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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The rise and fall of the Cambodian revolution : the rationale for Pol Pot's democratic Kampuchea Frieson, Kate G. 1986

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THE R I S E AND F A L L OF THE CAMBODIAN REVOLUTION: THE RATIONALE FOR POL POT'S DEMOCRATIC KAMPUCHEA by KATE G. FRIESON B.A., U n i v e r s i t y Of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1984 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA O c t o b e r 1986 © K a t e G. F r i e s o n , 1986 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requi rements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia , I agree tha t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r re fe rence and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t pe rm iss ion f o r e x t e n s i v e copy ing o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood tha t copy ing o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be a l lowed w i thou t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver , Canada V6T 1Y3 Date DE-6 (3/81) i i A b s t r a c t The f u l l t h e o r e t i c a l a n d h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e Cambodian r e v o l u t i o n w i l l n o t l i k e l y be r e v e a l e d e x c e p t w i t h t h e p a s s a g e a n d p e r s p e c t i v e o f t i m e a n d t h e u n c o v e r i n g o f a d d i t i o n a l r e l e v a n t d a t a . W h i l e t h e r e v o l u t i o n i t s e l f b r o u g h t u n p r e c e d e n t e d a n d s w e e p i n g c h a n g e t o C a m b o d i a , so much s o t h a t t h e p r e r e v o l u t i o n a r y s o c i e t y h a s been a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y o b l i t e r a t e d , t h e r e i s p r e c i o u s l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e on t h e a r c h i t e c t s t h e m s e l v e s o r on t h e m o r a l a nd p o l i t i c a l i m p e t u s b e h i n d t h e i r a c t i o n s . I n d e e d , many o f t h e mac a b r e p o l i t i c a l b a t t l e s t h a t a c c o m p a n i e d so much d e s t r u c t i o n i n D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea a r e s t i l l o n l y v a g u e l y u n d e r s t o o d . I n s h o r t , t h e r e a r e many s t r a y p i e c e s o f t h e p u z z l e o f t h e Cambodian r e v o l u t i o n t h a t h a v e y e t t o be p u t i n p l a c e t o make t h e p i c t u r e c l e a r a n d c o h e r e n t . T h i s t h e s i s a t t e m p t s t o a d d t o t h e s m a l l b u t g r o w i n g body o f s c h o l a r s h i p t h a t s e e k s t o e x p l a i n t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r one o f t h e most v i o l e n t a n d r a d i c a l r e v o l u t i o n s o f t h i s c e n t u r y . The n a r r a t i v e t r a c e s t h e m a j o r d e v e l o p m e n t s o f t h e Cambodian r e v o l u t i o n f r o m t h e i n c e p t i o n o f t h e c i v i l war i n 1970 t o t h e d e m i s e o f P o l P o t ' s r e v o l u t i o n a r y r e g i m e i n 1979, t h e l a t t e r o c c a s i o n e d by t h e V i e t n a m e s e i n v a s i o n a n d o c c u p a t i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y . The f i r s t c h a p t e r e x a m i n e s t h e o r i g i n s a n d s t r u g g l e o f t h e p e a s a n t - b a s e d c o mmunist r e v o l u t i o n i n Camb o d i a w h i c h c u l m i n a t e d i n t h e s e i z u r e o f power by t h e Communist P a r t y o f Kampuchea i n A p r i l , 1975. The s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a n d p o l i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h p r e v a i l e d i n C a m b o d i a up t o 1975 a r e a n a l y s e d w i t h i n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y p r e c o n d i t i o n s . The c o n d i t i o n s g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d t o be n e c e s s a r y a n d s u f f i c i e n t f o r r e v o l u t i o n t o s u c c e e d were p r e s e n t i n C a m b o d i a . The s e c o n d c h a p t e r d e t a i l s t h e p r o c e s s o f i n t e r n a l c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n i n t h e p o s t - v i c t o r y p e r i o d , f r o m 1975 t o 1979. The Communist P a r t y o f Kampuchea came t o power a s an i d e o l o g i c a l l y a n d m i l i t a r i l y f r a g m e n t e d p a r t y . The e m e r g e n c e o f a d o m i n a n t f a c t i o n t h a t i n s u l a t e d i t s e l f , t e m p o r a r i l y , f r o m i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l t h r e a t s , f o r m t h e s u b s t a n c e o f t h i s c h a p t e r . The t h i r d c h a p t e r e x a m i n e s t h e i d e a s , p o l i c i e s , a n d a c t i o n s o f t h e D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchean r e g i m e . To e x p l a i n t h e v i o l e n t a n d r a d i c a l p o l i c i e s o f t h e p e r i o d , t h i s c h a p t e r i n v e s t i g a t e s a m a t r i x o f i n t r i c a t e l y woven v a r i a b l e s , s u c h a s t h e i d e o l o g y and i n t e n t i o n s o f t h e p a r t y e l i t e ; t h e n e e d t o d e f e a t a n d p u r g e i n t e r n a l r i v a l s ; t h e e t h n o c e n t r i c o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e e l i t e ; a n d t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f i m m i n e n t e x t e r n a l t h r e a t s . The f i n a l c h a p t e r o f f e r s some c o n c l u s i o n s on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r a d i c a l e x p e r i m e n t c a r r i e d o u t i n D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea. The c o n c l u s i o n r e a c h e d i s t h a t t h e CPK l e a d e r s h i p , w h i l e a t t i m e s p r o c l a i m i n g c o m m u n i s t b e l i e f s , was i n f a c t a c t i n g f r o m m o t i v e s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e w h i c h have d r i v e n o t h e r C a m b o d i a n l e a d e r s t h r o u g h o u t h i s t o r y , a d e s i r e f o r n a t i o n a l s u r v i v a l . The C a m b o d i a n r e v o l u t i o n i s a s t o r y a b o u t how a z e a l o u s g r o u p o f i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n t h e c o m m u n i s t p a r t y came t o i mpose an i d e o l o g y o f n a t i o n a l i s m on a c o m m u n i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n . i v T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s A b s t r a c t i i G l o s s a r y Of Terms And A b b r e v i a t i o n s v L i s t o f F i g u r e s v i A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t v i i I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 C h a p t e r I THE ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE CAMBODIAN REVOLUTION: 1960-1975 ..11 C h a p t e r I I INTERNAL CONSOLIDATION AND THE R I S E OF THE POL POT GROUP .54 C h a p t e r I I I THE DEMOCRATIC KAMPUCHEAN REGIME: AN ANALYSIS OF CPK'S IDEAS, P O L I C I E S AND ACTIONS 77 C h a p t e r I V THE NATURE OF THE RADICAL EXPERIMENT: COMMUNIST, NATIONALIST, POPULIST, ANARCHIST...? 118 BIBLIOGRAPHY 150 v • G l o s s a r y o f Terms a n d A b b r e v i a t i o n s A n g k a r -- o r g a n i z a t i o n , t e r m u s e d by t h e Communist P a r t y o f Kampuchea t o i d e n t i f y i t s e l f a f t e r 1975. A n g k o r — Khmer c i v i l i z a t i o n (A.D. 802-1431) CPK — Communist P a r t y o f Kampuchea ( 1 9 6 0 - 1 9 8 1 ) DK D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea, s t a t e - n a m e o f C a m b o d i a between 1975 a n d 1979 DRV — D e m o c r a t i c R e p u b l i c o f V i e t n a m ( 1 9 4 5 - 1 9 7 6 ) FUNK — U n i t e d N a t i o n a l F r o n t o f Kampuchea GRUNK — R o y a l G o v e r n m e n t o f N a t i o n a l U n i o n o f Cambodia ( 1 9 7 0 -1976) I C P — I n d o c h i n e s e Communist P a r t y ( 1 9 3 0 - 1 9 5 1 ) Khmer Rouges -- c o l l o q u i a l name f o r Khmer c o m m u n i s t s KPRP — Khmer P e o p l e ' s R e v o l u t i o n a r y P a r t y ( 1 9 5 1 - 1 9 6 0 ) PRK — P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f Kampuchea ( 1 9 7 9 - ) SRV — S o c i a l i s t R e p u b l i c o f V i e t n a m ( 1 9 7 6 - ) VCP — V i e t n a m e s e Communist P a r t y ( 1 9 7 6 - ) VWP — V i e t n a m e s e W o r k e r s ' P a r t y ( 1 9 5 1 - 1 9 7 6 ) v i L i s t o f F i g u r e s 1. Map o f g o v e r n m e n t a n d r e s i s t a n c e h e l d a r e a s 37 2. Map o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e z o n e s i n D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea ..57 3. Map o f z o n e l e a d e r s 58 v i i A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t I t g i v e s me g r e a t p l e a s u r e t o r e c o r d my g r a t i t u d e t o a l l t h o s e who h e l p e d w i t h t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . Among t h e f a c u l t y members a t U.B.C. who p r o v i d e d me w i t h t i m e , i d e a s , and s t i m u l a t i o n a r e T e r r y McGee, R.S. M i l n e , and A l e x a n d e r W o o d s i d e . J o h n R. Wood h a s been an i n s p i r i n g t e a c h e r f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . I am p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r e c i a t i v e o f h i s e x t e n s i v e comments and c r i t i c i s m s o f C h a p t e r s One and F o u r w h i c h g r e a t l y i m p r o v e d t h e f i n a l p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a n a l y s i s a n d a r g u m e n t . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k D a v i d P. C h a n d l e r o f Monash U n i v e r s i t y who e n c o u r a g e d my r e s e a r c h a n d whose own i d e a s a n d e x t e n s i v e k n o w l e d g e o f C a m b o d i a a r e e v i d e n t i n many o f t h e f o l l o w i n g p a g e s . The t h e s i s a l s o b e n e f i t t e d f r o m t h e s u b s t a n t i v e c r i t i c i s m o f f e r e d by f e l l o w s t u d e n t s i n P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e . My g r e a t e s t d e b t i s t o my a d v i s o r , D i a n e K. Mauzy who f i r s t e n c o u r a g e d my i n t e r e s t i n C a m b o d i a and whose c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t f r o m b e g i n n i n g t o end a i d e d i n i m m e a s u r a b l e ways. I am g r a t e f u l f o r t h e i n v e s t m e n t o f t i m e , t h e c a r e , a n d t h e p a t i e n c e t h a t was g i v e n by h e r t h e p a s t y e a r . To my d e a r f r i e n d s M i k a L e v e s q u e and L y n V a s e y , who p r o v i d e d c o n s t a n t s u p p o r t f r o m d i f f e r e n t s i d e s o f t h e w o r l d , my t h a n k s a r e d u e . F i n a l l y , I w o u l d l i k e t o e x p r e s s g r a t i t u d e t o t h e C a m b odian f r i e n d s I met i n P h a n a t N i k o m a n d Khao I Dang r e f u g e e camps, T h a i l a n d , who e a g e r l y s h a r e d t h e i r p e r s o n a l h i s t o r i e s , m e m o r i e s and i n s i g h t i n t o what was u n d o u b t e d l y a v e r y d i f f i c u l t p e r i o d o f C a m b o d i a n h i s t o r y t o h a v e l i v e d t h r o u g h . 1 INTRODUCTION Oh w i l l t h e r e be a d r e a d f u l b l o o d b a t h When t h e Khmer Rouge come t o town? A y e , t h e r e ' l l be a d r e a d f u l b l o o d b a t h When t h e Khmer Rouge come t o t o w n . 1 B r i g h t r e d b l o o d w h i c h c o v e r s t o wns a n d p l a i n s Of Kampuchea, o u r M o t h e r l a n d , S u b l i m e B l o o d o f w o r k e r s a n d p e a s a n t s S u b l i m e B l o o d o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y men and women f i g h t e r s The B l o o d c h a n g i n g i n t o u n r e l e n t i n g h a t r e d And r e s o l u t e s t r u g g l e On A p r i l 1 7 t h , u n d e r t h e F l a g o f t h e R e v o l u t i o n , F r e e f r o m s l a v e r y ! N a t i o n a l Anthem o f D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea On A p r i l 17, 1975, t h e f i v e y e a r c i v i l war t h a t h a d e n s u e d s i n c e t h e o v e r t h r o w o f P r i n c e Norodom S i h a n o u k i n 1970, and w h i c h h a d d e s t r o y e d much o f C a m b o d i a , came t o an e n d . 2 L o n N o l ' s R e p u b l i c a n f o r c e s s u r r e n d e r e d t o t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y f o r c e s o f t h e N a t i o n a l U n i t e d F r o n t o f Kampuchea (FUNK). FUNK was d o m i n a t e d m i l i t a r i l y a n d i d e o l o g i c a l l y by t h e Communist P a r t y o f Kampuchea ( C P K ) . K y o t o P r e s s r e p o r t e d t h a t day t h a t " s o l d i e r s and p e o p l e were s e e n s h a k i n g h a n ds a n d i n e a c h o t h e r ' s a r ms. R e f u g e e s f l o c k i n g i n t o t h e c i t y c e n t r e h a v e r e t u r n e d home on j e e p s e s c o r t e d by s o l d i e r s . F i g h t i n g h a s s t o p p e d a n d t h e C ambodian c i v i l war i s now o v e r . " 3 B u t , f o r t h e end o f what some r e p o r t e r s h a v e c a l l e d t h e b l o o d i e s t war i n I n d o c h i n a , w i t h a c t s o f a t r o c i t y c o m m i t t e d by b o t h s i d e s , t h e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e v i c t o r s and l o s e r s i n Phnom Penh was s h o r t l i v e d . F o r one t h i n g , f e a r s o f a b l o o d b a t h were n o t u n f o u n d e d . As e a r l y a s 1972, f i v e - h u n d r e d L o n N o l 2 s o l d i e r s h a d been c a p t u r e d en masse and m a c h i n e - g u n n e d t o d e a t h . " E v a c u e e s f r o m t h e s o u t h w e s t r e g i o n of C a m b o d i a u n d e r Khmer Rouge c o n t r o l s p o k e o f e x e c u t i o n s o f p o o r p e a s a n t s who r e s i s t e d w o r k i n g on c o l l e c t i v i z e d f a r m s ; c a d r e s who d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h e more r a d i c a l e g a l i t a r i a n r u r a l p o l i c i e s i m p l e m e n t e d by t h e r e g i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p were a l s o k i l l e d . Khmer Rouge r u l e d u r i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g f o u r y e a r s was b r u t a l l y h a r s h . A t l e a s t one m i l l i o n o f C a m b o d i a ' s s e v e n m i l l i o n p e o p l e d i e d by s t a r v a t i o n , d i s e a s e and e x e c u t i o n o v e r a f o u r y e a r p e r i o d e n d i n g i n 1 9 7 9 . 5 The CPK l e a d e r s h i p , composed o f P o l P o t , I e n g S a r y , a n d K h i e u Samphan, e m b a r k e d on an a m b i t i o u s a n d s w e e p i n g t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e p o l i t i c a l , e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l f a b r i c o f C a m b o d i a , t o make way f o r a new s o c i e t y , c o m p l e t e l y s e v e r e d f r o m i t s t w o - t h o u s a n d y e a r h i s t o r y . T h i s was Y e a r Z e r o . The f e a t u r e s o f t h e new s o c i e t y were s p e l l e d o u t by P o l P o t a t a m e e t i n g o f C a b i n e t M i n i s t e r s a n d r e g i o n a l l e a d e r s on A p r i l 17, 1975, a t w h i c h t i m e he e n u m e r a t e d e i g h t p o l i c y d i r e c t i v e s : 1. E v a c u a t e p e o p l e f r o m a l l t o wns 2. A b o l i s h a l l m a r k e t s 3. A b o l i s h L o n N o l r e g i m e c u r r e n c y and w i t h h o l d t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y c u r r e n c y t h a t h a s been p r i n t e d 4. D e f r o c k a l l B u d d h i s t monks a n d p u t them t o work g r o w i n g r i c e 5. E x e c u t e a l l l e a d e r s o f t h e L o n N o l r e g i m e b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e t o p l e a d e r s . 6. E s t a b l i s h h i g h l e v e l c o o p e r a t i v e s t h r o u g h t o u t t h e c o u n t r y w i t h communal e a t i n g . 3 7. E x p e l t h e e n t i r e V i e t n a m e s e p o p u l a t i o n 8. D i s p a t c h t r o o p s t o t h e b o r d e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e V i e t n a m e s e b o r d e r . 6 A l l o f t h e s e p o l i c i e s e x c e p t two, t h e d e r o b i n g o f t h e monks an d t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f communual e a t i n g , were c a r r i e d o u t i m m e d i a t e l y . 7 On t h e same d a y o f t h e A p r i l 1 7 t h m e e t i n g , t h e day o f t h e f i n a l Khmer Rouge v i c t o r y , u r b a n c e n t r e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e c o u n t r y were e v a c u a t e d . Phnom P e n h ' s 2.5 m i l l i o n p e o p l e were i n s t r u c t e d t o l e a v e t h e c i t y i m m e d i a t e l y , a nd t o t a k e w i t h them p r o v i s i o n s f o r t h r e e d a y s . R e f u g e e s r e c a l l b e i n g t o l d t h e p o p u l a t i o n h ad t o e v a c u a t e t h e c i t y b e c a u s e i t was g o i n g t o be t h e t a r g e t o f A m e r i c a n B-52 bombers f o r t h r e e d a y s . They were a l s o t o l d by t h e Khmer Rouge s o l d i e r s t h a t t h e y w o u l d be a l l o w e d t o r e t u r n when t h e a r e a was s a f e . T h e r e were no B-52 bombers an d o n l y a few t h o u s a n d o f f i c i a l s were a l l o w e d t o r e t u r n . Two m i l l i o n f o r m e r p e a s a n t s , who h a d f l e d t o t h e c i t i e s t o e s c a p e t h e f i g h t i n g , were t o l d t o r e t u r n t o t h e i r f o r m e r v i l l a g e s o r t o r e l o c a t e t o new d i s t r i c t s . U r b a n i t e s were i n s t r u c t e d by CPK c a d r e s a s t o where t h e y s h o u l d go. The r o a d s l e a d i n g o u t o f Phnom Penh were f l o o d e d w i t h p e o p l e , most o f whom were t r a v e l l i n g on f o o t , t o d e s t i n a t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y . A p a r t m e n t s , o f f i c e s , s c h o o l s , c a f e s , s h o p s , p a g o d a s a n d h o s p i t a l s were c l o s e d ; no one was p e r m i t t e d t o s t a y i n t h e c i t y . The c a s u a l t i e s f r o m t h e mass e x o d u s numbered some 35,000 i n t h e f i r s t few w e e k s ; 8 t h e y i n c l u d e d t h o s e who had been s u f f e r i n g f r o m m a l n u t r i t i o n a nd s t a r v a t i o n i n Phnom Penh p r i o r t o t h e end o f t h e war, t h e v e r y o l d a n d t h e v e r y y o u n g , t h e war-wounded a n d 4 t h o s e e x e c u t e d f o r d i s o b e y i n g o r d e r s . The h a s t e a n d d i s r e g a r d f o r t h e human s u f f e r i n g t h a t a c c o m p a n i e d t h e f o r c e d e v a c u a t i o n s s u g g e s t s t h a t h u m a n i t a r i a n m o t i v e s were n o t t h e b a s i s o f t h e p o l i c y . R a t h e r , i t i s t h e c o n t e n t i o n h e r e , t h a t t h e d e u r b a n i z t i o n p o l i c y was m o t i v a t e d by i d e o l o g i c a l a n d s t r a t e g i c c o n c e r n s . The Khmer Rouge b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e c i t i e s were i m p u r e , p a r a s i t i c a l a n d f o r e i g n - d o m i n a t e d , and were i n h a b i t e d by t h o s e who were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r C a m b o d i a ' s d e p e n d e n c e on o u t s i d e r s a n d t h e c o r r u p t i o n o f C a m b o d i a ' s n a t i o n a l i n t e g r i t y . The s t r a t e g i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n was s i m p l y t h i s : t h e c i t i e s c o u l d n o t be g a i n f u l l y u s e d a s a t a r g e t o f V i e t n a m e s e s u b v e r s i o n a n d a t t a c k a s l o n g a s t h e y were u n p o p u l a t e d a nd u n p r o d u c t i v e . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e e v a c u a t i o n s were a p r e p a t o r y s t a g e o f what was t o be an o n g o i n g war i n C a m b o d i a . The w e l l - k n o w n e n e m i e s o f t h e r e g i m e were e x e c u t e d i n t h e f i r s t few weeks o f i t s v i c t o r y . Among them were G e n e r a l S i r k M a t a k , P r i m e M i n i s t e r L o n g B o r e t , a n d L o n N o l ' s b r o t h e r , L o n N o n . 9 Anonymous e n e m i e s o f t h e new r e g i m e were a l s o t a r g e t e d . Anyone who had d i r e c t l y -- o r i n d i r e c t l y -- w o r k e d f o r t h e L o n N o l r e g i m e ( 1 9 7 0 - 1 9 7 5 ) , i n c l u d i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l s , o r whose f a m i l y members were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e r e g i m e , r i s k e d e x e c u t i o n i f t h e i r i d e n t i t i e s were r e v e a l e d . F o l l o w i n g t h e d e u r b a n i z a t i o n d r i v e , t h e c o u n t r y s i d e was r a p i d l y t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a v a s t work s i t e , w i t h t h e p o p u l a t i o n f o r c e f u l l y o r g a n i z e d i n t o l a b o u r c o l l e c t i v e s . P r i v a t e p r o p e r t y was a b o l i s h e d ; t h e u s e o f c u r r e n c y was d i s a l l o w e d ; and a l l 5 p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s were c l o s e d p e r m a n e n t l y o r u s e d f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e s . No f o r e i g n a i d was s o u g h t o r a c c e p t e d e v e n t h o u g h t h e t h r e a t o f s t a r v a t i o n was o m n i p r e s e n t f o r h u n d r e d s o f t h o u s a n d s o f p e o p l e . I n s t e a d o f r e q u e s t i n g f o r e i g n a i d t h e CPK made t h e d e c i s i o n t o meet t h e n a t i o n ' s f o o d n e e d s by f o r c i n g t h e e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n t o work i n t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r . " E v e r y f a c e t o f l i f e i s now s e c o n d a r y t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n of r i c e " , Phnom Penh r a d i o r e p o r t e d i n e a r l y 1 9 7 6 . 1 0 The p o p u l a t i o n was t h e n d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : f i r s t , t h e " o l d p e o p l e " , t h o s e who h a d l i v e d i n v i l l a g e s c o n t r o l l e d by FUNK p r i o r t o 1973; s e c o n d , t h e " r e s e r v e d p e o p l e " , t h o s e who h a d l i v e d i n a r e a s c o n t r o l l e d by FUNK a f t e r 1973; a n d t h i r d , t h e "new p e o p l e " , s o m e t i m e s r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e " A p r i l 1 7 t h p e o p l e " , a l l t h o s e who h a d r e m a i n e d i n a r e a s , m o s t l y u r b a n , c o n t r o l l e d by L o n N o l f o r c e s up t o t h e end o f t h e w a r . The "new p e o p l e " , c o m p r i s i n g a l m o s t h a l f t h e e n t i r e C ambodian p o p u l a t i o n , were c o n s i d e r e d t o be t r a i t o r s o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n ; t h e y were t r e a t e d w i t h c o n t e m p t a n d s u s p i c i o n by CPK c a d r e s a n d s o l d i e r s . L i f e f o r t h e "new p e o p l e " was e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t a s t h e y were n o t a c c u s t o m e d t o r u r a l work a n d l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s . And i n many c a s e s , t h e new p e o p l e r e c i e v e d l e s s f o o d t h a n t h o s e i n t h e o t h e r two s o c i a l c a t e g o r i e s . As s u c h , t h e t r a d i t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y was t u r n e d u p s i d e down. I n D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea, i t was t h e p e a s a n t c l a s s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e p o o r p e a s a n t c l a s s , t h a t was, t h e o r e t i c a l l y a t l e a s t , p l a c e d a t t h e t o p o f t h e s o c i a l s c a l e . F u r t h e r s o c i a l d i v i s i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d f o r p r o d u c t i v e work on t h e c o l l e c t i v i z e d f a r m s . Men and women w o r k e d 6 s e p a r a t e l y i n t h e r i c e f i e l d s a nd were not p e r m i t t e d t c r engage i n c o n v e r s a t i o n s . A d o l e s c e n t s were s e p a r a t e d from t h e i r f a m i l i e s and a s s i g n e d t o t h e w a n d e r i n g m o b i l e y o u t h teams, r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b u i l d i n g dams and d i k e s , c u t t i n g wood, b u i l d i n g r o a d s and d i g g i n g i r r i g a t i o n c h a n n e l s . Young c h i l d r e n were p u t t o work c o l l e c t i n g human and a n i m a l manure t o be u s e d a s f e r t i l i z e r . Dawn t o dusk work s c h e d u l e s were a s s i g n e d t o e v e r y o n e ; t h o s e who were u n a b l e t o work r e c e i v e d no r i c e r a t i o n . The e l d e r l y s t a y e d w i t h i n t h e v i l l a g e compounds t o l o o k a f t e r t h e v e r y young c h i l d r e n . And e v e r y o n e was l o o k e d a f t e r by An g k a r ( O r g a n i z a t i o n ) . No one knew e x a c t l y what o r who Angkar was, e x c e p t o f c o u r s e , t h e v i l l a g e , d i s t r i c t and r e g i o n a l c a d r e s whose p o s i t i o n s and a u t h o r i t y were d e t e r m i n e d by t h e CPK, t h e r e a l a u t h o r i t y b e h i n d A n g k a r . F o o d was r a t i o n e d by An g k a r ; work i n t r u c t i o n s were g i v e n by An g k a r ; s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s were g o v e r n e d by A n g k a r ; and d e a t h came from A n g k a r . "Angkor has e y e s l i k e a p i n e a p p l e and can see e v e r y t h i n g " i s a p h r a s e many r e f u g e e s r e c a l l i n t h e i r t e s t i m o n i a l s o f l i f e i n D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea. The i d e n t i t y o f Angkar and i t s l e a d e r s r e m a i n e d a m y s t e r y u n t i l September 27, 1977, a t w h i c h t i m e P o l Pot r e v e a l e d t o t h e n a t i o n and t o t h e w o r l d o v e r Phnom Penh r a d i o t h e e x i s t e n c e of t h e Communist P a r t y o f Kampuchea. The key s l o g a n o f t h e DK r e g i m e was t o " b u i l d and d e f e n d " t h e c o u n t r y , t o make i t s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t and s e l f - r e l i a n t and, p e r h a p s most i m p o r t a n t l y , s t r o n g enough t o r e t a k e t e r r i t o r y f r o m i t s h i s t o r i c a d v e r s a r i e s , T h a i l a n d and V i e t n a m . Not e v e r y o n e w i t h i n t h e CPK was c o n v i n c e d o f t h e e f f i c a c y o f t h e s e p o l i c i e s . 7 A v i o l e n t s t r u g g l e f o r power t o o k p l a c e , w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n mass p u r g e s , a n d i n some c a s e s , t h e w h o l e s a l e s l a u g h t e r o f v i l l a g e p o p u l a t i o n s . A t t h e t i m e i n t e r n a l v i o l e n c e was s p r e a d i n g t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y , t h e CPK l e a d e r s h i p , f i r m l y c o n t r o l l e d by P o l P o t , I e n g S a r y , a n d K h i e u Samphan, o r d e r e d r e p e a t e d a t t a c k s a g a i n s t V i e t n a m . P o l P o t ' s c l a i m s o f t h e i n v i n c i b i l i t y o f h i s army a n d h i s r e g i m e were s o o n p u t t o t h e t e s t . V i e t n a m r e t a l i a t e d w i t h t h e f o r c e o f i t s m a s s i v e army i n December 1978. By J a n u a r y 1979, t h e V i e t n a m e s e army e f f e c t i v e l y o c c u p i e d C a m b o d i a a n d had i n s t a l l e d Heng S a m r i n , a f o r m e r DK o f f i c i a l who had e s c a p e d t o V i e t n a m i n 1978 t o a v o i d b e i n g p u r g e d , a s t h e c o u n t r y ' s new l e a d e r . From 1975 u n t i l t h e b e g i n n i n g o f 1979, C a m b o d i a , u n d e r t h e D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchean r e g i m e , was a c o u n t r y o f r u r a l l a b o u r e r s , a l a r g e number o f whom were w o r k e d and s t a r v e d t o d e a t h . They were t e r r o r i z e d by t o t a l i t a r i a n m ethods o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l a n d e d u c a t e d t o d e s p i s e a l l f o r e i g n e r s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e V i e t n a m e s e . The c e n t u r i e s - o l d s o c i e t y embued w i t h B u d d h i s t a nd r o y a l i s t v a l u e s was d e s t r o y e d . The o l d C a m b o d i a s i m p l y no l o n g e r e x i s t s . S i n c e 1979, u n d e r t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f Kampuchea, an u n e a s y c o a l i t i o n o f Khmer c o m m u n i s t s a n d V i e t n a m e s e a d v i s o r s , C a mbodia h a s been s l o w l y r e c o v e r i n g f r o m an e x t r e m e l y t r a u m a t i c h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d . 8 N o t e s 1 Song h e a r d i n H o t e l Phnom d u r i n g t h e l a s t d a y s o f t h e c i v i l w ar. C i t e d i n W i l l i a m S h a w c r o s s , S i d e s h o w : N i x o n ,  K i s s i n g e r a n d t h e D e s t r u c t i o n o f C a m b o d i a (New Y o r k : Simon a n d S c h u s t e r , 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 354. 2 The name "Ca m b o d i a " was c h a n g e d i n 1976 t o "Kampuchea", a d e r i v a t i v e o f t h e S a n s k r i t "Kambuja". I h a v e c h o s e n t o u s e t h e name " C a m b o d i a " t h r o u g h o u t t h e t h e s i s a s i t i s s t i l l t h e most w i d e l y u s e d name i n E n g l i s h , e x c e p t i n t h o s e p l a c e s where o t h e r a u t h o r s s p e c i f i c a l l y u s e t h e name "Kampuchea". 3 U.S. D e p a r t m e n t o f Commerce, F o r e i g n B r o a d c a s t  I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e D a i l y R e p o r t f o r A s i a a n d t h e P a c i f i c ( h e r e i n a f t e r c i t e d a s F B I S ) , 17 A p r i l 1975. * Ben K i e r n a n , How P o l P o t Came t o Power. (The T h e t f o r d P r e s s L i m i t e d , 1 9 8 5 ) , p. 336. 5 T h i s f i g u r e comes f r o m K i e r n a n , whose t h o r o u g h r e s e a r c h on t h i s h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d i s m a r k e d by a m e t i c u l o u s s e a r c h o f a v a i l a b l e f a c t s and e v i d e n c e , op. c i t . , p. 416. E s t i m a t e s o f t h e human c o s t o f t h e DK r e g i m e a r e d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e a n d v a r y w i d e l y f r o m t e n s o f t h o u s a n d s up t o t h r e e m i l l i o n . M i c h a e l V i c k e r y e s t i m a t e s t h e number t o be c l o s e r t o 4 0 0 , 0 0 0 , b a s e d on a v a i l a b l e b u t d a t e d c e n s u s d a t a , a p r o j e c t i o n o f b i r t h a nd d e a t h r a t e s , p r e - 1 9 7 5 war d e a d , and r e p a t r i a t i o n f i g u r e s . See h i s b o o k , C a m b o d i a 1975-1982. ( B o s t o n : S o u t h End P r e s s , 1 9 8 4 ) , pp. 178- 182. 6 K i e r n a n , op. c i t . , p. 415. 7 A c c o r d i n g t o V i c k e r y ' s r e s e a r c h , B u d d h i s t monks were s e e n 9 i n B a t t a m b a n g i n 1976 a n d i n K r a t i e i n 1977. Communal e a t i n g was n o t e s t a b l i s h e d n a t i o n - w i d e u n t i l J a n u a r y 1, 1977. See V i c k e r y , op. c i t . , p. 180. 8 M a r t i n S t u a r t - F o x . The M u r d e r o u s R e v o l u t i o n : L i f e a n d  D e a t h i n P o l P o t ' s Kampuchea. ( C h i p p e n d a l e : A l t e r n a t i v e P u b l i s h i n g C o o p e r a t i v e L t d . , 1 9 8 5 ) , p. 19. I e n g S a r y , D e p u t y P r e m i e r o f D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea, c l a i m e d t h a t 2,000 t o 3,000 p e o p l e d i e d d u r i n g t h e e v a c u a t i o n s a n d t h a t "some t h o u s a n d s d i e d i n t h e r i c e f i e l d s " . See F B I S , 11 May 1977. S u c h an vague e s t i m a t e l e a v e s room f o r f u r t h e r s p e c u l a t i o n . I n f a c t , t h e W o r l d H e a l t h O r g a n i z a t i o n n o t e d t h a t t h e p l i g h t o f war r e f u g e e s i n Phnom Penh was s e v e r e e n o u g h t o warn o f i m m i n e n t s t a r v a t i o n f o r more t h a n t h e "some t h o u s a n d s " I e n g S a r y m e n t i o n s . D u r i n g t h e l a s t months o f t h e w a r , r i c e h ad t o be f l o w n i n t o t h e c i t y a s t h e p r o d u c t i v e b a s e s o f t h e c o u n r t y had been e i t h e r l a i d w a s t e by t h e bombing o r were u n d e r CPK c o n t r o l . O n l y 450,000 r e f u g e e s were r e g i s t e r e d t o r e c e i v e r i c e ; t h e 1.5 m i l l i o n r e f u g e e s who were n o t r e g i s t e r e d , a n d who c o u l d n o t a f f o r d t o pay t h e h i g h l y i n f l a t e d b l a c k m a r k e t p r i c e f o r r i c e , were w i t h o u t any f o o d . I n one month a l o n e , M a r c h 1975, an e s t i m a t e d 8,000 p e o p l e had d i e d o f s t a r v a t i o n i n Phnom P e n h . W i t h o u t i m m e d i a t e m e d i c a l a s s i s t a n c e and s u p e r v i s i o n many more t h o u s a n d s o f o f t h e s e war r e f u g e e s most p r o b a b l y d i d " d i e i n t h e r i c e f i e l d s " . See G e o r g e H i l d e b r a n d a n d G a r e t h P o r t e r , C a m b o d i a :  S t a r v a t i o n and R e v o l u t i o n . (New Y o r k : M o n t h l y R e v i e w P r e s s , 1 9 7 6 ) , pp. 25-29. 9 L o n N o l f l e d C a m b o d i a on A p r i l 1 s t ; a c t i n g p r e s i d e n t , 10 Saukham Khoy l e f t on A p r i l 1 2 t h . No o t h e r s e n i o r o f f i c i a l s o f L o n N o l ' s g o v e r n m e n t a c c e p t e d t h e A m e r i c a n g o v e r n m e n t ' s o f f e r o f a s y l u m i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . 1 0 R e p o r t e d i n F a r E a s t e r n E c o n o m i c R e v i e w 2 J a n u a r y , 1976. 11 I . THE ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE CAMBODIAN REVOLUTION: 1960-1975 I n l i g h t o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l a n d u b i q u i t o u s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f C a m b o d i a i n t h e 1950's a n d 1960's a s a " g e n t l e l a n d " composed "by a n d l a r g e [ o f ] a d o c i l e p a s s i v e p e o p l e , " 1 1 t h e r a d i c a l a n d e x c e s s i v e l y v i o l e n t r e v o l u t i o n o f 1975 was u n p r e d i c t e d and met w i t h s h o c k by many o b s e r v e r s . 1 2 Y e t t h e i n a b i l i t y o f most A s i a w a t c h e r s t o p r e d i c t a r e v o l u t i o n i n C a m b o d i a i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g ; most e y e s were on V i e t n a m t h r o u g h o u t t h e war p e r i o d . C a m b o d i a was v i e w e d a s a " s i d e s h o w " o f t h e V i e t n a m - U n i t e d S t a t e s war, a n e u t r a l s t a t e r u l e d a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y by t h e i l l u s t r i o u s P r i n c e -S i h a n o u k . G i v e n t h e p r e o c c u p a t i o n o f many o b s e r v e r s w i t h t h e war i n V i e t n a m , t h e r e i s a more c o m p e l l i n g e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e d i s i n t e r e s t i n C a m b o d i a : t h e a p p a r e n t l a c k o f d e m o g r a p h i c a n d e c o n o m i c p r e s s u r e s w h i c h f u e l mass d i s c o n t e n t i n r u r a l s o c i e t i e s . U n l i k e C h i n a o r V i e t n a m , C a m b o d i a d i d n o t s u f f e r f r o m p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e on l a n d ; l a r g e l a n d h o l d i n g s were e x t r e m e l y r a r e . M o s t Cambodian p e a s a n t s had a d e q u a t e l a n d a n d r e s o u r c e s t o s u s t a i n a s u b s i s t e n c e l e v e l e x i s t e n c e . A t t h e g o v e r n m e n t a l l e v e l , t o o , d e s p i t e some b u r e a u c r a t i c i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s and p o l i t i c a l mismanagement, i n t h e m i d - 1 9 6 0 ' s , C a m b o d i a d i d n o t e x h i b i t s i g n s o f d a n g e r o u s i n s t a b i l i t y p r i o r t o t h e 1970 c o u p d ' e t a t w h i c h e n d e d S i h a n o u k ' s r u l e . P r i n c e S i h a n o u k , g r e a t l y r e v e r e d a s a t r a d i t i o n a l d e v a r a j a ("god-k i n g " ) , g a i n e d a d d i t i o n a l r e s p e c t f r o m t h e C a m b o d i a n p e a s a n t r y ( a s w e l l a s f r o m f o r e i g n o f f i c i a l s ) f o r h i s v i s i o n o f a m o d e r n i z e d a n d d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y . I n s h o r t , C a m b o d i a a p p e a r e d 1 2 t o be a b a s t i o n o f s t a b i l i t y , a n d e v e n p r o s p e r i t y , i n an o t h e r w i s e w a r - r a v a g e d r e g i o n i n S o u t h e a s t A s i a . How t h e n d i d a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l and unknown g r o u p o f C a m b o d i a n c o m m u n i s t s come t o o r g a n i z e a n d s u c c e s s f u l l y mount a p e a s a n t - b a s e d r e v o l u t i o n i n t h i s " g e n t l e l a n d " ? T h i s q u e s t i o n i s o f m a j o r s i g n i f i c a n c e t o C a m b o d i a n s a n d n o n - C a m b o d i a n s a l i k e who s e e k an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e v e n t s o f t h e p a s t d e c a d e . F u r t h e r , t h e q u e s t i o n o f why a n d how C a m b o d i a e x p e r i e n c e d r e v o l u t i o n i s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e t o t h e s t u d y o f r e v o l u t i o n i n g e n e r a l . I t p r o v i d e s y e t a n o t h e r c a s e s t u d y f o r u s e f u l c o m p a r i s o n s w i t h t h e h i s t o r i c a l e v i d e n c e o f p a s t r e v o l u t i o n s . F i n a l l y , t h e C a m b o d i a n r e v o l u t i o n i s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e m i n d e r t o p o l i t i c a l a n a l y s t s t h a t t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f s t a b i l i t y c a n be m i s l e a d i n g . S t a t e s s e e m i n g t o e x h i b i t s t a b i l i t y c a n e x p e r i e n c e r e v o l u t i o n g i v e n t h e r i s e o f c e r t a i n n e c e s s a r y and s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n s . I n t h i s c h a p t e r I w i l l e x a m i n e t h e o r i g i n s a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e p e a s a n t - b a s e d c o m m u n i s t r e v o l u t i o n i n C a m b o d i a up t o t h e p o i n t a t w h i c h t h e Communist P a r t y o f Kampuchea (CPK) s e i z e d power on A p r i l 17, 1975. The f i r s t s e c t i o n w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e a n d a n a l y s e t h e o r i e s o f r e v o l u t i o n w h i c h may h e l p t o e x p l a i n t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e C a m b o d i a n r e v o l u t i o n . The c o n d i t i o n s g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d t o be n e c e s s a r y a n d s u f f i c i e n t were p r e s e n t . T h e s e w e r e : a weak c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t ; i n e f f e c t i v e armed f o r c e s ; e x t e r n a l i n t e r f e r e n c e , e s p e c i a l l y w a r , i m p i n g i n g on t h e s t a t e ; p e a s a n t r e b e l l i o n s ; a n d t h e e m e r g e n c e o f an u r b a n i n t e l l i g e n t s i a o p p o s e d t o t h e s t a t e . I n t h e s e c o n d s e c t i o n I w i l l t u r n t o a 13 d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e o r i g i n s and r e v o l u t i o n a r y s t r u g g l e of t h e CPK i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h d e v e l o p e d i n Cambodia from t h e mid-1960's u n t i l 1975. The c o n c l u s i o n w i l l r e l a t e t h e o r y t o t h e h i s t o r i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s and d e v e l o p m e n t s o f t h i s p e r i o d i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e Cambodian r e v o l u t i o n c a n be g e n e r a l l y e x p l a i n e d by t h e t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . The main argument t o be a d v a n c e d i s t h a t t h e 1970 cou p d ' e t a t a g a i n s t S i h a n o u k and t h e f o l l o w i n g c ombined U.S. -S o u t h V i e t n a m e s e i n v a s i o n o f Cambodia was t h e t u r n i n g p o i n t i n th e CPK r e v o l u t i o n a r y s t r u g g l e l e a d i n g t o i t s s u c c e s s . THEORIES OF REVOLUTION As a d i s t i n c t p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s , r e v o l u t i o n i s by f a r t h e most e x t r e m e m a n i f e s t a t i o n of r a p i d and a b r u p t p o l i t i c a l change and s o c i e t a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . L e n i n s t a t e d t h a t o n l y t h r o u g h r e v o l u t i o n " a r e t h e masses o f t h e p e o p l e i n a p o s i t i o n t o come f o r w a r d so a c t i v e l y a s c r e a t o r s o f a new s o c i a l o r d e r . " 1 3 B e f o r e a t t e n d i n g t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e on t h e c a u s e s o f r e v o l u t i o n and t h e c o n d i t i o n s under w h i c h t h e p e a s a n t r y p a r t i c i p a t e s i n r e v o l u t i o n , i t i s f i r s t n e c e s s a r y t o make c l e a r my u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e terms " p e a s a n t " and " r e v o l u t i o n " . B o t h t e r m s have been d e f i n e d , r e f i n e d and d e b a t e d . Few, I t h i n k , would a r g u e w i t h T h e o d o r S h a n i n ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e p e a s a n t r y as " s m a l l a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c e r s who, w i t h t h e h e l p o f s i m p l e e q u i p m e n t and t h e l a b o u r o f t h e i r f a m i l i e s , p r o d u c e m a i n l y f o r t h e i r own c o n s u m p t i o n and t h e f u l f i l l m e n t o f 1 4 o b l i g a t i o n t o t h e h o l d e r s o f p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c p o w e r " . 1 0 R e v o l u t i o n i s somewhat more d i f f i c u l t t o d e f i n e s i n c e so few s c h o l a r s c a n a g r e e on what i s a n d what i s n o t r e v o l u t i o n . 1 5 One o f t h e more n a r r o w d e f i n i t i o n s o f r e v o l u t i o n w h i c h c l e a r l y a v o i d s t h e p i t f a l l s o f o v e r l a p p i n g w i t h t e r m s s u c h a s r e b e l l i o n , c o u p d ' e t a t , and i n t e r n a l war, b u t w h i c h a r t i c u l a t e s w e l l t h e s c o p e o f t h e e v e n t , i s t h a t p u t f o r t h by Samuel H u n t i n g t o n . R e v o l u t i o n , a s d e f i n e d by Samuel H u n t i n g t o n , i s : "a r a p i d , f u n d a m e n t a l , a n d v i o l e n t d o m e s t i c c h a n g e i n t h e d o m i n a n t v a l u e s a n d m y t h s o f a s o c i e t y , i n i t s p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , l e a d e r s h i p , a nd g o v e r n m e n t a c t i v i t i e s a n d p o l i c i e s " . 1 6 I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , I w o u l d l i k e t o a d d one f u r t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w h i c h i s n o t e x p l i c i t i n t h e f o r m e r d e f i n i t i o n b u t w h i c h C y n t h i a E n l o e makes c l e a r : t h e e l e m e n t o f p o p u l a r s u p p o r t . A c c o r d i n g t o E n l o e : One modern e l e m e n t i s i n h e r e n t i n r e v o l u t i o n : i t s mass c h a r a c t e r . E ven r e v o l u t i o n s w i t h s t r o n g i n d i v i d u a l l e a d e r s and e f f e c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by b r o a d s u p p o r t among t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a c e . . . O n l y w i t h b r o a d p o p u l a r p a r t i c i p a t i o n d o e s a r e v o l u t i o n t o u c h l i v e s a n d v a l u e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e w h o l e s o c i e t y a nd t h u s g e n e r a t e r a d i c a l c h a n g e . 1 7 F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s t h e s i s , H u n t i n g t o n ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f r e v o l u t i o n w i l l be u s e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f mass s u p p o r t s u p p l i e d by E n l o e . H u n t i n g t o n ' s d e f i n i t i o n ( c i t e d a b o v e ) e m p h a s i z e s t h e e x t e n t o f c h a n g e i n v i r t u a l l y a l l l e v e l s a nd s t r u c t u r e s o f s o c i e t y t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s r e v o l u t i o n f r o m mere e l i t e r e p l a c e m e n t ( c o u p d ' e t a t ) and o r g a n i z e d r e s i s t a n c e w i t h t h e g o a l o f l i m i t e d r e f o r m ( r e b e l l i o n ) . E n l o e s t r e s s e s t h e mass component w h i c h i s an i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c 1 5 o f p e a s a n t - b a s e d r e v o l u t i o n s . G i v e n t h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f r e v o l u t i o n , what a r e i t s c a u s e s ? The a n s w e r s t o t h i s q u e s t i o n a r e n e c e s s a r i l y c o m p l e x . Theda S k o c p o l ' s t h e o r y o f r e v o l u t i o n e m p h a s i z e s t h r e e n e c e s s a r y a nd s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n s : " ( 1 ) t h e c o l l a p s e o r i n c a p a c i t a t i o n o f c e n t r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d m i l i t a r y m a c h i n e r i e s ; (2) w i d e s p r e a d p e a s a n t r e b e l l i o n s ; a n d (3) m a r g i n a l e l i t e p o l i t i c a l m o v e m e n t s " . 1 8 S k o c p o l p r o p o s e s t h a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s e t h r e e n e c e s s a r y a nd s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n s o c c u r r e d i n a s p e c i f i c w o r l d h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e m o d e r n i z a t i o n o f a g r a r i a n s o c i e t i e s a n d t h e i r c o n c o m i t a n t i n c l u s i o n i n t o an i n c r e a s i n g l y c o m p e t i t i v e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t a t e s y s t e m d o m i n a t e d by t h e W e s t e r n i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s t a t e s . 1 9 S k o c p o l d e t e r m i n e s t h a t t h e r e v o l u t i o n s i n F r a n c e , R u s s i a , a n d C h i n a o c c u r r e d a s a r e s u l t o f t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t s i n e a c h o f t h e c o u n t r i e s t o s u c c e s s f u l l y m o d e r n i z e a nd t o o v e r c o m e m i l i t a r y c o n f r o n t a t i o n s w i t h f o r e i g n p o w e r s . 2 0 The l a t t e r f e a t u r e , w a r , i s e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t a s a c a u s e o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d m i l i t a r y c o l l a p s e , w h i c h i n t u r n a r e p r e c o n d i t i o n s f o r r e v o l u t i o n t o d e v e l o p . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e p h y s i c a l h a r d s h i p s i m p o s e d by w a r t i m e c o n d i t i o n s c a n h a v e a r a d i c a l i z i n g e f f e c t on r u r a l a n d u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e i n a b i l i t y o f t h e T s a r i s t g o v e r n m e n t t o manage R u s s i a ' s i n v o l v e m e n t i n W o r l d War I c a u s e d m i l i t a r y d e m o r a l i z a t i o n , l a r g e - s c a l e d e s e r t i o n , a n d mass u r b a n an d r u r a l a n t i - g o v e r n m e n t p r o t e s t s . 2 1 P r i o r t o t h e J a p a n e s e i n v a s i o n o f C h i n a i n 1937, t h e p r e s s u r e s on t h e p e a s a n t r y 16 b r o u g h t a b o u t by i n c r e a s e d e x p l o i t a t i o n , w a r l o r d i s r n , a n d n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r s , were n o t so i n t e n s e o r w i d e s p r e a d a s t o c a u s e a mass-b a s e d p e a s a n t r e v o l u t i o n . C h a l m e r s J o h n s o n , i n h i s w e l l - k n o w n s t u d y o f t h e C h i n e s e R e v o l u t i o n w r i t e s : J a p a n ' s i n v a s i o n and o c c u p a t i o n o f C h i n a d e c i s i v e l y a l t e r e d t h e p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s o f t h e p e a s a n t r y . P r i o r t o 1937, [ t h e y e a r i n w h i c h J a p a n i n v a d e d ] t h e p e a s a n t s were a p a s s i v e e l e m e n t i n p o l i t i c s . . . t h e war p r e s e n t e d t h e p e a s a n t r y w i t h a c h a l l e n g e t o i t s s e c u r i t y o f s u c h i m m e d i a c y t h a t t h e p e a s a n t s c o u l d n o t i g n o r e i t . 2 2 V i e t n a m p r o v i d e s a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f w i d e s p r e a d s o c i a l u n r e s t b r o u g h t a b o u t by e x c e s s i v e l y burdensome w a r t i m e c o n d i t i o n s . P e a s a n t u p r i s i n g s i n T o n k i n b e t w e e n 1943 a n d 1945 were t h e d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e F r e n c h c o l o n i a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s w a r t i m e t a x a t i o n p o l i c i e s . The s u c c e s s o f t h e V i e t M i n h ' s a t t e m p t t o r a l l y p e a s a n t s a g a i n s t t h e c o l o n i a l g o v e r n m e n t d u r i n g t h e A u g u s t R e v o l u t i o n o f 1945 i s a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e m i s e r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e r u r a l a r e a s c a u s e d by t h e w a r . 2 3 The e c o n o m i c r e p e r c u s s i o n s o f war a s w e l l a s t h e t a n g i b l e d e s t r u c t i o n i t i m p a r t s c a n h a v e d e c i s i v e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e w i d e s p r e a d m o b i l i z a t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n by r e v o l u t i o n a r y p a r t i e s a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I n s h o r t , war f i g u r e s p r o m i n e n t l y a s a c o n d i t i o n w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f r e v o l u t i o n . Thus S k o c p o l s t a t e s q u i t e c a t e g o r i c a l l y : " T h e R u s s i a n R e v o l u t i o n o c c u r r e d i n 1917 b e c a u s e R u s s i a was t o o i n e x t r i c a b l y e n t a n g l e d w i t h f o r e i g n p o w e r s , f r i e n d a n d f o e , e c o n o m i c a l l y a n d m i l i t a r i l y more p o w e r f u l t h a n s h e . " 2 " S i m i l a r l y , t h e B o u r b o n m o n a r c h y i n F r a n c e , t h e R e p u b l i c a n g o v e r n m e n t i n C h i n a , and t h e V i e t n a m e s e g o v e r n m e n t s i n N o r t h a n d S o u t h V i e t n a m were e n g a g e d i n t a x i n g w a r s a t t h e t i m e t h e i r r e v o l u t i o n s o c c u r r e d . 2 5 17 I f a weak c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t and i n e f f e c t i v e armed f o r c e s a l l o w r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o n d i t i o n s t o d e v e l o p d u r i n g t i m e s o f w a r , what a r e t h e c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h t h e p e a s a n t r y w i l l r i s e up a g a i n s t t h e s t a t e ? James S c o t t h a s n o t e d t h a t most p e a s a n t s a r e e x t r e m e l y r e t i c e n t t o r i s k a l l f o r t h e s a k e o f r e b e l l i o n . 2 6 H o w e v e r , u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s o f e x t r e m e d u r e s s b r o u g h t a b o u t by s u c h d e v e l o p m e n t s a s n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r s , e x c e s s i v e l y b u rdensome t a x a t i o n , a n d / o r w a r , p e a s a n t s h a v e r e p e a t e d l y d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o r e b e l . Y e t p e a s a n t i m p o v e r i s h m e n t , a s a f a c t o r on i t s own, i s i n s u f f i c i e n t a s an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r why p e a s a n t s r e b e l . I t d o e s n o t , f o r e x a m p l e , e x p l a i n why i t i s t h a t some p e a s a n t s r e b e l w h i l e o t h e r s do n o t . B a r r i n g t o n Moore c o n s i d e r s t h a t a sudden i n c r e a s e i n t h e l e v e l o f e x p l o i t a t i o n a f f e c t i n g many p e a s a n t s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y may w e l l a c t a s t h e s p a r k t h a t i g n i t e s p e a s a n t v i o l e n c e a g a i n s t t h e s t a t e . 2 7 I f s u d d e n , w i d e s p r e a d a n d u n e x p e c t e d i n c r e a s e s i n t h e i n t e n s i t y o f p e a s a n t i m p o v e r i s h m e n t a r e t h e d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r o f p e a s a n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e v o l u t i o n , t h e n _ . i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h i s was p r o v i d e d by t h e w a r s i n w h i c h e a c h e a c h s t a t e was i n v o l v e d w h i l e u n d e r g o i n g r e v o l u t i o n . I t i s , h o w e v e r , n e c e s s a r y t o n o t e t h a t a l m o s t a l l p e a s a n t r e b e l l i o n s h a v e been c o n s e r v a t i v e i n n a t u r e . Theda S k o c p o l ' s r e m a r k s on t h e r o l e o f t h e p e a s a n t r y i n r e v o l u t i o n a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y i n s t r u c t i v e : [ i ] t i s w o r t h e m p h a s i z i n g t h a t p e a s a n t a c t i o n s i n r e v o l u t i o n s a r e n o t i n t r i n s i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m p e a s a n t a c t i o n s i n 'mere' r e b e l l i o n s o r r i o t s . . . P e a s a n t s i n i t i a l l y drew upon t r a d i o n a l c u l t u r a l themes t o j u s t i f y r e b e l l i o n ( i e . d e f e n s e o f communal l a n d s o r c u s t o m a r y r i g h t s ) . F a r 18 f r o m b e c o m i n g r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s t h r o u g h a d o p t i o n o f a r a d i c a l v i s i o n o f a d e s i r e d new s o c i e t y , ' r e v o l u t i o n a r y ' p e a s a n t s h a v e been t y p i c a l l y ' b a c k w a r d l o o k i n g ' r e b e l s i n c o r p o r a t e d by c i r c u m s t a n c e s b e y o n d t h e i r c o n t r o l ' i n t o p o l i t i c a l l y p r o c e s s e s o c c u r r i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f them a t t h e s o c i e t a l c e n t e r . 2 8 How c a n t h i s " b a c k w a r d l o o k i n g " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f p e a s a n t p r o t e s t be e x p l a i n e d ? The i s s u e o f what M a r x i s t s c a l l " f a l s e c o n c i o u s n e s s " , t h a t i s , t h e i n a b i l i t y o f p e a s a n t s ( a n d o t h e r s o c i a l c l a s s e s ) t o r e c o g n i z e a n d r e p r e s e n t t h e i r c l a s s i n t e r e s t s , p r o m p t e d Marx t o c a l l t h e F r e n c h p e a s a n t s a " s a c k o f p o t a t o e s " . 2 9 B o t h E r i c W o l f and Moore have e m b e l l i s h e d M a r x ' s m e t a p h o r by p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t t h e l i n k s b e t ween p e a s a n t g r o u p s a r e weak a n d t h a t t h e r e f o r e i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e p e a s a n t r y t o o r g a n i z e a s a g r o u p . 3 0 F u r t h e r , t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y p o t e n t i a l o f t h e p e a s a n t r y i s h i n d e r e d by i t s s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r c l a s s e s . F o r e x a m p l e , i n s i t u a t i o n s where t h e p o l i t i c a l e l i t e s a n d l a n d l o r d s a r e i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o t h e p e a s a n t r y , t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r r e b e l l i o n i s s l i g h t . H o wever, i f s u c h g r o u p s a r e u n a b l e t o d i r e c t l y o v e r s e e a n d c o n t r o l p e a s a n t a c t i v i t i e s , t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r r e b e l l i o n i n c r e a s e s . 3 1 T h u s , i t i s o n l y when t h e t i e s b e t w e e n p o l i t i c a l e l i t e s / l a n d l o r d s a n d p e a s a n t s a r e s n a p p e d o r b r o k e n t h a t p e a s a n t s a c q u i r e t h e " t a c t i c a l f r e e d o m " t o o r g a n i z e a n d r e b e l . 3 2 The t r u n c a t i o n o f s u c h t i e s comes a b o u t a s a r e s u l t o f w a r , f a m i n e o r o t h e r t y p e s o f c r i s i e s d u r i n g w h i c h e l i t e s f l e e r u r a l a r e a s , l e a v i n g t h e p e a s a n t r y f r e e t o f e n d f o r i t s e l f . M a r x i s t s h a v e l o n g a r g u e d t h a t p e a s a n t s n e e d o u t s i d e l e a d e r s h i p t o l e n d d i r e c t i o n a n d m e a n i n g t o p e a s a n t movements. P e a s a n t s , M a r x b e l i e v e d , h a v e had no c l a s s c o n c i o u s n e s s , no 19 c o m m u n i c a t i o n n e t w o r k t h a t w i l l p r o v i d e them w i t h t h e c o n c e p t o f n a t i o n a l u n i t y , a nd no way o f o r g a n i z i n g t h e i r p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s . F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s Marx s t a t e d t h a t p e a s a n t s " c a n n o t r e p r e s e n t t h e m s e l v e s , t h e y must be r e p r e s e n t e d . " 3 3 I n t h i s c o n t e x t , . t h e r o l e o f t h e u r b a n i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , c a l l e d by W o l f " e x t e r n a l f o r c e s " and by S k o c p o l , " m a r g i n a l e l i t e s " , i s n e c e s s a r y i n t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f p e a s a n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e b e l l i o n t o n a t i o n a l r e v o l u t i o n . T h a t r o l e was f i l l e d by t h e J a c o b i n s i n F r a n c e , o n l y p a r t i a l l y by t h e B o l s h e v i k s i n R u s s i a , by t h e c o m m u n i s t Red Army i n C h i n a , by t h e V i e t M i n h i n V i e t n a m , a n d by t h e Khmer Rouge o r CPK i n C a m b o d i a . I n a l l o f t h e s e c a s e s , t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y movements were l e d by g r o u p s o f a l i e n a t e d , u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t e d , u r b a n i n t e l l e c t u a l s , who s h a r e d t h e g o a l o f c o m i n g t o power i n o r d e r t o i n s t i t u t e m a s s i v e r e f o r m i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c a n d p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s o c i e t i e s . F u r t h e r , i n a l l o f t h e s e c a s e s , t h e u r b a n i n t e l l e c t u a l s who o r g a n i z e d r e v o l u t i o n a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h w h i c h t o o v e r t h r o w t h e t r a d i t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t s , r e l i e d upon t h e p e a s a n t r y f o r mass s u p p o r t . The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n r e v o l u t i o n a r y i n t e l l e c t u a l s a n d t h e p e a s a n t r y i s n o t an e a s y one t o f o s t e r . As W o l f p o i n t s o u t , " n o t e v e r y c a l l o w a g i t a t o r w i l l f i n d a welcome h e a r i n g i n v i l l a g e c i r c l e s t r a d i t i o n a l l y s u s p i c i o u s o f o u t s i d e r s , e s p e c i a l l y when t h e y come f r o m t h e c i t y . " 3 " F o r t h i s r e a s o n , u r b a n - b a s e d i n t e l l e c t u a l s h a v e t o be e x t r e m e l y c a r e f u l i n t h e i r a p p r o a c h t o t h e p e a s a n t r y . C o u r t e o u s b e h a v i o u r and s e l e c t i v e r u r a l r e f o r m s s u c h a s l a n d r e a l l o t m e n t and m u t u a l a i d teams a r e 20 ways i n w h i c h t h e i n t e l l i g e n t s i a c a n o v e r c o m e p e a s a n t s u s p i c i o n s o f o u t s i d e r s , t h e f i r s t s t e p o f many r e q u i r e d t o o b t a i n p e a s a n t s u p p o r t f o r a r e v o l u t i o n a r y movement. C o e r c i o n i s a n o t h e r m e thod by w h i c h p e a s a n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e v o l u t i o n i s o b t a i n e d i f " c o u t e s i e s and r e w a r d s " 3 5 f a i l t o g e n e r a t e v o l u n t a r y s u p p o r t . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e C h i n e s e Red Army r e s o r t e d t o c o e r c i v e t a c t i c s t o f o r c e u n w i l l i n g p e a s a n t s t o j o i n i t s r a n k s . P e a s a n t s who h a d d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e i r r e t i c e n c e t o j o i n o r s u p p o r t t h e Red Army were l a b l e d t r a i t o r s a n d c a s t i g a t e d by v i l l a g e r s who s u p p o r t e d t h e c o m m u n i s t s . P e e r p r e s s u r e was a c o e r c i v e s t r a t e g y t h e C h i n e s e Communist P a r t y w o u l d l a t e r e n d o r s e t o r u p t u r e t h e power b a s e o f t h e p e a s a n t r y . To sum up, t h e g e n e s i s and d e v e l o p m e n t o f r e v o l u t i o n , a s i t h a s b een d e f i n e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , a r e d e p e n d e n t upon t h e c o n j u n c t u r e o f f i v e c o n d i t i o n s . T h e s e a r e : a weak c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t ; i n e f f e c t i v e armed f o r c e s ; e x t e r n a l t h r e a t s , e s p e c i a l l y war; s u d d e n , i n t e n s e a n d w i d e s p r e a d d i s r u p t i o n s i n p e a s a n t s u b s i s t e n c e l e v e l s f o l l o w e d by p e a s a n t r e b e l l i o n s ; a n d an u r b a n i n t e l l i g e n t s i a a c t i v e l y o p p o s e d t o t h e s t a t e . T h e s e c o n d i t i o n s c e r t a i n l y do n o t e x h a u s t t h e l i s t o f e x p l a n a t o r y v a r i a b l e s . They a r e , h o w e v e r , t h e most i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e s p r e s e n t i n a l l r e v o l u t i o n s . None o f t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s i n d i v i d u a l l y i s s u f f i c i e n t f o r r e v o l u t i o n t o o c c u r . F i r s t o f a l l , a s l o n g a s t h e s t a t e i s a b l e t o s u p p r e s s i n s u r g e n t s o r a m e l i o r a t e t h e c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h p rompt p o p u l a r u n r e s t , no a n t i -g o v e r n m e n t movement c a n p o s e a s e r i o u s t h r e a t t o t h e s e c u r i t y o f t h e s t a t e . S e c o n d , e v e n i f a s t a t e ' s c o e r c i v e c a p a b i l i t i e s a r e 21 weak, t h i s w o u l d n o t m a t t e r so l o n g a s t h e s t a t e i s u n c h a l l e n g e d o r i t s a u t h o r i t y i s a c c e p t e d by i t s c i t i z e n r y . T h i r d , p e a s a n t r e b e l l i o n s c a n n o t t r a n s l a t e i n t o r e v o l u t i o n s u n l e s s t h e y a r e a c c o m p a n i e d a n d l e d by u r b a n e l i t e s who e n v i s i o n t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f s o c i e t y . S i m i l a r l y , a l i e n a t e d u r b a n i n t e l l e c t u a l s c a n n o t c a r r y o u t r e v o l u t i o n w i t h o u t p o p u l a r s u p p o r t . I n a g r a r i a n s o c i e t i e s , t h e s u p p o r t b a s e i s t h e p e a s a n t r y . H owever, i n t h e e v e n t t h a t a c o n j u n c t u r e o f t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s d e v e l o p s , s u c h t h a t a s t a t e . i s a t t a c k e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y by i n t e r n a l a n d e x t e r n a l f o r c e s , t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r r e v o l u t i o n t o d e v e l o p i s g r e a t . THE ORIGINS OF THE CPK The Communist P a r t y o f Kampuchea was f o u n d e d i n S e p t e m b e r 1960 by s u r v i v i n g members o f t h e I n d o c h i n e s e Communist P a r t y ( I C P ) a n d by y o u n g r a d i c a l i z e d s t u d e n t s who h a d r e t u r n e d f r o m F r a n c e . I n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d i t s s u b s e q u e n t d e v e l o p m e n t a n d a n t i - V i e t n a m e s e o r i e n t a t i o n i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o p o i n t o u t t h e s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s o f Khmer c o m m u n i s t h i s t o r y , w h i c h e x t e n d b a c k t o t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s . P i e r r e R o u s s e t h a s w r i t t e n t h a t t h e r e w e re two i m p o r t a n t d e v e l o p m e n t s i n Khmer c o m m u n i s t h i s t o r y d u r i n g t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s : "a p o l i t i c a l b r e a k w i t h I n d o c h i n a and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a ' g e n e r a t i o n ' . " 3 6 I n 1951, t h e I C P s p l i n t e r e d i n t o t h r e e s e p a r a t e c o m m u n i s t - i n s p i r e d n a t i o n a l i s t movements. However, w h i l e n a t i o n a l i s m was t h e f o r c e m o t i v a t i n g t h e I C P b r e a k u p , t h e Khmer component w h i c h s u c c e e d e d t h e I C P i n C a m b o d i a , t h e Khmer P e o p l e ' s P a r t y ( K P P ) , c o n t i n u e d t o be d i r e c t e d by t h e V i e t n a m e s e 22 c o m p o n e n t , t h e V i e t n a m W o r k e r ' s P a r t y . I n t h e VWP's w o r d s , i t had " t h e r i g h t t o s u p e r v i s e t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f i t s b r o t h e r p a r t i e s i n Kampuchea a n d L a o s . " 3 7 I n l i g h t o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e V i e t n a m e s e c o n t i n u e d t o d i r e c t a n d e n c a d r e Khmer c o m m u n i s t s , w i t h t h e i r c o m p l i c i t y , i t seems d o u b t f u l t h a t t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e KPP i n 1951 s i g n a l l e d a p o l i t i c a l b r e a k o t h e r t h a n i n w o r d s . A r g u a b l y , t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h r e e s e p a r a t e c o mmunist p a r t i e s was more s y m b o l i c o f p o l i t i c a l c h a n g e w i t h i n t h e V i e t n a m e s e Communist Movement t h a n i t was o f a p o l i t i c a l b r e a k w i t h i t s c o u n t e r p a r t s i n C a m b o d i a and L a o s . 3 8 R a t h e r t h a n t h e d i s s o l u t i o n o f t h e I C P i n 1951 m a r k i n g a t u r n i n g p o i n t i n t h e h i s t o r y o f Khmer communism i t now a p p e a r s t h a t t h e 1954 Geneva C o n f e r e n c e was t h e more i m p o r t a n t e v e n t i n v i e w o f i t s c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r t h e p a t h c h o s e n by t h e C a m b o d i a n l e f t . D e s p i t e t h e V i e t M i n h ' s e f f o r t s t o h a v e t h e KPP r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n c l u d e d i n t h e G e n e v a t a l k s , t h e S o v i e t U n i o n and C h i n a r e f u s e d t o a l l o w t h e i r i n c l u s i o n . 3 9 As a r e s u l t o f t h e KPP's i n a b i l i t y t o g a i n e i t h e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n o r l e g i t i m a c y a t t h e G e n e v a C o n f e r e n c e , a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e p a r t y (2,000 m e m b e r s ) , i n c l u d i n g t h e KPP's most e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r s , d e c i d e d , w i t h H a n o i ' s a p p r o v a l , t o t a k e r e f u g e i n N o r t h e r n V i e t n a m . 4 0 KPP c a d r e s who r e m a i n e d i n Cambodia t o p u r s u e p o l i t i c a l c h a n g e t h r o u g h t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y s y s t e m were a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y w i p e d o u t by S i h a n o u k ' s f o r c e s . S t e p h e n Heder d e s c r i b e s t h e s i t u a t i o n a s f o l l o w s : E f f e c t i v e l y b l o c k e d f r o m p a r l i a m e n t a r y a c t i v i t y by S i h a n o u k ' s e l e c t o r a l m a c h i n e r y , a n d s u b j e c t t o a r b i t r a r y a r r e s t , c l o s u r e o f p u b l i c a t i o n a n d e v e n a s s a s s i n a t i o n , t h e i n - c o u n t r y e l e m e n t s o f t h e KPP l e a d e r s h i p were d e c i m a t e d . 23 I n t h e c o u n t r y s i d e S i h a n o u k ' s p o l i c e . . . w e r e s i m i l a r l y a b l e t o d e s t r o y t h e KPP i n f r a s t r u c t u r e . By t h e end o f t h e 1950's 90 p e r c e n t o f t h a t i n f r a s t r u c t u r e h a d been n e u t r a l i z e d i n one way o r a n o t h e r . 4 1 I t was u n d e r t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t a g r o u p o f y o u n g r a d i c a l Khmer s t u d e n t s , who h a d r e c e n t l y r e t u r n e d f r o m F r a n c e where t h e y had gone t o s t u d y a f t e r W o r l d War I I , were a b l e t o o c c u p y t h e t o p p o s i t i o n s i n t h e Communist P a r t y o f Kampuchea i n 1960. Among t h i s g r o u p o f s t u d e n t s was P o l P o t , who r e t u r n e d t o C a m b odian i n 1953 and came t o d o m i n a t e t h e CPK t h r o u g h t h e p o s t o f p a r t y s e c r e c t a r y , I e n g S a r y , who r e t u r n e d i n 1957 and became a member o f t h e CPK p o l i t b u r o , a n d K h i e u Samphan, who r e t u r n e d i n 1959 and became a member o f t h e CPK c e n t r a l c o m m i t t e e . The r i s e o f t h e " g e n e r a t i o n " a s P i e r r e R o u s s e t h a s c a l l e d them, o r t h e " P a r i s G r o u p " a s t h e y have come t o be known, m a r k e d an e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t t u r n i n g p o i n t i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e CPK. T h i s i s b e c a u s e t h e s e y o u n g v i r u l e n t n a t i o n a l i s t s were i n c o m p l e t e d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e Khmer c o m m u n i s t v e t e r a n s who had m a i n t a i n e d c l o s e l i n k s t o t h e V i e t M i n h . The P a r i s G r o u p a d v o c a t e d an i n d e p e n d e n t p o l i t i c a l l i n e , m o t i v a t e d by i t s f e a r s o f VWP d o m i n a t i o n , and c o n c e n t r a t e d on a c c e l e r a t i n g t h e C a m b o d i a n r e v o l u t i o n ; t h e v e t e r a n s m e a n w h i l e hung t e n a c i o u s l y t o t h e V i e t M i n h ' s i d e o l o g i c a l a n d t a c t i c a l b o o t s t r a p s . The V i e t M i n h d i d n o t want t h e Khmer c o m m u n i s t s t o t h r e a t e n S i h a n o u k s p o l i t i c a l s u p r e m a c y a s l o n g a s he r e m a i n e d s u p p o r t i v e o f N o r t h V i e t n a m i n h i s f o r e i g n p o l i c y . " 2 C h i n a a l s o s u p p o r t e d S i h a n o u k b e c a u s e he c l a i m e d h i s g o v e r n m e n t was a n t i - A m e r i c a n a n d a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t . The CPK was i n s t r u c t e d by H a n o i t o f o r m a u n i t e d f r o n t w i t h S i h a n o u k i n o r d e r t o k e e p h i m o u t o f t h e 24 A m e r i c a n c a m p . 4 3 C o m p l y i n g w i t h t h i s r e q u e s t must h a v e been d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e Khmer c o m m u n i s t s whose members S i h a n o u k ' s p o l i c e h a d been r u t h l e s s l y a r r e s t i n g and e x e c u t i n g . " * I n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n t o t h e V i e t M i n h ' s v i e w p o i n t , t h e CPK l e a d e r s h i p t o o k t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t i t s p a r t y , n o t S i h a n o u k , was t h e b a s t i o n o f a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s m i n C a m b o d i a , a n d t h a t S i h a n o u k ' s p o l i c y o f d e s t r o y i n g t h e p a r t y w o u l d i n e v i t a b l y r e s u l t i n t h e A m e r i c a n t a k e o v e r of t h e c o u n t r y . " 5 By 1963, t h e CPK, l e d by P o l P o t , h a d made t h e d e c i s i o n t o s e n d most o f t h e c e n t r a l c o m m i t t e e members t o t h e c o u n t r y s i d e t o o r g a n i z e armed s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t t h e s t a t e . From t h a t p o i n t u n t i l i t s 1975 v i c t o r y , t h e P o l P o t f a c t i o n o f t h e CPK s u c c e s s f u l l y r e p e l l e d V i e t n a m e s e a t t e m p t s t o c o - o p t a n d d o m i n a t e t h e p a r t y . A c c o r d i n g t o H e d e r , b e c a u s e t h e CPK d i d n o t h a v e i d e o l o g i c a l s u p p o r t f r o m e i t h e r C h i n a o r V i e t n a m a n d o n l y s p o r a d i c m a t e r i a l s u p p o r t t h r o u g h o u t t h e 1970-75 p e r i o d , t h e CPK " d e c i d e d t h a t i t h a d l i t t l e c h o i c e b u t t o l e a r n how t o make a v i r t u e o f t h e n e c e s s i t y o f i s o l a t i o n f r o m a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e f r o m a l l o t h e r Communist p a r t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e VWP, and t h a t s u c h a p o l i c y c o u l d w o r k . " " 6 T h u s , t h e r o o t s o f t h e CPK's s t r i c t i n d e p e n d e n c e and i d e o l o g i c a l s e l f -s u f f i c i e n c y a r e f o u n d i n t h e e a r l y p e r i o d of t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y s t r u g g l e . THE CPK'S RURAL STRATEGY S i n c e C ambodia i s a r u r a l s o c i e t y a n d 85 p e r c e n t o f i t s p o p u l a t i o n a r e p e a s a n t s , i t i s n o t a t a l l s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e p e a s a n t r y o c c u p i e d a c e n t r a l p l a c e i n t h e CPK's a n a l y s i s o f Khmer s o c i e t y . W i l l i a m W i l l m o t t h a s c o g e n t l y a r g u e d t h a t t h e 25 CPK's s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s o f Cambodian r u r a l s o c i e t y , b a s e d p r i m a r i l y on K h i e u Samphan's d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , l e d i t t o c o n c l u d e , i n a c c u r a t e l y , t h a t t h e " f u n d a m e n t a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n " i n Cambodian s o c i e t y was t h e c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n l a n d l o r d s a n d p e a s a n t s . 4 7 T h i s c o n c l u s i o n was b a s e d upon Samphan's f i n d i n g s t h a t 1 0 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l l a n d o w n e r s were r i c h p e a s a n t s a nd l a n d l o r d s who owned up t o f o r t y p e r c e n t o f t h e paddy f i e l d s . 4 8 By m a k i n g a c a r e f u l c o m p a r i s o n o f J e a n D e l v e r t ' s m e t i c u l o u s s t u d y o f C a m b o d i a n r u r a l s o c i e t y a n d t h e one c o n d u c t e d by K h i e u Samphan, W i l l i a m W i l l m o t t f o u n d t h r e e m a j o r e r r o r s i n K h i e u Samphan's r e s e a r c h m e t h o d s w h i c h made h i s c o n c l u s i o n s q u e s t i o n a b l e . F i r s t o f a l l , t h e t h r e e p r o v i n c e s w h i c h K h i e u Samphan c h o s e t o s t u d y were a t y p i c a l i n t h a t t h e y e x h i b i t e d a h i g h i n c i d e n c e o f l a r g e l a n d h o l d i n g s , a c o n d i t i o n n o t f o u n d e l s e w h e r e i n t h e c o u n t r y . S e c o n d , Samphan d i d n o t c o n s i d e r t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t b i l a t e r a l i n h e r i t a n c e h a d f o r t h e s i z e o f t h e l a n d h o l d i n g s . S i n c e f a m i l i e s o f t e n w o r k e d on two s e p a r a t e p l o t s o f l a n d , t h e s i z e o f f a m i l y f a r m s w o u l d most l i k e l y h a v e been l a r g e r t h a n Samphan's f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t e d . T h i r d , Samphan's l a n d h o l d i n g f i g u r e s d i d n o t t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t f a m i l y owned l a n d r e g i s t e r e d o u t s i d e t h e t o w n s h i p l i s t i n g s . T h i s o m m i s s i o n may a l s o h a v e r e s u l t e d i n a h i g h e r l a n d - f a m i l y r a t i o t h a n was o t h e r w i s e t h e c a s e . 4 9 A c c o r d i n g t o W i l l m o t t , D e l v e r t s t a t e s e x p l i c i t l y t h a t B a t t a m b a n g , P r e y V e n g , a n d S v a y R i e n g , t h e t h r e e p r o v i n c e s Samphan u s e d f o r h i s r e s e a r c h , were e x c e p t i o n a l i n t h a t l a n d l o r d - t e n a n t c o n f l i c t d i d e x i s t t h e r e . 5 0 S i g n i f i c a n t l y , 26 B a t t a m b a n g was t h e p r o v i n c e i n w h i c h t h e CPK a r o u s e d p e a s a n t a n g e r t o w a r d s t h e g o v e r n m e n t d u r i n g t h e S a m l a u t r e b e l l i o n i n 1967. Ben K i e r n a n n o t e s t h a t t h e f e a t u r e o f t h i s r e b e l l i o n was i t s d u a l i t y : " a n a l l i a n c e b e t w e e n a p e r s e c u t e d u r b a n L e f t a n d a d i s a f f e c t e d r u r a l c o m m u n i t y . " 5 1 I t i s p l a u s i b l e t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s a l l i a n c e l e d t h e CPK t o b e l i e v e i t c o u l d a t t r a c t t h e same d e g r e e o f s u p p o r t e l s e w h e r e i n t h e c o u n t r y . B u t more i m p o r t a n t l y , i t " r e i n f o r c e d t h e i r v i e w s . . . t h a t K h i e u Samphan's a n a l y s i s was a v a l i d g u i d e t o f o r m u l a t i n g r u r a l p o l i c y f o r t h e e n t i r e c o u n t r y " . 5 2 U n l i k e Samphan, D e l v e r t c o n d u c t e d h i s s t u d y i n t h e most h e a v i l y p o p u l a t e d r e g i o n s o f C a m b o d i a where 90 p e r c e n t o f t h e p e a s a n t r y l i v e d : a r o u n d t h e T o n l e Sap l a k e a n d i n t h e s o u t h e a s t e r n p r o v i n c e s i n t h e Mekong R i v e r b a s i n . D e l v e r t c o n c l u d e s t h a t 92 p e r c e n t o f t h e l a n d h o l d i n g s i n t h e s e a r e a s were l e s s t h a n f i v e h e c t a r e s and 80 p e r c e n t were l e s s t h a n two h e c t a r e s . 5 3 A C a m b odian f a m i l y o f f o u r r e q u i r e s a t l e a s t one h e c t a r e o f r i c e l a n d t o meet s u b s i s t e n c e n e e d s . 5 * S i n c e t h e a v e r a g e f a m i l y s i z e was f i v e p e o p l e i n t h e m i d - 1 9 6 0 ' s , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t w h i l e most Cambodian p e a s a n t s owned t h e l a n d on w h i c h t h e y w o r k e d , t h e amount of l a n d was b a r e l y s u f f i c i e n t f o r them t o l i v e c o m f o r t a b l y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , c o n t r a r y t o Samphan's d e p i c t i o n o f C a m b o d i a a s a r u r a l s o c i e t y w h i c h s u f f e r e d f r o m w i d e s p r e a d p e a s a n t - l a n d l o r d c o n f l i c t , D e l v e r t c o n c l u d e s t h a t : C a m b o d i a n p e a s a n t s o c i e t y i s a d e m o c r a c y o f s m a l l owner-t i l l e r s , u n d e r t h e c o m m e r c i a l d o m i n a t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e a n d a t a m e d i o c r e s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g . . . C a m b o d i a - a n d i t i s h e r g o o d f o r t u n e - k n o w s no a g r a r i a n p r o b l e m . 5 5 27 W h i l e D e l v e r t ' s s t u d y may have p a i n t e d an o v e r l y o p t i m i s t i c p i c t u r e o f Cambodian r u r a l s o c i e t y , W i l l m o t t c o n c l u d e s t h a t " t h e r e was l i t t l e s o c i a l b a s i s f o r r u r a l d i s c o n t e n t ( e x c e p t i n p o c k e t s ) when t h e K C P [ C P K ] began t o o r g a n i z e t h e p e a s a n t r y i n t h e Kampuchean r e v o l u t i o n . " 5 6 K i e r n a n w o u l d p r o b a b l y n o t a g r e e w i t h W i l l m o t t . W i t h u p d a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n , K i e r n a n h a s p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f l a n d l e s s p e a s a n t s i n c r e a s e d f r o m 4 p e r c e n t i n t h e 1950's t o 20 p e r c e n t by 1 9 7 0 . 5 7 A p p a r e n t l y , t h i s t r e n d i n c r e a s e d a f t e r 1954 a s w e a l t h y u r b a n i t e s b e gan t o buy up l a n d s owned by p e a s a n t s who were i n d e b t e d t o m o n e y l e n d e r s . K i e r n a n c o n c l u d e s t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e p o o r p e a s a n t s d i d n o t f o r m a n y w h e r e n e a r a m a j o r i t y o f t h e p e a s a n t p o p u l a t i o n , "by t h e l a t e 1960's t h e i r p o s i t i o n was d e s p e r a t e e n o u g h f o r them t o h a v e n o t h i n g a t a l l t o l o s e i n any k i n d o f s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n . " 5 8 W h i l e t h e p l i g h t o f t h e p e a s a n t r y may have w o r s e n e d s i n c e b o t h D e l v e r t a n d Samphan c o n d u c t e d t h e i r s t u d i e s , t h e r e i s l i t t l e r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t i t s o v e r a l l r e v o l u t i o n a r y p o t e n t i a l was g r e a t . C ambodian p e a s a n t s s i m p l y d i d n o t s u f f e r f r o m p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e on l a n d o r f r o m l a n d l o r d i s m a s d i d t h o s e i n V i e t n a m and C h i n a , a nd c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e m a j o r i t y o f Cambodian p e a s a n t s d i d n o t l i v e on t h e b r i n k o f c o m p l e t e d e s t i t u t i o n a s d i d t h o s e i n C h i n a o r V i e t n a m . M o r e o v e r , t h e " r a d i c a l s e c u l a r i d e o l o g i e s " o f s o c i a l i s m a n d communism w o u l d n o t l i k e l y f i n d a p p e a l among t h e B u d d h i s t K h m e r s . 5 9 The Khmer c o m m u n i s t s , u n l i k e t h e Burmese n a t i o n a l i s t s , made no a t t e m p t t o s y n t h e s i z e M a r x i s m and B u d d h i s m i n o r d e r t o make s o c i a l i s m 28 m e a n i n g f u l t o t h e p e a s a n t r y . A f u r t h e r h i n d r a n c e t o t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y p o t e n t i a l o f t h e Cambodian p e a s a n t r y was i t s l o y a l t y t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s o u r c e o f p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y , t h e d e v a r a j a . As P r i n c e S i h a n o u k was t h e f o c u s o f t h e p e a s a n t s ' c o s m i c w o r l d , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e y w o u l d v o l u n t a r i l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n a p o l i t i c a l movement t o end t h e m o n a r c h y . Cambodian p e a s a n t s w e r e , h o w e v e r , p r e p a r e d t o r e b e l a g a i n s t t h e a u t h o r i t i e s when t h e y f e l t u n j u s t l y t r e a t e d . Ten t h o u s a n d p e a s a n t s i n B a t t a m b a n g p r o v i n c e r o s e up i n r e b e l l i o n i n 1967 a g a i n s t t h e armed f o r c e s w h i c h a r r i v e d t o p r e v e n t t h e s a l e o f r i c e on t h e b l a c k m a r k e t . K h i e u Samphan a n d Hou Yuon, two l e a d i n g l e f t w i n g members o f t h e Phnom Penh n a t i o n a l a s s e m b l y , w e r e a c c u s e d by t h e g o v e r n m e n t o f c o m p l i c i t y i n t h e r e b e l l i o n . T hey q u i e t l y l e f t Phnom Pen h f o r t h e m a q u i s ( j u n g l e ) a m i d s t r u m o u r s t h a t t h e y h a d been e x e c u t e d by S i h a n o u k ' s p o l i c e . 6 0 S h o r t l y a f t e r t h e S a m l a u t r e b e l l i o n i n B a t t a m b a n g , t h e t h e CPK made t h e d e c i s i o n t o f o r m a r e v o l u t i o n a r y army w i t h w h i c h t o s t a r t an a l l - o u t war a g a i n s t t h e s t a t e . T h i s d e c i s i o n was l i k e l y r e a c h e d a s a r e s u l t o f , f i r s t , t h e R e a d i n e s s o f t h e p e a s a n t s t o r e b e l , a s d e m o n s t r a t e d by t h e p e a s a n t r y i n S a m l a u t ; a n d s e c o n d , S i h a n o u k ' s a p p a r e n t w i l l i n g n e s s t o t a k e r e p r e s s i v e a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e u r b a n l e f t . 6 1 S i h a n o u k ' s r e s p o n s e t o CPK a c t i v i t y was s w i f t a n d r e p r e s s i v e . He b o a s t e d t h a t he was c a p a b l e o f t r e a t i n g t h e CPK i n a f a s h i o n s i m i l a r t o t h e I n d o n e s i a n g o v e r n m e n t ' s s l a u g h t e r o f PKI members i n 1965: "We do n o t l a c k o u r S u h a r t o s a n d N a s u t i o n s 29 i n C a m b o d i a " . 6 2 The number o f C P K - d i r e c t e d g u e r r i l l a a t t a c k s a g a i n s t t h e armed f o r c e s a n d p r o v i n c i a l e l i t e s i n c r e a s e d t h r o u g h o u t 1969. A t t h a t t i m e t h e number o f armed g u e r r i l l a s was e s t i m a t e d t o be b e t w e e n 5,000 a n d 1 0 , 0 0 0 . 6 3 Up t o 1970, g i v e n i t s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l s i z e , t h e CPK r e v o l u t i o n a r y movement was a s o u r c e o f c o n c e r n t o S i h a n o u k , b u t n o t a m a j o r m i l i t a r y t h r e a t . As l o n g a s S i h a n o u k ' s army and p o l i c e f o r c e f u l l y s u p p r e s s e d CPK a c t i v i t y i n t h e c o u n t r y s i d e and h a r a s s e d l e f t w i n g e l e m e n t s i n t h e n a t i o n a l a s s e m b l y , t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r r e v o l u t i o n t o o c c u r was s l i g h t . F u r t h e r , s t a b l e r u r a l c o n d i t i o n s ( w i t h n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n s ) and t h e p e a s a n t r y ' s l o y a l t y t o S i h a n o u k h i n d e r e d t h e CPK's p l a n t o b r i n g a b o u t r e v o l u t i o n t h r o u g h armed s t r u g g l e . THE 1970 COUP D'ETAT AND I T S AFTERMATH W h i l e t h e CPK was o r g a n i z i n g b a s e camps t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y i n 1970, a n o t h e r k i n d o f drama was u n f o l d i n g i n Phnom P e n h : t h e o v e r t h r o w o f P r i n c e S i h a n o u k . On M a r c h 18,1970, G e n e r a l Lo n N o l a n d P r i n c e S i r i k M a t a k s t a g e d a s u c c e s s f u l c o u p d ' e t a t a g a i n s t S i h a n o u k . The c o u p marked a w a t e r s h e d i n C a m b odian h i s t o r y : t h e end o f t h e m o n a r c h y a n d t h e s p r e a d o f t h e war t o C a m b o d i a . The c o u p l e a d e r s r e v e r s e d S i h a n o u k ' s p o l i c y o f m a i n t a i n i n g C a m b o d i a ' s n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n v i s - a - v i s t h e war i n n e i g h b o u r i n g V i e t n a m . W i t h i n a month o f t h e c o u p , t h e V i e t n a m war h a d s p r e a d t o C a m b o d i a . On A p r i l 2 9, 1970, a c o m b i n e d f o r c e o f U . S . - S o u t h V i e t n a m e s e t r o o p s i n v a d e d Cambodia on t h e p r e t e x t o f r o u t i n g o u t c o m m u n i s t V i e t n a m e s e f o r c e s f r o m t h e i r h i d d e n s a n c t u a r i e s a l o n g 30 t h e C a m b o d i a n - V i e t n a m e s e b o r d e r . From March 1969 u n t i l A u g u s t 15,1973 (when t h e U.S. C o n g r e s s imposed a bombing h a l t ) , A m e r i c a n B-52 p l a n e s d r o p p e d a t o t a l of 539,129 t o n s of bombs o v e r f e r t i l e and p o p u l a t e d a r e a s o f C a m b o d i a . 6 4 W i l l i a m S h a w c r o s s n o t e s t h a t " w i t h i n a few months [ i n 1973] an enormous new a e r i a l campaign had d e s t r o y e d t h e o l d Cambodia f o r e v e r . " 6 5 S i h a n o u k ' s r e p u d i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a n m i l i t a r y a i d and p e r s o n n e l i n 1963, t h e s w i f t d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f t h e economy, and t h e p r e s e n c e o f communist V i e t n a m e s e base camps i n Cambodian t e r r i t o r y , w e r e t h e t h r e e i n t e r n a l d e v e l o p m e n t s w h i c h prompted t h e army t o t a k e o v e r t h e g o v e r n m e n t . A c c o r d i n g t o S h a w c r o s s : D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d of A m e r i c a n b o u n t y many ro u g h and smooth palms had been c r o s s e d ; a f t e r 1963, w i t h t h e money s u p p l y s h r u n k e n , i t was o n l y t h e r i c h who b e n e f i t t e d , and even t h e y f o u n d t h e r e t u r n on c a p i t a l i n v e s t e d i n v i l l a s and i m p o r t l i c e n s e s v a s t l y r e d u c e d . M i n o r c i v i l s e r v a n t s , f o r whom b r i b e s had been an e s s e n t i a l s u p p l e m e n t t o meager s a l a r i e s , j o i n e d t h e unemployed g r a d u a t e s and t h e o f f i c e r c o r p s i n b i t t e r r e s e n t m e n t o f t h e e x p u l s i o n o f t h e A m e r i c a n s and t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n of t h e e c o n o m y . 6 6 Thus, t h e s t e a d y d e c l i n e of t h e economy and t h e f r u s t r a t e d hopes w h i c h a t t e n d e d i t , combined w i t h t h e s t e a d y i n c r e a s e o f n o r t h V i e t n a m e s e s o l d i e r s i n Cambodian t e r r i t o r y (up t o 50,000 by 1969), were t h e key i n g r e d i e n t s o f u r b a n h o s t i l i t y t o w a r d s S i h a n o u k . H i s d o w n f a l l was c e l e b r a t e d by c i v i l i a n s and m i l i t a r i s t s i n t h e s t r e e t s o f Phnom P e n h . 6 7 From h i s base i n P e k i n g , S i h a n o u k r e s p o n d e d t o t h e c o u p by a n n o u n c i n g t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e N a t i o n a l U n i t e d F r o n t of Kampuchea (FUNK) t o f i g h t t h e Lon N o l government. In what must have been an i n t e n s e l y u n c o m f o r t a b l e m e e t i n g , t h e CPK and 31 S i h a n o u k a g r e e d t o work t o g e t h e r t o o v e r t h r o w t h e Lon N o l r e g i m e . 6 8 Y e t K i e r n a n c a u t i o n s t h a t , i n s p i t e o f t h e a b o u t - f a c e f o r b o t h t h e CPK a n d S i h a n o u k , t h e CPK l e a d e r s h i p " d i d n o t aban d o n i t s l o n g t e r m e n m i t y t o w a r d s S i h a n o u k , h i s f o l l o w e r s , o r t h e V i e t n a m e s e who had l o n g a r g u e d f o r s u c h a p o l i c y r e v i s i o n . " 6 9 The CPK d i d , h o w e v e r , b e n e f i t g r e a t l y f r o m t h e a l l i a n c e s i n c e t h e p e a s a n t r y r e s p o n d e d t o S i h a n o u k ' s a p p e a l t o j o i n t h e FUNK r e s i s t a n c e . On M a r c h 26,1970, t w e n t y - f i v e t h o u s a n d v i l l a g e r s d e m o n s t r a t e d o u t s i d e t h e l o c a l d i s t r i c t h e a d q u a r t e r s i n Kompong Cham c i t y a n d demanded t h e r e t u r n o f P r i n c e S i h a n o u k . I n T a k e o p r o v i n c e , g r o u p s o f p e a s a n t d e m o n s t r a t o r s o c c u p i e d l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c e s a n d hung p i c t u r e s o f S i h a n o u k o u t s i d e p e o p l e ' s homes. S i m i l a r d e m o n s t r a t i o n s o c c u r r e d i n P r e y Veng p r o v i n c e . 7 0 The p e r s o n a o f S i h a n o u k was e x p l o i t e d by t h e CPK " t o w i n p r e c i s e l y t h a t mass s u p p o r t w h i c h t h e r h e t o r i c o f r e v o l u t i o n h a d f a i l e d t o e n g e n d e r . I n S i h a n o u k t h e Khmer Rouge [CPK] a t l a s t h a d a n a t i o n a l a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y a n d a p p e a l " . 7 1 The FUNK p o l i t i c a l p r o g r a m was f r e e o f o v e r t M a r x i s t o r c o m m u n i s t e x p r e s s i o n s a n d i d e a s . FUNK's g o a l was t o d e f e a t " A m e r i c a n i m p e r i a l i s t s " a n d o v e r t h r o w t h e L o n N o l " d i c t a t o r s h i p " . I n p l a c e o f t h e Khmer R e p u b l i c , FUNK w o u l d c r e a t e a " N e u t r a l , D e m o c r a t i c a n d P r o s p e r o u s C a m b o d i a " . J u s t u s M. v a n d e r K r o e f s u m m a r i z e s t h e f e a t u r e s o f t h i s p r o p o s e d new Camb o d i a a s f o l l o w s : [ i t ] w o u l d g i v e p o l i t i c a l f r e e d o m s t o C a m b o d i a n s ( f r e e d o m o f t h e p r e s s , s p e e c h , o p i n i o n , a s s o c i a t i o n , r e s i d e n c e , a n d e l e c t i o n s , a n d t h e s a f e g u a r d i n g o f t h e ' i n v i o l a b i l i t y ' o f p e r s o n s a nd p r o p e r t y ) , a s w e l l a s g u a r a n t e e t h e r i g h t s o f 32 landownership to peasants, encourage trade unions, h e l p the ' n a t i o n a l b o u r g e o i s i e ' , and meet the i n t e r e s t s of school and u n i v e r s i t y s tudents. As to f o r e i g n p o l i c y , the FUNK promised to 'make co n c e r t e d e f f o r t s ' , together with Laos and Vietnam, to make 'Indochina' i n t o a genuine zone of 'independence, peace and p r o g r e s s . 7 2 Such a p l a t f o r m was l i k e l y designed to appeal to urban Cambodians who fea r e d communism but who no longer supported the i n c r e a s i n g l y f a c t i o n a l i z e d , i n e f f i c i e n t , and c o r r u p t Lon Nol government and to the peasantry who,no doubt, was a f f e c t e d most a d v e r s e l y by the war. I t i s d o u b t f u l that the CPK ever intended to implement the p o l i c i e s o u t l i n e d i n the FUNK p o l i t i c a l p l a t f o r m . As we s h a l l see i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n , the CPK l e a d e r s h i p proceded to dominate FUNK and implement i t s own r e v o l u t i o n a r y b l u e p r i n t i n the r u r a l areas. THE CPK STRUGGLE 197Q-1975 The r e v o l u t i o n a r y movement of the CPK advanced i n three d i s t i n c t stages between 1970 and 1975. In the f i r s t stage, from 1970 to mid-1971, the Khmer communists were c l o s e l y s u p e r v i s e d by the V i e t Minh and a l l i e d with Sihanouk's supporters i n FUNK. Throughout t h i s p e r i o d , the CPK's s t r a t e g y was to b u i l d up t h e i r u n i t s of armed g u e r r i l l a s and " l i b e r a t e " t e r r i t o r y from the Lon Nol regime. In the second stage, from 1971 to 1973, the CPK made moves to d i s a s s o c i a t e i t s f o r c e s from the pro-Sihanouk f a c t i o n of FUNK, and s i g n i f i c a n t l y , from the Vietnamese communists. By some time i n mid -1973 , the CPK had taken over a l l the key FUNK a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and m i l i t a r y p o s i t i o n s at the v i l l a g e , d i s t r i c t , p r o v i n c i a l and r e g i o n a l l e v e l s . I t h S a r i n , a CPK d e f e c t o r , e x p l a i n e d the development: 33 [ A s o f 1972] t h e r e were s t i l l c h a i r m e n o r c o m m i t t e e members a t t h e F r o n t a t some Phum [ v i l l a g e ] a n d Khum [ t o w n s h i p ] who r e m a i n e d i n t h e f r a m e w o r k o f t h e F r o n t ; t h a t i s , t h e y s t i l l b e l i e v e d t h a t [ t h e y ] were m a k i n g t h e r e v o l u t i o n s i m p l y t o h a n d a u t h o r i t y b a c k t o S i h a n o u k . As f o r t h e members o f t h i s s o r t o f C o m m i t t e e , t h e Khmer Rouge O r g a n i z a t i o n a l w a y s m o n i t o r e d them a n d o f t e n g r a d u a l l y g ave p o l i t i c a l e d u c a t i o n t o a t t r a c t them i n t o s k i p p i n g t o w a r d t h e s o c i a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n i n s t a g e s . 7 3 W h i l e t h e CPK was s l o w l y o v e r p o w e r i n g t h e p r o - S i h a n o u k s u p p o r t e r s w i t h i n t h e r a n k s o f FUNK, i t was s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t e l l i n g t h e p e a s a n t r y i n t h e l i b e r a t e d z o n e s t o f o r g e t a b o u t t h e p r i n c e , who, i t r e p o r t e d , " t h i n k s o n l y o f g o i n g t o l i v e t h e g ood l i f e i n F r a n c e " . 7 " A 1971 U.S. D e f e n s e I n t e l l i g e n c e A g e n c y r e p o r t c o n c l u d e d t h a t p e a s a n t s u p p o r t f o r t h e Khmer c o m m u n i s t s was w i d e s p r e a d due t o t h e i r p o l i t e c o n d u c t and h o n e s t y t o w a r d s v i l l a g e r s . I t s t a t e d t h a t " [ t j h e y h e l p them w i t h t h e h a r v e s t , o f f e r t o pay a r e a s o n a b l e sum f o r t h e s u p p l i e s t h e y n e e d , t r e a t t h e women w i t h r e s p e c t a n d r e f r a i n f r o m a b u s i v e l a n g u a g e o r b e h a v i o u r . " 7 5 I n o r d e r t o t r y t o c o n t r o l a n d d i r e c t t h e s o c i a l c h a o s t h a t was d e v e l o p i n g r a p i d l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y s i d e i n t h e e a r l y 1 9 7 0 ' s , t h e CPK h a d t o c h e c k t h e i n f l u e n c e and power o f t h e V i e t M i n h . S i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n , t h e CPK h a d been l e d by men who d i s t r u s t e d t h e i n t e n t i o n s o f t h e VCP t o w a r d s t h e CPK. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t t h e i l l - f e e l i n g a n d d i s t r u s t b e t w e e n t h e CPK a n d t h e VWP d i d n o t s t e m s o l e y f r o m d i s a g r e e m e n t s o v e r s t r a t e g y . E v i d e n t l y , t h e CPK i n t e r p r e t e d t h e VWP's n e e d t o d i r e c t CPK p o l i c y a s e t h n i c c h a u v i n i s m - a r e s p o n s e t h a t was d e r i v e d f r o m c e n t u r i e s - o l d e t h n i c a n t a g o n i s m b e t w e e n Cambodia and V i e t n a m . By 1970, t h e CPK c e n t r a l c o m m i t t e e c o m m i t t e e h a d 34 " f o r t h e most p a r t a g r e e d t h a t V i e t n a m was n o t a r e l i a b l e a l l y o f t h e Kampuchean r e v o l u t i o n a nd a t a P a r t y C o n g r e s s h e l d a t t h e end o f 1971 t h e y had r e s o l v e d t h a t V i e t n a m was t h e l o n g - t e r m ' a c u t e enemy' ( s a t r o u y s r o u c h ) o f K a m p u c h e a " . 7 6 T h i s a p p e a r s t o be t h e f i r s t h i n t o f t h e x e n o p h o b i c o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e CPK l e a d e r s h i p . B e t w e e n 1971 and 1973, many o f t h e Khmer c o m m u n i s t v e t e r a n s who had r e g r o u p e d i n V i e t n a m i n 1954 and r e t u r n e d t o C a m b o d i a a f t e r t h e 1970 c o u p t o h e l p a c c e l e r a t e t h e r e v o l u t i o n , were p u r g e d by t h e CPK l e a d e r s h i p . T h u s , a t a t i m e when b o t h t h e V i e t n a m e s e a n d Khmer c o m m u n i s t s were u n d e r c o n t i n u o u s a t t a c k s by t h e C a m b o d i a n , S o u t h V i e t n a m e s e , and A m e r i c a n g o v e r n m e n t f o r c e s , t h e y were a l s o e n g a g e d i n an i n t e r n e c i n e b a t t l e . T h i s b a t t l e s p l i t t h e CPK i n t o two f a c t i o n s : t h e P o l P o t g r o u p , w h i c h d o m i n a t e d t h e p a r t y l e a d e r s h i p a n d w h i c h was c l e a r l y a n t i - V W P a n d a n t i - S i h a n o u k and t h e " H a n o i - K h m e r " g r o u p , l e d by Keo M o n i , Chou C h e t , a n d Heng S a m r i n (now P r e s i d e n t o f t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f K a m p u c h e a ) . The l a t t e r g r o u p was composed o f ICP v e t e r a n s a n d o t h e r s whose age p r e c l u d e d t h e i r m e m b e r s h i p i n t h e I C P o r KPP b u t who l i k e w i s e s u p p o r t e d t h e V i e t n a m e s e c o m m u n i s t s . The d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n t h e CPK were l a t e r r e f l e c t e d i n t h e r e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n o f p o l i c y d u r i n g t h e 1970-75 and t h e 1975-79 p e r i o d s . W i t h s u p e r i o r numbers (200,000 by 1973 c o m p a r e d t o 5,000 V i e t n a m e s e t r o o p s ) 7 7 a n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e 1973 P a r i s P e a c e A g r e e m e n t , t h e CPK, o r a t l e a s t t h e P o l P o t f a c t i o n o f t h e p a r t y , won i t s b a t t l e w i t h t h e V i e t M i n h f o r t h e t i m e b e i n g . (The h o s t i l i t i e s b e t w een t h e two p a r t i e s r e s u r f a c e d w i t h a 35 v e n g e n c e i n t h e p o s t - 1 9 7 5 p e r i o d ) By 1973, t h e s c e n e was s e t f o r t h e t h i r d a n d f i n a l s t a g e o f t h e armed s t r u g g l e . B e t w e e n 1973 a n d 1975, t h e CPK f o r c e s , l a r g e l y i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e V i e t M i n h , c o n s o l i d a t e d t h e i r s t r e n g t h s a n d managed t o t a k e o v e r l a r g e a r e a s o f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e . I t was a l s o i n t h i s p e r i o d t h a t t h e CPK e m b a r k e d on a v e r y r a d i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f r u r a l s o c i e t y i n some p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y . F o r e x a m p l e , i n t h e S o u t h w e s t z o n e , where t h e P o l P o t - l e d f a c t i o n o f t h e CPK was s t r o n g , r e f u g e e s r e p o r t e d s u c h c h a n g e s a s : t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f s c h o o l s a n d g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c e s , t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c o o p e r a t i v e s t o r e s , r e s t r i c t i o n s on ' c e r t a i n e x t r a v a g a n c e s s u c h a s c o l o u r f u l d r e s s ' , w i d e s p r e a d c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n o f l a n d , communal h o u s i n g and d i n i n g h a l l s , a n d n i g h t l y p o l i t i c a l e d u c a t i o n m e e t i n g s . 7 8 C a m b o d i a n p e a s a n t s who e s c a p e d f r o m CPK c o n t r o l l e d a r e a s i n 1973 and became war r e f u g e e s i n Phnom Pen h r e p o r t e d t h a t t h o s e who d i s o b e y e d o r d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h e c h a n g e s were k i l l e d . 7 9  THE CPK VICTORY T h r e e i m p o r t a n t i n t e r n a l d e v e l o p m e n t s a i d e d t h e CPK v i c t o r y i n 1975: S i h a n o u k ' s r o l e i n FUNK; t h e m a s s i v e a e r i a l bombing of t h e c o u n t r y s i d e ; and t h e i n a b i l i t y o f t h e L o n N o l m i l i t a r y f o r c e s t o be e f f e c t i v e . The f i r s t d e v e l o p m e n t , S i h a n o u k ' s p o l i t i c a l r o l e a s t i t u l a r h e a d o f FUNK and h i s a p p e a l s t o t h e p e a s a n t r y t o s i d e w i t h t h e r e s i s t a n c e f o r c e s , h a s a l r e a d y b een n o t e d i n some d e t a i l . The s e c o n d d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e b r o u g h t a b o u t by t h e B-52 b o m b e r s , had t h e i m p o r t a n t ( b u t u n i n t e n d e d ) c o n s e q u e n c e o f i n c r e a s i n g t h e CPK's a b i l i t y t o 36 p o l i t i c i z e t h e p e a s a n t r y a n d t o a d d m i l l i o n s o f r u r a l p e o p l e t o i t s r a n k s . The f o l l o w i n g s t o r y , r e c o u n t e d t o K i e r n a n by a p e a s a n t f r o m S v a y R i e n g p r o v i n c e , p a r a l l e l s d o z e n s o f s i m i l a r s t o r i e s t o l d t o h i m a b o u t t h e bombing ( a n d p r o b a b l y t h o u s a n d s o f u n t o l d s t o r i e s ) : . . . i n 1972 B-52s bombed t h r e e t i m e s p e r d a y , f i f t e e n m i n u t e s a p a r t , t h r e e p l a n e s a t a t i m e . They h i t h o u s e s i n Samrong a n d t h i r t y p e o p l e were k i l l e d . T h e r e were no t r o o p s i n t h e s e v i l l a g e s . A t t h e t i m e t h e r e were some V i e t n a m e s e t r o o p s on t h e b o r d e r ( n e a r b y ) b u t t h e y d i d n ' t bomb t h e b o r d e r : t h e y bombed i n s i d e i t , p e o p l e ' s h o u s e s . The town o f C h a n t r e a was d e s t r o y e d by US bombs...The p e o p l e were a n g r y w i t h t h e US and t h a t i s why so many o f them j o i n e d t h e Khmer c o m m u n i s t s . 8 0 H u n d r e d s o f t h o u s a n d s o f Cambodian p e a s a n t s grew t o h a t e t h e A m e r i c a n s f o r d e s t r o y i n g t h e i r v i l l a g e s a n d k i l l i n g t h e i r f a m i l i e s a n d a l s o t h e L o n N o l g o v e r n m e n t f o r i t s c o m p l i c i t y i n t h e b o m b i n g . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t a g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f C a m b o d i a n s made t h e d e c i s i o n t o s u p p o r t t h e r e v o l u t i o n . By t h e end o f 1973, t h r e e q u a r t e r s o f t h e c o u n t r y was u n d e r FUNK c o n t r o l ( s e e map on t h e f o l l o w i n g p a g e ) . H a v i n g s a i d t h a t , h o w e v e r , i t i s n o t p l a u s i b l e t o a r g u e t h a t t h e Cambodian p e a s a n t r y s u p p o r t e d t h e CPK on e i t h e r i d e o l o g i c a l g r o u n d s o r b e c a u s e t h e y b e l i e v e d t h e c o m m u n i s t s w o u l d d e l i v e r them f r o m a c r u e l a n d o p p r e s s i v e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s y s t e m . T h e i r f i g h t was one o f s u r v i v a l , n o t r e v o l u t i o n . M o r e o v e r , t h e CPK r e v e a l e d n e i t h e r i t s i d e n t i t y n o r i t s i n t e n t i o n s t o t h e p e a s a n t r y u n t i l a f t e r 1975. As S e r g e T h i o n p o i n t e d o u t , t h e CPK's i d e n t i t y and i d e o l o g y were " c o m p l e t e l y h i d d e n t r u t h s , r e v e a l e d o n l y t o t h e e n l i g h t e n e d few who c o u l d a c h i e v e s e n i o r p o s i t i o n s i n t h e [ p a r t y ] a p p a r a t u s " . 8 1 37 F i g u r e 1 - Map of government and r e s i s t a n c e h e l d areas C A M B O D I A I 972 F 1 lon Nol GovernmentQntwlled Areas This map ms issued by Sihanouk's government in Mai) 1972. The Lon Nol Government's territory shrank and fragmented into enclaves from then until defeat in April 1975. T H A I L A N D SOUTH CHIHA SEA Hue vT Pliiku i Sim Reap ] Stunt) ITrtng A i&attambariCi i i Kompong/ Jhoml PkmnPenh ompong Cham \Te\uNinh SihanmikvilU T V ^ a . 3 'HaTten ^'Bien Hot 'Saigon 0 Gutr OF THAILAND O MILES IOO O KM IOO SOUTH CHIHA SEA Reproduced from W i l l i a m Shawcross, Sideshow: K i s s i n g e r , N i x o n and t h e D e s t r u c t i o n o f Cambodia, New York:Simon and S c h u s t e r , 1979 p. 254. 38 I n t h e few a r e a s where t h e CPK r e v e a l e d i t s d i s l i k e o f S i h a n o u k and i t s t r u e i n t e n t i o n s f o r r a d i c a l c h a n g e , p e a s a n t s u p p o r t d e c l i n e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . U n d e r t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h e CPK u s e d c o e r c i v e t a c t i c s t o m a i n t a i n i t s b a s e o f p o p u l a r s u p p o r t . The h a r d s h i p , t h e s u f f e r i n g , t h e m i s e r y , and t h e f i e r c e h a t r e d s t h a t were p r o v o k e d by t h e r e l e n t l e s s sweep o f c a r p e t b o m b i n g , a l s o h a r d e n e d t h e r a n k s o f FUNK. S h a w c r o s s ' p o i g n a n t r e m a r k s on t h i s p o i n t a r e w o r t h r e p e a t i n g h e r e . R e f e r r i n g t o t h e 1973 r a i n y s e a s o n , he s t a t e s : T h a t summer's war p r o v i d e s a l a s t i n g image of p e a s a n t boys a n d g i r l s , c l a d i n b l a c k , m o v i n g s l o w l y t h r o u g h t h e mud, h a l f - c r a z e d w i t h t e r r o r , a s f i g h t e r - b o m b e r s t o r e them down by d a y , and n i g h t a f t e r n i g h t w h o l e s e a s o f 7 5 0 - p o u n d bombs smashed a l l a r o u n d . Week a f t e r week t h e y e d g e d f o r w a r d , f o r e v e r d i g g i n g i n , f o r e v e r c l a m b e r i n g s l i p p e r y r o a d b a n k s t o a s s a u l t g o v e r n m e n t o u t p o s t s , f o r e v e r l o s i n g c o m r a d e s and g o i n g on i n t h i n n e r r a n k s , t h r o u g h a l a n d s c a p e t h a t w o u l d h a v e seemed l u n a r h a d i t n o t been u n d e r w a t e r . 8 2 W h i l e t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e CPK c a n be a t t r i b u t e d , i n p a r t , t o i t s s t r a t e g i c a l l i a n c e w i t h S i h a n o u k and t h e B-52 bombing c a m p a i g n , b o t h o f w h i c h y i e l d e d a m a s s i v e p o p u l a r s u p p o r t b a s e , t h e r e i s y e t a t h i r d a nd p e r h a p s more i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r w h i c h h e l p s t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e CPK v i c t o r y i n 1975: t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e Lon N o l army t o f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y . D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t Lon N o l ' s f o r c e s had t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a s a p o w e r f u l a n d w e a l t h y p a t r o n t h a t p r o v i d e d s u p e r i o r m i l i t a r y w e a p o n r y , a i r s u p p o r t , and s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g , L o n N o l ' s f o r c e s were n o t a b l e t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n s i n t h e f i e l d l o n g enough t o g a i n a m i l i t a r y a d v a n t a g e o v e r FUNK. I n f a c t , t h e d i s m a l m i l i t a r y r e c o r d o f t h e Lon N o l f o r c e s i n t h e f i r s t month o f t h e war seemed t o r e p e a t i t s e l f i n e v e r y m a j o r b a t t l e up t o 1975. 39 A c c o r d i n g t o W i l f r e d B u r c h e t ' t .""•-•more t h a n h a l f o f L o n N o l ' s b a t t a l i o n s were e i t h e r b e a t e n by FUNK, j o i n e d FUNK, o r s i m p l y d i s p e r s e d d u r i n g t h e f i r s t month o f a c t i v e combat i n 1 9 7 0 . 8 3 The Lon N o l f o r c e s s u f f e r e d f r o m a l a c k o f d i s c i p l i n e a n d t r a i n i n g t h a t s p e l l e d d i s a s t e r on t h e b a t t l e f i e l d . P a r t o f t h e p r o b l e m stemmed f r o m L o n N o l ' s i n s i s t e n c e on m a k i n g a l l o f t h e i m p o r t a n t m i l i t a r y d e c i s i o n s , a p o s i t i o n w h i c h a l i e n a t e d h i s g e n e r a l s t a f f . The f r u s t r a t i o n a n d l o w m o r a l e i n t h e t o p e c h e l o n s o f t h e m i l i t a r y f i l t e r e d down t h r o u g h t h e r a n k s . The numbers o f d e s e r t e r s a n d d e f e c t o r s i n c r e a s e d a s p a l t r y wages a n d u n d i s c i p l i n e d a n d o p e n l y c o r r u p t commanders d e s t r o y e d t h e " e s p r i t de c o r p s " . One t h i r d o f t h e army, t o t a l l i n g 100,000 men, were "phantom s o l d i e r s " whose m o n t h l y s a l a r i e s , p r o v i d e d by t h e A m e r i c a n g o v e r n m e n t , were p o c k e t e d by m i l i t a r y c o m m a n d e r s . 8 4 The r a n k - a n d - f i l e a n d j u n i o r o f f i c e r s were o f t e n u n a c c o m p a n i e d by t h e i r b a t t a l i o n o r b r i g a d e commanders, who r e m a i n e d i n t h e i r l u x u r i o u s v i l l a s i n Phnom Penh . L e a d i n g c i v i l s e r v a n t s a n d m i l i t a r y commanders e x p l o i t e d t h e i r p o s i t i o n s a n d t h e i r a c c e s s t o U.S. a i d t o a c q u i r e m a s s i v e p e r s o n a l f o r t u n e s . Sek Sam l e t , t h e g o v e r n o r o f B a t t a m b a n g p r o v i n c e , s o l d r i c e t o t h e T h a i s a n d a m m u n i t i o n t o F U N K . 8 5 L o n N o l ' s b r o t h e r a p p a r e n t l y a m a s s e d a p e r s o n a l f o r t u n e o f $U.S.90 m i l l i o n by d e a l i n g arms on t h e b l a c k m a r k e t . 8 6 One C I A i n f o r m a t i o n r e p o r t on Camb o d i a n o t e d t h a t o f f i c e r s t a l k e d o p e n l y o f L o n N o l ' s i n c o m p e t e n c e . 8 7 The p o o r f i g h t i n g c a p a b i l i t y o f t h e m i l i t a r y was f u r t h e r e x a c e r b a t e d by t h e v i r t u a l c o l l a p s e o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The 40 s t a t e ' s f i n a n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s i m p l y d i d n o t f u n c t i o n by 1975. N i n e t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s r e v e n u e s came f r o m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . 8 8 V i t r i o l i c a t t a c k s on t h e Lon N o l g o v e r n m e n t came t o be o p e n l y e x p r e s s e d by by t h e u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n . I n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s i n Phnom Penh went on s t r i k e i n 1973, f o l l o w e d by t e a c h e r s a n d s t u d e n t s , a l l d e m a n d i n g an end t o c o r r u p t i o n a n d i n f l a t i o n . N e a r t h e e n d o f t h e w a r , i n f l a t i o n was a s h i g h a s 250 p e r c e n t p e r annum. E x p o r t s had a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y s t o p p e d . The a g r i c u l t u r a l a n d i n d u s t r i a l b a s e o f t h e c o u n t r y was i n r u i n s . R i c e p r o d u c t i o n s t o o d a t a mere 655,000 m e t r i c t o n s i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e p r e w a r f i g u r e o f 3.8 m i l l i o n t o n s . 8 9 V e r y l i t t l e o f t h i s r i c e a r r i v e d i n Phnom Penh . The s t a t e economy was m o r i b u n d a nd t h e g o v e r n m e n t was c o m p l e t e l y d e p e n d e n t upon e x t e r n a l s u p p o r t . D u r i n g t h e l a s t m onths o f t h e war, two m i l l i o n war r e f u g e e s i n Phnom Penh c o u l d n o t a f f o r d t o buy e n o u g h r i c e t o e a t ; t h e y were s l o w l y s t a r v i n g t o d e a t h . The r o l e o f S i h a n o u k , t h e b o m b i n g , a nd L o n N o l ' s i n e f f e c t i v e armed f o r c e s a r e a l l i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e CPK r e v o l u t i o n a r y movement i n 1975. H owever, i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t t h e CPK's v i c t o r y d e r i v e d , u l t i m a t e l y , f r o m i t s a b i l i t y t o t a k e f u l l a d v a n t a g e o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h were c o n d u c i v e t o r e v o l u t i o n i n C a m b o d i a . I n o t h e r w o r d s , i t w o u l d be e r r o n e o u s ( i f n o t u n f a i r t o t h e CPK) t o a s s e r t t h a t key h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o m e n t s a c c o u n t f o r t h e CPK v i c t o r y . I n s p i t e o f U.S. m i l i t a r y s t r e n g t h , i n n e r - p a r t y f a c t i o n a l i s m , t h e l a c k o f c o n s i s t e n t i d e o l o g i c a l a n d m a t e r i a l s u p p o r t f r o m e i t h e r V i e t n a m o r C h i n a , t h e CPK r e v o l u t i o n a r y 4 1 movement a c h i e v e d v i c t o r y i n 1975. The CPK l e a d e r s h i p s k i l l f u l l y m a n i p u l a t e d t h e r o l e o f S i h a n o u k i n FUNK t o b u i l d i t s s u p p o r t n e t w o r k . I t r a l l i e d h u n d r e d s o f t h o u s a n d s o f p e a s a n t s who h a d f l e d f r o m bombed a r e a s . I t t r a i n e d p a r t y c a d r e s t o b e h a v e i n e x e m p l a r y f a s h i o n i n t h e v i l l a g e s , b e h a v i o u r t h a t c o n t r a s t e d s h a r p l y w i t h t h a t o f t h e Khmer R e p u b l i c a n , t h e S o u t h V i e t n a m e s e , a n d t h e A m e r i c a n armed f o r c e s . W i t h o u t t h e s e a t t r i b u t e s , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e Khmer c o m m u n i s t s w o u l d h a v e been a b l e t o t a k e c o n t r o l o f t h e c o u n t r y . T h i s p o i n t h a s e i t h e r n o t been made o r h a s n o t been e m p h a s i z e d i n t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e l i t e r a t u r e . The r e a s o n f o r t h i s p r o b a b l y s t e m s f r o m t h e s c a r c e r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l on t h e CPK's p o l i c i e s a n d a c t i o n s . As s u c h , more a n a l y t i c a l w e i g h t i s g i v e n t o o t h e r f a c t o r s . As t h e C P K - d o m i n a t e d FUNK was s t a g i n g i t s f i n a l a s s a u l t on Phnom P e n h , H e n r y K i s s i n g e r b r a z e n l y p r o p o s e d t h a t CPK r e p r e s e n t a t i v e K h i e u Samphan and P r e m i e r Lon N o l n e g o t i a t e a p e a c e f u l s o l u t i o n t o t h e war. The CPK f l a t l y r e j e c t e d t h e p r o p o s a l a n d p r o c e d e d t o c l o s e i n on t h e c i t y . On t h e m o r n i n g of A p r i l 17, 1975, Lon N o l ' s Khmer R e p u b l i c o f f i c i a l l y s u r r e n d e r e d . No one was p r e p a r e d f o r t h e n i g h t m a r e t h a t was t o f o l l o w . CONCLUSION The C a m b o d i a n r e v o l u t i o n e x h i b i t e d a l l o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s g e n e r a l l y t h o u g h t t o be n e c e s s a r y a n d s u f f i c i e n t f o r r e v o l u t i o n t o o c c u r . The 1970 c o u p d ' e t a t was a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n o f how weak S i h a n o u k ' s g o v e r n m e n t h ad become. The L o n N o l army s u f f e r e d f r o m i n t e r n a l w e a k n e s s e s t h a t were n o t ov e r c o m e i n t i m e 42 t o p r o t e c t t h e s t a t e f r o m i n t e r n a l a t t a c k s . C a m b o d i a a l s o s u f f e r e d f r o m e x t e r n a l t h r e a t s t h a t c u l m i n a t e d i n t h e c o m b i n e d U . S . - S o u t h V i e t n a m e s e i n v a s i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y i n A p r i l 1970. The i n t e n s i v e a e r i a l b ombing b r o u g h t a b o u t w i d e s p r e a d d i s r u p t i o n s i n p e a s a n t s u b s i s t e n c e l e v e l s f o l l o w e d by p e a s a n t u n r e s t . L a s t b u t n o t l e a s t , t h e CPK was d o m i n a t e d by an u r b a n i n t e l l i g e n t s i a w h i c h was h i g h l y c a p a b l e o f m a k i n g r e v o l u t i o n . Of g r e a t e s t s i g n i f i c a n c e i s t h e c o n j u n c t u r e o f t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s . A t t h e r i s k o f s i m p l i f y i n g a v e r y c o m p l e x p e r i o d o f C ambodian h i s t o r y , I h a v e a t t e m p t e d t o show t h a t t h e 1970 c o u p d ' e t a t w h i c h u s h e r e d C a m b o d i a i n t o t h e s e c o n d I n d o c h i n a war was a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r n a l d e v e l o p m e n t , one t h a t c h a n g e d t h e c o u r s e o f t h e CPK armed s t r u g g l e . F i r s t o f a l l , c o n t r a r y t o t h e CPK's s o c i a l a n a l y s i s , I h a v e a r g u e d t h a t C a m b odian r u r a l s o c i e t y was n o t b e s e t by w i d e s p r e a d p r o b l e m s w h i c h t h e CPK c o u l d h a v e e x p l o i t e d t o e n c o u r a g e t h e p e a s a n t r y t o r e v o l t . S e c o n d l y , t h e Cambodian p e a s a n t r y was f i e r c e l y l o y a l t o i t s g o d - k i n g . The p e a s a n t r y ' s a n t i - L o n N o l d e m o n s t r a t i o n s i n 1970 i l l u s t r a t e d t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e sway t h a t S i h a n o u k s t i l l had o v e r t h e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n . T h i r d l y , t h e c o e r c i v e c a p a b i l i t i e s o f t h e s t a t e w e r e , a t t h a t t i m e , s t r o n g e n o u g h t o v i o l e n t l y s u p p r e s s CPK d i s s i d e n t a c t i v i t y . S i h a n o u k d e c i m a t e d what was l e f t o f t h e KPP i n t h e e a r l y 1 9 6 0 ' s . When t h e CPK emerged i n 1960 u n d e r t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f P o l P o t , i t was i s o l a t e d f r o m t h e C h i n e s e and V i e t n a m e s e c o m m u n i s t p a r t i e s , b o t h o f w h i c h o p p o s e d t h e CPK's a n t i - S i h a n o u k p o s i t i o n . T h u s , two p o t e n t i a l s o u r c e s o f f i n a n c i a l a n d m i l i t a r y a i d w h i c h t h e CPK c o u l d h a v e u s e d t o 43 p r e s e n t a s e r i o u s t h r e a t t o t h e S i h a n o u k r e g i m e were o u t o f r e a c h . T h r o u g h o u t t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s , t h e s m a l l and r e l a t i v e l y weak CPK o r g a n i z a t i o n was k e p t t h a t way by S i h a n o u k ' s armed f o r c e s . F o r a l l t h e s e r e a s o n s , i t w o u l d be e r r o n e o u s t o a r g u e t h a t t h e CPK movement h a d t h e p o t e n t i a l t o s u c c e e d p r i o r t o 1970. R u r a l c o n d i t i o n s were s i m p l y n o t r i p e f o r r e v o l u t i o n and t h e CPK o r g a n i z a t i o n was n o t s t r o n g e n o u g h t o c r e a t e them. T h e r e w e r e , h o w e v e r , s e r i o u s p r o b l e m s i n t h e C a m b o d i a n p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m t h a t w o u l d h a v e h a d t o be o v e r c o m e i n o r d e r t o c o n t r o l t h e l o n g - t e r m t h r e a t t h e CPK p o s e d t o t h e g o v e r n m e n t . I t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t Lon N o l c o u l d have r e f o r m e d t h e p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m s u f f i c i e n t l y t o o f f s e t t h e CPK t h r e a t e v e n i f t h e c o u n t r y had n o t been e m b r o i l e d i n a w a r . To r e t u r n t o Theda S k o c p o l ' s t h e o r y o f t h e c a u s e s o f r e v o l u t i o n , i t i s p l a u s i b l e t o v i e w t h e h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t s o f t h e 1970's a s t h e outcome o f t h e c o l l a p s e o f t h e c e n t r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and m i l i t a r y m a c h i n e r i e s . S i h a n o u k a t t e m p t e d ( a n d s u c c e e d e d f o r many y e a r s ) t o p r e s e r v e C a m b o d i a ' s n e u t r a l i t y i n t h e V i e t n a m war. He was, h o w e v e r , u n a b l e t o c o n v i n c e t h e m i l i t a r y o f t h e need t o a d h e r e t o t h i s p o l i c y . The m i l i t a r y was f a r t o o a t t r a c t e d t o A m e r i c a n o f f e r s of f i n a n c i a l a i d t o p u t up w i t h S i h a n o u k ' s a n t i - U . S . f o r e i g n p o l i c y . Y e t , i n s p i t e o f t h e m a s s i v e amounts o f a i d t h e L o n N o l g o v e r n m e n t r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e U.S., i t c o l l a p s e d a f t e r f i v e y e a r s o f war. The d e v a s t a t i o n o f t h e economy t h a t r e s u l t e d f r o m w a r - t i m e i n f l a t i o n f r u s t r a t e d t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e r e g i m e t o r u n t h e c o u n t r y . E n d e m i c c o r r u p t i o n , l a c k o f d i s c i p l i n e a nd c o o r d i n a t i o n i n t h e arrny r a n k s l e d t o l o w 44 m o r a l e a n d a h i g h r a t e o f d e s e r t i o n . The c o m b i n e d a i r a n d l a n d a t t a c k s t h a t were waged i n t h e r u r a l a r e a s d e s t r o y e d t h e s o c i a l b a s i s o f v i l l a g e l i f e . Thus t h e p e a s a n t r y had what E r i c W o l f c a l l e d t h e ' t a c t i c a l f r e e d o m ' t o j o i n t h e r e s i s t a n c e f o r c e s . P e r h a p s more t h a n any o t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t , i t was t h e m a s s i v e a e r i a l b o m bing o f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e t h a t p r o v i d e d t h e s u d d e n and u n e x p e c t e d i n c r e a s e s i n t h e l e v e l o f p e a s a n t i m p o v e r i s h m e n t t h a t B a r r i n g t o n Moore s a i d was n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v o k e p e a s a n t s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n r e v o l u t i o n . The CPK p r o v i d e d t h e p e a s a n t r y w i t h t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s K a r l Marx d e t e r m i n e d t h a t i t r e q u i r e d t o c o h e r e a s a c l a s s . A t t h i s p o i n t , t h e d e a r t h o f r e s e a r c h i n t h e a r e a o f CPK-p e a s a n t r e l a t i o n s p r e c l u d e s s u b s t a n t i v e c o m p a r i s o n s t o e i t h e r t h e CCP o r V i e t M i n h a p p r o a c h e s t o p e a s a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n . Ben K i e r n a n ' s p i o n e e r i n g work p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e P o l P o t f a c t i o n o f t h e CPK was much l e s s f l e x i b l e t h a n e i t h e r t h e CCP o r V i e t M i n h i n i t s a t t e m p t s t o e a s e p e a s a n t s u s p i c i o n s and t o i n t r o d u c e r e f o r m s g r a d u a l l y . The e x t e n t t o w h i c h p e a s a n t s u p p o r t f o r t h e CPK was v o l u n t a r y o r c o e r c e d i s a s u b j e c t w h i c h d e s e r v e s c a r e f u l s t u d y . However, i t seems f a i r t o c o n c l u d e t h a t w h a t e v e r t h e mix o f i n g r e d i e n t s i n t h e CPK's r u r a l s t r a t e g y , w h e t h e r i t c o n s i s t e d o f p e r s u a s i o n t h r o u g h good b e h a v i o u r a n d r u r a l r e f o r m , o r by c o e r c i v e m e a s u r e s , i t t u r n e d o u t t o be t h e r i g h t r e c i p e f o r s e i z i n g power i n 1975. Of g r e a t i n t e r e s t i s w h e t h e r t h e CPK c h o s e t h e r i g h t r e c i p e f o r s u c c e s s o n c e t h e y o b t a i n e d c o n t r o l o v e r t h e c o u n t r y . ( T h i s i s s u e f o r m s t h e s u b j e c t o f c h a p t e r t h r e e ) . The CPK came t o power a s an i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y i s o l a t e d 45 a n d d e e p l y d i v i d e d p a r t y . The z e a l o u s a n t i - V i e t n a m e s e p o s i t i o n o f t h e P o l P o t f a c t i o n c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e u n p o p u l a r i t y o f i t s d r a c o n i a n d o m e s t i c p o l i c i e s i m p l e m e n t e d i n some r e g i o n s o f t h e c o u n t r y p r i o r t o 1975, were f e a t u r e s w h i c h d i d n o t a u g u r w e l l f o r t h e new r e v o l u t i o n a r y r e g i m e . A l t h o u g h t h e CPK f o l l o w e d t h e c l a s s i c M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t p a t t e r n o f how b e s t t o f oment r e v o l u t i o n , t h e m a i n i d e o l o g i c a l i n s p i r a t i o n t h a t p o w e r e d t h e r e v o l u t i o n a f t e r 1975 was n o t communism b u t n a t i o n a l i s m . The q u e s t i o n a s t o w h e t h e r t h e D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchean r e g i m e c a n be c a l l e d c o m m u n i s t o r n a t i o n a l i s t i s d i s c u s s e d t h o r o u g h l y i n C h a p t e r F o u r . As i n R u s s i a , C h i n a a n d V i e t n a m , t h e c h a o s and d e s t r u c t i o n b r o u g h t a b o u t by war i n C ambodia was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n t h e p o l i t i c a l m o b i l i z a t i o n o f t h e p e a s a n t r y . T h i s f a c t o r , c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e c o l l a p s e o f t h e L o n N o l g o v e r n m e n t , were v i t a l d e v e l o p m e n t s t h a t h e l p e x p l a i n why t h e CPK armed s t r u g g l e s u c c e e d e d . Of most s i g n i f i c a n c e i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e CPK e merged a s a p a r t y l e d by p e o p l e who knew how t o o v e r c o m e o b s t a c l e s a n d how t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e i r f a v o u r t o p r o m o t e and make r e v o l u t i o n . 46 N o t e s 1 1 The a d j e c t i v e g e n t l e , u s e d t o d e s c r i b e e i t h e r t h e Khmer p e o p l e o r t h e i r c o u n t r y , c a n be f o u n d i n a number o f b o o k s a n d a r t i c l e s , t h e most r e c e n t b e i n g J o h n B a r r o n a n d A n t h o n y P a u l M u r d e r o f a G e n t l e L a n d : The U n t o l d S t o r y o f Communist G e n o c i d e  i n C a m b o d i a , ( C r o w e l l : R e a d e r s D i g e s t P r e s s , 1 9 7 7 ) . The s e c o n d p h r a s e q u o t e d comes f r o m a 1959 P e n t a g o n s t u d y o f C a m b o d i a c i t e d i n W i l l i a m S h a w c r o s s S i d e s h o w : N i x o n , K i s s i n g e r and t h e  D e s t r u c t i o n o f C a m b o d i a (New Y o r k : Simon and S c h u s t e r , 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 55. 1 2 One n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n must be made f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g a s t u t e a n d p r o p h e t i c s t a t e m e n t by J . L . S . G i r l i n g i n an a r t i c l e he w r o t e i n 1972 a b o u t t h e s p r e a d o f t h e V i e t n a m war t o C a m b o d i a : " t h e l o n g e r t h e war g o e s o n , t h e more e x p e r i e n c e d a n d d e d i c a t e d c a d r e s o f t h e K h m e r - V i e t m i n h . . . w i l l h a v e l a i d t h e g r o u n d w o r k f o r a r a d i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f s o c i e t y t h a t w i l l owe l i t t l e , e x c e p t p e r h a p s i n name, t o t h e h a l f - h e a r t e d a n d a b o r t i v e a t t e m p t s o f S i h a n o u k h i m s e l f d u r i n g h i s 15 y e a r s o f p o w e r " . See J . L . S . G i r l i n g , "The R e s i s t a n c e i n C a m b o d i a " A s i a n S u r v e y ( V o l . 12, No. 7 1 9 7 2 ) , p. 563. 1 3 S t e p h a n T. P o s s a n y , e d . The L e n i n R e a d e r ( C h i c a g o : H e n r y R e g n e r y Company, 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 349. 1 4 See h i s a r t i c l e " P e a s a n t r y a s a P o l i t i c a l F a c t o r " i n P e a s a n t s and P e a s a n t S o c i e t i e s e d . by T h e o d o r S h a n i n ( L o n d o n : H a z e l l Watson a n d V i n e y L t d . , 1 9 7 1 ) , p. 248. 1 5 A v e r y g ood r e v i e w o f t h e v a r i o u s d e f i n i t i o n s a n d 47 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f r e v o l u t i o n h a s b een w r i t t e n by L a w r e n c e S t o n e , " T h e o r i e s o f R e v o l u t i o n " , W o r l d P o l i t i c s ( v o l . 18, no.2 1 9 6 6 ) , p p . 1 5 9 - 176. 1 6 S a m u e l P. H u n t i n g t o n , P o l i t i c a l O r d e r i n C h a n g i n g  S o c i e t i e s (New H a ven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 ) , p. 264. 1 7 C y n t h i a E n l o e E t h n i c C o n f l i c t a n d P o l i t i c a l D e v e l o p m e n t ( B o s t o n : L i t t l e Brown a n d Company, 1 9 7 3 ) , p. 218. 1 8 T h e d a S k o c p o l , " F r a n c e , R u s s i a , C h i n a : A S t r u c t u r a l A n a l y s i s o f S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n s " , C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d i e s i n S o c i e t y  a n d H i s t o r y ( v o l . 18, no. 2, A p r i l 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 178. 1 9 I b i d ., p. 181. 2 0 I b i d ., p. 183. 2 1 Graeme G i l l , "The M a i n s t r e a m s o f P e a s a n t A c t i o n i n 1917", S o v i e t S t u d i e s v o l . x x x , no.1 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 7 8 ) , p. 64. 2 2 C h a l m e r s J o h n s o n , P e a s a n t N a t i o n a l i s m a n d Communist  Power: The E m ergence o f R e v o l u t i o n a r y C h i n a 1937-1945 ( S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 69. 2 3 A l e x a n d e r W o o d s i d e , Community a n d R e v o l u t i o n i n V i e t n a m ( B o s t o n : H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n , 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 120. 2 4 S k o c p o l , op. c i t . , p. 183. 2 5 F r a n c e f o u g h t i n e v e r y m a j o r E u r o p e a n war i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . C h i n a was i n v a d e d by J a p a n i n 1937. 2 6 James S c o t t , The M o r a l Economy o f t h e P e a s a n t : R e b e l l i o n  a n d S u b s i s t e n c e i n S o u t h e a s t A s i a (New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 195. T h i s i s n o t t o s a y t h a t p e a s a n t s do n o t t a k e s t e p s t o a m e l i o r a t e c o n d i t i o n s o f e x p l o i t a t i o n a n d m i s e r y . M i g r a t i o n , c h a n g e o f p a t r o n s o r l a n d l o r d s , and s o c i a l b a n d i t r y 48 a r e a l l w e l l known s t r a t e g i e s a d o p t e d by p e a s a n t s i n t i m e s o f c r i s i s . 2 7 B a r r i n g t o n M o o r e , The S o c i a l O r i g i n s o f D i c t a t o r s h i p a n d  D e m o c r a c y ( M i d d l e s e x : P e n g u i n B o o k s L t d . , 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 474. 2 8 S k o c p o l , op. c i t ., p. 193. 2 9 K a r l M a r x , "The E i g h t e e n t h B r u m a i r e o f L o u i s B o n a p a r t e " i n T h e o d o r S h a n i n e d . , P e a s a n t s and P e a s a n t S o c i e t y p. 230. 3 0 E r i c W o l f , "On P e a s a n t R e b e l l i o n s " , P e a s a n t s and P e a s a n t  S o c i e t y , p. 2 6 8 - 2 6 9 ; B a r r i n g t o n M o o r e , op. c i t . , p. 469. 3 1 W o l f , o r j ^ c i t . , p. 269. 3 2 I b i d . 3 3 K a r l M a r x , c i t e d i n P e a s a n t s and P e a s a n t S o c i e t y , p. 230. 3 " E r i c W o l f , P e a s a n t Wars of t h e T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y (New Y o r k : H a r p e r a n d Row P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 89. 3 5 W a l k e r C o n n o r , The N a t i o n a l Q u e s t i o n i n M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t  T h e o r y and S t r a t e g y (New J e r s e y : P r i n c e t o n , 1 9 8 4 ) , p. 7 1 . 3 6 P i e r r e R o u s s e t , " C a m b o d i a : B a c k g r o u n d t o t h e R e v o l u t i o n " , J o u r n a l o f C o n t e m p o r a r y A s i a ( v o l . 7, no. 4, 1 9 7 7 ) , p. 5 2 1 . 3 7 S t e p h e n H e d e r , "Kampuchea's Armed S t r u g g l e ; The O r i g i n s o f an I n d e p e n d e n t R e v o l u t i o n " , B u l l e t i n o f C o n c e r n e d A s i a n  S c h o l a r s ( v o l 11, no. 1, J a n u a r y - M a r c h 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 2. 3 8 I b i d . p. 2. 3 9 The S o v i e t U n i o n and C h i n a went t o t h e G e n e v a C o n f e r e n c e p r e p a r e d t o make c o n c e s s i o n s t o t h e West and t h e y d i d n o t want t o r o c k t h e d i p l o m a t i c b o a t by a c t i v e l y s u p p o r t i n g t h e KPP. See 49 Ben K i e r n a n , " O r i g i n s o f Khmer Communism", S o u t h e a s t A s i a n  A f f a i r s ( 1 9 8 1 ) , p. 174. a o I b i d . , p. 175. 4 1 H e d e r , op. c i t . , p. 2. 4 2 D u r i n g t h e 1950's a n d 1960's t h e V i e t n a m e s e c o m m u n i s t s were p a r t i c u l a r l y e a g e r t o c u l t i v a t e a n d m a i n t a i n f r i e n d l y a n d c o o p e r a t i v e f o r e i g n r e l a t i o n s w i t h S i h a n o u k b e c a u s e he was n o t a d v e r s e t o l e t t i n g t h e V i e t M i n h e s t a b l i s h s a n c t u a r i e s i n Cambodian t e r r i t o r y . 4 3 H e d e r , op. c i t . , p. 3. 4 4 A c c o r d i n g t o S t e p h e n H e d e r , many o f t h e s e a r r e s t s a n d e x e c u t i o n s o c c u r r e d b e t w e e n 1961 and 1962. D u r i n g t h i s t i m e , a number o f c o m m u n i s t s , i n c l u d i n g P o l P o t , I e n g S a r y , a n d Son S e n , l e f t Phnom Penh t o e s c a p e S i h a n o u k ' s p o l i c e , op. c i t . , p. 3. 4 5 I b i d . , p. 3. 4 6 I b i d . , p. 20. 4 7 W i l l i a m W i l l m o t t , " A n a l y t i c a l E r r o r s o f t h e Kampuchean Communist Movement", P a c i f i c A f f a i r s (Summer 1 9 8 1 ) , p. 209. 4 8 I b i d . , P- 215. 4 9 I b i d . , P. 2 1 8 - 2 1 9 . 5 0 I b i d . , p. 221 . 5 1 Ben K i e r n a n a n d C h a n t o u 3oua, e d s . , P e a s a n t s a n d  P o l i t i c s i n Kampuchea 1942-1981 ( L o n d o n : Zed P r e s s , 1 9 8 2 ) , p. 173. 5 2 W i l l m o t t , op. c i t . , p. 2 2 1 . 5 3 I b i d . , p. 218. 5 4 K i e r n a n , P e a s a n t s a n d P o l i t i c s , p. 4. 50 5 5 C i t e d i n W i l l m o t t , op. c i t . , p. 219. 5 6 I b i d . , p. 224. 5 7 K i e r n a n , P e a s a n t s and P o l i t i c s , p. 6. 5 8 I b i d . , p. 7. 5 9 C h a r l e s K e y e s , The G o l d e n P e n i n s u l a (New Y o r k : M a c M i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1 9 7 7 ) , p. 106. 6 0 H e d e r , op. c i t . , p. 8. 6 1 I b i d . , p. 9. 6 2 C i t e d i n K i e r n a n , I b i d . , p. 252. 6 3 K i e r n a n , P e a s a n t s and P o l i t i c s , p. 196. 6 < t S h a w c r o s s , op. c i t . , p. 297. T h i s c o m p a r e s t o t h e 160,000 t o n s t h a t were d r o p p e d on J a p a n d u r i n g WW11. 6 5 S h a w c r o s s , op. c i t . , p. 264. 6 6 I b i d . , p. 66-67. I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o n o t e h e r e t h a t a Cambodian m i d d l e c l a s s emerged i n t h e 1960's a s a r e s u l t o f S i h a n o u k ' s p o l i c y o f e x p a n d i n g e d u c a t i o n . W i t h i n f i f t e e n y e a r s o f i n d e p e n d e n c e , S i h a n o u k h a d b u i l t n i n e u n i v e r s i t i e s . The c o m b i n e d e n r o l l m e n t was 11,000 s t u d e n t s i n 1968. S i h a n o u k , h o w e v e r , o v e r l o o k e d t h e f a c t t h a t h i s g o v e r n m e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n c o u l d n o t a c c o m o d a t e t h e number o f g r a d u a t e s i n n e e d o f e m p l o y m e n t . S i m i l a r l y , i n d u s t r y d i d n o t grow c o m m e a s u r a t e t o c o n s u m e r demand f o r g o o d s , s e r v i c e s , and e m p l o y m e n t . Thus,when t h e A m e r i c a n d o l l a r s were no l o n g e r i n j e c t e d i n i n t o t h e economy, t h e r a t e o f unemployment i n c r e a s e d . S i h a n o u k ' s p o p u l a r i t y p l u m m e t e d i n t h e u r b a n a r e a s . 6 7 K i e r n a n , How P o l P o t Came t o Power, L o n d o n : The T h e t f o r d P r e s s , 1985, p. 303. 51 6 8 I t was a l s o d e c i d e d a t t h e Summit C o n f e r e n c e o f t h e P e o p l e ' s o f I n d o c h i n a i n A p r i l 1970 t h a t t h e co m m u n i s t f o r c e s i n L a o s , V i e t n a m , a n d C a m b o d i a w o u l d c o o r d i n a t e t h e i r s t r u g g l e s t o f i g h t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d i t s p u p p e t g o v e r n m e n t s i n e a c h o f t h e t h r e e c o u n t r i e s . The CPK b e n e f i t t e d g r e a t l y f r o m V i e t n a m e s e m i l i t a r y a n d f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e 1970-1975 p e r i o d a l t h o u g h t h e y n e v e r a c k n o w l e d g e d t h i s s u p p o r t . See K i e r n a n , P e a s a n t s a n d P o l i t i c s , p. i v , v . 6 9 K i e r n a n , How P o l P o t Came t o Power , p. 250. 7 0 K i e r n a n , P e a s a n t s a n d P o l i t i c s , pp. 206, 214, 216. K i e r n a n b e l i e v e s t h e p r o - S i h a n o u k d e m o n s t r a t i o n s were o r g a n i z e d by t h e CPK and t o o k p l a c e i n a r e a s where t h e CPK o r g a n i z a t i o n was s t r o n g . L o n N o l army f o r c e s p u t down t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n s . 7 1 S h a w c r o s s , o p. c i t . , p. 246. 7 2 J u s t u s M. v a n d e r K r o e f , Communism i n S o u t h - e a s t A s i a ( L o n d o n : The M a c M i l l a n P r e s s , L t d . , 1 9 8 1 ) , pp. 55-56. 7 3 C i t e d i n T i m o t h y C a r n e y , Communist P a r t y Power i n  Kampuchea ( C a m b o d i a ) ; D ocuments a nd D i s c u s s i o n , ( D a t a P a p e r 106, S o u t h e a s t A s i a P r o g r a m , C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , J a n u a r y 1 9 7 7 ) , p. 54. 7 4 K i e r n a n , How P o l P o t Came t o Power , p. 253. 7 5 K i e r n a n , P e a s a n t s a n d P o l i t i c s , p. 263. 7 6 S t e p h e n H e d e r , "Kampuchea: From P o l P o t t o Pen Sovan t o t h e V i l l a g e s " i n K h i e n T h e e r a v i t a n d M a c A l i s t e r Brown, e d s . , I n d o c h i n a a n d t h e P r o b l e m s o f S e c u r i t y a n d S t a b i l i t y i n  S o u t h e a s t A s i a ( B a n g k o k : C h u l a l o n g k o r n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 8 1 ) , p. 19. 52 7 7 K i e r n a n , How P o l P o t Came t o Power , p. 358. V i e t n a m e s e t r o o p s w i t h d r e w a t t h e u r g i n g o f t h e CPK a f t e r t h e P a r i s P e a c e a g r e e m e n t . The P o l P o t f a c t i o n was p a r t i c u l a r l y e m b i t t e r e d by t h e N o r t h V i e t n a m e s e a g r e e m e n t t o t h e c e a s e - f i r e . I n t h e p o s t - 1 9 7 5 p e r i o d , P o l P o t s t a t e d : " I f we h a d a g r e e d t o hav e a c e a s e - f i r e i n 1973 i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e m a n e u v e r s o f t h e U.S. a n d V i e t n a m e s e e n e m i e s , we s h o u l d h a v e s u f f e r e d a h e a v y l o s s . F i r s t o f a l l , we s h o u l d have l o s t t o U.S. i m p e r i a l i s m a n d i t s l a c k e y s ; a n d s e c o n d l y , we s h o u l d h a v e become s l a v e s o f t h e V i e t n a m e s e , a n d t h e Cambodian r a c e w o u l d h a v e e n t i r e l y l o s t i t s i d e n t i t y " . C i t e d i n S h a w c r o s s , op. c i t . , p. 296. 7 8 S h a w c r o s s , op. c i t . , p. 321 a n d K i e r n a n , How P o l P o t  Came t o Power , p. 335. 7 9 C a r n e y , Communist P a r t y Power , p. 2 1 . 8 0 K i e r n a n , How P o l P o t Came t o Power , p. 3 5 1 . 8 1 S e r g e T h i o n , " The Cambodian I d e a o f R e v o l u t i o n " i n D a v i d P. C h a n d l e r and Ben K i e r n a n , e d s . , R e v o l u t i o n a n d I t s  A f t e r m a t h i n Kampuchea: E i g h t E s s a y s (New Ha v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y S o u t h e a s t A s i a M o n o g r a p h S e r i e s , no. 25, 1 9 8 3 ) , p. 23. 8 2 S h a w c r o s s , op. c i t . , p. 29 8 - 2 9 9 . 8 3 W i l f r e d B u r c h e t t , S e c o n d I n d o c h i n a War, Cambo d i a a n d  L a o s Today , ( L o n d o n : L o r i m a r P u b l i s h i n g , 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 56. 8 * D o n a l d K i r k , "Cambodia 1973: The Y e a r o f t h e Bomb H a l t " A s i a n S u r v e y ( V o l . 1 4 , No. 2 1 9 7 4 ) , p. 90. 8 5 S h a w c r o s s , op. c i t . , p. 326. 8 6 I b i d . , p. 317. 53 8 7 I b i d . , p. 314. 8 8 I b i d , . 8 9 D o n a l d K i r k , " C a m b o d i a ' s E c o n o m i c C r i s i s " , A s i a n  S u r v e y ( V o l . 1 1 , No. 3 1 9 7 1 ) , p. 239. 54 I I . INTERNAL CONSOLIDATION AND THE R I S E OF THE POL POT GROUP I n t e r n a l c o n s o l i d a t i o n a n d c o n t r o l o v e r t h e s t a t e a p p a r a t u s a r e t a s k s o f p a r a m o u n t i m p o r t a n c e f a c i n g a l l r e v o l u t i o n a r y movements. I n t h e a f t e r m a t h o f t h e f i v e - y e a r c i v i l w ar, t h e C a m b o d i a n Communist P a r t y was c o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h e s e c h a l l e n g e s a s w e l l a s t h a t o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z i n g i t s r e v o l u t i o n a r y o b j e c t i v e s . An a t t e n d a n t a n d a c u t e c r i s i s f a c i n g t h e CPK was s e c u r i n g t h e p a r t y and t h e p a r t y ' s l e a d e r s h i p f r o m i n t e r n a l a n d e x t e r n a l t h r e a t s t o i t s p o s i t i o n a s t h e r u l i n g g r o u p . A l t h o u g h t h e CPK s e i z e d power i n A p r i l , 1975, a s t h e d o m i n a n t p a r t n e r i n t h e N a t i o n a l U n i t e d F r o n t f o r Kampuchea (FU N K ) , i t was n e i t h e r i d e o l o g i c a l l y n o r m i l i t a r i l y u n i t e d . C o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n among CPK l e a d e r s o f t h e v a r i o u s g e o g r a p h i c z o n e s were l i m i t e d d u r i n g t h e war; t h i s s i t u a t i o n e n c o u r a g e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s e p a r a t e b a s e s o f power a n d l e a d e r s h i p . The CPK's i m m e d i a t e s e c u r i t y p r o b l e m came f r o m w i t h i n i t s own p a r t y . The e x t e r n a l t h r e a t t o t h e s e c u r i t y o f t h e CPK came l a t e r f r o m t h e V i e t n a m e s e c o m m u n i s t s whose i n t e r e s t s i n m a k i n g t h e CPK p l a y a s u b o r d i n a t e r o l e i n t h e r e g i o n were f u n d a m e n t a l l y i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e CPK's n a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . T e n s i o n s b e t w e e n t h e CPK and t h e VWP had had v i o l e n t m a c h i n a t i o n s d u r i n g t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y s t r u g g l e i n C a m b o d i a ; t h i s h i s t o r y d i d n o t s e t a p o s i t i v e t o n e f o r p e a c e f u l i n t e r s t a t e r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e two c o m m u n i s t g o v e r n m e n t s . T h i s c h a p t e r e x a m i n e s t h e p r o c e s s o f i n t e r n a l c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f t h e C a m b o d i a n r e v o l u t i o n f r o m two p e r s p e c t i v e s : f i r s t , t h e 55 d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e f o r m a l g o v e r n m e n t s t r u c t u r e ; a n d s e c o n d , t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h an u l t r a - r a d i c a l g r o u p o f men a n d women w i t h i n t h e CPK l e d by P o l P o t s e i z e d c o n t r o l o f t h e p a r t y , p u r g e d most o f i t s o p p o n e n t s , and b y p a s s e d t h e p a r t y and s t a t e a p p a r a t u s t o i m p l e m e n t d o m e s t i c a n d f o r e i g n p o l i c i e s l e a d i n g u l t i m a t e l y t o t h e d e m i s e o f D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea. A c c o r d i n g t o M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t t h e o r y , C a m b o d i a p r o g r e s s e d f r o m i t s n a t i o n a l d e m o c r a t i c r e v o l u t i o n a r y s t a g e , t h a t i s , a m u l t i - c l a s s a nd b r o a d l y b a s e d p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e o f p a t r i o t s , t o a s o c i a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n a r y s t a g e i n 1975. By J a n u a r y 1976, t h e R o y a l G o v e r n m e n t o f t h e N a t i o n a l U n i o n o f Kampuchea (GRUNK), s e t up by S i h a n o u k i n 1970, was d i s s o l v e d a s t h e r u l i n g g o v e r n m e n t t o make way f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea u n d e r t h e s t a t e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e Communist P a r t y o f Kampuchea. P r i n c e Norodom S i h a n o u k , f o r m e r p r e s i d e n t o f GRUNK, was p l a c e d u n d e r h o u s e a r r e s t a n d c o n f i n e d t o a house n e x t t o t h e r o y a l p a l a c e . The c o n s t i t u t i o n o f D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea named o n l y one e x e c u t i v e b o d y , t h e C a m bodian P e o p l e ' s R e p r e s e n t a t i v e A s s e m b l y , ( C P R A ) , w h i c h , on p a p e r a t l e a s t , was t h e h i g h e s t p o l i c y - m a k i n g b o d y . 9 0 A f t e r t h e f i r s t a n d o n l y n a t i o n a l e l e c t i o n was h e l d i n M a r c h 1976, a 250-member CPRA was f o r m e d . I t c o m p r i s e d 150 p e a s a n t s , 50 w o r k e r s , and 50 s o l d i e r s f r o m t h e R e v o l u t i o n a r y A r m y . 9 1 The CPRA t h e n a p p o i n t e d a t h r ee-member s t a t e p r e s i d i u m t o f o r m a c o l l e c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p , w h i c h , i n K h i e u Samphan's w o r d s , " i s l e s s p r o n e t o make m i s t a k e s " . 9 2 B u t w h i l e t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n made t h e p e o p l e t h e "owners o f s t a t e p o wer, t h e 56 r e v o l u t i o n and t h e c o u n t r y " 9 3 t h e CPK was i n f i r m c o n t r o l o f a l l t h e h i g h - r a n k i n g m i n i s t e r i a l p o s i t i o n s . 9 4 D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea was o r g a n i z e d i n t o e i g h t new a d m i n i s t r a t i v e z o n e s : N o r t h , N o r t h e a s t , N o r t h w e s t , E a s t , West, S o u t h w e s t , C e n t r e , and K r a t i e S p e c i a l R e g i o n . 9 5 E a c h g e o g r a p h i c a l zone was d i v i d e d i n t o r e g i o n s and a s s i g n e d i d e n t i t y numbers. Below t h e r e g i o n s were t h e f a m i l i a r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s : t h e d i s t r i c t , s u b d i s t r i c t , and v i l l a g e . V i l l a g e p o p u l a t i o n s d i d not u s u a l l y number more t h a n 500 p e o p l e . In p r e - r e v o l u t i o n a r y Cambodia, t h e v i l l a g e was t h e most i m p o r t a n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t f o r t h e p e a s a n t r y . In D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea, however, as M i c h a e l V i c k e r y p o i n t s o u t , " t h e i m p o r t a n t u n i t , and t h e one a r o u n d w h i c h [ t h e p e a s a n t s ' ] d a i l y l i v e s r e v o l v e d , was t h e c o o p e r a t i v e ( s a l a k a r ) , g e n e r a l l y e q u i v a l e n t t o a khum [ s u b -d i s t r i c t ] and i n c o r p o r a t i n g s e v e r a l phum [ v i l l a g e s ] . " 9 6 S u b - d i s t r i c t and v i l l a g e u n i t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d by l o c a l p e o p l e , u s u a l l y of p o o r - p e a s a n t b a c k g r o u n d . Some r e f u g e e s r e p o r t t h a t t h e v i l l a g e c a d r e s had been c r i m i n a l s and r o b b e r s d u r i n g t h e Lon N o l and S i h a n o u k r e g i m e s . 9 7 The t o p a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s t s were f i l l e d w i t h l o n g - t i m e CPK members. 9 8 V i c k e r y ' s e x t e n s i v e i n t e r v i e w s w i t h Cambodian r e f u g e e s i n T h a i l a n d r e v e a l s r e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n i n p o l i c y , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t a measure o f autonomy e x i s t e d among t h e g e o g r a p h i c z o n e s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . V i c k e r y s t a t e s : t h e amount of f o o d , i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n , work d i s c i p l i n e and g e n e r a l h a r d s h i p s , numbers o f e x e c u t i o n s and e x e c u t i o n p o l i c y , even t h e c o n t e n t and e x t e n t of p o l i t i c a l e d u c a t i o n d i f f e r e d among z o n e s and r e g i o n s ; w h i l e e x e c u t i o n p o l i c y and f o o d d i s t r i b u t i o n sometimes d i f f e r e d even among c o n t i g u o u s v i l l a g e s . 9 9 F i g u r e 2 57 - Map o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e z o n e s i n D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea 58 F i g u r e 3 - Map o f z o n e l e a d e r s N Koy Thuon Ke Pauk NW Nhim Ros Keu iKRATIE SPECIAL REGION Chou Chet PhnojjjX So Phim Penf SW Phouk Chhay Ta Mok 59 T h i s r e g i o n a l t e n d e n c y p r e s e n t e d a g r a v e p r o b l e m t o t h e p a r t y l e a d e r s h i p , composed o f P o l P o t , I e n g S a r y , and K h i e u Samphan, who p r o b a b l y d i d n o t h a v e a s t r o n g m i l i t a r y b a s e o f t h e i r own. Koy Thuon o f t h e N o r t h , Nhim Ros o f t h e N o r t h w e s t , So P h i m o f t h e E a s t , V o r n V e t o f K r a t i e S p e c i a l R e g i o n , and Ta Mok o f t h e S o u t h w e s t , a l l h a d t h e i r own t r o o p o r g a n i z a t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g t o K i e r n a n , t h e R e v o l u t i o n a r y Army was n o t r e o r g a n i z e d u n t i l A u g u s t , 1 9 7 5 . 1 0 0 U n t i l A p r i l 14, 1976, a l m o s t one y e a r t o t h e day t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y f o r c e s o v e r t o o k Phnom P e n h , no o f f i c i a l m e n t i o n o f P o l P o t was e v e r made. On t h a t d a y , r a d i o Phnom Penh a n n o u n c e d t h a t t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r of D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea was P o l P o t . 1 0 1 T h i s b r o a d c a s t s u r p r i s e d o b s e r v e r s o u t s i d e C a m b o d i a , none o f whom h a d e v e r h e a r d t h e name b e f o r e . A p p a r e n t l y i t was a t t h i s t i m e t h a t a man c a l l e d S a l o t h S a r c h a n g e d h i s name t o P o l P o t . A c c o r d i n g t o K i e r n a n , " S a l o t h S a r had become P r i m e M i n i s t e r u n d e r a name t o t a l l y unknown t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f Kampuchea a n d n o t l i n k e d t o a n y name ( S a l o t h S a r f o r i n s t a n c e ) t h a t t h e y m i g h t h a v e known. T h i s s e c r e c y , u n p r e c e d e n t e d i n s o c i a l i s t h i s t o r y , e v e n c a u g h t o u t some h i g h - r a n k i n g Kampuchean o f f i c i a l s . " 1 0 2 E v e n a t t h i s t i m e , t h e CPK's t i e s t o t h e g o v e r n m e n t were k e p t o b s c u r e . Y u g o s l a v j o u r n a l i s t s who v i s i t e d C a m b o d i a i n M a r c h 1978 r e p o r t e d t h a t t h r e e y e a r s a f t e r v i c t o r y , t h e m e m b e r s h i p o f t h e CPK r e m a i n e d a s e c r e t and t h a t t h e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n was g e n e r a l l y unaware o f i t s e x i s t e n c e . 1 0 3 A p a r t i a l e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e s e c r e c y o f t h e CPK d e r i v e s f r o m t h e p a r t y ' s n e e d t o m a i n t a i n t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e p r o - m o n a r c h y p e a s a n t r y . T h i s , a t l e a s t , was 60 t h e s t r a t e g y d u r i n g t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y s t r u g g l e , when some o f t h e S i h a n o u k i s t s w i t h i n FUNK b e l i e v e d t h e y were f i g h t i n g t o r e s t o r e S i h a n o u k ' s l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e c o u n t r y . B u t t h i s s t i l l d o e s l i t t l e t o e x p l a i n t h e c o n t i n u e d s e c r e c y o f t h e p a r t y a f t e r i t a c h i e v e d p o wer. K i e r n a n o f f e r s an a l t e r n a t i v e , and more l i k e l y , e x p l a n a t i o n : The " a n o n y m i t y " o f l e a d e r s h i p was n o t t h e p r o d u c t o f a c o l l e c t i v e b u t o f i t s o p p o s i t e , d i s u n i t y , and u n t i l 1977-78, s e r i o u s i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l c h a l l e n g e s t o P o l P o t ' s g r o u p . Once P o l P o t was f i r m l y i n c o n t r o l p r o d u c t i o n began o f p o r t r a i t s , b u s t s a n d s t a t u e s . 1 0 " T h e r e were a t l e a s t t h r e e r i v a l f a c t i o n s w i t h i n t h e Communist P a r t y o f Kampuchea. The f i r s t was t h e P o l P o t G r o u p , whose m a j o r c o n c e r n was t o c r e a t e a m i l i t a r i l y p o w e r f u l s t a t e , i m p e n e t r a b l e t o a t t a c k a n d c a p a b l e o f f o r c i n g t e r r i t o r i a l c o n c e s s i o n s f r o m V i e t n a m and T h a i l a n d . The b a s i s o f power o f t h i s g r o u p , a c c o r d i n g t o K i e r n a n , d e r i v e d f r o m a " m i l i t a n t , m o b i l i z e d p e a s a n t r y " . 1 0 5 The P o l P o t G r o u p was i d e o l o g i c a l l y c o m m i t t e d t o r a d i c a l s o c i e t a l c h a n g e on l i n e s l o o s e l y r e s e m b l i n g a g r a r i a n s o c i a i i s m ; h o w e v e r , i t s m a i n i d e o l o g i c a l f i d e l i t y was t o t h e n a t i o n . The l e a d e r s h i p o f t h i s f a c t i o n was a s f o l l o w s : P o l P o t , P r i m e M i n i s t e r a n d S e c r e t a r y G e n e r a l o f t h e CPK; Nuon C h e a , D e p u t y P a r t y S e c r e t a r y ; K h i e u Samphan, P r e s i d e n t o f t h e S t a t e P r e s i d i u m and CPK P o l i t b u r o member; I e n g S a r y , D e p u t y P r e m i e r i n c h a r g e o f F o r e i g n A f f a i r s a nd CPK P o l i t b u r o member; Son S e n , D e p u t y P r e m i e r i n c h a r g e o f N a t i o n a l D e f e n s e and CPK P o l i t b u r o member; and V o r n V e t , D e p u t y P r e m i e r i n c h a r g e o f t h e Economy a n d member o f t h e CPK P o l i t b u r o . A l l o f t h e s e men were v i r u l e n t p a t r i o t s , a n d t h e y s t r o n g l y o p p o s e d V i e t n a m e s e e f f o r t s 61 t o d o m i n a t e t h e CPK. P o l P o t ' s w i f e , K h i e u P o n n a r y , was p a r t y s e c r e t a r y o f h e r h u s b a n d ' s home p r o v i n c e o f Kompong Thorn. She was a l s o p r e s i d e n t o f DK's Women's A s s o c i a t i o n . K h i e u T h i r i t h , K h i e u P o n n a r y ' s s i s t e r , a n d I e n g S a r y ' s w i f e , j o i n e d h e r h u s b a n d i n t h e s o u t h e r n Mekong d e l t a a r e a t o e s t a b l i s h j o i n t p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y p r i o r t o 1975. Son Se n ' s w i f e , Yun Y a t , r e p l a c e d t h e DK M i n i s t e r o f I n f o r m a t i o n , Hu Nim, i n 1977 a f t e r P o l P o t had h i m a r r e s t e d a n d e x e c u t e d . 1 0 6 I t a p p e a r s t h a t n e p o t i s m i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power p o s i t i o n s was u s e d t o e n s u r e l o y a l t y t o P o l P o t , a p r a c t i c e t h a t h a d a l o n g t r a d i t i o n i n Camb o d i a a n d no d o u b t i n many p o l i t i c a l r e g i m e s a r o u n d t h e w o r l d . 1 0 7 D u r i n g t h e 1960's a n d e a r l y 1 9 7 0 ' s , t h e P o l P o t G r o u p was b a s e d i n t h e m o u n t a i n o u s n o r t h e a s t e r n p r o v i n c e s o f R a t a n a k i r i a n d M o n d u l k i r i , a n d t h e p r o v i n c e s o f Kompong Thorn a n d S i e m Reap. A f t e r 1975, t h e g r o u p a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d a s t r o n g b a s e i n t h e S o u t h w e s t r e g i o n . The s e c o n d i d e n t i f i a b l e f a c t i o n o f t h e CPK, l e d by i n t e l l e c t u a l s Hu Nim and Hou Yuo n , a s w e l l a s Phouk Chhay a n d T i v 0 1 , were s u p p o r t i v e o f some a s p e c t s o f Ma o i s m , e s p e c i a l l y a s i t was e x h i b i t e d d u r i n g t h e "mass d e m o c r a c y " c a m p a i g n s o f t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n . T i v 0 1 , Phouk Chhay a nd Hu Nim had been a c t i v e members o f t h e C a m b o d i a - C h i n a F r i e n d s h i p A s s o c i a t i o n a t t h e h e i g h t o f t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n , 1965 t o 1967. A l l t h r e e men were a r r e s t e d by P o l P o t ' s f o r c e s i n 1977 and e x e c u t e d . The p r o - P e k i n g f a c t i o n was b a s e d m a i n l y i n t h e S o u t h w e s t z o n e d u r i n g t h e c i v i l w a r. 62 The t h i r d g r o u p , l e d by t h e c u r r e n t P r e s i d e n t o f t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f Kampuchea, Heng S a m r i n , was l a r g e l y c omposed o f v e t e r a n s o f t h e I n d o c h i n e s e Communist P a r t y and i t s s u c c e s s o r p a r t y , t h e Khmer P e o p l e ' s R e v o l u t i o n a r y P a r t y , many o f whom h a d r e c e i v e d t r a i n i n g i n H a n o i a f t e r t h e 1954 Geneva C o n f e r e n c e . O t h e r members o f t h i s g r o u p were Khmer c o m m u n i s t s who w e re a t t r a c t e d t o t h e V i e t n a m e s e m odel o f s o c i a l i s m . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 1,000 H a n o i - t r a i n e d v e t e r a n s r e t u r n e d t o Cambodia i n 1970 f r o m V i e t n a m t o j o i n t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y f o r c e s f i g h t i n g t h e L o n N o l g o v e r n m e n t . H u n d r e d s o f t h e s e c o m m u n i s t v e t e r a n s w ere p u r g e d by P o l P o t who c l a i m e d t h e y h a d been s e n t by t h e VWP t o t a k e o v e r h i s p a r t y a n d h i s l e a d e r s h i p . 1 0 8 The p o s t - v i c t o r y s u r v i v o r s o f t h i s g r o u p i n c l u d e d Keo M o n i , So P h i m , Non S uon, an d Chou C h e t , a l l o f whom were a c t i v e i n t h e E a s t e r n zone up t o 1975. By 1977, a l l f o u r men h a d b een a r r e s t e d , t o r t u r e d and f i n a l l y e x e c u t e d by t h e P o l P o t f o r c e s . I m p o r t a n t i d e o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e t h r e e g r o u p s a c c o u n t e d f o r t h e p e r s i s t e n c e o f f a c t i o n a l i s m d u r i n g t h e s h o r t l i f e - s p a n o f D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea. The d i f f e r e n c e s were s t r o n g enough a p p a r e n t l y t o k e e p t h e f a c t i o n s f r o m s i n k i n g t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s and u n i t i n g b e h i n d a common c a u s e . K i e r n a n h a s l e a r n e d t h a t members o f t h e P o l P o t g r o u p made t h e d e c i s i o n t o e v a c u a t e Phnom P e n h , t o e x p e l V i e t n a m e s e c i t i z e n s o f C a m b o d i a , t o i mpose r a d i c a l l a n d c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n , a n d t o e l i m i n a t e t h e money s y s t e m , i n what a p p e a r s t o have been a s e c r e t m e e t i n g t h a t t o o k p l a c e a f t e r t h e c l o s e o f t h e 1971 CPK C o n g r e s s . D u r i n g t h e C o n g r e s s t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e o p p o s i t i o n 63 t o t h e s e p o l i c i e s from p r o m i n e n t c e n t r a l c o m m i t t e e members s u c h as Hou Yuon, Hu Nim, Koy Thuon, Ney S a r a n n , T i v 01 and Phouk C h h a y . 1 0 9 The f a c t t h a t t h e major d i s a g r e e m e n t s o v e r p o l i c y among CPK members a t t h i s i m p o r t a n t C o n g r e s s were not r e s o l v e d by d i s c u s s i o n , c o n s e n s u s , o r v o t e , i s i n d i c a t i v e of t h e l e v e l o f s t r i f e t h a t e v e n t u a l l y d e s t r o y e d t h e p a r t y . A f t e r t h e m e e t i n g , P o l P o t ' s s u p p o r t e r s met s e c r e t l y t o p a s s p o l i c y r e s o l u t i o n s , a p p a r e n t l y , a s a way t o i m p a r t a v e n e e r o f l e g i t i m a c y upon them a t t h e t i m e , and a f t e r 1 9 7 5 . 1 1 0 In t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , t h e r e l a t i o n s between t h e N o r t h e r n zone P o l P o t s u p p o r t e r s and t h e E a s t e r n zone p r o - V i e t n a m communists began t o d e t e r i o r a t e . One Khmer communist w o r k i n g f o r t h e VWP i n Kompong Thorn p r o v i n c e made t h e f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n : On t h i s s i d e of t h e Mekong [ t h e n o r t h ] t h e Khmer Reds w o u l d not l e t p e o p l e wear c o l o u r f u l c l o t h i n g ; on t h e o t h e r s i d e [ t h e E a s t ] t h e y would. On t h i s s i d e t h e y wanted t o know why t h e o t h e r s d i d n o t obey t h e r u l e s o f t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n [ A n g k a r ] , and t h e y would s h o o t p e o p l e coming from t h e r e . They h a t e d e a c h o t h e r on d i f f e r e n t s i d e s o f t h e r i v e r . 1 1 1 At l e a s t two of t h e s e p o l i c i e s were d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e p o l i t i c a l a m b i t i o n s o f P o l Pot r a t h e r t h a n t o any i d e o l o g c i a l o r r e v o l u t i o n a r y o b j e c t i v e s . F i r s t , t h e e v a c u a t i o n of Phnom Penh i n 1975 was, a c c o r d i n g t o K i e r n a n : m o t i v a t e d n o t by economic o r h u m a n i t a r i a n c o n c e r n s b u t by p o l i t i c a l a m b i t i o n s , an i m p o r t a n t move i n t h e P o l Pot g r o u p ' s b i d f o r t o t a l c o n t r o l o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n . . . A l t h o u g h o r d e r s t o c a r r y i t o u t came from t h e v e r y t o p , c o n f l i c t i n g r e p o r t s o f t h e manner o f i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n ( e . g . v i o l e n c e a g a i n s t t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n some a r e a s but not i n o t h e r s ) i n d i c a t e c o n t i n u i n g p o l i t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y r a n k s . 1 1 2 In r e t r o s p e c t , t h e e v a c u a t i o n o f a l l t h e u r b a n c e n t r e s i n 64 1975 a p p e a r s t o h a v e been i n t e n d e d t o f r a g m e n t a n d u l t i m a t e l y d e s t r o y t h e p o t e n t i a l p o l i t i c a l o p p o s i t i o n n o t o n l y w i t h i n t h e p a r t y b u t amongst t h e p o p u l a t i o n a s w e l l . F o r one t h i n g , t h e CPK was a w a r e t h a t i t s armed f o r c e s , b a d l y d e c i m a t e d by t h e s p a t e o f bombing i n 1973, was n o t n u m e r i c a l l y s t r o n g enough t o c r u s h l a r g e - s c a l e u r b a n u p r i s i n g s a g a i n s t c o m m u n i s t r u l e . A p p a r e n t l y , C I A - s p o n s o r e d spy r i n g s i n Phnom Penh were p l a n n i n g t o " e x p l o i t d i s c o n t e n t , s a b o t a g e Communist p o l i c i e s , p r o v o k e i n s u r r e c t i o n s a n d i n c i t e f o o d r i o t s . " 1 1 3 F o r t h i s r e a s o n , P o l P o t d e c i d e d t o e v a c u a t e t h e c i t i e s t h r e e months p r i o r t o v i c t o r y b e c a u s e t h e CPK's " s t r e n g t h was n o t enough t o d e f e n d t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y r e g i m e . " 1 1 " F u r t h e r , s c a t t e r i n g t h e u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y s i d e was a s t r a t e g i c move t h a t was made n o t o n l y t o a t o m i z e t h e f o r m e d o p p o s i t i o n b u t t o p r e v e n t new o p p o s i t i o n f r o m f o r m i n g . S p e a k i n g o f t h e known a n d p o t e n t i a l o p p o n e n t s o f t h e CPK, P o l P o t s t a t e d : " T h e i r f o r c e s were s c a t t e r e d i n v a r i o u s c o o p e r a t i v e s t h a t a r e i n o u r g r i p . T h u s we h a v e t h e i n i t i a t i v e i n o u r h a n d s . " 1 1 5 The s e c o n d p o l i c y t h a t was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n b l o c k i n g t h e p o l i t i c a l p a t h o f t h e o p p o s i t i o n was t h e move t o e x p e l V i e t n a m e s e c o m m u n i s t s f r o m C a m b o d i a . T h i s p o l i c y was a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f one t h a t h ad been s t a r t e d by t h e CPK a s e a r l y a s 1972. F o r i n s t a n c e , one woman f r o m a s m a l l town i n S i e m Reap r e c a l l s t h a t i n 1972: L a r g e d e m o n s t r a t i o n s were o r g a n i z e d a g a i n s t t h e V i e t n a m e s e [ c o m m u n i s t ] t r o o p s . The d e m o n s t r a t o r s were n o t l o c a l s ; t h e y came f r o m t h e u p l a n d a r e a s t e n o r t w e n t y k i l o m e t r e s away, a n d had been e d u c a t e d i n Red Khmer i d e a s - t h e y h a t e d t h e V i e t n a m e s e . The t o w n s p e o p l e , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , j u s t t r e a t e d t h e V i e t n a m e s e n o r m a l l y ; we t r a d e d w i t h them, a n d 65 t h e y d i d n o t s t e a l f r o m u s . The V i e t n a m e s e w i t h d r e w i n t h e f a c e o f t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , a n d t h e Red Khmer were i n c h a r g e f r o m t h a t p o i n t o n . 1 1 6 P e r h a p s t h e g r e a t e s t i m p e t u s b e h i n d P o l P o t ' s a n t i -V i e t n a m e s e b e h a v i o u r s t e m s f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t t h e V i e t n a m e s e p o s e d t h e g r e a t e s t t h r e a t t o h i s l e a d e r s h i p . Many o f t h e r e m a i n i n g H a n o i - t r a i n e d v e t e r a n s were a r r e s t e d : Ney S a r a n n on S e p t e m b e r 2 0 t h , Keo Meas on S e p t e m b e r 2 5 t h ; Non Suon a n d Mey Pho were a l s o a r r e s t e d t h a t month. The e x e c u t i o n o f t h e s e v e t e r a n c o m m u n i s t s s e r v e d t o s e v e r t h e CPK's l i n k t o t h e V W P . 1 1 7 B e t w e e n A p r i l a n d J u l y 1975, P o l P o t began t o p l a c e l o y a l m i l i t a r y commanders i n t o p r e g i o n a l p o s i t i o n s o f a u t h o r i t y . 1 1 8 The s t r o n g e s t m i l i t a r y f o r c e was l o c a t e d i n t h e S o u t h w e s t zone u n d e r t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f Ta Mok a n d a s e c r e t p o l i c e a g e n t known a s Duch. Ta Mok h a d more t r o o p s u n d e r h i s command t h a n any o t h e r m i l i t a r y l e a d e r i n C a m b o d i a ; h i s r e p u t a t i o n a s a b r u t a l and u t t e r l y r u t h l e s s c h a r a c t e r , r e m i n i s c e n t o f a w a r l o r d r a t h e r t h a n a s o c i a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n a r y , most l i k e l y a c c o u n t s f o r h i s s u c c e s s i n g a t h e r i n g p e a s a n t s o l d i e r s t o o b e y h i s command. S t e p h e n H e d e r has p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e S o u t h w e s t was t h e " p o o r h o u s e o f K a m p u c h e a " , 1 1 9 a r e g i o n i n w h i c h t h e h i g h number o f l a n d l e s s p e a s a n t s m i g h t s u p p o r t c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n p o l i c i e s a nd t o l e r a t e s u b s i s t e n c e l e v e l s . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e s i t u a t i o n i n t h e S o u t h w e s t was c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e p o l i c i e s o f t h e P o l P o t g r o u p . P o l P o t t h u s f o u n d a p o w e r f u l a l l y i n Ta Mok, a n d s u c h a m i l i t a r y a l l i a n c e was e s s e n t i a l f o r P o l P o t t o d o m i n a t e and c e n t r a l i z e t h e CPK. Ta Mok a n d Duch were v e s t e d w i t h t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o e n p r i s o n , t o r t u r e a n d e x e c u t e a l l o f t h e 66 t r a i t o r s t o t h e P o l P o t g r o u p . As c o u l d be p r e d i c t e d u n d e r t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , d i s a f f e c t i o n f r o m P o l P o t l e d t o a t l e a s t n i n e c o u p a t t e m p t s a g a i n s t h i m b e t w e e n 1975 a n d 1979 by members o f b o t h t h e p r o -P e k i n g a n d p r o - H a n o i f a c t i o n s o f t h e CPK. T h e s e c o u p a t t e m p t s t o o k p l a c e b e c a u s e t h e r e was no e f f e c t i v e m e c h a n i s m w i t h i n t h e p a r t y o r s t a t e s t r u c t u r e t o remove P o l P o t f r o m p o w e r . The f i r s t i n t e r n a l r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t t h e P o l P o t f a c t i o n t o o k p l a c e i n S e p t e m b e r 1975. The B l a c k Book, one o f t h e few o f f i c i a l DK d o c u m e n t s a v a i l a b l e , s t a t e d t h a t t h r e e o r f o u r f i g h t e r s f r o m t h e E a s t e r n Zone " p l o t t e d t o a s s a s s i n a t e t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e CPK" b u t t h e y f a i l e d b e c a u s e " t h e y d i d n o t know t h e l e a d e r s and c o n s e q u e n t l y d i d n o t know whom t o f i r e a t " . 1 2 0 The s e c r e c y o f t h e p a r t y l e a d e r s h i p , w h i c h c l o a k e d t h e i d e n t i t i e s o f t h e t o p l e a d e r s , may h a v e been t h e r e a s o n t h i s a t t e m p t f a i l e d . B u t , i n f a c t , what may h a v e e n s u e d was a b r i e f b u t v i o l e n t s t r u g g l e f o r power, s i n c e Phnom Penh r a d i o s t o p p e d b r o a d c a s t i n g s u d d e n l y f o r two d a y s i n m i d - S e p t e m b e r . 1 2 1 A n o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t power s t r u g g l e b e t w e e n t h e t h r e e f a c t i o n s a p p e a r s t o h a v e t a k e n p l a c e one y e a r l a t e r , a n d was p o s s i b l y c o n n e c t e d t o i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l u p h e a v a l i n t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a . On S e p t e m b e r 27, 1976, P o l P o t l e f t h i s p o s t a s p r i m e m i n i s t e r f o r " h e a l t h r e a s o n s " 1 2 2 ; he was r e p l a c e d by a v e t e r a n p r o - V i e t n a m e s e c o m m u n i s t , Nuon C h e a . S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea's x e n o p h o b i c v e i l began t o l i f t . T r a d e d e l e g a t i o n s were s e n t t o A l b a n i a , Y u g o s l a v i a a n d N o r t h K o r e a ; c o n t a c t s were made w i t h UNICEF t o a r r a n g e f o r 67 m e d i c a l a i d ; and b o r d e r t e n s i o n s w i t h V i e t n a m l e s s e n e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . I t i s o f some i n t e r e s t t o n o t e t h a t Phnom Penh r a d i o b e gan a t t a c k i n g Deng X i a o p i n g , whose own f a l l f r o m power i n C h i n a h ad a r o u s e d no comment f r o m Phnom Pen h when P o l P o t was s t i l l a t t h e h e l m . T h e s e p o l i c i e s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e p r o -V i e t n a m e s e a n d C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n s u p p o r t e r s w i t h i n t h e CPK may ha v e been i n c h a r g e o f some o f t h e i m p o r t a n t p o r t f o l i o s a t t h i s t i m e , s u c h a s f o r e i g n a f f a i r s . I f t h i s was t h e c a s e , t h e i r power was s h o r t - l i v e d . S h o r t l y a f t e r t h e most r a d i c a l C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n f i g u r e s were a r r e s t e d i n C h i n a , f o l l o w e d by t h e r e t u r n o f Deng X i a o p i n g , P o l P o t r e s u m e d h i s p o s t a s p r i m e m i n i s t e r . 1 2 3 The r e t u r n o f P o l P o t was a c c o m p a n i e d by a n o t h e r s h i f t i n d o m e s t i c a n d f o r e i g n p o l i c y . From t h e b e g i n n i n g o f 1977, t r o o p s and c a d r e s f r o m t h e S o u t h w e s t z o n e , P o l P o t ' s s t r o n g h o l d , were s t a t i o n e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y a n d r e p l a c e d o f f i c i a l s a t a l m o s t a l l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l s . Communal d i n i n g h a l l s were e s t a b l i s h e d ; f o o d r a t i o n s were c u t ; f a m i l i e s were s e p a r a t e d ; a n d t o u g h e r w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s were i m p o s e d on t h e p o p u l a t i o n . L i k e t h e t y p i c a l t y r a n t o r d e s p o t , P o t P o t m a i n t a i n e d h i s r u l e i n Cambo d i a l a r g e l y by p l o t t i n g t h e a r r e s t a n d t o r t u r e o f p r o m i n e n t CPK o f f i c i a l s a n d o t h e r s s u s p e c t e d o f o p p o s i n g h i s r u l e . The most m a c a b r e e x p o s e o f p o l i t i c a l k i l l i n g s o r d e r e d by P o l P o t was f o u n d by t h e i n v a d i n g V i e t n a m e s e army i n 1979 i n t h e i r d i s c o v e r y o f T u o l S l e n g p r i s o n on t h e o u t s k i r t s o f Phnom P e n h . Of t h e 14,449 p r i s o n e r s , s i x s u r v i v e d , two a d u l t s a n d f o u r c h i l d r e n . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p r i s o n ' s r e c o r d s r e v e a l e d t h a t v a r i o u s 68 m e t h o d s o f t o r t u r e were u s e d t o e x t r a c t " c o n f e s s i o n s " f r o m d o c t o r s , s t u d e n t s , p r o f e s s o r s , e n g i n e e r s , f o r e i g n e r s , p e a s a n t s , w o r k e r s , a nd l o n g - s t a n d i n g c o m m u n i s t p a r t y members. A mass g r a v e was f o u n d a t t h e b a c k o f t h e c e n t r e where v i c t i m s were p i l e d a f t e r b e i n g e x e c u t e d . I n an i n t e r v i e w w i t h E l i z a b e t h B e c k e r i n 1981, I e n g S a r y a d m i t t e d t h a t i t had been o f f i c i a l p o l i c y t o e x e c u t e o p p o n e n t s o f t h e r e g i m e , b u t he e x c u s e d h i m s e l f f r o m any b l a m e , s t a t i n g , " P e r s o n a l l y I w a s n ' t aware of t h e d e a t h s . " 1 2 * T h i s a c c o u n t i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y a s I e n g S a r y was, and c o n t i n u e s t o be, v e r y c l o s e l y a l l i e d t o P o l P o t . I n f a c t , a t t h e h e i g h t o f t h e m a s s i v e p u r g e s t h a t were c a r r i e d o u t i n 1977, DK o f f i c i a l s a d m i t t e d f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e t o i t s u s e o f k i l l i n g s t o s o l v e d o m e s t i c p r o b l e m s . On J a n u a r y 28, 1977, Khmer c o m m u n i s t s o l d i e r s a t t a c k e d t h e T h a i v i l l a g e s o f Bam Nong Do, Ban K l o n g a n d Ban N o i Pa R a i , l o c a t e d n e a r t h e b o r d e r town o f A r a n y a p r a t h e t . H o u s e s were b u r n e d a n d t w e n t y - n i n e T h a i v i l l a g e r s were k i l l e d . B a b i e s were f o u n d m u t i l a t e d a n d p r e g n a n t women were f o u n d n a k e d w i t h t h e i r t h r o a t s s l a s h e d . 1 2 5 The T h a i g o v e r n m e n t ' s p r o t e s t s a g a i n s t t h e s e a t t a c k s were s p u r n e d by DK o f f i c i a l s , who c l a i m e d t h a t t h e v i l l a g e s h a d been c o l o n i z e d by t h e T h a i g o v e r n m e n t i n 1972. DK o f f i c i a l s m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e v i l l a g e s were C a m b o d i a n , n o t T h a i , a n d t h a t " t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea was a r r a n g i n g i t s i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s i n t h e s e t h r e e v i l l a g e s . " 1 2 6 A f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e m e t h o d s by w h i c h t h e P o l P o t G r o u p was " a r r a n g i n g i t s i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s " comes f r o m Tom 69 S a k a r a , a r e f u g e e who l i v e d i n t h e E a s t e r n Zone f r o m 1975-1979: So P h i m [ t h e CPK l e a d e r o f t h e E a s t e r n Zone] l e d a r e v o l t i n 1977. The c a u s e o f t h e r e v o l t i n t h e e a s t i n 1977 was d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h P o l P o t ' s p o l i c i e s t h a t r e s u l t e d i n s t a r v a t i o n and k i l l i n g . A l s o t h e E a s t was p r o - V i e t n a m e s e . A f t e r t h e s r o k [ d i s t r i c t ] c h i e f was k i l l e d [ b y P o l P o t s o l d i e r s ] t h e E a s t h a d a r e f o r m . T h e r e was a m e e t i n g a n d t h e Khmer Rouge e x p l a i n e d why o u r a r e a and a l l t h e o t h e r a r e a s i n t h e c o u n t r y h a d new l e a d e r s . The Khmer Rouge s a i d t h e V i e t n a m e s e were p l a n n i n g t o a t t a c k C a m b o d i a . B u t t h e l e a d e r s s a i d t h e y "gave a l e s s o n t o t h e V i e t n a m e s e . " P o l P o t made a t a p e a b o u t t h e a t t a c k a n d we a l l l i s t e n e d t o i t . He s a i d " t o k i l l a V i e t n a m e s e y o u must b r e a k t h e s p i n e , n o t j u s t t h e arm o r l e g " . He s a i d C a m b o d i a w o u l d t a k e a l l o f V i e t n a m b e c a u s e one p a r t w o u l d n o t be e n o u g h-Cambodia had t o t a k e t h e r o o t . P o l P o t s a i d So P h i m s t o c k e d c l o t h e s , p h a r m a c e u t i c a l s a n d o t h e r p r o d u c t s and d i d n ' t d i s t r i b u t e them t o t h e p e o p l e . He was m a k i n g c o n t a c t s w i t h t h e V i e t n a m e s e — s t o c k i n g t h i n g s t o g i v e t o o t h e r p r o v i n c e s t o h e l p make t h e r e v o l t . 1 2 7 S a k a r a ' s i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e r e v o l t by So P h i m , a v e t e r a n p r o - V i e t n a m e s e c o m m u n i s t z o n e l e a d e r , h a s been c o r r o b o r a t e d by s e v e r a l o t h e r r e f u g e e a c c o u n t s . A p p a r e n t l y , So P h i m c o m m i t t e d s u i c i d e s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e r e v o l t was c r u s h e d by t h e S o u t h w e s t zone f o r c e s , a t t h e b e h e s t o f P o l P o t . From t h e b e g i n n i n g o f 1977 a n d t h r o u g h o u t t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , a s e r i e s o f c o n s e c u t i v e p u r g e s t o o k p l a c e i n C a m b o d i a . Top o f f i c i a l s were a r r e s t e d , i n t e r r o g a t e d a t T u o l S l e n g , a n d t h e n e x e c u t e d . A p u r g e o f d i s t r i c t a n d v i l l a g e l e v e l c a d r e s t h e n f o l l o w e d t h e r e g i o n a l p u r g e s . A c c o r d i n g t o K i e r n a n , " I n t h i s way l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was g r a d u a l l y b r o u g h t u n d e r c l o s e r a n d c l o s e r c e n t r a l c o n t r o l w i t h i n c r e a s i n g l y r e s t r i c t e d m a n o e u v e r a b i l i t y f o r l o c a l c a d r e s w e l l a w a r e o f t h e f a t e o f t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s " . 1 2 8 I r o n i c a l l y , a t t h e h e i g h t o f t h e p u r g e s , Phnom Penh r a d i o s a l u t e d t h e w a r - d e a d who had s a c r i f i c e d t h e i r l i v e s f o r t h e r e v o l u t i o n : 70 T h e i r s a c r i f i c e h a s b r o u g h t t h e i d e n t i t y a n d h o n o u r o f o u r C a m b o d i a n r e v o l u t i o n , n a t i o n a n d p e o p l e t o h e i g h t s n e v e r b e f o r e a t t a i n e d i n t h e h i s t o r y o f C a m b o d i a . [ T h e i r ] b l o o d , r e d a n d f r e s h , f l o w s s w i f t l y l i k e s t r e a m s and r i v e r s w e t t i n g t h e h a l l o w e d s o i l o f o u r b e l o v e d Cambodian m o t h e r l a n d . 1 2 9 T h i s m e s s a g e , i f h e a r d by t h e t h o u s a n d s o f C a m b o d i a n s who were b e i n g s t a r v e d a n d s l a u g h t e r e d by t h e S o u t h w e s t zone c a d r e s must h a v e seemed l i k e a c r y p t i c r e f e r e n c e t o t h e i r own f a t e . R e f u g e e s r e p o r t t h a t t h e S o u t h w e s t z o n e c a d r e s c a r r i e d o u t v e r y h a r s h p u n i s h m e n t s f o r t h e most m i n o r m i s t a k e s . Anyone who was e v e n s l i g h t l y s u s p e c t e d o f b e i n g d i s c o n t e n t e d w i t h t h e r e g i m e was p r o m p t l y a r r e s t e d , t a k e n o u t o f t h e v i l l a g e a n d n e v e r s e e n a g a i n . A l s o , i t was a t t h i s t i m e t h a t c h i l d r e n began t o be u s e d a s s p i e s . Phu T o n g , a t w e n t y - y e a r o l d r e f u g e e , now r e s e t t l e d i n A u s t r a l i a , o f f e r e d t h e f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n : Some c h i l d r e n k i l l e d t h e i r m o t h e r s , f a t h e r s o r s i s t e r s a n d b r o t h e r s . They were t o l d t o be s p i e s a n d t e l l Khmer Rouge c a d r e s who d i s o b e y e d A n g k a r ' s l a w s o r s p o k e a g a i n s t A n g k a r . O l d p e o p l e do n o t e a s i l y g i v e up t h e i r f o r m e r ways b u t i t ' s e a s y t o i n d o c t r i n a t e c h i l d r e n . Khmer Rouge d i d n ' t want c h i l d r e n t o l i v e w i t h p a r e n t s b e c a u s e c h i l d r e n w o u l d be c o r r u p t e d by l e a r n i n g f o r m e r ways. T h i s i s why f a m i l i e s w ere s e p a r a t e d . 1 3 0 The c o m m u n i s t members who were p u r g e d i n 1977 and 1978 were a c c u s e d o f b e i n g s p i e s o f t h e V i e t n a m e s e ; t h e y h a d "Khmer b o d i e s w i t h V i e t n a m e s e m i n d s " . 1 3 1 The e l i m i n a t i o n o f t h e key l e a d e r s o f t h e p r o - V i e t n a m e s e a n d p r o - C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n f a c t i o n s a d v a n c e d t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e P o l P o t g r o u p -- b u t o n l y t e m p o r a r i l y . The d r a c o n i a n d o m e s t i c p o l i c i e s t h a t were p r a c t i c e d t o s e c u r e t h e g a i n s o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n l e f t t h e p o p u l a t i o n s t a r v i n g . The CPK was t o r n a p a r t by t h e p u r g e s -- a c o s t l y s t r a t e g y t o s e c u r e P o l 71 P o t ' s s u p r e m a c y . A g a i n s t t h i s b a c k d r o p , t h e DK r e g i m e began i t s e x p a n s i o n i s t f o r e i g n p o l i c y , o f f e n d i n g b o t h t h e T h a i a n d V i e t n a m e s e g o v e r n m e n t s . T h i s was t h e most c o s t l y m i s t a k e o f a l l , made a t a t i m e when i n t e r n a l c o n s o l i d a t i o n was n o t y e t c o m p l e t e a n d when d o m e s t i c d i s c o n t e n t was a t i t s p e a k . (An e x p l a n a t i o n o f why t h i s m i s t a k e was made i s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r ) . The V i e t n a m e s e g o v e r n m e n t o p e n l y s u p p o r t e d t h e p r o - V i e t n a m e s e f a c t i o n o f t h e CPK i n t h e e a s t e r n z o n e by a t l e a s t 1978. I t was t o do s o w i t h t h e f u l l b a c k i n g o f i t s army a t t h e end o f t h a t y e a r . P o l P o t ' s D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea was e a s i l y t o p p l e d . V e r y few C a m b o d i a n s were w i l l i n g t o a s s i s t t h e P o l P o t s o l d i e r s i n t h e i r r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e V i e t n a m e s e i n v a s i o n ; i n f a c t , t h e V i e t n a m e s e s o l d i e r s were welcomed a s s a v i o u r s by most C a m b o d i a n s . The f o o d s t o r e h o u s e s were o p e n e d , t h e h a t e d communal d i n i n g was s u s p e n d e d a nd t h e p o p u l a t i o n was p e r m i t t e d t o r e g r o u p i n t o f a m i l y u n i t s . A l o n g w i t h t h e j o y t h a t came w i t h f a m i l y r e u n i o n s was t h e e m o t i o n a l a g ony f e l t by t h o s e who d i s c o v e r e d t h e i r f a m i l y members h a d d i e d o f s t a r v a t i o n , h a d been k i l l e d o r had s i m p l y d i s a p p e a r e d w i t h o u t a t r a c e . L i m Pheng's p o i g n a n t s t o r y o f t h i s p e r i o d i s one o f many w i t h a s a d e n d i n g : On t h e 5 t h o f J a n u a r y , 1979, t h e V i e t n a m e s e c ommunist t r o o p s t o o k o v e r t h e v i l l a g e a n d t h e p l a c e where I w o r k e d . A f t e r two d a y s , t h e V i e t n a m e s e o c c u p i e d Phnom P e n h , a nd i t was f u l l o f V i e t n a m e s e t r o o p s . When t h e y came o v e r t h e c o u n t r y , I s p e n t many a t i m e s e a r c h i n g f o r my p a r e n t s a n d f a m i l y , b u t n o t h i n g h a p p e n e d . So I went t o my h o u s e i n Phnom P e n h , where I l i v e d i n S i h a n o u k ' s a n d L o n N o l ' s t i m e . When I saw Phnom Pen h a t f i r s t , e s p e c i a l l y my h o u s e , my h e a r t sank down, b e c a u s e e v e r y t h i n g h a d been d e s t r o y e d , a n d Phnom Penh was no l o n g e r t h e b e a u t i f u l c i t y o f Kampuchea. I c o u l d n ' t s e e my h o u s e -- o n l y a s h e s . I h a p p e n e d t o meet a l o t o f my f r i e n d s t h a t I u s e d t o l e a r n w i t h , a n d t h e y a s k e d me where my p a r e n t s a n d f a m i l y w e r e . I s a i d t h a t I d i d n o t know i f t h e y were a l i v e o r n o t , and t e a r s were 72 r o l l i n g down my c h e e k s . 1 3 2 I n c o n c l u s i o n , t h e c o n s o l i d a t i o n e f f o r t s o f t h e CPK were ma r k e d by t h e P o l P o t f a c t i o n ' s c o n s t a n t s t r u g g l e t o s e c u r e i t s s u p r e m a c y o v e r t h e p a r t y . I t was a c c o m p a n i e d by e x c e s s i v e v i o l e n c e a n d b l o o d s h e d . T h a t t h e DK r e g i m e c h o s e b l o o d a s one o f i t s n a t i o n a l s y m b o l s was an o m i n o u s s i g n o f what was t o come; i n t e r n a l c o n s o l i d a t i o n t h r o u g h b l o o d l e t t i n g , t e r r o r , s t a r v a t i o n , a n d an o v e r w h e l m i n g r e j e c t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l Khmer v a l u e s , m i g h t have w o r k e d f o r t h e P o l P o t f a c t i o n i f i t had n o t been o b s e s s e d w i t h i t s t e r r i t o r i a l a m b i t i o n s . B u t s u c h was n o t t h e c a s e . The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r e x a m i n e s some o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r why t h e r e v o l u t i o n t o o k t h e t u r n i t d i d , why i t went a w r y a n d , why t h e r e was so much b l o o d l e t t i n g . 73 N o t e s 9 0 D a v i d C h a n d l e r , "The C o n s t i t u t i o n o f D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea ( C a m b o d i a ) : The S e m a n t i c s o f R e v o l u t i o n a r y C hange", P a c i f i c A f f a i r s , F a l l , 1976, p. 510. 9 1 U.S. D e p a r t m e n t o f Commerce, F o r e i g n B r o a d c a s t  I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e D a i l y R e p o r t , 5 J a n u a r y 1976. ( H e r e i n a f t e r c i t e d a s F B I S ) 9 2 C h a n d l e r , op. c i t . , p. 510. 9 3 F B I S 2 J a n u a r y 1976. 9 * The c o m p l e t e l i s t o f a p p o i n t m e n t s a n n o u n c e d i n A p r i l 1976 i s a s f o l l o w s : C h a i m a n o f S t a t e P r e s i d i u m : K h i e u Samphan F i r s t d e p u t y c h a r i m a n : So P h i m S e c o n d d e p u t y c h a i r m a n : Nhim Ros S t a n d i n g C o m m i t t e e o f t h e C a m bodian P e o p l e ' s R e p r e s e n t a t i v e  A s s e m b l y C h a i r m a n : Nuon Chea F i r s t d e p u t y c h a i r m a n : Nguon Kany S e c o n d d e p t y c h a i r m a n : P e o u Sou Members: r o s Nim, s o r S e a n , Mey C h h a n , Kheng s o k , Mat L y , Thang S i , Ros P r e a p G o v e r n m e n t o f D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea P r i m e M i n i s t e r : P o l P o t D e p u t y P r e m i e r , F o r e i g n A f f a i r s : I e n g S a r y D e p u t y P r e m i e r , N a t i o n a l D e f e n s e : Son Sen D e p u t y P r e m i e r , Economy: V o r n V e t M i n i s t e r o f I n f o r m a t i o n a n d P r o p a g a n d a : Hu Nim 74 M i n i s t e r o f P u b l i c H e a l t h : T h i o u n n T h i o e u n n M i n i s t e r o f S o c i a l A f f a i r s : I e n g T h i r i t h M i n i s t e r o f P u b l i c W o r k s : T o c h Phoeun M i n i s t e r o f C u l t u r e , E d u c a t i o n a n d L e a r n i n g : Yun Y a t 9 5 See Map I , r e p r o d u c e d f r o m M i c h a e l V i c k e r y , C a m b o d i a :  1975-1982, B o s t o n : S o u t h E n d P r e s s , 1984, p. v i . 9 6 V i c k e r y , op. c i t . , p. 68. 9 7 T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h i n t e r v i e w s t h e a u t h o r c o n d u c t e d w i t h r e f u g e e s i n P h a n a t N ikom R e f u g e e Camp, C h o n b u r i P r o v i n c e , T h a i l a n d , b e t w e e n J a n u a r y a n d J u l y , 1985. 9 8 See Map 2. 9 9 V i c k o r y , op. c i t . , p p . 68-69. 1 0 0 Ben K i e r n a n , " C o n f l i c t i n t h e Kampuchean Communist Movement", J o u r n a l o f C o n t e m p o r a r y A s i a , v o l . 10, no. 1/2, 1980, p. 5 1 . 1 0 1 F B I S , 14 A p r i l 1976. 1 0 2 K i e r n a n , op. c i t • , p. 54. A p p a r e n t l y , T h i o u n n P r a s i t h o f t h e F o r e i g n M i n i s t r y i n P a r i s was m i s i n f o r m e d o f P o l P o t ' s b a c k g r o u n d a nd c o n f u s e d h i m w i t h an o l d e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y . 1 0 3 S l a v k o S t a n i c , " K a m p u c h e a - P a t h W i t h o u t A M o d e l " , S o c i a l i s t t h o u g h t a n d P r a c t i c e , v o l . 18, no. 10, O c t o b e r 1978, p. 76. 1 0 < t K i e r n a n , op. c i t . , p. 13. 1 0 5 I b i d . , p. 8. 1 0 6 I b i d . , p. 13. 1 0 7 T h e f a m i l y c l a n t h a t make up P o l P o t ' s e l i t e c i r c l e o f s u p p o r t e r s s t i l l e x i s t s t o d a y on t h e T h a i - C a m b o d i a n b o r d e r . P o l 75 P o t , I e n g S a r y , Son S e n , a l o n g w i t h t h e i r w i v e s , a n d K h i e u Samphan f o r m t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e Khmer Rouge f a c t i o n o f t h e C o a l i t i o n G o v e r n m e n t o f D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea, e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1982, a n d r e c o g n i z e d a s t h e de j u r e C a m b o d i a n g o v e r n m e n t by t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s . The o t h e r two f a c t i o n s o f t h e CGDK a r e t h e N a t i o n a l Army o f S i h a n o u k a n d t h e Khmer P e o p l e ' s N a t i o n a l L i b e r a t i o n F r o n t . The CGDK i s c o m m i t t e d t o t h e o v e r t h r o w o f t h e V i e t n a m e s e - b a c k e d Heng S a m r i n g o v e r n m e n t i n C a m b o d i a . 1 0 8 See t h e B l a c k Book: F a c t s a n d E v i d e n c e o f V i e t n a m e s e  A c t s o f A g g r e s s i o n a n d A n n e x a t i o n A g a i n s t Kampuchea, Phnom Penh : D e p a r t m e n t o f P r e s s a n d I n f o r m a t i o n o f M i n i s t r y o f F o r e i g n A f f a i r s o f D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea, S e p t e m b e r 1978, p. 71. S e v e r a l s c h o l a r s , s u c h a s Ben K i e r n a n , D a v i d C h a n d l e r a n d S e r g e T h i o n , b e l i e v e t h e a u t h o r o f t h e B l a c k Book i s P o l P o t . 1 0 9 Ben K i e r n a n , How P o l P o t Came t o Power,, L o n d o n : V e r s o P r e s s , 1985, p. 328. 1 1 0 I b i d . , p. 328. 1 1 1 I b i d . , p. 3 3 1 . 1 1 2 Ben K i e r n a n a n d C h a n t o u B o u a , P e a s a n t s a n d P o l i t i c s i n  Kampuchea, L o n d o n : Zed P r e s s , 1982, p. 286. 1 1 3 W i l l i a m S h a w c r o s s , S i d e s h o w : N i x o n , K i s s i n g e r and t h e D e s t r u c t i o n o f C a m b o d i a , New Y o r k : Simon a nd S c h u s t e r , 1979, p. 372. 1 1 f t I b i d . , p. 374. 1 1 5 I b i d . 1 1 6 K i e r n a n , How P o l P o t Came t o Po w e r , op. c i t . , p. 335. 1 1 7 I b i d . , p. 418. 76 1 1 8 I b i d . , p. 418. 1 1 9 S t e p h e n H e d e r , " O r i g i n s o f t h e C o n f l i c t " , S o u t h e a s t  A s i a C h r o n i c l e , I s s u e no. 64, S e p t e m b e r - O c t o b e r , 1978, p. 11. 1 2 0 B l a c k Book, p. 9 6 . 1 2 1 K i e r n a n , " C o n f l i c t i n t h e Kampuchean Communist Movement", op. c i t . , p. 5 1 . 1 2 2 F B I S , 27 S e p t e m b e r 1976. 1 2 3 K i e r n a n , " C o n f l i c t i n t h e Kampuchean Communist Movement", Op. c i t . , p. 5 1 . 1 2 4 E l i z a b e t h B e c k e r , "An I n n o c e n t A b r o a d " , F a r E a s t e r n  E c o n o m i c R e v i e w , 7 A u g u s t 1981, p. 43. 1 2 5 F B I S , 14 F e b r u a r y 1977. 1 2 6 I b i d . 1 2 7 Tom S a k a r a was i n t e r v i e w e d by t h e a u t h o r on J u l y 7, 1985 i n P h a n a n t Nikom R e f u g e e Camp, T h a i l a n d . 1 2 8 K i e r n a n , " C o n f l i c t i n t h e Kampuchean Communist Movement", op. c i t . ,, p. 22. 1 2 9 F B I S 15, A p r i l 1977. 1 3 0 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Phu Tong on J u l y 18, 1985 i n P h a n a t N i k o m R e f u g e e Camp, T h a i l a n d . 1 3 1 See t h e B l a c k Book, p. 1 3 2 I n t e r v i e w w i t h L i m Pheng on J u n e 2, 1985, i n P h a n a t N i k o m . A f t e r a two y e a r s e a r c h t h a t t o o k h i m a l l o v e r C a m b o d i a , Pheng n e v e r d i d f i n d h i s p a r e n t s . I n 1982 he a r r i v e d a t t h e T h a i - C a m b o d i a n b o r d e r ; he now l i v e s i n T o r o n t o . 77 I I I . THE DEMOCRATIC KAMPUCHEAN REGIME: AN ANALYSIS OF CPK'S IDEAS, P O L I C I E S AND ACTIONS D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea h a s t h e u n e n v i a b l e d i s t i n c t i o n o f b e i n g c o m p a r e d t o N a z i Germany a n d S t a l i n i s t R u s s i a f o r t h e m a g n i t u d e o f human s u f f e r i n g , f o r t h e s h e e r number o f p e o p l e i n t e n t i o n a l l y k i l l e d , p u r g e d , t o r t u r e d and s t a r v e d t o d e a t h . 1 3 3 The n a t u r e o f t h e C a m b o d i a n t r a g e d y d e r i v e s f r o m t h e P o l P o t r e g i m e ' s a t t e m p t t o m o l d t h e c o u n t r y by f o r c e t o f i t i t s r a d i c a l c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e "new s o c i e t y " . The f e a t u r e s o f t h i s new s o c i e t y a r e w e l l - k n o w n t o many, b u t a r e n o t e a s y t o f i t t o g e t h e r so a s t o f o r m a c o h e r e n t w h o l e . D u r i n g t h e Communist P a r t y o f Kampuchea's (CPK) t e n u r e o f power , A p r i l 1975 t o J a n u a r y 1979, t h e r e were t h r e e m a i n " r a d i c a l " a s p e c t s w h i c h , t a k e n s i n g l y , a r o u s e i n t e r e s t , o f t e n h o r r o r , b u t w h i c h c o u l d , w r o n g l y , be a t t r i b u t e d t o c a p r i c e o r i r r a t i o n a l i t y . The f i r s t i s t h e CPK's s t r a t e g y o f p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c s e l f - r e l i a n c e , p u s h e d t o e x t r e m e s , m a n i f e s t e d i n i t s p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s , a n d l i n k e d t o an u l t r a n a t i o n a l i s t i d e o l o g y . The s e c o n d a s p e c t i s t h e c h a u v i n i s t i c c h a r a c t e r o f t h e r e g i m e w h i c h u n d e r p i n n e d i t s p u r i f i c a t i o n o f Khmer s o c i e t y a s w e l l a s i t s d e s i r e t o r e c a p t u r e i s l a n d s a n d p r o v i n c e s u n d e r V i e t n a m e s e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h a t h ad o n c e b e l o n g e d t o C a m b o d i a . The t h i r d i s t h e mass m u r d e r s o f t h e r e g i m e : how c o u l d any g o v e r n m e n t u s e s u c h an e x c e s s i v e amount o f v i o l e n c e a g a i n s t i t s own p e o p l e ? T h e r e i s one theme a p p a r e n t when s t a t e d , w h i c h b i n d s t h e t h r e e a s p e c t s t o g e t h e r . I t i s t h a t t h e CPK l e a d e r s h i p , w h i l e p r o c l a i m i n g s o c i a l i s t b e l i e f s , a n d 78 l a t e r p r o c l a i m i n g i t s M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t i d e n t i t y , was i n - - f a c t a c t i n g f r o m m o t i v e s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e w h i c h have d r i v e n o t h e r Cambodian l e a d e r s t h r o u g h o u t h i s t o r y , a d e s i r e f o r n a t i o n a l s a l v a t i o n , n a t i o n a l r e j u v e n a t i o n and n a t i o n a l g l o r y . The l e a d e r s o f D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea e n v i s i o n e d t h e m s e l v e s as t h e s a v i o u r s of t h e Cambodian n a t i o n - s t a t e , c a p a b l e o f r e v i v i n g t h e Khmer n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y i n a p u r e form, t h a t i s , s h o r n o f a l l f o r e i g n i n f l u e n c e , c a p a b l e of c r e a t i n g a m i l i t a n t and m o b i l i z e d p e a s a n t r y t o g u a r d a g a i n s t f o r e i g n e n c r o a c h m e n t s and t o r e c a p t u r e t e r r i t o r y under f o r e i g n d o m i n a t i o n , and f i n a l l y , c a p a b l e of s u r p a s s i n g t h e h e i g h t s of n a t i o n a l g r a n d e u r a c h i e v e d d u r i n g t h e A n g k o r e a n p e r i o d o f Cambodian h i s t o r y . From t h e n i n t h t o t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , m a r k i n g t h e p e r i o d o f t h e A n g k o r e a n c i v i l i z a t i o n , Cambodia was t h e most p o w e r f u l kingdom i n a l l of S o u t h e a s t A s i a . The k i n g s of Angkor e x t e n d e d t h e i r s u z e r a i n t y o v e r most of S o u t h V i e t n a m , T h a i l a n d , and L a o s , and p a r t s o f Burma and M a l a y s i a . The e x p a n s i o n of t h e S i a m e s e kingdom, t o t h e west o f Cambodia, h a s t e n e d t h e d e c l i n e o f t h e A n g k o r e a n c i v i l i z a t i o n i n t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y . In 1431, t h e Siamese s a c k e d Angkor and t h e Khmers abandoned i t a s t h e i r c a p i t a l . A f t e r f o u r c e n t u r i e s Angkor s u r r e n d e r e d t o t h e j u n g l e . In t h e 1850's, a F r e n c h n a t u r a l i s t " d i s c o v e r e d " t h e renowned temple o f Angkor Wat, b u i l t i n t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y and e n c o m p a s s i n g an a r e a c l o s e t o one s q u a r e m i l e . The Khmer p e o p l e t h e m s e l v e s were not aware t h a t t h e i r a n c e s t o r s had b u i l t A n g k o r ; t h e y had t o be . t o l d by W e s t e r n e r s . By t h e m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y p a r t s o f Cambodia were a b s o r b e d by f i r s t V i e t n a m and 79 t h e n T h a i l a n d . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d C ambodia was c a l l e d a "two-h e a d e d b i r d " , l o o k i n g b o t h e a s t a n d west f o r p a t r o n a g e and p r o t e c t i o n . The F r e n c h i n t e r v e n e d a nd p r e v e n t e d t h e f i n a l e c l i p s e o f C a m b o d i a by e s t a b l i s h i n g a p r o t e c t o r a t e o v e r t h e k i n g d o m w h i c h l a s t e d u n t i l 1953, a t w h i c h t i m e C a m b o d i a o b t a i n e d i n d e p e n d e n c e . The h i s t o r y o f C a m b o d i a a f t e r t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y s h a p e d t h e m e n t a l i t y o f C a m b o d i a n s a s t h a t o f a r e p e a t e d l y c o n q u e r e d p e o p l e . N e i t h e r Norodom S i h a n o u k n o r L o n N o l , t h e two l e a d e r s o f C a m b o d i a up t o 1970, s t o p p e d r e m i n d i n g C a m b o d i a n s o f t h i s h i s t o r y a n d o f t h e c o n t i n u e d p r e c a r i o u s g e o g r a p h i c a l p o s i t i o n o f t h e i r s t a t e , wedged b e t w e e n two p o w e r f u l n e i g h b o u r s -- T h a i l a n d t o t h e w e s t and V i e t n a m t o t h e e a s t . 1 3 * I t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t n e i t h e r l e a d e r r e f r a i n e d f r o m r e c a l l i n g p a s t g l o r i e s a c h i e v e d d u r i n g t h e A n g k o r e a n p e r i o d . The l e a d e r s o f D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea i n h e r i t e d t h e l e g a c y o f t h i s most a m b i g u o u s p a s t . They w e r e , h o w e v e r , d e t e r m i n e d t o r e v e r s e t h e c y c l e o f d e c l i n e by t u r n i n g C a m b o d i a n s i n t o p o s i t i v e h i s t o r i c a l a c t o r s , c a p a b l e o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e i r own d e s t i n y r a t h e r t h a n p a s s i v e l y a l l o w i n g o u t s i d e r s t o d e t e r m i n e i t f o r them a s had been t h e c a s e i n t h e p a s t . The i n s p i r a t i o n f o r Khmer n a t i o n a l r e n a i s s a n c e came f r o m two s o u r c e s : f i r s t , t h e n a t i o n a l l e g a c y o f p r e - f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y C a m b o d i a d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e A n g k o r e a n k i n g s r e i g n e d supreme o v e r much o f m a i n l a n d S o u t h e a s t A s i a ; s e c o n d , M a r x i s t i d e o l o g y , a t l e a s t p a r t s o f i t , a s t h e i d e o l o g i c a l f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e new and r e v o l u t i o n a r y n a t i o n - s t a t e . The i n t e n s i t y o f P o l P o t ' s n a t i o n a l i s t f e r v o u r a p p e a r s t o 80 have o v e r s h a d o w e d any c o m m i t m e n t s he may have o n c e h a d t o M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t t h e o r y a n d p r a c t i c e , a s s h a l l be d i s c u s s e d . P o l P o t c l a i m e d t h e v i c t o r y o v e r L o n N o l was "a g r e a t s u c c e s s unknown b e f o r e i n t h e w o r l d . . . t h e w o r l d ' s f i r s t e v e r g r e a t v i c t o r y . " 1 3 5 The CPK's v i c t o r y , t h e r e f o r e , was p o r t r a y e d a s u n p r e c e d e n t e d , u n i q u e a n d s e p a r a t e f r o m o t h e r c o m m u n i s t r e v o l u t i o n s . S u c h s e l f - a b s o r b t i o n was e v i d e n t i n many p o l i c i e s u n d e r t a k e n by t h e CPK. The f i r s t s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r t r a c e s t h e i d e o l o g i c a l r o o t s o f t h e CPK's s e l f - r e l i a n c e , a u t a r k y a n d n a t i o n a l c h a u v i n i s m and t h e p a r t i c u l a r h i s t o r i c a l c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h n o u r i s h e d t h e s e t e n d e n c i e s . The s e c o n d s e c t i o n e x a m i n e s t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e s e i d e a s u n d e r p i n n e d t h e c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea and t h e S o c i a l i s t R e p u b l i c Of V i e t n a m . The t h i r d s e c t i o n e x p l o r e s p o l i t i c a l a n d c u l t u r a l r e a s o n s f o r t h e b r u t a l i t y i n f l i c t e d by t h e r e g i m e upon i t s own p e o p l e . IDEAS AND PERCEPTIONS OF THE CPK P e r h a p s one o f t h e most d i f f i c u l t q u e s t i o n s a r i s i n g f r o m t h e c o n f u s i o n and c a t a s t r o p h y o f t h e DK r e g i m e c o n c e r n s t h e i d e o l o g i c a l r o o t s o f t h e Communist P a r t y o f Kampuchea, o r a t l e a s t , t h o s e o f t h e P o l P o t f a c t i o n , w h i c h was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e f o r c e d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e r a d i c a l p o l i c i e s o f t h e p e r i o d . P a r t o f t h e p r o b l e m i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e i d e o l o g i c a l makeup o f t h e CPK d e r i v e s f r o m t h e p a r t y ' s own r e t i c e n c e t o a s s o c i a t e i t s e l f p u b l i c l y w i t h any p o l i t i c a l m o d e l o r p h i l o s o p h y . T h i s i d e o l o g i c a l a n o n y m i t y s e r v e d t o u n d e r p i n t h e CPK's c l a i m o f i t s c o m p l e t e i n d e p e n d e n c e . A l l t h r e e o f t h e CPK's t o p l e a d e r s have 81 r e p e a t e d l y e m p h a s i z e d t h e " u n i q u e " and " i n d e p e n d e n t " c h a r a c t e r o f t h e i r p a r t y a n d t h e i r r e v o l u t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , P o l P o t , S e c r e t a r y G e n e r a l o f t h e CPK, a n d p r i m e m i n i s t e r o f D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea, s p o k e o f t h e Khmer c o m m u n i s t s ' u n i q u e a p p r o a c h t o r e v o l u t i o n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s p e e c h : We d a r e d t o wage a s t r u g g l e on a s t a n d c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t o f t h e w o r l d r e v o l u t i o n . The w o r l d r e v o l u t i o n c a r r i e s o u t t h e s t r u g g l e w i t h a l l k i n d s o f m a s s i v e s u p p o r t m a t e r i a l , e c o n o m i c , f i n a n c i a l -- f r o m t h e w o r l d ' s p e o p l e . As f o r u s , we have waged o u r r e v o l u t i o n a r y s t r u g g l e b a s i c a l l y on t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f i n d e p e n d e n c e , s o v e r e i g n t y , a n d s e l f - r e l i a n c e . 1 3 6 I e n g S a r y , t h e s e c o n d most p o w e r f u l member o f t h e CPK l e a d e r s h i p , a n d d e p u t y p r e m i e r o f D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea, p r o c l a i m e d t h a t "what we a r e t r y i n g t o b r i n g a b o u t h a s n e v e r o c c u r r e d b e f o r e . We a r e n o t f o l l o w i n g any m o d e l , e i t h e r C h i n e s e o r V i e t n a m e s e . . . t h e C a m b o d i a n s i t u a t i o n d o e s n o t f i t any e x i s t i n g m o d e l a n d t h u s r e q u i r e s o r i g i n a l p o l i c y " . 1 3 7 K h i e u Samphan, P r e s i d e n t o f t h e S t a t e P r e s i d i u m o f D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea, a l l e g e d l y t o l d P r i n c e S i h a n o u k : "We w i l l be t h e f i r s t n a t i o n t o c r e a t e a c o m p l e t e l y c o m m u n i s t s o c i e t y w i t h o u t w a s t i n g t i m e on i n t e r m e d i a t e s t e p s . " 1 3 8 T h e s e s t a t e m e n t s r e v e a l a n o v e l and c o n s i s t e n t f e a t u r e o f C a m b o d i a n communism a s i t was p r a c t i c e d i n t h e p o s t - v i c t o r y p e r i o d : i t s a s s e r t i o n o f c o m p l e t e s e l f - r e l i a n c e . A l t h o u g h t h e DK r e g i m e c a l l e d i t s e l f c o m m u n i s t ( a f t e r 1 9 7 7 ) , i t v i e w e d i t s e l f a s h a v i n g no h i s t o r i c a l p r e c e d e n t s . Marx a n d L e n i n were n o t r e f e r r e d t o , n o r was t h e r e d i s c u s s i o n o f o t h e r c o m m u n i s t movements i n any o f t h e p a r t y m a g a z i n e s o r o t h e r o f f i c i a l p u b l i c a t i o n s . I n t h e w o r d s o f D a v i d C h a n d l e r , t h e CPK's 82 i n d e p e n d e n c e " p l a y s down an i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t o f M a r x i a n i d e o l o g y , n a m e l y t h e p r o p r i e t y o f s i m i l a r r e v o l u t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d " . 1 3 9 P e r h a p s e v e n more u n s e t t l i n g , e s p e c i a l l y t o v e t e r a n Khmer c o m m u n i s t s who h a d e s t a b l i s h e d t h e c o m m u n i s t movement i n C a m b o d i a i n t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s , t h e CPK u n d e r P o l P o t ' s l e a d e r s h i p c h o s e t o i g n o r e Cambodian c o m m u n i s t h i s t o r y p r i o r t o 1960. The b i r t h d a y o f t h e CPK was c h a n g e d i n 1977 f r o m 1951, t h e f o u n d i n g d a t e o f t h e Khmer P e o p l e ' s R e v o l u t i o n a r y P a r t y , t o 1960, t h e f o u n d i n g d a t e o f t h e Communist P a r t y o f Kampuchea, a t w h i c h t i m e P o l P o t a l o n g w i t h t h e o t h e r members o f t h e P a r i s G r o u p , a c h i e v e d p r o m i n e n t p o s i t i o n s f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e . 1 4 0 C h a n d l e r r e m a r k s : "By c h a n g i n g t h e p a r t y ' s b i r t h d a y . . . P o l P o t a n d h i s c o l l e a g u e s were c u t t i n g t h e m s e l v e s o f f f r o m n i n e y e a r s of C a m b o d i a n h i s t o r y ( 1 9 5 1 - 1 9 6 0 ) t o w h i c h t h e i r own c o n t r i b u t i o n s had been a m b i g u o u s , s u b o r d i n a t e , o r n o n -e x i s t e n t . " 1 4 1 I n so d o i n g , P o l P o t c o u l d c l a i m t h a t i t was h i s p a r t y t h a t had " a c h i e v e d t h e f i r s t g r e a t v i c t o r y i n C a m b o d i a ' s h i s t o r y " . 1 4 2 I n my v i e w , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o s e p a r a t e t h e CPK's c l a i m s o f i t s i d e o l o g i c a l u n i q u e n e s s and i t s p o l i c y o f a u t a r k y , f r o m f i r s t , i t s v i e w o f C a m b o d i a a s a s t a t e c o n t i n u a l l y t h r e a t e n e d w i t h e x t i n c t i o n ; a nd s e c o n d l y , i t s b i t t e r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e s o -c a l l e d f r a t e r n a l c o m m u n i s t p a r t i e s i n C h i n a and V i e t n a m . F i r s t o f a l l , t h e r e i s l i t t l e d o u b t t h a t t h e P a r i s G r o u p o f young C a m b o d i a n c o m m u n i s t s were a c u t e l y a w a r e o f C a m b o d i a ' s h i s t o r i c s t r u g g l e f o r s u r v i v a l a s a d i s t i n c t a n d s o v e r e i g n s t a t e . Ben K i e r n a n ' s t h o u g h t s on t h i s s u b j e c t a r e i n s t r u c t i v e : 83 F o r many Kampucheans and i n p a r t i c u l a r i n t e l l e c t u a l s , t h e i r c o u n t r y i s a n a t i o n f o r e v e r d i m i n i s h i n g i n s i z e and t h r e a t e n e d w i t h e x t i n c t i o n by h i s t o r y . J u s t as h u n d r e d s o f y e a r s ago t h e kingdom o f Champa was wiped o f f t h e map by V i e t n a m e s e s o u t h w a r d e x p a n s i o n , l e a v i n g t h e Cham p e o p l e s t a t e l e s s , o n l y F r e n c h d o m i n a t i o n s t o p p e d Kampuchea from b e i n g o v e r r u n by- b o t h T h a i a r m i e s ( f r o m t h e west) and V i e t n a m e s e ones ( f r o m t h e e a s t ) i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . On a l e s s d r a m a t i c s c a l e t h e p r o c e s s of d i m i n u a t i o n on t h e map c o n t i n u e d i n t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . F o r e i g n p a t r o n a g e — T h a i , V i e t n a m e s e , F r e n c h and A m e r i c a n — has been an u n s a t i s f a c t o r y means o f r e s o l v i n g t h i s n a t i o n a l p r o b l e m , and i n f a c t p a r t o f i t s c a u s e ; t h e r e a c t i o n among many Kampuchean n a t i o n a l i s t s has been f e a r and d i s t r u s t of a l l f o r e i g n p o w e r s . 1 4 3 T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e would c e r t a i n l y h o l d t r u e f o r t h e P o l Pot f a c t i o n of t h e CPK. The p r i n c i p a l s l o g a n of t h e CPK i n t h e p o s t - 1 9 7 5 p e r i o d was t o " b u i l d and d e f e n d t h e m o t h e r l a n d " . A r g u a b l y , t h e CPK's p l a n o f a "new s o c i e t y " t h a t owed n o t h i n g t o i t s p a s t o r t o f r a t e r n a l communist p a r t i e s s u c h as t h o s e i n V i e t n a m or C h i n a , was a s t r a t e g y t o end t h e s t r u g g l e f o r s t a t e s u r v i v a l once and f o r a l l . The f i r s t s i g n s of t h e i d e o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f s e l f -r e l i a n c e , a l t h o u g h i n a m o d e r a t e d form, can be f o u n d i n t h e d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n s o f K h i e u Samphan and Hou Yuon, b o t h o f whom were members o f t h e CPK's c e n t r a l c o m m i t t e e . B o t h men were a c t i v e i n Khmer s t u d e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n P a r i s . Hou Yuon was a member of t h e ' M a r x i s t C i r c l e ' , a Khmer a f f i l i a t e of t h e F r e n c h Communist P a r t y . L i k e many s t u d e n t s from E u r o p e a n c o l o n i e s who were a l l o w e d t o s t u d y a b r o a d , Samphan and Yuon became aware o f t h e e x p l o i t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o l o n i n a l and c o l o n i z e d c o u n t r i e s and s o u g h t ways i n w h i c h t o a m e l i o r a t e t h e i m b a l a n c e s from a l e f t i s t p e r s p e c t i v e . The e a r l y w r i t i n g s o f b o t h men were i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on p o s t - 1 9 7 5 economic p o l i c i e s and 84 t h e r a t i o n a l e u n d e r p i n n i n g t h e a d o p t i o n o f s u c h p o l i c i e s ; a s s u c h , t h e y d e s e r v e some e x a m i n a t i o n . K h i e u Samphan's d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , w r i t t e n a t t h e S o r b o n n e i n 1959, a n d e n t i t l e d " C a m b o d i a ' s Economy a n d P r o b l e m s o f I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n " 1 " " , p i n p o i n t e d C a m b o d i a ' s d e p e n d e n c e on f o r e i g n c a p i t a l a s t h e key s t r u c t u r a l component r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c o u n t r y ' s b a c k w a r d n e s s and r e t a r d e d e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . Samphan a d o p t e d a f o r m o f t h e d e p e n d e n c y t h e o r y t o a r g u e t h a t C a m b o d i a ' s u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t stemmed f r o m i t s i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o t h e w o r l d c a p i t a l i s t economy d u r i n g t h e F r e n c h c o l o n i a l p e r i o d . The F r e n c h s t r u c t u r e d t h e Cambodian economy t o b e n e f i t F r a n c e . As s u c h , e a r n i n g s f r o m t h e c a s h c r o p c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r were s e n t b a c k t o F r a n c e i n s t e a d o f b e i n g u s e d t o d e v e l o p t h e s u b s i s t e n c e -b a s e d a g r i c u l t u r a l a n d h a n d i c r a f t s e c t o r s of t h e economy. M o r e o v e r , C a m b o d i a ' s i n d u s t r i a l b a s e was l e f t weak a n d u n d e r d e v e l o p e d . Samphan n o t e d a d a n g e r o u s i m b a l a n c e i n C a m b o d i a ' s i m p o r t s t r u c t u r e i n w h i c h a r e p o r t e d 49 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l i m p o r t s were l u x u r y goods consumed by l e s s t h a n 10 p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , w h i l e p r o d u c t s consumed by 90 p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n a c c o u n t e d f o r o n l y 4 p e r c e n t of t o t a l i m p o r t s . 1 " 5 Samphan c o n c l u d e s h i s a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e Cambodian economy by s t a t i n g : U n d e r t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , e l e c t i n g t o c o n t i n u e d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h i n t h e f r a m e w o r k o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n means s u b m i t t i n g t o t h e m e c h a n i s m w h e r e b y h a n d i c r a f t s w i t h e r e d away, p r e c a p i t a l i s t s t r u c t u r e was s t r e n g t h e n e d a n d e c o n o m i c l i f e was g e a r e d i n a o n e - s i d e d f a s h i o n t o e x p o r t p r o d u c t i o n a n d h y p e r a c t i v e i n t e r m e d i a t e t r a d e . P u t a n o t h e r way, a g r e e i n g t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n means a c c e p t i n g t h e m e c h a n i s m by w h i c h s t r u c t u r a l d i s e q u a l i b r i u m d e e p e n s , c r e a t i n g i n s t a b i l i t y t h a t c o u l d l e a d t o v i o l e n t u p h e a v a l i f i t s h o u l d become i n t o l e r a b l e f o r an i n c r e a s i n g p r o p o r t i o n 85 o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . . . 1 4 6 To remedy t h i s p r o b l e m : S e l f - c o n e i o u s , a u t o n o m o u s d e v e l o p m e n t i s t h e r e f o r e o b j e c t i v e l y n e c e s s a r y . . . t h e c y c l e o f [ u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t ] c a n be b r o k e n o n l y by w i t h d r a w i n g f r o m t h e w o r l d economy a n d r e s t r u c t u r i n g t h e economy on a s e l f - c e n t e r e d b a s i s . 1 4 7 H o w e v e r , a s D e n z i l P i e r i s n o t e d , " W h i l e s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y was t h e i m m e d i a t e t a c t i c , t h e r e was no u l t i m a t e i n t e n t i o n t o be a c l o s e d - i n e c o n o m y . . . K h i e u Samphan w a r n e d t h a t C a m b o d i a ' s h o u l d n o t f o o l i t s e l f ; i t w o u l d n e e d t o i m p o r t c a p i t a l g o o d s ' " . 1 4 8 F u r t h e r m o r e , Samphan c a l l e d f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f d o m e s t i c c a p i t a l i s m a s a b a s e on w h i c h t o b u i l d i n d u s t r y . 1 4 9 He d i d n o t , a t t h a t t i m e , a d v o c a t e t h e a b o l i t i o n o f money, p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , o r c a p i t a l i s t r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n . K h i e u Samphan was u n a b l e t o r e f o r m t h e C ambodian economy w h i l e he s e r v e d i n S i h a n o u k ' s c a b i n e t a s S e c r e t a r y o f Commerce i n 1962. As L a u r a Summers e x p l a i n s , " I n t h e S i h a n o u k g o v e r n m e n t , he c o n f r o n t e d d i r e c t l y t h e w e s t e r n - o r i e n t e d e l i t e w h i c h owed i t s e x i s t e n c e t o C a m b o d i a ' s p o s i t i o n i n t h e w o r l d t r a d e s y s t e m . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e c o n d i t i o n s he h a d a n a l y s e d i n h i s t h e s i s grew s t e a d i l y w o r s e , m a k i n g t h e n e e d f o r c h a n g e more a c u t e . " 1 5 0 The r i s e i n t h e p o l i t i c a l power o f t h e r i g h t i s t s i n t h e m i d - 1 9 6 0 ' s c o n f i r m e d t h e i m p r e s s i o n h e l d by t h o s e on t h e l e f t i n S i h a n o u k ' s c a b i n e t t h a t n o n - r e v o l u t i o n a r y r e f o r m o f C a m b o dian s o c i e t y was n o t p o s s i b l e . By 1967, K h i e u Samphan, Hou Yuon and Hu Nim made t h e d e c i s i o n t o j o i n t h e Khmer Rouge r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s i n t h e m a q u i s . 1 5 1 Hou Y u o n's 1955 d i s s e r t a t i o n c o n c e r n e d t h e u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t 86 o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r o f t h e Cambodian economy and s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e i m p o v e r i s h m e n t o f t h e p e a s a n t r y a s a r e s u l t o f u n s t a b l e a n d u n f a i r m a r k e t p r i c e s f o r p r o d u c e , d e b t bondage a r i s i n g f r o m u s u r y , and t h e p a u c i t y o f r u r a l c r e d i t f a c i l i t i e s . 1 5 2 I n 1964, Hou Yuon p r o p o s e d a s o c i a l i s t s o l u t i o n t o p e a s a n t p o v e r t y a n d a g r i c u l t u r a l u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t i n h i s book The C o o p e r a t i v e Q u e s t i o n . 1 5 3 Hou Youn s h a r e d w i t h K h i e u Samphan, a t t h a t t i m e , t h e b e l i e f t h a t p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c r e f o r m s c o u l d be o b t a i n e d by w o r k i n g w i t h i n t h e s y s t e m and n o t by f o m e n t i n g r e v o l u t i o n t o o v e r t h r o w i t . As Yuon h i m s e l f p o i n t s out,"We must u n d e r s t a n d t h a t c l a s s c o n f l i c t s h o u l d be r e s o l v e d by a method t h a t w i l l n o t damage t h e u n i t y o f t h e n a t i o n a g a i n s t t h e A m e r i c a n i m p e r i a l i s t s a n d t h e i r l a c k e y s . " 1 5 " C l a s s c o n f l i c t , r a t h e r , c o u l d be r e s o l v e d by r e f o r m s i n t h e economy w h i c h " c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e n a t i o n a l economy a l o n g t h e n a t i o n a l i s t p a t h " . 1 5 5 S i h a n o u k ' s r e j e c t i o n o f A m e r i c a n a i d i n 1963 c o u p l e d w i t h t h e n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f b a n k s and t h e i m p o r t - e x p o r t f i r m s were r e f o r m i s t p o l i c i e s w h i c h Hou Yuon r e c o g n i z e d a n d a p p l a u d e d . 1 5 6 H o w e v e r , Yuon a r g u e d t h a t t h e b e s t s o l u t i o n t o r u r a l p r o b l e m s o f u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t and p e a s a n t i m p o v e r i s h m e n t was by g r a d u a l l y o r g a n i z i n g t h e p e a s a n t r y i n t o v a r i o u s l a b o u r a n d p r o d u c t i v e c o o p e r a t i v e s : C o - o p e r a t i v e m e t h o d s c a n s o l v e b o t h t h e s e a s p e c t s o f t h e r u r a l p r o b l e m i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e p e a s a n t s by t h e f u l l u s e o f s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n o l o g i c a l m e t h o d s , and a l s o by i n c r e a s i n g t h e s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g o f t h e w o r k e r s . . . I f t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e c o n c e p t i s c o r r e c t , t h e r u r a l p r o b l e m s c a n be s o l v e d w h i l e s u p p o r t i n g t h e p e a s a n t s a n d r a i s i n g them t o t h e i r d e s e r v e d s t a t u s . 1 5 7 Hou Yuon w a r n s , h o w e v e r , t h a t s u c h c h a n g e s s h o u l d be 87 i n t r o d u c e d s l o w l y a n d w i t h c a u t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , he p o i n t s o u t t h a t , "common p r o p e r t y c o - o p e r a t i v e s . . . n e e d a h i g h d e g r e e o f a w a r e n e s s among t h e p e a s a n t s . . . T h i s p r o c e s s i s s l o w , i t t a k e s a l o n g t i m e , a n d c a n n o t be a c h i e v e d i m m e d i a t e l y . " 1 5 8 T h i s c a u t i o u s a n d g r a d u a l i s t a p p r o a c h t o c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y w i t h t h e f o r c e d a n d r a p i d method o f i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea. F u r t h e r , Hou Y u o n's a d v o c a c y o f t h e d e m o c r a t i c r i g h t s o f c o - o p members t o c h o o s e t h e i r l e a d e r s , t h e d i v i s i o n o f p r o d u c e on t h e b a s i s o f t h e number o f d a y s w o r k e d , t h e a l l o w a n c e o f p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y , and t h e u s e o f modern t e c h n o l o g y a r e a l l p o i n t s w h i c h d i v e r g e s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h e DK e x p e r i e n c e . 1 5 9 The c o o p e r a t i v e s y s t e m u n d e r P o l P o t a l l o w e d no p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n a s i d e f r o m t h e c o m p u l s o r y s e l f - c r i t i c i s m s e s s i o n s h e l d n i g h t l y i n v i l l a g e compounds. P r o d u c e was n o t h e l d i n common b u t k e p t i n t i g h t l y g u a r d e d s t o r a g e d e p o t s a n d r a t i o n e d by DK c a d r e s on t h e b a s i s o f c l a s s b a c k g r o u n d . The ' o l d p e o p l e ' , ( t h o s e l i b e r a t e d p r i o r t o 1975) r e c e i v e d g r e a t e r r a t i o n s o f r i c e t h a n d i d t h e 'new p e o p l e ' , ( t h o s e l i b e r a t e d i n 1975) i n some a r e a s o f t h e c o u n t r y r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e amount o f work done by e i t h e r g r o u p . No one was p e r m i t t e d t o u s e a g r i c u l t u r a l m a c h i n e r y l e f t o v e r f r o m t h e Lon N o l r e g i m e . A l l t h e work was done by hand o r by p r i m i t i v e t e c h n o l o g y ; a s K h i e u Samphan r e m a r k e d : "We h a v e no m a c h i n e s . We work c o m p l e t e l y s e l f - r e l i a n t l y . . . T h o u g h b a r e h a n d e d [ o u r p e a s a n t s ] c a n do e v e r y t h i n g . " 1 6 0 F i n a l l y , no p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y was a l l o w e d . C l o t h e s , b o o k s , c o o k i n g p o t s , p e n s , p h o t o g r a p h s , b i c y c l e s , h a i r c l i p s , r a d i o s , and a l l s u c h p e r s o n a l b e l o n g i n g s 88 were c o n f i s c a t e d by the c a d r e s and e i t h e r used f o r p u b l i c b e n e f i t or l e f t to waste . W h i l e the e a r l i e r p r e s c r i p t i o n s for re form advocated by K h i e u Samphan and Hou Yuon were r a d i c a l w i t h i n the contex t of the p o l i t i c a l system under both Sihanouk and Lon N o l , they were a p p a r e n t l y not r a d i c a l enough under the l e a d e r s h i p of P o l P o t . The r e g i m e ' s d e c i s i o n to d i s m a n t l e the s c h o o l s , shops , banks and money system grew out of a v i s i o n a r y and s e l f - a s s e r t i v e u l t r a -n a t i o n a l i s t i d e o l o g y that l i n k e d these k inds of i n s t i t u t i o n s and the peop le who worked i n them to the f o r e i g n e r s who invaded Cambodia and c o r r u p t e d i t s n a t i o n a l i n t e g r i t y . Only by r e j e c t i n g a l l f o r e i g n i d e a s , ( i n c l u d i n g communism a p p a r e n t l y ) , i n s t i t u t i o n s , and t h e i r p r a c t i t i o n e r s , c o u l d Cambodia hope to r e g a i n and even surpass the g l o r i o u s p o s i t i o n i t had known d u r i n g the Angkorean p e r i o d . Accompanying the a b o l i t i o n of economic s t r u c t u r e s that the CPK f e l t were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r Cambodia's d e c l i n e , the CPK d e c i d e d to e l i m i n a t e c u l t u r a l t r a i t s and t r a d i t i o n s which i t p e r c e i v e d as the b y - p r o d u c t s of an o p p r e s s i v e system. In the C P K ' s words: Our t r a d i t i o n a l m e n t a l i t y , mores, t r a d i t i o n s , l i t e r a t u r e and a r t s and c u l t u r e and t r a d i t i o n were t o t a l l y d e s t r o y e d by U . S . i m p e r i a l i s m and i t s s tooges . S o c i a l e n t e r t a i n i n g , the tempo and rhythm of music and so f o r t h were a l l based on U . S . i m p e r i a l i s t i c p a t t e r n s . Our p e o p l e ' s t r a d i t i o n a l l y c l e a n , sound c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and essence were c o m p l e t e l y absent and abandoned, r e p l a c e d by i m p e r i a l i s t i c p o r n o g r a p h i c , shameless , p e r v e r t e d and f a n a t i c t r a i t s . 1 6 1 In response to the a l l e g e d c o n t a m i n a t i o n of Khmer c u l t u r e , which most l i k e l y d i d not extend beyond the major urban c e n t r e s , 89 t h e l e a d e r s h i p a n n o u n c e d : "A new n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e w i l l be e s t a b l i s h e d ; i t w i l l be n a t i o n a l , p o p u l a r , p r o s p e r o u s , a n d c l e a n r e p l a c i n g t h e c o r r u p t , r e a c t i o n a r y c u l t u r e o f v a r i o u s o p p r e s s i v e c l a s s e s a n d t h a t o f c o l o n i a l i s m and i m p e r i a l i s m . " 1 6 2 The c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e P o l p o t r e g i m e ' s p u r i f i c a t i o n o f Khmer c u l t u r e w e r e e x t r e m e . F o r one t h i n g , B u d d h i s m , w h i c h had been l a r g e l y u n t o u c h e d by F r e n c h o r A m e r i c a n i n f l u e n c e , was d i s p l a c e d f r o m i t s c e n t r a l r o l e i n Khmer s o c i e t y . B u d d h i s t monks were f o r b i d d e n t o wear t h e i r s a f f r o n - c o l o u r e d r o b e s o r t o r e c e i v e o f f e r i n g s o f f o o d . The CPK b e l i e v e d t h e monks were l i k e l e e c h e s , f e e d i n g o f f t h e p o p u l a t i o n ; t h e y g ave back n o t h i n g i n r e t u r n a s i d e f r o m i n t a n g i b l e s p i r i t u a l g u i d a n c e w h i c h was of no v a l u e i n t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y s o c i e t y . F r a n c o i s P o n c h a u d , one o f t h e few f o r e i g n e r s t o h a v e s t a y e d i n Phnom Penh a f t e r t h e Khmer Rouge t o o k c o n t r o l o f t h e c o u n t r y , was a p p a r a n t l y t o l d by one c a d r e t h a t : "The b o n z e s [monks] a r e n ' t any w i s e r t h a n y o u ; t h e o n l y w i s e man i s t h e man who knows how t o grow r i c e " . 1 6 3 Yun Y a t , M i n i s t e r o f I n f o r m a t i o n a n d C u l t u r e , was more d o g m a t i c i n h e r d e n u n c i a t i o n o f B u d d h i s m , s t a t i n g : " B u d d h i s m i s i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e r e v o l u t i o n b e c a u s e i t i s an i n s t r u m e n t o f e x p l o i t a t i o n . B u d d h i s m i s d e a d and t h e g r o u n d h a s been c l e a r e d f o r t h e f o u n d a t i o n s o f a new r e v o l u t i o n a r y c u l t u r e . " 1 6 * A n o t h e r a s p e c t o f Khmer c u l t u r e t h a t was n o t p o l l u t e d by f o r e i g n i n f l u e n c e , b u t w h i c h was s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r e d n e v e r t h e l e s s , was l i n g u i s t i c r e f e r e n c e s t o s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y . A p p e l l a t i v e s r e f e r r i n g t o f i l i a l o r s o c i a l r a n k were d i s m i s s e d f r o m t h e l a n g u a g e , p r e s u m a b l y b e c a u s e s o c i a l h i e r a r c h i e s 90 c o n t r a d i c t e d t h e g o a l o f s o c i a l e q u a l i t y . Thus p e o p l e a d d r e s s e d e a c h o t h e r a s " m i t " o r f r i e n d . R e f u g e e s r e c a l l ( w i t h h o r r o r ) b e i n g f o r c e d t o u s e some w o r d s t o d e s c r i b e t h e i r a c t i o n s w h i c h , i n f o r m e r t i m e s , h a d o n l y been u s e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a n i m a l s . C h i l d r e n no l o n g e r p a i d r e s p e c t t o t h e e l d e r l y , a n d were e n c o u r a g e d t o s p y on t h e i r p a r e n t s a n d i n f o r m a g a i n s t them, u n t h i n k a b l e b e h a v i o u r i n p r e - r e v o l u t i o n a r y C a m b o d i a . The u se o f f o r e i g n w o r d s o r l a n g u a g e was s t r i c t l y f o r b i d d e n i n D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea. T h i s p o l i c y f u r t h e r d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e x e n o p h o b i c t e n d e n c y o f t h e r e g i m e . F i n a l l y , t r a d i t i o n a l c u s t o m s r e l a t i n g t o m a r r i a g e o r f u n e r a l p r a c t i c e s a n d t o t r a d i t i o n a l f e s t i v a l s were c o n s i d e r e d t o be d e c a d e n t a n d were e i t h e r a b o l i s h e d o r r e p l a c e d w i t h more a u s t e r e a n d m i l i t a n t c e r e m o n i e s . The f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n s u g g e s t s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e r e g i m e ' s " p u r i f i c a t i o n " o f C a m b o d i a n s o c i e t y p e n e t r a t e d e v e r y l e v e l a n d e v e r y d i m e n s i o n o f l i f e . S u c h a p o l i c y a l l o w e d t h e r e g i m e a l m o s t t o t a l c o n t r o l o v e r t h e p o p u l a t i o n , t o a d e g r e e c o m p a r a b l e w i t h t h a t e x e r c i s e d by t h e A n g k o r e a n k i n g s , b u t w h i c h was u n p r e c e d e n t e d i n modern C a m b o d i a n h i s t o r y . T h i s d e g r e e o f c o n t r o l s e r v e d two p u r p o s e s . F i r s t i t e n a b l e d t h e r e g i m e t o b r e a k down f a m i l y a n d v i l l a g e l o y a l t i e s a n d t h e " i n d i v i d u a l i s t " way o f l i f e t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t Phnom Penh r a d i o c o u l d comment t h a t "none w i l l e v e r r e - e m e r g e i n o u r s o c i e t y . " 1 6 5 C o m p l e t e s o c i a l c o n t r o l was a r e q u i s i t e f o r t h e s w i f t m o l d i n g o f o f a t t i t u d e s a n d b e l i e f s t h a t were c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e new s o c i e t y b e i n g c r e a t e d i n C a m b o d i a , s i m i l a r t o t h e S o v i e t v e r s i o n o f t h e 91 r e v o l u t i o n a r y "New M a n " . 1 6 6 T o t a l i t a r i a n methods o f c o n t r o l a l s o s e r v e d t h e p u r p o s e of s p r e a d i n g f e a r among t h e p o p u l a t i o n so t h a t p o p u l a r o p p o s i t i o n o r s p o n t a n e o u s r e b e l l i o n s would be p y c h o l o g i c a l l y and p h y s i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e . As a r e s u l t of t h e CPK's h u r r y t o i m p l a n t an e x t r e m e l y p u r e form of s o c i a l e g a l i t a r i a n i s m , i t s l e a d e r s h i p o r d e r e d t h e e x e c u t i o n o f t h o u s a n d s o f c i v i l i a n s whose c l a s s b a c k g r o u n d s were i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h poor p e a s a n t i s m and whose p e r s o n a l h i s t o r i e s were t r a c e d t o an a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e Lon N o l r e g i m e . Among t h o s e t h e r e g i m e d e c i d e d d i d n o t b e l o n g t o t h e "new s o c i e t y " of h a r d - w o r k i n g , u n q u e s t i o n i n g r u r a l l a b o u r e r s were p r o f e s s i o n a l s , m e r c h a n t s , s o l d i e r s , b a n k e r s , i n t e l l e c t u a l s and s t u d e n t s . Such p e o p l e had worked f o r t h e " t r a i t o r o u s " r egime of Lon N o l and t h e r e f o r e were p o t e n t i a l enemies who might d e m o n s t r a t e a bad i n f l u e n c e on t h e " o l d p e o p l e " . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no f i r m e v i d e n c e t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t t h e CPK's p o l i c y was t o t o t a l l y l i q u i d a t e t h e s e c l a s s e s of p e o p l e , t h e r e i s ample e v i d e n c e from Cambodians o f d i f f e r e n t c l a s s b a c k g r o u n d s t h a t t h e DK o f f i c i a l s o f f i c i a l l y v i e w e d t h e "new p e o p l e " as c l a s s enemies and s u b j e c t e d them t o h a r s h e r p u n i s h m e n t s t h a n t h o s e who had known no l i f e o t h e r t h a n s u b s i s t e n c e f a r m i n g . T h e r e were s e v e r a l d o m e s t i c r e a s o n s why t h e CPK l e a d e r s h i p was i n s u c h a h u r r y t o a c h i e v e r e v o l u t i o n a r y ends w i t h so l i t t l e r e g a r d t o t h e means emplo y e d . T h e i r r e v o l u t i o n a r y e x p e r i e n c e was s h o r t , t h e i r numbers were r e l a t i v e l y few(some 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 i n 1 9 7 5 ) , 1 6 7 and t h e i r c o m p l e t e d i s t r u s t of and a n t i p a t h y t o t h e u r b a n m i d d l e and upper c l a s s e s l e d t o a p o l i c y o f r i d d i n g 92 s o c i e t y o f p o s s i b l e r e c a l c i t r a n t s . The l e a d e r s h i p o b v i o u s l y t h o u g h t t h a t r e - e d u c a t i o n was a w a s t e o f t i m e ; t h e s o l e d u t y o f t h e p e a s a n t m a s s e s was t o ' b u i l d a n d d e f e n d ' t h e c o u n t r y . Y e t t h e s e f a c t o r s o n l y p a r t i a l l y a c c o u n t f o r t h e a c c e l e r a t e d s t r a t e g y d e s i g n e d t o meet r e v o l u t i o n a r y o b j e c t i v e s . W h i l e t h e n o t e d d o m e s t i c f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e r e g i m e ' s r a t i o n a l e f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g r a d i c a l c h a n g e so s w i f t l y , t h e p e r c e i v e d e x t e r n a l t h r e a t o f i m m i n e n t V i e t n a m e s e d o m i n a t i o n was an e q u a l l y i f n o t more p r e s s i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The CPK l e a d e r s h i p was c o n v i n c e d t h a t V i e t n a m , C a m b o d i a ' s h i s t o r i c a d v e r s a r y , p l a n n e d t o i n c o r p o r a t e D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea i n t o an I n d o c h i n e s e F e d e r a t i o n . H e n c e , by a c c e l e r a t i n g t h e p a c e o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n i n o r d e r t o s u r p a s s t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y s t a g e a c h i e v e d by t h e V i e t n a m e s e c o m m u n i s t s , t h e e n t i r e C a m b odian p o p u l a t i o n c o u l d d e v o t e a l l o f i t s e n e r g y t o b u i l d i n g a s t r o n g a n d c o m p l e t e l y i n d e p e n d e n t s t a t e i m p e n e t r a b l e t o o u t s i d e a t t a c k . An i n t e r n a l p a r t y m a g a z i n e , d a t e d J u n e 1976, e l a b o r a t e d t h i s theme: "We want t o b u i l d s o c i a l i s m q u i c k l y , we want t o t r a n s f o r m o u r c o u n t r y q u i c k l y , we want o u r p e o p l e t o be g l o r i o u s q u i c k l y . B u t e s p e c i a l l y t h i s i s t o p r e v e n t t h e enemy f r o m h a r m i n g u s . " 1 6 8 To some e x t e n t , t h e CPK's p o l i c i e s o f e c o n o m i c a n d p o l i t i c a l s e l f - r e l i a n c e c a n be v i e w e d a s t h e h i s t o r i c a l o u tcome o f t h e p a r t y ' s b i t t e r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e C h i n e s e a n d V i e t n a m e s e c o m m u n i s t p a r t i e s . B o t h t h e CCP and VWP demanded C a m b o d i a n c o m m u n i s t s u b s e r v i e n c e t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e i r f o r e i g n p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s d a t i n g b a c k t o t h e 1954 Geneva C o n f e r e n c e . The b i g b r o t h e r c h a u v i n i s m o f t h e VWP t o w a r d s t h e CPK n o u r i s h e d 93 t h e P o l P o t f a c t i o n ' s d i s t r u s t o f and a l i e n a t i o n f r o m t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c i a l i s t movement. I n l i g h t o f t h e Khmer c o m m u n i s t s ' i s o l a t i o n f r o m b o t h C h i n a and V i e t n a m i t s h o u l d n o t be s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e CPK c o n s c i o u s l y c h o s e a s e l f - d e f i n e d r e v o l u t i o n a r y p a t h . What i s s u r p r i s i n g i s t h a t o n c e i n p o w e r , t h e CPK, u n d e r P o l P o t ' s l e a d e r s h i p , p r a c t i c e d r a d i c a l i s m p a r e x c e l l e n c e . On t h e d o m e s t i c f r o n t was t h e p o l i c y o f a g r a r i a n s o c i a l i s m , t a k e n t o i t s f u r t h e s t l i m i t s -- a u t a r k y . The p r o f o u n d l y c h a u v i n i s t i c o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e CPK was r e v e a l e d most c l e a r l y i n a n t i - V i e t n a m e s e b e h a v i o u r . I t i s n o t y e t known t o what e x t e n t P o l P o t was p e r s o n a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e u l t r a n a t i o n a l i s t c h a r a c t e r o f t h e D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchean s t a t e . I t d o e s , h o w e v e r , seem p o s s i b l e t h a t P o l P o t ' s i n t e n s e p a t r i o t i s m was f o r m e d a t an e a r l y a g e . P o l P o t grew up i n an a r e a o f C a m b o d i a n o t e d f o r i t s r e b e l l i o u s c h a r a c t e r : Kompong Thorn p r o v i n c e . A F r e n c h c o l o n i a l o f f i c e r n o t e d t h a t t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h i s p r o v i n c e was " t h e most d e e p l y C a m bodian and t h e l e a s t s u s c e p t i b l e t o o u r i n f l u e n c e . " 1 6 9 As a n a t i v e o f t h i s a r e a , P o l P o t m i g h t h a v e been i n f l u e n c e d by i t s t r a d i t i o n a l r e s i s t a n c e t o f o r e i g n e r s . By t h e t i m e P o l P o t was w r i t i n g f o r a r a d i c a l Khmer s t u d e n t p a p e r i n P a r i s , he was s i g n i n g h i s a r t i c l e s a s t h e " o r i g i n a l K h m e r " . 1 7 0 The s p a r s e b i o g r a p h i c a l d a t a t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e a b o u t I e n g S a r y , Son Sen a n d K h i e u Samphan s u g g e s t s t h e y may have h a r b o u r e d a n t i - V i e t n a m e s e s e n t i m e n t s , w h i c h i n t u r n c o u l d h a v e f u e l e d t h e u l t r a n a t i o n a l i s t i d e a s t h e y l a t e r e m b r a c e d . B o t h I e n g S a r y and Son Sen were b o r n i n S o u t h V i e t n a m a n d i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e y 94 were c o n c i o u s o f t h e p e j o r a t i v e v i e w s many V i e t n a m e s e h a v e t r a d i t i o n a l l y h e l d t o w a r d s t h e Khmers. M o r e o v e r , S o u t h V i e t n a m , i n c l u d i n g S a i g o n , i s s t i l l known t o C a m b o d i a n s a s t h e " l o s t t e r r i t o r i e s " o f Kampuchea Krom o r " l o w e r C a m b o d i a " . C a m b o d i a n n a t i o n a l i s t s h a v e n e v e r f o r g o t t e n t h e l o s s o f t h i s t e r r i t o r y t o t h e V i e t n a m e s e b e c a u s e a s C h a n d l e r s t a t e s : " i t p r o d u c e d a l e g a c y o f r e s e n t m e n t and a n t i - V i e t n a m e s e f e e l i n g t h a t h a s been e n c o u r a g e d , f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s , by a l l t h e C a m bodian r e g i m e s s i n c e i n d e p e n d e n c e , e x c e p t , u n d e r s t a n d a b l y , t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f K a m p u c h e a . " 1 7 1 K h i e u Samphan grew up i n Kompong Cham, t h e p r o v i n c e i n w h i c h t h e F r e n c h h i r e d V i e t n a m e s e t o s u p e r v i s e Khmers w o r k i n g on t h e F r e n c h - o w n e d r u b b e r p l a n t a t i o n s . T h i s s i t u a t i o n may have e n c o u r a g e d Samphan's a w a r e n e s s o f t h e d o u b l e e x p l o i t a t i o n i m p o s e d on C a m b o d i a n s by t h e F r e n c h c o l o n i a l i s t s a n d t h e V i e t n a m e s e . The P o l P o t r e g i m e e x h i b i t e d i t s o b s e s s i o n w i t h c r e a t i n g a s t a t e " g r e a t e r t h a n A n g k o r " by m o b i l i z i n g t h e C a m bodian p o p u l a t i o n f o r war a g a i n s t V i e t n a m . The d e t a i l s o f t h e C a m b o d i a - V i e t n a m c o n f l i c t a r e e x a m i n e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . THE CAMBODIA-VIETNAM CONFLICT: PRELUDE TO POL POT'S S E L F - F U L F I L L I N G PROPHESY The c h a u v i n i s m o f t h e DK r e g i m e i s r e a d i l y d i s c e r n e d f r o m t h e l e g a c y o f i t s m i l i t a r y a t t a c k s a g a i n s t V i e t n a m w h i c h commenced o n l y a few weeks a f t e r t h e l i b e r a t i o n o f Phnom P e n h . On May 4 t h , 8 t h a n d 1 0 t h , a t t a c k s were l a u n c h e d t o r e c a p t u r e t h e " s a c r e d " i s l a n d s o f Pho Quoc, Hon T r o c , Tho Chu, a s w e l l a s t h e 95 Mekong D e l t a p r o v i n c e s , S o c t r a n g a n d T r a v i n h . T h e s e two p r o v i n c e s , known t o C a m b o d i a n s a s Kampuchea Krom, were i n h a b i t e d by e t h n i c Khmers b u t h a d been g o v e r n e d by V i e t n a m f o r w e l l o v e r a c e n t u r y . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , a d i s a g r e e m e n t o v e r t h e f a t e o f t h e s e two p r o v i n c e s h a d d i v i d e d Khmer a n d V i e t n a m e s e r e s i s t a n c e f o r c e s t h i r t y y e a r s p r i o r t o t h i s . I n 1945, t h e V i e t M i n h a t t e m p t e d t o c o o r d i n a t e a j o i n t a n t i - F r e n c h r e s i s t a n c e movement w i t h t h e r i g h t e s t Khmer S e r e i ( F r e e K h m e r ) . The Khmer S e r e i r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n s i s t e d t h e V i e t n a m e s e r e t u r n S o c t r a n g a n d T r a v i n h p r o v i n c e s t o C ambodia a s a p r e c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n i n a u n i t e d f r o n t w i t h t h e V i e t M i n h . 1 7 2 K i e r n a n l e a r n e d t h a t t h e CPK's a t t a c k s a g a i n s t V i e t n a m a f t e r 1975 were d e s c r i b e d by some o f i t s members a s "an a t t e m p t t o r e t a k e t h e same p r o v i n c e s o f S o u t h V i e t n a m t h a t Son Ngoc Thanh's r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s h a d t r i e d t o r e c o v e r t h i r t y y e a r s b e f o r e " . 1 7 3 The V i e t n a m e s e army r e s p o n d e d t o t h e s e s u r p r i s e a t t a c k s by d r i v i n g t h e C a m b o d i a n f o r c e s o u t o f Tho Chu a n d Hon T r o c i s l a n d s . I n May o f 1976, t a l k s b e t w e e n V i e t n a m e s e a n d Cambodian r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o o k p l a c e t o s e t t l e t h e b o r d e r d i s p u t e s . T h e r e was l i t t l e a g r e e m e n t o v e r t h e s e a d e m a r c a t i o n s a n d t a l k s were p o s t p o n e d i n d e f i n i t e l y by t h e C a m b o d i a n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . The DK r e g i m e b l a m e d t h e l a n d a n d s e a b o r d e r h o s t i l i t i e s on V i e t n a m , s t a t i n g t h a t t h e V i e t n a m e s e army a t t a c k e d V a i (Hon T r o c ) i s l a n d a n d e n c r o a c h e d on C a m b o d i a n t e r r i t o r y up t o 10 k i l o m e t r e s . 1 7 " A c c o r d i n g t o t h e B l a c k Book, t h e o f f i c i a l DK l i n e on t h e h i s t o r y o f V i e t n a m e s e a g g r e s s i o n a g a i n s t C a m b o d i a : C o n c e r n i n g t h e Wai I s l a n d s [Hon T r o c ] , i f Kampuchea w o u l d n o t h a v e f o u g h t , n o t o n l y w o u l d i t n o t have r e t a k e n them, 96 but even worse, Vietnam would have taken other i s l a n d s because they knew t h a t immediately a f t e r l i b e r a t i o n , Kampuchea had many weak p o i n t s i n terms of maritime d e f e n s e . 1 7 5 In f a c t , there i s some evidence to suggest that the CPK had planned to invade and r e c a p t u r e Kampuchea Krom from the Thieu government i n South Vietnam before the Vietnamese communists launched t h e i r f i n a l a s s a u l t on Saigon. A member of the CPK's 120th Regiment reported that h i s group was sent to the border only one day a f t e r the capture of Phnom Penh. The regiment's commander, Soeun, t o l d the s o l d i e r s t h at the Cambodian army would " l i b e r a t e Vietnamese t e r r i t o r y because i t i s a l l our t e r r i t o r y " . 1 7 6 The same s o l d i e r r e c o l l e c t e d h e a r i n g CPK o f f i c i a l s at the border s t a t i n g that "we have to f i g h t Vietnam because there are eighteen of our p r o v i n c e s there, i n c l u d i n g Prey Nokor [ S a i g o n ] . " 1 7 7 In l i g h t of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , i t appears that while the CPK p u b l i c l y claimed i t s o f f e n s i v e m i l i t a r y posture was set up to p r o t e c t the country from Vietnamese i m p e r i a l i s m , i t s u n p u b l i c i z e d goal was to r e c l a i m t e r r i t o r y which had been "swallowed up" by the Vietnamese c e n t u r i e s ago. On t h i s p o i n t , i t i s important to r e c a l l that one of the e i g h t p o l i c y d i r e c t i v e s i s s u e d by Pol Pot i n a s e c r e t c a b i n e t meeting h e l d i n Phnom Penh on A p r i l 17, 1975, was to " d i s p a t c h troops to the borders, p a r t i c u l a r l y the Vietnamese border". 1 7 8 A very d i f f e r e n t message concerning Vietnam was expressed by Phnom Penh r a d i o : The Vietnamese wanted to swallow us i n 1970, but they c o u l d not. They entered i n t o n e g o t i a t i o n s i n 1973 [with 97 Kissinger] in an attempt to swallow us, but they could not succeed. They t r i e d again in 1975...in order to impose their control over us. This time again, they were a step behind Cambodia. Cambodia won victory before them. 1 7 9 Neither Cambodia nor Vietnam mentioned any fight i n g in 1976 after the May talks held in that year. A June 1976 issue of an internal CPK magazine reported: Within the general framework of the country, the enemy carried out several a c t i v i t i e s along the land and sea border from the months of November and December (1975) to January and February (1976). From March onwards, the si t u a t i o n has softened considerably. Along with this we have destroyed the enemies within our country and scattered many of them. They have no strong f o r c e s . 1 8 0 In fact, purges were being c a r r i e d out in Cambodia by Pol Pot's forces, and there is good reason to believe they were linked to the aggression against Vietnam. Pol Pot believed a l l the opponents of his regime, esp e c i a l l y those within the CPK, were Vietnamese spies and t r a i t o r s of Cambodia. An increase in the domestic l e v e l of oppression and hardship occurred at the same time as there was an increase in the number and intensity of attacks against Vietnam. Tensions between Cambodia and Vietnam increased to unprecedented leve l s in 1977. Both sides accused each other of i n i t i a t i n g the attacks. The Black Book states that Vietnam sent three to four divisions to attack the Southwest zone and eight to nine d i v i s i o n s to attack the Eastern zone in December 1977. The Revolutionary Army of Cambodia counter-attacked and "after a few days smashed them [the Vietnamese] to pieces and i n f l i c t e d very heavy losses in men and material" . 1 8 1 For their part, the Vietnamese government reported 98 c o n t i n u o u s a t t a c k s on ^ t h e b o r d e r p r o v i n c e s o f L o n g An, K i e n G i a n g , Tay N i n h , Dac L a c and Kong Thap t h r o u g h o u t most o f 1 977 . 1 8 2 A c c o r d i n g t o one DRV r e p o r t : A l l t h e h o u s e s w ere s u r r o u n d e d by Cambodian s o l d i e r s , who i m m e d i a t e l y o p e n e d f i r e and u s e d m a c h e t e s , a x e s , s a b e r s a n d s h a r p e n e d s t i c k s t o s l a y t h e v i l l a g e r s . . . A f l e e i n g c h i l d was c a u g h t by a s o l d i e r who c u t o f f h i s l e g and t h r e w h i m i n t o t h e f l a m e s . A l l s e v e n members o f M r s . T r o n g T h i R o t ' s f a m i l y were b e h e a d e d . T o t was d i s e m b o w e l e d and h a d a s e v e n - m o n t h f e t u s p l a c e d on h e r c h e s t . A l l e i g h t members of Nguyen Van Tarn's f a m i l y were b e h e a d e d and t h e h e a d s were p u t on a t a b l e f o r amusement. A l l e i g h t p e r s o n s i n Nguyen T h i Nganh's h o u s e were d i s e m b o w e l e d , t h e i n t e s t i n e s p i l e d i n one s h o c k i n g h e a p . Mr. Quang's w i f e was a l s o d i s e m b o w e l e d . The k i l l e r s t o o k o u t h e r f i v e - m o n t h f e t u s , t h e n c u t o f f h e r b r e a s t and c h o p p e d h e r body i n t h r e e p a r t s . Her t w o - y e a r o l d boy was t o r n i n two and dumped i n a w e l l . 1 8 3 The b a r b a r o u s n a t u r e o f s u c h a t t a c k s were c o n f i r m e d by e y e w i t n e s s Khmer and V i e t n a m e s e r e f u g e e s i n t e r v i e w e d by Ben K i e r n a n . 1 8 * V i e t n a m e s e c i v i l i a n s k i l l e d o r wounded i n t h e a t t a c k s b e t w e e n l a t e S e p t e m b e r a n d November numbered o v e r one t h o u s a n d . 1 8 5 The r a i d s on V i e t n a m e s e t e r r i t o r y were a c c o m p a n i e d by r a c i s t r h e t o r i c w h i c h may w e l l h a v e i n c i t e d t h e s a v a g e b e h a v i o u r o r t h e Khmer s o l d i e r s . P o l P o t d e s c r i b e d t h e V i e t n a m e s e p e o p l e a s C a m b o d i a ' s " h e r e d i t a r y enemy" w h i c h had t o be f o u g h t i f t h e " r a c e o f Kampuchea" was t o s u r v i v e . 1 8 6 F u r t h e r , t h e r e g i m e e m b e l l i s h e d i t s v i c t o r i e s a n d b o a s t e d o f i t s s u p e r i o r a n d i n v i n c i b l e n a t u r e . A p p a r e n t l y , S i h a n o u k was s h o c k e d by t h e c o m p l e t e l y u n r e a l i s t i c i m a g e s t h e r e g i m e h a d of i t s e l f v i s - a - v i s V i e t n a m . I n h i s b o o k , War and Hope, he s t a t e d t h a t K h i e u Samphan a n d Son Sen t o l d h i m t h a t i n t h e p a s t " o u r l e a d e r s s o l d o u t Kampuchea Krom, s o l d o u t S o u t h V i e t n a m t o t h e V i e t n a m e s e . 99 Our a r m i e s c a n ' t a c c e p t t h i s s t a t u s quo. We must make war a g a i n s t V i e t n a m t o g e t b a c k Kampuchea K r o m " . 1 8 7 S i h a n o u k n o t e d f u r t h e r : A c c o r d i n g t o Son S e n , d e p u t y P r i m e M i n i s t e r i n c h a r g e o f N a t i o n a l D e f e n s e , h i s " g l o r i o u s r e v o l u t i o n a r y army o f Kampuchea" c o n s i d e r e d i t s e l f c a p a b l e o f d e a l i n g v e r y e a s i l y w i t h G i a p ' s ( V i e t n a m e s e ) army and w i t h t h e much more puny one o f K u k r i t P r a m o j a n d K r i a n g s h a k Chamanond ( T h a i l a n d ) ! 1 8 8 F i n a l l y , D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea s u s p e n d e d d i p l o m a t i c r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e S o c i a l i s t R e p u b l i c o f V i e t n a m on December 3 1 , 1977, a f t e r i t p u b l i c l y a c c u s e d V i e t n a m o f h a r b o u r i n g e x p a n s i o n i s t p l a n s t o f o r c e C a m b o d i a i n t o an I n d o c h i n e s e F e d e r a t i o n . On F e b r u a r y 5, 1978, t h e V i e t n a m e s e g o v e r n m e n t i s s u e d a t h r e e - p o i n t p r o p o s a l t o e n d t h e h o s t i l i t i e s b etween t h e two s o c i a l i s t c o u n t r i e s : f i r s t , t o s t a t i o n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e m i l i t a r y f o r c e s f i v e k i l o m e t r e s on e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e b o r d e r ; s e c o n d , t o c o n c l u d e a b o r d e r t r e a t y ; a nd t h i r d , t o s u b m i t t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l s u p e r v i s i o n t o p r e v e n t f u r t h e r h o s t i l i t i e s . 1 8 9 A l t h o u g h i t r e j e c t e d t h e o f f e r , no m e n t i o n o f t h i s p r o p o s a l was e v e r made p u b l i c by t h e CPK. On December 25, 1978, t h e V i e t n a m e s e l a u n c h e d a f u l l - s c a l e i n v a s i o n o f C a m b o d i a , d r i v i n g t h e l e a d e r s o f D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea t o t h e T h a i b o r d e r , where t h e y c o n t i n u e t o be b a s e d t o t h i s d a y . T h e r e a r e a number o f ways t o i n t e r p r e t t h e C a m b o d i a -V i e t n a m c o n f l i c t . One way i s t o v i e w i t a s t h e i n e v i t a b l e o u t come o f an a g e - o l d h a t r e d b e t w e e n Khmers a n d V i e t n a m e s e . The r o o t s o f K h m e r / V i e t n a m e s e e t h n i c a n t a g o n i s m do e x t e n d b a c k c e n t u r i e s , t o t h e t i m e t h e V i e t p e o p l e moved s o u t h f r o m C h i n a , w i p e d o u t t h e K i n g d om o f Champa a n d d i m i n i s h e d t h e Khmer E m p i r e . 1 0 0 V i e t n a m e s e e m p e r o r M i n g Mang c a r r i e d o u t a w i d e - r a n g i n g p r o g r a m of V i e t n a m i z a t i o n o f C a m b o d i a b e t w e e n 1835 a n d 1840, i n c l u d i n g t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f V i e t n a m e s e l a n g u a g e , d r e s s , a n d e v e n t a b l e m anners on t h e s o - c a l l e d " b a r b a r i a n " Khmers. M i n g Mang a l s o t r i e d t o c o l o n i z e C a m b o d i a w i t h V i e t n a m e s e c o n v i c t s a nd p r i s o n e r s s o t h e y c o u l d , i n h i s w o r d s , " L i v e among t h e p e o p l e t h e r e , who w o u l d b e n e f i t f r o m t h e i r t e a c h i n g " . 1 9 0 C a m b o d i a n s have n e v e r f o r g o t t e n t h e i l l - t r e a t m e n t t h e y r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e V i e t n a m e s e . And P o l P o t was n o t t h e f i r s t r u l e r t o e x p l o i t e t h n i c a n t a g o n i s m f o r p o l i t i c a l p u r p o s e s . 1 9 1 D u r i n g t h e c o l o n i a l p e r i o d ( 1 8 6 3 - 1 9 5 3 ) , when t h e F r e n c h p r e s e n c e p r e v e n t e d f u r t h e r V i e t n a m e s e a n d S i a m e s e a b s o r p t i o n o f C a m b odian t e r r i t o r y , t h e V i e t n a m e s e t o o k a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s t s a n d t h e r e b y c o n t i n u e d t o d o m i n a t e C a m b o d i a n s i n a d v e r t a n t l y . Z a s l o f f p o i n t s o u t : "These h i s t o r i c a l a n d c u l t u r a l t e n s i o n s p r o v i d e d a f e r t i l e s e e d bed f o r t h e d i s p u t e s t h a t were t o b r e a k o u t b e t w e e n t h e V i e t n a m e s e and Khmer co m m u n i s t p a r t i e s . " 1 9 2 P o l P o t ' s r e g i m e was no l e s s c a l l o u s i n i t s t r e a t m e n t o f t h e V i e t n a m e s e m i n o r i t y i n C a m b o d i a . I n 1975, a p p r o x i m a t e l y 200,000 e t h n i c V i e t n a m e s e were e x p e l l e d f r o m t h e c o u n t r y . 1 9 3 As f o r t h e V i e t n a m e s e i n V i e t n a m , Phnom Penh r a d i o b o a s t e d a m acabre message:"So f a r , we h a v e a t t a i n e d o u r t a r g e t : 30 V i e t n a m e s e k i l l e d f o r e v e r y f a l l e n Kampuchean...So we c o u l d s a c r i f i c e two m i l l i o n Kampuchans i n o r d e r t o e x t e r m i n a t e t h e 50 m i l l i o n V i e t n a m e s e - a n d we s h a l l s t i l l be 6 m i l l i o n " . 1 9 f t E t h n i c a n i m o s i t y was i n v o k e d t o u n p r e c e d e n t e d l e v e l s i n t h e p o s t - 1 9 7 5 C a m b o d i a - V i e t n a m c o n f l i c t . B u t i t w o u l d be e r r o n e o u s 101 t o c o n c l u d e i t a l o n e was t h e c a u s e o f t h e c o n f l i c t . A n o t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e b o r d e r d i s p u t e s a n d t h e e v e n t u a l war b e t w e e n C a m b o d i a and V i e t n a m c e n t r e s a r o u n d t h e a l l e g e d l o n g t e r m V i e t n a m e s e g o a l o f c r e a t i n g an I n d o c h i n a F e d e r a t i o n , composed o f L a o s C a m b o d i a , a n d V i e t n a m , a nd d o m i n a t e d by t h e l a t t e r . Phnom Penh d o m e s t i c r a d i o b r o a d c a s t s t h r o u g h o u t 1978 were t i r e l e s s l y w a r n i n g C a m b o d i a n s t h a t i f V i e t n a m s u c c e e d e d i n i t s g o a l o f d o m i n a t i n g C a m b o d i a v i a t h e I n d o c h i n a F e d e r a t i o n t h e Khmer r a c e w o u l d n o t s u r v i v e . I f t h i s was i n d e e d t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h e V i e t n a m e s e , i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t n e g o t i a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e two s t a t e s b r o k e down i n 1976 and were n o t r e s u m e d . V i e t n a m e s e o f f i c i a l s a d m i t t h a t p r i o r t o 1951, when t h e I n d o c h i n e s e Communist P a r t y d i s s o l v e d , t h e r e was t a l k o f an I n d o c h i n e s e F e d e r a t i o n . The o f f i c i a l s a r e q u i c k t o p o i n t o u t , h o w e v e r , t h a t " i t was a l w a y s s t r e s s e d t h a t s u c h a d e v e l o p m e n t was c o n t i n g e n t on t h e d e s i r e s o f t h e p e o p l e s c o n c e r n e d . E v e r y n a t i o n has t h e r i g h t t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . " 1 9 5 A f t e r t h e d i s s o l u t i o n o f t h e ICP a n d t h e f o u n d i n g o f t h e t h r e e s e p a r a t e a n d i n d e p e n d e n t c o m m u n i s t p a r t i e s i n V i e t n a m , L a o s a n d C a m b o d i a , t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e F e d e r a t i o n was p u b l i c l y a b a n d o n e d by t h e V i e t n a m e s e c o m m u n i s t s . The Khmer c o m m u n i s t s , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , r e f u s e d t o f o r g e t t h e i s s u e ; n o t o n l y were t h e V i e t n a m e s e d i s t r u s t e d , t h e y were c o n s i d e r e d t h e m a i n enemy o f t h e D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchean s t a t e . S u c h a v i e w i s i n d i c a t i v e o f d e e p p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t , e x a c e r b a t e d b u t n o t c a u s e d by e t h n i c p r e j u d i c e . The r o o t s o f t h i s c o n f l i c t , e x a m i n e d t h o r o u g h l y C h a p t e r One, a r o s e f r o m t h e v e r y d i f f e r e n t a n d c o n f l i c t i n g n e e d s o f t h e two c o m m u n i s t 102 movements. I n t h e p o s t - 1 9 7 5 p e r i o d , t h e i n h e r e n t t e n s i o n b e t w e e n t h e Khmer a n d V i e t n a m e s e c o m m u n i s t s c o u l d o n l y h a v e been r e l a x e d i f b o t h l e a d e r s h i p s h a d been c o m m i t t e d t o m u t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d s e n s i t i v i t y . T h i s b r i n g s up a t h i r d e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e c o n f l i c t : n o t o n l y w e re t h e v i e w p o i n t s o f b o t h p a r t i e s s u f f i c i e n t l y o p p o s e d and r i g i d a s t o r e n d e r a c o m p r o m i s e on t h e l a n d a n d s e a b o r d e r v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e , b u t P o l P o t seemed c o m m i t t e d t o war w i t h V i e t n a m r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e V i e t n a m e s e p o s i t i o n . As h i s d o m e s t i c p o s i t i o n became more a n d more u n t e n a b l e , t h e a t t a c k s a g a i n s t V i e t n a m i n c r e a s e d , p r o v i d i n g a c o n v e n i e n t d i s t r a c t i o n f r o m t h e d o m e s t i c c r i s i s . The war a g a i n s t V i e t n a m a l s o s e r v e d a s a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e a r r e s t and e x e c u t i o n o f t h o s e C a m b o d i a n s o p p o s e d t o t h e r e g i m e who were a c c u s e d o f b e i n g s p i e s f o r V i e t n a m . i n C a m b o d i a . As v a n d e r K r o e f n o t e s o f t h e w a r : "The r e s u l t , a p p a r e n t l y , was t o i n t e n s i f y t h e r e g i m e ' s p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r t h e b l o o d y e l i m i n a t i o n o f r e a l o r i m a g i n a r y o p p o n e n t s and i n d e e d , o f a l l t h o s e who c o m p l a i n e d o r e v e n m i l d l y c r i t i c i z e d . " 1 9 6 I n s p i t e o f t h e s e e m i n g l y i r r a t i o n a l a c t i o n o f w a g i n g war a g a i n s t V i e t n a m , i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e P o l P o t G r o u p was c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e r e m o v a l o f t h e V i e t n a m e s e t h r e a t was e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e s u r v i v a l o f D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea. D u r i n g t a l k s w i t h S i h a n o u k i n 1977 a n d 1978, t h e CPK l e a d e r s e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e V i e t n a m e s e " c a n c e r . . . e a t i n g away a t Kampuchea" w o u l d r e q u i r e a " t h r e e - p a r t s u r g i c a l o p e r a t i o n . " 1 9 7 F i r s t , no V i e t n a m e s e c i t i z e n s w o u l d be a l l o w e d t o l i v e i n C a m b o d i a . S e c o n d , t h e Khmer p e o p l e w o u l d be 1 0 3 made t o work " t e n t i m e s a s h a r d a s t h e V i e t n a m e s e p e o p l e . . . t o make Kampuchea muxh s t r o n g e r t h a n V i e t n a m f r o m e v e r y p o i n t o f v i e w ( m i l i t a r y , e c o n o m i c , i d e o l o g i c a l ) . " 1 9 8 T h i r d , C a m b o d i a w o u l d h a v e t o e n g a g e i n a m i l i t a r y war a g a i n s t V i e t n a m i n o r d e r t o s t o p V i e t n a m e s e e x p a n s i o n i s t d e s i g n s . 1 9 9 I n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , t h e r e i s l i k e l y some t r u t h t o b o t h t h e Cambodian a n d V i e t n a m e s e a c c u s a t i o n s a b o u t t h e c o n f l i c t . The t r a d i t i o n a l V i e t n a m e s e c o m m u n i s t d o m i n a t i o n and d i r e c t i o n o f t h e t h e Khmer c o m m u n i s t movement was s e r v i n g t h e n e e d s o f r e v o l u t i o n i n V i e t n a m a n d b e l i t t l i n g t h o s e i n C a m b o d i a . I t i s n o t , t h e r e f o r e , u n r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t t h e VWP was u n n e r v e d by P o l P o t ' s p u r g e s o f t h e H a n o i - t r a i n e d c a d r e s and a n yone r e m o t e l y s u s p e c t e d o f s y m p a t h i z i n g w i t h t h e V i e t n a m e s e s o c i a l i s t m o d e l . I f C a m b o d i a was n o t i n f l u e n c e d by V i e t n a m , i t meant t h e d o o r was open f o r C h i n a t o e x e r t i t s i n f l u e n c e . The d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n P e k i n g and H a n o i i n t h e m i d -1970' s made s u c h a p r o s p e c t e s p e c i a l l y a nd a l a r m i n g l y unwelcome. B u t t h a t t h i s s c e n a r i o c o u l d h a v e been so c o m p e l l i n g t o t h e V i e t n a m e s e g o v e r n m e n t t h a t i t w o u l d p l a n an i n v a s i o n o f Cambodia w i t h o u t b e i n g d i r e c t l y p r o v o k e d seems r a t h e r d o u b t f u l . V i e t n a m f a c e d an a c u t e p o s t - v i c t o r y c r i s i s ; t h e w a r - t o r n c o u n t r y had many wounds t h a t o n l y p e a c e c o u l d h a v e h e a l e d . H owever, f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f V i e t n a m e s e e c o n o m i c p l a n n e r s , t h e b o r d e r s k i r m i s h e s i n i t i a t e d by C a m b o d i a a g a i n s t V i e t n a m c o u l d n o t have come a t a w o r s e t i m e . W o o d s i d e n o t e s t h a t : " . . . p o w e r f u l s t a t e p l a n n e r s a r g u e d t h a t t h e o n l y c h a n c e V i e t n a m w o u l d e v e r have o f s o l v i n g i t s f e a r s o m e f o o d s h o r t a g e s w o u l d be by u n i f y i n g t h e 104 e c o n o m i c management o f t h e e n t i r e c o u n t r y a s q u i c k l y a s p o s s i b l e , and by " r e d i s t r i b u t i n g " a s many a s t e n m i l l i o n V i e t n a m e s e -- one f i f t h o f t h e e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n — f r o m t h e o v e r c r o w d e d n o r t h t o t h e l e s s c r o w d e d s o u t h . " 2 0 0 Hopes f o r t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e New E c o n o m i c Zones i n t h e s o u t h were " u t t e r l y f r u s t r a t e d " by t h e r e s i s t a n c e o f t h e C h i n e s e c o m m e r c i a l c l a s s w h i c h h a d d o m i n a t e d t h e p r e - 1 9 7 5 S o u t h V i e t n a m e s e economy, and a l s o by C a m b odian m i l i t a r y f o r a y s a c r o s s t h e b o r d e r . The p r o s p e c t o f p r o l o n g e d a n d a c c e l e r a t e d C ambodian m i l i t a r y a t t a c k s a g a i n s t t h e e c o n o m i c a l l y f r a g i l e s o u t h e r n p r o v i n c e s i n V i e t n a m , a c c o r d i n g t o W o o d s i d e , " w o u l d have been i n t o l e r a b l e f o r V i e t n a m a t a moment when r e v o l u t i o n i n t h e s o u t h was d i s i n t e g r a t i n g " . 2 0 1 W i t h c r u c i a l e c o n o m i c p l a n s a t s t a k e , and w i t h t h e t h r e a t e n i n g p r o s p e c t o f b e c o m i n g " e n c i r c l e d " by C h i n a a n d i t s a l l y , C a m b o d i a , i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e V i e t n a m e s e g o v e r n m e n t f e l t c o m p e l l e d t o s t r i k e b a c k w i t h f o r c e i n 1978. The SRV's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f C a m b o d i a ' s 1977 a t t a c k s on i t s t e r r i t o r y may n o t be f a r w r o n g , i n s p i t e o f i t s s e l f - s e r v i n g i m p e t u s . V i e t n a m e s e o f f i c i a l s a r g u e d i n 1977 t h a t C a m b o d i a ' s f o r e i g n p o l i c y " i s a i m e d a t s e r v i n g t h e i r i n t e n s i f i e d r e p r e s s i o n o f t h e p e o p l e i n t h e i r c o u n t r y a n d p u r g i n g o f r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s and p a t r i o t s o p p o s e d t o t h e i r e r r o n e o u s l i n e ; i t i s a l s o a i m e d a t c o n s o l i d a t i n g t h e i r power and d i v e r t i n g p u b l i c o p i n i o n a t home, w h i c h h a s become i n d i g n a n t a t t h e i r c r i m i n a l d o m e s t i c p o l i c i e s . " 2 0 2 The n e x t a n d f i n a l s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r t u r n s t o t h e m a c a b r e s u b j e c t o f t h e Khmer Rouge k i l l i n g s o f t h e i r own p e o p l e . 1 0 5 RATIONALE FOR THE CHARNEL-HOUSE T h e r e a r e a t l e a s t t h r e e p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h e b r u t a l v i o l e n c e t h a t was t h e h a l l m a r k o f D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s and i n d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s t h r o u g h o u t i t s s h o r t h i s t o r y . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e f i r s t e x p l a n a t i o n , t h e i n i t i a l wave o f v i o l e n c e t h a t e r u p t e d d u r i n g t h e f i r s t few weeks o f t h e CPK v i c t o r y was e x p e c t e d . The known e n e m i e s o f t h e CPK were p r o m p t l y e x e c u t e d i n r e v e n g e f o r t h e i l l - t r e a t m e n t t h e CPK h a d r e c e i v e d by t h e S i h a n o u k a n d Lon N o l r e g i m e s . Nayan Chanda, a l o n g - t i m e r e p o r t e r o f t h e w a r s i n L a o s , V i e t n a m and C a m b o d i a , b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e c i v i l war i n Cambodia was t h e most s a v a g e o f t h e t h r e e . He r e c a l l s one o f t h e " e a r l i e s t h o r r o r s . . . t h e p h o t o g r a p h o f a g r i n n i n g Lon N o l s o l d i e r h o l d i n g t h e s e v e r e d h e a d s o f two Khmer Rouge t r o o p s " . 2 0 3 As n o t e d e a r l i e r , S i h a n o u k ' s p o l i c e were a l s o r u t h l e s s i n t h e i r t r e a t m e n t o f Khmer c o m m u n i s t s . T h e r e w e r e , t h e r e f o r e , many o l d s c o r e s t o s e t t l e i n t h e f i r s t weeks a s t h e Khmer Rouge c a d r e s u n l e a s h e d t h e i r venom a g a i n s t h a t e d a d v e r s a r i e s . An a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r t h a t s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n v i e w o f t h e f i r s t wave o f p o s t - v i c t o r y v i o l e n c e was t h e i n t e n s e a n g e r t h e CPK l e a d e r s , a n d t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , t h e i r c a d r e s , f e l t t o w a r d t h e n a t i o n ' s e l i t e f o r b o w i n g t o t h e A m e r i c a n i m p e r i a l i s t s a n d j e o p a r d i z i n g C a m b o d i a ' s i n d e p e n d e n c e . On t h i s p o i n t Z a s l o f f r e m a r k s : " T h e i r a n g e r became r a g e d u r i n g t h e i r d a y s i n t h e m a q u i s a s t h e y saw t h e i r c o u n t r y d e c i m a t e d , a s t h e y s t r u g g l e d u n d e r g r e a t d a n g e r w i t h s h o r t r a t i o n s . " 2 0 " H e n c e , t h e Khmer c o m m u n i s t s ' r e v e n g e , f o s t e r e d by b i t t e r n e s s o v e r t h e 1 06 amount o f s u f f e r i n g a n d h a r d s h i p s t h e y were f o r c e d t o e n d u r e i s a l i k e l y r e a s o n why t h e y e n g a g e d i n p u r p o s i v e k i l l i n g s o f t h e i r known e n e m i e s . T h e r e i s some d e b a t e on t h e s e c o n d e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e r e g i m e ' s s a v a g e n a t u r e , w h i c h i s t h a t many c o m m u n i s t c a d r e s were v e r y y o u n g (some a mere t w e l v e t o f o u r t e e n y e a r s o f a g e ) , m o s t l y i l l i t e r a t e , a n d w i t h o u t any p o l i t i c a l e d u c a t i o n . The d e b a t e c e n t r e s a r o u n d t h e i s s u e a s t o w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e s e y o u n g c a d r e s a c t e d on t h e i r own, t h a t i s , w h e t h e r t h e y e x e c u t e d p e o p l e o f t h e i r own f r e e w i l l , o r w h e t h e r t h e y were g i v e n e x p l i c i t o r d e r s t o do so f r o m t h e c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t i e s i n Phnom P e n h . I t seems t h a t p e r h a p s b o t h l o c a l a n d c e n t r a l d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g c i v i l i a n e x e c u t i o n s t o o k p l a c e a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s . A t l e a s t p r i o r t o 1977, b e f o r e P o l P o t ' s power was r e l a t i v e l y e n t r e n c h e d , t h e r e was r e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n i n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p o l i c i e s s u c h a s u r b a n e v a c u a t i o n s , l a n d c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n , f o o d r a t i o n i n g , a n d s o c i a l / c l a s s d i v i s i o n s , b u t t h e r e was v e r y l i t t l e , i f a n y , v a r i a t i o n i n t h e g e n e r a l p o l i c i e s t h e m s e l v e s . Some a r e a s o f Camb o d i a were e a s i e r t o l i v e i n t h a n o t h e r s . The d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s t e m s n o t so much f r o m t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t p r e v a i l e d i n e a c h a r e a , b u t r a t h e r f r o m t h e i d e o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n t h e CPK r a n k s . I t i s now g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d t h a t a r e a s c o n t r o l l e d by c a d r e s who s u p p o r t e d e i t h e r t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n g r o u p o r t h e p r o - V i e t n a m e s e , were much e a s i e r t o l i v e i n t h a n t h o s e a r e a s u n d e r t h e P o l P o t G r o u p ' s c o n t r o l . A f t e r t h e 1977 p u r g e s t h a t w i p e d o u t t h e power o f t h e two f a c t i o n s o p p o s e d t o t h e P o l P o t g r o u p , t h e r e was 107 m a r k e d l y l e s s v a r i a t i o n i n l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e g i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l , a n d v i l l a g e c a d r e s r e c e i v e d f a i r l y s t r i c t g u i d e l i n e s a s t o how t h e y s h o u l d e x e r c i z e t h e i r a u t h o r i t y . A t t h i s p o i n t , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e d e g r e e o f c e n t r a l l y - d i r e c t e d p o l i c i e s w i l l e v e r be p r e c i s e l y known b e c a u s e t h e p r o c e s s o f c e n t r a l i z a t i o n was n e v e r c o m p l e t e d i n D e m o c r a t i c K a m p u c h e a . 2 0 5 The t h i r d e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e CPK's b l o o d t h i r s t y n e s s d r a w s on t h e p r e c a r i o u s h i s t o r y o f C a m b o d i a a s w e l l a s t h e c u l t u r a l a c c e p t a n c e o f v i o l e n t means t o d e a l w i t h " e n e m i e s ' . I n h i s book B e h i n d t h e Khmer S m i l e ( 1 9 7 1 ) , C h a r l e s M e y e r , a F r e n c h a d v i s o r t o P r i n c e S i h a n o u k , a r g u e d p r o p h e t i c a l l y t h a t t h e Khmers s u f f e r e d f r o m c l a u s t r o p h o b i a b e c a u s e t h e i r c o u n t r y had been p i n c h e d b e t w e e n T h a i l a n d a n d V i e t n a m , two p o w e r f u l s t a t e s t h a t had been e a t i n g away a t C ambodia f o r c e n t u r i e s . Meyer a r g u e d t h a t a s a r e s u l t o f t h i s h i s t o r y , t h e Khmers were c a p a b l e o f e x p l o s i o n s o f v i o l e n c e s i m i l a r t o t h e M a l a y s ' " r u n n i n g a m o k " . 2 0 6 Z a s l o f f a d o p t s a s i m i l a r v i e w p o i n t s t a t i n g t h a t , " [ T ] h e e v e n t s r a i s e t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r C a mbodian c u l t u r e h a s a s t r e a k o f a g g r e s s i v e n e s s t h a t m i g h t be u n l e a s h e d by w a r t i m e s t r e s s . " 2 0 7 I n d e e d , t h e P o l P o t h o r r o r s i n d i c a t e t h a t o u r p r i o r i m a g e s o f Khmer s o c i e t y a s p e a c e f u l and g e n t l e n e e d t o be r e - e x a m i n e d . B o t h W i l f r e d B u r c h e t t a n d M i l t o n O s b o r n e have p o i n t e d o u t t h a t C a m b o dian f o l k l o r e f r o m a s f a r b a c k a s t h e A n g k o r e a n t i m e s i s f u l l o f u n s a v o u r y d e p i c t i o n s o f enemy m u t i l a t i o n s . 2 0 8 C i t i n g one e x a m p l e o f t h e h a r s h p u n i s h m e n t o f e n e m i e s i n C a m b o d i a n l i t e r a t u r e , O s b o r n e e x p l a i n s : "The h e r o i n e o f t h e t a l e o f 'The 108 G i r l W i t h t h e F l o w e r i n g T r e s s e s ' who p e r s o n a l l y d i s e m b o w e l l e d h e r enemy a f t e r h a v i n g h i m b e h e a d e d i s o n l y one o f t h e c o u n t l e s s f i g u r e s who a c t i n t h e same o r s i m i l a r f a s h i o n . " 2 0 9 S u c h a c t i o n s were e m u l a t e d by r u l e r s a n d r u l e d a l i k e i n Cambodian h i s t o r y . The h o r r i b l e c r u e l t i e s o f t h e L o n N o l r e g i m e , i t s e n c o u r a g e m e n t o f a r a c e war i n 1970 t h a t l e f t t h o u s a n d s o f b l o a t e d V i e t n a m e s e b o d i e s f l o a t i n g i n Cambodian r i v e r s , a n d i t s e q u a l l y m acabre d e a l i n g s w i t h Khmer c o m m u n i s t s , d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t e x c e s s i v e v i o l e n c e was n o t s t r i c t l y c o n f i n e d t o t h e P o l P o t r e g i m e . The P o l P o t r e g i m e s t a n d s o u t , h o w e v e r , f o r i t s w i d e s p r e a d u s e o f v i o l e n c e . The e x t e n t o f human s u f f e r i n g i t p r o d u c e d i s u n p r e c e d e n t e d i n modern C a m b o d i a n h i s t o r y , i f n o t a l l of C a m b o d i a n h i s t o r y . M i c h a e l V i c k e r y ' s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e t r a d i t i o n s o f v i o l e n c e among t h e p e a s a n t r y i n t h e i n a c c e s s i b l e r u r a l a r e a s o f Cambodia r e v e a l s an i n s i g h t i n t o t h e " o t h e r C a m b o d i a " t h a t h a s been v i r t u a l l y a b s e n t i n t h e s c h o l a r l y l i t e r a t u r e on C a m b o d i a , b u t w h i c h a c t e d a s t h e b r e e d i n g g r o u n d f o r t h e f e a t u r e s o f " P o l P o t i s m " . 2 1 0 V i c k e r y a r g u e s t h a t : C a m b o d i a , l o n g b e f o r e t h e e n f o r c e d s p l i t i n t o ' o l d ' a n d 'new' p e o p l e i n 1975, was d e e p l y d i v i d e d . An i m p o r t a n t d i v i s i o n was b e t w e e n town a n d c o u n t r y . B u t a more p r o f o u n d d i v i s i o n l a y b e t w e e n town p l u s t o w n - r e l a t e d r i c e a n d g a r d e n p e a s a n t r y a n d t h o s e r u r a l g r o u p s who, t h r o u g h d i s t a n c e , p o v e r t y , i n g r a i n e d h o s t i l i t y , o r a c o n s c i o u s p r e f e r e n c e f o r a u t a r k y , r e m a i n e d on t h e o u t s i d e o f t h e Cambodian s o c i e t y w h i c h e v e r y o n e knew and w h i c h Phnom Penh c o n s i d e r e d t h e o n l y C a m b odian s o c i e t y o f a n y i m p o r t a n c e . 2 1 1 As f o r t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e " o t h e r C a m b o d i a " , V i c k e r y a s s e r t s t h a t " a r b i t r a r y j u s t i c e , s u d d e n v i o l e n t d e a t h , p o l i t i c a l o p p r e s s i o n , e x p l o i t a t i v e u s e o f r e l i g i o n a n d a n t i - r e l i g i o u s 109 r e a c t i o n , b o t h v i o l e n t a n d q u i e s c e n t , were common f a c t s o f l i f e l o n g b e f o r e t h e war a n d r e v o l u t i o n o f t h e 1 9 7 0 ' s " . 2 1 2 However, i t i s one t h i n g t o s a y t h a t b r u t a l i t y e x i s t s w i t h i n t h e Khmer c u l t u r e a n d t r a d i t i o n a n d q u i t e a n o t h e r t o p o s i t t h i s a s t h e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e w i d e s p r e a d v i o l e n c e t h a t e r u p t e d a f t e r 1975. As K e v i n R o w l e y o b s e r v e s , t h e Khmer Rouge f o r c e s "were c o n t r o l l e d , m a n i p u l a t e d , and d i r e c t e d by t h e Khmer Rouge l e a d e r s h i p t h r o u g h a t i g h t l y d i s c i p l i n e d r e v o l u t i o n a r y p a r t y and m i l i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n . " 2 1 3 The p e a s a n t s d i d n o t make t h e r e v o l u t i o n i n C a m b o d i a : t h e t o p l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e CPK was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s m a k i n g a n d i t s p o l i c i e s . I t i s a l s o , i n t h e e n d , r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e v i o l e n c e . I n c o n c l u s i o n , i t a p p e a r s t h a t D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea e x h i b i t e d t h r e e m a i n r a d i c a l a s p e c t s w h i c h were c o n n e c t e d t o t h e r e g i m e ' s n a t i o n a l i s t g o a l s . The f i r s t was t h e r e s t r u c t u r i n g of t h e s o c i e t y a n d t h e economy on a s e l f - r e l i a n t b a s i s . H i g h - l e v e l c o o p e r a t i v e s were e s t a b l i s h e d q u i c k l y t o i n c r e a s e r i c e p r o d u c t i o n . The v a s t work s i t e may h a v e c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e d t h a t o f t h e A n g k o r e a n v a r i e t y i n w h i c h s l a v e p o p u l a t i o n s were p u t t o work ' b u i l d i n g and d e f e n d i n g ' t h e s t a t e . The s e c o n d was t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n o f Khmer s o c i e t y , an e x t r e m e m a n i f e s t a t i o n of x e n o p h o b i s m , i n w h i c h t h e u n r e f o r m a b l e b o u r g e o i s and p o l i t i c a l / m i l i t a r y c l a s s e s o f p r e v i o u s r e g i m e s , were l a r g e l y k i l l e d . P e a s a n t s were p e r c e i v e d a s t h e o n l y l e g i t i m a t e c l a s s i n t h e "new s o c i e t y " , f r o m w h i c h e v e r y t h i n g s h o u l d be l e a r n e d . K h i e u Samphan e x p l a i n e d t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r u p h o l d i n g t h e p o o r p e a s a n t r y a s t h e m o d e l c l a s s : ' t h e y r e a l l y know a n d u n d e r s t a n d 1 1 0 a b o u t [ f a r m i n g ] . O n l y t h i s s h o u l d be c a l l e d n a t u r a l s c i e n c e b e c a u s e t h i s t y p e o f k n o w l e d g e i s c l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e n a t i o n , w i t h t h e i d e a s o f n a t i o n a l i s m , p r o d u c t i o n , n a t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n , a n d n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e . " 2 1 " The theme r e l a t e d t o x e n o p h o b i s m was e x p a n s i o n i s m , a c a t a s t r o p h i c p o l i c y b a s e d on an u n r e a l i s t i c a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e power o f C a m b o d i a ' s r e v o l u t i o n a r y army. The t h i r d r a d i c a l a s p e c t was t h e e x t e n t o f s o c i a l e n g i n e e r i n g t h a t t o o k p l a c e i n C a m b o d i a . P o l i t i c a l l i q u i d a t i o n c a m p a i g n s t a k e p l a c e i n most t o t a l i t a r i a n s t a t e s a n d Cambodia was no e x c e p t i o n . B u t r a r e l y h a s t h e i m p e t u s been a c o n c e r n f o r t h e s u r v i v a l o f t h e n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y a s i t was i n C a m b o d i a . U n d e r c o n d i t i o n s o f s t r e s s , when P o l P o t ' s CPK was f o r c e d t o make s t a r k c h o i c e s o f p r i o r i t i e s , r e g i m e s u r v i v a l a n d Cambodian i d e n t i t y were p l a c e d a b o v e t h o s e w h i c h m i g h t h a v e p r o m o t e d s o c i a l i s t g o a l s . I t h a s been w i t h i n t h i s g e n e r a l f r a m e w o r k t h a t t h e CPK's f e a t u r e s o f s e l f - r e l i a n c e , c h a u v i n i s m , a n d s o c i a l d e s t r u c t i o n h ave been e x a m i n e d . 111 N o t e s ... 1 3 3 See f o r e x a m p l e , J o s e p h G. H a r r i s o n ' s book r e v i e w o f M i r o n D o l o t ' s E x e c u t i o n by H u n g e r : The H i d d e n H o l o c a u s t (New Y o r k : W&W N o r t o n & Co., 1 9 8 5 ) , i n w h i c h he w r i t e s : " t h i s book [ a b o u t S t a l i n ' s R u s s i a ] , l i k e t h o s e d e t a i l i n g H i t l e r ' s H o l o c a u s t , t h e Khmer Rouge's p u r p o s e f u l e x t e r m i n a t i o n o f a c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t o f t h e C a m b o d i a n p o p u l a t i o n . . . i s a t a l e o f u n r e l i e v e d h o r r o r " . C i t e d i n The C h r i s t i a n S c i e n c e M o n i t o r 25 November 1985, p. 34. A l s o s e e W i l l i a m S h a w c r o s s ' d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e m e d i a ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n o f D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea a s one o f t h e b l o o d i e s t r e v o l u t i o n s i n h i s t o r y i n The Q u a l i t y o f M e r c y ( B a n g k o k : DD B o o k s , 1 9 8 5 ) , pp. 45-69. 1 3 * A good e x a m p l e o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e i s s t a t e d by Norodom S i h a n o u k : "The a i m s o f Bangkok a n d S a i g o n were a l w a y s c l e a r . My c o u n t r y h a s h a d t o c o p e w i t h S i a m f o r o v e r a t h o u s a n d y e a r s . We h a v e s u f f e r e d t o o much f o r t o o l o n g f r o m o u r e a s t e r n and w e s t e r n n e i g h b o u r s t o have any i l l u s i o n s when we s e e them g o v e r n e d by a g g r e s s i v e a n d e x p a n s i o n i s t r e g i m e s s u c h a s t h o s e u n d e r U.S. s p o n s o r s h i p . " C i t e d i n Norodom S i h a n o u k , My War W i t h t h e C I A , ( L o n d o n : P a n t h e o n B o o k s , 1 9 7 3 ) , p. 1 29. 1 3 5 C i t e d i n Ben K i e r n a n , " C o n f l i c t i n t h e Kampuchean Communist Movement", J o u r n a l o f C o n t e m p o r a r y A s i a , v o l . 10, no. 1/2, ( 1 9 8 0 ) , p. 11. 1 3 6 I b i d . , p. 80. 1 3 7 F a r E a s t e r n E c o n o m i c R e v i e w , 30 S e p t e m b e r 1977, p. 26. 1 3 8 Norodom S i h a n o u k , War and Hope, (New Y o r k : P a n t h e o n 1 12 B o o k s , 1 9 8 0 ) , p. 86. 1 3 9 D a v i d P. C h a n d l e r , " S e e i n g Red: P e r c e p t i o n s o f C a m b odian H i s t o r y i n D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea", i n D a v i d C h a n d l e r a n d Ben K i e r n a n ( e d s . ) R e v o l u t i o n a n d i t s A f t e r m a t h i n  Kampuchea: E i g h t E s s a y s , New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , S o u t h e a s t A s i a n S t u d i e s M o n o g r a p h S e r i e s , ( N o . 25, 1 9 8 3 ) , p. 45. 1 4 0 D a v i d P. C h a n d l e r , " R e v i s i n g t h e P a s t i n D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea: When Was t h e B i r t h d a y o f t h e P a r t y ? " , P a c i f i c  A f f a i r s , , v o l . 56, no. 2, Summer 1983, p. 289. 1 4 1 I b i d . , p. 290. 1 4 2 U.S. D e p a r t m e n t o f Commerce, F o r e i g n B r o a d c a s t  I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e , D a i l y R e p o r t f o r A s i a and t h e P a c i f i c , ( h e r e i n a f t e r c i t e d a s F B I S ) 28 A u g u s t 1975. 1 4 3 K i e r n a n , " C o n f l i c t i n t h e Kampuchean Communist Movement" op. c i t . , p. 80. 1 4 4 L a u r a Summers t r a n s l a t e d K h i e u Samphan's t h e s i s , a m a j o r p a r t o f w h i c h a p p e a r e d i n t h e I n d o c h i n a C h r o n i c l e , S e p t e m b e r - N o v e m b e r ( 1 9 7 6 ) , pp. 2-25. Q u o t a t i o n s f r o m t h e t h e s i s come f r o m t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n u n l e s s n o t e d o t h e r w i s e . 1 4 5 I b i d . , p. 9. 1 4 6 I b i d . , p. 25. 1 4 7 C i t e d i n D e n z i l P i e r i s , "The S t u d e n t P r i n c i p l e s " , F a r  E a s t e r n E c o n o m i c R e v i e w , 2 J u n e 1978, p. 4 1 . 1 4 8 I b i d . , p. 41. 1 4 9 Summers, op. c i t . , p. 2 3. 1 5 0 I b i d . , p. 2. 113 1 5 1 As e x p l a i n e d i n t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r , t h i s d e c i s i o n was t a k e n a m i d r u m o u r s i n Phnom Penh t h a t t h e t h r e e men were t o be a r r e s t e d a n d p o s s i b l y e x e c u t e d by S i h a n o u k ' s p o l i c e f o r t h e i r a l l e g e d i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e S a m l a u t p e a s a n t r e b e l l i o n i n B a t t a m b a n g p r o v i n c e . 1 5 2 The t r a n s l a t i o n o f Hou Y u o n ' s t h e s i s , e n t i t l e d , "The P e a s a n t r y o f Kampuchea: C o l o n i a l i s m a n d M o d e r n i z a t i o n " i s f o u n d i n Ben K i e r n a n a n d C h a n t o u B o u a , P e a s a n t s a n d P o l i t i c s i n  Kampuchea: 1942-1981 ( L o n d o n : Zed P r e s s , 1 9 8 2 ) , pp. 3 4-63. 1 5 3 A t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h i s work i s a l s o f o u n d i n K i e r n a n and B o ua, o p . c i t . , pp. 136-150. 1 5 « I b i d . .f P- 1 37. 1 5 5 I b i d . i P- 1 37. 1 5 6 I b i d . .r P- 1 36. 1 5 7 I b i d . i P- 1 39. 1 5 8 I b i d . r P. 1 46. 1 S 9 I b i d . t PP 144, 145. 1 6 0 F B I S , 18 A p r i l 1977. 1 6 1 J o s e p h J Z a s l o f f and M a c A l i s t e r B r o w n , Communi s t  I n d o c h i n a and U.S. F o r e i g n P o l i c y : P o s t w a r R e a l i t i e s , ( B o u l d e r : W e s t v i e w P r e s s , 1 9 7 8 ) , p. 141. 1 6 2 F B I S 15 May 1975. 1 6 3 F r a n c o i s P o n c h a u d , C a m b o d i a Y e a r Z e r o , ( L o n d o n : P e n g u i n B o o k s , 1 9 7 7 ) , p. 150. 1 6 * C i t e d i n J u s t u s M. van d e r K r o e f , " P o l i t i c a l I d e o l o g y i n D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea, O r b i s , ( W i n t e r , 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 1019. I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o e s t i m a t e t h e number o f monks d e l i b e r a t e l y k i l l e d by 1 14 t h e DK r e g i m e . J e a n n i e Newman, a f o r e i g n a i d w o r k e r i n Phnom Penh i n J u l y 1985, was t o l d by one g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l o f t h e PRK t h a t 25,168 monks were k i l l e d a n d t h a t 1,968 B u d d h i s t t e m p l e s were d e s t r o y e d b e t w e e n 1975 and 1979. ( P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n ) . 1 6 5 F B I S , 13 M a r c h 1978. I n f a c t , t h e q u i c k r e -e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f i n d i v i d u a l l y - o w n e d p l o t s o f l a n d , s t o r e s , c a f e s , a n d t h e l i k e i n t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f Kampuchea p r o v e s w rong s u c h a p r e d i c t i o n . 1 6 6 v a n d e r K r o e f , op. c i t • , p. 1021. 1 6 7 W i l l i a m S h a w c r o s s , S i d e s h o w : N i x o n , K i s s i n g e r a n d t h e  D e s t r u c t i o n o f C ambodia (New Y o r k : Simon a n d S h u s t e r , 1 9 7 9 ) , p . 3 2 1 . 1 6 8 C i t e d i n Ben K i e r n a n , "New L i g h t on t h e O r i g i n s o f t h e V i e t n a m - K a m p u c h e a C o n f l i c t , " B u l l e t i n o f C o n c e r n e d A s i a n  S c h o l a r s , v o l . 12, no. 4 ( O c t o b e r - D e c e m b e r , 1 9 8 0 ) , p.62. 1 6 9 K i e r n a n , " C o n f l i c t i n t h e Kampuchean Communist Movement", op. c i t . , p. 11. 1 7 0 I b i d . , p. 11. 1 7 1 D a v i d P. C h a n d l e r , A H i s t o r y o f C a m b o d i a ( B o u l d e r : W e s t v i e w P r e s s , 1 9 8 3 ) , p. 95. 1 7 2 Ben K i e r n a n , " O r i g i n s o f Khmer Communism", S o u t h e a s t  A s i a n A f f a i r s , S i n g a p o r e : I n s t i t u t e o f S o u t h e a s t A s i a n S t u d i e s ( 1 9 8 1 ) , p. 164. 1 7 3 I b i d . , p. 179. Son Ngoc Thanh was t h e l e a d e r o f t h e Khmer S e r e i movement i n C a m b o d i a . 1 7 " F B I S 31 December 1977. 1 15 1 7 5 B l a c k Book: F a c t s a n d E v i d e n c e o f A c t s o f A g g r e s s i o n  and A n n e x a t i o n o f V i e t n a m A g a i n s t Kampuchea, Phnom P e n h : D e p a r t m e n t o f P r e s s a n d I n f o r m a t i o n o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f F o r e i g n A f f a i r s , ( S e p t e m b e r 1 9 7 8 ) , p. 96. S c h o l a r s s u c h a s D a v i d C h a n d l e r , Ben K i e r n a n , a n d S e r g e T h i o n b e l i e v e P o l P o t i s t h e a u t h o r o f t h e B l a c k Book. 1 7 6 Ben K i e r n a n , How P o l P o t Came t o Power ( L o n d o n : V e r s o P r e s s , 1 9 8 5 ) , p. 415. 1 7 7 I b i d . 1 7 8 I b i d . 1 7 9 C i t e d i n S h a w c r o s s , S i d e s h o w , op. c i t . , p. 372. 1 8 0 C i t e d i n K i e r n a n , "New L i g h t on t h e O r i g i n s o f t h e V i e t n a m - K a m p u c h e a C o n f l i c t " , o p . c i t . , p. 6 1 . 1 8 1 B l a c k Book, op. c i t . , p. 96. 1 8 2 Kampuchea D o s s i e r 1 ( H a n o i : H a n o i C o u r i e r , 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 71 . 1 8 3 C i t e d i n S h a w c r o s s , S i d e s h o w , op. c i t . , p p. 3 8 4 - 3 8 5 . 1 8 4 K i e r n a n , "New L i g h t " , op. c i t . , pp. 6 4 - 6 5 . 1 8 5 Kampuchea D o s s i e r 1, op. c i t . , p. 7 1 . 1 8 6 K i e r n a n , " C o n f l i c t i n t h e Kampuchean Communist Movement", op. c i t . , p. 14. 1 8 7 S i h a n o u k , War a n d Hope op. c i t . , p. 114. 1 8 8 I b i d . , p. 114. 1 8 9 Kampuchea D o s s i e r 1 op. c i t . , p. 75. 1 9 0 C i t e d i n C h a n d l e r , A H i s t o r y o f C a m b o d i a , op. c i t . , p. 1 26. 1 9 1 I n A p r i l 1970, L o n N o l ' s p r o p a g a n d a m a c h i n e r y 1 16 e f f e c t i v e l y w h i p p e d up a n t i - V i e t n a m e s e h y s t e r i a by c l a i m i n g t h a t 400,000 V i e t n a m e s e c i v i l i a n s i n Cambodia were members o f t h e V i e t C o n g . V i e t n a m e s e d e a t h s numbered i n t h e t h o u s a n d s . See S h a w c r o s s , S i d e s h o w , , op. c i t . , p. 132. 1 9 2 J o s e p h J . Z a s l o f f , "Kampuchea: A Q u e s t i o n o f S u r v i v a l " , A m e r i c a n F i e l d S t a f f U n i v e r s i t y R e p o r t s no. 46, ( 1 9 8 0 ) , p. 1. 1 9 3 K i e r n a n a n d B o u a , op. c i t . , p. 232. 1 9 4 I b i d . , p. 232. 1 9 5 Kampuchea D o s s i e r 1, op. c i t . , p. 11. 1 9 6 v a n d e r K r o e f , op. c i t . , p. 1021. 1 9 7 S i h a n o u k , War a n d Hope, p. 45. 1 9 8 I b i d . , p. 46. 1 9 9 I b i d . 2 0 0 A l e x a n d e r W o o d s i d e , " N a t i o n a l i s m and P o v e r t y i n t h e B r e a k d o w n o f S i n o - V i e t n a m e s e R e l a t i o n s " , P a c i f i c A f f a i r s ( v o l . 52, no. 3, F a l l 1 9 7 9 ) , p . 3 9 2 . 2 0 1 I b i d . , p. 393. 2 0 2 Kampuchea D o s s i e r 1. op. c i t . , p. 117. 2 0 3 Nayan C h a n d a , "When t h e K i l l i n g Had t o S t o p " , F a r  E a s t e r n E c o n o m i c R e v i e w , 29 O c t o b e r 1976, p. 20. 2 0 4 Z a s l o f f a nd Brown, op. c i t . , p. 151. 2 0 5 F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c e n t r a l v e r s u s l o c a l d e c i s i o n -m a k i n g i n D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea, s e e A n t h o n y B a r n e t t . 2 0 6 P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , A l e x a n d e r W o o d s i d e , M a r c h 1983. 2 0 7 Z a s l o f f a n d Brown, op. c i t . , p. 150. 2 0 8 F o r an a c c o u n t o f t h e r a t h e r gruesome t o r t u r e s 1 1 7 d e s c r i b e d i n t h e l a w c o d e s o f t h e Khmer k i n g s , s e e W i l f r e d B u r c h e t t , Mekong U p s t r e a m ( B e r l i n : S e v e n S e a s P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 5 9 ) , pp. 6 3 - 8 3 . 2 0 9 M i l t o n O s b o r n e , " R e f l e c t i o n s o f t h e C a m b o d i a n T r a g e d y " , P a c i f i c C ommunity, v o l . 8, no. 1, ( O c t o b e r 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 5. 2 1 0 M i c h a e l V i c k e r y , C a m b o d i a 1975-1982, ( B o s t o n : S o u t h End P r e s s , 1 9 8 4 ) , p. 17 2 1 1 I b i d . , p. 5. 2 1 2 I b i d . , p. 17. 2 1 3 K e v i n R o w l e y , " R o o t s o f D i s o r d e r : Kampuchea's T r a g e d y " , The Age M o n t h l y R e v i e w , M e l b o u r n e , M a r c h 1985. 2 1 a F B I S 18 A p r i l 1977. 118 I V . THE NATURE OF THE RADICAL EXPERIMENT: COMMUNIST, NATIONALIST, POPULIST, ANARCHIST...? M a k i n g r e v o l u t i o n means d e f e n d i n g t h e c o u n t r y a n d p r e s e r v i n g t h e Kampuchean r a c e f o r e v e r , w i t h o u t b e c o m i n g a n y o n e ' s s l a v e s . R a d i o Phnom P e n h , 14 J u n e 1978. The D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchean r e g i m e h a s been l a b e l e d M a r x i s t -L e n i n i s t , M a o i s t , p o p u l i s t and e v e n f a s c i s t 2 1 5 by v a r i o u s o b s e r v e r s o f C a m b o d i a . The v a r i e t y o f p o l i t i c a l l a b e l s s u g g e s t s n o t o n l y a s e m a n t i c a l d e b a t e , b u t a l s o t h e c o n f u s i o n t h a t e x i s t s a b o u t t h e p o l i t i c a l n a t u r e o f D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea. E v e n t h e name " D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea" i s n o t an a c c u r a t e d e p i c t i o n o f t h e p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t y o f C a m b o d i a b e t w e e n 1975 and 1979, a s t h e r e was n o t h i n g e v e n c l o s e l y r e s e m b l i n g a " d e m o c r a t i c " a p p r o a c h t o p o l i c y - m a k i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n t h e P o l P o t r e g i m e . 2 1 6 The e n i g m a t i c c h a r a c t e r o f D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea (DK) r e s i s t s t y p o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s . Y e t , i t i s p r e c i s e l y i t s c h a r a c t e r -- s o s h o c k i n g a n d e x p l o s i v e — w h i c h i n v i t e s i n q u i r y i n t o t h e p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e r a d i c a l e x p e r i m e n t c a r r i e d o u t i n C a m b o d i a . S i n c e no e a s y p o l i t i c a l l a b e l e m e r g e s , i n t h i s f i n a l c h a p t e r , t h e p o l i t i c a l n a t u r e o f D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea w i l l be d i s c u s s e d w i t h r e g a r d t o i t s p o s s i b l e t h e o r e t i c a l o r i g i n s . THE NATIONALIST QUESTION P e r h a p s one o f t h e more c r i t i c a l i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e p o l i t i c a l n a t u r e of D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea, w h i c h i s r e l e v a n t n o t o n l y t o M a r x i s t s c h o l a r s a n d o t h e r s , b u t a l s o t o t h e c u r r e n t s o c i a l i s t l e a d e r s h i p i n Phnom P e n h , i s w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e DK r e g i m e s h o u l d be l a b e l e d a s c o m m u n i s t o r n a t i o n a l i s t . The Heng 119 S a m r i n g o v e r n m e n t i n Phnom Pen h h a s a good d e a l t o g a i n by d i s t a n c i n g i t s e l f p o l i t i c a l l y f r o m t h e P o l P o t r e g i m e . T h u s , e v e n t h o u g h t h e c u r r e n t l e a d e r s i n Phnom Pen h were a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e r a d i c a l e x p e r i m e n t ( a t l e a s t up t o 1978, a t w h i c h t i m e many o f them d e f e c t e d t o V i e t n a m ) t h i s h i s t o r y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n h a s been r e w r i t t e n t o m i n i m i z e t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t i n s u c h a b r u t a l a n d p u b l i c l y d e s p i s e d r e g i m e . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e Heng S a m r i n r e g i m e h a s gone so f a r a s t o s a y t h a t t h e CPK n e v e r f u n c t i o n e d a s an a u t h e n t i c c o m m u n i s t p a r t y i n C a m b o d i a w h i l e P o l P o t was i n p o w e r . 2 1 7 I n December 1981, t h e CPK was d i s s o l v e d by i t s l e a d e r s , i n c l u d i n g P o l P o t . I n f a c t , t h e s e r e m n a n t s o f D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea, now f i g h t i n g on t h e T h a i - C a m b o d i a n b o r d e r , h a v e , s u p e r f i c i a l l y a t l e a s t , s u b s t a n t i a l l y c h a n g e d t h e i r p o l i t i c a l b e l i e f s , c a l l i n g t h e m s e l v e s n o t s o c i a l i s t s o r c o m m u n i s t s , b u t d e m o c r a t s who b e l i e v e i n r e i n s t a t i n g c a p i t a l i s m i n C a m b o d i a . A f t e r t h e CPK was d i s s o l v e d , I e n g S a r y commented t h a t "we h a v e g i v e n up s o c i a l i s m , a t l e a s t f o r a g e n e r a t i o n , p e r h a p s m o r e " . 2 1 8 T h i s v o l t e - f a c e a p p e a r s t o l e n d c r e d e n c e t o t h e c h a r g e l e v e l l e d by t h e Heng S a m r i n r e g i m e a n d i t s s u p p o r t e r s t h a t DK's commitment t o communism was s p u r i o u s . A l t h o u g h t h e CPK r u l e d C a m b o d i a , i t n e v e r p r o c l a i m e d t h a t i t s u l t i m a t e g o a l was a c o m m u n i s t s t a t e , u n l i k e o t h e r r u l i n g c o m m u n i s t p a r t i e s . K h i e u Samphan d i d s t a t e t o S i h a n o u k t h a t C a m b o d i a w o u l d be t h e v e r y f i r s t s t a t e t o a c h i e v e a t y p e o f i n s t a n t communism i n w h i c h t h e n e c e s s a r y h i s t o r i c a l s t a g e s w e r e , i n some m i r a c u l o u s way, l e a p e d o v e r i n t h e C a m b o d i a c o n t e x t . 120 T h i s s t a t e m e n t , a s f a r a s I know, i s t h e o n l y r e f e r e n c e t o t h e CPK's i d e o l o g i c a l commitment t o communism. Y e t i t s message i s more r e v e a l i n g o f t h e r e g i m e ' s s e l f - a g g r a n d i z e m e n t t h a n a n y t h i n g e l s e , s u g g e s t i n g a d e p a r t u r e f r o m r a t h e r t h a n a p o i n t o f c o n v e r g e n c e w i t h c o m m u n i s t s t a t e s e l s e w h e r e . I n d e e d , one o f t h e most s t r i k i n g i m p r e s s i o n s t o be g a i n e d f r o m a s u r v e y o f o f f i c i a l D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea d o c u m e n t s a n d s t a t e m e n t s i s t h e c o m p l e t e a b s e n c e o f r e f e r e n c e s t o M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m , communism, o r t h e r h e t o r i c a l l a n g u a g e t y p i c a l l y u s e d by r e g i m e s c o m m i t t e d t o communism. T h i s d o e s n o t , h o w e v e r , n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t t h e Communist P a r t y o f Kampuchea d i d n o t h a v e c o m m u n i s t g o a l s . And c l e a r l y , a s s t a t e d e a r l i e r i n C h a p t e r One, t h e p a r t y h a d h i s t o r i c a l c o m m u n i s t r o o t s . A l s o , a s p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , t h e CPK was s e c r e t i v e a b o u t many a s p e c t s o f i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n , t o t h e e x t e n t o f c o n c e a l i n g t h e i d e n t i t y o f t h e p a r t y a nd t h e p a r t y ' s l e a d e r s h i p u n t i l 1977, two y e a r s a f t e r i t h a d s e i z e d p o wer. C o n s e q u e n t l y i t i s f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t " a c t i o n s s p e a k l o u d e r t h a n w o r d s " t h a t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e DK e x p e r i m e n t c a n b e t t e r be a n a l y s e d . The CPK's a c t i o n s , s u c h a s t h e e v a c u a t i o n o f t h e c i t i e s , t h e a b o l i t i o n o f t h e money s y s t e m , t h e c l o s u r e o f a l l p r e v i o u s p r i v a t e a n d p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s , t h e a b o l i t i o n o f t h e p e a s a n t s ' and w o r k e r s ' o w n e r s h i p r i g h t s o v e r t h e i r f o r c e s o f p r o d u c t i o n , t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n o f Khmer c u l t u r e , a n d t h e a u s t e r e a n d m i l i t a n t " back t o t h e e a r t h " p e a s a n t s o c i e t y t h a t was e s t a b l i s h e d , were c l e a r d e p a r t u r e s f r o m e x i s t i n g c o m m u n i s t s o c i e t y m o d e l s f o u n d i n t h e S o v i e t U n i o n , C h i n a o r V i e t n a m . Communism, i f i t was a 121 g o a l , was, I b e l i e v e , subsumed by a more c o m p e l l i n g a n d c o m p e t i n g i d e o l o g y , a t l e a s t a f t e r 1975 — t h a t o f n a t i o n a l i s m . N a t i o n a l i s m r e f e r s t o an i d e n t i t y w i t h a n d l o y a l i t y t o / t h e n a t i o n , w h i c h i n t u r n i s "a human g r o u p i n g whose members s h a r e an i n t u i t i v e s e n s e o f k i n d r e d n e s s o r s a m e n e s s , p r e d i c a t e d upon a myth o f common d e s c e n t . " 2 1 9 The c o n c e p t o f t h e Cambodian s t a t e c o i n c i d e s c l o s e l y w i t h t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e Cambodian n a t i o n , s i n c e 90 p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s e t h n i c Khmer. And a s W a l k e r C o n n o r p o i n t s o u t , " I n t h o s e c a s e s i n w h i c h t h e n a t i o n a n d t h e s t a t e e s s e n t i a l l y c o i n c i d e , t h e two l o y a l t i e s [ t o t h e n a t i o n a n d t o t h e s t a t e ] mesh r a t h e r t h a n c o m p e t e . " 2 2 0 Thus C a m b o d i a n n a t i o n a l i s m i s a l o y a l t y i n w h i c h t h e n a t i o n a n d s t a t e " a r e i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l y l i n k e d i n p o p u l a r p e r c e p t i o n . " 2 2 1 I n f a c t , May E b i h a r a ' s r e s e a r c h i n r u r a l C a m b o d i a l e d h e r t o s t a t e t h a t v i l l a g e r s " f r e q u e n t l y u se t h e p h r a s e "we Khmer" ( khmay y o e u n q ) , o r s r o k khmay ( C a m b o d i a ) t o s p e a k o f Cambodia a s a t e r r i t o r i a l n a t i o n a n d C a m b o d i a n s a s an e t h n i c g r o u p . " 2 2 2 T h e r e i s l i t t l e d o u b t t h a t DK l e a d e r s p e r c e i v e d t h e Khmer s t a t e a n d t h e Khmer n a t i o n a s b e i n g one e n t i t y . As S t u a r t - F o x p o i n t s o u t : I n t h e w a r p e d v i e w o f t h e w o r l d w h i c h d e v e l o p e d a nd f e s t e r e d i n t h e m i n d s o f t h e h a n d f u l o f men and women a r o u n d P o l P o t a t t h e summit o f power i n t h e Communist P a r t y o f Kampuchea, t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n h i s t o r y a n d r a c e was c r u c i a l i n t h e i r a s s e s s m e n t b o t h o f t h e d a n g e r s t h e y b e l i e v e d f a c e d t h e Kampuchean s t a t e , a n d o f t h e h i s t o r i c t a s k w h i c h t h e y b e l i e v e d t h e y were c a l l e d upon t o a c c o m p l i s h . B o t h t h e i r own r e v o l u t i o n a r y e x p e r i e n c e , a n d t h e o p p o s i t i o n w h i c h d e v e l o p e d t o t h e i r p o l i c i e s , o n l y s e r v e d t o c o n f i r m them i n t h e i r c o n v i c t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y a s t h e q u i c k e n i n g p a c e o f e v e n t s seemed i n c r e a s i n g l y t o c r e a t e c o n d i t i o n s l e a d i n g t o t h e f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e i r w o r s t f e a r s -i n v a s i o n by V i e t n a m , d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e Kampuchean s t a t e , and t h e t h r e a t o f t h e e v e n t u a l e l i m i n a t i o n o f t h e Khmer r a c e . 2 2 3 122 I t i s a l s o w o r t h r e c a l l i n g a t t h i s t i m e t h a t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e P o l P o t G r o u p , t h e C a m b o d i a n r e v o l u t i o n was a p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s c r u c i a l f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e Khmer r a c e . 2 2 4 C a m b o d i a n n a t i o n a l i s m , p u s h e d t o e x t r e m e s by t h e P o l P o t G r o u p , h a s t h e o r e t i c a l a n d h i s t o r i c a l i m p o r t a n c e f o r t h e n e x u s b e t w e e n communism a n d n a t i o n a l i s m . T h u s , a t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e two c o m p e t i n g i d e o l o g i e s may be o f v a l u e i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e n a t i o n a l i s t n a t u r e o f D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea. C o n n o r p o i n t s o u t t h a t n a t i o n a l i s m and M a r x i s m a r e p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y i n c o m p a t i b l e b e c a u s e i n t h e f i r s t , e t h n o -n a t i o n a l g r o u p s a r e t h e most f u n d a m e n t a l d i v i s i o n i n human s o c i e t y , a n d i n t h e s e c o n d , c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n s a r e t h e most f u n d a m e n t a l d i v i s i o n . I n o t h e r w o r d s , M a r x i s m c l a i m s t o t r a n s c e n d n a t i o n a l i s m a s c l a s s c u t s a c r o s s e t h n o - n a t i o n a l b o u n d a r i e s . A c c o r d i n g t o M a r x , a n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s an " i l l u s o r y communal i n t e r e s t " . 2 2 5 The n a t i o n a l q u e s t i o n i n M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t t h e o r y , t h a t i s " t h e e n t i r e n e t w o r k o f p r o b l e m s a r i s i n g f r o m t h e e x i s t e n c e o f n a t i o n s and n a t i o n a l i t i e s " 2 2 6 , i s a s u b j e c t w h i c h h a s become h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t s i n c e t h e S o v i e t U n i o n emerged as t h e f i r s t c o m m u n i s t s t a t e i n 1917. S i n c e t h a t t i m e , w i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f o t h e r c o m munist s t a t e s , t h e M a r x i s t c o n c e p t s o f w o r l d communism and f r a t e r n i t y among c o m m u n i s t s t a t e s h a v e been t e s t e d . The n a t i o n a l i s t q u e s t i o n i n M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t t h e o r y i s t o o c o m p l e x t o c o v e r a d e q u a t e l y h e r e . H o wever, s i n c e t h e P o l P o t r e g i m e e x i b i t e d more n a t i o n a l i s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t c o m m u n i s t o n e s , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o 1 23 a c k n o w l e g e t h e m a i n t h e o r e t i c a l p a r a m e t e r s o f t h i s i s s u e . 2 2 7 F i r s t o f a l l , i t i s n o t d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d e x a m p l e s o f c o m m u n i s t g o v e r n m e n t s w h i c h h a v e g i v e n p r i o r i t y t o n a t i o n a l a n d / o r s t a t e c o n c e r n s w h i c h a r e i n c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e p r o m o t i o n a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f w o r l d communism a n d p r o l e t a r i a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m . F o r e x a m p l e , E a s t e r n E u r o p e a n c o m m u n i s t p a r t i e s h a v e e x p e r i e n c e d i n t e r n a l f a c t i o n a l i s m due t o t h e d i s p a r a t e e t h n i c l o y a l i t e s o f t h e i r m e m b e r s . 2 2 8 M o r e o v e r , s t a t e -t o - s t a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n c o m m u n i s t p a r t i e s h a v e n o t been exempt f r o m p a r o c h i a l n a t i o n a l i s t c o n c e r n s . I n f a c t , t h i s h i s t o r y w o u l d n o t l i k e l y r e a s s u r e Marx a n d L e n i n t h a t t h e i r a n a l y s e s o f t h e o v e r r i d i n g power o f c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s were c o r r e c t . The c o n f l i c t s a n d r i v a l r i e s b e t w e e n c o m m u n i s t s t a t e s p o i n t up t h e e r r o n e o u s t h i n k i n g o f t h e t h e o r y o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l communi sm. The s o - c a l l e d f r a t e r n i t y among c o m m u n i s t s t a t e s h a s been t h r e a t e n e d r e p e a t e d l y by b o r d e r d i s p u t e s , b i g b r o t h e r c h a u v i n i s m , c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s a n d a g e - o l d h i s t o r i c a l a n i m o s i t i e s . The most r e c e n t b r e a c h o f s o c i a l i s t s o l i d a r i t y was V i e t n a m ' s i n v a s i o n o f C a m b o d i a i n 1979, f o l l o w e d by t h e r e t a l i a t o r y i n v a s i o n o f n o r t h e r n V i e t n a m by C h i n a , an a l l y o f t h e P o l P o t r e g i m e . Commenting on t h e s e two l a t e s t e x a m p l e s o f c o m m u n i s t c o l l i s i o n s , A l e x a n d e r W o o d s i d e a r g u e s c o n v i n c i n g l y t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t n o t t o i n t e r p r e t t h e a n t a g o n i s m b e t w e e n V i e t n a m and C a m b o d i a a s y e t a n o t h e r a c t o f an o n g o i n g h i s t o r i c a l drama t h a t h a s c o n f l i c t i n g v i e w s o f n a t i o n a l a n d r e g i o n a l p o l i t i c s a s i t s m a j o r theme. F i r s t o f a l l , W o o d s i d e w r i t e s , i t 124 i s n o t p o s s i b l e " t o d e f e n d H a n o i f r o m t h e . d a m a g i n g a c c u s a t i o n t h a t i t i s , i n d e e d , r e e n a c t i n g o l d V i e t n a m e s e c o l o n i z i n g p o s t u r e s w i t h r e g a r d t o Camb o d i a a n d L a o s . ( I n much t h e same way, C h i n a ' s p u n i t i v e i n v a s i o n o f V i e t n a m i n 1979 h a s c h i l l i n g e c h o e s i n i t o f t h e Q i n g e m p e r o r Q i a n - l o n g ' s p u n i t i v e a s s a u l t upon T o n k i n -- w h i c h t h e V i e t n a m e s e r o u t e d i n 1 7 8 8 - 8 9 . ) " 2 2 9 J u s t a s I m p e r i a l C h i n a d o m i n a t e d V i e t n a m , so d i d V i e t n a m d o m i n a t e C a m b o d i a . From t h i s h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , W o o d s i d e c o n t i n u e s : ...we a r e w i t n e s s i n g a r e n e w a l o f t r a d i t i o n , s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e p r e c o l o n i a l t r a d i t i o n by w h i c h t h e l a n d l o c k e d Lao p r i n c e s , f a r more w i l l i n g l y t h a n t h e Cambodian o n e s , o f t e n a c c e p t e d V i e t n a m e s e s u z e r a i n t y , p a r t l y i n o r d e r t o g a i n a c c e s s t o t h e c o m m e r c i a l g o o d s o f a w o r l d t r a d i n g s y s t e m w h i c h h a d no d i r e c t i n t e r e s t i n them. C e r t a i n l y , t h e f a i n t , d i s c o r d a n t m u s i c o f much p a s t h i s t o r y c a n be h e a r d i n t h e d i n a r i s i n g f r o m c o n t e m p o r a r y I n d o c h i n a t e n s i o n s . One c a n f i n d e x a m p l e s o f i t i n t h e V i e t n a m e s e newpaper l a m e n t s t h a t t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a a r e t h e "most f a i t h f u l s u c c e s s o r s " o f t h e f e u d a l f i r s t e m p e r o r o f C h i n a . . . 2 3 0 The r e c e n t p o l i t i c a l q u a g m i r e o f i n v a s i o n a n d o c c u p a t i o n i n I n d o c h i n a c a n n o t be d i s c o n n e c t e d f r o m t h e r e g i o n ' s p a s t h i s t o r y s i m p l y b e c a u s e o f i t s p r e s e n t - d a y s o c i a l i s t p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s . What t h e n a r e t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f n a t i o n a l i s t p e r c e p t i o n s and n a t i o n a l b e h a v i o u r f o r M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m ? T h e r e a r e two g e n e r a l r e s u l t s o f what one s c h o l a r h a s c a l l e d t h e " n a t i o n a l v i r u s " . The f i r s t i s t h a t t h e " a d o p t i o n o f M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m a s o f f i c i a l i d e o l o g y h a s n o t e r a s e d t h e i m p a c t o f n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e s and t r a d i t i o n s . " 2 3 1 H e n c e , t h e r e a r e a s many d i f f e r e n t ' m o d e l s ' o f communism a s t h e r e a r e c o m m u n i s t s t a t e s . The s e c o n d r e s u l t i s t h a t n a t i o n a l i s t s e n t i m e n t s a nd d e s i r e s have s o m e t i m e s o v e r t a k e n t h o s e o f M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m a n d w o r l d communism. A l t h o u g h few 1 2 5 w o u l d a r g u e w i t h t h e f i r s t i m p l i c a t i o n , t h e s e c o n d i s a much more c r i t i c a l a s s e r t i o n r e q u i r i n g f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n . C o n n o r ' s t h o u g h t s on t h i s i s s u e a r e w o r t h r e p e a t i n g a t l e n g t h : E v i d e n c e t h a t M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t l e a d e r s h ave n o t been t o t a l l y immune t o n a t i o n a l l y i n s p i r e d e m o t i o n s i s n o t h a r d t o f i n d . B u t i t i s d a n g e r o u s t o jump f r o m t h i s g e n e r a l f i n d i n g t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e s e l e a d e r s h a v e a l l o w e d t h e i r n a t i o n a l i n c l i n a t i o n s t o t a k e p r e c e d e n c e o v e r t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e w o r l d movement. I f , i n m a k i n g d e c i s i o n s , t h e l e a d e r s h a v e been g u i d e d by p r o l e t a r i a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m r a t h e r t h a n by c o n c e r n f o r t h e f o r t u n e s o f a p a r t i c u l a r n a t i o n a l g r o u p , t h e n t h e i r n a t i o n a l i s m , w h i l e o f p a s s i n g i n t e r e s t , d o e s n o t c o n s t i t u t e a v i o l a t i o n o f t h e Communist c r e e d . M a r x a n d E n g e l s d i d n o t o r d a i n t h a t C o m m u n i s t s e r a s e a l l memory o f t h e i r p e r s o n a l n a t i o n a l h e r i t a g e b u t t h a t t h e i r s o l e y a r d s t i c k i n a l l e n d e a v o r s be t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l m o v e m e n t . 2 3 2 From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o v i e w t h e s p l i t s a n d r i v a l r i e s w h i c h d e v e l o p e d b e t w e e n t h e S o v i e t U n i o n a n d C h i n a , a n d b e t w e e n C h i n a and V i e t n a m , t o g i v e o n l y two e x a m p l e s , a s t h e r e s u l t o f t h e v i e w e a c h s t a t e h e l d o f t h e o t h e r a s c r e a t i n g " r e a c t i o n a r y " o r " r e v i s i o n a r y " d i s t o r t i o n s o f M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m . T h u s , l i k e s c o r n e d r e l i g i o u s g r o u p s who a r e c a s t i g a t e d f o r t h e i r wrong i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e B i b l e , t h e K o r a n , o r w h a t e v e r , t h e c o m m u n i s t s t a t e s a l s o h ave t h e i r d o c t r i n a i r e l e a d e r s a n d t h o s e o t h e r s w i t h i c o n o c l a s t i c t e n d e n c i e s . However, C o n n o r a l s o w a r n s t h a t : A p r o g r a m s t r i c t l y l i m i t e d t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r e t h n o n a t i o n a l c o m m u n i t y w o u l d be n a t i o n a l i s t , w h e t h e r i t s s o u r c e s o f i n s p i r a t i o n were M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t , Adam S m i t h o r w h a t e v e r . The i m p o r t a n t p o i n t , h o w e v e r , i s t h a t w h i l e Communist l e a d e r s may f a l l v i c t i m t o t h e n a t i o n a l v i r u s , t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y have d i s g u i s e d t h e m s e l v e s a s n a t i o n a l i s t s i n o r d e r t o m a n i p u l a t e n a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s i s n o t i n i t s e l f an a d e q u a t e symptom t h a t t h e y t h e m s e l v e s have succumbed t o t h e d i s e a s e . . . T h e t e s t must be w h e t h e r t h e i r a c t i o n , r e g a r d l e s s o f i t s n a t i o n a l f o r m , i s e v i d e n t l y a t o d d s w i t h t h e g o a l s of s c i e n t i f i c s o c i a l i s m , o r g o e s w e l l b e y o n d what c o u l d be j u s t i f i e d i n t e r m s o f p r o m o t i n g t h e s e g o a l s . O n l y 1 2 6 i f one o f t h e s e two c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l s c a n we s p e a k w i t h some c e r t a i n t y o f n a t i o n a l i s t m o t i v a t i o n . 2 3 3 T h e r e seems t o be l i t t l e d o u b t t h a t t h e m a j o r p o l i c i e s o f t h e P o l P o t G r o u p were m o t i v a t e d by i t s commitment t o n a t i o n a l i s m a nd t h a t t h e s e c l e a r l y c o n f l i c t e d w i t h t h e g o a l s o f s c i e n t i f i c s o c i a l i s m . The f i r s t i s t h e r e g i m e ' s c o n s t a n t r e m i n d e r t o C a m b o d i a n s t h a t t h e i r s o l e d u t y i n t h e new r e v o l u t i o n a r y s o c i e t y was t o ' b u i l d a nd d e f e n d ' t h e m o t h e r l a n d . S o c i a l l e v e l l i n g was a t t e m p t e d i n a c r u d e w a y — e i t h e r by p h y s i c a l l y e x t e r m i n a t i n g t h e u n p a t r i o t i c c l a s s e n e m i e s o f t h e r e g i m e o r by f o r c i n g them t o l i v e a n d work a s p o o r p e a s a n t s . I n e i t h e r c a s e , t h e a t t e m p t e d e l i m i n a t i o n o f a l l c l a s s e s e x c e p t f o r t h e p o o r p e a s a n t c l a s s seems t o h a v e been m o t i v a t e d by t h e b e l i e f t h a t o n l y t h e p e a s a n t r y was c a p a b l e o f t h e o n e r o u s t a s k o f p r o d u c i n g enough a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c e t o p e r m i t s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y a n d c o m p l e t e i n d e p e n d e n c e . T h u s , t h e e l i t e ' s u s e o f t h e p e a s a n t r y was l i n k e d t o t h e b e n e f i t t o t h e s t a t e a s o p p o s e d t o t h e b e n e f i t t o t h e p e a s a n t s a s a c l a s s . F u r t h e r , i t a p p e a r s t h a t no a t t e m p t was made t o e d u c a t e C a m b o d i a n s a b o u t t h e n e c e s s i t y o f c l a s s s t r u g g l e i n a s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y . As v a n d e r K r o e f n o t e s , " t h e o f f i c i a l c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f most e v e r y o n e a s ' w o r k e r s , f a r m e r s o r o t h e r C a m b o d i a n l a b o u r e r s ' seems t o s u g g e s t , t h e p e t t y a n d n a t i o n a l b o u r g e o i s i e seem t o have become o f f i c i a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t c l a s s e s " . 2 3 4 S e c o n d , t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n o f Khmer s o c i e t y c a r r i e d o u t by t h e CPK l e a d e r s h i p seems t o owe l i t t l e t o t h e M a r x i s t c o n c e p t o f r a i s i n g t h e p o l i t i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f a l l c l a s s e s t h r o u g h a 1 2 7 s o c i a l i s t e d u c a t i o n . I n D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea, s o c i a l i s t e d u c a t i o n , l i k e c l a s s s t r u g g l e , was i g n o r e d c o m p l e t e l y . I f C a m b o d i a n s were t a u g h t a n y t h i n g i t was t o obey t h e f a c e l e s s a u t h o r i t y o f A n k a r . O n l y A n k a r ( p a r o c h i a l name f o r t h e CPK) had t h e " c o r r e c t a n d c l e a r - s i g h t e d " v i s i o n o f t h e n e e d s o f t h e n a t i o n a n d o f t h e s t a t e . T h o s e who d i s o b e y e d were removed f r o m t h e i r homes o r p l a c e s o f w o r k , t a k e n away by DK c a d r e s , a n d n e v e r s e e n a g a i n . A t h i r d f e a t u r e o f D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea w h i c h M a r x i s t s u n d o u b t e d l y f i n d r e p r e h e n s i b l e was t h e r a c i s t a n d c h a u v i n i s t p o l i c i e s . " I m p u r e " C a m b o d i a n s , t h o s e whose e t h n i c o r i g i n was n o t Khmer, o r whose l i f e s t y l e r e f l e c t e d f o r e i g n i n f l u e n c e , were i d e n t i f i e d a n d l a t e r e x e c u t e d . P o l P o t ' s s o c i a l e n g i n e e r i n g c a l l e d f o r t h e w e e d i n g o u t o f t h e n o n - i n d i g e n o u s f e a t u r e s o f Khmer s o c i e t y — t h i s a p p a r e n t l y i n c l u d e d t h e d e s p i s e d V i e t n a m e s e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y , t h e C h i n e s e a n d t h e M u s l i m Cham p o p u l a t i o n s . P e r h a p s t h e most u n m i s t a k a b l e n a t i o n a l l y - i n s p i r e d p o l i c y was t h e d e c i s i o n t o r e t a k e t h e l o s t t e r r i t o r i e s a d m i n i s t e r e d by V i e t n a m i n o r d e r t o r e a s s e r t C a m bodian g r a n d e u r . R a t h e r t h a n accommodate C a m b o d i a ' s n e a r a n d d i s t a n t n e i g h b o u r s a n d make f r i e n d s o u t o f f o e s , a s S i h a n o u k h a d a t t e m p t e d t o d o , t h e P o l P o t G r o u p made t h e d e c i s i o n t o t a k e r e v e n g e a g a i n s t C a m b o d i a ' s t r a d i t i o n a l e n e m i e s . I t was t h i s p o l i t i c a l a i m t h a t p r o v i d e d t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e h o r r i f i c l a b o u r camps i n w h i c h t h e Khmer p o p u l a t i o n was f o r c i b l y o r g a n i z e d , so t h a t i t c o u l d " b u i l d a n d d e f e n d " C a m b o d i a . T e r r i t o r i a l a m b i t i o n s were n o t h i d d e n 128 b e h i n d t h e B r e z h n e v D o c t r i n e c l a i m o f p r o t e c t i n g s o c i a l i s m , h o w e v e r . 2 3 5 P o l P o t most c e r t a i n l y d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h e V i e t n a m e s e s o c i a l i s t m o d e l b u t t h i s was n e v e r s t a t e d a s t h e r e a s o n f o r war t h a t e r u p t e d b e t w e e n Cambodia a n d V i e t n a m . I t i s t e m p t i n g t o v i e w P o l P o t ' s D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea a s a l a t e - b l o o m i n g n a t i o n a l i s m t h a t made up f o r l o s t t i m e w i t h i t s i n t e n s i t y . T h i s i s b e c a u s e C a m b o d i a , u n l i k e many c o l o n i z e d n a t i o n s i n t h e p o s t - W o r l d War I I p e r i o d , d i d n o t h a v e a w i d e s p r e a d n a t i o n a l i n d e p e n d e n c e movement. I t was n o t u n t i l a f t e r S i h a n o u k h a d o b t a i n e d C a m b o d i a ' s i n d e p e n d e n c e f r o m F r a n c e i n 1953 t h a t t h e p e a s a n t s were t a u g h t a b o u t t h e c o n c e p t o f s t a t e h o o d . 2 3 6 I n d e p e n d e n c e was a c h i e v e d by S i h a n o u k w i t h o u t a c a l l t o arms a n d w i t h o u t b l o o d y r e c r i m i n a t i o n s . The t r a d i t i o n a l d e v a r a j a was t h e r e f o r e a b l e t o m a i n t a i n h i s p o s i t i o n a s t h e l e g i t i m a t e r u l e r a t t h e e x p e n s e o f e m e r g i n g r e p u b l i c a n a n d s o c i a l i s t c o n t e n d e r s f o r power. T h u s , a s i n t h e p a s t , t h e p e a s a n t s o b s e r v e d r a t h e r t h a n p a r t i c i p a t e d i n n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s . 2 3 7 The c i v i l war o f 1970 t o 1975 was t h e f i r s t t i m e t h a t s o many o r d i n a r y C a m b o d i a n s were c a l l e d upon t o t a k e s i d e s and d e f e n d t h i s w i t h t h e i r l i v e s . I n t h e p o s t - 1 9 7 5 p e r i o d , C a m b o d i a n s were e x p e c t e d t o s a c r i f i c e t h e i r l i v e s f o r t h e r e v o l u t i o n t h a t w o u l d " p r e s e r v e t h e Kampuchean r a c e f o r e v e r " . I n my v i e w , t h e CPK l e a d e r s ' commitment t o n a t i o n a l i s m s u p e r s e d e d i t s commitment t o communism a f t e r 1975. T h i s i s b e c a u s e t h e P o l P o t G r o u p ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i m m e d i a t e n e e d s o f t h e C a m b o d i a n n a t i o n - s t a t e , e s p e c i a l l y i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e p e r c e i v e d t h r e a t p o s e d by V i e t n a m , l e d i t t o p l a c e n a t i o n a l / 129 s t a t i s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a h e a d o f i m p o r t a n t M a r x i s t t e n e t s , s u c h a s c l a s s s t r u g g l e , s o c i a l i s t e d u c a t i o n , p r o l e t a r i a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m a n d f r a t e r n a l c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e i r s o c i a l i s t n e i g h b o u r , V i e t n a m . C h a n d l e r ' s o b s e r v a t i o n on t h e c h a r a c t e r o f C ambodian n a t i o n a l i s m i s one key t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g i t s c h a u v i n i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i n D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea: The w e i g h t o f t h e p a s t , t h e e m b a r r a s s m e n t o f p r o l o n g e d d e p e n d e n c e , and C a m b o d i a ' s p r e c a r i o u s l o c a t i o n h a v e meant, among o t h e r t h i n g s , t h a t n a t i o n a l i s t s t a t e m e n t s i n C a m b o d i a o f t e n t a k e t h e f o r m o f d i a t r i b e s a g a i n s t t h e V i e t n a m e s e --one o f t h e few h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n s w h i c h t h e P o l P o t r e g i m e a l l o w e d t o f l o u r i s h . C a m b o d i a ' s e t h n i c s i n g u l a r i t y , i n a s e n s e , amounted t o a t e n d e n c y f o r C a m b o d i a n s t o v i s u a l i z e t h e m s e l v e s a s b e i n g n o t V i e t n a m e s e , r a t h e r t h a n a s members o f what B e n e d i c t A n d e r s o n h a s c a l l e d an " i m a g i n e d community"--made up o f T h e r e v a d a B u d d h i s t s , C o m m u n i s t s , o r " S o u t h e a s t A s i a n s " . 2 3 8 E b i h a r a f o u n d i n t h e l a t e 1950's t h a t C a m b o d i a n v i l l a g e r s f e l t a p r o f o u n d h a t r e d o f t h e V i e t n a m e s e : " . . . t h e V i e t n a m e s e ( y u e n ) a r e c a t e g o r i c a l l y , u n c o n d i t i o n a l l y , a nd a c t i v e l y d e t e s t e d . They a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be mean, d e p r a v e d , v i o l e n t , a n d a l t o g e t h e r d i s r e p u t a b l e . " 2 3 9 L i n k e d t o t h e p e c u l i a r l y c h a u v i n i s t i c n a t i o n a l s e n t i m e n t s were t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f what had c a u s e d C a m b o d i a ' s w e a k n e s s . A g a i n a s C h a n d l e r p o i n t s o u t , j u s t a s Cambodian i n t e l l e c t u a l s h a v e m e a s u r e d t h e i r s e n s e o f n a t i o n a n d h i s t o r y a g a i n s t t h a t o f t h e V i e t n a m e s e , t h e y h a v e a l s o done s o w i t h t h e i r e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h e i r own n a t i o n a l w e a k n e s s a n d n a t i o n a l f a i l i n g s : " U n t i l t h e r e v o l u t i o n , C a m b o d i a n s b l a m e d t h e i r h a r d s h i p s on f o r e i g n e r s o r f a i l u r e s o f m e r i t , a n d s u c c e s s e s on t h e e n d u r i n g power o f t h e b u i l d e r s o f A n g k o r . W i t h so much g r a n d e u r a n d s o l i t t l e , s o c i o l o g i c a l l y , t o show f o r i t , C a m b o d i a n s l i k e S i h a n o u k , L o n 1 3 0 N o l , a n d P o l P o t h a v e been u n a b l e t o j o i n t h e s o - c a l l e d f i r s t o r s e c o n d w o r l d s and u n w i l l i n g t o s i n k b a c k i n t o t h e t h i r d . " 2 0 0 P o l P o t ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f Cambodian h i s t o r y , o f i t s g r a n d e u r , a n d o f i t s t r a g e d y , was u n l i k e S i h a n o u k ' s o r L o n N o l ' s , h o w e v e r , i n t h e s e n s e t h a t he i d e n t i f i e d e n d o g e n o u s f e a t u r e s o f C a m b odian s o c i e t y a n d c u l t u r e — a s o p p o s e d t o p u r e l y e x o g e n o u s i n f l u e n c e s -- a s key v a r i a b l e s i n t h e s o c i e t a l / h i s t o r i c a l c a u s e o f C a m b o d i a ' s f a i l u r e t o m a i n t a i n i t s i n d e p e n d e n c e f o r any s i g n i f i c a n t l e n g t h o f t i m e . P o l P o t ' s e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e d e c l i n e o f t h e C ambodian s t a t e a n d i t s s h r i n k i n g t e r r i t o r y , was i t s s u c c e s s i o n o f weak g o v e r n m e n t s c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t " t h e p e o p l e were n o t u n i t e d and d i d n o t j o i n h a n d s t o d e f e n d t h e c o u n t r y " . 2 " 1 The P o l P o t G r o u p b e l i e v e d , e v i d e n t l y , t h a t i f t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l s o c i a l s y s t e m were d e s t r o y e d a n d r e p l a c e d by one c l a s s , t h e p o o r p e a s a n t r y , and r e o r g a n i z e d i n t o c o l l e c t i v e s , t h e n Cambodia c o u l d r e - e m e r g e a n d s u r v i v e a s a s t r o n g , u n i f i e d a n d i n d e p e n d e n t n a t i o n - s t a t e . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s n o t enough s t r o n g e v i d e n c e t o p r o v e t h a t P o l P o t u s e d communism t o s e r v e t h e n e e d s o f t h e n a t i o n , t h e f o l l o w i n g s p e e c h by t h e l e a d e r d o e s seem t o s u g g e s t t h a t he b e l i e v e d t h a t s o c i a l i s m c o u l d be u s e d e f f e c t i v e l y t o a c h i e v e t h e g o a l o f s t a t e s u r v i v a l . W i t h o u t a s o c i a l i s t c o l l e c t i v e s y s t e m , we w o u l d n e v e r be a b l e t o d e f e n d o u r c o u n t r y , we w o u l d l o s e o u r c o u n t r y and o u r Kampuchean r a c e w o u l d d i s a p p e a r . I n f a c t , o u r s o c i a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n , h a s s e t up a s t r o n g b a s e f o r o u r c o l l e c t i v e s y s t e m i n o u r n a t i o n , t h u s t u r n i n g t h e w h o l e c o u n t r y i n t o a b u l w a r k w h i c h c a n t o t a l l y a n d i n d e p e n d e n t l y g u a r a n t e e o u r n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e t a s k . 2 " 2 The p r i m a r y s o c i e t a l v a l u e t a r g e t e d by P o l P o t was t h e 1 3 1 s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y t h a t p e r m i t t e d t h e r u l e r s t o e x p l o i t t h e p e o p l e . E x p l o i t a t i o n l e d t o p o w e r l e s s n e s s and p o w e r l e s s n e s s seemed t o i n v i t e f o r e i g n i n v a s i o n a n d o c c u p a t i o n . Thus t h e c o n c e p t o f s t r u g g l e b e t w e e n khmang ( e n e m i e s ) was i n t r o d u c e d by t h e CPK a s a method by w h i c h t o o v e r c o m e h i e r a r c h i c a l a nd e x p l o i t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e r u l e r s a nd t h e r u l e d , t h e c a p i t a l i s t s a n d t h e w o r k e r s / p e a s a n t s , t h e monks a n d t h e l a y p e o p l e , g r a n d f a t h e r s a n d g r a n d s o n s , h u s b a n d s and w i v e s , t h e e l d e r l y a n d t h e y o u n g , and so f o r t h . The c o n c e p t o f " s t r u g g l e " b e t w e e n e n e m i e s went f u r t h e r t h a n t h a t o f M a r x i s t " c l a s s s t r u g g l e " b e t w e e n d i s t i n c t e c o n o m i c g r o u p s i n t h a t t h e a b u n d a n c e o f h i e r a r c h i c a l d y a d i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n Cambodian s o c i e t y , r e f l e c t e d i n t h e s h e e r number o f p r o n o u n s i n t h e Khmer l a n g u a g e , was b a s e d on v a r i a b l e s o t h e r t h a n e c o n o m i c s f o r t h e most p a r t . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , l a n g u a g e and b e h a v i o u r b a s e d on o n e ' s a g e , s e x , r e l i g i o u s p o s i t i o n , a n d r e l a t i o n t o r o y a l t y were p r o h i b i t e d . As C h a n d l e r r e m a r k s : The l o y a l t i e s w h i c h , h o w e v e r m i s t a k e n l y , were r e a s s u r i n g t o many o r d i n a r y p e o p l e ( r e v e r e n c e f o r t e a c h e r s and g r a n d p a r e n t s , f o r e x a m p l e ) , s t o o d i n t h e way o f l i b e r a t i o n . O n l y l i b e r a t e d p e o p l e , a f t e r a l l , c o u l d be b r o u g h t t o e n j o y t h e u n e a s y s o l i d a r i t y o f u n r a n k e d g r o u p s . And i t was i n t h e s e " s o l i d a r i t y g r o u p s " a s t h e y were c a l l e d , t h a t p o s t -l i b e r a t i o n c i t i z e n s were a s k e d t o submerge t h e m s e l v e s , no l o n g e r f o r t h e p l e a s u r e o f a l a r g e r p e r s o n , b u t f o r t h e g r e a t e r g o o d . I t m i g h t be a r g u e d , i n f a c t , t h a t a l m o s t e v e r y a s p e c t o f t r a d i t i o n a l C a m b o d i a n b e h a v i o u r s t o o d i n t h e way o f l i b e r a t i o n . L i k e t h e c i t y o f Ben T r e i n t h e V i e t n a m w a r , C a m bodian s o c i e t y h a d t o be d e s t r o y e d i n o r d e r t o s a v e i t . 2 4 3 T h i s a n a r c h i c t e n d e n c y w i l l be f u r t h e r e x p l o r e d l a t e r . I n t h e m e a n t i m e , h o w e v e r , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o n o t e t h a t , w h i l e t h e P o l P o t G r o u p t a r g e t e d i n t e r n a l s o c i e t a l p r o b l e m s a s a m a i n c a u s e o f 1 32 C a m b o d i a ' s d e c l i n e , i t d i d n o t a b a n d o n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l v i e w t h a t i m m i n e n t f o r e i g n t h r e a t s were a l s o t o b l a m e . The p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e V i e t n a m e s e a s t h e f o r e m o s t enemy was a c r u c i a l component o f t h e DK " m i n d - s e t " w h i c h h a d been i n h e r i t e d f r o m i t s own r e v o l u t i o n a r y e x p e r i e n c e v i s - a - v i s t h e VWP a s w e l l a s f r o m t h e S i h a n o u k and L o n N o l r e g i m e s . I n f a c t , S i h a n o u k , Lo n N o l a n d P o l P o t s h a r e d a t r a d i t i o n a l i s t v i e w o f t h e C ambodian s t a t e i n r e l a t i o n t o V i e t n a m . A c c o r d i n g t o C h a n d l e r , " . . . i n l a u n c h i n g t h e a t t a c k s a g a i n s t " e n e m i e s o f t h e s t a t e " i n o r d e r t o r e c a p t u r e C a m b o d i a ' s n a t i o n a l g r e a t n e s s , P o l P o t a n d h i s c o l l e a g u e s a p p e a r t o h a v e been swept a l o n g by c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w h i c h p r e d a t e d t h e a r r i v a l o f s o c i a l i s m i n C a m b o d i a a n d w h i c h , t h e y assumed, r a n more d e e p l y among o r d i n a r y p e o p l e t h a n many o f t h e i r more r e c e n t l y a c q u i r e d s o c i a l i s t i d e a s . I n t h e e y e s o f t h e P o l P o t f a c t i o n , t h e C a m b o d i a n " r a c e " , l o c k e d i n combat w i t h V i e t n a m , a s i t h a d been a g a i n s t t h e Chams u n d e r J a y a r v a r m a n V I I , was a c t i n g o u t t h e e s s e n t i a l drama o f i t s h i s t o r y . " 2 " 4 I n d e e d , t h e r e seems t o be l i t t l e r e a s o n t o d o u b t t h e s i n c e r i t y o f P o l P o t ' s f e a r t h a t t h e V i e t n a m e s e w o u l d submerge Cambodia i n an I n d o c h i n a F e d e r a t i o n . T h a t t h e P o l P o t G r o u p made t h e s e e m i n g l y i r r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n t o p i t i t s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l army a g a i n s t t h a t o f t h e p o w e r f u l V i e t n a m e s e army s u g g e s t s t h a t i t b a d l y o v e r e s t i m a t e d i t s own c a p a b i l i t i e s a n d p r o b a b l y u n d e r e s t i m a t e d t h o s e o f i t s enemy a s w e l l . B u t , l i k e S i h a n o u k a n d Lon N o l , P o l P o t c o u l d n o t a c c e p t t h e i d e a t h a t C ambodia was a s m a l l n a t i o n whose d e s t i n y was i n e x t r i c a b l y l i n k e d w i t h i t s g e o p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n . A r g u a b l y , t h e s h r i l l s t a t e - n a t i o n a l i s t f e r v o u r o f t h e 1 3 3 P o l P o t G r o u p was c a p a b l e o f s u c h s e l f - d e c e p t i o n t h a t t h e r e g i m e was l e d t o b e l i e v e i n i t s i n f a l l i b i l i t y , when i t was, i n f a c t , o n t h e v e r g e o f b e i n g d e m o l i s h e d by t h e V i e t n a m e s e army. T h u s , w h i l e t h e P o l P o t G r o u p ' s n a t i o n a l i s t o r i e n t a t i o n may h a v e been m o t i v a t e d by i t s d e s i r e t o s t r e n g t h e n and r e v i t a l i z e t h e Khmer n a t i o n - s t a t e , o v e r z e a l o u s a n d x e n o p h o b i c t e n d e n c i e s i n s p i r e d i t s f a t a l l y u n r e a l i s t i c p e r c e p t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g V i e t n a m . . _____ So f a r I have a r g u e d t h a t t h e a c t u a l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f s u c h p o l i c i e s a s d e u r b a n i z a t i o n , r u r a l c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n , t h e a b o l i t i o n o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y a n d p o s s e s s i o n s , a n d s o c i a l l e v e l l i n g , were p u s h e d t o s u c h u n p r e c e d e n t e d e x t r e m e s i n D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea t h a t t h e C a m b o d i a n e x p e r i m e n t may s t i l l be a n o t h e r s o c i a l i s t ' m o d e l ' , n o t e d f o r i t s d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h e p a t h o f i t s p r e d e c e s s o r s . Y e t , w h i l e t h e p o l i c i e s t h e m s e l v e s may p r e s e n t a s h a r p c o n t r a s t w i t h a g r a r i a n - b a s e d s o c i a l i s t c o u n t r i e s , s u c h a s C h i n a , t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l m o t i v a t i o n s f o r t h e "back t o t h e e a r t h " s o c i e t y were n o t e x c l u s i v e t o Cambodian c o m m u n i s t s . I n f a c t , t h e r u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n a n d s o c i a l e g a l i t a r i a n i s m o f CPK i d e o l o g y i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h e c o n c e p t s u n d e r p i n n i n g M aoism and U t o p i a n S o c i a l i s m , a l t h o u g h t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s a r e , f o r t h e most p a r t , u n a c k n o w l e d g e d . AGRARIAN UTOPIANISM As a p o i n t o f i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n M a o i s m a n d what c o u l d be c a l l e d P o l P o t i s m , i t may be u s e f u l t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h a t b o t h i d e o l o g i e s were i n f l u e n c e d by t h e p r e d o m i n a n t l y p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c e n v i r o n m e n t s i n w h i c h t h e y d e v e l o p e d . T h i s p o i n t i s i m p o r t a n t , b e c a u s e , 1 3 4 a c c o r d i n g t o M a r x and L e n i n , t h e f u l l d e v e l o p m e n t o f c a p i t a l i s m was t h e r e q u i s i t e f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e s o c i a l a nd h i s t o r i c a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r p r o l e t a r i a n s o c i a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n . M a u r i c e M e i s n e r s t a t e s : I t i s one o f t h e g r e a t i r o n i e s o f modern h i s t o r y t h a t M a r x i s m , a t h e o r y a d d r e s s e d t o t h e u r b a n w o r k i n g c l a s s o f a d v a n c e d i n d u s t r i a l n a t i o n s , s h o u l d h a v e become t h e d o m i n a n t i d e o l o g y o f a n t i - c a p i t a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n a r y movements i n " b a c k w a r d " p e a s a n t c o u n t r i e s . And i t i s one o f t h e i r o n i e s o f t h e h i s t o r y o f M a r x i s m t h a t many c o n t e m p o r a r y v e r s i o n s o f t h e t h e o r y i n c o r p o r a t e s o c i a l i s t i d e a s a n d c o n c e p t i o n s Marx and L e n i n condemned a s "Utopian" and " r e a c t i o n a r y " . 2 4 5 L e n i n c a s t i g a t e d t h e p r o g r a m N a d v o c a t e d by t h e " U t o p i a n S o c i a l i s t s " a s " t h e c a r r i e r s o f a r e a c t i o n a r y p e t t y - b o u r g e o i s i d e o l o g y t h a t r e p r e s e n t e d t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e doomed s m a l l p r o d u c e r " a n d w h i c h p r o m o t e d " s t a g n a t i o n and A s i a t i c b a c k w a r d n e s s " . 2 4 6 Y e t t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y c a p a c i t y o f n o n -c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s was p r o v e n by t h e C h i n e s e r e v o l u t i o n a l m o s t f o u r d e c a d e s a g o . U t o p i a n S o c i a l i s t t h e o r i s t s v i e w e d t h e u r b a n c e n t r e s a s s o u r c e s o f i n e q u a l i t y a n d i n j u s t i c e . They a r g u e d t h a t i n o r d e r f o r a g r i c u l t u r e t o be r e s t o r e d t o " i t s a n c i e n t p r i m a c y a n d g l o r y " , t h e c i t i e s s h o u l d be e v a c u a t e d "by s c a t t e r i n g t h e i r i n h a b i t a n t s o v e r t h e c o u n t r y t o l i v e i n h e a l t h y s m i l i n g v i l l a g e s " . 2 4 7 M o r e o v e r , t h e s e v i l l a g e s were t o be o r g a n i z e d on t h e b a s i s o f s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y a n d communal s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . M e i s n e r , r e f e r r i n g t o R u s s i a n Utopian t h i n k e r s , e x p l a i n s f u r t h e r : I n t h i s i d e a l s o c i e t y , t h e r e w o u l d be no n e e d f o r f o r m a l i n s t i t u t i o n s o f e d u c a t i o n , f o r t h e y o u n g w o u l d e d u c a t e t h e m s e l v e s s p o n t a n e o u s l y i n a n a t u r a l s o c i a l s e t t i n g b a s e d on t h e u n i t y o f l i v i n g a n d w o r k i n g ; a n d t h e r e w o u l d be no 1 3 5 p l a c e f o r u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t e d i n t e l l e c t u a l s , whose s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g n e c e s s a r i l y c r e a t e d a s h a r p s e p a r a t i o n b e t w e e n m e n t a l a n d m a n u a l l a b o u r i n c o n g r u o u s w i t h t h e new o r d e r . 2 " 8 The m a j o r i d e a s o f U t o p i a n S o c i a l i s m , t h e e g a l i t a r i a n i s m b r o u g h t a b o u t by i m m e d i a t e s o c i a l l e v e l l i n g , t h e m o r a l l y s p a r t a n a n d s i m p l e l i f e s t y l e on r u r a l communes, and a r e j e c t i o n o f i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m a nd u r b a n i z a t i o n c o r r e s p o n d w i t h p o l i c i e s p r a c t i c e d i n D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea. L i k e t h e U t o p i a n S o c i a l i s t s a n d l i k e Mao T s e - t u n g , P o l P o t l o o k e d t o t h e p e a s a n t s , n o t t h e u r b a n w o r k e r s t o f i n d t h e s o u r c e s o f s o c i a l i s t a n d r e v o l u t i o n a r y d e v e l o p m e n t . The a n t i - u r b a n b i a s o f t h e P o l P o t G r o u p s t e m s f r o m i t s p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e c i t i e s a s f o r e i g n - d o m i n a t e d , c e n t r e s o f i m p e r i a l i s t p e n e t r a t i o n , where m o r a l c o r r u p t i o n was rampant an d where b o u r g e o i s i n d i v i d u a l i s m f l o u r i s h e d . T h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e c i t i e s was i n c o n t r a s t t o t h a t o f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e . F o r t h e P o l P o t G r o u p , a s f o r Mao, /^he c i t y came t o be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h a l i e n i n f l u e n c e s , a n d t h e c o u n t r y s i d e w i t h t h e n a t i o n . " 2 " 9 ^ Thus t h i s a n t i - u r b a n a n d u l t i m a t e l y a n t i - i n d u s t r i a l i d e o l o g y i s t h e c o m p l e t e o p p o s i t e o f M a r x ' s v i e w t h a t " t h e r i s e o f c a p i t a l i s m was n o t o n l y i n s e p a r a b l e f r o m t h e d o m i n a n c e o f town o v e r c o u n t r y s i d e , i t a l s o f o r e s h a d o w e d t h e d o m i n a n c e o f u r b a n i z e d i n d u s t r i a l n a t i o n s o v e r r u r a l p e a s a n t c o u n t r i e s " . 2 5 0 The e m p h a s i s on a g r a r i a n s o c i a l i s m i n t h e s o - c a l l e d t h i r d w o r l d c o m m u n i t y o f c o m m u n i s t s t a t e s i s p e r h a p s t h e most c l e a r -c u t e x a m p l e o f t h e v e r y l i m i t e d a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f c l a s s i c a l M a r x i s m . T h u s , i t s h o u l d n o t be t o o s u r p r i s i n g t h a t s o c i a l i s t l e a d e r s i n a g r a r i a n s o c i e t i e s s h o u l d f i n d U t o p i a n S o c i a l i s t t h o u g h t more r e v e l a n t t o t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r e c o n o m i c e n v i r o n m e n t . 1 3 6 P o l P o t was no e x c e p t i o n . F u r t h e r , C ambodia had n o t d e v e l o p e d i n d u s t r i a l l y a nd i t w o u l d n o t , t h e r e f o r e , h a v e been p o s s i b l e f o r t h e CPK t o embark on an i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n a n d m o d e r n i z a t i o n d r i v e w i t h o u t t h e b e n e f i t o f s u b s t a n t i a l amounts o f f o r e i g n c a p i t a l . B u t d e p e n d e n c e on o u t s i d e r s was u n a c c e p t a b l e b e c a u s e i t h a d b e e n t h e c a u s e o f C a m b o d i a ' s l o s s o f i n d e p e n d e n c e i n t h e p a s t ; t h e e m p h a s i s on a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t was, t h e r e f o r e , t h e o n l y e c o n o m i c a l t e r n a t i v e p e r c e i v e d by t h e P o l P o t Group . - / ^ A A j V i c k e r y h a s o u l i n e d t h e ways i n w h i c h D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea s t r o n g l y r e s e m b l e d Thomas M o r e ' s U t o p i a ' : " t h e r i g i d l y e g a l i t a r i a n communism, i d e n t i c a l c l o t h e s and h o u s e s , t h e l a t t e r o f w h i c h a r e c h a n g e d r e g u l a r l y ; i d e n t i c a l f i x e d w o r k i n g h o u r s , mass l e c t u r e s , communal f a r m s a n d communal d i n i n g h a l l s ; s h i f t i n g o f c h i l d r e n o u t o f f a m i l i e s ; s t r i c t r u l e s on s e x u a l m o r a l i t y ; no money an d c o n t e m p t f o r g o l d " . 2 5 1 U t o p i a s , h o w e v e r , a s i d e f r o m t h o s e b u i l t by i n d i v i d u a l s i n f r o n t i e r l a n d s , a r e n o t a c h i e v e d w i t h o u t a g ood d e a l o f d e s t r u c t i o n . And t h e d e s t r u c t i v e c h a r a c t e r o f D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea seems t o owe a g r e a t d e a l t o a n a r c h i s t t a c t i c s , b a s e d on t h e i d e a t h a t t h e t o t a l d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e e x i s t i n g s o c i e t y i s n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e a U t o p i a n s o c i e t y c a n be e s t a b l i s h e d . The m a s s i v e d e s t r u c t i o n o f C a m b o d i a ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s , v a l u e s , c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s , a n d s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e s B a k u n i n ' s s t r a t e g y o f a n a r c h i s t r e v o l u t i o n i n w h i c h " . . . o f t h e p r e s e n t o r d e r o f t h i n g s . . . n o t a s t o n e w i l l be l e f t s t a n d i n g . " 2 5 2 P o l P o t ' s w o r d s c a r r y t h e same m e s s a g e : "...we want t o p u t an end o n ce and f o r a l l t o a l l r e m n a n t s o f t h e p a s t . " 2 5 3 1 3 7 The a n a r c h i s t v i s i o n o f p o s t - r e v o l u t i o n a r y s o c i e t y , u n f e t t e r e d by t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e s t a t e a n d e x p l o i t i n g c l a s s e s , i s n o t u n l i k e t h a t o f t h e U t o p i a n S o c i a l i s t s . The f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t by J o l l on a n a r c h i s t i d e o l o g y c o u l d a l s o be a p p l i e d t o t h a t o f t h e P o l P o t G r o u p : . . . a n a r c h i s t s a r e a l l a g r e e d t h a t i n t h e new s o c i e t y man w i l l l i v e i n e x t r e m e s i m p l i c i t y a n d f r u g a l i t y a n d w i l l be q u i t e h appy t o do w i t h o u t t h e t e c h n i c a l a c h i e v e m e n t s o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l a g e . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , much a n a r c h i s t t h i n k i n g seemed t o be b a s e d on a r o m a n t i c , b a c k w a r d - l o o k i n g v i s i o n o f an i d e a l i z e d p a s t s o c i e t y o f a r t i s a n s a n d p e a s a n t s , a n d on a t o t a l r e j e c t i o n o f t h e r e a l i t i e s o f t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c o r g a n i z a t i o n . 2 5 " V i c k e r y b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e P o l P o t G r o u p was "overcome by p e a s a n t r o m a n t i c i s m " , c a l l i n g t h e r e g i m e p e a s a n t - P o p u l i s t . 2 5 5 I f P o p u l i s m i s , a s V i c k e r y s t a t e s , "an a n t i - i n t e l l e c t u a l i d e o l o g y . . . a c o n s e r v a t i v e u t o p i a n i s m , a b e l i e f i n t h e s a c r e d n e s s o f t h e s o i l a n d t h o s e who t i l l i t , i n t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e s t a t u s o f a l l c u l t i v a t o r s . . . t h e s u p r e m a c y o f t h e w i l l o f t h e ' p e o p l e ' o v e r e v e r y o t h e r s t a n d a r d " 2 5 6 , i t seems h a r d t o b e l i e v e t h a t P o l P o t was p r o - p e a s a n t . The p e a s a n t s , a f t e r a l l , s u f f e r e d e x t r e m e h a r d s h i p s a l o n g w i t h e v e r y o n e e l s e -- f o o d d e p r i v a t i o n , t h e l a c k o f r e l i g i o u s f r e e d o m , t h e communual d i n i n g h a l l s , no f r e e d o m t o t r a v e l o u t s i d e t h e v i l l a g e compound, t h e a t o m i z a t i o n o f t h e f a m i l y — a l l were p o l i c i e s t h a t were p e r c e i v e d by t h e p e a s a n t s a s n o t b e i n g i n t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s . V i c k e r y d o e s n o t a d e q u a t e l y a c k n o w l e d g e t h e i n t e n s e u n p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e s e p o l i c i e s among t h e p e a s a n t r y . M o r e o v e r , r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g swept away by p e a s a n t demands, a s V i c k e r y a r g u e s , t h e P o l P o t G r o u p was i n f i r m c o n t r o l o f t h e e n t i r e C a m b odian p o p u l a t i o n . I t 138 r e g u l a t e d e v e r y a s p e c t o f l i f e , s u c h a s w a k i n g a n d s l e e p i n g t i m e s , w o r k i n g h o u r s a n d w o r k i n g t a s k s , t h e amount o f f o o d t o be e a t e n , c l o t h e s t o be w o r n , p e r m i s s a b l e c o n d u c t a n d so f o r t h . The " b a c k t o t h e e a r t h " p o l i c y was m o t i v a t e d by t h e p o l i t i c a l a i m s o f s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e a n d by t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e p o o r - p e a s a n t c l a s s was t h e most p u r e , t h e l e a s t t o u c h e d by f o r e i g n i n f l u e n c e , a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e most c a p a b l e o f a c h i e v i n g r e v o l u t i o n a r y g o a l s . The Cambodian p e a s a n t r y was u s e d t o b u i l d t h e s t a t e i n D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea much t h e same way i t was u s e d by t h e A n g k o r e a n k i n g s t o p r o d u c e r i c e a n d b u i l d t e m p l e s f o r t h e k i n g d o m . T h e s e f e a t u r e s p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e P o l P o t G r o u p c o u l d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d p o p u l i s t , b o t h i n i t s f o r m ( a u t h o r i t a r i a n ) a n d i n t h e c o n t e n t o f i t s p o l i c i e s . T h e r e a r e g r o u n d s f o r c o m p a r i n g t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c i e s o f Mao's C h i n a a n d P o l P o t ' s C a m b o d i a . I t may be s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h e P o l P o t G r o u p c a l l e d i t s a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y t h e 'Super G r e a t L e a p F o r w a r d ' , a c l e a r l i n g u i s t i c b o r r o w i n g f r o m Mao's G r e a t L e a p F o r w a r d c a m p a i g n o f 1958 t o 1960. R e a l i z i n g t h a t t h e m o d e r n i z a t i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e was n o t k e e p i n g p a c e w i t h t h a t o f t h e c i t i e s , Mao h o p e d t o " l e a p " t o w a r d communism by d e v e l o p i n g r u r a l communes a n d p e a s a n t c o n s c i o u s n e s s . M e i s n e r n o t e s : " I n t h e new r u r a l communes M a o i s t s w o u l d f i n d what a p p e a r e d t o be t h e i d e a l a g e n c y t o r e c o n c i l e t h e means a n d t h e ends o f s o c i a l i s m , a g e n c i e s t h a t w o u l d s e r v e t h e needs o f modern e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t a t t h e same t i m e t h e y s e r v e d a s t h e b a s i c s o c i a l u n i t s f o r C h i n a ' s " l e a p " t o a c o m m u n i s t U t o p i a . " 2 5 7 An i m p o r t a n t g o a l o f Mao's G r e a t L e a p F o r w a r d was t o 139 e l i m i n a t e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e u r b a n a n d r u r a l a r e a s . I t was t h e " p i o n e e r i n g p e a s a n t s " who c o u l d s e r v e t o r e g e n e r a t e C h i n a ' s economy on s o u n d s o c i a l i s t p r i n c i p l e s . P o l P o t ' s r e l i a n c e on t h e p e a s a n t r y c o u l d w e l l h ave been i n s p i r e d by M a o i s t d e v e l o p m e n t s i n t h e l a t e 1 9 5 0 ' s . As V i c k e r y n o t e s : "The " v a s t i r r i g a t i o n a n d w a t e r - c o n s e r v a t i o n c a m p a i g n s " begun a l r e a d y i n 1957, i n w h i c h p e a s a n t l a b o u r was b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r i n b r i g a d e s a n d work teams t h a t " f u n c t i o n e d w i t h m i l i t a r i s t i c d i s c i p l i n e t o p e r f o r m s p e c i a l i z e d l a b o u r t a s k s " seem c l e a r l y t o p r e f i g u r e what was c a r r i e d o u t i n Cambodia two d e c a d e s l a t e r . " 2 5 8 The r a d i c a l M a o i s t s i n C h i n a a l s o c a l l e d f o r t h e a b o l i t i o n o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y b e l o n g i n g t o i n d i v i d u a l s . M e i s n e r n o t e s t h a t i n a r e a s "where c o m m u n a l i z a t i o n was most r a d i c a l l y p u r s u e d , e v e r y t h i n g f r o m homes t o c o o k i n g u t e n s i l s , f u r n i t u r e a n d w a t c h e s were c o l l e c t i v i z e d a n d t u r n e d o v e r t o t h e commune -- a t l e a s t i n t h e o r y . " 2 5 9 P o l P o t ' s c o m m u n a l i z a t i o n was p u r s u e d r a d i c a l l y i n e v e r y p a r t o f t h e c o u n t r y . W h i l e i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e s o f M a o i s m on P o l P o t i s m , i t i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y t o d e l i n e a t e t h e p o i n t a t w h i c h P o l P o t ' s G r e a t L e a p t o o k on i t s own c h a r a c t e r . P e r h a p s t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t a c c o u n t i n g f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n M a o i s t a n d P o l P o t i s t c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n i s t h a t o f i n t e n t . F o r one t h i n g , t h e C h i n e s e communes were i n t e n d e d t o make an i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f s t a t e p o w e r , t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t " t h e w i t h e r i n g away o f t h e s t a t e " was a r e p e a t e d c l a i m i n C h i n a 1 4 0 d u r i n g t h e G r e a t L e a p F o r w a r d . 2 6 0 I n C a m b o d i a , t h e s t a t e c o n t r o l l e d a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e l a b o u r a n d p r o d u c e on t h e communes; h u n g e r was d e l i b e r a t e l y u s e d a s a weapon t o c r e a t e d e p e n d e n c e on A n g k a r . S e c o n d , t h e r e was n o t t h e a n t i - i n d u s t r y , a n t i - u r b a n i d e o l o g y u n d e r p i n n i n g t h e C h i n e s e p r o g r a m a s t h e r e was i n t h e C a m b o d i a n one. F i n a l l y , t h e C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s d i d n o t i g n o r e t h e s e r i o u s p r o b l e m s o f mismanagement, t h e c o n s e q u e n c e o f w h i c h w o u l d l e a d t o f o o d s h o r t a g e s a n d f a m i n e c o n d i t i o n s . P r i v a t e o w n e r s h i p o f l a n d was p a r t i a l l y r e s t o r e d , f r e e m a r k e t s were p e r m i t t e d t o o p e r a t e a n d f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s r e -e m e r g e d . M o r e o v e r , t h e u r b a n c e n t r e s p r e v e n t e d t h e c o m p l e t e c o l l a p s e o f C h i n a ' s r u r a l economy: "From t h e c i t i e s came e m e r g e n c y a i d i n t h e f o r m o f i n s e c t i c i d e s , c h e m i c a l f e r t i l i z e r s , a n d s m a l l f a r m t o o l s " a n d " h u n d r e d s o f t h o u s a n d s o f t r a i n e d s p e c i a l i s t s " . 2 6 1 I n C a m b o d i a , t h e r e were no c i t i e s t o p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e C a m b o d i a n c o u n t r y s i d e . The r e s u l t was c h a o s e a r t h e n dams b r o k e , i r r i g a t i o n c a n a l s d r i e d up b e f o r e w a t e r r e a c h e d t h e r i c e f i e l d s , a n d e f f o r t s t o use u n a r a b l e l a n d f a i l e d . P e o p l e s t a r v e d t o d e a t h . I n s t r i c t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t e r m s , t h e e n f o r c e d c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n d r i v e i n C a m b o d i a was v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h a t i n S t a l i n i s t R u s s i a . I n t h e S o v i e t U n i o n , t h e p e a s a n t r y t o i l e d t o pay f o r i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n ; i n D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea s u r p l u s r i c e , b a d l y n e e d e d by a s t a r v i n g p o p u l a t i o n , was u s e d t o buy m i l i t a r y e q u i p m e n t w i t h w h i c h t o wage war a g a i n s t V i e t n a m . 2 6 2 As L e s z e k K a l i k o w s k i c o n c l u d e s , " t h e p e a s a n t r y was t i e d t o t h e s o i l a s i n t h e w o r s t d a y s o f f e u d a l i s m " . 2 6 3 1 4 1 C o n c l u s i o n The C ambodian r e v o l u t i o n e x h i b i t e d a l l o f t h e p r e c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h a r e g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be n e c e s s a r y a n d s u f f i c i e n t f o r r e v o l u t i o n t o o c c u r . And o f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e Communist P a r t y o f Kampuchea was a b l e t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f e x i s t i n g p r e c o n d i t i o n s a n d o r g a n i z e a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n t o o v e r t h r o w t h e g o v e r n m e n t and s e i z e p o w e r . Once i n p o w e r , t h e CPK was u n a b l e t o m a i n t a i n i t s e l f f o r v e r y l o n g . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e CPK r e v o l u t i o n a r y r e g i m e , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s x e n o p h o b i c a n d c h a u v i n i s t i c n a t i o n a l i s m , u l t i m a t e l y f a i l e d . The p r i m a r y c a u s e o f t h i s f a i l u r e was t h e P o l P o t G r o u p ' s a t t e m p t t o l a u n c h m i l i t a r y a t t a c k s a g a i n s t V i e t n a m , an enemy t h a t was a n d c o n t i n u e s t o be much more p o w e r f u l t h a n C a m b o d i a . The d o m e s t i c p o l i c i e s o f t h e P o l P o t G r o u p were e x c e s s i v e l y r a d i c a l . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e Cambodian c o m m u n i s t s were n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n h e e d i n g t h e l e s s o n s t h a t t h e R u s s i a n , C h i n e s e o r V i e t n a m e s e c o m m u n i s t s had l e a r n e d f r o m t h e e x c e s s e s o f t h e i r own r e v o l u t i o n a r y z e a l i n t h e f i r s t p o s t - v i c t o r y y e a r s . The r u l i n g P o l P o t G r o u p was t o o s e l f - a b s o r b e d by i t s s u c c e s s a t s e i z i n g power a n d n o t c o m m i t t e d e n o u g h t o M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m t o a c c e p t a d v i c e f r o m o u t s i d e r s , e v e n c o m m u n i s t o u t s i d e r s . G i v e n t h e b r i e f p e r i o d o f DK's e x i s t e n c e , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o know i f i t s r a d i c a l a n d v i o l e n t c h a r a c t e r w o u l d have s u b s i d e d i n t i m e , w i t h t h e e v o l u t i o n o f a more m o d e r a t e l e a d e r s h i p . I s u s p e c t t h a t i f t h e P o l P o t f a c t i o n h ad l o s t t h e power s t r u g g l e t o one of t h e two f a c t i o n s w i t h i n t h e CPK, t h e n t h e u l t r a n a t i o n a l i s t f e r v o u r 142 w o u l d h a v e a b a t e d a n d been r e p l a c e d by a more a u t h e n t i c s o c i a l i s t i d e o l o g y . One o f t h e t r a g i c l e s s o n s o f t h e Cambodian r e v o l u t i o n i s t h a t i t a p p e a r s t h a t no r e g i m e c a n m a i n t a i n i t s power f o r v e r y l o n g i f i t b o t h k i l l s i t s own p e o p l e a n d t h r e a t e n s o t h e r s t a t e s . S t a l i n k i l l e d up t o s i x t e e n m i l l i o n o f h i s own p e o p l e b u t t h e USSR d i d n o t a t t a c k i t s n e i g h b o u r s a t t h e same t i m e . A f u r t h e r l e s s o n o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n i s t h a t C a m b o d i a n s , n o t f o r e i g n e r s , were l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e m a s s i v e d e s t r u c t i o n t h a t t o o k p l a c e b e t w e e n 1975 and 1979. As p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , C a m b o dian l e a d e r s s u c h a s S i h a n o u k , L o n N o l a n d , t o some e x t e n t , P o l P o t , h e l d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l v i e w t h a t f o r e i g n e r s , n o t C a m b o d i a n s , were t o blame f o r t h e d e c l i n e o f t h e C a m b o d i a n s t a t e . I f t h e V i e t n a m e s e had a t t e m p t e d t o c a r r y o u t t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y p o l i c i e s i n Cambodia t h a t were p r a c t i c e d by t h e P o l P o t G r o u p , t h e y w o u l d have met t h e t r a d i t o n a l Khmer e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e h a t e d f o r e i g n enemy. B u t , i t was i n c o n c e i v a b l e t o them t h a t Khmers c o u l d a t t a c k so v o c i f e r o u s l y t h e v e r y f o u n d a t i o n s o f Khmer c u l t u r e , a n d t h a t Khmers c o u l d k i l l K h mers. P e r h a p s t h e g r e a t e s t t r a g i c i r o n y o f t h i s p e r i o d i n C a m b o d i a n h i s t o r y i s t h a t t h e P o l P o t r e g i m e was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r n o t o n l y t h e n e a r c o m p l e t e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e s o c i e t y i t had s e t o u t t o d e s t r o y ( t h e u r b a n a n d t r a d i t i o n a l e l i t e ) , b u t a l s o t h e s o c i e t y i t h a d s e t o u t t o " s a v e " ( t h e Khmer p e a s a n t r y ) . A t l e a s t one m i l l i o n C a m b o d i a n s o u t o f a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f 6.5 m i l l i o n d i e d i n D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea by s t a r v a t i o n , d i s e a s e , o r 143 e x e c u t i o n . The e d u c a t e d a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l c l a s s was a l l b u t w i p e d o u t , a f a c t o r w h i c h p a r t i a l l y a c c o u n t s f o r C a m b o d i a ' s p r e s e n t s n a i l - l i k e p a c e o f r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . F o r t h e s u r v i v o r s i n C a m b o d i a t h e l a s t d e c a d e o f war a n d r e v o l u t i o n h a s l e f t p a i n f u l a n d p e r h a p s a s y e t u n f o r s e e n s c a r s f o r l i f e . On a more p o s i t i v e n o t e , t h e C a m b o d i a n n a t i o n h a s o n c e a g a i n w i t h s t o o d a c h a l l e n g e t o i t s s u r v i v a l . T r a d i t i o n a l Khmer c u l t u r e i s b e i n g r e v i v e d by t h e c u r r e n t g o v e r n m e n t . B u d d h i s m i s o n c e a g a i n o p e n l y p r a c t i c e d . L i f e f o r most C a m b o d i a n s i s r e t u r n i n g t o a s t a t e o f n o r m a l c y . The p r e s e n t f r a g i l i t y o f C a m b o d i a ' s r e c o v e r y f r o m t h e P o l P o t y e a r s w i l l l i k e l y c o n t i n u e f o r d e c a d e s , e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e V i e t n a m e s e m i l i t a r y p r e s e n c e r e m a i n s much l o n g e r . W h e t h e r t h e C a m bodian s t a t e h a s s u r v i v e d i s a n o t h e r q u e s t i o n open t o d e b a t e , and w h i c h c a n o n l y be a n s w e r e d w i t h t h e p a s s a g e o f t i m e . A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , t h e l a r g e number o f V i e t n a m e s e s o l d i e r s i n C a m b o d i a ( 1 5 0 , 0 0 0 ) , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e t h e V i e t n a m e s e g o v e r n m e n t seems t o h a v e o v e r t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s i n Phnom P e n h , a r e i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t t h e Cambodia h a s r e v e r t e d t o t h e p o s i t i o n o f v a s s a l . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , C a m b o d i a h a s r e - e m e r g e d f r o m f o r e i g n d o m i n a t i o n s e v e r a l t i m e s i n t h e p a s t . And i t i s t h i s h i s t o r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e t h a t p e r m i t s an o p t i m i s t i c v i e w t h a t t h e C a m b o d i a n s t a t e may w e l l be r e s t o r e d i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e . W h i l e t h e h i s t o r i c a l p a s t i s n e v e r c o m p l e t e l y e r a s e d , e v e n a f t e r b r u t a l r e v o l u t i o n , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o p r e d i c t w h i c h f e a t u r e s o f t h e p a s t w i l l r e m a i n , w h i c h w i l l be a b a n d o n e d a n d w h i c h w i l l become t r a n s f o r m e d i n t h e p o s t - P o l P o t C a m b o d i a n s o c i e t y . 144 N o t e s 2 1 5 The V i e t n a m e s e g o v e r n m e n t b e l i e v e s D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea was a f a s c i s t s t a t e . See Kampuchea D o s s i e r I I ( H a n o i : H a n o i C o u r i e r , 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 12. T h e r e a r e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n u s i n g t h e t e r m f a s c i s t t o d e s c r i b e D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea. A s i d e f r o m t h e p r o b l e m o f d e t e r m i n i n g a w o r k i n g d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e t e r m , f a s c i s m h a s u s u a l l y been a p p l i e d t o r e g i m e s w h i c h have been n o t e d f o r t h e i r v e r y s t r o n g c e n t r a l c o n t r o l . A l s o , f a s c i s t r e g i m e s have a r i s e n i n u r b a n i z e d s t a t e s w i t h l a r g e w o r k i n g c l a s s p o p u l a t i o n s . The v a s t m a j o r i t y o f C a m b o d i a n s were n e i t h e r u r b a n i t e s n o r w o r k i n g c l a s s . F o r a t h o r o u g h d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n a l p r o b l e m s o f f a s c i s m a n d o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s i n w h i c h i t a r i s e s , see James A. G r e g o r , I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of F a s c i s m M o r r i s t o w n , N . J . : G e n e r a l L e a r n i n g P r e s s , 1974, and S t a n l e y G. P a y n e , F a s c i s m , C o m p a r i s o n a n d  D e f i n i t i o n . M a d i s o n : U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n P r e s s , 1980. 2 1 6 T h i s , of c o u r s e , c o u l d be s a i d o f many s t a t e s w h i c h i n a c c u r a t e l y a p p e n d " D e m o c r a t i c " t o t h e i r s t a t e - n a m e s , o r p r o c l a i m s u c h i n t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n s . 2 1 7 See D a v i d C h a n d l e r , " R e v i s i n g t h e P a s t i n D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea: When Was t h e B i r t h d a y o f t h e P a r t y ? " , Pac i f i c A f f a i r s , v o l . 56, no. 2 (Summer 1 9 8 3 ) , p. 300. The r u l i n g c o m m u n i s t p a r t y i n Phnom Penh i s now c a l l e d t h e P e o p l e ' s R e v o l u t i o n a r y P a r t y o f Kampuchea. 2 1 8 F a r E a s t e r n E c o n o m i c R e v i e w , 5 December 1981, p. 14. 2 1 9 W a l k e r C o n n o r , The N a t i o n a l Q u e s t i o n i n M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t T h e o r y and S t r a t e g y , ( P r i n c e t o n , New J e r s e y : P r i n c e t o n 1 45 U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 8 4 ) , p. x i v . 2 2 0 W a l k e r C o n n o r , " N a t i o n - B u i l d i n g a n d N a t i o n - D e s t r o y i n g , " W o r l d P o l i t i c s no. 3, ( A p r i l 1 9 7 2 ) , p. 385. 2 2 1 I b i d . 222 M a v E b i h a r a , S v a y , A V i l l a g e i n C a m b o d i a , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n ( 1 9 6 8 ) , Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n : U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , p. 154. 2 2 3 M a r t i n S t u a r t - F o x , The M u r d e r o u s R e v o l u t i o n : L i f e a n d  D e a t h i n P o l P o t ' s Kampuchea, C h i p p e n d a l e , A u s t r a l i a : ( A l t e r n a t i v e P u b l i s h i n g C o o p e r a t i v e L t d . , 1 9 8 5 ) , p. 154. 2 2 4 See q u o t e a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s c h a p t e r . U n i t e d S t a t e s D e p a r t m e n t o f Commerce, F o r e i g n B r o a d c a s t I n f o r m a t i o n  S e r v i c e , A s i a a n d t h e P a c i f i c , 14 J u n e 1978. ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d a s F B I S ) . 2 2 5 R o b e r t C. T u c k e r , ( e d . ) The M a r x - E n g e l s R e a d e r (New Y o r k : W.W. N o r t o n , 1 9 7 2 ) , p. 123. 2 2 6 C o n n o r , The N a t i o n a l Q u e s t i o n , op. c i t . , p. x v . 2 2 7 I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e p t s s u c h a s t h e s o c i a l i s t n a t i o n - s t a t e , w o r l d communism a n d p r o l e t a r i a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m , w h i c h a r e o f t e n c i t e d i n d i s c u s s i o n s a b o u t t h e n a t i o n a l i s t q u e s t i o n . The s o c i a l i s t  n a t i o n - s t a t e i s one i n w h i c h t h e o f f i c i a l i d e o l o g y i s M a r x i s m -L e n i n i s m , p r a c t i c e d by t h e r u l i n g c o m m u n i s t p a r t y o f w o r k e r s a n d p e a s a n t s . The g o a l o f t h e s o c i a l i s t s t a t e i s communism w h e r e b y a l l c i t i z e n s p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e d e m o c r a t i c p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s , t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e s t a t e w i l l " w i t h e r away" a n d i n i t s p l a c e w i l l be s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t . I n t h e t r a n s i t i o n a l s t a g e o f t h e 1 46 s o c i a l i s t n a t i o n - s t a t e , t h r e e g o a l s a r e s e t : " t h e c o m p l e t e s u p p r e s s i o n o f t h e b o u r g e o i s i e , t h e a b o l i t i o n o f t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f man by man, a n d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s o c i a l i s m , u n d e r w h i c h n e i t h e r c l a s s d i v i s i o n s n o r s t a t e c o e r c i o n a r i s i n g t h e r e f r o m w i l l any l o n g e r e x i s t . " ( Q u o t a t i o n f r o m t h e 1918 C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e S o v i e t U n i o n , c i t e d i n R o b e r t A. S c a l a p i n o , " L e g i t i m a c y a n d I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n i n A s i a n S o c i a l i s t S o c i e t i e s " ) . W o r l d communism i s a t e r m f o r t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h c o m m u n i s t r e v o l u t i o n i s t o s p r e a d f r o m t h e S o v i e t U n i o n t o t h e r e s t o f t h e w o r l d . I t was b a s e d i n i t i a l l y on t h e p r e m i s e t h a t communism c o u l d n o t be a c h i e v e d i n one c o u n t r y i n t h e a b s e n c e o f i t s d e v e l o p m e n t e l s e w h e r e a r o u n d t h e w o r l d . A f t e r t h e p r o s p e c t f o r r e v o l u t i o n i n E u r o p e r e c e d e d , R u s s i a n c o m m u n i s t s came t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e y s h o u l d p r o c e e d w i t h b u i l d i n g s o c i a l i s m i n t h e S o v i e t U n i o n a nd t h a t t h i s p r o c e s s w o u l d be t h e b l u e p r i n t f o r us e by s o c i a l i s t s i n o t h e r s t a t e s . P r o l e t a r i a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m i s a v e r y i m p o r t a n t t e n e t o f M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m , one t h a t g o v e r n s t h e r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n c o m m u n i s t p a r t i e s a n d s o c i a l i s t s t a t e s . I t demands " t h e i r s o l i d a r i t y and u n i t e d a c t i o n i n t h e f i g h t f o r f r e e d o m a nd e q u a l i t y f o r a l l p e o p l e s , f o r t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p a n d c o - o p e r a t i o n , a g a i n s t r a c i s m , c h a u v i n i s m a n d b o u r g e o i s n a t i o n a l i s m " . ( C i t e d i n t h e D i c t i o n a r y o f S c i e n t i f i c S o c i a l i s m , Moscow: P r o g r e s s P u b l i s h e r s , 1984, p. 1 9 2 ) . I n o t h e r w o r d s , n a t i o n a l i s m a n d c h a u v i n i s m a r e i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h p r o l e t a r i a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m b e c a u s e communism i s a w o r l d movement. D e v i a t i o n f r o m p r o l e t a r i a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m i s "a b e t r a y a l o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s a n d a h i n d r a n c e t o t h e u l t i m a t e s u c c e s s o f t h e 147 g o a l o f w o r l d communism." ( I b i d . ) D e v i a t i o n h a s t y p i c a l l y been m a n i f e s t i n d i s p u t e s b e t w e e n s o c i a l i s t s t a t e s . 2 2 8 C o n n o r , The N a t i o n a l i s t Q u e s t i o n , op. c i t . , p. 558-559. 2 2 9 A l e x a n d e r W o o d s i d e , " N a t i o n a l i s m a n d P o v e r t y i n t h e B r e a k d o w n o f S i n o - V i e t n a m e s e R e l a t i o n s " , P a c i f i c A f f a i r s v o l . 52, no. 3, ( F a l l 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 385. 2 3 0 I b i d . , p. 387. 2 3 1 C o n n o r , The N a t i o n a l i s t Q u e s t i o n , op. c i t . , p. 388. 2 3 2 C o n n o r , I b i d . , p. 546. 2 3 3 I b i d . , pp. 5 4 5 , 5 5 1 . 2 3 ( 1 J u s t u s M. v a n d e r K r o e f , " P o l i t i c a l I d e o l o g y i n D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea", O r b i s , ( W i n t e r , 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 1011. 2 3 5 The B r e z h n e v D o c t r i n e was i s s u e d a s a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e S o v i e t U n i o n ' s i n v a s i o n o f C z e c h o s l o v a k i a i n 1968. I t c l a i m s t h a t a n y s o c i a l i s t s t a t e h a s t h e r i g h t t o i n v a d e a n o t h e r s o c i a l i s t s t a t e i f t h e f u t u r e o f s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y i s t h r e a t e n e d by r e v i s i o n a r y o r r e a c t i o n a r y l e a d e r s . 2 3 6 E b i h a r a , op. c i t . , p. 549. 237 r p ^ g t w o W a y s i n w h i c h C a m bodian p e a s a n t s c o u l d , t h e o r e t i c a l l y a t l e a s t , p a r t i c i p a t e i n p o l i t i c s was by v o t i n g i n n a t i o n a l e l e c t i o n s and by a t t e n d i n g t h e b i a n n u a l N a t i o n a l C o n g r e s s h e l d by S i h a n o u k i n Phnom Penh . A t t h e C o n g r e s s , p e a s a n t s were p e r m i t t e d t o e x p r e s s t h e i r g r i e v a n c e s t o t h e k i n g . I n p r a c t i c e , h o w e v e r , p e a s a n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p o l i t i c s was c o n s t r a i n e d by e l i t e s who c h o s e e l e c t o r a l c a n d i d a t e s a n d who p r e - a r r a n g e d t h e N a t i o n a l C o n g r e s s a g e n d a . See E b i h a r a , op. 148 c i t . , p p . 5 3 7 - 5 4 0 . 2 3 8 D a v i d C h a n d l e r , "The T r a g e d y o f C a m b o d i a n H i s t o r y " , P a c i f i c A f f a i r s v o l . 52, no. 3 ( F a l l 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 4 1 3 . 2 3 9 E b i h a r a , op. c i t . , pp. 580-581 . 2 4 0 C h a n d l e r , "The T r a g e d y o f Cambodian H i s t o r y " , op.  c i t . , p. 413-414. 2 4 1 F B I S , 29 S e p t e m b e r 1978. 2 4 2 I b i d . 2 4 3 C h a n d l e r , "The T r a g e d y o f Cambodian H i s t o r y , " o p.  c i t . , p. 416. 2 4 4 D a v i d C h a n d l e r , " S e e i n g Red: P e r c e p t i o n s o f C a m b o d i a n H i s t o r y i n D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea", i n D a v i d C h a n d l e r a n d Ben K i e r n a n ( e d s . ) R e v o l u t i o n a nd I t s A f t e r m a t h i n Kampuchea: E i g h t  E s s a y s , New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y , S o u t h e a s t A s i a n S t u d i e s , M o n o g r a p h S e r i e s no. 25, ( 1 9 8 3 ) , p. 5 1 . 2 4 5 M a u r i c e M e i s n e r , M a r x i s m , Maoism a n d U t o p i a n i s m ( M a d i s o n : The U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n P r e s s , 1 9 8 2 ) , p. 52. 2 4 6 C i t e d i n M e i s n e r , op. c i t . , pp. 49-50. 2 4 7 J . L . T a l m o n , The O r i g i n s o f T o t a l i t a r i a n D e m o c r a c y (New Y o r k : P r a e g e r , 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 244. 2 4 8 M e i s n e r , op. c i t . , p. 46. 2 4 9 I b i d . , p. 6 1 . 2 5 0 I b i d . , p. 32. 2 5 1 M i c h a e l V i c k e r y , Cambodia 1975-1982, ( B o s t o n : S o u t h e n d P r e s s , 1 9 8 4 ) , p. 2 8 1 . 2 5 2 C i t e d i n M a r x , E n g e l s , L e n i n , A n a r c h i s m a n d A n a r c h o - s y n d i c a l i s m (New Y o r k : I n t e r n a t i o n a l P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 7 2 ) , p. 114. 149 2 S 3 . F B I S , 26 A p r i l 1978. 2 5 4 James J o l l , The A n a r c h i s t s , ( L o n d o n : M e t h u e n , 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 259. 2 5 5 V i c k e r y , o p ^ c i t . , p. 287. 2 5 6 I b i d . , p. 285. 2 5 7 M a u r i c e M e i s n e r , Mao's C h i n a : A H i s t o r y o f t h e P e o p l e ' s  R e p u b l i c (New Y o r k : F r e e P r e s s , 1 9 7 7 ) , p. 205. 2 5 8 V i c k e r y , op. c i t . , p. 2 7 3 . 2 5 9 M e i s n e r , Mao's C h i n a , op. c i t . , p. 236. 2 6 0 I b i d . , p. 234. 2 6 1 I b i d . , pp. 2 7 5 - 2 7 6 . 2 S 2 W i l f r e d B u r c h e t t , The C h i n a , C a m b o d i a , V i e t n a m T r i a n g l e ( L o n d o n : Zed P r e s s , 1 9 8 1 ) , p. 165. 2 6 3 L e s z e k R o l a k o w s k i , M a i n C u r r e n t s o f M a r x i s m : P a r t 3 The  B r e a k d o w n ( O x f o r d : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 8 ) , p. 39. 150 BIBLIOGRAPHY A l b i n , D a v i d a n d M a r l o w e Hood. 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