UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Inferior performance, standards, and expectations in task-oriented same-sex dyads Freeman, Sabrina Karen 1986

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I N F E R I O R P E R F O R M A N C E , S T A N D A R D S , AND E X P E C T A T I O N S I N T A S K - O R I E N T E D S A M E - S E X DYADS B y S A B R I N A K A R E N F R E E M A N B . A . S i m o n F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 8 3 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR THE D E G R E E OF M A S T E R OF A R T S i n THE F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E S T U D I E S ( D e p a r t m e n t o f A n t h r o p o l o g y a n d S o c i o l o g y ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A J u n e 1 9 8 6 © . S a b r i n a K a r e n F r e e m a n , 1 9 8 6 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f A^UmpJna^ ^naAna The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1956 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3 D a t e <W>, a& , fi^C DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT T h i s r e s e a r c h e x a m i n e s t h e r o l e o f s t a n d a r d s i n t h e f o r m a t i o n of p e r f o r m a n c e e x p e c t a t i o n s . In p a r t i c u l a r , the f o r m a t i o n of i n f e r i o r p e r f o r m a n c e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f an a c t o r r e l a t i v e t o a p a r t n e r a r e examined. The t h e o r e t i c a l framework used i s t h a t of e x p e c t a t i o n s t a t e s theory which i s concerned w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t , m a i n t e n a n c e and m o d i f i c a t i o n o f power and p r e s t i g e h i e r a r c h i e s i n t a s k - o r i e n t e d groups. Subjects i n same-sex dyads were a s s i g n e d a t random t o one o f two e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s . Two s e t s of standards d e f i n e d the presence or absence of a b i l i t y . In the f i r s t c o n d i t i o n , s u b j e c t s were g i v e n a lower score than t h e i r p a r t n e r s and were informed t h a t i t c o u l d not be determined from these scores whether they lacked a b i l i t y a t the task or whether the p a r t n e r possessed the task a b i l i t y . In the second c o n d i t i o n , s u b j e c t s were g i v e n t h e same s c o r e s as i n c o n d i t i o n one, but were t o l d t h a t they d e f i n i t e l y lacked the task a b i l i t y , and t h a t t h e p a r t n e r d e f i n i t e l y p o s s e s s e d the a b i l i t y . The h y p o t h e s i s s t a t e s t h a t s u b j e c t s i n the f i r s t c o n d i t i o n w i l l r e j e c t l e s s i n f l u e n c e t h a n t h o s e i n t h e second. The h y p o t h e s i s was supported f o r women, but not f o r men. Gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e j e c t i o n of i n f l u e n c e r a t e s cannot be a t t r i b u t e d to m a n i p u l a t i o n f a i l u r e s or o t h e r v a r i a b l e s a l s o measured i n the s t u d y . I t i s a r gued t h a t l a c k of s u p p o r t f o r t h e h y p o t h e s i s w i t h r e s p e c t to male s u b j e c t s can be a t t r i b u t e d t o a g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f c a u t i o n amongst males i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f e x p e c t a t i o n s b a sed upon e v a l u a t i o n s of past performance. Reasons f o r male r e l u c t a n c e i n i i g e n e r a l i z i n g from i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d a r e s u g g e s t e d and the importance of these f i n d i n g s to e x p e c t a t i o n s t a t e s theory and to the general r o l e of standards i s d i s c u s s e d . i i i CONTENTS L I S T OF TABLES v i L I S T OF FIGURES v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i i C h a p t e r I . THE PROBLEM 1 O b j e c t i v e s o f P r e s e n t R e s e a r c h . 1 T h e o r e t i c a l B a c k g r o u n d . . . . 2 E x p e c t a t i o n S t a t e s T h e o r y : An O v e r v i e w 2 The E f f e c t o f P e r f o r m a n c e E v a l u a t i o n s o n E x p e c t a t i o n s 8 S t a n d a r d s a nd E x p e c t a t i o n s 13 I I . SEX DIFFERENCES RE-EXAMINED 18 I I I . RESEARCH DESIGN AND PROCEDURE 3 5 O v e r v i e w 35 Sc o p e C o n d i t i o n s a n d O t h e r V a r i a b l e s 36 E x p e r i m e n t a l E n v i r o n m e n t 3 7 S u b j e c t S e l e c t i o n 38 D e s c r i p t i o n o f T a s k 39 E x p e r i m e n t a l P r o c e d u r e s 39 I n s t r u c t i o n s a n d I.C.O.M 39 D a t a C o l l e c t i o n 40 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 40 I n t e r v i e w e r summary 41 D e b r i e f i n g 41 I m p r o v e m e n t s O v e r t h e F o s c h i , W a r r i n e r & H a r t S t u d y . 41 I V . DATA ANALYSIS 47 E x c l u s i o n o f S u b j e c t s 47 M a n i p u l a t i o n C h e c k s 48 D e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e 52 Sex D i f f e r e n c e s 54 i v V . INTERPRETATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 62 Gender S i m i l a r i t i e s and D i f f e r e n c e s 62 An E x p l a n a t i o n and Sugges t ions f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h . 67 BIBLIOGRAPHY 72 APPENDICES A . ROOM ARRANGEMENT 76 B . CONTRAST SENSITIVITY TASK 77 C . EXPERIMENTER-VOLUNTEER CONTRACT 78 D. INSTRUCTIONS TO PARTICIPANT 79 E . OUTCOME RECORDING FORM 87 F . OPINION QUESTIONNAIRE AND COMMENTS 89 G . INTERVIEWER'S SUMMARY AND COMMENTS 9 6 H . DEBRIEFING FORM AND DEBRIEFING INTERVIEW 100 I . SECRECY COMMITMENT FORM 103 J . REJECTION CRITERIA AND RESULTS 104 K. METHODOLOGICAL CHANGES AND A COMPARISON OF RESULTS. 10 7 v TABLES T a b l e Page 1. R e j e c t i o n o f I n f l u e n c e b y C o n d i t i o n and S e x , and T e s t R e s u l t s o f t h e F o s c h i , W a r r i n e r and H a r t S t u d y 19 2. M a n i p u l a t i o n C h e c k , R e p o r t e d A b i l i t y o f O t h e r R e l a t i v e t o S e l f : F r e q u e n c i e s a n d P e r c e n t a g e s b y C o n d i t i o n . . . . 20 3. Summary o f R e l e v a n t S t u d i e s i n w h i c h [+-] and [-+] E x p e c t a t i o n s a r e Formed on t h e B a s i s o f S c o r e s 24 4. O v e r v i e w o f t h e E x p e r i m e n t 42 5. S c o r e s as R e p o r t e d b y S u b j e c t s 48 6. R e p o r t e d S t a n d a r d s P r o v i d e d , R e p o r t e d a n d S e t b y S u b j e c t P e r C o n d i t i o n 49 7. M a n n - W h i t n e y U - T e s t s on S t a n d a r d s R e p o r t e d b y S u b j e c t s 50 8. M a n n - W h i t n e y U - T e s t s on S t a n d a r d s S e t by S u b j e c t s 50 9. R e p o r t e d A b i l i t y o f O t h e r R e l a t i v e t o S e l f 51 10. R e j e c t i o n o f I n f l u e n c e b y C o n d i t i o n 52 11 . M a n n - W h i t n e y U - T e s t s o n t h e P r o p o r t i o n o f s - R e s p o n s e s 53 12. Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e b y S t a n d a r d s , and Sex o f S u b j e c t 53 13. Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e b y S t a n d a r d s , Sex o f S u b j e c t a n d L e v e l o f C o n t r o l 55 14. Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e b y S t a n d a r d s , Sex o f S u b j e c t a n d S e r i o u s n e s s R e g a r d i n g T a s k P e r f o r m a n c e . . . . 57 15. Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e b y S t a n d a r d s , Sex o f S u b j e c t , and T a s k I m p o r t a n c e 59 16. Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e b y S t a n d a r d s , Sex o f S u b j e c t , a n d M o t i v a t i o n 60 17. S - R e s p o n s e s C a l c u l a t e d F i r s t O v e r S u b j e c t s a n d Then O v e r T r i a l s 69 18. A C o m p a r i s o n o f S t a n d a r d s B e t w e e n S t u d i e s 108 19. A C o m p a r i s o n o f R e p o r t e d A b i l i t y o f O t h e r R e l a t i v e t o S e l f B e t w e e n S t u d i e s 109 v i FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u b j e c t s by L e v e l o f P e r c e i v e d C o n t r o l . . 5.4 2. P ( s ) a s a F u n c t i o n o f S t a n d a r d s , S e x o f S u b j e c t , and L e v e l o f P e r c e i v e d C o n t r o l 55 3. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u b j e c t s b y S e r i o u s n e s s R e g a r d i n g T a s k P e r f o r m a n c e 56 4. P ( s ) a s a F u n c t i o n o f S t a n d a r d s , Sex o f S u b j e c t and S e r i o u s n e s s R e g a r d i n g T a s k P e r f o r m a n c e 57 5. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u b j e c t s by I m p o r t a n c e o f T a s k . . . . 58 6. P ( s ) a s a F u n c t i o n o f S t a n d a r d s , Sex o f S u b j e c t and I m p o r t a n c e o f T a s k 59 7. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u b j e c t s by M o t i v a t i o n 60 8. P ( s ) as a F u n c t i o n o f S t a n d a r d s , S e x o f S u b j e c t and M o t i v a t i o n 61 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e t o thank a number o f p e o p l e who h e l p e d me through the t h e s i s process. Martha Foschi's e x p e r t i s e , guidance and f r i e n d s h i p was i n v a l u a b l e and e s s e n t i a l t o my compl e t i o n of the p r o j e c t . George Gray gave me important advice, moral support and a s m i l e when I needed i t most. P h i l S m i t h p r o v i d e d me w i t h i d e a s , d i r e c t i o n and a p s y c h o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . N e i l Guppy prepared me f o r the wondrous world of computer data a n a l y s i s . I would a l s o l i k e t o thank J a n P l e c a s h f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f her e x p e r i e n c e and Sam V o v n i k f o r h i s c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m , v a l u a b l e feedback and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the lab. The experiment would not have been p o s s i b l e without the c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t s of the r e s e a r c h team, Jin-me Yoon, R i c h a r d F l o y d , S h a r i Buchan, Jo-anne Seamon, and a l l t h e c o n f e d e r a t e s and p a r t i c i p a n t s who g e n e r o u s l y gave o f t h e i r t i m e . I would a l s o l i k e t o blame my parents f o r i n s t i l l i n g me w i t h the deep d e s i r e f o r knowledge t h a t k e p t me a t my desk even d u r i n g s k i season. F i n a l l y , t o my b e s t f r i e n d and c h e r i s h e d c o u n s e l , I s a a c , I owe t h e most f o r h i s unwaivering support and endless optimism. v i i i Chapter I - The Problem O b j e c t i v e s of Present Research The purpose of t h i s study i s to enhance the understanding of t h e r o l e o f s t a n d a r d s i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f p e r f o r m a n c e e x p e c t a t i o n s . T h i s r e s e a r c h i s f o r m u l a t e d i n the c o n t e x t o f e x p e c t a t i o n s t a t e s t h e o r y , a t h e o r e t i c a l r e s e a r c h program t h a t i n v e s t i g a t e s the f o r m a t i o n and maintenance of power and p r e s t i g e h i e r a r c h i e s i n t a s k - o r i e n t e d g r o u p s . The p r e s e n t work expands upon th e s t u d y c o n d u c t e d by F o s c h i , W a r r i n e r and H a r t (1985) w h i c h i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t a n d a r d s and p e r f o r m a n c e e x p e c t a t i o n s . C o n t r a r y t o t h e i r p r e d i c t i o n , t h e a u t h o r s f o u n d t h a t s t a n d a r d s have a g r e a t e r e f f e c t on t a s k -o r i e n t e d s a m e - s e x d y a d s when t h e s u b j e c t i s shown t o be r e l a t i v e l y s u p e r i o r i n a b i l i t y as compared t o a s i t u a t i o n i n which the s u b j e c t i s shown to be r e l a t i v e l y i n f e r i o r i n a b i l i t y . In d i s c o v e r i n g t h i s asymmetry i n p e r c e i v e d i n f e r i o r i t y and s u p e r i o r i t y , t h e F o s c h i e t a l . s t u d y r a i s e s new q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e e f f e c t o f s t a n d a r d s . I t i s t h e i n t e n t o f t h i s study to address these q u e s t i o n s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t here are two major o b j e c t i v e s of the present study. The f i r s t o b j e c t i v e i s to examine the d e s i g n and r e s u l t s o f t h e F o s c h i , W a r r i n e r and H a r t s t u d y i n t h e c o n t e x t o f l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o the f o r m a t i o n of e x p e c t a t i o n s based on performance e v a l u a t i o n s . T h i s p r o j e c t i n v o l v e s a thorough review o f such s t u d i e s , w i t h p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on two v a r i a b l e s : 1 gender o f dyad and t y p e o f e x p e c t a t i o n s g e n e r a t e d ( h i g h e r or l o w e r f o r s e l f r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r ) . O t h e r v a r i a b l e s w h i c h may have a f f e c t e d the f o r m a t i o n of e x p e c t a t i o n s i n the F o s c h i e t a l . study are a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d . The second o b j e c t i v e i s to attempt to e x p l a i n the anomalous f i n d i n g s of the F o s c h i , Warriner and Hart study v i a a l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i m e n t d e s i g n e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e f f e c t s of s t a n d a r d s on e x p e c t a t i o n s and i n f l u e n c e i n s e l e c t e d c a s e s . In a d d i t i o n to s t u d y i n g the v a r i a b l e s i d e n t i f i e d above (gender of dyad and type o f e x p e c t a t i o n s g e n e r a t e d ) , t h e e x p e r i m e n t i n t r o d u c e s methodological improvements to t h e i r study. T h e o r e t i c a l Background E x p e c t a t i o n S t a t e s Theory: An Overview E x p e c t a t i o n s t a t e s t h e o r y , d e v e l o p e d by J o s e p h B e r g e r and a s s o c i a t e s i n the e a r l y 1960's, focuses on i n e q u a l i t i e s i n t a s k -o r i e n t e d groups. These i n e q u a l i t i e s were documented i n the e a r l y 1950's by R. B a l e s who found t h a t h i e r a r c h i e s d e v e l o p and subsequently s t a b i l i z e i n p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g groups whose members are i n i t i a l l y s t a t u s equals. Berger was p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the s t a t u s - o r g a n i z i n g process o c c u r r i n g i n such s m a l l groups. E x p e c t a t i o n s t a t e s theory p r o v i d e s a b l u e p r i n t f o r the mechanism g e n e r a t i n g h i e r a r c h i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i t h i n t a s k - o r i e n t e d groups. T h i s o v e r v i e w p r o v i d e s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e major components of the s t r u c t u r e of e x p e c t a t i o n s t a t e s theory. 2 I n e q u a l i t i e s m a n i f e s t t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e p o w e r and p r e s t i g e o r d e r o f t a s k - o r i e n t e d g r o u p s . To f a c i l i t a t e t h e s t u d y o f g r o u p s , e x p e c t a t i o n s t a t e s t h e o r y d e f i n e s e a c h c o m p o n e n t c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t , m a i n t e n a n c e a n d m o d i f i c a t i o n o f i n e q u a l i t y . The b a s i c o b s e r v a b l e c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e g r o u p a r e i t s a c t o r s o r members and v a r i o u s b e h a v i o r s w h i c h o c c u r i n t h e g r o u p . T h e r e a r e f o u r i n t e r r e l a t e d b e h a v i o r a l p h a s e s i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t a n d m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e p o w e r and p r e s t i g e o r d e r i n a t a s k - o r i e n t e d g r o u p . The f i r s t , t h e a c t i o n o p p o r t u n i t y , i s a c h a n c e , o r o p e n i n g , t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s o l u t i o n o f t h e g r o u p t a s k o r p r o b l e m . The s e c o n d p h a s e , t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o u t p u t , i s a s u g g e s t i o n o f a g r o u p member who h a s u s e d t h e a c t i o n o p p o r t u n i t y t o c o n t r i b u t e t o w a r d s t h e s o l u t i o n . The t h i r d p h a s e , t h e r e w a r d a c t i o n , i s c o m p r i s e d o f a n e v a l u a t i o n b y a g r o u p member o f t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o u t p u t o f a n o t h e r . The f o u r t h p h a s e , a c c e p t a n c e ( o r r e j e c t i o n ) o f i n f l u e n c e , o c c u r s w h e n a g r o u p member a l t e r s ( o r f a i l s t o a l t e r ) h i s p o s i t i o n t o a g r e e w i t h t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o u t p u t . T h e s e b e h a v i o r a l p h a s e s a r e d i s t r i b u t e d u n e q u a l l y : some g r o u p members may r e c e i v e more a c t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s , c o n t r i b u t e more o u t p u t , r e c e i v e more r e w a r d s and e x e r t more i n f l u e n c e t h a n o t h e r g r o u p members. T h e p h a s e s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e l e a d t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f p e r f o r m a n c e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f members a b o u t t h e m s e l v e s i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r s . A g r o u p m e m b e r , r e f e r r e d t o i n e x p e c t a t i o n s t a t e s t h e o r y a s ' s e l f , a l w a y s j u d g e s p e r f o r m a n c e s i n r e l a t i o n t o a t 3 l e a s t one o t h e r group member, r e f e r r e d t o as ' o t h e r 1 . There a r e f o u r p o s s i b l e e x p e c t a t i o n s t a t e s t h a t can form, each r e f l e c t i n g the a s s i g n m e n t o f r e l a t i v e l e v e l s o f a b i l i t y t o s e l f and o t h e r , and i n f l u e n c i n g t h e power and p r e s t i g e o r d e r o f t h e group. The e x p e c t a t i o n s t a t e s a r e : h i g h e r f o r s e l f t h a n f o r o t h e r , s y m b o l i z e d by [+-]; e q u a l l y h i g h f o r s e l f and o t h e r or [++]; e q u a l l y low f o r s e l f and o t h e r o r [--] ; and l o w e r f o r s e l f t h a n f o r other or [-+]. P r e d i c t i o n s made by e x p e c t a t i o n s t a t e s t h e o r y a r e c o n s t r a i n e d by a number of c o n d i t i o n s which d e f i n e the theory's scope. T h e re a r e t h r e e such scope c o n d i t i o n s o f p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y : t a s k o r i e n t a t i o n ; c o l l e c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n ; and p e r c e i v e d group homogeneity. E x p e c t a t i o n s t a t e s theory i n v e s t i g a t e s o n l y groups whose members are t a s k - o r i e n t e d . In other words, the a c t o r s must be motivated and focused toward s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e t i o n of the task or r e s o l u t i o n of the problem. P r e d i c t i o n s made do n o t a p p l y t o any o t h e r t y p e o f group, e.g. a s o c i a l group. E v e r y i n d i v i d u a l a c t o r o f the group must a l s o be c o l l e c t i v e l y o r i e n t e d , i.e. prepared to work w i t h other members of the group t o s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m or t a s k a t hand. In a d d i t i o n , t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y c o n t a i n s t h e scope c o n d i t i o n t h a t a l l a c t o r s must p e r c e i v e themselves as a homogeneous group, s i m i l a r i n a l l r e s p e c t s e x c e p t a c t u a l t a s k p e r f o r m a n c e . F o r a d i s c u s s i o n of scope c o n d i t i o n s see Cohen (1980). An i m p o r t a n t t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e p t i n e x p e c t a t i o n s s t a t e s 4 t h e o r y i s t h a t o f a " s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c " . A s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s a p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t o r an a t t r i b u t e w h i c h i s v a l u e d . Examples o f s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y i n c l u d e gender, e t h n i c i t y , education, and m i l i t a r y rank. A s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f r o m o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s by i t s importance or value i n s o c i e t y . In other w o r d s , v a l u e - n e u t r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s b e c o m e s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o n l y when a group of people a t t a c h importance to them. Status c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have no b i o l o g i c a l b a s i s but, r a t h e r , a r e c o n s t r u c t s t h a t a r e c u l t u r a l l y , s o c i a l l y and s i t u a t i o n a 1 l y determined. Thus, i n a c u l t u r e where s k i n c o l o u r i s important, phenotype assumes the r o l e of a s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ; whereas, i n another c u l t u r e where s k i n c o l o u r i s not important, i t i s not a s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Status c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s possess a t l e a s t two d i f f e r e n t s t a t e s , e.g. r e g a r d i n g m i l i t a r y rank, s o c i e t y v a l u e s the rank o f g e n e r a l more t h a n the rank o f c a p t a i n , w h i c h i s v alued more than t h a t of p r i v a t e . Status c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are e i t h e r s p e c i f i c or d i f f u s e . When s p e c i f i c , t h e y a r e n a r r o w l y d e f i n e d and seen as h a v i n g l i m i t e d a p p l i c a b i l i t y (e.g. t h e a b i l i t y t o s o l v e c r o s s - w o r d p u z z l e s ) . When d i f f u s e , s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are p e r c e i v e d as having wide a p p l i c a t i o n s as i n the case of gender, age, or e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l . A number o f s t u d i e s have e x p l o r e d the e f f e c t s o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n s p e c i f i c and d i f f u s e s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on p e r f o r m a n c e 5 e x p e c t a t i o n s . S t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t h a v e b e e n s t u d i e d i n c l u d e : r a c e ( T u z l a k a n d M o o r e , 1984; R i o r d a n a n d R u g g i e r o , 1980; E n t w i s l e a n d W e b s t e r , 1974; C o h e n a n d R o p e r , 1 9 7 2 ) ; e t h n i c i t y ( C o h e n a n d S h a r a n , 1980; Y u c h t m a n - Y a a r a n d S e m y onov, 1 9 7 9 ) ; g e n d e r ( P u g h a n d W a h r m a n , 1 9 8 3 ) ; s p e c i f i c t a s k p e r f o r m a n c e ( F r e e s e , 1 9 7 6 ) ; m i l i t a r y r a n k ( B e r g e r , C o h e n , a n d Z e l d i t c h , 1972); e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s (Moore, 1968). T h e g e n e r a l p r o g r e s s i o n o f e x p e c t a t i o n s t a t e s t h e o r y r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a h a s b e e n f r o m t h e s t u d y o f e l e m e n t a r y s t a t u s s i t u a t i o n s t o t h e s t u d y o f m u l t i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t a t u s s i t u a t i o n s . 1 E l e m e n t a r y s t a t u s s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v e t w o a c t o r s , one t a s k a n d o n e s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g t h e a c t o r s . T h e s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s a c t i v a t e d when an a c t o r f o r m s e x p e c t a t i o n s a b o u t s e l f a n d o t h e r b a s e d o n t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . E x p e c t a t i o n s t a t e s t h e o r y i s b a s e d o n a n u m b e r o f a s s u m p t i o n s ; o f p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e i s t h e " b a s i c e x p e c t a t i o n s " a s s u m p t i o n . T h i s c o n c e r n s t h e i m p a c t o f a s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h a t h a s b e c o m e a c t i v a t e d o r s e e n a s r e l e v a n t t o t h e t a s k a t h a n d . O n c e t h e s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s a c t i v a t e d , s e l f f o r m s e x p e c t a t i o n s a s t o s e l f ' s a b i l i t y r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r . A s t a t u s •'•This p a p e r d i s c u s s e s e x p e c t a t i o n s t a t e s t h e o r y i n a g e n e r a l manner. The t h e o r y has, i n f a c t , b e en expanded t o i n c l u d e a s i d e f r o m e l e m e n t a r y and m u l t i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t a t u s s i t u a t i o n s , o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u c h as m o r a l and p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and work on s t a t u s c u e s ( B e r g e r , Ridgeway, R o s e n h o l t z & W e b s t e r J r . , 1985; M o o r e J r . , 1 9 8 5 ) . 6 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s a c t i v a t e d a u t o m a t i c a l l y when i t i s s p e c i f i c and i t s l i n k t o t a s k a b i l i t y i s d i r e c t e.g. a p t i t u d e i n math i s a c t i v a t e d when t h e t a s k a t hand i s t o s o l v e an a l g e b r a i c e q u a t i o n . However, when the l i n k i s i n d i r e c t , s e l f w i l l s e a r c h f o r a " p a t h o f t a s k r e l e v a n c e " u s i n g a d i f f u s e s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t o f o r m a l i n k w i t h t h e s p e c i f i c s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . An example can be found i n t h e d i f f u s e s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f gender. A c t i v a t i o n o f gender may o c c u r when the t a s k i s s o l v i n g an a l g e b r a i c e q u a t i o n s i n c e males a r e o f t e n p e r c e i v e d as more ma t h e m a t i c a l l y adept than females. The power and p r e s t i g e h i e r a r c h y t e n d s t o be s e l f -m a i n t a i n i n g i n t h a t , once formed, p e r f o r m a n c e e x p e c t a t i o n s p r o v i d e a r e l a t i v e advantage f o r the higher s t a t u s a c t o r a t every b e h a v i o r a l phase. In o t h e r words, t h i s group member has a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e p r o b a b i l i t y o f r e c e i v i n g a c t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s , g e n e r a t i n g performance output, e n j o y i n g f a v o r a b l e reward a c t i o n s f r o m o t h e r g r o u p members, and b e n e f i t i n g f r o m i n f l u e n c e deference. In the same sense, lower performance e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r s e l f than f o r other are s e l f - m a i n t a i n i n g . The s e l f - m a i n t a i n i n g n a t u r e o f t h e power and p r e s t i g e h i e r a r c h y can be a l t e r e d when t h e s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s de-a c t i v a t e d o r, i n other words, shown to be i r r e l e v a n t t o the task at hand and of no b e a r i n g on performance. Otherwise, the "burden o f p r o o f " p r o c e s s o p e r a t e s : a d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d e t e r m i n e s t h e power and p r e s t i g e o r d e r o f t h e 7 group, unless defined i r r e l e v a n t to the task at hand. In the study of elementary status s i t u a t i o n s i t has been found that when sub j e c t s perceive themselves as being equal i n terms of an activated d i f f u s e status c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , such as age, the e f f e c t of a d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g d i f f u s e s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , such as race, i s minimized. Moreover, the i n f l u e n c e of the equating status c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s increased (Berger et a l , 1977: 57). Seashore (1968) conducted a study with white female junior college students who were led to believe they were working with a female of the same age and belonging to one of four c a t e g o r i e s : a black female student from a p r e s t i g i o u s u n i v e r s i t y ; a black female student from the same school; a white female student from a p r e s t i g i o u s u n i v e r s i t y ; a white female student from the same school. The equating s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of age was found to have a m i t i g a t i n g e f f e c t on the d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g d i f f u s e status c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of race and prestige of educational i n s t i t u t i o n . The E f f e c t of Performance Evaluations on Expectations To date, many s t u d i e s i n expe c t a t i o n s t a t e s theory have examined the e f f e c t s of having a s p e c i f i c or a d i f f u s e status c h a r a c t e r i s t i c assigned to s e l f and other. For the cur r e n t study, research i n which expectations are formed on the basis of performance evaluations i s of relevance and i s discussed next. E a r l y work brought a number of researchers to address the problems of emergent group h i e r a r c h i e s when members of task-8 o r i e n t e d groups a l l possess s i m i l a r s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (e.g. gender, s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , age, e d u c a t i o n . . . e t c ) (Berger, Conner, and F i s e k , 1974: 28). S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s were addressed: why i s t h e r e consensus among members of t h e group as to i t s power and p r e s t i g e o r d e r ? Why a r e t h e p e r c e p t i o n s of those who c o n s i d e r themselves to be of r e l a t i v e l y h i g h s t a t u s congruent w i t h the p e r c e p t i o n s of those who c o n s i d e r themselves to be of lower s t a t u s ? T h i s has b e e n e x p l a i n e d t h r o u g h o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e u n o r c h e s t r a t e d , n a t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n o f group members (Berger, Conner and F i s e k , 1974: 30). I t has been found t h a t on the b a s i s o f p e r f o r m a n c e e v a l u a t i o n s , b o t h s e l f and o t h e r d e v e l o p t h e i r r e l a t i v e s e l f - i m a g e s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p i s c o mplementary: i f s e l f p e r f o r m s b e t t e r t h a n o t h e r , t h e r e s u l t s a r e t h a t s e l f w i l l f e e l s u p e r i o r and t h a t other w i l l f e e l i n f e r i o r . As i n the case o f e x p e c t a t i o n s formed by a s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , p e r f o r m a n c e e x p e c t a t i o n s formed on the b a s i s o f e v a l u a t i o n s of a c t u a l performance tend to be s e l f - m a i n t a i n i n g . I t i s through s e l f ' s e v a l u a t i o n s of s e l f and other t h a t the e x p e c t a t i o n s t a t e i s formed, maintained and a l t e r e d . Again here a burden of proof process i n h i b i t s change i n the h i e r a r c h y s i n c e the a c t o r whose i n i t i a l performances were e v a l u a t e d p o s i t i v e l y , r e l a t i v e to other, must be proven to l a c k the a b i l i t y i n order to a l t e r the e x p e c t a t i o n s t a t e . The a c t i o n - o p p o r t u n i t y , performance o u t p u t and e v a l u a t i o n c y c l e i s d i f f i c u l t t o break. T h i s o c c u r s 9 o n l y when e v a l u a t i o n s a r e changed; o t h e r w i s e , the e x p e c t a t i o n s t a t e i s m a i n t a i n e d (Berger, Conner and F i s e k , 1974; Meeker, 1981) . Other s t u d i e s of p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e t o the f o r m a t i o n of expectations on the b a s i s of performance ev a l u a t i o n s are those of Berger and Conner (1969), Webster (1969), F o s c h i (1971), Freese and Cohen (1973), and Pugh and Wahrman (1983). Berger and Conner stud i e d performance expectations and sm a l l group behavior and found t h a t "performance expectations d i r e c t l y r e f l e c t b e l i e f s t h a t members h o l d about t a s k a b i l i t y , and t h a t those thought t o be more a b l e were more l i k e l y t o be p e r c e i v e d as hav i n g performed w e l l " (Berger and Conner, 1969: 187). In t h i s s t u d y , s u b j e c t s were l e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t t a s k a b i l i t y was t o be measured by a s c o r e t h a t e a c h p e r s o n w o u l d r e c e i v e upon completion of the task. Through manipulation of the r e s u l t s of the t a s k , g i v i n g one person a h i g h e r s c o r e than the o t h e r , the f o l l o w i n g b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n s were d i s c o v e r e d : s u b j e c t s who performed b e t t e r than t h e i r partner accepted i n f l u e n c e l e s s o f t e n than subjects who performed worse i n tha t task r e l a t i v e to t h e i r p a r t n e r s ( I b i d . : 197). A study conducted by Webster (1969) examines the e v a l u a t i o n of s u b j e c t ' s p a s t performance, and c o n d i t i o n s under which p r e d i c t i o n s of f u t u r e performance are a f f e c t e d . Webster, l i k e Berger and Conner, manipulated subject's performance expectations 10 by s u p p l y i n g s u b j e c t s w i t h f i c t i t i o u s s c o r e s t h o u g h t t o be r e s u l t s from a r e c e n t l y c o m p l e t e d t a s k . The Webster s t u d y , however, not o n l y d i s c u s s e s p a s t performance and r e l a t e d f u t u r e e x p e c t a t i o n s , but a l s o examines the i n f l u e n c e of the e v a l u a t o r on s e l f ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s ( t h e e v a l u a t o r i s a t h i r d p e r s o n who e v a l u a t e s the performance of both s e l f and o t h e r ) . I f s e l f r e s p e c t s t h e e v a l u a t o r ' s a b i l i t y o r competence i n e v a l u a t i o n , or knows t h a t the e v a l u a t o r i s p r i v y t o r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n t o w h i c h s e l f d o e s n o t h a v e a c c e s s , t h e n t h e e v a l u a t o r becomes a " s o u r c e " . A s o u r c e i s a p e r s o n b e l i e v e d by s e l f t o be more c a p a b l e a t e v a l u a t i n g p e r f o r m a n c e s t h a n s e l f . T h e refore, the e v a l u a t i o n made by the source r e g a r d i n g both s e l f and other, i s accepted by s e l f . However, i f s e l f does not r e s p e c t t h e a b i l i t y o f the e v a l u a t o r , t h e n t h e e v a l u a t o r w i l l n o t be r e g a r d e d as a s o u r c e , and the e v a l u a t o r ' s a s s e s s m e n t w i l l be d i s r e g a r d e d (Webster, 1969, :253). F u r t h e r work i n t h i s a r e a a p p e a r s i n Webster and S o b i e s z e k (1974) and C r u n d a l l and Foddy (1981) . F o s c h i (1971) s t u d i e d [-+] performance e x p e c t a t i o n s and the manner by w h i c h t h e y change when c o n t r a d i c t e d . In t h e F o s c h i s t u d y , f i r s t [-+] p e r f o r m a n c e e x p e c t a t i o n s were c r e a t e d i n the l a b o r a t o r y by p r o v i d i n g f i c t i t i o u s scores thought to correspond to task outcome. Then these e x p e c t a t i o n s were e i t h e r p a r t i a l l y or t o t a l l y c o n t r a d i c t e d by scores r e c e i v e d by both a c t o r s (higher e v a l u a t i o n s f o r s e l f t h a n f o r o t h e r c o n s t i t u t e d " t o t a l 11 c o n t r a d i c t i o n " w h e r e a s e q u a l e v a l u a t i o n s f o r t h e t w o a c t o r s o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d " p a r t i a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n " ) . F o s c h i ' s f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t [-+] e x p e c t a t i o n s " c h a n g e a s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e number and t h e d e g r e e o f t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n t h e y r e c e i v e " ( F o s c h i , 1 9 7 1 : 2 2 0 ) . I n t h e s t u d y c o n d u c t e d b y F r e e s e a n d C o h e n ( 1 9 7 3 ) , b o t h a d i f f u s e s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a n d s c o r e s w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d p a s t p e r f o r m a n c e w e r e i n t r o d u c e d t o m e a s u r e t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e t w o v a r i a b l e s . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e t h a t p a s t p e r f o r m a n c e i s p e r c e i v e d a s b e i n g o f g r e a t e r r e l e v a n c e t o t a s k a b i l i t y t h a n a h i g h s t a t e o f a d i f f u s e s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w h i c h w a s , i n t h i s c a s e , a g e . The m a n i p u l a t i o n o f e x p e c t a t i o n s b a s e d o n p a s t p e r f o r m a n c e s u c c e e d e d , f o r t h e m o s t p a r t , i n e l i m i n a t i n g s t a t u s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . The i m p l i c a t i o n h e r e i s t h a t t h e p a t h o f r e l e v a n c e b e t w e e n t h e d i f f u s e s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a n d t h e t a s k c a n b e s e v e r e d b y d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h a t t h e g r o u p member w i t h t h e l o w s t a t e o f s u c h a s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s b e t t e r a t t h e t a s k . The e l i m i n a t i o n o f s t a t u s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n a n d t h e b l o c k a g e o f t h e p a t h o f r e l e v a n c e c a n o c c u r o n l y w h e n t h e r e i s a d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f s k i l l b y t h e p e r s o n w i t h t h e l o w s t a t e o f t h e d i f f u s e s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . I n a s t u d y c o n d u c t e d b y Pugh a nd Wahrman (1983) t h e s a l i e n t s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was g e n d e r : i n c o n d i t i o n o n e , s u b j e c t s w e r e t o l d t h a t t h e r e was no r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n g e n d e r a nd t a s k a b i l i t y , a n d t h a t women w e r e a s l i k e l y as 12 men t o d o w e l l a t t h e t a s k ; i n c o n d i t i o n t w o , women w e r e d e m o n s t r a t e d t o b e e q u a l t o men i n t a s k a b i l i t y ; i n c o n d i t i o n t h r e e , s u b j e c t s w e r e shown t h a t women do b e t t e r a t t h e t a s k t h a n men. T h e i n s t r u c t i o n s i n b o t h c o n d i t i o n s o n e a n d t w o w e r e i n s u f f i c i e n t t o e l i m i n a t e t h e e f f e c t s o f g e n d e r . I n b o t h t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s women d e f e r r e d t o men m o r e o f t e n t h a n men d i d t o women. O n l y i n t h e t h i r d c o n d i t i o n , when i t was d e m o n s t r a t e d t o b o t h t h e f e m a l e a n d t h e m a l e t h a t t h e f e m a l e h a d b e e n s u p e r i o r t o h e r p a r t n e r i n p e r f o r m a n c e , d i d t h e m a l e a c c e p t i n f l u e n c e f r o m t h e f e m a l e a s o f t e n a s t h e f e m a l e f r o m t h e m a l e ( P u g h a n d Wahrman, 198 3 ) . S t a n d a r d s a n d E x p e c t a t i o n s R e s e a r c h c o n d u c t e d b y F o s c h i h a s b r o u g h t a t t e n t i o n t o t h e r o l e o f s t a n d a r d s w h e n e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e f o r m e d o n t h e b a s i s o f p e r f o r m a n c e e v a l u a t i o n s . A number o f s t u d i e s h a v e u s e d s c o r e s t o f o r m e x p e c t a t i o n s , p r o v i d i n g s e t s t a n d a r d s s o l e l y t o f a c i l i t a t e u n i f o r m i t y i n t h e s u b j e c t ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s c o r e s ( W e b s t e r , 1 9 6 9 ; F r e e s e a n d C o h e n , 1 9 7 3 ) . F o s c h i a n d F o d d y ( 1 9 8 4 ) h a v e p r e s e n t e d a c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f s t a n d a r d s f o r p e r f o r m a n c e . They d e f i n e s t a n d a r d s " a s r u l e s p r o v i d i n g m i n i m u m p e r f o r m a n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s t o i n f e r e i t h e r a b i l i t y o r l a c k o f a b i l i t y " ( I b i d . : 1 ) . S t a n d a r d s a r e e s s e n t i a l i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f p a s t p e r f o r m a n c e f o r s e l f and o t h e r s i n c e a g i v e n l e v e l o f p e r f o r m a n c e may b e j u d g e d a s g o o d , a v e r a g e o r p o o r d e p e n d i n g u p o n t h e s t a n d a r d s a g a i n s t w h i c h i t i s m e a s u r e d . S t a n d a r d s h a v e b e e n 13 c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as b e i n g e i t h e r ' s t r i c t ' o r ' l e n i e n t ' . When t h e y a r e s t r i c t , t h e r e s u l t a n t e x p e c t a t i o n s t a t e i s s a i d t o be weak i n t h a t i t d o e s n o t m e e t t h e s t a n d a r d s . When t h e s t a n d a r d s a r e l e n i e n t , a s t r o n g e x p e c t a t i o n s t a t e r e s u l t s s i n c e s t a n d a r d s a r e met. The i m p o r t a n c e o f s t u d y i n g s t a n d a r d s i s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e i r a b i l i t y t o m a i n t a i n t h e p o w e r a n d p r e s t i g e o r d e r o f a g r o u p . F o s c h i a n d F o d d y a r g u e t h a t s t a n d a r d s u s e d t o j u d g e t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f g r o u p members may d i f f e r , d e p e n d i n g u p o n w h e t h e r o r n o t a d i f f u s e s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c h a s b e e n a c t i v a t e d . I f i t h a s , l o w e r s t a t u s p e r f o r m e r s w i l l b e t r e a t e d w i t h s t r i c t e r s t a n d a r d s t h a n h i g h e r s t a t u s o n e s . A common e x a m p l e o f t h i s phenomenon c a n be f o u n d i n t h e f e m a l e who i s a p r o f e s s i o n a l e q u a l o r p o s s i b l y a s u p e r i o r t o h e r m a l e c o u n t e r p a r t , y e t r e m a i n s a t a d i s a d v a n t a g e when c o m p e t i n g f o r a p r o m o t i o n . D i f f e r e n t s t a n d a r d s a r e c o m m o n l y e m p l o y e d i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f b o t h c a n d i d a t e s : t h e s t r i c t e r s t a n d a r d i s a p p l i e d t o t h e f e m a l e , t h e m o r e l e n i e n t t o t h e m a l e . T h e r e s u l t o f t h e d o u b l e s t a n d a r d i s t h a t t h e f e m a l e i s c o m p e t i n g f r o m a d i s t i n c t l y d i s a d v a n t a g e o u s p o s i t i o n a n d i s t h e r e f o r e l e s s l i k e l y t o o b t a i n t h e p r o m o t i o n . I n s t e a d , t h e p r o m o t i o n w i l l be a w a r d e d t o t h e e q u a l l y o r l e s s q u a l i f i e d m a l e , whose p a s t p e r f o r m a n c e more e a s i l y m e e t s t h e l e n i e n t s t a n d a r d s a p p l i e d t o m a l e s . I n a g g r e g a t e t e r m s , t h e p r o m o t i o n o f b e n e f i c i a r i e s o f d o u b l e s t a n d a r d s i n t o t h e u p p e r e c h e l o n s o f a n o r g a n i z a t i o n o p e r a t e t o m a i n t a i n t h e p o w e r a nd p r e s t i g e h i e r a r c h y 14 o f t h e g r o u p ( F o s c h i and F o d d y , 1 9 8 4 ) . A s t u d y c o n d u c t e d b y F o s c h i (1985) u s e s a B a y e s i a n m o d e l on e v a l u a t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f h y p o t h e s e s . F o s c h i and F o s c h i ' s n o r m a t i v e m o d e l (1976) p r e d i c t s t h e t y p e s o f e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t a p e r s o n s h o u l d h a v e f o r s e l f a nd o t h e r o n t h e b a s i s o f b o t h r e c e i v e d s c o r e s a n d t h e p e r s o n ' s own s t a n d a r d s . T h i s m o d e l p r e d i c t s how an i d e a l p e r s o n w i l l p r o c e s s i n f o r m a t i o n and f o r m e x p e c t a t i o n s f o l l o w i n g B a y e s ' t h e o r e m . An a s s u m p t i o n o f t h e m o d e l i s t h a t s u c h an i d e a l p e r s o n w i l l p r o c e s s i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e same way r e g a r d l e s s o f r o l e . The F o s c h i (1985) s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r s u b j e c t s v a r y , i n t e r m s o f t h e B a y e s i a n m o d e l , i n t h e way t h e y a s s e s s t h e s i t u a t i o n a n d f o r m e x p e c t a t i o n s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e i r r o l e s . I n t h i s s t u d y , t h r e e c o n d i t i o n s w e r e c r e a t e d : i n t h e f i r s t c a s e s e l f r e c e i v e d h i g h e r s c o r e s t h a n o t h e r ; i n t h e s e c o n d c a s e , s e l f w a s g i v e n l o w e r s c o r e s t h a n o t h e r ; i n t h e t h i r d c a s e , s e l f w a s n o t a p e r f o r m e r b u t an o b s e r v e r o r t h i r d p e r s o n who o c c u p i e d t h e r o l e o f t h e n o n - p a r t i c i p a t o r y e v a l u a t o r o f t w o o t h e r s . A s e x p e c t e d , s u b j e c t s i n e a c h c o n d i t i o n w e r e c o n s e r v a t i v e , o r t e n d e d t o e x t r a c t l e s s i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m r e c e i v e d i n p u t t h a n t h e B a y e s i a n m o d e l s t i p u l a t e d . A c t o r s p e r f o r m i n g m o r e p o o r l y t h a n t h e i r p a r t n e r s w e r e t h e m o s t c o n s e r v a t i v e i n f o r m i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r own a n d t h e i r p a r t n e r ' s a b i l i t y o r l a c k o f a b i l i t y . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , a c t o r s r e c e i v i n g h i g h e r e v a l u a t i o n s s howed t h e l e a s t c o n s e r v a t i s m . 1 5 F o s c h i , W a r r i n e r a n d H a r t ( 1 9 85) c o n d u c t e d a s t u d y u s i n g s c o r e s a n d v a r y i n g s t a n d a r d s t o s t u d y t h e i m p a c t o f s t a n d a r d s on e x p e c t a t i o n s . T h i s was i m p l e m e n t e d b y h o l d i n g s u b j e c t s ' s c o r e s c o n s t a n t a n d v a r y i n g t h e s t a n d a r d s b y w h i c h s u b j e c t s j u d g e d t h e i r own a n d t h e i r p a r t n e r ' s a b i l i t y o r l a c k o f a b i l i t y . T h e r e w e r e t w o s t a n d a r d s f o r b o t h a b i l i t y a n d l a c k o f a b i l i t y , o n e l e n i e n t a n d o n e s t r i c t . I n t o t a l , f o u r e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s w e r e c r e a t e d . I n t h e " s t r o n g [ + - ] " c o n d i t i o n , s e l f r e c e i v e d a h i g h e r s c o r e t h a n o t h e r a n d w a s g i v e n s t a n d a r d s w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t s e l f d e f i n i t e l y h a d t h e a b i l i t y a nd t h a t o t h e r d e f i n i t e l y d i d n o t h a v e t h e a b i l i t y . The "weak [ + - ] " c o n d i t i o n w a s c r e a t e d b y p r o v i d i n g s e l f w i t h a h i g h e r s c o r e t h a n o t h e r , a n d s e t t i n g s t a n d a r d s f r o m w h i c h i t c o u l d n o t b e c o n c l u d e d t h a t s e l f d e f i n i t e l y h a d t h e a b i l i t y a nd t h a t o t h e r d e f i n i t e l y d i d n o t h a v e t h e a b i l i t y . The " s t r o n g [-+]" c o n d i t i o n was t h e r e v e r s e o f t h e " s t r o n g [ + - ] " c o n d i t i o n . L i k e w i s e , " w e a k " [ + - ] a n d [-+] c o n d i t i o n s w e r e s y m m e t r i c a l . The h y p o t h e s e s t e s t e d i n t h i s s t u d y i n v o l v e d d i f f e r e n c e s a mong t h e f o u r c o n d i t i o n s i n a m o u n t o f i n f l u e n c e a c c e p t e d f r o m t h e p a r t n e r . As p r e d i c t e d , s u b j e c t s i n t h e s t r o n g [+-] c o n d i t i o n a c c e p t e d l e s s i n f l u e n c e t h a n s u b j e c t s i n t h e weak [+-] c o n d i t i o n . H o w e v e r , F o s c h i e t a l . h a d d i f f i c u l t i e s c r e a t i n g t w o d i s t i n c t s t r o n g and weak [-+] c o n d i t i o n s and t h e r e f o r e no d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e a mount o f i n f l u e n c e a c c e p t e d w e r e o b s e r v e d b e t w e e n t h e s e t w o c o n d i t i o n s . When a n a l y s e d b y g e n d e r o f d y a d , t h e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e d i f f i c u l t y l a y p r i m a r i l y w i t h m a l e s u b j e c t s . 16 A number o f m e t h o d o l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h i s d i f f i c u l t y w e r e f o r w a r d e d . I t was a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e may be d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e p a t t e r n s o f r e j e c t i o n a n d a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e s t a n d a r d s p r o v i d e d , b a s e d on g e n d e r . T h e s e q u e s t i o n s a r e e x a m i n e d i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . 17 Chapter II - Sex D i f f e r e n c e s Re-examined Two q u e s t i o n s a r e r a i s e d by t h e F o s c h i , W a r r i n e r and H a r t study: f i r s t , do people d i f f e r i n the manner by which they come to terms w i t h e i t h e r s u p e r i o r or i n f e r i o r a b i l i t y r e l a t i v e t o a p a r t n e r ? ; second, do males and females d i f f e r i n t h e i r acceptance of e v a l u a t i o n s i n d i c a t i n g i n f e r i o r a b i l i t y ? The r e s u l t s from t h e i r study suggest t h a t (i) t h e r e i s a gender d i f f e r e n c e i n the a c c e p t a n c e o f s t a n d a r d s and e v a l u a t i o n s , w i t h women more a c c e p t i n g o f extreme i n f o r m a t i o n t h a n men ( i i ) t h i s p a t t e r n i s more n o t i c e a b l e i n the case of i n f e r i o r than s u p e r i o r a b i l i t y . An examination of the r e s u l t s of the o r i g i n a l study suggests t h a t t h e r e a r e sex d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e f o u r e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s , each c o n d i t i o n composed of same-sex dyads, both male and f e m a l e . None o f t h e s e sex d i f f e r e n c e s was f o u n d t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . However, owing to the s m a l l number of s u b j e c t s r u n p e r c o n d i t i o n , t h e s e t e s t s s h o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h a degree of c a u t i o n . None the l e s s , male/female d i f f e r e n c e s i n the s t r o n g c o n d i t i o n s are worth n o t i n g s i n c e they are the most s i g n i f i c a n t o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s . The p r o p o r t i o n o f t r i a l s i n w h i c h s e l f r e j e c t e d t h e i n f l u e n c e o f o t h e r , r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s as p r o p o r t i o n o f s - r e s p o n s e s o r p ( s ) , had the f o l l o w i n g l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e scores: p=.159 (strong [+-]) and p=.150 ( s t r o n g [-+]). From t h e s e r e s u l t s , i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t the l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e scores (p) are q u i t e s i m i l a r and c l o s e to being s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . 18 Table 1 . R e j e c t i o n o f Influence by C o n d i t i o n and Sex, and Test R e s u l t s o f the F o s c h i , Warriner and Hart Study Sex o f P r o p o r t i o n o f C o n d i t i o n Subject s-Responses Mean S.D. Mann-Whitney U-Tests** (two-tailed) U z F N=10 .719 (1)Strong [+-] M N= 9 .646 .099-1 28.0 1.41 .159 .133-F N=12 .604 .129 (2)Weak [+-] M N=10 .619 .086^" 53.5 0.44 .660 F N=12 .520 (3) [0,0] M N= 9 .432 126—1 41.0 0.94 .347 .117 F N = l l .415 .102-(4) Weak [-+] M N = l l .432 • 117-J 57.0 0.94 .818 F N=8 .375 .129 (5)Strong [-+] M N=10 .456 .138 :1 24.0 1.44 .150 *Table 6 i n the F o s c h i , Warriner & Hart study **Adjusted f o r t i e s F r o m t h e d a t a t h e y g a t h e r e d , F o s c h i e t a l . w e r e u n a b l e t o i d e n t i f y t h e c a u s e s o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s t h e y h a d f o u n d b e t w e e n m a l e a nd f e m a l e p ( s ) r e s p o n s e s . What i s c l e a r , h o w e v e r , i s t h a t t h i s f i n d i n g i s n o t c a u s e d b y d i f f e r e n t i a l i n f l u e n c e r a t e s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n t h e p ( s ) f o r m a l e s a n d f e m a l e s i s n o t c a u s e d b y t h e g r e a t e r r e j e c t i o n o f i n f l u e n c e b y o n e g e n d e r o v e r t h e o t h e r s i n c e t h e d y a d s w e r e s a m e - s e x . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e p ( s ) v a l u e s ( t a b l e 1) a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h s e l f ' s r e p o r t s o f p e r c e i v e d a b i l i t y ( t a b l e 2) w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t m a l e and f e m a l e r e j e c t i o n o f i n f l u e n c e r a t e s r e f l e c t t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f r e l a t i v e a b i l i t y . I n o t h e r w o r d s , s u b j e c t b e h a v i o r r e f l e c t s 19 a t t i t u d e s r e g a r d i n g a b i l i t y . T h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f d i f f e r e n t p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s t o w a r d s c o n f o r m i t y b e t w e e n m a l e s a n d f e m a l e s a s b e i n g t h e c a u s e o f v a r y i n g p ( s ) s c o r e s i s n o t s u p p o r t e d b y t h e s e r e s u l t s . T a b l e 2 : M a n i p u l a t i o n Check, R e p o r t e d A b i l i t y o f O t h e r R e l a t i v e t o S e l f : Frequencies and Percentages by C o n d i t i o n C o n d i t i o n Much More Somewhat More About the Same Somewhat Less Much Less Impossible t o T e l l (1)Strong [+-] N=19 (100%) 15 (79.0%) 2 (10.5%) 2 (10.5%) (2)Weak [+-] N=22 (100%) 1 (4.5%) 13 (59.1%) 1 (4.5%) 7 (31.9%) (3)[0,0] N=21 (100%) 2 (9.5%) 7 (33.3%) 5 (23.8%) 1 (4.8%) 6 (28.6%) (4)Weak [-+] N=22 (100%) 13 (59.1%) 8 (36.4%) 1 (4.5%) (5)Strong [-+] N=18 (100%) 11 (61.1%) 7 (38.9%) * T a b l e 3 i n t h e F o s c h i , W a r r i n e r a n d & H a r t s t u d y . As f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n [+-] a n d [-+] c o n d i t i o n s , T a b l e 2 i n d i c a t e s t h a t b o t h [ + -] a n d [-+] c o n d i t i o n s w e r e s u c c e s s f u l l y c r e a t e d . M o s t s u b j e c t s p e r c e i v e d t h e m s e l v e s a s b e i n g e i t h e r b e t t e r o r w o r s e t h a n t h e i r p a r t n e r s , d e p e n d e n t u p o n c o n d i t i o n . T h e r e i s l e s s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e w e a k a n d s t r o n g c o n d i t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e c a s e o f [-+] c o n d i t i o n s . The p(s) s c o r e s o f t h e s t r o n g a n d weak [-+] c o n d i t i o n s a r e v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l (.423 a n d .420, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . H o w e v e r , F o s c h i e t a l . 20 r e p o r t t h a t w h e n a n a l y z e d b y g e n d e r , i t b e c o m e s a p p a r e n t t h a t m a l e s i n t h e [-+] c o n d i t i o n s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e l a c k o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n b e t w e e n s t r o n g a n d weak c o n d i t i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e i r f i n d i n g s r e v e a l t h a t i n b o t h [+-] and [-+] c o n d i t i o n s , t h e e f f e c t o f s t a n d a r d s i s more d i s t i n c t f o r f e m a l e s t h a n f o r m a l e s . T h e s e t w o o b s e r v a t i o n s o f F o s c h i e t a l . i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n m a l e / f e m a l e r e s u l t s o r i g i n a t e i n t h e f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s o f e x p e c t a t i o n s . T h e c e n t r a l i s s u e c o n c e r n s w h e t h e r o r n o t e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e f o r m e d on t h e b a s i s o f s t a n d a r d s p r o v i d e d t o i n t e r p r e t t e s t s c o r e s . I n b o t h s t r o n g and weak [+-] a n d [-+] c o n d i t i o n s , t h e mean p ( s ) s c o r e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t m a l e s f o r m e d o n l y w e a k e x p e c t a t i o n s . T h i s may h a v e b e e n d u e t o a h i g h e r d e g r e e o f c o n s e r v a t i s m i n a c c e p t i n g e x t r e m e a b i l i t y a t t r i b u t i o n s a n d , p a r t i c u l a r l y , l a c k o f a b i l i t y a t t r i b u t i o n s . F r o m t h e p ( s ) s c o r e s , i t i s c l e a r t h a t m a l e s d i d n o t f o r m e x p e c t a t i o n s u s i n g t h e p r o v i d e d s t a n d a r d s . I n a n e f f o r t t o a c c o u n t f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e e x p e c t a t i o n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s o f m a l e s a n d f e m a l e s , a r e v i e w o f s t u d i e s c o n c e r n e d w i t h e x p e c t a t i o n s t a t e s w a s c o n d u c t e d a n d f i f t e e n s t u d i e s w h i c h c r e a t e d [+-] a n d [-+] c o n d i t i o n s o n t h e b a s i s o f s c o r e s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d . T h e s e s t u d i e s a r e t h e c l o s e s t t o t h e p r e s e n t w o r k , a s i d e f r o m t h e F o s c h i , W a r r i n e r a n d H a r t s t u d y . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e s e s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n e x a m i n e d f o r a n y i n d i c a t i o n s o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f g e n d e r d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e f o r m a t i o n a n d a c c e p t a n c e o f [ + -] a n d [-+] e x p e c t a t i o n s , a n d a n y 2 1 d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f [-+] e x p e c t a t i o n s ( i . e . l a r g e r v a r i a n c e s i n t h e [-+] c o n d i t i o n s t h a n i n t h e [+-] c o n d i t i o n s w o u l d i n d i c a t e d i f f i c u l t y i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e f o r m e r ) . A l l s t u d i e s i n c l u d e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e h a v e b e e n c o n d u c t e d w i t h s a m e - s e x d y a d s , m e e t t h e s c o p e c o n d i t i o n s o f e x p e c t a t i o n s t a t e s t h e o r y , a n d h a v e a t l e a s t one c o n d i t i o n w h e r e e x p e c t a t i o n s w e r e f o r m e d s o l e l y o n t h e b a s i s o f s c o r e s . The m a j o r i t y m a n i p u l a t e s u b j e c t e x p e c t a t i o n s b y p r o v i d i n g s u b j e c t s w i t h s c o r e s u p o n c o m p l e t i o n o f a b l o c k o f t r i a l s . H o w e v e r , a f e w s t u d i e s ( e . g . F o s c h i , 1 9 7 1 ) r e p o r t a s c o r e t o t h e s u b j e c t a f t e r e a c h t r i a l . S e v e r a l s t u d i e s i n e x p e c t a t i o n s s t a t e s t h e o r y c r e a t e e x p e c t a t i o n s u s i n g s c o r e s a s w e l l a s a d i f f u s e s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n a s i n g l e c o n d i t i o n e.g. F r e e s e ( 1 9 7 4 ) . S u c h s t u d i e s h a v e n o t b e e n i n c l u d e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e . The i n t e r e s t h e r e i s o n l y i n t h o s e s t u d i e s w h i c h h a v e f o r m e d e x p e c t a t i o n s c r e a t e d s o l e l y o n t h e b a s i s o f p e r f o r m a n c e i n a t l e a s t one c o n d i t i o n . A v a r i e t y o f f i c t i t i o u s a b i l i t i e s w e r e u t i l i z e d t o e n a b l e t h e a s s i g n m e n t o f f a l s e s c o r e s ( e . g . c o n t r a s t s e n s i t i v i t y , m e a n i n g i n s i g h t , p a t t e r n r e c o g n i t i o n , r e l a t i o n a l s p e c i f i c i t y ) . T h e s e f i c t i t i o u s a b i l i t i e s w e r e d e s i g n e d t o i n v o l v e a m b i g u o u s s t i m u l i , a l t h o u g h s u b j e c t s w e r e l e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e t a s k s a l l c o n t a i n a c o r r e c t a n s w e r . A f e w s t u d i e s u s e a s i n g l e t a s k t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t u d y . H o w e v e r , m o s t s t u d i e s u s e t w o t a s k a b i l i t i e s u s u a l l y p u r p o r t e d by t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r t o be r e l a t e d . 22 I n o r d e r t o q u a n t i f y t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h s e l f a c c e p t s o r r e j e c t s i n f l u e n c e f r o m o t h e r , a n u m b e r o f m e a s u r e s h a v e b e e n d e v i s e d . T h e m o s t w i d e l y u s e d i s t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f s e l f r e s p o n s e s o r p ( s ) , t h i s m e a s u r e a l s o u s e d i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e e x p e r i m e n t s . O t h e r m e a s u r e s s u c h a s t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f o t h e r r e s p o n s e s , r e f e r r e d t o a s e i t h e r p ( o ) o r R i ( 1 -p ( s ) ) ( K n o t t n e r u s a n d G r e e n s t e i n , 1981; G r e e n s t e i n and K n o t t n e r u s , 1 9 8 0 ) , a r e u s e d l e s s f r e q u e n t l y b u t s t i l l m e a s u r e i n f l u e n c e a s a c c u r a t e l y a s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p ( s ) . F o s c h i ( 1 9 7 1 , 1985) u s e s s u b j e c t s c o r e p r e d i c t i o n , w h i c h m e a s u r e s e x p e c t a t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n i n f l u e n c e and C o n n e r (1977) m e a s u r e s t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f r e s p o n s e s b e t w e e n h i g h a n d l o w s t a t u s s u b j e c t s , p r o p o r t i o n o f r e s p o n s e s c o n s i d e r e d a r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e t o d e g r e e o f i n f l u e n c e . 23 Table 3: Summary o f Relevant Studies i n Which [+-] and [-+] Expectations Are Formed on the B a s i s o f Scores. 1. Berger and Conner (1969) Type o f a b i l i t y : Meaning i n s i g h t Sex o f Dyad: Male Scores r e c e i v e d : A c t u a l scores were not re p o r t e d but s u b j e c t was informed t h a t he was e i t h e r e x c e p t i o n a l l y g o o d and h i s p a r t n e r e x c e p t i o n a l l y bad a t the ta s k o r v i c e versa. Type o f expectations c r e a t e d : [+-], [-+], [++], and [ — ] . Authors r e p o r t a 26% r e j e c t i o n r a t e due t o s u s p i c i o n and r e f u s a l t o accept one or more manipulations; however, there were no r e p o r t s r e g a r d i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c r e a t i n g e i t h e r the [+-] or [-+] c o n d i t i o n s . 2. C a m i l l e r i and Berger (1967) Type o f a b i l i t y : C o n t r a s t s e n s i t i v i t y Sex o f Dyad: Male and Female Scores r e c e i v e d : I n some o f t h e [+-] and [-+] c o n d i t i o n s , t h e s c o r e s were [10, 5 ] * and [5,10] s a i d t o be o u t o f a p o s s i b l e 12 c o r r e c t . I n t h e r e s t o f t h e [+-] and [-+] c o n d i t i o n s , t h e s c o r e s were [17,8] and [8,17] s a i d t o be out of a p o s s i b l e 20 c o r r e c t . In t h e [++] c o n d i t i o n , s e l f was t o l d he d i d as w e l l as h i s part n e r and t h a t they were i n the "superior" category. In the [—] c o n d i t i o n , the opposite occurred. Type o f expectations c r e a t e d : [+-], [-+], [++], and [ — ] . The p(s) s c o r e s e x p e c t e d i n t h e [-+] c o n d i t i o n s were h i g h e r t h a n t h e o b s e r v e d mean p(s). The p(s) scores expected i n the [+-] c o n d i t i o n s c l o s e l y matched the o b s e r v e d r e s u l t s . I n a d d i t i o n , d i f f e r e n t i n f l u e n c e r a t e s between c o n d i t i o n s were r e v e a l e d when i n t e r a c t i o n o f two h i g h and two low s t a t u s a c t o r s was s t u d i e d . *The general form t o express scores i n the t a b l e i s [s,o] where s=self's score and o=other's score 24 3. Conner (1977) Type o f a b i l i t y : A p t i t u d e t e s t t o measure a b i l i t y a t non-english word t e s t , Non-english word t e s t Sex of Dyad: Male and Female Scores r e c e i v e d : S c o r e s were p r o v i d e d t o s u b j e c t s b u t n o t r e p o r t e d i n t h e paper. The s u b j e c t was a l s o informed t h a t he was unu s u a l l y good and h i s p a r t n e r u n u s u a l l y bad a t the t a s k o r v i c e versa. Type of expectations c r e a t e d : [+-] and [-+]. There were no r e p o r t e d d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c r e a t i n g e i t h e r t h e [+-] o r [-+] c o n d i t i o n . 4. F o s c h i (1971) Type of a b i l i t y : P a t t e r n r e c o g n i t i o n Sex of Dyad: Female Scores r e c e i v e d : The s c o r e s were o u t o f 30. On most t r i a l s , s u b j e c t s f i r s t r e c e i v e d [10,20] and then [30,20]. Type of expectations c r e a t e d : I n t h e f i r s t p h a s e o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t [- + ] e x p e c t a t i o n s were c r e a t e d . I n t h e second phase [+-] e x p e c t a t i o n s w e r e c r e a t e d . The same sub j e c t s formed both [-+] and [+-] expectations. In the c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n , s u b j e c t s were not g i v e n s c o r e s i n t h e second phase o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t . 7 out of 77 s u b j e c t s (9%) were e l i m i n a t e d because the scores they p r e d i c t e d f o r t h e m s e l v e s i n the f i r s t p a r t d i d n o t i n d i c a t e t h e f o r m a t i o n o f [-+] expectations; however, there were no i n d i c a t i o n s o f d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the c r e a t i o n of [+-] expectations. 25 5. F o s c h i (1985) Type o f a b i l i t y : P a t t e r n r e c o g n i t i o n a b i l i t y Sex o f Dyad: Female Scores r e c e i v e d : S u b j e c t s i n t h e [+-] c o n d i t i o n r e c e i v e d h i g h e r s c o r e s t h a n t h e i r p a r t n e r s i n 15 o u t o f 25 t r i a l s . Those i n t h e [-+] c o n d i t i o n r e c e i v e d lower scores than t h e i r p a r t n e r s i n 15 out o f 25 t r i a l s . Type o f expectations created: [+-] and [-+]. S u b j e c t s i n t h e [+-] c o n d i t i o n showed l e s s c o n s e r v a t i s m i n a t t r i b u t i o n o f a b i l i t y , w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t [+-] e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e e a s i e r t o f o r m t h a n [-+] exp e c t a t i o n s . 6. Freese (1976) Type o f a b i l i t y : Meaning i n s i g h t , Complex s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n outcome p r e d i c t i o n , C o n trast s e n s i t i v i t y Sex o f Dyad: Female Scores r e c e i v e d : Scores were [21,6] and [6,21] s a i d t o be out of a p o s s i b l e 24 c o r r e c t . S u b j e c t s were i n f o r m e d t h a t s k i l l a t t h e t e s t e d a b i l i t y was d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o another a b i l i t y , and that, the scores they r e c e i v e d were u n u s u a l l y h i g h o r low by n a t i o n a l standards. Type o f expectations c r e a t e d : [++,—], [—,++], [-+,+-], and [+-,-+] ([++»—] r e p r e s e n t s t h e c o n d i t i o n i n w h i c h s e l f i s b e t t e r a t two t a s k s than other). Both [+-] and [-+] expectations on the b a s i s o f performance were s u c c e s s f u l l y formed. 26 7. Freese and Cohen (1973) Type of a b i l i t y : C o n t rast s e n s i t i v i t y , Meaning i n s i g h t Sex o f Dyad: Female Scores r e c e i v e d : S c o r e s t o f o r m [-+] were [4-5,22-23]. S c o r e s t o f o r m [+-] were [22-23,4-5]. The r e s e a r c h e r s d i d n o t i n d i c a t e t h e number of c o r r e c t scores p o s s i b l e , but s u b j e c t s were informed t h a t the scores were, r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n the top and bottom 5%. Type o f exp e c t a t i o n s c r e a t e d : [+-] and [-+]. There were no i n d i c a t i o n s o f d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c r e a t i n g e i t h e r [+-] o r [-+] expectations on the b a s i s of performance. 8. Greenstein and Knottnerus (1980) Type of a b i l i t y : Modes of p e r c e p t i o n , R e l a t i v e l y uncommon words Sex o f Dyad: Female Scores r e c e i v e d : Scores were provided t o s u b j e c t s but were not reporte d i n the paper. Subjects were informed t h a t they possessed e i t h e r a h i g h o r low t a s k a b i l i t y r e l a t i v e t o t h e i r p a r t n e r s . In the c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n , s u b j e c t s were n o t g i v e n any i n f o r m a t i o n regarding t h e i r p a r t n e r s . Type o f expectations c r e a t e d : [+-], [-+] and [00]. The r e s u l t a n t p(s) scores suggest t h a t the [-+] e x p e c t a t i o n was not f u l l y formed i n t h a t the p(s) scores i n the no i n f o r m a t i o n and [-+] c o n d i t i o n s were s i m i l a r and h i g h f o r a [-+] c o n d i t i o n . However, authors d i d not r e p o r t d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c r e a t i n g e i t h e r the [-+] o r [+-] c o n d i t i o n s . 27 9. Knottnerus and Greenstein (1981) Type o f a b i l i t y : Modes of p e r c e p t i o n , R e l a t i v e l y uncommon words Sex o f Dyad: Female Scores r e c e i v e d : S c o r e s were n o t r e p o r t e d i n t h e paper b u t were p r o v i d e d t o s u b j e c t s . Type o f expectations c r e a t e d : [+-] and [-+]. There was no r e p o r t e d d i f f i c u l t y i n c r e a t i n g t h e [-+] c o n d i t i o n . However, i n t a b l e 3, 43.8% of the s u b j e c t s i n the [-+] c o n d i t i o n thought they were equal t o other, and 56.3% thought they were worse. T h i s suggests t h a t the [-+] c o n d i t i o n was n o t f u l l y f o r m e d f o r a l m o s t h a l f t h e s u b j e c t s . I n a d d i t i o n , 64.7% o f t h e s u b j e c t s i n the [+-] c o n d i t i o n thought they were equal which suggests t h a t the [+-] c o n d i t i o n was not f u l l y c reated f o r more than h a l f those s u b j e c t s . 10. M a r t i n and S e l l (1980) Type o f a b i l i t y : C o n t r a s t s e n s i t i v i t y (per M a r t i n and S e l l ) , S o l i d w h i t e bar s l i d e t a s k Sex o f Dyad: Female Scores r e c e i v e d : S c o r e s were n o t r e p o r t e d i n t h e paper b u t were a s s i g n e d t o su b j e c t s based on a t a s k purported t o measure a b i l i t y on two, th r e e and fo u r r e l a t e d tasks. Type o f expectations c r e a t e d : [4+ l - , 4 - 1+], [4- l+,4+ 1-] [3+ l - , 3 - 1+], [3- l+,3+ 1-] [2+ l - , 2 - 1+], [2- l+,2+ 1-] ([4+ l - , 4 - 1+] r e p r e s e n t s a c o n d i t i o n i n w h i c h s e l f i s b e t t e r t h a n o t h e r a t f o u r t a s k s , and other i s b e t t e r than s e l f a t one t a s k ) . There i s a d e c r e a s e i n s t a b i l i t y o f t h e d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s as t h e p e r f o r m a n c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the a c t o r i s m o d i f i e d t o become l e s s c o n s i s t e n t . T h i s i s t o say t h a t as p e r f o r m a n c e a t a g i v e n t a s k becomes l e s s c o n s i s t e n t l y bad o r l e s s c o n s i s t e n t l y good (e.g. 4+ t o 2+ o r 4- t o 2-), t h e n t h e a c t o r i s l e s s l i k e l y t o c o n s i s t e n t l y r e j e c t o r c o n s i s t e n t l y a c c e p t i n f l u e n c e i . e . t h e d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s d e s t a b i l i z e s . As c o n s i s t e n c y decreases, the marginal u t i l i t y o f the one d i s c r e p a n t s k i l l i n c r e a s e s c a u s i n g i n c r e a s e d v a c i l l a t i o n i n t h e d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . U n c e r t a i n t y as t o t h e t a s k r e l e v a n c e o f t h e s k i l l s t h a t comprise the performance c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n creases. T h i s decrease i n s t a b i l i t y i s more pronounced f o r low ranked a c t o r s than f o r h i g h ranked a c t o r s due t o the tendency o f low ranked a c t o r s t o p l a c e more weight on the d i s c r e p a n t e v a l u a t i o n because i t i n f e r s s k i l l . No d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the f o r m a t i o n o f any of the [-+] or [+-] c o n d i t i o n s were reported. 28 11. Maxtin and S e l l (1985) Type of a b i l i t y : C o n t r a s t s e n s i t i v i t y (per M a r t i n and S e l l ) , F i g u r a l s i m i l a r i t y Sex o f Dyad: Female Scores r e c e i v e d : Scores were not provided but s u b j e c t s were e i t h e r c a t e g o r i z e d as being i n the top o r bottom 10%. Type o f expectations c r e a t e d : [+-], [-+], and [00]. There were no i n d i c a t i o n s o f d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f e i t h e r [+-] o r [-+] p e r f o r m a n c e e x p e c t a t i o n s . I t i s s u g g e s t e d , however, t h a t h i g h and low ranked a c t o r s do not process d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n s i m i l a r l y . For h i g h -r a n k a c t o r s , r a n k has l i t t l e e f f e c t on d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n ; however, r a n k s i g n i f i c a n t l y e f f e c t s low-rank a c t o r s . 12. S e l l and Freese (1984) based on Freese/Cohen data (1973) Type o f a b i l i t y : C o n t r a s t s e n s i t i v i t y , Meaning i n s i g h t Sex of Dyad: Female Scores r e c e i v e d : Scores were assigned t o s u b j e c t s but not reported. Subjects were s a i d t o be i n e i t h e r the top o r bottom 5%. Type of e x p e c t a t i o n s c r e a t e d : [+-] and [-+]. There i s a d i f f e r e n c e i n the manner by which h i g h and low s t a t u s a c t o r s evaluate t h e m s e l v e s . Low s t a t u s , h i g h p e r f o r m a n c e a c t o r s t e n d t o i g n o r e t h e i r s t a t u s ; whereas, h i g h s t a t u s , low performance a c t o r s do not ignore t h e i r s t a t u s . I t was found t h a t s t a t u s i s not the o n l y v a r i a b l e i n an actor's d e c i s i o n making process when c o n t r a d i c t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d . I n f a c t , p e r f o r m a n c e i s more important when a c t o r s are h i g h rank. There was no i n d i c a t i o n o f d i f f i c u l t i e s i n forming e i t h e r [+-] o r [-+] performance expectations. 29 13. Webster (1969) Type o f a b i l i t y : C o n t r a s t s e n s i t i v i t y Sex of Dyad: Male Scores r e c e i v e d : S c o r e s were [17,9] and [9,17]. S t a n d a r d s were as f o l l o w s : average (11-15/20), u n u s u a l l y good (16-20/20), u n u s u a l l y poor (0-10/20). H E =evaluator w i t h h i g h a b i l i t y , L E = e v a l u a t o r w i t h l ow a b i l i t y . Type o f expectations created: HE[+-], HE[-+], LE[+-], and LE[-+]. A h i g h e v a l u a t o r succeeded i n c r e a t i n g a [-+] c o n d i t i o n . There were no d i f f i c u l t i e s r e p o r t e d as t o the c r e a t i o n o f [-+] c o n d i t i o n s although the p(s) i n t h e L E [ — r ] c o n d i t i o n i s h i g h . B o t h t h e HE and LE [+-] c o n d i t i o n s were f u l l y formed. 14. Webster J r . (1977) Type o f a b i l i t y : Meaning i n s i g h t , R e l a t i o n a l i n s i g h t and C o n t r a s t s e n s i t i v i t y Sex o f Dyad: Male Scores r e c e i v e d : S c o r e s were n o t r e p o r t e d i n t h e paper b u t p r o v i d e d i n t h e f i r s t two c o n d i t i o n s o f each e x p e r i m e n t . C o n d i t i o n s t h r e e and f o u r were c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n s and t h e r e f o r e , no s c o r e s were p r o v i d e d . I n e x p e r i m e n t one, s u b j e c t s were i n f o r m e d t h a t t h e y w e r e e q u a l a n d a v e r a g e a t t w o t a s k s , a n d d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a t one. Experiment two s u b j e c t s were informed t h a t t h e y w e r e e q u a l a n d s u p e r i o r a t t w o t a s k s , a n d d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a t one. Type o f expectations c r e a t e d : [00-,00 + ] , [ 0 0 + , 0 0 - ] , [ ? ? + , ? ? - ] , [ ? ? - , ? ? + ] , [++-,+++], [+++,++-], [??+,??-], and [??-,??+]. ([00-,00+] d e s c r i b e s the c o n d i t i o n i n which s e l f and o t h e r are equal and average a t two t a s k s and d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a t one. L i k e w i s e , [+++,++-] d e s c r i b e s t h e c o n d i t i o n i n w h i c h s e l f and o t h e r a r e e q u a l a n d s u p e r i o r a t t w o t a s k s a n d d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a t one. The c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n , where no scores a r e g i v e n on the f i r s t two t a s k s , i s d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s : [??+,??-]). I t was found t h a t s u b j e c t s ignore equating i n f o r m a t i o n . There was no i n d i c a t i o n of a d i f f i c u l t y i n c r e a t i n g e i t h e r [+-] o r [-+] c o n d i t i o n s . 30 15. Z e l d i t c h J r . , Lauderdale and St u b l a r e c (1980) Type o f a b i l i t y : C o n t rast s e n s i t i v i t y Sex of Dyad: Female Scores r e c e i v e d : S c o r e s were n o t r e p o r t e d i n t h e paper b u t were p r o v i d e d t o s u b j e c t s . Type o f expectations c r e a t e d : [+-] and [-+]. Authors d i d not i n d i c a t e a d i f f i c u l t y i n forming e i t h e r [+-] o r [-+] c o n d i t i o n s . The r e s u l t s of the f i r s t experiment l e d them t o conclude t h a t those s u b j e c t s who have t a s k a b i l i t y a r e a f f e c t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e i r p a r t n e r i s h i g h s t a t u s ; whereas, h i g h s t a t u s , l o w a b i l i t y s u b j e c t s a r e n o t a f f e c t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e i r p artner i s low s t a t u s . Two c o n c l u s i o n s may be a r r i v e d a t f r o m t h e p r e c e d i n g t a b l e . F i r s t , t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s o f e x p e c t a t i o n s d i f f e r s b e t w e e n men and women. T h i s may be due t o f e w r e s e a r c h e r s h a v i n g c o n c e n t r a t e d on a c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n t w o s e t s o f m a l e a n d f e m a l e s a m e - g e n d e r d y a d s . O f t h e f i f t e e n s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d , o n l y t w o ( C a m i l l e r i a n d B e r g e r , 1967; C o n n e r , 197 7 ) w e r e c o n d u c t e d u s i n g b o t h m a l e a n d f e m a l e s u b j e c t s . Of t h e s e t w o s t u d i e s , n e i t h e r p r e s e n t s a c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n m a l e and f e m a l e s a m e - s e x d y a d s . A c c o r d i n g t o e x p e c t a t i o n s t a t e s t h e o r y , d i f f u s e s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s u c h a s g e n d e r , b e c o m e s a l i e n t o n l y w h e n t h e y a r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . I n s u c h a c a s e , t h e y b e c o m e t h e b a s i s o f d i f f e r e n t i a t e d e x p e c t a t i o n s . M a l e a nd f e m a l e d y a d s a r e n o t p r e d i c t e d t o d i f f e r i n t h e w a y t h e y f o r m e x p e c t a t i o n s , a n d p e r h a p s b e c a u s e o f t h i s , t h e y h a v e n o t b e e n e x t e n s i v e l y s t u d i e d . 31 In r e f e r e n c e to d i f f e r e n c e s i n the f o r m a t i o n of e x p e c t a t i o n s i n [+-] and [-+] c o n d i t i o n s , there i s l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n t h a t one c o n d i t i o n i s e a s i e r to generate than another and the authors g i v e no i n d i c a t i o n o f d i f f i c u l t i e s a s i d e from F o s c h i (1971) who mentions t h a t s u c c e s s f u l c r e a t i o n o f the [-+] c o n d i t i o n was p r o b l e m a t i c . In a d d i t i o n , most of t h e s t u d i e s do n o t i n c l u d e v a r i a n c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the values of the dependent v a r i a b l e s i n d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o use the v a r i a n c e to check i f th e r e were any d i f f i c u l t i e s i n forming [-+] e x p e c t a t i o n s . Although no i n d i c a t i o n s were found r e g a r d i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n the f o r m a t i o n o f e x p e c t a t i o n s between males and f e m a l e s or between [-+] and [+-] c o n d i t i o n s , a number of r e s e a r c h e r s commented on the d i f f e r e n t behavior of hig h s t a t u s and low s t a t u s s u b j e c t s . C a m i l l e r i and Berger (1967), Freese and Cohen (1973)', M a r t i n and S e l l (1980, 1985), S e l l and F r e e s e (1984), and Z e l d i t c h e t a l . (1980) a l l n o t e d d i f f e r e n c e s between h i g h and low s t a t u s a c t o r s ' b e h a v i o r i n [+-] and [-+] c o n d i t i o n s . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i s the S e l l and Freese study (1984) i n which p e r f o r m a n c e was foun d t o be i m p o r t a n t t o the s u b j e c t o n l y when the a c t o r i s o f a h i g h rank. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , s t u d i e s which have formed [-+] e x p e c t a t i o n s on t h e b a s i s o f s c o r e s do n o t shed much l i g h t on the p r o b l e m of c r e a t i n g [-+] c o n d i t i o n s f o r males, a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s some 32 i n d i c a t i o n t h a t [-+] and [+-] c o n d i t i o n s are formed d i f f e r e n t l y . Since none of these s t u d i e s makes comparisons between both male and female dyads, they cannot account f o r the d i f f e r e n c e between male and female responses i n the F o s c h i , Warriner and Hart study. Due t o the l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e F o s c h i e t a l . s t u d y , i t was d e c i d e d t o r e p l i c a t e p o r t i o n s o f t h e i r s t u d y . T h e r e f o r e , t h e p r e s e n t work r e p l i c a t e s some o f t h e i r c o n d i t i o n s w i t h s e l e c t e d changes. The p o r t i o n s of the o r i g i n a l study which were r e p l i c a t e d are the [-+] c o n d i t i o n s only, s i n c e these are the c o n d i t i o n s i n which the a u t h o r s r e p o r t d i f f i c u l t i e s . In p a r t i c u l a r , t h e y f o u n d no d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e s t r o n g and weak [-+] c o n d i t i o n s when a n a l y z i n g combined male and f e m a l e p(s) s c o r e s . T h e r e f o r e , gender o f dyad w i l l be t r e a t e d as a t h i r d v a r i a b l e i n the p r e s e n t work. The m o d i f i c a t i o n s to the F o s c h i e t a l . study r e s u l t i n the f o l l o w i n g f o u r c o n d i t i o n s : 1. Male, Weak [-+]; 2. Male, S t r o n g [-+]; 3. Female, Weak [-+]; 4. Female, S t r o n g [-+]. A l t h o u g h there were no v a r i a t i o n s i n the standards s e t f o r male and female s u b j e c t s , c r e a t i n g two d i s t i n c t s t a n d a r d s was p r o b l e m a t i c , w h e t h e r due t o t e c h n i c a l r e a s o n s o r g e n d e r d i f f e r e n c e s . Therefore, no d i f f e r e n c e s are p r e d i c t e d between both c o n d i t i o n s 1 & 3, and between c o n d i t i o n s 2 & 4. G i v e n t h e s c o p e c o n d i t i o n s o f t a s k and c o l l e c t i v e 33 o r i e n t a t i o n , and same-sex dyads, the f o l l o w i n g i s p r e d i c t e d : A p e r s o n h o l d i n g s t r o n g [-+] e x p e c t a t i o n s w i l l r e j e c t l e s s i n f l u e n c e from a p a r t n e r than a person h o l d i n g weak [-+] e x p e c t a t i o n s . As was m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y , when a d i f f u s e s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , such as gender, i s n o t s a l i e n t , i t i s n o t b e l i e v e d t o be a f a c t o r i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f e x p e c t a t i o n s . However, r e s u l t s of the o r i g i n a l study i n d i c a t e the e x i s t e n c e of gender d i f f e r e n c e s . T h i s s t u d y i s d e s i g n e d t o a s s e s s whether males and f e m a l e s w i l l behave as B e r g e r e t a l . s u g g e s t o r as F o s c h i , W a r r i n e r and H a r t found. In o t h e r words, w i l l f e m a l e s h o l d i n g s t r o n g [-+] e x p e c t a t i o n s d i f f e r i n a c c e p t a n c e o f i n f l u e n c e from males h o l d i n g s t r o n g [-+] e x p e c t a t i o n s ? A l s o , w i l l there be d i f f e r e n c e s i n acceptance of i n f l u e n c e between males and females h o l d i n g weak [-+] e x p e c t a t i o n s ? In a d d i t i o n , o t h e r v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e e x p l o r e d t o o b s e r v e whether males and f e m a l e s d i f f e r i n t h i s r e s p e c t . These i n c l u d e i m p o r t a n c e o f t a s k , f e e l i n g o f c o n t r o l , m o t i v a t i o n and s e r i o u s n e s s about t a s k p e r f o r m a n c e . The r e p l i c a t i o n o f the F o s c h i , W a r r i n e r and H a r t study a l s o c o n t a i n s methodological changes which are d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g chapter. 34 Chapter I I I - Research Design and Procedure  Overview T h i s e x p e r i m e n t was r u n i n t h e s m a l l groups l a b o r a t o r y a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i n the summer o f 1985. The experimental method used was t r a d i t i o n a l of e x p e c t a t i o n s t a t e s theory r e s e a r c h w i t h the a d d i t i o n of standards as per the F o s c h i , Warriner and Hart study (1985). A s i t u a t i o n was c o n s t r u c t e d i n the l a b o r a t o r y r e q u i r i n g each p e r s o n i n a same-gender dyad t o choose between r e j e c t i n g and a c c e p t i n g i n f l u e n c e from h i s or her p a r t n e r . In a l l c o n d i t i o n s , t h e o n l y i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n t o s u b j e c t s about t h e i r p a r t n e r s was gender, and y e a r i n s c h o o l a t U.B.C. ( s u b j e c t s a r e a l w a y s d e s c r i b e d as i d e n t i c a l t o t h e i r p a r t n e r s t o av o i d the i n t r o d u c t i o n of s t a t u s b i a s ) . In the s t r o n g [-+] c o n d i t i o n , s e l f was. g i v e n a computer p r i n t o u t c o n t a i n i n g s c o r e s and s t a n d a r d s w h i c h d e t e r m i n e t h a t s e l f d e f i n i t e l y d o e s n o t p o s s e s s t h e a b i l i t y o f C o n t r a s t S e n s i t i v i t y and t h a t other d e f i n i t e l y does possess t h i s a b i l i t y . In t h e weak [-+] c o n d i t i o n , s e l f was g i v e n s c o r e s w i t h the accompanying s t a n d a r d s w h i c h i n d i c a t e t h a t s e l f d i d not do as w e l l as other. However, s e l f was l e d to b e l i e v e t h a t from these scores i t cannot be concluded t h a t s e l f d e f i n i t e l y does not have the a b i l i t y , and t h a t other d e f i n i t e l y does. In both c o n d i t i o n s , though, m a n i p u l a t e d s c o r e s f o r s e l f and o t h e r showed t h a t s e l f performed p o o r l y i n comparison w i t h other. The same scores were u s e d i n b o t h c o n d i t i o n s . However, t h e c o n d i t i o n s w ere 35 d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by v a r y i n g the standard w i t h which the scores were to be i n t e r p r e t e d by the su b j e c t . Scope C o n d i t i o n s and Other V a r i a b l e s The scope c o n d i t i o n s of t h i s experiment are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h o s e t r a d i t i o n a l l y e m p l o y e d i n e x p e c t a t i o n s s t a t e s experiments. A s i t u a t i o n i n which two people work together on a c o l l e c t i v e task was c o n s t r u c t e d . Each member of the team had to decide whether to accept or r e j e c t the advise of h i s / h e r partner. Both s u b j e c t s were m o t i v a t e d t o s u c c e e d , and t h e t a s k was p e r c e i v e d as v a l u a b l e and important. I n s t r u c t i o n s s p e c i f i e d t h a t s u b j e c t s be g u i d e d by s k i l l f u l p a r t n e r s and a v o i d b e i n g l e d a s t r a y by p a r t n e r s p e r c e i v e d as h a v i n g poor judgement and l e s s s k i l l . T a s k o r i e n t a t i o n was p r o m o t e d by t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r e m p h a s i z i n g t h a t the t a s k i s i m p o r t a n t , and m e n t i o n i n g t h a t a p r e s t i g i o u s u n i v e r s i t y such as St a n f o r d i s studying the a b i l i t y w h i c h t h i s t a s k t e s t s . In a d d i t i o n , i t was emphas i z e d t h a t a l t h o u g h t h i s t a s k i s u n r e l a t e d t o a l l known a b i l i t i e s , i t i s used i n most major a p t i t u d e t e s t s . C o l l e c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n was en c o u r a g e d by the e x p e r i m e n t e r through i n s t r u c t i o n s to s u b j e c t s s p e c i f y i n g t h a t o n l y t h e i r f i n a l c h o i c e c o u n t s t o wards t h e team s c o r e and t h a t t h e r e i s no r e c o r d i n g o f i n i t i a l i n d i v i d u a l c h o i c e when w o r k i n g as a team. The g o a l o f w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r was emphas i z e d f r e q u e n t l y i n the 36 i n s t r u c t i o n s and an a n a l o g y i l l u s t r a t i n g t he i m p o r t a n c e o f teamwork i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n was made. A number of qu e s t i o n s i n the i n t e r v i e w e r ' s summary and q u e s t i o n n a i r e were used to v e r i f y whether the s u b j e c t d i d indeed meet the scope c o n d i t i o n s . T h i s e x p e r i m e n t i s p r i n c i p a l l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between f o u r major v a r i a b l e s : s c o r e s ; s t a n d a r d s ; e x p e c t a t i o n s ; and i n f l u e n c e . The independent v a r i a b l e s of scores and s t a n d a r d s e f f e c t t h e i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e o f e x p e c t a t i o n s . T h i s v a r i a b l e , which i s the e x p e c t a t i o n s of s e l f toward the task a b i l i t y of other, i n t u r n e f f e c t s the dependent v a r i a b l e which i s the degree of i n f l u e n c e accorded by s e l f to other. Experimental Environment The experiment was conducted over a two month p e r i o d . Each e x p e r i m e n t a l r u n l a s t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y one hour. F o r each r un, there were three members of the r e s e a r c h team: the experimenter (host); the I.C.O.M. c o n t r o l l e r ; and the confederate. A standard room a r r a n g e m e n t as per the g u i d e l i n e s o f e x p e c t a t i o n s t a t e s r e s e a r c h was u t i l i z e d (see Appendix A). T h i s experiment r e q u i r e d the use of I n t e r a c t i o n C o n t r o l Machines (ICOM) ( f o r a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the ICOM see Webster J r . and S o b i e s z e k , 1974: 171). There was one t e r m i n a l f o r each s u b j e c t , connected t o the c e n t r a l c o n t r o l panel, from where the experimenter conducted the necessary m a n i p u l a t i o n s . 37 Subject S e l e c t i o n N i n e t y - t h r e e s u b j e c t s , r e c r u i t e d from f i r s t and second year s p r i n g and summer s e s s i o n c o u r s e s , p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the s t u d y . S u b j e c t s were v o l u n t e e r s and r e m u n e r a t i o n was p r o v i d e d i n the for m of t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o win one of f o u r $50 p r i z e s . The age of the v o l u n t e e r s r a n g e d from 17 t o 22, i n c l u s i v e , the mean age b e i n g 19.14 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 1.30. They were a s s i g n e d a t random t o e i t h e r a weak [-+] c o n d i t i o n o r a s t r o n g [-+] c o n d i t i o n . H a l f the s u b j e c t s were male, t h e o t h e r h a l f female and they were run i n same-sex dyads. In order t o ensure t h a t a l l s u b j e c t s met the v a r i o u s c r i t e r i a making them e l i g i b l e f o r a n a l y s i s , a number o f r e j e c t i o n r u l e s were f o r m u l a t e d b e f o r e h a n d . The r e j e c t i o n r u l e s u t i l i z e d were s t r i n g e n t , y e t s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . R e j e c t i o n was i n d i c a t e d by any one o f t h e f o i l o w i n g : 1. I f the scope c o n d i t i o n s were n o t met 2. I f th e r e were w e l l a r t i c u l a t e d s u s p i c i o n s 3. I f th e r e was no doubt t h a t the [-+] manipulations were u n s u c c e s s f u l 4. I f th e r e were b l a t a n t i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n the responses i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e In a l l l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i m e n t s t h e r e i s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f e x p e r i m e n t e r b i a s . E v e r y p o s s i b l e e f f o r t was made t o m i n i m i z e the e f f e c t o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r . The same r e s e a r c h e r c o n d u c t e d a l l e x p e r i m e n t a l t r i a l s , a t t e n t i o n was p a i d t o m a i n t a i n i n g u n i f o r m i t y of a t t i r e and appearance f o r the d u r a t i o n of the study T h i s study has been approved by the U.B.C. b e h a v i o u r a l s c i e n c e s s c r e e n i n g c o m m i t t e e f o r r e s e a r c h and o t h e r s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g human s u b j e c t s , c e r t i f i c a t e of approval #B84-257. 38 a n d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s p r o v i d e d w e r e s t a n d a r d i z e d , w i t h n o d e v i a t i o n f r o m t h e p r e s c r i b e d t e x t . D e s c r i p t i o n o f T a s k T h e r e w e r e t w o s t a g e s t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t , b o t h u s i n g t h e c o n t r a s t s e n s i t i v i t y s l i d e t a s k . T h e s l i d e c o n s i s t s o f t w o r e c t a n g u l a r d e s i g n s ( s e e a p p e n d i x B ) . T h e s u b j e c t m u s t d e c i d e w h i c h r e c t a n g l e c o n t a i n s a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f w h i t e . I n f a c t , e a c h r e c t a n g l e c o n t a i n s a n e q u a l amount o f w h i t e . S i n c e t h e r e i s no c o r r e c t a n s w e r , t h e s u b j e c t c a n n o t j u d g e h i s / h e r p a r t n e r ' s s k i l l b a s e d o n a c t u a l p e r f o r m a n c e a n d h a s t o r e l y o n t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o f t h e p r i n t o u t g i v e n b y t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r . T h i s t a s k was d e v e l o p e d b y Moore i n t h e e a r l y 1960's a nd h a s b e e n p e r f e c t e d s o t h a t t h e t a s k d o e s a p p e a r t o h a v e a c o r r e c t a n s w e r . E x p e r i m e n t a l P r o c e d u r e s  I n s t r u c t i o n s a n d I.C.O.M. A f t e r t h e s u b j e c t s i g n e d t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r - v o l u n t e e r c o n t r a c t 4 , ( s e e a p p e n d i x C) a s e t o f s t a n d a r d i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n s ( s e e a p p e n d i x D) w e r e g i v e n t o t h e s u b j e c t s . I n s t r u c t i o n s w e r e d e l i v e r e d i m m e d i a t e l y p r i o r t o e a c h s e c t i o n o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t . The i n s t r u c t i o n s a n d t h e i r d e l i v e r y w e r e s t a n d a r d i z e d , i . e . v o c a l ^ T h e r e i s a n i m p e r c e p t i b l y g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f w h i t e t h a n b l a c k [ 4 8 % a n d 5 2 % ] , b u t t h e h u m a n e y e p e r c e i v e s a n e q u a l a m o u n t o f w h i t e a n d b l a c k . 4 T h e c o n t r a c t c o n t a i n s t h e t e r m s o f v o l u n t e e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i n d i c a t i n g t h e o p t i o n t o end p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t a n y t i m e d u r i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t , g u a r a n t e e i n g c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y a n d t h a t no p h y s i c a l o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l h arm w i l l come t o a n y p a r t i c i p a n t s . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s f o r m i s t o p u t t h e s u b j e c t a t e a s e . 39 i n t o n a t i o n s a n d f r e q u e n c y o f e y e c o n t a c t b e t w e e n t h e s u b j e c t , e x p e r i m e n t e r a n d c o n f e d e r a t e w e r e k e p t a s s i m i l a r a s p o s s i b l e . The I.C.O.M. w a s u s e d i n t h e f i r s t p a r t t o a p p e a r a s i f t h e o u t c o m e o f t h e f i r s t 20 t r i a l s w as b e i n g r e c o r d e d s i n c e t h e s u b j e c t w a s t o l d t h a t t h e t e r m i n a l w a s a t t a c h e d t o a c o m p u t e r w h i c h w o u l d r e c o r d t h e r e s u l t s . A t t h e end o f t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n t h e s u b j e c t ' s s c o r e a n d r e l e v a n t s t a n d a r d w a s i n d i c a t e d b y t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r o n c o m p u t e r p r i n t o u t s , and t h e n t h e p r i n t o u t s w e r e h a n d e d t o b o t h t h e s u b j e c t a n d c o n f e d e r a t e . The c o m p u t e r p r i n t o u t c o n t a i n e d t h e o u t c o m e o f e a c h t r i a l , t h e s c o r e s f o r b o t h t h e s u b j e c t a n d c o n f e d e r a t e , a n d t h e s t a n d a r d s f o r p o s s e s s i n g t h e a b i l i t y , l a c k i n g t h e a b i l i t y , a n d f a l l i n g i n t o t h e m i d d l e c a t e g o r y w h e r e t a s k a b i l i t y c a n n o t be d e t e r m i n e d . I n t h e s e c o n d p a r t o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t , t h e s u b j e c t s made d e c i s i o n s on 25 t r i a l s . H e r e t h e ICOM was u s e d t o c o m m u n i c a t e a s t a n d a r d i z e d s e q u e n c e o f f i v e a g r e e m e n t s a n d t w e n t y d i s a g r e e m e n t s t o t h e s u b j e c t . A r e c o r d i n g s h e e t w a s p r o v i d e d f o r t h e M a s t e r ICOM o p e r a t o r t o r e c o r d t h e o u t c o m e o f e a c h t r i a l , i e . i n i t i a l c h o i c e , f i n a l c h o i c e a n d a c c e p t a n c e o r r e j e c t i o n o f i n f l u e n c e ( s e e a p p e n d i x E ) . D a t a C o l l e c t i o n  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e I n o r d e r t o v e r i f y t h a t t h e s c o p e c o n d i t i o n s w e r e m e t a n d t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s w e r e s u c c e s s f u l l y c r e a t e d , a n o p i n i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( a p p e n d i x F) w a s c o m p l e t e d b y e a c h s u b j e c t . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n t a i n s a v a r i e t y o f c h e c k s , s u c h a s i n s t r u c t i o n 40 c o m p r e h e n s i o n and a w a r e n e s s o f t h e s e t o f s t a n d a r d s p r o v i d e d . I n t e r v i e w e r ' s summary S u b s e q u e n t t o c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and p r i o r t o t h e d e b r i e f i n g , t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r i n t e r v i e w e d t h e s u b j e c t a s a n a d d i t i o n a l c h e c k t h a t a l l s c o p e c o n d i t i o n s w e r e met, i n s t r u c t i o n s w e r e u n d e r s t o o d a n d t h a t t h e s u b j e c t was n o t s u s p i c i o u s o f t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n s . ( P l e a s e r e f e r t o a p p e n d i x G f o r t h e i n t e r v i e w summary f o r m and d i s c u s s i o n on t h e i n t e r v i e w ) . D e b r i e f i n g A f t e r t h e o p i n i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a d m i n i s t e r e d , t h e s u b j e c t was i n t e r v i e w e d and d e b r i e f e d . A d e b r i e f i n g b o o k l e t was p r o v i d e d f o r t h e s u b j e c t t o r e a d . I t c o n t a i n e d a f u l l e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n s c o n d u c t e d and t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e s t u d y . Q u e s t i o n s w e r e a d d r e s s e d a n d a n y m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s c o r r e c t e d . A t t h i s t i m e , t h e s u b j e c t w a s r e q u e s t e d t o s i g n a s e c r e c y f o r m c o m m i t t i n g h i m / h e r t o r e f r a i n f r o m d i s c u s s i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t . The i n t e n t i o n o f t h i s i n s t r u m e n t was t o m i n i m i z e t h e c o n t a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p o o l o f p o t e n t i a l s u b j e c t s . ( P l e a s e r e f e r t o t h e a p p e n d i c e s f o r t h e d e b r i e f i n g f o r m a n d b o o k l e t ( a p p e n d i x H) and S e c r e c y C o m m i t m e n t Form ( a p p e n d i x I ) ) . I m p r o v e m e n t s O v e r t h e F o s c h i , W a r r i n e r and H a r t S t u d y . As was d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r I I , t h e i n a b i l i t y o f t h e F o s c h i , W a r r i n e r and H a r t s t u d y t o c r e a t e t h e m a l e [-+] c o n d i t i o n s , c a l l s i n t o q u e s t i o n t h e a s s u m p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g same g e n d e r g r o u p s a n d 4 1 a n d t h e s y m m e t r i c a l n a t u r e o f s u c c e s s a n d f a i l u r e . I t i s f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h a t t h e F o s c h i , W a r r i n e r and H a r t s t u d y was e x a m i n e d more c l o s e l y and deemed w o r t h y o f r e p l i c a t i o n . T h e [-+] c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e o r i g i n a l s t u d y w e r e r e p l i c a t e d f o r b o t h m a l e s and f e m a l e s , w i t h a number o f c h a n g e s i n t e n d e d t o i m p r o v e t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n , and t o p r o v i d e a n e x p l a n a t i o n a s t o t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s e x p e r i e n c e d i n c r e a t i n g t h e t w o m a l e [-+] c o n d i t i o n s . C a r e was t a k e n n o t t o c h a n g e t h e b a s i c d e s i g n o f t h e s t u d y , t o f a c i l i t a t e c o m p a r i s o n . T a b l e 4. O v e r v i e w o f t h e E x p e r i m e n t S c o r e S t a n d a r d D e f i n i n g T r i a l s R e c e i v e d b y L a c k o f C o n d i t i o n 1-20 S e l f O t h e r A b i l i t y A b i l i t y (1) M a l e Weak [-+ ] 45% (9) 75% (15) 85% (17) 30% (6) (2) M a l e S t r o n g [- + ] 45% (9) 75% (15) 65% (13) 60% (12) (3) F e m a l e Weak [-+ ] 45% (9) 75% (15) 85% (17) 30% (6) (4) F e m a l e S t r o n g [-+] 45% (9) 75% (15) 65% (13) 60% (12) T h e r e a r e a n u m b e r o f p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h e i n a b i l i t y t o c r e a t e t w o d i s t i n c t m a l e [-+] c o n d i t i o n s . I n t h e s t u d y c o n d u c t e d b y F o s c h i , e t a l . , t h e r e may h a v e b e e n a d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e s t a n d a r d s f o r l a c k o f a b i l i t y ; t h e y may h a v e b e e n t o o l o w t o s e e m p l a u s i b l e ( t h e s t a n d a r d s w e r e 3 o u t o f 20 o r 1 5 % ) . I n m o s t a c a d e m i c i n s t i t u t i o n s t h e s t a n d a r d s f o r f a i l u r e 42 h o v e r a b o u t t h e 5 0 % m a r k , o r 10 o u t o f 20. I n o r d e r t o make t h e s t a n d a r d s f o r l a c k o f a b i l i t y m o r e r e a l i s t i c f o r t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e y w e r e s e t a s c l o s e l y a s p o s s i b l e t o 5 0 % , b e a r i n g i n m i n d t h a t t h e r e a r e t w o s t a n d a r d s f o r f a i l u r e w h i c h m u s t b e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a n d t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n f a i l u r e a n d s u c c e s s m u s t be c r e d i b l e . A l t h o u g h t h i s c h a n g e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s t a n d a r d s o f t h e t w o s t u d i e s , t h e b a s i c o b j e c t i v e — t o c r e a t e r e a l i s t i c s t a n d a r d s f o r f a i l u r e -- w a s m a i n t a i n e d . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e m a n i p u 1 a t i o n o f t h e s t a n d a r d s f o r l a c k o f a b i l i t y i n t h e o r i g i n a l s t u d y w a s p r o b l e m a t i c . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s may h a v e stemmed f r o m t h e m e t h o d b y w h i c h t h e s t a n d a r d s w e r e r e l a y e d , i e . r a w n u m b e r s e x c l u s i v e l y , a s o p p o s e d t o b o t h r a w n u m b e r s a n d p e r c e n t a g e s . I n o r d e r t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h e s t a n d a r d s , b o t h t h e r a w n u m b e r s a n d p e r c e n t a g e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s ' s u p p o s e d p e r f o r m a n c e s and t h e r e s p e c t i v e s t a n d a r d s w e r e r e l a y e d . T h i s m o d i f i c a t i o n i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n was i n t e n d e d t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e e x i s t i n g m a n i p u l a t i o n w i t h o u t c h a n g i n g i t s v e r y n a t u r e . I n t h e F o s c h i , W a r r i n e r , a n d H a r t s t u d y e a c h s u b j e c t w a s a s k e d t o e s t a b l i s h s t a n d a r d s f o r p o s s e s s i n g o r l a c k i n g t h e a b i l i t y i n t h e a b s t r a c t , f o r a h y p o t h e t i c a l o t h e r . T h i s p r o v e d t o be p r o b l e m a t i c i n t h a t i t i s i m p o r t a n t s u b j e c t s know t h a t t h e s t a n d a r d s t h e y a r e t o s e t m u s t b e f o r t h e i r s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n i e . t h e s u b j e c t a n d h i s o r h e r p a r t n e r . The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s 43 i s a s f o l l o w s : s e l f a l r e a d y p o s s e s s e s e s t a b l i s h e d o p i n i o n s r e g a r d i n g s e l f ' s a b i l i t y v i s a" v i s h i s o r h e r p a r t n e r ' s a b i l i t y . W i t h a d i f f e r e n t p a r t n e r , t h e s t a n d a r d s s e l f a p p l i e s may b e d i f f e r e n t . T h e r e f o r e , a q u e s t i o n a s k i n g t h e s u b j e c t a b o u t t h e s t a n d a r d s o f h i s / h e r s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n was p o s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . T h i s , o n c e a g a i n , d o e s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y c h a n g e t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n f r o m t h e o r i g i n a l s t u d y ; i t d o e s , h o w e v e r , p r o v i d e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o m o r e a c c u r a t e l y a s s e s s t h e s t a n d a r d s o f t h e s u b j e c t s . I n t h e o r i g i n a l s t u d y a n u m b e r o f e x p e r i m e n t e r s w e r e i n v o l v e d . A l t h o u g h t h e r e was a n e s t a b l i s h e d s c r i p t , t h e manner by w h i c h d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i m e n t e r s c o n d u c t t h e e x p e r i m e n t c a n b i a s , h o w e v e r s l i g h t l y , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t . I n t h i s s t u d y , i n o r d e r t o m i n i m i z e e x p e r i m e n t e r b i a s , t h e s ame e x p e r i m e n t e r c o n d u c t e d e a c h r u n o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t . M a l e s a nd f e m a l e s may r e a c t d i f f e r e n t l y t o t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e y h a v e f a i l e d . M a l e s may become l e s s m o t i v a t e d o r l e s s s e r i o u s t h a n f e m a l e s r e g a r d i n g t h e t a s k and may c o n s i d e r t h e t a s k u n i m p o r t a n t . C o n v e r s e l y , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t f e m a l e s a c c e p t f a i l u r e more e a s i l y , a n d do n o t become u n m o t i v a t e d o r d e v a l u e t h e t a s k b y c o n s i d e r i n g i t u n i m p o r t a n t . I n t h e o r i g i n a l s t u d y , no c h e c k s w e r e p r o v i d e d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t d e e m e d t h e t a s k t o b e i m p o r t a n t , t o o k i t s e r i o u s l y , a n d w a s m o t i v a t e d . I n t h i s s t u d y , c h e c k s o n t h e s e t h r e e v a r i a b l e s h a v e b e e n i n c l u d e d . 44 I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t men a r e a c c u s t o m e d t o b e i n g i n c o n t r o l t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n women. T h e t a s k may h a v e l e d men t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e y l a c k e d c o n t r o l o v e r t h e o u t c o m e , e n c o u r a g i n g t h e m t o i g n o r e t h e i r f a i l u r e and a t t r i b u t e f a i l u r e t o e x t e r n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , s u c h a s c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t . C o n v e r s e l y , women may n o t h a v e b e e n e f f e c t e d b y t h e same f e e l i n g s o f l a c k o f c o n t r o l , b e c a u s e women a r e n o t a s u s e d t o b e i n g i n c o n t r o l , u n l i k e men. Women, t h e r e f o r e , may t e n d n o t t o i g n o r e t h e i r f a i l u r e , b u t may a c c e p t i t a s b e i n g a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e i r l a c k o f a b i l i t y . To m o n i t o r p o s s i b l e m a l e / f e m a l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n s o f c o n t r o l , a q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e amount o f p e r c e i v e d c o n t r o l w a s p o s e d . I n t h e F o s c h i e t a l . s t u d y , - d e g r e e o f c o n t r o l p e r c e i v e d b y t h e s u b j e c t was n o t m e a s u r e d . The o r i g i n a l s t u d y u t i l i z e d a p a t t e r n r e c o g n i t i o n t a s k , w h i c h , d u e t o t a s k d i f f i c u l t y , i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t o p o s s i b l y a c c o u n t f o r t h e p r o b l e m o f m a l e s n o t a c c e p t i n g t h e s t a n d a r d s i n t h a t t h i s t a s k may h a v e b e e n p e r c e i v e d a s s o d i f f i c u l t t h a t i t may h a v e a d d e d t o a f e e l i n g o f l a c k o f c o n t r o l o v e r s c o r e s . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s s t u d y h a s u t i l i z e d t h e t a s k t h a t i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y u s e d i n e x p e c t a t i o n s t a t e s t h e o r y , n a m e l y t h e one t e s t i n g t h e f i c t i t i o u s a b i l i t y o f C o n t r a s t S e n s i t i v i t y . I n o r d e r t o s t a n d a r d i z e t h i s s t u d y t o e n a b l e c o m p a r i s o n w i t h o t h e r s t u d i e s i n e x p e c t a t i o n s t a t e s r e s e a r c h , 25 t r i a l s h a v e b e c o n d u c t e d p e r r u n i n s t e a d o f 2 0 , t h e n u m b e r o f t r i a l s i n t h e 45 F o s c h i e t a l . s t u d y . The s l i d e s h a v e b e e n s h o w n i n t h e o r d e r w h i c h h a s b e e n e x t e n s i v e l y t e s t e d t o m a k e t h e c o n t r a s t s e n s i t i v i t y t a s k w o r k b e s t ( M o o r e , 1 9 6 8 ) . F i n a l l y a n a t t e m p t h a s b e e n made t o n a r r o w t h e a g e r a n g e m o r e t h a n i n t h e p r e v i o u s e x p e r i m e n t f o r t h e s a k e o f h o m o g e n e i t y . W i t h t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e s e i m p r o v e m e n t s , i t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l h y p o t h e s i s o f t h e F o s c h i , W a r r i n e r a n d H a r t s t u d y w i l l be s u p p o r t e d f o r t h e [-+] c o n d i t i o n s a s p r e s e n t e d a t t h e e n d o f C h a p t e r I I . I n t h e n e x t t w o c h a p t e r s , t h e d a t a g e n e r a t e d t h r o u g h t h e e x p e r i m e n t a r e a n a l y s e d and i n t e r p r e t e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e h y p o t h e s i s . 46 C h a p t e r I V - D a t a A n a l y s i s  E x c l u s i o n o f S u b j e c t s A f t e r e x a m i n i n g t h e d a t a f r o m t h e p o s t - e x p e r i m e n t a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n d i n t e r v i e w , 13 o f t h e 93 s u b j e c t s r u n (13.9%) w e r e e x c l u d e d . F i v e s u b j e c t s e x p r e s s e d w e l l a r t i c u l a t e d s u s p i c i o n s , s e v e n s u b j e c t s w e r e n o t c o l l e c t i v e l y o r i e n t e d , n i n e s u b j e c t s d i d n o t f o r m [-+] e x p e c t a t i o n s , t w o s u b j e c t s c o u l d n o t r e c a l l e i t h e r t h e p e r c e n t a g e o r r a w s c o r e f o r p o s s e s s i n g o r l a c k i n g t h e a b i l i t y o f C o n t r a s t S e n s i t i v i t y , a n d f i n a l l y , t w o s u b j e c t s r e v e a l e d m a j o r i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . S e v e n o f t h e e x c l u d e d s u b j e c t s w e r e i n more t h a n o n e r e j e c t i o n c a t e g o r y . No p a t t e r n w a s e v i d e n t i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s u b j e c t s a c r o s s c o n d i t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e v a r i o u s r e j e c t i o n c a t e g o r i e s . T h e p e r c e n t a g e o f s u b j e c t s r e j e c t e d i n t h i s s t u d y i s w e l l w i t h i n t h e f i g u r e s r e p o r t e d i n s i m i l a r e x p e r i m e n t s . S e v e n f e m a l e s and s i x m a l e s w e r e e x c l u d e d f r o m a n a l y s i s . Of t h e e x c l u d e d f e m a l e s , f o u r w e r e i n t h e s t r o n g [-+] c o n d i t i o n , and t h r e e w e r e i n t h e w e a k [-+] c o n d i t i o n . Of t h e e x c l u d e d m a l e s , o n e w a s i n t h e s t r o n g [- + ] c o n d i t i o n , a n d f i v e w e r e i n t h e w e a k [-+] c o n d i t i o n . R e j e c t i o n c r i t e r i a w e r e s t r i n g e n t ( i . e . w h e n i n d o u b t , a s u b j e c t was k e p t ) a n d f o r m u l a t e d b e f o r e h a n d ( s e e A p p e n d i x J ) . The f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s h a s b e e n c o n d u c t e d on t h e 80 r e m a i n i n g s u b j e c t s . 4 7 M a n i p u l a t i o n C h e c k s I n t h e p o s t - e x p e r i m e n t a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e , e a c h s u b j e c t w a s r e q u i r e d t o r e c a l l t h e s c o r e r e c e i v e d b y s e l f a n d o t h e r . As may be e x p e c t e d , s u b j e c t s r e c a l l e d t h e s c o r e s t h e y r e c e i v e d m o r e a c c u r a t e l y t h a n t h e s c o r e s o f t h e i r p a r t n e r s . N i n e t y t w o and one h a l f p e r c e n t o f t h e s u b j e c t s r e m e m b e r e d t h e s c o r e s f o r s e l f a n d o t h e r e x a c t l y ; 7.5% d e v i a t e d s l i g h t l y f r o m t h e a c t u a l s c o r e s g i v e n , b u t a l w a y s r e c a l l e d o n e o f t h e t w o s c o r e s a c c u r a t e l y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e r e p o r t e d s c o r e s c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e t h e a c t u a l s c o r e s p r o v i d e d . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s u m m a r i z e s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s m a n i p u l a t i o n : T a b l e 5: S c o r e s a s R e p o r t e d b y S u b j e c t s A c t u a l S c o r e s S c o r e s R e c e i v e d a s R e c e i v e d R e p o r t e d b y t h e S u b j e c t s C o n d i t i o n s S e l f O t h e r S e l f X s . d . O t h e r X s . d . (1) Weak [-+] M a l e N=20 9 15 8 .95 .224 14.90 .718 (2) S t r o n g [-+] M a l e N=20 9 15 9 .00 .000 14.95 .510 (3) Weak [-+] F e m a l e N=20 9 15 9 .00 .000 15.15 .671 (4) S t r o n g [-+] F e m a l e N=20 9 15 9 .00 .000 14.90 .447 I t i s a l s o c l e a r f r o m t h e a b o v e t a b l e t h a t t h e r e a r e n o m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e s a c r o s s t h e f o u r c o n d i t i o n s i n t e r m s o f a c c u r a c y o f s u b j e c t s c o r e r e c a l l . 48 A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t m a n i p u l a t i o n check c o n c e r n s s t a n d a r d s . T a b l e 6 shows (1) t h e deg r e e t o which s u b j e c t s remembered the s t a n d a r d s p r o v i d e d t o them and (2) the s t a n d a r d s t h a t s u b j e c t s would s e t t o a s s e s s whether t h e y o r t h e i r p a r t n e r p o s s e s s e d or lacked the task a b i l i t y . The standards r e p o r t e d by s u b j e c t s were s i m i l a r t o the s t a n d a r d s w h i c h s u b j e c t s wouId s e t , wh i c h i n d i c a t e s t h e f o l l o w i n g : e i t h e r t h e p r o v i d e d s t a n d a r d s a p p r o x i m a t e d t h e s u b j e c t s ' own, o r , i f s u b j e c t s had no i n t e r n a l i z e d standards a t the beginning of the experiment, they found the ones provided by the experimenter t o be acc e p t a b l e . The standards g i v e n by the experimenter to measure task a b i l i t y were q u i t e a c c u r a t e l y r e p o r t e d by s u b j e c t s . The c a s e f o r l a c k o f a b i l i t y , however, i s somewhat d i f f e r e n t . A l t h o u g h not l a r g e , d i s c r e p a n c i e s between t h e p r o v i d e d s t a n d a r d s and the r e p o r t e d Table 6: Reported Standards Provided, Reported and Set by Subjects Per Condition Standards Given Actual Standards by Experimenters Standards as the Given by as Reported by Subjects Would Experimenter Subjects Set Them Condition For A b i l i t y For Lack of A b i l i t y For Ab i l i t y For Lack of A b i l i t y For Abi l i t y For Lack of A b i l i t y (1) Weak [-+] Male N=20 85% 30% s X 83.65% •d. 4.25 X 30.3% s.d.10.02 X 82.15% s.d. 5.21 X 31.05% s.d. 9.88 (2) Strong [-+] Male N=20 65% 60% s X 64.9% •d. 3.51 X 56.7% s.d. 6.90 X 65.4% s.d. 5.76 X 55.2% s.d. 6.73 (3) Weak [-+] Female N=20 85% 30% s X 84% .d. 3.49 X 34% s.d.14.10 X 81.95% s.d. 8.32 X 37.85% s.d.14.85 (4) Strong [-+] Female N=20 65% 60% s X 66.65% .d. 6.87 X 54.4% s.d. 8.66 X 66.4% s.d. 8.39 X 53.1% s.d. 9.45 49 s t a n d a r d s a r e c l e a r l y v i s i b l e i n t h e c a s e o f l a c k o f a b i l i t y : t h i s s t a n d a r d was l o w e r e d b y b o t h m a l e s and f e m a l e s i n t h e s t r o n g c o n d i t i o n s , a n d r a i s e d b y f e m a l e s i n t h e weak c o n d i t i o n . I n t h e f i r s t t w o c o n d i t i o n s a s t r i c t s t a n d a r d w a s l o w e r e d , w h e r e a s i n t h e t h i r d c o n d i t i o n a l e n i e n t s t a n d a r d w a s r a i s e d : t h e s e d i r e c t i o n s i n d i c a t e a t e n d e n c y t o w a r d s l e s s e x t r e m e s t a n d a r d s f o r l a c k o f a b i l i t y . The s i t u a t i o n i s s i m i l a r when one c o m p a r e s t h e s t a n d a r d s p r o v i d e d b y t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r w i t h t h o s e s e t b y t h e s u b j e c t s . T a b l e 7: M a n n - W h i t n e y U - T e s t s o n S t a n d a r d s R e p o r t e d b y S u b j e c t s C o n d i t i o n s Compared U Z p S t a n d a r d f o r A b i l i t y (1) = (3) 190.0 0.370 0 .711 " 2 -(2) = (4) 177.5 0.689 0 .491 S t a n d a r d f o r L a c k o f A b i l i t y t a i l e d ( 1 ) = ( 3 ) 171.5 0.927 0 .354 (2) = (4) 159 .0 1.176 0 .240 _ S t a n d a r d f o r A b i l i t y ( 1 ) > ( 2 ) 2.0 5.608 0 .000 " 1 -(3)>(4) 14.5 5.282 0 .000 S t a n d a r d f o r L a c k o f A b i l i t y t a i l e d (1)<{2) 9.5 5.305 0 .000 (3)< (4) 44.0 4.363 0 .000 * a d j u s t e d f o r t i e s T a b l e 8: M a n n - W h i t n e y U - T e s t s * o n S t a n d a r d s S e t b y S u b j e c t s C o n d i t i o n s Compared U Z p S t a n d a r d f o r A b i l i t y (1) = (3) 186.5 0.439 0 .661 (2) = (4) 198.5 0.043 0 .965 S t a n d a r d f o r L a c k o f A b i l i t y (1) = (3) 153.0 1.326 0 .185 (2) = (4) 180.0 0.551 0 .582 _ S t a n d a r d f o r A b i l i t y ( 1 ) > ( 2 ) 7.5 5.330 0 .000 " ( 3 ) > ( 4 ) 36.0 4.625 0 .000 S t a n d a r d f o r L a c k o f A b i l i t y ( D < ( 2 ) 12.0 5.134 0 .000 ( 3 ) < ( 4 ) 72.5 3.493 0 .000 • a d j u s t e d f o r t i e s 50 The d i f f e r e n c e s a n d s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n c o n d i t i o n s r e g a r d i n g s t a n d a r d s w e r e c r e a t e d a s e x p e c t e d a s i s e v i d e n t b y t h e p v a l u e s i n T a b l e s 7 and 8. A n o t h e r m a n i p u l a t i o n c h e c k w h i c h a s s e s s e s t h e d e g r e e o f s u c c e s s a c h i e v e d i n c r e a t i n g t h e f o u r c o n d i t i o n s i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e 9. The d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t t w o d i s t i n c t c o n d i t i o n s w e r e c r e a t e d f o r b o t h m a l e s a n d f e m a l e s , a l t h o u g h t h e f e m a l e c o n d i t i o n s a r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d t o a g r e a t e r d e g r e e t h a n t h e m a l e c o n d i t i o n s . I t m u s t b e n o t e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t c o n d i t i o n s (2) a n d (3) a r e s i m i l a r . T h i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n C h a p t e r V. T a b l e 9: R e p o r t e d A b i l i t y o f O t h e r R e l a t i v e t o S e l f Much C o n d i t i o n B e t t e r B e t t e r Same (1) Weak [-+] 2 17 1 M a l e N=20 (100%) 10% 85% 5% (2) S t r o n g [-+] 6 12 2 M a l e N=20 (100%) •30% « 60% 10% (3) Weak [-+] 6 14 0 F e m a l e N=20 (100%) 30% 70% 0% (4) S t r o n g [-+] 13 7 0 F e m a l e N=20 (100%) 65% 35% 0% A l s o o f i n t e r e s t i s t h a t t h r e e o f t h e f o r t y m a l e s u b j e c t s -b u t n o n e o f t h e f e m a l e s u b j e c t s - p e r c e i v e d t h e i r p a r t n e r s a s b e i n g o f e q u a l a b i l i t y d e s p i t e t h e h i g h a c c u r a c y o f s c o r e r e c a l l . 51 T h i s s u g g e s t s s l i g h t l y more w i l l i n g n e s s on t h e p a r t o f f e m a l e s t o a d m i t t h a t t h e i r p a r t n e r s w e r e more s k i l l e d t h a n t h e y w e r e . D e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e R e s u l t s o n t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t h r e e t a b l e s . The number o f s - r e s p o n s e s i s t h e a c t u a l n u m b e r o f t r i a l s i n w h i c h o t h e r ' s i n f l u e n c e w a s r e j e c t e d ; i n T a b l e 10, t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f s u c h r e s p o n s e s i s a l s o g i v e n . T a b l e 10: R e j e c t i o n o f I n f l u e n c e b y C o n d i t i o n Number o f s - R e s p o n s e s P r o p o r t i o n o f s - R e s p o n s e s C o n d i t i o n X s . d . X s . d . (1) Weak [-+] M a l e N=20 9.25 2.86 .463 .143 (2) S t r o n g [-+] M a l e N=20 8.80 2.63 .440 .131 (3) Weak [-+] F e m a l e N=20 9.55 2.42 .475 .122 (4) S t r o n g [-+] F e m a l e N=20 7.00 2.05 .350 .103 T a b l e 11 p r e s e n t s t e s t r e s u l t s c o n c e r n i n g d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n c o n d i t i o n s . The h y p o t h e s i s , r e p r e s e n t e d a s f o l l o w s , h a s b e e n p a r t i a l l y s u p p o r t e d : 1. (1) > (2) 2. (3) > (4) T h e s e c o n d i n e q u a l i t y i s s u p p o r t e d , b u t t h e f i r s t i s n o t 52 ( a l t h o u g h r e s u l t s f o r t h e f i r s t a r e i n t h e p r e d i c t e d d i r e c t i o n ) . T h e s e f i n d i n g s r e p l i c a t e t h o s e o f t h e F o s c h i e t a l . s t u d y . I n a d d i t i o n , r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e a d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e way i n w h i c h m a l e s a n d f e m a l e s b e h a v e . The r a t e s o f i n f l u e n c e i n c o n d i t i o n s (1) and (3) a r e e s s e n t i a l l y e q u a l . I n c o n d i t i o n s (2) a n d ( 4 ) , h o w e v e r , t h e y a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . T h e s e f i n d i n g s a r e a l s o s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f F o s c h i , W a r r i n e r a nd H a r t . it T a b l e 1 1 : M a n n - W h i t n e y U - T e s t s o n t h e P r o p o r t i o n o f s - R e s p o n s e s C o n d i t i o n s Compared U Z p (1) = (3) 197.0 0709 0.935 "1 (2) = (4) . 124.0 2.08 0.038 J t a i l e d (1) > (2) 173.0 0.736 0.231 "1 1 -(3) > (4) 89.0 3.028 0.001 J t a i l e d • a d j u s t e d f o r t i e s T a b l e 12 s h o w s t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e c o n d u c t e d o n s t a n d a r d s a n d s e x , f i n d i n g a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t m a i n e f f e c t o f s t a n d a r d s . A s t h e p r e v i o u s t a b l e i n d i c a t e s , t h i s r e s u l t i s m o s t l y d u e t o t h e f e m a l e s ' b e h a v i o u r . I n a d d i t i o n , a m a r g i n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n s t a n d a r d s a n d s e x i s i n d i c a t e d . T a b l e 1 2 : S u m m a r y o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e b y S t a n d a r d s a n d S e x o f S u b j e c t S o u r c e MS d f F P S t a n d a r d s ( A ) 1087. 812 1 6. .890 0. .010 Sex o f S u b j e c t ( B ) 300. 312 1 1. .902 0. .172 A X B 5 2 5 . 313 1 3. .327 0. .072 T o t a l 176. 104 79 53 , Sex D i f f e r e n c e s T a b l e s 9, 1 0 , a n d 11 i n d i c a t e t h e e x i s t e n c e o f d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n m a l e a nd f e m a l e s u b j e c t s : t h e m a l e [-+] c o n d i t i o n s a r e l e s s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d t h a n t h e f e m a l e [-+] c o n d i t i o n s . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e t h r e e t a b l e s t o g e t h e r s h o w t h a t i n t h e s t r o n g c o n d i t i o n s f e m a l e s w e r e m o r e c o n v i n c e d t h a n m a l e s o f t h e i r i n f e r i o r i t y t o t h e p a r t n e r , a n d b e h a v e d a c c o r d i n g l y . F u r t h e r m o r e , T a b l e 12 s u g g e s t s a n i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n s t a n d a r d s a n d s e x o f s u b j e c t . I n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y t h e s o u r c e o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s , f o u r p o s s i b l e c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s a r e a n a l y s e d . T h e f i r s t v a r i a b l e i n v e s t i g a t e d i s t h a t o f p e r c e i v e d c o n t r o l . F i g u r e 1 s h o w s t h a t m o s t s u b j e c t s i n d i c a t e e i t h e r l i t t l e o r some c o n t r o l , a n d t h a t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f m a l e s a n d f e m a l e s i n b o t h weak and s t r o n g c o n d i t i o n s a r e q u i t e s i m i l a r . F i g u r e 1: D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u b j e c t s b y L e v e l o f P e r c e i v e d C o n t r o l N Weak [-+] Condi t i o n s N Strong [-+] Con d i t i o n s t No L i t t l e Some T o t a l t No L i t t l e Some T o t a l s C o n t r o l C o n t r o l C o n t r o l C o n t r o l s C o n t r o l C o n t r o l C o n t r o l C o n t r o l 54 H o w e v e r , w h e n l e v e l o f p e r c e i v e d c o n t r o l i s t r e a t e d a s a t h i r d i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e ( w i t h t w o l e v e l s : t o t a l o r some, and l i t t l e o r n o n e ) , r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e a d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n m a l e s a nd f e m a l e s : a t e a c h l e v e l o f c o n t r o l , t h e m a l e s t e n d t o r e s p o n d t o t h e s t r o n g a n d weak t r e a t m e n t s i n a s i m i l a r way, w h e r e a s women's b e h a v i o u r i s m o r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e s t r o n g / w e a k t r e a t m e n t s . T h i s i s s h o w n i n F i g u r e 2, a n d i n t h e s i g n i f i c a n t p v a l u e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s t a n d a r d s i n T a b l e 13. I t i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e how t h e m a l e s a nd f e m a l e s r e a c t e d d i f f e r e n t l y t o p e r c e i v e d l i t t l e o r n o c o n t r o l . When f e e l i n g n o t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r s c o r e s , men a p p e a r t o b e u n w i l l i n g t o a s s i g n l e s s a b i l i t y t o s e l f t h a n t o o t h e r . T h e women, o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , a p p e a r t o be r e a d y t o a c c e p t h a v i n g i n f e r i o r a b i l i t y i n l i n e w i t h t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t s t h o u g h t h e y do n o t t h i n k t h a t t h e o u t c o m e i s u n d e r t h e i r c o n t r o l . F i g u r e 2: P ( s ) a s a F u n c t i o n o f S t a n d a r d s , S e x o f S u b j e c t a n d L e v e l o f P e r c e i v e d C o n t r o l Mean P ( s ) T o t a l o r Some C o n t r o l (M: 2 9 , F: 23) M a l e s F e m a l e s L i t t l e o r No C o n t r o l (M: 1 1 , F: 17) mean P ( s ) 500 M a l e s . 496 F e m a l e s — ^ 500 290 Weak S t r o n g Weak S t r o n g 55 T a b l e 1 3 : S u m m a r y o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e b y S t a n d a r d s , S e x o f S u b j e c t a n d L e v e l o f P e r c e i v e d C o n t r o l S o u r c e MS d f F P S t a n d a r d s ( A ) 892. 336 1 5.723 0.019 Sex o f S u b j e c t ( B ) 3 9 1 . 949 1 2.514 0.117 L e v e l o f P e r c e i v e d C o n t r o l ( C ) 285. 264 1 1.830 0.180 A X B 408. 301 1 2.619 0.110 A X C 105. 178 1 0.675 0.414 B X C 256. 758 1 1.647 0.204 A X B X C 287. 376 1 1.843 0.179 T o t a l 176. 104 79 T h e o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t i s t h e m a i n e f f e c t f o r s t a n d a r d s . The s e c o n d v a r i a b l e c o n c e r n s t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h s u b j e c t s w e r e s e r i o u s a b o u t p e r f o r m i n g t h e t a s k w e l l . F i g u r e 3: D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u b j e c t s b y S e r i o u s n e s s R e g a r d i n g T a s k P e r f o r m a n c e Weak [-+] C o n d i t i o n s S t r o n g [-+] C o n d i t i o n s s Agree Uncertain Disagree s Agree Uncertain Disagree T h e r e a r e p r a c t i c a l l y n o d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n m a l e s a n d 56 f e m a l e s i n e i t h e r g r a p h . N o t e t h a t m o s t s u b j e c t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y w e r e s e r i o u s a b o u t p e r f o r m i n g t h e t a s k . When s e r i o u s n e s s a b o u t p e r f o r m i n g t h e t a s k i s t r e a t e d a s a t h i r d i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e ( w i t h t w o l e v e l s : (1) a g r e e , a n d (2) u n c e r t a i n and d i s a g r e e ) t h e f o l l o w i n g p i c t u r e e m e r g e s : F i g u r e 4: P ( s ) a s a F u n c t i o n o f S t a n d a r d s , S e x o f S u b j e c t a n d S e r i o u s n e s s R e g a r d i n g T a s k P e r f o r m a n c e A g r e e (M: 3 1 , F: 30) Mean P ( s ) .484 .447 M a l e s F e m a l e s .450 .336 Weak S t r o n g Mean P ( s ) U n c e r t a i n o r d i s a g r e e (M: 9, F: 9) __Males .525 ,410 .417 F e m a l e s ' " .384 Weak S t r o n g F i g u r e 4 s h o w s t h a t s t a n d a r d s h a d v i r t u a l l y no e f f e c t o n m a l e s who w e r e s e r i o u s a b o u t p e r f o r m i n g t h e t a s k w e l l , b u t d i d a f f e c t t h o s e m a l e s who w e r e n o t s e r i o u s . F e m a l e s s h o w t h e o p p o s i t e p a t t e r n : t h e y w e r e more a f f e c t e d b y s t a n d a r d s when t h e y w e r e s e r i o u s a b o u t t h e t a s k , t h a n when t h e y w e r e n o t s e r i o u s . T a b l e 14: S u m m a r y o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e b y S t a n d a r d s , S e x o f S u b j e c t and S e r i o u s n e s s R e g a r d i n g T a s k P e r f o r m a n c e S o u r c e MS d f F P S t a n d a r d s ( A ) 1025.140 1 6.531 0.013 Sex o f S u b j e c t ( B ) 311.171 1 1.982 0.163 S e r i o u s n e s s a b o u t T a s k ( C ) 0.152 1 0.001 0.975 A X B 749.244. 1 4.773 0.032 A X C 657.386 1 4.188 0.044 B X C 202.386 1* 1.289 0.260 T o t a l 177.759 78* *The t o t a l degree o f freedom does not i n c l u d e one case w i t h m i s s i n g data. **A three-way i n t e r a c t i o n v a l u e was not computed due t o an i n s u f f i c i e n t number o f c a s e s . 57 I n t e r n a l a n a l y s i s shows t h a t there i s a d e f i n i t e main e f f e c t f o r s t a n d a r d s , and two s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s between (1) standards and sex, and (2) standards and se r i o u s n e s s r e g a r d i n g task performance. Importance of task i s the t h i r d v a r i a b l e to be examined. As Fi g u r e 5 shows, most s u b j e c t s c o n s i d e r e d the task from average i n importance t o important. Male and female d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r each l e v e l o f s t a n d a r d s a r e co m p a r a b l e , i f n o t as s i m i l a r as i n t h e two p r e v i o u s v a r i a b l e s . F i g u r e 5: D i s t r i b u t i o n of Subjects by Importance of Task N u m b e 12 r 10 o f 8 S 6 u b 4 j e 2 c t s Weak [-+] Conditions Important Average Unimportant Importance N u m b e r o f S u b j e c t s 12 10 8 6 4 2 Strong [-+] Conditions — Females Important Average Unimport-Importance ant When these c a t e g o r i e s are combined i n two groups (important, somewhat i m p o r t a n t and a v e r a g e , and somewhat u n i m p o r t a n t and unimportant), the r e s u l t s are as f o l l o w s : 58 F i g u r e 6: P ( s ) a s a F u n c t i o n o f S t a n d a r d s , S e x o f S u b j e c t a n d T a s k I m p o r t a n c e Mean P ( s ) T a s k i s I m p o r t a n t , Somewhat I m p o r t a n t o r A v e r a g e i n I m p o r t a n c e (M: 2 9, F: 33) ,480 .470 -Males Weak S t r o n g T a s k i s Somewhat U n i m p o r t a n t o r U n i m p o r t a n t (M: 10, F: 6) Mean P ( s ) .450 M a l e s . .420 410 Females-"'^' .325 Weak S t r o n g I n b o t h F i g u r e 5 g r a p h s , f e m a l e s i n t h e s t r o n g c o n d i t i o n h a v e a l o w e r p ( s ) t h a n m a l e s i n t h e s t r o n g c o n d i t i o n . V a l u e s a r e h i g h e r on t h e l e f t h a nd s i d e o f e a c h g r a p h , a s e x p e c t e d , b u t e v e n w h e r e t h e t a s k was somewhat u n i m p o r t a n t o r u n i m p o r t a n t , f e m a l e s w e r e w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t i n f l u e n c e f r o m o t h e r i n a way c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e s t r o n g a nd weak t r e a t m e n t s . T a b l e 1 5 : S u m m a r y o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e b y S t a n d a r d s , S e x o f S u b j e c t a n d T a s k I m p o r t a n c e S o u r c e MS d f F P S t a n d a r d s ( A ) 1079.072 1 6.575 0.012 Sex o f S u b j e c t ( B ) 326.372 1 1.989 0.163 T a s k I m p o r t a n c e ( C ) 141.674 1 0.863 0.356 A X B 615.439 1 3.750 0.057 A X C 18.787 1 0.114 0.736 B X C 11.215 1 0.068 0.795 A X B X C 4.639 1* 0.028 0.867 T o t a l 176.906 77* * The t o t a l d e g r e e o f f r e e d o m n u m b e r d o e s n o t i n c l u d e t w o c a s e s w i t h m i s s i n g d a t a . 59 As s u g g e s t e d b y F i g u r e 6, t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e i n d i c a t e s a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t m a i n e f f e c t f o r s t a n d a r d s a n d a n a l m o s t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n s t a n d a r d s a n d s e x . F i n a l l y , t h e e f f e c t o f s u b j e c t ' s m o t i v a t i o n i s e x a m i n e d . F i g u r e 7: D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u b j e c t s b y M o t i v a t i o n N u m b e r o f S u b j e c t Very s Motivated 20 15 10 Weak [-+] Co n d i t i o n s 20 15 10 Strong [-+] Co n d i t i o n s Very Motivated N e u t r a l Very Unmotivated I n b o t h t h e s t r o n g a n d w e a k c o n d i t i o n s , m a l e s a n d f e m a l e s w e r e m o t i v a t e d t o s i m i l a r d e g r e e s . T h e r e a r e v e r y f e w s u b j e c t s i n t h e n e u t r a l t o u n m o t i v a t e d c a t e g o r i e s , a n d none who was v e r y u n m o t i v a t e d . When m o t i v a t i o n i s t r e a t e d a s a t h i r d i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , t h e f o l l o w i n g o c c u r s : 60 F i g u r e 8: P ( s ) a s a F u n c t i o n o f S t a n d a r d s , S e x o f S u b j e c t , a n d M o t i v a t i o n S u b j e c t was N e u t r a l i n S u b j e c t was V e r y M o t i v a t e d M o t i v a t i o n o r Somewhat, o r Somewhat M o t i v a t e d U n m o t i v a t e d (M: 3 4 , F: 30) (M: 6, F: 10) Mean P ( s ) Weak S t r o n g Weak S t r o n g When s u b j e c t s w e r e m o t i v a t e d , f e m a l e s w e r e a f f e c t e d b y t h e s t a n d a r d s b u t m a l e s w e r e n o t . When u n m o t i v a t e d , b o t h s u b j e c t s showed t h e e f f e c t s o f s t a n d a r d s , b u t m a l e s i n d i c a t e d h i g h e r p ( s ) v a l u e s t h a n women. T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t f o r s t a n d a r d s a p p e a r i n g i n T a b l e 12. T a b l e 1 6 : S u m m a r y o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e b y S t a n d a r d s , S e x o f S u b j e c t a n d M o t i v a t i o n S o u r c e MS d f F P S t a n d a r d s ( A ) 1039.172 1 6.546 0.013 Sex o f S u b j e c t ( B ) 279.172 1 1.759 0.189 S u b j e c t M o t i v a t i o n ( C ) 14.698 1 0.093 0.762 A X B 421.944 1 2.658 0.107 A X C 0.004 1 0.000 0.996 B X C 241.879 1 1.524 0.221 A X B X C 310.771 1 1.958 0.166 T o t a l 176.104 79 The f i n d i n g s p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r I V a r e a n a l y s e d i n C h a p t e r V w i t h a f o c u s on s t a n d a r d s a n d g e n d e r d i f f e r e n c e s . I n a d d i t i o n , a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e d a t a g e n e r a t e d b y t h i s s t u d y i s made w i t h t h o s e o f t h e F o s c h i , W a r r i n e r a n d H a r t s t u d y t o a s s e s s t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l a n d d e s i g n c h a n g e s i m p l e m e n t e d . C h a p t e r V - I n t e r p r e t a t i o n a n d C o n c l u s i o n s  G e n d e r S i m i l a r i t i e s a n d D i f f e r e n c e s M a n i p u l a t i o n c h e c k s i n d i c a t e a h i g h d e g r e e o f a c c u r a c y o n s u b j e c t r e c a l l o f s c o r e s ( T a b l e 5 ) . W i t h r e s p e c t t o s t a n d a r d s , ( T a b l e s 6, 7, a n d 8) t h e r e i s a c l o s e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n t h o s e g i v e n b y t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r a n d r e p o r t e d b y t h e s u b j e c t s f o r t h e c a s e o f a b i l i t y . F o r l a c k o f a b i l i t y , t h e d e g r e e o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e i s s o m e w h a t l e s s . A s i m i l a r p a t t e r n i s f o u n d w h e n s t a n d a r d s g i v e n b y t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r a r e c o m p a r e d t o s t a n d a r d s a s t h e s u b j e c t s w o u l d s e t t h e m . The r e s u l t s f r o m t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n c h e c k s o n s c o r e s a n d s t a n d a r d s t h u s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e p a r t i a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e h y p o t h e s i s c a n n o t b e a t t r i b u t e d t o a m a n i p u l a t i o n f a i l u r e . I n a d d i t i o n , no g e n d e r d i f f e r e n c e s a r e e v i d e n t r e g a r d i n g e i t h e r s c o r e s o r s t a n d a r d s , e x c e p t t h a t women a r e s l i g h t l y l e s s w i l l i n g t h a n men t o a c c e p t t h e l e n i e n t s t a n d a r d f o r l a c k o f a b i l i t y . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s a l s o r e a s o n a b l e t o d i s m i s s t h e e x p l a n a t i o n s u g g e s t e d b y F o s c h i , W a r r i n e r and H a r t , t h a t g e n d e r d i f f e r e n c e s may b e c a u s e d b y d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e a m o u n t o f i n f o r m a t i o n a c c e p t e d . W h e n t h e r e s u l t s f r o m T a b l e s 5 t o 10 a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o g e t h e r , t h e f o l l o w i n g t w o c o n c l u s i o n s may be d r a w n . F i r s t , t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n T a b l e s 9 a n d 10 s u g g e s t s t h a t r e s u l t s c a n n o t b e a t t r i b u t e d t o a h i g h e r d e g r e e o f a c c e p t a n c e o f i n f l u e n c e o n t h e p a r t o f women r e l a t i v e t o men. I n f a c t , i n t h e weak [-+] c o n d i t i o n f e m a l e s a c c e p t e d t h e l e a s t i n f l u e n c e o f a l l 62 f o u r c o n d i t i o n s . T h e r e a p p e a r s t o b e a g e n d e r r e l a t e d r e a c t i o n t o t h e c o m b i n e d e f f e c t s o f s c o r e s a n d s t a n d a r d s . The same m a n i p u l a t i o n a f f e c t s men a n d women d i f f e r e n t l y i n t e r m s o f t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s t h e y f o r m . T a b l e 9 s u g g e s t s t h a t women r e a c t t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s b y g e n e r a l i z i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d r e g a r d i n g t h e p o s s e s s i o n o r l a c k o f a b i l i t y t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n do men. T h u s , women may f o r m more e x t r e m e e x p e c t a t i o n s a n d , t h e r e f o r e , t e n d t o b e c o m e m o r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n t h i s r e s p e c t t h a n men ( T a b l e 1 0 ) . The s e c o n d c o n c l u s i o n t h a t may b e r e a c h e d c o n c e r n s t h e e f f e c t o f i m p r o v e m e n t s t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n . D e s p i t e t h e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l c h a n g e s i m p l e m e n t e d , r e s u l t s f r o m t h i s s t u d y do n o t d i f f e r s u b s t a n t i a l l y f r o m t h o s e o b t a i n e d b y F o s c h i , W a r r i n e r a n d H a r t ( s e e A p p e n d i x K f o r a d e t a i l e d c o m p a r i s o n o f r e s u l t s b e t w e e n t h e t w o s t u d i e s ) . The s i m i l a r i t y o f f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e s t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n m a l e a n d f e m a l e b e h a v i o u r c a n n o t b e a t t r i b u t e d t o p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t s ; t h e c o n s i s t e n c y o f r e s u l t s s t r o n g l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t a g e n d e r d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s a n d m u s t , t h e r e f o r e , be e x p l a i n e d . I n a n a t t e m p t t o f i n d s u c h a n e x p l a n a t i o n , t h e f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s w e r e m e a s u r e d : f e e l i n g o f c o n t r o l ; s e r i o u s n e s s o f t a s k ; i m p o r t a n c e o f t a s k o u t c o m e ; a nd m o t i v a t i o n . When t h e d a t a o n t h e s e v a r i a b l e s a r e d i v i d e d b y g e n d e r , no m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e f o u n d b e t w e e n men and women. F i g u r e s 1, 3, 5, and 7 i n d i c a t e t h a t m a l e and f e m a l e d i s t r i b u t i o n s a r e q u i t e 63 s i m i l a r . I t c a n , s u b s e q u e n t l y , be s a i d t h a t t h e s e f o u r v a r i a b l e s a r e n o t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b e h a v i o u r a l g e n d e r d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o r a t e s o f i n f l u e n c e . H o w e v e r , p r e s e n t i n g t h e r e s u l t s o n t h e s e f o u r v a r i a b l e s b y g e n d e r , s t a n d a r d s a n d p ( s ) d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t f e m a l e s a r e s t r o n g l y a f f e c t e d b y s t a n d a r d s , w h e r e a s m a l e s a r e n o t . The d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n m a l e a n d f e m a l e b e h a v i o u r o c c u r i n t h e r e j e c t i o n o f i n f l u e n c e r a t e s f o r c o m p a r a b l e l e v e l s o f e a c h o f t h e s e f o u r v a r i a b l e s ( f i g u r e s 2,4,6, a n d 8 ) . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l h i g h l i g h t s i n t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e a b o v e a n a l y s i s : t h e v a r i a b l e s o f s e r i o u s n e s s r e g a r d i n g t a s k p e r f o r m a n c e , p e r c e i v e d i m p o r t a n c e o f t a s k a n d m o t i v a t i o n a r e r e l a t e d i n t h a t t h e y r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f t h e s c o p e c o n d i t i o n o f t a s k o r i e n t a t i o n . T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n F i g u r e s 4, 6, a n d 8. M o s t s u b j e c t s w e r e o n t h e l e f t g r a p h o f e a c h p a i r o f g r a p h s a s was e x p e c t e d . I n o t h e r w o r d s , f e w s u b j e c t s w e r e l o w i n m o t i v a t i o n , i m p o r t a n c e o f t a s k a n d s e r i o u s n e s s r e g a r d i n g t a s k p e r f o r m a n c e . A n a l y s i s i s c o n c e n t r a t e d o n t h e m a j o r i t y o f s u b j e c t s , s i n c e t h e y m o r e c l o s e l y m e t t h e s c o p e c o n d i t i o n . T h e p a t t e r n t h a t e m e r g e s f r o m t h e s e t h r e e l e f t g r a p h s i s t h a t women a r e c l e a r l y m o r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d t h a n men i n t h e i r r e j e c t i o n o f i n f l u e n c e r a t e s . 5 0 n l y t h o s e s u b j e c t s who o b v i o u s l y d i d n o t m e e t t h e s c o p e c o n d i t i o n s w e r e r e j e c t e d . No s u b j e c t was r e j e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f o n l y o n e i n d i c a t o r . T h o s e who w e r e n o t r e j e c t e d h a d t o h a v e met t h e s c o p e c o n d i t i o n s t o some d e g r e e . 64 The v a r i a b l e " f e e l i n g o f c o n t r o l " was n o t a s c o p e c o n d i t i o n . The t a s k was o b v i o u s l y d i f f i c u l t a n d s u b j e c t s c o u l d r e a s o n a b l y be e x p e c t e d t o f e e l l i t t l e o r no c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e s . T h i s v a r i a b l e a f f e c t s men a n d women t o a v a r y i n g d e g r e e . When men a n d women p e r c e i v e l i t t l e o r no c o n t r o l o v e r t h e t a s k o u t c o m e , men h a v e h i g h e r p ( s ) v a l u e s t h a n w o m e n , a n d a r e u n a f f e c t e d b y s t a n d a r d s ( F i g u r e 2). C o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r b e l i e f s , men a c t a s t h o u g h o u t c o m e o b t a i n e d i s n o t w i t h i n t h e i r c o n t r o l . C o n v e r s e l y , t h e b e h a v i o u r o f women r e f l e c t s t h e e f f e c t o f s t a n d a r d s e v e n t h o u g h s u c h b e h a v i o u r i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h w h a t t h e y b e l i e v e r e g a r d i n g t h e t a s k , i . e . e v e n w h e n women f e e l t h e y h a v e l i t t l e o r n o c o n t r o l o v e r t a s k o u t c o m e , t h e y a r e f u l l y p r e p a r e d t o a c c e p t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p o o r p e r f o r m a n c e . I n o t h e r w o r d s , f o r c e d t o c h o o s e b e t w e e n t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r ' s i n s t r u c t i o n s a n d t h e i r f e e l i n g s r e g a r d i n g t h e t a s k , w o m e n f a v o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r . T h e b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n o b s e r v e d f r o m a l l f o u r v a r i a b l e s i s t h a t women a r e a f f e c t e d b y v a r i a t i o n s i n t r e a t m e n t t o a f a r g r e a t e r d e g r e e t h a n men: t h e y e v e n d o s o w h e n s u c h b e h a v i o u r c o m p l e t e l y c o n t r a d i c t s t h e i r s t a t e d b e l i e f s a b o u t t h e t a s k (e.g. t h a t t h e t a s k i s u n i m p o r t a n t o r t h a t t h e s u b j e c t h a s l i t t l e o r no c o n t r o l o v e r t a s k o u t c o m e ) . T h e s e f i n d i n g s l e a d o n e t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t g e n d e r d i f f e r e n c e s a r i s e d u r i n g t h e f o r m a t i o n o f e x p e c t a t i o n s f r o m a g i v e n i n f o r m a t i o n b a s e . Men a p p e a r t o be more c a u t i o u s t h a n women i n t h e i r u s e o f p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n , o r 65 more s p e c i f i c a l l y , i n t h e deg r e e t o wh i c h t h e y g e n e r a l i z e from t h e s c o r e s and s t a n d a r d s r e c e i v e d t o an a s s i g n m e n t o f i n f e r i o r a b i l i t y a t t h e t a s k r e l a t i v e t o a p a r t n e r . T a b l e 9 i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t , r e l a t i v e t o females, males are more h e s i t a n t t o a t t r i b u t e "much b e t t e r " a b i l i t y t o o t h e r . F i n a l l y , as another attempt to i d e n t i f y the source of these d i f f e r e n c e s , the p(s) values were c a l c u l a t e d averaging f i r s t over t r i a l s and then over s u b j e c t s . In t h i s way, an i n d i c a t i o n of the v a r i a b i l i t y a c r o s s s u b j e c t s a t each c o n d i t i o n can be o b t a i n e d . The r e s u l t s are as f o l l o w s : T a b l e 17: s-Responses C a l c u l a t e d F i r s t Over S u b j e c t s and Then Over T r i a l s C o n d i t i o n X s.d. Strong [-+], Males 8.80 1.99 Weak [-+], Males 9.25 1.67 Strong [-+] , Females 7.05 2.64 Weak [-+], Females 9.55 2.60 These r e s u l t s show t h a t women o s c i l l a t e more t h a n men i n t h e i r p r o p o r t i o n o f s e l f r e s p o n s e s . O s c i l l a t i o n c a n be a t t r i b u t e d t o d i f f i c u l t y i n a c c e p t i n g i n f e r i o r a b i l i t y r e l a t i v e t o t h e p a r t n e r . U n l i k e women, one c o u l d i n f e r t h a t men do not o s c i l l a t e b e c a u s e t h e y s i m p l y r e f u s e t o r e a d as much i n t o t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d as women do. O v e r a l l , t he d a t a s u g g e s t t h a t men a r e b e t t e r a b l e t o cope w i t h t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n : t h e y a r e c a u t i o u s about 66 g e n e r a l i z i n g f r o m t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y r e c e i v e a n d a r e c o n f i d e n t i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o b e c a u t i o u s . F e m a l e s a c c e p t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l m a n i p u l a t i o n s t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n men ( T a b l e s 9 and 1 0 ) , b u t t h e a c c e p t a n c e d o e s n o t come e a s i l y , a s t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s i n T a b l e 17 i l l u s t r a t e . An E x p l a n a t i o n a n d S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h M a l e s a n d f e m a l e s d i f f e r i n t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f e v a l u a t i o n s i n d i c a t i n g i n f e r i o r a b i l i t y . Men do n o t a c c e p t t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e i r t a s k a b i l i t y i s d e f i n i t e l y i n f e r i o r t o t h e i r p a r t n e r , w h e r e a s women c l e a r l y d o . T h e m o s t p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s p h e n o m e n o n c a n b e f o u n d l o o k i n g a t t h e s t a t u s d y n a m i c s o f t h e e n t i r e e x p e r i m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n . S i n c e t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r o c c u p i e s a h i g h e r s t a t u s p o s i t i o n r e l a t i v e t o t h e s u b j e c t , m a l e s , e v e n i n s a m e - s e x d y a d s , m a i n t a i n a d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r t h a n do f e m a l e s . H o w e v e r , a t t h e o u t s e t o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t , m a l e s i n s a m e - s e x d y a d s a r e h i g h s t a t u s e q u a l s [++] w h e r e a s , f e m a l e s a r e l o w s t a t u s e q u a l s [ - - ] . T h e r e f o r e , t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r m a i n t a i n s a much h i g h e r r e l a t i v e s t a t u s t o women t h a n t o men. B e r g e r e t a l . , 1980 and 1985 p r o p o s e t h a t m a l e s i n s a m e - s e x d y a d s w i l l n o t d i f f e r f r o m f e m a l e s i n s a m e - s e x d y a d s . T h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h , h o w e v e r , s u g g e s t s t h a t i n s a m e - s e x d y a d s , t h e s e x o f o t h e r r e m a i n s a s a l i e n t f a c t o r i n a s much a s t h e s u b j e c t , w h e t h e r m a l e o r f e m a l e e n t e r s t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n w i t h p r e c o n c e p t i o n s a n d a t t i t u d i n a l " b a g g a g e " w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e 67 c o m p e t e n c e and s t a t u s o f men and women. I t i s t h e g e n d e r o f t h e s u b j e c t w h i c h i s i t s e l f t h e c a t a l y s t . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e d i f f u s e s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f g e n d e r r e m a i n s a c t i v e , d e s p i t e s a m e - s e x p a i r s . F e m a l e s a r e l e s s c o n f i d e n t t h a n m a l e s , e v e n i n s a m e - s e x d y a d s , when i n s t r u c t e d b y a n e x p e r i m e n t e r . T h i s a p p e a r s t o be t h e c a s e r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r ' s g e n d e r - 8 0 % o f s u b j e c t s i n F o s c h i e t a l . w e r e r u n b y a m a l e e x p e r i m e n t e r y e t v e r y s i m i l a r r e s u l t s t o t h i s s t u d y w e r e r e c o r d e d . S i n c e t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r i s o f a h i g h e r s t a t u s f o r f e m a l e s t h a n f o r m a l e s , f e m a l e s t e n d t o b e much m o r e l i k e l y t h a n m a l e s t o a c c e p t t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r a s a " s o u r c e o f e x p e c t a t i o n s " ( W e b s t e r 1 9 6 9 , W e b s t e r a n d S o b i e s z e k , 1 9 7 4 ) . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e g r e a t e r t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n s t a t u s b e t w e e n a s u b j e c t a n d a s o u r c e , t h e m o r e l i k e l y i t i s t h a t u n i t e v a l u a t i o n s w i l l g e n e r a l i z e i n t o e x p e c t a t i o n s . T h e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f u n i t e v a l u a t i o n s i n t o e x p e c t a t i o n s made b y women i s a c c o m p a n i e d b y o s c i l l a t i o n w h i c h i n d i c a t e s i n s t a b i l i t y . T h i s i n s t a b i l i t y m ay b e p a r t i c u l a r t o [-+] c o n d i t i o n s o r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f e v a l u a t i o n s f r o m a s u p e r i o r . T h e r e s u l t s f r o m t h e F o s c h i , W a r r i n e r a n d H a r t e x p e r i m e n t s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s a l s o o c c u r s i n t h e [+-] c o n d i t i o n s . B o t h t h e o r i g i n a l s t u d y a n d t h e p r e s e n t r e p l i c a t i o n i n d i c a t e t h a t women a r e more r e a d y t h a n men t o a c c e p t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r . The p r o c e s s i s n o t u n s t a b l e f o r men, s i n c e t h e y s i m p l y p u t some d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d b y 68 t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r a n d t h e m s e l v e s . Women, o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , a c c e p t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n m o r e . S i n c e t h e y d o s o e v e n w h e n t h i s c o n t r a d i c t s how t h e y f e e l a b o u t t h e t a s k , t h e p r o c e s s i s a n u n s t a b l e one. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s s t u d y a n d t h e w o r k o f F o s c h i e t a l . , t h e r e i s a n o t h e r e x p e c t a t i o n s t a t e s s t u d y t h a t i n d i c a t e s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f g e n d e r d i f f e r e n c e s i n s a m e - s e x d y a d s . R i d g e w a y ( 1 9 8 2 ) f o u n d d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n s a m e - s e x d y a d s : men a c c e p t e d more i n f l u e n c e f r o m a g r o u p - o r i e n t e d m a l e c o n f e d e r a t e t h a n f r o m a s e l f - o r i e n t e d o n e , f e m a l e s a c c e p t e d l e s s i n f l u e n c e f r o m a f e m a l e g r o u p - o r i e n t e d c o n f e d e r a t e t h a n a s e l f - o r i e n t e d one. T h e s e t h r e e s t u d i e s , w h i c h i n d i c a t e t h e e x i s t e n c e o f d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n m a l e s and f e m a l e s i n s a m e - s e x d y a d s , s u g g e s t t h a t more r e s e a r c h i n e x p e c t a t i o n s t a t e s t h e o r y i s r e q u i r e d r e g a r d i n g t h i s t o p i c . The e n t i r e s t a t u s d y n a m i c s o f a n e x p e r i m e n t s h o u l d b e e x a m i n e d n o t s i m p l y t h e p o w e r a n d p r e s t i g e h i e r a r c h y o f t h e d y a d . The r o l e o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r a s a n u n w i t t i n g t h i r d a c t o r w i t h r e l a t i v e l y h i g h s t a t u s m u s t be m o r e p r e c i s e l y u n d e r s t o o d . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e r e i s a l a r g e b o d y o f l i t e r a t u r e o n e x p e r i m e n t e r a f f e c t s ( W u e b b e n e t a l . , 1 9 7 4 ; M i l l e r , 1 9 7 2 ; C a r l s m i t h , E l l s w o r t h , a n d A r o n s o n , 1976) a n d i t w o u l d b e w o r t h w h i l e t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h e f i n d i n g s on s t a t u s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r i n t o t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s t a t e s p r o g r a m . The s o u r c e b r a n c h o f t h i s p r o g r a m ( W e b s t e r and S o b i e s z e k ) r e p r e s e n t s a s t a r t i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n c l u d e t h e 69 f o l l o w i n g : t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n m a l e / f e m a l e r e a c t i o n s t o a u t h o r i t y o r h i g h s t a t u s p e r s o n s i n a n e x p e c t a t i o n s t a t e s c o n t e x t n e e d s t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d f u r t h e r . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e r e a r e t w o t e c h n i q u e s d e s i g n e d t o e x a m i n e t h e p r o c e s s o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n f r o m e v a l u a t i o n s . The f i r s t t e c h n i q u e u t i l i z e s a B a y e s i a n m o d el ( s e e F o s c h i a n d F o s c h i , 1 9 7 6 , 1 9 7 9 ; F o s c h i , 1986) t o d e s c r i b e t h e b e h a v i o u r o f t h e i d e a l a c t o r . T h i s m o d e l r e v i s e s p r e d i c t i o n s w i t h e a c h p i e c e o f new d a t a i n p u t a n d , i n t h i s manner, e n a b l e s a p r o f i l e o f t h e p r o c e s s o f t h e f o r m a t i o n o f e x p e c t a t i o n s . A c t u a l p e r f o r m a n c e o f s u b j e c t s c a n be c o m p a r e d t o t h e m o d e l t o d i s c o v e r w h e t h e r t h e r e i s a g e n d e r d i f f e r e n c e r e g a r d i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . I f a d i f f e r e n c e d o e s e x i s t , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h s e x more c l o s e l y a p p r o x i m a t e s t h e m o d e l a s w e l l a s v a r i a t i o n s t h r o u g h t i m e . The s e c o n d t y p e o f a n a l y s i s s u g g e s t e d t o e x a m i n e t h e p r o c e s s o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n g a u g e s t h e p o i n t a t w h i c h a u n i t e v a l u a t i o n b e c o m e s a n e x p e c t a t i o n ( B e r g e r a n d C o n n e r , 1 9 6 9 , 1 9 7 4 ; C o n n e r , 1 9 8 5 ) . Th e p o i n t a t w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t g e n e r a l i z e s f r o m u n i t e v a l u a t i o n s t o c r e a t e a p e r f o r m a n c e e x p e c t a t i o n c a n be d e t e r m i n e d b y r u n n i n g a n u m b e r o f t r i a l s , e a c h w i t h o n e o u t c o m e o r s c o r e . C o n d i t i o n s w i t h a v a r y i n g n u m b e r o f u n i t e v a l u a t i o n s c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d , w i t h t h e s u b j e c t p r e d i c t i n g a s p e c i f i c s c o r e f o r s e l f a n d o t h e r a f t e r e a c h t r i a l . T h e s e r e s u l t s , t h e n , may be c o m p a r e d a c r o s s c o n d i t i o n s and g e n d e r t o c o n f i r m w h e t h e r f e m a l e s t e n d t o g e n e r a l i z e u n i t e v a l u a t i o n s i n t o p e r f o r m a n c e e x p e c t a t i o n s o n t h e 70 b a s i s o f a s m a l l e r number o f u n i t e v a l u a t i o n s t h a n m a l e s . I t may a l s o b e c o n s t r u c t i v e t o u s e b o t h o f t h e a b o v e t e c h n i q u e s f o r s t r o n g a n d w e a k [+-] c o n d i t i o n s . A l t h o u g h t h e " s e l f - s e r v i n g b i a s e s " l i t e r a t u r e ( f o r a r e c e n t a s s e s s m e n t o f w o r k i n t h i s a r e a , s e e T e t l o c k a n d L e v i , 1982) s u g g e s t s t h a t s u b j e c t s w o u l d be more w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t ( + -) t h a n (- + ) u n i t e v a l u a t i o n s , t h e r e i s a l s o e v i d e n c e i n d i c a t i n g a r e l u c t a n c e o n t h e p a r t o f s u b j e c t s t o a c c e p t (+-) p e r f o r m a n c e e v a l u a t i o n s w h e n t h e y a r e u n s u r e o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e i r h i g h p e r f o r m a n c e , a s i s t h e c a s e i n m o s t e x p e r i m e n t s i n w h i c h a m b i g u o u s t a s k s a r e u s e d . 71 B i b l i o g r a p h y B e r g e r , J . , B. P. Cohen and M. Z e l d i t c h , J r . , " S t a t u s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d S o c i a l I n t e r a c t i o n . " A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l Review 37(1972): 241-55. 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W u e b b e n , P.L., B.C. S t r a i t s , a n d G . I . S c h u l m a n ( e d s . ) , T h e E x p e r i m e n t a s a S o c i a l O c c a s i o n . B e r k e l e y , C a l i f . : T he G l e n d e s s a r y P r e s s , 1974. Y u c h t m a n - Y a a r , E. a n d M. Semyonov, " E t h n i c I n e q u a l i t y i n I s r a e l i S c h o o l s a n d S p o r t s : A n E x p e c t a t i o n - S t a t e s A p p r o a c h . " A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y 8 5 ( 1 9 7 9 ) : 576-90. Z e l d i t c h M. J r . , P. L a u d e r d a l e a n d S. S t u b l a r e c , "How A r e I n c o n s i s t a n c i e s b e t w e e n S t a t u s and A b i l i t y R e s o l v e d ? " S o c i a l  F o r c e s ( 1 9 8 0 ) : 1025-43. 75 A p p e n d i x A. Room A r r a n g e m e n t Top V i e w P e r s p e c t i v e V i e w 1. 2. 3 . 4. 5. 6. I n t e r a c t i o n C o n t r o l M a c h i n e P r o j e c t o r Room D i v i d e r s S c r e e n S u b j e c t ' s Desk E x p e r i m e n t e r ' s Desk 76 A p p e n d i x B. C o n t r a s t S e n s i t i v i t y T a s k 77 A p p e n d i x C. E x p e r i m e n t e r - V o l u n t e e r C o n t r a c t THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 6303 N-W. MARINE DRIVE VANCOUVER, B.C., CANADA V6T 2B2 Name: The a b o v e named p e r s o n a g r e e s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a s t u d y a t t h e S m a l l Groups L a b o r a t o r y o f t h e UBC D e p a r t m e n t o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y w i t h t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g : a) t h a t t h e r e a r e no p h y s i c a l o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l r i s k s i n v o l v e d , b) t h a t h i s / h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l l a s t f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e h o u r and 15 m i n u t e s , c) t h a t h e / s h e may t e r m i n a t e and w i t h d r a w f r o m t h e s t u d y a t any t i m e w i t h o u t h a v i n g t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e r e a s o n s f o r s u c h a c t i o n , d) t h a t c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y w i l l be k e p t b y t h e members o f t h e r e s e a r c h team r e g a r d i n g t h e names o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e s t u d y , and e) t h a t a l l r e p o r t s o f t h e r e s u l t s w i l l p r e s e r v e t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' a n o n y m i t y . D a t e : S i g n a t u r e : 78 Appendix D. I n s t r u c t i o n s to P a r t i c i p a n t The host has two consent forms ready. " H e l l o . Are you h e r e f o r t h e s t u d y ? P l e a s e come w i t h me. P l e a s e have a s e a t . You a r e the f i r s t one t o a r r i v e . P l e a s e complete t h i s form w h i l e we w a i t f o r your partner". The host seats the s u b j e c t and g i v e s him or her the consent form. Then the host g r e e t s the c o n f e d e r a t e and says: "Are you h e r e f o r t h e s t u d y ? Your p a r t n e r has a l r e a d y a r r i v e d so we'll get s t a r t e d r i g h t away. Please have a se a t and complete t h i s form". The host then c o l l e c t s the consent form. "H e l l o , my name i s " NAME OF HOST "and I'm a graduate student i n S o c i o l o g y working f o r Dr. F o s c h i . F i r s t I'd l i k e to thank you b o t h f o r c o m i n g h e r e t o d a y . I t h i n k y o u ' l l f i n d t h i s an i n t e r e s t i n g and e n j o y a b l e e x p e r i e n c e . The s t u d y i s s i m p l e and s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d and your p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l be kept c o n f i d e n t i a l . I would l i k e to remind you t h a t the consent form you j u s t signed a l l o w s you t o l e a v e a t any t i m e i f you f e e l i t ' s a b s o l u t e l y necessary". "In t h i s s t u d y , we a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e manner by w h i c h v a r i o u s e n v i r o n m e n t s a f f e c t j o b p e r f o r m a n c e , s a t i s f a c t i o n and task d i f f i c u l t y . The way we study these aspects of performance i s to have p a r t i c i p a n t s work i n four d i f f e r e n t work environments, no i n t e r a c t i o n , l i m i t e d i n t e r a c t i o n , moderate i n t e r a c t i o n and e x t e n s i v e i n t e r a c t i o n " . 79 "Today y o u a n d y o u r p a r t n e r w i l l be w o r k i n g o n a t a s k u s i n g a n a b i l i t y c a l l e d c o n t r a s t - s e n s i t i v i t y . C o n t r a s t s e n s i t i v i t y h a s t o do w i t h d e t e c t i n g s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t w o p a t t e r n s o f b l a c k a n d w h i t e . F r o m w h a t i s known s o f a r , c o n t r a s t s e n s i t i v i t y i s a v e r y i m p o r t a n t a b i l i t y . F o r i n s t a n c e , i t i s now i n c l u d e d on m o s t m a j o r a p t i t u d e t e s t s . H o w e v e r , t h e r e s e a r c h s o f a r shows no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n i t a n d s u c h t h i n g s a s m a t h e m a t i c a l , a r t i s t i c , l i n g u i s t i c o r r e a s o n i n g a b i l i t y . T he a b s e n c e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n c o n t r a s t s e n s i t i v i t y a n d o t h e r a b i l i t i e s i s a g r e a t f i n d a n d , o f c o u r s e , o f i n t e r e s t t o s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s " . "Our s t u d y , a s y o u a l r e a d y know, i n v o l v e s t w o p a r t i c i p a n t s . T o d a y we h a v e " Name o f S u b j e c t a n d Name o f C o n f e d e r a t e . " B o t h o f y o u a r e " C l s t / 2 n d y e a r , a r t s / s c i e n c e 3 " s t u d e n t s t h a t h a v e b e e n a s s i g n e d a t ran d o m t o w o r k a l o n e f o r t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h e s t u d y i n a 'no i n t e r a c t i o n ' c o n t e x t . F o r t h e s e c o n d p a r t , y o u h a v e b e e n a s s i g n e d t o t h e m o d e r a t e i n t e r a c t i o n c o n t e x t i n w h i c h y o u w i l l c o m m u n i c a t e t h r o u g h t e r m i n a l s . Remember i n b o t h c o n t e x t s t h a t t h i s i s a s t u d y on j o b p e r f o r m a n c e , s o y o u s h o u l d be t r y i n g y o u r h a r d e s t a t C o n t r a s t S e n s i t i v i t y s i n c e i n o r d e r t o a c c u r a t e l y r e p r o d u c e t h e e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e w o r k p l a c e , e x c e l l e n c e a t t h e t a s k m u s t be p u r s u e d " . " C o n t r a s t S e n s i t i v i t y i s , a t t h e moment, b e i n g t e s t e d e x t e n s i v e l y a t S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y i n C a l i f o r n i a a n d a t U.B.C. T h i s a b i l i t y c o n c e r n s t h e j u d g e m e n t o f c o n t r a s t s i n s h a p e s a n d 80 c o l o u r s . A s e r i e s o f b l a c k a n d w h i t e s l i d e s w i l l b e s h o w n t o y o u . On e a c h s l i d e t h e r e a r e t w o d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s . W h a t y o u a r e a s k e d t o do i s j u d g e w h e t h e r t h e t o p r e c t a n g l e o r t h e b o t t o m r e c t a n g l e h a s .pa more w h i t e i n i t . A l t h o u g h t h i s i s a d i f f i c u l t t a s k , s t u d i e s h a v e p r o v e n t h a t some p e o p l e h a v e t h e a b i l i t y t o make c o r r e c t j u d g e m e n t s w i t h o u t much d i f f i c u l t y , u s i n g t h e i r f i r s t i m p r e s s i o n . I t h a s b e e n shown t h a t one's f i r s t i m p r e s s i o n i s u s u a l l y t h e c o r r e c t one". "Once y o u h a v e d e c i d e d w h i c h r e c t a n g l e h a s more w h i t e i n i t , i n d i c a t e y o u r a n s w e r o n t h e t o p o f t h e p a n e l b y p r e s s i n g e i t h e r t h e y e l l o w b u t t o n l a b e l e d " t o p " o r t h e y e l l o w b u t t o n l a b e l e d " b o t t o m " . I n t h e s e c o n d p a r t o f t h e s t u d y y o u w i l l h a v e a c h a n c e t o u s e t h e o t h e r b u t t o n s b u t f o r now w e ' l l j u s t b e u s i n g t h e t o p row. Y o u ' l l h a v e a b o u t 8 s e c o n d s t o make y o u r c h o i c e , a f t e r t h a t a g r e e n s l i d e w i l l a p p e a r o n t h e s c r e e n . A t t h a t p o i n t y o u s h o u l d make a c h o i c e i f y o u h a v e n ' t d o n e s o a l r e a d y . I f y o u h a v e n ' t r e s p o n d e d b y t h e e n d o f t h e g r e e n s l i d e , t h e c o m p u t e r w i l l r e c o r d y o u r c h o i c e a s a n e r r o r , w h e t h e r o r n o t a c o r r e c t d e c i s i o n w a s made. A f t e r t h a t t h e c o m p u t e r w i l l p r o c e s s y o u r a n s w e r s , t h e p a n e l s w i l l b e c l e a r e d a n d w e ' l l go o n t o t h e n e x t t r i a l . T h e r e w i l l be t w e n t y t r i a l s a l t o g e t h e r i n t h e f i r s t p a r t . A t t i m e s t h i s t a s k w i l l seem d i f f i c u l t b e c a u s e o f t h e s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n t h e t w o c h o i c e s . The c h o i c e s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o make, b u t t h e r e i s a c o r r e c t a n s w e r . D o n ' t w o r r y , t h o u g h , s i n c e o t h e r p e o p l e who t h o u g h t t h e y w e r e ' g u e s s i n g , i n f a c t , d i d q u i t e w e l l . 81 C u r r e n t r e s e a r c h l e a d s u s t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e s e p e o p l e w e r e r e s p o n d i n g t o s u b t l e p e r c e p t u a l c u e s . So c o n c e n t r a t e h a r d , a n d f o l l o w a n y i m p u l s e s y o u m i g h t h a v e . A r e t h e r e a n y q u e s t i o n s ? " " O k a y , I ' l l s e e y o u a f t e r t w e n t y t r i a l s . I'd l i k e t o p o i n t o u t t h a t i n t h i s f i r s t p a r t y o u ' r e w o r k i n g i n a n o i n t e r a c t i o n c o n t e x t , s o p l e a s e , do n o t t a l k " . The h o s t l e a v e s , 20 s l i d e s a r e shown and t h e h o s t r e t u r n s . " W e ' l l h a v e t h e c o m p u t e r r e s u l t s i n a c o u p l e o f m i n u t e s . R i g h t now I h a v e t o c h a n g e t h e s l i d e t r a y t o p r e p a r e f o r t h e s e c o n d j o b c o n t e x t . P l e a s e f e e l f r e e t o r e a d t h e m a g a z i n e s w h i l e y o u w a i t . " The h o s t r e m o v e s t h e s l i d e c a r o u s e l and l e a v e t h e room. The h o s t t h e n r e t u r n s a n d p l a c e s t h e s l i d e c a r o u s e l b a c k o n t o t h e p r o j e c t o r and f o r w a r d s i t t o t h e f i r s t s l i d e . T h e C o n t r o l l e r t h e n k n o c k s o n t h e d o o r a n d b r i n g s i n t h e p r i n t o u t . The h o s t c i r c l e s e a c h p a r t i c i p a n t ' s s c o r e , i n d i c a t e s t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t ' s s c o r e b y p o i n t i n g t o t h e a p p l i c a b l e s t a n d a r d w i t h a n a r r o w a n d h a n d s i t o u t t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t and t h e c o n f e d e r a t e . Name o f S u b j e c t , " h e r e a r e y o u r r e s u l t s " ; C o n f e d e r a t e " h e r e a r e y o u r s . H a v e a g o o d l o o k a t a l l t h e r e s u l t s , i n c l u d i n g y o u r own a n d p a y s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o w h a t t h e v a r i o u s s c o r e s mean; t h e y ' r e e x p l a i n e d i n t h e t h r e e s t a t e m e n t s b e l o w . T h o s e s t a n d a r d s 82 r e f l e c t t e s t s d o n e o n h u n d r e d s o f p e o p l e , s o t h e y e n a b l e u s t o p l a c e y o u r r e s u l t s i n o n e o f t h e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s w i t h a h i g h d e g r e e o f r e l i a b i l i t y . S o , y o u s h o u l d h a v e a g o o d i d e a o f how y o u ' r e d o i n g i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e o t h e r p e r s o n , and t o o t h e r p e o p l e t e s t e d s o f a r . Ok, now I'd l i k e t o b e g i n t h e s e c o n d p a r t " . "As I m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , t h e s e c o n d w o r k e n v i r o n m e n t w e ' r e s t u d y i n g i s a m o d e r a t e i n t e r a c t i o n s i t u a t i o n . You a r e t o w o r k as a t e a m t o c h o o s e t h e c o r r e c t a n s w e r . The m o s t i m p o r t a n t g o a l o f t h i s e x e r c i s e i s t h a t y o u a n d y o u r p a r t n e r come up w i t h t h e c o r r e c t a n s w e r w o r k i n g a s a t e a m . I t i s n o t i m p o r t a n t w h i c h member o f t h e t e a m m a k e s t h e i n i t i a l c o r r e c t c h o i c e , b u t i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e t e am come up w i t h t h e c o r r e c t a n s w e r b e c a u s e y o u w i l l be m a r k e d a s a t e a m a n d n o t a s i n d i v i d u a l s . An e x a m p l e we a l w a y s u s e t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t e a m w o r k i n a n o r g a n i z a t i o n i s t h e U.S. s p a c e p r o g r a m . The A p o l l o p r o j e c t h a d a s i t s o b j e c t i v e t h e l a n d i n g o f a n a s t r o n a u t o n t h e moon. The c o - o p e r a t i o n o f h u n d r e d s o f p e o p l e was c r u c i a l b o t h i n t h e r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p h a s e s o f t h e p r o j e c t . The s t r e n g t h s o f i n d i v i d u a l s c i e n t i s t s h ad t o be m erged an d d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s t h e c o l l e c t i v e g o a l i f t h e c r a s h p r o g r a m was t o s u c c e e d " . "Ok., t h e p a n e l o f b u t t o n s o n y o u r d e s k ' w i l l a l l o w y o u a n d y o u r p a r t n e r t o c o m m u n i c a t e . F i r s t , I w i l l show one s l i d e . You w i l l d e c i d e w h i c h p a t t e r n h a s m o r e w h i t e i n i t . O n c e y o u d e c i d e , p r e s s t h e b u t t o n o n y o u r p a n e l t h a t s a y s e i t h e r t o p o r b o t t o m . 83 T h i s w i l l t h e n r e g i s t e r o n y o u r p a r t n e r ' s p a n e l , so y o u r p a r t n e r k nows w h i c h one y o u h a v e c h o s e n . T h en, l o o k i n g a t t h e same s l i d e a g a i n make t h e f i n a l c h o i c e y o u b e l i e v e t o b e t h e c o r r e c t o n e . R e m e m b e r , o n l y y o u r f i n a l c h o i c e g o e s t o w a r d s y o u r t e a m s c o r e . T h e r e a r e t w o t h i n g s y o u s h o u l d b e c a r e f u l o f . One i s t h a t y o u d o n ' t p r e s s y o u r f i n a l c h o i c e b e f o r e y o u p r e s s y o u r i n i t i a l c h o i c e . T h e s e c o n d t h i n g i s d o n ' t w a i t f o r y o u r p a r t n e r ' s r e s p o n s e b e c a u s e i t w o n ' t b e r e l a y e d t o y o u u n t i l y o u h a v e made y o u r i n i t i a l c h o i c e " . "You w i l l be d o i n g 25 t r i a l s w i t h y o u r p a r t n e r . F o r e v e r y c o r r e c t f i n a l d e c i s i o n t h a t e a c h member o f t h e t e a m i d e n t i f i e s , t h e t e a m e a r n s one p o i n t . A t t h e end o f t h e s t u d y , w e ' l l w a n t t o c o m p a r e how y o u d i d a s a n i n d i v i d u a l a s o p p o s e d t o w h e n y o u w o r k e d a s a t e a m . I n a d d i t i o n , w e ' l l c o m p a r e y o u r t e a m ' s s c o r e t o o t h e r g r o u p s who h a v e p e r f o r m e d t h i s t a s k . " " O n l y t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n t h a t e a c h o f y o u m a k e s w i l l c o u n t t o w a r d s y o u r t e a m s c o r e . Remember t h a t we a r e s t u d y i n g how w e l l p e o p l e c o m m u n i c a t e and make d e c i s i o n s w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r i n t h i s j o b c o n t e x t . S o , d o n ' t w o r r y a b o u t w h e t h e r y o u r i n i t i a l c h o i c e and y o u r f i n a l c h o i c e a r e d i f f e r e n t . C o n c e n t r a t e on g e t t i n g t h e c o r r e c t a n s w e r . A n y q u e s t i o n s ? O.K. G e t r e a d y f o r t h e f i r s t s l i d e . " T he h o s t l e a v e s t h e r o o m . The s u b j e c t s s h o u l d b e p r o m p t e d o n l y i f n e c e s s a r y b y s a y i n g : " P l e a s e make y o u r i n i t i a l c h o i c e . N o t i c e y o u r p a r t n e r ' s c h o i c e . . N o w p l e a s e make y o u r f i n a l c h o i c e " . 84 T h e 25 s l i d e s a r e s h o w n a n d t h e n t h e h o s t r e t u r n s t o t h e room w i t h t w o O p i n i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . "Now t h a t we h a v e c o m p l e t e d t h e s e r i e s , we a r e a l m o s t a t t h e e n d o f y o u r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . P l e a s e c o m p l e t e t h i s f o r m a n d t h e n we'd l i k e t o a s k y o u a f e w q u e s t i o n s . . . . " The h o s t t h e n h a n d s e a c h p e r s o n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . " I f t h e r e a r e a n y q u e s t i o n s a b o u t c o m p l e t i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , p l e a s e a s k me". The h o s t l e a v e s t h e room a nd c h e c k s t h e P ( s ) . Then t h e h o s t r e t u r n s t o t h e room w i t h t w o i n t e r v i e w summary f o r m s , c o l l e c t s t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a n d c h e c k s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , q u e s t i o n 9. "Now we w o u l d l i k e t o d i s c u s s y o u r s c o r e s a n d y o u r o p i n i o n s a b o u t t h e s t u d y " . Name o f Sub j e c t " i f y o u ' d l i k e t o s t a y h e r e , I ' l l be r i g h t w i t h you". Name o f C o n f e d e r a t e "you c a n f o l l o w me. My a s s i s t a n t w i l l d i s c u s s y o u r s c o r e s a n d o p i n i o n s w i t h y o u . The h o s t r e t u r n s a n d c o n d u c t s t h e i n t e r v i e w e r ' s s u m m a r y . T h e n t h e h o s t t e l l s t h e s u b j e c t t h a t : " t h i s n e x t p a r t i s t h e l a s t p a r t o f y o u r p a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d s o m e o n e w i l l b e h e r e t o do t h i s w i t h you". The c o n t r o l l e r e n t e r s t h e room w i t h t h e c o n t r a c t , d e b r i e f i n g f o r m , d e b r i e f i n g b o o k l e t a n d j a r w i t h p a p e r a n d b e g i n s t h e d e b r i e f i n g . The d e b r i e f i n g b o o k l e t i s g i v e n t o t h e s u b j e c t . The 85 study i s dis c u s s e d with the subject and the d e b r i e f i n g form i s completed. The subject i s then requested to read and si g n the secrecy commitment contract. When the debriefing i s completed, the subject i s asked to w r i t e h i s or her name and phone number on a piece of paper and place i t i n the j a r . T e l l the subj e c t that the f i r s t draw w i l l take place at Time, Day, and Date i n the Small Groups Lounge. 86 Appendix E. Outcome Recording Form Participant: Name: Number: Condition: 1 2 3 4 Date: Time: Host: Controller: TRIAL # & TYPE CHECK CHOICE PARTICIPANT" CHECK CHOICE PARTICIPANT 1 D Final ? i 14 D Sink's Final T B T B T s B o 2 D i s - ? I T o B « S 0 15 D Stir's Final ? 1 T o B « S 0 3 D T B T B T s B o 16 ® mhs Final X B T B T s B o 4 0 ? 1 T „ B « S 0 17 D raner's Final ? 1 T B ^ S 0 5 D F i r s t , Other's Final T B T B T o B ~ S 0 18 D F i r s t . Other's Final T B T B T B S 0 6 D F i r s t , Other's Final T B T B T o B ~ S 0 19 D SSlf's Final T B T B T o B n S 0 7 D Final T B T B T s B o 20 D SSIr's Final T B T B T s B o 8 D pi$' S Final ? 1 T „ B rt S 0 21 © Other's Final ? 1 T r. B S 0 9 (A) SSifs Final X B T B 22 D Final T B T B T s B o 10 D Final ? I T s B o 23 D KKif's Final ¥ 1 T o B « S 0 11 D Final 24 D Final T B T B S 0 1 2 ® Goner's Final ? § T B S 0 25 D Stir's Final ? 1 T s B o 13 D F i r s t , Final T B T B T o B n S 0 87 Subject's P(s) = ( = ) 20 100 Please note any ICOM feedback e r r o r s : 88 Appendix F. O p i n i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and Comments CONTRAST SENSITIVITY ABILITY TASK OPINION QUESTIONNAIRE Now we w o u l d l i k e t o f i n d o u t y o u r o p i n i o n s a b o u t t h e C o n t r a s t S e n s i t i v i t y t e s t s y o u h a v e j u s t c o m p l e t e d . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n o r d e r f o r us t o d e v e l o p t e s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s w h i c h p r o v i d e a c c u r a t e r e s u l t s . So t h i s i s y o u r chance t o t e l l u s w h a t y o u t h i n k . P l e a s e a n s w e r e a c h o f t h e q u e s t i o n s b e l o w , g i v i n g us y o u r t r u e f e e l i n g s . T h i s  i s n o t a t e s t , a n d t h e r e a r e no r i g h t o r w r o n g  answers. Remember, a l l t h e i n f o r m a t i o n y o u p r o v i d e i s c o n f i d e n t i a l ; i t w i l l n e v e r be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h y o u i n d i v i d u a l l y . H o w e v e r , i n o r d e r f o r u s t o c o n t i n u e t o i m p r o v e our s t u d i e s , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o know what y o u t h i n k . P a r t i c i p a n t number: 89 We'll s t a r t by a s k i n g you about the way the study was conducted and whether the in s t r u c t i o n s and procedures were c l e a r to you. 1. D i d you f i n d any o f the f o l l o w i n g t h i n g s done t o d a y confusing? Please c i r c l e the number i n d i c a t i n g how you f e l t i n each case.' CONFUSING UNCERTAIN UNDERSTANDABLE Instructions to the 3 2 1 f i r s t part, working alone: Instructions to the 3 2 1 second part working with a partner: Computer printout 3 2 1 Operation of the 3 2 1 response panel. 2. O v e r a l l , what do you t h i n k of the a b i l i t y of C o n t r a s t S e n s i t i v i t y ? Please g i v e us your o p i n i o n of each of the following statements r e l a t i n g to i t . Is Contrast S e n s i t i v i t y : Easy D i f f i c u l t Creative Routine Important Unimportant I n t u i t i v e Learned Confusing Clear S p e c i f i c General A male A female a b i l i t y a b i l i t y 3. From my experience w i t h t h i s a b i l i t y today, I f e e l t h a t C o n t r a s t S e n s i t i v i t y i s r e l a t e d to ( c i r c l e the a p p l i c a b l e category): A) A r t i s t i c t a l e n t B) Mathematical s k i l l s C) L i n g u i s t i c s k i l l s D) Reasoning a b i l i t y E) A l l of the above F) None of the above G) I t i s not yet known 90 4. C i r c l e t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e number: AGREE UNCERTAIN DISAGREE W h i l e w o r k i n g as a team 3 2 1 i n s o l v i n g C o n t r a s t S e n s i t i v i t y t a s k s , i t i s b e s t t o c o n s i d e r t h e o t h e r p e r s o n ' s c h o i c e s c a r e f u l l y . I l o s t i n t e r e s t i n 3 2 1 w o r k i n g h a r d i n s o l v i n g t h e C o n t r a s t S e n s i t i v i t y Task a f t e r t h e f i r s t " few t r i a l s . A g r e e i n g as a team t o 3 2 1 what was t h e c o r r e c t d e c i s i o n was more i m p o r t a n t t o me t h a n my own c h o i c e . Even when one p e r s o n does 3 2 1 b e t t e r o r worse t h a n a n o t h e r i n t h e C o n t r a s t S e n s i t i v i t y t a s k , most o f t h e t i m e i t i s j u s t due t o chance. I doubt i f t h e o t h e r 3 2 1 p e r s o n h e r e t o d a y and m y s e l f a r e s i m i l a r i n many ways. My p a r t n e r was v e r y 3 2 1 s e r i o u s about d o i n g t h e t a s k w e l l . I was v e r y s e r i o u s about 3 2 1 d o i n g t h e t a s k w e l l . 5. How m o t i v a t e d w e r e y o u t o do w e l l i n t h e C o n t r a s t S e n s i t i v i t y t a s k ? V e r y M o t i v a t e d V e r y U n m o t i v a t e d 6. D i d you f e e l t h a t you ( c i r c l e one o f t h e b e l o w ) : A) Had t o t a l c o n t r o l o v e r y o u r performance B) Had some c o n t r o l o v e r y o u r performance C) Had l i t t l e c o n t r o l o v e r y o u r performance D) Had no c o n t r o l o v e r y o u r performance 91 7. What was y o u r s c o r e on t h e f i r s t 20 t r i a l s when y o u w o r k e d a l o n e ? c o r r e c t o u t o f 20. What was y o u r p a r t n e r ' s s c o r e on t h e f i r s t 20 t r i a l s ? c o r r e c t o u t o f 20. 8. Out o f a l l 25 t r i a l s , when y o u w e r e w o r k i n g a s a t e a m , how many c o r r e c t i n i t i a l c h o i c e s d i d you t h i n k you made? I made c o r r e c t c h o i c e s o u t o f t h e 25 t r i a l s . What about t h e o t h e r p e r s o n w i t h whom you were w o r k i n g t o d a y ? How many c o r r e c t c h o i c e s d i d you t h i n k t h a t p e r s o n make o u t o f t h e 25 t r i a l s ? The o t h e r p e r s o n c h o s e t h e c o r r e c t a n s w e r t i m e s d u r i n g t h e 25 t r i a l s . 9. I n d i c a t e t h e s t a n d a r d shown i n t h e computer p r i n t o u t f o r : a) H a v i n g t h e a b i l i t y : % o r above. b) Not h a v i n g t h e a b i l i t y : % o r below. 10. a) What i s y o u r o p i n i o n on t h e s t a n d a r d s p r o v i d e d f o r h a v i n g t h e a b i l i t y on t h e computer p r i n t o u t ? J u s t about r i g h t o r S h o u l d be changed t o . . b) What i s y o u r o p i n i o n on t h e s t a n d a r d s p r o v i d e d f o r n o t h a v i n g t h e a b i l i t y on t h e computer p r i n t o u t ? J u s t about r i g h t o r S h o u l d be changed t o . 11. O v e r a l l , how do you f e e l y o u r a b i l i t y a t C o n t r a s t S e n s i t i v i t y compares w i t h t h a t o f t h e o t h e r p e r s o n ? I f e e l t h e o t h e r person's a b i l i t y a t C o n t r a s t S e n s i t i v i t y i s : Much b e t t e r t h a n mine. B e t t e r t h a n mine. Same as mine. Worse t h a n mine. Much worse t h a n mine. 92 12. How c o n f i d e n t w e r e y o u i n y o u r p a r t n e r ' s c h o i c e s b e i n g c o r r e c t ? V e r y C o n f i d e n t Somewhat C o n f i d e n t Somewhat U n c e r t a i n V e r y U n c e r t a i n 13.We w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o know how y o u f e l t d u r i n g t o d a y ' s s e s s i o n . I n g e n e r a l , w o r k i n g a s a t e a m w i t h y o u r p a r t n e r , how d i d y o u f e e l ? F o r e a c h p a i r o f n e a r l y o p p o s i t e t e r m s b e l o w , p l e a s e c h e c k a l o n g t h e s c a l e w h i c h b e s t r e p r e s e n t s y o u r f e e l i n g s . D e c i s i v e I n d e c i s i v e C o n f i d e n t I n s e c u r e Invo 1 ved Uninvo 1 ved S u s p i c i o u s T r u s t i n g S u b m i s s i v e A s s e r t i v e C o n v i n c e d S k e p t i c a l R e s i s t a n t C o nforming 14. P l e a s e g i v e us y o u r comments on t h e study's p r o c e d u r e s , and you r e x p e r i e n c e h e r e t o d a y . **THANK YOU FOR PARTICIPATING IN THIS STUDY** 93 Comments on t h e O p i n i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e The q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t i s t o c o m p l e t e a t t h e e n d o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s d e s i g n e d t o t e s t w h e t h e r t h e s u b j e c t u n d e r s t o o d a l l t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s , met t h e s c o p e c o n d i t i o n s a n d was n o t s u s p i c i o u s . I n a d d i t i o n , i n f o r m a t i o n n e c e s s a r y f o r p u r p o s e s o f a n a l y s i s i s c o l l e c t e d i e . m o t i v a t i o n a l l e v e l , l e v e l o f p e r c e i v e d c o n t r o l , t h e s t a n d a r d s w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t s t h i n k s a r e e q u i t a b l e . T h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s d i s c e r n w h e t h e r t h e s u b j e c t u n d e r s t o o d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s : Q u e s t i o n s 1-a, 1-b, 1-d, 2 - e . 6 The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s t e s t w h e t h e r t h e s u b j e c t m e t t h e s c o p e c o n d i t i o n o f t a s k o r i e n t a t i o n : Q u e s t i o n s 2-b, 2-g, 4-b, 4-g, 1 3 - c . The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s c h e c k f o r t h e s c o p e c o n d i t i o n o f c o l l e c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n : Q u e s t i o n s 4-a, 4-c, 1 1 , 1 3 - a , 13-b, 1 3 - e , 1 3 - g . M o t i v a t i o n a l l e v e l was m e a s u r e d b y t h e f o l l o w i n g : Q u e s t i o n s 2 - c , 5, 1 3 - c . The s u b j e c t ' s p e r c e i v e d l e v e l o f c o n t r o l was m e a s u r e d b y t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n : Q u e s t i o n s 2-d, 2-g, 6. ^The q u e s t i o n s f r o m t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n d i n t e r v i e w summary a r e r e p r e s e n t e d b y a n u m b e r a n d a l o w e r c a s e l e t t e r f o r p r e c i s i o n ; h o w e v e r , t h e q u e s t i o n s a p p e a r w i t h o u t l o w e r c a s e l e t t e r s i n b o t h t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n d i n t e r v i e w summary. 94 The s u c c e s s o f t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g s c o r e s a n d s t a n d a r d s w e r e t e s t e d t h r o u g h t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : Q u e s t i o n s 4-e, 7, 8, 9, 1 1 , 1 2 . The s t a n d a r d s w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t g i v e s a r e c o l l e c t e d f r o m t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : Q u e s t i o n s 1 0 - a , 10-b. I n o r d e r t o s e n s e w h e t h e r t h e s u b j e c t was s u s p i c i o u s , t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s h a v e b e e n i n c l u d e d : Q u e s t i o n s 1 3 - d , 1 3 - f . A l t h o u g h t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r e a c h q u e s t i o n h a s b e e n c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z e d , i n f a c t t h e r e i s much o v e r l a p e n a b l i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r t o u s e q u e s t i o n s d e s i g n e d f o r one p u r p o s e t o a i d i n t h e d e t e r m i n i n g o f o t h e r p u r p o s e s . 95 A p p e n d i x G. I n t e r v i e w e r ' s Summary and Comments Name o f S u b j e c t : S u b j e c t Number: C o n d i t i o n : 1/MMW 2/MMS 3/FFW 4/FFS I n t e r v i e w e r ' s f i n a l d i s p o s i t i o n : R e t a i n : U n s u r e : D r o p : Comments: *************************************************** 1. Run r e v i e w L i s t a n y p r o b l e m s e n c o u n t e r e d w i t h t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e s d u r i n g t h i s s e s s i o n : 96 2. Subject's m a t e r i a l s a. Review the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s f o r ma n i p u l a t i o n checks: 3, 5, 7, 9, 13d & 13f. b. Check q u e s t i o n 1 f o r p o s s i b l e m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s o f i n s t r u c t i o n s and/or p r o c e d u r e s . I n d i c a t e below i f su b j e c t s had problems with the f o l l o w i n g : I n s t r u c t i o n s / p r o c e d u r e s p a r t A p a r t B . Operation of panel p a r t A p a r t B Other 3. M a n i p u l a t i o n checks a. Task o r i e n t a t i o n : How d i d you make your d e c i s i o n s when you were working alone? Did you r e l y on i n t u i t i o n ? From t h i s answer, determine whether the s u b j e c t t r i e d to succeed or whether he/she d i d not care: b. C o l l e c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n : "When you were w o r k i n g w i t h y our p a r t n e r , how d i d you make d e c i s i o n s ? " Did you l i k e having feedback from your p a r t n e r ? Yes No Did knowing your p a r t n e r s c h o i c e s help you to make your d e c i s i o n s ? Yes No D i d y o u u s e y o u r p a r t n e r ' s c h o i c e s t o make y o u r d e c i s i o n s ? Yes No 97 c. Do you remember your partner's name? I f s u b j e c t g i v e s a name t h a t i n d i c a t e s t h e p a r t n e r i s o f t h e same sex, then: Same Sex I f not: Opposite Sex d. S u b j e c t ' s s u s p i c i o n s : "Do you have a n y t h i n g t h a t you want t o ask me? Was t h e r e a n y t h i n g t h a t b o t h e r e d y our about the study?" Note s u s p i c i o n , i f any: Su s p i c i o u s Not S u s p i c i o u s I f s u b j e c t ' s s u s p i c i o n s a r e vague and can be d i s p r o v e n a t t h a t moment, ask: "How d i d your s u s p i c i o n s a f f e c t your behavior d u r i n g the s e s s i o n ? " What was the s u b j e c t ' s general o r i e n t a t i o n to the study?: Involved 1 2 3 4 5 Uninvolved Cooperative 1 2 3 4 5 Uncooperative S a t i s f i e d 1 2 3 4 5 U n s a t i s f i e d 98 Comments on the Int e r v i e w e r ' s Summary The p u r p o s e o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e r ' s summary i s t o a s c e r t a i n v e r b a l l y the degree t o which the experimental manipulations were s u c c e s s f u l and t o c o n f i r m t h a t t h e scope c o n d i t i o n s were met. The o p i n i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s r e v i e w e d i n the p r e s e n c e o f t h e s u b j e c t t o c l a r i f y ambiguous r e s p o n s e s . I f t h e s u b j e c t has omitted a q u e s t i o n or giv e n c o n t r a d i c t o r y answers, these problems a r e exposed e n a b l i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r t o c l e a r l y d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e r e a r e g r o u n d s f o r e x c l u d i n g a s u b j e c t eg. i n s t r u c t i o n s were misunderstood, scope c o n d i t i o n s were not met, manipulations were ignored. Question 2 i s designed to lead the experimenter through each subject's o p i n i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i n order to l o c a t e any problems t h a t have a r i s e n . Question 3-a and 3-b are concerned w i t h the extent t o which the scope c o n d i t i o n s were met and g i v e t h e i n t e r v i e w e r t h e o p p o r t u n i t y to probe w i t h the i n t e n t of c l a r i f y i n g u n c e r t a i n t i e s . Q u e s t i o n 3-c v e r i f i e d t h a t the s u b j e c t u n d e r s t o o d t h a t h i s / h e r p a r t n e r was of t h e same gender. In o r d e r t o a v o i d the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f b i a s , i t must be c l e a r t o the s u b j e c t t h a t the o t h e r member o f t h e team i s o f e q u a l s t a t u s . Question 3-d i s an attempt t o s u b t l y encourage the s u b j e c t to a r t i c u l a t e any s u s p i c i o n s t h a t may e x i s t . 99 APPENDIX H. D e b r i e f i n g Form and D e b r i e f i n g Interview Now t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t i s o v e r , I'd l i k e t o t e l l you a few t h i n g s about t h e s t u d y t h a t you j u s t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n . What we a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n l e a r n i n g i s t h e manner by w h i c h p e o p l e make d e c i s i o n s . In o t h e r words, what do p e o p l e base t h e i r d e c i s i o n s upon? We needed t o c r e a t e a s i t u a t i o n i n wh i c h a p e r s o n i s r e q u i r e d t o make a d e c i s i o n . I t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o s t u d y d e c i s i o n making i n a n a t u r a l s e t t i n g s i n c e f i r s t , we would have t o f i n d d e c i s i o n s t h a t needed t o be made and t h e n we would have to w a i t u n t i l someone came along and made a d e c i s i o n . Therefore, we d e c i d e d t o use a l a b o r a t o r y s e t t i n g so t h a t we c o u l d have p e o p l e c o n f r o n t s i t u a t i o n s where t h e y must make d e c i s i o n s . In t h i s way, we c o u l d c o n t r o l t h e number o f a g r e e m e n t s and disagreements t h a t you and your p a r t n e r had. C o n t r a s t S e n s i t i v i t y i s n o t a r e a l a b i l i t y , b u t r a t h e r a procedure used by s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s t o examine how people r e s o l v e d i s a g r e e m e n t s . We want t o f i n d o ut how p e o p l e make d e c i s i o n s when t h e y d i s a g r e e . We a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n d i s c o v e r i n g what a f f e c t s t h i s process of r e s o l v i n g disagreements. As f a r as C o n t r a s t S e n s i t i v i t y i s c o n c e r n e d , you may now u n d e r s t a n d t h a t we a r e n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n m e a s u r i n g anyone's a b i l i t y . The s l i d e s you were shown e x i s t t o g i v e people something to make judgements about and d i s a g r e e upon. In f a c t , there i s no c o r r e c t answer. However, i t i s very d i f f i c u l t , i f not i m p o s s i b l e 1 0 0 i n t h e s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e g i v e n , f o r any p a r t i c i p a n t t o n o t i c e t h i s . One w o u l d n e e d a f a i r a m o u n t o f t i m e w i t h a r u l e r t o d i s c o v e r t h i s f a c t . I n o r d e r t o s e e how y o u r c h o i c e s w e r e a f f e c t e d b y d i s a g r e e m e n t s w i t h y o u r p a r t n e r ' s , we m a n i p u l a t e d y o u r c h o i c e . We d i d t h i s b y u s i n g a m a c h i n e c a l l e d t h e I n t e r a c t i o n C o n t r o l M a c h i n e . T h i s m a c h i n e t a k e s t h e a n s w e r s f r o m y o u r p a n e l a n d g i v e s y o u a n a g r e e m e n t o r d i s a g r e e m e n t i n a p r e -a r r a n g e d s c h e d u l e , r e g a r d l e s s o f w h a t y o u r p a r t n e r c h o o s e s . E v e r y o n e who p a r t i c i p a t e s i n t h i s s t u d y r e c e i v e s t h e same p a t t e r n o f p r e - a r r a n g e d d i s a g r e e m e n t s ( n u m b e r i n g 20) and e x a c t l y t h e same s c o r e s o n t h e c o m p u t e r p r i n t o u t . T h e r e a r e t w o c o m p u t e r p r i n t o u t s w i t h d i f f e r e n t s t a n d a r d s o n e a c h . E a c h p a r t i c i p a n t i s r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d one o f t h e c o m p u t e r p r i n t o u t s . B o t h p r i n t o u t s a r e d e s i g n e d t o h a v e t h e p a r t i c i p a n t r e c e i v e a l o w e r s c o r e t h a n h i s / h e r p a r t n e r who i s t h e s a m e s e x and i s n o t r e a l l y a p a r t i c i p a n t b u t p a r t o f t h e s t u d y . E v e r y o n e who t a k e s p a r t i n t h i s s t u d y r e c e i v e s f a l s e i n f o r m a t i o n . T h i s i s t h e o n l y way we c a n d e t e r m i n e o b j e c t i v e l y how d i s a g r e e m e n t s a r e r e s o l v e d . Now I hope t h a t y o u u n d e r s t a n d why we c o u l d n ' t t e l l y o u t h a t t h e a b i l i t y r e a l l y d o e s n ' t e x i s t a n d t h a t t h e s l i d e t a s k h a s no c o r r e c t a n s w e r . I f we h a d t o l d a l l t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s e v e r y t h i n g f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g , i t w o u l d h a v e c h a n g e d t h e way t h e y a c t e d and t h e n i n v a l i d a t e d t h e e x p e r i m e n t . I f y o u h a v e a n y q u e s t i o n s , p l e a s e f e e l f r e e t o a s k t h e m a t t h i s t i m e . 101 D e b r i e f i n g I n t e r v i e w T e l l s u b j e c t t h a t t h i s i s t h e f i n a l p a r t o f h i s / h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 1. When s u b j e c t was d e b r i e f e d d i d he o r s h e seem: a. Amused b. U p s e t c . S u r p r i s e d d. U n s u r p r i s e d 2. A s k a g a i n i f t h e r e a r e a n y comments o r q u e s t i o n s t h e s u b j e c t h a s . Do n o t l e t a s u b j e c t go a w a y c o n f u s e d o r u p s e t . Was t h e s u b j e c t : I n v o l v e d 1 2 3 4 5 U n i n v o l v e d C o o p e r a t i v e 1 2 3 4 5 U n c o o p e r a t i v e S a t i s f i e d 1 2 3 4 5 U n s a t i s f i e d 3. A s k t h e s u b j e c t i f he o r s h e u n d e r s t a n d s why he o r s h e s h o u l d n o t t e l l a n y o n e a b o u t t h e s t u d y a n d t h e n h a v e t h e s u b j e c t s i g n t h e s e c r e c y c o m m i t m e n t c o n t r a c t . 4. H a v e t h e s u b j e c t w r i t e h i s / h e r name a n d p h o n e n u m b e r o n a p i e c e o f p a p e r a nd p l a c e i t i n t h e j a r . 5. I n f o r m t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e t i m e a n d p l a c e o f t h e l o t t e r y ( F r i d a y , A u g u s t 2 n d , 1 9 8 5 a t 1:00 pm i n t h e S m a l l G r o u p s L o u n g e ) . 6. F i n a l l y , a s k t h e s u b j e c t i f h e / s h e w o u l d l i k e t o b e a c o n f e d e r a t e f o r a d a y a n d t h e n m e n t i o n t h e $25 c o n f e d e r a t e l o t t e r y . 102 A p p e n d i x I . S e c r e c y Commitment Form THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Name: . The a b o v e named p e r s o n a g r e e s n o t t o d i s c l o s e a n y i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y j e o p a r d i z e t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e s t u d y i n w h i c h h e / s h e p a r t i c i p a t e d a t t h e S m a l l G r o u p s L a b o r a t o r y o f t h e UBC D e p a r t m e n t o f A n t h r o p o l o g y a n d S o c i o l o g y . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e a b o v e n amed a g r e e s n o t t o m e n t i o n a n y t h i n g a b o u t t h e d e c e p t i o n a s p e c t s o f t h e s t u d y . D a t e : . S i g n a t u r e : . 1 0 3 A p p e n d i x J . R e j e c t i o n C r i t e r i a a n d R e s u l t s S u b j e c t s w e r e e x c l u d e d f r o m a n a l y s i s i f t h e y d i d n o t m e e t one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s : 1. S u s p i c i o n - S u s p i c i o n was m e a s u r e d b y q u e s t i o n s 13d a n d 1 3 f o f t h e O p i n i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , b y t h e c o m m e n t s made a t t h e e n d o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n d b y q u e s t i o n 3 d o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e r ' s summary. Q u e s t i o n s 13d and 1 3 f a l o n e d i d n o t g a v e s u f f i c i e n t g r o u n d s t o e x c l u d e s u b j e c t s . H o w e v e r , w e l l a r t i c u l a t e d s u s p i c i o n s i n comments w r i t t e n b y a s u b j e c t o r a w e l l a r t i c u l a t e d a n s w e r t o q u e s t i o n 3d o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e r ' s summary p r o v i d e d g r o u n d s f o r e x c l u s i o n . F i v e s u b j e c t s w e r e r e j e c t e d due t o s u s p i c i o n . 2. C o l l e c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n - M e a s u r e m e n t o f t h i s v a r i a b l e w a s c o m p i l e d f r o m q u e s t i o n s 4 - a , 4 - c , 1 1 , 1 3 - a , 1 3 - b , 1 3 - e , a n d 1 3 - g o f t h e O p i n i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n d q u e s t i o n s 3 b i , 3 b i i , 3 b i i i , a n d 3 b i v o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e r ' s s u m m a r y . N o n e o f t h e q u e s t i o n s a l o n e f r o m t h e O p i n i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e w e r e s u f f i c i e n t g r o u n d s f o r d i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n . H o w e v e r , p a r t i c u l a r a n s w e r s t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s p r o m p t e d t h e i n t e r v i e w e r t o p r o b e t h e s u b j e c t o n c o l l e c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n . T h e n , u s i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w e r ' s s u m m a r y , s u b j e c t s w e r e e i t h e r e x c l u d e d o r i n c l u d e d . S e v e n s u b j e c t s w e r e r e j e c t e d d u e t o l a c k o f c o l l e c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n . 104 T a s k o r i e n t a t i o n - T a s k o r i e n t a t i o n w a s m e a s u r e d u s i n g q u e s t i o n s 2 - b , 2 - g , 4 - b , 4 - g , a n d 1'3-c o f t h e O p i n i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and q u e s t i o n 3-a i n t h e I n t e r v i e w e r ' s summary. Q u e s t i o n s i n t h e O p i n i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e w e r e d e s i g n e d t o a l e r t t h e i n t e r v i e w e r t o p o s s i b l e p r o b l e m s r e g a r d i n g t a s k o r i e n t a t i o n . The i n t e r v i e w e r w o u l d t h e n u s e q u e s t i o n 3-a t o p r o b e t h e s u b j e c t a b o u t t a s k o r i e n t a t i o n . N o n e o f t h e q u e s t i o n s i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a r e s u f f i c i e n t g r o u n d s f o r e x c l u s i o n . H o w e v e r , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i n t e r v i e w e r ' s summary, s u b j e c t s c a n be e x c l u d e d . S u c c e s s o f t h e s c o r e s a n d s t a n d a r d s m a n i p u l a t i o n s - I f b o t h q u e s t i o n s 8 a n d 11 s h o w e d t h a t t h e s c o r e s m a n i p u l a t i o n was u n s u c c e s s f u l , t h e s u b j e c t w a s e x c l u d e d . Q u e s t i o n 11 a l o n e was n o t c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t g r o u n d s f o r r e j e c t i o n ; h o w e v e r , i f i n q u e s t i o n 8, t h e s u b j e c t c l a i m e d t h a t s / h e made m o r e c o r r e c t c h o i c e s t h a n t h e p a r t n e r , t h e s u b j e c t w a s e x c l u d e d . I n a d d i t i o n , i f t h e s u b j e c t c o u l d n o t r e c a l l t h e p e r c e n t a g e o r r a w s c o r e f o r e i t h e r h a v i n g o r n o t h a v i n g t h e a b i l i t y ( q u e s t i o n 9) t h e n t h e s u b j e c t h a d t o b e e x c l u d e d i n t h a t t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n w a s u n s u c c e s s f u l . N i n e s u b j e c t s d i d n o t f o r m [-+] e x p e c t a t i o n s a n d t w o s u b j e c t s c o u l d n o t r e c a l l e i t h e r t h e s c o r e s g i v e n t o them. I n c o n s i s t e n c i e s w e r e f o u n d t h r o u g h o u t t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a b o u t c o l l e c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n a n d t a s k o r i e n t a t i o n o r l u c k a n d 105 a b i l i t y a t t r i b u t i o n s i n t w o c a s e s . I t was t h e n a s s u m e d t h a t s u b j e c t s e i t h e r d i d n o t c o m p h r e h e n d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s o r d i d n o t c a r e t o a c c e p t t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n s a nd h a d t o be e x c l u d e d . Two s u b j e c t s f e l l i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y a nd t h u s , w e r e r e j e c t e d . 106 A p p e n d i x K. M e t h o d o l o g i c a l C h a nges and a C o m p a r i s o n o f R e s u l t s . T he f i n d i n g s o f T a b l e 10 i n t h i s s t u d y a r e c o m p a r e d t o T a b l e 6 i n t h e o r i g i n a l s t u d y . T h e p ( s ) r e s p o n s e s w h e n g r o u p e d b y c o n d i t i o n ( i . e . weak o r s t r o n g [-+]) d i f f e r e d m a r k e d l y i n t h e t w o s t u d i e s . F o s c h i e t a l . w e r e u n a b l e t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h e w e a k [-+] f r o m t h e s t r o n g [-+] o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e p ( s ) - t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s e t w o c o n d i t i o n s w a s .004. H o w e v e r , i n t h i s s t u d y t h e weak [-+] and t h e s t r o n g [-+] w e r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d b y .074, w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t t w o d i s t i n c t [-+] c o n d i t i o n s w e r e c r e a t e d . When t h e p ( s ) v a r i a b l e i s c a t e g o r i z e d b y s e x , i t b e c o m e s c l e a r t h a t m a l e s and f e m a l e s r e a c t e d s i m i l a r l y i n b o t h s t u d i e s , a s i s e v i d e n c e d b y t h e m a l e mean p ( s ) i n t h e w e a k a n d s t r o n g [-+] c o n d i t i o n s i n b o t h s t u d i e s . The d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e m a l e [-+] c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e o r i g i n a l s t u d y w a s - . 0 2 4 ! I n o t h e r w o r d s , m a l e s i n t h e s t r o n g [-+] c o n d i t i o n r e j e c t e d s l i g h t l y m o r e i n f l u e n c e t h a n m a l e s i n t h e weak [-+] c o n d i t i o n . I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , m a l e s i n e a c h c o n d i t i o n d i f f e r e d o n l y s l i g h t l y b y a p ( s ) o f .023. B u t i n t h i s c a s e , m a l e s i n t h e w e a k [-+] c o n d i t i o n r e j e c t e d more i n f l u e n c e t h a n t h o s e i n t h e s t r o n g [-+] c o n d i t i o n . I n s h o r t , t h e m a l e c o n d i t i o n s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n t h e t w o s t u d i e s . The f e m a l e c o n d i t i o n s , h o w e v e r , a r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n b o t h s t u d i e s , p r o v i d i n g a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n t h a t b o t h s t r o n g and weak [-+] c o n d i t i o n s f o r f e m a l e s 107 w e r e c r e a t e d . I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , a s t r o n g e r d i f f e r e n c e w a s c r e a t e d b e t w e e n t h e f e m a l e [-+] c o n d i t i o n s t h a n i n t h e f e m a l e [-+] c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e F o s c h i e t a l . s t u d y . The d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e p ( s ) b e t w e e n t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s i n t h i s s t u d y i s . 1 25, a s o p p o s e d t o .04, t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e o r i g i n a l s t u d y . S t a n d a r d s b e t w e e n t h e t w o s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n c o m p a r e d c o m b i n i n g m a l e a n d f e m a l e c o n d i t i o n s s i n c e t h e F o s c h i e t a l . s t u d y d o e s n o t p r o v i d e a b r e a k d o w n b y g e n d e r . T h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y r e c a l l e d t h e s t a n d a r d s much m o r e a c c u r a t e l y t h a n i n t h e F o s c h i , W a r r i n e r a n d H a r t s t u d y i n a l l c a s e s e x c e p t i n t h e s t r o n g [-+] c o n d i t i o n f o r l a c k o f a b i l i t y . I n t h i s c o n d i t i o n , t h e s t a n d a r d s w e r e r e c a l l e d v e r y a c c u r a t e l y a s o p p o s e d t o t h e r e c a l l i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i n w h i c h s u b j e c t s r e c a l l e d t h e s t a n d a r d s 4.45% l o w e r t h a n t h e y a c t u a l l y w e r e . T h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e c o m p a r e s s t a n d a r d s i n t h e t w o s t u d i e s : T a b l e 18: A C o m p a r i s o n o f S t a n d a r d s B e t w e e n S t u d i e s S t u d y C o n d i t i o n A c t u a l S t a n d a r d s S t a n d a r d s a s R e p o r t e d By f o r S u b j e c t s f o r H a v i n g L a c k i n g H a v i n g L a c k i n g A b i l i t y A b i l i t y A b i l i t y A b i l i t y F o s c h i , * S t r o n g [-+] 60 40 63.35 39.15 W a r r i n e r & H a r t Weak [-+] 85 15 77.25 29.55 S t r o n g [-+] 65 60 65.78 55.55 P r e s e n t S t u d y Weak [-+] 85 30 83.83 32.15 • S t a n d a r d s h a v e b e e n c h a n g e d t o p e r c e n t a g e s t o e n a b l e c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n t h e two s t u d i e s 108 I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t b y a d j u s t i n g s t a n d a r d s t o g i v e t h e m a more r e a l i s t i c a p p e a r a n c e a nd p r o v i d i n g t h e m i n b o t h p e r c e n t a g e s a n d r a w n u m b e r s , t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n s w e r e s t r e n g t h e n e d , w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n s u b j e c t s r e c a l l i n g t h e s t a n d a r d s more a c c u r a t e l y and a c c e p t i n g t h e s t a n d a r d s p r o v i d e d . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e r e g a r d i n g t h e s t a n d a r d f o r n o t h a v i n g t h e a b i l i t y i n t h e weak [-+] c o n d i t i o n . I t w a s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e F o s c h i e t a l . s t u d y may h a v e p e r c e i v e d t h e t a s k a s b e i n g m o r e d i f f i c u l t t h a n t h e o n e u s e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y a n d t h e r e f o r e t h a t t h e y may h a v e f e l t i n l e s s c o n t r o l o v e r t h e o u t c o m e . By c h a n g i n g t h e t a s k a n d c o m p a r i n g r e s u l t s o f s u b j e c t s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e i r a b i l i t y r e l a t i v e t o t h e i r p a r t n e r s i n b o t h s t u d i e s , i t b e c o m e s e v i d e n t t h a t s u b j e c t s i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y p e r c e i v e l e s s t h e i r p a r t n e r a s "much b e t t e r " t h a n t h e y a r e a s o p p o s e d t o s u b j e c t s i n t h e F o s c h i , W a r r i n e r a n d H a r t s t u d y who p e r c e i v e d t h e i r p a r t n e r m o r e a s h a v i n g "much b e t t e r " a b i l i t y t h a n t h e y d o . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e r e p r e s e n t s t h i s c o m p a r i s o n ; m a l e a n d f e m a l e s u b j e c t s i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y h a v e a g a i n b e e n c o m b i n e d . T a b l e 19: R e p o r t e d A b i l i t y o f O t h e r R e l a t i v e t o S e l f S t u d y C o n d i t i o n Much More Somewhat More A b o u t t h e o r B e t t e r o r B e t t e r Same o r Same F o s c h i S t r o n g [-+] 6 1 . 1 % 3 8 . 9 % 0% W a r r i n e r & H a r t Weak [-+] 5 9 . 1 % 36.4% 0% S t r o n g [-+] 4 7 . 5 % 4 7 . 5 % 5% P r e s e n t S t u d y Weak [-+] 20% 7 7 . 5 % 2.5% 109 I n a d d i t i o n , i n t h e F o s c h i , W a r r i n e r a n d H a r t s t u d y , s t a n d a r d s h a d v i r t u a l l y no i m p a c t o n p e r c e i v e d a b i l i t y w h e n s u b j e c t s w e r e s o c o m b i n e d ; w h e r e a s , i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t h e e f f e c t o f s t a n d a r d s w a s p r o n o u n c e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e "much more o r b e t t e r " c a t e g o r y . The d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n t h e t w o s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t , i n d e e d , p a t t e r n r e c o g n i t i o n ( t h e t a s k e m p l o y e d i n t h e F o s c h i e t a l . s t u d y ) w a s p e r c e i v e d a s much m o r e d i f f i c u l t t h a n c o n t r a s t s e n s i t i v i t y . An a t t e m p t was made t o n a r r o w t h e age d i f f e r e n c e t o i n c r e a s e h o m o g e n e i t y o f t h e s u b j e c t p o o l . The mean o f t h e F o s c h i e t a l . s t u d y was 19.39 y e a r s o f a g e , .25 p o i n t s h i g h e r t h a n t h e mean age o f t h i s s t u d y w h i c h w a s 19.15 y e a r s o f a g e . T h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f t h e F o s c h i e t a l . s t u d y was 1.68, .381 p o i n t s h i g h e r t h a n t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f t h i s r e c e n t s t u d y w h i c h was 1.299. C o n s i d e r i n g v a r i o u s i m p r o v e m e n t s made t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n a n d d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e s u l t s , t h e q u e s t i o n t h a t m u s t be a d d r e s s e d r e g a r d s w h e t h e r t h e r e s u l t s c o l l e c t e d i n b o t h s t u d i e s d i f f e r s u b s t a n t i a l l y . A l l i n d i c a t i o n s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e a r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e manner b y w h i c h s u b j e c t s i n b o t h s t u d i e s b e h a v e d . 110 

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