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See you in court : native Indians and the law in British Columbia, 1969-1985 1987

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SEE YOU I N COURT: NATIVE INDIANS AND THE LAW I N B R I T I S H COLUMBIA, 1969-1985 By PAMELA JOANNE BUSH B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1984 M.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1987 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( D e p a r t m e n t o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A p r i l 1987 © P a m e l a J o a n n e B u s h , 1987 3 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of "PoUK^A The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date f V ^ / A ^ W E I ABSTRACT Between 1969 a n d 1985, n a t i v e I n d i a n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a have u s e d t h e c o u r t s i n a s i g n i f i c a n t number o f c a s e s t o p u r s u e g o a l s w h i c h c a n be c o n s i d e r e d p a r t i c u l a r l y I n d i a n i n t h a t t h e y h ave a r i s e n a s a r e s u l t o f t h e I n d i a n s ' p o s i t i o n a s one o f t h e i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e s o f C a n a d a . T h r e e g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e u s e o f t h e c o u r t s a r e a d d r e s s e d . F i r s t , what g o a l s have n a t i v e I n d i a n s p u r s u e d i n t h e c o u r t s , a n d how a r e t h e s e r e l a t e d t o t h e o b j e c t i v e s w h i c h n a t i v e I n d i a n s a r e p u r s u i n g i n t h e p o l i t i c a l a r e n a ? S e c o n d , how h a v e t h e s e g o a l s b een p u r s u e d i n c o u r t ; t h a t i s , what l e g a l a r g u m e n t s were u s e d , how were t h e s e r e l a t e d t o t h e g o a l s p u r s u e d , a n d how do t h e s e a f f e c t t h e p o s s i b l e i m p a c t o f t h e c a s e s ? T h i r d , what h a v e been t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f c o u r t a c t i o n ? T h r o u g h an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c o u r t c a s e s i n w h i c h n a t i v e I n d i a n s were i n v o l v e d f r o m 1969-1985, f o u r m a j o r g o a l s were i d e n t i f i e d . F i r s t , n a t i v e I n d i a n s u s e d t h e c o u r t s i n o r d e r t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e y r e c e i v e d t h e b e n e f i t s t o w h i c h t h e y were e n - t i t l e d u n d e r t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f the. I n d i a n A c t . S e c o n d , n a t i v e I n d i a n s c h a l l e n g e d t h e way i n w h i c h t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t h a d a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e I n d i a n A c t . T h i r d , I n d i a n s h a v e a t t e m p t e d t o p r e s e r v e t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l way o f l i f e by a r g u i n g t h a t f e d e r a l a nd p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h r e g u l a t e s h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g s h o u l d n o t a p p l y t o them. F o u r t h , n a t i v e I n d i a n s have u s e d t h e i i c o u r t s i n a t t e m p t s t o p r e v e n t damage t o l a n d a n d r e s o u r c e s t o w h i c h t h e y h a v e a c l a i m . N a t i v e I n d i a n s h a v e n o t a t t e m p t e d t o a c h i e v e a r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i r r i g h t t o s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t t h r o u g h c o u r t a c t i o n ; r a t h e r t h e y h a v e p u r s u e d g o a l s w h i c h c a n be t e r m e d " e c o n o m i c " f r o m t h e v i e w p o i n t o f n o n - n a t i v e s o c i e t y . N a t i v e I n d i a n s h a v e u s e d t h e c o u r t s b o t h i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e l e g a l s o l u t i o n s t o d i s p u t e s , a n d a s a means o f p u t t i n g e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e on g o v e r n m e n t s . I n t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o use t h e c o u r t s t o a c h i e v e l e g a l s o l u t i o n s , I n d i a n s h a v e a c h i e v e d some s u c c e s s e s . The o v e r a l l u t i l i t y o f t h e c o u r t s a s a means o f p u t t i n g e c o n o m i c a n d p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e on g o v e r n m e n t s h a s y e t t o be d e t e r m i n e d , a l t h o u g h t o d a t e i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t n a t i v e I n d i a n s h a v e made some g a i n s by u s i n g t h e c o u r t s i n t h i s way. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t L i s t o f T a b l e s INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER 1 THE NATIVE INDIAN/GOVERNMENT RELATIONSHIP: P O L I T I C S , P O L I C I E S AND LAWS 6 The E x t i n g u i s h m e n t Of A b o r i g i n a l T i t l e 7 A s s i m i l a t i o n And W a r d s h i p 10 C o n s u l t a t i o n And R e c o g n i t i o n Of A b o r i g i n a l R i g h t s 20 C a s e Law B e f o r e 1969 25 A T u r n To The C o u r t s ? 29 N o t e s 34 CHAPTER 2 THE INTERPRETATION OF STATUTES 38 S t a t u s D e b t Payment E x e m p t i o n s From T a x a t i o n Use Of R e s e r v e L a n d By N o n - I n d i a n s I n d i a n P o s s e s s i o n Of R e s e r v e L a n d L e g a l S t a t u s Of Band C o u n c i l s A d o p t i o n C o n c l u s i o n T a b l e Of C a s e s N o t e s CHAPTER 3 THE A P P L I C A T I O N OF PROVINCIAL LAWS TO INDIANS AND THEIR LANDS 62 Use Of R e s e r v e L a n d 66 The A d o p t i o n Of I n d i a n C h i l d r e n By N o n - N a t i v e s 69 H u n t i n g 71 A) T r e a t y I n d i a n s 73 B) N o n - T r e a t y I n d i a n s - On R e s e r v e 76 C) N o n - T r e a t y I n d i a n s - O f f R e s e r v e 77 C o n c l u s i o n 88 T a b l e Of C a s e s 89 N o t e s 91 40 41 42 44 47 49 51 53 56 58 i v CHAPTER 4 CHALLENGES TO GOVERNMENT AUTHORITY 94 The C a l d e r C a s e 97 C h a l l e n g e s To The L e g a l i t y Of Gove r n m e n t A c t i o n s Or D e c i s i o n s 103 A) C o m p e n s a t i o n C a s e s 103 B) C h a l l e n g e s To D e c i s i o n s Of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e B o a r d s 112 C) P r e v e n t i v e A c t i o n s 114 A s s e r t i o n s Of R i g h t s 121 C o n c l u s i o n 135 T a b l e Of C a s e s 142 N o t e s 144 CHAPTER 5 CHALLENGES TO GOVERNMENT AUTHORITY: -THE F I S H E R I E S ACT 150 R i g h t s C a s e s 154 Band B y l a w C a s e s 166 "The S t i n g " 169 C o n c l u s i o n 171 T a b l e Of C a s e s 174 N o t e s 176 CONCLUSION: YOU WIN SOME, YOU LOSE SOME 180 BIBLIOGRAPHY 191 L I S T OF TABLES T a b l e I The I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Of S t a t u t e s - T a b l e o f C a s e s 56 T a b l e I I The A p p l i c a t i o n Of P r o v i n c i a l Laws To I n d i a n s And T h e i r L a n d s - T a b l e Of C a s e s 89 T a b l e I I I C h a l l e n g e s To G o v e r n m e n t A u t h o r i t y - T a b l e Of C a s e s 142 T a b l e I V C h a l l e n g e s To G o v e r n m e n t A u t h o r i t y : The F i s h e r i e s A c t - T a b l e Of C a s e s 174 v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w o u l d l i k e . t o t h a n k P a u l T e n n a n t f o r t h e h e l p w h i c h he g a v e me i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s , a s w e l l a s t h e o t h e r members o f my c o m m i t t e e , Don B l a k e a n d J o h n Wood. I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k Danny S a v a s who g r a c i o u s l y o f f e r e d me t h e u s e o f h i s c o m p u t e r , a n d who i s p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e l e v e l o f c o m p u t e r l i t e r a c y w h i c h I h a v e managed t o a t t a i n . F r a n k F l y n n a l s o d e s e r v e s t h a n k s f o r s h a r i n g h i s c o m p u t e r k n o w l e d g e w i t h me. I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o my p a r e n t s f o r t h e i r l o v e a n d s u p p o r t . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k my f e l l o w g r a d s t u d e n t s a n d d r i n k i n g c o m p a n i o n s b o t h f o r l i s t e n i n g t o my c o m p l a i n t s a n d f o r t a k i n g my m i n d o f f t h i s t h e s i s f o r h o u r s a t a t i m e . F i n a l l y , I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k P a u l D a y k i n f o r h i s l o v e a n d s u p p o r t , w i t h o u t w h i c h I c o u l d n o t h a v e f i n i s h e d t h i s t h e s i s . v i i INTRODUCTION T h i s t h e s i s h a s a s i t s s u b j e c t t h e use o f t h e c o u r t s by n a t i v e I n d i a n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b e t w e e n 1969 a n d 1985. T h r e e g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e u s e o f t h e c o u r t s a r e a d d r e s s e d . F i r s t , what g o a l s h a v e n a t i v e I n d i a n s p u r s u e d i n t h e c o u r t s , a n d how a r e t h e s e r e l a t e d t o t h e o b j e c t i v e s w h i c h n a t i v e I n d i a n s a r e p u r s u i n g i n t h e p o l i t i c a l a r e n a ? S e c o n d , how have t h e s e g o a l s b een p u r s u e d i n c o u r t ; t h a t i s , what l e g a l a r g u m e n t s were u s e d , how were t h e s e r e l a t e d t o t h e g o a l s p u r s u e d , a n d how do t h e s e a f f e c t t h e p o s s i b l e i m p a c t o f t h e c a s e s ? T h i r d , what h a v e b e e n t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f c o u r t a c t i o n ? I n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e g o a l s w h i c h n a t i v e I n d i a n s p u r s u e i n c o u r t , I am c o n c e r n e d o n l y w i t h t h o s e w h i c h a r e i n some way p a r t i c u l a r l y I n d i a n . I n d i a n i n t e r e s t s h a v e been d e f i n e d a s t h o s e w h i c h a r i s e a s a r e s u l t o f t h e n a t i v e I n d i a n s ' p o s i t i o n a s t h e i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e s o f C a n a d a , w i t h a s e p a r a t e c u l t u r e f r o m t h a t o f t h e d o m i n a n t s o c i e t y . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n i n c l u d e s t h o s e i n - t e r e s t s w h i c h h a v e a r i s e n a s a r e s u l t o f t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l t r e a t - ment w h i c h h a s h i s t o r i c a l l y been g i v e n t o n a t i v e I n d i a n s b e c a u s e t h e y w e re C a n a d a ' s i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e I n d i a n A c t h a s c r e a t e d i n t e r e s t s w h i c h a r e u n i q u e t o n a t i v e I n d i a n s . N a t i v e I n d i a n s may become i n v o l v e d i n c o u r t c a s e s i n a 1 number o f d i f f e r e n t ways. F i r s t , t h e y may i n i t i a t e a c o u r t a c t i o n as a r e s u l t o f a d i s p u t e w h i c h has a r i s e n w i t h a n o t h e r p a r t y . An example i s p r o v i d e d by t h e r e c e n t c o u r t c a s e o f Mac- M i l l a n B l o e d e l v. M u l l i n , w h i c h a r o s e b e c a u s e of a d i s p u t e o v e r l o g g i n g on Meares I s l a n d . S e c o n d , t h e y may d e l i b e r a t e l y p r o v o k e a c o u r t a c t i o n by a c t i n g i n ways w h i c h a r e s e e n as i l l e g a l by t h o s e c o n c e r n e d w i t h law e n f o r c e m e n t . An example i s p r o v i d e d by R. v. A d o l p h , i n w h i c h t h e a c c u s e d f i s h e d i n d e f i a n c e o f a c o n - s e r v a t i o n c l o s u r e , w h i l e s t a t i n g p u b l i c l y an i n t e n t i o n t o do s o . T h i r d , n a t i v e I n d i a n s may become i n v o l v e d i n c a s e s w h i c h a r e i n i t i a t e d by o t h e r s . I n c a s e s w h i c h a r e i n i t i a t e d by o t h e r s , n a t i v e I n d i a n s have no c h o i c e but t o r e s p o n d . However, a number o f r e s p o n s e s a r e a v a i l a b l e t o them. In a c i v i l c a s e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o a c h i e v e an o u t o f c o u r t s e t t l e m e n t . The f a c t t h a t a c o u r t c a s e p r o c e e d s i n d i c a t e s t h a t n a t i v e I n d i a n s a r e p u r s u i n g a g o a l w h i c h c a n o n l y be a c h i e v e d i n c o u r t . In c r i m i n a l c a s e s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o p l e a d g u i l t y , o r t o p r e s e n t a d e f e n c e w h i c h i s u n r e l a t e d t o t h e I n d i a n - nes's o f t h e a c c u s e d . T h i s t h e s i s i n c l u d e s o n l y t h o s e c r i m i n a l c a s e s i n w h i c h t h e a c c u s e d r e l i e s on a d e f e n c e r e l a t e d t o h i s I n d i a n n e s s . R e l y i n g on s u c h a d e f e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t an I n d i a n i n t e r e s t i s b e i n g p u r s u e d i n c o u r t . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t i n c a s e s where t h e p e n a l t y f o r b e i n g f o u n d g u i l t y i s s l i g h t , and t h e c o s t s o f p r o c e e d i n g w i t h t h e c a s e e x c e e d t h e p e n a l t y w h i c h would be i n f l i c t e d i f t h e a c c u s e d was f o u n d g u i l t y . 2 The c a s e s e x a m i n e d have been d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s , b a s e d on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e d i s p u t e w h i c h h a s l e d t o t h e c o u r t c a s e s . T h i s c a t e g o r i z a t i o i n o f c a s e s c l a r i f i e s t h e d i s t i n c t i o n s w h i c h e x i s t among c a s e s , and h e l p s us u n d e r s t a n d why c a s e s may h a v e more o r l e s s p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . The f i r s t c a t e g o r y c o n s i s t s o f c a s e s w h i c h i n v o l v e d i s p u t e s a b o u t t h e c o n t e n t o f p a r t i c u l a r l a w s . B o t h p a r t i e s t o t h e d i s p u t e a c c e p t t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e l a w i n q u e s t i o n , b u t d i s a g r e e m e n t e x i s t s a s t o t h e a c t u a l m e a n i n g o f t h a t l a w . The j u d g e s i n t h e s e c a s e s a r e c a l l e d upon t o s e t t l e t h e d i s p u t e by d e t e r m i n i n g what t h e l a w " r e a l l y " means. N e c e s s a r i l y t h e n , t h e s e d i s p u t e s must be s e t t l e d i n c o u r t b e c a u s e t h e y a r e d i s p u t e s a b o u t t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e l a w . The s e c o n d c a t e g o r y c o n s i s t s o f c a s e s w h i c h i n v o l v e d i s p u t e s a b o u t j u r i s d i c t i o n . The main i s s u e i n d i s p u t e i n t h e s e c a s e s i s w h e t h e r t h e C a n a d i a n P a r l i a m e n t o r t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e s h a v e t h e a u t h o r i t y t o make l a w s w i t h r e s p e c t t o c e r t a i n s u b j e c t s . S u c h c a s e s a r e i n h e r e n t l y more p o l i t i c a l t h a n t h e c a s e s i n t h e f i r s t c a t e g o r y a s t h e o u t c o m e s w i l l a f f e c t t h e d i v i s i o n o f p o w e r s b e t w e e n t h e p r o v i n c i a l a n d f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s . The t h i r d c a t e g o r y c o n s i s t s o f c a s e s w h i c h i n v o l v e c h a l - l e n g e s t o l e g i s l a t u r e s ' o r g o v e r n m e n t s ' a u t h o r i t y . I t i s t h e v a l i d i t y o f c e r t a i n l a w s o r t h e l e g a l i t y o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t s ' a c t i o n s w h i c h a r e b e i n g c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n . S u c h c a s e s a r e i n h e r e n t l y p o l i t i c a l ; t h e y i n d i c a t e d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e g o v e r n - 3 merits' a c t i o n s or p o l i c i e s . While such disagreement might r e s u l t i n p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n , i n these i n s t a n c e s i t has l e d to l e g a l a c t i o n . In t h i s category, cases are d i v i d e d i n t o two subcate- g o r i e s . The f i r s t subcategory i n c l u d e s cases which are i n i t i a t e d by n a t i v e Indians, while the second i n c l u d e s cases which have r e s u l t e d from c r i m i n a l charges being l a i d . W i t h i n each of these three c a t e g o r i e s , cases have been d i v i d e d a c c o r d i n g to the i s s u e area i n which the d i s p u t e s a r i s e . In each i s s u e area three q u e s t i o n s are addressed. F i r s t , why i s t h i s i s s u e of i n t e r e s t to Indians? Second, what goals are being pursued and how? T h i r d , what was the outcome of each case, and what was i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e ? T h i s t h e s i s i s d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e c h a p t e r s . Chapter 1 pro- v i d e s an overview of the p o l i t i c a l and l e g a l p o s i t i o n of n a t i v e Indians i n B.C., and suggests some of the areas i n which n a t i v e Indians are l i k e l y to pursue t h e i r i n t e r e s t s i n c o u r t given t h i s p o s i t i o n . Chapters 2-5 examine the p a r t i c u l a r goals which n a t i v e Indians have pursued i n c o u r t , as w e l l as the successes and d i f f i c u l t i e s which n a t i v e Indians have encountered i n t h e i r use of the c o u r t s . Chapter 2 c o n s i s t s of an examination of those cases which f a l l i n t o the f i r s t category d i s c u s s e d above. The p o l i t i c a l importance of such cases i s l i m i t e d , as both p a r t i e s to these d i s p u t e s accept the v a l i d i t y of the law i n q u e s t i o n . Chap- t e r 3 c o n s i d e r s the cases which f a l l i n t o the second category the j u r i s d i c t i o n a l cases. Chapter 4 d e a l s with those cases i n the 4 t h i r d category which have been i n i t i a t e d by native Indians, while Chapter 5 examines the cases in the third category which have resulted from criminal charges. The outcomes of the cases in the last 3 chapters are p o t e n t i a l l y more s i g n i f i c a n t in p o l i t i c a l terms as the authority of governments and l e g i s l a t u r e s i s c a l l e d into question. 5 CHAPTER 1 THE NATIVE INDIAN/GOVERNMENT RELATIONSHIP: POLITICS, POLICIES , AND LAWS N a t i v e I n d i a n s ' use of the c o u r t s s i n c e 1969 to pursue s p e c i f i c a l l y I n d i a n i n t e r e s t s cannot be c o n s i d e r e d in i s o l a t i o n from I n d i a n s ' o v e r a l l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the dominant s o c i e t y . S i n c e the time of f i r s t c o n t a c t , I n d i a n s have been t r e a t e d d i f f e r e n t l y from immigrants to Canada , and t h i s s eparate t r e a t m e n t , c o u p l e d w i t h the n a t i v e I n d i a n s ' p o s i t i o n as one of the i n d i g e n o u s peop le s of Canada, has l e d to the development of i n t e r e s t s which are unique to n a t i v e I n d i a n s . In a d d i t i o n , the p u r s u i t of I n d i a n p o l i c i e s by Canadian governments has l e d to the development of law in Canada which p e r t a i n s o n l y to n a t i v e I n d i a n s . T h i s law p r o v i d e s o p t i o n s to n a t i v e Ind ians when p u r s u i n g t h e i r i n t e r e s t s i n c o u r t . F i n a l l y , the development of n a t i v e I n d i a n p o l i t i c a l o b j e c t i v e s has o c c u r r e d i n response to the p u r s u i t of these p o l i c i e s by governments , and has a f f e c t e d the development of these p o l i c i e s t h e m s e l v e s . I t i s l i k e l y that these p o l i t i c a l o b j e c t i v e s w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n the n a t i v e I n d i a n s ' use of the c o u r t s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h i s c h a p t e r b r i e f l y o u t l i n e s the Ind ian p o l i - c i e s which have been pursued by the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l gov- 6 e r n m e n t s i n C a n a d a , t h e l a w w h i c h h a s r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e p u r s u i t o f t h e s e p o l i c i e s , and t h e n a t i v e I n d i a n r e s p o n s e t o t h e s e p o l i - c i e s a n d l a w s . T h r e e b r o a d p o l i c i e s h a v e been p u r s u e d i n Canada w i t h r e s p e c t t o n a t i v e I n d i a n s . F i r s t , a p o l i c y o f e x t i n g u i s h i n g a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e t h r o u g h t h e p u r c h a s e o f l a n d by t h e c o l o n i a l a u t h o r i t i e s was p u r s u e d . S e c o n d , t h r o u g h o u t most o f C a n a d a ' s h i s t o r y , a p o l i c y d e s i g n e d t o a c h i e v e t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n o f n a t i v e I n d i a n s h a s been f o l l o w e d . T h i r d , i n t h e l a s t 15 y e a r s , t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t p o l i c y h a s been a b a n d o n e d , a n d t h e two m a j o r f e a t u r e s o f t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s p o l i c y h a v e been i n c r e a s e d c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h n a t i v e I n d i a n s a n d a l i m i t e d r e c o g n i t i o n t o I n d i a n c l a i m s o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . E a c h o f t h e s e p o l i c i e s h a s h a d an i m p a c t on C a n a d i a n l a w a s i t a f f e c t s n a t i v e I n d i a n s . T h i s c h a p t e r i s d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e s e c t i o n s , a s f o l l o w s : 1) The E x t i n g u i s h m e n t o f A b o r i g i n a l T i t l e , 2) A s s i m i l a t i o n and W a r d s h i p , 3) C o n s u l t a t i o n and R e c o g n i t i o n o f A b o r i g i n a l R i g h t s , 4) C a s e Law B e f o r e 1969, a n d 5) A T u r n To The C o u r t s ? The E x t i n g u i s h m e n t o f A b o r i g i n a l T i t l e The p o l i c y o f e x t i n g u i s h i n g a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e t h r o u g h t r e a t i e s was n o t f o l l o w e d u n i f o r m l y i n t h e e a r l y h i s t o r y o f C a n a d a . However, t h i s p o l i c y was f o r m a l l y e x p r e s s e d i n t h e R o y a l 7 P r o c l a m a t i o n o f 1763, a n d f o l l o w e d i n t h e 1 9 t h a n d 2 0 t h c e n t u r i e s i n O n t a r i o a n d much o f w e s t e r n C a n a d a . B e f o r e 1763, no c o - o r d i n a t e d p o l i c y w i t h r e s p e c t t o a c q u i s i t i o n o f l a n d was f o l l o w e d by e i t h e r t h e E n g l i s h o r t h e F r e n c h . As a r e s u l t o f t h e e c o n o m i c a n d m i l i t a r y c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n F r a n c e a n d E n g l a n d , and t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n on t h e f u r t r a d e , o n l y a s m a l l amount o f l a n d was r e q u i r e d f o r s e t t l e m e n t . O f f i c i a l E n g l i s h p o l i c y f r o m t h e e a r l y 1600's had been c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e n e e d t o p u r c h a s e l a n d f r o m t h e I n d i a n s f o r s e t t l e m e n t ; h o w e v e r , i n d i v i d u a l s o f t e n i g n o r e d I n d i a n s ' c l a i m s t o l a n d , o r p a r t i c i p a t e d i n f r a u d u l e n t d e a l i n g s w i t h them. I n 1763, t h e c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n t h e F r e n c h and E n g l i s h was f o r m a l l y e n d e d a s F r a n c e c e d e d Quebec t o B r i t a i n i n t h e T r e a t y o f P a r i s . The R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n o f 1763 was d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e g o v e r n i n g s t r u c t u r e s f o r t h e new B r i t i s h c o l o n i e s i n N o r t h A m e r i - c a , and t o o u t l i n e a p o l i c y f o r d e a l i n g w i t h n a t i v e I n d i a n s i n t h e c o l o n i e s . The R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e l a n d o u t s i d e t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e new c o l o n i e s a nd t h e t e r r i t o r y o f t h e H u d s o n ' s Bay Company a n d " a l l t h e L a n d s and T e r r i t o r i e s l y i n g t o t h e W e s t w a r d o f t h e S o u r c e s o f t h e R i v e r s w h i c h f a l l i n t o t h e Sea f r o m t h e West and N o r t h w e s t . . . " 1 be r e s e r v e d f o r t h e I n d i a n s a s t h e i r h u n t i n g g r o u n d s . The P r o c l a m a t i o n p r o h i b i t e d t h e i n d i - v i d u a l p u r c h a s e o f l a n d f r o m t h e I n d i a n s , a n d i n s t r u c t e d any s e t t l e r s who had s e t t l e d on l a n d s n o t c e d e d t o o r p u r c h a s e d by 8 t h e Crown t o remove t h e m s e l v e s f r o m t h a t l a n d . The P r o c l a m a t i o n a l s o o u t l i n e d t h e p r o c e d u r e t o be f o l l o w e d i n any s u b s e q u e n t l a n d c e s s i o n s . As a r e s u l t o f t h e R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n , a n d o f t h e I m p e r i a l p o l i c y o f p u r c h a s i n g l a n d b e f o r e 1763, a number o f t r e a t i e s were e n t e r e d i n t o w i t h t h e n a t i v e I n d i a n s . W h i l e t h e s p e c i f i c p r o v i - s i o n s o f t h e t r e a t i e s v a r i e d a c r o s s C a n a d a , two f e a t u r e s were common t o them a l l . F i r s t , l a n d s were s e t a s i d e f o r t h e e x c l u - s i v e u s e o f t h e I n d i a n s who were p a r t i e s t o t h e t r e a t i e s . S e c o n d , a l l o f t h e t r e a t i e s i n c l u d e d p r o v i s i o n s w h i c h p r o t e c t e d t h e r i g h t s o f I n d i a n s t o h u n t a n d f i s h i n t h e u n o c c u p i e d l a n d s w h i c h h a d been c e d e d . I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , James D o u g l a s , C h i e f F a c t o r o f t h e H u d s o n ' s Bay Company, and t h e n G o v e r n o r o f t h e c o l o n y u n t i l 1864, f o l l o w e d t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l I m p e r i a l p o l i c y by p u r c h a s i n g l a n d f r o m t h e I n d i a n s . However, o n l y 14 t r e a t i e s were s i g n e d i n t h e F o r t V i c t o r i a a r e a on V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , b e c a u s e o f a s c a r c i t y o f f u n d s a n d t h e f a c t t h a t t r e a t i e s were made o n l y when a c t u a l s e t t l e m e n t was p l a n n e d . ^ A f t e r t h e r e t i r e m e n t o f D o u g l a s i n 1864, t h e c o l o n y ' s p o l i c y c h a n g e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y . N a t i v e I n d i a n s were v i e w e d by t h e new c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a s an o b s t r u c t i o n t o s e t t l e m e n t a n d p r o - g r e s s , a n d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f any I n d i a n r i g h t s t o t h e l a n d w h i c h 3 t h e y o c c u p i e d was d e n i e d . T h i s a t t i t u d e on t h e p a r t o f t h e c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , a n d o f l a t e r p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s , 9 p r e v e n t e d t h e n e g o t i a t i o n o f any f u r t h e r t r e a t i e s w i t h them, and l i m i t e d t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t t o n e g o t i a t e t r e a - t i e s . W h i l e t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t w i s h e d t o o b t a i n t h e s u r r e n - d e r o f I n d i a n t i t l e a f t e r C o n f e d e r a t i o n , t h e p r o v i n c e r e t a i n e d t i t l e o v e r Crown l a n d i n most o f t h e p r o v i n c e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , o n l y one t r e a t y , T r e a t y 8, was made b e t w e e n t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r - nment a n d t h e B e a v e r a n d t h e S l a v e I n d i a n s i n n o r t h e a s t e r n B.C., 4 a s t h i s l a n d was h e l d by t h e f e d e r a l C rown. The e f f e c t on C a n a d i a n l a w o f t h e p o l i c y o f e x t i n g u i s h i n g a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i s n o t e n t i r e l y c l e a r . The a c t u a l l e g a l s t a t u s o f t h e t r e a t i e s w h i c h were e n t e r e d i n t o i s u n c e r t a i n , a l t h o u g h C a n a d i a n c o u r t s have c o n s i d e r e d t h e t r e a t i e s t o c o n s t i t u t e o b l i - g a t i o n s e n f o r c e a b l e a t l a w , a t l e a s t i n some c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The l e g a l e f f e c t s o f t h e I m p e r i a l p o l i c y o f p u r c h a s i n g l a n d f r o m t h e I n d i a n s , a n d o f t h e R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n w h i c h e x p r e s s e d t h i s p o l i c y , a r e a l s o u n c e r t a i n . (A c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e c a s e l a w on t h e s e i s s u e s p r i o r t o 1969 i s i n c l u d e d i n s e c t i o n f o u r o f t h i s c h a p t e r . ) A t t h i s p o i n t , h o w e v e r , i t s h o u l d be s a i d t h a t i n p u r c h a s i n g l a n d f r o m t h e I n d i a n s , t h e Crown was i m p l i c i t l y r e c o g - n i z i n g t h a t n a t i v e I n d i a n s d i d h a v e c e r t a i n r i g h t s t o t h e l a n d w h i c h t h e y o c c u p i e d . A s s i m i l a t i o n and W a r d s h i p B e f o r e C o n f e d e r a t i o n , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f I n d i a n p o l i c y o c - 10 c u r r e d s e p a r a t e l y i n e a c h o f t h e c o l o n i e s . H owever, a s t h e g e n e r - a l a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s I n d i a n s a n d t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o w h i t e s o c i e t y was s i m i l a r i n a l l t h e c o l o n i e s , t h e v a r i o u s p o l i c i e s 5 s h a r e d t h e g o a l o f a s s i m i l a t i o n . G o vernment o f f i c i a l s a n d p o l i - t i c i a n s b e l i e v e d t h a t i t was i n e v i t a b l e t h a t a s s i m i l a t i o n w o u l d g r a d u a l l y t a k e p l a c e a s n a t i v e I n d i a n s were e x p o s e d t o t h e won- d e r s o f " c i v i l i z e d " l i f e . H o w e v e r , a s t h e I n d i a n s were p r i m i t i v e p e o p l e s , t h e p r o c e s s o f a d j u s t m e n t w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t . C o n s e - q u e n t l y , an I n d i a n p o l i c y was d e s i g n e d t o b o t h p r o t e c t t h e I n - d i a n s ( f r o m b o t h t h e m s e l v e s a n d f r o m u n s c r u p u l o u s s e t t l e r s ) a n d t o h a s t e n t h e p r o c e s s o f a s s i m i l a t i o n . The m e thod c h o s e n t o a c h i e v e t h i s was t h e s e g r e g a t i o n o f n a t i v e I n d i a n s t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f t h e r e s e r v e s y s t e m . On r e s e r v e s , a s s i m i l a t i o n c o u l d be h a s t e n e d t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n , a n d n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s m i n i m i z e d t h r o u g h t h e w a r d s h i p o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t . T h i s p a t e r n a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s I n d i a n s , and t h e p o l i c y w h i c h grew o u t o f t h i s a t t i t u d e , d e v e l o p e d g r a d u a l l y f r o m 1830 u n t i l a b o u t t h e t i m e o f C o n f e d e r a t i o n . Upon C o n f e d e r a t i o n , t h e a u t h o r i t y t o l e g i s l a t e w i t h r e s p e c t t o I n d i a n s and l a n d s r e s e r v e d f o r I n d i a n s was g i v e n t o t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t i n S e c t i o n 9 1 ( 2 4 ) o f t h e B.N.A. A c t (now t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t , 1 8 6 7 ) . A f t e r C o n f e d e r a t i o n , t h e now n a t i o n a l p o l i c y o f a s s i m i l a t i o n a n d w a r d s h i p was r e f i n e d by t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t . B e f o r e t u r n i n g t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e c o n t e n t o f t h i s p o l i c y , a nd t h e I n d i a n r e a c t i o n t o i t , i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t 1 1 t h e v e r y e x i s t e n c e o f S e c t i o n 9 1 ( 2 4 ) r a i s e s l e g a l i s s u e s p e r - t a i n i n g t o n a t i v e I n d i a n s . M o s t i m p o r t a n t l y , t h i s s e c t i o n g i v e s n a t i v e I n d i a n s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o c h a l l e n g e t h e v a l i d i t y o f p r o v i n c i a l l a w s a s t h e y a p p l y t o I n d i a n s and t h e i r l a n d s . (The j u r i s d i c t i o n a l i s s u e s w h i c h a r e r a i s e d by S e c t i o n 9 1 ( 2 4 ) w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n C h a p t e r 3.) The e x i s t e n c e o f S e c t i o n 9 1 ( 2 4 ) a l s o n e c e s s i t a t e d t h e i n c l u - s i o n o f r e f e r e n c e s t o n a t i v e I n d i a n s i n t h e Terms o f U n i o n u n d e r w h i c h B.C. j o i n e d C o n f e d e r a t i o n i n 1871. A r t i c l e 13 o f t h e Terms o f U n i o n c o n t a i n e d 3 p r o v i s i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o n a t i v e I n d i a n s : t h a t 1) " t h e c h a r g e o f t h e I n d i a n s , and t h e t r u s t e e s h i p and management o f t h e l a n d s , r e s e r v e d f o r t h e i r u s e a n d b e n e f i t , s h a l l be a ssumed by t h e D o m i n i o n G o v e r n m e n t " ; t h a t 2) "a p o l i c y a s l i b e r a l a s t h a t h i t h e r t o p u r s u e d by t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a G o v e r n m e n t s h a l l be c o n t i n u e d by t h e D o m i n i o n G o v e r n m e n t a f t e r t h e U n i o n " ; a n d t h a t 3) " t o c a r r y o u t s u c h p o l i c y , t r a c t s o f l a n d o f s u c h e x t e n t a s i t h a s h i t h e r t o b een t h e p r a c t i c e o f t h e B r i - t i s h C o l u m b i a G o v e r n m e n t t o a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h a t p u r p o s e s h a l l f r o m t i m e t o t i m e be c o n v e y e d by t h e l o c a l G o v e r n m e n t t o t h e D o m i n i o n G o v e r n m e n t , i n t r u s t f o r t h e use a n d b e n e f i t o f t h e I n d i a n s " . ^ T h i s a r t i c l e n e c e s s i t a t e d t h e p a s s a g e o f s u b s e q u e n t l e g i s l a t i o n by b o t h t h e f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e s i n 7 o r d e r t o i m p l e m e n t i t s p r o v i s i o n s . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t no p r o v i s i o n s were made i n t h i s s u b s e q u e n t l e g i s l a t i o n f o r t h e 1 2 p r o t e c t i o n o f n a t i v e h u n t i n g r i g h t s , a l t h o u g h s u c h p r o t e c t i o n was e n s u r e d i n t h e p r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s by a c l a u s e o f t h e f e d e r a l / p r o - v i n c i a l N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s A g r e e m e n t s . We now t u r n t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h was p a s s e d i n o r d e r t o f u r t h e r t h e g o a l o f a s s i m i l a t i o n . I n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e t h i s g o a l , P a r l i a m e n t p a s s e d a number o f A c t s w h i c h p e r t a i n e d t o I n d i a n s . T h e s e A c t s s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e d u c e d t h e I n - d i a n s ' a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l t h e i r own l i v e s , a s t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n - ment, t h r o u g h t h e m i n i s t e r o f I n d i a n a f f a i r s , was g i v e n t h e a u t h o r i t y t o make d e c i s i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o v i r t u a l l y e v e r y a s p e c t o f l i f e on r e s e r v e s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e t i t l e t o r e s e r v e l a n d s was h e l d by t h e f e d e r a l C rown, and d e c i s i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e d i s p o s i t i o n o f t h e s e l a n d s were s u b j e c t t o t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e M i n i s t e r . The I n d i a n A d vancement A c t s o f 1884 a n d 1886 g ave b a n d c o u n c i l s some f i s c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a n d t h e a u t h o r i t y t o p a s s e n f o r c e a b l e b y - l a w s , a l t h o u g h most d e c i s i o n s r e m a i n e d s u b - Q j e c t t o t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e M i n i s t e r . T h e s e A c t s were meant t o e d u c a t e t h e I n d i a n s i n t h e ways o f c i v i l i z e d g o v e r n m e n t , a n d i f p o s s i b l e t o d e s t r o y t r i b a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . E l e c t e d , r a t h e r t h a n h e r e d i t a r y c h i e f s , were e n c o u r a g e d by t h e g o v e r n m e n t , a n d t h e c h i e f s ' d u t i e s were l i n k e d t o t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t , g f o r whom t h e y a c t e d a s g o - b e t w e e n s . P a r l i a m e n t a l s o a d d e d p r o v i s i o n s t o t h e I n d i a n A c t i n t h e l a t e 1800's f o r b i d d i n g t h e p o t l a t c h a n d t h e Sun D a n c e , a s t h e s e were s e e n t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h a s s i m i l a t i o n . 13 The g o v e r n m e n t a l s o t r i e d t o s p e e d a s s i m i l a t i o n by r e d u c i n g t h e number o f s t a t u s I n d i a n s . M e m b e r s h i p p r o v i s i o n s i n t h e v a r i o u s I n d i a n A c t s d e f i n e d who were I n d i a n s f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e A c t s - s t a t u s I n d i a n s . O v e r t i m e , m e m b e r s h i p p r o v i s i o n s became more r e s t r i c t i v e . One e x a m p l e o f t h i s was t h e i n c l u s i o n o f S e c t i o n 6 i n t h e 1869 A c t , w h i c h d e n i e d s t a t u s t o I n d i a n women who m a r r i e d n o n - n a t i v e s . P r o v i s i o n s f o r t h e e n f r a n c h i s e m e n t o f I n d i a n s who were c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t l y c i v i l i z e d a l s o r e d u c e d t h e number o f s t a t u s I n d i a n s . An I n d i a n who was e n f r a n c h i s e d a t t a i n e d t h e r i g h t t o v o t e , p r o p e r t y r i g h t s , a n d a lump sum payment o f band f u n d s , i n r e t u r n f o r r e n o u n c i n g s t a t u s a s an I n d i a n . The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e r e s e r v e s y s t e m i n B.C. was a m a t t e r o f c o n t r o v e r s y - b o t h b e t w e e n t h e p r o v i n c i a l a n d f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t s a nd b e t w e e n t h e s e g o v e r n m e n t s a n d t h e n a t i v e I n d i a n s . 1 ^ The a l l o t m e n t o f r e s e r v e s h a d begun u n d e r G o v e r n o r D o u g l a s , a n d c h a n g e s t o r e s e r v e b o u n d a r i e s c o n t i n u e d u n t i l 1924. I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t w i s h e d t o r e d u c e t h e a r e a o f t h e r e s e r v e s a l l o t e d u n d e r G o v e r n o r D o u g l a s . 1 1 N a t i v e I n d i a n s i n many a r e a s o f B.C. p r o t e s t e d b o t h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e r e s e r v e s and t h e s i z e a n d l o c a t i o n o f r e s e r v e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y when t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t a t t e m p t e d t o r e d u c e t h e s i z e o f 12 . t h e r e s e r v e s . A s t a t e m e n t made by C h i e f D a v i d M ackay i n 1887, t e s t i f y i n g b e f o r e t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o f I n q u i r y i n t o t h e N o r t h 14 West C o a s t I n d i a n s , p r o v i d e s an e x a m p l e o f t h e n a t i v e I n d i a n a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s r e s e r v e s . What we d o n ' t l i k e a b o u t t h e Gov e r n m e n t i s t h e i r s a y i n g t h i s : "We w i l l g i v e y o u t h i s much l a n d . " How c a n t h e y g i v e i t when i t i s o u r own? We c a n n o t u n d e r s t a n d i t . They have n e v e r b o u g h t i t f r o m us o r o u r f o r e f a t h e r s . T h ey h a v e n e v e r f o u g h t a n d c o n q u e r e d o u r p e o p l e a nd t a k e n t h e l a n d i n t h a t way, a n d y e t t h e y now s a y t h e y w i l l g i v e us so much l a n d - o u r own l a n d . ( 1 4 ) D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e r e s e r v e s y s t e m was e x p r e s s e d i n many ways, a n d l e d t o p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e I n - d i a n s . E x a m p l e s o f t h i s a c t i o n a r e t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a p e t i - t i o n i n 1874 t o t h e I n d i a n C o m m i s s i o n e r , t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e N i s h g a L a n d C o m m i t t e e i n 1890, a n d t h e t r i p t o E n g l a n d made by t h r e e c h i e f s i n 1906 i n o r d e r t o p l a c e t h e i r c l a i m s b e f o r e t h e R i n g . From 1913-1927, t h e p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s o f n a t i v e I n d i a n s i n t h e p r o v i n c e were d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s a s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e i r a b o r i g i n a l c l a i m . D u r i n g t h i s t i m e , n a t i v e I n d i a n s demanded c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e l o s s o f t h e i r l a n d , e d u c a t i o n a n d m e d i c a l c a r e , and c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e i r h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g a n d w a t e r 1 d. r i g h t s . F i n a l l y , i n 1927, t h e House o f Commons a p p o i n t e d a s p e c i a l c o m m i t t e e t o i n q u i r e i n t o t h e c l a i m s e x p r e s s e d i n a p e t i t i o n made t o P a r l i a m e n t i n 1926 by t h e A l l i e d I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B.C. I n A p r i l , 1927, t h e r e p o r t o f t h e c o m m i t t e e c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e I n d i a n s h a d n o t e s t a b l i s h e d a n y c l a i m s t o l a n d b a s e d on a b o r i g i - n a l r i g h t s , b u t a d v i s e d t h a t $100,000 be s p e n t i n B.C. a n n u a l l y 15 f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e I n d i a n s , a s c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e l a c k o f t r e a t y p a y m e n t s i n B.C. The c o m m i t t e e ' s d e c i s i o n c l o s e d t h e m a t t e r a s f a r a s t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t was c o n c e r n e d . I n a d d i - t i o n , an amendment t o t h e I n d i a n A c t i n 1927 p r o v i d e d t h a t any p e r s o n who r e c e i v e d f u n d s f r o m I n d i a n s i n o r d e r t o p u r s u e a c l a i m was s u b j e c t t o p r o s e c u t i o n . W h i l e t h i s amendment was i n c l u d e d b e c a u s e o f a c o n c e r n o v e r A m e r i c a n l a w y e r s s o l i c i t i n g f u n d s f r o m e a s t e r n C a n a d i a n I n d i a n s t o p r e s e n t a c l a i m a g a i n s t t h e S t a t e o f New Y o r k , 1 ^ i t a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e d e m i s e o f t h e B.C. I n d i a n l a n d c l a i m s movement. The p e r i o d f r o m 1927 t o t h e e a r l y 1960's was a r e l a t i v e l y u n e v e n t f u l o n e. The f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t c o n t i n u e d t o p u r s u e d i t s a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t p o l i c i e s , w h i c h were f u r t h e r e d by t h e e s t a b l i s h - ment o f more r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s , where n a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n w e r e p u n i s h e d f o r s p e a k i n g t h e i r own l a n g u a g e s . L a t e r i n t h i s p e r i o d , t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t began t o i n t e g r a t e n a t i v e I n d i a n s i n t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m , a s a means o f b o t h s a v i n g money and h a s t e n i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n . The N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d o f B.C. was f o r m e d i n 1931, d r a w i n g most o f i t s s u p p o r t f r o m I n d i a n s o f t h e w e s t / c e n t r a l a n d n o r t h c o a s t a r e a s . The m a i n a c t i v i t y o f t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n was t o r e p r e s e n t t h e i n t e r e s t s o f c o m m e r c i a l I n d i a n f i s h e r m e n , b u t i t a l s o c o n c e r n e d i t s e l f w i t h w i d e r i s s u e s , s u c h a s s o c i a l s e r v i c e s f o r I n d i a n s a n d v o t i n g r i g h t s . N a t i v e I n d i a n s d i d n o t r e c e i v e t h e p r o v i n c i a l f r a n c h i s e 16 u n t i l 1947, o r t h e f e d e r a l f r a n c h i s e u n t i l 1960. The N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d a l s o began p u b l i s h i n g t h e N a t i v e V o i c e i n 1946, w h i c h 1 7 was u n t i l 1969 t h e p r o v i n c e ' s o n l y I n d i a n n e w s p a p e r . I n 1946, a s p e c i a l j o i n t c o m m i t t e e o f t h e S e n a t e a n d House o f Commons was e s t a b l i s h e d t o c o n s i d e r t h e r e v i s i o n o f t h e I n d i a n A c t . The new A c t , w h i c h came i n t o e f f e c t i n 1951, was l i t t l e more t h a n a c o n s o l i d a t i o n and c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n A c t s o f t h e p a s t . However, t h e p o t l a t c h p r o h i b i t i o n was d r o p p e d , a s was t h e s e c t i o n w h i c h had made r a i s i n g money f o r I n d i a n c l a i m s an o f f e n c e , a n d t h e l a n d c l a i m s q u e s t i o n was s o o n r e v i v e d . The N i s h g a T r i b a l C o u n c i l was f o r m e d i n 1955, a n d one o f i t s m a j o r c o n c e r n s became t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e l a n d q u e s t i o n . A new p o s i t i o n p a p e r on t h e i s s u e was drawn up i n 1959, w h i c h empha- s i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f r e s o u r c e s , s u c h a s f i s h a n d t i m b e r , a s w e l l a s l a n d . However, when t h e b r i e f was p r e s e n t e d t o a n o t h e r j o i n t S e n a t e - H o u s e o f Commons C o m m i t t e e on I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n 1 g 1960, i t h a d no n o t i c e a b l e e f f e c t . D u r i n g t h e 1960's t h e n e e d f o r r e v i s i o n s t o t h e I n d i a n A c t became i n c r e a s i n g l y e v i d e n t . By t h i s t i m e i t h a d become o b v i o u s t h a t t h e p o l i c y o f a s s i m i l a t i o n was n o t w o r k i n g . I n d i a n s r e - m a i n e d s e g r e g a t e d on r e s e r v e s , w here t h e y s u f f e r e d f r o m p o v e r t y , 1 q u nemployment and h e a l t h p r o b l e m s . G r o w i n g p u b l i c c o n c e r n w i t h c i v i l r i g h t s and p o v e r t y i s s u e s d u r i n g t h e 1960's p u t a d d e d p r e s s u r e on t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t t o do s o m e t h i n g a b o u t t h e 20 " I n d i a n p r o b l e m " . 17 A number o f new p r o g r a m s were e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s f r o m 1963-1967 i n o r d e r t o i m p r o v e c o n d i t i o n s on I n d i a n r e s e r v e s . The m a j o r t h r u s t o f t h e s e p r o g r a m s was t o r e d u c e I n d i a n d e p e n d e n c e on t h e d e p a r t m e n t by e n c o u r a g i n g l o c a l I n d i a n i n i t i a t i v e a n d by c o n v i n c i n g t h e p r o v i n c e s t o p r o v i d e t h e same s o c i a l s e r v i c e s t o n a t i v e I n d i a n s w h i c h t h e y p r o v i d e d f o r o t h e r p r o v i n c i a l r e s i d e n t s . Two p r o g r a m s i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m a n d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f I n d i a n A d v i s o r y B o a r d s , p r o v i d e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r n a t i v e I n d i a n s t o 2 1 become more i n v o l v e d i n t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s . H o w e v e r , none o f t h e s e p r o g r a m s was p a r t i c u l a r l y s u c c e s s f u l a s a r e s u l t o f r e s i s t a n c e f r o m t h e p r o v i n c e s , d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n t h e d e p a r t m e n t , a n d I n d i a n d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r l i m i t e d a d v i s o r y r o l e . The d e p a r t m e n t ' s f a i l u r e d u r i n g t h e s e y e a r s t o make s i g n i f i c a n t p r o - g r e s s d e s p i t e t h e i r e f f o r t s " l e f t t h e I n d i a n p r o b l e m u n c h a n g e d 22 a n d e v e n more v i s i b l e . " C o n s e q u e n t l y a b r o a d r e v i e w o f I n d i a n p o l i c y was i n i t i a t e d by t h e T r u d e a u g o v e r n m e n t a f t e r i t s e l e c t i o n i n 1968. D u r i n g t h i s p r o c e s s , c o n s u l t a t i o n s were h e l d w i t h I n d i a n g r o u p s a c r o s s 23 t h e c o u n t r y , w h i c h were a t t h e t i m e r e l a t i v e l y u n o r g a n i z e d . I n J u n e o f 1969, t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t o u t l i n e d i t s p r o p o s e d new p o l i c y i n t h e W h i t e P a p e r . T h i s p r o p o s a l o u t l i n e d a new s t r a t e g y t o a c h i e v e t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n o f I n d i a n s i n t o C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y . The W h i t e P a p e r p r o p o s a l s were b a s e d upon t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e 18 p r o v i s i o n s w h i c h t h e n e x i s t e d f o r I n d i a n s , t h r o u g h t h e I n d i a n A c t a n d t h e t r e a t i e s , s e r v e d o n l y t o r e i n f o r c e s e g r e g a t i o n a n d d i s - c r i m i n a t i o n . The W h i t e P a p e r t h u s recommended t h e r e p e a l o f t h e I n d i a n A c t ; t h e t r a n s f e r o f f e d e r a l f u n d s t o t h e p r o v i n c e s so t h e p r o v i n c e s c o u l d p r o v i d e t h e same s e r v i c e s t o I n d i a n s a s t o o t h e r c i t i z e n s ; t h a t l e g i s l a t i o n be i m p l e m e n t e d t o e n a b l e I n d i a n s t o o b t a i n t i t l e t o t h e i r l a n d ; t h a t f u n d s be made a v a i l a b l e f o r I n d i a n e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t a s an i n t e r i m m e a s u r e ; a n d t h a t t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s be p h a s e d o u t o v e r t h e n e x t f i v e 24 y e a r s . The I n d i a n r e s p o n s e t o t h i s p r o p o s a l was i m m e d i a t e , vehement an d n e g a t i v e . N a t i v e I n d i a n c o n c e r n s and d e s i r e s w h i c h h a d been e x p r e s s e d d u r i n g t h e c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s h a d been i g n o r e d . The W h i t e P a p e r was d e n o u n c e d by I n d i a n s a s i t t h r e a t e n e d b o t h t h e i r a b o r i g i n a l a n d t r e a t y r i g h t s . The W h i t e P a p e r d e s c r i b e d t r e a t y . . . . 25 r i g h t s a s " l i m i t e d a n d m i n i m a l p r o m i s e s " , a n d a b o r i g i n a l c l a i m s t o l a n d were s t a t e d t o be "... so g e n e r a l a n d u n d e f i n e d t h a t i t i s n o t r e a l i s t i c t o t h i n k o f them a s s p e c i f i c c l a i m s c a p a b l e o f 2 6 remedy." T h i s d e n i a l o f t h e r i g h t s o f n a t i v e I n d i a n s , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e W h i t e P a p e r ' s o t h e r p r o p o s a l s , l e d t h e N a t i o n a l I n d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d t o d e s c r i b e t h e new p o l i c y a s a b l a t a n t a t t e m p t t o 27 c ommit " c u l t u r a l g e n o c i d e " . I n r e s p o n s e t o t h e W h i t e P a p e r , n a t i v e I n d i a n s e x p r e s s e d t h e i r d e s i r e t o r e t a i n b o t h t h e i r c u l - t u r e a n d t h e i r a b o r i g i n a l a n d t r e a t y r i g h t s . As a r e s u l t , t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t w i t h d r e w t h e p r o p o s a l s i n 1971. 19 C o n s u l t a t i o n a n d R e c o g n i t i o n o f A b o r i g i n a l R i g h t s The vehement r e j e c t i o n o f t h e W h i t e P a p e r by n a t i v e I n d i a n g r o u p s l e d t o a new e r a i n f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t I n d i a n p o l i c y . As a r e s u l t o f t h e I n d i a n r e a c t i o n t o t h e W h i t e P a p e r t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t began t o pay more a t t e n t i o n t o t h e d e s i r e s o f n a t i v e I n d i a n s . T h i s i n c r e a s e d a t t e n t i o n h a s l e d t o movement on t h e p a r t o f t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t t o w a r d s a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e c o n c e p t o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . The p o l i t i c a l m o b i l i z a t i o n o f n a t i v e I n - d i a n s w h i c h o c c u r r e d a s a r e s u l t o f t h e W h i t e P a p e r h a s c o n t r i - b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o t h e e v o l u t i o n o f f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t p o l i - c y . The e x i s t e n c e o f more b r o a d l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a nd more o r g a - n i z e d n a t i v e I n d i a n p o l i t i c a l g r o u p s , a n d t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f a b r o a d c o n s e n s u s by t h e s e g r o u p s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r g e n e r a l g o a l s h a s f a c i l i t a t e d t h e i n c r e a s e d r e s p o n s i v e n e s s o f t h e f e d e r a l 2 8 g o v e r n m e n t t o n a t i v e c o n c e r n s . The W h i t e P a p e r p r o p o s a l s l e d t o a r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t c o n s e n - s u s e x i s t e d among I n d i a n g r o u p s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r d e s i r e n o t t o be a s s i m i l a t e d . O v e r t h e n e x t few y e a r s , n a t i v e I n d i a n s b e gan t o p r e s e n t t h e i r g o a l a s a d e s i r e f o r t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i r a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s , a n d i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e i r r i g h t t o s e l f - g o v e r n ment. The a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h i s g o a l w o u l d g i v e n a t i v e I n d i a n s t h e a b i l i t y t o p r e s e r v e t h e i r own c u l t u r e s , a n d w o u l d g i v e them g r e a t e r autonomy and c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r own l i v e s , b o t h p o l i t i - 20 c a l l y a n d e c o n o m i c a l l y . A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s were s e e n t o f l o w f r o m n a t i v e I n d i a n s ' p o s i t i o n a s t h e i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e s o f C a n a d a , who h a v e o c c u p i e d t h i s l a n d s i n c e t i m e i m m e m o r i a l . The b r o a d c o n c e p t o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i n c l u d e s a number o f more s p e c i f i c c l a i m s . N a t i v e I n d i a n s a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h a c h i e v i n g r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i r r i g h t t o a s u f f i c i e n t l a n d b a s e , w h i c h i n c l u d e s a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s . The r e c o g n i t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g r i g h t s i s a l s o d e s i r e d . The r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e s e r i g h t s w o u l d p r o v i d e n a t i v e I n d i a n s w i t h an i n d e p e n d e n t e c o n o m i c b a s e , w h i c h t h e y see a s e s s e n t i a l i f m e a n i n g f u l s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t i s t o be a t t a i n e d . The a c h i e v e m e n t o f s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t i s d e s i r e d b o t h i n i t s e l f , a n d b e c a u s e i t w o u l d e n a b l e n a t i v e I n d i a n s t o p u r s u e s o c i a l a n d c u l t u r a l g o a l s w h i c h t h e y d e f i n e f o r t h e m s e l v e s . W h i l e t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s h a s been p r e s e n t - ed a s t h e m a j o r g o a l o f n a t i v e I n d i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s , n a t i v e I n d i a n s h a v e a l s o p u r s u e d t h e g o a l o f i m p r o v i n g t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y i n t h e a b s e n c e o f a f u l l r e c o g n i t i o n o f a b o r i g i - n a l r i g h t s . T h i s g o a l h a s o f t e n b een p u r s u e d t h r o u g h t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s , a s I n d i a n g r o u p s have l o b b i e d f o r f u n d s , p a r t i c i p a t e d i n g o v e r n m e n t c o m m i t t e e s a n d a d v i s o r y b o a r d s i n o r d e r t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s a r e h e a r d , a n d a t t e m p t e d t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r a utonomy f r o m t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . T h i s g o a l h a s a l s o been p u r s u e d o u t s i d e t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s , a s n a t i v e I n d i a n s h a v e i m p r o v e d t h e i r e c o n o m i c p o s i t i o n t h r o u g h e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s . 21 The f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t h a s r e s p o n d e d i n a number o f ways t o t h e demands o f n a t i v e I n d i a n s f o r t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i r a b o r i - g i n a l r i g h t s . I n 1974, t h e O f f i c e o f N a t i v e C l a i m s was e s t a - b l i s h e d t o r e p r e s e n t t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t i n l a n d c l a i m s n e g o - t i a t i o n s w i t h n a t i v e I n d i a n s who b e l i e v e d t h e y h a d o u t s t a n d i n g c l a i m s . I n 1975, t h e j o i n t C a b i n e t / N a t i o n a l I n d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d C o m m i t t e e was e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f d i s c u s s i o n , a n d h o p e f u l l y a g r e e m e n t , on m a j o r p o l i c y i s s u e s . I n p a r t i c u l a r , j o i n t w o r k i n g g r o u p s were e s t a b l i s h e d t o l o o k i n t o I n d i a n r i g h t s a n d c l a i m s , I n d i a n A c t r e v i e w , h o u s i n g , a n d e d u c a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e N a t i o n a l I n d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d w i t h d r e w f r o m t h e c o m m i t t e e i n . . 29 1978, c l a i m i n g t h a t no p r o g r e s s was b e i n g made, t h e v e r y e x i s - t e n c e o f t h e c o m m i t t e e i n d i c a t e d a new w i l l i n g n e s s on t h e p a r t o f t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t t o c o n s u l t w i t h I n d i a n s on i s s u e s a f f e c t - i n g them. The C o m m i t t e e a l s o g a v e n a t i v e I n d i a n s d i r e c t e x p e r - i e n c e w i t h t h e p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t . F u r t h e r c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h I n d i a n s t o o k p l a c e when t h e S p e c i a l C o m m i t t e e on I n d i a n S e l f - G o v e r n m e n t ( t h e P e n n e r C o m m i t t e e ) was e s t a b l i s h e d t o l o o k i n t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t . The 30 f i n a l r e p o r t o f t h e c o m m i t t e e was p r e s e n t e d i n 1983. The r e j e c t i o n o f t h e W h i t e P a p e r a l s o l e d t o c h a n g e s i n t h e 22 a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n A c t by t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . N a t i v e I n d i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s became more m e a n i n g f u l l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e p l a n n i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f new p r o g r a m s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e a r e a s o f e d u c a t i o n a n d h o u s i n g . The d e p a r t - ment a l s o t r a n s f e r r e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f c e r t a i n p r o g r a m s t o I n d i a n b a n d s a n d a s s o c i a t i o n s , a l t h o u g h some I n d i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r g u e d t h a t t h e n e c e s s a r y a u t h o r i t y was n o t 31 t r a n s f e r r e d a l o n g w i t h t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The most i m p o r t a n t c h a n g e i n t h e l a w w h i c h h a s t a k e n p l a c e a s a r e s u l t o f t h i s new f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t a t t i t u d e was t h e i n c l u s i o n o f s e v e r a l s e c t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s i n t h e new C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t , 1982. T h e s e s e c t i o n s w o u l d n o t have been i n c l u d e d h a d i t n o t been f o r t h e l o b b y i n g o f t h e t h r e e 3 2 n a t i o n a l a b o r i g i n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . S e c t i o n 3 5 ( 1 ) p r o v i d e s t h a t "The e x i s t i n g a b o r i g i n a l a n d t r e a t y r i g h t s o f t h e a b o r i g i n a l 33 p e o p l e s o f Canada a r e h e r e b y r e c o g n i z e d a n d a f f i r m e d . " S e c t i o n 3 5 ( 2 ) d e f i n e s a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s a s i n c l u d i n g t h e I n d i a n , I n u i t a n d M e t i s p e o p l e s . I n a d d i t i o n , S e c t i o n 37 p r o v i d e s t h a t a f i r s t m i n i s t e r s ' C o n s t i t u t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e t a k e p l a c e w i t h i n a y e a r o f t h e A c t ' s c o m i n g i n t o e f f e c t , a t w h i c h t i m e t h e q u e s t i o n o f i d e n t i f y i n g a n d d e f i n i n g a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s w i l l be a d d r e s s e d , w i t h t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s . A l t h o u g h no a g r e e - ment on t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s was r e a c h e d a t t h e f i r s t c o n f e r e n c e , i t was a g r e e d t h a t f u r t h e r c o n f e r e n c e s s h o u l d t a k e p l a c e i n o r d e r t o g i v e t h e c o n c e r n e d p a r t i e s an o p p o r t u n i t y 23 t o come t o a m u t u a l l y a c c e p t a b l e d e f i n i t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . S e c t i o n 25 p r o v i d e s t h a t t h e g u a r a n t e e o f r i g h t s a n d f r e e d o m s i n t h e C h a r t e r " s h a l l n o t be c o n s t r u e d s o a s t o a b r o g a t e o r d e r o g a t e f r o m a n y a b o r i g i n a l , t r e a t y o r o t h e r r i g h t s a n d f r e e d o m s t h a t 34 p e r t a i n t o t h e a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s o f C a n a d a . " Some l e g i s l a t i o n was a l s o p a s s e d w h i c h gave n a t i v e I n d i a n s g r e a t e r c o n t r o l o v e r l i f e on r e s e r v e s . One e x a m p l e o f t h i s was B i l l C-31 w h i c h was g i v e n R o y a l A s s e n t on J u n e 28, 1985. T h i s b i l l g i v e s b a n d s t h e o p t i o n o f a s s u m i n g c o n t r o l o v e r t h e d e t e r m i - n a t i o n o f t h e i r own b a n d m e m b e r s h i p . The b i l l a l s o r e p e a l e d s e c t i o n s o f t h e I n d i a n A c t w h i c h p r o v i d e d f o r e n f r a n c h i s e m e n t , a n d e l i m i n a t e d S e c t i o n 1 2 ( 1 ) ( b ) w h i c h p r o v i d e d t h a t when an I n d i a n woman m a r r i e d a n o n - I n d i a n she l o s t h e r s t a t u s . The f e d - e r a l g o v e r n m e n t a l s o i n t r o d u c e d l e g i s l a t i o n i n l a t e 1985 w h i c h w o u l d a l l o w t h e S e c h e l t I n d i a n b a nd o f B.C. t o a c h i e v e a p a r t i c u - 35 l a r f o r m o f s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t , b u t w h i c h d i d n o t r e c o g n i z e an I n d i a n r i g h t t o s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t . The B.C. g o v e r n m e n t h a s t o some e x t e n t gone a l o n g w i t h f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t i n i t i a t i v e s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . The p r o v i n c e a c c e p t e d t h e i n c l u s i o n o f t h e s e c t i o n s i n t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t , 1982 p e r t a i n i n g t o n a t i v e I n d i a n s , a l t h o u g h o n l y a f t e r t h e w o r d " e x i s t i n g " was a d d e d t o S e c t i o n 35. The p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e a l s o p a s s e d l e g i s l a t i o n e n a b l i n g t h e S e c h e l t Band t o a c h i e v e l i m i t e d s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t . H owever, t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t 24 c o n t i n u e s t o m a i n t a i n t h a t a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e h a s n e v e r e x i s t e d , a n d t h a t i f i t e v e r d i d e x i s t i t was e x t i n g u i s h e d l o n g a g o . The g o v e r n m e n t a l s o a s s e r t s t h a t a n y c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e e x t i n g u i s h - ment o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i s a f e d e r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . T h i s p o s i t i o n h a s l i m i t e d t h e p r o g r e s s o f l a n d c l a i m s n e g o t i a t i o n s i n B.C., a s t h e p r o v i n c e r e t a i n s t i t l e t o Crown l a n d s i n t h e 36 p r o v i n c e . C a s e Law B e f o r e 1969 The a c t u a l l e g a l e f f e c t o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s a c t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o i t s n a t i v e I n d i a n p o l i c i e s h a s been a n d c o n t i n u e s t o be a m a t t e r o f d e b a t e . C o u r t c a s e s p r i o r t o 1969 s e t t l e d a number o f l e g a l q u e s t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o n a t i v e l a w i n t h e a r e a s o f a b o r i g i n a l a n d t r e a t y r i g h t s . T h i s s e c t i o n r e v i e w s t h e most i m p o r t a n t l e g a l q u e s t i o n s w h i c h were r e l e v a n t t o t h e i s s u e s o f a b o r i g i n a l a n d t r e a t y r i g h t s , a n d t h e c a s e l a w p r i o r t o 1969 w h i c h a d d r e s s e d t h e s e q u e s t i o n s . As t h e c a s e s b e f o r e 1969 l e f t a number o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s u n r e s o l v e d , t h e s e q u e s t i o n s h a v e c o n t i - n u e d t o be o f r e l e v a n c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e p e r i o d d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . The c o n c e p t o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s , a s r i g h t s w h i c h a r e 37 r e c o g n i z e d by t h e l a w , h a s been a r o u n d f o r a l o n g t i m e . T h e r e a r e f o u r l e g a l q u e s t i o n s w h i c h a r e r e l e v a n t t o a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s o r I n d i a n t i t l e . T h e s e a r e : 1) What i s t h e s o u r c e o f t h e s e r i g h t s ? 2) What i s t h e n a t u r e o r c o n t e n t o f s u c h r i g h t s ? 3 ) C a n 25 t h e s e r i g h t s be e x t i n g u i s h e d , a n d i f s o how? 4) Can c o m p e n s a t i o n be c l a i m e d f o r t h e e x t i n g u i s h m e n t o f t h e s e r i g h t s ? The l e a d i n g c a s e b e f o r e 1969 was S t . C a t h e r i n e ' s M i l l i n g a n d 38 Lumber Co. v . t h e Queen, f i r s t h e a r d i n 1885, a n d s e t t l e d by t h e J u d i c i a l C o m m i t t e e o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l i n 1888. I n d i a n s were n o t p a r t i e s t o t h e a c t i o n ; a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e became an i s s u e b e c a u s e o f a d i s p u t e b e t w e e n t h e f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n - m e n t s . The d e c i s i o n i n t h i s c a s e l e f t many q u e s t i o n s u n a n s w e r e d . The f i n a l d e c i s i o n t o o k t h e R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n o f 1763 t o be t h e 39 s o u r c e o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e . I n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e n a t u r e o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e , t h e C o u r t f o u n d t h a t i t was "a p e r s o n a l a nd u s u f r u c t u a r y r i g h t , d e p e n d e n t upon t h e g o o d w i l l o f t h e S o v e - 40 r e i g n . " However, t h e C o u r t d i d n o t d e f i n e p r e c i s e l y what t h i s p h r a s e meant. As f o r t h e e x t i n g u i s h m e n t q u e s t i o n , t h e C o u r t made i t c l e a r t h a t t h e s o v e r e i g n h a s an u n i n h i b i t e d a n d e x c l u s i v e r i g h t t o e x t i n g u i s h a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e , b u t a g a i n d i d n o t go i n t o 41 p a r t i c u l a r s a s t o how t h i s was t o be d o n e . A few s u b s e q u e n t c a s e s d e a l t w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s , b u t a d d e d l i t t l e t o t h e d e c i s i o n i n t h i s c a s e . The l e g a l s t a t u s o f t h e R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n o f 1763 r a i s e d m a j o r q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . The R o y a l P r o c l a - m a t i o n , w h i c h had n e v e r been r e p e a l e d a nd c o n t i n u e d t o h a v e t h e f o r c e o f a s t a t u t e i n C a n a d a , n e v e r t h e l e s s h a d an u n c e r t a i n 42 . . s t a t u s a n d s c o p e . Two q u e s t i o n s a r e e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t . 26 F i r s t , w h i l e t h e R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n was t a k e n t o be t h e s o u r c e o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e i n t h e S t . C a t h e r i n e ' s M i l l i n g c a s e , i s i t t h e e x c l u s i v e s o u r c e o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e i n C a n a d a , o r i s i t o n l y one o f s e v e r a l s o u r c e s ? S e c o n d , d o e s t h e s c o p e o f t h e P r o c l a m a t i o n e x t e n d w e s t t o t h e P a c i f i c Ocean o r i s i t c o n f i n e d t o t h e t e r r i - t o r y w h i c h was B r i t i s h i n 1763? The a n s w e r t o t h i s s e c o n d q u e s - t i o n i s o f p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Two c a s e s i n B.C. d e a l t w i t h t h e s e q u e s t i o n s b e f o r e 1969. H o w e v e r , t h e d e c i s i o n s i n t h e s e c a s e s were n o t f i n a l l y c o n c l u s i v e a s one was a l o w e r c o u r t j u d g e m e n t , a n d i n t h e o t h e r , o n l y one j u d g e c h o s e t o r u l e on t h e s e i s s u e s a t t h e h i g h e r c o u r t l e v e l . 43 I n R. v . W h i t e a n d Bob, w h i c h was d e c i d e d i n t h e Supreme C o u r t o f C anada i n 1965, t h e m a j o r i s s u e was n o t a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s ; h o w e v e r two j u d g e s c h o s e t o make comments on t h i s m a t t e r i n t h e l o w e r c o u r t s . B o t h C o u n t y C o u r t J u d g e S w e n c i s k y a n d Mr. J u s t i c e N o r r i s o f t h e B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l r u l e d t h a t t h e R o y a l P r o c l a m a - t i o n a p p l i e d t o B.C. They a l s o c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e R o y a l P r o c l a - m a t i o n c o n f i r m e d r a t h e r t h a n c r e a t e d a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s , a n d s o was n o t t h e e x c l u s i v e s o u r c e o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e i n C a n a d a . 44 H o wever, i n t h e c a s e o f R. v . D i s c o n a n d B a k e r , C o u n t y C o u r t J u d g e S c h u l t z r u l e d t h a t t h e R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n d i d n o t a p p l y t o B.C. a n d t h a t a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s ' were r e c o g n i z e d i n Canada o n l y where t h e y were r e f e r r e d t o i n a w r i t t e n t r e a t y o r s t a t u t e . T h e s e c a s e s , t h e n , d i d l i t t l e t o s e t t l e t h e l e g a l q u e s t i o n s w h i c h e x i s t e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n a n d a b o r i g i n a l 27 r i g h t s . W h i l e t h e l a w d e a l i n g w i t h a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s was v e r y v a g u e i n 1969, t h e l a w w i t h r e s p e c t t o t r e a t y r i g h t s was a b i t more s p e c i f i c . T h e r e a r e f o u r l e g a l q u e s t i o n s w h i c h a r e o f p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t r e a t i e s . T h e s e w e r e ; 1)What i s t h e l e g a l n a t u r e o f I n d i a n t r e a t i e s ? 2) What i s , a n d what i s n o t a t r e a t y ? 3) How s h o u l d t r e a t y p r o v i s i o n s be i n t e r p r e t e d by j u d g e s ? a n d 4) What i s t h e e f f e c t o f p r o v i n c i a l a n d f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n on t r e a t y r i g h t s ? I n l a w , t h e t e r m " t r e a t y " c a n be u s e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o two s e p a r a t e k i n d s o f d o c u m e n t s - i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r e a t i e s , a n d c o n - t r a c t s . The c o u r t s b e f o r e 1969 d i d n o t make i t c l e a r w h i c h k i n d o f t r e a t y t h e t r e a t i e s w h i c h were s i g n e d w i t h t h e I n d i a n s were c o n s i d e r e d t o b e . The l e g a l n a t u r e o f I n d i a n t r e a t i e s i s r a t h e r i m p o r t a n t , a s t h e a n s w e r t o t h i s q u e s t i o n w i l l d e t e r m i n e what a g r e e m e n t s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d t o be t r e a t i e s , a n d what k i n d o f c o m p e n s a t i o n must be p a i d i f t r e a t y r i g h t s a r e e x t i n g u i s h e d o r a b r i d g e d . R a t h e r t h a n m a k i n g c l e a r t h e e x a c t l e g a l n a t u r e o f I n d i a n t r e a t i e s , t h e c o u r t s i n Canada c h o s e t o b e g i n by a n s w e r i n g t h e s e s u b s i d i a r y q u e s t i o n s when t h e y a r o s e . H o w e v e r , t h e c a s e s w h i c h t o o k p l a c e b e f o r e 1969 d i d make i t c l e a r t h a t I n d i a n t r e a - 45 t i e s d i d c o n s t i t u t e l e g a l l y e n f o r c e a b l e o b l i g a t i o n s . W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s e c o n d q u e s t i o n , t h e c o u r t s t o o k an e x p a n s i v e v i e w o f w h i c h d o c u m e n t s o r a g r e e m e n t s a r e l e g a l l y 28 t r e a t i e s . I n t h e c a s e o f R. v . W h i t e a n d Bob, t h e document r e l i e d upon by t h e a c c u s e d was o f an i n f o r m a l n a t u r e , a n d i t was n o t c l e a r w h e t h e r G o v e r n o r D o u g l a s s i g n e d t h e document i n h i s c a p a c i t y a s G o v e r n o r o f t h e C o l o n y o r a s C h i e f F a c t o r o f t h e H u d s o n ' s Bay Company. However, t h e Supreme C o u r t o f Canada r u l e d t h a t t h i s document was a t r e a t y . W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i n t e r p r e t a - t i o n o f t r e a t i e s , t h e c o u r t s t e n d e d t o i n t e r p r e t t r e a t y p r o v i - s i o n s i n f a v o u r o f t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f n a t i v e r i g h t s i n a number o f 46 c a s e s . A number o f c a s e s b e f o r e 1969 d e a l t w i t h t h e e f f e c t o f p r o v i n c i a l a n d f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n on a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . R. v . W h i t e a n d Bob e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h a f - f e c t e d t r e a t y r i g h t s w o u l d n o t a p p l y t o t r e a t y I n d i a n s a s a r e s u l t o f S e c t i o n 88 o f t h e I n d i a n A c t . Two c a s e s a r g u e d i n t h e 47 Supreme C o u r t o f Canada i n t h e m i d - 1 9 6 0 ' s , R. v . S i k y e a a n d The 48 Queen v. G e o r g e e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n c o u l d a p p l y t o t r e a t y I n d i a n s n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g r i g h t s c o n f e r r e d by t r e a - 49 t y . A f u r t h e r B.C. c a s e , R. v . C o o p e r , G e o r g e and G e o r g e , i n 1968, f o l l o w e d t h e s e d e c i s i o n s i n r u l i n g t h a t t h e f e d e r a l F i s h - e r i e s A c t c o u l d r e s t r i c t t r e a t y r i g h t s . A T u r n To The C o u r t s ? The i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n s s u g g e s t s t h a t n a t i v e I n d i a n s w i l l u s e t h e c o u r t s b o t h i n o r d e r t o f u r t h e r t h e g o a l s w h i c h t h e y a r e p u r s u i n g i n t h e p o l i t i c a l a r e n a , a n d a s a 29 r e s u l t o f t h e i r i n c r e a s e d p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y . T h i s s e c t i o n i d e n t i f i e s some o f t h e i s s u e s w h i c h w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h e n e x t f o u r c h a p t e r s . S i n c e 1969, n a t i v e I n d i a n s h a v e become more p o l i t i c a l l y a c t i v e , a n d p e r h a p s more i m p o r t a n t l y , h a v e a c h i e v e d c o n s e n s u s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r g e n e r a l g o a l s . The g r e a t e r a w a r e n e s s a nd e d u c a t i o n o f n a t i v e I n d i a n s , p l u s a new g e n e r a t i o n o f l e a d e r s , h a v e b o t h c o n t r i b u t e d t o a n d been a r e s u l t o f t h e p o l i t i c a l m o b i l i z a t i o n o f n a t i v e I n d i a n s . I t w o u l d seem r e a s o n a b l e t o s u p p o s e t h a t t h e p o l i t i c a l m o b i l i z a t i o n a n d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f g o a l s w h i c h h a s t a k e n p l a c e w o u l d l e a d t o an i n c r e a s e i n t h e u s e o f t h e c o u r t s by n a t i v e I n d i a n s , e s p e c i a l l y when p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s h a s n o t p r o d u c e d t h e d e s i r e d r e s u l t s . I n a d d i t i o n , b e c a u s e n a t i v e I n d i a n s have d e f i n e d t h e i r p r i m a r y g o a l s i n t e r m s o f r i g h t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s w h i c h i s a i m e d a t a c h i e v i n g a r e c o g n i t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s w i l l p r o b a b l y be deemed t o be u n s a t i s f a c t o r y i f n a t i v e I n d i a n s ' i n t e r e s t s a r e t r e a t e d on a p a r w i t h i n t e r e s t s o f o t h e r g r o u p s . T h e r e a r e a d d i t i o n a l r e a s o n s f o r s u p p o s i n g t h a t B.C. I n d i a n s w i l l make use o f t h e c o u r t s i n p u r s u i n g b o t h l a n d c l a i m s a n d h u n t i n g a n d f i s h i n g r i g h t s . O n l y 15 t r e a t i e s were n e g o t i a t e d w i t h t h e I n d i a n s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t h a s c o n t i n u e d t o a s s e r t t h a t n a t i v e I n d i a n s i n t h e p r o v i n c e h a v e no 30 a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s , a n d t h a t i f t h e y e v e r d i d h a v e s u c h r i g h t s , t h e y were e x t i n g u i s h e d l o n g a g o . The p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s p o s i t i o n makes i t u n l i k e l y t h a t a p o l i t i c a l s o l u t i o n t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i n B.C. w i l l be f o u n d . T h e r e i s a l s o v e r y l i t t l e p r o t e c t i o n f o r a b o r i g i n a l h u n t i n g a nd f i s h i n g r i g h t s i n B.C. a s few t r e a t i e s were s i g n e d , a n d t h e r e was l i t t l e r e c o g n i t i o n o f h u n t i n g a nd f i s h i n g r i g h t s i n o t h e r l e g i s l a t i o n , a t l e a s t u n t i l t h e p a s s a g e o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t , 1982. The f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s p o l i c y o f e x t i n g u i s h i n g a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s p r o v i d e s n a t i v e I n d i a n s w i t h a b a s i s i n l a w f o r a r g u i n g t h a t a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s e x i s t . I n a d d i t i o n , j u r i s d i c t i o n a l a r g u - m e nts a r e a l s o a v a i l a b l e w i t h r e s p e c t t o h u n t i n g r i g h t s , a s w i l d l i f e l e g i s l a t i o n i s a p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w h i l e t h e f e d e r a l p a r l i a m e n t h a s j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r I n d i a n s . I t i s a l s o l i k e l y t h a t a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s c a s e s w o u l d be more p r e v a l e n t a f t e r 1982, a s t h e i n c l u s i o n o f S e c t i o n 35 i n t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t , 1982, w o u l d seem t o h a v e p r o v i d e d a n o t h e r b a s i s f o r l e g a l a r g u - ment a n d t o h a v e d e c r e a s e d t h e r i s k o f u s i n g a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s a r g u m e n t s i n c o u r t . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , n a t i v e I n d i a n s may h a v e been somewhat r e l u c t a n t t o u s e t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t a s t h e b a s i s f o r l e g a l a r g u m e n t g i v e n t h e f a c t t h a t a p r o c e s s h a d been e s t a b l i s h e d t o d e f i n e t h e m e a n i n g o f S e c t i o n 35. F e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r I n d i a n s a n d t h e i r l a n d s h a s l e d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a s e p a r a t e l e g a l r e g i m e f o r n a t i v e I n d i a n s l i v i n g on r e s e r v e s . The most i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t o f t h i s l e g a l 31 r e g i m e i s t h e I n d i a n A c t , a l t h o u g h o t h e r l e g i s l a t i o n ( s u c h a s t h e Terms o f U n i o n ) a l s o i n c l u d e s s p e c i f i c l e g a l p r o v i s i o n s w h i c h a f f e c t n a t i v e I n d i a n s . T h i s s e p a r a t e l e g a l r e g i m e b o t h p r o v i d e s n a t i v e I n d i a n s w i t h b e n e f i t s u n a v a i l a b l e t o n o n - I n d i a n s , a n d i m p o s e s e x t e r n a l l y d e s i g n e d r u l e s on n a t i v e I n d i a n a c t i v i t i e s on r e s e r v e s . The m e a n i n g o f many o f t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s I n d i a n - s p e c i f i c l e g i s l a t i o n h a s n e v e r been d e f i n e d by t h e c o u r t s . Con- s e q u e n t l y i t i s l i k e l y t h a t n a t i v e I n d i a n s w i l l u s e t h e c o u r t s t o m a x i m i z e t h e b e n e f i t s w h i c h a r e p r o v i d e d by t h i s s e p a r a t e l e g a l r e g i m e . I n a d d i t i o n , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t d i s p u t e s a b o u t t h e mean- i n g o f c e r t a i n p r o v i s i o n s w i l l o c c u r a s n a t i v e I n d i a n s more a c t i v e l y p u r s u e t h e g o a l s o f e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t a n d i n c r e a s e d a u t o n o m y . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s , a n d t h e i r a p - p l i c a t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s , i s a m a t t e r w h i c h t h e c o u r t s must d e c i d e , i f t h e p a r t i e s t o t h e d i s p u t e c a n n o t r e a c h a g r e e m e n t t h e m s e l v e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e p o l i c y o f a s s i m i l a t i o n a n d w a r d s h i p w h i c h was p u r s u e d by t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t o v e r much o f t h e p e r i o d h a s l e d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a l e g a l r e g i m e , whose most i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t i s t h e I n d i a n A c t , w h i c h g i v e s t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t a g r e a t d e a l o f a u t h o r i t y o v e r I n d i a n l i f e on r e s e r v e s . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e p o l i t i c a l m o b i l i z a t i o n o f n a t i v e I n d i a n s w i l l l e a d t o c h a l l e n g e s t o t h i s a u t h o r i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s e x e r c i s e o f t h i s a u t h o r i t y d o e s n o t meet w i t h t h e i r 32 a p p r o v a l . The e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p o l i t i c a l a n d l e g a l p o s i t i o n o f n a t i v e I n d i a n s i n B.C. h a s s u g g e s t e d a number o f q u e s t i o n s w h i c h c a n be a s k e d r e l a t i n g t o I n d i a n s ' u s e o f t h e c o u r t s . Have n a t i v e I n d i a n s u s e d t h e c o u r t s i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e a n d h u n t i n g a n d f i s h i n g r i g h t s ? Have n a t i v e I n d i a n s u s e d t h e c o u r t s i n o r d e r t o m a x i m i z e t h e b e n e f i t s w h i c h t h e y r e c e i v e u n d e r t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e I n d i a n A c t and o t h e r l e g i s l a t i o n ? Have I n d i a n s u s e d t h e c o u r t s t o s e t t l e d i s p u t e s w h i c h a r o s e a s a r e s u l t o f t h e i r i n c r e a s e d p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y ? F i n a l l y , h a v e I n d i a n s u s e d t h e c o u r t s t o c h a l l e n g e d e c i s i o n s made by t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n A c t ? T h e s e q u e s t i o n s w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h e n e x t f o u r c h a p t e r s , a s we e x a m i n e t h e p a r t i c u l a r g o a l s w h i c h n a t i v e I n d i a n s h a v e p u r s u e d i n c o u r t , a n d t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e I n d i a n s ' c o u r t a c t i o n s . 33 NOTES R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n , 1763. See P e t e r A. Cumming a n d N e i l H. M i c k e n b e r g , e d s , N a t i v e R i g h t s i n C a n a d a , 2nd e d i t i o n , ( T o r o n t o : G e n e r a l P u b l i s h i n g Company, L t d . , 1 9 7 2 ) , A p p e n d i x I I , p. 2 9 1 . I b i d . , p. 172. I b i d . , p.' 180. P a u l T e n n a n t , " N a t i v e I n d i a n P o l i t i c a l O r g a n i z a t i o n i n B.C., 1900-1969: A R e s p o n s e t o I n t e r n a l C o l o n i a l i s m , " i n B.C. S t u d i e s , No. 55, Autumn, 1982, p. 14. See D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n a n d N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s , The H i s t o r i c a l D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e I n d i a n A c t ( O t t a w a : S u p p l y a n d S e r v i c e s C a n a d a , 1 9 7 8 ) , e s p e c i a l l y pp. 1, 23-36. Q u o t e d i n F o r r e s t E. L a V i o l e t t e , The S t r u g g l e f o r S u r v i v a l : I n d i a n C u l t u r e s a n d t h e P r o t e s t a n t E t h i c i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 ) , pp. 15-16. I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h i s l e d t o l e g i s l a t i o n b a s e d on t h e r e p o r t o f t h e M c K e n n a - M c B r i d e C o m m i s s i o n , w h i c h had b e e n a p p o i n t e d a s a r e s u l t o f c o n f l i c t s o v e r t h e s i z e o f r e s e r v e s . T h i s l e g i s l a t i o n l e d t o a d e c r e a s e i n t h e s i z e o f t h e r e s e r v e s t h e n e x i s t i n g by o v e r 47,000 a c r e s and t h e c o n v e y a n c e o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 87,000 a c r e s o f o t h e r l a n d s t o t h e I n d i a n s . The I n d i a n s i n t h e p r o v i n c e were n o t p l e a s e d by t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n ' s w ork. See Cumming a n d M i c k e n b e r g , N a t i v e R i g h t s i n C a n a d a , pp. 184-5. L e g i s l a t i o n was a l s o n e c e s s a r y w i t h r e s p e c t t o m i n e r a l r i g h t s . K a t h l e e n J a m i e s o n , I n d i a n Women and t h e Law i n C a n a d a : C i t i z e n s M i n u s ( O t t a w a : M i n i s t e r o f S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s C a n a d a , 1 9 7 8 ) , p. 27. A d r i a n T a n n e r , " I n t r o d u c t i o n : C a n a d i a n I n d i a n s and t h e P o l i t i c s o f D e p e n d e n c y , " i n T a n n e r , e d , The P o l i t i c s o f I n d i a n n e s s ( S t . J o h n ' s : I n s t i t u t e o f S o c i a l and E c o n o m i c R e s e a r c h , 1 9 8 3 ) , p. 16. See f o r e x a m p l e , L a V i o l e t t e , S t r u g g l e f o r S u r v i v a l , pp. 98- 141, D a n i e l R a u n e t , W i t h o u t S u r r e n d e r , W i t h o u t C o n s e n t 34 14 15 16 17 18 19 ( V a n c o u v e r : D o u g l a s a n d M a c l n t y r e , 1 9 8 4 ) . 1 1 L a V i o l e t t e , p. 105 f f . 12 I b i d . 1 3 . T h i s C o m m i s s i o n h a d been a p p o i n t e d a s a r e s u l t o f a c o n f l i c t w h i c h h a d e r u p t e d i n N i s h g a t e r r i t o r y i n N o r t h w e s t B.C. b e t w e e n t h e I n d i a n s a n d t h e men who had b e e n s e n t t o s u r v e y t h e r e s e r v e s . R a u n e t , p. 90. See L a V i o l e t t e , C h a p t e r 4, f o r a more d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t o f t h e n a t i v e I n d i a n p r o t e s t . D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n a n d N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s , H i s t o r i c a l D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e I n d i a n A c t , p. 121. T e n n a n t , " N a t i v e I n d i a n P o l i t i c a l O r g a n i z a t i o n , " pp. 28-9. R a u n e t , p. 147. The p l i g h t o f I n d i a n s was d o c u m e n t e d i n H.B. H a w t h o r n , A S u r v e y o f t h e C o n t e m p o r a r y I n d i a n s i n C a n a d a : E c o n o m i c , P o l i t i c a l , E d u c a t i o n a l Needs a n d P o l i c i e s , V o l s . 1&2 ( O t t a w a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 6 6 - 7 ) . Volume i was l e a k e d t o t h e p r e s s , and s o h a d a s i g n i f i c a n t i m p a c t on p u b l i c o p i n i o n . S a l l y W e a v e r , M a k i n g C a n a d i a n I n d i a n P o l i c y : The H i d d e n A g e n d a , 1968-1970 ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 8 1 ) , p. 13. I b i d . , p p. 2 5 - 3 1 . I b i d . , p. 44. I b i d . , p. 1 9 5 . T h i s book p r o v i d e s a d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t o f t h e p o l i c y r e v i e w p r o c e s s . D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s a n d N o r t h e r n D e v e l o p m e n t , S t a t e m e n t o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f Canada on I n d i a n P o l i c y , 1969 ( O t t a w a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 6 9 ) . I b i d . , p. 11. I b i d . 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 35 27 N o e l D y c k , " R e p r e s e n t a t i o n a n d L e a d e r s h i p o f a P r o v i n c i a l I n d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n , " i n T a n n e r , P o l i t i c s o f I n d i a n n e s s , p. 218. 28 The f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t by f u n d i n g I n d i a n o r g a n i z i n g e f f o r t s , a s t h e g o v e r n m e n t r e q u i r e d g r o u p s t o a r t i c u l a t e I n d i a n i n t e r e s t s f o l l o w i n g t h e vehement r e j e c t i o n o f t h e W h i t e P a p e r . 29 . . R i c k P o n t i n g and R o g e r G i b b i n s , Out o f I r r e l e v a n c e : A S o c i o - p o l i t i c a l I n t r o d u c t i o n t o I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n Canada ( T o r o n t o : B u t t e r w o r t h a n d Co., 1 9 8 0 ) , p. 265. 30 House o f Commons, I n d i a n S e l f - G o v e r n m e n t i n C a n a d a : R e p o r t o f t h e S p e c i a l C o m m i t t e e ( O t t a w a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 8 3 ) . 31 . . P o n t i n g a n d G i b b i n s , p. 179. 32 See Doug S a n d e r s , "The I n d i a n L o b b y " , i n K e i t h B a n t i n g and R i c h a r d Simeon e d s , And No One C h e e r e d : F e d e r a l i s m , D e m o c r a c y a n d The C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t ( T o r o n t o : M e t h u e n P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 9 8 3 ) . The t h r e e n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s were unhappy w i t h t h e f i n a l w o r d i n g o f S e c t i o n 35. We s h a l l s e e why t h e y were r i g h t t o be a p p r e h e n s i v e a b o u t t h i s i n C h a p t e r 5. 33 C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t , 1982, S e c t i o n 35. 34 I b i d . , S e c t i o n 25. H o wever, a l t h o u g h l e g i s l a t i o n was p a s s e d , p r o b l e m s o c c u r r e d i n w o r k i n g o u t t h e d e t a i l s o f f i n a n c i n g . I n m i d - 1 9 8 6 i t a p p e a r e d t h a t t h e S e c h e l t Band was u n w i l l i n g t o p r o c e e d b e c a u s e o f t h e s e f u n d i n g p r o b l e m s . D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s a n d N o r t h e r n D e v e l o p m e n t , I n A l l F a i r n e s s : A N a t i v e C l a i m s P o l i c y ( O t t a w a : M i n i s t e r o f S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s , 1 9 8 1 ) , p. 30. F o r more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e l e g a l i s s u e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s , s e e B r i a n S l a t t e r y , A n c e s t r a l L a n d s , A l i e n Laws: J u d i c i a l P e r s p e c t i v e s on A b o r i g i n a l T i t l e ( S a s k a t o o n : U n i v e r s i t y o f S a s k a t c h e w a n N a t i v e Law C e n t r e , 1 9 8 3 ) , and Doug S a n d e r s , "The H i s t o r y o f I n d i a n R i g h t s i n t h e C o l o n i a l P e r i o d " , i n M i c h a e l J a c k s o n , e d , N a t i v e 36 P e o p l e s a n d t h e Law ( V a n c o u v e r : 1 9 7 9 ) . 3 8 [ 1 8 9 9 ] 14 A p p . C a s . 4 6 , [ 1 8 8 7 ] 13 S.C.R. 577. 3 9 [ 1 8 8 9 ] 14 A p p . C a s . 46, a t p. 54. 4 0 I b i d . 4 1 See Cumrnings a nd M i c k e n b e r g , p. 42. 4 2 I b i d . , p. 30. 4 3 (1966) 52 D.L.R. (2d) 4 8 1 , (1 9 6 5 ) 50 D.L.R. ( 2 d ) 613. 4 4 (1968) 67 D.L.R. (2d) 619. 4 5 Cumming and M i c k e n b e r g , p. 58. 4 6 I b i d . , pp. 61-2. 4 7 (1964) 43 D.L.R. (2d) 150. 4 8 [ 1 9 6 6 ] S.C.R. 267. 49 (1969) 1 D.L.R. (3d) 113. 37 CHAPTER 2 THE INTERPRETATION OF STATUTES In t h i s chapter, the cases d i s c u s s e d are those which i n v o l v e a d i s p u t e about the content of p a r t i c u l a r laws. Both p a r t i e s to the d i s p u t e accept the v a l i d i t y of the law i n q u e s t i o n , but disagreement e x i s t s as to the a c t u a l meaning of that law. The judges i n these cases are c a l l e d upon to s e t t l e the d i s p u t e by determining what the law ' r e a l l y ' means. As these cases are concerned with the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the law as i t p r e s e n t l y e x i s t s , they are u n l i k e l y to s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t the non-Indian community. The d e c i s i o n s i n these cases serve only to c l a r i f y or preserve the s t a t u s quo, r a t h e r than to change the p l a c e of Indians i n Canadian s o c i e t y . However, these cases are important to n a t i v e Indians, as the c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the law may p r o v i d e b e n e f i t s which would otherwise be f o r f e i t e d . The two s t a t u t e s whose content has been i n d i s p u t e i n B.C. are the f e d e r a l Indian Act and the p r o v i n c i a l Adoption A c t . The Indian Act, as the primary p i e c e of l e g i s l a t i o n passed by the f e d e r a l parliament r e l a t i n g to n a t i v e Indians, e s t a b l i s h e s the l e g a l framework f o r l i f e on r e s e r v e s . The Indian Act c o n t a i n s p r o v i s i o n s which determine who i s an Indian f o r the purposes of the Act, the r i g h t s and o b l i g a t i o n s of Indians under the Act, and the a l l o c a t i o n of decision-making a u t h o r i t y on the r e s e r v e s . The 38 l e g a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e A c t c a n a f f e c t t h e b e n e f i t s w h i c h I n d i a n s g a i n f r o m t h e A c t , a n d t h e a u t h o r i t y o f b a n d c o u n c i l s on r e s e r v e s - i s s u e s o f o b v i o u s i n t e r e s t t o n a t i v e I n d i a n s . The a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e A d o p t i o n A c t t o n a t i v e I n d i a n s a l s o r a i s e s i s s u e s w h i c h a r e o f p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n t o n a t i v e I n d i a n s , e s p e c i a l l y when n o n - n a t i v e s a r e a t t e m p t i n g t o a d o p t I n d i a n c h i l d - r e n w h i l e t h e p a r e n t s ( o r I n d i a n r e l a t i v e s o r c o m m u n i t i e s ) d e s i r e t h a t c h i l d r e n be r a i s e d i n I n d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s i n o r d e r t o p r e s e r v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e s . T h i s d e s i r e t o p r e s e r v e c u l t u r a l i n t e g - r i t y i s one w h i c h may a r i s e w h e n e v e r a c u l t u r a l g r o u p i s a m i n o r - i t y a n d s o t h r e a t e n e d by t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f t h e c u l t u r a l v a l u e s o f t h e d o m i n a n t g r o u p , a n d may h a v e e v e n g r e a t e r s a l i e n c e f o r n a t i v e I n d i a n s a s a r e s u l t o f t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t p o l i c i e s w h i c h h a v e been p u r s u e d by t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t i n t h e p a s t . B e f o r e 1969, n e i t h e r t h e A d o p t i o n A c t n o r t h e I n d i a n A c t was u s e d by n a t i v e I n d i a n s t o any e x t e n t a s t h e b a s i s o f c o u r t a c - t i o n . 1 S i n c e 1969 t h e r e h a v e been some 23 c a s e s i n w h i c h n a t i v e 2 I n d i a n s h a v e p r e s e n t e d a r g u m e n t s b a s e d on t h e s e two s t a t u t e s . T h e s e c a s e s c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o s e v e n i s s u e a r e a s : 1 ) s t a t u s ; 2 ) d e b t p ayment; 3 ) e x e m p t i o n f r o m t a x a t i o n ; 4 ) t h e u s e o f r e s e r v e l a n d by n o n - I n d i a n s ; 5 ) t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f r e s e r v e l a n d by I n - d i a n s ; 6 ) t h e l e g a l s t a t u s o f band c o u n c i l s ; a n d 7) a d o p t i o n . The d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c a s e s i n e a c h i s s u e a r e a i n c l u d e s a c o n - s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e g o a l s p u r s u e d i n e a c h c a s e , a n d t h e o u t c o m e s o f t h e c a s e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y 39 r e l e v a n t t o t h e s e c a s e s : 1) Have n a t i v e I n d i a n s u s e d t h e c o u r t s i n o r d e r t o m a x i m i z e t h e b e n e f i t s w h i c h t h e y r e c e i v e u n d e r t h e I n d i a n A c t ? 2) Has t h e r e been an a t t e m p t t o i n c r e a s e t h e autonomy o f band c o u n c i l s t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f t h e c o u r t s ? 3) Has t h e e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t o f r e s e r v e s l e d t o an i n c r e a s e i n l e g a l d i s p u t e s ? 4) Have n a t i v e I n d i a n s u s e d t h e c o u r t s t o c h a l l e n g e d e c i s i o n s made by t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t ( o r i t s o f f i c i a l s ) i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n A c t ? S t a t u s I n two c a s e s t h e c o u r t s were u s e d i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s t a t u s o f n a t i v e I n d i a n s u n d e r t h e m e m b e r s h i p p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e 3 I n d i a n A c t . I n G r a n t v . t h e R e g i s t r a r o f I n d i a n s , t h e a p p l i - c a n t s s o u g h t a d e c l a r a t i o n t h a t t h e y were I n d i a n s w i t h i n t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e A c t . The c o u r t r u l e d t h a t t h e y were e n t i t l e d t o 4 be r e g i s t e r e d a s I n d i a n s . I n t h e c a s e o f C.L.G. v . S m i t h , t h e q u e s t i o n was w h e t h e r t h e a d o p t i o n o f an I n d i a n c h i l d by members o f a n o t h e r b and c a u s e d t h e c h i l d t o l o s e h i s s t a t u s a s a member o f h i s n a t a l b a n d . The c o u r t r u l e d t h a t t h e c h i l d ' s band s t a t u s was n o t a f f e c t e d by h i s a d o p t i o n . The d e s i r e o f t h e n a t i v e I n d i a n s who i n i t i a t e d t h e s e c a s e s t o be d e c l a r e d s t a t u s I n d i a n s r e f l e c t s an i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t i n 40 a c q u i r i n g the b e n e f i t s c r e a t e d by the Indian A c t . While t h i s i s an i n t e r e s t which i s shared by many n a t i v e people, cases such as t h i s which d e a l only with the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of membership p r o v i - s i o n s and t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n to p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l s are of 5 l i t t l e i n t e r e s t to the n a t i v e community in g e n e r a l . In the vast m a j o r i t y of cases, the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the membership p r o v i - s i o n s of the Act i s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , and consequently d e c i s i o n s i n cases such as these are l i k e l y to a f f e c t few i n d i v i d u a l s . I t should a l s o be noted that d e c i s i o n s such as these have become of even l e s s i n t e r e s t to the n a t i v e community as a r e s u l t of B i l l C- 31, which was given Royal Assent on June 28, 1985. T h i s b i l l g i v e s bands the o p t i o n of assuming c o n t r o l over the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e i r own band membership.^ The impact of the membership p r o v i s i o n s of the Indian Act i s l i k e l y to decrease as bands d r a f t t h e i r own membership codes. However, i t i s l i k e l y a t t e n t i o n w i l l be p a i d to j u d i c i a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of c u r r e n t membership p r o v i - s i o n s when t h i s i s done. Debt Payment 7 In two cases, F r i c k e v. Moricetown Indian Band and P a c I f i e g C r e d i t Bureau S e r v i c e v. M a r t i n n a t i v e Indians used the c o u r t s i n order to a v o i d the payment of debts. Both cases were i n i - t i a t e d by non-Indians who were attempting to c o l l e c t money from n a t i v e I n d i a n s . Such attempts become complicated as a r e s u l t of Sec. 89(1) of the Indian Act which p r o v i d e s that "...the r e a l and 41 p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y o f an I n d i a n o r a band s i t u a t e d on a r e s e r v e i s n o t s u b j e c t t o c h a r g e , p l e d g e , l e v y , s e i z u r e , d i s t r e s s o r e x e c u - t i o n i n f a v o u r o r a t t h e i n s t a n c e o f any p e r s o n o t h e r t h a n an 9 I n d i a n . " W h i l e t h e b a s i c m e a n i n g o f t h i s s e c t i o n i s f a i r l y c l e a r , q u e s t i o n s do a r i s e a s t o t h e a c t u a l m e a n i n g o f p a r t i c u l a r p h r a s e s . F o r i n s t a n c e , i n F r i c k e v . M o r i c e t o w n I n d i a n Band t h e q u e s t i o n was w h e t h e r o r n o t band f u n d s d e p o s i t e d i n t h e Bank o f M o n t r e a l , w h i c h was n o t on t h e r e s e r v e , were p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y w i t h i n t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e A c t . I n b o t h c a s e s t h e d e f e n d a n t n a t i v e I n d i a n s were s e e k i n g t o a v o i d payment o f t h e d e b t s a l l e g e d l y owed. W h i l e s u c h an i n t e r - e s t i n i t s e l f i s n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y ' I n d i a n ' , i f Adam S m i t h i s t o be b e l i e v e d , t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e I n d i a n A c t d i d p r o v i d e t h e s e d e f e n d a n t s w i t h a u n i q u e l y I n d i a n d e f e n c e . I n b o t h c a s e s t h e d e f e n c e was s u c c e s s f u l . E x e m p t i o n s From T a x a t i o n I n f i v e c a s e s , n a t i v e I n d i a n s u s e d t h e c o u r t s i n o r d e r t o a v o i d p a y i n g t a x e s . T h e s e a t t e m p t s a t t a x a v o i d a n c e were made p o s s i b l e by S e c t i o n 87 o f t h e I n d i a n A c t , w h i c h p r o v i d e s an e x e m p t i o n f r o m t a x a t i o n o f t h e r e a l a n d p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y o f I n d i a n s w h i c h i s s i t u a t e d on a r e s e r v e . A l l o f t h e s e c a s e s a r o s e b e c a u s e o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n i n t e r p r e t i n g e x a c t l y what t h i s s e c t i o n means. 42 I n f o u r c a s e s , t h e n a t i v e I n d i a n s i n v o l v e d were a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h i n c o u r t t h a t t h e y were exempt f r o m c e r t a i n t a x e s . I n Brown v. t h e Queen i n R i g h t o f B.C. 1^ t h e B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l r u l e d t h a t e l e c t r i c i t y was p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y a n d was t h e r e f o r e exempt f r o m t a x a t i o n . I n Danes v . t h e Q u e e n 1 1 a n d W a t t s v. t h e 1 2 Queen t h e same c o u r t r u l e d t h a t m o t o r v e h i c l e s w h i c h were r e g i s t e r e d f o r o f f r e s e r v e u s e were " s i t u a t e d on a r e s e r v e " f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e A c t a n d s o were exempt f r o m s a l e s t a x . The p r o v i n c i a l c o u r t r u l e d t h a t a m u n i c i p a l i t y c o u l d n o t c o l l e c t a b u s i n e s s l i c e n c i n g f e e f r o m a b u s i n e s s l o c a t e d on a r e s e r v e i n 1 3 t h e c a s e o f D i s t r i c t o f C a m p b e l l R i v e r v . N a k n a k i m N a t i v e I n d i a n s were u n s u c c e s s f u l i n one c a s e , L e o n a r d v. R. i n R i g h t o f 1 4 B.C. , when t h e B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l r u l e d t h a t n a t i v e I n d i a n s w ere r e q u i r e d t o pay s a l e s t a x on g o o d s p u r c h a s e d a t r e t a i l o u t l e t s w h i c h were on c o n d i t i o n a l l y s u r r e n d e r e d r e s e r v e l a n d . The l e g a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s e c t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n A c t d e a l i n g w i t h t a x e x e m p t i o n s i s i m p o r t a n t t o n a t i v e I n d i a n s f o r t h r e e r e a s o n s . F i r s t , i n d i v i d u a l s may f i n d t h a t t h e y h a v e a g r e a t e r d i s p o s a b l e income i f c o u r t d e c i s i o n s r e d u c e t h e number o f t a x e s w h i c h n a t i v e I n d i a n s a r e r e q u i r e d t o p a y . S e c o n d , c o u r t d e c i s i o n s may p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t on r e s e r v e s when t a x e x e m p t i o n s d e c r e a s e c o s t s . T h i r d , n a t i v e p e o p l e v i e w t h e i r e x e m p t i o n f r o m t a x a t i o n a s one o f t h e few r i g h t s w h i c h a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e h a v e w h i c h i s r e c o g n i z e d by l a w a l t h o u g h i t d o e s o n l y a p p l y t o s t a t u s I n d i a n s l i v i n g on r e s e r v e s . 43 I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h i s r i g h t i s one w h i c h i s c r e a t e d by s t a t u t e - t h e I n d i a n A c t - and n o t one w h i c h h a s any i n d e p e n d e n t l e g a l e x i s t e n c e . The t r e a t i e s w h i c h were made w i t h n a t i v e I n - 1 5 d i a n s make no s p e c i f i c m e n t i o n o f t a x a t i o n . Use Of R e s e r v e L a n d By N o n - I n d i a n s I n t h r e e c a s e s n a t i v e I n d i a n s u s e d t h e c o u r t s i n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n r e s e r v e l a n d , where r e s e r v e l a n d h a d been u s e d by n o n - I n d i a n s w i t h o u t a s u r r e n d e r o f t h e l a n d . Two s e c t i o n s o f t h e I n d i a n A c t p r o v i d e f o r t h e use o f r e s e r v e l a n d by n o n - I n d i a n s w i t h o u t r e q u i r i n g a s u r r e n d e r o f t h e l a n d . S e c . 2 8 ( 2 ) p r o v i d e s t h a t t h e M i n i s t e r may a u t h o r i z e any p e r s o n t o " r e s i d e o r o t h e r w i s e e x e r c i s e r i g h t s on a r e s e r v e . " 1 * ' The band c o u n c i l ' s a u t h o r i z a t i o n i s n o t r e q u i r e d , i f t h i s i s f o r a p e r i o d o f a y e a r , b u t i s r e q u i r e d i f t h e p e r i o d i s a n y l o n g e r . S e c . 2 8 ( 1 ) p r o v i d e s t h a t a n y s u c h a g r e e m e n t made s o l e l y by t h e band c o u n c i l a n d a n o n - I n d i a n i s v o i d . The M i n i s t e r may a l s o , u n d e r S e c . 5 8 ( 1 ) l e a s e any u n u s e d o r u n c u l t i v a t e d l a n d on t h e r e s e r v e w i t h t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e band c o u n c i l , o r u n d e r S e c . 5 8 ( 3 ) l e a s e l a n d t o w h i c h a b a n d member h a s r i g h t s o f p o s s e s s i o n w i t h t h e c o n s e n t o f t h a t p e r s o n . One d i s p u t e o c c u r r e d when B.C. H y d r o c o n s t r u c t e d a t r a n s m i s - s i o n l i n e a c r o s s r e s e r v e l a n d , w i t h o u t r e a c h i n g a n y a g r e e m e n t w i t h e i t h e r t h e band c o u n c i l o r t h e M i n i s t e r . T h i s l e d t o t h e 44 c a s e o f J o h n s o n v. B.C. H y d r o . A l t h o u g h t h e band c o u n c i l h a d b e e n a p p r o a c h e d a n d n e g o t i a t i o n s h a d t a k e n p l a c e , no a g r e e m e n t was e v e r r e a c h e d . N o n e t h e l e s s , c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e l i n e t o o k p l a c e a t a t i m e when no members o f t h e band were u s i n g t h e r e s e r v e . N e g o t i a t i o n s f o r c o m p e n s a t i o n t h e n t o o k p l a c e b e t w e e n t h e b a n d a nd B.C. H y d r o f r o m S e p t e m b e r 1971 u n t i l 1979, when t h e b a n d f i n a l l y g o t l e g a l a d v i c e . A t t h e t r i a l , t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r o r n o t B.C. H y d r o h ad a c t e d i l l e g a l l y was n o t an i s s u e , a s t h i s was c l e a r l y t h e c a s e . I n s t e a d t h e d e f e n c e . r e l i e d on t h r e e p r o p o s i t i o n s . The f i r s t , t h a t t h e band was n o t l e g a l l y e n t i t l e d t o b r i n g t h e a c t i o n , w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n a l a t e r s e c - t i o n . The s e c o n d d e f e n c e was t h a t t h e band had a c q u i e s c e d i n B.C. H y d r o ' s o c c u p a t i o n o f t h e l a n d , a n d t h a t i n d o i n g s o had g r a n t e d them a l i c e n s e t o o c c u p y t h e l a n d . The t h i r d d e f e n c e was t h a t t h e s t a t u t e o f l i m i t a t i o n s p r e v e n t e d t h e band f r o m com- m e n c i n g an a c t i o n a t t h i s t i m e . The j u d g e r u l e d t h a t a l l t h r e e d e f e n c e s f a i l e d , a n d a w a r d e d g e n e r a l a n d e x e m p l a r y damages, be- 1 8 c a u s e o f t h e " a r r o g a n t , c a l l o u s , a n d i n d i f f e r e n t " c o n d u c t o f B.C. H y d r o i n t h e i r d e a l i n g s w i t h t h e I n d i a n b and. W h i l e S e c t i o n 28 was n o t a m a t t e r o f d i s p u t e i n t h i s c a s e i t d i d p r o v i d e t h e l e g a l b a s i s f o r b r i n g i n g t h e a c t i o n i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e . A n o t h e r d i s p u t e o c c u r r e d when two n o n - n a t i v e c o m p a n i e s l e a s e d l a n d on an I n d i a n R e s e r v e . B e f o r e t h e l e a s e s e x p i r e d , s e p a r a t e n e g o t i a t i o n s were e n t e r e d i n t o w i t h t h e band c o u n c i l a n d w i t h t h e M i n i s t e r . A l t h o u g h t h e f a c t s o f t h e s e n e g o t i a t i o n s a r e 45 r a t h e r c o m p l e x , e s s e n t i a l l y what h a p p e n e d was t h a t when t h e l e a s e s e x p i r e d , no new a g r e e m e n t s were i n p l a c e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e band d e c i d e d t o use t h e l a n d f o r t h e i r own p u r p o s e s , a n d when t h e y began t o do s o , t h e two f i r m s a p p l i e d f o r an i n j u n c t i o n t o p r e v e n t them f r o m d o i n g s o , i n t h e c a s e o f S p r i n g b a n k D e h y d r a - 1 9 t i o n L t d . a n d S e a b i r d I s l a n d Farms v. C h a r l e s . The i n j u n c t i o n was n o t g r a n t e d . I t s h o u l d p e r h a p s be n o t e d t h a t t h e f e d e r a l Crown was a p a r t y t o t h e a c t i o n w i t h t h e I n d i a n b a n d , s o t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e l e g a l s t a t u s o f t h e band was n o t , and c o u l d n o t b e , an i s s u e . The same i s t r u e f o r t h e n e x t c a s e . I n t h e f i n a l c a s e , A.G. Canada a nd K r u g e r v . C P . L t d . a n d 20 M a r a t h o n R e a l t y , l a n d w h i c h was p a r t o f an I n d i a n r e s e r v e h a d been a c q u i r e d i n 1927 f o r a r a i l w a y r i g h t o f way. P r o v i s i o n f o r s u c h an a c t i o n was made i n S e c . 4 8 ( 1 ) o f t h e I n d i a n A c t , w h i c h r e q u i r e d c o n s e n t o f t h e G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l f o r s u c h an e x p r o - p r i a t i o n . C P . t h e n t r i e d t o t r a n s f e r t h e l a n d t o M a r a t h o n R e a l t y when i t no l o n g e r n e e d e d t h e l a n d f o r a r i g h t o f way. A t t h i s p o i n t , t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t a nd t h e I n d i a n b a n d began t h e a c t i o n t o h a v e t h e l a n d r e s t o r e d t o t h e Cr o w n , a s t h e R a i l w a y s A c t p r o h i b i t s t h e a l i e n a t i o n o f Crown l a n d w h i c h h a s been a c - 21 q u i r e d f o r r a i l w a y p u r p o s e s . T h i s a c t i o n was s u c c e s s f u l . As r e s e r v e l a n d i s t h e o n l y l a n d b a s e t h a t n a t i v e I n d i a n s h a v e a t p r e s e n t , t h e y h a v e an i n t e r e s t i n e n s u r i n g t h a t t h i s l a n d i s n o t a l i e n a t e d , a n d i n e n s u r i n g t h a t t h i s l a n d i s b e i n g 46 u t i l i z e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e i r d e s i r e s . I n t h e s e t h r e e c a s e s , n a t i v e I n d i a n s were a b l e t o p r o t e c t t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n r e s e r v e l a n d t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f t h e c o u r t s . I n d i a n P o s s e s s i o n Of R e s e r v e L a n d N a t i v e I n d i a n s u s e d t h e c o u r t s i n f o u r c a s e s t o r e s o l v e d i s p u t e s a b o u t t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f r e s e r v e l a n d by I n d i a n s . The l e g a l d i s p u t e s i n t h e s e c a s e s a r o s e b e c a u s e o f d i f f e r e n t i n t e r - p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e I n d i a n A c t p r o v i s i o n s w h i c h g o v e r n p o s s e s s i o n o f r e s e r v e l a n d . T i t l e t o r e s e r v e l a n d s i s h e l d by t h e Crown i n r i g h t o f Canada f o r t h e u s e a n d b e n e f i t o f t h e b a n d s f o r whom t h e y were s e t a p a r t . B e c a u s e t h e l a n d i s h e l d by t h e Crown, p r o p e r t y r i g h t s w h i c h a r e e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e common l a w do n o t 22 a p p l y a n d a r e r e p l a c e d by s e c t i o n s 20-29 o f t h e I n d i a n A c t . The m a j o r p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e s e s e c t i o n s empower t h e band c o u n c i l t o a l l o t p o s s e s s i o n o f r e s e r v e l a n d t o band members, s u b j e c t t o t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e M i n i s t e r . The M i n i s t e r may t h e n i s s u e a C e r t i f i c a t e o f P o s s e s s i o n a s e v i d e n c e o f a member's r i g h t t o p o s s e s s i o n o f t h a t l a n d . The r i g h t t o p o s s e s s i o n o f l a n d may be t r a n s f e r r e d , b u t o n l y t o a n o t h e r b a nd member, a n d o n l y w i t h t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e M i n i s t e r . The a c t u a l n a t u r e o f t h i s r i g h t o f p o s s e s s i o n i s n o t made c l e a r by t h e I n d i a n A c t , p a r t i c u l a r l y w h e t h e r o r n o t i t c a n be r e v o k e d by t h e band c o u n c i l o r t h e . . 23 M i n i s t e r . However, w h a t e v e r t h e a c t u a l n a t u r e o f t h e s e r i g h t s , any d i s p u t e o f a l e g a l n a t u r e a b o u t t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f r e s e r v e 47 l a n d s must i n v o l v e t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e 24 I n d i a n A c t . F o u r c a s e s i n v o l v e d i s p u t e s a b o u t t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f r e s e r v e 25 l a n d s . I n L e o n a r d v . The Queen, t h e p l a i n t i f f s o u g h t a d e c l a - r a t i o n t h a t she was t h e owner o f a p l o t o f l a n d w i t h i n t h e K a m l o o p s I n d i a n R e s e r v e . The o t h e r t h r e e c a s e s i n v o l v e a t t e m p t s by b a n d c o u n c i l s t o r e c o v e r p o s s e s s i o n o f r e s e r v e l a n d s f r o m 2 6 i n d i v i d u a l b a n d members. I n L i n d l e y v . D e r r i c k s o n , an a g r e e - ment was e n t e r e d i n t o b e t w e e n t h e b a nd c o u n c i l a n d t h e d e f e n d a n t w h i c h i n v o l v e d an e x c h a n g e o f p l o t s o f l a n d s o t h a t t h e band c o u n c i l c o u l d p r o c e e d w i t h p l a n n e d d e v e l o p m e n t . C e r t a i n c o n d i - t i o n s o f t h e a g r e e m e n t were n e v e r f u l f i l l e d , a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e c o u n c i l s o u g h t t o r e c o v e r p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e l a n d e x c h a n g e d . 27 I n L e o n a r d v . G o t t f r l e d s o n , t h e band c o u n c i l a t t e m p t e d t o r e c o v e r p o s s e s s i o n o f l a n d w h i c h h a d been a l l o t t e d t o a band 28 member u n d e r r a t h e r s u s p e c t c i r c u m s t a n c e s . I n J o e v. F i n d l a y t h e b a nd c o u n c i l s o u g h t a m a n d a t o r y i n j u n c t i o n t o remove an i n d i v i d u a l who had commandeered r e s e r v e l a n d w i t h o u t t h e c o n s e n t o f c o u n c i l i n an a r e a where a h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t was p l a n n e d . The a c t u a l o u t c o m e s o f t h e s e c a s e s a r e b a s i c a l l y i r r e l e v a n t e x c e p t t o t h e p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d . The c a s e s s i m p l y d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t n a t i v e I n d i a n s use t h e c o u r t s t o s e t t l e d i s p u t e s w h i c h h a v e a r i s e n a b o u t t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s e c t i o n s o f t h e I n d i a n A c t w h i c h g o v e r n p o s s e s s i o n o f r e s e r v e l a n d . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d 48 h o w e v e r t h a t two o f t h e c a s e s were l i n k e d t o d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e r e s e r v e s . I n a d d i t i o n , a n o t h e r l e g a l i s s u e was r a i s e d i n two o f t h e s e c a s e s , w h i c h i s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p o w e r s o f b a n d c o u n c i l s . T h i s i s s u e w i l l be e x a m i n e d i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n . L e g a l S t a t u s Of Band C o u n c i l s The a b i l i t y o f b a n d c o u n c i l s t o c a r r y o u t t h e w i s h e s o f t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s i s o b v i o u s l y an i s s u e o f i m p o r t a n c e t o n a t i v e I n d i a n s . Band c o u n c i l s a s t h e y p r e s e n t l y e x i s t a r e c r e a t e d by t h e I n d i a n A c t , w h i c h s e t s o u t b o t h t h e p r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e e l e c - t i o n o f band c o u n c i l s , a n d t h e p o w e r s w h i c h t h e y have when e l e c t e d . A l t h o u g h band c o u n c i l s m i g h t be s e e n a s a l e v e l o f g o v e r n m e n t , any p o w e r s w h i c h t h e y have t o make d e c i s i o n s a r e t h o s e w h i c h have been d e l e g a t e d t o them by t h e f e d e r a l p a r l i a m e n t 29 t h r o u g h t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n . T h e i r p o w e r s a r e f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t e d by t h e I n d i a n A c t a s most d e c i s i o n s a r e s u b j e c t t o t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e M i n i s t e r . B e c a u s e band c o u n c i l p o w e r s a r e l i m i t e d t o t h o s e d e f i n e d i n t h e I n d i a n A c t , a d e g r e e o f u n c e r t a i n t y p r e - s e n t l y e x i s t s a s t o t h e l e g a l s t a t u s o f band c o u n c i l s . A l t h o u g h c o u n c i l s a r e , e s s e n t i a l l y , t h e g o v e r n m e n t on r e s e r v e s , some o f t h e n e c e s s a r y p o w e r s o f g o v e r n m e n t a r e n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y m e n t i o n e d i n t h e A c t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , q u e s t i o n s have been r a i s e d a s t o t h e b a n d ' s a b i l i t y t o b r i n g l a w s u i t s , s i g n c o n t r a c t s , a n d g e n e r a l l y 30 a c t i n t h e name o f t h e b a n d . W h i l e n a t i v e I n d i a n s h a v e an i n t e r e s t i n c l a r i f y i n g t h e 49 l e g a l s t a t u s o f band c o u n c i l s a n d t h u s e n h a n c i n g t h e i r a utonomy, s u c h a c l a r i f i c a t i o n i n i t s e l f h a s n o t been t h e p r i m a r y i n t e n t o f t h e b a nd c o u n c i l s i n v o l v e d i n t h e c a s e s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s e c - t i o n . R a t h e r , t h i s q u e s t i o n h a s been r a i s e d i n c o u r t i n a number of d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s a s a r e s u l t o f band c o u n c i l s ' a t t e m p t s t o p u r s u e o t h e r g o a l s . The s t a t u s o f band c o u n c i l s was t h e p r i m a r y l e g a l q u e s t i o n 31 i n f o u r c a s e s . The c a s e o f Re M a s s e t Band C o u n c i l a r o s e a s a r e s u l t o f t h e band c o u n c i l ' s d e s i r e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n an i n q u e s t i n t o t h e d e a t h o f one o f t h e b a n d ' s members, and t h e c o u r t h e l d t h a t t h e c o u n c i l was a p e r s o n c a p a b l e o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n an 3 2 i n q u e s t u n d e r t h e C o r o n e r ' s A c t . I n t h e c a s e o f Re C. a n d V.C. t h e b a nd a p p l i e d f o r c u s t o d y o f a c h i l d , b u t t h e c o u n c i l was h e l d n o t t o be a p e r s o n c a p a b l e o f a p p l y i n g f o r c u s t o d y u n d e r t h e F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s A c t . I n two c a s e s , members o f band c o u n c i l s were s e e k i n g n o t t o be f o u n d l i a b l e f o r b r e a c h o f c o n t r a c t . I n t h e 3 3 c a s e s o f C a c h e C r e e k M o t o r s v . P o r t e r a n d Z a l e s c h u k v . B e l l a 3 4 B e l l a I n d i a n Band, members o f t h e c o n c e r n e d c o u n c i l s t o o k a d v a n t a g e o f t h e l e g a l u n c e r t a i n t y a b o u t t h e s t a t u s o f band c o u n c i l s a n d a r g u e d t h a t t h e y c o u l d n o t be s u e d f o r b r e a c h o f c o n t r a c t i n t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l c a p a c i t i e s a s members o f t h e band c o u n c i l . U n f o r t u n a t e l y f o r them, t h e j u d g e s d i d n o t a g r e e . The l e g a l s t a t u s o f band c o u n c i l s was a l s o r a i s e d a s an i s s u e i n some o f t h e c a s e s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f r e s e r v e 50 l a n d . I n t h r e e c a s e s , J o h n s o n v . B.C. H y d r o , L i n d l e y v . 36 37 D e r r i c k s o n , a n d J o e v . F i n d l a y , w h i c h i n v o l v e d t r e s p a s s on r e s e r v e l a n d s , t h e d e f e n s e r a i s e d t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r t h e b a n d c o u n c i l h a d t h e s t a t u s t o b r i n g t h e a c t i o n . I n t h e s e t h r e e c a s e s t h e b a n d c o u n c i l s were a c t i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y , a n d t h e f e d - e r a l g o v e r n m e n t was n o t a p a r t y t o t h e a c t i o n s . I t was t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e c o u n c i l s t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t t h e y h a d a s u f f i - c i e n t i n t e r e s t i n r e s e r v e l a n d t o i n i t i a t e s u c h l i t i g a t i o n . The a n s w e r t o t h i s q u e s t i o n was an i m p o r t a n t one t o t h e band c o u n - c i l s , a s a n e g a t i v e j u d g e m e n t w o u l d l e a v e them w i t h no l e g a l remedy f o r t h e i l l e g a l p o s s e s s i o n o f r e s e r v e l a n d , u n l e s s t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t c h o s e t o become i n v o l v e d by i n i t i a t i n g an a c t i o n . H o w e v e r , i n a l l t h r e e c a s e s i t was r u l e d t h a t t h e c o u n - c i l d i d h a v e a s u f f i c i e n t i n t e r e s t t o b r i n g t h e a c t i o n . T h e s e c a s e s d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t w h i l e n a t i v e I n d i a n s h a v e an i n t e r e s t i n c l a r i f y i n g t h e l e g a l s t a t u s o f band c o u n c i l s a n d t h e r e b y ( h o p e f u l l y ) i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r autonomy f r o m t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , t h i s i s s u e h a s n o t been one w h i c h h a s , i n i t s e l f , l e d t o c o u r t a c t i o n . R a t h e r , t h i s i s s u e h a s a r i s e n when b a n d c o u n c i l s h ave a c t e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y t o p u r s u e o t h e r g o a l s t h r o u g h t h e c o u r t s . A d o p t i o n N a t i v e I n d i a n s s o u g h t t o p r e v e n t t h e a d o p t i o n o f n a t i v e 51 I n d i a n c h i l d r e n by n o n - I n d i a n s i n two c a s e s . The m a j o r l e g a l q u e s t i o n i n t h e s e two c a s e s was t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f t h e c h i l d . I n s u c h c a s e s , t h e g u i d a n c e o f t h e law i s m i n i m a l , a n d t h e j u d g e must make a d e c i s i o n b a s e d p r i m a r i l y on h i s s u b j e c t i v e o p i n i o n o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f v a r i o u s f a c t o r s . The n a t i v e I n d i a n c o n c e r n i n s u c h c a s e s i s t h a t r a c i a l a n d c u l t u - r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w h i c h a r e o f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e t o them may n o t be g i v e n a d e q u a t e c o n s i d e r a t i o n by a n o n - n a t i v e j u d g e . M e r e l y t h e f a c t t h a t n o n - n a t i v e s a r e g i v e n s u c h power i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f n a t i v e c h i l d r e n may be s e e n a s a d e n i a l o f t h e a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e ' s r i g h t t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . 39 I n J o h n v. S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f C h i l d W e l f a r e , t h e n a t u r a l m o t h e r o f t h e c h i l d s o u g h t t o r e v o k e h e r c o n s e n t t o t h e a d o p t i o n , a n d a r g u e d t h a t t h e c h i l d w o u l d be b e t t e r o f f i f r a i s e d among r e l a t i v e s . The j u d g e r u l e d t h a t i t h a d n o t been p r o v e n t h a t i t was i n t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f t h e c h i l d t o be r a i s e d among r e l a - t i v e s . I n M c N e i l v . S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f F a m i l y a n d C h i l d S e r - 40 v i c e s , t h e m o t h e r ' s h a l f b r o t h e r , who l i v e d i n N o r t h e a s t B.C., a p p l i e d f o r c u s t o d y o f t h e c h i l d . T h i s a p p l i c a t i o n was d e n i e d , a s t h e j u d g e r u l e d t h a t t h e c h i l d h a d s p e c i a l n e e d s a s s h e was b o r n w i t h a d r u g a d d i c t i o n , a n d so c o u l d be b e t t e r c a r e d f o r where m e d i c a l t r e a t m e n t was more r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e , s u c h a s i n V a n c o u - v e r o r V i c t o r i a . I n t h e s e c a s e s , t h e n a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s ' d e s i r e t o have t h e i r 52 c h i l d r e n r a i s e d w i t h i n t h e n a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e was f r u s t r a t e d n o t by t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e l a w , b u t by t h e way i n w h i c h t h e l a w was a p p l i e d . A l t h o u g h i n b o t h c a s e s s p e c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s d i d e x i s t , a n d t h e c h i l d r e n were a d o p t e d by n o n - n a t i v e s f o r r e a s o n s b e y o n d t h e s i m p l e d e t e r m i n a t i o n t h a t w h i t e p a r e n t s were i n h e r - e n t l y b e t t e r t h a n I n d i a n o n e s , n a t i v e I n d i a n s h a v e a r g u e d t h a t a 41 c u l t u r a l b i a s was e v i d e n t . I n b o t h c a s e s t h e j u d g e s a g r e e d t h a t r a c i a l t i e s were i n d e e d i m p o r t a n t , y e t i n b o t h c a s e s o t h e r f a c t o r s were f o u n d t o o u t w e i g h t h i s i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f t h e c h i l d . One o t h e r c a s e d e a l s , i f somewhat t a n g e n t i a l l y , w i t h a d o p - 42 t i o n . I n M i t c h e l l v . D e n n i s a n d D e n n i s , t h e p l a i n t i f f , who h a d a d o p t e d a c h i l d by c u s t o m a s p r o v i d e d f o r i n t h e I n d i a n A c t , b r o u g h t a c l a i m u n d e r t h e F a m i l y C o m p e n s a t i o n A c t when t h e c h i l d d i e d . The c o u r t r u l e d , w i t h r e g r e t , t h a t s u c h a c u s t o m a r y a d o p - t i o n c o n f e r r e d no l e g a l r i g h t s e x c e p t t h o s e e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e I n d i a n A c t . T h u s , w h i l e t h e I n d i a n A c t d o e s r e c o g n i z e t o some e x t e n t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s o f n a t i v e I n d i a n s , t h i s i s o n l y a l i m i t e d r e c o g n i t i o n w h i c h d o e s n o t e x t e n d t o o t h e r l e g i s l a t i o n . C o n c l u s i o n I n t h e c a s e s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r n a t i v e I n d i a n s have p u r s u e d s e v e r a l m a j o r g o a l s - t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f s t a t u s , t h e n o n - 53 payment o f d e b t s a n d t a x e s , t h e e j e c t i o n o f n o n - I n d i a n s f r o m r e s e r v e l a n d s , t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f d i s p u t e s a b o u t t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f r e s e r v e l a n d , t h e r i g h t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n an i n q u e s t , t h e l i m i t a - t i o n o f c o n t r a c t o b l i g a t i o n s , a n d p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e i r c u l t u r e t h r o u g h t h e a d o p t i o n o f I n d i a n c h i l d r e n by I n d i a n f a m i l i e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e i s s u e o f t h e l e g a l s t a t u s o f b a n d c o u n c i l s was r a i s e d i n some c a s e s a s a r e s u l t o f ba n d s a c t i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y t o p u r s u e p a r t i c u l a r g o a l s . W h i l e n a t i v e I n d i a n s were n o t a l w a y s s u c c e s s f u l i n a c h i e v i n g t h e i r g o a l s i n c o u r t , v i c t o r i e s i n some c a s e s d i d p r o v i d e b e n e f i t s t o t h o s e i n v o l v e d , a n d s o m e t i m e s t o t h e I n d i a n c o m m u n i t y g e n e r a l l y , w h i c h w o u l d h a v e o t h e r w i s e been u n r e a l i z e d . The I n d i a n A c t was o r i g i n a l l y d e s i g n e d t o make n a t i v e I n d i a n s on r e s e r v e s w a r d s o f t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t , a n d t o g i v e them p r o t e c t i o n f r o m t h e a c t i o n s o f s e t t l e r s , a n d t h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n n a t i v e I n d i a n s ' u s e o f t h e c o u r t s . I n s i x t e e n c a s e s - t h o s e d e a l i n g w i t h d e b t , t a x a t i o n , c o n t r a c t s , t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f r e s e r v e l a n d , a n d c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e d e a t h o f a c h i l d - n a t i v e I n d i a n s h a v e u s e d t h e c o u r t s a n d t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e I n d i a n A c t t o p r o t e c t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , when t h e s e i n t e r e s t s w e re a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d by t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t o r i n d i v i d u a l s . N a t i v e I n d i a n s c h a l l e n g e d d e c i s i o n s t a k e n by d e p a r t m e n t a l o f f i c i a l s i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e I n d i a n A c t i n o n l y t h r e e c a s e s '- t h e two s t a t u s c a s e s a nd L e o n a r d v . The Queen w h i c h were o f s i g n i f i c a n c e o n l y t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d . As 54 t h e g u a r d i a n o f n a t i v e I n d i a n s , t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t h a s g i v e n i t s e l f a g r e a t d e a l o f a u t h o r i t y o v e r l i f e on r e s e r v e s , l e a v i n g n a t i v e I n d i a n s few o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o c h a l l e n g e i t s d e c i s i o n s , a t l e a s t on t h e b a s i s o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e A c t i t s e l f . I n two c a s e s - Re M a s s e t B and C o u n c i l a n d Re C. a n d V.C. - b a n d c o u n c i l s had t o use t h e c o u r t s i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r a u t h o r i t y t o t a k e c e r t a i n a c t i o n s , a s t h e l e g a l s t a t u s o f band c o u n c i l s i s n o t c l e a r l y d e f i n e d i n t h e I n d i a n A c t . T h i s i s s u e was a l s o r a i s e d i n t h r e e c a s e s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f r e s e r v e l a n d . W h i l e t h e p r i m a r y g o a l b e i n g p u r s u e d i n t h e s e c a s e s was n o t t o i n c r e a s e t h e autonomy o f b a n d c o u n c i l s , t h e i s s u e o f autonomy was r a i s e d i n c o u r t a s a r e s u l t o f b a nd c o u n c i l s ' a t t e m p t s t o a c t i n d e p e n d e n t l y . E c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t on r e s e r v e s c o n t r i b u t e d i n d i r e c t l y t o n a t i v e I n d i a n s ' use o f t h e c o u r t s i n two c a s e s , a s d i s p u t e s a b o u t t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f r e s e r v e l a n d a r o s e when s u c h d e v e l o p m e n t was p u r s u e d . I n a d d i t i o n , one c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h e t a x a t i o n c a s e s was t h e a d v a n t a g e w h i c h t a x e x e m p t i o n s c o u l d g i v e t o b u s i n e s s e s on r e s e r v e s . 55 TABLE I INTERPRETATION OF STATUTES TABLE OF CASES STATUS G r a n t v . t h e R e g i s t r a r o f I n d i a n s 1983 F.C.T.D. C.L.G. v . S m i t h 1984 B.C.C.C. DEBT P a c i f i c C r e d i t B u r e a u S e r v i c e v . M a r t i n 1982 B.C.P.C. F r i c k e v . M o r i c e t o w n I n d i a n Band 1985 B.C.S.C. TAXATION Brown v. The Queen 1978 B.C.S.C. 1979 B.C.C.A. D i s t r i c t ' o f C a m p b e l l R i v e r v . N a k n a k i m 1983 B.C.P.C. L e o n a r d v . R. i n R i g h t o f B.C. 1983 B.C.S.C. 1984 B.C.C.A. Danes v . The Queen 1983 B.C.S.C. 1985 B.C.C.A. W a t t s v . The Queen 1983 B.C.S.C. 1985 B.C.C.A. USE OF RESERVE LAND BY NON-INDIANS S p r i n g b a n k D e h y d r a t i o n e t a l v. C h a r l e s 1977 F.C.T.D. J o h n s o n v . B.C. H y d r o 1981 B.C.S.C. A.G. Canada & K r u g e r e t a l v . C P . L t d . 1985 B.C.S.C. 56 INDIAN POSSESSION OF RESERVE LAND L i n d l e y v . D e r r i c k s o n L e o n a r d v . The Queen L e o n a r d v. G o t t f r i e d s o n J o e v . F i n d l a y 1976 1976 1980 1978 1980 1981 B • C. S • C F.C.T.D B • C < S • C B. C . S • C B. C • S • C B.C.C.A LEGAL STATUS OF BAND COUNCILS Re M a s s e t B a n d C o u n c i l C a che C r e e k M o t o r s v. P o r t e r Re C. a n d V.C. Z a l e s c h u k v . B e l l a B e l l a I n d i a n Band 1976 1979 1 982 1984 B. C • S . C B • C • C. C B.C.P.C B. C. S . C ADOPTION J o h n v. S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f C h i l d W e l f a r e 1979 M c n e i l v . S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f F a m i l y 1983 an d C h i l d S e r v i c e s B. C • S • C B.C.C.A M i c h e l l v . D e n n i s and D e n n i s 1983 B. C. S . C 57 NOTES - CHAPTER 2 See D o u g l a s S a n d e r s and G o r d o n B u r r e l l , Handbook o f C a s e Law on t h e I n d i a n A c t ( O t t a w a : 1 9 8 4 ) . S e v e r a l c a s e s w h i c h d e a l w i t h M o t o r V e h i c l e A c t v i o l a t i o n s h a ve n o t been i n c l u d e d i n t h e t h e s i s . B e c a u s e t h e I n d i a n A c t p r o v i s i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t r a f f i c r e g u l a t i o n s a p p l y t o a n y o n e d r i v i n g on r e s e r v e s , t h e s e c a s e s do n o t d e a l w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r l y I n d i a n i n t e r e s t , a l t h o u g h I n d i a n s a r e more l i k e l y t o be d r i v i n g on r e s e r v e s . [ 1 9 8 4 ] B.C.W.L.D. 8. [ 1 9 8 5 ] 2 W.W.R. 155. I n i t i a l s a r e u s e d i n t h e name o f t h i s c a s e i n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t t h e i d e n t i t y o f t h e c h i l d . The same i s t r u e f o r t h e c a s e s d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h e c h a p t e r w h i c h d e a l w i t h a d o p t i o n . T h i s was n o t t r u e o f two o t h e r C a n a d i a n c a s e s w h i c h d e a l t w i t h t h e m e m b e r s h i p p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e I n d i a n A c t - A.G. f o r Canada v . L a v e l l a n d I s a a c e t a l v . B e d a r d ( 1 9 7 4 ) 38 D.L.R. (3d) 4 8 1 . T h e s e c a s e s c h a l l e n g e d t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f S e c t i o n 12(1 M b ) o f t h e I n d i a n A c t on t h e b a s i s t h a t i t was d i s c r i m i n a t o r y w i t h r e s p e c t t o s e x a n d r a c e , and c o n s e - q u e n t l y s h o u l d be o v e r r i d d e n by t h e B i l l o f R i g h t s . T h e s e c a s e s were o f g r e a t c o n c e r n t o b o t h t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t and n a t i v e g r o u p s b e c a u s e o f t h e p r e d e d e n t w h i c h t h e y m i g h t s e t . The number o f i n d i v i d u a l s who m i g h t h a v e become s t a t u s I n d i a n s a s a r e s u l t o f a d e c i s i o n i n f a v o u r o f L a v e l l a n d B e d a r d w o u l d h a v e been l a r g e . I n a d d i t i o n , a number o f I n d i a n l e a d e r s were c o n c e r n e d a b o u t a p r e c e d e n t w h i c h w o u l d make t h e I n d i a n A c t s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h e B i l l o f R i g h t s , a s t h e y f e l t t h i s m i g h t have h a d an i m p a c t on t h e s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h n a t i v e I n d i a n s h a v e w i t h t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t . They a l s o saw t h e d i s c r i m i n a t o r y s e c - t i o n s o f t h e A c t a s a l e v e r w h i c h c o u l d be u s e d t o p r e s s u r e t h e g o v e r n m e n t i n t o n e g o t i a t i o n s on a s i g n i f i c a n t o v e r h a u l o f t h e A c t . See H a r o l d C a r d i n a l , The R e b i r t h o f C a n a d a ' s I n d i a n s ( E d monton, H u r t i g P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 7 7 ) , p p . 109-112. The b i l l a l s o e l i m i n a t e s S e c t i o n 12(1 M b ) o f t h e A c t w h i c h p r o v i d e d t h a t when an I n d i a n woman m a r i e d a n o n - I n d i a n she l o s t h e r s t a t u s . I t a l s o r e p e a l e d s e c t i o n s o f t h e A c t 58 7 8 9 10 1 1 1 2 13 w h i c h p r o v i d e d f o r e n f r a n c h i s e m e n t , w h i c h i s e s s e n t i a l l y a n o t h e r method o f g i v i n g up s t a t u s . [ 1 9 8 6 ] 1 C.N.L.R. 11. [ 1982] B . C D . C i v . 1 7 2 4 - 0 5 . S e c t i o n 8 9 , I n d i a n A c t . (1980) 107 D.L.R. (3d) 7 0 5 , ( 1 9 7 8 ) 87 D.L.R. (3d) 337. [ 1 9 8 5 ] 2 C.N.L.R. 18, [ 1 9 8 4 ] 1 C.N.L.R. 64. I b i d . [ 1 9 8 4 ] 2 C.N.L.R. 8 5. 20 21 1 4 [ 1 9 8 4 ] 4 W.W.R. 37, [ 1 9 8 3 ] 3 W.W.R. 529. 1 5 R i c h a r d B a r t l e t t , " T a x a t i o n , " i n B r a d f o r d M o r s e , e d , A b o r i g i n a l P e o p l e s a n d t h e Law, p. 579. 1 6 S e c t i o n 2 8 ( 2 ) , I n d i a n A c t . 1 7 ( 1 9 8 1 ) 123 D.L.R. ( 3 d ) 340. 1 8 J o h n s o n v . B.C. H y d r o , (1981) 123 D.L.R. (3d) 340, a t p. 348. 1 9 [ 1 9 7 8 ] 1 C.N.L.B. 6. [1 9 8 6 ] 1 C.N.L.R. 1. I t w o u l d seem t h a t t h e i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n f o r t h e band w o u l d be w h e t h e r t h e l a n d was l e g a l l y r e q u i r e d t o be r e t u r n e d t o t h e r e s e r v e , o r s i m p l y t o t h e Crown. However, t h i s q u e s t i o n was n o t r a i s e d i n t h e c a s e , p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e t h e Crown a n d t h e I n d i a n s were a c t i n g i n c o n c e r t , a n d p e r h a p s an ag r e e m e n t e x i s t e d b e t w e e n them t h a t t h i s w o u l d o c c u r . A p p a r e n t l y t h e l a n d was r e t u r n e d t o t h e Crown i n t r u s t f o r t h e I n d i a n b a n d , a s t h i s i s s t a t e d i n t h e j u d g e m e n t o f Mr. J u s t i c e M a c D o n a l d i n h i s d e c i s i o n i n P a s c o e t a l v . C.N.R. , [198-6] 1 C.N.L.R. 3 5. See D o u g l a s S a n d e r s , L e g a l A s p e c t s o f E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t on I n d i a n R e s e r v e L a n d s ( O t t a w a : D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n a n d N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s , 1 9 7 6 ) , f o r a more d e t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t o f t h e s e s e c t i o n s . 23 R i c h a r d B a r t l e t t , " R e s e r v e L a n d s " , i n B r a d f o r d M o r s e , e d , 22 59 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 A b o r i g i n a l P e o p l e s a n d t h e Law: I n d i a n , M e t i s a n d I n u i t R i g h t s i n Canada ( O t t a w a : C a r l e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 8 5 ) , p. 518. Some b a n d s on t h e p r a i r i e s do n o t u s e t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e I n d i a n A c t , i n c l u d i n g t h o s e d e a l i n g w i t h C e r t i f i c a t e s o f P o s s e s s i o n , i n a l l o t i n g l a n d on r e s e r v e s . I n s t e a d , t h e y u s e t r a d i t i o n a l m e t h o d s o f d i s t r i b u t i n g l a n d . T h i s s y s t e m d o e s n o t l e a v e open t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f an a p p e a l t o n o n - I n d i a n c o u r t s i n t h e s e t t l i n g o f any d i s p u t e s w h i c h may a r i s e , a l t h o u g h p r o v i s i o n s f o r d i s p u t e s e t t l e m e n t may e x i s t w i t h i n t h e n a t i v e c o m m u n i t y . See S a n d e r s , " L e g a l A s p e c t s , " p. 5. [1 9 7 8 ] 1 C.N.L.B. 5. [1 9 7 8 ] 4 C.N.L.B. 75. [ 1 9 8 1 ] 21 B.C.L.R. 326. [ 1 9 8 1 ] 3 W.W.R. 60, (1980) 109 D.L.R. (3d) 747, [ 1 9 7 8 ] 4 W.W.R. 653. I t i s f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h a t I h a v e i n c l u d e d t h i s a r e a i n t h i s c h a p t e r r a t h e r t h a n i n t h e c h a p t e r on j u r i s d i c t i o n . W h i l e t h e s e may a p p e a r t o be q u e s t i o n s o f j u r i s d i c t i o n , t h e y a r e f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m q u e s t i o n s o f j u r i s d i c t i o n b e t w e e n f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s . I n t h e l a t t e r c a s e s , j u r i s d i c t i o n i s d e f i n e d by t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n , w h i c h c a n n o t be c h a n g e d by e i t h e r p a r t y u n i l a t e r a l l y . The c o n s t i t u t i o n , a n d t h e c o u r t ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f i t , p r o v i d e a l i m i t a t i o n on t h e us e o f power by e i t h e r l e v e l o f g o v e r n m e n t . I n t h e c a s e o f band c o u n c i l s , t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t h a s t h e power t o d e t e r m i n e u n i l a t e r a l l y what b a n d c o u n c i l s ' p o w e r s w i l l b e . House o f Commons, I n d i a n S e l f - G o v e r n m e n t i n C a n a d a : R e p o r t o f t h e S p e c i a l C o m m i t t e e ( O t t a w a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 8 3 ) , pT 18. 31 [ 1 9 7 7 ] 2 W.W.R. 93. 32 [ 1 9 8 3 ] 3 C.N.L.R. 58. 33 [ 1 9 8 1 ] 2 C.N.L.R. 34. 34 [ 1 9 8 4 ] B . C D . C i v i l 969-1 1 . 35 [1981 ] 3 C.N.L.R. 63. 60 3 6 [1978] 4 C.N.L.B. 75. 3 7 [1981] 3 C.N.L.R. 58, [1981] 2 C.N.L.R. 58, [1978] 4 C.N.L.B. 130. 38 The Supreme Court of Canada ruled that the pro v i n c i a l Adoption Act did apply to native Indians in their decision in Natural Parents v. the Superintendent of Child Welfare in 1975. See Chapter 3. 3 9 [1982] 2 C.N.L.R. 40. 4 0 [1983] 4 C.N.L.R. 41. 4 1 . . See Daniel Raunet, Without Surrender, Without Consent (Vancouver: Douglas and Maclntyre, 1984), esp. p. 175. [1984] 2 W.W.R. 449. 61 CHAPTER 3 THE A P P L I C A T I O N OF PROVINCIAL LAWS TO INDIANS AND THEIR LANDS The c a s e s i n t h i s c h a p t e r a l l d e a l w i t h q u e s t i o n s o f j u r i s - d i c t i o n ; t h a t i s , w h e t h e r p a r t i c u l a r p r o v i n c i a l l a w s a p p l y t o I n d i a n s o r I n d i a n l a n d s . The e x i s t e n c e o f S e c t i o n 9 1 ( 2 4 ) o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t , 1982, w h i c h g i v e s t h e f e d e r a l P a r l i a m e n t j u r i s - d i c t i o n o v e r I n d i a n s a n d l a n d s r e s e r v e d f o r t h e I n d i a n s , e n a b l e s n a t i v e I n d i a n s t o c h a l l e n g e t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f p r o v i n c i a l l a w s t o t h e m s e l v e s a n d t h e i r l a n d s . J u r i s d i c t i o n a l c a s e s a r e p o t e n - t i a l l y more s i g n i f i c a n t t h a n t h o s e c a s e s d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 2, a s t h e o u t c o m e s o f t h e c a s e s may a f f e c t t h e d i v i s i o n o f power b e t w e e n t h e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e s . T h e r e a r e a number o f r e a s o n s why a n a t i v e I n d i a n l i t i g a n t m i g h t c h a l l e n g e t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f a p r o v i n c i a l l a w on j u r i s d i c t i o n a l g r o u n d s , e v e n t h o u g h t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r w o u l d s t i l l be s u b j e c t t o f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n . F i r s t , t h i s may be t h e o n l y l e g a l a r g u m e n t a v a i l a b l e w h i c h a l l o w s t h e I n d i a n l i t i g a n t t o a t t a i n some s p e c i f i c g o a l . S e c o n d , n a t i v e I n d i a n s m i g h t s e e i t a s d e s i r a b l e t h a t t h e f e d e r a l p a r l i a m e n t h a s j u r i s d i c t i o n b e c a u s e o f p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . I t may be t h a t n a t i v e I n d i a n s h a v e more i n f l u e n c e w i t h t h e f e d e r a l p a r l i a m e n t o r t h a t p o l i t i c a l l y i t i s e a s i e r f o r t h e f e d e r a l p a r l i a m e n t t o p a s s l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h i s f a v o u r a b l e t o t h e i n t e r e s t s o f n a t i v e g r o u p s . I t i s a l s o t r u e t h a t p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n B.C., have 62 d e m o n s t r a t e d a m a r k e d l a c k o f s y m p a t h y f o r n a t i v e c o n c e r n s . T h i r d , b e c a u s e o f f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r I n d i a n s , p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n c a n n o t i n c l u d e p r o v i s i o n s w h i c h d i f f e r e n t i a t e b e t w e e n n a t i v e I n d i a n s a n d o t h e r c i t i z e n s . N a t i v e I n d i a n s may t h e r e f o r e p r e f e r f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n i n a r e a s where t h e y f e e l t h e y h a v e s p e c i a l n e e d s . J u r i s d i c t i o n a l a r g u m e n t s must a l s o be s e e n i n t h e l i g h t o f n a t i v e I n d i a n s ' demands f o r s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t . I f t h e c o u r t s c o n - c l u d e t h a t t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n a r e a s i n w h i c h p r o v i n c i a l l a w s c a n n o t a p p l y , t h i s may " d e f i n e a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l s p a c e w i t h i n w h i c h I n d i a n g o v e r n m e n t s c a n f u n c t i o n a s a d i s t i n c t o r d e r o f g o v e r n m e n t , " 1 p a r t i c u l a r l y i f t h e r e a r e no p r o v i s i o n s i n t h e I n d i a n A c t o r o t h e r f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h d e a l w i t h s u c h a r e a s . C o u r t d e c i s i o n s i n j u r i s d i c t i o n a l c a s e s may h a v e a g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r i m p a c t on t h e n a t i v e I n d i a n c o m m u n i t y d e p e n d i n g upon t h e r e a s o n s f o r j u d g e m e n t . As t h e s e r e a s o n s a r e b a s e d upon t h e l e g a l a r g u m e n t s r a i s e d i n t h e c a s e s , t h e s e a r g u m e n t s must be c o n s i d e r e d i n some d e t a i l i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d e x a c t l y what g o a l s a r e b e i n g p u r s u e d . C o n s e q u e n t l y a b r i e f o v e r v i e w o f t h e r e l e v a n t l a w i s n e c e s s a r y . F e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r I n d i a n s a n d l a n d s r e s e r v e d f o r t h e I n d i a n s b o t h p e r m i t s t h e f e d e r a l P a r l i a m e n t t o make l a w s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h i s s u b j e c t , and p r e v e n t s t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f c e r t a i n 63 p r o v i n c i a l l a w s . U n d e r C a n a d i a n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l a w , p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e s c a n n o t p a s s l e g i s l a t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h a f e d e r a l s u b - j e c t m a t t e r , a n d v i c e v e r s a , b u t g e n e r a l p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h d e a l s w i t h a p r o v i n c i a l s u b j e c t m a t t e r may a p p l y t o a f e d e r a l s u b j e c t . H o w e v e r , i f g e n e r a l p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n i s i n c o n f l i c t w i t h v a l i d f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n , o r a f f e c t s t h e f u n d a - m e n t a l n a t u r e o f t h e f e d e r a l s u b j e c t m a t t e r , i t w i l l n o t a p p l y . H o w e v e r , t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n i t s e l f w i l l s t i l l be v a l i d a s 2 i t a p p l i e s t o o t h e r a r e a s . S e c t i o n 9 1 ( 2 4 ) e n c o m p a s s e s two s e p a r a t e s u b j e c t s , I n d i a n s , a n d l a n d s r e s e r v e d f o r I n d i a n s . The n a t u r e o f t h e s e s u b j e c t s i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t ; I n d i a n s a r e p e r s o n s , w h i l e l a n d i s l a n d . The c o u r t s h a v e e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t g e n e r a l p r o v i n c i a l l a w s w h i c h d e a l w i t h t h e u s e o f l a n d a r e n o t a p p l i c a b l e t o r e s e r v e l a n d a s s u c h 3 l a w s a r e l a w s i n r e l a t i o n t o a f e d e r a l s u b j e c t m a t t e r . The q u e s t i o n h o w e v e r , o f w h i c h p r o v i n c i a l l a w s w i l l a p p l y t o I n d i a n s i s a more d i f f i c u l t o n e . E s s e n t i a l l y , i t i s up t o t h e f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t u r e t o d e c i d e t o what e x t e n t i t i s n e c e s s a r y o r a p p r o - 4 p r i a t e t o h a v e d i s t i n c t i v e l a w s w i t h r e s p e c t t o I n d i a n s . The c o u r t s , t h e n , t e n d t o l o o k t o t h e a c t i o n s a n d p o l i c i e s o f t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t h e e l e m e n t s o f " I n d i a n - n e s s " w h i c h c a n n o t be a f f e c t e d by p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n . How- e v e r , i t h a s a l s o been a r g u e d t h a t p r o v i n c i a l l a w s w h i c h a f f e c t t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s o r t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e s t y l e o f I n d i a n p e o p l e a r e a l s o l a w s i n r e l a t i o n t o a f e d e r a l s u b j e c t m a t t e r . 64 T h i s q u e s t i o n o f j u r i s d i c t i o n i s f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by S e c t i o n 88 o f t h e I n d i a n A c t , w h i c h s t a t e s : S u b j e c t t o t h e t e r m s o f any t r e a t y a n d any o t h e r A c t of t h e P a r l i a m e n t o f C a n a d a , a l l l a w s o f g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n f r o m t i m e t o t i m e i n f o r c e i n any p r o v i n c e a r e a p p l i c a b l e t o a n d i n r e s p e c t of I n d i a n s i n t h e p r o v i n c e , e x c e p t t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t s u c h l a w s a r e i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h i s A c t , o r a n y o r d e r , r u l e , r e g u l a t i o n , o r b y - l a w made t h e r e u n d e r , a n d e x c e p t t o o t h e e x t e n t t h a t s u c h l a w s make p r o v i s i o n f o r any m a t t e r f o p w h i c h p r o v i s i o n i s made by o r u n d e r t h i s A c t . T h e r e h a s been some c o n f u s i o n o v e r what e x a c t l y t h i s s e c t i o n means. I t h a s been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e p h r a s e " a l l l a w s i n f o r c e i n a n y p r o v i n c e " r e f e r s t o p r o v i n c i a l l a w s , n o t f e d e r a l l a w s , a n d so d o e s n o t make f e d e r a l l a w s s u b j e c t t o t h e t e r m s o f t r e a t i e s . The q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r t h i s s e c t i o n a p p l i e s t o I n d i a n l a n d s a s w e l l a s t o I n d i a n s h a s n o t been s e t t l e d by t h e c o u r t s . * * H owever, i t h a s g e n e r a l l y been assumed t h a t t h e s e c t i o n a p p l i e s 7 o n l y t o I n d i a n s , so t h i s q u e s t i o n h a s r a r e l y been r a i s e d . The c o u r t s ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e more g e n e r a l m e a n i n g a n d i n t e n t o f S e c t i o n 88 was i m p o r t a n t i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n a l a r g u m e n t s a v a i l a b l e t o n a t i v e I n d i a n s . Two q u e s t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f S e c t i o n 88 were g n o t f i n a l l y d e c i d e d u n t i l 1985, a l l o w i n g n a t i v e I n d i a n s t o c o n t i n u e u s i n g c e r t a i n j u r i s d i c t i o n a l a r g u m e n t s i n c o u r t . One q u e s t i o n was w h e t h e r a l l p r o v i n c i a l l a w s o f g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n w o u l d a p p l y t o n a t i v e I n d i a n s , o r w h e t h e r t h e r e m i g h t be some 65 l a w s o f g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n w h i c h d i d n o t a p p l y t o I n d i a n s a s t h e y a f f e c t e d t h e s t a t u s o f I n d i a n s a s I n d i a n s . The s e c o n d q u e s t i o n was, i f t h e r e were some l a w s o f g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n w h i c h w o u l d n o t a p p l y t o I n d i a n s , t h e n d i d S e c t i o n 88 r e f e r e n t i a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e s u c h l a w s , t h e r e b y m a k i n g them a p p l y ? The c a s e s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r i n v o l v e l e g a l d i s p u t e s i n t h r e e i s s u e a r e a s - 1) t h e use o f r e s e r v e l a n d , 2) a d o p t i o n o f I n d i a n c h i l d r e n by n o n - n a t i v e s a n d 3) h u n t i n g . W i t h i n e a c h i s s u e a r e a two q u e s t i o n s a r e a d d r e s s e d 1) What g o a l s a r e b e i n g p u r s u e d i n t h e s e c a s e s , a n d how? 2) What were t h e o u t c o m e s o f t h e c a s e s , a n d what was t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e ? Two a d d i t i o n a l q u e s - t i o n s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t t o t h i s c h a p t e r : 1) Have n a t i v e I n d i a n s a t t e m p t e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a b o r i g i n a l h u n t i n g r i g h t s t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f t h e c o u r t s ? 2) Have n a t i v e I n d i a n s u s e d t h e c o u r t s i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n i n t e r - p r e t a t i o n s o f S e c t i o n 9 1 ( 2 4 ) a nd S e c t i o n 88 o f t h e I n d i a n A c t w h i c h r e f l e c t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s ? Use Of R e s e r v e L a n d N a t i v e I n d i a n s l i v i n g on r e s e r v e s h a v e u s e d t h e c o u r t s i n o r d e r t o f r e e t h e m s e l v e s f r o m o b l i g a t i o n s i m p o s e d by g e n e r a l p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h a f f e c t s t h e u s e o f l a n d . The two p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e s whose a p p l i c a t i o n was i n d i s p u t e were t h e F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s A c t a n d t h e R e s i d e n t i a l T e n a n c y A c t . I n two c a s e s , D e r r i c k s o n v . D e r r i c k s o n 1 ^ a n d P a u l v . P a u l , 1 1 66 n a t i v e I n d i a n h u s b a n d s s o u g h t t o r e t a i n p o s s e s s i o n o f r e s e r v e l a n d a f t e r a d i v o r c e by a r g u i n g t h a t t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s A c t w h i c h d e a l t w i t h t h e d i v i s i o n o f p r o p e r t y c o u l d n o t a p p l y t o r e s e r v e l a n d s . When D e r r i c k s o n v . D e r r i c k s o n was h e a r d i n t h e Supreme C o u r t o f C a n a d a , t h r e e q u e s t i o n s were c o n - s i d e r e d i n d e c i d i n g t h e i s s u e . F i r s t , c o u l d t h e s e F a m i l y R e l a - t i o n s A c t p r o v i s i o n s a p p l y o f t h e i r own f o r c e t o l a n d s r e s e r v e d f o r I n d i a n s ? I t was r u l e d t h a t t h e y c o u l d n o t , a s "The r i g h t t o p o s s e s s i o n o f l a n d s on an I n d i a n r e s e r v e i s m a n i f e s t l y o f t h e v e r y e s s e n c e o f t h e f e d e r a l e x c l u s i v e l e g i s l a t i v e power u n d e r 1 2 s u b s e c t i o n 9 1 ( 2 4 ) o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t , 1867." S e c o n d l y , was t h e F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s A c t r e f e r e n t i a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e I n d i a n A c t by t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f S e c t i o n 88? W h i l e i t h a s o f t e n been assumed t h a t S e c t i o n 88 a p p l i e s o n l y t o " I n d i a n s " a n d n o t t o " l a n d s r e s e r v e d f o r t h e I n d i a n s " t h i s i s s u e h a s n o t b e e n s e t t l e d by t h e c o u r t s . The Supreme C o u r t f o u n d i t u n n e c e s s a r y t o r u l e on t h i s i s s u e a s a r e s u l t o f t h e i r a n s w e r t o t h e t h i r d q u e s t i o n . T h i s was, do t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s A c t f a l l w i t h i n one o f t h e e x c e p t i o n s o f S e c t i o n 88? The C o u r t f o u n d t h a t t h e y d i d ; t h a t t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f p r o p e r t y a n d were i n c o n f l i c t w i t h s i m i l a r p r o v i s i o n s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e I n d i a n A c t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e C o u r t f o u n d t h a t t h e d i v i - s i o n o f p r o p e r t y p r o v i s i o n s c o u l d n o t a p p l y t o l a n d s on an I n d i a n r e s e r v e . However, i t was a l s o r u l e d t h a t an o r d e r f o r compensa- 67 tion could be made by the court in order to adjust the d i v i s i o n of family assets. In Paul v. Paul, heard at the same time in the Supreme Court of Canada, the issue was s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t as the appellant sought only interim occupancy of the matrimonial home on the reserve, rather than a d i v i s i o n of property. However, the court ruled that occupancy, l i k e possession, was fundamental to the use of land, and therefore the appellant was not e n t i t l e d to occu- pancy of the home as provided in the Family Relations Act. 1 3 In one case, Toussowasket v. Matthews a band council argued that the pr o v i n c i a l Rentalsman's orders could not apply on reserve lands, so that they would have greater independence in changing the conditions of tenancy on a mobile home park on their reserve. A dispute with the non-Indian tenants had arisen after the Westbank Indian Council had taken over the company which had previously run the park. The tenants appealed to the Rentalsman for a settlement of the dispute, and he ruled in the tenants' favour. Consequently, the company appealed the decision to the B.C. Supreme Court where i t was argued that the Rentalsman's orders could not apply on reserve lands. In making his decision, the judge considered each of the 6 orders made by the rentalsman in order to determine whether they affected Indian land or the use of Indian land. The judge ruled that the Rentalsman's orders with respect to rent increases and termination notices did not affe c t land or the use of land, while 68 o r d e r s r e g a r d i n g t h e r e i n s t a t e m e n t o f t h e t e n a n t ' s w a t e r s u p p l y a n d t h e r e m o v a l o f t r a i l e r s d i d a f f e c t t h e u s e o f t h e l a n d . The l a t t e r o r d e r s were t h u s i n a p p l i c a b l e w i t h i n t h e r e s e r v e , a n d t h e m a t t e r was r e f e r r e d b a c k t o t h e R e n t a l s m a n , a s p r o v i d e d i n t h e R e s i d e n t i a l T e n a n c y A c t . I t seems l i k e l y t h a t t h e n a t i v e I n d i a n s who i n i t i a t e d t h e s e a c t i o n s were c o n c e r n e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h e i r p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s , r a t h e r t h a n w i t h t h e i n t e r e s t s o f n a t i v e I n d i a n s a s a w h o l e . H o w e v e r , t h e p u r s u i t o f t h e s e i n t e r e s t s l e d t o a c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e l a w w h i c h may be o f b e n e f i t t o n a t i v e I n d i a n s g e n e r a l l y , by i d e n t i f y i n g c e r t a i n a r e a s i n w h i c h n a t i v e I n d i a n s a r e immune f r o m t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l l a w s . The c a s e s i n t h i s s e c t i o n c o n f i r m t h a t p r o v i n c i a l l a w s w h i c h d e a l w i t h t h e u s e o f l a n d w i l l n o t a p p l y on r e s e r v e s , a n d d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t h e I n d i a n A c t d o e s n o t i n c l u d e p r o v i s i o n s w h i c h d e a l w i t h a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e u s e o f r e s e r v e l a n d . T h i s may p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o a l i m i t e d d e g r e e o f s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t . The A d o p t i o n Of I n d i a n C h i l d r e n By N o n - N a t i v e s One c a s e d e a l s w i t h t h e i s s u e o f t h e a d o p t i o n o f an I n d i a n c h i l d by n o n - n a t i v e s . As was p o i n t e d o u t i n C h a p t e r 2, t h e i s s u e o f a d o p t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t t o n a t i v e I n d i a n s b e c a u s e o f a d e s i r e t o p r e s e r v e t h e i r c u l t u r e . I n N a t u r a l P a r e n t s v . S u p e r i n t e n d e n t 69 o f C h i l d W e l f a r e , n a t i v e I n d i a n p a r e n t s s o u g h t t o p r e v e n t t h e a d o p t i o n o f t h e i r c h i l d by n o n - n a t i v e s by c h a l l e n g i n g t h e a p p l i - c a b i l i t y o f t h e A d o p t i o n A c t t o I n d i a n s w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e . The n a t u r a l p a r e n t s w a n t e d t h e c h i l d t o be a d o p t e d a c c o r d i n g t o I n d i a n c u s t o m by t h e m o t h e r ' s s i s t e r a nd h e r h u s b a n d . I t was h e l d a t t h e f i r s t t r i a l t h a t t h e n a t u r a l p a r e n t s ' c o n s e n t t o t h e 1 4 a d o p t i o n was n o t r e q u i r e d . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e n a t u r a l p a r e n t s ' w i s h e s c o u l d be i g n o r e d u n l e s s a n o t h e r l e g a l a r g u m e n t was a v a i l - a b l e w h i c h w o u l d p r e v e n t t h e a d o p t i o n . The l e g a l a r g u m e n t u s e d i n t h e s u b s e q u e n t a p p e a l s was t h a t t h e A d o p t i o n A c t c o u l d n o t a p p l y a s i t was i n c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e I n d i a n A c t , a s an a d o p t i o n by n o n - n a t i v e s w o u l d d e p r i v e an I n d i a n 1 5 c h i l d o f i t s s t a t u s a s an I n d i a n . T h i s a r g u m e n t was s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e . B . C . Supreme C o u r t , b u t f a i l e d i n t h e B.C. C o u r t o f Ap- p e a l , w h i c h r u l e d t h a t t h e A d o p t i o n A c t was a l a w o f g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n and so a p p l i e d t o I n d i a n s e x c e p t t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t i t was i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e I n d i a n A c t . T h i s meant t h a t an I n d i a n c h i l d c o u l d be a d o p t e d by n o n - n a t i v e s , b u t w o u l d n o t l o s e h i s s t a t u s a s an I n d i a n a s a r e s u l t . T h i s d e c i s i o n was a p p e a l e d t o t h e Supreme C o u r t o f C a n a d a , w h i c h d e l i v e r e d i t s o p i n i o n i n O c t o b e r , 1975. A l l n i n e j u d g e s r u l e d t h a t t h e A d o p t i o n A c t c o u l d a p p l y t o I n d i a n s , and t h a t a d o p t i o n c o u l d n o t a f f e c t t h e s t a t u s o f an I n d i a n c h i l d . How- e v e r , t h e r e was no m a j o r i t y o p i n i o n a s t o why t h i s was s o . F o u r j u d g e s r u l e d t h a t i n t h e a b s e n c e o f S e c t i o n 88, t h e a d o p t i o n l a w 70 would not apply, while four judges ruled that the adoption law would apply on i t s own, and that Section 88 was simply a restate- ment of exi s t i n g c o n s t i t u t i o n a l rules. One judge f e l t i t was unnecessary to consider Section 88. The actual e f f e c t of Section 88 with respect to p r o v i n c i a l laws was not then determined. It i s possible that the native Indian parents pursued this l i n e of argument as i t was the only option open to them i f they wished their c h i l d to be adopted by their r e l a t i v e s . However, the potential legal impact of a victory in t h i s case may also have been a consideration in pursuing t h i s l i n e of argument in court. A decision in favour of the native Indian parents in t h i s case might have led to increased control for native communities over children's welfare. If the Adoption Act could not apply to native children, i t would be impossible to compel Indian parents to surrender their children to non-Indians through adoption. While the federal parliament might have then passed l e g i s l a t i o n which dealt with this issue, i t might have been possible to incorporate some of the Indian concerns into such l e g i s l a t i o n while i t was being developed. Hunting H i s t o r i c a l l y , hunting and f i s h i n g provided the primary source of food and were central to the s o c i a l organization of native peoples, as r e l i g i o n and education were inextricably 71 linked to the a c t i v i t i e s of hunting and f i s h i n g . While these a c t i v i t i e s are no longer quite as central to native Indians' way of l i f e , hunting and fi s h i n g remain both economically and c u l - t u r a l l y important to native peoples. However, the pursuit of these t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s has become more d i f f i c u l t , both because of economic development, and because of l e g i s l a t i o n which has been passed which regulates hunting and f i s h i n g . In B.C., the pr o v i n c i a l W i l d l i f e Act regulates the taking of game by a l l people in the province, and accords no special pro- tection to the hunting rights of native peoples. Although the hunting rights of treaty Indians are protected from the applica- tion of pr o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n by Section 88 of the Indian Act, few Indians in B.C. are the bene f i c i a r i e s of t r e a t i e s . The B.C. W i l d l i f e Act does provide that sustenance permits may be issued, but i t i s not always possible for native Indians to obtain these permits. Consequently, the pursuit of their t r a d i t i o n a l way of l i f e by native Indians may lead to charges under the W i l d l i f e Act. In addition, many native Indians believe that the W i l d l i f e Act should not apply to them. They assert that they have an aboriginal right to hunt on their t r a d i t i o n a l hunting t e r r i t o r y , and that t h i s right should not be limited by the application of pr o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n . Eight court cases have occurred as a result of hunting related charges; in seven cases charges were l a i d under the W i l d l i f e Act, and in one case charges were l a i d under the provin- 72 c i a l F i r e a r m s A c t . I n a l l t h e s e c a s e s , one o b v i o u s g o a l was t o be a c q u i t t e d f r o m t h e c h a r g e s . However, t h e f a c t t h a t t h e p e n - a l t y f o r b e i n g f o u n d g u i l t y i n t h e s e c a s e s i s f a i r l y m i n o r , a n d t h a t d e f e n c e a r g u m e n t s were u s e d w h i c h were r e l a t e d t o t h e I n - d i a n n e s s o f t h e d e f e n d a n t s s u g g e s t s t h a t a d d i t i o n a l g o a l s were a l s o b e i n g p u r s u e d . The d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e c a s e s h a s been d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n e x a m i n e s t h e c a s e s w h i c h d e a l w i t h t r e a t y I n d i a n s , t h e s e c o n d s e c t i o n l o o k s a t t h e one c a s e i n w h i c h n o n - t r e a t y I n d i a n s were c h a r g e d w h i l e h u n t i n g on a r e s e r v e , w h i l e t h e t h i r d s e c t i o n e x a m i n e s t h o s e c a s e s w h i c h a r o s e a s a r e s u l t o f c h a r g e s l a i d a g a i n s t n o n - t r e a t y I n d i a n s . A ) T r e a t y . I n d i a n s As one e f f e c t o f S e c t i o n 88 i s t o make t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l l a w s s u b j e c t t o t h e t e r m s o f t r e a t i e s , t h o s e c a s e s w h i c h d e a l w i t h t r e a t y r i g h t s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . S i n c e 1969, two c a s e s i n B.C. h a v e d e a l t w i t h t r e a t y r i g h t s a n d t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l l a w s . I n t h e s e two c a s e s t r e a t y I n d i a n s u s e d t h e c o u r t s i n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t t h e i r r i g h t s t o h u n t f r e e f r o m t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s o f p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n . I n R. v . B a r t l e m a n 1 ^ t h e d e f e n d a n t was a member o f t h e S a a n i c h t r i b e , w h i c h h a d s i g n e d a t r e a t y i n 1852 w h i c h c o n f i r m e d t h e r i g h t t o h u n t on u n o c c u p i e d l a n d w i t h i n t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l 73 h u n t i n g a r e a . W h i l e h u n t i n g i n t h i s a r e a , t h e d e f e n d a n t was c h a r g e d w i t h o f f e n c e s u n d e r t h e W i l d l i f e A c t , f o r c i n g h i m t o go t o c o u r t i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t he h a d a r i g h t t o h u n t i n t h a t a r e a . The c a s e began i n P r o v i n c i a l C o u r t i n J a n u a r y 1981, a n d was f i n a l l y r e s o l v e d i n t h e B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l i n J u n e , 1984. A t a l l t h r e e l e v e l s , t h e j u d g e s a g r e e d t h a t t h i s was a t r e a t y w i t h i n t h e m e a n i n g o f S e c t i o n 88, a n d t h a t s u c h t r e a t i e s s h o u l d be l i b e r a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d . The Crown a r g u e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e d e f e n - d a n t d i d n o t h a v e t h e r i g h t t o h u n t i n t h e s p e c i f i c a r e a where he h a d been h u n t i n g , a s t h i s was o u t s i d e t h e a r e a c e d e d by t r e a t y , a n d t h a t t h e l a n d was n o t u n o c c u p i e d a s i t was p r i v a t e l y owned and u s e d a s a game p r e s e r v e . I n t h e l o w e r c o u r t s , t h e j u d g e s a g r e e d w i t h t h i s a r g u m e n t a n d f o u n d B a r t l e m a n g u i l t y . The B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l o v e r t u r n e d t h i s c o n v i c t i o n . Mr. J u s t i c e L a m b e r t h e l d t h a t t h e t r e a t y c o n f i r m e d r i g h t s t o h u n t on u n o c c u p i e d l a n d s w i t h i n t h e t r i b e ' s t r a d i t i o n a l h u n t i n g t e r r i t o r y , a n d t h a t t h i s r i g h t e x t e n d e d t o l a n d s o u t s i d e t h e a r e a c e d e d by t h e t r e a t y . He a l s o f o u n d t h a t t h e l a n d where B a r t l e m a n was h u n t i n g was u n o c - c u p i e d l a n d , d e f i n i n g s u c h l a n d a s " l a n d t h a t i s u n o c c u p i e d , i n t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e p a r t i c u l a r f o r m o f h u n t i n g t h a t i s b e i n g u n d e r t a k e n d o e s n o t i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e a c t u a l u s e a n d e n j o y m e n t 1 7 o f t h e l a n d by t h e owner o r o c c u p i e r . " T h i s d e c i s i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e c o u r t s w i l l i n d e e d i n t e r p r e t t r e a t y r i g h t s l i b e r a l l y , 1 8 r a t h e r t h a n s i m p l y p a y i n g l i p s e r v i c e t o t h i s i d e a l . H owever, 74 t h i s c a s e a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t t r e a t y I n d i a n s must s o m e t i m e s u s e t h e c o u r t s i n o r d e r t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e i r t r e a t y r i g h t s a r e r e c o g n i z e d . 1 9 I n R. v. N a p o l e o n , t h e a c c u s e d was c h a r g e d w i t h a p r o v i n - c i a l o f f e n c e u n d e r t h e F i r e a r m s A c t when he s h o t a moose i n an a r e a d e s i g n a t e d a no s h o o t i n g z o n e - w i t h i n a q u a r t e r m i l e o f a p u b l i c h i g h w a y . N a p o l e o n was f o u n d n o t g u i l t y by t h e P r o v i n c i a l C o u r t , a s he was a t r e a t y I n d i a n a n d so h a d a r i g h t t o h u n t i n t h e a r e a i n q u e s t i o n . J u d g e McQueen r u l e d t h a t t h e e f f e c t o f t h e l e g i s l a t i o n w o u l d be t o l i m i t t r e a t y r i g h t s a n d s o t h e l e g i s l a - t i o n c o u l d n o t a p p l y t o N a p o l e o n . T h i s d e c i s i o n was o v e r t u r n e d i n C o u n t y C o u r t , a n d t h e B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l c o n c u r r e d w i t h t h a t d e c i s i o n . The c o u r t r u l e d t h a t t h e d u t y t o h u n t w i t h due r e g a r d f o r t h e s a f e t y o f o t h e r s d i d n o t r e d u c e o r d e p r i v e I n d i a n s o f t h e i r r i g h t t o h u n t f o r f o o d on l a n d t o w h i c h t h e y h a d a r i g h t o f a c c e s s . A l t h o u g h t h e a c - c u s e d was n o t a c t i n g i n a d a n g e r o u s manner a t t h e t i m e i n q u e s - t i o n (he was s h o o t i n g away f r o m t h e h i g h w a y ) , t h e c o u r t h e l d t h a t i t w o u l d be i m p r a c t i c a l t o e n s u r e t h e s a f e t y o f t h e p u b l i c by d e t e r m i n i n g t h e f a c t s i n e a c h p a r t i c u l a r i n c i d e n t . As t h e F i r e - a rms A c t p r o v i d e d a more g e n e r a l d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e s t a n d a r d s o f s a f e t y e x p e c t e d f r o m a l l members o f t h e p u b l i c , i t s e f f e c t on t h e t r e a t y r i g h t s i n q u e s t i o n was deemed t o be a c c e p t a b l e . T r e a t y r i g h t s may t h e n be s u b j e c t t o p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n , a l t h o u g h i t 75 i s u n l i k e l y t h e y w i l l be r u l e d t o be so u n l e s s s u c h l e g i s l a t i o n 20 i s c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c . I n some c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t h e n , t h e r e may be some q u e s t i o n a s t o w h e t h e r o r n o t t r e a t y r i g h t s do p r o t e c t n a t i v e I n d i a n s f r o m t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n . I f c h a r g e s a r e l a i d , n a t i v e I n d i a n s must t h e n go t o c o u r t i n o r d e r t o r e c e i v e t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e i r t r e a t y r i g h t s . B ) N o n - T r e a t y I n d i a n s - On R e s e r v e The c o u r t s h a v e g e n e r a l l y r u l e d t h a t p r o v i n c i a l h u n t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n i s l e g i s l a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o l a n d u s e , and s o d o e s n o t a p p l y on r e s e r v e s . H owever, t h e r e i s no h i g h c o u r t d e c i s i o n w h i c h c o n c l u s i v e l y s e t t l e s t h e q u e s t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e A t t o r n e y Gen- e r a l ' s o f f i c e i n B.C. g e n e r a l l y t a k e s t h e v i e w t h a t t h e W i l d l i f e 21 A c t d o e s n o t a p p l y on r e s e r v e s , c h a r g e s a r e s o m e t i m e s l a i d . I n 22 one c a s e , R. v . I g n a c e , t h e d e f e n d a n t s were n o t o n l y h u n t i n g on t h e r e s e r v e , b u t were a l s o h u n t i n g on u n o c c u p i e d Crown l a n d w h i c h was o f f t h e r e s e r v e , w h i c h p r o b a b l y e x p l a i n s why c h a r g e s were l a i d . They were c o n v i c t e d o f h u n t i n g w i l d l i f e i n c l o s e d s e a s o n , b u t a c q u i t t e d o f t h e c h a r g e o f u n l a w f u l l y h a v i n g w i l d l i f e i n t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n , a s t h e d e e r were k i l l e d on t h e r e s e r v e . 76 C ) N o n - T r e a t y I n d i a n s - O f f R e s e r v e s T h e r e i s no p r o v i n c i a l o r f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n i n B.C. w h i c h s p e c i f i c a l l y p r o t e c t s t h e a b o r i g i n a l h u n t i n g r i g h t s o f n o n - t r e a t y I n d i a n s h u n t i n g o f f r e s e r v e on u n o c c u p i e d Crown l a n d . C o n s e q u e n t l y n o n - t r e a t y I n d i a n s h a v e been c h a r g e d u n d e r t h e W i l d l i f e A c t w h i l e p u r s u i n g t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l way o f l i f e . I n f i v e c a s e s , n a t i v e I n d i a n s u s e d t h e c o u r t s t o p r e s e r v e t h e i r a b i l i t y t o p u r s u e t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l way o f l i f e , by a t - t e m p t i n g t o l i m i t t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s i m p o s e d on t h e i r h u n t i n g a c t i v i t i e s by t h e p r o v i n c i a l W i l d l i f e A c t . The b a s i c a r g u m e n t u s e d i n a l l t h e s e c a s e s was t h a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l W i l d l i f e A c t i m p a i r e d t h e s t a t u s a n d c a p a c i t y o f t h e I n d i a n s a s I n d i a n s , a n d s o was b e y o n d t h e l e g i s l a t i v e c o m p e t e n c e o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v - e r n m e n t . The W i l d l i f e A c t c o u l d n o t t h e n be c o n s i d e r e d a l a w o f g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n , a s i t h a d t h i s e f f e c t . A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s a r g u m e n t s were u s e d i n some c a s e s t o s u p p o r t t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e W i l d l i f e A c t a f f e c t e d t h e I n d i a n n e s s o f t h e d e f e n d a n t s . T h e s e c a s e s a r e d i s c u s s e d h e r e i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r , a s t h e l e g a l a r g u m e n t s a v a i l a b l e i n t h e l a t e r c a s e s were a f f e c t e d by d e c i s i o n s i n t h e e a r l i e r c a s e s . 23 R. v . K r u g e r and M a n u e l was t h e f i r s t c a s e w h i c h d e a l t w i t h t h i s a r g u m e n t , and i t was f i n a l l y d e c i d e d i n t h e Supreme C o u r t o f Canada i n 1977. The d e f e n c e a r g u e d t h a t t h e W i l d l i f e 77 A c t was n o t a l a w o f g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n , a n d t h a t t h e R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n o f 1763 p r o t e c t e d a b o r i g i n a l h u n t i n g r i g h t s i n t e r - r i t o r i e s n o t c e d e d t o t h e C rown. They a l s o a r g u e d t h a t t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t t o h u n t f o r f o o d on Crown l a n d was a u s u f r u c - t u a r y r i g h t w h i c h was a b u r d e n on Crown t i t l e a n d a s s u c h c o u l d o n l y be e x t i n g u i s h e d by a s p e c i f i c l e g i s l a t i v e e n a c t m e n t o f t h e f e d e r a l p a r l i a m e n t . T h e s e a r g u m e n t s were s u c c e s s f u l on t h e f i r s t 24 a p p e a l h e a r d i n B.C. C o u n t y C o u r t . The B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l r u l e d t h a t t h e W i l d l i f e A c t was a l a w o f g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n , a nd w o u l d t h e r e f o r e , u n d e r t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f S e c t i o n 8 8 , a p p l y t o n a t i v e I n d i a n s u n l e s s i t c o n f l i c t e d w i t h a t r e a t y , an A c t o f P a r l i a m e n t , o r p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e I n d i a n A c t . The c o u r t r u l e d t h a t t h e R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n was a u n i l a t e r a l A c t o f t h e S o v e r e i g n a n d n o t a t r e a t y o r A c t o f P a r l i a m e n t , a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e W i l d l i f e A c t a p p l i e d . Mr. J u s t i c e D i c k s o n d e l i v e r e d t h e j u d g e m e n t o f t h e Supreme C o u r t o f C a n a d a . He f o u n d i t u n n e c e s s a r y t o d e a l w i t h t h e q u e s - t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n and a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s a s t h e W i l d l i f e A c t o n l y r e g u l a t e d h u n t i n g , r a t h e r t h a n p r o h i b i t i n g i t . The c a s e was t h e r e f o r e d e c i d e d on t h e i s s u e o f w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e W i l d l i f e A c t was an a c t o f g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n . D i c k s o n s t a t e d t h a t two c r i t e r i a must be c o n s i d e r e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r a l a w i s one o f g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n . The f i r s t i s t h e t e r r i t o r i a l r e a c h o f t h e A c t ; i f t h e A c t d o e s n o t a p p l y u n i - f o r m l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e t e r r i t o r y o f t h e p r o v i n c e , t h e n i t 78 i s n o t one o f g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n . S e c o n d , s u c h an A c t c a n n o t be " ' i n r e l a t i o n t o ' one c l a s s o f c i t i z e n s i n o b j e c t o r p u r - 25 p o s e . " T h i s d o e s n o t mean t h a t s i m p l y b e c a u s e a l a w h a s a d i f f e r e n t i a l i m p a c t on c i t i z e n s , i t i s n o t one o f g e n e r a l a p p l i - c a t i o n . I t must be d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e e f f e c t o f a l a w , when p a s s e d i n r e l a t i o n t o a n o t h e r m a t t e r , i s t o i m p a i r t h e s t a t u s o r c a p a c i t y o f a p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p i n o r d e r t o p r o v e t h a t i t i s n o t a l a w o f g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n . The Supreme C o u r t f o u n d t h a t a s f a r a s t h e s e c r i t e r i a were c o n c e r n e d , t h e W i l d l i f e A c t was an a c t o f g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n . The c o u r t a l s o n o t e d t h a t t h e p r e s u m p t i o n i s f o r t h e v a l i d i t y o f a l e g i s l a t i v e e n a c t m e n t , b a r r i n g e v i d e n c e t o t h e c o n t r a r y . How- e v e r , D i c k s o n made t h e f o l l o w i n g r e m a r k s : I f , o f c o u r s e , i t c a n be shown i n f u t u r e l i t i g a t i o n t h a t t h e P r o v i n c e h a s a c t e d i n s u c h a way a s t o o p p o s e c o n s e r v a t i o n and I n d i a n c l a i m s t o t h e d e t r i m e n t o f t h e l a t t e r - t o " p r e s e r v e moose b e f o r e I n d i a n s " - i t m i g h t v e r y w e l l be c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e e f f e c t o f t h e l e g i s l a t i o n i s t o c r o s s t h e l i n e d e m a r k i n g l a w s o f g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n f r o m o t h e r e n a c t - m e n t s . I t w o u l d h a v e t o be shown t h a t t h e p o l i c y o f s u c h an A c t was t o i m p a i r t h e s t a t u s a n d c a p a c i t i e s o f I n d i a n s . T h i s s t a t e m e n t was t o p r o v i d e t h e b a s i s o f t h e a r g u m e n t s o f two o f t h e l a t e r c a s e s . 27 I n R. v. D e n n i s and D e n n i s n o n - t r e a t y I n d i a n s were a g a i n c h a r g e d w i t h o f f e n c e s u n d e r t h e W i l d l i f e A c t . The d e f e n d a n t s were a c q u i t t e d i n p r o v i n c i a l c o u r t i n 1974, a s t h e j u d g e r u l e d 79 t h a t s i n c e I n d i a n s h a v e a b o r i g i n a l h u n t i n g r i g h t s t h e W i l d l i f e A c t d o e s a f f e c t I n d i a n s a s I n d i a n s , a n d so t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s - l a t i o n c a n n o t a p p l y t o them. I n a r r i v i n g a t t h i s c o n c l u s i o n t h e j u d g e r e f e r s t o t h e B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l d e c i s i o n i n R. v . W h i t e 28 a n d Bob. T h a t d e c i s i o n s t a t e d , " L e g i s l a t i o n t h a t a b r o g a t e s o r a b r i d g e s t h e h u n t i n g r i g h t s r e s e r v e d t o I n d i a n s u n d e r t h e t r e a t i e s . . . i s l e g i s l a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o I n d i a n s b e c a u s e i t d e a l s 29 w i t h r i g h t s p e c u l i a r t o them." The j u d g e i n R. v . D e n n i s and D e n n i s f e l t t h a t a l o g i c a l e x t e n s i o n o f t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n was t h a t t h e W i l d l i f e A c t was a l s o l e g i s l a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o I n d i a n s a n d s o b e y o n d t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e as i t a l s o d e a l t w i t h r i g h t s p e c u l i a r t o I n d i a n s . H owever, t h e Crown a p p e a l e d t h i s a c q u i t t a l a f t e r t h e B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l j u d g e m e n t i n t h e K r u g e r a n d M a n u e l c a s e , a n d t h e B.C. Supreme C o u r t f e l t b o und t o f o l l o w t h a t j u d g e m e n t . The d e f e n d a n t s were t h e r e f o r e f o u n d g u i l t y . 30 I n R. v . H a i n e s , t h e f a c t s d i f f e r e d f r o m t h o s e i n t h e p r e - v i o u s two c a s e s i n s u c h a way t h a t i t seemed l i k e l y t h a t a l i n e o f a r g u m e n t b a s e d on D i c k s o n ' s d e c i s i o n i n R. v . K r u g e r a n d M a n u e l w o u l d be s u c c e s s f u l . R e g u l a t i o n s made p u r s u a n t t o t h e W i l d l f e A c t p r o v i d e d t h a t o u t o f s e a s o n p e r m i t s c o u l d be i s s u e d when a p e r s o n n e e d e d t o h u n t f o r s u s t e n a n c e . I n t h e c a s e o f K r u g e r a n d M a n u e l , s u c h p e r m i t s were r e a d i l y o b t a i n a b l e by n a t i v e I n d i a n s , w h i l e i n t h e c a s e o f H a i n e s , t h e p o l i c y o f t h e F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h i n t h e r e g i o n was t o r o u t i n e l y d e n y a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e s e p e r m i t s . T h e r e was no g e n e r a l p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y w h i c h 80 a p p l i e d t o t h e i s s u a n c e o f t h e p e r m i t s ; p o l i c y was s e t on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s . H a i n e s ' l a w y e r s u b m i t t e d t h a t i n f o l l o w i n g s u c h a p o l i c y , t h e o f f i c i a l s w e r e w r o n g l y " p r e s e r v i n g moose b e f o r e I n d i a n s " a n d so were i m p a i r i n g t h e s t a t u s a n d c a p a c i t i e s o f I n d i a n s . The t r i a l j u d g e f o u n d t h a t H a i n e s d i d h a v e s p e c i a l h u n t i n g r i g h t s a n d t h a t i n f o l l o w i n g t h e r e g i o n a l p o l i c y w i l d l i f e o f f i - c i a l s h a d a c t e d t o d e n y a n d e x t i n g u i s h t h o s e r i g h t s . I n d o i n g s o , t h e y h a d e x c e e d e d t h e i r a u t h o r i t y t o r e g u l a t e , a n d a s a r e s u l t , H a i n e s was a c q u i t t e d . The Crown a p p e a l e d t h e a c q u i t t a l , a n d i n 1980 t h e C o u n t y C o u r t o v e r t u r n e d t h i s d e c i s i o n . The C o u n t y C o u r t d e c i s i o n was b a s e d on two c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . F i r s t , J u d g e P e r r y f o u n d t h a t t h e r e was i n s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t l i m i t i n g h u n t i n g t o t h e open s e a s o n i m p a i r e d t h e s t a t u s a n d c a p a c i t y o f n a t i v e I n d i a n s . W h i l e t h e d e f e n c e i n t r o - d u c e d e v i d e n c e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i n t e g r a l r o l e w h i c h h u n t i n g p l a y s i n t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e , t h e j u d g e f o u n d t h a t t h i s e v i d e n c e d i d n o t e s t a b l i s h a p r e s e n t n e e d t o h u n t f o r f o o d a t a l l s e a s o n s o f t h e y e a r . S e c o n d , t h e j u d g e f o u n d t h a t e v e n i f t h e o f f i c i a l s i n t h e r e g i o n d i d o v e r s t e p t h e i r a u t h o r i t y by p u r s u i n g a r e s t r i c - t i v e p o l i c y , t h i s d i d n o t a f f e c t t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y o f t h e l e g i s l a t i o n i t s e l f . " I t i s t h e i m m e d i a t e e f f e c t , o b j e c t , o r p u r p o s e , n o t c o n s e q u e n t i a l e f f e c t s t h a t a r e r e l e v a n t i n d e t e r - m i n i n g w h e t h e r t h e s e c t i o n s o f t h e W i l d l i f e A c t i n i s s u e a r e l a w s 81 i n r e l a t i o n t o a m a t t e r f a l l i n g w i t h i n P r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i v e 31 c o m p e t e n c e , n o t s i d e e f f e c t s i n a p a r t i c u l a r c a s e . " He s u g - g e s t e d t h a t i f an o f f i c i a l ' s a c t s were i n f a c t u l t r a v i r e s , an a p p e a l m i g h t be made t o t h e c o u r t s t o o v e r t u r n t h e o f f i c i a l ' s d e c i s i o n , b u t t h a t s u c h an a c t i o n d i d n o t s e r v e t o make t h e law i t s e l f i n o p e r a t i v e . A f u r t h e r a p p e a l t o t h e B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l was u n s u c c e s s f u l , a s t h i s c o u r t r u l e d t h a t g r o u n d s f o r a p p e a l a r e l i m i t e d t o q u e s t i o n s o f l a w , w h i l e t h o s e a d v a n c e d by t h e a p p e l - l a n t were p r i m a r i l y q u e s t i o n s o f f a c t . 32 I n t h e n e x t c a s e , R. v . D i c k , The d e f e n c e i n t r o d u c e d e x t e n s i v e e v i d e n c e on t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f h u n t i n g t o t h e I n d i a n way o f l i f e , a n d t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e W i l d l i f e A c t r e g u l a t i o n s on t h i s way o f l i f e . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s e v i d e n c e was t o c l e a r l y e s t a - b l i s h t h a t t h e W i l d l i f e A c t d i d i m p a i r t h e d e f e n d a n t ' s s t a t u s a s an I n d i a n , a n d a l s o t h a t t h e p o l i c y o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t ha d c h a n g e d s i n c e t h e e a r l i e r c a s e s . N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h i s e v i - d e n c e , t h e C o u n t y C o u r t j u d g e r u l e d t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e W i l d l i f e A c t now h a d a g r e a t e r i m p a c t on t h e a p p e l l a n t , t h e r e was no s u b s t a n t i a l c h a n g e i n t h e p o l i c y o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e W i l d l i f e A c t a n d s o , f o l l o w i n g t h e e a r l i e r c a s e s , he c o u l d n o t f i n d t h a t t h e A c t i m p a i r e d D i c k ' s s t a t u s a s an I n d i a n . I n m a k i n g t h i s r u l i n g , t h e j u d g e seemed t o be a s s u - m i n g t h a t i t i s t h e i n t e n t , r a t h e r t h a n t h e e f f e c t o f l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h i s i m p o r t a n t i n d e t e r m i n i n g i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y . I n t h i s , he seemed t o be f o l l o w i n g t h e r e a s o n i n g o f t h e C o u n t y C o u r t j u d g e i n 82 t h e H a i n e s d e c i s i o n . I n t h e B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l , two j u d g e s r u l e d t h a t t h e i s s u e s i n t h e c a s e were n o t q u e s t i o n s o f l a w a l o n e a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e a p p e a l was d i s m i s s e d . H o w e v e r , Mr. J u s t i c e L a m b e r t d i s s e n t e d , a n d r u l e d t h a t t h e c o n v i c t i o n s h o u l d be s e t a s i d e . L a m b e r t r u l e d t h a t t h e W i l d l i f e A c t , g i v e n t h e e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d , d i d i n t h i s c a s e i m p a i r t h e s t a t u s a n d c a p a c i t y o f t h e d e f e n d a n t a s an I n - d i a n . He s a i d , " I n my o p i n i o n i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o r e a d t h e e v i d e n c e w i t h o u t r e a l i z i n g t h a t k i l l i n g f i s h a n d a n i m a l s f o r f o o d a n d o t h e r u s e s g i v e s s h a p e a n d m e a n i n g t o t h e l i v e s o f t h e mem- b e r s o f t h e A l k a l i L a k e b a n d . I t i s a t t h e c e n t r e o f what t h e y 34 do a n d who t h e y a r e . " He a l s o r u l e d , f o r t h e same r e a s o n , t h a t t h e W i l d l i f e A c t was n o t a l a w o f g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n . I n d o i n g s o , he r e l i e d on D i c k s o n ' s j u d g e m e n t i n R. v . K r u g e r a n d M a n u e l r e g a r d i n g s u c h l a w s . He t o o k t h i s j u d g e m e n t t o mean t h a t i f t h e e v i d e n c e o f a c a s e showed t h a t t h e e f f e c t o f p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n was t o i m p a i r t h e s t a t u s o r c a p a c i t y o f a p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p , t h e n i t was n o t a l a w o f g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n . L a m b e r t c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e W i l d l i f e A c t s h o u l d be r e a d down i n t h i s c a s e , s o t h a t i t d i d n o t a p p l y t o t h e d e f e n d a n t , i n o r d e r t o p r e s e r v e t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y o f t h e A c t . T h i s l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g r e - s t r i c t e d t h e e f f e c t o f t h e j u d g e m e n t on o t h e r c a s e s . O n l y when e v i d e n c e c o u l d be l e d w h i c h w o u l d p r o v e t h a t t h e e f f e c t o f t h e W i l d l i f e A c t was t o i m p a i r I n d i a n s t a t u s w o u l d t h e A c t be r e a d 8 3 down. L a m b e r t a l s o c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e W i l d l i f e A c t was n o t i n c o r p o r a t e d by r e f e r e n c e u n d e r S e c t i o n 88 o f t h e I n d i a n A c t . T h i s c a s e was a p p e a l e d t o t h e Supreme C o u r t o f C a n a d a , w h i c h h a n d e d down a u n a n i m o u s d e c i s i o n (by f i v e j u d g e s , i n c l u d i n g D i c k s o n ) on O c t o b e r 3 1 , 1985. T h i s d e c i s i o n , w r i t t e n by Mr. J u s t i c e B e e t z , p r o v i d e d c l e a r d i r e c t i o n t o t h e l o w e r c o u r t s on t h e m e a n i n g o f S e c t i o n 8 8 , a n d t h e r e f o r e on t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f p r o v i n c i a l l a w s t o n a t i v e I n d i a n s . B e e t z s t a t e d t h a t he was p r e p a r e d t o assume, w i t h o u t d e c i d i n g t h e i s s u e , t h a t t h e W i l d l i f e A c t d i d i m p a i r t h e s t a t u s o f t h e d e f e n d a n t a s an I n d i a n . He t h e n went on t o a c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f S e c t i o n 88, a n d i t s e f f e c t w i t h r e s p e c t t o l a w s o f g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n . T h i s q u e s t i o n h a d n o t b een d e c i d e d b e f o r e i n t h i s s e r i e s o f c a s e s , a s i t h a d been u n n e c e s s a r y t o do s o . He c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e W i l d l i f e A c t was a l a w o f g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n , a s i t a p p l i e d u n i f o r m l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e , a n d i t s p o l i c y was n o t t o d i s c r i m i n a t e a g a i n s t I n d i a n s , o r a f f e c t them i n a way w h i c h was s e p a r a t e a n d d i s t i n c t f r o m i t s e f f e c t on o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s . He t h e n r e a s o n e d t h a t t h e r e were p r o v i n c i a l l a w s o f g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n w h i c h w o u l d a f f e c t I n d i a n s a s I n d i a n s a n d w h i c h w o u l d t h e r e f o r e n o t a p p l y i n t h e a b s e n c e o f S e c t i o n 88. He c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e i n t e n t o f S e c - t i o n 88 was t o make t h e s e l a w s a p p l y t o I n d i a n s a n d t h a t S e c t i o n 88 t h e r e f o r e r e f e r e n t i a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e W i l d l i f e A c t . C o n s e - q u e n t l y , t h e a p p e a l was d i s m i s s e d , a n d D i c k was c o n v i c t e d . T h i s d e c i s i o n means t h a t u n d e r e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n , a l l p r o v i n c i a l 84 l a w s o f g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n w i l l a p p l y t o I n d i a n s e v e n i f t h e s e l a w s a f f e c t I n d i a n s a s I n d i a n s , u n l e s s t h e y a r e i n c o n f l i c t w i t h t r e a t i e s , o t h e r A c t s o f P a r l i a m e n t , o r p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e I n d i a n A c t . On t h e same day a s t h i s j u d g e m e n t was d e l i v e r e d by t h e Supreme C o u r t o f C a n a d a , t h a t c o u r t a l s o r u l e d on t h e c a s e o f R. 35 v . J a c k a n d C h a r l i e . The a p p e l l a n t s i n t h i s c a s e h a d s h o t a d e e r f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f c a r r y i n g o u t a t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s c e r e m o n y . The d e f e n c e r e l i e d on t h r e e a r g u m e n t s . The f i r s t a r g u m e n t was t h a t t h e W i l d l i f e A c t i n t e r f e r e d w i t h t h e a p p e l - l a n t s ' f r e e d o m o f r e l i g i o n a n d so s h o u l d be r e a d down s o a s n o t t o a p p l y t o them. The s e c o n d a r g u m e n t was t h a t i n i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h a b o r i g i n a l r e l i g i o n , t h e A c t a f f e c t e d t h e I n d i a n s a s I n d i a n s a n d was t h e r e f o r e i n a p p l i c a b l e . T h i s was a v a r i a t i o n o f t h e t h i r d a r g u m e n t w h i c h was t h a t a s h u n t i n g was c e n t r a l t o t h e l i f e o f t h e s e I n d i a n s , t h e W i l d l i f e A c t was i n a p p l i c a b l e . T h i s t h i r d a r g u m e n t was d i s m i s s e d f o r t h e r e a s o n s g i v e n i n R. v . D i c k . The r e l i g i o u s a r g u m e n t s were u n s u c c e s s f u l a s t h e C o u r t f o u n d t h a t t h e W i l d l i f e A c t d i d n o t i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e 3 6 a p p e l l a n t s ' f r e e d o m o f r e l i g i o n . M r. J u s t i c e B e e t z f o u n d t h a t t h e r e was no e v i d e n c e t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t t h e k i l l i n g o f t h e d e e r was p a r t o f t h e r e l i g i o u s c e r e m o n y . A l t h o u g h raw d e e r meat was n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e c e r e m o n y , t h i s c o u l d h a v e been o b t a i n e d w i t h o u t b r e a k i n g t h e l a w . I t was t h e r e f o r e c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e W i l d l i f e 85 A c t i n r e g u l a t i n g h u n t i n g d i d n o t a f f e c t t h e a p p e l l a n t s ' f r e e d o m o f r e l i g i o n . I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t n a t i v e I n d i a n s i n v o l v e d i n t h e f i v e c a s e s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n were p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h e s t a - b l i s h i n g a t l e a s t some f r e e d o m f r o m t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s o f t h e W i l d l i f e A c t , r a t h e r t h a n w i t h a c h i e v i n g a c q u i t t a l . The f i n e s 37 upon c o n v i c t i o n were n o t v e r y l a r g e f o r t h e s e o f f e n c e s , w h i l e t h e c o s t o f p u r s u i n g s u c h a c a s e t o t h e B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l o r t h e Supreme C o u r t o f Canada i s g r e a t . F o u r o f t h e f i v e c a s e s i n t h i s s e c t i o n were d e c i d e d i n t h e s e c o u r t s . I n a d d i t i o n , e v e n when t h e d e c i s i o n i n t h e K r u g e r a n d M a n u e l c a s e made i t o b v i o u s t h a t t h e W i l d l i f e A c t w o u l d g e n e r a l l y be h e l d t o a p p l y t o I n - d i a n s , n a t i v e I n d i a n s c o n t i n u e d t o go t o c o u r t i n o r d e r t o e s t a - b l i s h t h a t t h e r e w e re a t l e a s t some c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n w h i c h t h e W i l d l i f e A c t w o u l d n o t a p p l y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y f o r t h e I n d i a n s , t h e d e c i s i o n i n R. v . D i c k made i t c l e a r t h a t u n d e r e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a - t i o n , n o n - t r e a t y I n d i a n s were s u b j e c t a t a l l t i m e s t o t h e p r o v i - s i o n s o f t h e W i l d l i f e A c t . N o n - t r e a t y I n d i a n s u s e d t h e c o u r t s i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e a p r a c t i c a l o b j e c t i v e - f r e e d o m t o p u r s u e t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l way o f l i f e - r a t h e r t h a n t h e more p o l i t i c a l o b j e c t i v e o f a c h i e v i n g a l e g a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l h u n t i n g r i g h t s . T h e r e h a v e been no c a s e s d e a l i n g w i t h h u n t i n g o f f e n c e s w h i c h have been a r g u e d s o l e l y on t h e b a s i s o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a b o r i g i n a l h u n t i n g r i g h t s . W h i l e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s a r g u m e n t s m i g h t a l s o have l e d t o 8 6 g r e a t e r f r e e d o m f r o m r e g u l a t i o n , t h e r e may h a v e bee a number o f r e a s o n why s u c h a r g u m e n t s were n o t u s e d . F i r s t , t h e c a s e s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n r e s u l t e d f r o m c h a r g e s w h i c h were l a i d b e f o r e t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t , 1982 came i n t o e f f e c t , so a r g u m e n t s b a s e d on S e c t i o n 35 o f t h i s A c t were u n a v a i l a b l e . S e c o n d , i t may have b e e n t h o u g h t a d v i s a b l e t o s e t t l e t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n i s s u e b e f o r e any a r g u m e n t s b a s e d s o l e l y on a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s were a d v a n c e d . T h i r d , t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n a l a r g u m e n t may h a v e been s e e n a s a s t r o n g e r l e g a l a r g u m e n t , a s t h e W i l d l i f e A c t o n l y r e g u l a t e s 3 8 h u n t i n g , r a t h e r t h a n p r o h i b i t i n g i t . A l t h o u g h n o n - t r e a t y I n d i a n s were u n s u c c e s s f u l i n a c h i e v i n g t h e i r g o a l i n t h e f i v e h u n t i n g c a s e s , two o f t h e d e c i s i o n s i n t h e s e c a s e s s u g g e s t a l t e r n a t e r o u t e s w h i c h m i g h t be f o l l o w e d i n a c h i e v i n g t h e same g o a l . F i r s t , t h e d e c i s i o n i n R. v . H a i n e s s u g g e s t s t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s t h a t r e s u l t i n undue r e s t r i c t i o n s o f h u n t i n g r i g h t s m i g h t be c h a l l e n g e d i n c o u r t on t h e b a s i s t h a t s u c h d e c i s i o n s a r e b e y o n d t h e a u t h o r i t y o f o f f i - c i a l s . S e c o n d , t h e d e c i s i o n i n R. v . D i c k e s t a b l i s h e s t h a t i n t h e a b s e n c e o f S e c t i o n 88, t h e r e w o u l d be some p r o v i n c i a l l a w s o f g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n w h i c h w o u l d n o t a p p l y t o n a t i v e I n d i a n s , a n d s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e W i l d l i f e A c t m i g h t be s u c h a l a w . C o n s e q u e n t - l y , n a t i v e I n d i a n s m i g h t now a p p e a l t o t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t t o have P a r l i a m e n t amend S e c t i o n 88 a s an a l t e r n a t i v e m e thod o f r e d u c i n g t h e i m p a c t o f p r o v i n c i a l w i l d l i f e l e g i s l a t i o n on n o n - 87 t r e a t y I n d i a n s . C o n c l u s i o n S e c t i o n 9 1 ( 2 4 ) o f t h e C o n s t i t i o n A c t , 1867, p r o v i d e s I n d i a n s w i t h l e g a l a r g u m e n t s w h i c h a r e u n a v a i l a b l e t o n o n - I n d i a n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o i m m u n i t y f r o m p r o v i n c i a l l a w s . N a t i v e I n d i a n s have a t t e m p t e d t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h i s s e c t i o n i n a number o f c o u r t c a s e s , i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e c e r t a i n g o a l s i n t h e a r e a s o f h u n t i n g , a d o p t i o n , a n d t h e u s e o f r e s e r v e l a n d . W h i l e t h e f a c t s i n any c a s e a f f e c t t h e p a r t i c u l a r outcome i n t h a t c a s e , i t c a n be s a i d t h a t g e n e r a l l y , j u r i s d i c t i o n a l a r g u m e n t s were s u c c e s s f u l when t h e r e was a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n i n f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t p r o v i n c i a l l a w s s h o u l d n o t a p p l y - i n t h e c a s e s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e u s e o f r e s e r v e l a n d a n d t r e a t y r i g h t s . S u c h a r g u m e n t s were n o t s u c c e s s f u l when t h e r e was no c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n i n f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t p r o v i n c i a l l a w s s h o u l d n o t a p p l y - i n t h e c a s e s d e a l i n g w i t h a d o p t i o n a n d h u n t i n g by n o n - t r e a t y I n d i a n s . J u r i s d i c t i o n a l a r g u m e n t s may t h e n be u s e f u l t o n a t i v e I n d i a n s , b u t o n l y when t h e i r i n t e r e s t s a n d t h e f e d e r a l p a r l i a m e n t ' s i n t e n t i o n s ( a s e x p r e s s e d i n l e g i s l a t i o n ) c o i n c i d e . I f n a t i v e I n d i a n s w i s h t o a c h i e v e g r e a t e r i m m u n i t y f r o m p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n f r o m t h a t w h i c h t h e y c u r r e n t l y h a v e , c h a n g e s i n f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n w i l l be n e c e s s a r y . 88 TABLE I I THE A P P L I C A T I O N OF PROVINCIAL LAWS TO INDIANS AND THEIR LANDS TABLE OF CASES USE OF RESERVE LAND T o u s s o w a s k e t v . M a t t h e w s D e r r i c k s o n v . D e r r i c k s o n P a u l v . P a u l 1982 B.C.S.C. 1984 1986 B.C.C.A. S • C • C • 1984 1984 1986 B.C.S.C. B.C.C.A. S • C • C • ADOPTION OF INDIAN CHILDREN BY NON-NATIVES N a t u r a l P a r e n t s v . S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f C h i l d W e l f a r e 1973 1974 1975 B.C.S.C. B.C.C.A. S • C • C • HUNTING A) T r e a t y I n d i a n s R. v . B a r t l e m a n R. v . N a p o l e o n B) N o n - T r e a t y I n d i a n s - On R e s e r v e R. v . I g n a c e 1980 1981 1984 1982 1984 1985 1983 B.C.P.C. B.C.C.C. B.C.C.A. B.C.P.C. B.C.C.C. B.C.C.A. B.C.P.C. 89 HUNTING C) N o n - T r e a t y I n d i a n s - O f f R e s e r v e R. v . D e n n i s a n d D e n n i s 1974 B.C.P.C 1975 B.C.S.C R. v . K r u g e r a n d M a n u e l 1974 B • C. C • C 1975 B.C.C.A 1 977 S • C • C • R. v„ H a i n e s 1978 B.C.P.C 1980 B. C • C • C 1981 B.C.C.A R. v. D i c k 1982 B • C • C • C 1982 B.C.C.A 1985 S • 0 • C • R. v . J a c k a n d C h a r l i e 1979 B • C • C • C 1982 B.C.C.A 1985 S • 0 • 0 • 90 NOTES -CHAPTER 3 D o u g l a s S a n d e r s , "The A p p l i c a t i o n o f P r o v i n c i a l Laws t o I n d i a n s a n d I n d i a n L a n d s , " C o n t i n u i n g L e g a l E d u c a t i o n S o c i e t y o f B.C., I n d i a n s a n d t h e Law ( V a n c o u v e r : 1 9 8 2 ) , p. 35. 2 D o u g l a s S a n d e r s , "The A p p l i c a t i o n o f P r o v i n c i a l Laws," i n B r a d f o r d M o r s e , e d , A b o r i g i n a l P e o p l e s a n d t h e Law: I n d i a n , M e t i s , a n d I n u i t R i g h t s i n C a n a d a ( O t t a w a : C a r l e t o n U n i v e r - s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 8 5 ) , p. 452. See a l s o P e t e r H o g g , C o n s t i t u - t i o n a l Law i n Canada ( T o r o n t o : The C a r s w e l l Co. L t d . , 1 9 7 7 ) , f o r a more t h o r o u g h e x p l a n a t i o n o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l a w . 3 C o r p o r a t i o n o f S u r r e y v. P e a c e A r c h E n t e r p r i s e s L t d [ 1 9 7 0 ] 74" W.W.R. 380. 4 N o e l L y o n , " C o n s t i t u t i o n a l I s s u e s i n N a t i v e Law," i n M o r s e , e d , A b o r i g i n a l P e o p l e s a n d t h e Law, p. 43 1 . 5 I n d i a n A c t , 1970, S e c t i o n 88 6 D e r r i c k s o n v . D e r r i c k s o n , ( 1 9 8 6) 26 D.L.R. ( 4 t h ) 175. 7 The a r g u m e n t was r a i s e d i n t h e a b o v e c a s e ( n o t e 6 ) , a l t h o u g h t h e c o u r t f o u n d i t u n n e c e s s a r y t o r e s o l v e t h e i s s u e . g T h i s d e c i s i o n , i n t h e c a s e o f R. v . D i c k , w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l l a t e r i n t h e c h a p t e r . 9 ( 1 9 8 6 ) 26 D.L.R. ( 4 t h ) 175, [ 1 9 8 4 ] 3 C.N.L.R. 58. 1 0 ( 1 9 8 6 ) 26 D.L.R. ( 4 t h ) 196, [ 1 9 8 5 ] 2 C.N.L.R. 93, [ 1 9 8 4 ] 4 C.N.L. 37, [ 1 9 8 3 ] 2 C.N.L.R. 103. 1 1 D e r r i c k s o n v. D e r r i c k s o n , ( 1 9 8 6 ) 26 D.L.R. ( 4 t h ) 175, a t p. 184. 1 2 U n r e p o r t e d , M a r c h 3, 1982, B.C.S.C. 1 3 [ 1 9 7 6 ] 1 W.W.R. 699, [ 1 9 7 4 ] 3 W.W.R. 363, [ 1 9 7 4 ] 1 W.W.R. 19. 14 . I t was n o t e n t i r e l y c l e a r f r o m t h e j u d g e m e n t s why t h i s was t h e c a s e . H owever, t h e A d o p t i o n A c t p r o v i d e s t h a t c o n s e n t 91 15 16 17 o f t h e n a t u r a l p a r e n t s i s n o t n e c e s s a r y i n c e r t a i n c i r c u m - s t a n c e s . E s s e n t i a l l y , i n c a s e s where t h e c h i l d i s h e l d t o be i n need o f p r o t e c t i o n , o r h a s been d e s e r t e d o r a b a n - d o n e d , c o n s e n t c a n be d i s p e n s e d w i t h . The I n d i a n p a r e n t s ' a r g u m e n t i n c l u d e d a s u b m i s s i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e B i l l o f R i g h t s . H owever, b e c a u s e a l l o f t h e j u d g e s who c o n s i d e r e d t h e c a s e f o u n d t h i s a r g u m e n t t o h a v e no b a s i s , a n d b e c a u s e a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f i t w o u l d u n n e c e s s a r i l y c o m p l i c a t e m a t t e r s , i t w i l l n o t be d e a l t w i t h h e r e . [ 1 9 8 4 ] 55 B.C.L.R. 78, [ 1 9 8 1 ] 1 C.N.L.R. 8 3 , [ 1 9 8 0 ] 1 C.N.L.R. 68. R. v . B a r t l e m a n , [ 1 9 8 4 ] 55 B.C.L.R. 78, a t p. 97. 1 8 Fo r t h o s e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e way i n w h i c h t r e a t i e s were n e g o t i a t e d a n d c o n c l u d e d , t h i s d e c i s i o n p r o v i d e s an i n t e r e s t i n g e x a m p l e o f t h e t r e a t y p r o c e s s . F o r e x a m p l e , a l e t t e r by D o u g l a s s a y s t h a t t h e s i g n a t u r e s o f t h e c h i e f s were a t t a c h e d t o b l a n k p a p e r , a n d t h e w o r d i n g o f t h e t r e a t y was t o be a d d e d l a t e r when t h e p r o p e r f o r m s were s e n t f r o m L o n d o n . I t was no d o u b t t h i s k i n d o f e v i d e n c e w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e d e c i s i o n i n t h i s c a s e . 19 20 21 22 23 24 [ 1 9 8 5 ] 6 W.W.R. 302, [ 1 9 8 4 ] B.C.D.Crim. 6 1 6 5 - 0 2 , [ 1 9 8 2 ] 3 C.N.L.R. 116. Mr. J u s t i c e T a g g a r t , i n h i s d e c i s i o n f o r t h e B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l w r o t e , a t page 318, " I t i s n o t w i t h o u t some d i f f i - c u l t y t h a t I h a v e come t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e c o n v i c - t i o n must be s u s t a i n e d . " E d J o h n , " I n d i a n H u n t i n g , " i n I n d i a n s a n d t h e Law, p. 16. [ 1 9 8 3 ] B.C.D.Crim. 5 6 8 4 - 0 2 . [ 1 9 7 7 ] 4 W.W.R. 300, [ 1 9 7 6 ] 60 D.L.R. (3d) 144, [ 1 9 7 4 ] 6 W.W.R. 206. I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h i s c a s e was h e a r d i n J u l y o f 1974, s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e Supreme C o u r t o f C a n a d a ' s d e c i s i o n i n C a l d e r v . A.G.B.C. w h i c h d r a m a t i c a l l y i n c r e a s e d t h e l e g a l c r e d i b i l i t y o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s a r g u m e n t s . (See C h a p t e r 4 ) . The d e c i s i o n i n C o u n t y C o u r t was no d o u b t i n f l u e n c e d by t h i s , a s was t h e d e c i s i o n i n t h e n e x t c a s e , R. v. D e n n i s and D e n n i s . 92 K r u q e r a n d M a n u e l v . The Queen, [ 1 9 7 7 ] 4 W.W.R. 300, a t p. 304. I b i d . , p. 306. [ 1 9 7 5 ] B.C.D.Crim., [ 1 9 7 5 ] 2 W.W.R. 630. (19 6 6 ) 52 D.L.R. (2d) 4 8 1 , ( 1 9 6 5 ) 50 D.L.R. (2d) 613. R. v . W h i t e a nd Bob, (1965) 50 D.L.R. (2d) 613, a t p. 618. [ 1 9 8 1 ] 6 W.W.R. 664, [ 1 9 8 0 ] 5 W.W.R. 42 1 , [ 1 9 7 8 ] 4 C.N.L.B. 1 35. R. v . H a i n e s , [ 1 9 8 0 ] 5 W.W.R. 4 2 1 , a t p. 440. (19 8 6 ) 23 D.L.R. ( 4 t h ) 33, [ 1 9 8 3 ] 2 C.N.L.R. 134, [ 1 9 8 2 ] 4 C.N.L.R. 167. D i c k s o n ' s i n i t i a l d e c i s i o n i n R. v . K r u g e r a nd M a n u e l d o e s n o t r e a l l y c l a r i f y t h i s q u e s t i o n a s t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e , i f a n y , b e t w e e n t h e i n t e n t a n d t h e e f f e c t o f l e g i s l a t i o n . R. v . D i c k , (1986) 23 D.L.R. ( 4 t h ) 3 3 , a t p. 44. (198 6 ) 21 D.L.R. ( 4 t h ) 6 4 1 . , [ 1 9 8 2 ] 5 W.W.R. 193, [ 1 9 7 9 ] 4 C.N.L.R. 9 1 . The f r e e d o m o f r e l i g i o n a r g u m e n t was n o t b a s e d on r i g h t s g u a r a n t e e d by t h e C h a r t e r o f R i g h t s a n d F r e e d o m s a s t h e o f f e n c e was c o m m i t t e d b e f o r e t h i s came i n t o e f f e c t . The B i l l o f R i g h t s was n o t c a l l e d i n t o a i d e i t h e r , a s t h e W i l d l i f e A c t i s a p r o v i n c i a l l a w , s o t h e B i l l d i d n o t a p p l y . The q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r t h e B i l l o f R i g h t s m i g h t g o v e r n t h e W i l d l i f e A c t i f t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n was h e l d t o be a p p l i c a b l e by r e f e r e n t i a l i n c o r p o r a t i o n u n d e r t h e I n d i a n A c t was n o t a d d r e s s e d . The l e g a l b a s i s r e l i e d upon f o r t h e c l a i m o f f r e e d o m o f r e l i g i o n was t h a t t h i s f r e e d o m was a f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e o f l a w . However, t h e l e g a l b a s i s f o r t h i s a r g u m e n t i s b a s i c a l l y i r r e l e v a n t , a s i t was h e l d t h a t t h e W i l d l i f e A c t d i d n o t i m p a i r t h e a p p e l l a n t s ' f r e e d o m o f r e l i g i o n . D i c k r e c e i v e d a f i n e o f o n l y $50 on c o n v i c t i o n . A 1976 d e c i s i o n o f t h e Supreme C o u r t o f Canada i n a n o t h e r B.C. c a s e h a d e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t f e d e r a l f i s h i n g l e g i s l a t i o n w o u l d a p p l y n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g a n y a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s o f t h e d e f e n d a n t . See C h a p t e r 5, f o r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s c a s e . 93 CHAPTER 4 CHALLENGES TO GOVERNMENT AUTHORITY The cases discussed in thi s chapter and the next involve challenges to l e g i s l a t u r e s ' or governments' authority. The v a l i d i t y of certain laws or the l e g a l i t y of the governments' actions are being c a l l e d into question. Such cases are inherently p o l i t i c a l ; they indicate disagreement with the governments' actions or p o l i c i e s . Such disagreement might lead to p o l i t i c a l action, such as lobbying the government or public demonstrations, aimed at changing the government's policy or action. In these cases, disagreement has led to court action. The cases discussed in thi s chapter have arisen as a result of disputes about the use of land and resources. As discussed in Chapter 1, most native Indians in B.C. fe e l that their claims to land and resources have not been s e t t l e d . In the meantime, economic development i s proceeding, and threatening to alienate land before claims can be s e t t l e d . Disputes have arisen when other groups or individuals have pursued a c t i v i t i e s which native Indians f e e l w i l l damage or alienate the land and resources that they have t r a d i t i o n a l l y used, or to which they believe they have a claim. Because governments in Canada are involved in regulating the use of land and resources, native Indians have attempted to protect their interests through court actions which challenge governments' authority, even when the 94 i m m e d i a t e d i s p u t e i s w i t h a p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l o r company. The c a s e s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r r e p r e s e n t o n l y t h e t i p of t h e i c e b e r g . N a t i v e I n d i a n s a l l o v e r t h e p r o v i n c e h a v e been a n d a r e p r o t e s t i n g i n v a r i o u s ways t h e e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t s t a k i n g p l a c e i n a r e a s w h i c h t h e y c l a i m a s t h e i r own. 1 W i t h one e x c e p t i o n , t h e c a s e s c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r h a v e been i n i t i a t e d by n a t i v e I n d i a n s . As a r e s u l t o f a d i s p u t e o v e r t h e l o g g i n g o f L y e l l I s l a n d , n a t i v e I n d i a n s f o r m e d a b l o c k - ade a c r o s s a l o g g i n g r o a d on t h e i s l a n d . T h e i r a c t i o n s r e s u l t e d i n a c o u r t a c t i o n i - r i i t i a t e d by t h e l o g g i n g c o m p a n i e s w h i c h were i n v o l v e d . However, t h i s c a s e i s an e x a m p l e o f n a t i v e I n d i a n s " u s i n g t h e c o u r t s " , b e c a u s e o f t h e v i r t u a l c e r t a i n t y t h a t a c o u r t c a s e w o u l d r e s u l t f r o m t h e i r a c t i o n s . The l e g a l a r g u m e n t s w h i c h have been u s e d i n t h e s e c a s e s c a n be s e p a r a t e d i n t o two g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s . The f i r s t c a t e g o r y c o n s i s t s o f t h o s e a r g u m e n t s w h i c h a t t e m p t t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t h a s n o t e x e r c i s e d i t s a u t h o r i t y i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e l a w . The s e c o n d c a t e g o r y c o n s i s t s o f t h o s e a r g u m e n t s w h i c h a t t e m p t t o e s t a b l i s h t h e e x i s t e n c e o f r i g h t s w h i c h w o u l d l i m i t t h e g o v e r n m e n t s ' a u t h o r i t y t o t a k e c e r t a i n a c t i o n s o r l e g i s l a - t u r e s ' a u t h o r i t y t o p a s s c e r t a i n l e g i s l a t i o n . I n t h e c a s e s d i s - c u s s e d i n t h e n e x t two c h a p t e r s , l e g a l a r g u m e n t s a r e u s e d w h i c h a t t e m p t t o e s t a b l i s h t h e e x i s t e n c e o f f o u r d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f r i g h t s - a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s , t r e a t y r i g h t s , s t a t u t o r y r i g h t s , a nd 95 c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t s . The c a s e s i n t h i s c h a p t e r h a v e been d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e m a j o r s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n i n c l u d e s o n l y one c a s e , C a l d e r v . 2 A.G.B.C. T h i s was t h e f i r s t c a s e i n Canada i n i t i a t e d by n a t i v e I n d i a n s w h i c h d e a l t d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e i s s u e o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . The d e c i s i o n i n t h i s c a s e by t h e Supreme C o u r t o f Canada h a s p r o v i d e d t h e b a s i s f o r a l l s u b s e q u e n t a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s c a s e s . The s e c o n d s e c t i o n c o n s i s t s o f t h o s e c a s e s i n w h i c h n a t i v e I n - d i a n s h a v e a r g u e d t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t h a s n o t e x e r c i s e d i t s a u t h o r i t y i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e l a w . T h i s s e c t i o n i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s u b s e c t i o n s : t h e f i r s t c o n s i s t s o f c a s e s i n w h i c h I n d i a n s h a v e s o u g h t c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r a l l e g e d l y i l l e g a l a c t i o n s o f t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t i n t h e p a s t ; t h e s e c o n d o f c a s e s i n w h i c h n a t i v e I n d i a n s h a v e c h a l l e n g e d d e c i s i o n s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o a r d s ; a n d t h e t h i r d o f c a s e s i n w h i c h n a t i v e I n d i a n s h ave a t t e m p t e d t o p r e v e n t g o v e r n m e n t a c t i o n s w h i c h t h e y f e l t w o u l d damage t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . The t h i r d s e c t i o n c o n s i s t s o f c a s e s i n w h i c h n a t i v e I n d i a n s h ave a t t e m p t e d t o p r o t e c t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s i n l a n d a n d r e s o u r c e s by a s s e r t i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e o f r i g h t s w h i c h w o u l d l i m i t t h e g o v e r n m e n t s ' a u t h o r i t y t o a c t . W i t h i n e a c h s e c t i o n t h e c a s e s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r . The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s , a r e r e l e v a n t t o t h e s e c a s e s : 1) A r e t h e c o u r t s b e i n g u s e d t o a c h i e v e r e c o g n i t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s t o l a n d a n d r e s o u r c e s ? 2 ) A r e t h e c o u r t s b e i n g u s e d when n a t i v e I n d i a n s f e e l t h e y a r e 96 n o t a c h i e v i n g t h e i r g o a l s i n t h e p o l i t i c a l a r e n a ? 3) How h a s t h e n a t i v e I n d i a n s ' d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e i r g o a l s i n t e r m s o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s a f f e c t e d t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f what i s p r o g r e s s i n t h e p o l i t i c a l a r e n a ? 4) What k i n d s o f l e g a l a r g u m e n t s h a v e been u s e d i n t h e s e c a s e s ? 5) Has t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t , 1982 h a d an e f f e c t on n a t i v e I n d i a n s ' u s e o f t h e c o u r t s ? The C a l d e r C a s e I n 1969, t h e q u e s t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s was d i r e c t l y a d d r e s s e d i n C a l d e r v . A.G.B.C. The c a s e was i n i t i a t e d by t h e N i s h g a I n d i a n s o f B.C., who h a d been s t r u g g l i n g s i n c e t h e l a t e 1800's t o a c h i e v e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i r l a n d c l a i m s . F i n a l l y , i n 1967, t h e N i s h g a f i l e d a s t a t e m e n t o f c l a i m i n B.C. Supreme C o u r t , a s k i n g f o r a d e c l a r a t i o n t h a t " t h e a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e ( a l s o known a s I n d i a n t i t l e ) o f t h e P l a i n t i f f s t o t h e i r a n c i e n t t r i b a l 3 t e r r i t o r y h a s n e v e r been l a w f u l l y e x t i n g u i s h e d . " The N i s h g a ' s a c t i o n i n t a k i n g t h e i r c l a i m t o c o u r t d i d n o t meet w i t h a p p r o v a l f r o m o t h e r n a t i v e I n d i a n l e a d e r s i n t h e p r o - v i n c e . I t was f e a r e d t h a t i f t h e c a s e f a i l e d , a l l l a n d c l a i m s 4 w o u l d be j e o p a r d i z e d . H o w e v e r , t h e N i s h g a h a d t h r e e r e a s o n s f o r g o i n g t o c o u r t . F i r s t , t h e y h a d a t t e m p t e d t o r e a c h a p o l i t i c a l s o l u t i o n t o t h e i s s u e t h r o u g h p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o a j o i n t S e n a t e - House o f Commons C o m m i t t e e on I n d i a n A f f a i r s , b u t h a d g o t t e n 97 n o w h e r e . D u r i n g t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , F r a n k C a l d e r h a d n o t e d , "The g o v e r n m e n t s i n t h e p a s t have r e f u s e d us t h e s e r i g h t s . We c a n a r g u e u n t i l we a r e b l u e i n t h e f a c e a n d t h e g o v e r n m e n t s a y s t h i s ; we s a y t h i s : a n d we s a y t h a t when t h e r e i s d i s a g r e e m e n t , i t 5 s h o u l d be s e t t l e d i n c o u r t . " S e c o n d , t h e j u d g e m e n t i n R. v . W h i t e a nd Bob i n 1963 r a i s e d new hope t h a t t h e c o u r t s m i g h t r e c o g n i z e a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e . T h i r d , t h e N i s h g a d e s i r e f o r a s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e i r c l a i m s was i n c r e a s i n g , a s d e v e l o p m e n t l e d t o g r o w i n g e n c r o a c h m e n t upon t h e i r l a n d . I n p r e s e n t a t i o n s b e f o r e t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y c o m m i t t e e i t was n o t e d t h a t t r a p l i n e s w e r e b e i n g d e s t r o y e d by t h e l o g g i n g 7 i n d u s t r y . I n 1958, C o l u m b i a C e l l u l o s e , a l o g g i n g company, f i r s t l i n k e d t h e N a s s V a l l e y t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l h i g h w a y s y s t e m when t h e y b u i l t a 105 k i l o m e t r e r o a d i n t o N i s h g a t e r r i t o r y . The f e a r t h a t e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t w o u l d c o n t i n u e t o d e s t r o y t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d s , w h i l e l i t t l e o r no p r o g r e s s was made i n t h e p o l i t i c a l a r e n a , l e d t h e N i s h g a t o i n i t i a t e c o u r t a c t i o n . The t r i a l b egan i n A p r i l , 1969, a n d was h e a r d by Mr. J u s t i c e G o u l d o f t h e B.C. Supreme C o u r t . The d e f e n c e p r e s e n t e d e x t e n s i v e h i s t o r i c a l e v i d e n c e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e N i s h g a t e r r i t o r y , t h e i r e x t e n s i v e u s e o f t h e l a n d a n d r e s o u r c e s , a n d N i s h g a c o n c e p t s o f o w n e r s h i p o f t h e l a n d . The a c t i v i t i e s a n d p o l i c i e s o f t h e c o l o n i a l g o v e r n m e n t were a l s o e x a m i n e d . The t h r e e key q u e s t i o n s w h i c h t h e t h e N i s h g a a s k e d t h e c o u r t t o c o n s i d e r were 1) Do, o r d i d , t h e N i s h g a have a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i n t h e 98 t e r r i t o r y i n question? 2) Does the Royal Proclamation of 1763, which recognized and a f f i r m e d the a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s of n a t i v e peoples, apply to B.C.? and 3) Have these r i g h t s , i f they ever e x i s t e d , been e x t i n g u i s h e d by the a c t i o n s of the c o l o n i a l government? Mr. J u s t i c e Gould chose to answer only the l a s t two ques- t i o n s . He r u l e d that the Nass V a l l e y had been t e r r a i n c o g n i t a i n 1763, and so the Royal Proclamation d i d not apply. Secondly, he h e l d that i f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s had ever e x i s t e d , they had been e x t i n g u i s h e d by c o l o n i a l land l e g i s l a t i o n before 1871. The Nishga appealed t h i s d e c i s i o n to the B.C. Court of Appeal and were again d i s a p p o i n t e d . Again, the judges unanimously r u l e d that the Royal Proclamation d i d not apply, and that i f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e had ever e x i s t e d i t had been e x t i n g u i s h e d . With re s p e c t to the e x i s t e n c e of a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s , a l l three judges took the p o s i t i o n t h at f o r such r i g h t s to be recognized by a c o u r t of law, they must have been recognized by a p r e r o g a t i v e or l e g i s l a t i v e g act of the Crown. At t h i s p o i n t , i t seemed that those who had opposed the l e g a l route had been c o r r e c t . However, the Nishga again appealed, t h i s time to the Supreme Court of Canada. T h i s time the r e s u l t was a q u a l i f i e d v i c t o r y . Seven judges heard the case i n the Supreme Court i n November, 1971, and the d e c i s i o n was handed down i n January of 1973. Six of the judges agreed that a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e had e x i s t e d as a 99 resu l t of the Nishga occupation and use of the land in quest ion. Mr Jus t i ce H a l l , in his dec i s ion , considered the issue of a b o r i - g i n a l t i t l e in the greatest d e t a i l . Both Mr. Jus t i ce Laskin and Mr. Jus t i ce Spence concurred in th i s d e c i s i o n . H a l l stated that "Unlike the method used to make out t i t l e in other contexts , proof of the Indian t i t l e or interest i s to be made out as a matter of f a c t . " 1 ^ He concluded that the evidence presented during the t r i a l d id e s tab l i sh the Nishga's a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e . He then reviewed a number of cases and concluded there was " . . . a wealth of jurisprudence af f irming common law recognit ion of abor- i g i n a l r ights to possession and enjoyment of lands of aborigines p r e c i s e l y analogous to the Nishga s i tua t ion h e r e . " 1 1 And f i n a l - l y , he stated that " . . . the abor ig ina l t i t l e does not depend on 1 2 t rea ty , executive order, or l e g i s l a t i v e enactment." Mr. Jus t i ce Judson, with whom Mr. Jus t i ce Martland, and Mr. Jus t i ce R i t ch ie concurred, was not so s p e c i f i c on the issue of the existence of abor ig ina l t i t l e . He stated that the Royal 1 3 Proclamation was not the exclusive source of abor ig ina l t i t l e . He then gave his conception of Indian t i t l e : . . . t h e fact i s that when the s e t t l e r s came, the Indians were there, organized in soc ie t i e s and occupying the land as the ir forefathers had done for centur ies . This i s what a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e means and i t does not help one in the so lut ion of th i s problem to c a l l i t a "personal or usufructuary r i g h t " . . . T h e r e can be no question that th i s r ight was dependent on the goodwill of the Sovereign. The court was d iv ided on the question of whether or not the 100 R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n a p p l i e d t o B.C. H a l l h e l d t h a t i t d i d a p p l y , a n d J u d s o n t h a t i t d i d n o t . T h i s q u e s t i o n was n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t i n t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e c a s e , h o w e v e r , a s a l l s i x j u d g e s h a d r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e d i d n o t d e p e n d on t h e R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n . H owever, a m a j o r i t y j u d g e - ment i n t h e Supreme C o u r t o f Canada on t h i s i s s u e w o u l d h a v e i n f l u e n c e d t h e l e g a l a r g u m e n t s u s e d i n o t h e r n a t i v e I n d i a n 15 c a s e s . F i n a l l y , t h r e e j u d g e s r u l e d t h a t a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s had been e x t i n g u i s h e d w h i l e t h r e e j u d g e s r u l e d t h a t t h e y h a d n o t . No c l e a r s t a t e m e n t emerged f r o m t h e d e c i s i o n s a s t o how e x a c t l y t h e e x t i n g u i s h m e n t o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e i s a c c o m p l i s h e d . J u d s o n , a f t e r r e v i e w i n g t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e c o l o n i a l g o v e r n m e n t s t a t e d o n l y : I n my o p i n i o n , i n t h e p r e s e n t c a s e , t h e s o v e r e i g n a u t h o r i t y e l e c t e d t o e x e r c i s e c o m p l e t e d o m i n i o n o v e r t h e l a n d s i n q u e s t i o n , a d v e r s e t o any r i g h t o f o c c u p a n c y w h i c h t h e N i s h g a t r i b e m i g h t h a v e h a d , when, by l e g i s l a t i o n , i t o p e n e d up s u c h l a n d s f o r s e t t l e m e n t , s u b j e c t t o g t h e r e s e r v e s s e t a s i d e f o r I n d i a n o c c u p a t i o n . H a l l , h a v i n g gone i n t o g r e a t e r d e t a i l on t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s , a l s o l o o k e d more c a r e f u l l y a t t h e i r e x t i n - g u i s h m e n t . He s t a t e d t h a t " I t w o u l d a c c o r d i n g l y , a p p e a r t o be b e y o n d q u e s t i o n t h a t t h e o n u s o f p r o v i n g t h a t t h e S o v e r e i g n i n t e n d e d t o e x t i n g u i s h t h e I n d i a n t i t l e l i e s on t h e r e s p o n d e n t , 1 7 a n d t h a t i n t e n t i o n must be " c l e a r a n d p l a i n " . H o wever, t h e 101 e x a c t m e a n i n g o f " c l e a r a n d p l a i n " i s n o t r e v e a l e d by t h e r e s t o f t h e d e c i s i o n . W h i l e H a l l c o n s i d e r e d a number of a c t i o n s o f t h e c o l o n i a l g o v e r n m e n t a n d f o u n d t h a t t h e y d i d n o t c l e a r l y e x t i n - g u i s h a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e , he d i d n o t c o n s i d e r a l l o f t h e l a n d l e g i s l a t i o n p a s s e d b e f o r e 1871. I n s t e a d , h i s r u l i n g was " . . . t h a t i f a n y a t t e m p t was made t o e x t i n g u i s h t h e t i t l e i t was b e y o n d t h e power o f t h e G o v e r n o r o r o f t h e C o u n c i l t o do s o , a n d t h e r e f o r e , 1 8 u l t r a v i r e s . " The s e v e n t h j u d g e , Mr. J u s t i c e P i g e o n , d i d n o t r u l e on any o f t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s q u e s t i o n s . I n s t e a d , he d e n i e d t h e a p p e a l on t h e b a s i s t h a t t h e c o u r t h a d no j u r i s d i c t i o n t o g r a n t t h e d e c l a r a t i o n r e q u e s t e d , a s a f i a t h a d n o t been g r a n t e d by t h e L i e u t e n a n t G o v e r n o r o f B.C. The a p p e a l t h e n f a i l e d , b u t n o t a s a r e s u l t o f a m a j o r i t y d e n i a l o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . The Supreme C o u r t o f C a nada d i d n o t t h e n d e c i d e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s o f t h e N i s h g a h a d been e x t i n g u i s h e d , and d i d n o t p r o v i d e g u i d e l i n e s t o t h e l o w e r c o u r t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o how t h e e x t i n g u i s h m e n t o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s w o u l d o c c u r . I t was a l s o n o t c l e a r w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e Supreme C o u r t o f C a nada o r t h e B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l d e c i s i o n was p r e c e d e n t . H o w e v e r , t h e d e c i s i o n i n t h e C a l d e r c a s e d i d e n h a n c e t h e l e g a l c r e d i b i l i t y o f n a t i v e I n d i a n s ' l a n d c l a i m s , a s s i x j u d g e s a c k n o w l e d g e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e . T h i s d e c i s i o n , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e 1 02 i n i t i a t i o n o f a l e g a l a c t i o n by t h e James Bay C r e e t o p r e v e n t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e James Bay H y d r o E l e c t r i c P r o j e c t , l e d t o a c h a n g e i n f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y t o w a r d s c l a i m s b a s e d on 1 g a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e . The f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t was now p r e p a r e d t o a c c e p t a n d n e g o t i a t e l a n d c l a i m s b a s e d on t r a d i t i o n a l u s e a n d o c c u p a n c y . The g o v e r n m e n t l a b e l l e d t h e s e c l a i m s c o m p r e h e n s i v e c l a i m s , a s n e g o t i a t e d s e t t l e m e n t s m i g h t i n c l u d e p r o v i s i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o s u c h i t e m s a s h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g , a n d m i n e r a l r i g h t s . W h i l e t h i s new p o l i c y was a welcome c h a n g e , a n d l e d t o t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f two c l a i m s i n Quebec a n d an a g r e e m e n t i n p r i n c i p l e i n t h e w e s t e r n A r c t i c , l i t t l e p r o g r e s s h a s o c c u r r e d i n B.C. w i t h 20 r e s p e c t t o c o m p r e h e n s i v e c l a i m s . The p r o v i n c e i s v e r y r e l u c - t a n t t o a c c e p t a n y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f c l a i m s a n d h a s r e p e a t e d l y e x p r e s s e d i t s o p i n i o n t h a t a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s h a v e been e x t i n g u i s h e d i n B.C. S u c h a p o s i t i o n i s u n d e r s t a n d - a b l e , g i v e n t h a t c l a i m s have been a c c e p t e d f o r n e g o t i a t i o n w h i c h 21 c o v e r a b o u t t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e a r e a o f B.C. C h a l l e n g e s To The L e g a l i t y Of G o v e r n m e n t A c t i o n s Or D e c i s i o n s A ) C o m p e n s a t i o n C a s e s I n 1973, t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t a l s o o u t l i n e d i t s p o l i c y w i t h r e s p e c t t o s p e c i f i c c l a i m s , w h i c h were d e f i n e d a s t h o s e c l a i m s b a s e d on I n d i a n g r i e v a n c e s a b o u t t h e f u l f i l l m e n t o f t r e a t i e s o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f I n d i a n l a n d s a n d a s s e t s . The f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t had a c k n o w l e d g e d i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o n e g o - 1 03 t i a t e s u c h c l a i m s i n 1969 However, t h e p o l i c y w h i c h was d e v e l o p e d met w i t h c r i t i c i s m f r o m n a t i v e g r o u p s a c r o s s t h e c o u n - t r y w h i c h c e n t r e d on t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s l e g a l i s t i c a p - 23 p r o a c h . F o r a c l a i m t o be a c c e p t e d f o r n e g o t i a t i o n , i t was r e q u i r e d t h a t t h e r e be a b a s i s i n l a w f o r t h a t c l a i m . T h i s a p p r o a c h p r e s e n t e d p r o b l e m s f o r some I n d i a n b a n d s , a s t h e c o u r t s h a d n e v e r r e a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t h e n a t u r e o f t h e l e g a l o b l i g a t i o n ( i f a n y ) o f t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t t o w a r d s n a t i v e I n d i a n s . W h i l e t h e I n d i a n A c t e s s e n t i a l l y makes n a t i v e I n d i a n s t h e w a r d s o f t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t , t h e l e g a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t when a c t i n g i n t h i s r o l e h a d n o t been e s t a b l i s h e d . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e c l a i m s p r o c e s s was u n a v a i l a b l e i n c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s , and n a t i v e I n d i a n s f o u n d t h a t t h e y had t o go t o c o u r t t o c l a r i f y t h e l e g a l n a t u r e o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t . 24 I n two c a s e s , G u e r i n v . The Queen a n d K r u q e r v . The 25 Queen, n a t i v e I n d i a n s t o o k t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t t o c o u r t i n o r d e r t o t r y t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t h a d n o t a c t e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e l a w when u n d e r t a k i n g t r a n s a c t i o n s w i t h r e s - p e c t t o r e s e r v e l a n d . C o m p e n s a t i o n was s o u g h t f o r t h i s a l l e g e d i l l e g a l b e h a v i o u r . The c a s e o f G u e r i n v . The Queen, r e s u l t e d f r o m a d i s p u t e a b o u t t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s a c t i o n s i n n e g o t i a t i n g a l e a s e on s u r r e n d e r e d r e s e r v e l a n d . I n 1957, t h e Musqueam I n d i a n band ha d s u r r e n d e r e d a p o r t i o n o f t h e i r r e s e r v e l a n d , w h i c h t h e f e d - 104 e r a l g o v e r n m e n t t h e n l e a s e d t o t h e S h a u g h n e s s y H e i g h t s G o l f C l u b . P r i o r t o t h e s u r r e n d e r , t h e t e r m s o f t h e l e a s e were d i s c u s s e d b e t w e e n t h e b a n d members and D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s o f f i - c i a l s , a n d t h e band members as s u m e d t h a t t h e l e a s e w o u l d be a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e o r a l t e r m s . The s u r r e n d e r document i t s e l f d i d n o t c o n t a i n a n y o f t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s . S u b s e q u e n t l y , a l e a s e was s i g n e d by t h e d e p a r t m e n t o f f i c i a l s w i t h t h e g o l f c l u b , w h i c h was c o n s i d e r a b l y d i f f e r e n t a n d l e s s v a l u a b l e t h a n t h a t d i s c u s s e d w i t h band members. The band was u n a b l e t o o b t a i n a c o p y o f t h e l e a s e f r o m t h e d e p a r t m e n t u n t i l 1970. I n 1975, t h e c h i e f a n d c o u n c i l - l o r s o f t h e b a n d began a s u i t a g a i n s t t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t a l l e g i n g t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t was i n b r e a c h o f i t s t r u s t r e s p o n s i - b i l i t i e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s u r r e n d e r , a n d s e e k i n g c o m p e n s a t i o n . An a t t e m p t was made t o n e g o t i a t e f o r c o m p e n s a t i o n , b u t t h e 2 6 d e p a r t m e n t s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e b a n d t a k e t h e m a t t e r t o c o u r t . The m a j o r q u e s t i o n s c o n s i d e r e d by t h e c o u r t ( s ) were 1 ) t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e Crown a n d t h e I n d i a n b a n d . T h a t i s , c o u l d t h e Crown be h e l d l e g a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s a c t i o n s s u b s e q e n t t o t h e s u r r e n d e r ? 2) I f t h e Crown was l e g a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e , what was t h e e f f e c t o f t h e o r a l t e r m s a g r e e d t o by t h e band? 3) C o u l d t h e band b r i n g t h e a c t i o n , g i v e n t h e S t a t u t e 27 o f L i m i t a t i o n s a n d t h e d o c t r i n e o f l a c h e s ? The d o c t r i n e o f l a c h e s i s a common l a w d o c t r i n e w h e r e b y p e o p l e l o s e c e r t a i n r i g h t s a n d p r i v i l e g e s i f t h e y f a i l t o a s s e r t o r e x e r c i s e them o v e r an u n r e a s o n a b l e p e r i o d o f t i m e . 105 I n h i s t r i a l j u d g e m e n t o f J u l y 3, 1981, Mr. J u s t i c e C o l l i e r o f t h e F e d e r a l C o u r t T r i a l D i v i s i o n f o u n d t h a t a l e g a l l y e n f o r c e - a b l e t r u s t was c r e a t e d by t h e s u r r e n d e r o f t h e r e s e r v e l a n d , a n d t h a t t h e t e r m s o f t h e t r u s t were t h o s e d i s c u s s e d o r a l l y w i t h members o f t h e b a n d . He a l s o h e l d t h a t n e i t h e r t h e s t a t u t e o f l i m i t a t i o n s n o r t h e d o c t r i n e o f l a c h e s w o u l d a p p l y , a s t h e d e p a r t m e n t h a d r e f u s e d t o g i v e t h e b a n d a c o p y o f t h e l e a s e u n t i l 1970, d e s p i t e r e p e a t e d r e q u e s t s by t h e b a n d . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e b a n d was a w a r d e d $10 m i l l i o n i n damages. T h i s d e c i s i o n was o v e r t u r n e d by a u n a n i m o u s j u d g e m e n t o f t h e F e d e r a l C o u r t o f A p p e a l i n D ecember, 1982. I t was h e l d t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e I n d i a n s h a d an i n t e r e s t i n t h e l a n d w h i c h c o u l d be t h e s u b j e c t o f a 28 t r u s t , t h a t t h e s u r r e n d e r d i d n o t c r e a t e a " t r u e t r u s t " w h i c h c o u l d be e n f o r c e a b l e by t h e c o u r t s . "The e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e g o v e r n m e n t assumes an a d m i n i s t a t i v e o r management r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e r e s e r v e s o f some p o s i t i v e s c o p e i s a m a t t e r o f g o v e r n m e n - 29 t a l d i s c r e t i o n , n o t l e g a l o r e q u i t a b l e o b l i g a t i o n . " F u r t h e r , t h e c o u r t h e l d t h a t t h e o r a l c o n d i t i o n s o f s u r r e n d e r c o u l d n o t be a b a s i s i n l a w f o r a f i n d i n g o f l i a b i l i t y . When t h e c a s e was a p p e a l e d t o t h e Supreme C o u r t o f C a n a d a , s e v e n j u d g e s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e Crown h a d a f i d u c i a r y o b l i g a t i o n t o t h e I n d i a n b a nd w h i c h was b r e a c h e d when i t a c c e p t e d a l e a s e w h i c h was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t a g r e e d t o by t h e b a n d . The Crown's f i d u c i a r y o b l i g a t i o n was s e e n a s h a v i n g i t s 106 r o o t s i n t h e c o n c e p t o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e . T h i s I n d i a n i n t e r e s t i n t h e l a n d , p l u s t h e r e q u i r e m e n t o f s u r r e n d e r t o t h e Crown b e f o r e 30 l a n d c a n be a l i e n a t e d , g a v e r i s e t o t h e f i d u c i a r y o b l i g a t i o n . Mr. J u s t i c e E s t e y , who c o n c u r r e d i n t h e r e s u l t , b a s e d h i s d e c i - s i o n on t h e l a w o f a g e n c y . The c o u r t f o u n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r t h e q u e s t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e i n r e a c h i n g i t s d e c i s i o n . W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s o u r c e o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e , M r. J u s t i c e D i c k s o n s a i d , s p e a k i n g f o r h i m s e l f and t h r e e o t h e r s , " I n C a l d e r v . A.G.B.C. t h i s c o u r t r e c o g n i z e d a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e a s a l e g a l r i g h t d e r i v e d f r o m t h e I n d i a n s ' h i s t o r i c o c c u p a t i o n a n d p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e i r t r i b a l 31 l a n d s . " F u r t h e r , he s a i d , " T h e i r i n t e r e s t i s a p r e - e x i s t i n g l e g a l r i g h t n o t c r e a t e d by R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n , by s. 1 8 ( 1 ) o f t h e I n d i a n A c t o r by a n y o t h e r e x e c u t i v e o r d e r o r l e g i s l a t i v e p r o v i - 32 s i o n . " He a l s o n o t e d t h a t t h e I n d i a n i n t e r e s t i n l a n d was t h e same w h e t h e r d e a l i n g w i t h r e s e r v e l a n d o r w i t h u n r e c o g n i z e d a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e t o t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d s . As t o t h e n a t u r e o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e , D i c k s o n s a i d : I n d i a n s have a l e g a l r i g h t t o o c c u p y and p o s s e s s c e r t a i n l a n d s , t h e l e g a l t i t l e t o w h i c h i s i n t h e C r o w n . . . I t i s t r u e t h a t t h e s u i g e n e r i s i n t e r e s t w h i c h t h e I n d i a n s h a v e i n t h e l a n d i s p e r s o n a l i n t h e s e n s e t h a t i t c a n n o t be t r a n s f e r r e d t o a g r a n t e e , b u t i t i s a l s o t r u e , a s w i l l p r e s e n t l y a p p e a r , t h a t t h e i n t e r e s t g i v e s r i s e upon s u r r e n d e r t o a d i s - t i n c t i v e f i d u c i a r y o b l i g a t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e Crown t o d e a l w i t h t h e l a n d f o r t h e b e n e - f i t o f t h e s u r r e n d e r i n g I n d i a n s . T h e s e two a s p e c t s o f I n d i a n t i t l e go t o g e t h e r , s i n c e t h e Crown's o r i g i n a l p u r p o s e i n d e c l a r i n g t h e 107 I n d i a n s ' i n t e r e s t t o be i n a l i e n a b l e o t h e r w i s e t o t h e Crown was t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e Crown's a b i l i t y t o r e p r e s e n t t h e I n d i a n s i n d e a l i n g s w i t h t h i r d p a r t i e s . The n a t u r e o f t h e I n - d i a n s ' i n t e r e s t i s t h e r e f o r e b e s t c h a r a c t e r - i z e d by i t s g e n e r a l i n a l i e n a b i l i t y , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t t h e Crown i s u n d e r an o b l i g a t i o n t o d e a l w i t h t h e l a n d on t h e I n - d i a n s ' b e h a l f when t h e i n t e r e s t i s s u r r e n - d e r e d . Any d e s c r i p t i o n o f I n d i a n t i t l e w h i c h g o e s b e y o n d t h e s e two f e a t u r e s i s b o t h unne- c e s s a r y a n d p o t e n t i a l l y m i s l e a d i n g . T h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f n a t i v e t i t l e g o e s b e y o n d p r e v i o u s d e s c r i p t i o n s , a n d may h a v e r a t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o e x t i n g u i s h m e n t . D i c k s o n h e r e i s a p p a r e n t l y s p e a k i n g o f I n d i a n t i t l e g e n e r a l l y , - ' n o t j u s t I n d i a n t i t l e i n r e s e r v e l a n d s . I f one a s p e c t o f t h i s t i t l e i s t h a t t h e Crown must d e a l w i t h t h e l a n d f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f s u r r e n d e r i n g I n d i a n s , t h e n how c a n t h e Crown e x t i n g u i s h I n d i a n t i t l e by g e n e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h i g n o r e s t h e I n d i a n i n t e r e s t i n l a n d ? H o w e v e r , i t may be t h a t t h e t e r m " s u r r e n d e r " i n t h i s p a r a g r a p h a p p l i e s o n l y t o s u r r e n d e r s o f r e s e r v e l a n d p u r s u a n t t o t h e I n d i a n A c t . F o r i n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e Crown's f i d u c i a r y o b l i g a t i o n , D i c k s o n c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h i s a r i s e s a s a r e s u l t o f S e c . 1 8 ( 1 ) o f t h e I n d i a n A c t , w h i c h c o n f e r s upon t h e Crown a d e s c r e t i o n t o d e c i d e where t h e I n d i a n s ' b e s t i n t e r e s t s l i e . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , he n o t e s t h a t t h e Crown f i r s t a s s umed t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h e R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n o f 1763, w h i c h d e a l t w i t h s u r r e n d e r s o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e i n t r a d i t i o n a l t r i b a l l a n d s . Madame J u s t i c e W i l s o n , s p e a k i n g f o r h e r s e l f a n d two o t h e r s , s a y s o n l y "The o b l i g a t i o n h a s i t s r o o t s 108 i n t h e a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e o f C a n a d a ' s I n d i a n s a s d i s c u s s e d i n C a l d e r v . A.G.B.C." 3 4 The Supreme C o u r t o f Canada t h u s o v e r t u r n e d t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e F e d e r a l C o u r t o f A p p e a l , a n d r e i n s t a t e d t h e damages a w a r d e d by t h e t r i a l j u d g e . The c o u r t a l s o a g r e e d w i t h t h e t r i a l j u d g e w i t h r e s p e c t t o h i s d e c i s i o n on t h e s t a t u t e o f l i m i t a t i o n s a n d t h e d o c t r i n e o f l a c h e s . T h i s r e s u l t was h a i l e d a s a v i c t o r y by I n d i a n l e a d e r s . I t e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e Crown h a d an o b l i g a t i o n t o d e a l w i t h r e s e r v e l a n d f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f I n d i a n s , a n d t h a t t h e Crown's a c t i o n s c o u l d be r e v i e w e d by t h e c o u r t s . N ot o n l y d o e s t h e Supreme C o u r t o f Canada d e c i s i o n e n a b l e I n d i a n s t o a p p e a l t o t h e c o u r t s f o r r e l i e f , b u t i t a l s o e x p a n d s t h e " l a w f u l o b l i g a t i o n s " w h i c h t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t w i l l n e g o t i a t e t h r o u g h t h e c l a i m s p r o c e s s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e comments made on a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e a r e i m p o r t a n t . T h i s c a s e e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h c e r t a i n t y t h a t t h i s t i t l e i s an i n d e p e n d e n t l e g a l r i g h t . I n a d d i t i o n , Mr. J u s t i c e D i c k s o n ' s comments on t h e n a t u r e o f t h i s t i t l e may be h e l p f u l t o t h e I n d i a n c a u s e . One o t h e r c a s e d e a l t w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n o f c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s a c t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o r e s e r v e l a n d . 35 T h i s c a s e , K r u g e r v . The Queen, was h e a r d i n t h e F e d e r a l C o u r t o f A p p e a l a f t e r t h e Supreme C o u r t o f Canada d e c i s i o n i n G u e r i n v . The Queen. W h i l e a number o f l e g a l a r g u m e n t s were c o n s i d e r e d , t h e c a s e was d e t e r m i n e d on t h e i s s u e o f w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e Crown h a d b r e a c h e d i t s f i d u c i a r y o b l i g a t i o n . The d e c i s i o n t h e n , 109 e x p a n d s on t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f what t h e f i d u c i a r y o b l i g a t i o n o f t h e Crown i s when d e a l i n g w i t h I n d i a n l a n d s . The f a c t s i n t h i s c a s e a r e r a t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d . I n s i m p l i - f i e d f o r m t h e y a r e a s f o l l o w s . The D e p a r t m e n t o f T r a n s p o r t r e q u i r e d l a n d t o b u i l d an a i r p o r t , a nd so e x p r o p r i a t e d two p a r - c e l s o f l a n d f r o m t h e P e n t i c t i o n I n d i a n R e s e r v e i n 1941 and 1943. S u c h e x p r o p r i a t i o n s r e q u i r e d t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e G o v e r n o r - i n - C o u n c i l , w h i c h was g i v e n . B e f o r e a n d a f t e r t h e s e e x p r o p r i a t i o n s t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s n e g o t i a t e d on b e h a l f o f t h e I n d i a n s w i t h t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f T r a n s p o r t f o r t h e amount o f com- p e n s a t i o n t o be p a i d f o r t h e l a n d s . The I n d i a n s i n v o l v e d r e l u c - t a n t l y a c c e p t e d t h e c o m p e n s a t i o n o f f e r e d , a n d f i n a l payment was made i n A p r i l , 1946. A c o n f l i c t o f i n t e r e s t q u e s t i o n i s r a i s e d i n t h i s c a s e a s t h e Crown was a c t i n g b o t h on b e h a l f o f t h e I n d i a n s , a n d a s t h e e x p r o p r i a t o r o f t h e l a n d . N e g o t i a t i o n s f o r c o m p e n s a t i o n t o o k p l a c e b e t w e e n two f e d e r a l d e p a r t m e n t s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e G o v e r n - o r - i n - C o u n c i l was r e q u i r e d t o c o n s e n t t o t h e e x p r o p r i a t i o n i t - s e l f , w h i c h d e p r i v e d t h e I n d i a n s o f t h e i r o p t i o n t o r e f u s e t o s e l l , o r t o n e g o t i a t e a s a l e on t h e i r own t e r m s . H o w e v e r , t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e C o u r t h e l d t h a t t h e Crown h a d f u l f i l l e d i t s f i d u c i a r y o b l i g a t i o n s . Mr. J u s t i c e U r i e f o u n d t h a t o f f i c i a l s f r o m t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s h a d a c t e d t o t h e b e s t o f t h e i r a b i l i t y i n n e g o t i a t i n g c o m p e n s a t i o n . The o f f i c i a l s 110 were w e l l a ware o f b o t h t h e v a l u e o f t h e l a n d , a n d t h e i r d u t y t o r e p r e s e n t t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f t h e I n d i a n s . F u r t h e r , t h e I n d i a n s t h e m s e l v e s h a d a g r e e d t o t h e c o m p e n s a t i o n p a i d . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e Crown was f o u n d t o h a v e f u l f i l l e d i t s l e g a l o b l i g a t i o n s , a l t h o u g h t h e G o v e r n o r - i n - C o u n c i l was r e q u i r e d t o c h o o s e b e t w e e n c o m p e t i n g i n t e r e s t s i n e x p r o p r i a t i n g t h e l a n d . An o p t i o n r e m a i n e d open t o t h e I n d i a n s t o t a k e t h e m a t t e r o f c o m p e n s a t i o n t o t h e E x c h e q u e r C o u r t , w h i c h t h e y d i d n o t do. I n a d d i t i o n i t was r u l e d t h a t t h e a c t i o n was b a r r e d b e c a u s e o f t h e s t a t u t e o f l i m i t a t i o n s . No c o n c e a l m e n t o f r e l e v a n t f a c t s h a d o c c u r r e d i n t h i s c a s e , a s i n t h e G u e r i n c a s e , t o p r e v e n t t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s s t a t u t e . Mr. J u s t i c e H e a l d c o n c u r r e d i n t h e r e s u l t b e c a u s e o f t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e s t a t u t e o f l i m i t a t i o n s . H o w e v e r , he a l s o r u l e d t h a t t h e Crown h a d b r e a c h e d i t s f i d u c i a r y d u t y . He s a i d : H o wever, t h e G o v e r n o r - i n - C o u n c i l i s n o t a b l e t o d e f a u l t i n i t s f i d u c i a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e I n d i a n s on t h e b a s i s o f o t h e r p r i o r i t i e s a n d o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . I f t h e r e was e v i d e n c e i n t h e r e c o r d t o i n d i c a t e t h a t c a r e - f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n a n d due w e i g h t h a d been g i v e n t o t h e p l e a s a n d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s by I n d i a n A f f a i r s on b e h a l f o f t h e I n d i a n s a n d , t h e r e a f t e r , an o f f e r o f s e t t l e m e n t r e f l e c t i n g t h o s e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s h a d been made, I w o u l d h a v e v i e w e d t h e m a t t e r d i f f e r e n t l y . H o w e v e r , H e a l d was i n t h e m i n o r i t y , a n d u n l e s s t h e c a s e i s a p p e a l e d t o t h e Supreme C o u r t o f C a n a d a , t h e m a j o r i t y d e c i s i o n w i l l p r e v a i l . I t seems t h e n t h a t t h e f i d u c i a r y o b l i g a t i o n o f t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t i s l i m i t e d t o t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . 1 1 1 B)Challenges To D e c i s i o n s Of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Boards In many cases, p r i v a t e companies must o b t a i n government ap p r o v a l before proceeding with p a r t i c u l a r p r o j e c t s . A d m i n i s t r a - t i v e boards e s t a b l i s h e d by the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments hear submissions by i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s before a d e c i s i o n i s reached. In two cases, n a t i v e Indians used the c o u r t s to c h a l - lenge d e c i s i o n s which were made by such a d m i n i s t r a t i v e boards. In both cases, the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e boards were reviewing a p p l i c a - t i o n s by the Westcoast Transmission Company to c o n s t r u c t n a t u r a l gas p i p e l i n e s , and n a t i v e Indians who l i v e d i n a f f e c t e d areas p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the hearings i n order to p r o t e c t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s in the land and resources of these a r e a s . When the a d m i n i s t r a - t i v e boards made d e c i s i o n s which a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d t h e i r i n t e r - e s t s , n a t i v e Indians appealed these d e c i s i o n s i n c o u r t , c l a i m i n g that the boards had exceeded t h e i r a u t h o r i t y , p r e s e n t a t i o n s be- fo r e such bodies when they f e e l a d e c i s i o n may a f f e c t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . In Union of B.C. Indian C h i e f s v. Westcoast Transmission 37 Co. , the Union of B.C. Indian C h i e f s (UBCIC) sought an adjournment of a N a t i o n a l Energy Board (NEB) h e a r i n g , so that they would have adequate time to prepare evidence. The purpose of the h e a r i n g was to decide i f Westcoast Transmission c o u l d proceed to c o n s t r u c t a n a t u r a l gas p i p e l i n e , and the UBCIC wished to prevent c o n s t r u c t i o n because of p o s s i b l e adverse e f f e c t s to f i s h spawning areas and w i l d l i f e . The NEB had denied a request 1 1 2 by t h e UBCIC f o r an a d j o u r n m e n t , s o t h e UBCIC a p p e a l e d t o t h e F e d e r a l C o u r t , a r g u i n g t h a t t h e C h a i r m a n o f t h e NEB h a d e x e r c i s e d h i s d e s c r e t i o n u n f a i r l y i n d e n y i n g t h e a d j o u r n m e n t , a n d t h a t t h e y h a d n o t been g i v e n a d e q u a t e n o t i c e o f t h e h e a r i n g . I n t u r n , W e s t c o a s t T r a n s m i s s i o n a nd t h e NEB a r g u e d t h a t t h e UBCIC had no s t a t u s t o b r i n g t h e a c t i o n i n c o u r t , a n d t h a t t h e y h a d been g i v e n a d e q u a t e n o t i c e . Mr J u s t i c e C o l l i e r f o u n d t h a t t h e UBCIC d i d h a v e s t a t u s t o b r i n g t h e a c t i o n , b u t t h a t t h e y h a d been g i v e n a d e q u a t e t i m e t o p r e p a r e t h e i r e v i d e n c e a nd t h a t t h e NEB C h a i r m a n h a d n o t e x e r c i s e d h i s d e s c r e t i o n u n f a i r l y . The UBCIC a p p e a l e d t h i s d e c i s i o n t o t h e F e d e r a l C o u r t o f A p p e a l , b u t t h i s c o u r t u p h e l d C o l l i e r ' s d e c i s i o n . I n 1983, t h e A l k a l i L a k e Band was an i n t e r v e n o r i n p u b l i c h e a r i n g s by t h e B.C. U t i l i t i e s C o m m i s s i o n w h i c h was r e v i e w i n g an a p p l i c a t i o n by W e s t c o a s t T r a n s m i s s i o n t o b u i l d a p i p e l i n e . The b a n d was c o n c e r n e d a b o u t p i p e l i n e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n a r e a s where t h e b a n d h u n t e d a n d f i s h e d . The c o m m i s s i o n r e f u s e d t o a w a r d c o s t s t o t h e b a nd f o r e x p e n s e s w h i c h t h e y h a d i n c u r r e d i n p r e p a r i n g e v i - 3 8 d e n c e . I n A l k a l i L a k e I n d i a n Band v . W e s t c o a s t T r a n s m i s s i o n t h e b a nd a p p e a l e d t o t h e B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l t o r e c o v e r t h e s e c o s t s . The b a n d s t a t e d a t t r i a l t h a t t h e money was n e e d e d t o c o m p l e t e r e s e a r c h w h i c h h a d been r e q u e s t e d by t h e C o m m i s s i o n . The C o m m i s s i o n d e c i s i o n t o deny t h e b a n d i t s c o s t s was made a f t e r t h e r e c e i p t o f a l e t t e r f r o m t h e M i n i s t e r o f E n e r g y , M i n e s and 113 R e s o u r c e s , d i r e c t i n g t h e c o m m i s s i o n n o t t o a w a r d i n t e r v e n o r c o s t s . The c o u r t t h e r e f o r e f o u n d t h a t t h e c o m m i s s i o n d i d n o t e x e r c i s e u n f e t t e r e d d i s c r e t i o n , a n d so a w a r d e d t h e band i t s c o s t s . D e c i s i o n s made by a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o a r d s may h a v e a s i g n i f i - c a n t i m p a c t on t h e r e s o u r c e s u s e d by n a t i v e I n d i a n s , o r upon t h e a b i l i t y o f n a t i v e I n d i a n s t o a d e q u a t e l y p r e s e n t t h e i r p o i n t o f v i e w a t h e a r i n g s by s u c h b o a r d s . By u s i n g t h e c o u r t s t o c h a l - l e n g e t h e d e c i s i o n s o f s u c h b o a r d s , n a t i v e I n d i a n s may be a b l e t o p r e v e n t damage t o t h e r e s o u r c e s w h i c h p r o v i d e t h e b a s i s f o r t h e i r way o f l i f e . C ) P r e v e n t i v e A c t i o n s I n t h r e e c a s e s , n a t i v e I n d i a n s h a v e u s e d t h e c o u r t s t o p r e v e n t a c t i o n s by t h e f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s w h i c h t h e y f e l t w ere i n i m i c a l t o t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , by a r g u i n g t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t s c o n c e r n e d were n o t e x e r c i s i n g t h e i r a u t h o r i t y i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e l a w . P r i o r t o S e p t e m b e r , 1975, t h e p r o v i n c e h a d d i s c u s s e d w i t h t h e Lower N i c o l a I n d i a n b a n d t h e m a t t e r o f w i d e n i n g a n d i m p r o v i n g a r o a d t h r o u g h t h e b a n d ' s r e s e r v e . The b a n d t o l d t h e p r o v i n c e t h e y were o p p o s e d t o any s u c h a c t i o n , h o w e v e r i n S e p t e m b e r p r o v i n c i a l e m p l o y e e s e n t e r e d t h e r e s e r v e t o c o n d u c t s u r v e y s a n d d e t e r m i n e what l a n d was n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e i m p r o v e m e n t o f t h e 39 r o a d . A t t h i s p o i n t , b a nd mambers i n f o r m e d t h e s e e m p l o y e e s 11 4 t h a t t h e y were n o t p r e p a r e d t o l e t any work p r o c e e d , a n d t h e e m p l o y e e s l e f t t h e r e s e r v e . S u b s e q u e n t l y , t h e b a nd t o o k t h e p r o v i n c e t o c o u r t f o r t r e s p a s s i n g on t h e i r r e s e r v e . A c c o r d i n g t o O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l 1036 p a s s e d by t h e p r o v i n c e i n 1936, a n d P r i v y C o u n c i l O r d e r 208 p a s s e d by t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n - ment i n 1930, w h i c h c o n v e y e d I n d i a n r e s e r v e s i n t h e p r o v i n c e t o t h e D o m i n i o n , t h e p r o v i n c e r e t a i n e d t h e r i g h t t o resume up t o one t w e n t i e t h o f t h e l a n d i n e a c h r e s e r v e f o r p u b l i c w o r k s . The 40 p l a i n f i f f I n d i a n band a r g u e d i n Moses v . The Queen t h a t t h e s e e x e c u t i v e o r d e r s were n o t v a l i d a s t h e y h a d n o t been s u f f i c i e n t l y a u t h o r i z e d by l e g i s l a t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , a s u r r e n d e r o f t h e l a n d s was r e q u i r e d u n d e r t h e I n d i a n A c t i f t h e p r o v i n c e w i s h e d t o w i d e n t h e r o a d . F u r t h e r i t was a r g u e d t h a t e v e n i f t h e p r o v i n c e h a d a r i g h t o f r e s u m p t i o n , t h i s r i g h t h ad n o t b e e n v a l i d l y e x e r - c i s e d . The p r o v i n c e t h e r e f o r e h a d no r i g h t t o e n t e r t h e r e s e r v e a n d s o was t r e s p a s s i n g . H o w e v e r , Mr. J u s t i c e A n d r e w s o f t h e B.C. Supreme C o u r t f o u n d t h a t t h e e x e c u t i v e o r d e r s were v a l i d b e c a u s e a u t h o r i z e d by t h e B.C. I n d i a n L a n d s S e t t l e m e n t A c t ( C a n a d a ) , and t h e I n d i a n A f f a i r s S e t t l e m e n t A c t ( B . C . ) . The p r o v i n c e t h e r e f o r e h a d a r i g h t o f r e s u m p t i o n , a n d t h i s was a s u f f i c i e n t d e f e n c e a g a i n s t t h e a c t i o n f o r t r e s p a s s . I t was n o t n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r w h e t h e r t h e p r o v i n c e h a d v a l i d l y e x e r c i s e d t h i s r i g h t , a s t h e p r o v i n c e was a t t h i s p o i n t o n l y s u r v e y i n g t h e l a n d t o a s c e r t a i n how much w o u l d be 115 r e q u i r e d f o r t h e r o a d . T h i s j u d g e m e n t was u p h e l d by t h e B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l i n May 1979, a n d l e a v e t o a p p e a l t o t h e Supreme C o u r t o f C a nada was r e f u s e d . However i t was a g r e e d a t t h e C o u r t o f A p p e a l t h a t t h e j u d g e m e n t i n t h i s c a s e w o u l d n o t p r e j u d i c e f u t u r e t r i a l s w h i c h t h e I n d i a n s m i g h t b r i n g on t h e b a s i s t h a t more t h a n one t w e n t i e t h o f t h e i r l a n d was r e s u m e d o r t h a t t h e r i g h t o f r e s u m p t i o n was i m p r o p e r l y e x e r c i s e d . The n e x t c a s e , I s l a n d s P r o t e c t i o n S o c i e t y v . R. i n R i g h t o f 4 1 . B.C., e n d e d up i n c o u r t a s a r e s u l t o f g r o w i n g c o n c e r n a b o u t l o g g i n g p r a c t i c e s i n B.C. I n 1974, t h e I s l a n d s P r o t e c t i o n S o c i e - t y was f o r m e d by a number o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s a n d y o u n g e r H a i d a i n t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s . T h i s g r o u p began t o l o b b y f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a w i l d e r n e s s a r e a on S o u t h M o r e s b y I s l a n d . They were a w a r e t h a t T r e e Farm L i c e n s e ( T F L ) 24,. h e l d by R a y o n i e r C a nada (now W e s t e r n F o r e s t P r o d u c t s ) , w h i c h c o v e r e d much o f t h i s a r e a was t o come up f o r r e n e w a l i n 1979. O v e r t h e n e x t few y e a r s t h i s g r o u p g a t h e r e d i n f o r m a t i o n on h a r v e s t i n g p r a c t i c e s on TFL 24, a n d a t t e m p t e d t o i n c r e a s e s u p p o r t f o r g r e a t e r p u b l i c p a r t i c i - p a t i o n i n l a n d management d e c i s i o n s . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e y w i s h e d t o o b t a i n a p u b l i c h e a r i n g b e f o r e TFL 24 was r e n e w e d . A t t h i s p o i n t , t h e H a i d a l a n d c l a i m h a d n o t b een s u b m i t t e d t o t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t f o r n e g o t i a t i o n , b u t t h e H a i d a N a t i o n t o o k t h e p o s i - t i o n t h a t t h e i r c l a i m s s h o u l d be s e t t l e d b e f o r e o t h e r l a n d use 42 d e c i s i o n s were made. P u b l i c s u p p o r t f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l a n d management d e c i - 116 s i o n s grew o v e r t h e p e r i o d 1975-1979. However, i t a p p e a r e d t h a t t h e M i n i s t e r o f F o r e s t s d i d n o t i n t e n d t o h o l d a p u b l i c h e a r i n g b e f o r e r e n e w a l o f TFL 24, and was n o t b e i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y c o - o p e r a t i v e i n r e l e a s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e S o c i e t y . C o n s e - q u e n t l y , t h e I s l a n d s P r o t e c t i o n S o c i e t y a n d two H a i d a I n d i a n s who h a d t r a p l i n e s i n t h e a r e a began a c o u r t a c t i o n i n e a r l y 1979. They a s k e d f o r a d e c l a r a t i o n t h a t t h e M i n i s t e r o f F o r e s t s was u n d e r a d u t y t o a c t f a i r l y i n e x e r c i s i n g h i s power t o renew TFL 24. I n t h e i n i t i a l p l e a d i n g s , t h e p e t i t i o n e r s a s k e d f o r an o r d e r t h a t a p u b l i c h e a r i n g be h e l d b e f o r e t h e r e n e w a l o f TFL 24, and an o r d e r r e s t r a i n i n g t h e M i n i s t e r f r o m r e n e w i n g t h e TFL u n t i l t h i s c o u l d be done. H o w e v e r , a t t h e h e a r i n g o f t h e p e t i t i o n t h e s e l a s t two r e q u e s t s were a l t e r e d a n d t h e p e t i t i o n e r s a s k e d f o r an o r d e r t h a t b e f o r e t h e r e n e w a l t o o k p l a c e t h e y be s u p p l i e d w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e TFL and t h a t t h e y h a v e an o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e s p o n d t o t h i s . The i n i t i a l q u e s t i o n w h i c h h a d t o be d e c i d e d a t t r i a l was w h e t h e r t h e p e t i t i o n e r s h a d s t a n d i n g . Mr. J u s t i c e M u r r a y o f t h e B.C. Supreme C o u r t r u l e d t h a t t h e I s l a n d s P r o t e c t i o n S o c i e t y d i d n o t h a v e s t a n d i n g b u t t h a t t h e t r a p p e r s d i d . He f o u n d t h a t Young a n d N a y l o r h a d t h e r i g h t t o sue b e c a u s e t h e y were h o l d e r s o f t r a p l i n e s i n t h e a r e a . Young a n d Edenshaw, t h e H a i d a I n d i a n s i n v o l v e d , h a d s t a n d i n g b e c a u s e t h e y h a d "an o c c u p a n c y o f a s u b - 44 s t a n t i a l n a t u r e " w h i c h a r o s e f r o m t h e i r l o n g u s e a n d o c c u p a n c y 117 o f t h e l a n d i n q u e s t i o n f o r f i s h i n g a n d t h e h a r v e s t i n g o f s e a f o o d . The n e x t q u e s t i o n was w h e t h e r t h e t y p e o f d e c i s i o n w h i c h t h e M i n i s t e r was t o make was one w h i c h c o u l d be s u b j e c t t o j u d i c i a l r e v i e w . M u r r a y h e l d t h a t i t was. However, he d i d n o t g r a n t t h e r e l i e f r e q u e s t e d i n t h i s c a s e b e c a u s e t h e p e t i t i o n e r s h a d n o t shown t h a t t h e r e was a r e a s o n a b l e a p p r e h e n s i o n t h a t t h e M i n i s t e r w o u l d n o t a c t f a i r l y . A l s o much o f t h e i r e v i d e n c e was b a s e d on o p i n i o n a n d b e l i e f , a n d d e a l t w i t h t h e M i n i s t e r ' s f a i l u r e t o h o l d a p u b l i c h e a r i n g . The M i n i s t e r was u n d e r no s t a t u t o r y d u t y t o h o l d s u c h a h e a r i n g . The j u d g e d i d s t a t e h o w e v e r , t h a t " I w o u l d h a v e p r e f e r r e d t o h a v e b e f o r e me an a f f i d a v i t f r o m t h e M i n i s t e r s t a t i n g t h a t he i s p r e p a r e d t o make h i s d e c i s i o n on t h e b a s i s 45 p r o p o s e d by t h e p e t i t i o n e r s . " A f t e r t h i s d e c i s i o n , t h e I s l a n d s P r o t e c t i o n S o c i e t y a n d t h e t r a p p e r s w r o t e t o t h e M i n i s t e r r e q u e s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e r e n e w a l o f t h e T F L . The M i n i s t e r d i d n o t r e s p o n d . C o n s e q u e n t l y , a n o t h e r p e t i t i o n was f i l e d on A p r i l 18, 1979, 12 d a y s b e f o r e t h e l i c e n s e was t o be r e n e w e d . The c o u r t a g a i n d e c l i n e d t o g r a n t t h e r e l i e f r e q u e s t e d , Mr. J u s t i c e S m i t h g i v i n g no w r i t t e n r e a s o n s . H o w e v e r , t h e M i n i s t r y f i l e d an a f f i d a v i t i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n h a d been m i s f i l e d , a n d an i n f o r m a t i o n m e e t i n g was h e l d w i t h t h e p e t i t i o n e r s a week b e f o r e t h e new 46 l i c e n s e h a d t o be i n p l a c e . T h i s d i d n o t , p r e d i c t a b l y , r e s u l t i n a d e n i a l o f TFL 24's r e n e w a l . 118 L a t e r , t h e H a i d a N a t i o n a p p e a l e d t h e c o u r t c a s e a l l t h e way t o t h e Supreme C o u r t o f C a n a d a . However, t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r a f u l l t r i a l were d e n i e d i n B.C. Supreme C o u r t Chambers a n d by t h e B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l . L e a v e t o a p p e a l t o t h e Supreme C o u r t o f Canada was d e n i e d on December 20, 1982, on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t t h e J u d i c i a l R e v i e w P r o c e d u r e A c t was a p r o v i n c i a l l a w o n l y 47 a p p l y i n g t o B.C. The g o a l o f t h e d e s i r e d t r i a l was t o o b t a i n a c o u r t o r d e r f o r c i n g t h e m i n i s t e r t o r e n e g o t i a t e t h e t e r m s o f t h e l i c e n s e . They had h o p e d t o show t h a t t h e M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s h a d c o n s u l t e d them i n ba d f a i t h , s i n c e t h e M i n i s t r y had t o l d t h e c o u r t s t h e y w o u l d i n c l u d e c e r t a i n c l a u s e s i n t h e c o n t r a c t w h i c h 48 were s u b s e q u e n t l y w i t h d r a w n . 49 The n e x t c a s e , B o l t o n v . F o r e s t P e s t Management r e s u l t e d f r o m a d e c i s i o n by t h e F o r e s t P e s t Management I n s t i t u t e , an a s s o c i a t i o n o f c i v i l s e r v a n t s c a r r y i n g o u t r e s e a r c h f o r t h e C a n a - d i a n F o r e s t S e r v i c e , t o t e s t a p e s t i c i d e i n an a r e a u s e d by t h e K i t s u m k a l u m I n d i a n band o f T e r r a c e f o r f o o d g a t h e r i n g . One b a n d member, R u s s e l l B o l t o n , was t h e h o l d e r o f a r e g i s t e r e d t r a p l i n e i n t h e a r e a , w h i l e a number o f band members h e l d f o o d - f i s h i n g p e r m i t s . The band t h e r e f o r e a t t e m p t e d t o s e c u r e an i n j u n c t i o n w h i c h w o u l d p r e v e n t t h e s p r a y i n g f r o m t a k i n g p l a c e . T h e i r a c t i o n was b a s e d on t h e t o r t o f n u i s a n c e . I n t h e B.C. Supreme C o u r t , t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n f o r an i n j u n c t i o n was d e n i e d a s Madame J u s t i c e S o u t h i n f o u n d t h a t t h e y d i d n o t h a v e s t a n d i n g t o b r i n g t h e a c - 119 t i o n . She d i d , h o w e v e r , g r a n t an i n t e r i m i n j u n c t i o n u n t i l t h e c a s e c o u l d be h e a r d i n t h e C o u r t o f A p p e a l . On A u g u s t 16, 1985, Mr. J u s t i c e M a c F a r l a n e , i n Chambers, g r a n t e d a f u r t h e r i n t e r i m i n j u n c t i o n p r e v e n t i n g t h e p e s t i c i d e t e s t i n g u n t i l t h e a p p e a l f r o m S o u t h i n ' s d e c i s i o n c o u l d be h e a r d by t h e f u l l c o u r t . The m a j o r i s s u e d e a l t w i t h was w h e t h e r t h e p l a i n t i f f s h a d l e g a l i n t e r e s t s w h i c h w o u l d e n t i t l e them t o b r i n g t h e a c t i o n i n n u i s a n c e . The j u d g e c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e was m e r i t i n t h e i r c l a i m t h a t t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e a r e a g ave them s t a n d i n g t o b r i n g t h e a c t i o n . N e x t , he h e l d t h a t t h e r e was some q u e s t i o n a s t o w h e t h e r t h e d e f e n d a n t s w o u l d be p r o t e c t e d by a d e f e n c e o f s t a t u t o r y a u t h o r i t y , a n d so t h e r e was a s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n t o be t r i e d . F i n a l l y he c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e p e s t i c i d e s p r a y i n g s h o u l d be p o s t p o n e d u n t i l a f t e r t h e a p p e a l was h e a r d , a s t h e r e was "a r i s k o f p o i s o n i n g t h e f i s h , game, a n d 50 e n v i r o n m e n t g e n e r a l l y . " As t h e r e was no c o m p e l l i n g r e a s o n f o r t h e p r o j e c t t o go a h e a d , an i n t e r i m i n j u n c t i o n was g r a n t e d . H o w e v e r , t h e j u d g e made an o r d e r t h a t i f t h e a p p e a l was l o s t , t h e I n d i a n s w o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o pay a n y c o s t s w h i c h t h e d e f e n d a n t s i n c u r r e d a s a r e s u l t o f t h e i n j u n c t i o n . T h i s c a s e h ad n o t p r o c e e d e d t o t r i a l by t h e end o f 1985, s o t h e f i n a l outcome o f t h e c a s e i s unknown. However, t h e g r a n t i n g o f t h e i n j u n c t i o n i t s e l f was a v i c t o r y f o r t h e n a t i v e I n d i a n s i n v o l v e d , a s i t p r o t e c t e d t h e f i s h a n d w i l d l i f e o f t h e a r e a a t l e a s t u n t i l t h e t r i a l . 1 20 A s s e r t i o n s Of R i g h t s I n f o u r c a s e s , n a t i v e I n d i a n s h a v e s o u g h t t o p r e v e n t a c t i o n s w h i c h w o u l d damage l a n d a n d r e s o u r c e s t o w h i c h t h e y h a v e a c l a i m by a s s e r t i n g t h a t t h e y h a v e r i g h t s w h i c h w o u l d p r e v e n t t h e s e a c t i o n s f r o m t a k i n g p l a c e . 51 . . . The f i r s t c a s e , P e t e r s v . The Queen was i n i t i a t e d a f t e r a company a p p l i e d t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t f o r a l i c e n s e t o use a f o r e s h o r e , w h i c h h a d t r a d i t i o n a l l y been u s e d by t h e O h i a h t I n d i a n B a n d f o r g a t h e r i n g c l a m s , a s an e x p e r i m e n t a l a r e a f o r c o m m e r c i a l c l a m p r o d u c t i o n . The O h i a h t b and t h e n f i l e d a p e t i t i o n i n c o u r t , c l a i m i n g t h a t t h e r i g h t t o u s e t h e b e a c h f o r c l a m g a t h e r i n g was an a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t w i t h i n t h e m e a n i n g o f S e c t i o n 3 5 ( 1 ) o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t , 1982, a n d t h a t i t was t h e r e f o r e u l t r a v i r e s t h e p r o v i n c e t o g r a n t t h e l i c e n s e p r i o r t o t h e F i r s t M i n i s t e r s C o n f e r e n c e w h i c h was t o be h e l d p u r s u a n t t o S e c t i o n 37 o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t . The p r o v i n c e h a d g i v e n t e n t a t i v e a p p r o v a l t o t h e l i c e n s e , b u t h a d a g r e e d t o w i t h h o l d t h e g r a n t u n t i l t h e l e g a l i s s u e s r a i s e d by t h e I n d i a n s were d e c i d e d . I n J a n u a r y , 1983, t h e p r o v i n c e made a p r e - t r i a l a p p l i c a t i o n t o h a v e t h e p e t i t i o n d i s - m i s s e d . The a r g u m e n t t o s t r i k e o u t t h e p e t i t i o n was b a s e d on t h r e e s u b m i s s i o n s . The f i r s t s u b m i s s i o n was t h a t t h e l a w , a s s t a t e d i n c a s e s b i n d i n g on t h e c o u r t , was t h a t no a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s e x i s t e d i n B.C. The s e c o n d s u b m i s s i o n was t h a t t h e c o u r t 121 h a d no j u r i s d i c t i o n t o g r a n t t h e r e l i e f s o u g h t , a n d t h e t h i r d was t h a t t h e d e c l a r a t i o n s s o u g h t c o u l d h a v e no p r a c t i c a l o r l e g a l c o n s e q u e n c e s , a s t h e r e was no r e q u i r e m e n t i n S e c . 37 t h a t t h e F i r s t M i n i s t e r s ' C o n f e r e n c e come t o a n y c o n c l u s i o n on t h e d e f i n i - t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . Mr. J u s t i c e E s s o n d i s m i s s e d t h e a p p l i c a t i o n . He c o n c l u d e d t h a t i t h a d n o t b e e n d e c i d e d c o n c l u - s i v e l y by t h e c o u r t s t h a t a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e h a d b een e x t i n g u i s h e d , a n d t h a t t h i s was a q u e s t i o n w h i c h s h o u l d be d e c i d e d a f t e r a f u l l h e a r i n g . He a l s o f o u n d t h a t t h e l a s t two s u b m i s s i o n s were o f q u e s t i o n a b l e m e r i t , a n d d i d n o t p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t g r o u n d s t o s t r i k e o u t t h e p e t i t i o n . The c a s e n e v e r r e a c h e d a f u l l t r i a l , a s t h e F i r s t M i n i s t e r s ' C o n f e r e n c e was h e l d b e f o r e i t c o u l d t a k e p l a c e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , no a g r e e m e n t was r e a c h e d a t t h e C o n f e r e n c e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . H o w e v e r , by l a u n c h i n g t h e s u i t , t h e O h i a h t b a n d was a b l e t o p o s t p o n e t h e g r a n t i n g o f t h e l i c e n s e u n t i l t h e C o n f e r e n c e , w h i c h was t h e a i m o f t h e c o u r t a c t i o n . T h i s was o n l y p o s s i b l e however b e c a u s e t h e p r o v i n c e a g r e e d t o w i t h h o l d t h e l i c e n s e u n t i l t h e l e g a l r i g h t s o f t h e I n d i a n s c o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d . S u c h a g r e e m e n t was n o t a l w a y s p o s s i b l e , a s t h e n e x t two c a s e s d e m o n s t r a t e . 52 I n M a c m i l l a n B l o e d e l v . M u l l i n n a t i v e I n d i a n s s o u g h t an i n j u n c t i o n t o p r e v e n t t h e l o g g i n g o f M e a r e s I s l a n d by M a c M i l l a n B l o e d e l . The company had f i r s t a n n o u n c e d i t s i n t e n t i o n t o l o g t h e i s l a n d i n 1980, b u t l o g g i n g was p o s t p o n e d a s a r e s u l t o f 1 22 p u b l i c p r o t e s t . As a r e s u l t o f p u b l i c p r e s s u r e , F o r e s t M i n i s t e r Tom W a t e r l a n d f o r m e d t h e M e a r e s I s l a n d I n t e g r a t e d P l a n n i n g Team, w h i c h i n v o l v e d t h e p u b l i c i n p r e p a r i n g an i n t e g r a t e d r e s o u r c e u se p l a n f o r M e a r e s . P a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e P l a n n i n g Team i n c l u d e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m t h e two l o g g i n g c o m p a n i e s i n v o l v e d , t h e IWA, f o u r g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s , t h e V i l l a g e o f T o f i n o , t h e A l b e r n i / C l a y o q u o t R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , t h e F r i e n d s o f C l a y o q u o t S ound ( F O C S ) , a n d t h e Nuu- C h a h - N u l t h T r i b a l C o u n c i l . The T r i b a l C o u n c i l t o o k t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t no l o g g i n g s h o u l d t a k e p l a c e u n t i l t h e i s s u e o f l a n d c l a i m s h a d b een s e t t l e d . The N u u - C h a h - N u l t h l a n d c l a i m , w h i c h i n c l u d e d t h e a r e a i n q u e s t i o n , h a d been a c c e p t e d by t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t f o r n e g o t i a t i o n e a r l i e r i n t h e y e a r . H owever, t h e P l a n n i n g Team d i d n o t c o n s i d e r t h i s i s s u e a s i t c o n s i d e r e d " t h e l a n d c l a i m s 53 i s s u e b e y o n d i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n . " The T r i b a l C o u n c i l n o n e t h e l e s s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e P l a n n i n g Team. I n November, 1983, t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s E n v i r o n m e n t a n d L a n d Use C o m m i t t e e a p p r o v e d l o g g i n g o f 9 0 % o f t h e i s l a n d , 54 i g n o r i n g t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s made by t h e P l a n n i n g Team. C o n s e - q u e n t l y , a s e r i e s o f p u b l i c p r o t e s t s o f t h e p l a n n e d l o g g i n g o c c u r r e d . I n A p r i l 1984, T o f i n o r e s i d e n t s p l a n n e d an E a s t e r F e s t i v a l a n d B o a t P a r a d e t o draw p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i s s u e . On A p r i l 2 1 , t h e C l a y o q u o t a n d A h o u s a t Bands d e c l a r e d M e a r e s I s l a n d a T r i b a l P a r k . I n O c t o b e r , a 27 f o o t t a l l Welcome 123 F i g u r e , c a r v e d by a r t i s t J o e D a v i d , was e r e c t e d i n f r o n t o f t h e P a r l i a m e n t B u i l d i n g s a t a r a l l y a t t e n d e d by 1200 M e a r e s s u p - 55 p o r t e r s . I n O c t o b e r , p r o t e s t o r s began t o camp i n C ' i s - a - q i s B a y . M e d i a c o v e r a g e g r e w , e s p e c i a l l y when s p i k e s were d r i v e n i n t o t r e e s by unknown p e r s o n s . F i n a l l y , on November 2 1 , M a c M i l - l a n B l o e d e l s e n t l o g g e r s a n d s u r v e y o r s t o t h e b a y , who were t u r n e d b a c k by t h e p r o t e s t i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s a n d I n d i a n s . D e s p i t e t h e s e p r o t e s t s , t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t made no move t o r e c o n s i d e r i t s d e c i s i o n . On November 2 3, M a c M i l l a n B l o e d e l began an a c t i o n i n t h e B.C. Supreme C o u r t c l a i m i n g t h e r i g h t t o l o g M e a r e s I s l a n d . They i m m e d i a t e l y a p p l i e d f o r an o r d e r t o r e s t r a i n t h e p r o t e s t o r s f r o m i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h l o g g i n g . On November 27, t h e C l a y o q u o t a n d A h o u s a t b a n d s began t h e i r own a c t i o n . They a s k e d t h e c o u r t f o r a d e c l a r a t i o n t h a t t h e i r a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e t o M e a r e s I s l a n d h a d n e v e r been e x t i n g u i s h e d , a n d t h a t any l a w o f B.C. w h i c h i n t e r - f e r e d w i t h t h a t t i t l e was u l t r a v i r e s a n d o f no f o r c e a n d e f f e c t . The I n d i a n s t h e n a p p l i e d f o r an i n t e r l o c u t o r y i n j u n c t i o n w h i c h w o u l d p r e v e n t l o g g i n g u n t i l t h i s i s s u e c o u l d be r e s o l v e d a t t r i a l . U n l i k e t h e C a l d e r c a s e , t h i s a c t i o n was s u p p o r t e d by many I n d i a n g r o u p s i n t h e p r o v i n c e . F o u r T r i b a l C o u n c i l s , 12 I n d i a n b a n d s a n d t h e U n i o n o f B.C. I n d i a n C h i e f s were g r a n t e d s t a t u s a s i n t e r v e n o r s on b e h a l f o f t h e I n d i a n s o f M e a r e s . I n g r a n t i n g ( o r r e f u s i n g ) an i n t e r l o c u t o r y i n j u n c t i o n , t h e c o u r t s must c o n s i d e r two q u e s t i o n . The f i r s t i s w h e t h e r o r n o t 124 t h e r e i s a s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n t o be t r i e d . The s e c o n d i s w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e i n j u n c t i o n i t s e l f s h o u l d be g r a n t e d . I n m a k i n g t h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n , a number o f f a c t o r s must be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t s u c h a s w h e t h e r t h e payment o f damages w o u l d be an a d e q u a t e remedy, and t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e g r a n t i n g o f an i n j u n c t i o n on t h e p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d a n d on any t h i r d p a r t i e s . I n t h e B.C. Supreme C o u r t , Mr. J u s t i c e G i b b s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e I n d i a n b a n d s ' c l a i m h a d no p r o s p e c t o f s u c c e s s a t t r i a l , f o r a number o f r e a s o n s . F i r s t , he c o n c l u d e d t h a t a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e h a d b een e x t i n g u i s h e d i n B.C., f o l l o w i n g t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l a n d t h e d e c i s i o n o f Mr. J u s t i c e J u d s o n i n t h e Supreme C o u r t o f C a nada i n t h e C a l d e r c a s e . S e c o n d , he s a i d t h a t i f t h i s was n o t t h e c a s e , t h e s e r i g h t s were n o n e t h e l e s s s u b j e c t t o t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l l a w s s u c h a s t h e F o r e s t A c t , w h i c h a p p l i e d u n i f o r m l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e a n d w h i c h was n o t i n t e n d e d t o a f f e c t I n d i a n s a s I n d i a n s . F i n a l l y , he h e l d t h a t t h e r e was i n s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d t o s u p p o r t t h e I n d i a n s ' c l a i m t o a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e . G i b b s a l s o h e l d t h a t e v e n i f t h e r e was a s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n t o be t r i e d , t h e i n j u n c t i o n s h o u l d n o t be g r a n t e d . He n o t e d t h a t t o g r a n t t h e i n j u n c t i o n r e q u e s t e d by t h e I n d i a n s m i g h t l e a d t o a r a s h o f s i m i l a r a p p l i c a t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e , n o t n e c e s - s a r i l y l i m i t e d t o l o g g i n g i s u e s , w h i c h w o u l d c r e a t e h a v o c w i t h e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e p r o v i n c e . T h e s e " p o t e n t i a l l y d i s a s - 125 t r o u s c o n s e q u e n c e s " t i p p e d t h e b a l a n c e o f c o n v e n i e n c e i n f a v o u r o f M a c M i l l a n B l o e d e l , a n d an i n j u n c t i o n r e s t r a i n i n g t h e p r o t e s - t o r s was g r a n t e d . T h i s d e c i s i o n was a p p e a l e d t o t h e B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l , w h i c h h a n d e d down i t s j u d g e m e n t i n M a r c h , 1985. A l l f i v e j u d g e s a g r e e d t h a t t h e r e was a s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n t o be t r i e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e I n d i a n ' s l a n d c l a i m s . The i s s u e o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e was d e s c r i b e d a s a c o m p l e x o n e , a n d one w h i c h s h o u l d be d e c i d e d a t t r i a l , p a r t i c u l a r l y g i v e n t h e s p l i t d e c i s i o n o f t h e Supreme C o u r t o f C a n a d a i n t h e C a l d e r c a s e . The j u d g e s d i d n o t a g r e e on t h e s e c o n d q u e s t i o n . T h r e e j u d g e s h e l d t h a t an i n j u n c t i o n s h o u l d be g r a n t e d t o t h e I n d i a n b a n d s . Mr J u s t i c e S e a t o n ( w i t h Mr. J u s t i c e L a m b e r t , c o n c u r r i n g ) h e l d t h a t M a c M i l l a n B l o e d e l w o u l d n o t s u f f e r i r r e p a r a b l e damage i f l o g g i n g was p o s t p o n e d on M e a r e s I s l a n d , w h i l e t h e c l e a r c u t l o g g i n g o f M e a r e s I s l a n d w o u l d p r e v e n t t h e I n d i a n s f r o m e n j o y i n g any a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s w h i c h t h e y m i g h t be f o u n d t o h a v e . F u r t h e r , l o g g i n g m i g h t d e s t r o y e v i d e n c e w h i c h t h e I n d i a n s r e q u i r e d t o p r o v e t h e i r c l a i m . S e a t o n a l s o c o n c l u d e d t h a t an i n j u n c t i o n w o u l d n o t d e s t r o y t h e p r o v i n c i a l economy. He n o t e d t h a t i f o t h e r i n j u n c t i o n s were s o u g h t , c u m u l a t i v e e f f e c t s c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a t t h a t t i m e . On t h i s p o i n t he a l s o n o t e d , " T h e r e i s a p r o b l e m o f t e n u r e t h a t h a s n o t been a t t e n d e d t o i n t h e p a s t . We a r e b e i n g a s k e d t o i g n o r e t h e p r o b l e m a s o t h e r s h a v e i g n o r e d i t . I am n o t w i l l i n g t o do 5 6 t h a t . " Mr J u s t i c e M a c f a r l a n e , i n s e p a r a t e r e a s o n s , a l s o c o n - 1 26 e l u d e d t h a t an i n j u n c t i o n s h o u l d be g r a n t e d , e s s e n t i a l l y f o r t h e same r e a s o n s a s S e a t o n . C r a i g a n d M a c D o n a l d d i d n o t a g r e e w i t h 57 t h i s c o n c l u s i o n ; h o w e v e r , a s t h e y were i n t h e m i n o r i t y , t h e i n j u n c t i o n was g r a n t e d . M a c M i l l a n B l o e d e l a n d t h e p r o v i n c i a l Crown a p p l i e d f o r l e a v e t o a p p e a l t h i s d e c i s i o n t o t h e Supreme C o u r t o f C a n a d a , b u t t h i s was d e n i e d . The f i n a l f a t e o f M e a r e s I s l a n d w i l l n o t be known u n t i l t h e t r i a l . (The t r i a l h a d s t i l l n o t begun by t h e end o f 1986.) How- e v e r , t h i s c a s e was a s i g n i f i c a n t v i c t o r y f o r n a t i v e I n d i a n s . I t e s t a b l i s h e d t h e l e g a l c r e d i b i l i t y o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s a r g u m e n t s , i n t h a t a l l f i v e j u d g e s o f t h e B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l a g r e e d t h a t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s was an i s s u e t h a t s h o u l d be d e c i d e d a t t r i a l . I t a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t a s s e r t i o n s of a b o r i - g i n a l r i g h t s c a n p r o v i d e t h e b a s i s f o r t h e g r a n t i n g o f an i n j u n c - t i o n . T h i s means t h a t n a t i v e I n d i a n s c a n now u s e t h e c o u r t s i n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t t h e c o n t i n u e d a l i e n a t i o n o f l a n d t o w h i c h t h e y h a v e a c l a i m , a t l e a s t u n t i l t h e i r r i g h t s a r e d e t e r m i n e d . F i n a l - l y , t h e g r a n t i n g o f t h i s i n j u n c t i o n h a s p r e s e r v e d M e a r e s I s l a n d i n i t s p r e s e n t s t a t e a t l e a s t u n t i l t h e t r i a l t a k e s p l a c e . I n A u g u s t , 1985, t h r e e I n d i a n b a n d s s o u g h t an i n j u n c t i o n i n 58 t h e c a s e o f P a s c o v. C.N. R a i l w a y s , when CN R a i l a t t e m p t e d t o p r o c e e d w i t h t h e i r d o u b l e t r a c k i n g p r o j e c t a l o n g t h e Thompson R i v e r . T h i s c o u r t a c t i o n was p r e c e d e d by months o f n e g o t i a t i o n a n d d i s c u s s i o n s a i m e d a t a v o i d i n g i t . I n 1980, a f e d e r a l - p r o v i n - 1 27 c i a l T a s k F o r c e h a d been e s t a b l i s h e d i n o r d e r t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n c e r n s c o u l d be a d d r e s s e d b e f o r e c o n s t r u c t i o n on t h e p r o j e c t b e g a n . I n 1983, t h i s T a s k F o r c e was r e p l a c e d by t h e E n v i r o n - m e n t a l A s s e s s m e n t P a n e l . One o f t h e P a n e l members was C h i e f R o b e r t P a s c o o f t h e O r e g o n J a c k I n d i a n B a n d . However, a s t h e P a n e l n o t e d i n i t s f i n a l r e p o r t , two i s s u e s n o t d e a l t w i t h by t h e r e v i e w p r o c e s s were p r o t e c t i o n o f h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e s a n d t h e 59 p r o t e c t i o n o f I n d i a n f i s h i n g s i t e s a n d a c c e s s t o them. I n J a n u a r y , 1985, C h i e f P a s c o r e s i g n e d f r o m t h e P a n e l b e c a u s e o f a c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a s c h i e f a n d h i s d u t i e s a s a p a n e l member w h i c h a r o s e as a r e s u l t o f CN's p l a n s t o b e g i n c o n s t r u c t i o n t h r o u g h t h e O r e g o n J a c k R e s e r v e . T h i s p l a n n e d c o n s t r u c t i o n l e d a number o f a f f e c t e d I n d i a n b a n d s t o f i l e a p e t i t i o n i n B.C. Supreme C o u r t s e e k i n g an i n j u n c - t i o n t o p r e v e n t t h e r a i l w a y w o r k . T h i s l e d t o a m e e t i n g b e t w e e n CN a n d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e I n d i a n b a n d s i n e a r l y F e b r u a r y . A t t h i s m e e t i n g CN a g r e e d t o p o s t p o n e c o n s t r u c t i o n f o r a month a n d t o a l l o w t h e I n d i a n s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . As an o r d e r - i n - c o u n c i l was n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e CN c o u l d p r o c e e d w i t h i t s w o r k , t h e ban d s a l s o a t t e m p t e d t o p o s t p o n e c o n s t r u c t i o n by l o b b y i n g t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t . The A l l i a n c e o f T r i b a l Coun- c i l s , w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d s e v e r a l o f t h e b a n d s , make a p r e s e n t a t i o n t o t h e House o f Commons F i s h e r i e s C o m m i t t e e r e q u e s t i n g a one y e a r d e l a y i n t h e p r o j e c t . A l t h o u g h t h e C o m m i t t e e ' s m o t i o n t o t h a t e f f e c t was d e f e a t e d i n t h e House o f Commons. However, t h e 1 28 f e d e r a l Cabinet became i n v o l v e d i n the d i s p u t e , i n p a r t i c u l a r the M i n i s t e r s f o r Transport, Indian A f f a i r s , F i s h e r i e s and Oceans, and the Environment, and meetings were h e l d with the concerned Indians and CN o f f i c i a l s . On March 2 7 , Andrew Thompson was appointed by the M i n i s t e r s of T ransport and Indian A f f a i r s to f a c i l i t a t e n e g o t i a t i o n s be- tween CN and the I n d i a n s . However, n e g o t i a t i o n s on a design review process d e t e r i o r a t e d when CN began s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n on supposedly uncontested p o r t i o n s of the t r a c k , and n a t i v e Indians a r r i v e d on the s i t e to p r o t e s t t h i s a c t i o n . On A p r i l 13, both p a r t i e s appeared i n the B.C. Supreme Court seeking i n j u n c t i o n s . C hief J u s t i c e MacEachern responded by sending both p a r t i e s back to the n e g o t i a t i n g t a b l e . N e g o t i a t i o n s r e s u l t e d i n an agreement a l l o w i n g CN to begin c o n s t r u c t i o n on c e r t a i n p o r t i o n s of the t r a c k . However, t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n l e d to damage to the r i v e r which was g r e a t e r than that expected by the Indians. The Indians presented t h e i r own plan to CN, suggesting a l t e r n a t i v e c o n s t r u c - t i o n methods, but t h i s was r e j e c t e d by CN, who s a i d t h i s p l a n would be too e x p e n s i v e . ^ F i n a l l y , on August 17 , both p a r t i e s once again appeared i n Chambers to argue the case of Pasco v. CN Railways. The Indians sought an i n t e r i m i n j u n c t i o n , pending t r i a l , s t opping c o n s t r u c - t i o n of the p r o j e c t . CN a l s o sought an i n j u n c t i o n p r e v e n t i n g the Indians from i n t e r f e r i n g with the c o n s t r u c t i o n . The n a t i v e 129 I n d i a n s b a s e d t h e i r a c t i o n on t h e a s s e r t i o n o f t h r e e s e p a r a t e r i g h t s . T hey a r g u e d t h a t t h e y had a p r o p e r t y r i g h t i n t h e r i v e r i t s e l f , a r i s i n g f r o m t h e o w n e r s h i p o f t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t , i n t r u s t f o r t h e b a n d , o f r e s e r v e l a n d a d j o i n i n g t h e r i v e r . S e c o n d , t h e a l l o t m e n t o f s p e c i f i c f i s h i n g r i g h t s t o t h e b a n d c r e a t e d a p r o p r i e t a r y r i g h t i n t h e b a n d . T h i r d , t h e y c l a i m e d r i g h t s b a s e d on a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e . Mr. J u s t i c e M a c D o n a l d g r a n t e d t h e i n j u n c - t i o n on t h e b a s i s t h a t t h e r e was a s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n t o be t r i e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e b a n d s ' c l a i m o f p r o p e r t y r i g h t s t o t h e r i v e r i t s e l f . B e c a u s e t h i s c l a i m was b a s e d on a p r o p e r t y r i g h t , t h e j u d g e f o u n d t h a t t h e u r g e n c y o f t h e p r o j e c t was n o t s o p r e s s i n g a s t o r e q u i r e t h a t work p r o c e e d b e f o r e t h e e x t e n t o f t h e s e r i g h t s were d e t e r m i n e d a t t r i a l . The j u d g e f u r t h e r n o t e d t h a t i f t h e c l a i m h a d b e e n b a s e d s o l e l y on t h e q u e s t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s , t h e i n j u n c t i o n w o u l d n o t h a v e been g r a n t e d . I n t h i s c a s e , t h e b a l a n c e o f c o n v e n i e n c e w o u l d h a v e f a v o u r e d p r o c e e d i n g w i t h t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n . T h i s d e c i s i o n was u p h e l d by t h e B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l , a n d CN R a i l w a y s a p p l i c a t i o n f o r l e a v e t o a p p e a l t o t h e Supreme C o u r t o f Canada was d e n i e d . I t may be t h a t n e g o t i a t i o n s b e t w e e n CN a n d t h e I n d i a n s c o u l d t a k e p l a c e b e f o r e t h e t r i a l i s h e a r d a n d w i l l r e s u l t i n an a c c e p t a b l e s o l u t i o n t o t h e d i s p u t e . I f no a g r e e m e n t i s r e a c h e d b e f o r e t r i a l , a n d t h e I n d i a n s w i n t h a t r o u n d a s w e l l , CN c o u l d s t i l l p u r s u e t h e d o u b l e t r a c k i n g p r o j e c t t h r o u g h t h e e x p r o p r i a - t i o n o f t h e l a n d r e q u i r e d . H o wever, s u c h an a c t i o n w o u l d r e q u i r e 130 t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e f e d e r a l c a b i n e t u n d e r S e c . 35 o f t h e I n d i a n A c t , t h u s r e t u r n i n g t h e d i s p u t e t o t h e p o l i t i c a l a r e n a . The I n d i a n s s a i d d u r i n g t h e c a s e t h a t s u c h a d e v e l o p m e n t w o u l d be a welcome one. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e d e c i s i o n i n t h e G u e r i n c a s e s u g - g e s t s t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t w o u l d have t o a t t h e l e a s t l o o k s e r i o u s l y a t t h e I n d i a n s ' c o n c e r n s b e f o r e c o n s e n t i n g t o any s u c h e x p r o p r i a t i o n . I f t h e n a t i v e I n d i a n s l o s e t h e c a s e a t t r i a l , t h i s d e c i s i o n w i l l s t i l l h a ve a l l o w e d more t i m e f o r n e g o t i a t i o n w i t h CN, w h i c h may l e a d t o m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o t h e p r o j e c t . I n t h e f i n a l c a s e , n a t i v e I n d i a n s u s e d t h e c o u r t s i n o r d e r t o make a m o r a l s t a t e m e n t a b o u t t h e j u s t i c e o f t h e l e g a l s y s t e m , r a t h e r t h a n w o r k i n g w i t h i n t h e l e g a l s y s t e m t o a c h i e v e a p a r t i c u l a r g o a l . I n November, 1985, 17 H a i d a went t o c o u r t a s a r e s u l t o f a c t i o n s w h i c h t h e y h a d t a k e n i n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t l o g g i n g on L y e l l I s l a n d . L o g g i n g o f t h e S o u t h M o r e s b y a r e a , where L y e l l I s l a n d i s l o c a t e d , h a d been a m a t t e r o f d i s p u t e f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s , a n d h a d a l r e a d y l e d t o t h e I s l a n d s P r o t e c t i o n S o c i e t y c a s e . A f t e r t h a t c a s e , t h e S o u t h M o r e s b y R e s o u r c e P l a n n i n g Team h a d been e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1979 t o f a c i l i t a t e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e r e s o u r c e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . A l t h o u g h t h e P l a n n i n g Team d i d n o t h a v e a mandate t o c o n s i d e r t h e l a n d c l a i m s i s s u e , two members o f t h e S k i d e g a t e Band C o u n c i l had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s p r o c e s s , w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g t h a t l a n d c l a i m s i n t h e a r e a s h o u l d be s e t t l e d 131 b e f o r e f u r t h e r l a n d u se d e c i s i o n s were made. The P l a n n i n g Team s u b m i t t e d i t s r e p o r t t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t i n 1983, and by O c t o b e r 1985, l o g g i n g h a d a l l b u t s t o p p e d on L y e l l I s l a n d , a s t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t was u n a b l e t o r e a c h a c o n s e n s u s on f u t u r e l a n d u s e on t h e i s l a n d . However on O c t o b e r 18, t h e g o v e r n m e n t a n n o u n c e d t h a t some l o g g i n g w o u l d be p e r m i t t e d on L y e l l I s l a n d , w h i l e a n e w l y a p p o i n t e d w i l d e r n e s s a d v i s o r y c o m m i t t e e c o n s i d e r e d t h e f a t e o f t h i s , a n d o t h e r a r e a s . The H a i d a I n d i a n s s t r o n g l y c r i t i c i z e d t h i s d e c i s i o n , p a r - t i c u l a r l y a s l o g g i n g h a d a l l b u t come t o a h a l t on t h e i s l a n d , a n d a n n o u n c e d t h a t t h e y i n t e n d e d t o p r e v e n t a n y f u r t h e r l o g g i n g . On O c t o b e r 30, t h e H a i d a f o r m e d a b l o c k a d e a c r o s s t h e r o a d on t h e i s l a n d , a n d p r e v e n t e d l o g g e r s f r o m p r o c e e d i n g w i t h t h e i r work. T h i s p r o t e s t r e s u l t e d i n c o u r t p r o c e e d i n g s i n i t i a t e d by W e s t e r n F o r e s t P r o d u c t s L t d . a n d F r a n k Beban L o g g i n g L t d . T h e s e com- p a n i e s s o u g h t an i n j u n c t i o n t o r e s t r a i n t h e H a i d a f r o m i n t e r - f e r i n g w i t h l o g g i n g , w h i c h was g r a n t e d . O v e r t h e n e x t t h r e e w e e k s , 67 H a i d a were a r r e s t e d a s t h e y p e r s i s t e d i n b l o c k a d i n g t h e 62 r o a d . A l l o f t h o s e a r r e s t e d were c h a r g e d w i t h m i s c h i e f by t h e RCMP. However, a s t h e s e c h a r g e s a p p e a r e d t o h a v e l i t t l e e f f e c t on t h e b l o c k a d e , W e s t e r n F o r e s t P r o d u c t s L t d . a g a i n went t o c o u r t t o s e e k c o n t e m p t o f c o u r t c h a r g e s a g a i n s t 17 o f t h e H a i d a , w h i c h c a r r y a h e a v i e r p e n a l t y t h a n do m i s c h i e f c h a r g e s . A t t h i s t i m e , t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t o f f e r e d t o h e l p r e s o l v e t h e d i s p u t e , b u t t h e p r o v i n c e r e j e c t e d t h e o f f e r a s t h e m a t t e r was b e f o r e t h e 132 c o u r t s . I n a d d i t i o n , a number o f g r o u p s h a d s t a t e d t h e i r s u p p o r t f o r t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e H a i d a , i n c l u d i n g t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d o f B. C., a number o f c h u r c h g r o u p s a n d t h e B.C. F e d e r a t i o n o f L a b o u r ( i n c l u d i n g a t o p o f f i c i a l o f t h e IWA). As a r e s u l t o f t h e c o n t e m p t o f c o u r t c h a r g e s , t h e H a i d a a p p e a r e d i n c o u r t i n t h e c a s e o f W e s t e r n P r o d u c t s v . C o l l i n s o n ^ 4 i n November, 1985. The H a i d a d i d n o t use a " l e g a l " d e f e n c e t o t h e c h a r g e s ; i n s t e a d t h e y a s s e r t e d t h e i r o w n e r s h i p o f t h e l a n d i n q u e s t i o n a n d s t a t e d t h a t t h e y h a d a r e l i g i o u s o b l i g a t i o n t o p r o t e c t i t . The H a i d a were n o t r e p r e s e n t e d by l a w y e r s d u r i n g t h e i r c o u r t a p p e a r a n c e s . "We w i l l n o t be t a k i n g a l a w y e r i n t o c o u r t b e c a u s e we d o n ' t want t o c r e a t e an i l l u s i o n o f j u s - t i c e . . . T h e i s s u e o f o u r l a n d s i s t o o i m p o r t a n t t o l e a v e t o l a w - 65 y e r s who a r e u n f a m i l i a r w i t h o u r p e o p l e , " s a i d M i l e s R i c h - a r d s o n , spokesman f o r t h e H a i d a n a t i o n . T h r o u g h o u t t h e i r c o u r t a p p e a r a n c e s , R i c h a r d s o n e m p h a s i z e d t h a t t h e i s s u e b e f o r e t h e c o u r t was n o t t h e t e c h n i c a l m a t t e r o f c o n t e m p t , b u t t h e b r o a d e r i s s u e o f j u s t i c e . H o wever, C h i e f J u s t i c e M c E a c h e r n r e f u s e d t o a c c e p t t h i s a r g u m e n t , s t a t i n g t h a t i t was h i s d u t y t o "do j u s t i c e 66 a c c o r d i n g t o t h e l a w . " He s t a t e d t h a t t h e H a i d a h a d t h e o p t i o n o f p u r s u i n g t h e i r l a n d c l a i m t h r o u g h t h e c o u r t s , b u t t h a t i n t h e i n t e r i m t h e y must f o l l o w l e g a l o r d e r s . H a i d a e f f o r t s t o r a i s e t h e l a n d c l a i m s i s s u e d u r i n g c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n were t h w a r t e d by C. J . C . M c E a c h e r n , a s t h e i s s u e was n o t b e f o r e t h e c o u r t . 133 Ten o f t h e H a i d a were c o n v i c t e d o f c o n t e m p t o f c o u r t , a n d a t s e n t e n c i n g , a week l a t e r i n V a n c o u v e r , n i n e o f t h e H a i d a r e f u s e d t o p r o m i s e n o t t o r e t u r n t o L y e l l I s l a n d , a n d r e f u s e d t o a p o l o - g i z e f o r t h e i r a c t i o n s w h i c h t h e y s a i d were n e c e s s a r y t o p r o t e c t t h e i r l a n d s . As one o f t h e a c c u s e d s a i d , "I'm n o t p l e a s e d t o be c a u g h t b e t w e e n y o u r s e n s e o f l a w a n d my s e n s e o f j u s t i c e , b u t I 67 c a n n o t b e t r a y j u s t i c e f o r l a w . " T h e s e n i n e were s e n t e n c e d t o 5 months i n p r i s o n , b u t t h e i r s e n t e n c e s were s u s p e n d e d by t h e C h i e f J u s t i c e , a l t h o u g h w i t h t h e p r o v i s i o n t h a t i f t h e y r e t u r n e d t o t h e i s l a n d , t h e s e n t e n c e s w o u l d h a v e t o be s e r v e d . One H a i d a who p r o m i s e d n o t t o r e t u r n t o t h e i s l a n d was g i v e n no s e n t e n c e . I n t h i s c a s e , n a t i v e I n d i a n s u s e d t h e c o u r t s t o p u b l i c i z e t h e i r l a n d c l a i m s , a n d t o c a l l i n t o q u e s t i o n t h e j u s t i c e o f a l e g a l s y s t e m w h i c h t h r e a t e n s p e o p l e w i t h j a i l s e n t e n c e s when t h e y a c t t o p r o t e c t t h e i r l a n d . The i m p l i c i t q u e s t i o n a s k e d by t h e H a i d a was, why s h o u l d we be f o r c e d t o s p e n d ' m i l l i o n s o f d o l l a r s i n c o u r t c o s t s i n o r d e r t o p r o v e t h a t t h i s l a n d i s o u r s , when we 68 h a v e l i v e d h e r e f o r t h o u s a n d s o f y e a r s ? The H a i d a ' s a c t i o n s l e d t o an o f f e r by B.C. A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l B r i a n S m i t h t o d i s c u s s t h e m a t t e r w i t h them. The d e c i s i o n t o make t h i s o f f e r was no d o u b t i n f l u e n c e d by t h e s u p p o r t w h i c h many g r o u p s gave t o t h e H a i d a . I n a d d i t i o n , a V a n c o u v e r Sun p r o v i n c e w i d e p o l l i n d i c a t e d t h a t 6 3 % o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e p r o v i n c e s h o u l d n e g o t i a t e w i t h t h e I n d i a n s on t h e l a n d c l a i m s i s s u e , w h i l e o n l y 2 1 % were o p p o s e d ; 5 0% t h o u g h t t h e I n d i a n s were 134 j u s t i f i e d i n t h e i r a c t i o n s on L y e l l I s l a n d , w h i l e o n l y 3 1 % be- 69 l i e v e d t h e y w e re n o t . . N o n e t h e l e s s , l o g g i n g d i d resume on L y e l l I s l a n d i n 1986 i n t h e a r e a s where l o g g i n g p e r m i t s h a d a l r e a d y b e e n g r a n t e d . H o w e v e r , t h e H a i d a , e n v i r o n m e n t a l g r o u p s , a n d t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t h a v e c o n t i n u e d t o p u t p r e s s u r e on t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t t o h a l t l o g g i n g . A l t h o u g h i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t a s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e L y e l l I s l a n d d i s p u t e w i l l o c c u r i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e , t h e H a i d a ' s a c t i o n s b o t h i n c r e a s e d p u b l i c a w a r e n e s s o f t h e l a n d c l a i m s i s s u e , a n d f o r c e d t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t t o r e s p o n d ( a t l e a s t i n some way) t o t h e i r c o n c e r n s . C o n c l u s i o n A l l t w e l v e c a s e s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e e x a m p l e s o f n a t i v e I n d i a n s u s i n g t h e c o u r t s i n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s i n l a n d and r e s o u r c e s . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e C a l d e r c a s e , a l l t h e s e c a s e s were i n i t i a t e d a s a r e s u l t o f s p e c i f i c a c t i o n s w h i c h t h r e a t e n e d I n d i a n i n t e r e s t s i n l a n d a n d r e s o u r c e s . M o s t o f t h e s e c a s e s a r o s e i n a r e a s where n a t i v e I n d i a n s ' l a n d c l a i m s have n o t been s e t t l e d . H o w e v e r , t h e c o u r t s h a v e a l s o b een u s e d t o p r o t e c t n a t i v e I n d i a n s ' i n t e r e s t s i n r e s e r v e l a n d s . Two o f t h e c a s e s , G u e r i n v . The Queen, a n d K r u g e r v . The Queen, were p u r s u e d i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s a c t i o n s i n t h e p a s t . T h e s e c a s e s e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t d i d ( a n d d o e s ) h a v e a 1 35 f i d u c i a r y o b l i g a t i o n t o t h e I n d i a n p e o p l e i n m a n a g i n g t h e i r r e s e r v e l a n d s , and t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s a c t i o n s i n t h i s r e s p e c t a r e s u b j e c t t o j u d i c i a l r e v i e w . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e G u e r i n c a s e i s s i g n i f i c a n t b e c a u s e o f t h e comments made i n t h e d e c i s i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . On a more p r a c t i c a l l e v e l , t h e c o m p e n s a t i o n a w a r d e d t h e Musqueam band i n t h e G u e r i n c a s e p r o v i d e s t h e band w i t h c a p i t a l w h i c h c a n be u s e d t o f u r t h e r e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . The r e s t o f t h e c a s e s were p u r s u e d i n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t t h e a l i e n a t i o n o f l a n d s and r e s o u r c e s i n w h i c h n a t i v e I n d i a n s ' h a d an i n t e r e s t . A v a r i e t y o f l e g a l a r g u m e n t s were u s e d i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e t h i s g o a l i n c o u r t . The s e p a r a t e l e g a l r e g i m e w h i c h g o v e r n s r e s e r v e l a n d s p r o v i d e d t h e b a s i s f o r t h e l e g a l a r g u m e n t s u s e d i n t h e two c a s e s w h i c h i n v o l v e d r e s e r v e l a n d - Moses v. The Queen a n d P a s c o v . C.N. R a i l w a y s . I n f o u r o f t h e c a s e s , t h e l e g a l a r g u m e n t s u s e d were u n r e l a t e d t o t h e " I n d i a n n e s s " o f t h e l i t i g a n t s . T h e s e c a s e s were b a s e d i n s t e a d on t h e t o r t o f n u i - s a n c e , t h e r e v i e w o f t h e f a i r n e s s o f a m i n i s t e r ' s a c t i o n s , a n d r e v i e w s o f t h e d e c i s i o n s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o d i e s . I n t h r e e c a s e s t h e l e g a l a r g u m e n t s u s e d were b a s e d on a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . H o w e v e r , i n P e t e r s v. The Queen, t h e c o u r t was a s k e d o n l y t o g r a n t a t e m p o r a r y i n j u n c t i o n u n t i l t h e q u e s t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s c o u l d be d e a l t w i t h by t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e . O n l y two c a s e s , t h e n , C a l d e r v . A.G.B.C. and M a c M i l l a n B l o e d e l v . M u l l i n were b a s e d p r i m a r i l y on a s s e r t i o n s o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . 136 T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e p r i m a r y g o a l w h i c h h a s been p u r s u e d i n c o u r t h a s been t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f I n d i a n i n t e r e s t s i n l a n d a n d r e s o u r c e s , r a t h e r t h a n t h e l e g a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s a y a t t h i s t i m e w h e t h e r o r n o t n a t i v e I n d i a n s ' u s e o f t h e c o u r t s i n t h e s e c a s e s h a s been p a r t i c u l a r l y s u c c e s s f u l , a s a number o f i m p o r t a n t c a s e s h a v e y e t t o be f i n a l l y r e s o l v e d . H owever, i n t h e c a s e s i n w h i c h I n d i a n s were g r a n t e d i n j u n c t i o n s i t c a n a t l e a s t be s a i d t h a t t h e u s e o f t h e c o u r t s h a s been b e n e f i c i a l , a s t h e a r e a s i n q u e s t i o n h a v e b e e n p r e s e r v e d a s t h e y were u n t i l t h e I n d i a n s ' r i g h t s c a n be d e c i d e d . T h i s w o u l d n o t h a v e o c c u r r e d i n t h e a b s e n c e o f c o u r t a c t i o n . I n most o f t h e s e c a s e s t h e c o u r t s h a v e n o t b e e n u s e d i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e a f i n a l s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e d i s p u t e , b u t h a v e been u s e d i n o r d e r t o f o r c e t h e g o v e r n m e n t t o t a k e n a t i v e I n d i a n s ' c o n c e r n s s e r i o u s l y . I n two c a s e s , t h e c o u r t s were u s e d i n o r d e r t o e n h a n c e n a t i v e I n d i a n s ' a b i l i t y t o r e p r e s e n t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s b e f o r e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o d i e s . I n t h e I s l a n d s P r o t e c t i o n S o c i e t y c a s e , t h e l i t i g a n t s were a t t e m p t i n g o n l y t o a c h i e v e g r e a t e r p u b l i c i n p u t i n t o t h e d e c i s i o n t o renew TFL 24. I n P e t e r s v. The Queen t h e O h i a h t b and o n l y w a n t e d an i n j u n c t i o n t o p r e v e n t t h e f u r t h e r a l i e n a t i o n o f t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r y u n t i l a b o r i g i - n a l r i g h t s c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a t t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e . I n t h e M e a r e s I s l a n d a nd C a l d e r c a s e s , t h e c o u r t s w e re a s k e d t o 1 37 make d e c l a r a t i o n s t h a t a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s h a d n o t been e x t i n g u i s h e d . I n n e i t h e r c a s e w o u l d t h e s e d e c l a r a t i o n s s e t t l e t h e d i s p u t e ; r a t h e r a r e t u r n t o t h e p o l i t i c a l a r e n a w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y . F i n a l l y , i f t h e r e i s a v i c t o r y f o r t h e I n d i a n s i n P a s c o v . C.N. R a i l w a y s , t h i s w i l l mean a r e t u r n t o t h e p o l i t i c a l a r e n a i f C.N. w i s h e s t o c o n t i n u e w i t h t h e p r o j e c t , a s e x p r o p r i a - t i o n w i l l be n e c e s s a r y , w h i c h w i l l r e q u i r e t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e G o v e r n o r - i n - C o u n c i l . T h e s e c o u r t c a s e s c o u l d n o t , t h e n , l e a d t o a f i n a l s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e d i s p u t e s w h i c h p r e c i p i t a t e d them; b u t m i g h t l e a d t o a more s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f n a t i v e I n d i a n s ' i n t e r e s t s when p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n s a r e made. I n a d d i t i o n , I n d i a n s ' may impose e c o n o m i c c o s t s on c o m p a n i e s o r t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t by g o i n g t o c o u r t , w h i c h may c o n v i n c e t h e s e p a r t i e s t h a t i t w o u l d be b e n e f i c a i l t o n e g o t i a t e . The L y e l l I s l a n d d i s p u t e d e m o n s t r a t e s a d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f u s e o f t h e c o u r t s , a l t h o u g h t h e b a s i c g o a l i s t h e same. I n t h e c o u r t c a s e w h i c h r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e b l o c k a d e o f t h e l o g g i n g r o a d , no " l e g a l " a r g u m e n t s were u s e d by t h e H a i d a . The c o u r t c a s e i n s t e a d p r o v i d e d t h e H a i d a w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y t o q u e s t i o n t h e j u s t i c e o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s a n d t h e c o u r t ' s a c t i o n s , i n a v e r y p u b l i c f o r u m . The c o u r t s were u s e d i n t h i s i n s t a n c e i n o r d e r t o p r e s s u r e t h e g o v e r n m e n t i n t o n e g o t i a t i n g a s e t t l e m e n t , a n d t o p u b l i c i z e t h e H a i d a c l a i m s . T h i s p u b l i c i t y l e d t o g r e a t e r p u b l i c s u p p o r t o f n a t i v e c l a i m s , a n d more p r e s s u r e on t h e p r o v i n - c i a l g o v e r n m e n t t o t a k e some a c t i o n on t h i s i s s u e . 138 None o f t h e c a s e s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r r e l i e d upon an a r g u m e n t b a s e d on t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t , 1982. I t seems l i k e l y t h a t a r g u m e n t s b a s e d on S e c t i o n 35 o f t h e A c t w i l l n o t be u s e d t o e s t a b l i s h r i g h t s t o l a n d u n t i l t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e s on A b o r i g i n a l R i g h t s have e i t h e r l e d t o a c o n s e n s u s on what t h i s S e c t i o n means, o r u n t i l i t becomes o b v i o u s t h a t no c o n s e n s u s w i l l be r e a c h e d . Some o f t h e s e c a s e s d e m o n s t r a t e t h e p r o b l e m s w h i c h n a t i v e I n d i a n s h a v e e n c o u n t e r e d i n a t t e m p t i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s . The N i s h g a made numerous a t t e m p t s i n t h e p o l i t i c a l a r e n a t o a c h i e v e t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i r l a n d c l a i m s , b u t w e re i g n o r e d u n t i l t h e y t o o k t h e i r c a s e t o c o u r t . I n t h e t h r e e c a s e s w h i c h d e a l t w i t h l o g g i n g d i s p u t e s - t h e L y e l l I s l a n d c a s e , t h e M e a r e s I s l a n d c a s e , a n d t h e I s l a n d s P r o t e c t i o n S o c i e t y c a s e , - n a t i v e I n d i a n s t r i e d t o a c h i e v e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i r c o n c e r n s b e f o r e d e c i s i o n s were made w h i c h a f f e c t e d t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . I n a l l t h r e e i n s t a n c e s , p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n s were f i n a l l y made w h i c h a p p e a r e d n o t t o t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e c o n c e r n s w h i c h h a d been e x p r e s s e d . A l s o , i n t h e f i r s t two c a s e s , t h e p l a n n i n g teams w h i c h were e s t a b l i s h e d were n o t g i v e n a mandate t o c o n s i d e r a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i s s u e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e m a j o r c o n c e r n s o f n a t i v e I n d i a n s were n o t a d d r e s s e d . The same t h i n g o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e p l a n n i n g o f C.N. R a i l w a y ' s d o u b l e - t r a c k i n g p r o j e c t a l o n g t h e Thompson R i v e r . A l t h o u g h an E n v i r o n m e n t a l A s s e s s m e n t 139 P a n e l was e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e p a n e l was n o t a u t h o r i z e d t o d e a l w i t h t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f I n d i a n f i s h i n g s i t e s a n d a c c e s s t o t h e r i v e r . I t was o n l y when n a t i v e I n d i a n s t h r e a t e n e d c o u r t a c t i o n t h a t C.N. R a i l w a y s a g r e e d t o a l l o w n a t i v e I n d i a n s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h e n t h a t n a t i v e I n d i a n s ' c o n c e r n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t h a v e n o t been a d e q u a t e l y a d d r e s - s e d i n t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s . The f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n - m ents h a v e been u n w i l l i n g t o a d d r e s s t h e i s s u e o f I n d i a n l a n d c l a i m s when t a k i n g s p e c i f i c d e c i s i o n s on i n d i v i d u a l d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s . H o w e v e r , i t i s t h e s e p r o j e c t s w h i c h h a v e t h r e a t e n e d t o a l i e n a t e l a n d s a n d r e s o u r c e s i n w h i c h n a t i v e I n d i a n s c l a i m an i n t e r e s t . I t h a s n o t been n a t i v e I n d i a n s ' d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e i r g o a l s i n t e r m s o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s w h i c h h a s l e d t o an u n w i l - l i n g n e s s on t h e p a r t o f n a t i v e I n d i a n s t o a c c e p t g o v e r n m e n t d e c i s i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o l a n d u s e . R a t h e r , i t h a s been t h e g o v e r n m e n t s ' t e n d e n c y t o i g n o r e t h e i s s u e e n t i r e l y w h i c h h a s l e d t o c o u r t a c t i o n . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e c o m p e n s a t i o n c a s e s , a l l o f t h e c a s e s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r h a v e a r i s e n b e c a u s e o f an u n d e r - l y i n g a n d o n g o i n g d i s p u t e b e t w e e n n a t i v e I n d i a n s a n d t h e f e d e r a l a n d e s p e c i a l l y t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t . The g o v e r n m e n t s ' c o n - t i n u i n g p o l i c y o f a l l o w i n g e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t t o c o n t i n u e b e - f o r e a s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e n a t i v e I n d i a n s ' c l a i m s i s a c h i e v e d i s a t t h e r o o t o f a l l t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l d i s p u t e s . E v e n where t h e 140 i m m e d i a t e d i s p u t e i s w i t h a p r i v a t e company, t h e f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s c o n t r o l t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e r e s o u r c e s , a n d a r e c o n s e q u e n t l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e s e d i s p u t e s . B e c a u s e t h e c o n f l i c t w h i c h e x i s t s i s b e t w e e n t h e n a t i v e I n d i a n s a n d t h e g o v e r n m e n t , i t m i g h t be p o s s i b l e t o s e e k a s o l u t i o n t o t h e d i s - p u t e s i n an a r e n a o t h e r t h a n t h e l e g a l o ne. H o w e v e r , i t h a s been t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e s e o t h e r o p t i o n s w h i c h h a s d r i v e n n a t i v e I n - d i a n s t o c o u r t i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e . 1 4 1 TABLE I I I CHALLENGES TO GOVERNMENT AUTHORITY TABLE OF CASES THE CALDER CASE C a l d e r v. A.G.B.C. 1969 B.C.S.C. 1970 B.C.C.A 1973 S.C.C. CHALLENGES TO THE LEGALITY OF GOVERNMENT DECISIONS/ACTIONS A) C o m p e n s a t i o n C a s e s G u e r i n v. The Queen 1981 F.C.T.D 1982 F.C.A. 1984 S.C.C. K r u q e r v. The Queen 1981 F.C.T.D 1985 F.C.A. B) C h a l l e n g e s To D e c i s i o n s Of A d m i n s t r a t i v e B o a r d s U.B.C.I.C. v . W e s t c o a s t T r a n s m i s s i o n Co. 1977 F.C.T.D 1981 F.C.A. A l k a l i L a k e Band v . W e s t c o a s t T r a n s m i s s i o n 1984 B.C.C.A C) P r e v e n t i v e A c t i o n s M oses v . The Queen 1979 B.C.S.C 1979 B.C.C.A I s l a n d s P r o t e c t i o n S o c i e t y v . R. i n R i g h t 1979 B.C.S.C o f B.C. 1982 B.C.C.A B o l t o n v. F o r e s t P e s t Management 1985 B.C.S.C 1985 B.C.C.A 142 ASSERTIONS OF RIGHTS Peters v. The Queen 1983 B.C.S.C. Macmillan Bloedel v. Mullin 1984 B.C.S.C. 1985 B.C.C.A. Pasco v. C.N. Railways 1985 B.C.S.C. 1985 B.C.C.A. Western Forest Products v. Collinson 1985 B.C.S.C. 143 NOTES - CHAPTER 4 One e x a m p l e o f n a t i v e I n d i a n a c t i o n w h i c h h a s n o t y e t gone t o c o u r t i s t h e a t t e m p t t o s t o p l o g g i n g i n t h e S t e i n V a l l e y . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e G i t k s a n W e t ' s u w e t ' e n T r i b a l C o u n c i l began an a c t i o n i n 1985 s e e k i n g a d e c l a r a t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e . A number o f o t h e r I n d i a n b a n d s , i n l e s s w e l l p u b l i - c i z e d a c t i o n s h a v e p r o t e s t e d e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t by b l o c k - i n g r o a d s a n d o c c u p y i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e s . 2 ( 1 9 7 3 ) 34 D.L.R. (3d) 145, ( 1 9 7 1 ) 13 D.L.R. (3d) 64, ( 1 9 7 0 ) 8 D.L.R. (3d) 59. D a n i e l R a u n e t , W i t h o u t S u r r e n d e r , W i t h o u t C o n s e n t ( V a n c o u v e r : D o u g l a s a n d M a c l n t y r e , 1 9 8 4 ) , p. 150. 4 D o u g l a s S a n d e r s , "The N i s h g a C a s e " , The A d v o c a t e 36 ( F e b r u a r y - M a r c h , 1 9 7 8 ) , p. 129. 5 R a u n e t , W i t h o u t S u r r e n d e r , W i t h o u t C o n s e n t , p. 148. 6 ( 1 9 6 5 ) 50 D.L.R. (2d) 613, ( 1 9 6 6 ) 52 D.L.R. ( 2 d ) 4 8 1 . 7 R a u n e t , p. 147. 8 I b i d . , p. 181. g T h i s c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w e d f r o m t h e j u d g e s ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e A c t o f S t a t e d o c t r i n e . I n t h e Supreme C o u r t o f C a n a d a , Mr. J u s t i c e H a l l r u l e d t h a t t h i s d o c t r i n e h a d been e r r o - n e o u s l y a p p l i e d by t h e B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l , a t pp. 2 0 9 - 1 0 , a n d t h e same was i m p l i e d by Mr. J u s t i c e J u d s o n . 1 0 ( 1 9 7 3 ) 34 D.L.R. (3d) 145, a t p. 173. 11 T U - J I b i d . 1 2 I b i d . , a t p. 199. Mr. J u s t i c e H a l l a l s o commented on t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f d e f i n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e a t some p o i n t i n t h e f u t u r e , a l t h o u g h c o u n s e l d i d n o t r e q u e s t t h a t t h i s be done i n t h i s c a s e . D e f i n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e w o u l d be dey i n d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r c o m p e n s a t i o n w o u l d be r e q u i r e d f o r i t s e x t i n g u i s h m e n t . 144 16 1 7 18 19 1 3 I b i d . , a t p. 151. 1 4 I b i d . , a t p. 154. 15 See t h e s e r i e s o f f i s h i n g c a s e s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e e f f e c t o f A r t i c l e 13 o f t h e Terms o f U n i o n d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 4. I f i t had been r u l e d t h a t t h e R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n d i d a p p l y t o B.C., t h e a r g u m e n t t h a t a b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g r i g h t s w e r e c o n s d t i t u t i o n a l l y p r o t e c t e d w o u l d h a v e been an e a s i e r one t o make. (1 9 7 3 ) 34 D.L.R. (3d) 145, a t p. 166. I b i d . , a t p. 209. I b i d . , a t p. 216. D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s a n d N o r t h e r n D e v e l o p m e n t , I n A l l F a i r n e s s : A N a t i v e C l a i m s P o l i c y ( O t t a w a : M i n i s t e r o f S u p p l y a n d S e r v i c e s , 1 9 8 1 ) , p. 11. 2 0 z u I b i d . , p. 30. 2 1 K a h t o u , V o l . 3, No. 15, ( O c t . - N o v . , 1 9 8 5 ) , p p . 16-17. 22 D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s a n d N o r t h e r n D e v e l o p m e n t , O u t s t a n d i n g B u s i n e s s : A N a t i v e C l a i m s P o l i c y ( O t t a w a : M i n i s t e r o f S u p p l y a n d S e r v i c e s , 1 9 8 2 ) , p. TT~. See f o r e x a m p l e , B r a d f o r d M o r s e , "The R e s o l u t i o n "of L a n d C l a i m s , " i n M o r s e , e d , A b o r i g i n a l P e o p l e s a n d t h e Law, pp. 629- 6 4 5 . [ 1 9 8 4 ] 6 W.W.R. 4 8 1 , [ 1 9 8 3 ] 2 F.C. 656, [ 1 9 8 2 ] 2 F.C. 385. (1 9 8 6 ) 17 D.L.R. ( 4 t h ) 4 9 1 , [ 1 9 8 2 ] 1 C.N.L.R. 50. "Musqueam Band To A p p e a l U p s e t o f $10 M i l l i o n A w a r d , " V a n c o u v e r Sun, December 22, 1982, p. A7. I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t one a d v a n t a g e o f n e g o t i a t i o n g a c l a i m w i t h t h e O f f i c e o f N a t i v e C l a i m s was t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t a g r e e d t h a t t h e s e t e c h n i c a l i t i e s w o u l d n o t p r e v e n t them f r o m a c c e p t i o n a c l a i m . I t i s i n t h i s c o n t e x t t h a t Mr. J u s t i c e L e D a i n c o n s i d e r s t h e q u e s t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e . He c o n s i d e r s t h e a u t h o r i t i e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e i n o r d e r t o a r r i v e a t t h e 2-3 24 25 26 27 28 145 c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h i s t i t l e i s " o f t h e n a t u r e o f a r i g h t o f p r o p e r t y , " a n d t h e r e f o r e c a n be t h e s u b j e c t o f a t r u s t . 2 9 [ 1 9 8 3 ] 2 F.C. 656, a t p. 719. 30 N o t e t h a t a s t h i s i s t h e b a s i s f o r t h e Crown's f i d u c i a r y o b l i g a t i o n , t h i s o b l i g a t i o n e x i s t s o n l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e Crown's d e a l i n g s w i t h s u r r e n d e r e d l a n d . The Crown h a d a r g u e d t h a t a f i n d i n g o f b r e a c h o f t r u s t w o u l d h a v e s e r - i o u s l y h a m p ered t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e Crown t o a c t on b e h a l f o f I n d i a n s ( S ee M a r v i n S t o r r o w , " B r e a c h o f T r u s t A c t i o n s A g a i n s t t h e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t , " i n C o n t i n u i n g L e g a l E d u c a - t i o n S o c i e t y , I n d i a n s a n d The Law ( V a n c o u v e r , 1982) pp. 49- 50. 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 [ 1 9 8 4 ] 6 W.W.R. 4 8 1 , a t p. 495. I b i d . , a t p. 497. I b i d . , a t p. 499- 5 0 0 . I b i d . , a t p. 517. (1986) 17 D.L.R. ( 4 t h ) 4 9 1 , [ 1 9 8 2 ] 1 C.N.L.R. 50. K r u g e r v . The Queen ( 1 9 8 6 ) 17 D.L.R. ( 4 t h ) 4 9 1 , a t p. 623. [ 1 9 8 2 ] 1 C.N.L.R. 173, [ 1 9 7 9 ] 2 C.N.L.R. 67. [1 9 8 4 ] 53 B.C.L.R. 323. The p r o v i n c e h a d p r e v i o u s l y i m p r o v e d r o a d s i n o t h e r I n d i a n r e s e r v e s , b u t had a l w a y s r e c e i v e d t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e b a n d b e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g . See L a w r e n c e P. P a g e , " O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l 1036 a n d t h e Moses C a s e , " i n C o n t i n u i n g L e g a l E d u c a t i o n , I n d i a n s a n d The Law, p. 3.2.03. [ 1 9 7 9 ] 5 W.W.R. 100, [ 1 9 7 7 ] 4 W.W.R. 474. [ 1 9 7 9 ] 4 W.W.R. 1. E v e l y n P i n k e r t o n , " T a k i n g t h e M i n i s t e r t o C o u r t : C h a n g e s i n P u b l i c O p i n i o n A b o u t F o r e s t Management a n d T h e i r E x p r e s s i o n i n H a i d a L a n d C l a i m s , " B.C. S t u d i e s , No. 7, S p r i n g , 1983, pp. 7 5 - 9 . 4 3 I b i d . , p. 80. 44 . r -i I s l a n d s P r o t e c t i o n S o c i e t y v . R. i n R i g h t o f B.C., [ 1 9 7 9 ] 4 145 40 41 42 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 W.W.R. 1, a t p. 12. I b i d . , a t p. 23. M u r r a y R a n k i n a nd Mark H o m e , " P r o c e d u r a l F a i r n e s s - S t a n d i n g - S t a t u t o r y Power o f D e c i s i o n - J u d i c i a l R e v i e w P r o c e d u r e A c t - I s l a n d s P r o t e c t i o n S o c i e t y e t a l v . R. i n R i g h t o f B.C. e t a l , " U.B.C. Law R e v i e w , V o l . 14, 1979, pp. 22 1 - 2 . S o u t h M o r e s b y R e s o u r c e P l a n n i n g Team, S o u t h M o r e s b y : L a n d A l t e r n a t i v e s , ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 8 3 ) , p. 18. P i n k e r t o n , " T a k i n g t h e M i n i s t e r t o C o u r t , " p. 8 3 . [ 1 9 8 5 ] 66 B.C.L.R. 127, [ 1 9 8 5 ] B . C D . C i v . 1893-08. B o l t o n v . F o r e s t P e s t Management, [ 1 9 8 5 ] 66 B.C.L.R. a t p. 136. [ 1983] 2 C N . L . R . 1 10. [ 1 9 8 5 ] 61 B.C.L.R. 145, [ 1 9 8 5 ] 2 W.W.R. 722. M e a r e s I s l a n d P l a n n i n g Team, R e p o r t : M e a r e s I s l a n d P l a n n i n g O p t i o n s ( V i c t o r i a : 1 9 8 3 ) , p. 11. P a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e P l a n n i n g Team had c r i t i c i z e d t h e g o v - e r n m e n t f o r p r o v i d i n g i n a d e q u a t e f u n d i n g . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e r e was l i t t l e o r no money a v a i l a b l e f o r e c o n o m i c a s s e s s - m e nts o f a l t e r n a t i v e ( n o n - l o g g i n g ) u s e s , a n d s t u d i e s o f n o n - t i m b e r r e s o u r c e s . The t h r e e o p t i o n s a d v a n c e d were 1) t o t a l p r e s e r v a t i o n ; 2) p r e s e r v a t i o n o f h a l f t h e i s l a n d w i t h a 25 y e a r d e f e r r a l i n l o g g i n g t h e r e s t ; a n d 3) p r e s e r v a t i o n o f h a l f o f t h e i s l a n d w h i l e a l l o w i n g l o g g i n g on t h e r e s t . T h r e e members o f t h e c o m m i t t e e s u p p o r t e d t h e t o t a l p r e s - e r v a t i o n o p t i o n . T h i s o p t i o n was a l s o a p p r o v e d by a p u b l i c m e e t i n g h e l d i n T o f i n o on J u n e 2. F r i e n d s o f C l a y o q u o t S o u n d a n d W e s t e r n Canada W i l d e r n e s s C o m m i t t e e , M e a r e s I s l a n d : P r o t e c t i n g a N a t u r a l P a r a d i s e , ( T o f i n o : 1 9 8 5 ) , pp. 55-6. [ 1 9 8 5 ] 61 B.C.L.R. 145, a t p. 160. Mr. J u s t i c e C r a i g c o n c l u d e d t h a t no i n j u n c t i o n s h o u l d be g r a n t e d a s t h e I n d i a n s w o u l d n o t s u f f e r i r r e p a r a b l e damage i f l o g g i n g were t o t a k e p l a c e . He n o t e s t h a t e v e n i f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e was h e l d t o e x i s t , t h e s o l u t i o n w o u l d be c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e l a n d a n d i n t e r e s t o f t h e I n d i a n s , 147 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 r a t h e r t h a n a d e n i a l o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l Crown's a u t h o r i t y t o make d e c i s i o n s . S e c o n d , he n o t e s t h a t t h e l o g g i n g p l a n n e d i s i n t h e l e a s t s e n s i t i v e a r e a o f t h e i s l a n d , a n d t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t a l damage w o u l d be l i m i t e d . Mr. J u s t i c e MacDon- a l d ' s r e a s o n s f o r d e n y i n g t h e i n j u n c t i o n a r e n o t q u i t e a s c l e a r . He seems c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f f u t u r e i n j u n c t i o n s b e i n g g r a n t e d a n d t h e i r e c o n o m i c c o n s e q u e n c e s . He a l s o r e f e r s t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c o u r t s c a n n o t p r e s c r i b e a f i n a l s o l u t i o n t o t h e i s s u e , w h i c h must be s e t t l e d t h r o u g h n e g o t i a t i o n s . Any i n j u n c t i v e r e l i e f g r a n t e d by t h e c o u r t s c o u l d n o t be p e r m a n e n t , b u t w o u l d l a s t o n l y u n t i l f i n a l s e t t l e m e n t t h r o u g h n e g o t i a t i o n s . He n o t e s t h a t t h e a d v a n t a g e o f an i n j u n c t i o n on n e g o t i a t i o n s i s o b v i o u s . [ 1 9 8 6 ] 1 C.N.L.R. 34, [ 1 9 8 6 ] 1 C.N.L.R. 35. F e d e r a l E n v i r o n m e n t a l A s s e s s m e n t P a n e l , R e p o r t : C.N. R a i l T w i n T r a c k i n g P r o g r a m , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , ( O t t a w a : M i n i s t e r o f S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s , 1 9 8 5 ) , p. 9~. The i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e p r e v i o u s two p a r a g r a p h s came f r o m v a r i o u s n e w s p a p e r a r t i c l e s i n t h e G l o b e a n d M a i l a n d t h e V a n c o u v e r Sun , a t t h e t i m e o f t h e d i s p u t e . S o u t h M o r e s b y P l a n n i n g Team, p. 246. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s a l s o f r o m v a r i o u s n e w s p a p e r a r t i c l e s i n t h e G l o b e and M a i l a nd t h e V a n c o u v e r Sun, a t t h e t i m e o f t h i s d i s p u t e . " F ed b a c k s H a i d a s , l o g g e r s , " V a n c o u v e r S u n , November 28, 1985, p. A 1 , and C h r i s t i e M c L a r e n , " C h u r c h e s b a c k H a i d a i n f r e s t r y f e u d , " G l o b e a n d M a i l , November 27, 1985, p. A 1 . [ 1 9 8 5 ] B . C D . C i v . 9 0 2 - 0 2 . J o h n C r u i k s h a n k , "The b a t t l e o f who owns B.C.," G l o b e a n d M a i l , December 3, 1985, p. A7. J o h n C r u i k s h a n k , " H a i d a n o t c r i m i n a l s , j u d g e t e l l s B.C. c o u r t , " G l o b e and M a i l , November 29, 1985, p. A2. K e i t h B a l d r e y , " H a i d a s vow t o f i g h t o n , " V a n c o u v e r Sun, December 7, 1985, p. A 1 . The H a i d a ' s u s e o f t h e c o u r t s i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n c a n be v i e w e d a s an e x a m p l e o f " e t h n o d r a m a " , a s d e s c r i b e d by R o b e r t P a i n e . See h i s a r t i c l e , " E t h n o d r a m a a n d t h e ' F o u r t h W o r l d ' : The Saami A c t i o n G r o u p i n Norway, 1979-81," i n N o e l 1 48 D y c k , e d . I n d i g e n o u s P e o p l e s and t h e N a t i o n S t a t e ( S t . J o h n ' s : I n s t i t u t e o f S o c i a l a n d E c o n o m i c R e s e a r c h , 1 9 8 5 ) , pp. 190-236, f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r o l e o f e t h n o d r a m a i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e s a n d g o v e r n m e n t s . L a r r y P y n n , " T a l k l a n d i s s u e , p o l l t e l l s B e n n e t t , " V a n c o u v e r S u n , November 30, 1985, p. A l . 149 CHAPTER 5 CHALLENGES TO GOVERNMENT AUTHORITY: THE F I S H E R I E S ACT The c a s e s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r c h a l l e n g e t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e f e d e r a l F i s h e r i e s A c t a s i t a p p l i e s t o I n d i a n s . The o u t c o m e s o f t h e s e c a s e s may a f f e c t t h e f e d e r a l P a r l i a m e n t ' s a u t h o r i t y t o l e g i s l a t e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e n a t i v e I n d i a n f i s h e r y , a n d a r e c o n s e q u e n t l y o f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e t o n a t i v e I n d i a n s a n d t o t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t . I n a d d i t i o n , t h i s c h a p t e r a l s o i n c l u d e s a number o f c a s e s w h i c h r e s u l t e d f r o m a m a s s i v e r a i d by t h e f i s h e r i e s d e p a r t m e n t i n 1983. 130 p e o p l e w e re c h a r g e d w i t h f i s h e r i e s o f f e n c e s , a n d t h e r a i d s o o n became known a s "The S t i n g " . As o n l y a few o f t h e s e p e o p l e were n o n - n a t i v e , 1 t h i s a c t i o n was s e e n by t h e n a t i v e c o m m u n i t y a s a d i r e c t a t t a c k on t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n , a n d an a t t e m p t t o make them t h e s c a p e g o a t f o r t h e p o o r management o f t h e r e s o u r c e by t h e f i s h e r i e s d e p a r t m e n t . A l l o f t h e s e c a s e s h a v e r e s u l t e d f r o m c r i m i n a l c h a r g e s b e i n g l a i d u n d e r t h e F i s h e r i e s A c t . As t h e r e h a v e been q u i t e a number o f c a s e s d e a l i n g w i t h f i s h e r i e s o f f e n c e s , t h i s s e r i e s o f c a s e s d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e way i n w h i c h c o u r t d e c i s i o n s may a f f e c t t h e l e g a l a r g u m e n t s u s e d i n c o u r t t h r o u g h c l o s i n g o f f a v e n u e s w h i c h h a d p r e v i o u s l y b e e n p u r s u e d . T h i s l i m i t a t i o n o f o p t i o n s w i l l a f f e c t t h e s p e c i f i c g o a l s w h i c h a r e p u r s u e d by n a t i v e I n d i a n s i n t h e s e c o u r t c a s e s . W h i l e t h e i r b a s i c i n t e r e s t s may n o t c h a n g e , t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e s e a r e p u r s u e d i n c o u r t may a l t e r . 150 F i s h , a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y s a l m o n , were c e n t r a l t o t h e t r a d i - t i o n a l c u l t u r e s o f many o f t h e i n d i g e n o u s s o c i e t i e s o f t h e P a c i - f i c N o r t h w e s t . They r e m a i n i m p o r t a n t t o d a y , b o t h a s an e l e m e n t o f t h e economy o f n a t i v e I n d i a n s a n d f o r t h e r o l e w h i c h t h e y p l a y i n t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o n a n d c u l t u r e . The a b i l i t y t o c o n t i n u e f i s h i n g i n t h e w a t e r s o f B.C. i s t h e r e f o r e one o f t h e m a j o r g o a l s o f n a t i v e I n d i a n s a n d t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e p r o v i n c e . I n a d d i t i o n , a r e c o g n i t i o n by t h e p r o v i n c i a l a n d / o r t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t o f a b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g r i g h t s w o u l d be s e e n a s a symbo- l i c a n d m o r a l v i c t o r y f o r t h e i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e o f C a n a d a . W h i l e t h e n a t i v e I n d i a n f i s h e r y r e m a i n e d u n r e g u l a t e d f o r a number o f y e a r s a f t e r B.C. was f i r s t s e t t l e d , I n d i a n s s o o n became s u b j e c t t o i n c r e a s i n g r e g u l a t i o n a s t h e use o f t h e r e s o u r c e i n t e n s i f i e d . W h i l e a t p r e s e n t t h e r e a r e p r o v i s i o n s i n t h e r e g u l a - t i o n s made p u r s u a n t t o t h e f e d e r a l F i s h e r i e s A c t w h i c h p r o v i d e f o r f o o d f i s h i n g l i c e n c e s f o r n a t i v e f i s h e r m e n , n a t i v e I n d i a n s h a v e a number o f o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e c u r r e n t r e g i m e . They a g r e e w i t h t h e b a s i c g o a l o f t h e F i s h e r i e s A c t , w h i c h i s t o c o n s e r v e t h e r e s o u r c e , b u t d i s a g r e e w i t h how t h i s o c c u r s . F i r s t , t h e r e a r e o b j e c t i o n s t h a t n a t i v e I n d i a n s do n o t p l a y a l a r g e e n o u g h r o l e i n t h e management o f t h e r e s o u r c e . The r e g u l a t i o n s a r e i m p o s e d upon t h e n a t i v e I n d i a n s , r a t h e r t h a n d e v e l o p e d i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h them. S e c o n d l y , t h e I n d i a n s c l a i m t h e y h a v e been t h e v i c t i m s o f b a d management o f t h e r e s o u r c e by 1 5 1 t h e F i s h e r i e s D e p a r t m e n t . T h i s b a d management l e a d s t o a s i t u a - t i o n i n w h i c h n a t i v e I n d i a n s s u f f e r more t h a n o t h e r u s e r g r o u p s . B e c a u s e t h e y f i s h m a i n l y on t h e r i v e r s , a n d s o h a v e l a s t a c c e s s t o t h e f i s h , e m e r g e n c y c l o s u r e s a f f e c t them more s e v e r e l y . I n a d d i t i o n , I n d i a n s f e e l t h a t t h e y a r e made t h e s c a p e g o a t s f o r t h i s b a d management, a s f i s h e r i e s o f f i c i a l s t r y t o s h i f t t h e blame 3 f r o m t h e m s e l v e s t o t h e n a t i v e f i s h e r y . T h i r d l y , on a number o f o c c a s i o n s , . r e g u l a t i o n s a n d c l o s u r e s h a v e r e s u l t e d i n s i t u a t i o n s w h e re some b a n d s h a v e n o t been a b l e t o c a t c h e n o u g h f i s h f o r 4 f o o d . F o u r t h , w h i l e t h e F i s h e r i e s A c t d o e s p r o v i d e f o r n a t i v e f o o d f i s h i n g l i c e n s e s , i t i s i l l e g a l t o s e l l t h e s e f i s h . N a t i v e s c l a i m t h e y h a v e t r a d i t i o n a l l y t r a d e d f i s h , a n d t h a t t h i s a c t i v i t y 5 i s p r o t e c t e d by t h e i r a b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g r i g h t s . F i n a l l y , a n d u n d e r l y i n g a l l t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r g r i e v a n c e s , n a t i v e I n d i a n s be- l i e v e t h e y h a v e a r i g h t t o f i s h a r i s i n g f r o m t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l u s e o f t h e r e s o u r c e f r o m t i m e i m m e m o r i a l . The i m p o s i t i o n o f r e g u l a t i o n s by t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t i s s e e n a s d e p r i v i n g them o f t h i s r i g h t . G i v e n t h e s e o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e c u r r e n t F i s h e r i e s A c t r e g u l a - t i o n s , some n a t i v e p e o p l e c o n t i n u e t o c a t c h a n d s e l l f i s h i n d e f i a n c e o f t h e r e g u l a t i o n s . ^ When t h e y a r e c a u g h t t h e y a r e c h a r g e d u n d e r t h e F i s h e r i e s A c t . I n some c a s e s , t h e n a t i v e I n d i a n b a n d s h a v e c h o s e n t o a c t p u b l i c l y i n d e f i a n c e o f f i s h i n g c l o s u r e s w h i c h t h e y c o n s i d e r e d t o be u n j u s t . I n t h e s e c a s e s t h o s e i n v o l v e d e x p e c t e d t o be c h a r g e d , b u t f i s h e d anyway a s a 152 p r o t e s t a g a i n s t t h e c l o s u r e s . T h i s c h a p t e r i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s e c t i o n s . I n a number o f c a s e s , l e g a l a r g u m e n t s were u s e d w h i c h a t t e m p t e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e e x i s t e n c e o f r i g h t s w h i c h w o u l d p r e v e n t t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e F i s h e r i e s A c t i n t h e s e a n d s i m i l a r c a s e s . T h e s e c a s e s a r e d i s - c u s s e d i n t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n . D u r i n g t h e 1970's a number o f I n d i a n b a n d s p a s s e d f i s h i n g b y l a w s p u r s u a n t t o S e c t i o n 8 1 ( o ) o f t h e I n d i a n A c t . The c a s e s i n t h e s e c o n d s e c t i o n a l l a d d r e s s t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e l e g a l s t a t u s o f t h e s e b y l a w s g i v e n c o n f l i c t i n g p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e F i s h e r i e s A c t . The t h i r d s e c t i o n c o n s i s t s o f t h o s e c a s e s w h i c h a r o s e a s a r e s u l t o f "The S t i n g " . The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s a r e r e l e v a n t t o t h e c a s e s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r : 1) Have t h e c o u r t s been u s e d i n o r d e r t o a t t e m p t t o e s t a b l i s h a b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g r i g h t s ? 2) I f s o , how i s t h i s r e l a t e d t o n a t i v e I n d i a n s ' d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e i r g o a l s i n t e r m s o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s ? 3) What k i n d s o f l e g a l a r g u m e n t s h a v e been u s e d i n c o u r t c a s e s a i m e d a t e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i n v a l i d i t y o f t h e F i s h e r i e s A c t a s i t a p p l i e s t o n a t i v e I n d i a n s ? W h i c h o f t h e s e h a v e been s u c c e s s f u l ? 4) What e f f e c t h a s t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t , 1982, h a d on n a t i v e I n d i a n s ' u s e o f t h e c o u r t s i n F i s h e r i e s A c t c a s e s ? 153 R i g h t s C a s e s N a t i v e I n d i a n s i n B.C. h a v e u s e d a v a r i e t y o f l e g a l a r g u - m e n t s i n o r d e r t o t r y t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t t h e F i s h e r i e s A c t d o e s n o t a p p l y t o them. T h e s e a r g u m e n t s h a v e c h a n g e d o v e r t h e y e a r s a s d e c i s i o n s i n some c o u r t c a s e s h a v e s e t p r e c e d e n t w h i c h h a s e i t h e r h e l p e d o r h i n d e r e d a p a r t i c u l a r l i n e o f a r g u m e n t . By 1969, t h e c o u r t s h a d - e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t r e a t y r i g h t s were s u b j e c t t o v a l i d f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n , a n d t h a t t h e F i s h e r i e s A c t d i d 7 a p p l y t o t r e a t y I n d i a n s . H o w e v e r , n o n - t r e a t y I n d i a n s h a d n o t a t t e m p t e d t o e s t a b l i s h i n c o u r t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f o t h e r r i g h t s w h i c h w o u l d l i m i t t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e F i s h e r i e s A c t . T h i s s t a t e o f a f f a i r s s oon c h a n g e d . I n O c t o b e r , 1970, a b o u t 150 I n d i a n s h e l d a " f i s h - i n " a t P e a c h l a n d C r e e k i n o r d e r t o p r o t e s t a t t e m p t s by f i s h e r i e s o f f i - c e r s t o p r e v e n t them f r o m f i s h i n g i n t h e c r e e k . As a r e s u l t , t h e c h i e f o f t h e b a n d , N o l l D e r r i k s a n , was c h a r g e d w i t h t h r e e c o u n t s o f i l l e g a l f i s h i n g , f o r w h i c h he was f i n e d $3 i n P r o v i n c i a l 8 9 C o u r t . The c a s e o f R. v . D e r r i k s a n was s u b s e q u e n t l y a p p e a l e d t o t h e C o u n t y C o u r t , t h e B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l , a n d t h e Supreme C o u r t o f C a n a d a . The d e f e n c e a r g u e d t h a t D e r r i k s a n had an a b o r i - g i n a l r i g h t t o f i s h i n t h a t c r e e k , t h a t t h i s r i g h t was p r o t e c t e d by t h e R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n o f 1763, a n d t h a t c o n s e q u e n t l y he was n o t s u b j e c t t o t h e f i s h e r y r e g u l a t i o n s . The l o w e r c o u r t s d e c i d e d t h e c a s e by r u l i n g t h a t D e r r i k s a n 1 54 h a d no a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t t o f i s h f o r f o o d , a n d t h a t t h e R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n o f 1763 d i d n o t a p p l y t o B.C.'s Okanagan V a l l e y . I n r e a c h i n g t h i s c o n c l u s i o n , t h e P r o v i n c i a l C o u r t j u d g e r e l i e d on t h e B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l r u l i n g i n t h e C a l d e r c a s e , w h i l e t h e C o u n t y C o u r t j u d g e r e l i e d upon t h e j u d g e m e n t o f Mr. J u s t i c e J u d s o n i n t h e Supreme C o u r t o f C anada r u l i n g i n t h e same c a s e . H o w e v e r , i n t h e B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l a n d t h e Supreme C o u r t o f C a n a d a i t was f o u n d u n n e c e s s a r y t o r u l e on t h e s e i s s u e s . I n b o t h c o u r t s i t was r u l e d t h a t e v e n i f t h e d e f e n d a n t e n j o y e d s u c h a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s , t h e s e r i g h t s w o u l d n o n e t h e l e s s be s u b j e c t t o t h e f e d e r a l F i s h e r i e s A c t . The Supreme C o u r t o f Canada j u d g e m e n t i n R. v . S i k y e a 1 ^ was r e l i e d upon i n r e a c h i n g t h i s c o n c l u s i o n . Now n e i t h e r a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s n o r t r e a t y r i g h t s c o u l d be u s e d a s a d e f e n c e t o c h a r g e s u n d e r t h e F i s h e r i e s A c t . The n e x t c a s e d e a l i n g w i t h s u c h c h a r g e s was R. v . J a c k 1 1 w h i c h was h e a r d by t h e Supreme C o u r t o f C a n a d a i n 1976. I n t h i s c a s e i t was a r g u e d t h a t t h e r e was a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n on t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s a b i l i t y t o r e g u l a t e n a t i v e I n d i a n f i s h i n g c o n t a i n e d i n A r t i c l e 13 o f t h e Terms o f U n i o n o f B.C. a n d C a n a d a o f 1871. A r t i c l e 13 p r o v i d e d t h a t "a p o l i c y a s l i b e r a l a s t h a t h i t h e r t o p u r s u e d by t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a G o v e r n m e n t s h a l l be 1 2 c o n t i n u e d by t h e D o m i n i o n G o v e r n m e n t a f t e r t h e U n i o n . " The d e f e n c e a r g u e d t h a t t h e p o l i c y p r i o r t o 1871 h a d been n o t t o r e g u l a t e t h e I n d i a n f i s h e r y . I n P r o v i n c i a l C o u r t , J u d g e H e a r d r u l e d t h a t e v e n t h o u g h t h e c o l o n i a l g o v e r n m e n t had n o t r e g u l a t e d 155 ' t h e I n d i a n f i s h e r y , i t had p u r s u e d t h i s p o l i c y b e c a u s e o f t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e r e s o u r c e was i n e x h a u s t i b l e . I n a d d i t i o n , i t was t h o u g h t p r u d e n t a t t h e t i m e t o a l l o w I n d i a n s a c c e s s t o t h i s r e s o u r c e t o r e d u c e h o s t i l i t i e s a s s e t t l e m e n t a d v a n c e d . G i v e n t h a t c i r c u m s t a n c e s c h a n g e d , l e a d i n g t o c o m p e t i t i o n f o r a s c a r c e r e s o u r c e , t h e j u d g e c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e p o l i c y f o l l o w e d by t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t i n t h e F i s h e r i e s A c t was a s l i b e r a l a s t h a t f o l l o w e d p r i o r t o 1871. J a c k a n d h i s c o - a c c u s e d t h e n a p p e a l e d t h i s d e c i s i o n t o t h e B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l , w h i c h d i s m i s s e d t h e a p p e a l on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t t h e a p p e l l a n t s h a d no s t a t u s t o a p p e a l t o A r t i c l e 13 o f t h e Terms o f U n i o n . I n t h e Supreme C o u r t o f C a n a d a , a l l n i n e j u d g e s a g r e e d t h a t t h e c o n v i c t i o n s s h o u l d be u p h e l d , a l t h o u g h D i c k s o n c o n c u r r e d f o r s e p a r a t e r e a s o n . C h i e f J u s t i c e L a s k i n w r o t e t h e d e c i s o n f o r t h e m a j o r i t y . He d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h e B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l , a n d h e l d t h a t t h e a p p e l l a n t s c o u l d d e f e n d a g a i n s t t h e c h a r g e s by c h a l l e n g i n g t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y o f t h e l e g i s l a t i o n u n d e r w h i c h t h e y were c h a r g e d . H o w e v e r , he f o u n d t h a t t h e r e was no p r o t e c t i o n o f f i s h i n g r i g h t s t o be f o u n d i n A r t i c l e 13, a n d t h a t e v e n i f t h e r e h a d b e e n , t h i s w o u l d - h a v e been s u b j e c t t o c o n s e r v a t i o n m e a s u r e s . Mr. J u s t i c e D i c k s o n t o o k a d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h i n h i s d e c i - s i o n , a l t h o u g h he c o n c u r r e d i n t h e r e s u l t . He a c c e p t e d t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e d e f e n c e t h a t t h e w o r d " p o l i c y " i n A r t i c l e 13 156 r e f e r r e d t o t h e p r e - c o n f e d e r a t i o n f i s h i n g p o l i c y o f t h e c o l o n i a l g o v e r n m e n t . He t h e n c o n s i d e r e d c a r e f u l l y what "a p o l i c y a s l i b e r a l " a s t h a t p o l i c y w o u l d be g i v e n t h e c h a n g i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e f i s h e r y . He c o n c l u d e d t h a t n a t i v e I n d i a n f o o d f i s h i n g , a n d t o some e x t e n t I n d i a n c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g , s h o u l d h a v e p r i o r i - t y o v e r n o n - n a t i v e s p o r t a n d c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g , w h i l e c o n s e r v a - t i o n m e a s u r e s w o u l d t a k e p r e c e d e n c e o v e r I n d i a n f i s h i n g . A c c o r d - i n g t o t h i s d e c i s i o n , t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t w o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o r e g u l a t e t h e f i s h e r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s s e t o f p r i o r i t i e s i f i t w i s h e d t o a v o i d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c h a l l e n g e s . H o w e v e r , i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c a s e , he d i d n o t a l l o w t h e a p p e a l a s t h e I n d i a n s ' r i g h t t o f i s h had been l i m i t e d b e c a u s e o f t h e n e e d f o r c o n s e r v a - t i o n . He d i d n o t e t h o u g h , t h a t f i s h e r y o f f i c e r s d e c i s i o n s on what i s n e c e s s a r y f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n were n o t immune t o r e v i e w by t h e c o u r t s . N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e s e r e a s o n s , i t a p p e a r e d t h a t t h i s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a r g u m e n t was a l s o a t a d e a d e n d , g i v e n t h e j u d g e - ment o f t h e m a j o r i t y . H o w e v e r , t h e r e a s o n s w r i t t e n by L a s k i n w e re n o t a l t o g e t h e r c l e a r a n d s o were s u b j e c t t o v a r i e d i n t e r p r e t a - t i o n , a s we s h a l l s e e . I n J u l y , 1978, a number o f c h a r g e s were l a i d a g a i n s t members o f t h e B r i d g e R i v e r Band a n d t h e F o u n t a i n I n d i a n Band f o r f i s h i n g d u r i n g a c l o s u r e made p u r s u a n t t o S e c t i o n 4 o f t h e B.C. F i s h i n g 1 3 . R e g u l a t i o n . T h i s was an e x t r a two day c l o s u r e , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e r e g u l a r t h r e e d a y a week c l o s u r e , a n d members o f t h e band p a r t i c u l a r l y o b j e c t e d a s t h e y h a d been u n a b l e t o c a t c h e n o u g h 157 s a l m o n f o r t h e i r f o o d r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e p r e v i o u s two y e a r s . A c o n f r o n t a t i o n h a d been e x p e c t e d , a n d t h e news m e d i a a s w e l l a s n i n e e x t r a f i s h e r i e s o f f i c e r s f r o m a r o u n d t h e p r o v i n c e were 14 p r e s e n t a t t h e t i m e . 1 5 The a r g u m e n t u s e d i n t h i s c a s e , R. v . Bob was t h a t t h e a c c u s e d h a d been g r a n t e d an e x c l u s i v e r i g h t t o f i s h i n t h i s a r e a ; a r i g h t w h i c h h ad b e e n r e c o g n i z e d u n d e r t h e I n d i a n A c t t h r o u g h t h e I n d i a n R e s e r v e C o m m i s s i o n o f 1870. T h i s r i g h t , s a n c t i o n e d by t h e I n d i a n A c t , was a r g u e d t o p r e v a i l o v e r t h e F i s h e r i e s A c t r e g u l a t i o n s . I f r e g u l a t i o n s w e re n e c e s s a r y , t h e s e c o u l d be p r o - p e r l y e n a c t e d u n d e r t h e I n d i a n A c t . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , i t was a r g u e d t h a t t h i s r i g h t was a p r o p e r t y r i g h t , w h i c h c o u l d n o t be e x p r o - p r i a t e d by t h e F i s h e r i e s A c t w i t h o u t e x p r e s s w o r d s a n d c o m p e n s a - t i o n . J u d g e D i e b o l t r u l e d i n C o u n t y C o u r t t h a t Bob's e x c l u s i v e r i g h t t o f i s h h a d been e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e e v i d e n c e . H o w e v e r , he h e l d t h a t t h i s d i d n o t r e n d e r t h e F i s h e r i e s A c t i n o p e r a t i v e . He n o t e d t h a t a l t h o u g h he c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d why t h e I n d i a n p e o p l e w o u l d " f e e l more c o m f o r t a b l e " i f r e g u l a t i o n s were made u n d e r t h e I n d i a n A c t , t h e u s e o f t h e F i s h e r i e s A c t c o u l d p r o v i d e more e f f e c t i v e , c o - o r d i n a t e d p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e r e s o u r c e . On t h i s p o i n t he c o n c l u d e d , a f t e r a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e l e a d i n g h u n t i n g a n d f i s h i n g r i g h t s c a s e s , t h a t w h a t e v e r t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r i g h t w h i c h was e s t a b l i s h e d , i t w o u l d s t i l l be s u b j e c t t o r e g u l a t i o n 158 f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n p u r p o s e s . W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s e c o n d a r g u m e n t , J u d g e D i e b o l t h e l d t h a t e v e n i f t h i s e x c l u s i v e r i g h t t o f i s h were a p r o p e r t y r i g h t , t h e F i s h e r i e s A c t d i d n o t e x p r o p r i a t e t h i s r i g h t , b u t m e r e l y r e g u - l a t e d t h e t i m e o f f i s h i n g . B u t he a l s o n o t e d "So l o n g a s t h e p r i o r i t i e s a s e a r l i e r i n d i c a t e d i n Mr. J u s t i c e D i c k s o n ' s r e a s o n s i n R. v . J a c k a r e m a i n t a i n e d , and any c l o s u r e o f t h e r i v e r f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n d o e s n o t " f a l l p r i m a r i l y on t h e I n d i a n f i s h e r i e s " , t h e n i t c a n n o t be s a i d t h a t t h e r i g h t i s e x p r o p r i a t e d . " 1 * ' So, d e s p i t e t h e new a r g u m e n t , a n d "somewhat r e l u c t a n t l y " , t h e j u d g e f o u n d Bob g u i l t y a s c h a r g e d , a l t h o u g h he was g i v e n an a b s o l u t e 1 7 d i s c h a r g e . 1 8 The n e x t c a s e , R. v . Dawson, h e a r d i n P r o v i n c i a l C o u r t i n O c t o b e r , 1981, i s r e l a t i v e l y u n i n t e r e s t i n g , a s i t was d e c i d e d on r a t h e r n a r r o w g r o u n d s . The a c c u s e d , a s t a t u s I n d i a n o f t h e N i m p k i s h b a n d , was c h a r g e d w i t h f i s h i n g w i t h o u t a l i c e n s e on t h e F o r t R u p e r t I n d i a n R e s e r v e . The F o r t R u p e r t Band h a d a c q u i r e d t i t l e t o t h e r e s e r v e by an 1891 a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e H u d s o n ' s Bay Company w h i c h i n c l u d e d a c l a u s e w h i c h p r o t e c t e d t h e i r f i s h i n g r i g h t s . The c o u r t r u l e d t h a t e v e n i f t h i s c l a u s e c o u l d be r a i s e d a s a d e f e n c e , i t w o u l d n o t a p p l y t o t h e d e f e n d a n t a s he was n o t a member o f t h e b a n d a n d d i d n o t a c q u i r e t h e r i g h t s o f b a n d members e v e n t h o u g h he was a c c e p t e d on t h e r e s e r v e . Dawson a l s o r e l i e d on t h e c o n c e p t o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t i n h i s d e f e n c e , b u t t h i s d o c t r i n e was h e l d n o t t o a p p l y t o r e s e r v e s , b u t o n l y t o u n o c - 159 c u p i e d Crown l a n d . I n t h e summer o f 1979, members o f t h e F o u n t a i n I n d i a n Band a g a i n d e f i e d F i s h e r i e s D e p a r t m e n t c l o s u r e s . F o o d f i s h i n g p e r m i t s i s s u e d t o t h e b a n d a l l o w e d f i s h i n g f r o m Monday t o T h u r s d a y , w h i l e members o f t h e b a n d p r o c e e d e d t o f i s h on F r i d a y , A u g u s t 3 a n d F r i d a y , A u g u s t 17. I n 1979, t h e r e was a d r a m a t i c a n d u n e x p e c t e d i n c r e a s e i n t h e s o c k e y e r u n o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 7 0 % . As a r e s u l t , c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g t i m e was i n c r e a s e d by 100% i n t h e f i r s t p a r t o f A u g u s t , a n d l a t e r i n A u g u s t was i n c r e a s e d by 2 0 0 - 3 0 0 % . A t t h e same t i m e , no i n c r e a s e i n n a t i v e f o o d f i s h i n g was p e r m i t t e d . No d o u b t i t was t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y w h i c h l e d t o t h e n a t i v e I n d i a n d e f i a n c e o f t h e c l o s u r e . On A u g u s t 17, i n a d r a m a t i c h e l i c o p t e r r a i d , f i s h e r i e s o f f i c e r s a r r e s t e d f o u r b a n d members. The r e s u l t i n g c a s e , R. v . 19 A d o l p h was h e a r d i n P r o v i n c i a l C o u r t S e p t e m b e r 9-11, 1980. The d e f e n c e a r g u e d t h a t g i v e n t h e f a c t s o f t h e c a s e , a n d t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e Supreme C o u r t o f C a n a d a i n R. v . J a c k t h e d e f e n d a n t s s h o u l d be a c q u i t t e d . I t was e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e c l o s u r e i n e f f e c t was " n e i t h e r r e a s o n a b l e o r n e c e s s a r y " f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n p u r p o s e s , a n d t h a t p r i o r i t y h a d been g i v e n t o t h e c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r y , r a t h e r t h a n t o t h e n a t i v e I n d i a n f o o d f i s h e r y . As a r e s u l t , i t was f o u n d t h a t t h e d e f e n d a n t s h a d a l a w f u l e x c u s e t o f i s h , a n d t h e y w e re a c q u i t t e d . I n r e a c h i n g t h i s d e c i s i o n , J u d g e Shupe a p p e a r e d t o f o l l o w D i c k s o n ' s r e a s o n s i n R. v . J a c k a l - 160 t h o u g h h i s r e a s o n s on t h i s p o i n t were n o t e n t i r e l y c l e a r . H o w e v e r , i n b o t h t h e C o u n t y C o u r t a n d t h e B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l , t h e Terms o f U n i o n a r g u m e n t f a i l e d . I n t h e s e c o u r t s t h e d e f e n c e d i d n o t r e l y on D i c k s o n ' s d e c i s i o n i n R. v . J a c k . I t was a r g u e d t h a t t h e f a c t s e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h i s c a s e d i s t i n g u i s h e d i t f r o m t h a t o n e , a n d t h a t L a s k i n ' s j u d g e m e n t f o r t h e m a j o r i t y c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d a s e s t a b l i s h i n g a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n on t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t i f c e r t a i n f a c t s c o u l d be p r o v e n . H o w e v e r , b o t h c o u r t s i n f o l l o w i n g L a s k i n ' s j u d g e m e n t i n R. v . J a c k i n t e r - p r e t e d i t t o mean t h a t t h e r e was no i n h i b i t i o n on t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s power t o l e g i s l a t e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e f i s h e r y a r i s i n g o u t o f A r t i c l e 13. I n p a r t i c u l a r , Mr. J u s t i c e T a g g a r t o f t h e B.C. C o u r t o f . A p p e a l r e l i e d on L a s k i n ' s s t a t e m e n t i n R. v. J a c k t h a t " W h a t e v e r p o l i c y may h a v e e x i s t e d i n p r e - C o n f e d e r a t i o n B.C. o f t o l e r a n c e o f I n d i a n ' s f i s h i n g f o r f o o d . . . t h e r e d o e s n o t 20 a p p e a r t o h a v e been an y b a s i s i n l a w t o o r d a i n t h e p o l i c y . " T a g g a r t s t a t e d t h a t c o n s e q u e n t l y , " I t w o u l d t a k e v e r y c l e a r e v i d e n c e o f t h e p r e - C o n f e d e r a t i o n o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e p o l i c y by l a w , c o u p l e d w i t h a c o n s t r u c t i o n o f A r t i c l e 13 f a v o u r a b l e t o t h e a p p e l l a n t s , t o e n a b l e me t o s a y t h a t a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n on t h e f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i v e power i n r e l a t i o n t o f i s h e r i e s 21 e x i s t s . " As no s u c h e v i d e n c e e x i s t e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e o r d i n a t i o n i n l a w o f t h e p o l i c y p u r s u e d b e f o r e 1 8 7 1 , c o n s e r v a t i o n m e a s u r e s w o u l d a p p l y t o I n d i a n s w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e y w e re a b s o - l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y , a n d w h e t h e r o r n o t p r i o r i t y was g i v e n t o t h e 161 c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e d e f e n d a n t s were f o u n d g u i l t y . Two e v e n t s o c c u r r e d i n t h e e a r l y 1980's w h i c h p r o v i d e d new hope f o r l e g a l d e f e n c e s t o f i s h e r i e s c h a r g e s . The f i r s t was t h e a d o p t i o n o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t o f 1982, w h i c h i n c l u d e d a s e c - t i o n r e c o g n i z i n g a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . S e c t i o n 3 5 ( 1 ) o f t h e A c t r e a d s "The e x i s t i n g a b o r i g i n a l a n d t r e a t y r i g h t s o f t h e a b o r i g i - 22 n a l p e o p l e s o f C a n a d a a r e h e r e b y r e c o g n i z e d a n d a f f i r m e d . " W h i l e t h i s s e c t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y when r e a d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s e c t i o n s o f t h e A c t , i s o f c o u r s e open t o a v a r i e t y o f 23 i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , i t d o e s a p p e a r t o a f f o r d g r e a t e r p r o t e c t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l a n d t r e a t y r i g h t s t h a n h a d e x i s t e d . S e c o n d l y , t h e Supreme C o u r t o f C a n a d a d e c i s i o n i n G u e r i n v . The Q u e e n 2 4 gave g r e a t e r l e g a l v a l i d i t y t o c l a i m s o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . 25 The f i r s t c a s e t o be h e a r d i n C o u n t y C o u r t a f t e r t h e s e 2 6 e v e n t s was R. v . W i l s o n . I t was a r g u e d t h a t A r t i c l e 13 o f t h e Terms o f U n i o n d e p r i v e d P a r l i a m e n t o f t h e a u t h o r i t y t o l e g i s l a t e so a s t o r e s t r i c t a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . E v i d e n c e was l e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e h i s t o r i c a l u s e o f t h e f i s h e r y a n d l a n d s t o e s t a - b l i s h a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e t o t h e l a n d i n q u e s t i o n , i n c l u d i n g r i g h t s t o an u n r e s t r i c t e d f i s h e r y . H o wever, J u d g e E r r i c o , f o l l o w i n g t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l i n R. v . A d o l p h , r u l e d t h a t w h a t e v e r t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s o f t h e a p p e l l a n t , t h e s e d i d n o t d e m o n s t r a t e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i n c a p a c i t y on t h e p a r t o f t h e f e d e r a l 162 g o v e r n m e n t . S u c h r i g h t s d i d n o t f o r m a b a s i s i n l a w t o o r d a i n t h e p r e - C o n f e d e r a t i o n p o l i c y o f n o n - i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t h e a b o r i g i - n a l f i s h e r y . The a p p e a l was t h e r e f o r e d e n i e d . 27 The n e x t c a s e , R. v . S e w a r d i n v o l v e d c h a r g e s o f f i s h e r i e s o f f e n c e s a g a i n s t s i x n a t i v e I n d i a n s whose f i s h i n g r i g h t s were p r o t e c t e d by t r e a t y . Two a r g u m e n t s were a d v a n c e d . F i r s t , w h i l e i t was a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t i t h a d been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t r e a t y r i g h t s c o u l d be l i m i t e d by f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n , t h e r e had n o t been a c l e a r d e c i s i o n a s t o how s u c h a c u r t a i l m e n t m i g h t t a k e p l a c e . H o w e v e r , P r o v i n c i a l C o u r t J u d g e G r e e r f o u n d t h a t he was b ound by t h e B.C. Supreme C o u r t d e c i s i o n i n R. v . C o o p e r , G e o r g e 2 8 a n d G e o r g e , w h i c h h e l d t h a t t r e a t y r i g h t s w e r e s u b j e c t t o t h e F i s h e r i e s A c t . S e c o n d , t h e d e f e n c e a r g u e d t h a t S e c t i o n 35 o f t h e C o n s t i t u - t i o n A c t , 1982, p r o t e c t e d t h e t r e a t y r i g h t s o f t h e a c c u s e d . W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h i s , a r g u m e n t , J u d g e G r e e r h e l d t h a t t h e w o r d " e x i s t i n g " i n t h i s s e c t i o n l i m i t e d i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o t h o s e r i g h t s w h i c h w ere a c k n o w l e d g e d when t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t , 1982, came i n t o e f f e c t . S i n c e i t h a d been d e c i d e d p r i o r t o t h a t t i m e t h a t t r e a t y r i g h t s were s u b j e c t t o t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e F i s h e r - i e s A c t , t h i s s e c t i o n c o u l d n o t be c a l l e d i n a i d . J u d g e G r e e r t h e r e f o r e r u l e d t h a t " I n c o n c l u s i o n , a n d w i t h a l a r g e m e a s u r e o f r e g r e t a n d r e l u c t a n c e , I h a v e c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e d e f e n c e p u t 29 f o r w a r d by t h e A c c u s e d c a n n o t s u c c e e d . " On a p p e a l , t h i s d e c i -. . 30 s i o n was u p h e l d by t h e B.C. C o u n t y C o u r t i n November, 1985. 1 63 The A d o l p h s o f t h e F o u n t a i n I n d i a n B a nd f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s i n t r o u b l e o n c e a g a i n , i n A u g u s t , 1983, when members o f t h e band a g a i n p r o c e e d e d t o f i s h d u r i n g a f i s h e r i e s c o n s e r v a t i o n c l o s u r e . T h i s t i m e , f o u r w e re a r r e s t e d , l e a d i n g t o t h e c a s e o f R. v . 3 1 A d o l p h ( V i c t o r J r . ) . I n p r o v i n c i a l c o u r t , a l l f o u r were c o n - 32 v i c t e d a n d o r d e r e d t o pay t o t a l f i n e s o f $ 7 5 0 . I n C o u n t y C o u r t i t was a r g u e d t h a t t h e R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n a p p l i e d t o B.C., a n d t h a t t h e p o l i c y o f t h e P r o c l a m a t i o n was f o l l o w e d i n p r e - C o n f e d e r - a t i o n B.C. The d e c i s i o n o f t h e Supreme C o u r t o f Canada i n G u e r i n v . The Queen was s a i d t o s u p p o r t t h i s a r g u m e n t . S e c o n d , i t was a r g u e d o n c e a g a i n t h a t A r t i c l e 13 p l a c e d a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l i m i t a - t i o n on t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s power t o r e g u l a t e t h e f i s h e r y . The a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n t o B.C. was an o r d i n a - t i o n i n l a w o f t h e p r e - C o n f e d e r a t i o n p o l i c y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y f o r t h e A d o l p h s , J u d g e M a c D o n a l d f o u n d t h a t t h e R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n d i d n o t a p p l y t o B.C. He f e l t b o und t o f o l l o w t h e B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l i n t h e C a l d e r d e c i s i o n w h i c h h a d c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n d i d n o t a p p l y . He f o u n d a l s o t h a t D i c k s o n ' s j u d g e m e n t i n t h e G u e r i n c a s e p r o v i d e d no s u p p o r t f o r t h i s a r g u m e n t . A l t h o u g h D i c k s o n h a d commented on t h e R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n i n h i s d e c i s i o n , he h a d n o t s t a t e d t h a t i t a p p l i e d t o B.C. As a r e s u l t o f t h i s f i n d i n g , J u d g e M a c D o n a l d f e l t b o u n d t o f o l l o w t h e r u l i n g s i n R. v . A d o l p h a n d R. v . J a c k w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e Terms o f U n i o n a r g u m e n t . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t 1 64 t h i s c a s e w i l l be a p p e a l e d f u r t h e r a s t h e R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n d e c i s i o n i s an i m p o r t a n t o n e , a n d one w h i c h c a n o n l y be r e s o l v e d i n t h e f a v o r o f n a t i v e I n d i a n s i n t h e B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l o r t h e Supreme C o u r t o f C a n a d a , g i v e n t h e e a r l i e r c a s e s . 33 I n R. v . S p a r r o w , t h e d e f e n c e was b a s e d on t h e p r o t e c t i o n w h i c h S e c t i o n 35 g a v e t o t h e a c c u s e d ' s a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t t o f i s h . I n D ecember, 1985 i n C o u n t y C o u r t , J u d g e L a m p e r s o n h e l d t h a t w h i l e t h e d e f e n d a n t m i g h t h a v e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s , he was bound by t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l i n C a l d e r v . A.G.B.C. 3 4 He f u r t h e r r u l e d t h a t e v e n i f t h e d e f e n d a n t h a d an a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t t o f i s h , t h i s w o u l d s t i l l be s u b j e c t t o t h e F i s h e r i e s A c t , g i v e n t h e d e c i s i o n i n R. v . D e r r i k s a n . S e c t i o n 35 d i d n o t h e l p a n y , f o r t h e same r e a s o n s a s i n R. v . S e w a r d . T h i s d e c i s i o n was a p p e a l e d t o t h e B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l , a n d a l t h o u g h t h e a p p e a l w a s n ' t h e a r d u n t i l 1986, p u t t i n g i t o u t s i d e t h e t i m e f r a m e o f t h i s t h e s i s , a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e d e c i s i o n i s i n c l u d e d h e r e b e c a u s e o f i t s i m p o r t a n c e . The C o u r t o f A p p e a l h e l d t h a t S p a r r o w h a d an a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t t o f i s h w h i c h was g i v e n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o t e c t i o n by S e c t i o n 3 5. A c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t l e d t h e c o u r t t o c o n c l u d e " T h e r e c o n t i n u e s t o be a power t o r e g u l a t e t h e e x e r c i s e o f f i s h i n g by I n d i a n s e v e n where t h a t f i s h i n g i s p u r s u a n t t o an a b o r i g i n a l 35 r i g h t b u t t h e r e a r e now l i m i t a t i o n s on t h a t p o w e r . " The e s s e n - t i a l l i m i t a t i o n on t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s power t o r e g u l a t e was f o u n d t o be t h a t t h e I n d i a n f o o d f i s h e r y must be g i v e n p r i o r i t y o v e r 165 t h e i n t e r e s t s o f o t h e r g r o u p s when a l l o c a t i n g r i g h t s t o f i s h . R e g u l a t i o n s c o u l d i n f r i n g e on t h e f o o d f i s h e r y , b u t o n l y i f t h e y c o u l d be r e a s o n a b l y j u s t i f i e d a s b e i n g n e c e s s a r y f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n p u r p o s e s . B e c a u s e S p a r r o w ' s c o n v i c t i o n h a d been b a s e d on an e r r o n e o u s v i e w o f t h e l a w , a n d a s t h e f a c t s r e l e v a n t t o t h e c a s e h a d n o t been f u l l y d e t e r m i n e d a t t h e f i r s t t r i a l , t h e c o u r t d i r e c t e d t h a t a new t r i a l be h e l d . A l t h o u g h t h i s c a s e h a s n o t been f u l l y r e s o l v e d by t h e c o u r t s t o d a t e a s S p a r r o w i s a p p e a l i n g t h e r u l i n g d i r e c t i n g a new t r i a l , t h i s d e c i s i o n was i m p o r t a n t a s i t i s t h e f i r s t m a j o r i t y d e c i s i o n by t h e c o u r t s w h i c h h a s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s p l a c e a l i m i t a t i o n on t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s power t o r e g u l a t e t h e f i s h e r y . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e C o u r t o f A p p e a l a l s o s t a t e d i n t h i s d e c i s i o n t h a t t h e B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l d e c i s i o n i n t h e C a l d e r c a s e was n o t b i n d i n g on t h e l o w e r c o u r t s , a n d had n o t been b i n d i n g s i n c e t h e Supreme c o u r t o f C a n a d a d e c i s i o n i n t h e same c a s e . The j u d g e s f e l t i t n e c e s s a r y t o c a l r i f y t h i s i s s u e " be- 3 6 c a u s e o f t h e a p p a r e n t l y w i d e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h i s f a l l a c y , " n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e C o u r t o f A p p e a l j u d g e m e n t i n t h e M e a r e s I s l a n d c a s e . B a n d B y l a w C a s e s S e c t i o n 8 1 ( o ) o f t h e I n d i a n A c t s t a t e s t h a t b a nd c o u n c i l s may make r e g u l a t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o " t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f f i s h a n d w i l d l i f e " on t h e r e s e r v e . S u c h r e g u l a t i o n s come i n t o e f f e c t 1 66 o n l y w i t h t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e M i n i s t e r . T h i s s e c t i o n h a s l e d t o a s e r i e s o f c a s e s i n w h i c h I n d i a n s c h a r g e d w i t h f i s h e r y o f f e n c e s a r g u e t h a t i t i s r e g u l a t i o n s made p u r s u a n t t o t h i s s e c t i o n w h i c h s h o u l d g o v e r n f i s h i n g on I n d i a n r e s e r v e s , r a t h e r t h a n t h e F i s h - e r i e s A c t . 37 The f i r s t c a s e , R. v. B i l l y , r e a c h e d t h e B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l i n M a r c h , 1977. I t was a r g u e d t h a t t h e F i s h e r i e s A c t R e g u l a t i o n s d i d n o t a p p l y on r e s e r v e s a s p r o v i s i o n f o r r e g u l a t i n g f i s h i n g was made by S e c t i o n 8 1 ( o ) o f t h e I n d i a n A c t . The a p p e a l was d i s m i s s e d a s t h e band c o u n c i l h a d n o t p a s s e d any f i s h i n g r e g u l a t i o n s a n d so t h e r e was no l a w i n e x i s t e n c e c o n t r a r y t o t h e F i s h e r i e s A c t . F u r t h e r t h e c o u r t s t a t e d t h a t i t had been " a u t h o - r i t a t i v e l y d e c i d e d " t h a t t h e r e w e re no e x c e p t i o n s i n f a v o u r o f I n d i a n s t o t h e f i s h e r y r e g u l a t i o n s w h e t h e r t h e o f f e n c e was com- m i t t e d on o r o f f r e s e r v e . I n d o i n g s o , t h e y r e f e r r e d t o t h e d e c i s i o n s o f t h e Supreme C o u r t o f C a n a d a i n R. v. S i k y e a , a n d R. v. D e r r i k s a n . The o t h e r f o u r c a s e s o c c u r r e d a f t e r b a n d c o u n c i l s h a d p a s s e d f i s h i n g r e g u a l t i o n s u n d e r S e c t i o n 8 1 ( o ) w h i c h h a d been a p p r o v e d 38 by t h e M i n i s t e r . The a r g u m e n t s r a i s e d a n d t h e f a c t s i n a l l 39 40 41 f o u r c a s e s , R. v . L e e c h , , R. v . B a k e r , , R. v . Jimmy, , a n d 42 R. v . J o s e p h and L e w i s , , a r e e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same. The a c - c u s e d , w h i l e f i s h i n g i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e i r band b y l a w s , were c h a r g e d w i t h v i o l a t i o n s u n d e r t h e F i s h e r i e s A c t . I n c o u r t , i t was a r g u e d t h a t t h e r e e x i s t e d two i n c o n s i s t e n t f e d e r a l e n a c t - 167 ments, and that as the band bylaws were the more spec i f i c and d e t a i l e d of the two, these should p r e v a i l . In each case, t h i s argument was unsuccessful in P r o v i n c i a l Court . It should be noted, although i t i s probably obvious, that the band bylaws in question a l l permit greater access to the f i shery resource for native Indians than does the F i sher i e s A c t . It i s not then obvious that the bylaws are a more d e t a i l e d a t - tempt at conservation, even though they were passed under Section 81(o). The P r o v i n c i a l Court judges a l l took the pos i t ion that the F i sher i e s Act regulat ions could not be d isplaced by the band bylaws. The most d e t a i l e d judgement was in the case of R. v . Joseph and Lewis, which stated that the bylaw in question was u l t r a v i r e s Section 81(o) as i t d i d n ' t "accord with a r a t i o n a l 43 in t erpre ta t ion of preservat ion , protect ion and management." However, in the three cases which were appealed ( a l l but R. v. Leech) the lower court dec i s ions were overturned. The courts ruled that where two inconsis tent but v a l i d federal enactments ex i s ted , the more s p e c i f i c of the two must be the one which a p p l i e s . Even though the provis ions of the band bylaws were more permiss ive , in a l l the cases these were held to be the more s p e c i f i c of the two sets of regulat ions as they were meant to regulate only food f i sh ing on reserve lands. In the case of R. v . Joseph and Lewis, Judge C a t l i f f ruled that "i t was not for the court to decide the wisdom of the band's management of the f i s h - 168 e r y . " A l t h o u g h none o f t h e s e c a s e s have been a p p e a l e d b e y o n d t h e C o u n t y C o u r t l e v e l , s o f a r t h i s l e g a l a p p r o a c h h a s been more s u c c e s s f u l t h a n t h a t p u r s u e d i n a n y o f t h e f i r s t s e r i e s o f c a s e s . "The S t i n g " I n J a n u a r y , 1983, 129 n a t i v e I n d i a n s were a r r e s t e d i n a m a s s i v e r a i d by f i s h e r i e s o f f i c e r s a f t e r a f o u r month u n d e r c o v e r o p e r a t i o n . J o u r n a l i s t s a n d p h o t o g r a p h e r s were i n v i t e d t o accom- p a n y t h e o f f i c e r s i n t h e p r e - d a w n r a i d . 340 c h a r g e s were l a i d 45 f o r i l l e g a l s a l e o f f i s h a n d 54 v e h i c l e s were s e i z e d . N a t i v e I n d i a n s i n t h e p r o v i n c e w e re o u t r a g e d . As o n l y one n o n - I n d i a n was a r r e s t e d , t h e y saw t h i s a c t i o n a s o u t r i g h t r a c i s m a n d an a t t e m p t t o d i s c r e d i t n a t i v e f i s h e r m e n , u s i n g them a s s c a p e g o a t s f o r mismanagement o f t h e f i s h e r y . The p r e s e n c e o f t h e m e d i a d u r i n g t h e a r r e s t s c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s v i e w . A number o f e x p l a n a t i o n s were s u g g e s t e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e r a i d . E d Newman o f t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d o f B.C. s u g g e s t e d t h i s was a move a g a i n s t I n d i a n b and f i s h i n g b y - 46 l a w s . U n i t e d F i s h e r m e n a n d A l l i e d W o r k e r s U n i o n p r e s i d e n t J a c k N i c h o l c h a r g e d t h a t t h e r a i d was d e s i g n e d t o a p p e a s e U.S. f i s h i n g i n t e r e s t s , a n d t o s p e e d p a s s a g e o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l f i s h i n g 47 t r e a t y . I t was a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r a i d was meant t o d i v e r t a t t e n t i o n f r o m t h e P e a r s e R e p o r t on t h e f i s h e r y , w h i c h had recommended i n c r e a s e d n a t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e f i s h e r y . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r a i d came s o o n b e f o r e t h e f i r s t F i r s t M i n i s t e r s ' 1 69 C o n f e r e n c e on A b o r i g i n a l R i g h t s . F i s h e r i e s d e p a r t m e n t o f f i c i a l s d e n i e d t h e c h a r g e s o f d i s c r i - m i n a t i o n , a n d m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e r a i d s were p r o m p t e d by c o n c e r n o v e r d w i n d l i n g s t o c k s o f c h i n o o k a n d s o c k e y e s a l m o n . The n a t i v e I n d i a n s were n o t p a c i f i e d by t h i s a s s e r t i o n , n o t i n g t h a t t h e u n d e r c o v e r o p e r a t i o n was s e t up i n an a r e a w here v i r t u a l l y t h e 48 o n l y a c c e s s t o t h e r i v e r was t h r o u g h r e s e r v e s . The I n d i a n g r o u p s i n v o l v e d i n t h e r a i d met on J a n u a r y 18 a n d a g r e e d t o a c o - o r d i n a t e d d e f e n c e s t r a t e g y i n f i g h t i n g t h e 49 c h a r g e s . A l t h o u g h an a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s d e f e n c e was c o n s i d e r e d , t h i s s t r a t e g y was n o t p u r s u e d i n c o u r t . I n s t e a d , a l l b u t one o f 50 t h e c a s e s were d e f e n d e d on t h e b a s i s t h a t t h e Crown h a d no e v i d e n c e t o p r o v e t h a t t h e s a l e s were i l l e g a l . I n one c a s e , R. 51 v . S a u l , a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a r g u m e n t was a d v a n c e d . I t was a r g u e d t h a t S e c t i o n 37 o f t h e F i s h e r i e s A c t , w h i c h d e a l t w i t h t h e s a l e o f f i s h , was u l t r a v i r e s t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t a s i t d e a l t w i t h p r o p e r t y a n d c i v i l r i g h t s - a p r o v i n c i a l a r e a o f j u r i s d i c i o n . T h i s l a t t e r a r g u m e n t , w h i l e s u c c e s s f u l i n p r o v i n c i a l c o u r t , f a i l e d on a p p e a l t o t h e B.C. Supreme C o u r t . T h i s was h o w e v e r , t h e o n l y c a s e w h i c h went t o t r i a l i n w h i c h 52 t h e Crown s u c c e e d e d i n o b t a i n i n g a c o n v i c t i o n . When t h e "no e v i d e n c e " d e f e n c e was s u c c e s s f u l , e v e n a f t e r a p p e a l s by t h e C r o w n , p r o c e e d i n g s i n t h e r e m a i n i n g c a s e s were s t a y e d . T h i s d e f e n c e was s u c c e s s f u l p o l i t i c a l l y a s w e l l a s l e g a l l y , a s i t 1 70 s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e n a t i v e I n d i a n s were n o t i n f a c t g u i l t y o f p o a c h i n g , b u t h a d been t h e v i c t i m s o f a p u b l i c i t y s t u n t o f t h e f i s h e r i e s d e p a r t m e n t . H o w e v e r , d e s p i t e t h i s v i c t o r y , n a t i v e I n d i a n s r e m a i n b i t t e r a b o u t " t h e s t i n g " , v i e w i n g i t a s one more e x a m p l e o f t h e d o m i n a n t s o c i e t y u s i n g t h e l a w t o h a r a s s members o f t h e i r c o m m u n i t y . C o n c l u s i o n The c a s e s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r s u g g e s t t h a t t h e l e g a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s a s a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i s n o t t h e p r i m a r y g o a l o f n a t i v e I n d i a n s i n t h e i r u s e o f t h e c o u r t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o f i s h i n g c h a r g e s . W h i l e some o f t h e l e g a l a r g u m e n t s u s e d a t t e m p t e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s t o f i s h , many o f t h e a r g u m e n t s were b a s e d on t h e e x i s t e n c e o f o t h e r r i g h t s , s u c h a s t r e a t y r i g h t s o r r e s e r v e r i g h t s . Many o f t h e c a s e s h a v e been b a s e d on t h e a r g u m e n t t h a t t h e Terms o f U n i o n g u a r a n t e e s I n d i a n s c e r t a i n f i s h i n g r i g h t s . I n a d d i t i o n , b a n d by- l a w s h a v e been p a s s e d by some b a n d s a n d t h e i r v a l i d i t y t e s t e d i n c o u r t . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e m a j o r g o a l b e i n g p u r s u e d i n c o u r t i s f r e e d o m f r o m t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f F i s h e r i e s A c t r e g u l a t i o n s , r a t h e r t h a n t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s t o f i s h . N a t i v e I n d i a n s h a v e been a t t e m p t i n g t o e s t a b l i s h t h e e x i s - t e n c e o f s p e c i a l r i g h t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e f i s h e r y , w h i c h a r e p a r t i c u l a r t o I n d i a n s . I n d o i n g s o , t h e y h a v e r e l i e d upon l a w s w h i c h a p p l y o n l y t o I n d i a n s , s u c h a s A r t i c l e 13 o f t h e Terms o f 171 U n i o n a n d S e c t i o n 35 o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t , 1982. N a t i v e I n d i a n s h a v e n o t c h a l l e n g e d t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e F i s h e r i e s A c t g e n e r a l l y , b u t o n l y i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o them. As n o t e d a b o v e , S e c t i o n 35 o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t has p r o v i d e d t h e b a s i s f o r some o f t h e c a s e s w h i c h a r o s e a s a r e s u l t o f c h a r g e s u n d e r t h e F i s h e r i e s A c t . I n i t i a l l y , i t a p p e a r e d t h a t t h e v a l u e o f t h i s s e c t i o n was r a t h e r l i m i t e d , due t o t h e i n c l u - s i o n o f t h e word " e x i s t i n g " i n t h e s e c t i o n c o u p l e d w i t h t h e d e c i s i o n s w h i c h were h a n d e d down i n e a r l i e r f i s h i n g c a s e s . How- e v e r , t h e B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l d e c i s i o n i n t h e S p a r r o w c a s e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s s e c t i o n may p r o v i d e some p r o t e c t i o n f o r a b o r i - g i n a l f i s h i n g r i g h t s . The p r o b l e m w h i c h a p p e a r s t o e x i s t f o r n a t i v e I n d i a n s i n t h e s e c a s e s i s t h a t t h e F i s h e r i e s A c t o n l y r e g u l a t e s f i s h i n g , r a t h e r t h a n p r o h i b i t i n g i t . The c a s e s o f R. v . D e r r i c k s a n a n d R. v. S e w a r d e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t w h a t e v e r t h e r i g h t s o f n a t i v e p e o p l e s , t h e y a r e s t i l l s u b j e c t t o t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e F i s h e r i e s A c t , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g S e c t i o n 35 o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t . To some e x t e n t , t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f t h e c o u r t s t o u p h o l d t h e - v a l i d i t y o f t h e F i s h e r i e s A c t i s p r o b a b l y due t o t h e p e r c e i v e d n e e d f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n , w h i c h b e n e f i t s n a t i v e I n d i a n s t h e m s e l v e s . W h i l e n a t i v e I n d i a n s a g r e e w i t h t h e ne e d f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n , t h e y h a v e been unhappy w i t h t h e r e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e f i s h e r i e s d e p a r t m e n t , w h i c h t h e y f e e l do n o t g i v e t h e I n d i a n f o o d f i s h e r y p r i o r i t y o v e r 172 s p o r t a n d c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i n t h e l a t e r c a s e s t h e y h a v e a t t e m p t e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t I n d i a n f i s h i n g r i g h t s s h o u l d be s u b j e c t o n l y t o c o n s e r v a t i o n m e a s u r e s , a n d t h a t t h e c o u r t s may d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t c o n s e r v a t i o n m e a s u r e s were s t r i c t l y n e c e s s a r y . T h i s a r g u m e n t was s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e S p a r r o w c a s e i n t h e B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l , a s t h e c o u r t f o u n d t h a t S e c t i o n 35 p l a c e d a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n on t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s power t o r e g u l a t e t h e f i s h e r y . W h e t h e r o r n o t t h i s d e c i s i o n w i l l h a v e t h e e f f e c t w h i c h n a t i v e I n d i a n s d e s i r e i s y e t t o be s e e n . The o t h e r a r g u m e n t w h i c h h a s been q u i t e s u c c e s s f u l t o d a t e h a s been t h a t b a n d b y l a w s must p r e v a i l o v e r F i s h e r i e s A c t r e g u - l a t i o n s when t h e two a r e c o n t r a d i c t o r y . H o w e v e r , s u c h b y l a w s must be a p p r o v e d by t h e M i n i s t e r o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , s o t h e f e d e - r a l g o v e r n m e n t s t i l l e f f e c t i v e l y r e t a i n s c o n t r o l . S t i l l , i t may be much e a s i e r , p o l i t i c a l l y , t o a c h i e v e a p p r o v a l f o r band b y l a w s t h a n t o a c h i e v e m e a n i n g f u l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n s made by t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f F i s h e r i e s a n d O c e a n s . 173 TABLE I V CHALLENGES TO GOVERNMENT AUTHORITY: THE F I S H E R I E S ACT TABLE OF CASES RIGHTS CASES R. v . D e r r i k s a n R. v . J a c k R. v . Bob R. v . Dawson R. v . A d o l p h R. v . W i l s o n R. v . S e w a r d R. v . S p a r r o w R. v . A d o l p h ( V i c t o r J r . ) 1971 1974 1975 1 976 B.C.P.C B.C.S.C B.C.C.A S • C • C • 1 975 1976 1976 B.C.P.C B.C.C.A S • C • C • 1 979 B • C • C • C 1 981 B.C.P.C 1 980 1 981 1 983 B.C.P.C B • C • C • C B • C • C • A 1985 B • C • C * C 1985 1985 B.C.P.C B • C • C * C 1985 1986 B • C • C • C B • C • C • A 1985 B«C • C • C 174 BAND BYLAW CASES R. v . B i l l y 1977 R. v . B a k e r 1983 R. v . L e e c h 1983 R. v . Jimmy 1985 R. v . J o s e p h a n d L e w i s 1985 " THE STING" R. v . C a m p b e l l 1984 R. v . D o u g l a s 1983 1984 R. v . G i b s o n 1 984 R. v . G r a n t 1984 R. v . M i t c h e l l 1 984 R. v . N a r c i s s e 1984 R. v . S a u l 1983 B.C.C.A B.C.C.C B.C.P.C B.C.C.C B.C.C.C B.C.C.C B.C.P.C B • C • C . C B.C.C.C B.C.C.C B.C.S.C B.C.S.C B.C.P.C 1984 B.C.S.C. 175 NOTES - CHAPTER 5 The number o f n o n - n a t i v e s c h a r g e d was a m a t t e r o f d i s p u t e . I n d i a n s c l a i m e d t h a t o n l y one o f t h o s e c h a r g e d was a n o n - n a t i v e , w h i l e t h e F i s h e r i e s M i n i s t e r c l a i m e d t h a t 17 were n o n - n a t i v e . Ron R o s e , " F i s h r a i d p r o t e s t s t o be d e f e r r e d , " V a n c o u v e r S u n , O c t o b e r 2 3 , 1985, p. B10. 2 . . P h i l l i p M i l l s , " F r a s e r f i s h war e x p l o d e s a s I n d i a n s i g n o r e b a n , " V a n c o u v e r P r o v i n c e , J u l y 18, 1978, p. 1 . 3 G e n e r a l l y a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10% o f p r o s e c u t i o n s on f i s h e r i e s r e l a t e d c h a r g e s a r e a g a i n s t n a t i v e I n d i a n s . A l t h o u g h t h i s number i s q u i t e l o w , c o m m e r c i a l a n d s p o r t s f i s h e r m e n a r e e a g e r t o p o i n t t o t h e i l l e g a l s a l e o f f i s h by n a t i v e I n d i a n s a s one o f t h e p r o b l e m s w i t h t h e i n d u s t r y . 4 See R. v . Bob, [ 1 9 7 9 ] 4 C.N.L.R. 7 1 , a t p. 7 2 . 5 I n d e e d , e v i d e n c e - l e d d u r i n g one o f t h e f i s h i n g c a s e s shows t h a t i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f c o l o n i z a t i o n , t h e s e t t l e r s t h e m s e l v e s r e l i e d u p o n, a n d e n c o u r a g e d , I n d i a n t r a d i n g o f f i s h . See R. v. J a c k e t a l , U n r e p o r t e d , May 1, 1985, B.C.P.C., a t p. 2. ^ "The N a t i v e F i s h e r y , f o r f o o d o r c a s h i t ' s a c l a i m on h i s t o r y , " V a n c o u v e r S u n , O c t o b e r 2 3 , 1985, p. B10. 7 See C h a p t e r 1. 8 "B.C. I n d i a n f i n e d $3 i n f i s h c a s e , " G l o b e a n d M a i l , A u g u s t 3 1 , 1 9 7 1. 9 ( 1 9 7 6 ) 71 D.L.R. (3d) 159, ( 1 9 7 5 ) 60 D.L.R. (3d) 140. 1 0 ( 1 9 6 4 ) 43 D.L.R. (2d) 150. 1 1 [ 1 9 7 9 ] 5 W.W.R. 364. i 2 A r t i c l e 13, Terms o f U n i o n . 1 3 . " I n d i a n s r e s t r i c t a c c e s s t o r i v e r , " V a n c o u v e r Sun, J u l y 7, 1979, p. A7. 176 1 4 R. v . Bob, [ 1 9 7 9 ] 4 C.N.L.R. 7 1 , a t p. 7 2 . 1 5 [ 1 9 7 9 ] 4 C.N.L.R. 7 1 . 1 6 I b i d . , a t p. 80. 1 7 " I n d i a n f i s h i n g v i c t o r y c o n s i d e r e d j u s t f i r s t w i n , " V a n c o u v e r S u n , A u g u s t 3 1 , 1979. 1 8 [ 1 9 8 1 ] B.C.D.Crim. 5490-04. 1 9 ( 1 9 8 4 ) 3 D.L.R. ( 4 t h ) 2 9 1 , [ 1 9 8 2 ] 3 C.N.L.R. 63, [ 1 9 8 2 ] 2 C.N.L.R, 149. on R. v . J a c k e t a l , [ 1 9 7 9 ] 5 W.W.R. 364, a t p. 366. 2 1 R. v . A d o l p h e t a l , (1984) 3 D.L.R. ( 4 t h ) 2 9 1 , a t p. 300. 2 2 S e c t i o n 3 5 ( 1 0 ) , C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t , 1982. 23 See f o r e x a m p l e , N o e l L y o n , " C o n s t i t u t i o n a l I s s u e s i n N a t i v e Law," i n B r a d f o r d M o r s e , e d , A b o r i g i n a l P e o p l e s a n d t h e Law ( O t t a w a : C a r l e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 8 5 ) . 2 4 [ 1 9 8 4 ] 6 W.W.R. 4 8 1 , [ 1 9 8 3 ] 2 F.C. 656, [ 1 9 8 2 ] 2 F.C. 385. 25 . . . A l l o f t h e s e d e c i s i o n s a r e f a i r l y r e c e n t a n d so u n r e p o r t e d . P r o v i n c i a l C o u r t d e c i s i o n s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d , a n d s o I w i l l l i m i t my c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e c a s e s t o t h e C o u n t y C o u r t l e v e l , e x c e p t i n t h e c a s e o f R. v . Se w a r d . 2 6 [ 1 9 8 5 ] B.C.D.Crim. 5 4 9 0 - 0 7 . 2 7 [ 1 9 8 6 ] B.C.D.Crim. 5 6 8 3 - 0 1 , U n r e p o r t e d , J a n u a r y 30, 1985, B.C.P.C. 2 8 ( 1 9 6 9 ) 1 D.L.R. (3d) 113. 29 P r o v i n c i a l C o u r t o f B.C., J a n u a r y 30, 1985, u n r e p o r t e d , p. 19. 30 I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f S e c t i o n 3 5 ( 1 ) i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h o t h e r j u d g e m e n t s r e a c h e d a c r o s s C a n a d a . See R. v . E n i n e w , ( 1 9 8 4 ) 10 D.L.R. ( 4 t h ) 137, (1984) 1 D.L.R. ( 4 t h ) 595, a n d R. v . N i c h o l a s , ( 1 9 8 4) 55 N.B.R. (2d) 41 3 . 3 1 [ 1 9 8 6 ] B.C.D.Crim. 5 6 8 3 - 0 3 . 32 " N a t i v e s s e r v e d f i n e s o v e r p o a c h e d f i s h , " V a n c o u v e r S u n , 177 J a n u a r y 3 1 , 1 9 8 5 . 3 3 [ 1 9 8 7 ] 1 C.N.L.R. 145, [ 1 9 8 6 ] B . C .D.Crim. 568 3 - 0 2 . 3 4 ( 1 9 7 3 ) 34 D.L.R. (3d) 145, ( 1 9 7 1 ) 13 D.L.R. (3d) 64. 3 5 [ 1 9 8 7 ] 1 C.N.L.R. 145, a t p. 185. 3 6 I b i d , a t p. 165. 3 7 [ 1 9 8 2 ] 1 C.N.L.R. 99. 38 C l i f f A t l e o , t h e E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r o f t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d o f B . C . s a i d t h a t t h e f i r s t b y l a w s ( p a s s e d by t h e S q u a m i s h I n d i a n band) were a p p r o v e d b e f o r e t h e Dep a t m e n t o f J u s t i c e h a d g i v e n t h e i r o p i n i o n on t h e l e g a l c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h i s a c t i o n - w h i c h may be one r e a s o n why t h e y were a p p r o v e d . [ 1 9 8 3 ] B.C.D.Crim. 5 6 8 6 - 0 1 . 4 0 [ 1 9 8 3 ] B.C.D.Crim. 5 4 9 0 - 0 8 . 4 1 [ 1 9 8 5 ] B.C.D.Crim. 5 4 9 0 - 0 3 . AO [ 1 9 8 5 ] B.C.D.Crim. 5 4 9 0 - 0 5 . 43 . . . L a r r y P y n n , " I n d i a n f i s h i n g m e t h o d s r u l e d i l l e g a l " , V a n c o u v e r S u n , J u l y 10, 1985, p. A12. 44 " F i s h i n g c o n v i c t i o n s a g a i n s t b a n d members s e t a s i d e , " V a n c o u v e r S u n , O c t o b e r 24, 1985, p. A 1 5 . 45 Ron R ose a n d M o i r a F a r r o w , " R a i d s n e t p o a c h i n g s u s p e c t s , " V a n c o u v e r Sun, J a n u a r y 15, 1983. 46 Ron R ose a n d M o i r a F a r r o w , " P o a c h i n g c r a c k d o w n ' a t t a c k on I n d i a n p e o p l e ' , " V a n c o u v e r S u n , J a n u a r y 13, 1983. 47 " R a i d s a i m e d a t s p e e d i n g f i s h t r e a t y , " V a n c o u v e r S u n , J a n u a r y 14, 1983. 48 . . " F i s h o f f i c i a l s d e f e n d c h a r g e s , " G l o b e a n d M a i l , A p r i l 5, 1984, p. BC3. 49 " O t t a w a w i l l r e g r e t r a i d s , " V a n c o u v e r S u n , J a n u a r y 20, 1983. 50 T h e s e were R. v . M i t c h e l l , R. v . N a r c i s s e , R. v . C a m p b e l l , a n d R. v . G r a n t . Two c a s e s i n v o l v e d c h a r g e s o f r e s i s t i n g a p e a c e o f f i c e r - R. v . G i b s o n a n d R. v . D o u g l a s . T h e s e 178 c a s e s were d i s m i s s e d a s t h e two a c c u s e d were a t t e m p t i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e i l l e g a l s e i z u r e o f v e h i c l e s by t h e p e a c e o f f i c e r s . [ 1 9 8 5 ] 2 C.N.L.R. 156, [ 1 9 8 4 ] 3 C.N.L.R. 163. " L a s t c h a r g e s a g a i n s t I n d i a n s d r o p p e d i n f i s h s e l l i n g c a s e , " G l o b e a nd M a i l , A p r i l 4, 1984. 1 79 CONCLUSION: YOU WIN SOME, YOU LOSE SOME N a t i v e I n d i a n s u s e d t h e c o u r t s t o a s i g n i f i c a n t d e g r e e b e t w e e n 1969 a n d 1985; h o w e v e r , I n d i a n s h a v e u s e d t h e c o u r t s t o p u r s u e o n l y some o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s w h i c h t h e y a r e p u r s u i n g i n t h e p o l i t i c a l a r e n a . As n o t e d i n C h a p t e r 1, t h e p r i m a r y g o a l w h i c h I n d i a n s h a v e p u r s u e d i n t h e p o l i t i c a l a r e n a h a s been t h e r e c o g n i - t i o n o f t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t t o s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t , w h i c h i n c l u d e s e c o n o m i c r i g h t s t o l a n d a n d r e s o u r c e s . The a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h i s g o a l w o u l d g i v e n a t i v e I n d i a n s g r e a t e r c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r own l i v e s , e n a b l i n g them t o c h o o s e t o p u r s u e t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l way o f l i f e , a n d w o u l d a l s o i t i s h o p e d , l e a d t o an i m p r o v e m e n t i n t h e e c o n o m i c p o s i t i o n o f n a t i v e I n d i a n s . H o w e v e r , a s t h i s g o a l h a s n o t been e a s y t o a c h i e v e , n a t i v e I n d i a n s h a v e a l s o a t t e m p t e d t o a t t a i n t h e same e n d s t h r o u g h a v a r i e t y o f means i n t h e a b s e n c e o f a r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i r a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . I n t h e c o u r t s , n a t i v e I n d i a n s have n o t a t t e m p t e d t o a c h i e v e a r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i r r i g h t t o s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t ; r a t h e r t h e y have p u r s u e d g o a l s w h i c h c a n be t e r m e d " e c o n o m i c " f r o m t h e v i e w p o i n t o f n o n - n a t i v e s o c i e t y . T h r e e f a c t o r s c a n be i d e n t i f i e d w h i c h h e l p e x p l a i n why " e c o n o m i c " g o a l s h a v e been p u r s u e d i n c o u r t . The f i r s t f a c t o r i s t h a t l e g a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s e x i s t w h i c h a l l o w n a t i v e I n d i a n s t o p u r s u e t h e s e g o a l s . S i n c e t h e t i m e o f f i r s t c o n t a c t , n a t i v e I n d i a n s h a v e h ad s p e c i a l e c o n o m i c r i g h t s w h i c h 180 h a v e been r e c o g n i z e d ( o r b e s t o w e d ) by l e g i s l a t i o n o r by t h e a c t i o n s o f g o v e r n m e n t s . The v e r y e x i s t e n c e o f r e s e r v e s g i v e s n a t i v e I n d i a n s s p e c i a l e c o n o m i c r i g h t s t o l a n d a n d r e s o u r c e s on t h e r e s e r v e s , a n d t h e I n d i a n A c t p r o v i d e s a d d i t i o n a l e c o n o m i c b e n e f i t s s u c h a s e x e m p t i o n f r o m t a x a t i o n . The few t r e a t i e s w h i c h were s i g n e d i n B.C. a n d t h e R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n o f 1763 a l s o r e c o g n i z e d s p e c i a l I n d i a n r i g h t s t o l a n d a n d r e s o u r c e s . I n a d d i t i o n , by e n t e r i n g i n t o t r e a t i e s t h e g o v e r n m e n t i m p l i c i t l y r e c o g n i z e d t h a t n a t i v e I n d i a n s had s p e c i a l r i g h t s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , g o v e r n m e n t s d i d n o t r e c o g n i z e any s p e c i a l p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s o f n a t i v e I n d i a n s . B o t h t h e R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n a n d t r e a t i e s r e f e r t o I n d i a n s a s t h e s u b j e c t s o f t h e K i n g o r Queen. I n a d d i - t i o n , t h e e a r l y I n d i a n A c t s e s t a b l i s h e d a f o r m o f g o v e r n m e n t f o r r e s e r v e s w h i c h was u n r e l a t e d t o t r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a n f o r m s o f g o v e r n m e n t , w h i c h w e r e i g n o r e d by d e p a r t m e n t a l o f f i c i a l s . The s e c o n d f a c t o r w h i c h h a s c o n t r i b u t e d t o n a t i v e I n d i a n s ' u s e o f t h e c o u r t s t o p u r s u e e c o n o m i c g o a l s i s t h e i m m e d i a t e i m p o r t a n c e o f l a n d a n d r e s o u r c e s t o n a t i v e I n d i a n s . I n d i a n s d e p e n d upon l a n d a n d r e s o u r c e s f o r t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d , a n d must a c t t o p r o t e c t t h e s e when t h e y a r e e n d a n g e r e d , i n o r d e r t o p r e s e r v e t h e i r way o f l i f e . E c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t p o s e d an i m m e d i a t e a n d i r r e v e r s i b l e t h r e a t t o t h e s e r e s o u r c e s w h i c h demanded an imme- d i a t e r e s p o n s e . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e d o m i n a n t s o c i e t y t h r e a t e n e d t o r e d u c e t h e a l r e a d y l i m i t e d a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s 181 w h i c h n a t i v e I n d i a n s h a d e n j o y e d . As many g o v e r n m e n t s h a v e l e a r n e d , g r o u p s r e a c t much more s t r o n g l y when p r e v i o u s l y e n j o y e d r i g h t s a r e t h r e a t e n e d , t h a n when a d d i t i o n a l r i g h t s a r e d e n i e d . T h i r d , n a t i v e I n d i a n s h a v e e n c o u n t e r e d d i f f i c u l t i e s i n p u r - s u i n g t h e i r e c o n o m i c g o a l s i n t h e p o l i t i c a l a r e n a . D e s p i t e p r o - t e s t s a n d p r e s e n t a t i o n s , g o v e r n m e n t s h a v e l a r g e l y i g n o r e d I n d i a n c l a i m s t o l a n d a n d r e s o u r c e s when m a k i n g s p e c i f i c d e c i s i o n s on l a n d a n d r e s o u r c e u s e , w h i l e l a n d c l a i m s n e g o t i a t i o n s h a v e p r o - c e e d e d a t a s n a i l ' s p a c e . When g o v e r n m e n t s i n C a n a d a make d e c i - s i o n s a b o u t t h e u s e o f l a n d a n d r e s o u r c e s , t h e y a r e s u b j e c t e d t o p r e s s u r e f r o m many c o m p e t i n g g r o u p s . The p o l i t i c a l a t t r a c t i v e - n e s s o f r e c o g n i z i n g I n d i a n c l a i m s i s n o t g r e a t when c o m p e t i n g g r o u p s o f f e r j o b s a n d e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t i n r e t u r n f o r a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s . C o u r t d e c i s i o n s may f o r c e g o v e r n m e n t s t o t a k e n a t i v e I n d i a n s ' c l a i m s i n t o a c c o u n t , t h e r e b y r e m o v i n g t h e p o l i t i - c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s u c h d e c i s i o n s f r o m g o v e r n m e n t s . I n a d d i - t i o n , t h e u s e o f t h e c o u r t s by n a t i v e I n d i a n s c a n i n c r e a s e t h e c o s t o f i g n o r i n g I n d i a n s ' c l a i m s , b o t h i n t e r m s o f c o u r t c o s t s a n d by p o s t p o n i n g e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e r e b y c a u s i n g c o m p a n i e s o r g o v e r n m e n t s t o pay i n t e r e s t a n d o t h e r c o s t s w h i l e w a i t i n g f o r a c o u r t d e c i s i o n . We now t u r n t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r g o a l s w h i c h h a v e been p u r s u e d i n c o u r t , a s w e l l a s t h e s u c c e s s e s a n d d i f f i - c u l t i e s w h i c h I n d i a n s h a v e e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e i r u s e o f t h e c o u r t s . N a t i v e I n d i a n s u s e d t h e c o u r t s i n o r d e r t o e n s u r e 1 8 2 t h a t t h e y r e c e i v e d t h e b e n e f i t s t o w h i c h t h e y were e n t i t l e d u n d e r t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e I n d i a n A c t when d i s p u t e s a r o s e w i t h p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s o r t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t . The I n d i a n A c t c r e a t e s a s e p a r a t e l e g a l r e g i m e on r e s e r v e s w h i c h g i v e s n a t i v e I n d i a n s s p e c i a l e c o n o m i c r i g h t s , a n d n a t i v e I n d i a n s u s e d t h e c o u r t s i n s i x t e e n c a s e s d e a l i n g w i t h d e b t , t a x a t i o n , c o n t r a c t s , a n d t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f r e s e r v e l a n d i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e s e r i g h t s . W h i l e n a t i v e I n d i a n s w e re n o t s u c c e s s f u l i n a t t a i n i n g t h e i r g o a l s i n a l l o f t h e s e c a s e s t h e y d i d w i n some o f t h e c a s e s , t h e r e b y a c h i e v i n g b e n e f i t s w h i c h w o u l d o t h e r w i s e have been u n r e a l i z e d . N a t i v e I n d i a n s c h a l l e n g e d t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n A c t by t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t i n o n l y f i v e c a s e s , a n d t h r e e o f t h e s e c a s e s - t h o s e d e a l i n g w i t h s t a t u s a n d t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f r e s e r v e l a n d - were o f i m p o r t a n c e o n l y t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i n - v o l v e d . The f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t gave i t s e l f a g r e a t d e a l o f a u t h o r i t y o v e r l i f e on r e s e r v e s , a n d a g r e a t d e a l o f d i s c r e t i o n i n t h e e x e r c i s e o f t h a t a u t h o r i t y , when t h e I n d i a n A c t was d r a f t e d , l e a v i n g few o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l e g a l c h a l l e n g e s t o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e A c t . Ho w e v e r , one s u c c e s s f u l c h a l l e n g e t o t h e f e d e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h i s A c t was made i n G u e r i n v . The Queen, i n w h i c h t h e Musqueam band won $10 m i l l i o n i n c o m p e n s a t i o n f r o m t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t . I n a d d i t i o n , a n d p e r h a p s more i m p o r t a n t l y , t h i s c a s e e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t 183 d i d h a v e a f i d u c i a r y o b l i g a t i o n when a c t i n g on b e h a l f o f n a t i v e I n d i a n s , a n d t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s a c t i o n s c o u l d be s u b j e c t t o j u d i c i a l , r e v i e w . H owever, t h e e f f e c t o f t h i s j u d g e m e n t was s u b s e q u e n t l y l i m i t e d i n K r u g e r v . The Queen, when t h e c o u r t f o u n d t h a t t h i s f i d u c i a r y o b l i g a t i o n a p p l i e d o n l y t o t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , r a t h e r t h a n t o t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t g e n e r a l l y . A l t h o u g h t h e G u e r i n c a s e was a s u b s t a n t i a l v i c t o r y f o r n a t i v e I n d i a n s , i t s e f f e c t s h o u l d n o t be o v e r s t a t e d . The c a s e e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t had a f i d u c i a r y o b l i g a t i o n when a c t i n g w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e c o n d i t i o n a l s u r r e n d e r o f r e s e r v e l a n d ; h owever t h e r e a r e a number o f s e c t i o n s o f t h e I n d i a n A c t w h i c h g i v e The M i n i s t e r o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s a g r e a t d e a l o f d i s c r e t i o n i n m a k i n g d e c i s i o n s on b e h a l f o f o r " f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f " n a t i v e I n d i a n s i n o t h e r a r e a s . F o r i n s t a n c e , b a n d b y - l a w s must be a p p r o v e d by t h e M i n i s t e r b e f o r e t h e y come i n t o e f f e c t , a n d t h e r e i s no m e n t i o n i n t h e A c t o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w h i c h t h e M i n i s t e r must t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t i n g r a n t i n g o r d e n y i n g t h i s a p p r o v a l . D e c i s i o n s o f t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o many a r e a s c o v e r e d by t h e I n d i a n A c t may n o t t h e n be s u b j e c t t o j u d i c i a l r e v i e w . D e s p i t e t h e n e e d f o r M i n i s t e r i a l a p p r o v a l o f b y - l a w s , n a t i v e I n d i a n s on some r e s e r v e s were s u c c e s s f u l i n o b t a i n i n g a p p r o v a l o f b y - l a w s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e management o f t h e f i s h e r y on r e s e r v e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , n a t i v e I n d i a n s were a b l e t o c h a l l e n g e t h e a p p l i c a b - 1 84 i l i t y o f t h e f e d e r a l F i s h e r i e s A c t t o n a t i v e I n d i a n s f i s h i n g on r e s e r v e s i n f i v e c a s e s . T h i s d e f e n c e t o c h a r g e s l a i d u n d e r t h e F i s h e r i e s A c t was s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e l a s t t h r e e c a s e s when t h e s e were a p p e a l e d t o C o u n t y C o u r t . W h i l e t h e s e d e c i s i o n s h a v e b e n - e f i t e d n a t i v e I n d i a n s l i v i n g on r e s e r v e s where band b y - l a w s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e f i s h e r y h a d a l r e a d y b een a p p r o v e d , t h e y may h a v e a n e g a t i v e i m p a c t on s u b s e q u e n t a p p r o v a l s o f s u c h b y - l a w s by t h e M i n i s t e r . The s p e c i a l l e g a l ' r e g i m e w h i c h a p p l i e s t o n a t i v e I n d i a n s a s a r e s u l t o f t h e I n d i a n A c t a n d f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r I n d i a n s h a s c a u s e d l e g a l d i s p u t e s t o a r i s e when n a t i v e I n d i a n s h a v e p u r s u e d e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t on r e s e r v e s , a n d when band c o u n c i l s h a v e a c t e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y t o p u r s u e p a r t i c u l a r g o a l s . I n t h e T o u s s o w a s k e t c a s e , t h i s s p e c i a l l e g a l r e g i m e was an a d v a n t a g e , a s i t e n a b l e d n a t i v e I n d i a n s t o c h a l l e n g e t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l R e s i d e n t i a l T e n a n c y A c t t o r e s e r v e l a n d . H owever, i n f i v e o t h e r c a s e s w h i c h d e a l t w i t h t h e i s s u e o f t h e l e g a l s t a t u s o f b a n d c o u n c i l s , t h i s r e g i m e o n l y c r e a t e d a n o t h e r l e g a l h u r d l e f o r n a t i v e I n d i a n s t o o v e r c o m e i n a t t e m p t i n g t o a c h i e v e t h e i r g o a l s . I n two c a s e s , t h i s s p e c i a l r e g i m e a l s o p r o v i d e d n a t i v e I n d i a n h u s b a n d s i n v o l v e d i n m a t r i m o n i a l d i s p u t e s w i t h l e g a l a r g u m e n t s u n a v a i l a b l e t o n o n - I n d i a n s . N a t i v e I n d i a n s h a v e a l s o u s e d t h e c o u r t s i n o r d e r t o t r y t o p r e v e n t t h e a d o p t i o n o f n a t i v e c h i l d r e n by n o n - n a t i v e s . I n one 1 8 5 c a s e , a j u r i s d i c t i o n a l a r g u m e n t was u s e d , w h i l e i n t h e o t h e r two c a s e s n a t i v e I n d i a n s a t t e m p t e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t i t was i n t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f t h e c h i l d r e n t o be b r o u g h t up w i t h i n t h e I n d i a n c u l t u r e . None o f t h e s e a r g u m e n t s was s u c c e s s f u l i n p r e v e n t i n g t h e a d o p t i o n s f r o m t a k i n g p l a c e . N a t i v e I n d i a n s h a v e u s e d t h e c o u r t s i n 32 c a s e s i n a t t e m p t s t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s ( p a r t i c u l a r l y f i s h a n d w i l d l i f e ) a n d t o p r e v e n t damage t o l a n d a n d r e s o u r c e s t o w h i c h t h e y h a v e a c l a i m . H o w e v e r , I n d i a n s a t t e m p t e d t o a c h i e v e t h e s e g o a l s by u s i n g a r g u m e n t s d e s i g n e d t o a c h i e v e t h e l e g a l r e c o g n i - t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i n o n l y f o u r c a s e s - C a l d e r v . A.G.B.C., M a c m i l l a n B l o e d e l v . M u l l i n , R. v . D e r r i k s a n , a n d R. v . S p a r r o w . A l t e r n a t i v e l e g a l a r g u m e n t s were u s e d i n t h e o t h e r 28 c a s e s , a l t h o u g h a s s e r t i o n s o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s were u s e d i n some o f t h e s e c a s e s i n o r d e r t o s u p p o r t t h e a r g u m e n t s w h i c h were a d v a n c e d . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e p r i m a r y g o a l w h i c h h a s been p u r s u e d i n c o u r t h a s been t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f I n d i a n i n t e r e s t s i n l a n d a n d r e s o u r c e s , r a t h e r t h a n t h e l e g a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . N a t i v e I n d i a n s h a v e h a d l i m i t e d s u c c e s s t o d a t e i n t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o p r e s e r v e t h e i r a b i l i t y t o p u r s u e t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l way o f l i f e by a r g u i n g t h a t f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h r e g u l a t e s f i s h i n g a n d h u n t i n g s h o u l d n o t a p p l y t o them. The j u r i s d i c t i o n a l a r g u m e n t s w h i c h were u s e d i n c o u r t c a s e s a r i s i n g f r o m c h a r g e s l a i d u n d e r t h e p r o v i n c i a l W i l d l i f e A c t were 186 u n s u c c e s s f u l , g i v e n t h e a b s e n c e o f a n y c l e a r i n t e n t i n f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n t o p r o t e c t I n d i a n h u n t i n g r i g h t s . The c o u r t s h a v e a l s o been r e l u c t a n t t o r u l e t h a t t h e f e d e r a l F i s h e r i e s A c t d o e s n o t a p p l y t o I n d i a n s , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g any t r e a t y , r e s e r v e , c o n - s t i t u t i o n a l o r a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s w h i c h n a t i v e I n d i a n s may a s s e r t . B e c a u s e f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n o n l y r e g u l a t e s h u n t i n g a n d f i s h i n g , r a t h e r t h a n p r o h i b i t i n g t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s , t h e c o u r t s h a v e r u l e d t h a t t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n w i l l a p p l y t o n a t i v e I n d i a n s . One e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s r u l e h a s been t h a t t h e c o u r t s h a v e u p h e l d t h e h u n t i n g r i g h t s o f t r e a t y I n d i a n s , a s S e c t i o n 88 o f t h e I n d i a n A c t e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e s t h a t t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l l a w s t o I n d i a n s i s s u b j e c t t o t h e t e r m s o f t r e a t i e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e c e n t B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l d e c i s i o n i n t h e S p a r r o w c a s e e s t a - b l i s h e d t h a t a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s t o f i s h a r e g i v e n some p r o t e c t i o n by S e c t i o n 35 o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t . A l t h o u g h t h e c o u r t r u l e d t h a t t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t r e t a i n e d t h e power t o r e g u l a t e I n d i a n f i s h i n g , t h i s c a s e e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e r e a r e now l i m i t a t i o n s on t h a t p o w e r . Band b y - l a w s h a v e a l s o i n some c a s e s p r o v i d e d some p r o t e c t i o n f o r n a t i v e I n d i a n s f r o m t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e F i s h e r i e s A c t . N a t i v e I n d i a n s h a v e been s u c c e s s f u l , a t l e a s t so f a r , i n s e v e r a l c a s e s i n w h i c h t h e c o u r t s were u s e d t o p r e v e n t damage t o l a n d a n d r e s o u r c e s . L e g a l a r g u m e n t s b a s e d on t h e t o r t o f n u i s a n c e , a n d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f r e s e r v e a n d a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s 1 87 e n a b l e d n a t i v e I n d i a n s t o o b t a i n i n j u n c t i o n s w h i c h p r e s e r v e d l a n d a n d r e s o u r c e s u n t i l t h e r i g h t s o f I n d i a n s c o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d a t t r i a l . I r o n i c a l l y , g i v e n n a t i v e I n d i a n s a p p a r e n t r e l u c t a n c e t o u s e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s a r g u m e n t s i n c o u r t , s u c h a r g u m e n t s h a v e l e d t o i m p o r t a n t v i c t o r i e s . The C a l d e r c a s e ( a n d t h e c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f i t s m e a n i n g i n t h e G u e r i n d e c i s i o n ) e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e was an i n d e p e n d e n t l e g a l r i g h t w h i c h m i g h t n o t h a v e been s u b s e q u e n t l y e x t i n g u i s h e d . T h i s d e c i s i o n c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e c h a n g e i n t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s p o l i c y on t h e n e g o t i a t i o n o f c o m p r e h e n s i v e c l a i m s . A l t h o u g h l i t t l e p r o g r e s s h a s b een made a s a r e s u l t o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s r e l u c t a n c e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n n e g o t i a t i o n s , t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s s t a u n c h a s s e r t i o n s t h a t a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s h a v e b e e n e x t i n g u i s h e d were u n d e r m i n e d i n t h e r e c e n t B.C. C o u r t o f A p p e a l d e c i s i o n i n M a c m i l l a n B l o e d e l v . M u l l i n . T h i s d e c i s i o n s t a t e d t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e c o n t i n u i n g l e g a l e x i s t e n c e o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s was a q u e s t i o n w h i c h r e - m a i n e d u n a n s w e r e d , a n d t h a t t h i s was a q u e s t i o n w h i c h s h o u l d be a n s w e r e d a t t r i a l . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e c o u r t g r a n t e d t h e I n d i a n s an i n j u n c t i o n w h i c h p r e v e n t s t h e l o g g i n g o f M e a r e s I s l a n d u n t i l t h e i r r i g h t s c a n be d e t e r m i n e d a t t r i a l , e s t a b l i s h i n g an i m p o r t a n t p r e c e d e n t . I n one c a s e , W e s t e r n F o r e s t P r o d u c t s v. C o l l i n s o n , t h e H a i d a u s e d t h e c o u r t s a s a p u b l i c f o r u m where t h e y q u e s t i o n e d t h e j u s t i c e o f t h e l e g a l s y s t e m a n d o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s 1 8 8 a c t i o n s . A l t h o u g h t h i s c a s e d i d e l i c i t s y m p a t h y a n d s u p p o r t f o r t h e H a i d a f r o m t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c , l i t t l e c o n c r e t e p r o g r e s s h a s be e n made t o d a t e i n a c h i e v i n g p r a c t i c a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i r l a n d c l a i m s . I n a d d i t i o n , s i n c e t h e b l o c k a d e , m e d i a c o v e r a g e o f t h e L y e l l I s l a n d d i s p u t e h a s f o c u s s e d more on t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n s e r v a t i o n i s s u e r a t h e r t h a n on t h e i s s u e o f I n d i a n l a n d c l a i m s . I n c o n c l u s i o n , i t c a n be s a i d t h a t n a t i v e I n d i a n s h a v e u s e d t h e c o u r t s b o t h i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e l e g a l s o l u t i o n s t o d i s p u t e s , a n d a s a means o f p u t t i n g p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c p r e s s u r e on g o v e r n m e n t s . I n t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o use t h e c o u r t s t o a c h i e v e l e g a l s o l u t i o n s , I n d i a n s h a v e a c h i e v e d some s u c c e s s e s , p a r t i c u - l a r l y i n t h o s e c a s e s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n A c t a n d i n t h e G u e r i n c a s e . T h e s e s u c c e s s e s w o u l d n o t h a v e been a c h i e v e d i n t h e a b s e n c e o f c o u r t a c t i o n . I n d i a n s h a v e e n c o u n t e r e d some d i f f i c u l t y i n t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o e s t a b l i s h l e g a l l i m i t a t i o n s on p a r l i a m e n t s ' a u t h o r i t y t o r e g u l a t e h u n t i n g a n d f i s h i n g , h o w e v e r , t h e r e c e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f S e c t i o n 35 o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t i n t h e S p a r r o w c a s e was a s i g n i f i c a n t v i c t o r y . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s a y a t t h i s p o i n t w h e t h e r o r n o t n a t i v e I n d i a n s c a n a c h i e v e a s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e i r l a n d c l a i m s by u s i n g t h e c o u r t s a s a means o f p u t t i n g e c o n o m i c a n d p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e on g o v e r n m e n t s t o n e g o t i a t e t h e i r c l a i m s . To d a t e , n a t i v e I n - d i a n s h a v e a c h i e v e d some l i m i t e d g a i n s i n t h i s a r e a by u s i n g t h e 1 8 9 c o u r t s . C e r t a i n a r e a s h a v e been p r e s e r v e d u n t i l t h e r i g h t s o f I n d i a n s ^ c a n be d e t e r m i n e d , a n d t h e C a l d e r c a s e c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s d e c i s i o n t o n e g o t i a t e c o m p r e h e n s i v e c l a i m s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e p u b l i c i t y w h i c h h a s r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e c a s e s h a s i n c r e a s e d p u b l i c a w a r e n e s s o f I n d i a n s ' c l a i m s . H o w e v e r , t h e c o u r t s may s t i l l d e c i d e t h a t a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e h a s been e x t i n - g u i s h e d , i n w h i c h c a s e t h e s e g a i n s may mean l i t t l e . I f t h i s o c c u r s , n a t i v e I n d i a n s may f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o c o n t i n u e t o p r e s s f o r t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i r c l a i m s , a s t h e i r u s e o f t h e c o u r t s i m p l i e s a r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f c o u r t d e c i s i o n s . H o wever, t h i s seems t o be a r i s k t h a t a t l e a s t some n a t i v e I n d i a n s a r e w i l l i n g t o t a k e . 190 BIBLIOGRAPHY B o o k s and A r t i c l e s A s c h , M i c h a e l . Home a n d N a t i v e L a n d : A b o r i g i n a l R i g h t s a n d t h e C a n a d i a n C o n s t i t u t i o n . T o r o n t o : M e t h u e n P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1984. C a r d i n a l , H a r o l d . The R e b i r t h o f C a n a d a ' s I n d i a n s . Edmonton: H u r t i g P u b l i s h e r s , 1977. C o n t i n u i n g L e g a l E d u c a t i o n S o c i e t y o f B.C. I n d i a n s a n d t h e Law. 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