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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Lorenzo Lotto and the surgeon's painting : a private commission in the Venetian Provinces Klebanoff, Randi Paula 1986

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LORENZO LOTTO AND THE BURGEON'S PAINTING: A PRIVATE COMMISSION IN THE VENETIAN PROVINCES By RANDI PAULA KLEBANOFF B . F . A . j C o n c o r d i a U n i v e r s i t y ) 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f F i n e A r t s ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1986 Randi P a u l a K l e b a n o f f , 1986 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of FINE ARTS  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date SEPTEMBER, I986 / H I ,\ ABSTRACT L o r e n z o L o t t o ' s Madonna and C h i l d w i t h SS Roch and  S e b a s t i a n i s a p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n a l work, o r i g i n a l l y i n t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f a s u r g e o n i n Bergamo. In t h i s t h e s i s , t h e p a i n t i n g i s l o o k e d a t as a work t h a t i n c o r p o r a t e s t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s o f a t r a d i t i o n a l f o r m and c h a r g e s i t w i t h i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y r i c h l a y e r i n g to s u i t i t s p a r t i c u l a r c o m m i s s i o n . A c r i t i c a l h i s t o r i o g r a p h y o f t h e a r t i s t and o f t h e p a i n t i n g i n t r o d u c e s my work i n t o t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e r e c e i v e d t r a d i t i o n . I l o o k a t t h e p a t r o n o f t h e p a i n t i n g , B a t t i s t a C u c c h i , and a t t h e s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n Bergamo i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y c o n t e x t o f t h e image. The p a i n t i n g i s u n u s u a l i n i t s c o m p o s i t i o n , w i t h f o r m a l and i c o n o g r a p h i c i n n o v a t i o n s g i v i n g a d i s c o n c e r t i n g q u a l i t y to what i s a t t h e f o u n d a t i o n a t r a d i t i o n a l V e n e t i a n t y p e -t h e h a l f - l e n g t h Madonna and C h i l d w i t h s a i n t s . C h a p t e r Two d i s c u s s e s t h e f i f t e e n t h - c e n t u r y h a l f - l e n g t h t r a d i t i o n i n V e n i c e , and C h a p t e r T h r e e d e a l s w i t h t h e new t r e n d s i n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h a t t r a n s f o r m p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n a l p a i n t i n g i n t h e p e r i o d o f L o t t o ' s Bergamo career. C h a p t e r S i x e x p l o r e s t h e complex i c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e image. A l t h o u g h t h e r e s o n a n c e s o f t h e p r o t o t y p e -m i r a c u l o u s i m a g e r y and t h e V e n e t i a n p e d i g r e e s u i t e d to L o t t o ' s Bergamo p a t r o n a g e - a r e p r e s e r v e d , t h e h i e r a t i c a s p e c t and t r a d i t i o n a l f o r m o f t h e V e n e t i a n h a l f - l e n g t h a r e t r a n s f o r m e d . S t y l i s t i c d i s s o n a n c e s and i c o n o g r a p h i c i n n o v a t i o n s b o t h u n d e r l i n e p a r t i c u l a r meanings t h a t a r e s t r e s s e d . The two p l a g u e s a i n t s Roch and S e b a s t i a n a r e common i n V e n e t i a n works and s i g n a l a h e a l i n g c o n t e x t . T h e i r e c s t a t i c e x p r e s s i o n s and a g g r e s s i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n however a r e u n i q u e i n t h i s f o r m a t . They e x t e n d t h e i r b r a c k e t o f h e a l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e d e v o t i o n a l i c o n o g r a p h y o f C h r i s t , Roch by e c h o i n g t h e g e s t u r e o f C h r i s t and S e b a s t i a n by s t e p p i n g f o r w a r d i n a r o l e as a 1 t e r  c h r i s t u s . The p r o m i n e n t and u n u s u a l d e v i c e o f t h e s l a b c o n v e y s t h e a l t a r / t o m b c o n n o t a t i o n s o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l p a r a p e t i n a more o v e r t way, and by s e a t i n g t h e Madonna and C h i l d above i t , L o t t o e m p h a s i z e s t h e theme o f t r i u m p h o v e r d e a t h . S i m p l e on t h e s u r f a c e , t h e p a i n t i n g communicates t r a d i t i o n a l d e v o t i o n a l messages o f s a l v a t i o n and i n t e r c e s s i o n t h a t a r e tempered to a p p l y t o t h e s u r g e o n p a t r o n . 1 V CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i L I S T OF ILLUSTRATIONS v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x Chap t e r I. CRITICAL HISTORIOGRAPHY AND SCOPE OF THE THESIS 1 I I . THE VENETIAN HALF-LENGTH MADONNA AND CHILD AND MADONNA AND CHILD WITH SAINTS: THE DEVELOPMENT OF A PRIVATE DEVOTIONAL TYPE 50 I I I . PRINTING, PIETY AND WAR: PRIVATE DEVOTIONAL PAINTING IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 77 IV. LOTTO IN BERGAMO: DIFFICULT TIMES AND NEW PATRONAGE 98 V. DEVOTIONAL PAINTING AS A MEDICAL TOOL 1B9 V I . THE MADONNA AND CHILD WITH SS ROCH AND SEBASTIAN: THE CHARGED HALF-LENGTH FOR A BERGAMO SURGEON.... 146 ILLUSTRATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY. E03 240 V L I S T OF ILLUSTRATIONS F i g . 1. L o r e n z o L o t t o . Madonna and C h i l d w i t h SS Roch and S e b a s t i a n . O ttawa, N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y o f Canada. c l 5 2 1 203 F i g . 2. G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i . Madonna d e g l i A l b e r e t t i . V e n i c e , A c c a d e m i a . 1487 204 F i g . 3. Cima da C o n e g l i a n o . V i r g i n and C h i l d w i t h J o h n t h e B a p t i s t and S t . P a u l . V e n i c e , A c c a d e m i a . C1504-5. .204 F i g . 4. G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i . Madonna and C h i l d w i t h SS C a t h e r i n e and Magdalene. V e n i c e , A c c a d e m i a . C148S-89. .205 F i g . 5. G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i . Madonna and C h i l d . Bergamo, A c c a d e m i a C a r r a r a . c l 4 7 0 205 F i g . 6. G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i . Madonna and C h i l d . V e n i c e , A c c a d e m i a . c l 4 7 5 - 8 0 206 F i g . 7. L e o n a r d o da V i n c i . ' B e n o i s ' Madonna. L e n i n g r a d , H e r m i t a g e . c l 4 7 8 206 F i g . 8. B o t t i c e l l i workshop. Madonna and C h i l d w i t h J o h n t h e B a p t i s t . D r e s d e n , Museum o f D r e s d e n 207 F i g . 9. I c o n o f t h e V i r g i n and C h i l d (Our Lady of" P i m e n ) . T r e t y a k o v G a l l e r y . Second h a l f o f t h e f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y . O r i g i n C o n s t a n t i n o p 1 e ( ?) 207 F i g . 10. T i t i a n . Man o f S o r r o w s . V e n i c e , S c u o l a d i San R o c c o . c l 5 1 0 208 F i g . 11. G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i . Dead C h r i s t Between Two A n g e l s . London, N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y . c l 4 7 0 208 F i g . 12. Cima da C o n e g l i a n o . S t . Jerome. W a s h i n g t o n , N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y . C1500-05 209 F i g . 13. G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i . Madonna and C h i l d . M i l a n , B r e r a . c l 4 7 0 209 F i g . 14. G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i . Madonna and C h i l d w i t h SS P a u l and G e o r g e . V e n i c e , A c c a d e m i a . c l 4 9 0 ? 210 v i F i g . 15. G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i . S. G i o b b e A l t a r p i e c e . V e n i c e , A c c a d e m i a . c l 4 8 7 210 F i g . 16. Cima da C o n e g l i a n o . Madonna and C h i l d w i t h SS Jerome and M a g d a lene. M u n i c h , A l t e P i n a k o t h e k . c l 4 9 5 - 8 211 F i g . 17. Cima da C o n e g l i a n o . Madonna and C h i l d w i t h S t . Jerome and J o h n t h e B a p t i s t . W a s h i n g t o n , N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y . c l 4 9 2 - 9 5 211 F i g . 18. Cima da C o n e g l i a n o . Madonna and C h i l d w i t h J o h n t h e B a p t i s t and S t . C a t h e r i n e . New Y o r k , J . P i e r p o i n t Morgan L i b r a r y . C1513-16 212 F i g . 19. Woodcut f r o m V i t e de S a n c t i P a d r i . V e n i c e . 1501 212 F i g . 20. T i t i a n . Madonna and C h i l d w i t h J o h n t h e B a p t i s t and S t . A n t h o n y . F l o r e n c e , U f f i z i . c l 5 2 0 213 F i g . 21. T i t i a n . Madonna and C h i l d w i t h J o h n t h e B a p t i s t , SS P a u l , Gerome, and Mary M a g d a l e n e . D r e s d e n , G e m a 1 d e g a 1 e r i e . c l 5 2 0 213 F i g . 22. T i t i a n . Madonna and C h i l d w i t h S t . C a t h e r i n e and a R a b b i t . P a r i s , L o u v r e . c l 5 3 0 214 F i g . 23. Palma i l V e c c h i o . S a c r a C o n v e r s a z i o n e . Hampton C o u r t . C1512-13 214 F i g . 24. T i t i a n . Madonna and C h i l d w i t h S t . Agnes and I n f a n t B a p t i s t . D i j o n , Musee des Beaux A r t s . c l 5 3 5 . ...215 F i g . 25. T i t i a n . Madonna and C h i l d w i t h S t . C a t h e r i n e and I n f a n t B a p t i s t i n a L a n d s c a p e . London, N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y . c l 5 3 0 215 F i g . 26. Palma i l V e c c h i o . S a c r a C o n v e r s a z i o n e . Vaduz, c o l l . L i e c h t e n s t e i n . c l 5 1 0 216 F i g . 27. T i t i a n . Mary Magdalene i n P e n a n c e . F l o r e n c e , P i t t i G a l l e r y . c l 5 3 0 - 3 5 216 F i g . 28. L o r e n z o L o t t o . San Domenico p o l y p t y c h . R e c a n a t i , P i n a c o t e c a Comunale. 1508 217 F i g . 29. L o r e n z o L o t t o . D e p o s i t i o n . J e s i , P i n a c o t e c a C i v i c a . 1512 817 F i g . 30. L o r e n z o L o t t o . S a c r a C o n v e r s a z i o n e ( M a r t i n e n g o a l t a r p i e c e ) . Bergamo, San B a r t o l o m e o . 1516 218 v i i F i g . 31. L o r e n z o L o t t o . M y s t i c M a r r i a g e o f S t . C a t h e r i n e . Bergamo, A c c a d e m i a C a r r a r a . 1523 218 F i g . 32. T i t i a n . S t . Mark E n t h r o n e d . V e n i c e , S. M a r i a d e l l a S a l u t e . c l 5 1 1 - 1 5 1 2 219 F i g . 33. Woodcut f r o m B o e t h i u s , De C o n s o l a t i o n e P h i l o s o p h i a e . A u g s b u r g , 1537 219 F i g . 34. M a t t h i a s G r u n e w a l d . I s e n h e i m A l t a r p i e c e ( o p e n ) . C o l m a r , Musee U n t e r l i n d e n . c l 5 1 0 - 1 5 220 F i g . 35. M a t t h i a s G r u n e w a l d . I s e n h e i m A l t a r p i e c e . T e m p t a t i o n o f S t . Anthony ( d e t a i l ) . C o l m a r , Musee U n t e r l i n d e n . c l 5 1 0 - 1 5 220 F i g . 36. M a t t h i a s G r u n e w a l d . I s e n h e i m A l t a r p i e c e ( c l o s e d ) . C o l m a r , Musee U n t e r l i n d e n . c l 5 1 0 - 1 5 221 F i g . 37, M a t t h i a s G r u n e w a l d . I s e n h e i m A l t a r p i e c e ( m i d d l e s t a t e - r e c o n s t r u c t e d ) . C o l m a r , Musee U n t e r l i n d e n . c l 5 1 0 - 1 5 221 F i g . 38. L o r e n z o L o t t o . S t . Jerome. M a d r i d , P r a d o . c l 5 4 5 222 F i g . 39. Domenico d i B a r t o l o . Madonna o f H u m i l i t y . S i e n a , P i n a c o t e c a . 1433 222 F i g . 40. L o r e n z o L o t t o . S a i n t C a t h e r i n e o f A l e x a n d r i a . W a s h i n g t o n , N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y . 1522 223 F i g . 41. L o r e n z o L o t t o . S a c r a C o n v e r s a z i o n e . Bergamo, S a n t o S p i r i t o . 1521 223 F i g . 42. Apse m o s a i c . Rome, S t a . M a r i a i n T r a s t e v e r e . 12th c e n t u r y 224 F i g . 43. G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i . The Madonna o f t h e Meadow. London, N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y . C1501-4 224 F i g . 44. G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i . P i e t a . V e n i c e , A c c a d e m i a . c l 5 0 5 225 F i g . 45. L o r e n z o L o t t o . S a c r a C o n v e r s a z i o n e . S t a . C r i s t i n a a l T i v e r o n e , 1505-6 225 F i g . 46. F r a A n g e l i c o . S a c r a C o n v e r s a z i o n e . F l o r e n c e , Museo d i S. Marco. C1443-45 226 v i i i F i g . 47. Domenico V e n e z i a n o . Madonna and C h i l d w i t h S a i n t s ( S t . L u c y A l t a r p i e c e ) . F l o r e n c e s U f f i z i . c l 4 4 5 226 F i g . 48. G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i . Madonna and C h i l d . New Y o r k , M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum. C1450-55 227 F i g . 49. G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i . Madonna and C h i l d . W a s h i n g t o n , N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y . c l 4 8 5 - 9 0 EE7 F i g . 50. C a r l o C r i v e l l i . Madonna o f t h e P a s s i o n . V e r o n a , Museo d i C a s t e 1 v e c c h i o . c l 4 6 0 EE8 F i g . 51. B a r t o l o m e o V i v a r i n i . Madonna and C h i l d . Ber 1 i n - D a h l e m , S t a t e Museum. c l 4 5 0 - 5 5 E28 F i g . 5E. G e n t i l e ? B e l l i n i . P i e t a . V e n i c e , P a l a z z o D u c a l e . 147E EE9 F i g . 53. A l b r e c h t D u r e r . The Mass o f S t . G r e g o r y . c l 5 1 1 EE9 F i g . 54. Cima da C o n e g l i a n o ( w o r k s h o p ) . Madonna and C h i l d . Rouen, G a l e r i e H u i s s e . c l 5 0 0 ? 230 F i g . 55. Cima da C o n e g l i a n o . Madonna and C h i l d . C a r d i f f , N a t i o n a l Museum o f Wales. C1500-03 230 F i g . 56. Cima da C o n e g l i a n o . Madonna and C h i l d . L ondon, N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y . C1499-1502 231 F i g . 57. Cima da C o n e g l i a n o . Madonna and C h i l d . London, N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y . cl.505-6 231 F i g . 58. L o r e n z o L o t t o . Madonna and C h i l d w i t h S a i n t s . Bergamo, S. B e r n a r d i n o i n P i g n o l o . 1521 232 F i g . 59. L o r e n z o L o t t o . Madonna and C h i l d w i t h S a i n t s Jerome and An t h o n y o f Padua. London, N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y . 1521 232 F i g . 60. L o r e n z o L o t t o . H o l y F a m i l y w i t h S t . C a t h e r i n e . Bergamo, A c c a d e m i a C a r r a r a . 1533 233 F i g . 61. Mantegna. Dead C h r i s t . M i l a n , B r e r a . c l 4 8 0 . 233 F i g . 62. F r a n c e s c o B o n s i g n o r i . Madonna A d o r i n g t h e C h i l d . V e r o n a , Museo d i C a s t e 1 v e c c h i o . 1483 234 F i g . 63. A l v i s e V i v a r i n i . The R e s u r r e c t i o n . V e n i c e , S. G i o v a n n i i n B r a g o r a . 1498 234 i x F i g . 64. Cima da C o n e g l i a n o ( w o r k s h o p ) . Dead C h r i s t w i t h Two A n g e l s . w h e r e a b o u t s unknown. c l 4 9 0 ? 235 F i g . 65. T i t i a n . S t . Roch and t h e S t o r y o f H i s L i f e . C1517 235 F i g . 66. T i t i a n . S i x S a i n t s . 1520's? 236 F i g . 67. A l v i s e V i v a r i n i . Madonna and C h i l d w i t h S a i n t s . E a s t B e r l i n , S t a a t l i c h e Museen. c l 4 9 S - 9 9 236 F i g . 68. Palma i l V e c c h i o ? F l a g e l l a t i o n . R o v i g o , P i n a c o t e c a d e i C o n c o r d i 237 F i g . 69. Mantegna ( w o r k s h o p ) . F l a g e l l a t i o n . London, B r i t i s h Museum. c 1448-55 237 F i g . 70. T i t i a n ? F l a g e l l a t i o n . Rome, V i l l a B o r g h e s e . m i d - s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y 238 F i g . 71. L o r e n z o L o t t o . N a t i v i t y w i t h S a i n t s Roch and S e b a s t i a n . C r e d a r o , S. G i o r g i o . 1525 238 F i g . 72. T i t i a n . R e s u r r e c t i o n A l t a r p i e c e . B r e s c i a , SS N a z a r o e C e l s o . 1522 239 F i g . 73. T i t i a n . D e t a i l o f f i g . 72 239 X ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I have come to r e a l i z e t h a t I have many p e o p l e t o thank f o r t h e i r a i d i n t h i s , my f i r s t major p r o j e c t : Dr. Jo a n n a Woods-Marsden who i n i t i a t e d t h i s p r o j e c t , Dr. P e n e l o p e B r o w n e l l , L o u i s a Judge o f P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y , whose d i s s e r t a t i o n on L o t t o ' s a l t a r p i e c e s i s e a g e r l y a w a i t e d , Dr. Myron L a s k i n f o r m e r l y o f t h e N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y o f Canada. Of th e many p e o p l e who h e l p e d me i n my s t u d i e s a b r o a d , I would l i k e to thank d r . s s a G a t t i P e r r e r o f t h e C a t t o l i c a U n i v e r s i t y and o f A r t e Lombarda i n M i l a n , i n t h e B i b l i o t e c a C i v i c a i n Bergamo: d r . s s a F r a n c e s c a C o r t e s i Bosco f o r e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y g i v i n g g e n e r o u s amounts o f h e r t i m e t o d i s c u s s t h e p a i n t i n g t h a t f o r m s t h e s u b j e c t o f t h i s t h e s i s and L o t t o i n g e n e r a l ; and e s p e c i a l l y Dr. Renzo M a n g i l i , who u n f a i l i n g l y gave me h i s a s s i s t a n c e and h i s welcome i n s i g h t s . I want t o e x p r e s s my s p e c i a l g r a t i t u d e t o my a d v i s o r , Dr. Debra P i n c u s , f o r h e r a s t u t e g u i d a n c e and h e r p a t i e n c e , and t o Tony P u e r z e r f o r h i s t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e and c o n s t a n t s u p p o r t . 1 CHAPTER ONE CRITICAL HISTORIOGRAPHY AND SCOPE OF THE THESIS "To know t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y w e l l , i t i s a l m o s t more i m p o r t a n t t o s t u d y L o t t o t h a n T i t i a n . T i t i a n o n l y embodies i n a r t - f o r m s what we a l r e a d y know ab o u t t h e r i p e R e n a i s s a n c e , b u t L o t t o s u p p l e m e n t s and e v e n m o d i f i e s our i d e a o f t h i s p e r i o d . " B e r n a r d B e r e n s o n , L o r e n z o  L o t t o (1895) In 1980 - t h e f i v e h u n d r e d t h a n n i v e r s a r y o f L o r e n z o L o t t o ' s b i r t h - e x h i b i t i o n s and c o n v e q n i were h e l d i n t h e major s i t e s o f t h e a r t i s t ' s a c t i v i t y - t h e Marche, A s o l o ( r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e V e n e t o ) , and Bergamo. C o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h i s s i g n a l d a t e , an o u t p u t o f a r t i c l e s , b o o k s , and d e d i c a t o r y numbers o f p e r i o d i c a l s a p p e a r e d a s i f a major r i v e r had a p p e a r e d f r o m a h i t h e r t o h i d d e n s p r i n g . A c e l e b r a t o r y d a t e a l o n e however does n o t a c c o u n t f o r t h i s k i n d o f s c h o l a r l y a c t i v i t y . The p r o b l e m s b r o u g h t out i n L o t t o r e s e a r c h , r a t h e r , seem t o encompass many o f t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y c o n c e r n s i n R e n a i s s a n c e s t u d i e s . B e r n a r d B e r e n s o n ' s monograph on L o t t o was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1895. I q u o t e f r o m t h e s e c o n d e d i t i o n o f 1901. B e r n a r d B e r e n s o n , L o r e n z o L o t t o : An E s s a y i n C o n s t r u c t i v e  A r t H i s t o r y (London: G e o r g e B e l l and Sons, 1901), 353. 2 The c r i t i c a l s t a n c e d e v e l o p e d toward L o t t o i n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y i s now o n l y s l o w l y u n d e r g o i n g r e v i s i o n . In t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , L o t t o had a l r e a d y been c l a s s i f i e d a s o u t s i d e t h e m a i n s t r e a m by b o t h major camps - t h e F l o r e n t i n e V a s a r i on t h e one s i d e and V e n e t i a n D o l c e and A r e t i n o on t h e o t h e r . The c r i t i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s b a s e d on an u r b a n a r t - p a r t i c u l a r l y a F l o r e n t i n e u r b a n a r t i n d i c a t i v e o f a h i g h c l a s s p a t r o n a g e - t h a t were formed by t h e s e w r i t e r s h e l d a f o r m i d a b l e power o v e r a r t h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n . The a r t h i s t o r i c a l ' s t o r y ' o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e was more o r l e s s s e a l e d w i t h i n t h i s t r a d i t i o n . By p r o v i d i n g a c a t e g o r i c a l summation, W o l f f l i n ' s c o n s t r u c t i o n o f ' C l a s s i c A r t ' e n c a p s u l a t e d t h i s ' s t o r y ' f o r t h e modern p e r i o d . L o t t o , a V e n e t i a n who s p e n t much o f h i s c a r e e r i n t h e p r o v i n c e s , d i d n o t f i t i n t o t h e p a t t e r n o f t h e ' d i s e g n o ' p r o g r e s s i o n f r o m G i o t t o to M i c h e l a n g e l o o r i n t o a V e n e t i a n ' c o l o r e ' p r o g r e s s i o n f r o m T i t i a n t o T i n t o r e t t o . He was p a t r o n i z e d by t h e m i d d l e c l a s s as w e l l as t h e p e t t y a r i s t o c r a c y , and he worked o u t s i d e what we have come t o s e e as a c t u a l l y a s m a l l c o r n e r o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e cosmos -o u t s i d e o f t h e pomp e x p r e s s e d by T i t i a n and V e r o n e s e , o r o f M i c h e l a n g e l o , and o u t s i d e a p a p a l l y d o m i n a t e d r e l i g i o u s f o c u s . Modern s c h o l a r s h i p h a s shown s u c h a l i v e l y i n t e r e s t i n L o t t o b e c a u s e o f h i s e x c l u s i o n , and b e c a u s e o f t h e r i c h n e s s o f h i s c a r e e r o u t s i d e o f t h e c o n f i n e s o f ' C l a s s i c ' c u l t u r e . 3 What c a n be s e e n i n t h e c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e , and what makes L o t t o a p e r t i n e n t p r o b l e m , i s a b r e a k u p o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e ' s t o r y ' and an e x p a n d i n g i n t e r e s t i n a r t o u t s i d e t h e major u r b a n c e n t r e s o f F l o r e n c e , Rome, and V e n i c e and i n a r t i s t s p e r i p h e r a l t o t h e a c c e p t e d t r a d i t i o n . The p r o b l e m s t h a t c o n c e r n t h e s u b j e c t o f t h i s t h e s i s c o n t i n u e t h e expanded d i r e c t i o n s o f c u r r e n t l i n e s o f r e s e a r c h : a p r o v i n c i a l c o n t e x t , a m i d d l e c l a s s p a t r o n , a s p e c i f i c m e d i c a l f u n c t i o n , and t h e c o n t e x t o f a p o p u l a r p r i v a t e p i e t y t h a t was showing t h e e f f e c t s o f new d e v o t i o n a l c u r r e n t s . L o t t o a p p e a r e d i n t h e s e c o n d e d i t i o n o f V a s a r i ' s L i v e s , when ' L i v e s ' o f s e l e c t e d V e n e t i a n a r t i s t s were added to t h e o r i g i n a l t e x t . L o t t o was n o t one o f t h e V e n e t i a n a r t i s t s s i n g l e d o u t f o r s p e c i a l n o t i c e . He was t r e a t e d a l o n g w i t h 2 Palma i l V e c c h i o , b r i e f l y b u t s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y . As none o f L o t t o ' s works i n Bergamo were m e n t i o n e d by V a s a r i , p r e s u m a b l y he d i d not s e e any. V a s a r i knew o f L o t t o ' s f i n a l y e a r s a t t h e S a n t a C a s a i n L o r e t o and summed up h i s ' L i f e ' n o t w i t h L o t t o ' s a c h i e v e m e n t s as an a r t i s t , b u t w i t h t h e a p p r e c i a t i o n o f h i s r e l i g i o u s n a t u r e - an u n s a t i s f y i n g end to a s c a n t y a r t i s t i c b i o g r a p h y and one t h a t has been r e p e a t e d a_d i n f i n i turn s i n c e : £ 1 The t i t l e o f t h e s e c t i o n i s : " J a c o p o Palma and L o r e n z o L o t t o , V e n e t i a n P a i n t e r s . " G i o r g i o V a s a r i , The L i v e s o f t h e  P a i n t e r s , S c u l p t o r s , and A r c h i t e c t s , t r a n s . A.B. H i n d s ( L o n d o n : Dent, 1963), I I I , 16-18. 4 L o r e n z o d i e d , a good C h r i s t i a n as he had l i v e d . H i s l a s t y e a r s were happy and v e r y p e a c e f u l , p r o b a b l y w i n n i n g f o r him e t e r n a l l i f e . He m i ght no t have o b t a i n e d t h i s had he a l w a y s been immersed i n t h e a f f a i r s o f t h e w o r l d , which do n o t p e r m i t men to r a i s e t h e i r minds to t h e t r u e b e n e f i t s o f t h e g t h e r l i f e , and to t h e h i g h e s t h a p p i n e s s and j o y • V a s a r i c h a r a c t e r i z e d L o t t o ' s r e l i g i o u s n a t u r e i n a p p a r e n t l y l a u d a t o r y t e r m s . In a h i g h l y c o n t r o v e r s i a l l e t t e r o f 1548 a d d r e s s e d t o L o t t o , A r e t i n o t w i s t e d t h e m e r i t s o f t h e a r t i s t ' s C h r i s t i a n g o o d n e s s i n t o a c a u s t i c s t i ng: Ma l o e s s e r e s u p e r a t o n e l m e s t i e r o d e l d i p i n g e r e , non s i a c c o s t a p u n t o a l non v e d e r s i a g g u a g l i a r e ne l ' u f f i c i o de l a r e l i g i o n e . T a l c h e i l c i e l o v i r e s t o r < | d'una g l o r i a che p a s s a d e l mondo l a 1aude. (But h o l d i n g s e c o n d p l a c e i n t h e a r t o f p a i n t i n g i s n o t h i n g compared w i t h h o l d i n g f i r s t p l a c e i n t h e d u t i e s o f r e l i g i o n . F o r h e a v e n w i l l r e w ard you wi,fch g l o r y t h a t s u r p a s s e s p r a i s e o f t h i s worId) 3 V a s a r i ( 1 9 6 3 ) , 18. The l e t t e r i s r e p r o d u c e d i n : F l a v i o C a r o l i , L o r e n z o  L o t t o e l a n a s c i t a d e l l a p s i c o l o q i a moderna ( M i l a n : F a b b r i , 1980), 316. ^ T h i s t r a n s l a t i o n i s t a k e n f r o m : P i e r o B i a n c o n i , A l l  t h e P a i n t i n g s o f L o r e n z o L o t t o , t r a n s . P a u l C o l a c i c c h i ( L o n d o n : O l d b o u r n e , 1963), I, 61. 5 I f i t c a n be r e a d w i t h o u t s a r c a s m , t h e r e s t o f A r e t i n o ' s l e t t e r to L o t t o c o n t a i n s many words o f e s t e e m . ^ I t i s a l s o e v i d e n t t h a t L o t t o had c l o s e t i e s t o t h e V e n e t i a n h u m a n i s t i c c i r c l e o f a r i s t o c r a t i c p a t r o n a g e o f T i t i a n , 7 A r e t i n o , and S a n s o v i n o . However, i t was i n L o t t o ' s own T h e r e seems to be v e r y l i t t l e c o n s e n s u s on t h e m a t t e r o f t h e A r e t i n o l e t t e r . I t i s e i t h e r c o n s i d e r e d a s e v i d e n c e o f t r u e e s t e e m , as s a r c a s t i c t h r o u g h o u t and t h u s c o m p l e t e l y damning to L o t t o ' s p o s i t i o n w i t h i n V e n e t i a n c i r c l e s o r as f r a n k l y r e a l i s t i c , m i x i n g s t i n g w i t h p r a i s e . Below i s t h e body o f t h e l e t t e r a s r e p r o d u c e d by C a r o l i ( 1 9 8 0 ) , 316: "0 L o t t o , come l a b o n t a buono e come l a v i r t u v e r t u o s o , T i z i a n o , s i n d ' A u g u s t a e i n mezo l a g r a z i a d i t u t t i i f a v o r i d e l mondo, v i s a l u t a e a b b r a c c i a , c o n i l t e s t i m o n i o de l a l e t t r a c h e due d i sono mandommi. E g l i , s econdo i l d i r s u o , r a d d o p i a r e b b e i l p i a c e r e c he s e n t e ne l a s o d i s f a z i o n e c he m o s t r a l o i m p e r a d o r e de l ' o p e r e che e g l i f a , s e i l v o s t r o g i u d i z i o g l i d e s s e d ' o c c h i o e p a r l a s s e n e . E d i n u l l a i l p i t t o r g r a v e s ' i n g a n n a , i m p e r o c h e i l c o n s i g l i o d i v o i e a p p r o v a t o d a g l i a n n i , da l a n a t u r a e da l ' a r t e ; c o n i l c o n s e n s o d i q u e l l a a m o r e v o l e z z a s i n c e r a , c h e s e n t e n z i a l e f a t t u r e a l t r u i , ne p i u ne meno che s e f u s s e r l e s u e . Onde pu6 d i r e , c h i v i pone i n a n z i i p r o p r i q u a d r i e r i t r a t t i , c h e a s e s t e s s o g l i m o s t r i , e d i l u i medesimo c h i e g g a i l p a r e r e . Non e i n v i d i a n e l v o s t r o p e t t o , a n z i g o d e t e d i v e d e r e n e i p r o f e s s o r i d e l d i s e g n o a l c u n e p a r t i c h e non v i p a r e d i c o n o s c e r e n e l p e n n e l l o ; c h e pur f a d i q u e i m i r a c o l i c h e non e s c o n o f a c i l m e n t e de l o s t i l e d i m o l t i , c h e s o l o n e l f a r l o r o s i c o m p i a c c i o n o . Ma l o e s s e r e s u p e r a t o n e l m e s t i e r o d e l d i p i n g e r e , non s i a c c o s t a p u n t o a l non v e d e r s i a g g u a g l i a r e ne l ' o f f i z i o de l a r e l i g i o n e . T a l c h e i l c i e l o v i r e s t o r a r a d'una g l o r i a c h e p a s s a d e l mondo l a l a u d e . " M a s c h e r p a a t t e m p t s t o c l a r i f y L o t t o ' s a c c e p t a n c e i n t h e c i r c l e s i n w h i c h A r e t i n o o p e r a t e d . In t h i s r e g a r d he q u o t e s an e x c e r p t f r o m a l e t t e r by A r e t i n o t o t h e w e a l t h y c o l l e c t o r M o n s i g n o r d e i M a r t i n i w h i c h t e s t i f i e s to L o t t o ' s c a s u a l i n c l u s i o n i n t h e h i g h a r t c i r c l e s o f V e n i c e . I t ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) 6 t i m e t h a t l i n e s were drawn s e p a r a t i n g him f r o m t h e dominant c u l t u r e ( r e a d T i t i a n ) p r i m a r i l y t h r o u g h A r e t i n o ' s s e l f - d e s i g n a t e d m o u t h p i e c e , D o l c e . B e h i n d A r e t i n o ' s a c r i d p h r a s e " l o e s s e r e s u p e r a t o n e l m e s t i e r e d e l d i p i n g e r e " i s p r a i s e o f T i t i a n a g a i n s t whom L o t t o i s c r i t i c a l l y compared. T i t i a n ' s s u c c e s s w i t h t h e a r i s t o c r a t i c p a t r o n a g e was s u p p o r t e d by a c r i t i c a l b a c k i n g p r o v i d e d by A r e t i n o . I t was D o l c e however, who c o d i f i e d t h e l i n e s between T i t i a n and L o t t o f o r m i n g a p o l a r i t y t h a t s t i l l l i n g e r s t o d a y . V a s a r i p r i m a r i l y h a v i n g l i o n i z e d F l o r e n t i n e a r t i s t s , D o l c e ' s " A r e t i n o " was c o n c e i v e d as t h e V e n e t i a n r e j o i n d e r t o g t h e L i v e s • In o r d e r t o p r a i s e T i t i a n a bove a l l a r t i s t s , ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) g i v e s e v i d e n c e o f a s t u d i o v i s i t i n which L o t t o was p r e s e n t i n t h e esteemed company: " . . . q u e l l o d i i e r i , c a v a l i e r e m a g n i f i c o , r e p u t o p e r g i o r n o f e l i c e . Da c h e l a b e g n i n i t a d e l l a v e n t u r a s i c o n t e n t o che l a , dove i l Danese s c u l t o r e i n t a g l i a , t r o v a s s i v o i e i l Q u e r i n i e i l S a n s o v i n o e i l L o t t o : f a c e n d o c i memorando i s p e t t a c o l o l o e s s e m p i o i n marmo de l o i m m o r t a l i s s i m o Bembo, mentre i l r a g i o n a m e n t o de l e s c u l t u r e s i c o n c l u s e non meno i n g l o r i a de l e moderne che de l e a n t i c h e . . . " M a s c h e r p a d o e s n o t f i n d A r e t i n o ' s c e n s u r e i n t h e l e t t e r o f 1548 s u r p r i s i n g , coming f r o m T i t i a n ' s " p r e s s a g e n t " , b u t he p o i n t s o u t t h a t L o t t o was i n f a c t r e s p e c t e d f o r h i s a c h i e v e m e n t s . L o t t o ' s p a t r o n a g e was, a c c o r d i n g to M a s c h e r p a , t h a t o f " i n o b i l i e i b o r g h e s i p i u p r o g r e s s i s t i . " M a s c h e r p a w r i t e s t h a t L o t t o ' s b e g i n n i n g s were i n t h e same m i l i e u as t h o s e o f T i t i a n , b u t h i s c h o i c e - i n l i n e w i t h h i s d i f f i c u l t 'temperament' - was to 'drop o u t ' or more l i k e l y 'drop i n ' to a n o t h e r p a t r o n a g e c o n t e x t . G i o r g i o M a s c h e r p a , I n v i t o a L o r e n z o L o t t o ( M i l a n : R u s c o n i , 1980), 5-8. Q D o l c e ' s D i a l o q o d e l l a p i t t u r a ... i n t i t o l a t o l ' A r e t i n o i s r e p r o d u c e d i n I t a l i a n and E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n i n : Mark R o s k i l l , D o l c e ' s " A r e t i n o " and V e n e t i a n A r t T h e o r y o f t h e ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) 7 D o l c e a t t r i b u t e s t o him s u p e r i o r i t y i n an a r e a o f competency t h a t he c o n t r a s t s t o t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s o f t h e F l o r e n t i n e a r t i s t s most p r a i s e d by V a s a r i . I t i s t o D o l c e t h a t we owe t h e c o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e c o l o u r ism/d i s e g n o p a r a g o n e between 9 V e n e t i a n and F l o r e n t i n e a r t i s t s . D o l c e p a y s L o t t o o n l y p a s s i n g n o t i c e , g i v i n g L o t t o ' s a l t a r p i e c e f o r t h e c h u r c h o f t h e C a r m i n e as an example o f " c a t t i v e t i n t e " . * ^ By condemning L o t t o f o r h i s p o o r c o l o u r i n g , D o l c e compares him u n f a v o u r a b l y t o T i t i a n and p l a c e s him o u t s i d e t h e p a r a m e t e r s o f "good a r t " and o u t s i d e t h e dominant a r i s t o c r a t i c c u l t u r e a s he has d e f i n e d i t . D o l c e h a v i n g e x c l u d e d L o t t o f r o m t h e V e n e t i a n m a i n s t r e a m , i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t a s e a r l y as 1590 Lomazzo began a s t r a n g e p e r i o d i n t h e h i s t o r y o f L o t t o r e s e a r c h by e l i m i n a t i n g L o t t o c o m p l e t e l y f r o m t h e p a t r i m o n y o f V e n i c e and c l a i m i n g him as a L o m b a r d 1 * . The r e s u l t i s ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) C i n q u e c e n t o (New Y o r k : New York U n i v . P r e s s , 1968). My i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f D o l c e i s b a s e d on R o s k i l l ' s work. 9 R o s k i l l ( 1 9 6 8 ) , 38-49. * ^ " D i q u e s t e c a t t i v e t i n t e p a r m i , c h e s i vegga a s s a i n o t a b i l e esempio i n una t a v o l a d i L o r e n z o L o t t o , che e q u i i n V i n e g i a n e l l a C h i e s a d e ' C a r m i n i . " i n R o s k i l l ( 1 9 6 8 ) , 154. * * A t t h e t u r n o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y L a n z i and F e d e r i c i r e c o g n i z e L o t t o a g a i n a s a V e n e t i a n . Lomazzo g i v e s L o t t o a more f a v o u r a b l e r e a d i n g t h a n D o l c e and d o e s so by s i n g l i n g o u t t h e v e r y work t h a t D o l c e condemned: ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) 8 t h a t L o t t o i s t r e a t e d w i t h more r e s p e c t i n h i s m i s p l a c e d p a t r i a t h a n he was as a V e n e t i a n . T a s s i i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y f e e l s f r e e to c l a i m L o t t o f o r Bergamo and to p r e s e n t him as a l o c a l l u m i n a r y : ... i n q u e l tempo, i n c u i T i z i a n o i n V e n e z i a , R a f f a e l l o i n Roma, i l C o r e g g i o a Modena, i l M a z z u o l i a Parma, M i c h e l ' a g n o l o a F i r e n z e , ed a l t r i m o l t i l ' a r t e n o b i l i s s i m a d e l l a p i t t u r a i n a l t r e c i t t a i 1 l u s t r a r a n o , L o r e n z o L o t t o i n Bergamo, a l p a r i d ' o g n ' a l t r o uno de' p r i m i p o s t i o ccupando d i f f o n d e v a d ' o g n ' i n t o r n o l u c i d i s s i m i r a g g i d i g l o r i a . I t was n o t u n t i l t h e end o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y however, t h a t L o t t o became t h e o b j e c t o f s e r i o u s a t t e n t i o n and m e t h o d i c a l s t u d y . In t h i s p e r i o d , a new b r e e d o f c o n n o i s s e u r s s t r o v e t o a c h i e v e e x h a u s t i v e n e s s i n c a t a l o g u i n g ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) " I n V e n e z i a , o l t r e m o l t e o p e r e t u t t e e c c e l l e n t i , e c h i a r a l a C h i e s a d e i C a r m i n i p e r l a g r a n t a v o l a d i L o r e n z o L o t t o , s i n g o l a r m a e s t r o a n c h ' e g l i d i d a r i l lume. N e l l a q u a l e , s ' i o non e r r o , e S t . N i c o l a o e due S a n t i s o p r a l e n u b i e t a l b a s s o S t . G i o r g i o a c a v a l l o c he u c c i d e i l d r a g o c o n l a l a n c i a e l a d o n z e l l a c h e f u g g e p e r un paese" o s c u r a t o d a l tempo; i l q u a l p a r t i c o l a r m e n t e e g i u d i c a t o d i s i n g o l a r e c c e l e n z a da m o l t i p i t t o r i , s i come t a l e anco e r i p u t a t a l a A s c e n s i o n e d e l l a V e r g i n e c o i d i s c e p o l i a l b a s s o , c h ' e g l i g i a d i p i n s e i n S a n t a M a r i a d i C e l a n i a n e l l a V a l l e d i S t . M a r t i n o . " " L o r e n z o L o t t o l o d a t o d i a l c u n e sue p i t t u r e , " G i o v a n P a o l o Lomazzo, i n Idea d e l tempio d e l l a p i t t u r a , e d . and t r a n s . R o b e r t K l e i n ( F l o r e n c e : I s t i t u t o P a l a z z o S t r o z z i , 1974-), 387. F r a n c e s c o M a r i a T a s s i , V i t a d e ' p i t t o r i , s c u l t o r i e  a r c h i t e t t i b e r q a m a s c h i ( M i l a n : L a b o r , 1969), I, 116. 9 l e s s e r m a s t e r s } b e i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e I t a l i a n ' p r i m i t i v e s ' . N i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y c o n n o i s s e u r s h i p e n t e r t a i n e d t h e n o t i o n t h a t i t was b r i n g i n g ' s c i e n t i f i c ' 13 m e t h o d o l o g y t o t h e s t u d y o f a r t h i s t o r y . G i o v a n n i M o r e l l i , f o r example was employed by t h e I t a l i a n government to c a t a l o g u e i t s p a t r i m o n y , and f o r t h e t a s k he d e v e l o p e d a m e t i c u l o u s , ' o b j e c t i v e ' s y s t e m b a s e d on t h e c o m p a r i s o n o f m i n o r d e t a i l s i n p a i n t i n g s s u c h a s e a r s and h a i r . The f i r s t - h a n d e x p e r i e n c e o f works, t h e l a n g u a g e o f c a r e f u l d e s c r i p t i o n and t h e i n c 1 u s i v e n e s s o f t h e i r f i e l d was new. T h i s i n c l u s i v e n e s s , t h i s d e s i r e f o r t h o r o u g h n e s s , a d m i t t e d a r t i s t s who had been s e e n as m i n o r to be t r e a t e d w i t h t h e same h i g h s e r i o u s n e s s a c c o r d e d t o a T i t i a n o r a R a p h a e l . A c h i n k had been wedged between G i o t t o and R a p h a e l , and t h e n e g l e c t e d a r t i s t s began t o f a l l t h r o u g h . I t was i n t h i s c r i t i c a l a t m o s p h e r e t h a t L o t t o was ' d i s c o v e r e d ' i n t h e modern s e n s e . I t i s i n t h i s new aim f o r t h o r o u g h n e s s t h a t Crowe and C a v a l c a s e l l e ' s A H i s t o r y o f P a i n t i n g i n N o r t h I t a l y was w r i t t e n i n 1871. A l t h o u g h Crowe and C a v a l c a s e l l e a r g u e e r r o n e o u s l y f o r L o t t o ' s Bergamask o r i g i n s and c o n s i d e r him a " s e c o n d - r a t e " i n t h e l e a g u e o f R e n a i s s a n c e p a i n t e r s , t h e y See: D a v i d A l a n Brown, B e r e n s o n and t h e  C o n n o i s s e u r s h i p o f I t a l i a n P a i n t i n g ( W a s h i n g t o n : N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y o f A r t , 1979), "The T r a d i t i o n o f t h e C o n n o i s s e u r , " 30-40. 10 g i v e him a v e r y p o s i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n 5 and b e g i n t h e p e r i o d ' s s o l i d a t t e m p t s a t e s t a b l i s h i n g a c r i t i c a l b i o g r a p h y o f t h e 14 a r t i s t . In r e s p o n s e t o Crowe and C a v a l c a s e l l e , M o r e l l i t r e a t e d L o t t o w i t h a n a l y t i c d e t a c h m e n t , r e e s t a b l i s h i n g L o t t o ' s r o o t s i n V e n i c e and c r i t i c i z i n g t h e e a r l i e r w r i t e r s f o r t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n o f L o t t o as a compendium o f a r t i s t i c J.A. Crowe and G.B. C a v a l c a s e l l e , A H i s t o r y o f  P a i n t i n g i n N o r t h I t a l y . V e n i c e , Padua, V i c e n z o , V e r o n a ,  F e r r a r a , M i l a n , F r i u l i , B r e s c i a . From t h e F o u r t e e n t h t o t h e  S i x t e e n t h C e n t u r y ( L o n d o n : J o h n M u r r a y , 1912), I I I , 391-432. " I t has been s a i d , w i t h some show o f t r u t h , t h a t L o t t o was more w o r t h y o f a b i o g r a p h y t h a n any o f t h e s e c o n d - r a t e s o f t h e N o r t h I t a l i a n p r o v i n c e s . T h e r e i s no doubt t h a t , amongst t h e s e c o n d - r a t e s , he h o l d s an e m i n e n t p l a c e , and c l a i m s to r a n k a e s t h e t i c a l l y a s h i g h as B a z z i . . . . I t i s e a s y t o be e n t h u s i a s t i c about L o t t o ' s t a l e n t . He had a v e r y f i n e f e e l i n g f o r c o l o u r , he became a m a s t e r o f f o r e s h o r t e n i n g and m o d e l l i n g , he s t u d i e d a c t i o n i n i t s most v a r i e d f o r m s , and r e n d e r e d i t w i t h u n a c c u s t o m e d d a r i n g ; e x p r e s s i o n i n e v e r y mood - e x p r e s s i o n r o g u i s h , t e n d e r , e a r n e s t , s o l e m n - he c o u l d d e p i c t them a l l . But t h e r e was one t h i n g w a n t i n g i n h i s p i c t o r i a l o r g a n i s m : he l a c k e d t h e p u r e o r i g i n a l i t y o f g e n i u s and i n d e p e n d e n t power." (391) Where modern c r i t i c s most o f t e n d e p i c t L o t t o ' s V e n e t i a n p e r i o d as l e s s t h a n s u c c e s s f u l , Crowe and C a v a l c a s e l l e d e p i c t t h i s p e r i o d i n v e r y p o s i t i v e t e r m s : "but L o t t o ' s t a l e n t was t h e n n o t i n f e r i o r t o t h a t o f any s e c o n d - r a t e i n t h e n o r t h e r n s c h o o l s , and h ence t h e r a p i d i t y w i t h which he e x t e n d e d h i s p r a c t i c e a t V e n i c e . I t was n o t l o n g b e f o r e he r e c e i v e d i m p o r t a n t c o m m i s s i o n s f o r a l t a r p i e c e s f r o m t h e w e a l t h i e s t r e l i g i o u s c o m m u n i t i e s , and f o r e a s e l p i c t u r e s f r o m t h e r i c h e s t c o 1 1 e c t o r s . " ( 4 1 7 ) In p o r t r a i t u r e , Crowe and C a v a l c a s e l l e c o n c e d e t h a t L o t t o r i v a l s T i t i a n h i m s e l f , i f s t i l l h o l d i n g s e c o n d p l a c e . ( 4 2 5 ) 11 " i n f l u e n c e s " - a c r i t i c a l t e n d e n c y t h a t s t i l l c h a r a c t e r i z e s L o t t o c o n n o i s s e u r s h i p . ^ I t was o u t o f t h i s c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y c o n n o i s s u e r s h i p t h a t B e r e n s o n began h i s work. To M o r e l l i a n t e c h n i q u e and t h e f e r v o u r o f f i r s t - h a n d e x p e r i e n c e B e r e n s o n added t h e a e s t h e t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n o f a P a t e r i n h i s c r e a t i o n o f t h e ' a r t i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y . ' * ^ The p u b l i c a t i o n o f B e r e n s o n ' s f i r s t monograph on L o t t o i n 1895 was t h e r e s u l t o f t h i s p r o c e s s and e s t a b l i s h e d t h e modern c o n s t r u c t o f t h e 17 a r t i s t . By p u l l i n g what was f o r m e r l y c o n s i d e r e d a minor c h a r a c t e r o u t o f t h e a r t i s t i c c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e ) and g i v i n g him a r i c h , i n d e p e n d e n t t r e a t m e n t , B e r e n s o n d e a l t w i t h a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o b l e m i n modern r e s e a r c h . What i s f o r g o t t e n when one r e a d s t h e l a t e r 1955 e d i t i o n i s how much o f t h e f i r s t e d i t i o n was d e v o t e d a c t u a l l y t o A l v i s e V i v a r i n i and t o c o n s t r u c t i n g a r o u n d him a V e n e t i a n s c h o o l o f which L o t t o was a p a r t . By s e t t i n g up t h e G i o v a n n i M o r e l l i , I t a l i a n P a i n t e r s . The G a l l e r i e s o f  Munich and D r e s d e n ( L o n d o n : J o h n M u r r a y , 1893), 48-49. M o r e l l i c o n s i d e r s L o t t o most k i n d r e d to C o r r e g g i o . 1 6 B r o w n ( 1 9 7 9 ) , 33-40. 17 I u s e t h e r e v i s e d e d i t i o n o f 1901. B e r n a r d B e r e n s o n , L o r e n z o L o t t o : An E s s a y i n C o n s t r u c t i v e A r t H i s t o r y ( L o n d o n : G e o r g e B e l l and S o n s , 1901). 12 c o n j e c t u r e o f an A l v i s e ' s c h o o l ' , B e r e n s o n opened up a b r e a t h i n g s p a c e i n a p i c t u r e o f t h e V e n e t i a n R e n a i s s a n c e d o m i n a t e d by B e l l i n i and T i t i a n i n t o w hich t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f an ' a l t e r n a t i v e c u l t u r e ' c o u l d be e n t e r t a i n e d . F o r B e r e n s o n , L o t t o opened t h e window t o t h e ' o t h e r s i d e ' o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e where t h e " r e a l R e n a i s s a n c e , w i t h a l l i t s b l i t h e 18 p r o m i s e , seemed o v e r and gone." One g e t s t h e f e e l i n g i n B e r e n s o n ' s c o n s t r u c t i o n o f L o t t o o f t h e 'back r o a d s ' o f e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y I t a l y where a s i n c e r e r e n o v a t i o n o f r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g was o c c u r r i n g , and where p e o p l e showed t h e i r c h a r a c t e r r a t h e r t h a n t h e i r p o s i t i o n . B e r e n s o n s t i l l c o n s i d e r e d L o t t o a s one o f t h e b e t t e r ' s e c o n d - r a t e s ' , t h u s a d m i t t i n g an a d h e r e n c e to t h e p r e e x i s t e n t schema o f d o m i n a n t c u l t u r e , b u t by c o n s t r u c t i n g an i n d e p e n d e n t c r i t i c a l c o n t e x t he e f f e c t e d an a c t o f ' r e m o v a l ' t h a t a l l o w e d him t o b e g i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a new p i c t u r e o f t h e a r t i s t . The new p i c t u r e o f t h e a r t i s t i n v o l v e d t h e r e c r e a t i o n o f a p e r s o n a l i t y t h a t was n o t formed on t h e c u l t u r a l l y e l i t e model o f a T i t i a n o r a R a p h a e l . B e r e n s o n was a c q u a i n t e d w i t h L o t t o ' s w i l l o f 1546, and he was aware o f t h e newly r e d i s c o v e r e d a c c o u n t book o f 1538-1554, p u b l i s h e d by V e n t u r i i n 1895 as t h e L i b r o d e i c o n t i . The e v i d e n c e o f t h e s e documents s u p p l e m e n t e d h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e a r t i s t as a B e r e n s o n ( 1 9 0 1 ) , 252. 13 s e n s i t i v e , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y i n t e n s e p e r s o n a l i t y . The p i c t u r e o f t h e a l i e n a t e d a r t i s t , t r o u b l e d , r e s t l e s s , and i n t e n s e has f o r m e d a p a r t o f t h e L o t t o image up t o t h e p r e s e n t day. W h i l e B e r e n s o n h i m s e l f d i d n o t s t r e s s t h e more d r a m a t i c a s p e c t s o f t h i s f i g u r e , i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t he l a i d t h e b a s i s f o r t h e s u b s e q u e n t c o n s t r u c t . When a new i n t e r e s t i n t h e a l i e n a t e d a r t i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y b r o u g h t Mannerism i n t o s c h o l a r l y f o c u s i n t h e 1950's and 1960's, 20 t h i s c o n s t r u c t o f L o t t o was s e i z e d upon w i t h new i n t e r e s t . B e r e n s o n s e t s up an image o f t h e a r t i s t as a ' p s y c h o l o g i s t ' w h i c h i s t h e n t a k e n up by C a r o l i i n 1980 t o a s u r p r i s i n g l y l i t e r a l d e g r e e . F l a v i o C a r o l i , L o r e n z o L o t t o e  l a n a s c i t a d e l l a p s i c o l o q i a moderna ( M i l a n : F a b b r i , 1980). "To t h e end L o t t o r e m a i n s a p s y c h o l o g i s t , u s i n g p s y c h o l o g y not f o r i t s own s a k e , b u t as an i n s t r u m e n t w i t h w h i c h t o g i v e a f i n e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r t h a n was g i v e n by any o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s ; as a means o f d r a w i n g c l o s e r to p e o p l e , and o f l o o k i n g d e e p e r down i n t o t h e i r n a t u r e s ; as a g u i d i n g power f o r t h e r e c r e a t i o n i n p a i n t i n g o f t h e most s y m b o l i c e v e n t s o f s a c r e d s t o r y . T h e s e , as we have s e e n , he i n t e r p r e t s w i t h e a r n e s t p i e t y and p r o f o u n d s i n c e r i t y a t a t i m e when T i t i a n was p a i n t i n g J e s u i t i c a l p i c t u r e s w h i c h met w i t h t h e e x a c t a p p r o v a l o f h i s S p a n i s h p a t r o n s , and when e v e n T i n t o r e t t o was m i n g l i n g w i t h a l l h i s s u b l i m e i n s p i r a t i o n a s t r o n g d o s e o f a p o l o g e t i c s o p h i s t r y . Where T i n t o r e t t o s o u g h t t o e x p l a i n , and T i t i a n to c omply, L o t t o s o u g h t o n l y t o i n t e r p r e t t h e b e l i e f s w h i c h had p e r m e ated and c o l o u r e d h i s whole p e r s o n a l i t y . " B e r e n s o n ( 1 9 0 1 ) , 277. 20 R u d o l f and Margot W i t t k o w e r ' s l e n g t h y s t u d y p u b l i s h e d i n t h e e a r l y 1960's on t h e h i s t o r i c a l b a s i s o f t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e ' a b n o r m a l ' p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e a r t i s t e p i t o m i z e s t h i s t y p e o f i n t e r e s t . R u d o l f and Margot W i t t k o w e r , B o r n Under  S a t u r n . The C h a r a c t e r and C o n d u c t o f A r t i s t s : A Documented  H i s t o r y f r o m A n t i q u i t y t o t h e F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n ( London: W e i d e n f e l d and N i c o l s o n , 1963). 14 S u b s e q u e n t t o t h e major (nostra o f L o t t o ' s works i n 1953> B e r e n s o n p u b l i s h e d a new e d i t i o n o f h i s L o r e n z o L o t t o . In t h e r e v i s e d 1955 e d i t i o n , B e r e n s o n l a r g e l y d i s c r e d i t e d h i s e a r l i e r c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e A l v i s e s c h o o l . The p i c t u r e he c o n s t r u c t e d o f t h e o e u v r e and t h e a r t i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y o f SI L o t t o however, c h a n g e d l i t t l e . When B e r e n s o n d e s c r i b e d L o t t o ' s r e l i g i o u s a t t i t u d e s , he d e s c r i b e d a n o t h e r s i d e o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y f r o m t h e t r a d i t i o n a l R e n a i s s a n c e ' s t o r y ' . He e s t a b l i s h e d L o t t o w i t h i n c u r r e n t s o f C a t h o l i c r e f o r m which b e l o n g e d t o a s o c i e t y o u t s i d e o f a more u r b a n , 22 ' p u b l i c ' humanism o r p a p a l i m a g e r y . In h i s 1955 e d i t i o n , B e r e n s o n d i d c hange o r add some a t t r i b u t i o n s and p a i d more a t t e n t i o n t o L o t t o ' s p o r t r a i t u r e , s t r e n g t h e n e d i n h i s b e l i e f t h a t " L o t t o was p e r h a p s t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g p o r t r a i t i s t o f h i s t i m e . " B e r n a r d B e r e n s o n , L o r e n z o L o t t o ( L o n d o n : P h a i d o n , 1956), x i . 22 B e r e n s o n r e l a t e s L o t t o to t h e c u r r e n t s o f r e f o r m w i t h i n t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h t h a t were most ' P r o t e s t a n i z i n g ' . C a l l p i c k s up on t h i s p a r t i c u l a r l i n e ( s e e below) and has e x p l i c i t l y r e f e r r e d to B e r e n s o n a s h e r p r e c u r s o r i n t h i s . B e r e n s o n makes h i s c o n n e c t i o n s b a s e d on h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n o f L o t t o ' s p e r s o n a l i t y - t h e e v i d e n c e o f a h i g h l y ' p e r s o n a l ' , ' e v a n g e l i c a l ' r e l i g i o n , w h i c h d o v e t a i l s w i t h B e r e n s o n ' s l a r g e r c o n s t r u c t i o n o f L o t t o as a s e n s i t i v e , p s y c h o l o g i c a l a r t i s t . " I t w i l l be remembered t h a t not o n l y t h o s e I t a l i a n s who hoped to r e c o n c i l e P r o t e s t a n t i s m w i t h t h e C h u r c h by r e t u r n i n g t o a more e v a n g e l i c a l f o r m o f C h r i s t i a n i t y were t o a g r e a t e x t e n t V e n e t i a n s u b j e c t s , o r l i v i n g and w o r k i n g i n V e n i c e , but a l s o t h a t t h e T h e a t i n e s , t h e Somascan O r d e r , and t h e J e s u i t s t h e m s e l v e s , e i t h e r had t h e i r r o o t s o r took t h e i r f i n a l s h a p e t h e r e . The a c c o u n t s o f t h e e a r l y T h e a t i n e movement, t h e l e t t e r s o f C o n t a r i n i o r P o l e , c o n v e y e x a c t l y t h e same i m p r e s s i o n o f ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) 15 B e r e n s o n f o c u s e d w i t h g r e a t e r i n t e n s i t y on L o t t o ' s p o r t r a i t u r e > and i n t h i s c o n t e x t ) a p i c t u r e o f an a l t e r n a t e S3 p a t r o n a g e came t h r o u g h more c l e a r l y : " I t a l m o s t would seem ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) c h a r i t y , o f l a r g e h u m a n i t y , and e v a n g e l i c a l f e e l i n g , t h a t i s c o n v e y e d by t h e p i c t u r e s L o t t o was p a i n t i n g a t t h e same t i m e . " B e r e n s o n ( 1 9 0 1 ) , S69. "A b r a v e I t a l i a n band t r u s t e d t h a t t h e y would be a b l e to make r e l i g i o n p e r s o n a l o n c e more w i t h o u t b ecoming P r o t e s t a n t s . We a l l know o f t h e s a d f a i l u r e o f C o n t a r i n i and S a d o l e t . L o t t o had t h e same temper o f mind, and he r e m a i n e d a s u n a p p r e c i a t e d as t h e y , f o r T i t i a n and T i n t o r e t t o swept him i n t o o b l i v i o n , as C a r a f f a and L o y o l a e f f a c e d t h e p r o t e s t a n t i z i n g c a r d i n a l s . " B e r e n s o n ( 1 9 0 1 ) , S53. A l s o s e e : B e r e n s o n ( 1 9 0 1 ) , S5S-3. In h i s f i r s t e d i t i o n , B e r e n s o n had c o n t r a s t e d L o t t o ' s p e r s o n a l i t y , r e l i g i o n , and s t y l e t o T i t i a n and h i s w o r l d , h i n t i n g a t t h e i d e a o f an ' a l t e r n a t e c u l t u r e . ' " L o r e n z o L o t t o was, t h e n , a p s y c h o l o g i c a l p a i n t e r i n an age w hich ended by e s t e e m i n g l i t t l e b u t f o r c e and d i s p l a y , a p e r s o n a l p a i n t e r a t a t i m e when p e r s o n a l i t y was f a s t g e t t i n g t o be o f l e s s a c c o u n t t h a n c o n f o r m i t y , e v a n g e l i c a l a t h e a r t i n a c o u n t r y upon which a r i g i d and s o u l l e s s C a t h o l i c i s m was d a i l y s t r e n g t h e n i n g i t s h o l d . E v e n t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f h i s l i f e , no l e s s t h a n h i s c h a r a c t e r , were a g a i n s t h i s a c q u i r i n g a r e p u t a t i o n . R e s t l e s s and a w a n d e r e r , he l e f t b ut few p i c t u r e s i n V e n i c e , h i s n a t i v e town, so t h a t t h e s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y a m a t e u r s , f r o m whom we have d e r i v e d our c u r r e n t n o t i o n s a b o u t t h e a r t o f t h a t t i m e , d i d n o t f i n d t h e r e enough o f L o t t o ' s work t o c a r r y away e n t h u s i a s t i c a c c o u n t s o f i t . But e v e n i f c i r c u m s t a n c e s had been more f a v o u r a b l e , i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t L o t t o ' s r e p u t a t i o n would have p a l e d b e f o r e t h a t o f h i s g r e a t r i v a l , who g a i n e d and k e p t , t h r o u g h a l o n g l i f e t i m e , t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c . A c h i e v e m e n t s so b r i l l i a n t and so w e l l a d v e r t i s e d a s T i t i a n ' s c o u l d l e a v e b u t s c a n t room f o r t h e E u r o p e a n fame o f a p a i n t e r , t h e a p p r e c i a t i o n o f whose p e c u l i a r m e r i t s r e q u i r e d a ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) 16 as i f he had a c q u i r e d t h e r e p u t a t i o n o f b e i n g t h e a r t i s t a b l e t o p o r t r a y t h e k i n d o f i n d i v i d u a l who, f o r p e r s o n a l , s o c i a l o r f i n a n c i a l r e a s o n s , d i d n o t want to employ - o r 24 c o u l d n o t a f f o r d t o employ - a T i t i a n o r a T i n t o r e t t o . " In a s t u d y e n t i t l e d " Q u e s i t i c a r a v a g g e s c h i : I p r e c e d e n t i " <1929) R o b e r t o L o n g h i made a s i g n i f i c a n t 2 c o n t r i b u t i o n to t h e o p e n i n g up o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e c o n t e x t . L o n g h i w r e s t e d t h e p r o v i n c i a l a r t i s t s o f Lombardy -p a r t i c u l a r l y o f B r e s c i a and Bergamo - f r o m t h e i r c r i t i c a l s u b o r d i n a t i o n to t h e R e n a i s s a n c e ' g r e a t s ' and r e c r e a t e d an i n d e p e n d e n t and l i v e l y a r t i s t i c c o n t e x t . L o n g h i b r o k e t h e f e t t e r s t h a t s t i l l c l u n g t o Crowe and C a v a l c a s e l l e and e v e n to B e r e n s o n - an i n h e r e n t c o m p a r i s o n to t h e t r a d i t i o n a l R e n a i s s a n c e m a t r i x , t h e p r e e s t a b 1 i s h e d n o t i o n s o f p r o g r e s s i o n t o a ' C l a s s i c A r t ' . He f o u n d p a r t i c u l a r l y u n h e l p f u l t h e t e n d e n c y t o s e e a r t i s t s s u c h as M o r e t t o as a 26 " T i z i a n u c c i d i c o n t a d o " • L o n g h i p o i n t e d o u t t h a t l o c a l ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) b e t t e r t r a i n e d e ye and a more d e l i c a t e s e n s e o f p e r s o n a l i t y t h a n were common i n t h e camp o f C h a r l e s V o r c o u r t o f P h i l i p I I . " B e r e n s o n ( 1 9 0 1 ) , 277-78. 24 B e r e n s o n ( 1 9 5 6 ) , x i i i . 25 R o b e r t o L o n g h i , " Q u e s i t i c a r a v a g g e s c h i : i p r e c e d e n t i , " i n Da Cimabue a M o r a n d i ( V i c e n z a : A r n o l d o M o n d a d o r i , 1974), 735-800. L o n g h i r e p o r t s t h a t t h e t h e s i s o f t h e a r t i c l e was o r i g i n a l l y f o r m u l a t e d i n 1911. L o n g h i ( 1 9 7 4 ) , 736. L o n g h i ( 1 9 7 4 ) , 752. 17 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p a i n t i n g were sometimes a n t i t h e t i c t o t h e "High R e n a i s s a n c e ' a e s t h e t i c . He c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s p a r t i c u l a r l y Lombard a r e a l i s m t h a t was n o t e p i c , b u t t r a n s i t o r y , p a r t a k i n g o f e v e r y d a y e v e n t s e x p r e s s e d i n i d i o s y n c r a t i c e m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s e , v a g r a n t e f f e c t s o f l i g h t , and a p r e f e r e n c e f o r l a n d s c a p e a s an i n d e p e n d e n t v e h i c l e . T r e a t i n g L o t t o a s an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t i n t h i s c u l t u r a l m i l i e u made i t p o s s i b l e to s e e t h e p r o v i n c e s a s a p o s i t i v e c o n t e x t . P i e t r o Z a m p e t t i h a s p l a y e d a key r o l e i n modern L o t t o s t u d i e s . In 1950 he o r g a n i z e d a major e x h i b i t i o n " P i t t u r a v e n e t a n e l l e Marche" w h i c h 'opened up' an i m p o r t a n t r e g i o n a l a r e a o f L o t t o ' s a c t i v i t y as L o n g h i had 'opened up' Lombardy. T h r e e y e a r s l a t e r Z a m p e t t i a r r a n g e d t h e f i r s t major m o s t r a 27 o f L o t t o ' s works i n V e n i c e . H i s c e n t r a l r o l e i n t h e modern d e v e l o p m e n t o f L o t t o s t u d i e s was e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h 28 t h i s commitment. With t h e 1953 e x h i b i t i o n , f o r t h e f i r s t M o s t r a d i L o r e n z o L o t t o ( V e n i c e : A r t e V e n e t a , 1953). 28 Z a m p e t t i has made a v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n to modern L o t t o s t u d i e s w i t h t h e s y n t h e t i c o v e r v i e w s he has w r i t t e n on t h e f i e l d . In t h e c a t a l o g u e to t h e A s o l o convegno  i n t e r n a z i o n a l e and t h e Marche c a t a l o g u e f r o m t h e major m o s t r a o f t h e same y e a r , Z a m p e t t i p r o v i d e s b r i e f b u t h e l p f u l c r i t i c a l h i s t o r i o g r a p h i e s on L o t t o r e s e a r c h . L o r e n z o L o t t o .  Convegno i n t e r n a z i o n a l e d i s t u d i ( A s o l o , 1980), 13-20 [ h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as A s o l o 3 ; L o r e n z o L o t t o n e l l e  M a r c h e . II suo tempo, i l suo i n f l u s s o . ( F l o r e n c e : C e n t r o D i , 1981), 17-27. s e e a l s o : R u d o l f o P a l l u c c h i n i and G i o r d a n a M a r i a n i ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) 18 t i m e , i m p o r t a n t works f r o m d i s p a r a t e l o c a t i o n s o f L o t t o ' s p r o d u c t i o n c o u l d be s e e n t o g e t h e r as a u n i t . L o t t o was g i v e n r e c o g n i t i o n and l e g i t i m a c y - a f t e r T i t i a n , V e r o n e s e ) T i n t o r e t t o , G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i , and T i e p o l o had been g i v e n s i m i l a r e x h i b i t i o n s . In r e s p o n s e t o t h i s e v e n t new s t u d i e s and monographs on t h e a r t i s t were p r o d u c e d . T h e s e s t u d i e s c a r r i e d and expanded on work done by b o t h B e r e n s o n and L o n g h i . The d e f i n i t i o n o f L o t t o ' s 'anomalous' p e r s o n a l i t y i s f l e s h e d o u t , and b e g i n n i n g s a r e made to e s t a b l i s h a c o n t e x t o f an a l t e r n a t i v e s p i r i t u a l i t y l i n k e d t o c u r r e n t s o f C a t h o l i c r e f o r m - a theme, a l o n g w i t h work on p r i v a t e p i e t y , t h a t w i l l be p i c k e d up and e l a b o r a t e d on by s e v e r a l s c h o l a r s i n t h e 1980's. The Marche e x h i b i t i o n o f 1950, and L o n g h i ' s work p r e v i o u s t o i t , s e t t h e g r o u n d f o r more s e r i o u s a t t e n t i o n to t h e p r o v i n c i a l c o n t e x t -a t t e n t i o n w h i c h c o n t i n u e s t o d e v e l o p up t o t h e p r e s e n t . Anna M a r i a B r i z i o i n " I I p e r c o r s o d e l l ' a r t e d i L o r e n z o L o t t o " (1953) f o l l o w s up where L o n g h i l e f t o f f , e s t a b l i s h i n g L o t t o w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e " g r a n d e t r a d i z i o n e lombarda 29 d e 1 1 ' a f f r e s c o ...d'un f o n d o p i u p o p o l a r e . " She c o n t r i b u t e s ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) Canova, L ' o p e r a c o m p l e t a d e l L o t t o ( M i l a n : R i z z o l i , 1975), 11-14. Anna M a r i a B r i z i o , " I I p e r c o r s o d e l l ' a r t e d i L o r e n z o L o t t o , " A r t e V e n e t a , V I I ( 1 9 5 3 ) , 22. 19 new t e r m s by s u g g e s t i n g t h e f r u i t f u l n e s s o f a d i r e c t c o n n e c t i o n w i t h G a u d e n z i o F e r r a r a ( s i g n i f i c a n t l y f i l l i n g o u t a p i c t u r e o f t h i s a r e a o f Lombard a c t i v i t y . B r i z i o a l s o c o n s i d e r s t h a t L o t t o s u s t a i n e d an a c t i v e c o n t a c t w i t h c e n t r a l I t a l i a n M a nnerism. A c c o r d i n g t o B r i z i o , L o t t o was e f f e c t e d by Mannerism b u t f a i l e d to become a M a n n e r i s t b e c a u s e t e m p e r a m e n t a l l y he was removed f r o m " o g n i i n t e l l e t t u a l i s m o " , f r o m " s u p e r b a e a r i s t o c r a t i c a a u t o c o s c i e n z a , o t o r m e n t o s a r i c e r c a d i e v a s i o n e " E x p a n d i n g on B e r e n s o n ' s i n t u i t i o n s , i n B r i z i o ' s s c r i p t L o t t o ' s r e s p o n s e s were to o p e r s o n a l , t o o i d i o s y n c r a t i c , and i n t h e end t o o t o r m e n t e d t o be a c c e p t e d by a V e n e t i a n p u b l i c 31 w i t h a t a s t e f o r t h e c e r e m o n i a l a r t o f T i t i a n . B r i z i o ( 1 9 5 3 ) , 21. 31 B r i z i o c o n s t r u c t s a p i c t u r e o f L o t t o f u o r i d a l 1 ' a r t e d o m i n a n t e upon h i s r e t u r n t o V e n i c e : " E r a m o l t o c a m b i a t o i l mondo d e l l ' a r t e i n t o r n o a l u i . M i c h e l a n g e l o e T i z i a n o dominavano, r i v o l t i e n t r a m b i , s e pur p e r s t r a d e d i v e r s e , ad una s u p e r b a v i s i o n e d i g r a n d i o s i t a , da c u i e r a a l i e n a l a s u a s e n s i b i l i t a . E g l i , c h e i n g i o v i n e z z a a v e v a c r e a t o a l c u n e d e l l e p i u a l t e e nuove e s p r e s s i o n i d e l l a s c u o l a v e n e z i a n a a l l ' a p e r t u r a d e l '500, e poco dopo e r a s t a t o d e i p r i m i ad a v v e r t i r e ed e l a b o r a r e s p u n t i d i m a n i e r i s m o i n c o n g i u n z i o n e c o l l e s c u o l e d e l l ' I t a l i a C e n t r a l e , ed e r a p e r v e n u t o p o i , a c o n t a t t o c o l l a s c u o l a l ombarda, a s o l u z i o n i c o s i p e r s o n a l e , s i r e t r o v a , t o r n a t o a V e n e z i a , t a g l i a t o f u o r i d a l l e f orme d ' a r t e i v i d o m i n a n t i . " B r i z i o ( 1 9 5 3 ) , 23. 20 Anna B a n t i ' s L o r e n z o L o t t o (1953) c o v e r s many o f t h e major p r o b l e m s c u r r e n t i n L o t t o s t u d i e s : t h e i n f l u e n c e o f N o r t h e r n works, o f Rome and R a p h a e l , t h e Lombard a r t i s t i c s i t u a t i o n a s r e c o n s t r u c t e d by L o n g h i , and t h e q u e s t i o n o f r e l i g i o n - w hich she a n s w e r s by p l a c i n g L o t t o i n t h e c o n t e x t 32 o f e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y C a t h o l i c r e f o r m . Her r e a d i n g o f L o t t o ' s a r t i s t i c c a t a l o g u e i s r e m a r k a b l y s e n s i t i v e and e v o c a t i v e . In h e r t e x t , however, L o t t o i s i n e v i t a b l y compared t o t h e r e c e i v e d t r a d i t i o n - i n c o m p e t i t i o n and i n p r o c e s s o f d e f i n i t i o n a g a i n s t f i r s t B e l l i n i and t h e n T i t i a n . The q u e s t i o n t h a t s h e p o s e s i s one a t t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y c e n t r e o f L o t t o s t u d i e s . How d o e s one d e f i n e an a r t i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y o u t s i d e o f t h e r e c e i v e d t r a d i t i o n o f t h e H i g h R e n a i s s a n c e ? B a n t i ( a s d o e s B r i z i o ) a n s w e r s t h i s q u e s t i o n much as W o l f f 1 i n d i d i n o r d e r t o d e f i n e B a r o q u e a g a i n s t t h e R e n a i s s a n c e - by s e t t i n g up p o l a r i t i e s . Where B e l l i n i i s B a n t i ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f L o t t o ' s r e l i g i o u s a t t i t u d e s comes o u t o f h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f L o t t o " t o r m e n t a t o " : "Fu g i a i n d i c a t a ed e o r m a i a c c e t t a t a comunemente l a p a r t i c o l a r p o s i z i o n e d e l L o t t o n e i c o n f r o n t i d e l l a r i f o r m a : i n I t a l i a e g l i f u i l s o l o g r a n d e a r t i s t a che d i m o s t r a d i e s s e r s e n e , s e n z a t r a d i r e i p r o p r i a v o c a z i o n e , almeno t o r m e n t a t o . Uno s c r u t a r e , s e c o n d o l e sue p o s s i b i l i t y d i uomo s e m p l i c e , i t e s t i e l e t r a d i z i o n i s a c r e j un e l a b o r a r e i l temo d e v o t o a p p a s s i o n a t a m e n t , un c e r c a r c o n a f f a n n o i m o t i v i p i u umani d i f e d e l t a d i e s p r i m e r s i c o n immagini c h e r i n n o v a n o c o s i i l mondo p i t t o r i c o come q u e l l e m o r a l e . . . " Anna B a n t i , R i v e l a z i o n e d i L o r e n z o L o t t o ( F l o r e n c e : S a n s o n i , 1981), 69-70. T h i s t e x t was o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d as " L o r e n z o L o t t o " i n t h e B i b l i o t e c a d i P r o p o r z i o n e (1953) w i t h c a t a l o g u e and n o t e s by A n t o n i o B o s c h e t t o . SI " n o r m a t i v e " L o t t o i s " a n o r m a t i v e " ; to t h e R e n a i s s a n c e c o n c o r d i s j u x t a p o s e d d i s c o r d a n s , i n c o m p a r i s o n to t h e H i g h R e n a i s s a n c e s c a l e o f i d e a l i z e d c a l m o r d i v i n e t e r r i b i 1 i t a L o t t o ' s p e r s o n a l i t y i s d e f i n e d a s t r o u b l e d , e r r a n t , 33 s e n s i t i v e , t o r m e n t e d , o r ev e n s l i g h t l y demented. I f B e r e n s o n ' s 1895 monograph p r e s e n t e d f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e many o f t h e major themes o f t h e modern image o f L o t t o , i n t h e s i g n a l y e a r o f 1953, i n a p e r i o d o f d e f i n i t i o n s p u r r e d by t h e ' b a p t i s m ' o f a major e x h i b i t i o n , t h e modern myth o f L o t t o was b e i n g d i s s e m i n a t e d . L u i g i C o l e t t i ( L o t t o , 1953) c o n t i n u e s t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e a r t i s t as " i n q u i e t e d e l l a mente", t o r m e n t e d i n h i s q u e s t i o n i n g o f r e l i g i o n i n a t i m e o f r e f o r m w i t h i n t h e 34 C h u r c h , and t o r m e n t e d i n h i s work. As d i d L o n g h i , C o l e t t i B a n t i d e s c r i b e s L o t t o ' s c h a r a c t e r a s : " i l p i u c o m p l e s s o e moderno p e r un a r t i s t a d e i s u o i tempi e non d i s u o i tempi s o l t a n t o . Uomo t o r m e n t a t o , r i p i e g a t o s u s e s t e s s o , r a s s e g n a t o sempre." B a n t i ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 58. And a g a i n : "Per uomo p i e n o d i s c r u p o l i , a f f a t t o a c c o m o d a n t e , f a n t a s t i c o , q u a s i l u n a t i c o , d o v e v a e s s e r c o n o s c i u t o u n i v e r s a l m e n t e , ma non c ' e r a , a V e n e z i a , un V a s a r i c he p r e n d e s s e n o t a d i q u e s t e s o t t i g l i e z z e p e r i n t e r p r e t a r l e , s i a pur c o l l a m a l i z i o s a f r i g i d i t a t o s c a n a , come s e g n i d e l g e n i o . " B a n t i ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 78. 34 "Sempre i n c e r c a d i una q u i e t e c he non t r o v a mai, d i una f o r t u n a c he sempre g l i s f u g g e , sempre i n a f f a n n o , s e n z a f a m i g l i a , s e n z a una s t a n z a s u a p r o p r i a ; s p e s s o i n p o v e r t a , ma f o r s e , p i u , i n d i s t r e t t e , sempre, p e r l a p a u r a d e l l a p o v e r t a . " L u i g i C o l e t t i , L o t t o (Bergamo: I s t i t u t o i t a l i a n o d ' a r t e g r a f i c h e , 1953), 7. " S o p r a t t u t t o e i n l u i una i n s o d d i s f a z i o n e p e r e n n e , a c u i t a da una s e n s i b i l i t a c h e l o t o r m e n t a t u t t a l a v i t a . " ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) 22 d e f i n e s th e two r e a l i t i e s o f t h e age i n t e r m s o f L o t t o ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e t r a n s i e n t and f u g i t i v e d e t a i l i n c o n t r a s t to t h e R e n a i s s a n c e r e a l i t y o f a l a r g e and s e a m l e s s 35 harmony. The most u n i q u e and l e a s t a c c e p t e d o f t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f L o t t o ' s p e r s o n a l i t y i s C o l e t t i ' s r e a d i n g o f L o t t o ' s humour - n o t a t a l l t h e w i t t h a t would be a c c e p t a b l e w i t h i n t h e p a r a m e t e r s o f a s o p h i s t i c a t e d R e n a i s s a n c e r e f e r e n c e but a q u a i n t i f n o t 36 c r u d e p r o p e n s i t y f o r v i s u a l g a g s . ( l ) ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) C o l e t t i ( 1 9 5 3 ) , 8. "Non l o s o s p e t t e r e m o - come p u r e e s t a t o f a t t o - a c a g i o n d i c o n t a t t i c o n t e d e s c h i e d e l R i t r a t t o d i M a r t i n L u t h e r e d i s u a m o g l i e , non l o s o s p e t t e r e m o de c o n d i s c e n d e n z e l u t e r a n e , ma non e d i f f i c i l e i n t r a v e d e r e anche i n q u e s t o g e l o s i s s i m o , s e c r e t o s e t t o r e d e l suo s p i r i t o c o m p 1 i c a z i o n e , a g i t a z i o n i , t o r m e n t o . " C o l e t t i ( 1 9 5 3 ) , 8. 35 "L'amore d e l l e p i c c o l e c o s e e l ' amore d e i t e n u i s e n t i m e n t i , 1 ' o s s e r v a z i o n e i n t i m i s t i c a d e l l a r e a l t a e l a ricerca d e l l e s f u m a t u r e p s i c o l o g i c h e . D a l l a l a b i l i t a d e l s e n t i m e n t o l o t t e s c o , c o n s e g u e 1 ' i s t a n t a n e i t a d e l l a s u a v i s o n e , i l f r a z i o n a r s i d e l l a s u a a t t e n z i o n e , i l p o s a r s i d e i s u o i i n t e r e s s i s u g 1 i i n f i n i t i a t t i m i d e l l a v i t a , s u g 1 i a t o m i i n n u m e r e v o l i d e l l a r e a l t a . " C o l e t t i ( 1 9 5 3 ) , 12. 36 C o l e t t i f i n d s i n L o t t o ' s p a i n t i n g s a r a n g e f r o m s u b t l e w i t to c r u d e humour: " Q u e l l a s o t t i l v e n a d i "umore", ch ' e dopo t u t t o , i l l i e t o , o almeno p a c i f i c o f i n e d i t u t t o i l t r a v a g l i o s e n t i m e n t a l e d e l p i t t o r e , s i e s p r i m e i n t o n i c o m i c i , c h e hanno una s q u i s i t a l e v i t a d i t o c c o , ma sono pur sempre a v v e r t i b i l i n e l l a i n v e n z i o n e l o t t e s c a . Una c o m i c i t a l e g g e r a e g a r b a t a che t r a p a s s a p e r v a r i i g r a d i : da una s f u m a t u r a d e l i c a t i s s i m a che v e l a q u a s i o g n i s u a c o m p o s i z i o n e , ad un a c c e n t o p e r f i n o , n e l l e s i t u a z i o n i p i u s c o p e r t e , g r o t t e s c o : d a l l a g r a z i a un po' b i r i c h i n a , d a l l a C a n d i d a c i v i t t e r i a d e l l e s u e f i g u r e a n g e l i c h e o v e r g i n a l i , a l i a g o f f a g g i n e d e l i z i o s a d e i p u t t i , a l i a s t r a v a g a n z a b a r b o l o g i a ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) 23 A gap between t h e major e x h i b i t i o n s o f 1950/53 and 1980 was p u n c t u a t e d by t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f L o t t o ' s l e t t e r s by L u i g i C h i o d i , and t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n o f work by l o c a l s c h o l a r s i n Bergamo and i n t h e M arche. In 1962 C h i o d i p u b l i s h e d h i s f i r s t e d i t i o n o f L o t t o ' s l e t t e r s t o t h e " C o n s o r z i o d e l l a M i s e r i c o r d i a M a g g i o r e " o f Bergamo d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1524-1532 which he r e v i s e d and expanded i n a s e c o n d e d i t i o n 37 o f 1968. C h i o d i ' s work i n t h e a r c h i v e s i n Bergamo has p r o v i d e d an i n v a l u a b l e d o c u m e n t a r y b a s i s f o r L o t t o s t u d i e s and has p r e p a r e d a f e r t i l e g r o u n d f o r i n t e n s e a c t i v i t y i n t h a t c i t y . Beyond t h e l e t t e r s t h e m s e l v e s , C h i o d i made c o n s i d e r e d c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l t h e y c o n t a i n . He d e a l t b l o ws to some a l r e a d y c h e r i s h e d p o s s e s s i o n s o f t h e L o t t o myth. On t h e e v i d e n c e o f t h e l e t t e r s , C h i o d i was a b l e to d i s c r e d i t t h e myth o f L o t t o ' s 'vagabond' n a t u r e by d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h a t L o t t o ' s moves were made i n t h e c a s e o f n e c e s s i t y , o n l y w i t h r e l u c t a n c e , and 38 a v o i d e d i f p o s s i b l e . G r e a t l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n o f L o t t o ' s o r i g i n s , C h i o d i d i s p a r a g e d t h e p l e t h o r a o f ' i n f l u e n c e s ' a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e a r t i s t and went on q u i t e s o l i d l y to c o n j e c t u r e t h a t - f r o m t h e e v i d e n c e o f L o t t o ' s ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) d e i v e c c h i S a n t i l u n a t i c i . " C o l e t t i ( 1 9 5 3 ) , 14. 37 L u i g i C h i o d i , L e t t e r e i n e d i t e d i L o r e n z o L o t t o (Bergamo: S e c o m a n d i , 1968). C h i o d i ( 1 9 6 8 ) , 14-15. 24 b u s i n e s s a t t i t u d e s - t h e a r t i s t ' s t r a i n i n g most l i k e l y t ook p l a c e n o t a t a l l i n a major V e n e t i a n workshop but i n t h e 39 workshop o f a s m a l l a r t i s a n . He h e l p e d t o f l e s h o u t L o t t o ' s p e r i o d i n Bergamo by d e a l i n g w i t h t h e a r t i s t ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s p a t r o n s t h e r e , and a t t e m p t e d to 40 i d e n t i f y L o t t o ' s r e s i d e n c e s . A g r e a t d e a l o f a c t i v i t y i n Bergamo c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e y e a r s l e a d i n g up t o t h e 1980 a n n i v e r s a r y y e a r . In 1975 B o l i s p u b l i s h e d a l a v i s h and i n v a l u a b l e s e t on I p i t t o r i 41 b e r q a m a s c h i . Many o f t h e i m p o r t a n t works i n Bergamo by L o t t o were c l e a n e d and r e s t o r e d i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e 42 a n n i v e r s a r y y e a r . The p a l a M a r t i n e n g o , L o t t o ' s f i r s t c o m m i s s i o n i n Bergamo, i s an i m p o r t a n t p i e c e , b e i n g h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e c i t y a s w e l l as t h e l a r g e s t and r i c h e s t a l t a r p i e c e he p a i n t e d t h e r e . R e s t o r e d and c l e a n e d , i t became t h e f o c u s o f i n t e n s e l o c a l a t t e n t i o n , r e s u l t i n g i n a c o l l e c t i o n o f e s s a y s d e v o t e d t o t h e a l t a r p i e c e p u b l i s h e d i n 39 C h i o d i ( 1 9 6 9 ) , 4-6; 17-20. 40 See a l s o : L u i g i C h i o d i , "Le A b i t a z i o n i d e l L o t t o a Bergamo," i n Bergamo p e r L o r e n z o L o t t o (Bergamo: C e n t r o C u l t u r a l e S t . B a r t o l o m e , 1980), 13-16. 41 I p i t t o r i b e r q a m a s c h i . II C i n q u e c e n t o , v o l . I (Bergamo: B o l i s , 1975). R o s a l b a T a r d i t o , " R e s t a u r o d i a l c u n e o p e r e d i L o r e n z o L o t t o i n Bergamo," i n Bergamo p e r L o r e n z o L o t t o ( 1 9 8 0 ) , 53-64. 25 1978. In 1980 t h e e x h i b i t i o n h e l d a t t h e A c c a d e m i a C a r r a r a "Omaggio a L o r e n z o L o t t o " p r e s e n t e d an o v e r v i e w o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y h o l d i n g s o f t h e museum. In c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e 1980 commemorative y e a r Bergamo h e l d i t s own convegno on L o t t o , p u b l i s h i n g t h e a c t s under t h e 44 t i t l e o f : " L o r e n z o L o t t o : R i f l e s s i o n i Lombarde". F r a n c e s c a C o r t e s i B o s c o , who had been c o n t r i b u t i n g work on L o t t o ' s r e l i g i o u s a t t i t u d e s and t h e r o l e o f c o n t e m p o r a r y d e v o t i o n a l c u r r e n t s i n h i s work, d e v o t e d an i m p o r t a n t s t u d y o f L o t t o ' s f r e s c o c y c l e f o r t h e S u a r d i o r a t o r y j u s t o u t s i d e o f Bergamo, which was p u b l i s h e d a s G l i a f f r e s c h i d e l 1 " o r a t o r i o S u a r d i . L o r e n z o L o t t o n e l l a c r i s i d e l l a 45 R i f o r m a i n 1980. T h i s book d e a l s w i t h t h e c y c l e as an e n t i r e c o n t e x t - i n terms o f t h e l a r g e r s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s c l i m a t e , t h e p a t r o n , and t h e l e v e l s o f meaning f r o m p o p u l a r t o a r c a n e . La p a l a M a r t i n e n q o d i L o r e n z o L o t t o : S t u d i e  r i c e r c h e , i n o c c a s i o n e d e l r e s t a u r o (Bergamo: C e n t r o C u l t u r a l e S t . B a r t o l o m e o , 1978). 44 The c a t a l o g u e o f t h e e x h i b i t i o n and t h e a c t s o f t h e convegno a r e combined i n : Bergamo p e r L o r e n z o L o t t o ( 1 9 8 0 ) . 45 F r a n c e s c a C o r t e s i B o s c o , G l i a f f r e s c h i d e l l ' o r a t o r i o  S u a r d i . L o r e n z o L o t t o n e l l a c r i s i d e l l a R i f o r m a (Bergamo: B o l i s , 1980). P r e v i o u s s t u d i e s : "A p r o p o s i t o d e l f r o n t e s p i z i o d i L o r e n z o L o t t o p e r l a B i b b i a d i A n t o n i o B r u c i o l i , " Bergomum, LXX ( 1 9 7 6 ) , 3-25; "La l e t t e r a t u r a r e l i g i o s a d e v o z i o n a l e e 1 ' i c o n o g r a f i a d i a l c u n i d i p i n t i d i L o t t o , " Bergomum, 1-2, LXX, ( 1 9 7 6 ) , 27-42; "La metamorphosi d e l l a c a v e r n a . L a p a l a d i L o r e n z o L o t t o p e r l a c h i e s a d e i S a n t i S t e f a n o e Domenico a Bergamo," Bergomum, 1-2 ( 1 9 7 7 ) , 3-16. 26 In t h e Marche a major e x h i b i t i o n and convegno i n 1980 d e d i c a t e d t o " L o r e n z o L o t t o n e l l e Marche" f l o u r i s h e d on t h e gr o u n d p r e p a r e d by t h e e x h i b i t i o n o f V e n e t i a n a r t i s t s i n t h e Marche i n 1 9 5 0 . ^ T h i s o c c a s i o n gave t h e r e g i o n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y to c a t a l o g u e and c o l l e c t i m p o r t a n t works f o r r e s t o r a t i o n and gave t h e i m p e t u s to r e e v a l u a t e t h e p a t r i m o n y o f t h e a r e a and t h e e n t i r e c o n t e x t o f s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y p a i n t i n g i n t h e Marche. The q u e s t i o n o f L o r e n z o L o t t o i n t h e Marche i s r e a l l y one o f a d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e l o c a l c u l t u r e : was t h e Marche c u l t u r e one o f r e c e p t i o n / i m p o r t a t i o n t o w hich L o t t o c o n t r i b u t e d , o r c a n i t be b e t t e r d e f i n e d a s an v i t a l e n t i t y , i n w h i c h an a r t i s t s u c h as L o t t o 47 p a r t i c i p a t e d ? The major s t u d y t h a t c u t t h r o u g h t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e l i n e s o f L o t t o r e s e a r c h i n t h e y e a r 1980 was t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e a c t s o f t h e A s o l o convegno i n t e r n a z i o n a l e . Work on s t y l e ( a t t r i b u t i o n and ' i n f l u e n c e ' ) and i c o n o g r a p h y a r e b a l a n c e d by s t u d i e s on L o t t o ' s r e l i g i o n and b i o g r a p h y , h i s L o r e n z o L o t t o n e l l e Marche. II suo tempo, i l suo  i n f l u s s o ( F l o r e n c e : C e n t r o D i , 1981). 47 " B i s o g n a v a , a l i a f i n e , a f f r o n t a r e l ' a r g o m e n t o d e l l ' a r t e l o c a l e , s e e s i s t a , i n a l t r i t e r m i n i una c u l t u r a f i g u r a t i v a autonoma d e l t e r r i t o r i o o p i u t t o s t o l e Marche debbono c o n s i d e r a r s i zona d ' i n f l u e n z a , non a l t r o ; come sembravo c r e d e r i l S e r r a , dando a l suo ben n o t o l i b r o , v o l u t a m e n t e , i l t i t o l o ' L ' a r t e n e l l e Marche' e non ' L ' a r t e d e l l e M arche.'" P i e t r o Z a m p e t t i i n L o r e n z o L o t t o n e l l e  M a r c h e . . . ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 17. 87 p o r t r a i t u r e j s o c i a l c o n t e x t , and p a t r o n a g e . One o f t h e most p r o v o c a t i v e a s p e c t s o f t h i s c o l l e c t i o n a p p e a r s as a c o d a t o t h e a c t s a s p u b l i s h e d . E s s a y s by M a u r i z i o B o n i c a t t i and A l b e r t o P a n z a c h a l l e n g e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l i s t m e t h o d o l o g i e s 49 o f L o t t o s t u d i e s . T h e i r method i s d e c o n s t r u c t i v e . T h e i r argument i s t h e f u n d a m e n t a l one o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e c o n s t r u c t i n g a h i s t o r y o f an a r t i s t when s c h o l a r s a r e r e a l l y so l i t t l e e q u i p p e d t o c o n f r o n t t h e f u l l c o n t e x t . The e s s a y s a r e a n e g a t i o n o f t h e " q i u o c o " o f L o t t o p l a y e d by t h e l a r g e number o f s c h o l a r s r e c e n t l y a t t r a c t e d t o t h e p r o b l e m s i n L o t t o r e s e a r c h . ^ In t h e c a t a l o g u e a s p r i n t e d , V i t t o r i o S g a r b i g i v e s a competent summary o f t h e conveqno w h i c h seems t o c o n f o r m to t h e s t r u c t u r e a p p l i e d t o t h e t e x t s as p r i n t e d . The f i r s t day and p a r t o f t h e s e c o n d had "un t a g l i o s t r e t t a m e n t e f i l o l o g i c o " ; t h e n e s t s e s s i o n s had "un i m p i a n t o e m i n entemente i d e o l o g i c o " w i t h p a p e r s on t h e " p o s i z i o n e , f i l o s o f i c a , i d e a l e e r e l i g i o s a , d e l L o t t o r i s p e t t o a l i a c u l t u r a d e l suo tempo e a l g r a n d e movimento d e l l a R i f o r m a " ; t h e l a s t day was d e d i c a t e d t o i n t e r p r e t i v e p a p e r s , m o s t l y i c o n o l o g i c a l "con i l v i v a c e a p p o r t o d i A u g u s t o G e n t i l i e d e l l a s u a s c u o l a , r a p p r e s e n t a t a da l i m a Reho." V i t t o r i o S g a r b i , "Le anime d e l L o t t o , " A s o l o , 489-49E. 49 M a u r i z i o B o n i c a t t i - A l b e r t o P a n z a , " I I g i u o c o d e l L o t t o , " A s o l o , 467-477. ^ P a n z a ' s e p i g r a p h f r o m W i t t g e n s t e i n ' s T r a c t a t u s  l o q i c o - p h i l o s o p h i c u s i s a c u t t i n g i f n o t c a t t y h o m i l e t i c d i r e c t e d , one u n d e r s t a n d s , t o h i s c o l l e a g u e s i n g e n e r a l : " Q u e l l o c h e pu6 d i r s i s i pu6 d i r c h i a r o j e s u c i o d i c u i non s i puo p a r l a r e , s i d eve t a c e r e . " B o n i c a t t i - P a n z a , Aso1o, 467. 88 one s c h o l a r c o n f r o n t e d t h e c h a l l e n g e as p r e s e n t e d and s e t o u t to d e f i n e h i s method - A u g u s t o G e n t i l i . ^ * # * * The p r o b l e m a t t h i s p o i n t i n L o t t o s t u d i e s g o e s beyond e x p a n d i n g t h e c a s t o f c h a r a c t e r s o f t r a d i t i o n a l R e n a i s s a n c e h i s t o r y . The c h a l l e n g e w i t h i n L o t t o s t u d i e s i s now to expand t h e t r a d i t i o n a l methods i n o r d e r t o answer q u e s t i o n s o f c o n t e x t and f u n c t i o n . T h i s t h e s i s , d e a l i n g w i t h a p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n a l work, a t t h e o u t s e t e n c o u n t e r s a s k e t c h y p r o b l e m . In L o t t o s t u d i e s , t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e s h a p e o f p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n i n t h e V e n e t i a n t e r r i t o r i e s and among L o t t o ' s p a t r o n s h a s become a c e n t r a l f o c u s o f r e s e a r c h and d e b a t e . P r i v a t e d e v o t i o n b e i n g o u t s i d e i n s t i t u t i o n a l p a r a m e t e r s , t h i s r e s e a r c h d o v e t a i l s w i t h t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f L o t t o ' s r e l a t i o n to t h e c u r r e n t s o f r e l i g i o u s r e f o r m , whether o r t h o d o x C a t h o l i c o r g r o u n d e d i n t h e i d e a s o f L u t h e r , i n n o r t h e r n I t a l y . G e n t i l i r e f u s e d t o a c t i n a p o s i t i o n o f m e d i a t i o n b u t r o s e t o t h e c h a l l e n g e t o d e f i n e h i s method. He d e s c r i b e d i t a s a " t e n t a t i v o d i s p o s t a m e n t e d e l l ' a n a l i s i i c o n o l o g i c a s u i t e r r e n i d e l m a t e r i a l i s m o s t o r i c o e d e l l a d i a l e t t i c a n e g a t i v a " o r a e n l a r g e m e n t o f t h e e q u i p m e n t o f i c o n o l o g y w i t h t o o l s f r o m o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s - p a r t i c u l a r l y a n t h r o p o l o g y and t h e h i s t o r y o f r e l i g i o n . A u g u s t o G e n t i l i , " V i r t u s e v o l u p t a s n e l l ' o p e r a d i L o r e n z o L o t t o " , Aso1o, 415-416. 29 Working i n t h e V e n e t i a n t e r r i t o r i e s i n t h e n o r t h o f I t a l y i n t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , L o t t o ' s career encompassed a p e r i o d o f u n s e t t l e d r e l i g i o u s q u e s t i o n s . P r i o r to t h e C o u n c i l o f T r e n t , t h e d y n a m i c s and s h a p e o f t h e e x c h a n g e o f r e l i g i o u s r e f o r m w i t h i n I t a l y and n o r t h o f t h e A l p s were i n f l u x . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f L o t t o ' s r e l i g i o n a r e some o f t h e most p o l a r i z e d and h o t l y d e b a t e d a r g u m e n t s i n p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h . The a r guments r a n g e f r o m t h e p i c t u r e o f L o t t o as t h e o r t h o d o x d e f e n d e r o f t h e C a t h o l i c f a i t h to t h a t o f L o t t o as t h e s y m p a t h i z e r o f h e t e r o d o x c u r r e n t s f r o m t h e N o r t h , w i t h o f c o u r s e p o s i t i o n s o f m e d i a t i o n i n between. C o r t e s i B o s c o ' s book on t h e B u a r d i f r e s c o e s g i v e t h e most f o r c e f u l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f L o t t o as t h e o r t h o d o x 52 d e f e n d e r o f C a t h o l i c i s m . The main f r e s c o e d w a l l o f t h e o r a t o r y o p p o s i t e t h e e n t r a n c e d e p i c t s C h r i s t as t h e v i n e o f l i f e . The t e n d r i l s o f t h e v i n e grow f r o m C h r i s t ' s e x t e n d e d f i n g e r s and c r e a t e r o u n d e l s i n which a r e d e p i c t e d p r o p h e t s and s y b i l s . At t h e c o r n e r s o f t h i s w a l l h i s t o r i c a l h e r e t i c s , i n t h e a t t e m p t t o c l i m b l a d d e r s up t o t h e v i n e o f C h r i s t , f a l l p r e c i p i t o u s l y as i f v i o l e n t l y e x p e l l e d . C o r t e s i B osco i n t e r p r e t s t h e s e h e r e t i c s as c l e a r r e f e r e n c e s to t h e h e r e t i c a l t h r e a t f r o m n o r t h o f t h e A l p s . She r e c o r d s F r a n c e s c a C o r t e s i B o s c o , G l i a f f r e s c h i . • . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . 30 t h a t T r e s c o r e j t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e f r e s c o e s , was on a t h r o u g h r o a d f o r f o r e i g n t r o o p s and t h u s p a r t i c u l a r l y e x p o s e d to t h e i m p o r t a t i o n o f t h e new v i e w s f r o m t h e N o r t h . The d a t e t h e d e c o r a t i o n s were c o m p l e t e d - 1524 - was t a r g e t e d f o r d i s a s t e r i n c o n t e m p o r a r y m i l l e n i a l p r e d i c t i o n s . The a u t h o r p r o v i d e s d o c u m e n t a r y e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e s e p r e d i c t i o n s o f d i v i n e r e t r i b u t i o n were c o n s i d e r e d by some s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y I t a l i a n s t o have been b o t h c a u s e and 53 r e s u l t o f t h e h e r e s y o f L u t h e r . C o r t e s i Bosco expands h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f L o t t o ' s r e l i g i o u s o r t h o d o x y w i t h an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e a r t i s t ' s s a c r e d works b a s e d on t h e 54 r e a d i n g o f c u r r e n t d e v o t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e . C o r t e s i Bosco g i v e s a s an example t h e r e p o r t o f t h e ambassador o f t h e marchese o f Mantua t o t h e V e n e t i a n C o l l e g i o F e b r u a r y 21 1524 as r e p o r t e d by Sanudo. The ambassador t e l l s o f t h e d i s a s t e r s r e p o r t e d to him by h i s mas t e r f r o m T r e n t j and d i r e c t l y c o r r e l a t e s t h e n a t u r a l c a t a s t r o p h e s a s t h e r e s u l t o f t h e s p r e a d o f L u t h e r a n h e r e s i e s : " I n a l t r i l o c h i - i n f o r m a v a f r a l ' a l t r o i l marchese - sono a p e r t i m onti e t r u i n a t i e t c o p e r t e m o l t e v i l l e e t c a s t e l l e , e_t non o b s t a n t i b u s h i s  s i q n i s e t p r o d i q i i s, l a o p i n i o n l u t e r i a n a p e r s e v e r a e t a c c r e s c e . L i h e l v e t i i e t l e c i t t a f r a n c h e sono o b s t i n a n t i s s i m e i n t a l h e r e s i a , e t conducono m o l e t t e r r e de p r i n c i p e a l l e l o r o o p i n i o n e > i t a c he i u d i c o p e r o p e r a t i o n humana s i a q u a s i i m p o s i b i l e ad e x t i r p a r t a l h e r e t i c a p r a v i t a ; ma m i s s i e r Domine p u n i r a cum i l suo f l a g e l l o t a l d e l i c t o , come g i a l ' h a c o m e n z a t o . " C o r t e s i B o s c o , G l i a f f r e s c h i . . . ( 1 9 8 0 ) , 4. See e s p e c i a l l y C o r t e s i B o s c o , "La l e t t e r a t u r a r e l i g i o s a d e v o z i o n a l e e 1 ' i c o n o g r a f i a d i a l c u n i d i p i n t i d i L o t t o , " Bergomum, LXX ( 1 9 7 6 ) , 3-25. 31 A u g u s t o G e n t i l i s i m i l a r l y mines t h e p o p u l a r d e v o t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e f o r h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f L o t t o ' s r e l i g i o u s p a i n t i n g s . " " ^ In I q i a r d i n i d i c o n t e m p 1 a z i o n e : L o r e n z o  L o t t o , 1503/151S, G e n t i l i u t i l i z e s d e v o t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e t o r e c o n s t r u c t t h e new c l i m a t e o f p e r s o n a l r e l i g i o n and to i d e n t i f y t h e themes p r e s e n t i n L o t t o ' s e a r l y w o r k s . ^ The i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a r p r i n t e d d e v o t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e a s m a t e r i a l f o r d e v o t i o n a l p a i n t i n g opens up an avenue f o r d i s c u s s i n g i m a g e r y g e n e r a t e d f o r l a y p i e t y . P r i v a t e d e v o t i o n a l r e a d i n g , a l t h o u g h d i s s e m i n a t e d o u t s i d e o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e c h u r c h , i s i n t e r p r e t e d by C o r t e s i Bosco and G e n t i l i as o r t h o d o x C a t h o l i c i s m i n i t s word; i n f a c t , t h e b ooks were a c c e p t e d a s s u c h a t t h e t i m e . The same l i t e r a t u r e i s i n t e r p r e t e d by M a r i a C a l l as h e t e r o d o x o r h e r e t i c a l i n i t s p r i n c i p l e s - t h o s e same p r i n c i p l e s which f o r m , i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f C o r t e s i Bosco and G e n t i l i , t h e o r t h o d o x b a s i s o f p o p u l a r C a t h o l i c M a s c h e r p a t o o ^ A u g u s t o G e n t i l i , I q i a r d i n i d i c o n t e m p 1 a z i o n e .  L o r e n z o L o t t o , 1503/1515 (Rome: B u l z o n i , 1985). T h i s book i s a c t u a l l y a c o l l e c t i o n o f e s s a y s w h i c h t r e a t s L o t t o ' s e a r l y p e r i o d i n t e r m s o f s e t s o f p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m s w h i c h r e g a r d h i s works, p a t r o n s , d e v o t i o n a l a t t i t u d e and common ' m i s c o n c e p t i o n s ' or c o n t r o v e r s i e s i n L o t t o s t u d i e s . 32 r e f o r m : t h e p r i n c i p l e s p a r t i c u l a r l y o f h u m i l i t y and im i t a t i o . - .- 57 c h r 1 s t l . The q u e s t i o n o f L o t t o ' s o r t h o d o x y h a s been s p a r k e d most p r o v o c a t i v e l y by some p a s s a g e s i n L o t t o documents. The most p r e s s i n g o f t h e s e i s a n o t i c e i n t h e L i b r o d i s p e s e t h a t i n 1540 L o t t o p r o v i d e d a f r i e n d w i t h two p o r t r a i t s o f L u t h e r 58 and h i s w i f e t o p r e s e n t a s g i f t s . A f u r t h e r f o c a l p o i n t f o r t h e d e b a t e on L o t t o ' s o r t h o d o x y was p r o v i d e d by G i o v a n n i 59 Romano. In 1976 he p u b l i s h e d an a r t i c l e a t t r i b u t i n g t h e f r o n t i s p i e c e o f a p r i n t e d b i b l e t o L o t t o . The b i b l e was 57 M a r i a C a l l , "La ' r e l i g i o n e ' d i L o r e n z o L o t t o > " Aso1o, 243-278. 58 P r e p a r i n g f o r a r e b u t t a l , C o r t e s i Bosco l i s t s t h e f o u r most c i t e d i n s t a n c e s used a s ' e v i d e n c e ' o f L o t t o ' s heterodoxy. In a d d i t i o n t o t h e c i t e d p o r t r a i t s o f L u t h e r and h i s w i f e t h e s e a r e : 1) L o t t o ' s d e c l a r a t i o n i n a l e t t e r dated J u l y 18, 1526 and a d d r e s s e d to t h e notary o f t h e MIA o f Bergamo that he was "de natura e t r e l i g i o n C h r i s t i a n a e t c h i s e i n g a n a suo dano" and i n t h e same l e t t e r , t h e r e f e r e n c e t o a d i s a g r e e m e n t with f r a t e Damiano, i n t a r s i a t o r e whom L o t t o c a l l s " i g n o r a n t e e t d i p o c a r e l i g i o n e , " L o t t o h a v i n g l e f t h i s r e s i d e n c e with t h e d o m i n i c a n s o f S a n t i G i o v a n n i e P a o l o on h i s a c c o u n t ; 2) t h e f i r m d e f e n c e o f L o t t o ' s f r e e d o m o f a r t i s t i c i n v e n t i o n i n the i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e b i b l e to the p r e s i d e n t o f t h e MIA, a g a i n s t t h e c a v i l s o f th e p r i e s t Gerolamo whose i n v e n z i o n i f o r the b i b l e , i n t h e judgement o f n o t only t h e p a i n t e r , b u t "homeni da ben, v a l e n t i t h e o l o g i e t p r e d i c a t o r i " c o n t a i n e d e r r o r s ( i n a l e t t e r d a t e d F e b r u a r y 10, 1528); 3) t h e i n q u i e t u d i n e t h a t c o n s t r a i n e d L o t t o t o change h i s r e s i d e n c e so o f t e n , Romano p o i n t i n g o u t a s p a r t i c u l a r l y s u s p i c i o u s L o t t o ' s b r e a k with h i s nephew D'Armano and h i s move t o T r e v i s o i n O c t o b e r 1542. C o r t e s i B o s c o , "A p r o p o s i t o d e l f r o n t e s p i z i o . . . " Berqomum, LXX ( 1 9 7 6 ) , 28. 59 G i o v a n n i Romano, "La B i b b i a d i L o t t o , " P a r a q o n e , n. 317-319, 27 ( 1 9 7 6 ) , 82-91, f i g . 71-75. 33 p u b l i s h e d i n V e n i c e by L u c ' A n t o n i o G i u n t a i n 1532. I t was t r a n s l a t e d i n t o v o l q a r e by A n t o n i o B r u c i o l i . Romano p o i n t e d o u t t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f L u t h e r a n r e f o r m i d e a s i n t h e u s e o f t h e t r a n s l a t e d b i b l e and b a s e d an argument o f L o t t o ' s i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h h e t e r o d o x c i r c l e s on t h i s new e v i d e n c e . C o r t e s i B osco - w h i l e s u p p o r t i n g t h e a t t r i b u t i o n - c o u n t e r e d Romano's argument i n an a r t i c l e p u b l i s h e d t h e same y e a r Renzo F o n t a n a makes a s t r o n g and r e a s o n e d argument f o r L o t t o ' s ' h e t e r o d o x y ' , w h i l e B e r n a r d Aikema t a k e s a c o n t r o v e r s i a l , and p e r h a p s e v e n more r e a s o n e d p o s i t i o n t h a t may be termed m e d i a n t e , ^ 1 a word us e d c a r e f u l l y by G e n t i l i C o r t e s i B o s c o , "A p r o p o s i t o d e l f r o n t e s p i z i o d i L o r e n z o L o t t o p e r l a B i b b i a d i A n t o n i o B r u c i o l i , " Bergomum, n. 1-2, LXX ( 1 9 7 6 ) , 27-42. ^*Renzo F o n t a n a , " " S o l o , s e n z a f i d e l g o v e r n o e t m o l t o i n q u i e t o de l a mente'," A s o l o , 279 - 298. See a l s o : F o n t a n a , " A s p e t t i s o c i a l i e o r i z z o n t i m e n t a l i d e l 1'ambiente l o t t e s c o n e g l i a n n i q u a r a n t a d e l C i n q u e c e n t o , " i n I n t e r p r e t a z i o n i v e n e z i a n e : s t u d i d i s t o r i a d e l l ' a r t e i n  o n o r e d i M i c h e l a n g e l o Muraro ( V e n i c e : A r s e n a l e , 1984), 359-362. B e r n a r d Aikema, " L o r e n z o L o t t o and t h e osp i t a l e de s a n  Zuane P o l o , " i n I n t e r p r e t a z i o n i V e n e z i a n e : s t u d i d i s t o r i a  d e l l ' a r t e i n o n o r e d i M i c h e l a n g e l o Muraro ( V e n i c e : A r s e n a l e , 1984), 343-350. Aikema a r g u e s t h a t L o t t o ' s M a d r i d S t •  Jerome was c o m m i s s i o n e d by t h e c o n t r o v e r s i a l r e f o r m group known a s t h e B a r n a b i t e s f o r t h e c h a p e l o f t h e o s p e d a l e t t o a t SS G i o v a n n i e P a o l o ( s e e C h a p t e r F i v e ) . He s u g g e s t s t h a t L o t t o was a t t r a c t e d "by a s p i r i t u a l i t y w h i c h was o f t e n on t h e edge o f h e r e s y . " (348) Aikema i d e n t i f i e s t h e M a d r i d S t .  Jerome which d i s p l a y s t h e m o t i v e o f t h e s a i n t a c t u a l l y i m i t a t i n g t h e p o s t u r e o f C h r i s t on t h e c r o s s as b e i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t t o t h e s p i r i t u a l i t y o f t h e e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y C a t h o l i c r e f o r m . L o t t o ' s p o s i t i o n i n t h i s r e f o r m Aikema l e a v e s a s n e c e s s a r i l y ambiguous, s u g g e s t i n g ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) 34 f o r L o t t o ' s r e l i g i o u s p o s i t i o n . The q u e s t i o n , t h e n , becomes not so much one o f L o t t o ' s i n v o l v e m e n t i n c o n t e m p o r a r y c u r r e n t s o f r e f o r m b u t whether to i n t e r p r e t t h a t r e f o r m as a dynamic o f e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y C a t h o l i c i s m o r as t h e i n s p i r a t i o n o f L u t h e r a n h e r e s y i n f i l t r a t i n g I t a l y a t t h a t t i m e . The s t u d y o f L o t t o , b o t h i n h i s works and documents i s a f r u i t f u l v e h i c l e f o r a p p r o a c h i n g t h e q u e s t i o n o f r e l i g i o n i n t h e V e n e t i a n t e r r i t o r i e s o f e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y I t a l y . ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) t h a t t h e a r t i s t may have l e f t V e n i c e b e c a u s e o f a ' d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t ' when t h e B a r n a b i t e s were p u t "under f i e r c e a t t a c k f r o m w i t h i n t h e r a n k s o f t h e g o v e r n o r s o f t h e h o s p i t a l . " (348) See a l s o : Aikema, " I I San G i r o lamp d i L o r e n z o L o t t o a M a d r i d , " i n II S t . G i r o l a m o d i L o r e n z o L o t t o  a C a s t e l S t . A n q e l o (Rome: Romano S o c i e t a , 1983), 117-118. 62 In a l l t h e s e a r g u m e n t s t h e word and t h e i d e a o f ' r e f o r m ' become ambiguous and b e l e a g u e r e d . R e s p o n d i n g to t h i s p r o b l e m , G e n t i l i s u g g e s t s t h e word " r i f o r m i s t i c a " r a t h e r t h a n " r i f o r m a t a " o r " r i f o r m a t r i c e " ( t h e l a t t e r s u g g e s t i n g a m i l i t a n t c o n v e r s i o n t o t h e i d e a s o f L u t h e r ) : "I temi d i L o r e n z o L o t t o , non n u o v i p e r c h e l a r g a m e n t e p r a t i c a t i d a l l a p i t t u r a v e n e t a d e l s e c o n d o '400, p r o v e n g o n o d a l l e c o r r e n t i s p i r i t u a l i s t i c h e , e v a n g e 1 i z z a n t i , t a l v o l t a r i f o r m i s t i c h e (e non p e r q u e s t i n e c e s s a r i a m e n t e p r e r i f o r m a t r i c i i n s e n s o p r o t e s t a n t e ) c h e p e r c o r r o n o o r d i n i m o n a s t i c i , c o m u n i t a a s c e t i c h e e t a n t a p r i v a t a d e v o z i o n e . . . . " A u g u s t o G e n t i l i , "Per L o r e n z o L o t t o e i s u o i c o n t e s t i s t o r i c i : due e p i s o d i r i - d o c u m e n t a t i , t r a p o l e m i c a e p r o g e t t o , " A r t i b u s e t H i s t o r i a e , n. 8, IV ( 1 9 8 3 ) , 91. He a l s o u s e s t h e word r i f o r m i s t a i n t h e same s e n s e as r i f o r m i s t i c h e : " R i f o r m i s t a da sempre - devo r i p e t e r l o -p e r c h e a t t e n t o ad una r e l i g i o n e i n d i v i d u a l e , i n t i m i s t i c a , m e d i t a t i v a , non t r o v o mai l a c o n v i n z i o n e , o i l c o r a g g i o , d e l l a s c e l t a d i c h i a r a m e n t e r i f o r m a t a , o p i d p r o b a b i l m e n t e non v i s i r i c o n o b b e , p e r c h e a v v e z z o a v i v e r e e l a v o r a r e d e n t r o l e i s t i t u z i o n i , e p r o p e n s o a m o d i f i c a r l e p i u t t o s t o c h e a s o w e r t i r l e . " (93) 35 The a c c e l e r a t i o n o f a c t i v i t y on t h e q u e s t i o n o f d e v o t i o n i n L o t t o s t u d i e s i s p a r t o f a c u r r e n t t r e n d t oward t r e a t i n g L o t t o ' s works i n terms o f t h e i r c o n t e x t and f u n c t i o n . C o r t e s i B o s c o ' s book on t h e S u a r d i f r e s c o e s , i n w h i c h she t a c k l e s t h e s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t and f u n c t i o n o f a c y c l e o f f r e s c o e s in s i t u and r e l a t i v e l y i n t a c t , i s an example o f t h i s new g e n e r a t i o n o f r e s e a r c h . R e l a t i v e l y few s t u d i e s however have t a k e n a s i n g l e work o u t o f L o t t o ' s o e u v r e and m e t h o d i c a l l y r e c o n s t r u c t e d i t s c o n t e x t and t h e f u n c t i o n t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e p a t r o n , l o c a l e , i c o n o g r a p h y and t r a d i t i o n . B e r n a r d Aikema a t t e m p t e d to r e c o n s t r u c t t h e c o n t e x t and f u n c t i o n o f t h e M a d r i d S t . Jerome; C o r t e s i Bosco d e a l t w i t h t h e p a l a Mar t i nenqo i n * 63 t e r m s o f t h e myth o f V e n i c e i n t h e p o l i t i c s o f Bergamo. In an e x e m p l a r y a r t i c l e A n g e l o Mazza e s t a b l i s h e d L o t t o ' s a l t a r p i e c e o f t h e E l e m o s i n e d i S. A n t o n i o f o r SS G i o v a n n i e P a o l o as a p u b l i c s t a t e m e n t p r o p a g a n d i z i n g t h e new V e n e t i a n s t a t e p o l i c i e s toward c h a r i t y . ^ T h i s t h e s i s i s an a t t e m p t to c o n t r i b u t e to t h i s l i n e o f r e s e a r c h , d e a l i n g w i t h t h e Madonna and C h i l d w i t h SS Roch and S e b a s t i a n as a p r o d u c t o f B e r n a r d Aikema ( 1 9 8 3 ) ; Aikema ( 1 9 8 4 ) . F r a n c e s c a C o r t e s i B o s c o , " R i f l e s s i d e l m i t o d i V e n e z i a n e l l a p a l a M a r t i n e n g o d i L o r e n z o L o t t o , " A r c h i v i o s t o r i c o b e rqamasco, n.S, 5 (Nov. 1983), S13-S4S. A n g e l o Mazza, "La p a l a d e l 1 ' E l e m o s i n a d i  S a n t ' A n t o n i n o n e l d i b a t t i t o c i n q u e c e n t e s c o s u l p a u p e r i s m o , " A s o l o , 347-364. 36 i t s c o n t e x t and f u n c t i o n and as a c l u e t o t h e g r e a t e r c o n t e x t o f e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n . * * * The Madonna and C h i l d w i t h SS Roch and S e b a s t i a n i s a p a i n t i n g o f t h e h i g h e s t q u a l i t y , f r o m p e r h a p s L o t t o ' s f i n e s t p e r i o d . As t h e s u b j e c t o f an i n - d e p t h s t u d y , however, t h e p a i n t i n g p o s e s many d i f f i c u l t i e s . I t i s s i g n e d , b u t not d a t e d . I t i s a p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n a l work, t h u s l e s s a c c e s s i b l e by means o f d o c u m e n t a t i o n t h a n a p u b l i c work e i t h e r as r e g a r d s t h e c o m m i s s i o n o r t h e f u n c t i o n . I t s e x a c t l o c a t i o n o r o r i g i n a l p l a c e m e n t w i t h i n a room i s v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o r e c o n s t r u c t . I t i s known, however to have been p a i n t e d i n L o t t o ' s Bergamo p e r i o d and i s g e n e r a l l y d a t e d c l 5 2 1 . V e r y l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d t o t h e p a i n t i n g e i t h e r i n t h e c r i t i c i s m o f c o n t e m p o r a r i e s o r i n c r i t i c a l r e s e a r c h s i n c e . T h i s t h e s i s p r o c e e d s on t h e f o u n d a t i o n s o f r e c e n t work done on p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n i n t h e p e r i o d and t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f a c o n v i n c i n g i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e p a t r o n by C o r t e s i B o s c o . In v i e w o f t h e s e f o u n d a t i o n s , t h e r e l a t i v e s i l e n c e on t h e s u b j e c t o f t h i s p a i n t i n g and t h e l a c u n a e i n t h e i n f o r m a t i o n s u r r o u n d i n g i t make t h i s s t u d y more, r a t h e r t h a n l e s s p r e s s i n g . The o b s c u r i t y o f t h e Madonna and C h i l d w i t h SS Roch and  S e b a s t i an i s a l m o s t c o m p l e t e u n t i l t h e end o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h 37 c e n t u r y when Crowe and C a v a l c a s e l l e and B e r e n s o n g i v e i t a t t e n t i o n i n t h e i r c a t a l o g u e s o f L o t t o ' s w orks. The f i r s t n o t i c e we have o f t h e p a i n t i n g i n t h e a r t l i t e r a t u r e i s i n 1648 when R i d o l f i r e g i s t e r s i t s p r e s e n c e i n t h e c o n v e n t o f S a n t a G r a t a i n Bergamo: " N e l l e monache d i S a n t a G r a t a , o v v i a l t r a p i t t u r a l a s c i a t o s o t t o f i d e i c o m m i s s o c o n l a V e r g i n e e N o s t r o S i g n o r e b a m b i n e t t o e l i S a n t i Rocco e S e b a s t i a n o . T a s s i , i n h i s V i t a d e ' p i t t o r i , s c u l t o r i e a r c h i t e t t i  B e r q a m a s c h i (1793) r e c o r d s t h e p a i n t i n g s t i l l i n t h e c o n v e n t o f S a n t a G r a t a , and adds t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t t h e p a i n t i n g i s b r o u g h t o u t and shown i n t h e c h u r c h o f S a n t a G r a t a e v e r y y e a r on t h e f i r s t o f May: "Nel m o n i s t e r o d i S a n t a G r a t a v ' h a una s u a [ L o t t o ' s ! p i t t u r a c o n l a V e r g i n e i l bambino, e l i S a n t i Rocco, e S e b a s t i a n o , q u a l e v i e n e s p o s t a i n C h i e s a ogn'anno n e l p r i m o g i o r n o d i Maggio." 6^* C a r l o R i d o l f i , Le m e r a v i q l i e d e l l ' a r t e (Rome: S o c i e t a m u l t i g r a f i c a , 1965), I, 143-4. ^ F r a n c e s c o M a r i a T a s s i , V i t a d e ' p i t t o r i , s c u l t o r i e  a r c h i t e t t i b e r q a m a s c h i ( M i l a n : L a b o r , 1969), I, 124. The p a i n t i n g seems t o have been h e l d i n some esteem by t h e nuns, b e c a u s e May 1 was t h e t h e day t h e p a t r o n s a i n t o f t h e c h u r c h - S t a . G r a t a - was v e n e r a t e d . In t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y M a r i o M u t i o r e c o r d s t h a t t h i s was t h e day o f t h e s a i n t ' s s o l e m n t r a n s l a t i o n to h e r r e s t i n g p l a c e o f t h e c h u r c h o f S t a . G r a t a i n C o l u m n e l l i s : "La c i t t a amara, &< longamente p i a n s e l a morte d e l l a s u a b e n i g n i s s i m e S i g n o r a , a n z i M a e s t r a , & Madre, i l c u i S a c r a t o Corpo f u c o n g r a n pompa n e l l a C h i e s a da l e i n e l 1 ' O s p i t a l e f a b b r i c a t a s e p e l l i t o , c he p o i f u d e t t a S a n t a G r a t a i n t e r V i t e s , ove r i p o s o l o n g o tempo, f i n c h e ad A mbrosio M a r t i n e n g o C i t t a d i n o & V e s c o v o d i Bergamo, a p r e g h i e r e d e l l e R e v e r e n d e Monache d i S a n t a M a r i a ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) 38 The s c a n t n o t i c e s a b o u t t h e p a i n t i n g i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t i t d i d n o t e n t e r i n t o a p u b l i c c o l l e c t i o n u n t i l 1976, when i t was p u r c h a s e d by t h e N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y o f Canada. From t h e r e s e a r c h done by F r a n c e s c a C o r t e s i B osco i n Bergamo, we know t h a t i t was p a i n t e d f o r t h e s u r g e o n C u c c h i , who t h e n w i l l e d i t t o a c l o i s t e r e d nun, making 67 p r o v i s i o n s t h a t i t r e m a i n i n t h e c o n v e n t c h u r c h . As has been n o t e d , t h e p a i n t i n g f i r s t e n t e r e d t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f a r t ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) V e c c h i a , o r a d i S a n t a G r a t a i n C o l u m n e l l i s , f u n e l l a l o r o C h i e s a t r a s p o r t a t o l ' a n n o m i l l e e v e n t i s e t t e i l p r i m o d i Maggio" M a r i o M u t i o , S a c r a I s t o r i a d i Bergamo ( M i l a n : F r a n c e s c o V i g o n e e f r a t e l l i , 1719), 103. R o n c h e t t i r e l a t e s t h a t t h e f i r s t o f May was a l s o t h e day o f t h e s a i n t ' s d e a t h , a s p e c i a l day o f v e n e r a t i o n : "E da c r e d e r e adunque, c h e i l V e s c o v o ed i l c o l l e g i o d e ' C a n o n i c i , i q u a l l i p r i m a d e l l a t r a s l a z i o n e s o l e v a n o c o n c o r r e a l 1 ' a n t i c i s s i m a B a s i l i c a d i S t . G r a t a o r a d e t t a i n t e r V i t e s , ove r i p o s a v a i l c o r p o d ' e s s a S a n t a n e l d i a ppunto d e l l a s u a p r e z i o s a m o r t e , s i c c o m e costumavano p o r t a r s i anche a l l ' a l t a r e c a p e l l e d e l l a C i t t a e de' B o r g h i n e l l e s o l e n n i t a t i t o l a r i , dopo l a t r a s l a z i o n e c o n t i n u a s s e r o a r a d u n a r s i l o s t e s s o g i o r n o , c i o e i l p r i m o Maggio a l i a C h i e s a d i g u e l m o n a s t e r o , i n c u i o r a s i v e n e r a n o l e s a c r e sue s p o g l i e n e l l a g u i s a , che f i n o a n o s t r i g i o r n i v e n i v a p r a t i c a t o ad o s s e q u i o d i q u e s t a S a n t i s s i m a n o s t r a M a t r o n a . " G i u s e p p e R o n c h e t t i , Memorie I s t o r i c h e d e l l a C i t t a e C h i e s a  d i Bergamo (Brembate S o p r a : A r c h i v i o S t o r i c o B r e m b a t e s e , 1973), I, 307. The B i b l i o t e c a S a n c t o r u m ha s i t t h a t May t h e f i r s t was t h e day o f t h e d e p o s i t i o o f t h e s a i n t r a t h e r t h a n t h e t r a n s l a t i o . P i e t r o B e r t o c c h i , " G r a t a d i Bergamo," i n B i b l i o t e c a S a n c t o r u m (Rome: C i t t a Nuova: 1966), 153. See b elow. The r e s e a r c h by C o r t e s i B osco and what i s known ab o u t t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e p a t r o n w i l l be f u r t h e r d e v e l o p e d i n C h a p t e r F o u r . 39 i n 1648 when R i d o l f i r e p o r t e d s e e i n g i t i n t h e c o n v e n t . In 1798, s h o r t l y b e f o r e t h e s u p p r e s s i o n o f t h e c o n v e n t i t was s o l d to G i o v a n n i G h i d i n i . In 1864 i t was bought f r o m t h e G h i d i n i f a m i l y and e n t e r e d t h e P i c c i n e l l i c o l l e c t i o n i n t h e Bergamask town o f S e r i a t e , where i t was s e e n by Crowe and C a v a l c a s e l l e and r e c o r d e d i n t h e f i r s t e d i t i o n o f 69 B e r e n s o n . I t was n o t u n t i l a r o u n d 1930 t h a t t h e p a i n t i n g e n t e r e d t h e F l o r e n t i n e c o l l e c t i o n o f C o n t i n i - B o n a c o s s i . C o n t i n i - B o n a c o s s i was t h e l a s t owner b e f o r e t h e p a i n t i n g e n t e r e d t h e open market and was p u r c h a s e d by t h e N a t i o n a l 70 G a l l e r y o f Canada. See a b o v e . 69 "The p a i n t i n g i n t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e Nuns o f S a n t a G r a t a was s o l d by them f o r a low p r i c e to t h e p r i e s t , G i o v a n n i G h i d i n i , a s h o r t t i m e b e f o r e t h e e x t i n c t i o n o f t h e i r O r d e r i n 1798. On t h i s day, F e b r u a r y 2, 1864, I have a c q u i r e d i t f r o m t h e G h i d i n i b r o t h e r s s o n s o f t h e l a t e N i c o l a and o f whom t h e s a i d p r i e s t G i o v a n n i was a g r e a t - u n c l e . I t i s i n e x c e l l e n t c o n d i t i o n s i g n e d by t h e a r t i s t and one o f h i s f i n e s t w orks..." f r o m a m a r g i n a l n o t e made by A n t o n i o P i c c i n e l l i d i S e r i a t e i n t h e t e x t o f T a s s i ' s V i t e d e i p i t t o r i s c u l t o r i e a r c h i t e t t i b e r q a m s c h i a s q u o t e d i n : P i e r o B i a n c o n i , A l l t h e P a i n t i n g s o f L o r e n z o L o t t o , t r a n s . P a u l C o l a c i c c h i ( London: O l d b o u r n e , 1963), I, 48. 70 From t h e f i l e s on t h e p a i n t i n g i n t h e N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y o f Canada. A c c e s s was g r a n t e d t o me w i t h t h e k i n d p e r m i s s i o n o f Dr. Myron L a s k i n . The p a i n t i n g i s i n e x c e l l e n t c o n d i t i o n . I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t i t has n o t been c u t down. T h e r e i s a v e r y c o n t e m p o r a r y c o p y o f t h e p a i n t i n g now i n t h e C a s t e l S t . A n g e l o i n Rome which r e p e a t s t h e u n u s u a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l . A s h o r t n o t i c e by A. L o c a t e l l i M i l e s i t h r o w s some c o n f u s i o n on t h e m a t t e r o f t h i s c o p y . I t i s worth q u o t i n g t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h i s n o t i c e h e r e : " i l famoso q u a d r o d e l L o t t o r a p p r e s e n t a n t e l a Madonna c o l Bambino e i S.S. Rocco e S e b a s t i a n o g i a n e l M o n a s t e r o d i S t . G r a t a , p o i n e l l a r a c c o l t a P i c c i n e l l i , e r a p a s s a t o n e l l a ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) 40 Modern a r t h i s t o r i a n s who make n o t e o f t h e p a i n t i n g , o f t e n n o t i c e t h e s t r i k i n g c o l o u r i n g and t h e u n u s u a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e Madonna and C h i l d w i t h SS Roch and S e b a s t i a n , but t h e y f i n d no c o n s i s t e n t m e e t i n g - p o i n t i n w h i c h to d e s c r i b e o r e x p l a i n i t . Crowe and C a v a l c a s e l l e g i v e t h e Madonna and C h i l d w i t h SS Roch and S e b a s t i a n as an example o f t h e " s m a l l c a n v a s e s and e a s e l - p i c t u r e s w i t h which L o t t o " o c c a s i o n a l l y s p e n t h i s h o u r s o f r e l a x a t i o n " i n Bergamo. They c o n s i d e r t h a t t h i s p a i n t i n g d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e "Lombard and C o r r e g g i e s q u e " s t y l e w hich " c a p t i v a t e d and 71 p r e s e r v e d t h e f a v o u r o f t h e B ergamasks." They d e s c r i b e t h e p a i n t i n g " i n L o t t o ' s b r o a d manner, r e m i n i s c e n t o f C o r r e g g i o and Palma." The s t r i k i n g c o l o u r s a r e " c l e a r , gay, 72 and j u i c y . " ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) G a l l e r i a d i un c o 1 l e z i o n i s t a romano. Ora i g i o r n a l i a n n u n z i a n o , e i o l o r e g i s t r o c o n p i a c e r e , che i l c o l l e z i o n i s t a i n p a r o l a , C o n t e A l e s s a n d r o C o n t i n i , ha f a t t o m u n i f i c o dono a l i o S t a t o d i o p e r e d ' a r t e d i a l t i s s i m o p r e g i o p e r a m m o b i l i a r e 1'appartamento d i P a o l o I I I a C a s t e l S t . A n g e l o , e che f r a q u e s t e o p e r e d ' a r t e e i l d e t t o q u a d r o d e l L o t t o , che f u c o l l o c a t o n e l l a S a l a d e l T r o n o . " L o c a t e l l i M i l e s i , " I I q u a d r o d e l L o t t o g i a a S t . G r a t a d o n a t o a l i o S t a t o , " Bergomum, XXII ( 1 9 2 8 ) , 120-181. I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e w r i t e r had c o n f u s e d t h e o r i g i n a l w h ich ended up on t h e market and t h e c o p y , which was d o n a t e d t o t h e s t a t e . I t seems however, t h a t t h e y were b o t h i n t h e C o n t i n i B o n a c o s s i c o l l e c t i o n , b u t how much more o f t h e i r p r o v e n a n c e was a c t u a l l y s h a r e d i s not p o s s i b l e t o t e l l f r o m t h i s a r t i c l e , b e i n g i n f o r m e d by a m i s t a k e n c o n f l a t i o n . 7 1 C r o w e and C a v a l c a s e l l e ( 1 9 1 2 ) , 406-7. Crowe and C a v a l c a s e l l e ( 1 9 1 2 ) , n . l , 407. 41 B e r e n s o n , whose d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p a i n t i n g changed v e r y l i t t l e f r o m h i s e a r l y e d i t i o n to t h e l a t e r > d e s c r i b e d t h e t o n e as " e x c e p t i o n a l l y b l o n d . " B e r e n s o n p l a c e s i t i n t h e p e r i o d o f 15S1 by c o m p a r i n g t h e t y p e o f t h e f i g u r e s t o t h e D r e s d e n Madonna and C h i l d and t h e S a n t a S p i r i t o a l t a r p i e c e i n Bergamo. He e x p l a i n s t h e s t r a n g e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e c o m p o s i t i o n by t h e f o r e s h o r t e n i n g o f t h e Madonna b e i n g p l a c e d some d i s t a n c e above t h e s a i n t s and t h e w o r s h i p p e r s below. A c c o r d i n g t o B e r e n s o n S t . Roch, " l e a n i n g o v e r w i t h h i s r i g h t hand h e l d o u t , a s i f p i t y i n g t h e w o r s h i p p e r s and i n t e r c e d i n g f o r them" i s "one o f L o t t o ' s t e n d e r e s t and 73 l e a s t - a f f e c t e d f i g u r e s . " B r i z i o c i t e s t h e p a i n t i n g as t h e " m i r a b i l e q u a d r e t t o " and an example o f " s p u n t i l e o n a r d e s c h i " d a t i n g t h e work 74 e a r l i e r t h a n i s g e n e r a l l y c o n c e d e d - a r o u n d 1517. In t h e c a t a l o g u e o f t h e 1953 e x h i b i t i o n , Z a m p e t t i c o n f i r m s t h e p a i n t i n g ' s d a t i n g o f c l 5 2 1 "che v i d e n a s c e r e t a n t e b e l l e "The Madonna, he r amber-brown h a i r e n t w i n e d w i t h p e a r l s , s i n k s down upon two heavy c u s h i o n s w i t h h e r f e e t drawn up and h e r head b e n d i n g o v e r t h e C h i l d who s i t s back i n h e r l a p , l o o k i n g o u t o f t h e p i c t u r e and b l e s s i n g . To t h e r i g h t and a l m o s t nude, a v e r y b l o n d e and c u r l y - h a i r e d S t S e b a s t i a n , and t o t h e l e f t , S t Roch l e a n i n g o v e r w i t h h i s r i g h t hand h e l d o u t , as i f p i t y i n g t h e w o r s h i p p e r s and i n t e r c e d i n g f o r them. The a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p i c t u r e i m p l i e s t h e s e w o r s h i p p e r s b e i n g p l a c e d a t some d i s t a n c e b e low and l o o k i n g up a t t h e Madonna whose f o r e - s h o r t e n i n g i s t h u s e x p l a i n e d . " B e r e n s o n ( 1 9 5 6 ) , 53-4. B r i z i o , " I I p e r c o r s o . . . " ( 1 9 5 3 ) , EO. 42 c o m p o s i z i o n i d e l l ' a r t e l o t t e s c a . " Z a m p e t t i i s v e r y t a k e n by t h e u n u s u a l c o l o u r s o f t h e p a i n t i n g and comments on them i n l e n g t h : " I n q u e s t ' o p e r a t u t t a 1 ' o r c h e s t r a z i o n e c r o m a t i c a e s e n t i t a c o n una o r i g i n a l i t a a s s o l u t a . . . I c o l o r i a c c e s i , q u a s i v i o l e n t i , danno un tono v i v a c e a l l e v e s t i d e l l a Madonna; c o s s e ed a z z u r r e : ma l e c a r n i d i v e n g o n o q u a s i d i a f a n e , b a g n a t e come sono d a l l e l u c e , che s u s c i t a ovunque 75 d i f f u s e a r m o n i e . " S i d n e y F r e e d b e r g l o o k s t o Mannerism - t h e c o n c e p t o f Mannerism h a v i n g a d o p t e d anomaly a s t r a d i t i o n - as a y a r d s t i c k a g a i n s t which t o measure L o t t o ' s anomalous s t a t u s i n t h e R e n a i s s a n c e s t o r y . F r e e d b e r g g i v e s a v e r y s e n s i t i v e r e a d i n g o f t h e Madonna and C h i l d w i t h SS Roch and S e b a s t i a n , however, b r i n g i n g an a w a r e n e s s o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l c o n t e x t i n t o h i s a n a l y s i s . He g i v e s a g r e a t d e a l o f s p a c e to t h e p a i n t i n g a s an example o f one o f L o t t o ' s "two s t y l e s . " T h e s e two s t r a i n s a r e i n h i s e s t i m a t i o n " o p p o s i t e a s p e c t s o f what i s ? u l t i m a t e l y , t h e same i n t e n s e n o n - r a t i o n a l e m o t i o n . " One a s p e c t " t e n d s to an e x p r e s s i v e t u r b u l e n c e i n which t h e r o u g h n e s s and immediacy o f f o r m s and f e e l i n g a r e dominant and i n w h i c h t y p e s and manner o f d e p o r t m e n t a r e popo1ano, u n s t y l i z e d and u n i d e a l i z e d as t h e y had been l o n g b e f o r e i n L o t t o ' s a r t and a s t h e y were i n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y P o r d e n o n e . " M o s t r a d i L o r e n z o L o t t o ( 1 9 5 3 ) , 78-79. 43 The o t h e r s t y l e , o f which t h e Ottawa p a i n t i n g i s a p r i m e example " i s a d e d u c t i o n made f r o m t h e c l a s s i c a l moment a c h i e v e d i n 1521." T h i s " s t r a i n , no l e s s i r r a t i o n a l l y i n s p i r e d , s e e k s to t r a n s l a t e p a t h o s i n t o an e x t r e m e o f g r a c e , c o n v e y i n g t h e r a p t u r e o f r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g by an 76 a r t i f i c i a l b e a u t y g i v e n to a p p e a r a n c e s and f o r m s . " F r e e d b e r g ' s a n a l y s i s o f t h e p a i n t i n g i s u n i q u e i n th i n t e n s i t y o f t h e d e s c r i p t i o n and f o r t h i s i s wo r t h q u o t i n a t some l e n g t h h e r e : The f i g u r e s a r e i n s t a t e s t h a t a p p r o a c h e c s t a s y , s t r o n g l y moved i n body as w e l l a s i n mind. T h e i r r e s p o n s e i s as e x q u i s i t e a s i t i s i n t e n s e , and t y p e s , a t t i t u d e , d r e s s , and g e s t u r e a l l c o n v e y an e x t r e m e o f r e f i n e m e n t . The q u a l i t y o f r e l a t i o n s h i p among t h e a c t o r s i s g i v e n not o n l y i l l u s t r a t i v e l y b u t by a r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n i n g t h a t w i n d s them i n an a r a b e s q u e . More t h a n i n t h e S. S p i r i t o a l t a r , t h e c o l o u r t a k e s on an e f f e c t o f a r t i f i c e , h i g h - k e y e d and l u m i n o u s , and i t i s as a c u t e a s t h e e m o t i o n . I n t e n s i f y i n g s h a r p n e s s and p u r i t y , t h e c o l o u r d i m i n i s h e s i n warmth, t u r n i n g t o w a r d s t h e s i l v e r e d t o n e s o f t h e Lombard t r a d i t i o n r a t h e r t h a n t h e s e n s u o u s n e s s o f t h e V e n e t i a n mode, and by t h i s t o q ^ a n e f f e c t o f a r t i f i c i a l i t y i s s u g g e s t e d . " The l e s s o n s o f L o t t o ' s " c l a s s i c a l moment" a c c o r d i n g F r e e d b e r g were h e r e t r a n s l a t e d t o u n c l a s s i c a l e n d s , 76 S . J . F r e e d b e r g , P a i n t i n g i n I t a l y 1500-1600 (Harmondsworth: P e n g u i n , 1970), 202. 7 7 F r e e d b e r g ( 1 9 7 0 ) , 202. 44 p r o d u c i n g a q u a l i f i e d Mannerism c o m p a r i n g L o t t o t o P a r m i g i a n i n o . P u t t i n g t h e s e Cthe l e s s o n s o f g r a c e and u n i t y o f f o r m ] to t h e s e r v i c e o f a mode o f f e e l i n g t h a t e x c e e d e d c l a s s i c a l r e s t r a i n t s , and -c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y f o r a p r o v i n c i a l - e x a g g e r a t i n g t h e g r a c e o f t h e s o c i a l as w e l l as t h e f o r m a l manner o f c l a s s i c i s m , L o t t o has e x t r a p o l a t e d a c l a s s i c a l b e l l a m a n i e r a i n t o what, a t l e a s t i n t h i s p a i n t i n g , may be c a l l e d Manner i s m . . . . But t h e r e i s an e l e m e n t i n L o t t o ' s a r t , e v e n i n t h i s r e f i n e d s t r a i n , t h a t r e s i s t s i t s e a s y a s s i m i l a t i o n i n t o Mannerism. H i s i n s i s t e n c e - s t i l l , i n him a p e r s i s t e n c e o f o l d - f a s h i o n e d h a b i t - on v e r i t y o f a p p e a r a n c e s a t t a c h e s him, more t h a n t h e e a r l y M a n n e r i s t s , t o d e s c r i b e d r e a l i t y . The M a n n e r i z i n g c h a r a c t e r o f p i c t u r e s i n t h i s v e i n i n m o s t p r o n o u n c e d i n t h e e a r l i e r 1520's... F r e e d b e r g ' s a n a l y s i s b r i n g s up t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e d i s t u r b i n g a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e p a i n t i n g . In F r e e d b e r g ' s a n a l y s i s , t h i s u n u s u a l p a i n t i n g i s t h e f r u i t o f a b a t t l e t h a t L o t t o s y n t h e s i z e s - t h e d i s j u n c t u r e o f a s o p h i s t i c a t e d p a i n t e r and p r o v i n c i a l demands. What F r e e d b e r g t o u c h e s on i n s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s o f t h e p a i n t i n g i t i s t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y t o e l a b o r a t e : t h e c o m m i s s i o n , t h e p r o v i n c i a l c o n t e x t , and t h e f u n c t i o n . I t i s t h a n k s to t h e work done on t h e s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t o f t h e p a t r o n , as w e l l as on t h e b r o a d e r c o n t e x t s o f p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n a l i m a g e r y and on p a i n t i n g i n t h e m e d i c a l c o n t e x t , F r e e d b e r g ( 1 9 7 0 ) , 203. 45 t h a t I am a b l e t o c o n s t r u c t a s t u d y on t h e Madonna and C h i l d  w i t h SS Roch and S e b a s t i a n . A r t i c l e s t h a t have been p u b l i s h e d i n t h e s e t h r e e major a r e a s f o r m t h e b a s i s f r o m which I c a n go on to r e c o n s t r u c t t h e c o n t e x t , f u n c t i o n , and t r a d i t i o n s o f t h i s p a i n t i n g . The most i m p o r t a n t o f t h e s e i s t h e a r t i c l e by F r a n c e s c a C o r t e s i Bosco "Un amico bergamasco d i L o r e n z o L o t t o , " p u b l i s h e d i n A r c h i v i o s t o r i c o bergamasco i n 1981 w i t h a 79 companion a r t i c l e by G i u l i o B r a v i . In t h i s a r t i c l e , C o r t e s i B osco e s t a b l i s h e s t h e p a t r o n o f t h e p a i n t i n g a s B a t t i s t a C u c c h i , a Bergamask s u r g e o n and f r i e n d o f L o t t o . The a r t i c l e f o l l o w i n g i t by B r a v i , " M e d i c i e c h i r u r g h i a Bergamo a l tempo d i B a t t i s t a C u c c h i " s u p p l e m e n t s C o r t e s i B o s c o ' s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o C u c c h i ' s e x i s t e n c e by i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e r e g i s t e r l e f t by t h e s u r g e o n and s u p p o r t i n g i t by i n v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e r o l e o f t h e s u r g e o n a t 4 - K 4- 4 - - 8 0 t h a t t i m e . Once t h e l o c a l work ha s been done on t h e p a t r o n o f t h e work and h i s s o c i a l c o n t e x t , s t u d i e s by o t h e r s c h o l a r s on F r a n c e s c a C o r t e s i B o s c o , "Un amico bergamasco d i L o r e n z o L o t t o , " A r c h i v i o s t o r i c o b e r g a m a s c o, n . l , 1 ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 65-84. G i u l i o O r a z i o B r a v i , " M e d i c i tempo d i B a t t i s t a C u c c h i , " A r c h i v i o ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 85-99. e c h i r u r g h i a Bergamo a l s t o r i c o b ergamasco, I, 1 46 t h e w i d e r c o n t e x t s o f h e a l i n g and p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n a r e f u n d a m e n t a l to t h i s t h e s i s . The f i r s t m ajor e x h i b i t i o n t o t r e a t t h e p l a g u e as a s o c i a l r e a l i t y i n V e n i c e , " V e n e z i a e l a P e s t e " , was h e l d i n 1979. The c a t a l o g u e p u b l i s h e d a c o n t r i b u t i o n by S t e f a n i a Mason R i n a l d i on "Le immagini d e l l a p e s t e n e l l a c u l t u r a f i g u r a t i v a v e n e z i a n a " i n which some o f t h e v e r y numerous e x a m p l e s o f i m a g e r y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p l a g u e i l l u s t r a t e t h e r o l e s o f i m a g e r y i n t h e r e a c t i o n t o and t h e 81 t r e a t m e n t o f p l a g u e i n V e n i c e . The i n c l u s i o n o f L o t t o ' s Madonna and C h i l d w i t h SS Roch and S e b a s t i a n i n t h e t e x t u a l accompaniment t o t h i s e x h i b i t i o n g ave t h e i n i t i a l o p p o r t u n i t y t o s i t u a t e t h i s p a i n t i n g w i t h i n t h e w i d e r s o c i a l c o n t e x t o f m e d i c a l a i d . R i c h a r d P a l m e r ' s work on t h e r e l a t i o n o f r e l i g i o n and h e a l i n g h e l p s to d e f i n e t h e f u n c t i o n o f d e v o t i o n a l i m a g e r y i n t h i s r o l e , w h i l e t h e p i o n e e r i n g work done by A n d r e e Hayum on t h e I s e n h e i m a l t a r p i e c e e x a m i n e s t h e r o l e o f a s p e c i f i c p a i n t i n g i n a m e d i c a l c o n t e x t , s e t t i n g down t h e groundwork f o r t h e 81 S t e f a n i a Mason R i n a l d i , "Le immagini d e l l a p e s t e n e l l a c u l t u r a f i g u r a t i v a v e n e z i a n a , " i n V e n e z i a e l a p e s t e  1348/1797 ( V e n i c e : P a l a z z o D u c a l e , 1979), 209-224. i R i c h a r d P a l m e r , "The C h u r c h , L e p r o s y and P l a g u e i n M e d i e v a l and E a r l y Modern E u r o p e , " i n The C h u r c h and  H e a l i n g , e d . W.J. S h e i l s ( O x f o r d : B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , 1982), 79-99; a l s o s e e : P a l m e r , "The C o n t r o l o f P l a g u e i n V e n i c e and N o r t h e r n I t a l y 1348-1600," D i s s . U n i v . o f Kent a t C a n t e r b u r y , 1978. 47 i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f works w i t h h e a l i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s . On t h e f o u n d a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d by Hayum, L a u r i n d a D i x o n f o l l o w s w i t h a m e d i c a l ' c a s e s t u d y ' o f t h e S t . A n t h o n y t r i p t y c h by „ . 8 4 B o s c h . The c o n t e x t o f p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n a l i m a g e r y has been opened up by S i x t e n Ringbom's f u n d a m e n t a l s t u d y on t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e h a l f - l e n g t h image i n t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Rona G o f f e n has drawn on t h e work done by Ringbom i n h e r work on t h e r o l e o f t h e h a l f - l e n g t h image i n t h e o e u v r e o f 85 G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i . F o l l o w i n g on t h e s e e a r l i e r s t u d i e s , G o f f e n p u b l i s h e d an a r t i c l e w h ich t r e a t e d a p r i v a t e h a l f - l e n g t h image o f t h e Madonna and C h i l d w i t h s a i n t s by 86 L o t t o . A l t h o u g h t h e Madonna and C h i l d w i t h SS Roch and  S e b a s t i an i s n o t under d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s a r t i c l e , t h e p a i n t i n g s t r e a t e d a r e o f a v e r y s i m i l a r c o m p o s i t i o n a l t y p e ( t w o - t h i r d s l e n g t h Madonna and C h i l d w i t h two f l a n k i n g 83 A n d r e e Hayum, "The Meaning and F u n c t i o n o f t h e I s e n h e i m A l t a r p i e c e : The H o s p i t a l C o n t e x t R e v i s i t e d , " A r t B u i l e t i n , 59 ( 1 9 7 7 ) , 501-517. 84 L a u r i n d a D i x o n , " B o s c h ' s ' S t . A n t h o n y T r i p t y c h ' - An A p o t h e c a r y ' s A p o t h e o s i s , " A r t J o u r n a l , 44 (Summer 1984), 119-131. 85 S i x t e n Ringbom, I c o n t o N a r r a t i v e : The R i s e o f t h e  D r a m a t i c C l o s e - U p i n F i f t e e n t h C e n t u r y D e v o t i o n a l P a i n t i n g s , 2nd e d . ( B e u k e n l a a n : Davaco, 1984); Rona G o f f e n , " I c o n and V i s i o n : G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i ' s H a l f - L e n g t h Madonnas," A r t  B u i l e t i n , 57 ( 1 9 7 5 ) , 487-518. 86 Rona G o f f e n , "A 'Madonna' by L o r e n z o L o t t o , " B o s t o n Museum o f F i n e A r t s B u l l e t i n , 76 ( 1 9 7 8 ) , 34-41. 48 s a i n t s ) and were p a i n t e d i n t h e same p e r i o d - p o s s i b l y i n t h e same y e a r - i n Bergamo. A l t h o u g h s h e d o e s n o t spend t h e t i m e i n t h i s a r t i c l e t o c o n s o l i d a t e h e r e v i d e n c e c a r e f u l l y -some o f w h i c h had been t r e a t e d i n h e r e a r l i e r a r t i c l e - s h e e x p l o r e s t h e l a y e r s o f meaning) b o t h o v e r t and c o v e r t , t h a t L o t t o d e v e l o p e d i n h i s s m a l l d e v o t i o n a l p a n e l s . T h i s t r e a t m e n t b r e a k s t h e g r o u n d f o r c o n s i d e r i n g t h e Madonna and  C h i l d w i t h SS Roch and S e b a s t i a n w i t h i n a c a t e g o r y o f i c o n o g r a p h i c a l d e n s i t y no l e s s i n e v i d e n c e i n L o t t o ' s p r i v a t e works t h a n i n h i s f u l l - s c a l e a l t a r p i e c e s . W a i t i n g t o be i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f b o t h G e n t i l i and C o r t e s i Bosco i n c o n t e m p o r a r y d e v o t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e . T h e s e c o n t r i b u t i o n s p r o v i d e new m a t e r i a l w i t h w h i c h to d e t e r m i n e t h e i c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n a l p a i n t i n g . # * * On t h e f o u n d a t i o n s o f t h e work done by t h e l o c a l Bergamask s c h o l a r s , and on t h e s t u d i e s o f p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n a l p a i n t i n g and t h e h e a l i n g c o n t e x t , t h i s t h e s i s w i l l a t t e m p t t o expand t h e f o c u s o f t h e s i n g l e work - t h e Madonna and  C h i l d w i t h SS Roch and S e b a s t i a n - i n t h e d i r e c t i o n s o f i t s r e l e v a n t c o n t e x t s : t h e d e v o t i o n a l s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n , t h e i c o n o g r a p h y f u n c t i o n a s an o b j e c t o f d e v o t i o n t y p e , t h e p a t r o n and o f t h e p a i n t i n g i n i t s i n a h e a l i n g c o n t e x t . 49 In C h a p t e r Two I w i l l be d i s c u s s i n g o f t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y V e n e t i a n h a l f - l e n g t h Madonna and C h i l d w i t h s a i n t s a s t h e a c t i v e t r a d i t i o n f r o m w h i c h L o t t o ' s Madonna and C h i l d  w i t h SS Roch and S e b a s t i a n comes. C h a p t e r T h r e e w i l l e x p l o r e t h e f o r m a l c h a n g e s t h a t o c c u r to t h e t y p e i n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y and t h e s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s p r e s s u r e s t h a t e f f e c t t h e s e c h a n g e s . The s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n o f Bergamo i n t h i s p e r i o d o f a n n e x a t i o n s and war and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h V e n i c e w i l l be examined i n C h a p t e r F o u r . L o t t o ' s p o s i t i o n a s a V e n e t i a n t r a i n e d p a i n t e r i n h i s c i r c l e o f p a t r o n a g e i n Bergamo w i l l a l s o be d i s c u s s e d h e r e . The s p e c i f i c p a t r o n B a t t i s t a C u c c h i w i l l be e l a b o r a t e d on -h i s p r o f e s s i o n s p o s i t i o n i n Bergamask s o c i e t y and r e l a t i o n s h i p t o L o t t o - i n o r d e r to e s t a b l i s h t h e p r o b a b l e f u n c t i o n o f t h e p a i n t i n g . C h a p t e r F i v e w i l l d e a l w i t h t h e u s e o f d e v o t i o n a l p a i n t i n g i n m e d i c a l c o n t e x t s . In C h a p t e r S i x I w i l l a t t e m p t t o draw t o g e t h e r t h e t h r e a d s o f t h i s work. I w i l l t r y to show t h a t t h e Madonna and C h i l d w i t h SS  Roch and S e b a s t i a n t r a n s f o r m s t h e p a r a m e t e r s o f a t r a d i t i o n a l p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n a l t y p e i n o r d e r to ' c u s t o m i z e ' t h e p a i n t i n g f o r a p a r t i c u l a r p a t r o n - t h e s u r g e o n C u c c h i i n Bergamo. I c o n s i d e r t h i s p a i n t i n g a s f u l f i l l i n g t h e s e f u n c t i o n s i n terms o f an i c o n o g r a p h i c d e n s i t y t h a t i s b o t h o v e r t and c o v e r t , e x p l i c i t and c o m p l e x . 50 CHAPTER TWO THE VENETIAN HALF-LENGTH MADONNA AND CHILD AND MADONNA AND CHILD WITH SAINTS: THE DEVELOPMENT OF A PRIVATE DEVOTIONAL TYPE The d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e V e n e t i a n h a l f - l e n g t h Madonna and C h i l d and o f t h e e x t e n d e d h a l f - l e n g t h Madonna and C h i l d w i t h s a i n t s p r o d u c e d a s t r i k i n g l y i n d i g e n o u s f o r m o f p r i v a t e 1 d e v o t i o n a l p a i n t i n g ( F i g s . 2, 3 ) . The V e n e t i a n h a l f - l e n g t h was v e r y p o p u l a r , and t h e g r e a t f a m i l y workshops o f V e n e t i a n a r t i s t s were o r g a n i z e d to 'mass p r o d u c e ' v e r s i o n s o f t h e S i x t e n Ringbom, I c o n t o N a r r a t i v e : The R i s e o f t h e  D r a m a t i c C l o s e - U p i n F i f t e e n t h C e n t u r y D e v o t i o n a l P a i n t i n g s , End e d . ( B e u k e n l a a n : Davaco, 1984), 30-39. The h a l f - l e n g t h o f t h i s t y p e was f o u n d i n t h e home. The e x c e p t i o n s to t h i s r u l e were t h e few c a s e s i n which t h e t y p e would be c o m m i s s i o n e d f o r a c h a p e l , t h e e x t e n d e d Madonna and C h i l d w i t h S a i n t s s o metimes used a s a c h e a p e r a l t e r n a t i v e to t h e f u l l - l e n g t h sacra c o n v e r s a z i o n e . F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f d e f i n i n g t h e f u n c t i o n and t h e t y p e , however, i n t h i s c h a p t e r t h e h a l f - l e n g t h Madonna images w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e i r most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c o n f i g u r a t i o n - as p o p u l a r p r i v a t e images made f o r t h e home t o f i l l common d e v o t i o n a l n e e d s . The c o p i o u s p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e s e p a i n t i n g s a t t h i s t i m e c o u l d be l i n k e d w i t h t h e i n c r e a s e i n p a l a z z o b u i l d i n g i n V e n i c e w h i c h c r e a t e d a r i s e i n t h e demand f o r p a i n t i n g s t o p u t i n them. Deborah Howard, The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e ( L o n d o n : B.T. B a t s f o r d , 1980), 85. 51 t y p e f o r t h e p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n a l m a r k e t . I t s p o p u l a r i t y i n V e n i c e was due t o a c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s f a c t o r s . The h a l f - l e n g t h V e n e t i a n Madonna and C h i l d w i t h s a i n t s - t h e ' e x t e n d e d ' t y p e - was d u r a b l e b e c a u s e i t i n c o r p o r a t e d v e r y p o t e n t c u l t u r a l s y m b o l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s i n g l e h a l f - l e n g t h Madonna and C h i l d - t h e r e v e r e d i c o n j t h e m i r a c u l o u s image, and t h e Madonna as c i v i c s y m b o l . The p e r i o d o f t h e g r e a t e s t p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e h a l f - l e n g t h Madonna t y p e c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e c a r e e r s o f G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i and Cima da C o n e g l i a n o (c1460-1510)> two o f The b u l k o f t h e h a l f - l e n g t h Madonna p a i n t i n g s were made t o be s o l d on t h e market, t h u s w i t h o u t a s p e c i f i c p a t r o n o r l o c a t i o n i n mind. In t h e s h o p s o f B e l l i n i and Cima da C o n e g l i a n o where t h e s e p a i n t i n g s were p r o d u c e d i n g r e a t numbers, mode11i o r s i m i l e were u s e d a s shop a i d s . In t h e B e l l i n i shop t h e m o d e l l o o r s i m i l e was o f t e n a c o l l a b o r a t i o n between m a s t e r and a s s i s t a n t . I t was t h e n a s s i g n e d t o t h a t a s s i s t a n t who r e p r o d u c e d i t s e v e r a l t i m e s . The Cima shop made us o f b o t h p a i n t e d and drawn model 1 i , b u t i n s t e a d o f becoming t h e a s s i g n m e n t o f a p a r t i c u l a r a s s i s t a n t - a s i n t h e B e l l i n i shop - t h e s e p r o t o t y p e s would become g e n e r a l shop s t o c k p a s s e d a r o u n d , r e u s e d , and r e c o m b i n e d . s e e : F e l t o n G i b b o n s , " P r a c t i c e s i n G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i ' s Workshop," P a n t h e o n , S3 ( 1 9 6 5 ) , 146-155; P e t e r Humfrey, Cima  da C o n e q 1 i a n o ( C a m b r i d g e : Cambridge U n i v . P r e s s , 1983), 3 f f ; Hans T i e t z e , " M a s t e r and Workshop i n t h e V e n e t i a n R e n a i s s a n c e , " P a r n a s s u s > 11 (Dec. 1937), 34-35, 45; E. T i e t z e - C o n r a t , "An U n p u b l i s h e d Madonna by G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i and t h e P r o b l e m o f R e p l i c a s i n h i s Shop," G a z e t t e des  B e a u x - A r t s , 33 ( 1 9 4 8 ) , 379-38E; H. and E. T i e t z e - C o n r a t , The  D r a w i n g s o f t h e V e n e t i a n P a i n t e r s i n t h e F i f t e e n t h and  S i x t e e n t h C e n t u r i e s (New Y o r k : J . J . A u g u s t i n , 1970), I, 5-E8. 52 t h e g r e a t e s t s u p p l i e r s o f p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n a l h a l f - l e n g t h s . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e V e n e t i a n t y p e i s t h e h a l f - l e n g t h f o r m a t . The p a r a p e t d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t h e f r o n t p l a n e o f t h e p a i n t i n g i s a V e n e t i a n d e v i c e a l t h o u g h an o p t i o n a l one i n t h e t y p e . ^ The c l o t h o f honour which a c t s as a b a c k d r o p f o r t h e Madonna i s a l s o a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ) b u t o p t i o n a l e l e m e n t ( F i g . 1 3 ) . The f i g u r e p l a n e i s n o n - n a t u r a l i s t i c a l l y c o m p r e s s e d i n t o a c o n s t r i c t e d f o r e g r o u n d s p a c e ( F i g . 4 ) . The b a c k g r o u n d may be ambiguous or an open s k y , but when a l a n d s c a p e i s d e p i c t e d t h e p a n o r a m i c v i e w i s s h a r p l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m t h e c o m p r e s s e d f r o n t a l f i g u r e p l a n e d e n y i n g any r e a d i n g o f a l o g i c a l l y c o n t i n u o u s s p a c e . T h e r e i s an o v e r r i d i n g a u s t e r i t y t o t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n - t h e f i g u r e s The two t e x t s t h a t d e a l w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e V e n e t i a n h a l f - l e n g t h a r e : Rona G o f f e n ) " I c o n and V i s i o n : G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i ' s H a l f - L e n g t h Madonnas," A r t B u l l e t i n , 57 ( 1 9 7 5 ) , 487-518; and Ringbom, 1984. G o f f e n c o n c e n t r a t e s on t h e s i n g l e Madonna and C h i l d i n B e l l i n i ' s o e u v r e . She c o v e r s i n a s y s t e m a t i c manner many o f t h e i m p o r t a n t r e s o n a n c e s o f t h e t y p e . Ringbom's l o o k a t t h e h a l f - l e n g t h image i s n o t s p e c i f i c t o B e l l i n i nor t o t h e s i n g l e Madonna and C h i l d t y p e . He a s k s t h e q u e s t i o n o f how t h e h a l f - l e n g t h i c o n i c image i s t r a n s f o r m e d by i t s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h n a r r a t i v e c o n t e n t . T h i s c h a p t e r b u i l d s on t h e g r o u n d s l a i d by t h e s e two p i o n e e r i n g s t u d i e s and e x pands on them by f o c u s i n g on t h e ' e x t e n d e d ' t y p e w i t h s a i n t s and on t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e s e images i n t e r m s o f t h e V e n e t i a n c o n t e x t o f s o c i a l l i f e and c u r r e n t d e v o t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s . 4. The h a l f - l e n g t h c r o p p i n g i s not i n f a c t c o m p l e t e l y r i g i d , a s t h e t y p e may a p p e a r i n a more expanded f o r m a t , p e r h a p s t o t w o - t h i r d s l e n g t h . ^On t h e i c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e p a r a p e t s e e G o f f e n ( 1 9 7 5 ) , 499-505. 53 g i v e t h e s e n s e o f a h i e r a t i c r e a d i n g and t h e r e i s l i t t l e o r no e m o t i o n a l o r a n e c d o t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between f i g u r e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y between s a i n t s and t h e Madonna i n t h e e x t e n d e d t y p e ( F i g . 1 4 ) . The f i g u r e s a r e p l a c e d i n s t a r k symmetry i n r e l a t i o n to t h e p i c t u r e p l a n e . O n l y t h e C h r i s t c h i l d m i ght be r e p r e s e n t e d i n v i g o r o u s movement ( F i g . 5 ) . ^ The p r e s e n t a t i o n i s n o n - n a r r a t i v e . E l s e w h e r e i n I t a l y t h e s m a l l p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n a l p a i n t i n g s o f t h e same p e r i o d show d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Compared w i t h t h e h i e r a t i c t r e a t m e n t o f G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i ' s C o n t a r i n i Madonna i n t h e A c c a d e m i a , c l 4 8 0 ( F i g . 6 ) , L e o n a r d o ' s B e n o i s Madonna, c l 4 7 8 ( F i g . 7 ) , d i s p l a y s a l i v e l y i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e f i g u r e s . The e m o t i o n a l l o g i c t h a t m o t i v a t e s t h e f i g u r e s i s a c c o m p a n i e d by a s p a t i a l l o g i c . The Madonna i s t u r n e d o b l i q u e l y i n o r d e r to g i v e a r e a d i n g i n t o d e p t h . A g r e a t e r p o r t i o n o f t h e f i g u r e i s shown and t h e Madonna and C h i l d a r e shown i n a l o g i c a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d s p a c e t h a t a l l o w s t h e f i g u r e s a i r t o b r e a t h e and g i v e s a p l a u s i b l e n a r r a t i v e m a t r i x f o r t h e i r e x i s t e n c e . The C h r i s t C h i l d a s t h e f o c u s o f t h e f i g u r a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n i s t h e most n a r r a t i v e . The whole message o f h i s m i s s i o n c a n be a l l u d e d t o i n h i s movements - e i t h e r h i s d e a t h ( s l e e p i n g C h i l d ) , h i s R e s u r r e c t i o n ( s t r i d i n g C h i l d ) , h i s r o l e a s K i n g o f t h e W o r l d o r i n t h e L a s t Judgement ( P a n t o c r a t o r ) , t h e p i e t a , b i r t h , o r b l e s s i n g . See below. 54 The same t r e n d i s s e e n i n t h e e x t e n d e d Madonna and C h i l d w i t h s a i n t s . The e x t e n d e d t y p e l e n d s i t s e l f to g r e a t e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f n a r r a t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n t h a n t h e s i n g l e Madonna and C h i l d . T hus, t h e c o n t r a s t i s g r e a t e r between t h e h i e r a t i c f i f t e e n t h - c e n t u r y V e n e t i a n h a l f - l e n g t h and t h e more s p a t i a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y i n t e g r a t e d c o m p o s i t i o n s t h a t a r e f o u n d o u t s i d e V e n i c e i n t h e same p e r i o d o r t h a t d e v e l o p by t h e e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n V e n i c e i t s e l f . In Cima's Madonna and C h i l d w i t h SS J o h n t h e  B a p t i s t and P a u l ( c l 5 0 4 - 5 ) f o r example, t h e s a i n t s a r e l i n e d up a l o n g a s i n g l e p l a n e f l a n k i n g t h e Madonna a s i f i n a s i l e n t s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e ( F i g . 3 ) . In a F l o r e n t i n e work s u c h a s t h e Madonna and C h i l d w i t h S t . J o h n t h e B a p t i s t by t h e B o t t i c e l l i workshop ( c l 4 9 0 ' s ) however, t h e Madonna i s p l a c e d o b l i q u e l y and t h e r e i s some a t t e m p t made a t a s p a t i a l l o g i c ( F i g . 8 ) . The Madonna i s shown s e a t e d on a c o m f o r t a b l e arm c h a i r i n d i r e c t i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e c h i l d . A l t h o u g h J o hn t h e B a p t i s t d o e s n o t i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e gro u p a s i s common i n L e o n a r d e s q u e works o r i n t h e works o f R a p h a e l , o r o f T i t i a n i n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , h e r e t h e s a i n t i n p r a y e r m i r r o r s t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e v i e w e r w i t h t h e work. He i s p l a c e d b e h i n d t h e Madonna's c h a i r and t h u s d e f i n e s t h e p h y s i c a l s p a c e o f t h e d e p i c t e d room which he s h a r e s w i t h t h e Madonna and C h i l d . In h e r work on B e l l i n i ' s h a l f - l e n g t h Madonna and C h i l d p a i n t i n g s , Rona G o f f e n has d i s c u s s e d t h e s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e 55 o f t h e B y z a n t i n e i c o n f o r V e n i c e . As a symbol o f V e n i c e ' s e a s t e r n a f f i l i a t i o n s , t h e i c o n h e l d an i m p o r t a n t p l a c e i n t h e c i t y ' s c i v i c image. G o f f e n i n t e r p r e t e d t h e a u s t e r i t y o f t h e B e l l i n i e s q u e h a l f - l e n g t h s t y l e as a d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e t o t h e B y z a n t i n e i c o n , g i v i n g t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y h a l f - l e n g t h a t o p i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e and p o p u l a r i t y i n V e n i c e ( F i g s . 6, Q 9 ) . The l o c a l i z a t i o n o f t h i s s t y l e to V e n i c e r e i n f o r c e s h e r argument. The V e n e t i a n h a l f - l e n g t h was n o t however, a B y z a n t i n e e m u l a t i o n . When V e n e t i a n s wanted t o e m u l a t e 9 B y z a n t i n e s t y l e , t h e y d i d . The i c o n i c h a l f - l e n g t h must have s e r v e d t h e demands o f p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n i n a d d i t i o n to i t s c i v i c r e l e v a n c e t o have been p o p u l a r . The h a l f - l e n g t h Madonna and C h i l d w i t h s a i n t s has an ambiguous r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e f u l l - l e n g t h I t a l i a n s a c r a  c o n v e r s a z i o n e a l t a r p i e c e ( F i g s . 15, 1 6 ) . The p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t c o n s t i t u t e t h e p r i v a t e t y p e c a n be d e f i n e d i n a c o m p a r i s o n w i t h i t s p u b l i c c o u n t e r p a r t . The f i g u r e s i n t h e h a l f - l e n g t h f o r m a t a r e r e a d i n a s i m i l a r G o f f e n , " I c o n and V i s i o n " ( 1 9 7 5 ) , 487-518. 8 G o f f e n ( 1 9 7 5 ) , 487-490. 9 W i l k s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e V i r g i n O r a n t i n t h e Bernabo c h a p e l i n San G i o v a n n i C h r i s o s t o m o i s a c o p y by T u l l i o o f an e a r l i e r V e n e t i a n - B y z a n t i n e e m u l a t i o n . S a r a h W i l k , The  S c u l p t u r e o f T u l l i o Lombardo: S t u d i e s i n S o u r c e s and Meaning (New Y o r k : G a r l a n d , 1978), 121-2. In h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f V e n e t i a n r e l a t i o n s to B y z a n t i u m s h e d i s c u s s e s t h e g o v e r n m e n t - s a n c t i o n e d p r o d u c t i o n o f i m i t a t i o n s o f B y z a n t i n e a r t ( 1 2 4 ) . 56 manner - t h e s a i n t s s t a n d f l a n k i n g t h e Madonna who i s s e a t e d and t h u s u n d e r s t o o d as r a i s e d . R e c a l l i n g t h e a l t a r p i e c e i n f o r m b o l s t e r s t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e s a i n t s by e l i c i t i n g t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e e c c l e s i a . At t h e same t i m e t h e p r i v a t e image i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t i n a p p r o a c h . The s e t t i n g o f t h e c h u r c h was t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e f o r t h e s a i n t s and t h e 10 Madonna and C h i l d t o s t a n d and b r e a t h e . In t h e a l t a r p i e c e f o r m t h e d e p i c t e d a r c h i t e c t u r e i s an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e c h u r c h j u s t a s t h e sacra c o n v e r s a z i o n e e x p r e s s e s an a m p l i f i c a t i o n o f l i t u r g y and d o c t r i n e . In t h e p r i v a t e p a i n t i n g , however, t h e p a r a p e t s i g n i f i e s t h e b r e a k between t h e s p a c e o f t h e home and t h e s p a c e o f t h e s a c r e d p e r s o n a g e s , as i f t h e 11 p a i n t i n g were a window o n t o t h e s a c r e d w o r l d . The h i e r a t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e h a l f - l e n g t h f o r m r e i n f o r c e s 12 t h e f i g u r e s ' p o t e n t i a l a s ' s y m b o l i c f o r m ' . The s a i n t s a r e c l o s e l y j u x t a p o s e d w i t h t h e Madonna and C h i l d , i n t h e same c o m p r e s s e d f o r w a r d p l a n e and r e a c h i n g a l m o s t t h e same F o r t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f t h e a l t a r p i e c e a s a m i c r o c o s m o f t h e s t r u c t u r e and meaning o f t h e e a r t h l y and h e a v e n l y c h u r c h s e e : L o t t e B r a n d P h i l i p , The Ghent  A l t a r p i e c e and t h e A r t o f J a n Van Evck ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v . P r e s s , 1971) e s p . 53-115. 11 The i c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e window i n t h e h a l f - l e n g t h Madonna p a i n t i n g s r e f e r r i n g t o Mary as f e n s t r a c o e l i i s d i s c u s s e d by G o f f e n ( 1 9 7 5 ) , 505 and by Ringbom ( 1 9 8 4 ) , 42-48. Ringbom d e v e l o p s t h e window i m a g e r y as an a d a p t a t i o n o f c o n v e n t i o n s o f r o y a l p o r t r a i t u r e to d e p i c t i o n s o f C h r i s t and as a metaphor f o r t h e " n o t f u l l y v i s i b l e b u t n o t w h o l l y i n v i s i b l e " d i v i n i t y . Ringbom ( 1 9 8 4 ) , 40. 57 h e i g h t . The s a i n t s i n t h e h a l f - l e n g t h t y p e a r e d e p l o y e d n o t so much a s f i g u r e s t h a t accompany t h e Madonna and C h i l d i n t h e s a c r e d s p a c e o f t h e c h u r c h b u t as e l a b o r a t i o n s on a theme - t h e theme o f t h e Madonna, o r more t o t h e p o i n t , o f C h r i s t . 1 3 The h i e r a t i c f o r m o f t h e V e n e t i a n h a l f - l e n g t h t y p e s s u g g e s t s s i m i l a r i t i e s t o t h e i c o n t y p e i n f u n c t i o n and s p i r i t u a l a p p r o a c h . Due t o t h e c r o p p e d p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e f i g u r e s , t h e l a c k o f p e r s p e c t i v a l l o g i c and t h e l a c k o f e m o t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n o r i n d i v i d u a t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r , t h e V e n e t i a n h a l f - l e n g t h t y p e e n c o u r a g e s a r e a d i n g t h a t i s l e s s l i t e r a l t h a n s y m b o l i c - a mode o f d e v o t i o n t h a t 13 The C h r i s t — l i k e a t t r i b u t e s o f Mary a s c o — r e d e m p t r i c e , w h i l e d e b a t e d t o p i c s , were - as P e t r o c c h i a r g u e s - p o p u l a r l y a c c e p t e d c o n c e p t s i n t h e Q u a t t r o c e n t o : "e s i a c u i r a da p a r t e c a t t o l i c a - i n o p p o s i z i o n e a l l e t e o r i c h e r i f o r m a t e - l a p o l e m i c a s u l p r o b l e m a che l e g a l a R e d e n z i o n e d i C h r i s t o a g 1 i a t t r i b u t i d e l l a Madonna. M o t i v o q u e s t o e s s e n z i a l e p e r comprendere q u e l l o c he i c a t t o l i c i i n t e n d o n o r i a f f e r m a r e , c o n t r o l e e r e s i e c i n q u e c e n t e s c h e , s u l l a R e d e n z i o n e . La d e f i n i z i o n e d e g l i a t t r i b u t i d i M a r i a e, n e g l i s c r i t t i d i p i e t a d e l C i n q u e c e n t o i t a l i a n o , s t r e t t a m e n t e l e g a t a a l a s p e t t o d e l c r i s t o c e n t r i s m o . Ma i n r e a l t a , p e r l o meno i n I t a l i a , g i a n e l Q u a t t r o c e n t o , s u un p i a n o t e o r i c o - t e o l o g i c o e s u un p i a n o d e v o z i o n a l e , Immacolata C o n c e z i o n e e A s s u n z i o n e sono d i f e s e c o n r i c h e z z a d i m o t i v i da s a n B e r n a r d i n o da S i e n a . " Massimo P e t r o c c h i , "La d e v o z i o n e a l i a V e r g i n e n e g l i s c r i t t i d i p i e t a d e l C i n q u e c e n t o i t a l i a n o , " i n P r o b l e m i d i v i t a  r e l i q i o s a i n I t a l i a n e l C i n q u e c e n t o . A t t i d e l conveqno d i  s t o r i a d e l l a C h i e s a i n I t a l i a (Padua: A n t e n o r e , 1960), 281. 58 c h a r a c t e r i z e s e a s t e r n a t t i t u d e s t o t h e i c o n . U n l i k e t h e B y z a n t i n e image, however, w h i c h e x p r e s s e d f i x e d p r o t o t y p e s i n w h ich t h e e n t i r e C h r i s t i a n c o s m o l o g y was m a n i f e s t e d , I t a l i a n d e v o t i o n a l i m a g e r y u s e d p h y s i c a l a t t i t u d e s and i c o n o g r a p h i c a l c l u e s t o i n d i c a t e t e m p o r a l images, o r h i d d e n n a r r a t i v e meaning.*"* I n h e r e n t i n t h e i m a g e r y o f t h e Madonna and C h i l d i s a h i s t o r i c a l s e q u e n c i n g which f o r e s h a d o w s t h e l a t e r l i f e o f C h r i s t - t h e P a s s i o n , t h e s a c r i f i c e and t h e R e s u r r e c t i o n e x p r e s s i n g t h e messages o f s u f f e r i n g , s a l v a t i o n I r v i n g L a v i n d e s c r i b e s a w e s t e r n a d a p t a t i o n o f what i s e s s e n t i a l l y a B y z a n t i n e c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e t r u n c a t e d image i n h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e i n t e n t o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e p o r t r a i t b u s t . He e s t a b l i s h e s t h e " a m p u t a t i o n " e f f e c t o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e b u s t i n c o m p a r i s o n to t h e a n t i q u e t y p e w h i c h i s p e r c e i v e d as an a r t i f a c t . The R e n a i s s a n c e b u s t , he c o n c l u d e s , h a s more i n common w i t h t h e i c o n w hich a c c e p t s t h e p a r t i a l knowledge o f God " b e c a u s e i t r e f e r s t o more t h a n meets t h e e y e . " The i d e a o f an u n s e e n t o t a l i t y i s e x p l o i t e d i n t h e h u m a n i s t i d e a o f t h e p o r t r a i t o f t h e " t o t u s homo", t h e "whole man" b e c a u s e "both embody a n o t i o n o f man's n a t u r e a s a t o t a l i t y w h ich c a n be r e a c h e d o n l y by i m p l i c a t i o n and i l l u s i o n . " I r v i n g L a v i n , "On t h e S o u r c e s and Meaning o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e P o r t r a i t B u s t " A r t Q u a r t e r l y , 33 ( 1 9 7 0 ) , 207-826. *^By h i d i n g t h e n a r r a t i v e w i t h i n an i c o n i c image, t h e h a l f - l e n g t h V e n e t i a n image p a r t i c i p a t e s b o t h i n w e s t e r n t r a d i t i o n and e a s t e r n s p i r i t u a l c o n c e p t s . The component t h a t d i s s o l v e s one i n t o t h e o t h e r i s t h e a s c e t i c t r a d i t i o n . "Among E a s t e r n m y s t i c s g e n e r a l , no s u c h s t r e s s was l a i d a s was commonly l a i d i n t h e West on t h e i m i t a t i o n o f t h e e a r t h l y l i f e o f J e s u s . What we have to do, i t was t a u g h t , i s n o t to i m i t a t e t h e example o f J e s u s , but t o s h a r e , so f a r as may be, t h e d i v i n e r a d i a n c e which i l l u m i n a t e d Him, by f o l l o w i n g t h e p a t h o f p r a y e r and c o n t e m p l a t i o n . " "The D e s e r t F a t h e r s f o r m a n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s . I t was t h e m o t i v e o f t h e i r e x t r e m e a s c e t i c i s m to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s u f f e r i n g s o f C h r i s t . " S i d n e y S p e n c e r , M y s t i c i s m i n W o r l d  R e l i q i o n (New Y o r k : A.S. B a r n e s and Co., 1963), 226 &< n. 5. 59 and t h e e u c h a r i s t . In t h e e x t e n d e d h a l f - l e n g t h t y p e t h e a d d i t i o n o f f l a n k i n g s a i n t s e l a b o r a t e t h e i c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e c e n t r a l Madonna and C h i l d and e x t e n d t h e r e f e r e n c e to t h e .. . ,. 17 r e l i g i o u s n a r r a t i v e . The V e n e t i a n h a l f - l e n g t h , t h e n , s t o o d between two i m p u l s e s , s y m b o l i c and n a r r a t i v e . The h i e r a t i c , i c o n - l i k e f o r m i n d i c a t e s t h e dominance o f s y m b o l i c r e a d i n g , o f a u s t e r i t y , and o f r e m o v a l . In t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e b a l a n c e a p p e a r s t o t i p , w i t h t h e n a r r a t i v e becoming a domin a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . When t h i s h a p p e n s , t h e e n t e r a b l e s p a c e w h i c h was a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e c h u r c h a l t a r p i e c e i n t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , would become a p p r o p r i a t e a l s o f o r t h e home. The 'window' s i g n a l l e d by t h e h a l f - l e n g t h ' s p a r a p e t w i l l become, so t o s p e a k , a d o o r . The growth o f p r i v a t e T h i s d i s c u s s i o n w i l l be d e v e l o p e d i n C h a p t e r S i x belo w . 17 In V e n i c e , t h e l i v e d n a r r a t i v e o f t h e l i f e o f C h r i s t was p a r t o f a common p u b l i c l i f e o f c i v i c ceremony. M u i r d e s c r i b e s t h e c e r e m o n i a l y e a r f r o m A l l S a i n t s Day to t h e P e n t e c o s t and C o r p u s C h r i s t i a s c e l e b r a t i o n s o f t h e g r e a t f e a s t s d e v o t e d t o t h e l i f e and m i n i s t r y o f C h r i s t . On t h e g r e a t f e a s t s o f E a s t e r , t h e s t a t e i n t h e p e r s o n o f t h e doge a s s o c i a t e d i t s e l f c e r e m o n i a l l y w i t h t h e p a s s i o n o f C h r i s t , "on Palm Sunday he [ t h e doge] and o t h e r m a g i s t r a t e s c a r r i e d g o l d - l e a f palm b r a n c h e s a r o u n d P i a z z a San Marco i n a r e - e n a c t m e n t o f C h r i s t ' s e n t r y i n t o J e r u s a l e m , and d u r i n g t h e week t h e r e were s e v e r a l d u c a l p r o c e s s i o n s t o r e c e i v e i n d u l g e n c e s o r t o view h o l y r e l i c s . At e a c h s t a g e i n t h e d r a m a t i z a t i o n o f C h r i s t ' s l a s t d a y s t h e doge h i m s e l f i m p e r s o n a t e d C h r i s t . " Edward M u i r , C i v i c R i t u a l i n  R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v . P r e s s , 1981), 212-219. 60 d e v o t i o n o u t s i d e t h e w a l l s o f t h e c h u r c h and i n t o t h e home, a i d e d by t h e s p r e a d o f d e v o t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e , h e l p s a c c o u n t f o r t h i s c h a n g e . T h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s i n p r i v a t e p i e t y , however, were a l r e a d y b e g i n n i n g i n t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y . In t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y p r i v a t e p i e t y was d e v e l o p i n g a more i n d e p e n d e n t r o l e . D e v e l o p i n g c u r r e n t s o f p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n were a i d e d by t h e new t e c h n o l o g y o f p r i n t i n g , w hich put d e v o t i o n a l r e a d i n g more e a s i l y i n t o t h e hands o f p r i v a t e r e a d e r s . In t h i s p e r i o d t h e t r e n d s i n p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n w hich f o u n d a m a t r i x i n d e v o t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e s h a r e d themes w h i c h have been a s c r i b e d t o c u r r e n t s o f r e f o r m w i t h i n C a t h o l i c i s m . The i n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e C h u r c h was under i n c r e a s i n g a t t a c k as r e f o r m f a c t i o n s q u e s t i o n e d t h e 18 c o r r u p t i o n o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n f r o m i t s t r u e m i s s i o n . P i e r r e F r a n c a s t e l i d e n t i f i e d t h i s p e r i o d o f i n n e r c r i s i s i n 19 C a t h o l i c i s m a s a p e r i o d o f ' h e r e s i e s . ' P r i v a t e d e v o t i o n G i n z b u r g s u c c i n c t l y t r a c e s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n away f r o m t h e t r a d i t i o n a l m a t r i x o f t h e C h u r c h . In G i n z b u r g ' s v i e w , t h i s new d e v o t i o n was m o t i v a t e d by t h e n e e d s o f t h e m e r c a n t i l e s o c i e t y and e x p r e s s e d " u n ' a c c e n t u a z i o n e d e l 1 ' i n t e r i o r i t a , d e 1 1 ' i m p o r t a n z a d e l 1 ' e s p e r i e n z a r e l i g i o s a i n d i v i d u a l e . " C a r l o G i n z b u r g , " F o l k l o r e , magia, r e l i g i o n , " i n S t o r i a d ' I t a l i a ( T o r i n o : G i u l i o E i n a u d i , 1978), 619-642. G i n z b u r g c o n s i d e r s t h e d i f f u s i o n o f p r i n t e d d e v o t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e an i m p o r t a n t c a t a l y s t i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e new p r i v a t e p i e t y ( 6 1 9 - 6 3 6 ) . 19 F r a n c a s t e l c o n s i d e r s t h e s p i r i t u a l r e f o r m i n g t r e n d s w i t h i n C a t h o l i c i s m as g a i n i n g g r o u n d l a i d by F r a n c i s c a n i s m , w hich he t e r m s t h e " r e l i g i o u s movement c l o s e s t to h e r e s y " ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) 61 l i k e r e f o r m movements i s o u t s i d e t h e d i r e c t g u i d a n c e o f c h u r c h r i t u a l and w i t h t h e w i d e r d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f p r i n t e d b o o k s , b o t h had a c c e s s to s i m i l a r p i o u s l i t e r a t u r e a s gu i d a n c e . V e n i c e was p a r t i c u l a r l y s y m p a t h e t i c g r o u n d f o r new c u r r e n t s i n p i e t y . V e n i c e ' s p o l i t i c a t t i t u d e toward t h e p a p a c y had t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e e n what may be termed as 20 r e s p e c t f u l l y d e f i a n t . V e n i c e had h e r own t i g h t l y ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) ( 1 9 0 ) . " W e stern c i v i 1 i z a t i o n . . . c a n be c o n s i d e r e d t h e d a u g h t e r o f h e r e s y . Numerous h e r e s i e s had o f c o u r s e e x i s t e d i n b o t h E a s t e r n and W e s t e r n C h r i s t i a n w o r l d s b e f o r e t h e 14th c e n t u r y , b u t t h e s e h e r e s i e s had e n g e n d e r e d o n l y t i m i d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l f o r m s . Above a l l , t h e y had n o t p e n e t r a t e d t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e t o t h e p o i n t o f o b l i g i n g t h e C h u r c h to r e a c h a compromise w i t h t h e h e r e t i c body r a t h e r t h a n condemn i t o u t r i g h t . The whole h i s t o r y o f t h e v i s u a l a r t s i n t h e West s p r i n g s f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t i n t h e 13th c e n t u r y h e r e s y took t h e f o r m n o t o f i n t e l l e c t u a l o p p o s i t i o n but o f a s e n t i m e n t a l and s p i r i t u a l c l a i m . " P i e r r e F r a n c a s t e l "Space and Time," E n c y c l o p e d i a o f  W o r l d A r t (New Y o r k : McGraw-Hi11,1967), 190. 20 S i n d i n g L a r s e n c o n s i d e r s t h a t S. Marco f u n c t i o n e d a s "an autonomous government c h u r c h " i n e v e r y r e s p e c t but l i t u r g y and dogma. As a government s t a t e m e n t , i n i t s e a s t e r n c a s t and i n i t s a g g r a n d i z e m e n t o f t h e c l a i m s t h a t V e n i c e h e l d f o r t h e p a t r i a r c h y o f S. Mark a s an a p o s t o l i c l i n e a g e e q u a l i n g t h e p a p a c y , t h e C h u r c h o f S. Marco s t o o d as a V e n e t i a n c l a i m a g a i n s t t h e p a p a c y . S t a a l e S i n d i n g L a r s e n , C h r i s t i n t h e C o u n c i l H a l l : S t u d i e s i n t h e R e l i g i o u s  I c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e V e n e t i a n R e p u b l i c (Rome: L'Erma, 1974), 182-3. V e n i c e ' s c l a i m as an e q u a l to t h e p a p a c y was h i s t o r i c a l l y c o n f i r m e d by t h e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f pope A l e x a n d e r I I I and t h e emperor i n 1177. T h i s e v e n t took on f o c a l i m p o r t a n c e i n c i v i c s y m b o l i s m and i n t h e 'myth o f ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) 62 o r g a n i z e d s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s ; i t s s u c c e s s f u l s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e f o s t e r e d an a t t i t u d e o f s e l f - r e l i a n c e and p r i d e . Scuo1e and c o n f r a t e r n i t i e s d i r e c t e d t h e s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s l i f e o f V e n e t i a n c i t i z e n s . The most p e r v a s i v e c i v i c a u t h o r i t y was t h e s t a t e , which g u i d e d t h e e n t i r e r e l i g i o u s y e a r t h r o u g h c i v i c ceremony and r i t u a l . The d u a l f o r c e s o f t h e a t m o s p h e r e o f r e l i g i o u s i n d e p e n d e n c e and t h e i n f l u e n c e o f V e n e t i a n c i v i c i n s t i t u t i o n s i n a l l a s p e c t s o f l i f e s h a p e d t h e p o p u l a r d e v o t i o n i n V e n i c e t h a t was p r o v i d i n g a g r e a t demand f o r t h e h a l f - l e n g t h images. The s o c i a l i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e B y z a n t i n e i c o n model a t t h e b a s e o f t h e h a l f - l e n g t h s t y l e h e l d a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e on p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n b e c a u s e o f t h e p e r v a s i v e n e s s o f t h e p u b l i c s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e i n V e n e t i a n l i f e . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e s t r o n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l m a t r i x o f V e n e t i a n s o c i e t y r e t a r d e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f an ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) V e n i c e ' . The i n s i g n i a u s e d i n t h e i n v e s t i t u r e ceremony o f t h e doge r e p r e s e n t e d t h i s c l a i m a s i t was r e p u t e d l y t h e i n s i g n i a g i v e n t o t h e V e n e t i a n s by A l e x a n d e r I I I i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f " s a v i n g " t h e p a p a c y . "The i n s i g n i a had s u b s e g u e n t l y become p r e d o m i n a n t l y p o l i t i c a l s y m b o l s o f V e n i c e ' s autonomy, r e m i n d e r s o f t h e p a p a c y ' s i n d e b t e d n e s s to V e n i c e and o f how a pope had once c o n f e r r e d i n s i g n i a upon t h e r e p u b l i c t h a t marked i t o u t among o t h e r s t a t e s . " S i n d i n g L a r s e n ( 1 5 8 ) . F o r t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l A l e x a n d r i a n c y c l e s i n t h e M a g g i o r C o n c i l i o s e e : P a t r i c i a Brown, " P a i n t i n g and H i s t o r y i n R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e , " A r t  H i s t o r y , 7 ( S e p t . 1984), 263-277. V e n i c e as a c e n t r e f o r r e f o r m i n t h e l a t e f i f t e e n t h , e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s : P e t e r L a v e n , R e n a i s s a n c e I t a l y  1464-1534 (Lo n d o n : B.T. B a t s f o r d , 1966), 211-16; D.S. Chambers, The I m p e r i a l Age o f V e n i c e . 1380-1580 (London: Thames and Hudson, 1970), 118. 63 i n d e p e n d e n t p r i v a t e p i e t y t h a t would l e t t h e r e l i g i o u s f i g u r e s ' i n t o t h e h o u s e ' i n t h e n a r r a t i v e images o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . At t h e same t i m e new d e v o t i o n a l emphases a p p e a r e d i n t h e p o p u l a r themes o f t h e h a l f - l e n g t h Madonna and C h i l d w i t h s a i n t s . The most p e r v a s i v e r e f o r m s to have e f f e c t e d u r b a n E l d e v o t i o n s were t h e r e f o r m s o f t h e m e n d i c a n t o r d e r s . The example o f a r e f o r m e m p h a s i z i n g a s c e t i c i s m , h u m i l i t y , and C h r i s t l i n e s s was f o r m u l a t e d i n t o an e x t r e m e l y a f f e c t i n g example i n t h e p e r s o n o f F r a n c i s , t h e p o o r s a i n t who was a b l e t o a t t a i n t o i m i t a t i o c h r i s t i i n t h e most p h y s i c a l l y EE e v i d e n t manner, by r e c e i v i n g t h e s t i g m a t a . The m e n d i c a n t s p i r i t u a l i t i e s o f f e r e d t h e u r b a n c i t i z e n an e m o t i o n a l l y f u l f i l l i n g and a c c e s s i b l e p i e t y . The d e v o t i o n a l c u r r e n t s o f t h e l a t e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y b u i l t on t h i s t y p e o f r e f o r m , b u t t h e d y n a m i c s were d i f f e r e n t a s p i o u s l i t e r a t u r e s p r e a d B a r b a r a H. R o senwein and L e s t e r K. L i t t l e , " S o c i a l Meaning i n t h e M o n a s t i c and M e n d i c a n t S p i r i t u a l i t i e s , " P a s t and P r e s e n t , 63 (May 1974), 16-3E. EE " I n t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , w r i t i n g s on t h e p a s s i o n were e l a b o r a t e d f u r t h e r t h r o u g h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p r o g r a m s o f s y s t e m a t i c m e d i t a t i o n . C r e d i t f o r t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t b e l o n g s c h i e f l y t o t h e F r a n c i s c a n s , who made d e v o t i o n t o C h r i s t t h e c o r n e r s t o n e o f t h e i r s p i r i t u a l i t y . In t h e o r e t i c a l w r i t i n g s , a l l e g o r i c a l t r e a t i s e s , p a r a - 1 i t u r g i c a l t e x t s and e x p l i c i t g u i d e s t o m e d i t a t i o n , t h e F r a n c i s c a n s d e f i n e d and e x t o l l e d t h e c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f t h e p a s s i o n , and p r o v i d e d t h e f a i t h f u l w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e a i d s . " James H. Marrow, P a s s i o n I c o n o g r a p h y i n N o r t h e r n E u r o p e a n A r t o f t h e  L a t e M i d d l e Ages and E a r l y R e n a i s s a n c e ( B e l g i u m : Van Geemert, 1979), 19E. 64 w i t h i n a d e v e l o p i n g p r i v a t e s p h e r e . The p i e t y t h a t d e v e l o p e d o u t o f t h e s e o r i g i n s e x p r e s s e d an e m p h a s i s on a s c e t i c i s m ) r e n u n c i a t i o n , p o v e r t y , and an i n t e n s e c h r i s t o 1 o g i c a l e m p h a s i s t h a t c a n be f o u n d i n t h e p o p u l a r d e v o t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e ( w h i c h , l i k e p s e u d o - B o n a v e n t u r e ' s M e d i t a t i o n s on t h e L i f e o f C h r i s t , was o f t e n o r i g i n a l l y 23 w r i t t e n f o r a m o n a s t i c a u d i e n c e ) . The p e r v a s i v e n e s s o f t h e s e emphases i n t h e n o r t h o f I t a l y i s e v i d e n t i n t h e p o p u l a r i t y a t t h i s t i m e o f s u c h images as t h e Man o f S o r r o w s and t h e p e n i t e n t S t . Jerome. The image o f t h e Man o f S o r r o w s i s a m e d i t a t i o n a l o b j e c t t h a t f o c u s e s on t h e s u f f e r i n g C h r i s t , t h e C h r i s t o f t h e s a c r i f i c e ( F i g s . 10, 1 1 ) . The p e n i t e n t S t . Jerome c o n f i r m s t h i s t y p e o f d e v o t i o n by r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e s a i n t a s an example o f i m i t a t i o c h r i s t i t h r o u g h t h e means o f t h e h e r m i t 24 l i f e , r e n u n c i a t i o n , a s c e t i c i s m , and r e p e n t a n c e ( F i g . 1 2 ) . The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t h e new c u r r e n t s o f p r i v a t e p i e t y d e v e l o p i n g i n t h e l a t e f i f t e e n t h and e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y i s d i s c u s s e d by G i n z b u r g ( 1 9 7 2 ) , 619-642; and A u g u s t o G e n t i l i , I q i a r d i n i d i c o n t e m p 1 a z i o n e •  L o r e n z o L o t t o , 1503-1512, 209-233. 24 II San G i r o l a m o d i L o r e n z o L o t t o a C a s t e l S. A n g e l o , e x h i b i t i o n c a t a l o g u e (Rome: Romano S o c i e t a , 1983); B e r n a r d Aikema, " L o r e n z o L o t t o and t h e O s p i t a l e d i Zuane P o l o , " I n t e r p r e t a z i o n i v e n e z i a n e : s t u d i d i s t o r i a d e l l ' a r t e i n  h o n o r e d i M i c h e l a n g e l o Muraro ( V e n i c e : A r s e n a l e , 1984), 343-350. 65 The r e c u r r e n c e o f c e r t a i n s a i n t s and t h e i r mode o f p r e s e n t a t i o n c o n f i r m s t h e c h r i s t o l o g i c a l f o c u s and a m p l i f i e s t h e c u r r e n t d e v o t i o n a l emphases - on s u f f e r i n g ) a s c e t i c i s m , r e n u n c i a t i o n , and p e n i t e n c e . A s u r v e y o f t h e h a l f - l e n g t h e x t e n d e d t y p e r e v e a l s f o u r s a i n t s whose f r e q u e n t r e c u r r e n c e s u g g e s t s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p o p u l a r i t y . E x c l u d i n g f r o m t h e s a m p l i n g t h e images r e p r e s e n t i n g d o n o r s and t h u s s p e c i f i c a l l y c o m m i s s i o n e d , t h e most r e c u r r e n t s a i n t s a r e o n e s most l i k e l y t o be g e n e r i c b e s t s e l l e r s ) and w i l l r e v e a l t h e most p r o m i n e n t d e v o t i o n a l modes. Of t h e s e f o u r s a i n t s two a r e women and two men: SS J o h n t h e B a p t i s t , Jerome, C a t h e r i n e o f A l e x a n d r i a , and t h e Magdalene ( F i g s . 16) 17, 18) . Some common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e t h o s e o f a s c e t i c i s m o r r e n u n c i a t i o n , and some k i n d o f r e l i g i o u s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n -m i r a c u l o u s c o n v e r s i o n o r i n t h e c a s e o f J o h n t h e B a p t i s t , t h e c o n v e r s i o n o f t h e O l d i n t o t h e New. A l l t h e s e s a i n t s r e p r e s e n t a p a r t i c u l a r l y c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p to C h r i s t , e i t h e r i n t e r m s o f i m i t a t i n g t h e example o f C h r i s t - Jerome, John t h e B a p t i s t , and Mary Magdalene u n d e r g o i n g h e r m i t p e n i t e n t i a l e x p e r i e n c e , and a l l f o u r r e n o u n c i n g m a t e r i a l goods and s e c u l a r l i f e - o r a c l o s e h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p 66 s u c h a s John t h e B a p t i s t who was p a i r e d w i t h J e s u s f r o m t h e 25 womb. The women, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e , b o t h had c l o s e l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h C h r i s t and i n t h i s way 26 p a r a l l e l e d Mary as B r i d e o f C h r i s t . J o h n t h e B a p t i s t a s t h e " a n t e ' c h r i s t u s i s t h e i d e a l e x e m p l a r b o t h o f t h e i n t e r c e s s o r , a s C h r i s t ' s messenger to hu m a n i t y , and as an a l t e r c h r i s t u s , t h e c l o s e s t man t o C h r i s t i n t h e g o s p e l s . He was t h e f i r s t example o f t h e a s c e t i c f o r C h r i s t i a n i t y and l i v e d w i t h o u t s i n , t h u s p a r a l l e l i n g Mary as w e l l as C h r i s t . Jerome was a v e r y i m p o r t a n t s a i n t f o r t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n h i s r o l e a s p e n i t e n t a s c e t i c . He i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s u f f e r i n g s o f C h r i s t b e c a u s e martyrdom was g r a n t e d t o him f o r t h e s u f f e r i n g s he underwent, a s i f he l i v e d t h e 27 p a s s i o n o f martyrdom i n h i s l i f e . In t h i s r o l e he was "And when s h e [ E l i z a b e t h ] h e a r d t h e s a l u t a t i o n o f Mary, S a i n t J o h n , a l r e a d y f i l l e d w i t h t h e H o l y G h o s t , and b e i n g aware o f t h e a p p r o a c h o f t h e Son o f God, l e a p e d f o r j o y i n h i s m o t h e r ' s womb, as though to g r e e t by h i s movements Him Whom he c o u l d n o t y e t g r e e t by words." A c c o r d i n g t o t h e t h e G o l d e n L e g e n d , Mary was E l i z a b e t h ' s m i d w i f e , and Jo h n t h e B a p t i s t was f i r s t h e l d i n Mary's arms. J a c o b u s de V o r a g i n e , The G o l d e n L e g e n d , t r a n s . G r a n g e r Ryan and Helmut R i p p e r g e r (New Y o r k : A r n o , 1969), 323. 26 I t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o s e e t h e f l a n k i n g male and f e m a l e s a i n t s a s e x e m p l a r s d i r e c t e d r e s p e c t i v e l y t o male and f e m a l e aud i e n c e s . 27 Marco L a t t a n z i d e s c r i b e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e g i v e n to ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) 67 embraced as a p a t r o n and e x e m p l a r f o r new r e f o r m 28 s o c i e t i e s . He was r e v e r e d f o r h i s t r a n s l a t i o n o f s c r i p t u r e s and a p p e a l e d to t h e c u r r e n t p i o u s p a s s i o n f o r 29 g e t t i n g c l o s e r to l i v i n g t h e word o f God. He was t h e r e f o r m C h r i s t i a n ' s answer to t h e h u m a n i s t s b e c a u s e he gave ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) J e r o m e ' s s u f f e r i n g s : "Le t r e l e t t e r e a p o c r i f e [ n a r r a t i n g t h e p o st-mortem m i r a c l e s o f S. J e r o m e ] , r a c c o l t e p o i i n un u n i c o v o l u m e t t o d a l t i t o l o H i e r o n y m u s v i t a  e t t r a n s i t u s , hanno, f r a i s 1475 e i l 1500, un'enorme d i f f u s i o n e e d i t o r i a l e c o n p a r e c c h i e v e r s i o n i i n v o l g a r e . In r e a l t a i l t e s t o d e l l e l e t t e r e e una m i s c e l l a n e a d i e p i s o d i t r a t t i d a l l a v i t a d e i s a n t i F r a n c e s c o e Domenico, c h e l ' i g n o t o a u t o r e m o s t r a d i c o n s c e r e a s s a i bene. In q u e s t o modo l a v i t a d e l s a n t o s i a r r i c c h i s c e d i e l e m e n t i d e v o z i o n a l e l a r g a m e n t e c o n o s c i u t i e f a c i l m e n t e d i v u l g a b i l i . N e l l e l e t t e r e p o i v i e n e a s s e g n a t a a G i r o l a m o , d i v e n u t o un v e r o e p r o p r i o exemplum d i f e d e , anche l a palma d e l m a r t i r i o p e r l e s o f f e r e n z e e l e p r i v a z i o n i che i l s a n t o ha d o v u t o s u b i r e n e l l a m a c e r a z i o n e d e l l a v i t a e r e m i t i c a . C o s i G i r o l a m o o t t i e n e a n c h e i l p i u a l t o v a l o r e d i c o n f o r m a z i o n e s p i r i t u a l e a C r i s t o d i v e n e n d o primo n e l l a s c h i e r a d e g l i s p i r i t i b e a t i . " Marco L a t t a n z i , " I I temo d e l San G i r o l a m o n e l l ' e r e m o e L o r e n z o L o t t o , " i n 11 San G i r o l a m o d i L o r e n z o L o t t o ( 1 9 8 3 ) , 57. 28 Aikema ( 1 9 8 4 ) ; B e r n a r d Aikema, " I I San G i r o l a m o d i L o r e n z o L o t t o a M a d r i d , " i n II San G i r o l a m o d i L o r e n z o  L o t t o . • •(1983) ,117-118; L a t t a n z i i n II San G i r o l a m o d i  L o r e n z o L o t t o . . . ( 1 9 8 3 ) , 55-71. 29 J e r o m e ' s own w r i t i n g s were v e r y p o p u l a r w i t h f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y r e a d e r s . He was e x t r e m e l y p o p u l a r i n v o l q a r e and h i s E p i s t o l a e - i n s t r u c t i o n s on a s c e t i c l i f e -were t h e most p o p u l a r o f h i s works, h a v i n g been p r i n t e d f o u r t i m e s i n V e n i c e b e f o r e t h e end o f t h e c e n t u r y . L e o n a r d a s V. G e r u l a i t i s , P r i n t i n g and P u b l i s h i n g i n F i f t e e n t h - C e n t u r y  V e n i c e ( C h i c a g o : A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n , 1976), 95-6; 120-121. 68 up pagan l e a r n i n g i n o r d e r t o d e v o t e h i s a t t e n t i o n to 30 C h r i s t i a n s t u d y and l i f e . The r e n u n c i a t i o n o f w o r l d l y p l e a s u r e s , be i t l u s t o r l e a r n i n g was e s p e c i a l l y s t r e s s e d f o r t h e women s a i n t s . The M agdalene and C a t h e r i n e were b o t h from w e a l t h y f a m i l i e s and r e n o u n c e d t h e i r w o r l d l y s t a n d i n g . B o t h were v e r y c l o s e to C h r i s t . The Magdalene was t h e most b e l o v e d o f C h r i s t i n h i s l i f e t i m e , as C a t h e r i n e was wedded to him by means o f t h e M y s t i c M a r r i a g e . Thus, i n t h e i r own ways t h e y a r e b o t h e q u a t e d w i t h t h e V i r g i n Mary i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to Chr i s t . A u g u s t o G e n t i l i p o r t r a y s C a t h e r i n e a s t h e p e r f e c t h o u s e w i f e ' s s a i n t - s h e r e n o u n c e s w o r l d l y knowledge, an e x c e l l e n c e o f l e a r n i n g , and t h e m a r k e t i n g v a l u e o f her b e a u t y ( s h e was o f f e r e d h e r l i f e f o r h e r s u b m i s s i o n to t h e emperor) f o r a l i f e o f h u m i l i t y and p e r f e c t o b e d i e n c e to h e r 31 husband ( C h r i s t ) . She was t h u s t h e most d e v e l o p e d and In t h e p e r i o d o f t h e C o u n t e r R e f o r m a t i o n i n t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e d e p i c t i o n o f S. Jerome c h a n g e s . The p e n i t e n t a s c e t i c o f t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y g i v e s way i n p o p u l a r i t y t o t h e s a i n t i n h i s s t u d y . The C o u n t e r R e f o r m a t i o n e m p h a s i s was on J e r o m e ' s t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e b i b l e a s a r e s p o n s e to t h e P r o t e s t a n t s and an a u t h o r i z a t i o n o f t h e h i s t o r i c i s m o f C a t h o l i c W r i t . 31 A u g u s t o G e n t i l i , " E r e m i t i e sogno d i f a n c i u l l a . Le d i v e r s e contemp 1 az i o n i d i G i r o l a m o e C a t e r i n a , " i n I_ q i a r d i n i d i c o n t e m p l a z i o n e . . . ( 1 9 8 5 ) , 136. 69 most p o p u l a r l y d i s s e m i n a t e d p a r a g o n o f t h e c h a s t e w i f e . In t h i s way C a t h e r i n e may be s e e n as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e c u r r e n t m o r a l v a l u e s - r e n u n c i a t i o n , p e n i t e n c e , a s c e t i c i s m -as a p p l i c a b l e to t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y woman's r o l e . The p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e image o f t h e m y s t i c m a r r i a g e f o r wedding p r e s e n t s made h e r i n f a c t a p o p u l a r h o u s e h o l d s a i n t and c o n n u b i a l e x e m p l a r . The Madonna and C h i l d n o t o n l y c o m p r i s e t h e c e n t r a l theme o f t h e e x t e n d e d t y p e w i t h s a i n t s b u t l e n d t o t h e t y p e t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e and a u t h o r i t y c a r r i e d by t h e s i n g l e h a l f - l e n g t h Madonna and C h i l d image. The a u s t e r i t y o f t h e e x t e n d e d t y p e c o n t i n u e s t h e a u s t e r i t y o f t h e s i n g l e Madonna and C h i l d v e r s i o n and i n t h i s s e n s e - t h r o u g h s t y l e -subsumes t h e l a t t e r ' s r e f e r e n c e s to t h e c u l t u r a l l y p o i g n a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s o f t h e i c o n i c image. The e x t e n d e d t y p e w i t h s a i n t s was i n f a c t l e s s p o p u l a r i n t h e l a t e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h a n t h e s i n g l e Madonna and C h i l d . The s i n g l e h a l f - l e n g t h Madonna and C h i l d c a r r i e d w i t h i t t h e power and a u t h e n t i c a t i o n o f v e n e r a b l e s o u r c e s i n t h e p u b l i c o r s h a r e d c u l t u r e o f V e n i c e - t h e r e v e r e d i c o n , V e n e t i a V i r g o , and t h e m i r a c u l o u s Madonna. The h a l f - l e n g t h Madonna and C h i l d , by e m b r a c i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h r e v e r e d images and B y z a n t i n e i c o n s , p a r t o o k o f b o t h a p u b l i c and p r i v a t e l i f e i n V e n e t i a n c u l t u r e . At l e a s t s i n c e 1204, when V e n i c e c o n q u e r e d 70 C o n s t a n t i n o p l e and c l a i m e d i t s e l f t h e i n h e r i t o r o f t h e E a s t e r n Empire> B y z a n t i n e r e l i c s and i c o n s had become p a r t o f t h e p u b l i c l i f e o f V e n i c e , and B y z a n t i n e c u l t u r e became 32 p a r t o f t h e f a b r i c o f t h e V e n e t i a n myth. A l o n g w i t h many 33 o f t h e p r e c i o u s i c o n s came a m i r a c u l o u s l e g e n d r y . The power o f t h e s e images a s o b j e c t s enhanced t h e g l o r y t h e y g ave t o V e n i c e i n h e r s e l f - i m a g e a s i n h e r i t o r n o t o n l y o f t h e B y z a n t i n e E m p i r e b u t o f t h e E a s t e r n C h u r c h . The r e v e r e d p a i n t i n g s were a s o u r c e o f p u b l i c p r i d e and had an a c t i v e p a r t i n t h e l i f e o f t h e c i t y . They were r e v e r e d as p u b l i c t r e a s u r e s and t r e a t e d a s r e l i c s . They were e x h i b i t e d , p a r a d e d , and s u p p l i c a t e d t o . They became common c i v i c 34 p a t r i m o n y and were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o c i v i c ceremony. " . . . t h e dominant i d e a i n t h e d e c o r a t i o n o f t h e s t a t e c h u r c h [San M a r c o ] r e f l e c t s t h e main p r e o c c u p a t i o n o f c o n t e m p o r a r y p o l i t i c a l t h o u g h t o f t h e V e n e t i a n s : to a r r o g a t e t h e m s e l v e s t h e p r i v i l e g e s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e i r s e l f - a p p o i n t e d r o l e as t h e d i v i n e l y p r o c l a i m e d g u a r d i a n s o f t h e A p o s t l e ' s r e l i c s and as t h e s u c c e s s o r s o f t h e E a s t e r n E m p i r e whose m i s e r a b l e r e m a i n s t h e y had j u s t s u c c e e d e d i n e l i m i n a t i n g f r o m t h e map." t h e aim o f t h e w h o l e s a l e i m i t a t i o n o f E a r l y C h r i s t i a n works i n V e n i c e "was to p r o c l a i m V e n i c e as t h e l e g i t i m a t e s u c c e s s o r o f t h e E a s t e r n E m p i r e , and as one o f t h e o r i g i n a l A p o s t o l i c S e e s . The models o f t h i s r e n o v a t i o o f C h r i s t i a n a n t i q u i t y were C o n s t a n t i n o p l e and A l e x a n d r i a , and i t s h e r o e s J u s t i n i a n and S t . Mark." Hugo B u c h t a l , H i s t o r i a T r o i a n a : S t u d i e s i n t h e H i s t o r y o f M e d i e v a l S e c u l a r  1 1 l u s t r a t i o n (London: Warburg I n s t . , 1971), 58; 54. See a l s o : G o f f e n ( 1 9 7 5 ) , 487-490; W i l k ( 1 9 7 8 ) , 119-143. 33 G o f f e n (1975) on t h e Madonna o f S. L u k e 505-510; W i l k ( 1 9 7 8 ) , 114 n71; Ringbom ( 1 9 8 4 ) , 29-30. W i l k ( 1 9 7 8 ) , 114-5; 125. 71 C i v i c p r i d e and r e v e r e d images i n t e r t w i n e d i n t h e 35 a d o p t i o n o f V e n e t i a V i r g o as a symbol o f t h e s t a t e . The r o l e o f t h e Madonna as p a t r o n e s s o f t h e c i t y was p o p u l a r l y s u p p o r t e d when t h e d u a l power o f t h e m i r a c u l o u s images and t h e s p e c i a l p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e Madonna was c a l l e d upon i n t i m e s o f n e e d . T h e r e a r e i n s t a n c e s when t h e p e o p l e o f V e n i c e demanded t h e p a r a d i n g o f r e v e r e d Madonna p a i n t i n g s p u b l i c l y i n o r d e r t h a t t h e y might i n t e r c e d e i n t i m e s o f war o r p l a g u e . In c r e a t i n g a c i v i c symbol o f t h e Madonna, t h e V e n i c e c l a i m e d s p e c i a l p a t r o n a g e o f t h e V i r g i n i n a p e r i o d when e l s e w h e r e i n I t a l y t h e Madonna was l o s i n g t h e f a v o u r s h e had h e l d as a c i v i c symbol i n t h e commune p e r i o d i n I t a l y . V e n i c e s u b s t a n t i a t e d i t s s p e c i a l a f f i n i t y to t h e V i r g i n by p r o m o t i n g t h e myth o f t h e c i t y ' s i n s t i t u t i o n on t h e day o f t h e A n n u n c i a t i o n . Rosand ( 1 9 8 4 ) , 180-188; W i l k ( 1 9 7 8 ) , 108-119; S i n d i n g L a r s e n ( 1 9 7 4 ) , 144. M u i r d e s c r i b e s s u c h p o p u l a r m a n i f e s t a t i o n s : " I n s e v e r a l p r o c e s s i o n s d e s i g n e d t o i n f l u e n c e t h e w e ather d u r i n g s p r i n g and e a r l y summer 1528, s u p p l i c a n t s c a r r i e d a m i r a c u l o u s image o f t h e Madonna, which by A u g u s t , Sanudo r e p o r t e d , had worked a m i r a c l e . O c c a s i o n a l l y , p o p u l a r f e a r s o u t s t r i p p e d o f f i c i a l e f f o r t s t o a s s u a g e them, and p e n i t e n t s o r g a n i z e d t h e i r own p r o c e s s i o n s (some i n v o l v i n g S c u o l e Grand i members) i n w h i c h l i t t l e c h i l d r e n a p p e a r e d d r e s s e d as a n g e l s and b a n n e r s and r e l i c s were d i s p l a y e d ; o r , as happened i n 1511, t h e p o p u l a c e t h e m s e l v e s demanded t h a t t h e government e n t r e a t t h e V i r g i n ' s a i d by p a r a d i n g h e r image. U n l i k e t h e more p o l i t i c a l c e r e m o n i e s , w h i c h e m p h a s i z e d s o c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s , g r o u p - c r i s i s r i t e s bound t h e community t o g e t h e r a s one: v a r i o u s s p e c i a l i z e d s o u r c e s o f r i t u a l p r o t e c t i o n and m y s t i c a l power, whether a v e n e r a t e d p a i n t i n g o f Mary o r c h i l d r e n as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f s o c i a l i n n o c e n c e , were summoned f o r e x t r a o r d i n a r y s e r v i c e to s u p p l e m e n t t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d r i t u a l p r o t e c t o r s - t h e p r i e s t who c e l e b r a t e d ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) 78 s t a t e borrowed some o f t h e s a c r a l power o f i c o n i c images j u s t as t h e i c o n i c images p a r t o o k o f t h e p r e s t i g e o f t h e c i v i c s y m b o l . By h a v i n g V e n e t i a V i r g o i n o n e ' s home one t o some d e g r e e d i s p l a y e d a p r i d e o f p l a c e , p a r t o o k o f p u b l i c c u l t u r e and e n l i s t e d t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e c i t y ' s p a t r o n . The m i r a c u l o u s l e g e n d r y s u r r o u n d i n g t h e B y z a n t i n e i c o n s was a c t i v e l y promoted and i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e V e n e t i a n myth. The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e V e n e t i a n h a l f - l e n g t h d e v o t i o n a l p a i n t i n g was e n h a n c e d by i t s i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e 37 a u t h o r i t y o f t h e m i r a c u l o u s Madonna. The e x t e n s i o n o f t h e myth o f t h e m i r a c u l o u s image i n t o t h e home d o v e t a i l e d w i t h ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) masses, t h e monks and c o n f r a t e r n i t y members who p r a y e d , and t h e m a g i s t r a t e s who formed p r o c e s s i o n s . " M u i r ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 843. The V i r g i n ' s a i d was a l s o s o u g h t i n t i m e s o f c e l e b r a t i o n , as Sanudo r e p o r t s t h e p u b l i c r e a c t i o n i n V e n i c e to t h e r e p o s s e s s i o n o f V e r o n a J a n u a r y 1517: "And t h e n t h e S e n a t e a s s e m b l e d a t 8 o ' c l o c k i n t h e m o r n i n g , and e v e r y w h e r e a l l were d r e s s e d i n s c a r l e t w i t h b r a i d e d s l e e v e s . And an o r d e r was i s s u e d f o r l i g h t s t o be l i t i n t h e C a m p a n i l e and a r o u n d t h e P i a z z a , and 85 c a r t l o a d s o f wood t o be b u r n e d i n t h e P i a z z a , which made a huge f i r e , and s i x t o r c h e s to be l i t i n f r o n t o f 1a N o s t r a Donna ( p r e s u m a b l y an image o f t h e V i r g i n ) . E v e r y w h e r e c h u r c h b e l l s r a n g o u t , and f i r e s were l i t t h r o u g h o u t t h e l a n d . T h e r e were crowds o f p e o p l e i n t h e P i a z z a , d e s p i t e t h e r a i n . " q u o t e d i n : Deborah Howard, " G i o r g i o n e s ' s Tempesta and T i t i a n ' s A s s u n t a i n t h e C o n t e x t o f t h e Cambrai Wars," A r t H i s t o r y , 8 ( S e p t . 1985), 888. 37 Ringbom d e v e l o p s t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e power i n v e s t e d i n t h e image i t s e l f i n t h e o l o g y and i n t h e p r a c t i c e o f i n d u l g e n c e i m a g e r y . He p r e s e n t s t h i s a t t i t u d e a s a p p l i c a b l e i n a p a r t i c u l a r way t o h a l f - l e n g t h i m a g e r y . Ringbom ( 1 9 8 4 ) , 11-30. 73 an i n d i g e n o u s p o p u l a r c u l t u r e . The Madonna d e l s o c c o r s o o r t h e image o f t h e Madonna t h a t m i r a c u l o u s l y comes to t h e a i d o f s i m p l e p e o p l e was t h e y e a s t o f a r e c u r r e n t and 39 e n d l e s s l y a d a p t e d f o l k t a l e ( F i g . 1 9 ) . When bo o k s began t o G o f f e n (1975) a r g u e s t h a t t h e h a l f - l e n g t h image was e s p e c i a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m i r a c u l o u s v i s i o n ( 4 9 8 - 9 9 ) . T h i s i s c o n f i r m e d by a r e m a r k a b l e image i n t h e lower c h u r c h o f S. F r a n c e s c o i n A s s i s i w h i c h a t t e s t s t o t h e commonly c o n c e i v e d n o t i o n o f t h e m i r a c u l o u s h a l f - l e n g t h a s i t a p p e a r s i n t h e l e g e n d o f S. C a t h e r i n e . C a t h e r i n e i m p l o r e s a d e v o t e h e r m i t t o show h e r t o t h e Madonna and C h i l d , t o i n t r o d u c e h e r so t h a t she might s e e t h e h o l y p e r s o n a g e s . On t h e l e f t o f t h e f r e s c o t h e s a i n t a d o r e s a h a l f - l e n g t h image o f t h e Madonna and C h i l d t h a t t h e h e r m i t o f f e r s to h e r . On t h e r i g h t , i n t h e c o n f i n e s o f C a t h e r i n e ' s chamber, we s e e t h e image come to l i f e i n t h e f o r m o f a v i s i o n a s t h e C h r i s t C h i l d e n g a g e s C a t h e r i n e i n t h e m y s t i c m a r r i a g e . [ A n d r e a da B o l o g n a r e p . i n L u i g i C o l e t t i , G l i a f f r e s c h i d e l l a b a s i l i c a d i A s s i s i (Bergamo: I s t i t u t o I t a l i a n o d ' a r t i g r a f i c h e , 1949), p i . 190, 196, 197.3 In t h e A s s i s i f r e s c o , t h e h a l f - l e n g t h t y p e i s d e m o n s t r a t e d a s h a v i n g a s p e c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h m i r a c u l o u s i n t e r v e n t i o n . The p o p u l a r l e g e n d o f t h e r o l e o f t h e image i n t h e m i r a c u l o u s b o n d i n g o f C a t h e r i n e and C h r i s t would have g i v e n a u t h o r i t y to t h e i n t e r c e s s i o n a l power o f S. C a t h e r i n e , as w e l l as a hope t h a t a d e v o t e e i n h i s o r h e r home would be h o n o u r e d by t h e Madonna and C h i l d t h r o u g h t h e medium o f t h e i mage a s we11. W h i l e t h e V e n e t i a n s seem t o g i v e f a v o u r e d p r e d o m i n a n c e t o t h e V i r g i n , U r s u l a S c h l e g e l h a s o u t l i n e d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f a t r a d i t i o n o f t h e m i r a c u l o u s C h r i s t C h i l d . The S a n t o  Bambino i n Rome i s t h e p r o t o t y p i c a l e xample. She has n o t e d (9, n67) t h a t t h e f e e t o f t h e Rome Bamb i n o a r e s l i g h t l y d i s p l a c e d , w hich has g i v e n r i s e t o m i r a c u l o u s l e g e n d s . In t h e h a l f - l e n g t h V e n e t i a n Madonna images i t must be c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e s t r i d i n g v e r s i o n o f t h e C h r i s t c h i l d c o u l d have had t h e same c o n n o t a t i o n s o f m i r a c u l o u s 'emergence' and a i d . T h i s i s e m p h a s i z e d when t h e C h r i s t C h i l d c r o s s e s o n t o o r o v e r t h e ' b a r r i e r ' o f t h e p a r a p e t . U r s u l a S c h l e g e l , "The C h r i s t c h i l d as D e v o t i o n a l Image i n M e d i e v a l I t a l i a n S c u l p t u r e : A C o n t r i b u t i o n t o Ambrogio L o r e n z e t t i S t u d i e s , " A r t B u i l e t i n , 55 ( 1 9 7 0 ) , 1-10. The p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e l e g e n d o f t h e m i r a c u l o u s Madonna i s a l s o a t t e s t e d to by i t s a p p e a r a n c e i n images. ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) 74 be p r i n t e d i n V e n i c e i n t h e l a t t e r h a l f o f t h e f i f t e e n t h 40 c e n t u r y t h e s e t a l e s were p o p u l a r t i t l e s . The s t o r i e s a r e g e n e r a l l y w r i t t e n i n r u s t i c v e r n a c u l a r and c o n t a i n homey 41 d e t a i l s o f m i r a c l e s b e i n g g r a n t e d to s i m p l e p e o p l e . A d a p t i n g an i c o n i c image i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f a modern t y p e e n j o y e d a g r e a t s u c c e s s on t h e p r i v a t e market b e c a u s e o f t h e a u t h o r i t y i t i n h e r i t e d f r o m c i v i c s y m b o l i s m , and f r o m a s h a r e d c u l t u r e o f r e l i g i o u s a t t i t u d e s and l e g e n d . The a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e h a l f - l e n g t h Madonna and C h i l d w i t h t h e p u b l i c c u l t u r e o f r e v e r e d images endowed i t w i t h a s p e c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y f o r t h e home. On a d a y - t o - d a y b a s i s t h e e f f i c a c y o f t h e d e v o t i o n a l image was e n h a n c e d to t h e d e g r e e t h a t i t p a r t o o k o f a p u b l i c l y endowed a u t h o r i t y . The p r o m i s e o f i n t e r c e s s o r y e f f e c t i v e n e s s was b o l s t e r e d by t h e ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) Images o f m i r a c l e w o r k i n g Madonnas a p p e a r i n woodblock f o r m , p o p u l a r l y d i s t r i b u t e d . The most f a m i l i a r example i n t h i s medium a r e images i n w hich t h e Madonna r e a c h e s out to s a v e t h e p a i n t e r f r o m f a l l i n g f r o m h i s s c a f f o l d . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r c a t e g o r y o f m i r a c u l o u s Madonnas i s t e l l i n g i n t h a t i t i s a s e l f - a u t h o r i z a t i o n o f t h e a r t i s t ' s a b i l i t y to make p h y s i c a l a m a g i c a l image, [ s e e an example i n G e n t i l i ( 1 9 8 5 ) , p i . 133D 40 G e r u l a i t i s ( 1 9 7 6 ) , 181. B e c a u s e i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f p r i n t i n g c a p i t a l f o r p u b l i s h i n g had n o t been e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e e a r l i e s t p r i n t e d t i t l e s were ones t h a t t h e p u b l i s h e r c o u l d r e l y on as ' s u r e b e t s ' . Thus t h e r e c u r r e n c e o f a c e r t a i n t y p e o f book i n t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y i s a good gauge f o r i t s a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d p o p u l a r i t y . G e r u l a i t i s ( 1 9 7 6 ) , 7. Two e x a m ples o f t h i s t y p e o f s t o r y a r e p u b l i s h e d i n G e n t i l i ( 1 9 8 5 ) , 832-833. 75 i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e t y p e w i t h t h e c i v i c a l l y p o w e r f u l Madonna, t h e r e v e r e d i c o n and t h e m i r a c u l o u s image. We c a n t h u s s e e t h e V e n e t i a n h a l f - l e n g t h o p e r a t i n g on s e v e r a l l e v e l s . The a u s t e r i t y and t h e h i e r a t i c q u a l i t y o f t h e h a l f - l e n g t h Madonna and C h i l d w i t h S a i n t s c o n s t i t u t e d a model t h a t was r e c o g n i z a b l y V e n e t i a n . By i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e h a l f - l e n g t h ' m i r a c u l o u s ' Madonna and C h i l d image i n t o t h e e x t e n d e d t y p e many r e f e r e n c e s to a s h a r e d o r c i v i c c u l t u r e were engaged. The h a l f - l e n g t h Madonna and C h i l d w i t h s a i n t s i n c o r p o r a t e d b e n e a t h t h e s y m b o l i c r e a d i n g s u g g e s t e d by t h e h i e r a t i c f o r m a t a n a r r a t i v e m a t r i x t h a t was i n h e r e n t l y I t a l i a n . The themes o f t h e c h r i s t o l o g i c a l n a r r a t i v e ' h i d d e n ' i n t h e i m a g e r y o f t h e Madonna and C h i l d were expanded by t h e a d d i t i o n o f t h e f l a n k i n g s a i n t s . The p a i r i n g o f t h e s a i n t s i n t h e expanded t y p e p r o v i d e d e l a b o r a t i o n s on t h e c e n t r a l theme, and i n d i c a t e d t h e p o p u l a r d e v o t i o n a l i d e a l s o f r e n u n c i a t i o n , a s c e t i c i s m and c h r i s t o 1 o g i c a 1 r e f e r e n c e . The p o p u l a r a p p e a l o f B e l l i n i ' s images i s a t t e s t e d t o by t h e l o n g - l i v e d s u r v i v a l o f t h e t y p e i n t h e p r o v i n c e s . The l e g e n d s o f t h e Madonna d e l s o c c o r s o l i v e d on i n p o p u l a r f o l k - m y t h and l a t e i n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y and A r m e n i n i r e p o r t s w i t h some d i s d a i n o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l B y z a n t i n e s t y l e 76 Madonnas h a n g i n g i n t h e homes o f n o r t h e r n I t a l y . T h i s p o p u l a r t y p e however d i d n o t s u r v i v e i n t h e h i g h V e n e t i a n a r t c i r c l e s o f T i t i a n . Ringbom ( 1 9 8 4 ) , 34-35. 77 CHAPTER THREE PRINTING, PIETY AND WAR: PRIVATE DEVOTIONAL PAINTING IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY In t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y new d i r e c t i o n s i n p r i v a t e p i e t y were d e v e l o p i n g o u t o f a b a s i s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m and i n t o t h e hands o f a more i n d e p e n d e n t l a i t y , a l a i t y now s e r v e d by t h e r i s i n g p u b l i c a t i o n o f d e v o t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e . D e v o t i o n a l themes o f c h r i s t o c e n t r i c i s m , s u f f e r i n g , and p e n i t e n c e d e v e l o p e d away f r o m t h e a u s t e r i t y o f t h e m e n d i c a n t c o n t e x t and i n t o a more p a s s i o n a t e e m p a t h e t i c i n v o l v e m e n t . At t h e same t i m e t h e power o f t h e B y z a n t i n e example d e c l i n e d n o t i c e a b l y . In p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n a l i m a g e r y , t h e change i n a t t i t u d e was one f r o m ' s p i r i t u a l i m a g i n a t i o n ' t o ' l o c a l i m a g i n a t i o n ' , f r o m t h e i c o n - t y p e p o p u l a r i n t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y to t h e p h y s i c a l l y , e m o t i o n a l l y , and s p a t i a l l y 1 c o n c r e t e - t h e n a r r a t i v e . The c h ange f r o m i c o n t o n a r r a t i v e was c h a r t e d by Ringbom i n h i s e x c e l l e n t s t u d y o f t h e h a l f - l e n g t h d e v o t i o n a l image. H i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s were b a s e d on t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s i n t h e h a l f - l e n g t h t y p e t h a t r e s u l t e d i n t h e i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n o f n a r r a t i v e m a t t e r . T h i s c h a p t e r r e g a r d s t h e change f r o m i c o n to n a r r a t i v e a s an e s s e n t i a l one i n t h e d e v o t i o n a l i m a g e r y o f s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y V e n i c e which r e s u l t s i n a d e f i n i t i v e move away f r o m t h e h a l f - l e n g t h t y p e i n V e n i c e , t h u s t a k i n g Ringbom's t h e s i s one s t e p f u r t h e r i n i t s d e v e l o p m e n t . S i x t e n Ringbom, I c o n t o N a r r a t i v e : The R i s e o f ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) 78 A f t e r t h e f i r s t d e c a d e o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y > h a l f - l e n g t h s s w i f t l y became l e s s p o p u l a r . The s i n g l e Madonna and C h i l d p a i n t i n g s f e l l d r a s t i c a l l y i n f a v o u r . The e x t e n d e d t y p e o f t h e Madonna and C h i l d w i t h s a i n t s l e n g t h e n e d i n t o t h r e e - q u a r t e r l e n g t h and so o n was a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y p r e s e n t e d i n f u l l - l e n g t h ( F i g s . £ 0 , El> E E ) . The h i e r a t i c a u s t e r i t y o f t h e B e l l i n i t y p e i n c o r p o r a t i n g a r e f e r e n c e to t h e B y z a n t i n e i c o n l o s t i t s p o p u l a r i t y i n f a v o u r o f a more i n v o l v e d e m o t i o n a l e x c h a n g e between t h e f i g u r e s and a more i n t e g r a t e d s p a c e . The c o m p o s i t i o n a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n and t h e t o n e o f p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n a l Madonna and C h i l d w i t h s a i n t s p a i n t i n g s became n a r r a t i v e i n c h a r a c t e r . The s a i n t s s u r v e y e d i n C h a p t e r Two s t i l l a p p e a r b u t t h e manner i n which t h e y a r e c h o s e n t o be d e p i c t e d c h a n g e s i n a t e l l i n g way. J o h n t h e B a p t i s t i s more o f t e n p r e s e n t e d as t h e babe i n o r d e r t o compose a f a m i l y g r o u p w i t h t h e Madonna and C h i l d ( F i g s . E4, E 5 ) . S t . C a t h e r i n e i s o f t e n i n v o l v e d i n t h e M y s t i c M a r r i a g e w i t h C h r i s t . Mary Magdalene i s more o f t e n d e p i c t e d i n a s i n g l e p o r t r a i t - t y p e image, t r a n s f o r m e d f r o m t h e E a r l y C h r i s t i a n v i r g i n t o t h e p e n i t e n t ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) t h e D r a m a t i c C l o s e - U p i n F i f t e e n t h C e n t u r y D e v o t i o n a l P a i n t i n g s , End. e d . ( B e u k e n l a a n : Davaco, 1984) 79 whore l o s t i n a q u a s i - e r o t i c e c s t a s y o f d e v o t i o n ( F i g . B 7 ) . The g r o u p i n g o f t h e Madonna and C h i l d w i t h s a i n t s f a v o u r s a p a s t o r a l s e t t i n g , and i t i s c o n f i g u r e d i n t o f a m i l i a r c o m p o s i t i o n s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o themes s u c h as t h e A d o r a t i o n o f t h e M a g i , t h e R e s t on t h e F l i g h t to E g y p t , t h e H o l y F a m i l y , o r t h e M y s t i c M a r r i a g e , i n o r d e r t o g i v e t h e image a 3 n a r r a t i v e m a t r i x ( F i g s . 22, 23, 24, 25, 2 6 ) . In c o m p a r i s o n to B e l l i n i ' s and Cima's images, T i t i a n ' s p a i n t i n g s a r e more o p u l e n t , e m o t i o n a l , n a r r a t i v e , and i n t e g r a t e d i n s p a c e . A l r e a d y i n t h e e a r l y t e e n s o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e D r e s d e n Madonna and C h i l d w i t h F o u r  S a i n t s ( c l 5 1 6 ) , w h i l e r e t a i n i n g t h e c r o p p e d f o r m a t o f t h e e s t a b l i s h e d V e n e t i a n t y p e , i n t r o d u c e s a g r e a t e r s e n s e o f s e t t i n g and i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e f i g u r e s ( F i g s . 21, 1 4 ) . In t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f S. Jerome, t h e i m i t a t i o c h r i s t i A v e r y r e a d a b l e s t u d y o f t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e M a g d a l e n e i s : M a r j o r i e M a l v e r n , Venus i n S a c k c l o t h : The  M a g d a l e n ' s O r i g i n s and Metamorphoses ( C a r b o n d a l e and E d w a r d s v i 1 l e : S o u t h e r n I l l i n o i s U n i v . P r e s s , 1975). 3 The c h o i c e o f p a s t o r a l s e t t i n g s l i k e l y r e s p o n d s to t h e t r a n s f e r a l o f V e n e t i a n c o m m e r c i a l i n t e r e s t s f r o m m a r i t i m e s h i p p i n g t o t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e t e r r a f e r m a , and to t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f a t e n d e n c y f o r t h e w e a l t h y to a c q u i r e l a n d and t o b u i l d v i l l a s on t h e t e r r a f erma. James S. Ackerman, "The G e o p o l i t i c s o f V e n e t i a n A r c h i t e c t u r e i n t h e Time o f T i t i a n , " i n T i t i a n . H i s w o r l d and H i s L e g a c y , e d . D a v i d Rosand (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v . P r e s s , 1982), 41-50; James Cushman D a v i s , The D e c l i n e o f t h e V e n e t i a n N o b i l i t y a s a R u l i n g  C l a s s ( B a l t i m o r e : The J o h n s H o p k i n s U n i v . , 1962), 34-43. 80 theme i s no l o n g e r m e t a p h o r i c a l ) but p h y s i c a l and p a s s i o n a t e i n d e g r e e . As one would e x p e c t , t h e s e c h a n g e s i n a p p r o a c h a r e c o n s o n a n t w i t h c h a n g e s i n p o p u l a r d e v o t i o n . The i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f a p i e t y t h a t was p a s s i o n a t e l y 5 c h r i s t o c e n t r i c o f " g r e a t e m o t i o n a l i t y and immediacy" i n t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y i s n o t e d b o t h by A u g u s t o G e n t i l i and C a r l o G i n z b u r g . ^ 1 T h i s c hange was s u p p o r t e d by t h e d i f f u s i o n o f d e v o t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e 7 f l o u r i s h i n g p r i n t i n g t r a d e i n V e n i c e . The r e l e a s i n g o f The image o f S t . Jerome h o l d i n g a r o c k and i n t e n t l y g a z i n g a t t h e c r u c i f i e d C h r i s t as i f i n p e r s o n a l communion becomes p o p u l a r i n t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y and i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e f o r m C a t h o l i c i d e a s . B e r n a r d Aikema, " L o r e n z o L o t t o and t h e O s p i t a l e de s a n Zuane P o l o , " i n I n t e r p r e t a z i o n i  v e n e z i a n e ; s t u d i d i s t o r i a d e l l ' a r t e i n o n o r e d i  M i c h e l a n g e l o Muraro> e d . D a v i d Rosand ( V e n i c e : A r s e n a l e , 1984), 364-66; II San G i r o l a m o d i L o r e n z o L o t t o a C a s t e l S.  A n g e l o , e x h i b i t i o n c a t a l o g u e (Rome: Romano S o c i e t a , 1983), 55-118. ^ G i n z b u r g s p e a k s o f t h e demands o f " m a g g i o r e e m o t i v i t a e i m m e d i a t e z z a c h e c a r a t t e r i z z a v a n o , come abbiamo v i s t o , l a p i e t a r e l i g i o s a d i g u e s t o p e r i o d o " C a r l o G i n z b u r g , " F o l k l o r e , magia, r e l i g i o n e , " S t o r i a d ' I t a l i a ( T o r i n o : G i u l i o E i n a u d i , 1978), 637. ^ A u g u s t o G e n t i l i , I g i a r d i n i d i c o n t e m p 1 a z i o n e • L o r e n z o  L o t t o , 1503/1518 ( B u l z o n i : Rome, 1985), 809-886; G i n z b u r g ( 1 9 7 3 ) , 619-643. 7 L e o n a r d a s V. G e r u l a i t i s , P r i n t i n g and P u b l i s h i n g i n  F i f t e e n t h - C e n t u r y V e n i c e ( C h i c a g o : A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n , 1976); H o r a t i o Brown, The V e n e t i a n P r i n t i n g  P r e s s . An H i s t o r i c a l S t u d y Based Upon Documents f o r t h e Most  P a r t H i t h e r t o U n p u b l i s h e d (New Y o r k : G.P. Putnams, 1891), 1-83; E l i z a b e t h L. E i s e n s t e i n , The P r i n t i n g P r e s s as an ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) 81 p r i n t e d books to t h e new p u b l i c t h a t was d e v e l o p i n g f o r t h e i r c o n s u m p t i o n had p r o f o u n d e f f e c t s on l a t e f i f t e e n t h and Q e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y s o c i e t y . In t h e s p h e r e o f p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n , t h e movement toward an i n c r e a s i n g i n d e p e n d e n c e f r o m i n s t i t u t i o n a l d i r e c t i o n f e l t i n t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y was a c c e l e r a t e d by t h e new d e v o t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e p r o v i d e d by 9 p r i v a t e r e a d i n g . The d i f f u s i o n o f t h e new d e v o t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e was b o t h c a u s e and e f f e c t o f d e v o t i o n a l c h a n g e . The themes o f a s c e t i c i s m , r e n u n c i a t i o n , and i m i t a t i o c h r i s t i e m p h a s i z e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e were a l r e a d y c u l t i v a t e d by r e f o r m i n g c u r r e n t s i n C a t h o l i c i s m i n t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h u s d e f i n e d t a s t e s f o r c e r t a i n t y p e s o f d e v o t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e were a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d . At t h e same t i m e t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n v o l v e m e n t e n t a i l e d i n p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n a l r e a d i n g may have e n c o u r a g e d t h e i n c r e a s e d f o c u s on empathy ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) Agent o f Change. C o m m u n i c a t i o n s and C u l t u r a l T r a n s f o r m a t i o n s  i n E a r l y - m o d e r n E u r o p e ( C a m b r i d g e : C a m b r i d g e U n i v . P r e s s , 1979), I, 3-16H, 303-366; R u d o l f H i r s c h , P r i n t i n g , S e l l i n g  and R e a d i n g 1450-1550 ( W i e s b a d e n : O t t o H a r r a s s o w i t z , 1967); P a u l F. G r e n d l e r , The Roman I n g u i s i t i o n and t h e V e n e t i a n  P r e s s , 1540-1605 ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v . P r e s s , 1977), 3-24. E i s e n s t e i n g i v e s an e l o q u e n t c a s e f o r t h e h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e "unacknowledged r e v o l u t i o n " o f p r i n t i n g i n e a r l y modern E u r o p e i n h e r s c h o l a r l y t r e a t m e n t o f t h e s u b j e c t . E i s e n s t e i n ( 1 9 7 9 ) , I, 3-4S. 9 G i n z b u r g ( 1 9 7 E ) , 614-643. 88 and p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h a t t h e s e themes took on i n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . In 1469, t h e f i r s t b o o k s were p u b l i s h e d f r o m V e n e t i a n p r e s s e s j a f t e r w h i c h V e n i c e q u i c k l y became by f a r t h e l a r g e s t c e n t r e f o r p r i n t i n g i n I t a l y . L e o n a r d a s G e r u l a i t i s i n h i s book P r i n t i n g and P u b l i s h i n g i n F i f t e e n t h - C e n t u r y  V e n i c e a n a l y z e s t h e c o n t e n t o f books p r i n t e d i n t h e e a r l y The d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n o f r e a d i n g , o r t h e "new p o p u l a r i z i n g t r e n d s " , i s t r a c e d by E i s e n s t e i n . E i s e n s t e i n e m p h a s i z e s t h e wide s p e c t r u m o f p o s s i b l e r e a d e r s i n t h e u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n : "The p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f l i t e r a t e m e r c h a n t s i n f o u r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y I t a l i a n c i t i e s i s n o t l e s s n o t a b l e t h a n t h e p r e s e n c e o f an i l l i t e r a t e army commander i n l a t e s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y F r a n c e . " E i s e n s t e i n ( 1 9 7 9 ) , 6S. The r e s u l t s o f t h e new i n d u s t r y o f p r i n t i n g was t h e s p r e a d o f bo o k s to new and l e s s a r i s t o c r a t i c c o n s u m e r s , made p o s s i b l e by a change i n a p p r o a c h f r o m t h e s c r i b e t r a d i t i o n o f b o oks a s l u x u r y i t e m s to a more d e m o c r a t i c and l e s s d e c o r a t i v e p r o d u c t i o n : "The r e v i v a l o f l e a r n i n g c r e a t e d a n o t h e r p u b l i c , d i f f e r e n t i n c h a r a c t e r f o r m t h e p r i n c e l y c o l l e c t o r s - a p u b l i c e a g e r f o r knowledge, no l o n g e r f a s t i d i o u s a s to t h e g a r b i n which i t p r e s e n t e d i t s e l f , and by t h e v e r y f a c t s o f t h e c a s e d e b a r r e d f r o m t h e s e l f i s h p l e a s u r e o f u n i q u e p r o p r i e t o r s h i p . The demand now was f o r cheap b o o k s , and bo o k s i n abundance. T h i s movement t o w a r d s t h e c h e a p e n i n g and u n i v e r s a l d i f f u s i o n o f books m a n i f e s t e d i t s e l f q u i t e e a r l y i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e a r t i n V e n i c e . The d e c l i n e i n t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e workmanship was e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y r a p i d ; and by t h e y e a r 1480, bo o k s i n f i n i t e l y i n f e r i o r t o a n y t h i n g p r o d u c e d i n 1470 were n o t o n l y common, but t h e r u l e , a l t h o u g h t h e g r e a t p r i n t e r s s t i l l c o n t i n u e d t o p u b l i s h ed i t i o n s de l u x e f o r t h e use o f t h e i r more w e a l t h y p a t r o n s . " Brown ( 1 8 9 1 ) , 35. 83 p e r i o d o f t h e V e n e t i a n i n d u s t r y . I t i s a c o n f u s i n g mix, b u t i n t h e v e r n a c u l a r - more l i k e l y to be r e a d by t h e l a y p u b l i c - h a l f t h e books p u b l i s h e d b e f o r e 1500 were d e v o t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e , and a n o t h e r twenty p e r c e n t were l i v e s IS o f t h e s a i n t s . The most p o p u l a r books were n o t c o n t e m p o r a r y , b ut m e d i e v a l . V e n i c e f a v o u r e d t h e C h r i s t i a n m y s t i c s , and i n l a y d e v o t i o n a l books t i t l e s o f t h e m e d i t a t i o n s on t h e P a s s i o n and bo o k s on p r i v a t e p r a y e r and c o n t e m p l a t i o n were most p o p u l a r . The most p o p u l a r t r a c t was a book by t h e f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y a u t h o r Domenico C a v a l c a S p e c c h i o de l a c r o c e w h i c h f o c u s e d w i t h h a l l u c i n a t o r y 13 i n t e n s i t y on t h e b l o o d and P a s s i o n o f C h r i s t . The G a r d e n o f O r a t i o n i l l u s t r a t e s a common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f many o f t h e s e books - t h e c a l l t o t h e r e a d e r to e x e r c i s e " l o c a l i m a g i n a t i o n " , t h e c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f t h e l i f e o f C h r i s t i n t h e In-most v i v i d l y c o n c r e t e manner. The g r e a t e s t p r o d u c t i o n o f G e r u l a i t i s ( 1 9 7 6 ) . An e x c e l l e n t we11-documented r e s o u r c e on p r e - s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n c u n a b u l a i n V e n i c e . He p r o v i d e s a s t a t i s t i c a l and a n a l y t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f c o n t e n t o f i n c u n a b u l a p r i n t e d i n V e n i c e w i t h c o m p a r a t i v e s t a t i s t i c s f o r F l o r e n c e , B o l o g n a , and Nuremberg. 1 2 G e r u l a i t i s ( 1 9 7 6 ) , 119. 13 G e n t i l i p u b l i s h e s s e l e c t e d e x c e r p t s . G e n t i l i ( 1 9 8 5 ) , S27-8. 14 The G i a r d i n o de o r a t i o n e f r u c t u o s o , w r i t t e n f o r t h o s e p e r s o n s "maschi e f o e m i n e , l e g u a l e hanno p o c a s c i e n t i a , e non p o s s o n o i n t e n d e r e l i l i b r i l i t e r a l i e s c i e n t i f i c i " p r o v i d e s t h e most l u c i d i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e e x e r c i s e o f " l o c a l i m a g i n a t i o n " . F r a n c e s a C o r t e s i B o s c o , "La l e t t e r a t u r a r e l i g i o s a d e v o z i o n a l e e 1 ' i c o n o g r a f i a d i a l c u n i ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) 84 t h e s e t y p e s o f b o o k s began to peak i n t h e l a s t y e a r s o f t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y and t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . From t h i s p e r i o d A u g u s t o G e n t i l i e x c e r p t s as ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) d i p i n t i d i L o t t o , " Bergomum, LXX ( 1 9 7 6 ) , 11. The method o f ' l o c a l i m a g i n a t i o n ' i s s e t o u t c l e a r l y f o r t h e r e a d e r o f t h e G i a r d i no: "The b e t t e r to i m p r e s s t h e s t o r y o f t h e P a s s i o n on y o u r mind, and t o memorise e a c h a c t i o n o f i t more e a s i l y , i t i s h e l p f u l and n e c e s s a r y to f i x t h e p l a c e s and p e o p l e i n y o u r mind: a c i t y , f o r example, which w i l l be t h e c i t y o f J e r u s a l e m -t a k i n g f o r t h i s p u r p o s e a c i t y t h a t i s w e l l known to y o u . In t h i s c i t y f i n d t h e p r i n c i p a l p l a c e s i n which a l l t h e e p i s o d e s o f t h e P a s s i o n would have t a k e n p l a c e - f o r i n s t a n c e , a p a l a c e w i t h t h e s u p p e r - r o o m where C h r i s t had t h e L a s t s u p p e r w i t h t h e D i s c i p l e s , and t h e house o f Anne, and t h a t o f C a i a p h a s , w i t h t h e p l a c e where J e s u s was t a k e n i n t h e n i g h t , and t h e room where He was b r o u g h t b e f o r e C a i a p h a s and mocked and b e a t e n . A l s o t h e r e s i d e n c e o f P i l a t e where he s p o k e w i t h t h e Jews, and i n i t t h e room where J e s u s was bound to t h e Column. A l s o t h e s i t e o f Mount C a l v a r y , where he was put on t h e C r o s s ; and o t h e r l i k e p l a c e s . . . . And t h e n too you must shape i n y o u r mind some p e o p l e , p e o p l e w e l l - k n o w n t o you, to r e p r e s e n t f o r you t h e p e o p l e i n v o l v e d i n t h e P a s s i o n - t h e p e r s o n o f J e s u s H i m s e l f , o f t h e V i r g i n , S a i n t P e t e r , S a i n t J o h n t h e E v a n g e l i s t , S a i n t Mary Magdalene, Anne, C a i a p h a s , P i l a t e , J u d a s and t h e o t h e r s , e v e r y one o f whom you w i l l f a s h i o n i n y o u r mind. When you have done a l l t h i s , p u t t i n g a l l y o u r i m a g i n a t i o n i n t o i t , t h e n go i n t o y o u r chamber. A l o n e and s o l i t a r y , e x c l u d i n g e v e r y e x t e r n a l t h o u g h t f r o m y o u r mind, s t a r t t h i n k i n g o f t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e P a s s i o n , s t a r t i n g w i t h how J e s u s e n t e r e d J e r u s a l e m on t h e a s s . Moving s l o w l y f r o m e p i s o d e to e p i s o d e , m e d i t a t e on e a c h one, d w e l l i n g on each s i n g l e s t a g e and s t e p o f t h e s t o r y . And i f a t any p o i n t you f e e l a s e n s a t i o n o f p i e t y , s t o p : do n o t p a s s on as l o n g a s t h a t sweet and d e v o u t s e n t i m e n t l a s t s . . . . " From an e d i t i o n p r i n t e d i n V e n i c e 1494, t r a n s l a t e d and g u o t e d i n : M i c h a e l B a x a n d a l l , P a i n t i n g and E x p e r i e n c e i n  F i f t e e n t h C e n t u r y I t a l y ( O x f o r d : O x f o r d U n i v . P r e s s , 1978), 46. See a l s o G e n t i l i ( 1 9 8 5 ) , 888; C o r t e s i B osco ( 1 9 7 6 ) , 14; G i n z b u r g ( 1 9 7 8 ) , 631-633. 85 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e e d i t i o n s t h a t s t r i k i n g l y promote w o r s h i p o f t h e b l o o d and s u f f e r i n g body o f C h r i s t , and a t r a n s f o r m a t i v e m e d i t a t i o n b a s e d on empathy and t h e e m u l a t i o n o f t h e 15 s u f f e r i n g and P a s s i o n o f C h r i s t . The most r e v e a l i n g i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e c h ange i n t h e demands o f l a y d e v o t i o n comes to l i g h t i n a t e x t u a l c o m p a r i s o n by C a r l o G i n z b u r g o f c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y s e p a r a t e d e x a m p l e s o f t h e p o p u l a r M e d i t a t i o n s on t h e L i f e o f C h r i s t by t h e p s e u d o - B o n a v e n t u r a . G i n z b u r g c h o o s e s a p o i n t i n t h e book d e s c r i b i n g t h e l a m e n t a t i o n o v e r t h e c r u c i f i e d C h r i s t and n o t e s t h e c h a n g e s t h a t c a n be s e e n i n t h r e e r e d a c t i o n s o f t h e t e x t : a L a t i n t e x t , a v e r n a c u l a r p r i n t e d e d i t i o n o f 1495, and a l a t e r p r i n t e d e d i t i o n f r o m t h e e a r l y C i n q u e c e n t o . * ^ In t h e L a t i n v e r s i o n t h e s c e n e was p r e s e n t e d s i m p l y t h i s way: " A l i i c i r c u m s t a n t e t omnes f a c i u n t p l a n c t u m magnum s u p e r eum: omnes enim p l a n g u n t eum a m a r i s s i m e , q u a s i 17 u n i g e n i t u m " . [Some s t o o d a r o u n d and a l l w a i l e d g r e a t l y 1 5 G e n t i l i ( 1 9 8 5 ) , 227-231. ^ G i n z b u r g (1972) i s t h e o n l y s o u r c e I have used t h a t h a s made t h e c r u c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e e d i t i o n s o f t h i s p o p u l a r d e v o t i o n a l t r a c t . 1 7 G i n z b u r g ( 1 9 7 2 ) , 637 86 o v e r him: a l l t h e p e o p l e i n d e e d l a m e n t e d o v e r him most b i t t e r l y , as i f he were t h e o n l y b o r n s o n (Son o f God)1 T h i s same p a s s a g e was t r a n s f o r m e d s t r i k i n g l y i n t h 1495 v e r n a c u l a r e d i t i o n : . . . t a n t o amaro p i a n t o f a c e v a n o che p a r e v a ben v e r i f i c a t o e l p r o p h e t i c o d e c t o d i H i e r e m i a : Luqebam u n i q e n i t u m : f a c t i b i p l a n c t u m amarum. Ma s o p r a t u c t e l ' a d d o l o r a t a madre f a c e v a p i a t o s o l a m e n t o . 0 con q u a n t a a f f e t i o n e r i c e v e v a e t p i g l i a v a l e p e n d e n t e b r a c c i a d e l suo c h a r o f i g l u o l o E...3. E t a p e n a p o t e v a p e l d o l o r e a l c h u n e p a r o l e p r o f e r i r e , ma s f o r z a t a d a l materno amore c o n p i a v o c e g r i d a v a come p o t e v a , d i c e n d o : "Che h a i commesso, o d o l c i s s i m o f i g l u o l o , c h e i n t a n t a a c e r b a morte s e ' s t a t o condemnato? Che f a r a da h o r a i n n a n z i l a t r i s t i s s i m a e t m e s t i s s i m a madre t u a ? Oime, a m a n t i s s i m o f i g l u o l o mio G e s i i , i n q u a n t e a m a r i t u d i n i mi sono c o n v e r t i t e ^ e d o l c e z e che s o l e v o da t e h a v e r e " . . . e t c . e t c . " C... so b i t t e r l y d i d t h e y c r y t h a t i t seemed t o w e l l j u s t i f y t h e p r o p h e t i c s a y i n g o f Jerome: "I mourned t h e o n l y b o r n s o n (Son o f God): make ye b i t t e r l a m e n t a t i o n s . " But above a l l t h i s t h e g r i e f - s t r i c k e n mother l a m e n t e d most b i t t e r l y . 0 w i t h what a f f e c t i o n she r e c e i v e d and took t h e p e n d a n t arms o f h e r d e a r s o n C . ..1. And d i s t r e s s e d s h e c o u l d u t t e r few words o u t o f h e r g r i e f , b ut c o m p e l l e d o u t o f her m a t e r n a l l o v e w i t h p i o u s ( c o m p a s s i o n a t e ) v o i c e s h e c r i e d as s h e c o u l d , s a y i n g : What c r i m e have you c o m m i t t e d , o s w e e t e s t s o n t h a t you a r e condemned to s u c h a p r e m a t u r e d e a t h ? What w i l l y o u r most s a d and m e l a n c h o l y mother do w i t h t h e h o u r s to come? 0, most b e l o v e d s o n o f mine J e s u s , i n what b i t t e r n e s s has been c o n v e r t e d i n me t h e s w e e t n e s s t h a t a r o s e f r o m h a v i n g y o u " . . . e t c . e t c . 3 . 18 The E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n s o f t h i s and t h e f o l l o w i p a s s a g e a r e my own. 1 9 G i n z b u r g ( 1 9 7 2 ) , 637. 87 What was a s i m p l e , unembe11ished s t a t e m e n t was t r a n s f o r m e d s t r i k i n g l y i n o r d e r to answer t h e demands o f l a t e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y p i e t y . What i s most e v i d e n t i n t h e 1495 e d i t i o n i s t h e g r i p p i n g n a r r a t i v e e m o t i o n a l i t y , t h e a d d i t i o n o f t h e human i n t e r e s t o f t h e h i s t r i o n i c mother, t h e p u l l on t h e e m o t i o n s , t h e c a l l t o a p a s s i o n a t e e m p a t h e t i c r e s p o n s e . In t h e e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y e d i t i o n t h e t e x t was e m b e l l i s h e d by v e r s e s f r o m t h e m y s t i c a l F r a n c i s c a n p o e t J a c o p o n e , whose poems were w r i t t e n i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y . H i s s t y l e was somewhat s i m p l e and r u s t i c and e x p r e s s e d t h e e m o t i v e i m a g e r y o f t h e p a s s i o n s t o r y i n a manner t h a t was g u i t e c o n s o n a n t w i t h t h e new t y p e 80 o f p a s s i o n a t e p i e t y . J o h n F l e m i n g d e s c r i b e s J a c o p o n e ' s G i n z b u r g r e p r o d u c e s t h i s e x c e r p t w h i c h i n s e r t s t h e p o e t r y o f J a c o p o n e i n t o t h e t e x t : " . . . E t c o s i s o p r a t u t t i l i membri d e l f i o l o p i a n g e n d o e t b a s a n d o l i mo l ' u n o mo l ' a l t r o , f a c e v a p i a n t o t a n t o amaro c h e q u a s i h a v e r i a p r o v o c a t o a l lamento e t i a m l i s a x i , s ' e l f u s s e s t a t o p o s s i b i l e C...D. E t p e r c h e apena p e r d o l o r e p o t e v a p a r l a r e , pur s f o r z a t a da l'amore c o n p i e t o s a v o c e g r i d a v a come p o t e v a d i c e n d o , e t i n s i e m e c o n l e i q u e l l o i n n a m o r a t o J a c o p o n e : E l c o r t e l l o d e l g r a n d o l o r e M'ha p a s s a t o f i n a l c o r e Ben m'el d i s s e Symeone Quando a l tempio i o t e h e b i d a t o . 0 d o l c e z a d e l mio c o r e 0 f o n t e p i e n o de d o l o r e 0 p e r c o s s o mio s p l e n d o r e 0 d o l c e mio v i s o r o s a t o . A p r i l i o c h i i o v i t a mia ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) 88 p a s s i o n a t e s t y l e : " i n t h e s t u d i e d and p a t h e t i c c o l l o q u i a l i s m o f t h e l a n g u a g e J a c o p o n e h a s . . . f u l l y d e v e l o p e d t h e v i s c e r a l 81 power t o make s a c r e d h i s t o r y quake and weep..." ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) R i s g u a r d a l a t r i s t a de M a r i a L'anima g i a s e p a r t e v i a Dal mio c o r p o a m a r i c a t o e t c . e t c . " E x c e r p t e d f r o m an e a r l y C i n g u e c e n t o e d i t i o n o f t h e M e d i t a t i o n e s i n G i n z b u r g ( 1 9 7 8 ) , 637-638. 81 J o h n V. F l e m i n g , An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e F r a n c i s c a n  L i t e r a t u r e o f t h e M i d d l e Ages ( C h i c a g o : F r a n c i s c a n H e r a l d P r e s s , 1977), 186. In t h i s e a r l y p h a s e o f p r i n t i n g o l d e r l i t e r a t u r e r e a c h e d some a u d i e n c e s f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , f o r o t h e r s i t was s i m p l y newly p r e s e n t e d and i n any c a s e i t was a s s i m i l a t e d by t h e r e a d i n g p u b l i c n o t as h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l b u t as i f i t were c o n t e m p o r a r y . What G i n z b u r g ' s f i n a l example shows so s t r i k i n g l y i s t h e a d a p t a t i o n o f m e d i e v a l o r o l d e r m a t e r i a l i n t o a 'modern' c o n t e x t insomuch as i t s u i t e d c o n t e m p o r a r y n e e d s . " Q u e s t a p i e t a c r i s t o c e n t r i c a , d a l l e t o n a l i t a a p p a s s i o n a t e e s e n t i m e n t a l i , e r a , n e l l ' I t a l i a d e l p r i m o C i n q u e c e n t o , comune a g l i a m b i e n t i p i u v a r i , da g u e l l i o r t o d o s s a m e n t e c a t t o l i c i a q u e l l i e r e t i c a l i . E r a una p i e t a c he erompeva f u o r i d a i q u a d r i t r a d i z i o n a l i , p e r c i o q u a s i i n e s p r i m a b i l e -e d i f a t t o e s p r e s s a , p e r una s c e l t a s t i l i s t i c a c h e e r a a nche una s c e l t a r e l i g i o s a , c o n un r i c o r s o , o r a d e l i b e r a t o o r a s p o n t a n e o , a l 1 ' a r c a i s m o . C i 6 f u r e s o p o s s i b i l e d a l l a d i f f u s i o n e d e l l a stampa. T r a l a f i n e d e l Q u a t t r o c e n t o e i l p r i n c i p i o d e l C i n g u e c e n t o i l p u b b l i c o d e i l e t t o r i s i t r o v o i m p r o v v i s a m e n t o a p o t e r d i s p o r r e d i una q u a n t i t a d i t e s t i r e l i g i o s i - r a c c o l t e d i p r e g h i e r e , s c r i t t i d i p i e t a , commenti s c r i t t u r a l i - r i s a l e n t i a c i n q u a n t a , c e n t o , t r e c e n t o a n n i p r i m a . Non c'e d u b b i o c he p e r i l l e t t o r e comune q u e s t i t e s t i , p e r i l l o r o c a r a t t e r e , e p e r i l f a t t o d i e s s e r e s t a t i d a t i a l l e stampe, e r a n o a v v e r t i t i come t e s t i c o n t e m p o r a n e i . " G i n z b u r g ( 1 9 7 8 ) , 636. 89 The p a r a l l e l between t h e d e v e l o p m e n t i n d e v o t i o n a l t e x t and image a t t h i s t i m e i s r e m a r k a b l e . The M e d i t a t i o n s on  t h e L i f e o f C h r i s t f o r example was b o r n o u t o f t h e m o n a s t i c c o n t e x t . I t i s made up o f c h a p t e r s t h a t f o l l o w e p i s o d e s i n t h e l i f e o f C h r i s t . I t i s s t r u c t u r a l l y a r e g i m e n t e d m e d i t a t i o n a l programme t h a t i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f p r i n t i n g was t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o t h e g r i p p i n g r e a d i n g t h a t a p p e a l e d to t h e newly e x t e n d e d p u b l i c . In imagery? t h e a u s t e r e , h a l f - l e n g t h f i g u r e s were r e p l a c e d by c o m p o s i t i o n s o f more i n t e g r a t e d s p a c e , e m o t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n and n a r r a t i v e m a t r i x . An a b r u p t change i n s t y l e o f d e v o t i o n a l images was most k e e n l y f e l t i n t h e u r b a n c e n t r e o f V e n i c e . T h i s m a n i f e s t a t i o n i s b e s t s e e n i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f s o c i a l c h a n g e s i n V e n i c e a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y o f w h i c h t h e new c u l t u r e o f t h e p r i n t e d book f o r m s an i n t e g r a l - b u t n o t 88 s i n g u l a r - p a r t . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t i n F l o r e n c e i n t h e l a t t e r h a l f o f t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y - where t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i n t e g r a t e d s p a c e and n a r r a t i v e l o g i c began t o a p p e a r i n p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n a l p a i n t i n g s when i n V e n i c e t h e h a l f - l e n g t h t y p e p r e v a i l e d - books i n t h e v e r n a c u l a r ( ' p o p u l a r ' r e a d i n g ) made up a much g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e o f books i n p r i n t t h a n i n V e n i c e o f t h e same p e r i o d . G e r u l a i t i s ( 1 9 7 6 ) , 136. I t i s d i f f i c u l t , t h o u g h , to d i r e c t l y c o l l a t e t h e s e two f a c t o r s -a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i s t h a t F l o r e n c e d i d n o t s h a r e t h e r e s o n a n c e s o f t h e B y z a n t i n e i c o n t h a t i n f l u e n c e d t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e h a l f - l e n g t h t y p e i n V e n i c e . 90 The change i n s e n s i b i l i t y f r o m i c o n to n a r r a t i v e was n o t r e s t r i c t e d to d e v o t i o n a l images and t h e a t t i t u d e s e n g e n d e r e d t h r o u g h d e v o t i o n a l r e a d i n g . T h i s change i n s e n s i b i l i t y was i n t r i n s i c t o a g r e a t e r c u l t u r a l f a b r i c i n V e n i c e and c a n be f o u n d m a n i f e s t e d i n d i f f e r e n t f o r m s . The f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y a t t i t u d e may be termed an ' i c o n ' 23 s e n s i b i l i t y . I t i s t e l l i n g t h a t i n V e n e t i a n c i v i c d e v o t i o n ? t h e t r a d i t i o n o f p a r a d i n g r e l i c s d u r i n g t h e p u b l i c c e l e b r a t i o n o f r e l i g i o u s f e a s t s i n t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y t u r n e d by t h e e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y t o t h e d i s p l a y o f 24 n a r r a t i v e t a b l e a u x v i v a n t s i n t h e same s i t u a t i o n . In o t h e r w o r d s j by t h e e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , r e l i g i o u s n a r r a t i v e was p r e f e r r e d e v e n p u b l i c l y to t h e d i s p l a y o f s a c r e d r e l i c s . T h e o l o g i c a l l y , t h e two q u e s t i o n r e p r e s e n t two t y p e s r e p e a t s a p r o t o t y p e which i s a g r e a t e r , l a r g e l y i n e f f a b l e t y p e s o f d e v o t i o n a l images i n o f r e a l i t y . The i c o n i c image a c c e p t e d as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f d i v i n e s t r u c t u r e . The P a r t o f t h e ' i c o n s e n s i b i l i t y ' was a b e l i e f i n t h e m i r a c u l o u s power o f t h e image. One o f t h e p o i n t s i n P a t r i c i a Brown's work on V e n e t i a n n a r r a t i v e i s t h e power t h e image h e l d i n f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y V e n i c e - as a h i s t o r i c a l document t h e image was c o n s i d e r e d e q u a l t o o r even g r e a t e r t h a n t h e s p o k e n word. P a t r i c i a Brown, " P a i n t i n g and H i s t o r y i n R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e , " A r t H i s t o r y , 7 ( S e p t . 1984), 263-277. Edward M u i r , C i v i c R i t u a l i n R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v . P r e s s , 1981), 225 and n 34. 91 n a r r a t i v e image c o n f i r m s d i v i n i t y by g r o u n d e d i t i n f l e e t i n g r e a l i t y - t h e r e a l i t y o f e a r t h l y t i m e and s o c i a l l i f e . B r i n g i n g s o c i a l r e a l i t y i n t o d e v o t i o n was a t a s k begun by t h e m e n d i c a n t o r d e r s , i n r e s p o n s e to new u r b a n demands. I n t r i n s i c to t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e i n e f f a b l e r e a l i t y , on t h e o t h e r hand, i s a r e a l i t y t h a t i s beyond t h e v e r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e o r d i n a r y p e r s o n . I t would seem to i m p l y t h e s u p p o r t o f 25 a l a r g e r s t r u c t u r e o f a u t h o r i t y . The p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e F r a n c a s t e l t r e a t s t h e change i n i m a g e r y f r o m t h e B y z a n t i n e i c o n t o t h e R e n a i s s a n c e n a r r a t i v e s t y l e o f t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n t e r m s o f a r e v o l u t i o n i n s p i r i t u a l t h o u g h t : " I t was n o t w i t h o u t r e a s o n t h a t t h e name ' S p i r i t u a l ' was g i v e n t o a l l t h e m o n a s t i c p a r t i s a n s o f t h e d o c t r i n e s t h a t r e j e c t e d t h e c o n c e p t s o f a human o r d e r s t r i c t l y d e t e r m i n e d by a c o m p l e t e and f i n a l r e v e l a t i o n t h a t c a n o n l y be r e s p e c t e d and d e e p l y m e d i t a t e d , s u b s t i t u t i n g i t f o r t h e c o n c e p t o f a p a r t i a l , f r a g m e n t a r y r e v e l a t i o n w h i c h i s c o n s t a n t l y i n t h e p r o c e s s o f f u l f i l l m e n t and w h i c h demands f r o m e a c h i n d i v i d u a l n o t mere d e v o t i o n a l s u b m i s s i o n b u t an e f f o r t o f w i l l , an a c t i v e and c o n s t a n t l y q u e s t i o n e d a d h e r e n c e o f h i s whole b e i n g . Once i t has been a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e whole h i s t o r y o f mankind c o n s i s t s n o t i n t h e r e n e w a l o f a c o l l e c t i v e a c t o f t h a n k s g i v i n g and f a i t h b u t i n i n d i v i d u a l a d h e s i o n - w h i c h i s n e c e s s a r y to t h e e v e r - i n d i s p e n s a b 1 e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e c r e a t i v e a c t - b e l i e f , c o n d u c t , and t h e f o r m s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l l c h a n g e . The aim o f a r t i s t h e n no l o n g e r t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f a p r o t o t y p e ; i t becomes t h e i n s t r u m e n t w i t h w h i c h a group o f i n d i v i d u a l s a t t r i b u t e d e v o t i o n a l v a l u e s t o a c t s which no l o n g e r f i g u r e i n t h e f i x e d t r a d i t i o n o f H o l y W r i t b u t w h i c h seem, to some a t l e a s t , to g i v e a c t u a l i t y to t h e d o c t r i n a l t e a c h i n g s i n t h e e x i s t i n g s o c i a l c o n t e x t . " P i e r r e F r a n c a s t e l , "Space and Time," E n c y c l o p e d i a o f W o r l d  A r t (New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1967), X I I I , 190. My a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s to D i a n K r i z f o r b r i n g i n g t h i s r e f e r e n c e t o my a t t e n t i o n . 98 n a r r a t i v e t y p e o c c u r r e d a t a t i m e when p r i v a t e p i e t y was d e v e l o p i n g a s t r u c t u r e t h a t was g r o w i n g more i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e a u t h o r i t y o f c h u r c h r i t u a l , s u p p o r t e d by p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n a l r e a d i n g . The d r a m a t i c change i n imagery t h a t we have been c h a r t i n g o c c u r r e d a l o n g a h i s t o r i c a l f a u l t l i n e t h a t d e t e r m i n a t e l y changed t h e i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e o f V e n i c e - t h e 26 Cambrai wars. The d e f e a t o f V e n i c e i n t h e League o f Cambrai and t h e e n s u i n g wars (1509-1516) had a t r a u m a t i c e f f e c t on t h e s o c i a l f a b r i c o f t h e c i t y . T h e s e e v e n t s f o r m e d th e b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e s h i f t i n V e n e t i a n p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n a l i m a g e r y f r o m one s t y l e t o a n o t h e r . I t would seem r e a s o n a b l e i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o l o o k a t c h a n g e s c a u s e d by t h e Cambrai wars and t o ask what new demands t h e s e d y n a m i c s p l a c e d on t h e c o n s u m p t i o n o f r e l i g i o u s i m a g e r y . In t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e League o f C a m b r a i , t h e E u r o p e a n s t a t e s u n i t e d a g a i n s t V e n i c e and d e f e a t e d h e r on t h e m a i n l a n d where f o r a s h o r t t i m e she l o s t a l l h e r h o l d i n g s . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n p h y s i c a l t h r e a t s to V e n i c e ' s s e l f - i m a g e as an i n v i n c i b l e r e p u b l i c . A f t e r r e g a i n i n g much o f h e r The t r a u m a t i c e f f e c t s o f t h e Cambrai wars i n V e n i c e have r e c e n t l y been t a k e n up as a f a c t o r i n i magery i n t h e e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . See Deborah Howard, " G i o r g i o n e ' s T empesta and T i t i a n ' s A s s u n t a i n t h e C o n t e x t o f t h e Cambrai Wars," A r t H i s t o r y , 8 ( S e p t . 1985), 871-289. 93 t e r r i t o r i e s t h r o u g h d i p l o m a c y and war, 1515 marked t h e b e g i n n i n g o f c o n c e r t e d l i t e r a r y e f f o r t s to c o n c r e t i z e t h e V e n e t i a n myth and to d i r e c t l y improve V e n i c e ' s h i s t o r i c a l 27 image (and to c o v e r up h e r b a r e d w e a k n e s s e s ) . T h i s 'campaign' was c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e hands o f s e v e r a l h u m a n i s t s w o r k i n g i n d i v i d u a l l y , t h e most famous o f which was G a s p a r o 28 C o n t a r i n i . As a r e s u l t o f t h e r e c e n t wars t h e new myth-makers f a v o u r e d more a g g r e s s i v e a n a l o g i e s to Roman 89 f o r t i t u d e and to t h e Roman R e p u b l i c . The myth o f V e n i c e "The V e n e t i a n w r i t e r s o f t h e e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y had become k e e n l y aware o f t h e u n i g u e and p r e c a r i o u s n a t u r e o f t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l p o s i t i o n i n an I t a l y d o m i n a t e d by m o n a r c h i c a l and f o r e i g n g o v e r n m e n t s , and t h e works o f Navagero and C o n t a r i n i were among t h e f i r s t a t t e m p t s by t h e V e n e t i a n s t o j u s t i f y t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r s o c i e t y i n t h e f a c e o f an i n c r e a s i n g l y h o s t i l e and d a n g e r o u s e n v i r o n m e n t . " L e s t e r J . L i b b y J r . , " V e n e t i a n H i s t o r y and P o l i t i c a l Thought a f t e r 1509," S t u d i e s i n t h e R e n a i s s a n c e , XX ( 1 9 7 3 ) , 85. A c c o r d i n g to M u i r t h e myth o f V e n i c e grew " i n an i n v e r s e p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e d e c l i n e o f V e n i c e ' s a c t u a l p o l i t i c a l power" Muir ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 87; 25-34. A l s o s e e F e l i x G i l b e r t , " V e n i c e i n t h e C r i s i s o f t h e League o f C a m b r a i , " i n R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e , e d . J.R. H a l e (London: F a b e r and F a b e r , 1973), 874-898. 28 L i b b y s i n g l e s o u t A n d r e a N a v a g e r o , G a s p a r o C o n t a r i n i , G i a m b a t t i s t a E g n a z i o , and A n d r e a M o c e n i g o . L i b b y ( 1 9 7 3 ) , 7-45. 29 Ackerman r e c o g n i z e s t h e enhanced Roman r e f e r e n c e s i n V e n e t i a n a r c h i t e c t u r e a f t e r t h e L eague o f C a m b r a i . However he assumes t h a t V e n i c e emerged f r o m a h i a t u s i n b u i l d i n g and i n c u l t u r e c a u s e d by t h e wars to f i n d t h a t i t s p r o m i n e n t a r c h i t e c t s had p i c k e d up a new s t y l e i n Rome which i t t h e n a b r u p t l y a d o p t e d . I t seems r a t h e r t h a t t h e t e n s i o n s o f t h e Cambrai wars p r o v i d e d t h e demand f o r a more a g g r a n d i z i n g s t y l e w i t h Roman i m p e r i a l r e f e r e n c e s . Ackerman ( 1 9 8 8 ) , 42-45. See a l s o : M u i r ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 23-34. G i l b e r t ( 1 9 7 3 ) , 287-8; 290. In A n d r e a M o c e n i g o ' s h i s t o r y o f t h e Wars o f Cambrai (1585) he r e l a t e s V e n i c e ' s s u c c e s s f u l d e f e n s e o f ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) 94 a s i n h e r i t o r o f B y z a n t i u m d i d not d i e * b ut t h e e m p h a s i s had c h a n g e d . V e n e t i a n p r e o c c u p a t i o n s w i t h t h e E a s t were t u r n i n g to p r o b l e m s w i t h i n I t a l y . I t s e c o n o m i c d e p e n d e n c e on t h e E a s t was d e c l i n i n g r a p i d l y c a u s i n g V e n e t i a n s t o l o o k more 30 e a g e r l y to t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e m a i n l a n d . The i m m i g r a t i o n o f t h e Greek p o p u l a t i o n t h a t had h e l p e d t o t i p t a s t e toward t h e B y z a n t i n e s t y l e a f t e r t h e f a l l o f C o n s t a n t i n o p l e i n 1453 was s u p p l a n t e d by a new i m m i g r a t i o n o f d e p o s e d c i t i z e n s f r o m 31 t h e t e r r a f e r m a . In t h e e a r l y d e c a d e s o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e p e a c e f u l s e l f image o f V e n i c e as t h e i n h e r i t o r 3S o f t h e E a s t was s h a t t e r e d . B y z a n t i n e - i n s p i r e d i m a g e r y f e l l o u t o f f a v o u r a t t h e same t i m e . ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) Padua i n w h i c h a c c o u n t L e o n a r d o L o r e d a n comes out as a h e r o who " a p p e a l s t o t h e S e n a t o r s t o e m u l a t e t h e p a t r i o t i s m o f t h e Romans d u r i n g t h e war w i t h H a n n i b a l so t h a t t h e s t a t e may s u r v i v e t h i s c r i s i s a l s o . " L i b b y ( 1 9 7 3 ) , 32. 30 The g r e a t age o f V e n i c e as a m a r i t i m e r e p u b l i c e f f e c t i v e l y ended a t t h e end o f t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y a s a r e s u l t o f t h e wars w i t h t h e T u r k s i n t h e e a s t and t h e d i s c o v e r y o f a t r a d e r o u t e a r o u n d A f r i c a . D a v i s c i t e s t h i s t u r n i n V e n e t i a n economy as one o f t h e major f a c t o r s i n t h e i n c r e a s i n g p o v e r t y o f t h e V e n e t i a n n o b i l i t y . D a v i s , 34-53. Ackerman n o t e s t h e movement o f t h e V e n e t i a n n o b i l i t y t oward b u y i n g l a n d on t h e t e r r a f e r m a . Ackerman ( 1 9 8 2 ) , 45-46. 3 1 G i l b e r t ( 1 9 7 3 ) , 281. 32 "By t h e e a r l y d e c a d e s o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e l a n g u a g e o f humanism had t r a n s f o r m e d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l myth o f a h o l y c i t y p r o t e c t e d by S a i n t Mark, i n d e p e n d e n t f r o m a l l f o r e i g n powers, i n t o a c o h e r e n t p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y t h a t was c l a s s i c a l i n i t s d e r i v a t i o n . " M u i r ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 25-6. 95 The i c o n , a s a r e v e r e d r e l i c , had a p u b l i c l i f e i n V e n i c e , and t h u s p a r t o f a s h a r e d c i v i c c u l t u r e . As t h e m i r a c u l o u s Madonna, t h e V i r g i n o f t h e i c o n was p o p u l a r i z e d i n f o l k l e g e n d s and i n t h e p u b l i c a r e n a o f c i v i c d e v o t i o n . As p a r t o f a common p u b l i c p a t r i m o n y , t h e V e n e t i a n h a l f - l e n g t h Madonna and C h i l d f u n c t i o n e d i n t h e s p h e r e o f p o p u l a r i m a g e r y and was c o n s o l i d a t e d i n t o h i g h c u l t u r e a t a s i n g l e moment o f c i v i c p e a c e and s t r e n g t h . The h a r d s h i p s o f t h e Cambrai wars however d r o v e a g r o w i n g wedge i n t o c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n s , o n l y t h e v e r y r i c h b e i n g a b l e t o evade t h e 33 t a x a t i o n s t h a t c r i p p l e d t h e l e s s a f f l u e n t . T i t i a n ' s images were p a i n t e d f o r t h e newly s e l f - c o n s c i o u s w e a l t h y When l i s t s o f names o f t h o s e who were d e l i n q u e n t i n p a y i n g t h e i r t a x e s were p u b l i s h e d i n t h e G r e a t C o u n c i l d u r i n g t h e t i m e o f t h e wars, some o f t h e most p r o m i n e n t and w e a l t h i e s t o f t h e r u l i n g g r o u p i n V e n i c e were l i s t e d . G i l b e r t ( 1 9 7 3 ) , £ 8 8 - 2 9 0 . M u i r n o t e s e v i d e n c e o f g r o w i n g c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n s i n s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y V e n i c e : "As one s u r v e y s t h e t h i r t e e n t h t o s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , most o b v i o u s i s t h e s h a r p e n i n g o f c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n s . N o b l e s , c i t t a d i n i , and p l e b i a n s were s e p a r a t e d i n r i t u a l s , and t h e f i r s t two g r o u p s were c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o an e l a b o r a t e h i e r a r c h y o f o f f i c i a l p r e c e d e n c e s . The V e n e t i a n r e p u b l i c was becoming more a r i s t o c r a t i c , more c o n c e r n e d w i t h c l a s s p r i v i l e g e , more s o c i a l l y r i g i d , and l e s s a communis o f f r e e c i t i z e n s . " M u i r ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 302. " A f t e r t h e War o f t h e League o f C a m b r a i , p a r t i c u l a r l y u n der t h e i n f l u e n c e o f Doge A n d r e a G r i t t i , V e n e t i a n c i v i c r i t u a l s were r e f o r m e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e a u t h o r i t a r i a n p r i o r i t i e s o f t h e o l i g a r c h y . T r a n s f o r m e d under t h e i n f l u e n c e s o f humanism and n e o c l a s s i e ism and o f t e n a t t h e hands o f r e f u g e e s and e x p a t r i o t s f r o m T u s c a n y and Rome, t h e i m p o r t a n t f e a s t d a y s became more and more t h e o c c a s i o n f o r p a g e a n t r y d i s p l a y . What had been open p u b l i c s p a c e used f o r many p u r p o s e s became, i f n o t e x c l u s i v e l y , t h e n more f r e q u e n t l y , a v i a s a c r a f o r c i v i c r i t u a l s . " M u i r ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 301 . 96 c l a s s t h a t emerged. H i s images were more c u l t u r e d i n t h e i r a p p e a l j more v i s u a l l y o p u l e n t . A t e l l i n g d e t a i l i s t h e u s e o f t h e c l o t h o f honour - a f l a t and s o l e m n b a c k d r o p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n B e l l i n i ' s o r Cima's h a l f - l e n g t h p a i n t i n g s was t r a n s f o r m e d by T i t i a n i n t o a r i c h t h e a t r i c a l r e p o u s s o i r ( F i g s . 2, 3, 2 1 ) . The c hange i n d e v o t i o n a l i magery i n t h e s e c o n d and t h i r d d e c a d e o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y was a r e s u l t o f a complex o f c h a n g e s i n t h e V e n e t i a n s c e n e : c h a n g e s i n p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n s t h e new d y n a m i c s o f a r e a d i n g p u b l i c p r o d u c e d by t h e d i f f u s i o n o f p r i n t e d d e v o t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e s and t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e Cambrai wars on d e - c h a r g i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f B y z a n t i u m i n t h e V e n e t i a n image and on c h a n g i n g t h e p r o f i l e o f t h e p u b l i c who were t o p a t r o n i z e t h e most p o p u l a r p a i n t e r o f t h e new c e n t u r y - T i t i a n . In Bergamos newly r e c o v e r e d by V e n i c e a t t h e t i m e t h a t L o t t o p a i n t e d t h e Madonna and C h i l d w i t h SS. Roch and  S e b a s t i a n , t h e c u l t u r a l d y n a m i c s were d i f f e r e n t . The ' a r c h a i c ' f o r m s o f p o p u l a r f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y t y p e s l i v e d l o n g e r i n t h e p r o v i n c e s . In Bergamo i t s e l f i n t h e e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y p r o v i n c i a l t a s t e s were enhanced by an e a g e r n e s s f o r c o n t e m p o r a r y p a i n t e r s t r a i n e d i n V e n i c e . The d e v o t i o n a l c h a n g e s t h a t were f e l t i n V e n i c e were a l s o a p a r t o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t s i n s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y p r o v i n c i a l d e v o t i o n s p e r h a p s e v e n f e l t w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e n s i t y . 97 L o t t o ' s Madonna and C h i l d w i t h SS Roch and S e b a s t i a n draws on t h e t r a d i t i o n o f t h e V e n e t i a n h a l f - l e n g t h t y p e , but c h a r g e d w i t h a new d r a m a t i c i n t e n s i t y , i t i s a t t h e same t i m e a new t y p e - t r a n s f o r m e d by t h e demands o f new c u r r e n t s o f p i e t y , and shaped f o r t h e p a r t i c u l a r p a t r o n . 98 CHAPTER FOUR LOTTO IN BERGAMO: DIFFICULT TIMES AND NEW PATRONAGE " S o p r a t t u t t o , s i r i s c h i a d i non s o t t o 1 i n e a r e c o n l a d o v u t a f o r z a c h e l ' i n t e r v e n t o d e l L o t t o a Bergamo r a p p r e s e n t o non l a c o n t i n u i t y , ma un f r a t t u r a r a d i c a l e : e che l a p a l a d i S. B a r t o l o m e o e, p r i m a a n c o r a c he un f a t t o a r t i s t i c o , un a t t o p o l i t i c o . " F r a n c e s c o R o s s i i n Bergamo p e r  L o r e n z o L o t t o ( 1 9 8 0 ) . " l a p r e p a r a z i o n e i n f a t t i d i u n ' o p e r a z i o n e c h i r u r g i c a p a r t e da 1 1 ' i n v o c a z i o n e a D i o p e r p a s s a r e a l l ' e s a m e s u l l ' e t a e l e c o n d i z i o n i f i s i c h e d e l m a l a t o , nonche s u l l a f a s e l u n a r e p i u f a v o r e v o l e a 1 1 ' i n t e r v e n t o . " G i u l i o O r a z i o B r a v i , " M e d i c i e^ c h i r u r g h i a Bergamo..." (1981) L o t t o ' s p e r i o d o f a c t i v i t y i n Bergamo (C151S-1585) h a s been c r i t i c a l l y r e g a r d e d a s h i s b e s t , h i s most f r u i t f u l , h i s h a p p i e s t . M a s c h e r p a c a l l s t h e a r t i s t ' s Bergamo p e r i o d " l a F r a n c e s c o R o s s i , " L o r e n z o L o t t o e l a c u l t u r a p i t t o r i c a b e r g a m a s c a d e l '500," i n Bergamo p e r L o r e n z o L o t t o (Bergamo: C e n t r o C u l t u r a l e S. B a r t o l o m e o , 1980), 41. 2 G i u l i o O r a z i o B r a v i , " M e d i c i e c h i r u r g h i a Bergamo a l tempo d i B a t t i s t a C u c c h i , " A r c h i v i o s t o r i c o b e rqamasco, I, 1 ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 94. 99 s p l e n d i d a e s t a t e " , B e r e n s o n c o n s i d e r s i t t h e t i m e "when t h e 4 t i d e o f l i f e i s h i g h e s t i n him", w h i l e B a n t i r e g a r d s i t a s t h e a r t i s t ' s " p e r i o d o p i d f e l i c e . " ^ L o t t o ' s Madonna and  C h i l d w i t h SS Roch and S. S e b a s t i a n i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o have been p a i n t e d i n t h e m i d s t o f t h i s p e r i o d i n 1521, t h e y e a r two o f h i s major a l t a r p i e c e s were c o m p l e t e d - t h e p a i n t i n g s f o r t h e c h u r c h e s o f S. B e r n a r d i n o and f o r S. S p i r i t o ( F i g s . 58, 4 1 ) . L o t t o ' s s t a y i n Bergamo was an a c t i v e one i n w h i c h many s i g n i f i c a n t works were p r o d u c e d f o r b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e c o m m i s s i o n s . The p e r i o d o f L o t t o ' s s t a y i n Bergamo was one o f g r a v e d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r t h e c i t y ; M a s c h e r p a e n t i t l e s h i s c h a p t e r on L o t t o ' s Bergamo p e r i o d " l a s p l e n d i d a e s t a t e " G i o r g i o M a s c h e r p a , I n v i t o a  L o r e n z o L o t t o ( M i l a n : R u s c o n i , 1980), 41. B e r n a r d B e r e n s o n , L o r e n z o L o t t o ( L o n d o n : P h a i d o n , 1956), 266. " H i s p i c t u r e s o f t h i s t i m e , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e s t i l l p r e s e r v e d a t Bergamo, have an e x u b e r a n c e , a b u o y a n c y , and a r u s h o f l i f e w h ich f i n d u t t e r a n c e i n q u i c k movements, i n an i m p a t i e n c e o f a r c h i t e c t o n i c r e s t r a i n t , i n b o l d f o r e s h o r t e n i n g s , and i n b r i l l i a n t , j o y o u s c o l o u r i n g . " B e r e n s o n ( 1 9 5 6 ) , 262. B e r e n s o n p r e f a c e s h i s 1956 e d i t i o n w i t h a p o i g n a n t a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l n o t e : " S i x t y and more y e a r s ago I was a t t r a c t e d by L o r e n z o L o t t o . I had s e e n h i s p a i n t i n g s i n t h e N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y , t h e l a n d s c a p e o f t h e l i t t l e S t Jerome i n t h e L o u v r e charmed me and I a d m i r e d t h e B r e r a p o r t r a i t s , b u t i t was a t Bergamo t h a t I f e l l u nder t h e s p e l l o f h i s a r t . The a l t a r p i e c e s , t h e c a n v a s e s , t h e f r e s c o e s , t h e i n t a r s i a s , t h a t abound i n t h a t m a j e s t i c town and i t s s u r r o u n d i n g s , e n t h r a l l e d me. I k e p t r e t u r n i n g to them, and b e f o r e n o t t o o l o n g I f e l t I must w r i t e a b o u t t h e i r a u t h o r . " Anna B a n t i , R i v e l a z i o n e d i L o r e n z o L o t t o ( F l o r e n c e : S a n s o n i , 1981), 23. 100 a v i c t i m o f w a r r i n g f o r e i g n and V e n e t i a n f a c t i o n s i n t h e wake o f t h e League o f C a m b r a i , t h e c i t y was c o n t i n u a l l y s u r r o u n d e d by f o r e i g n t r o o p s and t h r e a t e d by p l a g u e and h a r d s h i p t h a t a c c o m p a n i e d war. Out o f t h i s c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n , d o m i n a n t c i t i z e n s i n Bergamo t u r n e d t h e i r p o l i t i c a l a l l i a n c e s t oward V e n i c e . L o t t o e n t e r e d Bergamo as t h e most s u c c e s s f u l o f a c i r c l e o f V e n e t i a n - t r a i n e d a r t i s t s who r e p r e s e n t e d t h e new p a t r o n a g e o f t h i s p r o - V e n e t i a n g r o u p . W i t h i n t h i s p a t r o n a g e s i t u a t i o n , L o t t o ' s p a t r o n s r e p r e s e n t e d a d i v e r s e r a n g e o f c l a s s e s : p r o v i n c i a l a r i s t o c r a c y , w e a l t h y m e r c h a n t s , t h e m i d d l e c l a s s . L o r e n z o L o t t o was b o r n c l 4 8 0 i n V e n i c e . The d a t e comes down t o us f r o m a t e s t a m e n t o f 1546 when he s t a t e s t h a t he i s "around 66.'^* H i s p l a c e o f b i r t h comes f r o m r e f e r e n c e s 7 t o t h e a r t i s t by h i m s e l f and o t h e r s a s de V e n e t i i s . As t h e r e i s no d o c u m e n t a r y e v i d e n c e t o r e v e a l L o t t o ' s a p p r e n t i c e s h i p t h i s q u e s t i o n o f ' o r i g i n s ' and e a r l y ' i n f l u e n c e s ' has been t h e s u b j e c t o f l i v e l y d e b a t e . The In t h i s document L o t t o d e f i n e s h i m s e l f a s : " L a u r e n t i o L o t o p i c t o r v e n e z i a n o de c i r c h a a n n i 66." R u d o l f o P a l l u c c h i n i and G i o r d a n a M a r i a n a Canova, L ' o p e r a c o m p l e t a  d e l L o t t o ( M i l a n : R i z z o l i , 1975), 83. 7 He was d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s way i n a deed o f 1505 i n T r e v i s o . F l a v i o C a r o l i , L o r e n z o L o t t o e l a n a s c i t a d e l l a  p s i c o l o q i a moderna ( M i l a n : F a b b r i , 1980), 59; L u i g i C h i o d i , L e t t e r e i n e d i t e d i L o r e n z o L o t t o (Bergamo: B. Secomandi, 1968), " I I L o t t o non e d i Bergamo," 10. 101 f i r s t n o t i c e s o f t h e p a i n t e r ' s a c t i v i t y i s i n 1503 i n T r e v i s o where we h e a r o f him by 1505 a l r e a d y as " p i c t o r i s Q c e l e b e r r i m i . " Gne o f t h e c o n t r o v e r s i a l q u e s t i o n s i n L o t t o s t u d i e s c o n c e r n s t h e a t t r i b u t i o n t o t h e a r t i s t o f t h e f r e s c o d e c o r a t i o n on t h e tomb o f T r e v i s a n h u m a n i s t O n i g o . A u g u s t o G e n t i l i has d i s c u s s e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s q u e s t i o n a s a m a t t e r o f p a t r o n a g e - d i s c o u n t i n g t h e a t t r i b u t i o n to L o t t o on t h e b a s i s o f t h e r i f t between t h e p a t r o n a g e c i r c l e s o f t h e w e a l t h y h u m a n i s t O n i g o and t h a t o f t h e ' r e f o r m i n g ' b i s h o p B e r n a r d o d e ' R o s s i who i s known t o have p a t r o n i z e d 9 L o t t o i n T r e v i s o . By 1506 L o t t o was i n t h e Marche a c c o r d i n g to documents f o r a c o m m i s s i o n f o r t h e D o m i n i c a n c h u r c h i n R e c a n a t i o f San Domenico ( F i g . 2 8 ) . L o t t o must have e s t a b l i s h e d s t r o n g t i e s i n t h e Marche b e c a u s e he r e t u r n e d t h e r e r e p e a t e d l y f o r t h e r e s t o f h i s l i f e . T h e r e he began a p a t t e r n o f D o m i n i c a n p a t r o n a g e t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d a major p o r t i o n o f h i s e c c l e s i a s t i c a l c o m m i s s i o n s . In t h e documents f o r t h e San Domenico c o m m i s s i o n i t i s s p e c i f i e d t h a t t h e new p a l a would be "de m i l i o r i b u s p i c t u r i s gue s i n t i s t e que i n s p i c i u n t u r f a c t e i n i u v e n t u t e v e l p o t i u s a d u l e s c e n t i a s u a " s u g g e s t i n g C a r o l i ( 1 9 8 0 ) , 59. 9 A u g u s t o G e n t i l i , I q i a r d i n i d i c o n t e m p l a z i o n e . L o r e n z o  L o t t o , 1503/1512 (Rome: B u l z o n i , 1985), " V i t a o r n a t a e g l o r i o s a m o r t e . Case a f f r e s c a t e e monumenti f u n e b r i a T r e v i s o , " 15-70. 102 t h a t L o t t o had i n f a c t e x e c u t e d works i n t h e Marche a t a 10 p r e v i o u s d a t e as an ' a d o l e s c e n t . ' An e a r l y r e s i d e n c e i n t h e Marche would have had t o have been a t some t i m e between 1495 and 1503, when t h e a r t i s t was f i r s t r e c o r d e d i n T r e v l s o . By 1509 L o t t o was i n Rome, w o r k i n g i n t h e V a t i c a n . Documents r e c o r d payment to " m a g i s t e r L a u r e n t i u s L o t t u s de T r e v i s o " i n May 1509 f o r " l a b o r e r i i p i c t u r a r u m f a c i e n d a r u m 12 i n c a m e r i s s u p e r i o r i b u s p r o p e l i b r e r i a m s u p e r i o r e m . " At t h i s d a t e R a p h a e l too was b e g i n n i n g work i n t h e V a t i c a n i n t h e S t a n z a d e l l a S e g n a t u r a . I t i s n o t known however, what l o c a t i o n L o t t o ' s a s s i g n m e n t " i n c a m e r i s s u p e r i o r i b u s p r o p e l i b r e r i a m s u p e r i o r e m " r e f e r e d to - i f i t was a room n e a r b y t h e s t a n z e where R a p h a e l was w o r k i n g o r i f L o t t o a c t u a l l y worked i n t h e same rooms. I f t h e rooms were t h e same, t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e to d e t e r m i n e whether L o t t o worked w i t h R a p h a e l o r i f i n f a c t L o t t o ' s work was d e s t r o y e d i n o r d e r t o P i e t r o Z a m p e t t i , " L o r e n z o L o t t o n e l l e Marche: I p e r i o d o <1506-1512)," i n L o r e n z o L o t t o n e l l e Marche. II suo  tempo, i l suo i n f l u s s o ( F l o r e n c e , C e n t r o D i , 19S1), 194. 11 The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s document h a s l e d to some h y p o t h e s i z i n g a b o u t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f an a p p r e n t i c e s h i p i n t h e Marche. By C o l e t t i (1939; 1953), and Z a m p e t t i (1953; 1969). R u d o l f o P a l l u c c h i n i and G i o r d a n a M a r i a n a Canova, L ' o p e r a c o m p l e t a d e l L o t t o ( M i l a n : R i z z o l i , 1975), 83. 12 P a l l u c c h i n i and Canova ( 1 9 7 5 ) , 83. 103 make room R a p h a e l ' s p r o j e c t . U n d e r s t a n d a b l y t h i s p o i n t i n L o t t o ' s c a r e e r i s an i n t r i g u i n g one, e n c o u r a g i n g s c h o l a r s t o f i n d e v i d e n c e o f R a p h a e l ' s i n f l u e n c e on L o t t o , to s p e c u l a t e on t r a c e s o f L o t t o ' s p o s s i b l e a c t i v i t y i n t h e s t a n z e o r , i n a r e v e r s e move, to s u g g e s t how L o t t o may have i n f l u e n c e d 14 R a p h a e l . In any c a s e , i n t h i s p e r i o d L o t t o was e x p o s e d t o I t i s u s u a l l y assumed t h a t L o t t o ' s e a r l y work i n t h e V a t i c a n was d e s t r o y e d but t h a t d o e s n o t p r e c l u d e h y p o t h e s e s o f h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n R a p h a e l ' s s t a n z e f r e s c o e s . Z a m p e t t i s u p p o r t s t h e p r o p o s i t i o n , i n i t i a t e d by L o n g h i , t h a t L o t t o ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n c a n be d i s c e r n e d i n t h e s t a n z e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e k n e e l i n g f i g u r e s to t h e r i g h t o f t h e M i r a c l e o f  Bo 1sena. L o n g h i a l s o s u g g e s t s L o t t o ' s p o s s i b l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e S i s t i n e Madonna, and B r i z i o i n t h e F a r n e s i n a G a l a t e a . P i e t r o Z a m p e t t i , " I n t r o d u z i o n e . L o r e n z o L o t t o : i l suo e i l n o s t r o tempo," i n L o r e n z o L o t t o n e l l e  Marche. II suo tempo, i l suo i n f l u s s o ( F l o r e n c e : C e n t r o D i , 1981), e o - s i . 14 The c hange i n R a p h a e l ' s s t y l e f r o m t h e S t a n z a d e l l a  S e q n a t u r a t o t h e E 1 i o d o r o h a s been a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e i n f l u e n c e o f S e b a s t i a n o d e l Piombo. Z a m p e t t i s u g g e s t s t h a t L o t t o may have had some e f f e c t i n t h i s c h a n g e , a s u g g e s t i o n e c h o e d by o t h e r s , i n c l u d i n g M a s c h e r p a . M a s c h e r p a ( 1 9 8 0 ) , 18. "La p r e s e n z a d e l L o t t o a Roma - d u r a t a f o r s e f i n o a t u t t o i l 1511 - non f u s e n z a c o n s e g u e n z e s u R a f f a e l l o , i l c u i g u s t o muta s e n s i b i l m e n t e c o l p a s s a g g i o d a l l a p r i m a a l i a s e c o n d o ' S t a n z a ' , dove i l c o l o r e d i v e n t o p i u i n t e n s o , q u a s i v e n e t o . . . . N o n c'e d u b b i o c h e q u e l modo d i s e n t i r e i l c o l o r e , g u e l l a p a r t e c i p a z i o n e e m o t i v a a l i o s t a t o d'animo d e i p e r s o n a g g i sono un modo ' d i v e r s o ' d i f a r p i t t u r a p e r R a f f a e l l o , una s t r a d a g i a p e r c o r s o d a l L o t t o . " Z a m p e t t i , L o t t o n e l l e Marche ( 1 9 8 1 ) , SO. F o r L o t t o ' s p a r t , t h e Marche Depos i t i o n and T r a n s f i q u r a t i o n have been s e e n as o v e r l y ' R a p h a e l l e s q u e ' , t o t h e p o i n t o f n e a r l y s e t t i n g L o t t o o f f - b a l a n c e . B e r e n s o n ( 1 9 0 1 ) , 104-106. "Raphae1 ... e n c o u r a g e d L o t t o ' s own i n h e r e n t t e n d e n c i e s , and e v e n made them go a t r i f l e too f a r on h i s , R a p h a e l ' s , own r o a d , so t h a t L o t t o s o o n r e c o i l e d , c e a s i n g t o be so g o l d e n i n t o n e a s he i s i n t h e works o f 151S. Hence t h e works o f a b o u t t h i s y e a r have i n them an o b v i o u s e l e m e n t o f u n n a t u r a l n e s s , a s i f w h i l e p a i n t i n g them t h e a r t i s t was ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) 104 a r t i s t s f r o m a l l o v e r I t a l y who had come to work f o r J u l i u s II on t h e g r e a t e s t p a p a l p r o j e c t s up t o t h a t p o i n t i n t h e R e n a i s s a n c e . C e r t a i n l y t h e p r e s t i g e o f t h i s t y p e o f " j o b e x p e r i e n c e ' h e l d some a u t h o r i t y i n t h e c o m p e t i t i o n f o r what was t o be h i s f i r s t major c o m m i s s i o n i n Bergamo - t h e p a l a M a r t i n e n g o . T h e r e i s a s y e t no d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f L o t t o ' s a c t i v i t y f r o m 1510 to t h e s i g n e d and d a t e d J e s i D e p o s i t i o n o f 1518 ( F i g . 2 9 ) . In 1513 L o t t o was i n Bergamo, and by 1525 L o t t o was back i n V e n i c e where he s t a y e d u n t i l 1549. In t h i s p e r i o d he s p e n t t i m e i n T r e v i s o (1542-45) and c o m p l e t e d c o m m i s s i o n s i n t h e Marche. T h r e e major a l t a r p i e c e s d e s t i n e d f o r t h e Marche were c o m p l e t e d i n t h e 1530's - t h e Monte San G i u s t o C r u c i f i x i o n ( 1 5 3 1 ) , t h e l o n g - a w a i t e d S t . L u c y a l t a r p i e c e f o r J e s i ( 1 5 3 2 ) , and t h e , C i n g o l i Madonna o f t h e  R o s a r y ( 1 5 3 9 ) . He d i d n o t i n f a c t s e v e r h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Bergamo r i g h t away. He c o n t i n u e d to send d e s i g n s f o r t h e t a r s i e o f t h e c h o i r o f S t a . M a r i a M a g g i o r e i n Bergamo u n t i l 1532 a s he c o n t i n u e d t o c o m p l e t e c o m m i s s i o n s f o r c h u r c h e s i n t h e s u r r o u n d s o f Bergamo in. ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) n o t q u i t e h i m s e l f , and had t r i e d to t a k e h o l d o f more t h a n he c o u l d c a r r y . " B e r e n s o n ( 1 9 0 1 ) , 105. See a l s o Anna B a n t i , R i v e l a z i o n e d i L o r e n z o L o t t o ( F l o r e n c e : S a n s o n i , 1981), 19-20; Z a m p e t t i , L o t t o n e l l e Marche ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 81. 105 a b s e n t i a . By 1549 L o t t o was back i n t h e Marche i n A n c o n a . In 1558 he moved t o L o r e t o , d e d i c a t i n g h i m s e l f a s an o b l a t e o f t h e S a n t a C a s a two y e a r s l a t e r and d y i n g t h e r e i n 1556. One o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t documents i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a modern u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e a r t i s t i s t h e L i b r o d i S p e s e , a book o f a c c o u n t s k e p t by L o t t o f r o m 1538 u n t i l h i s d e a t h . I n t h i s book a r e r e c o r d e d L o t t o ' s l a t e r y e a r s , h i s f r e q u e n t moves, h i s p r o b l e m s w i t h h i s many a p p r e n t i c e s , h i s c l o s e t i e s w i t h t h e D o m i n i c a n o r d e r , t h e d i s a s t r o u s " l o t t o " o f h i s works i n 1550 i n Ancona. The L i b r o d i S p e s e and L o t t o ' s w i l l o f 1546 p r o v i d e b i o g r a p h i c a l n o t i c e s t h a t have l e d t o a c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e a r t i s t as p e e v i s h , d i s a p p o i n t e d , and f a i l e d . S c h o l a r s have f o u n d a r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n L o t t o ' s own words; o f t e n q u o t e d i s L o t t o ' s c o n f e s s i o n i n t h e 1546 t e s t a m e n t t o b e i n g " i n q u i e t e d e l l a mente." U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e ' l i b r o ' t h a t L o t t o h i m s e l f m e n t i o n e d f o r t h e y e a r s p r e v i o u s to 1538 no l o n g e r e x i s t s t o document In 1587 L o t t o c o m p l e t e d t h e C e l a n a Assumpt i o n and t h e p o l y p t y c h i n P o t e r a n i c a . As l a t e as 1548 he s u p p l i e d an a l t a r p i e c e o f t h e Madonna i n G l o r y f o r S e d r i n a . The l e t t e r s p u b l i s h e d by C h i o d i (1968) d e m o n s t r a t e t h e c o n t i n u e d r e l a t i o n s h i p o f L o t t o w i t h t h e MIA o f Bergamo f o r t h e c o m m i s s i o n o f t h e t a r s i e . F i r s t p u b l i s h e d by A d o l f o V e n t u r i a s t h e L i b r o d e i  c o n t i i n 1895, i t was r e p u b l i s h e d w i t h a d d i t i o n a l documents by P i e t r o Z a m p e t t i as t h e L i b r o d i s p e s e d i v e r s e i n 1969. 106 t h e " s p l e n d i d a e s t a t e " o f t h e a r t i s t ' s Bergamo y e a r s . The gap i s b e i n g f i l l e d by an a c t i v e group o f s c h o l a r s i n Bergamo. L u i g i C h i o d i ' s work i n t h e B i b l i o t e c a C i v i c a , f o r example, has made a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n - u n e a r t h i n g and p u b l i s h i n g t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f L o t t o ' s l e t t e r s w r i t t e n t o t h e M i s e r i c o r d i a o f Bergamo i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e 1B c o m m i s s i o n o f t h e t a r s i e f o r S t a . M a r i a M a g g i o r e . C h i o d i a l s o worked on t h e p r o b l e m o f L o t t o ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n to Bergamo. The f i r s t n o t i c e we h a ve o f L o t t o ' s p r e s e n c e i n Bergamo i s t h e b o z z a ( t h e r o u g h d r a f t ) o f t h e c o n t r a c t f o r t h e p a l a 20 M a r t i n e n g o i n 1513. The a l t a r p i e c e was o r i g i n a l l y c o m m i s s i o n e d f o r t h e h i g h a l t a r o f t h e D o m i n i c a n c h u r c h 17 L o t t o m e n t i o n s k e e p i n g n o t e s on t h e S t a . M a r i a M a g g i o r e c o m m i s s i o n i n Bergamo i n a ' l i b r o mio' i n a l e t t e r d a t i n g 1532. L u i g i C h i o d i , L e t t e r e i n e d i t e d i L o r e n z o L o t t o (Bergamo: B. S e c o m a n d i , 1968), 159. 18 L u i g i C h i o d i , L e t t e r e i n e d i t e d i L o r e n z o L o t t o (Bergamo: B. S e c o m a n d i , 1968). 19 L u i g i C h i o d i , "Le a b i t a z i o n i d e l L o t t o a Bergamo," i n Bergamo p e r L o r e n z o L o t t o (Bergamo: C e n t r o C u l t u r a l e S. B a r t o l o m e o , 1980), 13-16; C h i o d i , " S u l 1 ' a n d a t a d e l L o t t o a Bergamo. A p p u n t i e c o n s i d e r a z i o n i s t o r i e t t e , " i n L o r e n z o  L o t t o . Convegno i n t e r n a z i o n a 1 e d i s t u d i ( A s o l o , 1980), 173-180. 20 The f i n a l copy o f t h e l e g a l document i s l o s t , o r p e r h a p s n e v e r e x i s t e d . C o r t e s i Bosco d i s c u s s e s t h e b o z z a and p u b l i s h e s t h e document as an a p p e n d i x to h e r a r t i c l e : F r a n c e s c a C o r t e s i B o s c o , " R i f l e s s i d e l m i t o d i V e n e z i a n e l l a p a l a M a r t i n e n g o d i L o r e n z o L o t t o , " A r c h i v i o s t o r i c o  bergamasco n.2, 5 (Nov. 1983), 239-249. 107 S a n t i S t e f a n o e Domenico ( F i g . 3 0 ) . The o r i g i n a l c h u r c h was d e s t r o y e d i n 1561 t o make way f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e V e n e t i a n c i t y w a l l s . The a l t a r p i e c e was moved and now d e c o r a t e s t h e h i g h a l t a r o f S. B a r t o l o m e o i n Bergamo SI b a s s o . The p a i n t i n g was a major c o m m i s s i o n - t h e l a r g e s t i n Bergamo a t t h a t t i m e . The p a t r o n was A l e s s a n d r o M a r t i n e n g o C o l l e o n i , g e n e r o u s p r o t e c t o r o f t h e c h u r c h o f S a n t o S t e f a n o , who was g r a n t e d t h e p a t r o n a g e o f t h e c a p p e l l a SS maqq i o r e i n 1504 a l o n g w i t h t h e r i g h t t o be b u r i e d t h e r e . F o r t h i s p r e s t i g i o u s p r o j e c t M a r t i n e n g o h e l d a g e n e r a l c o m p e t i t i o n open to 'undequacumque c o m p l u r e s e g r e g i i S3 p i c t o r e s ' (many e x c e p t i o n a l p a i n t e r s f r o m whatever p l a c e ) . I t was to be " m a g n i f i c a m e t s i n g u l a r e m palam s e u anconam 84 omni a r t e i n g e n i o q u e humano p o s s i b i l i " f o r w hich payment was t o be 500 g o l d d u c a t s . L o t t o was t h u s c h o s e n f o r t h i s c o m m i s s i o n f r o m among t h e b e s t p a i n t e r s a v a i l a b l e . S c h o l a r s have s p e c u l a t e d t h a t The a l t a r p i e c e and i t s l o s t f r a m e were s u b j e c t to v a r i o u s r e l o c a t i o n s . See R o s a l b a Amerio T a r d i t o " S t o r i a e v i c i s s i t u d i n i d e l l a p a l a , " i n L a P a l a M a r t i n e n g o d i L o r e n z o  L o t t o . S t u d i e r i c e r c h e i n o c c a s i o n e d e l r e s t a u r o (Bergamo: C e n t r o C u l t u r a l e San B a r t o l o m e o , 1978), 54-59. SS F r a n c e s c a C o r t e s i B o s c o , " R i f l e s s i d e l m i t o d i V e n e z i a n e l l a p a l a M a r t i n e n g o d i L o r e n z o L o t t o , " A r c h i v i o  s t o r i c o b e rgamasco, 5, 8 (Nov. 1983), S15 and n. 17, S30-31. S3 C o r t e s i B o s c o , " R i f l e s s i . . . " ( 1 9 8 3 ) , S14. P a l l u c c h i n i and C anova ( 1 9 7 5 ) , 93. 108 an a r t i s t s u c h a s P r e v i t a l i f o r example would have been a f o r m i d a b l e c o n t e s t a n t as he had been w o r k i n g s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t h e c i t y s i n c e 1512 f o r many o f t h e same p a t r o n s who were t o employ L o t t o . F r a n c e s c o R o s s i has r e c o n s t r u c t e d a g r o u p o f a r t i s t s i n c l u d i n g P r e v i t a l i and C a r i a n i > p a t r o n i z e d by t h e 2 5 p r o - V e n e t i a n p a t r o n s who a l s o c o m m i s s i o n e d L o t t o . The q u e s t i o n r e m a i n s why was L o t t o c h o s e n - how was he made known o f t h e c o m p e t i t i o n s t h r o u g h what c h a n n e l s was he recommended t o t h e p a t r o n * and when e x a c t l y d i d he a r r i v e i n Bergamo ? C h i o d i a r g u e s t h a t L o t t o p r o b a b l y a r r i v e d i n Bergamo 26 p r e v i o u s t o t h e M a r t i n e n g o c o m m i s s i o n s by t h e end o f 1 5 1 2 . C h i o d i s u g g e s t s two s o u r c e s t h a t may have recommended L o t t o f o r t h i s p r o j e c t - t h e f i r s t m e r c a n t i l e and t h e s e c o n d r e l i g i o u s . Bergamo and V e n i c e had a c t i v e t r a d e t i e s w i t h t h e Marche. I t i s known t h a t f o r i n s t a n c e G i o v a n n i C a s o t t i , a man who was t o become a s u p p o r t i v e p a t r o n o f L o t t o i n Bergamos worked a s a merchant i n t h e Marche and t h e r e would have had a c h a n c e to become f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e a r t i s t ' s 2 7 work. L o t t o ' s c l o s e t i e s w i t h t h e D o m i n i c a n o r d e r i n h i s 2 5 „ , _ See below. 2 6 L u i g i C h i o d i s " S u l l ' a n d a t a d e l L o t t o a Bergamo: a p p u n t i e c o n s i d e r a z i o n i s t o r i e t t e s " i n L o r e n z o L o t t o .  Conveqno i n t e r n a z i o n a 1 e d i s t u d i , A s o l o ( 1 9 8 0 ) s 1 7 3 - 1 7 9 . 2 7 C a s o t t i i s known to h a v e been a " m e r c a n t e d i b i a d e i n ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) 109 a c t i v i t y i n t h e Marche has been n o t e d by many s c h o l a r s . I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t he was s u p p o r t e d by D o m i n i c a n r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s to t h e c h u r c h o f SS. S t e f a n o e Domenicano. W h i c h e v e r t h e s c e n a r i o , a t t h a t p o i n t i n t i m e , f r e s h f r o m t h e p a p a l p r o j e c t s i n Rome, L o t t o would have had much to recommend him t o t h e B e r q a m a s c h i - p r e s t i g e , s u c c e s s , and t h e p o l i t i c a l l y f a v o u r a b l e a s s e t o f a V e n e t i a n t r a i n i n g . In 1513 when t h e p a l a M a r t i n e n g o was c o m m i s s i o n e d , Bergamo was i n a p e r i o d o f g r e a t p o l i t i c a l c r i s i s , c a u g h t between f o r e i g n o c c u p a t i o n s and V e n e t i a n d o m i n a t i o n . Bergamo's h i s t o r y a s a p a r t o f t h e V e n e t i a n s t a t e began i n 1428, when i t was i n c o r p o r a t e d a s t h e f a r t h e s t r e a c h o f V e n i c e ' s westward t e r r i t o r i a l e x p a n s i o n . H a v i n g c o n t r o l o f t h e l a n d s o f t h e t e r r a f e r m a a s s u r e d V e n i c e a c c e s s to t h e i m p o r t a n t o v e r l a n d t r a d e r o u t e s to t h e n o r t h , and Bergamo, b e i n g on t h e r o u t e to t h e m o u n t a i n p a s s t h r o u g h S w i t z e r l a n d , was s t r a t e g i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t . In t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e t e r r a f e r m a became i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t t o V e n i c e a s t h e 28 s t a t e was r a p i d l y l o s i n g i t s d ominance i n s e a t r a d e . ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) P e s a r o " . G i o r g i o M a s c h e r p a , I n v i t o a L o r e n z o L o t t o ( M i l a n : R u s c o n i , 1980), 41. M a s c h e r p a a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t "I C a s o t t i e r a n o f o r s e g l i u n i c i c o 1 l e z i o n i s t i d ' a r t e d e l l a c i t t a , s e p p u r p a l e s a m e n t e , c o n f u n z i o n i r a p p r e s e n t a t i v e . " M a s c h e r p a ( 1 9 8 0 ) , n. 4, 63. 28 In 1453 C o n s t a n t i n o p l e was l o s t t o t h e T u r k s . In 1499 a g r a v e r blow was d e a l t to V e n e t i a n s e a power. A f l e e t o f t h e Ottoman s u l t a n d e f e a t e d t h e V e n e t i a n s i n t h e I o n i a n ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) 110 V e n i c e c o n s i d e r e d i t s t e r r i t o r i a l e x p a n s i o n and c o n s o l i d a t i o n n e c e s s a r y t o i t s c h a n g i n g e c o n o m i c p i c t u r e and t o i t s new c o m m e r c i a l i n t e r e s t s . By t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , however, t h e o t h e r I t a l i a n s t a t e s began t o v i e w V e n i c e ' s new p o s i t i o n o f power a s a t h r e a t . Upon t h e d e a t h o f t h e l a s t V i s c o n t i o f M i l a n V e n i c e came f o r w a r d a s t h e g r e a t e s t s i n g l e power i n I t a l y , v y i n g o n l y w i t h t h e p a p a l s t a t e s . When V e n i c e made a p l a y f o r t h e B o r g i a Romagna t e r r i t o r y , t r a d i t i o n a l l y c o n s i d e r e d under p a p a l i n f l u e n c e , J u l i u s II i n s t i g a t e d what was to become t h e g r e a t e s t a l l i a n c e o f f o r c e s a g a i n s t a s i n g l e r e p u b l i c i n t h e h i s t o r y o f I t a l i a n power p o l i t i c s . H a t r e d and f e a r o f t h e V e n e t i a n R e p u b l i c had a l r e a d y b een s t i r r e d up by L u d o v i c o S f o r z a and h i s s u p p o r t e r s , so t h a t by 1509 F l o r e n c e , M i l a n , F r a n c e , S p a i n , and t h e Emperor j o i n e d t h e p a p a l s t a t e s i n ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) S e a . S u b s e q u e n t l y , t h e combined f o r c e o f t h e T u r k i s h army and navy c a p t u r e d " n e a r l y a l l t h e V e n e t i a n s t r o n g h o l d s i n G r e e c e , i n c l u d i n g Modon and C o r o n , which s i n c e 1204 had been c o n s i d e r e d t h e 'two e y e s o f t h e r e p u b l i c . ' " F r e d e r i c L ane, V e n i c e : A M a r i t i m e R e p u b l i c ( B a l t i m o r e and London: The J o h n s H o p k i n s U n i v . , 1973), 242. Lane p r e s e n t s t h i s d e f e a t s as p o w e r f u l k e y s i n a c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f f a c t o r s t h a t t u r n e d V e n e t i a n p o l i c y a r o u n d so t h a t " U n l i k e V e n i c e ' s l e a d e r s o f e a r l i e r c e n t u r i e s , t h e d o m i n a n t s t a t e s m e n o f 1500 were t h i n k i n g more i n t e r m s o f t e r r i t o r y t h a n o f s e a power." Lane ( 1 9 7 3 ) , 242. 111 f o r m i n g t h e L eague o f Cambrai w i t h t h e s o l e p u r p o s e o f 29 c r u s h i n g t h e o v e r a m b i t i o u s V e n i c e . In t h e b a t t l e s t h a t f o l l o w e d , Bergamo was a v i c t i m o f t h e v i o l e n t s h i f t s o f power t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e Cambrai wars. In t h e f i r s t major b a t t l e o f t h e wars o f C a m b r a i , V e n e t i a n t r o o p s l o s t t o t h e F r e n c h a t A g n a d e l l o i n 1509, and s h o r t l y a f t e r a l l o f Lombardy was l o s t . A c c o r d i n g to t h e 30 t e r m s o f t h e t r e a t y Bergamo, i n 1509, f e l l to t h e F r e n c h . In t h e e n s u i n g y e a r s o f war Bergamo was s u b j e c t e d t o a Lane s t r e s s e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f J u l i u s I I ' s a c t i o n s i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e L e a g u e . Lane ( 1 9 7 3 ) , 242-5. S a l v a t o r e l l i r e l a t e s t h a t i n 1509 J u l i u s j o i n e d a l e a g u e a l r e a d y e x i s t e n t between M a x i m i l i a n and L o u i s X I I . S a l v a t o r e l l i , A C o n c i s e H i s t o r y o f I t a l y , t r a n s . B e r n a r d M i a l l (New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v . , 1940). N i c o l a i R u b i n s t e i n a r g u e s t h a t much o f t h e ' o d i o  u n i v e r s a l e ' o f V e n i c e i n t h i s p e r i o d was " e n g i n e e r e d ' by S f o r z a and h i s s u p p o r t e r s , whose c l a i m s to M i l a n were s e r i o u s l y t h r e a t e n e d by V e n e t i a n e x p a n s i o n . " t h e f a t e o f F r a n c e s c o S f o r z a ' s c l a i m s to t h e s u c c e s s i o n o f t h e duchy o f M i l a n on t h e g r o u n d o f h i s m a r r i a g e to F i l i p p o M a r i a ' s d a u g h t e r , depended l a r g e l y on t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e V e n e t i a n g o v ernment. F r a n c e s o S f o r z a and h i s a b l e e n v o y s , f o r e m o s t among them Nicodemo T r a n c h e d i n i f r o m P o n t r e m o l i , s o u g h t to c o u n t e r V e n i c e ' s o p p o s i t i o n t o S f o r z a ' s c l a i m s by p e r s u a d i n g h e r F l o r e n t i n e a l l y t h a t h e r r e a l aim was t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e duchy and t h u s o f c o n t r o l o v e r Lombardy, and t h a t h e r u l t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e was r u l e o v e r I t a l y . " N i c o l a i R u b i n s t e i n , " I t a l i a n R e a c t i o n s to T e r r a f e r m a E x p a n s i o n i n t h e F i f t e e n t h C e n t u r y , " In R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e , e d . J.R. H a l e ( L o n d o n : F a b e r and F a b e r , 1973), 201. 30 A c c o r d i n g to t h e t r e a t y a g r e e m e n t s V e n e t i a n t e r r i t o r y would be c a r v e d up i n t h i s way: t h e pope would g e t Romagna; t h e emperor would have F r i u l i and t h e V e n e t o , i n c l u d i n g T r e v i s o and Padua; t h e K i n g o f Hungary would have D a l m a t i a ; t h e Duke o f Savoy, C y p r u s ; t h e K i n g o f F r a n c e , Lombardy; t h e K i n g o f S p a i n , A p u l i a ; and Mantua and F e r r a r a took " t i d b i t s . " Lane ( 1 9 7 3 ) , 243. 1 IE d i z z y i n g s u c c e s s i o n o f f o r e i g n o c c u p a t i o n s p u n c t u a t e d by r e c u p e r a t i o n s by V e n i c e . V e n i c e t r i e d t o b r e a k up t h e b l o c k a g a i n s t h e r by a l a r m i n g t h e o t h e r I t a l i a n s t a t e s a g a i n s t f o r e i g n i n t e r v e n t i o n . In 1511 V e n i c e s u c c e e d e d i n b r e a k i n g up t h e League by f o r m i n g a 'Holy L e a g u e ' w i t h t h e pope and S p a i n . By F e b r u a r y 151E Bergamo was back i n t h e hands o f V e n i c e o n l y to r e t u r n t o t h e F r e n c h and back to V e n i c e a g a i n w i t h i n t h e y e a r . In March 1513 V e n i c e r e v e r s e d h e r a l l i a n c e s and s i g n e d a p a c t w i t h t h e F r e n c h a t B l o i s , w hich e n a b l e d h e r to d e a l f o r h e r f o r m e r Lombard t e r r i t o r i e s . Under t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s Bergamo went back to V e n i c e b u t o n l y f o r a s h o r t t i m e - i n t h e y e a r s 1513 and 1514 Bergamo had t o be c a p t u r e d and r e c a p t u r e d f r o m t h e S p a n i s h . In September 1515 t h e S p a n i s h were r o u t e d by t h e F r e n c h and Bergamo was r e t u r n e d t o V e n i c e . In 1516 a g a i n Bergamo was r a v a g e d by I m p e r i a l t r o o p s . Bergamo r e t u r n e d t o V e n i c e i n t h e same y e a r , and a l t h o u g h f o r e i g n t r o o p s s u r r o u n d e d t h e a r e a f o r t h e n e x t t e n y e a r s , t h i s was t h e l a s t c o n q u e s t : Bergamo r e m a i n e d under V e n e t i a n d o m i n a t i o n . The y e a r s o f war were a s e v e r e t e s t on Bergamo's l o y a l t i e s . D u r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r s o f V e n e t i a n r u l e , a s t r o n g G h i b e l l i n e f a c t i o n i n Bergamo h e l d on t o a l l i a n c e s w i t h M i l a n . The v i c i s s i t u d e s o f Bergamo's f a t e i n t h e y e a r s o f war a g g r a v a t e d i n t e r n e c i n e c l a s h e s among t h e p o p u l a c e . T i r e d and b e l e a g u e r e d i n 1516 t h e c i t y e v e n e x e r c i s e d a b r i e f a t t e m p t a t becoming an i n d e p e n d e n t commune. D u r i n g 113 t h e s e c o n f l i c t s Bergamask p o l i t i c s e x p e r i e n c e d what amounted to a r e v e r s a l o f a l l i a n c e s . The t r a d i t i o n a l a l l i a n c e s t o M i l a n were r e v e r s e d by a s t r o n g p r o - V e n e t i a n g r o u p o f c i t i z e n s who owed t h e i r w e a l t h and p o l i t i c a l a l l e g i a n c e s t o 31 t h e S e r e n i s s i m a . The t u r n i n g p o i n t o c c u r r e d i n 1512 when Bergamo j o i n e d w i t h B r e s c i a i n an a t t e m p t t o s t a g e a r e v o l t a g a i n s t t h e F r e n c h (whose t r o o p s were t h e n o c c u p i e d i n B o l o g n a ) w i t h t h e p u r p o s e o f r e t u r n i n g t h e c i t i e s to V e n i c e . The F r e n c h t r o o p s , however, q u i c k l y r e t u r n e d t o v i o l e n t l y c r u s h t h e r e v o l t i n B r e s c i a . Bergamo e s c a p e d a s i m i l a r f a t e 32 o n l y by p a y i n g a h i g h t r i b u t e . In May o f 1513, when t h e M a r t i n e n g o a l t a r p i e c e was c o m m i s s i o n e d , Bergamo had r e c e n t l y been r e t u r n e d to V e n i c e . The p a t r o n , A l e s s a n d r o M a r t i n e n g o C o l l e o n i , had f o u g h t f o r V e n i c e and was f a i t h f u l i n h i s c o n t i n u i n g s u p p o r t o f t h e 33 S e r e n i s s i m a . C o r t e s i B o s c o has i n t e r p r e t e d t h i s a l t a r p i e c e a s a s t a t e m e n t o f p o l i t i c a l moment - t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e r e t u r n o f Bergamo t o V e n i c e a t a t i m e when s t a t e m e n t s F r a n c e s o R o s s i , " P i t t u r a a Bergamo i n t o r n o a l 1500. R i c o s t i t u z i o n e d i un p a t r i m o n i o d i s p e r s o , " A t t i d e l l ' A t e n e o  d i s c i e n z e l e t t e r e ed a r t i d i Bergamo, XLI ( a n n i a c a d e m i c i 1978-79 and 1979-80), 87. 38 J o h n J u l i u s N o r w i c h , V e n i c e : The G r e a t n e s s and t h e  F a l 1 ( L o n d o n : A l l e n L a n e , 1981), 164-5. C o r t e s i B o s c o , " R i f l e s s i . . . " ( 1 9 8 3 ) , 215. 114 o f p o l i t i c a l a l l i a n c e were c r u c i a l . The f a c t t h a t t h e a l t a r p i e c e was c o m m i s s i o n e d i n 1513 but c o m p l e t e d i n 1516, when Bergamo was r e t u r n e d a g a i n d e f i n i t i v e l y to V e n i c e , s u p p o r t s t h e argument. In C o r t e s i B o s c o ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , many o f t h e e l e m e n t s i n t h i s a l t a r p i e c e r e f e r to V e n i c e and t o t h e r e c e n t wars. A c c o r d i n g to C o r t e s i B o s c o , S t . A l e s s a n d r o , t h e p a t r o n s a i n t b o t h o f Bergamo and o f t h e p a t r o n M a r t i n e n g o , s t a n d s w i t h h i s f o o t on a h e l m e t s y m b o l i z i n g p e a c e . Above him i s t h e ba n n e r o f S t . Mark, who i s h i m s e l f d e p i c t e d t w i c e i n t h e a l t a r p i e c e - once i n a t t e n d a n c e on t h e V i r g i n and once r e p r e s e n t e d i n a tondo t h a t c o m p l e t e s t h e v e r t i c a l l i n e f r o m S. A l e s s a n d r o (Bergamo) upwards to t h e V e n e t i a n banner and on t o t h e p a t r o n o f V e n i c e (Mark) above h i s head. A c c o r d i n g t o C o r t e s i B o s c o , t h e yoke and t h e b a l a n c e h a n g i n g f r o m t h e c u p o l a above t h e s a i n t s s y m b o l i z e Good Government and ev e n t h e d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f s o f t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e - d o l p h i n s and 35 t r i d e n t s r e f e r t o V e n e z i a a s R e g i n a d e l mare. As t h e s u c c e s s f u l c o n t e s t a n t f o r t h i s p r o j e c t , L o t t o e n t e r e d Bergamo not o n l y a s a c e l e b r a t e d p a i n t e r b u t as an a r t i s t who w i t h h i s V e n e t i a n t r a i n i n g e x p r e s s e d t h e ^4 C o r t e s i B o s c o , " R i f l e s s i . . . " ( 1 9 8 3 ) , 213-242. 35 C o r t e s i B o s c o , " R i f l e s s i . . . " ( 1 9 8 3 ) , 219-220. 115 p o l i t i c a l a l l i a n c e s o f a t i g h t l y - k n i t g r o u p o f Bergamask p a t r o n s d e f i n e d by t h e i r V e n e t i a n a l l i a n c e s - A l e s s a n d r o M a r t i n e n g o C o l l e o n i c a v a l i e r e , N i c o l o B o n g h i m e r c a n t e , G i o v a n n i C a s s o t i m e r c a n t e , G i o v a n D a v i d e B r e m b a t i c o n t e e 36 c a v a 1 i e r e , among o t h e r s . F r a n c e s c o R o s s i a s s e r t s t h a t t h e new ' V e n e t i a n l i n e ' t a k e n by Bergamask p a t r o n a g e , b r i n g i n g L o t t o t o t h e c i t y , a p p e a r e d w i t h t h e s u d d e n n e s s o f a blow -37 "una v e r a s v o l t a c u l t u r a l e . " P r e v i o u s t o L o t t o ' s a r r i v a l t h e dominant a r t i s t i c s t y l e had been p r o v i n c i a l and Lombard, " l ' a r r i v o d e l L o t t o e s t r e t t a m e n t e c o n n e s s o - come d e l r e s t o g u e l l o d e l P r e v i t a l i , e p o i d e l C a r i a n i - ad una programma v o l o n t a d i rompere i l e g a m i c u l t u r a l i c o n M i l a n o e r i a f f e r m a r e l ' o m o g e n e i t a d i Bergamo c o n V e n e z i a ; e t a l e v o l o n t a s i i n c a r n a n e l l a p e r s o n a l i t y d i A l e s s a n d r o M a r t i n e n g o C o l l e o n i , d i N i c o l o B o n g h i , d e i C a s s o t t i , d e i B r e m b a t i , ben i n d i v i d u a t i p r o t a g o n i s t i d e l r i a w i c i n a m e n t o p o l i t i c o ed e c o n o m i c o d i Bergamo a l i a S e r e n i s s i m a , che s i c o n c l u d e r a n e l 1517 ma ha l a s u a c h i a v e d i v o l t a p r o p r i o n e l 1512." F r a n c e s c o R o s s i , " L o r e n z o L o t t o e l a c u l t u r a p i t t o r i c a bergamasco d e l '500," i n Bergamo p e r L o r e n z o L o t t o (Bergamo: C e n t r o C u l t u r a l e S. B a r t o l o m e o , 1980), 39-58. C o r t e s i Bosco i n v e s t i g a t e d F r a n c e s c o B o t t a g i s i , L o t t o ' s g u a r a n t o r i n t h e c o n t r a c t f o r t h e M a r t i n e n g o a l t a r p i e c e , and f o u n d t h a t h i s name was f r e q u e n t l y f o u n d w i t h many p a t r o n s o f L o t t o - M a r t i n e n g o C o l l e o n i , Domenico T a s s i , G i o v a n n i C a s s o t i , B a l s a r i n o M a r c h e t t i A n g e l i n i - i n t h e n o t a r i a l a c t s o f Giacomo P e t r o b e l l i . T h i s i s e v i d e n c e , a t l e a s t , t h a t t h e s e p a t r o n s had s h a r e d t i e s and l i k e l y t r a v e l l e d i n t h e same c i r c l e s . C o r t e s i B o s c o , " R i f l e s s i . . . " ( 1 9 8 3 ) , 841. 37 R o s s i has c o n t r i b u t e d two a r t i c l e s t h a t e s t a b l i s h t h i s p a t r o n a g e s i t u a t i o n i n Bergamo i n t h e p e r i o d s u r r o u n d i n g L o t t o ' s r e s i d e n c e t h e r e : F r a n c e s c o R o s s i , " L o r e n z o L o t t o e l a c u l t u r a p i t t o r i c a b e r g a m a s c a d e l '500," i n Bergamo p e r L o r e n z o L o t t o ( 1 9 8 0 ) , 39-58; and " P i t t u r a a Bergamo i n t o r n o a l 1500...," A t t i d e l l ' A t e n e o d i s c i e n z e  l e t t e r e ed a r t i d i Bergamo ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 75-96. The l a t t e r i s e s p e c i a l l y h e l p f u l b e c a u s e R o s s i l i s t s t h e works t h a t were known t o have been c o m m i s s i o n e d i n t h a t p e r i o d , a r r a n g e d by g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n . 116 w i t h l i t t l e r e s o n a n c e a c h i e v e d i n t h e l o c a l c u l t u r e by t h e 38 b r i e f a c t i v i t y o f Bramante. The s u d d e n n e s s o f t h e i n t r u s i o n t h a t L o t t o r e p r e s e n t s c o n f o r m s to t h e e x i g e n c i e s o f p o l i t i c a l c r i s i s i n Bergamo. W i t h i n t h e p a r a m e t e r s o f t h e same p e r i o d i n t i m e , a r t i s t s s u c h a s P r e v i t a l i , C a r i a n i , and Palma i l G i o v a n e - Bergamask p a i n t e r s w i t h V e n e t i a n t r a i n i n g - were a c t i v e l y p a t r o n i z e d i n Bergamo, making up a 39 r e a l c u l t u r a l f a b r i c o f V e n e t i a n o r i g i n . R o s s i a r g u e s t h a t , o f t h i s g r o u p , L o t t o was t h e s p e a r h e a d o f a r e n t i n t h e i n d i g e n o u s f a b r i c o f Bergamask a r t i s t i c c u l t u r e - n o t R o s s i i s o l a t e s t h e i m p o r t a t i o n o f V e n e t i a n work p r e v i o u s to t h e p e r i o d o f L o t t o ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o c e r t a i n a r e a s o n l y - o f G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i i n V a l S e r i a n a and o f B a r t o l o m e o V i v a r i n i i n V a l S e r i a n a . T h e s e p o c k e t s o f V e n e t i a n i m p o r t a t i o n however, were w i t h o u t c o n s e q u e n c e i n Bergamo. A c c o r d i n g t o R o s s i : " l ' i n c i d e n z a d i q u e s t a ' s c u o l a ' s u l t e s s u t o c u l t u r a l e bergamasco va r i c o n o s c i u t a n u l l a . T a l i o p e r e non c o s t i t u i s c o n o un p r e c e d e n t e , non p o t e v a n o i n s e g n a r e n u l l a a un L o t t o o un P r e v i t a l i , non formano un humus c u l t u r a l e d i n e s s u n g e n e r e . S i t r a t t a i n d e f i n i t i v a d i p r e s e n z e e s t r a n e e . " R o s s i ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 81. Bergamo r a t h e r - c o n s o n a n t w i t h i t s p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n s p r i o r to L o t t o ' s a r r i v a l - s u p p o r t e d a l i v e l y c u l t u r e o f M i l a n e s e a r t i s t s b e s t r e p r e s e n t e d by A n t o n i o B o s e l l i , and t h e c i r c l e i n f l u e n c e d by Z e n a l e and Fop p a . R o s s i ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 81-83. 39 Of P r e v i t a l i and C a r i a n i R o s s i s a y s : " i l l o r o o p e r a t o non va q u i n d i i n t e s o come f r u t t o l o c a l e d i un nuovo c o r s o d i c u l t u r a , ma e s a t t a m e n t e come i l c o n t r a r i o , come un a p p o r t o c i o e v e n u t o d a l l ' e s t e r n o p e r s o p p e r i r e ad una l a c u n a , p e r p o r t a r e a v a n t i una l i n e a c u l t u r a l e c h e d a l s o s t r a t o bergamasco non p o t e v a e s s e r e e s p r e s s a . Non a c a s o i l o r o d o c u m e n t a t i c o m m i t t e n t i - e l o ha n o t a t o l a C o r t e s i Bosco -sono g l i s t e s s i d e l L o t t o : e una c l a s s e nuova d i p o t e r e che s c e g l i e l a s u a l i n e a , v i c i n a a V e n e z i a , e p e r c o n c r e t i z z a r 1 a s i r i v o l g e , c o e r e n t e m e n t , a V e n e z i a . " R o s s i ( 1 9 8 0 ) , 4S. 117 r e a l l y a r e v o l u t i o n , a s t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f h i s s t y l e were 40 n o t p i c k e d up by f o l l o w e r s - but a d e l i b e r a t e i m p o r t a t i o n . Among L o t t o ' s Bergamask p a t r o n s were w e a l t h y m e r c h a n t s , d o c t o r s , and minor a r i s t o c r a c y . B a t t i s t a C u c c h i , t h e p a t r o n o f t h e Madonna and C h i l d w i t h SS Roch and S e b a s t i a n , i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g b e c a u s e he b e l o n g s to a t y p e o f p a t r o n a g e w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d by L o t t o . M i d d l e c l a s s , b u t by no means w e a l t h y , C u c c h i i s i n t e r e s t i n g b e c a u s e he was n o t th e t y p e o f p a t r o n who s u p p o r t e d t h e a r t o f an a r t i s t s u c h a s T i t i a n . By p i c k i n g up c l u e s f r o m a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l , C o r t e s i B o s c o r e c o n s t r u c t s a p i c t u r e o f " B a p t i s t a de C h u c h i s de M a r t i n e n g o " a s a c i t i z e n o f Bergamo and as t h e p a t r o n o f t h e Madonna and C h i l d w i t h SS Roch and S e b a s t i a n . In h i s w i l l B a p t i s t a de C u c h i s ( B a t t i s t a C u c c h i ) t h e s u r g e o n made t h e M i s e r i c o r d i a o f Bergamo h i s u n i v e r s a l h e i r . He made s p e c i a l a r r a n g e m e n t s however, f o r a p a i n t i n g "cum i m a g i n i b u s b e a t e M a r i e cum f i l i o i n g r e m i o e t beatorum S e b a s t i a n i e t R o c h i " t o be l e f t t o t h e nun L u c r e t i a de T i r a b u s c h i s i n t h e R o s s i ( 1 9 8 0 ) , 44-49. 41 The i n f o r m a t i o n I have on C u c c h i comes f r o m two s o u r c e s : C o r t e s i B osco "Un amico bergamasco d i L o r e n z o L o t t o , " A r c h i v i o s t o r i c o b e r g a m a s c o, 1,1 ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 213-242; and G i u l i o O r a z i o B r a v i , " M e d i c i e c h i r u r g h i a Bergamo a l tempo d i B a t t i s t a C u c c h i , " A r c h i v i o s t o r i c o b ergamasco, I, 1 ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 85-99. 118 m o n a s t e r y o f S a n t a G r a t a . He r e q u e s t e d t h a t a f t e r t h e d e a t h o f t h e nun t h a t t h e p a i n t i n g be d e p o s i t e d w i t h t h e c h u r c h a t t a c h e d to t h e c o n v e n t ("remaneat p r e f a t e e c c l e s i e s a n c t e 48 G r a t e " ) . B a t t i s t a C u c c h i ' s s u r g e o n ' s r e g i s t e r o r a c c o u n t book was f o u n d i n t h e a r c h i v e s o f t h e B i b l i o t e c a C i v i c a by L u i g i C h i o d i . At t h e end o f t h e a c c o u n t s was a s t a t e m e n t a t t e s t i n g to L o t t o ' s s e t t l e m e n t o f payment to h i s f o r m e r 43 l a n d l o r d N i c o l o B o n g h i by means o f a p a i n t i n g . L o t t o ' s l e t t e r s on t h e o t h e r hand c o n t a i n s e v e r a l r e f e r e n c e s to B a t t i s t a d a 1 i o r g a n i i n t e r m s o f a f f e c t i o n and r e s p e c t , r e f e r r i n g to him as a f r i e n d and an a l l y i n h i s d e a l i n g s 44 w i t h t h e C o n s o r z i o d e l l a M i s e r i c o r d i a Magg i o r e . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f B a t t i s t a d a l i o r g a n i and B a t t i s t a c h i r u r q u s ( s u r g e o n ) i s c o n f i r m e d by documents o f t h e M i s e r i c o r d i a made i n t h e m a t t e r o f s e t t l i n g C u c c h i ' s a c c o u n t s a f t e r h i s d e m i s e , naming " B a p t i s t a de C h u c h i s de 45 M a r t i n e n g o " b o t h " c h i r u r q u s " and "de o r g a n i s " . C o r t e s i B o s c o s e t t l e s t h e c o n f u s i o n o f t h e d o u b l e o c c u p a t i o n by e s t a b l i s h i n g C u c c h i ' s f i r s t o c c u p a t i o n as o r g a n i s t f o r S a n t a C o r t e s i B o s c o , "Un a m i c o . . . , " ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 71. 43 C o r t e s i B o s c o , "Un a m i c o . . . , " ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 68, 80; C h i o d i , L e t t e r e i n e d i t e . • • ( 1 9 6 8 ) , 18. 44 C o r t e s i B o s c o , "Un a m i c o . . . , " ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 65. 45 C o r t e s i B o s c o , "Un a m i c o . . . , " ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 69. 119 M a r i a M a g g i o r e i n Bergamo w h i c h he t h e n f o r s o o k i n o r d e r to . . . . . 46 p u r s u e h i s g r o w i n g p r o f e s s i o n as a s u r g e o n . T h a t C u c c h i was i n v o l v e d w i t h o t h e r o f L o t t o ' s p a t r o n s and a t l e a s t may n o t be c o n s i d e r e d an ' o u t s i d e r ' i s h i n t e d a t i n h i s w i t n e s s i n g t h e s e t t l i n g o f a c c o u n t s between L o t t o and t h e r i c h merchant N i c o l o B o n g h i - L o t t o ' s l a n d l o r d and p a t r o n - by means o f a p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n a l p a i n t i n g o f t h e M y s t i c M a r r i a g e o f S. C a t h e r i n e . N i c o l o B o n g h i c h e r i s h e d t h e p a i n t i n g he owned by L o t t o ( F i g . 3 1 ) . He c h e r i s h e d i t enough t o go to g r e a t l e n g t h s t o h i d e t h e p a i n t i n g ( u n s u c c e s s f u l l y ) f r o m F r e n c h t r o o p s t h a t were b e s i e g i n g Bergamoj f e a r i n g i t would be s t o l e n b e c a u s e o f i t s g r e a t 47 b e a u t y . T h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t C u c c h i t o o had s p e c i a l a f f e c t i o n f o r t h e p a i n t i n g L o t t o had done f o r him - t h e Madonna and C h i l d w i t h SS Roch and S e b a s t i a n . As has been n o t e d , when C u c c h i l e f t h i s e s t a t e to t h e M i s e r i c o r d i a o f Bergamo he a l s o made e x c e p t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n s , one o f which c o n c e r n e d c e r t a i n s p e c i a l a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r t h e L o t t o p a i n t i n g , w i l l i n g i t to t h e nun " L u c r e t i e de T i r a b u s c h i s " 48 i n t h e c o n v e n t o f S t a . G r a t a . N o t h i n g i s known about ^ 6 C o r t e s i B o s c o , "Un a m i c o . . . , " ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 68-70. 47 The p a i n t i n g was n o t s t o l e n , b u t t h e l a n d s c a p e t h a t would have a p p e a r e d above t h e h e ads o f t h e f i g u r e s was c u t o u t . M a s c h e r p a , I n v i t o a L o r e n z o L o t t o ( 1 9 8 0 ) , 52. 48 C o r t e s i B o s c o , "Un a m i c o . . . " ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 82-3. 180 s i s t e r L u c r e t i a o r o f h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p to C u c c h i . However, t h e c h u r c h o f S a n t a G r a t a , where he r e q u e s t e d t h e p a i n t i n g to r e m a i n a f t e r t h e nun's d e a t h , was a l s o t h e c h u r c h i n which C u c c h i r e q u e s t e d t o be b u r i e d . From C u c c h i ' s r e g i s t e r we know t h a t t h e p a t i e n t s he t r e a t e d r a n g e d f r o m a r t i s a n s and shop owners t o t h e 49 p r o v i n c i a l a r i s t o c r a c y . He was a r e s p e c t e d c i t i z e n , w i t h c l o s e t i e s to t h e M i s e r i c o r d i a M a g g i o r e o f Bergamo whom he made h i s u n i v e r s a l h e i r . He seems to have been a c l o s e f r i e n d to L o t t o . The l e t t e r s we have f r o m L o t t o t o C u c c h i a r e worded i n t h e f r i e n d l i e s t o f t e r m s . In a t o u c h i n g example o f 1531 L o t t o w r i t e s t o t h e e l d e r l y C u c c h i (he i s 74 a t t h e t i m e ) t h a t he i s " d e s i d e r o s o v e d e r v i i n V e n e z i a g a i a r d o e t sano ... e t d i g n a r e t i a l o z a r i n compagnie da c a r i s s i m o f r a t e l l o m a z o r . " ^ The f o l l o w i n g a r e s e l e c t e d e x c e r p t s f r o m C u c c h i ' s r e g i s t e r i n d i c a t i n g t h e p r o f e s s i o n s o f some o f h i s p a t i e n t s : M a t i o M a f f e i , 1 i b r a r o ; t h e n o t a i o C e r e s o l o ; t h e c a l z o l a r o G i r o l a m o C B r a v i ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 8 9 ] ; A n t o n i o 01mo, d o t t o r e e membro  d e l l a a r i s t o c r a z i a c i t t a d i na [ B r a v i , 9 0 ] ; a s o l d a t o [ B r a v i , 9 3 - 9 4 ] . C h i o d i n o t e s f r o m t h e r e g i s t e r : "I p a z i e n t i s o n d e l c e t o m e r c a n t i l e e n o b i l e d i Bergamo: c ' e r a da s p e r a r e c h e , s e i l L o t t o a v e s s e a v u t o b i s o g n o d i c u r e , s a r e b b e comparso s u q u e l l e p a g i n e . 0 f o r s e f u c u r a t o g r a t i s , p e r c h e amico d e l c h i r u r g o . . . " C h i o d i , "Le a b i t a z i o n i d e l L o t t o a Bergamo," i n Bergamo p e r L o r e n z o L o t t o ( 1 9 8 0 ) , 16. C o r t e s i B o s c o , "Un Amico d i . . . " ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 65. I E I L o t t o ' s Madonna and C h i l d w i t h SS Roch and S e b a s t i a n may have been p a i n t e d f o r C u c c h i as a f r i e n d > b u t i t s e r v e d t h e needs o f C u c c h i t h e s u r g e o n . The work done by G i u l i o B r a v i has made t h e c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f t h e s u r g e o n p o s s i b l e . In t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e r e was a s h a r p d i s t i n c t i o n i n t h e m e d i c a l p r o f e s s i o n between s u r g e o n s and p h y s i c i a n s . The d i f f e r e n c e c a n be r e d u c e d t o t h a t between m e c h a n i c a l c r a f t s m e n and p r a c t i t i o n e r s o f t h e l i b e r a l a r t s . P h y s i c i a n s were r e q u i r e d t o undergo a u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n -i n Bergamo t h e r e q u i r e m e n t was s i x y e a r s s t u d y a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Padua f o l l o w e d by an e x a m i n a t i o n . ^ ^ T h e i r m e d i c a l e d u c a t i o n was p u r e l y t h e o r e t i c a l , b a s e d on c l a s s i c a l s o u r c e s s u c h as G a l e n . They d e a l t w i t h d i a g n o s i s , and p r e s c r i p t i o n f o r s e r i o u s a i l m e n t s , b ut n e v e r d i d t h e a c t u a l a p p l i c a t i o n on a p a t i e n t - t h a t was a 'manual j o b ' and t h u s 5E t h e domain o f t h e s u r g e o n . P h y s i c i a n s i n Bergamo had t h e i r own Co 1 l e g i o i n Bergamo 53 f r o m 1446. T h i s C o l l e g i o d e t e r m i n e d t h e s t a n d a r d s p h y s i c i a n s were t o meet i n t h e i r t r a i n i n g , r e g u l a t e d t h e d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r between p h y s i c i a n s and s u r g e o n s , and 5 1 B r a v i ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 87. 5 2 B r a v i ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 86. "53 B r a v i ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 86. les p o l i c e d u n q u a l i f i e d p r a c t i c i n g . The Co 11eg i o added l e g i t i m a c y and p r e s t i g e to t h e o f f i c e o f t h e p h y s i c i a n . E d u c a t e d , and w i t h hands u n s u l l i e d f r o m p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t , t h e p h y s i c i a n was an h o n o u r e d man i n t h e community which r e f l e c t e d t h e r e m u n e r a t i o n he c o u l d command f o r h i s 55 s e r v i c e s . The d i s t i n c t i o n o f h i s o c c u p a t i o n c o n f e r r e d on him t h e p r i v i l e g e s o f r a n k , which i n r e a l i t y was o n l y a r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r ' s p l a c e i n s o c i e t y as i t was r a r e f o r anyone n o t i n t h e u p p e r c l a s s e s to r e c e i v e t h e r e q u i r e d e d u c a t i o n . S u r g e o n s on t h e o t h e r hand were manual l a b o u r e r s . T h e i r knowledge came no t f r o m what t h e y r e a d , but f r o m e x p e r i e n c e . T h e i r s k i l l was a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h a p p r e n t i c e s h i p t o e i t h e r a b a r b i t o n s o r e , a b a r b e r , or a c i r o i co , a n o t h e r s u r g e o n . C u c c h i , who p r a c t i s e d s u r g e r y f r o m I486 to 1533 l e a r n e d h i s c r a f t f r o m h i s f a t h e r , a c i r o i c o . ^ From h i s r e g i s t e r we know t h a t C u c c h i t r e a t e d many a i l m e n t s f r o m c u t s to b o i l s , wounds f r o m weapons and t h e new d i s e a s e o f s y p h i l i s w hich d i d n o t c o n f o r m to i l l n e s s e s w i t h which t h e B r a v i ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 86. ^ I n Bergamo p h y s i c i a n s made a p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x t i m e s t h e wages a s u r g e o n made. B r a v i ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 96. 5 6 B r a v i ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 88. 1S3 p h y s i c i a n s , i n t h e i r c l a s s i c a l l e a r n i n g s were f a m i l i a r . The s u r g e o n would be c a l l e d upon to t r e a t a n y t h i n g t h a t c o u l d be t r e a t e d on t h e s u r f a c e . The p h y s i c i a n would be 58 c a l l e d on i n any c a s e t h a t was deemed l i f e - t h r e a t e n i n g . He would d i a g n o s e , p r e s c r i b e c h a n g e s i n h a b i t s , f o o d o r m e d i c a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e G a l e n i c t h e o r y o f humours - h o t r e m e d i e s f o r c o l d i l l n e s s e s , wet f o r d r y , p e r h a p s a change o f a i r - and t h e a s s i s t i n g s u r g e o n would a p p l y a l l m e d i c i n e s and c o m p l e t e any d i r e c t t r e a t m e n t on t h e p a t i e n t s u c h as 59 l a n c i n g o r t h e u s e o f p l a s t e r s . The manual a s p e c t o f t h e i r work, and t h e p r a c t i c a l n a t u r e o f t h e t r a i n i n g put t h e s u r g e o n s i n a n o t h e r c l a s s f r o m t h e p h y s i c i a n he o f t e n a s s i s t e d H e was c o n s i d e r e d on t h e l e v e l o f an a r t i s a n and was p a i d a c c o r d i n g l y . I t i s t e l l i n g t h a t a Co 11eg i o f o r s u r g e o n s was o n l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n 57 " B a t t i s t a C u c c h i e c h i a m a t o s p e s s o a m e d i c a r e f e r i t e , l e s i o n i , t r a u m i , e s c o r i a z i o n i , c h e c u r a c o n 1 ' a p p 1 i c a z i o n e d i p u n t i d i s u t u r a o c o n f a s c i a t u r e o c o n s i g l i a n d o l ' u s o d i u n g u e n t i che f o r s e l u i s t e s s o p r e p a r a . " B r a v i ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 91. 5P B r a v i ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 89-90. 59 B r a v i ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 85-6. ^ " C u c c h i non ha una c u l t u r a a c c a d e m i c a e, anche s o c i a l m e n t e , e g l i e p i u v i c i n o a g 1 i a l t r i l a v o r a t o r i a r t i g i a n a l i c h e a i c e t i c o l t i d e l l e p r o f e s s i o n i i n t e l l e t u a l i , a nche s e p e r m o t i v i d i l a v o r o e g l i ha c o n i m e d i c i f i s i c i un r a p p o r t o q u a s i g u o t i d i a n o . " B r a v i ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 89. 124 Bergamo i n 1585.^* When C u c c h i was p r a c t i c i n g , t h e n , t h e r e was no i n s t i t u t i o n a l m a t r i x f o r t h e s u r g e o n . C u c c h i was busy and r e s p e c t e d , t r e a t i n g p a t i e n t s n o t o n l y i n Bergamo 62 b u t f r o m t h e v a l l e y s a r o u n d t h e town. H i s r e m u n e r a t i o n however, p u t him i n t h e wage b r a c k e t o f a good a r t i s a n , a 63 m a s t e r b r i c k l a y e r o r a b o o k - s e l l e r . B e c a u s e o f t h e i n c l u s i o n o f two s a i n t s commonly i n v o k e d a g a i n s t p l a g u e , L o t t o ' s Madonna and C h i l d w i t h SS Roch and  S e b a s t i a n s a i n t s i s a d e v o t i o n a l p a i n t i n g t h a t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y f i t t i n g f o r t h e home o f a s u r g e o n . In C u c c h i ' s t i m e e p i d e m i c s were a c o n s t a n t t h r e a t due t o t h e i n f l u x o f f o r e i g n t r o o p s a r o u n d Bergamo and t h e e f f e c t s o f war and f a m i n e . C u c c h i h i m s e l f l o s t two c h i l d r e n t o p l a g u e i n 1529. In 1524, when p l a g u e r a g e d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r f u r y i n Bergamo, C u c c h i made up h i s w i l l . ^ B r a v i w r i t e s o f t h e d e b i l i t a t i n g B r a v i ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 88. AP B r a v i ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 94. B r a v i ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 94. 6 ^ C o r t e s i Bosco "Un amico d i . . . " ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 70. Bergamo had a l s o s u f f e r e d a s e v e r e e p i d e m i c o f t h e p l a g u e i n 1513 and a g a i n i n 1514. C o r t e s i B o s c o , " R i f l e s s i . . . " ( 1 9 8 3 ) , n. 52, 237. Z a m p e t t i r e c o r d s t h e a f f l i c t i o n o f t h e town w i t h ' p e s t i l e n z a ' a g a i n i n 1522 " e v i d e n t e m e n t e d o v u t a a l p a s s a g g i o d i t a n t e t r u p p e e a l l e d i f f i c i l i c o n d i z i o n i c h e s i e r a n o d e t e r m i n a t e . " P i e t r o Z a m p e t t i , " L o r e n z o L o t t o a ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) 1E5 s i t u a t i o n o f Bergamo a t t h e end o f t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y and t h e f i r s t d e c a d e s o f t h e s i x t e e n t h : " Q u e s t i s t e s s i d e c e n n i sono t r a l ' a l t r o p a r t i c o 1 a r m e n t e t o r m e n t a t i per l a c i t t a d i Bergamo, s e pensiamo che a l c o n t i n u o p a s s a g g i o s u l suo t e r r i t o r i o d i t r u p p e i m p e r i a l i e v e n e z i a n e , che compiono r i p e t u t e v i o l e n z e e d e v a s t a z i o n i , s o p r a g g i u n g o n o n e l 15E8 l a p e s t e e l a c a r e s t i a seminando t a l e m i s e r i a e d e s o l a z i o n e da f a r s c r i v e r e a l c o n s i g l i e r e c i t t a d i n o Marco B e r e t t a d i a s s i s t e r e a t o t a l e c a l a m i t a e d e s t r u z i o n e . Q u e s t a p a r t i c o l a r e s i t u a z i o n e d i p r e c a r i e t a d e l l e c o n d i z i o n i a l i m e n t a r i , a m b i e n t a l i e i g i e n i c h e e dunque un e l e m e n t o f a v o r e v o l e a l p r o p a g a r s i c o s i i n t e n s o p e r t u t t o i l t e r ^ j c i t o r i o b ergamasco d i i n f e z i o n i ed e p i d e m i e . " In v i e w o f t h i s c o n s t a n t t h r e a t , t h e c h o i c e o f two p l a g u e s a i n t s seems a n a t u r a l one f o r a d e v o t i o n a l p a i n t i n g i n Bergamo a t t h i s t i m e ; i t seems u n n e c e s s a r y t o l o o k f o r a s p e c i f i c i n c i d e n t o f t h e p l a g u e t o j u s t i f y i t s c o m m i s s i o n . C o r t e s i B o s c o , i n i d e n t i f y i n g C u c c h i as t h e p a t r o n , c o n s i d e r s b o t h t h e p e r v a s i v e n e s s o f p l a g u e and C u c c h i ' s p r o f e s s i o n a s a s u r g e o n s u f f i c i e n t e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e c o m m i s s i o n o f a p a i n t i n g o f a Madonna and C h i l d w i t h two p o p u l a r p l a g u e s a i n t s . In h e r words, "non parrh s t r a n o , semmai o v v i o , c h e i n q u a n t o c h i r u r g o i l C u c c h i d e s i d e r a s s e f o s s e r o r a f f i g u r a t i due s a n t i p r o t e t t o r i d a l l e e p i d e m i e e ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) Bergamo," i n I p i t t o r i b e r q a m a s c h i . II C i n q u e c e n t o (Bergamo: B o l i s , 1975), I, n . l , x i x . B r a v i ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 9S-3. 186 d a i c o n t a g i , s p e c i e i n tempi i n c u i e s s i non davano ,,66 t r e g u a . The s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n o f t h e p a i n t i n g , however, c a n n o t be e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h c o m p l e t e s e c u r i t y . In t h e n e x t c h a p t e r " c a s e s t u d i e s " o f p a i n t i n g s i n e s t a b l i s h e d h o s p i t a l c o n t e x t s w i l l be e x a m i n e d . One a l t a r p i e c e by L o t t o w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r - t h e S t . Jerome f o r t h e o s p e d a l e d e i D e r e l i t t i i n V e n i c e (C1545). I t has some s i m i l a r i t i e s to t h e Madonna and C h i l d w i t h SS Roch and S e b a s t i a n i n t h a t i t i s s m a l l , and t a k e s t h e f o r m a t o f a p o p u l a r t y p e f o r p r i v a t e p a i n t i n g - t h e p e n i t e n t S t . Jerome. The c o n t e x t o f s m a l l d e v o t i o n a l p a n e l s i n m e d i c a l s i t u a t i o n s i s n o t w e l l known - i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t w i t h t h e s e two p a i n t i n g s L o t t o c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d a s s o m e t h i n g o f an s p e c i a l i s t i n t h i s 67 g e n r e . Knowing t h e modus o p e r a n d i o f t h e s u r g e o n , i t i s n o t l i k e l y t h a t a p a i n t i n g i n t h e p e r s o n a l p o s s e s s i o n o f a s u r g e o n would have been u s e d i n as f o r m a l a r e l a t i o n s h i p C o r t e s i B o s c o , "Un a m i c o . . . " ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 78. 67 M a s c h e r p a f i n d s i t w o r t h y o f n o t e how many m e d i c a l men t h e r e were among L o t t o ' s f r i e n d s and a c q u a i n t a n c e s . M a s c h e r p a , I n v i t o a L o r e n z o L o t t o ( M i l a n : R u s c o n i , 1980), 58. The p o r t r a i t o f G i o v a n n i A g o s t i n o d e l l a T o r r e ( London. N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y , 1515), a g r e a t Bergamask p h y s i c i a n , and h i s s o n N i c o l o , w i t h whom L o t t o had a warm f r i e n d s h i p , documents an example o f L o t t o ' s a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h men o f med i c i ne. 187 w i t h p a t i e n t s as t h e h o s p i t a l c o n t e x t c a l l e d f o r . I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e p a i n t i n g was s t r i c t l y p r i v a t e i n i t s f u n c t i o n r a t h e r t h a n p r o f e s s i o n a l , a l t h o u g h i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t i t c o u l d have been s e e n by p a t i e n t s . The f o r m a t t a k e s as i t s b a s i s t h e p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n a l V e n e t i a n h a l f - l e n g t h t y p e . The bedroom was one p l a c e p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n a l p a i n t i n g s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e h a l f - l e n g t h t y p e , were o f t e n f o u n d . Two p a i n t i n g s by C a r p a c c i o d e p i c t bedrooms w i t h p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n a l p a i n t i n g s i n them, b o t h f r o m t h e S t . U r s u l a s e r i e s , and now i n t h e A c c a d e m i a i n V e n i c e : The  E n g l i s h Ambassador R e c e i v e d by t h e K i n g ( c l 4 9 3 ) , and t h e Dream o f S t . U r s u l a < c l 4 9 5 ) . The Madonna and C h i l d w i t h SS Roch and S e b a s t i a n f u n c t i o n e d a s a d e v o t i o n a l p a i n t i n g ; d e v o t i o n a l i m a g e r y , m o r e o v e r , would have had a s p e c i a l f u n c t i o n i n t h e l i f e o f a s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y m e d i c a l w o r k e r . The s u r g e o n ' s job i n f a c t was o n l y p a r t i a l l y a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h s c i e n c e - t h e o t h e r p a r t was a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h d e v o t i o n . As B r a v i r e l a t e s i n t h e e p i g r a p h t o t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e p r e p a r a t i o n made by a s u r g e o n f o r any o p e r a t i o n may have i n c l u d e d t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e Ringbom r e f e r s to s m a l l h a l f - l e n g t h d e v o t i o n a l p a i n t i n g s as "bedroom i c o n s . " S i x t e n Ringbom, I c o n t o  N a r r a t i v e : The R i s e o f t h e D r a m a t i c C l o s e - U p i n F i f t e e n t h  C e n t u r y D e v o t i o n a l P a i n t i n g s , 2nd e d . ( B e u k e n l a a n : Davaco, 1984), 34. The common p l a c e m e n t o f t h e h a l f - l e n g t h Madonna i n t h e bedroom i s a l s o n o t e d by G o f f e n . Rona G o f f e n , " I c o n and V i s i o n : G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i ' s H a l f - L e n g t h Madonnas," A r t  B u i l e t i n , 57 ( 1 9 7 5 ) , 518. 128 age and p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n o f t h e p a t i e n t , b u t i t began w i t h an i n v o c a t i o n t o God. A l t h o u g h p o p u l a r l y p a i r e d , i t i s p a s s i b l e t h a t S a i n t s Roch and S e b a s t i a n had a s p e c i a l meaning f o r s u r g e o n s , and t h i s w i l l be s u g g e s t e d i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . What L o t t o has p r o v i d e d i n t h e Madonna and C h i l d  w i t h SS Roch and S e b a s t i a n , and what w i l l be e x p l o r e d more f u l l y i n C h a p t e r S i x , i s a p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n a l p a i n t i n g t h a t was ' c u s t o m i z e d ' to speak more d i r e c t l y t o i t s p a t r o n , t h e s u r g e o n C u c c h i . 129 CHAPTER F I V E DEVOTIONAL PAINTING AS A MEDICAL TOOL V e r o n i c a t o V o l u s i a n : "'As J e s u s was a l w a y s t r a v e l l i n g a bout to p r e a c h , and I c o u l d n o t a l w a y s e n j o y H i s p r e s e n c e , I was once on my way t o a p a i n t e r t o have t h e m a s t e r ' s p o r t r a i t drawn on a c l o t h w hich I b o r e w i t h me. And t h e L o r d met me i n t h e way, and l e a r n i n g what I was a b o u t , p r e s s e d t h e c l o t h a g a i n s t H i s f a c e , and l e f t H i s image upon i t . And i f t h y m a s t e r but l o o k s upon t h i s image, he s h a l l s t r a i g h t a w a y be c u r e d . ' And V o l u s i a n a s k e d : 'Can t h i s image be b o u g h t f o r g o l d o r s i l v e r ? ' 'No,' s a i d V e r o n i c a , 'but s i n c e r e p i e t y w i l l o b t a i n i t s b l e s s i n g s . . . ' " J a c o b u s de V o r a g i n e , The G o l d e n  L e g e n d B o t h S t . Roch and S t . S e b a s t i a n were p o p u l a r s a i n t s i n V e n i c e and t h e n o r t h o f I t a l y where p l a g u e was r e c u r r e n t f r o m t h e f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h r o u g h to t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . T h e i r p r e s e n c e a c c o m p a n y i n g t h e Madonna and C h i l d i n L o t t o ' s p a i n t i n g i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s image i s p a r t o f t h e g r e a t e r c a t e g o r y o f p l a g u e / h e a l i n g images. C o r t e s i B o s c o ' s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e p a t r o n o f t h i s work as t h e s u r g e o n C u c c h i g i v e s i t a s p e c i a l r e l e v a n c e t o t h e m e d i c a l c o n t e x t . J a c o b u s de V o r a g i n e , The G o l d e n L e g e n d , t r a n s . G r a n g e r Ryan and Helmut R i p p e r g e r (New Y o r k : A r n o , 1969), "The P a s s i o n o f Our L o r d , " 214. 130 As a h e a l i n g work? i t f u n c t i o n e d w i t h i n t h e s p h e r e o f C u c c h i ' s p r o f e s s i o n a l l i f e . In I t a l y t h e p l a g u e s a i n t s Roch and S e b a s t i a n were r e p r e s e n t e d i n s e v e r a l ways f o r d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s . C h a p t e r S i x w i l l e x p l o r e more t h o r o u g h l y t h e t y p e s and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f imagery o f t h e s e two s a i n t s . T h e s e s a i n t s were used i n b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e works. In a p u b l i c work t h e y were i n c l u d e d a s p r o m i n e n t members o f t h e s a c r a  c o n v e r s a z i o n e a l t a r p i e c e o r were g i v e n t h e i r own s p a c e i n t h e p o l y p t y c h f o r m a t . The f u n c t i o n o f t h e s a i n t s was o f t e n e i t h e r p r o p h y l a c t i c o r ex v o t o . In t h e l a t t e r c a s e t h e a l t a r p i e c e was c o m m i s s i o n e d as a r e s u l t o f a p r o m i s e g i v e n i n e x c h a n g e f o r s u r v i v a l o f an e p i d e m i c o r o f a s p e c i f i c d a n g e r . In t h e f o r m e r ? t h e p l a g u e s a i n t s a c t e d as s p e c i a l i n t e r c e s s o r s t o t h e V i r g i n , a s p r o t e c t o r s o f t h e w o r s h i p p e r , t h e p a t r o n , t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n , o r t h e s t a t e a g a i n s t d i s e a s e . The p l a g u e s a i n t s as s t a t e p r o t e c t o r s f o r m a s e p a r a t e c a t e g o r y , one t h a t was e s p e c i a l l y r e l e v a n t to V e n i c e . B e i n g a c o m m e r c i a l p o r t , V e n i c e was s u b j e c t e d t o c o n s t a n t and v i r u l e n t o u t b r e a k s o f t h e p l a g u e . I t was t h e f i r s t s t a t e to 2 i n s t i t u t e a s o p h i s t i c a t e d s t a t e - r u n o r g a n i z a t i o n o f h e a l t h . R i c h a r d Palmer f e l t t h a t i t was t e l l i n g o f t h e d u a l i t y o f t h e V e n e t i a n s t a t e ' s p r o t e c t i o n o f p u b l i c h e a l t h t h a t t h e " y e a r 1485 i n t h e V e n e t i a n c a l e n d a r saw b o t h t h e d e c i s i o n t o ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) 131 The p a i n t i n g by T i t i a n o f S t . Mark e n t h r o n e d between S a i n t s Roch and S e b a s t i a n on one s i d e and S a i n t s Cosmas and Damian, t h e p h y s i c i a n s a i n t s , on t h e o t h e r i s p e r h a p s t h e c l e a r e s t 3 s t a t e m e n t o f t h e s t a t e as p r o t e c t o r o f h e a l t h ( F i g . 3 E ) . In t h e p r i v a t e c o n t e x t , t h e u s e o f p l a g u e s a i n t s i s s i m i l a r to t h a t o f t h e p u b l i c s p h e r e . The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f Roch and S e b a s t i a n i n a p r i v a t e c o n t e x t a r e l i k e l y t o be e i t h e r p r o t e c t i v e o r ex_ v o t o as w e l l , but r e s t r i c t e d to a s m a l l e r s p h e r e o f i n f l u e n c e . The s p e c i f i c m o t i v a t i o n f o r t h e c o m m i s s i o n o f t h e Madonna and C h i l d w i t h SS Roch and  S e b a s t i an i s n o t known. Wi t h t h e c o n s t a n t t h r e a t o f e p i d e m i c i n Bergamo, i t i s n o t u n l i k e l y t h a t C u c c h i r e q u e s t e d a p a i n t i n g w i t h t h e two s a i n t s a s e i t h e r a p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e p l a g u e o r a s a m e m o r i a l . However, t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e two s a i n t s as i n t e r c e s s o r s a g a i n s t s i c k n e s s and s u f f e r i n g p u t s a s p e c i a l g l o s s on t h e i r meaning. The p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e s e two s a i n t s i n b o t h p u b l i c ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) f o u n d t h e H e a l t h O f f i c e and t h e a r r i v a l i n t h e c i t y o f t h e body o f S. R o c c o . " R i c h a r d P a l m e r , "The C o n t r o l o f P l a g u e i n V e n i c e and N o r t h e r n I t a l y 1348-1600," D i s s . U n i v . o f Kent on C a n t e r b u r y 1978, 898. 3 " n e l c u l t o d e i s a n t i s p e c i f i c a m e n t e p r o t e t t o r i c o n t r o l a p e s t e s i i n s e r i s c e , a t t r a v e r s o l 'immagine d i s a n Marco, l a p r e s e n z a d e l l o S t a t o , c h e p a r e i n q u e s t o modo r i b a d i r e , p u b b 1 i c i z z a n d o l o , i l c a r i c o d e l l a d i f e s a d e l l a s a n i t a che s i e r a p r e c e d e n t e m e n t e a s s u n t o i n c o n c r e t o c o n l a c r e a z i o n e d e i l a z z a r e t t i (1483 e 1468) e c o n 1 ' i s t i t u z i o n e d e l M a g i s t r a t o a l i a S a n i t a ( I 4 8 6 ) . " S t e f a n i a Mason R i n a l d i , "Le immagini d e l l a p e s t e n e l l a c u l t u r a f i g u r a t i v a v e n e z i a n a , " i n Venez i a  e l a p e s t e 1348/1797 ( V e n i c e : M a r s i l i o , 1979), 817-18. 132 and p r i v a t e s p h e r e s p r o v i d e s e v i d e n c e f o r a c o n j e c t u r e t h a t t h e i r s y m b o 1 i z a t i o n e x c e e d s s p e c i f i c a c t i o n r e l a t e d to a p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e o f a f f l i c t i o n . A s s o c i a t i n g S t . S e b a s t i a n and S t . Roch w i t h a more u n i v e r s a l c o n t e x t o f i l l n e s s and h e a l i n g a l s o a s s o c i a t e s them w i t h more u n i v e r s a l q u e s t i o n s - t h e q u e s t i o n s o f d e a t h , o f s i n , and o f t h e d e v o t i o n a l answer to t h e s e - r e d e m p t i o n . The p l a g u e i n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y was s t i l l beyond man's a b i l i t y to c o n t r o l or c u r e . The v e r y v i r u l e n c e o f t h e d i s e a s e , t h e f u r y w i t h w h i c h i t c o u l d h i t and man's i n e f f e c t u a l i t y i n c o m b a t i n g i t made t h e p l a g u e , more t h a n any o t h e r a f f l i c t i o n , a p p e a r e d to be God's d i v i n e w i l l . The p l a g u e was c o n s i d e r e d t h e ' f l a i l o f God.' "On t h e whole t h e p h y s i c i a n s were q u i t e h e l p l e s s i n t h e f a c e o f t h e p1 ague.... They t h e r e f o r e r e s t r i c t e d t h e m s e l v e s m a i n l y to p r o p h y l a c t i c m e a s u r e s , and a g r e e d w i t h t h e C h u r c h t h a t t h e b e s t and most e f f i c a c i o u s p r e v e n t i v e means was t h e f e a r o f God, ' f o r by t h i s t h e venomous a s t r a l a r r o w s may be a v e r t e d . ' " J o h a n n e s N o h l , The B l a c k D e a t h . A C h r o n i c l e o f  t h e P l a q u e , t r a n s . C.H. C l a r k e (London: G e o r g e A l l e n and Unwin, 1926), 72. The c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e h o r r o r o f t h e o u t b r e a k o f p l a g u e as t h e p u n i s h m e n t o f God c a l l e d f o r p u b l i c a c t i o n to e x p i a t e t h e c a u s e o f God's w r a t h . "The c h u r c h had i t s own i d e a s o f p l a g u e and what s h o u l d be done a b o u t i t . I f endemic d i s e a s e was t h o u g h t 'sometimes' to be a p u n i s h m e n t f o r s i n , e p i d e m i c s were a l w a y s so r e g a r d e d . To p r e v e n t p l a g u e t h e c h u r c h u r g e d p i e t y , c h a r i t y , d e v o t i o n to t h e s a i n t s and t h e i r r e l i c s . The I t a l i a n s t a t e s took t h i s s e r i o u s l y . In V e n i c e i t was p a r t o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s r a t i o n a l e f o r i t s s u p p r e s s i o n o f b l a s p h e m y , h e r e s y and sodomy; f o r i t s e n f o r c e m e n t o f t h e su m p t u a r y laws; f o r i t s c o l l e c t i o n o f r e l i c s o r i t s r e g u l a r g r a n t s o f alms ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) 133 The e v e r - p r e s e n t t h r e a t o f p l a g u e , as i t r e c u r r e d w i t h o u t any a p p a r e n t p l a n , c o n t r i b u t e d to t h e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e p l a g u e as t h e r e m i n d e r o f t h e v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f man's m o r t a l i t y . ^ I t may be assumed t h a t t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f S t . Roch and S t . S e b a s t i a n as i n t e r c e s s o r s a g a i n s t t h e p l a g u e b r o u g h t them i n t o t h i s w i d e r frame o f s y m b o l i c r e f e r e n c e . In Bergamo when t h e C o l l e q i o o f p h y s i c i a n s was e s t a b l i s h e d i t was n o t Roch and S e b a s t i a n t h e y named as p a t r o n s a i n t s b u t Cosmas and Damian.^ 5 As e a r l y p h y s i c i a n s , Cosmas and Damian were a p p r o p r i a t e s a i n t s t o r e p r e s e n t t h e ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) t o m o n a s t e r i e s and c h a r i t a b l e i n s t i t u t i o n s . I f p l a g u e once b r o k e o u t c a l l s f o r r e p e n t a n c e , p e n i t e n t i a l p r o c e s s i o n s , d e v o t i o n t o t h e p l a g u e s a i n t s - e s p e c i a l l y S a i n t S e b a s t i a n and S a i n t Roche - and vows, o f t e n t o e r e c t a new c h a p e l o r c h u r c h , were a f u n d a m e n t a l r e s o u r c e . " R i c h a r d P a l m e r , "The c o n t r o l o f P l a g u e i n M e d i e v a l and E a r l y Modern E u r o p e , " i n The C h u r c h and H e a l i n g , e d . W.J. S h e i l s ( O x f o r d : B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , 1982), 95. ^The more macabre a s p e c t s o f t h e c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f d e a t h a p p e a r e d w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t f r e q u e n c y i n t h e wake o f t h e B l a c k D e a t h i n 1348. In t h i s p e r i o d C1350-1450, images o f t h e Dance o f Death r e a c h e d t h e i r g r e a t e s t p o p u l a r i t y . S i m i l a r t o t h e s e were images o f t h e s t o r y o f t h e " M e e t i n g o f t h e T h r e e L i v i n g and t h e T h r e e Dead," and t h e p o p u l a r A r s  Mor i e n d i t r a c t s . R i n a l d i ( 1 9 7 9 ) , 209-212. R i n a l d i r e g i s t e r s a c hange i n t h e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s d e a t h and t h e p l a g u e by t h e end o f t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y and i n t o t h e s i x t e e n t h - a more p o s i t i v e one o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e d e m p t i o n r a t h e r t h a n t h e w r a t h f u l , macabre p e r c e p t i o n s c a u s e d by t h e B l a c k D e a t h . R i n a l d i ( 1 9 7 9 ) , 210. A l s o s e e M i l l a r d M e i s s , P a i n t i n g i n F l o r e n c e and S i e n a a f t e r t h e  B l a c k Death ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v . P r e s s , 1951). G i u l i o O r a z i o B r a v i , tempo d i B a t t i s t a C u c c h i , " ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 86. " M e d i c i e c h i r u r g h i a Bergamo a l A r c h i v i o s t o r i c o b e rgamasco , I, 1 134 p r o f e s s i o n o f t h e p h y s i c i a n and i n t h i s s e n s e were more 7 s p e c i f i c i n t h e i r s y m b o 1 i z a t i o n . Cosmas and Damian were, i n f a c t , much l e s s f r e q u e n t l y r e p r e s e n t e d t h a n Roch and S e b a s t i a n who had t a k e n on a w i d e r s y m b o 1 i z a t i o n - o f s i c k n e s s , e v e n o f m o r t a l i t y and s a l v a t i o n - and a more p o p u l a r a p p e a l . T h i s p o p u l a r i t y makes Roch and S e b a s t i a n more s u i t a b l e s a i n t s t o r e p r e s e n t t h e s u r g e o n , l i k e C u c c h i , who t r e a t e d a l l l e v e l s o f t h e s o c i a l s t r a t a and who n e i t h e r b e l o n g e d to an i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d p r o f e s s i o n nor h e l d t h e p a r t i c u l a r p r e t e n s i o n t o s o c i a l s t a n d i n g t h a t t h e p h y s i c i a n c l a i m e d . As p o p u l a r s a i n t s i n a s o c i a l s e n s e , i t may be t h a t t h e s a i n t s Roch and S e b a s t i a n were r e g a r d e d i n an u n o f f i c i a l way as t h e s u r g e o n ' s s a i n t s j u s t as Cosmas and Q Damian r e p r e s e n t e d t h e p h y s i c i a n s i n a f o r m a l way. They a r e r e p u t e d t o h a v e l i v e d a r o u n d t h e end o f t h e t h i r d c e n t u r y , i n t h e age o f D i o c l e t i a n . They s t u d i e d m e d i c i n e i n S y r i a and o u t o f C h r i s t i a n p i e t y t h e y t r e a t e d t h e i r p a t i e n t s f o r f r e e . In i m a g e r y t h e y a r e o f t e n p o r t r a y e d w i t h i n s t r u m e n t s o f t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n - u r i n e j a r s , m e d i c i n e b o x e s , m o r t a r s . J o h n G e r l i t t , "Cosmas and Damian, t h e P a t r o n S a i n t s o f P h y s i c i a n s , " C i b a S y m p o s i a , I, 4 ( J u l y 1939), 119-121. Q G e r l i t t t e l l s t h a t Cosmas and Damian were c h o s e n as p a t r o n s a i n t s f o r t h e S u r g e o n ' s G u i l d o f P a r i s by 1226. The f a c t t h a t t h e s u r g e o n s o f P a r i s were o r g a n i z e d i n t o a g u i l d w h i c h r e c e i v e d t h e name o f a " C o l l e g e " i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e y p o s s e s s e d a p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n t h e same way a s t h e p h y s i c i a n s o f Bergamo d i d i n t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y . In t h i s way Cosmas and Damian would s t i l l h ave been p e r c e i v e d a s p a t r o n s a i n t s n o t b r o a d l y o f h e a l i n g but o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n o f m e d i c i n e . G e r l i t t ( 1 9 3 9 ) , 121. 135 The r o l e o f t h e d e v o t i o n a l p a i n t i n g i n a m e d i c a l c o n t e x t i s d e p e n d e n t on t h e p e r c e i v e d r o l e o f d i v i n e c a u s e s i n i l l n e s s and h e a l t h . In t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y s c i e n t i f i c r e a s o n i n g c o e x i s t e d w i t h r e l i g i o u s e x p l a n a t i o n s o f s i c k n e s s , h e l d sometimes i n c o n f l i c t b u t most o f t e n i n tandem. A c c o r d i n g l y , t r e a t m e n t o f i l l n e s s c o n s i s t e d o f e l e m e n t s f r o m b o t h s c i e n c e and d e v o t i o n . A woodcut f r o m B o e t h i u s ' De C o n s o l a z i o n e P h i l o s o p h i a e , a l t h o u g h i s s u e d i n A u g s b u r g , and somewhat l a t e r t h a n t h e t i m e L o t t o p a i n t e d t h e work under e x a m i n a t i o n , w e l l i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s d u a l i t y i n c o n t e m p o r a r y 9 m e d i c i n e ( F i g . 3 3 ) . On t h e r i g h t , two p h y s i c i a n s c o n s u l t a b o u t t h e e v i d e n c e o f a u r i n e sample - s c i e n t i f i c d i a g n o s i s . On t h e l e f t , t h e s i c k woman i s a t t e n d e d by a h e a l i n g s a i n t who a p p l i e s m i r a c u l o u s c u r e s - d i v i n e h e a l i n g . T h i s d u a l i t y o f s c i e n c e and d e v o t i o n a p p e a r e d i n p u b l i c l i f e . In t i m e o f e p i d e m i c s p u b l i c p r a y e r , r e l i g i o u s A n d r e e Hayum, "The Meaning and F u n c t i o n o f t h e I s e n h e i m A l t a r p i e c e : The H o s p i t a l C o n t e x t R e v i s i t e d , " A r t  B u i l e t i n , 59 ( 1 9 7 7 ) , 504-5. P e s t b l a t t e r , o r p r i n t e d d e v o t i o n a l p l a g u e s h e e t s common i n I t a l y and t h e n o r t h e r n c o u n t r i e s o f F l a n d e r s , t h e N e t h e r l a n d s , and Germany i n t h e l a t e f i f t e e n t h and e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s e x h i b i t t h e same d u a l i t y o f s c i e n t i f i c and d e v o t i o n a l h e a l i n g : "Sometimes t h e r e l i g i o u s e l e m e n t [common to t h e s e s h e e t s ! i s s u p p l e m e n t e d by an e x p o s i t i o n o f h y g i e n i c p r e c a u t i o n s o r o f r e m e d i a l m e a s u r e s . Thus a d e v o t i o n a l c u t comes t o be b l e n d e d w i t h i n j u n c t i o n s , u s u a l l y i n v e r s e , a s t o how to s t a v e o f f p e s t i l e n c e by i s o l a t i o n , f u m i g a t i o n , w a s h i n g , o r d i e t a r y ; o r how to c u r e i t by s u c h measures as b l e e d i n g , o r p l a s t e r s to h a s t e n m a t u r a t i o n o f t h e buboes." Raymond C r a w f u r d , P l a q u e and P e s t i l e n c e i n  L i t e r a t u r e and A r t ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1914), 141-4S. 136 p r o c e s s i o n s , t h e d i s p l a y o f r e l i c s , and a g e n e r a l c a l l f o r r e p e n t a n c e was c o u p l e d w i t h q u a r a n t i n e s , h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , and s t e r i l i z a t i o n . ^ H o s p i t a l s employed p h y s i c i a n s and s u r g e o n s b u t were o f t e n r u n by m o n a s t i c o r d e r s and g e n e r a l l y 1 1 i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h a c h u r c h . A l t h o u g h t h e b a l a n c e was g r a d u a l l y c h a n g i n g , d e v o t i o n a l h e a l i n g s t i l l had t h e s t r o n g e s t c l a i m . I l l n e s s was u n d e r s t o o d as t h e wr a t h o f God. Hence, no mundane c u r e c o u l d be e f f e c t e d u n t i l t h e p a t i e n t was p u r g e d o f h i s s i n s and had made h i s s u p p l i c a t i o n t o God . Palme r s u g g e s t s t h a t i n t h i s p e r i o d t h e r e was sometimes c o n f l i c t between t h e two t y p e s o f measures - n o t y e t so much i n p h i l o s o p h y , b u t i n p r a c t i c e , a s when t h e c h u r c h p r e s c r i b e d p r o c e s s i o n s and p r e a c h i n g f o r t h e c o n t r o l o f e p i d e m i c s a t t h e same t i m e as t h e h e a l t h o f f i c e p r e s c r i b e d g e n e r a l q u a r a n t i n e . P a l m e r ( 1 9 8 2 ) , 94-6. ^ L a u r i n d a D i x o n e x p l o r e s t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e A n t o n i n e m o n a s t e r y h o s p i t a l a s t h e c o n t e x t f o r B o s c h ' s S t . Anthony t r i p t y c h : " A n t o n i n e m o n a s t e r i e s s e r v e d a s l a y c h a r i t y h o s p i t a l s t h a t housed and c a r e d f o r t h e v i c t i m s o f i g n i s s a c e r u n t i l t h e i r d e a t h s . As s u c h , t h e y c o n t i n u e d t h e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l d o m i n a t i o n o f m e d i c a l p r a c t i c e e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Hence, t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e A n t o n i n e s was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e p h y s i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e i r m o n a s t e r i e s , where c h u r c h and h o s p i t a l were u n i f i e d . The s t a f f c o n s i s t e d o f a p r i o r ( u s u a l l y a c l e r g y m a n ) , t h e l a y n u r s i n g s t a f f , a p o t h e c a r i e s , and d o c t o r s . A n t o n i n e i n f i r m a r i e s employed t h e most-renowned p h y s i c i a n s and s u r g e o n s , many o f whom had r e c e i v e d t h e i r t r a i n i n g a t S a l e r n o , Padua, o r M o n t p e l l i e r . " L a u r i n d a D i x o n , " B o s c h ' s ' S t . Anthony T r i p t y c h ' -An A p o t h e c a r y ' s A p o t h e o s i s , " A r t J o u r n a l , 44 (Summer 1984), 181 . 12 Nohl r e p o r t s t h a t i n "a l i t t l e anonymous p r i m e r f o r d o c t o r s " i n t h e p e r i o d o f t h e B l a c k D e a t h , i t i s s t a t e d t h a t ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) 137 The e c c l e s i a s t i c a l p r e s c r i p t i o n f o r t h e p u r g a t i o n o f s i n was c o n f e s s i o n , and a s s u c h i t f o r m e d a p o w e r f u l component o f h e a l i n g . In t h e h o s p i t a l s , a p a t i e n t was r e q u i r e d t o c o n f e s s p r i o r t o be g r a n t e d m e d i c a l a t t e n t i o n . R i c h a r d P a l m e r , who has done f u n d a m e n t a l work on t h e r o l e o f d e v o t i o n and h e a l i n g , r e l a t e s t h a t a t " t h e g e n e r a l h o s p i t a l o f V e r o n a , t h e S a n t o d i P i e t a , s t a t u t e s f r o m t h e m i d - f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y r e g u i r e d t h e p a t i e n t t o be t o l d on a d m i s s i o n t h a t u n l e s s he f i r s t t ook c a r e o f h i s s p i r i t u a l s t a t e t h e r e would be no m e d i c a l t r e a t m e n t . The h o s p i t a l 13 c h a p l a i n must f i r s t h e a r h i s c o n f e s s i o n . " And as l a t e as 1566 a p a p a l b u l l r e i n f o r c e d a s t a t u t e t h a t had been i n e f f e c t s i n c e 1215 w hich " o b l i g e d p h y s i c i a n s to p e r s u a d e t h e i r p a t i e n t s t o c a l l i n p r i e s t s , t h e d o c t o r s o f t h e s o u l . In h e r p i o n e e r i n g work on t h e I s e n h e i m A l t a r p i e c e i n t h e h o s p i t a l c o n t e x t , A n d r e e Hayum r e v e a l e d t h a t i n A n t o n i n e m o n a s t e r y h o s p i t a l s - c o n c e r n e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h e t r e a t m e n t ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) " i t was t h e f i r s t d u t y o f t h e p h y s i c i a n on e n t e r i n g t h e h o u s e to ask t h e r e l a t i o n s o f t h e p a t i e n t i f he had c o n f e s s e d and r e c e i v e d t h e h o l y s a c r a m e n t , as upon t h i s i n t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e h i s s a l v a t i o n d epended." Nohl ( 1 9 2 6 ) , 73. 1 3 P a l m e r ( 1 9 8 2 ) , 85. P a l m e r ( 1 9 8 8 ) , 85. 138 o f t h o s e a f f l i c t e d w i t h S t . A n t h o n y ' s f i r e - p r a y e r ? communion, and t h e c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f r e l i c s were i n t i m a t e p a r t s o f t h e l i f e o f t h e p a t i e n t s . 1 " " The w o r s h i p o f h o l y r e l i c s , p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l i c s o f h e a l i n g s a i n t s was recommended. Wine t h a t had been p o u r e d o v e r t h e bones o f S t . A n t h o n y was r e p u t e d t o be an e s p e c i a l l y e f f e c t i v e c u r e . ^ T h i s f i x a t i o n on t h e h o l y r e l i c was n o t u n r e l a t e d to t h e p o p u l a r b e l i e f i n a m u l e t s and p r e c i o u s s t o n e s . Hayum c o n s u l t s e x i s t i n g documents f o r t h e A n t o n i t e h o s p i t a l a t Beaune: "For b o t h t h e p a t i e n t s and p h y s i c i a n s i n s u c h a h o s p i t a l t h e s t r u c t u r e o f e a c h day would have been p r o v i d e d by t h e c h u r c h , by t h e sound o f t h e c h u r c h b e l l s and t h r o u g h t h e o r g a n i z e d s e q u e n c e o f p r a y e r s and d e v o t i o n . The r e f o r m s o f 1478 o f t h e A n t o n i t e o r d e r a d v o c a t e p r a y e r and e n t r y i n t o t h e c h u r c h as a s t e a d y r o u t i n e f o r t h e p a t i e n t s . 'May each p a t i e n t be r e g u i r e d f o r e v e r y c a n o n i c a l hour to s a y t w e l v e Our F a t h e r s and as many Ave M a r i a s , and i n t h e c h u r c h i f i t i s p o s s i b l e . ' The a c t u a l a s s e m b l i n g o f p a t i e n t s b e f o r e t h e h o l y o b j e c t s o f a m o n a s t e r y i s c a l l e d f o r i n t h e s e r e f o r m s , demanding t h a t new p a t i e n t s e v e n t u a l l y be l e d ' b e f o r e t h e b r o t h e r s f o r t h e h o l y wine and b e f o r e t h e r e l i c s a s i s t h e c u s t o m . ' In t h e Beaune documents R o l i n c a l l s f o r t h i r t y b eds to be e r e c t e d i n a h a l l c o n t i n u o u s w i t h t h e c h a p e l so t h a t Roger van d e r Weyden's t r i p t y c h c o u l d be v i e w e d e v e n by t h o s e t o o i n f i r m to a p p r o a c h t h e a l t a r . " Hayum ( 1 9 7 7 ) , 505. ^Hayum ( 1 9 7 7 ) , 512. T h i s s a n c t i f i e d wine was known a s " h o l y v i n t a g e " . I t was o n l y o f f e r e d on t h e F e a s t o f t h e A s c e n s i o n , and was r e p u t e d t o h o l d g r e a t h e a l i n g powers. The r i c h p a i d d e a r l y f o r s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s ; t h e p o o r c o u l d r e c e i v e some as c h a r i t y . D i x o n r e l a t e s : "Those poor v i c t i m s c h o s e n to r e c e i v e t h e e l i x i r f r e e o f c o s t took o n l y a few p r e c i o u s d r o p s i n a pseudocommunion r i t u a l w h i l e t h e y g a z e d a t an image o f S a i n t A nthony and murmured a p r a y e r . . . " D i x o n ( 1 9 8 4 ) , 121. 139 A m u l e t s and p r e c i o u s s t o n e s , l i k e r e l i c s had p o w e r f u l , 17 s e m i - m a g i c a l p r o p e r t i e s . A m u l e t s and p r e c i o u s s t o n e s were i n v e s t e d w i t h s p e c i a l powers t h r o u g h God, and t h e h o l y r e l i c s were a medium t h r o u g h which t h e d e v o t e e p a r t o o k o f t h e h e a l i n g powers God had i n v e s t e d i n H i s s a i n t s . B oth were powered by t h e b e l i e f i n m i r a c u l o u s c u r e s and t h e d y n a m i c s o f b o t h were n o t e s s e n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t . T h e r e would have been no c o n t r a d i c t i o n f o r a s u r g e o n s u c h a s B a t t i s t a C u c c h i between t h e p r a c t i c a l c u r e s he a p p l i e d and t h e e l e m e n t o f d i v i n e i n t e r c e s s i o n n e c e s s a r y to h e a l i n g . The d e v o t i o n a l image s e r v e d t h e n e e d s o f d e v o t i o n a l h e a l i n g . A n d r e e Hayum d i s c e r n e d s e v e r a l l a y e r s o f meaning i n G r u n e w a l d ' s p o y l p t y c h w hich made i t e f f e c t i v e i n t h e A n t o n i n e h o s p i t a l c o n t e x t . Many o f t h e s e l a y e r s o f meaning w h i c h c o n c e r n t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e p a t r o n s a i n t and t h e message o f C h r i s t i n t h e h e a l i n g c o n t e x t c a n be a p p l i e d to L o t t o ' s p a i n t i n g f o r t h e s u r g e o n C u c c h i . In Hayum's e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e d i f f e r e n t s t a t e s o f t h e a l t a r p i e c e -open, c l o s e d , and i n t e r m e d i a t e - two major p r i n c i p l e s a r e r e v e a l e d t h a t have p a r t i c u l a r a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o L o t t o ' s work — t h a t o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e s i c k , and o f s a l v a t i o n . Hayum ( 1 9 7 7 ) , 51E-514. 140 In t h e open s t a t e o f t h e a l t a r p i e c e a s c e n e shows S t . A n thony b e i n g p i t e o u s l y t o r m e n t e d by demons ( F i g . 3 4 ) . One s t r i k i n g l y d e f o r m e d demon l i e s i n t h e f r o n t p l a n e , i n t h e c o r n e r ( F i g . 3 5 ) . Hayum has i d e n t i f i e d t h i s demon as g r a p h i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e t e r r i b l e e f f e c t s o f S t . A n t h o n y ' s f i r e . S t . A n t h o n y i n t o r m e n t a l s o d e p i c t s t h e a g o n i z i n g t o r t u r e o f t h e a f f l i c t e d . The c l o s e d s t a t e d e p i c t s t h e C r u c i f i x i o n and t h e L a m e n t a t i o n , f l a n k e d by S t . A n t h o n y and S t . S e b a s t i a n ( F i g . 3 6 ) . In t h e m i d d l e p o s i t i o n i s t h e R e s u r r e c t i o n , t h e A n n u n c i a t i o n , t h e A n g e l i c C o u r t , and t h e Madonna and C h i l d ( F i g . 3 7 ) . T h e s e s t a t e s c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e r e l i g i o u s a t t i t u d e s t oward t h e a f f l i c t e d . A c c o r d i n g t o P a l m e r , s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y a t t i t u d e s were ambiguous. A f f l i c t i o n , s e e n as t h e f l a i l o f God i s t h e p u n i s h m e n t s e n t by God f o r t h e s i n s o f 18 t h e s t r i c k e n . At t h e same t i m e , i n h i s s u f f e r i n g , t h e a f f l i c t e d p e r s o n e x p e r i e n c e s t h e s u f f e r i n g t h a t C h r i s t and 19 h i s m a r t y r s s u f f e r e d . In t h i s s e n s e t h e a f f l i c t e d i s T h e s e n e g a t i v e v i e w s o f s i c k n e s s were t h e most v i s i b l e , i n w h i c h c a s e c u r e s were b a s e d on r e p e n t a n c e . The a d v e n t o f t h e d i s e a s e o f s y p h i l i s added t o t h i s c o n c e p t i o n i n P a l m e r ' s e s t i m a t i o n b e c a u s e s y p h i l i s was e a r l y on r e c o g n i z e d as a v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e , and p e r c e i v e d as t h e p u n i s h m e n t o f s e x u a l i m m o r a l i t y . Palmer ( 8 S - 3 ) . 19 T h i s a t t i t u d e would seem to be v e r y much i n t une w i t h t h e a s c e t i c i d e a l s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by S. Jerome, whose r i t u a l f l a g e l l a t i o n o r c a s t i g a t i o n o f t h e f l e s h h e l p e d him r e n o u n c e t h e bonds o f t h e m a t e r i a l w o r l d and b r o u g h t him ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) 141 t r u l y b l e s s e d by God, g r a n t e d m a t e r i a l s u f f e r i n g i n t h i s w o r l d t h a t w i l l c u t s h o r t h i s p e r i o d o f s u f f e r i n g i n t h e 20 n e x t . In t h e I s e n h e i m a l t a r p i e c e , b o t h a t t i t u d e s a r e p o r t r a y e d . In t h e s c e n e o f t h e T e m p t a t i o n o f S t . Anthony t h e s i c k d e v o t e e i d e n t i f i e s w i t h t h e s u f f e r i n g s o f t h e s a i n t 21 and w i t h t h e gruesome demon i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d . The u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s t h a t , i n s u f f e r i n g w i t h t h e s a i n t one i s ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) c l o s e r to t h e i m i t a t i o n o f C h r i s t ' s s u f f e r i n g s . "A...theme i n t h e M i d d l e Ages r e g a r d e d t h e l e p e r a s s p e c i a l l y c h o s e n by God f o r s a l v a t i o n , p r i v i l e g e d to s u f f e r p u r g a t o r y i n t h i s w o r l d i n o r d e r to f i n d c o m f o r t i n t h e n e x t . God, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p h y s i c i a n Guy de C h a u l i a c C14th C I , l o v e d t h e l e p e r more t h a n o t h e r s . T h i s was b u i l t upon t h e p a r a b l e o f t h e r i c h man and L a z a r u s , who became t h e p a t r o n s a i n t o f l e p r o s y , and whose s u f f e r i n g s i n t h i s w o r l d were compensated f o r i n t h e n e x t . " P a l m e r ( 1 9 8 2 ) , 84. The p a s s a g e f r o m t h e b i b l e i s t h i s one (Luke 16: 19-85): "And t h e r e was a c e r t a i n r i c h man, w h i c h was c l o t h e d i n p u r p l e and f i n e l i n e n , and f a r e d s u m p t u o u s l y e v e r y day:/ And t h e r e was a c e r t a i n b e g g a r named L a z a r u s , which was l a i d a t h i s g a t e , f u l l o f s o r e s , / And d e s i r i n g t o be f e d w i t h t h e crumbs which f e l l f r o m t h e r i c h man's t a b l e : moreover t h e dogs came and l i c k e d h i s s o r e s . / And i t came to p a s s , t h a t t h e b e g g a r d i e d , and was c a r r i e d by t h e a n g e l s i n t o Abraham's bosom: t h e r i c h man a l s o d i e d , and was b u r i e d ; / And i n h e l l he l i f t up h i s e y e s , b e i n g i n t o r m e n t s , and s e e t h Abraham a f a r o f f , and L a z a r u s i n h i s bosom./ And he c r i e d and s a i d , F a t h e r Abraham, have mercy on me, and s e n d L a z a r u s , t h a t he may d i p t h e t i p o f h i s f i n g e r i n w a t e r , and c o o l my t o n g u e ; f o r I am t o r m e n t e d i n t h i s f l a m e . / But Abraham s a i d , Son, remember t h a t t h o u i n t h y l i f e t i m e r e c e i v e d s t t h y good t h i n g s , and l i k e w i s e L a z a r u s e v i l t h i n g s : but now he i s c o m f o r t e d , and t h o u a r t t o r m e n t e d . " Hayum ( 1 9 7 7 ) , 507. 142 s u f f e r i n g a l s o martyrdom. The supreme message o f martyrdom i s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e s c e n e o f t h e c r u c i f i x i o n i n t h e c l o s e d s t a t e , where d e a t h and s u f f e r i n g i d e n t i f i e s t h e a f f l i c t e d 22 w i t h t h e s u f f e r i n g s o f C h r i s t . The m i d d l e p o s i t i o n i s t h e s p h e r e o f t h e p o s i t i v e , t h a t h e l p s t h e s i c k p e r s o n make "that l e a p o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t h a t , s u f f e r i n g as a s i n n e r , i t i s t h e s a c r i f i c e o f C h r i s t t h a t i s h i s answer t o s a l v a t i o n , t h e 23 p r o m i s e i n t h e gruesome d e a t h he f a c e s . The Madonna and C h i l d and t h e a n g e l i c c o u r t a r e b o t h i n t e r c e s s o r y means and t h e p r o m i s e o f h e a v e n l y r e w a r d s . The R e s u r r e c t i o n o f C h r i s t , a p p e a r i n g l i k e a h a l l u c i n a t o r y v i s i o n , i s C h r i s t ' s answer to h i s s a c r i f i c e - s a l v a t i o n f o r mankind. The r e l i g i o u s image, t h e n , may answer t h e needs o f t h e s u f f e r e r s on many l e v e l s . The s u p p l i c a n t , i n h i s s u f f e r i n g , may a p p e a l t o t h e h o l y p e r s o n a g e s f o r i n t e r c e s s i o n . The image o f f e r s a model o f b e h a v i o u r f o r t h e s u f f e r e r s i n t h e examples o f t h e s a i n t s and i n C h r i s t . And i t o f f e r s t h e " . . . t h e v i a b i l i t y o f t h e C r u c i f i x i o n as image and symbol l i e s i n p e r m i t t i n g v a s t numbers o f p e o p l e to f i n d community i n p a i n and s u f f e r i n g . In t h e h o s p i t a l , t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e images o f t h e c l o s e d s t a t e o f t h e a l t a r p i e c e would have been a l l t h e more i n t e n s e . The p a t i e n t s a t I s e n h e i m c e r t a i n l y s h a r e d t h e i d e a o f man as s i n n e r s i n c e d i s e a s e was o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o r p u n i s h m e n t o f s i n . But t h r o u g h C h r i s t ' s s a c r i f i c e on t h e C r o s s man was redeemed. T h e s e w o r s h i p p e r s must have a p p r o a c h e d t h e c l o s e d a l t a r p i e c e w i t h s p e c i a l g r a t i t u d e , f o r i t d r a m a t i z e s t h i s s u p r e m e l y magnanimous a c t . " Hayum ( 1 9 7 7 ) , 509. Hayum ( 1 9 7 7 ) , 515-16. 143 answer to t h e c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f d e a t h - t h e answer o f s a l v a t i o n i n C h r i s t ' s s a c r i f i c e . Hayum and D i x o n have d e a l t w i t h l a r g e r a l t a r p i e c e s i n m e d i c a l c o n t e x t s . The s m a l l e r a l t a r p i e c e , i n a l e s s f o r m a l m e d i c a l c o n t e x t i s a n o t h e r c a t e g o r y , and one t h a t has been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h L o t t o . B e r n a r d Aikema h a s r e c e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d t h e o r i g i n a l c o n t e x t o f L o t t o ' s M a d r i d S t . Jerome (mid 1540's) as t h e h o s p i t a l o f t h e D e r e l i t t i , n e a r t h e 84 C h u r c h o f SS G i o v a n n i and P a o l o i n V e n i c e ( F i g . 3 8 ) . The h o s p i t a l was r u n by a r e f o r m i n g o r d e r o f r e g u l a r c l e r k s -85 t h e o r d e r o f S t . P a u l . I t s p u r p o s e was t o house and c a r e f o r t h e i n f i r m , t h e p o o r , and h o m e l e s s young g i r l s . I d e n t i f y i n g t h e D e r e l i t t i as t h e o r i g i n a l l o c a t i o n o f t h e B e r n a r d Aikema, " L o r e n z o L o t t o and t h e O s p i t a l e d i Zuane P o l o , " i n I n t e r p r e t a z i o n i v e n e z i a n e : s t u d i d i s t o r i a  d e l l ' a r t e i n o n o r e d i M i c h e l a n g e l o Muraro ( V e n i c e : A r s e n a l e , 1984), 343-350; a l s o Aikema, " I I San G i r o l a m o d i L o r e n z o L o t t o a M a d r i d , " i n II San G i r o l a m o d i L o r e n z o L o t t o a  C a s t e l S. A n g e l o (Rome: Romano S o c i e t a , 1983), 117-18. 85 "The p u r p o s e o f t h i s o r d e r was t o ' r e f o r m b o t h c l e r g y and l a i t y , and to r a i s e t h e i r m o r a l s t a n d a r d s . ' In V e n i c e , t h e P a u l i n e s i m m e d i a t e l y a t t r a c t e d a c i r c l e o f p a t r i c i a n s and noblewomen who " d e v o t e d t h e m s e l v e s e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y t o good works and r e l i g i o u s o b s e r v a n c e s ' u nder t h e i r d i r e c t i o n . No d o u b t d u r i n g t h e s e e a r l y y e a r s -and e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g t h e mid-1540's - t h e h o s p i t a l o f S a n t i G i o v a n n i e P a o l o was one o f t h e most l i v e l y c e n t r e s o f t h e C a t h o l i c R e form i n V e n i c e . " Aikema ( 1 9 8 4 ) , 343. 144 S t . Jerome g i v e s i t a c o n t e x t t h a t i s b o t h n o m i n a l l y m e d i c a l and i n d i c a t i v e o f new d i r e c t i o n s i n d e v o t i o n . A c c o r d i n g to Aikema, t h e S t . Jerome was made f o r t h e a l t a r o f t h e s m a l l c h a p e l o f t h e h o s p i t a l . As t h e h o s p i t a l by i t s own d e c r e e was a f f i l i a t e d w i t h no s p e c i f i c c h u r c h , so t h e a l t a r o f t h e c h a p e l was not to be d e d i c a t e d t o any 26 p a r t i c u l a r s a i n t . The c h o i c e o f S t . Jerome f o r t h e a l t a r p i e c e t h e n must e x p r e s s t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e C l e r k s R e g u l a r o f S t . P a u l who a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e o s p e d a l e t t o and to some e x t e n t o f L o t t o a s w e l l , as he was one o f t h e d i r e c t o r s 27 o f t h e hosp i t a l . L o t t o ' s S t . Jerome f o r t h e h o s p i t a l o f t h e D e r e l i t t i d i f f e r s f r o m most o t h e r c o n t e m p o r a r y d e p i c t i o n s o f t h e s u b j e c t i n one a s p e c t . In t h i s p a i n t i n g , Jerome i s n e i t h e r b e a t i n g h i s b r e a s t i n p e n i t e n c e i n f r o n t o f t h e c r u c i f i x , The o r i g i n a l s t a t u t e s o f t h e h o s p i t a l i n 1537 s t a t e t h a t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n had to r e m a i n " s e n z a a l c u n a A u t o r i t a E c c l e s i a s t i c a , a t a l c u n t i t o l o de S a n t o o v e r c h i e s a a l c u n a . " Aikema ( 1 9 8 3 ) , 117. 27 Aikema e s t a b l i s h e s e v i d e n c e o f L o t t o ' s c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e D e r e l i t t i up to t h e y e a r o f h i s d e p a r t u r e i n 1549. Aikema ( 1 9 8 4 ) , 343. M a r i o M a n z e l l i a r g u e s t h a t L o t t o was not j u s t c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to t h e h o s p i t a l , b u t a c t e d as g o v e r n o r . M a n z e l l i f o u n d documents t h a t s t a t e L o t t o was a g o v e r n o r o f t h e h o s p i t a l i n 1548 The r e c o r d s however o n l y b e g i n i n 1547, making t h e a r t i s t ' s e a r l i e r i n v o l v e m e n t as g o v e r n o r p r o b a b l e , b u t c i r c u m s t a n t i a l . M a r i o M a n z e l l i , " L o r e n z o L o t t o g o v e r n a t o r e d e l 1 ' o s p e d a l e d i S. m a r i a d e i D e r e l i t t i i n V e n e z i a , " A r t e  V e n e t a , 35 ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 202-3. 145 n o r i s he immersed i n h i s s o l i t a r y s t u d y . I n s t e a d , he o p e n l y i m i t a t e s C h r i s t , h i s arms o u t s t r e t c h e d i n an e x a g g e r a t e d a r c h b e n t o v e r t h e c r u c i f i x which l i e s on t h e g r o u n d b e f o r e him. The answer o f f e r e d t o t h e w o r s h i p p e r s i n t h i s image i s t h e i m i t a t i o n o f C h r i s t , o f t o t a l i n v o l v e m e n t 28 i n h i s s a c r i f i c e . L o t t o ' s Madonna and C h i l d w i t h SS Roch and S e b a s t i a n a d d r e s s e s t h e demands o f t h e h e a l i n g work d e m o n s t r a t e d by A n d r e e Hayum i n t h e example o f t h e I s e n h e i m a l t a r p i e c e -i n t e r c e s s i o n , t h e example o f martyrdom and t h e answer o f s a l v a t i o n . To t h e s e demands L o t t o adds t h e g l o s s o f a n o t h e r message - t h a t o f i m i t a t i o c h r i s t i , an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e s a c r i f i c e o f C h r i s t t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s new d e v o t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s . Aikema e l a b o r a t e s on t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f Jerome and t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f i m i t a t i o c h r i s t i f o r t h e r e f o r m i n g C a t h o l i c s o f t h e e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The s t a t u t e s o f t h e c l e r k s o f S. P a u l m e n t i o n t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e p r a c t i c e o f " o r a t i o n e m e n t a l e " . Aikema e x t e n d s t h i s p r a c t i c e to t h e u s e o f d e v o t i o n a l manuals s u c h a s De i m i t a t i o n e C h r i s t i which L o t t o owned a c o p y o f . The r e f o r m e r s o f t h i s p e r i o d w i s h e d t o " i m p r o v e t h e m o ral s t a n d a r d s and i n t e n s i f y t h e r e l i g i o u s l i f e o f t h e b e l i e v e r s . One way o f r e a c h i n g t h i s g o a l was a renewed s p i r i t u a l i t y , w h i c h f o u n d i t s e x p r e s s i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y t h r o u g h c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f t h e P a s s i o n o f C h r i s t as t h e f o r e m o s t weapon t o overcome t h e d e s i r e s o f t h e f l e s h and t o g a i n s p i r i t u a l g r a c e . " The f o u n d e r o f t h e R e g u l a r C l e r k s o f S t . P a u l , A n t o n i o M a r i a Z a c c a r i a w r o t e to P a o l a N e g r i , l e a d i n g member o f t h e A n g e l i c h e , t h e f e m a l e o f f s h o o t o f t h e o r d e r who a l s o h e l d an i m p o r t a n t p l a c e i n t h e h o s p i t a l o f t h e D e r e l i t t i t h a t t h e w o r s h i p p e r s h o u l d become l i k e S. P a u l , who " v o l e v a e s s e r e i n r e a l t a una c o p i a v i v a d i Gesu s o f f e r e n t e . " Aikema ( 1 9 8 4 ) , 344. 146 CHAPTER SIX THE MADONNA AND CHILD WITH SS ROCH AND SEBASTIAN: THE CHARGED HALF-LENGTH FOR A BERGAMO SURGEON In q u e s t e e t s i m i g l i a n t e c o g i t a t i o n e l e q u a l e sono i n t o r n o a c o s t u m i , i n t o r n o a l ' o p e r e de l a n a t u r a e t a l e m a r a v i g l i e de l e c r e a t u r e , e t i n t o r n o a l i h o n o r e v o l i m i s t e r i j de C h r i s t o , e s s e n d o l o i n t e l l e c t o a m a e s t r a t o , s o t t o l a d i s c i p l i n a de l a s a p i e n t i a e t s o t t o i l m a g i s t e r i o de l'humanato v e r b o s ' a d a t a e t f a s s e h a b i l e a pocho a pocho ad i n v e s t i g a r e e t c o n t e m p l a r e c o s e p i u a l t e e t f a c t o c a p a c e de m i s t e r i j s p i r i t u a l ! e menato p e r l o r a g i o de l a c o n t e m p 1 a t i o n e s o p r a l ' a l t e z z a d e l c i e l o , t a n t o p i u c h i a r a m e n t e , p i u d o l c e m e n t o e t p i u s p e s s o quanto n e l s p l e n d o r e de l a s a p i e n t i a p i u c o p i o s a m e n t e s e d i l e c t a , e s s e n d o i n s e p u r g a t a e t d i l o n g a t a da l e c o s e e x t e r i o r e C . . . 1 . L'amore c r e s c e , l ' a f f e c t o s ' a c c e n d e , e t l a c h a r i t a i n c o m i n c i a a b u l i r e de f u o r i , l a q u a l e p r i m a h u m i l m e n t e s e r i p o s a v a n e l c u o r e d e n t r o C . . . 1 . A l h o r a l a v o c e t a c e , l e l a b r e non s e muovonoC...1. R a l e g r a m o c i d i c o n e l l a c r o c e d e l s i g n o r n o s t r o I h e s u C h r i s t o , r a l e g r a m o c i p e r amore de C h r i s t o n e l l e t r i b u l a t i o n e , n e l l e t e n t a t i o n e , n e l l a i n f i r m i t a d e , n e l l a n e c e s s i t a d e . L o r e n z o G i u s t i n i a n , De l a v i t a  r e l i q i o s a ( V e n i c e , 1 4 9 4 ) L o r e n z o L o t t o ' s Madonna and C h i l d w i t h SS Roch and  S e b a s t i a n i s a work i n wh i c h t h e d r a m a t i c j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f P u b l i s h e d i n V e n i c e , 1 4 9 4 . A u g u s t o G e n t i l i , I_ q i a r d i n i d i c o n t e m p l a z i o n e • L o r e n z o L o t t o , 1 5 0 3 / 1 5 1 5 (Rome: B u l z o n i , 1 9 8 5 ) , 2 3 0 . 147 t h e s a i n t s and t h e t e n s i o n o f s u b t l e d u a l i t i e s w i t h i n i t s p r e s e n t a t i o n seem to have been c h o s e n to c r e a t e a d i s t u r b i n g , d i s o r i e n t i n g e f f e c t ( F i g . 1 ) . A r t h i s t o r i a n s have s e e n L o t t o ' s work as ' u n c l a s s i c a l ' - n o t c o m p l e t e l y d e f i n a b l e w i t h i n t h e C i n q u e c e n t o t r a d i t i o n s o f c e n t r a l I t a l y o r o f V e n i c e . Many s c h o l a r s have d i s c u s s e d L o t t o i n t e r m s o f Mannerism) y e t L o t t o s c h o l a r s a l l o w t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f Mannerism to a l i g h t o n l y b r i e f l y b e c a u s e , upon c l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n , L o t t o ' s work has l i t t l e t o do w i t h i t . Mannerism i s t h e y a r d s t i c k o f an a r i s t o c r a t i c u r b a n or c o u r t l y c u l t u r e r a t h e r t h a n t h e one L o t t o worked i n . A l t h o u g h i n i t i a l l y u s i n g t h e l e n s o f M a n nerism to examine t h e Madonna and C h i l d w i t h SS Roch and S e b a s t i a n , S i d n e y F r e e d b e r g r e a l i z e d t h a t Mannerism d i d n o t d e s c r i b e i t . What he d i s c e r n e d was t h a t t h e p a i n t i n g ' s u n u s u a l n e s s , i t s i n d e f i n a b l e , d i s t u r b i n g c h a r a c t e r was t h e r e s u l t o f t h e c o e x i s t e n c e o f d u a l i t i e s - t h e d u a l i t y p a r t i c u l a r l y o f s o p h i s t i c a t i o n and p r o v i n c i a l t a s t e s - i n F r e e d b e r g ' s a n a l y s i s , a " r o u g h n e s s and immediacy", b u t a l s o a 2 c o n s e r v a t i v e p r e f e r e n c e f o r more o u t d a t e d f o r m s . The key to u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e work i s t h e w o r l d i t was made f o r . Bergamo, as has been d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r F o u r , S . J . F r e e d b e r g , P a i n t i n g i n I t a l y 1500-1600 (Harmondsworth: P e n g u i n , 1970), 202; d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r One, a b o v e . 148 was a p r o v i n c i a l c i t y , w i t h a s p i r a t i o n s t o t h e power o f V e n e t i a n c o n n e c t i o n s . L o t t o ? a V e n e t i a n by b i r t h and a p r o v i n c i a l by c h o i c e , s e r v e d b o t h s i d e s o f t h e Bergamask's s e l f - i m a g e . In t h e scheme o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e V e n e t i a n p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n a l p a i n t i n g as i t has been d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r s Two and T h r e e , t h e Madonna and C h i l d  w i t h SS Roch and S e b a s t i a n t a k e s t h e h a l f - l e n g t h t y p e as i t s major frame o f r e f e r e n c e and g i v e s t h e f i g u r e s dynamic movement t h a t i s more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y n a r r a t i v e t y p e . The h a l f - l e n g t h b r i n g s w i t h i t t h e V e n e t i a n p e d i g r e e and t r a d i t i o n t h a t h e l d a s p e c i a l r e s o n a n c e w i t h i n L o t t o ' s p a t r o n a g e s i t u a t i o n i n Bergamo. The m i r a c u l o u s c o n n o t a t i o n s o f t h e h a l f - l e n g t h d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r Two a r e r e t a i n e d . L i k e t h e Madonna d e l S o c c o r s o who b r i n g s m i r a c u l o u s a i d to h e r s u p p l i c a n t s , t h e p r o m i s e o f m i r a c u l o u s i n t e r v e n t i o n has a s p e c i a l f u n c t i o n f o r a m e d i c a l c o n t e x t . The h a l f - l e n g t h , however, i s t r a n s f o r m e d : i t i s ' c h a r g e d ' , w i t h new movement and new m e a n i n g s . L o t t o t a k e s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l f o r m and ' c u s t o m i z e s ' i t , t a k i n g t r a d i t i o n a l i c o n o g r a p h y and d e v e l o p i n g i t i n ways t h a t make i t r e l e v a n t f o r t h e needs o f t h e Bergamo s u r g e o n . As i n many o f L o t t o ' s o t h e r works - b o t h r e l i g i o u s images and s e c u l a r p o r t r a i t u r e - t h e d i s t u r b i n g q u a l i t y o f t h e p a i n t i n g s i g n a l s a l a y e r i n g o f meaning. The h a b i t o f r e a d i n g r e l i g i o u s works i n m e a n i n g f u l l a y e r s was a t r a d i t i o n a l mode o f b i b l i c a l e x e g e s i s . The h a b i t o f 149 ' s y m b o l i c t h i n k i n g ' e x t e n d e d f r o m s c h o l a r l y w r i t i n g t o p o p u l a r r e l i g i o u s t h i n k i n g , where e v e n t s o f t h e g o s p e l and t h e r e l i g i o u s y e a r were e x p l a i n e d i n t h e i r d i d a c t i c 3 s y m b o l i s m . R i c h s y m b o l i c e x p l a n a t i o n s h a v e been a p p l i e d t o t h e r i t u a l o f t h e Mass, where a c t i o n s and o b j e c t s have been i n t e r p r e t e d b o t h as n a r r a t i v e enactment and as s y m b o l i c s t a t e m e n t . T h i s k i n d o f l a y e r i n g , i n h e r e n t i n r e l i g i o u s t h i n k i n g , has been t a k e n i n s p e c i f i c d i r e c t i o n s i n L o t t o ' s Madonna and C h i l d w i t h SS Roch and S e b a s t i a n . In t h e h a l f - l e n g t h s o f B e l l i n i and Cima, t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g s a i n t s do n o t v i o l a t e t h e i r n a r r o w l a t e r a l s p a c e . In L o t t o ' s p a i n t i n g , however, t h e j u t t i n g - f o r w a r d o f S e b a s t i a n and Roch's r e c e s s i o n a l o n g s i d e t h e Madonna and C h i l d makes them a p p e a r to e n c i r c l e t h e h o l y f i g u r e s . The s a i n t s have become a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s . The t r a n c e - l i k e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e i r f a c e s g i v e s an e m o t i o n a l c h a r g e to Roch and S e b a s t i a n t h a t has t h e r e s o n a n c e o f drama. At t h e same t i m e , Roch and S e b a s t i a n a r e g i v e n a v e r y s e p a r a t e e x i s t e n c e . The q u a t t r o c e n t e s q u e c o l o u r scheme o f t h e f i e l d o f t h e Madonna and C h i l d i s c o n t r a s t e d to t h e n e u t r a l hues o f t h e s a i n t s , and t h e s e r e n e f u l l n e s s o f t h e V i r g i n and P e t e r B u r k e a r g u e s t h a t a f a c u l t y f o r " r e a d i n g i n ' , o r s y m b o l i c t h i n k i n g , was d e v e l o p e d i n t h e R e n a i s s a n c e on b o t h r e l i g i o u s and s e c u l a r f r o n t s , and t h a t a c e r t a i n c o m p l e x i t y was e v e n e x p e c t e d o f r e l i g i o u s works. P e t e r B u r k e , C u l t u r e  and S o c i e t y i n R e n a i s s a n c e I t a l y 1480-1540 (London: B.T. B a t s f o r d , 1978), " L a t e n t C o n t e n t , " 158-167. 150 C h i l d i s c o n t r a s t e d t o t h e d r a m a t i c a l l y - c r o p p e d , e c s t a t i c Roch and S e b a s t i a n . The p a i n t i n g i s e n e r g i z e d by d r a m a t i c t e n s i o n , b u t i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e f i g u r e s i s n o t c o m p l e t e d , and t h e component p a r t s r e m a i n d i s c r e t e . In t h e d i s c u s s i o n t h a t f o l l o w s , I w i l l d i s c u s s e a c h component p a r t i n o r d e r to e s t a b l i s h how t h e l a y e r i n g i s d e v e l o p e d and how t h e work f u n c t i o n s i n i t s t o t a l i t y . * * * The f o r m a t o f t h e Madonna and C h i l d w i t h SS Roch and  S e b a s t i an i s b a s e d on t h e h a l f - l e n g t h f o r m u l a : t h e s a i n t s , f l a n k i n g t h e V i r g i n , a r e s e e n o n l y f r o m above t h e knee, and t h e s p a c e i s r e s t r i c t e d t o a narrow f i g u r e p l a n e (compare F i g s . 3, 4 ) . W i t h i n t h i s f o r m a t , however, t h e V i r g i n draws he r f e e t up i n o r d e r t o be s e e n f u l l - l e n g t h - a t t h e same t i m e a Madonna o f H u m i l i t y t y p e and e n t h r o n e d . The Madonna o f H u m i l i t y f i r s t became p o p u l a r i n t h e T r e c e n t o , which by t h e e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y when L o t t o p a i n t e d t h i s image, would have been an a n t i q u a t e d t y p e . M e i s s h a s c l a s s i f i e d and d e f i n e d t h i s c l a s s o f Madonnas. A l t h o u g h o f t e n shown s u c k l i n g t h e C h i l d , and s o m e t i m e s w i t h t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e M i l l a r d M e i s s , P a i n t i n g i n F l o r e n c e and S i e n a a f t e r  t h e B l a c k Death ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v . , 1951), 13S-156; wh i c h r e p r i n t s : M e i s s , "The Madonna o f H u m i l i t y , " A r t  B u i l e t i n , IB ( 1 9 3 6 ) , 435-464. 151 Woman o f t h e A p o c a l y p s e , b e i n g s e a t e d on t h e g r o u n d i s t h e e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e Madonna o f H u m i l i t y ( F i g . 3 9 ) . ^ The m o t i f o f t h e V i r g i n o f H u m i l i t y i s t a k e n f r o m t h e A n n u n c i a t i o n , and f r o m t h e M a g n i f i c a t (Luke 1:46-55) where Mary d e c l a r e s h e r s e l f a s t h e L o r d ' s " h a n d m a i d e n . " 6 A l t h o u g h M e i s s h a s n o t e d t h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h which t h e e a r l y Madonna 7 o f H u m i l i t y images a p p e a r e d i n D o m i n i c a n c o n t e x t s , i t has been a r g u e d t h a t t h e n o t i o n o f t h e 'humble' V i r g i n came f r o m t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f F r a n c i s c a n n o t i o n s o f p o v e r t y and Q h u m i l i t y . S e a t e d on t h e g r o u n d w i t h t h e C h i l d i n h e r l a p , t h e Madonna o f H u m i l i t y has r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e p i e t a ( F i g s . 43, 4 4 ) ; G e r t r u d S c h i l l e r c o n s i d e r s t h e t e l e s c o p i n g o f t i m e to t h e P a s s i o n o f C h r i s t i n h e r e n t i n t h e i c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e Madonna o f H u m i l i t y , t h a t t h e " l o w l i n e s s e x p r e s s e d by Mary's 5 M e i s s ( 1 9 5 1 ) , 132, and n . l . ^"And Mary s a i d , My s o u l d o t h m a g n i f y t h e L o r d , / And my s p i r i t h a t h r e j o i c e d i n God my S a v i o u r . / F o r he h a t h r e g a r d e d t h e low e s t a t e o f h i s handmaiden: f o r , b e h o l d , f r o m h e n c e f o r t h a l l g e n e r a t i o n s s h a l l c a l l me b l e s s e d . " Luke 1:46-48. Mary's ' e s t a t e ' was f i r s t d e c l a r e d a t t h e A n n u n c i a t i o n : "And Mary s a i d , B e h o l d t h e handmaid o f t h e L o r d ; be i t u n t o me a c c o r d i n g t o t h y word..." Luke 1:38. 7 M e i s s ( 1 9 5 1 ) , 144. Q T h i s i s t h e argument o f M a r i n a Warner, A l o n e o f A l l  h e r Sex. The Myth and t h e C u l t o f t h e V i r g i n Mary (New Y o r k : V i n t a g e , 1976), " L e t i t Be," 177-191; a l s o s e e G e o r g i n a Goddard K i n g , "The V i r g i n o f H u m i l i t y , " A r t B u l l e t i n , 17 ( 1 9 3 5 ) , 474-491. 15S s i t t i n g p o s i t i o n on g r o u n d o r s t o o l i s an a l l u s i o n to t h e 9 s u f f e r i n g s o f h e r Son." The image o f t h e Madonna s e a t e d on t h e g r o u n d does n o t d i s a p p e a r i n t h e e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , b u t a p p e a r s w i t h e v e n g r e a t e r f r e q u e n c y i n a n o t h e r f o r m . " P a s t o r a l " Madonnas s e a t e d on t h e g r o u n d and a c c o m p a n i e d by s a i n t s were becoming v e r y p o p u l a r i n t h i s p e r i o d . T hese g r o u p i n g s e x h i b i t t h e u n i f i e d s p a c e , t h e e m o t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n and t h e n a r r a t i v e t o n e t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e c h ange i n p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n a l i m a g e r y i n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , as d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e . F o r example, T i t i a n ' s Madonna and C h i l d w i t h S t .  C a t h e r i n e and a R a b b i t ( F i g . 88) has t h e n a r r a t i v e s e n s e o f a t e n d e r s t o r y , o f a 'moment i n t h e l i f e ' . T h i s i s , however, n o t t h e s hape t a k e n by L o t t o ' s Madonna and C h i l d  w i t h SS Roch and S e b a s t i a n . U n l i k e T i t i a n ' s p a i n t i n g , t h e r e i s n o t t h e s e n s e o f a f a b l e o r a s t o r y t o be t o l d , but o f r e s o n a n c e s o f meaning t o be u n c o v e r e d . In L o t t o ' s p a i n t i n g , w h i l e t h e V i r g i n ' s p o s e r e c a l l s t h e l o w l y p o s e o f t h e Madonna o f H u m i l i t y , s h e i s s e a t e d n o t on t h e g r o u n d but on a c u r i o u s l y d r a p e d s l a b . The s l a b i s p l a c e d a t t h e lower edge o f t h e p a i n t i n g and t h u s t e c h n i c a l l y on t h e g r o u n d l i n e , b ut i n f a c t t h e Madonna's r e l a t i o n s h i p to t h e s a i n t s p u t s h e r i n an e l e v a t e d p o s i t i o n . Her p l a c e m e n t i s n o t G e r t r u d S c h i l l e r , I c o n o g r a p h y o f C h r i s t i a n A r t ( G r e e n w h i c h : New York G r a p h i c S o c i e t y , 1979), I, 47-48; 83. 153 c o m f o r t a b l y e x p l a i n e d as a b i t o f n a r r a t i v e r e a l i t y . A d o r n e d w i t h p e a r l s and s e a t e d on p i l l o w s , h e r h u m i l i t y i s tempered by h e r n o b l e s t a t u s as queen and b r i d e , and s e a t e d on t h e s l a b s h e s h a r e s w i t h t h e C h r i s t C h i l d i t s r e s o n a n c e s o f a l t a r and tomb, d e a t h and r e s u r r e c t i o n . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e v e r a l l a y e r s o f r e f e r e n c e t h a t come t o g e t h e r i n t h e V i r g i n w i l l s e r v e as an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e l a y e r e d s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p a i n t i n g a s a whole. S i m p l y and m o d e s t l y d r e s s e d , t h e o n l y o r n a m e n t a t i o n worn by t h e V i r g i n i n L o t t o ' s p a i n t i n g i s t h e p e a r l s e n t w i n e d i n h e r h a i r . L o o k i n g a t T i t i a n ' s Madonna and C h i l d  w i t h S t . C a t h e r i n e and a R a b b i t , i t i s n o t t h e Madonna, b u t S t . C a t h e r i n e who wears p e a r l s e n t w i n e d i n h e r h a i r . In f a c t , i n L o t t o ' s p a i n t i n g s S t . C a t h e r i n e a l m o s t i n v a r i a b l y wears p e a r l s i n h e r h a i r , so t h a t t h i s d e v i c e becomes, i n e f f e c t , one o f t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f t h a t s a i n t ( F i g s . 40, 41, 60). The M y s t i c M a r r i a g e o f S t . C a t h e r i n e i s a v e r y p o p u l a r theme i n t h e p e r i o d , one t h a t L o t t o p a i n t e d s e v e r a l t i m e s ( F i g . 3 1 ) . ^ I t i s t h i s a s p e c t o f S t . C a t h e r i n e t h a t T i t i a n r e f e r s to i n t h e Madonna and C h i l d w i t h S t . C a t h e r i n e and a  Rabb i t . Borrowed f r o m t h e imagery o f S t . C a t h e r i n e , t h e p e a r l s e n t w i n e d i n t h e Madonna's h a i r c^rry t h e n u p t i a l s y m b o l i s m a n n o u n c i n g t h e V i r g i n a s s p o n s a D e i , t h e B r i d e o f C1506-1508. Monaco, A l t e P i n a k o t h e k ; 1523. Bergamo, A c c a d e m i a C a r r a r a ; 1524. Rome, N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y . 154 C h r i s t . The n u p t i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f p e a r l s i n f a c t was s t i l l a l i v e i n t h e R e n a i s s a n c e , when i t was t r a d i t i o n f o r 12 b r i d e s to wear p e a r l s e n t w i n e d i n t h e i r h a i r . The C h r i s t i a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e Song o f Songs, t h e O l d T e s t a m e n t l o v e poem a t t r i b u t e d to Solomon, e s t a b l i s h e s 13 t h e i c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e V i r g i n as t h e B r i d e o f C h r i s t . S t . B e r n a r d o f C l a i r v a u x d e d i c a t e d e i g h t y s i x sermons to t h i s The a s s o c i a t i o n o f p e a r l s w i t h c h i l d b i r t h and m a r r i a g e i s a p r i m e v a l c o n c e p t , s u r v i v i n g i n t h e most p r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e s . The p e a r l , i n p r i m i t i v e s y m b o l i s m , has been a s s o c i a t e d , a l o n g w i t h s h e l l s , w i t h t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f g e n e r a t i o n , t h e w a t e r , moon, and woman. B e c a u s e o f t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s , p e a r l s have a l s o been v a l u e d f o r t h e i r r e g e n e r a t i v e m e d i c a l powers. M i r c e a E l i a d e , Images and  S y mbols: S t u d i e s i n R e l i g i o u s Symbolism (New Y o r k : Sheed and Ward, 1969), " O b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e S y mbolism o f S h e l l s , " 125-150. E l i a d e s t r e s s e s t h a t C h r i s t i a n i t y had i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e s e a n c i e n t ' u n i v e r s a l ' s y m b o l s , g i v i n g them a new r e s o n a n c e . The m y s t e r y o f t h e p e a r l , w h i c h was ' b o r n ' m i r a c u l o u s l y w i t h o u t f a t h e r i n t h e o y s t e r was t h e o r i g i n o f i t s m y t h i c p r o p e r t i e s , and i n C h r i s t i a n i t y i t was t r a n s l a t e d a s a metaphor f o r t h e Immaculate C o n c e p t i o n . E l i a d e ( 1 9 6 9 ) , 131-2, 148-50, and " A r c h e t y p a l Images and C h r i s t i a n S y m bolism," 160-178. 12 E v i d e n c e o f t h i s t r a d i t i o n i s c i t e d i n : R o s i t a L e v i P i s e t z k y , S t o r i a d e l c o stume i n I t a l i a ( M i l a n : I s t i t u t o E d i t o r i a l e I t a l i a n o , 1966), I I I , 89. 13 M a r i n a Warner, A l o n e o f A l l Her Sex: t h e Myth and  C u l t o f t h e V i r g i n Mary (New Y o r k : V i n t a g e , 1976), 121-133. de V o r a g i n e communicated t h e M a r i a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e Song o f Songs i n "The A s s u m p t i o n o f t h e B l e s s e d V i r g i n Mary": " J e s u s H i m s e l f began and s a i d : 'Come, My c h o s e n one, and I s h a l l p l a c e t h e e upon My t h r o n e , f o r I have d e s i r e d t h y b e a u t y ! ' And s h e a n s w e r e d : 'My h e a r t i s r e a d y , 0 L o r d , my h e a r t i s r e a d y ! ' . . . T h e n C h r i s t , s i n g i n g more f a i r l y t h a n a l l , i n t o n e d : 'Come f r o m L i b a n u s , my s p o u s e , come f r o m L i b a n u s , come: t h o u s h a l t be crowned!'" de V o r a g i n e ( 1 9 6 9 ) , 451 . 155 s u b j e c t , p e r s o n i f y i n g t h e b r i d e o f t h e p s a l m s a s Mary, as 14 t h e C h u r c h , and as t h e C h r i s t i a n s o u l . Mary t h e B r i d e o f C h r i s t i s m e t a p h o r i c a l l y t h e C h u r c h , which J e s u s j o i n e d i n u n i o n . B e c a u s e C h r i s t l e f t t h e chamber o f h e r womb "as a b r i d e g r o o m g o e s f o r t h i n t r i u m p h from h i s r i c h l y a d o r n e d b r i d a l chamber," l e a v i n g h e r i n t a c t , Mary's motherhood h as 15 a l s o been e q u a t e d w i t h h e r r o l e a s B r i d e . F o r t h e same r e a s o n , Mary's womb i s l i k e n e d t o t h e tomb o f C h r i s t w hich he p a s s e d t h r o u g h w i t h o u t b r e a k i n g t h e s e a l , t h u s g i v i n g Mary a s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t h e d u a l i t y o f b i r t h and d e a t h , s a c r i f i c e and r e s u r r e c t i o n , w h i c h , a s w i l l be Warner ( 1 9 7 6 ) , 1E9. Y r j o H i r n , The S a c r e d S h r i n e . A  S t u d y o f t h e P o e t r y and A r t o f t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h ( B e a c o n H i l l : Beacon, 1957), 440-447. ^ F r o m S e d e l i u s ' p s a l m o f t h e b i r t h n i g h t - t h e Carmen  p a s c h a l e : "What new l i g h t g o e s n ot up o v e r t h e w o r l d , what s h i n i n g o v e r a l l Heaven, when C h r i s t i n s h i m m e r i n g s p l e n d o u r i s s u e s f r o m Mary's womb, a s a b r i d e g r o o m g o e s f o r t h i n t r i u m p h f r o m h i s r i c h l y a d o r n e d b r i d a l chamber, more b e a u t i f u l t h a n any c h i l d o f men, and w i t h g r a c e and c o m e l i n e s s o u t p o u r e d o v e r H i s s h i n i n g c o u n t e n a n c e . " H i r n ( 1 9 5 7 ) , 347. A l b e r t t h e G r e a t a l s o u t i l i z e d t h e metaphor o f C h r i s t e m e r g i n g f r o m t h e womb l i k e a b r i d e g r o o m "not v i o l a t i n g h e r as a mother, b u t c o n s e c r a t i n g h e r l i k e a s p o u s e w i t h o u t s t a i n o r w r i n k l e . " H i l d a G r a e f , Mary: A H i s t o r y o f D o c t r i n e  and D e v o t i o n (London and New Y o r k : Sheed and Ward, 1963), E77. The I n c a r n a t i o n was r e g a r d e d a s a m a r r i a g e r e l a t i o n s h i p . "Mary's womb i t was s a i d , was a b r i d e - c h a m b e r i n w hich God u n i t e d H i m s e l f t o mankind." H i r n ( 1 9 5 7 ) , 347. 156 d i s c u s s e d l a t e r , i s g e r m a i n e to t h e i c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e 16 1mage. The p r e c i o u s n e s s o f t h e p e a r l e x p r e s s e d b o t h e a r t h l y 17 and t r a n s c e n d e n t w o r t h . In t h e m e d i e v a l E n g l i s h romance t h e P e a r 1, t h e p e a r l s y m b o l i z e d t h e p e r f e c t i o n o f e a r t h l y b e a u t y , m i r r o r e d by t h e g r e a t e r p e r f e c t i o n o f i t s h e a v e n l y c o u n t e r p a r t , or t h e h e a v e n l y p e a r l , which was t h e S o u l "... H i s R e s u r r e c t i o n was m i r a c u l o u s , f o r he r o s e f r o m t h e s e a l e d g r a v e . J u s t a s He came f r o m t h e s e a l e d womb o f H i s mother and came t o t h e d i s c i p l e s t h r o u g h c l o s e d d o o r s , so He was a b l e to go o u t o f t h e s e a l e d tomb." de V o r a g i n e ( 1 9 6 9 ) , "The R e s u r r e c t i o n o f Our L o r d , " 818. In S t . A l f o n s o L i g u o r i ' s G l o r i e s o f Mary Mary compared h e r s e l f to t h e g r a v e , b l e s s i n g t h e s t o n e where C h r i s t was l a i d , s a y i n g : "0 happy s t o n e t h a t d o s t now e n c l o s e t h e h o l y body which f o r n i n e months was h i d d e n i n my womb, I b l e s s t h e e and envy t h e e . I l e a v e i n t h y c a r e my s o n , who i s a l l my w e a l t h and a l l my l o v e . " H i r n ( 1 9 5 7 ) , 338. From t h e Works o f E p h r a i m S y r i u s , a l s o q u o t e d i n H i r n ( 1 9 5 7 ) , 339: "Thou d i d s t show, • L o r d , by Thy r e s u r r e c t i o n f r o m t h e g r a v e , t h e m i r a c l e o f Thy b i r t h , f o r each was c l o s e d and ea c h was s e a l e d , b o t h t h e g r a v e and t h e womb. Thou wast p u r e i n t h e womb and l i v i n g i n t h e g r a v e , and Mary's womb, l i k e t h e g r a v e , b o r e an u n b r o k e n s e a l . " T h i s s y m b o l i s m a p p e a r s , n o t s u r p r i s i n g l y , i n t h e c e l e b r a t i o n o f C h r i s t ' s d e a t h . H i r n q u o t e s an E a s t e r hymn t h a t was a t t r i b u t e d to Ambrose: Qui n a t u s o l i m ex v i r g i n e Nunc e s e p u l c r o n a s c e r i s . "Thou who wast b o r n b e f o r e o f a v i r g i n , a r t b o r n now o f t h e g r a v e . " H i r n ( 1 9 5 7 ) , 337. •ne o f Mary's e p i t h e t s i s ' S t a r o f t h e Se a ' . The p e a r l l i k e l y s y m b o l i z e s t h i s a s p e c t o f Mary, as t h e p r e c i o u s , l u m i n o u s gem b o r n s e m i - m a g i c a l l y i n t h e body o f t h e s e a s h e l l . Mary i s i n v o k e d by t h i s name i n t h e p r a y e r "Ave M a r i s s t e l l a . " H i r n ( 1 9 5 7 ) , 465-66. S t . B e r n a r d , t o o , r e f e r s to h e r i n t h i s way. G r a e f ( 1 9 6 3 ) , E3B. 157 u n i t e d w i t h God. The p r e c e d e n t f o r t h i s metaphor i s f o u n d i n t h e g o s p e l s ( M a t t . 13:45-46): " A g a i n , t h e kingdom o f h e a v e n i s l i k e u n t o a m e r c h a n t man, s e e k i n g g o o d l y p e a r l s : Who, when he had f o u n d one p e a r l o f g r e a t p r i c e , went and 19 s o l d a l l t h a t he had, and bought i t . " The p e a r l s o f e a r t h l y n o b i l i t y and h e a v e n l y p e r f e c t i o n a d o r n t h e Madonna as Queen o f Heaven. Her n o b i l i t y i s due to t h e u n t a i n t e d l u m i n o s i t y o f her human n a t u r e , and t o t h e p l a c e she t a k e s b e s i d e C h r i s t i n Heaven on t h e m e r i t s o f h e r s u b l i m e h u m i l i t y . In t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y m o s a i c i n S t a . S i s t e r Mary V i n c e n t H i l l m a n , e d . and t r a n s . , The  P e a r l . M e d i e v a l T e x t w i t h a L i t e r a l T r a n s l a t i o n and  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n ( N o t r e Dame: U n i v . o f N o t r e Dame, 1961). E l i a d e has n o t e d t h e t r a n s c e n d e n t n a t u r e o f p e a r l symbo1 ism: "Cthe p e a r l ' s ] a p p e a r a n c e i n t h i s phenomenal w o r l d i s m i r a c u l o u s , i t s p r e s e n c e among f a l l e n b e i n g s i s p a r a d o x i c a l . The p e a r l s i g n i f i e s t h e m y s t e r y o f t h e t r a n s c e n d e n t r e v e a l e d to t h e s e n s e s , t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f God i n t h e Cosmos. Thank s to G n o s t i c i s m and t o C h r i s t i a n t h e o l o g y , t h i s a n c i e n t symbol o f R e a l i t y and o f L i f e - w i t h o u t - D e a t h a c q u i r e d new v a l e n c e s ; t h e i m m o r t a l s o u l , t h e " S a v i o u r s a v e d , " t h e C h r i s t - K i n g . " E l i a d e ( 1 9 6 9 ) , 150. In t h e e a r t h l y r e a l m o f R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e t h e p e a r l had g r e a t m o n e t a r y v a l u e and was a symbol o f w e a l t h and n o b i l i t y . T h r o u g h o u t t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y sumptuary laws b a t t l e d a g a i n s t t h e d i s p l a y o f sumptuous j e w e l s , w h i l e i n d u l g e n c e s made f o r n e c k l a c e s o f p e a r l s p u t them a t t h e c e n t r e o f more s u b t l e l e g i s l a t i o n . L e v i P i s e t z k y ( 1 9 6 6 ) , I I I , 118. P e a r l s , t h e n , were v e r y much i n vogue w i t h w e a l t h y l a d i e s . L e v i P i s e t z k y i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e use o f p e a r l s was p r o h i b i t e d to t h e c o u r t i e r s , t h e c o r t i q i a n e , t h u s r e i n f o r c i n g t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e s e gems w i t h n o b i l i t y . L e v i P i s e t z k y ( 1 9 6 6 ) , I I I , 118. 158 M a r i a i n T r a s t e v e r e j i n Rome> t h e V i r g i n i s p r e s e n t e d a s 20 b o t h Queen and B r i d e ( F i g . 4 2 ) . E n t h r o n e d b e s i d e C h r i s t , s h e h o l d s a q u o t a t i o n f r o m t h e Song o f S o n g s : " H i s l e f t hand s h o u l d be under my head; and h i s r i g h t hand s h o u l d embrace me". C h r i s t d i s p l a y s a q u o t a t i o n f r o m P s a l m 45: "Come my 21 c h o s e n one I s h a l l p l a c e t h e e on my t h r o n e . " In t h i s d e p i c t i o n , t h e V i r g i n ' s d i adem i s hung w i t h p e a r l s , and s h e i s s u p p o r t e d by a p r o m i n e n t c u s h i o n , a m o t i f t h a t s e r v e s to 22 f u r t h e r e m p h a s i z e h e r r o y a l s t a t u s . * •* # In t h e A s s u m p t i o n e B e a t a e M a r i a e V i r q i n i s , S t . B e r n a r d a l l u d e s t o t h e t h r e e s t a t e s o f Mary which a r e a l s o r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e L o t t o ; mother, queen, and b r i d e . "With what a t r a n q u i l f a c e , w i t h what an u n c l o u d e d e x p r e s s i o n , w i t h what j o y o u s embraces was she t a k e n up by h e r son'...Happy i n d e e d were t h e k i s s e s he p r e s s e d on h e r l i p s when s h e was n u r s i n g and as a mother d e l i g h t e d i n t h e c h i l d i n h e r v i r g i n ' s l a p . But s u r e l y w i l l we not deem much h a p p i e r t h o s e k i s s e s w h i c h i n b l e s s e d g r e e t i n g she r e c e i v e s t o d a y f r o m t h e mouth o f him who s i t s on t h e r i g h t hand o f t h e F a t h e r , when she a s c e n d s to t h e t h r o n e o f g l o r y , s i n g i n g a n u p t i a l hymn and s a y i n g : ' L e t him k i s s me w i t h t h e k i s s e s o f h i s mouth.'" Quoted i n Warner ( 1 9 7 6 ) , 130. 2 1 W a r n e r ( 1 9 7 6 ) , 122. 22 G o f f e n makes a c a s e f o r t h e c u s h i o n i n L o t t o ' s Madonna and C h i l d w i t h SS Jerome and A nthony o f Padua as a f u n e r a r y s y m b o l . In t h e Madonna and C h i l d w i t h SS Roch and  S e b a s t i an, I t h i n k i t has t h e r e s o n a n c e s o f n o b i l i t y , o r d e f e r e n c e , a l l u d i n g to t h e s y m b o l i s m o f t h e p i l l o w e d t h r o n e . Rona G o f f e n , " I c o n and V i s i o n : G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i ' s H a l f - L e n g t h Madonnas," A r t B u l l e t i n , 57 ( 1 9 7 5 ) , 503; G o f f e n , "A 'Madonna' by L o r e n z o L o t t o , " B o s t o n Museum o f F i n e A r t s  B u i l e t i n , 76 ( 1 9 7 8 ) , 37-38. 159 The way i n wh i c h t h e s l a b i s us e d i n L o t t o ' s image comes o u t o f t h e V e n e t i a n h a l f - l e n g t h t r a d i t i o n o f t h e p a r a p e t . L i k e t h e p a r a p e t , b u t more g r a p h i c a l l y , t h e s l a b i n d i c a t e s t h e i c o n o g r a p h y o f tomb s t o n e and a l t a r , upon w h i c h t h e drama o f C h r i s t i s p l a y e d o u t i n t h e s y m b o l i s m o f t h e Mass. The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e Mass a s t h e enac t m e n t o f t h e P a s s i o n and R e s u r r e c t i o n o f C h r i s t began i n t h e e a s t e r n c h u r c h , and by t h e n i n t h c e n t u r y t h e w r i t i n g s o f A m a l a r i u s o f Metz e s t a b l i s h e d t h i s t y p e o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n S3 t h e West. T h e s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s e x p l a i n e d e a c h movement o f t h e Mass r i t u a l a s t h e en a c t m e n t o f t h e ' s a c r e d drama' o f 84 C h r i s t ' s P a s s i o n . The r i t u a l o b j e c t s o f t h e Mass were t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o t h e ' p r o p s ' o f t h e n a r r a t i v e , a s t h e d e a c o n s and t h e c e l e b r a n t ' a c t e d o u t ' t h e s a c r e d s t o r y . T h i s c a n be c l e a r l y s e e n i n t h e f i f t h c e n t u r y e a s t e r n h o m i l y a t t r i b u t e d t o N a r s a i : J e a n D a n i e l o u , The B i b l e and t h e L i t u r g y ( N o t r e Dame: U n i v . o f N o t r e Dame, 1956), 1E7-147; O.B. H a r d i s o n , C h r i s t i a n R i t e and C h r i s t i a n Drama i n t h e M i d d l e Ages ( B a l t i m o r e : The J o h n s H o p k i n s P r e s s , 1965), "The Mass as a S a c r e d Drama," 35-79; H i r n ( 1 9 5 7 ) , "The Mass," 66-88. E4 The a n a m n e s i s (remembrance) p r a y e r w h i c h f o l l o w e d t h e C o n s e c r a t i o n i n t h e l i t u r g y o f b o t h t h e e a s t e r n and w e s t e r n C h u r c h , makes t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e Mass c l e a r . I t b e g i n s : " T h e r e f o r e b e i n g m i n d f u l o f H i s b l e s s e d P a s s i o n , H i s R e s u r r e c t i o n f r o m below, and H i s g l o r i o u s A s c e n s i o n i n t o h e a v e n we o f f e r . . . " The New C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a (New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1967), IX, "Mass," 414. 160 "put away a l l a n g e r and h a t r e d a n d . . . s e e J e s u s who i s b e i n g l e d to d e a t h on our a c c o u n t . On t h e p a t e n and i n t h e cup He goes f o r t h w i t h t h e d e a c o n to s u f f e r . The b r e a d on t h e p a t e n and t h e wine i n t h e cup a r e s y m b o l s o f H i s d e a t h . A symbol o f H i s d e a t h t h e s e [ d e a c o n s ] b e a r on t h e i r h a nds and when t h e y have s e t i t on t h e a l t a r and c o v e r e d i t , t h e y t y p i f y H i s b u r i a l : not t h a t t h e s e b e a r t h e image o f t h e Jews, b u t r a t h e r o f t h e w a t c h e r s [ i . e . , t h e a n g e l s ] who were m i n i s t e r i n g to t h e p a s s i o n o f t h e Son. He was m i n i s t e r e d to by t h e a n g e l s i n H i s p a s s i o n and t h e d e a c o n s a t t e n d t h e image o f our L o r d i n t h a t h o u r . A l l t h e p r i e s t s i n t h e s a n c t u a r y b e a r t h e image o f t h e A p o s t l e s who met t o g e t h e r a t t h e s e p u l c h r e . The a l t a r i s a symbol o f o u r L o r d ' s tomb, and t h e b r e a d and wine a r e £b^e Body o f t h e L o r d which was embalmed and b u r i e d . In t h e West, S t . G r e g o r y , whose S a c r a m e n t a r y e s t a b l i s h e d t h e b a s i s f o r t h e Roman r i t e t h a t s t i l l e x i s t s t o d a y a l s o l a i d t h e b a s i s f o r t h e m u l t i l e v e l e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e Mass on t h r e e l e v e l s o f s y m b o l i c e x e g e s i s : a l l e g o r i c a l , t r o p o 1 o g i c a 1 , and a n a g o g i c a l . G r e g o r y w r i t e s o f t h e Mass: " l e t us m e d i t a t e . . . w h a t manner o f s a c r i f i c e t h i s i s , o r d a i n e d f o r u s , w h i c h f o r our a b s o l u t i o n d o t h a l w a y s r e p r e s e n t t h e p a s s i o n o f t h e o n l y Son o f God: f o r what r i g h t b e l i e v i n g C h r i s t i a n c a n doubt t h a t i n t h e v e r y hour o f t h e s a c r i f i c e , a t t h e words o f t h e P r i e s t , t h e h e a v e n s be opened, and t h e q u i r e s o f A n g e l s a r e p r e s e n t i n t h a t m y s t e r y o f J e s u s C h r i s t ; t h a t h i g h t h i n g s a r e a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h low, and e a r t h l y j o i n e d t o h e a v e n l y , and O.B. H a r d i s o n , Chr i s t i an  t h e M i d d l e Ages ( B a l t i m o r e : The 36-37, n.5. R i t e and C h r i s t i a n Drama i n J o h n s H o p k i n s P r e s s , 1965), 161 t h a t one t h i n g i s made o f v i s i b l e and i n v i s i b l e . " Ambrose e c h o e s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e " h i d d e n n a r r a t i v e " w i t h i n t h e a c t and t h e message o f Mass: "Each t i m e t h a t t h e s a c r i f i c e o f C h r i s t i s o f f e r e d , t h e Dea t h o f t h e L o r d , H i s R e s u r r e c t i o n , H i s A s c e n s i o n and t h e r e m i s s i o n o f s i n s a r e 27 s i g n i f i e d . " The I m i t a t i o n o f C h r i s t , w r i t t e n i n t h e f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y by Thomas a Kempis was a v e r y p o p u l a r d e v o t i o n a l book i n t h e f i f t e e n t h and s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . I t i s known 28 t h a t L o t t o owned a c o p y . The f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e f r o m t h e I m i t a t i o n o f C h r i s t t e s t i f i e s t o t h e s u r v i v a l o f t h i s s y m b o l i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e meaning o f t h e Mass: "And as o f t e n a s t h o u c e l e b r a t e s t o r h e a r e s t Mass, i t ought to seem to t h e e as g r e a t , new and d e l i g h t f u l , a s i f C h r i s t , t h a t v e r y day f i r s t d e s c e n d i n g i n t o t h e V i r g i n ' s womb, was made man, o r , h a n g i n g on t h e C r o s s , s u f f e r e d and d i e d f o r man's 29 s a l v a t i o n . " PA H a r d i s o n ( 1 9 6 5 ) , 36. 2 7 D a n i e l o u ( 1 9 5 6 ) , 136-37. 28 From a n o t i c e o f 1542 i n L o t t o ' s L i b r o d i s p e s e  d i v e r s e . F r a n c e s c a C o r t e s i B o s c o , "La l e t t e r a t u r a r e l i g i o s a d e v o z i o n a l e e 1 ' i c o n o g r a f i a d i a l c u n i d i p i n t i d i L o t t o , " Berqomum, 1-2 ( 1 9 7 7 ) , n. 19, 11. 29 Thomas a Kempis, The I m i t a t i o n o f C h r i s t (London: Dent, 1960), 194. 162 In t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e Mass, t h e a l t a r t a k e s on d i f f e r e n t m e anings. In t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e Mass, t h e s y m b o l i s m o f a l t a r and tomb a r e c o n f l a t e d . The a l t a r i s t h e t a b l e upon w h i c h t h e e u c h a r i s t i s p r e s e n t e d - a s a c r a m e n t a l s u r f a c e . In t h e s y m b o l i c n a r r a t i v e o f t h e Mass r i t e , however, t h e a l t a r i s a l s o t h e g r a v e i n w h i c h C h r i s t i s b u r i e d . The f u n e r a r y s y m b o l i s o m o f t h e a l t a r i s e l a b o r a t e d by T h e o d o r e o f M o p s u e s t i a i n a S y r i a n t e x t o f t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r y : And when t h e y have b r o u g h t i t i n , i t i s on t h e h o l y a l t a r t h a t t h e a n g e l s p l a c e t h e o b l a t i o n f o r t h e p e r f e c t c a r r y i n g o u t o f t h e P a s s i o n . F o r t h i s r e a s o n a l s o we b e l i e v e t h a t i t i s i n a s o r t o f tomb t h a t C h r i s t i s p l a c e d on t h e a l t a r and t h a t He has a l r e a d y u n d e r g o n e t h e P a s s i o n . T h a t i s why some o f t h e d e a c o n s , who l a y out t h e c l o t h s on t h e a l t a r , show by t h i s a c t i o n t h e l i k e n e s s o f t h e b u r i a l c l o t h s , and t h o s e d e a c o n s who, when t h e o f f e r i n g has been l a i d on t h e c l o t h s , t a k e t h e i r p l a c e s on e a c h s i d e and f a n t h e a i r a b o v e t h e s a c r e d body a r e f i g u r e s o f a n g e l s who, a l l t h e w h i l e t h a t C h r i s t was i n t h e tomb, r e m a i n e d t h e r e i n H i s h o n o r , ^ y n t i 1 t h e y had s e e n t h e R e s u r r e c t i on. In The S a c r e d S h r i n e , Y r j o H i r n e l a b o r a t e d on t h e 31 i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e a l t a r w i t h t h e g r a v e . The a l t a r , w h i c h i s c o n s e c r a t e d by c a r r y i n g s a c r e d r e l i c s , becomes i t s e l f a r e l i q u a r y . I t i s , by t h e same t o k e n , a tomb i n SO D a n i e l o u ( 1 9 5 6 ) , 132. 3 1 H i r n ( 1 9 5 7 ) , "The A l t a r , " 13-30, 163 w h i c h t h e r e m a i n s o f s a i n t s a r e ' b u r i e d ' and p r e s e r v e d . When t h e r e a r e no r e l i c s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e a l t a r > t h e a l t a r may c o n t a i n t h e c o n s e c r a t e d h o s t , a t which p o i n t i t becomes 32 t h e tomb o f t h e body o f C h r i s t . T h e s e meanings go hand i n hand w i t h t h e n a r r a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e Mass r i t u a l , b u t e s p e c i a l l y so a t E a s t e r when t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e a l t a r a s g r a v e i s s t r e s s e d . The a l t a r was a k i n d o f s t a g e t h e drama o f C h r i s t was a c t e d o u t upon. The dead C h r i s t r i s i n g o u t o f t h e a l t a r i s 33 t h e c e n t r a l theme i n t h e s t o r y o f t h e Mass o f S t . G r e g o r y . I f t h e a l t a r i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e g r a v e , Mary, whose womb was l i k e n e d to t h e tomb, i s a l s o l i k e n e d to t h e a l t a r a s a t a b e r n a c l e h o l d i n g t h e s a c r e d r e l i c s . H i r n i n f a c t d e v o t e s h a l f o f h i s s t u d y to t h e s y m b o l i s m o f Mary as t h e " S a c r e d S h r i n e . " In t h e f o l l o w i n g sermon by B o n a v e n t u r e f o r t h e f e a s t o f t h e A n n u n c i a t i o n , Mary's p r i e s t l y r o l e i s appended t o t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f mother and queen d i s c u s s e d a b o v e : " T h e r e f o r e t h e C r e a t o r o f a l l t h i n g s r e p o s e d i n t h e t a b e r n a c l e o f t h e v i r g i n a l womb, f o r t h e r e he made f o r h i m s e l f a n u p t i a l chamber, so t h a t he might become our b r o t h e r ; he p r e p a r e d a r o y a l t h r o n e , so t h a t he s h o u l d be our R u l e r ; he assumed p r i e s t l y v e s t m e n t s , so t h a t he s h o u l d be our H i g h P r i e s t . By r e a s o n o f t h e n u p t i a l s t h e V i r g i n Mary i s t h e Mother o f God; b e c a u s e o f t h e r o y a l t h r o n e s h e i s t h e Queen o f Heaven; b e c a u s e o f t h e p r i e s t l y v e s t m e n t s she i s t h e a d v o c a t e o f t h e human r a c e . " G r a e f ( 1 9 6 3 ) , E86. 33 In t h e s t o r y , S t . G r e g o r y p r a y s f o r a m i r a c l e to c o n v e r t t h e h e a r t o f a p e r s o n who c o u l d n o t b e l i e v e t h a t t h e e u c h a r i s t was t h e t r u e body o f C h r i s t . In f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e p r a y e r , t h e e u c h a r i s t t u r n s i n t o t h e body o f C h r i s t as he a p p e a r e d a f t e r t h e P a s s i o n , and t h e n o n - b e l i e v e r i s c o n v e r t e d . 164 In D u r e r ' s p r i n t o f t h e Mass o f S t . G r e g o r y (c1511-1580) , t h e tomb and t h e a l t a r a r e one ( F i g . 5 3 ) . The i n s t r u m e n t s o f t h e P a s s i o n a r e d i s p l a y e d a r o u n d t h e r i s e n C h r i s t . The o f f i c i a t i n g p r i e s t , t h e h o v e r i n g a n g e l s and t h e C h r i s t o f t h e P a s s i o n on t h e a l t a r / t o m b i n t h e D u r e r image c o n v e y t h e A m a l a r i a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e Mass a s t h e ena c t m e n t o f t h e drama o f C h r i s t ' s P a s s i o n and R e s u r r e c t i o n . D u r e r ' s p r i n t t e s t i f i e s to t h e s u r v i v a l o f t h e s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i n t h e ima g e r y o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . As an accompaniment to t h e l i t u r g y o f t h e Mass, t h e V i r g i n and C h i l d i n a c h u r c h a l t a r p i e c e e x p r e s s e s i t s n a r r a t i v e m e a n i n g s . The C h r i s t C h i l d i n t h e V i r g i n ' s l a p r e f e r s t o t h e t r a n s u b s t a n t i a t e d h o s t on t h e a l t a r below and to t h e grown C h r i s t o f t h e P a s s i o n i n t h e t e l e s c o p e d c h r o n o l o g y o f i m p l i c i t n a r r a t i v e . I m p l i c i t meaning i s o f t e n made e x p l i c i t i n t h e a l t a r p i e c e . When an a l t a r p i e c e i s a s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e , most o f t e n t h e c imasa w i l l r e p r e s e n t a p i e t a , o r a Man o f S o r r o w s , l i t e r a l l y s u p e r i m p o s i n g t h e image o f t h e m a r t y r e d C h r i s t o v e r t h e C h i l d ( F i g s . 28, 4 5 ) . In t h e S a c r a C o n v e r s a z i o n e by F r a A n g e l i c o ( F i g . 4 6 ) , t h e a l t a r p i e c e i s i n s e t w i t h t h e image o f t h e C r u c i f i x i o n , and t h e Madonna o f Domenico V e n e z i a n o ' s S t . L u c y A l t a r p i e c e s h e d s a t e a r ( F i g . 4 7 ) . The t e a r s i g n i f i e s a s i m u l t a n a e i t y o f t i m e r e f e r e n c e s - t h e e x i s t e n c e c o n c u r r e n t l y o f t h e d e v o t i o n a l image o f t h e C h i l d - t h e l i t e r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n to 165 t h e e y e s - and t h e whole h i s t o r y o f C h r i s t ' s d e a t h i n a h i d d e n n a r r a t i v e . As d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r Two> s i m i l a r n a r r a t i v e r e f e r e n c e i s p r e s e n t i n p r i v a t e h a l f - l e n g t h s o f t h e Madonna and C h i l d w i t h s a i n t s , where t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g s a i n t s a m p l i f y t h e message o f C h r i s t . From t h e a l t a r p i e c e , p r i v a t e p a i n t i n g s b orrow e u c h a r i s t i c r e f e r e n c e s , as t h e m y s t e r y t h a t r e e n a c t s C h r i s t ' s drama. Rona G o f f e n has d i s c u s s e d t h e p a r a p e t i n t h e h a l f - l e n g t h images by G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i i n 34 t h e s e t e r m s . The p a r a p e t f o r m a l l y s e p a r a t e s t h e i m a g e - s p a c e f r o m t h e w o r s h i p p e r ' s s p a c e , a c t i n g as a 'window f r a m e ' o n t o t h e h o l y s p a c e . When t h e C h i l d i s p l a c e d on t h e s t o n e p a r a p e t , however, t h e p a r a p e t t a k e s on t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f two o t h e r s t o n e r e s t i n g - p l a c e s o f C h r i s t - t h e tomb, and i t s l i t u r g i c a l c o u n t e r p a r t , t h e a l t a r . The f u n e b r a l / s a c r i f i c i a l meaning o f t h e s t o n e o f t h e p a r a p e t i s made p a r t i c u l a r l y c l e a r i n p a i n t i n g s i n which t h e C h r i s t C h i l d s l e e p s on t h e l e d g e . In G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i ' s Madonna  and C h i l d i n t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum i n New York ( F i g . 4 8 ) , t h e b l u e t i n g e o f t h e l e d g e r e f l e c t s on t h e s l e e p i n g C h i l d ' s s k i n ; a t t h e same t i m e , t h e b l u e c o l o u r i n g o f t h e C h r i s t Rona G o f f e n , " I c o n and V i s i o n : G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i ' s H a l f - L e n g t h Madonnas," A r t B u l l e t i n , 57 ( 1 9 7 5 ) , 501-505. See a l s o : E. James Mundy, " F r a n c i s c u s a l t e r C h r i s t u s : The I n t e r c e s s o r y F u n c t i o n o f a L a t e Q u a t t r o c e n t o P a n e l , " P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y A r t Museum R e c o r d , 36 ( 1 9 7 7 ) , 6-7. 166 C h i l d ' s s k i n a p p e a r s t o be t h e c h i l l o f d e a t h coming o v e r t h e l i f e l e s s body. B e l l i n i h a s u s e d t h e d e v i c e o f t h e s l a b to i n j e c t an a m b i g u i t y between s l e e p and d e a t h . In B e l l i n i ' s Madonna and C h i l d i n W a s h i n g t o n , d a r k c l o u d s g a t h e r o v e r t h e Madonna and C h i l d , a s i g n o f f o r e b o d i n g t h a t e m p h a s i z e s t h e e l e m e n t o f t r a g e d y ( F i g . 4 9 ) . The i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h e ' h i d d e n ' P a s s i o n n a r r a t i v e i n t h e imagery o f t h e h a l f - l e n g t h Madonna and C h i l d i s made p e r f e c t l y c l e a r i n images by C a r l o C r i v e l l i and B a r t o l o m e o V i v a r i n i . In t h e V i v a r i n i Madonna and C h i l d , t h e meaning i s s p e l l e d o u t by l i t t l e a n g e l s who h o l d t h e s y m b o l s o f t h e P a s s i o n , making a f r a m e w i t h i n a f r a m e a r o u n d t h e Madonna and C h i l d ( F i g . 5 1 ) . In t h e C r i v e l l i , t h e l i t t l e a n g e l s w i t h t h e P a s s i o n i n s t r u m e n t s a p p e a r on t h e p a r a p e t , s i g n a l l i n g i t , l i k e t h e a l t a r i n t h e Mass, a s t h e s c e n e f o r t h e P a s s i o n drama ( F i g . 50) . The e q u a t i o n o f p a r a p e t w i t h b o t h a l t a r and tomb i s 35 f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e d i n a p a i n t i n g by G e n t i l e (?) B e l l i n i i n t h e P a l a z z o D u c a l e i n V e n i c e , where t h e C h r i s t o f t h e P a s s i o n r i s e s o u t o f an e x t e n d e d ' p a r a p e t ' ( F i g . 5 2 ) . The a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e dead C h r i s t c o n f i r m s t h a t t h e s t o n e l e d g e Z a n e t t i r e p o r t s t h a t t h e c a r t i q l i o on t h e p a r a p e t was s i g n e d "IOHANES BELLINVS", now i l l e g i b l e . Most s c h o l a r s , however, dou b t t h e a t t r i b u t i o n to G i o v a n n i , a s c r i b i n g t h e work t o G e n t i l e , o r to b o t h . R enato G h i o t t o and T e r i s i o P i g n a t t i , L ' o p e r a c o m p l e t a d i G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i ( M i l a n : R i z z o l i , 1969), 93. 167 i s to be r e a d as t h e grave> w h i l e t h e c a n d l e s t i c k s t h a t a r e p l a c e d t o e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e body o f C h r i s t , by f u r n i s h i n g t h e l e d g e as i f i t were an a l t a r , s i g n i f y t h a t t h i s i s t h e p l a c e o f t h e m i r a c l e o f t h e Mass. In L o t t o ' s Madonna and C h i l d w i t h SS Roch and  S e b a s t i an, t h e p a r a p e t , w i t h i t s t r a d i t i o n o f s a c r i f i c i a l m e a n i ngs, g i v e s way to t h e m o t i f o f t h e s t o n e s l a b . W i t h i n t h e t r a d i t i o n o f t h e i c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e a l t a r / t o m b i n t h e h a l f - l e n g t h Madonna and C h i l d images, L o t t o ' s u n u s u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n i s a more l i t e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h o s e s a c r e d s u r f a c e s . The c e r e m o n i a l p l a c e m e n t o f Mary and C h r i s t on t h e r a i s e d s l a b , w i t h t h e o v e r t o n e s o f r o y a l t y h e i g h t e n e d by t h e c u s h i o n s , makes t h e p l a c e m e n t a l s o an e n t h r o n e m e n t . Cima da C o n e g l i a n o p r e c e d e d L o t t o i n moving toward more e x p l i c i t r e f e r e n c e s to t o m b / a l t a r i c o n o g r a p h y and i n making t h e Madonna and C h i l d a more dynamic p a r t o f t h e s l a b / p a r a p e t p r e s e n t a t i o n . In h i s Madonna and C h i l d p a i n t i n g s t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l p a r a p e t i s o f t e n s u p p l e m e n t e d w i t h a s t o n e b l o c k upon w h i c h t h e Madonna s i t s w i t h t h e C h i l d ( F i g s . 54, 55, 56, 5 7 ) . The s t o n e i s e i t h e r f i n i s h e d w i t h a m o l d i n g o r f o u r s q u a r e , r e s e m b l i n g a s m a l l s a r c o p h a g u s o r a l t a r . In L o t t o ' s Madonna and C h i l d w i t h SS Roch and  S e b a s t i a n t h e b l o c k i s r e a d a s r a i s e d f r o m t h e f l o o r , and r e c t a n g u l a r i n s h a p e , e x t e n d i n g l a t e r a l l y . I t i s w i t h i n t h e 168 i m a g i n a t i o n to s e e L o t t o ' s s l a b as e x t e n d i n g t h e l e n g t h o f a f u l l - g r o w n man as t h e tomb o f C h r i s t . The r a i s e d b a c k d r o p c o u l d w e l l r e f e r i n a l e s s l i t e r a l way t o t h e r a i s e d l i d o f t h e tomb a t t h e R e s u r r e c t i o n - a l l u d e d t o by t h e C h r i s t C h i l d ' s g e s t u r e s - w h i l e t h e g r e e n c l o t h f l u n g o v e r t h e whole h a s r e f e r e n c e s to b o t h t h e l i t u r g i c a l c l o t h which c o v e r s t h e a l t a r and t h e w i n d i n g - s h e e t which a c c o m p a n i e d 36 C h r i s t to t h e tomb ( F i g . 8 9 ) . T h i s c l o t h i s t u c k e d up a t As a l i t u r g i c a l r e f e r e n c e , t h e g r e e n c l o t h most c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e s t h e a l t a r c l o t h , which c o v e r s t h e a l t a r l i k e a t a b l e c l o t h . The s m a l l e r c l o t h w i t h which t h e Madonna h o l d s t h e C h i l d c a r r i e s t h e r e s o n a n c e s o f t h e c o r p o r a l , which i s p l a c e d under t h e b r e a d and wine b e f o r e c o n s e c r a t i o n , and l a t e r c o v e r s t h e b l e s s e d b r e a d and wine. G. S i l l , A Handbook o f Symbols i n C h r i s t i a n A r t (New Y o r k : M a c M i l l a n , 1975), 165. G o f f e n i n t e r p r e t s t h e c l o t h u nder C h r i s t i n t h e B o s t o n Madonna and C h i l d w i t h S a i n t s as t h e c o r p o r a l . She d i s c u s s e s t h e c o n f l a t i o n o f t h e meanings o f e u c h a r i s t i c c l o t h , s w a d d l i n g c l o t h ( b i r t h ) , and w i n d i n g s h e e t ( d e a t h ) . G o f f e n , "A Madonna...," ( 1 9 7 8 ) , 38. In h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f B o t t i c e l l i ' s " A d o r a t i o n " , Rab H a t f i e l d d i s c u s s e s t h e v e i l s worn by t h e Magi as e u c h a r i s t i c c l o t h s , u s e d t o t o u c h t h e s a c r e d o b j e c t "out o f r e s p e c t f o r i t s s a n c t i t y . " Rab H a t f i e l d , B o t t i c e l l i ' s U f f i z i " A d o r a t i o n " . A  S t u d y i n P i c t o r i a l C o n t e n t ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v . , 1976), 37-40. The c l o t h t h a t t h e Madonna h o l d s a r o u n d t h e C h i l d i n L o t t o ' s Madonna and C h i l d w i t h SS Roch and  S e b a s t i a n a c t s as a l i t u r g i c a l c o r p o r a l as G o f f e n d e s c r i b e s i t . T h i s c l o t h adds t o t h e C h i l d n o t o n l y i n t h e i magery o f b i r t h and d e a t h , b u t t h e r o l e o f a s a c r e d o f f e r i n g . The s t r i k i n g c o l o u r o f t h e g r e e n b a c k g r o u n d c l o t h may have a l i t u r g i c a l meaning. L i t u r g i c a l c o l o u r s had p o s s e s s e d s y m b o l i c meaning s i n c e t h e 4 t h c e n t u r y . Each O f f i c e had i t s c o l o u r , and t h e v e s t m e n t s o f t h e c l e r g y and t h e d r a p e r y o f t h e a l t a r c o r r e s p o n d e d t o i t . By t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , f o u r c o l o u r s were commonly u s e d , and two o t h e r s , b l u e and y e l l o w , were u s e d f o r s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n s . I t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t to s a y w i t h c e r t a i n t y t h e meaning o f a p a r t i c u l a r c o l o u r b e c a u s e l i t u r g i c a l c o l o u r s were s t i l l f a r f r o m s t a n d a r d i z e d , and t h e r e were l o c a l d i f f e r e n c e s and p e c u l i a r i t i e s . G r e e n , however, was o f t e n used f o r most ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) 169 t h e c o r n e r 5 g i v i n g a g l i m p s e o f t h e s l a b b e n e a t h . L o t t o u s e d t h i s t e c h n i q u e o f ' s l o w - r e v e a l ' many t i m e s , n o t a b l y i n t h e M a r t i n e n g o and San B e r n a r d i n o a l t a r p i e c e s ( F i g s . 30, 5 8 ) . In t h e Madonna and C h i l d w i t h SS Roch and S e b a s t i a n , i t i n d i c a t e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h a t p i e c e o f f u r n i t u r e , b r i n g i n g a t t e n t i o n to t h e ' c o v e r t ' m e anings t h a t l i e u n d e r n e a t h t h e c o n c e a l i n g c o v e r . Rona G o f f e n has p u r s u e d a r e a d i n g o f a l t a r / t o m b s y m b o l i s m i n L o t t o ' s Madonna and C h i l d w i t h SS Jerome and 37 A n t h o n y o f Padua i n t h e B o s t o n Museum o f F i n e A r t s . T h i s p a i n t i n g may be t h e o r i g i n a l model f o r a c o m p o s i t i o n by L o t t o i n t h e N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y o f London w h i c h i s d a t e d 1521, t h e y e a r a s c r i b e d to t h e p a i n t i n g d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s ( F i g . 5 9 ) . I t i s a p r i v a t e p a i n t i n g , and l i k e t h e Madonna  and C h i l d w i t h SS Roch and S e b a s t i a n t h e f i g u r e s a r e t h r e e - q u a r t e r l e n g t h , and two s a i n t s f l a n k t h e V i r g i n and C h i l d . In t h e B o s t o n p a i n t i n g t h e Madonna s i t s h a l f - p r o p p e d on a s o l i d t a b l e . Rona G o f f e n h a s i d e n t i f i e d t h i s t a b l e a s a r e f e r e n c e t o t h e a l t a r t a b l e . The d u a l s y m b o l i s m o f t h e t a b l e i s s p e l l e d o u t . On t h e t a b l e s i t s a s m a l l wooden box. T h e r e i s no d o u b t , as G o f f e n s u g g e s t s , t h a t t h i s i s i n d e e d a ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) n o n - f e a s t d a y s . In c o l o u r s y m b o l i s m , b e i n g t h e c o l o u r o f p l a n t s and t r e e s i t " b e s p e a k s o f t h e hope o f l i f e e t e r n a l . " The C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a (New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n , 1908), IV, 134-5. G o f f e n , "A 'Madonna'..." ( 1 9 7 8 ) , 37-39. 170 c h i l d ' s c o f f i n . W ith t h i s d e v i c e ? t h e u s u a l l y c o v e r t i c o n o g r a p h y o f a l t a r / t o m b becomes o v e r t , r e i n f o r c i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e a d i n g t h e s l a b i n L o t t o ' s Madonna and C h i l d  w i t h SS Roch and S e b a s t i a n i n s i m i l a r t e r m s . Even i n t h e e x p l i c i t B o s t o n p a i n t i n g , however, L o t t o s t i l l u s e s t h e t e c h n i q u e o f t h e drawn c l o t h t o e m p h a s i z e t h e ' r e v e a l ' o f t h e c e n t r a l e l e m e n t o f t h e c o f f i n / b o x . In L o t t o ' s H o l y F a m i l y w i t h S t . C a t h e r i n e o f 1589, t h e C h i l d i s l a i d o u t on a s l a b ( F i g . 6 0 ) . He i s s l e e p i n g , but t h e l i m p l i m b s and t h e s l i g h t l y opened e y e s s i g n i f y t h a t t h i s i s J e s u s d e a d . In t h i s p a i n t i n g , t h e s l a b , l i k e t h e p a r a p e t i n B e l l i n i ' s M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum Madonna and C h i l d , d o u b l e s as t h e f u n e r e a l s t o n e o f t h e dead C h r i s t , and by e x t e n s i o n , a s t h e a l t a r t a b l e where h i s d e a t h i s r e c r e a t e d . L o t t o ' s t e c h n i q u e o f ' r e v e a l i n g ' i s h e r e u t i l i z e d as t h e c e n t r a l e l e m e n t by J o s e p h l i f t i n g up t h e c l o t h to ' r e v e a l ' t h e C h i l d - and H i s d e s t i n y - to C a t h e r i n e . Mary Ann G r a e v e has d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e r e a r e two s o u r c e s f o r t h e s l a b i n t h e i c o n o g r a p h y o f C h r i s t ' s l i f e : t h e s t o n e t h a t was r o l l e d a c r o s s t h e tomb and t h e s t o n e o f u n c t i o n upon w h i c h C h r i s t was l a i d a f t e r h i s d e a t h i n 38 p r e p a r a t i o n f o r b u r i a l . She a l s o a s s e r t s t h a t t h e s e Mary Ann G r a e v e , "The S t o n e o f U n c t i o n i n ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) 171 meanings become c o n f l a t e d i n t h e i m a g e r y o f t h e f i f t e e n t h and s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h r o u g h n o r t h e r n i n f l u e n c e . In i t s a n o n y m i t y , t h e s l a b i n L o t t o ' s Madonna and  C h i l d w i t h SS Roch and S e b a s t i a n c o n v e y s t h i s c o n f l a t e d i m a g e r y . The s t o n e o f u n c t i o n and t h e g r a v e s t o n e a r e images o f d e a t h , and t h e i c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e Mass t a b l e adds i t s own c o n n o t a t i o n s o f t h e n a r r a t i v e o f C h r i s t ' s P a s s i o n . But as t h e S a v i o u r , C h r i s t a t o p t h e tomb s t o n e o r on t h e Mass t a b l e a s t h e e u c h a r i s t a l s o s i g n a l s r e d e m p t i o n , a b a s i c C h r i s t i a n c o n c e p t . The s l a b has been made to c a r r y t h e w e i g h t o f a l l t h e s e messages i n a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n s t h a t would have been f a m i l i a r t o L o t t o . Mantegna's Dead C h r i s t d e p i c t s C h r i s t l y i n g on t h e s t o n e o f u n c t i o n ( F i g . 6 1 ) . The theme i s t r a g i c - a m e d i t a t i o n on t h e d e a t h o f C h r i s t . A p a i n t i n g by F r a n c e s c o B o n s i g n o r i i n t h e C a s t e 1 v e c c h i o i n V e r o n a (1483) shows t h e same m o t i f , b u t t h i s t i m e i t i s t h e C h i l d , n o t t h e Man on t h e s l a b , c o n f i r m i n g t h e c o n v e n t i o n o f t e l e s c o p i n g t h e same t r a g i c i c o n o g r a p h y i n t h e i m a g e r y o f t h e C h i l d ( F i g . 6 8 ) . In A l v i s e V i v a r i n i ' s p a i n t i n g o f t h e R e s u r r e c t i o n , a s l a b a p p e a r s u n d e r n e a t h t h e S a v i o u r ' s f e e t ( F i g . 6 3 ) . A l t h o u g h t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e s t o n e i s s i m i l a r t o t h e one i n Mantegna's p a i n t i n g , t h i s s l a b i s no l o n g e r t h e s t o n e o f ( F o o t n o t e C o n t i n u e d ) C a r a v a g g i o ' s P a i n t i n g f o r t h e C h i e s a Nuova," A r t B u l l e t i n , XL ( 1 9 5 8 ) , 827-833. 172 u n c t i o n , but t h e s t o n e t h a t was r o l l e d o v e r t h e g r a v e , and t h e theme i s n o t t r a g i c b u t r e d e m p t i v e . T h i s i s t h e moment when C h r i s t a p p e a r s t r i u m p h a n t on top o f t h e tomb. T h i s t o o , i s t h e moment o f t r a n s u b s t a n t i a t i o n , f o r when t h e e u c h a r i s t i s t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o t h e body o f C h r i s t , i t i s t h e m i r a c l e o f s a l v a t i o n , o f r e d e m p t i o n and o f c o n t i n u a l r e s u r r e c t i o n t h a t i s b e i n g p e r f o r m e d . T h i s c o n f l a t i o n o f t h e t r a g i c and t h e t r i u m p h a n t i n t h e i c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e s l a b i s made o v e r t i n B y z a n t i n e Ep i t a p h i o i i n which t h e t r a g i c , f u n e r e a l meaning o f t h e C h r i s t on t h e s t o n e o f u n c t i o n i s i n t i m a t e l y f u s e d w i t h t h e 39 p o s i t i v e meaning o f t h e s a c r a m e n t o f t h e e u c h a r i s t . B e i n g a V e n e t i a n , t h e r e i s r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t L o t t o might h a v e been a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h i s i c o n o g r a p h y , p a r t i c u l a r l y as an example G r a e v e c h o o s e s t o d i s c u s s i s i n t h e t r e a s u r y o f S. M arco. The Ep i t a p h i o i r e p r e s e n t C h r i s t on a r e c t a n g u l a r u n c t i o n s t o n e , w i t h two a n g e l s h o l d i n g c a n d l e s . As we have s e e n , t h e two c a n d l e s s i g n a l t h e a l t a r - s p a c e . However, i n t h e E p i t a p h i o s , t h e l i t u r g i c a l c o n n e c t i o n i s more e x p l i c i t b e c a u s e i t i s an image t r a d i t i o n a l l y used f o r d e c o r a t i n g r i t u a l i s t i c c l o t h s " l i k e t h e c o v e r i n g o f t h e c e r e m o n i a l b i e r G r a e v e ( 1 9 5 8 ) , 229; p i . 7. 173 o f C h r i s t f o r Good F r i d a y o r t h e c h a l i c e v e i l f o r t h e a l t a r . The two s i d e s o f meaning i n t h e i c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e s l a b - t h e f u n e r a r y ( t o m b / s t o n e o f u n c t i o n ) and t h e r e d e m p t i v e ( e u c h a r i s t i c ) - a r e b o t h e v i d e n t i n t h e Man o f S o r r o w s f r o m t h e workshop o f Cima da C o n e g l i a n o ( F i g . 6 4 ) . Two a n g e l s s t a n d on t h e s l a b , s u p p o r t i n g t h e dead C h r i s t - one w a i l i n g i n g r i e f and t h e o t h e r s m i l i n g a sweet s m i l e o f p e a c e f u l f u l f i l l m e n t . In t h e Madonna and C h i l d w i t h SS Roch and  S e b a s t i a n b o t h t h e s e m e a n i n g s add r e s o n a n c e t o t h e s l a b i c o n o g r a p h y . By u s i n g a s l a b as a ' t h r o n e ' , L o t t o has e m p h a s i z e d t h e imagery o f t r i u m p h o v e r d e a t h . L o t t o has made t h e s l a b p r o m i n e n t and m a n - s i z e d and by d o i n g t h i s he d o e s n o t d i v e r t f r o m t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l m eanings o f t h e h a l f - l e n g t h t y p e , b u t e m p h a s i z e s t h e messages o f r e s u r r e c t i o n and t r i u m p h o v e r d e a t h i n a c o n c r e t e way, a d d r e s s i n g t h e s u r g e o n whose d a i l y p r o f e s s i o n i s to f i g h t d e a t h . The d i r e c t i o n o f t h e p a i n t i n g t o a m e d i c a l c o n t e x t becomes e x p l i c i t when we t u r n to t h e s a i n t s . # •* * G r a e v e , 2B9. 174 As we have s e e n i n C h a p t e r Two, i n t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y t y p e o f t h e Madonna and C h i l d w i t h s a i n t s , t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g s a i n t s e x t e n d t h e c e n t r a l me