Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The scope of retail/commercial planning at the municipal government level Waitt, Barry Douglas 1986

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1986_A8 W34.pdf [ 9.57MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0097006.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0097006-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0097006-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0097006-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0097006-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0097006-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0097006-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0097006-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0097006.ris

Full Text

The Scope o f Retail/Commercial P l a n n i n g at the M u n i c i p a l Government L e v e l By Barry Douglas Waitt B.A., Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1984 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School o f Community and R e g i o n a l Planning) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1986 (c) Barry Douglas Waitt, 1986 i n I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f Snnni nF foMMIINTTY AND RFRTONAL PLANNING The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1956 Main M a l l V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1Y3 D a t e OrTORFR IfvTH i (3/81) ABSTRACT The f u n c t i o n i n g of the r e t a i l s e c t o r and the c o m m e r c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f C a n a d i a n u r b a n a r e a s has become i n c r e a s i n g l y important i n the 1980's, as the p r o s p e r i t y o f major Western c i t i e s becomes more dependent on t h e i r a b i l i t y t o f u n c t i o n as commercial s e r v i c e c e n t e r s . The p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e g u l a t i n g the development o f r e t a i l / c o m m e r c i a l f a c i l i t i e s i s p r i m a r i l y a task f o r m u n i c i p a l governments. In l i g h t o f t h i s , t h i s t h e s i s c r i t i c a l l y examines t h e s c o p e o f p l a n n i n g f o r r e t a i l / c o m m e r c i a l development a t t h e m u n i c i p a l government l e v e l , u s i n g the M u n i c i p a l i t y o f Richmond as a case study. T h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e i s r o om f o r t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y o f Richmond to i n c r e a s e t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n p l a n n i n g and r e g u l a t i n g c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t , l a r g e l y through a l l o w i n g m u n i c i p a l planners to expand t h e i r scope o f involvement i n t h i s f i e l d . I n t h e l i t e r a t u r e review, commercial l a n d use p l a n n i n g abroad, as w e l l as v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s , concepts, and models t h a t c o n t r i b u t e to the commercial p l a n n i n g process are d i s c u s s e d . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s i s t o d i s c o v e r p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e and commercial p l a n n i n g theory t h a t c o u l d be u s e f u l f o r planners t h a t have the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of p l a n n i n g f o r r e t a i l / c o m m e r c i a l development. A p o l i c y a n a l y s i s o f r e t a i l / c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g i s p r o v i d e d through a review o f m u n i c i p a l government documents t h a t a r e r e l e v a n t t o p u b l i c s e c t o r p l a n n i n g f o r commercial i i d e v e l o p m e n t i n Richmond and through a s e r i e s o f i n t e r v i e w s w i t h p l a n n e r s and other p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s who are i n v o l v e d i n commercial l a n d use p l a n n i n g i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y . From t h i s p o l i c y a n a l y s i s , q u e s t i o n s a r e r a i s e d about t h e sc o p e and comprehensiveness o f r e t a i l / c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g i n Richmond, as w e l l as how l o n g - r a n g e an a p p r o a c h i s a p p l i e d t o t h i s s e c t o r . U t i l i z i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e review, as w e l l as the i n t e r v i e w s , s e v e r a l s u g g e s t i o n s a r e o f f e r e d on how t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y o f Richmond c o u l d a p p l y c e r t a i n concepts t o improve t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n p l a n n i n g f o r r e t a i l / c o m m e r c i a l development. The sugg e s t i o n s i n c l u d e 1) an a r t i c u l a t e d commercial p l a n n i n g p o l i c y , 2) c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a b r o a d e r r a n g e o f f a c t o r s when making d e c i s i o n s about commercial d e v e l o p m e n t , 3) more s o p h i s t i c a t e d r e s e a r c h on r e t a i l i n g i s s u e s , 4) an awareness o f t h e impact d i f f e r e n t forms o f r e t a i l i n g can have on the commercial s t r u c t u r e , 5) u t i l i z i n g p r i v a t e s e c t o r e x p e r t i s e , and 6) adopting a r e g i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e toward commercial p l a n n i n g . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS C h a p t e r P age I . INTRODUCTION 1 S u b j e c t M a t t e r 1 P r o b l e m S t a t e m e n t 1 S c o p e 2 M e t h o d o l o g y 6 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e S t u d y 7 T h e s i s O r g a n i z a t i o n 8 I I . PROBLEMS WITH R E T A I L I N G AND THE COMMERCIAL STRUCTURE 11 I n t r o d u c t i o n 11 C o m m e r c i a l B l i g h t 12 R e t a i l O v e r S a t u r a t i o n 14 C o m m e r c i a l S t r i p s 17 U r b a n F r i n g e D e v e l o p m e n t s 18 C o m m e r c i a l I n t e r c e p t o r R i n g s 21 P r o b l e m s R e l a t e d t o S h o p p i n g C e n t r e D e v e l o p m e n t 22 T e c h n o l o g i c a l Change and Consumer A c c e s s i b i l i t y 25 T e c h n o l o g i c a l Change and t h e S m a l l I n d e p e n d e n t R e t a i l e r 27 C o n c l u s i o n 30 I I I . COMMERCIAL PLANNING: PRACTICE ABROAD, THEORIES AND MODELS 3 2 I n t r o d u c t i o n 3 2 B r i t a i n ' s A p p r o a c h t o R e t a i l / C o m m e r c i a l P l a n n i n g 32 B r i t i s h S t r u c t u r e P l a n s 37 L o c a l , R e g i o n a l and S u b - r e g i o n a l P l a n s 40 R e t a i l / C o m m e r c i a l P l a n n i n g I n Denmark 44 R e t a i l / C o m m e r c i a l P l a n n i n g I n Sweden 47 P r o v i n c i a l R e t a i l / C o m m e r c i a l P l a n n i n g T h r o u g h o u t C a n a d a 4 9 M o d e l s : U n d e r s t a n d i n g D a t a A n a l y s i s 54 T r a d e A r e a A n a l y s i s 57 R e t a i l M o d e l s 59 The E c o n o m i c B a s e S t u d y 6 7 L a n d Use C o n t r o l s and R e t a i l / C o m m e r c i a l P l a n n i n g 70 C o n c l u s i o n 7 2 i v IV. MUNICIPAL PROFILE 7 3 I n t r o d u c t i o n 7 3 P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g 7 3 Economic Base 76 Demographics . 7 9 Retail/Commercial Space and S t r u c t u r e 84 V. COMMERCIAL PLANNING IN RICHMOND 94 I n t r o d u c t i o n 94 General Commercial P l a n n i n g P o l i c i e s and S t r a t e g i e s 95 Richmond's Commercial Zoning 101 Commercial Aspects o f Area P l a n n i n g . . . . . . 106 I n t e r a c t i o n With P r i v a t e Developers In The Commercial P l a n n i n g Process 112 M u n i c i p a l P l a n n i n g Involvement i n R e t a i l Ownership and R e t a i l Form 114 Research Involved In Commercial P l a n n i n g . . . .116 R e t a i l P l a n n i n g a t the R e g i o n a l L e v e l 120 C o n c l u s i o n 122 VI. APPLICATION OF KNOWLEDGE TO THE LOCAL CONTEXT . . . . 124 I n t r o d u c t i o n 124 Improving The S t r u c t u r e Used In P l a n n i n g For Commercial Development 125 Improving Research For Commercial P l a n n i n g . . .130 Zoning For Commercial Development 135 Commercial P l a n n i n g and The Form and Ownership o f R e t a i l E s t a b l i s h m e n t s 138 P o s i t i v e Planner/Developer I n t e r a c t i o n on Commercial Development . . . 142 A R e g i o n a l Commercial P l a n n i n g P e r s p e c t i v e . . . 145 C o n c l u s i o n 150 FOOTNOTES 155 BIBLIOGRAPHY 170 APPENDIX I: THE EVOLUTION OF RETAIL/COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT 175 I n t r o d u c t i o n 175 The Beginning o f Commercial Exchange 175 The C e n t r a l Business D i s t r i c t 177 The D e c e n t a l i z a t i o n o f R e t a i l i n g 179 The Growth o f Shopping Centres 181 F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g R e t a i l i n g and the Commercial S t r u c t u r e 183 Hypermarkets and Superstores 190 C o n c l u s i o n 193 v APPENDIX I I : THE COMMERCIAL STRUCTURE 195 I n t r o d u c t i o n . 195 General D e s c r i p t i o n s o f The Commercial S t r u c t u r e 19 6 C e n t r a l P l a c e Theory 205 C o n c l u s i o n 207 v i LIST OF TABLES Tabl e Page I. Probable Consequences of P u b l i c A c t i o n 20 I I . Suburban Shopping Centre Share o f R e t a i l S a l e s . . . 24 I I I . R e t a i l i n g C o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n a B r i t i s h S t r u c t u r e P l a n 39 IV. M e t h o d o l o g i c a l Elements o f R e t a i l S t r u c t u r e P l a n n i n g . 42 v. D o l l a r S a l e s Per Square Foot o f Gross E n c l o s e d Space 65 VI. P o p u l a t i o n F o r e c a s t s - Richmond 1981-2001 79 V I I . P o p u l a t i o n By Age Groups, Richmond and The GVRD, 1961-1981 81 V I I I . Number o f Occupied P r i v a t e Dwellings Showing Percentage Owned and Rented, f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n Area, Vancouver and Richmond, 1976 82 IX. Percentage o f Households as F a m i l i e s , 1976 82 X. Average Household Income, 1981 83 XI. Commercial F l o o r s p a c e , 1984 85 XI I . R e t a i l F l o o r s p a c e , 1984 87 X I I I . R e t a i l F l o o r s p a c e Per Person, 1984 88 XIV. Shopping Centres i n Richmond 9 3 XV. Zoning For Commercial Land Use In Richmond - 1985 104 XVI. The R e t a i l S t r u c t u r e 197 XVII. B a s i c Components i n the Commercial S t r u c t u r e . . . . 204 v i i LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1. Step-by-Step Approach to Trade Area A n a l y s i s . . . . 60 2. An Example o f the Step-by-Step Approach For One Town 61 3. S i m p l i f i e d Block Diagram o f R e t a i l G r a v i t y Model . . 63 4. The G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t 7 5 5. C o n t r i b u t i o n o f Each M u n i c i p a l i t y t o the Growth o f the Region 1971-1981 80 6. Commercial Centers i n G r e a t e r Vancouver 90 7. Commercial F l o o r s p a c e i n Richmond, by Type, 1983 . . 91 v i i i 1 CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION Su b j e c t M a t t e r The l o c a t i o n and d e s i g n o f shopping f a c i l i t i e s are an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f urban areas; l a r g e c a p i t a l sums are i n v e s t e d i n them, and the p l a n n i n g o f the f a c i l i t i e s i s o f the utmost i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e n a t i o n ' s p r o s p e r i t y . 1 I t i s e v i d e n t , as w i l l be shown l a t e r , t h a t commercial lan d use i s one area i n w h i c h C a n a d i a n m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s have shown a h e s i t a t i o n towards p l a n n i n g and r e g u l a t i o n i n keeping w i t h much o f t h e r e s t o f the western world. T h i s appears t o be a f u n c t i o n o f th e n o n - i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t a t t i t u d e t h a t i s dominant i n our l i b e r a l democratic s o c i e t y . T h i s t h e s i s s u g g e s t s , however, t h a t t h e r e i s room f o r pla n n e r s i n Canada t o improve t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n p l a n n i n g and r e g u l a t i n g commercial development, w h i l e s t i l l remaining w i t h i n the boundaries o f what i s p o l i t i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e i n Canada. The h y p o t h e s i s put forward i s t h a t i n p l a n n i n g f o r commercial development, m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s f a i l to c o n s i d e r a b r o a d r a n g e o f r e l e v a n t f a c t o r s and t h a t t h e c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g process i s g e n e r a l l y not s u f f i c i e n t l y comprehensive or l o n g term i n i t s o u t l o o k . Problem Statement T h i s t h e s i s w i l l examine the scope o f l o c a l government p l a n n i n g f o r commercial development, w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f d i s c o v e r i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e s f o r commercial p l a n n i n g and the 2 process used to d e t e r m i n e i t s g o a l s . The M u n i c i p a l i t y o f Richmond w i l l be used as a case study. From a review o f the t h e o r e t i c a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s made to commercial p l a n n i n g and a study o f p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e i n urban c e n t e r s , i n o t h e r p a r t s of Canada and Europe, t h i s t h e s i s w i l l suggest how p l a n n e r s i n s u b u r b a n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n p a r t i c u l a r may be a b l e t o expand t h e i r scope o f involvement i n t h i s f i e l d , and thus i n c r e a s e t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n p l a n n i n g f o r commercial development. Scope "Commercial p l a n n i n g " i s a phrase which can have a g r e a t b r e a d t h o f meaning. I n t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r , c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g c a n range from a market a n a l y s i s or a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g ns f o r commercial developments to more d e t a i l e d p l a n n i n g , s u c h as what l i n e o f goods a s t o r e w i l l c a r r y or how a business w i l l promote i t s e l f . The p r i v a t e s e c t o r i s the most a c t i v e i n t h i s f i e l d , but p r i v a t e s e c t o r commercial p l a n n i n g i s not the concern o f t h i s t h e s i s , except where i t i s apparent t h a t the e x p e r t i s e a c q u i r e d and the a n a l y t i c a l techniques used would be o f some b e n e f i t to the p u b l i c s e c t o r . A l l t h r e e l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t i n Canada c o u l d be construed as p a r t i c i p a n t s i n r e t a i l / c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g . The f e d e r a l government i s i n v o l v e d i n commercial p l a n n i n g through r e g u l a t i n g p r o d u c t s t a n d a r d s , as w e l l as t h r o u g h t h e i r r e g u l a t i o n o f i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l t r a d e and the banking system. P r o v i n c i a l governments a r e a l s o i n v o l v e d i n c o m m e r c i a l 3 p l a n n i n g t h r o u g h t h e r e g u l a t i o n o f l a b o r r e l a t i o n s and t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r a l l m a t t e r s o f a l o c a l n a t u r e , t h r o u g h S e c t i o n 92(16) o f t h e B.N.A. A c t . 2 As w e l l , b o t h l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t p r o f o u n d l y a f f e c t t h e r e t a i l / c o m m e r c i a l s e c t o r t h r o u g h d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and o t h e r f o r m s o f p u b l i c s e c t o r d e v e l o p m e n t . H o w e v e r , t h e i n d i r e c t t y p e o f c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g t h a t t h e s e n i o r g o v e r n m e n t s a r e i n v o l v e d i n , a r e n o t t h e c o n c e r n o f t h i s t h e s i s . What r e m a i n s i s t h e c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g t h a t i s done a t t h e m u n i c i p a l l e v e l . Once c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g i s n a r r o w e d t o t h a t c a r r i e d on by m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s , i t d o e s n o t h a v e n e a r s u c h b r e a d t h o f m e a n i n g . I n f a c t , t h e s c o p e o f c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g a t t h e m u n i c i p a l l e v e l c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d q u i t e n a r r o w , u s u a l l y f o c u s s i n g on s p e c i f i c l a n d u s e q u e s t i o n s . The s c o p e f o r t h e m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r i n a s s e s s i n g f u t u r e c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t w i l l be a m a j o r a s p e c t t o be e x p l o r e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . P o l i c y e v a l u a t i o n i n e v i t a b l y i s a d i f f i c u l t e x e r c i s e , f o r a p a r t f r o m t h e p i t f a l l s o f m e a s u r e m e n t , i t i s u s u a l l y d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n t h e u n d e r l y i n g p r o c e s s w h i c h t h e p o l i c y s e e k s t o m o d i f y . L o c a t i o n p o l i c i e s r e p r e s e n t o n l y one g r o u p o f p u b l i c p o l i c i e s a f f e c t i n g t h e s p a t i a l p r o c e s s e s w i t h i n t h e r e t a i l i n d u s t r y . Boddewyn and H o l l a n d e r (1972) a r e c o r r e c t i n s t r e s s i n g t h a t t h e r e a r e b r o a d p o l i c y g o a l s o t h e r t h a n c r e a t i n g s p a t i a l e q u i l i b r i u m . T h e y s t r e s s f o u r -a c h i e v i n g p r i c e s t a b i l i t y , p r o t e c t i n g s m a l l e r r e t a i l e r s , 4 i m p r o v i n g t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f r e t a i l i n g and p r o t e c t i n g consumers. 3 Thus, the q u e s t i o n w i l l be asked as to whether i t would be advantageous f o r m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s to i n c r e a s e t h e i r sphere o f i n f l u e n c e over commercial development, and thus, a i d t h e e f f i c i e n t f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l s t r u c t u r e i n Canadian c i t i e s . There are many problems t h a t can occur i n the r e t a i l i n g i n d u s t r y and i n an urban c e n t e r ' s commercial s t r u c t u r e . The f o l l o w i n g are some examples: a) A g e o g r a p h i c a l area may f a r exceed i t s r e t a i l s a t u r a t i o n and thus, become o v e r - s t o r e d . As a r e s u l t a p r e v i o u s l y h e a l t h y c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t becomes i n f l i c t e d w i t h economic b l i g h t and t h e r e a r e u n n e c e s s a r y d i s r u p t i o n s i n t r a d i n g p a t t e r n s and the urban morphology. 2) The e x c e s s i v e s p a t i a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f r e t a i l f a c i l i t i e s , due t o a s p e c i f i c r e t a i l form dominating the market, such as the s h o p p i n g c e n t r e or s u p e r s t o r e . 3) S i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the l o c a l s m a l l independent r e t a i l e r , due to the shopping c e n t r e dominance o f a market and t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e f o r n a t i o n a l c h a i n s . 4) P l a c i n g c e r t a i n groups o f consumers i n a disadvantaged p o s i t i o n due to the s p a t i a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f r e t a i l f a c i l i t i e s . 5) Major c o m m e r c i a l development by l o c a t i n g j u s t beyond m u n i c i p a l boundaries where t h e r e i s no r e g i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . In s h o r t , t h e s c o p e o f c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g t h a t s h o u l d be a d o pted i s p a r t o f t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n , b u t i t must be a p p l i c a b l e t o s i t u a t i o n s t h a t 5 m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s i n Canadian c i t i e s c o u l d a d d r e s s , w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f our p o l i t i c a l and economic system. An important d i s t i n c t i o n t o be made c o n c e r n i n g the scope o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t i t does not d e a l w i t h a l l aspects of commercial l a n d use. In most r e f e r e n c e s t o commercial l a n d u s e , t h e c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s r e t a i l , o f f i c e , and s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s . T h i s t h e s i s w i l l c o n c e n t r a t e almost e x c l u s i v e l y on the r e t a i l aspect o f commercial p l a n n i n g . The g e o g r a p h i c a l scope o f t h i s t h e s i s w i l l vary a c c o r d i n g to the purpose o f the r e l e v a n t c h a p t e r . The l i t e r a t u r e review w i l l draw on commercial p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e from v a r i o u s urban c e n t e r s and v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s . In i t s examination o f p u b l i c p o l i c y f o r commercial p l a n n i n g the focus w i l l be on the case study o f Richmond, w h i l e suggestions f o r p o s s i b l e improvements i n commercial p l a n n i n g w i l l be more g e n e r a l l y a p p l i c a b l e t o suburban m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . I t should be noted t h a t the m u n i c i p a l i t y used as a case s t u d y i s n o t s i t u a t e d i n t h e c e n t r a l a r e a o f G r e a t e r Vancouver. Richmond was chosen i n t e n t i o n a l l y because o f i t s suburban l o c a t i o n . C o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h has been done on the d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f t h e downtown c o m m e r c i a l c e n t r e i n l a r g e c i t i e s over the p a s t 20 y e a r s . R a t h e r t h a n s t u d y i n g t h i s problem, t h i s t h e s i s w i l l focus on r e t a i l / c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g i n a suburban area, w i t h i n the context o f a broader r e g i o n a l scope. 6 Methodology The a n a l y t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s u sed i n t h i s t h e s i s i n c l u d e r e s e a r c h f o r the purpose o f being d e s c r i p t i v e and p r o v i d i n g p o l i c y a n a l y s i s . The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w i s c o n d u c t e d t o d i s c o v e r p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e and commercial p l a n n i n g theory t h a t c o u l d be u s e f u l f o r p l a n n e r s t h a t have the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p l a n n i n g f o r the commercial s t r u c t u r e i n Richmond. The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w w i l l a l s o be u sed t o u n d e r l i n e problems i n the commercial s t r u c t u r e i n o t h e r u r b a n a r e a s . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l l a t e r be used to suggest how to i n c r e a s e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f commercial p l a n n i n g i n G r e a t e r Vancouver t h r o u g h t h e u s e of more advanced and comprehensive p l a n n i n g t e c h n i q u e s . P o l i c y a n a l y s i s i s p r o v i d e d through an examination o f the g e n e r a l p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s f o r , and t h e p r o c e s s b e h i n d commercial p l a n n i n g i n the case study. T h i s i s done through an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s w i t h i n t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s z o n i n g b y - l a w s , s t u d y i n g o t h e r r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t has been p u b l i s h e d by the Richmond P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , and by c o n d u c t i n g p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h p l a n n e r s who a r e i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g f o r t h e c o m m e r c i a l s t r u c t u r e i n G r e a t e r Vancouver, and Richmond i n p a r t i c u l a r . To p r o v i d e the reader w i t h a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the c o n t e x t o f the p u b l i c p o l i c y f o r Richmond, a community p r o f i l e w i l l be p r o v i d e d . T h i s background i n f o r m a t i o n should p r o v i d e a g e n e r a l i d e a o f the r e t a i l / c o m m e r c i a l requirements of the 7 m u n i c i p a l i t y , as w e l l as an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t r e t a i l i n g i n Richmond. I n f o r m a t i o n on the n a t u r e o f r e t a i l i n g i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y i n c l u d e s i t s r e t a i l f l o o r s p a c e data compared to the r e s t o f the r e g i o n , as w e l l as a d e s c r i p t i o n o f Richmond's commercial s t r u c t u r e . S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the Study The l a c k o f s y s t e m a t i c r e s e a r c h on shopping f a c i l i t i e s r e f l e c t s the low p r i o r i t y which government has a t t a c h e d to i t a t b o t h t h e r e t a i l and wholesale l e v e l , as w e l l as the low p r i o r i t y d i s t r i b u t o r s have attached to the development o f the i n d u s t r y . 4 Commercial p l a n n i n g a t t h e m u n i c i p a l l e v e l i s e s p e c i a l l y l a c k i n g w e l l d e v e l o p e d r e s e a r c h and t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver r e g i o n i s no e x c e p t i o n . The o b j e c t i v e s and r e s u l t s o f m u n i c i p a l c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g are g e n e r a l l y not w e l l documented. Most commercial p l a n n i n g at the m u n i c i p a l l e v e l i s done through the zoning by-law. In f a c t , zoning i s one o f the most widely used t o o l s f o r implementing o f f i c i a l community p l a n s , m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n s , and a i d i n g the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , y e t i t i s one area i n which the body o f knowledge i s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l . P l a n n i n g f o r t h e c o m m e r c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f u r b a n a r e a s becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t as l a r g e c i t i e s become the l o c a t i o n f o r h i g h e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s . As we progress f a r t h e r i n t o the t e r t i a r y age, a c i t y ' s growth and p r o s p e r i t y becomes more dependent on i t ' s a b i l i t y to f u n c t i o n 8 as a commercial s e r v i c e c e n t e r . The growth and s t a b i l i t y of m a j o r w e s t e r n c i t i e s i s much l e s s dependent on r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n or i n d u s t r i a l output as i t once was. The r e t a i l s e c t o r i s an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h a t s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n i n major urban areas, and i s thus s t r o n g l y t i e d t o the s t r e n g t h o f the urban economy. Changes i n the commercial s t r u c t u r e a l s o r a i s e q u e s t i o n s about the e q u i t y o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e t a i l s e r v i c e s and how b e n e f i c i a l r e c e n t changes i n the r e t a i l s e c t o r are to the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . With t h i s i n mind, the f o l l o w i n g i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n i s a s k e d : "To what degree can m u n i c i p a l planners a f f o r d s t o a l l o w the p r i v a t e s e c t o r to determine the nature o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f our c i t i e s ? " The i n f o r m a t i o n d i s c o v e r e d i n t h i s t h e s i s should p r o v i d e a u s e f u l summary o f t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l commercial p l a n n i n g techniques f o r Canadian p l a n n e r s , w h i l e the p o l i c y recommendations should be p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p l i c a b l e to Richmond. Thesis Organization C h a p t e r two reviews c e r t a i n problems t h a t have occ u r r e d i n t h e c o m m e r c i a l s t r u c t u r e and r e t a i l i n g i n o t h e r u r b a n c e n t e r s . The purpose i s to o u t l i n e c e r t a i n d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t may occur w i t h regard to r e t a i l / c o m m e r c i a l development t h a t do n o t a p p e ar t o have been c o n s i d e r e d w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t of c u r r e n t commercial p l a n n i n g i n Richmond and to u n d e r l i n e the need f o r a more comprehensive approach. 9 C h a p t e r t h r e e s u m m a r i z e s t h e l i t e r a t u r e on t h e t h e o r y and t h e p r a c t i c e o f c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g t h a t c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d r e l e v a n t t o t h e s t u d y . T h e i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r f o r m s t h e b a s i s f r o m w h i c h t h e s u g g e s t i o n s a r e made i n C h a p t e r s i x on how t o i m p r o v e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g i n R i c h m o n d . C h a p t e r f o u r p r e s e n t s a c o m m u n i t y p r o f i l e o f R i c h m o n d . I t w i l l s u p p l y i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y , i t ' s e c o n o m i c b a s e , d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and r e t a i l / c o m m e r c i a l s t r u c t u r e . C h a p t e r f i v e w i l l b r i n g t o g e t h e r t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d on t h e c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g d o n e i n R i c h m o n d . T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l i n c l u d e s e c t i o n s o n : 1) The g e n e r a l c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s and i t s o b j e c t i v e s . 2) A d e s c r i p t i o n o f R i c h m o n d ' s r e t a i l c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s c o n t a i n e d i n i t s z o n i n g b y l a w . 3) T h e c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g t h a t h a s b e e n c o n d u c t e d f o r s p e c i f i c a r e a s i n R i c h m o n d . 4) The i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t t a k e s p l a c e b e t w e e n t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t a n d c o m m e r c i a l l a n d d e v e l o p e r s . 5) T h e d e g r e e o f p u b l i c s e c t o r c o n c e r n o v e r q u e s t i o n s i n v o l v i n g r e t a i l f o r m and o w n e r s h i p . 6) R e s e a r c h t h a t i s d o n e t o a i d t h e c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , and 7) C o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g done a t t h e r e g i o n a l l e v e l . C h a p t e r s i x a t t e m p t s t o s y n t h e s i z e t h e k n o w l e d g e g a i n e d i n c h a p t e r t h r e e and t o d i s c o v e r how t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g c a n be u s e d t o a i d m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s i n G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r . T h i s c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e s how t h e c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s c a n be . 10 made more e f f e c t i v e and o f f e r s s u g g e s t i o n s t h a t p e r t a i n s p e c i f i c a l l y t o suburban m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n Greater Vancouver. The s u g g e s t i o n s g e n e r a l l y e n t a i l an a r t i c u l a t e d c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g p o l i c y , c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a broader range o f f a c t o r s when making d e c i s i o n s about commercial development, u t i l i z i n g p r i v a t e s e c t o r e x p e r t i s e , and adopting a r e g i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e toward commercial p l a n n i n g . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e t e x t , t h i s t h e s i s c o n t a i n s two a p p e n d i c e s p r o v i d i n g b ackground i n f o r m a t i o n . A p p e n d i x I p r o v i d e s a b r i e f h i s t o r y o f r e t a i l / c o m m e r c i a l development, o u t l i n i n g t h e m a j o r c h a n g e s t h a t h a v e o c c u r r e d i n t h e commercial s t r u c t u r e and i n r e t a i l i n g . Appendix I I e x p l a i n s the b a s i c theory o f the commercial s t r u c t u r e i n urban areas i n order t o a s s i s t the reader i n und e r s t a n d i n g c e r t a i n concepts d i s c u s s e d throughout the t e x t . CHAPTER I I : PROBLEMS WITH R E T A I L I N G AND THE COMMERCIAL STRUCTURE I n t r o d u c t i o n T h e r e t a i l i n g i n d u s t r y and t h e - c o m m e r c i a l s t r u c t u r e i n u r b a n a r e a s h a v e e x p e r i e n c e d many d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f p r o b l e m s . C h a n g e s i n r e t a i l i n g and t h e c o m m e r c i a l s t r u c t u r e h a v e r a i s e d m a n y q u e s t i o n s f o r p l a n n e r s a b o u t u r b a n f o r m a n d t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f r e t a i l f a c i l i t i e s f o r d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s i n s o c i e t y . T h e s e q u e s t i o n s a r e o f t e n n o t p r o b l e m a t i c f o r t h e r e t a i l i n g i n d u s t r y , b u t do r a i s e i s s u e s a b o u t t h e r o l e o f t h e p u b l i c s e c t o r i n t h i s f i e l d . P r o b l e m s - t h a t w i l l be c o v e r e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r i n c l u d e d e f i n i n g f u n c t i o n a l , p h y s i c a l , e c o n o m i c , a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l b l i g h t , t h e p r o b l e m s o f r e t a i l o v e r - s a t u r a t i o n and p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p s , as w e l l a s t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n p l a n n i n g f o r u r b a n f r i n g e d e v e l o p m e n t . The p r o b l e m s o f s u c c e s s i v e r i n g s o f o u t l y i n g c e n t e r s w i l l a l s o be d i s c u s s e d , a s w e l l a s s o m e o f t h e n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s t h a t d o m i n a n t r e t a i l i n g f o r m s , s u c h as s h o p p i n g c e n t e r s , h y p e r m a r k e t s , a n d s u p e r s t o r e s c a n h a v e , s u c h as l i m i t i n g r e t a i l a c c e s s a b i l i t y t o c e r t a i n g r o u p s o f c o n s u m e r s a n d d r i v i n g s m a l l i n d e p e n d e n t r e t a i l e r s o u t o f b u s i n e s s . I t m u s t b e u n d e r s t o o d t h a t m a n y o f t h e p r o b l e m s d o c u m e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e n o t d i r e c t l y a p p l i c a b l e t o R i c h m o n d o r e v e n C a n a d i a n c i t i e s i n g e n e r a l , a t t h i s t i m e . M u c h o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o m e s f r o m s i t u a t i o n s t h a t h a v e d e v e l o p e d i n A m e r i c a n c i t i e s , b u t C a n a d i a n c i t i e s a r e n o t immune t o these problems. Consequently, C a n a d i a n m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s s h o u l d a t t e m p t t o a n t i c i p a t e such problems and be prepared t o d e a l w i t h them. Commercial B l i g h t B l i g h t i s a term used t o d e s c r i b e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f problems found i n commercial d i s t r i c t s . I t i s p r e s e n t i n any c o m m e r c i a l a r e a w h i c h i s n o t f u n c t i o n i n g i n a h e a l t h y , e f f i c i e n t manner. Four types o f commercial b l i g h t have been re c o g n i z e d by v a r i o u s agencies: p h y s i c a l , economic, f u n c t i o n a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l b l i g h t . P h y s i c a l b l i g h t o c c u r s i n a commercial area as the r e s u l t of the s t r u c t u r a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f i t s b u i l d i n g s . P h y s i c a l b l i g h t i s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with o l d e r commercial s t r u c t u r e s . Newer commercial areas, however, can a l s o s u f f e r from p h y s i c a l b l i g h t as t h e r e s u l t o f poor maintenance or i n f e r i o r o r i g i n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n . Economic b l i g h t occurs i n a commercial area as the r e s u l t o f a l o s s i n t r a d e a r e a p o p u l a t i o n o r as t h e r e s u l t of a s u r p l u s commercial f l o o r space caused by the development o f new s o u r c e s o f c o m p e t i t i o n . The f i r s t s t a g e s o f economic b l i g h t are u s u a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e p r e s e n c e o f v a c a n t s t o r e s or the movement of low re n t paying commercial uses i n t o the area. Economic b l i g h t i s u s u a l l y caused, however, by the d e v e l o p m e n t o f modern r e t a i l i n g o u t l e t s , s u c h as p l a n n e d c e n t e r s or d i s c o u n t s t o r e s a d j a c e n t t o o l d e r c o m m e r c i a l c e n t e r s . In a d d i t i o n , the continued development of v a r i o u s 13 r e t a i l o u t l e t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f u r n i t u r e and a p p l i a n c e s t o r e s i n i n d u s t r i a l z o n e s , a l s o c a u s e s e c o n o m i c b l i g h t i n c e r t a i n c o m m e r c i a l c e n t e r s . 1 F u n c t i o n a l b l i g h t i s p r e s e n t i n a c o m m e r c i a l a r e a when t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e s r e n d e r t h e a r e a o r i t s e s t a b l i s h m e n t s o b s o l e t e o r r e d u n d a n t b e c a u s e o f t h e i r l o c a t i o n , s i z e , o r l a y o u t . The f o l l o w i n g p r o v i d e s an e x a m p l e o f e a c h t y p e o f f u n c t i o n a l b l i g h t and i t s t y p i c a l c a u s e s : 1) F u n c t i o n a l b l i g h t c a n o c c u r as t h e r e s u l t o f c h a n g e s i n t r a f f i c p a t t e r n , t h u s r e n d e r i n g a l o c a t i o n o b s o l e t e f o r c o m m e r c i a l p u r p o s e s . 2) Many s t o r e s b u i l t p r i o r t o W o r l d War I I a r e t o o s m a l l t o c a r r y o u t t h e i r i n t e n d e d f u n c t i o n and a r e o b s o l e t e , and t h u s e x p e r i e n c e f u n c t i o n a l b l i g h t . 3) F u n c t i o n a l b l i g h t as t h e r e s u l t o f p o o r p h y s i c a l l a y o u t . The a b s e n c e o f o f f - s t r e e t p a r k i n g and p e d e s t r i a n m a l l s i n o l d e r c o m m e r c i a l a r e a s e n c o u r a g e s c u s t o m e r s t o s h o p a t new p l a n n e d c e n t e r s . The a b s e n c e o f a d e q u a t e s e r v i c e l a n e s and t u r n i n g l a n e s on a r t e r i a l c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p s i s a l s o an e x a m p l e o f f u n c t i o n a l b l i g h t as a r e s u l t o f poor l a y o u t . E n v i r o n m e n t a l b l i g h t i s p r e s e n t i n a c o m m e r c i a l a r e a when t h e p r e s e n c e o f c e r t a i n f a c t o r s has a d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t on t h e a r e a and i t s o p e r a t i o n . F a c t o r s t h a t c o u l d r e s u l t from c o n f l i c t i n g l a n d - u s e s i n c l u d e t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n , a i r p o l l u t i o n or p r o x i m i t y to i n d u s t r i a l areas. The i n f i l t r a t i o n o f g e n e r a l business uses - such as s e r v i c e s t a t i o n s or other d r i v e - i n uses - i n t o o l d e r e x i s t i n g r e t a i l s t r i p s has r e s u l t e d i n the f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f these r e t a i l f r o n t a g e s . Environmental b l i g h t a l s o r e s u l t s f r o m t h e d e t r i m e n t a l i m p a c t t h a t v a c a n c i e s , d e t e r i o r a t e d b u i l d i n g s and low r e n t paying uses have on a d j a c e n t c o m m e r c i a l b u i l d i n g s and r e s i d e n t i a l d w e l l i n g s . The above forms o f commercial b l i g h t can occur i n i s o l a t i o n or i n combination. V a c a n t s t o r e s r e s u l t i n g from economic or f u n c t i o n a l b l i g h t can, i n t u r n , l e a d t o p h y s i c a l b l i g h t due t o the absence of proper maintenance. 2 Suburban commercial developments are s u b j e c t to a l l forms o f commercial b l i g h t , but would appear to be l e s s s u s c e p t i b l e to p h y s i c a l b l i g h t due to the recent age o f both the s t r u c t u r e and t h e neighborhood. R e t a i l Over Saturation An important problem to be examined i n t h i s t h e s i s w i l l be t h a t o f new commercial developments t h a t o v e r - s a t u r a t e the m a r k e t i n a g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a , or p r o d u c e s h i f t s i n t h e t r a d i n g p a t t e r n s t h a t have a d e t r i m e n t a l a f f e c t on the area as a w h o l e . U n l e s s p o p u l a t i o n and d i s p o s a b l e income a r e expanding r a p i d l y , a d d i t i o n a l r e t a i l space w i l l a l t e r shopping p a t t e r n s . As p o i n t e d out i n the Shopping Center Development Handbook: 15 I t i s very important to understand t h a t a shopping c e n t e r cannot generate new buying power; i t can only a t t r a c t customers from e x i s t i n g b usinesses .... I t c a n cause a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f business o u t l e t s and c o n s u m e r p a t r o n a g e , b u t i t c a n n o t c r e a t e new consumers.* The p r e c e d i n g quote r e f e r r e d t o the impact new shopping c e n t e r s have on consumer spending. I t i s f a i r l y obvious t h a t t h i s a p p l i e s t o any k i n d o f new r e t a i l development as w e l l . E s s e n t i a l l y , when new commercial development occurs consumer b u y i n g power i s drawn away from e s t a b l i s h e d c o m m e r c i a l o p e r a t i o n s . Two q u e s t i o n s then a r i s e from t h i s knowledge about new commercial developments. The f i r s t i s whether t h e p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s o f t h e i n c r e a s e d s e r v i c e l e v e l t h a t the new r e t a i l a c t i v i t y p r o v i d e s outweighs the i n e v i t a b l e n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s t h a t the new development w i l l have on e s t a b l i s h e d commercial b u s i n e s s e s . The second q u e s t i o n i s whether p l a n n e r s s h o u l d h a v e t h e m a n d a t e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e l e v e l o f c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t i n an a r e a ; i n an a t t e m p t t o c u r b t h e d e t e r i o r a t i o n and c o m m e r c i a l b l i g h t i n o l d e r e s t a b l i s h e d areas, or should t h i s process be allowed to work i t s e l f out e v e n t u a l l y , through market f o r c e s . The f i r s t q u e s t i o n , undoubtedly, must be answered on a c a s e - b y - c a s e b a s i s , w h i l e t h i s t h e s i s argues t h a t m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s need to have the mandate to r e s t r i c t the amount o f commercial development where necessary. T h i s p o s i t i o n w i l l be d e a l t w i t h more c o n c l u s i v e l y i n Chapters t h r e e and s i x . For the p l a n n e r , t h e r e i s t h e q u e s t i o n o f impact and whether commercial b l i g h t and v a c a n c i e s w i l l occur elsewhere a f t e r new businesses have e s t a b l i s h e d themselves. The impact o f a d e v e l o p m e n t i s e x t r e m e l y h a r d t o p r e d i c t , and few p l a n n e r s can make p r e d i c t i o n s w i t h any a u t h o r i t y . The main t e c h n i c a l q u e s t i o n w h i c h t h e p u b l i c w a n t s answered i s t h e r e f o r e o f t e n not d e a l t w i t h s a t i s f a c t o r i l y by the p l a n n e r . 4 One o f t h e major r e a s o n s f o r t h i s i s t h a t C a n a d i a n m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s do n o t u t i l i z e a good working model f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the aggregate r e t a i l demand o f an area. There are s e v e r a l w e l l a c c e p t e d m e t h o d s o f m a r k e t a n a l y s i s f o r i n d i v i d u a l c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s , but i t i s much more d i f f i c u l t f o r the planner t o understand the r e t a i l / c o m m e r c i a l needs of an area as a whole, such as knowing at what p o i n t the l o c a l r e t a i l market becomes s a t u r a t e d . T h i s problem w i l l be d e a l t w i t h i n Chapter s i x . V a c a n c i e s a r e a f a c t o f l i f e i n t h e e v e r - c h a n g i n g commercial s t r u c t u r e . There i s a normal vacancy r a t e i n a l l commercial areas ( R a t c l i f f e stimates i t t o be from 2 t o 7 per cent) which i s a product o f the h i g h t u r n o v e r r a t e due to the a d a p t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f r e t a i l i n g . 5 What i s a p p a r e n t though i s t h a t c e r t a i n p a r t s o f the commercial s t r u c t u r e are more p r o n e t o h i g h vacancy r a t e s than o t h e r s . What should a l s o become apparent i s t h a t the h i s t o r i c a l l y accepted p a t t e r n o f v a c a n c i e s and b l i g h t i n c e r t a i n p a r t s o f the commercial s t r u c t u r e s h o u l d no l o n g e r be c o n s i d e r e d i n e v i t a b l e o r a c c e p t a b l e . 17 Commercial S t r i p s C o m m e r c i a l s t r i p s o r r i b b o n s p r e s e n t i d e n t i f i a b l e problems and are a good p l a c e t o b e g i n e x a m i n i n g problems w i t h i n the commercial s t r u c t u r e . One o f the consequences of some o f the changes i n r e t a i l i n g ; s u c h as t h e i n c r e a s e i n s u p e r m a r k e t s i z e , t h e r i s i n g number o f p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e b u s i n e s s e s and the need t o accommodate t h e a u t o m o b i l e , has been an a l t e r n a t i o n o f the o l d p a t t e r n o f r i b b o n r e t a i l i n g i n V a n c o u v e r ' s s u b u r b a n a r e a s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e es t a b l i s h m e n t s along many o f Vancouver's commercial s t r i p s are now s e r v i c e - o r i e n t e d w h i l e o t h e r a r e a s l i k e O a k r i d g e a r e almost t o t a l l y r e t a i l i n c h a r a c t e r . T h i s a l t e r a t i o n o c c u r r e d w i t h t h e emergence o f t h e p l a n n e d s h o p p i n g c e n t e r and the development o f s e r v i c e - o f f i c e , a u t o - o r i e n t e d g e n e r a l business a r e a s . 6 Many p r o b l e m s a r e c r e a t e d by, or a s s o c i a t e d w i t h , the a r t e r i a l r i b b o n . There i s the problem o f a v a i l a b l e o f f - s t r e e t p a r k i n g i n an area t h a t i s both a t r a f f i c r oute and shopping c e n t e r . R e s i d e n t i a l and commercial l a n d uses are p l a c e d c l o s e t o g e t h e r b ut a r e n o t c o m p a t i b l e . T h e re i s the problem of b l i g h t , as the o l d e r commercial r i b b o n s , and e s p e c i a l l y t h e former neighborhood r i b b o n s , tend t o break down, l e a d i n g to a m i x i n g o f c o m m e r c i a l u s e s , r a p i d t u r n - o v e r i n u s e , d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s , and v a c a n c i e s . 7 18 Commercial s t r i p developments t h a t reach suburban a r e a s from t h e c e n t r a l c i t y a r e u s u a l l y t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h e suburban commercial s t r u c t u r e t o be beset by commercial b l i g h t and v a c a n c i e s . Due t o t h e p r e c a r i o u s p o s i t i o n o f a r t e r i a l r e t a i l r i b b o n s , m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s must be p r e p a r e d t o a c t i v e l y support them or al l o w them t o d e t e r i o r a t e i n t o v i s u a l d i s p l a y s o f urban decay or t a c k y c o m b i n a t i o n s o f d i f f e r e n t land-use f u n c t i o n s . Urban Fringe Developments A p l a n n i n g dilemma t o be d e a l t w i t h c o n c e r n i n g urban f r i n g e developments t h a t i s more immediate than the q u e s t i o n o f what a f f e c t t h e development w i l l have on e s t a b l i s h e d commercial d i s t r i c t s i s the dilemma o f how t o i n i t i a l l y p l a n f o r and zone f o r l a r g e commercial developments without making l a n d assembly i m p o s s i b l e or e x c l u d i n g p r i v a t e e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l a c t i o n . T h i s dilemma w i l l be d i s c u s s e d here, but no s p e c i f i c s o l u t i o n s are o f f e r e d . An i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h i s dilemma i s t i m i n g . The t i m i n g o f a d e c i s i o n t o zone a l a r g e t r a c t o f l a n d f o r c o m m e r c i a l p u r p o s e s must be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e l e v e l o f r e s i d e n t i a l development, but must a l s o come at a time when the d e v e l o p m e n t c o m m u n i t y i s ready t o move on a c o m m e r c i a l p r o j e c t . Assuming t h a t i t i s a community p l a n n i n g g o a l t o p r o v i d e c i t i z e n s w i t h e f f i c i e n t , w e l l d e s i g n e d , and c o n v e n i e n t l y l o c a t e d community s h o p p i n g c e n t e r s , when w i l l t h e r e be s u f f i c i e n t r e s i d e n t i a l s e t t l e m e n t to make the entrance o f such a f a c i l i t y f e a s i b l e ? W i t h market f o r c e s p r e v a i l i n g at the s p a r s e l y developed end o f t h e s c a l e , o n l y t h e o w n e r - o p e r a t e d c o m m e r c i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s can s u r v i v e . As d e n s i t y i n c r e a s e s , t h e r e i s g e n e r a l l y p r e s s u r e f o r s m a l l groupings o f s t o r e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y on o r a d j a c e n t t o m a j o r a r t e r i a l s . T h e s e a r e m o s t l y independently owned and operated and r a r e l y have the p o t e n t i a l f o r growth. When i s the p o i n t reached at which major c e n t e r s w i l l e n t e r the f i e l d i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f the market? An e a r l y e n t r y r e q u i r e s a l o n g e r wait on c a p i t a l r e t u r n s and runs the r i s k o f more up-to-date c o m p e t i t i o n i n a few y e a r s . 8 The r e s u l t , i f t h e r e i s i n s u f f i c i e n t p l a n n i n g and l a n d use c o n t r o l , i s t h a t i n the vacuum between m a r g i n a l and l a r g e -s a l e commercial development an i n d i s c r i m i n a t e mixture o f l a n d u s e s a r i s e s w i t h an u n a p p e a l i n g a p p e a r a n c e . Even when development i s r e s t r i c t e d t o a r t e r i a l s , the hamburger s t a n d , f o l l o w e d by a b u i l d e r ' s hardware s t o r e , and so on, creep i n t o " s p o t " z o n e s , or i n t o l e g i t i m a t e e x t e n s i o n s o f e x i s t i n g c o m m e r c i a l z o n e s , or i n t o r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s v i a s p e c i a l permits and v a r i a n c e . 9 But what about the concept o f p l a n n i n g f o r and p r e z o n i n g l a r g e t r a c t s o f l a n d f o r c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s , such as shopping c e n t e r s , i n newly u r b a n i z i n g a r e a s ? Horwood p r o v i d e s a good summary o f t h e p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p r e - z o n i n g f o r commercial usage i n Table I. Table I: Probable Consequences of Public Action Possible Actions by Public Body Probable Consequences of Action Taken F o l l o w i n g comprehensive study t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y p u b l i s h e s i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e n t i f i e s d e s i r a b l e shopping center s i t e s In t h e hope t h a t i t w i l l i n f l u e n c e developers. 1) P r i c e of land i n v i c i n i t y of center l o c a t i o n proposals r i s e s to point where assembly of l a r g e t r a c t i s impossible. 2) I n d i v i d u a l owners w i t h i n or near the proposed l o c a t i o n s p e t i t i o n f o r business zoning on a piecemeal b a s i s , reducing the prospect that the planned center w i l l develop. 3) One owner may develop an incompatible establishment and thwart development of the center. S p e c i f i c ownerships are zoned f o r commercial use according to a c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n f o r community shopping c e n t e r s . 4) This puts the shoe on the other foot so f a r as the conventional p a t t e r n of development i s concerned. Here a group of landowners w i t h heterogeneous ideas are put i n t o search of a venture, rather than r i s k c a p i t a l and knowhow i n search of raw land. 5) Absentee ownership, disputed t i t l e s , and strong d i f f e r e n c e s of opi n i o n among owners may preclude a c t i o n . 6) The p a r t i c u l a r owners may have inadequate c a p i t a l or knowhow to produce the desired f a c i l i t y . 7) Holdouts may preclude a developer from consummating a deal w i t h the ownership group. A s i n g l e l a r g e ownership i s z o n e d f o r t h e c e n t e r t o f a c i l i t a t e a c t i o n . 8) An adjacent or nearby owner may have the capacity to move ahead w i t h a development, r e s u l t i n g i n a d d i t i o n a l zoning and excess commercial land. 9) A monopoly i s created. 10) As i n the former consequence, no reasonable guarantee e x i s t s t h a t the owner can consummate a deal f o r the center which w i l l f u l f i l l the requirements expected f o r p u b l i c convenience and advantage. 11) Some other owner or developer may be i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n to use the zoning i n a d i f f e r e n t , but reasonably good l o c a t i o n . Source: Edgar Horwood, American I n s t i t u t e of Planners J o u r n a l , 1958 P r e z o n i n g o f l a r g e t r a c t s of land f o r commercial purposes does p r e s e n t s e v e r a l problems, but t h e r e i s one a l t e r n a t i v e which Horwood does not mention. In some cases, a m u n i c i p a l i t y c o u l d purchase urban f r i n g e l a n d and then s u c c e s s f u l l y s e l l or l e a s e i t at the most a p p r o p r i a t e time on the c o n d i t i o n t h a t i t i s developed f o r commercial purposes. Commercial I n t e r c e p t o r Rings L e t us now t u r n t o the problem o f the e f f e c t t h a t these new o u t l y i n g c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s h a v e on e x i s t i n g commercial d i s t r i c t s . P o s s i b l e d e c l i n e i s one problem faced by t h e o l d e r o u t l y i n g c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s i n o u r l a r g e c i t i e s . These areas arose through a process o f i n t e r c e p t i o n o f customers - t h a t i s , merchants and the shopping f a c i l i t i e s themselves l e a p f r o g g e d each other t r y i n g t o get i n between a growing t r a d i n g area and the l o c a t i o n o f the o l d e r s h o p p i n g a r e a s . Such market d i c t a t e d growth i n shopping areas has taken p l a c e p a r t i c u l a r l y along r a d i a l t h o r o u g h f a r e s . 1 0 A map of many l a r g e North American c i t i e s shows a s e r i e s o f r i n g s o f c o m m e r c i a l development p r o g r e s s i n g outward from t h e CBD. N e l s o n c a l l e d t h e s e s u c c e s s i v e r i n g s o f o u t l y i n g c e n t e r s " i n t e r c e p t o r s " r e f e r r i n g t o t h e i r p o s i t i o n on main r a d i a l r o u t es between the CBD and the growing buying power. W h i l e they may not occur e x a c t l y i n r i n g s , the r i s e and d e c l i n e o f c e n t e r s r i p p l i n g outwards from t h e c e n t e r , i s an o b s e r v e d f a c t . 1 1 The p a t t e r n o f one or two r i n g s o f f a i r l y c o m p l e t e i n t e r c e p t o r s w i t h a t h i r d or o u t e r r i n g o f new s h o p p i n g c e n t e r s i n p r o g r e s s i s the most t y p i c a l . The new s h o p p i n g c e n t e r s a r e b u i l t i n l o w - d e n s i t y areas and are designed to draw from the h i g h l y mobile and widely d i s p e r s e d p o p u l a t i o n i n new-growth suburban communities. In most urban areas, they have a l i m i t e d e f f e c t on downtown, w h i c h has a l r e a d y l o s t " f r e q u e n c y p u r c h a s i n g " b u s i n e s s from r e s i d e n t s i n o u t l y i n g p o r t i o n s o f the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a t o t h e o l d e r i n t e r c e p t o r r i n g s . The new shopping c e n t e r s have, however, very deeply a f f e c t e d the o l d e r i n t e r c e p t o r s h o p p i n g d i s t r i c t s , many o f which are w i t n e s s i n g sharp drops i n v o l u m e . 1 2 Problems Related to Shopping Centre Development One a s p e c t o f t h e new c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e o u t l y i n g a r e a s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t i e s t h a t c a n n o t be overlooked i s the f a c t t h a t t h i s development i s dominated by shopping c e n t e r s . R e g i o n a l shopping c e n t e r s p r e s e n t s e v e r a l p r o b l e m s f o r t h o s e c o n c e r n e d w i t h r e t a i l and c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g . F i r s t , l e t us look at the most apparent problem t h a t s h o p p i n g c e n t e r s can c a u s e ; t h e d r a m a t i c s h i f t s i n t r a d i n g p a t t e r n s i n an a r e a and i t s e f f e c t on e s t a b l i s h e d commercial d i s t r i c t s . One o f the more re c e n t surveys on the impact o f suburban s h o p p i n g c e n t e r s c o n c e n t r a t e d on A t l a n t i c C a n a d a . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f s u b u r b a n s h o p p i n g c e n t e r s has s u b s t a n t i a l l y s h i f t e d the l e v e l s of s a l e s i n e x i s t i n g r e t a i l o u t l e t s . As shown i n Table I I , i t i s estimated t h a t t o t a l r e t a i l s a l e s i n the r e g i o n have expanded by a f a c t o r o f f o u r i n t h e p e r i o d 1961-1979, w h i l e shopping c e n t e r s a l e s i n c r e a s e d almost t h i r t y t imes. By 1979, suburban shopping c e n t e r s had captured over 45% o f a l l Department S t o r e Type M e r c h a n d i s e (DSTM) s a l e s w i t h i n the r e g i o n , a t r e n d which i s p a r a l l e l e d on the n a t i o n a l l e v e l . T h i s s h i f t has had an obvious d e t r i m e n t a l impact on independent r e t a i l e r s o p e r a t i n g o u t s i d e o f shopping c e n t e r s . 1 3 The a f f e c t o f l a r g e shopping c e n t e r s has been a p p a r e n t f o r some time as we can see by a few o f the c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t Simmons reached about changes i n the r e t a i l p a t t e r n i n 1964. One c o n c l u s i o n was t h a t the s c a l e o f r e t a i l i n g had i n c r e a s e d r a p i d l y and was now dependent on a w i d e r t r a d e a r e a and a u t o m o b i l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . Another c o n c l u s i o n was t h a t the p l a n n e d s h o p p i n g c e n t e r had made c e n t r a l p l a c e t h e o r y i r r e l e v a n t i n some i n s t a n c e s and t h a t the c e n t r a l p a r t s o f a b u i l t - u p area are now avoided by many r e t a i l e r s . Another of Simmon's c o n c l u s i o n s ; which appears t o be a consequence o f the f i r s t two t r e n d s , i s t h a t s m a l l s c a t t e r e d s t o r e s i n r e s i d e n -t i a l a r e a s , neighborhood r i b b o n s , and s m a l l w a l k - i n c e n t e r s a r e d i s a p p e a r i n g . 1 4 The problem o f l a r g e shopping c e n t e r s d e c r e a s i n g the s t a b i l i t y and v i t a l i t y o f the s m a l l independent i n both a r t e r i a l ribbons and s m a l l community shopping c e n t e r s has been around f o r many y e a r s , but i t s t i l l p r e s e n t s a Table I I : Suburban Shopping Centre Share o f R e t a i l S a l e s DSTM Average Cumulative Shopping Shopping R e t a i l Shopping Shopping Centre Centre S a l e s Centre Centre R e t a i l Shares o f ( $ m i l l i o n ) S a l e s R e t a i l Space S a l e s DSTM S a l e s ($/m 2) (xlOOOm 2) ( $ m l l l i o n ) (%) 1961 662 479 96 46 6.925% 1966 801 513 224 115 14.4% 1971 1188 614 369 227 19.1% 1976 2254 924 922 852 37.8% 1979 2941 1167 1152 1344 45.7% Source: I r c h a , Plan Canada, 1982 dilemma f o r m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s . Suggestion on how t o approach t h i s dilemma are o f f e r e d i n Chapter S i x . The d e c l i n e o f the o l d e r c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s , due t o s t r u c t u r a l d e f i c i e n c i e s or o b s o l e s c e n c e , s h o p p i n g c e n t e r c o m p e t i t i o n , or a number o f other f a c t o r s , w i l l r e s u l t i n a s e r i o u s v o i d i n the supply o f s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d and demanded by the p u b l i c . 1 5 T e c h n o l o g i c a l Change and Consumer A c c e s s i b i l i t y In the p a s t , s p a t i a l and s t r u c t u r a l changes i n r e t a i l i n g have l e d t o the emergence o f d i s t i n c t i v e groups o f people whom we m i g h t d e s c r i b e as d i s a d v a n t a g e d (and a l s o n e g l e c t e d ) consumers and whose number may i n c r e a s e i n s i z e i n the f u t u r e by v i r t u e o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l development. Most o f the consumers who f a l l i n t o t h i s category are the e l d e r l y , i n f i r m , the poor and s i n g l e - p a r e n t households; the l i s t o f disadvantages t h a t have o c c u r r e d i n c l u d e the l o s s o f e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s , such as post o f f i c e s and drug s t o r e s , t h e r e p l a c e m e n t o f s o c i a l l y -o r i e n t e d s m a l l shops by redevelopment schemes, the l a c k of convenient access t o l a r g e s t o r e s and the cheaper p r i c e s they b r i n g , and t h e d i m i n u t i o n i n t h e v i t a l i t y o f t r a d i t i o n a l s h o p p i n g s t r e e t s . In t h e m a t t e r o f a c c e s s t o e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s and l a r g e s t o r e s , some p o s i t i v e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n t h e i r favour may be n e c e s s a r y . 1 6 An example o f the t e c h n o l o g i c a l and s p a t i a l changes t h a t are o c c u r r i n g i n the commercial s t r u c t u r e t h a t w i l l l i k e l y 26 have a d e t r i m e n t a l a f f e c t on the a v a i l a b l e s e r v i c e l e v e l f o r t h e s e disadvantaged groups i s the hypermarket and s u p e r s t o r e t r e n d . Because o f the s i z e o f t h e i r catchment areas, i t i s i n e v i t a b l e t h a t t h e y w i l l d e p l e t e t r a d e from t r a d i t i o n a l shopping c e n t e r s and o f these, neighborhood shopping c e n t e r s and s m a l l d i s t r i c t c e n t e r s , by v i r t u e o f the composition of t h e i r r e t a i l i n g a c t i v i t i e s , are most at r i s k . The s p e c i f i c types of r e t a i l e r s who are most a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d by h y p e r m a r k e t s and s u p e r s t o r e s a r e t h e s m a l l e r b r a n c h e s o f m u l t i p l e s engaged i n c o n v e n i e n c e goods t r a d e . S i n c e these o f t e n serve as the anchor ten a n t s o f neighborhood and s m a l l e r d i s t r i c t shopping c e n t e r s , t h e i r demise can have a delayed, r i p p l e a f f e c t on other s m a l l e r independent s h o p s . 1 7 W i t h i n r e t a i l i n g and the commercial s t r u c t u r e , both t h e t r e n d s o f the l a s t 20-30 years and those o f the f u t u r e appear to p o i n t t o g e n e r a l and h i g h l y r e l a t e d concerns about t h e i r a f f e c t s . In Europe, these t r e n d s are a l r e a d y o f major concern t o the n a t i o n a l and l o c a l government as i s e x p l a i n e d by Ross Davies: "... the g e n e r a l p r e o c c u p a t i o n s o f the two main arms o f government i n v o l v e d seem t o have converged on two main o b j e c t i v e s : How t o c o n t a i n the s p a t i a l spread o f new r e t a i l i n g developments and the market tre n d s t o w a r d d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and how t o c o n t a i n t h e adverse consequences o f i n c r e a s i n g s i z e s o r s c a l e economies i n r e t a i l i n g o p e r a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the growth o f monopoly powers. The two i s s u e s are not s e p a r a t e , o f c o u r s e , and have at t h e i r r o o t s the common u n d e r l y i n g concern o f the need t o c r e a t e an e q u i t a b l e as w e l l as e f f i c i e n t r e t a i l system, but e a c h h a s p r o v i d e d a f o c a l p o i n t f o r p l a n n i n g r e s e a r c h and p o l i c y m a k i n g . 1 8 27 T e c h n o l o g i c a l C h a n g e and t h e S m a l l I n d e p e n d e n t R e t a i l e r T h e p r e c e d i n g t r e n d s w i l l r e c e i v e c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n i n t h i s t h e s i s , b u t t h e r e a r e o t h e r p r o b l e m s w h i c h a r e a l s o l i n k e d t o t h e i s s u e o f e q u i t a b l e s e r v i c e l e v e l s t h r o u g h o u t u r b a n a r e a s , s u c h as d i s c r i m i n a t o r y s h o p p i n g l e a s e s . T h e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s i n W e s t e r n E u r o p e h a s b e e n a c c o m p a n i e d by c o n s i d e r a b l e i n c r e a s e s i n t h e s i z e s o f s t o r e s and s h o p p i n g c e n t e r s as w e l l as t h e c o r p o r a t e s t r u c t u r e s o f i n d i v i d u a l f i r m s and t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n n e t w o r k s . T h e m i x t u r e o f p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s h a s m e a n t t h a t g o v e r n m e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t o t h e t r a d i n g o p e r a t i o n s o f s t o r e s a n d s h o p p i n g c e n t e r s h a s b e e n a m b i v a l e n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e E E C . The c e n t r a l c o n c e r n , h o w e v e r , i s t h a t t h e c o n t i n u e d g r o w t h o f l a r g e s c a l e a c t i v i t i e s w i l l u l t i m a t e l y l e a d t o u n f a i r t r a d i n g p o s i t i o n s a n d t h e n e g l e c t o f m i n o r i t y g r o u p s o f c o n s u m e r s t h r o u g h a c o m p l e t e o r i e n t a t i o n t o t h e mass m a r k e t . 1 9 T h e r e i s a n o t h e r c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e s h o p p i n g c e n t e r d o m i n a n c e t r e n d t h a t w o r k s h a n d - i n - h a n d w i t h t h e i r a b i l i t y t o c u t i n t o t h e m o r e l i m i t e d t r a d i n g a r e a . B e c a u s e o f t h e a t t r a c t i o n o f t h e s h o p p i n g c e n t e r l o c a t i o n , and t h e p r a c t i c e o f m o s t s h o p p i n g c e n t e r d e v e l o p e r ' s d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a g a i n s t l o c a l i n d e p e n d e n t s i n f a v o r o f n a t i o n a l c h a i n s , t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f s m a l l r e t a i l s h o p s o w n e d b y l o c a l i n d e p e n d e n t s i s d e c r e a s i n g e v e n f a s t e r t h a n t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f s m a l l r e t a i l s h o p s i n g e n e r a l as a p e r c e n t a g e o f t o t a l r e t a i l s a l e s . 28 As has been d i s c u s s e d , many o f the t y p i c a l l o c a t i o n s f o r the s m a l l independent r e t a i l e r , such as the a r t e r i a l ribbons and the o l d e r commercial d i s t r i c t s , have become more suscep-t i b l e t o commercial b l i g h t ; as the l a r g e suburban commercial d i s t r i c t s have come t o dominate t h e m a r k e t . T h u s , t h e independent r e t a i l e r s are drawn t o shopping c e n t e r s , but more o f t e n than not, the developers are not i n t e r e s t e d i n l e a s i n g s p a c e t o them. Even i f a l o c a l independent does secure a l e a s e , the shopping c e n t e r developer w i l l not n e c e s s a r i l y be con t e n t , e s p e c i a l l y i f a n a t i o n a l c h a i n i n the same business w i t h a l a r g e r o p e r a t i o n e x p r e s s e s an i n t e r e s t i n a m a l l l o c a t i o n . I f s u c h a l o c a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e , the developer might then squeeze out the l o c a l independent and r e p l a c e him w i t h another type o f business t h a t i s i n c r e a s i n g i t s s c a l e o f o p e r a t i o n s and d e a l s i n t h e t y p e o f good t h a t a l l o w s t h e shopping c e n t e r to charge a h i g h e r r e n t per square f o o t . John B u l l o c k , P r e s i d e n t o f C a n a d i a n F e d e r a t i o n o f I n d e p e n d e n t B u s i n e s s , s a y s "There a r e a l l k i n d s o f c o n d i t i o n s i n those l e a s e s (between t h e l o c a l i n d e p e n d e n t and t h e s h o p p i n g c e n t e r s ) t h a t c o u l d be deemed r e s t r a i n t o f t r a d e . " B u l l o c k a l s o c l a i m s t h a t a C.F.I.B. r e s e a r c h e r had e n r o l l e d i n a course f o r d e v e l o p e r 1 s employees where they were i n s t r u c t e d i n methods o f g e t t i n g r i d o f independent t e n a n t s . 2 0 The e f f e c t s o f s h o p p i n g c e n t e r s on l o c a l i n d e p e n d e n t r e t a i l e r s was d i s c u s s e d i n an a r t i c l e by Graeme Lang, which focussed on a new shopping c e n t e r being b u i l t i n Cornerbrook, Newfoundland. The new m a l l was being b u i l t because o f ; not i n s p i t e o f , t h e f a c t t h a t C o r n e r b r o o k ' s second m a l l and i t s downtown area were a l r e a d y e x p e r i e n c i n g some business d i f f i -c u l t i e s , and t h u s were p e r c e i v e d t o be v u l n e r a b l e t o c o m p e t i t i o n . T h i s i s a l s o an e x c e l l e n t example o f a p o l i c y of o v e r - s t o r i n g i n an a t t e m p t t o d r i v e out s o l i d , e s t a b l i s h e d s t o r e s , d e s p i t e the a f f e c t s the d i s r u p t i o n has on t h e u r b a n area's v i t a l i t y . I f the new m a l l i s s u c c e s s f u l , i t w i l l p robably c o n t r i -bute t o the g r a d u a l replacement o f l o c a l r e t a i l b u s i n e s s by n a t i o n a l c h a i n s t o r e s . I n Canada t h e c h a i n s t o r e s have s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s e d t h e i r share of r e t a i l t r a d e over the l a s t 20 y e a r s . In 1960 about 21% o f r e t a i l spending was i n c h a i n s t o r e s ; by 1966 t h e i r share had r i s e n t o 33%, and by 1974 i t had r i s e n t o about 41%. T h i s growth o f t h e c h a i n s t o r e s c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e r a p i d p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f s h o p p i n g m a l l s -from 64 c e n t e r s i n 1956 t o 664 i n 1973. I t appears t h a t the l a r g e r the m a l l , the l a r g e r the p r o p o r t i o n o f t e n a n t s p a c e s g i v e n t o t h e c h a i n s . The r e g i o n a l m a l l s c o s t c o n s i d e r a b l y more t o b u i l d per square f o o t than the s m a l l e r c e n t e r s , and hence mortgage c o s t s and r e n t s are h i g h e r . Lenders p r e f e r to see the developer s i g n up c h a i n s r a t h e r than independents i n these g i a n t m a l l s ; i n a d d i t i o n , mortgage l e n d e r s r e q u i r e t h a t 65-75% o f t h e t e n a n t s be t o p - c r e d i t c o m p a n i e s a s t a t u s a c c e s s i b l e t o very few independent r e t a i l e r s . 2 1 30 Shopping c e n t e r s have captured a very l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f the t o t a l r e t a i l t r a d e i n Canada and t h e i r share c o n t i n u e s t o grow. As i t i s c u r r e n t l y o r g a n i z e d , t h e s h o p p i n g c e n t e r b u s i n e s s has an enormous b u i l t - i n b i a s i n favour o f l a r g e r e t a i l e r s and r e t a i l c h a i n s and a g a i n s t c e r t a i n disadvantaged groups o f consumers and independent r e t a i l e r s . 2 2 In the f u t u r e , Greater V a n c o u v e r w i l l i n c r e a s i n g l y be fac e d w i t h the d i f f i c u l t problem o f accommodating the expected magnitude o f growth w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e e n s u r i n g t h a t p r o v i s i o n o f these new f a c i l i t i e s w i l l not prove d e t r i m e n t a l t o e x i s t i n g c o m m e r c i a l a r e a s , n o r f u r t h e r t h e s p r e a d o f c o m m e r c i a l b l i g h t . I f p h y s i c a l , economic and f u n c t i o n a l b l i g h t a r e t o be c o n t r o l l e d , a b a l a n c e w i l l h a v e t o be achieved between the development o f new commercial areas, the redevelopment o f o l d e r commercial d i s t r i c t s and the r e t e n t i o n o f e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e s by means o f r e n o v a t i o n . 2 3 Conclusion The purpose o f t h i s chapter was t o p r o v i d e a g e n e r a l over view o f a few o f the major problems t h a t plague the commercial s t r u c t u r e and the r e t a i l i n g i n d u s t r y , as they would be seen through a p u b l i c p o l i c y or a p l a n n i n g p e r s p e c t i v e . Many other problems are i n h e r e n t i n the r e t a i l i n g i n d u s t r y , but most o f these are business o r i e n t e d and l a c k a macro p e r s p e c t i v e or a v i s i o n o f t h e i r r o l e i n an urban area. In p a r t i c u l a r , t h i s c h a p t e r a t t e m p t e d t o i s o l a t e p r o b l e m s t h a t e i t h e r a r e o f 31 concern now, or c o u l d be p r o b l e m a t i c i n the f u t u r e , i n Greater Vancouver. 32 CHAPTER I I I : COMMERCIAL PLANNING: PRACTICE ABROAD, THEORIES AND MODELS I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l o u t l i n e t h e r e t a i l and c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e o f governments i n other urban c e n t e r s and o t h e r c o u n t r i e s and d e a l w i t h some o f the more t h e o r e t i c a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o commercial p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e . With r e g a r d s t o p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e abroad, t h i s study w i l l focus on those c i t i e s o r c o u n t r i e s t h a t e x h i b i t a c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e t h a t i s more advanced i n t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f r e t a i l i n g p r a c t i c e s and a r e a l s o more w i l l i n g t o p r o v i d e d i r e c t i o n t o r e t a i l e r s and the commercial s t r u c t u r e than i s the case i n Gr e a t e r Vancouver. Some o f the t h e o r e t i c a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s which are d i s c u s s e d are w i d e l y accepted by p r a c t i c i n g p l a n n e r s , w h i l e others have r a r e l y b e e n u t i l i z e d . The work done by t h e o r i s t s and academics t h a t c o n t r i b u t e s t o the commercial p l a n n i n g process u s u a l l y does not d e a l w i t h the e n t i r e p r o c e s s . I n s t e a d , the r e s e a r c h u s u a l l y focuses on one s t e p i n the p r o c e s s , such as how r e t a i l g r a v i t y models c o n t r i b u t e t o the data c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s phase. B r i t a i n ' s Approach t o Re t a i l / C o m m e r c i a l P l a n n i n g The governments t h a t a r e n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n t a k i n g an a c t i v e r o l e i n d i r e c t i n g commercial development are u s u a l l y those t h a t have t h e g o a l o f f o s t e r i n g t h e market economy. 33 Consequently, t h e r e i s l i t t l e h e l p f u l i n f o r m a t i o n forthcoming f r o m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n s t e a d , t h e p r i m e s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n on r e t a i l and commercial p l a n n i n g by t h e p u b l i c s e c t o r comes from B r i t a i n . In c o n s i d e r i n g p u b l i c p o l i c y towards r e t a i l i n g i t must be remembered t h a t l o c a t i o n a l c o n t r o l o v e r r e t a i l i n g i s a European phenomenon. In the United S t a t e s l o c a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s and c o n t r o l s a r e much l e s s r e s t r i c t i v e t h a n i n W e s t e r n E u r o p e . 1 A major d i f f e r e n c e between the U n i t e d S t a t e s and B r i t a i n l i e s i n the system o f p l a n n i n g c o n t r o l . T h i s i s c o n s i d e r a b l y more e f f e c t i v e i n B r i t a i n . In the U.S.A. p l a n n i n g powers vary i n the d i f f e r e n t s t a t e s and are u s u a l l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e e n f o r c e m e n t o f l a n d - u s e z o n i n g l a w s . C o n t r o l s are f a i r l y e a s i l y changed b e c a u s e t h e y r e f l e c t l o c a l p r e s s u r e f o r development. In B r i t a i n r e t a i l e r s t e n d t o respond t o i n n o v a t i o n by t u r n i n g t o the government f o r guidance, but i n the U.S. t h e response t o i n n o v a t i o n i s i n t e n s e c o m p e t i t i o n among r e t a i l e r s and e v e n t u a l a d a p t a t i o n t o t h e i n n o v a t i o n , a l t h o u g h some r e t a i l e r s may go out o f b u s i n e s s i n t h e p r o c e s s . In the B r i t i s h case, although i t i s not the f u n c t i o n o f p l a n n e r s to r e s t r i c t c o m p e t i t i o n , they are n e v e r t h e l e s s anxious t o avoid 'harmful' c o m p e t i t i o n between the t r a d i t i o n a l 'High S t . ' s t y l e o f s h o p p i n g and t h e edge-of-town schemes because they f e e l 34 t h a t i n the l o n g run such c o m p e t i t i o n would be d e t r i m e n t a l t o the i n t e r e s t s o f the m a j o r i t y o f consumers. 2 For example, B r i t i s h p l a n n e r s were not e n t h u s i a s t i c about t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the f r e e - s t a n d i n g l a r g e s c a l e r e t a i l e r s i n t o the commercial s t r u c t u r e . I t i s p r e c i s e l y because many o f t h e l a t e s t r e t a i l i n n o v a t i o n s , namely t h e s u p e r s t o r e s , hypermarkets and d i s c o u n t warehouses, command l a r g e r t r a d e areas or draw from a wider mix o f consumers than those l o c a t e d w i t h i n s p e c i f i c r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , t h a t t h e i r i n t r o d u c t i o n i n t o towns and c i t i e s has been so s t r o n g l y r e s i s t e d . Many l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s s t i l l see them as d e p l e t i n g t h e t r a d e o f e x i s t i n g c e n t e r s , s u i t i n g o n l y those households w i t h a c a r , c r e a t i n g monopoly p o s i t i o n s i n areas o f weak c o m p e t i t i o n , over l o a d i n g l o c a l r o a d s , and c r e a t i n g v i s u a l i n t r u s i o n s out o f p r o p o r t i o n w i t h the s c a l e o f oth e r l a n d uses. Where they have been a l l o w e d i t has u s u a l l y been t o s p e c i f i c l o c a l i t i e s : s u p e r s t o r e s s e r v i n g as the b a s i s o f new d i s t r i c t c e n t e r s f o r very l a r g e housing t r a c t s or h e l p i n g t o r e v i t a l i z e a town or c i t y c e n t e r ; hypermarkets i n t e g r a t e d i n t o new town c e n t e r s ; d i s c o u n t warehouses g u i d e d t o s i t e s i n t h e frame o f t h e c e n t r a l area or i n t o i n d u s t r i a l t r a d i n g e s t a t e s . 3 Having f o r m e r l y been r e b u f f e d by many l o c a l p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t s i n t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o d e v e l o p f r e e - s t a n d i n g s u p e r s t o r e s o r h y p e r m a r k e t s i n ' o u t - o f - t o w n ' s i t e s , t h e r e t a i l e r s found the same plan n e r s more than sympathetic t o the id e a o f d e v e l o p i n g 'edge-of-town' c e n t e r s so l o n g as t h e s e were i n areas o f r e l a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n growth, would accommodate c e r t a i n o t h e r s t o r e s and represented an e x t e n s i o n t o , r a t h e r t h a n r e p l a c e m e n t o f , t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l s y s t e m o f s h o p p i n g p r o v i s i o n s w i t h i n the town or c i t y as a whole. 4 Subsequently, the c o n t r o l l e d p a t t e r n and l o w e r r a t e o f development than was the case w i t h these s t o r e s i n the r e s t of Europe has had two a p p a r e n t l y b e n e f i c i a l r e s u l t s : f i r s t l y , t h e r e have been much l e s s adverse t r a d i n g r e p e r c u s s i o n s on s m a l l e r shops than has o c c u r r e d elsewhere i n Western Europe; s e c o n d l y , t h e r e has been much l e s s r a d i c a l change i n t h e s p a t i a l p a t t e r n o f r e t a i l i n g . Most o f t h e s u p e r s t o r e s and hypermarkets developed on the c o n t i n e n t have been e s t a b l i s h e d i n f r e e - s t a n d i n g l o c a t i o n s on t h e o u t s k i r t s o f towns and c i t i e s , thereby a c t i n g as major agents o f the d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s . 5 I n B r i t a i n , g r e a t e r p l a n n i n g powers have s e r v e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f r e t a i l s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n . P l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t i e s have t e n d e d t o use t h e i r powers t o p r o t e c t e x i s t i n g r e t a i l i n t e r e s t s by r e s t r i c t i n g t h e development o f l a r g e new f r e e s t a n d i n g suburban f a c i l i t i e s . In f a c t , a c a u t i o u s a t t i t u d e t o s u c h d e v e l o p m e n t s was i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d i n 1972 by the d e c i s i o n o f the Department of the Environment t o s c r u t i n i z e i n d i v i d u a l l y any p r o p o s a l f o r g r e a t e r t h a n 50,000 s q u a r e f e e t o f f l o o r s p a c e . O f f i c i a l a t t i t u d e s t o r e t a i l p l a n n i n g have been c l a r i f i e d f u r t h e r , and t h e r e are f o u r main arguments f o r p l a n n i n g c o n t r o l s contained i n most r e t a i l p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g i e s : 1. The r e t a i l case: the q u a n t i t y o f new r e t a i l development should be r e s t r a i n e d t o a v o i d e x c e s s c a p a c i t y and t o ensure an optimum mix o f r e t a i l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . 2. The u r b a n c a s e : c o n s i d e r a b l e care should be taken w i t h arrangement and l o c a t i o n o f s h o p p i n g f a c i l i t i e s s i n c e they e x e r t a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e on urban morphology. 3. The s o c i a l p l a n n i n g c a s e : s i n c e most new r e t a i l f a c i -l i t i e s are designed t o serve the c a r - o r i e n t e d s h o p p e r , p l a n n i n g should ensure t h a t a l l s e c t o r s o f the community are adequately s e r v e d . 4. The e n v i r o n m e n t a l c a s e : c a r e f u l s i t e p l a n n i n g s h o u l d attempt t o s e p a r a t e r e t a i l i n g from 'non-conforming' lan d u s e s and m i n i m i z e t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m pact o f new developments. 6 In B r i t a i n , o u t s i d e the c i t y c e n t e r , p l a n n i n g p o l i c y has promoted the i d e a l o f an i n t e g r a t e d system o f c e n t e r s , each d e s i g n e d t o s e r v e a s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l o c a l i z e d shopping f u n c t i o n , complementary t o , r a t h e r than c o m p e t i t i v e w i t h , the CBD. T h i s has i n v o l v e d : t h e improvement o f the shopping, t r a f f i c , and p a r k i n g environment o f t h e u n p l a n n e d , u s u a l l y r i b b o n , c e n t e r s w i t h d i s t r i c t s t a t u s which had developed p r i o r t o 1960; t h e d evelopment o f a l i m i t e d number o f p l a n n e d d i s t r i c t c e n t e r s , to ensure an e q u i t a b l e l e v e l o f access to such f a c i l i t i e s throughout a c i t y r e g i o n , and below t h i s l e v e l a s e r i e s o f neighborhood or corner s t o r e f a c i l i t i e s o f f e r i n g c o n v e n i e n c e goods f o r t h e l e s s m o b i l e s e c t i o n s o f t h e community, a l s o s e r v i n g a supplementary convenience f u n c t i o n f o r the p o p u l a t i o n at l a r g e . 7 P l a n n i n g has become an i n c r e a s i n g l y s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n the e v o l u t i o n o f the d i s t r i b u t i v e t r a d e s , not o n l y i n terms of i t s s p a t i a l c o n s t r a i n t s on new r e t a i l and commercial develop-ment, but th r o u g h i t s w i d e r e f f e c t s on h o u s i n g p r o v i s i o n , employment, and t r a n s p o r t p o l i c i e s and the g e n e r a l r e g u l a t i o n o f the economy. In B r i t a i n ' s 'mixed economy' the i n t e r v e n -t i o n s o f v a r i o u s forms o f p l a n n i n g have l e d t o a slower r a t e o f commercial change than i n many oth e r Western economies i n r e c e n t y e a r s , but they have a l s o p r o t e c t e d the n a t i o n a g a i n s t e x c e s s i v e a d v e r s e s i d e - e f f e c t s t h a t have accompanied more r a p i d growth e l s e w h e r e , s u c h as unnecessary d i s r u p t i o n s i n u r b a n f o r m and t h e n e g l e c t o f d i s a d v a n t a g e d c o n s u m e r s . 8 Because the pace o f development i n B r i t a i n i s s l o w e r t h a n d e v e l o p e r s would l i k e , development which does occur i s o f t e n p r o f i t a b l e . 9 B r i t i s h Structure Plans To come t o some understanding o f how B r i t a i n f a c i l i t a t e s i t s p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , l e t us look at t h e i r system of Develop-ment P l a n s . Under t h e 1968 Town and Country P l a n n i n g A c t , each p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t y was r e q u i r e d t o p r e p a r e a S t r u c t u r e 38 P l a n . I t i s a w r i t t e n statement accompanied by diagrams and i l l u s t r a t i o n s showing trends and i l l u s t r a t i n g and broad b a s i c p a t t e r n f o r f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t . 1 0 An e x a m p l e o f t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r r e t a i l i n g i n a S t r u c t u r e P l a n f o l l o w s i n T a b l e I I I . A g e n e r a l p r o c e d u r e f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n o f a S t r u c t u r e P l a n i s a l s o p r o v i d e d ; some o f which i s apparent i n T a b l e I I I . A R e p o r t o f S u r v e y i s f i r s t r e q u i r e d , w h i c h i n v o l v e s a d i a g n o s i s o f the e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s f o r any s u b j e c t i n a p r o b l e m a r e a . T h u s , f o r r e t a i l i n g , t h e d i a g n o s i s has t y p i c a l l y i n c l u d e d an i n v e n t o r y o f r e t a i l f l o o r s p a c e , c a l c u l a t i o n o f the t u r n o v e r of goods by c e r t a i n c e n t e r s and some assessment o f the r e l a t i v e a c c e s s i b i l i t y and h e a l t h o f c o m p e t i n g f a c i l i t i e s . T h i s has been j o i n e d by e s t i m a t e s of e m e r g i n g t r e n d s i n consumer demand and r e t a i l s u p p l y and f o r e c a s t s o f what f u t u r e developments need t o be accommodated. A l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s f o r the a l l o c a t i o n o f new r e s o u r c e s and improvement o f e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s a r e t e s t e d , u l t i m a t e l y l e a d i n g t o the s e l e c t i o n o f a p r e f e r r e d p o l i c y programme or o v e r a l l p l a n . I t i s t h i s f i n a l stage t h a t c o n s t i t u t e s the W r i t t e n S t a t e m e n t on d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g w i t h i n t h e S t r u c t u r e P l a n . I t i s a r r i v e d a t t h r o u g h p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h r e l e v a n t , concerned bodies and i s s u b j e c t to continued m o n i t o r i n g and r e v i e w . 1 1 T a b l e I I I 39 RETAILING CONSIDERATIONS IN A BRITISH STRUCTURE PLAN P o l i c i e s , g e n e r a l p r o p o s a l s and r e l a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n 1 G e n e r a l p o l i c y t o e.g. a e s t a b l i s h h i e r a r c h y o f c e n t r e s b f o s t e r g r o w t h i n town c e n t r e s c c r e a t e new c e n t r e s d d e v e l o p d i s t r i c t c e n t r e s e r e l y on m o b i l i t y i n r u r a l a r e a s f r e l i e v e c o n g e s t i o n i n t o w n c e n t r e s 2 Q u a n t i t y f l o o r s p a c e a t s i g n i f i -c a n t s t a g e s 3 D e s t r u c t i o n of 2 i n a main c e n t r e s b whole a r e a 4 C r i t e r i a and p o l i c i e s f o r a l o c a t i o n o f new d e v e l o p m e n t r e l a t i o n t o e.g. i d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n i i o t h e r c e n t r e s i i i p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t b l o c a l p l a n n i n g and development c o n t r o l i n r e l a t i o n t o e.g. i s e r v i c i n g and s t o r a g e i i o t h e r u s e s i i i d i s t r i b u t i o n d e p o t s and w a r e h o u s i n g i v c a r p a r k i n g v p r i n c i p a l r o u t e s v i u n d e r u s e d b a c k l a n d v i i p e d e s t r i a n s a f e t y c e x i s t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t i n r e l a t i o n t o e.g. i c o n s e r v a t i o n i i c o n v e r s i o n 5 P r i o r i t i e s and p h a s i n g e.g. a a c t i o n a r e a s i n c l u d i n g n a t u r e of t r e a t m e n t b l i n k a g e s ; r e moval of shops f r o m a s t r i d e t r a f f i c r o u t e 6 I m p l e m e n t a t i o n e.g a p r o m o t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e by l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s b a s s e m b l y o f s i t e s by l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s c scope of p r i v a t e development S u p p o r t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n Survey A E x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n a n a l y s i s of e.g. i f l o o r s p a c e by c e n t r e s i i t u r n o v e r b y t r a d e a n d c e n t r e s i i i a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f c e n t r e s i v p r o s p e r i t y of c e n t r e s B Recent t r e n d s a f f e c t i n g s h o p p i n g p r o v i s i o n e.g. i r e t a i l i n g methods i i m o b i l e shops i i i c u s t o m e r s ' h a b i t s i v changes i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n C Commitments e.g. i new s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s i i new p e d e s t r i a n p r e c i n c t s Estimates D F u t u r e changes e.g. i i n c r e a s e s i n p e r s o n a l income i i i n c r e a s e d e x p e n d i t u r e p e r head i i i changes i n r e t a i l i n g methods E F u t u r e needs f o r e.g. i more o u t - o f - t o w n c e n t r e s i i f e w e r shops i n main c e n t r e s i i i more d i s t r i c t c e n t r e s F C o n s t r a i n t s e.g. i l a c k o f adequate a c c e s s t o c e n t r e i i l a c k o f p l o t s of adequate s i z e f o r development G A s s u m p t i o n s ( a b o u t D.E&F), e.g. i f u t u r e income l e v e l i i a t t r a c t i o n o f o u t - o f - t o w n c e n t r e s H A l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c i e s e.g. i s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f s u b u r b a n f a c i l i t i e s t o e n a b l e town c e n t r e t o f u n c t i o n more e f f e c t i v e l y i i p r o v i s i o n o f a d d i t i o n a l f l o o r s p a c e i n c e n t r a l a r e a I C o n c l u s i o n s i n r e l a t i o n t o H and l e a d i n g t o p o l i c i e s and g e n e r a l p r o p o s a l s i n t h e p l a n J Programme ( 1 0 - y e a r ) S o u r c e : D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t and Welsh O f f i c e , Development  P l a n s - A Manual on Form and C o n t e n t (HMSO, London, 1970). 40 S t r u c t u r e Plans do not d e a l w i t h every q u e s t i o n r e l a t i n g t o r e t a i l i n g and the commercial s t r u c t u r e , but they do presen t a r e l a t i v e l y b r o a d - r a n g i n g a p p r o a c h t o r e t a i l / c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g . The major a t t r i b u t e i s t h a t the data c o l l e c t i o n and f o r e c a s t i n g appears t o be q u i t e comprehensive. L o c a l , R e g i o n a l and S u b - r e g i o n a l P l a n s Anyone seeking more d e t a i l about the shape o f development w i l l need t o t u r n from the S t r u c t u r e P l a n t o the L o c a l P l a n . L o c a l Plans are prepared w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e o v e r a l l S t r u c t u r e P l a n f o r the area and c o n s i s t o f a map and w r i t t e n statement c o n t a i n i n g d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f aspects o f p o l i c y which are only b r o a d l y sketched out i n the S t r u c t u r e P l a n . 1 2 G e n e r a l l y speaking, however, r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e u s e has been made o f the machinery a v a i l a b l e t o p r o v i d e more than a broad s h o p p i n g p o l i c y w i t h i n a D i s t r i c t P l a n , e x a m i n e t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f a new c e n t e r i n an A c t i o n A r e a P l a n and c a l c u l a t e a d d i t i o n a l r e t a i l f l o o r s p a c e t h a t can be a b s o r b e d throughout a l a r g e area i n a S t r u c t u r e P l a n . 1 3 R e g i o n a l and S u b - r e g i o n a l s t u d i e s are a l s o c a r r i e d o u t . One o f the main reasons f o r t h i s i s t h a t the L o c a l P l a n n i n g A u t h o r i t i e s o f t e n can not reach agreement as t o t h e f u t u r e l o c a t i o n o f urban development, i n c l u d i n g shopping w i t h i n the su b - r e g i o n . The r e g i o n a l and s u b - r e g i o n a l p l a n s a r e m a i n l y d e s i g n e d t o achieve t h i s c o o r d i n a t i o n between L o c a l A u t h o r i -41 t i e s , but s e v e r a l have been commissioned w i t h even b r o a d e r o b j e c t i v e s i n m i n d . 1 4 The r e g i o n a l and s u b - r e g i o n a l p l a n s v a r y i n t h e i r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f shopping a c t i v i t y , and t h i s seems t o depend p a r t l y on t h e major p o l i c y i s s u e s c o v e r e d . Although they s h a r e many common p r o b l e m s , e a c h r e g i o n may p r o v i d e f o r s p e c i a l i z e d a c t i v i t i e s such as e d u c a t i o n , i n d u s t r y or tourism, and the p a t t e r n o f shopping v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g l y . P o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h i s d i r e c t e d i n t o s p e c i f i c a r e a s , and s h o p p i n g f a c i l i t i e s a r e l o c a t e d ' i n sympathy' w i t h new r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s , w i t h i n t h e e x i s t i n g h i e r a r c h y o f s e r v i c e c e n t e r s . 1 5 A l a c k o f r e l e v a n t d a t a and inadequate r e s e a r c h t e c h -niques are o f t e n blamed f o r the e x i s t e n c e o f p o o r l y d e f i n e d commercial p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g i e s . However, i t can be s a i d t h a t a c t i v e l y s u p p o r t i n g t h e t a s k o f d e f i n i n g and d e t e r m i n i n g c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s and s t r a t e g i e s w i l l encourage the development o f the r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s . T h i s would appear t o be the case w i t h B r i t a i n ' s S t r u c t u r e and L o c a l P l a n s . The common emphasis i n t h e s e p l a n s on c o n t r o l l i n g t h e s p a t i a l p a t t e r n o f p h y s i c a l change has l e d t o much refinement o f the t e c h n i c a l aspects o f p l a n n i n g . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s een i n t h e methodology now w i d e l y employed f o r s h o p p i n g a p p r a i s a l s at the county l e v e l where t h e r e has been c o n s i d e r -a b l e adherence t o the p r o c e d u r a l suggestions o f the Manual on Development P l a n s . The major m e t h o d o l o g i c a l elements o f the 42 l a s t decade o f r e t a i l s t r u c t u r e p l a n n i n g a r e summarized i n Table I V . 1 6 F i v e main f u n c t i o n s have been i d e n t i f i e d i n v o l v i n g a range o f both s t a t i s t i c a l and more q u a l i t a t i v e techniques t h a t a r e g rouped under t h e h e a d i n g s o f s t u d i e s o f demand and supply. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e p r o v i d e s a suggested sequence of steps t o be taken i n p l a n p r e p a r a t i o n , but t h i s approach has not been completely adopted by those u t i l i z i n g i t . 1 7 Table IV. Methodological Elements of R e t a i l Structure Planning F u n c t i o n Approach Su b j e c t areas and g e n e r a l procedures Demand Supply D e s c r i p t i o n Survey and • B e h a v i o r a l S t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s p a t t e r n s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (consumer ( r e t a i l i n v e n -i n t e r v i e w s ) t o r i e s ) F o r e c a s t i n g Step-by-step E x p e n d i t u r e S a l e s and f l o o r -approach tre n d s space ( r a t i o ( l i n e a r t e chniques) e x t r a p o l a -t i o n s ) A l l o c a t i o n I n t e r a c t i o n A c c e s s i b i l i t y P o t e n t i a l models c o n d i t i o n s development ( g r a v i t y (entropy models) models) E v a l u a t i o n P u b l i c Needs and Growth p r o s p e c t s c o n s u l t a t i o n p r e f e r e n c e s ( i n v i t e d com-( p o s t a l ments ) q u e s t i o n -n a i r e s ) O r g a n i z a t i o n H i e r a r c h i c a l S p a t i a l i n - New i n n o v a t i o n s p r i n c i p l e e q u a l i t i e s ( i n t e g r a t e d (neighbor- c e n t e r s ) hood p r o v i -s i o n s ) Source: Ross Davies, R e t a i l and Commercial P l a n n i n g , 1984 Most o f what has been documented here on the commercial p l a n n i n g process i n B r i t a i n appears t o be p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e s t h a t were s t a r t e d and c o n t i n u e t o o p e r a t e on t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l . W h i l e i t i s t r u e t h a t t h e c e n t r a l government does f a c i l i t a t e B r i t a i n ' s p l a n n i n g process through e s t a b l i s h i n g a framework f o r what i s a c c e p t a b l e p o l i t i c a l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y ; to say t h a t commercial p l a n n i n g i n B r i t a i n f i n d s i t s p r i n c i p l e d i r e c t i o n from the c e n t r a l government would not be a c c u r a t e . I n B r i t a i n t h e impetus f o r t h e p l a n n i n g o f s h o p p i n g f a c i l i t i e s came from t h e development o f u r b a n p l a n n i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the c o n t e x t o f c e n t r a l area redevelopment and o f new h o u s i n g development. R e t a i l p l a n n i n g , t h e r e f o r e , i s predominantly a f u n c t i o n o f l o c a l p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t i e s and hence d e c e n t r a l i z e d . 1 8 I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t p l a n n e r s i n B r i t a i n p l a y an a c t i v e r o l e i n d i r e c t i n g the form o f r e t a i l i n g and t h e c o m m e r c i a l s t r u c t u r e . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e B r i t i s h p l a n n e r has been r e l a t i v e l y e f f e c t i v e i n d e a l i n g w i t h such matters as re d u c i n g t h e d e g r e e o f u r b a n d i s r u p t i o n and m a i n t a i n i n g a degree of geographic e q u i t y i n the d i s t r i b u t i v e t r a d e s by l i m i t i n g and d i r e c t i n g c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . M u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s i n Canada cannot use a l l o f the techniques t h a t B r i t i s h p l a n n e r s u t i l i z e f o r commercial p l a n n i n g simply because t h a t type of s t a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n has not been condoned by Canadian s o c i e t y . T h e r e i s , however, a g r e a t d e a l t h a t Canadian p l a n n e r s can l e a r n from B r i t i s h commercial p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e , such as the wide a r r a y o f f a c t o r s t h a t a r e t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t when c o n s i d e r i n g new commercial developments or the wider use t h a t i s made o f r e t a i l m o d e l l i n g t e c h n i q u e s . R e t a i l / C o m m e r c i a l P l a n n i n g I n Denmark Denmark i s another country t h a t employs a comprehensive r e t a i l p l a n n i n g approach w i t h a mandate f o r s t a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t o the commercial development p a t t e r n . The Danes are i n t e n t on p r o v i d i n g l o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e f o r new developments and d i r e c t i o n f o r the forms o f r e t a i l i n g , as w e l l as c o n t r o l l i n g the amount o f r e t a i l f l o o r s p a c e . Denmark seems t o have the most s e n s i b l e and c o n s i s t e n t p o l i c y f o r c o n t r o l l e d d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i n Europe. While t h i s p o l i c y was c o n c e i v e d as l o n g ago as t h e 1940's, i t was implemented l a r g e l y i n the case o f Copenhagen as p a r t o f i t s c e l e b r a t e d F i n g e r P l a n . There i s no doubt t h a t the planned d i s p e r s a l o f both convenience and durable-goods t r a d e w i t h i n Copenhagen has been e x t r e m e l y s u c c e s s f u l w i t h f o u r o f f i v e major proposed o u t l y i n g shopping c e n t e r s now b u i l t . The phasing o f these developments over a t e n year p e r i o d has meant t h a t they have l a r g e l y kept pace w i t h the o v e r a l l growth i n p u r c h a s i n g power w i t h i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n area w i t h few adverse r e p e r c u s s i o n s on the c i t y c e n t e r . T h i s i s t h e s u b j e c t o f an i m a g i n a t i v e concept which i d e n t i f i e s the c i t y c e n t e r s r o l e at the t u r n o f the century as a c u l t u r a l r a t h e r 4 5 than commercial c e n t e r w i t h a wide range o f c r a f t and l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s t a k i n g the p l a c e o f t r a d i t i o n a l s h o p s . 1 9 An examination o f the p l a n n i n g s t r u c t u r e i n Denmark t h a t f a c i l i t a t e s t h e c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g process should p r o v i d e u s e f u l i n s i g h t . Denmark has fou r types o f p l a n s ; the N a t i o n a l P l a n , R e g i o n a l P l a n s , Commune Plans and L o c a l P l a n s . With the aim o f d e c e n t r a l i z i n g p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s , t h e p l a n s t e n d t o take the form o f s t r u c t u r a l frameworks w i t h i n which i n d i v i d u a l a u t h o r i t i e s prepare more d e t a i l e d p r o p o s a l s . No n a t i o n a l p l a n has been made y e t , b u t t h e p l a n n i n g p o l i c y o f the c e n t r a l government i s e x p r e s s e d i n a y e a r l y s t a t e m e n t from t h e S e c r e t a r y o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t , g i v i n g P a r l i a m e n t ' s views on, f o r example, a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s . The m i n i s t r y a l s o i s s u e s g u i d e l i n e s , d i r e c t i v e s and c i r c u l a r s on c e r t a i n p o l i c y m a t t e r s , s u c h as t h e es t a b l i s h m e n t o f hypermarkets. R e g i o n a l p l a n s , w h i c h a r e p r e p a r e d by t h e c o u n t i e s , p r o v i d e a s t r u c t u r e p l a n f o r v a r i o u s s e c t o r s o f a c t i v i t y , e s t a b l i s h i n g a s e t o f broad g u i d e l i n e s f o r the development of the county. The r e g i o n a l p l a n d i r e c t s the p a t t e r n o f u r b a n growth throughout the communes and dec i d e s on the l o c a t i o n and s i z e o f the major shopping c e n t e r s . 2 0 As i n the r e g i o n a l p l a n , the commune p l a n e s t a b l i s h e s a b a s i c s t r u c t u r e t o be f o l l o w e d . The main p r o p o s a l s c o n t a i n important g u i d e l i n e s f o r r e t a i l p l a n n i n g , i n c l u d i n g the broad p a t t e r n o f town development. S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n t o shopping requirements w i t h i n the commune. The form and content of l o c a l p l a n s are f i x e d a c c o r d i n g to c e r t a i n c o n s t r a i n t s , i n c l u d i n g the amount o f p u b l i c as w e l l as p r i v a t e investment, o f which r e t a i l shops c o n s t i t u t e t h e most important p a r t . Of the f o u r types o f p l a n s , L o c a l Plans have the g r e a t e s t a f f e c t on r e t a i l p l a n n i n g t h r o u g h t h e i r impact at the l o c a l l e v e l . These p l a n s can determine the scope o f r e t a i l t r a d e i n a l o c a l a rea, expressed, f o r example, as t o t a l s a l e s area to be devoted t o convenience goods and shopping goods. However, the l o c a l p l a n may go f u r t h e r by s t i p u l a t i n g the e x a c t l o c a t i o n f o r e a c h s h o p , t h e maximum s a l e s a r e a p e r m i t t e d and r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h e k i n d s o f goods c a r r i e d . 2 1 A p l a n may s t i p u l a t e the c o n d i t i o n s f o r r e t a i l investment i n a c e r t a i n a rea, but i t cannot f o r c e investment i f the i n v e s t o r does not b e l i e v e w i l l be p r o f i t a b l e . T h i s means t h a t p l a n s must s t r i k e a b a l a n c e between t h e main i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s , t h a t i s the consumers, the i n v e s t o r s and the p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s . To e n s u r e t h a t s u c h a b a l a n c e i s r e a c h e d t h e p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s may prepare a s t r u c t u r e p l a n f o r the development o f c e n t e r s throughout an area and then suggest more d e t a i l e d p l a n s f o r the d e s i g n and composition o f each c e n t e r . A c e n t e r p l a n would be the b a s i s o f a l o c a l p l a n f o r m a l l y s t i p u l a t i n g the c o n d i t i o n s f o r investment. By making ' c e n t e r s t r u c t u r e p l a n s ' and 'center p l a n s ' the p u b l i c p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t i e s can be more c o n f i d e n t t h a t t h e i r p r o p o s a l s w i l l be f o l l o w e d by p r i v a t e i n v e s t o r s . 2 2 Again, a case has been presented i n which the degree o f s t a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t h e c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s p r o b a b l y n o t p o l i t i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e f o r t h e C a n a d i a n s i t u a t i o n , but h o p e f u l l y u s e f u l concepts can be adapted, such as phasing i n new developments t o match p o p u l a t i o n growth, t o prevent d e t r i m e n t a l a f f e c t s on the c i t y c e n t e r . Retail/Commercial Planning In Sweden Sweden i s a n o t h e r example o f a c o u n t r y t h a t we c o u l d e a s i l y d i s m i s s because o f i t s degree o f s t a t e r e g u l a t i o n o f t h e economy, b u t a g r e a t d e a l c a n be l e a r n e d f r o m t h e i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t goes on between de v e l o p e r s and government o f f i c i a l s . The r e g i o n a l p l a n s on the books f o r the Gr e a t e r Stockholm area are very long-range and comprehensive; they i n v o l v e the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f shopping c e n t e r s i n Stockholm and the area 60 m i l e s around i t , up to 25 years i n t o the f u t u r e . For every shopping c e n t e r , b i g or s m a l l , the number and a p p r o p r i a t e mix of r e t a i l s t o r e s has been predetermined. Developers are f r e e t o r e n t s p a c e t o any r e t a i l e r as l o n g as they p r e s e r v e the p r e s c r i b e d mix and number o f s t o r e s , and, i n some c a s e s , as l o n g as they g i v e p r i o r i t y t o r e t a i l e r s d i s p l a c e d by downtown r e - b u i l d i n g . 2 3 48 T h i s type o f commercial p l a n n i n g would p r o b a b l y n o t be a c c e p t e d i n Canada, but perhaps Canadian p l a n n e r s can l e a r n something from Sweden on how t o u t i l i z e p r i v a t e e x p e r t i s e to accomplish p u b l i c o b j e c t i v e s ; f o r i t i s not the Swedish p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s who supply these s t r i c t commercial p l a n n i n g d i r e c -t i v e s . I n s t e a d , the l o c a l r e t a i l a s s o c i a t i o n p r o v i d e s most o f the guidance. The m u n i c i p a l government keeps the a s s o c i a t i o n informed on what p l a n s a r e b e i n g made f o r i n d u s t r y , h o u s i n g and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . From these f a c t s , the a s s o c i a t i o n determines shopping c e n t e r requirements. They know what the income l e v e l o f t h e community i s and how income i s d i v i d e d i n t o v a r i o u s types o f e x p e n d i t u r e , and they c a l c u l a t e the p r o b a b l e t o t a l r e t a i l volume f o r each type o f merchandise. They make t h e i r recommendations as t o t h e s i z e and l o c a t i o n o f s h o p p i n g c e n t e r s , and t h e number and t y p e s o f s t o r e e a c h s h o u l d i n c l u d e . Only then does the m u n i c i p a l i t y i s s u e p e r m i t s f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n . 2 4 In g e n e r a l , i t has t o be s a i d t h a t p u b l i c s e c t o r r e t a i l and commercial p l a n n i n g i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be much more impor-t a n t i n E u r o p e t h a n i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , and t h a t t h i s i s r e f l e c t e d by both more comprehensive a n a l y t i c a l t echniques and s t r o n g e r p o l i c i e s . R e t a i l p l a n n i n g has become a d i s t i n c t i v e f o r c e throughout the Common Market i n r e c e n t y e a r s p a r t i c u -l a r l y w i t h r e s p e c t to the i m p o s i t i o n o f l a n d use c o n t r o l s over the d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f t r a d e and t h e u s e o f o t h e r s o c i o -economic l e g i s l a t i o n t o c u r t a i l the adverse r e p e r c u s s i o n s o f the growth i n monopoly p o w e r s . 2 5 P r o v i n c i a l R e t a i l / C o m m e r c i a l P l a n n i n g Throughout Canada Urban p l a n n e r s concerned w i t h the c o m m e r c i a l s t r u c t u r e and r e t a i l i n g forms i n Greater Vancouver need not look as f a r as Europe t o l e a r n o f p r o g r e s s i v e commercial p l a n n i n g t e c h -n i q u e s . T h e r e a r e p r o v i n c e s and c i t i e s i n Canada t h a t have shown a g r e a t e r w i l l i n g n e s s t o p r o v i d e r e g u l a t i o n and d i r e c t i o n f o r c o m m e r c i a l development t h a n t h a t g e n e r a l l y d i s p l a y e d i n G r e a t e r Vancouver. Throughout the country many p r o g r a m s h a v e been u n d e r t a k e n c o n c e n t r a t i n g on downtown r e v i t a l i z a t i o n , b ut f o u r p r o v i n c e s i n p a r t i c u l a r d e s e r v e a t t e n t i o n f o r d e a l i n g more d i r e c t l y w i t h the problems o f over-s t o r i n g and l a r g e edge-of-town commercial developments. P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d has taken the s t r o n g e s t approach to t h e t h r e a t s imposed by p e r i p h e r a l m a l l s . I n 1979 t h e p r o v i n c i a l government imposed a two-year moratorium on the development or expansion o f major r e t a i l s t o r e s and shopping c e n t e r s . The f r e e z e was to enable a p r o v i n c i a l commission of i n q u i r y on shopping c e n t e r s and r e t a i l s t o r e s t o s t u d y t h e i m p a c t o f t h e s e major r e t a i l f a c i l i t i e s on t h e I s l a n d ' s economy and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . Nova S c o t i a was a l s o f a c i n g mounting p r e s s u r e s due to the i n c u r s i o n o f p e r i p h e r a l m a l l s and b r o u g h t i n The A c t t o R e g u l a t e the Development o f Shopping Centers, which p r o v i d e s 50 f o r a compulsory review o f the impact o f a l l proposed shopping m a l l s . The review i s to examine, at a p u b l i c h e a r i n g , s t u d i e s r e l a t i n g t o the need f o r a new r e t a i l f a c i l i t y and i t s impact on e x i s t i n g r e t a i l o u t l e t s . A n o t i c e o f the p u b l i c h e a r i n g was t o be s e n t t o a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i t h i n a f i f t y - m i l e r a d i u s o f the proposed shopping center.26 Q u e b e c h a s i n i t i a t e d a c o m p r e h e n s i v e B i l l t h a t amalgamated a r e v i e w p r o c e s s f o r p e r i p h e r a l shopping m a l l s w i t h b u s i n e s s area improvement l e g i s l a t i o n along w i t h elements o f d o w n t o w n r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . U n d e r t h e l e g i s l a t i o n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i l l not be allowed t o i s s u e p e r m i t s f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f new p e r i p h e r a l m a l l s u n t i l a l i c e n s e has been i s s u e d by the Commission f o r C o n t r o l o f Commercial D e v e l o p -ment. B e f o r e r e n d e r i n g a d e c i s i o n on a l i c e n s e a p p l i c a t i o n , the commission must e v a l u a t e the impact o f the p r o p o s a l w i t h i n the framework o f the r e g i o n a l r e t a i l system. 2 7 The O n t a r i o p r o v i n c i a l government has backed i t s i n v e s t -ment i n downtown a c t i v i t i e s w i t h a s u b t l e " f r e e z e " on p e r i -p h e r a l m a l l development. Under the P l a n n i n g A c t , procedures f o r a m e n d i n g a r u r a l zone d e s i g n a t i o n a r e dependent on m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l a p p r o v a l . N o t i f i c a t i o n o f the d e c i s i o n to amend the zone d e s i g n a t i o n i s p u b l i c i z e d by for w a r d i n g a copy o f the bylaw t o a d j o i n i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . A l l i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s a r e e n t i t l e d t o o b j e c t t o the zoning amendment. Such o b j e c t i o n r e s u l t s i n a formal p u b l i c h e a r i n g by t h e O n t a r i o M u n i c i p a l Board ( t h e p r o v i n c i a l p l a n n i n g appeal body), and the p r o v i n c e may a c t t o support the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s o b j e c t i o n b e f o r e the b o a r d . 2 8 More i m p r e s s i v e than O n t a r i o ' s w i l l i n g n e s s t o r e g u l a t e p e r i p h e r a l m a l l s i s t h e f a c t t h a t i n the e a r l y 1970's the government began to r e c o g n i z e some o f t h e i r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ' l i m i t a t i o n s i n e v a l u a t i n g s h o p p i n g c e n t r e a p p l i c a t i o n s and has p r o v i d e d more comprehensive e v a l u a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . U n c e r t a i n t i e s s u r r ounding shopping c e n t e r d e c i s i o n s were c a t e g o r i z e d as a s s o c i a t e d w i t h inadequacies i n the f o r m u l a t i o n o f development p o l i c i e s , i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n on the nature o f the shopping component i n the urban p l a n , and i n e v a l u a t i n g the impact or i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p o f new c e n t e r s on e s t a b l i s h e d commercial d i s t r i c t s . I n s t e a d o f g e n e r a t i n g a s e t o f " p r e - d e t e r m i n e d s t a n -d a r d s " , t h e p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s recommend b e t t e r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r a c t i c e s t o m i n i m i z e these u n c e r t a i n t i e s . The O f f i c i a l P l a n , as t h e p r i n c i p a l b a s i s f o r g u i d a n c e o f l o c a l p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s , would be improved by f o r m u l a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c commercial p o l i c i e s on space, l o c a t i o n , t i m i n g and other aspects o f shopping c e n t e r development i n t e g r a t i n g both s o p h i s t i c a t e d r e t a i l i n g and p l a n n i n g s t u d i e s . A l t h o u g h t h e t e c h n i q u e s would i n v o l v e elements o f u n c e r t a i n t y , an awareness o f t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s and t h e i n n o v a t i v e u s e o f i m p r o v e d m e t h o d o l o g i e s would r e p r e s e n t i m p o r t a n t s t e p s toward t h e g e n e r a l r e d u c t i o n o f u n c e r t a i n t y , e s p e c i a l l y i f p r a c t i c e d p r o v i n c e - w i d e . The p r o v i n c i a l g u i d e l i n e s emphasize the need f o r t h o r o u g h c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f r e t a i l i n g and p l a n n i n g a t t r i b u t e s f o r both p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e impacts on community l i f e i n s t e a d o f o f f e r i n g a s e t o f i n f l e x i b l e s t a n d a r d s . 2 9 I n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e f i n a n c i a l and e c o n o m i c e l e m e n t s o f r e t a i l i n g w i t h p l a n n i n g concerns r e g a r d i n g the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l community t r a i t s r e c o g n i z e s the c o m p l e x i t i e s engendered by shopping c e n t e r development. 3 0 Most o f what has been documented i n t h i s s e c t i o n on c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g i n Canada has b e e n on r e s t r i c t i n g , r e g u l a t i n g o r p r o h i b i t i n g development. However, t h e r e are examples o f p o s i t i v e c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g p u r s u e d i n t h i s c o u n t r y t h a t a r e a l s o w e l l - t h o u g h t o u t and comprehensive. Toronto's P l a n n i n g Department has a d o p t e d s u c h a p o l i c y t o r e c o g n i z e the importance o f r e t a i l s t r i p s and a c t i v e l y support them. Perhaps t h e r e i s a c o r r e l a t i o n between the emergence of such comprehensive commercial p l a n n i n g r e s e a r c h and subsequent p o l i c i e s , w i t h the work t h a t was done by Robert McCabe f o r the O n t a r i o government i n 1974, which i s summarized above. Toronto has e s t a b l i s h e d s e v e r a l p o l i c i e s t o r e c o g n i z e i t s t r a d i t i o n a l shopping s t r e e t s and t o support them as a c t i v e and e c o n o m i c a l l y v i a b l e shopping d i s t r i c t s . The f o l l o w i n g are two e x a m p l e s o f t h e i r p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s f o r new r e t a i l development: 1) New s h o p p i n g d e v e l o p m e n t s s h o u l d l o c a t e w i t h i n t r a d i -t i o n a l shopping s t r e e t s , r e p l a c i n g rundown b u i l d i n g s or n o n - r e t a i l uses (e.g. gas s t a t i o n s i t e s , vacated super-53 markets). Developments o u t s i d e o f t r a d i t i o n a l s h o p p i n g s t r e e t s s h o u l d p r e f e r a b l y s e r v e c o n v e n i e n c e s h o p p i n g f u n c t i o n s , be a x i l l a r y t o another use (e.g. showrooms i n m a n u f a c t u r i n g p l a n t s ) , or p r o v i d e a t y p e o f shopping f u n c t i o n i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the c h a r a c t e r o f t r a d i t i o n a l s h o p p i n g s t r e e t s ( e . g . f u r n i t u r e warehouses, d r i v e - i n r e s t a u r a n t s ) . 3 1 2) R e t a i l d e v e l o p m e n t s i n t r a d i t i o n a l s h o p p i n g s t r e e t s should encourage p e d e s t r i a n a c t i v i t y a long the s i d e w a l k and g e n e r a l l y improve the area's shopping environment. P e o p l e s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d t o move between t h e new p r o j e c t and n e i g h b o r i n g b u s i n e s s e s . The p l a n n e r s have a l s o moved t o l i m i t t h e amount o f r e t a i l d e v e l o p m e n t and c o n s o l i d a t e r e t a i l i n g w i t h i n t h e commercial d i s t r i c t s . There are many b l o c k s o f commercially-z o n e d f r o n t a g e i n T o r o n t o w i t h l i m i t e d r e t a i l a c t i v i t y . Frontage i s o f t e n used by r e s i d e n c e s , v a r i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s , vacant l o t s , p a r k i n g l o t s and open space. T h e r e f o r e , i t was p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e z o n i n g by-law be amended t o l i m i t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f r e t a i l space i n n o n - r e t a i l areas, o u t s i d e of t r a d i t i o n a l shopping s t r e e t s . 3 2 I n a d d i t i o n , t h e T o r o n t o P l a n n i n g Department has made other p r o p o s a l s to enhance t r a d i t i o n a l s h o p p i n g s t r e e t s by g i v i n g them p r i o r i t y when the C i t y makes improvements; such as p r o v i d i n g p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s , s t r e e t f u r n i t u r e and t r e e s , i n c o m m e r c i a l a r e a s . I t was a l s o p r o p o s e d t h a t C o u n c i l g i v e p r e f e r e n c e t o s i t e s i n t r a d i t i o n a l s h o p p i n g s t r e e t s when l o c a t i n g t h e t y p e s o f p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s and m u n i c i p a l s e r -v i c e s ; such as l i b r a r i e s and community c e n t e r s , t h a t support shopping a c t i v i t y . 3 3 The p r e v i o u s examples o f p l a n n i n g f o r r e t a i l s t r i p s i n Toronto, and r e g u l a t i n g shopping c e n t e r development i n f o u r p r o v i n c e s , s h o u l d p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e t h a t more comprehensive commercial p l a n n i n g r e s e a r c h and p o l i c y p o s i t i o n s a r e a t -tempted i n Canada. The examples used o f commercial p l a n n i n g i n Canada have not been p r e d i c a t e d on the same degree o f s t a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n i n r e t a i l i n g as t h o s e c a s e s c i t e d i n Europe. T h i s should h e l p d i s p e l any n o t i o n t h a t broad r a n g i n g p u b l i c commercial p l a n n i n g i s dependent on having a mixed or s o c i a l -i s t economy. Models: Understanding Data Analysis T u r n i n g t o t h e t h e o r e t i c a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , t h o s e t h a t a r e t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t suggest what data should be c o l l e c t e d and how i t should be u t i l i z e d . The q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s r e f e r r e d t o i s needed t o d e t e r m i n e r e t a i l s p a c e r e q u i r e m e n t s and e v a l u a t e r e t a i l l o c a t i o n s . Much o f the work t h a t has been done comes from the f i e l d s o f marketing and urban economics. F o r t u n a t e l y , t h e r e i s no s t r i c t d i v i s i o n between u r b a n economics and u r b a n p l a n n i n g . Many economists w r i t e about l a n d p l a n n i n g problems i n terms o f economic o b j e c t i v e s and c r i t e r i a . T h i s p l a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e by economists, and i t s nodding acceptance on the p a r t o f p l a n n e r s , i s n o t , l a m e n t a b l y , an i n d i c a t i o n o f i n t i m a t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g by e c o n o m i s t s o f t h e s p e c i f i c a n a l y t i c a l needs of p l a n n e r s , any more than i t i s i n d i c a t i v e o f an a p p r e c i a t i o n by urban p l a n n e r s o f the a n a l y t i c a l v alue of p o r t i o n s o f t h a t o f f e r i n g . 3 4 However, some understanding of the data a n a l y s i s t h a t i s c a r r i e d o u t by t h o s e i n m a r k e t i n g and u r b a n economics i s e s s e n t i a l t o an e f f e c t i v e commercial p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . R e t a i l land-use p l a n n i n g cannot be c a r r i e d out u n l e s s q u a n t i t a t i v e and l o c a t i o n a l s p a c e r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e known i n advance. Adding t o r e t a i l space on an ad hoc b a s i s i n d i c a t e s l a c k o f knowledge about a community's t o t a l r e t a i l space needs on the p a r t o f m u n i c i p a l g o v e r n m e n t p l a n n i n g o f f i c i a l s . 3 5 I f consumer needs a r e t o be a d e q u a t e l y met, l o c a l p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t i e s must have s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n t o make econo-m i c a l l y sound r e t a i l space a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s . 3 6 T h i s t h e s i s w i l l not attempt t o l i s t a l l o f the r e t a i l models a v a i l a b l e or demonstrate a complete u n d e r s t a n d i n g of how they work. Only the most important models and those t h a t a r e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s o f e n t i r e c a t e g o r i e s o f models w i l l be d e s c r i b e d . The d e s c r i p t i o n s w i l l a t t e m p t t o summarize t h e p o t e n t i a l o f the model, as w e l l as the mechanics o f i t s use. Techniques f o r e v a l u a t i n g r e t a i l l o c a t i o n s have p r i m a r i l y b e e n c e n t e r e d on t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e s a l e s p o t e n t i a l o f i n d i v i d u a l s i t e s . A l t e r n a t i v e c o m p e t i n g l o c a t i o n s a r e s e l d o m e v a l u a t e d i n t h e same d e t a i l a t t h e same t i m e n o r d o e s t h e r e s u l t i n g m a r k e t a n a l y s i s s p e c i f y t h e a c t u a l l o s s i n s a l e s t h a t may be s u f f e r e d i n i t i a l l y by e x i s t i n g s h o p k e e p e r s o r t h e a n t i c i p a t e d l e n g t h o f t h e i r r e c o v e r y p e r i o d . 3 7 I n c o n t r a s t , p u b l i c p o l i c y a n a l y s i s i n v o l v e s t h e e v a l u a -t i o n o f a w i d e r a n g e o f a r r a n g e m e n t s o f r e t a i l f a c i l i t i e s i n r e l a t i o n t o a l t e r n a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s f o r t h e u r b a n a r e a . 3 8 T h i s s e c t i o n s h o u l d h e l p t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h m o d e l s a r e m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e f o r h a n d l i n g q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e f u t u r e amount and r a t e o f t o t a l r e t a i l d e v e l o p m e n t i n a c o m m u n i t y . T h e p o t e n t i a l u s e f u l n e s s o f r e t a i l m o d e l s f o r u r b a n p l a n n e r s and m u n i c i p a l d e c i s i o n m a k e r s r e s t s on t h e c l a i m t h a t m o d e l s c a n b e h e l p f u l i n a n s w e r i n g s u c h b a s i c p l a n n i n g q u e s t i o n s a s : How m u c h r e t a i l s p a c e i s r e q u i r e d ? W h e r e s h o u l d i t be l o c a t e d ? When w i l l i t be n e e d e d ? 3 9 A c c o r d i n g t o M c C a b e , r e t a i l g r a v i t y m o d e l s c a n h e l p a n s w e r t h e f o l l o w i n g m a j o r p o l i c y q u e s t i o n s : 1. What a r e t h e p r o b a b l e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f a l a c k o f p o l i c i e s o r o f a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f c u r r e n t p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s on t h e l o c a t i o n o f r e t a i l f a c i l i t i e s ? 2. To w h a t d e g r e e do e x i s t i n g r e t a i l f a c i l i t i e s a d e q u a t e l y s e r v e e x i s t i n g p o p u l a t i o n s and w h a t w i l l be t h e e f f e c t o f t r e n d s t o new f o r m s o f r e t a i l i n g ? 3. A t w h a t s c a l e do r e t a i l f a c i l i t i e s c e a s e t o be o f p u r e l y 57 m u n i c i p a l c o n c e r n and become a m a t t e r o f r e g i o n a l i n t e r e s t ? 4. To what d e g r e e does a p r o p o s e d s h o p p i n g c e n t e r , or s e v e r a l p r o p o s e d c e n t e r s , match t h e f u t u r e d e s i r a b l e s t a t e o f a f f a i r s envisaged by the o f f i c i a l plan? 5. How much f l e x i b i l i t y i n d e f i n i n g exact r e t a i l l o c a t i o n s can s a f e l y be b u i l t i n t o a p l a n f o r the f u t u r e ? 4 0 Trade Area A n a l y s i s The f i r s t m o d e l we w i l l l o o k a t i s t h e t r a d e a r e a a n a l y s i s . Although C h r i s t a l l e r i s c r e d i t e d w i t h h y p o t h e s i z i n g C e n t r a l P l a c e Theory i n 1933, the d i s c i p l i n e o f marketing had developed techniques f o r d e s c r i b i n g market a c t i v i t i e s much e a r l i e r . T h e o r i e s o f r e t a i l l o c a t i o n e v o l v e d based on est i m a t e s o f t r a d e areas f o r goods o f d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s . Marketing s t u d i e s f i r s t c o n c e n t r a t e d on problems d e a l i n g w i t h i n d i v i d u a l shops or c l a s s e s o f goods and t h e i r market areas. Advances i n marketing techniques c o n t i n u e d t o be made and soon whole c e n t e r s were being a n a l y s e d i n s t e a d o f j u s t i n d i v i d u a l o u t l e t s . L a t e r marketing s t u d i e s o f t h i s nature came t o be known as Trade Area A n a l y s i s or the St e p - b y - S t e p A p p r o a c h . The methods employed are s u b s t a n t i a l l y unchanged from the form i t had developed by the 19 3 0 ' s . 4 1 T r a d e a r e a a n a l y s i s i n v o l v e s a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t t h e a t t r a c t i v e f o r c e o f a c o m m e r c i a l c e n t e r or r i b b o n on s u r -rounding p o p u l a t i o n and a l s o o f t h e " f r i c t i o n " o f d i s t a n c e 58 which has t o be overcome when t r a v e l l i n g from r e s i d e n c e t o s t o r e . E m p i r i c a l evidence i n d i c a t e s t h a t the two c o n t r o l l i n g v a r i a b l e s i n f l u e n c i n g consumer c h o i c e o f a commercial c e n t e r a r e : 1) t h e number of items o f the k i n d a consumer d e s i r e s t h a t a r e c a r r i e d by v a r i o u s c e n t e r s ; and 2) t h e t r a v e l i n v o l v e d from the consumer's r e s i d e n c e t o a l t e r n a t i v e c e n t e r s . A t r a d e area model would normally s t a t e t h a t t h e number o f t i m e s a consumer i s expected t o v i s i t a r e t a i l c e n t e r i s i n d i r e c t p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e s i z e o f t h e c e n t e r r e l a t i v e t o competing c e n t e r s . 4 2 T r a d e a r e a a n a l y s i s i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h s i t e - s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s and i n v o l v e s m i c r o - a n a l y s i s o f income and expen-d i t u r e p a t t e r n s and p r o p e n s i t i e s w i t h i n t h e community, or t r a d e area i f the two are not s p a t i a l l y c o i n c i d e n t . S p e c i f i c l e v e l s o f demand, i n terms o f d o l l a r e x p e n d i t u r e s , can be a l l o c a t e d t o the v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s o f r e t a i l a c t i v i t y i n the community. 4 3 The b e s t way to demonstrate how a t r a d e area a n a l y s i s or the s t e p - b y - s t e p approach works, i s t o p r o v i d e a breakdown of t h e s t e p s . T r a d e a r e a a n a l y s i s does n o t f o l l o w a s i n g l e procedure, so two examples have been p r o v i d e d i n F i g u r e s 1 and 2, t h e l a t t e r b e i n g t h e more d e t a i l e d breakdown o f t h e procedure. The a s s u m p t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g t r a d e a r e a a n a l y s i s a r e s i m i l a r t o those o f C e n t r a l P l a c e Theory, whose l i m i t a t i o n s a r e d e a l t w i t h i n Appendix I I . T r a d e a r e a a n a l y s i s a l s o e n t a i l s s u b j e c t i v e judgments based on o b s e r v a t i o n s o f s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s from which g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s have been d r a w n . 4 4 Trade area a n a l y s i s has f o c u s e d a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y on t h e c o n c e p t o f r e t a i l t r a d i n g a r e a s l i k e o t h e r e a r l y r e t a i l shopping s t u d i e s . I t appears to have been s a t i s f a c t o r y i n f u l f i l l i n g t h e i n t e n d e d p u r p o s e o f e v a l u a t i n g t h e r e t a i l p o t e n t i a l o f a s i n g l e s i t e . T h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s appear when i t i s used f o r other p u r p o s e s . 4 5 R e t a i l Models The n e x t form o f d a t a a n a l y s i s t h a t w i l l be looked at comes under s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t names. For a g e n e r a l d e s c r i p -t i o n , they w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o simply as r e t a i l models, but throughout the l i t e r a t u r e they are c a l l e d s p a t i a l i n t e r a c t i o n models, mathematical models, r e t a i l g r a v i t y models and space requirements a n a l y s i s . F r i e d l y t e l l s us t h a t i n p u t - o u t p u t a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e s the c o n c e p t u a l framework e n c o m p a s s i n g t h e s p a c e r e q u i r e m e n t s a p p r o a c h , 4 6 but t h a t the l a t t e r does not p r o v i d e as compre-hens i v e a scope o f study. Space requirements a n a l y s i s focuses a t t e n t i o n on t h a t p a r t o f t h e r e t a i l i n p u t s t r u c t u r e per-t a i n i n g t o p h y s i c a l space requirements, measured i n terms of square f e e t o f enclosed s e l l i n g space. That i s , r e t a i l t r a d e space r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r g i v e n e x p e c t e d o u t p u t l e v e l s ( i . e . s a l e s t o t h e h o u s e h o l d s e c t o r ) a r e t o be d e t e r m i n e d and analyzed. 60 Figure 1 S T E P - B Y - S T E P APPROACH TO TRADE AREA A N A L Y S I S STEP I E s t a b l i s h a t e n t a t i v e t r a d e a r e a f o r t h e c e n t r e I STEP I I D e t e r m i n e t h e i n i t i a l d e s i r a b l e s i z e a nd n a t u r e o f t h e c o n t e m p l a t e d c e n t r e t o a s s e s s i t s p o s s i b l e power o f a t t r a c t i o n STEP I I I E s t i m a t e t h e t o t a l p o t e n t i a l p u r c h a s i n g power o f t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h e d e l i n e a t e d t r a d e a r e a f o r t h e g o o d s a n d s e r v i c e s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e c e n t r e 1 STEP IV A n a l y s e t h e c o m p e t i n g c e n t r e s i n t h e t r a d e a r e a a n d t h e i r r e l a t i v e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e p r o p o s e d c e n t r e 1 STEP V S u r v e y c o n s u m e r s h o p p i n g h a b i t s i n t h e t r a d e a r e a a n d d e t e r m i n e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a t t i t u d e s o f t h e s h o p p e r s , c e n t r e p a t r o n a g e , e t c . i STEP VI E s t i m a t e t h e s h a r e o f t h e p o t e n t i a l c o n s u m e r e x p e n d i t u r e 1n r e t a i l g o o d s a n d s e r v i c e s w h i c h w i l l l i k e l y be a t t r a c t e d t o t h e c e n t r e and t r a n s l a t e t h i s i n t o r e t a i l f l o o r s p a c e r e q u i r e m e n t s by t y p e o f g o o d s I STEP V I I E v a l u a t e t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e t r a d e a r e a a n d m a r k e t a n a l y s e s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e I n i t i a l s i z e and f l o o r s p a c e a l l o c a t i o n i n t h e c o n t e m p l a t e d c e n t r e and a d j u s t a s n e c e s s a r y ce: Robert McCabe, Shopping Centre D e c i s i o n s : E v a l u a t i o n G u i d e s r 1971 ^Lg.E : A " example of (lie step-by-sfcp approach for one town 61 OBJECTIVE forecast of the grow floorspace requirements (or the centre existing transportation system development plan proposals I existing regional topping structure (thii establishment of a hierarchy) subjective estimate of the trade area of the centre estimated population growth by migration I average per capita expenditure in the study region (or convenience and durable goods existing population o( this area identify the smaller shopping centres within this centre's trade area future population of trade area I estimated natural growth of this population modification of this estimate In the light of the changes In the trade area size which may be brought about by developments in this and neighbouring centres, and in the transportation system T i existing sales and floorspace of all the centres within this trade area I I I I I 1 retail expenditure growth projection existing sales per square foot T estimate of the sales per square foot which can be achieved in existing shops in the future existing relationship between convenience/ durables ratio in spending and total family retail expenditure W relationship assumed constant over time future retail expenditure In the centre's trade area In convenience and durable goods subtract the sales which can be absorbed by established shops in the smaller centres and the main centre estimate of sales par square foot likely in new shops JL_I future per capita expenditure on convenience and durable goods in the study area net amount of new floorspace which could be built in the centre estimate the ratios of service trade space and ancillary spec* to net sales space which are likely in a new development I new service and ancillary space requirements future new gross floorspace requirements Source: N a t i o n a l Economic Development O f f i c e , Urban M o d e l s I n S h o p p i n g S t u d i es^  n 7Q T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l l i n k a g e s t h a t h a v e t o be e s t a b l i s h e d . F i r s t , t h e r e must be some a d e q u a t e f o r e c a s t o f l o c a l income l e v e l s . S e c o n d , p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e s e e x p e c t e d income l e v e l s w h i c h w i l l be a l l o c a t e d t o r e t a i l e x p e n d i t u r e must be d e t e r -m i n e d . T h i r d , e x p e c t e d r e t a i l o u t p u t o r s a l e s l e v e l s , a r i s i n g i n r e s p o n s e t o consumer r e t a i l p u r c h a s e a l l o c a t i o n s , h a v e t o be a s c e r t a i n e d . F o u r t h , p h y s i c a l s p a c e i n p u t r e q u i r e m e n t s t o e c o n o m i c a l l y a t t a i n e x p e c t e d r e t a i l s a l e s l e v e l s h a v e t o be s p e c i f i e d . F u t u r e i n c o m e l e v e l s c a n be f o r e c a s t f r o m an e c o n o m i c b a s e a n d i n c o m e m u l t i p l i e r a n a l y s i s . F u t u r e e x p e n d i t u r e p r o p e n s i t i e s and p a t t e r n s c a n be d e t e r m i n e d f r o m a t r a d e a r e a consumer s u r v e y . R e t a i l s a l e s l e v e l s c a n be a s c e r t a i n e d f r o m a m a r k e t p o t e n t i a l a n a l y s i s a c c o u n t i n g f o r e x i s t i n g and p r o b a b l y f u t u r e c o m p e t i t i o n . R e t a i l s p a c e r e q u i r e m e n t s c a n be l i n k e d t o e x p e c t e d s a l e s l e v e l s v i a a s e t o f s p a c e c o e f -f i c i e n t s . 4 7 McCabe s u p p l i e s u s w i t h a good t y p o l o g y d e p i c t i n g a f a i r l y t y p i c a l example o f a r e t a i l g r a v i t y m o d e l , w h i c h has been i n c l u d e d as F i g u r e 3 : R e i l l y ' s Law i s a s i m p l e f r e q u e n c y m o d e l r e l a t i n g t o t h e c o m p e t i t i o n between two towns. A l l s u b s e q u e n t work on s p a t i a l i n t e r a c t i o n m o d e l s h a s c o n s i s t e d e s s e n t i a l l y o f a g e n e r a -l i z a t i o n a n d r e f i n e m e n t o f R e i l l y ' s L a w . 4 8 H o w e v e r , t h e r e f i n e m e n t s h a v e b e e n n u m e r o u s . T h e s p a t i a l i n t e r a c t i o n m o d e l s d e s c r i b e d i n U r b a n M o d e l s I n S h o p p i n g S t u d i e s (1970) i n c l u d e t h e H u f f m o d e l , t h e L a k s h m a n e n - H a n s e n m o d e l , t h e F i g u r e 3 63 SIMPLIFIED BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RETAIL GRAVITY MOD E L E s t a b l i s h Cons ume r Zones ( i ) As s emb1e Household ( C i ) Data on s , e tc . E s t a b l i s h Retai l Locations (j) Assemble Data on Sq . Ft . , No. of Shops , e tc . ( A j } Estimate Distances or Travel Time from Each Zone to Each Centre from Grid Coordinates or Network (d^ j) Es t i mate Pre l imi nary Pa ramete r Values ( a , fl , X) Calcu la te P r o b a b i l i t i e s of Consumers in F i r s t Zone Being At trac ted to Each Centre Repeat for Each Zone Sum Zonal C a l c u l a t i o n s for Each Centre Compare Ca lcu la ted Sales with Actual or Estimated Sales for Each Centre ( S ^ ) Adjust Parameter Values and C a l i b r a t e Model to Bring Calcu la ted Centre Sales Into Accord with Actual Centre Sales (a, S , X) Introduce New Centri Data on » Location Recalculate Market Shares Captured by Each Centre I n c 1 ud i n g New Cen tre 3 E Introduce Data on Projected Future Populations and Incomes Introduce Data on Proposed Expansion of E x i s t i n g Centre and New Centres Recalculate Market Shares Captured by Each Centre Recalculate Shares Market Examine Impact of New Centres on E x i s t i n g Centres Estimate Future Retai l Floor Space Requlrements Estimate Best L o c a t i o n , Size and Planning of New Centre Development S o u r c e : R o b e r t McCabe, S h o p p i n g C e n t r e D e c i s i o n s : H v a l u a t i o n G u i d e s , i ^ ' Haydock model, the Lewisham model, the Black model, the H a r r i s model and the Lowry m o d e l . 4 9 The r e t a i l models d e s c r i b e d h e r e a p p e ar t o h o l d more p o t e n t i a l t h a n a t r a d e a r e a a n a l y s i s f o r a s s i s t i n g t h e commercial p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . For example, r e t a i l models can h e l p t o determine i f an area i s o v e r - s t o r e d through c o l l e c t i n g data on s a l e s per square f o o t i n a t r a d e area. Normally, a t r a d e area should be c o n s i d e r e d u n d e r - s t o r e d i f : 1 ) s a l e s per s q u a r e f o o t o f s e l l i n g space are u n u s u a l l y h i g h by expected standards; 2) customers must t r a v e l f a r t h e r t o shop than they d e s i r e ; and 3) shopping c o n d i t i o n s are too crowded or slow by normal stand a r d s . When the r e v e r s e i s t r u e , a t r a d e area i s c o n s i d e r e d o v e r - s t o r e d . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , i f r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s or shopping c e n t e r s as a whole a r e a c h i e v i n g very h i g h s a l e s per square f o o t f o r shopping goods, Lakshamen and Hansen f e e l t h a t consumers i n t h e s e and s u r r o u n d i n g d i s t r i c t s are p o o r l y s e r v e d . 5 0 I n o r d e r t o g e t some i d e a o f what s p a c e p r o d u c t i v i t y standards might apply to d i f f e r e n t c e n t e r t y p e s , l e t us look a t t h e l e v e l s o f space p r o d u c t i v i t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v a r i o u s c e n t e r c l a s s e s , as i n d i c a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g Urban Land I n s t i t u t e d ata. T h e s e p r o d u c t i v i t y f i g u r e s f o r g r o s s f l o o r s p a c e i n c e n t e r s o f v a r y i n g c l a s s g i v e an i d e a o f g e n e r a l o r d e r s o f magnitude o f space e f f i c i e n c y to be e x p e c t e d . 5 1 65 T a b l e V D o l l a r S a l e s Per Square Foot o f Gross E n c l o s e d Space Center Type Neighborhood Community R e g i o n a l Range 31-100 21-82 41-69 Median Average 56 51 50 59 50 52 Source: P h i l i p F r i e d l y , A n a l y s i s o f R e t a i l F a c i l i t i e s  i n Renewal Areas, 196 6 In a more contemporary c r i t i q u e of r e t a i l models, McCabe c i t e s the q u a n t i f i a b l e aspects o f the model as p r o v i d i n g the g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l f o r p u b l i c s e c t o r c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g . M a t h e m a t i c a l models w h i c h i n c o r p o r a t e p r o b a b i l i t y concepts have a number o f important advantages over s u b j e c t i v e methods of e v a l u a t i o n f o r the urban p l a n n e r : 1) The r e a l world i s represented i n a b s t r a c t and s i m p l i f i e d 2) The e x t e n s i v e a n a l y t i c a l c a p a b i l i t i e s o f the computer can be e f f e c t i v e l y u s e d . L a r g e s c a l e q u a n t i f i c a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l when t r y i n g t o estimate the e f f e c t o f one or more c h a n g e s on an a r e a c o n t a i n i n g many c e n t e r s . F l e x i b i l i t y i s thereby i n c r e a s e d and a l a r g e number o f o p t i o n s can be t e s t e d . 3) The s p e e d o f c o m p u t e r a p p l i c a t i o n p r o d u c e s i n s t a n t feedback and p r o v i d e s a methodology t h a t i s r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e n s i v e and easy to use. terms. 66 4) A c c eptable s o l u t i o n s can be reached more q u i c k l y by allowing the model to eliminate those proposals that do not meet predetermined c r i t e r i a . 5 2 McCabe feels the problem of acquiring the necessary data for these models i s exaggerated. The lack of publications i n t h i s f i e l d i n Canada has tended to obscure any fundamental l i m i t a t i o n s that may e x i s t . Canada has been well served by S t a t i s t i c s Canada which has consistently provided a wide and generous s t a t i s t i c a l s e r i e s d e a l i n g with r e t a i l trade and s e r v i c e s f o r census and i n t e r - c e n s a l years. Trade area analysis has depended on published data s e r i e s , on proprietary information and on estimates derived from both. For the most p a r t the v a r i a b l e s used i n r e t a i l l o c a t i o n models are i d e n t i c a l to those used i n trade area a n a l y s i s . 5 3 A few words of caution on the use of r e t a i l models must be v o i c e d . These s p a t i a l i n t e r a c t i o n models measure poten-t i a l , not actual demand. Alte r n a t i v e plans are studied with the help of the model, and the surplus or s h o r t f a l l i s used as design information for t h e i r r e v i s i o n . At each stage of t h i s c y c l e the p r o d u c t i o n of the model can be modified to take account of the e f f e c t of these changes. 5 4 Conversely, r e t a i l gravity models are only able to explore the data of fixed time p e r i o d s . L i k e the step-by-step approach, the p r o b a b i l i t y models are s t a t i c i n nature. They examine only s u c c e s s i v e s t a t e s of temporary equilibrium over time. The intervening processes of change are not taken wholly into account. 5 5 A g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n can be drawn t h a t r e t a i l l o c a t i o n models as t o o l s o f p u b l i c p o l i c y a n a l y s i s have the p o t e n t i a l t o c l a r i f y the v a l u e s t h a t are i n h e r e n t i n p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s , t o r e q u i r e a r e a s o n a b l e view t o be taken o f r e a l i t y and to p r o v i d e t h e d a t a on w h i c h t h e q u a l i t a t i v e a s p e c t s o f t h e d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p r o c e s s may become f u l l y e n c o m p a s s e d . 5 6 However, r e t a i l models a l s o have t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s and appear t o be most e f f e c t i v e when they are used i n c o n j u n c t i o n with o t h e r q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s . The Economic Base Study The n e x t form o f d a t a a n a l y s i s t o be reviewed i s not s p e c i f i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h q u a n t i f y i n g r e t a i l a c t i v i t y , but i f i t i s u s ed as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r s u c h t e c h n i q u e s as r e t a i l m o d e l i n g , i t c o u l d be q u i t e u s e f u l . T h i s i s t h e economic base study, which s u p p l i e s the a n a l y t i c a l content f o r the "community economic a n a l y s i s . " E conomic base a n a l y s i s can be a f r u i t f u l approach to f o r e c a s t i n g f u t u r e r e t a i l s e c t o r and other s e c t o r demand. The economic base o f a s p a t i a l l y d e f i n e d r e g i o n a l economy, e.g., the C i t y o f Vancouver, c o n s i s t s o f the export a c t i v i t i e s o f the area which serve demands a r i s i n g o u t s i d e i t s boundaries. E x p o r t e d goods and s e r v i c e s a r e t h o s e p u r c h a s e d by n o n -r e s i d e n t s o f t h e l o c a l economy. In c o n t r a s t to b a s i c ac-t i v i t y , n o n b a s i c or l o c a l a c t i v i t y g e n e r a t e s g o o d s and s e r v i c e s consumed by l o c a l r e s i d e n t s . L o c a l goods and 68 s e r v i c e s a r e t h o s e p r o d u c e d and consumed w i t h i n t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e l o c a l e c o n o m y . A n e c o n o m i c b a s e f o r e c a s t o f c o m m u n i t y d e m a n d l e v e l s r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e e x p o r t s e c t o r be i d e n t i f i e d and i t s s o u r c e s o f demand be s p e c i f i e d . T h e n e x p o r t demand l e v e l s a l o n e a r e f o r e c a s t ( n o t t h e t o t a l demand f o r a l l s e c t o r s o f t h e l o c a l e c o n o m y ) , a n d l o c a l d e m a n d l e v e l s a r e p r e d i c t e d f r o m t h e e c o n o m i c b a s e m u l t i p l i e r m o d e l . S u f f i c e i t t o s a y a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t l e v e l s o f r e t a i l demand c a n be e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h e c o m m u n i t y a s a w h o l e f r o m e c o n o m i c b a s e a n d m u l t i p l i e r f o r e c a s t s . 5 7 G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , e c o n o m i c b a s e a n a l y s i s i s m o s t r e l e v a n t and u s e f u l when a p p l i e d t o a g e o g r a p h i c a r e a f o r w h i c h i n t e r - a r e a t r a d e i s t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s t y p e o f a r e a i s u s u a l l y r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l g e o g r a p h i c a l l y a n d c o n t a i n s a r a t h e r n a r r o w r e s o u r c e b a s e . 5 8 L o c a l g o v e r n m e n t p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s u s u a l l y u n d e r t a k e e c o n o m i c b a s e s t u d i e s a s p r e l i m i n a r y b a c k g r o u n d a n a l y s i s a g a i n s t w h i c h more s p e c i f i c k i n d s o f s t u d i e s c a n be j u d g e d . O f t e n e c o n o m i c b a s e s t u d i e s a r e made i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h l a n d -u s e p l a n n i n g s t u d i e s . T h e r e t a i l / c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s c o u l d u t i l i z e t h e e c o n o m i c b a s e s t u d y i n t h e f o l l o w i n g m a n n e r : 1) f o r e c a s t e x p o r t i n c o m e f o r y e a r x ; 2) v i a t h e l o c a l i n c o m e m u l t i p l i e r e s t i m a t e l o c a l i n c o m e f o r y e a r x ; 3) e s t i m a t e l a n d - u s e 69 requirements i n terms o f d o l l a r s o f r e t a i l s a l e s p e r s q u a r e f o o t , i n export and l o c a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ; 4) w i t h the a i d of o t h e r s t u d i e s , e.g., t r a d e a r e a and i n p u t r e q u i r e m e n t s a n a l y s i s , a l l o c a t e t h i s space w i t h i n the community; and 5) see i f t hese space requirements can be met w i t h a v a i l a b l e l a n d s i t e s and under e x i s t i n g z o n i n g . 5 9 I t must be remembered, however, t h a t an economic base a n a l y s i s i s o n l y a f i r s t s t e p i n a c q u i r i n g data t o a s s i s t the commercial p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . I t s demand and m a c r o - o r i e n t a -t i o n s r e v e a l n o t h i n g o f r e t a i l space requirements to serve i n d i c a t e d demand l e v e l s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e i s l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n generated on s p e c i f i c e x p e n d i t u r e p a t t e r n s which ca n be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a c c u r a t e p o t e n t i a l r e t a i l s a l e s l e v e l s . 6 0 Economic base s t u d i e s must be conducted i n tandem w i t h r e t a i l modeling techniques t o a i d the commercial p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . I t should a l s o be r e a l i z e d t h a t economic base s t u d i e s are not undertaken w i t h the s o l e purpose o f a s s e s s i n g the r e t a i l s e c t o r . I f , however, a m u n i c i p a l i t y conducts such a study, r e l a t i n g the two types o f a n a l y s i s c o u l d be b e n e f i c i a l . A m u n i c i p a l i t y c o u l d e a s i l y i n c o r p o r a t e t r a d e area and r e t a i l a n a l y s i s i n t o a macro-demand survey o f l o c a l economic poten-t i a l . P u b l i c s t u d y c o u l d be made o f market p o t e n t i a l and i n t e r n a l r e t a i l s i t e a v a i l a b i l i t y . 6 1 In h i s Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n i n 1966 , P h i l i p F r i e d l y d i d formulate a model t h a t i n c o r p o r a t e s the t h r e e d i f f e r e n t types o f a n a l y s i s d i s c u s s e d so f a r . I t i s beyond the scope o f t h i s t h e s i s t o c r i t i q u e the model or even e x p l a i n i t i n d e t a i l , but a b r i e f summary o f the steps i s p r o v i d e d . U s i n g an economic base and income m u l t i p l i e r approach, income l e v e l s were f o r e c a s t e d t o 1980 f o r Redondo Beach and i t s s u r r o u n d i n g r e t a i l t r a d e area. Then, w i t h the a i d o f a tr a d e area study, income and s a l e s p o t e n t i a l s were determined f o r r e g i o n a l s h o p p i n g f a c i l i t i e s l o c a t e d i n Redondo Beach. F i n a l l y , a s p a c e r e q u i r e m e n t s a n a l y s i s was c o n d u c t e d t o a s c e r t a i n a p p l i c a b l e standards o f r e t a i l space u s e . 6 2 The u s e f u l n e s s o r t h e p r a c t i c a l i t y o f t h i s t y p e o f a n a l y s i s has not been determined, but the u n d e r l y i n g argument i s t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t advances have been made and are c o n t i n u i n g t o be made i n t h e m o d e l i n g t e c h n i q u e s and q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s t h a t p e r t a i n t o the r e t a i l s e c t o r . These advances s h o u l d h e l p show t h e way f o r more e f f e c t i v e c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g . Land Use Controls and Retail/Commercial Planning Another important c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the commercial p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t h a t c a n be found i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e c o n c e r n s t h e implementation techniques used t o c a r r y out land-use d e c i s i o n s and p l a n s . G e n e r a l l y , t h i s r e f e r s t o how v a r i o u s land-use c o n t r o l s can be a p p l i e d t o h e l p m u n i c i p a l i t i e s r e a c h t h e i r commercial p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s , but i t a l s o i n c l u d e s economic t o o l s t h a t can be used to d i r e c t commercial development. None o f t h e s e t o o l s were d e s i g n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o a i d t h e c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , but w i t h a l i t t l e i m a g i n a t i o n , s e v e r a l can be a p p l i e d t o a t t a i n i n g p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s t h a t concern commercial development. Land use c o n t r o l s t h a t c o u l d be u t i l i z e d f o r implementing commercial p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s i n c l u d e d i s c r e t i o n a r y z o n i n g t e c h n i q u e s , s u c h as t h e f l o a t i n g z o n e , p l a n n e d u n i t development (PUD), c o n d i t i o n a l zoning, the development permit p r o c e s s , as w e l l as more d i r e c t c o n t r o l s o f t h e p h y s i c a l l a y o u t o f the l a n d i n c l u d i n g r e p l o t t i n g , l a n d assembly and s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l . One l a n d use c o n t r o l t echnique t h a t i s s t r i c t l y a p p l i c a b l e t o i m p l e m e n t i n g c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s i s McKeever's p r o p o s a l t h a t shopping c e n t e r zones be i n t r o d u c e d i n t o z o n i n g b y - l a w s . T h i s i s a s p e c i f i c a p p l i c a t i o n o f the f l o a t i n g zone, w i t h the same c o n t r o l by the p l a n n i n g department t h a t i s f e a t u r e d i n the development permit p r o c e s s . 6 3 As w e l l as p h y s i c a l l a n d use c o n t r o l s , v a r i o u s types of economic c o n t r o l s f o r l a n d use e x i s t , s u c h as s u b s i d i e s i n terms o f the p r o v i s i o n o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s at reduced r a t e s . Commercial p l a n n i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s s u c h as t h o s e l i s t e d a b o v e c o u l d be q u i t e h e l p f u l i n a t t a i n i n g r e t a i l / c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s . T hese c o n c e p t s a r e d e f i n i t e l y worth acknowledging, however, a d i s c u s s i o n of the m e r i t s o f e a c h o f t h e s e methods and where t h e y would be a p p l i c a b l e i s beyond the scope o f t h i s t h e s i s . 72 C o n c l u s i o n T h i s chapter has presented two types o f i n f o r m a t i o n . The f i r s t i n v o l v e d cases o f commercial p l a n n i n g from l o c a t i o n s o u t s i d e the lower mainland where commercial p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s are more comprehensive i n t h e i r r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s and/or more advanced i n t h e i r p o l i c i e s . Through a broad knowledge of commercial p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s i n G r e a t e r Vancouver may be a b l e t o make l o c a l commercial p l a n n i n g more e f f e c t i v e . The second p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n on concepts, models, and t h e o r i e s w h i c h may be o f a s s i s t a n c e i n c r e a t i n g a more e f f e c t i v e commercial p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The major c o n t r i b u t i o n concerned methods o f c o l l e c t i n g and a n a l y z i n g d a t a w h i c h i s necessary f o r e f f e c t i v e commercial p l a n n i n g . 7 3 CHAPTER I V : MUNICIPAL PROF I L E I n t r o d u c t i o n The purpose o f t h i s chapter i s to examine the parameters which h e l p shape t h e c a s e s t u d y a r e a ; t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y o f Richmond. T h i s chapter w i l l p r o v i d e a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f R i c h m o n d ' s p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g , i t s e c o n o m i c b a s e , and demography. The community p r o f i l e s h o u l d f u r n i s h b o t h a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s c h a r a c t e r and some comprehension o f the type o f commercial demand t h a t would be p r e s e n t i n a m u n i c i p a l i t y such as Richmond. In somewhat more d e t a i l , t h i s c h apter a l s o o u t l i n e s the n a t u r e o f t h e c u r r e n t c o m m e r c i a l s t r u c t u r e i n R i c h m o n d , i n c l u d i n g d a t a on t h e s p a c e d e v o t e d t o t h e d i f f e r e n t commercial f u n c t i o n s . Understanding the n a t u r e and the extent o f the commercial s t r u c t u r e i n the case study m u n i c i p a l i t y i s important f o r two r e a s o n s . The f i r s t i s t h a t t h i s u n d e r -s t a n d i n g i s e s s e n t i a l i n d e t e r m i n i n g how w e l l the p o p u l a t i o n o f the area i s served by i t s r e t a i l s e c t o r . The second reason i s t h a t one cannot make land use p o l i c y recommendations f o r t h e f u t u r e w i t h o u t h a v i n g a good g r a s p o f t h e c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n . P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g The M u n i c i p a l i t y o f Richmond l i e s between the C i t y o f Vancouver and the M u n i c i p a l i t y o f D e l t a . The South Arm o f the F r a s e r R i v e r forms i t s southern boundary and the North Arm of the r i v e r forms i t s n o r t h e r n boundary and the P a c i f i c Ocean i s on i t s western s i d e . I t extends e a s t approximately 10 m i l e s from t h e P a c i f i c toward the C i t y o f New Westminster. 1 The m u n i c i p a l i t y has an area o f approximately 38,000 a c r e s , 2 w i t h a l l o f i t b e i n g f l a t . Much o f the l a n d i s below sea l e v e l at h i g h t i d e and t h e r e a r e d i k e s and l e v e e s s u r r o u n d i n g the m u n i c i p a l i t y which are used by r e s i d e n t s as n a t u r e walks. The m u n i c i p a l i t y i s l a r g e l y l o c a t e d on two i s l a n d s , which are surrounded by arms o f the F r a s e r R i v e r . L u l u I s l a n d i s t h e l a r g e r o f t h e two, but Sea I s l a n d i s t h e s i t e o f the Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t . Richmond i s c o n n e c t e d t o V a n c o u v e r and adjacent areas by seven b r i d g e s and an under-water t u n n e l . 3 Much o f Richmond's growth i s due to i t s prime l o c a t i o n . Highway 99 p u t s Richmond w i t h i n 25 m i n u t e s o f downtown Vancouver and allows f o r easy access t o both the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Highway 10 going e a s t . CN R a i l and CP R a i l p r o v i d e r a i l a c c e s s t o i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s and t h e r e are p o r t f a c i l i t i e s on both the North and South arms of the F r a s e r R i v e r . In a d d i -t i o n , Vancouver's I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t i s c l o s e enough to be a major a t t r a c t i o n f o r companies whose e x e c u t i v e s f r e q u e n t l y t r a v e l by a i r . 4 One o f the most s t r i k i n g elements to be seen throughout Richmond i s the edge, or the p l a c e where u r b a n development meets t h e r u r a l d i s t r i c t s . Richmond has h i s t o r i c a l l y been known f o r r i c h a l l u v i a l s o i l s and market g a r d e n s , and t h e 75 Figure 4 THE GREATER VANCOUVER REGIONAL DISTRICT . . A i # J U O N S BAY ' .CM) ' BOWENJ A' ISLAND K ^ N O « T H VANCOUVER*, . WEST v. DISTRICT ) ) VANCOUVER J J' J NORTH J \ i ^VANCOUVER ^ - ^ — • ^ ^ ^ C i n r <^ * * ^ / A GREATER VANCOUVER Source: Richmond Planning Department, Richmond: A  S t a t i s t i c a l P r o f i l e , image o f a "garden c i t y " i s s t i l l enhanced by t h e c o n t r a s t between the r u r a l and urban f o r m s . 5 In summary, Richmond i s an i s l a n d m u n i c i p a l i t y o f about 38,000 a c r e s w i t h an e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e l o c a t i o n , s i t u a t e d immediately south o f Vancouver, on a d i r e c t a c c e s s r o u t e t o t h e b o r d e r and c o n t a i n i n g t h e Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r -p o r t . Richmond i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y f l a t and i t p r o v i d e s a c e r t a i n "country" atmosphere, w i t h i t s a g r i c u l t u r a l l ands and y e t p r o v i d e s an urban atmosphere i n i t s town c o r e . Economic Base A g r i c u l t u r e and f i s h e r i e s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y p layed an important r o l e i n the Richmond economy. Much o f the p r e s e n t a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d l i e s w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land R e s e r v e . 6 P o t a t o e s , c r a n b e r r i e s , b l u e b e r r i e s , s t r a w b e r r i e s and v e g e t a b l e s are the l e a d i n g cash c r o p s . S p e c i a l i z e d c r o p s , however, such as b u l b s , n u r s e r y stock and greenhouse crops are a l s o grown and a r e becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t as t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n market expands. Loss o f farm l a n d t o urban uses i n the p a s t two decades has been p a r t i c u l a r l y r a p i d . Between 1971 and 19 76 the number o f farms d e c l i n e d by 26 and acreage dropped 14 p e r c e n t . In 1981 t h e r e were a t o t a l o f 273 farms on 11,065 a c r e s , 208 o f which r e p o r t e d s a l e s o f $2500 or more i n the p r e v i o u s y e a r . 7 Commercial f i s h i n g i s a l s o an i m p o r t a n t i n d u s t r y i n Richmond, employing some 3,500 people; who work on 800 f i s h i n g v e s s e l s and i n a number o f p r o c e s s i n g p l a n t s . The f o r e s t r y i n d u s t r y ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n i s a l s o worthy o f mention, as Richmond i s home to 35 f o r e s t r y r e l a t e d manufacturing f i r m s , employing a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1000 p e o p l e i n t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g o f sawmill p r o d u c t s , s h i n g l e s , boxes and paper c o n v e r s i o n . Among Richmond's most important a s s e t s i s i t s broad tax base. B i l l O ' D o n n e l l , manager o f t h e Richmond Chamber o f Commerce, s a y s t h e a r e a ' s 2,300 c o m m e r c i a l and i n d u s t r i a l premises c o l l e c t i v e l y c o n t r i b u t e the same amount o f taxes as a l l the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s 34,000 homes. 8 The l a r g e s t i n d u s t r i a l area i s the m u n i c i p a l l y c r e a t e d B r i g h o u s e I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e l o c a t e d i n the northwest o f the m u n i c i p a l i t y . I t has some 340 a c r e s w h i c h house s u c h com-p a n i e s a s : Ebco I n d u s t r i e s , Volvo Canada, CMI Toyota, F i r e -stone, Sony o f Canada and a $17 m i l l i o n Workers Compensation Board a d m i n i s t r a t i o n b u i l d i n g and h e a l t h care f a c i l i t y . Of t h e p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s , D o m i n i o n C o n s t r u c t i o n ' s Crestwood I n d u s t r i a l Park was begun i n 1964. Development o f a 200 a c r e s i t e , t o add t o t h e e x i s t i n g 400 a c r e s a l r e a d y o c c u p i e d , began i n A p r i l o f 1982. In the south o f the m u n i c i -p a l i t y , R i v e r s i d e I n d u s t r i a l Park belongs to New-West Develop-ment C o r p o r a t i o n and p r o v i d e s 100 acres o f i n d u s t r i a l l a n d . 9 C u r r e n t l y , Richmond i s e x p e r i e n c i n g an i n f l u x o f s m a l l h i g h t e c h i n d u s t r i e s . The areas's l a r g e i n v e n t o r y o f l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l warehouse s p a c e a t t r a c t s t h o s e companies which m a n u f a c t u r e component p a r t s . A c c o r d i n g t o Jamie Home, 7 8 manager o f M a c a u l e y N i c o l l s - M a i t l a n d R e s e a r c h i n g and C o n s u l t i n g Group, t h e warehouse market i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s m a l l o f f i c e s attached t o the s t o r a g e b u i l d i n g s . 1 0 The important c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e t o u r i s m and v i s i t o r i n d u s t r y t o the l o c a l economy cannot be o v e r l o o k e d . Richmond i s a m a j o r west c o a s t d e s t i n a t i o n due t o i t s s t r a t e g i c l o c a t i o n ; home o f Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , l o c a t e d on Highway 99 and w i t h i n minutes o f the V i c t o r i a f e r r y s e r v i c e s , the U.S. border and downtown V a n c o u v e r . 1 1 The l a r g e s t s i n g l e employment c e n t e r i n Richmond i s the a i r p o r t . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 10 ,0 00 p e o p l e work t h e r e . CP A i r w i t h i t s headquarters and o p e r a t i o n s c e n t r e here are the l a r g e s t e m p l o y e r , w i t h some 5000 people on s t a f f . 1 2 I n summary, Richmond has a d i v e r s i f i e d and somewhat unusual economic base. I t has a s o l i d t a x base due t o t h e p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f c o m m e r c i a l and i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y i n the area, much o f which i s s i t u a t e d i n i n d u s t r i a l parks, such as t h e B r i g h o u s e I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e . The t o u r i s t and v i s i t o r i n d u s t r y i s important to Richmond, because o f t h e V a n c o u v e r I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , which i s the l a r g e s t employment ce n t e r i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y . F o r an u r b a n m u n i c i p a l i t y , Richmond s t i l l h a s a s i g n i f i c a n t a m o u n t o f l a n d d e v o t e d t o a g r i c u l t u r e . Commercial f i s h i n g and the manufacturing o f wood p r o d u c t s a r e a l s o i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t o r s t o the m u n i c i p a l economy. Demographics As o f e a r l y 1985, Richmond's p o p u l a t i o n was estimated t o be 109 , 000 p e o p l e . 1 3 I t i s one o f t h e f a s t e s t g r o w i n g communities i n G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , but l i k e most m u n i c i p a -l i t i e s , Richmond's growth r a t e has decreased d r a s t i c a l l y i n t h e l a s t 15 y e a r s . I n t h e 1971-1981 p e r i o d , R i c h m o n d ' s p o p u l a t i o n grew a t the annual r a t e o f 3.7 3%, compared to the 1956-1961 p e r i o d , when t h e r a t e was 10.77% a n n u a l l y . 1 4 But r e l a t i v e t o the r e s t o f Gr e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , F i g u r e 5 demon-s t r a t e s t h a t Richmond i s h o l d i n g i t s own i n growth. The p o p u l a t i o n o f Richmond w i l l c o n t i n u e t o i n c r e a s e through the next 15 years under a l l growth assumptions. Based on f u t u r e b i r t h , death and m i g r a t i o n t r e n d s , t h e f o l l o w i n g p o p u l a t i o n f o r e c a s t s f o r Richmond are p r o v i d e d : Table VI Population Forecasts - Richmond 1981-2001 Census F o r e c a s t s  1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 Low 96,154 104,993 115,511 128,347 137,892 Medium 96,154 106,528 119,404 134,637 144,761 High 96,154 108,072 123,305 142,975 151,870 Source: Richmond P l a n n i n g Department, H i g h l i g h t s , 1983. As i n the r e s t o f Canada, Richmond's age s t r u c t u r e change i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t s p o p u l a t i o n i s g e t t i n g o l d e r . However, Richmond has grown on such a s t r o n g base o f young f a m i l i e s t h a t the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s p o p u l a t i o n i s s t i l l s l i g h t l y younger 80 Figure 5 CONTRIBUTION OF EACH MUNICIPALITY TO THE GROWTH OF THE REGION 1971-1981 REGIONAL P O P U L A T I O N INCREASE 1971 - 1981 '• 137.814 SURREY N VANCOUVER CITY WEST VANCOUVER NEW WESTMINSTER VANCOUVER CITY S o u r c e : Ri c h m o n d P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , R i c h m o n d : A  S t a t i s t i c a l P r o f i l e , H85. t h a n t h e r e s t o f G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r . F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f p r o v i d i n g a r e g i o n a l c o n t e x t f o r Richmond, the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e w i l l a l s o p r e s e n t Richmond s t a t i s t i c s i n a comparative format T a b l e V I I P o p u l a t i o n By Age Groups, Richmond and The GVRD, 1961 -1981 Richmond Age Group 1971 1981 0-14 19,870 32.0% 21,140 22.0% 15-24 10,170 16.4% 16,685 17 .4% 25-44 17,810 28.7% 31,870 33.1% 45-64 11,025 17 .7% 19,350 20.1% 65+ 3,240 5.2% 7,110 7.4% T o t a l 62,121 100% 96,154 100% GVRD Age Group 1971 1981 0-14 258,375 25.1% 216,175 18.5% 15-24 181,150 17.6% 207,490 17.7% 25-44 269,275 26.2% 365,855 31. 3% 45-64 216,040 21.0% 243,195 20.8% 65+ 103,495 10.1% 137,100 11.7% T o t a l 1,028,335 100% 1,169,831 100% Source: Richmond P l a n n i n g Department, Richmond: A S t a t i s t i c a l P r o f i l e , 1985. Another i n t e r e s t i n g s t a t i s t i c t h a t should be looked at to understand the c h a r a c t e r o f the m u n i c i p a l i t y i s the percentage 82 of p r i v a t e d w e l l i n g s t h a t are owned as compared t o those which are r e n t e d . Table VIII Number of Occupied Private Dwellings Showing Percentage Owned and Rented, f o r Metropolitan Area, Vancouver and Richmond, 1976  Metro Vancouver Richmond T o t a l D w e l l i n g s : 407,560 160,225 24,330 Owned: 59.4% 46.4% 76.5% Rented: 40.6% 53.6% 23.5% Source: R i c h m o n d P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , Demographic and  S e l e c t e d S o c i a l S t a t i s t i c s , P a r t 1, 1981. T h i s t a b l e h e l p s demonstrate the predominantly s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g and w e l l - t o - d o n a t u r e o f Richmond.. D e s p i t e t h e housing growth i n G r e a t e r Vancouver over the l a s t 20 y e a r s , Richmond has continued t o a t t r a c t an u n u s u a l l y h i g h percentage o f owner occupied r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s . One more t a b l e i s u s e d t o u n d e r l i n e the s t r o n g f a m i l y o r i e n t a t i o n o f the m u n i c i p a l i t y . Table IX Percentage of Households as Families, 1976 Metro Vancouver Richmond P r i v a t e Households 407,555 160,225 24,330 F a m i l i e s 295,365 96,250 21,450 % o f Households which are F a m i l i e s 72.4% 60.1% 88.2% % o f T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n i n F a m i l i e s 81.1% 71.4% 89.8% Source: R i c h m o n d P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , Demographic and S e l e c t e d S o c i a l S t a t i s t i c s , P a r t 1, 1981. 83 F i n a l l y , a community p r o f i l e would n o t be c o m p l e t e w i t h o u t i n c l u d i n g g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n on the economic s t a t u s o f i t s people. Ta b l e X i s used t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e r e l a t i v e a f f l u e n c e o f Richmond r e s i d e n t s , as compared w i t h the r e s t o f Gr e a t e r Vancouver. T a b l e X Average Household Income, 1981 Vancouver Census Metro Area Vancouver Richmond $27,688 $24,856 $31,802 Source: F i n a n c i a l Post, Canadian Markets 1985 In summary, Richmond i s p r i m a r i l y a community o f young f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n . Over t h r e e q u a r t e r s o f the community was under age 44 i n 1976. Ninety p e r c e n t o f a l l the house-h o l d s i n Richmond were f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s compared t o 75 percent f o r the GVRD. Richmond f a m i l i e s had more c h i l d r e n per fa m i l y (1.7) compared w i t h the GVRD as a whole (1.4). Richmond's growth has been g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e Vanco u v e r a r e a as a whole, but the growth r a t e appeared to peak around 1975. Richmond r e s i d e n t s are w e l l - o f f i n terms o f p e r s o n a l income, r e l a t i v e to the r e s t o f the Gr e a t e r Vancouver r e g i o n . 84 R e t a i l / C o m m e r c i a l Space and S t r u c t u r e The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s e c t i o n i s t o o f f e r a g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f where Richmond's commercial developments are l o c a t e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h regard t o the r e t a i l f a c i l i t i e s , and t o p r o v i d e some data on the amount o f space devoted t o r e t a i l i n g , r e l a t i v e t o t h e r e s t o f G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r . C o n t r a r y t o apparent f i r s t i m p r e s s i o n s , commercial land-uses do not consume a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f a m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s l a n d mass. Of t h e 10,700 ha. (26,400 acres) o f l a n d zoned i n Richmond (some p a r t s o f the M u n i c i p a l i t y are r e g u l a t e d through Land Use C o n t r a c t s ) l e s s t h a n two p e r c e n t i s zoned f o r c o m m e r c i a l u s e . 1 5 The l e v e l o f commercial development i n suburban m u n i c i -p a l i t i e s i s s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by p o p u l a t i o n s i z e . I n S u r r e y / D e l t a / W h i t e Rock, the North Shore and the North East S e c t o r , r e t a i l f l o o r s p a c e s e r v i n g l o c a l r e s i d e n t s r e p r e s e n t s about 75% o f t o t a l commercial f l o o r s p a c e . In areas adjacent t o t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n c o r e - Burnaby/New W e s t m i n s t e r and Richmond - t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s e d l e v e l o f o f f i c e development i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h i n d u s t r i a l f l o o r s p a c e o r t o accommodate o t h e r b u s i n e s s e s w h i c h do n o t d i r e c t l y s e r v e t h e l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n . In these areas, r e t a i l f l o o r s p a c e r e p r e s e n t s only about 50% o f t o t a l f l o o r s p a c e . 1 6 Table XI - Commercial Floorspace, 1984 C o m m e r c i a l P e r c e n t O f f i c e P e r c e n t R e t a i l P e r c e n t Burnaby 8 ,856 ,437 9.03% 4 ,604 ,239 10.58% 4 ,252 ,198 • 7.79% C o q u i t l a m 3 ,003 ,636 3.06% 565,382 1.30% 2 ,438 ,254 4.47% D e l t a 2 ,756 ,515 2.81% 565,382 1.32% 2 ,180 ,924 4.00% New W e s t m i n s t e r 4 , 0 3 1 , 0 6 7 4.11% 1 ,559,963 3.59% 2 ,471 ,104 4.53% N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y 2 ,973 ,734 3.03% 1,333,114 3.06% 1,640,620 3.01% N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t 2 ,468 ,314 2.52% 346,625 0.80% 2 ,121 ,689 2.89% P o r t C o q u i t l a m 1 ,545,572 1.58% 695,721 1.60% 849,851 1.56% P o r t Moody 612,321 0.62% 104,549 0.24% 507,772 0.93% Richmond 6 ,968 ,813 7.11% 3 ,436 ,734 7.90% 3 ,532 ,079 6.47% S u r r e y 7 ,960 ,636 8.12% 1,811,844 4.16% 6 ,148 ,792 11.27% V a n c o u v e r 54 ,053 ,206 55.11% 27 ,948 ,348 64.23% 26 ,104 ,858 3.40% West V a n c o u v e r 2 ,273 ,952 2.32% 418,109 0.96% 1,855,843 3.40% Whi te Rock 571,458 0.58% 111,278 0.26% 460,180 0.84% GVRD 98 ,075 ,661 110.00% 43 ,511 ,497 100.00% 54 ,564 ,164 100.00% S o u r c e : GVRD Development S e r v i c e s , C o m m e r c i a l and I n d u s t r i a l F l o o r s p a c e I n v e n t o r y - 1984 * F l o o r s p a c e i n Square F e e t co 86 R e t a i l f l o o r s p a c e i s l o c a t e d i n shopping c e n t r e develop-ments, b u i l d i n g s t h a t are p r i m a r i l y r e t a i l i n n a t u r e , such as those found on r e t a i l s t r i p s , and i n other types o f b u i l d i n g s , s u c h as o f f i c e towers. A m u n i c i p a l breakdown o f the data i s presented i n T a b l e s XII and X I I I . Among t h e i n d i v i d u a l s u b u r b a n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , r e t a i l f l o o r s p a c e per r e s i d e n t r a n g e s from about 30 t o 50 s q u a r e f e e t . The m u n i c i p a l i t i e s s o u t h o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r and Richmond average about 30 square f e e t per r e s i d e n t . The North E a s t S e c t o r and the Burnaby/New Westminster area average about 35 square f e e t per r e s i d e n t , w h i l e the North Shore S e c t o r i s at the upper end o f the range at 40 square f e e t per r e s i d e n t . Most s h o p p i n g c e n t r e f l o o r s p a c e i s l o c a t e d i n t h e suburban communities, r e f l e c t i n g t h e i r r e c e n t development and auto o r i e n t a t i o n . Shopping c e n t r e s r e p r e s e n t 2 0% t o 3 7% o f a l l r e t a i l f l o o r s p a c e i n suburban m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . In terms of shopping c e n t r e f l o o r s p a c e per r e s i d e n t , Richmond, the N o r t h Shore and the North E a s t S e c t o r have 12 square f e e t per person w h i l e the S u r r e y / D e l t a / W h i t e Rock a r e a has 15 s q u a r e f e e t p e r p e r s o n . 1 7 F i g u r e 6 p r o v i d e s a g e n e r a l geographic p i c t u r e o f the major c o m m e r c i a l c e n t r e s i n G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , i n -c l u d i n g Richmond's Brighouse D i s t r i c t . T u r n i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t h e c o m m e r c i a l s t r u c t u r e i n Richmond, we d i s c o v e r a r a t h e r unique form o f development, a commercial s t r i p t h a t i n c l u d e s s e v e r a l shopping c e n t r e s . The advent o f t h i s unique form was p a r t i a l l y planned through the Table XII - Retail Floorspace, 1984 T o t a l R e t a i l i n R e t a i l i n R e t a i l i n R e t a i l Percent R e t a i l Bids Shopping Ctr Other Bids Burnaby 4,252,198 7.79% 2,121,399 1,503,894 626,905 Coqultlara 2,438,254 4.47% 1,211,342 1,086,200 140,712 Delta 2,180,924 4.00% 819,038 1,215,444 146,442 New Westminster 2,471,104 4.53% 2,028,545 212,470 230,089 North Vancouver C i t y 1,640,620 3.01% 1,024,331 359,130 257,159 North Vancouver D i s t r i c t 2,121,689 3.69% 1,077,444 252,016 792,229 Port Coqultlara 849,851 1.59% 470,074 204,606 175,171 Port Moody 507,772 0.93% 365,061 77,368 65,343 Richmond 3,532,079 6.47% 1,845,695 1,311,755 374,629 Surrey 6,148,792 11.27% 2,963,472 2,586,641 598,679 Vancouver 26,104,858 47.84% 16,637,933 2,149,246 7,317,679 West Vancouver 1,855,843 3.40% 724,828 1,058,913 72,102 White Rock 460,180 0.84% 315,907 42,728 101,545 GVRD 54,564,164 100.00% 31,605,069 12,060,411 10,898,684 Source: GVRD Development S e r v i c e s , Commercial and I n d u s t r i a l Floorspace Inventory - 1984 *Floorspace i n Square Feet oo Table XIII - Retail Floorspace Per Person, 1984 T o t a l 1984 Est. T o t a l R e t a i l R e t a i l i n Shopping ' R e t a i l Population Per Person Shopping C t r . Per Pers< Burnaby 4,252,198 139,794 30 1,503,894 11 New Westminster 2,471,104 39,140 63 212,470 5 Subreglon T o t a l 6,723,302 178,934 38 1,716,364 10 Coquitlam 2,438,254 66,780 37 1,086,200 16 Port Coquitlam 849,851 28,578 30 204,606 7 Port Moody 507,772 15,786 32 77,368 5 Subreglon T o t a l 3,795,877 112,396 34 1,368,174 12 North Vancouver C i t y 1,640,620 34,688 47 359,130 10 North Vancouver D i s t r i c t 2,121,689 65,656 32 252,016 4 West Vancouver 1,855,843 36,656 51 1,058,913 29 Subreglon T o t a l 5,618,152 130,232 40 1,67,059 12 Richmond 3,532,079 105,210 34 1,311,755 12 Vancouver/UEL 26,104,858 415,575 63 2,149,246 5 White Rock 460,180 13,910 33 42,728 3 Delt a 2,180,924 77,804 28 1,215,444 16 Surrey 6,148,792 166,276 37 2,586,641 16 Subreglon T o t a l 8,789,896 257,990 34 3,844,813 15 GVRD 54,564,164 1 ,209,338 45 12,060,411 10 Source: GVRD Development S e r v i c e s , Commercial and I n d u s t r i a l Floorspace Inventory - 1984 *Floorspace i n Square Feet 89 d e c i s i o n s t o l o c a t e t h r e e shopping c e n t r e s along No. 3 Road, but s i n c e then, the s t r i p form has been accentuated through c o m m e r c i a l d e c o n c e n t r a t i o n . The p a t t e r n o f c o m m e r c i a l development i n Richmond shows two d i s t i n c t forms: the l i n e a r forms o f t h e Town C e n t r e and B r i d g e p o r t d i s t r i c t and t h e compact neighborhood shopping d i s t r i c t s . 1 8 Richmond's breakdown o f commercial f l o o r s p a c e i n c l u d e s n e a r l y 50% t h a t i s r e t a i l i n nature, but t h i s percentage has decreased i n r e c e n t years due t o the f a s t e r pace o f o f f i c e d e v e l o p m e n t . F i g u r e 7 p r o v i d e s a breakdown o f Richmond's commercial f l o o r s p a c e . The main shopping s e r v i c e s are l o c a t e d i n one s e c t i o n o f No. 3 Road, t h e "downtown" o f Richmond. The f o u r m a j o r d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e s , Woodwards, Eatons, The Bay and Sears are a l l l o c a t e d i n shopping m a l l s w i t h i n walking d i s t a n c e o f each o t h e r . The l a r g e s t o f these i s Lansdowne Park shopping c e n t r e w i t h Woodwards and Eatons p l u s an a d d i t i o n a l 140 shops and s e r v i c e s w i t h i n a temperature c o n t r o l l e d m a l l . S m a l l e r s e r v i c e c e n t r e s are a l s o l o c a t e d throughout t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . 1 9 These n e i g h b o r h o o d c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s p r o v i d e f o r the major weekly s h o p p i n g needs o f l o c a l r e s i -dents. They are l o c a t e d c e n t r a l t o the neighborhoods at the i n t e r s e c t i o n s o f major a r t e r i a l r o a d s and c o n s t i t u t e an a c t i v i t y n o d e . 2 0 y - ^ k m ^ ^ ^ m ^ m \ ^ \&$m^'.*m> C O M M E R C I A L C E N T R E S IN GREATER V A N C O U V E R :K\ LEGEND: A PARK ROYAL B LOWER LONSDALE C UPPER LONSDALE D DOWNTOWN VANCOUVER~ E CENTRAL BROADWAY F KINGSWAY, G BRENTWOOD * H LOUGHEED ° I PORT MOODY * J COQUITLAM CENTRE ^ K PORT COQUITLAM CITY CENTRE' -L UPTOWN NEW WESTMINSTER' M DOWNTOWN NEW WESTMINSTER N GUILDFORD . O WHALLEY/NORTH SURREY P NORTH DELTA Q BRIGHOUSE R LADNER »k S TSAWWASSEN T HILLSIDE Source: GVRD P l a n n i n g Department, Commercial Development 1970-1979, 1981. 3 oq CD 91 Figure 7 COMMERCIAL FLOORSPACE IN RICHMOND, BY T Y P E , 1983 Source: Richmond Pl a n n i n g Department, Richmond: A  S t a t i s t i c a l P r o f i l e , 1 ^ 8 5 . Richmond's commercial growth i s a f a i r l y r e c e n t o c c u r -rence. When l a n d supply i n Vancouver became sp a r s e , Richmond grew as a r e s i d e n t i a l area which i n t u r n prompted a commercial surge. Former Richmond P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r Tom J e n k i n s o n c l a i m s the area has become a l a r g e t r a d i n g c e n t r e s e r v i n g people i n the southern s l o p e s o f Vancouver, D e l t a and S u r r e y . 2 1 The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e l i s t s most o f the e x i s t i n g shopping c e n t r e s i n Richmond, t h e i r major te n a n t s , and t h e i r square footage, as o f 1984. In c o n c l u s i o n , Richmond's commercial s t r u c t u r e p r e s e n t s a s l i g h t l y unusual p a t t e r n o f r e t a i l development. The r e t a i l s e c t o r i n Richmond i s dominated by a p a r t i c u l a r commercial s t r i p a long No. 3 Road which houses the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s t h r e e l a r g e s t s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s , a l o n g w i t h many o t h e r r e t a i l a c t i v i t i e s t h a t operate w i t h i n a f a i r l y s m a l l area along t h i s s t r i p . Beyond t h i s , s m a l l e r commercial d i s t r i c t s s erve the l o c a l neighborhoods throughout the m u n i c i p a l i t y w i t h l o w e r -or der goods. Richmond a p p e a r s t o be a f a i r l y t y p i c a l m u n i c i p a l i t y , w i t h the amount o f commercial f l o o r s p a c e p r o p o r t i o n a t e to the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e same manner as the other suburban communities i n G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r . I n e a c h o f t h e r e t a i l f l o o r s p a c e c a t e g o r i e s , Richmond i s ranked t h i r d behind Surrey and Burnaby among the suburban m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , which p a r a l l e l s t h e m u n i c i p a l p o p u l a t i o n o r d e r . Richmond has a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f commercial f l o o r - s p a c e devoted t o o f f i c e 93 T a b l e XIV: Shopping Centres i n Richmond Shopping Centre Lansdowne Park Richmond Square Richmond Center Hyland Park Park V i l l a g e L o c a t i o n 5300 No. 3 Road 6551 No. 3 Road 6060 Minoru Road 6 340 No. 3 Road f t . 8091 Park Road Town Centre S u b - t o t a l 544,609 428,680 109,568 55,452 30,028 Broadmoor R i c h l e a Square Shellmont S e a f a i r M a l l 1,168,337 7820 W i l l i a m s Road 42,055 1011 No.3 Road 67,233 11020 W i l l i a m s Rd. 30,000 8591-8751 No. 1 Rd. 70,000 T o t a l : 1,377,625 Anchors Woodwa r d ' s Food F l o o r , E a t o n s , Woodward's. S e a r s , Z e l l e r ' s , Supervalu The Bay London Drugs Safeway Safeway Safeway Safeway Source: GVRD D e v e l o p m e n t S e r v i c e s , C ommercial and  I n d u s t r i a l F l o o r s p a c e Inventory - 1984 and Real E s t a t e Board o f Gr e a t e r Vancouver, Metre-trends 1984. use than the average suburban m u n i c i p a l i t y , but i n g e n e r a l , Richmond i s a t y p i c a l s u b u r b a n m u n i c i p a l i t y as f a r as the amount o f commercial development i s concerned. 94 CHAPTER V: COMMERCIAL PLANNING IN RICHMOND I n t r o d u c t i o n The purpose o f t h i s chapter i s t o p r o v i d e a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the commercial p l a n n i n g undertaken by the m u n i c i p a l i t y o f Richmond. There i s very l i t t l e i n the way o f s p e c i f i c by-laws or w r i t t e n p o l i c i e s on e i t h e r p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e c o m m e r c i a l s e c t o r o r t h e p r o c e s s used t o d e t e r m i n e any o b j e c t i v e s f o r commercial development. Consequently, most of t h e i n f o r m a t i o n u s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l come from t h e p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s t h a t were conducted w i t h v a r i o u s p e o p l e who have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p u b l i c s e c t o r p l a n n i n g f o r commercial development i n Richmond. The primary o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s c h apter i s t o supply i n f o r m a t i o n on the r e t a i l / c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n R i c h m o n d and s p e c i f i c d e v e l o p m e n t o b j e c t i v e s t h a t the m u n i c i p a l i t y has f o r t h i s s e c t o r , as w e l l as the impact t h a t r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g has on r e t a i l / c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t i n Richmond. As t h i s t h e s i s i s w r i t t e n on the broad scope o f r e t a i l / c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g , t h i s chapter w i l l a l s o b r i e f l y d e a l w i t h c e r t a i n c o n c e r n s t h a t the p l a n n i n g process i n Richmond does not a c t i v e l y c o n s i d e r , s u c h as t h e q u e s t i o n o f r e t a i l form and ownership. The d e s c r i p t i o n o f commercial p l a n n i n g i n Richmond has been d i v i d e d i n t o s e v e n s e c t i o n s . They a r e : 1) A g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s commercial p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s and s t r a t e g i e s , 2) A b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f Richmond's r e t a i l commercial d i s t r i c t s c o n tained i n t h e i r z o n i n g by-law, 3) A summary o f the commercial p l a n n i n g t h a t has been conducted f o r s p e c i f i c areas o f Richmond, 4 ) A d i s c u s s i o n o f the i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t takes p l a c e between the p l a n n i n g department and d e v e l o -pers over commercial development, 5 ) A d i s c u s s i o n on how much the p u b l i c c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n v o l v e s i t s e l f i n i s s u e s such as r e t a i l s e c t o r form and ownership, 6 ) A d e s c r i p -t i o n o f the r e s e a r c h t h a t i s undertaken t o a i d the commercial p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , and 7 ) A b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n on any commercial p l a n n i n g t h a t i s done at the r e g i o n a l l e v e l , t h a t c o u l d a f f e c t r e t a i l p l a n n i n g i n Richmond, and how major developments t h a t would have a r e g i o n a l impact are d e a l t w i t h . T h i s c h a p t e r s h o u l d p r o v i d e a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f b o t h Richmond's l i m i t e d e x p l i c i t c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g p o l i c y and t h e more s u b s t a n t i a l c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g t h a t goes on w i t h o u t t h e b e n e f i t o f e x p l i c i t f o r m u l a t i o n . General Commercial Planning P o l i c i e s and Strategies I t would appear t h a t p l a n n i n g f o r commercial development i n R i c h m o n d h a s p r o g r e s s e d i n r e c e n t y e a r s i n terms o f f o r m u l a t i n g s p e c i f i c g o als and conducting r e s e a r c h , but t h e r e i s s t i l l c o n s i d e r a b l e room f o r work t o be done. Examining Richmond P l a n n i n g Department r e p o r t s and s t u d i e s a l o n e does not p r o v i d e an a c c u r a t e assessment o f the commercial p l a n n i n g process and p o l i c i e s i n Richmond. T h i s i s because much o f the p r o c e s s has not been a r t i c u l a t e d by the p l a n n i n g department, but i n s t e a d , remains as u n w r i t t e n but a c c e p t e d p r o c e d u r e s . 96 Commercial p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s a r e , however, becoming more e x p l i c i t , as t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y i s w o r k i n g on i t s i n i t i a l O f f i c i a l Community P l a n . The Richmond P l a n n i n g Department has r e c e n t l y completed i t s Town Centre P l a n , which i s about t o go to p u b l i c h e a r i n g . Community Planner, B r i a n Jackson c o n s i d e r s t h e Town C e n t r e P l a n t o be t h e c o r n e r s t o n e o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s commercial p o l i c y and a d m i t s t h a t up t o t h e t i m e t h e Town Centre P l a n was formulated they r e a l l y d i d n ' t have any commercial p o l i c y and t h a t the department was going on e x i s t i n g zoning as i t s commercial p o l i c y . 1 An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f Richmond's e x p l i c i t w r i t t e n p o l i c i e s on c o m m e r c i a l development s u b s t a n t i a t e s Jackson's statement. The o n l y by-law t h a t s u b s t a n t i a l l y c o v e r s p l a n n i n g f o r commercial development i s the m u n i c i p a l zoning by-law, which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the second s e c t i o n . Furthermore, t h e r e are few adopted p o l i c i e s r e l a t e d t o commercial p l a n n i n g . In a r e p o r t t h a t summarized p o l i c i e s w h i c h have been a d o p t e d by C o u n c i l t h a t were r e l e v a n t t o the development o f the O f f i c i a l Community P l a n , J o e l Short wrote, "... While i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , i n d u s t r i a l development, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and u t i l i t i e s , the r e g i o n , and c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t have few r e l a t e d a d o p t e d p o l i c i e s . " 2 T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e f o r p o l i c i e s r e l a t e d t o commercial development, as i n t h i s e n t i r e document t h a t covered p o l i c i e s back to 1960, t h e r e are only two adopted p o l i c i e s t h a t address commercial development and both o f these are s p e c i f i c to c e r t a i n areas i n Richmond. 97 Thus, t h e r e i s no e x p l i c i t p o l i c y f o r commercial develop-ment i n t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y as a whole, except f o r the zoning by-law. S e v e r a l times d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s the word ' p o l i c y ' was u s e d where i t was not a p p r o p r i a t e . As p o l i c y should be a r t i c u l a t e d e x p l i c i t l y , o n l y p o l i c i e s a d o p t e d by Richmond M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l w i l l be r e c o g n i z e d i n t h i s t h e s i s as such. One o f the f i r s t d e c i s i o n s to be made c o n c e r n i n g commer-c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t was t h a t t h e B r i g h o u s e area would be the downtown o f Richmond, w i t h t h e c o m m e r c i a l c o r e c e n t e r e d between Westminster Highway and G r a n v i l l e Avenue. 3 Richmond has had a town c e n t r e or core area development p o l i c y s i n c e about 1958. The essence o f t h a t p o l i c y was t o c e n t r a l i z e the p r i n c i p a l c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s , c i v i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , community, c u l t u r a l , and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s i n what i s now the Brighouse Core Area. T h i s key s p a t i a l p o l i c y has been implemented s u c c e s s f u l l y . 4 One aspect o f the development o f the core area t h a t the p l a n n i n g department d i d not encourage was such a l e n g t h y and prominent commercial s t r i p along No. 3 Road. Former Richmond P l a n n i n g Department D i r e c t o r , B i l l K e r r , i n t e n d e d t h e c o r e area t o be more compact, but the Richmond C o u n c i l ' s d e c i s i o n to a l l o w Lansdowne t o l o c a t e n o r t h o f W e s t m i n s t e r Highway c r e a t e d more s t r i p development along No.3 Road. 5 A c c o r d i n g to Alderman Bob McMath i t was the d e c i s i o n to a l l o w Lansdowne to l o c a t e o u t s i d e o f t h e e s t a b l i s h e d c o r e area o f No. 3 Road 98 between W e s t m i n s t e r Highway and G r a n v i l l e Avenue, t h a t l e d t o t u r n i n g No.3 Road i n t o a 'Kingsway' t y p e s t r i p . 6 A t t i m e s i t a p p e a r s h a r d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e b e t w e e n R i c h m o n d ' s g e n e r a l c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s and i t s c o m m e r c i a l o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e c o r e a r e a , b u t t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t h a s a l w a y s had a s t r a t e g y f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f r e t a i l f a c i l i t i e s i n t h e s u b u r b a n p a r t s o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y , e v e n i f i t was n o t w e l l - a r t i c u l a t e d . I n t h e d a y s when Richmond was b e g i n n i n g t o d e v e l o p as a s u b u r b a n r e s i d e n t i a l community, t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t d e c i d e d t h a t t h e r e would be 5 o r 6 r e s i d e n t i a l n e i g h b o r h o o d s , w i t h 5 n e i g h b o r h o o d s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s and a s u p e r m a r k e t as t h e k e y t e n a n t i n e a c h . Beyond t h i s , t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d s were d i v i d e d i n t o s u b - n e i g h b o r h o o d s , w h i c h i t was f e l t c o u l d s u p p o r t a c o r n e r s t o r e . 7 C o n t i n u i n g w i t h t h i s ' c e n t r a l p l a c e t y p e s t r a t e g y • i n t h e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y h a s gone a b o u t p e r p e t u a -t i n g t h i s n o d a l c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t p a t t e r n i n an a t t e m p t t o f a c i l i t a t e an e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e t a i l o p p o r t u n i -t i e s b e y o n d t h e Town C e n t r e . T h i s e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n i s e n c o u r a g e d t h r o u g h a h i e r a r c h y o f u s e s , f r o m t h e l o c a l c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t t o t h e Town C e n t r e . T h i s h i e r a r c h y i s g i v e n i t s g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n t h r o u g h a s t r a t e g y o f n o t a l l o w i n g l o c a l c o m m e r c i a l c e n t r e s w i t h i n a h a l f m i l e o f e a c h o t h e r a n d n o t a l l o w i n g n e i g h b o r h o o d s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s w i t h i n one and a h a l f m i l e s o f e a c h o t h e r . 8 A c c o r d i n g t o b o t h K e r r and McMath, t h e t i m i n g o f new commercial developments i n the u r b a n i z i n g p a r t s o f Richmond i s h i g h l y i n f l u e n c e d by the m u n i c i p a l i t y . U s u a l l y , the l o c a t i o n o f new neighborhood shopping c e n t r e s have been d e s i g n a t e d i n advance and when the p l a n n i n g department d e t e r m i n e s t h a t an a r e a c o u l d s u p p o r t a new n e i g h b o r h o o d s h o p p i n g c e n t r e and t h e r e was a developer ready t o proceed, i t would be allowed. The p l a n n i n g department has turned down commercial development a p p l i c a t i o n s i f i t f e l t an area wasn't ready f o r i t . 9 As was d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , m u n i c i p a l commercial p l a n n i n g i n Richmond tends t o c o n c e n t r a t e on the Town Cen t r e . T h i s i s e v i d e n t by the p l a n n i n g s t u d i e s on t h e c o r e a r e a c o n d u c t e d over the y e a r s . A r e p o r t was compiled i n 1974 by the 'Goals For Shopping Committee', i n which the o n l y area addressed i n terms o f c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t y was t h e Town C e n t r e . 1 0 The s t r o n g a s s o c i a t i o n between g e n e r a l r e t a i l commercial p l a n n i n g and p l a n n i n g f o r Richmond's Town C e n t r e a l o n e , i s n o t , however, a t h i n g o f the p a s t . Community Planner B r i a n Jackson made i t obvious t h a t t h i s i s s t i l l p r e v a l e n t w i t h h i s s t a t e -ment t h a t , "The Town C e n t r e P l a n i s about t o go t o p u b l i c h e a r i n g and w i l l h o p e f u l l y be adopted by the middle o f the summer and t h a t w i l l be our commercial p o l i c y . " 1 1 I t would appear t h a t the m u n i c i p a l i t y might be f o c u s s i n g i t s concerns about commercial p l a n n i n g on i t s Town Centre to the detriment o f p l a n n i n g f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s c o m m e r c i a l development as a whole. Jay Wollenberg f e e l s t h a t Richmond's 100 a t t e m p t s t o c r e a t e a Town C e n t r e , and t h e i r s u b s e q u e n t s t r a t e g y o f running every p r o p o s a l through the f i l t e r o f i t s a f f e c t on t h e Town C e n t r e , c a u s e s t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y some p r o b l e m s i n the r e t a i l p o l i c y a r ea. A primary o b j e c t i v e o f s u p p o r t i n g t h e Town C e n t r e and o f e f f i c i e n t s e r v i c i n g o f r e s i d e n c e s w i t h n e i g h b o r h o o d s h o p p i n g f a c i l i t i e s can o f t e n l e a d t o very d i f f e r e n t d e c i s i o n s i n t h i s r e g a r d . In f a c t , Wollenberg concludes t h a t Richmond does not r e a l i z e the extent to which i t s r e t a i l s e c t o r i s u n b a l a n c e d . T h e r e a r e l a r g e areas where t h e r e i s no neighborhood shopping c e n t r e t o serve a p o p u l a t i o n o f 7,000-10,000 people, w h i l e t h e downtown has a t t r a c t e d a l o t o f s u p e r m a r k e t s p a c e and s u b u r b a n t y p e d e v e l o p m e n t . 1 2 Any l a c k o f s u f f i c i e n t r e t a i l s e r v i c i n g i n Richmond's suburban areas would appear t o be l i n k e d t o t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s emphasis on commercial development i n the Town Centre. In the 1986 Community P r o f i l e D r a f t , p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r commercial p l a n n i n g c o n c e n t r a t e on which zoning d i s t r i c t s are e x p e r i e n c i n g growth. Questions such as what the geogra-p h i c d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the growth i s l i k e , what s p e c i f i c form o f d e v e l o p m e n t i s o c c u r r i n g , o r whether t h e growth w i l l be matched by r e t a i l demand a r e n o t c o v e r e d i n d e p t h . The document's o v e r a l l c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t t h e r e i s no need to i n c r e a s e the supply o f commercially zoned l a n d beyond planned a d d i t i o n s and t h a t the encroachment o f commercial a c t i v i t i e s 101 i n t o i n d u s t r i a l and s e r v i c e d i s t r i c t s needs t o be d e a l t w i t h . 1 3 In a d d i t i o n t o the p l a n n i n g department, Richmond has two other a d m i n i s t r a t i v e bodies which p r o v i d e i n p u t on p l a n n i n g f o r commercial development. The A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g Commission i s composed o f people r e p r e s e n t i n g d i f f e r e n t s e c t o r s o f t h e community and a d v i s e s C o u n c i l on matters t h a t are r e f e r r e d t o i t . The C o u n c i l P l a n n i n g Committee i s c o m p r i s e d s o l e l y c o m p r i s e d o f a l d e r m a n and a l l o w s t h o s e members t o s t u d y p l a n n i n g i s s u e s and development a p p l i c a t i o n s i n g r e a t e r depth p r i o r t o making recommendations on these i s s u e s . 1 4 Richmond's Commercial Zoning Some u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f R i c h m o n d ' s Z o n i n g By-Law i s e s s e n t i a l t o u n d e r s t a n d c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g i n t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y , as i t i s probably the most important e x p r e s s i o n o f commercial p o l i c y i n Richmond. T h i s c o u l d change, however, w i t h t h e a d o p t i o n o f an O f f i c i a l Community P l a n and a Town Centre P l a n . The most obvious c o n c l u s i o n t o be reached from examining the Richmond Zoning By-Law i s t h a t the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s commer-c i a l z o n i n g i s more complicated than i t s g e n e r a l commercial p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g y . The by-law c o n t a i n s no l e s s t h a n . 18 s e p a r a t e d i s t r i c t s f o r commercial development. Of the 18, t h i s s t u d y i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h 9 o f t h e d i s t r i c t s , as th e y r e l a t e s p e c i f i c a l l y t o r e t a i l i n g . 1 5 A d m i t t e d l y , some o f these 102 d i s t r i c t s a r e r a t h e r o b s c u r e and s i t e - s p e c i f i c , b u t t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f commercial d i s t r i c t s appears to be a s i g n of i n c r e m e n t a l d e c i s i o n making r a t h e r t h a n a s o p h i s t i c a t e d commercial p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The need to c r e a t e new commer-c i a l d i s t r i c t s every time the market m a n i f e s t s a new s i t u a t i o n c o u l d be seen as a l a c k o f a n t i c i p a t o r y p l a n n i n g or a l a c k o f f l e x i b i l i t y i n the commercial p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Regardless o f the number d f commercial d i s t r i c t s , a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f each d i s t r i c t would be u s e f u l . F i r s t , a t the lowest l e v e l i n the h i e r a r c h y , t h e r e i s the L o c a l Commercial D i s t r i c t , which i s a zoning d i s t r i c t which p r o v i d e s f o r t h e d a y - t o - d a y f o o d s h o p p i n g needs o f p e o p l e i n the immediate v i c i n i t y . T h i s d i s t r i c t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by g r o c e r y s t o r e s , meat markets and l i m i t e d r e s i d e n t i a l u s e . 1 6 Next i s the Community S h o p p i n g C e n t r e D i s t r i c t . T h i s d i s t r i c t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p r o f e s s i o n a l and m e r c a n t i l e o f f i c e s , r e c r e a t i o n , gas s t a t i o n s , h o t e l s and a community shopping c e n t r e , which i s not d e s c r i b e d i n terms o f i t s form or c o m p o s i t i o n . 1 7 The Neighborhood Shopping Centre D i s t r i c t , which ranks as the h i g h e s t order c e n t r e i n t h e h i e r a r c h y b e f o r e t h e Town Centre i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p r o f e s s i o n a l o f f i c e s , g a s o l i n e and a c c e s s o r y s a l e s t o m o t o r i s t s and a n e i g h b o r h o o d s h o p p i n g c e n t r e , which, once again, i s not d e s c r i b e d i n any way. 1 8 The Community S h o p p i n g C e n t r e D i s t r i c t and t h e N e i g h b o r h o o d Shopping Centre D i s t r i c t are the only d i s t r i c t s t h a t p r o v i d e 103 s i t e p l a n n i n g s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , to f a c i l i t a t e some a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o o r d i n a t i o n . At the same h i e r a r c h i c a l l e v e l , t h e r e i s the Neighborhood Commercial D i s t r i c t , which p r o v i d e s f o r t h e d a y - t o - d a y convenience shopping, p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e and bu s i n e s s needs of people r e s i d i n g i n the immediate v i c i n i t y . T h i s d i s t r i c t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by grocery s t o r e s , meat and f i s h markets, bakery s t o r e s , shoe r e p a i r shops, v i d e o r e n t a l s h o p s , a g e n t s f o r l a u n d r i e s and dry c l e a n e r s , barber shops and beauty s a l o n s , as w e l l as l i m i t e d r e s i d e n t i a l u s e . 1 9 The c a t c h - a l l o f c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s i s t h e G e n e r a l Commercial D i s t r i c t . Uses p e r m i t t e d i n t h i s d i s t r i c t i n c l u d e most types o f r e t a i l i n g , p r o f e s s i o n a l and m e r c a n t i l e o f f i c e s , r e c r e a t i o n , h o t e l s , g e n e r a l assembly i n c l u d i n g t h e a t r e s and d r i v e - i n t h e a t r e s , some r e s i d e n t i a l and v a r i o u s o t h e r commer-c i a l uses, i n c l u d i n g a wide v a r i e t y o f s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s . 2 0 P r i n c i p a l l y f o r t h e t o u r i s t , t h e r e i s t h e Highway Commercial D i s t r i c t . I t i n c l u d e s h o t e l s , motels, motor h o t e l s and l i m i t e d r e t a i l f a c i l i t i e s s e r v i n g p r i n c i p a l l y t h e d a y - t o - d a y needs o f t h e t o u r i s t t r a d e and ac c e s s o r y t o the b u i l d i n g h o u s i n g t h e p r i n c i p a l u s e . 2 1 T h i s d i s t r i c t i s p r i m a r i l y s e r v i c e - o r i e n t e d , b u t i t a l s o h a s a r e t a i l component. The L i m i t e d Commercial D i s t r i c t i s s i m i l a r t o the Highway Commercial D i s t r i c t i n t h a t the primary focus i s on s e r v i c e s , w i t h t h e r e t a i l a s p e c t b e i n g a c c e s s o r y . In t h i s d i s t r i c t 104 t h e r e are o f f i c e s f o r b a r r i s t e r s , s o l i c i t o r s , n o t a r i e s p u b l i c , accountants, e n g i n e e r s , a r c h i t e c t s and r e a l e s t a t e agents, as w e l l as o f f i c e s f o r m e d i c a l , d e n t a l and a l l i e d d i s c i p l i n e s . The r e t a i l a c c e s s o r y uses i n c l u d e pharmacies, c o f f e e shops, branch banks, f l o r i s t s and g i f t r e t a i l s t o r e s . 2 2 The f i n a l two commercial d i s t r i c t s c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d b o r d e r l i n e examples o f d i s t r i c t s r e l a t i n g t o r e t a i l uses. They are the harbour Market D i s t r i c t 2 and the Harbour Market D i s t r i c t 3. Both are concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h the s e r v i c i n g o f the harbour and i t s r e l a t e d b o a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s , but t h e D i s t r i c t 2 should be i n c l u d e d due to i t s r e t a i l a c t i v i t y i n s e l l i n g boats and b o a t i n g equipment, w h i l e the D i s t r i c t 3 i s i n c l u d e d because o f i t s p u b l i c m a r k e t . 2 3 In o r d e r t o have an i d e a o f the amount o f l a n d t h a t each commercial d i s t r i c t o c c u p i e s , T a b l e XV i s p r o v i d e d . T a b l e XV Z o n i n g F o r C o m m e r c i a l L a n d U s e I n R i c h m o n d - 1985 (Area i n h e c t a r e s ) West Richmond E a s t Richmond Sea I s l a n d M i t c h e l l I s l a n d G e n e r a l Commercial Community Shopping Centre Neighborhood Shopping Centre Highway Commercial Neighborhood Commercial 51.79 1.75 6.53 1.69 15.32 4. 32 16.16 39.14 L o c a l Commercial L i m i t e d Commercial Harbour Market .33 Source: Richmond P l a n n i n g Department Memo, 19 85 Note: Harbour Market i n c l u d e s two n o n - r e t a i l d i s t r i c t s . 105 I f t h e z o n i n g b y - l a w i s t h e m a j o r e x p r e s s i o n o f Richmond's c o m m e r c i a l p o l i c y , t h e n two q u e s t i o n s must be asked. The f i r s t i s t o what e x t e n t i s t h e By-law used t o d i r e c t commercial development and p l a n f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s needs? T h e r e a r e some i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t i t i s more o f an attempt t o a n t i c i p a t e market t r e n d s , or as Bob McMath put i t , " I t i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f the demands o f t h e a p p l i c a n t s t o do t h i n g s t h a t haven't been done b e f o r e . " 2 4 I f the zoning by-law attempts t o r e f l e c t market t r e n d s , the q u e s t i o n should then be asked, How w e l l do the commercial d i s t r i c t s a c t u a l l y i n d i c a t e the g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n of t h e p e r m i t t e d u s e s i n each d i s t r i c t ? T h i s q u e s t i o n focusses on t h e i s s u e o f n o n - c o n f o r m i n g u s e s , w h i c h a r e c u r r e n t l y a p r o b l e m , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g and w a r e h o u s i n g are a s . As B i l l Lane e x p l a i n s : "With the passage o f time and t h e change i n c o m m e r c i a l p r a c t i c e s [ i n the Brighouse l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l a r e a ] , the n e c e s s i t y t o p r o v i d e a r e t a i l aspect t o s m a l l manufacturing and to warehousing became a p p a r e n t . " 2 5 In other words, r e t a i l uses have s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f i l t r a t e d o ther d i s t r i c t s and i t cannot be s a i d t h a t the commercial d i s t r i c t s are a t r u e i n d i c a t i o n o f where the r e t a i l a c t i v i t y i s l o c a t e d . The m u n i c i p a l i t y has recognized t h i s s i t u a t i o n and Mr. Lane i s c u r r e n t l y working on the problem by s u g g e s t i n g changes to the zoning by-law. 106 In c o n c l u s i o n , i t c o u l d be s a i d t h a t as a c o m m e r c i a l p o l i c y d e v i c e , a zoning by-law has s i g n i f i c a n t weaknesses; as i t i s used to a n t i c i p a t e and accommodate market t r e n d s . Even t h i s t a s k i s d i f f i c u l t as t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y must c r e a t e s p e c i a l i z e d d i s t r i c t s and d e a l w i t h non-conforming uses. Commercial Aspects o f Area P l a n n i n g T h i s s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s the commercial p l a n n i n g t h a t i s done f o r s p e c i f i c areas i n Richmond. L i k e the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s g e n e r a l commercial p o l i c y , t h e r e has not been a g r e a t d e a l of s p e c i f i c p l a n n i n g f o r neighborhoods commercial development. However, t h i s does appear t o be c h a n g i n g , as t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t i s c u r r e n t l y w o r k i n g on A r e a Study. P l a n s f o r s e v e r a l neighborhoods i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h the p r e p a r a t i o n o f the O f f i c i a l Community Pl a n . Two o f t h e f i r s t a r e a - s p e c i f i c d e c i s i o n s t o be made conc e r n i n g commercial development were t h a t Brighouse would be the downtown o f Richmond and Steveston had commercial develop-ment p o t e n t i a l t h a t was o r i e n t e d towards the f i s h i n g i n d u s -t r y . 2 6 The d e c i s i o n to have f i v e or s i x neighborhoods wi t h neighborhood shopping centres a l s o had a r e a - s p e c i f i c i m p l i c a -t i o n s . The a r e a t h a t has been s t u d i e d more than any other i s d e f i n i t e l y the Brighouse Core Area or the Town Centre. In a book p u b l i s h e d i n 1974 , W a l t e r Hardwick s a i d t h a t Richmond Square was p r o b a b l y the b e s t p l a n n e d town c e n t r e i n t h e 107 Vancouver r e g i o n . 2 7 T h i s was probably q u i t e a v a l i d statement at the time, c o n s i d e r i n g the core a r e a ' s u n i q u e m i x t u r e o f c i v i c f u n c t i o n s , r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , and c o m m e r c i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i n one c e n t r a l and a c c e s s i b l e area, but whether t h i s can s t i l l be s a i d a f t e r t h e a f f e c t o f t h e Lansdowne l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n i s another q u e s t i o n . One o f t h e f i r s t a v a i l a b l e s t u d i e s r e c e i v e d by C o u n c i l was w r i t t e n by a l a y - g r o u p c a l l e d t h e 'Goals F o r S h o p p i n g Committee' i n 1974. I t was e n t i t l e d ' F i n a l Report On Richmond Core A r e a ' and even though t h e committee was i n t e n d e d t o formulate g o a l s f o r shopping, i t s r e f e r e n c e to s p e c i f i c r e t a i l q u e s t i o n s i s l i m i t e d . The committee a c c e p t s t h e c o n c e p t o f a h i e r a r c h y o f commercial c e n t r e s and s t a t e s t h a t : "This means t h a t the core s h o u l d be t h e c h i e f l o c a l e f o r t h e community's comparison goods s h o p p i n g f a c i l i t i e s . N e i g h b o r h o o d s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s should be r e s t r i c t e d i n s i z e and s e r v i c e s . " 2 8 T h i s s u g g e s t i o n has been f o l l o w e d , as v a r i o u s r e t a i l a c t i v i t i e s have been encouraged i n the core area, w h i l e the neighborhood shopping c e n t r e s have been l i m i t e d t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n o f s e r v i n g s m a l l l o c a l areas. A n o t h e r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n was t h a t s e r v i c e c o m m e r c i a l ( c a r - o r i e n t e d s h o p p i n g ) s h o u l d be e x c l u d e d from t h e c o r e a r e a , 2 9 but t h i s has not been f o l l o w e d l a r g e l y because o f the p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n to allow Lansdowne M a l l to l o c a t e n o r t h of Westminster Highway, which s t r e t c h e d the Richmond commercial 108 core and allowed s e r v i c e commercial f u n c t i o n s t o i n f i l t r a t e t h e a r e a . These recommendations were t h e o n l y comments r e l a t e d t o r e t a i l / c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g . The Richmond P l a n n i n g Department completed the Brighouse Core Area Study i n 1976. The s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e s t o f u t u r e commercial uses i n t h i s document are a l s o q u i t e sketchy. The s t u d y s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e c o r e a r e a ' s f u n c t i o n as a m a j o r r e g i o n a l shopping c e n t e r w i l l i n c r e a s e and a map i s p r o v i d e d making f a i r l y e v i d e n t p r e d i c t i o n s o f where t h e r e w i l l be commercial a c t i v i t y i n the core a r e a . 3 0 P l a n n i n g f o r r e t a i l a c t i v i t y i n downtown Richmond i s becoming more s p e c i f i c though. The P l a n n i n g Department has r e c e n t l y (February 1986) presented t o C o u n c i l t h e i r completed Town C e n t r e P l a n . In t h e d i s c u s s i o n on commercial r e t a i l d evelopment i t s t a t e s t h a t t h e Town C e n t r e P l a n s e e k s t o r e i n f o r c e and c o n s o l i d a t e t h e r e t a i l f u n c t i o n o f the Town Centre. The f o l l o w i n g o b j e c t i v e s are put forward as s p e c i f i c p o l i c i e s : O b j e c t i v e 2 To i n c r e a s e the d e n s i t y o f r e t a i l development throughout the downtown and encourage p a r k i n g i n l o c a t i o n s above the ground f l o o r l e v e l . 2.1 E n c o u r a g e t h e e x p a n s i o n o f g r o u n d l e v e l s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d r e t a i l d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e downtown co r e , i n the C - l , C-2, and C-2R areas as d e s i g n a t e d i n S c h e d u l e A, t o r e p l a c e e x i s t i n g ground l e v e l p a r k i n g areas. 2.2 Encourage the development o f vacant or under-u t i l i z e d s i t e s i n the downtown. 109 2.3 E n c o u r a g e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a b o v e grade p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s t o p r e s e r v e the c o n t i n u i t y o f ground f l o o r commercial development through-out the downtown. 3 1 T h i s study i s c e r t a i n l y an improvement over p r e v i o u s core area s t u d i e s i n terms o f r e t a i l / c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g . However, c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r Area P l a n has been deemed as t h e b a s i s o f Richmond's c o m m e r c i a l p o l i c y , i t would s t i l l appear t h a t i t has s i g n i f i c a n t l i m i t a t i o n s . T h e s e w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 6. The n e x t a r e a t o be l o o k e d a t i s t h a t o f S t e v e s t o n . U n t i l r e c e n t l y , t h e r e were not many complete s t u d i e s o f t h e Ste v e s t o n area. In the 1970's, C o u n c i l d i d adopt two p o l i c y r e p o r t s o f t h e P l a n n i n g Committee i n r e s p o n s e t o c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c p r o p o s a l s . The f i r s t was i n r e s p o n s e t o a p r o p o s a l by the f i r m , Management and Development C o r p o r a t i o n L t d . t o d e v e l o p a 32 a c r e s i t e i n t o a shopping c e n t r e a t the southeast corner o f No. 3 Road and Ste v e s t o n Highway. Both the P l a n n i n g Committee and t h e P l a n n i n g Department were a g a i n s t the p r o p o s a l f o r a number o f reasons. They i n c l u d e : (1) I t was not f e l t t h a t a s t r o n g c a s e was made f o r a second r e g i o n a l shopping c e n t r e w i t h i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y i n the f o r e s e e a b l e f u t u r e . 2) Even i f th e f e a s i b i l i t y study c o u l d s u b s t a n t i a t e a need f o r another shopping c e n t r e , i t would be n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e f a c i l i t y t o r e l y on a t r a d i n g a r e a w h i c h i n c l u d e s p a r t s o f D e l t a and Surrey. T h i s would r e q u i r e premature expenditures t o improve 110 road access t h a t would l a r g e l y b e n e f i t t r a f f i c not o r i g i n a t i n g i n Richmond. 3) The l a n d a r e a i n q u e s t i o n was w i t h i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s a g r i c u l t u r a l d i s t r i c t zone and i s c l a s s i f i e d as r u r a l i n the l o n g range p l a n . 3 2 The r e p o r t o f the P l a n n i n g Committee was subsequently r e c e i v e d and adopted by C o u n c i l . 3 3 In 197 3 t h e r e was more p r e s s u r e f o r commercial develop-ment on t h e f r i n g e s o f S t e v e s t o n , and i n response C o u n c i l adopted the recommendations o f t h e P l a n n i n g Committee t h a t c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n be encouraged i n the o l d S t e v e s t o n townsite on Moncton S t r e e t . 3 4 I n 19 84 t h e Stevest o n Area P l a n was adopted. I t d e a l t e x t e n s i v e l y w i t h commercial l a n d use i n S t e v e s t o n . F i r s t , a f a i r l y d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f the c u r r e n t commercial l a n d use was presented, i n c l u d i n g a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the d i f f e r e n t r e t a i l a c t i v i t i e s t h a t o p e r a t e d i n s p e c i f i c a r e a s , d a t a on t h e commercial f l o o r s p a c e and an e s t i m a t e o f t h e t r a d i n g a r e a p o p u l a t i o n . From here, the study launched i n t o an e x t e n s i v e d i s c u s -s i o n o f t h r e e p o s s i b l e o p t i o n s f o r accommodating f u t u r e commercial development. Each o f the o p t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n f i l l o f c u r r e n t c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s , w i t h t h e t h i r d o p t i o n i n c l u d i n g e x p a n s i o n o f t h e major c o m m e r c i a l a r e a . The d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e t h r e e o p t i o n s i n c l u d e d f l o o r s p a c e p r o j e c t i o n s , the form the commercial area would take on and i t s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r l a n d u s e s . The m u n i c i p a l i t y concluded by d e f i n i n g the boundaries o f the St e v e s t o n business c e n t r e , where commercial a c t i v i t y should be c o n t a i n e d . 3 5 T h i s Area P l a n i s one o f the more d e t a i l e d examples o f commercial p l a n n i n g f o r a Richmond neighborhood. In r e c e n t y e a r s t h e P l a n n i n g Department has begun t o compile sub-area p l a n s , such as the North Lansdowne Sub-Area P l a n f o r the Cambie Area o f Richmond. The study i n v o l v e s a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f c o m m e r c i a l r e d e v e l o p m e n t i n N o r t h Lansdowne. However, i t i s not r e l e v a n t to t h i s t h e s i s as the r e d e v e l o p m e n t i s f o r commercial s e r v i c e ; and o f f i c e s . The only d i r e c t mention o f r e t a i l l a n d use d i s c o u r a g e s i t due to the p r o x i m i t y t o Lansdowne M a l l . 3 6 T h i s summary o f the a r e a - s p e c i f i c c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g t h a t has o c c u r r e d i n Richmond was not meant to d e s c r i b e a l l o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g t h a t has gone on f o r R ichmond' s n e i g h b o r h o o d s . I n s t e a d , t h e i n t e n t i o n i s t o p r o v i d e a s i g n i f i c a n t and h o p e f u l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l e o f t h e a r e a - s p e c i f i c c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g t h a t has been done. One c o n c l u s i o n t h a t can be drawn i s t h a t w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the S t e v e s t o n Area P l a n , most p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s have e i t h e r l a c k e d an o v e r a l l a r e a p l a n f o r c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t y or t h e more g e o g r a p h i c a l l y and s t a t i s t i c a l l y d e t a i l e d v i s i o n f o r area commercial l a n d use. 112 I n t e r a c t i o n With P r i v a t e Developers In The Commercial  P l a n n i n g Process Two o f t h e major p u r p o s e s b e h i n d l o o k i n g a t p l a n n i n g department i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s on commercial development are t o determine 1) how much c o o p e r a t i v e i n t e r p l a y t h e r e i s i n commercial p l a n n i n g between m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s and c o m m e r c i a l l a n d d e v e l o p e r s and 2) how w e l l t h e p l a n n i n g department r e c o g n i z e s the developer's a p p r o a c h and u t i l i z e s t h e i r e x p e r t i s e . As f a r as c o o p e r a t i v e i n t e r p l a y and f l e x i b i l i t y are concerned, what i s m a i n l y d i s c u s s e d i s t h e work on a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n and how much o f a performance standards concept i s used. There was some d i f f e r e n c e o f o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g the amount o f c o o p e r a t i o n on a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n , but i t seems t o be t r u e t h a t o v e r t h e y e a r s c o m m u n i c a t i o n on t h i s aspect has i n c r e a s e d . In the case o f the Brighouse e s t a t e , the l a n d was s o l d by t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y t o d e v e l o p e r s f o r the purpose o f c o m m e r c i a l and i n d u s t r i a l u s e and i n t h e t r a n s a c t i o n s , c o n s i d e r a b l e d e t a i l was gathered from the purchaser on what was going t o be done. Along w i t h t h i s t h e r e was an i n s i s t e n c e t h a t a l l b u i l d i n g s be designed by a r c h i t e c t s and t h a t t h e r e be l a n d s c a p i n g . 3 7 A c c o r d i n g t o B i l l K e r r , the S e a f a i r Shopping Centre was the f i r s t commercial development where the p l a n n i n g department managed t o a c t i v e l y work w i t h t h e a r c h i t e c t s from t h e beginn i n g t o d e s i g n i t as a l l one a r c h i t e c t u r a l e n t i t y . 3 8 Community P l a n n e r B r i a n J a c k s o n e x p l a i n s t h a t s i n c e d e v e l o p e r s now know t h e Town C e n t r e P l a n i s about t o be adopted, they are a s k i n g , "What e x a c t l y do you want i n t h e Town Centre? We're g i v i n g them [what the department wants] i n terms o f l a n d uses and i n terms o f b u i l d i n g d e s i g n . " But a c c o r d i n g t o Jackson t h i s i s onl y b e g i n n i n g t o happen. P r i o r t o the Town Centre P l a n , developers would f o l l o w t h e z o n i n g requirements, but otherwise d e s i g n the p r o j e c t e x a c t l y as they p l e a s e d . 3 9 R e c o g n i t i o n o f the commercial l a n d d e v e l o p e r ' s approach and u t i l i z a t i o n o f h i s e x p e r t i s e c o u l d p r o v i d e a c c e s s t o p o t e n t i a l r e s e a r c h by the p r i v a t e s e c t o r and an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the de v e l o p e r ' s r e t a i l development p l a n n i n g c r i t e r i a . U n f o r t u n a t e l y i t appears t h a t t h e r e i s l i m i t e d a p p r e c i a -t i o n f o r e i t h e r o f these i n Richmond. B i l l K e r r says t h a t the p l a n n i n g department has had major d e v e l o p e r s , l i k e Woodwards i n the Lansdowne development, do the necessary s t u d i e s as p a r t o f t h e i r p r o p o s a l . The P l a n n i n g Department g e n e r a l l y took the p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e i r z o n i n g by-law was a p p r o p r i a t e and t h e d e v e l o p e r had t o d e m o n s t r a t e why i t needed t o be changed. T h i s was u s u a l l y o n l y done f o r p r o p o s a l s t h a t were o u t s i d e the g e n e r a l i n t e n t o f t h e z o n i n g p l a n s . 4 0 As w e l l , J a y W o l l e n b e r g , who has done t h i s t y p e o f s t u d y f o r b o t h m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and d e v e l o p e r s , s a y s t h a t t h e development i n d u s t r y wishes t h a t p l a n n e r s had a b e t t e r under s t a n d i n g o f how developers e v a l u a t e p o t e n t i a l p r o j e c t s and make investment d e c i s i o n s i n urban development o p p o r t u n i t i e s , as w e l l as a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f u r b a n l a n d economic and market c o n c e p t s . 4 1 The f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s a shortcoming here seems to borne out by the f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s a l a c k o f s t a f f i n the p l a n n i n g department w i t h a back-ground t h a t would allow them t o have a good understanding o f these concepts. The m ost o b v i o u s c o n c l u s i o n t o be r e a c h e d from t h e b r e v i t y o f t h i s s e c t i o n i s t h a t t h e r e i s a l a c k o f p o s i t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t and p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s . The p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t and c o m m e r c i a l l a n d d e v e l o p e r s a r e j u s t b e g i n n i n g t o work t o g e t h e r t o achieve m u t u a l l y agreeable ends f o r a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n . In terms of t h e d e v e l o p e r s ' k n o w l e d g e and e x p e r t i s e i n c o m m e r c i a l development, t h i s source i s o n l y tapped when they are asked to do a market a n a l y s i s f o r a major p r o p o s a l . T h i s p o t e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n s o u r c e a p p e a r s t o be v a s t l y u n d e r u t i l i z e d f o r knowledge on s u b j e c t s l i k e changing r e t a i l forms and consumer t r a i t s . M u n i c i p a l P l a n n i n g Involvement i n R e t a i l Ownership  and R e t a i l Form T h i s s e c t i o n a s k s w h e t h e r t h e R i c h m o n d P l a n n i n g Department i s a c t i v e l y c o n c e r n e d about t h e form r e t a i l i n g takes (e.g. l a r g e mass merchandising s t o r e s ) or the ownership o f r e t a i l i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ( e . g . l a c k o f l o c a l , s m a l l b u s i n e s s o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s ) . The answers g e n e r a l l y range from a d e f i n i t e 'no' to concern, but a f e e l i n g of powerlessness to i n f l u e n c e such t r e n d s . 4 2 The comments t h a t r e f l e c t e d most i n t e r e s t on the q u e s t i o n o f r e t a i l form were to the e f f e c t t h a t i t i s a concern but t h a t i t wasn't something t h a t the p l a n n i n g department c o u l d do something about apa r t from i t s a f f e c t on a d j a c e n t l a n d u s e s . 4 3 P e r h a p s B i l l Lane summarizes t h e l a t i t u d e t h a t p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t s h a v e on t h i s i s s u e and t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e s i t u a t i o n b e s t : 'They [ p l a n n e r s ] have very wide areas i n which they can comment. They can say, ' I f we a l l o w t h i s super 24 hour a day g r o c e r y market t o l o c a t e t h i s may be the end o f 4 or 5 mom and pop s t o r e s and t h a t the mom and pop s t o r e s have been t h e r e f o r y e a r s , have been d o i n g good s e r v i c e and are a p a r t o f t h e f a b r i c o f t h e community.' . .. They would be f r e e t o comment on t h a t but the d e c i s i o n i s t o be made by C o u n c i l and I would suggest t h a t u n l e s s i t was a v e r y a g g r i e v e d s i t u a t i o n t h a t t h e y p r o b a b l y wouldn't be asked. They'd more l i k e l y be asked i f t h e r e were c o m p l a i n t s from the mom and pop s t o r e s . That would be the more customary way t o g o . 4 4 The s i t u a t i o n i s s i m i l a r w i t h r e s p e c t to the q u e s t i o n o f t h e o w n e r s h i p o f r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i n shopping c e n t r e s . Alderman McMath t h i n k s t h a t a l o t o f p l a n n e r s and aldermen would l i k e t o see a m u n i c i p a l r o l e i n the number o f l o c a l l y owned s t o r e s i n shopping c e n t r e s , but q u e s t i o n s how i t c o u l d be a c h i e v e d . He a l s o f e e l s t h a t t h e r e i s n ' t the p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e f o r t h i s type o f r e g u l a t i o n . 4 5 B i l l Lane a l s o f e e l s t h a t m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s s h o u l d have t h e power t o make the v a l u e judgments - w i t h t h e t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e p l a n n i n g department - t h a t are r e q u i r e d t o m a i n t a i n a balance o f l o c a l ownership i n shopping c e n t r e s . 4 6 However, t h i s type o f involvement u s u a l l y does not occur. B r i a n J a c k s o n i n d i -c a t e d t h a t t h e P l a n n i n g Department does not c u r r e n t l y worry a b o u t e i t h e r t h e f o r m o f r e t a i l i n g o r t h e o w n e r s h i p i n v o l v e d . 4 7 Once a g a i n , t h i s has been a s h o r t s e c t i o n , due t o the f a c t t h a t t h e s e a r e i s s u e s t h a t a r e g e n e r a l l y n o t on t h e c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g agenda. These i s s u e s w i l l , however, be r a i s e d a g a i n i n the next c h a p t e r . Research I n v o l v e d I n Commercial P l a n n i n g When g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h i s c h a p t e r i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e r e are q u i t e narrow l i m i t s t o the r e s e a r c h done f o r commercial p l a n n i n g i n Richmond, but t h a t i t has been broadened r e c e n t l y w i t h the work on the Town Centre P l a n . When t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d s i n Richmond were f i r s t e s t a -b l i s h e d , t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t made c a l c u l a t i o n s f o r det e r m i n i n g the s e r v i c i n g needs o f c e r t a i n a r e a s . T h i s was done by c a l c u l a t i n g the d e n s i t y o f an area and then a p p l y i n g a matrix t h a t i f t h e r e i s 20 ,000 p e o p l e i n an a r e a i t c o u l d s u p p o r t a n e i g h b o r h o o d c e n t r e and i f a s u b - n e i g h b o r h o o d c o n t a i n s 1,000 people, i t can support a co r n e r s t o r e . 4 8 When B i l l K e rr was Richmond's D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g from 1957 to 1983, the department c a r r i e d out consumer surveys every f i v e y e a r s , w i t h y e a r l y u p d a t e s . 4 9 These i n v o l v e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t h a t c o l l e c t e d i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i n g s l i k e what consumers l i k e d and d i s l i k e d about shops, how f a r away they wanted the s t o r e s to be and i f they p r e f e r r e d neighborhood s t o r e s . As f a r as r e s e a r c h on s t r u c t u r a l changes i n r e t a i l i n g was c o n c e r n e d , B i l l K e r r e x p l a i n e d t h a t most o f i t came from o u t s i d e s o u r c e s , l i k e the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . The reason f o r t h i s , he c l a i m s , i s t h a t one m u n i c i p a l i t y i s t o o s m a l l a sample t o gage such changes. I n f o r m a t i o n was a l s o r e c e i v e d t h r o u g h Urban Land I n s t i t u t e l i t e r a t u r e and by a t t e n d i n g c o n f e r e n c e s , b ut K e r r admits t h a t t h e y d i d n ' t have much i n f o r m a t i o n on changes i n r e t a i l i n g . 5 0 I t appears t h a t i t i s s t i l l the case t h a t most suburban m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g departments expend l i t t l e e f f o r t i n keeping t r a c k o f changes i n consumer beha v i o r , r e t a i l form, o r even the o v e r a l l s e r v i c i n g l e v e l . A c c o r d i n g t o Jay Wollenberg: 'Very few m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t h i n k about t h a t s o r t o f t h i n g . They t h i n k about whether t h e r e ' s a need f o r a s h o p p i n g c e n t r e o r n o t , o r some s t r i p r e t a i l space or not. As an example, the t r e n d towards l a r g e r s u p e r m a r k e t s o f 40,000 t o 60,000 square f e e t has caught a l o t o f them unawares. T h e y d o n ' t know how t o d e a l w i t h t h a t anymore. There are very few m u n i c i p a l i -t i e s i n B.C. t h a t have t h o u g h t t h r o u g h t h e s e i s s u e s ; t h a t r e a l l y s i t down and work out what i s the demand f o r shopping c e n t r e o r s u p e r m a r k e t s p a c e b a s e d on p o p u l a t i o n , how much do we have? i s t h e r e a r e s i d u a l ? They do very l i t t l e r e s e a r c h on t h e s u b j e c t . In my o p i n i o n they tend to r e a c t more. 5 1 118 B i l l Lane concurs w i t h t h i s l a s t statement and suspects t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h i s o f t e n r e a c t i v e t o c o m p l a i n t s . 5 2 As an example Bob McMath would l i k e d more r e s e a r c h on the impact o f t h e Save-On Foods form, as w e l l as on what a neighborhood's r e t a i l s a t u r a t i o n p o i n t i s . 5 3 As has a l r e a d y been mentioned, t h i s f a i l u r e c o u l d be l a r g e l y due to the l a c k o f e x p e r t i s e i n t h i s area w i t h i n the p l a n n i n g departments. Wollenberg s t a t e s t h a t : "Planners tend to t h i n k o f these t h i n g s i n c o n c e p t u a l t e r m s . I t ' s n o t a v e r y s o p h i s t i c a t e d r e t a i l a n a l y s i s p r o c e s s . " I n some r e c e n t work f o r s h o p p i n g c e n t r e d e v e l o p e r s , C o r i o l i s P l a n n i n g C o n s u l t a n t s have been e s t i m a t i n g Richmond's t o t a l a b i l i t y t o s u p p o r t a d d i t i o n a l r e t a i l s p a c e . T h i s i n v o l v e s a standard q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s , where the d o l l a r s a v a i l a b l e i n t h e t r a d e area are c a l c u l a t e d , as w e l l as how p e o p l e t y p i c a l l y spend t h e i r money i n d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f r e t a i l space. T h i s i s t r a n s l a t e d i n t o how much square footage should be supported. From the a n a l y s i s , and a s i m u l t a n e o u s l o o k a t t h e g e o g r a p h i c d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e t a i l space i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y , the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s were drawn: 1) T h e r e i s an o v e r a l l s h o r t f a l l o f neighborhood shopping space i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y and 2) The e x i s t i n g s p a c e i s b a d l y skewed g e o g r a p h i c a l l y , w i t h an excess o f neighborhood shopping space i n the Town Centre, w h i l e t h e r e are s i g n i f i c a n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n o t h e r a r e a s . 5 4 However, v e r y l i t t l e o f t h i s t y p e o f r e s e a r c h i s done f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t y . 1 1 9 Richmond i s a good example o f t h i s l a c k o f m u n i c i p a l r e s e a r c h f o r commercial p l a n n i n g purposes, as B r i a n Jackson a d m i t s , v e r y l i t t l e r e s e a r c h i s done on c h a n g i n g r e t a i l demand, o r r e t a i l form, and no one on s t a f f has a s t r o n g e n o u g h e c o n o m i c s b a c k g r o u n d t o do a m a r k e t a n a l y s i s . D e v e l o p e r s have been asked t o s u p p l y a market a n a l y s i s on o c c a s i o n , but Jackson estimates t h i s i s f o r l e s s t h a n 5% o f t h e r e t a i l / c o m m e r c i a l d evelopment p r o p o s a l s . The o v e r a l l l e v e l o f r e s e a r c h f o r commercial p l a n n i n g d i d improve w i t h the p r e p a r a t i o n o f the Town Centre P l a n . For t h i s t a s k , r e t a i l s p a c e p e r c a p i t a f i g u r e s and v a r i o u s g e n e r a l r e t a i l p r o j e c t i o n s were examined. 5 5 U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s r e s e a r c h was not adequately r e f l e c t e d i n the Town Centre P l a n p o l i c i e s , as t h e commercial aspect focussed s o l e l y on the form o f f u t u r e r e t a i l / c o m m e r c i a l development, t o t h e n e g l e c t o f q u e s t i o n s about o v e r a l l demand. The R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t a l s o compiles some i n f o r m a t i o n on r e t a i l i n g t r e n d s t h a t c o u l d be used t o supplement m u n i c i p a l r e s e a r c h , but t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s f a i r l y l i m i t e d i n i t s depth as w e l l . The GVRD maintains s t a t i s t i c s on r e t a i l development a c r o s s t h e r e g i o n , t r a c k s r e t a i l d o l l a r s s p e n t and has a c o n s u l t a n t b r i e f the planners on r e t a i l market tre n d s and what t y p e s o f b u i l d i n g forms are l i k e l y t o d e v e l o p . 5 6 R e g i o n a l c o o r d i n a t i o n o f any m u n i c i p a l c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g r e s e a r c h appears to be minimal at t h i s time. 120 In c o n c l u s i o n , i t appears t h a t Richmond has a l a c k o f f u t u r e - o r i e n t e d commercial p l a n n i n g r e s e a r c h . What i s done i s o f t e n r e a c t i v e and o r i e n t e d towards p a r t i c u l a r developments. However, more comprehensive commercial p l a n n i n g r e s e a r c h was conducted i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the Town Centre P l a n t h a n was e v i d e n t i n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s . R e t a i l Planning at the Regional Level T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l d i s c u s s any a f f e c t t h a t t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t has on m u n i c i p a l commercial p l a n n i n g , as w e l l as the g e n e r a l geographic scope t h a t p l a n n e r s c o n s i d e r when d e a l i n g w i t h c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g . There i s consensus t h a t t h e r e i s not an adequate o f f i c i a l r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n a t t h i s time. A c c o r d i n g t o Hugh K e l l a s t h i s w i l l have the f o l l o w i n g a f f e c t on commercial development: ' S i n c e t h a t [the O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l Plan] i s gone, t h e r e i s no l e g a l s t a t u t o r y c o n t e x t f o r l o c a l p l a n n i n g and t h e r e i s nobody who has the p o l i c y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r making sure t h a t commercial develop-ment d i s t r i b u t e s i t s e l f i n a way t h a t makes sense i n r e l a t i o n to the t r a n s p o r -t a t i o n s y s t e m . The r e g i o n i s a l w a y s changing and the commercial development i s always changing and i t s the next g e n e r a -t i o n o f ideas about commercial development i n the r e g i o n t h a t ' s not being formed now, n o t b e i n g d e v e l o p e d on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s and t h e r e f o r e i s u n l i k e l y t o p r o v i d e t h e c o n t e x t t h a t c o u l d be put i n t o community pla n s when th e y ' r e updated i n f i v e t o ten y e a r s . 5 7 121 The f a c t t h a t m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s are not concerned about t h e i m p a ct a major commercial development might have on an a d j a c e n t m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s s h o p p i n g f a c i l i t i e s became c l e a r throughout the i n t e r v i e w s . B i l l K e r r s t a t e d t h a t a commercial development's a b i l i t y t o draw from a t r a d i n g area i n another m u n i c i p a l i t y i s d e f i n i t e l y seen i n a p o s i t i v e l i g h t . 5 8 B r i a n Jackson f e e l s t h a t when the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t was i n c o n t r o l t h e r e was more communication about i s s u e s o f mutual concern, but t h a t "now i t ' s j u s t who can get the tax d o l l a r s " . 5 9 The f a c t t h a t m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s are not a c t i v e l y concerned about t h e c o n d i t i o n o f s h o p p i n g f a c i l i t i e s o u t s i d e o f t h e i r m u n i c i p a l boundaries makes the need f o r an o f f i c i a l body w i t h a r e g i o n a l outlook even more p r e s s i n g . The O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n d i d not have n e g a t i v e develop-ment c o n t r o l s t o r e g u l a t e commercial development, but i t was n e v e r t h e l e s s a b l e t o p r o v i d e a c o n t e x t f o r some c o o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e major c o m m e r c i a l developments i n G r e a t e r Vancouver. There have been some r e c e n t amendments t o the M u n i c i p a l A c t t h a t w i l l r e q u i r e c o m m u n i c a t i o n on m a j o r c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s w h i c h have an i m p a c t b e y o n d t h e m u n i c i p a l boundaries. The r e l e v a n t aspects o f the s e c t i o n reads: 947. (1) A c o u n c i l may adopt a community p l a n by bylaw, and each r e a d i n g o f the by law must r e c e i v e an a f f i r m a t i v e vote o f a m a j o r i t y o f a l l members o f the c o u n c i l . (2) A f t e r f i r s t r e a d i n g o f t h e by law, the c o u n c i l s h a l l , i n sequence, (3) where t h e p l a n a f f e c t s an area of an a d j o i n i n g m u n i c i p a l i t y , r e f e r t h e 122 p l a n t o the c o u n c i l o f t h a t m u n i c i p a l i t y f o r comment. 6 0 The a f f e c t t h a t t h i s amendment w i l l have i s dubious at bes t . The M u n i c i p a l A c t s t i l l does not r e q u i r e a m u n i c i p a l i t y to c r e a t e an O f f i c i a l Community P l a n and many l o c a l municipa-l i t i e s have n o t gone t h r o u g h t h i s p r o c e s s . Even i f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y concerned does have an O f f i c i a l Community Pla n , i t i s not c l e a r what would happen i n the event o f a c o n f l i c t between the two m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t commercial development i s g e n e r a l l y c o m p e t i t i v e between m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , r e f e r r i n g the p l a n t o a n e i g h b o r i n g m u n i c i p a l i t y f o r comment may not be an adequate p r o c e s s . I n summary, c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t i s g e n e r a l l y n o t planned f o r a t the r e g i o n a l l e v e l and m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s do n o t view t h e p r o c e s s as one t h a t i n c o r p o r a t e s a r e g i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . C o n c l u s i o n In c o n c l u s i o n , i t would be f a i r t o say t h a t Richmond does not have a w e l l a r t i c u l a t e d commercial p l a n n i n g p o l i c y . The Richmond P l a n n i n g Department does have d e f i n i t e s t r a t e g i e s and o b j e c t i v e s f o r commercial development, but these are g e n e r a l l y o f the u n o f f i c i a l and u n e x p l i c i t type. The major commercial p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g y i n Richmond i s t o c o n c e n t r a t e r e t a i l a c t i v i t y i n t h e Town C e n t r e , w i t h a h i e r a r c h y o f o t h e r c e n t r e s . 123 Richmond's Zoning By-Law has been the major e x p r e s s i o n of the p l a n n i n g department's commercial p o l i c y i n the p a s t . The Zoning By-Law, however, i s unduly complicated by i t s number of c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s and i t s main o r i e n t a t i o n i s towards r e f l e c t i n g marketing t r e n d s . A r e a - s p e c i f i c plans w i t h i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y have gener-a l l y not p r o v i d e d much d i r e c t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o c o m m e r c i a l r e t a i l p l a n n i n g , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e S t e v e s t o n Area P l a n . A l l o f t h e o t h e r a p p r o a c h e s t h r o u g h w h i c h c u r r e n t commercial p l a n n i n g was a n a l y z e d p r e s e n t e d d e f i n i t e s h o r t -comings. Commercial p l a n n i n g r e s e a r c h was g e n e r a l l y r e a c t i v e and l i m i t e d t o s p e c i f i c p r o p o s a l s , w h i l e the i n t e r p l a y between the p l a n n i n g department and p r i v a t e developers was l i m i t e d t o the odd market a n a l y s i s and some r e c e n t c o o p e r a t i v e a r c h i t e c -t u r a l d e s i g n work. As w e l l , m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s do n o t a c t i v e l y c o n c e r n t h e m s e l v e s w i t h r e t a i l i n g form o r r e t a i l ownership and i t was apparent t h a t commercial r e t a i l p l a n n i n g l a c k e d any type o f a r e g i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . 124 CHAPTER VI: APPLICATION OF KNOWLEDGE TO THE LOCAL CONTEXT I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s Chapter w i l l d e a l w i t h how the i n f o r m a t i o n assembled on commercial p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e abroad and t h e t h e o r e t i c a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g can be o f b e n e f i t to p l a n n i n g f o r c o m m e r c i a l development i n Richmond. I t w i l l d i s c u s s how u s e f u l t h e i n f o r m a t i o n d i s c o v e r e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e review c o u l d be f o r l o c a l suburban m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i f t h e y a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n i m p r o v i n g t h e i r p l a n n i n g f o r commercial development. T h r o u g h a s y n t h e s i s o f t h e k n o w l e d g e and p l a n n i n g techniques t h a t c o u l d be b e n e f i c i a l t o p l a n n i n g f o r commercial development by suburban m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , such as Richmond; t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l a t t e m p t t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t t h e m u n i c i p a l commercial p l a n n i n g process can be improved by broadening i t s scope. C r i t i c i s m s and suggestions should not be seen as being d i r e c t e d s o l e l y a t Richmond. I t i s seen as f a i r l y t y p i c a l o f commercial p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e i n the suburban m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o f G r e a t e r Vancouver, so the g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h i s chapter should be worthy o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n by other m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t s . I t i s h o p e d t h a t t h r o u g h d e s c r i b i n g t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f commercial p l a n n i n g i n Richmond and the v a r i o u s improvements t h a t are a v a i l a b l e , t h a t m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s w i l l 125 e f f e c t i v e l y expand t h e i r scope o f involvement i n t h i s aspect o f l a n d use p l a n n i n g . I m p r o v i n g The S t r u c t u r e Used I n P l a n n i n g F o r C o m m e r c i a l  Development The p l a n n i n g t h a t i s done f o r commercial development by t h e Richmond P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t i s q u i t e l i m i t e d and s i m p l i s t i c . I t would seem t h a t a major reason f o r Richmond's commercial p l a n n i n g process being i n t h i s s t a t e , i s t h a t t h e r e i s a l a c k o f a r t i c u l a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g both o b j e c t i v e s and the process t o be used. I t was d i s c o v e r e d t h r o u g h t h e i n t e r v i e w s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter f i v e t h a t t h e r e are some f a i r l y s e t p r o c e d u r e s f o r r e s e a r c h i n g the i s s u e s and s e t t i n g o b j e c t i v e s f o r commercial d e v e l o p m e n t i n Richmond. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , much o f t h i s i s u n a r t i c u l a t e d i n w r i t t e n p o l i c i e s or m u n i c i p a l by-laws. T h i s i s , undoubtedly p a r t o f the problem w i t h commercial p l a n n i n g i n Richmond. I f a s p e c i f i c process f o r m u n i c i p a l commercial p l a n n i n g was f o r m u l a t e d and became m u n i c i p a l p o l i c y , t h e d i s c u s s i o n and t h e c r e a t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t would be necessary to f o r m a l i z e i t would b r i n g a g r e a t e r r e a l i z a t i o n t o t h e d e p a r t m e n t o f t h e c u r r e n t l i m i t a t i o n s o f c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y . At t h i s time, the o n l y by-law t h a t d e a l s w i t h commercial p l a n n i n g on a s u b s t a n t i a l b a s i s i s the m u n i c i p a l z o n i n g by-law. T h e r e a r e no a d o pted p o l i c i e s t h a t r e l a t e s o l e l y to commercial p l a n n i n g concerns. There are a number o f r e c e n t area p l a n s t h a t r e f e r - u s u a l l y i n a c u r s o r y manner - t o p o t e n t i a l c o m m e r c i a l development i n s p e c i f i c neighborhoods, but Richmond has no adopted p o l i c i e s or by-laws t h a t p e r t a i n s o l e l y t o c o m m e r c i a l development o b j e c t i v e s f o r the e n t i r e m u n i c i p a l i t y or t o the process t h a t should be used to p l a n f o r c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . There i s no doubt t h a t a s p e c i f i c w r i t t e n p o l i c y on commercial p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s would be open t o c r i t i c i s m , b u t t h i s s h o u l d a l s o r e s u l t i n f u t u r e improvements and refinements i n the p o l i c y . F o r m u l a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s f o r commercial development i n Richmond should a l s o f o r c e the m u n i c i p a l i t y t o t a k e a l o n g r ange view o f commercial development. At t h i s time i t appears t h a t commercial p l a n n i n g i s l a r g e l y r e a c t i v e , e s p e c i a l l y t o changes w i t h i n the r e t a i l i n g i n d u s t r y . The l a c k o f an o v e r a l l m u n i c i p a l p l a n f o r c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t c a n l e a d t o a number o f problems. Most o f the problems t h a t w i l l b r i e f l y be reviewed from C h a p t e r Two a r e c u r r e n t l y not p r e v a l e n t i n Richmond. P l a n n i n g , however, i s a f u t u r e o r i e n t e d t a s k , and w i t h o u t c r e a t i n g an a n t i c i p a t o r y p r o c e s s , the p o s s i b i l i t y o f Richmond being beset by the types o f commercial p r o b l e m s t h a t have p l a g u e d many o l d e r , more d e v e l o p e d A m e r i c a n c i t i e s , as w e l l as u n a n t i c i p a t e d new problems, i n c r e a s e s . One problem t h a t has been s t r e s s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t o f over s a t u r a t i n g a market i n a g e o g r a p h i c a l area, or over-s t o r i n g . O v e r - s t o r i n g i n R i c h m o n d c o u l d be seen as a p o t e n t i a l problem, e s p e c i a l l y at a time when m u n i c i p a l i t i e s c o m p e t i t i v e l y v i e f o r t h e development o f more c o m m e r c i a l f a c i l i t i e s . I t must be remembered t h a t the development o f new shopping f a c i l i t i e s does not generate new buying power; i t can o n l y a t t r a c t customers from e x i s t i n g b u s i n e s s e s and p r o d u c e s h i f t s i n an area's t r a d i n g p a t t e r n s . Sometimes the s h i f t s i n t r a d i n g p a t t e r n s can have a d e t r i m e n t a l a f f e c t on an area as a whole, even i f the new f a c i l i t y might t h r i v e . O v e r - s t o r i n g , and simply the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a s u p e r i o r , more c o m p e t i t i v e shopping f a c i l i t y can r e s u l t i n a n e i g h b o r i n g c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t e x p e r i e n c i n g e c o n o m i c b l i g h t , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the i n c l u s i o n o f lower-order commercial uses, v a c a n c i e s , and e v e n t u a l l y p h y s i c a l b l i g h t . A d m i t t e d l y , economic b l i g h t i s a process t h a t must occur t o some degree to modernize and r e v i t a l i z e a m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s r e t a i l f a c i l i t i e s , but m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s should know when i t i s necessary f o r an area to go through t h i s metamorphis and when an area i s being s u b j e c t e d to r e t a i l over s a t u r a t i o n . In o r d e r to make t h i s judgment, t h e m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r n e e d s a c l e a r e r i d e a o f t h e p o t e n t i a l r e t a i l f l o o r s p a c e requirements i n the f u t u r e f o r s p e c i f i c neighborhoods and the m u n i c i p a l i t y as a whole. In Copenhagen, Denmark, t h e r e has been a planned d i s p e r s a l o f s h o p p i n g f a c i l i t i e s , w i t h t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f f o u r major o u t l y i n g shopping c e n t r e s . These developments were phased by the r e g i o n a l p l a n n e r s over a ten 128 y e a r p e r i o d t o keep pace w i t h growth i n p u r c h a s i n g power w i t h i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . 1 M u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s i n Canada have not been i n a p o s i t i o n to d i c t a t e the exact t i m i n g of shopping c e n t r e d e v e l o p m e n t . However, what would be b e n e f i c i a l t o t h e process would be having a development schedule l i k e the Danes have u s e d . I t would show how much r e t a i l f l o o r s p a c e should be developed each y e a r . The c r e a t i o n o f a r e t a i l / c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t schedule would p r o v i d e the planner w i t h a b e t t e r i d e a o f when an area might be becoming o v e r - s t o r e d . I t i s n o t r e a d i l y apparent t h a t t h i s problem w i l l occur i n Richmond i n the near f u t u r e , but the symptoms o f economic b l i g h t may someday show themselves along the f r i n g e s o f Richmond's Town Centre or i n the o l d e r core area o f the Town Centre. The m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r would have t o r e a l i z e t h a t the r e t a i l demand f l o o r s p a c e r e l a t i o n s h i p never reaches a p e r f e c t e q u i l i b r i u m and t h a t the development schedule should not be f o l l o w e d r i g o r o u s l y . I n s t e a d , a development schedule s h o u l d be s e e n as a b r o a d g u i d e l i n e c o n c e r n i n g a catchment area's r e t a i l s a t u r a t i o n . The c r e a t i o n o f a d e v e l o p m e n t s c h e d u l e would be dependent upon u s i n g a r e t a i l s p a c e requirements a n a l y s i s , which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the next s e c t i o n . G e n e r a l l y , when c o n s i d e r i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f new r e t a i l / c o m m e r c i a l f a c i l i t i e s , m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s s h o u l d view the p o t e n t i a l development i n a broader c o n t e x t . I f m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s were to take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n a l a r g e r range o f f a c t o r s than they c u r r e n t l y do, the r e s u l t would i n e v i t a b l y be a more comprehensive p l a n n i n g approach. In B r i t a i n , p lanners t r y t o c o n s i d e r a broad range o f f a c t o r s , such as 1) a v o i d i n g o v e r - s t o r i n g a n d e n s u r i n g an optimum mix o f r e t a i l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , 2) c o n s i d e r i n g t h e arra n g e m e n t o f s h o p p i n g f a c i l i t i e s i n c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h the urban form, 3) e n s u r i n g t h a t a l l types o f consumers a r e a d e q u a t e l y s e r v e d , and 4) m i n i m i z i n g the environmental impact o f new developments. 2 I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e b r o a d a r e a s o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n , B r i t a i n has d e v i s e d a procedure f o r examining a wide range of important q u e s t i o n s t h a t s h o u l d be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t when p l a n n i n g f o r c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . Some o f t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are l i s t e d under " S u p p o r t i n g I n f o r m a t i o n " i n Ta b l e I I I , w h i l e a more thorough d e s c r i p t i o n o f the procedure i s p r o v i d e d on page 38. What s h o u l d be l e a r n e d from t h e r e t a i l a spect o f a B r i t i s h S t r u c t u r e P l a n i s t h a t the process f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s can be a r t i c u l a t e d as an e x p l i c i t p o l i c y . T h i s example p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l framework t h a t Canadian m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s c o u l d use to a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r commercial p l a n n i n g process and t o broaden t h e s c o p e o f f a c t o r s t o be c o n s i d e r e d . A t h o r o u g h l y c o n s i d e r e d and a r t i c u l a t e p o l i c y c o v e r i n g t h e m u n i c i p a l c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , accompanied by many o f t h e p l a n n i n g c o n t r o l s c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e i n B.C. m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , would undoubtedly serve t o f o r m a l i z e the commercial p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n . 130 In summary, t h i s s e c t i o n has s t r e s s e d t h e need f o r a b r o a d e r scope o f f a c t o r s to be c o n s i d e r e d when p l a n n i n g f o r commercial development. F a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d i n p l a n n i n g f o r c o m m e r c i a l development i n Richmond appear t o be l i m i t e d to m a i n t a i n i n g a b a s i c g e o g r a p h i c a l l y e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e t a i l f a c i l i t i e s , s u p p o r t i n g t h e Town C e n t r e and t h e environmental concerns o f s i t e - s p e c i f i c d e v e l o p m e n t s . As a p r e f e r a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e , the B r i t i s h S t r u c t u r e P l a n o f f e r s a more comprehensive scope o f f a c t o r s . T h i s scope o f f a c t o r s , a l o n g w i t h an a r t i c u l a t e d p o l i c y , t h a t d e a l s w i t h both the p l a n n i n g process and commercial development o b j e c t i v e s , should h e l p t o b r i n g more l e g i t i m a c y t o m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g f o r commercial development. As p a r t o f the commercial p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , a development schedule c o u l d be prepared and u t i l i z e d as a broad g u i d e l i n e t o h e l p m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s determine when r e t a i l s a t u r a t i o n i s reached i n a g i v e n a r e a . improving Research F o r Commercial P l a n n i n g B e f o r e Richmond's p l a n n i n g department c o u l d become more i n v o l v e d i n e f f e c t i v e l y s e t t i n g o b j e c t i v e s f o r , and p r o v i d i n g recommendations t o p o l i c y makers on r e g u l a t i n g t h e f u t u r e p a t t e r n o f c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e r e s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r a b l e improvement i n t h e r e s e a r c h c a r r i e d o ut f o r commercial p l a n n i n g . T h i s r e s e a r c h r e q u i r e s more e f f o r t and e x p e r t i s e be g i v e n the q u e s t i o n o f p l a n n i n g f o r c o m m e r c i a l development. Reasonable l e v e l s o f e x p e r t i s e i n the f i e l d s o f 1 3 1 economics and m a r k e t i n g a r e e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t t o u s e a t r a d e a r e a a n a l y s i s o r work w i t h mathematical models to determine r e t a i l space requirements. I t became r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t , however, i n the i n t e r v i e w w i t h B r i a n J a c k s o n , t h a t no one w i t h s u c h e x p e r t i s e i s employed by the Richmond P l a n n i n g Department and t h a t l i t t l e e f f o r t i s expended on r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n i n g r e t a i l i n g and r e l a t e d l a n d use q u e s t i o n s . 3 T h e f i r s t s u g g e s t i o n f o r e x p a n d i n g t h e s c o p e o f commercial p l a n n i n g through r e s e a r c h i s to employ someone wit h the necessary q u a l i f i c a t i o n s to conduct the work d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . In times o f i n c r e a s i n g s c r u t i n y o f government e x p e n d i t u r e s , i t i s easy to c r i t i c i z e i n c r e a s e s i n the p u b l i c p a y r o l l , b u t w i t h economic d e v e l o p m e n t becoming a h i g h e r p r i o r i t y f o r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , i n c r e a s i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f concepts from t h e s e f i e l d s w i t h i n t h e p l a n n i n g d e partment c o u l d be h i g h l y advantageous. I t i s important f o r p l a n n e r s t o understand the b e n e f i t s o f u s i n g q u a n t i t a t i v e m o d e l l i n g techniques when p l a n n i n g f o r commercial development. L e t us begin w i t h the techniques t h a t are l e s s a b s t r a c t and more immediately comprehensible. The t r a d e a r e a a n a l y s i s i s w e l l known i n the Richmond m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g department, but i t s use i s almost t o t a l l y r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r . I t was p o i n t e d out i n Chapter F i v e t h a t Richmond's P l a n n i n g Department w i l l request a d e v e l o p e r to produce a t r a d e area a n a l y s i s i n very few of 132 the cases when the developer i s pr o p o s i n g a c o m m e r c i a l / r e t a i l development. 4 I n r e v i e w , t h e t r a d e a r e a a n a l y s i s i s co n c e r n e d w i t h s i t e - s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s and i n v o l v e s m i c r o - a n a l y s i s o f income and e x p e n d i t u r e p a t t e r n s w i t h i n the t r a d e area and assumptions about the a t t r a c t i v e f o r c e o f a commercial c e n t e r o r r i b b o n developments on the surrounding p o p u l a t i o n . As the t r a d e area a n a l y s i s g e n e r a l l y concerns i t s e l f w i t h s p e c i f i c development p r o p o s a l s , t h i s r e s e a r c h should remain a p r i v a t e s e c t o r f u n c t i o n , but the frequency o f i t s use co u l d be i n c r e a s e d . The d e c i s i o n on when a developer i s r e q u i r e d t o p r o d u c e a t r a d e a r e a a n a l y s i s i s one o f t h e a s p e c t s o f c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g t h a t should be more c l e a r l y s p e l l e d out through a p l a n n i n g department p o l i c y . A t r a d e area a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e economic v i a b i l i t y o f s p e c i f i c proposed r e t a i l / c o m m e r c i a l developments, but i t can a l s o h e l p supply c u r r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n on consumer behaviour and r e t a i l i n g p a t t e r n s i n the community. In t u r n , t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n can be used t o p e r i o d i c a l l y assess the o b j e c t i v e s o f any c u r r e n t p l a n f o r commercial development, as w e l l as i n making a d e c i s i o n on a s p e c i f i c development p r o p o s a l . An example o f the c o n d i t i o n s under which the p l a n n i n g department c o u l d r e q u i r e a t r a d e area a n a l y s i s f o l l o w s : 1) Where a commercial development i s proposed f o r o u t s i d e o f the areas c u r r e n t l y zoned or desig n a t e d f o r t h a t type o f land use or t h a t p a r t i c u l a r r e t a i l i n g form. 133 2) Where any p r o p o s a l i s f o r : a) A f r e e - s t a n d i n g s t r u c t u r e w i t h over 30,000 square f e e t o f r e t a i l f l o o r s p a c e . b) A c o l l e c t i o n o f r e t a i l s t r u c t u r e s c o n t a i n i n g over 70,000 square f e e t o f r e t a i l f l o o r s p a c e . A t r a d e a r e a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e s a m u n i c i p a l i t y w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n on a s p e c i f i c proposed development and i t s t r a d e area, but m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g departments a l s o need to have a broader, macro view o f r e t a i l i n g i n t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . F o r t h i s , a r e t a i l space requirements a n a l y s i s c o u l d improve the f o r e c a s t i n g t e c h n i q u e s . A s p a c e r e q u i r e m e n t s a n a l y s i s , which l o o k s beyond the s i t e - s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s o f t h e ' t r a d e area a n a l y s i s r e q u i r e s an adequate f o r e c a s t o f l o c a l income l e v e l s , a d e t e r m i n a t i o n of how much o f t h i s i n c o m e w i l l be a l l o c a t e d t o r e t a i l e x p e n d i t u r e and the r e t a i l output l e v e l s t h a t can be expected from consumer r e t a i l p u r c h a s e a l l o c a t i o n s . From t h i s , p h y s i c a l s p a c e r e q u i r e m e n t s can be d e r i v e d t h r o u g h t h e expected r e t a i l s a l e s l e v e l s . 5 A d v o c a t i n g t h e use o f a space requirements a n a l y s i s i s not p r o p o s i n g a r a d i c a l new process i n f o r e c a s t i n g , but merely a refinement and some s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n . What i s suggested here i s a s t r i c t e r adherence to the steps d e s c r i b e d f o r a space r e q u i r e m e n t s a n a l y s i s i n Chapter Three o f t h i s t h e s i s or i n most l i t e r a t u r e on r e t a i l models, as w e l l as a more r e g u l a r a p p l i c a t i o n o f the procedure. In Richmond, i t appears t h a t r e t a i l f l o o r s p a c e f o r e c a s t i n g occurs only w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f b r o a d e r p l a n n i n g s t u d i e s , s u c h as t h e c r e a t i o n o f an O f f i c i a l Community P l a n . F o r a r e t a i l s p a c e r e q u i r e m e n t s a n a l y s i s t o be u s e f u l i n p r o v i d i n g a framework f o r viewing development p r o p o s a l s , i t needs t o be conducted i n a r i g o r o u s , s t a n d a r d i z e d manner and c a r r i e d out on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . Another q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e t h a t c o u l d a i d t h e c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g process i s the economic base study. Reviewing the process i n Chapter Three; a f t e r t h e community e x p o r t s e c t o r i s i d e n t i f i e d , i t i s p o s t u l a t e d t h a t f u t u r e i n c r e a s e s i n the l e v e l s o f community income and demand a r e f u n c t i o n s o f i n c r e a s e s i n e x p o r t and demand t i m e s t h e community income m u l t i p l i e r , w h i c h i n t u r n depends on t h e l o c a l demand o f r e s i d e n t s f o r l o c a l goods and s e r v i c e s . From here, l e v e l s o f r e t a i l demand can be e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the study a r e a f r o m economic base and m u l t i p l i e r f o r e c a s t s . 6 One drawback o f the r e t a i l space r e q u i r e m e n t s a n a l y s i s and t h e economic base study t h a t must be mentioned, however, i s t h a t they do not appear to adequately c o n s i d e r the n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l based consumer demands. Economic base s t u d i e s are o b v i o u s l y not something t h a t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s c o n d u c t on a f r e q u e n t b a s i s . Even when an e c o n o m i c b a s e a n a l y s i s i s d o n e , i t s u s e f u l n e s s i n r e t a i l / c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g i s l i m i t e d t o p r o v i d i n g d a t a on m u n i c i p a l r e t a i l demand. M u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t s should be aware, however, t h a t i f a m u n i c i p a l i t y i s conducting an economic base study, t h a t some u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n can be 135 assembled on r e t a i l i n g , i f the r i g h t q u e s t i o n s are i n c l u d e d i n the study. No s i n g l e type o f q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s can stand on i t s own i n p r o v i d i n g a l l the answers i n v o l v e d i n a comprehensive commercial p l a n n i n g approach, but i n s t e a d , are best used i n a complementary f a s h i o n . In an i d e a l s i t u a t i o n , t h e r e would be c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r p l a y between the use o f space requirements a n a l y s i s , t r a d e area s t u d i e s , and oth e r types o f q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t r e s e a r c h f o r commercial p l a n n i n g i n Richmond c o u l d be improved by employing a p l a n n e r w i t h an e x p e r t i s e i n economics and m a r k e t i n g , r e q u e s t i n g a t r a d e a r e a a n a l y s i s f o r p r o p o s e d r e t a i l / c o m m e r c i a l developments on a more fr e q u e n t b a s i s , and through having the p l a n n i n g department conduct a r e t a i l space requirements a n a l y s i s on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . Zoning F o r Commercial Development T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l review some o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t are apparent i n Richmond's zoning f o r commercial development and c o n c e p t u a l i z e a more p o s i t i v e r o l e f o r z o n i n g i n the process o f p l a n n i n g f o r commercial development. The Richmond zoning By-law c o n t a i n s n i n e zoning d i s t r i c t s t h a t r e l a t e s p e c i f i c a l l y t o r e t a i l i n g and e i g h t e e n commercial d i s t r i c t s i n t o t a l . W i t h t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n and n o t i n g how s p e c i a l i z e d d i s t r i c t s have been c r e a t e d w i t h one s p e c i f i c use and l o c a t i o n i n m i n d , i t c o u l d be c o n c l u d e d t h a t R i c h m o n d ' s z o n i n g d i s t r i c t s l a c k an i n h e r e n t f l e x i b i l i t y and s i m p l i c i t y . The f l e x i b i l i t y t h a t i s r e f e r r e d t o i s t h a t w h i c h a l l o w s a z o n i n g d i s t r i c t t o accommodate a c h a n g e i n m a r k e t t r e n d s w i t h new l a n d u s e a s s o c i a t i o n s , w i t h o u t h a v i n g t o c r e a t e new z o n i n g d i s t r i c t s . I n e x a m i n i n g l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s t r a d i t i o n a l a r r a y o f g r o w t h management t o o l s , i t h a s become i n c r e a s i n g l y c l e a r t h a t z o n i n g h a s c h a n g e d and t h a t i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n h a s become much more d e m a n d i n g and t i m e c o n s u m i n g . The f a m i l i a r " a s - o f - r i g h t " o r s e l f - e x e c u t i n g n a t u r e o f t h e o r i g i n a l " E u c l i d i a n " z o n i n g s y s t e m h a s l a r g e l y b e e n r e p l a c e d . R a t h e r t h a n r e s o l v i n g l a n d u s e i s s u e s when t h e z o n i n g b y - l a w i s a d o p t e d , more and more d e v e l o p m e n t i s s u e s a r e b e i n g d e c i d e d a t t h e t i m e d e v e l o p m e n t i s a c t u a l l y p r o p o s e d . 7 T h e r e a r e many r e a s o n s b e h i n d t h e g r o w i n g r e l i a n c e o n d i s c r e t i o n a r y l a n d u s e c o n t r o l s . T h e y i n c l u d e : 1) L i s t s o f p e r m i t t e d o r p r o h i b i t e d u s e s a n d s p e c i f i c d e v e l o p m e n t s t a n d a r d s may i n h i b i t t h e m a r k e t s ' a b i l i t y t o r e s p o n d t o c h a n g i n g c o n d i t i o n s a s w e l l a s i n n o v a t i o n and good d e s i g n . 2) L a r g e r s c a l e d e v e l o p m e n t s , s u c h a s m a j o r s u b d i v i s i o n s , r e g i o n a l s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s and m i x e d d e v e l o p m e n t s a r e now m o r e c o m m o n t h a n l o t - b y - l o t d e v e l o p m e n t . F l e x i b l e d e v i c e s a r e n e c e s s a r y now t o a v o i d u n i f o r m d e v e l o p m e n t and e n c o u r a g e n e i g h b o r h o o d c o m p a t i b i l i t y . 3) R e g u l a t i o n s t h a t s p e c i f y e v e r y t h i n g i n a d v a n c e p r e s u m e m o r e f o r e k n o w l e d g e t h a n i s a v a i l a b l e . T h e m o v e m e n t t o w a r d p o l i c i e s , i n c o n t r a s t t o m a p p e d p l a n s , a n d f l e x i b l e , i n s t e a d o f r i g i d r e g u l a t i o n s i s one r e s u l t . 8 In a d d i t i o n t o the g e n e r a l r e a s o n s j u s t a d v a nced, t h e use o f d i s c r e t i o n a r y z o n i n g t e c h n i q u e s f o r s i t e s p e c i f i c commercial developments c o u l d allow the p l a n n i n g department to i n t r o d u c e more f l e x i b i l i t y i n t o t h e i r major commercial zoning d i s t r i c t s and a g r e a t e r degree o f s i m p l i c i t y and understanding i n t o t h e c o m m e r c i a l development p r o c e s s . W i t h a g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f f l e x i b i l i t y i n R i c h m o n d ' s m a j o r c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s , new t y p e s o f b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t i e s and t h e i r a s s o c i a t e d l a n d uses t h a t were not a n t i c i p a t e d i n the Zoning B y - l a w , c o u l d be more e a s i l y a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o t h e most s u i t a b l e c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t and t h e g e n e r a l d evelopment process c o u l d be s t r e a m l i n e d . When a p a r t i c u l a r development p r o p o s a l does not f i t i n t o one o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l z o n i n g d i s t r i c t s o r i t i s the o p i n i o n o f the p l a n n i n g department t h a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t w i l l r e q u i r e more f l e x i b i l i t y and more g u i d a n c e , t h e n d i s c r e t i o n a r y z o n i n g t e c h n i q u e s c o u l d be a p p l i e d . I n summary, t h i s s e c t i o n suggests t h a t i n t r o d u c i n g more f l e x i b i l i t y i n t o Richmond's major commercial zoning d i s t r i c t s c o u l d a i d i n t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n o f new t y p e s o f c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t i e s i n t o t h e z o n i n g p r o c e s s and s t r e a m l i n e t h e commercial development p r o c e s s . 138 C o m m e r c i a l P l a n n i n g and The Form and Ownership o f R e t a i l  E s t a b l i s h m e n t s T h e f o r m t h a t r e t a i l i n g t a k e s ( i t s p h y s i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n , t h e t y p e o f m e r c h a n d i s i n g , e t c . ) and t h e o w n e r s h i p o f r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a r e two a r e a s which m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s i n the lower mainland have g e n e r a l l y n o t been c o n c e r n e d w i t h . V e r y l i t t l e r e s e a r c h i s done by the Richmond P l a n n i n g Department on the a f f e c t t h a t new r e t a i l i n g forms m i g h t have on t r a d i n g p a t t e r n s o r on t h e r e t a i l i n g i n d u s t r y i n g e n e r a l . 9 T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l attempt t o e x p l a i n why m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s need t o c o n c e r n t h e m s e l v e s w i t h t h e form o f r e t a i l i n g i n order t o improve the commercial p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The dominance o f t h e s h o p p i n g c e n t r e i n North America poses c e r t a i n problems r e g a r d i n g the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f many u r b a n p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s . Many new shopping c e n t r e s have tended t o g r a v i t a t e toward edge-of-town s i t e s , which may have t h e e f f e c t o f c o m p l e t e l y a l t e r i n g t h e p l a n f o r community d e v e l o p m e n t , 1 0 and thus l e a v i n g m u n i c i p a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e i n othe r areas v a s t l y under u t i l i z e d . A l s o , when the s h o p p i n g c e n t r e form d o m i n a t e s a r e t a i l m arket, c e r t a i n groups o f consumers who a r e n o t a u t o m o b i l e o w n e r s a r e o f t e n i n a d i s a d v a n t a g e d p o s i t i o n w i t h r e g a r d s t o a c c e s s i b i l i t y . Shopping c e n t r e s have a l s o been a b l e t o dominate a t r a d e area to the ext e n t t h a t s m a l l e r l o c a l i z e d r e t a i l o p e r a t i o n s are put 1 3 9 out o f b u s i n e s s and t h e weaker consumers can be p u t i n a d i f f i c u l t p o s i t i o n . T h e r e has a l s o been c o n c e r n o v e r o w n e r s h i p i n r e t a i l markets dominated by s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s . The growth o f t h e s h o p p i n g c e n t r e form has o f t e n had a d e v a s t a t i n g a f f e c t on l o c a l independent r e t a i l e r s . The l o c a l s m a l l businessman has found h i s former c e n t r a l i z e d or commercial s t r i p l o c a t i o n t o be r e l a t i v e l y l e s s a t t r a c t i v e w i t h t h e a d v e n t o f s h o p p i n g c e n t r e dominance, but as was d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter Two, t h e r e may not be much o f an o p p o r t u n i t y to l o c a t e i n a new c e n t r e e i t h e r . When d e a l i n g w i t h the shopping c e n t r e d e v e l o p e r , the l o c a l i ndependent r e t a i l e r w a n t i n g s p a c e may f i n d h i m s e l f d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t by being r e f u s e d , o f f e r e d l e s s d e s i r a b l e space or charged r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e r r e n t . T h i s has a n e g a t i v e e f f e c t on the l o c a l economy through such t h i n g s as the l o s s o f generated p r o f i t s and l o s t economic s p i n o f f s . T h i s problem i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n areas where t h e r e are few n a t i o n a l c h a i n s ' head o f f i c e s . An obvious s o l u t i o n would be t o e n c o u r a g e government r e g u l a t i o n o f the l e a s e s between the s h o p p i n g c e n t r e d e v e l o p e r s and t h e t e n a n t s , so as t o p r o t e c t a g a i n s t u n f a i r t r a d e p r a c t i c e s , but t h i s i s appears to l i e more w i t h i n the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the f e d e r a l government. T h i s t h e s i s does not p u r p o r t to have the answer t o how shopping c e n t r e dominance o f the r e t a i l market can be curbed or when s h o p p i n g c e n t r e development should be l i m i t e d . To p r o v i d e a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , 140 however, m u n i c i p a l planners need t o take an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n t h e a f f e c t t h a t i n c r e a s i n g shopping c e n t r e dominance o f the r e t a i l market can have on t h e l o c a l s i t u a t i o n , as w e l l as e n s u r i n g t h a t t h e l o c a t i o n o f a s h o p p i n g c e n t r e w i l l not s e v e r e l y harm the a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f disadvantaged consumers. Two more contemporary i n n o v a t i o n s t o the r e t a i l form are the hypermarket and the s u p e r s t o r e , which i s known as a mega-m a r k e t i n G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r . T h e s e new f r e e s t a n d i n g r e t a i l i n g s t r u c t u r e s b r o u g h t w i t h them many o f t h e same c o n c e r n s as t h e s h o p p i n g c e n t r e . In B r i t a i n , many l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s s e e them as d e p l e t i n g t h e t r a d e o f e x i s t i n g c e n t r e s , s u i t i n g o n l y those households w i t h a c a r , c r e a t i n g monopoly p o s i t i o n s i n areas o f weak c o m p e t i t i o n , over l o a d i n g l o c a l roads, and c r e a t i n g v i s u a l i n t r u s i o n s out o f p r o p o r t i o n t o the s c a l e o f the other l a n d uses. The c e n t r a l c o n c e r n , however, i s t h a t the continued growth o f l a r g e s c a l e r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w i l l u l t i m a t e l y l e a d t o m o n o p o l i s t i c t r a d i n g p o s i t i o n s and t h e n e g l e c t o f m i n o r i t y groups o f consumers through a complete o r i e n t a t i o n t o the mass m a r k e t . 1 1 Western Canada has witnessed the advent o f the s u p e r s t o r e i n n o v a t i o n , o r i e n t e d toward grocery r e t a i l i n g . When d e a l i n g w i t h t h e g r o c e r y o u t l e t , p l a n n e r s s h o u l d be p a r t i c u l a r l y c a r e f u l t o e n c o u r a g e an e q u i t a b l e s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n throughout the c i t y , as g r o c e r y s t o r e s o f t e n s e r v e as t h e anch o r t e n a n t f o r many l o w e r o r d e r r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . With the l o s s o f the major anchor, a l l r e t a i l f a c i l i t i e s i n a s m a l l e r c e n t r e would be put i n a tenuous p o s i t i o n . Food r e t a i l i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a r e e s p e c i a l l y c r u c i a l t o t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d c o n s u m e r s t h a t w o u l d s u f f e r f r o m a more con c e n t r a t e d s p a t i a l p a t t e r n of r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . As w i t h the shopping c e n t r e , m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s should be e n c o u r a g e d t o t a k e an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n t h e a f f e c t t h a t e i t h e r o f these two i n n o v a t i o n s might have on r e t a i l i n g i n the t r a d i n g area and the r e t a i l i n g i n d u s t r y i n g e n e r a l . On a more formal b a s i s , B r i t a i n has i n c o r p o r a t e d a system t h a t appears t o d e a l e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n s t h e s e t y p e s o f developments r a i s e , which c o u l d s e r v e as a model f o r Canadian p l a n n e r s . B r i t i s h p l a n n e r s h a v e b e e n w i l l i n g t o accommodate hypermarkets and s u p e r s t o r e s as l o n g as they are i n areas o f p l a n n e d u r b a n growth, would take p l a c e i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h c e r t a i n o t h e r s t o r e s and were an e x t e n s i o n t o , r a t h e r than a r e p l a c e m e n t o f , t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l s y s t e m o f c o m m e r c i a l f a c i l i t i e s . S u p e r s t o r e s have s e r v e d as t h e b a s i s o f new d i s t r i c t c e n t e r s or helped t o r e v i t a l i z e a town or c i t y c e n t e r and hypermarkets have been i n t e g r a t e d i n t o new town c e n t e r s . T h e s u b s e q u e n t l o w e r r a t e and c o n t r o l l e d p a t t e r n o f development o f these s t o r e s has had two b e n e f i c i a l r e s u l t s . T h e r e have been much l e s s adverse t r a d i n g r e p e r c u s s i o n s on s m a l l e r shops than elsewhere i n Europe and t h e r e has been much l e s s change i n the s p a t i a l p a t t e r n of r e t a i l i n g . 1 2 M u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s i n Canada can work t o m i n i m i z e t h e d e t r i m e n t a l a f f e c t s t h a t can r e s u l t from the development of s u p e r s t o r e s and h y p e r m a r k e t s t h r o u g h c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e c u r r e n t u r b a n g r o w t h p a t t e r n , t h e e s t a b l i s h e d r e t a i l f a c i l i t i e s and the disadvantaged consumers i n s o c i e t y . The s i m p l e s t , but most e f f e c t i v e way to accomplish t h i s i s through c o n t r o l l i n g the development o f t h i s type o f f a c i l i t y so t h a t i t p r o c e e d s as p a r t o f a p l a n n e d s p a t i a l arrangement, not a l l o w i n g i t t o supplant the e s t a b l i s h e d commercial s t r u c t u r e . In summary, t h i s s e c t i o n l o o k s a t the problems t h a t can be c a u s e d by c e r t a i n r e t a i l f o r m s , s u c h as t h e s h o p p i n g c e n t r e , the hypermarket or the s u p e r s t o r e dominating a t r a d e a r e a , as w e l l as t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t l o c a l i n d e p e n d e n t r e t a i l e r s may subsequently encounter. I t i s surmised t h a t the d e t r i m e n t a l a f f e c t s o f a l l o f t h e s e r e t a i l i n g forms can be m i n i mized through adequate c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the urban growth p a t t e r n , the e s t a b l i s h e d r e t a i l f a c i l i t i e s and d i s a d v a n t a g e d consumer groups. As w e l l , hypermarkets and s u p e r s t o r e s should develop as p a r t o f the h i e r a r c h i c a l commercial system. P o s i t i v e P l a n n e r / D e v e l o p e r I n t e r a c t i o n on C o m m e r c i a l  Development The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s e c t i o n i s to d e s c r i b e how b e t t e r i n t e r a c t i o n between m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s and d e v e l o p e r s c o u l d l e a d t o i m p r o v e m e n t s i n c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g . Improved communication and i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the development community c o u l d g i v e m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s : a b e t t e r c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f de v e l o p e r s ' needs f o r commercial development; more up to date i n f o r m a t i o n on changes i n the r e t a i l form and i t s o p e r a t i o n s , and some c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n dete r m i n i n g f u t u r e r e t a i l f l o o r s p a c e demand. C u r r e n t l y , t h e r e i s l i t t l e formal p o s i t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n between the development i n d u s t r y and t h e Richmond P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t o v e r c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . B e y o n d t h e i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t takes p l a c e over i n d i v i d u a l p r o j e c t s , t h e r e i s l i t t l e communication on broader i s s u e s , such as the market trend s t h a t a f f e c t r e t a i l i n g or the o v e r a l l f l o o r s p a c e demand i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y . I n Sweden, t h e g o v e r n m e n t s ' i n t e n s e i n v o l v e m e n t i n p l a n n i n g f o r commercial development i s g r e a t l y a i d e d by t h e r e t a i l a s s o c i a t i o n . The m u n i c i p a l government s u p p l i e s the i n f o r m a t i o n on p l a n n i n g i n other s e c t o r s , and then the r e t a i l a s s o c i a t i o n makes a l l the necessary c a l c u l a t i o n s t o determine the p r o b a b l e t o t a l r e t a i l volume f o r each type o f merchandise. T h e y t h e n make t h e i r recommendations as t o t h e s i z e and l o c a t i o n o f shopping c e n t r e s , and t h e number and t y p e s o f s t o r e s e a c h s h o u l d i n c l u d e . 1 3 A s i t u a t i o n where p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s and p r i v a t e r e t a i l e r s c o o p e r a t e t o t h i s d e g r e e should p r o v i d e b e n e f i t s . One d i f f i c u l t y w i t h a l a c k o f p o s i t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n between planner and developer i s t h a t they w i l l o f t e n approach a p o t e n t i a l development w i t h v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t s e t s o f c r i t e r i a 144 as to what i s important. To address t h i s s i t u a t i o n , m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s must be w i l l i n g t o l e a r n from t h e development community and v i c e - v e r s a . T h i s l e a r n i n g process o b v i o u s l y can not go on d u r i n g the n e g o t i a t i o n s o v e r s p e c i f i c d e v e l o p m e n t s , b u t must be a s t r u c t u r e d program designed to t e a c h p l a n n e r s about the needs of those i n v o l v e d i n commercial d e v e l o p m e n t i n g e n e r a l , as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g d e v e l o p e r s w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y to b e t t e r a p p r e c i a t e the viewpoint o f the m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r . I f t h e development community f e l t t h a t t h i s would e v e n t u a l l y h e l p to smooth the development app r o v a l p r o c e s s , i t would undoubtedly be w i l l i n g t o g a t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l and t o f i n d knowledgeable r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t h a t c o u l d s u p p l y m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n on the needs o f the developers and the r e t a i l e r s i n t h i s f i e l d . M u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s and developers would not always agree on i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g commercial development, but an attempt at b e t t e r communication and i n t e r a c t i o n should l e a d t o a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f each approach. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s g e n e r a l a t t e m p t a t i m p r o v i n g p l a n n e r / d e v e l o p e r communication, t h e r e are two s p e c i f i c ways i n w h i c h p l a n n e r / d e v e l o p e r i n t e r a c t i o n c o u l d a i d t h e commercial p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . E a c h i n v o l v e s u t i l i z i n g t h e e x p e r t i s e t h a t i s a v a i l a b l e i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . They are: 1) R e q u e s t i n g i n p u t from the development community on the development schedule t h a t was d i s c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n t h r e e . 145 2) U t i l i z i n g t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r t o keep t h e p l a n n i n g department b e t t e r informed about changes i n t h e r e t a i l f orm, p o s s i b l y t h r o u g h employing a p l a n n i n g c o n s u l t a n t i n v o l v e d i n c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t t o k e e p t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y up t o date w i t h market tre n d s i n r e t a i l i n g , through p e r i o d i c b r i e f i n g s , , as the GVRD does. I n summary, t h i s s e c t i o n has attempted t o d e s c r i b e how the commercial p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s m i g h t be improved t h r o u g h b e t t e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n and i n t e r a c t i o n between m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s and developers i n v o l v e d i n commercial d e v e l o p m e n t . The methods o f i n c r e a s i n g t h e i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h developers i n c l u d e d a program t o h e l p p l a n n e r s l e a r n about d e v e l o p e r needs i n t h i s s e c t o r , more fre q u e n t requests f o r t r a d e are a n a l y s i s , developer i n p u t on the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s o v e r a l l r e t a i l f l o o r s p a c e demand, and keeping t r a c k o f changes i n the r e t a i l form through the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . A R e g i o n a l Commercial P l a n n i n g P e r s p e c t i v e The i n t e n t o f t h i s s e c t i o n i s t o d i s c u s s the v a l u e o f a r e g i o n a l c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g p e r s p e c t i v e and how commercial development q u e s t i o n s t h a t demand a r e g i o n a l approach can be d e a l t w i t h . A t t h i s t i m e , t h e r e i s l i t t l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n g i v e n to p l a n n i n g f o r commercial development at the r e g i o n a l l e v e l i n Gr e a t e r Vancouver. A c c o r d i n g t o Hugh K e l l a s , a planner w i t h the G.V.R.D., s i n c e the r e p e a l o f the O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l Plan t h e r e i s no one w i t h t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e n s u r i n g t h a t commercial development d i s t r i b u t e s i t s e l f i n a s e n s i b l e way throughout the r e g i o n and t h e r e i s no l e g a l c o n t e x t f o r l o c a l p l a n n i n g through a r e g i o n a l body. As w e l l , the GVRD i s not s u p p l y i n g much i n f o r m a t i o n t o member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s about p l a n n i n g f o r commercial development, b a s i c a l l y because i t i s not being r e q u e s t e d . 1 4 There i s a l s o a l a c k o f a r e g i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e w i t h i n the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . M u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s , and m u n i c i p a l governments as a w h o l e , g e n e r a l l y do n o t w o r r y a b o u t c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t beyond t h e i r b o u n d a r i e s , and i n f a c t , v i e w p o t e n t i a l d e velopment i n a c o m p e t i t i v e manner, r a t h e r than p l a n n i n g f o r a broader g e o g r a p h i c a l scope. B r i t a i n and Denmark a r e two c o u n t r i e s r e f e r r e d t o i n C h a p t e r T h r e e w h i c h a p p r e c i a t e t h e n e e d f o r r e g i o n a l r e t a i l / c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g . i n B r i t a i n , r e g i o n a l and sub-r e g i o n a l s t u d i e s are o f t e n c a r r i e d out because L o c a l P l a n n i n g A u t h o r i t i e s can not reach agreement on the f u t u r e l o c a t i o n o f urban growth, i n c l u d i n g commercial development w i t h i n the sub-r e g i o n , and g e n e r a l l y t o a c h i e v e a d e g r e e o f c o o r d i n a t i o n between l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s w i t h i n a r e g i o n . In Denmark, r e g i o n a l plans p r o v i d e a s t r u c t u r e p l a n f o r v a r i o u s s e c t o r s o f a c t i v i t y , e s t a b l i s h i n g a s e t o f broad g u i d e l i n e s f o r d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e m o s t f u n d a m e n t a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r r e t a i l p l a n n i n g i s the s i z e and l o c a t i o n o f u r b a n growth i n t h e r e g i o n . The r e g i o n a l p l a n d i r e c t s the p a t t e r n o f urban growth throughout the communes and decides on the l o c a t i o n and s i z e o f the major shopping c e n t r e s . 1 5 S i n c e the 1940's the need to p l a n f o r the e v o l u t i o n o f the Lower Mainland o f B.C. has been widely r e c o g n i z e d . Growth and change c o n t i n u a l l y i n c r e a s e t h e i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e d i v e r s e p a r t s o f the r e g i o n and accentuate the c h a l l e n g e of f i n d i n g a balance between urban development and c o n s e r v a t i o n o f the r e g i o n s ' r i c h n a t u r a l a s s e t s . The c h a l l e n g e can only be met through c o o p e r a t i v e r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g which b r i n g s to b e a r t h e i n t e r e s t s o f a l l the communities o f the r e g i o n as w e l l as a l l l e v e l s o f government. The O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n o f 1980 was d e s i g n e d as a framework f o r a continuous process to guide the development of t h e Lower M a i n l a n d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 1 6 U n f o r t u n a t e l y , w i t h i n a few years a f t e r t h i s was w r i t t e n i n t o the O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n , the Government o f B r i t i s h Columbia r e p e a l e d i t and s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d t h e a b i l i t y o f p l a n n e r s t o t a k e a r e g i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e towards commercial p l a n n i n g . An obvious p a r t o f the s o l u t i o n would be the r e t u r n o f the o f f i c i a l r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n . However, as t h i s i s u n l i k e l y , o t h e r suggestions on how t o i n c o r p o r a t e a r e g i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e i n t o p l a n n i n g f o r commercial development should be c o n s i d e r e d . One o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t r e a s o n s f o r a r e g i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e i s t h a t m a j o r c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y r e g i o n a l shopping c e n t r e s , can have a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on r e t a i l i n g w e l l beyond m u n i c i p a l b o u n d a r i e s . T h i s can c r e a t e p roblems i n s uburban m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , as l a r g e 148 s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s l i k e t o l o c a t e j u s t b e y o n d t h e u r b a n boundary. Problems can a r i s e between suburban m u n i c i p a l i t i e s as a l a r g e commercial development near a m u n i c i p a l boundary can have a d e t r i m e n t a l a f f e c t on r e t a i l i n g i n the n e i g h b o r i n g m u n i c i p a l i t y . W i t h t h e December 1985 amendment o f S e c t i o n 947 o f the M u n i c i p a l A c t through B i l l s i x t y two, the Government o f B.C. has shown some awareness o f the p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n f l i c t , but as was d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter F i v e , the amendment i s too weak to be o f much v a l u e . T h r e e p r o v i n c e s t h a t have r e c o g n i z e d the s i t u a t i o n and have adopted s u b s t a n t i a l l e g i s l a t i o n t o d e a l w i t h i t are Nova S c o t i a , Quebec, and O n t a r i o . L e t us look at Quebec's answer t o the problem. Under Quebec l e g i s l a t i o n , m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a r e n o t a l l o w e d t o i s s u e p e r m i t s f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f new p e r i p h e r a l m a l l s u n t i l a l i c e n s e has been i s s u e d by t h e C o m m i s s i o n f o r C o n t r o l o f C o m m e r c i a l Development. B e f o r e r e n d e r i n g a d e c i s i o n on a l i c e n s e a p p l i c a t i o n , the commission must e v a l u a t e the impact o f the p r o p o s a l w i t h i n the framework o f the r e g i o n a l r e t a i l s y s t e m . 1 7 The c r e a t i o n o f an independent r e g u l a t o r y body by t h e p r o v i n c e , s u c h as the one i n Quebec, would appear t o be an e f f e c t i v e method o f a s s u r i n g t h a t c o m m e r c i a l development p r o j e c t s do not have a d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t on r e t a i l i n g i n the r e g i o n as a whole. I t i s acknowledged t h a t t h i s would be a p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n , which would be unacceptable t o the c u r r e n t 149 p r o v i n c i a l government, but i t i s s t i l l a c o n c e p t worthy o f r e c o g n i t i o n . One o t h e r c o n c e p t t h a t c o u l d prove u s e f u l i n r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g f o r commercial development comes from M i n n e a p o l i s -S t . P a u l , M i n n e s o t a . T h i s c o n c e p t would n o t have t o be u t i l i z e d by the r e g u l a t o r y board o f t e n , but when a s i t u a t i o n a r i s e s where s e v e r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are competing f o r the tax base o f a p o t e n t i a l major shopping c e n t r e , t h i s scheme co u l d b r i n g a more r a t i o n a l r e g i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e t o the p r o c e s s . T h i s concept i n v o l v e s l o c a t i n g the shopping c e n t r e i n the b e s t o v e r a l l l o c a t i o n , r e g a r d l e s s o f the m u n i c i p a l i t y , and then s h a r i n g the tax revenue. The tax revenue from t h i s type o f development would go p a r t i a l l y t o the m u n i c i p a l i t y , where i t i s l o c a t e d and p a r t i a l l y i n t o a fund t o be d i s t r i b u t e d to the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s throughout the r e g i o n . T h i s way one can be more r a t i o n a l about where to l o c a t e the f a c i l i t y through l e s s tax base c o m p e t i t i o n . 1 8 The b i g g e s t advantage t o p r o v i d i n g a r e g i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e t o commercial p l a n n i n g i s the i n c r e a s e d chance o f d e t e r r i n g c o m m e r c i a l development t h a t would have a n e g a t i v e e f f e c t o u t s i d e o f t h e home m u n i c i p a l i t y , but t h e r e i s a l s o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f p r o v i d i n g b e t t e r commercial p l a n n i n g r e s e a r c h through some form o f r e g i o n a l c o o r d i n a t i o n and p o o l i n g o f r e s o u r c e s . To g e t an a c c u r a t e view o f the s p a t i a l arrangement of r e t a i l f a c i l i t i e s and how t h e c o m m e r c i a l s t r u c t u r e i s 150 changing, one needs to get a broader p e r s p e c t i v e than t h a t o f a m u n i c i p a l i t y , as development d e c i s i o n s based on t r a d e areas know no p o l i t i c a l boundaries. In a d d i t i o n , i n f o r m a t i o n could be gathered more e x p e d i e n t l y on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s , such as on q u e s t i o n s a b out t h e c h a n g i n g r e t a i l f orm, t h u s a v o i d i n g d u p l i c a t i o n o f e f f o r t . The c a p a c i t y f o r t h i s a l r e a d y e x i s t s w i t h the GVRD, but i t i s g e n e r a l l y not u t i l i z e d . T h i s s e c t i o n has d i s c u s s e d t h e v a l u e o f encouraging a r e g i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e i n commercial p l a n n i n g and the ways t h i s can be f o s t e r e d . The r e t u r n o f the o f f i c i a l r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n i s an obvious s o l u t i o n , but i n the absence o f t h i s , o t h e r s u g g e s t i o n s were o f f e r e d f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . They were: 1) The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an i n d e p e n d e n t r e g u l a t o r y body t o r eview the r e g i o n a l impact o f major commercial developments, 2) A t a x base revenue s h a r i n g scheme t o p r o v i d e a more r a t i o n a l approach to the l o c a t i o n o f major shopping c e n t r e s , and 3) R e g i o n a l c o o r d i n a t i o n o f r e s e a r c h f o r c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g . C o n c l u s i o n T h i s chapter has p r o v i d e d a review o f the l i m i t a t i o n s o f p l a n n i n g f o r commercial development i n Richmond and suggested ways i n which m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s can i n c r e a s e t h e i r scope o f a c t i v i t y i n t h i s f i e l d . Being aware o f the importance o f the c o m m e r c i a l s t r u c t u r e t o t h e u r b a n morphology, t h e r e t a i l s e c t o r s ' r o l e i n t h e l o c a l economy and c o n s i d e r i n g t h e 151 p o s s i b l e r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f the problems t h a t can d e v e l o p i n t h i s s e c t o r , i t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g f o r c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t c o u l d be improved and t h a t the scope needs t o be broadened. Many o f the problems d i s c u s s e d are not c u r r e n t l y e v i d e n t i n Richmond, b u t as p l a n n i n g i s a f u t u r e o r i e n t e d t a s k , m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s should p l a n f o r commercial development t o e n s u r e t h a t many o f t h e problem s i t u a t i o n s do not develop. T h i s happens on l y t o a l i m i t e d degree i n the Richmond P l a n n i n g Department. T h e f i r s t s t e p i n c r e a t i n g a m o r e e f f e c t i v e r e t a i l / c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g process i n v o l v e s f a c i l i t a t i n g an a t m o s p h e r e i n w h i c h t h e p r o b l e m s o f r e t a i l i n g and t h e commercial s t r u c t u r e are g i v e n a h i g h e r p r i o r i t y . A b e t t e r r e a l i z a t i o n o f some o f the problems i n h e r e n t i n t h i s s e c t o r when t h e r e i s a l a c k o f p u b l i c s e c t o r guidance would h e l p t o f o s t e r t h i s atmosphere. W i t h i n s i x s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n s , the i n f o r m a t i o n gathered through the l i t e r a t u r e review and other sources i s s y n t h e s i z e d and u s e d t o s u g g e s t p o s s i b l e s t e p s t o make p l a n n i n g f o r commercial development i n Richmond more e f f e c t i v e . The s i x s e c t i o n s a r e p r o v i d e d t o o r g a n i z e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n , but i t s h o u l d be e m p h a s i z e d t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s c o v e r e d a r e interdependent. Two areas o f d i s c u s s i o n do emerge, however, as the b a s i s f o r d i s c u s s i o n o f a l l t h e s u b j e c t a r e a s and s h o u l d be 152 emphasized. They are improving the s t r u c t u r e used to p l a n f o r commercial development and improving the r e s e a r c h done i n t h i s f i e l d . P r o v i d i n g a b a s i c procedure which m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s can use t o determine the most a p p r o p r i a t e p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s f o r commercial development i s e s s e n t i a l t o good c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g . T h i s would r e q u i r e a r t i c u l a t e w r i t t e n p o l i c i e s on both the commercial p l a n n i n g process and the o b j e c t i v e s f o r commercial p l a n n i n g . B e t t e r r e s e a r c h i s the other e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t f o r improved commercial p l a n n i n g . I t p r o v i d e s the b a s i s f o r s e v e r a l o f the s u b j e c t areas. Throughout t h i s chapter suggestions have been o f f e r e d as c o n c e p t s f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n any a t t e m p t t o i n c r e a s e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p l a n n i n g f o r c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t i n Richmond. In summary, they were: 1) F o r m u l a t i o n o f an e x p l i c i t p o l i c y t h a t d e a l s w i t h both the commercial p l a n n i n g process and t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s g e n e r a l p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s f o r commercial development. T h i s p o l i c y s h o u l d be l o n g r a n g e i n n a t u r e , b u t a m e n d a b l e . The c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s s h o u l d i n c l u d e t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a wide range o f f a c t o r s u t i l i z e d i n t h e d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . The B r i t i s h S t r u c t u r e P l a n i s c i t e d as an example. 2) M u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s need to be a b l e t o determine when a t r a d e area i s r e a c h i n g a p o i n t o f r e t a i l over s a t u r a t i o n and be prepared t o take a p p r o p r i a t e measures. 3) The c r e a t i o n o f a development s c h e d u l e , e x p r e s s e d i n terms, o f the amount o f r e t a i l f l o o r s p a c e to be b u i l t each y e a r , t o be u s e d as a b r o a d g u i d e l i n e as t o t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s r e t a i l s a t u r a t i o n , p o i n t . 4) The employment o f a planner w i t h a good understanding o f economic and marketing concepts. 5) R e q u e s t i n g developers to produce t r a d e area a n a l y s i s to 153 support t h e i r development p r o p o s a l s on a more f r e q u e n t b a s i s . An example i s s p e c i f i e d i n s e c t i o n t h r e e . 6) The p r o d u c t i o n o f a r e t a i l space requirements a n a l y s i s on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . T h i s r e s e a r c h w i l l be necessary f o r the c r e a t i o n o f a development schedule. 7) The i n c l u s i o n o f q u e s t i o n s on the r e t a i l s e c t o r i f the m u n i c i p a l i t y undertakes an economic base study. 8) The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f more f l e x i b i l i t y i n t o Richmond's m a j o r c o m m e r c i a l z o n i n g d i s t r i c t s t o a i d i n t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n o f new types o f commercial a c t i v i t i e s and to s t r e a m l i n e the commercial development a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s . 9) Encourage m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s to take an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n the a f f e c t s o f changes i n the r e t a i l form, i n c l u d i n g adequate c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the a f f e c t these changes would have on u r b a n g r o w t h p a t t e r n s , e s t a b l i s h e d r e t a i l f a c i l i t i e s , and disadvantaged consumer groups. 10) E n c o u r a g i n g s u p e r s t o r e s a n d h y p e r m a r k e t s t o be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the e s t a b l i s h e d commercial s t r u c t u r e . 11) E n c o u r a g i n g p o s i t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n and c o m m u n i c a t i o n between m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s and developers over commercial development, through: a) Having m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s l e a r n more about developer needs i n t h i s s e c t o r . b) R e q u e s t i n g i n p u t from the development community on the development schedule. c) U t i l i z i n g the p r i v a t e s e c t o r t o a c q u i r e up-to-date i n f o r m a t i o n on changes i n r e t a i l form. 12) P r o v i d e a r e g i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e f o r commercial p l a n n i n g i n s i t u a t i o n s where i t would be u s e f u l . In the absence o f an O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n , the f o l l o w i n g are put forward as concepts f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n : a) E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an independent r e g u l a t o r y body to review commercial d e v e l o p m e n t s t h a t c o u l d have a r e g i o n a l impact. b) U t i l i z a t i o n o f a tax revenue s h a r i n g scheme to b r i n g more r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n t o t h e m u n i c i p a l c o m p e t i t i o n f o r l a r g e commercial developments. c) R e g i o n a l c o o r d i n a t i o n o f r e s e a r c h f o r commercial p l a n n i n g . 154 The concepts d e s c r i b e d here are o f f e r e d f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n by a n y s u b u r b a n m u n i c i p a l i t y , n o t j u s t t h a t o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y o f Richmond. I t appears t h a t t h e r e are d e f i n i t e i m p r o v e m e n t s t h a t c a n be made t o Richmond's c o m m e r c i a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s and t h a t i n s t i t u t i n g t h e s e improvements i n v o l v e s b r o a d e n i n g the scope o f involvement t h a t m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s have i n p l a n n i n g f o r commercial development. 155 FOOTNOTES Notes For Chapter One 1 John A. Dawson, R e t a i l Geography (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1980), p.196. 2 D.S.M. Huberman, " D i s t r i b u t i o n o f L e g i s l a t i v e Power i n Canada - B.N.A. A c t , " i n S e l e c t i n g Readings In Law For L o c a l  P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t o r s , ed. W i l l i a m T. Lane (Vancouver: School o f Community and Re g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , 1983), p.IV-6. 3 Dawson, p.212-213. 4 I b i d . , p.196. 156 Notes For Chapter Two 1 Vancouver Department o f P l a n n i n g and C i v i c Development Suburban Commercial Study ( V a n c o u v e r : C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , 1971) , p.36. 2 I b i d . , p.37. 3 M i c h a e l C. I r c h a , "Shopping C e n t r e s : T h e i r development and impact i n A t l a n t i c Canada," P l a n Canada, 22, No.2 (1982), p.39. 4 R. S c h i l l e r , "The R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f R e t a i l P l a n n i n g , " i n R e t a i l P l a n n i n g i n t h e European Community, ed. Ross L. Davies (Westmeod England: Saxon House, 1979), p. 11. 5 James Simmons, The Changing P a t t e r n o f R e t a i l L o c a t i o n Department o f Geography, R e s e a r c h Paper No.92 ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago, 1964), p.126. 6 Suburban Commercial Study, p.16. 7 R.M. D o n a l d s o n , A C a n a d i a n ' s U r b a n E n v i r o n m e n t (Toronto: Butterworth and Co. L t d . , 1975), p.119. 8 Edgar M. Horwood, " P u b l i c P o l i c y and t h e O u t l y i n g Shopping Center," The American I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , 24, No.4 (1958), p.218-219. 9 I b i d . , p.219. 1 0 F r e d e r i c k T. A s c h m a n and R i c h a r d L. N e l s o n , C o n s e r v a t i o n and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f Major Shopping D i s t r i c t s Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n No.22 (Washington: Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , 1954), p.6. 1 1 Simmons, The C h a n g i n g P a t t e r n o f R e t a i l L o c a t i o n , p. 142. 1 2 R i c h a r d L. Nelson, The S e l e c t i o n o f R e t a i l L o c a t i o n s (New York: F.W. Dodge Corp., 1958), p.30-31. 1 3 I r c h a , p.39. 1 4 Simmons, The C h a n g i n g P a t t e r n o f R e t a i l L o c a t i o n , p.147-148. 1 5 Lawrence G. A l a , "Ladner B r i t i s h Columbia", U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1961, p.47. 1 6 R o s s L. D a v i e s , R e t a i l and C o m m e r c i a l P l a n n i n g (London: Croom Helm L t d . , 1984), p.111. 1 7 I b i d . , p.269. 1 8 R. D a v i e s , " C o n c l u s i o n , " i n R e t a i l P l a n n i n g i n the  E u r o p e a n Community, ed. Ross L. Davies (Westmead, England: Saxon House, 1979), p.203. 1 9 I b i d . , p.207. 2 0 J a m e s L o r i m e r , " D a v i d v e r s u s G o l i a t h : Why an i n d e p e n d e n t b o o k s e l l e r had t o s h u t down," i n A f t e r t h e  Developers, ed. James Lorimer and C a r o l y n MacGregor (Toronto: Lorimer & Company, 1981), p.66. 2 1 Graeme Lang, "Shopping c e n t r e s : The c a s e study of Corner brook," i n A f t e r the Developers, ed. James Lorimer and C a r o l y n MacGregor (Toronto: Lorimer & Company, 1981), p.56. 2 2 Lorimer, p.67. 2 3 Suburban Commercial Study, p.42. 158 Notes For Chapter Three 1 Dawson, R e t a i l Geography, p.213. 2 E l i z a b e t h M i l l s , Recent Developments i n R e t a i l i n g and  Urban P l a n n i n g P l a n n i n g Research A p p l i c a t i o n s Group, T e c h n i c a l Paper No.3 (London: P l a n n i n g R e s e a r c h A p p l i c a t i o n s Group, 1974), p.33. 3 Davies, R e t a i l and Commercial P l a n n i n g , p.33. 4 I b i d . , p.207. 5 I b i d . , p.58. 6 David T. Herbert and C o l i n J . Thomas, Urban Geography:  A F i r s t Approach (Toronto: John Wiley and Sons, 1982), p.231-232. 7 I b i d . , p.232-233. 8 Davies, R e t a i l and Commercial P l a n n i n g , p.38. 9 S c h i l l e r , p.18. 1 0 M i l l s , p.71. 1 1 Davies, R e t a i l and Commercial P l a n n i n g , p.86. 1 2 M i l l s , p.71. 1 3 Davies, R e t a i l and Commercial P l a n n i n g , p.91. 1 4 M i l l s , p.72. 1 5 I b i d . , p.73. 1 6 Davies, R e t a i l and Commercial P l a n n i n g , p.93. 1 7 I b i d . , p.94. 1 8 Susan P. Douglas, " P u b l i c P l a n n i n g o f R e t a i l L o c a t i o n i n F r a n c e and G r e a t B r i t a i n , " i n P u b l i c P o l i c y Toward  R e t a i l i n g , e d . J . J . Boddewyn and S t a n l e y C. H o l l a n d e r (Toronto: D.C. Heath and Company, 1972), p.145. 1 9 D a v i e s , R e t a i l P l a n n i n g i n t h e European Community, p.205-206. 2 0 0. K e r n d a l - H a n s e n , " R e t a i l P l a n n i n g i n Denmark," i n R e t a i l P l a n n i n g i n the European Community, ed. Ross L. Davies (Westmead, England: Saxon House, 1979), p.66. 159 2 1 I b i d . , p.67. 2 2 I b i d . , p.68. 2 3 " R e t a i l C enters: Sweden's C a r e f u l P l a n , " S t o r e s , 47, (1965), p.9. 2 4 I b i d . , p.11. 2 5 D a v i e s , R e t a i l P l a n n i n g i n t h e European Community, p. 213. 2 6 M i c h a e l C. I r c h a , " R e g u l a t i n g s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s : C a n a d i a n and i n t e r n a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , " i n A f t e r t h e  Developers, ed. James Lorimer and C a r o l y n MacGregor (Toronto: Lorimer and Company, 1981), p. 72. 2 7 I b i d . , p.70-71. 2 8 I b i d . , p.70. 2 9 D e b o r a h E l l e n Day, " O n t a r i o M u n i c i p a l B o a r d " U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto, 1976, p.20. 3 0 I b i d . , p.21. 3 1 C i t y o f Toronto P l a n n i n g and Development Department, Economic P o l i c i e s For R e t a i l S t r i p s , 1982 (Toronto: C i t y o f Toronto, 1982), p.16. 3 2 I b i d . , p.18. 3 3 I b i d . , p.29 . 3 4 P h i l i p H. F r i e d l y , "Models and Determinants For The Economic A l l o c a t i o n o f R e t a i l Space In Urban P l a n n i n g , " U n i v e r s i t y o f Southern C a l i f o r n i a , 1966, p. 19. 3 5 I b i d . , p.329. 3 6 I b i d . , p.264. 3 7 R o b e r t McCabe, " R e t a i l L o c a t i o n Models and P u b l i c D e c i s i o n s " D i s s . U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto, 1975, p.7. 3 8 I b i d . , p . l . 3 y R o b e r t W. McCabe, P l a n n i n g A p p l i c a t i o n s o f R e t a i l  Models (Toronto: O n t a r i o M i n i s t r y o f T r e a s u r y , Economics and Intergovernmental A f f a i r s , 1974), p . l . 160 4 0 I b i d . , p.3-4. 4 1 I b i d . , p.11-12. 4 2 P h i l i p H. F r i e d l y , A Methodology For Economic A n a l y s i s  o f R e t a i l C o m m e r c i a l F a c i l i t i e s I n Urban Renewal A r e a s (Vancouver: C i t y P l a n n i n g Department, 1966), p . I I I - 4 . 4 3 F r i e d l y , Models and Determinants, p.8. 4 4 McCabe, P l a n n i n g A p p l i c a t i o n s o f R e t a i l Models, p.32. 4 5 i b i d . , p.12. 4 6 F r i e d l y , Models and Determinants, p.200. 4 7 I b i d . , p.207-208. 4 8 N a t i o n a l Economic Development O f f i c e , Urban Models In  S h o p p i n g S t u d i e s (London: Economic Development Committees, 1970), p.34. 4 9 i b i d . , p.5. 50 F r i e d l y , Models and Determinants, p.324. 5 1 F r i e d l y , Methodology For Economic A n a l y s i s , p.IV-9. 5 2 McCabe, P l a n n i n g A p p l i c a t i o n s o f R e t a i l Models, p.32. 5 3 McCabe, R e t a i l L o c a t i o n Models and P u b l i c D e c i s i o n s , p. 12. 5 4 N a t i o n a l Economic Development O f f i c e , p.48. 5 5 McCabe, P l a n n i n g A p p l i c a t i o n s o f R e t a i l Models, p.33. 5 6 McCabe, R e t a i l L o c a t i o n Models and P u b l i c D e c i s i o n s , p.165. 5 7 F r i e d l y , Methodology For Economic A n a l y s i s , p . I I I - 2 to I I I - 4 . 5 8 F r i e d l y , Models and Determinants, p.70. 5 9 I b i d . , p.117-118. 6 0 I b i d . , p.128. 6 1 I b i d . , p.337. 6 2 I b i d . , p.307. 161 b J J . Ross McKeever, Shopping Center Zoning Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n No. 69 (Washington: Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , 1973), p.51. 162 Notes For Chapter Four 1 Richmond, B.C. Outwest Magazine 5, No.7 (1984), p.4. 2 Richmond, B.C. Outwest Magazine, p.3. 3 Moving To and Around V a n c o u v e r and B.C., 12, No.3, p. 26. 4 Gene Hayden, " B u s i n e s s R e p o r t : Richmond," Vancouver  C i t i b u s i n e s s , Dec. 1983, p.17. 5 Richmond P l a n n i n g Department, Urban Form and Character  i n Richmond Issue Paper No.11 (Richmond: Township o f Richmond, 1985), p . i i . 6 Moving To and Around Vancouver and B.C., p.28. 7 Richmond, B.C. Outwest Magazine, p.10. 8 Hayden, p.17. 9 A l l a n S a u n d e r s o n , " P l a n n i n g and l o c a t i o n y i e l d m u n i c i p a l d i v i d e n d s , " Richmond B r i t i s h Columbia (Richmond: Township o f Richmond, 1982), p.4. 1 0 Hayden, p.17. 1 1 Richmond, B.C. Outwest Magazine, p.6. 1 2 I b i d . , p.9. 1 3 Moving To and Around Vancouver and B.C., p.26. 1 4 Richmond P l a n n i n g Department, H i g h l i g h t s (Richmond: Township o f Richmond, 1983), p . l . 1 5 Richmond P l a n n i n g Department, Community P r o f i l e D r a f t (Richmond: Township o f Richmond, 1986), p.23. 1 6 GVRD Development S e r v i c e s Department, Commercial and  I n d u s t r i a l F l o o r s p a c e I n v e n t o r y - 1984 (Burnaby: G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , 1985), p.1-2. 1 7 I b i d . , p.5-6. 1 8 Urban Form and Ch a r a c t e r i n Richmond, p.12. 1 9 Richmond, B.C. Outwest Magazine, p.6. 2 0 Urban Form and C h a r a c t e r i n Richmond, p.15. 1 Hayden, p.17. Notes For Chapter F i v e 163 1 P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h B r i a n Jackson, 19 March 1986. 2 Richmond P l a n n i n g Department, Summary o f Past P o l i c i e s  R e l e v a n t t o t h e Richmond O f f i c i a l Community P l a n . Richmond: Township o f Richmond, I, 47. 3 P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h B i l l K e r r , 19 March 1986. 4 Richmond P l a n n i n g Department, B r i g h o u s e C o r e A r e a  Study-Summary (Richmond: Township o f Richmond, 1979), p.2. 5 I n t e r v i e w w i t h B i l l K e r r . 6 P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h Bob McMath, 26 March 1986. 7 I n t e r v i e w w i t h B i l l K e r r . 8 I n t e r v i e w w i t h B r i a n Jackson. 9 I n t e r v i e w w i t h B i l l K e r r . 1 0 Goals For Shopping Committee, F i n a l Report On Richmond  Core Area (Richmond: Township of Richmond, 1974), p.1-7. 1 1 I n t e r v i e w w i t h B r i a n Jackson. 1 2 P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h Jay Wollenberg, 4 A p r i l 1986. 1 3 Community P r o f i l e D r a f t , p.34. 1 4 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Bob McMath. 1 5 Richmond P l a n n i n g Department, The Zoning By-Law Of The  C o r p o r a t i o n Of The Township o f Richmond-By-Law No. 1430, 1985, p. 2-3. 1 6 I b i d . , p.85. 1 7 I b i d . , p.92. 1 8 I b i d . , p.101. 1 9 I b i d . , p.87. 2 0 I b i d . , p.90. 2 1 I b i d . , p.94. 2 2 I b i d . , p.103. 2 3 I b i d . , p.l34B-134C. 2 4 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Bob McMath. 2 5 P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h B i l l Lane, 22 March 1986. 2 6 I n t e r v i e w w i t h B i l l K e r r . 2 7 W a l t e r H a r d w i c k , V a n c o u v e r (Don M i l l s : C o l l i e r M a c M i l l a n o f Canada, 1974), p.130. 2 8 Goals For Shopping Committee, p.3. 2 9 I b i d . , p.5. 3 0 Brighouse Core Area Study-Summary (Richmond: Township o f Richmond, 1986), p.23. 3 1 Richmond P l a n n i n g Department, Town Centre Area Plan (Richmond: Township of Richmond, 1986), p.23. 3 2 Committee o f t h e Whole M i n u t e s f o r J u l y 26, 1971. (Richmond: Township o f Richmond, 1971), p . l . 3 3 C o u n c i l Meeting Minutes f o r J u l y 26, 1971. (Richmond: Township o f Richmond, 19 71), p.5. 3 4 C o u n c i l Meeting Minutes f o r May 28, 1973. (Richmond: Township o f Richmond, 197 3), p.6. 3 5 Richmond P l a n n i n g Department, S t e v e s t o n A r e a P l a n (Richmond: Township o f Richmond, 1984), p.43-47. 3 6 Richmond P l a n n i n g Department, Background Report For  North Lansdowne Sub-Area Plan (Richmond: Township o f Richmond, 1983), p.73. 3 7 I n t e r v i e w w i t h B i l l Lane. 3 8 I n t e r v i e w w i t h B i l l K e r r . 3 9 I n t e r v i e w w i t h B r i a n Jackson. 4 0 I n t e r v i e w w i t h B i l l K e r r . 4 1 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Jay Wollenberg. 4 2 I n t e r v i e w w i t h B r i a n Jackson. 4 3 P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h Hugh K e l l a s , 24 March 1986. 165 44 Int e r v i e w w i t h B i l l Lane. 45 Inter v i e w w i t h Bob McMath. 46 Int e r v i e w w i t h B i l l Lane. 47 Inter v i e w w i t h B r i a n Jackson. 48 Int e r v i e w w i t h B i l l K e r r . 49 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Bob McMath. 50 Int e r v i e w w i t h B i l l K e r r . 51 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Jay Wollenberg. 52 Inter v i e w w i t h B i l l Lane. 53 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Bob McMath. 54 Int e r v i e w w i t h Jay Wollenberg. 55 Int e r v i e w w i t h B r i a n Jackson. 56 Inter v i e w w i t h Hugh K e l l a s . 57 I b i d . 58 Int e r v i e w w i t h B i l l K e r r . 59 I n t e r v i e w w i t h B r i a n Jackson. 6 0 P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia, M u n i c i p a l A c t /amendment, 1985 ( V i c t o r i a : Government o f B.C., 1985), p.5. Notes For Chapter S i x 166 1 Davies, R e t a i l P l a n n i n g i n the European Community, p. 205-206. 2 H e r b e r t , p.231-232. 3 i n t e r v i e w w i t h B r i a n Jackson. 4 I b i d . 5 F r i e d l y , Models and Determinants, p.207-208. 6 F r i e d l y , Methodology For Economic A n a l y s i s , p . l l l - 2 t o I I I - 4 . 7 M i c h a e l J . Meshenberg, The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f F l e x i b l e  Z o n i n g T e c h n i q u e s , P l a n n i n g A d v i s o r y S e r v i c e , Report No.318 (Chicago: American S o c i e t y o f P l a n n i n g O f f i c i a l s , 1976), p . l . 8 I b i d . , p.4 9 Interviews w i t h Jay Wollenberg and B r i a n Jackson. 1 0 I r c h a , "Shopping Centres i n A t l a n t i c Canada," p.36. 1 1 R. Davies, R e t a i l P l a n n i n g i n the European Community, p.207 . 1 2 D a v i e s , R e t a i l and C o m m e r c i a l P l a n n i n g , p.33, 58, 207. 1 3 " R e t a i l C enters: Sweden's C a r e f u l P l a n , " S t o r e s , p.9. 1 4 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Hugh K e l l a s . 1 5 0. Kerndal-Hansen, p.66. 1 6 C e n t r a l F r a s e r V o l l e y R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , Dewdney-A l o u e t t e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , and R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f Fraser-Cheam, P l a n For The  Lower Mainland Of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1981, p.3. 1 7 I r c h a , A f t e r the Developers, p.70-71. 1 8 i n t e r v i e w w i t h Hugh K e l l a s . Notes For Appendix I 167 1 Fred W. Tuemmler, "Commercial Land P l a n n i n g , " i n Urban  P l a n n i n g G u i d e ed. W i l l i a m H. C l a i r e (New York: A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y o f C i v i l E n g ineers, 1969), p.112. 2 Eugene J . K e l l y , Shopping Centers: L o c a t i n g C o n t r o l l e d  R e g i o n a l Centers (Saugatuck, Conn.: Eno Foundation For Highway T r a f f i c C o n t r o l , 1956), p.68. 3 Tuemmler, p.113. 4 K e l l y , p.69. 5 B r i a n L. Whitson, "Planning For L o c a l S t r i p Commercial Areas" (Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1979), p.17-18. 6 Tuemmler, p.113. 7 I b i d . , p.114. 8 Aschman, p.5. 9 K e l l y , p.71. 1 0 Aschman, p.5. 1 1 Tuemmler, p.116. 1 2 K e l l y , p.71. 1 3 Tuemmler, p.116. 1 4 John A. Dawson, Shopping Centre Development (New York: Longman Group L i m i t e d , 1983), p . l . 1 5 I b i d . , p.3. 1 6 Edgar L i o n , S h o pping Centres: P l a n n i n g , Development  And A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 19 76), p . l . 1 7 McCabe, R e t a i l L o c a t i o n Models and P u b l i c D e c i s i o n s , p.17-18. 1 8 Whitson, p.18-22. 1 9 Simmons, p.94-95. 2 0 I b i d . , p.147-149. 168 2 1 W i l l i a m H. B o l e n , Contemporary R e t a i l i n g (Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l Inc., 1978), p.476. 2 2 M i l l s , p.20-21. 2 3 H e r b e r t , p.234. 2 4 M i l l s , p.20. 2 5 I b i d . , p.49. 2 6 H e r b e r t , p.234. 2 7 M i l l s , p.49. 2 8 I b i d . , p.55. 2 9 H e r b e r t , p.234. 3 0 McCabe, p.18. 169 Notes For Appendix I I 1 James W. Simmons, Toronto's Changing R e t a i l Complex: A  Study In Growth and B l i g h t , Department o f Geography, Research Paper No. 104 (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago, 1966), p.3-5. 2 B r i a n Berry, "A C r i t i q u e o f Contemporary P l a n n i n g f o r Business C e n t e r s , " Land Economics, Vol.35 (1959), p.306-307. 3 I b i d . , p.310. 4 B r i a n B e r r y , Commercial S t r u c t u r e and Commercial B l i g h t Department o f Geography, R e s e a r c h Paper No.85. ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago, 1963), p.19. 5 I b i d . , p.21, 23. 6 R o b e r t B. P o t t e r , T h e U r b a n R e t a i l i n g S y s t e m ( A l d e r s h o t , England: Gower P u b l i s h i n g Company L t d . , 1982), p. 23 . 7 P o t t e r , p.27-28. 8 I b i d . , p.V. 9 I b i d . , p.58 . 1 0 I b i d . , p.212. 170 BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Aschman, F r e d e r i c k T. and R i c h a r d L. Nelson. C o n s e r v a t i o n and  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f Major Shopping D i s t r i c t s . Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n No. 22. Washington: Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , 1954. B e r r y , B r i a n . Commercial S t r u c t u r e and Commercial B l i g h t . Department o f Geography, Research Paper No. 85. Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago, 1963. B o l e n , W i l l i a m H. Contemporary R e t a i l i n g . Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l Inc., 1978. Davies, Ross L. R e t a i l and Commercial P l a n n i n g . London: Croom Helm L t d . , 1984. D a v i e s , R. " C o n c l u s i o n . " i n R e t a i l P l a n n i n g i n the European  Community. Ed. Ross L. Davies. Westmead, England: Saxon House, 1979. Dawson, John A. R e t a i l Geography. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1980. Dawson, John A. Shopping Centre Development. New York: Longman Group L t d . , 1983. D o n a l d s o n , R.M. C a n a d i a n ' s U r b a n E n v i r o n m e n t . T o r o n t o : Butte r w o r t h and Co. L t d . , 1975. D o u g l a s , Susan P. " P u b l i c P l a n n i n g o f R e t a i l L o c a t i o n i n F r a n c e and G r e a t B r i t a i n . " I n P u b l i c P o l i c y Toward  R e t a i l i n g . Eds. J . J . Boddewyn and S t a n l e y C. H o l l a n d e r . Toronto: D.C. Heath and Company, 197 2. F r i e d l y , P h i l i p H. A M e t h o d o l o g y F o r Economic A n a l y s i s o f  R e t a i l Commercial F a c i l i t i e s In Urban Renewal A r e a s . Vancouver: C i t y P l a n n i n g Department, 1966. H a r d w i c k , W a l t e r . V a n c o u v e r . Don M i l l s , O n t a r i o : C o l l i e r M a c M i l l a n o f Canada, 1974. H e r b e r t , D a v i d T. and C o l i n J . Thomas. Urban Geography: A  F i r s t Approach. Toronto: John Wiley and Sons, 1982. Huberman, D.S.M. " D i s t r i b u t i o n o f L e g i s l a t i v e Power i n Canada B.N.A. A c t . " In S e l e c t e d Readings In Law For L o c a l P u b l i c  A d m i n i s t r a t o r s . Ed. W i l l i a m T. Lane. Vancouver: School o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , 198 3. 171 I r c h a , M i c h a e l C. "Regulating shopping c e n t r e s : Canadian and i n t e r n a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . " In A f t e r the Developers. Eds. James Lorimer and C a r o l y n MacGregor. Toronto: Lorimer and Company, 1981. K e l l y , E u g e n e J . S h o p p i n g C e n t e r s : L o c a t i n g C o n t r o l l e d  R e g i o n a l Centers. Saugatuck, Conn.: Eno Foundation For Highway T r a f f i c C o n t r o l , 1956. K e r n d a l - H a n s e n , 0. " R e t a i l P l a n n i n g i n Denmark." In R e t a i l  P l a n n i n g i n the European Community. Ed. Ross L. Davies. Westmead, England: Saxon House, 1979. L a n g , G r a e m e . " S h o p p i n g c e n t r e s : The c a s e s t u d y o f Cornerbrook." In A f t e r the Developers. Eds. James Lorimer and C a r o l y n MacGregor. T o r o n t o : L o r i m e r and Company, 1981. L i o n , E d g a r . S h o p p i n g C e n t r e s : P l a n n i n g , Development And  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1976. L o r i m e r , James. "Da v i d v e r s u s G o l i a t h : Why an independent b o o k s e l l e r had to shut down." In A f t e r the Developers. Eds. James Lorimer and C a r o l y n McGregor. Toronto: Lorimer & Company, 1981. McCabe, R o b e r t W. P l a n n i n g A p p l i c a t i o n s o f R e t a i l Models. T o r o n t o : O n t a r i o M i n i s t r y o f T r e a s u r y , Economics and Intergovernmental A f f a i r s , 1974. M c K e e v e r , J . R o s s . S h o p p i n g C e n t e r Z o n i n g . Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n No. 69. Washington: Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , 197 3. M i l l s , E l i z a b e t h . Recent Developments i n R e t a i l i n g and Urban  P l a n n i n g . P l a n n i n g Research A p p l i c a t i o n s Group, T e c h n i c a l Paper No.3. London: P l a n n i n g Research A p p l i c a t i o n s Group, 1974. N e l s o n , R i c h a r d L. The S e l e c t i o n o f R e t a i l L o c a t i o n s . New York: F.W. Dodge Corp., 1958. P o t t e r , R o b e r t B. The Urban R e t a i l i n g System. A l d e r s h o t , England: Gower P u b l i s h i n g Company L t d . , 1982. S c h i l l e r , R. "The R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f R e t a i l P l a n n i n g . " In R e t a i l P l a n n i n g i n the European Community. Ed. Ross L. Davies. Westmead, England: Saxon House, 1979. 172 Simmons, James. The C h a n g i n g P a t t e r n o f R e t a i l L o c a t i o n . Department o f Geography, Research Paper No. 92. Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago, 1964. Simmons, James. Toronto's Changing R e t a i l Complex: A Study In  Growth and B l i g h t . Department o f Geography, R e s e a r c h Paper No. 104. Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago, 1966. Tuemmler, F r e d W. " C o m m e r c i a l Land P l a n n i n g . " In Urban  P l a n n i n g Guide. Ed. W i l l i a m H. C l a i r e , New York: American S o c i e t y o f Engineers, 1969. A r t i c l e s and P e r i o d i c a l s B e r r y , B r i a n . "A C r i t i q u e o f Contemporary P l a n n i n g f o r Business C e n t e r s . " Land Economics, 35 (1959). H a y d e n , Gene. " B u s i n e s s R e p o r t : R i c h m o n d . " V a n c o u v e r  C i t i b u s i n e s s , Dec. 1983, p.17. I r c h a , M i c h a e l C. "Shopping C e n t r e s : T h e i r development and i m p a c t i n A t l a n t i c Canada." P l a n Canada, 22, No.2, (1982), 35-43. Horwood, Ed g a r M. " P u b l i c P o l i c y and the O u t l y i n g Shopping C e n t e r . " The American I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , 24, No.4, (1958) . Moving To and Around Vancouver and B.C., 12, No.3, pp.26-28. " R e t a i l C e n t e r s : Sweden's C a r e f u l P l a n . " S t o r e s , 47, (1965). Richmond, B.C. Outwest Magazine, 5, No.7, pp.1-12. Saunderson, A l l a n . " P l a n n i n g and L o c a t i o n y i e l d m u n i c i p a l d i v i d e n d s . " Richmond B r i t i s h Columbia, (1982), pp.1-8. Government Documents G o a l s F o r Shopping Committee. F i n a l Report On Richmond Core  Area. Richmond: Township of Richmond, 1974. G.V.R.D. D e v e l o p m e n t S e r v i c e s Department. Commercial &  I n d u s t r i a l F l o o r s p a c e Inventory - 1984. Burnaby: Greater Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , 1985. N a t i o n a l Economic Development O f f i c e . Urban Models In Shopping  S t u d i e s . London: Economic Development Committees, 1970. 173 P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia. M u n i c i p a l A c t /amendment, 1985. V i c t o r i a : Government o f B.C., 1985. Richmond C o u n c i l . Committee o f the Whole Minutes f o r J u l y 26,  1971. Richmond: Township o f Richmond, 1971. Richmond C o u n c i l . C o u n c i l Meeting Minutes f o r J u l y 26, 1971. Richmond: Township of Richmond, 1971. Richmond C o u n c i l . C o u n c i l Meeting Minutes f o r May 28, 197 3. Richmond: Township o f Richmond, 197 3. Richmond P l a n n i n g Department. Background R e p o r t For North  Lansdowne Sub-Area P l a n . Richmond: Township o f Richmond, 1983. Richmond P l a n n i n g Department. B r i g h o u s e C o r e A r e a S t u d y - Summary . Richmond: Township o f Richmond, 1979. R i c h m o n d P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . Community P r o f i l e D r a f t . Richmond: Township o f Richmond, 1986. Richmond P l a n n i n g Department. H i g h l i g h t s . Richmond: Township o f Richmond, 1983. Richmond P l a n n i n g Department. Steveston Area P l a n . Richmond: Township o f Richmond, 1984. R i c h m o n d P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . Summary o f P a s t P o l i c i e s  R e l e v a n t t o t h e R i c h m o n d O f f i c i a l Community P l a n . Richmond: Township o f Richmond, I, 1985. Richmond P l a n n i n g Department. Town Centre Area P l a n . Richmond: Township o f Richmond, 1986. Richmond P l a n n i n g Department. Urban Form and C h a r a c t e r i n  R i c h m o n d . I s s u e P a p e r No.11. Richmond: Township o f Richmond, 19 85. R i c h m o n d P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . The Z o n i n g By-Law Of The  C o r p o r a t i o n Of The Township Of Richmond By-Law No. 1430. Richmond: Township o f Richmond, 1985. T o r o n t o P l a n n i n g and D e v e l o p m e n t Department. Economic  P o l i c i e s F o r R e t a i l S t r i p s , 1982. T o r o n t o : C i t y o f Toronto, 1982. V a n c o u v e r D e p a r t m e n t o f P l a n n i n g and C i v i c Development. Suburban Commercial Study. Vancouver: C i t y o f Vancouver, 1971. 174 T h e s i s and D i s s e r t a t i o n s A l a , Lawrence G. "Ladner B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1961. Day, Deborah E l l e n . "Ontario M u n i c i p a l Board." U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto, 1976. F r i e d l y , P h i l l i p H. "Models and Determinants For The Economic A l l o c a t i o n o f R e t a i l Space In Urban P l a n n i n g . " D i s s . U n i v e r s i t y o f Southern C a l i f o r n i a , 1966. McCabe, R o b e r t W. " R e t a i l L o c a t i o n M o d e l s and P u b l i c D e c i s i o n s . " D i s s . U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto, 1975. Whitson, B r i a n L. "Planning For L o c a l S t r i p Commercial Areas." U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1979. In t e r v i e w s Jackson, B r i a n . P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w . 19 March 19 86. K e l l a s , Hugh. P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w . 24 March 1986. K e r r , W i l l i a m . P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w . 19 March 1986. Lane, W i l l i a m T. P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w . 22 March 1986. McMath, Bob. P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w . 26 March 1986. Wollenberg, Jay. P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w . 4 A p r i l 1986. APPENDIX I : THE EVOLUTION OF RETAIL/COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s appendix i s i n c l u d e d to p r o v i d e some background on the h i s t o r y and the e v o l u t i o n o f the commercial s e c t o r . T h i s i n v o l v e s a r e v i e w o f t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f c o m m e r c i a l t r a d e t h r o u g h t o t h e most r e c e n t i n n o v a t i o n s i n t h e f i e l d o f r e t a i l i n g . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d to supply a g e n e r a l background on the h i s t o r y o f commercial development, to inform t h e r e a d e r o f t r e n d s t h a t a r e c h a n g i n g r e t a i l i n g and the c o m m e r c i a l s t r u c t u r e i n t h e 1980's, and t o u n d e r l i n e how dynamic the r e t a i l i n g i n d u s t r y i s . The B e g i n n i n g o f Commercial Exchange Ever s i n c e man became aware o f the economic b e n e f i t to be d e r i v e d from the d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r t h e r e has been a need f o r a p l a c e where those i n v o l v e d i n the p r o d u c t i o n o f c o mmodities c o u l d meet w i t h others f o r the purpose o f b a r t e r or exchange. 1 Markets seem to have developed wherever people were f r e e to exchange t h e i r goods under c o n d i t i o n s o f peace and s e c u r i t y . Whether the exchange h a b i t s o f A f r i c a n n a t i v e s or o f American n a t i v e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d , or t h e h i s t o r y o f a n c i e n t C h i n a , Egypt, or Rome examined, records o f markets i n v a r i o u s stages o f d e v e l o p m e n t a r e found. Indeed, "marketing o r i g i n a t e d i n t h e b a r t e r o f p r i m i t i v e p e o p l e and h e n c e i s o l d e r t h a n c i v i l i z a t i o n . " 2 176 I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e t y p e o f c o m m e r c i a l development under c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s t h a t d e v o t e d t o r e t a i l t r a d e . There are a l s o commercial w h o l e s a l i n g and warehousing a c t i v i t i e s i n w h i c h t r a n s p o r t c o s t i s the most s i g n i f i c a n t l o c a t i o n a l f a c t o r . But i n r e s p e c t t o r e t a i l b u s i n e s s , t h e most i m p o r t a n t l o c a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s a s i t e t h a t , by m i n i m i z i n g consumer t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s , w i l l a t t r a c t t h e l a r g e s t number o f customers. Thus, i n r u r a l areas, road i n t e r s e c t i o n s or i n mountain areas the p o i n t o f convergence o f s e v e r a l v a l l e y s or a b r i d g e a c r o s s a stream, were the l o c a t i o n s toward which the country s t o r e s g r a v i t a t e d . O f t e n , t h e s e s e t t l e m e n t s grew i n t o v i l l a g e s and towns. Where r a i l r o a d s , a n a v i g a b l e stream, or both, were pr e s e n t , the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n advantages were g r e a t . A l l t y p e s o f t r a d e b e n e f i t e d , and these communities became more important as c o m m e r c i a l and f r e q u e n t l y as i n d u s t r i a l c e n t e r s . As t h e c o m p e t i t i o n f o r l a n d i n c r e a s e d , those who c o u l d a f f o r d t o pay t h e h i g h e s t r e n t s s e c u r e d t h e p r i m e l o c a t i o n s , w h i l e others were f o r c e d by economic circumstances or other reasons to secondary l o c a t i o n s i n the market p l a c e . 3 In a d d i t i o n t o s e r v i n g as c e n t e r s f o r exchange, the e a r l y market p l a c e s f u l f i l l e d i m p o r t a n t s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s . Each Greek c i t y had a designated market p l a c e , w h i c h s e r v e d n o t only as a market p l a c e , but f o r " c i v i c , p o l i t i c a l , j u d i c i a l , and f e s t i v e a c t i v i t i e s . " M a rket p l a c e s , b e f o r e and s i n c e , have performed these f u n c t i o n s i n a wide v a r i e t y o f c u l t u r e s . Present day market p l a c e s and shopping c e n t e r s a r e n o t u n l i k e the market p l a c e s and f a i r s o f p a s t e r a s . They must be viewed as a p a r t o f the way o f l i f e o f the people u s i n g them. The modern r e t a i l e r v i e w s s h o p p i n g as a s o c i a l a c t i v i t y p e r f o r m e d by p e o p l e g a t h e r i n g out o f n e c e s s i t y , b u t n o t n e c e s s a r i l y as an unpleasant a c t i v i t y . A market p l a c e or a shopping c e n t e r can not be a p p r a i s e d m e r e l y as a p l a c e f o r economic t r a n s a c t i o n s , though t h i s i s t h e i r main reason f o r e x i s t e n c e . 4 The C e n t r a l Business D i s t r i c t In more contemporary commercial h i s t o r y , Simmons i d e n t i -f i e s t h r e e s t a g e s i n t h e g r o w t h o f r e t a i l i n g i n N o r t h America. U n t i l the e a r l y 1900's, most r e t a i l development was c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t s w i t h o n l y s c a t t e r e d lower order uses such as food s t o r e s i n the o u t l y i n g a r e a s . A f t e r 1910 more s u b s t a n t i a l b u s i n e s s e s b e g a n t o d e v e l o p i n o u t l y i n g a r e a s a t t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n s o f major t r a f f i c r o u t e s and s p r e a d out from t h e r e . T h e s e became u n p l a n n e d s h o p p i n g c e n t e r s and r i b b o n c o m m e r c i a l develop-ments. Expansion of t h i s form of development continued u n t i l the d e p r e s s i o n and World War I I f o r c e d i t s c u r t a i l m e n t . The post-war p e r i o d brought e x t e n s i v e p o p u l a t i o n growth and r a p i d expansion o f r e t a i l f a c i l i t i e s , l a r g e l y i n the form o f planned s h o p p i n g c e n t e r s . E a c h new f o r m o f d e v e l o p m e n t was s u p e r - i m p o s e d on the p r e v i o u s one. As each new development 178 o c c u r r e d , i t produced changes i n t h e form and f u n c t i o n o f p r e v i o u s commercial developments. 5 As has been mentioned, the exchange o f goods has always t a k e n p l a c e a t t h e p o i n t where a c c e s s i b i l i t y i s most c o n v e n i e n t f o r t h e l a r g e s t number o f p e o p l e , and t h e s e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p o i n t s o f t e n grew i n t o v i l l a g e s and towns. The c e n t r a l a c c e s s p o i n t o f t h e s e v i l l a g e s and towns u s u a l l y became c o m p e t i t i v e l y s o ught a f t e r l o c a t i o n s f o r commercial development. The t y p i c a l p a t t e r n o f commercial l a n d use can be seen i n hundreds o f s m a l l towns and c i t i e s throughout North America. Commercial b u i l d i n g s a r e crowded around t h e main i n t e r s e c t i o n and along the highways l e a d i n g t o t h a t i n t e r s e c -t i o n . O f t e n , a m u n i c i p a l b u i l d i n g o r a c o u r t h o u s e and sometimes a few churches are i n t e r m i x e d w i t h , or are on the edge o f , the business complex. 6 Even i n l a r g e c i t i e s t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f "downtown" i s e v i d e n t . T r a v e l was r e s t r i c t e d , and e x c e p t f o r t h e c o r n e r g r o c e r y and s i m i l a r s t o r e s t h a t were the f o r e r u n n e r s o f the neighborhood shopping c e n t e r , almost a l l community a c t i v i t y was i n t h e a r e a known as downtown. Downtown was the f o c a l p o i n t o f commercial, b u s i n e s s , f i n a n c i a l , e n t e r t a i n m e n t and o f t e n r e l i g i o u s , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l endeavor. Because o f t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f c o n v e n i e n c e g o o d s , s h o p p i n g goods, s e r v i c e , f i n a n c i a l , i n s t i t u t i o n a l and other commercial a c t i v i t y , t h e "downtowns" o f s m a l l u r b a n a r e a s 179 (below 50,000 p o p u l a t i o n ) have been found t o c a p t u r e as much as 80% o f the communities' r e t a i l s a l e s . 7 The D e c e n t a l i z a t i o n o f R e t a i l i n g The d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n t r e n d i n urban areas came s h a r p l y i n t o focus d u r i n g the s u b d i v i s i o n boom o f the 1920's and the consequent r a p i d growth o f the o u t l y i n g p o p u l a t i o n . For some t i m e p r e v i o u s l y , however, o u t l y i n g d i s t r i c t s d e a l i n g i n s h o p p e r s goods had e x i s t e d i n most l a r g e c i t i e s . These d i s t r i c t s i n c r e a s i n g l y p r o v i d e d shoppers goods - goods o f only p e r i o d i c purchase, o f h i g h c o s t , and where shopping f o r s t y l e as w e l l as p r i c e i s customary - which f o r m e r l y had been a downtown monopoly. 8 The e a r l y 2 0 t h c e n t u r y s h o p p i n g d i s t r i c t s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a were e s t a b l i s h e d a t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and h i g h w a y t e r m i n a l s convenient f o r t r a i n and t r o l l e y t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . By the e a r l y 20th century the r e t a i l i n g p a t t e r n o f most c i t i e s had t a k e n shape. As p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d and the base o f automobile ownership widened, the c e n t r a l s h o p p i n g d i s t r i c t became i n c r e a s i n g l y c o n g e s t e d . 9 I n r e g a r d t o s h o p p e r s g o o d s f a c i l i t i e s two e v e n t s o c c u r r e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n the e a r l y 1920's which r e s u l t e d i n t h e g r e a t outward movement of shopping f a c i l i t i e s . One was the sudden i n c r e a s e i n the importance o f "standard brands" and the o ther was the i n c r e a s e i n automobile ownership. With the growth o f the mass p r o d u c t i o n i n d u s t r i e s and the appearance o f 180 n a t i o n a l a d v e r t i s i n g , n a t i o n a l b r a n d s b e c a m e w i d e l y d i s t r i b u t e d and c o u l d be purchased as e a s i l y i n one l o c a t i o n as another. There has s i n c e been an i n c r e a s i n g t r e n d f o r consumers t o purchase by n a t i o n a l brand at r e l a t i v e l y f i x e d n a t i o n a l p r i c e s . B e f o r e the e a r l y 1920's, the c e n t r a l shopping d i s t r i c t s were a l s o supported by the f a c t t h a t the o n l y convenient way to t r a v e l through the c i t y was by s t r e e t c a r , r a p i d t r a n s i t , or suburban r a i l r o a d . Most people c o u l d get downtown e a s i e r than to any other l o c a t i o n t h a t was more than a s h o r t d i s t a n c e form t h e i r home. With the i n c r e a s e i n automobile ownership and the r e p l a c e m e n t o f f i x e d r a i l t r a n s i t f a c i l i t i e s by motor bus l i n e s , whose routes c o u l d be changed e a s i l y , o u t l y i n g shopping d i s t r i c t s were a b l e t o e n l a r g e t h e i r t r a d i n g a r e a and i n t e r c e p t some o f t h e b u s i n e s s t h a t p r e v i o u s l y w e n t downtown. 1 0 U r b a n i t e s were no l o n g e r r e s t r i c t e d t o the s t r e e t c a r , bus, subway, o r s u burban r a i l l i n e . P r i v a t e a u t o m o b i l e s p r o v i d e d g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d m o b i l i t y and a c c e s s i b i l i t y . As the number o f a u t o m o b i l e s i n c r e a s e d , c o n g e s t i o n and d e l a y f o l l o w e d . T h i s e v e n t u a l l y l e d to r o a d - b u i l d i n g programs which speeded up the t r i p from town to country and opened new v i s t a s f o r e x p l o r a t i o n and a r e a s f o r l i v i n g . Some p e r c e p t i v e r e t a i l e r s and d e v e l o p e r s s e n s e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s emerging f r e e w h e e l i n g s o c i e t y . 1 1 181 The Growth o f Shopping Centres The f i r s t important suburban shopping c e n t e r s appeared i n the 1920's. These c e n t e r s were o f the unplanned v a r i e t y . In the U n i ted S t a t e s f o r example, c l u s t e r s o f s t o r e s and o f f i c e s sprang up around Sears Roebuck and Montgomery Ward o u t l e t s when t h e s e m a i l o r d e r c o m p a n i e s began o p e n i n g suburban s t o r e s . These s t o r e s drew customers out o f the downtown and p r o v i d e d p a r k i n g f o r t h e i r automobiles at the same time as they served the expanding suburban p o p u l a t i o n . As customer t r a f f i c appeared around the e a r l y suburban r e t a i l e r s , more and more independent merchants were a t t r a c t e d by t h e new oppor-t u n i t i e s t o l o c a t e t h e i r s t o r e s i n expanding suburban business d i s t r i c t s . 1 2 The f i r s t p l a n n e d or c o n t r o l l e d shopping c e n t e r which f i t s today's d e f i n i t i o n o f a r e g i o n a l s h o p p i n g c e n t e r was N o r t h g a t e , w h i c h opened i n 1950 i n a s u b u r b o f S e a t t l e , Washington. Northgate, however, d i d have i t s p r e d e c e s s o r s , t h o u g h n o t o f t h e same magnitude. A. p r o j e c t by The Roland P a r k C o m p a n y , b u i l t i n 1 9 0 7 i n B a l t i m o r e , was a n a r c h i t e c t u r a l l y u n i f i e d b u i l d i n g f o r s t o r e s s e t back from the s t r e e t . Kansas C i t y ' s C o u n t r y C l u b P l a z a , s t a r t e d i n t h e e a r l y 1920's, was a s u b u r b a n c o m m e r c i a l development w i t h u n i f i e d a r c h i t e c t u r a l treatment, l a n d s c a p i n g , and s p a c e f o r o f f - s t r e e t p a r k i n g . The s t o r e s were c o n t r o l l e d by management p o l i c i e s embracing the e n t i r e c e n t e r , a p r o t o t y p e f e a t u r e o f the planned shopping c e n t e r which l a t e r emerged. 1 3 182 The planned r e g i o n a l shopping c e n t e r i s a r e l a t i v e l y new North American phenomenon, but r e g i o n a l shopping c e n t e r s have more than made up f o r t h e i r l a t e a r r i v a l on t h e r e t a i l i n g s c e n e by d i s p l a y i n g astounding growth ever s i n c e Northgate; and consequently having an enormous a f f e c t on r e t a i l i n g and the commercial s t r u c t u r e . T he s h o p p i n g c e n t e r now e x i s t s i n c i t i e s o f w i d e l y d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s and p o l i t i c s . Shopping c e n t e r s have become a f e a t u r e o f t w e n t i e t h century megaculture and as such they are a prominent element i n modern urban landscapes as d i v e r s e as Houston, Budapest and Bangkok. 1 4 The success o f the shopping c e n t e r i n d u s t r y i s such t h a t i n t h e U.S.A. over 40 per cent o f r e t a i l s a l e s pass through l a r g e s h o p p i n g c e n t e r s . When s m a l l , s t r i p , o r t e r r a c e d e v e l o p m e n t s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f s h o p p i n g c e n t e r s , then t h i s f i g u r e r i s e s t o w e l l over 50 per c e n t . In both the U.S.A. and B r i t a i n s a l e s through shopping c e n t e r s are g r o w i n g a t a f a s t e r r a t e t h a n r e t a i l s a l e s g e n e r a l l y , r e s u l t i n g i n a s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g p r o p o r t i o n o f t r a d e i n these c e n t e r s . 1 5 The s h o p p i n g c e n t e r as we c o n s i d e r i t emerged around 1950. S t a t i s t i c s i n d i c a t e t h a t i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada t h e r e were approximately: 183 2,500 shopping c e n t e r s i n 1957 11,000 shopping c e n t e r s i n 1967 14,000 shopping c e n t e r s i n 1970 17,000 shopping c e n t e r s i n 197 3 Source: John Dawson, Shopping Center Development, 198 3. In the e a r l y 1970's shopping c e n t e r s i n the u n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada were o p e n i n g a t the r a t e o f 1000 per year; o f these f a c i l i t i e s , roughly 10% were i n the r e g i o n a l s i z e c a t e g o r y . However i n 1975 t h e r e were i n d i c a t i o n s of a d e c l i n e i n the number o f r e g i o n a l c e n t e r s being developed i n some major urban areas. T h i s t r e n d i s due p a r t l y t o s a t u r a t i o n and p a r t l y t o i n t e r v e n t i o n by governments who began to take a c l o s e r look at b o t h environmental e f f e c t s and more i n t e g r a t e d r e g i o n a l l a n d use p l a n n i n g . 1 6 C u r r e n t trends i n d i c a t e t h a t new shopping c e n t e r s w i l l be more c a r e f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the urban s t r u c t u r e . M u l t i - u s e c e n t e r s c o m p r i s i n g r e t a i l , r e s i d e n t i a l , o f f i c e and r e c r e a -t i o n a l space b u i l t as one s t r u c t u r e are becoming the model f o r development i n many areas. Factors Affecting Retailing and the Commercial Structure The t r e n d towards l a r g e r mixed c e n t e r s w i t h a b r o a d e r v a r i e t y o f b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e uses i m p l i e s t h a t t h e r e w i l l be g r e a t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e f u t u r e by p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s i n d e c i s i o n s a b o u t t h e l o c a t i o n o f r e t a i l 184 f l o o r s p a c e and the nature o f the space to be p r o v i d e d . P u b l i c p o l i c y i n e v i t a b l y p l a y s an expanded r o l e when town c e n t e r s are developed j o i n t l y by developers and l o c a l government. Under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s , t h e need f o r some form o f a n a l y t i c a l framework f o r e v a l u a t i n g t h e p u b l i c p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n o f l a r g e s c a l e , c o m p l e x d e v e l o p m e n t s becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y p r e s s i n g . 1 7 J.E. Vance o f f e r s a good review o f the f a c t o r s t h a t have r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n the commercial s t r u c t u r e . He a t t r i b u t e s t h e b u l k o f t h e changes t o improvements i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . I m p r o v e m e n t s i n t r a n s p o r t l e d t o t h e s p r e a d i n g out o f commercial development, f i r s t along s t r e e t c a r l i n e s , and then along major a r t e r i a l s as the a u t o m o b i l e became more dominant. Increased c o n g e s t i o n on these a r t e r i a l s and a need f o r i n c r e a s e d p a r k i n g r e s u l t e d i n the development o f the planned shopping c e n t e r . A s e cond dynamic f a c t o r has been changes i n p u r c h a s i n g power and t a s t e s . Per c a p i t a earnings a f t e r i n f l a t i o n have advanced t r e m e n d o u s l y i n b o t h Canada and the United S t a t e s s i n c e the beginning o f the century. Tastes have a l s o changed due t o t h e mass p r o d u c t i o n o f consumer goods and the preva-l e n c e o f a d v e r t i s i n g . A t h i r d major f a c t o r was the development o f new forms o f housing. The development o f low d e n s i t y suburbs d i l u t e d the s t r e n g t h o f the l o c a l market and made s t o r e s w i t h i n walking d i s t a n c e i m p r a c t i c a l . S i n c e a c a r was now e s s e n t i a l f o r 185 shopping, i t became r e l a t i v e l y easy f o r r e t a i l e r s t o expand t h e i r market p e n e t r a t i o n even f u r t h e r by o f f e r i n g a wider s e l e c t i o n o f goods and other i n c e n t i v e s . R e l a t e d t o the t h i r d f a c t o r was the adoption o f commer-c i a l zoning r e s t r i c t i o n s . T h e i r e f f e c t was t o s t a n d a r d i z e the urban l a n d use p a t t e r n and make l o c a t i o n a l i n n o v a t i o n d i f f i -c u l t f o r r e t a i l e r s . Zoning has been used t o p r o t e c t r e s i d e n -t i a l d e v elopment from the u n d e s i r a b l e e f f e c t s o f commercial development, such as i n c r e a s e d t r a f f i c . G e n e r a l l y , t h i s has r e s u l t e d i n the development o f l a r g e r more co n c e n t r a t e d r e t a i l f a c i l i t i e s i n a l i m i t e d number o f l o c a t i o n s . A f i n a l i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r h a s b e e n c h a n g i n g r e t a i l p r a c t i c e s , which have produced s i g n i f i c a n t b e n e f i t s f o r b o t h th e consumer and t h e r e t a i l e r . One o f t h e most important changes i s the i n c r e a s e i n s t o r e s i z e . The consumer b e n e f i t s due t o t h e w i d e r s e l e c t i o n o f goods o f f e r e d . The r e t a i l e r b e n e f i t s from the l a r g e r p o t e n t i a l market and the economies o f s c a l e p o s s i b l e from a l a r g e r o p e r a t i o n . Another important i n n o v a t i o n f o r both t h e consumer and t h e r e t a i l e r has been t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f l a b o u r s a v i n g p r a c t i c e s such as s e l f - s e r v e shopping. The consumer b e n e f i t s t h r o u g h l o w e r p r i c e s and improved convenience s i n c e w a i t i n g time i s g e n e r a l l y reduced. The o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p e r s o n a l i z e d s e r v i c e , w h i c h many cu s t o m e r s v a l u e , i s reduced. However, many r e t a i l e r s have been a b l e to compensate by p r o v i d i n g a s u p e r i o r s h o p p i n g e n v i r o n m e n t , t h u s r e d u c i n g the need f o r 186 s e r v i c e . The l a y o u t o f the s t o r e i s very c l e a r ; a s t a n d a r -d i z e d range o f goods i s o f f e r e d ; and a h i g h s t a n d a r d o f amenities i s maintained. The r e t a i l e r b e n e f i t s from t h e s e i n n o v a t i o n s by s u b s t i t u t i n g f i x e d c a p i t a l c o s t s f o r v a r i a b l e l a b o r c o s t s , thus p e r m i t t i n g p r o f i t margins to be more e a s i l y m a i n t a i n e d . 1 8 Through t h i s l i s t o f dynamic f a c t o r s Vance has p r o v i d e d a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what t r e n d s and d e v e l o p m e n t s have changed the urban commercial s t r u c t u r e over the l a s t 40 y e a r s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y what f o r c e s have encouraged the development o f l a r g e planned shopping c e n t e r s . What has been c o n s i d e r e d so f a r i s the g e n e r a l t r e n d -t h a t i s d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and t h e i n c r e a s i n g dominance o f planned c e n t e r s - t h a t has dominated changes i n the commercial s t r u c t u r e s i n c e the 1920's, as w e l l as the f a c t o r s t h a t have b r o u g h t t h i s a b out. A more c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e v i e w o f t h e changes o c c u r r i n g i n r e t a i l i n g i s p r o v i d e d by James Simmons. The c o n c l u s i o n s o f f e r e d by Simmons are r a t h e r dated, but h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f r e t a i l trends i s s t i l l o f v a l u e , as most of the t r e n d s c i t e d c o n t i n u e t o d a y . Simmons major p o i n t s on changes i n the r e t a i l p a t t e r n as o f 1964 are as f o l l o w s : 1) A r e l a t i v e l y f a s t e r i n c r e a s e i n l a b o r c o s t s d u r i n g the l a s t twenty f i v e years had c r e a t e d p r e s s u r e s t o s u b s t i t u t e c a p i t a l and s h i f t the p r o d u c t i o n f u n c t i o n s away from the use o f l a b o r . 187 2) R e n t s h a v e i n c r e a s e d more s l o w l y t h a n l a b o r c o s t s . The b u s i n e s s t y p e s w h i c h h a v e i n c r e a s e d t h e i r l a n d v a l u e t h e m o s t a r e t h o s e w h i c h p a y t h e h i g h e s t r e n t and u s e s p a c e m o s t i n t e n -s i v e l y . The s l o p e o f t h e b i d - r e n t c u r v e i s g e t t i n g s t e e p e r as h i g h e r - o r d e r f u n c t i o n s a r e i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r a c c e s s i b i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s and l o w - o r d e r g o o d s a r e b e c o m i n g l e s s d e p e n d e n t on p r i m e l o c a t i o n s . 3) T h e e f f e c t o f t h e s e s h i f t s i n c o s t s e n c o u r a g e s s u b s t i t u t i o n o f l a b o r and r e n t f o r c a p i t a l , p r o d u c i n g h i g h e r v o l u m e s t o r e s and more a u t o m a t i o n . I n e i t h e r c a s e , s u b s t i t u -t i o n o f f i x e d c o s t s f o r v a r i a b l e c o s t s a n d t h e p r o b l e m o f i n d i v i s i b i l i t i e s h a v e e n c o u r a g e d l a r g e r - s c a l e o p e r a t i o n s . 4) T h e i n c r e a s e s i n s t o r e s i z e w e r e made p o s s i b l e by t h e i n c r e a s e i n a u t o m o b i l e t r a v e l , w h i c h h a s w i d e n e d t h e p o t e n t i a l t r a d e a r e a o f e v e r y s t o r e . 1 9 T h e e c o n o m i c p r e s s u r e t o i n c r e a s e s c a l e more t h a n b a l a n c e s t h e c u s t o m e r ' s d e s i r e f o r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and t h e d e c r e a s e i n u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t i e s w h i c h i n c r e a s e t r a n s p o r t c o s t s f o r t h e c u s t o m e r . 5) T h e p a t t e r n o f c o n s u m p t i o n h a s s h i f t e d t o w a r d s h i g h e r o r d e r g o o d s i n r e s p o n s e t o i n c o m e a n d d e m o g r a p h i c c h a n g e s , i n c r e a s i n g t h e e c o n o m i c p r e s s u r e o n c o n v e n i e n c e g o o d s f a c i l i t i e s . 6) The p l a n n e d s h o p p i n g c e n t e r h a s c o m p l e t e l y t a k e n o v e r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f new s h o p p i n g g o o d s s t o r e s , m a k i n g t h e t r a d i -t i o n a l l a n d - v a l u e t h e o r y o f r e t a i l l o c a t i o n i r r e l e v a n t . Needs f o r p a r k i n g and a u t o m o b i l e a c c e s s a r e now s u c h t h a t t h e l a r g e r 188 the c e n t e r the l e s s l i k e l y i t w i l l occur i n a b u i l t - u p area, m a k i n g i t a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e f o r any u n p l a n n e d c e n t e r t o develop beyond the community l e v e l i n t h e f u t u r e . P l a n n e d c e n t e r s have destroyed p a r t o f the t r a d i t i o n a l c e n t r a l p l a c e s t r u c t u r e i n t h a t the p o p u l a t i o n o f a town or s u b u r b i s no l o n g e r always r e l a t e d t o the p o s i t i o n o f i t s r e t a i l f a c i l i t i e s i n the c e n t r a l p l a c e h i e r a r c h y . 7) Increased m o b i l i t y by the consumer and the nature o f the planned c e n t e r i s l e a d i n g t o g r e a t e r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f r e t a i l c onformations, which serve a narrow segment o f the p o p u l a t i o n over a wide area. T h i s s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s o c c u r r i n g b o t h by product, as i n automobile and f u r n i t u r e d i s t r i c t s , and by the socio-economic l e v e l o f the consumer. In the l a t t e r case the t e n d e n c y i s f o r whole c e n t e r s to compete r a t h e r than e s t a -b l i s h m e n t s w i t h i n c e n t e r s . In e f f e c t , a l l o l d e r r e t a i l concepts, i . e . , s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , c o m p e t i t i o n , t r a d e area, e t c . , are b e i n g a p p l i e d to a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l , t h e c e n t e r , r a t h e r than the e s t a b l i s h m e n t . 8) Small s c a t t e r e d s t o r e s i n r e s i d e n t i a l areas, neighborhood r i b b o n s , and s m a l l w a l k - i n c e n t e r s are d i s a p p e a r i n g . T h e i r d e c l i n e i s b a l a n c e d by t h e e x p a n s i o n o f u r b a n a r t e r i a l shopping and l a r g e independent markets and d i s c o u n t s t o r e s along major s t r e e t s . 9) R i n g s o f c e n t e r s mature and d e c l i n e as the p a t t e r n o f r e s i d e n t i a l s u c c e s s i o n moves o u t w a r d . 2 0 189 Some o f t h e s e changes a r e d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l elsewhere i n t h i s study where c e r t a i n problems e v o l v i n g out of the p r e c e d i n g trends are examined. In 1978 W i l l i a m Bolen looked at t r e n d s i n r e t a i l i n g and o f f e r e d the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s about c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p -ments: Downtown a r e a s a r e r e c e i v i n g more i n t e r e s t as good r e t a i l l o c a t i o n s i n the suburbs become harder t o f i n d . One r e c e n t example o f a new downtown s h o p p i n g c e n t e r i s Water Tower P l a c e i n Chicago. B u i l t on Michigan Avenue o u t s i d e the Loop, t h e c e n t e r serves the t r a n s i e n t market along w i t h i t s more t r a d i t i o n a l i n n e r - c i t y customer. A n o t h e r t r e n d f i n d s t h a t b i g g e r may n o t always be b e t t e r . T h i s t r e n d can be seen w i t h K-mart s t o r e s . K-mart i s b u i l d i n g s m a l l e r , 40,000-55,000 square f o o t s t o r e s f o r many areas as opposed to the l a r g e t r a d i t i o n a l K-mart s t o r e . In t h e p a s t , i f t h e a r e a c o u l d n o t s u p p o r t a l a r g e K-mart, n o t h i n g was b u i l t . Shopping m a l l s have a l s o promoted t h i s i d e a . S t o r e development w i l l a l s o be i n f l u e n c e d i n the f u t u r e by developments i n the energy f i e l d . The r e g i o n a l s h o p p i n g c e n t e r must draw from a l a r g e geographic area. I f g a s o l i n e p r i c e s i n c r e a s e , such c e n t e r s w i l l s u f f e r as consumers w i l l shop c l o s e r t o home. The l a r g e c e n t e r s e r v i n g a 100 square m i l e t r a d e area c o u l d become a t h i n g o f the p a s t i f the means t o t r a n s p o r t c u s t o m e r s becomes t o o e x p e n s i v e o r e v e n n o n e x i s t e n t . 2 1 190 Hypermarkets and Su p e r s t o r e s The f i n a l t r e n d we w i l l l o o k a t i s one t h a t i s j u s t o c c u r r i n g i n North America. C o n s e q u e n t l y r e s e a r c h on t h i s phenomena and even i t s d e f i n i t i o n a r e based on B r i t i s h or E u r o p e a n e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s t r e n d i s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f f r e e s t a n d i n g s t r u c t u r e s s u c h as t h e h y p e r m a r k e t and t h e s u p e r s t o r e . One o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t d e v e l o p m e n t s i n E u r o p e a n r e t a i l i n g s i n c e 1945 has been the emergence o f the hypermarket. The spread o f these s t o r e s i n Western Europe has been r a p i d . In 1960 t h e r e were on l y a few i n e x i s t e n c e , but by 1972 t h e r e were over 600. Most development has occu r r e d i n Germany, F r a n c e , B e l g i u m and Sweden, w i t h some i n o t h e r S c a n d i n a v i a n c o u n t r i e s . I t a l y has lagged b e h i n d b e c a u s e o f t r a d i n g laws which e f f e c t i v e l y prevented the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f hypermarkets u n t i l 1971, and i n B r i t a i n , the o p e r a t i o n o f the p l a n n i n g system has l i m i t e d the growth o f these s t o r e s . 2 2 To p r o v i d e a comprehensive d e f i n i t i o n o f the hypermarket and the s u p e r s t o r e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s u l t 2 s o u r c e s . Hypermarket: F r e e s t a n d i n g s t o r e s o f g r e a t e r than 50,000 gross square f e e t , w i t h some c o n t i n e n t a l European examples having as much as 200,000 square f e e t . One t h i r d o f the f l o o r space i s u s u a l l y devoted t o st o r a g e , but i n some i n s t a n c e s a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n i s g i v e n t o warehousing s i n c e the h a n d l i n g o f bulk d e l i v e r i e s t o achieve economies o f s c a l e i n p u r c h a s i n g i s a c e n t r a l f e a t u r e o f t h e r e t a i l o p e r a t i o n s . T y p i c a l l y , t h e 191 s a l e s areas r a t i o o f food t o non-food f l o o r s p a c e i s i n t h e o r d e r o f o n e - t h i r d : two t h i r d s . 2 3 i n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , the d e f i n i t i o n should i n c l u d e : 1) The a p p l i c a t i o n o f s e l f - s e r v i c e methods f o r both food and non-foods, w i t h payment c a r r i e d out by means o f 15 or more checkouts. 2) The s t o r e s are u s u a l l y l o c a t e d on the urban p e r i p h e r y or adja c e n t t o new i n d u s t r i a l developments o u t s i d e the p e r i p h e r y . 3) The p r o v i s i o n o f huge p a r k i n g a r e a s a d j a c e n t t o t h e s t o r e . These are used f r e e o f charge and a r e i n e x c e s s o f thr e e - t i m e s the s e l l i n g area. I t m i g h t be added t h a t s u c h s t o r e s a r e owned by one r e t a i l e r o r company, and may have c o n s i d e r a b l e s p a c e f o r warehousing and food p r e p a r a t i o n . There i s u s u a l l y a d e l i v e r y s e r v i c e f o r l a r g e r i t e m s and a f t e r - s a l e s s e r v i c e i s p r o -v i d e d . 2 4 Superstores are i n many ways s i m i l a r t o hypermarkets but ar e l i m i t e d i n t h e i r s i z e , t h e use o f mass m e r c h a n d i s i n g techniques and the p r o v i s i o n o f p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s . 2 5 S u p e r s t o r e : F r e e s t a n d i n g s i n g l e s t o r e s o f between 25,000 and 50,000 square f e e t . Once again, two t h i r d s o f the f l o o r space i s d e v o t e d t o s t o r a g e and w a r e h o u s i n g , but u n l i k e h y p e r -markets, two t h i r d s o f the s a l e s f l o o r s p a c e i s t y p i c a l l y g i v e n t o g r o c e r y r e t a i l i n g . 2 6 A d e f i n i t i o n o f the s u p e r s t o r e should a l s o i n c l u d e : 192 1) I t o f f e r s s e l f - s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s by means o f 10 to 20 checkouts which may or may not be d e p a r t m e n t a l i z e d between food and manufactured p r o d u c t s . 2) A s u p e r s t o r e i s l o c a t e d on the p e r i p h e r y o f a town and o f f e r s f r e e p a r k i n g on a l i m i t e d s c a l e between one and t h r e e times the s e l l i n g area. 3) The merchandising techniques used i n the s t o r e range from cut c a r t o n d i s p l a y s to l i m i t e d forms o f mass m e r c h a n d i s i n g which are determined by the s i z e o f the s t o r e . 2 7 R e s e a r c h on t h e s e two r e c e n t t r e n d s i s l i m i t e d and g e n e r a l l y o f t h e case study v a r i e t y , so few g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s can be made about t h e e f f e c t s o f h y p e r m a r k e t s and s u p e r -s t o r e s . H o w e v e r , i t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e i m p a c t o f s u p e r s t o r e s and hypermarkets on e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n s o f t r a d e w i l l d e p e n d on p o p u l a t i o n and t h e e x i s t i n g q u a l i t y and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f shopping f a c i l i t i e s i n the p a r t i c u l a r a r e a . They seem l i k e l y t o have an adverse e f f e c t on t r a d e i n the c e n t e r s o f r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l towns where a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f convenience shopping takes p l a c e i n the town c e n t e r . In l a r g e towns and c i t i e s where t h e r e i s a l r e a d y a h i g h d e g r e e o f s u b u r b a n s h o p p i n g t h e y are u n l i k e l y t o have as g r e a t o f an e f f e c t . 2 8 i n B r i t a i n , they have p r i m a r i l y been developed as components o f p l a n n e d c e n t e r s r a t h e r t h a n as f r e e s t a n d i n g o p e r a t i o n s . A c c e p t a n c e o f t h i s form o f l o c a t i o n by major dev e l o p e r s such as Tesco and Woolco i s evidence o f the impact o f p l a n n i n g c o n t r o l i n Great B r i t a i n . 2 9 The f i n a l t r e n d t h a t w i l l be n o t e d was o b s e r v e d by S.J. T i g e r t . I t i s h i g h l y r e l e v a n t t o t h i s study because i t should h e l p m u n i c i p a l planners understand the need f o r a more a p p r o p r i a t e commercial p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The time r e q u i r e d f o r new forms o f r e t a i l i n g t o r e a c h m a t u r i t y has been s t e a d i l y d e c l i n i n g . F o r example; t h e department s t o r e i n d u s t r y r e a c h e d m a t u r i t y o n l y a f t e r 100 y e a r s o f development. The d i s c o u n t department s t o r e appears t o have r e a c h e d m a t u r i t y i n 20 y e a r s . Home im p r o v e m e n t c e n t e r s , home f u r n i s h i n g warehouses and c a t a l o g u e showrooms appear to be r e a c h i n g m a t u r i t y i n about 10 y e a r s , or by 1980. The i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e p u b l i c p o l i c y a n a l y s t a r e apparent. I f new and emerging forms o f r e t a i l i n g are t o reach m a t u r i t y , and p o s s i b l y b e g i n t o d e c l i n e more r a p i d l y , the a n a l y s t must r e v i e w t h e l o c a t i o n needs o f r e t a i l i n g more f r e q u e n t l y . In a d d i t i o n , the p o l i c i e s t h a t are adopted must be l i m i t e d i n t h e i r l o n g range commitments so t h a t a p l a n may be r e a d i l y changed or d i s c a r d e d as d i c t a t e d by c h a n g i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s . 3 0 C o n c l u s i o n A p p e n d i x I has presented i n f o r m a t i o n on the h i s t o r y o f r e t a i l / c o m m e r c i a l developments. F a c t o r s t h a t have a f f e c t e d changes i n r e t a i l i n g and the commercial s t r u c t u r e , as w e l l as the consequences o f some o f these changes were a l s o analyzed. Changes and stages i n r e t a i l i n g t h a t were d i s c u s s e d i n c l u d e d 194 the beginnings o f commercial exchange, c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n t h e C.B.D., the d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n t r e n d , and the growth o f shopping c e n t r e s , hypermarkets and s u p e r s t o r e s . APPENDIX I I : THE COMMERCIAL STRUCTURE I n t r o d u c t i o n To a p p r e c i a t e how commercial development has evolved i n urban areas, the problems i t has encountered, and how m u n i c i -p a l p l a n n e r s d e a l w i t h r e t a i l i n g and other forms o f commercial a c t i v i t y ; one s h o u l d h a v e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c e r t a i n r e l a t i v e l y accepted norms t h a t planners and p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the r e t a i l i n g i n d u s t r y use to view and understand commercial a c t i v i t y . These norms i n c l u d e an a c c e p t a n c e o f a c e r t a i n s p a t i a l and c a t e g o r i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f commercial development. The exact nature o f the commercial s t r u c t u r e adhered t o i s not always the same, but s i n c e r e s e a r c h i n t h i s f i e l d r e a c h e d a c e r t a i n degree o f m a t u r i t y i n the e a r l y 1960's, the g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l s t r u c t u r e has r e m a i n e d f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t . Most m a t e r i a l w r i t t e n on the urban commercial s t r u c t u r e i s r a t h e r dated, but i t s v a l i d i t y and u s e f u l n e s s remain u n q u e s t i o n a b l e . Appendix I I does not p r o v i d e a complete a n a l y s i s o f the c o m m e r c i a l s t r u c t u r e and how s p e c i f i c r e t a i l o p e r a t i o n s i n t e r a c t w i t h i n the s t r u c t u r e . Instead, the b a s i c purpose i s to p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t understanding o f the s t r u c t u r e and the terms t h a t a r e i n v o l v e d t o f a c i l i t a t e comprehension o f the manner i n which r e t a i l i n g i s analysed on a macro b a s i s . 196 G e n e r a l D e s c r i p t i o n s o f The Commercial S t r u c t u r e The commercial f a c i l i t i e s o f a c i t y form a system, a s e t of i n t e r r e l a t e d elements which i n t e r a c t t o c r e a t e a r e c o g n i z -a b l e s t r u c t u r e . There i s a c o n s i s t e n t emergence o f s i m i l a r b u s i n e s s t y p e s and c o m m e r c i a l a g g r e g a t i o n s . The c e n t e r s , planned and unplanned, form a h i e r a r c h y : l a r g e c e n t e r s s e r v e the s p e c i a l i z e d needs o f the customers i n the t r a d e areas o f many s m a l l e r c e n t e r s , e a c h c e n t e r p r o v i d i n g t h e goods and s e r v i c e s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r i t s l e v e l t o most o f the r e s i d e n t s w i t h i n i t s t r a d i n g area. The s p e c i a l i z e d areas on the other hand a r e g r o u p i n g s o f one or two business types which seek mutual b e n e f i t from t h e i r s p a t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n and s e r v e t h e whole, or a l a r g e p a r t , o f the m e t r o p o l i t a n area p o p u l a t i o n . Between these extremes are r e t a i l r i b b o n s , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e f o r m o f t h e i r s p a t i a l g r o u p i n g . The t r a d i t i o n a l shopping s t r e e t i s a v a r i a n t of t h e s m a l l e r c e n t e r . O t h e r forms o f ribbons are more complex forms o f s p e c i a l i z e d areas, whose t r a d i n g areas are d e f i n e d by the o r i g i n and d e s t i n a t i o n of the major t r a f f i c a r t e r i e s which they s t r a d d l e . The numbers and types o f commercial f a c i l i t i e s i n an area are determined by the s i z e and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the popula-t i o n they s e r v e . A g i v e n p o p u l a t i o n at a g i v e n income l e v e l c an s u p p o r t o n l y a c e r t a i n number o f s t o r e s . The types o f s t o r e s l o c a t e d i n an a r e a a r e d e t e r m i n e d by t h e o p e r a t i n g t h r e s h o l d s o f the s t o r e s and t h e i r minimum s u p p o r t i n g popula-t i o n . Moreover, d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l areas demand d i f f e r e n t types 197 o f s t o r e s . Trade area s i z e , p o p u l a t i o n , income l e v e l , s a l e s , number of e s t a b l i s h m e n t s and number of b u s i n e s s types can be c l o s e l y r e l a t e d by means o f r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s . Given these r e l a t i o n s h i p s , changes i n p o p u l a t i o n or the socio-economic s t a t u s o f an a r e a c r e a t e p r e s s u r e s on t h e c o m m e r c i a l f a c i l i t i e s and l e a d t o s h o r t - r u n s u r p l u s e s or d e f i c i e n c i e s of r e t a i l s p a c e . 1 The p r e c e d i n g d e s c r i p t i o n o f the commercial s t r u c t u r e was presented by James Simmons i n 1966, but as much as 10 y e a r s b e f o r e , more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the commercial s t r u c t u r e were a v a i l a b l e . The f o l l o w i n g i s Eugene K e l l y ' s p e r c e p t i o n of the r e t a i l s t r u c t u r e i n 1956: T a b l e XVI The R e t a i l S t r u c t u r e 1. C e n t r a l Business D i s t r i c t A. Inner core B. Inner b e l t C. Outer b e l t 2. Main Business Thoroughfares ( S t r i n g S t r e e t s ) 3. Secondary Commercial S u b - D i s t r i c t s (unplanned) A. Neighborhood B. Community or D i s t r i c t C. Suburban or Outer 3a. C o n t r o l l e d Secondary Commercial Sub-Centers A. Neighborhood B. Community or D i s t r i c t C. Suburbs or Outer 4. Neighborhood Business S t r e e t s 5. Small C l u s t e r s and S c a t t e r e d I n d i v i d u a l S t o r e s 6. C o n t r o l l e d R e g i o n a l Shopping Centers. Source: E u g e n e K e l l y , S h o p p i n g C e n t e r s : L o c a t e d  C o n t r o l l e d R e g i o n a l Centers, 1956. 198 The c o m m e r c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f t o d a y i s n o t r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t t o t h a t o f f e r e d by K e l l y i n 1956, but B r i a n Berry d i d d i s c o v e r some inadequacies i n K e l l y ' s t h e o r e t i c a l concept. Berry claimed t h e r e were f o u r groups o f business types w i t h i n urban areas. Each group comprises a s e t o f b u s i n e s s t y p e s d e f i n e d on the b a s i s o f s p a t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n and l o c a t i o n . The g r o u p s were o b t a i n e d by s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , u s i n g c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i c e s and c l u s t e r s e a r c h methods, without a p r i o r i judgment as t o t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f b u s i n e s s t y p e s . L o c a l examples are p r o v i d e d a f t e r each c a t e g o r y . Nucleated Types: Nucleated business types are those normally a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c e n t r a l p l a c e s or s h o p p i n g c e n t e r s : food, drug, v a r i e t y , c l o t h i n g , shoe, department s t o r e s , barber and beauty shops, banks, p r o f e s s i o n a l o f f i c e s , and so f o r t h . They occur i n the h i e r a r c h y of business c e n t e r s and t r a d e a r e a s , from t h e l o w e s t l e v e l o f u b i q u i t o u s g e n e r a l s t o r e s to the l e v e l o f r e g i o n a l s h o p p i n g c e n t e r s and c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t s . A l l c e n t e r s compete to p r o v i d e low order goods and s e r v i c e s but lower o r d e r t r a d e a r e a s depend upon t h e h i g h order c e n t e r s f o r h i g h order goods. The concepts o f "range" and " t h r e s h o l d " have pr o v i d e d a e x p l a n a t i o n o f the s p a t i a l and h i e r a r c h i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s assumed by t h i s n u c l e a t e d group. Examples o f the n u c l e a t e d types i n G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r range from the neighborhood 7-11 s t o r e t o the dominant p o s i t i o n of downtown Vancouver. In between, examples i n c l u d e Landsdowne 1 9 9 M a l l , B r o a d m o o r S h o p p i n g C e n t r e and K i t s i l a n o S h o p p i n g C e n t r e , r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e R e g i o n a l S h o p p i n g C e n t r e , t h e N e i g h b o r h o o d S h o p p i n g C e n t r e and t h e Community S h o p p i n g C e n t r e . U r b a n A r t e r i a l T y p e s : U r b a n a r t e r i a l b u s i n e s s t y p e s l o c a t e o n l y i n c i t i e s , a n d w i t h i n c i t i e s s e e k s i t e s a l o n g m a j o r t r a f f i c a r t e r i e s . They i n c l u d e f u r n i t u r e , a p p l i a n c e , and f u e l d e a l e r s , b a r s , a n d a u t o m o b i l e r e p a i r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . I n a s s o c i a t i o n t h e y c o n t r i b u t e t o f a m i l i a r r i b b o n d e v e l o p m e n t s . A l o c a l e x a m p l e o f t h e U r b a n A r t e r i a l T y p e i s K i n g s w a y i n V a n c o u v e r . H i g h w a y O r i e n t e d T y p e s : Gas s t a t i o n s , r e s t a u r a n t s , m o t e l s , e t c . , a r e o r i e n t e d t o h i g h w a y d e m a n d s , w h e r e v e r t h e r e i s j u s t i f i c a t i o n i n t r a f f i c v o l u m e s . Good h i g h w a y s a l s o p r o v i d e a c c e s s t o l a r g e c h e a p s i t e s ; and t h e s e s i t e s a t t r a c t l u m b e r y a r d s , b u i l d i n g s u p p l y e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , and r e p a i r s e r v i c e s . T o g e t h e r , t h e b u s i n e s s t y p e s s u p p l y i n g h i g h w a y demands and t h e c o n c e r n s r e q u i r i n g b o t h good a c c e s s and s p a c e c o n s t i t u t e t h e h i g h w a y o r i e n t e d g r o u p . H i g h w a y O r i e n t e d T y p e s g e n e r a l l y f l o u r i s h a l o n g t h e m a j o r a p p r o a c h e s t o G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , s u c h a s a l o n g H i g h w a y 7 e a s t o f V a n c o u v e r . L o c a l i z e d B u s i n e s s T y p e s : C e r t a i n b u s i n e s s t y p e s a r e f o u n d l o c a l i z e d i n s p e c i a l i z e d d i s t r i c t s r a t h e r t h a n d i s p e r s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e u r b a n a r e a i n many b u s i n e s s c e n t e r s . The m o s t 200 common o f these d i s t r i c t s i s automobile row, w i t h i t s d e a l e r s i n new and used a u t o m o b i l e s . 2 L o c a l i z e d Business Types e x i s t a t the Richmond Auto M a l l ( i n a planned form) and along South West Marine D r i v e , w i t h i t s f u r n i t u r e s t o r e s . B e r r y a l s o d i s c o v e r e d t h a t p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e d i d n o t acknowledge a l l the d i f f e r e n t groups o f b u s i n e s s t y p e s . The p l a n n i n g concept o f a t r i c h o t o m y o f b u s i n e s s c e n t e r s - l ) n e i g h b o r h o o d s u p p l y i n g c o n v e n i e n c e goods, 2) community s u p p l y i n g both convenience and shopping goods, and 3) r e g i o n a l s u p p l y i n g a l l types o f goods and s e r v i c e s - i s now g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d and used as a b a s i s f o r z o n i n g . However, t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l trichotomy d e s c r i b e s only the n u c l e a t e d business c e n t e r s . I t does n o t c o n s i d e r highway o r i e n t e d or u r b a n a r t e r i a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t s , n o r d o e s i t s u g g e s t t h a t l o c a l i z e d developments can e x i s t . 3 I n c o m p a r i n g B e r r y ' s g r o u p i n g w i t h K e l l y ' s r e t a i l s t r u c t u r e , two c a t e g o r i e s appear to be m i s s i n g . There does not appear t o be a n y t h i n g r e s e m b l i n g t h e Highway O r i e n t e d Types o r t h e L o c a l i z e d B u s i n e s s Types i n K e l l y ' s t y p o l o g y . H o w ever, t h e U r b a n A r t e r i a l T y p e d o e s a p p e a r t o be a c k n o w l e d g e d u n d e r t h e c a t e g o r y o f M a i n B u s i n e s s Thoroughfares. I f B r i a n Berry was not s a t i s f i e d w i t h the c u r r e n t s t a t e o f knowledge o f the urban commercial s t r u c t u r e , he c e r t a i n l y h e l p e d t o r e c t i f y the s i t u a t i o n . In the e a r l y 1960's Berry 201 w r ote Commercial S t r u c t u r e and Commercial B l i g h t , which has s i n c e become one of the most respected and r e f e r e n c e d books i n i t s f i e l d . H i s d e t a i l e d review o f the l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h the commercial s t r u c t u r e o f American c i t i e s concludes t h a t o u t s i d e t h e c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t the s t r u c t u r e i s comprised o f f o u r b a s i c components. They are: a) A h i e r a r c h y o f business c e n t e r s . b) Highways-oriented commercial r i b b o n s . c) Urban a r t e r i a l commercial developments. d) S p e c i a l i z e d f u n c t i o n a l areas. The h i e r a r c h y o f b u s i n e s s c e n t e r s a p p e a r s t o have at l e a s t f o u r l e v e l s beneath the m e t r o p o l i t a n c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t . ' In ascending order they a r e : i ) I s o l a t e d convenience s t o r e s and " s t r e e t c o r n e r " develop-ments . i i ) Neighborhood business c e n t e r s . i i i ) Community business c e n t e r s . i v ) R e g i o n a l shopping c e n t e r s . The f i r s t o f these l e v e l s c o n s i s t s o f a g r o c e r - d r u g s t o r e combination, and serves only the o c c a s i o n a l demands o f people r e s i d i n g w i t h i n a two or t h r e e block r a d i u s of the s t r e e t -c o r n e r . A neighborhood c e n t e r on the other hand, has grocery s t o r e s o r s m a l l supermarkets, d r u g s t o r e s , l a u n d r i e s and dry c l e a n e r s , barber and beauty shops and a s m a l l r e s t a u r a n t . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e f u n c t i o n s t h e community l e v e l i n c l u d e s 202 v a r i e t y a n d c l o t h i n g s t o r e s , b a k e r i e s a n d p e r h a p s c o n f e c t i o n e r s , f l o r i s t s and a. post o f f i c e . At the r e g i o n a l l e v e l , department s t o r e s , shoe s t o r e s , s p e c i a l i z e d m u s i c , r e c o r d , hobby and toy shops, photographic s t o r e s , and so f o r t h are added. 4 S u c h c e n t e r s may be e i t h e r p l a n n e d o r u n p l a n n e d . P l a n n i n g , however, a f f e c t s the d e s i g n o f c e n t e r s r a t h e r than t h e i r f u n c t i o n s . The major d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t i n the s m a l l e r planned c e n t e r s p e r i p h e r a l uses are m i s s i n g and d u p l i c a t i o n o f s t o r e s o f the same k i n d i s minimized. Centers d i s p l a y s p a t i a l p a t t e r n s t h a t c o n f o r m t o t h e g e o g r a p h i c d i s t r i b u t i o n o f consumers. E a c h i s l o c a t e d c e n t r a l l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o the maximum number o f consumers i t can s e r v e , although the s i z e o f i t s t r a d e area i s maintained i n t h e c o u r s e o f c o m p e t i t i o n a t a b o u t t h e minimum s i z e n e c e s s a r y t o s u p p o r t i t s most s p e c i a l i z e d f u n c t i o n s ( i t s t h r e s h o l d s i z e ) . T h e r e i s p r e s s u r e f o r s t o r e s t o group, r e s u l t i n g from the tendency o f consumers t o make a s i n g l e t r i p between one c e n t e r and t h e i r homes, s h o p p i n g from s t o r e t o s t o r e i n the c e n t e r f o r the s e t o f goods which they expect t o be o f f e r e d a t t h a t l e v e l o f c e n t e r . F u n c t i o n s a t any one l e v e l are thus " l i n k e d " i n t o n u c l e a t i o n by consumers' d e s i r e s t o make s e v e r a l types of purchases on a s i n g l e t r i p . The h i e r a r c h y r e s u l t s b ecause a) on t h e s u p p l y s i d e , d i f f e r e n t commercial f u n c t i o n s have d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s o f e n t r y ( t h r e s h o l d s ) , and thus, demand minimum t r a d e areas o f 203 d i f f e r e n t s i z e s f o r t h e i r support, and b) on the demand s i d e , consumers spend d i f f e r i n g p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e i r income on d i f f e r e n t goods and s e r v i c e s , and purchase them w i t h d i f f e r i n g degrees of frequency. Low t h r e s h o l d , h i g h frequency f u n c t i o n s a r e f o u n d i n l o w e r - l e v e l n u c l e a t i o n s ( " c o n v e n i e n c e goods c e n t e r s " ) , whereas h i g h t h r e s h o l d , low frequency f u n c t i o n s are found i n h i g h e r - l e v e l n u c l e a t i o n s s e r v i n g l a r g e r t r a d e a r e a s ( " s h o p p i n g good c e n t e r s " ) . T h e s e f a c t o r s l e a d t o t h e emergence o f at l e a s t f o u r groups o f f u n c t i o n s and t h e r e f o r e f o u r l e v e l s o f c e n t e r s , from the most t o the l e a s t u b i q u i t o u s , from t h e s t r e e t c o r n e r t o t h e c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t . C o m p e t i t i o n between c e n t e r s o f any one l e v e l reduces t h e i r areas near t o t h r e s h o l d , and spreads the c e n t e r s t h r o u g h o u t t h e c i t y i n a d i s p e r s e d g e o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n o f consumer o r i e n t a t i o n , e a c h c e n t r a l t o i t s own t r a d e a r e a . 5 A more d e t a i l e d , breakdown o f Berry's f o u r b a s i c components i n t h e commercial s t r u c t u r e i s shown i n Table XVII. Most o f the r e f e r e n c e s c i t e d are dated and are w r i t t e n i n an A m e r i c a n c o n t e x t , but are s t i l l h i g h l y r e l e v a n t , as the commercial s t r u c t u r e has n o t w i t n e s s e d s i g n i f i c a n t changes s i n c e t h e g r o w t h o f t h e r e g i o n a l s h o p p i n g c e n t e r . The d i f f e r e n c e i n n a t i o n a l s e t t i n g between Canada and the United S t a t e s d o e s n o t pose a l a r g e b a r r i e r e i t h e r , as can be a s c e r t a i n e d t h r o u g h e x a m i n i n g Simmons' book on T o r o n t o ' s  C h a n g i n g R e t a i l C o m p l e x , w h i c h examines i t s c o m m e r c i a l s t r u c t u r e . BASIC COMPONENTS IN THE COMMERCIAL STRUCTURE C E N T E R S I Pl.innud or Unplanned CONV. NEIGUB'D COMMUNITY REGIONAL METROPOLITAN C.B.D. RIBBONS TRADITIONAL SHOPPING STREET URBAN ARTERIAL NEW SUBURBAN RIBBON HIGHWAY ORIENTED Planned (Plaza) Unplanned SPECIALIZED AREAS AUTOMOBII.E ROWS [ ' PRINTING DISTRICTS • ENTERTAINMENT DISTRICTS EXOTIC MARKETS • FURNITURE DISTRICTS MEDICAL CENTERS Planned Unplannod 1-3 O' (—1 ro < ro o -p-Source: B r i a n Berry, Commercial S t r u c t u r e and Commercial B l i g h t , 1963. I t i s apparent t h a t c e r t a i n models and concepts are used to determine the nature o f the commercial s t r u c t u r e i n urban areas. The debate concerning the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f e x i s t i n g models and t h e o r i e s c o n t i n u e s at the r e s e a r c h f r o n t i e r s o f both r e t a i l i n g geography and s p a t i a l marketing s t u d i e s . T h i s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h l o c a t i o n a l matters remains d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t s u c h q u e s t i o n s have now commanded t h e a t t e n t i o n o f w o r k e r s i n t h e f i e l d f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e . 6 Indeed, s t u d y i n g the commercial s t r u c t u r e o f urban areas does l e a d to a c o n c e n t r a t i o n on s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s among r e t a i l e r s and between r e t a i l e r s and c o n s u m e r s , w h i l e e x c l u d i n g o t h e r important i s s u e s i n the r e t a i l i n g f i e l d , such as the nature o f the r e t a i l i n g form. C e n t r a l P l a c e Theory One t h e o r y t h a t must be c o n s i d e r e d t h e s t r o n g e s t i n f l u e n c e on the deductions t h a t l e d to the acceptance o f the commercial s t r u c t u r e was developed to e x p l a i n the l o c a t i o n of i n t e r - u r b a n t e r t i a r y a c t i v i t i e s , but i t has b e e n w i d e l y a d a p t e d t o t h e i n t r a - u r b a n c o n t e x t . The b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s a f f e c t i n g the l o c a t i o n of t e r t i a r y economic a c t i v i t i e s were f i r s t d e d u c e d i n a c o m p r e h e n s i v e manner by a German geographer, Walter C h r i s t a l l e r . The b a s i c c o n c e p t o f c e n t r a l p l a c e t h e o r y i s n e a t l y embodied i n a q u o t a t i o n from C h r i s t a l l e r : ' C e n t r a l goods and s e r v i c e s are produced and o f f e r e d at a few n e c e s s a r i l y c e n t r a l 206 p o i n t s i n order to be consumed at many s c a t t e r e d p o i n t s ' , so t h a t the d e r i v a t i o n o f the theory can b r i e f l y be e x p l a i n e d as f o l l o w s . C h r i s t a l l e r noted f o r any good o f f e r e d at a c e n t r a l p o i n t , t h e c o s t i n c u r r e d by the consumer i n c r e a s e s w i t h h i s d i s t a n c e o f l o c a t i o n from the c e n t e r , due to t r a n s p o r t c o s t s . At a c e r t a i n d i s t a n c e from the market, t h e r e f o r e , a p o i n t w i l l be reached a t which the demand f o r the good w i l l be zero. The maximum d i s t a n c e o v e r which t h e consumers are prepared to t r a v e l or over which t h e y a r e w i l l i n g t o s h i p t h e good i s known as i t s range. Under c o m p e t i t i v e c o n d i t i o n s t h e r e w i l l a l s o be a lower l i m i t t o the range. T h i s has s u b s e q u e n t l y come t o be known as 'the t h r e s h o l d ' , t h a t i s the minimum s a l e s volume or market area needed to ensure the v i a b i l i t y o f f i r m s o f f e r i n g the good. C h r i s t a l l e r developed h i s theory i n terms o f t h e u p p e r l i m i t o f t h e range and n o t on t h e b a s i s o f t h r e s h o l d s . For g e n e r a l purposes, i t i s adequate to assume a h i g h degree o f p h y s i c a l and socio-economic u n i f o r m i t y and the b e h a v i o u r a l e x i s t e n c e o f economic man i n t h e C h r i s t a l l e r s ystem. 7 There are many other models and t h e o r i e s t h a t have had an i n f l u e n c e on p e r c e p t i o n s of the commercial s t r u c t u r e , but none as much as c e n t r a l p l a c e t h e o r y . A major reason f o r t h i s i s t h a t most t h e o r i e s and models o f urban r e t a i l l o c a t i o n i n the l a s t 50 years have been a v a r i a t i o n o f c e n t r a l p l a c e theory. As an example, a l l o f the f o l l o w i n g t h e o r i e s and models f i n d t h e i r b a s i s i n c e n t r a l p l a c e theory: the c l a s s i c a l economic 207 landscape o f Losch, Berry and G a r r i s o n s ' t h e o r y o f t e r t i a r y a c t i v i t y , m o d e l s o f h i e r a r c h i c a l s u b s y s t e m s , v a r i a b l e K c e n t r a l p l a c e models, and i n t r a - u r b a n f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e L o s c h i a n system. 8 C o n c l u s i o n I t i s not the purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s t o debate the m e r i t s o f v a r i o u s models and t h e o r i e s used t o understand the commer-c i a l o r r e t a i l s t r u c t u r e . I t i s concluded t h a t models and t h e o r i e s do have an important r o l e t o p l a y i n s t u d i e s o f urban r e t a i l i n g , although i t i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y u n r e a l i s t i c to expect any one f o r m u l a t i o n t o match every f a c e t o f r e a l i t y . A l l models have both m e r i t s and l i m i t a t i o n s . 9 The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on c o m m e r c i a l s t r u c t u r e i s more a p p a r e n t i n t h e t e x t , as i t becomes obvious t h a t the s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f commercial e s t a b l i s h m e n t s t h a t was found t o e x i s t 30 years ago has become r e i n f o r c e d by market f o r c e s as w e l l as by m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e . Changes have occu r r e d i n the commercial s t r u c t u r e , but i t i s w e l l known t h a t p l a n n i n g t o o l s such as zoning have i n t r o d u c e d a g r e a t d e a l o f s t a b i l i t y and i n e r t i a i n t o the commercial s t r u c t u r e . P o t t e r c o n s i d e r s i t f a i r c r i t i c i s m t o v e n t u r e t h a t p l a n n e r s have been o v e r - z e a l o u s i n t h e i r ad-herence t o the n o t i o n o f a neat i n t r a - u r b a n r e t a i l i n g h i e -r a r c h y . I t a p p e a r s t h a t i n t h e f u t u r e , a more f l e x i b l e a t t i t u d e w i l l be r e q u i r e d . 1 0 208 Appendix I I has pro v i d e d t h e r e a d e r w i t h some i n s i g h t i n t o t h e c o m m e r c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f u r b a n a r e a s i n o r d e r t o f u r n i s h a s u f f i c i e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t h a s e v o l v e d i n u r b a n a r e a s and o f c e r t a i n r e l a t i v e l y a c c e p t e d norms and t e r m s t h a t p l a n n e r s and c o m m e r c i a l l a n d u s e d e v e l o p e r s u s e t o view and understand commercial a c t i v i t y . D e s c r i p t i o n s o f the commercial s t r u c t u r e by K e l l y , Simmons, and B e r r y , as w e l l as C h r i s t a l l e r ' s C e n t r a l P l a c e Theory have been i n c l u d e d as background i n f o r m a t i o n . 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0097006/manifest

Comment

Related Items