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The novelist as geographer : a comparison of the novels of Joseph Conrad and Jules Verne Huggan, Graham 1987

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THE NOVELIST AS  GEOGRAPHER  A COMPARISON OF THE NOVELS OF JOSEPH CONRAD AND JULES VERNE  By GRAHAM HUGGAN B.A., Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y ,  1981  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Programme i n C o m p a r a t i v e L i t e r a t u r e )  We a c c e p t t h i s to  THE  thesis  as conforming  the required standard  U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H  COLUMBIA  A u g u s t 1987 &  Graham Huggan, 1987  In  presenting  degree  at  this  the  thesis in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  British Columbia, I agree  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  of  department publication  this or of  thesis for by  his  or  her  representatives.  that the  for  an advanced  Library shall make it  It  is  granted  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written  CoKPftRKtvuC  The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  Date  requirements  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be  permission.  Department of  the  Oc-V. I K l l g ^  iaTftA-rue.tr-  M.A.  THESIS ABSTRACT  The  N o v e l i s t as Geographer: A Comparison o f the Novels o f J o s e p h C o n r a d and J u l e s V e r n e  The  works  fascination  with  made e x p l i c i t their  critic  i n their  literary  theory  theory  criticism.  inscription  as c u l t u r a l The analysis  above  to redress  usefully  Areas  as s p a t i a l  of  of or  literary  and g e o g r a p h y  the balance, t h e ways  inform  issues  i ti s  i n which  the p r a c t i c e  of  t o be i n t r o d u c e d i n c l u d e g e o g r a p h y distribution,  as s p a t i a l  perception,  on and d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , as t e x t ,  areas  three  serve  as a f o c u s  of novels  between  mille  lieues  l a terre;  by J o s e p h  concentrated  i n t h e s e a - t a l e s The N i g g e r sous l e s mers; second,  landscape third,  i n Lord  f o r the  i n Heart  place  and J u l e s first,  the  and  surrounding  o f t h e Narcissus  and V i n g t  t h e r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g o f  o f Darkness  and Voyage au  the g e o p o l i t i c s of t e r r i t o r y , J i m and L ' l l e  comparative  Conrad  issues are foregrounded:  space  landclaim  of the  literature  a  implicit in  knowledge  the part  some  share  geographical  limited  on  briefly may  of a s e r i e s  interrelations  de  Verne  matrix.  i n which  cultural  Jules  with  between  focus;  to outline  literature  Verne  Unfortunately,  unpopular  geographical  as  concern  has made t h e r e l a t i o n  necessary  and  n o n - f i c t i o n a l works i s a l s o  i n geographic  relatively  and  Conrad  geography:  fiction.  interest  a  of Joseph  mysterieuse.  centre  boundary and In each  case,  relevant  geographical  instance,  the  Edward R e l p h ; Sauer  and  theory  i s drawn  phenomenological  upon:  notions  of  i n the s e c o n d , the l a n d s c a p e  C o u r t i c e Rose;  politico-geographical  i n the  third,  definitions  of  in  the  Yi-Fu  first  Tuan  and  e v a l u a t i o n s of the  Carl  geopolitical  Glassner,  De  and  Blij  and  Cohen. The  first  Vingt m i l l e of  lieues  topophilia,  relation of  section  various  s h i p and  and  Voyage  as  and  au  The  The de  landscape:  which  third  outlines  (division,  infers  suggest  section  the  second  Narcissus spatial  behind  particular  attention  environments  and  imperialism, Finally,  communities  c o l o n i a l i s m and the  'literary  situated  particularly  to  to  the  in  the and  section  that  (on  (on  the  Heart  and  Jim  the  of  be  access  and  L' 11e  the  descent,  motifs,  political  (re-  can  means of  motifs  the  sign-system  landscape  Lord  these  two etc.)  relating  ones and  paying  of  island  connections  between  narrative strategy. geography' o f C o n r a d ' s and  its historical  late  in  imprint  implications to  notions  inherent  cultural  ( d i s ) p o s s e s s i o n , ascent  p o s s i b l e motives  and  l a terre) discusses  geographical  i s s u e s t o p e r s o n a l and  is  the  mechanism of and  topographical  novels  the  geometricity  centre  a controlling  text.  myster ieuse) novels  of  f a l s e perspective (mis-reading), textual  interpreted the  sea.  of  (encoding/decoding),  to  Nigger  sous l e s mers) e x p l o r e s  connotations  writing),  The  p l a c e l e s s n e s s and  between  Darkness  (on  context  nineteenth-century  and  debate  Verne's related on  the  iv relative work, in far  merits  the  terms as  of p o s i t i v i s m  doctrine of  an  of p o s i t i v i s m ,  ideology  mastery  of  overcome  t o conquer  own  suggests views little  of  that  the  the s o c i a l  Conrad's  Verne's  constituted  celebrated  i n so  Conrad's  work,  In  as  an  and  verbal  attempt  attempt  i t s fractured to  and m o r a l  substitute order'  illusion.  (Watt,  to  predominantly  o f t h e mind s e r v e s as a c r i t i q u e  but  more t h a n a s a v i n g  been  i s only  recognized.  duality.  doctrine,  has  i s reinterpreted  p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l geography positivist  which  In  Nature through a p h y s i c a l  h i s environment his  phenomenology.  of science,  i t s l i m i t a t i o n s are  man's s t r u g g l e  and  topography  of  also  'more  traditional  163)  i s , perhaps,  V  CONTENTS Page Abstract  i i  Abbreviations Introduction: C h a p t e r One:  C h a p t e r Two:  vi The n o v e l i s t as g e o g r a p h e r : and J u l e s Verne  Joseph  Conrad  Narcissus and Nautilus: an i n q u i r y i n t o space and p l a c e i n Conrad's The N i g g e r o f the Narcissus and V e r n e ' s V i n g t m i l l e l i e u e s sous l e s mers R e a d i n g s o f the c u l t u r a l l a n d s c a p e i n Conrad's H e a r t o f Darkness and V e r n e ' s Voyage au c e n t r e de l a t e r r e  C h a p t e r T h r e e : G e o p o l i t i c a l m o t i f s and m o t i v e s i n Conrad's L o r d J i m and V e r n e ' s L ' l i e mysterieuse Conclusion:  The p o s i t i v i s t i c l e g a c y , t h e phenomenol o g i c a l debate: e p i s t e m o l o g y and g e o g r a p h i c thought i n t h e works o f J o s e p h Conrad and J u l e s Verne  1  8  29  53  74  Notes  82  References  88  vi  ABBREVIATIONS  HOD  J o s e p h Conrad, the Tether  Youth,  IM  J u l e s Verne, L ' l i e m y s t e r i e u s e  LE  J o s e p h Conrad, L a s t  LJ  J o s e p h Conrad, L o r d J i m  NN  J o s e p h Conrad, The and O t h e r S t o r i e s  PP  Edward R e l p h , P l a c e and  Placelessness  SP  Y i - F u Tuan, Experience  Place:  TP  Y i - F u Tuan,  VML  J u l e s Verne, V i n g t m i l l e  VCT  J u l e s V e r n e , Voyage au c e n t r e de l a t e r r e  Space  Heart of Darkness,  The  End  of  Essays  N i g g e r o f t h e Narcissus,  and  The  Perspective  Topophilia lieues  Typhoon  sous l e s mers  of  1 INTRODOCTION The  novelist To  might  as geographer:  compare seem  neither  immediate  consider of  the novels of Joseph  an u n l i k e l y  imagination,  Conrad's  lowbrow  proposition.  stylists.  o f t h e term)  as  critics  from  writers.  I would  suggest,  Conrad  because  there  works,  notably  geography; novels  and Verne  second,  influenced  nineteenth-century Concern  with  non-fictional fiction.  titles Verne's work  because  that  an  announces  least  o f t h e two association first,  between  their  demonstrated  fascination  with  i t i s possible  to consider  their  the adventure  novel  on a common  genre, because  by t h e d o m i n a n t  both  writers are  ideologies  of  later  Europe. geographical  works  of Conrad  The t i t l e s  of Conrad's, case,  sense  p r e v e n t e d , or a t  however,  to  ( i n the m i d d l e - or  i s by no means u n w a r r a n t e d :  in their  of the  tendency  attempting a comparison  d ' a v e n t u r e ) ; and t h i r d ,  clearly  their  'popular'  Verne  they a r e  ( i n t h e highbrow  a r e a r e a s o f t h e m a t i c commonality  as v a r i a t i o n s  (roman  all,  The a b i d i n g  has a l s o  dissuaded,  between  and J u l e s  After  work a s ' c l a s s i c a l '  and V e r n e ' s  sense  Conrad  Verne  c o n t e m p o r a r i e s n o r , by any s t r e t c h  similar  t h e term)  J o s e p h C o n r a d and J u l e s  made  and V e r n e  of Verne's  are often  highlighting  issues  i s also novels,  geographically  of geography  the i d e o l o g i c a l  explicit  programme  i n the  implicit in  and t h e s u b situated.  In  i n the t i t l e  of the  implemented  i n the  2 c o u r s e o f t h e work. classification rigours (a  of the n a t u r a l  of science)  subjection  secondary  suggests  even  i t s exact  endeavour  that  Explorers',  of  human endeavour  of  action,  be t h e t h i n g '  other.  As  i n Verne's  between man and h i s n a t u r a l not (as i t tends  consolidation inquiry island  land,  of Patusan,  and  of the play,  to  of  (Conrad, LE, 1 ) .  The drama  work t o a  geography  environment;  geography  o f t h e mind, on enacts  t h i s combat,  amount  human  a  combat  however,  t o a v i c t o r y and  to control  h i s own d e s i r e s .  The  novel Lord Jim, i s ' i n t e r n a l l y  L J , 240):  i n r e g i s t e r i n g the l i e of the  may a l s o  reflect  to locate  literary  nineteenth-century programmatic  be an  i n Conrad's  i s possible  Verne's  i t may  i t i s t h e drama  t o f o r Verne)  ability  (Conrad,  geography It  'and t h o u g h  o f man's c o n t r o l o v e r N a t u r e but t o a s k e p t i c a l  i n t o man's  situated'  i n the  i n h i s l a t e essay  and a geography work,  but a l s o  and a c t i o n  Conrad  c o r r e s p o n d s i n Conrad's  on t h e one hand,  case, the  to a c t i o n ,  comprehension  configuration,  will  environment  In Conrad's  of l o c a t i o n  t o the r i g h t  t o the  i n t h e s u b - t i t l e o f t h e work  i s a stage', writes  advantage,  both a  (a s u b j e c t i o n  the interdependence of l o c a t i o n  a n d Some  does  o f man).  o f geography  'Geography  the  environment  the subordination  'The e a r t h  know  i n t h i s sense, i n v o l v e s  and a c o n q u e s t o f t h e n a t u r a l  to the w i l l  position  illustrates  work.  Geography,  t h e s t a t e o f t h e mind.  the d i f f e r e n c e  geographies European  'geography  of  between  i n the context  thought. conquest'  Clearly,  Conrad's of  late  Verne's  i s informed  by  3 contemporary  positivist  introspective siecle  grounded and  'geography  challenge  positivist  to  doctrine  inquiry  respective  of p o l i t i c a l N a t u r e can imperialist more  equally  mind'  clearly,  the  self  a  which  as  emphasizes  V e r n e ' s d e l i n e a t i o n of  expansionism,  context  although,  associated  with  as  the  fin-de-  instability  as  to  consider  or  the  extensions conquest  of  a celebration  of  I hope  to  show,  imperialist  i n bourgeois l i b e r a l i s m ; s i m i l a r l y ,  Conrad's  critique  of  interpreted  conquest  anti-imperialist (and,  i n my  gesture,  opinion,  anti-imperia1ism criticize  the  upholding  the  The theories hardly  as  a of  idea of  be  geographies. geographical geographical  of  equally  which  enables  epistemologica1  an  possible apparent  Conrad  whilst  however, the  unless  theories,  the  i t is  constituent  i s here,  inform  and  to  tacitly  political  g e o g r a p h i e s of C o n r a d and  I would that  knowledge d e v e l o p e d  usefully  i t is  as  imperialism.  of It  be  i m p e r i a l i s t conquest  literary  tenable,  can  although  disguise  extrapolation from the  Nature  implicit  more a c c u r a t e ) t o i n t e r p r e t t h i s  means  understanding  may  of  i t is  tendencies  inherent  the  of  phenomenologically-  r e f l e c t i o n s of  in this  a  tendencies  Alternatively, i t is possible geographies  Conrad's  constitutes  self-glorifying  conducting  interpreted  closely  the  the  doctrine.  be  of  by  into  fragmentation.  their  doctrine;  by  practice  to  that  say,  of  a  can  prior those  specifically theories  professional of  on  features  argue,  is  based  Verne  literary  of  geographers, criticism.  4 Unfortunately,  although  Lowenthal  and  Douglas  usefulness  of  studies,  to introduce b r i e f l y are  relevant  spatiality,  distribution. of  depends  first The  the  experienced,  the  spatiality  which  topophilia, according between  to  Yi-Fu  demonstrated environments  and  in  the  other  Tuan's and  (Pickles, been  terms  what  and  the  those  ship  ship's to  space,  on  is  of  aspects  by  an  This,  i n Conrad's  relation that also  invokes  called  of  human are  Topophilia,  TP,  4)  for  bond  and  is  particular  etc.)  which  he  I shall  agree,  is  sous  between  and  affective  The  to  to  i t also  geographers  (Tuan,  lieues  confined  P i c k l e s has  sea-shore,  mille  spatial  perceived  predilection  2  of  however;  'to  setting'  places'.  Vingt  corresponds  namely  geometricity.  or  the  like  i n q u i r y which  i s not  John  commented  place  to  little  I would  study  Three  corresponds  Verne's  surrounding  space  Tuan,  'privileged  hand,  space  154).  the  given and  of  (islands,  the  i s the  of  which  man's  as  Narcissus  in  Western  designates  balance,  quant i f i cat i o n ,  placelessness,  people  status  foremost,  and  have  the  geographical  relatively  Verne's f i c t i o n ,  coordinates  spatiality'  their  of geographical  distribution  ways  David  geopolitics.  and  location  on  'human  and  the  (notably  acknowledged  to  shown  redress  t o C o n r a d ' s and  Geography,  aspects  To  have  three areas  landscape  have  1  literature  critics  i n geography.  geographers  Pocock)  imaginative  literary  interest  some  the  Nigger  of  the  l e s mers.  On  sea,  which  concentrated the  in  place  notion  of  5 placelessness, both  an  which,  according  environment  underlying places'  without  (Relph,  PP,  143).  conflict  and  between  aesthetic  Allistoun  and  authority;  the  order  Singleton,  the  Although  Nigger of  s p a c e and  desire the  are  to  uphold  Narcissus,  (their  main  hand,  their  emphasizes on  'cause',  Wait  i n s e c u r i t y of  n e o - c l a s s i c a l values  the  which  its  moral  fragility.  order.,  of  uphold i t s  sub-cultures i n the is a  hierarchy  (Third  hierarchy  cultural on  appointed  are  indicates  Donkin negate i t .  Donkin  the  the  the  traditional  of  ranking  nor  for  and  Narcissus,  a f t e r a l l , i s themselves);  disrespect  the  a  privileged in this  representatives  neither  places  the  awareness  W o r l d , p r o l e t a r i a n ) which have low the  'describes  placelessness  u n d e r - p r i v i l e g e d Wait and they  Relph:  acknowledge s i g n i f i c a n c e i n  In The  and  Edward  significant  a t t i t u d e which does not  i n t e r r e l a t i o n between p l a c e , a  to  and  of  rebel  the  other  authorities i t s dependence  l o s i n g ground  in  the  new  age. In spatial  Vingt  mille  notion  i s that of m o b i l i t y .  mobile', it:  moves  the  and  through  serves  A  of the  reduced  with  les  a  function  to  an  mers,  The  towards  (the of  the  Nautilus,  view  mobility  c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of  correspondingly within  sous  space  principle  environment) conquest  lieues  'mobilis  of  immobilization  and  in  eliminating  charting  environment).  geometry,  predominant  an (the  Geography  motion  is  confined  (con)figuration. second  area  of  geographical  inquiry  is  that  of  6 landscape.  Carl  structure  or  environment) a textual and  of  readings  rather  3  are relevant  the  which  than  emerge  significance, ultimately  from  between  by  of  however,  like  preservation,  Conrad's Political politics)  is  their  (destination)  i n the  sense  Darkness  and  geographical  novel  Lord  geography  and  Jim  (the  geopolitics  not  being  focus  is  Verne's  on as  are The  reached;  by  i t s origin  of  argue,  is  resistant  to  forbids i t .  c e n t r e de a  in  la  4  the  terre,  form  of  imperative. the  notions  of  they  pertain  to  novel L ' l l e  interaction  which  'written':  as  of  i s misread  premises.  r_e-written  geopolitics  and  i t were,  (r)evolution,  Voyage au  cultural  as  I shall  ' r e a d ' and  and  re-read  geography  and  i s both  by  Marlow's  alternative  reveal  of  and  by  i n ways  is  as  encoding  of  landscape  ideological  a  natural  novel,  lines,  or r e t e n t i o n , o f the c u l t u r a l  third  political  text,  of  the  i t s i d e o l o g y , which,  reactionary  i t  (as  of Darkness  however,  s i g n - s y s t e m does not  because  Heart  My  the  series  i t i s read  although paradoxically attracted Landscape,  a  n o v e l , the  rather  'centre'  the t e x t u a l  Conrad's  undermined,  or  limited  In  demonstrates  In V e r n e ' s  read,  geographical analogy,  l a terre.  are  reading.  necessarily  case  on  t o the n o v e l s H e a r t  landscape  which  own  superimposed  landscape  C o u r t i c e Rose's c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f l a n d s c a p e  c e n t r e de  prejudices  his  cultural  s i g n - s y s t e m s u b j e c t t o complex p r o c e s s e s o f  au  reading  notions of  structures  and  decoding  Voyage  Sauer's  between  mysterieuse. geography  ( t h e c o e r c i o n o f geography by  and  state  7 politics),  chart  controlling  interests.  mysterieuse  are, s t r i c t l y  both  implement  implicitly, staking public  use  and  Whilst  a series  abuse  speaking,  land  by  novels,  strategies  political  rival  J i m nor L' l i e  political  of n a r r a t i v e  out of the p r i v a t e ,  of  neither Lord  i f not e x p l i c i t l y ,  territories  Verne's  the  they  which a r e  i n nature.  The  and t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e  o f J i m i n Conrad's n o v e l and C y r u s  a r e symptomatic o f t h e p r o c e d u r e s  Smith i n  of i m p e r i a l / c o l o n i a l  expansion. It drawing point  will  be  evident  on n o t i o n s  of departure  obviously,  from  rather  than  this  procedures  for critical  cannot  be  contained  framework.  'geopolitics',  and, u l t i m a t e l y ,  be  understood  by  metaphors. (as of  understood literary  'Space',  critics  I t i s not m e r e l y  their  Conrad  (as a m e t a p h o r i c a l  and V e r n e t o g e t h e r  which, a  'place',  'geography'  such  a p h y s i c a l phenomenon) b u t a l s o geography  within  primarily,  as  I  quite  should  have  been  Bachelard, with  fictional  phenomenon)  as a  'landscape',  they  fascination  am  s t r i c t l y  itself,  as G a s t o n  their  that  o f geography  interpretations  'geographical'  therefore  introduction  as  geography adaptation  which  i n a curious partnership.  5  brings  8 1.  Narcissus and Nautilus: an i n q u i r y i n t o s p a c e and place i n C o n r a d ' s The Nigger of the Narcissus and V e r n e ' s V i n g t m i l l e l i e u e s sous l e s mers.  'Space i s more a b s t r a c t than p l a c e ' c l a i m s Yi-Fu  Tuan:  place  as  (Tuan,  we  SP,  'what get  begins  to  6).  as  know  The  i t better  distinction  that  'in experience,  merges  that  of  require  each  other  interdependence geographer, places PP,  but  8).  of  derives  differentiated;  for  ...  and  endow  and  Relph:  not  mean  i t with however  the  of  the  meaning  ideas  place  'space  of  (Tuan,  is  the  that  space  and  are  of  late  the  the  mers. use  In  of  'concentrated  particularly nineteenth  Narcissus  and both  Relph's  often place  by  another  context  places' place  The  for  (Relph,  cannot  be  as R e l p h p u t s i t :  concepts  space'  the  6).  Those a s p e c t s of s p a c e t h a t we d i s t i n g u i s h as p l a c e s a r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d because t h e y h a v e a t t r a c t e d and concentrated our i n t e n t i o n s , and b e c a u s e o f t h i s f o c u s i n g they a r e s e t a p a r t from the surrounding space while remaining a p a r t of i t . (Relph, The  by  and  SP,  stressed  provides  value'  space  space  i t s meaning from p a r t i c u l a r  does  becomes  i s balanced  definition'  space  Edward  This  place  geographer  u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d space  recognition with  the  relevant century,  Jules  to  place' two  J o s e p h C o n r a d ' s The  Verne's Vingt  mille  'a  node o r  centre  of  on  28)  'surrounding  celebrated  works a t t e n t i o n i s f o c u s e d  phrase)  and  PP,  sea-tales Nigger  of  l i e u e s sous  les  the  (to  special  s h i p as  importance  9 and  meaning  which  insideness'  (Relph,  concentrated  place,  locus  of  authority  however,  to  The  PP,  21).  within  of  by  the  call  the  representation  at  i t s simplest  between which  fixed  Conrad's  level,  disrupt,  erode  terms,  between  c l o s e l y defined  indefinite, counteract The  this  circumscribed  immediately  assigns  [its] quality  i s , i n other f o r the  words,  a  n a r r a t i v e and  a  It  without  is  impossible,  considering  and  Verne's  i s an  early  a  are  exploration  c e n t r a l moral in  conduct  a and  compromise  and  its  Nautilus  'moral t o p o g r a p h y ' , t h a t of  dilemma  perceived  given  deck  and  dimensions  say,  which,  discrepancy  alternative insights those  standards.  tension  d i s t r i b u t e d 'places'  and  largely  which  located  In  the  contradict  or  at  least  definition.  initial  description  a hierarchy  f o r e c a s t l e are of  of  in  'spaces'  is  i s to  of  o f space t o the  the  Narcissus  vessel:  Mr. Baker, c h i e f mate of the ship Narcissus, s t e p p e d i n one s t r i d e o u t o f h i s l i g h t e d c a b i n i n t o the d a r k n e s s o f the quarterdeck. Above h i s head, on the break o f t h e p o o p , t h e n i g h t watchman r a n g a double stroke. ( C o n r a d , NN, Cabin,  of  sea.  discrepancy  extraneous  narrator's  the  of  or  spatial  ship  consists  standards  by  narrative.  Narcissus  what I s h a l l spatial  ship  Narcissus  defined  Nigger  the  the  Conrad's and  The  both a f o c a l p o i n t  consider  environment: d e p e n d e n t on  [is] distinguished  height  and  carefully depth  which  differentiated correspond  to  15) and the  10 h i e r a r c h y o f t h e crew. which but  i s below  Baker, as c h i e f mate, o c c u p i e s  t h e poop  (Captain  Allistoun's rightful  above t h e f o r e c a s t l e ( t h e d w e l l i n g  describing exaggerate 'dark  capacity  whilst  forecastle  that  the ' l i g h t e d  says  invites  a n d what  he  sees  reducing  c a n be  the  of the  which  appear  From t h e o u t s e t ,  t o d i s t i n g u i s h between  (or does  not s e e ) .  The  1  d e l i b e r a t e a t t e n t i o n drawn t o d o o r s and doorways s u g g e s t s the  narrative  'threshold'  'fixture'  of space:  of place  i s located  a dialectic  the r h e t o r i c of n a r r a t i v e expression  assert,  confirm  imagistic does  language  of v i s u a l  not n e c e s s a r i l y  suggests  that  a static  i t i s based  moral  impression  controvert on  on  a  that  s e t up  which  seeks t o  hierarchy  which,  and t h e  although i t  hierarchy,  appearances  that  visual  i s consequently  between  and p r e s e r v e  to  of place  seen  men'  By  and t h e  details  l i t doorways.  the reader  i s able  cabin'  time  and i d e n t i f y  a l l that  i n the b r i l l i a n t l y  the narrator he  the narrator  a r e t h e ' s i l h o u e t t e s o f moving  momentarily  what  so  domain)  place of the crew).  a t t h e same  to perceive  physiognomy,  then,  at night,  t h e d i f f e r e n c e between  quarterdeck'  reader's and  t h e Narcissus  a space  at  which  least  may  be  deceptive. In (which,  this along  throughout there  context with  t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e word references  the text)  are of c r u c i a l  a r e many d i f f e r e n t  Narcissus,  t h e most  t o 'eyes'  kinds  fruitful  and  'sight'  importance.  of v i s i o n comparison  'vision'  Although  i n The N i g g e r i s that  recurs  of the  between t h e  11 pragmatic,  'self-effacing'  and  the c y n i c a l ,  The  first  idea  'self-indulgent'  tends  o f moral  implicitly  towards  control;  idealism t h e second  c h a l l e n g e s moral  egotistic  motives  the  first  i s a' n e g o t i a t i o n  the  existing  s p a c e which  'from  threatens return  hold  supreme which  space cannot order.  towards  aims  NN,  of. v i s i o n .  Allistoun  up w i t h  privileges  placelessness. of the  Below  2  existing  descending  him - a t h i s  led their  During  busy  i s described  His 'vision'  action  and  o f t h e s e a , must  i n these with  i s a t once  speech  Space,  t o which  I will terms:  h i s eyes  to  a gesture of  of s e l f l e s s  duty  and p r a c t i c a l i t y  over  i n this  case  the onrushing  be c o n f r o n t e d a n d tamed,  t o impinge  which  c o n c e n t r a t i o n of e f f o r t '  a n d an a s s e r t i o n over  the storm  (a p a s s a g e  a superhuman  self-indulgence.  be a l l o w e d  terms,  i s an abandonment t o  saw n o t h i n g ; he seemed  61).  the  at confirming  as seldom  mortals  t o o v e r t u r n t h e Narcissus  Allistoun  n i h i l i s m and  In s p a t i a l  guardian  i s described  with the  by e m p h a s i z i n g  which  t h e second  Donkin.  (Conrad, NN, 3 6 ) . He has p r i d e o f p l a c e ,  self-discipline  wasteful  tends  o f space  common  i t , privilege  the ship  (Conrad,  -  and  and i s c o n s o n a n t  h e i g h t s o f h i s poop.  iives'  later),  'Captain  he  and S i n g l e t o n  o f Wait  human b e h a v i o u r .  i s the appointed  t o speak  insignificant with  vision  d i s r u p t s o r d e r and t e n d s towards  significantly  so  of A l l i s t o u n  absolutes  of place;  t h e Olympian  feet,  and,  behind  order  Allistoun order;  vision  since i t  on and t h r e a t e n t h e b a l a n c e o f  12 Singleton, sharper  vision,  uninterested ships, already NN,  had  listened  110).  For  the  community  dialectic  between for  affirmation  of  previously  hierarchy  of  defiance  negate terized  the by  oppositions primitive wisdom'  and  on  such  as  the  of  and  had  (Conrad,  i s a confirmation his  eyes,  of  like  order. and  Singleton,  i s subjected  between of  The  place  towards  severe The  sea,  is  continued  between  i s more  the  to  and  and  dialectic  hand,  however,  within.  ship  placelessness  tends  of  theirs,  wide s e a s '  particularly,  other  the  voices  space,  the  had  multitudes  Narcissus  and,  he  seen  'vision'  definition.  with,  ...  'a  place  disruptive  establishes  a  d i s s o l u t i o n of,  h e l d b e l i e f s and b e l i e f - s t r u c t u r e s .  Wait and  in  that  notion  confrontation  then,  definition  placelessness, the  to  possessing  had  happen on  the  place  the  who  of A l l i s t o u n  without  necessary  one  the e x i s t i n g  board  from  as  'already-seen':  efforts  pressure  because  could  the  on  described knowledge  many t i m e s  ' h o l d up'  Despite  of  Singleton, of  is  clearer  seen a l l t h a t  Allistoun's,  and  a  appearance  experience,  the  similarly,  Donkin r e a c t a g a i n s t the Narcissus of  their  dominant  by  i t s adoption  of  between i d e a l i s t totemism,  ( C o n r a d , NN,  on 111)  one and  bottom r a n k i n g  in  f o r c i n g themselves to the  marginal  discourse  their  status. of  the  In  doing  centre  this,  n a r r a t i v e which,  neo-classical values,  the  they  characsets  up  (largely Platonic) aesthetics  and  hand,  and  'filthy  between loquacity'  'unspeakable (Conrad,  NN,  13 88)  on  the  Allistoun they  other.  are  are  valued  valued  to  comparison  between  and  and  'true'  cated  In to  the  the  by  'true'  the  on  and  o f Wait;  i n the  Donkin.  The  'false'  artists  true  of  Singleton  idols  and  false  second,  deliberate  (Singleton/Wait)  (Allistoun/Donkin) implicit  is  compli-  questioning  and  and  of  the  of  the  cultural  which  the  d i s t i n c t i o n i s based.  In  this  Donkin  are  acting  of  sub-  context,  Wait  cultures  ( T h i r d W o r l d , p r o l e t a r i a t ) ; i t must be  said,  however,  that  denying  they  promote  in  themselves narcissism  their  rather and  proletarian other  and  instance,  detriment  latter's  between  presuppositions  first  detriment  'false'  however  distinction  the  than  Donkin's  revolt)  hand,  are  their egotism  o r d e r and  the  uncertainty  treatment  uncertainty. contemptible  break, to crush; tear  the  125).  veil,  On  the  truthfulness' outlook informing  of  of  more  his  other  sense,  (which than  15)  to  of  course,  assert  leave  no  his  his  of  on  as the  and  cynical  the  existing  he  is  wholly to  for everything;  to  (Conrad,  'perfidious a  desire  challenge  illustrating  Eurocentrism,  this  importance,  refuge'  constitutes  A l l i s t o u n by  (Classicism,  masquerades  authority, fragility  hand, however,  and  Wait's  pathetic:  even w i t h e v e r y b o d y  (Conrad, NN,  Singleton  groups.  in particular, illustrates  'desire  t o be  to the  unmask, expose,  myths  culture  its cultural privileges.  Donkin,  one  status  self-disgust  emphasize  of  In in  their  resistance  of  The  subordinate  little  awareness  representatives  NN, of  to  the  that  its  patriarchy)  can  no  14 longer which to  considered  sacrosanct:  sail,  men b e l o n g  they  both  a Classically  social so  be  ordered  identity,  their  depend  considered  which  (which  the  Narcissus physical  displaced  a  such n o t i o n s as ' p l a c e ' and  illustrates  this  insecurity  be  cultural  and  t o a dominant  which  that  can a l s o  of  t h e end o f E m p i r e  of the storm  new  'placeless' i n  they  framework  breed, by  to assert  environment,  c a n be t r a c e d back  description  world  t h e power  larger  foresees  ideology) underpinning The  and  t h e s h i p on  to a dying  Psychologically  on a r o o t l e s s  within  placelessness fallacies  identity  like  i n a sense  and u n i f i e d  and economic r e a l i t i e s .  f a r as  indeed,  suggests  imperialist 'dominion . 1  a l l but s i n k s the by p l a c i n g  i t in a  context: T h e y [ t h e c r e w ] gripped r a i l s , t h e y had wound r o p e s ' - e n d s under t h e i r arms; t h e y clutched r i n g b o l t s , t h e y c r a w l e d i n heaps w h e r e t h e r e was foothold/ t h e y held on w i t h b o t h arms, t h e y hooked themselves t o a n y t h i n g t o windward with elbows, w i t h c h i n s , a l m o s t w i t h t h e i r t e e t h : and some, u n a b l e t o c r a w l away from where t h e y had been f l u n g , f e l t t h e s e a l e a p up, s t r i k i n g a g a i n s t t h e i r b a c k s as t h e y s t r u g g l e d upwards. S i n g l e t o n h a d stuck to the wheel. H i s h a i r f l e w o u t i n t h e wind; t h e gale seemed to take i t s life-long a d v e r s a r y by t h e b e a r d and shake h i s o l d head ... D o n k i n , caught by one f o o t i n a l o o p o f some rope, hung, head down, below us, and y e l l e d , w i t h h i s f a c e t o t h e d e c k : 'Cut! C u t ! (Conrad, NN, 57-58. My i t a l i c s )  The struggle  hint  of  farce  for survival  underlying  suggests  that  the  crew's  desperate  the n a r r a t o r ' s c e l e b r a t i o n  15 of  human  resilience  weakness. element  The  the  i n to flood  green  glass  incongruous: the  The  topped  danger,  snow'.  when  of discomposition of composition.  i n these  moments  i s counteracted  by  The a e s t h e t i c s t o be as  of further  system  ( o r code  of this  system  of v a l u e s ) .  transference  beauty'  other  words, s t a n d s a s a metaphor  synechdoche  NN,  as a  of values)  to a  planet'  36, 35, 1 2 2 ) .  o f , an a b s o l u t e  3  The most  'small  ideal  compulsively  o f space  are the various  as 'minute w o r l d ' , (Conrad,  ( o r code  of the  consideration.  a metaphorization  a smaller  'a w a l l i s  i s worthy  employs  as  wave  metaphor  u s e o f metaphor often  a huge  The  is  composition.  i t i s described  with  The  defence  of t e x t u a l  imperatives.  Narcissus  place  last-ditch  that  of greatest  and m e n t a l  of death ( i n  and m o r a l  instances  a  tenacity  ( i n the second).  in this  t h e Narcissus,  itself  means o f r e l a t i n g  the  insanity  o f human  'discomposing'  as i t s c u l t u r a l  narrative  larger  physical  category,  the threat  reveals  defensive  The  or  deliberate artifice  novel  is a  f o r t o ward o f f t h e t h r e a t  in a third  a t t h e moment  by h i s a w a r e n e s s  context,  both  collaboration  demonstrated  of  56):  instance)  narrator's  rushes  NN,  are called  first  Thus,  sea, i n this  (Conrad,  composure  i s tempered  noticeable  references  to  and ' v i s i o n o f  The Narcissus,  in  f o r , o r t o be more p r e c i s e ,  moral  order.  The r e l a t i o n o f  t o s p a c e i s t r a n s f e r r e d from one o f c o n f r o n t a t i o n  t o one  o f a s s i m i l a t i o n , i n which even t h e i m m e n s i t i e s o f s p a c e have a place  within  an a l l - e n v e l o p i n g  cosmos.  16 Conrad's might  best  combination  e s p o u s a l i n The N i g g e r o f t h e Narcissus  be d e s c r i b e d  a s a form  of p r a c t i c a l  vigour  accommodated, the  however,  sailship,  of pragmatic  and m o r a l  i n a particular  i n which  i t , a sense  sense, of  i s an i d e a l  expression, Sea'  c a n o n l y be  of a  that of  'placeless'  a sense o f p l a c e and,  The Narcissus,  i n this  o p e r a t e s on t h e p r i n c i p l e  c r a f t s m a n s h i p ; t o use V.S. N a i p a u l ' s  i t embodies  self-serving  however, within  demonstrate  the notion  hierarchies surface  the p h i l o s o p h y of the ' S t y l i s t  the l i m i t a t i o n s  of pragmatic  inscribed  onto  to  contradictions  underlies  of the  i t s projected  Donkin,  contradictions  and b r i n g i n g  the  t o the  conceptions of  o f The N i g g e r  titles) Wait  and  by d i s p l a c i n g  idealistic  The t i t l e  t h e Narcissus,  embodied  o f and  idealism  ( a s a r e many o f Conrad's  'belonging'  o f Wait  t h e Narcissus  and c o l l a b o r a t i o n .  Narcissus,  The  machinations  t h e e g o t i s m which  community  last  which  (a  ( N a i p a u l , 217). The  and  purpose.  community  collaborative  rigour)  the assumption  o f moral  idealism  environment,  e x i s t e n c e p a r a d o x i c a l l y gives the s a i l o r with  o f what  of the  i s oxymoronic;  demonstrates  by  the  i n a s h i p whose v e r y name c o u n t e r a c t s  idealism.  challenge  historical;  posed  by Wait  t h e Narcissus,  of i t s kind:  the s a i l s h i p ,  and Donkin  i s both  notional  i t i s s u g g e s t e d , i s one o f t h e and w i t h i t t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f  the S t y l i s t  o f t h e Sea, i s a l r e a d y o u t d a t e d by t h e p r o g r e s s i v e  machinery  and p o s i t i v i s t i c  outlook  of  t h e new  Age o f  17 Technology. cynical  The i n d i v i d u a l i s m  materialism  suited  t o (more  o f Wait  o f Donkin,  easily  and, p a r t i c u l a r l y , t h e  a r e suggested  adaptable  as being  t o ) t h e new age t h a n t h e  p r a g m a t i c i d e a l i s m o f S i n g l e t o n and A l l i s t o u n : the  last  pages o f t h e n o v e l i n t r o d u c e  o f s p a c e and p l a c e are to and  replaced live':  i t loses  becomes m e r e l y  'sordid Truth  earth' and  redefined stained  ones.  i t s moral  an o b j e c t  a  conceptualization  Once docked, substance,  (Conrad, NN, 1 3 7 ) .  Beauty,  imperilled  Reverence though  considerations  the s h i p  i t s sense  t o be p o s s e s s e d  front  of the Mist,  fairy  tale  1  they  were,  and w h i t e l i k e  NN,  143).  of place,  of the i d e a l s of  of  light,  a marble  palace  Place  h a s become  c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l v a l u e , and t h e s p a c e which it  a  reservoir  configuration  of material  we  possibility.  are already  moving  i s now  i n which 'the  c l e a n s e d by t h e f l o o d  (Conrad,  'ceases  i n t h e name o f a  as a p e r v e r s e worship of the m a t e r i a l  s t o o d o u t f o r a moment d a z z l i n g in  a new  significantly,  i n which m o r a l and a e s t h e t i c  by economic  better  With  a  surrounds this  last  close  to the c o l o n i a l  space and p l a c e  i n The N i g g e r o f  world of Heart o f Darkness. The the  interaction  Narcissus  'radical  (or  often  space  factor  i n what might  of the novel.  a n d i m p r e s s i o n , between  designated)  dynamic, same  i s a major  ambiguity'  expression  between  may  be  The t e n s i o n  perceived,  c o n c e p t i o n of space,  experienced  between  the c a t e g o r i c a l l y  and t h e i n t u i t i v e l y  paradoxical,  be termed t h e  as  stated  ensures  a  i n which t h e  topophilia  (desire,  18 a f f e c t i o n ) or as is  the  cabin,  coffin, home  refuge  f o r Wait.  and  (Conrad,  tophophobia  but  'non-place'  or  indicative novel:  The  a  threatened  the  image  revives  substance. spatial  between  of a  The  the lost  order  Narcissus  is  novel first  does  unrest* and as  which  i s set  up  by  perceptions  of  space  'order'  and but  ship  'chaos' also  1  the  context,  appropriate:  retrieving  'replaced ,  in  is  continually  In t h i s  is highly  without  these  but  only  a  lost  in  the  void:  contrast,  Vingt sight  epitome  both  engender c a l m  A shadowy s h i p manned by a crew o f Shades. T h e y p a s s and make a s i g n , i n a shadowy hail. H a v e n ' t we, t o g e t h e r and upon t h e i m m o r t a l s e a , wrung out a meaning from our sinful lives? (Conrad, By  virtual  'desired  dissolution.  ghost  trap,  when i t i s e n v i s a g e d  reinstated  with  example  epitomizes  and  5  An  becomes c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l ,  different  i s continually  and  final  Narcissus  continual flux  continuum  challenged  memory  213),  simultaneously  'order'  the  but  the sea as empty space may  (Jameson,  of  officers  the same empty s p a c e ,  disconcerting. changing  the  'desired enclosure'  80);  reassurance,  for  Similarly,  exile, NN,  (fear, d i s a f f e c t i o n ) .  of  mille  the  treatment  lieues  sous  t o be ambiguous.  of  l e s mers  In one  'desired enclosure'  space  in  does  Jules not  s e n s e the Nautilus  (Tuan,  SP,  i t have i t s crew, p r o v i d i n g them w i t h  Ch.  NN,  8):  a secure,  143)  Verne's  appear  at  i s the not  only  closeted  19 environment, mobile  i t also  home, b u t a l s o  quality  a treasury  a mobile  of ' insideness'  absorption  library,  dissection,  a r e reduced  of a r t i f a c t s ;  a m o b i l e museum.  an a b s o r p t i o n which  immobilization.  to the s p e c i f i c i t y  reduced the of  knowledge  to acquisition  novel usually capture  (Nemo's  of the c o l l e c t o r ' s  i n each  case  the p r i n c i p l e  The  natural  environment  still,  the n a t u r a l but  world  a museum  classified, obsession  resource.  w i t h nomenclature  immobilize: named, Hence  t o name  mobile  Nature  Nemo's  motto:  (elimination) (as  Roland  Narcissus t h e Nautilus  added  Barthes  lists)  and d e f i n e d  new y i e l d ,  once  i s an i n d i c a t i o n  into  'Mobilis  immobile  i s more  i t s movement; and e x p e r i e n c e r e c o g n i z e d and  collection.  The  of the d e s i r e t o  i s to f i x , to designate  o f motion,  may be one  Nemo's p r o j e c t  to the e x i s t i n g  passes  in  i s one o f s e l f - a p p r o p r i a t i o n .  i s robbed o f i t s l i f e ,  Each  i s  'see'  (Conseil's  i s n o t an a r e n a o f d i s c o v e r y  i s merely  To  i s c o n f r o n t e d , conquered  f o r Nature  Nautilus  environment  the procedure  so a s t o c o n f i r m t h e supremacy o f man. radical  its  i s also  the  item.  hunt) or c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  but  by  to eliminating i t .  of the natural  means t o ' t a k e ' :  Its  The d y n a m i c s o f  of place:  t o u r s t h e w o r l d , e n c l o s e s i t w i t h a view Similarly,  i t isa  ( R e l p h , PP, 21) i s r e i n f o r c e d  of the o u t s i d e world,  disarmament, space  houses  place;  Natural  i n mobile':  has p o i n t e d o u t ) i n t h e f i n i t e .  i s a c o n t a i n e r o f human knowledge.  History.  confinement  a b s o r p t i o n of the o u t s i d e ,  i s , t o some e x t e n t , a m i r r o r o f human  once  6  delight I f the  psychology,  20 It  is a  contained knowledge of  within  protection  than  a  of  walls  of  however,  the  by  the Nautilus  enrichment.  Curiosity  the  Nautilus  The  known  is  i s the  The  is a  form  t o know  has  repository  within  o f space have been r e d u c e d  place.  that  submarine.  closely-guarded vault  possibilities  quantities  knowledge,  embodied  satiated:  already-known,  infinite  of  iron  i n and  rather  been  kind  the  embedded  previously the  special  i s included,  which  of the  t o t h e known the  knowable  excluded. All and  this  place,  seems  place  Narcissus.  The  and  to assert  the  of  no  need  for struggle;  nothing  rather  less  than  at  the  i t s p l a c e and  i t s crew.  consolidating  from  a  The  than total  Tourist,  of  this  knowledge  i f Allistoun  a  the g l o b e  i s less  can be s a i d  person  and  always  subsumed  that]  t h e a c t and  for  whom  (as  o t h e r hand, the  a u t h e n t i c judgement  i t aims conquest  corresponds  to symbolize  t o e x p e r t or means o f  socially  about  the  Relph places  at of  to a The  than i t s Stylist  equivalent  accepted  has  elements,  important  Edward  the  meaning' f o r  total  Nemo's most a p p r o p r i a t e f i g u r a l  the  'individual  the  of  a l l - e m b r a c i n g , e n c y c l o p e d i c knowledge.  authenticity  Sea,  out  space  elements,  'meaning',  containment,  for  the  through  discovering  desire  the  on  of  Nigger  of  'wring  i t s way  Nemo's c i r c u m n a v i g a t i o n o f  of  mercy  Nautilus,  powering  dialectic  i n The  to  space.  acquisition;  the  placelessness,  Narcissus,  struggles lives  f a r removed  i s the  puts is  it)  nearly  opinion  t o u r i s m become more i m p o r t a n t  [such than  21 the  places  tourism  a  represent  stage  an  exoticism writer  visited'  (Relph,  further:  'imaginary  t o u r i s m ' , which,  the f r u i t s  Verne's  the Voyages  of the adventure  t o enjoy  PP, 8 3 ) .  work  takes  extraordinaires  transferred  into the  novel,  allows  both  r e a d e r and  of t r a v e l  without  e x p e r i e n c i n g the  discomforts of t r a v e l l i n g . Verne there  i s no mere  i s an a m b i g u i t y  extraordinaires ways  which  surprisingly  'armchair built  pointed  o u t , Verne's  tours:  i t s predominant  concentricity, enclosing, name  builds  interior,  h i s treatment  i s a circle  spatial  organism  layers  maelstrom.  enclosure  and o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n  constricted conquered attempts  i t .  by s p a c e :  of c i r c l e s ,  a tour of  t h e Nautilus,  which,  itself  space  self(mollusc)  to guard i t s  which  had  into been  o f ' p l a c e s ' by a p r o c e s s o f re-establishes  t h e ' p l a c e s ' which conqueror  openness  as i t s  This  7  itself  by  had d e f i n e d and  of space,  i s itself  i s restored despite  persistent  at closure.  Conrad's a further  to a s e r i e s  The Nautilus,  i n some  by t h e end o f t h e n o v e l The  reduced  i n turn  o f space  S e r r e s has  around  previously  appropriating  o f t h e Voyages  pattern i s concentric.  i s transformed  se1f-immolating  indeed,  As M i c h e l  i s reversible;  self-protecting  however;  t h e mythology  t o Conrad's.  world  however,  suggests,  precious  into  renders  similar  geographer',  late  essay  'Geography and Some E x p l o r e r s ' opens  avenue o f e n q u i r y .  c o n f i g u r a t i o n and g e o g r a p h i c  Distinguishing action,  Conrad  between claims:  geometric  22 The e a r t h i s a s t a g e , and though an advantage, even to th comprehension of the play, to exact c o n f i g u r a t i o n , i t i s the human endeavour t h a t w i l l be t h e  The borne is a  alleged  superiority  o u t i n The N i g g e r  of less  interest  setting  or stage  Vingt  mille  lieues  least  as important  i t may be e right know i t s drama o f thing. (Conrad,  o f geography  o f t h e Narcissus  over  geometry i s  i n so f a r a s t h e s e a  f o r what i t r e p r e s e n t s o r c o n t a i n s t h a n as f o r human sous  activity  l e s mers,  and e x p e r i e n c e .  however,  i f not more i m p o r t a n t  than  geometry  painstaking descriptions  of submarine  fauna  the novel  from  often  borrow  In  i s at  geography.  narrator's in  L E , 1)  The  flora  and  the language  of  geometry:  L e s p o i s s o n s ... s o n t p r o t e g e s p a r une c u i r a s s e ... t a n t o t l a forme d'un s o l i d e q u a d r a n g u l a i r e ... j e c i t e r a i a u s s i d e s o s t r a c i o n s q u a d r a n g u l a i r e s , surmontes s u r l e dos de q u a t r e g r o s t u b e r c u l e s ... p u i s des d r o m a d a i r e s a g r o s s e s b o s s e s en forme de cone. ( V e r n e , VML, 290) Now, of  i f we a r e t o a c c e p t Tuan's argument t h a t  object;  geometric minute  paid  (Tuan,  concern  define  to a  novel  giving  charting  is a  further  of space  i t a  that  t o o b j e c t s and  ' geometricization'  of the text  the r e l e n t l e s s  space,  SP, 1 7 ) , i t f o l l o w s  i n Verne's  i s tantamount  geometric  control:  and o b j e c t s  personality'  attention  definition The  places  'place i s a type  of  the their  space.  gesture of  which  i s found  23 throughout geometric  Verne's  coordination,  represents artifice sense,  the  of  the  Science)  the  enterprises  Verne's  undertaking: constitute  is  the  space  questions  to  constitution,  in  which  to both  is  machine  The  as  which  and  less  work, as  Barthes  suited  To  than the  be  a  'what  to  sure,  mimetic  objects  which  g e o g r a p h i c a l , or  interests  a p p r o p r i a t e to Verne and  rather  Verne.  i s place?',  constituted?'  of  The  highly than  'how,  t h e s e q u e s t i o n s would  seemingly  by  in  are  itself  commander,  (Nautilus  as  seem  the this  poetic  establishes spaces.  come t o l i f e ,  found  and  craft):  precise  o f man  the  i n the c r e a t i o n o f a  'cetace e x t r a o r d i n a i r e ' )  Myth  underwater  given  represents a fusion named  to l i e  rendering possible  fiction  disparate  sea-monsters  Atlantis)  Nautilus  (nameless  -  another  I t i s , however, t h e a c t  triumph of Science i s r e g i s t e r e d organism  (human,  i m p o s s i b l e , Verne's  between  (such  location.  of  framework o f f i c t i o n :  s c i e n c e interweave;  cities  rather  the  in  is ideally  8  i n terms  definition  space  diagram,  in particular, i s also,  of  are p l a c e s connected?'.  answer  connections and  is  process or  criticism.  'reality'  are  a  map  Verne's  found,  structural  i s space?'  the s t r u c t u r a l  that  It  represent.  Conrad,  'how  The  Nature.  the  of  'what  question  over  i s defined  i t , not  result  relevant  (and,  Structure;  to  the  Science  structuralist a  o t h e r w i s e ) i t might  likened  result,  o t h e r s , have  of  work  be  of  a p o t h e o s i s of  S e r r e s , amongst  can whose  triumph  and  than  work  and  ultimate superior  (Verne,  ML,  24 25)  -  which  perceived  in  natural  its  controlling  les  mers,  (like  turn  reflects  environment  subject.  is primarily  Nautilus)  a  total  and  a  Place, an  functions  corresponding  in Vingt  object  l e s s as  objectification  among a  mille  the  victory lieues  objects:  symbol  of  of  sous  Atlantis  t h a n as  a point  of  reference. To novel  reduce  to  one  to overlook valuable  the  of the  relation  between  self-referential  space  and  textuality  place  would  be  in  however  i d e o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n o f V e r n e ' s work.  study  of  Macherey c l a i m s  Verne's  novel  L'lle  the  mysterieuse,  In  Pierre  that:  J u l e s V e r n e p a r t d'une i d e o l o g i e de l a science: i l en f a i t une m y t h o l o g i e de l a s c i e n c e ... par l e p a s s a g e d'un n i v e a u de la representation a celui de la f i g u r a t i o n , l ' i d e o l o g i e s u b i t une c o m p l e t e modification. (Macherey, The traced willed use  'ideology in  Vingt  ideological The  of  mille  subjugation  Macherey's  science', lieues  o f the  premise  into  the  into  and  sous  o u t l i n e s may  les  natural world.  'natural'  is  spaces  Nature  fictional  biological  structured  draws a t t e n t i o n t o i t s own  of  whose  term) c o n s i s t s however,  geographical  channelled  a  rendered  (here,  i n the  features  artificiality.  the  sea)  consists  of  a  Nature  discourse  versa.  reduced,  a  (to of  pattern. are which  In the p r o c e s s ,  vice  are  of  be  in  transference  (mythological)  and  also  Its modification  patterns  artificial  mers,  219)  The  the open  connected.  25 enclosed  within  passage the  from  the  artificial  ideology  framework  t o mythology  tamed,  'lives'  i n the  creative  a  of  The  amenable  tapped but  order,  i f not  o f f the  i t s environment  of  is a  'place'  stability  innocuous  in  and  i n which  ( f o r danger  Conrad's  indisputably violent. protect  work,  hostile:  'Place'  comfort  of  vigilance. tenure  of  overcoming  'place'  'place'  is  transferred  'place'  still  lurks  not  hostile. hand,  the  other  the  sea  is  'space'.  work,  enable  danger  (Nemo i s a f i g u r e , the  sudden  inimical,  a  The  on  security  hard  work  however, life  of  consolidates  within  the  Nature  is  mindlessly  the  and  and  leisure the  continued and  i n which  power  to  sustained  achievement  of  not a c h a r a c t e r ) o r t h e m o r a l  d i s a p p e a r a n c e of  novel suggests  self-sufficient that  denotes  the  the myth  individual  implications  action.  The the  the  artificial  without apparent r e f e r e n c e t o the p s y c h o l o g y of the  of  Nautilus  'space' i s r e n d e r e d ,  on  depend  In V e r n e ' s  of  The  i s a v a l u e t o be f o u g h t f o r , a s t r o n g h o l d  a g a i n s t marauding  in  resource:  i t s own  which  The  channelling  of bourgeois comfort  d e p t h s o f t h e open sea) but c e r t a i n l y In  creative  sea,  into  text.  demonstrated  f o r domestic use.  also  ideology  mythology  domesticity,  be  sea,  forces  mechanism. to  i t can  the  i s further  p r o c e s s of d o m e s t i c a t i o n ; Nature  once  of  Nemo,  like  as  however  that  i t seems.  Wait,  has  t h e Nautilus Verne's  Indeed,  been  judged  at  mythology  there  i s an  guilty  the  end  of  i s not  as  indication  of p u n i s h a b l e  26 behaviour,  that  there  may  after  predetermining  a c e r t a i n code  the  Narcissus,  this  has  called  ultimately validity mers,  inclusive  between  uncertain  rather  In V i n g t  however, he would which  9  i t i s clear,  moral  order  of science  a putative  Space and P l a c e :  i n Vingt  already  a f f i r m s the  i s e x c l u s i v e or  In Verne's  wider:  than  221): i t  whether P r o v i d e n c e  later  mille  however, t h a t t h e  s e r i o u s l y undermines which  work,  t e c h n o l o g i c a l advance and m o r a l  noticeably  on  (Jameson,  Jameson  l i e u e s sous l e s  o f an i d e o l o g y  power.  Frederic  mille  o f an i n f o r m i n g  validity  absolute  question  o f V e r n e ' s mythology;  possibility the  into  order  I n The N i g g e r o f  t o what  strategy'  of i t s provenance.  i t i s left  of conduct.  ethic pertains  'a c o n t a i n m e n t calls  a l l be an e x t e r n a l  claims  the  lieues  o f space  discrepancy  insufficiency sous  seem t o be q u e s t i o n i n g  conquest  i t s own  i s based.  the p e r s p e c t i v e of experience,  becomes  l e s mers,  the premises I n h i s book  Tuan  argues:  Human b e i n g s r e q u i r e b o t h space and p l a c e . Human l i v e s a r e i n a d i a l e c t i c a l movement between s h e l t e r and v e n t u r e , attachment and freedom. In open space one can become i n t e n s e l y aware o f p l a c e ; and i n t h e s o l i t u d e of s h e l t e r e d place the vastness of space beyond a c q u i r e s a haunting presence. (Tuan, SP, 54) The Tuan  dialectical describes  V e r n e ' s work. lieues  movement  between  i s a dominant I n The N i g g e r  shelter  feature  and v e n t u r e  of both  o f t h e Narcissus  sous l e s mers, t h e d i a l e c t i c  i s focused  which  Conrad's and  and V i n g t  mille  on t h e r e l a t i o n  27 between  ship  and  differentiated far  greater  'Place' work,  by  place  again  and  those  be  the  gives  i t definition  looms up ship  not  doors  like  is  work, on  merely but  are  presuppositions the  later  the  Narcissus  flung  of  Yet,  and  demonstrating  which  the  and  open an  axe,  'life'  and  mille  the  world  the  hand,  outside  within place  or  one's  inquires  aesthetic ramifications. 'surrounds'  torn  smashed,  the crew p l a n s  apart: the  sea  mutiny,  substance.  the  Cultural  i n more d e p t h i n  diversity,  l i e u e s sous  and  placelessness  up,  walls  place  The  Nigger  l e s mers have  of  more  similarity.  interdependence of  Verne q u e s t i o n  outside  reference  o f an  placed  broken  and  and  stability,  which m i r r o r s  is  to  in  i n Verne's of  absorption  which  for a l l their  Vingt  with  (mobilis i n mobile)  other  that  Place  as  placelessness.  as  a r e unmasked i n ways e x p l o r e d  works.  both Conrad  of  point  or  world  the  also  than a c o i n c i d e n t a l thematic In  a  that  a madman w i t h  robbed  in opposition  as  text,  c o n t r o l and  indefinite.  connecting  set  p s y c h o l o g i c a l , m o r a l and  becomes  the  are  object,  of  value  i m p l i c a t i o n i n Conrad's,  symptomatic  the  delights  Space  and  as  of  the  Conrad's  i t s own  and  i n b o t h works, though  containment of m o b i l i t y  environment,  into  are  seen  structure and  In  of  authority  a wide range o f c o n n o t a t i o n s :  as d o m e s t i c i t y ,  reach.  range  which  has  may  the  confinement  ship's  a t t r i b u t e d to place  clearly  within  The  p l a c e a r e undermined  depth  which v a l u e s undermined  sea.  is  the  validity  objectified  s p a c e and of and  an  place,  ideology  in  consequently  28 controlled  by  authority. although  In  i t is  a  self-privileging Conrad's  recognized  illusory;  i n Verne's,  celebrated  although  contradictory.  the  case, as  subject  this  authority  insubstantial  informing  i t i s recognized  or  ideology as  limited  agency is  and, of  of  upheld  perhaps, science  and,  is  perhaps,  29 2.  R e a d i n g s o f the c u l t u r a l l a n d s c a p e i n C o n r a d ' s H e a r t o f Darkness and V e r n e ' s Voyage au c e n t r e de l a t e r r e .  The  moral  (examined  in  topography  the  previous  The  Nigger  chapter)  to  landscape  i n which t h e b a l a n c e between man  disrupted  restructure  by  composition  the  the  evaluation and  in  the  culture.  Carl  Sauer's  'cultural'  l a n d s c a p e s sheds  name  of  an  distinction light  (and c r i t i q u e d )  Narcissus  i n Heart  of  a  his  determination to e x p l o i t ,  Nature  being undertaken  and  of  i s adapted  Darkness  is  the  of  cultural  environment  subjugate  imposed,  between  Heart  shaping  of  force  Darkness  of  'natural'  on the i m p e r i a l i s t i c  and  project  i n Conrad's n o v e l :  the  an  environment  on  identifies  alien,  superimposition one.  The  challenged,  of  alien  in  'civilization' as  an  a  authority however,  by  various  of  as  can  be  Western  which  landscape  claimed by  culture  imprints  creating,  new  and  dominant  The c u l t u r a l l a n d s c a p e ( c l a i m s S a u e r ) i s f a s h i o n e d f r o m a n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p e by a c u l t u r e group. C u l t u r e i s the a g e n t , the n a t u r a l a r e a i s t h e medium, t h e c u l t u r a l l a n d s c a p e i s the r e s u l t ... w i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a d i f f e r e n t - t h a t i s , an a l i e n - c u l t u r e , a r e j u v e n a t i o n of the cultural l a n d s c a p e s e t s i n , or a new l a n d s c a p e i s s u p e r i m p o s e d on remnants o f an o l d e r one. (Sauer, The  of  traced  its  puts  on  remnants  the  imposed  ' r e a d i n g s ' of  in  (European)  i t , in  Sauer  343)  of  turn,  i t , the an  older  culture the  is  cultural  30 landscape  which  environment  reflect  and  the  a  tension  perceptions,  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s of the c u l t u r a l Yi-Fu  Tuan has  transformation TP,  122-3) w h i c h ,  the  terms  nature  as  of  an  projected is  a  to chart  culture  conversion  s o u r c e o f raw  be  controlled,  dominant  class  to landscape'  (Tuan,  and  Tuan's  Rose and  class  t o be  the  it is  attempts  might  call  in this  attempt  environment  extracted,  (Lewontin  an a l i e n  i n the et  which,  force  interests  a l . , 45).  of  The  by L e w o n t i n e t a l . as t h e  to  that  Kamin, c o n c e i v e s o f n a t u r e  exploited  is identified  theses,  l a n d s c a p e and,  Implicit  towards  determined)  the a b o r t i v e  which  question.  and  of  correspondingly  culturally  of, Darkness  materials tamed  dominant  'axial  a r r a n g e d , t r a n s c e n d e n t a l ) cosmos aligned,  attitude  within  s c e n e r y , has  'readings'  into  to Lewontin,  'a  an  to convert Nature i n t o  alternative  and  the semantic convergence  Sauer's  i n Heart  deterministic  according  newly  (vertically  natural  inscriptions  tension  cosmos  towards  Combining  imposed  suppress  from  (horizontally  landscape. possible  tending  this  n a t u r e , l a n d s c a p e and  demoted N a t u r e as to  view  the  agent.  reinscribed  i n word  between  as to the  newly rapidly  d e v e l o p i n g bourgeois s o c i e t y of l a t e n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Europe whose c o n c e p t i o n o f s c i e n c e as a p a t h bolstered solicits  by  the d i s c o v e r i e s  a confirmation  to i n e v i t a b l e progress,  of the T e c h n o l o g i c a l  o f man's supremacy  over  Revolution, his  physical  environment. Marsh's  work  Man  and  Nature  (1864)  typifies  this  31 ideology: Man c a n n o t s u b s i s t and r i s e t o t h e full development of [ h i s ] higher p r o p e r t i e s , u n l e s s b r u t e and u n c o n s c i o u s nature be e f f e c t i v e l y c o m b a t t e d and, i n a g r e a t e r d e g r e e , v a n q u i s h e d by human a r t . (Marsh, The  connection  is  clear  geographical  determinism  imperialism,  informed  propelled of  by  a  by  imply  personal/cultural imperialistic  conversion  and  a  Nature  signified of  ('Nature's  authority  this  gives  a  natural  may  and  figuratively  the  'heart'  be  the  forcing  the  i t s way  interior,  as into  Kurtz's  superiority  The  connection  of  with  and  from  the  and  the  f o r an  1  intended the  environment  and  the  conquest. of  the  the the  The  Landscape,  transcendental  context  of  main  interior,  disembodied  these  a  rhetoric  figures  steamboat,  d i s c o u r s e o f the  Marlow  Heart  topography  s u b s t i t u t e s p r o p a g a n d i s t i c monologue f o r p e r s o n a l constitutes a self-privileging  of  and  both  reinscription  identified  of  activates  that  laws') w i t h i n  policies  landscapes  i t power;  justify  of  i t expression  ('cultural imperative').  imperative  of  the  form  indissociable  landscape  of  denotes  is  into  p r a c t i c e s which  sense,  The  lend  discursive this  inherent  which  conquest  extreme  between  which  which  physical  in  of  mission.  identity  resources  this  expansionist  relation  discourse  of  the  notions  'civilizing'  Darkness  technological  between  38)  of  literally and,  Voice,  from which  dialogue  and  other.  primary  cultural  32 agencies  i s crucial,  reader;  his interpretation  landscape us  f o r Marlow  o f (and n a v i g a t i o n  b r i n g s us i n t o c o n t a c t  to infer  other  i s the t e x t ' s  'readings'  with  which  through) the  the t e x t but a l s o  comment  As C o u r t i c e Rose has s u g g e s t e d ,  correlation  t h e p r a x i s o f geography  of  text  these act  interpretation.  terms on  form  as a c o d i f i e d  i t and decoded  landscape  i s both  he  decipher:  he a l t e r s  then, many  between own  Marlow's  possible  both  perceives.  of h i s personal that  those  what  readings;  the l i n e s  of  'imperialist least, very  discourse'  a partial ideology  of the landscape  turn.  what  as  Marlow's  Edward  i s i n effect  informs  criticize,  on  i t the  It i s clear, one o f to  read  producing  our  reading, has  impelled  called  a misreading,  and d e l i m i t s  a  not merely  readers  Said  text,  of the  i s only  thereby  who  process,  writer  preference.  reading,  As  in  is itself  imposing  r e a d i n g which, i n a t t e m p t i n g  which  correspondingly  4  reading  and  i t i s our task  by  i t .  as a d e c o d i n g  i s perceived,  o f Marlow's  itself  since  reader  r e v i s i o n s and m o d i f i c a t i o n s . spite  assess  by t h o s e  The p e r c i p i e n t d o e s  'reading'  isa  and t h e p r o c e d u r e  i s encoded  who  and c u l t u r a l  there  c a n be c o n s i d e r e d  an e n c o d i n g  becomes  landscapes  our  by  w r i t t e n and r e a d ;  geographer  weight  landscape  t e x t which  o f w r i t i n g , as much  the  in  A  3  allows  on and u l t i m a t e l y  undermine h i s own. between  inscribed  an  or, at  to c r i t i c i z e the i t , allows  r e v i s e and r e i n t e r p r e t  us t o  the text i n  5  Evidence  i s not hard  to find  of the ' p a r t i a l i t y '  ( i n both  33 senses)  o f Marlow's  negative  effects  reading.  At  the Outer  o f a c o n v e r s i o n from  Nature  Station  the  t o landscape are  delineated: At l a s t we opened a r e a c h . A rocky c l i f f a p p e a r e d , mounds o f t u r n e d - u p e a r t h by t h e s h o r e , houses on a h i l l , o t h e r s w i t h i r o n r o o f s , amongst a waste o f e x c a v a t i o n s , o r hanging to the d e c l i v i t y . A continuous n o i s e o f t h e r a p i d s above hovered over t h i s scene o f i n h a b i t e d d e v a s t a t i o n . (Conrad, Nature  has been  'carcass' back  of  with  transformed  'an u n d e r s i z e d  i t s wheels  anthropomorphism, for  nature.  a wasteland  railway-truck lying  i n the a i r ' s i g n i f i e s  a substitution  Similarly,  s t a t i o n , Marlow  into  learning  o f decadent  HOD,  i n which the there a  (techno-)culture  t h e immediate e n v i r o n s o f t h e  encounters:  mapping o u t o f t h e l a n d s u g g e s t s  which,  although  uninhabited,  'owner'.  Nature's  emptiness  of the land  critique expansion.  of  on i t s  perverse  paths, paths everywhere; a stamped-in network o f p a t h s s p r e a d i n g over t h e empty l a n d , through long g r a s s , through burnt grass, through t h i c k e t s , down a n d up c h i l l y r a v i n e s , up and down s t o n y h i l l s ablaze w i t h h a t ; and a s o l i t u d e , a s o l i t u d e , nobody, not a h u t . (Conrad, The  63)  laws  bears  fitting  the wastefulness  70)  an a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f s p a c e  a r e subsumed is a  HOD,  t h e mark  o f an  i n property symbol  law:  o f and  of indiscriminate  absent the  implicit imperial  34 A  closer  suggests,  however,  imperialist within of  look  Marlow's  that  attitude  what  reading  appears  towards  nature  t h e r h e t o r i c o f an i m p e r i a l i s t  this  r h e t o r i c i s a suppression  account  course,  i t s authority. i s Marlow's  which  render  native  notes  'unreadable'.  are  c o n s t i t u t e d as  his  monologism.  rarely speaking  from  discourse  of  rites  'other':  like  a failure which  the  Eurocentrism  might  similarity lost  suspending h i s ( s e l f ) c r i t i c a l  of  i s t h e sudden s h i f t  between  on Marlow  faculties.  from a c r i t i c a l  the h i l l  at  reinforces  the Outer  tale i s  single  t h e t e x t t h a t Marlow  to a  of  languages  t h a t Marlow's  his is a  to  harlequin's  Marlow's  i s not t o t a l l y  an  languages  non-European)  The  throughout  and  the  (i.e.,  Kurtz's,  the darkness.  descending  of  Symptomatic  expression  to understand  extent,  focus:  a critique  discourse.  'unspeakable'  Foreign  and Marlow's  landscape  is actually inscribed  I t i s worth remembering  i t i s obvious  this  t o be  the  The most o b v i o u s example o f t h i s ,  inability  interrupted;  of  o f , or a t l e a s t  f o r , a l t e r n a t i v e modes  challenge  but  at  voice Kurtz's  himself,  i s , t o some One  example  non-critical  Station,  Marlow  discovers:  a v a s t a r t i f i c i a l h o l e somebody had been d i g g i n g on t h e s l o p e , t h e p u r p o s e o f w h i c h I found i t impossible to d i v i n e . It wasn't a q u a r r y or a s a n d p i t , anyhow. It was j u s t a h o l e . ( C o n r a d , HOD, 'Just  a  hole':  yet  i t i s these  holes,  cracks  and  65)  gullies  35 which, of  interspersed  Darkness,  suggest  (or  explained)  and  absences  undermine  throughout  landscape  of Heart  n o t o n l y t h a t what i s not b e i n g d e s c r i b e d  i s worthy  of consideration,  i n the text  or  the t e x t u a l  invalidate  may  be  but that  filled  by  the dominant  t h e gaps  readings  discourse  which  of the  narrative. Two  further  examples u n d e r s c o r e  the notion of a  r e a d i n g ' o f t h e l a n d s c a p e which e i t h e r actively  suppresses  up-river,  other  sketches out t h i s  fails  'readings'.  to account  In t h e f i r s t ,  impressionistic  seems on f i r s t  itself  o f f against  barriers be  r e a d i n g as i f Nature  to protect  i t spercipient a mysterious  less  the product  strategies: that  he does  luckily, really  of natural  i t i s not so much t h a t not wish  luckily',  to see.  c l a i m s Marlow  a s ' h i d d e n ' a s he c l a i m s ?  building  interior.  d e c e i v e d by Marlow's d e s c r i p t i o n ;  are  has d e c i d e d  by  f o r or Marlow,  landscape:  The h i g h s t i l l n e s s o f p r i m e v a l f o r e s t was b e f o r e my e y e s ; t h e r e were s h i n y p a t c h e s on t h e b l a c k c r e e k . The moon had s p r e a d over e v e r y t h i n g a t h i n layer of s i l v e r o v e r t h e rank g r a s s , o v e r t h e mud, upon the w a l l o f matted v e g e t a t i o n s t a n d i n g h i g h e r t h a n t h e w a l l o f a temple, o v e r t h e g r e a t r i v e r I would s e e t h r o u g h a sombre gap g l i t t e r i n g , g l i t t e r i n g , a s i t f l o w e d b r o a d l y by w i t h o u t a murmur .... (Conrad, It  'partial  HOD,  81)  to close  w a l l s and  Yet we s h o u l d n o t  on r e f l e c t i o n ,  the walls  laws  narrative  than  Marlow does  of  not s e e , but  'The i n n e r t r u t h (Conrad, After  HOD,  all,  i s hidden-  93) b u t i s  Conrad  i t  i n f o r m s us  36 in  his  preface  pushed a l i t t l e of  the  (and  case'  of  narrative hidden the  Marlow  literary  great  HOD,  65).  not  on the  of  merely  cause  of  For  the  text.  a  a  parodic  He  case  point:  high  major  of  in  description  framing  of  of  others  of  the  the  frame  i s flawed,  gap  suggests  in  His  immobilization  obfuscation  of  the  the  forest  eschews  the  textual of  the  the  are  not  truths  but is  the  a part  proceedings'  station  the  is a  above,  the  another  further  absence  the  an  commentary  by  of a  the  frame.  geographical  which on  accurate  sense,  outside  environment,  and  landscape  s e n s e , an  existence  he  manager,  limiting  quoted  in  of  concentrating  willfully of  as  (Conrad,  n a r r a t i v e , however,  the  at  that  of course;  'I a l s o was  what l i e s  e n v i r o n m e n t , on  blur  participant in  i s , i n one but,  the  rhetorical  which  c o m p l i c i t y by  reading  obscuring  a  a  just  passage  however;  turn  but  of  of d a r k n e s s '  these  (Kurtz,  environment,  a l a n d s c a p e and  the  truths  of  above a l l , by  d e s c r i p t i o n which  The  Marlow's  part  the  of  use  generally,  point: and  experience  the a c t u a l f a c t s  unaware o f t h i s ,  a t one  narration.  'impenetrability'  incomplete  of  i s not  these  critique  his  and  'heart  One  7  critic  h a r l e q u i n , e t c . ) and,  in  a  is  Marlow's  concealing  realms of  ...  beyond  xxxv).  a t t e n t i o n from h i s own  obscuring  his  by  the  mission.  d i v e r t s our  little)  HOD,  admits s e l f - i r o n i c a l l y  the  Darkness  impressionism,  nebulous  surface  imperialist he  only very  perspective  is  of  adjective, specifically,  i n the  very  'Heart  (Conrad,  indeterminate devices  that  implies one  other,  hand,  are  that and  tactics  37 o f an u n w a r r a n t e d n a r r a t i v e p r e s e r v a t i o n . Marlow's i s more  d e s c r i p t i o n of Kurtz's  hut a t t h e Inner  Station  specific: A l o n g d e c a y i n g b u i l d i n g on t h e summit was h a l f b u r i e d i n high g r a s s ; the l a r g e h o l e s i n t h e p e a k e d r o o f gaped b l a c k from a f a r ... t h e r e was no e n c l o s u r e or f e n c e o f any k i n d ; but t h e r e had been one a p p a r e n t l y . ( C o n r a d , HOD,  Here  the  gaps  enclosures/fences to  concentrate,  defining back  the  increasingly  and  the  what  of  the  blurred  had  landscape  are  t h e need  intention:  narrative,  outlines  of  s u c h a way  that  provides  this  mechanism  bastion  conversion  of  Nature  authority  of  a  o f an of  imperialist  the  with  of  'intentional'  beyond which t h e n a r r a t i v e r e f u s e s t o  reading  last  landscape  into  of  does  not  Our  the are  linguistic  construct i n negative a  final  venture. assumes  signified  revision  relocate  on  narration  defence,  landscape  transcendental rhetoric.  The  'absence'  o f Marlow's  frontier  posture  of  together  i t reveals)  absolute  (brought  i t s p r e s e n t a t i o n becomes ( d e s p i t e t h e a  the  narrative.  factors  The  there:  reinstated the  chooses  i t s presentation,  for a controlling  landscape  protective  been  encroachment  i n d i c a t i v e of the i n s e c u r i t y  imply  the  once  memory) by  paradoxical  of  and  b r o k e n down; t h e n a r r a t o r  on  recesses  'presence'  nonetheless  of  and  larger,  been  however,  acknowledgement the  have  contours  from  loom  121)  this  of  in  the the  Marlow's  signified,  38 however,  but  signifiers from an  from  one  included  Marlow  chooses  transference  similar  the  rather  to  to  broadly  the  nothing:  i t registers  - a  white  further  ceased  patch  turn  out  merely  t o be  cannot  a  a  fully  what  a I  elicit  t h e manual.  product  narrowly  f o r him,  space  of  cultural  propagandis t i c ,  intent.  t o be a b l a n k  written  9  For  Marlow,  map  reveals  the  from  blank  space  to  space  (Conrad, HOD,  mystery  over.  52).  to  darkness.  of d e l i g h t f u l  t o dream g l o r i o u s l y  in Russian,  understand.  switched;  the  reading process renewed  Significantly,  the  of  which  It  had  Similarly,  the  language i s not  (verbal  broken:  code) it is  the-map, a c t s as a metaphor  involves  encoding  (harlequin:  'codes').  a  code  harlequin turns  i n Towson's manual  switcher/juggler  The  the manual, l i k e  explanation,  notes  as  blank  boy  more  effects  i s a graphic representation  from  for a  reading  t o Towson's n a v i g a t i o n manual, i n d e c i p h e r a b l e t o Marlow,  Marlow  for  and  a t r a n s f e r e n c e not but  specifically,  In d e c i p h e r i n g what  own  communicative,  become a p l a c e o f d a r k n e s s ' notes  the map  register  space  between  types of c i p h e r which  r o u t e a l r e a d y s e t out  (charted)  ' [ A f r i c a ] had  o r , more  illustrate  landscape:  retracing  known  relationship  our  o f Darkness  i t tends a  To  'readings':  i n Heart  than  decipher,  t o two  cultural  imposition,  the  to another,  ciphers.  refer  map  code  not  kinds of  The  switches  code t o an e x c l u d e d one.  of  mean, I w i l l  of  rather  exchange  rather out man  to  than have  o f many  rather  than  decoding. written  the  identities,  39 There landscape,  i s a sense,  t o o , i n which  paradigmatic  o f our r e a d i n g s  mis-readings Marlow's of  i n that,  despite  we a r e caught  readings  of the t e x t ,  our a b i l i t y  s e l f - d e c e p t i o n , to isolate  h i s narrative,  our own  of the  are also  t o see  and e x p l o r e  through  the absences  i n t h e same web  of l i e s ,  the  same d e s i r e t o p r o t e c t t h e n o t i o n s o f l i n g u i s t i c s o l i d a r i t y which  ( o u r ) Western  it:  'Marlow  c i v i l i z a t i o n i s based.  e n j o i n f s ] us  to defend  As I a n Watt  ourselves  on  puts  in  full  knowledge o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s t o which we have been b l i n d e d by the  illusions  conversion signified defend  o f c i v i l i z a t i o n (Watt,  from  Nature  to c u l t u r a l ourselves  253).  to landscape,  signifier, but  to  we  defend  the  on w h i c h  Western  'civilization'  enshrined  i n i t , depends.  would  of  Darkness  de  l a terre.  nor is  like  to develop  with  J u l e s Verne's  It i s striking  Lidenbrock precisely  safe  their  failure  r e t u r n and e n a b l e s  their  transcendental not o n l y t o  very  notion  d i s c o u r s e , and  the idea of  10  t h e argument early  of  by c o m p a r i n g  novel  Voyage  Heart  au c e n t r e  t h a t n e i t h e r Marlow i n t h e former reach  the ' c e n t r e ' :  t o do so w h i c h  indeed, i t  guarantees  their  t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n (and r e p r o d u c t i o n ) o f  narrative. The  (both  journey  novels  evolutionary holds  i n the l a t t e r  from  are invited  signification  I  In w i t n e s s i n g t h e  t o the centre implicitly  i s downward, and a l s o  comment  on  the  backward  contemporary  t h e o r i e s o f Darwin and S p e n c e r ) but t h e p a r a d o x  f o r both  11  Conrad  and Verne  that  a journey  which  aspires  40 t o t h e s o u r c e never  l e a v e s the s u r f a c e .  Marlow's n a r r a t i o n c o n c e a l s r a t h e r look  towards a m y s t e r i o u s  of  (disguising)  de  l a terre,  kind  of  the  of  incidents  Lidenbrock,  like  or  which,  articulate,  categorize  the  the  address the  rock-forms through  is a  of  he the  the  lead  au  of  of  the  dry  human  geological  'partial' i s able volcano  the  identify  and  unable  who  to  passages.  already-known,  academician; s k e l e t o n he  a  typical  discovers in  bone-beds:  Lidenbrock,  incontestible is  next. of  but  the  a  strata  reader to  any  through  J ' a i l ' h o n n e u r de vous p r e s e n t e r un homme de l ' e p o q u e quaternaire. De grands s a v a n t s ont n i e son e x i s t e n c e , d ' a u t r e s non moins g r a n d s l ' o n t a f f i r m e e ... vous pouvez l e v o i r , l e t o u c h e r . Ce n ' e s t pas un s q u e l e t t e , c ' e s t un c o r p s intact, conserve dans un but uniquement anthropologique! ( V e r n e , VCT, For  to  s u r f a c e t o the  h o m i l i e s on  the  centre  him  but  to  outlines  i t s l a b y r i n t h i n e underground  speeches  i s h i s eulogy  not  the  from one  erudite,  e x p l a n a t i o n s are  practised  like  Darkness,  In Voyage  understanding  Marlow,  landscape:  Lidenbrock's  blurring  n a r r a t o r ' s j o u r n e y does knowledge  of  r e v e a l s by c l a i m i n g  centre whilst  t h r o u g h w h i c h he moves, p r o c e e d  navigate a path  than  i t s s u r f a c e appearance.  'deeper'  succession  In H e a r t  speech  knowledge;  h i s o p p o s i t e , the i s chiefly  is  the  demonstration  i t is significant,  inarticulate,  of  seemingly  however,  increasingly  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r g u i d i n g the  310-311)  party  that i t  silent  Hans,  towards  the  41 centre to but  of the earth.  negotiate also  plain  environment  because  he does  i t ) through  Darkness, language be  his  because  himself  that,  misdirects, distorts,  against  the twin  passage, Axel  threats  he i s a b l e  i t i s familiar  not distance  i s the suggestion  misleads,  In a t e l l i n g  f o r words:  the a c t o f v e r b a l i z a t i o n .  there  defended  Hans has no need  from  t o him, i t  As i n H e a r t o f although  i t must  of silence  verbal  nonetheless and madness.  explains:  Son [Hans'] mutisme s ' a u g m e n t a i t de j o u r en jour. J e c r o i s meme q u i ' i l nous gagnait. L e s o b j e t s e x t e r i e u r s o n t une action reelle sur l e cerveau. Qui s ' e n f e r m e e n t r e q u a t r e murs f i n i t p a r perdre l a f a c u l t e d'associer l e s idees et l e s mots. Que de p r i s o n n i e r s c e l l u l a i r e s devenus i m b e c i l e s , sinon fous, par l e d e f a u t d ' e x e r c i c e des f a c u l t e s p e n s a n t e s ! (Verne, VCT, Speech,  f o rAxel  and Lidenbrock,  thought;  i t s disuse  madness.  As Hans  gradually which,  into  antedi1uvien,  Hans' power  the logic  effrayant  VCT,  'regression  and p o t e n t i a l  o f speech,  he c h a n g e s  transformation  est celui  amounts t o d ' u n homme  des ichtyosaures  et des  284).  ' i s symptomatic  language  208)  of reasoned  of the n a r r a t i v e ,  contemporain  (Verne,  of verbal  experience  to disorientation  the faculty  ' s o n masque  megatheriums'  i s the tool  P r i m i t i v e ( p r e - v e r b a l ) Man i n a  following  debasement:  leads  loses  (ex-  to c l a s s i f y ,  of the decreasing  explain  as the p h y s i c a l / t e x t u a l journey  and o r g a n i z e  proceeds  towards  42 its  intangible/non-verbal  reach,  Lidenbrock  subterranean flora plus  forest  'etait  a  ingenieux  The  of  gives  conceived,  the  la  science  dimly  in a  moi '  empirical  evidence  sense,  result  the  manuscript into  (Verne, to  The  unreliability  and  writing)  of  unfound c e n t r e . Saknussemm's able  'meaning'. journey (the  to In  which  Inner  Lidenbrock In  and  Heart  of  the  route  Heart  of him  in  more  but  i s , in  and  Darkness, to  the  not  further: nor  Marlow  why  the  geographical  both motif  able  to  they  are  resolve  its  pursues of  a  similar  navigation  It  is  worth  experiences  of  both  ' i n c o n c l u s i v e ' (HOD,  Darkness,  to  'centre'.  the  in  geographical  furthest point  to  there.  h i s company a r e  objective  runic  i t s followers  (manifested  no  from  another  Saknussemm's  the  in  la terre  switch  leading  f a r , but  their  detail  Marlow a r e of  so  by  of  subject  l a v i e de The  language  Lidenbrock  attain  takes  verbal  previously  synchronically  of  'toute  of  317).  succession  conjecture  i s complemented  Station)  considering  a  a  les  VCT,  had  o f the maze, t h e n a b a n d o n i n g them  speech  neither  to  i s ultimately indecipherable,  heart  follow  which  261).  subjective  in  intermixture  (Verne,  of a f a i l u r e o f w r i t i n g :  the  the  VCT,  they  classificateurs  phenomenology  se  level  themselves  diachronic  p u t s i t i n h i s dream,  en  des  objects  w h i c h , as A x e l resume  find  increasingly  intuited  deepest  terrestre'  of  securely way  the  v a r i e t y and  raison  l a botanique a  At  company  i n which  i t s findings  landscapes,  his  confondre de  procedure  listed  and  centre.  51).  return  is  consonant  43 with  narrative preservation;  returns  from  told.  his  Likewise  return  of  tale,  a  the  group  'centre',  the  branded  a  culture  which,  value  the  descent  past; of  contemporary a  to  scientific verbal  the  in  reveal  his  wish  to  an  and  the  (expressed,  rationalism).  Thus, a l t h o u g h ,  narrative  questionable, corroboration  there of  discourse i s , by  both.  In  the  end  of  the  Conrad's  as  being  barbaric Heart  Darwin's  man.  novel,  at  invalid  or  both  case,  in  the  the of  level,  level, at  of but  discourse  a general  of The  dominant  i n the  of  The  process  at a s p e c i f i c  seems  a  existing  (reproduction  i n Conrad's  i n Verne's,  be  i t s implication the  the of  the  by  like  towards  from  the  i s to  to h i s  bestiality  ensures  of  origins.  la terre,  reverses  essential  safe  reached  its  of  be  narrative.  i s suggested  recoil  origin  and,  of  present  perpetuation  imperialism  the  suppressed  attraction  l a n g u a g e seems u n r e l i a b l e and,  dominant  hear  c e n t r e de  protagonists  can  have  work  novel  final  the  tale  telling  the  fact  Marlow  terre,  preservation  Verne's  a  the  ideology of  la  for  from h i s c i v i l i z e d  to  the  de  no  that  f o r h i s achievement  have  not  t h e s i s but  narrative  discourse  to  demonstrates  r e t u r n of  threatened  pays  on  of  may  s e n s e , Voyage au  return  civilization  the  he  and  intent  of man  in this  that  centre  possibility  price  centre  Darkness,  safe  of  heretic,  at  otherwise  i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r the  s t r u c t u r e s , does  'truth'  au  i t i s suggested,  but  is essential  because  i n Voyage  condition  Saknussemm,  the  journey,  it  the  least  novels, figure  a of  44 Kurtz's  Intended  ('intention') given  of  registers  imperialism;  a  continuation  i n Verne's,  1 4  t o L i d e n b r o c k , whose i n f l u e n c e has  les  societes  scientifiques,  des  cinq  and  v a l i d a t i o n of  p a r t i e s du  measured  the  against  'antagonist'  monde'  exclusion  The one  and  reading  such  r e a d i n g ) and  as  a  In form  (Lidenbrock's or  presentation. control a  writing  or  even  Focus  discrepancy  our  in  between  the  own  point  is  Conrad's  narrative  impressionistic hide wish  readings  from what he to  claims  disclose,  perceptions  of  projected  use  but  of  cannot  impressionism  of  might Western  readings aspects  of  the  isolate  the  of  from the  narrative  strategies gaps  opened  self-evident facts uncertain  landscape see,  another question  but  the  of up  (the  suppositions  in  A case one  enable  Marlow  the  authority  in  sense,  a c t u a l l y does  sense  is  (Marlow's  a privileging  to  the  clarification  onto a landscape).  the  in  which  is  founded.  impressionism:  of he  on  evasion  shifted  supposedly  retention  I have a r g u e d ,  or  as  ' o b j e c t i v e ' m a r k e r s o f a l a n d s c a p e ) and (the s u b j e c t i v e claims  The  attempted  contradictory, i s therefore  domination  order  obfuscation  reading),  'toutes  discoveries  landscape,  recognizing of  to  is  mineralogiques  p r a c t i c e s are  of  word  elimination  whose  attempted o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n  paradoxical,  by  and  practice.  (deciphering)  subject  i t s signifying  et  will  (Marlow/Lidenbrock)  e x p l o d e the myths o f s a n i t y , r e a s o n and civilization  last  372).  and/or  (Kurtz/Saknussemm)  the  spread  geographiques  'protagonist'  the  the  now  (Verne, VCT,  of  to not  shifting of  even  45 Marlow's most e x p l i c i t of  our  eyes  volition.  may  first  is  no  no  au  c e n t r e de  than  the  the  'evidence'  exercise  of  l a terre,  vision  does  not  our  appear  t o be c o n s c i o u s l y or u n c o n s c i o u s l y o b s t r u c t e d .  i m p r e s s i o n i s m or  landscape Vingt  more  that  1 5  In Voyage at  be  readings to suggest  blurred  is strictly  mille  lieues  perspective  defined,  sous  i n Verne's  hard-edged,  l e s mers,  There novel:  angular.  geography  As  conforms  to  in the  r u l e s o f geometry: Nous m a r c h i o n s sur ces roches pesantes d'un gris fonce que le r e f r o i d i s s e m e n t a v a i t m o u l e e s en p r i s m e s a base hexagone. Au l o i n se v o y a i e n t un g r a n d nombre de cones a p l a t i s , q u i f u r e n t j a d i s a u t a n t de bouches i g n i v o m e s . ( V e r n e , VCT, The  landscape  cosmogony  r e a d s as a h i s t o r y  i s reduced  composition.  to  nature  Marlow's  Lidenbrock's  'explicative'  however,  an  to  'mystery' of  imperialist  the  disguise  t h e t r u e p l a c e o f man  In Nature  both  both  conquest: from  by  within  the  former  the m a t e r i a l  latter  Nature  be  invokes  the  and back,  invokes  debauchery  'science'  intelligence  the e v o l u t i o n a r y  and  to to  process  him above and a g a i n s t i t .  Conrad's  constitutes  historically-determined  traced  the  by p l a c i n g  of  timeless  r e a d i n g can  justify  of Nature  conquest  as  reading  attention  culture;  as  Nature  'impressionistic'  i d e o l o g y of  to d i s t r a c t  o f form:  129-30)  a  and  Verne's  formative act  novels, of  the  the  conquest  of  intelligence  to  46 which  the  'shaping  cultural/textual force'  exploring and  the  (Sauer,  phenomenon o f  343):  p a t t e r n s and  linguistic  formation.  form a r e u s e f u l  both  novels  processes Julia  landscape  of  lends i t s  narrate  journeys  biological,  cultural  K r i s t e v a ' s g e n e r a l remarks  here:  The h i s t o r y o f human f o r m i n g i s r o o t e d i n l a n g u a g e as a system of p r o p o s i t i o n s . No f o r m i n g can t r a n s c e n d i t s o r i g i n - m e a n i n g , a s i t i s p o s i t e d by t h a t predication p e c u l i a r t o language. I f the m e t a p h y s i c a l s o l i d a r i t y of 'meaning', ' o r i g i n ' and ' f o r m i n g ' i s t h u s p o s i t e d as t h e l i m i t o f any attempt a t c l a r i f i c a t i o n ... i t s t i l l seems c l e a r that any s p a t i a l representation provided for within a u n i v e r s a l language i s n e c e s s a r i l y s u b j e c t to t e l e o l o g i c a l reason. (Kristeva, Yet, of  in their  Darkness  vindicate dominant  e n q u i r i e s i n t o form and nor  the  Voyage  au  centre  'metaphysical  discourse  ( i n each  de  la terre  solidarity' case  problem  way  Frontier  on  Darkness  is a  stands  upon  which  Heart  frontier  a  of  attained  that  (Kurtz)  and,  language  which has  that  claims  c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , the  as  a  Harris,  i n the loss  t o the a b s u r d  a  their  form  essay  of  'The  Heart in  Conrad  of  of  that ' i t pointed  (Harris,  loss  of  to  i n t r o d u c e the  stands'.  capacity h i m s e l f  able  which  Harris'  c a p a c i t y to which  threshold results  been t a k e n  on  L e t me  to Wilson  Darkness  novel,  t h r e s h o l d of  t h o u g h he never Overstepping  referring  seem  manifested  language) i s p r e d i c a t e d . by  280-1)  formation, n e i t h e r Heart  'propositional' another  on  135).  'reason'  propositional  c o n c l u s i o n s of i t s  47  rational  premises  threshold form  at  awareness  frontiers  that  form/formation  and  Verne's  the  one  the  they  of  as  context  centre  or  access  the  of  that  potential  a  both  hand,  the  to  can  i n Voyage  implication actually or  at  plane  It  must  remain  figural  because  were  identify  itself  i t would  destroy  the  back  to  i t .  access:  a  be  sanctioned  'leap of  vision  centre a  de  denies  the  la  reader  transfers i t s which  is heretical,  i t to  in  'mysterious'  discourse  centre  This  is  taboo:  m a t e r i a l i z e or  'fiction-effect'  of  the  1 7  avoidance the  description surface  of  (non-  by  au  least  of  from  The  The  which  implied  d e n i a l of  only  the  'heart'  be  from  the c e n t r e  excluded  narrative.  narrative.  a  a  may  narrative (Kurtz's  significance  significance  they  of  illusion.  Conrad's  excluded  dream  on  non-propositional  which  centre/origin,  the  see  a means and  fictional  the  combats  a saving  to  of  actually  Axel's  other  origin  to  context  i t were,  of  Darkness,  t e r r e ) ; on  o n l y be  of  preservation  'meaning-origin'  i t i s p o s s i b l e to reach 1  Heart  are  motif  which  Hence, a l t h o u g h  provides  imagination , the  attempted  of  figures  discourse.  text,  within  as  The  1 6  formlessness  solidarity  'centre'  hand,  an  i s p r e d i c a t e d may  paradoxically on  the  of  i s possible in this  explicative) in  manifesto).  indicates therefore the  It  (Kurtz's  of  surface and  level,  a  textual  structures  inscription yet  'centre'  the  of  of  the  landscape  strategies  turns  our  attention  narrative. take  adopted  place  at  The this  (devastation,  48  obfuscation, principle but  other  of  his  reading  for  we  are  and  ourselves,  perhaps, e q u a l l y f i c t i v e , In looking of  the  kind  Voyage  au  stratified  reveals  natural  significance. circularity historical  and  Axel's  response  as  i n the itself  narrative  Michel which  basis:  i t s interest  Butor  (the (the  evidence)  why  two  underpins  the  of  1 8  also  into  implies  the  reading  cracks of  this  e l a b o r a t i o n of transformation i s t o be  a of  trusted:  blinding  share  an  i m p l i c a t i o n s of to  us  to  locating  suggested Verne's  retracing 'total',  e x p l o r a t i o n , with  disparate  interest  in  a reading  of  surfaces, perpetuating  i n nineteenth-century in  the  make i s ,  w r i t e r s as  should  without has  i t s a s p i r a t i o n s towards geographical  probing  tale  are  reading.  J u l e s Verne  of  we  reading  'critical'  'text'  possibilities,  readers without  and  restricts  just  concealment  reading  commentary  considered  which  circularity  A  t o be  Conrad  any  landscape,  scientific  i n t a n g i b l e c e n t r e and  landscape  with  our  remains  Joseph  with  into  attempted  l a terre,  s t r a t e g i e s of d i r e c t e d It  the  the  Lidenbrock's  they manipulate  as  de  underlying  not  equally (mis)directed.  neither  phenomena  as  to consider other  narrative.  that  day-dream) nor  their  at  his  although  centre  critically  an  Marlow's l a n d s c a p e s  of  asked  betray  landscape  reading of t e x t .  readings;  read  etc.)  o f c o n t r o l which p o s i t s  the d i r e c t e d  products  to  classification,  of  that  work  a the  has  centre  of  poetics  of  a  threefold  evolutionary origins;  all-embracing  a  theory,  positivism, knowledge;  i t s compulsion  towards  49 manifestations etc. by  (Butor, these  of  the  130-1).  the  fact  This  that,  for  three  as  both  a  principles centre  to  de  at  underlying also  be  development  gives 'qui  rise en  of  the  to  an  human  of  the  and,  knowledge  empirique et  of  of  the  ses  its  be  et  qui  propres  concurrently,  an  'qui  a  pouvait  l u i p r e s c r i r e ses  made  out  roman  Voyage  au  Heart  of  can  technology,  the  deterministic intellectual according  f i g u r e of of  en  contenus  fois  formes'  Man,  human  pouvait  whose  space,  the  of  a n a l y s i s of la  the  Exploration  however,  nature  of  the  and  dominant  the  least  geographical  new  and  century,  the  uses  conquest  The  1 9  formes  dans  of  doctrine  i n view  c a s e may  of  imperialism,  emergence o f  les  of  the  hey-day o f ,  principle,  sciences.  won  practices.  Age  analysis  manifestee 330)  i n the  discoveries  i s the  critique  positivist  explicitly  the  of  influenced  p r a c t i t i o n e r s of  nineteenth  determinait  etre  savoir  human  Foucault,  (Foucault, of  i n the  policies  the  a  particularly  its fictional  tail-end  peaks,  celebration  has  a strong  as  which  underpin  the  with  geography  Verne  genre  traced  of  Michel  and  geographical  expansionist chains  areas,  l a terre i s written  Darkness  poles,  evolutionism.  I have s u g g e s t e d ,  d'aventure,  its  i t s reaction against  i s unfortunate,  Conrad  in  (together  i t s skeptical inquiry into  attention.  lui  phenomena  exploration  commercial b a c k l a s h ) ,  Of  centres,  Conrad's work i s a l s o c l e a r l y  historical  geographical  and  superlative:  etre  to  which  knowledge meme  temps  empiriques' the  history  donnee  (Foucault,  au  330).  50  The of  geography  Darkness  implying history  mediates  that  Nature  o f human  'unconscious' the  promotion evidence  between  landscape,  first,  t h e forms  two t e n d e n c i e s  by  of a  non-verbal,  that,  i n converting  has a p p l i e d h i s knowledge  (a s c i e n c e  Heart  (a phenomenology o f  of a c u l t u r e which  of i t s v a l i d i t y of these  knowledge  by i n d i c a t i n g  man  and  two a n a l y s e s :  by f u n c t i o n i n g a s a  o f human  or expansion  existence  these  de l a t e r r e  pre-dates/pre-determines  and, second,  into  au c e n t r e  knowledge  origin  subject)  Nature  o f Voyage  seeks  empirical  of the o b j e c t ) . i n t h e work  to the  The c o -  o f C o n r a d and  V e r n e , which a l s o c o n s t i t u t e s a t e n s i o n between them, l e a d s t o a questioning which also to  not o n l y o f the v a l i d i t y  l a y claim  t o be d i s c o v e r e d  o f the existence  which s u c h  o f an o r i g i n  ' t r u t h s ' might  refer  or uncovered or c e n t r e for their  T h i s c r i t i q u e may be a l t e r n a t i v e l y which  pertain  first, onto  t h e n a t u r a l environment; value  the c u l t u r a l  reduction  of  'archaeology',  of  significance  verification.  into  areas  landscape:  of the c u l t u r a l  agent  i n the t r a n s f e r o f the signified  signifier;  i n the e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l  a  and t h i r d ,  'nature'  or c u l t u r a l  landscape  Darkness  ' t r u t h s ' but  of the transcendental  Such c o n v e r s i o n s cultural  second,  of  procedures  located i n three  of Nature  i n the p h y s i c a l superimposition  linguistic of  to the conversion  of e m p i r i c a l  of  history,  implicit  human  to the l e v e l  knowledge  to  an  o f human knowledge.  i n our r e v i s e d r e a d i n g s  i n Voyage au c e n t r e  de l a t e r r e  r e v e a l an e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l i n s e c u r i t y  of the  and  Heart  at the basis  51 of  e a c h work which  preserve  and  object  redefined the  self  and  as a s p l i t  other  In  self.  this  landscape  false,  which,  construed  revision the  or  at  tested  barbarity underlying  unconscious,  the  cultural of  full  the  non-verbal  unconscious measure, the man.  claim that  development  To  of  nature  vanquished  possibility read  as  of  a privileging  novels least  the  of  less  primary  enables tenuous,  for cracks  veneer  chaos  'man  of  is  the  than  a  and  us  readings to  be by  effectively  identify  crevices, The  the  subsist  priorities  human a r t ' (Marsh,  landscape  exists  not  and  and  38)  by  of  of  an  consciously  rise  unless and,  reveals  suggestion  civilization  combatted  of  textual/cultural  underlying  cannot  [ h i s ] higher  t h a t the b r u t e the  the  the d i s c o u r s e  o r d e r e d p a t t e r n s o f a language o f p r o p o s i t i o n c o u n t e r s contemporary  at  (perceiving/'control-  t h e shaky f o u n d a t i o n s on which i t i s b u i l t . a  and,  rationalization  between  is  2 0  in  construction  a  of  i s t r a c e d back t o n o t h i n g  undertaken a  exclusivity  from  which  questionable  w i t h i n the s u b j e c t i t s e l f :  our  as  values  1  context,  'landscape'  of  best,  the  split  which might be  of  at  d e s i r e to p r o t e c t ,  (perceived/ controlled') object  (Kurtz, Lidenbrock)  duplicity  as,  radical  i n the  system  proceeding  a  subject  a  Similarly,  which,  produces  ling')  of  considered  untenable.  imperative  itself  perpetuate  simultaneously worst,  expresses  Marsh's to  the  brute  and  in a  greater  entertaining  o u t s i d e , but  therefore ultimately  inside  entails  a  52 recognition  of i t s misconceived  i n e v i t a b l y misconceived  authority  authority  and,  o f our own  perhaps,  readings.  of  the  53 3.  In and  G e o p o l i t i c a l m o t i f s and m o t i v e s i n C o n r a d ' s L o r d J i m and V e r n e ' s L ' l l e m y s t e r i e u s e . analyzing  Verne's  work,  experiential suggested of  of this  between  however,  of s p e c i f i c  chapter  on t h e  of space.  I  the n o v e l i s t ' s  links  strategies.  between  have  treatment  presuppositions  political  i s on such  i s necessary, political  which The  g e o g r a p h y and  reference t o the novels  first  geography  and De B l i j ' s  study  of  Lord  definition  of g e o p o l i t i c s ,  application  (Glassner,  J i m and  concerned  (Glassner,  of geographic  I shall  'political  ' i s concerned information  adopt  geography i s  of geographical  1) and compare  which  distinction  area  i t with basically and  and their with  geographic  t o t h e development o f a s t a t e ' s f o r e i g n p o l i c i e s ' 263).  dealing  however,  a  and g e o p o l i t i c s .  the interaction  process'  perspectives  o f a l l , t o make  definition:  political  when  that  by i d e o l o g i c a l  with p a r t i c u l a r  Glassner  the  f a r concentrated  mysterieuse. It  the  so  i m p l i c a t i o n s of Conrad's  and a e s t h e t i c p r o p e r t i e s  to a series  politics, L'lle  have  i s underpinned  rise  focus  I  throughout,  space  give  the geographical  with  both with  The d i s t i n c t i o n the ( l i t e r a r y )  political  needs  t o be borne  texts;  geography  broadly  and  i n mind  speaking,  geopolitics  t h e use and abuse o f l a n d by r i v a l  are  controlling  interests. It is  becomes c l e a r  considered  i n this  that  when t h e work  context,  the l i n k  o f Conrad  and V e r n e  between g e o g r a p h y and  54 politics  i s o f some i m p o r t a n c e .  I have a l r e a d y  one p o s s i b l e a r e a o f o v e r l a p between Conrad's is  the i n t e r r e l a t i o n  between  the l i e of  Experience Vingt  the land  o f environment  mille  involves  between  lieues  participates  as both  'reader*  LE,  actor  between  illustrated may  narrator  i n Heart be s e e n  1)  In  each  paradigm  has p o l i t i c a l  found  which,  i n turn,  being,  whilst  location suggest social  implies  work  a certain  i n Conrad's  work  hierarchy  types  attention patterns:  'writer*  and  he m o v e s .  The  particularly  well  au c e n t r e  paradigm  i n which  both 2  the geographic  the a t t i t u d e an i d e o l o g y  concept  de l a  environment.  however,  o f man  the choice  of space  geographer  within  towards  of science as  social  of geographic that  o f v a l u e s and a p r i v i l e g i n g  location of  certain  t o be  one o f  (classes).  first  Conrad's  both  a textual  reflects  necessarily  the  which  implications:  and  'drama o f human  and Voyage  novels,  and d i s t r i b u t i o n a  On  i n Verne's  is a  and r e a d e r ,  as a g e o g r a p h i c a l  of the four  nature  f o r example,  through  o p e r a t e as geographers n e g o t i a t i n g  of the mind.  o f t h e Narcissus  i n which  of Darkness  personality,  the state  geography  that  and V e r n e ' s work and  and s p e c t a t o r ,  o f the. l a n d s c a p e s  interplay  terre,  l e s mers,  experience of s e l f ; (Conrad,  and  i n The N i g g e r  sous  endeavour'  topography  suggested  least  reading  Lord  'political'  J i m would  novels.  seem  It usually  draws  critical  t o t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f i t s p s y c h o l o g i c a l and n a r r a t i v e location  duly  becomes a q u e s t i o n  of mental  spaces  55 (of  Patusan's  verbal Both  'internal  displacements approaches,  narration, between  an  indicates thematic  of  and o r d e r s  an a d v e n t u r e  reinstates,  'Tout  univers  univers  se concentre  dynamise.  an  the d i f f e r e n c e of  'reality',  novel  novel:  and a c r i t i q u e ( o r  i t undermines,  the Romantic  goals  then  i t has s e t  C e n t r a l t o t h e n o t i o n o f Romance i s t h e f i g u r e o f t h e  island.  (Bachelard,  dans  noyau,  en un  est puissant  148).  des c o u r b e s ; germe,  puisque  Similarly,  c'est  century  etc.) heralds  imaginary  Europe  an i d e a l  un  centre centre  expression  Ballantyne,  encapsulated  Verne,  i n miniature,  centre.  Conrad,  however,  rather,  the headquarters  beneath  t h e Romantic  material  (Stevenson, world  un  tout  the Romantic v i s i o n o f  p a r a d i s e which f i n d s i t s most w i d e s p r e a d  nineteenth  For  s'enferme  en un  Et l e centre  island  Loti,  mode o f  concerns.  the adventure  paradoxically  in  narrative).  the i r o n i c  i n maximizing  'appearance'  J i m i s both  revision)  the  of  'incomplete'  reinforce  which,  L J , 240)) o r o f  t h e s t r o n g m a t e r i a l base which u n d e r l i e s t h e n o v e l ' s  Lord  imagine'  however,  and s t r u c t u r a l  itself.  (Conrad,  (of fragmented,  irony  orders  situation'  basis  economic/political possible,  of  landscapes  of Heart  Patusan  o f an u n s t a b l e  rhetoric  i n  the  to  native  State  i t  i s ,  which,  o f Marlow's d e s c r i p t i o n s , has a movement  rivalries  course,  i s no p a r a d i s e :  of  o f the market  see Patusan,  of Darkness,  as a  goods  and  society. like  'country  the  the It i s  jungle  o f t h e mind'  56 where and  'the h a g g a r d u t i l i t a r i a n  die,  (Conrad,  t o be  L J , 282).  to consider outpost only its  replaced  by p u r e  On t h e o t h e r  o f our c i v i l i z a t i o n exercises  hand,  of  wither  imagination'  i t i s equally possible  i t as a v e s t i g e o f t h e t o t t e r i n g  Empire,  the l a s t  o f a moribund i m p e r i a l i s m which i s r e s u s c i t a t e d by J i m  to re-emphasize lofty  medium this  lies  the egotism  principles  and s t a n d a r d s  f o r and w i t n e s s  framework  and e x p l o i t a t i o n  that  t o human  of conduct.  exploitation;  the e x p l o i t a t i v e  underlying Patusan i s  i t i s within  strategies  undertaken  w i t h i n and by t h e work may be examined. Lord with  paradox  within grave,  and c o n t r a d i c t i o n .  a possibility  rival  which  of Conrad's  The political  power.  i t i s both  Patusan's  motif  divided  of segregation  t e r r i t o r i e s ) plays a s i g n i f i c a n t topography  of Patusan  fraught  likewise, contains  c o n s t i t u t e a nexus o f power  the g e o p o l i t i c a l  separate  i n being  o f e s c a p e and an o p p o r t u n i t y  and p o l i t i c a l 'masters'  work  Patusan,  i t several paradoxical notions;  personal and  Jim i s t y p i c a l  r e f u g e and  to (re)build communities relations i n  (demarcation  of  role.  clearly  illustrates i t s  situation: T h e r e c a n be s e e n r i s i n g above t h e l e v e l o f t h e f o r e s t s t h e summits o f two s t e e p h i l l s v e r y c l o s e t o g e t h e r , and s e p a r a t e d by what l o o k s l i k e a d e e p f i s s u r e , t h e c l e a v a g e o f some m i g h t y s t r o k e . As a m a t t e r o f f a c t , t h e v a l l e y between i s nothing but a narrow ravine; the a p p e a r a n c e f r o m t h e s e t t l e m e n t i s o f one i r r e g u l a r l y c o n i c a l h i l l s p l i t i n two, and with t h e two h a l v e s l e a n i n g slightly apart. (Conrad, L J , 220)  57 The  divided  Patna,  where  physically from, axis leaps of  territories  of Patusan a r e s i m i l a r  the o f f i c e r s  separated  from,  the p i l g r i m s  below.  of separation,  best  to safety,  separation  on  t o t h o s e on t h e  the c o n t r o l l i n g  but a l s o There  and a v e r t i c a l  axis  to a p o l i t i c a l  politically  i s then  exemplified  bridge are  both  i n Jim's which  syndrome  segregated  a  horizontal  two  (parallel)  relates  the motif  of domination  and  subjection. The place Ali,  hills  of Patusan,  o f command, then  to  command  against on  housing  J i m , then  ' s o v e r e i g n power'  the h i l l ,  the bridge of the Patna,  the r e b e l  forces  of f i r s t  are a Sherif  Brown, a l l o f whom a r e p r e t e n d e r s t o t h e  (Conrad, L J , 50) o f t h e i s l a n d .  depends  one's  like  however  enemies.  on an a b i l i t y  The a b i l i t y  to protect  Brown's men, e s t a b l i s h i n g  put themselves  i n a commanding  oneself  themselves  position  but a l s o  T h e y e s t a b l i s h e d t h e m s e l v e s on a l i t t l e k n o l l a b o u t 900 y a r d s f r o m t h e s t o c k a d e , which i n f a c t , they commanded from t h a t p o s i t i o n . . . They went t o work c u t t i n g [ t r e e s ] down f o r a b r e a s t w o r k , and were f a i r l y entrenched before dark. (Conrad, L J , 359, my  italics)  a s a f e one:  The  geographical combination  compared beetle.  with Tony  collections the  mud,  of h i l l  and t r e n c h  the entomological combination Tanner  h a s drawn  and C o n r a d ' s  inverts  an a n a l o g y  characters:  t h e image  of Jim's  may  of b u t t e r f l y between  Cornelius,  be and  Stein's  creeping i n  butterfly-like  idealism  58 (Tanner,  53-67).  topography Tanner's find  and  to  themselves,  small  the  and  communities of  rivalries  suggest  The  island a  collectivity,  outsider-figures s t a t e of  however,  within  between  one  sense  he  but  personal  community.  of  and  to  adapt  the c h a r a c t e r s connotation of  a  collection  jeopardized  and,  of  t o and  the  by  in particular,  the  by  exacerbate  the  their  title  his rise his  difference  to l i f e  the  Romantic  goals  retention from  rest  s u g g e s t s an  has  suggests,  L J , 120):  set  (and  of  the  oxymoronic  irreconcilable,  (Conrad, he  the  one:  Doramin's  t o , and  from)  i s , as Marlow  chasms'  to  difference  'Tuan J i m ' i t s e l f  s e p a r a t e d by  achieves  i s an a m b i v a l e n t  contributes  sense  emphasizes  his  approach  paths  elements. 'a  network  although  h i m s e l f , he  he  cannot  o f f t h e memory o f h i s p r e v i o u s c o w a r d i c e . Jim's  within  the  'doubleness' p o i n t s text:  (materialistic) post  is  the community  i n another  The  Jim's  shake  between  c i r c u m s c r i b e d environment;  c o m b i n a t i o n o f s e p a r a t e , and p e r h a p s  of  different  draw a t t e n t i o n  belongs  power  exploitation  For  i n which  is itself  i t s communities who  analogy  division.  encampment, of,  a  the  i t is possible  however,  Jim's p o s i t i o n w i t h i n in  on  circumstances to  collections.  notion  focussing  politics,  thesis  Stein's  By  which  support  of  to a larger  the y o k i n g o f Romantic expediency.  functions Doramin  on and  the Dain  Patusan  inscribed  ideals with  political  is a  exchange Waris  duplicity  of  run-down  trading  possessions:  i s symbolized  in  the the  59 exchange the  of  name  outside is  a  of  ring Jewel.  world  of  Doramin, the  how  virtually  a t the  limit,  Hence,  a  motif  profiteering: pirate  Brown, but  transform  materialism  of  perfectionist connect the  the  into  i n to  Brown,  the  runs  through  Lord  to  the  Rajah  and  how  their  l a n g u a g e , away from  b l a t a n t proponent  the  much  behind  them.  Jim  i s that  i s the  Stein's  romantic  motives  of  novel  commercial,  m o t i f s of  of  claims  discursive  (Conrad,  LJ,  and  claimants  (Marlow's c l a i m s still  361),  one  the  Jim's  attempt  Jim  Cornelius  on  power  landclaims  of  Jim  exemplified  i n the  the p o l i t i c a l of  Patusan)  and  Brown).  s t a k i n g out  to  in  the  and  the which  aesthetic profit annexation.  at  many  Lord  different  to a d i s c o u r s e of  the  o f them, w h i l e J i m was  one  economic  Company), the e m o t i o n a l  sovereign  and  l a n d c l a i m and  S t e i n and  Jewel),  ideal  of  out-and-out  Implicit  i d e a l i s m of  to  possessions  a e s t h e t i c s of S t e i n are a s e r i e s of c l a i m s  ' [ D a i n W a r i s ] was  the  take  h i s p r i v a t e sanctuary.  other  us')  i s given  'leaders',  the  goods: i t  subtly,  the  of  speech  of  more  levels: -  than  loves  and  i s a l s o a p r o f i t - m o t i v e behind  geopolitical  is a  Patusan  t h r o u g h o u t ) and  come  which  woman he  there  and,  Nature  (their  very  i t s most  opportunism  Jim  their  between  of  silent  who  f o r the  language  right  State  foreign exploiters  and,  to  i n terms o f  little  Patusan  remain  chooses  Communication  i s less  noticeable  natives  w h i l s t Jim  (the  (the r i v a l  tradeclaims  claims of Jim  and  (the v a r i o u s p r e t e n d e r s and  the  Jim's  geographical landclaim  of  to  (the  is  best  of h i s p r i v a t e t e r r i t o r y ;  'The  60 Fort'  is  topped  'a p l a c e o f d e f e n c e  by  platforms 340).  a to  Yet  palisade, sweep  enchanted  (Conrad,  Stein,  garden,  butterflies  'he  of  never  the  a  his  mounted  prison:  he  and  trapped  t o annex  house  sanctuary  h i s museum-like  the  n u r t u r e s Jim's  dreamer.  turned  his  Patusan,  Stein's grounds,  into  ( C o n r a d , L J , 330)  'a  LJ, is  and  as on  the  and  beetles  and  h i s own  grounds  i n which  home  account'  constitute  w i l d s of  the  dreams, i t f i n a l l y enchanted like  picture  an  Nature  domesticated:  S t e i n ' s annex i s u l t i m a t e l y u n i n h a b i t a b l e : l i k e  which  on  (Conrad, L J ,  I w a n d e r e d o u t , p u r s u e d by d i s t r e s s f u l t h o u g h t s , i n t o t h e g a r d e n s , t h o s e famous g a r d e n s o f S t e i n , i n which you c a n f i n d e v e r y p l a n t and t r e e o f t r o p i c a l l o w l a n d s . I f o l l o w e d the course of the canalized s t r e a m , a n d s a t f o r a l o n g t i m e , on a shaded bench near the ornamental p o n d , w h e r e some w a t e r f o w l w i t h clipped w i n g s were d i v i n g and s p l a s h i n g n o i s i l y . The b r a n c h e s o f c a s u a r i n a t r e e s b e h i n d me swayed l i g h t l y , i n c e s s a n t l y , r e m i n d i n g me o f t h e s o u g h i n g o f f i r - t r e e s at home. (Conrad, L J , 349, my Yet  wall  (Conrad,  3  o f h i s power'  of  as  fail[s]  have been a e s t h e t i c i z e d  earth  guns  square'  i s also  curator  Stein's  island,  angles  an  territory.  is finally  L J , 206).  artificial  side  the  the v e r y freedom  c l a i m e d by h i s own Similarly,  at  stronghold  'imprisoned w i t h i n 283),  and  each  Jim's  ... a deep d i t c h ,  (Prosperan)  Marlow's created  turns against  closes  ward,  fancy  the  i n and  privileged by  italics)  on  i t s owner, r e v e a l i n g  island entraps  which  had  vision  of  a  canvas' aesthetic  61 fancy as a r t i s t i c Stein's Romantic  the  other  dream  hand,  whilst  Empire  As  i n Heart  underground  spaces  'stability  of e a r t h l y  5)  who  death  reminder  Patusan.  of  narrow  stage erected  bamboo f l o o r ,  twelve  or f i f t e e n  a l l kinds  outpost,  of  (Conrad,  by a  t h e end  imperialism. gaps and  L J , 387) i s  on t h e P a t n a  'pink t o a d s ' )  function  On  (referred  ( C o n r a d , L J , c h s . 2-  darkness  (enclosure i n the  throughout  the text  as a  a l s o a c t s as p o l i t i c a l  t h e r e i s something  rotten  i n the s t a t e  The R a j a h A l l a n g ' s a d d r e s s e s a r e g i v e n on 'a s o r t  rotten  italics).  uphold  f o u n d a t i o n s on w h i c h t h e  o f a p e r s o n a l c o n s c i e n c e which  of  finally  prefigures  bankruptcy  pilgrims  t o a double  by d r o w n i n g )  = stone).  i s underscored  which  4  institutions'  'reptiles',  unconscious. S i m i l a r l y ,  of  men  t h e shaky  t h e Malay  are consigned  death  topographical fissures,  indicate  Thus,  as ' c a t t l e ' ,  hold,  the moral  of Darkness,  to  of both  unconscious'  and emphasizes  established.  and J i m ' s  (Stein  confirming i t simpossibility.  the story  'political  of  and p e t r i f i c a t i o n  world-weariness  the  Jamesonian  impotence  like  t h r o u g h t h e cracks  feet  lying  in a hall  below  under  The P a t u s a n  t h e heaps the house'  a ruinous o f which o f refuse (Conrad,  T r a d i n g Company b u i l d i n g ,  barn  with a  you c o u l d s e e and  garbage  L J , 228, like  my  Kurtz's  i s i n a state of ruin:  A l l i t s f e n c e s had f a l l e n i n a l o n g time ago; t h e n e i g h b o u r s ' b u f f a l o e s would pace i n t h e morning a c r o s s t h e open space, s n o r t i n g p r o f o u n d l y , without haste; the v e r y j u n g l e was i n v a d i n g i t a l r e a d y . (Conrad, L J , 298, my  italics)  62 The  geography  crumbling  of Patusan  shapes  remnants  of  italics)  a wall  enacts  Jim's attempt loot' which  is  breached  the  Romantic concur  imperialism their  ideas,  attempt  at a  of  Stein's  'rule  of  a moribund to the  of  indigenous and  disguises  Behind  of  ...  r e a d e r who,  turn[s]  like  t o the pages  of  t u r n back t o t h e c o n s o l i n g Patna, and  ' p e n e t r a t e d by  peace  (Conrad,  that LJ,  could 17).  'greatness',  but  the  vision,  Romantic  a  204).  'immaculate'  In  within  the  appearance,  creed.  As  i n Heart  o f the o b s e r v a b l e e f f e c t s  political  unconscious  in  of  which  Thus,  the  ' l i g h t h o u s e - k e e p e r above t h e  sea  the  story'  fiction  r e a d on these  The  actual transformation  (Conrad,  o f J i m on  the g r e a t c e r t i t u d e be  which  (geographic)  the d i s c u r s i v e p r a c t i c e s of i m p e r i a l i s m are upheld. privileged  Jim's  gain  (Cohen,  of a p o l i t i c a l  a deeper  story  peoples, transforming  g a r d e n ) becomes an  a conscious c r i t i q u e  my  scramble f o r  political  goods'  (Jim's  the  L J , 242,  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of Patusan  the terms  like  imperialism.  'vile  definition  creed  'dark,  out a boy's a d v e n t u r e  motives  over  aesthetic  of Darkness, imperialism  are  institutions  within  sea'  haze  imperialistic.  Cohen's  'enchanted'  of Patusan  (Conrad,  the  i s to l i v e  'fictional'  an  by  implicitly  Saul as  sunlit  an a l t e r n a t i v e  aspirations with  everlasting  geopolitics  to f i n d  itself  i t s neighbouring i s l a n d s :  i n the  ( C o n r a d , LE, 17)  6  terms  ...  and  u n d e r l y i n g the negotiating  'charms' the  may  the b r i d g e o f  o f unbounded  the s i l e n t  fictional  L J , 351)  aspect of  terms, and  backwaters  Jim  the  safety nature'  achieves  'mysteries' of of  the  text,  63 are  Brown  dispel  and  h i s men,  t h e myth  standard  Lord  realities  Jim provides  L'lle  the d i s c o u r s e  by  concerns  i s an  and  Cohen  country, lands  island of  which  generally  onto  Smith  Lincoln  into  empty  culture  and  as  I  fixed  paradoxically  Jules  land  Verne's  with  the  Unlike  which  i t s American  the  basis,  is settled,  visitors.  'settlement  lands  novel  Patusan,  the c o l o n i a l p a t t e r n  of  The  sketched  from  and b r i n g i n g  and o r g a n i z a t i o n  h i s company,  own  desert  cast  island,  and p r o c e e d  another  into the  these parent  of  challenge  few o b s t a c l e s  i s a matter  i s t h a t myth o f N a t u r e  demonstrated  i n an  the  i t i n t h e name  which  on  L'lle  prevail  on  a r e put i n t h e p a t h o f neither  of  man  nor N a t u r e  The g r a d u a l course:  'red i n tooth  earlier  claim  i s no need  machinations  t o the castaways.  the i s l a n d  'providential'  immediately  There  a n d , f o r much o f t h e n o v e l ,  any  by a  to transform  ('American') c u l t u r e .  f o r the p o l i t i c a l  progress  evidence  by  follows  P a t u s a n : on t h e c o n t r a r y ,  cation  in a  of the m a t e r i a l  (whilst  more  virgin  involves  an unknown  for their  Western  poses  effectively  (Cohen, 2 0 4 ) .  Cyrus storm  a critique  itself  empty,  colonized  the precious  society'  us w i t h  of imperialism),  development o f the novel out  enthroned  and c o n s e q u e n c e s o f c o l o n i z a t i o n .  Lincoln  cultivated  power  imperialist ideals  mysterieuse  procedures  actions  (Conrad, L J , 5 0 ) .  underlying  sustaining  cynical  'a s o v e r e i g n  of conduct'  If  L'lle  of  whose  chapter,  domesti-  nowhere i n  and c l a w '  which,  is typical  of  64 contemporary aids of  and  the  abets island  resources the  works the  such  as  inventions  readily  at  hand,  colonization i t receives.  Lincoln  the is  outset,  no  tous  IM,  i t has  sprung  from  within  pointed  past,  not  suggest) The  into  an  island  of  microcosm:  experiment.  un  'un  as  compose humaine'  Smith Unlike  is  natural  almost  invites  which,  label  of  of  de  (Verne,  as  his  catching  Conrad,  op.  might cit.).  with  the  h i s t o r y from i t s  'civilization'. to  consider  (adaptations)  Smith  102). with Man, only  of  an  Like  the  i s himself  science  is  the  imaginary  technology.  novels  Verne  (the  Macherey  up  possible  la  Scientific  (Verne,  Pierre  i n t o an  Western  IM,  a l l , 'un  This places  (Macherey,  laboratory, toute  of  L'lle  science-fiction  applications  his  that  to continent  return.  rudimentary  populates  features  continent'  and  i t becomes  as  Nature  the  clear  i t s protagonists  initial,  functions  Verne  characters.  context  context,  of  is, first  presente  recuperation  inventions  1'intelligence earlier,  It  a nominal degree zero of  wisdom, an which  i t i s made  colonization involves the  one  island  anticipatory future  this  Smith's  the  continent,  misleading  origins,  Within  age-old  projects  through  humblest  Cyrus  out, the  process  present  historical  (as  and  Nature.  i t s inhabitants:  eventually  an  and  7  que  American mainland) i t w i l l novel  to  island.  l e s aspects  Man  Science;  however,  ordinary  resume de 273),  of  i s i t s amenability  are  From  has  Marsh's  et  As  I  de  a  toute  suggested  figures, Nature  is  not his  superficially  65 interested  i n the p s y c h o l o g i c a l make-up o f h i s c h a r a c t e r s :  environment  i s not  in  but  Lord  Jim)  that  has  t o the  this  is  reflection  a  been  collation  information  into of  t o use  that  a mini-state  i t s power,  sketched  out  defined  particularly  which,  proceeds  psychological  as  applying  relevant  beginning about  information  which d e r i v e s  from  with  the  n e a t l y by  the to  paradigm the  for  'adjectival  (Leavis, L'lle  177)  transform  corresponds  and  themselves.  Here,  'regarder  situation  preparer l'avenir'  la a  tout  to  buckles  things-done  Verne's  under  things-done-to for  the  environment  the  States.  en  IM,  face -  700).  se  the  to  structures  The  Conrad  'verbal weight  prevail  example,  evenement  (Verne,  and  model  is  Pencroff:  insistency' ascribed  mysterieuse  L' l i e  environment,  N o u s f e r o n s de c e t t e i l e une petite Amerique! Nous y b a t i r o n s des villas, nous y e t a b l i r o n s des chemins de f e r , nous y i n s t a l l e r o n s des t e l e g r a p h e s , e t un beau j o u r , quand e l l e s e r a b i e n transformed, b i e n amenagee, b i e n c i v i l i s e e , nous i r o n s l ' o f f r i r au gouvernement de l ' U n i o n ... ( V e r n e , IM, The  argue  collection  natural  United  (as  geographic  I shall  i t s power, and  greater  warfare  strategy.  development o f s t a t e p o l i c y .  myster ieuse, of  of  a basis for geopolitical  Geopolitics information  a  the  is a -  analyser  poser The  les  fermes  phrases  et  are  by  Leavis  insistency'. of  over  typical  139-40)  its the  verbs: things  verbal  chain:  chances droits Cyrus  -  se  devant  Smith's,  66 but  they  might  manifesto. letter,  The  considered  preparations  verb,  cornerstone original  and  slogans out  and  the  a  political  manifesto  situation,  precautions  justified  of  forms  of  raw  dwellings,  the  the  (against  the  m a t e r i a l s are wild  Nature  p r o p o r t i o n s o f the d o m e s t i c  are  reduced  verbs,  to  into to  suit  the  the  novel  trappings  hierarchy  develops,  of  a  of  The  a  the  island  an  the  manageable  transformation policy:  i m p r i n t o f Western seem a t  first  and  of i s l a n d  marked w i t h  would  413)  assumes more and  more  the  charted,  internal  headquarters  of  This  its  IM,  i t i s named and  transportation the  The  farmyard:  government,  communications, 'offices'.  state:  the  clothes, tools  G r a c e au s a v o i r de l e u r c h e f , g r a c e a l e u r propre intelligence, c'etaient de veritables colons, munis d'armes, d ' o u t i l s , d'instruments q u i a v a i e n t su t r a n s f o r m e r a l e u r p r o f i t l e s animaux, l e s p l a n t e s , e t l e s mineraux de l ' l l e , c ' e s t a - d i r e l e s t r o i s regnes de l a N a t u r e ! (Verne, As  cold,  i s transform.  altered  fashioned  is  to  p r i d e i n achievement.  manifesto,  island  the  etc.)  however, which encompasses a l l o t h e r i t were o f  to  a n a l y s i s of L ' l l e L i n c o l n  geographic  to f i n a l ,  as  inhabitants:  the  o b s e r v a t i o n and  lay-out,  attack)  The  be  narrative carries  from i n i t i a l  (topographic  against  equally  blank  given  network  series  of  a of  regional  into state involves a spaces  of  Nature  are  ('American') c u l t u r e .  sight  to  imply  a  glorification  67 of  New W o r l d  reading  of progress  o f the novel  suggests so  myths  that  and, i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  the c o l o n i a l  s u c c e s s f u l l y are,  question.  ideals  draws  attention  reading t o what  of i t s later  at least  he c a l l s  which  notions  of liberty,  e q u a l i t y and f r a t e r n i t y  (later  increasing)  idealism  i n which  recognized.  8  as  a  and  the p o t e n t i a l  life-form,  work,  Jean  tradition  although  for  the  with  an  initial  and  scientific  o f power i s  man i s c o n s i d e r e d  h i s environment  are limitations  to his  and  power,  he i n h i s t u r n i s dominated by f o r c e s and 'laws' which a r e  beyond h i s c o n t r o l . as  into  'la  f o r abuse  dominating  i t t o h i s needs, t h e r e  called  an e n t h u s i a s m  of p o l i t i c a l  In L ' l l e mysterieuse,  superior  adapting  combines  stages,  implemented  of Verne's  quarante-huitarde'  distrust  but a c l o s e r  which have been  i f n o t undermined,  In h i s p o l i t i c a l  Chesneaux  and d e m o c r a c y ,  i n Vingt  mysteries their  which,  lieues  once  discoverer.  special real  mille  The g u a r d i a n  [avec]  locus  revealed,  Nemo  pouvoir  of authority f o r Verne's  imaginative  resources,  As G o d - f i g u r e  power t o r e v e r s e Smith  rarely  (Verne,  holds  both  t h e key t o  t h e m s e l v e s and  de l ' l l e ' , IM, 800).  a n d , one might  fails  i s Nemo, who,  'un d i e u His i s  also  the  say,of  attention to i t s  t o draw a t t e n t i o n t o i t s  and w r i t e r - f i g u r e , Nemo has i t i n h i s  the motif  guardian  destroy  w r i t i n g , i n drawing  and h i s c o l l e a g u e s  'mysterious'  laws  l e s mers,  i s ' l egenie  occulte'  authorship,  creator.  sous  of these  o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n which has g r a n t e d their  privileged  of the i s l a n d  status.  has r e v e a l e d  Once t h e  h i m s e l f , he  68 dies he  almost  simply  the  immediately  ( i n Vingt  mille  d i s a p p e a r s ) and h i s d e a t h  island  and b r i n g s  lieues  signals  the novel  sous  l e s mers  the d e s t r u c t i o n o f  forcibly  towards i t s  conclusion. Nemo's destroys  death,  the i s l a n d ,  pretensions The  which,  and t h e l i v e s  unleashed: casting  fire  as a warning  ideals  carefully  o f Smith  harnessed,  o f t h e men  under  explosion  which  to the s c i e n t i f i c and h i s f o l l o w e r s .  had s u s t a i n e d Nemo's  h i s care,  are f i n a l l y  c o n f r o n t s water and t h e c o n s e q u e n t e x p l o s i o n ,  out those  colonize  serve  and p o l i t i c a l  elements  life  and t h e ( r e s u l t a n t )  who  and c o n t r o l ,  believed  the i s l a n d  simultaneously  dispels  o f power and reminds them t h a t , as C y r u s  was  theirs  their  to  illusions  Smith p u t s i t :  L e s hommes, s i s a v a n t s q u ' i l s p u i s s e n t e t r e , ne p o u r r o n t j a m a i s changer q u o i que ce s o i t a l ' o r d r e cosmographique e t a b l i par D i e u meme ... ( V e r n e , IM, 775-6) Once t h i s to  warning  end w i t h  colonialism, (mother) once  Lincoln land',  a paradoxical this  country,  have  has been s e r v e d ,  been  before  time  reinstatement  transferred  o f which a part.  however, t h e n o v e l  Iowa  unwilling  L'lle  t h e myth  Lincoln  Verne,  to subscribe  myths  o f h i s day ( t h e p r o g r e s s  totally  of Technology,  like  may  L'lle  o f t h e 'empty  i s therefore perpetuated.  Jules  of  o f t h e home  ( i n the novel),  i t , i s uninhabited:  t h e New T e r r i t o r y ,  of the values  t o the context  i t i s suggested  i s free  I t as i f  t o t h e dominant the c i v i l i z i n g  69 mission  of  Colonialism)  seems  equally  unwilling  L'lle  mysterieuse,  to  refute  them. In that  both  the  Lord  island  Jim is a  prescribed p o l i t i c a l It  remains  to  L'lle with  lieues  of  means sous  and les  world.  mers,  the  or  document  in  the  inventor  both  imposition, to  using  Vingt  and  word  does  mille  seemingly  feature  Thus, and  the of  name  as  a means  their  abounds  such  as  merely  r o l e s of  in  that  the  up  describe it  explorer  journalist  and on  the  i t , appropriating  the  combines mapping  not  in  itself  i n v e n t o r i e s drawn  i t claims  systematize  c o n t r o l over i t .  these  concerns In  detail,  exhaustive  their  implement  of  the  a l l tools  mysterieuse  explorations  imprint  they  proponents  to gaining  of  in  (ultimately) appropriating  written  Smith,  of  of  power.  language  diaries  linguistic  writer.  Cyrus  recorder  colonization linguistic  the  adoption  evaluation  classifications  i t s environment:  name o f  parallel:  The  of  production.  Similarly, L'lle  castaways.  suggested  e x e r c i s e of  effective  lists,  and  the  specifically  of  f o r example, i n the  by  Spillet,  most  which  methods  extraneous  contained,  their  a novel  role  and  I have  for  f o r the  crucial  o b j e c t i f y i n g and  apparently  and  the  i s the  categories  ordering,  outside  s t r a t e g i e s and  Language  interminable  environment  implementation  mysterieuse, the  focal  consider  formulation, strategies.  and  Gedeon  inventions,  are  the  landscape.  The  human  encounter  with  procedures environment  which with  enable a  view  70 Both spoken  the w r i t t e n  word, p r e s i d e d  power w h i c h has its  word, p r e s i d e d  source  over  by  Smith,  (embodied  i n a discourse  Tour  work,  Monde en  there  is  alternative a  on  (Verne,  IM,  resumait  en  weigh  The in  819)  to  centre  i s elevated  Pacific most  explore a  allows  implies  to  them  island;  of  the  as i n  blatantly or  design  to  no  exotic  authenticate envelop  possibility  aggressively  i t  is  o f Nemo's l a s t  against  (Verne,  an  part,  l u i toutes  them of  the  worth words  earlier  imperialistic balancing  "Dieu  statement  l e s h a i n e s f a r o u c h e s du IM,  Verne's  803).  work  nations  of  The  engages the  et  the  Patrie!"  that ' [ i l ]  vaincu  contre  struggle  for domination  rather  than p r e c l u d e s  oppressed:  Nemo,  i t bears  i s not F r e n c h but I n d i a n , a l t h o u g h one might  this  implied  political  Bonapartism  which  liberalism  i s caught  up  against  wish  Nemo's  i n , rather  than  from, t h e c y c l e o f c o n q u e s t and o p p r e s s i o n . i s s u e of i m p e r i a l i s m  Conrad's  (inspired  a  the  treatment of America i s  Verne's  rather  which  fervour  f o r the  scientific delivered  but  Verne's  pervades  remembering, to  Jours,  attempt  this  vainqueur'  sympathy  from  and  9  nationalistic  which  no  cultures,  Although  le  80  discourse  expression.  stance  which  as h i s t r e a t m e n t o f t h e South  du  within  derive  Verne's  1  Le  Spillet,  i t s n o m i n a l h e a d q u a r t e r s i n G r a n i t e House, but  s t a t u s o f myth) i n ' A m e r i c a . as e x o t i c  o v e r by  work.  A  growing  i s more complex number  of  and much d e b a t e d  Third  World  critics  p e r h a p s by the p o l e m i c s o f C h i n u a Achebe) have t a k e n  71 offence  a t the i m p e r i a l i s m o f Heart  apparently  anti-imperialistic  Now, w h i l s t Conrad's to  some e x t e n t  claimed, that  a  both  their  however, World  (although  of Darkness  Achebe d e s c r i b e s a s a from  l i k e Verne's  respective Native  Conrad's  focus  Jim t e s t i f y  of language'  communities.  Western  contradictions imperialism. weapon  1 0  which  personal  culture  inherent  and,  true  t o what  (Achebe,  In both  786)  novels,  i s n o t on t h e d e v a l u a t i o n  c u l t u r e b u t on t h e p r e c a r i o u s n e s s  underpin  have  i t i s nonetheless  and L o r d  'withholding  'America', i s  n o t , as some c r i t i c s  ' u n i v e r s a l ' ) environment, Heart  despite i t s  stance.  'Africa',  a symbolic  of Darkness  of T h i r d  of the values  particularly,  i n the discourse  which  on  of  the  Western  In Lord Jim, a c c o r d i n g l y , v e r b a l language acts  'empire'  both  f o r and a g a i n s t  i s based  on  i t s user.  t h e myth  of a  isa Jim's  privileged  d i s c o u r s e , b u t t h e word which s e r v e s him may a l s o t u r n a g a i n s t him.  By  going  exploding  link us  geographic between  to  i n Lord  h i s word,  enclosures which  linguistic  J i m between  consider  construct  linguistic  markers.  hill  on  Brown  destroys  J i m by  t h e myth o f h i s c u l t u r a l / l i n g u i s t i c i n v i o l a b i l i t y .  The allows  back  Patusan  similarly  o f i t s camps,  terms  as  enables  both  features  the creek  them  and l a n d  and  and  t o be drawn topographic  of Patusan: which  which  linguistic  an a n a l o g y  (discursive) devices  The t o p o g r a p h i c  overlooks  language  the  separates  fenced  them, t h e  - c a n t h e r e f o r e be c o n s i d e r e d i n  as t h e c a p a c i t y  of language  to defend,  to  72 divide  and  t o command.  backwaters, ironic  that  outpourings  effective  of  communications  Cornelius.  them:  significantly, system)  Jim  his  power  his  destruction.  treatment  of on  environment conceived  uses  Lord  within  treatise  the  of  his  narrator  the  the  conquest  would  and  executed  land  is  not  transformed, consolidate  above  their  'geopolitical'  the  and  roman  the  of t h i s  establish  brings  i t  about  placed  any  by  simplified  of  an  'alien' carefully in  intermingle:  the  acted  and  those  upon seeking  political  n o v e l s which  exploitation  i n t o q u e s t i o n the assumptions of i m p e r i a l i s m  their  the environment  is  their  be  adopt  and p o l i t i c s  p e r s o n a l means and  implications  than  towards  a l l exploited,  to  and  inherent  d'aventure,  novels  described,  forging  (and  him,  domination  Both  but  half-caste  m y s t e r i e u s e may  strategies  approach  snide  than  'language'  complex  Geography  merely  rather  his territory  L'lle  i s an  used as an i n s t r u m e n t  turned against  allow.  the  semi-articulate  to claim  i s more  there  inconsequential  and  breaking t i e s  and  ruin;  ultimately  category of  space  they are s e t .  and  the  which,  Jim  which  notion  the  i t i s the same  i n Patusan  Although loosely  finds  linguistic/geographic  Language i s most e f f e c t i v e l y  d e c e p t i o n , a means o f  value  Jim  d i s c r e p a n c y between  Romantic  of  however,  I t i s i n the  power.  explores  ultimately and  to A the  calls  imperialistic  d i s c o u r s e by d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e abuses o f i t s p r i v i l e g e . In t h e f i n a l  r e c k o n i n g , P a t u s a n and L ' l l e  L i n c o l n a r e not  73 so  much  mysterious  suggests  at  once  environment transform than  he  Empire that,  himself. i s given  is as  physical  the  power  the the  in  demystified power  of  i s l a n d s whose  the  reluctance  Conrad credit  shadow  Victor  moral c a p a c i t y 29).  and  as  of  Kiernan  novelist or  to  that  behind  human weakness puts  i t :  the  world,  Europe  to lead  i t , or  even t o  transform  inability  i s w e l l aware, and for,  presentation  'at was  the  mythology  the  the  reform  man  to  V e r n e more aware  and  at  of  his  recognition  zenith  the  of  nadir  itself  of  its  of  its  (Kiernan,  74 Conclusion The p o s i t i v i s t i c l e g a c y , the p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l d e b a t e : E p i s t e m o l o g y and g e o g r a p h i c t h o u g h t i n t h e works o f J o s e p h Conrad and J u l e s V e r n e . I  have  suggested  fiction  of  related  t o a s p e c t s of  remains  to  analyzing cultural  Conrad  throughout  and  consider  Verne,  this  geographic  p e r s o n a l and  briefly  intellectual  l a n d s c a p e may  essay  how  issues  in  are  the  closely  p o l i t i c a l behaviour.  useful  history,  that  geography  whether  a  may  reading  i n f o r m the contemporary  It  be of  in the  epistemological  climate. As an e c l e c t i c positioned  to  intellectual latter  half  reconcile  discipline,  witness  exchange. of  or  the at  positivistic  gradual  shift  largely  empirical  A feature  least  This  and  a  forms  has  the  work  considerations premises:  of  Yi-Fu  are  of  spatial  Tuan  (loosely)  'Geography'  the  relation  tended  to  claims  based  on  Relph,  to  between  towards or,  154).  Edward  attempt  away from  behaviour,  and  i n the  result  distribution  (Pickles,  of  a  c o n c e p t i o n of  i n geographic studies  P i c k l e s p u t s i t , 'human s p a t i a l i t y ' in  been  phenomenological  re-estimation  well  cross-currents  of geographic debate  a n a l y s i s of s p a t i a l  of  the  r e - e s t i m a t e the  o f emphasis  consideration  register  is particularly  t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y has  legacy  geography.  and  geography  as  in a the the John  O f t e n , as  Relph,  such  phenomenological 'presupposes  our  75 geographical  experiences  geography  has  an  (Relph,  4).  experiential One  phenomenological between Paul  of  of  the  approach  epistemology  and  the  world.  In  other  or phenomenological features  of  i s i t s enquiry geographic  foundation'  the into  so-called the  thought.  words,  relation  According  Claval: the c u r r e n t p o p u l a r i t y of epistemology r e f l e c t s new c o n c e r n about t h e v a l i d i t y o f scientific method. Throughout the nineteenth century s c i e n c e produced such s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s that to question i t s c e r t a i n t i e s seemed unnecessary. Epistemology adopted an inductive approach: i t followed science, d e s c r i b i n g i t s methods and i n d i c a t i n g the p r o c e d u r e s needed t o e s t a b l i s h f a c t s and j u s t i f y the preferred interpretation of them; s u b s e q u e n t l y i t drew up a c o n s p e c t u s o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s g r a d u a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d by s c i e n c e ... Nowadays t h e r e i s an awareness of the p h i l o s o p h i c a l shortcomings in [this] previous attitude: objective k n o w l e d g e c a n n o t be b a s e d on i t s e l f ... e p i s t e m o l o g i c a 1 thought i s no l o n g e r i n t e n d e d t o be m a i n l y p r e s c r i p t i v e ... i t is c r i t i c a l , i t q u e s t i o n s the e x p l i c i t p r i n c i p l e s b e h i n d the a p p r o a c h e s t a k e n . (Claval,  Claval's which Verne: larger  argument  i s central the  i s g e n e r a l i z e d , but to  the  q u e s t i o n i n g of  literary  methodology,  often  i s better  seen  i t indicates  geography  'objective  context of p o s i t i v i s t i c  Positivism,  of  to  debate  of  Conrad  and  knowledge'  within  the  thought.  interpreted  as  a  as a p h i l o s o p h y , o r ,  i t s f o u n d e r , A u g u s t e Comte,  a  227-8)  'a c o n c e p t i o n o f  'scientific' i n the  words  the w o r l d  and  76 o f man the  1  4).  assumption  social and  (Simon,  life  'What i s f u n d a m e n t a l ' ,  that  t h e phenomena  world  of nature  i n v e s t i g a t i o n by a n a l o g o u s results'  originally underwent  a  series  by  t h e dominant  therefore  4).  The  Comte  will  thought  'each  phase  intellectual  yield  according  a history  of  ... i s a s p e c i f i c  style'  i n the d i s t r u s t  rejection  of the c o g n i t i v e claims of metaphysics. radical  the  geographic  thought  for  the president  o r , more  easy  however,  i s this  form  doctrine  radically,  of p o s i t i v i s m  of the l a t e  which  century  to  Leszek  positivist  variation  (Kolakowski, 207).  i s relatively  Society  to identify, the  outright  prevails in Thus,  i n 1888:  The f o u n d a t i o n o f a l l k n o w l e d g e i s t h e d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n o f f a c t s : by a p p l y i n g t h o u g h t t o t h e f a c t s t h u s o b s e r v e d , we seek t h r o u g h a p r o c e s s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and c o m p a r i s o n f o r t h e c a u s e s o f which t h e o b s e r v e d phenomena a r e t h e r e s u l t s , and the c o n c l u s i o n s thus o b t a i n e d c o n s t i t u t e science. (Gregory, T h i s G r a d g r i n d i a n adherence as K o l a k o w s k i  puts i t :  self-sufficient  to empirical  'an attempt  activity,  which  evidence  of  The f o c u s  nineteenth century.  of the Royal Geographic  of  comparably  i n the n i n e t e e n t h  to trace  o f most v e r s i o n s o f p o s i t i v i s m  It  and o f  susceptible  positivist  of m o d i f i c a t i o n s ;  i t i s possible  i n which  and  methods which  (Simon,  formulated  Kolakowski, thought  o f human  a r e c o n t i n u o u s w i t h t h e phenomena o f t h e i n o r g a n i c  organic  reliable  g l o s s e s Simon, ' i s  16)  constitutes,  t o c o n s o l i d a t e s c i e n c e as a  exhausts a l l the p o s s i b l e  ways  77 of  approaching  The  the  geographic  reduced  to  geography  world  intellectually'  analysis  the  of  the  expression  duly  takes  (Kolakowski,  environment  of  is  i t s empirical  i t s place  as  one  of  210).  therefore  properties;  the  'positive'  sciences. The  a p p l i c a t i o n of  the procedures of  Jules  Verne.  the  embracing  of  positivistic  for  which  are  and  the  based  interpreted  by  The  circles  relates  on  L'lle Lincoln,  f o r t e c h n o l o g i c a l methods premises  of  an a l l -  circular  pattern  of  Verne's  inscribed  within  Gaillard  those  as  an  circles, attempted  of:  in  more  i n d i c a t e d , Verne's  ideology  whilst  Voyage  is  the  Francoise  r e s o l u t i o n i s never  have  the  i t t o what  une c o n t r a d i c t i o n i d e o l o g i q u e s u r g i e en meme t e m p s sur le terrain de la p h i l o s o p h i e de l ' h i s t o i r e e t s u r c e l u i des theories scientifiques, contradiction entre 1e progres e t la decadence, c o n t r a d i c t i o n entre les lois de 1 'e v o l u t i o n n i s m e et eelles de la t hermodynamique: en un mot, entre 1 ' e v o l u t i o n et 1'entropie. (Gaillard, The  to  fiction  symbolizes  of technology. site  thinking  i n the  example,  s c i e n c e and  experimental  'scientism'.  narratives,  resolution  Nautilus,  activity  i s the  production  are  The  i n e v i t a b l e progress  similarly, of  mode o f  o f s c i e n t i f i c method i s a p p a r e n t  self-sufficient s e e n as  this  au  remaining  centre  de  than  work  an  attempt,  subscribes  critical la terre,  of the  to  however; the  as  I  dominant  i t s pretensions. centre  279)  i s never  Thus, found:  78 the  journey  i s 'completed',  reached.  The d o c t r i n e  but i t s  objective  of positivism,  h a s n o t been  which  constituted  within  t h e terms  o f an i d e o l o g y  (scientism),  i s only  celebrated  i n so f a r a s i t s  are  recognized.  metaphysical addressing  bias  i t i s suggested  of p o s i t i v i s t i c  questions  problematize questions  Moreover,  which  i t s procedures  of (pre)verbal  the end  epistemological of  of  might  origin,  Nature  environment duality;  the nineteenth tended  a physical  Foucault  limitations the a n t i i t from  or at least  that  i s to  the psychology  century,  say,  ofthe  such  t o assume t h e s t a t u s Man's s t r u g g l e t o  and v e r b a l  i s r e i n t e r p r e t e d as an attempt  as Michel  science  o f God.  i n s e c u r i t i e s have  through  that  undermine  c r i s e s or i r r e s o l v a b l e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s .  conquer  of  prevents  of v e r i f i c a t i o n ,  u n c o n s c i o u s , and t h e e x i s t e n c e By  thought  has been  mastery  of  his  t o overcome h i s own  puts i t :  'L'homme n'a p a s pu s e d e s s i n e r comme une c o n f i g u r a t i o n dans l ' e p i s t e m e , sans que l a p e n s e e d e c o u v r e en meme temps, a l a f o i s en s o i e t h o r s de s o i , d a n s s e s m a r g e s mais a u s s i bien e n t r e c r o i s e s avec sa p r o p r e t r a m e , une p a r t de n u i t , une e p a i s s e u r apparemment i n e r t e ou e l l e e s t e n g a g e e , un i m p e n s e q u ' e l l e c o n t i e n t de bout en b o u t , m a i s ou a u s s i b i e n e l l e s e trouve p r i s e . L ' i m p e n s e ( q u e l que s o i t l e nom q u ' o n l u i d o n n e ) n ' e s t p a s l o g e e n 1'homme comme une n a t u r e r e c r o q u e v i l l e e ou une h i s t o i r e q u i s ' y s e r a i t stratifiee, c'est, par rapport a l'homme, L ' A u t r e : 1 ' A u t r e f r a t e r n e l e t jumeau, ne non p a s de l u i , n i en l u i , m a i s a c o t e e t en meme temps, dans une i d e n t i q u e n o u v e a u t e , dans une d u a l i t e sans r e c o u r s . ' ( F o u c a u l t , 337)  79 In  one  sense,  modifies sense,  and u p d a t e s  at least  positivist  on  fractured  be c o n s i d e r e d  the contrary,  i n Verne's  ontology  of  (positivistic) 'science  of  underlines one  situated  subject;  the s p i r i t ' ,  (Foucault,  329) .  i n Conrad's which  doctrine  of  desire  terms,  3  Foucault,  order'  as  a  and  o f space  and p l a c e  f o r place  which,  on t h e be  transcendental  of Verne's  fiction is  'geography  critique  of, citing  f o r more  on  empirico-transcendantal'  geography  (Watt,  a  merely  can t h e r e f o r e  of  Ian Watt:  traditional  163).  'the d a n g e r s  to a large  work extent,  optimism  views  On t h e o t h e r  i n Conrad's  of the  positivist  t o make t e c h n o l o g i c a l and e v o l u t i o n a r y  and m o r a l  experience  subsume  of 'subjective' enquiry,  a t once  functional substitute  social  to  within  'objective' v e r i f i c a t i o n ,  'doublet  and as a reminder  the attempt  attempt  to a phenomenological  serves  oppositions  are relocated  of empirical  positivist-inspired  adjusted mind',  kind  The  within a (phenomenological)  claims  the juncture  as a  the  of  i n t o landscape  the d u a l i t y (the  t o use H u s s e r l ' s  the i m p o s s i b i l i t y  at  the  had  of the c u l t u r a l  agent.  of science  'science of nature'  incidences  a  the  t h e f i g u r e o f Man,  The  of Nature  i t emphasizes  ideology  i n another  the procedures of  as a p r i v i l e g i n g  hand, and t h e u n c e r t a i n t y  other:  in  underpinned  i d e n t i t y ) of the c u l t u r a l  inherent  topology;  fiction  o f a l i e n a t i o n which  The c o n v e r s i o n  2  of Conrad's  uncentred  implicitly,  doctrine.  no l o n g e r  agency;  an  Verne's  topography  i t c o n s t i t u t e s the p r i n c i p l e  always,  can  the f r a c t u r e d  of the  hand, t h e  suggests conforms  that to  80 such  'traditional'  that  i s to  linguistic  views,  i s a consequence  say, the notions  a r e undermined  behaviour,  political  supposition  ( C o n r a d , HOD, In  unrest  summary,  condition.  the l i t e r a r y  us  reading/writing spatiality', psychological  whilst to  motivation,  us  motivations  and s t r a t e g i e s  its  of c r i t i c a l  -  example, field  of  literary  landscape,  is a  'textual'  a  function  consider  i s therefore  t h e work  of  activity of the  of  'human  questions  strategy under  of  and t h e  which  such  applicable  to a  wide  I t remains, then, t o r e i t e r a t e  acceptable  discipline at least  enquiry.  take such  a more  First  and  towards as, f o r  systematic foremost,  involves a reconsideration of s p a t i a l on w h i c h etc.).  and  operate.  inter-disciplinary geography  Conrad  the complexities  to  h i s t o r y - then  the assumptions  nature, from  literary  illusion'  d i m e n s i o n s o f ) t h e human  circumstances  practices.  i f n o t an  that  example o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y  c e n t r a l c o n c e r n s and t h e d i r e c t i o n s i t might  becoming  and  geography  duplicity  of Joseph  socio-political  (epistemological)  Literary  geography  i t i s also  historical  anti-social  fiction.  geography  asks  by  more t h a n a ' s a v i n g  investigate  which  and  h i e r a r c h i e s of order are a degree  the s p a t i a l  process,  placelessness;  political,  linguistic  an o u t s t a n d i n g  (plotting  Thus,  allows  variety  and  159), a c o n s o l i n g  spatializing  which  to such  becomes l i t t l e  J u l e s Verne p r o v i d e s of  social,  u n i t y on which t r a d i t i o n a l  predicated  their  of  of  they  This  geographical  a r e based  (space,  terms place,  reconsideration, benefitting theorists  and  the  wider  81 historical the  focus  spatial  context of  of  critical  geographic enquiry  representation  experience  and  to  text and of  (as  functions  reader  (as  response,  geography  of  of  ideas,  culture,  has  so  the  consideration far  allowed.  be  and  space,  behaviour and  refers  the  in  between  the text  manipulation at  to a  once  to  a  between geography  n o v e l i s t and  the  or  other  within  relation  the  form  perception,  strategy,  between  the  text n e c e s s a r i l y  ideology.  space  epistemology. the  of  examined, and  therefore,  than  spatial  spatial  etc.)  ' g e o g r a p h e r s ' of  r e l a t i o n s between and  which  relation  geography,  space  spatial  narrative  in  i s s u e s of p o l i t i c s  variant  greater  mind,  of  study  S p a t i a l behaviour  as p u t a t i v e  Literary the  of  p e r s o n a l i t y may  i n which  novel-reader involves  the  The  of  of p l o t , c h a r a c t e r ,  etc.).  t o p o g r a p h y and  questions  study of  functions  i n e v i t a b l y widens  from a s p e c t s  transformation.  words, a l s o i n v o l v e s the  thought,  includes and It  in  i t s analysis  society, is  p r a c t i c e of  surely literary  space  and  worthy  of  criticism  82  NOTES  (Introduction)  !  S e e Pocock (ed.) (1981) and Lowenthal  2  S e e Tuan  (1974)  (1976).  Introduction.  S e e my C h a p t e r Two; a l s o S a u e r ' s e s s a y 'The M o r p h o l o g y o f L a n d s c a p e ' i n L e i g h l y (ed.) (1963) 315-50, and R o s e ' s e s s a y 'Human G e o g r a p h y a s T e x t I n t e r p r e t a t i o n ' i n B u t t i m e r a n d Seamon ( e d s . ) (1980), 123-34. 3  4  S e e E a g l e t o n (1976),  34-5.  See Bachelard's notion of p o e t i c i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r o f B a c h e l a r d (1957). 5  spaces  in  the  83 NOTES ( C h a p t e r One) ^or (1983).  a detailed  presentation  of t h i s  argument,  see S a i d  Nb. R e l p h ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f p l a c e l e s s n e s s which ' d e s c r i b e s b o t h an e n v i r o n m e n t w i t h o u t s i g n i f i c a n t p l a c e s and t h e u n d e r l y i n g a t t i t u d e which does n o t acknowledge s i g n i f i c a n c e i n p l a c e s ' (Relph, 143). 2  See discourse 3  t h e r e f e r e n c e t o Conrad's i n S a i d (1986).  compulsive,  'totalizing'  N a i p a u l ' s v i e w s on C o n r a d a r e s u c c i n c t l y e x p r e s s e d i n h i s e s s a y , 'Conrad's D a r k n e s s ' , N a i p a u l (1980), 205-228. 4  See p a r t i c u l a r l y B a c h e l a r d (1957). 5  Chapter  8 i n Tuan  (1974);  Chapter  2 in  S e e B a r t h e s (1957), ' l e g o u t du n a v i r e e s t t o u j o u r s j o i e de s ' e n f e r m e r p a r f a i t e m e n t , de t e n i r s o u s s a m a i n l e p l u s g r a n d nombre p o s s i b l e d ' o b j e t s , de d i s p o s e r d ' u n e s p a c e absolument f i n i ' , ( 9 2 ) . 6  A u s e f u l c o m p a r i s o n c a n be made between t h e f o l l o w i n g : S e r r e s ( 1 9 7 4 ) , 11-17; B a c h e l a r d (1957) e s p . c h a p t e r on t h e phenomenology o f r o u n d n e s s ; P o u l e t , (1961) e s p . i n t r o d u c t i o n . 7  C f . B a r t h e s (1957) m a n i e r e s ' , 287-291. 8  9  Evans  T h i s development (1965).  90, and S e r r e s  i s well  traced  (1974)  i n Chesneaux  'Table des (1971) and  84 NOTES ( C h a p t e r  Two)  ^or the former c o n n e c t i o n , l a t t e r , see H e a d r i c k (1981). .  see  Said  (1983);  for  For a u s e f u l essay e x p l o r i n g d i s c u r s i v e p r a c t i c e s c o l o n i a l f i c t i o n , see Brahms (1982). S p e c i f i c to Conrad, a l s o Bhabha ( 1 9 8 3 ) . 2  the in see  F o r a s u c c i n c t s t a t e m e n t of R o s e ' s a p p r o a c h , see the e s s a y 'Human Geography as T e x t I n t e r p r e t a t i o n ' i n B u t t i m e r , A. and Seamon, D. ( e d s . ) (1980) 123-34. 3  S e e S a i d ( 1 9 8 6 ) : 'Heart of D a r k n e s s works so e f f e c t i v e l y p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e i t s p o l i t i c s and a e s t h e t i c s , so t o s p e a k , a r e i m p e r i a l i s t , and t h a t , by t h e t i m e t h a t C o n r a d w r o t e , seemed an a t t i t u d e t h a t was i n e v i t a b l e and f o r w h i c h t h e r e c o u l d be no a l t e r n a t i v e ... t h e r e i s no use l o o k i n g f o r nonimperialist alternatives in a system that has simply e l i m i n a t e d , and made u n t h i n k a b l e , a l l o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e s t o i t ' (49) . 4  S e e E c o ' s and I s e r ' s comments on t h e n e g o t i a t i o n of t e x t u a l a b s e n c e s as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the r e a d i n g p r o c e s s i n H i 11 i s M i l l e r , J . (ed.) ( 1 9 7 1 ) 1-45 , E c o (1979 ) esp. introduction. See a l s o E a g l e t o n ' s n o t i o n t h a t t h e critical r e a d e r 'speaks the s i l e n c e s ' of a t e x t i n E a g l e t o n (1976). ' I t i s i n the s i g n i f i c a n t s i l e n c e s of a t e x t , i n i t s gaps and a b s e n c e s , t h a t the p r e s e n c e o f i d e o l o g y can be most p o s i t i v e l y felt. I t i s t h e s e s i l e n c e s which the c r i t i c must make s p e a k . The t e x t i s , as i t were, i d e o l o g i c a l l y f o r b i d d e n to say certain things' (34). 5  6  Cf.  Eagleton  (1976)  34-5.  S e e the s e m i o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h t a k e n by J a c q u e s D a r r a s i n Darras (1982). For a more p o l e m i c a l r e a d i n g o f the ' S i g n s o f E m p i r e ' , r e a d R a s k i n (1971). 7  8  See DeMille  (1986)  73.  There is a recognition (and c r i t i q u e ) in Heart of D a r k n e s s o f t h e map's f u n c t i o n as p r o p a g a n d a . For a f a s c i n a t i n g e s s a y on t h i s t o p i c , s e e Quam ( 1 9 4 3 ) o r , more r e c e n t l y , P h i l i p Muehrcke's e s s a y on the f u n c t i o n o f t h e map i n l i t e r a t u r e (which r e f e r s b r i e f l y t o Heart of D a r k n e s s ) , Muehrcke ( 1 9 7 4 ) . 9  N i e t z s c h e ' s a t t a c k on the p r e m i s e s o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n i s highly relevant t o C o n r a d ' s work as a w h o l e . For a b r i e f summary o f t h e r e l e v a n c e o f N i e t z s c h e t o C o n r a d , see Watt ( 1 9 8 0 ) , C h a p t e r 4, s e c t i o n v, c. 1 0  85 S e e 'Watt (1980) 155-7; Chesneaux O'Hanlon (1984). n  (1971) e s p . c h a p t e r  6;  V e r n e , l i k e Conrad, appears t o have been a t once a t t r a c t e d t o and r e p e l l e d by t h e e v o l u t i o n a r y t h e o r i e s o f h i s day. F o r an e s s a y which sheds l i g h t on t h i s a m b i v a l e n c e , s e e Gaillard (1979). 1 2  13  S e e Watt  (1980) 161-7.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h e i n f l u e n c e o f Schopenhauer ( e . g . t h e w o r l d a s w i l l and i d e a ) and N i e t z s c h e ( e . g . t h e n o t i o n o f t h e w i l l t o power) on i m p e r i a l i s t i c n o t i o n s o f g e o g r a p h y i n t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y ( s e e my c o n c l u d i n g chapter). 1 4  S e e ( s p e c i f i c a l l y ) Watt ( g e n e r a l l y ) K r o n e g g e r (1973). 1 5  (1980)  ch.  4,  sect,  i v , a;  C f . Axel's exclamation ' F o l i e s u r t o u t de p r e t e n d r e a t t e n d r e l e c e n t r e du g l o b e ! ' ( V e r n e , VCT, 1 3 0 ) a n d , i n a n o t h e r o f t h e Voyages e x t r a o r d i n a i r e s , Hatteras'' a c t u a l l a p s e i n t o i n s a n i t y a f t e r r e a c h i n g the p o l e : Verne (1978) Les A v e n t u r e s du c a p i t a i n e h a t t e r a s . The i s s u e o f madness i s t a k e n up i n B u t o r (1960). 1 6  F o r an e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e f i c t i o n - e f f e c t o f V e r n e ' s n a r r a t i v e s (with s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e to L ' l l e m y s t e r i e u s e ) , see Macherey (1966). F o r Macherey, as f o r E a g l e t o n , t h e d e c e n t r e d t e x t i l l u s t r a t e s the l i m i t a t i o n s of the i d e o l o g y w i t h i n w h i c h i t i s w r i t t e n ( c f . E a g l e t o n (1976) 7 5 ) . 1 7  For a useful, i f c o n t e s t a b l e , summary o f p o s t s t r u c t u r a l i s t n o t i o n s o f m i s r e a d i n g , see C u l l e r (1982), e s p . 3, R e a d e r s and R e a d i n g . 1 8  1 9  S e e Watt's b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of A r t h u r C h a i n o f B e i n g i n Watt (1980) 155-6.  2 0  See Foucault  Great  (1966) .  Lovejoy's  The  86  NOTES (Chapter Three) *Cf. G r i f f i t h T a y l o r ' s d e f i n i t i o n , ' g e o p o l i t i c s views s p a c e from t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f the s t a t e ' , i n T a y l o r (1960) 263. 2  S e e my  Chapter  Two.  C f . C o n r a d ' s image o f t h e f o r t r e s s / s t r o n g h o l d / b u t p o s t and C h a r l e s F a w c e t t ' s i n T a y l o r (ed.) ( 1 9 6 0 ) . 'Every e m p i r e h a s a t i t s h e a r t a g e o g r a p h i c a l b a s e , a n u c l e a r a r e a ... i m p e r i a l power i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y d e p e n d e n t on a base o f t h i s t y p e - a b a s e a t once a d e q u a t e t o t h e demands on i t , s e c u r e f r o m h o s t i l e i n v a s i o n , and i n c o n t r o l o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h t h e a r e a s where t h e i m p e r i a l power i s t o be e x e r t e d ' ( F a w c e t t , 419). 3  S e e J a m e s o n ( 1 9 8 1 ) , e s p . C h a p t e r 5, 'Romance a n d R e i f i c a t i o n : P l o t C o n s t r u c t i o n and I d e o l o g i c a l C l o s u r e i n J o s e p h C o n r a d ' 206-80. 4  One o f t h e b o o k s J i m t a k e s w i t h him e v e r y w h e r e i s a complete Shakespeare. I t i s quite p o s s i b l e to consider Lord J i m w i t h i n t h e i n t e r t e x t u a l framework o f r o m a n t i c t r a g e d y ; one avenue o f i n q u i r y i s the c o m p a r i s o n between C o n r a d ' s and Shakespeare's dualistic conceptions.of personality ( b u t t e r f l y / b e e t l e , a n g e l / b e a s t e t c . ) i n , f o r example, Hamlet and The Tempest. P a t u s a n ( t h e s t a t e ) and P a t u s a n ( t h e i s l a n d ) c a n be s e e n i n t h i s s e n s e as 'pure e x e r c i s e s o f [ l i t e r a r y ] i m a g i n a t i o n ' ( C o n r a d , L J , 282) and t h e i n h a b i t a n t s as ' p e o p l e i n a book' ( C o n r a d , L J , 260). 5  T h e s i m i l a r i t i e s between t h e l a s t s e c t i o n o f L o r d J i m and H e a r t of D a r k n e s s , w r i t t e n contemporaneously^ are of c o u r s e more t h a n c o i n c i d e n t a l . 6  1 am i n d e b t e d f o r much o f my argument h e r e t o t r e a t m e n t o f L ' l l e m y s t e r i e u s e i n Macherey ( 1 9 6 6 ) . 7  8  S e e Chesneaux  9  See Verne  Macherey's  (1971).  (1978),  l e Tour du monde en 80  jours.  S e e A c h e b e ' s n o t o r i o u s e s s a y 'An Image o f A f r i c a ' , w h i c h l a m b a s t s H e a r t o f D a r k n e s s as ' d e p l o r a b l e ' and i t s a u t h o r as a ' r a c i s t ' , Achebe (1977) 782-794. Although Achebe's r e a c t i o n i s o v e r s t a t e d , h i s a r t i c l e d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e f a l l a c i e s o f ' u n i v e r s a l i s t ' c r i t i c i s m s o f H e a r t o f D a r k n e s s by s h o w i n g , f i r s t , t h a t u n i v e r s a l i t y i s a Western (Eurocentric) phenomenon and, s e c o n d , t h a t Conrad does d e v a l u e T h i r d W o r l d c u l t u r e by u s i n g i t as a r e v e r s e image o f E u r o p e a n c u l t u r e . See a l s o , i n t h i s c o n t e x t , S a i d (1986) 45-64, i n c l u d i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y S a i d ' s r e f u t a t i o n o f Conor C r u i s e O ' B r i e n ' s d e f e n c e o f H e a r t o f D a r k n e s s a s an a n t i i m p e r i a l i s t i c work. 1 0  87 NOTES  (Conclusion) !  See Husserl  (1965).  2  See Kolakowski  (1968) e s p . c o n c l u s i o n .  T h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s give merely the appearance of having b r o u g h t n a t u r e t o a p o i n t where f o r i t s e l f i t is r a t i o n a l l y known. For t r u e nature i n i t s proper scientific s e n s e i s a p r o d u c t o f t h e s p i r i t t h a t i n v e s t i g a t e s n a t u r e , and thus the s c i e n c e of nature presupposes the s c i e n c e of the s p i r i t ' ( H u s s e r l , 189). 3 ,  88 REFERENCES Primary  Sources  Conrad, Joseph Press. Other  (1983)  Lord Jim.  London:  Oxford  (1983) The N i g g e r o f t h e Narcissus, Stories. Harmondsworth: P e n g u i n .  (1984) Youth, Heart of Darkness, Tether. London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . V e r n e , J u l e s (1971) L'lle Poche ( V o l s . 1,2). (1978) Gallimard.  Vingt  mille  (1982) Voyage E d i t i o n s de Poche. 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