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Temporal and spatial processing of homophonous and non-homophonous words by hearing and hearing impaired… Handy, Lynda Anne 1986

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Temporal and S p a t i a l P r o c e s s i n g o f Homophonous and Non-Homophonous Words by H e a r i n g and H e a r i n g I m p a i r e d C h i l d r e n by LYNDA ANNE HANDY B.Sc., The U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o A THESIS^ SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y and S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t he r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d . THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1985 © L y n d a Anne Handy l^Sto In presenting t h i s thes i s i n p a r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ib ra ry s h a l l make i t f ree ly ava i l ab l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thes i s for scho la r ly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representat ives . I t i s understood that copying or pub l i c a t i on of t h i s thes is for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my wr i t t en permission. Department of The Unive r s i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date 7Q^ ABSTRACT The p u r p o s e of t h i s s t u d y was t o a s c e r t a i n whether t h e r e was i n d e e d a r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g y ( t e m p o r a l or s p a t i a l p r o c e s s i n g ) and i n t e r n a l s p e e c h . The t a s k u t i l i z e d f o r the s t u d y , was c o n s t r u c t e d from the t a s k s used by O'Connor and H e r m e i i n ( 1 9 7 3 a ) , Conrad ( 1 9 7 9 ) , and B o o t h ( 1 9 8 2 ) . I t was t h e n a d m i n i s t e r e d t o 71 h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d and 74 h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s . The groups were matched a c c o r d i n g t o v o c a b u l a r y l e v e l , r a t h e r t h a n c h r o n o l o g i c a l age. R e s u l t s s t r o n g l y i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e i s i n d e e d a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e m p o r a l p r o c e s s i n g and i n t e r n a l speech f o r h e a r i n g t h r e s h o l d l e v e l g r o u p s . Age was shown t o be a d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r f o r c h o i c e of p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g y f o r b o t h h e a r i n g and h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d g r o u p s . S e v e r i t y of h e a r i n g l o s s was not found to have an e f f e c t on p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g y . P r o f o u n d l y deaf c h i l d r e n , and h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n d i d not d e m o n s t r a t e a p r e f e r r e d p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g y . I t w o u l d seem n e c e s s a r y t o c o n t i n u e t o i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g y and i n t e r n a l s p e e c h . Perhaps l o o k i n g at i n d i v i d u a l s r a t h e r t h a n h e t e r o g e n e o u s groups would y i e l d a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n . i i TABLE OF CONTENTS C h a p t e r One: Back g r o u n d t o the P r o b l e m 1 Summary 2 Pu r p o s e o f t h e Study 8 R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s 8 H y p o t h e s e s : M a j o r H y p o t h e s e s 9 M i n o r H y p o t h e s e s 9 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 10 C h a p t e r Two: Review of the L i t e r a t u r e V i s u a l Memory 12 I n t e r n a l Speech 17 T e m p o r a l / S p a t i a l P r o c e s s i n g 20 Summary 26 C h a p t e r T h r e e : M e t h o d o l o g y D e s c r i p t i o n o f the Sample 31 S u b j e c t s 31 I n s t r u m e n t s 32 P r o c e d u r e 3 5 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 36 S c o r i n g ..37 Data and Data P r o c e s s i n g 40 C h a p t e r F o u r : R e s u l t s T e m p o r a l / S p a t i a l , Homophonous/Non-Homophonous Word Task 41 M i n o r H y p o t h e s e s 46 C h a p t e r F i v e : D i s c u s s i o n and C o n c l u s i o n s D i s c u s s i o n of R e s u l t s 52 . Temporal P r o c e s s i n g , I n t e r n a l Speech and H e a r i n g Loss 53 H e a r i n g Loss and I n t e r n a l Speech 55 Age and P r o c e s s i n g S t r a t e g y 59 V o c a b u l a r y L e v e l and P r o c e s s i n g S t r a t e g y 62 P r o c e s s i n g S t r a t e g y and H e a r i n g L o s s 66 Summary 69 L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study 72 I m p l i c a t i o n s of F u t u r e R e s e a r c h 73 B i b l i o g r a p h y 7 5 LIST OF TABLES Table Page I. Summaries of s t a t i s t i c s comparing the r e c a l l of homophonous/non-homophonous words and processing strategy by hearing loss 83 I I . Summaries of r e s u l t s comparing r e c a l l of homophonous and non-homophonous words by hearing loss 85 I I I . Summaries of s t a t i s t i c s for processing strategy by gender 86 IV. Summaries of s t a t i s t i c s for processing strategy by population 87 V. Summaries of s t a t i s t i c s for processing strategy by s e v e r i t y of hearing loss (HTL). 88 VI. Summaries of s t a t i s t i c s for processing strategy by c h r o n o l o g i c a l age 89 VII. Summaries of s t a t i s t i c s comparing vocabulary l e v e l to processing strategy f o r hearing subjects 91 VII I . Summaries of s t a t i s t i c s comparing vocabulary l e v e l to processing strategy for hearing impaired subjects 92 A Groups by hearing theshold level,(HTL) 42 B Age i n months for hearing and hearing impaired subjects 47 C Summary of subjects vocabulary l e v e l s 50 r I V APPENDICES Appendix A. T e m p o r a l / S p a t i a l P r o c e s s i n g of Homophonous and Non-Homophonous Words - Word Task 79 0 Appendix B. S t a t i s t i c a l T a b l e s 83 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page y 1. Possible relationship between the variables of age, internal speech, and vocabulary level to processing strategy for hearing and hearing impaired children 71 vi„ ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author wishes to express her thanks and g r a t i t u d e to those who se r v e d on the t h e s i s committee. A s p e c i a l note of thanks s h o u l d go to Dr. B. R. C l a r k e , who began the study as a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . H is guidance was g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . S p e c i a l a p p r e c i a t i o n i s a l s o g i v e n to Dr. P e r r y L e s l i e , who served as a d v i s o r f o r the t h e s i s , and p r o v i d e d time, support and p a t i e n c e i n development of the study. LYNDA ANNE HANDY v i i Chapter One BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM "...a p a t t e r n of growth which i n v o l v e s c a p a c i t y to understand o r d i n a r y spoken language, to read i t , to use i t i n t h i n k i n g , and as f a r as p o s s i b l e , to speak and w r i t e i t i s the o n l y one which can be c o n s i d e r e d s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r any deaf c h i l d " (Ewing, 1960, p. 2-3). Hea r i n g c h i l d r e n e n t e r the s c h o l a s t i c world w i t h many s k i l l s . T y p i c a l l y they have a l a r g e v o c a b u l a r y , f l u e n t speech and many of the p r e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s f o r r e a d i n g (Conrad, 1979). These r e c e p t i v e and e x p r e s s i v e s k i l l s have been a c q u i r e d p r i m a r i l y through the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y to pr o c e s s a u d i t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n ( L i n g , 1976). By c o n t r a s t , the deaf s c h o o l aged c h i l d has not had the b e n e f i t of maximum a u d i t o r y r e c e p t i o n . R e s i d u a l h e a r i n g may be developed through a u d i t o r y t r a i n i n g , but a d d i t i o n a l i n p u t through v i s u a l , t a c t i l e and k i n e s t h e t i c m o d a l i t i e s may serve to p r o v i d e the deaf c h i l d w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n n e c e s s a r y f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n of l i n g u i s t i c s k i l l ( L i n g , 1976). The v i s u a l channels i n p a r t i c u l a r are used f o r r e c e p t i o n of s i g n a l s ( L i n g , 1976). However these channels are o f t e n " o v e r l o a d e d " , because v i s i o n i s seen by many edu c a t o r s of the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d as the m o d a l i t y through which the m a j o r i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n i s t r a n s m i t t e d and r e c e i v e d ( L i n g , 1979). -1-T h e r e f o r e , i t i s important to i n v e s t i g a t e the p r o c e s s e s or s t r a t e g i e s t h a t the h e a r i n g impaired use to p r o c e s s v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n . T h i s study w i l l u t i l i z e a t a s k which may determine the p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s employed by both the h e a r i n g and h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n when they are p r e s e n t e d w i t h a v i s u a l t a s k . A c q u i s i t i o n and development of language have been c e n t r a l concerns among educ a t o r s of the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d (Kretschmer & Kretschmer, 1978). Research i n d i c a t e s language development of deaf c h i l d r e n f o l l o w s a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n to h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n , a l t h o u g h s k i l l s are a c q u i r e d much l a t e r i n the c h i l d ' s development. As a r e s u l t , the h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d i s at a d e f i n i t e l i n g u i s t i c d i sadvantage when compared w i t h h e a r i n g peers (Kretschmer & Kretschmer, 1978: C l a r k e et a l , 1977). O'Connor and Hermelin (1975) s t a t e t h a t deaf c h i l d r e n use v i s i o n as t h e i r p r i m a r y mode of r e c e p t i o n . They have conducted numerous s t u d i e s to determine the e f f e c t sensory r e s t r i c t i o n has on p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s . R e s u l t s of t h e i r work demonstrate t h a t i f the a u d i t o r y system i s s e v e r e l y damaged, r e l i a n c e on a c o u s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n and i n p u t i s d i m i n i s h e d . The m a j o r i t y of s e v e r e l y to p r o f o u n d l y deaf c h i l d r e n r e l y on a v i s u a l i n p u t or c o d i n g system (O'Connor & Hermelin, 1975). -2-Conrad (1979) found evidence to support f i n d i n g s of O'Connor and Hermelin (1975). He found t h a t when a u d i t o r y m a t e r i a l was p r e s e n t e d to the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d , i n f o r m a t i o n was put i n t o v i s u a l code, because a u d i t i o n c o u l d not be u t i l i z e d as a primary mode of r e c e p t i o n . O'Connor and Hermelin (1976) expanded t h e i r t h e o r y by s t a t i n g t h a t the p r o c e s s i n g and i n p u t m o d a l i t y ( a u d i t i o n or v i s i o n ) may not be the same as the s t i m u l u s . P r o f o u n d l y deaf c h i l d r e n c o n t i n u e d to p r o c e s s u s i n g a v i s u a l code whether or not the s t i m u l u s was a u d i t o r y or v i s u a l . R e s u l t s of t h e i r a n a l y s e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n p u t m o d a l i t y was not dependent on c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s t i m u l u s , but on whether the c h i l d c o u l d e f f e c t i v e l y u t i l i z e a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l code, or an a l t e r n a t e p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g y (O'Connor & Hermelin, 1978). Research to date (O'Connor & Hermelin, 1976;1978) has shown t h a t h e a r i n g and h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n p r o c e s s v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n d i f f e r e n t l y because they a p p l y d i f f e r e n t p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s . A d d i t i o n a l s t u d i e s (O'Connor & Hermelin, 1973a;1973b) used an incongruent t e m p o r a l / s p a t i a l task to determine p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s of a h e a r i n g and h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d p o p u l a t i o n . The outcomes have shown th a t h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s u b j e c t s c o n s i s t e n t l y responded s p a t i a l l y to t a s k s w h i l e the responses of t h e i r h e a r i n g c o u n t e r p a r t s were temporal. - 3 -Conrad and H u l l (1964) o f f e r e d the e x p l a n a t i o n t h a t i n s h o r t term memory words t h a t are coded t e m p o r a l l y depend on a c c e s s i b i l i t y of an a u d i t o r y - v e r b a l system. I f the a u d i t o r y system i s v i r t u a l l y n o n - f u n c t i o n a l , the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d w i l l r e l y on the v i s u a l code and respond s p a t i a l l y to t a s k s which measure p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s (Conrad & H u l l , 1964). L i n g u i s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n a c q u i r e d through v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n may be p r o c e s s e d e i t h e r t e m p o r a l l y or s p a t i a l l y (O'Connor & Hermelin, 1975). Deaf and h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n are c o n t i n u a l l y asked to i n c o r p o r a t e both p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s d u r i n g r e a d i n g (Booth, 1982). For example, a c h i l d may be asked to scan p r i n t on a page s p a t i a l l y and then to pr o c e s s a d i c t a t e d s t o r y t e m p o r a l l y . Conrad (1972;1979) acknowledged the h e t e r o g e n e i t y of the deaf.. Not a l l deaf c h i l d r e n use v i s i o n as t h e i r primary mode of r e c e p t i o n nor p r o c e s s e d v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s p a t i a l l y . The degree to which each c h i l d used v i s i o n as a mode of r e c e p t i o n c o u l d depend on a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e : degree of h e a r i n g l o s s , use of r e s i d u a l h e a r i n g , use of r e c e p t i v e and e x p r e s s i v e language s k i l l s , and degree of i n t e l l i g i b l e speech. These v a r i a b l e may e f f e c t the chosen or p r e f e r r e d s t r a t e g y ( L i n g , 1976). -4-K l a p p e r and B i r c h (1971) compared h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n ' s matching of a u d i t o r y -temporal and v i s u a l - t e m p o r a l sequencing. They found t h a t a u d i t o r y - t e m p o r a l p r o c e s s i n g was more a c c u r a t e at the e a r l y ages, up to age n i n e , then v i s u a l -temporal p r o c e s s i n g became predominant a f t e r t h i s age. A s i m i l a r i n v e s t i g a t i o n by S t e r r i t t , M a r t i n and Rudnick (1971) found t h a t p u r e l y s p a t i a l t a s k s were the s i m p l e s t f o r h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n up to age e i g h t , temporal and s p a t i a l f e a t u r e s were i n t e r m e d i a t e i n d i f f i c u l t y , and p u r e l y temporal t a s k s were the most d i f f i c u l t . The evidence thus suggests t h a t f o r h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n the use of a temporal s t r a t e g y i s dependent on age. Develop-m e n t a l l y , a h e a r i n g c h i l d w i l l p r o g r e s s from p r o c e s s i n g " s i m p l e " s p a t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n to the p r o c e s s i n g of more d i f f i c u l t temporal t a s k s , ( K l a p p e r & B i r c h , 1971; Rudnick et a l , 1972). Conrad (1972;1979) t r i e d to a s c e r t a i n whether deaf c h i l d r e n say words to themselves ( i n t e r n a l speech) as a r e h e a r s a l t e c h n i q u e . He d e v i s e d a t a s k f o r the purpose of a s s e s s i n g whether h e a r i n g and h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n used i n t e r n a l speech when p r o c e s s i n g words. Two s e t s of words were used f o r the t a s k . "One s e t d e s i g n a t e d homophone (H) would c o n t a i n words which on the c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e of the vowel sound sounded a l i k e but looked d i f f e r e n t from one another. The second set of words would sound d i f f e r e n t from each o t h e r on the b a s i s of the dominent p h o n e t i c f e a t u r e s but looked a l i k e . T h i s would be the non-homophonous (NH) s e t . " p.94 -5-T h e r e f o r e words i n the homophonous set would be words such as "do, zoo, and b l u e . " Words c o m p r i s i n g the non-homophonous set would be words such as "bare, bean, door, and have." Conrad (1979) h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t the e r r o r s a c h i l d made when asked to r e c a l l words from the H and the NH s e t s would i n d i c a t e the use of i n t e r n a l speech. Many homophonous e r r o r s would i n d i c a t e t h a t a c h i l d was r e h e a r s i n g words i n t e r n a l l y , whereas a c h i l d who r e c a l l e d many homophonous words was not u s i n g i n t e r n a l speech. R e s u l t s of s e v e r a l s t u d i e s (Conrad, 1972;1979) demonstrated t h a t degree of h e a r i n g l o s s a f f e c t e d the c h i l d ' s use of i n t e r n a l speech. Conrad (1979) found a c o n s i s t e n t d e c l i n e i n use of i n t e r n a l speech as h e a r i n g l o s s became more profound. SUMMARY The h e a r i n g c h i l d uses a u d i t i o n as the primary r e c e p t i v e mode through which most l i n g u i s t i c s k i l l s are a c q u i r e d (Kretschmer & Kretschmer, 1978). As a r e s u l t of i m p a i r e d a c o u s t i c f u n c t i o n , h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n are at a l i n g u i s t i c d isadvantage when compared to h e a r i n g peers ( C l a r k e et a l , 1977). -6-Many h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d develop a l t e r n a t e s t r a t e g i e s to p r o c e s s i n f o r m a t i o n . V i s i o n i s t y p i c a l l y u t i l i z e d and o f t e n becomes the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d ' s p r i m a r y r e c e p t i v e mode ( L i n g , 1976). P r o f o u n d l y deaf c h i l d r e n t y p i c a l l y p r o c e s s i n f o r m a t i o n v i s u a l l y r e g a r d l e s s of s t i m u l u s form (O'Connor & Hermelin, 1973;1975). R e s u l t s of c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s i n g s t u d i e s show t h a t h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n c o n s i s t e n t l y responded s p a t i a l l y to v i s u a l t a s k s and t h a t responses of h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n were temporal. These r e s u l t s were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h e a r l i e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s by Conrad and H u l l (1964). They concluded t h a t the c o d i n g s t r a t e g y used depended on whether the c h i l d c o u l d u t i l i z e an a u d i t o r y c o d i n g system. Temporal or s p a t i a l p r o c e s s i n g may be developmental, as s p a t i a l t a s k s were the s i m p l e s t f o r young c h i l d r e n and p u r e l y temporal t a s k s were more e a s i l y mastered by o l d e r c h i l d r e n . P r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s appear to be dependent on the age of the c h i l d . Conrad (1972;1979) h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t low r e c a l l of homophonous words r e f l e c t e d i n t e r n a l speech as a r e h e a r s a l t e c h n i q u e . As h e a r i n g l o s s became more severe t h e r e was a c o n s i s t e n t d e c l i n e i n the c h i l d ' s use of i n t e r n a l speech. -7-PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of the study was to i n v e s t i g a t e t e m p o r a l - s p a t i a l p r o c e s s i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r homophonous and non-homophonous words i n h e a r i n g and h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d p o p u l a t i o n s . RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. a.) Is t h e r e a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s t r a t e g y a h e a r i n g c h i l d may u t i l i z e and i n t e r n a l speech? b.) Is th e r e a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s t r a t e g y a h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d may u t i l i z e and i n t e r n a l speech? 2. a.) Do h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n make more e r r o r s on items w i t h homophonous words than on items w i t h non-homophonous words? b.) Do h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n make fewer e r r o r s on items w i t h homophonous words than on items w i t h non-homophonous words? 3. a.) Does the h e a r i n g c h i l d c o n s i s t e n t l y u t i l i z e a temporal or s p a t i a l s t r a t e g y when asked to r e c a l l words p r e s e n t e d randomly? b. ) Does the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d c o n s i s t e n t l y u t i l i z e a temporal or s p a t i a l s t r a t e g y when asked to r e c a l l words p r e s e n t e d i n a random order? c. ) Are the p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s employed by the two p o p u l a t i o n s s i m i l a r or d i f f e r e n t ? 4. a.) Are the s t r a t e g i e s used by h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n dependent on a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s such as; i ) age, i i ) gender, i i i ) r e a d i n g l e v e l ? b.) Are s t r a t e g i e s u t i l i z e d by h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n dependent on a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s such as; i ) h e a r i n g l o s s , i i ) age, i i i ) gender, i v ) r e a d i n g l e v e l ? -8-HYPOTHESES MAJOR HYPOTHESES 1. a.) There w i l l be a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e m p o r a l p r o c e s s i n g and the use of i n t e r n a l s p e e c h i n a p o p u l a t i o n o f h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n . b.) There w i l l be a r e l a t i o n s h i p between s p a t i a l p r o c e s s i n g and the use of i n t e r n a l s p e e c h i n a p o p u l a t i o n o f h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n . 2. a.) H e a r i n g c h i l d r e n w i l l make more e r r o r s when a s k e d t o r e c a l l homophonous words t h a n non-homophonous words. b. ) H e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n w i l l make fewer e r r o r s when a s k e d t o r e c a l l homophonous words. c. ) H e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n ' s r e c a l l o f homophonous words w i l l be dependent on degree of h e a r i n g l o s s . 3. a.) H e a r i n g c h i l d r e n w i l l c o n s i s t e n t l y use a t e m p o r a l s t r a t e g y when a s k e d t o r e c a l l t he words on each t e s t i t e m . b i ) H e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n w i l l c o n s i s t e n t l y use a s p a t i a l s t r a t e g y when asked t o r e c a l l the words on each t e s t i t e m . b i i ) C o d i n g s t r a t e g i e s used by h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n w i l l not be dependent on v o c a b u l a r y l e v e l . MINOR HYPOTHESES 4.a.) Younger h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n w i l l p r o c e s s i t e m s s p a t i a l l y and o l d e r h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n w i l l p r o c e s s i t e m s t e m p o r a l l y . b.) C o d i n g s t r a t e g i e s used by h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n w i l l not be i n f l u e n c e d by age. -9-5. a.) Coding s t r a t e g i e s used by h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n w i l l not be dependent on gender. b.) Gender w i l l not i n f l u e n c e c o d i n g s t r a t e g i e s used by h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n . 6. a.) Coding s t r a t e g i e s used by h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n w i l l not be dependent on t h e i r v o c a b u l a r y l e v e l . b.) V o c a b u l a r y l e v e l w i l l not i n f l u e n c e c o d i n g s t r a t e g i e s of h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n . DEFINITION OF TERMS Throughout the study the f o l l o w i n g terms w i l l be used as d e f i n e d below: Degree of Deafness H e a r i n g l o s s w i l l be d e f i n e d i n terms of an average h e a r i n g t h r e s h o l d , which i s expressed i n d e c i b e l s (dB). T h i s average i s the a r i t h m e t i c mean of the pure tone t h r e s h o l d s o b t a i n e d at 500, 1,000, and 2,000 Hz f o r the c h i l d ' s b e t t e r e a r, u s i n g the c r i t e r i a set by the American Standards I n s t i t u t e (ANSI). Hea r i n g Impairment H e a r i n g l o s s may range from a m i l d to profound degree. S e n s o r i - N e u r a l H e a r i n g Loss H e a r i n g impairment due to i n s u l t or i n j u r y to the c o c h l e a , a u d i t o r y nerve or both. I n t e r n a l Speech The degree of v e r b a l m e d i a t i o n ( a c o u s t i c or a r t i c u l a t o r y ) the c h i l d uses when p r o c e s s i n g v i s u a l m a t e r i a l . Temporal Coding The degree to which v i s u a l m a t e r i a l i s r e c a l l e d i n c o r r e c t s e q u e n t i a l o r d e r of p r e s e n t a t i o n . -10-S p a t i a l Coding The degree to which v i s u a l m a t e r i a l i s r e c a l l e d i n a l e f t to r i g h t o r d e r , r e g a r d l e s s of sequence of p r e s e n t a t i o n . T o t a l Communication T o t a l communication i s a c h i e v e d through a combination of s p e e c h r e a d i n g , a u d i t i o n , s i g n , f i n g e r s p e l l i n g , and r e a d i n g . E x p r e s s i v e communication i s through s i g n s , and f i n g e r s p e l l i n g . Sense M o d a l i t i e s Use of a u d i t i o n , v i s i o n , touch and/or k i n e s t h e s i s to p r o c e s s incoming s i g n a l s . -11-Chapter Two REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE " I f the p r i n c i p l e ( s i c ) reason for using deaf subjects i s to study cognitive processes, one ce r t a i n requirement is that we know what cognitive processes the deaf are using." (O'Connor & Hermelin, 1978, p.23). Chapter two presents a review of the l i t e r a t u r e in the following areas: research pertaining to vi s u a l memory c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of hearing and hearing impaired children, studies r e l a t i n g to the internal speech component of hearing and hearing impaired subjects, and temporal-spatial processing of the two groups. VISUAL MEMORY B l a i r (1957) investigated v i s u a l memory of the deaf as compared with the vi s u a l memory of a hearing population. He hypothesized that the two groups would perform d i f f e r e n t l y on a test of memory span for d i g i t s . An array of d i g i t s , v i s i b l e for a controlled period was presented to subjects either in a conventional l e f t to right or right to l e f t order. Results of the study indicated that v i s u a l memory for d i g i t s did d i f f e r between the two -12-groups. H e a r i n g c h i l d r e n r e c a l l e d more d i g i t s i n the c o n v e n t i o n a l o r d e r whereas the deaf c h i l d r e c a l l e d e q u a l l y as w e l l i n both d i r e c t i o n s . B l a i r h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t the deaf c h i l d was " f r e e d " from a u d i t o r y imagery t h a t was t y p i c a l l y s e r i a l . I t was found t h a t deaf c h i l d r e n r e l i e d on a v i s u a l image of the a r r a y and c o u l d read the d i g i t s e q u a l l y w e l l r e g a r d l e s s of d i r e c t i o n . H e a r i n g c h i l d r e n d i d not appear to r e l y on the v i s u a l image. Rather they r e t a i n e d an " a u d i t o r y sequence", s u g g e s t i n g t h a t they used a c o u s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n to a i d i n r e c a l l . B l a i r suggested t h a t a u d i t o r y r e c a l l was p r o f i c i e n t when r e c a l l i n g the c o n v e n t i o n a l o r d e r of sequence, but was not e f f e c t i v e when s u b j e c t s were asked to r e c a l l a sequence p r e s e n t e d i n a r i g h t to l e f t format. Hermelin and O'Connor (1975b) a l t e r e d B l a i r ' s t a s k by d i s p l a y i n g d i g i t s one at a time i n s u c c e s s i v e l o c a t i o n s . They found a d i f f e r e n c e i n r e c a l l between groups of h e a r i n g and h e a r i n g impaired s u b j e c t s . Deaf s u b j e c t s a c t u a l l y r e c a l l e d fewer d i g i t s forward than i n a backward d i r e c t i o n . N u n n a l l y (1966) a l s o found t h a t the deaf r e l y more on v i s u a l memory than h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s . He performed a study s i m i l a r to t h a t of Hermelin and O'Connor (1975b), where the deaf c h i l d was asked to r e c a l l a s e r i e s of -13-d i g i t s . These were compared to a c o n t r o l group of h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s . N u n n a l l y b e l i e v e d r e t e n t i o n was f r e e from i n t e r f e r e n c e and competing a u d i t o r y v o c a l p r o c e s s e s d u r i n g the time when the c h i l d was r e t r i e v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . V i s u a l s t o r a g e and r e t r i e v a l cues were found to be h i g h l y e f f i c i e n t i n the deaf p o p u l a t i o n . B l a n t o n , N u n n a l l y and Odam (1967) s t a t e d , " . . . i t i s assumed t h a t the g e n e r a l d e f i c i e n c y i n language used by the deaf i s due to the i n h e r e n t d i s a d v a n t a g e s of h a ving to r e l y on the v i s u a l sense f o r language l e a r n i n g . . . " (p.225). B l a n t o n , N u n n a l l y , and Odam (1967) c o n s t r u c t e d a t a s k whereby deaf and h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s a s s o c i a t e d a word w i t h a s t i m u l u s word. They p r e d i c a t e d t h a t the deaf s u b j e c t would p r o v i d e words t h a t were v i s u a l l y s i m i l a r to the s t i m u l u s word more f r e q u e n t l y than h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s . R e s u l t s v e r i f i e d t h e i r p r e d i c t i o n . The deaf chose the v i s u a l l y s i m i l a r words more o f t e n than d i d h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s . Conrad (1963) has shown t h a t f o r h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s , sequences of homophonous words ( r u f f , rough) were much more d i f f i c u l t to r e c a l l than sequences of non-homophonous words (barn, l a n e ) . Conrad h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t words t h a t sounded a l i k e were confus e d i n memory because they sounded the same and t h e r e f o r e were d i f f i c u l t to r e c a l l . A n a l y s i s of the e r r o r s c o n f i r m e d Conrad's theory i n d i c a t i n g a r e l a t i o n s h i p does e x i s t between memory e r r o r s and t h e i r a c o u s t i c p r o p e r t i e s . -14-A l l e n (1971) used a p a i r e d a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t t o examine whether a h e a r i n g l o s s may a l t e r the c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t i o n so t h a t emphasis i s p l a c e d on sense m o d a l i t i e s o t h e r t h a n a u d i t i o n . S u b j e c t s had de g r e e s o f h e a r i n g l o s s r a n g i n g from m i l d t o p r o f o u n d . Two l i s t s of words were p r e s e n t e d ; t h o s e w h i c h sounded s i m i l a r ( e . g . , s i g n - l i n e ) and t h o s e w h i c h l o o k e d s i m i l a r ( e . g . , c a v e - h a v e ) . S u b j e c t s were r e q u i r e d t o l e a r n the two l i s t s , and the p e r f o r m a n c e measure used was the number of t r i a l s r e q u i r e d f o r the s u b j e c t t o l e a r n the word l i s t . A l l e n p r e d i c a t e d t h a t t h o s e s u b j e c t s w i t h g r e a t e r h e a r i n g l o s s w o u l d have g r e a t e r d i f f i c u l t y l e a r n i n g words t h a t sounded a l i k e as t h e y w o u l d not be a b l e t o use rhyme i n f o r m a t i o n . S u b j e c t s w o u l d depend on v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e word. The h y p o t h e s i s was not s u p p o r t e d . A l l e n found the " l e a s t d e a f " (0-25 dB l o s s ) p e r f o r m e d s i m i l a r i l y t o t h e "most d e a f " group (91 + dB l o s s ) . The h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s d i d not l e a r n the word p a i r s t h a t sounded a l i k e f a s t e r t h a n the l o o k - a l i k e word p a i r s . Conrad and Rush (1965) compared the memory span o f deaf and h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s . P r i o r t o the s t u d y i t was th o u g h t t h a t deaf c h i l d r e n would not use a p h o n e t i c memory code, as a u d i t o r y c h a n n e l s were i m p a i r e d . I f a n o t h e r c o d i n g system was dominant i t would be r e f l e c t e d t h r o u g h the e r r o r -15-a n a l y s i s . Conrad and Rush were not concerned w i t h the q u a n t i t y of e r r o r s , r a t h e r t h e i r o b j e c t i v e was to a n a l y s e the e r r o r s made by the two groups. I t was found t h a t c h i l d r e n w i t h h e a r i n g l o s s e s from 0 - 65 dB memorized the same number of l e t t e r s as the h e a r i n g group. However they found t h a t the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d as a group memorized l e t t e r s of the a l p h a b e t u s i n g a c o d i n g procedure which was not p h o n e t i c a l l y based. The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the c h i l d w i t h the severe or profound h e a r i n g l o s s u t i l i z e d another method of s t o r i n g v i s u a l m a t e r i a l r e c e i v e d o n l y minor support i n the study. Conrad (1970) used a procedure s i m i l a r to t h a t employed i n the Conrad and Rush (1965) study. Sets of consonants f o r the task were grouped by the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : a) K,X,Y,Z were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i a g o n a l f e a t u r e s , b) B,C,T have a c o u s t i c and a r t l c u l a t o r y s i m i l a r i t i e s , c) X,H have s i m i l a r a r t i c u l a t o r y f e a t u r e s . The number of t e s t items were i n c r e a s e d so t h a t i n d i v i d u a l e r r o r m a t r i c e s c o u l d be c a l c u l a t e d f o r each s t u d e n t . A sample of 36 h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n was used, with a c o n t r o l group of 75 h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s . H e a r i n g s u b j e c t s showed a g r e a t d e a l of c o n f u s i o n on the t a s k s when l e t t e r s had the same sound, but no c o n f u s i o n when l e t t e r s were the same shape. -16-R e s u l t s f o r h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s u b j e c t s were d i v i d e d i n t o two groups; those which showed s i m i l a r e r r o r s to h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s ( c o n f u s i n g l e t t e r s t h a t sounded a l i k e ) and those whose e r r o r p a t t e r n d i d not resemble the h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s ( c o n f u s e d l e t t e r s t h a t looked a l i k e ) . Conrad (1970) f e l t t h i s procedure to be s i g n i f i c a n t because h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n c o u l d be " c l a s s i f i e d " on the b a s i s of the memory code they used. INTERNAL SPEECH I n t e r n a l speech has been thought to have a p e r t i n e n t r o l e i n thought and language p r o c e s s e s . Sokolov (1972) r e f e r r e d to i n t e r n a l speech as the degree of a c o u s t i c m e d i a t i o n used when p r o c e s s i n g v i s u a l m a t e r i a l . Vygotsky (1962) used the term " i n t e r n a l speech" when d e s c r i b i n g the r e l a t i o n -s h i p between speech and thought. Conrad (1979) does not b e l i e v e a l l thought has to have a l i n g u i s t i c base, but regards i n t e r n a l speech as one form of t h i n k i n g . He d e s c r i b e s i n t e r n a l speech as, " . . . v o c a l speech which at the moment when i t s presence i s known to us, has been i n t e r n a l i z e d . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t i s i n t e r n a l i z e d i n the same sense t h a t i t i s o n l y i n t e n d e d f o r the ear of the speaker. I t may t h e r e f o r e be o v e r t or v o c a l but s t i l l p r i v a t e f o r the i n t e r n a l consumption i n the way r e a d i n g may be a l o u d f o r o u r s e l v e s . I n t e r n a l speech occurs when a pe r s o n m a n i p u l a t e s , g e n e r a l l y spoken words which are r e q u i r e d to a c h i e v e some c o g n i t i v e g o a l " ( p . 9 ) . -17-Using t h i s d e f i n i t i o n of i n t e r n a l speech, Conrad has conducted numerous s t u d i e s to i n v e s t i g a t e the " p r o c e s s e s " used by h e a r i n g and h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n . Conrad (1963) examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p between memory e r r o r s and t h e i r a c o u s t i c c o r r e l a t e s . Hearing s u b j e c t s were p r e s e n t e d w i t h two unconnected word l i s t s f o r immediate r e c a l l . One was compromised of f i v e p a i r s of homophonous words, the o t h e r , f i v e p a i r s of non-homophonous words. A l l words were p r e s e n t e d v i s u a l l y to s u b j e c t s . Conrad h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t c h i l d r e n c o u l d be d i v i d e d i n t o two groups, those who used an a r t i c u l a t o r y code, ( i n t e r n a l speech), and those who were non-a r t i c u l a t o r y coders ( d i d not use i n t e r n a l s p e e c h ) . Conrad s t a t e d t h a t a r t i c u l a t o r y coders would do b e t t e r r e c a l l i n g a non-homophonous word l i s t , because the words d i d not sound the same and would not be confused i n the c h i l d ' s i n t e r n a l r e h e a r s a l system. Through a n a l y s i s of the data the h y p o t h e s i s was v e r i f i e d . Conrad (1979) d e v i s e d a t a s k to a s s e s s the codes used when h e a r i n g and h e a r i n g impaired s t u d e n t s p r o c e s s words. Words were used r a t h e r than l e t t e r s as a l a r g e r number of words p e r m i t t e d the m a n i p u l a t i o n of both -18-p h o n e t i c and v i s u a l s i m i l a r i t y . Two l i s t s of words were used f o r the task ; one c o n s i s t i n g of homophonous words and one c o n s i s t i n g of non-homophonous words. To asse s s the use of i n t e r n a l speech, r e c a l l performance on the two word s e t s was compared. Three s c o r e s were a v a i l a b l e , the number of e r r o r s made on the homophonous s e t , the number of e r r o r s on the non-homophonous set and the sum of the two. Conrad then c a l c u l a t e d an i n t e r n a l speech r a t i o by d i v i d i n g the number of homophonous e r r o r s by the t o t a l number of e r r o r s and m u l t i p l y i n g by 100. The c h i l d ' s s c o r e c o u l d range from 0 - 100. I f the c h i l d ' s score was g r e a t e r than 50, the c h i l d would have made more homophonous e r r o r s than non-homophonous. I t was assumed th a t a speech code or i n t e r n a l speech was used when memorizing p r i n t . "In b e h a v i o u r a l terms, a v e r y h i g h i n t e r n a l speech r a t i o would c a r r y the presumption of a pr e d o m i n a t i n g use of i n t e r n a l speech. A v e r y low v a l u e would suggest p r e d o m i n a t i n g use of some o t h e r i n t e r n a l m e d i a t i n g code" (p. 100). R e s u l t s of the t a s k showed t h a t 94 p e r c e n t of the h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s used i n t e r n a l speech. Conrad found a c o n s i s t e n t d e c l i n e i n the p r o p o r t i o n of h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d who used i n t e r n a l speech as h e a r i n g l o s s became more profound. " C l e a r l y degree of deafness i s a v a r i a b l e of the utmost importance i n d e t e r m i n i n g whether or not a c h i l d develops the a b i l i t y to i n t e r n a l i z e speech and to use i t at l e a s t when he reads words" (p. 100). -19-Conrad does not s t a t e t h a t a profound l o s s does not n e c e s s a r i l y p r e c l u d e the use of i n t e r n a l speech. Among the p o p u l a t i o n of p r o f o u n d l y deaf s u b j e c t s t h e r e were i n d i v i d u a l s who s c o r e d comparably w i t h n o r m a l l y h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s . TEMPORAL/SPATIAL PROCESSING K l a p p e r and B i r c h (1971) examined the a b i l i t y of c h i l d r e n to judge temporal sequences when they were p r e s e n t e d through two sense m o d a l i t i e s , a u d i t i o n and v i s i o n . H e a r i n g s u b j e c t s i n t h i s study were at age l e v e l s r a n g i n g from 3 - 1 1 y e a r s . The a b i l i t y to judge t e m p o r a l l y p a t t e r n e d a u d i t o r y and v i s u a l s i m u l i was s t u d i e d u s i n g a method of s u c c e s s i v e p a i r e d comparison. A s t a n d a r d p a t t e r n was p r e s e n t e d and each c h i l d was asked to judge whether a second p a t t e r n was the same or d i f f e r e n t . The v i s u a l s t i m u l i were f l a s h e s of l i g h t and the a u d i t o r y s t i m u l i were c l i c k s of a d u r a t i o n of h a l f a second. R e s u l t s showed t h a t c h i l d r e n at v a r i o u s age l e v e l s do not make the same average number of e r r o r s , r e g a r d l e s s of whether the s t i m u l u s i s v i s u a l o r a u d i t o r y . Competence i n j u d g i n g a v i s u a l - t e m p o r a l p a t t e r n was not demonstrated by younger c h i l d r e n , up to age n i n e . C h i l d r e n under nine -20-responded a c c u r a t e l y to a u d i t o r y - t e m p o r a l matches w h i l e c h i l d r e n nine or o l d e r responded w i t h g r e a t e r a c c u r a c y to v i s u a l - t e m p o r a l matches. The f i n d i n g s of t h i s study i n d i c a t e d t h a t the judgement of temporal d i s t r i b u t i o n s i n the v i s u a l and a u d i t o r y m o d a l i t i e s f o l l o w e d a d i s t i n c t developmental c o u r s e . I n c r e a s i n g competence i n v i s u a l - t e m p o r a l p r o c e s s i n g was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h age. S t e r r i t et a l (1971) attempted to extend the study of se p a r a t e i n f l u e n c e s of temporal and s p a t i a l a s p e c t s of a u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n . A b a t t e r y of nin e p e r c e p t u a l t e s t s was c o n s t r u c t e d and a d m i n i s t e r e d to h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n s i x to twelve y e a r s of age. A u d i t o r y - t e m p o r a l and a u d i t o r y - s p a t i a l p a t t e r n s were p r e s e n t e d through headphones and v i s u a l - t e m p o r a l p a t t e r n s were f l a s h e d by l i g h t s . Dot p a t t e r n s were used i n the task which t e s t e d v i s u a l - s p a t i a l p a t t e r n s of response. The r e s u l t s suggested a continuum of d i f f i c u l t y whereby v i s u a l - s p a t i a l p a t t e r n s were s i m p l e r a c r o s s age l e v e l s . Tasks i n v o l v i n g both temporal and s p a t i a l f e a t u r e s were at an i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l and the p u r e l y temporal ta s k s were the most d i f f i c u l t . -21-O'Connor and Hermelin (1972a) examined the e f f e c t t h a t l o s s of one source of sensory input may have on c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s i n g . Deaf, b l i n d , and no r m a l l y h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n were r e q u i r e d to determine whether two s u c c e s s i v e s e r i e s of s t i m u l i were the same or d i f f e r e n t . S t i m u l i were p r e s e n t e d a u d i t o r i a l l y ( s e r i e s of sounds) to the h e a r i n g and b l i n d s u b j e c t s , and v i s u a l l y ( l i g h t f l a s h e s ) to the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s u b j e c t s and c o n t r o l group. I t was p r e d i c t e d t h a t sequences which were s p a t i a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d would be b e t t e r remembered when the s t i m u l i were f l a s h e s of l i g h t r a t h e r than sounds. R e s u l t s v e r i f i e d the i n v e s t i g a t o r s ' h y p o t h e s i s . The p r e s e n t a t i o n of a u d i t o r y s t i m u l i l e d to more c o r r e c t r e c o g n i t i o n s when sequences were temporal. The r e v e r s e was t r u e f o r v i s u a l s t i m u l i where s p a t i a l sequence was b e t t e r remembered than a temporal one. O'Connor and Hermelin (1972b) c o n t i n u e d to examine the e f f e c t s of p r e s e n t i n g s t i m u l i u s i n g a u d i t o r y or v i s u a l m o d a l i t y . Deaf and h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n were p r e s e n t e d w i t h v i s u a l d i s p l a y s w h i l e b l i n d and h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n were p r e s e n t e d w i t h a u d i t o r y d i s p l a y s . Three d i g i t s were exposed s u c c e s s i v e l y e i t h e r i n a v i s u a l d i s p l a y or a u d i t o r i a l l y from l o u d s p e a k e r s . The s u b j e c t s were i n s t r u c t e d to " t e l l " or " w r i t e down" the middle d i g i t or sound. -22-R e s u l t s showed c l e a r l y t h a t the deaf s u b j e c t who "saw" the d i g i t s chose the s p a t i a l middle, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the v i s u a l d i s p l a y dominated the c h i l d ' o r g a n i z a t i o n of m a t e r i a l . B l i n d and h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n chose the t e m p o r a l l y c e n t r a l sound. R e s u l t s e s t a b l i s h e d the d i f f e r e n c e between u s i n g a s p a t i a l s t r a t e g y of a u d i t o r i l y p r e s e n t e d m a t e r i a l . In another study (1973a) O'Connor and Hermelin i n v e s t i g a t e d two a r e a s : dependence on v e r b a l s t o r a g e f o r memory i n s e q u e n t i a l o r d e r and a l t e r n a t e codes a deaf c h i l d might use to r e t a i n the o r i g i n a l o r d e r of m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d . Twenty h e a r i n g and twenty deaf c h i l d r e n were p r e s e n t e d w i t h f i v e items d i s p l a y e d s u c c e s s i v e l y i n f i v e frames. Photographs of f a c e s and consonant-vowel-consonant word l i s t s were used. Both m a t e r i a l s were p r e s e n t e d at a f a s t r a t e and then at a slow r a t e . The c h i l d r e n were asked which item they saw f i r s t . An a n a l y s i s of the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t a s k s which demanded s e q u e n t i a l o r d e r i n g i n memory were not dependent on a d d i t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s , namely r e l i a n c e on s p a t i a l cues d e r i v e d from v i s u a l d i s p l a y s . The authors found t h a t the r a t e of p r e s e n t a t i o n d i d not e f f e c t the ord e r of r e c o g n i t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l r e s u l t s showed t h a t h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n r e c a l l e d the temporal p o s i t i o n of nonsense s y l l a b l e s more r e a d i l y than d i d the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d p o p u l a t i o n (O'Connor & Hermelin, 1973a). An incongruent t e m p o r a l / s p a t i a l p r e s e n t a t i o n technique was used i n an a d d i t i o n a l study by O'Connor and Hermelin (1973b). The i n v e s t i g a t o r s t e s t e d h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d , a u t i s t i c , subnormal, and normal c h i l d r e n to determine p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s u t i l i z e d . I f an a s s o c i a t i o n e x i s t e d between t e m p o r a l / s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and m o d a l i t y then: "one might expect t h a t c h i l d r e n l a c k i n g one of the th r e e sensory i n p u t s might a l s o be i m p a i r e d i n the e x t r a c t i o n of the a s s o c i a t e d t e m p o r a l / s p a t i a l codes" (p. 69). S u b j e c t s were asked to r e c a l l items i n a th r e e d i g i t d i s p l a y . The p r e s e n t a t i o n was ambiguous so that the c h i l d c o u l d r e c a l l e i t h e r i n a temporal o r d e r ( f i r s t to l a s t ) or a s p a t i a l o r d e r ( l e f t to r i g h t ) . D i g i t s were p r e s e n t e d i n boxes or frames at a r a t e of 300ms per d i g i t over a 2 second p e r i o d . R e s u l t s showed th a t h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n r e c a l l e d d i g i t s t e m p o r a l l y f o u r times as o f t e n as they d i d s p a t i a l l y . Deaf s u b j e c t s r e c a l l e d the d i g i t s e i g h t times as o f t e n s p a t i a l l y as t e m p o r a l l y . Deaf c h i l d r e n gave c o n s i s t e n t s p a t i a l r e s p o n s e s . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s c o n c l u d e d t h a t i n s h o r t term memory temporal c o d i n g i s extremely dependent on a c c e s s i b i l i t y of a u d i t o r y system (O'Connor and Hermelin, 1973b). Booth (1982) used the O'Connor and Hermelin (1973b) task and found deaf s u b j e c t s to be b i a s e d towards a s p a t i a l response. She h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t the time of p r e s e n t a t i o n was d e t e r m i n i n g c h o i c e o f r e s p o n s e , ( r a t e o f p r e s e n t a t i o n was 300ms p e r 2 second p e r i o d ) and t h a t the boxes o r frames t h a t s u r r o u n d e d each d i g i t , may have emphasized t h a t s p a t i a l a r r a n g e m e n t . T h e r e f o r e a s u b s t u d y w a s c o n d u c t e d a d m i n i s t e r i n g a m o d i f i e d t a s k t o f o r t y -one o f the h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s . Rate o f p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r each i t e m was changed from 2 seconds p e r t h r e e d i g i t s t o 900ms p e r t h r e e d i g i t s , and the boxes or frames were e l i m i n a t e d from the s c r e e n . A l t h o u g h h i g h s p a t i a l r e s p o n s e s were e x p e c t e d , r e s u l t s o f the s u b s t u d y showed t h a t f o r t y - o n e p e r c e n t o f the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n t e s t e d had a h i g h t e m p o r a l - s p a t i a l r a t i o . T h i s c l e a r l y s u g g e s t e d t e m p o r a l c o d i n g o f v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n . F i f t y - n i n e p e r c e n t o f the s u b j e c t s p r o c e s s e d i t e m s s p a t i a l l y . These r e s u l t s c o n t r a d i c t e d the f i n d i n g s o f O'Connor and H e r m e l i n (1973b) who s t a t e d t h a t the deaf c h i l d , " r e c a l l e d e i g h t t i m e s as o f t e n s p a t i a l l y " ( p . 9 9 ) . I t was a l s o i n d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n t o an e a r l i e r s t u d y (O'Connor & H e r m e l i n , 1973a) where i t had been r e p o r t e d t h a t r a t e and manner of p r e s e n t a t i o n d i d not e f f e c t the c h i l d ' s r e c o g n i t i o n s c o r e s . B o o t h (1982) found t h a t b o t h o f t h e s e e l e m e n t s d e t e r m i n e d the outcome of the t a s k . I n a d d i t i o n t o m o d i f y i n g the O'Connor and H e r m e l i n (1973b) t a s k , Booth (1982) a d m i n i s t e r e d Conrad's (1979) t e s t f o r i n t e r n a l s p e e c h . The -25-r e l a t i o n s h i p between performance on the t e m p o r a l / s p a t i a l and i n t e r n a l speech t a s k s showed th a t s u b j e c t s who were u s i n g i n t e r n a l speech as d e f i n e d by Conrad (1979) were e q u a l l y d i v i d e d as to c o d i n g p r e f e r e n c e (temporal or s p a t i a l ) . Of the s u b j e c t s w i t h low i n t e r n a l speech s c o r e s , 39% responded s p a t i a l l y and 17% t e m p o r a l l y . Booth (1982) f e l t t h a t her data d i d i n d i c a t e a c o n n e c t i o n between i n t e r n a l speech and temporal p r o c e s s i n g , but f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h s h o u l d be conducted to determine the ex t e n t of the r e l a t i o n s h i p . SUMMARY P r o c e s s i n g S t r a t e g i e s A review of the l i t e r a t u r e i n th r e e areas ( v i s u a l memory, i n t e r n a l speech and t e m p o r a l / s p a t i a l p r o c e s s i n g ) , has p r o v i d e d evidence p e r t i n e n t to the study. V i s u a l Memory A s e r i e s of s t u d i e s examined v i s u a l memory i n both h e a r i n g and h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d p o p u l a t i o n s . B l a i r (1957) h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t the deaf c h i l d was " f r e e d " from a u d i t o r y r e c a l l . In h i s study the deaf c h i l d r e c a l l e d d i g i t s e q u a l l y as w e l l i n both d i r e c t i o n s whereas h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n r e c a l l e d -26-more d i g i t s i n a c o n v e n t i o n a l l e f t to r i g h t o r d e r . N u n n a l l y (1966) found t h a t the deaf r e l i e d on v i s u a l memory more than a h e a r i n g p o p u l a t i o n . R e t e n t i o n of d i g i t sequences was f r e e from competing a u d i t o r y - v o c a l p r o c e s s e s d u r i n g i n p u t r e t r i e v a l . These s t u d i e s e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t a p r o c e s s i n g d i f f e r e n c e does e x i s t between the two p o p u l a t i o n s . I n t e r n a l Speech Conrad (1963) co n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e were c o d i n g d i f f e r e n c e s between h e a r i n g and h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n . T h i s was i n d i c a t e d by the success of r e c a l l i n g homophonous and non-homophonous words. Heari n g c h i l d r e n r e c a l l e d more non-homophonous words, whereas h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n r e c a l l e d both e q u a l l y w e l l . A l l e n (1971) conducted a s i m i l a r study and h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s u b j e c t s would be more dependent on v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n . R e s u l t s d i d not c o n f i r m the h y p o t h e s i s nor d i d they support the f i n d s of Conrad (1963). A d d i t i o n a l s t u d i e s by Conrad (1963b) and Conrad and Rush (1965) u t i l i z e d l e t t e r s r a t h e r than words. When asked to r e c a l l groups of consonants, the h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s r e c a l l e d more l e t t e r s than d i d the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s u b j e c t s . I n v e s t i g a t o r s f e l t a d i f f e r e n t c o d i n g procedure was used by h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n . Conrad (1979) viewed i n t e r n a l speech as one form of t h i n k i n g . A task was d e v i s e d to a s s e s s the i n n e r "codes" used by h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n . R e s u l t s v e r i f i e d the assumption, and the i n v e s t i g a t o r c o n c l u d e d t h a t h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s recoded v i s u a l l y p r e s e n t e d s t i m u l i i n t o a code based on a c o u s t i c imagery. R e s u l t s of a s i m i l a r t a s k p r e s e n t e d to h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s u b j e c t s found a c o n s i s t e n t d e c l i n e i n the p r o p o r t i o n of h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n who used i n t e r n a l speech as h e a r i n g l o s s became more profound. The h e t e r o g e n e i t y of the deaf as a group was s t r e s s e d when Conrad (1979) found t h a t a profound l o s s does not p r e c l u d e the use of i n t e r n a l speech. T e m p o r a l / S p a t i a l P r o c e s s i n g The a b i l i t y to judge temporal sequences was i n v e s t i g a t e d by Klapper and B i r c h (1971). I n f o r m a t i o n was p r e s e n t e d through two m o d a l i t i e s ; a u d i t i o n and v i s i o n . F i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t judgements of temporal d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o l l o w e d a d i s t i n c t developmental p a t t e r n from a u d i t o r y - t e m p o r a l to v i s u a l - t e m p o r a l p r o c e s s i n g . S t e r r i t et a l (1971) suggested t h a t t h e r e may be a continuum of d i f f i c u l t y whereby v i s u a l - s p a t i a l p a t t e r n s were the s i m p l e s t and p u r e l y temporal t a s k s were the most d i f f i c u l t . -28-The e f f e c t of l o s s of one sensory i n p u t system was examined by O'Connor and Hermelin (1972a). They p r e d i c t e d t h a t deaf c h i l d r e n would f i n d v i s u a l l y p r e s e n t e d s p a t i a l d i s p l a y s e a s i e r to r e c a l l . T h i s p r e d i c t i o n was v e r i f i e d . O'Connor and Hermelin (1973a) exposed h e a r i n g and h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n to an incongruent tempora1/spatia1 t a s k , to determine p r o c e s s i n g or c o d i n g p r e f e r e n c e . H e a r i n g c h i l d r e n r e c a l l e d d i g i t s f o u r times as o f t e n t e m p o r a l l y as they d i d s p a t i a l l y . Deaf c h i l d r e n gave c o n s i s t e n t s p a t i a l responses e i g h t times as o f t e n . They concluded t h a t the temporal responses were dependent on an a u d i t o r y - v e r b a l system. Booth (1982) a l t e r e d the O'Connor and Hermelin task by changing the r a t e of p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r the incongruent t e m p o r a l / s p a t i a l task and e l i m i n a t i n g the boxes or frames from the s c r e e n . Booth found 41% of the h e a r i n g impaired p o p u l a t i o n p r o c e s s e d t e m p o r a l l y , w h i l e 597<> of the s u b j e c t s p r o c e s s e d the v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n s p a t i a l l y . The l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t deaf c h i l d r e n t y p i c a l l y r e l y on v i s u a l memory because the a u d i t o r y s i g n a l they r e c e i v e i s minimal. H e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n are " f r e e d " from a u d i t o r y imagery and use a c o d i n g procedure which may d i f f e r from the c o d i n g s t r a t e g y used by h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n , as they do not use a r e h e a r s a l technique based on i n t e r n a l speech. The h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d w i l l p r o c e s s v i s u a l d i g i t d i s p l a y s s p a t i a l l y whereas temporal responses are expected from a h e a r i n g p o p u l a t i o n . - 3 0 -Chapter Three METHODOLOGY The major purpose of the study was to compare the p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s of two p o p u l a t i o n s ( h e a r i n g and h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d ) , when they were p r e s e n t e d w i t h a homophonous/non-homophonous t e m p o r a l / s p a t i a l t a s k . DESCRIPTION OF THE SAMPLE  SUBJECTS H e a r i n g Impaired. The sample of 71 h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the study was chosen from c l a s s e s i n a s c h o o l f o r the deaf, i f they met the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : 1) a s e n s o r i - n e u r a l l o s s of 60 dB (BEA) or g r e a t e r , 2) were f i t t e d w i t h h e a r i n g a i d s , 3) used a t o t a l communication methodology, 4) were between the ages of 8 - 0 and 19 - 11 as of June 1, 1982, 5) were a b l e to complete a p e n c i l and paper t a s k . The sample c o n s i s t e d of 31 females and 40 males. The 12 - 0 to 15 - 11 year o l d s comprised 46.67» of the sample due to the f a c t t h a t t h i s age group was a b l e to complete the t a s k . For d i f f e r i n g reasons the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d p o p u l a t i o n had more d i f f i c u l t y w i t h the word t a s k . For example many younger c h i l d r e n d i d not have the l i n g u i s t i c s k i l l s a p p r o p r i a t e -31-to the e s t a b l i s h e d c r i t e r i a , and many of the o l d e r c h i l d r e n had a d d i t i o n a l h a n d i c a p s . H e a r i n g S u b j e c t s . The sample of 74 h e a r i n g s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the study were chosen from r e g u l a r c l a s s e s i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i n a Metro area n e i g h b o u r i n g the s c h o o l f o r the deaf. Students were chosen from s c h o o l s a c c o r d i n g to the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : 1) were a b l e to complete a p e n c i l and paper t a s k , 2) had no known handic a p s , 3) were matched by SAT v o c a b u l a r y s c o r e s to h e a r i n g impaired s t u d e n t s . INSTRUMENTS S t a n f o r d Achievement Test (SAT) Form A, Vo c a b u l a r y S u b t e s t . The SAT was a d m i n i s t e r e d to a l l h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s . The v o c a b u l a r y s u b t e s t was chosen as the t e s t s c o r e s were assumed to measure a g e n e r a l a b i l i t y l e v e l i n v o c a b u l a r y , and because the c h i l d ' s b a s i c v o c a b u l a r y was n e c e s s a r y to complete the t a s k . A l s o Booth (1982) found i n her study t h a t degree of i n t e r n a l speech was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to performance on t a s k s of v o c a b u l a r y . -32-S t a n f o r d Achievement T e s t , S p e c i a l E d i t i o n f o r the H e a r i n g Impaired (SAT-HI) The SAT-HI was adapted from the SAT, 1973. T e s t items were unchanged from the SAT, however s u b t e s t s w i t h i n each l e v e l of the SAT were r e a s s i g n e d to the next lower or h i g h e r l e v e l of the SAT-HI. L e v e l s were changed as a r e s u l t of the d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n the performance between h e a r i n g and h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n (Rogers et a l , 1978). I t has been f u r t h e r documented ( C l a r k e et a l , 1977; Rogers et a l , 1978) t h a t l e v e l of performance and r a t e of p r o g r e s s f o r h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s t u d e n t s l a g behind t h a t expected f o r h e a r i n g s t u d e n t s of comparable age. In a d d i t i o n Rogers et a l (1978), found t h a t v o c a b u l a r y and comprehension achievement l e v e l s d ecreased w i t h the s e v e r i t y of the c h i l d ' s l o s s . T h i s means t h a t the two groups c o u l d not be matched by age, and were t h e r e f o r e matched a c c o r d i n g to v o c a b u l a r y s u b t e s t grade s c o r e s . T e m p o r a l / S p a t i a l , Homophonous/Non-homophonous Word Task The instrument was adapted from the work of O'Connor and Hermelin (1973), Conrad (1979), and Booth (1982). Words f o r the t a s k were taken from Conrad's t e s t f o r i n t e r n a l speech. His o r i g i n a l t e s t c o n s i s t e d of 24 items of 6 words each, a l t e r n a t i n g between homophonous and non-homophonous s e t s . The word task used i n t h i s study was made up of -33-48 items w i t h 3 words each. Two p r a c t i s e items were p r e s e n t e d to each s u b j e c t to ensure comprehension of the t a s k . O'Connor and Hermelin (1973) developed an incongruent t e m p o r a l / s p a t i a l t a s k which c o n s i s t e d of 24 groups of 3 d i g i t s . The d i g i t s were d i s p l a y e d i n a random o r d e r over a 2 second time p e r i o d . In any one d i s p l a y the s p a t i a l and the temporal o r d e r s of the d i g i t s d i f f e r e d so t h a t they would never appear i n a l e f t to r i g h t s u c c e s s i o n . Order of p r e s e n t a t i o n 2 3 1 Stimulus 5 9 8 For example, i f the d i g i t s (5,9,8) were p r e s e n t e d i n the o r d e r (2,3,1), the temporal response would be "8,5,9" and the s p a t i a l response would be "5,9,8". In t h i s way a c h i l d c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a temporal p r o c e s s o r i f he/she responded t e m p o r a r i l y to the t a s k , and a s p a t i a l p r o c e s s o r i f he/she responded i n a s p a t i a l o r d e r . Booth (1982) a l t e r e d the O'Connor and Hermelin t e s t by changing elements of the t a s k . The frames or boxes were e l i m i n a t e d from the s c r e e n as the o u t l i n e s u r r o u n d i n g each d i g i t was thought to p r e j u d i c e responses towards a s p a t i a l p r o c e s s . P r e s e n t a t i o n of each item was a l t e r e d from 2 seconds per 3 words to 900 ms. per 3 words. -34-The p r e s e n t instrument (Appendix A) i s a m o d i f i c a t i o n of these t h r e e t a s k s . F o r t y - e i g h t groups of th r e e words each were p r e s e n t e d s u c c e s s i v e l y f o r 300 ms. per word, or 900 ms. per item. Words appeared on the s c r e e n s u c c e s s i v e l y i n a random o r d e r e i t h e r i n the f i r s t , second, or t h i r d pos i t i o n . There were no o v e r l a p s of p r e s e n t a t i o n of words, meaning the f i r s t word d i s a p p e a r e d b e f o r e the second word appeared, the second word d i s a p p e a r e d p r i o r to the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the t h i r d word. The e x c e p t i o n b e i n g t h a t the d i s p l a y of the items was never i n the same congruent o r d e r s p a t i a l l y or t e m p o r a l l y . Each word was p r i n t e d two cm. h i g h on an Apple microcomputer s c r e e n (Video 100). Words used throughout the task were p r i n t e d on a w a l l c h a r t i n L e t r a s e t No. 714 ( 9 6 p t . ) . The c h a r t c o n s i s t e d o f two l i s t s of words (homophonous and non-homophonous) which were d i s p l a y e d d u r i n g the t e s t i n g . PROCEDURE P r o c e d u r a l steps f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n were as f o l l o w s : 1) each c h i l d was t o l d t h a t the words they would see on the T.V. s c r e e n were on the w a l l -35-c h a r t . 2) they were t o l d t h a t the c o r r e c t s p e l l i n g was not n e c e s s a r y , and t h a t they c o u l d r e f e r to the c h a r t whenever they wished. 3) the s u b j e c t was then t o l d t h a t t h e r e were two p r a c t i c e items. 4) the t e s t i n s t r u c t i o n s g i v e n were, "Write the words you saw". The i n v e s t i g a t o r s c o n t r o l l e d the r a t e of p r e s e n t a t i o n of the 48 t e s t items by p r e s s i n g the space bar to advance to the next item. T h i s was to ensure t h a t each s u b j e c t had the time n e c e s s a r y to w r i t e down the words f o r each item. ADMINISTRATION The study was conducted i n two s t a g e s . Stage one began June, 1982, when s u b j e c t s a t t e n d i n g the s c h o o l f o r the deaf were t e s t e d . Stage two began i n January, 1983. Stage One. E d u c a t i o n a l and a u d i o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d from s c h o o l r e c o r d s . SAT-HI s c o r e s f o r the students were o b t a i n e d from the data used by Booth (1982). The t e m p o r a l / s p a t i a l homophonous/non-homophonous task was a d m i n i s t e r e d and s c o r e d by the i n v e s t i g a t o r . Stage Two. The SAT v o c a b u l a r y t e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d as a group t e s t to s i x randomly s e l e c t e d c l a s s e s of h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s c o r e d a l l the p r o t o c o l s and s c o r e s were v e r i f i e d by s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l . -36-S u b j e c t s c o m p l e t i n g the t e m p o r a l / s p a t i a l , homophonous/non-homophonous ta s k were s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of the p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d c r i t e r i a . SCORING The raw s c o r e s on the v o c a b u l a r y s u b t e s t were c o n v e r t e d to grade s c o r e s from the norms accompanying the i n s t r u m e n t s . The grade s c o r e s p r o v i d e d a s a t i s f a c t o r y -scale f o r comparing r e l a t i v e achievement. T h i s was n e c e s s a r y because the two groups were matched by grade l e v e l s c o r e s on the v o c a b u l a r y s u b t e s t of the SAT and SAT-HI. Three s c o r e s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r the t e m p o r a l / s p a t i a l , homophonous/non-homophonous word t a s k ; a) a t o t a l r e c a l l s c o r e ; b) a r e c a l l s c o r e of e i t h e r homophonous or non-homophonous words; and c) the number of words r e c a l l e d i n a c o r r e c t temporal or s p a t i a l o r d e r : a) A t o t a l r e c a l l s c o r e f o r each item was c a l c u l a t e d by t a l l y i n g the number of c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s , r e g a r d l e s s of the temporal or s p a t i a l o r d e r . The maximum score f o r each item was t h r e e and c o u l d be o b t a i n e d i f the s u b j e c t r e c a l l e d the th r e e words i n the item c o r r e c t l y . Order of p r e s e n t a t i o n 2 Stimulus f l e w -37-1 3 blue through In the above example, r e c a l l of a l l t h r e e words i n any o r d e r would r e c e i v e a s c o r e of "3". P a r t i a l c r e d i t c o u l d be g i v e n i f the c h i l d r e c a l l e d e i t h e r two words or one word. The s c o r e s f o r each item were then added t o g e t h e r , g i v i n g each s u b j e c t a t o t a l r e c a l l s c o r e , r a n g i n g from 0 to 144. b) A score was o b t a i n e d i n a s i m i l a r way f o r r e c a l l of homophonous words. A maximum of "3" was g i v e n to each item and p a r t i a l c r e d i t of "2" or "1" was g i v e n i f the s u b j e c t d i d not r e c a l l a l l t h r e e words. Twenty-three items w i t h t h r e e words each used homophonous words and twenty-t h r e e items used non-homophonous words. Scores f o r each item were added t o g e t h e r . Scores f o r homophonous and non-homophonous word r e c a l l ranged from 0 to 72. c) The t h i r d s c o r e o b t a i n e d from the t e m p o r a l / s p a t i a l , homophonous/non-homophonous word task was r e c a l l of words i n a temporal or s p a t i a l o r d e r . Responses f o r each item were coded as to whether they were w r i t t e n i n a temporal or s p a t i a l o r d e r . Order of p r e s e n t a t i o n 3 1 2 Stimulus door bare farm I f a c h i l d responded t e m p o r a l l y the response was "bare farm door". The response would be a s s i g n e d a "3", i f a l l t h r e e words were r e c a l l e d i n the c o r r e c t temporal o r d e r . P a r t i a l c r e d i t of "2" would be g i v e n f o r -38-the following responses: bare, farm, , farm, door bare, , door Likewise a score of "1" was assigned to the following responses: bare, , , , door , farm, A score of "0" was given to the item i f the child did not write a response or i f the words the child used were not part of the item. If the words were not in a temporal or spatial order, zero was given to the item, for example, "farm, door, bare". Scores obtained on each item were then summed, giving a child a score which indicated the number of words recalled temporally and spatially. Scores could range from 0 - 144. Scores for the three tasks were independent and in no way tall i e d together. Tally sheets were constructed to ensure -39-c o n f u s i o n between s c o r e s on the three t a s k s d i d not o c c u r . A l l r e s u l t s were coded i n d e p e n d e n t l y by the examiner and two o t h e r t r a i n e d i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h 100% v e r i f i c a t i o n . DATA AND DATA PROCESSING Data from a l l s u b j e c t s t e s t e d i n both the h e a r i n g and h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d groups were i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s e s . To t e s t the major and minor hypotheses, oneway a n a l y s e s of v a r i a n c e (ANOVA) were c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g the S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (SPSS) ( K i t a , 1979, 1980). I f the ANOVA showed a s i g n i f i c a n t v a l u e , a m u l t i p l e range t e s t was completed i n o r d e r to make m u l t i p l e comparisons between groups. M u l t i p l e comparison methods were completed: namely Tukey (1949) and Duncan (1957). Both these t e s t s are seen as i n f e r i o r to the S c h e f f e method (Ferguson, 1982). T h e r e f o r e o n l y the r e s u l t s of the S c h e f f e M u l t i p l e Range T e s t s are r e p o r t e d i n Chapter Four. -40-Chapter Four RESULTS Chapter f o u r w i l l p r e s e n t the r e s u l t s of the study and d e s c r i b e the r e s u l t s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to the hypotheses t e s t e d . TEMPORAL/SPATIAL, HOMOPHONOUS/NON-HOMOPHONOUS WORD TASK One way a n a l y s e s of v a r i a n c e (ANOVA) were used throughout to t e s t a l l hypth e s e s . Hypotheses l a and l b s t a t e d : l a ) There w i l l be a r e l a t i o n s h i p between temporal p r o c e s s i n g and the use of i n t e r n a l speech i n a p o p u l a t i o n of h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n . b) There w i l l not be a r e l a t i o n s h i p between s p a t i a l p r o c e s s i n g and the use of i n t e r n a l speech i n a p o p u l a t i o n of h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n . In o r d e r to t e s t these hypotheses the p o p u l a t i o n s of h e a r i n g and h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n were grouped a c c o r d i n g to h e a r i n g l o s s . Breakdown of the groups i s p r e s e n t e d i n Table A. -41-Table A Groups by Hearing threshold Level (HTL) Group Number of S u b j e c t s Hear i n g Loss HTL 1 74 0 - 2 5 HTL 2 15 40 - 95 HTL 3 55 95+ These t h r e e h e a r i n g t h r e s h o l d (HTL) groups were used f o r many comparisons throughout the study. When i n v e s t i g a t i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between temporal p r o c e s s i n g and i n t e r n a l speech, temporal responses of a l l s u b j e c t s were a n a l y z e d . The number of homophonous and non-homophonous words r e c a l l e d i n a temporal o r d e r was c a l c u l a t e d . S i m i l a r i l y the number of homophonous and non-homophonous words r e c a l l e d s p a t i a l l y was c a l c u l a t e d f o r each s u b j e c t . Four p o s s i b l e s c o r e s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r each s u b j e c t : 1) homophonous-temporal (HT) 2) non-homophonous-temporal (NT) 3) homophonous-spatial (HS) 4) non-homophonous-spatial (NS) -42-Four s e p a r a t e oneway ANOVA's were completed comparing s u b j e c t s ' h e a r i n g l e v e l s and p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s used f o r r e c a l l of homophonous and non-homophonous words. Summaries are p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 1, Appendix B. Because s i g n i f i c a n c e at the .05 l e v e l was found f o r those p r o c e s s i n g non-homophonous words t e m p o r a l l y , a S c h e f f e M u l t i p l e comparison was completed. The m u l t i p l e comparison showed a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n temporal p r o c e s s i n g and r e c a l l of non-homophonous words between HTL group 1 and HTL group I I I , (HTL 1 x = 43.4054, HTL I I I x = 34.8571, p 0.01). Thus the h y p o t h e s i s ( l a ) , t h a t there i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between temporal p r o c e s s i n g and i n t e r n a l speech i n a p o p u l a t i o n of h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n c o u l d not be r e j e c t e d . As p r e d i c t e d a s i g n i f i c a n c e was not found between s p a t i a l p r o c e s s i n g and i n t e r n a l speech i n a p o p u l a t i o n of h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n . Hence, h y p o t h e s i s l b was not r e j e c t e d . Hypotheses 2a, 2b and 2c s t a t e d : 2a) H e a r i n g c h i l d r e n w i l l make more e r r o r s when asked to r e c a l l homophonous words than non-homophonous words. b) H e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n w i l l make fewer e r r o r s than t h e i r h e a r i n g c o u n t e r p a r t s when asked to r e c a l l homophonous words. c) H e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n ' s r e c a l l of homophonous words w i l l be dependent on h e a r i n g l e v e l . The more severe the l o s s the more homophonous words w i l l be r e c a l l e d . -43-The hypotheses were t e s t e d by comparing the r e c a l l s c o r e s of the homophonous and non-homophonous words f o r the th r e e h e a r i n g t h r e s h o l d l e v e l groups. Summaries of the ANOVA r e s u l t s are p r e s e n t e d i n Table I I , Appendix B. R e s u l t s of the ANOVA showed a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e c a l l of non-homophonous words and h e a r i n g t h r e s h o l d l e v e l . T h e r e f o r e the S c h e f f e method of m u l t i p l e comparison was implemented u s i n g a 0.01 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between HTL I I I and HTL 1, when comparing the number of non-homophonous words r e c a l l e d (HTL I I I x = 47.1964, HTL 1 x = 56.5946, p 0.01). These r e s u l t s caused the i n v e s t i g a t o r to r e j e c t the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n w i l l make fewer e r r o r s when asked to r e c a l l non-homophonous words. Hyp o t h e s i s 2b was r e j e c t e d , as a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was not found between h e a r i n g and h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s u b j e c t s r e c a l l of homophonous words. Hy p o t h e s i s 2c was a l s o r e j e c t e d as a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was not found between h e a r i n g t h r e s h o l d l e v e l groups on t h e i r r e c a l l of homophonous words. -44-Hypotheses 3a) and 3 b i ) s t a t e d : 3a) H e a r i n g c h i l d r e n w i l l c o n s i s t e n t l y use a temporal s t r a t e g y when asked to r e c a l l words i n each t e s t item. b i ) H e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n w i l l c o n s i s t e n t l y use a s p a t i a l s t r a t e g y when asked to r e c a l l words i n each t e s t item. Summaries of the ANOVA's t e s t i n g these hypotheses are p r e s e n t e d i n Table IV, Appendix B. A oneway a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the h e a r i n g and h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d groups. On the b a s i s of these r e s u l t s the hypotheses s t a t e d i n 3a and 3 b i were r e j e c t e d . P r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g y was not dependent on membership i n e i t h e r p o p u l a t i o n . A r e l a t e d h y p o t h e s i s 3 b i i ) s t a t e d t h a t : 3 b i i ) P r o c e s s i n g s t r a g e g i e s used by h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n w i l l not depend on s e v e r i t y of h e a r i n g l o s s Oneway ANOVA's were completed comparing p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s w i t h h e a r i n g t h r e s h o l d l e v e l s . R e s u l t s are summarized i n Table V, Appendix B. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f o r p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s between the h e a r i n g t h r e s h o l d l e v e l groups. The h y p o t h e s i s which s t a t e d p r o c e s s i n g -45-s t r a t e g i e s would not be dependent on s e v e r i t y of h e a r i n g l o s s was a c c e p t e d . H e a r i n g l o s s d i d not a f f e c t the p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g y u t i l i z e d by the c h i l d . MINOR HYPOTHESES 4a) Younger c h i l d r e n w i l l p r o c e s s items s p a t i a l l y and o l d e r c h i l d r e n w i l l p r o c e s s items t e m p o r a l l y . b) P r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s used by h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n w i l l not be i n f l u e n c e d by age. To t e s t these hypotheses the c h i l d r e n i n each group ( h e a r i n g and h e a r i n g impaired) were d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e subgroups a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r c h r o n o l o g i c a l age ( i n months). The breakdown of the age groups i s p r e s e n t e d i n Table B. As s t a t e d i n c h a p t e r I I I , the groups were not matched by c h r o n o l o g i c a l age but by v o c a b u l a r y s c o r e s on the SAT and SAT-HI. The h e a r i n g group d i d not have any members i n subgroups CA IV or CA V. T h e r e f o r e the ANOVA f o r h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s i n c l u d e d CA 1 - CA I I I o n l y . The ANOVA f o r h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s u b j e c t s i n c l u d e d s u b j e c t s i n CA II - CA V. R e s u l t s are summarized i n Table VI, Appendix B. The r e s u l t s of the ANOVAs f o r h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between c h r o n o l o g i c a l age and p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s . -46-S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found when temporal p r o c e s s i n g was compared w i t h age, and when s p a t i a l p r o c e s s i n g and c h r o n o l o g i c a l age were a n a l y z e d . Table B Age i n months for hearing and hearing impaired subjects. Groups Age i n months Hear i n g S u b j e c t s H e a r i n g Impaired CA I 79 t h r u 95 30 0 CA I I 96 t h r u 119 35 2 CA I I I 120 t h r u 143 9 11 CA IV 144 t h r u 181 0 20 CA V 182 t h r u 240 0 38 74 71 S c h e f f e m u l t i p l e comparisons were completed to determine the d i f f e r e n c e s between the age groups f o r temporal p r o c e s s i n g . Two s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t c o n t r a s t s were i d e n t i f i e d . CA I I was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from CA 1, (CA I I x = 91.2857, CA 1 x = 59.7586, p 0.01). CA I I I was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t than CA 1, (CA I I I x = 94.333, CA 1 x = 59.7586, p 0.01). O l d e r h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s (CA I I & I I I ) performed s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r . than the youngest h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s on temporal p r o c e s s i n g t a s k s . -47-Age was a l s o a d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r f o r h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n p r o c e s s i n g s p a t i a l l y . A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between CA 1 and CA I I , (CA 1 x = 42.4483, CA I I x = 16.3143, p 0.01). Younger h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s (CA 1) responded more o f t e n to the t a s k s p a t i a l l y , than d i d an o l d e r group of h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n (CA I I ) . T h e r e f o r e the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t c h r o n o l o g i c a l age w i l l determine p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g y of h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s was a c c e p t e d . H y p o t h e s i s 4b examining h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s u b j e c t s ' age and p r o c e s s i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s was t e s t e d . T a b l e VI i n d i c a t e s t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h age groups of h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n who p r o c e s s e d t e m p o r a l l y , (CA I I I x = 49.2857, CA V x = 94.3333, p 0.01). O l d e r h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n (CA V), responded more o f t e n to the t a s k t e m p o r a l l y , than d i d a group of younger h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n (CA I I I ) . S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were not found between groups of h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n who p r o c e s s e d the t e s t items s p a t i a l l y . Hypotheses 5a and 5b s t a t e d : 5a) P r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s used by h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n w i l l not be dependent on gender. b) Gender w i l l not i n f l u e n c e p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s of h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n . -48-To t e s t these hypotheses ANOVAs were completed to determine whether p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s were dependent on gender. These r e s u l t s were summarized i n Table I I I , Appendix B. Both hypotheses were a c c e p t e d as no main e f f e c t s were i d e n t i f i e d . Hypotheses 6a and 6b s t a t e d : 6a) Coding s t r a t e g i e s used by h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n w i l l not depend on t h e i r v o c a b u l a r y l e v e l . b ) . V o c a b u l a r y l e v e l w i l l not i n f l u e n c e c o d i n g s t r a t e g i e s of h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n . To compare the v a r i a n c e between groups, both h e a r i n g and h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s u b j e c t s were d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e l e v e l s , a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r grade e q u i v a l e n t s c o r e s on the v o c a b u l a r y s u b t e s t of the SAT and SAT-HI. These data are p r e s e n t e d i n Table C. -4 9-Table C Summary of subjects' vocabulary levels Group Grade L e v e l H e a r i n g H e a r i n g Impaired VOC 1 1.0 - 2.9 30 31 VOC I I 3.0 - 4.9 23 23 VOC I I I 5.0+ 21 17 74 71 An a l y s e s of v a r i a n c e were completed comparing v o c a b u l a r y l e v e l and p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s f o r h e a r i n g and h e a r i n g impaired s u b j e c t s . R e s u l t s of ANOVAs are p r e s e n t e d i n Table V I I , Appendix B. Tab l e VII i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n between h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s v o c a b u l a r y l e v e l and temporal p r o c e s s i n g . A S c h e f f e m u l t i p l e comparison t e s t was done to determine d i f f e r e n c e s . Hypothesis 6a had p r e d i c t e d no r e l a t i o n s h i p would e x i s t between c o d i n g s t r a t e g y and v o c a b u l a r y l e v e l . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d as the h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s of VOC I I I s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than VOC 1 on p r o c e s s i n g words t e m p o r a l l y , (VOC I I I x = 99.4000, VOC 1 x = 67.2258, p 0.01). No main -50-e f f e c t was i d e n t i f i e d when hearing subjects' vocabulary leve l and relationship with s p a t i a l processing were examined. Hypothesis 6b was accepted as no s i g n i f i c a n t differences were associated with hearing impaired subjects vocabulary leve l and processing strategy. Chapter four has presented results of the study. The discussion of the results and a summary of conclusions w i l l be presented in Chapter f i v e . -51-Chapter five DISCUSSION AND RESULTS The purpose of t h i s study was to i n v e s t i g a t e h e a r i n g and h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n ' s t e m p o r a l / s p a t i a l p r o c e s s i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r homophonous and non-homophonous words. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS T h i s study examined two dimensions: p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g y , e i t h e r temporal or s p a t i a l , and the use of i n t e r n a l speech as demonstrated through r e c a l l of homophonous words. For m e r l y , the l i t e r a t u r e had r e p o r t e d these as se p a r a t e dimensions. S e v e r a l s t u d i e s had i n v e s t i g a t e d p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s of h e a r i n g and h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n (O'Connor & Hermelin, 1973; Kla p p e r & B i r c h , 1971), w h i l e a d d i t i o n a l s t u d i e s examined the concept of i n t e r n a l speech i n the two p o p u l a t i o n , (Conrad, 1971; A l l e n , 1971; Conrad & H u l l , 1964) -52-Booth (1982) found evidence to support the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d between temporal p r o c e s s i n g and i n t e r n a l speech. She found 417» of the h e a r i n g impaired s t u d e n t s i n her study had a h i g h t e m p o r a l - s p a t i a l r a t i o , s u g g e s t i n g they coded i n f o r m a t i o n t e m p o r a l l y . F i f t y p e r c e n t of the s t u d e n t s who had p r o c e s s e d t e m p o r a l l y a l s o used an a c o u s t i c code, or i n t e r n a l speech. Booth suggested: "While the study does suggest a c o n n e c t i o n between a c o u s t i c and temporal p r o c e s s i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n i t seems more r e s e a r c h must be conducted to determine task s p e c i f i c i t y (p. 70)." For the purpose of the p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n , a t a s k was d e v i s e d based on the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t a c o n n e c t i o n d i d e x i s t between temporal p r o c e s s i n g t and i n t e r n a l speech. T h i s task i n c o r p o r a t e d a c t i v i t i e s used by Booth (1982), Conrad (1979), and O'Connor & Hermelin (1973b). The r e s u l t s of the use of t h i s t a s k , as p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter f o u r , are d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . TEMPORAL PROCESSING, INTERNAL SPEECH AND HEARING LOSS A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between responses of the two h e a r i n g t h r e s h o l d l e v e l groups. Hea r i n g c h i l d r e n i n the study r e c a l l e d more non-homophonous words t e m p o r a l l y than d i d the p r o f o u n d l y deaf group, (see Table 1, Appendix B ) . These f i n d i n g s l e n d s t r o n g support to Booth's r e s u l t s (1982), but o n l y minor support to the work of Conrad (1979). Booth (1982) found a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n between those p r o c e s s i n g t e m p o r a l l y and u s i n g i n t e r n a l speech when examining responses of a h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d p o p u l a t i o n . She a l s o h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t c h i l d r e n who use i n t e r n a l speech and are temporal p r o c e s s o r s w i l l be competent r e a d e r s . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i l l be expanded upon l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . Conrad (1979) s t a t e d : "degree of deafness i s a v a r i a b l e of the utmost importance i n d e t e r m i n i n g whether or not a c h i l d develops the a b i l i t y to i n t e r n a l i z e speech and to use i t at l e a s t when he reads words (p. 102)." In the p r e s e n t study t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the h e a r i n g t h r e s h o l d l e v e l groups I I and I I I who p r o c e s s e d non-homophonous words t e m p o r a l l y . The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was between the h e a r i n g (HTL 1) and the p r o f o u n d l y deaf (HTL I I I ) groups. T h i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d when r e s u l t s o f i n t e r n a l speech and h e a r i n g l o s s are examined. -54-P r i o r r e s e a r c h had i n d i c a t e d t h a t h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n are " h i g h l y s p a t i a l " , and p r o c e s s v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s p a t i a l l y e i g h t times more o f t e n than they do t e m p o r a l l y (O'Connor & Hermelin, 1973b). Conrad (1979) s t a t e d t h a t the m a j o r i t y of p r o f o u n d l y deaf c h i l d r e n do not use i n t e r n a l speech. On the b a s i s of e x i s t i n g r e s e a r c h , i t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t a r e l a t i o n s h i p between s p a t i a l p r o c e s s i n g and i n t e r n a l speech would not e x i s t . Data from t h i s study c o n f i r m e d Conrad's premise. There were no s i g n f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the t h r e e h e a r i n g t h r e s h o l d l e v e l groups f o r s p a t i a l p r o c e s s i n g and use of i n t e r n a l speech. Booth (1982) f e l t i t was p r o b a b l e t h a t s t u d e n t s who p r o c e s s e d s p a t i a l l y would not use i n t e r n a l speech, and would have d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h r e a d i n g . The p r e s e n t f i n d i n g s l e n d support to her p r e d i c t i o n as no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between h e a r i n g t h r e s h o l d groups. HEARING LOSS AND INTERNAL SPEECH A s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e c a l l of non-homophonous words and h e a r i n g l o s s groups was found i n the p r e s e n t study. Conrad (1979) s t a t e d : -55-"a s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n deafness can be t o l e r a t e d b e f o r e i t r e f l e c t s a n o t i c e a b l e change i n the use of i n t e r n a l speech, (p.103)." He a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t degree of deafness was a " v a r i a b l e of the utmost importance " (p. 102), when d e t e r m i n i n g whether a c h i l d used i n t e r n a l speech. Conrad h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r e would be a change i n performance at about 85dB and another change at 105dB. Conrad proposed t h a t a c h i l d w i t h a severe to profound l o s s (85dB) would use i n t e r n a l speech and t h a t a c h i l d w i t h t h i s l o s s would be " l i n g u i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t " from a c h i l d w i t h a profound l o s s (105dB). Thus the c h i l d w i t h an 85dB l o s s would have the p o t e n t i a l to use i n t e r n a l speech, however, the c h i l d w i t h a p r o f o u n d l o s s would n o t . T h i s suggests t h a t h e a r i n g l o s s may be a d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r i n u t i l i z a t i o n of i n t e r n a l speech. I f a c h i l d uses i n t e r n a l speech a c c o r d i n g to Conrad (1979), he i s somehow l i n g u i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from those who do not. The p r e s e n t study d i v i d e d s u b j e c t s i n t o h e a r i n g l o s s groups a c c o r d i n g to the ANSI (1969) s t a n d a r d s . T h e r e f o r e the h e a r i n g l o s s groups are not i d e n t i c a l to those proposed by Conrad. The data suggest a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the h e a r i n g and p r o f o u n d l y deaf group (+95dB) f o r r e c a l l of non-homophonous words. -56-However, the " d r a m a t i c " d i f f e r e n c e p r e d i c t e d by Conrad (1979) between s e v e r e l y and p r o f o u n d l y deaf s u b j e c t s was not found i n t h i s study. Conrad may have o v e r g e n e r a 1 i z e d r e s u l t s by s t a t i n g t h a t the c h i l d ' s degree of h e a r i n g l o s s was the d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r f o r use of i n t e r n a l speech. He s t a t e d r e p e a t e d l y t h a t h e a r i n g l o s s was the " v a r i a b l e of utmost importance" when t r y i n g to p r e d i c t whether a c h i l d w i l l use i n t e r n a l speech. Perhaps Conrad has p l a c e d undue emphasis on the v a r i a b l e of h e a r i n g l o s s when p r e d i c t i n g whether a c h i l d has the p o t e n t i a l to use i n t e r n a l speech. Indeed, a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s between a h e a r i n g and p r o f o u n d l y deaf p o p u l a t i o n , however, members of these groups r e p r e s e n t extremes a l o n g a continuum. S e v e r a l s u b j e c t s i n t h i s study (217») were not members of e i t h e r of Conrad's h e a r i n g l o s s groups. T h e r e f o r e i t seems r e a s o n a b l e to h y p o t h e s i z e t h a t v a r i a b l e s o t h e r than h e a r i n g l o s s may i n f l u e n c e use of i n t e r n a l speech. As was d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y i n t h i s c h a p t e r , those c h i l d r e n p r o c e s s i n g t e m p o r a l l y may be p r e d i s p o s e d to use i n t e r n a l speech. A d d i t i o n a l -57-v a r i a b l e s such as the c h i l d ' s age and v o c a b u l a r y l e v e l may be i n f l u e n c e d as to whether they w i l l use i n t e r n a l speech. One h y p o t h e s i s t e s t e d was t h a t a r e l a t i o n s h i p would e x i s t between s e v e r i t y of h e a r i n g l o s s and r e c a l l of homophonous words. The p r e d i c t i o n was made on the b a s i s of Conrad's s t u d i e s (1979; 1971; 1963), s t a t e d t h a t h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n would r e c a l l fewer homophonous words i f they were u s i n g i n t e r n a l speech. Booth (1982) v e r i f i e d r e s u l t s of Conrad's study. Her study showed r e c a l l of homophonous words was lower i n a p o p u l a t i o n of h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n . A p p roximately 56% of the h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s d i d use i n t e r n a l speech whereas 447,, of the s u b j e c t s d i d not use i n t e r n a l speech or an a c o u s t i c code. In the p r e s e n t study however a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was not found between h e a r i n g t h r e s h o l d l e v e l groups' r e c a l l f o r homophonous words. T h e r e f o r e the h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d . The r e j e c t i o n of the p r e d i c t e d h y p o t h e s i s has s e v e r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . A d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s may i n f l u e n c e whether a c h i l d uses i n t e r n a l speech. For example, a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was found between a temporal p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g y and i n t e r n a l speech. T h i s suggests t h a t s e v e r i t y of h e a r i n g l o s s may not be the dominant v a r i a b l e which determines usage -58-of i n t e r n a l speech. The s t i m u l u s p r e s e n t e d to the c h i l d must a l s o be examined. O'Connor & Hermelin (1973b) p r e s e n t e d numerals to the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s u b j e c t s to determine whether the c h i l d p r o c e s s e d t e m p o r a l l y or s p a t i a l l y . The task Booth (1982) used to determine whether the c h i l d was u s i n g i n t e r n a l speech, was a word task s i m i l a r to t h a t used by Conrad. The p r e s e n t study used the words compiled by Conrad(1979) to determine both p r o c e s s i n g p r e f e r e n c e and use of i n t e r n a l speech. AGE AND PROCESSING STRATEGY R e s u l t s of t h i s study demonstrated t h a t f o r a h e a r i n g p o p u l a t i o n t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c h i l d ' s age and p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g y . T h i s corresponds to the f i n d i n g s of Klapper and B i r c h (1971). The t a s k they used was somewhat d i f f e r e n t from the one used i n t h i s study, but the outcomes are of c o n s i d e r a b l e importance. They found v i s u a l - t e m p o r a l t a s k s the most d i f f i c u l t f o r c h i l d r e n to p r o c e s s . C h i l d r e n who were nin e or o l d e r responded w i t h " g r e a t e r a c c u r a c y " to v i s u a l - t e m p o r a l matches. A d d i t i o n a l evidence ( S t e r r i t et a l , 1971) suggested a continuum of d i f f i c u l t y e x i s t e d where v i s u a l - s p a t i a l p a t t e r n s were " e a s i e r " to p r o c e s s w h i l e p u r e l y temporal p a t t e r n s were more d i f f i c u l t . -59-R e s u l t s of t h i s study gave support to the f i n d i n g s of Kl a p p e r and B i r c h (1971) and S t e r r i t et a l (1971). S i g n i f i c a n t v a l u e s a t the 0.01 l e v e l were found between age groups and p r e f e r r e d p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g y . H e a r i n g c h i l d r e n younger than age e i g h t seemed to p r o c e s s s p a t i a l l y w i t h a mean r e c a l l s c o r e of 42.45 words, w h i l e ten year o l d s r e c a l l e d an average of 22 words s p a t i a l l y . C h i l d r e n who were p r o c e s s i n g t e m p o r a l l y r e c a l l e d an average of 59.76 words at age e i g h t , and an average of 91.2 words at age nin e and o l d e r . The continuum concept suggested by S t e r r i t et a l (1971) seems very a p p l i c a b l e when comparing p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g y and age of the h e a r i n g c h i l d . R e s u l t s of the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d group were not as p r e d i c t e d . A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was not found between s p a t i a l p r o c e s s i n g and age, however, a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between temporal p r o c e s s i n g and age. He a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n o l d e r than twelve chose a p r e f e r r e d temporal s t r a t e g y to p r o c e s s the words used f o r the t a s k . The l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e d t h a t the deaf as a group would p r o c e s s s p a t i a l l y (O'Connor & Hermelin, 1973b) and not use i n t e r n a l speech (Conrad, 1979). The v a r i a b l e o f age as a determiner of p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g y has not been -60-t h o r o u g h l y examined. O'Connor and Hermelin (1973b) do not s t a t e the age of the c h i l d r e n used i n t h e i r study. They merely s t a t e the predominant p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g y a c r o s s a l l age l e v e l s to be " e i g h t times as o f t e n s p a t i a l l y as t e m p o r a l l y " (p.99). T h i s evidence l e d to the f o r m a t i o n of the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t age would not determine p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g y . On the b a s i s of the data a n a l y s i s t h i s h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d . The data do suggest h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s u b j e c t s used i n t h i s study can be d i v i d e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : those who, when o l d e r , p r o c e s s t e m p o r a l l y , and those who, r e g a r d l e s s of age, p r o c e s s s p a t i a l l y . A temporal p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g y i s seen as a more complex s t r a t e g y and i s t y p i c a l l y used by o l d e r h e a r i n g c h i l d e n ( S t e r r i t et a l , 1971). H e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n u t i l i z i n g t h i s s t r a t e g y may be p r o c e s s i n g p r i n t i n a manner s i m i l a r to t h e i r h e a r i n g c o u n t e r p a r t s . A d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s such as s e v e r i t y of h e a r i n g l o s s , use of i n t e r n a l speech, and v o c a b u l a r y l e v e l , may be s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s t h a t c o u l d a f f e c t c h o i c e of s t r a t e g y . The h e a r i n g impaired s u b j e c t s t h a t p r o c e s s s p a t i a l l y r e g a r d l e s s of age use the p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g y which has been d e s c r i b e d by O'Connor and Hermelin (1973b). One may h y p o t h e s i z e t h a t i n case of the s p a t i a l -61-p r o c e s s o r , the s i m p l e r s t r a t e g y i s being u t i l i z e d by the c h i l d . S t e r r i t et a l (1971) suggest t h i s may be due to the age of the c h i l d , but i t may a l s o be due to the c h i l d ' s l i n g u i s t i c s o p h i s t i c a t i o n . VOCABULARY LEVEL AND PROCESSING STRATEGY Booth (1982) found t h a t r e a d i n g v o c a b u l a r y s c o r e s i n c r e a s e d w i t h the c h i l d ' s age. I t was found t h a t t h i s c o n s i s t e n t i n c r e a s e i n v o c a b u l a r y s c o r e was not a f f e c t e d by the c h i l d ' s h e a r i n g l o s s . To determine v o c a b u l a r y l e v e l Booth a d m i n i s t e r e d the SAT-HI v o c a b u l a r y s u b t e s t to a l l s u b j e c t s , the same instrument used i n t h i s study. A low p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n was found by Booth (r=.35) between r e c a l l of non-homophonous words (measuring i n t e r n a l speech) and v o c a b u l a r y s u b t e s t s c o r e s . Booth's f i n d i n g s gave minor support to those of Conrad (1979) who found t h a t degree of deafness was not a major f a c t o r i n r e a d i n g a b i l i t y . What seemed much more important was whether the c h i l d had a c q u i r e d i n t e r n a l speech. Conrad (1979) s t a t e s : "The average v a l u e of r e a d i n g a b i l i t y f o r a g i v e n l e v e l of h e a r i n g l o s s depends on the p r o p o r t i o n of c h i l d r e n u s i n g i n t e r n a l speech (p. 158)." Booth (1982) h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e r n a l speech and v o c a b u l a r y t e s t s c o r e s may e x i s t due to the format of the t e s t . -62-I t was thought t h a t i n o r d e r to complete the v o c a b u l a r y s u b t e s t , the s u b j e c t would have to "comprehend word meaning w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of a sentence, (p. 6 8 ) . " e.g., A b a l l i s square round t h i n Booth (1982) and Conrad (1979) suggested c o m p l e t i o n of the v o c a b u l a r y s u b t e s t may i n v o l v e use of i n t e r n a l speech. However, the c h i l d ' s p r e f e r r e d p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g y may g i v e i n v e s t i g a t o r s a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n n e c e s s a r y to understand the r e a d i n g p r o c e s s . The SAT-HI v o c a b u l a r y s u b t e s t uses a c l o z e p r o c e d u r e . The assumption i s t h a t i n o r d e r to complete the item s u c c e s s f u l l y , the c h i l d would have to p r o c e s s p r i n t u s i n g a temporal s t r a t e g y . In the p r e s e n t study the s c o r e s o b t a i n e d a f t e r a d m i n i s t e r i n g the SAT and SAT-HI v o c a b u l a r y s u b t e s t were c o n v e r t e d i n t o grade l e v e l s c o r e s . These s c o r e s were then compared to the number of words r e c a l l e d t e m p o r a l l y . A l t h o u g h a r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g y and v o c a b u l a r y l e v e l was not p r e d i c t e d f o r the h e a r i n g p o p u l a t i o n , a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between v o c a b u l a r y groups and temporal p r o c e s s i n g (F = .0065, p. 0.01). H e a r i n g c h i l d r e n who s c o r e d at a h i g h grade l e v e l on the v o c a b u l a r y s u b t e s t , r e c a l l e d more words t e m p o r a l l y (average r e c a l l 99.4 words). The groups h a v i n g low grade e q u i v a l e n t s c o r e s (1.0 - 2.9) on the v o c a b u l a r y s u b t e s t r e c a l l e d fewer words t e m p o r a l l y (67.23). These r e s u l t s can be p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n e d by examining r e s u l t s of Booth's (1982) study. Booth found t h a t students who coded or p r o c e s s e d " i n f o r m a t i o n t e m p o r a l l y and had i n t e r n a l speech had s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r mean s c o r e s f o r s y n t a c t i c a b i l i t y and comprehension" (p. 57). She a l s o s t a t e d , "the degree of i n t e r n a l speech, t h e r e f o r e , has a n o t i c e a b l e e f f e c t on performance" (p.57). L o g i c a l l y , the v a r i a b l e of age c o u l d be r e l a t e d to both temporal p r o c e s s i n g , i n t e r n a l speech.and t h e r e f o r e h i g h v o c a b u l a r y s c o r e s . As age i n c r e a s e s , the h e a r i n g c h i l d becomes a temporal p r o c e s s o r , u s u a l l y a b l e to use i n t e r n a l speech. As s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , the v o c a b u l a r y t a s k may be e a s i e r f o r temporal p r o c e s s o r s to complete due to the t e s t format. Booth (1982) and Conrad (1979) a s c e r t a i n e d t h a t i n t e r n a l speech had a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p to s y n t a c t i c and comprehension a b i l i t y . The r e s u l t s of the p r e s e n t study -64-suggest t h a t t h e r e i s a confounding e f f e c t due to the i n t e r a c t i o n of temporal p r o c e s s i n g and i n t e r n a l speech w i t h age. Some s u b j e c t s do seem p r e -d i s p o s e d to h i g h s c o r e s when i n s t r u n e n t s use a c l o z e format. As p r e d i c t e d , a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was not found between age groups and p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g y w i t h i n the h e a r i n g impaired p o p u l a t i o n . There are s e v e r a l reasons t h a t can be i n v e s t i g a t e d , the f i r s t b e i n g t h a t the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s u b j e c t s t e s t e d i n t h i s sample f o r some reason d i d not have a p r e f e r r e d s t r a t e g y . T h i s i s not i n agreement w i t h the r e s u l t s of O'Connor and Hermelin (1973b), who s t a t e d that the deaf w i l l p r o c e s s " e i g h t times as o f t e n s p a t i a l l y " (p. 99). Although the group d i d not have a p r o c e s s i n g p r e f e r e n c e , i t s h o u l d be noted t h a t v a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the sample d i d show p r o c e s s i n g p r e f e r e n c e s . Without evidence of a p r e f e r r e d s t r a t e g y , i t i s l o g i c a l t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s between groups on v o c a b u l a r y grade s c o r e s would not be s i g n i f i c a n t . S econdly, evidence a l r e a d y p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r suggests temporal p r o c e s s i n g to be a more " d i f f i c u l t " or h i g h e r l e v e l p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g y . The v o c a b u l a r y t e s t used seemed to depend on the s u b j e c t ' s a b i l i t y to p r o c e s s t e m p o r a l l y . I f the deaf c h i l d was not c a p a b l e of temporal p r o c e s s i n g i t seems l i k e l y t h a t they would do p o o r l y on the v o c a b u l a r y -65-s u b t e s t . In the sample of h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n , the change from s p a t i a l to temporal p r o c e s s i n g o c c u r r e d at a p p r o x i m a t e l y age 8, w h i l e S t e r r i t et a l (1971) r e p o r t i t at about age 9. The same d i d not h o l d t r u e f o r the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d p o p u l a t i o n . A p r e f e r r e d p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g y had not been e s t a b l i s h e d . Booth (1982) t r i e d to p r o f i l e s t u d e n t s and t h e i r p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s . "The group w i t h a h i g h t e m p o r a l - s p a t i a l r a t i o and h i g h i n t e r n a l speech perform c o n s i s t e n t l y b e t t e r on a l l t a s k s than those w i t h a h i g h t e m p o r a l -s p a t i a l r a t i o but have low i n t e r n a l speech. S i m i l a r i l y , those s u b j e c t s who have a low t e m p o r a l - s p a t i a l r a t i o show p r o f i l e s w i t h l i k e p a t t e r n s of r e s p o n s e s . Those s t u d e n t s w i t h low t e m p o r a l - s p a t i a l r a t i o s and h i g h i n t e r n a l speech perform b e t t e r on a l l t a s k s than those w i t h a low te m p o r a l -s p a t i a l r a t i o and low i n t e r n a l speech. R e g a r d l e s s of temporal or s p a t i a l c o d i n g p r e f e r e n c e , the degree of i n t e r n a l speech appears to a f f e c t performance on language r e l a t e d t a s k s , (p. 57)." T h e r e f o r e , those h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d students who are s p a t i a l p r o c e s s o r s and do not use i n t e r n a l speech, w i l l not do w e l l on language r e l a t e d t a s k s . PROCESSING STRATEGY AND HEARING LOSS The r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e m p o r a l - s p a t i a l p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s was f i r s t i n v e s t i g a t e d by O'Connor & Hermelin (1973b). They found t h a t the "deaf r e c a l l e d d i g i t s 8 times as o f t e n s p a t i a l l y as temporal " (p. 99). They a l s o s t a t e d t h a t n e i t h e r r a t e of p r e s e n t a t i o n nor manner of d i s p l a y a f f e c t e d word r e c o g n i t i o n . -66-Booth (1982) o b t a i n e d r e s u l t s which c o n t r a d i c t e d O'Connor and H e r m e l i n . A l t h o u g h 'the m a j o r i t y of the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s u b j e c t s used a s p a t i a l code (597.), the r e s u l t s d i d not c o r r e s p o n d to the " e i g h t times as o f t e n " f i g u r e . She a l s o found t h a t by a l t e r i n g r a t e and manner of p r e s e n t a t i o n over 907> of the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d p o p u l a t i o n whom she t e s t e d responded s p a t i a l l y . R e s u l t s of the p r e s e n t study were a l s o found to be i n o p p o s i t i o n to those of O'Connor and Hermelin (1973b). Data enabled the i n v e s t i g a t o r to r e j e c t the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the h e a r i n g p o p u l a t i o n would p r o c e s s u s i n g a temporal s t r a t e g y and h e a r i n g impaired s u b j e c t s would p r o c e s s s p a t i a l l y . S i g n i f i c a n c e was not found between groups i n d i c a t i n g t h a t a p r e f e r r e d p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g y had not been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r e i t h e r group. R e s u l t s of t h i s study are c o n t r a r y to the f i n d i n g s of Booth (1982). She found the m a j o r i t y of h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s u b j e c t s i n her study used a s p a t i a l code. T h i s was not the case i n the p r e s e n t study. The hypotheses which p r e d i c t e d p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s f o r each group were made on the b a s i s of p e r t i n e n t r e s u l t s from re c e n t r e s e a r c h . Perhaps these f i n d i n g s s h o u l d have been viewed w i t h more c a u t i o n . -67-In the p r e s e n t study the p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g y was determined u s i n g a word t a s k . O'Connor and Hermelin (1973a; 1973b) used d i g i t s i n t h e i r r e s e a r c h , and made c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s of the deaf on the b a s i s of t h e i r r e s e a r c h . A f t e r examining a d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h , b l a n k e t statements made r e g a r d i n g c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s i n g of the deaf as a group s h o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d f u r t h e r . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the p r o c e s s i n g of words may be a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d t a s k than the p r o c e s s i n g of d i g i t s . The p r o c e s s i n g of words does not n e c e s s i t a t e predominant s p a t i a l or temporal p r o c e s s i n g i n e i t h e r p o p u l a t i o n . Data have shown t h a t s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s do e x i s t between age and p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s f o r both p o p u l a t i o n s . V o c a b u l a r y l e v e l of the c h i l d may be another f a c t o r d e t e r m i n i n g p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g y . As was shown i n the a n a l y s i s of data, a r e l a t i o n s h i p does e x i s t between v o c a b u l a r y l e v e l and p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g y . The use of i n t e r n a l speech may p l a y a r o l e i n the c h o i c e of a p r e f e r r e d p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g y . The data gave support to t h i s , i n t h a t a r e l a t i o n s h i p d i d e x i s t between i n t e r n a l speech and a temporal p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g y . P r o c e s s i n g words c o u l d be a c o g n i t i v e task v e r y d i f f e r e n t from p r o c e s s i n g d i g i t s . The v a r i a b l e s of age, v o c a b u l a r y , and use of i n t e r n a l speech seem to be determinants which are more important than membership i n -68-a h e a r i n g or h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d group. SUMMARY S e v e r a l f a c t o r s seemed to l i n k themselves to one another when i n v e s t i g a t i n g p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g y and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to i n t e r n a l speech. A schematic diagram i s p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 1. F i g u r e 1 i s a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n and has summarized the r e s u l t s of the c u r r e n t study. I t i s acknowledged t h a t t h e r e are i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n each group. 1. R e s u l t s from t h i s study i n d i c a t e d t h a t a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between temporal p r o c e s s i n g and i n t e r n a l speech f o r h e a r i n g t h r e s h o l d l e v e l groups.. 2. There was a s t r o n g I n d i c a t i o n t h a t age may be a d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r f o r p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g y . T h i s h o l d s t r u e f o r both the h e a r i n g and h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d p o p u l a t i o n s . 3. T h i s study a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t a r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e c a l l of homophonous words and h e a r i n g l o s s e x i s t s . A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between the h e a r i n g and p r o f o u n d l y deaf group. -69-A difference between processing strategy for the hearing and hearing impaired group was not evident in this study. A preferred processing strategy was not established for either group asked to complete the word task. Severity of hearing loss was not found to have an e f f e c t on processing strategy. Profoundly deaf children and hearing children did not show a preferred processing strategy. Figure 1 Possible r e l a t i o n s h i p between the v a r i a b l e s of age, i n t e r n a l speech and vocabulary l e v e l to processing strategy f o r hearing and hearing impaired c h i l d r e n . AGjE ( d e t e r m i n e s p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g y ) TEMPORAL PROCESSORS ( o l d e r c h i l d r e n ) Temporal p r o c e s s o r s ^ SPATIAL PROCESSORS (younger c h i l d r e n ) S p a t i a l p r o c e s s o r s use INTERNAL SPEECH 4/ More competent READERS do not use INTERNAL SPEECH Po o r e r READERS -71-LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY One l i m i t a t i o n o f the s t u d y was t h a t p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g y , and the use of i n t e r n a l s p e e c h were a n a l y z e d a t the group l e v e l . I t has been w e l l documented ( B o o t h , 1982; C o n r a d , 1979) t h a t h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d and h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n a r e not homogenous g r o u p s . T h e r e f o r e , i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l p e r f o r m a n c e may be b e n e f i c i a l . R e s u l t s from t h i s s t u d y do n o t p e r t a i n t o a l l d e a f s u b j e c t s . The sample o f c h i l d r e n was composed of s u b j e c t s who were e d u c a t e d u s i n g a t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n m e t h o d o l o g y . T h e r e f o r e , i m p l i c a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e s t r a t e g i e s o r use of i n t e r n a l s p e e c h of the deaf p o p u l a t i o n can not be made. The S t a n d a r d Achievement T e s t f o r H e a r i n g I m p a i r e d S t u d e n t s was used t o measure v o c a b u l a r y l e v e l . As n o t e d p r e v i o u s l y i n C h a p t e r F i v e , t h i s t e s t used a c l o z e p r o c e d u r e . The s u c c e s s w i t h such a p r o c e d u r e may depend on the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o p r o c e s s w r i t t e n i n f o r m a t i o n t e m p o r a l l y . I f the c h i l d , w hether h e a r i n g or h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d , was not a b l e t o p r o c e s s t e m p o r a l l y t h e y would not have been a b l e t o c o m p l e t e the t a s k . IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH 1. If comparative s t u d i e s are to c o n t i n u e to i n v e s t i g a t e the s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between h e a r i n g and h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d p o p u l a t i o n s , an a l t e r n a t i v e means of matching the two p o p u l a t i o n s must be i n v e s t i g a t e d . 2. Research needs to be undertaken to i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e r n a l speech and the c h i l d ' s v o c a b u l a r y l e v e l . 3. F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s s h o u l d be made between the r o l e of p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g y , i n t e r n a l speech and v o c a b u l a r y l e v e l . 4. More i n f o r m a t i o n may be gained about deaf c h i l d r e n i f r e s e a r c h took the d i r e c t i o n of w i t h i n group s t u d i e s r a t h e r than between group s t u d i e s . T h i s c o u l d be a c h i e v e d by t e s t i n g h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n taught u s i n g an o r a l / a u r a l methodology, as w e l l as t o t a l communication methodology. 5. I t may be b e n e f i c i a l to i n v e s t i g a t e i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d p o p u l a t i o n whose p r e f e r r e d or dominant p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g y -73-has been established. Additional variables such as age, int e r n a l speech, and vocabulary leve l could be investigated further for those processing temporally and s p a t i a l l y . -74-BIBLIOGRAPHY A l l e n , D. V. ( 1 9 7 1 ) . M o d a l i t y o f s i m i l a r i t y and h e a r i n g a b i l i t y . P s y c h o m e t r i c  S c i e n c e , 24, 295 - 296. B l a i r , F. X. ( 1 9 5 7 ) . A s t u d y o f v i s u a l memory of deaf and h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n . A m e r i c a n A n n a l s o f t h e Deaf, 102, 254 - 263. B l a n t o n , R. L., N u n n a l l y , J . C , and Odam, P. B. ( 1 9 6 7 ) . Graphemic, p h o n e t i c , and a s s o c i a t i v e f a c t o r s i n v e r b a l b e h a v i o u r o f deaf and h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s . J o u r n a l o f Speech and H e a r i n g R e s e a r c h , 10, 225 - 231. B o o t h , J . A. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . R e l a t i o n s h i p s between c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s and language a b i l i t i e s among h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d r e a d e r s . U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Department o f E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . C l a r k e , B. R., L e s l i e , P. T., Roger, W. T., B o o t h , J . A. and H o r v a t h , A. ( 1 9 7 7 ) . 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Q u a r t e r l y Journal of E x p e r i m e n t a l Psychology, 25, 335 - 343 O'Connor, N. and Hermelin, B. M. (1975). M o d a l i t y - s p e c i f i c s p a t i a l c o o r d i n a t e s . P e r c e p t i o n and P s y c h o p h y s i c s , 17, 213 - 216. O'Connor, N. and Hermelin, B. M. (1976). Backword and forward r e c a l l by deaf and h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n . Q u a r t e r l y Journal of E x p e r i m e n t a l Psychology, 28, 83 - 92. 76 O'Connor, N. and Hermelin, B.M. (1978). Seeing and hearing and space and time. London: Academic Press Inc. Roger, W.T.., L e s l i e , P.-T.., Clarke, B.R., Booth, J.A. and Horvath, A. (1978). Academic achievement of hearing impaired students comparison among selected populations. B r i t i s h Columbia Journal of Sp e c i a l Education, 2, 183-213. Sokolov, A.V. (1972). Inner speech and thought. New York: Plenum Press. S t e r r i t , D., Martin, P. and Rudnick, J . (1971). A u d i t o r y - v i s u a l and temporal-spatial i n t e g r a t i o n as determinants of t e s t d i f f i c u l t y . Psychometric  Science, 23, 289-291. Vygotsky, L. S. (1962). Thought and language. Cambridge: Massachusetts I n s t i t u t e of Technology Press. 77 APPENDICES -78-Appendix A Temporal—Spatial Processing of Homophonous and Non—Homophonous words. F o r t y - e i g h t items w i t h t h r e e words per item were programmed on an Apple I I computer d i s c . Words were p r e s e n t e d s u c c e s s i v e l y f o r 300ms. The t o t a l time per item was 900ms. Words i n each item w i l l appear randomly i n the f i r s t , second or t h i r d p o s i t i o n . The one e x c e p t i o n w i l l be t h a t i n no d i s p l a y of temporal or s p a t i a l o r d e r w i l l the item appear i n a l e f t to r i g h t o r d e r . Item o r d e r of p r e s e n t a t i o n Words p r e s e n t e d . 1. 3 1 2 have door bare 2. 3 tr u e who 2 zoo 3. 1 3 2 have bare door 4. 2 3 1 who blue through 5. 2 3 1 farm home lane 6. 2 3 1 do through blue -79-7. 3 1 2 door lane have 8. 2 3 1 blue do few 9 . 1 3 2 furs bean home 10. 2 3 1 zoo screw true 11. 2 3 1 bare have door 12. 2 1 3 few bare furs 13. 1 3 2 bean bare furs 14. 2 3 1 through few who 15. 2 1 3 home farm bean 16. 2 1 3 screw zoo do 17. 2 3 1 door bare farm 18. 2 1 3 true do screw 19. 3 1 2 farm bean have 20. 1 3 2 screw few zoo 21. 2 3 1 lane home door 22. 1 3 2 through who true 23. 2 1 3 have furs lane 24. 2 1 3 zoo blue through 25. 2 3 1 farm furs bean 26. 2 3 1 screw do through 27. 3 1 2 door true screw 28. 1 3 2 zoo true screw 29. 3 1 2 bean bare have 30. 2 1 3 who few true 31. 3 1 2 bare bean furs 32. 1 3 2 through screw zoo 33. 1 3 2 have farm lane -81-34. 1 3 2-few blue who 35. 2 3 1 lane home farm 36. 2 1 3 blue through do 37. 3 1 2 home lane door 38. 2 1 3 do zoo blue 39. 2 3 1 furs door bare 40. 3 1 2 true who few 41. 2 1 3 home lane furs 42. 2 1 3' blue zoo few 43. 1 3 2 bare door home 44. 3 1 2 who through blue 45. 3 1 2 furs have bean 46. 2 3 1 few screw do 47. 2 1 3 bean farm bare 48. 3 1 2 do true who -82-Appendix B TABLE I SUMMARIES OF STATISTICS COMPARING THE RECALL OF HOMOPHONOUS/NON-HOMOPHONOUS WORDS AND PROCESSING STRATEGY BY HEARING LOSS a) Summary of d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s f o r homophonous words r e c a l l e d t e m p o r a l l y by h e a r i n g t h r e s h o l d l e v e l groups-Group HTL I HTL II HTL I I I Mean 36.6757 34.8182 36.8929 Standard D e v i a t i o n 19.9945 19.5224 22.6737 b) Summary of ANOVA r e s u l t s , homtemp. by HTL SOURCE DF MEAN SQUARE F RATIO Between groups 2 W i t h i n groups 142 T o t a l 144 500.4900 436.0210 1.148 c) Summary of d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s f o r non-homophonous words r e c a l l e d t e m p o r a l l y and h e a r i n g t h r e s h o l d l e v e l groups. Group HTL I HTL I I HTL I I I Mean 43.4054 33.4545 36.8929 Standard D e v i a t i o n 24.4870 25.2026 22.4559 d) Summary of ANOVA r e s u l t s , nonhom. temp, by HTL SOURCE DF MEAN SQUARE F RATIO Between groups 2 W i t h i n groups 142 T o t a l 144 1231.5542 560.5474 0.210 -83-e) Summary of d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s f o r homophonous words r e c a l l e d s p a t i a l l y f o r h e a r i n g t h r e s h o l d l e v e l groups. Group Mean Standard D e v i a t i o n HTL I 13.6892 15.2017 HTL II 18.3636 21.1552 HTL I I I 12.9017 21.0413 f ) Summary of ANOVA r e s u l t s homspat. by HTL. SOURCE DF MEAN SQUARE F RATIO Between groups 2 318.7290 0.965 W i t h i n groups 142 330.1399 T o t a l 144 g) Summary of d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s f o r non-homophonous words r e c a l l e d s p a t i a l l y f o r h e a r i n g t h r e s h o l d l e v e l groups. Group Mean Standard D e v i a t i o n HTL I 13.7432 13.7432 HTL II 16.0909 12.1333 HTL I I I 12.4821 12.4821 h) Summary of ANOVA r e s u l t s nonhom s p a t , by HTL SOURCE DF MEAN SQUARE F RATIO Between groups 2 234.3565 0.648 W i t h i n groups 142 366.1243 T o t a l 144 -84-TABLE II SUMMARIES OF RESULTS COMPARING RECALL OF HOMOPHONOUS AND NON-HOMOPHONOUS WORDS BY HEARING LOSS a) Summary of des c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s for r e c a l l of homophonous words by hearing loss groups. Group Mean Standard Deviation HTL I 48.3784 15.1745 HTL II 50.7333 8.8355 HTL III 50.1964 13.5960 b) Summary of ANOVA re s u l t s comparing r e c a l l of homophonous words by hearing l o s s . SOURCE DF MEAN SQUARE F RATIO Between groups 2 69.3137 0.351 Within groups 142 197.6692 Total 144 c) Summary of des c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s for non-homophonous words by hearing loss groups. Group Mean Standard Deviation HTL I 56.2500 17.0678 HTL II 49.5454 12.2455 HTL III 47.1964 12.9227 d) Summary of ANOVA r e s u l t s , non-homophonous words by hearing loss. SOURCE DF MEAN SQUARE F RATIO Between groups 2 1417.6660 6.185* Within groups 142 229.9149 Total 144 * denotes s i g n i f i c a n c e at the 0.01 l e v e l . -85-TABLE III SUMMARIES OF STATISTICS FOR PROCESSING STRATEGY BY GENDER a) Summary of d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s f o r temporal p r o c e s s i n g by gender. Group Mean Standard D e v i a t i o n Gr I (female) 79.1892 36.1834 Gr I I (male) 73.2676 43.8928 b) Summary of ANOVA r e s u l t s , p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g y by gender. SOURCE DF MEAN SQUARE F RATIO Between groups 1 W i t h i n groups 143 T o t a l 144 1270.5830 1611.4343 0.788 c) Summary of d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s f o r s p a t i a l p r o c e s s i n g by gender. Group Mean Standard D e v i a t i o n Gr I (female) Gr I I (male) 27.2838 36.4084 31.6731 89.2823 d) Summary of ANOVA r e s u l t s , p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g y by gender. SOURCE DF MEAN SQUARE F RATIO Between groups W i t h i n groups T o t a l 1 143 144 3016.9258 4414.1719 0.683 -86-TABLE IV SUMMARIES OF PROCESSING STRATEGY BY POPULATION a) Summary of d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s f o r temporal r e c a l l by p o p u l a t i o n . Group Mean Standard D e v i a t i o n TempR Heari n g 72.1667 40.9082 TempR Heari n g Impaired 80.8182 39.1551 b) Summary of r e s u l t s , temporal r e c a l l by p o p u l a t i o n . SOURCE DF MEAN SQUARE F RATIO Between groups 1 2675.7732 1.663 W i t h i n groups 142 1609.2319 T o t a l 143 c) Summary of d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s f o r s p a t i a l r e c a l l by p o p u l a t i o n . Group Mean Standard D e v i a t i o n SpatR Hear i n g 30.1410 37.0722 SpatR Hearing IMpaired 34.0454 90.0603 d) Summary of ANOVA r e s u l t s , s p a t i a l r e c a l l by p o p u l a t i o n . SOURCE DF MEAN SQUARE F RATIO Between groups 1 545.0151 0.122 W i t h i n groups 142 4457.9648 T o t a l 143 -87-TABLE V SUMMARIES OF RESULTS FOR PROCESSING STRATEGY BY HEARING LOSS a) Summary of d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s f o r temporal r e c a l l by h e a r i n g l o s s groups. Group Mean Standard D e v i a t i o n TempR, HTL I 79.1892 36.1834 TempR, HTL I I 63.7273 46.4846 TempR, HTL I I I 72.4464 43.8317 b) Summary of ANOVA r e s u l t s , temporal r e c a l l by h e a r i n g l o s s . SOURCE DF MEAN SQUARE F RATIO Between groups 2 2668.1753 1.682 W i t h i n groups 142 1586.5356 T o t a l 144 c) Summary of d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s f o r s p a t i a l r e c a l l by h e a r i n g l o s s groups. Group Mean Standard D e v i a t i o n SpatR, HTL I 27.2838 31.6731 SpatR, HTL I I 34.4545 44.5878 SpatR, HTL I I I 39,2679 98.4214 d) Summary of ANOVA r e s u l t s , s p a t i a l r e c a l l by h e a r i n g l o s s . SOURCE DF MEAN SQUARE F RATIO Between groups 2 2773.8733 0.625 W i t h i n groups 142 4439.1641 T o t a l 144 -88-TABLE VI SUMMARIES OF RESULTS FOR PROCESSING STRATEGY BY CHRONOLOGICAL AGE a) Summary of d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s f o r s p a t i a l r e c a l l of homophonous words f o r h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s . Group Mean Standard D e v i a t i o n CA I 42.4483 35.7617 CA I I 16.3143 19.0769 CA I I I 22.000 46.1432 b) Summary of ANOVA r e s u l t s , s p a t i a l r e c a l l by c h r o n o l o g i c a l age f o r h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s . SOURCE DF MEAN SQUARE F RATIO Between groups 2 5519.8125 6.287* W i t h i n groups 67 878.0393 T o t a l 69 c) Summary of d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s f o r temporal r e c a l l by c h r o n o l o g i c a l age f o r h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s . Group Mean Standard D e v i a t i o n CA I 59.7586 31.7943 CA II 91.2857 43.7934 CA I I I 94.333 57.6031 d) Summary of ANOVA r e s u l t s , temporal r e c a l l by c h r o n o l o g i c a l age f o r h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s . SOURCE DF MEAN SQUARE F RATIO Between groups 2 8705.8516 7.969* W i t h i n groups 62 1092.4133 T o t a l 64 -89-e) Summary of d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s f o r s p a t i a l r e c a l l by c h r o n o l o g i c a l age f o r h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s u b j e c t s . Group Mean Standard D e v i a t i o n CA I I 15.8611 ' 18.9980 CA I I I 24.7222 38.6718 CA IV 71.4000 153.1130 CA V 22.2105 41.2973 f ) Summary of ANOVA, s p a t i a l r e c a l l by c h r o n o l o g i c a l age f o r h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s u b j e c t s . SOURCE DF MEAN SQUARE F RATIO Between groups 3 11584.3711 1.483 W i t h i n groups 67 7809.542 T o t a l 70 g) Summary of d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s f o r temporal r e c a l l by c h r o n o l o g i c a l age f o r h e a r i n g impaired s u b j e c t s . Group Mean Standard D e v i a t i o n CA I I 116.000 CA I I I 72.5000 42.1696 CA IV 53.8000 39.9006 CA V 82.6316 44.2067 h) Summary of ANOVA, temporal r e c a l l by c h r o n o l o g i c a l age f o r h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s u b j e c t s . SOURCE DF MEAN SQUARE F RATIO Between groups 3 4248.3047 2.331* W i t h i n groups 67 1822.6384 T o t a l 70 -90-TABLE VII SUMMARIES OF RESULTS COMPARING VOCABULARY LEVEL TO PROCESSING STRATEGY FOR HEARING SUBJECTS a) Summary of d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s comparing v o c a b u l a r y l e v e l to temporal r e c a l l f o r h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s . Group Mean Standard D e v i a t i o n VOC I 67.2258 36.1881 VOC II 77.7391 33.0663 VOC III 99.4000 32.1008 b) Summary of ANOVA r e s u l t s comparing v o c a b u l a r y l e v e l to temporal r e c a l l f o r h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s . SOURCE DF MEAN SQUARE F RATIO Between groups 2 6327.3555 5.418 W i t h i n groups 71 1167.8950 T o t a l 73 c) Summary of d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s f o r s p a t i a l r e c a l l by v o c a b u l a r y l e v e l f o r h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s . Group Mean Standard D e v i a t i o n VOC I 32.5484 33.4971 VOC I I 30.2609 30.2538 VOC I I I 15.7000 28.7349 d) Summary of ANOVA r e s u l t s , s p a t i a l r e c a l l by v o c a b u l a r y l e v e l f o r h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s . SOURCE DF MEAN SQUARE F RATIO Between groups W i t h i n groups T o t a l 2 71 73 1873.3623 978.6790 1.914 TABLE VIII SUMMARIES OF RESULTS COMPARING VOCABULARY LEVEL TO PROCESSING STRATEGY FOR HEARING IMPAIRED SUBJECTS a) Summary of d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s comparing v o c a b u l a r y l e v e l to temporal r e c a l l f o r h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s u b j e c t s . Group Mean Standard D e v i a t i o n VOC I 70.2758 43.7304 VOC II 81.1364 44.4000 VOC I I I 71.7500 47.3172 b) Summary of ANOVA r e s u l t s , temporal r e c a l l by v o c a b u l a r y l e v e l f o r h e a r i n g impaired s u b j e c t s . SOURCE DF MEAN SQUARE F RATIO Between groups 2 765.8806 0.6809* W i t h i n groups 52 1955.098 T o t a l 54 c) Summary of d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s f o r s p a t i a l r e c a l l by v o c a b u l a r y l e v e l f o r h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s u b j e c t s . Group Mean Standard D e v i a t i o n VOC I 52.4828 131.0096 VOC I I 27.1364 43.1953 VOC I I I 25.000 40.3237 d) Summary of ANOVA, s p a t i a l r e c a l l by v o c a b u l a r y l e v e l f o r h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s u b j e c t s . SOURCE DF MEAN SQUARE F RATIO Between groups 2 4526.3086 0.4486 W i t h i n groups 52 10089.2148 T o t a l 54 -92-

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