a o t h e r Committee w o r k e r s . p o s i t i o n o f D r u g a n d A l c o h o l c o u n s e l l o r was s e c u r e d intention of r e l i e v i n g  The  by t h e may  be  o r may h a v e a n Funding f o r t h e  i n 1981,  with the  t h e Band S o c i a l Worker o f t h e heavy c o u n s e l l i n g  work l o a d . I n some c a s e s i t may be d e c i d e d and  h i s f a m i l y should  s i t u a t i o n , may r e q u e s t  be h e l d .  t h a t a meeting w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l  The f a m i l y , i f c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e  such a m e e t i n g , o r t h e S o c i a l Worker, perhaps i n  c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h o t h e r members o f t h e I n t e r v e n t i o n C o m m i t t e e , h e r s e l f make t h e d e c i s i o n . I n such c a s e s ,  97  t h e meeting i s t y p i c a l l y  may held  i n t h e home o f t h e f a m i l y . I n more s e r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s ,  the Intervention  Committee p a r t i c i p a t e s i n t h e f a m i l y meeting. I t i s up t o t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e S o c i a l W o r k e r t o d e c i d e on w h e r e t h e m e e t i n g s h o u l d be h e l d a n d how many o f t h e C o m m i t t e e members s h o u l d a t t e n d .  I n g e n e r a l i t seems  t h a t t h e more s e r i o u s t h e s i t u a t i o n  t h e more Committee members become  involved  The C h i e f  i n the intervention.  p a r t i c i p a t e s i n the  i n t e r v e n t i o n o n l y a s a l a s t r e s o r t , when p r e v i o u s c o n f r o n t a t i o n s h a v e f a i l e d t o produce r e s u l t s . M e e t i n g s b e t w e e n t h e i n d i v i d u a l , h i s f a m i l y , and members o f t h e I n t e r v e n t i o n Committee t a k e t h e g e n e r a l f o r m o f  sharing  sessions.  The  d o m i n a n t t o n e o f t h e s e m e e t i n g s i s one o f c o n c e r n f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l . A l l p r e s e n t have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o speak and t o s h a r e t h e i r t h o u g h t s and f e e l i n g s about the problem s i t u a t i o n . become more i n v o l v e d  F a m i l y members a r e i n v i t e d t o  i n r e s o l v i n g the problem  situation,  and t h e  i n d i v i d u a l i s e n c o u r a g e d t o become a w a r e o f , a n d a s s u m e more p e r s o n a l reponsibility himself  f o r , the negative  and h i s f a m i l y .  presented  w i t h an u l t i m a t u m .  h i s problem (which  e f f e c t s t h a t h i s behaviour  I n more s e r i o u s c a s e s  i s having  the i n d i v i d u a l i s  E i t h e r he must make an e f f o r t t o r e s o l v e  t y p i c a l l y i s one o f a l c o h o l abuse o r f a m i l y problems  such as v i o l e n c e o r c h i l d n e g l e c t ) , f o r example by a t t e n d i n g treatment,  on  alcoholism  o r he must a c c e p t t h e consequences t o be imposed, such a s t h e  loss of h i s job,  t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f S.A. v o u c h e r s f o r a c t u a l c h e q u e s ,  o r , i n some extreme c a s e s , h i s p o s s i b l e e x p u l s i o n f r o m t h e r e s e r v e . The i n t e r v e n t i o n p r o c e s s i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t w h i c h o c c u r r e d i n t h e 1970s.  With the increase i n a c t i v i t y  o f t h e Band O f f i c e ,  and t h e  g r e a t e r number o f Band O f f i c e employees, a d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r has s i n c e o c c u r r e d and today a number o f i n d i v i d u a l s a r e i n v o l v e d i n t h e c o n t r o l o f behaviour  on t h e r e s e r v e . The Band C h i e f , however, i s c o n s i d e r e d 98  t o have  the  ultimate  authority  i n social  control.  In this  sense  some  h i e r a r c h i c a l order o f a u t h o r i t y i s recognized.  DIFFERENTIAL RECRUITMENT: THE EXISTENCE OF DRINKING IN THE COMMUNITY A l k a l i Lake i s not a c o m p l e t e l y sober community.  There e x i s t two  g e n e r a l c l u s t e r s o f d r i n k e r s i n t h e c o m m u n i t y : a number o f t h e e l d e r l y men and a p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e youth (aged 12-25). two  The d r i n k i n g among t h e s e  g r o u p s i s v i e w e d q u i t e d i f f e r e n t l y by b o t h t h e Band O f f i c e a n d t h e  general  community.  D r i n k i n g Among t h e Youth The  i n c r e a s i n g i n c i d e n c e o f d r i n k i n g among t h e youth i s a  problem i n t h e community. instances  D u r i n g my s t a y a t A l k a l i t h e r e  were s e v e r a l  o f p u b l i c d r u n k e n n e s s among y o u n g p e o p l e . The more d r a m a t i c  i n s t a n c e s i n c l u d e d one o c c a s i o n adults  recognized  was  seen d r i n k i n g  i n w h i c h a group o f f o u r o r f i v e young  i n t h e a r b o r o f t h e Pow-wow g r o u n d s , a n  e s p e c i a l l y f l a g r a n t v i o l a t i o n not only of the i m p l i c i t r u l e s d r i n k i n g on t h e r e s e r v e an  around t h e r e s e r v e and  but a l s o o f the sacredness o f the arbor, as i t i s  e s s e n t i a l b e l i e f that Indian  another occasion  against  c u l t u r e a n d a l c o h o l do n o t m i x . On  a y o u n g man who h a d been d r i n k i n g w e n t on a " j o y r i d e " on some farm machinery, e v e n t u a l l y h a v i n g an a c c i d e n t  damaging t h e equipment.  experiment with alcohol.  C h i l d r e n a s young a s a g e 12 o c c a s i o n a l l y  On one s u c h i n s t a n c e  i n t h e Autumn o f '85 a  young boy, who had been d r i n k i n g w i t h a group o f f r i e n d s , had consumed so much a l c o h o l t h a t when he was d i s c o v e r e d extremely alarmed f o r h i s health. it  by some a d u l t s ,  t h e y became  He was rushed t o t h e h o s p i t a l , where  was f o u n d t h a t he h a d a n e a r - f a t a l b l o o d - a l c o h o l  99  reading  o f 2.1.  Drugs, mainly marijuana, are also being used increasingly on the reserve, and may also be a cause for intervention by the Band Office. Most community members when they come face to face with instances of p u b l i c d r i n k i n g and drunkenness drinkers.  react  It i s believed to be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the  to confront and control such behaviour. Chief,  by i g n o r i n g or a v o i d i n g  a Councillor,  Band  the  Office  In more serious s i t u a t i o n s ,  the  the Band S o c i a l Worker or the Drug and A l c o h o l  Counsellor might be telephoned,  regardless of the time of day or night,  and asked to intervene i n the s i t u a t i o n . The Band Office i s drinking  behaviour.  presently having d i f f i c u l t y i n c o n t r o l l i n g  The use  of  sanctions  such as p o s s i b l e  this  l o s s of  employment with the Band, and substitution of vouchers for S.A. cheques, are  proving i n e f f e c t i v e  long-term  deterrents  to  drinking.  When  confronted, the individual simply agrees to make an effort to change, but e v e n t u a l l y goes back to d r i n k i n g .  The more severe s a n c t i o n of t a k i n g  out a peace bond (arranged between the R.C.M.P., the Band C o u n c i l , and the drinker) to bar a p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l from entering the reserve for a set period of time was being considered i n the Autumn of 1985; however, there i s some reluctance to take t h i s measure, as such an action does not have the support of the f a m i l i e s  affected.  The present d i f f i c u l t y i n s o c i a l control i s complicated by the age of the offenders. living  Most are between 18 and 25 years old and may s t i l l be  i n the homes of t h e i r p a r e n t s .  community a disagreement  There now e x i s t s w i t h i n  r e g a r d i n g whether the Band O f f i c e ,  the  or the  parents, should be more responsible for the control of drinking among the youth.  I t i s the o p i n i o n of most i n the Band O f f i c e ,  and some other  community members as w e l l , that now that the community has achieved sobriety,  and now t h a t most have gone though p e r s o n a l t r a i n i n g , the 100  r e s e r v e r e s i d e n t s s h o u l d r e l y l e s s on t h e Band O f f i c e t o c o n t r o l t h e behaviour  of others.  These people  b e l i e v e t h a t t h e f a m i l i e s , and o t h e r  community members, s h o u l d i n t e r v e n e i n s i t u a t i o n s t h e m s e l v e s ,  instead of  " g o i n g r u n n i n g t o t h e Band O f f i c e " and a s k i n g t h e C h i e f , o r t h e S o c i a l Worker, t o d e a l w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n .  The f a m i l i e s , however, a r e r e l u c t a n t  t o t a k e on t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Many p a r e n t s f e e l a g r e a t d e a l o f g u i l t f o r the n e g l e c t t h e i r c h i l d r e n s u f f e r r e d d u r i n g t h e reserve's d r i n k i n g days, and they c o n s e q u e n t l y a r e r e l u c t a n t t o d i s c i p l i n e t h e i r too harshly. they  children  Some p a r e n t s , a l t h o u g h w i l l i n g , a r e a t a l o s s a s t o how  might c o n t r o l t h e i r c h i l d ' s  drinking,  particularly  where t h e  d r i n k e r may be a young a d u l t and t h e r e f o r e semi-independent.  The p a r e n t s  o f t h e s e o l d e r ( i . e . , over age 18) d r i n k e r s g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e t h a t  their  c h i l d has made h i s own c h o i c e t o d r i n k , a c h o i c e w h i c h they d i s a g r e e w i t h but r e s p e c t as h i s r i g h t .  A l l t h a t t h e p a r e n t s b e l i e v e t h e y c a n do i s  t o c o n t i n u e t o show s u p p o r t a n d hope t h a t t h e i r c h i l d s o o n d e c i d e s t o stop d r i n k i n g . I n s t a n c e s o f p u b l i c d r i n k i n g on t h e r e s e r v e f r e q u e n t l y c e n t e r around a p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p o f f i v e y o u n g men, m o s t o f whom w o r k a t t h e n e a r b y s a w m i l l a n d l i v e o f f - r e s e r v e , b u t who v i s i t f a m i l y a n d f r i e n d s on t h e r e s e r v e d u r i n g t h e w e e k e n d s . The b e h a v i o u r particularly d i f f i c u l t to control.  of these  individuals i s  As t h e y a r e e m p l o y e d o f f - r e s e r v e ,  S.A. vouchers cannot be used t o curb t h e i r purchase o f a l c o h o l , the  t h r e a t o f j o b l o s s be u s e d t o e n c o u r a g e t h e m t o s t o p  Furthermore, social  drinking.  by l i v i n g o f f - r e s e r v e , t h e y a r e away f r o m t h e c o n s t a n t  pressure that e x i s t s i n the A l k a l i  drinking.  nor can  community w i t h regard t o  A number o f t h e men have been c o n f r o n t e d by t h e S o c i a l Worker  and o t h e r members o f t h e I n t e r v e n t i o n Committee, who have o f f e r r e d them  101  s u p p o r t i n m a k i n g an e f f o r t t o g i v e up d r i n k i n g , b u t t o no a v a i l . T h e i r employer  a t t h e s a w m i l l i s r e l u c t a n t t o c o - o p e r a t e w i t h t h e Band's  e f f o r t s t o encourage  t h e men t o become sober.  The f r u s t r a t i o n and c o n c e r n o f those w o r k i n g i n t h e Band O f f i c e , and o f o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e community, r e g a r d i n g t h i s s i t u a t i o n reached a peak t h i s summer a f t e r t h e death o f a young A l k a l i man i n a h i t - a n d - r u n a c c i d e n t i n v o l v i n g d r u n k d r i v i n g a t one o f t h e l o c a l r o d e o s .  At the  t i m e t h e man was w i t h some o f t h e s e known d r i n k e r s , a l t h o u g h he h i m s e l f had been m a k i n g e f f o r t s t o s t o p d r i n k i n g .  I t i s n o t g e n e r a l l y known  whether t h e young man had been d r i n k i n g p r i o r t o h i s death. Y e t d e s p i t e t h i s i n c i d e n t , h i s companions a t t h e t i m e have p e r s i s t e d w i t h t h e i r drinking. sober  I t i s commonly b e l i e v e d t h a t a l c o h o l i c s make t h e d e c i s i o n t o  up o n l y a f t e r  traumatic  experience  h a v i n g " h i t bottom"; that  causes  that  i s , after  the i n d i v i d u a l  a  certain  t o reexamine  his  s i t u a t i o n . That t h e s e men have c o n t i n u e d d r i n k i n g even a f t e r t h i s  tragic  i n c i d e n t has i n c r e a s e d t h e sense o f f r u s t r a t i o n o f those w o r k i n g  toward  h e l p i n g and e n c o u r a g i n g s o b r i e t y i n t h e s e men. O f f - r e s e r v e d r i n k i n g i s a l s o a cause f o r c o n c e r n , and c o n f r o n t a t i o n , by t h e S o c i a l W o r k e r a n d o t h e r I n t e r v e n t i o n C o m m i t t e e members. F o r example, a n o t h e r young man who had been making e f f o r t s t o s t o p d r i n k i n g , and who i n f a c t had been s o b e r f o r s e v e r a l m o n t h s , h a d a s e t b a c k d u r i n g t h e J u l y W i l l i a m s Lake Stampede, w h i c h i s an e s p e c i a l l y p o p u l a r t i m e f o r d r i n k i n g . ( K n o w l e d g e o f i n s t a n c e s o f d r i n k i n g , r e g a r d l e s s o f where t h e d r i n k i n g o c c u r r e d , seems t o spread q u i c k l y through t h e  gossip  a t A l k a l i s o o n t o become common k n o w l e d g e among c o m m u n i t y  network members.)  A f t e r h i s r e t u r n t o t h e r e s e r v e t h i s i n d i v i d u a l was a g a i n c o n f r o n t e d by t h e S o c i a l Worker. not i m p o r t a n t .  E v i d e n t l y , where t h e d r i n k i n g took p l a c e i s a t t i m e s  The S o c i a l Worker, perhaps w i t h o t h e r Committee members,  102  w i l l g e t i n v o l v e d n o t j u s t because o f a v i o l a t i o n o f t h e community's "no d r i n k i n g on t h e r e s e r v e " r u l e , b u t more e s p e c i a l l y b e c a u s e o f t h e i r concern f o r the i n d i v i d u a l . There a r e a v a r i e t y o f i d e a s as t o why t h e young people a r e s t a r t i n g to drink.  The m o s t common one e x p r e s s e d i s t h a t t h e y a r e d r i n k i n g t o  "get back a t t h e i r p a r e n t s " f o r t h e m i s t r e a t m e n t t h a t they r e c e i v e d i n t h e p a s t due t o t h e i r p a r e n t s ' d r i n k i n g . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e s e youth are  finding i tdifficult  frustration.  Instead  through w i t h  t o deal  of sharing  t h e i r parents,  g e t t i n g even.  effectively  with  t h e y a r e t u r n i n g t o a l c o h o l a s a way o f  Some s a y t h a t t h e p a r e n t s a r e p a r t l y t o b l a m e , i n t h a t  be s o b e r , some p a r e n t s s t i l l  n e g l e c t and f a m i l y  violence.  They d r i n k b e c a u s e t h e r e i s n o t h i n g e l s e t o do. Y e t  become i n v o l v e d  hockey, a t t e n d i n g in Williams  and anger become m a n i f e s t e d i n c h i l d  f a c t o r , mentioned by some o f t h e s e d r i n k e r s t h e m s e l v e s , i s  t h a t o f boredom. they  Even though they may  might s l i p i n t o a " d r y drunk", i n w h i c h  f e e l i n g s of f r u s t r a t i o n , depression  if  a n g e r and  t h e i r p r o b l e m s , and t a l k i n g t h i n g s  some a r e n o t t a k i n g p r o p e r c a r e o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  A third  their  i n off-reserve activities,  o r c o m p e t i n g i n rodeos,  such as p l a y i n g  o r g o i n g t o community dances  Lake, i n t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s a l c o h o l i s o f t e n a f a c i l i t a t o r o f  s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , p r o v i d i n g an a d d i t i o n a l t e m p t a t i o n .  F i n a l l y , some  account f o r d r i n k i n g among t h e youth s i m p l y by t h e b e l i e f t h a t i t i s t h e n a t u r e o f y o u t h t o r e b e l - g i v e n t h e e x i s t i n g t a b o o on d r i n k i n g i n t h e community, t h i s provides  a v e r y e f f e c t i v e means o f p r o t e s t - a n d t h a t  t h e i r d r i n k i n g i s o n l y a s t a g e t h r o u g h w h i c h they soon w i l l  103  pass.  The  Elderly Drinkers I n t h e Autumn o f 1985 t h e r e were a t o t a l o f 27 Band members over t h e  age. o f 55 l i v i n g on t h e r e s e r v e . Of t h e s e ,  14 w e r e f e m a l e and 13 w e r e  m a l e . A l l o f t h e e l d e r l y women a r e b e l i e v e d t o be s o b e r . (One woman i s t o t a l l y i n c a p a c i t a t e d due t o a stroke.) are able-bodied,  Of t h e t h i r t e e n men, a l l o f whom  f i v e a r e known t o be r e g u l a r d r i n k e r s .  There e x i s t s a c o r r e l a t i o n between those p r e s e n t l y  d r i n k i n g and  t h o s e who p r e v i o u s l y h e l d p o s i t i o n s on t h e A l k a l i L a k e Band  Council  ( b e f o r e t h e s w i t c h t o t h e t w o - y e a r e l e c t i v e s y s t e m ) . Of t h e t h i r t e e n e l d e r l y men l i v i n g on t h e r e s e r v e , Councillors.  two a r e p a s t C h i e f s and two a r e p a s t  A l l f o u r a r e known d r i n k e r s t o d a y .  women h a v e h e l d  p o s i t i o n s on C o u n c i l .  None o f t h e e l d e r l y  Thus t h e r e  a p p e a r t o be t w o  s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s i n t h i s i n c i d e n c e o f d r i n k i n g : g e n d e r , and p a s t i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e Band C o u n c i l . Drinking typically however.  among t h e e l d e r s  i n t h e home.  Incidents  of public  drunkenness  occurring do  occur,  D u r i n g one o f t h e c o m m u n i t y d a n c e s i n t h e F a l l o f '85 one o f  the e l d e r l y men, o b v i o u s l y and  i s a more p r i v a t e a f f a i r ,  drunk, took t h e f l o o r d u r i n g t h e band's break  f o r s e v e r a l m i n u t e s d a n c e d h i s way a r o u n d t h e r o o m , a l l t h e w h i l e  h o o t i n g and h o l l e r i n g t o t h e crowd o f o n l o o k e r s , h i s performance. O b v i o u s l y , be i g n o r e d ,  who applauded l o u d l y a t  i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n t h e e l d e r l y man c o u l d n o t  a l t h o u g h h i s d r u n k e n n e s s s t i l l c o u l d have been, a t l e a s t  o v e r t l y . The e l d e r l y d r i n k e r s h a v e a m a r g i n a l r o l e i n t h e A l k a l i L a k e community,  very  r a r e l y appearing  a t community  banquets, Pow-wows, workshops, and Band meetings.  activities  such as  They a r e g e n e r a l l y n o t  i n c l u d e d i n t h e c u l t u r a l category of "Elder", which i s a term o f respect applied t o c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s according c u l t u r a l knowledge.  Elders  t o t h e i r age and/or e x t e n t o f  do n o t c o n s t i t u t e a c l e a r l y 104  defined  group.  I t i s a r a t h e r f l e x i b l e c a t e g o r y w i t h membership v a r y i n g a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e t e r m i s used. Most o f t h e e l d e r l y d r i n k e r s have i n t h e p a s t been c o n f r o n t e d t h e i r d r i n k i n g , u s u a l l y a t t h e r e q u e s t o f concerned f a m i l y members. has  t w i c e attended  tolerated.  Their  a treatment  center.  about One  Today, however, they a r e s i m p l y  d r i n k i n g i s not a cause o f great  concern  t othe  c o m m u n i t y , and t h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e open d i s c u s s i o n i n t h e community about t h e presence o f t h i s group o f p e r s i s t e n t d r i n k e r s .  SUMMARY T h e r e a r e a v a r i e t y o f w a y s i n w h i c h t h e S o b r i e t y movement h a s become r o u t i n i z e d w i t h i n t h e A l k a l i Lake community. a generally held  value,  and s o c i a l  numerous forums f o r s h a r i n g , maintenance of s o b r i e t y .  pressure,  S o b r i e t y has become  plus the existence of  serve as p o s i t i v e mechanisms f o r t h e  There a l s o i s increasing i n t e r e s t i n Indian  c u l t u r e a n d s p i r i t u a l i t y , w i t h Pow-wow d a n c i n g , c e r e m o n i a l r i t u a l f a s t i n g and p i p e c e r e m o n i e s b e i n g i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s .  sweating, I t i s an  e x p l i c i t b e l i e f t h a t I n d i a n c u l t u r e and a l c o h o l do n o t m i x , and a number of  i n d i v i d u a l s have gained  strength f o r maintaining  through involvement i n these c u l t u r a l  their  sobriety  activities.  The Band O f f i c e c o n t i n u e s t o p l a y a major r o l e i n p r o m o t i n g s o b r i e t y and  c o n t r o l l i n g d r i n k i n g on t h e r e s e r v e .  f o r c o n t r o l l i n g d r i n k i n g and o t h e r  At present  inappropriate  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  behaviour  remains that  o f t h e Band O f f i c e , s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e I n t e r v e n t i o n C o m m i t t e e , t h e r e i s some d e s i r e by to  Band O f f i c e s t a f f t o have t h i s r o l e reduced and  have t h e f a m i l i e s t a k e  behaviour.  although  a more a c t i v e r o l e  i n controlling  such  I n response t o t h e p e r c e i v e d problem o f t h e community b e i n g  105  in a  plateau  phase  of development, the  Band O f f i c e has  taken steps to  f u r t h e r the s o c i a l development o f the community by i n t r o d u c i n g of  s o c i a l and  Band i s now  c u l t u r a l development workshops f o r v i l l a g e members.  the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  Third  Four W o r l d s Development P r o j e c t  e n d e a v o u r s . The off-reserve  party  - plays  support - that provided an  Band O f f i c e i s t h e m a i n c o - o r d i n a t i n g  center f o r these  activities.  i s a r e c o g n i z e d p r o b l e m , and  the  Drinking  among the  youth  s o c i a l c o n t r o l t a c t i c s of the  Band  p r o v i n g i n e f f e c t i v e long-term deterrents.  c o m p l i c a t e d by the young age as  t o whether the  of the o f f e n d e r s ,  as  The  work o f f - r e s e r v e , and  there i s disagreement  As w e l l , a number of the y o u t h l i v e  a l s o cannot be t h r e a t e n e d w i t h vouchers.  s u p p o r t of  the  promote s o b r i e t y . reserve, of  The  Drinking  has  these drinkers  been a b l e t o i n the  secure  Band's e f f o r t s  general  community.  T h i s i s not  and  the to the  a situation  These i n d i v i d u a l s  are  their drinking i s tolerated  and  ignored.  As few  of the d r i n k e r s on the r e s e r v e were i n t e r v i e w e d ,  the r a t i o n a l r i s k - r e w a r d applied  and  imposition  p e r s i s t s among a n o t h e r sub-group w i t h i n  somewhat m a r g i n a l i n the community, and usually  not  namely a s m a l l number of e l d e r l y men. the  drinking,  the l o s s of employment or the  Band O f f i c e  employer of  great concern to  for  so are away from the environment o f c o n s t a n t s o c i a l  p r e s s u r e t h a t e x i s t s w i t h i n the A l k a l i community r e g a r d i n g  S.A.  situation i s  f a m i l i e s or the Band O f f i c e s h o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e  the c o n t r o l of t h e i r b e h a v i o u r .  of  by  important r o l e i n these  Some d r i n k i n g s t i l l o c c u r s a t A l k a l i Lake.  O f f i c e are  The  a c t i v e l y promoting s o b r i e t y i n Native communities elsewhere  i n Canada and the  a variety  at t h i s time  model of d i f f e r e n t i a l r e c r u i t m e n t cannot  t o account f o r n o n - r e c r u i t m e n t i n t o the  movement.  As  be  drinking  can be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s p e c i f i c sub-groups w i t h i n the community, i t seems 106  more appropriate to analyze the incidence of drinking i n terms cultural  f e a t u r e s r a t h e r than i n  motivation.  of  sub-  terms of i n d i v i d u a l r a t i o n a l i t y and  With regard to the elderly drinkers, the c o r r e l a t i o n between  d r i n k i n g and gender, and especially interesting  past involvement w i t h Band government,  is  and necessitates further study.  Among the youth, there i s a  correlation  between the h a r d - c o r e  d r i n k e r s and those who are beyond the economic c o n t r o l of the Band Office.  In i t s e l f  t h i s f a c t does not e x p l a i n t h e i r d r i n k i n g h a b i t s .  Indeed, t h e i r economic independence may have been a product of t h e i r desire to maintain a drinking l i f e s t y l e .  The simple argument that  the  reserve residents sobered up because of economic domination by the Band Office i s inadequate.  Why was t h i s economic domination never challenged  i n what seems to be the simplest way, by voting the Chief out of  office?  Why did few Band members leave the reserve (as the present group of young d r i n k e r s have done) and thus escape the c o n t r o l of the Band O f f i c e ? These questions w i l l be explored i n Chapter Seven.  107  NOTES TO CHAPTER FIVE  1.  The f o l l o w i n g i s t h e f o r m a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e A.A. group read a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f each A.A. meeting: A l c o h o l i c s Anonymous i s a f e l l o w s h i p o f men a n d women who s h a r e t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e , s t r e n g t h and hope w i t h each o t h e r t h a t they may s o l v e t h e i r common p r o b l e m a n d h e l p o t h e r s t o r e c o v e r f r o m a l c o h o l i s m . The o n l y r e q u i r e m e n t f o r m e m b e r s h i p i s a d e s i r e t o s t o p d r i n k i n g . T h e r e a r e no d u e s o r f e e s f o r A.A. m e m b e r s h i p ; we a r e s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g t h r o u g h o u r own c o n t r i b u t i o n s . A.A. i s n o t a l l i e d w i t h any s e c t , d e n o m i n a t i o n , p o l i t i c s , o r g a n i z a t i o n o r i n s t i t u t i o n ; d o e s n o t w i t h t o engage i n a n y c o n t r o v e r s y ; n e i t h e r e n d o r s e s n o r o p p o s e s a n y c a u s e s . Our p r i m a r y p u r p o s e i s t o s t a y sober and h e l p o t h e r a l c o h o l i c s t o a c h i e v e s o b r i e t y .  2.  The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t o f w o r k s h o p s o f f e r r e d a t t h e 1985 S h a r i n g I n n o v a t i o n s That Work Conference: Workshops o f f e r r e d by t h e A l k a l i Lake Band: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  Grand Tour o f t h e Community Land C l a i m s S p e c i a l Programs a t A l k a l i Lake ( i n c l u d i n g the Youth Group, t h e E l d e r s ' G r o u p , t h e Women's G r o u p , t h e Drum a n d Dance Group, and t h e Church Group) A l k a l i Lake: P a s t , P r e s e n t and F u t u r e E d u c a t i o n by t h e A l k a l i Lake Band S o c i a l Development by t h e A l k a l i Lake Band  Other workshops o f f e r r e d : 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.  D o u g l a s L a k e S c h o o l : A D e m o n s t r a t i o n by S t u d e n t s and F a c u l t y o f a H i g h l y S u c c e s s f u l Community-Based E d u c a t i o n Program. W h o l i s t i c H e a l i n g Methods - p r i v a t e c o n s u l t a n t . C o m m u n i t y A c t i o n P l a n n i n g : An E f f e c t i v e Way t o I n v o l v e C o m m u n i t y Members i n D e v e l o p i n g t h e i r Own A c t i o n P l a n s private consultant. U t i l i z i n g Drama f o r E f f e c t i v e Community and Youth Involvement private consultant. P r o j e c t C h a r l i e - Nechi I n s t i t u t e . A l c o h o l and Drug Abuse P r e v e n t i o n C u r r i c u l u m f o r c h i l d r e n and Young People - Four W o r l d s Development P r o j e c t . Kipohtakaw Education Center: A W h o l i s t i c Approach t o N a t i v e E d u c a t i o n - A l e x a n d e r Band, A l b e r t a . Adult C h i l d r e n of A l c o h o l i c s - Nechi I n s t i t u t e . W h o l i s t i c Youth and Community Development a t Alexander Reserve, A l b e r t a - A l e x a n d e r Band. 108  16.  17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32.  4.  I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n P r o g r a m s f o r P u b l i c S c h o o l s : P l a n n i n g and I m p l e m e n t i n g a n E f f e c t i v e and I n n o v a t i v e A p p r o a c h - N a t i v e E d u c a t i o n Programs, V i c t o r i a P u b l i c S c h o o l s . Overcoming F a m i l y V i o l e n c e - p r i v a t e c o n s u l t a n t . U n d e r s t a n d i n g B e t w e e n Young P e o p l e and A d u l t s : A W h o l i s t i c Program - Four Worlds Development P r o j e c t . I n d i a n Dream and Song H e a l i n g - p r i v a t e c o n s u l t a n t . U t i l i z i n g t h e F o u r W o r l d s C o n c e p t f o r C o m m u n i t y and Human Development - Four W o r l d s Development P r o j e c t . Suicide Prevention - private consultant. C a r a v a n f o r Y o u t h '84: An I n n o v a t i v e A p p r o a c h t o Y o u t h Involvement - p r i v a t e consultant. S o l v e n t Abuse - N e c h i I n s t i t u t e . The Development o f E f f e c t i v e Community Based Research P r o j e c t s - Four W o r l d s Development P r o j e c t . S e x u a l Abuse - N e c h i I n s t i t u t e . Community P r e v e n t i o n Development - N e c h i I n s t i t u t e . The I m p o r t a n c e o f N a t i v e C u l t u r e i n t h e P r e v e n t i o n and Treatment o f A l c o h o l and Drug Abuse - ( i n d i v i d u a l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e Four W o r l d s Development P r o j e c t ) . C r o s s - C u l t u r a l Development: E x p l o r i n g Ways t o U t i l i z e t h e B e s t of Two C u l t u r e s i n Community and P e r s o n a l Development - p r i v a t e consultant. F r i e n d s h i p C e n t e r s : The I n n o v a t i v e R o l e They Can P l a y i n t h e Development o f t h e N a t i v e Community - Kermode F r i e n d s h i p C e n t e r , T e r r a c e , B.C.. Alcoholism as a Family Disease - Nechi I n s t i t u t e . Round Lake Treatment C e n t e r S t o r y - Round Lake C e n t e r . F e t a l A l c o h o l Syndrome - p r i v a t e c o n s u l t a n t .  The c o n f e r e n c e was b o y c o t t e d by t h e C h i l c o t i n - U l k a t c h o - K l u s k u s N a t i o n , t h e Shuswap N a t i o n T r i b a l C o u n c i l , t h e U n i o n o f B.C. I n d i a n C h i e f s , and t h e A s s e m b l y o f F i r s t N a t i o n s due t o t h e e x p e c t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e c o n f e r e n c e o f a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e Guatemalan government.  109  CHAPTER S I X : SOME HISTORICAL CONSIDERATIONS  In t h i s c h a p t e r I w i l l context  discuss  i n which the Sobriety  some f e a t u r e s o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l  movement e m e r g e d .  I n p a r t i c u l a r I am  i n t e r e s t e d i n e x p l o r i n g , from a h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , why t h e o f f i c e o f Band c h i e f was s e e n by l e a d e r s  as a s u i t a b l e p o s i t i o n from which t o  i n i t i a t e t h e S o b r i e t y movement. background o f general society  since  This chapter provides a d e s c r i p t i v e  changes t h a t have o c c u r r e d  f i r s t contact  with  Europeans.  made t o t h e development o f a l c o h o l use.  i n w e s t e r n Shuswap  Special reference  Also provided  will  be  i s a discussion  of what we know about t h e h i s t o r i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between c h i e f t a i n s h i p and s o c i a l c o n t r o l w i t h i n t h e A l k a l i Lake community. there  I w i l l assert  that  i s h i s t o r i c e v i d e n c e i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e o f f i c e o f Band c h i e f  e n t a i l e d a u t h o r i t y t o c o n t r o l b e h a v i o u r o f t h e v i l l a g e members. chapter  i s an a t t e m p t t o s u p p o r t t h e c o n t e n t i o n  s t r a t e g y o f t h e movement l e a d e r s influenced  by t h i s c u l t u r a l  This  that the choice of  ( u s i n g t h e o f f i c e o f Band c h i e f ) was  t r a d i t i o n , and t h a t t h e r e s p o n s e o f t h e  community members r e f l e c t e d an i m p l i c i t r e c o g n i t i o n and a c c e p t a n c e o f this  tradition  of " s t r i c t " chieftainshsip.  EARLY POST-CONTACT SHUSWAP CULTURE The culture  most c o m p r e h e n s i v e i s found  account of e a r l y post-contact  i n J a m e s T e i t ' s 1909 e t h n o g r a p h y .  Teit  Shuswap conducted  f i e l d w o r k among t h e Shuswap between 1900 and 1904. By t h i s t i m e much o f t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l way o f l i f e had been d i s r u p t e d t h r o u g h c o n t a c t non-Native people.  with  Working w i t h a few e l d e r l y male i n f o r m a n t s T e i t  110  a t t e m p t e d t o c o n s t r u c t a p i c t u r e o f Shuswap c u l t u r e as i t had been b e f o r e this disruption.  T e i t had  a s t r o n g a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the dynamic  nature  o f c u l t u r e and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , and h i s e t h n o g r a p h y r e p r e s e n t s i n t e r e s t i n g account not o n l y of " t r a d i t i o n a l " Shuswap l i f e s t y l e ,  an  but of a  society i n transition. Until  the  1900s,  g a t h e r i n g people. d e e r , and  the  Shuswap w e r e a s e m i - n o m a d i c h u n t i n g  T h e i r s u b s i s t e n c e was  b a s e d p r i m a r i l y on  e l k , w i t h c a r i b o u , moose, b e a r , and  secondary  importance  (Teit  1909;  Palmer  s u p p l e m e n t e d t h e d i e t i n t h e summer months. Shuswap r e s i d e d migratory  i n permanent s e t t l e m e n t s ,  family  units  during  the  and  salmon,  s m a l l e r game b e i n g 1975). During  Plant  summer.  Those  foods  the w i n t e r  dispersing into bands  of  the  smaller in  the  westernmost Shuswap t e r r i t o r y (the A l k a l i Lake band i n c l u d e d ) were a l m o s t completely  sedentary,  t h e i r s u b s i s t e n c e based l a r g e l y on the p r e d i c t a b l e  and abundant runs of F r a s e r R i v e r salmon. The  Shuswap r e c o g n i z e d a t l e a s t t h r e e l e v e l s o f s o c i a l g r o u p i n g s  within t h e i r nation. represented  by  The  first,  and  most encompassing s o c i a l group,  the word "Sex'wa'pmux", meaning "our  the a n g l i c i z e d v e r s i o n o f w h i c h was  "Shuswap".  people"  was  (Brow 1967),  W i t h i n t h i s group were  i n c l u d e d seven t r i b a l d i v i s i o n s , each named a f t e r a p a r t i c u l a r geographic location. not c l e a r .  The s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s e d i v i s i o n s i s E a c h d i v i s i o n was  d e f i n e s the term related  band  (1909:457).  at or His  Teit  as "being composed of a group of f a m i l i e s c l o s e l y  among t h e m s e l v e s , who  locality,  composed o f a number o f "bands".  w i t h i n a few informants  generally wintered miles  of  within a  a larger village  or  definite center"  p r o v i d e d h i m w i t h a l i s t o f t h i r t y bands  and the p r i n c i p a l v i l l a g e of each, those b e i n g a l l the r e c o g n i z e d bands t h a t e x i s t e d i n the mid-1800s.  111  Through the  Shuswap  1800s t h e r e was  a  tendency f o r bands t o become more r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d ,  as more and more  f a m i l y groups congregated a t a c e n t r a l v i l l a g e f o r the w i n t e r  months.  At t h a t t i m e t e n b a n d s , i n c l u d i n g t h e A l k a l i L a k e band, w e r e l i s t e d a s belonging  to the Fraser  recognized  by  River  the Department of Indian  disappeared through population According  Division.  S i x of  Affairs,  these  today  the others  are  having  decline.  t o T e i t , t h e w e s t e r n Shuswap bands* were d i s t i n c t n o t o n l y  i n t h e i r r e l a t i v e l y h i g h degree o f s e d e n t i s m , but a l s o i n s e v e r a l unique features  o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n : ranked c l a s s e s , c r e s t groups, and dance  societies.  These were b e l i e v e d t o have been t r a n s m i t t e d  through  contact  w i t h t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g C h i l c o t i n , C a r r i e r , and L i l l o o e t p e o p l e , who i n t u r n had adopted t h e s e f e a t u r e s from d i r e c t o r i n d i r e c t c o n t a c t Northwest Coast s o c i e t i e s .  w i t h the  The type o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n d i s p l a y e d by  t h e s o u t h e r n and e a s t e r n Shuswap bands was b e l i e v e d by T e i t t o be t h e o l d e r form once shared by a l l Shuswap. Kinship  i n t h e s o u t h e r n and e a s t e r n  bands was b i l a t e r a l l y  The b a s i c s o c i o - e c o n o m i c u n i t was t h e extended f a m i l y , together  i n t h e summer and  winter  months.  d i s t i n c t i o n e x i s t e d i n t h e presence o f s l a v e r y . have s e r v e d  only  formal  class  T h i s , however, seems t o  Some r e c o g n i t i o n o f u n i l i n e a l  p r i n c i p l e s o f d e s c e n t was apparent i n t h e in the determination p e r band  according  which t r a v e l l e d  a s a t e m p o r a r y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f war c a p t i v e s , who g a i n e d  e q u a l s t a t u s upon m a r r i a g e i n t o t h e band.  chief  The  reckoned.  use o f h e r e d i t a r y names, and  o f band c h i e f t a i n s h i p . T h e r e was one h e r e d i t a r y  (determined  partially  by p a t r i l i n e a l  t o T e i t , "had no s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s , and  were t o l o o k  a f t e r the general  welfare  descent)  (his) only  who,  duties  o f t h e band... t h e c h i e f  was  looked upon as a k i n d o f f a t h e r and l e a d e r o f t h e people,and was expected  112  t o s e t a good e x a m p l e , and Hunt c h i e f s , war necessitated. recognized  c h i e f s , and  These  classes,  dance l e a d e r s  leaders  attained  e m e r g e d as  their  the  occasion  position according  to  abilities.  Teit asserted differed  t o a c t f a i r l y , i n a l l m a t t e r s " (1909:570).  t h a t s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the w e s t e r n Shuswap bands  i n e x h i b i t i n g features c r e s t g r o u p s , and  of a Northwest Coast i n f l u e n c e :  dance s o c i e t i e s .  He  argued  ranked  that  these  f e a t u r e s were i n t e g r a t e d i n t o w e s t e r n Shuswap s o c i e t y i n the e a r l y 1800s, h a v i n g been a d o p t e d t h r o u g h c o n t a c t Lillooet  Indians.  w i t h t h e C h i l c o t i n , C a r r i e r , and  By the l a t e 1800s the system had  C o n s e q u e n t l y , T e i t had  difficulty  system, p a r t i c u l a r l y regarding  f a l l e n i n t o disuse.  r e c o n s t r u c t i n g a c l e a r p i c t u r e of  this  p r i n c i p l e s of membership, s t a t u s ,  and  p r i v i l e g e s of the n o b i l i t y , c r e s t groups, and dance s o c i e t i e s . Grossman (1965) has of dance s o c i e t i e s and  q u e s t i o n e d the a c c u r a c y of T e i t ' s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n c r e s t groups.  F o l l o w i n g Grossman, i t seems more  p l a u s i b l e t o v i e w Western Shuswap s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n as b e i n g stem l i n e a g e s .  At t h e  c o r e of c h i e f s , who over the  resources  r e s i d e d i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y and of a c e r t a i n t e r r i t o r y .  t o the p r i n c i p l e of b i l a t e r a l descent. p a t r i l i n e a l core,  Ranked c l a s s e s may  who  exercised  according  Thus T e i t ' s c r e s t g r o u p may  w i t h h i s "band" b e i n g  c o r e , and dance s o c i e t i e s c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d attached  control  I n d i v i d u a l s more d i s t a n t l y  the stem  be a product of r e l a t i v e d i s t a n c e from the  t h r o u g h d i f f u s i o n and  on  c e n t e r o f t h e l i n e a g e w o u l d be a p a t r i l i n e a l  r e l a t e d c o u l d c l a i m membership i n a number of descent groups,  f a c t be a  based  in  lineage.  patrilineal  s i m p l y as c e r e m o n i e s adopted  t o s p e c i f i c stem l i n e a g e s .  An e x a m i n a t i o n o f some o f t h e o t h e r  f o r c e s o f c h a n g e f e l t by  w e s t e r n Shuswap i n the 19th c e n t u r y w i l l now  113  be p r e s e n t e d .  the  FIRST WHITE CONTACT The f i r s t  w h i t e man t o e n t e r Shuswap t e r r i t o r y i s b e l i e v e d t o have  been S i m o n F r a s e r , who p a s s e d t h r o u g h i n 1808 en r o u t e t o t h e P a c i f i c Ocean.  I n t h e e a r l y d e c a d e s o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e Hudson's Bay  Company e s t a b l i s h e d a number o f t r a d i n g p o s t s i n New C a l e d o n i a . the  most s o u t h e r l y  of these posts  were F o r t A l e x a n d r i a ,  and  (the s h o r t - l i v e d ) Fort C h i l c o t i n  (Morice  Shuswap I n d i a n s v i s i t e d t h e s e f o r t s .  1978).  Fort  I n 1834 Thompson,  I t i s probable that  I t i s a l s o l i k e l y t h a t i t was from  t h e s e s o u r c e s t h a t a l c o h o l was f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e Shuswap. i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a f u r - t r a d e economy, however, d i d n o t s e v e r e l y  The disrupt  t h e t r a d i t i o n a l way o f l i f e o f t h e I n d i a n s o f t h i s r e g i o n .  Trapping  was a p u r s u i t t h a t was e a s i l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e i r s e a s o n a l  round of  activities;  i n fact,  t h e t r a d e r s r e l i e d on t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n  of the  I n d i a n s ' t r a d i t i o n a l economy i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n t h e i r f u r s ( F i s h e r 1978). The f i r s t m i s s i o n a r y  t o v i s i t t h e w e s t e r n Shuswap was t h e Roman  C a t h o l i c Modeste Demers i n 1842. infrequent u n t i l the l a t e  C o n t a c t w i t h t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s remained  1860s.  THE GOLD RUSH AND THE MISSIONARIES: 1858-1876 I t was n o t u n t i l t h e l a t e 1850s t h a t Shuswap c u l t u r e b e g a n t o be s e r i o u s l y d i s r u p t e d by c o n t a c t w i t h n o n - N a t i v e s .  The f i r s t s o u r c e o f  t h i s d i s r u p t i o n came through i n d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h W h i t e s , when a s e r i e s of e p i d e m i c s swept t h r o u g h t h e Shuswap and o t h e r I n d i a n groups, c a u s i n g a drastic reduction i n population. Shuswap o c c u r r e d  The most s e v e r e e p i d e m i c t o h i t t h e  i n 1862-63, when s m a l l p o x v i r t u a l l y wiped o u t t h e 700-  member Canon d i v i s i o n , who o c c u p i e d  t e r r i t o r y on t h e w e s t s i d e o f t h e  F r a s e r R i v e r n o r t h and s o u t h o f t h e mouth o f t h e C h i l c o t i n R i v e r .  114  The  second d i s r u p t i o n was In  1858  a Gold  prospectors  into  i n i t i a t e d by t h e d i s c o v e r y o f g o l d i n t h e C a r i b o o .  Rush e m e r g e d  brought  Shuswap c o u n t r y .  employment i n p a c k i n g through  that  and  The  of  non-Native  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r wage-labour  g u i d i n g , and  t h e n u m e r o u s s a l o o n s and  thousands  the a v a i l a b i l i t y  road-houses t h a t l i n e d  of a l c o h o l the  Cariboo  T r a i l , c o n t r i b u t e d t o i n c r e a s i n g l y f r e q u e n t I n d i a n use of a l c o h o l and drunkenness. completed;  By 1865  the C a r i b o o Road between Y a l e and B a r k e r v i l l e  by 1870 t h e C a r i b o o G o l d R u s h was  over.  Many o f t h o s e  to was who  had been l u r e d t o the C a r i b o o by the p r o m i s e o f g o l d remained i n the a r e a t o t a k e up t h e more mundane p u r s u i t s o f f a r m i n g , r a n c h i n g , l o g g i n g and trapping.  T h r o u g h t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s much o f t h e Shuswap's t r a d i t i o n a l  h u n t i n g t e r r i t o r i e s were l o s t . An event was  t h a t was  the establishment  t o have g r e a t impact on t h e w e s t e r n Shuswap bands i n 1867  of St. Joseph's M i s s i o n . ^  Situated just  s o u t h o f W i l l i a m s Lake, the M i s s i o n became the c e n t e r of Roman C a t h o l i c activity  i n the  Cariboo.  Mission's " t e r r i t o r y " .  Twenty-two  W i t h i n one  included  year  t h e Southern  Carrier,  of the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  and  A l k a l i Lake (Whitehead  1981).  welcome the m i s s i o n a r i e s and  The  ten  St. P i e r r e ' s at  Shuswap i n p a r t i c u l a r seemed t o  t h e i r teachings  m i s s i o n a r y , Father LeJacq,  was  (ibid.:51).  delegated  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  p a y i n g r e g u l a r v i s i t s t o t h e v a r i o u s I n d i a n bands i n t h e a r e a . LeJacq was  the  some C h i l c o t i n  of St. Joseph's,  c h u r c h e s had been c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h e a r e a , among them  One  in  These i n c l u d e d the F r a s e r R i v e r d i v i s i o n Shuswap  bands ( i n c l u d i n g A l k a l i Lake), bands.  bands were  an a r d e n t b e l i e v e r i n the "Durieu system".  Father  Developed i n  by P a u l D u r i e u , O.M.I, m i s s i o n a r y t o O r e g o n , t h i s s y s t e m was  of  1850  aimed at  r e p l a c i n g t r a d i t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the w i n t e r s e t t l e m e n t s w i t h a system o f h i e r a r c h i c a l v i l l a g e o r g a n i z a t i o n based on C a t h o l i c b e l i e f s 115  and  values.  Whitehead d e s c r i b e s t h e D u r i e u  system:  In a c c e p t i n g t h e new a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h e I n d i a n s had t o r e j e c t f o r e v e r a l l t r i b a l c e l e b r a t i o n s , a l l patronage o f t h e m e d i c i n e man o r shaman, i n t o x i c a n t s and gambling. Sunday observance was s t r i c t l y enforced. Weekday a t t e n d a n c e a t mass ( w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e ) or at d a i l y prayer or catechism s e s s i o n s was mandatory. M a r r i a g e s had t o h a v e t h e p r i e s t ' s c o n s e n t and l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s were frowned upon u n l e s s a l l r e c e s s a r y work was completed. Every a s p e c t o f l i f e operated under p u r i t a n i c a l r e s t r i c t i o n s . . . F e a s t d a y s h e l d by t h e c h u r c h w e r e t o be c e l e b r a t e d i n g r e a t s t y l e , w i t h p r o c e s s i o n s and p a g e a n t r y , s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s , r e l i g i o u s p l a y s , even, on o c c a s i o n , f i r e w o r k d i s p l a y s (ibid.:19).  L o c a l m i s s i o n a r i e s , such as F a t h e r LeJacq, the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  a c t e d as s u p e r v i s o r s i n  and o p e r a t i o n o f t h e new v i l l a g e system.  Within the  v i l l a g e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h e r e e x i s t e d a number o f r o l e s : c h i e f s , s u b c h i e f s , watchmen, p o l i c e m e n , r i n g e r s ) (Whitehead  c a t e c h i s t s , c h a n t e r s , and s e x t o n s  1981:18; L e m e r t  1954:24).  (bell-  Among t h e w e s t e r n  Shuswap i t appears t h a t t h e r e was o n l y one c h i e f per v i l l a g e  (Whitehead  1981).  Whitehead s t a t e s t h a t t h e m i s s i o n a r y would g e n e r a l l y a t t e m p t t o  appoint  the h e r e d i t a r y c h i e f to t h i s p o s i t i o n ,  although  there  were  a l t e r n a t e " c h i e f s " - p o s s i b l y r e f e r r i n g t o c r e s t group c h i e f s - who c o u l d be approached i f t h e f o r m e r d e c l i n e d .  This chief,  as a p p o i n t e d  by t h e  m i s s i o n a r y , was c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e l o c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e church. He had supreme a u t h o r i t y f o r s o c i a l c o n t r o l w i t h i n t h e community.  His  d u t i e s i n c l u d e d e n s u r i n g t h a t White b o o t l e g g e r s were kept out of t h e v i l l a g e , and d e c i d i n g upon s u i t a b l e punishment f o r those found g u i l t y o f t r a n s g r e s s i o n s o f t h e new worked under t h e d i r e c t i o n  r u l e s ( i b i d . : 18). of the chief.  Watchmen and I t was  policemen  the duty  of the  watchmen t o p a t r o l t h e v i l l a g e and t o r e p o r t t o t h e c h i e f any i n f r a c t i o n s of the r u l e s .  The p o l i c e m e n ' s r o l e was t o c a r r y o u t t h e p u n i s h m e n t o f  the o f f e n d e r , as had been d e c i d e d upon by t h e c h i e f .  116  Father LeJacq  c l a i m e d t o h a v e had  Shuswap's a c c e p t a n c e c u l t u r e was  great success  of the Durieu system.  To  at g a i n i n g the  what e x t e n t  Shuswap  i n f l u e n c e d a t t h i s s t a g e by t h e s y s t e m i s u n c l e a r .  Shuswap s t i l l  pursued  a semi-nomadic l i f e s t y l e .  p r o p o r t i o n o f t i m e they l i v e d away f r o m  For a  The  significant  t h e i r c e n t r a l v i l l a g e s and  thus  i n t h e o r y d i d not have t o c o n f o r m t o the b e h a v i o u r codes of t h e s y s t e m . A l s o , the m i s s i o n a r y , F a t h e r L e J a c q , made r e g u l a r v i s i t s t o each v i l l a g e , b u t r e m a i n e d t h e r e f o r o n l y a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e , and w h a t w e n t on i n the v i l l a g e  d u r i n g h i s absence may  went on i n h i s  presence.  Regardless Shuswap l i f e  have been q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from what  of the e x t e n t t o which the D u r i e u system i n f l u e n c e d  in this  early  p e r i o d of  missionary  contact, with  t r a n s f e r o f F a t h e r LeJacq out of the t e r r i t o r y i n 1873, to  wane i n p o p u l a r i t y .  have the  f o r t h e I n d i a n s as F a t h e r  w i t h i n t h r e e y e a r s he had " v i s i b l y  s e v e r a l Shuswap b a n d s " ( i b i d . ) .  p o t l a t c h i n g , ... and  LeJacq"  l o s t the regard  of  V i r t u a l l y a l l t h e Shuswap, C a r r i e r , and  C h i l c o t i n bands i n the r e g i o n openly gambling,  t h e system began  H i s s u c c e s s o r , F a t h e r C h a r l e s M a r c h a l , " d i d not  same c h a r i s m a t i c a p p e a l  ( i b i d . : 8 1 ) , and  the  r e v e r t e d t o the o l d ways:  dancing,  drinking.  THE PROBLEM OF ALCOHOL Regulations p r o h i b i t i n g  t h e s a l e or g i f t  of i n t o x i c a n t s t o I n d i a n s  had been i n p l a c e i n Upper and Lower Canada s i n c e the l a t e 1700s, and i n the t e r r i t o r y  later  t o become B r i t i s h  Columbia s i n c e the  mid-1800s  ( C a n a d a : H i s t o r i c a l D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e I n d i a n A c t , 1978).  The  Act  concerning  of  Indians.  1876  c o n s o l i d a t e d and  amended t h e e x i s t i n g  U n d e r S e c t i o n s 79, 80, and  83,  i t was  illegal  i n t o x i c a n t s t o I n d i a n s , f o r I n d i a n s t o make, s e l l ,  117  laws  to  Indian  furnish  or have i n t h e i r  possession  any  i n t o x i c a n t , and  for Indians  t o be  drunkenness (Canada: S t a t u t e s of Canada, pp.66-68). a p o s s i b l e f i n e o f $100 punishable  in a state  Possession  carried  or i m p r i s o n m e n t f o r s i x months; drunkenness  was  by i n c a r c e r a t i o n f o r t h i r t y days.  R e p o r t s of t h e I n d i a n Agent t o the W i l l i a m s Lake Agency (which e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1881  and  Shuswap,  and  Chilcotin  missionaries) provide and  of  included in i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n a l t e r r i t o r y C a r r i e r bands " s e r v e d "  information regarding  i t s c o n t r o l on the l o c a l r e s e r v e s .  Agent r e p o r t e d t h a t he  was  by  the  St.  the  Joseph's  the problems o f a l c o h o l  I n 1884  use  the W i l l i a m s Lake I n d i a n  had:  A p p o i n t e d c o n s t a b l e s [on t h e S u g a r C a n e ] r e s e r v e g i v i n g them i n s t r u c t i o n s as t o t h e i r d u t i e s i n p r e s e r v i n g law and o r d e r i n the v i l l a g e . T h i s v i l l a g e has been a t the mercy o f a number o f persons, who were i n the h a b i t of p r o w l i n g around a t n i g h t w i t h l i q u o r , f o r purposes n e e d l e s s t o mention (I.A.B. Annual Report 1884:106)  Constables  were a l s o a p p o i n t e d  in this  r e s e r v e , f o r the purpose of " s e c u r i n g law (ibid.).  The  appointment o f c o n s t a b l e s  of the Soda Creek c h i e f (see page  the  were t o  two  offenders.  reserves, which are  the  Soda C r e e k  i n the the  village"  full  r e p o r t any  support  i n s t a n c e s of  would then i n i t i a t e  It i s significant  Shuswap r e g i o n the o n l y mention o f c o n s t a b l e s these  order  here r e c e i v e d  wrongdoing t o the l o c a l I n d i a n Agent, who against  and  on  120).  Presumably, the I n d i a n c o n s t a b l e s  proceedings  year  being  legal  that i n  appointed  s i t u a t e d c l o s e s t to white  the  occurs  the in  population  centers. In themselves, the i n t o x i c a n t laws probably Indian drinking.  I m p l e m e n t a t i o n r e l i e d h e a v i l y on  i n d i v i d u a l s t o become i n f o r m a n t s .  118  had l i t t l e e f f e c t  on  the w i l l i n g n e s s of  While i t i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y possible  t h a t i n r e g i o n s o f more f r e q u e n t m i s s i o n a r y o r I n d i a n A g e n t c o n t a c t I n d i a n may Durieu  have been m o t i v a t e d  an  t o i n f o r m through r e s i d u a l d e v o t i o n t o the  system, or t h r o u g h some c a l c u l a t i o n of p o l i t i c a l advantage t o  be  gained t h r o u g h w o r k i n g w i t h the W h i t e s , t h i s would be l e s s l i k e l y i n the more remote t e r r i t o r i e s where the t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l o r d e r had been l e s s d i s r u p t e d by W h i t e c o n t a c t .  I n these  more i s o l a t e d r e g i o n s ,  l a w s were  v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o e n f o r c e , even i f an i n f o r m a n t d i d come f o r t h , t o the s l o w n e s s o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and In expressed  1884  the  Indian  Agent,  due  communication.  r e p o r t i n g from  the  Quesnel  h i s f r u s t r a t i o n s a t the i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the l i q u o r  reserve, laws:  The l a w r e q u i r i n g two J.P.'s [ J u s t i c e s o f t h e P e a c e ] t o t r y an I n d i a n w h i s k e y - g i v e r , i s the g r e a t l o o p - h o l e t h r o u g h w h i c h such o f f e n c e s escape. In t h i s p a r t of B r i t i s h Columbia J u s t i c e s l i v e f a r a p a r t - f i f t y m i l e s , as an a v e r a g e . T h e r e i s no l a w t o compel a J u s t i c e t o a t t e n d the summons o f a n o t h e r J.P.. Nor i s i t s o m e t i m e s p o s s i b l e f o r h i m t o l e a v e h i s home a t a day's n o t i c e . And i n a l l c a s e s the d e l a y i s such, t h a t the o f f e n d e r g e n e r a l l y h e a r s o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n h a v i n g been l a i d , and has a m p l e t i m e t o "move o f f " t o a d i s t a n c e u n t i l t h e m a t t e r has "blown o v e r " (I.A.B. A n n u a l R e p o r t 1884:108)  Another  problem  i n v o l v e d t h e r e l u c t a n c e o f t h e B.C.  Government t o c o - o p e r a t e i n the enforcement of F e d e r a l  Provincial  laws:  The a c t i o n s of the p r o v i n c i a l government, i n r e f u s i n g the use o f c o u r t h o u s e s , g a o l s and c o n s t a b l e s t o I n d i a n a g e n t s when a c t i n g i n the c a p a c i t y of m a g i s t r a t e s , as the I n d i a n A c t e m p o w e r s them t o do i n r e s p e c t t o a l l v i o l a t i o n s o f i t s p r o v i s i o n s , w i l l here, as e l s e w h e r e , g r e a t l y impede the proper a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f j u s t i c e , as s i m i l a r cases o f v i o l a t i o n of the l a w o c c u r (I.A.B. A n n u a l R e p o r t 1 8 8 5 : l x ) . I n an e f f o r t t o i m p r o v e t h e e f f i c a c y o f t h e l i q u o r r e g u l a t i o n s a s e r i e s o f a m e n d m e n t s w e r e made t o t h e " i n t o x i c a n t s " s e c t i o n s o f I n d i a n Act t h r o u g h the l a t e 1800s and  e a r l y 1900s.  These amendments d i d  not succeed i n p r o v i d i n g an e f f e c t i v e d e t e r r e n t t o I n d i a n d r i n k i n g .  119  the  INDIAN CONTROL OF DRINKING; 1880s Under the s h o r t - l i v e d D u r i e u had  the a u t h o r i t y t o p u n i s h  those  system o f the  1870s the D u r i e u c h i e f s  g u i l t y of intemperance.  Some c h i e f s '  commitment t o temperance p e r s i s t e d a f t e r the d i s s o l u t i o n o f the and  they worked w i t h the m i s s i o n a r i e s and  I n d i a n Agents i n an e f f o r t  c o n t r o l d r i n k i n g and b o o t l e g g i n g i n t h e v i l l a g e s .  F r u s t r a t e d by  i n e f f i c a c y o f the l i q u o r r e g u l a t i o n s , the c h i e f s seemed a t t i m e s t a k e n m a t t e r s i n t o t h e i r own  hands.  system, to the  t o have  E x a c t l y what methods of c o n t r o l  they used i s u n c l e a r , however, F a t h e r McGuckin of S t . Joseph's M i s s i o n d e s c r i b e d t h e I n d i a n s ' mode o f p u n i s h m e n t as " t o o r i g o r o u s " ( W h i t e h e a d 1981:92). The  W i l l i a m s Lake I n d i a n Agent presented  some o b s e r v a t i o n s  on  the  e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f some o f t h e Shuswap c h i e f s i n c o n t r o l l i n g d r i n k i n g behaviour  i n t h i s period:  The [Dog C r e e k ] c h i e f , M i s s o u , i s a young man. He i s a t e r r o r t o drunken I n d i a n s and w h i t e w h i s k e y - g i v e r s ; and as t h i s p l a c e i s where the l i c e n s e d l i q u o r houses a r e s i t u a t e d ( t h r e e houses f o r s i x w h i t e r e s i d e n t s ! ) h i s e n e r g y i n d i s c o v e r i n g and i n f o r m i n g a g a i n s t o f f e n d e r s has put a s t o p t o the drunkenness w h i c h f o r m e r l y was so p r e v a l e n t among I n d i a n s here, a t A l k a l i L a k e and a t Canoe C r e e k (I.A.B. A n n u a l R e p o r t 1884:110)).  The [Soda C r e e k ] c h i e f , C a m u s e l l s , i s one o f the few r e m a i n i n g " o l d - t i m e " c h i e f s - f e a r e d and o b e y e d by h i s t r i b e , and a m o r t a l enemy t o a l l d r u n k e n n e s s and i m m o r a l i t y o f any k i n d . B e f o r e he became t o o o l d , he u s e d , s o m e t i m e s , t o e x e c u t e h i s s e n t e n c e s w i t h h i s own hand., t h i s v i l l a g e , l i k e W i l l i a m s Lake ( S u g a r C a n e ) , h a s o f t e n been a t t h e m e r c y o f u n p r i n c i p l e d w h i t e s , p r o w l i n g about a f t e r n i g h t w i t h w h i s k e y ; and the c h i e f was e l o q u e n t i n h i s e x p r e s s i o n s o f d e l i g h t a t t h e s t o p p u t t o such p r o c e e d i n g s a t the l a t t e r r e s e r v e . . . ( i b i d . : 1 0 6 ) . S e v e r a l comments s h o u l d be made on  these passages.  We  must examine  t h e s e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f Shuswap c h i e f t a i n s h i p w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o source.  The  l o c a l I n d i a n Agent p r o b a b l y 120  spent r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e  their time  among the I n d i a n s , and may  have been v i e w i n g t h e a c t i o n s of these  chiefs  w i t h p r e - c o n c e i v e d n o t i o n s o f w h a t a c h i e f ' s r o l e s h o u l d be; t h u s reliability  the  o f h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the Shuswap  c h i e f s i n s o c i a l c o n t r o l may  be q u e s t i o n e d .  Second, i t would be i n t h e  b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f the I n d i a n Agent t o emphasize i n h i s annual r e p o r t t o O t t a w a any  s u c c e s s , however b r i e f ,  I n d i a n s o f h i s Agency.  Granted  o f t e m p e r a n c e e f f o r t s among  these q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ,  the  the  observations  o f t h e I n d i a n Agent about c h i e f t a i n s h i p a r e not i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h what  we  know o f the r o l e o f t h e c h i e f under the r e c e n t l y abandoned D u r i e u system.  THE RE-EMERGENCE OF THE DURIEU SYSTEM In  1890  t h e D u r i e u system showed a d r a m a t i c r e s u r g e n c e o f p o p u l a r i t y  among t h e Shuswap and turnaround  was  o t h e r bands i n the M i s s i o n ' s t e r r i t o r y .  t r i g g e r e d by one event.  I n May  and C a r r i e r I n d i a n s , l e d by F a t h e r M a r c h a l "lacked  sufficient  1890,  This  a group o f Shuswap  (the same F a t h e r M a r c h a l  c h a r i s m a t i c a p p e a l " t o m a i n t a i n I n d i a n acceptance  who of  t h e D u r i e u system i n 1873), t r a v e l l e d en masse down t o S e c h e l t t o a t t e n d the opening  o f a new  church.  embraced t h e D u r i e u s y s t e m , and  The  S e c h e l t I n d i a n s had  t h e i r v i l l a g e was  wholeheartedly  c o n s i d e r e d a model t o  w h i c h o t h e r I n d i a n s (and more i m p o r t a n t , m i s s i o n a r i e s ) c o u l d a s p i r e . The week-long c e r e m o n i e s and f e s t i v i t i e s , " e l a b o r a t e and  i n t r u e C a t h o l i c f a s h i o n , were  i m p r e s s i v e " ( W h i t e h e a d 1981:94).  The  church b l e s s i n g  i t s e l f was a t t e n d e d by a l m o s t two thousand I n d i a n s from v a r i o u s t r i b e s i n the  north  departed  west  region.  mid-way through  B i s h o p D'Herbomez i n New  A contingency  o f m i s s i o n a r i e s and  chiefs  the week from S e c h e l t t o a t t e n d t h e f u n e r a l o f Westminster,  r i c h i n s y m b o l i s m and drama.  121  w h i c h was  t o be a ceremony e q u a l l y  The  w i t n e s s i n g o f these e v e n t s seems t o have s e t o f f a new  r e l i g i o u s f e r v o u r among t h e Shuswap b a n d s ( i b i d . ) . the  party's  ceremony,  return  to  similar  the  to  Cariboo,  that  which  d e d i c a t i o n o f t h e v i l l a g e ' s new district  invited  to attend.  significant  c r e a t i o n , i n 1895,  According  Lake I n d i a n s at  Sechelt,  only the f i r s t  within  of the " T o t a l A b s t i n e n c e  r e s e r v e , t h e s o c i e t y was a l c o h o l use.  occurred  i n the next few  innovation  I n i t i a t e d by B i s h o p D u r i e u  Alkali  F i v e months a f t e r held for  a  the  c h u r c h , w i t h o t h e r I n d i a n bands of the  T h i s was  d e d i c a t i o n s w h i c h were t o occur One  had  the  round of  d u r i n g a church  the  o f a number  of  years. Durieu  system  was  the  S o c i e t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia". d e d i c a t i o n a t t h e Sugar Cane  aimed s p e c i f i c a l l y at the c o n t r o l of  t o Whitehead, the s o c i e t y  Indian  was:  a " r e g u l a r a s s o c i a t i o n " w i t h a c o n s t i t u t i o n , r e g u l a t i o n s , and s t a t u t e s . . . The B i s h o p w i s h e d t o e s t a b l i s h a b r a n c h o f t h e s o c i e t y i n e v e r y I n d i a n v i l l a g e , and t h e c h i e f - w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e the h e r e d i t a r y c h i e f - was made the l o c a l p r e s i d e n t o f h i s b r a n c h . As t h e l o c a l p r e s i d e n t , t h e c h i e f was e m p o w e r e d " w i t h o u t b e i n g s u b j e c t t o a r r e s t and p r o s e c u t i o n t o m a i n t a i n o r d e r and d i s c i p l i n e among t h e I n d i a n members o f t h e s a i d s o c i e t y " (1981:95-96). The  s o c i e t y was  inaugurated  that c h a r a c t e r i z e d other up  the  ten attending  i n the same e l a b o r a t e c e r e m o n i a l  p u b l i c e v e n t s o f the C a t h o l i c church.  c h i e f s by  h i s s i d e at the a l t a r , Bishop  i n s t r u c t e d them i n t h e i r d u t i e s as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e society.  Each c h i e f was  g i v e n a "temperance f l a g " , and  t o s i g n the r e g i s t e r , w h i c h was  of the v i l l a g e c h u r c h church  Lining Durieu  temperance  each was  a s s i g n e d a r e g i s t e r b e a r i n g the s t a t u t e s of the s o c i e t y . were r e q u e s t e d  style  later  A l l Indians  t o be p l a c e d by the a l t a r  t o s e r v e as a r e m i n d e r f o r a l l who  entered  the  o f t h e i r p r o m i s e o f temperance ( i b i d . : 9 7 ) .  The  Shuswap c o n t i n u e d  t o show an i n t e r e s t i n the C a t h o l i c r e l i g i o n  122  through  t h e e a r l y 1900s.  The m i s s i o n a r y  t o attend  the Indians  through  t h i s p e r i o d , F a t h e r Thomas, would v i s i t t h e bands o f t h e d i s t r i c t  three  o r f o u r t i m e s per y e a r , h i s v i s i t s when p o s s i b l e c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o s p e c i a l c e l e b r a t i o n s such a s E a s t e r o r C h r i s t m a s .  Courts  would be h e l d  during  the missionary's v i s i t , during which cases o f intemperance, or other i n s t a n c e s o f i m m o r a l i t y a s d e f i n e d by t h e D u r i e u s y s t e m , would be heard and  punishment d e l i v e r e d .  I t i s n o t c l e a r whether such c o u r t s were h e l d  i n t h e absence o f t h e m i s s i o n a r y . The  court  system  p e r s i s t e d among  ( i n c l u d i n g A l k a l i L a k e ) u n t i l t h e 1940s.  some o f t h e d i s t r i c t  bands  W h i t e h e a d d e s c r i b e s one s u c h  c o u r t h e l d a t Redstone (a C h i l c o t i n r e s e r v e ) i n t h e l a t e r y e a r s :  Mr. C h r i s t i e [ t h e I n d i a n Agent t o t h e W i l l i a m s Lake d i s t r i c t ] , who a s a J P h a d l e g a l a u t h o r i t y , p r e s i d e d a t a c o u r t h e l d i n f r o n t o f t h e church. I n d i a n s who had caused harm w h i l e drunk had t o k n e e l i n f r o n t o f t h e C h i e f and Mr. C h r i s t i e w h i l e t h e i r c r i m e s were a s s e s s e d . The C h i e f l e v i e d f i n e s a g a i n s t t h o s e f o u n d g u i l t y , and, Mr. C h r i s t i e r e c a l l e d , " i f t h e y d i d n ' t p a y , they'd t a k e a h o r s e o r a cow a n d s e l l i t and t h e money w e n t t o the c h u r c h , t o buy c a n d l e s and s t u f f l i k e t h a t " ( i b i d . : 131).  Whitehead adds t h a t : Even w i t h o u t c h u r c h o r government a u t h o r i t y p r e s e n t , one o r two c h i e f s c o n t i n u e d t o h o l d these c o u r t s but t h e I n d i a n s r e f u s e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e ; i n one case, where t h e C h i e f had taken a man's horse f o r non-payment o f a f i n e , t h e I n d i a n r e p o r t e d i t t o t h e R.C.M.P. - a s u r e s i g n o f t h e l o s s o f t r i b a l and c h u r c h authority (ibid.).  THE  DURIEU SYSTEM AT ALKALI LAKE: ELDERS* RECOLLECTIONS The  the  system o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l d e s c r i b e d above i s w e l l remembered by  elderly  people  of A l k a l i  Lake.  The e l d e r s  from  which  this  i n f o r m a t i o n was c o l l e c t e d ( a l l o f whom were women) were between t h e ages o f s i x t y and e i g h t y , and thus t h e i r p e r s o n a l r e c o l l e c t i o n s o f t h e system  123  probably  refer  to the  years  b e t w e e n 1920  and  1940.  The  system  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h C h i e f Sxoxomic ( a l s o known as C h i e f Samson), who Alkali  Lake  band  c h i e f (as  A f f a i r s ) p o s s i b l y f r o m 1899  recognized  by  the  was  Department of  is the  Indian  (the I.A.B. Annual Report f o r t h i s year  lists  the A l k a l i Lake band c h i e f as "Hoch-o-me", w h i c h bears c l o s e s i m i l a r i t y to  t h e Shuswap p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f " S x o x o m i c " ) , b u t c e r t a i n l y f r o m  ( R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on I n d i a n A f f a i r s , 1 9 1 3 - 1 9 1 6 ) , death  around  to  1915  the time of h i s  1940.  C h i e f Sxoxomic i s remembered as " t h a t s t r i c t l i t t l e c h i e f " who " p a r t n e r s w i t h F a t h e r Thomas" i n m a i n t a i n i n g d i s c i p l i n e i n t h e Lake v i l l a g e . drinking,  The  dancing  e l d e r l y people and  "The  The  a young u n m a r r i e d man  and  f r e q u e n t l y were seen "running i n f r o n t o f the C h i e f , who u n m a r r i e d g i r l was  Chief  did  not  C h i e f would t e l l people  d r i n k , go up i n t o t h e h i l l s t o do i t " . If  Alkali  d e s c r i b e d the t h r e e c a r d i n a l s i n s as  gambling.  a c t i v i t i e s i n the v i l l a g e .  was  Immorality  was  permit  these  i f they want t o also  punished.  woman w e r e c a u g h t " p l a y i n g a r o u n d " , o r around t o g e t h e r " , they  would be c a l l e d  would "make them get m a r r i e d o r stop".  up  I f an  d i s c o v e r e d t o be pregnant, she would be s e n t i n f r o n t  o f t h e C h i e f and f o r c e d t o c o n f e s s t h e name o f t h e f a t h e r , a f t e r w h i c h t h e c o u p l e w o u l d be u r g e d t o m a r r y . back w i t h a p p r o v a l  (Many o f t h e e l d e r l y p e o p l e  look  on t h e C h i e f ' s punishment o f i m m o r a l i t y , n o t i n g t h a t  "nowadays young k i d s a r e g e t t i n g pregnant and no one knows who  the f a t h e r  is".) According  to  these  informants,  " c o n s t a b l e s " a t h i s d i s p o s a l who  Sxoxomic  had  two  or  three  would o c c a s i o n a l l y p a t r o l the r e s e r v e a t  night.  The c o n s t a b l e s w o u l d r e p o r t any i n s t a n c e s o f w r o n g d o i n g t o t h e  Chief.  The  o f f e n d e r s w o u l d t h e n be c a l l e d up i n f r o n t o f t h e C h i e f .  They w e r e made t o k n e e l down i n a l i n e i n f r o n t o f t h e C h i e f and 124  were  f o r c e d to confess t h e i r crimes.  The C h i e f then imposed a f i n e .  I f an  offender had no money, the Chief would take a valued possession, such as a gun, u n t i l such time as the o f f e n d e r was  able to pay the f i n e .  One  informant claimed that people found guilty were sometimes made to stand up at the front of the church during Mass - their hands held straight up above t h e i r heads - and had to remain i n that p o s i t i o n u n t i l the end of the service. During these years the e l d e r s c l a i m that there was d r i n k i n g on the r e s e r v e .  virtually  With Sxoxomic's death, around 19A0,  system of s o c i a l control eventually broke down.  The chief who  no  the o l d replaced  Sxoxomic lacked the same commitment to t h i s system, and as alcohol use became  more frequent,  he  undermining h i s authority. in  1956,  premises,  permitted  himself  more frequent  to d r i n k  openly,  The revised Indian Act of 1951,  Indians  to buy  a move which was  Columbia i n 1962  began  and  granted  (Duff 1965).  as a r e s u l t .  further  as amended  consume a l c o h o l i n l i c e n s e d  p r o v i n c i a l approval  in British  A l c o h o l use at A l k a l i Lake became even By  the  1960s r e s e r v e  life  had  become  characterized by high l e v e l s of drunkenness, violence, accidental death and s u i c i d e .  A r e s e a r c h e r (Brow 1967) who  A l k a l i Lake r e s e r v e i n 1966  r e p o r t e d t h a t , among the e l d e r l y  e s p e c i a l l y , the Band c h i e f was reserve l i f e . he attempting  He was  to  1940.  people  held to blame f o r the l a w l e s s n e s s  not setting a proper standard of conduct nor  to control the behaviour  When Andy Chelsea was attempting  conducted f i e l d w o r k on the  of was  of others.  f i r s t elected to o f f i c e he was not consciously  to ressurect the system of s o c i a l control as i t existed prior There i s evidence to i n d i c a t e , however, that both the Chief's  a c t i o n s , and  the e x p e c t a t i o n s  of the community, were guided  125  by  an  i m p l i c i t r e c o g n i t i o n of t h i s o l d e r c u l t u r a l First, expected  a f t e r Chelsea  him  at  f r e q u e n t l y was  was  elected  times to act  as  tradition.  to o f f i c e  reserve  a p o l i c e m a n on  the  residents  reserve.  He  c a l l e d i n t o p e o p l e ' s homes t o b r e a k up f i g h t s , t o q u e l l  v i o l e n t arguments, and This expectation  to otherwise deal with u n c o n t r o l l a b l e  behaviour.  of the Band c h i e f p e r s i s t e d a f t e r C h e l s e a stepped down  f r o m o f f i c e i n 1978,  and  subsequent c h i e f s , i n c l u d i n g one  slight in build  one  who  and  was  female,  who  was  rather  were c a l l e d upon t o d e a l  with  similar situations. Second,  C h e l s e a c o n s c i o u s l y was  t h a t a Band c h i e f s h o u l d  not  f o l l o w i n g an i m p l i c i t c u l t u r a l r u l e  drink:  S p e a k i n g o f l e a d e r s h i p - I know i t s g o t t o s t a r t f r o m t h e t o p down. I f a c h i e f i s s t i l l d r i n k i n g he s h o u l d n ' t be h o l d i n g o f f i c e . . . I know our E l d e r s , and our E l d e r s way b e f o r e us, never d i d d r i n k . They made c l e a n d e c i s i o n s . When t h o s e d e c i s i o n s a r e made t h e n t h e y ' r e k e p t . I g u e s s t h e way I was t h i n k i n g , and t h a t ' s t h e way I h e a r d i t f r o m my G r a n n y and my M o t h e r , t h a t as l o n g as y o u ' r e c h i e f you'd b e t t e r n o t d r i n k . . .  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that a s i m i l a r c u l t u r a l r u l e e x i s t e d i n the  1960s among t h r e e C o a s t S a l i s h g r o u p s ( L e m e r t 1958).  t h e s e B a n d s w e r e e x p e c t e d t o r e f r a i n f r o m d r i n k i n g , and  Chiefs  in fact their  s t a t u s as l e a d e r s d e p e n d e d on t h e i r a b s t e n t i o n f r o m a l c o h o l . others,  drinking  Incidentally, T l a h o o s e and subjected  was  an  acceptable  or perhaps not,  and  frequent  for  activity.  t h e s e Coast S a l i s h groups ( the Homalthko, been  i n t h e 1800s t o the D u r i e u system of the C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r i e s . t h a t d r i n k i n g and d a n c i n g ended a f t e r t h e  a r r i v a l of the m i s s i o n a r i e s , a l t h o u g h i n f a c t t h e s e  and  social  Yet  S l i a m m o n ) , l i k e t h e w e s t e r n Shuswap b a n d s , a l s o had  Lemert's i n f o r m a n t s c l a i m e d  covertly.  of  activities  continued  A more comprehensive c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s t u d y o f c h i e f t a i n s h i p  drinking i n Native  Indian  s o c i e t i e s would h e l p t o shed l i g h t on  126  the  o r i g i n s o f t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n o f sober c h i e f t a i n s h i p .  SUMMARY This chapter  has d e s c r i b e d  some f e a t u r e s o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l  i n w h i c h t h e A l k a l i L a k e S o b r i e t y movement e m e r g e d . apparent i s t h a t C h i e f ' s a t t e m p t t o c o n t r o l behaviour the  imposition of negative  Regardless  sanctions  context  What h a s become on t h e r e s e r v e by  has a h i s t o r i c a l  precedent.  of the o r i g i n of the t r a d i t i o n of s t r i c t c h i e f t a i n s h i p that  d i d e x i s t among t h e A l k a l i L a k e p e o p l e i n t h e e a r l y 1900s - w h e t h e r i t originated  i n the l a t e  1800s  through  the e f f o r t s  of the  Durieu  m i s s i o n a r i e s o r through t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e Shuswap c h i e f s t o impose some o r d e r i n t h e m i d s t o f c u l t u r a l d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , o r whether i t was a p r e e x i s t i n g c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n t h a t was e n h a n c e d by t h e D u r i e u s y s t e m o f social  control -  there  i s evidence t o i n d i c a t e that traces of t h i s  system d i d e x i s t among t h e A l k a l i Lake people d u r i n g t h e 1960s and 1970s. It  i s suggested here t h a t t h e C h i e f ' s t a c t i c s t o encourage s o b r i e t y , h i s  a p p a r e n t p o p u l a r i t y a s C h i e f , and t h e e v e n t u a l s u c c e s s o f h i s s o b r i e t y campaign, a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e Band C h i e f was w o r k i n g w i t h i n t h i s c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n o f " s t r i c t " c h i e f t a i n s h i p , and t h a t h i s a u t h o r i t y was i m p l i c i t l y r e c o g n i z e d and accepted  127  by community members.  NOTES TO CHAPTER SIX  By " w e s t e r n Shuswap" T e i t i s r e f e r r i n g t o t h e Shuswap bands west of the F r a s e r R i v e r ( t h e Canon d i v i s i o n , now e x t i n c t ) , and the bands o f the F r a s e r R i v e r d i v i s i o n n o r t h o f Dog Creek ( A l k a l i Lake, W i l l i a m s L a k e [ S u g a r C a n e ] , and Soda C r e e k ) . By 1850 t h e C a n i m L a k e , Dog C r e e k , H i g h B a r , and P a v i l l i o n bands w e r e s h o w i n g s i m i l a r i n s t i t u t i o n s ( T e i t 1909:575-576).  The f o l l o w i n g  discussion  i s based l a r g e l y on Whitehead  128  (1981).  CHAPTER SEVEN: CONCLUSION  The  resource  m o b i l i z a t i o n p e r s p e c t i v e has p r o v i d e d an a n a l y t i c a l  f r a m e w o r k f o r t h i s s t u d y o f t h e A l k a l i L a k e S o b r i e t y movement. perspective activity.  p r o v i d e s a p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s u a l model o f s o c i a l  We have f o c u s s e d  This  movement  p r i m a r i l y on t h e s t r a t e g i e s and t a c t i c s used  by t h e movement's l e a d e r s t o encourage o t h e r s t o adopt a sober l i f e s t y l e , and  have  analyzed  their  efforts  i n terms  of the m o b i l i z a t i o n of  r e s o u r c e s , t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h i r d p a r t y s u p p o r t , and from  other  bodies of s o c i a l  control.  Deviating  the opposition  somewhat from t h e  p r o c e s s u a l model, we have a l s o made mention o f t h e way i n w h i c h c u l t u r a l features influenced the leaders' choice the  eventual  success  of strategy,  o f t h e movement.  These  and c o n t r i b u t e d t o findings  a r e now  summarized.  SUMMARY I n i t i a t i o n o f t h e Movement The the  o f f i c e o f Band c h i e f was used a s a p o i n t from w h i c h t o i n i t i a t e  movement.  success.  This  was a m o s t i m p o r t a n t  f a c t o r i n t h e movement's  I t gave t h e l e a d e r s t h e p o l i t i c a l  power n e c e s s a r y both t o  e n f o r c e e c o n o m i c s a n c t i o n s on t h e d r i n k e r s and a l s o t o o b t a i n s u p p o r t from  outside  agencies  such  a s t h e R.C.M.P., Human R e s o u r c e s ,  department s t o r e s , and t h e W i l l i a m s Lake Drug and A l c o h o l Program. s u p p o r t o f t h e l a s t was p a r t i c u l a r l y  important,  t o encourage A l k a l i  up d r i n k i n g , b u t a l s o i n a r r a n g i n g  member's a t t e n d a n c e i n r e s i d e n t i a l  alcoholism  129  The  not only i n providing a  Drug and A l c o h o l c o u n s e l l o r who worked r e l e n t l e s s l y Lake r e s i d e n t s t o g i v e  local  t h e Band  t r e a t m e n t programs and i n  s u p p o r t i n g t h e development o f an o n - r e s e r v e  A.A. group.  The p o l i t i c a l and economic power w i e l d e d by i t s e l f account f o r t h e s u c c e s s  by t h e Band C h i e f c a n n o t  o f t h e S o b r i e t y movement.  The C h i e f ' s  t a c t i c s made i t more d i f f i c u l t f o r d r i n k e r s t o o b t a i n a l c o h o l , and made t h e i r l i v e s on t h e r e s e r v e more u n c o m f o r t a b l e ,  b u t t h e d e c i s i o n t o become  sober was one t h a t c o u l d be made o n l y by t h e d r i n k e r h i m s e l f . it  i s a common b e l i e f  t o d a y a t A l k a l i Lake t h a t "you can't  a l c o h o l i c t o become sober".  Indeed, f o r c e an  Even g r e a t e r e v i d e n c e a g a i n s t t h e economic  argument i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e Band C h i e f c o u l d have been s t r i p p e d o f h i s p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c p o w e r s i m p l y by b e i n g v o t e d o u t o f o f f i c e .  Yet  t w i c e w i t h i n t h e 1973-1976 p e r i o d t h e Band C h i e f was r e - e l e c t e d , once by acclamation,  and once i n a l a n d s l i d e v i c t o r y over f i v e o t h e r  F u r t h e r m o r e , when on one o c c a s i o n reserve r e s i d e n t s refused t o accept  the Chief offerred to resign, the h i s resignation.  How c a n we a c c o u n t f o r t h i s p a r a d o x i c a l s i t u a t i o n ? important  resource  leadership  role  candidates.  An e q u a l l y  u t i l i z e d by t h e movement l e a d e r s was t h a t o f t h e  inherent  i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f Band c h i e f .  Shuswap  c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n h e l d t h a t a Band c h i e f s h o u l d n o t d r i n k , a n d t h a t he s h o u l d l e a d by s e t t i n g a n e x a m p l e . type of l e a d e r s h i p .  Chelsea  c l e a r l y demonstrated t h i s  The f a c t t h a t he a t one t i m e had been one o f t h e  h e a v i e s t d r i n k e r s on t h e r e s e r v e l e n t e x t r a w e i g h t t o t h e example he now s e t f o r t h e community. The  leadership  tradition  a u t h o r i t y t o c o n t r o l behaviour  o f t h e Band  chief also  of the reserve residents.  involved the Up u n t i l t h e  1940s, t h e Band c h i e f had been t h e u l t i m a t e body o f f o r m a l s o c i a l c o n t r o l within  the community,  intemperance, village.  sexual  and had p u n i s h e d  immorality,  dancing,  individuals guilty  of  or gambling w i t h i n the  A f t e r 1940, w i t h t h e d e a t h o f t h e o l d Band c h i e f , t h i s s y s t e m  130  o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l began t o b r e a k down. Lake community was and  i n a s t a t e of c u l t u r a l and  d r u n k e n n e s s w e r e common, and  neglect,  By t h e e a r l y 1970s t h e  s u i c i d e and  Alcohol  use  i n c i d e n t s of rape, c h i l d abuse  and  v i o l e n t d e a t h were too  t r a d i t i o n a l l y having the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y the  cultural  beliefs  and  v a l u e s of  s o c i a l chaos.  frequent.  that  society,  no c o n s e n s u s a b o u t w h a t c o n s t i t u t e d a p p r o p r i a t e  All  the  the  two  exercise their formal respect  unit,  was  no  longer  social  there  behaviour.  without  " l i f e t i m e " c h i e f s had  an  punishment.  been u n a b l e  to  a u t h o r i t y to c o n t r o l behaviour, having l o s t  of the community due  I t was  been t r a n s g r e s s e d  successive  family  At the community l e v e l  was  S i n c e 1940  The  f o r i n s t i l l i n g i n the c h i l d r e n  e f f e c t i v e body of i n f o r m a l s o c i a l c o n t r o l .  t r a d i t i o n a l n o r m s had  Alkali  the  t o t h e i r f r e q u e n t p u b l i c drunkenness.  w i t h i n t h i s m i l i e u t h a t C h e l s e a began h i s e f f o r t s t o b r i n g  s o b r i e t y to the  village.  A l t h o u g h h i s campaign was  t o w a r d s o l u t i o n of the a l c o h o l problem, was  offerring  was  much  the  community, and  s p e c i f i c a l l y geared  what the Band c h i e f  implicitly  more comprehensive: t o r e s t o r e s o c i a l o r d e r  t o r e s t o r e t h a t o r d e r by use  of a t r a d i t i o n a l  to  system  of s o c i a l c o n t r o l . A t h i r d f a c t o r i n t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e movement was readiness  f o r new  leadership  r e s i d e n t s voted to s w i t c h  and  s o c i a l change.  from a l i f e t i m e t o a two  f o r d e t e r m i n i n g C h i e f and C o u n c i l . c h i e f and on  were l o o k i n g f o r new  the r e s e r v e .  chief  was  not  At the  progressive-thinking  man  l a t e r , Andy C h e l s e a was  as  leadership  was  a  the  reserve  year e l e c t i v e system  t o improve c o n d i t i o n s of  e l e c t i o n ( i n w h i c h the  candidate) a  elected.  elected.  I n 1971  They w e r e d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h  subsequent 1972  nominated  the community's  young,  life  outgoing  energetic,  and  A f t e r h i s r e s i g n a t i o n a year  A l t h o u g h h i s t a c t i c s were at  131  their  times  extreme, C h e l s e a l i v e d up t o t h e i m p l i c i t e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e community. Chelsea's and  r e l i a n c e on t h e l e a d e r s h i p t r a d i t i o n o f t h e c h i e f t a i n s h i p  t h e r e a d i n e s s w i t h i n t h e c o m m u n i t y f o r new l e a d e r s h i p and s o c i a l  change were necessary  but not s u f f i c i e n t  the s o b r i e t y campaign. both  Phyllis  Equally important  and Andy C h e l s e a .  c o n d i t i o n s f o r the success  of  were t h e p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s o f  For three  long  years  the  Chelseas  p e r s i s t e d i n t h e i r a n t i - a l c o h o l campaign, d e s p i t e the extreme s o c i a l pressure threats  exerted against  upon them by t h e c o m m u n i t y their  lives.  During  t h e Band  Chief i n  p a r t i c u l a r proved h i m s e l f a w o r t h y l e a d e r f o r t h e community.  The more  o p p o s i t i o n he r e c e i v e d t o h i s t a c t i c s , he  became.  The  economic  this  and d e s p i t e o c c a s i o n a l time  t h e s t r o n g e r and more d e t e r m i n e d  sanctions  enforced  by  the Chief  were  s i g n i f i c a n t , not so much i n f o r c i n g i n d i v i d u a l s t o s t o p d r i n k i n g , but i n i n d i c a t i n g t o t h e v i l l a g e r e s i d e n t s t h a t he was w i l l i n g t o use h i s powers t o t h e f u l l e s t - e v e n on c l o s e f a m i l y members - t o p r o m o t e h i s c a u s e . The manner i n w h i c h t h e l e a d e r s a p p l i e d economic s a n c t i o n s and c o n f r o n t e d d r i n k e r s was a l s o  important.  The l e a d e r s c o n s i s t e n t l y j u s t i f i e d  a c t i o n s on t h e b a s i s o f c o n c e r n residents,  and t h e y  f o r the w e l f a r e  made c o n s c i o u s  of the  their  community  e f f o r t s to reduce the a l i e n a t i n g  e f f e c t o f t h e s e measures by m a i n t a i n i n g i n f o r m a l s o c i a l c o n t a c t w i t h t h e reserve  residents.  Had  t h e two  leaders  been  less  p e r s i s t e n t and  d e d i c a t e d i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t h e e v e n t u a l c o n v e r s i o n t o s o b r i e t y would not have occurred.  Conversion  to Sobriety  By 1981 a v e r y d r a m a t i c place.  and r a p i d c o n v e r s i o n t o s o b r i e t y had  taken  The C h e l s e a s ' c o n t i n u i n g u s e o f c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l t a c t i c s ,  their  p r o v i s i o n o f f o l l o w up s u p p o r t s f o r t h e newly sober a l c o h o l i c s , and t h e 132  a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e W i l l i a m s Lake Drug and A l c o h o l Program were f u n d a m e n t a l t o t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e s o b r i e t y campaign. Of group.  great  i m p o r t a n c e was t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e o n - r e s e r v e A.A.  The n e w l y s o b e r i n d i v i d u a l , c u t o f f f r o m h i s d r i n k i n g f a m i l y  members  and f r i e n d s , sought e m o t i o n a l  t h e A.A. g r o u p . experience  s u p p o r t and s o c i a l c o n t a c t  The A.A. g r o u p began t o p r o v i d e  within  members w i t h a s o c i a l  s i m i l a r t o t h a t once found w i t h i n t h e d r i n k i n g p a r t y .  A.A. m e e t i n g s became t h e m o s t p o p u l a r Through t h e p u b l i c c o n f e s s i o n s  s o c i a l a c t i v i t y on t h e r e s e r v e .  and a p o l o g i e s  m e e t i n g s (and e s p e c i a l l y so a f t e r  The  that occurred  the personal  i n t h e A.A.  growth  training  e x p e r i e n c e s ) , o l d h o s t i l i t i e s and r i f t s among f a m i l y members, and between community r e s i d e n t s , were r e s o l v e d .  The A.A. group e v e n t u a l l y  redefined  the "community" o f A l k a l i Lake. Pressures  to conform  and f e a r  of s o c i a l  exclusion  played  s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e s i n t h e r a p i d c o n v e r s i o n o f t h e c o m m u n i t y a f t e r 1978. A c o u n s e l l o r from t h e W i l l i a m s Lake Drug and A l c o h o l Program  described  the number o f A l k a l i Lake members w a n t i n g t o a t t e n d t r e a t m e n t i n t h e l a t e 1970's as "a stampede... They didn't want t o be l e f t out, they a l l wanted t o f i n d o u t what t h i s neat e x p e r i e n c e  was".  The c o u n s e l l i n g s t a f f had  b a r e l y enough t i m e t o p r o c e s s a l l t h e a p p l i c a n t s .  I n a v e r y r e a l sense,  the A l k a l i Lake S o b r i e t y movement was a case o f community I n summary, i n t h e i n i t i a t o r y s t r e n g t h , courage, and d e t e r m i n a t i o n movement p e r s i s t e d .  period  conversion.  i t was t h r o u g h t h e s h e e r  o f t h e two l e a d e r s t h a t t h e S o b r i e t y  A f t e r 1976 t h e S o b r i e t y movement q u i c k l y p i c k e d up  a momentum o f i t s own a s a r e s u l t o f t h e c o l l e c t i v e e n e r g y o f t h e new recruits.  The p r o c e s s o f c o n f r o n t a t i o n ,  to the standard  i n c r e a s i n g pressure  o f s o b r i e t y , and f e a r o f s o c i a l e x c l u s i o n  133  t o conform  contributed to  the r a p i d and a l m o s t t o t a l c o n v e r s i o n o f a l l community r e s i d e n t s . The  on-reserve  A.A. g r o u p , l e d by a c o r e  of dedicated  became a c r i t i c a l r e s o u r c e i n t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e movement. proved t o have tremendous s u c c e s s i t i s suggested  here that  for the expression support,  of s o c i a l  T h i s program  as a t h e r a p e u t i c mechanism.  although the solidarity  members,  However,  A.A. g r o u p p r o v i d e d a f o r u m  and t h e p r o v i s i o n o f  emotional  i t was something i n t h e n a t u r e o f A l k a l i Lake s o c i e t y t h a t t o a  l a r g e degree p r e d e t e r m i n e d w o u l d have.  t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g success t h a t t h e A.A. program  The A.A. p r o g r a m d i d n o t c a u s e t h e m o b i l i z a t i o n o f t h e  community, but i t p r o v i d e d a mechanism f o r t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f community s o l i d a r i t y and t h e p e r p e t u a t i o n o f t h e movement.  A l k a l i Lake i n 1985 The  situation  today  on t h e A l k a l i  drinking i n d i c a t e s the complexity  Lake r e s e r v e  of the processes  r e s e r v e a c h i e v i n g s o b r i e t y i n t h e 1970s. today  with regard to that l e d to the  In contrast with the past,  t h e use o f s a n c t i o n s such as t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f vouchers f o r S.A.  c h e q u e s , t h e l o s s o f Band e m p l o y m e n t , and e v e n t h e t h r e a t o f p o s s i b l e e x p u l s i o n f r o m t h e r e s e r v e , a r e p r o v i n g i n e f f e c t i v e l o n g term d e t e r r e n t s t o d r i n k i n g among t h e youth. T h e r e a r e a number o f d i f f e r e n c e s situation that problematic.  b e t w e e n t h e p r e s e n t and p a s t  make c u r r e n t e f f o r t s t o c o n t r o l t h e youth's d r i n k i n g more First,  whereas i n t h e e a r l y 1970s t h e t a r g e t group o f t h e  S o b r i e t y movement c o n s i s t e d o f t h e middle-aged r e s e r v e r e s i d e n t s (as a consequence o f t h e l e a d e r s concern c h i l d r e n ) , today  t h e t a r g e t group c o n s i s t s o f young a d u l t s g e n e r a l l y  b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f 18 and 26. drinkers' parents  f o r t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e young r e s e r v e  The Band O f f i c e r e q u i r e s t h e a i d o f t h e  t o make s a n c t i o n s e f f e c t i v e ,  134  yet t h i s co-operation i s  not  always  regarding  achieved.  T h e r e now  exists conflicting  expectations  who s h o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e s e d r i n k e r s .  L e a d e r s h i p by t h e Band C h i e f i s an a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r .  The C h i e f  today  does n o t enjoy t h e same s t a t u s w i t h i n t h e community as C h e l s e a d i d , and has  been  criticized  sanctions. residence  f o r being  Second,  the core  inconsistent  i n her a p p l i c a t i o n of  of the drinking  youth  have  o f f - r e s e r v e , and a r e beyond t h e range o f any economic  a p p l i e d by t h e Band O f f i c e .  taken  up  sanctions  They a r e a l s o l e s s a f f e c t e d by t h e i n t e n s e  s o c i a l p r e s s u r e w i t h i n t h e community.  Thus t h e t a c t i c s a p p l i e d today by  the Band O f f i c e a r e l e s s e f f e c t i v e i n c o n t r o l l i n g d r i n k i n g i n p a r t due t o c o n f l i c t i n g s o c i a l c o n t r o l j u r i s d i c t i o n s , i n a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f economic sanctions,  and reduced e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f s o c i a l  pressure.  I t s h o u l d be s t r e s s e d o n c e more t h a t t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e S o b r i e t y movement i n t h e 1970s can not be seen s i m p l y exerted  by t h e Band O f f i c e .  as t h e r e s u l t o f  E v e n more i m p o r t a n t i n a c c o u n t i n g f o r t h e  present i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the c o n t r o l t a c t i c s youth f o r d r i n k i n g .  Drinking  r e s p o n s e t o boredom.  pressure  i s the motivation  of the  t o d a y i s b o t h an a c t o f r e b e l l i o n and a  W h e r e a s i n t h e 1970s p e o p l e s o b e r e d up p a r t l y i n  r e s p o n s e t o n o t w a n t i n g t o be " l e f t o u t " , t o d a y t h e y o u t h a r e d r i n k i n g p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e t h e y do w a n t t o be l e f t o u t f r o m t h e m a i n s t r e a m o f Alkali  Lake s o c i e t y .  Confrontation  only  marks  t h e i r s u c c e s s and  reinforces t h e i r desire to drink. Drinking regarded received t o them. the  with  among t h e e l d e r l y men, i n c o n t r a s t , p a r t i c u l a r concern.  O l d Age p e n s i o n s s i n c e 1980.  The m a j o r i t y  of these  These cheques a r e m a i l e d  The e l d e r l y d r i n k e r s a r e t h e r e f o r e  form o f vouchers f r o m t h e Band O f f i c e .  135  i s t o l e r a t e d and n o t  not subject  men  have  directly  to sanctions i n  One o f t h e e l d e r l y d r i n k e r s  i s employed a t the nearby A l k a l i Lake Ranch, where he has worked s t e a d i l y f o r most o f h i s a d u l t l i f e . f r o m t h e Band O f f i c e .  A g a i n , t h i s man i s e c o n o m i c a l l y  independent  That a l l f i v e o f the e l d e r l y male d r i n k e r s were  p r e v i o u s l y i n v o l v e d i n the Band government, b e f o r e t h e 1971 change i n t h e system o f e l e c t i o n , s u g g e s t s t h a t i m m u n i t y t o economic s a n c t i o n s by  t h e Band O f f i c e i s o n l y  one f a c t o r i n t h e i r  reluctance  imposed t o stop  drinking.  None o f t h e men e n j o y e d a g r e a t d e a l o f r e s p e c t , o r h a d much  authority,  during  well  reflect  their  terms i n o f f i c e .  resentment  at the later  Their  continued  Chief's  d r i n k i n g may  success  (and t h e i r  f a i l u r e ) i n commanding r e s p e c t and i n b r i n g i n g o r d e r t o the community. Thus, t h e c o n t e x t that  o f t h e 1970s.  perceived  o f d r i n k i n g a t A l k a l i Lake i s very d i f f e r e n t f r o m The c o n f l i c t i n g  inconsistency  lines  of s o c i a l  and t h e i n a p p l i c a b i l i t y  use o f s a n c t i o n s , a n d m o s t o f a l l t h e m o t i v a t i o n elders  and  o f the Band C o u n c i l ' s o f t h e y o u t h and t h e  i n d r i n k i n g , have r e s u l t e d i n i t s p e r s i s t e n c e  minority  a t A l k a l i Lake.  The s t a t e m e n t s being  control, the  made  among a s m a l l  through d r i n k i n g ,  the s o c i a l consequences o f d r i n k i n g , are not comparable w i t h t h e  situation  a t A l k a l i Lake  i n t h e 1970s.  This  only  underlines the  i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e i m p l i c i t d e s i r e f o r c h a n g e t h a t seems t o h a v e been c r u c i a l i n the c o n v e r s i o n  THE  t o s o b r i e t y i n t h e 1970s.  SOBRIETY MOVEMENT AS A SOCIAL MOVEMENT What e v i d e n c e i s t h e r e t h a t t h e r e c e n t e v e n t s a t A l k a l i L a k e do i n  fact constitute a social of  movement?  For t h i s discussion the d e f i n i t i o n  M c C a r t h y a n d Z a l d ( 1 9 7 7 ) , who a r e m a j o r c o n t r i b u t o r s t o r e s o u r c e  m o b i l i z a t i o n t h e o r y , w i l l be used.  According  movement i s "a s e t o f o p i n i o n s  and b e l i e f s  represents  preferences  t o these authors, a s o c i a l i n a population  which  f o r changing some e l e m e n t s o f the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e  and/or reward d i s t r i b u t i o n  o f a s o c i e t y " (ibid.:1217-1218).  c l a i m , i s an i n c l u s i v e d e f i n i t i o n t h a t approaches t o s o c i a l movements. " n o t h i n g more than p r e f e r e n c e (ibid.).  allows  T h i s , they  comparison with  past  I n s h o r t , they v i e w s o c i a l movements as  structures d i r e c t e d toward s o c i a l  change  I n t h i s c a t e g o r y may be i n c l u d e d m o v e m e n t s w i t h m i l l e n a r i a n ,  e v a n g e l i s t i c , and w i t h d r a w a l themes (ibid.:1219). M c C a r t h y and Z a l d  distinguish a social  movement f r o m a  social  movement o r g a n i z a t i o n , and t h i s i s i m p o r t a n t t o o u r a n a l y s i s o f t h e A l k a l i Lake s i t u a t i o n .  A  s o c i a l movement c o n s i s t s o f  a collective  sense o f d e s i r e f o r s o c i a l change, w i t h t h i s d e s i r e f o r change  being  generally  i s "a  o r s p e c i f i c a l l y d e f i n e d ; a s o c i a l movement o r g a n i z a t i o n  complex, or f o r m a l , o r g a n i z a t i o n which i d e n t i f i e s i t s goals w i t h the preferences goals" The  o f a s o c i a l movement... a n d a t t e m p t s t o i m p l e m e n t  those  (ibid.). analytical  separation  movement o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l o w s  o f t h e s o c i a l movement and t h e s o c i a l  f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y that  are never f u l l y m o b i l i z e d ; i t focusses  s o c i a l movements  on t h e c e n t r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  c o m p o n e n t s o f s u c h a c t i v i t y ; and i t p r o v i d e s a means o f a c c o u n t i n g f o r the r i s e and f a l l o f s o c i a l movements over t i m e ( i b i d . ) . A third  category  composed o f a l l s o c i a l  of a n a l y s i s i s the s o c i a l  movement o r g a n i z a t i o n s d i r e c t e d toward  the broadest p r e f e r e n c e s complexity  o f t h e s o c i a l movement.  movement i n Canada.  t h i s category,  industry, achieving  This recognizes the  o f many c o n t e m p o r a r y s o c i a l movements such  Aboriginal Rights consider  movement  as t h e c u r r e n t  F o r o u r p u r p o s e s we need n o t  as o n l y one o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u n i t e x i s t e d a t A l k a l i  Lake. G i v e n t h i s f r a m e w o r k , c a n we c o n s i d e r t h e r e c e n t e v e n t s a t A l k a l i  137  L a k e a s a s o c i a l movement? initiation  of the sobriety  I t h a s been shown t h a t a t t h e t i m e o f c a m p a i g n t h e r e d i d e x i s t a g e n e r a l and  r e l a t i v e l y u n d e f i n e d sense o f d e s i r e f o r change a t A l k a l i Lake.  When  the Chelsea's began t h e i r e f f o r t s , t h e i r most i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n  was  t o p r o v i d e a d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m , and a means o f i t s r e s o l u t i o n . The  p r e f e r e n c e s f o r s o c i a l c h a n g e became s p e c i f i e d : a l c o h o l - r e l a t e d  p r o b l e m s o f c h i l d n e g l e c t and a b u s e , v i o l e n c e , and s e x u a l a s s a u l t the  primary target.  level.  Their  These problems were a t t a c k e d  at the i n d i v i d u a l  s o l u t i o n was t o be a c h i e v e d by e a c h r e s e r v e  g i v i n g up a l c o h o l .  were  resident  The C h e l s e a s , and l a t e r t h e Band O f f i c e p e r s o n n e l ,  became t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l energy toward a c h i e v i n g From an e x t e r n a l  f o r c e m o b i l i z i n g and d i r e c t i n g t h e community's  these  goals.  a n a l y t i c a l perspective,  the events a t A l k a l i  c l e a r l y f i t t h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f a s o c i a l movement.  Lake  Did the residents  have a sense o f " j o i n i n g a movement" when they d e c i d e d t o become sober? For  most,  commitment  this  was  a deeply  personal  t o a r a d i c a l l y new  decision,  lifestyle.  as i t i n v o l v e d  This,  however,  consequence o f t h e Chelseas' t r a n s l a t i o n of the goal improvement i n t o a program f o r i n d i v i d u a l a c t i o n . personal decision,  o f community  A l t h o u g h i t was a  movement.  M o s t n e w l y - s o b e r i n d i v i d u a l s d i d j o i n t h e l o c a l A.A. g r o u p . group, however, d i d n o t c o n s t i t u t e t h e S o b r i e t y means o f s u p p o r t f o r s o b r i e t y .  first;  the decision  movement,  was e x e r t e d by  a s t o how t o p e r p e t u a t e s o b r i e t y  still  a minority  gave up a l c o h o l a s a r e s u l t .  The A.A.  but p r o v i d e d  The d e c i s i o n t o become s o b e r came was s e c o n d a r y .  A f t e r 1978 s o c i a l p r e s s u r e t o s t o p d r i n k i n g became i n t e n s e , it  a  i t r e f l e c t e d an i m p l i c i t e f f o r t and c o n t r i b u t i o n  toward t h e broader g o a l s o f t h e S o b r i e t y  one  was  a  of reserve residents.  even though Many  drinkers  C l e a r l y , t h e s e p e o p l e had an a c u t e s e n s e  138  of " j o i n i n g " something.  They saw t h e i r sober f a m i l y and f r i e n d s u n i t e d  by c l o s e t i e s o f s o l i d a r i t y , m a n i f e s t e d n o t o n l y i n t h e A.A. meetings but in  other aspects of d a i l y l i f e ,  new brotherhood.  and they wanted t o become a p a r t o f t h i s  For those j o i n i n g the Sobriety  movement i n t h e l a t e r  y e a r s , i t m i g h t n o t h a v e been so much t h e i r b e l i e f i n t h e g o a l s o f t h e movement a s much a s a d e s i r e n o t t o be " l e f t o u t " t h a t t r i g g e r e d decision  t o stop  drinking.  m o b i l i z a t i o n i s t s ' contention i n accounting  This that  i s consistent  with  the  the importance of generalized  was d i r e c t i n g t h e energy o f t h e r e s e r v e members.  beliefs  t o be paramount.  alcohol, the s p e c i f i c  f o c u s o f t h e movement as d e f i n e d  s h i f t e d from t h e n e g a t i v e  t h e need f o r f u r t h e r p e r s o n a l believed  that  movement  The g o a l s o f community  improvement c o n t i n u e d  leaders  resource  f o r s o c i a l movement a c t i v i t y have been overemphasized.  Throughout t h i s p r o c e s s , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u n i t o f t h i s  leaders  their  As more and more were g i v i n g up by t h e movement  consequences o f drunken b e h a v i o u r t o  g r o w t h o f t h e s o b e r members.  s o m e t h i n g e l s e was r e q u i r e d  When t h e  to maintain  the  movement's momentum and t o a c h i e v e i t s broader g o a l s , they encouraged t h e community r e s i d e n t s Personal  to enroll  in Lifespring  training  d e v e l o p m e n t was s e e n a s t h e s e c o n d s t a g e o f s o b r i e t y .  s o b r i e t y had been a t t a i n e d , one had t o sober l i f e .  l e a r n how t o l i v e a  L i k e t h e A.A. program, L i f e s p r i n g  equally involved  i n promoting s o b r i e t y .  t h e A.A. g r o u p ,  operation  productive  achieved.  d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t degrees o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h i n  the movement f u r t h e r c l a r i f i e s t h i s q u e s t i o n .  in  Once  became t h e mechanism by  w h i c h t h e broader g o a l s o f t h e S o b r i e t y movement were t o be The  programs.  i n other  Not a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s were  Some became a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d  sobriety-related functions,  o f t h e Band O f f i c e .  Yet the personal  139  and i n t h e  d e c i s i o n t o g i v e up  d r i n k i n g remained t h e b a s e l i n e f o r membership i n t h e movement. At A l k a l i Lake today t h e r e i s no g e n e r a l term t o r e f e r t o the r e c e n t events  in their  community.  I have r e f e r r e d  as  the  S o b r i e t y movement s i m p l y f o r e a s e o f d i s c u s s i o n , " s o b r i e t y " b e i n g  the  most s u i t a b l e l a b e l g i v e n t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s  to these  events  (see I n t r o d u c t i o n ) .  Whether  these e v e n t s a r e g i v e n such a l a b e l o r whether they r e m a i n unnamed, i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e y do f i t i n t o t h e c a t e g o r y o f s o c i a l movement a s d e f i n e d from the resource m o b i l i z a t i o n p e r s p e c t i v e .  LIMITATIONS OF THE The  RESOURCE MOBILIZATION PERSPECTIVE  resource m o b i l i z a t i o n perspective represents a  methodology  r a t h e r than a t h e o r y o f s o c i a l movements, s i n c e i t can not p r e d i c t o r e x p l a i n , o t h e r than i n a post-hoc movement a c t i v i t y . approach. movements, behaviour,  The the  manner, the v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of  T h i s a u t o m a t i c a l l y l i m i t s the u s e f u l n e s s of t h i s  e m p h a s i s on  political  manipulation  of  and  economic bases of  resources,  and  the  How  social  rationality  p l u s the l a c k of a t t e n t i o n t o s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l  of  dynamics,  v a l u e s , and c u l t u r a l b e l i e f s , a g a i n r e s u l t i n l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e picture  social  general  of s o c i a l movement a c t i v i t y . have t h e s e f a c t o r s a f f e c t e d our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the S o b r i e t y  movement?  Undoubtedly p o l i t i c a l and economic r e s o u r c e s were c r u c i a l t o  t h e movement's s u c c e s s , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e p e r i o d of movement i n i t i a t i o n . The a s s u m p t i o n of t h e r a t i o n a l i t y of c o l l e c t i v e b e h a v i o u r , of s e l e c t i v e i n c e n t i v e s however, a r e inadequate community a f t e r 1976.  used  and  the model  to account f o r i n d i v i d u a l r e c r u i t m e n t ,  t o account  f o r t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g response  These concepts have been c r i t i c i z e d  of  the  theoretically  i n Chapter Two.  I n a p p l y i n g them t o t h e S o b r i e t y movement we have found  that  methodological  there are  problems that a r i s e  140  as  well.  When  questioned about t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n  t o s t o p d r i n k i n g , i t was f o u n d  that  most i n f o r m a n t s gave a v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s f o r t h e i r d e c i s i o n , i n s t e a d o f p r o v i d i n g one n e a t , c o n c i s e , " r a t i o n a l " e x p l a n a t i o n . gave  d i f f e r e n t reasons  offerred  when a s k e d  post-hoc e x p l a n a t i o n s  Some i n f o r m a n t s  on d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n s ,  shaped by t h e i r  others  subsequent e x p e r i e n c e i n  t h e A.A. p r o g r a m , a n d s t i l l o t h e r s s i m p l y s t a t e d t h a t t h e y d i d n o t know why  they  sobered  methodologically  up.  Thus  the s e l e c t i v e incentives  inappropriate.  Furthermore,  t h e model  model i s would  be  i n a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e S o b r i e t y movement, as i t was developed t o account f o r the  free-rider  problem;  namely, what i s t o m o t i v a t e an i n d i v i d u a l t o  j o i n a movement when he may, w i t h o u t j o i n i n g , a l r e a d y enjoy t h e b e n e f i t s t h a t t h e movement s u p p l i e s t o t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n .  I n the case of  t h e S o b r i e t y movement, h o w e v e r , t h e b e n e f i t s p r o d u c e d by t h e movement were n o t a v a i l a b l e t o non-members. The so  question  rapid  o f why t h e m o b i l i z a t i o n o f t h e A l k a l i Lake people  c a n n o t be  perspective.  explained  within  the resource  As mentioned i n Chapter Two, O b e r s c h a l l  desire to maintain  of s o l i d a r y t i e s  This idea i s useful mainly i n comparative  s t u d i e s o f s o c i a l movement a c t i v i t y . the  mobilization  (1974) has r e l a t e d  the r e l a t i v e ease o f m o b i l i z a t i o n t o t h e p r e - e x i s t e n c e amongst t h e t a r g e t group.  was  I t a l s o leads  to the notion  that  s o c i a l t i e s p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h e  d e c i s i o n o f s u c h i n d i v i d u a l s t o j o i n a s o c i a l movement ( F i r e m a n and Gamson  1979).  We  t h e m s e l v e s on t h e  have seen t h a t outside  with  i n the l a t e  regard  strong motivation  i n t o t h i s new g r o u p was a  f o r the d e c i s i o n t o stop  was due t o a d e s i r e t o m a i n t a i n r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r study.  found  t o t h e new community a t A l k a l i  L a k e , and t h a t t h e d e s i r e t o be i n c o r p o r a t e d very  1970s d r i n k e r s  drinking.  Whether  this  s o c i a l t i e s , o r t o c r e a t e new o n e s ,  S u c h a s t u d y must r e c o g n i z e 141  the fact  that  within  Alkali  Lake  a s s o c i a t i o n , such as family,  society  there existed  several dimensions  t h e household group, t h e l a r g e r b i l a t e r a l  the i n t e r e s t  of  extended  g r o u p s s u c h a s t h e H o c k e y and Rodeo c l u b s ,  d r i n k i n g groups composed o f age-mates, and f i n a l l y t h e community  the  itself,  d e f i n e d perhaps by r e s i d e n c e i n the v i l l a g e , by k i n s h i p t i e s , o r by o t h e r criteria  y e t t o be d e t e r m i n e d .  mobilization  I strongly  o f t h e A l k a l i L a k e p e o p l e was  suspect that based  e x i s t i n g sense of community w i t h i n the v i l l a g e . advanced - and  seriously  a s t u d y i s needed of  conflicting  - lines  community's a c t i v a t i o n .  of  the way  association  T h i s s t u d y would  s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l aspects of  the  rapid  on a s t r o n g  pre-  F o r t h i s i d e a t o be i n which these various  interacted  to  shape  the  i n v o l v e an e x a m i n a t i o n o f the  collective action.  A g a i n , such a s t u d y  c a n n o t be a s s i s t e d by t h e r e s o u r c e m o b i l i z a t i o n p e r s p e c t i v e , a s i t downplays t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f such f a c t o r s . The A.A. program people. has  proved t o have tremendous a p p e a l t o t h e A l k a l i  I t s success i n d e a l i n g w i t h N a t i v e Indian a l c o h o l i s m  generally  been not  poor  (Jilek  account  1972).  for this  The  resource  Lake  elsewhere  mobilization  perspective  can  favourable response  by  the  community.  I n s t e a d , we m i g h t a p p r o a c h t h e A.A. p r o g r a m ' s s u c c e s s  at  A l k a l i Lake from the p e r s p e c t i v e of " d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n " t h e o r y .  Presuming  t h a t e x c e s s i v e d r i n k i n g i s a response t o s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l  breakdown,  o r more p r e c i s e l y t o s o c i o - c u l t u r a l d e p r i v a t i o n ( D o z i e r 1966), we  might  e x p l o r e t h e s p e c i f i c r o o t s of t h i s d e p r i v a t i o n a t A l k a l i Lake and the way in  which  problems. A.A.  t h e A.A.  philosophy posited  solutions  to these  particular  The d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e v a l u e s and b e l i e f s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e  p h i l o s o p h y w e r e c o n g r u e n t w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l Shuswap b e l i e f s  v a l u e s a l s o w o u l d be o f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g program's s u c c e s s a t A l k a l i  Lake.  142  and  of the  The  f o c u s o f t h i s t h e s i s has been on t h e d y n a m i c s o f t h e  movement, w i t h analysis.  alcoholism  movement f r o m  excessive  drinking  alcoholism  a perspective  and  of  drinking,  alcohol and  alcoholism, the  the  Indian  abuse.  methods of  questions that now  c a u s e and  effectiveness  of  A the  function  of  programs  of  t h a t A l k a l i Lake i s such a  comparative c o n t r o l of  study  of  Native  drinking  and  A sketch  of t h i s  Indian  treatment  the A l k a l i  Lake  Sobriety  of some I n d i a n groups i n the A m e r i c a n Southwest,  first  introduced  was  unknown u n t i l  European  as a t r a d e commodity, and  Excessive  behaviour f r e q u e n t l y  a l c o h o l use,  associated,  has  and  i t s use  the v i o l e n t ,  been seen g e n e r a l l y  as way  t o the i m p o s i t i o n of a f o r e i g n , dominant c u l t u r e .  Many t h e o r i e s o f N a t i v e compensatory f u n c t i o n s .  Indian d r i n k i n g emphasize  I t has  e s c a p e f r o m f e e l i n g s o f c u l t u r a l and g i v e s a sense of  personal  s u p e r i o r i t y and  senses so t h a t the u n p l e a s a n t n e s s of l i f e 74-75).  Similarly,  i t s negative,  been a r g u e d t h a t N a t i v e I n d i a n  use i s a response t o s o c i o - c u l t u r a l d e p r i v a t i o n and  1966:  of  literature  s y m p t o m a t i c of a l a r g e r problem: the d e s t r u c t i o n of the N a t i v e I n d i a n  the  the  ALCOHOLISM  among I n d i a n s r a p i d l y g r e w .  temporarily  Lake  community s u c c e s s f u l l y d e a l i n g w i t h  among N o r t h A m e r i c a n N a t i v e s  A l c o h o l was  of l i f e due  of  be p r e s e n t e d .  W i t h the e x c e p t i o n  destructive  the  i t raises regarding  NATIVE INDIAN DRINKING AND  a l c o h o l use  relative  of  would n e c e s s a r i l y be i n v o l v e d .  movement w i l l  contact.  being c e n t r a l categories  therapy, e s p e c i a l l y considering  r a r e example o f a N a t i v e  and  d r i n k i n g not  There c e r t a i n l y i s room f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y of t h e A l k a l i  Sobriety  problem  and  Sobriety  G r a v e s ( 1 9 7 0 ) has  143  r e f l e c t s an e f f o r t t o  inferiority:  confidence, may  alcohol  "Alcohol...  while  dulling  be f o r g o t t e n "  (Dozier  claimed  that  the  main  s t r u c t u r a l p r e s s u r e f o r d r i n k i n g among urban I n d i a n s l i e s i n t h e I n d i a n s ' m a r g i n a l p o s i t i o n i n t h e economy o f t h e dominant s o c i e t y : "When g o a l s a r e strongly  held  f o r which  society  provides  inadequate  means o f  attainment...the r e s u l t i n g m e a n s - g o a l s ' d i s j u n c t i o n ' p r o d u c e s p r e s s u r e s f o r engaging i n a l t e r n a t i v e , o f t e n non-approved a d a p t a t i o n s , e x c e s s i v e d r i n k i n g i s one common f o r m " approached Indian  drinking  (1970:42).  L e m e r t (1958) has  from a c u l t u r a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l  I n d i v i d u a l a g g r e s s i v e n e s s and c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s w e r e b a s i c Coast  Salish  Indian  personality,  of which  perspective.  components o f  and i n t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e  these  components were c h a n n e l l e d i n t o w a r f a r e and p o t l a t c h a c t i v i t i e s . argues t h a t w i t h t h e d e c l i n e o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s a f t e r European  He  contact,  d r i n k i n g a r o s e as an a l t e r n a t e - and c u l t u r a l l y t o l e r a b l e - forum f o r t h e expression of aggression.  Thus t h e s e I n d i a n s d i d n o t become a g g r e s s i v e  because they drank, r a t h e r they drank so they c o u l d e x p r e s s a g g r e s s i o n ( a l s o Levy and K u n i t z Cross-cultural focus. an  1974). studies  of drinking  H o r t o n (1943) argued t h a t  anxiety-reducing  mechanism,  have had a s i m i l a r n e g a t i v e  alcohol with  use f u n c t i o n s  anxiety,  u n i v e r s a l l y as  and d r i n k i n g ,  most  s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a c c u l t u r a t i o n p r e s s u r e and i n s e c u r e  food  s u p p l y ( i . e . h u n t i n g - g a t h e r i n g economy).  F i e l d (1962)  organization  i n drinking  anxiety.  a more s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e  found s o c i a l than l e v e l of  R e l a t i v e s o b r i e t y was c o r r e l a t e d w i t h w e l l - d e f i n e d , a village-oriented rather  formally-  structured  societies with  than a nomadic  lifestyle.  The h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d n a t u r e o f s o c i a l l i f e t h u s s e r v e d t o  c o n t r o l t h e b e h a v i o u r e x h i b i t e d a t communal d r i n k i n g p a r t i e s . al.  (1965)  inherent  asserted  Bacon e t  t h a t d r i n k i n g r e f l e c t s an e f f o r t t o reduce mankind's  psychological  s t a t e o f d e p e n d e n c y - c o n f l i c t i n a d u l t h o o d , and  144  c o r r e l a t e d the a c u t e n e s s of t h i s c o n f l i c t w i t h c e r t a i n c h i l d  rearing  techniques. Other s t u d i e s have a t t e m p t e d t o a n a l y z e I n d i a n d r i n k i n g i n t e r m s of i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o c u l t u r e and E d g e r t o n 1969;  L e v y and  Kunitz  v a l u e s ( L e m e r t 1958; 1974).  MacAndrew  S u c h s t u d i e s show t h a t  d r i n k i n g i s not a l w a y s a r e f l e c t i o n of c u l t u r a l breakdown, but function  to  perpetuate  institutions. p l a c e d on  Here i t i s the p a t t e r n  d r i n k i n g , and  c e n t r a l to the  traditional  cultural  values  and  Indian  may  and  also  social  of d r i n k i n g , the meaning and  value  the s o c i a l consequences of d r i n k i n g t h a t  analysis.  Cross-cultural  t h e o r i e s of d r i n k i n g i n g e n e r a l  a p p r o a c h e s and  breakdown  have tended t o i g n o r e t h e s e f a c t o r s .  F o r e x a m p l e , L e m e r t ( 1 9 5 8 ) has  argued t h a t the d r i n k i n g p a r t y  "whiskey f e a s t " e v i d e n t among t h r e e Coast S a l i s h I n d i a n groups s e r v e d a functional equivalent  are  of the p o t l a t c h . A f t e r the  s u p r e s s e d by W h i t e l e g i s l a t i o n , t h e  p o t l a t c h had  as been  a  new  forum i n w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s t a t u s and p r e s t i g e c o u l d be a c h i e v e d , w i t h  the  h o s t r e a f f i r m i n g h i s p o s i t i o n by q u a n t i t i e s of a l c o h o l .  w h i s k e y f e a s t e m e r g e d as  or  the  generous d i s t r i b u t i o n  The  large  C u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s were a l s o p e r p e t u a t e d i n  c o n t e x t of the w h i s k e y f e a s t , w h i c h became an of o l d s t o r i e s and  of  myths  argument a g a i n s t  and  o c c a s i o n f o r the  the s i n g i n g of d r i n k i n g  telling  songs.  breakdown t h e o r i e s of I n d i a n d r i n k i n g has  s t a t e d even more c l e a r l y by Levy and  K u n i t z (1974), who  maintain  that  I n t h e c a s e o f I n d i a n d r i n k i n g . . . much o f t h e b e h a v i o u r i s l e a r n e d ; t h a t i s , c u l t u r a l , and t h i s , i n t u r n , i s l a r g e l y d e t e r m i n e d by t h e e c o l o g i c a l a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e t r i b e i n question. We m a i n t a i n t h a t d r i n k i n g b e h a v i o u r i s m a i n l y a r e f l e c t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l f o r m s of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and cultural values instead of a r e f l e c t i o n of social d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n (1974:24).  145  the  been  Using comparative  d a t a on H o p i , Navaho, and  d r i n k i n g p a t t e r n s , they c o n c l u d e d  W h i t e M o u n t a i n Apache  t h a t t h e Navaho p a t t e r n o f  p u b l i c d r i n k i n g i s r e l a t e d to the r e l a t i v e  looseness  boisterous  of t r a d i t i o n a l  Navaho s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , somewhat r e m i n i s c e n t o f F i e l d ' s c o n c l u s i o n s . Navaho, i n c o n t r a s t t o H o p i , have a  cultural predisposition  t o such  patterns of d r i n k i n g :  H u n t i n g - g a t h e r i n g s o c i e t i e s depend f o r t h e i r s u r v i v a l on i n d i v i d u a l p r o w e s s , c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s , and a g g r e s s i v e n e s s . S o c i a l c o n t r o l s o f i n d i v i d u a l a g g r e s s i v e n e s s and s e l f - a s s e r t i o n a r e r e l a t i v e l y weak... t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t i n s o b r i e t y f a c i l i t a t e s a g g r e s s i o n and p r o m o t e s f e e l i n g s o f p e r s o n a l s t r e n g t h and o m n i p o t e n c e , we w o u l d e x p e c t s u c h p e o p l e s t o be fond of d r i n k i n g because the e x p e r i e n c e would s t r e n g t h e n the image o f t h e s e l f r a t h e r t h a t weaken i t ( i b i d . : 1 8 1 ) .  It  was  suggested  a l s o t h a t a l c o h o l u s e may  c o r r e l a t e of t h e v i s i o n quest by a l c o h o l was  process.  a f a m i l i a r and  The  s e r v e a s t h e modern  mind-altered state  produced  p o s i t i v e l y v a l u e d e x p e r i e n c e , and  may  indeed f u n c t i o n as means through w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l power can be gained. Finally,  they  found  that boisterous public  p r e v a l e n t among those Navaho l e a d i n g a t r a d i t o n a l p r e v a l e n t among Navaho l i v i n g economy.  They  traditionalists  argue  values  and  was  l i f e s t y l e , and  most least  i n towns and p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n wage-labour these  findings  b e i n g more d e p r i v e d ,  r e d u c i n g mechanisms. the  that  drinking  or  do  not  result  from  more i n need o f a n x i e t y -  I n s t e a d , t h e f i n d i n g s r e f l e c t e f f o r t s t o adapt t o  behaviour  norms of  the  socio-cultural  environment.  D r i n k i n g had e a r l i e r been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o Navaho c u l t u r e a s a h i g h s t a t u s a c t i v i t y , and d r i n k i n g among t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s r e f l e c t s a c o n t i n u i t y of these t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . White  drinking  p a t t e r n s i n an  I n c o n t r a s t , u r b a n Navaho had effort  lifestyle.  146  to adust  to the  adopted  Anglo-urban  A t h i r d perspective I t i s recognized  on I n d i a n d r i n k i n g comes from t h e m e d i c a l f i e l d .  today t h a t a l c o h o l i s m  i s not s i m p l y  b u t a l s o i n v o l v e s s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l identified  where the r e g u l a r  a medical disorder,  factors.  use of e x c e s s i v e  Alcoholism  q u a n t i t i e s of  alcohol  causes damage t o an i n d i v i d u a l ' s normal f u n c t i o n i n g w i t h i n s o c i e t y damage c o u l d  be i n t e r m s o f p h y s i c a l h e a l t h ,  employment, etc.) defined  ( P i n k e r t o n and A n d e r s o n 1986).  however,  the f o c u s i s s p e c i f i c a l l y  and g e n e t i c c o r r e l a t e s o f  Thus a l c o h o l i s m  related to genetic  Occidental  populations  differences  alcohol.  that  regarding  I n d i v i d u a l s of Mongoloid ancestry dehydrogenase  the  on t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l  alcohol  may  Indians  e x i s t between Mongoloid metabolism  (Wolff  and  1972).  produce a t y p i c a l f o r m s o f a l c o h o l  and a l d e h y d a s e , enzymes c r u c i a l t o t h e body's m e t a b o l i s m o f b u i l d up i n t h e body  r a p i d l y than normal t o produce symptoms o f headache,  alcoholism  Within  d r i n k i n g among N a t i v e  C o n s e q u e n t l y , a c e t a l d e h y d e may  discomfort.  1962).  nausea, and  more  general  Today, t h i s argument t o a c c o u n t f o r s u c c e p t i b i l i t y h a s been d i s c o u n t e d .  w i t h i n s o c i e t i e s bearing  from very low ( f o r example, Americans) (Pinkerton  to  Not o n l y w o u l d s u c h s i d e e f f e c t s o f  d r i n k i n g l o g i c a l l y seem t o d i s c o u r a g e a l c o h o l use, but t h e i n c i d e n c e alcoholism  is  alcoholism.  I t has been suggested t h a t e x c e s s i v e is  (thus  family relationships,  v a r i o u s l y i n d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s (see J e l l i n e k  medical f i e l d ,  is  t h i s e n z y m a t i c p e c u l i a r i t y ranges  the Chinese) to very high  and Anderson  of  (Native  North  1986).  A d d i c t i o n t o a l c o h o l has been used t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e  excessive  d r i n k i n g among a l c o h o l i c s ; however, t h e a d d i c t i o n f a c t o r i s l e s s u s e f u l i n a c c o u n t i n g f o r b i n g e d r i n k i n g , a v e r y common p a t t e r n o f d r i n k i n g among Indians.  V e r y h e a v y d r i n k i n g may  proceed over s e v e r a l days,  w h i c h v a s t q u a n t i t i e s o f a l c o h o l a r e consumed. 147  Participants drink  during until  they b l a c k  out,  only  t o resume d r i n k i n g when they r e g a i n  T h i s c y c l e u s u a l l y c o n t i n u e s u n t i l the a l c o h o l The  b i n g e may  sobriety.  t h e n be  by  several  are associated  readily available.  w i t h t r i p s t o town and  a s s i s t a n c e cheques. the u s e f u l n e s s  weeks or even months  of  communities  Here d r i n k i n g b i n g e s u s u a l l y  w i t h the r e c e i p t of monthly  social  T h i s s p o r a d i c p a t t e r n of d r i n k i n g tends to negate  of the a d d i c t i o n f a c t o r as an e x p l a n a t i o n  of t h i s f o r m  of  drinking.  For  many  years  i t  had  been  thought  p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y t o reduce i n h i b i t i o n s and t h e o f t e n v i o l e n t and simply  supply i s exhausted.  Binge d r i n k i n g i s t y p i c a l i n i s o l a t e d Indian  where a l c o h o l i s not  Indian  followed  consciousness.  that  alcohol  t o promote a g g r e s s i o n ,  acted and  that  d e s t r u c t i v e b e h a v i o u r of i n e b r i a t e d persons  a manifestation  of a l c o h o l ' s  toxicity.  I t i s undeniable  was that  a l c o h o l c o n s u m p t i o n r e s u l t s i n some p h y s i o l o g i c a l c h a n g e s , n a m e l y i m p a i r m e n t of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e n s o r i m o t o r c a p a b i l i t i e s . been d e c i s i v e l y argued of a l c o h o l does not of i n h i b i t i o n "  Indian  there  existed  excessive  Y e t i t has  by MacAndrew and E d g e r t o n (1969) t h a t consumption  i n i t s e l f cause b e h a v i o u r a l  changes, such as a " l o s s  or a " s u p p r e s s i o n of m o r a l c o n s c i e n c e " .  T h e s e a u t h o r s d r a w f r o m e t h n o g r a p h i c and Native  an  s o c i e t y and  h i s t o r i c a l accounts of  c u l t u r e to support t h i s c l a i m .  a number o f N a t i v e  They show t h a t  North American s o c i e t i e s i n  which  a l c o h o l c o n s u m p t i o n d i d not r e s u l t i n u n i n h i b i t e d or  anti-  s o c i a l behaviour,  t h a t a l c o h o l has not c o n s i s t e n t l y produced u n i n h i b i t e d  or a n t i - s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r w i t h i n N a t i v e a h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , and  I n d i a n s o c i e t i e s when viewed f r o m  t h a t t h e r e have been o c c a s i o n s where h i g h l y  i n t o x i c a t e d p e r s o n s have r e c o g n i z e d  l i m i t s t o t h e i r drunken b e h a v i o u r ,  f o r example by d i r e c t i n g v i o l e n t a c t s o n l y a t s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l s  148  or  by  suddenly  s o b e r i n g up  comportment  during a c r i s i s .  i s learned  behaviour.  I n s t e a d , they c o n c l u d e , I t i s shaped  both  by  drunken cultural  e x p e c t a t i o n s o f how one s h o u l d a c t when d r u n k , and by s o c i a l c o n t r o l s t h a t l i m i t the behaviour  t h a t one can "get away w i t h " w h i l e drunk.  THE CONTROL OF DRINKING W h a t e v e r t h e r e a s o n s a r e f o r d r i n k i n g among N a t i v e I n d i a n s , i t s c o n t r o l and t r e a t m e n t Six, to  have proven d i f f i c u l t .  As m e n t i o n e d i n C h a p t e r  t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f l a w s i n t h e 1800s r e s t r i c t i n g t h e Indian's l i q u o r and p u n i s h i n g  h i s drunkenness had l i t t l e  effect.  access  Methods o f  c o n t r o l e m e r g i n g f r o m w i t h i n I n d i a n s o c i e t i e s had more s u c c e s s . s y s t e m o f v i l l a g e c o n t r o l a d o p t e d by t h e A l k a l i L a k e S h u s w a p  The  through  c o n t a c t w i t h t h e C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r i e s i s one h i s t o r i c example. Today many N a t i v e I n d i a n s a r e g a i n i n g s o b r i e t y through in  r e l i g i o u s g r o u p s and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s .  evangelical  Christian  participation  I n t h e Yukon T e r r i t o r y dramatic  success i n  r e h a b i l i t a t i n g h e a v y d r i n k e r s among t h e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n  (Cruikshank,  p e r s . comm.).  movements have a c h i e v e d  Among C o a s t S a l i s h  Indians  there  h a s been a r e n e w e d  i n t e r e s t i n t h e w i n t e r s p i r i t d a n c i n g , w h i c h , J i l e k (1982) a r g u e s , has s e r v e d as a means o f a l c o h o l i s m therapy by r e i n t e g r a t i n g "anomic" I n d i a n s into  society.  As w e l l ,  during the s p i r i t  dance t h e i n d i v i d u a l  may  r e l e a s e pent up f e e l i n g s o f anger and a g g r e s s i o n by s h o u t i n g t o t h e crowd and  generally  acting  wild  - signs  of  spirit  possession  p e r m i t t i n g e m o t i o n a l c a t h a r s i s i n a more p o s i t i v e manner t h a n e x c e s s i v e a l c o h o l use. has  helped  other  o t h e r s have gained  Indians  Elsewhere,  involvement  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Pan-Indian  a c t i v i t i e s such as Pow-wow dancing.  149  thus  through  i n t h e Peyote R e l i g i o n  t o g i v e up d r i n k i n g ( A b e r l e 1 9 8 2 ) .  s o b r i e t y through  -  Still cultural  A l c o h o l i s n o t p e r m i t t e d a t most  Pow-wows, and i t i s an e x p l i c i t b e l i e f t h a t I n d i a n c u l t u r e and a l c o h o l do n o t m i x . T h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s l e a d one t o c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e i n t e g r a t i n g f u n c t i o n o f t h e s e r e l i g i o u s and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y important  i n their therapeutic effectiveness.  To my knowledge, nowhere has t h e A.A. program a c h i e v e d i n d e a l i n g w i t h I n d i a n d r i n k i n g as a t A l k a l i Lake. Jilek-Aall  concluded  American Indians.  that  A.A. was o n l y  rarely  such  success  I n h e r 1972 s t u d y utilized  by  North  The r e a s o n s f o r t h i s i n c l u d e d t h e I n d i a n s ' d i s l i k e o f  c o n f e s s i o n a l speeches, t h e i r r e l u c t a n c e t o a d m i t p e r s o n a l  weakness, and  t h e i r unwillingness to p a r t i c i p a t e i n "White" programs.  Mixed  and  W h i t e A.A. g r o u p s  i n t h e F r a s e r V a l l e y were n o t s u c c e s s f u l i n  dealing with Indian alcoholism, the group prevented  Indian  as r a c i a l  t e n s i o n and h o s t i l i t y  open c o m m u n i c a t i o n and c o n s e q u e n t l y  within  inhibited the  development o f group s o l i d a r i t y , which i s t h e e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t o f A.A. t h e r a p y . As p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d , t h e d e v e l o p i n g A.A. g r o u p a t A l k a l i L a k e was a b l e t o a v o i d such problems. w i l l i n g n e s s to help meetings.  The W h i t e s p o n s o r s demonstrated  by t r a v e l l i n g  out to the reserve  to attend  The I n d i a n s w e r e i n f a m i l i a r t e r r i t o r y , and t h i s  t h e i r p o t e n t i a l f o r i n t i m i d a t i o n w i t h i n t h e group.  their A.A.  reduced  The Drug and A l c o h o l  c o u n s e l l o r f r o m W i l l i a m s L a k e was a c u t e l y a w a r e o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f I n d i a n l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e A.A. group. stepped Finally,  out from  He encouraged l o c a l l e a d e r s h i p and  t h e g r o u p when he b e l i e v e d  the time  appropriate.  i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t p u b l i c c o n f e s s i o n s w e r e a t one t i m e  w i d e l y p r a c t i c e d among t h e Shuswap and o t h e r P l a t e a u c u l t u r e s , i n t h e context  of prophet dancing  Shuswap c u l t u r e o r a t o r y possessing such s k i l l  ( t o be d i s c u s s e d  skill  was h i g h l y  were regarded  150  later). valued,  In t r a d i t i o n a l and i n d i v i d u a l s  with considerable respect.  This  value continues today, w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s demonstrating t h e i r  public-  s p e a k i n g a b i l i t i e s w i t h i n t h e A.A. g r o u p s .  account  T h i s may  partially  f o r t h e A l k a l i L a k e Shuswap's g e n e r a l r e c e p t i v i t y t o new  ideas, given  t h a t they a r e p r e s e n t e d by an e l o q u e n t speaker. I t has been o n l y w i t h i n t h e l a s t t e n y e a r s t h a t a l c o h o l i s m t r e a t m e n t f a c t i l i t i e s s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r N a t i v e I n d i a n c l i e n t s have d e v e l o p e d i n B.C..  The  Round L a k e T r e a t m e n t  residential  Center  i n Vernon o f f e r s  a  six-week  t r e a t m e n t program f o r i n d i v i d u a l N a t i v e I n d i a n s .  program emphasizes  w h o l i s t i c treatment.  The  The t r e a t m e n t program i s based  on one t o one and g r o u p c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n s , and t h e r a p y c o n s i s t s o f raising  the  person's  self-esteem, encouraging  e x p r e s s i o n o f t h o u g h t s and  emotions,  coping w i t h l i f e ' s problems  and  t h e o p e n and  honest  d e v e l o p i n g a l t e r n a t e means o f  t h a t b e f o r e had l e d t o a l c o h o l u s e .  P a n - I n d i a n r i t u a l s of s w e e t g r a s s / s a g e c e r e m o n i e s  and  The  sweatbathing  have  been i n c o r p o r a t e d a s a b a s i c c o m p o n e n t o f t r e a t m e n t , w i t h e m p h a s i s on developing  pride  i n one's N a t i v e h e r i t a g e b e i n g  a  dominant  theme  throughout t h e t r e a t m e n t p r o c e s s . In  contrast  t o t h e Round L a k e p r o g r a m ,  Development Center alcoholism  on  Meares  p e r s . comm.).  success using t h i s format. similar  has  developed  a  groups  within  The Kakawis  West  Coast  Family  family-based  t r e a t m e n t program f o r N a t i v e I n d i a n s i n accordance  predominance of f a m i l y (Pinkerton,  Island  the Kakawis  w i t h the  Indian  society  program has a c h i e v e d s i g n i f i c a n t  The b a s i c e l e m e n t s o f a l c o h o l i s m t h e r a p y a r e  t o t h e Round Lake program, a l t h o u g h t h e use o f c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l  t a c t i c s are reduced.  It i s interesting  themes o f s w e a t b a t h i n g and  t o n o t e t h a t t h e Pan  Indian  s w e e t g r a s s / sage c e r e m o n i e s , w h i c h have been  i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h s u c c e s s i n t h e Round Lake Treatment g i v e n o n l y m i n i m a l n o t i c e by t h e Kakawis  clients.  C e n t e r , have  been  The  preceding discussion  questions  regarding  o f d r i n k i n g and a l c o h o l i s m  the function  of drinking  (either  has r a i s e d negative or  p o s i t i v e ) , t h e root causes of d r i n k i n g (perceived  i n terms of s o c i o -  cultural  various  deprivation)  a n d t h e manner  mechanisms have d e a l t w i t h ask:  excessive  What w e r e t h e f u n c t i o n s  1970s?  i n which  drinking.  Specifically,  we might  o f d r i n k i n g a t A l k a l i Lake p r i o r t o t h e  Can we make s e n s e o f t h e S o b r i e t y  functional equivalent  treatment  to drinking practices?  movement a s p r o v i d i n g  a  Was d r i n k i n g a response t o  d e p r i v a t i o n , and what m i g h t t h e s p e c i f i c s o u r c e s o f t h i s d e p r i v a t i o n have been? the  D i d the S o b r i e t y movement p o s i t s o l u t i o n s t o t h e s e problems?  A.A. p r o g r a m  provide  a means o f t h e r a p y  s u i t a b l e t o a Shuswap c o n t e x t ?  that  Did  was s p e c i f i c a l l y  I f a p p l i e d t o the A l k a l i Lake  Sobriety  movement t h e s e q u e s t i o n s would f u r t h e r enhance t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t we have a c h i e v e d t h u s f a r u s i n g t h e r e s o u r c e m o b i l i z a t i o n  perspective.  A HISTORICAL NOTE ON SHUSWAP MOBILIZATION Before  closing  observation.  I would  like  t o present  one f i n a l  The response o f t h e A l k a l i Lake r e s i d e n t s  program a f t e r 1976 was e x c e e d i n g l y  rapid.  historical t o the Sobriety  When we l o o k a t t h e h i s t o r y  of t h e A l k a l i Lake people we see a r e m a r k a b l e r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e t y p e o f d r a m a t i c community m o b i l i z a t i o n t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d the S o b r i e t y movement. This  first  appears  Throughout t h e n i n e t e e n t h  within  the context  o f the prophet  dance.  c e n t u r y a number o f p r o p h e t s a r o s e f r o m  within  the I n d i a n t r i b e s i n t h e n o r t h w e s t o f North America.  Their  emergence  i n d u c e d a n o u t b r e a k o f r e l i g i o u s f e r v o u r and c o m m u n i t y c e r e m o n i a l i s m . These p r o p h e t i c the Cult  movements, t h e most d i s c r e t e and w e l l - a r t i c u l a t e d b e i n g  C h r i s t i a n i z e d P r o p h e t Dance ( a r i s i n g i n t h e 1 8 3 0 s ) , t h e S m o h a l l a (emerging  i n 1860),  a n d t h e 1870 and 1890 G h o s t  152  Dance  are  considered  t o be l a r g e l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e u n d e r l y i n g P r o p h e t Dance  complex. The Prophet Dance complex was Northwest  p r e s e n t throughout t h e t r i b e s o f the  I n t e r i o r , " f r o m t h e B a b i n e and S e k a n i on t h e n o r t h t o t h e  P a v i o t s o o f W e s t e r n N e v a d a f a r t o t h e s o u t h " ( S p i e r 1935:5).  Evidence,  i n c l u d i n g s t a t e m e n t s by e a r l y t r a v e l l e r s , t e s t i m o n y by N a t i v e i n f o r m a n t s , and t h e t e m p o r a l a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e P r o p h e t Dance and t h e "dry s n o w f a l l " (ash  f a l l o u t ) f r o m a v o l c a n i c e r u p t i o n i n 1790,  complex was  indicates that  p r e s e n t i n the N o r t h w e s t a t l e a s t as e a r l y as 1800  There were  this  (ibid.).  f o u r b a s i c e l e m e n t s t o the Prophet Dance complex:  1.  F o c u s on t h e c e n t r a l f i g u r e o f d r e a m e r o r p r o p h e t who h a s " d i e d " , t r a v e l l e d t o t h e l a n d o f t h e dead and r e t u r n e d , t h u s g a i n i n g t h e a b i l i t y t o c o m m u n i c a t e w i t h God and t h e dead through dreams.  2.  Reference to unusual or c a t a c l y s m i c portending the d e s t r u c t i o n of the world.  3.  P r e d i c t i o n t h a t t h e world's imminent d e s t r u c t i o n w i l l b r i n g about i m m e d i a t e r e u n i o n o f t h e l i v i n g w i t h the dead and a r e t u r n of f i g u r e s from m y t h i c t i m e s .  4.  E x h o r t a t i o n o f p e o p l e t o b e l i e v e and d e m o n s t r a t e t h e i r b e l i e f t h r o u g h d a n c i n g , t o l e a d a r i g h t e o u s l i f e , and t o p r e p a r e f o r the coming a p o c a l y p s e ( R i d i n g t o n 1978:4).  The  Prophet  Dance p e r s i s t e d  n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y ( T e i t 1909).  natural  events  among t h e Shuswap t h r o u g h o u t From t i m e t o t i m e a p r o p h e t  the  would  emerge w i t h a message from the s p i r i t w o r l d . Communal dances would  then  be p e r f o r m e d  All  vigorously.  These dances  were c i r c u l a r  i n form.  i n d i v i d u a l s , y o u n g and o l d a l i k e , w e r e u r g e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e , a s i t was t h r o u g h such group d e m o n s t r a t i o n s t h a t the a p o c a l y p s e would  be hastened.  I n t e r e s t i n t h e d a n c i n g g r a d u a l l y waned w i t h t i m e , o n l y t o be r e n e w e d w i t h v i g o r upon t h e announcement o f a new  153  revelation.  Teit  makes s p e c i f i c  r e f e r e n c e t o prophet  dancing  among the A l k a l i  Lake Shuswap:  The A l k a l i Lake band had not performed t h e i r c e r e m o n i a l dance f o r many y e a r s , when an aged woman f e l l i n t o a t r a n c e ; and t h e people, t h i n k i n g she was dead, c a r r i e d her away some d i s t a n c e , and l a i d h e r on t h e g r o u n d , c o v e r i n g h e r o v e r w i t h some o l d m a t s and a p i l e o f f i r - b r u s h , i n t h e manner t h a t p o o r p e o p l e were b u r i e d . E i g h t days a f t e r w a r d s t h e people were s u p r i s e d t o h e a r h e r s i n g i n g , and some o f them went t o i n v e s t i g a t e . She s a i d t o them, " I am n o t dead. I have been t o t h e l a n d o f s o u l s , and t h e c h i e f h a s s e n t me b a c k w i t h a m e s s a g e t o t h e p e o p l e . L e t t h e p e o p l e a s s e m b l e , and I w i l l g i v e i t t o you". For s e v e r a l days t h e people f l o c k e d t h e r e , u n t i l a l a r g e c o n c o u r s e from a l l t h e n o r t h e r n and w e s t e r n bands had assembled. She s a i d t o them, " I saw a l l y o u r dead f r i e n d s . They a r e happy and d a n c e , and s i n g many s t r a n g e songs"... She c o n t i n u e d , "The c h i e f g a v e me s e v e r a l new s o n g s , s u c h a s a r e sung by t h e shades, and sent me back t o e a r t h t o t e a c h them t o you, and a l s o t o show you t h e p r o p e r way t o dance"... T h e n t h e p e o p l e d a n c e d i n c i r c l e s . . . and s h e s t o o d i n t h e c e n t r e and d i r e c t e d them...The d a n c i n g was k e p t up w i t h g r e a t e n e r g y f o r s e v e r a l days, and a f t e r the people d i s p e r s e d they c o n t i n u e d t o dance every few days a t t h e i r homes f o r s e v e r a l months. [ T h i s p r o p h e t ] l i v e d many y e a r s a f t e r w a r d s , and c o u l d f a l l i n t o a t r a n c e and go t o t h e l a n d o f s o u l s whenever she desired...Each t i m e she brought a message o r a new song from t h e s p i r i t - l a n d , she assembled the people and h e l d dances ( T e i t 1909:604-605).  The p e r i o d i c m o b i l i z a t i o n o f the I n d i a n bands, i n the c o n t e x t o f the prophet  dance,  s e t a backdrop  f o r the introduction  p a g e a n t r y and r i t u a l o f t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h .  of the elaborate  The same e n e r g y  that the  western Shuswap devoted t o prophet dancing was l a t e r devoted t o the Roman C a t h o l i c ceremonies.  Certain p a r a l l e l s  t h e Roman C a t h o l i c c e r e m o n i e s round  between t h e prophet  are evident: f i r s t ,  d a n c e and  i n i t i a t i o n o f a new  o f p r o p h e t dance f e r v o u r w i t h t h e g a t h e r i n g o f bands t o hear a  newly-emerged associated with throughout  prophet,  and t h e i n i t i a t i o n  of the r e l i g i o u s  fervour  C a t h o l i c i s m and w i t h the g a t h e r i n g o f I n d i a n bands from  the province to witness the church d e d i c a t i o n a t S e c h e l t ;  second, the r e t u r n t o t h e home community t o spread the new prophet's - o r the m i s s i o n a r i e s ' - message f o r s a l v a t i o n ;  154  third,  the p a r t i c i p a t i o n by  t h e e n t i r e community i n group c e r e m o n i e s , c i r c u l a r d a n c i n g i n t h e case o f t h e prophet dance, and  c h u r c h d e d i c a t i o n s and o t h e r p u b l i c ceremonies i n  the case o f t h e Church's The obvious.  activities.  reason f o r t h i s transferrence of c o l l e c t i v e  energy  S p i e r (1935) has argued t h a t t h e c h r i s t i a n i z e d  i s less  version of the  Prophet Dance t h a t swept t h r o u g h t h e i n t e r i o r p l a t e a u i n t h e 1830s s e r v e d t o " p r i m e " a t l e a s t some I n d i a n s t o a c c e p t C h r i s t i a n i t y , o r a t l e a s t t o o v e r t l y a c c e p t t h e C h r i s t i a n symbols by m i s s i o n a r i e s .  and p r a c t i c e s , a s l a t e r i n t r o d u c e d  However, a l t h o u g h t h e c h r i s t i a n i z e d P r o p h e t  Dance  caused a renewed r e l i g i o u s f e r v o u r amongst t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e i n t e r i o r t r i b e s , l a t e r on n o t a l l responded as w e l l t o C h r i s t i a n t e a c h i n g s a s d i d t h e w e s t e r n Shuswap.  F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e w e s t e r n Shuswap had f i r s t c o n t a c t  w i t h a C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r y i n 1842, and from 1867 made g r e a t e f f o r t s t o c o n v e r t t h e I n d i a n s . 1890s t h a t t h e y a c h i e v e d any r e a l  on t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s  Y e t i t was n o t u n t i l t h e  s u c c e s s , as d e f i n e d  acceptance of the Durieu s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s .  by t h e o v e r t  C l e a r l y , then, f a c t o r s  a p a r t from t h e Shuswap's p r e - e x i s t i n g f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h C h r i s t i a n  symbols  and r i t u a l s w e r e i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r f a v o u r a b l e r e s p o n s e t o t h e D u r i e u system. Lemert Coast  r e l a t e s t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e D u r i e u m i s s i o n a r i e s among t h e  Salish  to the compatability  of the h i e r a r c h i c a l  village  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i t h p r e - e x i s t i n g s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a l s i n Coast S a l i s h s o c i e t y (1957).  Western  Shuswap s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , however, was i n a  s t a t e o f q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t f l u x t h r o u g h t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , due t o t h e d e s t a b i l i z a t i o n o f Shuswap s o c i e t y t h r o u g h d r a s t i c p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e and  e n c r o a c h m e n t by n o n - I n d i a n s .  Although the Durieu c h i e f s  were  u s u a l l y s e l e c t e d from among h e r e d i t a r y c h i e f s , t h e c u l t u r a l l y - d e f i n e d  155  a u t h o r i t y of the h e r e d i t a r y the  shifting  compatability  nature  great  of  Shuswap  t h i s period  society.  i s unclear,  The  argument  t o the changing n a t u r e of t h e i r s o c i a l  elaborate  p a g e a n t r y and  among t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s .  and  an  i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of  L e m e r t ( 1 9 6 2 ) has  missionaries  compatability,  r e l a t e d to they  may  be t r u e , but  this  t h e y w e r e a c c e p t e d as s u i t a b l e e q u i v a l e n t s  l i k e l y t h a t the system of v i l l a g e c o n t r o l promoted  a c h i e v e d s u c c e s s not but  simply  s o l u t i o n to the d i s o r d e r  in  and  because the  t h a t was  system  confronting  s y s t e m i c t h i s d i s o r d e r was,  i t was  offered  had  v i o l e n t l y opposed  drunkenness,  and  missionaries  i n an a t t e m p t t o c o n t r o l i t s use.  for social  s y m b o l i c and opportunity  willingly  worked  with  the  control, especially alcohol  elaborate  pageantry of  f o r p o s i t i v e expression  the  possible However  e p i t o m i z e d by the  Shuswap  become  one  t h e Shuswap.  By the l a t t e r h a l f of the c e n t u r y  chiefs  by  n e c e s s a r i l y because of s t r u c t u r a l  a l c o h o l problem.  force.  the  place.  It i s equally  system  community  ceremonies, i n that  That they were f u n c t i o n a l e q u i v a l e n t s  d o e s n o t a c c o u n t f o r why  general  can  s e r v e d as a f u n c t i o n a l r e p l a c e m e n t f o r c o l l e c t i v e d r i n k i n g  activities.  the  the  elsewhere argued t h a t  t h e d i v e r s i o n a r y e f f e c t o f t h e p a g e a n t s and  first  for  resulted i n a  s u c c e s s o f t h e D u r i e u s y s t e m i n c o n t r o l l i n g a l c o h o l use was  the  to  organization.  religious festivities  amount o f c o l l e c t i v e f e r v o u r  temporarily  due  of the D u r i e u s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s \ ^ i t h Shuswap s o c i e t y  not be made due The  c h i e f during  growing  many of the to  alcohol  Indian The  Agent  use  and  and  the  c o m b i n a t i o n of a  c o n t r o l , plus  festivities,  western  the  highly  which provided  an  of community, s e r v e d as a r e d i r e c t i n g  A l t h o u g h i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r s t h e p a g e a n t r y and  the  general  r e l i g i o u s f e r v o u r among t h e w e s t e r n Shuswap d i e d down, t h e s y s t e m s o f v i l l a g e c o n t r o l remained i n p l a c e . 156  The f a c t t h a t t h e Shuswap, i n c o n t r a s t t o the C h i l c o t i n and Carrier,  responded  particularly  well  to  the  Oblate  Southern  missionaries  i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e were deeper c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s g u i d i n g t h i s  response.  The  cultural  Chilcotin  conservatism, had  been  noted  for  having  a  history  of  w h i l e the Shuswap, a t l e a s t the A l k a l i Lake Shuswap, have  a history  institutions.  have  of  adaptability  and  receptiveness  to  new  ideas  and  These g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s o n l y r e s t a t e the p r o b l e m .  The  q u e s t i o n of what l i e s a t the r o o t of t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s a w a i t s f u r t h e r study. What we  are l e f t w i t h from t h i s h i s t o r i c a l study i s a p i c t u r e of  p e r i o d i c m o b i l i z a t i o n o f the Shuswap people: f i r s t w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f prophet  dancing,  second  w i t h i n the context  of C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r y  a c t i v i t i e s , and t h i r d w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e A l k a l i L a k e S o b r i e t y movement. prophet  A g a i n , c e r t a i n p a r a l l e l s can be noted, e s p e c i a l l y between t h e  dance and t h e S o b r i e t y movement.  a heavy d r i n k e r t o a c o n f i r m e d d e a t h and  Chelsea's t r a n s f o r m a t i o n f r o m  sober a l c o h o l i c s y m b o l i c a l l y p a r a l l e l s t h e  r e b i r t h of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y prophets.  Furthermore,  a f t e r t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n C h e l s e a b r o u g h t a message t o t h e community: salvation  could  be  achieved  only through  the  rejection  of  alcohol.  F i n a l l y , acceptance  o f t h e message was expressed through p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  t h e A.A.  w h i c h became i m b u e d w i t h g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e  meetings,  i n f u s e d w i t h much  " c o l l e c t i v e e f f e r v e s c e n c e " , a s was  dancing of the p r e v i o u s century. d a n c e and  The  the  collective  s i m i l a r i t y between the  prophet  t h e S o b r i e t y movement i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t i n w h a t  A l k a l i Lake i n d i v i d u a l r e f e r r e d t o as t h e round dance, the c l o s i n g o f t h e A.A. m e e t i n g  and  one  ritual  where p a r t i c i p a n t s s t a n d t o j o i n hands i n a c i r c l e  and r e c i t e t h e S e r e n i t y P r a y e r .  157  I t may be a r g u e d t h a t t h e p r o p h e t d a n c e , t h e Shuswap's r e a c t i o n t o the C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r i e s ,  and t h e S o b r i e t y movement  were a l l responses  t o s o c i a l d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n and c u l t u r a l breakdown ( s e e A b e r l e 1959; S p i e r e t a l . 1959 f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e o r i g i n and f u n c t i o n o f t h e p r o p h e t dance), and t h a t a l l r e f l e c t e f f o r t s a t community r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . s y m b o l i c p a r a l l e l i s m and t h e h i s t o r i c a l the  f r e q u e n c y o f such e v e n t s among  Shuswap i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e A l k a l i Lake S o b r i e t y  i n f l u e n c e d by t h e u n d e r l y i n g r e p r e s e n t an e s s e n t i a l l y  The  c u l t u r a l context,  movement was g r e a t l y  a n d t h a t i t may i n d e e d  Shuswap s o l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m s o f a l c o h o l  abuse, s o c i a l d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , and c u l t u r a l upheaval.  158  BIBLIOGRAPHY  A b e r l e , David F. 1959 The P r o p h e t Dance and R e a c t i o n s t o White C o n t a c t . J o u r n a l of A n t h r o p o l o g y 15:74-83. 1982  The  Peyote R e l i g i o n Among the Navaho.  Anonymous 1955 A l c o h o l i c s Anonymous. Services, Inc..  New  Southwestern  Chicago: A l d i n e .  Y o r k : A l c o h o l i c s Anonymous World  Bacon, M.K., H. B a r r y , I I I , I . L . C h i l d , 1965 A C r o s s - C u l t u r a l Study o f D r i n k i n g , I I : R e l a t i o n s t o Other F e a t u r e s of C u l t u r e s . Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f S t u d i e s on A l c o h o l , Supplement 3:78-112. B i c k f o r d , Diana 1981 O u t r e a c h S e r v i c e s R e p o r t . W i l l i a m s Lake A l c o h o l and Program C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e . W i l l i a m s Lake: C a r i b o o Society.  Drug Friendship  Brow, C a t h e r i n e 1967 A S o c i o - C u l t u r a l H i s t o r y o f the A l k a l i Lake Shuswap. U n p u b l i s h e d M.A. T h e s i s , Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y of Washington. 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