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Urban design requirements, B. C. Place Vancouver, B. C. Kemble, Roger 1987

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URBAN DESIGN REQUIREMENTS, B. C. PLACE Vancouver, B. C. By Roger Kemble, R.C.A., M.R.A.I.C. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School of Community and Regional Planning. We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standards THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February 1987. © Roger Kemble 1987. In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and, study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. ROGER KEMBLE Faculty of Graduate Studies Department of School of Community and Regional Planning The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date February 3, 1987 DE-6(3/81) ii ABSTRACT. A new set of urban design requirements is proposed to replace the current urban design guidelines for the B. C. Place site in Vancouver, B. C. The site is 90.6 hectares of open area, contiguous to the downtown, it is the subject of extensive planning activities. The site has been chosen because it is free of most of the typical impediments that constrain urban planning in more congested areas of the city. Accordingly, a new way of expressing urban space is appropriate. To be valid urban design requirements must be conceived with a purpose in mind. The purpose, here, is the essential element of urban design, a shared vision of urban space. It must define, within a broad public consensus, a set of urban design requirements communicating, over an extended time period, a consistent vision of urban space. Six urban design requirements are set out to implement a shared vision of urban space. They have been reduced to a minimum to provide as much freedom of expression to the design professions as possible. They are under six headings: Interim Land Use, Site Development, Physical Form and Design, Environment, Occupancy, and Movement. Pivotal in the composition of the urban design requirements is an instrument called the Orthodox Surface Modulator, augmented by a Check List of architectural design elements. Together they become a metaphoric framework of reference, a part of the creative process within the development control system. The Orthodox Surface Modulator, as it is applied, describes the volumetric forms of building envelopes and the public urban spaces between buildings. It describes iii buildings and spaces to enhance public amenity. It may, under specific environmental circumstances, mitigate undesirable site conditions by describing building envelopes as buffer buildings, shielding passive urban space from noise and distractions. Urban Space is discussed. A Shared Vision of Urban Space, how it is evolved by public discourse, and a proposed Theory of Urban Space is explained. A critique of current urban development on Burrard Street, Vancouver, between Georgia Street and the waterfront explains why the present urban design guidelines, transfer of development rights and bonusing, have failed to produce the intended urban spacial amenity. Urban design requirements are not a new phenomenon. Only since the early 1970s have they taken on their present complex form in the City of Vancouver. A brief historic outline traces the antecedents of the proposed urban design requirements, placing them in context from early Greek attempts to rationalize optical distortion to the present day. The proposed application of the six urban design requirements and the the Surface Modulator would be mandatory. The manner in which the elements of the Check List are integrated into the matrix of the Surface Modulator is proposed to be discretionary. The complete set of urban design requirements are intended to be used in a negotiating procedure common in planning practice. iv TABLE OF C0NTENT5. Abstract ii Table of Contents iv L ist of Figures vii Acknowledgements ix Frontispiece x THESIS - Urban Design Requirements, B. C. Place. Chapter I. Introduction. 1 1.01 Purpose. 2 1.02 Assumptions. 4 1.03 Scope. 7 1.04 Format. 9 1.05 Aspirations. 11 Chapter 2. The Surface Modulator. 12 2.01 The Urban Design Requirements. 12 2.02 The Orthodox Surf ace Modulator. 13 2.03 The Check List. 15 Chapter 3. The Surface Modulator Applied. 26 3.01 The Applied Surface Modulator. 26 3.02 Scenario. 28 3.03 Environmental Buffers. 36 V Chapter 4 Space. 42 4.01 The Principle of Sustained Interest. 42 4.02 A Shared Vision of Urban Space. 50 4.03 A Theory of Urban Space. 52 4.04 A Critique. 55 Chapter 5. Historic Background. 61 Chapter 6. An Explanation of the Urban Design Requirements. 74 6.01 Intent. 74 6.02 Urban Design Requirements. 74 .021 Interim Land Use. 75 .022 Site Development. 75 .023 Physical Form and Design. 77 .024 Environment. 78 .025 Occupancy. 80 .026 Movement. 81 Chapter 7. Implications. 84 7.01 Uses. 84 7.02 Simplified Requirements. 85 7.03 Volumetric Understanding of Space. 85 7.04 Computer Application. 85 7.05 Limitations. 90 7.06 Conclusion. 91 Chapter 8. Conclusion. 8.01 introduction. 8..02 Conclusions. Bibliography Appendix. 1.01 F.C.C.D.D/B.C.P.E.D.zoning. 1.011 Reference documents 1.012 FCCDD/BCPED vii L ist of Figures. Thesis. Figure 1. Image of Paul Klee Painting. 6 Figure 2. Map of False Creek Basin. 8 Figure 3. The Orthodox Surface Modulator. 14 Figure 4. The Check List. 17 Figure 5. The Banqueting House. 18 Figure 6. Cone of Vision. 19 Figure 7. West Hastings Street. 20 Figure 8. N. W. corner of West Hastings @ Granville Street. 21 Figure 9. West Hastings Street. 27 Figure 10. The Applied Surface Modulator. West Hastings Street. 28 Figure 11. The Amended Surface Modulator. The abstract grid. 32 Figure 12. The Amended Surface Modulator. The first stage. 33 Figure 13. The Amended Surface Modulator. The second stage. 34 Figure 14. The Amended Surface Modulator. Completed. 35 Figure 15. South East Granville Slopes. 36 Figure 16. North Park. 37 Figure 17. A type of Buffer building plan. 39 Figure 18. Planned view/actual view. 40 Figure 19. Medium Density Urban Residential Infill. 43 Figure 20. Mixed Use Urban Infill. 45 Figure 21. Medium Density Urban Residential Infill. 47 Figure 22. Applied Surface Modulator. Regent Street. 49 Figure 23. A Visual Analogy of Urban Space. 53 Figure 24. A Model of Space. 54 Figure 25. North end of Burrard Street. 56 viii Figure 26. The Parthenon Athens East Front. 62 Figure 27. Leonardo da Vinci"s Proportional Figure. 64 Figure 28. Dizengoff Circle, Tel Aviv, Israel. 67 Figure 29. Le Corbusier's Modular. 68 Figure 30. Incremental Land Subdivision. 77 Figure 31. St. Lawrence Centre. 79 Figure 32. A Matrix of Spacial Movement. 82 Figure 33. Primitive C.AD.D. View 1. 86 Figure 34. Primitive C.AD.D. View 2. 87 Figure 35. Primitive C.AD.D. View 3. 88 Figure 36. Amended Surface Modulator. Rectilinear vision. 89 Figure 37. North Park Neighbourhood. 92 Figure 38. Lismore Circus. 93 Figure 39. A Simulated Effect of the Pont Street Streetscape. 94 Appendix. Figure 40. Sub-Areas. 103 F i gure 41. South East Granv i 11 e 51 opes. 113 Figure 42. Cambie Bridge South Corridor. 114 Figure 43. North Park, B. C. Place. 115 Figure 44. East False Creek. 117 ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. I would like to express my thanks to Professor Brahm Wiesman, for guiding this thesis during the major part of the work and, Indeed his continuing encouragement and support throughout my two year academic experience. Thank you, Professor Shelagh Llndsey, for reading my thesis and for your valuable comments. I would like to thank all the students and staff In the School of Community and Regional Planning for their friendship, assistance and encouragement. I thank Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation for awarding me a Graduate Fellowship, 1984-5-6 and the Mellon Foundation for financial support in 1986. Amy Kemble, my dear wife, made this academic adventure possible. It would have been unthinkable without her support. I FRONTISPIECE. " We are lovers of beauty without extravagance, and /overs of wisdom without unman/iness. Wealth to us is not mere material for vainglory but an opportunity for achievement; and poverty we think it no disgrace to acknowledge but a real degradation to make no effort to overcome. Our citizens attend both public and private duties, and do not allow absorption in their own various affairs to interfere with their knowledge of the city's. We differ from other states in regarding the man who holds aloof from public life not as 'quite'but as useless; we decide or debate, carefully and in person, all matters of policy, holding, not that words and deeds go ill together, but that facts are foredoomed to failure when undertaken undiscussed. For we are noted for being at once most adventurous in action and most reflective beforehand. Other men are bold in ignorance, while reflection will stop their onset. But the bravest are surely those who have the clearest vision of what is before them, glory and danger alike, and yet notwithstanding go out to meet it. In doing good too, we are the exact opposite of mankind We secure our friends not by accepting favours but by doing them. And so we are naturally more firm in our attachments: for we are anxious, as creditors, to cement by kind off ices our relation towards our friends. If they do not respond with the same warmness it is because they feel that their services will not be given spontaneously but only as the payment of a debt. We are alone among mankind in doing men benefits, not on calculations of self-interest, but in the fearless confidence of freedom. In a word I claim our city as a whole is an education to Greece, and that her members yield to none, man by man, for independence of spirit, many-sidedness of attainment, and complete self-reliance in limb and brain." Pericles, 431 B. C. as quoted by Thucydides. Translated by Sir Alfred Zimmerman. 1 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION. The c i t y has come about in h i s t o r y as a p lace where people meet, to generate w e a l t h , as a p lace to work and a p lace to l i ve . When we come together in the c i t y to accumu la te w e a l t h we spend much of our t i m e in the r e s i d e n t i a l environment. For reasons of s e c u r i t y and p re s t i ge that env i ronment i s as impor tant to our wo r k i n g day as any par t of urban l i f e . In the past decade, the move to the suburbs has been a r r e s t ed in favour of a c l o s e r l ink be tween work and res idence. Re s i den t i a l accommodat ion i s r ep l ac i ng o ld i n d u s t r i a l a reas in the c i t y . They are becoming more densely populated. The d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of bu i l d i ng use and occupancy i s t e s t i n g the prev ious not ions of convent iona l zoning. Th i s proposal s e t s out a way of addres s ing t h i s contemporary issue. The i s sue i s the comb ina t i on of complex bu i l d i ng use and h igher r e s i d e n t i a l dens i t i e s . In t h i s contex t the proposal de f i ne s urban des ign as an i s sue of pub l i c urban space. That i s the manner in w h i c h i t may be des igned to a m e l i o r a t e the c i r c u m s t a n c e s of m u l t i - u s e and h igher dens i t i e s . The pe rcept i on of pub l i c urban space i s in the c o l l e c t i v e eye of the general pub l i c , a lmo s t as a c u l t u r a l phenomenon, but the ac tua l c r ea t i on of i t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the t w o p ro fe s s i on s whose day to day a c t i v i t i e s t r a n s f o r m the pub l i c v i s i o n in to tang ib le forms. The t w o p ro fe s s i on s are A r c h i t e c t u r e and Urban Planning. The a r c h i t e c t s are the a r t i s t s who con t r i bu te the des igns of separate bui ld ings. The planners, when they are wo rk i ng on behalf of the c i t y , c o - o rd i na te the ind i v idua l e f f o r t s to br ing about a cohes ive compos i t i on of space. These t w o p ro fe s s i on s come together to p r a c t i c e the a r t of urban design. 2 The thesis deals in the area of interface between the professions of Architecture and Planning. A relevant concern has to do with the consociation of Planning and Architecture in recognition of those most responsible for the outcome of the detailed deliberations from which public urban space results. These two professions meet to conduct their respective tasks, to interpret the urban design component of the development control system. In order for them to conduct their work effectively they must co-operate in that part of the planning process that has a direct effect on the amenity of the urban environment, the design of public urban space. The way people view their city is cultural and subjective, the nature of the work is art. They are not analytical. The manner in which urban space is viewed by the public is an outcome of their cultural values. Because of this a vision of urban space is elusive and once it is established it should not be interpreted as definitive. The elusive nature of the public's perception of space suggests that the best medium in which the two professions may co-operate in their work is a concise set of urban design requirements that have two attributes. The first is that they are unequivocal, that there is no doubt what is mandatory and what is discretionary. The second is that they must not impede the creative abilities of the practitioners. For these reasons the urban design requirements are proposed as a framework of reference. 1.01 Purpose. The thesis proposes six urban design requirements for B. C. Place in Vancouver, B. C, Canada. 3 For urban design requirements to have any validity they must be motivated by a vision of urban space shared by the general public. For that to transpire they must be encouraged to debate their ideas through a public forum. That vision, when it is established, must then be communicated to those who are able to bring it into realization. There are many people and organizations involved in the realization of urban spaces. They are the developers who undertake to organize the work of building. They are the architects, acting as urban designers on behalf of the developers, who will design the buildings that enclose the public spaces. They are the planners who will administrate the requirements, through the medium of the development control system, that directs the work over an extended period of time. The purpose is to develop a means whereby the professionals may communicate to one another, via an array of urban design requirements, to create urban space in accordance with the shared vision expressed by the public. Architectural and urban design styles are currently undergoing many changes. Post modernism has been imitated for over a decade as a reaction to modernism. Evidently modernism turned its back on tradition too abruptly (Jencks & Chaitkin: 1982). Modern urban design lacked a direction " Towards a city with a memory" (Jencks & Chaitkin:1982) in reference to the bulldozer urban renewal of the recent past. The current style emerging is called the New Spirit (Farrelly: 1986). The New Spirit is, to quote Peter Cook, more "spatial" (Cook: 1986), allowing more freedom for the individual to explore the intrinsic multi-dimensional quality of architecture as a continuing experience. Farrelly states 4 that "post-modernism is dead ( A r c h i t e c t u r a l Rev iew: 1986: 7-12) . A r c h i t e c t u r e and urban des ign are in f o r a very e x c i t i n g future. But de sp i te the exc i t emen t on the i n te rna t i ona l scene the everyday work of the many devoted p r o f e s s i ona l s se ldom reaches the heady he ights of the new s t y l e s . The everyday outcome Is o f ten the r e s u l t of hard de t a i l ed work, t r ad ing o f f c o s t s and p r a c t i c a l i t y . They do respond to cu r ren t s t y l e s but se ldom w i t h the panache of the o r i g ina to r s . The i r work too o f t en appears to be the accumu la t i on of un re la ted bus ines s t ransac t ions . The f reedom of p r a c t i one r s to respond to these changes must be respected. But s imu l t aneous l y , as an urban space takes many yea r s to acc re te , some means of c o - o r d i n a t i n g these s t y l e s must be appl ied. There i s the need to co - o rd i na te changing a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e s , over an extended t i m e per iod, into a cohes i ve s pac i a l compos i t i on . There fo re , the purpose of these requ i rement s i s to prov ide s pac i a l con s i s t ency throughout the Inev i tab le changes of a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e s and to r e tu rn the c r e a t i v e work of i n t e rp re t i n g urban space to the des ign p ro fes s ions . 1.02 As sumpt ions . In contemporary urban des ign we are in danger of rea r i ng a generat ion of young people whose s e n s i t i v i t i e s and expec ta t i on s of the urban env i ronment i s measured by the s t a t u s quo. In metaphor; we are cond i t i on ing them to see good urban des ign in the l oca l supermarket park ing lot. The modern c i t y i s an agg lomerat ion of unre la ted f o r m s and purposes. The r e s u l t i n g cacophony be l i e s the p lann ing e f f o r t that has been d i r e c t e d into mak ing i t a be t t e r p lace; more than w e are ready to admit . Urban des igner s have been 5 unsuccessful in their efforts to co-ordinate the design of individual development projects. The enthusiasm of the early modern planners and their progeny, in their quest for social egalitarianism, caused them to ignore many of the desirable spadai charateristics of the late Baroque urban environment. The result 1s a modern city that fails to add up to more than a sum of its various parts. Modern cities contain many well designed buildings. The city of Vancouver is no exception. However, these buildings are isolated. The effect of their design is diluted by the chaos in which they are sited. When viewed together their discordant, separately conceived elements, augur against the traditional understanding of urban space. The conception of the street, the plaza or any urban area is violated by this opportunistic process of development. In introducing Urban Space. Rob Krier writes "The basic premise underlying this chapter is my conviction that in our modern cities we have lost sight or the + traditional understanding of urban space" (Kri er: 1979: p. 15) Edmund Bacon concludes Design of Cities, with the chapter, "Looking into the Future Amalgamation of Planning and Architecture." Here he writes "The water colour by Paul Klee (see Figure 1.) expresses the interrelation of planning and architecture. Here the grey rectangles suggest areas defined in accordance with usual painting procedures, and the architecture gives a glow which illuminates the whole. The architectural rhythms, occupying only a small part of the area set up a harmony which reverberates through all the spaces, showing that it is not necessary to design in detail every square foot of an area to achieve a great and unified work." (Bacon: 1974: p.319). 6 There i s a need, however, to come to t e r m s w i t h a lack of s pac i a l cohes iveness in the contemporary c i t y . Modern, as d i s t i n c t f r o m pos t -modern, a r c h i t e c t u r e has p laced emphas i s on the v i r t u e s of i nd i v idua l des ign at the expense of the t o t a l urban space. Image of Paul Klee painting. FIGURE 1. Po s s i b l y the need may best be met by s e n s i t i z i n g our c o l l e c t i v e consc iousnes s in to an app rec i a t i on of urban space as i t w a s recogn ized in the Baroque c i t y planning. The under ly ing concepts and e lement s of the Baroque seem to be emerg ing as a v a l i d f o rm of urban des ign, again. That i s not to say there i s v i r t u e 7 in p romot ing a backward g lance at a no s t a l g i c , Baroque image that probably never ex i s ted . There cou ld be an opportun i ty f o r cont inu ing the h i s t o r i c a l task of mak ing po s s i b l e co -o rd i na ted e f f o r t s t o w a r d an in teg ra ted sense of urban space; the shared v i s i o n of urban space. It i s argued that t h i s may best be commun ica ted by means of an ar ray of conc i s e urban des ign requ i rement s , u s ing the proposed Su r f ace Modulator and the r e l a t e d Check L i s t . 1.03 Scope. The scope of the work i s d i r e c t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t owa rd s the imp l emen ta t i on of a shared v i s i o n of urban space f o r the B. C. P l a ce s i t e , in Vancouver. The area compr i s e s 90.6 hec ta re s of land on the north shores of Fa l se Creek, Figure 2. The s i t e i s chosen as a large s c a l e oppor tun i ty to int roduce a new approach. It o f f e r s an opportun i ty to imp lement the le s sons learned f rom the deve lopments on the south shores of the Fa l s e Creek s i t e dur ing the 1970s. The s i t e i s undeveloped and f ree, in large measure, of e x i s t i n g con s t r a i n t s . An opportun i ty , to b r ing into e f f e c t new ph i lo soph ie s of c i t y bu i l d ing that have been theo r i zed f o r years , p re sent s i t s e l f . These oppo r tun i t i e s m a n i f e s t t hemse l ve s in s pac i a l l ayout s as in the North Park p lan presented by the B. C. P l a ce Co rpo ra t i on in 1985. Th i s p lan, in that area north of the Georg ia V iaduct , has to some ex tent emu la ted the concept ion of urban space po s tu l a ted by K r i e r in h i s book Urban Spaces (1979). B. C. P l a ce i s c u r r en t l y the s u b j e c t of a p lanning study being c a r r i e d out by the 8 B. C. P l a ce Corporat ion in pa r tne r sh ip w i t h the Vancouver C i t y P lann ing Department. 5ome ba s i c urban des ign gu ide l i ne s have a l ready been fo rmu la ted . The scope i s to propose a conc i s e se t of urban des ign requ i rement s as an a l t e r n a t i v e to the gu ide l ines c u r r en t l y being f o r m u l a t e d by t h i s par tnersh ip. DOWNTOWN VANCOUVER NORTH Burrard A / V " Bridge W ^ X ^ X 1 ' — ^ • . , : i ! $ f x ^ x V ; ^ X X X X > , Current Development 'Xy~' XCv XV\* '^Jv^ yJyCy-..... ' x ^ ' ^ - f ^ w y ^ - - ^ X > £ X>^v££^cS£ C j v ; ' > ' x w ^ ^ x > ^ c ^ ^ ^ Area y v_- v v v v v v jyCyV^v^Xy'^. .XN^ V^ vC . - - - - - -A A A ^ X ^ X X V C X <» ^^XXIXN^XXMX # x ^ ^ £ v x x ^ . £ x ^ ^ • A » ; x ^ ^ i v ^ ^ •>.AAAj'"Xvy''' Granville ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ c ^ % c ; o ; v ^ : f Approximate Shoreline 1985 A x X S Stadium ^XN^^XXlXo'S"?-^ v-:v;v;y'-.-;y;yc-.-Cy -^-C---;y;:'y . .^ -£^^-A'^vCXN'?^-£XXXX, , 3 • #* • * F A I R Y I E W S L O P E S MAP OF THE FALSE CREEK BASIN. Showing the northshore s i t e of B. C. P lace. FIGURE 2. The B. C. P l ace s i t e cou ld be a t e s t case f o r a gener ic s e t of urban des ign requ i rements . These cou ld, in turn , be app l ied to other pa r t s of the developing downtown. But the p r imary purpose i s to concent ra te on the s p e c i f i c s i t e because the north shore of Fa l se Creek i s unobs t ruc ted by a prev ious l y p laced, 9 onerous burden, of phy s i ca l or lega l con s t r a i n t s . T h i s o f f e r s an opportun i ty to propose requ i rement s un inh ib i ted by other extraneous f a c to r s . B. C. P l ace i s a development that r e f l e c t s a w o r l d w i d e urban cond i t ion . London, England, i s f a ced w i t h the redeve lopment of dock land areas; an undertak ing s i m i l a r ye t i n f i n i t e l y l a rger than the B. C. p lace proposals . L i ve rpoo l , K i n g s t o n -upon-Hul l and many other c i t i e s in that country are f a c i n g s i m i l a r cond i t ions . In Canada the same s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s . S i nce the l a te 1960s many of Canada's ma jo r urban cen t re s have seen va s t downtown areas (used p rev i ou s l y as r a i l y a r d s and i n d u s t r i a l dock lands) open up. Toronto i s p lanning, and indeed has a l ready developed a m a j o r po r t i on of, the Harbour f ront areas. Montrea l and Quebec are p lanning to r e - d e f i n e the use of t h e i r vieux cites. 1.04 Format. There are e ight chapte r s and an appendix. A s i g n i f i c a n t po r t i on i s devoted to develop ing an i n s t rument f o r commun ica t i ng the shared v i s i o n of urban space. Th i s i n s t rument i s the Orthodox Su r f ace Modulator. The Su r f ace Modulator i s the p i v o t a l e lement in the s i x proposed urban des ign requ i rement s as the means of commun i ca t i n g the e s s e n t i a l e l ement s of urban space to those who w i l l put i t in p lace. Chapter 2 exp la i n s t h i s i n s t rument , the Check L i s t that augments i t , and b r i e f l y ou t l i ne s the proposed urban des ign requ i rements . Chapter 3 de s c r i be s how the Orthodox Su r f ace Modulator i s t r an s f o rmed into the App l i ed Su r f ace Modulator. The Check L i s t i s de sc r ibed and each a r c h i t e c t u r a l e lement that i s par t of the Check L i s t i s exp la ined as i t r e l a t e s to the Su r face Modulator. 10 Chapter 4 de sc r i be s the va r ious way s of pe r ce i v i ng space. It expres ses wha t may be understood by a Shared V i s i o n of Urban Space. The s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter t i t l e d The P r i n c i p l e of Su s ta i ned Interest de sc r i be s how the s u b j e c t i v e and s ub l im i na l c u l t u r a l v i e w s of the pub l i c ought to be expres sed by the app l i c a t i o n of the a r t i s t ' s i n t e rp re t a t i on ; v i a the medium of the urban des ign requ i rement s a r t i c u l a t i n g the proposed v i s i o n of urban space. The p r i n c i p l e de s c r i be s how the c r e a t i v e compos i t i on of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l e l ement s of the Check L i s t and the a r t i c u l a t i o n of s u r f a ce s by the Su r f ace Modulator may enhance the r i c hne s s of urban space. A Theory of Urban Space i s proposed. Pa r t of the theory de s c r i be s a model of urban space as a conceptua l means of v i s u a l i z i n g the e f f e c t s of p rop inqu i ty of bu i l d ing facades. The theory makes a connect ion be tween the s u r f a ce s that enc lo se urban space and the way they i n f luence s p a c i a l qua l i ty . The contemporary s t a t e of urban development in Vancouver i s v i e w e d and c r i t i q u e d in the a rea of Bu r ra rd S t r e e t between Georg ia S t r ee t and the w a t e r f r o n t . The pub l i c urban spaces on t h i s s t r e e t have come about by imp lement i ng the c u r r en t l y accepted zoning measures of t r a n s f e r of development r i g h t s and f l o o r s space bonusing. Th i s may be s a i d to be an example of wha t to avo id at B. C. P lace. Chapter 5 b r i e f l y ou t l i ne s the h i s t o r i c background of urban des ign requ i rement s in the con tex t of the s ub jec t of the thes i s . 11 Chapter 6 l i s t s the s i x urban des ign requ i rement s in g rea te r d e t a i l . Each requ i rement 1s f o l l o w e d by an exp lanat ion w i t h examples of t h e i r app l i c a t i on ( in some instances) . Chapter 7 d i s cu s s e s the Imp l i c a t i on s of the use of the Su r f ace Modulator. One of the i m p l i c a t i o n s i s the use of d i s k e t t e s o f t w a r e as a medium f o r convey ing the App l i ed Su r f ace Modulator as pa r t of the regu la to ry s y s tem. The conc lu s i on , in chapter 8, po s tu l a te s wha t may r e s u l t in the app l i c a t i o n of t h i s proposa l . The appendix con ta in s an h i s t o r i c a l r e v i e w of pas t p lanning and des ign e f f o r t s f o r the Fa l se Creek basin. It w a s conducted as a f i r s t s tep in p repar ing t h i s t h e s i s and c rea ted the impetus f o r the proposa l p resented here. 1.05 A sp i r a t i on s . If a set of i n s t r umen t s i s found that may be inc luded in the s pec i a l zon ing f o r the B. C. P l a ce s i t e , then t h i s endeavour w i l l have more than se rved i t s purpose. Ideal ly these i n s t r umen t s w i l l p rov ide a means of rega in ing the beauty of urban space, a qua l i t y many wou ld contend i s l o s t and f o r go t ten in recent c i t y developments. Th i s set of i n s t r ument s w i l l help imp lement an urban env i ronment tha t w i l l i n s t i l l in f u tu re generat ions a sense of urban space that i s i n s p i r i n g and a t ta inab le . W i t h a set of urban des ign requ i rement s , a v i s i o n of urban space that emu la te s the beauty of the Baroque c i t y and s a t i s f i e s the ex i genc ie s of the evo l v ing contemporary c i t y , may be achieved. 12 CHAPTER 2. THE SURFACE MODULATOR. The Su r f ace Modulator i s the p i v o t a l i n s t rument of the urban des ign requ i rements . A Check L i s t of a r c h i t e c t u r a l e l ement s augments i t s purpose. T h i s i n s t rument i s exp la ined in the f o l l o w i n g chapter. F i r s t , however, i s a b r i e f l i s t i n g of the s i x urban des ign requ i rement s so as to p lace the Su r f ace Modulator in context. 2.01 The Urban Des ign Requi rements . There are some 1300 pages of urban des ign gu ide l i ne s and s t ud i e s in the Vancouver C i t y P lann ing Depar tment ' s r o s t e r of i n s t r u c t i o n s to p ro spec t i ve deve lopers and des ign p r o f e s s i ona l s - not a l l of them are app l i cab le to the B. C. P l a ce development. A s work proceeds i t i s l i k e l y the vo lume of paper w i l l grow. There i s some cons ide rab le con t rove r s y w i t h i n the development commun i t y as to the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of these documents (Ch i l ton: 1984). The s i x Urban Des ign Requ i rements proposed a re : -* U.D.R. no . l . i n t e r i m Land Use. There mus t be no expedient, ad hoc development c a r r i e d out to impede the imp lementa t i on of the shared v i s i o n of urban space, as de sc r i bed by a f u tu re Amended Su r f ace Modulator. Therefore , a p lan w i l l be f o r m u l a t e d to de sc r i be the e s s e n t i a l a reas of neighbourhoods and land use. * U.D.R. no.2. S i t e Development. The general vo lumes of b u i l t f o rm w i l l be desc r ibed , in ou t l i ne f o rm, us ing the Amended Su r f ace Modulator. The phy s i ca l ma s s i n g of the neighbourhoods w i l l be shown. The Amended Su r f ace Modulator w i l l appear to be a broad contour map of the s i t e at t h i s stage. 13 * U.D.R. no.3. Physical Form and Design. A more detailed volumetric outline of the built forms will be described, geometrically, using the Amended Surface Modulator. The character of the positive (buildings) and negative (urban spaces) forms proposed to occupy the site, will be depicted. * U.D.R. no.4. Environment. All the environmental aspects of the site should be considered. A response to sun orientation, light/shade, prevailing winds, noise and contours, is articulated by the Amended Surface Modulator. This requirement describes the manner in which, using the Amended Surface Modulator, the developed forms and spaces respond to all the environmental characteristics. The effective use of buffer buildings comes under this requirement. * U.D.R. no.5. Occupancy. The volume of the built forms are described by the Amended Surface Modulator in a manner that includes most uses and functions. The use to which a volume within a building is applied is open. Density is prescribed by volume not by floor space ratio. This requirement describes the manner, using the Amended Surface Modulator, in which building envelopes enclose urban spaces by including multi-functions within a prescribed building. * U.D.R. no.6. Movement. All movement within the urban spaces is to be planned in relationship to the form of the urban spaces. This is to be done by relating traffic patterns, using an overlay plan, to the Amended Surface Modulator. This requirement describes the modal split of traffic in relationship to the shape and volumes described by a future Amended Surface Modulator. 2.02 The Orthodox Surface Modulator is the generic term given to this instrument of urban design. The raw material from which the shared vision of urban space is crafted into a physical form is moulded by this instrument. 14 The Orthodox Su r f ace Modulator i s a graphic. A s the p i v o t a l par t of the urban des ign requ i rement s , the shared v i s i o n of urban space f o r the B. C. P l a ce s i t e i s d i r e c t e d by i t s fo rm. The Orthodox Surface Modulator FIGURE 3. The graph ic f o r m of t h i s i n s t rument i s an imag inary set of plane s u r f a ce s upon w h i c h i s de sc r i bed a g r i d work of i n t e r s e c t i n g l i ne s , see Figure 3. The plane s u r f a ce s are metaphors of a l l the s u r f a ce s that enc lo se urban space. They represent ho r i z on t a l s u r f a c e s such as pavements, roadways and p lazas . V e r t i c a l l y they represent the facades of bu i ld ings and w a l l s that p o t e n t i a l l y enc lose urban space. 15 The g r i d l i n e s en sc r i bed upon the s u r f a ce s de l i nea te what w i l l become the a r c h i t e c t u r a l f ea tu re s of the su r faces . These l i ne s de te rm ine the p ropor t ion of openings, the rhy thm of co lumns and openings. They de sc r i be the f e a t u r e s of the compos i t i on . Space, in i t s three d imens iona l f o rm, i s represented by the con f i g u r a t i on of the c a g e - l i k e g r i d work of l ines. The bu i l d ing envelope i s s e t by the vo lume of the Su r f ace Modulator. The pub l i c urban spaces, that i s the spaces be tween the bu i ld ings , i s de sc r i bed as vo lume between the g r i d su r faces . The g r i d l i k e c on f i gu r a t i on i s man ipu la ted by the urban designer. He i n t e r p r e t s the shared v i s i o n of urban space and the env i ronmenta l cond i t i on s of the s i t e . The Orthdox Su r f ace Modulator i s an i n s t rument to help the urban des igner p redete rmine the shape, area, f o rm and content of urban space as i t i s enc lo sed by bu i l d ing facades. It i s a mandatory part of the proposed urban des ign requ i rements . 2.03 The Check L i s t . A de t a i l ed Check L i s t of a r c h i t e c t u r a l e l ement s augments the Orthodox Su r f ace Modulator, see Figure 4. The t w o , are r e l a t e d and dependent upon each other. The a r c h i t e c t u r a l e l ement s of the Check L i s t and the manner in w h i c h they are app l ied to the Su r f ace Modulator have no precedent. They, and t h e i r app l i c a t i on , have t h e i r antecedents in the work c a r r i e d out at the Chicago I n s t i t u te of Des ign in the l a t e 1940 's. T w o p a r t i c u l a r l y i n f l u e n t i a l authors we re teach ing a t the I n s t i t u te dur ing that t ime. They we re Laz l o Moholy-Nagy who w r o t e V i s i o n in Mot ion (1947) and 16 Gyorgy Kepes who w r o t e Language of V i s i o n (1944). The a r c h i t e c t u r a l e l ement s are a d i s t i l l a t i o n of the ideas, conta ined in the books of those authors , tempered by my own des ign exper ience as an a r ch i t e c t . The metaphor of the s u r f a ce s and the ensc r ibed g r i d i s mean ing le s s u n t i l va lues are a s c r i bed to them. Urban su r f ace s , upon w h i c h l i ne s are etched, do not alone make a r ch i t ec tu re . 5o a Check L i s t of a r c h i t e c t u r a l e l emen t s augments the Orthodox Su r f a ce Modulator as a reminder to the urban des igner of the su r f ace e l ement s that are needed to make urban space. The urban des igner l a y s out the g r i d as a guide to f u tu re a r c h i t e c t u r a l des igner s to f o l l o w , in order to co - o rd i na te the compos i t i on of the t o t a l urban space. The use of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l e l ement s of the Check L i s t are a d i s c r e t i o n a r y part of the urban des ign requ i rements . Freedom of des ign i s l e f t t o the urban des igner to compose the s u r f a c e s and the space i n the manner tha t best i n t e r p r e t s the shared v i s i o n of urban space. Once the urban des igner has se t up h i s s p a c i a l c ompos i t i on , the manner in w h i c h the e l ement s of the Check L i s t are composed, then the e l ement s he has chosen become a mandatory par t of the urban des ign requ i rements . The e l ement s of the Check L i s t , Figure 4, are arranged g r aph i ca l l y in the f o l l o w i n g manner f o r ease of recogn i t ion . The e l ement s a re p l aced under three headings to denote t h e i r category. P/astfqueanti pallette r e f e r to the manner in w h i c h the s u r f a c e s a re composed and made up. Emploi r e f e r s to the nature of the a c t i v i t y w i t h i n the space. 17 The f o l l o w i n g paragraphs exp la in the e lement s of the Check L i s t . They do not n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w the s t r i c t d i c t i o na r y de f i n i t i o n . The i r purpose, as s t a t e d e a r l i e r , i s t o remind the des igner of the make-up and content of the e lement s of th ree d imens iona l space. PLA5TIQUE METRE-PROPORTION ENCLOSURE-VISTA SURFACE CHIAROSCURO AMBIENCE PROPINQUITY SCALE ICON PALLETTE PERMEABILITY COLOUR TEXTURE MATERIALS EMPLOI 6RAIN MOTION RITUAL THE CHECK LIST. FIGURE 4. Plastique. The a r t of mode l l i ng . Metre. The l i ne s in the Su r f ace Modulator se t up met re , the r e p e t i t i o u s i n t e r v a l s of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l e l ement s , t ha t make up the facade enc l o s i ng the urban spaces. The phy s i ca l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the bu i l d ing face , w i ndows , doors and a l l the a r c h i t e c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o l l o w t h i s metre. See Figure 5. Met re i s the manner in w h i c h i n t e r v a l s of occur rence (of a r c h i t e c t u r a l e lement s ) repeat. It i s s i m i l a r t o a dev i ce used in poetry. 18 The ve r se of Shakespeare i s , f o r in s tance, se t to an i amb i c metre. Th i s i s an occur rence of the rhyming s y l l a b l e s in a d l - d a , d i - d a sequence. The facade of the Banquet ing House, W h i t e h a l l , London des igned by Inigo Jones in 1621 has a r e p e t i t i o n of w i n d o w s and w a l l s u r f a c e s s e t up on that rhythm. This outline figure 7shows the manner in D Qj • • La I D Q. The Banqueting House. Whitehall Facade. FIGURE 5. which metre is set up. It illustrates the close relationship between proportion and metre. •p Proportion. Note: The facade is based on the prop-ortion 1 /£ 18 the Golden Mean. See figure 26. Metre. Note: The rhythm of the windows and the pediments. Proportion. T h i s i s hyphenated to met re ; the t w o are c l o s e l y r e l a ted . See Figure 5. It i s the expre s s i on of r e l a t i n g compara t i ve part s . The s i z e of a w a l l panel , or opening, may be compared in i t s area to the t o t a l w a l l s u r f a ce in w h i c h i t i s s i t ua ted . Width and height may be a r t i c u l a t e d to def ine proport ion. P ropo r t i on i s inherent in the a r t i s t r y of the compos i t i on of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l e lements . Enclosure. The nature of space i s enclosure. Su r f ace s enc lo se i t . The manner in w h i c h the s u r f a ce s are shaped moulds urban space. It i s r e l a t e d to a sense of space exp la ined in A Theory of Urban Space ( 4 02 ) . The contemporary , c u l t u r a l sense of space comes f r o m man 's ea r l y i n s t i n c t f o r s h e l t e r (O l i v ie r : 1969: pass im). A p r i m i t i v e sense of s e c u r i t y evo lved, in h i s t o r y , i n to a s y m b o l i c language of f a i t h (Kepes: 1944: p.8). The Sumer lan z i ggurat and the med ieva l ca thedra l became f o ca l po in t s around w h i c h the indigenous 19 commun i t y grew. Eventua l l y the marke t became as much a part of the c i t y as the ce remon ia l r e l i g i o u s d i sp l ay spaces. Soon these spaces became a symbo l of s t a tu re , monuments in planning; as in the T h i r d Empi re P a r i s ( S u t c l i f f e : 1971: pass im). Hastings St. A Cone of Vision as seen from the corner of Granville <* Hastings F IGURE 6. The t r a d i t i o n of the human need to congregate i s the m o t i v a t i o n behind the c r e a t i o n of urban space (O l i v ie r : 1969: pass im). Vista. Enc losure i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d and hyphenated to v i s t a . V i s t a pene t ra te s enc losure, opening an oppor tun i ty f o r a cone of v i s i on . A cone of v i s i o n i s the imag inary t r i angu l a r , ho r i z on ta l plane seen f r o m the eye to the d i s t an t v i s t a through the i n t e r s t i c e s between bu i ld ings , see Figure 6. For example, a v i s t a of the harbour and north shore, look ing nor th down G ranv i l l e S t r ee t , in Vancouver, B. C , i s c i r c u m s c r i b e d by the bu i ld ing s on the s t r e e t The cone of v i s i o n v i s t a as seen de s c r i be s a v i e w of the w a t e r and the harbour f r amed by the bu i ld ings of G r anv i l l e S t reet . The i n t e r s t i c e be tween enc l o s i ng s u r f a ce s of an urban space prov ide an opportun i ty f o r v i s t a s , or v i ews . 20 The a r t of enc losure requ i re s c a r e f u l l y p laced space in r e l a t i o n to openings and penet ra t ions between bui ld ings. V i s t a i s the opportun i ty to penet ra te the enclosure. The Marine Building completes the spacial enclosure of west vista. Vest Hastings Street. Viewing westward, 800 & 900 block. FIGURE 7. A v i e w of s t r e e t enc losure i s seen in Figure 7. Th i s s t r e e t space i s a good example of urban space enclosure. The v i e w shown i s t owa rd s the wes t , a long West Hast ings S t r ee t , Vancouver, B. C , Canada. Surface. S u r f ace s are the ba s i c i ng red ient s of urban space. The manner in w h i c h su r f ace s are r e l a t ed de te rm ine s the ambience of space enclosure. The 21 imag inary g r i d work planes of the Su r f ace Modulator are the metaphor i c r ep re sen ta t i on s of the sur faces . mm-. Tower offset from centre line Deep window of Granville Street to preserve reveals show vista. (See cone of vision Fig 6.) chiaroscuro i^^m^m^&-Tower 1975. Post Office 'Addition 1939. - Sinclair Centre 1909. Rerovated 1986. Facades continue space of Granville Street. Sculpted Arch, details capture chiaroscuro. NorthVest corner. Vest Hastings Street e Granville Street. Old Post Office, now Sinclair Centre. Granville Square behind. FIGURE 8. The compos i t i on of the Check L i s t g i ves the s u r f a ce s qua l i ty . The s u r f a ce s compr i s e the w a l l s , the pavements and the overhead features . The f o l l o w i n g four headings are the ingred ient s that make up the qua l i t y of the sur faces . 22 Chiaroscuro. Ch ia ro scuro i s l i g h t and shade. T h i s i s ra re i n m o d e m a r ch i t e c tu re . The severe s u r f a ce s of sheer g l a s s w a l l s do not lend themse l ve s to the p lay of l i gh t . The post o f f i c e co rner of the S i n c l a i r Centre, Figure 8, s hows a ch i a ro scu ro e f f e c t of the s u r f a c e s of l a te r e v i v a l a r ch i t e c t u r e . The indented facades demons t ra te the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the p lay of l i gh t of the deep w indow revea l s on the G r a n v i l l e Square tower. A r c h i t e c t u r a l e l ement s on a su r f ace , w indow openings, co lumns, c o r n i c e s etc., s e t up l i gh t pa t te rn s in d i f f e r e n t env i ronmenta l s i t ua t i on s . The movement of the sun throughout the seasons and at d i f f e r e n t t i m e s of the day con t r i bu te to the e f f e c t . These va r y i ng q u a l i t i e s f o r m compos i t i on s on the su r f a ce s that respond to mov ing l i gh t cond i t ions . Ambience. The s u b l i m i n a l e f f e c t of the surroundings on our psyche i s cond i t i oned by ambience; the general and o v e r a l l v i e w of the t o t a l c ompo s i t i on of the space. It i s an in tang ib le va lue br ing ing a l l the senses to bear on the compo s i t i o n of the space. It i s the sum t o t a l of co lour , t ex tu re , shape, f o r m and the a r t i s t r y w i t h w h i c h they are composed. Propinquity. The nearness of ob j e c t s , s u r f a c e s etc. to one another in space i s prop inqu i ty It c r ea te s the f l u x in the model of urban space de sc r i bed l a te r , see Figure 24. Scale. Th i s i s a r e fe rence of s i z e in r e l a t i o n to a p redete rmined h ierarchy. One h ie ra rchy of s c a l e cou ld be in r e l a t i o n to the human fo rm. V i t r u v i u s and Leonardo da V i n c i expres sed t h i s l eve l of s c a l e in t h e i r p ropor t i ona l r ep re sen ta t i on of the Norm-man. Th i s i s de sc r i bed in g rea te r d e t a i l l a te r , see Figure 27. Icon. S y m b o l i s m i s icon. The va lues of s o c i e t y are expres sed in the, o f t taken f o r granted, d e t a i l s imposed u n w i t t i n g l y upon urban a r t i f a c t s . The response i s s u b l i m i n a l . Symbo l s may be chosen to app rop r i a te l y represent the use, meaning, and f unc t i on of urban space. S y m b o l i s m may be unconsc ious l y demonstrated. 23 Icon, as s y m b o l i s m , i s an e lement i n the des ign tha t may be used con sc i ou s l y to commun i ca te a c o l l e c t i v e va lue s y s t em such as a shared v i s i o n of urban space. S y m b o l i s m i s a c u l t u r a l l y cond i t i oned value. Ear l y r e l i g i o n s used s teps , as the t emp l e i s approached, to invoke an awe of r e l i g i o u s m y s t i c i s m in the minds of the un i n i t i a t ed . Th i s has c a r r i e d through into m o d e m t i m e s through the medium of c l a s s i c proport ion. Banks and other pub l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s use, f o r example, the c l a s s i c order of co lumnated facades , invok ing the icon of the Greek temp le , to i n sp i r e conf idence in the f i n a n c i a l s y s tem. O f ten t h i s a s u b l i m i n a l e f f e c t both on the par t of the observer and the creator . When the language of the s y m b o l i s m i s so c u l t u r a l l y entrenched i t i s unquest ionably accepted as icon. Contemporary i con i s found in the manner in w h i c h hote l or o f f i c e bu i l d ing lobb ies may be decorated. Modern a r c h i t e c t u r e i s r i f e w i t h an icon that d e f i e s t r a d i t i o n a l de f i n i t i o n . That in i t s e l f i s s u b j e c t to the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of icon as, o s ten s i b l y , no s ymbo l i sm. Pallette. A l l the i t e m s under t h i s heading are su r f a ce m a t e r i a l s . They a re the e l ement s of the bu i l d i ng facades that are i m m e d i a t e l y ev ident to the v i s ua l and t a c t i l e senses. Permeability. The manner in w h i c h the des ign e lement s , on the su r face , d raw the a t t e n t i o n of the observer in to the depth of the s u r f a ce i s the absorpt ion f a c t o r ; pe rmeab i l i t y . Layered su r f ace s , g lazed openings, complex s u r f a ce compos i t i on s and over layed p lanes can have the e f f e c t of d r aw ing a t t e n t i o n into the su r f ace beyond the immed i a te percept ion. The d iapered, mosa i c , f ea tu re s of Mos lem a r c h i t e c t u r e encourages the a t t en t i on to penet ra te beyond the immed ia te sur face. Colour. (Colour has a profound s u b l i m i n a l e f f e c t on our psyche). Co lour theory i s a s c i ence ; co lour app l i c a t i on i s an art. Co lour can be used as an app l i c a t i on on a s u r f a c e or as an i n teg ra l pa r t of the m a t e r i a l of w h i c h the su r f ace i s composed. 24 Colour i s an e lement in w h i c h s o c i a l cond i t i on ing p lay s an impor tan t part. Co lour i s not inherent in the su r f ace m a t e r i a l so much as a qua l i t y of wave length to w h i c h the r e t i n a responds. Co lour i n t e r p r e t s the meaning of that response to the v i s u a l c o r t ex of our b ra in (Ross: 1986). Co lour i s a m a t t e r of r e l a t i on sh i p s . Co lour cannot be va lued out of r e l a t i o n to i t s surrounding co lours . Co lour s complement one another in a manner that , when in j u x t a p o s i t i o n , they enhance one another (Chevreul: 1839: pass im). Co lou r s a re used to mod i f y and enhance the ambience of a volume. In s p e c i f y i n g co lou r s s p a c i a l l y , p ropor t ions as w e l l as d imens ions have to be cons ide red ( Itten: 1970: pass im). Texture. The qua l i t y of s u r f a ce s that respond to a v i s u a l and t a c t i l e exper ience are textured. Textu re may be composed as a c l o s e l y exper ienced qua l i t y inherent in the m a t e r i a l of w h i c h the s u r f a ce i s made o r i t may be exper ienced as d i s t a n t e l ement s made up by combin ing a r c h i t e c t u r a l f a c e t s app l i ed to the s u r f a ce (Moholy-Nagy: 1947). To some extent , a t a c t i l e qua l i t y can be used in the same manner as ch i a ro s cu ro but on a s m a l l e r sca le . Ch ia roscuro r e f e r s t o large s c a l e d e l ement s and l i gh t r e f l e c t i o n . Tex tu re i s more to do w i t h s u r f a c e substance; s m a l l s c a l e and touchable. Materials. M a t e r i a l s are the s t u f f of w h i c h the s u r f a ce i s made. That may be natu ra l s tone, wood or many modern bu i ld ing m a t e r i a l s , or i t may be manufactured; i.e. m e t a l , conc re te or p l a s t i c . Many deco ra t i ve e f f e c t s can be ach ieved w i t h the use of w e l l composed c o n t r a s t i n g or comp lementa ry ma te r i a l s . They may be s t r u c t u r a l or they may be decorat i ve . Emploi. The employment of space and the occupat ion that t r a n s p i r e s w i t h i n a space can be i n f l u e n t i a l . The in tent of the meaning i s to expres s a c t i v i t y as a re fe rence to the manner in w h i c h the urban space i s used. 25 Grain. T h i s r e f e r s to the con s i s t ency of the t r a f f i c mov ing i n a space. If the g ra in i s de f ined as being coarse, the t r a f f i c i s m ixed; i.e. t r u ck s , p r i v a t e v e h i c l e s and pedest r ians . If movement i s de f ined as being f i n e i t may be, say, veh i cu l a r t r a f f i c , mov ing in one d i r e c t i o n , or pedes t r i an t r a f f i c on a r e s t r i c t e d pathway. Motion. Mot ion in space i s the d i r e c t i o n and v e l o c i t y of movement w i t h i n the space. Ritual. The nature of the a c t i v i t y w i t h i n the space becomes r i t u a l . A r i t u a l may be a s i m p l e meet ing of t w o f r i end s or i t may be a g l o r i ou s parade. It may be a c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t y or i t may be a p r i v a t e s m a l l s c a l e occurrence. Th i s i s the exp lanat ion of the Orthodox Su r f ace Modulator and the Check L i s t . These t w o dev i ce s used together are the proposed urban des ign too ls . The i r purpose i s to de f ine and c rea te a shared v i s i o n of pub l i c urban space. 26 CHAPTER 3. THE SURFACE MODULATOR APPLIED. 3.01 The Applied Surface Modulator. The Orthodox Surface Modulator, comprised of the imaginary planes, as Figure 3 illustrates, becomes the Applied Surface Modulator after the grid lines have been composed to fit an on-site set of conditions, in combination with the Check List of design elements, Figure 4, it is the instrument for implementing the urban design requirements. These planes represent walls, roofs, pavements, plazas and whatever elements contribute to a sense of enclosure. They are imagined in the mind's eye of the urban designer. Once imagined they are drawn and may be placed in a computer program to be manipulated with ease and convenience. The Applied Surface Modulator is site specific. The grids of the Orthodox Surface Modulator are articulated to meet special environmental conditions and the shapes of the spacial forms; that is when it becomes the Amended Surface Modulator. The site conditions are, among many things, topography, sun orientation and the physical characteristics of the elements that constitute the building area. The Applied Surface Modulator, in the hands of the urban designer, presets the general spacial principles of the building envelopes and the spaces between. A limited application of an instrument similar to an Applied Surface Modulator has recently been used by the Vancouver City Planning Department. In this case it has been applied as a "Build-to Line" (see chapter 5). Figure 9 shows two buildings on the 800 block West Hastings Street, Vancouver, B. C. , Canada. They were designed decades apart by separate architects. In order to preserve the architectural continuity on that part of the street the Planning Department set about co-ordinating the facade of the new building (built in 1976), to the facade 27 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the o lder bu i ld ing. In the Vancouver C i t y P lann ing Department they r e f e r t o that p roces s a s good ne ighbour l iness . Vest Hastings Street. North side,800 block. Figure 10 represents the theoretic-si Applied Surface Modulator for the coordinated facades of these two buildings. FIGURE 9. An Amended Su r f ace Modulator w a s not used but Figure 10 i s an app l i c a t i o n imagined as i f one had been used. It i s a good example of the a p p l i c a t i o n of the B u i l d - t o L ine in the c i t y . It approx imates the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of the Amended Su r f ace Modulator as near as there are examples to show. 28 See Figure 9. West Hastings Street. Vancouver. B. C. FIGURE 10. 3.02 Scenario. An explanation of how the Surface Modulator is applied can be understood best by tracing the events of one possible scenario of the development process. The following paragraphs imagine a sequence of events depicting the relationships between the various protagonists in the planning of the development of a new urban space. 29 The bu i l d ing of an urban env i ronment i s a c o l l e c t i v e undertaking. There are many persons and o rgan i za t i on s involved. In de sc r i b i ng a s cena r i o of how urban space i s c r ea ted by us ing the App l i ed Su r f ace Modulator f i r s t the ro le , in t h i s in s tance, of those invo lved in the de l i be r a t i on s must be c l a r i f i e d : -.0201 The Pub l ic . In the f i n a l a na l y s i s a l l the other p ro tagon i s t s are re spons i b l e to the publ ic. Today the pub l i c expres ses t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e v i s i o n of urban space p r i m a r i l y through the medium of pub l i c meet ings. The i r v i s i o n i s expres sed in general t e r m s such as a l l h i g h - r i s e developement or l o w - r i s e , the m i x of park land to b u i l t - u p land, the type of land use as a m i x of c o m m e r c i a l , o f f i c e , r e s i d e n t i a l . .0202 The C i ty . The C i t y i s r e spons ib le to the publ ic . The r o l e i t mus t pe r fo rm at B. C. P l ace i s c i r c u m s c r i b e d ; a P r o v i n c i a l C rown Corpora t ion i s not bound by the C i t y ' s b y - l aws . Precedent has enabled the C i t y to represent the pub l i c by wo r k i n g in par tner sh ip , on the planning, w i t h the B. C. P l a ce Corporat ion. They have c a r r i e d out t h e i r mandate by conduct ing pub l i c meet ings , a d m i n i s t e r i n g the urban des ign gu ide l i ne s through the development pe rm i t p roces s and ensur ing t h e i r i n tent i s c a r r i e d out. .0203 The P lanner i s the agent of the C i ty . .0204 B. C. P l a ce Co rpo ra t i on i s the C rown Corporat ion re spons ib le f o r the development of the s i t e . The Corporat ion i s r e spons i b l e to the P r o v i n c i a l Government. .0205 The Urban Des igner i s the agent of B. C. P l a ce Corporat ion. He i s a l so the agent of p r i v a t e development compan ies who have been au tho r i zed by B. C. P l a ce 30 to develop certain portions of the site. He is the professional responsible for interpreting the shared vision of urban space, converting it into an Applied Surface Modulator, appropriately manipulated to the conditions of the site, as an instrument to communicate to the architects. .0206 The Developer is the individual or company responsible for organizing the construction of the buildings and spaces on incremental land parcels. Sometimes small developers are referred to as builders. .0207 The Architect is the agent of the developer. 3.021 The following scenario is one of many occurrences that may result in a completed development. The events are described for illustrative purposes only. The scenario shows how the Applied Surface Modulator may be used to implement a shared vision of urban space within the general framework of the existing regulatory system:-.0211 The public expresses its shared vision of urban space through the medium of public meetings or other appropriate means. .0212 B. C. Place Corporation calls upon their urban designer to interpret the vision into a coherent package that may be communicated to prospective developers. It is done by applying the Surface Modulator to the overall site. The urban designer creates a design that responds to the physical characteristics of the site. At this stage the design is conceptual. Its purpose is to provide a broad framework that will give a general direction. The term Overall Development Framework, 0. D. F.'s (section 6.022 of the thesis) was chosen by B. C. Place (Report no. 3: April 1983) to designate this level of planning. The urban designer 31 will use the Applied Surface Modulator to describe the overall volumes and heights in various parts of the site. At this stage the details of the Check List will not be applied. A second stage of planning may follow. Accordingly, the site is divided into smaller increments in response to the physical and environmental constraints. The site then becomes divided into Overall Development Plans, 0. D. P.s (Report no. 3: 1983) and within the 0. D. P.'s the urban designer may designate smaller increments of land called Area Development Plans, A. D. P.'s (Report no. 3:1983). The development sequence of the 0. D. P.'s and A. D. P.'s may be ascribed by B. C. Place according to market conditions. At this stage the Applied Surface Modulator describes the general form of the neighbourhoods in response to environmental conditions. These should be approximately 15 hectares in area, which is what an A D. P. should be. Buffer buildings (section 3.03) may be described at this stage. The form of the neighbourhoods then become recognizable. .0213 On a continuous basis throughout the negotiations a consultation frame work is installed so that the designers and developers keep the City's Planning Department fully informed on the current proceedings. The planners contribute and participate in this consultative process. The City responds by adopting the concept of the Amended Surface Modulator as a part of the B. C. Place Expo development district (B. C. P. E. D.) Zoning. .0214 The B. C. Place Corporation chooses to develop some Increments. 32 .0215 A developer expresses an interest in one or more of the A. D. P.'s. Considering his pro forma, the developer instructs his urban designer to set up a scheme of building envelopes. The urban designer is instructed to follow the concept of the 0. D. F. and develop the concept in further detail. The urban designer uses the Amended Surface Modulator to describe it by following the shared vision of urban space established by the public input process. The Amended Surface Modulator. The abstract grid as it would be inserted into a by-law. FIGURE 11. The Surface Modulator sets up the building forms, the spaces between the buildings and the quality of the surfaces that enclose the spaces. At this stage the architectural details of the Check List are introduced. The urban designer has the freedom to apply the architectural elements of the Check List in a manner suitable to his interpretation of the shared vision of urban space. But once his 33 compos i t i on i s f i n a l i z e d a l l subsequent a r c h i t e c t s wo r k i n g on the space must f o l l o w the i t e m s as they are descr ibed. The first stage of the development. The Amended Su r face Modulator. In this figure the first stage has been placed into the spacial composition. FIGURE 12. The urban des igner, in the p roces s of c o m p i l i n g the spaces, mus t des ignate m ino r t o l e r ance s in s p e c i f y i n g the a p p l i c a t i o n of these i n s t r ument s l e s t the f reedom of subsequent a r c h i t e c t s i s h indered beyond p r a c t i c a l i t y . The g r i d l i ne s on the Su r f ace Modulator are intended to s e t up the p ropor t ions and rhythm of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the qua l i t y of s u r f a ce s that enc lo se the space. W i t h i n t h i s con tex t f reedom of c r e a t i v e exp re s s i on mus t be encouraged not blocked. 34 A negot ia ted dec i s i on cou ld be reached between B. C. P l a ce and the deve loper on the s pac i a l con f i gu ra t i on . The planner i s then re spons ib le f o r ensur ing comp l i ance w i t h the o r i g i na l concept w h i c h wou ld be adopted as the C i t y ' s development con t ro l f o r the area. Agreement i s the consequence of a shared v i s i o n of the urban space. Th i s shared v i s i o n i s expressed g r aph i ca l l y by us ing the Amended Su r f ace Modulator and Check L i s t . O S * * The second stage of the development. The Amended Surface Modulator. FIGURE 13. .0216 The deve loper proceeds to marke t land covered by the A. D. P.s over a per iod of t ime. Work proceeds w i t h many bu i lder s , deve lopers and des ign p r o f e s s i ona l s p a r t i c i p a t i n g . Indiv idual des igner s of each pa r ce l need not be in commun i ca t i on w i t h one another but are, never the le s s , guided by the v i s i o n g r aph i ca l l y commun ica ted by the Amended Su r f ace Modulator and the Check L i s t . 35 Figure 11 is a graphic depiction, in abstract form, of what the urban designer has compiled. The Amended Surface Modulator is included as a part of the development control designated for that A. D. P. The Amended Surface Modulator. The urban space is now completed. All developers and designers followed the shared vision of urban space. FIGURE 14. .0217 Smaller developers proceed to organize for the design of buildings and spaces within the A. D. P*s. They call upon their architects to draw up detailed plans in accordance with the Amended Surface Modulator and the Check List. The architects are bound by the development control to follow the broad spacial requirements of the Applied Surface Modulator and Check List. Figure 12 shows how the development may begin. The first building has been constructed within the grid framework. 36 Inside the bu i l d i ng envelope the a r c h i t e c t s have des ign f reedom. The i n t e g r i t y of the shared v i s i o n of urban space w i l l be preserved by f o l l o w i n g and us ing the Su r f ace Modulator and Check L i s t . Figure 13 s hows the bu i ld ings proceeding acco rd ing to plan. There are s t i l l some rema in ing pa r ce l s of land to be developed. The sequence of bu i ld ings that are con s t r u c ted f o l l o w the p redete rmined s pac i a l c on f i gu ra t i on of the App l i ed Su r f ace Modulator and Check L i s t . F i n a l l y the development i s completed. Figure 14 s hows the v i s i o n of urban space as i t i s completed. Pacific Boulevard fiS. —ML r ^ The buffer WWM: building creates an area of repose S.E.6.S. .0> - M W N E E <^<^<<-^-^<f d ' s * Lreek North This figure illustrates the concept of the buffer building. A well articulated building with rooms oriented away from the noise will shelter urban spaces. Views need not be impeded. South East Granville Slopes. FIGURE 15. There i s room f o r i nd i v i dua l i d i o s y n c r a s i e s of the des igner s but the i n t e g r i t y of the space has been f o l l owed . Many o rgan i za t i on s have been d i r e c t e d t owa rd s c omp le t i n g the who le v i s i on . 3.03 Env i ronmenta l Bu f fe r s . Env i ronmenta l and s i t e cond i t i on s should be cons idered when app ly ing the Su r f ace Modu lator to i n te rp re t the shared v i s i o n of 37 urban space. Buffer buildings can be designed to ameliorate much of the negative effects that may arise. Micro-climates, noise protection and views are issues that are tempered by the design and judicious placement of buffer buildings. The area of NORTH PARK where the viaduct and the A.L.R.T. cross the site. FIGURE 16. Buffer buildings are structures purposefully designed to shield passive urban spaces from noise The placement of buffers should shield a space from the noise of a busy bridge or congested area. Micro-climates can be created by articulating buffer buildings. Their shapes can provide protection from wind and their surfaces may be designed to direct and reflect sunshine into a special urban area. Buffer buildings may be formed to frame views. They may themselves be views if designed appropriately. A well designed buffer building,surrounding a well designed urban space, should be considered a worthwhile view in its own right. The urban designer uses the Amended Surface Modulator to communicate the shape of buffer building envelopes that, in turn, define urban spaces. 38 In the ea r l y 1960"s the concept of the bu f f e r bu i ld ing w a s f i r s t proposed by Ralph E r sk ine , a S w e d i s h a r c h i t e c t in h i s des ign proposal f o r the northern S w e d i s h commun i t y of Svappavaara. He f i r s t proposed them f o r c l i m a t e con t r o l in nor thern commun i t i e s . Subsequent ly, dur ing the ea r l y 1970 ' s he bu i l t a very s u c c e s s f u l bu f f e r bu i l d ing in a housing development, dubbed the Byker W a l l , in Byker, a suburb of Newca s t l e - upon Tyne, in England. He des igned the f o rm of the bu i l d i ng t o s h i e l d a very w e l l conta ined, compact hous ing development f r o m the de l e te r i ou s env i ronmenta l e f f e c t s of a t r a f f i c thoroughfare i m m e d i a t e l y to the north. A s i m i l a r l y s u c c e s s f u l use of the b u f f e r bu i l d ing w a s app l ied in the St. Lawrence development in Toronto (Hulchanski :1984. pass im). The Cathedra l Court C o -opera t i ve w a s des igned f o r t h i s purpose, see Figure 31. The development runs a longs ide the t r an s con t i nen ta l r a i l w a y t r a c k s ad jacent to downtown Toronto. The bu f f e r bu i l d i ng w a s p laced along the length of the t racks . It sh i e lded the housing f r om the no i se and un s i gh t l i ne s s emanat ing f r om the r o l l i n g stock. Figure 15 demons t ra te s the po s s i b l e a p p l i c a t i o n of bu f f e r bu i ld ings used to temper the overpower ing presence of the G ranv i l l e S t r e e t Br idge in the area of the South East G r a n v i l l e S lopes Ove ra l l Development Plan. Figure 16 s hows the po s s i b l e use of b u f f e r bu i ld ing s in the North Park area of B. C. P lace. They are a r t i c u l a t e d to counte rac t the i nev i t ab l e no i se p o l l u t i o n emanat ing f r om the advanced l i gh t r ap id t r a n s i t l i ne (A. L. R. T). The a r t i c u l a t i o n of bu f f e r bu i ld ing s in these t w o ca se s i s f o r env i ronmenta l purposes. They may a l s o be used to de f ine v i e w s and v i s t a s and c rea te a sense of urban space. Figure 17 s hows a s u i t a b l e bu i l d i ng p lan f o r a bu f f e r bu i ld ing. 39 Toronto C i t y Ha l l i s a good example of a bu f f e r bu i l d ing and a f i n e example of modern a r ch i t ec tu re . The F i nn i sh a r c h i t e c t V I I jo Reve l l w a s the designer. In deve lop ing the des ign he w a s responding to the m i c r o - c l i m a t o l o g i c a l cond i t i on s in a manner s i m i l a r to that used by Ralph Ersk ine. Both worked under s i m i l a r env i ronmenta l cond i t ions . Because of t h i s approach the f o r m of the Toronto C i t y Ha l l bu i ld ing p re sen t s i t s back on the northern part of the c i t y . The nor th aspect of the bu i l d i ng makes no re fe rence to the c i t y behind i t . The s i g n i f i c a n t a r c h i t e c t u a l e f f e c t i s d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s the south, Nathan P h i l i p s Square. The bu f f e r a spect of the f o r m i s w e l l intended but the c i t y i s exc luded; and that need not have happened. Such an o m i s s i o n can be avo ided on the B. C. P l a ce s i t e . Single loaded corridor A A type of buffer building plan. FIGURE 17. In the Fa l se Creek, south shore, development the bu f f e r cond i t i on w a s handled by us ing an ea r th berm (Canada Mortgage & Housing Corporat ion: 1977). To the south of the r e s i d e n t i a l a reas there i s a busy road and a r a i l l ine. The berm w a s p l aced between these a reas and the t r a f f i c , as an e f f e c t i v e means of env i ronmenta l sh ie ld ing . The berm technique i s ve ry w a s t e f u l of urban land. There i s a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween the concept of urban space c r ea ted by b u f f e r bu i ld ings and the oppo r tun i t i e s f o r v i e w s and v i s t a s . V i e w s and v i s t a s , in Vancouver, are t r a d i t i o n a l l y of the w a t e r and the mountains. In mos t ca se s not 40 a l l s u i t e s can enjoy such v i e w s de sp i te ingenious p lan layouts. If h igh bu i l d i ng s are des igned f o r a v i e w they may be s i t e d at the expense of o ther s whose w i n d o w s do not f ace the v iew. In t h i s case, a p leasant v i e w or v i s t a can be c rea ted by w e l l des igned bu i ld ing s and urban spaces. Intended View |§ Typical n ||Apartrnent I = Typical HApartment § This figure represents an abstract site plan, of the False Creek phase II, area. The stepped plans are intended Plan H to provide an enhanced view •__ of opportunity from the apartments. H Typical = |f| p r a c ^ ( j e t n e planned view is llApartment I significantly diminished. All that can be seen from within is the facade across the open space. Planned viev/actual vwv. FIGURE 18. If a v i s t a of the mounta ins i s to be prov ided f o r a f e w w indows , c l e a r l y not a l l can enjoy the amenity. The quest ion rema in s as to what p ropor t ion of w i n d o w s can p r a c t i c a l l y be exposed to a r e a l i s t i c v i s t a . Genera l l y a cce s s to the v i e w i s l e s s than had been planned for. The des ign p r i o r i t y of the Fa l se Creek, south shore, phase II development has been v i ews . The spac i a l con f i gu ra t i on of the bu i ld ings took second place. The purpose w a s to des ign a bu i ld ing f o rm that prov ided as many s u i t e s w i t h v i e w s as poss ib le . The ensuing layout may indeed f u l f i l l t h i s requ i rement in theory. In p r a c t i c e only a l i m i t e d number of s u i t e s we re a c c e s s i b l e to the v iew. See Figure 18. 41 The not ion of v i e w s should be p red i ca ted upon the p rospect of a w e l l des igned bu i l d ing being the v i e w as w e l l as the panoramic v i s t a . The bu i ld ing s and spaces be tween the bu i ld ing s should, themse l ve s , be seen and des igned as an amen i ty of the v i s t a s iand v i e w s a va i l ab l e on the s i t e . Desp i te the very high p r i o r i t y a f f o rded the v i s t a s and v i e w s in the planning p roce s s the l ow percentage of those ab le to enjoy the amen i ty has gone unnot iced. The concept of the c r e a t i o n of urban space w i t h w e l l des igned bu f f e r bu i l d i ng s i s a means of p rov id ing more urban v i e w s as w e l l as panoramic v i s t a s . 42 CHAPTER 4. SPACE. Urban Space is discussed in four sections in this chapter. The opening, The Principle of Sustained Interest (Section 401) is an essay on the design of urban space as it is currently perceived by the public (in this author's opinion), and how a richer understanding of space may be accepted. Figures 19, 20, & 21 are used to illustrate. They have been taken from the author's files as instances of practice where an attempt has been made to apply the principles stated. The drawings are digitized reproductions. The concepts convey an image of sweeping forms and urban spaces that could be the result of the application of the principles contained in the thesis. A brief conception of what a shared vision of urban space may be and a theory of urban space is discussed after the Principle of Sustained Interest. The chapter concludes with a critical assessment of the urban spaces in a newly developed area of Vancouver to demonstrate the effects of the current urban design guidelines. 4.01 The Principle of Sustained Interest. Architectural detail is a decisive component in the composition of public urban space. The way in which urban designers and architects compose the elements described in the Check List determines the quality of the building surfaces. They determine the way the surfaces reflect sunshine, the way the surfaces attract our interest and the way the separate building structures relate to one another. This quality is referred to as the Principle of Sustained Interest. 43 The Principle of Sustained interest states that architectural surfaces enclosing an urban space must have a defined quality. FIGURE 19. The composition of these elements must be treated in a manner evoking an observer's capacity to probe beyond his immediate recognition. The composition of the architectural elements that comprise the surfaces should sustain the interest of the observer, in a manner that stimulates his intellect to search for more complex elements in the surfaces, beyond his immediate observations. The interest of the observer should be stimulated by the designer's wit and skills in composing the architectural elements of the surfaces, provoking a continued search well beyond first glance and thus sustaining the interest of the observer. The Principle of Sustained Interest has to do with the architectural detailing of the city as perceived by the users. Building surfaces that ultimately enclose the 44 many spaces that make up the urban content are the focus. The condition the principle addresses is almost completely left to happenchance. Yet, without engaging the reluctant attention of the bystander an attempt is made to improve his amenity. The quality of urban space is created by manipulating the elements of plastique and pallette as described In section 2.03. The outcome of the application of the Surface Modulator to space and composition of elements of the Check List, may be the design techniques needed to help develop a sense of space that goes beyond shop fronts and nostalgia. The following paragraphs elaborate the argument for this principle. Architecture has a similar role in city building as does the fourth estate In legislation. It informs the public on their cultural and economic well-being. The manner In which the architectural detailing of urban space is composed describes, to some extent, the intensity of Interest the public has for their urban environment. Architecture is media. It is as equally potent as the newspapers and television. The effect upon our psyche is subliminal and forthright. In the news media content and meaning can be distorted. "Newspeak" can be used to divert our attention. In the media of architecture this does not occur. When the city speaks it says what it means. The general public is nevertheless, apparently, preoccupied with more pressing issues than their immediate participation in urban design issues. They appear to be, generally, disinterested in the esoteric arcanum of urban design until they can pass judgement on the finished effect. Understandably not everyone is interested in the ongoing development of the urban environment. Yet despite this general lack of concern, the impact of urban design upon us all is subliminal and 45 it is profound. The effect is unavoidable all the time at all levels. No one can avoid using the streets at some time in their lives. Mixed Use Urban Infill. FIGURE 20. Politicians and planners are prone to attract attention to urban design using the ephemeral nature of coloured sketches resplendent with boutiques, boats, buntings and other paraphernalia. Evidently these must be used to achieve the goals of development simply to attract interest. They are, nevertheless, capricious in nature and hardly able to contribute to the lasting amenity of the urban environment. The design professions have thus abrogated their design decisions to the professional Tenderers. It therefore becomes encumbent upon those who profess a more meaningful interest to deal with the subject on a more profound level. This is the purpose behind the Principle of Sustained Interest. 46 Edmund Bacon draws our attention to the importance of the amalgamation of architecture and planning (Bacon: 1974). He contends it is the very essence of urban design. Yet the Illustration he uses m the final chapter of Design of Cities (Bacon: 1974) is a reproduction of a Paul Klee painting. Does this demonstrate a lack of viable examples for him to use? Urban design is so often illustrated as consumer grottos and tourist traps. How many fishermen's wharves, nostalgic facades, trendy boutiques and ethnic restaurants can a well balanced, mature city sustain? Demonstrably it is very many. Nevertheless, the profound and lasting nature of the city is to be discovered in the depth of its noetic content Notwithstanding the mass of conflicting and consorting forces that conspire to make the city; despite the Machiavellian intrigues and power play, it is the confluence of all these forces, as they bear upon our sensibilities, that forms the image of the city. And those images manifest as architecture. On this premise, then, the perception of the city is linked directly to architecture. Urban space is public space surrounded by architecturally treated surfaces. The manner in which urban architectural space is perceived depends, substantially, upon the quality of these surfaces that enclose it and the manner in which the surrounding buildings are articulated. The level upon which urban space is perceived is dependent upon the quality of architecture and the degree to which the pieces are related to one another. With a view to making a contribution In this area the Principle of Sustained Interest Is introduced. 47 In order to be practical and workable, the principle should be expressed by a simply understood instrument that can be applied to the working conditions of the urban design profession. The instrument is introduced in its basic form as the Orthodox Surface Modulator, see Figure 3. Medium Density Urban Residential Infill. FIGURE 21. The grid of the Surface Modulator sets up the quality of the facade, co-ordinated building to building. A crucial element in urban design is to facilitate co-ordinating the design of facades collectively. For many reasons it is not possible, nor in fact desirable, to build every space enclosing facade simultaneously. The grid of the Surface Modulator provides the co-ordinating reference to match new infill surfaces to existing older surfaces. The instrument helps independent designers co-ordinate their work as they perform in different time frames. 48 The Orthodox Surface Modulator is a sophisticated design instrument. The process of spontaneous creativity is not usurped. The best way for it to be used is as a framework lest a suffocating barrier to sponteneity is encouraged. An Instance of a possible Amended Surface Modulator is shown in Figures 9 81IO referred to earlier. The figures show the Orthodox Surface Modulator used in an actual, but limited, circumstance. Figure 22 is another example. It shows the imagined Amended Surface Modulator that may have been applied - had such an instrument been necessary - to the building facades of Regent Street, London. Shown is that part of Regent Street known as the quadrant. The design was by John Nash, at the behest of the Prince Regent in the first quarter of the 19th century. The enclosing surfaces have since been rebuilt but the integrity of the essential space is beautifully preserved. The configuration of the spaces show a respect for the graceful curves and spaces typical of the Georgian period In Great Britain. Not only are the urban spaces of John Nash to be appreciated but also those of the Woods, elder and younger. They have seldom been matched in modern architecture. That is why the Surface Modulator, as an instrument to mould and shape urban space, is proposed as a pivotal part of the urban design requirements. Surface Modulators are intended to guide the development of many forms, volumes, curves, rectangles, serpentines or indented surfaces. The purpose is to set up a spacial continuity within a system that recognizes the benefits of separate building contracts. The conception behind the instrument allows for spacial continuity and, within that parameter, encourages diversity. 49 The Surface Modulator is an instrument to facilitate and encourage the development of quality urban spaces. It is an instrument of urban design. Yet, architecture and the design of cities is the work of artists. No instrument can obviate that. Regent Street, London, Great Britain. FIGURE 22. The following anecdote will reinforce the argument proffered by the Principle of Sustained Interest. One day after passing, for the umpteenth time, the Midland Bank on Poultry in London (designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens) Nikolaus Pevsner noticed details he had not been conscious of before. Surface forms he thought were pilasters, indeed, 50 were not. They had bases, they had capitals but nothing in between. These subtleties simply aroused his dormant interest in the building once again. That is the Principle of Sustained Interest at work. It is the result of a committed artist bringing his wit and skill to work on what could have been another moribund experience. That is the substance of what will make our cities livable and happy places; the subtle elements of design that will give us pleasure over and over again. 4.02 A Shared Vision of Urban Space. The remaining legacy of the Baroque city is its most lasting quality; the beauty of urban spaces. That quality is impossible to emulate today. For to regress into a nostalgic wish for a long gone era, redefining the process, is of no help when it comes to achieving a vision of urban space appropriate to contemporary conditions. Rather, the first step is to establish what meaning space has for us today. A shared vision is a cultural consensus within a community. When that community enjoys a balance of social, political and economic concerns there is a release of civic energy that may be directed to the finer aspects of urban life. That release prepares the way for such a cultural consensus. Pericles' Athens enjoyed this balance and the civic artifacts exist today to remind us (Maclean: 1955). A shared vision of urban space implies a collective social view. The many cultural, economic and social conditions that confluence to bring about such a concept are complex. There is evidence to suggest that within the subliminal consciousness of western society there still lurks a vestige of the shared vision of urban space manifested by the Baroque period. 51 Clearly however the authoritative, regal means by which the concept of Baroque space was implemented is unacceptable in the present political system. But we have not, yet, devised a system to harness the economic and political urban energies to implement our own shared vision of urban space accordingly. To research the subject definitively is a task beyond the scope of this thesis. But it is necessary to briefly make some comments on its content so as to place in context the urban design requirements that are proposed. Urban space as used here is defined in section 4.03 of this chapter. A shared vision of urban space is an ideal for which to aim. Civic pride is inspired by the appearance of designed urban spaces that are usefully placed and suited to their purpose. A shared vision of urban space is a quality of values that is expressed In the physical elements of the city but bears a spiritual meaning to its citizens. The collective meaning of urban space is shared when we recognize the need to design buildings visually related to one another; that is when the collective meaning takes on a physical form. There have been many attempts to acquire a shared vision of urban space in society. The large number of visitors, who expend great effort and money to visit such places as St. Marks Square, Venice and other European and Latin American urban spaces, attests to this. But there are no instruments for bringing it about. Prior to the individualistic approach of modern architecture a shared vision of urban space was a foregone conclusion. Compare the layout of Regent Street, London (Cameron & Cooke: 1980) with the Rue de Rivoll, Paris (Cameron & 5alinger:1984). Although the two streets are built of different materials they have a spacial quality that may have been seen at the time as culturally universal. Each reflected the national idiosyncrasies yet space was conceived of 52 as the essence of the composition. The late Baroque city was a world wide phenomenon, it has been ignored since separate building developers chose to express the image of their organization as an icon of individuality and power (Blake: 1974). After 1923, Colin Rowe said (not entirely in jest) there is a cut-off date of a sense of urban awareness (Rowe & Koetter: 1980). Until that time there was a consensus, albeit traditionally imposed, on how a city should be built. That consensus required that street patterns be followed and that building facades be designed to merge together as a flowing composition Increasing evidence shows a renewed interest has come about seeking a consensus as to what is an appropriate expression of urban space for Vancouver. The North Park plan at B. C. Place, Figure 37, and the attempts on West Hastings Street are two examples, Figures 9 & 10. There is a resurgence of literature on the subject (e.g. Krler: 1979, Bacon: 1974 X 4.03. A Theory of Urban Space. Urban space Is volume enclosed by surfaces set in a built up environment. Volume is the measure of capacity of civic plazas, streets, walkways, back lanes, parking lots and landscaped areas accessible to the public. Surfaces are the vertical planes of the building walls, and the horizontal planes of the streets, plaza pavements and landscaped areas. The quality of urban space, as defined here, is determined by the quality of the surfaces with which it is enclosed (Graves: 1980). The manner in which the walls, the pavements and the details are composed and the manner in which the relationships of architectural elements are articulated influence the plastique of the space. The elements of the Check List, under plastique and pallette, are 53 the main ingredients that make up the surfaces. These elements are referred to by Graves when he talks about the quality of surfaces. The manner in which they are related and composed on surfaces is the key to the quality of space. A Visual Analogy of Urban Space. This figure (from Kepes .1944) illustrates the behaviour of iron filings in a magnetic field. The metaphor can be extended to actual urban space surrounded buj buildings as is illustrated in figure 24. FIGURE 23. The treatment of a surface may be modulated and composed by relating elements of colours, textures and materials in a creative manner (Moholy-Nagy: 1947). The combination of light reflection, shade, materials and texture, and the other items listed under plastique and pallette make up the ingredients. The subject is well covered in the literature (Moholy-Nagy: 1947, Kepes: 1944). An explanatory analogy or model of urban space can be postulated by referring to a simple grade school physics experiment on the performance of iron filings in a magnetic field (Moholy-Nagy: 1930). When the iron filings are free floated in the magnetic field they form a pattern that follows the lines of magnetic flux that, 54 unseen, flow between the poles of the magnet, Figure 23. In metaphor a similar field of flux exists in the space between building surfaces. Urban space can only be related to a magnetic field in a generic sense. The field of influence is created by the propinquity of the building surfaces. See Figure 24. The model of urban space helps urban designers visualize Intangible architectural values. Urban designers can envision themselves situated in this field of influence emanating from the building surfaces that enclose the spaces they conceive. The field of influence is determined by the shape of the surfaces in the same way as the magnetic field of a magnet responds to the shape of the magnet. The manner in which designers articulate the building surfaces, in relationship to one another, is a significant determinant of the ambience of the space. The casual observer may not respond to urban space on a conscious level. He will respond subliminally according to the manner and artistry with which the space STREET A Model of Space. FIGURE 24. 55 i ( is composed. The urban designer, on the other hand, must implicitly understand the theory so that he may consciously manipulate the surfaces into a comprehensive artistic creation The following section is a critical point of view on the public urban spaces that have been developed in the last decade. The northern end of Burrard Street in Vancouver is critically scrutinized by the author of this thesis. The opinions expressed are the result of a walk-about survey and discussions with practitioners. The need for the amenity of public urban space was clearly recognized on this part of the street. However, the quality of the resulting spaces, achieved by transfer of development rights and bonuses, are brought into question. 404 A Critique. The modern city is the repository of many fine buildings. Furthermore, the planners recognize the urban amenity of providing public urban space between the buildings. An accepted means to provide public space is by a system of transferred development rights and bonuses. (Vancouver City Planning Department Zoning and Development By-Law no. 3575: 1956). A developer who provides open plaza space on his site is awarded extra density, as a bonus, in return for the dedication of the public plaza. This trading procedure often results in space that is environmentally out of place, i.e. in the shade, inconveniently situated, see Figure 25. Based on discussions contained in the previous three sections of this chapter this system is a demonstrated failure, yet the environmental placing of public urban space is critical ( Whyte: 1980). 56 Furthermore, the prevalent theory of public urban space (Whyte: 1980, B. C. Place: 1983) Is that its success is dependent upon ephemeral happenings such as pretty girls on bicycles and street paraphernalia; more the domain of the Tenderer than the planners and urban designers. Harbour /.Canada P l a c e ^ i ^ y ' V N / V IA/W. North. Marine _ Buildings ^ Custom's === Building ^ Bentall §§ 5 Centre = _^ Daon Building f^V/est Hastings Street =||C./.B.C. 3 H Building Vest Pender Street ^ I s Montreal Trust jY.V.C.A. Station ~ ^ Royal = Centre^ "_|q. Ounsmuir Street = Park 7 H Plaza H Christ Church Georgia Street 1 r North End of Burrard Street. FIGURE 25. To some extent the design of urban space has become, confusedly, more a matter of retail street activity than that of plastique sculpting of physical elements. This activity is of course important but the contention in this paper is that much activity, prosperous merchants and attractive people are the result of a well designed space not the means of creating it. 57 Retail space depends upon economic factors that do not respond in all places where public urban space is appropriate. A set of urban design requirements will ensure that high quality public urban space is provided where it is necessary and appropriate. Despite the efforts to continue the traditional vision of urban space on West Hastings Street, see Figures 9 &10, we are confronted with the prospect of repeating, on the B. C. Place site, the chaos of the recently developed portion of Burrard Street, see Figure 25; the area from Georgia Street north to the waterfront. There are 15 major buildings sited on this street. In addition there are five small buildings between the Y.W.C.A and the Montreal Trust. This group appears imminent for redevelopment. The 15 buildings date from Christ Church Cathedral built in 1895, to Park Plaza completed In 1985 and Canada Place completed in 1986. There are also seven designated public plazas in this area. Each was dedicated as a result of bonus negotiations or transferred development rights, within the DD (Downtown District) special zoning area. From a developer's point of view he may well say, justifiably, that the city is lucky to be granted the spaces. From a civic point of view, clearly there is a lack of understanding of what a civic plaza is meant to accomplish. These spaces have been dedicated, at no little sacrifice, yet their effect is minimal. Plazas nos. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 7 are no more than oversized entrance ways. There is no perceived reasoning to the spacial form of these spaces other than that the developers were granted additional interior space in return for dedicating the public space. They do not have a spacial form that responds to the environment, nor do they respond to a sense of enclosure that encourages quiet lunches, casual groupings or people watching (Whyte: 1980). They are essentially oversized, pedestrian thoroughfares from the street 58 to the entrance. Plaza no. 6 is a sunken park used as the entrance to the A. L. R. T. station. Plaza no. 5 is the only urban public space on the street that is used for its intended purpose. The overall pattern is that of happenchance, there is no cohesive conception of street space. These spaces, rather than conceived as an integral part of the streetscape, have been provided by developers in order to retrieve extra floor space within their buildings. The spaces are used because the public has nowhere else to go. They do not contribute, however, to a coherent conception of urban space on that street. Separately, some of these buildings are well designed; notably the Bank of Montreal (Musson, Cattell Architects: 1977) and the Marine Building (McCarter, Nairn Architects: 1932). Their effect, however, is discounted by a lack of space co-ordination between the buildings, indeed the overall effect is chaotic. in cultural terms it is distressing to contemplate how much we have lost of a sense of exhaltation we could experience from enjoying beautiful urban spaces! Figure 25 is a sketch which compares the spacial relationships of the horizontal street level surfaces in this area. The best way to experience this is to walk the street, consciously applying the principles stated in the proceeding chapters. The lack of cohesion from one legal entity to the other results in none of these spaces contributing to a coherent street conception. Space no. 7 is an example. The north face of the space is glass and shining pink granite of the Park Plaza building. The east side of the space is described by a stepped, brick wall cascading with water. Christ Church Cathedral abuts the 59 space to the south, presenting a grey textured surface towards the space. The paving surrounding the Cathedral Is considerably higher than the plaza surface and landscaping in steps compensates for the difference. The surface of the plaza undulates, defying, the slope on Burrard street. Occupying the space of the plaza are trees randomly placed, not defining its shape. Ostensibly these trees provide shade and likely do so, unnecessarily. Across from space no.7 on Burrard Street, a noisy busy thoroughfare, is another park (space no. 6) and a hotel-bank-office complex. Centrally located on the hotel-bank-office complex facade is an obscured and dangerous parking entrance. The park is partly occupied by the entrance to the A. L. R. T. station. The network of pipes and glass, over the station, covers most of the park. This network has no visibly related elements anywhere else on the street. Neither is the space of the park defined by the shapes of the station. The station is a cluttered form, providing minimal weather cover, conflicting with the form of the park. And the two incongruous civic sculptures that have been randomly sited there have to compete, as background, with the severe and conflicting network of pipes. The Daon building is a well designed building as a separate structure. Nevertheless, the severe, modern, reflective forms of the building intrude intransigent^ into what was a continuous street space. Sited on the corner of Burrard and West Hastings it became the first building to ignore the continuity set up, traditionally, by the continuous facades along West Hastings Street and the Marine Building opposite. The mass of this building is diagonally, and incongruously, In opposition to the street axes. The triangular space created by the diagonal, space no. 2, was obviously intended to be a street amenity. But the effect on the street left by space no.2 is that of an indeterminate, gratuitous. 60 oversized, little used entrance way. The real entrance way is off Hastings from the east; architecturally ignored. The previous paragraphs point out some examples of the confusion the pedestrian experiences. Individual designers proceeded with their own plans, apparently, oblivious to a framework of spacial reference. Seven of the most prominent buildings were designed by the same architectural firm - none of which bare spacial reference to one another. Had Burrard Street been subject to a pre-arranged shared vision of urban space the ensuing forms would have shown a more coherent pattern. If the previous traditional street pattern had been followed, as is the case just around the corner on West Hastings Street, the public urban spaces would have responded to the requirements of environment and pedestrian use in a more recognizable manner. The six urban design requirements and the pivotal instruments, the Orthodox Surface Modulator and the Check List, are proposed as an antidote to the urban design mistakes described in the preceding paragraphs. The application of the requirements and instruments to the B. C. Place site provide the planners with a tangible system with which to communicate to potential developers the qualities that are explained in section 402, A Shared Vision of Urban Space and section 4.03, A Theory of Urban Space. 61 CHAPTER 5. HISTORIC BACKGROUND. Urban des ign requ i rement s are not a new phenomenon. They we re app l ied by the Whig and Tory landowners, to quote Summerson (Summerson: 1945: 9 8 - 1 1 2 ) , as a means to con t r o l the development of London e s t a t e s dur ing the r ap id urban development of the Georgian per iod. The h i s t o r y of bu i l d i ng r equ i rement s date f a r t h e r back than that. The a p p l i c a t i o n of des ign gu ide l i ne s i s r e l a t i v e l y new. In the c i t y of Vancouver, urban des ign gu ide l i ne s we re in t roduced in the s p e c i a l zon ing f o r area 6 on the south shore of Fa l se Creek (Fa l se Creek Comprehens ive Development D i s t r i c t . 1983-5 ) in the ea r l y 1970s. The f o l l o w i n g i s a b r i e f h i s t o r i c ou t l i ne of the a t t e m p t s a t con t ro l of urban s pac i a l f o r m s that con fo rm to the urban des ign requ i rement s a r t i c u l a t e d in t h i s thes i s . Wes te rn c i v i l i z a t i o n has had a f a s c i n a t i o n f o r the concept of urban space f o r thousands of years. A sense of space i s endemic to our cu l tu re . The ea r l y Greeks we re more adept at expres s ing t h e i r need f o r s pac i a l conta inment than any o the r l a t e r c i v i l i z a t i o n . During the H e l l e n i c per iod, the fou r th century B. C , urban s pac i a l exp re s s i on grew into a mos t l a s t i n g achievement. The Romans bo r rowed heav i l y f r om the Greeks. Roman bu i l d i ng w a s an a r c h i t e c t u r e of space expres sed as an icon of power, not un l i ke cu r rent p r ac t i ce . Subsequent great per iods of c i t y des ign a l so took as t h e i r r e fe ren t the Greek not ion of urban space and a r ch i t ec tu re . Documentat ion can be found reach ing back into h i s t o r y to s ub s t an t i a te the r a t i o n a l e behind the need, and the acceptance, of an urban des ign i n s t rument to e s t a b l i s h a shared v i s i o n of urban space.. A l though the Orthodox Su r f ace 62 Modulator Is an extens ion of recent work i t i s po s s i b l e to t r a c e a cont inuous l i ne of h i s t o r i c antecedents t o back up i t s use. i . 0 0 Rise of entablature 6.7cms. •v A ) The Temple front as it. appears in execution with curved horizontal lines and inclined vertical features as atC. B The Temple front as it would appear if built as at A without the optical corrections. Rise of stylobate 6.63 cms The Temple front arranged with vertical axes inclining and with convex stylobate. Architraves, entablature and pediment producing results, as at A. Diagrams and explanations as taken from A History of Architecture  on the Comparative Method. Sir Banister Fletcher. The Parthenon Athens East Front. FIGURE 26. The A c r o p o l i s in A thens i s po s s i b l y the mos t potent example to in f luence w o r l d w i d e a r c h i t e c t u r a l movements in h i s to ry . The des ign of the urban spaces w i t h i n the spaces of the A c r o p o l i s i s an essay in the d e l i c a t e ba lance of i n t e r r e l a t e d urban forms. The des ign of the Parthenon, by Ic t inus and C a l l i c r a t e s in 4 4 7 - 4 3 2 B. C , w a s the r e s u l t of an i n t r i c a t e l y composed se t of o p t i c cu rves that compensated f o r the i l l u s i o n of pe r spec t i ve ( F le tcher : 1896). The eas t facade of 63 the Parthenon w a s des igned con s i s t en t w i t h the ba s i c Greek p ropor t ion now known as the Golden Mean; i.e. the p ropor t ion of 1/.618. The o p t i c a l dev ice of compensat ing f o r the apparent i l l u s i o n of the s l i m n e s s of the co lumns i s c a l l e d Entas i s . The methods of c o - o r d i n a t i n g s pac i a l p ropor t ions of t h e i r urban space i s shown in Figure 26. Th i s f i gu re dep i c t s the east facade of the Parthenon, Athens. These w e r e the fo rerunners to the l a t e r use of the m a t h e m a t i c a l l y based s y s t e m of p ropor t i on used by the Rena i s sance and a r c h i t e c t s du i rng l a t e r c l a s s i c a l r ev i va l s . The w i s dom of t h e i r s y s t em w i s dom i s c u r i ou s l y f o r go t ten in contemporary des ign methods. The Roman use of formlua? f o r compos ing space i s documented by V i t r u v i u s in De A r c h i t e c t u r a . 10 vo lumes on Roman a r c h i t e c t u r e and c i t y p lanning, w r i t t e n in the f i r s t century A. D. in there he d i s c u s s e s the orders of c l a s s i c a l a r ch i t e c tu re . The orders are the Tuscan, Dor ic , Ionic and Co r i n th i an orders. These orders r e f e r to the de t a i l e d p ropor t ion of the co lumnated facades and a r c h i t e c t u r a l de ta i l s . V i t r u v i u s went f u r t h e r in h i s books to c od i f y a s y s t em of p ropor t ion based on the s c a l e of the human body. He c a l l e d the f i gu re he dev i sed the Norm-Man (Panero & Zelnik: 1986). It w a s the p recu r so r to Le Corbus ie r ' s modular. However, before Le Corbus ie r , and dur ing the ene rg i z i ng ethos of the Rena i s sance per iod there w e r e f u r t he r a t t e m p t s to e s t a b l i s h a means of a r t i c u l a t i n g urban space. L inea l pe r spec t i ve , c l e a r see ing, a g raph ic method of dep i c t i n g the way the eye i n t e r p r e t s vo lume onto a p lane s u r f a ce w a s int roduced (Burckhardt: 1860). P e r s p e c t i v e used in t h i s manner w a s developed by B r une l l e s ch i , in F lo rence at the beginning of the f i f t e e n t h century, f r om the A r a b i c p h y s i c i s t s ' r e sea rch of the manner in w h i c h the human eye pe r ce i ve s d i s tance. The A rabs took t h e i r ba s i c 64 r e sea rch f r om the second century P t o l e m a i c g r i d p ro jec t i on . B rune i l e s ch i and A l b e r t i used t h i s way of see ing to c r ea t e a new m a t h m a t i c a l s y s t em of p ropor t ion ing a r c h i t e c t u r a l facades. Leonardo da Vinci 's proportional figure based on the Vitruvian norm-Man. F IGURE 2 7 . Masacc io advanced the concept ion of pe r spec t i ve as a means of v i e w i n g urban space as a un i f i ed who le in 1425 (Giedion: 1954). Leonardo da V i n c i , c on t r i bu ted a d r aw ing of a human f i gu re based on the V i t r u v i a n Norm-Man. A s ke t ch of h i s anthropomorphic p ropor t iona l theory i s shown in Figure 27. H i s w a s a c i r c u l a r and rec tangu la r p ropor t ion based on the symbo l of man in an ou t s t r e t ched pose (Panero & Zelnik: 1986). 65 A shared v i s i o n of urban space enabled urban des igners of the Rena i s sance to make such a m a j o r c on t r i bu t i on to the contemporary concept ion of urban space. A l though a t t e m p t s have been made to cod i f y a r c h i t e c t u r a l p ropor t i ons urban des igners of the of the quatrocento r e l i e d e s s e n t i a l l y on i n tu i t i on . Baroque in f luence made an i nde l i b l e mark on urban f o rm u n t i l the m i s p l a c e d en thus i a sm of modern a r c h i t e c t u r e overrode i t s f i n e r po int s ( K r ie r : 1979). It w a s an in f luence that extended to a l l pa r t s of the wor ld . The 17th century m a t h e m a t i c i a n and phi losopher, Rene Desca r te s dev i sed a t h ree -d imens i ona l g r i d s i m i l a r in appearance to the Su r f ace Modulator. H i s g r i d w a s an ob jec t of pure m a t h e m a t i c a l f o rm, however, and was not dev i sed to be app l i ed as a guide to the f o r m s of urban space. In some re spec t s , wha t he had dev i sed cou ld be t r ea ted as a Su r f ace Modulator in a s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o d i f i e d fo rm. A s Baroque f o rms became part of the cu l t u r e of Northern Europe the in f luence of that c u l t u r a l s t y l e moved, geograph ica l l y , w i t h commerce. The a r c h i t e c t u a l d e t a i l s and f o r m s of Baroque we re c o l o n i a l l y exported f r o m Europe to North and South A m e r i c a , A s i a and A f r i c a . Urban f o r m s i n f l uences by the s t y l e are to be seen in as many d i ve r se p laces. In Buenos A i r e s Baroque i s r e f l e c t e d by that c i t y being seen as the P a r i s of the southern hemisphere and in Montrea l i n the enc lo s ing urban f o r m of P h i l i p s Square. Johannesburg ' s c a p i t a l bu i ld ings , des igned by S i r Herbert Baker are in the c l a s s i c r e v i v a l s t y l e of the l a s t hurrahs of B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l i s m ; r e f l e c t i n g a l a te Baroque r e v i v a l i s m . New De lh i ' s V i c e -Regal Pa lace des igned by S i r Edw in Lutyens i s a s i m i l a r example. So, s t i l l , i s the c o m m e r c i a l cent re , The Bund, in urban Shang-hai. The Georg ian per iod in Great B r i t a i n man i f e s t ed many urban spaces that can in f luence the des ign of contemporary urban space. The much admi red urban 66 spaces of Bath and London, bu i l t dur ing that per iod, we re con s t r uc ted w i t h i n a development s y s t em not un l i ke the one in use in Vancouver. The urban spaces b u i l t by the Georg ians we re , f o r the mos t par t , the r e s u l t of the a c t i v i t i e s of s p e c u l a t i v e bu i lders . These bu i l de r s wo rked as independent agents f o l l o w i n g what w a s pe rce i ved to be a marke t demand. There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e be tween the Georgian bu i l de r and contemporary soc ie ty . The Georgians we re able to m a n i f e s t the beauty of Georg ian urban space w i t h t h e i r innate sense of cu l tu re . They, to quote 5 i r John Summerson, " combined wealth with taste" (Summerson: 1945; 27 -51 ) . The mos t c ompe l l i n g argument in favour of an urban des ign i n s t rument f o r f o l l o w i n g through on a shared v i s i o n of urban space i s that we no longer have the advantage of a comb ina t i on of w e a l t h and t a s t e ( K r ie r : 1979). Th i s i s why the app l i c a t i o n of the Su r face Modulator i s proposed; as a guide f o r the many d i f f e r e n t des igners , wo rk i n g f o r d i f f e r e n t c l i e n t s in d i f f e r e n t t i m e f r ames to c o -ord inate t h e i r e f f o r t s . in p lace of that lack of a comb ina t i on of w e a l t h and t a s t e someth ing e l s e i s necessary. Edmund Bacon 's suggest s (Bacon: 1974) of a c l o s e r i n t e r r e l a t i o n of p lanning and a r ch i t e c t u r e ; a means of br ing ing the p ro fe s s i on s to a b e t t e r understanding of one another. Con soc i a t i ng the p ro fe s s i on s of p lanning and a r c h i t e c t u r e may encourage a shared v i s i o n of urban space. The ons laught of modern a r c h i t e c t u r e in the ea r l y t w e n t i e s of t h i s century ran roughshod over our t r a d i t i o n a l s e n s i b i l i t i e s of urban space. ( K r ie r : 1979). Modern A r c h i t e c t u r e had a profound e f f e c t on the s pac i a l layout of the contemporary c i t y . There are very f ew good examples of urban space in modern a r ch i t ec tu re . 67 There i s enough ev idence to show that the need f o r a shared v i s i o n of urban space w a s not l o s t on modern a r c h i t e c t s a l together . Dizengoff Circle, Tel Aviv, Israel. (From Progressive Architecture 11.84) FIGURE 28. In Te l Av i v , I s rae l , f o r example, an a t t empt to develop a sense of urban space i s D izengoff C i r c l e , des igned by Genia Averbouch in 1935. See Figure 28. A f t e r the f i r s t f ew bu i ld ings we re comp le ted , and a f t e r the second w o r l d w a r intervened, the enthus ia sm to cont inue the v i s i o n d imin i shed. The ev idence in Te l A v i v i s one of the f e w examples of the in f luence of the Bauhaus s t y l e of a r c h i t e c t u r e that w a s app l ied to a shared v i s i o n of urban space. Yet many p ro fe s s i ona l s , at that t ime , we re t r y i n g to express the need. Modern a r c h i t e c t u r e w a s more concerned w i t h the f o rm and propor t ion of one facade than w i t h c o l l e c t i v e space. And i t seemed the p ro fe s s i on of a r c h i t e c t u r e 68 was more susceptible to rampant individualism than a concern for a unified urban composition (Blake: 1974). Planning regulations reflected the concern. Before the 1960's the zoning by-laws, were compiled with site lines measured from single lot lines, quantifiable densities based on fixed, inflexible figures and single use land zones. Le Corbusier's Modular. z FIGURE 29. Modern architects relied on intuitive faith to look to the composition of urban space. They resisted efforts to orchestrate a sense of shared space (Seelig: 1984) lest their freedom of expression be violated. There is no evidence to justify this faith. Yet this may be one reason for its overpowering influence. It appealed to the individualistic, free enterprise ethos of its day. Only one modern architect addressed the issue of proportion as a mathematical formula. He was Le Corbusier. He applied the principle of the The Modular, see Figure 29, to the task of proportioning his building elements. The principle was 69 applied In his later city planning work which dealt with grand avenues and vistas. He was Franco-Swiss, clearly in the tradition of Le Notre and Haussmann (Sutcliffe: 1971). Similarly the civic centre Chandigarh, designed by Le Corbusier in 1957, is a vast space. The buildings are so far apart it Is difficult to recognize any relationships. Brasilia, the capital of Brazil, designed by Lucio Costa, who was very much influenced by Le Corbusier, is of the same layout (Moholy-Nagy: 1968). The modular was a derivation from the 11th century A. D., Fibionacci mathematical scale, (Le Corbusier: 1945) an exponential series of compounding numbers. Le Corbusier applied It to the human form and from it derived a scale of applied proportion. It does not, however, address three dimensional space. It addresses surface treatment and was intended to be an arbiter of spacial proportion. It remains in disuse today. There Is no doubt that throughout history man has attempted to devise an instrument for facilitating the proportions of buildings that contribute to a sense of urban space. The more recent attempt is the Build-to Line. It is an imaginary plane up to which buildings are required to face. It is a device that ensures the spacial integrity of the existing street pattern in the New York jurisdiction of Manhattan. The Build-to Line has no precedent in history. In previous eras, there was an instinctive understanding of the need to relate building facades into a coherent pattern of urban space. There existed a shared vision of urban space. There was no need for such a device. The urban design division of the New York City Planning Department, engrossed in the most intense contemporary building 70 development, found i t neces sa ry to invent the B u i l d - t o Line. In 1967 (Barnett : 1982) i t w a s invented to con t r o l the s t r e e t s c a p e of the thea t re d i s t r i c t near T i m e s Square. The b u i l d - t o l i ne has l i m i t a t i o n s . In app l i c a t i on , c on t i nu i t y of space i s not ensure because i t i s used only on s p e c i f i c and l i m i t e d pa r t s of the block, in i t s p resent f o rm the e f f e c t as a modu la to r of a shared v i s i o n of urban space i s l i m i t e d . Yet i t s e f f e c t on the dense ly developed l o w e r Manhattan p e r i m e t e r d i s t r i c t i s to def ine v i s u a l c o r r i d o r s by means of new c o n s t r u c t i o n adher ing to p re se t b u i l d - t o l i ne s (Barnett: 1982). The C i t y of Vancouver took the p r i n c i p l e of the b u i l d - t o l i ne further.The p r i n c i p l e w a s app l ied on the north s i de of the 8 0 0 b lock West Has t ings S t r e e t to r e l a t e a new o f f i c e bu i l d i ng to an e x i s t i n g neighbour. The example i s i l l u s t r a t e d in Figures 9 & 10. The development of the St. Lawrence Cent re by the Toronto C i t y P lann ing O f f i c e in 1977 showed a s i m i l a r unders tand ing of urban space. The B u i l d - t o L ine w a s not par t of the p lanning p roces s but the urban des igner s app l ied the p r i n c i p l e to the facades f a c i n g onto David C romb ie Park, see Figure 31. In 1982, the B u i l d - t o L ine f i r s t appears in the urban des ign gu ide l ines in the Georg ia Co r r i do r Report. Th i s i s the Greening Downtown Urban Des ign Study by Ba i rd/Sampson and A s s o c i a t e s . The s t r e e t s c a p e space of Georg ia S t r e e t are de f ined by i t s use.. Much of that s t r e e t i s now a l m o s t b u i l t up. The use of the B u i l d - t o L ine t r i e s to def ine the new bu i l d i n g facades , in r e l a t i o n s h i p to the e x i s t i n g facades. The b u i l d - t o l i ne i s app l i ed in e x a c t l y the same manner as in New York. 71 The people who devised the Build-to Line make no attempt to encourage a spacial continuity other than in the context of street continuity and view preservation. They do not attempt to co-ordinate the composition of neighbouring building details as a total urban space. This is the weakness of the Build-to Line because so much is left to arbitrary interpretation. The drawback to this limited application of the Build-to Line on Georgia Street is evident in the manner with which it has been applied to the facade of the Bank of B. C. Building opposite the Art Gallery in Vancouver. The facade details of this building are so ponderous that a conflict with the delicate details of the Georgia Hotel, to the east, and the Medical Dental Building, to the west, is the result. If the designers had been required to respond to the grid framework of the Applied Surface Modulator, a more pleasing result may have been the outcome. The Build-to Line is now a part of the City of Vancouver design guidelines. It is a requirement in the East False Creek design guidelines (False Creek Comprehensive Development District: 1983-5). The Build-to Line describes a vision of urban space, see Figure 44, that surrounds Thornton Park opposite the C. N. R. Railway Station. The new plan for the North Park area of B. C. Place, see Figure 43, also, has a layout that is evidence of a limited vision of urban space. The Surface Modulator is a combination of the Bui Id-to Line and the proportional grid work of Le Corbusier's Modular. The Surface Modulator, by extending the Build-to Line much further to encompass the concept of the building envelope as volume and space as volume in relationship to one another, may ensure that 72 neighbouring building facades and envelopes are orchestrated into a comprehensive urban space composition. The concept of the building envelope has been In use on Granville Island since the opening of this facility (Hotson: 1978). The design guidelines that communicate the concept require all new buildings follow the theoretical outline of the building that was previously on the site. Volumetrically the building envelope follows the conception of the Surface Modulator but stops short of co-ordinating the neighbouring buildings, however, as the Surface Modulator purports to do. The preceding historic outline traces the development of the search for a device such as the Surface Modulator. The design restrictions imposed, prior to the modern period, were more a matter of employing a sensitive architectural response to the tastes of the times (Summerson: 1945), than it was a matter of defined by-laws. Later cultures came to see proportion as a function of an anthropomorphic egocentricity (i.e. Leonardo's figure based on Vitruvius's Norm-man). The work of the New York urban design division limited their work to expressing the continuation of an existing streetscape ( Barnett: 1982). The Surface Modulator attempts to adopt these antecedents and extends them into an instrument which conveys the conception of contemporary urban space as envisioned by such authors as Rob Krier and the many sensitive architects who are trying to make up for the lack of spacial response evidenced in modern design (Blake: 1974). Discussion of urban space in technical terms is insufficient of itself. An urban design instrument is one thing but it must also be accompanied by some noetic understanding of the contemporary cultural milieu. Space is a matter of seeing 73 overall relationships. To continue the discussion without relating it to the character of the culture it is expressing is to leave the influential aspects of space out. In this case space is an expression of the Canadian urban culture. Space in Canada is popularly expressed as concepts of wide open spaces. The first images that come to mind are the Prairies and the Laurentian Shield. A casual observer of many recent compositions of buildings, campuses, residential and industrial developments, would reasonably assume the expression of Canadian culture is to reveal a character symbiotically close to space unlimited. In all our building compositions, there is a surfeit of space between buildings. But this is more a lack of consideration than a reflection of how we deeply value space. It is one of the fallouts of accepting, at face value, an American cult rather than assessing our own requirements. Careful studies (McGregor: 1985 ) indicate that our expression of space as it is interpreted through the genre of landscape paintings (The Group of Seven and other Canadian painters and writers) is quite opposite to what has been believed for years. McGregor's thesis goes into the depth of our attitude as it has been crafted by centuries of facing a hostile environment. To our forefathers the expanse of the wilderness confronting them was incentive enough for them to constantly seek the refuge of enclosure in the fort after making necessary sallies out for food and means of survival. This has indelibly etched the Canadian sense of space, not as open, but as enclosure. In fact the Canadian psyche, rather than yearning for the wide open spaces, is in search for the enclosure of space. McGregor's is a well documented and thoughtful treatise. 74 CHAPTER 6. AN EXPLANATION OF THE URBAN DESIGN REQUIREMENTS. 6.01 Intent. Six Urban Design Requirements are proposed for the B. C. Place site. The general requirements, that could form the basis for a development control system, include the six urban design requirements. The proposed general requirements would cover four subjects. The subjects covered would be the administrative requirements, concerned with the contractual agreement between the City and potential developers; the social  requirements, concerned with subjects such as housing mix, recreation and park facilities; landscaping requirements, concerning the form of planting material; and the urban design requirements, discussed below. The Surface Modulator and the Check List are pivotal elements in the proposed urban design requirements for B. C. Place. The two elements are applied in the context of the conditions that exist on the site. The following urban design requirements show an example of how the Surface Modulator and Check List, as instruments for facilitating the implementation of a shared vision of urban space, may be integrated into a zoning format. 6.02 Urban Design Requirements. The urban design requirements would replace the urban design guidelines now in use. The requirements proposed are contained under six headings. The composition and content of these requirements are based on my own experience and perceptions, working as an architect with the current urban design guide lines. The headings follow, in my judgement, the best and most succinct way of conveying a shared vision of urban space to those who would design and build it. The response from the local development and design community contained in the Consultant's Report on the Development Permit 75 Process (Chilton: 1984). has been duly noted. The application of the six requirements listed below would be mandatory. A basic framework for the urban design requirements is as follows: .021 Interim Land Use is the first urban design requirement. During the period between now and final completion a plan should be proposed to describe the use of the land that remains undeveloped. The projection for the development of B. C. Place envisions a completion process of 25 years. Pressure will continue to encourage adhoc piecemeal projects over the lifetime of the project. For this reason it is necessary to implement some constraint to discourage expedient, interim, decisions that may subvert the proposed vision of space. The 50 hectares of land remaining after the recent plans (5. E. G. S., North Park, The Stadium and the Expo legacy buildings) have been effected, should not be left as a waste land. Twenty five years is a long time to have such an important and large tract of land left fallow. A definitive plan must be in place to provide stabilization for the site until it is fully developed; if only to stabilize the soil by seeding. Although the Surface Modulator is not directly applicable to an interim plan, it is as well to ensure some method of protecting the site until the time to develop comprehensively is due. .022 Site Development. An Overall Development Framework should be formulated to describe the spacial concept for all of the site by responding, incrementally, 76 to its environmental and physical characteristics. The ensuing incremental land parcels should identify Overall Development Plans and Area Development Plans. An Applied Surface Modulator could describe, in broad spacial terms, the volume and outline of developments that will project their future. The Overall Development Framework (0. D. F.) is a conceptual plan describing the general thrust the Corporation intends for the site. The Overall Development Plans (0. D. P.) are smaller increments of the 0. D. F., worked up in more detail but still spacially conceptual in form. The North Park Plan (the most recent proposal to develop the north eastern part of the site) Is described by B. C. Place as an 0. D. P. Conceptually the 0. D. P. describes the development at the neighbourhood level. Area Development Plans, A. D. P.'s, are yet smaller increments of the 0. D. P.'s. They encompass several building sites but may be one or two blocks in size. The above terminology is derived from B. C. Place documents and Report no. 3 published in April 1983. Single buildings should be approved on the basis of the conventional Development Permit Application Process that has been established at the Vancouver City Planning Department since the early 1970's. The present management of the B. C. Place Corporation has announced a policy of incremental land development by means of small parcels and more varied parcels of land. ("Small guys get break post-Expo" 1986). Possible basic increments of the B. C. Place site are identified, in Figure 30, through a planning process that responds to the environmental constraints presented by the site. Through this process 0. D. P.'s, neighbourhoods, and further incremental parcels become evident. The process of reduction finalizes the vision of urban space by 77 sca le . A s each area becomes p rog re s s i ve l y s m a l l e r i t a l so becomes more manageable. NORTH :Burrard Bridge DOWNTOWN VANCOUVER Granville Bridge -4. K s>s. V V V V •^XX '^^ '^ --rCX> ;x>-^ — •V >7/ / / / / / _ . .A/\/ v V - ^ v y ^ x > ^ x i x i x > .A/CXXXS/'IXXXV. ~, - -• v xXXXX XX--.A^ Xy^ X'.. ^XXXXXiXX-• J ' XXx> ' ;xJ^ s - ' - 1 ^ • ^ x - y ^ x N ^ ' / x ? ' XXX\>^AA/' \/V• v^"-:^ .^A/ X* ; x : x x . . . . . - _ . . - -.- _ . _ X\/*0'X\/''..A-. - -Granville *^«!55i5«£^^ 3 . • • / \A>*s v v v v \.A/ Xv \AA.A.A^\ •:• F t Island < - < > : X V ^ V ^ - A A < X N ' : > ^ ^ ^ • / ^ ; x v ^ ; x x x x > ^ x x x x x -% / V 'J V A ^ V \ A J w V *•-AAA^  V A - ^ ^ ^ c x S ^ c - ^ ' ^ ' ^ A ^ w £ v X X v • ^ v V ' X ^ J X I X X X X ' X X X X ' A-' X v -'.yC: X>-* CO 1 CD ^ Heavy hatched £ lines represent £the buffer bldgs. Incremental Land Subdivision. Showing how the buffer buildings, responding to environmental conditions, define the areas and neighbourhoods on the site. FIGURE 30. .023 Phy s i c a l Form and Design. An App l i ed Su r f ace Modulator cou ld de sc r i be in d e t a i l the layout of the po s i t i v e and negat ive urban forms. The geometry of the f o r m s of bu i ld ings and spaces cou ld be a s c r i bed at t h i s s tage of the des ign work. The f o r m s and vo lumes of the bu i ld ings and spaces w i l l be desc r i bed by the urban des igner by t r an s f o rm ing The Orthodox Su r f ace Modulator i n to an Amended Su r f ace Modulator. By that p roces s the shared v i s i o n of urban space i s in te rp re ted and the planning responds to the phy s i ca l c o n s t r a i n t s of the s i t e . The p o s i t i v e f o rms represent bu i ld ings and other v o l u m e t r i c phy s i ca l forms. The 78 negat i ve f o r m s represent the spaces be tween the bu i ld ings ; that i s pub l i c urban spaces, s t r e e t s , parks, p l a za s and ded i ca ted areas. The qua l i t y of the su r f ace s should be de sc r i bed by s p e c i f y i n g e l ement s of the Check L i s t . The Amended Su r f ace Modulator cou ld be a mandatory requ i rement. The c ompo s i t i o n of the e lement s of the Check L i s t are at the d i s c r e t i o n of the urban designer. When the v o l u m e t r i c c ompo s i t i o n i s f i x e d a l l subsequent des igns should f o l l o w the in tent of that compos i t i on . .024 Environment. Pub l i c urban space should be des igned to m a x i m i z e env i ronmenta l cond i t ions . The Amended Su r f ace Modulator cou ld de sc r i be the shape and vo lume of bu f f e r bu i ld ing s ( s e c t i on 3.03) to ach ieve t h i s purpose. Env i ronmenta l des ign of bu f f e r bu i ld ing s should cen t re around three m a j o r i ssues: * M i c r o - c l i m a t e s . * Noise abatement. * V i e w and v i s t a oppor tun i t ie s . Pub l i c urban spaces and p r i v a te r e s i d e n t i a l pa s s i ve areas should be sh ie lded f r o m the f o l l o w i n g s i t e i n t ru s i on s * The B. C. P l a ce S tad ium. * P a c i f i c Boulevard. * G r anv i l l e S t r e e t Br idge. * Cambie S t r e e t Br idge. * The Georg ia V i aduc t and A. L. R. T. 79 In the nar row context of these urban des ign requ i rement s , env i ronmenta l cond i t i on s should be m i t i g a t e d by mould ing and shaping bu f f e r bu i ld ings to s u i t s i t e cond i t ions . Landscaping p lay s a m a j o r part. Front Street. St. Lawrence Market. I M M 1 I f M I I M f 1 ^-Transcontinental Railway. l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l • i i i i n i i i i i i u i i i i i D i i i i i i n i l T + + •••• + A. Crornbie Park Apartments, c. David B. Archer Co-operative. j B. Seniors and family housing. D. Voodworth Co-operative. E. Cathedral Court Co-operative. N o r t n -Phase A of the St. Lawrence Neighbourhood, Toronto. The first completed portion of a large inner city redevelopment with charcteristics that are similar in some respects to B. C Place. FIGURE 31. M i c r o - c l i m a t e . B u f f e r bu i ld ings can be shaped to prov ide p r o t e c t i o n f r om p r e v a i l i n g w i n d s ( s ec t i on 3.03- Ralph Ersk ine). S u r f a ce s of bu f f e r bu i ld ings may be des igned to r e f l e c t sunshine in to o t h e r w i s e shaded areas. Overhangs may be des igned to prov ide s h e l t e r f r om the ra in . 80 Noise abatement. Nat iona l Bu i l d i ng Code s i t e c r i t e r i a r e s t r i c t s out s ide no i se l e v e l s t o 5 5 dBA. Other areas are r e s t r i c t e d to: l i v i n g r o o m s - 4 0 dBA, bedrooms-3 5 dBA, k i t c h e n s - 4 5 dBA (Canada Mortgage & Housing Corporat ion: 1977). No i se abatement i s ach ieved by c r e a t i n g no i se shadows w h i c h occur i n the " lee ' of b u f f e r bu i ld ing s and berms. An example of a w e l l des igned bu f f e r bu i l d i ng in a high dens i ty , inner c i t y , r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhood Is the Cathedra l Co -opera t i ve , in the St. Lawrence Centre, Toronto, see Figure 31. In Vancouver, there i s a w e l l des igned no i se abatement berm s i t e d between 6 th Avenue and the re s idences on the south shore development of Fa l se Creek. However bu f f e r bu i ld ings are p re fe rab l e to berms, w h i c h are w a s t e f u l of land, in inner c i t y developments. V i e w and v i s t a opportun i t ie s . The genera l l y accepted not ion, in Vancouver, that v i e w s are e s s e n t i a l l y of a d i s t an t , panoramic, nature should be chal lenged. A w e l l des igned bu i l d ing or pub l i c urban space can a l so be a very s a t i s f y i n g v i ew. Indeed, and desp i te e f f o r t s to the cont ra ry , so f ew re s i den t s end up enjoy ing wha t may be desc r i bed as a v i e w that i t i s impor tant to r e - d e f i n e what v i e w means. The Amended Su r f ace Modu lator and the Check L i s t should be used to a r t i c u l a t e c l o s e up v i e w s of urban spaces. By the same token when the opportun i ty a r i s e s d i s t an t v i e w s should be f r amed f o r b e t t e r e f f e c t by des ign ing the i n t e r s t i c e s in and around the bu f f e r bu i ld ings. That way cones of v i s i o n can be desc r ibed, Figure 6. .025 Occupancy i s the f i f t h urban des ign requ i rement. W i t h i n the r e s t r i c t i o n s of the C i t y of Vancouver b y - l a w s , governing no i se and po l l u t i on , the nature of occupancy should be open. The Amended Su r f a ce Modu lator should only desc r ibe 81 the vo lume of bu i ld ings and pub l i c urban spaces. The method of c o n t r o l l i n g bu i l d i ng dens i t y should be by volume. The cur rent method of dens i t y measure by f l o o r space r a t i o , F. 5. R. (Zoning D i s r i c t P l an B y - L a w no. 5451 : 1981), should be rep l aced by the v o l u m e t r i c method. Fur thermore, modern technology has made po s s i b l e a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between work and res idence. The general pub l i c has responded by choos ing to re tu rn to l i v e in the inner c i t y br ing ing re s i dence c l o s e r to the p l ace of work. Occupancy cou ld be rede f ined as l i v i n g and wo r k i n g w i t h i n w a l k i n g d i s tance. A c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between work space and housing, e s p e c i a l l y a f f o rdab le housing w i t h i n the inner c i t y , cou ld be f a c i l i t a t e d . The Amended Su r f ace Modulator cou ld de sc r i be bu i l d i ng envelopes that enc lo se a v a r i e t y of occupancies: work, l e i s u re , r e c r ea t i on , educat ion, c o m m e r c i a l and r e s i d e n t i a l . C l o se r e l a t i o n s h i p to va r i ed use i s demons t ra ted in the m u l t i - m i x use of the Cromb ie Park apar tment complex (designed by I rv ing Grossman & A s s o c i a t e s , A r c h i t e c t s ) in the St. Lawrence development in Toronto, Figure 31. The complex accommodates , in add i t i on to apar tments , t w o schoo l s , a gymnas ium, a c lub, o f f i c e s and a commun i ty cent re , ye t the e x t e r i o r f o rm of the bu i ld ing d e f i e s the e p i t h e t " form follows function:' .026 Movement. A modal s p l i t m a t r i x of t r a f f i c movement should be designed. The f o rma t should be an over lay (McHarg: 1969) to de sc r i be movement, each mode sepa ra te l y l a i d over one another, the r e l a t i o n s h i p s be tween movement and the urban spaces. In the context of the Amended Su r f ace Modu lator s the m a t r i x should de sc r i be movement and t r a f f i c grain. 82 The e f f e c t of movement on a pub l i c urban space i s de te rmined by the v e l o c i t y , vo lume, g ra in and nature of mot ion. //////////////////////////tJs//////////// """" '////, i n i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i u i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i l i i i ^ i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i Street m u n i ! i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i M : - : i i i H i i i i u i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i m i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i /////. Public Transit i Goods Movement amm Private Vehicular Movement Bicycle Handicapped Movement Pedestrian Movement Activity on a Fixed Point Limited Goods, Handicapped and Pedestrian movement crosses into building enclosures. A Matrix of Spacial Movement. FIGURE 32. T r a f f i c that a f f e c t s urban space inc ludes: * Pub l i c T rans i t . * Goods Movement. * P r i v a t e Veh i cu l a r Movement. * B i c y c l e Movement. * Handicapped Movement. * Pede s t r i a n Movement. * A c t i v i t y a t a f i x ed point (e.g. a r i t u a l , ceremony of open a i r res taurant ) . The manner in w h i c h these l e ve l s of movement should be in tegrated into the space i s i l l u s t r a t e d in Figure 32. Each over lay wou ld represent one of the types 83 of t r a f f i c movement. The cond i t i on a t the conf luence of paths then becomes ev ident. The m a t r i x approach to movement i s a means of deve lop ing a ' shared sur face" s t r e e t w h i c h can then be des igned f o r that purpose. The Woonerr ( Smi th : 1986) ph i losophy w a s app l ied to 2 00 s t r e e t s in Ut recht , Ho l land to demons t ra te the p r i n c i p l e of the ' shared s t reet ' . Another approach i s demons t ra ted on G r anv i l l e Is land in Vancouver (See l ig : September 1980). Here the t r a f f i c m i x d i scourages the emphas i s of any one mode. V e l o c i t y i s reduced and the i n t e r a c t i o n of movement occur s through and ac ro s s the pub l i c spaces, even penet ra t i ng the bu i l d i ng envelopes. 84 CHAPTER 7. IMPLICATIONS. The six proposed urban design requirements are more simplified than the current urban design guidelines. The implications behind the simplification can have several effects. The relationship between the development community, the design professions (see section 3.02) and the City will change. A more volumetric understanding of urban space could be included in the development control system by using computer applications. Some limitations, inevitably, will arise. 7.01 Use. The use of the proposed six urban design requirements could affect the relationships within the devevlopment community. The requirements are brief and to the point thus clarifying the urban design component in the development control system. The requirements are a framework of reference with a clearly understood goal - the shared vision of urban space, articulated by the public. The proposed requirements are not onerous, so as to preclude reinterpretation. In fact the format, as a broad set of directives, places the creative decision-making responsibilities with the practicing design professionals. The bulk of the work of conceiving the direction of the development could be transferred from the civic offices to the offices of the practitioners. A greater responsibility is placed on the design professional to respect the intent of the requirements without circumventing them. The often used phrase in the development community "what can we get away with ?" will still be prevalent but the responsibility is on the planners to be vigilant in enforcing the intent. A transfer of responsibility to the design professions is already in effect in the the plan checking process in the City of Vancouver, Permits and Licences. 85 Qualified design professionals, who satisfy the City of their competence to interpretate the National Building Code, are accorded a stamp to affix to their permit application documents. With this stamp, they circumvent the checking procedure by taking on the responsibility of certifying that their documents meet the criteria of the code. The City organizes seminars in which the professionals are expected to take part prior to receiving a stamp. Similar seminars could be arranged for urban design professionals. 7.02 Simplified Requirements. The requirements are brief and succinct. By being succinct the professional Is asked to present his interpretation of the spacial form of the development. He co-operates in formulating his interpretation into the development control system. The requirements are easier to understand and relatively free of conventional legal language which is inappropriate for the purpose of interpreting the cultural and subjective aspect of society as a whole. 7.03 Volumetric Understanding of Space. The six requirements are formulated on the basis of an interpretion of a shared vision of urban space. Five of the requirements respond to the application of the Amended Surface Modulator and Check List. These instruments are intented to communicate the multi-dimensional quality of space. The requirements therefore are spacially oriented and could encourage, hopefully, a more developed sense of space for the urban community. 7.04 Computer Application. Space is multi-dimensional. It cannot be expressed satisfactorily in words, nor graphically on a flat surface. The best medium for 86 r ep re sen ta t i on of space should be capable of exp re s s i ng ma l l e ab l e p ropor t ions and volume. The computer i s best s u i t e d f o r t h i s medium. / Formal Access. Tributary Access. The buildings surround and, with their surfaces, create the public space. Access. Tributary 1 Access. This is a primitive C.AD.D. illustration of the Applied Surface Modulator. It is the same construct as the following two figures. The view has been manipulated at the keyboard. It is a hypothetical example. Primitive C.A.D.D. view I FIGURE 33. The Su r f ace Modulator i s p a r t i c u l a r l y re levant to computer app l i ca t i on . Three d imens iona l vo lumes can be rendered g r aph i ca l l y by t h e i r l i nea r f ramework. The vo lumes can be moved and man ipu la ted w i t h i n the computer program. Programs, such as Easy 3D, can conta in images of space se t up by the Su r f ace Modulator. The computer app l i c a t i on makes i t po s s i b l e to v i e w the s p a c i a l concept s imu l t aneou s l y f r om many d i f f e r e n t angles. The th ree d imens iona l , or to be more p rec i s e four d imens iona l , nature of space that the urban des ign requ i rement s are commun ica t ing , i s rendered v i s u a l l y more comprehens ib le. The f ou r th d imens ion i s t ime. The Su r f ace Modulator i n t roduces the p o s s i b i l i t y of c o - o rd i na t i n g many ind i v idua l development p r o j e c t s over an extended period. 87 The g r id f r amewo rk of the Su r f ace Modulator can expres s the th ree d imens iona l component of urban design. The fou r th d imens iona l nature of the Su r f ace Modulator expresses the t i m e lag between the f i r s t concept of a large p lanning undertak ing, i.e. B. C. P lace , and the eventual comp le t i on of the l a s t bu i l d ing p r o j ec t s . Primitive C.A.D.D. view 2. FIGURE 34. The three f i gu re s in t h i s s e c t i o n i l l u s t r a t e the manner in w h i c h a Su r f ace Modulator may be used to commun ica te the v i s i o n of urban space in three d imens ions. They convey the image of one spac i a l concept ion f r om three d i f f e r e n t po in t s of v i ew. Figure 33 i s the o r i g i n a l l y comp i l ed Amended Su r f ace Modulator dep i c t i n g the agreed upon shared v i s i o n of urban space. 88 Figure 34 i s the same, man ipu la ted, Amended Su r f ace Modulator showing the shared v i s i o n of urban space f r om a d i f f e r e n t po int of v i ew. Formal Primitive C.A.D D. view 3 . Access FIGURE 35 . Each i l l u s t r a t i o n has been man ipu la ted f r om one spac i a l f o rm generated in the program. The shared v i s i o n of urban space dep i c ted by the Amended Su r f ace Modulator in Figure 35 i s the same as the prev ious two , seen f r om a d i f f e r e n t aspect us ing the same computer program. Th i s s e r i e s of f i g u re s shows the advantage of the Su r f ace Modulator as i t may be app l ied to o f f the she l f and read i l y a va i l ab l e computer s o f twa re . 89 In case the previous figures mislead , curves are not an inherent part of the composition. Figure 36 is an illustration depicting a primitive conceptual urban space rectilinear in form. A rectilinear vision of urban space depicted by the Amended S u r f a c e M o d u l a t o r . FIGURE 36. The four previous illustrations, Figures 33, 34, 35 and 36 have been compiled on a rudimentary software program for explanatory reasons only. The program is called Easy 3D and is marketed by Enabling Technologies Inc.© specifically for application on the Macintosh computer. It is readily available in retail stores. This program is not, in itself, adequate for the task of interpreting urban space in a development control system as Intended in this thesis. So far a program of the complexity for such a task has not been compiled. The research and resources needed for this undertaking are beyond the scope of this thesis. The powerful potential for such a program, however, is demonstrated in the 4 figures. 90 7.05 Limitations-There are instances where the Surface Modulator is not an appropriate instrument. As aforementioned the Surface Modulator is appropriate when applied to areas of medium to high density. Application in suburban, low density, single family, residential developments is not appropriate. The Surface Modulator cannot be applied in developments within an accepted pattern of urban sprawl. In a rural or park like setting where space is not defined by building structure the concept of the building envelope is contrary to the notion of the wide open rural setting. There are a number of other limitations listed: .051 The Surface Modulator may, by some, be considered as an unreasonable impediment to the intuitive design process ( Seelig:1984 ). In fact, the purpose behind applying it is to co-ordinate the architectural elements created by the individual designer. It is not intended to limit his intuitive contribution. .052 There may be perceived limitations in its design application. This perception may encourage undue uniformity of building facades. The key to success is in the creative manner of interpretation. The Surface Modulator in an amended form is a creation of imaginative professionals viewing spacial possibilities as unlimited. .053 The present relationships of the various individuals and organizations in the develoment community may for a time be strained, until the requirements are understood. The succinct format will place considerable responsibility on the practitioners. This may not at first be acceptable in the current milieu. 91 7.06 Conclusion. If Rob Krier, Edmund Bacon, the assessment of Burrard Street (Critique, section 4.03) and many private citizens (who prefer to talk off the record) are believable then we just have to look around to see what will become of B. C. Place. This is possible if a reassessment of the requirements towards a shared vision of urban space is not made. On the south shore of False Creek, area six, phases I and II, the City's development (the south shore between the Cambie and Granville Street bridges), was in the initial planning, a very well conceived spacial entity. The guidelines which were formulated to communicate the intent of that spacial vision were loose and indecisive (Kemble: 1980). The guidelines were formulated in great detail, with respect to the small scale personal activity on the site, but they did not communicate a vision of spacial co-ordination. Area six is a large development. It has taken since 1974 to evolve and it is still accreting. Many design professionals and many developers have, and still are, contributing to it. The combination of development participants and a loose, spacially undefined, set of guidelines caused the protagonists to lose sight of the original intent. The spacial intent of the overall plan was not picked up by architects working on subsequent incremental developments because there were no spacial ly conceived requirements to guide them. The finished developments are not cohesive in spacial form and there are very few well designed buidlings defining the spaces. An array of requirements articulating a shared vision of urban space is no more costly, nor hard to come by, than the planning work conducted on area six. It is only a matter of learning from past experience then acting upon those lessons. 92 CHAPTER 8. CONCLUSION. 8.01 Introduct ion. The proposed urban des ign requ i rement s together w i t h the Orthodox Su r face Modulator, have not ye t been tes ted. However, reasonable grounds to be l i eve an improvement in the bu i l t urban env i ronment cou ld be an immed ia te resu l t . NORTH PARK NEIGHBOURHOOD. B.C. PLACE. That portion of the plan north of the viaduct. FIGURE 37. The p lans of the North Park 0. D. P f o r B. C. P l ace show an a t t empt to f o l l o w a v i s i o n of urban space north of the Georgia V iaduct , see Figure 37. The i s a p lan of the bu i ld ing layout i s i n the p r e l im i na r y stages. The c re s cen t shaped bu i ld ings in the m i d - a r e a of the development wrap around an urban space that has the po ten t i a l to be very w e l l conceived. The spaces are r e m i n i s c e n t of Cumber land Te r race surrounding the east s ide of Regent ' s Park, London. Bar ry Downs, 93 a r c h i t e c t and planner f o r the p r o j e c t i s quoted as say ing " . . . . You may not like Bath, but how do you like Regent's Park? "(Sun: December, 1985). C l ea r l y , the intent to ca r ry through w i t h that v i s i o n should be f o l l o w e d by a se t of requ i rement s that w i l l commun ica te to subsequent des igner s and deve lopers how the spaces may be f o l l o w e d through to complet ion . Each of these The collective architectural futures do not Lismore Circus. (The Architectural Association School of Architecture Prospectus 1985/6-). A first year project. The figure illustrates a model of a public urban space. ' •' •'••'••*'•'>*• Part of one side is shown, ft shows how many separate, but co-ordinated, building facades contribute to public urban space. FIGURE 38. The app l i c a t i on of the App l i ed Su r f ace Modulator need not r e s u l t in a monotonous l i ne up of i den t i c a l facades. In the hands of c r e a t i v e p r o f e s s i o na l s the app l i c a t i on may be used as intended; to co - o rd i na te the va r i ou s separate a c t s of development and to d i r e c t the a c c r e t i o n of a comp le ted urban space. Figure 38 i s an i l l u s t r a t i o n of a f i r s t year s tudent group p r o j e c t a t the A r c h i t e c t u r a l A s s o c i a t i o n School of A r c h i t e c t u r e in London, England. It demons t ra te s the p o s s i b i l i t y of c o l l e c t i v e l y and i nd i v i dua l l y bu i l d ing up a s e r i e s of facades into, in t h i s case, a c i r c u l a r urban space. 94 The Victorian penchant for excessive detailing, known as gingerbread, is often admired by the present generation. One such possible result of the Applied Surface Modulator and the Check List is illustrated in Figure 39. In Victorian architecture and streetscape there are examples of a shared vision of urban space where a prolific variation in architectural expression has thrived within the limits of the surface regulation. One very good example is the late Victorian application of Pont Street Dutch facades (Cameron & Cooke: 1980). The ubiquitous application of gingerbread and varied gables attests to the multitude of possibilities still open to the individualistic designer. 1/lMJ A Simulated Effect of the Pont Street Streetscape. FIGURE 39. The use of the Surface Modulator is as an urban design instrument as part of the urban design requirements of the development control system. The urban space resulting from the use comes from a shared vision of urban space expressed by the public. The physical form of the space is interpreted by the urban designer, in consultation with the planners and their clients the developers. The interpreted form becomes a part of the development control specific to the site. The vision of space is then followed by all subsequent designers who contribute to the development of the site. 95 The results of many shared visions and attempts at sharing visions of urban space show that when such a concept is implemented a very satisfactory result ensues. The public in Vancouver have always expressed their desire to see the development of their city regulated in favour of well designed spaces (Hardwick & students: 1976). 8.02 Conclusions. The proposed urban design requirements are conceptual in form. The concepts set out a shared vision of urban space as the art of creating public urban spaces. Urban design requirements can only be meaningful if they are composed with a definite purpose in mind. The objective here is to create a set of urban design instruments which may be used to implement a shared vision of urban space. Further studies may be pursued as related topics along a number of paths. Here are some ideas. A shared vision of urban space implies a collective social view. Our culture is not motivated by collective efforts. How can we accept the concept of a shared vision of urban space? Would we value the effort? What procedures must be instigated to better interpret urban space in the already developed parts of the city? Buffer buildings make an important contribution to urban space. What impact may they have? How should they be conceived and their purpose implemented? 96 The major task ahead, however, is to bring a shared vision of urban space into practice. The task could be to analyse the present attitudes, professional and public, toward urban design guidelines; to make the distinction between what is discretionary and what is mandatory; to deal with the requirements as a means to create public urban space. In fact, the task would be to see what the implications are of returning the creative initiative back to the design professions, away from the planning authorities. The current discretionary guidelines would be superseded by the proposed requirements. " Nobody knows where you're going Nobody cares where you've been You belong to the city You belong to the night: Glenn Frey. Theme, Miami Vice. 97 BIBLIOGRAPHY. Architectural Association School of Architecture, Prospectus. 1985-6. London. Bacon, Edmund N., Design of Cities. London, Penguin Books, 1974 Baird/Sampson. Greening Downtown. Parts 1, 2 & 3. Vancouver, 1982. Barnett, Jonathan, Introduction to Urban Design. New York, Harper & Row, 1982. B. C. Place A Proposed Citv Response. Vancouver City Planning Department, Vancouver, 1983. B. C. Place Chronology of Events. Vancouver City Planning Department, Vancouver, B. C. Place Planning Process. Vancouver City Planning Department, Vancouver, B. C. Place Policies. 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Segal, Ralph Architect & John Perkins Architect, Cambie Bridge South Corridor  Planning and Urban Design Study. Vancouver, 1985. Smith, Paul, "Calming the Traffic and Sharing the Street," Plan Canada. 26:4 June 1986. South East Granville Slopes Overall Development Plan. Vancouver City Planning Department, Vancouver, 1985. Stern, Robert A. M., Pride of Place. P. B. S. Television series, New York, 1986. Summerson, John, Georgian London. London, M. I. T. Press, 1945. Sutcliffe, Anthony, Autumn of Central Paris. Montreal, McGill-Queen's,1971. 101 Vancouver Sun. "Post Expo building plan draws mixed response." December 5,1985. Vancouver Sun. "Tourists view city as blah, not go-go place, officials say." June 10, 1986. Virilio, Paul, "The Over Exposed City", Zone 1/2. New York, 1986, 15-31. Vitruvius, "De Architecture. Rome, 1st. Cent. A. D. Werner, Frank, "The City Centre 'Forum' of East Berlin", Architectural Design. 11-12 1982, 30-40. Whyte, William H., The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces. Washington, D. C, The Conservation Foundation, 1980. Zoning and Development By-law no. 3575. with amendments UP to date. City of  Vancouver. B. c . Vancouver City Planning Department, 1956. Zoning District Plan Bv-law no. 5451. City of Vancouver, B.C., Vancouver City Planning Department, 1981. APPENDIX. 102 ".... A filthy window affords a glimpse of human labour and its consequences: people working Jong hours in foul weather for little pay, straining their muscles, defining their lives, to create yet another monument to avarice and aggression." D. M. Fraser, The Voice of Emma Sachs. 1983. 1.01 False Creek Comprehensive Development Distr ict / Br i t i sh Columbia Place Expo Development Distr ict zoning. 1.011 References documents 1.012 F.C.C.D.D./B.C.P.E.D. 104 110 103 1.01 Urban Design Guidelines, False Creek Comprehensive Development Distr ict / Br i t i sh Columbia Place Expo Development Distr ict and the B C. Place planning proposals. DOWNTOWN VANCOUVER B.C .Place NORTH Burrard yiy. Bridge Granville Bridge .: 10 ^ran\nlle.:|!!^^v. ... .vI^ CyVNCyN'CyN Stadium ..^^feayft L .;. -^Cy^^O '^^ CyZy^y 15.18ha. v : A - ^ y ^ ^ y ' A v ^ > ; y A y % y ; y ; 1 : 1 «r • ^ y ^ y^y - y^y ? ^ - : ^ X X X V ^ Island 1: [Approximate Shoreline 1985 FAIRVIEW SLOPES 40.27ha. : CO • * « -• •% t IUJ 21.25ha. 7 27.84ha. 6th Ave. 8th Ave. 824.32ha. SUB - AREAS. Showing the northshore site of B. C. Place. FIGURE 40. The appendix is an overview of the urban design guidelines that have been compiled by the Vancouver City Planning Department for the area of the False Creek basin. It is that area depicted in Figure 40. The compilation of urban design guidelines for this area commenced when it became apparent that the south shore city owned land of False Creek could be developed from their, then, unsightly industrial use into a residential neighbourhood. 104 Critical comments are made to give some perspective to what is contained in the thesis. This overview points up the adhoc manner in which the guidelines have been developed over the last two decades. The one critical factor this overview shows is a lack of a shared vision of urban space that may have provided a comprehensive direction for us to follow. There are areas where guidelines contradict one another. There are areas where the guidelines are inappropriate, given the constraints of the site. But there is also a very strong sense that the Planning Department as a whole has learnt from their experiences and the general trend has been positive. The most recent guidelines, particularly the January 1986 False Creek FC-1 and the B. C. Place North Park plan, demonstrate an awareness of how urban space can affect the living environment, and also how guidelines can implement the sense of urban space originally envisioned. 1.011 Reference documents. 1970. January 16, False Creek Development Concepts. City of Vancouver Planning Department. The City introduced five concepts on how to develop the 10 areas of False Creek. The apparent purpose of this document was to stimulate public discussion. They were compiled by the City Planning Department. The content of the concepts responds to a call for citizen input, reacting to the publicly expressed intentions of the City to proceed with the development of False Creek. The controversy, as would be expected, was intense. The range of choices were polarized from high density residential development, industrial use and open parkland. 105 Concept no. 1 All areas were industrial land use. Commercial strip development was allowed on Broadway and Granville Streets. Community facilities were visualized at First Avenue and Burrard Street. Marinas were located on the waterfront in area 6, phases 10 and 11. Concept no. 2 Area 1 comprises commercial with waterfront park. Area 2 comprises residential, waterfront park, limited community facilities, a marina and very limited commercial use in the centre and at the Connaught Bridge. Areas 3, 4 & 5 are predominantly commercial with commercially mixed residential, waterfront park and residential. Area 6 is a mixed use concept following, in general principle, the present development with a central park separating residentially mixed commercial neighbourhoods close to the two bridges. In this proposal the continuous sea-wall walk is illustrated. Concept no. 3 An industrial proposal. There are residential developments in areas 2, 7 and 8 and limited in area 10. A park is proposed in the central portion of area 6; a marina in phase II, areas 6 and 10. Concent no. 4 Areas 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8 and 10 are commercially developed. Areas 2, 6 and 10 are predominantly residential with parks, marinas, community facilities and limited commercial. Concept no. 5 There is a wide park and sea walk surrounding the False Creek water body. Areas 2, 5, 6 and 10 have residential areas with marinas, limited commercial and community facilities. The report outlines the statistical data without comment. It was compiled for public presentation to encourage discussion. 1971. September, Proposed Policies. False Creek Development. City of Vancouver Planning Department. This is an outline policy document covering all the aspects of development of the False Creek basin. It defines the land use 106 densities and zoning requirements. Its contents have since been superseded by later documentation. 1971_2. Progress Reports. 1. March. 71. False Creek study group/Thompson, Berwick, Pratt & Partners. 2. May. 71. False Creek study group. 3. September. 71. False Creek study group. 4. May. 72. Thompson, Berwick, Pratt & Partners. 5. May. 72. Thompson, Berwick, Pratt & Partners. These documents reflect the discussions in the community, reflecting the polarized opinions. On one side were those advocating all parkland, on the other were those who believed the current housing shortage justified a very dense residential development. 1972. History of False Creek. Opportunities For Youth Grant. Cote, Elligott & Melle. This is a useful chronology of significant dates and events that have occurred in the False Creek basin from 1886 until 1972. 1973. June, False Creek. Pol icies & Actions. City of Vancouver Planning Department. This is a preliminary to the more comprehensive November publication. It outlines the subjects under the following headings: (i) The water body, (ii) The land use, (iii) The environment and (iv) Transportation. 1973. November, False Creek Policies. City of Vancouver Planning Department. This is the City's reaction to the March 1972 Thompson, Berwick, Pratt and Partner's report and the City Planning Department's report of June 1973. The contents of these reports dealt in the broadest terms with water, land 107 use and transportation. The following outline of policies have been adopted by City Council:-Discharge of pollutants not permitted. The existing water body should be maintained and further water area be encouraged. The waters edge shall at all times be accessible to the public. Public open space be 2.35ha./1000 pop. Land use was to be of mixed use with open space available and contiguous to all residential developments. A future link to rapid transit be provided. The removal of the Kitsilano trestle is priorlzed. The intention was expressed to remove the 6th Avenue rail line. 1974. Design Competition. Sponsored by the City of Vancouver Planning Department. The area covered by the competiition is the city owned south shore of False Creek known as area 6. Three local architectural firms invited to submit ideas:-Britannia Design (Byron Olson & Ron Walkey). The separation of the potential residential development of area 6 and the Broadway commercial amenity area by 6th Avenue, and the railway line was dealt with boldly by this entry. Many observers felt this to be the superior scheme. It was a clear attempt to introduce urban densities to False Creek within the realities of the site. It completed the connection across the rail/6th Avenue impass by a developed continuous bridge that was both park and residences; a megastructure. The application of the pattern language was the guide to the spacial articulation. Thompson, Berwick, Pratt & Partners. This was the winning entry. It is the present development in area 6, phase I. Downs/Archambault. This entry was quite similar to the Thompson, Berwick, Pratt & Partners' scheme but of course varied in details. 108 1976. April 6, False Creek Area 6, Phase II. City of Vancouver Planning Department. This is a sketch proposal by Downs/Archambault, Davidson/Johnson, Architects. It is a document studying two possible alternative uses for this area. The two depict: (i) a predominantly residential concept and (ii) a park and civic building concept. 1976. July 15, A.D.P. for Area 6, Phase II. False Creek. Prepared by the City Planning Department. This is the precursor to the Alder Bay development. It covers the residential area of False Creek extending east from the Granville Bridge, between the shoreline and the rail line, to Alder Street. Dividing the site into four areas, A, B, C & D, consecutively from east to west, it delineates the areas that will be provided for commercial, residential and community (open space) use. It then refers to building heights, public open space, vehicular circulation and parking, and water area. There is a concluding appendix showing a sketch plan of what, at the time, was conceived as the spacial layout of the built physical form. 1978. April 18, Granville Island, False Creek_Area 9. Reference document. Submitted to the City of Vancouver by The Granville Island Trustees as advisors to, and on behalf, of C. M. H. C. The document was compiled by Norman Hotson and Associates, Architects. 1980. July, The Canadian Architect. False Creek Decline & Rebirth. Roger Kemble. It explains an overall history, the planning process and the architecture. There are many illustrations of the competition proposal drawings that won Thompson, Berwick & Pratt, Architects the commission to design the overall concept for the area 6 development. It describes the three residential 109 neighbourhoods: Heather, Spruce and Alder Bay, that make up False Creek area 6. It recognizes the achievement, on the part of the City, in bringing an innovative innercity neighbourhood to fulfilment. Attention is directed to shortcomings; the landscaping and the lack of architectural space co-ordination. It is pointed out that, despite prescribed guidelines in the spacial zoning for this area, there is only one area of the thus far completed development that can be construed as street architecture - Shore Pine Walk in the Alder Bay Co-op development. Feedback, Jacqueline C. Vischer. This accompanied the above article. It Is an abstract from False Creek area 6, phase 1, Post Occupancy Evaluation. Final Report by Vischer, Skaburskis Planners. It reveals some complaints - lack of parking being one. Minimum parking was intentional as part of the City's policy to anticipate an improved transit connection in the future. The complaints, however, are important and should not be disregarded. But the general acceptance of the residents was positive. Conclusions state that the False Creek development has had a profound effect on the city overall. The response of the residents was mixed. Generally the development was received favourably. There were reservations expressed on the usability of the semi-private spaces; the inside communal gardens that are surrounded by the residential units. It was noted that it was too soon to make a definitive post occupancy evaluation. 1983. April, Report No. 3, B. C. Place. The first conceptual plan of land use for the B. C. Place site. It was compiled by Fisher/Friedman Associates, Arthur Erickson Architects and the B. C. Place planning group. It is a development of high-rise buildings. It is in a most preliminary form; more a promotional document than a serious plan. It ignores many of the lessons learned in the city over the last 30 years. It was abandonded in favour of a more realistic approach. 110 1984. 5t. Lawrence & False Creek. U. B. C. School of Community and Regional Planning, publication. J. David Hulchanski. It is a review of the planning of an important, large, infill neighbourhood in the City of Toronto and the False Creek development in Vancouver. As a detailed comparison of these two innercity developments it is a valuable reference document. Both these neighbourhoods were built in the same enthusiastic civic atmosphere of reform during the early seventies. It is a definitive survey of the facts. 1.012 F. C. C. D. D. / B. C. P. E. D. Guidelines and related areas. The documents in this section are the official guidelines as adopted by council. They are the documents now followed in the development of the basin. Areas 2, 3 and 5 are as yet not covered by approved guidelines. They will be discussed in their present embryonic form. Area 1 is partially covered by the South East Granville Slopes O.D.P. The remaining three quarters of the area is to be the subject of civic discussion, yet to come. In 1986 the Planning Department introduced a standard indexing for all guideline documents. It is based on decimal numbering of paragraphs. To date, the two that follow this format are the Cambie Bridge, south corridor and East False Creek guidelines. The system has yet to be perfected. The guidelines are conceptual in format. They are to encourage improved design in the buildings of False Creek. 1982. May, Downtown South Urban Design, Executive Summary, by Cunningham Dutoit, planning, urban design, landscape architecture. This was commissioned by the City to deal with the potential urban development of the area on Granville Street north of the bridge. It has an effect on the False Creek basin because it abuts Area 1, the South East Granville Slopes. It is in conflict with the later principles set by the City for area 1, and is not consistent i l l with the view requirements because the report would allow large high-rise buildings, on either side of the Granville Street Bridge, to form a dramatic entrance to the downtown. It is clearly in contradiction with the current S. E. G. S. guidelines that contain the heights of the buildings. Its purpose is to retain the view that these two gateway buildings will obscure. 1982. November, Fairvlew Slopes pol ic ies and guidelines, the City of Vancouver Planning Department. The guidelines briefly and incompletely treat: existing houses, new development, non-conforming development, the development approval process, traffic and services, parks and open space. 1974-86 inclusive. July-January, False Creek Comprehensive Development District. June 1981. Including by-laws to adopt area development plans, F.C.C.D.D. City of Vancouver, B. C. On February 21, 1984 the City declared areas 1, 2, 3 and 4 of the False Creek basin as the B. C. Place / Expo, B. C. P. E. D., development area. Until that time, from June 1981, all areas of the basin, except area 9, were designated F. C. C. D. D. Thus, the current areas covered by by_law no. 4783 F. C. C. D. D. include: 5, 6, 7,8, 9 and 10. These guidelines are compiled for convenience into one binding and include the June 1981 documents which are bound into no. 3575, Zoning and development by_law. Section 1.0 Site Planning refects the nature of the weakness of guideline approach to the by-law. It has elusive headings such as "interpretive requirements', "community forum" and "taming tall buildings." The intent behind these headings is clear to the authors but of little guidance to the design consultant. 112 The accompanying sketches are of even less help. They demonstrate the adroit penmanship of the rendering profession, but overlook the civic commitment to effective urban design, and the ingredients that make usable public space or for that matter, views viewable without having to break our necks. In summation, and to be brief, three essential elements are singled out here examples of deficiencies in the by-law. Section 2.3 Design Guidelines, (h) Three kinds of views, (i) "nature just outside/ (ii) "life of surrounding community" and (iii) "a vista that encompasses distant natural elements." It is intended that these notations be a guide for designers. They are to be used as an impetus for imagination. It has not worked in practice. The notation states "every dwelling unit should have access to all three". Only a few homes have a view in False Creek despite the commitment to provide for them. As a consequence of such guidelines the spacial planning of Alder Bay, area 6, phase II has been impeded. On paper the sight lines are convincing, but a visit to the suites demonstrates otherwise. A very small percentage of development, facing north, on the end of the building enjoy a realistic view. From the remaining side suites it is seen by stretching over the balcony or window sill. From a relaxed position inside the suite the view is of another suite, a few feet away, with, io and behold, your neighbour looking in on you. Section 2.3 Design Guidelines, (i) Sunny main rooms. This requirement flies in the face of reality. "Habitable rooms in every dwelling unit are capable of receiving sunlight." This comment is accompanied by a sketch showing the path of the sun as it traverses the southern ecliptic. All of the False Creek developable area within the City's jurisdiction is oriented towards the north; the view, the slope and the traffic quiet. It is a very difficult suggestion to attempt to follow and would best be left out of a guideline. Area 2. Neighbourhoods. 113 This area is now included in the B.C.P.E.D. zoning. This guideline seems to rely entirely on another default by the professional Tenderer. Reference is made to European street environment, tile plazas and squares. It leaves an impression that the notion of neighbourhood is trivialized. nSBSSHi Encouraged Build-to lines. South East Granville Slopes. FIGURE 41. 1985. August, S. E. Granville Slopes Of f ic ia l Development Plan. City of Vancouver Planning Department. See Figure 41. The densities allowed in this O.D.P. vary between 3.0 F.5.R. and 6.8 F.S.R. Compared to other areas of high density in the city it is high. In the West End Development, for instance,the F.S.R. varies between 1.5 and 2.75. Nevertheless, the sophisticated spacial layout, the proximity to amenities and open space is a new response, by the City, to a higher density development reflecting a lifestyle that B. C. Place has publicly stated it would like to encourage. 114 Th i s i s the f i r s t a pp l i c a t i o n of the B u i l d - t o L ine in the Fa l se Creek basin. 12th. Ave. TCOi Is W% Gamble Bridge South Corridor. FIGURE 42. But an opportun i ty has been lost. P r o t e c t i o n f r om the G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t Br idge seems to be e s s e n t i a l but has been ignored in t h i s plan. 115 1985. September. Cambie Bridge, South Corridor Urban Design Study, by Ralph Segal, Architect and John Perkins, Architect. See Figure 42. This is the most comprehensive document of guidelines in the area of the False Creek basin. It covers that area of Cambie Street between City Hall and the alignment of the new Cambie Street Bridge. It is replete with figures, drawings and photographs. It is an attractive and well compiled document. Pender ,. Georgia ' Viaduct J^ V "X Pacific J^&rVt, N Boulev NORTH NORTH PARK B.C.PLACE. FIGURE 43. The graphics are for the most part illustrations of what could be built on the site by using contemporary architectural trends. There are many references to architectural details, from examples, in the city and throughout the world. 116 It does not address the purpose of public space. It has accepted, at face value, the nature of single buildings as objects unrelated to context, space or a vision of what may be effected to improve what, essentially, is already in place. Had it reflected the qualities (e.g. the application of the Build-to Line) of the 'Greening Downtown" document the quality of the built environment of the South Cambie Street corridor may have been more secure. 1985. December, North Park development concept, Downs/ArchambauIt, B. C. Place planning and design, City of Vancouver Planning Department. See Figure 43. It is that portion of the B. C. Place site in the north east sector immediately adjacent to Chinatown. It covers 30.35 ha. There are provisions for 2,500 residential units, 650 being ground oriented for family use. Park area will be 5.3 ha. Office accommodation will be 70,000m2. Retail space will be 20,000m2. So far the planning is in a very preliminary form. It reflects the influence of the correspondence between the City, B. C. Place and this author. It is a demonstration of the ability to sculpt and mould urban space with the built form. The spacial articulation of the site in general has been handled very well. It is an omission that the large expanse of land around the viaduct has not been used to the better purpose of protecting the site from the deleterious effects of the viaduct traffic. 1986. January, East False Creek FC_1 Guidelines, the City of Vancouver Planning Department. This is the most comprehensive guideline document to come from the Planning Department. It covers the areas surrounding the Quebec Street and Terminal Avenue intersection. This area is to be commercial mixed use, high density, with some residential accommodation. 117 It i s to be a gateway p rec i nc t to the c i t y . Th i s de s c r i be s a v i s i o n that w i l l be the guiding p r i nc i p l e . H i gh - r i s e bu i ld ings on e i t he r s i de of Te rm ina l Avenue w i l l be encouraged. The gu ide l ines e s t a b l i s h the c e n t r a l image in the r e l a t i on sh i p Thornton Park enjoys w i t h the C.N. s t a t i on . Georgia Viaduct ^ „ First Ave., r East False Creek. FIGURE 44. in feet ipe setback areas The comprehens ive coverage i s in the f o l l o w i n g headings. App l i c a t i on . Expresses the need f o r qua l i t y and c o m p a t i b i l i t y . General des ign cons iderat ions . To express neighbourhood and s t r e e t cha rac te r , o r i e n t a t i o n , v i e w s , l i ght and v e n t i l a t i o n , weather , no i se, p r i vacy and secur i t y . Bu i l d i n g o r i e n t a t i o n as an 118 element of interrelated forms is dealt with for the first instance in guideline documentation. Heavy line represents "Build-to Line". Reference to the zoning and development by_1aw. To delineate frontage, height, front yards and off street parking and loading. In this part the Build-to Line is treated, see Figure 44. It is done with an understanding of its sculpting role; it is prescribed with a view to building a spacial vision. Architectural components. Without encroaching on the designer's prerogative there is a reminder of the salient features of architectural significance. They are itemized: entrances, wall finish, arcades, canopies etc. Open space. Outlines, briefly, the manner a building form may sculpt and articulate urban space. Landscaping. Briefly draws attention to boulevard trees and surface parking. 

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