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John Everett Millais's Christ in the house of his parents : a Pre-Raphaelite religious image in the Royal… Kerr, Deborah Mary 1986

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JOHN EVERETT MILLAIS'S CHRIST IN THE HOUSE OF HIS PARENTS, A PRERAPHAELITE RELIGIOUS IMAGE IN THE ROYAL ACADEMY EXHIBITION OF 1850  By DEBORAH MARY KERR B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a , 1979  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f F i n e A r t s We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March 1986 © Deborah Mary K e r r , 1986  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be granted by the head of  department o r by h i s or her  representatives.  my  It is  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my  permission.  Department of  Fine Arts  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  20 March  1986  Columbia  written  i i  ABSTRACT  In 1850, John E v e r e t t Mi 11 a i s showed an u n t i t l e d d e p i c t i o n o f t h e Holy F a m i l y i n London's Royal Academy  Exhibition.  T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n f o c u s s e s upon M i l l a i s ' s work, which was s u b s e q u e n t l y t i t l e d C h r i s t i n t h e House o f h i s P a r e n t s , and upon t h e l a r g e l y n e g a t i v e response o f t h e t e n j o u r n a l s which  reviewed  it.  M i l l a i s belonged t o a group c a l l e d t h e P r e - R a p h a e l i t e B r o t h e r h o o d , w h i c h , d i s c o n t e n t e d w i t h t h e i d e a l i z e d High Renaissance s t y l e f a v o u r e d by t h e Academy, attempted t o c r e a t e a new form o f a r t .  C e n t r a l t o t h i s endeavour,  and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f  C h r i s t i n t h e House o f h i s P a r e n t s , was a m e d i e v a l i z i n g s t y l e and a m i n u t e l y d e t a i l e d n a t u r a l i s m .  I t i s most l i k e l y t h a t M i l l a i s hoped h i s work would be w e l l - r e c e i v e d , s i n c e both m e d i e v a l i s m and n a t u r a l i s m were a l r e a d y established i n the English a r t world.  N a t u r a l i s m appealed m a i n l y  t o m i d d l e - c l a s s a r t p a t r o n s , and m e d i e v a l i s m , t o o , had found a public.  Where M i l l a i s d i d d e v i a t e from t h e norm was i n combining n a t u r a l i s m and m e d i e v a l i s m w i t h r e l i g i o u s s u b j e c t m a t t e r , and here he made a c r u c i a l e r r o r , i n s o f a r as p l e a s i n g h i s p u b l i c was concerned.  While d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h Academic a r t was w i d e s p r e a d ,  i ii  p a r t i c u l a r l y among t h e middle c l a s s e s , t h i s was superseded, when religious  imagery was i n v o l v e d , by a f i r m  idealizing  l o y a l t y t o Academic  conventions.  As a r e s u l t , M i l l a i s ' s p a r t i c u l a r i z e d  figures  p e r c e i v e d as u g l y , and some j o u r n a l s even l i n k e d urban poor.  were  them w i t h t h e  U l t i m a t e l y , t h i s response was t i e d t o t h e i r  of t h e poor, and t o t h e i r r e j e c t i o n  fear  o f t h e l i b e r a l haute b o u r g e o i s  p h i l o s o p h y which had o r i g i n a l l y shaped t h e Poor Laws, i n 1834.  M i l l a i s ' s m e d i e v a l i s m was w i d e l y h e l d t o be a n t i t h e t i c a l to progress.  C r i t i c s from a l l p o s i t i o n s on t h e c l a s s  i c a l spectrum hastened t o a s s e r t t h e i r b e l i e f  and p o l i t -  i n p r o g r e s s , whether  i n t h e a r t s o r i n t h e s c i e n c e s , and t o c a s t i g a t e M i l l a i s f o r t h e apparent r e t r o g r e s s i v e n e s s o f h i s p i c t u r e .  Only one j o u r n a l ,  The G u a r d i a n , departed from t h e above  p a t t e r n and expressed a p p r o v a l f o r t h e work.  Significantly, i t  d i d not equate m e d i e v a l i s m w i t h r e t r o g r e s s i o n , and i t had no f e a r of t h e poor t o be a c t i v a t e d by M i l l a i s ' s p a r t i c u l a r i z e d  figures.  Nonetheless, i t experienced d i f f i c u l t y with the painting's naturalism, since, l i k e the h o s t i l e periodicals, the  i t too subscribed to  i d e a l i z i n g c o n v e n t i o n s o f t h e Academy.  I r o n i c a l l y , i t was o n l y when M i l l a i s f i n a l l y abandoned h i s m e d i e v a l i s m , and avoided r e l i g i o u s  subject matter  entirely,  iv  t h a t he began t o e x p e r i e n c e some of t h e c r i t i c a l  and  popular  a c c l a i m which he e v i d e n t l y hoped would be accorded t o C h r i s t i n t h e House of h i s P a r e n t s .  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  ,  i i  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  vi v i i  INTRODUCTION  1  Chapter I. II.  THE GENESIS OF CHRIST IN THE HOUSE OF HIS PARENTS . . RELIGIOUS IMAGERY AND CHRIST IN THE HOUSE OF HIS PARENTS  III.  9  39  THE CRITICAL REACTION TO CHRIST IN THE HOUSE OF HIS PARENTS  62  CONCLUSION  97  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  99  APPENDIX A  110  APPENDIX B  111  vi  LIST OF  ILLUSTRATIONS  Figure 1.  Page John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s , of  C h r i s t i n t h e House  h i s Parents,  2.  Robert Campin,  3.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s ,  111  The Merode A l t a r p i e c e  112  Sketch f o r C h r i s t i n  t h e House of h i s P a r e n t s  113  4.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s ,  Sketch f o r I s a b e l l a  114  5.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s ,  Isabella  115  6.  John Rogers H e r b e r t , his  7.  Our S a v i o u r S u b j e c t t o  P a r e n t s a t Nazareth  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s ,  116  Sketch f o r The  Benja-  mites Seizing Their Brides 8.  W i l l i a m Holman Hunt,  9.  George F r e d e r i c k Watts,  10.  F.R.  11.  Charles Eastlake,  12.  W i l l i a m Dyce,  13.  John Leech,  Pickersgill,  C h r i s t and t h e Two  117 Maries . .  The Good Samaritan  Samson B e t r a y e d  119 .  The Good Samaritan  The Meeting of Jacob and R a c h e l . . . The Cat's Paw;  .118  o r , Poor P u ( s ) s e y . . .  .120 121 .122 .123  vii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I should l i k e t o thank my a d v i s o r , Dr. David  Solkin,  f o r t h e i n v a l u a b l e a i d which he o f f e r e d throughout a l l stages o f this thesis.  The i n s i g h t s o f my second r e a d e r , Dr. Rhodri L i s -  combe, were based I greatly  i n h i s wide knowledge o f V i c t o r i a n a r t , and  a p p r e c i a t e h i s many h e l p f u l comments.  Other t h a n k s , o f a d i f f e r e n t though e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t n a t u r e , go t o Moiya Thompson, and e s p e c i a l l y t o J i m M o r r i s o n , f o r t h e i r c o n s i s t e n t encouragement and s u p p o r t .  1  INTRODUCTION  England  i n 1850 m a n i f e s t e d nothing, r e s e m b l i n g t h e  u n r e s t which had swept through two y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y .  i t ; , and through t h e c o n t i n e n t , o n l y  In t h e a r t s , however, i t e x p e r i e n c e d a con-  t r o v e r s y marked by such  i n t e n s i t y as t o s e t 1850  t o r y of n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y E n g l i s h a r t . p r o v o k i n g t h i s was  an u n t i t l e d p a i n t i n g which d e p i c t e d t h e  shown at t h e Royal Academy's annual  don, and which i s now (fig.  1 ) , was  The  Holy  image, which  summer e x h i b i t i o n i n Lon-  known as C h r i s t i n t h e House of h i s P a r e n t s ,  t h e work of John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s , a former Academy  s t u d e n t and member of a s m a l l group c a l l e d t h e Brotherhood,  apart i n the h i s -  The o b j e c t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  Family a t work i n S t . Joseph's c a r p e n t r y shop. was  social  Pre-Raphaelite  which c o n s i s t e d l a r g e l y of a r t s t u d e n t s .  1  P r e - R a p h a e l i t i s m , which i s o b v i o u s l y of g r e a t  importance  i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h C h r i s t i n t h e House of h i s P a r e n t s , has  intrigued  a r t h i s t o r i a n s , as has the p r o d u c t i o n and r e c e p t i o n of t h e p i c t u r e i t s e l f , and t h i s i n t e r e s t has generated w i t h the a r e a .  Perhaps the best of t h e s e i s A l a n Bowness's " A r t  and S o c i e t y i n England Two  a number of a r t i c l e s d e a l i n g  and France  i n t h e Mid-Nineteenth  Century:  P a i n t i n g s B e f o r e t h e P u b l i c , " 2 which i s g e n e r a l l y s t r o n g e s t i n  i t s a n a l y s i s of t h e symbolic c o n t e n t of t h e work.  Bowness, syn-  t h e s i z i n g information o r i g i n a l l y given i n W i l l i a m Michael R o s s e t t i ' s PRB  J o u r n a l , e x p l a i n s how  t h e p a i n t i n g , which i l l u s t r a t e s  an  2  imagined e p i s o d e from t h e c h i l d h o o d as a r e f e r e n c e t o t h e C r u c i f i x i o n .  3  o f C h r i s t , i s t o be understood C h r i s t , attempting  to aid St.  Joseph i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a door which l i e s upon t h e workbench, has  i n a d v e r t e n t l y gouged h i s palm upon a n a i l  instead,'* and t h e r e -  s u l t a n t wound i n h i s hand i s an o b v i o u s a l l u s i o n t o t h o s e o f t h e Crucifixion.  Bowness's argument i s weakest i n i t s e x p l a n a t i o n o f "why everybody was so u p s e t " w i t h C h r i s t i n t h e House o f h i s  Parents.  5  He does i s o l a t e t h e two key o b j e c t i o n s t o M i l l a i s ' s work which most o f t e n appeared i n t h e columns o f t h e t e n j o u r n a l s which reviewed it.6  These were:  f i f t e e n t h century  t h a t s t y l i s t i c r e f e r e n c e s made by M i l l a i s t o a r t were u n a c c e p t a b l e because such  prototypes  were themselves f i l l e d w i t h i m p e r f e c t i o n s ; and, t h a t t h e f i g u r e s were u g l y , o r deformed,- because they appeared t o be n o t h i n g more 7  than a c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e p o o r e s t  and most u n s i g h t l y slum d w e l l e r s  i n modern London.8  However, w h i l e Bowness p o i n t s o u t important  i s s u e s , he  does not f u l l y understand what they s i g n i f i e d i n 1850, and as a r e s u l t , i s a t a l o s s t o assess them.  For example, he q u i t e c o r -  r e c t l y w r i t e s that-some o f t h e c r i t i c s a s s o c i a t e d  Millais's  m e d i e v a l i z i n g s t y l e w i t h Roman C a t h o l i c i s m , which they s t r o n g l y d i s l i k e d , and t h a t t h e r e f o r e t h i s a n t i p a t h y towards C a t h o l i c i s m was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r a n t i - m e d i e v a l i z i n g stance.9  Beyond t h i s  3  p o i n t Bowness f a i l s t o p e n e t r a t e , and t h e c r u c i a l q u e s t i o n s o f why a "Roman C a t h o l i c " s t y l e should be found o f f e n s i v e i n a c o u n t r y which had been P r o t e s t a n t f o r c e n t u r i e s , and what, i n f a c t , C a t h o l i c i s m i t s e l f meant t o E n g l i s h ' . s o c i e t y a t m i d - c e n t u r y , a r e n o t addressed.  Edward M o r r i s ' s a r t i c l e , in t h e House o f h i s P a r e n t s , "  "The S u b j e c t o f M i l l a i s ' s C h r i s t  i s narrower i n i t s scope than t h a t  of Bowness, as M o r r i s c o n f i n e s h i m s e l f s t r i c t l y c e r n s . 10  t o t h e o l o g i c a l con-  He comments t h a t t h e iconography o f t h e p a i n t i n g must be  c l o s e l y s t u d i e d , but he f a i l s t o do s o , and almost i g n o r e s t h e work itself.  In a d d i t i o n , he n e g l e c t s t o examine t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e c r i t -  i c i s m , p r e f e r r i n g i n s t e a d t o s c r u t i n i z e t h e t h e o l o g i c a l sources f o r C h r i s t i n t h e House o f h i s P a r e n t s .  This p o r t i o n of h i s a r t i c l e i s  q u i t e u s e f u l i n t h a t i t i d e n t i f i e s an important the g e n e s i s o f t h e p a i n t i n g .  element i n v o l v e d i n  M o r r i s shows t h a t t h e t h e o l o g i c a l  o r i e n t a t i o n o f C h r i s t i n t h e House o f h i s Parents d e r i v e d from Anglo-Catholicism,  a s m a l l A n g l i c a n s e c t i n which M i l l a i s and many  of t h e o t h e r P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s  were/keenly i n t e r e s t e d , and c l a i m s t h a t  t h e p i c t u r e ' s A n g l o - C a t h o l i c t h e o l o g y was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s negative reception.  T h i s , however, i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y , because t h e c r i t i c s ,  who were not t h e o l o g i a n s , were n e i t h e r aware o f nor i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e A n g l o - C a t h o l i c t h e o l o g i c a l p o i n t s p e r t a i n i n g t o C h r i s t i n t h e House of h i s P a r e n t s .  They f a i l e d even t o d i s c u s s t h e s e  i s s u e s , and t h e i r  comments make i t c l e a r t h a t f o r them C h r i s t i n t h e House o f h i s Parents evoked concerns f o r t h i n g s o t h e r than t h e f i n e p o i n t s o f AngloCatholic  theology.  4  M o r r i s ' s c e n t r a l problem, which i s shared by Bowness, i s a f a i l u r e t o examine the h i s t o r i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s the House of h i s Parents was  produced.  i n which C h r i s t i n  T h e r e f o r e , when t h e s e  s c h o l a r s attempt t o e x p l a i n any of the elements p e r t a i n i n g t o the p a i n t i n g , whether m e d i e v a l i s m , p o v e r t y , or A n g l o - C a t h o l i c i s m , c o n c l u s i o n s are d i s t o r t e d and  i d i o s y n c r a t i c because they are  shaped by an awareness of what t h e s e  Lindsay Art,  subjects represented  E r r i n g t o n ' s S o c i a l and  their not  in  1850.  R e l i g i o u s Themes i n E n g l i s h  1840-1860, p a r t i a l l y remedies the d e f e c t s apparent i n the work  of M o r r i s and Bowness.^  E r r i n g t o n c a r e f u l l y examines the  of the p a i n t i n g , ^ and her d i s c u s s i o n of the c r i t i c a l 1  m e d i e v a l i s m , and of m e d i e v a l i s m i n g e n e r a l Here, she p o i n t s out t h a t m e d i e v a l i s m was i t as an emblem of s o c i a l o p p r e s s i o n i t was  1 3  and  iconography  reaction to  i s p a r t i c u l a r l y perceptive. viewed by those who  disliked  s u p e r s t i t i o n , ^ and  p e r c e i v e d as a n t i t h e t i c a l t o s c i e n c e and t o  progress.  that  1 5  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , E r r i n g t o n ' s s t r e n g t h i s a l s o her weakness, i n t h a t she e x p e r i e n c e s (which  g r e a t d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h the p i c t u r e i t s e l f ,  she seems t o d i s l i k e - ) , and w i t h M i l l a i s ' s purpose i n p a i n t i n g  i t , because she sees i t almost e n t i r e l y i n terms of i t s r e v i v a l i s m . She w r i t e s t h a t i t was to  " r e a l i t y as i t appeared t o the f i f t e e n t h ,  the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h a t [ M i l l a i s ] hankered  after;and,  because she seems t o have l o s t s i g h t of the f a c t t h a t C h r i s t i n t h e House of h i s Parents  i s a n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y p i c t u r e , which  not  5  was  directed to a nineteenth century p u b l i c , i s u l t i m a t e l y  t o e x p l a i n i t s modern elements.  unable  F i n a l l y she c o n c l u d e s , r a t h e r  u n s a t i s f a c t o r i l y , t h a t M i l l a i s was  "confused"  1 7  in connection  w i t h the work, but she g r a n t s i t a "warped a u t h e n t i c i t y " ^ of i t s 1  own,  (which she does not e x p l a i n ) , and moves on t o a d e t a i l e d  dis-  c u s s i o n of A n g l o - C a t h o l i c i s m .  D e s p i t e t h e i r s t r e n g t h s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the areas of iconography, m e d i e v a l i s m , A n g l o - C a t h o l i c i s m , and t h e g e n e s i s of C h r i s t i n t h e House of h i s P a r e n t s , t h e ' . . l i t e r a t u r e  surveyed  above l e a v e s a number of b a s i c p o i n t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e p r o d u c t i o n and r e c e p t i o n of C h r i s t i n t h e House of h i s Parents e i t h e r w h o l l y or p a r t i a l l y unexplored.  F i r s t l y , i f we are t o reach a f u l l e r  u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t h e work i t s e l f needs t o be examined i n more d e t a i l , as do t h e concerns of M i l l a i s h i m s e l f , coupled w i t h t h e n a t u r e a s p i r a t i o n s of P r e - R a p h a e l i t i s m .  and  In a d d i t i o n , C h r i s t i n t h e House  of h i s Parents e x i s t e d w i t h i n an e s t a b l i s h e d genre, t h a t of r e l i g i o u s imagery, and t h i s must be d i s c u s s e d i n o r d e r t o a s c e r t a i n t h e r o l e n o r m a l l y p l a y e d by such works.  L a s t l y , the c r i t i c a l  w i t h i t s two key i s s u e s of m e d i e v a l i s m c a r e f u l l y s c r u t i n i z e d and  social  response,  and p o v e r t y , needs t o be  l i n k e d w i t h the h i s t o r i c a l  circumstances  surrounding i t .  As much as p o s s i b l e , t h i s approach seeks t o c l a r i f y and why 1850.  how  C h r i s t i n t h e House of h i s Parents f u n c t i o n e d as i t d i d i n I t i s grounded i n t h e b e l i e f t h a t a p a i n t i n g , o r any p i e c e  6  o f a r t , speaks t o and i s p a r t of a s p e c i f i c moment i n t i m e , and t h a t , f a r from h o l d i n g a s i n g l e and e t e r n a l interpreted  significance, i t i s  i n d i f f e r e n t ways from g e n e r a t i o n t o g e n e r a t i o n ,  until  what i t o r i g i n a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d may become l o s t o r d i s t o r t e d . Only by a t t e m p t i n g t o r e c o n s t r u c t t h e m i s s i n g p i e c e s o f t h i s h i s t o r i c a l framework w i l l we begin t o understand  Christ i n the  House of h i s P a r e n t s , which i s among t h e most important o f P r e R a p h a e l i t e images.  7  FOOTNOTES  'Two o t h e r P r e - R a p h a e l i t e r e l i g i o u s images were e x h i b i t e d i n 1850. These were: Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i ' s Ecce A n c i l l a Domini!, a p a i n t i n g of t h e A n n u n c i a t i o n , which was shown a t the N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n ; and, W i l l i a m Holman Hunt's A Converted B r i t i s h Fami l y S h e l t e r i n g a C h r i s t i a n P r i e s t from the P e r s e c u t i o n of the D r u i d s , which appeared a t t h e Royal Academy. L i k e C h r i s t i n the House of h i s P a r e n t s , these were a t t a c k e d by the p r e s s , but Mi 1l a i s ' s work r e c e i v e d the most a t t e n t i o n . For a complete l i s t of the c r i t i c i s m , see Appendix A. 2Alan Bowness, " A r t and S o c i e t y i n England and France i n the Mid-Nineteenth Century: Two P a i n t i n g s Before the P u b l i c , " Transa c t i o n s of the Royal H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , v o l . 22 (London: The Royal H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , 1972), pages 119-139. 3Bowness, T r a n s a c t i o n s , v o l . 22 (1972), page126. ^The n a i l i s j u s t t o the l e f t of the V i r g i n . source f o r t h i s event i n unknown. 5  Bowness, T r a n s a c t i o n s , v o l . 22 (1972), page  Millais's 122.  ^These were:. The A r t J o u r n a l , The Athenaeum, Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, The B u i l d e r , The Guardian, Household Words, Punch, The S p e c t a t o r , T a i t ' s Edinburgh Magazine, and The Times. T h e Athenaeum, Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, and The B u i l d e r p r o t e s t e d c o n c e r n i n g the d e f o r m i t y of the f i g u r e s . Peri o d i c a l s c r i t i c a l of M i l l a i s ' s m e d i e v a l i s m were: The A r t J o u r n a l , The Athenaeum, Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, The B u i l d e r , Househ o l d Words, The S p e c t a t o r , T a i t ' s Edinburgh Magazine, and The Time's. 7  8The B u i l d e r , Household Words, Punch, and T a i t ' s Edinburgh Magazine. 9  Bowness, T r a n s a c t i o n s , v o l . 22 (1972), page  127.  ^ E d w a r d M o r r i s , "The S u b j e c t of M i l l a i s ' s C h r i s t i n the House of h i s P a r e n t s , " J o u r n a l of t h e Warburg and C o u r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e s , v o l . 33 (1970), pages 343-345. 11 L i n d s a y E r r i n g t o n , S o c i a l and R e l i g i o u s Themes i n E n g l i s h A r t , 1840-1860, (Unpublished d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of London, 1973).  8  ' ^ E r r i n g t o n , S o c i a l , pages 260-264. 1 3 i b i d . , page 47. 1 4 i b i d . , page 34. 1 5  Ibid.,  page 18.  1 6  I b i d . , page 247.  1 7  I b i d . , page 246.  1 8  I b i d . , page 247.  9  CHAPTER I:  THE  GENESIS OF CHRIST IN THE  HOUSE OF HIS PARENTS  In 1848, John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s and f i v e o t h e r young a r t i s t s : Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i , W i l l i a m Holman Hunt, James C o l l i n s o n , Frede r i c k George Stephens,  and Thomas Woolner, as w e l l as an a r t c r i t i c  c a l l e d W i l l i a m M i c h a e l R o s s e t t i , formed a group which they t i t l e d the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.  1  A c c o r d i n g l y , they s i g n e d some of  t h e i r works w i t h the i n i t i a l s "PRB," but agreed t o keep both t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s and t h e group's e x i s t e n c e a s e c r e t .  Although  an anomalous body of d i v e r g e n t p e r s o n a l i t i e s and v a r y i n g degrees a r t i s t i c a b i l i t y , t h e P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s were u n i f i e d i n a shared  of  dis-  c o n t e n t w i t h a r t as i t was t a u g h t by the Royal Academy, and by a d e s i r e t o develop a new type of a r t t o t a k e i t s p l a c e . 2  Academic a r t , i n which a l l t h e P r e - R a p h a e l i t e a r t i s t s been t r a i n e d , s t i l l T h i s was  f a v o u r e d the c o n v e n t i o n s of t h e grand  r o o t e d i n t h e works of t h e High R e n a i s s a n c e  Greece,^ and had been i n s t i l l e d e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y by Joshua  approach  classical  Reynolds, i t s f i r s t p r e s i d e n t .  i d e a l i z e d according t o the c l a s s i c a l 7  style.  i n t h e Royal Academy d u r i n g t h e  j e c t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e grand s t y l e were h e r o i c ;  "presiding p r i n c i p l e , "  and  3  had  stereotype.6  as Reynolds put i t , was  5  Sub-  and f i g u r e s were Stylistically, its  a generalizing  which was t o t r a n s c e n d t h e f l e e t i n g n a t u r e of " l o c a l  customs, p a r t i c u l a r i t i e s , and d e t a i l s of every k i n d , " produce t h e t y p e of a r t which would " l i v e f o r ever."9  8  in order to  10  The  Pre-Raphaelites  t h e Royal Academy was itself.  w i t h the c o n v e n t i o n s  q u i t e w i d e s p r e a d , e s p e c i a l l y among the  had been c o m p l a i n i n g  at l e a s t the e a r l y 1 8 3 0 ' s -  As The  10  about Academic a r t s i n c e  A r t J o u r n a l put i t , "the  u n p o p u l a r i t y of the Royal Academy i s . . . n o t o r i o u s .  The  . . . f e e l no sympathy and t a k e no i n t e r e s t [ i n i t ] . " continued  1 1  people The  critic  t o say t h a t the academicians were themselves at f a u l t f o r  t h i s because they had  While The  " r e p e l l e d a l l idea o f c h a n g e . "  12  A r t J o u r n a l d i d not e l a b o r a t e upon the  of t h i s change, i t i s not d i f f i c u l t  The  were, of c o u r s e , the m i d d l e i d a s s e s ,  (no one conceived  c l a s s e s as buyers of a r t ) , who  Art Journal's  "people," of the working  i d e n t i f i e d both the Academy and i t s  art  with a r i s t o c r a t i c t a s t e .  had  a t t a i n e d a s u b s t a n t i a l measure of p o l i t i c a l  1 3  nature  t o e x p l a i n such a marked l a c k  of sympathy w i t h the Royal Academy.  The m i d d l e c l a s s e s , which by  h i b i t e d the symbols of a r i s t o c r a t i c p r i v i l e g e . they wanted such i n s t i t u t i o n s t o correspond a s p i r a t i o n s and t a s t e s .  Pre-Raphaelites  1850  i n f l u e n c e i n Great  B r i t a i n , c h a f f e d a t i n s t i t u t i o n s like-/the Academy which s t i l l  own  of  not w h o l l y c o n f i n e d t o the Brotherhood  In f a c t , i t was  m i d d l e c l a s s e s , who  impatience  1  Not  ex-  unexpectedly,  more c l o s e l y w i t h  their  T h e r e f o r e , the d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n of the  e x i s t e d w i t h i n t h e _ l a r g e r c o n t e x t of m i d d l e - c l a s s  d i s c o n t e n t w i t h the Royal Academy and  its art.  As suggested by t h e i r chosen s o b r i q u e t of  "Pre-Raphaelite,"  11  p a r t of t h e group's r e j e c t i o n of t h e Renaissance  conventions  dominated the Academy i n v o l v e d a p r e f e r e n c e f o r the F l e m i s h I t a l i a n p a i n t e r s who adopted  had preceded  Raphael.  i d e n t i f i a b l e quattrocento t r a i t s  The  which and  Pre-Raphaelites  i n t h e i r own  paintings,  such as f l a t n e s s , n o n - l i n e a r p e r s p e c t i v e , and a n g u l a r or awkward postures.  S t y l i s t i c a l l y , C h r i s t i n t h e House of h i s P a r e n t s forms t o the Brotherhood's  con-  r e v i v a l of medieval t r a d i t i o n s .  In  t h i s c a s e , M i l l a i s borrowed from f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y F l e m i s h a r t , as e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e works of p a i n t e r s such as Robert Campin, Rogier van der Weyden, and t h e Van apparent correspondence  Eycks.  Perhaps the most  immediately  between C h r i s t i n t h e House of h i s Parents  and Flemish a r t can be p e r c e i v e d i n M i l l a i s ' s a d o p t i o n of t h e Flemish c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t i l t i n g o b j e c t s f o r w a r d toward viewer.  the  Examples of t h i s e x i s t i n The Merode A l t a r p i e c e , a work  by Flemish a r t i s t Robert Campin, ( F i g . 2), i n which t h e f l o o r r i s e s s t e e p l y as i t recedes  i n t o t h e background, w h i l e t h e t a b l e  and the bench t i p d r a m a t i c a l l y f o r w a r d . l e v e l , t h e V i r g i n and t h e Annunciate  Because t h e f l o o r i s not  angel seem t o perch p r e c a r -  i o u s l y upon i t , t h r e a t e n i n g , a l o n g w i t h the i m p o s s i b l y balanced f u r n i t u r e , t o tumble i n t o t h e v i e w e r ' s space.  As i n The Merode  A l t a r p i e c e , o b j e c t s i n C h r i s t i n t h e House of h i s P a r e n t s are t u r n e d f o r w a r d , a l t h o u g h i n a much l e s s pronounced way. has a g e n t l e upward t i l t , which  The  i s most e v i d e n t at t h e r i g h t  t h e l e f t s i d e s of t h e p a i n t i n g , w h i l e t h e door l a i d upon t h e  floor and  12  workbench  i s q u i t e o b v i o u s l y t i p p e d toward the v i e w e r .  The  sensation  of l e v i t a t i o n i s most apparent i n t h e a p p r e n t i c e , and a l s o i n S t . John t h e B a p t i s t , who do not seem f i r m l y anchored t o t h e ground.14  Flemish p a i n t i n g s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y f e a t u r e d cramped i n t e r i o r s , i n which the a r t i c u l a t i o n of space i s such t h a t t h e f i g u r e s and o b j e c t s do not appear t o have enough room.  This  approach i s r e c a l l e d by C h r i s t i n t h e House of h i s P a r e n t s , i n which t h e s i x f i g u r e s and l a r g e workbench  have been crowded  a space which i s t o o s m a l l t o h o l d them c o m f o r t a b l y .  into  The sense of  c l a u s t r o p h o b i a produced by t h e i n c o n g r u i t i e s i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f o b j e c t s t o space i s h e i g h t e n e d by t h e f a c t t h a t c a r p e n t r y , sewing, and basket-weaving must each be a c c o m p l i s h e d i n t h i s v e r y s m a l l i n terior.  In 1850, t h e F l e m i s h models f o r C h r i s t i n t h e House o f h i s P a r e n t s were p e r c e i v e d as b e l o n g i n g t o t h e medieval p e r i o d , s i n c e t h e date f o r t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e Renaissance was p l a c e d at a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1500.15  Not s u r p r i s i n g l y ,  popularly  contemporary  c r i t i c s viewed M i l l a i s ' s p i c t u r e as a m e d i e v a l i s t w o r k J ^  The P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s d i d not c o n c e i v e of themselves as medieval r e v i v a l i s t s per s e ,  1 7  and t h e y s t r o n g l y  differentiated  between t h e i r aims and t h o s e of o t h e r a r t i s t s whose i n t e n t seemed t o l i e s o l e l y i n "a s l a v i s h i m i t a t i o n of t h e q u a t t r o c e n t i s t s .  13  As W i l l i a m M i c h a e l R o s s e t t i put i t , " P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s t r u l y are--but o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , "  1 9  they  and a c c o r d i n g l y , w h i l e they  borrowed v a r i o u s elements from q u a t t r o c e n t o a r t , t h e s e were r e worked t o s u i t t h e i r own  needs.  The p o i n t behind t h e P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s i n s p i r a t i o n was  1  c h o i c e of  stylistic  a d e s i r e t o produce images c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e  s p i r i t of " e a r n e s t n e s s " and  " t r u t h " 2 0 which t h e Brotherhood  nized in quattrocento a r t .  In P r e - R a p h a e l i t e thought,  c e n t u r y p a i n t e r s had been a b l e t o execute  recog-  fifteenth  such admirable works be-  cause they had c l o s e l y s t u d i e d n a t u r e , unencumbered by t h e very a r t i s t i c c o n v e n t i o n s which t h e Brotherhood to  were themselves  struggling  shake o f f . 2 1  N e i t h e r an i n t e r e s t i n medieval i t were new  developments i n 1850.  ages had e x i s t e d i n England elements had begun appearing eighteenth  a r t , nor a d e s i r e t o r e v i v e  A n t i q u a r i a n i n t e r e s t in the  s i n c e t h e seventeenth i n domestic  c e n t u r y , and  middle Gothic  a r c h i t e c t u r e d u r i n g the  century.22  From t h e l a t e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , however, e n t e r e d a new  medievalism  phase, i n v o l v i n g , among o t h e r t h i n g s , an  r e v i v a l of the G o t h i c s t y l e , 2 3 which m a n i f e s t e d  itself  ecclesiastical i n t h e pro-  d u c t i o n of r e l i g i o u s p a i n t i n g s and of q u a n t i t i e s of m e d i e v a l i z i n g churches.  P a i n t e r s such as W i l l i a m Dyce, John Rogers H e r b e r t ,  and  14  W.C.T. Dobson had i n c o r p o r a t e d medieval q u a l i t i e s i n t o t h e i r works b e f o r e t h e Brotherhood began t o do so, although  own  their  archaisms were not n e a r l y as pronounced as those o f t h e P r e Raphaelites.  D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t m e d i e v a l i s m was f a i r l y established i n nineteenth  century  well-  a r t , the Pre-Raphaelites  1  use o f  i t had provoked some u n f r i e n d l y c r i t i c i s m i n 1849, e s p e c i a l l y i n the case o f I s a b e l l a , M i l l a i s ' s s u b m i s s i o n o f t h a t year.24 Although t h e reviews on t h e whole were p o s i t i v e , M i l l a i s  appears  t o have taken some o f t h e c r i t i c i s m o f h i s m e d i e v a l i s m t o h e a r t , and w h i l e he d i d not a c t u a l l y abandon i t u n t i l of t h e p r e p a r a t o r y  s k e t c h f o r C h r i s t i n t h e House of h i s Parents  and t h e f i n i s h e d v e r s i o n r e v e a l s a reworking elements. minent.  1852, a comparison  of i t s m e d i e v a l i z i n g  The medieval anachronisms i n t h e s k e t c h a r e very (Fig. 3).  Postures  are angular, f i g u r e s  pro-  attenuated,  space i s markedly c l a u s t r o p h o b i c , and t h e v a n i s h i n g p o i n t s have been l i f t e d up and out of t h e p i c t u r e .  By c o n t r a s t , f i g u r a l  a t t e n u a t i o n and a n g u l a r i t y o f pose have been decreased i n t h e f i n ished p a i n t i n g . positions.  Bodies a r e f l e s h e d o u t , and stand  i n more n a t u r a l  Space i s l e s s c l u t t e r e d and r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e r , and t h e  p e r s p e c t i v e has been r e s t r u c t u r e d so t h a t o b j e c t s recede i n t o t h e background i n a more n a t u r a l i s t i c manner. m e d i e v a l i z i n g aspects  E s s e n t i a l l y , the strong  of t h e s k e t c h have been d i m i n i s h e d  in the f i n a l version,25  or softened  perhaps i n an attempt t o f o r e s t a l l t h e  .15  n e g a t i v e comments of the a n t i - m e d i e v a l i z i n g p r e s s .  A s s o c i a t e d w i t h such h o s t i l i t y m e d i e v a l i s m had  acquired a p o l i t i c a l  was  the f a c t t h a t i n  s i g n i f i c a n c e , and was  1850,  commonly  i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the Tory p a r t y ' s Young England movement,26 and Anglo-Catholicism.  S t r o n g l y c o n s e r v a t i v e , and c l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h  the a r i s t o c r a t i c and c l e r i c a l  s t a t u s quo,27 these groups  of the medieval p e r i o d as a golden age, i t u a l i t y , and  conceived  i n which p r o s p e r i t y , s p i r -  s o c i a l harmony had been the d i r e c t r e s u l t s of upper  c l a s s and Church hegemony i n England.  As employed by t h e s e move-  ments, a r t i s t i c m e d i e v a l i s m corresponded t o a profound for  with  the vanished  admiration  s o c i a l p e r f e c t i o n of the middle ages, as w e l l as  a d e s i r e t o r e v i v e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f i t f o r modern usage. f o r e , w h i l e the P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s t h e i r search f o r a r t i s t i c  There-  employed m e d i e v a l i s m as p a r t of  " t r u t h , " and c e r t a i n l y not f o r the same  ends t h a t these groups d i d , the f a c t remains t h a t the Brotherhood was  borrowing from a t r a d i t i o n w h i c h , i n the minds of many, was  already linked with p o l i t i c a l  conservatism.  In t h e i r p u r s u i t of medieval " t r u t h , " the  Pre-Raphaelites  r e f u s e d t o g e n e r a l i z e t h e i r f i g u r e s i n accordance w i t h the i z i n g approach f a v o u r e d for  The  by the Royal  Academy.  ideal-  John Tupper, w r i t i n g  Germ, (the P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s ' magazine), commented t h a t  a n t i q u e , however s u c c e s s f u l l y i t may  have wrought, i s not  "the  our  model,"28 w h i l e W i l l i a m M i c h a e l R o s s e t t i i n s i s t e d t h a t " l o v e l i n e s s  16  can be E n g l i s h as w e l l as H e l l e n i c , " i n s p i t e o f academic "axioms" to the contrary.29  i n p l a c e o f t h e Academy's c l a s s i c a l i d e a l , t h e  P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s emphasized t h e c l o s e o b s e r v a t i o n o f n a t u r e . d i n g t h i s , W.M. saw,  R o s s e t t i s t a t e d t h a t , "what [ t h e  Regar-  Pre-Raphaelites]  t h a t they would p a i n t - - a l l o f i t , and a l l f u l l y ; and what  they d i d not see they would t r y t o do w i t h o u t . " * ^ 3  The d e s i r e t o p a i n t what they saw l e d t o an i n t e n s e n a t uralism.  The Brotherhood  p a i n s t a k i n g l y reproduced  t h e i r models w i t h such " s c r u p u l o u s f i d e l i t y , "  3 1  the features of  that the figures i n  a t y p i c a l P r e - R a p h a e l i t e work a r e a c o l l e c t i o n o f p o r t r a i t s . i n t h e House o f h i s Parents was no e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s r u l e .  Christ Every  f i g u r e i n i t i s a p o r t r a i t o f a M i l l a i s f a m i l y member, o r o f one o f t h e i r friends.32  As much as p o s s i b l e , e v e r y t h i n g was p a i n t e d from l i f e , and as c o r r e c t l y as p o s s i b l e , so as t o produce a work c h a r a c t e r i z e d by "truth"  and " s i n c e r i t y . "  3 3  The i n t e r i o r f o r C h r i s t i n t h e House o f  h i s P a r e n t s , w i t h i t s w e l l - u s e d t o o l s and workbench, was taken from a r e a l c a r p e n t e r ' s shop i n London.  The c a r p e n t e r h i m s e l f  modelled  f o r t h e body o f S t . Joseph, because, a c c o r d i n g . t o M i l l a i s , t h i s was "the o n l y way t o g e t t h e development o f t h e muscles r i g h t . " 3 4 A c c o r d i n g l y , e a c h r v e i n and sinew i n S t . Joseph's w i r y arms i s c l e a r l y articulated.  17  In c o n f o r m i t y w i t h t h e b i b l i c a l  account, and p r o b a b l y i n  t h e i n t e r e s t s o f h i s t o r i c a l a c c u r a c y , M i l l a i s d e p i c t e d h i s Holy F a m i l y as common t r a d e s p e o p l e , d r e s s i n g them i n p l a i n , t h i n  cloth,  and p l a c i n g them i n an a u s t e r e i n t e r i o r c o n s i s t i n g o f rough p l a n k i n g and packed e a r t h .  They a r e engaged i n one o f t h e a s p e c t s o f S t .  Joseph's t r a d e .  In t a k i n g t h i s approach, M i l l a i s was f o l l o w i n g a t r a d i t i o n a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e h i s t o r y o f a r t , which had also _appeared ;  i n contemporary  English painting.35  Only t h r e e y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y , a  work by John Rogers H e r b e r t , e n t i t l e d Our S a v i o u r S u b j e c t t o h i s P a r e n t s a t N a z a r e t h , which d e p i c t e d t h e Holy Family a t work, had been d i s p l a y e d a t t h e Royal Academy.  ( F i g . 6).  M i l l a i s ' s i n t e r e s t i n h i s t o r i c a l accuracy and i n n a t u r a l i s m was w i d e l y shared by m i d d l e - c l a s s p a t r o n s o f a r t , i n p r e f e r e n c e t o what they p e r c e i v e d as t h e a r i s t o c r a t i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d grand f a v o u r e d by t h e Royal Academy.  style  W i l k i e C o l l i n s , a f r i e n d of the  P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s , d e s c r i b e d both t h e a t t i t u d e s and t h e t a s t e o f t h e s e r e l a t i v e l y new m i d d l e - c l a s s p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e a r t market, Traders and makers o f a l l k i n d s o f commodities . . . s t a r t e d w i t h t h e new n o t i o n o f buying a p i c t u r e which they themselves c o u l d admire. . . .These rough and ready customers were not t o be l e d by r u l e s o r f r i g h t e n e d by p r e c e d e n t . . . .They saw t h a t t r e e s were green i n n a t u r e , and brown i n t h e Old M a s t e r s , and they thought  with:  18  the l a t t e r c o l o u r not an improvement on the former--and s a i d so. They wanted i n t e r e s t i n g s u b j e c t s ; v a r i e t y , resemblance t o n a t u r e ; genuineness of the a r t i c l e , and f r e s h p a i n t ; they had no a n c e s t o r s whose f e e l i n g s as f o u n ders of g a l l e r i e s i t was n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s u l t ; . . .so they turned t h e i r backs v a l i e n t l y on the Old M a s t e r s , and marched o f f i n a body t o the l i v i n g men. 36  On t h e s e grounds, i t i s q u i t e l i k e l y t h a t M i l l a i s hoped the f r e s h , g l o w i n g c o l o u r s of C h r i s t i n the House of h i s P a r e n t s , w e l l as i t s h i s t o r i c a l and  s t y l i s t i c v e r i s i m i l i t u d e , would  the t a s t e of such m i d d l e - c l a s s  While n a t u r a l i s m was  a r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t development i n  Holman Hunt, had each d e p i c t e d mation of the Brotherhood.38 they c o n s i d e r e d  r e l i g i o u s themes p r i o r t o the N o n e t h e l e s s , the q u e s t i o n  Pre-Raphaelitism  a marked emphasis upon v i r t u e , and t i n c t i v e l y moral works of a r t .  by a  was  remains as  by  d e s i r e t o produce d i s -  Adopting the high-minded tone t y p i c a l Stephens com-  "the A r t s have always been most important moral guides,"39  and t h a t "the good which may  it  for-  characterized  of the Brotherhood's a t t i t u d e towards p a i n t i n g , F.G.  . . .ho  William  r e l i g i o u s s u b j e c t m a t t e r p a r t i c u l a r l y approp-  r i a t e f o r Pre-Raphaeliti-sm.  mented t h a t  satisfy  v i s i t o r s t o the Royal Academy.37  M i l l a i s ' s work, he, as w e l l as Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i and  t o why  as  assignable  limit."  4 0  be wrought by t h e i r i n f l u e n c e  Given t h i s l i n k i n g of a r t w i t h  i s l i k e l y t h a t the P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s  i n the b e l i e f t h a t i t was  [has]  turned  morality,  to r e l i g i o u s material  the most l e g i t i m a t e v e h i c l e through which  19  t o express t h e h i g h e s t moral c o n t e n t .  As i m p l i e d by Stephens's  usage of the words "guide"  and " i n f l u e n c e , " the r o l e of such e t h i c a l l y pure a r t was  didactic.  Stephens wrote t h a t "the t r u e s p i r i t i n which a l l study s h o u l d be conducted  [was t o ] . . .chasten and r e n d e r pure, the humanity  instructed to e l e v a t e . " f o r c e d Stephens's  4 1  i t was  John Tupper, w r i t i n g f o r The Germ, r e i n -  i d e a i n e x p l a i n i n g how t h i s was t o be a c c o m p l i s h e d .  A r t , i n i t s most e x a l t e d c h a r a c t e r , addresses p r e - e m i n e n t l y t h e h i g h e s t a t t r i b u t e s of man, viz: h i s mental and h i s moral f a c u l t i e s . . . [ I t s h o u l d ] e x c i t e h i s r a t i o n a l and benevolent powers. . .and, the w r i t e r would add, man's r e ligious aspirations. 42  Tupper d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between such moral and a r t , and " 'Low  A r t , ' or A r t i n i t s less exalted c h a r a c t e r . . .  which addresses t h e l e s s e x a l t e d a t t r i b u t e s of man, sensory  intellectual  v i z : h i s mere  f a c u l t i e s , " 4 3 and he l i s t e d t h e v a r i o u s t o p i c s which  would e l e v a t e both p a i n t i n g and v i e w e r above t h e realm of t h e senses.  " R e l i g i o u s s u b j e c t s " 4 4 e r e i n c l u d e d i n the c a t a l o g u e W  of a c c e p t a b l e t h e m a t i c m a t e r i a l .  The P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s t i p u l a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g m o r a l i t y , w e r e a l s o a p p l i e d t o t h e c h a r a c t e r of t h e a r t i s t h i m s e l f . as v i r t u o u s , o r , as Stephens works.45  P a i n t e r s who  put i t ,  He was t o be  as "pure" of " h e a r t " as h i s  f a i l e d t o r e t a i n t h e i r p u r i t y would  l o s e t h e i r "high s e a t " as a r t i s t s , and would  also  " f a l l from t h e p r i e s t  20  to t h e mere p a r a s i t e , from t h e l i a w - g i v e r t o t h e mere c o u r t i e r . " 4 6 While i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t Stephens expected as p r i e s t o r Mosaic l a w - g i v e r t o be taken  h i s image o f t h e a r t i s t  l i t e r a l l y , h i s vocabulary,  which imbues both a r t and a r t i s t s , / w i t h . a q u a s i - r e l i g i o u s i d e n t i t y , ;  c l e a r l y shows t h a t t h e P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s ' concept of themselves as moral a r t i s t s  was h e a v i l y loaded w i t h r e l i g i o u s a s s o c i a t i o n s .  U l t i m a t e l y , a g r e a t d e a l of P r e - R a p h a e l i t e a r t t h e o r y o r i g i n a t e d i n t h a t o f t h e Royal Academy, d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t much of t h e Brotherhood's r a i s o n d ' e t r e was based i n a d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h Academic c o n v e n t i o n s .  L i k e t h e P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s , t h e Academy  d i s t i n g u i s h e d between high and low a r t , and i t t o o r e s e r v e d primacy of p l a c e f o r h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g , t h e genre i n which r e l i g i o u s  imagery  was i n c l u d e d , because o f t h e m o r a l l y d i d a c t i c r o l e p l a y e d by t h i s type o f a r t .  The major d i f f e r e n c e between P r e - R a p h a e l i t i s m and t h e  Academy l a y i n t h e area of a r t i s t i c s t y l e , a s , a c c o r d i n g t o academic thought,  t h e d e t a i l e d n a t u r a l ism: employed by t h e Brotherhood  a p p r o p r i a t e o n l y i n low genres, animals.  was  such as landscape, o r p i c t u r e s o f  4 7  Therefore,  in a d d i t i o n t o f a c i l i t a t i n g the production of  a r t o f t h e h i g h e s t moral c a l i b r e , t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e P r e R a p h a e l i t e s t y l e i n t o canvases o f r e l i g i o u s s u b j e c t matter a f f o r d e d an e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t y o f r e f o r m i n g Academic conventions.  T h i s was i n t i m a t e d i n an 1852 d i s c u s s i o n o f  also  stylistic  21  Pre-Raphaelitism,  i n which c r i t i c David Masson commented t h a t  the  Brotherhood; i n s i s t e d more upon t h e n e c e s s i t y of s t r i c t t r u t h i n r e f e r e n c e t o the f i n e r k i n d s of a r t i s t i c s t u d y . . .because c o n v e n t i o n a l i t y had here more f i r m l y seated i t s e l f , and e f f e c t e d a wider d i vorce between A r t and N a t u r e . 48  Given the high rank h e l d by h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t Massons's a l l u s i o n t o the " f i n e r k i n d s " of a r t  was  made w i t h i t i n mind.  In l i g h t of the P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s  discontent with  1  the  a r t i s t i c s t y l e i n vogue-at the Academy, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t they o b j e c t e d  when such s t y l i s t i c t r a d i t i o n s appeared i n the  r e l i g i o u s a r t shown at the annual e x h i b i t i o n s . R o s s e t t i reviewed the and,  1850  show f o r The  Michael  C r i t i c , a l i t e r a r y magazine,  as the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n r e v e a l s , h i s e v a l u a t i o n of  r e l i g i o u s imagery d i s p l a y e d t h e r e was Most of h i s comments c e n t r e d G.F.  Watts's The  regarding  upon s t y l i s t i c c o n c e r n s .  colour, asking  In examining  protested  s a r c a s t i c a l l y whether the  c o n d i t i o n of i t s " y e l l o w , b i l i o u s - l o o k i n g s u b j e c t s "  prompted the a r t i s t t o c o n c l u d e " t h a t the surrounding  --the  the  f a r from complimentary.  Good S a m a r i t a n , ( F i g . 9 ) , R o s s e t t i  i t s unnatural  "jaundiced" had  William  sky and  [ t h e f i g u r e s ] t h e m s e l v e s . . .should  be p a i n t e d of  c o l o u r seen by them."49  Frederick  ( F i g . 10), was  as a "melancholy" example of the  ness and t r i c k "  dismissed  objects, the  R. P i c k e r s g i l l ' s Samson B e t r a y e d ,  i n t o which t h i s a r t i s t had  "pretti-  f a l l e n s i n c e becoming an  22  a s s o c i a t e Academician.  Virtuous  R o s s e t t i a l s o took e x c e p t i o n Pickersgi11 s  Pre-Raphaelite  t o the two  t h a t he  women at the r i g h t of  work, whose o s t e n s i b l e purpose, a c c o r d i n g  1  was  t o produce a " f e e l i n g of suspense," but whose a c t u a l  was  "to wind themselves i n t o the u n a t t a i n a b l e  reminiscent  of the e r o t i c nudes of F r o s t and  Charles Eastlake's  The  was,  to R o s s e t t i , function  of nymphlike w a v i n e s s , " Etty.  5 0  Good S a m a r i t a n , ( F i g . 11),  was  t r e a t e d w i t h extreme r e t i c e n c e , i n t h a t beyond p r a i s i n g the  "inten-  t i o n i n the t y p i f i c a t i o n of the S a v i o u r as the Good S a m a r i t a n , " Rossetti pointedly t h e work.51  informed h i s r e a d e r s t h a t he would "not  discuss"  L a t e r , i n the c o u r s e of h i s s t r o n g l y n e g a t i v e  ment of E a s t l a k e ' s  assess-  i m i t a t o r s such as "the c u r i o u s l y puny and  v i l e " Dobson,52 R o s s e t t i a t t a c k e d  the  image i n d i r e c t l y by  claiming  t h a t the p i c t u r e s produced by E a s t l a k e ' s  f o l l o w e r s were "not  i n f e r i o r t o The  prototypei"53  Good Samaritan of t h e i r  An e x c e p t i o n  greatly  i n R o s s e t t i ' s h o s t i l i t y towards the r e l i g i o u s  imagery shown at the Academy appeared i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of Dyce, whose " d e l i g h t f u l " Meeting of Jacob and was  ser-  William  R a c h e l , ( F i g . 12),  the judged the most " t h o r o u g h l y s a t i s f a c t o r y . . . p i c t u r e i n the  exhibition."54 B r o t h e r h o o d , was  Dyce, g e n e r a l l y s y m p a t h e t i c t o the aims of also interested in revivalism.  interest in Anglo-Catholicism, r e l i g i o u s imagery.  the  He shared t h e i r  as w e l l as t h e i r w i s h : t o produce  Because of t h i s , R o s s e t t i ' s a p p r o v a l of Jacob  23  and  Rachel i s not hard t o u n d e r s t a n d .  remained h i g h l y c r i t i c a l  On the whole, however, he  of the o t h e r r e l i g i o u s images a t  the  Exhibition.  Rossetti also discussed in his review, focussing  C h r i s t i n the House of h i s P a r e n t s  upon i t s h i g h l y moral p r o p e r t i e s ,  p r i z e d by the B r o t h e r h o o d .  He p o i n t e d  e m i n e n t l y . . .sacred purpose" was of the Holy F a m i l y .  so  out t h a t i t s "noble  e x p r e s s e d through the  and  behaviour  J e s u s , wrote R o s s e t t i ;  has wounded His hand w i t h a n a i l , [ a n d ] . . . He k i s s e s and c o m f o r t s . . .His mother [who] k n e e l s t o b i n d up the h u r t . . .The i n f a n t S t . John the B a p t i s t advances w i t h a bowl of water; he who w i l l i n f u t u r e t i m e b a p t i z e i n t o His m i n i s t r y of s u f f e r i n g . . .The p i c t u r e t e l l s t h u s , . . .of J e s u s , s u f f e r i n g and c o n s o l i n g ; of the B l e s s e d V i r g i n , l o v i n g and s e r v i n g ; [and] of the B a p t i s t m i n i s t e r i n g . . .Is the idea unworthy? 55  O b v i o u s l y , R o s s e t t i ' s summation of the  i n t e r a c t i o n between  the members of the Holy Family i s phrased i n terms of t h e i r r o l e as paradigms of the h i g h e s t moral  qualities.  In a d d i t i o n t o i t s s t r e s s upon v i r t u e , C h r i s t i n the House of h i s P a r e n t s p l a c e s a s t r o n g  emphasis upon the blood of C h r i s t .  M i l l a i s achieved t h i s by s t r u c t u r i n g h i s p i c t u r e so t h a t the i s c o n t i n u a l l y d i r e c t e d back t o C h r i s t ' s b l e e d i n g stands i n the m i d d l e i o f  palm.  viewer  Christ  the p i c t u r e , h i s wounded hand l i f t e d  for  24  a l l t o s e e , and, due t o h i s c e n t r a l i t y and t h e f a c t t h a t a l l t h e orthogonals i n the painting  lead towards i t s c e n t r e , a t t e n t i o n i s  immediately caught by h i s f a c e and g e s t u r e . movement i n t h e work t o d e t r a c t are  There i s v i r t u a l l y no  from i t s c e n t r a l  scene; t h e f i g u r e s  immobile, as i n a t a b l e a u v i v a n t , e t e r n a l l y f r o z e n i n t o t h e i r  strained  positions.  Once our eye moves away from C h r i s t , we i n -  s t a n t l y encounter a f i g u r e , whose pose and gaze sends us back t o him, and  whose s i m p l e p h y s i c a l  i n t o t h e background.  presence b l o c k s us from p e n e t r a t i n g  The s c r e e n - l i k e  further  r o l e p l a y e d by t h e Holy Family  i s r e i t e r a t e d by t h e c a r p e n t e r ' s bench and t h e uncompromisingly f l a t and  s o l i d wooden w a l l behind i t , both o f which a c t t o push t h e  attention can  back i n t o t h e f o r e g r o u n d , and t o C h r i s t .  eventually  Although we  escape i n t o t h e _ l a n d s c a p e a t t h e l e f t , o r t h e s m a l l  room a t t h e r i g h t , t h e s e areas c o n t a i n l i t t l e of v i s u a l and  interest,  even here we a r e impeded, by a p l a s t e r w a l l a t t h e r i g h t , and  by t h e i n t e n t l y s t a r i n g sheep, (symbols o f t h e C h r i s t i a n who, l i k e t h e Holy F a m i l y , d i r e c t t h e i r gazes inward. and  i n e s c a p a b l y , we a r e f o r c e d  "flock"),  Repeatedly,  back t o C h r i s t , and t o h i s b l e e d i n g  hand.  This continual  c o n t e m p l a t i o n of t h e wound i s , o f c o u r s e ,  a c t u a l l y a m e d i t a t i o n upon t h e C r u c i f i x i o n , s i n c e t h e young injury obviously refers to h i s ultimate  fate.  Christ's  Allusions t o the  C r u c i f i x i o n appear i n t h e c r o s s above C h r i s t ' s "..head, i n t h e s p l a s h of b l o o d which has f a l l e n t o t h e arch o f h i s l e f t f o o t , and i n t h e presence o f l a d d e r , hammers, p i n c e r s ,  and n a i l s ; a l l i n s t r u m e n t s  25  which would n o r m a l l y be found i n a c a r p e n t r y shop, but which are also s p e c i f i c a l l y associated with the Passion.  The t h e o l o g i c a l  s i g n i f i c a n c e of C h r i s t i n t h e House of  h i s P a r e n t s i s f u r t h e r c l a r i f i e d by t h e presence of t h e door upon the w o r k b e n c h .  56  In t h e Gospel of S t . John, C h r i s t speaks o f h i m s e l f  as "the door," and comments t h a t ,  " i f anyone e n t e r s by me,  he w i l l  be saved, and w i l l go i n and out and f i n d p a s t u r e . . .1 am t h e good shepherd.  The good shepherd l a y s down h i s l i f e f o r t h e  sheep."  57  C h r i s t ' s a c t o f " l a y i n g down h i s l i f e f o r the sheep," p r e f i g u r e d i n C h r i s t i n the House of h i s P a r e n t s by t h e i n j u r e d palm, i s t h e "dooe" to s a l v a t i o n .  The v i e w e r i s always d i r e c t e d back t o C h r i s t ' s wound  because i t , o r m o r e i s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e atonement f o r s i n e n t a i l e d within  i t , i s t h e "door" through which a l l must f i r s t pass i n o r d e r  t o be saved.  T h i s k i n d o f symbolism i s t y p o l o g i c a l . That i s , M i l l a i s d e p i c t s a legendary e v e n t , ( t h e a c c i d e n t i n t h e c a r p e n t e r ' s s h o p ) , which assumes meaning o n l y i f i t i s understood as a p r e f i g u r a t i v e reference to a l a t e r occurrence ( t h e l C r u c i f i x i o n ) .  N i n e t e e n t h cen-  t u r y C h r i s t i a n i t y c o n t a i n s numerous examples of the t y p o l o g i c a l approach t o r e l i g i o u s s u b j e c t s . 8 5  I t was employed  by both Evangel-  i c a l and High Church A n g l i c a n s , as w e l l as by some D i s s e n t i n g b o d i e s , most n o r m a l l y as a t o o l w i t h which t o g i v e t h e Old relevance f o r C h r i s t i a n s . ^ 5  Testament  Through t y p o l o g y , even t h e most arcane  26  passages i n the Old Testament c o u l d be i n v e s t e d w i t h contemporary s i g n i f i c a n c e , once they were p r e s e n t e d as d i s g u i s e d r e f e r e n c e s t o the  New.  Although most of M i l l a i s ' s t y p o l o g i c a l r e f e r e n c e s are c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e time p e r i o d of t h e l i f e of C h r i s t , so as t o l i n k C h r i s t ' s c h i l d h o o d w i t h h i s a d u l t m i s s i o n , C h r i s t i n t h e House of h i s Parents does i n c l u d e t h e more common k i n d of :typology i n which-the  Old Testament was  made t o a l l u d e t o t h e  New.  M i l l a i s employed a v e r s e from the Old Testament as h i s t i t l e f o r the p i c t u r e . one  The=verse, Z e c h a r i a h  6 0  s h a l l say unto him,  13:6,  reads,  "And  'What are t h e s e wounds i n t h i n e hands?'  Then he s h a l l answer, 'Those w i t h which I was wounded i n t h e house of my f r i e n d s . " 1  In a p p l y i n g Z e c h a r i a h  13: 6 t o C h r i s t i n t h e House  of h i s P a r e n t s , M i l l a i s made t h e s c r i p t u r e a c t as a t y p e f o r the events p o r t r a y e d i n h i s work:  t h e "wounds" mentioned by  Zechariah  become t h a t i n t h e young C h r i s t ' s palm; t h e "house" corresponds t h e c a r p e n t r y shop i n which t h e wounding t a k e s p l a c e ; and " f r i e n d s " are t h e members of t h e Holy F a m i l y . of c o u r s e , C h r i s t h i m s e l f . a l l of Z e c h a r i a h  He who  to  the  "answers" i s ,  U l t i m a t e l y , according to t h i s reading,  13: 6 r e f e r s t o t h e wound s u f f e r e d by C h r i s t as a  young c h i l d , and, by i m p l i c a t i o n , t o those of t h e  While employing  Crucifixion.  t h e t y p o l o g i c a l method common t o many  27  r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n England, M i l l a i s ' s p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Z e c h a r i a h  13:6  t h e A n g l i c a n Church.61 held that Zechariah  o r i g i n a t e d w i t h a s p e c i f i c group w i t h i n These were the A n g l o - C a t h o l i c s , who  13:6  alluded to  Christ.  6 2  M i l l a i s ' s conversion to Anglo-Catholicism,  short-lived  though e v i d e n t l y s i n c e r e , i s f a i r l y w e l l documented. he f r e q u e n t l y attended working v a c a t i o n s Catholic couple. Anglo-Catholic  an A n g l o - C a t h o l i c c h u r c h ,  i n Oxford,  6 4  alone  6 3  In London,  and d u r i n g h i s  he stayed w i t h the Combes, an::Anglo-  His l e t t e r s t o them o f t e n r e f e r t o  specifically  concerns.65  According  t o Hunt, the o r i g i n a l  idea f o r C h r i s t i n the  House of h i s Parents came from a sermon M i l l a i s had heard at i n the summer of 1849, text.  6 6  which took Zechariah". 13:6  In l i g h t of M i l l a i s ' s c o n n e c t i o n  with  Oxford  as i t s c e n t r a l  Anglo-Catholicism,  i t i s l i k e l y t h a t Hunt's a c c o u n t , though w r i t t e n long a f t e r the fact, is correct.  Oxford was  the t r a d i t i o n a l h e a d q u a r t e r s o f t h e Anglo-  C a t h o l i c movement; the sermon M i l l a i s heard t h e r e must have been d e l i v e r e d by an A n g l o - C a t h o l i c m i n i s t e r . by Edward Bouverie who,  Pusey, who  d u r i n g the 1840's, was  theologian. 7 6  taught  Perhaps i t was  even g i v e n  and preached i n t h e c i t y ,  and  perhaps the best-known A n g l o - C a t h o l i c  Anyone w i t h an i n t e r e s t i n the s e c t would have  28  made a p o i n t o f a t t e n d i n g h i s sermons. Zechariah  13:6  However, the presence of  i n d i c a t e s t h a t A n g l o - C a t h o l i c i s m was  c l e a r l y involved  i n the g e n e s i s of C h r i s t i n the House of h i s P a r e n t s , r e g a r d l e s s of who  a c t u a l l y d e l i v e r e d the sermon.  As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, A n g l o - C a t h o l i c i s m stood f o r s t r o n g l y c o n s e r v a t i v e v a l u e s , and as a r e s u l t , i t remained a t the c e n t r e of c o n t r o v e r s y t h r o u g h o u t i t s h i s t o r y .  While n e i t h e r M i l l a i s  nor the o t h e r P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s c o u l d have been unaware of  Anglo-  C a t h o l i c i s m ' s p o l i t i c a l nature, i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h i s aspect i t was  of  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n the s e c t .  Perhaps the most obvious R a p h a e l i t e Brotherhood  p o i n t of c o n t a c t betwen t h e  and A n g l o - C a t h o l i c i s m l a y i n a shared  c i n a t i o n w i t h t h e medieval  period.  C a t h o l i c s i d e n t i f i e d the m i d d l e  L i k e the Brotherhood,  Prefas-  Anglo-  ages w i t h a s p i r i t of p u r i t y  c o n s p i c u o u s l y absent from modern t i m e s , and,  i n an approach much  l i k e t h a t of P r e - R a p h a e l i t i s m , A n g l o - C a t h o l i c s everywhere r e v i v e d a s p e c t s of medieval  culture.  G o t h i c a r t and a r c h i t e c t u r e , as w e l l  as a n c i e n t r e l i g i o u s r i t u a l were r e s u s c i t a t e d i n an attempt t o i n still  a m y s t i c a l aura of medieval  worship.  spirituality  T h e r e f o r e , as f a r as m e d i e v a l i s m  was  i n contemporary concerned,  Anglo-  C a t h o l i c i s m must have seemed p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t r a c t i v e t o the  Brother-  hood, even though the P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s employed i t as p a r t of t h e i r  29  r e f o r m i n g approach t o the a r t s , and not f o r the p o l i t i c a l l y cons e r v a t i v e ends which c h a r a c t e r i z e d the A n g l i c a n movement.  That M i l l a i s h i m s e l f was  drawn t o the m e d i e v a l i z i n g s e r -  v i c e s o f f e r e d by A n g l o - C a t h o l i c i s m was h i s l e t t e r s t o Mrs. Combe.  c l e a r l y expressed  In a d i s c u s s i o n of the  i n one  Ango-Catholic  church he o f t e n a t t e n d e d , M i l l a i s commented a p p r o v i n g l y t h a t s e r v i c e t h e r e i s b e t t e r performed than any. b r i d g e . "68  The church  W e l l s S t r e e t , was  of  "the  . . i n Oxford o r Cam-  i n q u e s t i o n , G o t h i c r e v i v a l S t . Andrew's,  known f o r the grandeur o f i t s s e r v i c e s . 6 9  M i l l a i s ' s i n t e r e s t i n the i m p r e s s i v e nature of C a t h o l i c s e r v i c e s was  shared by many A n g l i c a n s , who  Anglo-  f e l t a dissat-  i s f a c t i o n w i t h the e x i s t i n g forms of Church of England  worship.  I t i s v i t a l t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t the A n g l o - C a t h o l i c changes i n the church  s e r v i c e were not made s i m p l y f o r the purposes of show, nor  were they r e c e i v e d as such by A n g l i c a n c o n g r e g a t i o n s . every aspect of the new  r i t u a l was  t o be understood  Instead,  as the symbol  of a major t h e o l o g i c a l p o i n t , and as such, r i t u a l assumed g r e a t importance f o r c h u r c h - g o e r s ,  because i t was  an unmistakeable  c a t o r of the t h e o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n of any p a r t i c u l a r  indi-  church.  Perhaps, as i n the case of o t h e r A n g l i c a n s , M i l l a i s ' s i n t e r e s t i n the m e d i e v a l i z i n g s e r v i c e s of the A n g l o - C a t h o l i c movement o r i g i n a t e d i n an a p p r e c i a t i v e awareness t h a t such r i t u a l  30  corresponded  t o t h e f r e s h t h e o l o g i c a l t r u t h s which t h e s e c t had  brought t o t h e Church o f England. c u r r e n t l y i n v o l v e d i n an attempt  Given t h a t M i l l a i s h i m s e l f was t o produce a v  new and more t r u t h f u l  r e l i g i o u s imagery of h i s own, t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f A n g l o - C a t h o l i c elements i n t o C h r i s t i n t h e House of h i s P a r e n t s c o u l d have seemed a most a p p r o p r i a t e way o f doing s o .  In summary, C h r i s t i n t h e House o f h i s Parents c o n s i s t s of d i v e r s e a s p e c t s , mixed t o g e t h e r by M i l l a i s i n h i s e f f o r t t o develop a new P r e - R a p h a e l i t e r e l i g i o u s imagery, which would t a k e t h e p l a c e o f t h a t n o r m a l l y chosen by t h e Royal Academy.  Medievali-  z i n g " e a r n e s t n e s s " would r e p l a c e t h e s l i c k n e s s and i n s i n c e r i t y o f t h e Academy's Renaissance i n naturalismv.would Academic a r t .  t r a d i t i o n s , while the " t r u t h "  entailed  supplant the i d e a l i z e d stereotypes c e n t r a l t o  Although  none o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l components which  make up C h r i s t i n t h e House of h i s P a r e n t s were o r i g i n a l t o t h e P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s , o r even p a r t i c u l a r l y new i n 1850, t o g e t h e r they were n o v e l , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t of t h e Royal  Academy;  as such, they posed a d i s t i n c t c h a l l e n g e t o i t s accepted  While  aesthetic.70  i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o assess what m o t i v a t e s an a r t i s t ,  i t does not appear t h a t M i l l a i s p a i n t e d C h r i s t i n t h e House o f h i s Parents with the s l i g h t e s t i n t e n t of o f f e n d i n g the p u b l i c .  Millais  had been a c h i l d p r o d i g y , who, a t t h e age o f e l e v e n , embarked upon h i s f o r m a l t r a i n i n g a t t h e Royal Academy.71  He was c l e a r l y  able  31  and w i l l i n g t o p l e a s e h i s i n s t r u c t o r s , and had won  a s e r i e s of  awards f o r h i s work, i n c l u d i n g t h e Academy's g o l d medal f o r p a i n t i n g . The  i m p r e s s i o n g i v e n by M i l l a i s i n 1850  and  i n t e l l i g e n t , though not n e c e s s a r i l y i n t e l l e c t u a l  old,  deeply  i s t h a t of a h i g h - s p i r i t e d twenty-year  immersed i n a r t , possessed o f f o r m i d a b l e t a l e n t s ,  j u s t venturing i n t o a promising  career.  C e r t a i n l y t h e r e was  i n h i s past t o suggest t h a t h i s a s p i r a t i o n s c o n s i s t e d of  Although  he was  faith.  artistic  so o b v i o u s l y being groomed.  i n t e r e s t e d i n r e l i g i o u s a r t and  A n g l o - C a t h o l i c movement, M i l l a i s was estrange  nothing  anything  o t h e r than p l e a s i n g h i s p u b l i c , and a t t a i n i n g the p l a c e of prominence f o r which he was  and  i n the  no C h r i s t i a n z e a l o t , ready t o  p u b l i c o p i n i o n through the uncompromising e x p r e s s i o n of h i s That he was  attempting  t o c r e a t e a new  k i n d of a r t , which:  would be n o t i c e d , and which would r e p l a c e the out-moded  conventions  o f the Royal Academy i s c l e a r , but t h a t h i s p i c t u r e would o u t r a g e r a t h e r than p l e a s e , and t h a t the a t t e n t i o n he sought would assume the form of n o t o r i e t y , does not seem t o have o c c u r r e d t o  One  s m a l l c l o u d d i d appear, j u s t b e f o r e the opening o f the  Royal Academy e x h i b i t i o n .  The meaning o f the i n i t i a l s  d i s c o v e r e d and r e v e a l e d t o the p u b l i c by The News.  him.  "PRB"  was  I l l u s t r a t e d London  I t s c r i t i c , Angus Reach, adopted a condescending tone as  d i s c u s s e d the "new-fashioned s c h o o l or s t y l e i n p a i n t i n g l a t e l y come i n t o vogue," and he c r i t i c i z e d t h e  Pre-Raphaelites'  he  32  m e d i e v a l i z i n g s t y l e , ( " s a i n t s squeezed out p e r f e c t l y  flat.") 3 7  S i n c e t h i s p e r i o d i c a l had a c i r c u l a t i o n of c l o s e t o 100,000, and s i n c e i t t a r g e t e d a p u b l i c l i k e l y t o a t t e n d t h e Academy s h o w ,  74  many of t h e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 200,000 v i s i t o r s ^ t o t h e e x h i b i t i o n 7  would p r o b a b l y have e n t e r e d i t w i t h Reach's s a r c a s t i c comments c o n c e r n i n g a m e d i e v a l i z i n g "Brotherhood" f r e s h i n t h e i r minds. A p a r t from t h i s , however, t h e r e was  n o t h i n g t o prepare. Mi 1 l a i s  and  t h e o t h e r P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s f o r t h e h o s t i l e press r e l e a s e s of t h e f o l l o w i n g few months.  In f a c t , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t M i l l a i s awaited t h e of t h e e x h i b i t i o n i n a f a i r l y o p t i m i s t i c frame of mind.  opening The gen-  e r a l l y p o s i t i v e r e v i e w s of 1849, coupled w i t h the knowledge t h a t ; ! a l l t h e P r e - R a p h a e l i t e ^ i m a g e s of t h a t y e a r had found b u y e r s , had prompted h i s c o n f i d e n t a s s e r t i o n t h a t "the success of t h e PRB i s now  quite c e r t a i n . "  7 6  His 1850 s u b m i s s i o n , w i t h i t s p o t e n t i a l l y  p r o b l e m a t i c m e d i e v a l i s m e v i d e n t l y re-worked t o h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , and i t s c o m b i n a t i o n of n a t u r a l i s m and t y p o l o g y , must have seemed j u s t the r i g h t m i x t u r e t o guarantee  PRB  success.  33  FOOTNOTES  J o h n G. M i l l a i s , The L i f e and L e t t e r s o f S i r John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s , 2 vols. (New York: F r e d e r i c k A. S t o k e s , 1899), v o l . 1, page 49. 1  2 M i l l a i s , L i f e , v o l . 1, page 49.  don:  3joshua Reynolds, " D i s c o u r s e F i v e , " D i s c o u r s e s on A r t , (LonOxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1794; r e p r i n t ed., 1907), page 59.  ^Reynolds, " D i s c o u r s e Three," D i s c o u r s e s , page 32. Reynolds, " D i s c o u r s e Four,"  D i s c o u r s e s , page 37.  6Reynolds, " D i s c o u r s e Three," D i s c o u r s e s , page 24.  Reynolds, " D i s c o u r s e Four,"  7  D i s c o u r s e s , page 53.  8  Reynolds,  " D i s c o u r s e Three," D i s c o u r s e s , page 26.  9  Reynolds,  " D i s c o u r s e Four,"  D i s c o u r s e s , page 53.  1°Bridget E l l i o t t , P a i n t i n g and P o l i t i c s a t t h e Royal Academy E x h i b i t i o n o f 1832, (Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1982), pages 30-31. [ P r o b a b l y James D a f f o r n e ] , "The Royal Academy," J o u r n a l , v o l . 12 (1 June 1850), page 165. 1 1  The A r t  13Anon., "Punch Among t h e P i c t u r e s , F l i g h t t h e F i r s t , " Punch, v o l . 18 ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 15 May 1850), page 193. Punch, a m i d d l e c l a s s j o u r n a l , d i s l i k e d "the v e l v e t d o u b l e t s and s i l k hose," w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g t o i t s c r i t i c , made up t h e bulk o f Academic s u b j e c t m a t t e r . For Punch's c l a s s a f f i l i a t i o n s , see R. P r i c e , A H i s t o r y o f Punch, (London: C o l l i n s , 1957), page 31. F o r t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e f i g u r e s , see W i l l i a m M i c h a e l R o s s e t t i , The PRB J o u r n a l , W i l l i a m M i c h a e l R o s s e t t i ' s D i a r y o f t h e P r e - R a p h a e l i t e Brotherhood, 1849-1853, E d i t e d by W i l l i a m Fredeman, ( O x f o r d : The Clarendon P r e s s , 1975), page 21. 1 4  1 5 E r r i n g t o n , S o c i a l , page 178.  34  1 6 M i l l a i s ' s work was l i n k e d w i t h medieval a r t by: The A r t J o u r n a l , The Athenaeum, Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, The B u i l d e r , The Guardian, Household Words, The S p e c t a t o r , T a i t ' s Edinburgh Magazine, and The Times. [ F r e d e r i c k George S t e p h e n s ] , under the pseudonym of John Seward, "The Purpose and Tendency of E a r l y I t a l i a n A r t , " The Germ, No. 2 (February 1850), pages 50-61. 1 7  w i l l i a m Holman Hunt, P r e - R a p h a e l i t i s m and the P r e - R a p h a e l i t e Brotherhood, 2 v o l s . , (London! M a c M i l l a n , 1905), v o l . 1, page 54. Hunt d i d not name t h e s e p a i n t e r s . 1 8  W i l l i a m Michael R o s s e t t i , "Pre-Raphaelitism," i n James Sambrook, ed., P r e - R a p h a e l i t i s m , A C o l l e c t i o n of C r i t i c a l Essays, (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1974),page 66. Reprinted from The S p e c t a t o r , v o l . 24 (4 October 1851), pages 955-957. 1 9  20LOC 2 1  cit.  Loc. c i t .  S . Lang, "The P r i n c i p l e s of t h e G o t h i c R e v i v a l i n England," J o u r n a l of the S o c i e t y of A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r i a n s , v o l . 25 (December 1966), pages 248-251. 2 2  York:  23Agnes A d d i s o n , Romanticism and the G o t h i c R e v i v a l , R i c h a r d R, Smith, 1938), page 60.  (New  H u n t showed R i e n z i a t the Royal Academy, w h i l e Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i ' s G i r l h o o d of Mary V i r g i n appeared at the Free I n s t i t u t i o n . O b j e c t i o n s t o M i l l a i s ' s m e d i e v a l i s m were i n : Anon., "The F i n e A r t s E x h i b i t i o n of 1849," F r a s e r ' s Magazine, v o l . 40 ( J u l y 1849), pages 77-78; Anon., "The A r t s , " The S p e c t a t o r , v o l . 22 (12 May 1849), page 447; and, [Solomon H a r t J , " F i n e A r t s , Royal Academy, P a i n t i n g s , " The Athenaeum, (2 June 1849), page 575. 2 4  25This d i l u t i o n of m e d i e v a l i z i n g elements d i f f e r s from M i l l a i s ' s procedure the p r e v i o u s y e a r , w i t h I s a b e l l a , as i s shown by an exami n a t i o n of the p r e p a r a t o r y s k e t c h f o r thatTwork. ( F i g s . 4 and 5 ) . With the e x c e p t i o n o f a few minor changes, poses are the same i n s k e t c h and f i n i s h e d v e r s i o n . F i g u r e s remain e q u a l l y s l i m i n both works, and the o r i g i n a l p e r s p e c t i v e a l s o i s r e t a i n e d . Space i s cramped i n both images. Twelve people crowd around a t a b l e which i s o b v i o u s l y too s m a l l t o seat them i n c o m f o r t , although i n the f i n a l v e r s i o n the c l a u s t r o p h o b i a of t h i s arrangement i s m i t i g a t e d t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t by the enlargement of the open space above the f i g u r e s . T h i s produces an a i r i n e s s , which i s not p r e s e n t i n the s k e t c h , but o t h e r w i s e , space i s a r t i c u l a t e d i n the same manner i n both s k e t c h and p a i n t i n g .  35  ^ A s a c o h e s i v e e n t i t y , Young England had ceased t o e x i s t i n 1846. However, i t s members remained both p o l i t i c a l l y a c t i v e and t r u e t b ' . t h e i r Young England i d e a l s . D  S e e D.C. S o m e r v e l l , D i s r a e l i and Gladstone, (New York: Garden C i t y P u b l i s h e r s , 1928; r e p r i n t ed., 1932), page 48, f o r the t i e s between Young England, t h e a r i s t o c r a c y , and t h e Church. For A n g l o - C a t h o l i c a f f i l i a t i o n s w i t h t h e s e groups, c o n s u l t : W i l l i a m Palmer, N a r r a t i v e o f Events Connected w i t h t h e P u b l i c a t i o n of The T r a c t s f o r t h e Times, (Oxford": John Henry P a r k e r , 1843), page 2; as w e l l as E l i e Halevy, A H i s t o r y o f t h e E n g l i s h People i n t h e Nineteenth Century, 6 v o l s . , (London: E r n e s t Benn, L t d . , 1927; r e p r i n t ed., 1961), v o l . 4, page 294. Palmer was an A n g l o - C a t h o l i c . 2 7  [ J o h n Tupper], "The S u b j e c t No. 1 (January 1850), page 14. 2 8  i n A r t , Number One,"  The Germ,  2 9 R o s s e t t i , P r e - R a p h a e l i t i s m , page 65. 3 0  3 1  I b i d . , page 66. I b i d . , page 67.  M i l l a i s ' s s i s t e r - i n - l a w and f a t h e r s a t f o r t h e V i r g i n and S t . Joseph, w h i l e h i s c o u s i n and b r o t h e r modelled f o r S t . John and t h e a p p r e n t i c e , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The s i t t e r f o r S t . E l i z a b e t h i s unknown. M i l l a i s , L i f e , v o l . 1, page 78. 3 2  3 3  R o s s e t t i , P r e - R a p h a e l i t i s m , page 67.  3 4  Millais,  L i f e , v o l . 1, page 78.  L e s l i e P a r r i s , ed., The P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s , (London: Tate G a l l e r y , 1984), page 77. 3 5  The  3 6 w i l k i e C o l l i n s , A Rogue's L i f e , i n Timothy H i l t o n , The P r e R a p h a e l i t e s , (New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y , 1970), page 55. A Rogue's L i f e was s e r i a l i z e d i n C h a r l e s Dickens's magazine, Household Words, i n 1856. I n g e n e r a l , t h e m i d d l e c l a s s e s were not i n t e r e s t e d i n mediev a l i s m . -Anon., "Advice t o A s p i r i n g A r t i s t s , " Punch, 9 (1845), page 103. 3 7  :  3 8 M J 1 l a i s ' S The Benjamites S e i z i n g T h e i r B r i d e s , ( F i g . 7 ) , o f 1845, was taken from Judges 21. M i l l a i s , L i f e , v o l . 1, page 18. His Widow's M i t e , o f 1847, a l a r g e canvas submitted t o t h e Westmins t e r H a l l c o m p e t i t i o n , d e p i c t e d a New Testament p a r a b l e . I t s p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n i s unknown. M i l l a i s , L i f e , v o l . 1, page 38. A l s o i n 1847, Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i p a i n t e d a r e l i g i o u s work, Retro Me Sathana, which he l a t e r d e s t r o y e d . V i r g i n i a Surtees,  36  The P a i n t i n g s and Drawings of Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i , (1828-1882), A Catalogue Raisonne", 2 v o l s . , ( O x f o r d : The Clarendon P r e s s , 1971), v o l . 1, page 9. Hunt's u n f i n i s h e d C h r i s t and the Two M a r i e s , ( F i g . 8 ) , dates from 1847. Hunt, P r e - R a p h a e l i t i s m , v o l . 1, page 77. 3 9 [ s t e p h e n s ] , The 4 0  I b i d . , page 64.  4 1  I b i d . , page 63.  4 2  [ T u p p e r ] , The  Germ, No.  4 3  I b i d . , page 11.  4 4  I b i d . , page 18.  4 5  Germ, No. 2 (February 1850), page 62.  [ S t e p h e n s ] , The  1 (January  1850), pages 11 and  17.  Germ, No. 2 (February 1850), page 63.  46LOC. c i t .  7 T h e idea t h a t "minute i m i t a t i o n " was i n a d m i s s a b l e i n " e l e v a t e d themes" was expressed by C h a r l e s E a s t l a k e , i n "Number Four, The S t a t e and P r o s p e c t s of t h e E n g l i s h S c h o o l , " C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the L i t e r a t u r e of t h e F i n e A r t s , 2 v o l s . (London: John Murray, 1848; r e p r i n t ed., 1870), v o l . 1, pages 38-39. E a s t l a k e became t h e p r e s i d e n t of t h e Royal Academy i n the f a l l of 1850. 4  48 D a v i d Masson, " P r e - R a p h a e l i t i s m i n A r t and L i t e r a t u r e , " i n Sambrook, P r e - R a p h a e l i t i s m , page 76. R e p r i n t e d from The B r i t i s h Q u a r t e r l y Review, v o l . 16 "(1852), pages 197-220. H O  [ W i l l i a m M i c h a e l R o s s e t t i ] , "The Royal Academy E x h i b i t i o n , " The C r i t i c , v o l . 9 (15 May 1850), page 254. 4 9  SQLOC.  cit.  5 [ R o s s e t t i ] , "The Royal Academy E x h i b i t i o n , " 9 (1 J u l y 1850), page 336.  The C r i t i c , v o l .  [ R o s s e t t i ] , "The Royal Academy E x h i b i t i o n , " 9 (1 August 1850), page 382.  The'Critic, vol.  1  5 2  53|_oc. c i t . E a s t l a k e became t h e p r e s i d e n t of t h e Royal Academy i n November, 1850, r e p l a c i n g t h e o c t o g e n a r i a n M a r t i n A r c h e r Shee, whose death i n August of t h a t y e a r a f t e r a l e n g t h y i l l n e s s , had not been unexpected. A c c o r d i n g t o The C r i t i c , E a s t l a k e s promotion had a l s o been " g e n e r a l l y a n t i c i p a t e d , " (Anon., "The Presi d e n t of t h e Royal Academy," The C r i t i c , v o l . 9 (15 November 1850), 1  37  page 550), so perhaps R o s s e t t i ' s c i r c u i t o u s t r e a t m e n t of The Good Samaritan expressed a d i s i n c l i n a t i o n t o o f f e n d the.man whose assumption of t h e p r e s i d e n c y was o n l y a m a t t e r of t i m e . [ R o s s e t t i ] , "The Royal Academy E x h i b i t i o n , " 9 (1 J u l y 1850), page 336. 5 4  vol.  The  Critic,  5 5 [ R o s s e t t i ] , "The Royal Academy E x h i b i t i o n , F o u r t h N o t i c e , " The C r i t i c , v o l . 9 (15 J u l y 1850), page 360. 56ihe symbolism of the door, which i s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s p a r a graph, comes from L i n d s a y E r r i n g t o n ' s S o c i a l and R e l i g i o u s Themes, page 262. 5 7  John  10:9 and  11.  ^ G e o r g e Landow, V i c t o r i a n Types, V i c t o r i a n Shadows, B i b l i c a l Typology i n V i c t o r i a n " L i t e r a t u r e , A r t , and Thought, ( B o s t o n : Routledge and Kegan P a u l , L t d . , 1980), page 30. 5 9  I b i d . , page 27.  60Apart from t h e b b i b l i c a l v e r s e , t h e p a i n t i n g was e x h i b i t e d w i t h o u t a t i t l e , a not unknown p r a c t i c e at the Academy. ( Z e c h a r i a h 13:6 a p p e a r e d c i n t h e e x h i b i t i o n c a t a l o g u e . ) The A r t J o u r n a l , which p u b l i s h e d the most complete r e v i e w of thershow, mentioned t h r e e t i t l e l e s s works, two of which were based upon the B i b l e , and which were accompanied by a s c r i p t u r a l t e x t . Contemporary sermons were n o r m a l l y s t r u c t u r e d around a s i n g l e e x c e r p t from s c r i p t u r e , which acted as t h e i r t h e m a t i c c o r e , and which always appeared j u s t above the p r i n t e d sermon i t s e l f . Perhaps t h e idea of i d e n t i f y i n g a p i c t u r e by means of t h e r e l e v a n t s c r i p t u r a l passage c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e h a b i t of p r e f a c i n g sermons w i t h a b i b l i c a l t e x t . E d w a r d M o r r i s , "The S u b j e c t of M i l l a i s ' s C h r i s t i n t h e House of h i s P a r e n t s , " J o u r n a l of t h e Warburg and C o u r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e s , v o l . 33 (1970), page 345. 61  T h e A n g l o - C a t h o l i c t h e o l o g i a n w i t h whom the C h r i s t o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the v e r s e o r i g i n a t e d was Edward B o u v e r i e Pusey. I t i s d i s c u s s e d i n h i s L e t t e r t o t h e Bishop of London, ( O x f o r d : John Henry P a r k e r , 1851), page 150. 6 2  ^ A l a s t a i r G r i e v e , "The P r e - R a p h a e l i t e Brotherhood and t h e A n g l i c a n High Church," B u r l i n g t o n Magazine, v o l . 101, No. 3 (1969), page 294. 6 4  Millais,  L i f e , v o l . 1, page 87.  I b i d . , v o l . 1, pages 92-99.  38  b b  H u n t , P r e - R a p h a e l i t i s m , v o l . 1, page 194.  67  Bowness, Transactions,  v o l . 22 (1972), page 126.  M i 1 l a i s t o Mrs. Pat Combe, 2 December 1850. v o l . 1, page 90. 6 8  Millais,  Life,  69D.M.R. B e n t l e y , "The P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s and t h e Oxford Movement," D a l h o u s i e Review, v o l . 57 (1978), page 532. T h e Academy d i d temper i t s t a s t e w i t h an awareness t h a t a r t i s t i c t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e were not n e c e s s a r i l y synonymous, and, i n a d d i t i o n , i t was q u i t e prepared t o show a wide v a r i e t y of works i n i t s annual e x h i b i t i o n s . N o n e t h e l e s s , i t d i d r e t a i n i t s p r e f e r ence f o r t h e grand s t y l e . 7 u  7 l M i l l a i s , L i f e , v o l . 1, page 18. 72LOC,  cit.  ( F o r The Benjamites S e i z i n g T h e i r B r i d e s , o f 1845.)  R [ e a c h ] , A [ n g u s ] , "Town T a l k and Table T a l k , " London News, v o l . 16 (4 May 1850), page 306. 7 3  The I l l u s t r a t e d  var E l l e g S r d , "The Readership o f t h e P e r i o d i c a l Press i n Mid-Victorian B r i t a i n , " V i c t o r i a n P e r i o d i c a l s N e w s l e t t e r , No. 13 (September 1971), page 20. 5 idney C. H u t c h i s o n , The H i s t o r y o f t h e Royal Academy, 1768-1968, (London: Chapman and H a l l , 1968), page 115. 7  S  M i l l a i s t o Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i , c o n c e r n i n g t h e concluded s a l e o f t h e l a t t e r ' s G i r l h o o d o f Mary V i r g i n ; c i t e d i n H i l t o n , The P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s , page 49. Hilton.r.gives n e i t h e r date nor l o c a t i o n f o r M i l l a i s ' s l e t t e r , but i t must have been w r i t t e n s h o r t l y a f t e r 25 J u l y , 1849, when R o s s e t t i sent t h e work t o i t s p u r c h a s e r . Surt e e s , P a i n t i n g s and Drawings, page 10. 7 6  39  CHAPTER I I :  RELIGIOUS IMAGERY AND  CHRIST IN THEXHOUSE OF HIS PARENTS  As a r e l i g i o u s p a i n t i n g , C h r i s t i n the House o f . i h i s belonged t o a genre which was artistic rules.  a l r e a d y d e f i n e d by i t s own  Parents  seti.of  To understand these r u l e s , we s h a l l look f i r s t l y  atwAcademic thought r e g a r d i n g r e l i g i o u s p i c t u r e s , i n which M i l l a i s , as an ex-Academy s t u d e n t , would have been f u l l y  versed.  R e l i g i o u s works shown at the Royal Academy, as w e l l as t h e i r c r i t i c a l f o r t u n e s , w i l l be examined, so as t o r e v e a l what.: contemporary Academy-goers u s u a l l y expected from t h i s t y p e of a r t . Such i n f o r m a t i o n w'iir.show how e s t a b l i s h e d conventions  M i l l a i s ' s work departed  f o r r e l i g i o u s p a i n t i n g , and w i l l enable us  t o determine what t h i s d e p a r t u r e artistic  s i g n i f i e d , i n s o c i a l as w e l l as  terms.  The m i d - n i n e t e e n t h imagery was  c e n t u r y Academy's approach t o r e l i g i o u s  d e f i n e d i n w r i t i n g by C h a r l e s E a s t l a k e , who  R.A.'s p r e s i d e n t i n t h e f a l l  of 1850,  p r o f e s s o r of p a i n t i n g s i n c e 1847. old  from the  1  became the  and by C h a r l e s L e s l i e , i t s In c o n f o r m i t y w i t h a c e n t u r i e s -  Academic t r a d i t i o n , E a s t l a k e o r g a n i z e d  the v a r i o u s  artistic  genres i n t o a h i e r a r c h y , p l a c i n g h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g , (which  included  r e l i g i o u s s u b j e c t s ) , at the t o p , as the " h i g h e s t " form of  art.  Pre-eminence d e r i v e d from two izing  language.  criteria;  e l e v a t e d content  and  2  ideal-  40  F o l l o w i n g precedents l a i d down by A l b e r t i  in his influential  D e l i a P i t t u r a , E a s t l a k e wrote t h a t p a i n t i n g should reach t h e moral and  i n t e l l e c t u a l f a c u l t i e s of the viewer,  "awaken t h e n o b l e r sympathies."3  o r , as he put i t ,  should  T h i s c o u l d be accomplished  through t h e d e p i c t i o n o f e l e v a t e d s u b j e c t m a t t e r , w h i c h ,  according  t o E a s t l a k e , c o n s i s t e d o f " a l l t h a t i s permanently g r a c e f u l o r r e f i n e d , a l l t h a t i s r a t i o n a l o r i n t e l l e c t u a l i i n j o y , and a l l t h a t i s d i g n i f i e d i n s o r r o w - - a l l , i n s h o r t , t h a t i s human and r e l i g i o u s . "  4  C l e a r l y , Eastlake believed that high%art dealt with e t e r n a l q u a l i t i e s , and he went on t o say t h a t i f t h e s u b j e c t s portrayed:.in h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g c o u l d a c t i v a t e "hoble.'and e l e v a t e d f e e l i n g s , " t h e n , "the end o f a r t may s a f e l y s a i d t o be accomplished i n any age, f o r t h e human a h d i ' C h r i s t i a n c h a r a c t e r the c h a r a c t e r o f t h e a r t . "  5  i s as c e r t a i n i n i t s d e f i n i t i o n as In o t h e r words, E a s t l a k e d i d not per-  ceive that h i s d e f i n i t i o n of refinement or d i g n i t y i n a r t i s t i c j e c t m a t t e r was a product o f v a l u e s experience  shaped by  sub-  nineteenth-century  and grounded i n t h e a r i s t o c r a t i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d t a s t e o f  the Royal Academy.  I n s t e a d , h i s t a s t e i n thematic  content,  we s h a l l see, i n a r t i s t i c form as w e l l , was c o n c e p t u a l i z e d  and, as  as an  e t e r n a l , c l a s s l e s s e n t i t y , f l o a t i n g untouched above t h e v i c i s s i t u d e s of h i s t o r y .  The  second e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f high a r t was i d e a l -  i z a t i o n s : and, l i k e so much o f Academic t h e o r y , t h i s t o o can be t r a c e d t o t h e Renaissance and t o A l b e r t i ' s comments c o n c e r n i n g  the a r t s .  6  41  While t h e n a t u r a l appearance o f an o b j e c t was t o be i m i t a t e d , i t was a l s o t o be r e f i n e d by g e n e r a l i z i n g i t s forms, and d i m i n i s h i n g o r e l i m i n a t i n g t h e i r d e t a i l s and i d i o s y n c r a c i e s .  7  Bodies were t o  be i d e a l i z e d as w e l l , and both L e s l i e and E a s t l a k e s t i p u l a t e d t h a t t h e k i n d of f i g u r a l  i d e a l i z a t i o n most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r r e l i g i o u s  imagery was t o be found i n t h e t y p e o f p h y s i c a l beauty developed by t h e a r t i s t s of t h e High R e n a i s s a n c e , most n o t a b l y by Raphael, whom the two Academicians h e l d t o be t h e consummate r e l i g i o u s p a i n t e r . & As w i t h s u b j e c t m a t t e r , t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e i d e a l i z e d f i g u r e i n a r t was not s i m p l y t o p l e a s e t h e eye.  I t t o o had a moral  purpose,  because, as E a s t l a k e p o i n t e d o u t , " i n a l l i t s h i g h e s t forms, i t [ i s ] c a l c u l a t e d t o impress upon human b e i n g s t h e b e l i e f i n a p e r f e c t i o n g r e a t e r than t h i s w o r l d c o n t a i n s . "  Since the strongly  9  idealized  works o f Raphael were h e l d t o appeal " i n a l l p l a c e s and t o a l l classes of C h r i s t i a n s , "  1 0  modern a r t i s t s who wished t o produce  p a i n t i n g s t y p i f i e d by such u n i v e r s a l i t y were encouraged t o emulate t h o s e o f t h e Renaissance p a i n t e r .  They were even p r o v i d e d w i t h  s p e c i f i c models from which t o proceed; t h e s e were t h e t a p e s t r y cartoons"pf:the Acts of theAApostles.  As i n t h e case o f f i g u r a l  i d e a l i z a t i o n , Academic s t i p u l a t i o n s  c o n c e r n i n g form were grounded i n t h e t r a d i t i o n s o f t h e Renaissance; t h e r u l e s of c h i a r o s c u r o , c o l o u r , and p e r s p e c t i v e were a l s o i n v e s ted with a universal character.  In a d i s c u s s i o n of c o l o u r and  42  drawing, L e s l i e commented t h a t ; The A r t of P a i n t i n g i s i n no r e s p e c t , e x c e p t i n g i n what r e l a t e s t o i t s mechanical i n s t r u m e n t s , a human i n v e n t i o n , but the r e s u l t s o l e l y of the d i s c o v e r y and a p p l i c a t i o n of t h o s e ! l a w s by which Nature addresses h e r s e l f t o the mind and h e a r t through the eye. 11  Based as they are upon the acceptance of a r t i s t i c e t e r n a l s , L e s l i e ' s c l a i m s r e g a r d i n g form c l o s e l y resemble E a s t l a k e ' s concerning  the t i m e l e s s n e s s of subject.vmatter,  language.  As i n the case of s u b j e c t m a t t e r and  too was  imbued w i t h a moral i d e n t i t y , although  d i r e c t manner.  and of  conclusions  idealizing  i d e a l i z a t i o n , form i n a somewhat l e s s  L e s l i e ' s d i s c u s s i o n s of form, f i l l e d as they  w i t h words such as " h e a l t h y , "  1 2  "pure,"13 and  "refined,"14  are  which  o f t e n appeared when he d e a l t w i t h the c o l o u r or the c h i a r o s c u r o of p i c t u r e s he admired, g i v e the d i s t i n c t - i m p r e s s i o n t h a t , a c c o r d i n g to  h i s Academic t a s t e , even p i g m e n t a t i o n  and  shading  contained  moral  overtones.  By endowing Academic t a s t e w i t h the q u a l i t i e s of i m m o r t a l i t y and u n i v e r s a l i t y ; ,  1  L e s l i e and  E a s t l a k e i m p l i e d t h a t i t s standards  must n a t u r a l l y be the dominating  f a c t o r i n contemporary p a i n t i n g .  However, upon examining the a r t scene of the 1840's, one q u i c k l y d i s c o v e r s t h a t such was occupied  not the case.  In a c t u a l i t y , t h e p o s i t i o n  by the Academic t r a d i t i o n , as f a r as i t s p o p u l a r i t y  w i t h a r t i s t s and p a t r o n s was  c o n c e r n e d , was  h a r d l y one of s t r e n g t h .  I n d i c a t i o n s of i t s f r a g i l i t y  can be gleaned  even from E a s t l a k e  and  43  L e s l i e themselves.  To begin w i t h , as E a s t l a k e h i m s e l f a d m i t t e d , p a i n t i n g s executed a c c o r d i n g t o Academic c o n v e n t i o n s had d i f f i c u l t y  in finding  p u r c h a s e r s , ^ and as a r e s u l t , few a r t i s t s produced them.  Even Les-  1  l i e avoided them, c h o o s i n g i n s t e a d t o f o c u s upon p o r t r a i t u r e  and  upon the i l l u s t r a t i o n of scenes from G o l d s m i t h , M o l i e r e , and  Shakes-  peare; though a t t h e same time he urged h i s s t u d e n t s t o v e r s e thems e l v e s i n the s t y l e and s u b j e c t m a t t e r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i s t o r y painting.  Far more marketable than works designed a l o n g t r a d i t i o n a l Academic l i n e s were genre scenes--smal1,  i n t i m a t e s t u d i e s of d a i l y  l i f e , whichc.were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n t o d e t a i l .  1 6  P i c t u r e s of t h i s t y p e crowded t h e w a l l s of t h e Academy's annual e x h i b i t i o n s , and were g r e a t l y i n demand, e s p e c i a l l y among m i d d l e c l a s s buyers.  The Academic response t o s u c h s a r t was d i v i d e d between outr i g h t h o s t i l i t y and a condescending t o l e r a n c e .  Speaking perhaps f o r  many Academicians, L e s l i e s c o r n f u l l y d i s m i s s e d genre p a i n t i n g as "commonplace i m i t a t i o n , " which appealed o n l y t o the t a s t e " of t h e " m u l t i t u d e , " who of A r t . " 1 7  "mediocre  were " b l i n d t o the h i g h e s t q u a l i t i e s  The reason f o r L e s l i e ' s a t t a c k becomes c l e a r once t h e  44  weakness of the Academic t r a d i t i o n  i s taken i n t o account; f o r i f  indeed the a r t i s t i c c o n v e n t i o n s which he supported had i n 1850,  the development and  even the f i n a n c i a l success of genre  c o u l d pose l i t t l e t h r e a t t o them. a r t was  beensstrong  i n the p r o c e s s of being  That L e s l i e ' s c h e r i s h e d  r e p l a c e d was  high  the f a c t which u n d e r l a y  h i s anger.  U n l i k e L e s l i e , E a s t l a k e was "school  more w i l l i n g t o t e l e r a t e the  e x c l u s i v e l y devoted t o i n d i s c r i m i n a t e i m i t a t i o n " which  duced the " p i c t u r e s of f a m i l i a r s u b j e c t s . inant" in English a r t . t h e s e works and  . .of l a t e y e a r s predom-  However, he s t r o n g l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between  high a r t , and  sent the u n i v e r s a l and  pro-  a s s e r t e d t h a t genre d i d  u n a l t e r a b l e t a s t e of the  not "reprei:  nation."  1 8  A f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n of the tenuousness of the Academic t r a d i t i o n can be p e r c e i v e d  i n the growing f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h medieval  a r t , which became i n c r e a s i n g l y widespread throughout the period.  1 9  This  E a s t l a k e , who  i n t e r e s t was  acquired  shared by some A c a d e m i c i a n s , such as  l a t e medieval works f o r the N a t i o n a l  d u r i n g h i s t e n u r e as d i r e c t o r of t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n , and Dyce, who  i n c l u d e d medieval f e a t u r e s  admired q u a t t r o c e n t o . . .perfection,"21 "contained. m i n e ) , but  by  i t with  Gallery  William  i n his'own p a i n t i n g s . 2 0  a r t because he a s s o c i a t e d and  post-1830  Dyce  "spiritual  E a s t l a k e commented t h a t medieval works  . .the germs of a p e r f e c t development,"22 (emphasis i n n e i t h e r case d i d the t a s t e f o r e a r l y a r t p r e c l u d e  the  45  b e l i e f i n the primacy of works executed a c c o r d i n g the Academy.  of  N o n e t h e l e s s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the i n t e r e s t i n  medieval a r t was conventional  to the tenets  grounded i n a sense of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h  s t y l e , and  the  i n the hope t h a t elements of medieval a r t  c o u l d be employed t o r e v i t a l i z e the t r a d i t i o n s of the Academy.  An a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e s s p i r i t u a l q u a l i t i e s i n  quattrocento  works e x i s t e d o u t s i d e the community of p r a c t i s i n g a r t i s t s . need o n l y look at Lord L i n d s a y ' s Art,  2 3  Here,  we  Sketches of the H i s t o r y of C h r i s t i a n  or t o the a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n f o r The  Athenaeum by the a r t  George D a r l e y .  Lindsay  c r i b e d a "world  of s p i r i t u a l b e a u t y y "  was  " p e r f e c t i o n s s p i r i t u a l , m o r a l , [and] i n t e l l e c t u a l , " 2 5  f i l l e d with  maintained that quattrocento  critic  i n s p i t e o f . t h e f a c t t h a t i t was technical s i n s "  2 6  2 4  w h i l e Darley wrote t h a t i t  a l s o d i s f i g u r e d by a " m u l t i t u d e  i n anatomy, p e r s p e c t i v e , and  However, d e s p i t e t h e i r a d m i r a t i o n n e i t h e r Lindsay tradition. ^ 2  p a i n t i n g des-:r  chiaroscuro.  f o r quattrocento  Nor d i d they b r i n g a p a r t i c u l a r l y new  images c o n t a i n e d  timeless q u a l i t i e s .  30  and t h a t i t was  which the soul seeks a f t e r , and heaven."31  art,  2 9  approach t o  Lindsay  claimed  that  of which the p r o t o t y p e  "the  conversing  a "glimpse of t h a t t r u t h and  C l e a r l y , l i k e E a s t l a k e , Lindsay  the  Both h e l d t h a t r e l i g i o u s  P a i n t i n g of Christendom. . . i s t h a t of an immortal S p i r i t i t s God,"  2 7  nor D a r l e y wished t o d i s p l a c e the High Renaissance  general theories concerning r e l i g i o u s a r t .  with  of  beauty  e x i s t s but i n  believed that a l l C h r i s t i a n  46  a r t was the e x p r e s s i o n of a s i n g l e , e t e r n a l tians  i d e a l shared by  Chris-  everywhere.  The concepts h e l d by L i n d s a y and D a r l e y r e g a r d i n g t h e form which C h r i s t i a n a r t should t a k e were a l s o s i m i l a r t o t h o s e of E a s t l a k e and L e s l i e .  Both admired t h e i d e a l i z e d f i g u r e , 3 2 and  D a r l e y c o n s i s t e n t l y supported the g e n e r a l i z i n g approach p r e s s i o n of d e t a i l which was  and  sup-  the h a l l m a r k of Academic a r t . 3 3  U l t i m a t e l y , D a r l e y and L i n d s a y s u b s c r i b e d t o t h e Academic d e f i n i t i o n of h i g h a r t , i n s p i t e of t h e i r t a s t e f o r t h e moral and p u r i t y of the a r t of t h e l a t e r m i d d l e  Perhaps  spiritual  ages.  the c l e a r e s t i n d i c a t i o n of t h e t r u e p o s i t i o n  o c c u p i e d by the Academic t r a d i t i o n i n 1850 can be gained  through  an e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e works devoted t o r e l i g i o u s s u b j e c t m a t t e r which were e x h i b i t e d w i t h C h r i s t i n t h e House of h i s Parents.34 Those most f r e q u e n t l y r e v i e w e d , and i n t h e most a p p r e c i a t i v e terms, were:  E a s t l a k e ' s The Good S a m a r i t a n ; Dyce's The Meeting of  Jacob and R a c h e l ; and Samson B e t r a y e d , by F.R. 11, 12, and 10).  Pickersgill.  (Figs.  None of t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r l y resemble t h e famouse  t a p e s t r y c a r t o o n s of Raphael, a f t e r which p r a c t i c i o n e r s of high a r t were n o r m a l l y encouraged  t o p a t t e r n t h e i r own  r e l i g i o u s works.  Dyce's sharp f o c u s and r a t h e r hard forms owe much t o q u a t t r o c e n t o a r t , and c r i t i c a l  comment r e g a r d i n g Samson Betrayed h e l d t h a t i t s  colour.was much l i k e t h a t of E t t y , whose c o l o u r i s m . i n i t s t u r n  47  d e r i v e d from Rubens. l i k e E t t y , was artist.  Samson B e t r a y e d shows t h a t  13  Pickersgill,  working i n the t r a d i t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d by the  L a s t l y , Eastlake's  s o f t , subtle modelling  Baroque  i s more remin-  i s c e n t of T i t i a n , or perhaps the Bolognese S c h o o l , than of Raphael.  Despite  such s t y l i s t i c e c l e c t i c i s m , however, t h e s e  p a i n t i n g s do g e n e r a l l y adhere t o the e s t a b l i s h e d ideas  regarding  high a r t , and t h i s i s perhaps most apparent i n the case of l a k e ' s Good S a m a r i t a n .  three  East-  I t s theme, t h a t of compassion, f u l f i l l s  requirements c o n c e r n i n g the e l e v a t e d c o n t e n t of h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g . The  f i g u r e s are ;highVly i d e a l i z e d ; and,  i n keeping w i t h the gener-  a l i z i n g approach f a v o u r e d by t h e Academy, forms a r e s s i m p l e , d e t a i l s kept t o a minimum.  The  l o c a t i o n , too, i s generalized;  although  t h e s e t t i n g o f . t h e s t o r y i s on the road between J e r i c h o and salem, E a s t l a k e ' s  landscape i s not  i d e n t i f i a b l y eastern.  Jeru-  In f a c t ,  i t s broad t r e a t m e n t i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t c o u l d e x i s t almost anywhere. Dress i s not p a r t i c u l a r i z e d e i t h e r , as the simple costumes worn by the S a m a r i t a n , and the p r i e s t and t h e L e v i t e who on the o t h e r s i d e , " assigned  3 6  are " p a s s i n g  c o r r e s p o n d t o the vaguely b i b l i c a l  t o r e l i g i o u s f i g u r e s s i n c e the  s i n c e o b v i o u s l y , d e s p i t e the  robes  Renaissance.  In a n a l y s i n g m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y is clear that discrepancies  by  religious painting, i t  e x i s t e d between t h e o r y  and p r a c t i c e ,  l i t e r a t u r e which recommended Raphael's  model above a l l , the a c t u a l p r o d u c t i o n  of . ' r e l i g i o u s works i n v o l v e d  48  s t y l i s t i c references to diverse sources.  Nonetheless, t h i s c e r -  t a i n l y should not be i n t e r p r e t e d as a r e j e c t i o n of t h e e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n s c o n c e r n i n g high a r t , f o r , as the examination Samaritan  has r e v e a l e d , i t was  a r t i s t s who and who  Good  accompanied by an adherence t o t h e  e s s e n t i a l t e n e t s of t h e Academy. a c c u r a t e way  of The  U l t i m a t e l y , perhaps a more  of v i e w i n g t h e s e images may  be as t h e p r o d u c t s  of  remained s t r o n g l y committed t o t h e Academic t r a d i t i o n ,  observed  i t s r u l e s , but whosals© wished  t o i n t r o d u c e modif-  i c a t i o n s i n t o i t , p o s s i b l y i n t h e hope t h a t such v a r i a t i o n s would enable them t o r e a c h a wider  public.  That they d i d e x p e r i e n c e some c r i t i c a l  success w i t h t h e  most c o n s e r v a t i v e elements i n s o c i e t y i s c l e a r , s i n c e t h e  periodicals  which r e p r e s e n t e d t h i s r e a d e r s h i p p r o f e s s e d a s t r o n g a d m i r a t i o n f o r The Good Samaritan, p r a i s i n g Jacob and  Samson B e t r a y e d , and Jacob and R a c h e l .  In  R a c h e l , The Times' a r t c r i t i c w o r r i e d t h a t  viewers might a t " f i r s t g l a n c e " be " r e p e l [ l e d ]  M  by a " c e r t a i n d r y -  ness and f l a t n e s s . . .to which our eyes are not f a m i l i a r i n t h e B r i t i s h s c h o o l , " but s/he  :":  explained t h i s f a u l t with;  We do not h e s i t a t e t o say t h a t few modern p i c t u r e s have been p a i n t e d more n e a r l y i n t h e manner o f . ... R a f f a e l l e i n h i s e a r l i e r s t y l e s . The o u t l i n e i s f i r m and c o r r e c t . The d r a p e r y a l i t t l e q u a i n t , but n o b l e . . .The a t t i t u d e i s but the g e s t u r e of t i m o r o u s o r t o r t u r e d l o v e from t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e w o r l d , f o r who: has not a t some time breathed vows as p a s s i o n a t e as t h e s e ? . . . [ T h i s work] combines a very high degree of n a t u r a l . e m o t i o n "and n a t u r a l grace w i t h i d e a l t r e a t m e n t and r e f i n e m e n t . 37 -  49  E s s e n t i a l l y , The  Times' response t o Jacob and  Rachel  reads l i k e a r e p e t i t i o n of the Academic f o r m u l a f o r a s u c c e s s f u l history painting.  N a t u r a l i s t i c q u a l i t i e s are r e f i n e d by i d e a l i s m ,  p o t e n t i a l l y problematic  s t y l i s t i c elements are smoothed away t h r o u g h  the i n v o c a t i o n of Raphael, and the theme i s s t r u c t u r e d around an "unchanging," e l e v a t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , such as l o v e . d r a p e r i e s are  The  Even the  "noble."  Good Samaritan,  "of t h e h h i g h e s t  o r d e r , " was  which The  Times d e s c r i b e d as a work  also discussed  i n terms s t r o n g l y rem-  i n i s c e n t of Academic t a s t e . The wounded man, b a r e l y r a i s e d from the dust i n which he l a y , i s supported by the :hand of mercy and l o v e . The drawing and c o l o u r of h i s naked form are f i n i s h e d w i t h extreme c a r e , and h i s f a c e t u r n s upwards w i t h an e x p r e s s i o n of e x q u i s i t e g r a t i t u d e and t r u s t ; i n some o t h e r r e s p e c t s the p i c t u r e i s s t i l l u n f i n i s h e d , but we h a r d l y l i k e i t t h e : l e s s f o r the subdued and u n o b t r u s i v e c h a r a c t e r of the secondary s u b j e c t s . I t i s on the s u f f e r e r and the Samaritan t h a t t h e mind and eye r e s t , f o r i n the s y m b o l i c a l r o l e and i n the m a j e s t i c countenance of t h a t compassionate being we t r a c e at once the Samaritan over h i s a f f l i c t e d b r o t h e r — t h e S a v i o u r over a f f l i c t e d man. 38  Here, the c r i t i c ' s a p p r o v a l  of The  Good Samaritan i s keyed  by the p a i n t i n g ' s s u i t a b l y d i g n i f i e d theme, i t s i d e a l i z a t i o n , the u n o b t r u s i v e n e s s  of i t s d e t a i l s .  t o t h a t evoked by Jacob and of the Academy was  T h i s response, so  R a c h e l , r e v e a l s how  entrenched i n The  Times.  and  similar  f i r m l y the a e s t h e t i c  50  L i k e The  Times, o t h e r j o u r n a l s which served  the upper  e c h e l o n s of V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y employed the\t-heories of the Academy i n o r d e r t o e x p l a i n how constructed.  The  they f e l t a r e l i g i o u s p i c t u r e should  Spectator  be  commented:  The h i s t o r i c a l p a i n t e r p e n e t r a t e s through mere manners and costume t o t h e e n d u r i n g q u a l i t i e s of humanity; he d e l i g h t s t o d e p i c t the g r e a t elements of emotion as they are evoked by events t h a t o v e r r u l e s m a l l e r a c c e s s o r i e s ; and t h e n , although the accomplished a r t i s t w i l l not omit costume and o t h e r a c c e s s o r i e s , they s i n k t o a secondary p l a c e , and f a i l t o c o n c e n t r a t e the a t t e n t i o n . 39  The  readership  of t h i s p e r i o d i c a l d i f f e r e d from t h a t of  The  Times, as i t l a r g e l y c o n s i s t e d of h i g h l y educated, p o l i t i c a l l y l i b e r a l members of the m i d d l e and  upper m i d d l e s c l a s s e s .  However,  4 0  i t s concept of h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g , i n which d e t a i l s , though  important,  must be t r a n s c e n d e d i n o r d e r t o get at unchanging human c h a r a c t e r i s tics,  i s a c l o s e paraphrase of Reynolds, and would c e r t a i n l y have  been at home i n the pages of The  Times.  That Academic a r t  though o r i g i n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a r i s t o c r a t i c t a s t e , had accepted by p o r t i o n s of the haute b o u r g e o i s i e ,  theory, been  indicates that  a l t h o u g h p o l i t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s d i d e x i s t between the n o b i l i t y  and  the upper m i d d l e c l a s s e s , t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s of c u l t u r e were c l o s e l y related.  I d e o l o g i c a l l y , The resembles t h a t of E a s t l a k e .  Spectator's  approach t o h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g  L i k e the Royal A c a d e m i c i a n , The  t a t o r ' s c r i t i c o b v i o u s l y b e l i e v e d t h a t h i s / h e r t a s t e was  Spec-  grounded  51  i n an o b j e c t i v e norm; i n u n i v e r s a l s , r a t h e r than i n h i s t o r i c a l l y shaped c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  Academic ideass c o n c e r n i n g i d e a l i z a t i o n a l s o appeared i n the pages of upper m i d d l e c l a s s and a r i s t o c r a t i c p u b l i c a t i o n s . They demanded t h a t f i g u r e s i n r e l i g i o u s a r t be i d e a l i z e d , and they associated  the p h y s i c a l  Greece, and w i t h  i d e a l w i t h t h e t r a d i t i o n s of c l a s s i c a l  Raphael, c l a i m i n g t h a t t h e purpose behind such  i d e a l i z a t i o n was t h e d e p i c t i o n of e l e v a t e d  behaviour.  Blackwood's  Edinburgh Magazine c a l l e d Raphael t h e "most e m i n e n t l y C h r i s t i a n p a i n t e r , " because h i s works were t y p i f i e d by " d i g n i f i e d benevolence and e x a l t e d h u m a n i t y . "  .  41  The S p e c t a t o r commented t h a t :  What f i x e s your r e g a r d i n v i e w i n g a work by Rapha e l i s t h e a b s o r b i n g p i e t y , t h e courage, the d i g n i t y , t h e l o v e , t h e command, t h e t e r r o r - - t h e one grand o r b e a u t i f u l Sentiment which i s t h e s o u l o f / t h e scene. The countenances, t h e f i g u r e s , t h e groups, are a l l on t h e same grand o r b e a u t i f u l scale. 42  These p e r i o d i c a l s shared t h e Academic idea t h a t t h e purpose behind such d e p i c t i o n s of i d e a l i z e d forms and e l e v a t e d didactic.  The A r t J o u r n a l ,  themes was  i n d i s c u s s i n g the r o l e of a r t , c l a i m e d  i t was a " t e a c h e r of a l o f t [ y ] k i n d - - a t e a c h e r of h i s t o r y , manners, m o r a l s , v i r t u e , and r e l i g i o n . "  4 3  In o t h e r words, r e l i g i o u s p a i n t i n g s ,  w i t h t h e i r noble s u b j e c t s , were t a n g i b l e essays i n moral b e h a v i o u r , and t h e i r f u n c t i o n was t o encourage  viewers to aspire to the v i r t u e s  52  which they saw  portrayed  in paint.  The  c r u c i a l element, which i n -  formed viewers they were i n the presence of e x a l t e d and v i r t u e s , was  unchanging  been  the i d e a l i z e d High Renaissance s t y l e , which had  i n v e s t e d w i t h a moral i d e n t i t y of i t s own.  Turning from the p e r i o d i c a l s t a r g e t i n g the upper ranks of E n g l i s h s o c i e t y t o examine t h o s e of a more s o l i d l y  middle-class  o r i e n t a t i o n , we f i n d a marked d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the Academy, and its  art.  Punch d i s c u s s e d the 1850  e x h i b i t i o n i n g e n e r a l t e r m s , com-  p l a i n i n g t h a t i t s s u b j e c t m a t t e r c o n s i s t e d l a r g e l y of "Guelphs a n d Ghibelines, Charles  I I , William I I I , . . .velvet doublets,  and m a r v e l l o u s carved  s i l k hose,  f u r n i t u r e , " 4 4 and demanded more n a t u r a l ism,45  and more p i c t u r e s of ".homely l i f e . " 4 5  However, d e s p i t e i t s di'Sap^f.I  p r o v a l of the p i c t u r e s on d i s p l a y at the Academy, Punch d i d t o Academic a r t t h e o r y . a t i o n " was  I t s c r i t i c commented t h a t " t r u e  not t o be " l i t e r a l , " but should  as w e l l as a s e l e c t i o n , a d i s t r i b u t i o n , and  subscribe  represent-  involve "generalization, subordination  of p a r t s . "  L i k e Punch, Household Words c r i t i c i z e d the a r t on d i s p l a y at the Academy. Charles  In an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "The  Ghost of A r t , "  Dickens wrote t h a t r e g a r d l e s s of s u b j e c t m a t t e r , many p a i n -  t i n g s at the Academy so resembled each o t h e r t h a t i t seemed as though a s i n g l e model had posed f o r a l l of them.48 were g e n t l y phrased, however, and Academic concepts r e g a r d i n g  His  criticisms  l i k e Punch, he too accepted  painting.  He expressed a s t r o n g  4  53  a d m i r a t i o n f o r Raphael's " i d e a o f Beauty," and m a i n t a i n e d deserved i t s p o s i t i o n as t h e c o r n e r s t o n e to  that i t  o f modern a r t t h e o r y due  i t s "power o f e t h e r e a l i z i n g and e x a l t i n g t o t h e very Heavens  what was most sublime Dickens's  and l o v e l y : ' i n t h e . . .human f a c e . "  4 9  r e a c t i o n t o d e t a i l e d n a t u r a l i s m was a l s o i n k e e p i n g t w i t h  t h a t o f t h e Academy.  He wrote t h a t w h i l e n a t u r a l i s m was a p p r o p r i a t e  i n a " r e n d e r i n g o f a f a v o u r i t e h o r s e , o r dog, o r c a t , " i t was not a d m i s s a b l e i n important  s u b j e c t s , such as those connected w i t h " r e -  l i g i o u s a s p i r a t i o n s , e l e v a t i n g thoughts,  [and]. . . a l l enobling,  sacred, g r a c e f u l , or b e a u t i f u l associations."50  Fundamentally, t h e p a t t e r n which appears i n t h e p e r i o d i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , regardless of class or p o l i t i c a l  o r i e n t a t i o n , i s that  of a f i r m support f o r Academic d e f i n i t i o n s o f high a r t , i n s o f a r as r e l i g i o u s imagery i s concerned; one which remains s t r o n g d e s p i t e the widespread p r e f e r e n c e f o r genre, t h e growing p o p u l a r i t y o f medi e v a l i s m , and m i d d l e - c l a s s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e p r e s e n t of t h e Royal Academy i t s e l f .  state  Given t h e p r e v a l e n t l o y a l t y t o t r a -  d i t i o n , how d i d C h r i s t i n t h e House o f h i s Parents f a r e e w i t h  critics  committed t o Academic t a s t e ?  Not u n e x p e c t e d l y , M i l l a i s ' s naturalism. o f anatomical  they e x p e r i e n c e d  great d i f f i c u l t i e s  with  The B u i l d e r shrank from h i s " p a i n f u l d i s p l a y  knowledge,  1,51  and The Times found h i s " s u r p r i s i n g  power of i m i t a t i o n " t o be " d i s g u s t i n g . " 5 2  The problem, as c r i t i c s  54  from v a r y i n g p o s i t i o n s on t h e spectrum p o i n t e d o u t , was t h a t i n h i s o v e r r i d i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n upon n a t u r a l i s t i c d e t a i l , M i l l a i s had o m i t t e d something o f c r u c i a l his  Parents.  importance from C h r i s t i n t h e House o f  Dickens commented t a r t l y t h a t . " A r t i n c l u d e s  more than t h e f a i t h f u l p o r t r a i t u r e o f shavings."53  something  T a i t ' s Edin-  burgh Magazine, v o i c i n g s e n t i m e n t s which c o u l d have been u t t e r e d by a Royal Academician, a d m i n i s t e r e d a k i n d o f c o r r e c t i v e f o r M i l l a i s ' s errors i s stating that painting "attainted] i t s highest perfection i n those works i n which t h e powers o f i m i t a t i o n and c r e a t i o n a r e j o i n t l y developed t o t h e g r e a t e s t degree," and i t p o i n t e d t o Raphael's t a p e s t r y c a r t o o n o f S t . Paul P r e a c h i n g a t Athens as a " f a m i l i a r example" o f such p e r f e c t i o n .  However, w h i l e p a i n t i n g was t o be  "both i m i t a t i v e and c r e a t i v e , " T a i t ' s h e l d t h a t i t was a t i t s worst when dominated by " t h e i m i t a t i v e f a c u l t y o f t h e a r t i s t , " because u l t i m a t e l y i t was " t h e c r e a t i v e . . . f a c u l t y , " as e v i d e n c e d i n t h e i d e a l i z e d f i g u r e , which ".conferred i m m o r t a l i t y on [ a ] work."54  C r i t i c s agreed t h a t the /.key element necessary i n t h e prod u c t i o n o f such " i m m o r t a l " a r t , one c o n s p i c u o u s l y absent from C h r i s t i n t h e House o f h i s P a r e n t s , was i d e a l i z a t i o n . q u i t e b l u n t i n s t r e s s i n g t h e importance o f t h i s . attacked M i l l a i s ' s " l i t e r a l  Some were  The B u i l d e r  d e p i c t i o n o f t h e most i l l - a d a p t e d  models. . .[made] w i t h o u t i n t h e l e a s t degree endeavouring t o idealize."55 the  Ralph Wornum, i n h i s A r t J o u r n a l r e v i e w o f C h r i s t i n  House o f h i s P a r e n t s , e x p l a i n e d t h e r e a s o n i n g behind t h e c a l l .  55  f o r i d e a l i z a t i o n by s t a t i n g u n e q u i v o c a l l y t h a t , "the p h y s i c a l a l o n e can harmonize w i t h t h e s s p i r i t u a l  i d e a l ; i n A r t . . .the most  b e a u t i f u l soul must have t h e most b e a u t i f u l body."56 c a t i o n o f Wornum's thought  ideal  The i m p l i -  i s t h a t a body not possessed o f such  s t a n d a r d s o f a t t r a c t i v e n e s s cannot have a b e a u t i f u l o r s p i r i t u a l soul.  Essentially, i n f a i l i n g to incorporate idealization  into  h i s treatment of r e l i g i o u s subject matter, M i l l a i s deprived h i s v i e w e r s o f a c r u c i a l component.  Without t h e i d e a l i z a t i o n  which  s i g n a l l e d t h e presence o f moral v i r t u e , and ( a l t h o u g h not on a c o n s c i o u s l e v e l ) , informed v i e w e r s t h a t a work was t o be p e r c e i v e d as a p e r f e c t e d image o f themselves  as C h r i s t i a n s , normal  relations  between viewer and p i c t u r e were d i s r u p t e d , o r o v e r t u r n e d .  Out o f  such a d i s i n t e g r a t i o n , a host o f n e g a t i v e q u a l i t i e s crowded i n t o t a k e t h e p l a c e o f t h e d i g n i f i e d a s s o c i a t i o n s n o r m a l l y evoked by accepted r e l i g i o u s imagery.  These c o n n o t a t i o n s , which many c r i t i c s  found deeply d i s t u r b i n g , and which :wi11 be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r , were p r o b a b l y never dreamt o f by M i l l a i s h i m s e l f .  Rather,  h i s s u b s t i t u t i o n o f P r e - R a p h a e l i t e n a t u r a l i s m f o r t h e more t r a d i t i o n a l i d e a l i z a t i o n was m o t i v a t e d by a d e s i r e t o shed t h e c o n v e n t i o n s of t h e Academy, and perhaps  a l s o by a hope o f a t t r a c t i n g m i d d l e -  c l a s s p a t r o n s o f a r t , who, as M i l l a i s cannot have been unaware, t y p i c a l l y f a v o u r e d n a t u r a l i s t i c works i n p r e f e r e n c e t o t h o s e a l o n g t h e more accepted Academic l i n e s .  styled  I t was i n t h i s attempt t o  56  please the t a s t e normally  d i s p l a y e d by such a p u b l i c t h a t  Millais  made a s e r i o u s m i s c a l c u l a t i o n , f o r , as we have seen, when r e l i g i o u s imagery was i n v o l v e d , t h e p a r t i a l i t y f o r n a t u r a l i s m and t h e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l a r t were superseded by a staunch t o Academic i d e a l i z i n g  conventions.  loyalty  57  FOOTNOTES  'Both E a s t l a k e and L e s l i e d e r i v e d a g r e a t deal of t h e i r aest h e t i c t h e o r y from Reynolds. C h a r l e s E a s t l a k e , "Number Four, The S t a t e and P r o s p e c t s of the E n g l i s h S c h o o l , " C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the L i t e r a t u r e of the F i n e A r t s , 2 v o l s . (London: John Murray, 1848; r e p r i n t ed., 1870), v o l . 1, pages 33, and 36-37. 2  ^ E a s t l a k e , "Number One, The F i n e A r t s , " C o n t r i b u t i o n s , v o l . 1, page 1. L e o n b a t t i s t a A l b e r t i , D e l i a P i t t u r a , (London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l , 1436; r e p r i n t ed., 1956), pages 75-77. E a s t l a k e , "Means and End o f A r t , " Methods and M a t e r i a l s of P a i n t i n g , 2 v o l s . (New York: Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s , " M e a n s and End" o r i g i n a l l y w r i t t e n 1828, p u b l i s h e d 1869; r e p r i n t ed., 1960), v o l . 2, page 409. 4  5LOC.  cit.  6 A l b e r t i , D e l i a P i t t u r a , pages 77 and 92-93. For a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of the E n g l i s h Academy's i n t e r e s t i n A l b e r t i , see J . Spencer's i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h i s e d i t i o n of D e l i a P i t t u r a . For L e s l i e and E a s t l a k e on i d e a l i z a t i o n , c o n s u l t : C h a r l e s Robert L e s l i e , "Fine A r t s , Royal Academy, P r o f e s s o r L e s l i e ' s L e c t u r e s on P a i n t i n g , L e c t u r e I I , " The Athenaeum, (24 February 1849), page 201; and E a s t l a k e , "Number T h i r t e e n , On the P h i l o s o p h y of the F i n e A r t s , " C o n t r i b u t i o n s , v o l . 1, pages 394-395. ^ E a s t l a k e , " S t a t e and P r o s p e c t s , " pages 41-42.  C o n t r i b u t i o n s , v o l . 1,  E a s t l a k e , "Number Nine, The L i f e of Raphael," C o n t r i b u t i o n s , v o l . 1, page 206. O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n The Q u a r t e r l y Review, v o l . 81 (June 1840), pages not g i v e n . L e s l i e , Athenaeum, (24 Febr u a r y 1849), page 200. 8  9  E a s t l a k e , "Philosophy,"  C o n t r i b u t i o n s , v o l . 1, page  400.  E a s t l a k e , "Note on the O r i g i n a l S i t u a t i o n of the T a p e s t r i e s , " i n Franz K u g l e r , Handbook of P a i n t i n g , the I t a l i a n S c h o o l s , 2 v o l s . (London: John Murray, 1837; r e p r i n t ed., 1869), v o l . 2, pages 396397. 1 u  58  C h a r l e s L e s l i e , " F i n e A r t s , Royal Academy, P r o f e s s o r Lesl i e ' s L e c t u r e s on P a i n t i n g , L e c t u r e I , " The-Athenaeum, (17 Febr u a r y 1849), page 173. 1 1  1 2  L e s l i e , The Athenaeum, (24 February  1849), page 202.  1 3 i b i d . , pages 200 and 201. 1 4 l b i d . , page 201. E a s t l a k e , " S t a t e and P r o s p e c t s , " C o n t r i b u t i o n s , v o l . 1, page 45. 1 5  ^Jeremy Maas, V i c t o r i a n P a i n t e r s , (New York: Sons, 1969), page 105. 1 L e s l i e , The Athenaeum, (17 February 7  G.P.  Putnam's  1849), page 176.  E a s t l a k e , " S t a t e and P r o s p e c t s , " C o n t r i b u t i o n s , v o l . 1, pages 33 and 36. 1 8  R o b y n Cooper, "The Growth o f I n t e r e s t i n E a r l y I t a l i a n Painting in B r i t a i n : George D a r l e y and The Athenaeum, 1834-1846," J o u r n a l ofv.the Warburg and C o u r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e s , v o l . 43 (1980), page 202. 19  ^ E a s t l a k e was t h e N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y ' s d i r e c t o r between 1855 and 1865. He had been i t s Keeper from 1843 t o 1847, and a T r u s t e e between 1850 and 1855. For h i s i n t e r e s t i n l a t e medieval a r t , see David Robertson, S i r C h a r l e s E a s t l a k e and t h e V i c t o r i a n A r t World, ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1978), pages 129 and 134. Dyce's m e d i e v a l i s m i s d i s c u s s e d by M a r c i a P o i n t o n , W i l l i a m , Dyce 1806-1864, A C r i t i c a l Biography, ( O x f o r d : The Clarendon P r e s s , 1979). W i l l i a m Dyce, Theory o f t h e F i n e A r t s , An I n t r o d u c t o r y Lect u r e D e l i v e r e d i n t h e C l a s s i c a l Theatre of King's C o l l e g e , London, 24 May 184"4, (London': James Burns, 1844), page 14. 2 1  2 2 E a s t l a k e , " P r e f a c e , " i n K u g l e r , Handbook, v o l . 1, page v i i . 2 3 s i r C o u t t s L i n d s a y , Sketches o f t h e H i s t o r y o f C h r i s t i a n A r t , 3 v o l s . (London: John Murray, 1847). 2 4 i b i d . , v o l . 3, page 422.  59  " [ G e o r g e D a r l e y ] , " F o r e i g n Correspondence," The Athenaeum, (8 December 1838), page 875. 2 6  L i n d s a y , S k e t c h e s , v o l . 3, page 420.  [ G e o r g e D a r l e y ] , "The Duke o f Lucca's P i c t u r e s , " The Athenaeum, (25 J u l y 1840), page 595. 2 7  2 8  L i n d s a y , S k e t c h e s , v o l . 3, pages 418-419.  9 [ G e o r g e D a r l e y ] , " F i n e A r t s , t h e M i s s i o n o f Amateurs," The Athenaeum, (28 March 1846), page 327. 2  3 0 L i n d s a y , S k e t c h e s , v o l . 1, page x i v . 3 1  I b i d . , v o l . 1, page x v i . •  32Darley, l e t t e r o f 1836. C i t e d i n Cooper, J o u r n a l o f t h e Warburg and C o u r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e s , v o l . 43 (1980), page 205. L o c a t i o n of l e t t e r not g i v e n . L i n d s a y , S k e t c h e s , v o l . 1, page xv; and v o l . 2, page 102. 3 3  Darley, loc. c i t .  0 u t o f t h e 1,456 p i c t u r e s shown a t t h e Academy, a p p r o x i m a t e l y twenty were r e l i g i o u s images. T o t a l f o r works e x h i b i t e d i s from, Anon., " F i n e A r t s , " The G u a r d i a n , v o l . 5 (8 May 1850), page 336. 3 4  3 5 [ w i l l i a m M i c h a e l R o s s e t t i ] , "The Royal Academy E x h i b i t i o n , " The C r i t i c , v o l . 9 (15 May 1850), page 254; and, Anon., " F i n e A r t s , " The G u a r d i a n , v o l . 5 (8 May 1850), page 336. 36The p a r a b l e o f t h e good Samaritan comes from Luke 10:30-37. A n o n . , " E x h i b i t i o n o f t h e Royal Academy, Second N o t i c e , " The Times, (6 May 1850), page 5, column 1. The source f o r Jacob and Rachel i s G e n e s i s , c h a p t e r s 28 and 29. For t h e r e a d e r s h i p o f The Times, see E l l e g a Y d , V i c t o r i a n P e r i o d i c a l s N e w s l e t t e r , Number 13 (September 1971), page 4. 37  38Anon., "The E x h i b i t i o n o f t h e Royal Academy," The Times, (4 May 1850), pages 4 and 5, columns 6;:and 1. A n o n . , "The A r t s , Royal Academy E x h i b i t i o n : Sub-historical P i c t u r e s , " The S p e c t a t o r , v o l . 23 (1 June 1850), page 523. 39  60  40E1legSrd, V i c t o r i a n P e r i o d i c a l s N e w s l e t t e r , Number 13 (September 1971), page 11. The l i n k between t h e p o l i t i c a l and the a r t i s t i c s t a n c e s o f any g i v e n p e r i o d i c a l must be approached w i t h c a u t i o n , i n t h a t one cannot a u t o m a t i c a l l y assume a p o l i t i c a l l y c o n s e r v a t i v e magazine w i l l be c o n s e r v a t i v e i n i t s a r t i s t i c v i e w s , or t h a t a p o l i t i c a l l y l i b e r a l j o u r n a l must be e q u a l l y l i b e r a l i n i t s approach t o t h e a r t s . The S p e c t a t o r , w i t h i t s c o m b i n a t i o n o f l i b e r a l p o l i t i c s and c o n s e r v a t i v e = t a s t e i n p a i n t i n g , i s a case i n point. A n o n . , "On t h e Genius o f Raphael," Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, v o l . 45 (June 1839), page 815. For an e x a m i n a t i o n o f Blackwood's l a r g e l y a r i s t o c r a t i c r e a d e r s h i p , see R i c h a r d D. A l t i c k , The E n g l i s h Common Reader, A S o c i a l H i s t o r y o f t h e Mass Reading P u b l i c , 1800-1900, ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1957; r e p r i n t ed., 1967), page 319. 41  4 2  T h e S p e c t a t o r , v o l . 23 (1 June 1850), page 523.  43Anon., "The N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y and t h e Royal Academy," The A r t J o u r n a l , v o l . 12 (1 A p r i l 1850), page 103. For A r t J o u r n a l r e a d e r s h i p , see George Landow, "There Began t o be a Great T a l k i n g About t h e F i n e A r t s , " i n Joseph A l t h o l z , ed., The Mind and A r t o f V i c t o r i a n England, ( M i n n e a p o l i s : U n i v e r s i t y o f Minnesota P r e s s , 1976), page 129. A n o n . , "Punch Among t h e P i c t u r e s , F l i g h t t h e F i r s t , " Punch, v o l . 18 ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 15 May 1850), page 193. F o r Punch's m i d d l e c l a s s p u b l i c , c o n s u l t R. P r i c e , A H i s t o r y o f Punch, (London: Coll i n s , 1957), page 31. Punch, though a s a t i r i c a l magazine, d i d express developed views c o n c e r n i n g a r t . 44  ^Anon., "Punch Among t h e P i c t u r e s , F l i g h t t h e Second," Punch, v o l . 18 ( l a t e May 1850), page 214; and, Anon., "Punch Among t h e P i c t u r e s , F l i g h t t h e T h i r d , " Punch, v o l . 18 ( e a r l y June 1850), page 240: 4  4 6  Punch,  v o l . 18 ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 15 May 1850), page 193.  47punch, v o l . 18 ( e a r l y June 1850), page 240. [ C h a r l e s D i c k e n s ] , "The Ghost o f A r t , " Household Words, v o l . 1 (20 J u l y 1850), pages 385-386. F o r t h e m i d d l e - c l a s s r e a d e r s h i p of Household Words, see A l t i c k , E n g l i s h Common Reader, page 347. 4 8  vol.  4 9 [ c h a r l e s D i c k e n s ] , "Old Lamps f o r New Ones," Household Words, 1 (15 June 1850), page 265.  61  [ D i c k e n s ] , "Old Lamps," Household Words, v o l . 1, (15 -.June 1850), pages 265-266. 5 0  A n o n . , "The Royal Academy E x h i b i t i o n , " The B u i l d e r , v o l . 8 (1 June 1850), page 256. 51  A n o n . , " E x h i b i t i o n o f t h e Royal Academy," May 1850), page 5,.column 1. 52  The Times, (9  3 [ D i c k e n s ] , "Old Lamps," Household Words, v o l . 1 (15 June 1850), page 266. 5  A n o n . , " F i n e A r t s , The P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s , " T a i t ' s Magazine, v o l . 18 (August 1851), page 512. 54  Edinburgh  A n o n . , "The Royal Academy E x h i b i t i o n , " The B u i l d e r , v o l . 8 (1 June 1850), page 256. I r o n i c a l l y , M i l l a i s had employed two of t h e s e " i l l - a d a p t e d models" t h e y e a r b e f o r e , f o r I s a b e l l a . ( F i g . 5 ) . M i l l a i s ' s s i s t e r - i n - l a w , who s a t f o r t h e V i r g i n i n C h r i s t i n t h e House of h i s P a r e n t s , posed f o r I s a b e l l a ; and h i s f a t h e r , who modell e d f o r S t . Joseph, s a t f o r t h e man w i t h t h e n a p k i n . L e s l i e P a r r i s , ed., The P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s , (London: The Tate G a l l e r y , 1984), page 69. No one had o b j e c t e d t o them t h e n , and The Athenaeum had even complimented M i l l a i s upon t h e f i g u r e s . [Solomon H a r t ] , " F i n e A r t s , Royal Academy, P a i n t i n g s , " The Athenaeum, (2 June 1849), page 575. While i d e a l i z a t i o n was not n e c e s s a r y v f o r t h e s i l l u s t r a t i o n o f a poem by K e a t s , i t was o f c r u c i a l importance i n a r e l i g i o u s image, such as C h r i s t i n t h e House o f h i s P a r e n t s . 55  5 6 R [ a l p h ] N. Wornum, "Modern Moves_in A r t , ' C h r i s t i a n A r c h i t e c t u r e , ' 'Young E n g l a n d , The A r t J o u r n a l , v o l . 12 (1 September 1850), page 271. ICI  62  CHAPTER I I I : THE CRITICAL REACTION TO CHRIST IN THE HOUSE OF HIS PARENTS  In examining of  t h e c r i t i c a l a t t a c k s upon C h r i s t i n t h e House  h i s P a r e n t s , one i s s t r u c k by t h e i r e x t r a o r d i n a r y v i o l e n c e ,  which, by v i r t u e o f t h e i r a n i m o s i t y , r e v e a l how t h r e a t e n i n g t h e image must have seemed t o t h e h o r r i f i e d j o u r n a l i s t s who it.  1  M i l l a i s ' s p i c t u r e was v a r i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d as " u g l y , g r a c e l e s s ,  and unpleasant;"2  "mean, o d i o u s , r e p u l s i v e , and r e v o l t i n g ; "  and even as "monstrously which  reviewed  perverse,"  4  3  i n an i n t e n s i t y o f language  s i m p l y does not appear elsewhere  i n the otherwise  politely  expressed d i c t i o n t y p i c a l o f E n g l i s h a r t c r i t i c i s m a t t h i s t i m e :  R e p e a t e d l y , t h e c r i t i c s f o c u s s e d upon M i l l a i s ' s  medieval-  i z i n g s t y l e , which they m a i n t a i n e d was i n h e r e n t l y f l a w e d ; and upon t h e u g l i n e s s o f h i s f i g u r e s , who appeared t o them t o resemble t h e slum d w e l l e r s o f modern England  r a t h e r than t h e Holy F a m i l y .  Accor-  d i n g l y , t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l c o n c e n t r a t e most h e a v i l y upon t h e s e two areas o f m e d i e v a l i s m to  the c r i t i c s  and p o v e r t y , s i n c e t h e y were o f most  importance  themselves.6  R a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from t h e mass o f n e g a t i v e commentary was t h e r e a c t i o n o f a s i n g l e j o u r n a l , The Guardian, w h i c h , d e s p i t e some r e s e r v a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g m e d i e v a l i s m , pronounced i n f a v o u r of C h r i s t i n t h e House o f h i s P a r e n t s .  As we s h a l l see, The  Guardian's  63  s t a n c e r e g a r d i n g m e d i e v a l i s m and p o v e r t y was markedly d i f f e r e n t from t h a t e n t e r t a i n e d by t h e o t h e r p e r i o d i c a l s , and i t was t h i s which helped shape i t s p o s i t i v e response t o M i l l a i s ' s  painting.  In the p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r , we examined t h e ways i n which n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y a r t i s t s and c r i t i c s of  argued f o r the correspondence  p h y s i c a l beauty w i t h moral o r s p i r i t u a l beauty.  In t h i s c h a p t e r  we s h a l l d i s c u s s t h e r e v e r s e s i d e of t h i s c o n c e p t , which  stated  t h a t e x t e r n a l p h y s i c a l f l a w s s i g n a l l e d t h e presence of i n t e r i o r defects.  T h i s idea was so d e e p l y e n g r a i n e d i n t h e minds o f M i l l a i s ' s  c r i t i c s t h a t t h e y s i m p l y c o u l d not a s s o c i a t e h i s " u g l y " f i g u r e s w i t h exalted  characteristics.  For  some w r i t e r s , t h e l a c k of i d e a l i z a t i o n i n M i l l a i s ' s  work added an e x t r a dimension t o t h e concept t h a t u n a t t r a c t i v e f i g u r e s must be possessed of e q u a l l y u n l o v e l y s o u l s .  They i d e n -  t i f i e d both p h y s i c a l and p s y c h i c d i s f i g u r e m e n t w i t h a s p e c i f i c c l a s s i n E n g l i s h s o c i e t y t o which t h e y f e l t such n e g a t i v e q u a l i t i e s p a r t i c u l a r l y belonged.  When c o n f r o n t e d w i t h the a p p a r e n t l y de-  formed physiques o f C h r i s t i h r t h e House of h i s P a r e n t s , t h e s e c r i t i c s thought of t h e urban poor, and t h e y produced a f u l l y  devel-  oped image of modern pauperism, d e t a i l i n g the b e h a v i o u r , t h e l o c a l e s , and even m e n t i o n i n g s p e c i f i c d i s e a s e s which t h e y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h poverty.  64  In Household Words, Dickens commented t h a t t h e V i r g i n would be a t home i n "the v i l e s t c a b a r e t i n France, o r t h e lowest gin-shop i n England," and t h a t S t . Joseph and h i s young a p p r e n t i c e resembled p a t i e n t s i n a p a u p e r s i h o s p i t a l .  6  The T a i t ' s  critic  c l a i m e d t h a t M i l l a i s had o b v i o u s l y found h i s V i r g i n Mary, ("a w h i n i n g , s i c k l y woman"), i n a "lane'-or a l l e y , " t h e r e b y i n d i c a t i n g t h a t she reminded him/her o f one o f t h e p o v e r t y - s t r i c k e n d e n i z e n s of t h e crooked s t r e e t s w h i c h h c o n s t i t u t e d an urban slum.7  S e v e r a l c r i t i c s remarked Blackwood's,8 P u n c h ,  9  t h a t t h e f i g u r e s looked u n h e a l t h y .  and T a i t ' s 1 Q wrote t h a t some showed marked  symptoms o f r a c h i t i s , o r r i c k e t t s , and Punch d i s c e r n e d e v i d e n c e o f " s c r o f u l a , " a common form o f t u b e r c u l o s i s , i n t h e "emaciated b o d i e s , shrunken l e g s , and tumid a n c l e s [ s i c ] " 1 o f t h e Holy F a m i l y . 1  Dis-  c u s s i o n s o f s c r o f u l a and r a c h i t i s o f t e n appear i n n i n e t e e n t h cent u r y l i t e r a t u r e c o n c e r n i n g t h e poor.  Both d i s e a s e s were w i d e l y  viewed as i n e v i t a b l e a s p e c t s o f poverty.12  In h i s c l a s s i c study  of p o v e r t y i n Manchester, F r i e d r i c h Engels wrote t h a t S c r o f u l a i s almost u n i v e r s a l among t h e working c l a s s . . . R a c h i t i s i s e x t r e m e l y common among the c h i l d r e n of the working c l a s s . . .Children who a r e h a l f - s t a r v e d . . .must i n e v i t a b l y become s c r o f u l o u s and r a c h i t i c i n a high degree. 13  In r e c o i l i n g from t h e i l l  h e a l t h o f M i l l a i s ' s Holy F a m i l y ,  Punch r e l a t e d t h e i r s c r o f u l i t i c c o n d i t i o n t o a l a c k o f p e r s o n a l  65  c l e a n l i n e s s , c l a i m i n g t h a t " t h e s q u a l i d f i l t h f o r which t h e whole group i s remarkable i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a d i s o r d e r , [ s c r o f u l a ] , n o t o r i o u s l y connected w i t h d i r t . " ' ' the unclean f i g u r e s . "unwashed"''5" b o d i e s ;  other c r i t i c s t o o objected t o  The Athenaeum and T a i t s complained about t h e 1  Dickens wrote t h a t they were " d i r t y , " ' ' and 6  The Times found i t s e l f d i s g u s t e d f e a t u r e d "no c o n c e i v a b l e concerning  4  omission  by t h e f a c t t h a t M i l l a i s ' s p i c t u r e of d i r t . "  L i k e t h e remarks  s c r o f u l a and r a c h i t i s , t h e s e comments t o o were p o i n t e d  references t o poverty,  as contemporary d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e poor  i n v a r i a b l y included scandalized observations of p e r s o n a l lived.  1 7  regarding t h e i r  lack  h y g i e n e , as w e l l as t h e f i l t h y c o n d i t i o n s i n which they  1 8  Some o f t h e c r i t i c s went so f a r as t o a s s o c i a t e Holy Family w i t h " v i c e s " c o n s i d e r e d Dickens f o c u s s e d  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e poor.  upon a l c o h o l i s m , a common element o f slum  when he wrote t h a t S t . Joseph and h i s a p p r e n t i c e  poor by p l a c i n g t h e V i r g i n i n a "low gin-shop."''  life,  resembled a p a i r  of "drunkards," and he even r e f e r r e d t o t h e favoured  drink of the  9  In a d d i t i o n t o drunkenness, charges o f sexual  promiscuity  were o f t e n l e v e l l e d a t t h e poor, and l i t e r a t u r e c o n c e r n i n g t y p i c a l l y claimed  Millais's  slum  life  t h a t t h e poor engaged i n e x t r a - o r p r e - m a r i t a l  r e l a t i o n s , t h a t they were i n d i s c r i m i n a t e i n t h e i r c h o i c e o f p a r t n e r s , and t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n were f r e q u e n t l y born o u t o f wedlock.  Tait's  66  Edinburgh Magazine invoked t h i s aspect of the p o p u l a r associated with poverty Parents.  i n i t s r e v i e w of C h r i s t i n the House of ,his  I t s c r i t i c wrote t h a t the young C h r i s t was  an i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d , whose s t a t u s as the product union was  shared  stereotype  by many c h i l d r e n i n the slums.  a "bantling,"  of an  2 0  irregular  U n l i k e Household  Words or T a i t ' s , Punch d i d not l i n k p o v e r t y w i t h a l c o h o l i s m or;:promiscuity.  I n s t e a d , i t s approach was  vague.  I t connected the Holy  ?1 Family w i t h u n s p e c i f i e d " i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n l i v i n g , " t o go  i n t o d e t a i l r e g a r d i n g the type of behaviour  but i t d e c l i n e d  which i t c o n s i d -  ered t y p i c a l of the poor. C l e a r l y , the e v o c a t i o n of such a n e g a t i v e  stereotype,  e s p e c i a l l y when r e l a t e d t o the Holy F a m i l y , would have been enough t o a l i e n a t e the c r i t i c s who s t e r e o t y p e of p o v e r t y was  reviewed  M i l l a i s ' s work.  a c t u a l l y motivated  However, the  by a r e a l f e a r of the  poor, one which c o n s i s t e n t l y marked the l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h pauperism, and which s u r e l y exacerbated C h r i s t i n the House o f h i s Parents was  the h o s t i l i t y w i t h which received.  The f o l l o w i n g a r t i c l e on a pauper c h i l d r e n s ' s c h o o l , w r i t t e n by F r e d e r i c k Hunt f o r Household Words, i s an e x c e l l e n t example of the t r e p i d a t i o n w i t h which the p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s e s contemplated  the poor. [Norwich S c h o o l ] may be c a l l e d a f a c t o r y f o r making harmless. . . s u b j e c t s of the very worst of human m a t e r i a l — a p l a c e f o r c o n v e r t i n g those who  67  would c e r t a i n l y be m i s e r a b l e and most l i k e l y v i c i o u s , i n t o r a t i o n a l , r e a s o n a b l e , and o f t e n very u s e f u l members of s o c i e t y ; - - i n s h o r t , a house f o r t r a i n i n g a l a r g e and wretched c l a s s i n h a b i t s of decency, r e g u l a r i t y , and o r d e r , and l e a d i n g a p i t i a b l e s e c t i o n o f . . .London from t h e road t o crime i n t o t h a t of honest i n d u s t r y and s e l f - r e s p e c t . 22  Hunt's compassion f o r t h e poor, whom he d e s c r i b e s as iable,"  "wretched,"  and " m i s e r a b l e , " i s o b v i o u s ; but  w i t h h i s sympathy i s the nervous  "pit-  intertwined  b e l i e f t h a t the c l a s s i n q u e s t i o n  i s an i n t i m i d a t i n g e n t i t y v. whose c h i l d r e n , i f not "made h a r m l e s s " i n t i m e , w i l l become v i c i o u s c r i m i n a l s , d e v o i d o f a l l decent c h a r a c teristics.  The Times ecihoed Hunt's c o n t r a d i c t o r y s e n t i m e n t s i n an a r t i c l e examiningnthe  beggars of London.  The i d l e r u f f i a n s who molest our s t r e e t s . . . are n o t h i n g more o r l e s s than f r e e b o o t e r s whose p l a n i s t o l i v e by l y i n g , t e r r i f y i n g , b u l l y i n g , o b s t r u c t i n g and every o t h e r form of p e t t y m i s c h i e f . They t h r i v e l i k e vermin by wast i n g t h e s u b s t a n c e . . .of t h e i n d u s t r i o u s and can o n l y be r e g a r d e d . . .as t h i e v e s . 23  The v o c a b u l a r y employed by the anonymous Times j o u r n a l i s t r e v e a l s a deep-seated  antagonism  and alarm c o n c e r n i n g t h e poor,  are reduced t o a l e s s than human s t a t u s i n being d i s m i s s e d as  who  "vermin."  At t h e same t i m e , t h e y are p e r c e i v e d as a g e n u i n e l y t h r e a t e n i n g p r e s e n c e , b u l l y i n g and m o l e s t i n g honest c i t i z e n s i n t h e s t r e e t s of London.  68  T h i s commentator's a n x i e t y , which was so o f t e n v o i c e d i n the of  l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h t h e poor, was grounded  i n the tenseness  r e l a t i o n s between t h e p r o p e r t i e d and u n p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s e s , which  had p r e v a i l e d f o r much o f t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The most r e c e n t m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f working c l a s s d i s c o n t e n t had been embodied i n t h e C h a r t i s t d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f 10 A p r i l ,  1848. While by  1850, C h a r t i s m had been so c l e a r l y d e f e a t e d t h a t Punch c o u l d support the  r e l e a s e o f i m p r i s o n e d C h a r t i s t s , ("now made harmless by t h e common  sense and common l o y a l t y o f t h e E n g l i s h people,")24 f e a r f u l memories of  t h e u n r e s t o f 1848 remained s h a r p , as d i d t h e awareness  o f a con-  s t a n t l y smouldering sense o f d i s a f f e c t i o n on t h e p a r t of t h e lower working c l a s s e s . 2 5  Such working c l a s s u n r e s t sprang from a s e r i e s o f events which had t r a n s f o r m e d England, and which had been a c c e l e r a t i n g throughout t h e c e n t u r y .  The f i r s t h a l f o f t h e c e n t u r y saw r e -  c u r r e n t crop f a i l u r e s , which produced a g r i c u l t u r a l unemployment and g e n e r a l l y depressed c o n d i t i o n s . 2 6 Large numbers f l o c k e d from the  c o u n t r y s i d e i n t o t h e c i t y , as r u r a l  in the great t o w n s .  2 7  l a b o u r e r s soughtcemployment  Many encountered o n l y c o n t i n u i n g p o v e r t y .  A massive i n f l u x o f impoverished I r i s h m i g r a n t s i n t e n s i f i e d s i t u a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y a f t e r t h e p o t a t o famine o f 1846.  this  Due t o  t h i s c o m b i n a t i o n o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t h e e x i s t e n c e o f d i s c o n t e n t among the  lower working c l a s s e s remained  strong.28  69  Estimates  v a r i e d r e g a r d i n g how many paupers crowded t h e  new urban c e n t r e s , 2 9  but everyone agreed t h a t they c o n s t i t u t e d a  s e r i o u s problem, which must be addressed b e f o r e i t reached proportions.  D i f f e r i n g s o l u t i o n s were put f o r w a r d ; from  impossible  enforced  e m i g r a t i o n , o r s a n i t a r y r e f o r m ; t o e d u c a t i o n , whether s e c u l a r o r r e l i g i o u s ; t o a change i n t h e laws which determined support  f o r the  d e s t i t u t e , and, w h i l e a l l o f t h e s e measures were acted upon t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , and d i d a c h i e v e  some degree o f s u c c e s s , t h e problem  remained f i r m l y entrenched i n E n g l i s h s o c i e t y .  T.'SC  That t h e lower working c l a s s e s e x i s t e d i n a c h r o n i c s t a t e  of d i s c o n t e n t was w i d e l y b e l i e v e d among t h e middle and upper c l a s s e s in England.  I t was t h i s knowledge which imbued t h e a l r e a d y  negative  s t e r e o t y p e o f t h e poor w i t h i t s t h r e a t e n i n g a s p e c t s , and which must a l s o have been a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e extreme anger which appeared i n some o f t h e c r i t i c a l House o f h h i s  responses t o C h r i s t i n t h e  Parents.  While every c r i t i c who reviewed Parents m a i n t a i n e d  C h r i s t i n t h e House o f h i s  t h a t t h e f i g u r e s were u g l y , o r d i s t o r t e d , o r  even deformed, not a l l went on t o l i n k these p h y s i c a l d e f e c t s w i t h p o v e r t y , o r even t o d i s c u s s t h e i s s u e . lies  i n t h e broader t r e a t m e n t  The e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s  o f p o v e r t y n o r m a l l y d i s p l a y e d by t h e  j o u r n a l s f o r whichhthese c r i t i c s  wrote.  Essentially, periodicals  which t y p i c a l l y f e a t u r e d a h o s t i l e and f e a r f u l approach t o t h e poor  70  e x h i b i t e d the same r e a c t i o n t o t h e p o v e r t y they thought they  detected  i n M i l l a i s ' s work, whereas t h o s e magazines l a c k i n g a f r i g h t e n e d , b e l l i g e r e n t a t t i t u d e toward it  poverty in general a l s o f a i l e d to voice  i n t h e i r reviews of C h r i s t i n t h e House of h i s Parents30  m a t e l y , the key t o t h e s e d i f f e r i n g responses  Ulti-  t o both p o v e r t y  and  M i l l a i s ' s p a i n t i n g l i e s i n a disagreement c o n c e r n i n g t h e e f f i c a c y of t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e maintenance of the  poor.  Those j o u r n a l s , l i k e The S p e c t a t o r , The Athenaeum, and The  Guardian,  which d i d not connect  C h r i s t i n t h e House of h i s Parents w i t h p o v e r t y  g e n e r a l l y h e l d t h a t t h e poor were being looked a f t e r w i t h marked success.  They tended  t o p o i n t t o t h e v i c t o r i e s of  institutions  which d e a l t with..the poor,31 r a t h e r than t o widespread  failures in  t h i s a r e a , and t h e i r c o n f i d e n t approach meant t h a t t h e y u d i s p l a y e d much l e s s a n x i e t y r e g a r d i n g the poor than d i d t h e o b t h e r j o u r n a l s .  Both The S p e c t a t o r and The Athenaeum wrote f o r a predomin a n t l y haute b o u r g e o i s  r e a d e r s h i p of l i b e r a l p o l i t i c s . 3 2  This  group, o r , more p r e c i s e l y , t h e Whig p a r t y which r e p r e s e n t e d i n t e r e s t s , had p l a y e d a major r o l e i n p a s s i n g the new 1834,  which was  still  in place in 1850.  33  been l a r g e l y shaped by t h e i r own  Poor Law  institutions  maintained, since these  political  of  Therefore, the j o u r n a l s  which c a t e r e d t o t h i s c l a s s n a t u r a l l y approved of t h e through which t h e pauper community was  their  had  philosophy.  By c o n t r a s t , those p e r i o d i c a l s which a t t a c k e d C h r i s t i n t h e  71  House o f h i s Parents f o r i t s apparent r e f e r e n c e s t o p o v e r t y t h a t such i n s t i t u t i o n s were f a i l i n g  held  i n t h e i r t a s k o f c i v i l i z i n g and  c o n t r o l l i n g t h e poor, and they i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p o v e r t y , such as v i c e , d i s e a s e , c r i m e , and d i s c o n t e n t , were not being s o l v e d , but perhaps were even worsening.34  These j o u r n a l s were aimed a t r e a d e r s h i p s o f w i d e l y d i v e r gent c l a s s backgrounds and v a r y i n g p o l i t i c a l s t a n c e s .  For i n s t a n c e ,  Blackwood's was a s t a u n c h l y c o n s e r v a t i v e Tory monthly, d i r e c t e d m a i n l y t o t h e c o u n t r y a r i s t o c r a c y , 3 5 w h i l e Punch and Household Words, both o f which espoused a l i b e r a l a s o l i d l y middle-class p u b l i c . from t h e p a t t e r n expressed  3 6  and r e f o r m i n g p o s i t i o n , a t t r a c t e d N e v e r t h e l e s s , whether  estranged  by The S p e c t a t o r o r The Athenaeum due t o  p o l i t i c a l o r c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s , a l l o f these p e r i o d i c a l s shared an i n a b i l i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the l i b e r a l  high b o u r g e o i s i e ' s  solution  to t h e problem o f p o v e r t y .  As i n t h e case o f t h e r e a c t i o n t o p o v e r t y , i n which critical hostility  had been d i s t r i b u t e d throughout t h e spectrum o f  c l a s s and p o l i t i c s , an e q u a l l y d i s p a r a t e group o f j o u r n a l s a r t i c u l a t e d t h e s u s p i c i o n t h a t C h r i s t i n t h e House o f h i s Parents was connected w i t h Roman C a t h o l i c i s m . 3 7  L i b e r a l Household Words  a t t a c k e d M i l l a i s ' s work by l i n k i n g i t w i t h t h e Roman C a t h o l i c a r t of both past and p r e s e n t .  Dickens wrote t h a t t h e s p i r i t o f P r e -  Raphaelitism o r i g i n a t e d i n the "ugly r e l i g i o u s c a r i c a t u r e s ( c a l l e d m y s t e r i e s ) , " which dated from t h e Pre-Reformat ion p e r i o d , and he  72  c l a i m e d f a c e t i o u s l y t h a t t h e Brotherhood's example had i n s p i r e d Roman C a t h o l i c a r c h i t e c t Augustus welby Pugin t o d e s i g n a s e r i e s o f m a n u s c r i p t books, " i n c h a r a c t e r s nobody on e a r t h s h a l l be a b l e t o read."  3 8  The c r i t i c who wrote f o r t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e A r t J o u r n a l  d i s l i k e d . - . M i l l a i s ' s p a i n t i n g because i t reminded him o f t h e unpleasant art  produced under t h e patronage o f t h e medieval C a t h o l i c  church.  3 9  In a l a t e r A r t J o u r n a l r e v i e w , t h e w r i t e r , John B a l l a n t y n e , commented t h a t he would "not be s u r p r i s e d i f " t h e P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s seceded t o t h e Roman church.40  eventually  Both Dickens and t h e c r i t i c  contri-  b u t i n g t o T a i t ' s , a R a d i c a l magazine,41 i n d i r e c t l y c o n f e r r e d a Roman C a t h o l i c i d e n t i t y upon M i l l a i s ' s p i c t u r e by l i n k i n g i t w i t h C a t h o l i c s i t e s i n London.  specific  Dickens c l a i m e d t h a t S t . Joseph and h i s  a p p r e n t i c e resembled " d i r t y d r u n k a r d s , "  whose "very t o e s had walked  out o f [ t h e slum p a r i s h o f ] S t . G i l e s ' s , " 4 2 w h i l e T a i t ' s l o c a l i z e d M i l l a i s ' s scene o f an "unwashed, whining against rusty n a i l s i n a carpenter's s'iiteh was i t s e l f St.  brat, scratching  itself  shop i n t h e Seven D i a l s , "  an area w i t h i n S t . G i l e s ' s . 4  3  This  The p o p u l a t i o n o f  G i l e s ' s c o n s i s t e d almost e n t i r e l y o f poor I r i s h Roman C a t h o l i c s . 4 4  I t was a n o t o r i o u s d i s t r i c t ,  and i t s name had become a catchword f o r  the lowest forms o f p o v e r t y .  The e t h n i c o r i g i n and r e l i g i o u s o r i e n -  t a t i o n o f i t s i n h a b i t a n t s were as w i d e l y known as was t h e extreme nature of i t s d e p r i v a t i o n s . 4 5  I t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e suspected  Roman C a t h o l i c elements i n  73  C h r i s t i n t h e House o f h i s P a r e n t s d i s t u r b e d t h e s e c r i t i c s , they expressed t h e i r antagonism  whether  i n a d i s l i k e o f medieval o r modern  C a t h o l i c a r t , o r i n d e s c r i p t i o n s o f C a t h o l i c slum d w e l l e r s .  The  reasons f o r such d i s l i k e l a y i n t h e f a c t t h a t although Roman Catho l i c s themselves  had been accorded a measure o f o f f i c i a l  (they had been emancipated  toleration,  i n 1829), no such acceptance had been  extended t o t h e i r r e l i g i o n on a p o p u l a r l e v e l , and i t was s t i l l viewed  i n a f a r from p o s i t i v e l i g h t by many V i c t o r i a n s .  Anti-  C a t h o l i c i s m , o r "No-Popery," as i t was o f t e n c a l l e d , was s t r o n g l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e England o f 1850, where i t permeated almost every l e v e l of s o c i e t y .  Therefore, the c r i t i c s  4 6  who responded  nega-  t i v e l y t o t h e supposed Roman C a t h o l i c i s m o f C h r i s t i n t h e House o f his  Parents were v o i c i n g t h e d i s l i k e o f a r e l i g i o u s system which had  s u r f a c e d many t i m e s b e f o r e .  Those opposed t o Roman C a t h o l i c i s m most commonly a s s o c i a t e d i t w i t h i g n o r a n c e , and they b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s q u a l i t y m a n i f e s t e d itself  i n r e l i g i o u s s u p e r s t i t i o n , which b l o c k e d t h e advances o f  s c i e n c e and r e a s o n .  4 7  Punch's s a t i r i c a l  a t t a c k on C a t h o l i c i s m ' s  b e n i g h t e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s c i e n c e appeared  i n the f o l l o w i n g "Astro-  nomical Examination Paper f o r t h e C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y , " p u r p o r t e d l y w r i t t e n by P r i m a t e C u l l e n . The Sun i s two y a r d s i n diameterI t moves round t h e E a r t h ; I t i s made o f bees' wax; I t r i s e s i n t h e west, and s e t s i n t h e e a s t ; I t i s c a l l e d t h e Sun, because i t f i r s t made i t s Appearance on a SUNday. 48  74  Having i n t i m a t e d t h a t C a t h o l i c i s m ' s was  p r e - C o p e r n i c a n , Punch c l a i m e d  e q u a l l y badly  grasp o f astronomy  that the other sciences  in Catholic institutions.  fared  In m e d i c i n e , f o r example,  s u p e r s t i t i o n was r i f e , and modern p r a c t i c e s "would be e n t i r e l y superseded by. . . s a i n t ' s t o e - n a i l s . . .thaumaturgic mummies, m i r a c u l o u s o l d c l o t h e s , and c a n o n i s e d r a g s , " which would be used in the treatment of " a l l d i s e a s e s . "  Due  t o t h e i r backwardness, Roman C a t h o l i c  were i n e v i t a b l y r i d d e n w i t h p o v e r t y deprived  4 9  populations  and d i s e a s e , s i n c e t h e y were  o f t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l advances which a l l e v i a t e d both  and  pauperism.  was  o f t e n s i n g l e d o u t as t h e paradigm o f t h e e v i l s produced by  Roman  Ireland, with  i t s poverty,  d i s e a s e , and  illness  ignorance,  Catholicism.50  C a t h o l i c i s m was a l s o made synonymous w i t h r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l oppression,  and was thought t o be i m p l a c a b l y  the e s s e n t i a l freedoms most valued  by E n g l i s h s o c i e t y .  hostile to The Spec-  t a t o r b e l i e v e d t h a t C a t h o l i c i s m was i n o p p o s i t i o n t o " t h e s p i r i t o f f r e e d i s c u s s i o n . . .freedom o f t h o u g h t , a f r e e p r e s s , and t h e r e f o r ming s p i r i t . " 5 1 and  Punch suspected i t was u n f r i e n d l y t o f r e e t r a d e , 5 2  Blackwood's c l a i m e d  of P r o t e s t a n t i s m ,  t h a t i t s u l t i m a t e goal was t h e d e s t r u c t i o n  which t h a t magazine p e r c e i v e d  as t h e f o u n t a i n h e a d  of a l l t h e l i b e r t i e s which had made England a g r e a t  nation.^3  75  Such a n e g a t i v e response t o Roman C a t h o l i c i s m assumes a g r e a t deal o f meaning when examined i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e a c t u a l s t a t e o f t h e C o n t i n e n t a l church teenth century. Reformation,  Although  d u r i n g t h e f i r s t half, o f t h e n i n e -  "No-Popery" i n England was as o l d as t h e  i t had e x p e r i e n c e d  an upsurge d u r i n g t h e 1 8 2 0 ' s .  54  T h i s corresponded w i t h t h e assumption o f t h e t i a r a by therfiTst o f the f o u r s t r o n g l y c o n s e r v a t i v e popes who were.to shape C a t h o l i c i s m between 1823 and 1850. Under t h e s e popes, t h e I n q u i s i t i o n was r e vived, censorship  strengthened,  and t h e c l e r g y , nor l o n g e r  t o a t t e n d s e c u l a r u n i v e r s i t i e s , were educated i n s e m i n a r i e s which modern ideas were barred.55  permitted from  Therefore, given t h e nature of  C a t h o l i c i s m d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the.image of t h e Roman C a t h o l i c church  h e l d by many people i n England was one  which r e v o l v e d around ignorance  and o p p r e s s i o n . 5 6  Of equal n e g a t i v i t y t o many V i c t o r i a n s was an i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of t h e C a t h o l i c church's m i s s i o n a r y and  in Britain itself.57  programme, both on t h e C o n t i n e n t  E n g l i s h P r o t e s t a n t s assured  each  other  t h a t , as Lord John R u s s e l l , t h e Whig Prime M i n i s t e r , put i t :  5  8  the l i b e r t y o f P r o t e s t a n t i s m has been enjoyed t o o long i n England t o a l l o w . . .a f o r e i g n p r i n c e , [ t h e pope], . . . t o f a s t e n h i s f e t t e r s upon a nat i o n which has s o . . .nobly v i n d i c a t e d i t s r i g h t t o freedom o f o p i n i o n , c i v i l , p o l i t i c a l , and r e ligious. 59  R u s s e l l was j u s t i f i e d  i n h i s b e l i e f that Catholicism could  76  make l i t t l e headway i n England, f o r t h e widespread towards i t guaranteed t h a t i t would f a i l B r i t i s h Protestants.  animosity  t o sway t h e bulk o f  However, R u s s e l l , as w e l l as many o t h e r  V i c t o r i a n s , d i d i d e n t i f y one e n t i t y i n .'.English s o c i e t y which bore marked t r a c e s o f C a t h o l i c i n f l u e n c e , and w h i c h , a l a r m i n g l y seemed t o be o p e r a t i n g  enough,  as a k i n d o f f i f t h column i n d i s s e m i n a t i n g  the e v i l s o f popery from w i t h i n t h e Church o f England i t s e l f . T h i s was A n g l o - C a t h o l i c i s m . 6 0  Opinions d i f f e r e d regarding l a t i o n s between A n g l o - C a t h o l i c s C a t h o l i c s were s i m p l y  the exact nature of the r e -  and Rome.  secret " p a p i s t s , "  6 1  Many h e l d t h a t Anglowhile others  maintained  t h a t t h e E n g l i s h movement was an u n w i t t i n g dupe o f Rome;62 but e s s e n t i a l l y , t h e b e l i e f t h a t Roman C a t h o l i c involvement i n E n g l i s h a f f a i r s would be f u r t h e r e d by A n g l o - C a t h o l i c i s m  was t h e s p e c t r e  which most c o n s i s t e n t l y f r i g h t e n e d i t s opponents.  That t h e A n g l o - C a t h o l i c s  d i d f u r n i s h t h e i r enemies w i t h  ample e v i d e n c e o f t i e s w i t h t h e C o n t i n e n t a l borrowed h e a v i l y from Rome, a d a p t i n g for  E n g l i s h use,  Catholicism's  church i s t r u e .  p o r t i o n s o f i t s church  They ritual  but perhaps most o b j e c t i o n a b l e , as f a r as Anglo-  c r i t i c s were c o n c e r n e d , was i t s r e v i v a l o f t h e medieval  a s p e c t s o f C a t h o l i c i s m , i n both t h e o l o g y  and t h e a r t s .  77  Therefore, who  reviewed  i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t some of the  journalists  C h r i s t i n the House of h i s Parents r e l a t e d i t s m e d i e v a l i s m  t o t h a t espoused by A n g l o - C a t h o l i c i s m . f i c t i t i o u s brotherhood  Dickens,  in describing a  which he f a c e t i o u s l y c l a i m e d had  appeared  i n response t o P r e - R a p h a e l i t e m e d i e v a l i s m , wrote t h a t some " l a r g e Educational  I n s t i t u t i o n s i n the neighbourhood of Oxford  ready t o pronounce i n f a v o u r of i t . "  6  3  of A n g l o - C a t h o l i c i s m , and the s e c t was  Oxford was  are n e a r l y  the b i r t h p l a c e  so-firmly identified  t h i s c i t y t h a t i t had been c a l l e d the Oxford Movement. e l a b o r a t e d upon the m e d i e v a l i z i n g p h i l o s o p h y  behind  with  Dickens  64  C h r i s t i n the  House of h i s Parents by a s s e r t i n g t h a t i t " p a r a l l e l [ e d ] " t h a t of the s m a l l Tory group c a l l e d Young E n g l a n d , 5 which i t s e l f was  very  6  c l o s e l y a l l i e d with Anglo-Catholicism. f o r The  Ralph Wornum, i n an  A r t J o u r n a l , a l s o made t h i s . ^ c o n n e c t i o n , when he wrote about  the band of p a i n t e r s whose " G o t h i c r e v i v a l " works "had uous f o r the l a s t two who  article  or t h r e e y e a r s  were "sometimes s t y l e d  'Pre-Raphael S c h o o l . '  been c o n s p i c -  i n the London e x h i b i t i o n s , " and  'the Young England,  1  and sometimes the  1 , 6 6  Young England, which had o f f i c i a l l y disbanded i n  1846,  c o n s i s t e d of Benjamin D i s r a e l i , Lord John Manners, George Smythe, ( V i s c o u n t S t r a n g f o r d ) , and A l e x a n d e r C o c h r a n e - B a i 1 1 i e , ton).  Manners and  Smythe were staunch  Anglo-Catholics,  group as a whole s u b s c r i b e d t o much of A n g l o - C a t h o l i c They were opposed t o r e f o r m ,  6 8  and  (Baron Laming6 7  and  the  thought.  i n s i s t e d t h a t the s o l u t i o n t o  78  many c u r r e n t problems c o u l d be found i n a r e v i t a l i z e d A n g l i c a n Church. ticism,  6 9  7 0  They supported t h e r e s u s c i t a t i o n o f f e u d a l i s m and monaswere l i n k e d w i t h elements  of the T o r y . a r i s t o c r a c y ,  t h e y stood f o r t h e k i n d o f p a t e r n a l i s m which c h a r a c t e r i z e d Cathol i c i s m .  7 1  and  Anglo-  7 2  Dickens e x p l a i n e d why he found Young England's  philosophy,  of which C h r i s t i n t h e House o f h i s P a r e n t s was t h e " t a n g i b l e symbol,"  t o be so o b j e c t i o n a b l e . E s s e n t i a l l y , i t was " r e t r o g r e s s i v e "  i n t h a t i t d e l i b e r a t e l y chose t o " i g n o r e a l l t h a t has been done f o r t h e happiness and e l e v a t i o n o f mankind d u r i n g t h r e e o r f o u r c e n t u r i e s of  slow and d e a r l y - b o u g h t a m e l i o r a t i o n .  1 1 7 3  By " a l l t h a t has been  done," Dickens meant a l l p o s t - m e d i e v a l advances, concerned w i t h p a i n t i n g .  and not o n l y t h o s e  For D i c k e n s , a w o r l d p a t t e r n e d a f t e r t h e  r e t r o g r e s s i v e i d e a l f o s t e r e d by C h r i s t i n t h e House o f h i s P a r e n t s and Young England would be one i n which t h e s c i e n c e s , t h e a r t s , and even r u l e s g o v e r n i n g b e h a v i o u r would a l l be t r a n s f o r m e d , r e v e r t i n g back t o t h e i r medieval i t s "Pre-Newtonian" would be d e n i e d .  state.  Thus, p h y s i c s would be r e t u r n e d t o  c o n d i t i o n , i n which t h e "laws o f g r a v i t a t i o n " In m e d i c i n e , Harvey's d i s c o v e r i e s r e g a r d i n g t h e  " c i r c u l a t i o n o f t h e b l o o d " would be condemned, w h i l e l i t e r a t u r e was to  fall  back t o i t s " P r e - C h a u c e r i a n " p o s i t i o n , complete w i t h an  a n c i e n t , (and i l l e g i b l e ) ,  alphabet.  7 4  C l e a r l y , Dickens was e x a g g e r a t i n g i n o r d e r t o make h i s  79  p o i n t about t h e backwardness of m e d i e v a l i s m , but the f a c t t h a t most of h i s review d e a l t w i t h t h i s i s s u e shows t h a t , d e s p i t e h i s humorous approach,  he c o n s i d e r e d the s u b j e c t of g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e .  Although  Household Words d i d not n o r m a l l y d i s c u s s a r t , "Old Lamps f o r Ones" appeared p r o m i n e n t l y , as a l e a d i n g a r t i c l e , another o f t h e importance which  Dickens's own  New  indicator  Dickens a c c o r d i n g t h i s s u b j e c t .  p h i l o s o p h y was  medievalism on almost every i s s u e .  r a d i c a l l y opposed t o t h a t of  Household Words s t r o n g l y sup-  p o r t e d reform;75 and a g a i n s t medievalism's golden age i n t h e p a s t , and  tendency  to locate i t s  i t s i d e a t h a t post-medieval E n g l i s h  h i s t o r y had been a p e r i o d of d e c l i n e , Household Words stood f o r a b e l i e f i n p r o g r e s s and a t r u s t t h a t t h e modern e r a r e p r e s e n t e d the acme of human development.  T h i s was  expressed by j o u r n a l i s t  Per-  c i v a l L e i g h , i n h i s a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "A T a l e of the Good Old Times."  Here,£.a m e d i e v a l i s t i s c o n v i n c e d t o abandon h i s r e v i v a l i s m  when the "good o l d t i m e s " which  he so b l i n d l y admires are r e v e a l e d  t o c o n s i s t of n o t h i n g more than " b a t t l e s , b u r n i n g s , massacres, c r u e l t o r m e n t i n g s , and a t r o c i t i e s .  1 , 7 6  He is a d v i s e d t h a t t h e  best t i m e s . . .are t h e o l d e s t . They are t h e w i s e s t , f o r t h e o l d e r t h e w o r l d grows t h e more e x p e r i e n c e i t a c q u i r e s . I t i s o l d e r now than ever i t was. The o l d e s t and best times the w o r l d has y e t seen are t h e p r e s e n t . . . [ A ] . . . l i g h t [ o f p r o g r e s s and r e f o r m ] . . . i s g r a d u a l l y i l l u m i n a t i n g human d a r k n e s s . 77  80  Faced w i t h a c u l t u r a l  movement  l i g h t o f human p r o g r e s s , and which,  which would e x t i n g u i s h t h e  i n doing so, would plunge t h e  modern w o r l d i n t o a c o n d i t i o n o f medieval  ignorance and b a r b a r i s m ,  Dickens f e l t compelled t o a t t a c k i t i n h i s review of C h r i s t i n t h e House o f h i s P a r e n t s . its  unshakeable  We can assume t h a t Dickens.'s. r e s p o n s e , "with  f a i t h i n t h e gospel o f p r o g r e s s , and i t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g  r e j e c t i o n o f a p h i l o s o p h y which  past,  placed  its  Utopia  i n the vanished  c e r t a i n l y found a l a r g e audience among t h e middle  classes,  s i n c e Household Words, w i t h : ' i t s enormous c i r c u l a t i o n , was t h e most p o p u l a r o f t h e p e r i o d i c a l s which examined C h r i s t i n t h e House o f h i s Parents.  7 8  Although Dickens d i d o b j e c t t o medievalism  upon r e l i g i o u s  grounds, most o f h i s d i s c u s s i o n had c o n c e n t r a t e d upon t h e s e c u l a r i m p l i c a t i o n s of r e v i v a l i s m .  However, some c r i t i c s d i d d w e l l  largely  upon t h e r e l i g i o u s a s p e c t s o f m e d i e v a l i s m , c o m p l a i n i h g ; t h a t t h e s e were based i n an u n h e a l t h y s e n t i m e n t .  The A r t Journal.'s c r i t i c  wrote t h a t M i l l a i s ' s work was a remarkable example o f t h e a s c e t i c i s m of p a i n t i n g ; f o r t h e r e was a t i m e when A r t was employed i n mort i f i c a t i o n o f t h e f l e s h ; and o f t h a t p e r i o d i s t h i s work, f o r few o r d i n a r y o b s e r v e r s t h e r e a r e who can look on i t w i t h o u t a shudder. Greek A r t r a i s e d men'oto t h e l e v e l of t h e gods, but t h e c l a s s of which we speak i s a f o r e t a s t e of t h e g r a v e . 79  Ralph Wornum, a l s o w r i t i n g f o r The A r t J o u r n a l , echoed h i s colleague's o b j e c t i o n s t o the medievalism his  Parents.  of C h r i s t i n t h e House o f  He remarked t h a t M i l l a i s ' s p i c t u r e e x h i b i t e d "the  81  most morbid a s c e t i c i s m o f t h e c e l l , " and f u r t h e r m o r e , t h a t P r e Raphaelitism  i t s e l f was a " p u r e l y a s c e t i c movement," which  "corres-  p o n d e d ] t o t h a t i n t o l e r a b l e idea t h a t s a n c t i f i c a t i o n c o n s i s t s i n on  the m o r t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e f l e s h . "  o u  A s c e t i c i s m , founded upon t h e b e l i e f t h a t men and women a r e inherently e v i l ,  involves a concentration  upon human  imperfections,  as w e l l as an i n s i s t e n c e t h a t t h e d e s i r e d s t a t e o f C h r i s t i a n s  should  entail'., penance and c o n t r i t i o n f o r s i n .  C l e a r l y , the A r t Journal  c r i t i c s were opposed t o t h i s p h i l o s o p h y ,  as t h e f i r s t w r i t e r ' s r e f -  erences t o Greek a r t r e v e a l .  He admired Greek a r t , (and presumably  t h a t o f t h e c l a s s i c a l l y - i n s p i r e d p o s t - m e d i e v a l p e r i o d ) , because he perceived  i t as an e x a l t a t i o n o f human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , based i n a  b e l i e f i n t h e i n t r i n s i c goodness and p e r f e c t i b i l i t y o f human According  nature.  t o t h i s c r i t i c ' s approach, any a r t founded upon a p o s i t i v e  concept o f humanity would a u t o m a t i c a l l y c e n t r e upon t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f , o r t h e appeal t o , t h e b e s t q u a l i t i e s l i n men and women. an a r t which t u r n e d  upon n e g a t i v e  c o n s i s t o n l y o f images f o c u s s e d t i n c t i o n of a l l that i s valuable  ideas r e g a r d i n g  Conversely,  human n a t u r e would  upon i t s d e p r a v i t y .  I t was t h i s ex-  i n men and women which t h e A r t J o u r -  n a l c r i t i c may have had i n mind when he c a l l e d a s c e t i c a r t a " f o r e t a s t e of the grave."  Other c r i t i c s s t r u c t u r e d t h e i r a t t a c k s upon M i l l a i s ' s medi e v a l i s m around a r t i s t i c c o n c e r n s , but here again t h e i r b e l i e f i n  82  the gospel of p r o g r e s s p l a y e d an important r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e nature of t h e i r r e a c t i o n .  R e p e a t e d l y , they commented t h a t a med-  i e v a l i z i n g s t y l e was i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r r e l i g i o u s s u b j e c t m a t t e r because i t was f u l l o f t e c h n i c a l f l a w s .  They complained t h a t M i l -  l a i s ' s l a t e medieval p r o t o t y p e s had been i g n o r a n t o f even the most fundamental  t e n e t s g o v e r n i n g p e r s p e c t i v e , c o l o u r , anatomy, and  c h i a r o s c u r o , and t h a t M i l l a i s h i m s e l f had, as Blackwood's put i t , reproduced t h e i r " e r r o r s , c r u d i t i e s , and i m p e r f e c t i o n s " own  painting.  8 1  in his  In d o i n g so, he had i n e x p l i c a b l y  renouncEed]. . .the p r o g r e s s t h a t . . .has been made [ i n t h e p o s t - m e d i e v a l p e r i o d ] ; r e j e c t i n g the e x p e r i e n c e o f c e n t u r i e s , t o r e v e r t f o r models, not t o a r t i n i t s prime, but t o a r t i n i t s u n c u l t i v a t e d i n f a n c y . 82  For t h e s e c r i t i c s , Renaissance a r t was so o b v i o u s l y the epitome o f p e r f e c t i o n  t h a t i t a u t o m a t i c a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d the standard  by which other, forms o f a r t were judged, and a l l stood o r f e l l d i n g t o how c l o s e l y they resembled t h a t pre-Renaissance  c i n q u e c e n t o norms.  accor-  The concept  a r t might be e v a l u a t e d on i t s own terms, as a  phenomenon, e x i s t i n g a p a r t from t h e Renaissance, was an i d e a f o r e i g n to  t h e s e j o u r n a l i s t s , and they c o n t i n u e d t o b e r a t e medieval  artists,  (and M i l l a i s ) , f o r t h e i r f a i l u r e t o produce R e n a i s s a n c e - s t y l e d works.  So c e r t a i n were t h e s e w r i t e r s t h a t the f o u n t a i n h e a d o f t r u e p r o g r e s s i n t h e a r t s c o u l d be d i s c e r n e d i n the High  Renaissance,  t h a t they s i m p l y c o u l d not understand why M i l l a i s had d e l i b e r a t e l y  83  t u r n e d h i s back on i t s f l a w l e s s t r a d i t i o n s i n f a v o u r o f t h e e r r o r s of t h e l a t e r middle ages. medievalism  The S p e c t a t o r wondered whether M i l l a i s ' s  might u l t i m a t e l y mask "some f a t a l c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  in h i s g e n i u s , "  8 3  and T a i t ' s q u e s t i o n e d h i s s a n i t y , 8 4  disease  hut by f a r  the most common assessment o f t h e a r t i s t ' s motives c e n t r e d upon t h e issue of " a f f e c t a t i o n . his "uncouth"  86  1 , 8 5  medieval  He was accused  of h y p o c r i t i c a l l y  adopting  mannerisms f o r c t h e s o l e purpose o f drawing  a t t e n t i o n t o h i s works through t h e n o t o r i e t y they would g a i n .  One j o u r n a l had no d i f f i c u l t y  i n accepting that M i l l a i s ' s  r e v i v a l i s m was m o t i v a t e d by s i n c e r e i n t e r e s t .  T h i s was The  which, as p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, c o n s t i t u t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t  Guardian,  departure  from t h e norm i n i t s a p p r o v a l o f C h r i s t i n t h e House:of h i s P a r e n t s . The Guardian's  d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e work was p u b l i s h e d on t h e e i g h t h o f  May, s e v e r a l weeks b e f o r e most o f t h e u n f r i e n d l y reviews were issued.' The anonymous c r i t i c o p t i m i s t i c a l l y expected  t h a t "the m e r i t s o f "  C h r i s t i n t h e House o f h i s P a r e n t s would "be much canvassed,"  because  t h e work was "of a h i g h and novel o r d e r o f g e n i u s , " and because i t s f i g u r e s were g i v e n " i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r , " f e a t u r i n g none o f t h e "mawkish r e p e t i t i o n o f s t e r e o t y p e d f a c e s and forms, our best modern a r t i s t s a r e wont t o s l i d e . " tic  immediately  8 8  i n t o which even  Nonetheless, the c r i -  q u a l i f i e d t h i s a p p r o v a l by s t a t i n g t h a t M i l l a i s had  gone t o o f a r i n h i s d e p a r t u r e from " s t e r e o t y p e d f a c e s and forms." The problem l a y i n t h e area o f m e d i e v a l i s m .  "We d e c i d e d l y o p i n e , "  84  the c r i t i c  observed,  t h a t t h i s [ w i t h d r a w a l from s t e r e o t y p i n g ] might be e f f e c t e d w i t h o u t a d o p t i n g the q u a i n t d i s t o r t i o n s o f f i g u r e which are r a t h e r a c c i d e n t s of the g r e a t F l e m i s h p a i n t e r s , Van Eyck and Hemling, [ s i c ] , than r e a l elements of t h e i r a r t and method of treatment*; 89  :v  S u p e r f i c i a l l y , the o b j e c t i o n s v o i c e d above by The resemble those of the o t h e r c r i t i c s , medieval  a r t and t e c h n i c a l  Guardian  i n t h a t the same l i n k between  i m p e r f e c t i o n appears.  However, t h e  c r u c i a l d i f f e r e n c e l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t The Guardian  d i d not  con-  c e i v e of these d e f e c t s as p r o o f s of t h e i n h e r e n t i n f e r i o r i t y of medi e v a l a r t , and t h i s i s c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d i n i t s c l a i m t h a t such f l a w s were merely  "accidents."  l i k e of M i l l a i s ' s m e d i e v a l i s m  O b v i o u s l y t h e n , The Guardian's  was  not the e x p r e s s i o n o f a  d i s t a s t e f o r quattrocento a r t ;  nor was  of r e v i v a l i s m , f o r The  was  and as such  Guardian  was  broader  i t grounded i n a r e j e c t i o n  an A n g l o - C a t h o l i c p u b l i c a t i o n ,  i t supported t h e r e s u s c i t a t i o n of medieval  That The Guardian's  dis-  s t a n c e was  art. ^ 9  essentially pro-medievalizing  perhaps r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e m i l d n e s s of i t s o b j e c t i o n s t o C h r i s t  i n t h e House of h i s P a r e n t s . t h e way  While  i t d i d not w h o l l y approve of  i n which M i l l a i s had r e f e r r e d t o h i s q u a t t r o c e n t o p r o t o t y p e s ,  and w h i l e i t s t a s t e , l i k e t h a t of t h e u n f r i e n d l y p e r i o d i c a l s , r e mained s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e High Renaissance  conventions  dominated n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y a r t , i t c e r t a i n l y would have found  which  85  n o t h i n g d i s a g r e e a b l e i n e i t h e r the p r a c t i c e of borrowing/from  med-  i e v a l a r t , o r i n t h e p h i l o s o p h y which l a y behind i t .  As mentioned above, The  Guardian  d i d not r e l a t e t h e ana-  t o m i c a l " d i s t o r t i o n s " of C h r i s t i n t h e House of h i s P a r e n t s t o pove r t y , an i s s u e which i t s r e v i e w o m i t t e d a l t o g e t h e r .  Again, t h i s i s  t r a c e a b l e t o t h e a t t i t u d e s h e l d by t h i s p e r i o d i c a l c o n c e r n i n g T y p i c a l l y , A n g l o - C a t h o l i c i s m had never shared of t h e poor, nor had poverty.  poverty.  i n the widespread  fear  i t s u b s c r i b e d t o the n e g a t i v e s t e r e o t y p e of  I n s t e a d , A n g l o - C a t h o l i c i s m t r e a t e d the poor w i t h marked  r e s p e c t , and even v a l u e d a l i f e of p o v e r t y because i t was foster true s p i r i t u a l i t y . ' ' 9  thought  to  As a h o l y e s t a t e , p o v e r t y c o u l d o n l y  e x i s t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e w i l l of God,  and o b v i o u s l y any attempt  to  change o r t o e r a d i c a t e i t would be c o n t r a r y t o t h e d i v i n e p l a n . T h e r e f o r e , the A n g l o - C a t h o l i c approach t o p o v e r t y tended  to perpet-  uate i t , by a t t e m p t i n g t o c o n v i n c e t h e poor t h a t t h e i r s was a b l e way  t h e poor.  of  life.  The  Guardian  a desir-  9 2  e x h i b i t e d t h i s A n g l o - C a t h o l i c a t t i t u d e towards  I t p u b l i s h e d s e v e r a l a r t i c l e s which d e a l t w i t h t h e i r  p l i g h t , and a l l were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a sympathetic the s u b j e c t .  9 3  examination  of  In a d d i t i o n , n e i t h e r t h e n e g a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n s of  p o v e r t y , nor t h e p o p u l a r a n x i e t y c o n c e r n i n g the poor appeared i n t h e pages of The Guardian. no unpleasant  Therefore, since t h i s p e r i o d i c a l  maintained  image of p o v e r t y which c o u l d be a c t i v a t e d by t h e  86  p o r t r a y a l o f an u n i d e a l i z e d f i g u r e , and no f e a r o f t h e poor t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e r e p e l l e n t n a t u r e o f such an image, i t s s i l e n c e c o n c e r n i n g p o v e r t y i n i t s r e v i e w o f C h r i s t i n t h e House o f h i s P a r e n t s i s not d i f f i c u l t t o u n d e r s t a n d .  In f a c t , i t i s q u i t e  l i k e l y t h a t t h e c r i t i c d i d not connect t h e p a i n t i n g w i t h p o v e r t y .  However, o n l y The Guardian e x h i b i t e d t h e p a t t e r n o f sympathy towards t h e poor combined w i t h an acceptance o f m e d i e v a l i s m . For many o f t h e o t h e r / j o u r n a l s , as we have seen, M i l l a i s ' s f a i l u r e t o i d e a l i z e h i s f i g u r e s had sparked d i s t a s t e f u l  associations  c o n c e r n i n g t h e poor, e s p e c i a l l y i n t h o s e p e r i o d i c a l s which were most h o s t i l e toward t h e pauper community, and which, f o r reasons r e l a t e d t o c l a s s : o r p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n , c o u l d not p a r t i c i p a t e i n mainstream s o l u t i o n s t o t h e problem o f p o v e r t y .  While The  Guardian had no d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h t h e p r i n c i p l e s i n v o l v e d i n M i l l a i s ' s r e v i v a l i s m , the other c r i t i c s  identified  i t as an a t t a c k  upon t h e i r c h e r i s h e d i d e a s r e g a r d i n g human p r o g r e s s , whether fested i n the sciences, r e l i g i o n , or the a r t s .  mani-  Clearly, a"picture  which seemed t o c h a l l e n g e such fundamental assumptions c o n s t i t u t e d a d i s t i n c t t h r e a t i n t h e minds o f t h e s e j o u r n a l i s t s , one which demanded a s t r o n g c o u n t e r o f f e n s i v e phrased so as t o a s s e r t t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e i r own v i e w s , and a t t h e same t i m e t o explode t h e p h i l o s ophy which they: saw e x e m p l i f i e d i n C h r i s t i n t h e House o f h i s P a r e n t s .  87  FOOTNOTES  I t was d i s c u s s e d by: The A r t J o u r n a l , The Athenaeum, The B u i l d e r , Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, The G u a r d i a n , Household Words, Punch, The S p e c t a t o r , T a i t ' s Edinburgh Magazine, and The Times. 1  2 [ F r e d e r i c k Hardman], "The P i c t u r e s o f t h e Season," B l a c k wood' s Edinburgh Magazine, v o l . 68 ( J u l y 1850), page 82. vol.  3 [ C h a r l e s D i c k e n s ] , "Old Lamps f o r New Ones," Household Words, 1 (15 June 1850), page 265.  4Anon., "The A r t s , t h e Royal Academy," The S p e c t a t o r , v o l . 23 (4 May 1850), page 427. ^ C h r i s t i n t h e House o f h i s P a r e n t s was l i n k e d w i t h p o v e r t y by: Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, Household Words, Punch, T a i t ' s Edinburgh Magazine, and The Times. M e d i e v a l i s m was d i s c u s s e d by: The A r t J o u r n a l , The Athenaeum, Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, The B u i l d e r , The G u a r d i a n , Household Words, The S p e c t a t o r , T a i t ' s E d i n burgh Magazine, and The Times. 6 [ D i c k e n s ] , "Old Lamps," Household Words, v o l . 1 (15 June 1850), pages 265-266. Anon., "The Royal Academy: May E x h i b i t i o n , " T a i t ' s Edinburgh Magazine, v o l . 17 (June 1850), page 357. 7  ^[Hardman], " P i c t u r e s , " Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, v o l . 68 ( J u l y 1850), page 82. A n o n . , " P a t h o l o g i c a l E x h i b i t i o n a t t h e Royal Academy," 18 ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 15 May 1850), page 198.  9  vol.  Punch,  1°Anon., "Royal Academy," T a i t ' s Edinburgh Magazine, v o l . 17 (June 1850), page 357. 11 Anon., " P a t h o l o g i c a l , " Punch, v o l . 18 ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 15 May 1850), page 198. l i n k between m a l n u t r i t i o n and r a c h i t i s i s well-documented. For a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c o n n e c t i o n between inadequate d i e t and t u b e r c u l o s i s , see Rene and Jean Dubos, The White Plague: T u b e r c u l o s i s , Man, and S o c i e t y , ( B o s t o n : L i t t l e , Brown, and Company, 1952), page 140.  88  ^ F r i e d r i c h E n g e l s , The C o n d i t i o n of t h e Working C l a s s i n England i n 1844, (London: George A l l e n and Unwin, f i r s t pub-" l i s h e d i n E n g l i s h i n 1892; r e p r i n t ed., 1920), pages 101-102. A n o n . , " P a t h o l o g i c a l " Punch, v o l . 18 ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 15 May 1850), page 198. 14  [ S o l o m o n H a r t ] , "Royal Academy," The Athenaeum, (1 June 1850), page 591; and, Anon., " F i n e A r t s , The P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s , " T a i t ' s Edinburgh Magazine, v o l . 18 (June 1851), pages 512-513. 15  1 6 [ D i c k e n s ] , "Old Lamps," Household Words, v o l . 1 (15 June 1850), page 265. 17Anon., " E x h i b i t i o n o f t h e Royal Academy," The Times, (9 May 1850), page 5, column 1. A c l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e f i g u r e s r e v e a l s t h a t some are d i r t y , as would be n a t u r a l i n a workshop. T h i s i s most n o t i c e a b l e i n t h e hands and arms of S t . Joseph. ( F i g . 1, d e t a i l ) . Two examples a r e : Anon., "The World of London, Number Two," Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, v o l . 49 (May 1841), page 630; and Anon., "The Lamb and F l a g Ragged S c h o o l s , " The Times, (5 January 1850), page 4, column 1. 18  C D i c k e n s ] , "Old Lamps," Household Words, v o l . 1 (15 June 1850), page 266. 1 9  A n o n . , "The Royal Academy," T a i t ' s Edinburgh Magazine, v o l . 17 (June 1850), page 357. 20  A n o n . , " P a t h o l o g i c a l , " Punch, v o l . 18 ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 15 May 1850), page 198. 21  2 2 [ F r e d e r i c k H u n t ] , "London Pauper C h i l d r e n , " Household Words, v o l . 1 (31 August 1850), page 549. 23Anon., "On column 4.  Begging," The Times, (24 January 1849), page 4,  24Anon., "A C h a r t i s t P e t i t i o n by Punch," Punch, v o l . 17 (September 1849), page 121. For the c o l l a p s e of C h a r t i s m , see P.W. S l o s s o n , "The D e c l i n e of t h e C h a r t i s t Movement," Columbia U n i v e r s i t y S t u d i e s i n H i s t o r y , Economics, and Law, v o l . 73, No. 2 (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1916), page 107. "Some examples a r e : Anon., "The Opening of t h e S e s s i o n , " Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, v o l . 65 (March 1849), page 363;  89  [W.H. W i l l s ] , " H e a l t h by Act of P a r l i a m e n t , " Household Words, v o l . 1 (10 August 1850), page 463; and Anon., "Causes of Crime i n t h e Metr o p o l i s , " T a i t ' s Edinburgh Magazine, v o l . 17 (June 1850), page 330. T h e h a r v e s t was bad i n 1829-30, 1837-41, and 1846-49. Anthony Wood, N i n e t e e n t h Century B r i t a i n , 1815-1914, (London: Longmans, ~ Green and Co., 1960), pages 113-114. 2 6  B e t w e e n a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1800 and 1850, t h e p o p u l a t i o n of Great B r i t a i n n e a r l y d o u b l e d , growing from l e s s than e l e v e n m i l l i o n t o j u s t over twenty-one. By 1851, f u l l y h a l f the p o p u l a t i o n was l o c a t e d i n t h e urban c e n t r e s , and of t h e s e , h a l f a g a i n were immigrants from r u r a l a r e a s . K.S. I n g l i s , Churches and t h e Working C l a s s e s i n V i c t o r i a n England, (London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l , 1963), page 3. 27  28A f u r t h e r r e s u l t of t h e m i g r a t i o n from c o u n t r y t o c i t y was m a n i f e s t e d i n a breakdown i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l t i e s between t h e c l a s s e s . Rural s o c i e t y was n o r m a l l y d i v i d e d i n t o s m a l l u n i t s of t e n a n t s who farmed an a r i s t o c r a t i c e s t a t e . Tenants were u s u a l l y known p e r s o n a l l y t o t h e i r l a n d l o r d , who, because he h i m s e l f l i v e d i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o them, c o u l d s u c c e s s f u l l y m o n i t o r t h e i r b e h a v i o u r . B . I . Coleman, The Church of England i n t h e M i d - N i n e t e e n t h Century, A S o c i a l Geography, (London: The H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1980), pages 18-25. However, when r u r a l l a b o u r e r s moved i n t o town, t h e o l d l i n k s w i t h t h e i r l a n d l o r d s were snapped, and n o t h i n g e x i s t e d i n t h e urban c e n t r e s t o t a k e t h e i r p l a c e . K.S. I n g l i s , Churches, page 4. In many c a s e s , the new l a n d l o r d was a m i d d l e - c l a s s slum owner who l i v e d i n a d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n of the c i t y , and who d i d not know h i s t e n a n t s . Another d i s r u p t i o n o c c u r r e d i n p a t t e r n s o f church a t t e n d a n c e . Observance had been t h e r u l e i n t h e c o u n t r y , and here t h e church had p l a y e d a key r o l e i n t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n of the working c l a s s e s . Labourers who had a t t e n d e d s e r v i c e s i n t h e c o u n t r y s i d e o f t e n d i s c o n t i n u e d t h e p r a c t i c e upon t a k i n g up r e s i d e n c e i n town. I n g l i s , Churches, page 4. Many o f t h o s e born i n the c i t y never a c q u i r e d the h a b i t at a l l . Ian B r a d l e y , The C a l l t o S e r i o u s n e s s , The E v a n g e l i c a l Impact on t h e V i c - , t o r i a n s , (New York: M a c M i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1976), page 50. Of course t h e s e were g e n e r a l t r e n d s , t o which t h e r e were e x c e p t i o n s . Not everyone gave up church a t t e n d a n c e once t h e y had moved from t h e c o u n t r y t o the c i t y , and not a l l t h o s e born i n the urban c e n t r e s : • avoided church s e r v i c e s . 2 9 i n 1850, 23,000 paupers l i v e d i n London's s t a t e - r u n workhouses. Robert P a s h l e y , Pauperism and the Poor Laws, 2 v o l s , (London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1852), v o l . 1, page 37. N e a r l y 50,000 were n i g h t l y accomodated i n the c i t y ' s cheap l o d g i n g houses. F r a n c i s Sheppard, London, 1808-1870, The I n f e r n a l Wen, ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1971), page 364. Many more, who wished t o a v o i d t h e harsh c o n d i t i o n s of t h e workhouse,  90  or who c o u l d not a f f o r d even t h e cheapest l o d g i n g house, l i v e d i n the s t r e e t . London's t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n 1851, was 2,363,000. H.A. Shannon, " M i g r a t i o n and t h e Growth o f London," Economic H i s t o r y Review, v o l . 5, No. 2 ( A p r i l 1935), page 81. 3 0 p e r i o d i c a l s o f t h e f i r s t t y p e were: Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, The B u i l d e r , Household Words, Punch, T a i t ' s Edinburgh Magazine, and The Times, Those f a l l i n g " i n t o t h e second c a t a g o r y were: The Athenaeum, The G u a r d i a n , and The S p e c t a t o r , S e e , f o r i n s t a n c e : Anon, "The C h o l e r a , " The G u a r d i a n , v o l . 4 (26 September 1849), page 632; Anon., " I n d u s t r i a l Employment o f Paupers," The S p e c t a t o r , v o l . 23 (5 October 1850), pages 948-949; Anon., "News o f t h e Week," The S p e c t a t o r , v o l . 23 (14 December 1850), page 1177; and, Anon., "Our Weekly Gossip"," The Athenaeum, (30 March 1850), page 345. 3 1  T h e Guardian w i l l be d i s c u s s e d below. For t h e p o l i t i c a l and c l a s s o r i e n t a t i o n o f The S p e c t a t o r and The Athenaeum, r e s p e c t i v e l y , see: E.E. K e l l e t t , "The P r e s s , " i n G.M. Young, ed., E a r l y V i c t o r i a n England, 1830-1865, 2 v o l s . , (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1934; r e p r i n t ed., 1951), v o l . 2, page 46; L e s l i e Marchand, The Athenaeum, A M i r r o r o f V i c t o r i a n C u l t u r e , (Chapel H i l l : U n i v e r s i t y o f North C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1941), page 76; and, Anon., "Royal Academy," The Athenaeum, (12 May 1849), page 494. 3 2  • ^ W a l t e r A r n s t e i n , B r i t a i n Y e s t e r d a y and Today, ( L e x i n g t o n : C. Heath and Company, 1966; r e p r i n t ed., 1976), pages 16 and 29.  D.  34Examples o f t h i s appear i n : Anon., "How t o Disarm t h e Char-; tists," Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, v o l . 63 (June 1848), page 660; Anon., "The Opening o f t h e S e s s i o n , " Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, v o l . 65 (March 1849), page 363; [W.H. W i l l s J , " H e a l t h by Act o f P a r l i a m e n t , " Household Words, v o l . 1 (10 August 1850), page 463; Anon., "Poor Law," The Times, (20 February 1850), page 5, column 4; and, Anon., "The Begging P r o f e s s i o n , " Punch, v o l . 17 (January 1849), page 25. • ^ D i s c u s s e d i n : [H. L o n g u e v i l l e J o n e s ] , "Feudalism i n t h e N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y , " Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, v o l . 65 (June 1849), pages 713 and 715-716; and, [Thomas de Q u i n c e y ] , "Maynooth," Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, v o l . 57 (May 1845), page 647. 36R. P r i c e , A H i s t o r y o f Punch, (London: C o l l i n s , 1957), pages 31 and 35; and A l t i c k , E n g l i s h Common Reader, page 347.  93  37 he l i n k between C h r i s t i n t h e House of h i s P a r e n t s and Roman C a t h o l i c i s m i s s t u d i e d i n Bowness, T r a n s a c t i o n s , v o l . 22 (1972), page 127; and by E r r i n g t o n , S o c i a l , pages 27-29. T  3 8 [ D i c k e n s ] , "Old Lamps," Household Words, v o l . 1 (15 June 1850), page 267. In h i s C o n t r a s t s , a comparison of medieval and modern a r c h i t e c t u r e , Pugin m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e s u p e r i o r i t y of t h e former over t h e l a t t e r was d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t medieval a r c h i t e c t u r e was t h e p r o d u c t of Roman C a t h o l i c i s m . [ P r o b a b l y James D a f f o r n e , ] "The Royal Academy," The A r t J o u r n a l , v o l . 12 (1 June 1850), page 175. For a d i s c u s s i o n of The A r t J o u r n a l , see Landow, "There Began," i n A l t h o l z , Mind, page 129. 3 9  4 0 [ j . B a l l a n t y n e ] , "The P r e - R a f f a e l i t e s , " The A r t J o u r n a l , v o l . 13 (1 J u l y 1851), pages 185-186. T a i t ' s Edinburgh Magazine i s examined i n W a l t e r Graham, Engl i s h L i t e r a r y P e r i o d i c a l s , (New York: T. Nelson and Sons, 193011 page 291. 4 1  [ D i c k e n s ] , "Lamps," Household Words, v o l . 1 (15 June page 266. 4 2  1850),  A n o n . , " F i n e A r t s , The P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s , " T a i t ' s Edinburgh Magazine, v o l . 18 (August 1851), pages 512-513. 43  Lynn page 16. 4 4  Lees, E x i l e s o f E r i n , ( I t h a c a : C o r n e l l P r e s s , 1979),  l t i s d i s c u s s e d i n [ F r e d e r i c k H u n t ] , "The R e g i s t r a r General on ' L i f e ' i n London," Household Words, v o l . 1 (29 June 1850), page 333; and i n Anon., "Report on the S t a t e of t h e Inhabi t a n t s and T h e i r D w e l l i n g s i n Church Lane, S t . G i l e s ' s , " Journal of the Royal S t a t i s t i c a l S o c i e t y , v o l . 11 (1848), pages 1-18. Hogarth chose t h e Seven D i a l s as t h e s e t t i n g f o r h i s famous Gin Lane, of 1751. C H i b b e r t , London: The Biography of a C i t y , (London: Longmans, Green, and Company, 1969), page 82. 4  5  T h a t i t c u t a c r o s s ^ c l a s s and p o l i t i c a l b a r r i e r s i s e v i d e n t i n t h e d i v e r s e n a t u r e s of t h e j o u r n a l s which c r i t i c i z e d the supposedly Roman C a t h o l i c elements i n C h r i s t i n t h e House of h i s P a r e n t s . While t h e d e f i n i t i v e study of V i c t o r i a n "No-Popery" has y e t t o be w r i t t e n , some u s e f u l s o u r c e s a r e : G.F.A. B e s t , " P o p u l a r P r o t e s t a n t ism i n V i c t o r i a n B r i t a i n , " i n Robert Robson, ed., Ideas and I n s t i t u t i o n s i n V i c t o r i a n B r i t a i n , (London: G. B e l l and Sons, 1967), pages 115-142; E.R. Norman, ed., A n t i - C a t h o l i c i s m i n V i c t o r i a n Engl a n d , (New York: Barnes and Noble, 1968); and, W a l t e r R a l l s , "The 4 6  92  Papal A g r e s s i o n of 1850: A Study i n V i c t o r i a n A n t i - C a t h o l i c i s m , " Church H i s t o r y , v o l . 43 (1974), pages 242-256.  vol.  47one example i s Anon., "Advancing Backwards," The 23 (24 August 1850), pages 803-804.  Spectator,  A n o n . , " A s t r o n o m i c a l E x a m i n a t i o n Paper f o r the C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y by P r i m a t e C u l l e n , " Punch, v o l . 19 (October 1850), page 205. Dr. C u l l e n , t h e A r c h b i s h o p of Armagh, was t h e p r i m a t e of a l l I r e l a n d . 48  A n o n . , "The New ' C u l l e n ' s P r a c t i c e of P h y s i c , 19 (November 1850), page 230.  49  vol.  1  " Punch,  5 0 A S i n : Anon., "On t h e M i s e r i e s of I r e l a n d , and T h e i r Remedies," Blackwood's Edinburgh:.Magazine, v o l . 64 (December 1848), pages 658-671; and, Anon., "[On Papal A g r e s s i o n ] " , The Times, (19 October 1850), page 4, column 1.  A n o n . , "The Pope a t Home A g a i n , " The S p e c t a t o r , v o l . 23 (27 A p r i l 1850), page 397. 51  52 vol.  Anon., "Mr. Punch's Appeal t o an Eminent A p p e a l e r , " Punch, 19 (November 1850), pages 223-224.  ^ A n o n . , " I r e l a n d Under t h e T r i p l e A l l i a n c e , " Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, v o l . 45 (March 1839), pages 341, 350, and 352. 3  Norman Gash, R e a c t i o n and R e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n E n g l i s h 1832-1852, ( O x f o r d : The Clarendon P r e s s , 1965), page 1. 54  Politics, ~  -^J.B. Bury, H i s t o r y of t h e Papacy i n the N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y , (New York: Schocken Books, 1930; r e p r i n t ed., 1964), page x x i i i . ^ A c c o m p a n y i n g t h e n e g a t i v e s t e r e o t y p e of C a t h o l i c i s m was an a n x i e t y c o n c e r n i n g i t s p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e , which, as e a r l y as 1838, prompted Blackwood's t o w r i t e t h a t , Popery, both at home and abroad, i s i n t h e possess i o n o f immense s t r e n g t h , and has been and i s now marching f o r w a r d w i t h g i a n t s t r i d e s t o i t s o l d ascendancy. Anon., "The P r o g r e s s of Popery," Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, v o l . 44 (October 1838), page 494. By 1850, "Popery" must have seemed much c l o s e r t o the r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t of i t s a n c i e n t ascendancy. Throughout L a t i n Europe, and i n A u s t r i a and Belgium, C a t h o l i c i s m had s u p p o r t e d the s u p p r e s s i o n of p o p u l a r u p r i s i n g s and l i b e r a l p h i l o s o p h y , and had g r e a t l y s t r e n g t h e n e d i t s p o s i t i o n i n t h e s e c o u n t r i e s . The c l o s e of  93  1851 saw the c o n s o l i d a t i o n of L o u i s Napoleon's d e s p o t i c government f u l l y endorsed by the C a t h o l i c e p i s c o p a t e . E l i e Halevy, A H i s t o r y of the E n g l i s h People i n the N i n e t e e n t h Century, 6 v o l s . (London: Ernest Benn, L t d . , 1927; r e p r i n t ed., 1961), v o l . 4, page 326. While most V i c t o r i a n s r e j e c t e d the r e v o l u t i o n a r y a c t i v i t i e s of 1848, and f e l t a marked r e l i e f when t h e s e were at l a s t put down, they c e r t a i n l y d i d not view the subsequent i n c r e a s e i n C a t h o l i c i n f l u e n c e w i t h a n y t h i n g o t h e r than dismay. 5 7  B u r y , H i s t o r y of the Papacy, page x x i i i .  5 8  R u s s e l l was  Prime M i n i s t e r between 1846  and  1852.  A n o n . , " I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Volume N i n e t e e n , P o l i t i c a l Summary," [ L o r d John R u s s e l l ' s open l e t t e r of 4 November 1850, t o t h e Bishop of Durham, c o n c e r n i n g the Papal A g r e s s i o n I n c i d e n t ] , Punch, v o l . 19 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e volume, page v i . 59  SOjhe best-known and most e l a b o r a t e of the many a t t a c k s upon the "Popery" of A n g l o - C a t h o l i c i s m i s , P e t e r M a u r i c e , The Popery of Oxford C o n f r o n t e d , Disavowed, and R e p u d i a t e d, (London: Francis B a i s t e r , 1837). 61Punch drew a t t e n t i o n t o the c o n n e c t i o n between Roman and. A n g l o - C a t h o l i c i s m , (which i t c a l l e d by i t s o l d e r name of T r a c t a r i a n i s m ) , i n a verse s a t i r i z i n g the r i t u a l r e v i v a l . Though c r o s s e s and c a n d l e s we p l a y w i t h at home, To go the whole gander, t h e r e ' s no p l a c e l i k e Rome; We've s t a t u e s and r e l i c s t o h a l l o w us t h e r e , Which, save i n museums, y o u ' l l not f i n d e l s e w h e r e . Rome, Rome, sweet, sweet Rome! For a l l us T r a c t a r i a n s , t h e r e ' s no p l a c e l i k e Rome! Anon., "Parody f o r P u s e y i t e s , " Punch, v o l . 19 (November 1850), page 250. D e s p i t e Punch's i m p l i c a t i o n , Roman and A n g l o - C a t h o l i c i s m were not synonymous. While many members of the A n g l i c a n movement admired the C o n t i n e n t a l c h u r c h , not every A n g l o - C a t h o l i c d i d so. 62For a v i s u a l example of t h i s i d e a , see F i g . 13. [ D i c k e n s ] , "Lamps," Household Words, v o l . 1 (15 June 1850), 266.  6 3  page  i t was l a t e r known as Puseyism; f i n a l l y as R i t u a l i s m , and even; s a t i r i c a l l y , as Newmania. " A n g l o - C a t h o l i c i s m " was the term most p r e f e r r e d by the group i t s e l f . 6  4  [ D i c k e n s ] , "Lamps," Household Words, v o l . 1 (15 June 1850), 265.  6 5  page  94  R [ a l p h ] N. Wornum, "Modern Moves i n A r t , ' C h r i s t i a n A r c h i tecture, 'Young England,' " The A r t J o u r n a l , v o l . 12 (1 September 1850), page 270. b b  1  67j.T. Ward, "Young England," H i s t o r y Today, v o l . 16 (Febr u a r y 1966), page 120. L a t e r i n h i s c a r e e r , D i s r a e l i was t o r e model h i s p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y , i n v o l v i n g h i m s e l f i n t h e 1867 extension of the f r a n c h i s e . 6 8 c h a r l e s H. K e g e l , "Lord John Manners and t h e Young England Movement: Romanticism i n P o l i t i c s , " Western P o l i t i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 14 (September 1961), page 693. 6 9  I b i d . , page 695.  7 0  I b i d . , pages 693 and 695.  S o m e r v e l l , D i s r a e l i and G l a d s t o n e , (New York: C i t y P u b l i s h e r s , 1928; r e p r i n t e d . , 1932), page 48.  Garden  H a r o l d U. F a u l k n e r , " C h a r t i s m and t h e Churches," Columbia U n i v e r s i t y S t u d i e s i n H i s t o r y , Economics, and Law, v o l . 73, No. 3 (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1916), page" 73. 7 2  [ D i c k e n s ] , "Lamps," Household Words, v o l . 1 (15 June 1850), page 265. 7 3  7 4  I b i d . , pages 266-267.  ^ A few examples o f i t s r e f o r m i n g s t a n c e a r e : [ C h a r l e s D i c k e n s ] , "Supposing!" Household Words, v o l . 1 (20 A p r i l 1850), page 96; [ C h a r l e s D i c k e n s ] , "Pet P r i s o n e r s , " Household Words, v o l . 1 (27 A p r i l 1850), pages 97-103; and [ H a r r i e t M a r t i n e a u J , "The S i c k n e s s and H e a l t h o f t h e People o f B l e a b u r n , " Household Words, v o l . 1 (25 May 1850), pages 193-199. 7  [ P e r c i v a l L e i g h ] , "A T a l e o f t h e Good Old Times," Household Words, v o l . 1 (27 A p r i l 1850), page 105. D i c k e n s ; p a r t i c u l a r l y admired L e i g h ' s a r t i c l e because i t s ideas c o n c e r n i n g s s o c i a l p r o g r e s s c l o s e l y resembled h i s own. Anne L o h r l i , Household Words, A Weekly J o u r n a l , ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1973), page 340. 7 6  :  [ L e i g h ] , " T a l e , " Household Words, v o l . r ( 2 7 A p r i l page 106. 7 7  1850),  7 8 i t s c i r c u l a t i o n a t t h i s t i m e neared 100,000. L o h r l i , Househ o l d Words, page 23. I t s n e a r e s t c o m p e t i t o r , among t h o s e j o u r n a l s  95  which reviewed M i l l a i s ' s p a i n t i n g , was The Times, which had a r e a d e r s h i p o f 51,000. E l l e g a r d , V i c t o r i a n P e r i o d i c a l s N e w s l e t t e r , No. 13 (September 1971), page 4. [ P r o b a b l y D a f f o r n e ] , "The Royal Academy," The A r t J o u r n a l , v o l . 12 (1 June 1850), page 175. Though i t s e l f d a t i n g from b e f o r e Raphael, Greek a r t was not viewed i n t h e same l i g h t as was medieval art. 7 9  Wornum, "Moves," The A r t J o u r n a l , v o l . 12 (1 September page 270. 80  [ F r e d e r i c k Hardman], "The P i c t u r e s of t h e Season," Edinburgh Magazine, v o l . 68 ( J u l y 1850), page 82. 8 1  1850),  Blackwood's  L o c . c i t . J o u r n a l s t a k i n g t h i s approach were: The Athenaeum, Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, The B u i l d e r , Household Words, The S p e c t a t o r , T a i t ' s Edinburgh Magazine, and The Times. 8 2  A n o n . , "The A r t s , The Royal Academy," The S p e c t a t o r , v o l . 23 (4 May 1850), page 427. 83  A n o n . , "The Royal Academy: May E x h i b i t i o n , " T a i t ' s Edinburgh Magazine, v o l . 17 (June 1850), page 356. 84  85Raised by: The Athenaeum, Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, Household Words, T a i t ' s Edinburgh Magazine, and The Times. 86Anon., " E x h i b i t i o n of t h e Royal Academy," The Times, (9 May 1850),:page 5, column 1. A n o n . , " F i n e A r t s , " The G u a r d i a n , v o l . 5 (8 May 1850),:page 336. Only The S p e c t a t o r and The Times had a l r e a d y p r i n t e d t h e i r columns, which appeared on t h e f o u r t h of May. (The Times mentioned C h r i s t i n t h e House of h i s P a r e n t s a g a i n , i n i t s n i n t h of May r e v i e w ) . S i n c e most of t h e j o u r n a l s which d i s c u s s e d t h e p a i n t i n g were m o n t h l i e s , t h e bulk of the c r i t i c i s m d i d not come out u n t i l June. 87  88  A n o n . , " F i n e A r t s , " The G u a r d i a n , v o l . 5 (8 May  8 9  Loc.  1850), page  336. cit.  F o r The Guardian's A n g l o - C a t h o l i c i s m , see: E l l e g a r d , V i c t o r i a n P e r i o d i c a l s N e w s l e t t e r , No. 13 (September 1971), page 12. Examples of The Guardian's p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards m e d i e v a l i s m a r e : Anon., "The New House of L o r d s , " The G u a r d i a n , v o l . 2 (21 A p r i l 1847), pages 249-250; Anon., "The U n c h r i s t i a n P a r l i a m e n t , " 9 0  96  The G u a r d i a n , v o l . 2 (17 November 1847), page 683; and Anon., " A r t M i n i s t e r i n g t o R e l i g i o n , " The G u a r d i a n , v o l . 4 (18 J u l y 1849), page 469. The Guardian was founded i n 1845 by F r e d e r i c k Rogers, R.W. Church, James B. Mozley, A r t h u r W. Haddan, Thomas Haddan, and Mountague B e r n a r d . A l l were A n g l o - C a t h o l i c s ; many had belonged t o Newman's c i r c l e a t O r i e l . The Guardian c o n s i s t e n t l y supported A n g l o - C a t h o l i c i s m . 9 l E x a m p l e s i a r e : W i l l i a m George Ward, The I d e a l of a C h r i s t i a n Church, (London: James Toovey, 1844), page 414; John Henry Newman, "Sermon E l e v e n , Doing G l o r y t o God i n P u r s u i t s of t h e World," i n P a r o c h i a l and P l a i n Sermons, 8 v o l s . (London: Longmans, Green, and Company, 1891; sermon w r i t t e n i n 1836), v o l . 8, pages 164-165; Edward B o u v e r i e Pusey, "Sermon F i v e , The I n c a r n a t i o n , a Lesson of H u m i l i t y , " i n Sermons D u r i n g t h e Season from Advent t o W h i t s u n t i d e , ( O x f o r d : John Henry P a r k e r , 1848), page 74. 9 2 A n g l o - C a t h o l i c i s m ' s c o n c e p t s r e g a r d i n g p o v e r t y a r e examined by: Howard H. F u l w e i l e r , " T r a c t a r i a n s and P h i l i s t i n e s : The T r a c t s f o r t h e Times v e r s u s V i c t o r i a n M i d d l e C l a s s V a l u e s , " H i s t o r i c a l Magazine of t h e P r o t e s t a n t E p i s c o p a l Church, v o l . 31 (March 1962), pages 51-52; and by C y r i l Kennard G l o y n , The Church i n t h e S o c i a l Order, A Study of A n g l i c a n S o c i a l Theory from C o l e r i d g e t o M a u r i c e , ( F o r e s t Grove, Oregon: P a c i f i c U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1942), pages 71-80. E x a m p l e s a r e : Anon., "The London Poor and t h e S a n i t a r y Q u e s t i o n , " The G u a r d i a n , v o l . 2 (6 January 1847), page 586; Anon., "London Sewers," The G u a r d i a n , v o l . 2 (8 December 1847), pages 729730; Anon., "Female Pauper E m i g r a t i o n , " The G u a r d i a n , v o l . 4 (19 September 1849), pages 617-618; and, Anon., "Poor-Houses as They A r e , and as They Might Be," The G u a r d i a n , v o l . 2 (24 February 1847), page 123. 93  97  CONCLUSION  An i r o n i c element emerges from a study of C h r i s t i n t h e House of h i s P a r e n t s i n t h a t i t was a p i c t u r e designed l a r g e l y t o p l e a s e , and n o t , as i t s s c a n d a l i z e d c r i t i c s s u s p e c t e d , t o provoke. While i t i s t r u e t h a t M i l l a i s ' s canvas, w i t h i t s unusual m i x t u r e of m e d i e v a l i s m , n a t u r a l i s m , t t y p o l o g y , and A n g l o - C a t h o l i c i s m d i d c h a l l e n g e fundamental  a s p e c t s o f t h e t r a d i t i o n s of t h e Royal  Academy, M i l l a i s had p l e n t y o f precedents f o r h i s d e p a r t u r e from convention.  As he c o u l d not have been unaware, t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f  n a t u r a l i s m was a l r e a d y w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e genre p a i n t i n g so p r e f e r r e d by m i d d l e - c l a s s b u y e r s , and m e d i e v a l i s m , i f not embraced by everyone, had a t l e a s t found a p u b l i c , as e v i n c e d by t h e works of s u c c e s s f u l r e v i v a l i s t s such as W i l l i a m Dyce.  I t i s most  likely  t h a t M i l l a i s f o r m u l a t e d C h r i s t i n t h e House of h i s P a r e n t s i n f u l l r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e s e t a s t e s , which e x i s t e d o u t s i d e Academic d e f i n i t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e a c c e p t a b l e i n a r t , and a l s o i n an understanding that Pre-Raphaelitism's d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with t r a d i t i o n a l " a r t was shared by l a r g e segments o f t h e V i c t o r i a n middle c l a s s e s .  I f h i s s u b j e c t m a t t e r had not been r e l i g i o u s , he might have gained t h e a p p r o v a l he sought, as had been t h e case w i t h I s a b e l l a , h i s p i c t u r e of t h e y e a r b e f o r e .  However, he had n e g l e c t e d t o  t a k e i n t o account t h e f a c t t h a t , d e s p i t e t h e i r weaknesses e l s e w h e r e , the i d e a l i z i n g c o n v e n t i o n s o f t h e Royal Academy remained f i r m l y i n p l a c e , i n s o f a r as r e l i g i o u s imagery was  concerned.  98  Even The G u a r d i a n , t h e s i n g l e p e r i o d i c a l which admired C h r i s t i n t h e House o f h i s P a r e n t s , was so t i e d t o t h e High R e n a i s sance c o n v e n t i o n o f i d e a l i z a t i o n t h a t i t e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f i c u l t y the  picture's naturalism.  with  The u n f r i e n d l y c r i t i c s were p l a i n l y unable  t o r e c o n c i l e M i l l a i s ' s p a r t i c u l a r i z e d forms w i t h t h e i r i d e a l o f t h e Holy F a m i l y .  At b e s t , t h e y complained t h a t t h e f i g u r e s were u g l y ;  at w o r s t , they produced near h y s t e r i c a l responses which were grounded i n t h e i r f e a r s o f t h e urban poor.  M i l l a i s ' s m e d i e v a l i s m f a r e d as b a d l y as d i d h i s n a t u r a l i s m , p r o v o k i n g widespread a s s e r t i o n s o f t h e b e l i e f i n p r o g r e s s , whether in the a r t s or the sciences.  U l t i m a t e l y , i t was o n l y when M i l l a i s  decided t o j e t t i s o n h i s m e d i e v a l i z i n g s t y l e , and t o a v o i d  religious  s u b j e c t matter a l t o g e t h e r , t h a t he f i n a l l y began t o e x p e r i e n c e some of t h e c r i t i c a l  and p o p u l a r a c c l a i m which was so c o n s p i c u o u s l y absent  from t h e response t o C h r i s t i n t h e House o f h i s P a r e n t s .  99  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  A d d i s o n , Agnes. Romanticism and t h e G o t h i c R e v i v a l . R i c h a r d R. Smith, 1938. "Advancing Backwards."  The S p e c t a t o r 23 (24 August  A l b e r t i , Leonbattista. Delia Pittura . London: gan P a u l , L t d . , 1436; r e p r i n t e d 1956.  New  York:  1850): 803-804.  Routledge and  Ke-  A l t i c k , R i c h a r d D. The E n g l i s h Common Reader, A S o c i a l H i s t o r y of the Mass Reading P u b l i c , 1800-1900. Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1957; r e p r i n t e d 1967. Anson, P e t e r . Fashion i n Church The F a i t h P r e s s , 1960.  F u r n i s h i n g s , 1840-1940.  A r n s t e i n , Walter L. B r i t a i n Y e s t e r d a y and Today. Heath and Company, 1976. "Art M i n i s t e r i n g to R e l i g i o n . "  Lexington:  D.C.  The Guardian 4 (18 J u l y 1849):  "The A r t s , Royal Academy E x h i b i t i o n : S u b - h i s t o r i c a l The S p e c t a t o r 23 (1 June 1850): 523. "The Arts,The Royal Academy."  London:  469.  Pictures."  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" T r a n s a c t i o n s o f t h e Royal H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y 22 London: Royal H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , 1972: 119-139. B r a d l e y , Ian. The C a l l t o S e r i o u s n e s s , The E v a n g e l i c a l Impact on the V i c t o r i a n s . New York: M a c M i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Company, I n c . , 1976. Bury, J.B. H i s t o r y o f t h e Papacy i n t h e N i n e t e e n t h Century. York: Schocken Books, 1930; r e p r i n t e d 1964. B u t l e r , P e r r y , ed. Pusey R e d i s c o v e r e d . London: Promotion o f C h r i s t i a n Knowledge, 1983.  New  Society f o r the  C a s t e r a s , Susan P. " V i r g i n Vows: The E a r l y V i c t o r i a n A r t i s t s ' Port r a y a l o f Nuns and N o v i c e s . " V i c t o r i a n S t u d i e s . 2 4 (Winter 1981): 157-184, "The Causes of Crime i n t h e M e t r o p o l i s . " 17 (June 1850): 329-335. "A C h a r t i s t P e t i t i o n by Punch." "The C h o l e r a . 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"The P i c t u r e s of t h e Season." Edinburgh Magazine 68 ( J u l y 1850): 77-93.  Blackwood's  H a r r i s , T.L. "The C o n c e p t i o n of A u t h o r i t y i n t h e Oxford Movement." Church H i s t o r y 3 (1934): 115-125. [ H a r t , Solomon]. " F i n e A r t s , Royal Academy, P a i n t i n g s . " aeum (2 June 1849): 575-578. [  ].  "Royal Academy,"  H i l t o n , Timothy. The P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s . New P r e s s , 1970. t o Disarm t h e C h a r t i s t s . " (June 1848): 653-673.  London:  York:  Oxford  Longmans, University  Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine 63  [Hunt, F r e d e r i c k ] . "London Pauper C h i l d r e n . " (31 August 1850): 549-552. [  Athen-  The Athenaeum (1 June 1850): 590-591.  H i b b e r t , C. London: The Biography of a C i t y . Green, and Company, L t d . , 1969.  "How  The  ] . "The R e g i s t r a r - G e n e r a l on ' L i f e ' Words 1 (29 June 1850): 330-333.  Household  Words 1  i n London."  Household  Hunt, W i l l i a m Holman. P r e - R a p h a e l i t i s m and t h e P r e - R a p h a e l i t e lr: Brotherhood. 2 v o l s . London: M a c M i l l a n and Company, 1905. H u t c h i s o n , Sidney C. The H i s t o r y of the Royal Academy, 1768-1968. London: Chapman and H a l l , 1968. " I n d u s t r i a l Employment of Paupers." 1850): 948-949.  The S p e c t a t o r 23 (5 October  I n g l i s , K.S. Churches and t h e Working C l a s s e s i n V i c t o r i a n London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l , 1963.  England.  " I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Volume N i n e t e e n , P o l i t i c a l Summary.'.'„„[Lord John R u s s e l l ' s open l e t t e r of 4 November 1850, t o the Bishop of Durham, c o n c e r n i n g t h e Papal A g r e s s i o n I n c i d e n t ] . Punch 19 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e volume: v - v i .  104  " I r e l a n d Under t h e T r i p l e A l l i a n c e . " 45 (March 1839): 340-353.  Blackwood's  Edinburgh  Magazine  [ J o n e s , H. L o n g u e v i l l e ] . 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"  Punch 19 (November 1850): 250.  P a r r i s , L e s l i e , e d . The P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s . 1984.  London:  The Tate G a l l e r y ,  P a s h l e y , Robert. Pauperism and t h e Poor Laws, 2 v o l s . Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1852. " P a t h o l o g i c a l E x h i b i t o n a t t h e Royal Academy." 15 May 1850): 198. P a t r i c k , James. "Newman, P u g i n , and G o t h i c . " 24:2 ( W i n t e r 1981): 185-207.  London:  Punch 18 ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y Victorian Studies  P o i n t o n , M a r c i a . W i l l i a m Dyce, 1806-1864, A C r i t i c a l B i o g r a p h y . Oxford: The Clarendon P r e s s , 1979,  107  "Poor-Houses as They A r e , and as They Might Be." The Guardian 2 (24 February 1847): 123. "Poor Law." The Times (20 F e b r u a r y 1850): 5-."The Pope a t Home A g a i n . "  The S p e c t a t o r 23 (27 A p r i l  "The P r e s i d e n t o f t h e Royal Academy." 1850): 550. P r i c e , R.G.G.  A H i s t o r y o f Punch.  "The P r o g r e s s o f Popery." 1838): 494-507.  1850): 397.  The C r i t i c 9 (15 November  London:  C o l l i n s , 1957.  Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine 44 (October  P u g i n , Augustus.Welby. C o n t r a s t s : o r , A P a r a l l e l Between t h e Noble E d i f i c e s o f t h e M i d d l e Ages, and Corresponding B u i l d i n g s o f t h e P r e s e n t Day; Shewing t h e P r e s e n t Decay o f T a s t e . London: C h a r l e s Dolman, 1836; r e p r i n t e d 1841. "Punch Among t h e P i c t u r e s , F l i g h t t h e F i r s t . " 15 May 1850): 193.  Punch 18 ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y  "Punch Among t h e P i c t u r e s , F l i g h t t h e Second." 1850): 214. "Punch Among t h e P i c t u r e s , F l i g h t t h e T h i r d . " 1850): 240.  Punch 18 ( l a t e May Punch 18 ( e a r l y June  Pusey, Edward B o u v e r i e . A L e t t e r t o t h e Bishop o f London. John Henry P a r k e r , 1851.  Oxford:  . "Number F i v e , The I n c a r n a t i o n , a Lesson o f H u m i l i t y . " In Sermons During t h e Season from Advent t o W h i t s u n t i d e , pp.6174. Oxford: John Henry P a r k e r , 1848, [de Quincey, Thomas]. "Maynooth." 57 (May 1845): 647-656.  Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine  R a l l s , W a l t e r . "The Papal A g r e s s i o n o f 1850: A Study i n V i c t o r i a n A n t i - C a t h o l i c i s m . " Church H i s t o r y 43 (1974): 242-256. R [ e a c h ] , A[ngus] B. "Town Talk and T a b l e Talk.'.' London News 16 (4 May 1850): 306.  The I l l u s t r a t e d  "Report on t h e S t a t e o f t h e I n h a b i t a n t s and T h e i r D w e l l i n g s i n Church Lane, S t . G i l e s ' s . " J o u r n a l o f t h e Royal S t a t i s i c a l S o c i e t y 11 (1848): 1-18.  108  Reynolds, Joshua. D i s c o u r s e s on A r t . London: P r e s s , 1794; r e p r i n t e d 1907.  Oxford U n i v e r s i t y  Robertson, David. S i r C h a r l e s E a s t l a k e and t h e V i c t o r i a n A r t World. P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1978. R o s s e t t i , W i l l i a m M i c h a e l . The PRB J o u r n a l , W i l l i a m M i c h a e l Ross e t t i 's D i a r y o f t h e P r e - R a p h a e l i t e Brotherhood, 1849-1853. E d i t e d by W i l l i a m E. Fredeman: O x f o r d : The Clarendon P r e s s , 1975. [  ] . " P r e - R a p h a e l i t i s m . " In P r e - R a p h a e l i t i s m , A C o l l e c t i o n of C r i t i c a l E s s a y s , pp. 64-70. E d i t e d by James Sambrook. Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1974. R e p r i n t e d from The S p e c t a t o r 24 (4 October 1851): 955-957.  [  ] . "The Royal Academy E x h i b i t i o n . " 1850): 253-254.  The C r i t i c 9 (15 May  [  ] . "The Royal Academy E x h i b i t i o n . " 1850): 335-336.  The C r i t i c 9 (1 J u l y  [  ] . "The Royal Academy E x h i b i t i o n : Fourth N o t i c e . " The C r i t i c 9 (15 J u l y 1850): 359-361.  [  ] . "The Royal Academy E x h i b i t i o n : F i f t h N o t i c e . " C r i t i c 9 (1 August 1850): 381-383.  "Royal Academy."  The Athenaeum  "The Royal Academy E x h i b i t i o n . " 256.  The  (12 May 1849): 494-496. The B u i l d e r 8 (1 June 1850): 255-  "The Royal Academy: May E x h i b i t i o n . " (June 1850): 355-360.  T a i t ' s Edinburgh Magazine 17  Shannon, H.A. . " M i g r a t i o n and t h e Growth o f London." H i s t o r y Review 5:2 ( A p r i l 1935): 79-86.  Economic  Shee, M a r t i n A r c h e r . L i f e o f S i r M a r t i n A r c h e r Shee, 2 v o l s . London: Longman, Green, Longman, and R o b e r t s , 1860. Sheppard, F r a n c i s . London, 1808-1870; The I n f e r n a l Wen. U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1971.  Berkeley:  S l o s s o n , P.W. "The D e c l i n e of t h e C h a r t i s t Movement." Columbia U n i v e r s i t y S t u d i e s i n H i s t o r y , Economics, and Law. 73:2 New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1916.  109  S o m e r v e l l , D.C. D i s r a e l i and G l a d s t o n e . P u b l i s h i n g , 1928; r e p r i n t e d 1932.  New York:  Garden  City  [Stephens, F r e d e r i c k George]; under t h e pseudonym of John Seward. "The Purpose and Tendency of E a r l y I t a l i a n A r t . " The Germ Number 2 ( F e b r u a r y 1850): 58-64, Surtees, V i r g i n i a . The P a i n t i n g s and Drawings of Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i , (1828-1882), A C a t a l o g u e Raisonne", 2 volIT O x f o r d : The Clarendon P r e s s , 1971. [Tupper, John L . ] . "The S u b j e c t i n A r t , Number One." Number 1 (January 1850): 11-18. "The U n c h r i s t i a n P a r l i a m e n t . " 683.  The Germ  The Guardian 2 (17 November 1847):  Vaughan, W i l l i a m . German Romanticism and E n g l i s h A r t . Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979. Ward, J.T. "Young England." 120-127.  New  Haven:  H i s t o r y Today 16 ( F e b r u a r y 1966):  Ward, W i l l i a m George. The I d e a l of a C h r i s t i a n Church. James Toovey, 1844. [ W i l l s , W.H.]. " H e a l t h by Act of P a r l i a m e n t . " (10 August 1850): 460-463.  Household Words.1  Wood, Anthony. N i n e t e e n t h Century B r i t a i n , 1815-1914. Longmans, Green, and Company, 1960. "The World of London, Number Two." 49 (May 1841).: 630-637.  London:--  London:  Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine  Wornum, R [ a l p h ] N. "Modern Moves i n A r t , ' C h r i s t i a n A r c h i t e c t u r e , ' 'Young E n g l a n d . " The A r t J o u r n a l - 1 2 (1 September 1850): 269-271. 11  110  APPENDIX A:  REVIEWS OF CHRIST IN THE HOUSE OF HIS PARENTS  "The A r t s , The Royal Academy."  The S p e c t a t o r 23 (4 May  [ P r o b a b l y D a f f o r n e , James]. "The Royal Academy." 12 (1 June 1850): 175.  1850): 427.  The A r t J o u r n a l  [Dickens, Charles]. "Old Lamps f o r New (15 June 1850): 265-257.  Ones."  Household Words 1  "The E x h i b i t i o n of t h e Royal Academy."  The Times (4 May  " E x h i b i t i o n of t h e Royal Academy."  The Times (9 May  "Fine A r t s . "  1850): 336.  The Guardian 5 (8 May  " F i n e A r t s , The P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s . " (August 1851): 512-513.  Tait's  1850): 5.  Edinburgh Magazine  [Hardman, F r e d e r i c k ] . "The P i c t u r e s of the Season." Edinburgh Magazine 68 ( J u l y 1850): 82. [ H a r t , Solomon]. 590-591.  "Royal Academy."  18  Blackwood s 1  The Athenaeum (1 June 1850):  " P a t h o l o g i c a l E x h i b i t i o n a t t h e Royal Academy." i m a t e l y 15 May 1850): 198. "The Royal Academy E x h i b i t i o n . "  1850): 5.  Punch  18 (approx-  The B u i l d e r 8 (1 June 1850): 256.  "The Royal Academy: May E x h i b i t i o n . " 17 (June 1850): 356.  Tait's  Edinburgh Magazine  Wornum, R [ a l p h ] N. "Modern Moves i n A r t , ' C h r i s t i a n A r c h i t e c t u r e , ' 'Young England.'" The A r t J o u r n a l 12 (1 September 1850): 269-271-.  111 APPENDIX B:  ILLUSTRATIONS  F i g u r e 2.  Robert Campin, The Merode A l t a r p i e c e , c. 1426 The C l o i s t e r s C o l l e c t i o n , The M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum of A r t , New York ( F r i n t a Mojmir. The Genius of Robert Campin. The Hague: Mouton and Company, 1966. Page 2 4 ) .  3.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s , Sketch f o r C h r i s t i n the House of h i s P a r e n t s , 1849 The Tate G a l l e r y , London  (Timothy H i l t o n . The P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s . York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970. Plate 22).  New  114  (Geoffroy M i l l a i s . S i r John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s . London: Academy E d i t i o n s , 1979. Page 3 4 ) .  115  F i g u r e 5.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s , Isabel l a , 1849 The Walker A r t G a l l e r y , L i v e r p o o l  (Geoffroy M i l l a i s . S i r John E v e r e t t Millais. London: Academy E d i t i o n s , 1979. Page 3 5 ) .  116  F i g u r e 6.  John Rogers H e r b e r t , Our S a v i o u r S u b j e c t t o h i s Parents at N a z a r e t h , 1847-1856 The G u i l d h a l l A r t G a l l e r y , London (Timothy H i l t o n . The P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s . New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970. P l a t e 10).  117  F i g u r e 7.  John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s , Sketch f o r The Benjamites S e i z i n g T h e i r B r i d e s , c. 1840 P r e s e n t l o c a t i o n o f s k e t c h , and f i n i s h e d v e r s i o n o f 1845 unknown. (John G. M i l l a i s . The L i f e and L e t t e r s o f S i r John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s , 2 v o l s . New York: F r e d e r i c k A. Stokes Company, 1899. V o l . 1, page 2 3 ) .  118  F i g u r e 8.  W i l l i a m Holman Hunt, C h r i s t and t h e Two M a r i e s , 1847 Present l o c a t i o n unknown.  ( W i l l i a m Holman Hunt. P r e - R a p h a e l i t i s m and t h e P r e - R a p h a e l i t e Brotherhood, 2 v o l s . London: MacMillan and Company, 1905. V o l . 1, page 7 7 ) .  119  Figure  9.  George F r e d e r i c Watts, The Good Samaritan, 1850 The C o u r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e of A r t , London  F i g u r e 10.  F.R. P i c k e r s g i 1 1 , Samson Betrayed, 1850 Manchester C i t y A r t G a l l e r y , Manchester  121  F i g u r e 11.  C h a r l e s E a s t l a k e , The Good Samaritan, 1850 Royal C o l l e c t i o n , Osborne House, C o p y r i g h t Reserved (David R o b e r t s o n . S i r C h a r l e s E a s t l a k e and t h e V i c t o r i a n A r t World. P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1978. Page 109).  122  F i g u r e 12.  W i l l i a m Dyce, The Meeting o f Jacob and R a c h e l , 1850 Present l o c a t i o n unknown. T h i s e n g r a v i n g appeared i n The A r t J o u r n a l , i n 1860. (David R o b e r t s o n . S i r C h a r l e s E a s t l a k e and t h e V i c t o r i a n A r t World. Princeton: Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1978. Page 3 5 7 ) .  F i g u r e 13.  [John L e e c h ] , The Cat's Paw; o r , Poor Pu(s)sey, 1850 Punch 19 (November 1850): 247.  

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