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Effects of log storage on zooplankton and juvenile salmonids in Babine Lake, British Columbia Power, Elizabeth A. 1987

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EFFECTS OF LOG STORAGE ON ZOOPLANKTON AND JUVENILE SALMONIDS BABINE LAKE, BRITISH COLUMBIA by ELIZABETH A . BSc.  POWER  The U n i v e r s i t y Of B r i t i s h Columbia  1984  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Zoology) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February 1987 ©  Elizabeth A.  Power,  1987  the  In  presenting  degree  this  at the  thesis  in  partial fulfilment  of  University of  British Columbia,  I agree  freely available for reference copying  of  department publication  this or  this  his  or  her  Department The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6(3/81)  ftfe  in  (  that the  representatives.  may be It  thesis for financial gain shall not  permission.  requirements  I further agree  thesis for scholarly purposes by  of  and study.  the  for  an  advanced  Library shall make it  that permission  for extensive  granted  head  is  by the  understood be  that  allowed without  of  my  copying  or  my written  i  ABSTRACT Effects zooplankton Babine  and  Lake,  field  of  and  log  juvenile  British  storage salmonids  Columbia  laboratory  in  experiments.  on  water  were  quality,  investigated  at  a s e r i e s of e n c l o s u r e , E n c l o s u r e s were stocked  with l a k e zooplankton and t r e a t e d w i t h l o d g e p o l e p i n e  (Pinus  Contorta)  two 25  day  and  white  periods.  spruce ( P i c e a glauca)  Oxygen  depletion,  to l e v e l s as low as  m g / l , and i n c r e a s e d l i g n i n and t a n n i n measure  of  wood  enclosures. with  leachate)  Zooplankton  increased  log  (L-T)  2.5  concentration  occurred  density  number,  logs for  in  log  (a  treated  s i g n i f i c a n t l y decreased  but  changes  in  community  d i v e r s i t y were not c o n s i s t e n t .  In  field  studies  at  Morrison  extreme oxygen d e p l e t i o n  (<1 mg/l)  surface  a  studies movement,  waters  within  within  the  log  log  was observed i n  storage  bundles  in  area.  implied  localized Dye t r a c e r  reduced  water  which may be i n v o l v e d i n oxygen d e p l e t i o n .  Local  zooplankton abundance was u s u a l l y lower at than  Arm, Babine L a k e ,  l o g storage  nearby u n d i s t u r b e d l i t t o r a l s i t e s and sockeye f r y situ  for  24  h  periods  sites held  a c q u i r e d fewer a n d / o r a lower  d i v e r s i t y of prey items i n l o g storage a r e a s .  Laboratory  toxicity  s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e d that spruce  bark l e a c h a t e s were more t o x i c than p i n e , but l e t h a l l y  toxic  bark the  l e a c h a t e s had higher L - T v a l u e s than those measured Morrison  bioassays, fecundity  to  Because  experiments,  by  possibly  abundance,  area.  In c h r o n i c Daphnia  significantly decreased  increased  diet there  field  studies  chronic was is  which  and  accompany  toxicity  sensitive potential  or  and  d u r i n g long term Results laboratory  evidence that zooplankton are reduced  conditions  through fry  rates  significantly  provide  abundance  storage  low c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of bark l e a c h a t e s .  enclosure  bioassays  log  mortality rates  exposure of  Arm  in  log  reduce  in  storage, fecundity.  to s m a l l changes i n food for  reduced  survival  of  sockeye f r y exposed to low oxygen c o n c e n t r a t i o n s and reduced food l e v e l s .  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . 1. GENERAL INTRODUCTION 2. ENCLOSURE EXPERIMENTS 2.1 INTRODUCTION 2 .2 METHODS 2. 3 RESULTS 2.3.1 Bark treatments ( 1984) 2 . 3 . 1 . 1 Water q u a l i t y 2 . 3 . 1 . 2 . Zooplankton 2.3.2 Log treatments (1985) 2 . 3 . 2 . 1 Water Q u a l i t y 2 . 3 . 2 . 2 Zooplankton 2.4 DISCUSSION 2.4.1 Water Q u a l i t y 2.4.2 Zooplankton 3. FIELD STUDY 3.1 INTRODUCTION 3.1.1 Water r e s i d e n c e and water q u a l i t y 3.1.2 Food supply and d i e t of sockeye f r y 3 . 2 METHODS 3.2.1 Water r e s i d e n c e and water q u a l i t y 3.2.2 Food supply and d i e t of sockeye f r y 3.3 RESULTS 3.3.1 Water residence and water q u a l i t y 3.3.2 Food supply and d i e t of sockeye f r y 3 . 3 . 2 . 1 Zooplankton abundance 3 . 3 . 2 . 2 Stomach Contents 3.4 DISCUSSION 4. BIOASSAY EXPERIMENTS 4.1 INTRODUCTION 4.2 METHODS 4.2.1 Daphnia b i o a s s a y s 4 . 2 . 1 . 1 Test organisms 4 . 2 . 1 . 2 Bark l e a c h a t e s o l u t i o n s 4 . 2 . 1 . 3 Short term b i o a s s a y s 4 . 2 . 1 . 4 Long term b i o a s s a y s 4.2.2 F i s h B i o a s s a y s 4 . 2 . 2 . 1 Test organisms 4 . 2 . 2 . 2 Short term b i o a s s a y s 4.3 RESULTS 4.3.1 Bark l e a c h a t e 4.3.2 Daphnia b i o a s s a y s 4 . 3 . 2 . 1 Short term t e s t s 4 . 3 . 2 . 2 Long term t e s t s 4.3.3 F i s h bioassays 4.2 DISCUSSION 5. GENERAL DISCUSSION 6. REFERENCES CITED %  ii iv v vii 1 8 8 11 19 19 19 21 21 24 28 39 39 43 47 47 49 .51 0.53 53 56 62 62 67 67 70  9  7  7  8  7  8  7  9  0  9  0  9  0  9  1  9  2  g  3  9  5  9  5  6 9  7  97 97 97 99 101 3 1 0  1  1  0  H4  iv  LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Experimental design of e n c l o s u r e experiments 17 Table 2. D i s s o l v e d oxygen c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n e n c l o s u r e experiments 26 Table 3. Percentage similarity i n e n c l o s u r e zooplankton communities 31 Table 4. Manova r e s u l t s f o r zooplankton abundance i n e n c l o s u r e experiments 32 Table 5. Water q u a l i t y i n M o r r i s o n Arm 66 Table 6. Chemical reagents f o r Daphnia medium ... 91 Table 7. 96h-LC-50 v a l u e s f o r Daphnia 99 Table 8. P r o p o r t i o n of Daphnxa reproducing in chronic bioassays 101 Table 9. 96h-LC-50 v a l u e s f o r rainbow t r o u t and sockeye salmon 103  V  L I S T OF  FIGURES  F i g u r e 1. Map o f B a b i n e L a k e , B.C. Showing M o r r i s o n Arm and Fulton River F i g u r e 2. D e s i g n o f e n c l o s u r e s (volume=3700 1) Figure 3. Dissolved oxygen c o n c e n t r a t i o n s (mg/l) i n 1984 e n c l o s u r e e x p e r i m e n t s under b a r k and l o g t r e a t m e n t s F i g u r e 4. L i g n i n and t a n n i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s (mg/l) in 1984 enclosure experiments Figure 5. Total zooplankton c o n c e n t r a t i o n s ( n o . / l ) over t i m e f o r c o n t r o l e n c l o s u r e s and e n c l o s u r e s t r e a t e d with 20 kg, 5 kg, 1 kg, and l o g r a f t t r e a t m e n t s Figure 6. Oxygen saturation (%) in 1985 enclosure e x p e r i m e n t s f o r l o g t r e a t m e n t s and c o n t r o l s Figure 7. Lignin-tannin concentrations in experimental e n c l o s u r e s f o r l o g t r e a t m e n t s and c o n t r o l s Figure 8. N a u p l i i and c o p e p o d i t e d e n s i t i e s ( n o . / l ) i n t h e l a k e f r o m May 26-August 3, 1985 Figure 9. Densities of Diacyclops thomasi, Diaptomus ashlandi, Daphnia lonqiremis, and Bosmina c o r e q o n i i n t h e l a k e from May 26-August 3, 1985 F i g u r e 10. Z o o p l a n k t o n densities for common species in spruce log t r e a t e d and c o n t r o l e n c l o s u r e s ( J u n e 2-June 26, 1985 F i g u r e 11. Z o o p l a n k t o n densities for common species in s p r u c e l o g t r e a t e d and c o n t r o l e n c l o s u r e s ( J u l y 9-August 3, 1985 F i g u r e 12. Z o o p l a n k t o n d e n s i t i e s f o r common s p e c i e s i n p i n e l o g t r e a t e d and c o n t r o l e n c l o s u r e s (May 26-June 20, 1985  6 13 20 22 23 25 27 29 30 33 34 35  Figure log  13. Z o o p l a n k t o n d e n s i t i e s f o r common s p e c i e s i n t r e a t e d and c o n t r o l e n c l o s u r e s ( J u l y 2 - J u l y 27,  pine 1985  36 Figure 14. Diversity i n d i c e s f o r l o g t r e a t e d and c o n t r o l e n c l o s u r e s under a l l t r e a t m e n t s 37 F i g u r e 15. Map o f M o r r i s o n Arm, B a b i n e L a k e , B.C 48 Figure 16. Sketch map of the H.F.P. L o g dump bay and storage area 54 F i g u r e 17. D e s i g n o f f l o w t h r o u g h e n c l o s u r e s used in fry feeding experiments . 58 Figure 18. Dye c l o u d movement i n s u r f a c e w a t e r s w i t h i n l o g bundles 64 F i g u r e 19. D e p t h d i s t r i b u t i o n and d i l u t i o n o f dye c l o u d ....65 F i g u r e 20. Z o o p l a n k t o n a b u n d a n c e i n f l o w t h r o u g h e n c l o s u r e s at boom and control sites during sockeye feeding e x p e r i m e n t s May 22-23 and May 28-29, 1985 69 F i g u r e 21. Z o o p l a n k t o n a b u n d a n c e i n f l o w t h r o u g h e n c l o s u r e s at ramp and control sites during sockeye feeding e x p e r i m e n t s J u n e 4-5, 1985 71 F i g u r e 22. Stomach f u l l n e s s and number o f p r e y i n stomachs of sockeye fry d u r i n g f e e d i n g e x p e r i m e n t s a t boom and  vi  c o n t r o l s i t e s and at ramp and c o n t r o l s i t e s 73 F i g u r e 23. Gut contents for sockeye f r y h e l d at boom and ' c o n t r o l s i t e s and ramp and c o n t r o l s i t e s 75 Figure 24. Diversity i n d i c e s for gut contents of sockeye f r y h e l d at boom, ramp and c o n t r o l s i t e s 76 Figure 25. Example of graphical interpolation for c a l c u l a t i o n of 96h-LC-50 93 Figure 26. L i g n i n - t a n n i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s produced over time under s t a t i c c o n d i t i o n s f o r Daphnia and f i s h b i o a s s a y s ..98 Figure 27. Survival of Daphnia neonates in chronic b i o a s s a y s f o r spruce and pine bark l e a c h a t e s 100 Figure 28. Mean t o t a l number of neonates produced per reproducing Daphnia i n s u b l e t h a l b i o a s s a y s with serial d i l u t i o n s of spruce and pine bark leachate 102  vii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w i s h t o e x p r e s s s i n c e r e t h a n k s t o my s u p e r v i s o r , D r . Tom N o r t h c o t e , f o r h i s enthusiasm and guidance d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e of t h i s s t u d y . I am a l s o g r a t e f u l t o my r e s e a r c h c o m m i t t e e members, Drs. W.E. Neill, C.J. Walters and K.J. H a l l , f o r t h e i r advice and prompt c r i t i c a l r e v i e w s o f t h e m a n u s c r i p t . D r . C. Magnhagen also gave comments on s e c t i o n s o f t h i s work. D r . K . J . H a l l , D a v i d Levy and I t s u o Y e s a k i p r o v i d e d l o g i s t i c a l support and a link t o U.B.C. d u r i n g field s e a s o n s . T h a n k s a r e a l s o due t o Paula Wentzell f o r her able a s s i s t a n c e throughout the enclosure study. The support and p a t i e n c e o f my f r i e n d s , b o t h w i t h i n a n d outside of the u n i v e r s i t y , i s appreciated beyond measure. Special thanks a r e a l s o extended t o the c i t i z e n s o f G r a n i s l e , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r w e l c o m i n g me i n t o t h e i r community. Susan L i p t a k and Paula Parkinson of the Environmental Engineering Laboratory, U.B.C a r e a c k n o w l e d g e d for their a s s i s t a n c e w i t h water q u a l i t y a n a l y s e s and Daphnia bioassays. The Department o f F i s h e r i e s a n d O c e a n s k i n d l y p r o v i d e d me w i t h l a b o r a t o r y f a c i l i t i e s a t F u l t o n R i v e r Spawning C h a n n e l . D r . A. Kozak ( F o r e s t r y ) a n d C. L a i (U.B.C. c o m p u t i n g c e n t r e ) a s s i s t e d with s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . R e s e a r c h f u n d s were s u p p l i e d by H o u s t o n F o r e s t P r o d u c t s i n a grant (funded u n d e r S e c t i o n 88.2 o f t h e B.C. F o r e s t A c t ) t o The W e s t w a t e r R e s e a r c h Centre. The S c i e n c e Council o f B.C. provided personal financial support through a G.R.E.A.T. s c h o l a r s h i p . F i n a l l y , I would l i k e t o thank my f a m i l y f o r t h e i r unceasing moral support.  1  1. GENERAL INTRODUCTION  Over  90%  of  the  timber  logged  from B r i t i s h Columbia's  f o r e s t s spends time i n water-based systems of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and storage ( E d g e l l and Ross 1983) handling a c t i v i t i e s forest  represent one of the l a r g e s t  costs  to  wood has always been h a r v e s t e d from the most  accessible places f i r s t , rivers  such  as  along  the  shores  of  seas,  and l a k e s ; consequently water-based l o g h a n d l i n g systems developed  (transportation  (Sedell  and  Duval  1985).  Log  driving  of wood u s i n g the power of r i v e r water flow) was  a common p r a c t i c e which caused extreme damage t o r i v e r particularly 1966).  In  spawning the  removing  and  late  obstacles  keep  water  and  juvenile  1800s, from  streams and b l o c k i n g o f f to  the  industry.  Historically,  were  en route to p r o c e s s i n g m i l l s . Log  river  rivers,  rearing  areas  improvement  (I.P.S.F.C  consisted  straightening  sloughs and marsh areas  habitats,  out with  of  crooked cribbing  l o g s i n the main channel ( S e d e l l and Duval  1985).  P r e s e n t l y , water-based l o g h a n d l i n g c e n t r e s around dumping, s o r t i n g and storage a c t i v i t i e s . Most concentrated  in  shallow,  protected  of  areas  e s t u a r i e s which are p e r c e i v e d as s e n s i t i v e man.  This  concern  is  the  site such  to  leases as  are  bays and  manipulation  by  evidenced by a number of recent s t u d i e s  commissioned to look at the e c o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s of  log  storage,  2  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n e s t u a r i n e environments (Anon. 1980a, Anon. 1981, Levy e t a l . 1982).  There  a r e many a s p e c t s o f l o g h a n d l i n g i n water which may  a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t t h e environment. storage  on  fish  Recognized  effects  habitat f a l l s into three categories: p h y s i c a l  e f f e c t s , c h e m i c a l e f f e c t s and b i o t i c e f f e c t s . The most and  well  documented  impacts  environment a r e p h y s i c a l changes compaction,  of l o g  of  obvious  l o g h a n d l i n g on t h e a q u a t i c  ( e g . bark d e p o s i t i o n ,  sediment  and i n c r e a s e d water t u r b i d i t y ) (Toews and Brownlee  1981). C h e m i c a l changes t o water q u a l i t y induced by l o g s t o r a g e have  been  quantified  i n laboratory  A t k i n s o n 1971). Leachate accompanied (biological  extraction  studies  occurs  (Graham 1970,  i n water  and i s  by i n c r e a s e d C.O.D. ( c h e m i c a l oxygen demand), B.O.D. oxygen  demand) and oxygen d e p l e t i o n . L i t e r a t u r e on  impacts o f l o g s t o r a g e on b i o t a i s m a i n l y  descriptive;  reviews  been p r o d u c e d , a l l of  and summary  publications  have  several  which c o n t a i n t h e same i n f o r m a t i o n (Anon. 1980a, E d g e l l and Ross 1983, S e d e l l and Duval 1985).  In a r e c e n t r e v i e w o f l o g h a n d l i n g estuaries,  the Environmental  Review  in British  Columbian  P a n e l (Anon. 1980a, p 6)  stated:  P a r t i c u l a r l y c r i t i c a l i s t h e need f o r i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e p r e c i s e i n t e r a c t i o n between f i s h e s and environments used f o r l o g h a n d l i n g . Lack o f d a t a on t h e impact o f l o g h a n d l i n g on c o a s t a l ecosystems cannot be o v e r s t a t e d .  3  There a r e d a t a invertebrates 1985b)  from  on  (Conlan which  benthically  effects  l o g storage  1975, Conlan and E l l i s  predictions  feeding  of  fish  can  about be  the  made.  on  benthic  1979, Levy e t a l . food  supply  of  with  the  However,  e x c e p t i o n of a s i n g l e study on t h e F r a s e r R i v e r e s t u a r y (Levy e t al.  1982), no p u b l i s h e d i n f o r m a t i o n e x i s t s on d i r e c t e f f e c t s  log  s t o r a g e on f i s h p o p u l a t i o n s (Ainscough  This awkward  lack  of  position.  biologists  information In  set stringent  and were p l a c e d under industry log  because  rafts  Coos  were  1979, Anon. 1980a).  h a b i t a t managers i n an  Bay, Oregon,  U.S.A.,  considerable  pressure  they l a c k e d d a t a t o support affecting  government  l o g h a n d l i n g water p o l i c i e s i n 1979,  fish  production  In  t h e Nanaimo  Brownlee,  pers.  comm.).  biologists  found  themselves  resulted  places  of  in a  similar  from  the f o r e s t  their belief  that  detrimentally  (M.  estuary,  federal  position,  which  i n f o r m a t i o n of a t a s k f o r c e t o examine t h e s i t u a t i o n  (Anon. 1980b).  When Houston F o r e s t P r o d u c t s harvest  timber  infected  by  Babine L a k e , B.C. (55 deg.N, install  a  l o g storage  (H.F.P.)  obtained  about  to  spruce budworm near M o r r i s o n Arm, 123  deg. W),  they  applied  to  and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system on t h e l a k e .  O f f i c i a l s from t h e Department o f F i s h e r i e s and Oceans concern  rights  expressed  p o t e n t i a l d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t s on Babine Lake and  4  gave c o n d i t i o n a l a p p r o v a l , p r o v i d e d  that  implemented to determine  of l o g h a n d l i n g on the  habitats  and  the  B.C.  Forest  from H . F . P . Act)  objective  of the study was to  dumping,  storage,  and  h a b i t a t and m i g r a t i o n specific  use  the p o t e n t i a l 1984,  p.  3  year  study  p o p u l a t i o n of Babine Lake. The Westwater  Centre r e c e i v e d a grant of  the e f f e c t s  a  to  sites,  undertake "determine  dewatering  routes  (funded under  of  the the  be fish  Research  Section  88.2  s t u d y . The main effects  of  log  on f i s h r e a r i n g and spawning adults  at  i n c l u d i n g those to be used by H . F . P . ,  and  impact on Babine  fry,  Lake  smolts,  and  fisheries"  (Levy  et  al.  1).  Babine Lake i s the l a r g e s t  natural  lake  i n B r i t i s h Columbia  and one of the major drainage b a s i n s f o r the Skeena R i v e r (Johnson  1965,  Levy  and  Hall  1985).  Sockeye  system  salmon  (  Oncorhynchus nerka the Babine system c o n t r i b u t e fishery  ( L a r k i n and McDonald 1968). Average p r o d u c t i o n  past 30 y r . )  of a d u l t  annually  H.F.P. (Figure was  over 90% of the Skeena sockeye  1).  sockeye has been about  1.5  (over  million  (McDonald and Hume 1984).  i n s t a l l e d two l o g h a n d l i n g f a c i l i t i e s  at Babine Lake  At the head of Morrison Arm a l o g dump/storage  i n s t a l l e d which i s used from the time of f r e e z e  summer. Log bundles from winter l o g g i n g are  slid  up to  down  site early  a  ramp  i n t o the water and then s t o r e d i n a small bay kept i c e f r e e with an  air  bubbler  system u n t i l  s p r i n g i c e break up. Then the  log  5  bundles a r e towed i n l a r g e r a f t s t o  the  Fulton  l o g bundles a r e loaded onto  River  (Figure  1).  There,  dewatering  site  near  l o g g i n g t r u c k s and taken t o a m i l l .  Impacts of l o g g i n g a c t i v i t i e s a l o n g  the  shore  of  Babine  Lake w i l l p o t e n t i a l l y be g r e a t e s t i n s h e l t e r e d l i t t o r a l a r e a s of Morrison  Arm  where l o g s a r e s t o r e d . Poor water c i r c u l a t i o n  wood l e a c h a t e e x t r a c t i o n water  conditions  may  combine  to  experiments  enclosure,  restrict  according  to  hypothesis log  storage  populations  their  Hjort  (1914)  conditions,  To  emerged  growth d u r i n g t h i s " c r i t i c a l " p e r i o d , and  Braum  enclosures  treated  with  (1967).  with  logs.  z o o p l a n k t o n abundance and d i v e r s i t y (Chapter  recently  t h a t z o o p l a n k t o n abundance d e c r e a s e s  were  and  fish.  A l o c a l i z e d r e d u c t i o n i n food supply f o r may  field  were d e s i g n e d t o examine e f f e c t s of l o g  s t o r a g e c o n d i t i o n s on z o o p l a n k t o n and  fry  deleterious  f o r sockeye salmon f r y and t h e i r food s u p p l y ,  z o o p l a n k t o n . To examine t h i s p r e d i c t i o n , laboratory  produce  and  were  To  the  under s i m u l a t e d  stocked  Then  test  zooplankton  water q u a l i t y  monitored  over  and time  2).  complement  the  zooplankton, comparative  e n c l o s u r e s t u d i e s of water q u a l i t y m o n i t o r i n g was c a r r i e d  out  q u a l i t y and z o o p l a n k t o n abundance a t l o g s t o r a g e and l i t t o r a l f i e l d s i t e s (Chapter  3).  for  and  water  undisturbed  6  7  I  examined  f e e d i n g by sockeye f r y h e l d at  undisturbed l i t t o r a l s i t e s intake  over  24  h  to  periods  test  for  et  a_l. 1969)  and i t  would experience m o r t a l i t y (West 1983)  To  determine  (Chapter  are  3).  correlated  was expected that s m a l l sockeye f r y rates  the wood l e a c h a t e l e v e l s necessary to  affect  and  hence  higher  l e t h a l and c h r o n i c l a b o r a t o r y  (Chapter  l e a c h a t e s are t o x i c  4).  Therefore,  It  (Atkinson 1971,  l e v e l s h i g h e r than those which  test  food  in d i s t u r b e d s i t e s .  conducted  areas.  salmon  in  mortality  zooplankton n e g a t i v e l y , were  differences  between the two areas  Ration l e v e l and growth r a t e i n sockeye (Brett  l o g storage and  chronic  is  known that wood and bark  Buchanan et a l .  usually  bioassays  bioassays  occur  in  1976) log  but  at  storage  f o r Daphnia were used to  f o r s u b l e t h a l e f f e c t s of low c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of  leachate.  8  2. ENCLOSURE EXPERIMENTS  2.J,  Most mainly  r e s e a r c h on  descriptive  invertebrates. bark  the or  biotic  effects  qualitative  P h y s i c a l impacts,  oxygen,  production) (Toews and  such  the  are  hydrogen  effects  of  log storage  on  might  expect  these  because zooplankton  negligible  tidal  potential  for  chemical  occur  L e v y e_t a l .  have demonstrated  i s concern  planktivorous  species  such  as  depend l a r g e l y Sockeye  fry  about  fishes,  sockeye  wood l e a c h a t e  Morrison  communities been  done  on  are  by  log  almost for  which  and  the  whose  of  sites  with  increases  the water study  oxygen d e p l e t i o n can  short  time.  food  commercially juvenile  (Narver  One  half  present  r e d u c t i o n of  particularly  as  storage  i n v e r t e b r a t e s i n the  that severe  localized  systems.  affected  1980)  upon l a k e z o o p l a n k t o n from  water  leases  (1985)  salmon,  and  environment  r e s e a r c h has  i n a log storage area w i t h i n a very  There  toxic  fresh  (FERIC impacts  benthic  p e l a g i c i n v e r t e b r a t e s such  handling  currents  column. C e r t a i n l y , 3)  and  o r g a n i s m s t o be  log  is  sediment compaction  move w i t h w a t e r m a s s e s . Y e t  Columbia's  (Chapter  storage  changes i n the  1981). However, no  i n marine, e s t u a r i n e or  British  log  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e p l e t i o n of b e n t h i c  Brownlee,  not  of  c o n c e n t r a t e s on  as  sulphide  zooplankton  for  and  d e p o s i t i o n , as w e l l as c h e m i c a l  (reduced  on  INTRODUCTION  1970,  supply  important  life  stages  Rankin  1977).  C r e e k seem t o s t a y i n s h o r e f o r a  few  9  d a y s a s t h e y move down t h e arm a n d t h e n o f f s h o r e 1985b). log  When l i t t o r a l  storage  grounds, they a r e o f t e n  zooplankton that  p o s t l a r v a l sockeye enter  (pers.  obs.).  t h e most c r i t i c a l  transition  from  during  t i m e may  least  this  Hjort  period  yolk  While bioassay toxicities assess  and  the long  assemblage  sac t o e x t e r n a l  providing term  sampling  complex isolate  ecology  part  (Gamble  controls.  water  manipulations. A r t i f i c i a l l y controlled (Grice  conditions  and Menzel  and The  f o r well  column  et  so t h a t  need  treatment  studies  in  allow  1984).  difficulty i n the  and  they  t o x i c o l o g y , and experiments enclosures well  on  which  controlled  are held  e f f e c t s c a n be  under  discerned  1982, S t e p h e n s o n e t a l .  out that  since  the  goal  of  i s t o examine e f f e c t s on t h e e n t i r e  community, m i c r o c o s m  (<10 c u b i c  the  method f o r p r e d i c t i o n .  most a p p r o p r i a t e  a l .  1982)  controlled  and  relative  of organisms  Davies  1978, G r i c e a n d Reeve  environmental  are  community  the inherent  impounded p o p u l a t i o n s  1984). Buikema e t a l . (1982) p o i n t most  shortage fish  on a n a t u r a l  has l e d t o t h e use of i j i s i t u  of the  the  t h e y do n o t a d e q u a t e l y  t h e same p o p u l a t i o n  i n general,  systems  A food  on  suggest  during  young  Stephenson  studies encounter  same w a t e r mass o v e r t i m e adequate  data,  of a toxicant  1978,  of  aquatic  (1967) is  feeding.  feed  Arm  reserves.  baseline  impact  field  lack  to  data are i n d i s p e n s i b l e i n assessing  Alternatively,  often  fish  induce s t a r v a t i o n because  (Leeuwangh  repetitively  just beginning  larval  et a l .  the Morrison  (1914) a n d Braum  for  r e s i s t a n t t o low e n e r g y  (Levy  m e t e r s , Banse  1982) t e s t s may be  10  Microcosms  have  been  widely  environmental  impacts of a q u a t i c  variation  zooplankton  in  composition pollutants addition effects  it  short  of  to detect  bioassays  biotic  but cannot  in  littoral  the  quality  and  relative that  of  control  storage  environment  that  can  weeks o f l i f e .  Decreased  exposed  toxicants  to  deleterious that  effects  zooplankton  salmon  diversity has  t r e a t e d e n c l o s u r e s and  the  of  inclusion influence  effects  will  log  density of  water  for their  zooplankton as  Kaushik  decrease  localized  an  first  populations indicator  1985). over  I time  5 l o g treatment p o p u l a t i o n s w i l l  are  there differences  of  predict in log have  lowest d i v e r s i t i e s .  More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  of  treatment,  the  inhabit  used  1984,  Salki  situations.  zooplankton  affect  in  the  be a c c e p t e d a s e v i d e n c e  fry  been  (Washington diversity  in  under  will  of  of e n c l o s u r e s  examine  and  density  detrimentally  sockeye  term e f f e c t s  may  to  quality  enclosures,  Large  species  Babine Lake. D e t e r i o r a t i o n  reduced zooplankton  to  log  zone  1982). and  in laboratory  E x p e r i m e n t a l e n c l o s u r e s were u s e d l o g t r e a t m e n t s on w a t e r  use  the  ( K a u s h i k e t a l . 1985,  included  b a r k and  long  which  experiment be  (Banse  permits  factors  evaluate  density  ( K u i p e r 1982). The  the t o x i c i t y  a l . 1985),  population  term  from n a t u r a l  to  pollutants  difficult  i n the f i e l d to  outcome et  make  used  the ;  f o u r main q u e s t i o n were i n the e f f e c t s  o f t h e two  addressed: main  (1)  commercial  11  t r e e s p e c i e s , P i n e ( P i n u s c o n t o r t a ) and s p r u c e ( P i c e a )  on  water  quality  and z o o p l a n k t o n d e n s i t y ? and (2) a t what  p o i n t does t h e r a t i o o f wood t o w a t e r , o r l o g s significantly  reduce  history  per enclosure,  l a k e z o o p l a n k t o n d e n s i t i e s ? (3) a r e t h e r e  d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s on t h e d i f f e r e n t life  glauca  stages?  and  (4) do  species d i v e r s i t y of zooplankton  zooplankton  s p e c i e s and  l o g t r e a t m e n t s reduce t h e  i n enclosures,  indicating  a  change i n community s t r u c t u r e ?  This  chapter  conducted during addition  i s based m a i n l y on l o g t r e a t m e n t e x p e r i m e n t s t h e 1985 f i e l d  experiments  will  be  season.  Results  from  bark  b r i e f l y p r e s e n t e d and d i s c u s s e d  with respect t o general trends.  2.2 METHODS  E n c l o s u r e e x p e r i m e n t s were conducted i n w a t e r s o f a similar  t o that  protected identical  The float  littoral  of a area  shallow  at Granisle,  site  (z=3 m), w i t h i n a  Babine  Lake.  Eight  e n c l o s u r e s were b u i l t d u r i n g the summer o f 1984.  e n c l o s u r e s c o n s i s t e d o f two p a r t s : a p l a s t i c bag and a  from which the bag was suspended ( F i g u r e 2 ) . The bags were  made o f a woven p o l y o l e f i n f a b r i c were  boom  depth  sewn  (Fabrene R  Type  "T.M.") and  by F a l s e Creek I n d u s t r i e s L t d . i n t o a c y l i n d e r 1.5 m  i n d i a m e t e r and 2.1 m i n d e p t h (Volume = 3700 1 ) . The e n c l o s u r e s had a s o l i d bottom; t h e r e was no water exchange o r c o n t a c t  with  12  lake was  sediment.  p r o v i d e d by s t y r o f o a m  inside the  The f l o a t  perimeter  water  season,  and l a c e d  over  a 0 t o 2.0 m d e p t h were  by w a t e r pump  range.  were  stocking  similar  the  enclosures  d u r i n g t h e 1985 f i e l d  W.E. N e i l l  (pers.  enclosure  was  remove  vertical  filtered  from  formula  was  hauls  no.  The  through  a  Enclosures  obtained  following  of  used  the  t h e 1984 f i e l d  in  into  initially  enclosures  were  i n a method s u g g e s t e d by water  pumped  into  each  100 m i c r o m e t e r mesh n e t t o were  vertical  lake  zooplankton populations.  season,  1985).  with  water d i r e c t l y  encountered  independently  comm.  zooplankton.  zooplankton The  with  with zooplankton  During  pumped w i t h t h i s  the e n c l o s u r e s and d i f f i c u l t i e s  stocked  i n t o p l a c e . The t o p s  0.3 m a b o v e t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e w a t e r t o  E n c l o s u r e s were f i l l e d  zooplankton  Therefore,  from t h e  spillover.  Procedure: water t a k e n  b l o c k s . The bag was s u s p e n d e d  of the f l o a t  e n c l o s u r e s extended  minimize  was o f p l y w o o d c o n s t r u c t i o n ; b u o y a n c y  hauls  to  then from  stocked  with  4.0 m t o s u r f a c e .  calculate  the  number  of  required per enclosure:  hauls =  volume o f e n c l o s u r e volume o f h a u l X n e t e f f i c i e n c y  The  efficiency  of  the  e n c l o s u r e s was compared to  be  (1)  copepodites  equally (2)  30%  zooplankton  net  used  t o a PAR d i a p h r a g m b i l g e  efficient more  f o r sampling  efficient  for  to  stock  pump a n d  the found  b o t h n a u p l i i and  sampling  Diacyclops  plywood  F i g u r e 2. Design of e n c l o s u r e s (volume = 3700 1 ) .  14  a d u l t s and Overall,  (3) 20% there  zooplankton  less  was  net  efficient  no  and  f o r sampling  net d i f f e r e n c e the  pump  for  Diaptomus  in efficiency sampling  p o p u l a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , assuming t h i s  number  h a u l s t o s t o c k one  hauls  of from  4  m  to  surface.  zooplankton  stocking  e n c l o s u r e was  understocked,  Therefore, hauls the  test  experiment  particularly  percentage  assess  percentage modified  similarity  relative  (1981),  a was  after  conducted; for adult  where  randomly  the  t o be  trial  the  trial  life  stages.  100  vertical  allocated  over  experiment.  I  conditions. better.  was  calculated  aiming  natural  log  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , as suggested  used. OF  min  (pjj  (njj  n  SIMILARITY ,  p .) 2 j  2j)  = proportion  of  of  individuals  of  the  n, . = no. J the  of  1  j  j th  t  h  tdtal  no.  consisting  type  individuals type  of  Renkonen's  for a  or  INDEX  20  a  80%  =  In  true,  of  RENKONENS'S P.S.  May  result,  between e n c l o s u r e s was  initial  similarity with  f o r each  early  calculated  this  was  the  t o be  t o r e a c h l a k e d e n s i t i e s of z o o p l a n k t o n ,  f o u r e n c l o s u r e s used  WoIda  To  (4 m t o s u r f a c e ) were m i x e d and  The to  e n c l o s u r e was  between  the  zooplankton  adults.  index, by  15  Water q u a l i t y and z o o p l a n k t o n were introduction  of  log  rafts  sampled  57)  dissolved  were determined  oxygen/temperature  c a l i b r a t e d a t the b e g i n n i n g saturation  to  the  (day 0) and then c o n s e c u t i v e l y , on  days 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 of each experiment. (D.O.) and temperature  prior  of  oxygen  iri s i t u w i t h a YSI  meter.  each  Dissolved  The  sample  (model  oxygen probe day  by  the  was air  method and a l t i t u d e c o r r e c t e d . A l l measurements were  t a k e n a t 1 m depth  i n the c e n t r e of the e n c l o s u r e s . Lake samples  of water q u a l i t y and z o o p l a n k t o n enclosures  on  were  taken  adjacent  to  the  every sample d a t e . Water samples were f r o z e n and  then l a t e r a n a l y z e d f o r l i g n i n and t a n n i n  (L-T)  concentration.  L i g n i n s and t a n n i n s c o n t a i n a r o m a t i c h y d r o x y l groups t h a t reduce tuhgstophosphoric colour.  The  and  molybdophosphoric  acids  colour  absorbence  determined  spectrophotometer  (APHA  e t a l . 1985)  and t a n n i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s . cooperatively  Water  t o form a b l u e with  g i v e s a measure of  quality  data  were  a  lignin  obtained  with Paula W e n t z e l l , a c i v i l engineering  graduate  student.  To a s s e s s the experiments  and  zooplankton lake,  samples  populations were  in  a  enclosure  taken by pumping f o r one  minute (37 1) from 1 m i n d e p t h , w i t h the pump through  the  outflow  passing  100 micrometer n e t . D u p l i c a t e samples were taken f o r  each t r e a t m e n t . Samples were p r e s e r v e d i n a s u c r o s e s o l u t i o n (Haney and H a l l 1975)  and  enumerated  and  formaldehyde identified  under a s t e r e o d i s s e c t i n g scope u s i n g Edmondson (1959) and  Smith  16  and  Fernando  (1978) f o r t a x o n o m i c  were c o m p l e t e l y organisms  the  logs 0.15  start  being  used m  into  tied  enclosures.  weight  determination.  between  constructed  initially.  treatment/control  of  respectively.  log  1984,  Pairs  of  3 and  4  week  which  prior  completion  were  four  enclosures  of  weight);  m to  before of  an  removed  emptied  and  enclosures  were  quality  and  used  used  14 a n d  of  bark  5 kg and 12 day  for  applied (60:40  1 kg  bark  experiments,  u s e d a s an e x p e r i m e n t a l  enclosure  to  simulate  z o o p l a n k t o n were m o n i t o r e d  experiments. was  kg,  o f 8 l o g s was  were  were r a n d o m l y  amounts 20  f o r c o n s e c u t i v e 31,  Water  weeks  t h e n t h e b a r k was  only  f o r t h r e e weeks i n a s i n g l e  information field  by  Also, a raft  bundle. 2,  After  combinations. Treatments  pine:spruce  w e i g h t s were u s e d  treatment  abundant  together in rafts  Enclosures  s i n g l e e n c l o s u r e s and c o n s i s t e d  ratio  for  experiments.  E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n ; In  the  and  t h e l o g s were m e a s u r e d and  scrubbed c l e a n  to  used  i n d i a m e t e r . T h e y were c u t two  introduced  dry  was  samples  i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t s were a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1.4  of each experiment  experiment, for  subsampling  Most  only.  The l o n g and  counted;  classification.  These  experiments  a  over  provided  f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n of the  1985  season.  The effects  1985 over  enclosure time  experiments  o f l o g s o f two  tree  were  designed  s p e c i e s on t h e  to  test  littoral  17  zooplankton species  population  (pine  and  of  spruce)  e n c l o s u r e ) were examined with  one  Babine  replicate  using  for  each  c o m b i n a t i o n . Log treatments 0 (control),  and  eight log  used  for  Experiments were run t w i c e , in  and  Table  enclosures  tree  species  corresponded to l o a d i n g d e n s i t i e s of  (Hurlbert  Table  each of pine and spruce each f o r a l e n g t h  1. T h i s experimental  of  treatments.  25  days,  as  d e s i g n d i d not p r o v i d e  1. Experimental d e s i g n and times of Duplicate  pine pine spruce spruce  different  1985 e n c l o s u r e  Experiment  1 2 1 2  Statistical  May 26 July 2 June 2 July 9  a n a l y s i s : The e f f e c t s  e n c l o s u r e zooplankton p o p u l a t i o n s  were  -  can  U s e r ' s Guide 1983).  analyze  repeated  dates  June 20, 1985 J u l y 27, 1985 June 27, 1985 August 3, 1985  of the l o g treatments assessed  which i s a g e n e r a l i z e d m u l t i v a r i a t e  program that  the  1984).  Tree s p e c i e s  MANOVA  cubic  were randomly a s s i g n e d to  t r u e r e p l i c a t i o n because experiments were repeated at times  tree  1, 3 and 5 per  experimental number  of  0.0067, 0.0201 and 0.0335 c u b i c meters wood/  enclosures  outlined  Treatments  l o g number (0,  meter water. Log number treatments four  Lake.  using  a n a l y s i s of  measures  designs  on  SPSS:X variance (SPSS:X  18  When  t h e same e x p e r i m e n t a l  unit  ( i n t h i s case,  individuals  w i t h i n enclosures) i s observed  treatments,  the design  This  approach  experimental may  be  a  powerful  I  provides control  units  in their  result test  intersubject  of  of  interactions.  of  All I  1985  significance  treatment  (Harris  MANOVA  A  among (which  factors  when  1975).  f o r t h e main  and  zooplankton  i sconsidered a  t h e number o f d e g .  effects species  repeated  priori  of and  being  although  reduced  distributions  f o r main e f f e c t s  and  independent a l l sample  of freedom does not i n c r e a s e .  this  tests  tree their  factor  d e n s i t y were l o g ( x + 1 ) t r a n s f o r m e d  tests;  groups and normalized subcommands.  of  1962). E s s e n t i a l l y ,  d a t a on z o o p l a n k t o n conducted  data  number  (Winer  d a t e s a r e used,  differences  t o treatments  d o e s n o t d e p e n d on t h e s e d a t e s  one a n o t h e r  1962).  t h r e e - w a y MANOVA w i t h r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s t o t e s t  Sample d a t e  analysis  (Winer  c o n d i t i o n s ) a n d p r o v i d e s a more  i s high  the June and J u l y ,  this  initial  variability  log  repeated measures  responsiveness  effects  a  r e p e a t e d l y under a l l  f o rindividual  the  used  species,  i scalled  zooplankton  as  before  h e t e r o g e n e i t y among  determined  for differences  by  SPSS:X  between l e v e l s o f  were e x a m i n e d u s i n g  the contrast  (p=0.05) subcommand.  Simpsons's calculated sample d a t e  Diversity  for the  Indices  zooplankton  using the formula:  in  (Washington, each  enclosure  1984)  were  f o r every  19  SIMPSON'S DIVERSITY  INDEX ( D )  s D = 1 -  ( )  2  Pi  1=0 where s  = no. o f species  Pi  = proportion o f total no. of i n d i v i d u a l s o f 1 species th  2.3  2.3.1  Bark  quality  Dissolved over  time  (1984)  treatments  2.3.J_.J_ Water  RESULTS  oxygen  i n bark  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s were d r a m a t i c a l l y  treated enclosures (Figure  i n c r e a s e d w i t h t h e amount o f b a r k a l s o depressed  Lignin  and  increased  over  kg  4).  L-T  (Figure  oxygen t o <  tannin time  The  1 mg/l  within  concentration  i n a l l bark  eight  a d d e d . The 14  3),  and  eight  reduced  this  log  treatment  days.  of  enclosure  treatments, p a r t i c u l a r l y  l o g treatment  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s l i g h t l y a b o v e 4 mg/l  effect  e n c l o s u r e water which  was  water for  reached  lower  20 a  than  DISSOLVED OXYGEN -ALL TREATMENTS  A  J 0  , 5  -, 10  1  1  1  15  20  25  TIME (days)  rSO  gure 3. D i s s o l v e d oxygen c o n c e n t r a t i o n s (mg/l) i n 1984 e n c l o s u r e experiments under bark and l o g treatments (see l e g e n d ) .  21  measured f o r a l l  2.3.J_.2.  bark  treatments.  Zooplankton  Initial  zooplankton d e n s i t i e s among e n c l o s u r e s and between  lake and e n c l o s u r e comparisons  populations  difficult.  were  However,  which d e c i s i o n s about the  dissimilar,  which  makes  s e v e r a l trends were c l e a r  1985 f i e l d  from  season c o u l d be made.  Under the 20 kg bark t r e a t m e n t , t o t a l zooplankton abundance decreased s i g n i f i c a n t l y  w i t h i n the f i r s t  week of exposure to  p o i n t where no zooplankton s u r v i v e d the l a s t experiment  (Figure  5).  In  two  weeks  the c o n t r o l e n c l o s u r e ,  the  of  the  zooplankton  •v.  populations  were  Zooplankton  maintained  densities  throughout  decreased  the  experiment.  i n the 5 kg bark treatment  l e v e l s below those measured i n the c o n t r o l . However, treatment, where i n i t i a l zooplankton experiment  conditions  populations and  Zooplankton  the  declined  treatment  were  low  control  during  increased  1 kg  the  slightly.  p o p u l a t i o n s exposed to the 8 l o g treatment d e c l i n e d  i n d e n s i t y to z e r o , but c o n t r o l p o p u l a t i o n s extremely  dissimilar,  substantially  population  i n the  to  levels.  2 . 3 . 2 Log treatments  (1985)  also  decreased  to  22 400-i  TIME (days) 30-i  F i g u r e 4. L i g n i n and tannin c o n c e n t r a t i o n s (mg/l) i n 1984 e n c l o s u r e experiments under f o r a l l treatments (top) and a l l treatments e x c l u d i n g 20 kg bark l o a d (bottom).  23  Total Zooplankton Abundance : 1kg  Total Zooplankton Abundance : 20kg  Total Zooplankton Abundance : Logs  Total Zooplankton Abundance : 5KG JOT  F i g u r e 5 . T o t a l zooplankton c o n c e n t r a t i o n s ( n o . / l ) over time for c o n t r o l e n c l o s u r e s and e n c l o s u r e s t r e a t e d w i t h 20 kg, 5 k g , and 1 kg of b a r k , and a l o g r a f t i n 1984.  24  2.3.2.J_ Water  Quality  Temperatures  in the e n c l o s u r e s stayed w i t h i n 1 degree C of  lake temperatures during  the  to  to the e n c l o s u r e s . Water  June, 1985 experiments  C; i n the J u l y , 13.0  adjacent  17.5  1985 experiments  ranged from 4.1  water temperature  oxygen  controls,  degree i n J u l y than i n June (Table  2).  i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y with time and with the enclosure.  Pine  concentrations particularly  The  ranged  to  log  treatments  slightly  but  are  oxygen  saturation  instrument  to  number  a  far  of  logs  reduced d i s s o l v e d oxygen  lower  levels  than  percentages  (measured  "spruce,  in  book)  for  Figure  6.  the a p p r o p r i a t e Oxygen  dissolved  concentration  water temperature)  saturation  percentages  remained near  100% i n c o n t r o l and 1 l o g e n c l o s u r e s , but  to  <40%  and  from  in J u l y .  presented  80%  deg.  Oxygen d e p l e t i o n  oxygen c o n c e n t r a t i o n d i v i d e d by oxygen s a t u r a t i o n (Y.S.I.  12.0  c o n c e n t r a t i o n was reduced i n l o g t r e a t e d  e n c l o s u r e s , compared to the l a k e and  per  to  deg. C .  Dissolved  greater  temperature  in  5  log  treatments  for  June  declined and J u l y ,  respectively.  Lignin increased  and  tannin  significantly  per treatment  (Figure  7)  concentrations with  of  enclosure  time and w i t h the number of  and t h e r e was no  apparent  water logs  differences  PINE  SPRUCE  MAY 26-JUNE 20  JUNE 2-JUNE 27  O)  E Z  z<  /.^!~ Control 1 log 3 logs 5 logs  r-  I  ' '  JULY 9-AUGUST 3 C T ^ —  ••  •—  5  10  15  TIME (days)  20  25  0  I 5  I 10  I 15  I 20  TIME (days)  F i g u r e 6. Oxygen s a t u r a t i o n (%) in 1985 e n c l o s u r e experiments f o r l o g treatments and c o n t r o l s legend).  (see  25  26  Table 2. D i s s o l v e d oxygen c o n c e n t r a t i o n s (mg/l) i n experimental e n c l o s u r e s f o r log t r e a t m e n t s , l a k e , and c o n t r o l s (treatment; C = c o n t r o l , 1 = 1 l o g , 3 = 3 logs, 5 = 5  logs  NUMBER OF DAYS Treatment lake pine pine pine pine  C 1 3 5  lake pine pine pine pine  C 1 3 5  lake spruce spruce spruce spruce  C 1 3 5  lake spruce spruce spruce spruce  C 1 3 5  between  Duplicate  0  1 1 1 1  10. 7 11 . 6 12. 4 1 11. 1 15 .  1  the  10. 10. 10. 10. 10.  !  10. 6 10. 8 10. 6 11 . 1 11. 2  1  2 2 2 2 2  treatments.  1 3 4 3 3  2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1  June  5  and  9. 9. 9. 9. 9.  July  7 6 6 6 7  1 13 . 1 11. 10. 8 10. 0 9. 7 9. 9. 9. 8. 7.  11. 4 1 14 . 11 . 2 10. 7 10. 6 9. 9. 9. 9. 8.  11 . 0 1 1 4. 1 12 . 9. 3 8. 4  4 4 2 2 8  8 8 7 1 8  9. 9. 8. 6. 6.  4 3 5 8 2  10. 6 11 . 3 10. 8 9. 9 9. 4 10. 9. 9. 8. 7.  experiments  20  15  10  10. 10. 10. 8. 8.  4 7 1 8 2  10. 10. 9. 8. 8.  2 4 5 6 0  9. 9. 8. 5. 5.  7 6 9 8 5  9. 9. 7. 5. 4.  3 0 8 1 2  1 1.0 11 . 4 1 12 . 10. 1 9. 8  1 8 4 0 6  or  9. 9. 8. 6. 5.  3 2 7 7 6  pine  change  was from 0.45  to 2.00  similar  experiments.  and L - T c o n c e n t r a t i o n  8. 9. 8. 3. 2.  1 12 . 10. 6 9. 6 9. 2 9. 0  9. 5 9. 5 8. 5 7. 3 5. '3  and  9 0 0 0 5  9. 9. 8. 6. 3.  1 1 2 0 4  spruce l o g not  large;  m g / l i n 25 days for  the 5 l o g spruce t r e a t m e n t . C o n t r o l e n c l o s u r e s had  1 11. 9. 8 9. 6 9. 5 9. 1  11. 3 11 . 4 10. 5 9. 8 9. 6  The i n c r e a s e s i n L-T c o n c e n t r a t i o n were  greatest  25  (<0.50 mg/l)  and  lake  water  over the 25 day  PINE  120  SPRUCE  Q 40- • JUNE 2-JUNE 27  MAY 26-JUNE 20 I  I  5  10  Control • 1 log • 3 logs A 5 logs ••  • • -A «  15  TIME (days)  TIME (days)  F i g u r e 7. L i g n i n - t a n n i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s (mg/l) i n experimental enclosures (1985) for l o g treatments and c o n t r o l s (see l e g e n d ) .  K3  28  2.3.2.2  Zooplankton  J u v e n i l e copepods were n u m e r i c a l l y lake  dominant  in  both  the  and the e n c l o s u r e s , f o l l o w e d by Diaptomus s p p . , D i a c y c l o p s  t h o m a s i, Daphnia s p p . , and Bosmina assemblage  is  coregoni.  t y p i c a l of Babine Lake (Rankin  This  zooplankton  1977,  Levy et  al.  1984).  That were  initial  d e n s i t i e s of  approximately  ( F i g u r e s 8 to 13) experiments.  30%  zooplankton  lower,  on  does not d e t r a c t  Lake  zooplankton  in  the  average, from  the  enclosures  than i n the validity  densities fluctuate  lake  of  the  both w i t h i n  and between y e a r s over a range which i n c l u d e s l e v e l s measured i n the  enclosures.  zooplankton  The  overall  (Figures  trends  observed  for  the  8 and 9) were the same as observed in  June and J u l y c o n t r o l e n c l o s u r e s , which i n d i c a t e s the between e n c l o s u r e s and the n a t u r a l  Perhaps most important, another. was  Similarity  satisfactory  Index;  Wolda  Similarity  in  (Table  1981)  lake.  the e n c l o s u r e s were s i m i l a r  to  one  s p e c i e s composition between e n c l o s u r e s 3);  percent  similarity  (Renkonen's  between e n c l o s u r e s ranged from 77% to  97%. times  92%.  Zooplankton abundance decreased i n l o g e n c l o s u r e s to  the  similarity  between c o n t r o l e n c l o s u r e s stocked at d i f f e r e n t  ranged from 55% to  lake  c o n t r o l enclosures during a l l  experiments  (Figures  relative 10 to  13;  29  120f  80 40+  3  nauplii  \ Ay  30,  \ 20+  copepodites  A  \  10+  0 MAY 26  •  JUNE 6  i\ ±:r^A  r  JUNE 16  JUNE 26  JULY 7  ••' • JULY 17  v  r - ...»  JULY 27  AUG 6  DATE  F i g u r e 8. N a u p l i i and copepodite d e n s i t i e s l a k e (z a 3 m) from May 26-August 3,  (no./l) 1984.  in  the  30  4r  Diacyclops thomasi  A  21-  10 8  A If  Diaptomus ashlandi  X  A  64- •  fx 111  CD  2  \  2  V  \  SL  •4-  8T  Daphnia longiremis  6  A  A  4- 2 -  i \ /  25T  2 0 Bosmina coregoni 15 10 5  V  •fM A Y 26  JUNE 6  JUNE 16  JUNE 26  JULY 7  l7v J U L Y 17  4-  J U L Y 27  AUG 6  DATE F i g u r e 9. D e n s i t i e s ni prnmn a  rorpynni 3, 1984.  S  (no./l)  of n i a r c y c l p p s  thpmasi,  a s h l a n d i , Daphnia l o n g i r f t m i s , and Bosmina i n the lake  (z = 3 m) from May 26-August  31  T a b l e 3. P e r c e n t a g e s i m i l a r i t y (Renkonen's i n d e x ) m a t r i x o f i n i t i a l z o o p l a n k t o n p o p u l a t i o n s i n 1985 e n c l o s u r e e x p e r i m e n t s . Treeduplicate  5 log  control  lak<  95  97 96  87 68 87  —  —  92 88 92 82  89  88 93  83 86 90  _  _  70 61 57 52  93 96  90 86 84  —  —  90 96  81 77 78  1 log 3 log 5 log control  pine-1  pine-2  -  1 log 3 log 5 log control  spruce-2  4).  -  significantly  -  —  89  -  pine differ  and  spruce  in  their  relation  to  the  significant  (P=0.041).  treatments  revealed  significantly  different  three  treatment  log  number  log  Comparison that from  the  70 72 69 77  treatments on  logs  zooplankton and  among  the  five  log  the c o n t r o l  approaches  did  zooplankton  reduced  of  91 85 85 81  -  effect  (p=0.130). However, l o g t r e a t m e n t s in  -  -  94  1 log 3 log 5 log control  The  -  -  1 log 3 log 5 log control  spruce-1  Table  3 log  this  density  for  treatment  (p=0.007) and  statistical  abundance  effect  means  not  that  was log was the  significance  (p=0.053).  T h e r e were d i f f e r e n c e s  i n t h e way  that  zooplankton  species  Source of v a r . Within c e l l s Tree species Log number Zoop. s p e c i e s Tree*Log Tree*Zoop Log*Zoop Tree*Log*Zoop  Sum  squares  22.04868 0.81042 3.01298 38.71218 0.41736 2.21280 2.24914 1.31333  df 64 1 3 7 3 7 21 21  Mean  square  0.34451 0.81042 1.00433 5.53031 0.13912 0.31611 0.10710 0.06254  F 2. 35237 2. 91523 16. 05266 0. 40382 0. 91758 0. 31088 0. 18153  S i g . of 0.130 0.041 0.000 0.751 0.499 0.998 1.000  T a b l e 4. T h r e e way MANOVA ( w i t h r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s ) o f z o o p l a n k t o n abundance i n l o g t r e a t e d e n c l o s u r e e x p e r i m e n t s .  CO  33  DATE Figure 10. Zooplankton d e n s i t i e s for common species i n spruce log t r e a t e d and c o n t r o l enclosures (June 2June 27, 1985) (see legend). LC6C80 .  CONTROL  • 1 LOG >• 3 LOGS •O 5 LOGS  34  DATE Figure 11. Zooplankton d e n s i t i e s for common species in spruce log t r e a t e d and c o n t r o l enclosures (July 9August 3, 1985) (see legend). _ l CONTROL  - • J LOGS - O 5 LOGS  f  35  DATE Figure 12. Zooplankton d e n s i t i e s for common species in pine l o g t r e a t e d and c o n t r o l enclosures (May 26-June 20, 1985) (see legend). LE6E|I0  • CONTROL  —  « 1  LOG  3 LOGS  36  DATE Figure 13. Zooplankton d e n s i t i e s for common species in pine log t r e a t e d and c o n t r o l enclosures (July 2 - J u l y 27, 1985) (see legend). IEGDIB « COKTDOL  « 1 LOG ——•  3 LOGS 5 LOGS  37  JUNE  JULY  0.8  0.8  0.6  0.4  %  0-2  > ol  r  10  15  20  25  10  15  20  25  TJ 08  C  2  o CO  OS  a a5  0  6  m  o • 5 logs • — • 3 logs ' -Hog • * control  0.4 10  02  15  20  25  10  15  20  25  Time (days) 0  Figure  14. D i v e r s i t y i n d i c e s (Simpson's D) f o r l o g t r e a t e d and c o n t r o l e n c l o s u r e s under a l l treatments (see legend).  38  and  life  juvenile  stages responded t o l o g treatments life  stages  deleteriously  affected  was s t a t i s t i c a l l y treatment  (nauplii  on  the  than  adult  significant adult  and  copepodites)  were  more  zooplankton and t h i s  effect  (P<0.001).  zooplankton  s i g n i f i c a n t . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t of the main e f f e c t s  Simpson's showed  no  zooplankton experiments  (Table  diversity  consistent  (Figure  The  was  effect  not  of  log  statistically  i n t e r a c t i o n s between  any  4).  indices  pattern,  populations  (P<0.001). Copepod  over  for  log  compared the  14). With a maximum  v a l u e s ranged between 0.12 and 0 . 8 2 .  to  course H  of  treated enclosures controls, of  the  0.90,  25  for day  diversity  39  2.4  Based  on  the  water  DISCUSSION  quality  and  r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from bark a d d i t i o n s to 1984  field  treatment f a c t o r . bark  Firstly,  additions  measurements, treatments.  were  particularly L-T  levels  weeks. the  bark  treatment  situation  the water q u a l i t y  for  are  the  <  promising  results  i n 1984,  sufficiently  method  (<  5 mg/l)  season. However, treatments  (1984)  quantitatively  2.4.J_ Water  Log  the  kg  created field  and  kg  bark  5  1985b)  whereas  the  of the e i g h t  treatments  qualitative consistent  i n l o g treatments  with  on  l o g treatment.  populations  were  not  and c o n t r o l s to draw  As a r e s u l t ,  trends  two  based  a  zooplankton 1985  field  for  bark  measured  more  determined those  (1985).  Quality  treatments  significantly  reduced  dissolved  oxygen  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s over the course of the e n c l o s u r e experiments oxygen  the  to  e n c l o s u r e s was adopted f o r the  are  of  relative  for treatments,  zooplankton  between  for  where l o g s are  L - T c o n c e n t r a t i o n was 11 m g / l a f t e r  initial  similar  20  (Levy et §_1.  c o n c l u s i o n s about treatment e f f e c t s . stocking  the  2 mg/l in the M o r r i s o n Arm l o g  I decided to use l o g a d d i t i o n s  Secondly,  during  conditions  unrealistic  storage area d u r i n g June 1985 lowest  enclosures  abundance  season, I was u n s a t i s f i e d with the a p p l i c a b i l i t y  bark treatment r e s u l t s to the f i e l d  by  zooplankton  depletion  with  i n c r e a s i n g with time and number of l o g s . T h i s  40  result  agrees with other  Wentzell  (in prep.)  literature 1973)  increases resulting the  1970,  under with  Sproule  static  both  and  e n c l o s u r e experiments  There  leachate  During  June,  oxygen  levels  spruce  Schaumburg  concentration  and  (in p r e p . ) . pine  for  differences  July spruce  were  experiments and  reduced  pine but  log  treatments  saturation  (Wentzell,  in  l o g treatments,  for  above  l e v e l s i n the June between in  and  two  dissolved  experiments, rates.  of  9.4  respectively,  However,  there  was  However,  experiments. time  oxygen  Factors  periods are  15.3  deg.  and  may  result  for  treatment. in oxygen which  contribute  temperature,  C  below  f i s h ; Davis 1975)  biomass, r e s p i r a t i o n  and  oxygen  oxygen c o n c e n t r a t i o n dropped  July  the  dissolved  fish survival.  ( l e t h a l l e v e l s for  p r o d u c t i o n and b a c t e r i a l temperatures  in  prep.).  75%  i s not c l e a r why there i s such a marked d i f f e r e n c e  differences  for  There were no  the 3 and 5 l o g pine treatments and the 5 l o g spruce  differ  volume  i n the d i s s o l v e d oxygen  remained  which would be adequate  d u r i n g the J u l y experiments,  It  from the  changes, as d e s c r i b e d  by W e n t z e l l  were s i g n i f i c a n t  f o r June and  oxygen  is clear  by  quality.  results  saturation,  made  the r a t i o of wood/water  in a s s o c i a t e d water q u a l i t y  e n c l o s u r e water  measurements  and Sharpe 1970,  conditions,  time  c l e a r d i f f e r e n c e s between  40%  quality  (eg: C . O . D . and T . O . C ) . It  (Graham  that  water  may to  leachate  and a c t i v i t y .  Mean  f o r the June and J u l y in  no d i f f e r e n c e  c o n c e n t r a t i o n between the two months, which  different  leaching  i n l i g n i n and suggests  tannin  that  the  41  oxygen  d i f f e r e n c e s are not a r e s u l t of temperature  p r o d u c t i o n . Wentzell  (in prep.)  supports  this  and leachate  conclusion  C . O . D . and T . O . C . data which do not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r the  two  months.  Also,  lignins  with  between  and t a n n i n s are l a r g e complex  compounds which are not e a s i l y broken down (Schaumburg 1973) it  i s very u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e i r  c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n J u l y i s low due  to d e g r a d a t i o n . There i s s t i l l soluble  extracts  a  in  the  (in  prep.).  For  times were chemistry  various  concentrations  measurements  made  by  example, wood sugars may be r a p i d l y a  high  "turnover",  resulting  in  c o n t r i b u t i o n to T . O . D . and C . O . D . d e s p i t e h i g h m i c r o b i a l  activity  (Wentzell,  The  most  oxygen  depletion  as  biological  in  a  explanation  between result  oxygen  June of  demands.  C . O . D . of l o g l e a c h a t e months.  prep.).  likely  dissolved  Biological  determined  over  temporally  (Wentzell i n p r e p . ) . bacterial  the  found  differences  varying  Work by W e n t z e l l no  oxygen  the  for  and J u l y experiments  difference  demand,  measured, i s r e l a t e d t o b a c t e r i a l  expect  water  complex and there may be seasonal  the  degradable By microbes with little  the  The  chemical c o n s t i t u e n t s and t h e i r  which were undetectable by Wentzell  that  i n oxygen d e p l e t i o n .  of wood l e a c h a t e s i s extremely changes  possibility  from l o g s cut at the two d i f f e r e n t  responsible for d i f f e r e n c e s  so  course  (in prep.)  although  not  number and a c t i v i t y of  all  enclosure  rate  and/or  numbers  and  on the  the  two  directly which  was  experiments  Based on the oxygen measurements,  activity  i s oxygen  chemical  between  in  I  would  t o have been  42  higher  i n J u l y . T h i s was not found to  number  and a c t i v i t y  (Power and Wentzell  rates  ability  the  case;  i n J u l y were s i m i l a r  1985, W e n t z e l l  biomass was s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower suggest  be  in p r e p . ) ,  bacterial  to those i n June  however,  bacterial  i n J u l y . H a l l et a l .  that the smaller b a c t e r i a l  (in  prep)  biomass i n J u l y had a b e t t e r  t o take up s u b s t r a t e due to a higher metabolic  activity  per organism, r e s u l t i n g i n lower d i s s o l v e d oxygen c o n c e n t r a t i o n . This  hypothesis  i s supported by t h e i r  bacterial  uptake  kinetic  data.  The l o g treatment e n c l o s u r e water  quality  i s extremely  The r e s u l t i n g water q u a l i t y are l e t h a l most  experiments  changes can produce c o n d i t i o n s which  experiments  which  A major  i s that l o a d i n g d e n s i t i e s are o r d e r s of  higher  than  in  quality  l e v e l s . For example, Graham (1970) and logs  problem  magnitude  f i e l d s i t u a t i o n s and produce u n r e a l i s t i c Atkinson  water (1971)  i n 50 1 a q u a r i a , producing waters with a C . O . D .  as h i g h as 600 m g / l . The maximum f i e l d measurement of C . O . D . the  Houston  et a l . was In are  F o r e s t Products l o g storage s i t e was 50 mg/l  1985b). The maximum C . O . D .  f o r the e n c l o s u r e  70 m g / l in the 5 l o g treatments the e n c l o s u r e experiments, similar  (Levy et a l .  in  examine wood l e a c h a t e s and  water q u a l i t y  submerged  that  s e n s i t i v e to l o g l o a d i n g d e n s i t i e s .  f o r f i s h and many i n v e r t e b r a t e s .  laboratory  demonstrate  tannin  (Levy  experiments  (Power and W e n t z e l l ,  l i g n i n and  1985).  concentrations  to c o n c e n t r a t i o n s measured i n the l o g storage 1985b). Agreement  and f i e l d r e s u l t s i s s t r i k i n g ;  between  in  experimental  site  enclosure  s t a t i c c o n d i t i o n s i n the l o g boom  43  result  in  water  experiments. storage  quality  to that measured i n e n c l o s u r e  The l o g l o a d i n g d e n s i t y f o r the  site,  as  calculated  m e t e r s / c u b i c meter magnitude  similar  than  water,  the  in  which  highest  Chapter is  f o r water c i r c u l a t i o n  higher  in  log  storage  water q u a l i t y . enclosures similar  It  will  be  that  under  by  Arm  0.33 an  way  to  log  cubic  order  of  (0.0335 c u b i c experiments.  i n the l o g storage a r e a ,  conditions  follows  is  enclosure  of e n c l o s u r e s proved to be an e f f e c t i v e simulate  3,  log loading density  meters wood/cubic meter water) used Allowing  Morrison  the use  experimentally  and examine t h e i r e f f e c t s on  the  physical  biotic and  component chemical  of  the  conditions  to those which occur in the f i e l d as w i l l be examined  in  the General D i s c u s s i o n .  2.4.2  Zooplankton  Laboratory t e s t s have shown t h a t l o g l e a c h a t e s are toxic  to  (Servizi  s e v e r a l a q u a t i c organisms such as salmon eggs and et a l .  caddisfly toxicity  1971,  larvae  Pease  and  1974,  mayfly  Peters  et  al.  nymphs (Peters et a_l.  to zooplankton has never been examined.  experiments  were  conducted at  low,  realistic  the p o s s i b i l i t y of measuring responses at the  with  affected. zooplankton  5 This  log  experiment  pattern  is  The  fry  1976)  and  1976),  but  enclosure  l o g l o a d i n g s with community  Log l e a c h a t e s reduced zooplankton d e n s i t y i n a l l time,  acutely  level.  treatments over  p o p u l a t i o n s being most s e v e r e l y  linked  to  water  quality,  as  respond to changes such as reduced d i s s o l v e d oxygen  44  and  increases  in  leachate  concentration.  emphasizes that environmental c o n d i t i o n s ( i n oxygen)  may  greatly  examples from the chlorophyll  modify  literature.  t h i s case d i s s o l v e d  and  Wentzell  (1970)  discusses  (in  prep.)  several monitored  a in e n c l o s u r e s and found that oxygen d e p l e t i o n and  l e a c h a t e s generated by standing  toxicity  Sprague  logs  did  not  adversely  affect  c r o p s . The algae consumed by zooplankton would have  be monitored t o t e s t  the  were reduced through food  No  significant  hypothesis  that  zooplankton  numbers  i n zooplankton response to pine  was f o u n d . T h i s  is  reasonable  that there were no measured d i f f e r e n c e s i n water q u a l i t y treatments.  Differences  in t o x i c i t y  1976)  given between  between other t r e e s p e c i e s  have been shown by s e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s (Atkinson 1971, al.  to  limitation.  difference  and spruce l o g treatments  et  algal  Buchanan  but f o r higher l e a c h a t e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s than occur  i n most l o g h a n d l i n g f a c i l i t i e s .  These  leachates  processes  through  extraction  studies  obtained  which  toxic  involve  high  l o a d i n g d e n s i t i e s and g r i n d i n g of wood c h i p s i n water. Whole l o g experiments produce more d i l u t e measurably Pease  toxic  l e a c h a t e s which are not  t o salmonids (Atkinson 1971,  usually  Schaumburg 1973,  1974).  In e n c l o s u r e experiments, juvenile  calanoid  and  cyclopoid  c o p e p o d i t e s ) were s t a t i s t i c a l l y stages  tend  only r e d u c t i o n s i n copepods  abundance (nauplii  significant. Early l i f e  of and  history  to be the most s u s c e p t i b l e to t o x i c substances f o r  45  both f i s h and i n v e r t e b r a t e s Potentially, area  at  (APHA  et  al.  1985,  McKim  1985).  f o r young sockeye salmon f e e d i n g i n the l o g storage  Morrison  levels since fry  Arm,  there may be a r e d u c t i o n i n l o c a l food  feed mainly on copepodites (Levy et a l .  1984).  Negative e f f e c t s of wood l e a c h a t e on zooplankton were determined at  realistic  At  the  leachate concentrations.  community  l e v e l , differences  in species d i v e r s i t y  between l o g t r e a t e d and c o n t r o l e n c l o s u r e s was p r e d i c t e d ,  based  on the premise that community s t r u c t u r e would change as a r e s u l t of l o g s t o r a g e . A c c o r d i n g to Washington (1984), s t r e s s e s a p p l i e d to  a  community as a r e s u l t of p o l l u t i o n should be r e f l e c t e d  changes to the community s t r u c t u r e , may  be  an  indicator.  community.  the For  impact  to  application  of  of  example,  documented r e d u c t i o n s i n s p e c i e s response  species  diversity  Species d i v e r s i t y has been used in a few  other s t u d i e s to e v a l u a t e zooplankton  of which  in  a  toxicant  Kaushik  diversity  permethrin  of (an  et  upon  al.  a  1985,  zooplankton  in  insecticide)  to  occurred  in  enclosures.  The  changes  zooplankton pattern, diversity  in  species  communities  which  i n l o g e n c l o s u r e s showed no c o n s i s t e n t  which c o u l d be due to a number of r e a s o n s . i s a measure of community s t r u c t u r e ,  suggests a l a c k of e f f e c t of l o g community  diversity  level;  hypotheses. D i v e r s i t y  however,  leachate there  at  are  i n d i c e s may not be  a  If  species  than t h i s  result  the  zooplankton  several  alternative  good  or  sensitive  46  measure  of  community  structure.  Also,  responses  zooplankton taxa may have been e q u a l , r e s u l t i n g i n r e l a t i v e abundance, upon which d i v e r s i t y limited  scope  f o r determining  by  each  i n no net change  i s based.  There  s i g n i f i c a n t changes in  is  diversity  because s p e c i e s r i c h n e s s i n Babine Lake i s low and s m a l l changes may not be d e t e c t e d by a d i v e r s i t y  S i m i l a r r e s u l t s at the indices  were  experiments effects  obtained  ( S a l k i et  were  for a_l.  measured,  index.  community  level  zooplankton 1985)  despite  where  using  similarity  in selenium e n c l o s u r e no  indications  acute from  b i o a s s a y s that selenium was t o x i c t o z o o p l a n k t o n .  or  chronic  laboratory  47  3. FIELD STUDY  3.1  Utilization their  first  1969,  INTRODUCTION  of the l i t t o r a l  zone  by  sockeye  fry  during  few weeks of l i f e has been widely observed (McDonald  Levy et al_. 1984)  and t h i s would seem to be the zone most  s e v e r e l y a f f e c t e d by l o g storage on Babine L a k e . Impacts  such as  bark a c c u m u l a t i o n , sediment  benthic  prey  organisms  1981).  experimentally  Conlan  However,  and  there  examine the d i r e c t  are  effects  associated  a r e a s , where,  with  f o r example,  in  are d e s c r i b e d f o r  Ellis  ( S e d e l l and Duval 1985). T h i s i s p a r t l y problems  reduction  and reduced water q u a l i t y  storage areas (Pease 1974, Brownlee  compaction,  1979, few  Toews  studies  log and  which  of l o g storage on f i s h  due  to  the  logistical  c a r r y i n g out r e s e a r c h i n l o g storage submerged logs and d e b r i s  make  many  f i s h capture methods i m p r a c t i c a l .  Given 1969) is  that  for their  concern  Forest  affect  River Products  essentially  first  l i t t o r a l habitat  few weeks of t h e i r  that l o g h a n d l i n g a c t i v i t i e s  detrimentally Morrison  sockeye f r y u t i l i z e  a  these j u v e n i l e  enter dump  Babine site  migration  lake  (McDonald  residence,  d u r i n g that p e r i o d may  salmon. Sockeye f r y  Lake (Figure  there  leaving  only 1 km from the Houston 15).  Morrison  Arm  c o r r i d o r , along which f r y must  is  travel  from the Morrison R i v e r to the main body of Babine L a k e . Levy et al.  (1985b) have examined r e l a t i v e  utilization  of  the  littoral  48  Figure  15. Map of Morrison Arm, Babine L a k e , B . C . L o c a t i o n s of f r y feeding experiments are marked and d e s c r i b e d i n the l e g e n d . As i n d i c a t e d , see F i g u r e 16 f o r a map of the l o g dump bay.  49  zone  along Morrison Arm and determined that the h i g h e s t numbers  of sockeye f r y were onshore at shift  into  the  pelagic  the head of the arm. They  zone as they migrate  basin of Babine Lake. D e t e r i o r a t i o n caused by l o g storage may i n h i b i t sockeye  f r y w i t h i n the arm. If  Dietary  these  concerns,  this  field  time and water q u a l i t y differences  in  food  first  in  log  boom and  Water r e s i d e n c e and water  The f o r e s t  were  used  for  characteristic  dump s i t e . surface reducing action.  15)  the  growth  look  at  water r e s i d e n c e  control  (2)  sites,  in  sites.  950  coastal  ( E d g e l l and Ross 1983), 64% of  of being s h e l t e r e d  which  log  from wind, waves and c u r r e n t s .  storage  at  Morrison  Arm,  protected  w i t h i n the r e g i o n meeting the c r i t e r i a  f o r a log  per  unit  potential  site  site  i s i n the most  In a d d i t i o n ,  area  their  quality  Lake i s no e x c e p t i o n ; t h i s  bay ( F i g u r e  and  (1)  could  l o g storage a l o n e . These l e a s e s have the common  Houston F o r e s t P r o d u c t s ' Babine  inshore  zooplankton  To  i n d u s t r y had a c q u i r e d approximately  l e a s e s and r e s e r v e s by 1983  of  d i e t f o r sockeye f r y h e l d  e n c l o s u r e s i n l o g storage and c o n t r o l  2.1-1  affect  few weeks of l i f e .  study examines  supply  the  habitat  f e e d , the d i e t of f r y  change may d e t r i m e n t a l l y  and s u r v i v a l d u r i n g t h e i r  or  or change m i g r a t i o n  community i n areas where sockeye f r y be a l t e r e d .  towards the main  of water q u a l i t y  l o g booms a f f e c t  likely  the presence of l o g booms decreases lake volume  water,  consequently  further  f o r mixing of the water column by wind  50  Obviously, are l i m i t i n g also  be  l e t h a l l e v e l s of oxygen (< 4 mg/l for  to f i s h (Davis  1975). C r i t i c a l  young sockeye salmon B r e t t oxygen d e t r i m e n t a l l y  reduce the a b i l i t y also  respond  affected  of f r y  negatively  to  (Pease  (Davis  to  low  prey.  and  C.O.D.  many l a b o r a t o r y Atkinson 1971,  Water sites  oxygen l e v e l s , although  they  l e v e l s than f i s h (Davis  1974),  linked  to  During  the  oxygen  (biological  oxygen  (chemical oxygen demand) as demonstrated  has 1984,  been 1985a,  Sproule and  1984  Sharpe  and  cases,  is  leachates  1980) enough  1985b) on Babine Lake and i n log  or  any  the  handling  f i e l d season, d e p l e t e d oxygen c o n d i t i o n s  conclude that water f l o w , to  1970,  c l o s e l y monitored i n l o g storage  1985a). S e v e r a l s t u d i e s (Schaumburg 1973, Slaney  in  1981).  were not observed i n the M o r r i s o n Arm l o g h a n d l i n g area al.  of  depleted  present study d u r i n g 1985 w i t h i n the M o r r i s o n Arm site.  1975).  deterioration  particularly  Toews and Brownlee  (Levy et a l .  For  may  s t u d i e s (Graham 1970,  quality  1975).  Invertebrates  c o n d i t i o n s , which are caused by h i g h B . O . D . demand)  such as  swimming performance which may  capture  R e s t r i c t e d f l u s h i n g has been quality  stress  can  (1964) determined that reduced l e v e l s  u s u a l l y have h i g h e r t o l e r a n c e  water  levels  d e f i n e d as those which cause s u b l e t h a l e f f e c t s  l o s s of e q u i l i b r i u m and r e s p i r a t i o n  of  oxygen  salmonids)  prevent  reduction  either in  oxygen  (Levy  Pease 1974,  et  Duval  i n the m a j o r i t y of  accumulation  of  toxic  which c o u l d a d v e r s e l y  affect  f i s h . Duval and Slaney (1980) c o u l d  find  no  record  of  t h i s k i n d of severe oxygen d e p l e t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  Based work,  it  on  results  of the  1984 f i e l d season and l a b o r a t o r y  was c l e a r that l e a c h a t e s from t r e e s p e c i e s h a r v e s t e d i n  the Babine Lake  watershed  could  exert  a  significant  oxygen  demand. S i n c e oxygen d e p l e t i o n d i d not occur i n the M o r r i s o n Arm log  handling  area  i n 1984,  I hypothesized t h a t water movement  w i t h i n the boom was enough to d i l u t e  the chemical e f f e c t s of  s t o r a g e . Water movement and r e s i d e n c e time can introducing  examined  by  a dye i n t o the water and t r a c k i n g i t s movement over  time ( K i s i e l et a l .  1964). T h e r e f o r e , I examined water r e s i d e n c e  time and water q u a l i t y to  be  log  i n the l o g storage area of M o r r i s o n  Arm,  determine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between water exchange and oxygen  conditions.  3_.j_.2_ Food supply and d i e t  of sockeye f r y  The q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y fishes  of  food  available  i s accepted as being an important  factor  to  in their  and s u r v i v a l (Braum 1967), as has been demonstrated studies  (Hjort  1914,  in  them  to  external  particularly  environmental  growth several  LeBrasseur 1969, Eggers 1978). A c r i t i c a l  p e r i o d f o r f i s h l a r v a e seems to occur when they s h i f t sac  juvenile  from  yolk  f e e d i n g ; at t h i s time a food shortage may make vulnerable  conditions.  A  to  predation  and  large  proportion  (50%)  sockeye c o l l e c t e d i n M o r r i s o n Arm had remnants  of  a  adverse of  the  yolk  sac  52  (pers.  obs.).  For  juvenile  are l i n k e d  sockeye salmon, r a t i o n  ( B r e t t et a l .  1969,  l e v e l and growth  B r e t t and Shelbourn 1975). In  Babine-Nilkitkwa  lake system, the mean growth  sockeye  fry  salmon  increases  Fry  to  smolt  take  same  (1983), who found high m o r t a l i t y It  rates  appears  that  longer to grow out of the s i z e window i n which  (Foerester  In the present of sockeye f r y examined.  salmon f e e d i n g , (quantity  Sockeye  fry-to-smolt  mortality  study, differences  in  i n food supply  and  i n l o g storage areas v s . undisturbed lake If I  log  storage  predicted  detrimentally  that  a  change  affects in  food  a n d / o r q u a l i t y ) and d i e t would be e v i d e n t .  enclosures  evidence of a d i r e c t  lake  1938).  i n the amount of food a v a i l a b l e held  the  have been shown to decrease with i n c r e a s e d length of  residency  are  the mean  m o r t a l i t y processes f o r Babine Lake sockeye  m o r t a l i t y i s the most i n t e n s e . rates  pelagic  with  and I would expect  among f i s h of smaller body s i z e at emergence. fry  of  the  i n younger, l i t t o r a l sockeye.  have been s t u d i e d by West  these  rate  assymptotically  zooplankton biomass (Johnson 1961) relationship  rate  in  or ingested by  diet  habitat sockeye supply  A decrease  juvenile  salmon  l o g storage areas c o u l d be accepted as  negative  impact of l o g h a n d l i n g  activities.  53  3.2 METHODS  Water  residence and water  A t r i a l dye (rhodamine-B) 1985  in  the  open  water  quality  study was conducted  near  the  log  s o l u t i o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n of rhodamine-B used chosen up t o  to be 1 g / 1 . At t h i s 15,000 times were s t i l l  A c o n t r o l experiment water  initial  within  the  log  May  28,  dump ramp. The stock in  experiments  was  c o n c e n t r a t i o n , d i l u t i o n s of  visible.  (June 3, boom  on  1986)  was conducted  in  open  s i t e to observe water movement  water without l o g b u n d l e s . The r a t e  of  movement  was  in  observed  from s h o r e .  Within  the l o g booms l o c a t e d c l o s e s t to the l o g dump s i t e ,  a sampling g r i d was l a i d out to cover an area Ten 16)  litres i n an  objectives  of  rhodamine-B dye (1 g/1)  instantaneous were  to  c o n c e n t r a t i o n of  (1)  perimeter  of  the  dose  sample the  to over  centre  water  time  dye c l o u d and (3)  by  100  were introduced  track  of  100 m  the  the  dye  (Figure  movement.  location  m.  The  and dye  cloud  (2)  the  the depth of the c e n t r e of  the dye c l o u d .  Samples were taken by hand at diaphragm  pump  began immediately  the  surface  or  by  a  Par  and h o s e , at depths below the s u r f a c e . Sampling f o l l o w i n g the dye i n t r o d u c t i o n  and  continued  54  30m  Figure  16. Sketch map of the H . F . P . l o g dump bay and storage area showing booms and l o g ramp (see F i g u r e 15 f o r l o c a t i o n i n Morrison Arm). Water q u a l i t y and i n s i t u b i o a s s a y s i t e s are marked with a t r i a n g l e and l e t t e r ( t o p ) . The dye study s i t e i s i l l u s t r a t e d showing l o g bundle arrangement and r e l e a s e p o i n t f o r dye (below).  55  at  5  minute  1.5 h at  intervals  the c e n t r e  and  samples at depths of 0, were  taken  at  f o r 0.5 h, then 10 minute i n t e r v a l s perimeter 0.25,  0.50,  0.5 h i n t e r v a l s  of  the  dye  cloud.  1.0,  2.0,  3.0,  4.0 and 5.0 m  f o r 3.5 h f o l l o w i n g  of the dye. The movement of the c l o u d was t r a c k e d map  at  cloud, and  log  bundle  layout  the  grid  location  of the g r i d in the l o g storage s i t e  (temperature,  s i t e s along a t r a n s e c t A  The  is  16.  Water q u a l i t y  oxygen) measurements were taken  (Figure  16) and  at  a  control  site.  and E are i n "open" water w i t h i n the l o g storage  bay. S i t e s B, C , and D are w i t h i n the l o g boom and site  introduction on  the g r i d s i z e was reduced to 30 m by 20 m.  Sites  Water  5 minute i n t e r v a l s . Due to the slow movement of the dye  marked i n F i g u r e  at  for  the  inner  control  i s i n 5 m of open water near the 2.0 m r e f e r e n c e s i t e used  i n the f r y  In (Figure  f e e d i n g experiment  (Figure  s i t u b i o a s s a y s were conducted 16).  15).  at  water  Ten sockeye f r y h e l d at each s i t e  e n c l o s u r e s were monitored f o r r e s p i r a t o r y s t r e s s on June 3,  quality i n flow and  sites through  mortality  1985.  Water  samples were analyzed f o r dye c o n c e n t r a t i o n by v i s u a l  comparison  with known c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of rhodamine-B i n a method  adapted from Standard Methods (APHA et matched  Helige  al.  1985).  Two  50  ml  Aquatester tubes were f i l l e d t o the 50 ml mark,  one with the sample, the other  with  appropriate  standard.  By  looking  vertically  downward through the tubes toward a  lighted  white s u r f a c e , standard comparisons were made. D i l u t i o n s increments  of  1  g/1  d i s c e r n i b l e by t h i s  rhodamine-b down to  10%  10%)  were  Morrison  Arm  1/15000 (+  method.  The s u r f a c e area of the boom and the head of were  by  determined u s i n g software  ("lake morphometry")  on an Apple  computer with a g r a p h i c s t a b l e t . The volume of water l o g boom was a l s o  3.2.2  studies  were  conducted  fry  in s i t u at Morrison Arm,  Babine Lake, B r i t i s h Columbia i n l a t e May and e a r l y J u n e , The fry  following  sites  (treatment) and  l o g boom treatment s i t e  (2)  undisturbed reference  (3)  l o g dump treatment s i t e  (4)  undisturbed reference  littoral  locations  (2 m)  site  (2m)  (0.5  site  m)  (0.5  m)  of these four s i t e s are shown i n F i g u r e  The d i s s o l v e d oxygen c o n c e n t r a t i o n s at a l l mg/l.  undisturbed  (reference):  (1)  The  1985.  were s e l e c t e d to compare d i e t s of sockeye  i n l o g h a n d l i n g areas  habitat  the  determined.  Food supply and d i e t of sockeye  Feeding  below  This  treatments;  study a greater  design  does  not  s i t e s were above  provide  replication  number of s i t e s i n each area are  15. 6.0 of  required  57  to  statistically  (Hurlbert  test  for  differences  between  treatments  1984).  The l o g boom and l o g dump s i t e s represent h a b i t a t s to  two kinds of l o g handling a c t i v i t i e s  encounter.  The shallow l o g dump s i t e  exposed  which sockeye f r y  i s used r e g u l a r l y  might  over  the  winter and has higher r a t e s of bark d e p o s i t i o n than the l o g boom area  which  is  relatively  bundles (Levy et appropriate  al.  undisturbed  1985b).  once  Reference  During the  f e e d i n g experiments,  enclosures  (FTEs)  c i r c u l a t i o n and zooplankton that  there  was  no  which  significant  the  enclosures.  Each  p l a s t i c mesh (3 mm mesh s i z e ) sides  of  in  waters  a  fry  in FTE  were  undisturbed  held  permitted  in  flow-  ample  water  Sampling  difference samples  in taken  consisted  s t r e t c h e d and  of  fastened  indicated zooplankton within  green vexar all  0.5 X 0.5 X 0.5 m aluminium frame box (Figure  17).  completely  into  water  mesh  in  column. S i x FTEs were c o n s t r u c t e d , two of which were  m o d i f i e d f o r zooplankton s a m p l i n g . The a d d i t i o n of a small and  the  e n c l o s e d box. On the top of the FTEs were  four aluminium loops from which the cages c o u l d be suspended the  or  over  One s i d e had a removable s l i d i n g door to a l l o w a c c e s s otherwise  of  sites.  replenishment.  abundance or s p e c i e s composition outside  sites  depth were s e l e c t e d i n areas of s i m i l a r  s u b s t r a t e and exposure to the two treatment  through  covered with l o g  cover  f l a p allowed  hose i n t o the top of the F T E .  hole  i n s e r t i o n of the zooplankton pump  Figure  17. Design of flow through e n c l o s u r e s used i n f r y f e e d i n g experiments.  59  Sockeye f r y were  obtained  at  the l o g boom and 2  the l o g dump and Fulton  River  i n Morrison Arm  length  +  (mean  difference  The  log  standard 2.8  +  m  in  0.1  cm.  early  boom  1985.  experiments  for  fish,  m  experiments  It  which j u s t  A  was  experiment  in  the  significant  experiments.  was  conducted  restricted  the  the  at  number  before the  of  start  three FTEs were i n s t a l l e d at each s i t e  each  FTE was independently  suspended at  For  log  dump  0.25  (two  and  2  m depth 0.5  m  s i t e s , the FTEs were p l a c e d on the sediment at a depth completely  immersed the top of the c a g e .  t o t a l of 200 f r y were randomly d i v i d e d i n t o groups of  start  on  one f o r zooplankton s a m p l i n g ) . For the l o g boom and  of an experiment.  fry clear their taken  no  average  not p o s s i b l e to t r a v e l to or stay  and each group was introduced i n t o a FTE the  used  low  were conducted on May 22-23 and  from a boom and f l o a t r e s p e c t i v e l y . reference  fry  was  were  due to the The  which were c o n d u c t e d . The a f t e r n o o n  experiment,  sites,  sites  sites  June.  of  There  M o r r i s o n Arm on any other d a t e s ; t h i s  an  reference  channel,  deviation)  1985 and the l o g dump  4-5,  of  reference  i n l e n g t h of f r y used f o r each set of  May 28-29, June  was  0.5  spawning  abundance of f r y  experiments  m  by beach s e i n i n g from Morrison Arm, Babine Lake.  The f r y used at collected  used at  It  the  day  before  was observed that young sockeye  stomach contents o v e r n i g h t ,  following  afternoon  50  contain  prey  so  stomach  captured  samples  only i n  the  60 enclosures.  In  there  no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  was  trial  feeding experiments  when f r y were h e l d at d e n s i t i e s of  it  was determined  in net  that  food intake per  fry  10 or 50 f r y per e n c l o s u r e .  Sampling began before dawn and c o n t i n u e d through u n t i l morning  of  the f o l l o w i n g day. The sampling regime c o n s i s t e d of  both f r y and zooplankton samples being taken regular  (usually  Zooplankton filtered  4  samples  through  a  h  intervals)  were  taken  Fish  at  with  a  sampled  each sample t i m e , Travel  between  site  at  experiment.  diaphragm  pump  100 micrometer mesh net and preserved in a  by  dipnetting  and these the  the  Par  1975). D u p l i c a t e  samples were taken from f i s h l e s s FTE were  each  throughout  sucrose-5% f o r m a l i n mixture (Haney and H a l l minute  the  were  5 fry  each  sample  two  time.  from each e n c l o s u r e at  preserved  treatment and r e f e r e n c e  in  10%  formalin.  s i t e s was timed  keep sample c o l l e c t i o n times as s i m i l a r as p o s s i b l e f o r the  to two  sites.  Zooplankton into  1/5  sample.  samples  were examined in t o t o or by  subsamples. Rare s p e c i e s were counted Samples  from  were ennumerated and i d e n t i f i e d  splitting the  total  under a stereo  d i s s e c t i n g scope u s i n g Edmondson (1959) and Smith  and  Fernando  (1978) f o r taxonomic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  Fork  lengths  were  recorded  for  each  fish  and stomach  contents were analyzed under a s t e r e o d i s s e c t i n g scope. Stomachs were  dissected  out  of  preserved  fish  specimens  by  making  61  incisions  at  the  esophagus and at  s p h i n c t e r with the sac  intestine.  Absence or presence  of  the  yolk  was n o t e d . The stomach f u l l n e s s was estimated on a s c a l e of  0 (empty) to  10 ( f u l l )  spread  in  out  a  were i d e n t i f i e d , of  the j u n c t i o n of the p y l o r i c  the  (Hyslop 1980). The stomach contents  petri  d i s h i n a drop of water and food items  s o r t e d and ennumerated. V i s u a l estimates  relative  volume  of  assessments of the s t a t e of fresh, digested). gut,  whereas  (+5%)  each prey type were made. O v e r a l l stomach  contents  were  F r e s h zooplankton were i n t a c t  digested  were  made  and loose i n  zooplankton were almost  (eg: the  unidentifiable.  Prey were c a t e g o r i z e d as f o l l o w s : Diacyclops Diaptomus Daphnia Bosmina nauplii/copepodites chironomid  ( c a l a n o i d s and c y c l o p o i d s )  larvae  i n s e c t pupae insect  adults  unidentifiable  ( d i g e s t e d matter)  The numerical r e l a t i v e  p r o p o r t i o n s of each food item i n  guts were c a l c u l a t e d f o r each sample time. transformed calculated,  by  square  root  arc  P r o p o r t i o n data  sin,  before  means  to meet the assumption of normal d i s t r i b u t i o n of  p r o p o r t i o n data  (Schefler  not  Prey  included.  1980). U n i d e n t i f i e d  which  were  rarely  taken  food  items  the were were the were  ( a d u l t Diaptomus  62  spp.,  D a p h n i a , and  other. habits  The  diversity  i n d i c e s can  f o r c o m p a r i s o n s between  of prey time  i n s e c t s were g r o u p e d  acquired using  Washington  by  serve  fish  as  (Hyslop  s o c k e y e f r y was  Simpsons's  into a  category  called  a measure o f  feeding  1 9 8 0 ) . The  determined  Diversity  Index  for  diversity  each  sample  as  recommended  the  head of  by  (1984).  SIMPSON'S DIVERSITY  INDEX ( D )  s 'D  - 1 -  (  P  i  )  2  i=0  where s p^  = no.  of  species  = proportion of  of  total  i n d i v i d u a l s of  no. i**  1  species 3.3  3.3.J_ Water r e s i d e n c e  Two  dye  storage  area  from  t o 30  15  and  RESULTS  water q u a l i t y  release t r i a l s  i n open w a t e r a t  i n d i c a t e d t h a t the metres per  dye  c l o u d moved a t  w a t e r s were  rippled  trials.  Following  hour of o b s e r v a t i o n ,  an  w a t e r were d i l u t e d  In  released within  the  by  a  beyond d e t e c t i o n  c o n t r a s t , the  rates  h o u r , when u n r e s t r i c t e d by  Surface  perimeter  of  light  breeze the  dye  the  log  ranging bundles.  during clouds  log  both  i n open  limits.  the  l o g boom i n i t i a l l y  surface of moved a t  a  t h e dye rate  cloud of  20  63  metres/h,  and  then  was  l e a s t 8 h . The perimeter  virtually  stagnant,  d i d not expand more than 10  d i r e c t i o n f o r the r e s t of the day (Figure  The  centre  introduction i t  7 minutes, 200 t i m e s . The 7  any  spread o u t .  was d i l u t e d 20 times and a f t e r  perimeter  dilution  was  1000  times  3.5 h. At  the " c e n t r e " of the dye c l o u d was d i l u t e d 3000 t i m e s ,  to s t a r t i n g c o n d i t i o n s and was  largely  restricted  the top 0.5 m of the water w i t h i n the l o g boom area This  in  (Figure  phenomenon, i n combination with the small l a t e r a l  approximately  of 0.5 m. T h i s laterally  movement  distribution  implied within  persisted until n i g h t f a l l ,  but was  However,  an  15 X 10 m (between 4 l o g bundles) to a depth  vertically,  morning.  or  to 19).  of the d y e , r e s u l t e d i n the dye c l o u d being c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n area  at  18).  m i n u t e s , and i n c r e a s e d to 15000 t i m e s , a f t e r  t h i s time, relative  m  of the dye c l o u d was d i l u t e d as i t  Two minutes a f t e r  after  remaining f o r  reduced  the  log  water  movement,  boom a r e a . The dye  undetectable  the  following  the t h i c k b a c t e r i a l growth which covered the  l o g bundles was h e a v i l y s t a i n e d , but only w i t h i n  the upper  0.25  m of water.  Extreme temperatures water  in  oxygen  depletion  (<2.0  mg/l)  elevated  ( 1 7 . 0 - 1 8 . 5 d e g . C) o c c u r r e d i n the upper 0.5  the  l o g boom on June 3,  1986,  while  only s l i g h t l y depressed oxygen l e v e l s i n s u r f a c e 5).  and  C o n t r o l s i t e water was c o o l e r (<14  were above 9.0 mg/l at every d e p t h .  m  of  "open" areas had waters  (Table  d e g . C) and oxygen l e v e l s  64  Figure  18. Dye c l o u d movement in s u r f a c e waters of a 30 X 20 m g r i d w i t h i n l o g bundles over a 3.5h p e r i o d on June 3, 1985 (dye r e l e a s e l o c a t i o n i n d i c a t e d by a r r o w ) .  DILUTION (log) 1:1000  I I-  0 _ LU  1:100  0.25h  1.5h  O  5-L  5-L 1:10000  OF  0.50h 5-L  1:1000  -i  2.0h 5-L 1:10000  1:10000  1:1000  0 l'. .'.'.-.'.'. . .|l;. ' ^ l  l t  l  T  l  1.0h 5-L  3.5h 5-L  F i g u r e 19. Depth d i s t r i b u t i o n and d i l u t i o n at center of c l o u d over a 3.5h p e r i o d on June 3, 1985.  Depth (m) 0 0.25 0.50 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0  Site T 16.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 12.0 12.0  -  A DO 7.0 7.0 7.2 9.1 8.7 8.6  --  Site T 18.0 18.0 17.5 15.0 11 .5 11.5 9.0 9.0  B  DO 1.2 1.5 2.0 4.9 7.2 9.1 9.1 8.8  Site( C T DO 18.5 0.8 18.0 1.0 16.0 1.5 15.0 3.8 11.5 8.0 11.0 7.9 9.5 8.8 9.0 8.2  Site! D T DO 18.0 1.0 18.0 0.9 16.0 1.5 16.0 2.5 11.0 8.0 11.0 8.2 9.5 8.5 9.7 9.0  Site T 17.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 12.0  -  E DO 7.8 7.7 7.7 8.9 8.2  -  -  Table 5. Water q u a l i t y (temperature (deg. C) and d i s s o l v e d oxygen (mg/l)) in Morrison Arm on June 3, 1985. See F i g u r e 16 f o r l o c a t i o n s of s i t e s . ( T = temperature, DO= d i s s o l v e d oxygen)  Reference T DO 14.0 9.2 13.0 9.2 12.0 9.4 10.0 9.9 10.0 9.9 9.0 9.8 9.0 9.6 9.5 9.2  67  The  s u r f a c e area of the l o g boom comprises 15% of the  of the head of Morrison Arm (Figure ratio  of  boom:arm which i s 0.15.  15)  is  described  comm.),  submerged,  and  the  assuming  by  the  Given that there were 165,000  c u b i c meters of logs i n the M o r r i s o n Arm storage area pers.  area  that  instantaneous  50%  of  each  woodtwater  (P. Ogawa,  bundle  density  was  can  be  c a l c u l a t e d . The volume of water below the l o g boom to a depth of 2 m  (thermocline)  woodtwater  ratio  wood/cubic meter  All within  was  248,000  log  flaring,  boom  in  (sites  situ lethal  gill  sites  B, C , and D) were dead w i t h i n 15 respiratory  s t r e s s such  swimming.  Of  s i t e A , two d i e d and the s u r v i v o r s d i s p l a y e d  flaring.  All  s i t e s u r v i v e d the 24 h t e s t  3.3.2  the  c u b i c meters  bioassay test  d i s o r i e n t e d swimming and s u r f a c e  the ten f r y h e l d at infrequent  therefore  water.  minutes. They e x h i b i t e d s i g n s of extreme as g i l l  meters,  under s t a t i c c o n d i t i o n s was 0.33  sockeye f r y h e l d at the  cubic  Food supply and d i e t  fry  i n s i t e E and the  reference  period.  of sockeye f r y  3_.3.2_.J_ Zooplankton abundance Over the 24  h  zooplankton  abundance between r e f e r e n c e and boom s i t e s  20 and 21). zooplankton  experiments  there  Copepodites and n a u p l i i community  at  all  were  clear  differences  numerically sites  in  all  in  (Figures  dominated  the  experiments.  68  D i a c y c l o p s thomasi was the followed  in  second  decreasing  most  abundance  abundant by  zooplankton,  Bosmina  coreqoni  ,  chironomid l a r v a e , Daphnia s p p . , and Diaptomus s p p .  In the l o g boom experiments there  were  differences  (May  22-23  and - May  28-29),  i n l o c a l zooplankton abundance between  the l o g boom and r e f e r e n c e s i t e s . N a u p l i i were 50% to 200% abundant  at  r e f e r e n c e s i t e s than at the l o g boom s i t e s on both  dates (Figure 20), the  most  with peaks between 1100-1200 h.  important  abundant at  Copepodites,  food item f o r young sockeye f r y ,  the r e f e r e n c e s i t e on May 22-23, but  were more  there  was  d i f f e r e n c e on May 28-29 between r e f e r e n c e and boom s i t e s 20).  D i a c y c l o p s thomasi was present  reference  and  d e n s i t i e s at  boom  at  sites  on  both  20);  The  same  t h i s s p e c i e s o c c u r r e d at  present  e x c l u s i v e l y at both  at  very  low  experiment not  dates  are  variances  associated  with  for  on May Bosmina  s i m i l a r l o c a l abundancies dates.  Chironomid  (<1  indiv/1)  larvae almost  i n the morning and evening  (Figure  reported  evident  densities  the r e f e r e n c e s i t e  Diaptomus  their  was  here  both  except f o r higher  1200 h, p a r t i c u l a r l y  trend  r e f e r e n c e and boom s i t e s , on both  were  dates,  no  (Figure  in s i m i l a r d e n s i t i e s at  the r e f e r e n c e s i t e near  28-29 ( F i g u r e 20). (Figure  more  20).  Data  because  for of  Daphnia high  on and  sampling  low d e n s i t i e s of these s p e c i e s , and  absence i n stomach samples.  In  the  significant  log  ramp  differences  experiment in  (June  zooplankton  4-5),  there  abundance between  were the  69  04  06  12  16  20  24  04  06  12J9  Diacyclops thomasi  copepodites  WO  60 6J0  c o c IS Q. o o N  4J)  2J0  0 4J0 30 2JD  to  0  33  0)  04  06  12  16  20  24  04  06  04  06  12  16  20  24  04  06  Bosmina coregoni  0 4 0 6  12  1 6 2 0 2 4 0 4 0 6  04  06  12  16  20  24  04  06  Time(h) Figure  20. Z o o p l a n k t o n a b u n d a n c e (no/1 + S.E. f o r s u b s a m p l e s ) i n f l o w t h r o u g h e n c l o s u r e s a t boom a n d c o n t r o l s i t e s d u r i n g s o c k e y e f e e d i n g e x p e r i m e n t s May 22-23 a n d May 28-29, 1985 ( d a s h e d l i n e s = c o n t r o l s i t e s , s o l i d l i n e = boom s i t e ; s e e n a u p l i i g r a p h ( t o p ) f o r l a y o u t o f May 22-23 a n d May 2 8 - 2 9 ) .  70 r e f e r e n c e and copepodites  l o g ramp (Figure  the  ramp s i t e  and  copepodite  above  that  Diacyclops differ  other  the  thomasi  ramp  and  site  Bosmina  sample p e r i o d s a t b o t h  Generally,  Bosmina  were t a k e n  coreqoni  of c h i r o n o m i d  numbers a t s i t e s  experiments morning  and  zooplankton; Sockeye clear  However,  (Figure  abundance  with very  clearly  the middle  low  nauplii increases  of t h e  21)  day.  did  Chironomid during  not  larvae  the  0830  abundance d u r i n g a l l  sites.  items p r e s e n t to  both  a t a lower  l a r v a e . Chironomid  showed a s i m i l a r  evening fry  gut  number  i n s e c t s were t a k e n  where t h e y were  afternoon  i n the  frequency,  gut  t r e n d i n each samples  stomachs o v e r n i g h t .  t o 3.0  and  volume.  and  nauplii,  rarely,  with  the  l a r v a e were t a k e n  were  the course case.  cm  of  in  24  h  In g e n e r a l , the  composed of  s a m p l e s were r e l a t i v e l y  i n t h e 2.0  f r y stomachs  available.  s t a t u s of gut c o n t e n t s over  salmon  their  during  in  respect  c o p e p o d s D a p h n i a and  Digestive  than  l o g ramp s i t e s .  the major p r e y with  large  at the r e f e r e n c e s i t e evening.  of  Contents  were c o p e p o d i t e s ,  exception  and  coreqoni  r e f e r e n c e and  a t the r e f e r e n c e s i t e  nauplii  reference s i t e  showed a l a r g e peak  3.2.2.2 Stomach  adult  densities  were l o w e r  abundance a t t h e  between  sample  21)  The  d u r i n g t h e m o r n i n g and  of  ( F i g u r e 21)  sites.  "fresh"  well  digested.  size class  completely  Time (h) Figure  21. Z o o p l a n k t o n a b u n d a n c e (no/1 + S.E. f o r s u b s a m p l e s ) i n f l o w t h r o u g h e n c l o s u r e s a t ramp a n d c o n t r o l s i t e s d u r i n g s o c k e y e f e e d i n g e x p e r i m e n t s J u n e 4-5, 1985 ( d a s h e d l i n e s = c o n t r o l s i t e s , s o l i d l i n e s = ramp s i t e ) .  72  I n f o r m a t i o n on i n g e s t e d food q u a n t i t y was estimating  stomach  f u l l n e s s and  obtained  by  (1)  (2) c a l c u l a t i n g mean number of  each prey item per stomach. For f r y i n FTEs i n both the l o g boom and  2.0  m r e f e r e n c e s i t e s (May  fullness  and  May  28-29),  stomach  and mean prey/stomach ( F i g u r e 22) show s i m i l a r changes  over the 24 h e x p e r i m e n t s , same  22-23  a l t h o u g h h o u r l y p a t t e r n s a r e not  f o r the two d a t e s . Food i n t a k e b e g i n s i n the e a r l y  w i t h stomach f u l l n e s s p e a k i n g  between 1200  and  1600  morning  h.  f u l l n e s s and mean prey/stomach then d e c r e a s e u n t i l the  the  Stomach following  morning.  F r y i n FTEs i n the l o g dump and 0.5m 4-5)  do  not  exhibit  s i m i l a r t r e n d s i n stomach f u l l n e s s or i n  mean prey abundance per period.  Fry  r e f e r e n c e s i t e s (June  stomach  i n FTEs a t the 0.5  (Figure  22)  over  the  24  h  m r e f e r e n c e s i t e e x h i b i t a mid-  day peak i n stomach f u l l n e s s and prey number, w h i l e f r y h e l d  at  the l o g ramp have r e l a t i v e l y low v a l u e s o v e r a l l . F r y h e l d i n the 0.5  m r e f e r e n c e s i t e i n g e s t more food than those a t the l o g ramp  site.  In both the l o g boom and 2.0 m r e f e r e n c e s i t e s ( F i g u r e 2 3 ) , on May  22-23, c o p e p o d i t e s  throughout  most  important.  The  experiments.  The  of same  the  were the dominant stomach c o n t e n t 24  trends  stomach  item  h p e r i o d w i t h Bosmina s e c o n d a r i l y were  seen  in  the  May  28-29  c o n t e n t s of 2.0 m r e f e r e n c e s i t e f r y  g e n e r a l l y had a g r e a t e r number of prey s p e c i e s than those of l o g boom s i t e f r y ( F i g u r e 2 2 ) . The h i g h e r s p e c i e s r i c h n e s s  of  prey  73  STOMACH FULLNESS  PREY NUMBER  F i g u r e 22. Stomach f u l l n e s s (+ S.E.) and number of prey (+S.E.) i n stomachs of sockeye f r y d u r i n g f e e d i n g e x p e r i m e n t s a t boom and c o n t r o l s i t e s (May 22-23 and May 28-29, 1985) and a t ramp and c o n t r o l s i t e s (June 4-5, 1985) (dashed l i n e s = c o n t r o l s i t e s , s o l i d l i n e <= t r e a t m e n t s i t e )  74  items  acquired  by  reference  d i v e r s i t y . For both May was  site  f r y i s r e f l e c t e d i n higher  22-23 and May  28-29,  species  diversity  higher i n the stomach contents of r e f e r e n c e s i t e f r y than i n  boom s i t e f r y ( F i g u r e 24).  There log  were  dump  and  copepodites  large 0.5  were  the  p e r i o d , chironomid early  morning  m  d i f f e r e n c e s i n stomach c o n t e n t s between reference most  abundant  23)  food  fry.  for  f r y at the 0.5  h e l d a t the l o g ramp s i t e throughout  Although  item over the 24 h  l a r v a e became the main food item  l a r v a e were v i r t u a l l y absent  frequencies  (Figure  during  the  m r e f e r e n c e s i t e . Cljironomid  from the  stomach  samples  of  fry  ( F i g u r e 23). Bosmina were taken at  low  the 24 h p e r i o d at both s i t e s . There  was  no d i f f e r e n c e i n d i v e r s i t y of food items a c q u i r e d by f r y h e l d a t ramp and r e f e r e n c e s i t e s .  To t e s t f o r prey s e l e c t i v i t y by sockeye  f r y i n log handling  vs . r e f e r e n c e areas, s e v e r a l i n d i c e s were a p p l i e d to the Both  Pinkas  's index of r e l a t i v e importance  linear selection patterns  of  chironomid  index  the  sockeye  larvae  and  represented  as  copepodites.  However,  zooplankton  and  (1979) f a i l e d t o  a  gut  salmon.  their  for  absence  samples  at  (1971) and S t r a u s s '  represent  feeding  consumption  chironomid of  the  s p o r a d i c appearance of  corresponding  preference the  The  data.  larvae  chironomids  in  are over both  other times r e s u l t s i n t h e i r  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n as a randomly s e l e c t e d food item, which i s not biologically  reasonable  conclusion.  Therefore,  these  a two  MAY 22-23  1.0  MAY 28-29  JUNE 4-5  "•"'ilium  0.8 0.6 0.4  0.4  0.2 04  0.2  BOOM 08  12  16  20  24  04  08  08  12  16  20  24  04  08  RAMP 04  08  12  Time (h) Figure 23. Gut contents (proportion (transformed by square root a r c s i n ) of number of each prey type) for sockeye fry held at boom and reference s i t e s (May 22-23 and May 28-29, 1985) and ramp and reference s i t e s (June 4-5) (white = copepodites, sparse dots = Bosmina. l i g h t s t r i p e s = other, dark s t r i p e s = D i a c y c l o p s . and denser dots = chironomid l a r v a e ) .  16  20  24  04  08  MAY 22-23  o * — i  04  Q CO  1  i  \  08  12  16  0.8 T  20  24  04  08  24  04  08  MAY 28-29  z  o  CO CL  1  CO  04  08  12  16  20  TIME(h) F i g u r e 24. D i v e r s i t y i n d i c e s (Simpson's D) f o r gut c o n t e n t s o f sockeye f r y h e l d a t boom, ramp and control sites.  77  selectivity  i n d i c e s were d i s c a r d e d as methods  to  describe  the  feeding of sockeye f r y over the course of 24 h experiments.  3.4  The  results  stratification  of  DISCUSSION  the  dye  experiment  i n response to d e n s i t y d i f f e r e n c e s  water w i t h i n the l o g storage s i t e . this  water  suggest  contributes  The  stagnant  (<2 mg/l)  surface  condition  of  i n the top 0.25 m  of the water column which corresponds to the most layer,  i n the  to oxygen d e p l e t i o n due to h i g h B . O . D .  and C . O . D . Oxygen l e v e l s were lowest  water  extreme  poorly  mixed  as demonstrated i n the dye experiments. D i s s o l v e d  oxygen m o n i t o r i n g in the Houston F o r e s t Products s i t e d u r i n g May and June, 1986 again in  were  1985.  (Bustard  1986)  depressed (3-5  determined  mg/l),  that  levels  but not to the same extent as  The oxygen d e p r e s s i o n remained u n t i l  removed from the s i t e .  oxygen  Long term temperature  the l o g booms were data  (Bustard  i n d i c a t e t h a t c o n d i t i o n s were not unusual d u r i n g 1985 and which  suggests  that  this  of  sockeye f r y  1986,  phenomenon i s not anomalous and may  occur on a y e a r l y b a s i s i n l a t e M a y / e a r l y J u n e . migration  1986)  from M o r r i s o n R i v e r  The  downstream  i n t o M o r r i s o n Arm  i s c o i n c i d e n t with the oxygen d e p l e t i o n i n the l o g storage a r e a .  It  has c l e a r l y been shown by Levy et a_l.  (1985b)  that  fry  a v o i d the l o g storage area d u r i n g t h i s t i m e . Avoidance of oxygen depleted  water has been shown f o r other  may be a r e s u l t  of  increased  random  f i s h e s (Davis  movement  until  1975)  and  preferred  78  oxygen  conditions  are  found.  Increased p r e d a t i o n r i s k and/or  energy expenditure as a r e s u l t  of  avoidance  increase  of  fry  the  mortality  rate  storage a r e a . T h i s hypothesis c o u l d recapture  experiment  in  which  might  p a s s i n g through the  be  fry  behaviours  tested are  using  a  mark-  marked as they  leave  M o r r i s o n R i v e r , and then r e c a p t u r e d a f t e r the l o g storage The  other  side  of  Morrison  Arm  to  differential through  attribute mortality  the  mortality  area.  c o u l d be used as a c o n t r o l ,  assuming that young f r y do not c r o s s the arm. It possible  log  to  would suggest  would  individual higher  l o g storage a r e a . C e r t a i n l y ,  not  be  factors,  but  risks  in  passing  the r e s u l t s of the  in  s i t u b i o a s s a y experiments i n d i c a t e that f r y e n t e r i n g the s u r f a c e waters of the l o g storage area d u r i n g l a t e May would  have  early  June  d i e d . Schools of a p p a r e n t l y d i s o r i e n t e d sockeye f r y  were observed w i t h i n the booms d u r i n g e a r l y obs.),  and  June,  1985  (pers.  but no bodies were f o u n d .  Prey  consumed  by sockeye f r y  items p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d f o r 1984).  Also,  the  fry  zooplankton  i n FTEs were s i m i l a r to  i n Morrison Arm (Levy  diet  et  al.  samples from the r e f e r e n c e FTEs  have a s i m i l a r composition to l a k e samples which i n d i c a t e s the  food  a v a i l a b l e to f r y  the l a k e . However, i t artifact  is  i n s i d e the FTEs i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e possible  that  this  is  a  enclosures  representative  resulting  in  a  could  sample  of what i s a v a i l a b l e to f r y .  have which  been may  Assuming  of  sampling  s i n c e the zooplankton sample volumes were g r e a t e r  FTE volumes. Consequently, zooplankton into  that  than drawn  not  that  be this  effects  will  be equal at treatment and r e f e r e n c e s i t e s , I  attribute  differences  treatment  s i t e s to the e f f e c t s of l o g s t o r a g e , through (1)  availability  and (2)  in  fry  diet  sockeye f r y  between  feeding  will  reference  behaviour  and food  under  log  storage water q u a l i t y c o n d i t i o n s i n the l o g storage a r e a .  The  amount  and  digestive  status  r e f l e c t s a unimodal f e e d i n g p a t t e r n ,  described  by  McCart  the  gut  contents  with f e e d i n g o c c u r r i n g from  e a r l y morning to the afternoon of each also  of  (1967)  day.  for  This  pattern  inshore f r y  was  feeding  Babine Lake d u r i n g e a r l y June. The number of empty stomachs inversely  related  to  in was  the mean stomach f u l l n e s s f o r a l l  sample  Sockeye f r y h e l d i n the l o g boom and 2.0 m r e f e r e n c e  sites  times.  (May  22-23  and  May 28-29) showed no major d i e t a r y  that were c o n s i s t e n t f o r both  sample  dates.  differences  There  were  only  s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the food a v a i l a b l e to the f r y at those two sites,  although  food  was g e n e r a l l y more abundant at  s i t e s . There  was  a  acquired  the  reference  by  tendency  towards site  fry,  higher as  samples.  It  is  difficult  generally  accepted  that  to p r e d i c t the e f f e c t s of  reduced  food  in this  However,  diversity  d e l e t e r i o u s consequence of p o l l u t i o n and d i s t u r b a n c e 1984).  on both  composition  d i f f e r e n c e on the growth or s u r v i v a l of sockeye f r y . is  diversity  evidenced  experiment dates by a more complex prey s p e c i e s gut  prey  reference  is  it a  (Washington  80  Sockeye  fry  i n l o g dump and 0.5 m r e f e r e n c e  5) d i s p l a y e d major d i e t a r y  differences.  l o g dump s i t e a c q u i r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y  sites  (June  Fry h e l d in cages i n  fewer prey items  4the  resulting  i n low- stomach f u l l n e s s and the s p e c i e s composition was markedly different.  The abundance of c o p e p o d i t e s , the major  sockeye f r y  i n May and June was s l i g h t l y higher  site  than i n l o g dump s i t e s f o r  trend  is  reflected  Significantly  greater  the r e f e r e n c e items  such  the  as  of  ramp  site.  s i t e s . The c o n t r o l s i t e  lower  Other  morning  disturbed  t h i s same  which  become  differ  available  to  and evening while t h i s p r e f e r r e d prey  to f r y  inshore  feeding in a p r i s t i n e  larvae  on  water  feed  area of the l o g ramp w i l l  inshore  result. vertical  However,  environment.  column p r e y ,  i n zooplankton and  are in  them item  i n the l o g dump.  in  stomach  Sockeye  so the presence of samples  was  an  the  experience  food abundance and a d i f f e r e n t d i e t composition than  primarily  food  f r y consumed l a r g e  These r e s u l t s suggest t h a t sockeye f r y which highly  prey.  abundance or consumption; these prey items  between  was not a v a i l a b l e  this  of copepodites were consumed in  D i a c y c l o p s and Bosmina do not e x h i b i t  numbers of chironomid l a r v a e the  reference  this  low i n abundance and d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  consumption  during  consumption  numbers  i n the  the m a j o r i t y of the day and  s i t e compared to the l o g  pattern in either relatively  in  food item of  fry  those feed  chironomid unexpected  these chironomid l a r v a e appear t o undergo small  migrations  i n the morning and e v e n i n g , which puts them  81  i n t o the waters  "available" at  Levy et  those  al.  food supply  times.  (1985a,1985b)  appears  that  items i n p r o p o r t i o n However, by  also  found  the sockeye f r y  to  Babine  their  Lake  abundance  sockeye  of  i n c r e a s e d p r e d a t i o n on which  in  fry  adults the  chironomid  shallow 1985,  larvae  i n May/June a c q u i r e  abundance  Diaptomus a d u l t s were s e l e c t e d over low  fry  in  fry.  Rankin (1977) i n a l a b o r a t o r y  young  that  sockeye  In gut a n a l y s e s d u r i n g 1984 and  stomach samples from sockeye  It  for  in  the  selectivity  found that D i a c y c l o p s and  Babine  smaller  environment.  study of prey  copepodites.  in  prey  He  suggested  Lake may r e s u l t  copepodites  and  nauplii,  might be the case in Morrison Arm d u r i n g May and J u n e .  the l a t e summer and  early  mainly  zooplankton  upon  adult  has been observed f o r Eggers  1978).  This  feeding  an  the  improved a b i l i t y  Babine  Lake  sockeye  (McDonald 1973,  sockeye f r y  zooplankton may r e f l e c t and/or  fall,  shift growth  of f r y  from of  (Doble  juvenile  available  to capture  In  depend  Rankin 1977)  i n Lake Washington  in  as and  to  adult  food  items  larger  food items  as they grow and move o f f s h o r e .  The absence of chironomid l a r v a e from all  log major  documented al.  handling a c t i v i t i e s . groups for  1985b, Yesaki  disturbance  from  of  the  benthic  is related  to  disturbance  Severe impacts of l o g storage on invertebrates  have  been  Houston F o r e s t Products dump s i t e  and bark  Levy  1986).  deposition  In and  addition boom boats  to  well  (Levy  et  physical  (Conlan and  82  Ellis  1979)  related  to  the  abundance  the  chemical  of  benthic  changes  accompany l o g s t o r a g e . Levy et a l . microbial  growth  under  invertebrates  to  the  may  environment  be  which  (1985b) demonstrate that  the  the l o g boom has a h i g h r a t e of oxygen  consumption and i s a s s o c i a t e d with hydrogen s u l p h i d e p r o d u c t i o n . Measurements Nanaimo  of  in  the  R i v e r estuary show the presence of an anoxic l a y e r  over  the benthos at  oxygen-reduction  l o g storage s i t e s where  (McGreer et a l .  Sockeye  sediment  fry  seem  to  or e n e r g e t i c  gain  had  preferentially  r e a s o n s . It  l a r v a e would be r e l a t i v e l y energy  logs  been  removed  1984).  l a r v a e over copepodites when both taste  potential  relative  to  are  feed  on chironomid  available;  whether  for  seems reasonable that chironomid  easy to capture and r e s u l t the  foraging  effort  if  in a large they  are  abundant. Chironomid l a r v a e are probably not a s t a p l e food item, as supported by stomach content a n a l y s i s of l i t t o r a l sockeye f r y collected to  be  throughout Babine Lake (Levy et a_l. 1984), and appear  opportunistically  chironomid  larvae  which  composition observed f o r sites.  Levy  consumed. accounts  fry held  et a_l. ( 1982)  It  in  is  for  the the  presence shift  reference  vs.  in  diet  log  ramp  a l s o documented a d i f f e r e n c e  composition between a l o g h a n d l i n g s i t e and a  of  control  in diet site  the F r a s e r R i v e r e s t u a r y , B r i t i s h Columbia, which was r e l a t e d food  availability  at  those  sites.  The p r o p o r t i o n of  ( a d u l t , pupae, and l a r v a e ) consumed by r e l e a s e d Oncorhynchus  tshawytscha ) was g r e a t e r  chinook  in to  insects fry  (  i n the u n d i s t u r b e d marsh  83  than i n the l o g storage a r e a . were  not  In  fact,  insect  pupae  of  i n s e c t s as a food item seems  to  be  related  t o the presence of marsh p l a n t s which are  affected  by e s t u a r i n e  (Levy et a l .  log storage, p a r t i c u l a r l y  positively  detrimentally  over t i d a l  of  only  one  other  experimental  study  examines f i s h f e e d i n g i n l o g storage a r e a s . A s i m i l a r  the  by,  well  chum flushed  experimental  salmon ( Oncorhynchus keta Nanaimo  enclosures  (McGreer et a l . abundance  or  1983). diet  estuary,  in No  log  project  British  Columbia  storage and u n d i s t u r b e d  large  differences  in  prey  composition were found between s i t e s ,  which  i n the  and frequency of use l o g h a n d l i n g  intensity  s t o r a g e . However,  used may not be measurably a f f e c t e d  l o g ramp area) may reduce water  and abundance of food to l e v e l s which can  The  juvenile  reduced  copepodites,  salmon  affect  by  (Pease quality  movement  and  fry.  abundance  of  zooplankton,  particularly  in the inshore s u r f a c e waters of the l o g ramp  may be r e l a t e d  sites  relatively  s i t e s which have r e s t r i c t e d mixing  and heavy use (eg.  f e e d i n g of  appears to be  salmon feeding i n s i t e s which are  w e l l f l u s h e d and l i g h t l y  1974)  and q u a n t i t y  present  related  log  sites  either  food q u a l i t y  Juvenile  on  using  s t u d y . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , to the  that  ) was conducted in  c o r r o b o r a t e s the r e s u l t s of the boom experiments  receive.  flats  1982).  am aware  feeding  larvae  taken as food by chinook i n the l o g storage a r e a . The  availability  I  or  to oxygen d e p l e t i o n .  Levy et a l .  site  (1985b) conclude  84  that  zooplankton  are  insensitive  to water q u a l i t y  w i t h i n the l o g handling s i t e .  However,  not i n c l u d e s u r f a c e waters  1.0 m), where  poor  enough  Therefore, depths  to  their  greater  expect  (< a  negative  their  sampling regime d i d water  response  quality  than  by z o o p l a n k t o n .  1.0 m, where oxygen c o n d i t i o n s are  respond  to  the  enclosure  experiments  oxygen  under  three  experiments are s i m i l a r t o those observed site  during  May  and  June  experiments are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  sockeye  obtain  conditions, oxygen  boom  as  as  a  amounts result  well  as  of of  lower  2), which  concentrations and  the  five  log  storage  (Levy et  static  log  al.  enclosure  situation.  food  it  seems that  under  such  the s l i g h t l y depressed food  availability.  i n oxygen between r e f e r e n c e and treatment s i t e s were  not c o n t r o l l e d f o r , or  and t h e r e f o r e ,  ramp treatments.  d u r i n g the c r i t i c a l its  the  of the f i e l d  reduced  probably  conditions  Differences  the  in  the r e s u l t s of the l o g ramp experiment, fry  (Chapter  i n both 1985 and 1986  1985b, Bustard 1986). T h i s suggests that  From  better  the changes i n water q u a l i t y  accompany l o g s t o r a g e . L i g n i n - t a n n i n and in  at  waters.  As demonstrated i n the e n c l o s u r e experiments do  was  c o n c l u s i o n s were only v a l i d f o r zooplankton  than those i n s u r f a c e  zooplankton  conditions  must be assumed to be part of  The combination of these  factors  e a r l y weeks of a f r y ' s e x i s t e n c e may  reduce  s u r v i v a l and growth (Braum 1967).  85  It  is  not p o s s i b l e to q u a n t i t a t i v e l y  and l o g ramp f e e d i n g experiment located  in  waters  of  r e s u l t s because  different  zooplankton p o p u l a t i o n s and water fundamental 1986)  problem  in  within  the  log  depths  quality  the  and,  sites  are  accordingly,  differ.  This  is  a  e c o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h (Cairns and P r a t t ,  and not e a s i l y r e s o l v e d .  sites  compare the l o g boom  Also,  in  this  study,  several  storage and r e f e r e n c e areas should have  been used, p r o v i d i n g r e p l i c a t i o n to see i f  observed p a t t e r n s  r e p r o d u c i b l e . Another problem, common  environmental  impact  that e f f e c t s must be i n f e r r e d from s p a t i a l  pattern  studies,  is  to  alone when the impact has a l r e a d y o c c u r r e d (Green 1979). I  are  must  assume that observed d i f f e r e n c e s between r e f e r e n c e and treatment s i t e s would not have e x i s t e d i f  the l o g storage f a c i l i t y  had not  been i n s t a l l e d .  The  data  suggest  that  the  effects  of  log  handling  a c t i v i t i e s on food supply are g r e a t e r at the l o g ramp s i t e  than  at  site  the  l o g boom s i t e . T h i s i s r e a s o n a b l e , given that t h i s  i s used a c t i v e l y and more i n t e n s i v e l y than the l o g storage More i m p o r t a n t l y , enclosed  by  log  the ramp booms  site and  is  located  the  bay,  s u b j e c t e d to g r e a t e r p h y s i c a l and  chemical i n f l u e n c e , so water q u a l i t y ,  zooplankton and benthos at  that s i t e are more s e v e r e l y a f f e c t e d . into  within  site.  These  changes  translate  a change and r e d u c t i o n i n food supply a v a i l a b l e to sockeye  f r y and the flow through e n c l o s u r e experiments demonstrate food intake by f r y  i s reduced. However,  it  that  may be that the water  86  quality  changes  important. to  severe  which  in the l o g storage area are more  Fry a c t i v e l y a v o i d the l o g storage area probably oxygen d e p l e t i o n and, t h e r e f o r e ,  areas of a l t e r e d localized  occur  and  food s u p p l y . The site  specific,  effects  may never encounter described  here  rates.  water q u a l i t y  The  higher  sockeye h a b i t a t a f f e c t e d with r e s p e c t  and food supply i s a s u b s t a n t i a l p r o p o r t i o n of  lake s h o r e l i n e a v a i l a b l e  are  and I can o n l y hypothesize that  sockeye f r y exposed to these e f f e c t s might be exposed to mortality  due  to post l a r v a l s o c k e y e .  to the  87  4. BIOASSAY EXPERIMENTS  4.1  INTRODUCTION  The study of d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t s of organisms  (aquatic  mortality,  toxicity  be  include  of  (Rand and P e t r o c e l l i compounds  bioassay t e s t s which q u a n t i f y toxicant.  may  on  aquatic  measurement  growth, r e p r o d u c t i o n and other parameters a f f e c t e d  the s u b l e t h a l l e v e l the  toxicology)  chemicals  1985).  Evaluation  of at of  i s most o f t e n accomplished through the response of organisms  to  the  From b i o a s s a y r e s u l t s , " s a f e " l e v e l s f o r compounds can  determined  information  (Rand  to  use  1980) for  which  g i v e s d e c i s i o n makers b a s i c  regulating  and  controlling  toxic  substances.  There  are  standard procedures which can be used to  widely comparable chronic  data  bioassays  on  toxicity.  fish  organisms  include  a  effects.  acute  culture  Standard  aquatic  wide range of i n v e r t e b r a t e s  ) and Daphnia are u s e d . These organisms and  maintain,  relatively  h i s t o r y of use i n the l i t e r a t u r e reasons,  and  l e t h a l ) and long  (APHA et a_l. 1985), but most commonly rainbow t r o u t  gairdneri  bark  general,  examine s h o r t term ( u s u a l l y  term ( u s u a l l y c h r o n i c or s u b l e t h a l ) bioassay  In  obtain  are  and  ( Salmo easy  to  inexpensive and have a long  (APHA et a l .  1980).  For  these  I chose rainbow t r o u t and Daphnia as t e s t organisms f o r  leachate bioassays,  in a d d i t i o n to sockeye salmon f r y ,  of which are r e s i d e n t i n the environment being a f f e c t e d  by  all log  88  storage.  It toxic  is  well  (Tabata  1964,  Schaumburg 1973, al. as  that  Atkinson  Pease 1974,  bark and wood l e a c h a t e s are  1971,  Servizi  well  as  fragmented tree  Therefore,  it  leachates  which  Also,  was  and  species necessary  and to  al.  1971,  and P e t e r s et  work i s i n c o n s i s t e n t ,  scattered  by  differences  leachate  determine  in  concentrations.  toxicity  for  bark  would be a p p l i c a b l e to the Babine Lake system.  s e v e r a l authors (Pease 1974, toxicity  et  Buchanan et aJL. 1976,  1976). However, much of t h i s t o x i c i t y  methodology,  the  documented  Conlan 1975)  have shown  of wood l e a c h a t e s i s higher i n freshwater  seawater because l i g n i n compounds p r e c i p i t a t e reducing t o x i c i t y .  As a r e s u l t ,  there  that  than  out i n s a l t  water,  i s a greater p o t e n t i a l  t o x i c e f f e c t s to be s i g n i f i c a n t i n freshwater  in  ( S e d e l l and  for  Duval  1985).  The  main  purpose  of these acute b i o a s s a y s was to e x p l o r e  the range over which acute t o x i c i t y acknowledged (Rand 1980) the t o x i c e f f e c t s  of  e x i s t s . Short-term t e s t s  as being the f i r s t  a  chemical  organisms quantity 50%  or  toxicants.  96h-LC-50  of t o x i c substance i n the t e s t  mortality  in test  However, acute t e s t s toxicant  A  s t e p i n the study of  compound.  p r o v i d e v a l u e s f o r comparison of t o x i c a n t  are  Acute  lethality can  be  solution  tests  can  between  test  d e f i n e d as the that  produces  organisms which are exposed f o r 96 h o u r s . can  concentration  not which  be  used  would  be  to  predict  unlikely  a  "safe"  t o harm the  89  ecosystem (Buikema et a l . lethally  toxic  effects.  it  does  Chronic  not  toxicity  e f f e c t s on s e v e r a l l i f e  It  1982). When a c h e m i c a l compound i s not follow tests  that  it  has  no  adverse  permit assessment of adverse  stages of t e s t organisms.  became evident from the l i t e r a t u r e  and the present study  that a c u t e l y t o x i c bark l e a c h a t e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s were h i g h e r those u s u a l l y measured i n the f i e l d . T h e r e f o r e , a study sublethal can  effects  determine,  than  of  the  of bark l e a c h a t e was undertaken. As f a r as I  nothing  has  been  published  concerning  the  s u b l e t h a l e f f e c t s of bark or wood l e a c h a t e .  The o b j e c t i v e of t h i s study i s to determine the t o x i c i t y bark  leachate  at  (1)  the l e t h a l  l e v e l , to have a s t a n d a r d i z e d  measure which can be compared to l i t e r a t u r e sublethal  level,  to  examine  the  v a l u e s and  effects  of  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s s i m i l a r to those measured i n the  Bark leaching toxicity Sublethal  leachates for  (pine  different  and  lengths  spruce)  bark  (2)  the  leachate  field.  produced  by  static  of time are t e s t e d f o r  using Daphnia, rainbow t r o u t , bark  of  and sockeye  lethal  salmon  fry.  l e a c h a t e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s are t e s t e d i n long term  bioassays for t h e i r  effect  on m o r t a l i t y ,  reproduction,  molting  and growth of Daphnia neonates.  I  p r e d i c t that the L - T c o n c e n t r a t i o n of bark l e a c h a t e s w i l l  increase  with  the  l e n g t h of time the bark i s allowed to l e a c h  %  90  under  static  leachates  conditions;  in  conjunction,  the  toxicity  to Daphnia and f i s h w i l l a l s o i n c r e a s e at both  and s u b l e t h a l  of lethal  levels.  4.2 METHODS  4.2.1  Daphnia b i o a s s a y s  !•Z-l'l  Test organisms  The Daphnia c u l t u r e and Engineering  Lab,  facilities  of  the  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia were used from  February to A p r i l ,  1985 f o r a l l  b i o a s s a y t e s t s . A brood stock of  Daphnia pulex was set up i n a 4.0  1 g l a s s beaker  environment  temperature  19.5+ dark.  chamber  where  0.5 d e g . C with a l i g h t The  brood  siphoning off dilution  Environmental  stock  half  was  the  regime of  14  maintained  h at  in  a  constant  was maintained light low  and  10  at h  d e n s i t i e s by  the c u l t u r e every two weeks and adding  fresh  water.  Daphnia  were c u l t u r e d i n a medium d e s c r i b e d by Horvath and  Russo (unpublished)  which i s prepared by adding s p e c i f i c amounts  of  chemicals  reagent  Particular this  grade care  medium.  A  (Table  6)  to  distilled  water.  was taken to determine a high s u r v i v a l r a t e synthetic  medium  was  composition i s known and r e p r o d u c i b l e .  chosen  because  in its  91  T a b l e 6. C h e m i c a l r e a g e n t s and q u a n t i t i e s u s e d i n p r e p a r a t i o n o f D a p h n i a medium ( a f t e r H o r v a t h and R u s s o , u n p u b l i s h e d ) .  Amount added (mg/1)  Reagent NaHC0  96  3  CaS0 x 2H 0  60  MgS0  60  4  2  4  4  KCl  Daphnia algae  (  bioassay  Chlorella,  their  i n a 4 oz  Neonates own  cultured  jars. to  bioassay  4.2_. K 2  and  chow  f e m a l e was  w i t h a p r e p a r e d m i x t u r e of and  j a r with  collected  enough  To o b t a i n  taken from the brood 100  ml  as produced  I n t h i s manner, h e a l t h y  produce  yeast.  culture dilution  and p i p e t t e d  breeding  genetically  of  the  females  into were  uniform neonates f o r  tests.  Bark  leachate  at  4  2.50  1984  was  collected stored  deg. C b e f o r e use  passively extracted of  solutions  spruce bark  t h e summer o f  kept  density  trout  round g l a s s  were  Dry p i n e and during  )  stock, a single  and p l a c e d water.  were f e d e v e r y o t h e r day  from bark  g per l i t r e  in a water  at  a  log  dump  i n s e a l e d dark p l a s t i c  ramp bags  i n b i o a s s a y s . L e a c h a t e s were static  system w i t h bark a t  h e l d a t the temperature  a  each  92  bioassay was conducted a t .  Bark was added  to  Daphnia  water at given d e n s i t i e s and allowed to l e a c h f o r  1,  dilution  2 and 5 day  p e r i o d s , a f t e r which time the bark was removed and the b i o a s s a y s started.  As  test  enough l e a c h a t e the m a j o r i t y  solutions  were  for the e n t i r e  of i t  s t o r e d at  replaced  on a d a i l y  basis,  experiment was made at once, with  4 deg. C for l a t e r  use  throughout  the b i o a s s a y . the l i g n i n and t a n n i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n was determined for  test  solutions  Concentrations percent  of  by  the  bioassay  method test  described  solutions  in  were  diluted  by volume on a volume to volume b a s i s ( e g .  equaTs 1 p a r t leachate to 9 p a r t s d i l u t i o n  Chapter  2. as  10% d i l u t i o n  water).  4.2.1.3 Short term b i o a s s a y s  B i o a s s a y s (96 h s t a t i c ) 100  ml  volumes  of  serial  were conducted i n logarithmic  set up f o r measuring water q u a l i t y  oxygen, pH and c o n d u c t i v i t y ) Neonates  (<  24  using a p i p e t t e Daphnia  were  h  old)  over the course of the  48,  dissolved experiment.  were randomly t r a n s f e r r e d  the c r i t e r i o n  to t e s t  jars  neonates/100  ml.  for death,  by complete l a c k of movement even a f t e r percent  concentration  (temperature,  5  bark  fed d u r i n g short term b i o a s s a y s (APHA et  1985). I m m o b i l i z a t i o n ,  The  sample  to reach c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of not  using  d i l u t i o n s of the  l e a c h a t e s . A d d i t i o n a l j a r s of the h i g h e s t were  duplicate  mortality  i n each j a r  the t e s t  was  72 and 96 h . Dead Daphnia were removed  and  were changed every 24 hours a f t e r d e t e r m i n a t i o n  determined  jar  was measured a t  is 1,  test of  al.  rotated. 2, 8,  24,  solutions  mortality.  93  >  ^  10T  81  6-  <  GC hZ LU O  4  o  2  z o  96h-LC-50  UJ  I< X  o <  LU  20  40  60  80  PERCENTAGE MORTALITY  F i g u r e 25. Example of g r a p h i c a l i n t e r p o l a t i o n for c a l c u l a t i o n of 96h-LC-50. T h i s graph i s f o r Daphnia i n 5 day spruce bark l e a c h a t e .  100  94  Estimation (APHA et a l . to  of  1985,  standard  96h-LC-50 was made by g r a p h i c Atwater  methods  interpolated  value  et a l .  (APHA based  et  1983, al.  P a r r i s h 1983). A c c o r d i n g 1985),  a  LC-50  is  an  on percentages of organisms dying at  two or more c o n c e n t r a t i o n s which produce g r e a t e r 50% m o r t a l i t y .  interpolation  and l e s s e r  than  These data are p l o t t e d on semilog paper with  the  log  of c o n c e n t r a t i o n s v s . percentage m o r t a l i t y  25).  A straight  and  the p o i n t where the l i n e c r o s s e s the 50% m o r t a l i t y  line  (see e g . , F i g u r e  i s drawn between s u c c e s s i v e  concentrations point  is  the estimated LC-50 v a l u e .  4 J _ . 4 _ Long term b i o a s s a y s  Daphnia were used to leachates  assess  sublethal  toxicity  of  bark  because they grow to r e p r o d u c t i v e age i n <10 days and  s e v e r a l c l u t c h e s can be produced i n a 30 day t e s t  period.  term  using  serial  g b a r k / 1 water s o l u t i o n s of  spruce  bioassays  logarithmic and  pine  every other  for  d i l u t i o n s of 2.5 bark,  leached  conducted  f o r 24 h. Water q u a l i t y  h old)  i n 20 separate  were used f o r each t e s t 100 ml j a r s .  to 3 days d u r i n g the 30 day monitored  were  was monitored  day; oxygen l e v e l s were maintained above  Twenty neonates (<24 maintained  Daphnia  for  mortality,  Long  6.0  mg/l.  dilution  and  Daphnia were fed every 1  experiments.  Test  organisms  were  m o l t i n g and neonate p r o d u c t i o n every  other day, at which time t e s t  s o l u t i o n s were  changed.  Neonates  produced d u r i n g the experiments were counted.and d i s c a r d e d .  95  4.2.2  F i s h Bioassays  4.2.2.1 Test organisms  Two f i s h s p e c i e s were used f o r salmon  (  Oncorhynchus  qairdneri  ).  obtained  from  nerka  )  and  Sockeye salmon (mean fork  and maintained  rainbow length  trout  (  2.9  cm)  =  in r i v e r  water i n h o l d i n g tanks at  with Oregon Moist P e l l e t s .  located there.  the Fry  were  Sockeye salmon produced i n  h e p a t i c n e c r o s i s ( I . H . N . ) d i s e a s e d u r i n g the  1984  1985 f i e l d  average.  Fry  season the e g g - f r y  field  s u r v i v a l rate  the  season however,  (61%)  samples a n a l y z e d by Garth T r a x l e r  was  (Pacific  B i o l o g i c a l Station)  i n d i c a t e d that the  this  41% i n the l a b - h e l d sockeye used i n b i o a s s a y  disease  experiments  was  during  supplier  from  (mean fork Sun  Valley  i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y ,  maintained University pellets  1985  i n h o l d i n g tanks of  incidence  of  1985.  Rainbow t r o u t f r y i n March,  infection  fed  infectious  ( e g g - f r y s u r v i v a l r a t e of 7%, Stu Barnetson pers comm);  above  were  Department  F u l t o n R i v e r spawning channel had a high i n c i d e n c e of  d u r i n g the  Salmo  F u l t o n R i v e r spawning c h a n n e l , Babine Lake, B . C .  of F i s h e r i e s and Oceans l a b o r a t o r y daily  short term b i o a s s a y : sockeye  British  on a d a i l y b a s i s .  l e n g t h = 2.6 trout  cm) were obtained  farms,  a  commercial  B r i t i s h Columbia. These f r y were  with  Columbia,  dechlorinated B.C.  and  fed  water  at  the  Oregon moist  9 6  i . * 2 « 2 . 2 Short term b i o a s s a y s  Bark l e a c h a t e s f o r f i s h b i o a s s a y s were produced by the same methods used f o r Daphnia b i o a s s a y s , (sockeye  salmon)  and  d e c h l o r i n a t e d water  used and samples were leached at run with n a t u r a l  Bioassays 20 1 of t e s t  were  All  pipettes mg/l.  that  Fulton  (rainbow  10+2 d e g . C .  photoperiod ( approx.  14 h : l 0  River  t r o u t ) were  Experiments h of  were  light:dark).  conducted i n g l a s s a q u a r i a with 20 f i s h  1g/3 1/day  aquaria  for s t a t i c  b i o a s s a y s (APHA et  al.  were a e r a t e d with compressed a i r v i a g l a s s  to maintain d i s s o l v e d  Temperature  regulation  oxygen was  concentrations  accomplished  by  above  daily  (temperature,  in a l l  aquaria.  were used f o r  24,  (APHA  96h-LC-50 et a l .  bioassays  as  1985). M o r t a l i t y  described  and  duplicate  in  Standard  was measured at  48, 72 and 96 h and dead f i s h were immediately  aquaria  was  d i s s o l v e d oxygen, pH and c o n d u c t i v i t y )  S e r i a l l o g a r i t h m i c d i l u t i o n s of bark l e a c h a t e s i n  Methods  8  situating  bioassay a q u a r i a i n t r a y s with f l o w i n g water. Water q u a l i t y monitored  in  s o l u t i o n , which i s w e l l below the maximum suggested  l o a d i n g d e n s i t y of 1985).  except  1, 2,  removed  8,  from  fork l e n g t h and weight were r e c o r d e d . Observations  on the behaviour of t e s t  f r y were a l s o n o t e d .  were determined by s t r a i g h t  line  interpolation  96h-LC-50 (Figure  values  25).  97  4.3 RESULTS  4_.3.j_ Bark  leachate  Lignin-tannin  concentrations  produced  by  bark i n waters  used f o r b i o a s s a y s v a r i e d only s l i g h t l y between Daphnia and f i s h experiments in  Daphnia  from U . B . C , to  (Figure  26).  medium,  Bark l e a c h i n g seemed to  be  equivalent  F u l t o n R i v e r water and d e c h l o r i n a t e d water  although o c c u r r i n g at  temperatures  ranging from  9.0  19.5 deg. C .  Using L - T produced  much  pine b a r k . A f t e r  concentrations  an  indicator,  spruce  bark  higher c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of c o l o u r e d m a t e r i a l s  than  two d a y s , l e a c h a t e c o n c e n t r a t i o n l e v e l e d out  both t r e e s p e c i e s ,  4.3.2  as  remaining the same at  f i v e days as f o r  in  two.  Daphnia b i o a s s a y s  4.3_.2.J_ Short term t e s t s  Pine bark l e a c h a t e s were not t o x i c to Daphnia 96h  l e t h a l bioassay t e s t s  experiments leachate  for  pine  bark  all  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s and c o n t r o l s . For spruce b a r k ,  the  1, 2  (Table 7)  the  96h  was  1, 2 and 5 day l e a c h i n g at  in  there  In  in  survival  and 5 day l e a c h a t e s caused exposed  (Table 7 ) .  neonates  significant  lethal  bioassay  i n d i c a t e t h a t acute t o x i c i t y  >90%  mortality tests.  in  neonates  96h-LC-50 values  t o neonates d e c l i n e d with  98  200T  SPRUCE  Daphnia A A rainbow •—•sockeye 0  H—I—i—I—l—I—I—I  2  4  6  8  LEACHING PERIOD (days)  F i g u r e 26. L i g n i n - t a n n i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s (mg/l) produced over time under s t a t i c c o n d i t i o n s (2.5 g b a r k / 1 water) f o r Daphnia and f i s h bioassays.  99  leaching  time.  T a b l e 7. 96h-LC-50 v a l u e s [ L - T c o n c e n t r a t i o n (%v/v)3 f o r D a p h n i a n e o n a t e s u s i n g p i n e and s p r u c e b a r k l e a c h a t e (2.5 mg/l) under u n i f o r m b i o a s s a y c o n d i t i o n s (mg/l t a n n i c a c i d as m e a s u r e d L-T a n a l y s i s (APHA e t a l . 1985). Leaching  time  Pine  Spruce  (days)  mq/1  1 2 5  not not not  4.3.2.2 Long term  Sublethal period  than  t h a t of pine  bark.  Long-term  i n p i n e bark  bark  p i n e bark  (n = 20)  after  survival  leachates  other  within acceptable  levels  leachate  proportion s o l u t i o n s was  ( T a b l e 8 ) . The increased  7 days,  of  water  day  p r o p o r t i o n of  spruce  a  30  toxic  highest  for  particularly bark  27  relative  producing  for pine  of the  leachate  experiment.  parameters  i n a l l treatments  higher  was  ( F i g u r e 27),  quality  neonates  over  whereas s e v e r a l n e o n a t e s i n  leachate survived u n t i l  Oxygen l e v e l s and  The  %) %) %)  l e a c h a t e i s more  h i g h e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s . N e o n a t e s i n 100%  were a l l d e a d  (58 (50 (57  tests  demonstrate t h a t spruce  neonates r a i s e d  100%  41 67 73  b i o a s s a y s w i t h Daphnia neonates r a i s e d  day  at  lethal lethal lethal  (%v/v)  bark  were to  controls.  clutches than  in  spruce  r e p r o d u c t i v e Daphnia decreased  l e a c h a t e c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n both cases  well  (Friedman  two  bark bark with way  TIME (days) F i g u r e 27. S u r v i v a l of paphnia neonates (n = 20) grown over 30 days i n c h r o n i c b i o a s s a y s f o r spruce and p i n e bark l e a c h a t e s . Each l i n e r e p r e s e n t s a s e r i a l d i l u t i o n of l e a c h a t e , ranging from 0% to 100% c o n c e n t r a t i o n .  101  ANOVA, p < 0 . 0 0 1 ) .  Table 8. P r o p o r t i o n of i n i t i a l Daphnia neonate number (n = 20) that produced at l e a s t one c l u t c h i n long term b i o a s s a y s f o r spruce and pine bark leached f o r one day. Leachate  (%v/v)  Spruce  Pine  0 0 0 0.45 0.80 0.65  0.05 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.85  100 56 32 10 5.6 0  The mean number of neonates produced per reproducing female was  higher  f o r Daphnia r a i s e d i n pine bark l e a c h a t e compared to  spruce bark l e a c h a t e with  increased  statistically produced  leachate  between  leachates  reductions  different  in  and number  concentrations  of  decreased there  were  of  neonates  both  pine and  ( K r u s k a l - W a l l i s one way ANOVA, p< 0 . 0 0 1 ) .  In  to  fact,  leachates both  after  for  five  were  less  toxic  than  spruce  rainbow t r o u t and sockeye salmon f r y l e a c h i n g f o r one and two d a y s , p i n e  produced no m o r t a l i t y bark  production  F i s h bioassays  Pine bark  9).  Neonate  concentrations  significant  spruce bark l e a c h a t e  4.3.3  (Figure 28).  days  i n b i o a s s a y f i s h . Only a f t e r was i t  bark (Table  leachate  l e a c h i n g pine  p o s s i b l e to c a l c u l a t e a 96h-LC-50.  Spruce bark l e a c h a t e s became more  toxic  with  longer  leaching  17 0)  40  n«13  16  T  16  14  30  a  co co  12 10  20  CD  1  C  :• 10 co c  1  CO CD  :>  5.6  10  32  SPRUCE  56  100  5.6  10  32  56  100  PINE  Leachate cone. (%v/v) Figure 28. Mean t o t a l number (± S . E . ) of neonates produced per reproducing Daphnia i n s u b l e t h a l bioassays with s e r i a l d i l u t i o n s of spruce and pine bark (2.5 g/1) leachate (n = no. of reproducing n a p h n i a ) .  103  time,  as demonstrated by a decrease in L - T v a l u e s at L C - 5 0 .  Table 9. 96h-LC-50 v a l u e s (L-T c o n c e n t r a t i o n m g / l (%v/v)) f o r rainbow t r o u t and sockeye salmon f r y using pine and spruce bark l e a c h a t e . RAINBOW Leaching  Pine  SOCKEYE Pine  Spruce  mo/l(%vZv)  time(days) 1 2 5  mg/l(%v/v)  51 33 22  not t o x i c not t o x i c 15 (44%)  Spruce  (73%) (24%) (16%)  42 32 16  not t o x i c not t o x i c 12 (30%)  (54%) (24%) (12%)  Sockeye salmon f r y were more s u s c e p t i b l e than rainbow to  the  toxic  effects  of  bark  leachate.  sockeye salmon reached 96h-LC-50 at than  rainbow  trout  (Table 9 ) .  For a l l  the  range  of  DISCUSSION  bark  the  leachate t o x i c i t y  objectives  is  it  can k i l l  i n a s h o r t p e r i o d of time i f Petrocelli  1985).  50% or more of the t e s t  l e a c h a t e c o n c e n t r a t i o n are  leachate organisms  at h i g h enough c o n c e n t r a t i o n s  The (1)  v a r i a b l e s which determine bark/water  ratio  of  and producing  v a l u e s f o r comparative p u r p o s e s . Bark  and  fry  95%.  relative toxicity acutely t o x i c ;  L-T  For both sockeye and rainbow  The s h o r t term b i o a s s a y t e s t s achieved exploring  leachates,  lower c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of  b i o a s s a y s , s u r v i v a l of c o n t r o l f i s h was always  4.2  trout  (2)  the  (Rand bark  leaching  104  time  (3)  d i d not  t r e e s p e c i e s and (4) determine.  It  has been shown in the present  (Graham 1970, loading  level  S e r v i z i et a l . (wood/water)  concentration. Therefore, examine the e f f e c t most  p o s s i b l y other v a r i a b l e s which I  static  1971, is  study and i n other  Schaumburg positively  t h i s parameter  was  laboratory  Schaumburg  related held  that to  the  leachate  constant  of l e a c h i n g time over a r e a l i s t i c  time  to  range;  s t u d i e s of bark l e a c h a t e s span l e a c h i n g  p e r i o d s of t h i r t y days or more (Graham 1970, 1970,  1973)  studies  1973).  Sproule and  Sharpe  There were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s  the L-T c o n c e n t r a t i o n s and o f t e n  the t o x i c i t y  of bark  in  leachates  produced over short time p e r i o d s i n my experiments.  For although  Daphnia, L-T  concentrations  pine  bark l e a c h a t e s were not a c u t e l y  concentration above  30  did  mg/l,  bark l e a c h a t e s , L-T c o n c e n t r a t i o n days 0,1 toxicity.  increase where i t  after  stabilized.  unit  day In  increased dramatically  and 2. T h i s i n c r e a s e was not accompanied Per  one  toxic,  L-T, toxicity  by  quite  spruce between  increased  to Daphnia neonates  decreased with i n c r e a s e d l e a c h i n g time,  actually  the o p p o s i t e t o my  p r e d i c t i o n . The t o x i c component to Daphnia may be v o l a t i l e and P e t r o c e l l i was  1985)  undetectable  or a c o l o u r l e s s compound. If  by a l l  analytical  to  it  (Rand  exists,  it  methods used by Wentzell  (in  prep.).  Toxicity results  for  fish  matched  more  closely  to  my  105  predictions.  Again,  pine  bark  leachate  spruce and only a c u t e l y t o x i c a f t e r spruce  both  L-T  concentration  i n c r e a s e d l e a c h i n g time, This  is  opposite  This  leaching  and  less toxic  for  toxicity  as d i d t o x i c i t y  5  than  days.  For  increased  to f i s h per  with  unit  L-T.  to the r e s u l t s obtained f o r Daphnia, d e s p i t e  s t u d i e s which show bioassay t e s t s  was  good  agreement  (Atwater e_t a l .  anomaly  between  Daphnia  and  fish  1983).  u n d e r l i n e s two of the main problems of acute  toxicity  t e s t s which seem to be r e c o g n i z e d but not emphasized in  aquatic  toxicology  different et a l .  research.  Chemical  responses under a v a r i e t y  1982). For example,  requirements  of  Daphnia  i n the and  compounds  can  cause  of t e s t c o n d i t i o n s (Buikema  present  fish,  study,  they  due  must  be  to  the  t e s t e d at  d i f f e r e n t temperatures and i n d i f f e r e n t d i l u t i o n media which may affect  the  activity  Consequently,  the  substantially  between  Petrocelli  and  behaviour  measured  1985). A l s o ,  toxicity  experiments  of  toxic  compounds.  of a compound may d i f f e r  (Sprague  1970,  f o r d i f f e r e n t organisms, depending on the  uptake  the  corresponding  effect.  second problem i n a s s e s s i n g t o x i c i t y little many  mode  of  T h i s p o i n t l e a d s to  the  of chemical compounds. Very  i s known about the chemical s t r u c t u r e toxicants,  including  bark  leachate.  and  behaviour  The  toxicity  chemical can be m o d i f i e d by t o x i c o l o g i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n and changes  in  constituents  circumvent t h i s problem  and  the systematic e f f e c t s of c h e m i c a l s may  be d i f f e r e n t and  Rand  some  (Rand  and  researchers  Petrocelli have  of of a  small  1985).  To  experimentally  106  extracted and  known compounds (eg. t r o p o l o n e s and l i g n a n s )  examined  However,  their  this  assessments  of  toxicity  information log  leachate  is  leachate  any of the c u r r e n t methods bark  (Peters  concentrations.  and  indicator  L-T for  leachate,  the  but  amount  this  of  use  These  practical  or  quantifying  i n c l u d e the P e a r l Benson (Graham  L-T  in  1976).  I am not s a t i s f i e d with  characterizing  C.O.D.  concentration.  P e t e r s et a l .  limited  toxicity.  for  Index, t o t a l o r g a n i c c a r b o n , 1973)  of  1974,  from wood  1970,  Schaumburg  concentration  coloured  is  materials  i s not n e c e s s a r i l y r e l a t e d  a  good  present  in  to t o x i c i t y ,  as  demonstrated i n the short term Daphnia b i o a s s a y s .  Unfortunately,  L - T c o n c e n t r a t i o n has not been used by any other  investigators,  and  it  i s not p o s s i b l e to compare my r e s u l t s to those obtained  by o t h e r s . P e t e r s et a l . lignan  (a  (1976) measured the acute  r e l a t e d compound) to coho f r y and o b t a i n e d  v a l u e s of 60 and 64 mg l i g n a n / 1 which i s i n the magnitude as f o r l i g n i n s i n the present  There were d i f f e r e n c e s rainbow at  trout  is  the  Fulton  I.H.N,  in the t o x i c i t y  not  susceptible  River  to  order  of  of bark l e a c h a t e s  to  in  rainbow  trout.  This  s u r p r i s i n g s i n c e rainbow t r o u t are noted as (APHA et a l .  1985),  than sockeye salmon. A l s o ,  disease  96h-LC-50  and sockeye salmon. Sockeye salmon reached LC-50  being easy to c u l t u r e are h a r d i e r  same  of  study.  lower %v/v and L - T c o n c e n t r a t i o n s than  difference  toxicity  system  had  1985.  This  a  which  suggests  they  the sockeye salmon f r y  relatively disease  s t r e s s e s (Garth T r a x l e r ,  may  in  h i g h i n c i d e n c e of make  them  more  pers comm) which would  107  include  exposure  bioassay  to  toxicants.  I  toxicity  of  more  bark  information  leachates  emphasizes  g r e a t l y modify t o x i c i t y  from  the  lowered  literature. (1957) LC  sufficient  1982)  al^.  discusses  that  be the o p e r a t i v e  3).  for  fry  Pickering  reduced  and  1980).  As  a  an  Sprague  several  examples  D.O.  concentration  result,  r a t e s and r e s p i r a t o r y (Walden  In  in  agent r a t h e r situ  found  mortality sublethal  irregularities  et  al.  1970)  rates.  appears that d i s s o l v e d  lethal  (1968)  r e p l a c e d z i n c as the main  developed  et  the  For pulp and paper m i l l wastes, A l d e r d i c e  determined  as was determined  Lepomis.  affecting  50 v a l u e s , perhaps due to h i g h e r r e s p i r a t o r y  may  (Chapter  factors  ceases (Rand  and  the case of wood l e a c h a t e s , i t  levels  have  that modifying environmental c o n d i t i o n s (eg.  D.O.)  and B r e t t  on  (Buikema  i n d i c a t i o n of when acute l e t h a l i t y  In  not  data to c o n s t r u c t a dose response curve which may have  p r o v i d e d me with  (1970)  did  than  .bioassay that  agent  oxygen  leachate,  experiments  dissolved in  oxygen  bioassays  b i o a s s a y s to t e s t  with  breathing  such as coughing have  been  and would perhaps be s u i t e d to  d e t e c t i n g t o x i c e f f e c t s of wood l e a c h a t e s .  However, f o r the purposes of t h i s demonstrate  that  acute  lethality  study,  occurred  I at  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s higher than those measured i n the mg/l  L-T;  mortalities occur  in  Levy  et  al.  1985b). T h e r e f o r e ,  it  was  able  bark  leachate  field  to  (<  2.0  is unlikely  that  such as those measured in acute l a b b i o a s s a y s  would  the M o r r i s o n Arm l o g storage a r e a . The bark weight  water volume r a t i o  should be measured as bark  surface  area  to to  108  water  volume  s i n c e the s u r f a c e area of the bark determines  amount of e x t r a c t i v e s  leached ( W e n t z e l l ,  in p r e p . ) .  In the  the 1984  f i e l d season, bark treatments  were used i n e n c l o s u r e experiments  and  load  a  0.25  g  bark/1  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s than the  1 l o g (0.24  Schaumburg (1973) a l s o found  that  produced  greater  leachate  g b a r k / 1 ) treatment in nearly  all  the  colour  c o n t r i b u t e d by b a r k , compared to wood. A l s o , a higher of  extractives  outer bark to  are  found  (Wentzell,  produce  Chapter 2 i n  the inner b a r k , so I would expect  with  higher t o x i c i t y  a  is  percentage  relative  in prep.)  leachates  b a r k . The t o x i c i t y  in  1985.  to  "loose" than  the bark  "attached"  of whole spruce and pine logs was examined i n  enclosure  experiments  which  more  realistically  simulate c o n d i t i o n s i n the s u r f a c e waters of a l o g storage a r e a . Another  way of examining the t o x i c e f f e c t s of bark l e a c h a t e s at  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s near those measured i n the f i e l d chronic chemical  bioassays.  By  determining  that w i l l i n t e r f e r e  the  concentration  toxicity  than  chronic  bioassays,  term b i o a s s a y s . concentration  %v/v)  acute  Similarly, to  toxicity  the p o i n t where a l l  r a i s e d i n the most d i l u t e  had s u r v i v a l r a t e s  leachate  which supports the r e s u l t s of the short  %v/v s o l u t i o n s d i e d before the end of Neonates  a  i s obtained.  Spruce bark l e a c h a t e was more t o x i c than pine bark in  of  with normal growth, development or  r e p r o d u c t i o n , a more s e n s i t i v e measure of lethality  i s by conducting  very  increased  with  leachate  t e s t organisms in the the  30  day  experiment.  leachate concentrations  similar  to  100  controls.  (5.6  Survival  109  rates  in  chronic tests  illustrate  that l e a c h a t e  which d i d not cause m o r t a l i t y in short  term  c h r o n i c a l l y l e t h a l over the l i f e t i m e of an  In a d d i t i o n , the  proportion  1.8  of  mg/l  reproduction animals.  reproducing  L-T  that at for  rates  The  very  similar  boom  (Chapter  deleteriously chronic reduced  stagnant 3),  it  a  long  results  zooplankton  enclosures.  at  be  reduced  fecundity  concentrations respectively) to  those  term  of  (3.9  Daphnia control  toxicity  bioassay  with  of a  1%. The c o n c e n t r a t i o n s would span field.  water c o n d i t i o n s do occur i n the  is  affected,  bioassay  their  step i n examining the s u b l e t h a l  s e r i e s from 1 0 % to  that  and  spruce and p i n e ,  were  next  Daphnia  the L-T c o n c e n t r a t i o n s measured i n the  Given  can  individual.  low l e a c h a t e  bark l e a c h a t e s would be to run logarithmic  bioassays  s u b l e t h a l bark l e a c h a t e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s  (neonate p r o d u c t i o n ) , and  concentrations  possible least may  that at  sublethal  illustrate  abundances  zooplankton  observed  the  levels. mechanism  in  log  log are The for  treated  110  5. GENERAL DISCUSSION  The e f f e c t s been  ecosystem  have  experiments  which focus on responses by zooplankton and j u v e n i l e  salmonids.  I  in  aquatic  a s e r i e s of l a b o r a t o r y and f i e l d  Here  examined  of l o g storage on the  shall  c o n s i d e r the c o n s i s t e n c y of the r e s u l t s of  experiments and t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n to f i e l d  situations.  The response by zooplankton to wood l e a c h a t e s was because  these  organisms are  source (Narver field  1970,  Rankin  measurements,  these  examined  important to sockeye f r y as a food 1977).  In  and l a b o r a t o r y  enclosure  experiments,  b i o a s s a y s there i s evidence  that zooplankton are reduced i n abundance by the  changes  which  accompany l o g s t o r a g e . Short term bioassay r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e the  levels  toxic  to  zooplankton are higher than those measured i n Babine Lake or  in  enclosure leachate  of  wood  leachates  experiments, is similar  that  assuming  are  the  lethally  that  response  to t h a t of Babine Lake  by  Daphnia to  sockeye.  Therefore,  the mechanism f o r reduced zooplankton abundance may be l i n k e d chronic  lethality  demonstrated  for  concentrations.  or  reduced  Daphnia  fecundity,  exposed  measurements (Figure 20)  control  of which were  sublethal  leachate  A l s o , examination of zooplankton abundance over  the course of e n c l o s u r e experiments  large  to  both  to  revealed  (Figures a  pattern  10 to 13) and common  to  field both;  " s p i k e s " i n zooplankton d e n s i t y almost always o c c u r r e d i n populations,  unchanged.  This  may  whereas  treated  populations  remained  be l i n k e d to a number of f a c t o r s , such as  Ill  patchiness, fecundity  inadequate in  log  water  point  I in  according  that t h i s  reduced  tests,  microcosm  to Buikema et a l .  and  zooplankton  field  (1982), yet  kind of work has r a r e l y  effects  no  do not  would  abundancies  decrease  community  can  the be  hypothesis determined  T h i s c o u l d be f o r a number of However, diversity  in  the  was  field  If  reductions  stresses  there  so my r e s u l t s applied  by changes i n d i v e r s i t y  to  lower  zooplankton  at  log  a  indices.  reasons as d i s c u s s e d in Chapter  experiments,  consistently  undisturbed l i t t o r a l  that  form of  declined,  c o n s i s t e n t change in community d i v e r s i t y , support  is  they make the  response to the s t r e s s a p p l i e d to the systems i n the Although s p e c i e s '  by  been done.  had p r e d i c t e d t h a t zooplankton d i v e r s i t y  log treatments. was  or  a f f e c t e d a r e a s . A process of v e r i f i c a t i o n  comparison of t o x i c i t y required  quality  2.  community  boom s i t e s than  at  sites.  in  zooplankton  abundance  occur  under  c o n d i t i o n s of l o g storage i n M o r r i s o n Arm, as i s supported by my results,  the  food supply f o r young sockeye f r y  area i s p o t e n t i a l l y that  fry  diet  The sockeye f r y  reduced. 24 h f e e d i n g experiments  of  p a t t e r n (Eggers  indicated  i s s e n s i t i v e to s m a l l changes i n food abundance. f e e d i n g experiments  s i n g l e peak f e e d i n g time of behaviour  feeding in that  fry  when  1978).  fry,  in  a l s o c l e a r l y demonstrate contrast  to  the  the  feeding  they become p e l a g i c and feed i n a d i e l  If (Braum  the very e a r l i e s t 1967,  Hjort  fry  1914)  stages  and  are  the  susceptible  most  critical  to s t a r v a t i o n and  environmental c o n d i t i o n s , then f r y e n t e r i n g the Morrison Arm l o g storage area may be d e l e t e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d s t r e s s due to low oxygen l e v e l s ) log  storage  site  at  Morrison  d e s c r i b e d i n s t u d i e s of difficult  to  environmental  by the  obtain  Arm.  conditions.  conditions This  environmental direct  (reduced food  within  scenario  effects  is  because  of  the  Oxygen  concentrations  the c r i t i c a l  the f a t e of those f r y .  lake  the  levels.  e_t  al.,  Do they undergo h i g h e r m o r t a l i t y  is  r a t e s as  c o n t a c t with the l o g storage area?  perimeter  effectively  is  i n f o r m a t i o n which i s r e q u i r e d  Given t h a t the l o g storage area c o v e r s about one the  it  M o r r i s o n Arm l o g storage area by sockeye f r y  However,  a r e s u l t of t h e i r  often  within  d u r i n g p e r i o d s of low oxygen was w e l l documented (Levy 1985b).  the  measurements of f i s h responses to  s u r f a c e waters of the l o g storage area dropped to l e t h a l Avoidance  intake,  at  the  excluded from a  head  of  large  Morrison  proportion  of  Arm, the  fifth  of  fry  are  habitat  a v a i l a b l e to them upon e n t r y to the l a k e from M o r r i s o n R i v e r . the marginal h a b i t a t  a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n the l o g storage a r e a ,  In  food  l e v e l s are r e d u c e d .  Relative Arm  log  to the l i t t o r a l area of Babine Lake, the Morrison  storage  environment  area  available  is to  only  a  minute  sockeye f r y  fraction  in t o t a l .  of  the  However,  there  are s t r o n g r a t i o n a l e s f o r minimizing the impact of l o g  handling  113 activities  on  the  Babine  Lake  system.  Firstly,  e f f e c t s w i l l be f e l t e x c l u s i v e l y by Morrison  deleterious  River  sockeye,  a  w i l d stock that Department  of F i s h e r i e s and Oceans i s anxious to  maintain.  of sockeye f r y  The  migration  c o i n c i d e n t with c o n d i t i o n s which can lead and  leachate  accumulation.  Secondly,  m i n i m i z i n g or p o s s i b l y m i t i g a t i n g not  from M o r r i s o n R i v e r to the  oxygen  be s h i r k e d , d e s p i t e the apparent  impacts  should  simple  ways  reduce the s e v e r i t y of problems a s s o c i a t e d with log s t o r a g e .  Recommended p r a c t i c e s , s p e c i f i c to the M o r r i s o n Arm l o g site  of  small s c a l e of the problem  r e l a t i v e to Babine Lake as a whole. There are some to  depletion  responsibility  environmental  is  i n c l u d e the  storage  following:  (1) Minimize accumulations of bark and wood d e b r i s around the dump s i t e a r e a , p a r t i c u l a r l y where i t comes i n contact with water. Implement c o l l e c t i o n of loose bark and d e b r i s at r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s d u r i n g a c t i v e use of the s i t e . (2) Minimize the l e n g t h of time the booms remain in the bay following s p r i n g break up of the i c e . Before a thermocline d e v e l o p s , move booms to the dewatering s i t e near Topley L a n d i n g . (3) Consider moving booms out of the most s h e l t e r e d areas f i r s t , to f a c i l i t a t e mixing by wind and r e d u c t i o n of the p r o b a b i l i t y of oxygen d e p l e t i o n o c c u r r i n g . 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