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A study of the role of the works of art in two novels by Michel Butor Fuller, Margaret M. 1986

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A STUDY OF THE ROLE OF THE WORKS OF ART IN TWO NOVELS BY MICHEL BUTOR by MARGARET M. FULLER M.A. , UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH, 1964  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of French)  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA OCTOBER 1986 (c) Margaret M. F u l l e r  In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It is understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission.  Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  AB STRACT TITLE:  A STUDY OF THE ROLE OF THE WORKS OF ART IN TWO NOVELS BY MICHEL BUTOR  In L'Emploi du temps (1956) and La Modif i c a t i o n (1957) Michel Butor continues the e x p l o r a t i o n of n o v e l i s t i c form begun i n Passage de Milan (1954) .  In these and h i s l a t e r  works, he seeks to answer the fundamental questions: the r o l e of the novel as an a r t form? time and space i n the novel?  What i s  How do we represent  A study of the works of a r t i n  L'Emploi du temps and La M o d i f i c a t i o n , t h e i r r o l e and t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p with each other, with the c e n t r a l characters,  and w i t h the reader,  shows how he explores these  questions.  For Butor the novel i s a means of transforming  the way i n which we see the world and therefore of transforming the world.  For, as the n o v e l i s t experiments  with new s t r u c t u r e s he creates new r e l a t i o n s h i p s which change our perception of " r e a l i t y . " The i n t r o d u c t i o n of works of a r t - imaginary but based on some of the archetypal s t o r i e s of western c i v i l i z a t i o n (Theseus, Oedipus, Cain) i n E'Empioi du 'temps, r e a l Aeneid, the S i s t i n e C e i l i n g , the Last Judgement)  (the  in  La M o d i f i c a t i o n - extends the temporal and s p a t i a l scope of th two novels.  This allows Butor to create i n t r i c a t e s t r u c t u r a l  patterns which i n turn create complex i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the t e x t .  Through the works of a r t ,  the key periods of  western c i v i l i z a t i o n - ancient Greece and Rome, e a r l y Judaic  iii  and C h r i s t i a n times and the Renaissance - are  restructured  and re-presented to Jacques Revel, L6on Delmont and the reader.  In t h i s r e - p r e s e n t a t i o n ,  forms appear:  tapestry,  l i t e r a t u r e and f i l m ,  a l l the major a r t i s t i c  stained glass windows a r c h i t e c t u r e ,  i n L'Emploi du temps; a r c h i t e c t u r e ,  s c u l p t u r e , p a i n t i n g and l i t e r a t u r e i n La M o d i f i c a t i o n .  Music  i s absent from the content but present i n the form of both novels whose mathematical s t r u c t u r e ,  " r e p r i s e s " of s p e c i f i c  scenes or phrases and temporal f l e x i b i l i t y f i n d t h e i r o r i g i n s i n musical form. B u t o r ' s use of works of a r t and, through them, of myth and h i s t o r y demonstrates h i s view of the novel as an encyclopedic work whose purpose i s to remind the reader of the ongoing influence of h i s c u l t u r a l background and to i n v o l v e him i n the n o v e l i s t i c process.  By r e s t r u c t u r i n g the  u n i v e r s a l s t o r i e s of mankind through the works of art and by demonstrating t h e i r influence on the s t o r i e s of Jacques Revel and L6on Delmont, Butor shows us that i n order to understand himself and h i s universe, modern man must explore, acknowledge and integrate h i s c o l e l c t i v e past. t h i s i s accomplished through the act of w r i t i n g .  In Butor,  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS  INTRODUCTION  1  CHAPTER I - L'EMPLOI DU TEMPS  6  l;  "Le Meurtre de B l e s t o n "  7  2. The Harrey Tapestries  14  3. The Murderer's Window  24  4. The New Cathedral  41  5. The Films  49  CHAPTER II - LA MODIFICATION  58  1. Rome i n P a r i s  59  2. C l a s s i c a l Rome  71  3 . Renaissance and Baroque Rome  76  4. The Dream Sequences  87  CONCLUSION  100  BIBLIOGRAPHY  108  V  ACKNOWLEDG EMENTS To a l l those who helped and encouraged me i n w r i t i n g t h i s t h e s i s , my h e a r t f e l t  thanks.  introducing me to B u t o r ' s n o v e l s .  To Dr. Grover for To Ralph for h i s patience  i n d i s c u s s i n g , reading and rereading my work.  To V a l e r i e for  reading at short notice and at inconvenient times.  To J o e l l e  and Yolande for t h e i r support and company i n the Reading Room.  To a l l those i n the French Department whose f r i e n d s h i p  and support have been i n v a l u a b l e . sympathy.  To Leigh for tea and  To John for h i s l o v e , endless patience and support  and to A l a s d a i r and Bruce for t h e i r encouragement and cheerful assumption of domestic duties w h i l e Mum wrote.  1 INTRODUCTION L'Emploi du temps (1956) and La Modi f i c a t i o n (1957) are the second and t h i r d novels w r i t t e n by Michel Butor.  They  continue the e x p l o r a t i o n of n o v e l i s t i c form, of the representation of r e a l i t y i n f i c t i o n , begun i n h i s f i r s t novel, Passage de Milan (1954).  In t h a t novel, set i n a  seven-storey P a r i s apartment block i n the twelve-hour period between seven i n the evening and the same time the next morning, Butor uses temporal and s p a t i a l c o n s t r a i n t s to experiment with n o v e l i s t i c s t r u c t u r e .  He uses a s i m i l a r  temporal and s p a t i a l framework i n the two novels discussed i n t h i s study.  In L'Empioi du temps the time frame i s one year  and the a c t i o n i s confined to the imaginary c i t y of B l e s t o n i n northern England.  In La M o d i f i c a t i o n space and time are  l i m i t e d to the confines of the t h i r d - c l a s s railway compartment of a t r a i n t r a v e l l i n g from P a r i s to Rome, and to a period of twenty-one hours t h i r t y - f i v e minutes - the time i t takes to complete the journey.  However, i n both novels,  through the i n t r o d u c t i o n of works of a r t which incorporate myth and h i s t o r y , the temporal scope i s extended to encompass the myths of ancient Greece and Rome, e a r l y Judaic and C h r i s t i a n times as w e l l as the Renaissance. These key periods of western c i v i l i z a t i o n recur as themes, not only i n the two novels that I propose to study, but a l s o i n B u t o r ' s subsequent works.  They are themes with  2 which we are f a m i l i a r but of whose d e t a i l s , l i k e Jacques Revel i n L'Emploi du temps, we have but a hazy r e c o l l e c t i o n . The emphasis placed on them i n B u t o r ' s novels re-awakens us to the continuing r o l e these periods play i n the present. Obviously for Butor the purpose of l i t e r a t u r e goes beyond simple entertainment.  He w r i t e s t h a t , while " i l y a c e r t e s  un roman n a i f et une consommation naive du roman"^, great l i t e r a r y works play q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t r o l e : transforment  "elles  l a facon dont nous voyons et racontons l e monde  et par consequent transforment  l e monde."  It i s t h i s  transformation that he seeks to achieve through h i s novels and which we s h a l l study i n L'Emploi du temps and La Modification. In "Le roman comme recherche",  Butor s t a t e s that the  novel i s " l e l i e u par excellence ou 6tudier de q u e l l e facon 3 l a r e a l i t y nous apparait ou peut nous a p p a r a i t r e .  . . . "  Since the way i n which r e a l i t y i s represented a f f e c t s our perception of i t , we can understand h i s conclusion t h a t :  "Le  t r a v a i l sur l a forme dans l e roman rev&t . . . une importance de premier p l a n . " because,  4  i t i s of primary importance  as the n o v e l i s t experiments with new s t r u c t u r e s ,  he  creates h i t h e r t o unrecognized r e l a t i o n s h i p s which change h i s as w e l l as the reader's perception of r e a l i t y :  "Des formes  nouvelles rev^leront dans l a r g a l i t e ' des choses n o u v e l l e s , des l i a i s o n s n o u v e l l e s . . . . " ^  This i s the r e a d e r ' s  experience with L'Emploi du temps and La M o d i f i c a t i o n i n  3 which, as we s h a l l see, B u t o r ' s experimentation with new temporal s t r u c t u r e s ,  i n Dean McWilliams  1  words, "force Is] us  to recognize the r e l a t i o n s h i p between seemingly i s o l a t e d moments i n the past and i n the  present"**.  In w r i t i n g about the theory of the novel, Butor has discussed the problem of the treatment of time i n the n o v e l . He f i n d s a s t r i c t l y c h r o n o l o g i c a l n a r r a t i v e to be inadequate because, amongst other f a c t o r s ,  i t makes impossible any  reference to h i s t o r y or to the c h a r a c t e r s '  past.  After  e x p l o r i n g other p o s s i b i l i t i e s , he f i n a l l y proposes a "quadruple j o u r n a l " i n which: on va remonter l e cours du temps, plonger de plus en plus profond£ment comme un a r c h £ o l o g u e ou un g^ologue q u i , dans l e u r s f o u i l l e s , rencontrent d'abord l e s t e r r a i n s r £ c e n t s , puis de proche en proche, gagnent l e s anciens. The r e s u l t of t h i s temporal o r g a n i z a t i o n i s that the n a r r a t i v e "n'est plus une l i g n e , mais une surface dans l a q u e l l e nous i s o l o n s un c e r t a i n nombre de l i g n e s , de p o i n t s , g  ou de groupements remarquables."  The f i r s t chapter of t h i s  essay w i l l examine, through a study of the r o l e of the works of a r t and t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , how he has put t h i s theory i n t o p r a c t i c e i n L'Empioi du temps. Time, Butor contends, must a l s o be seen i n terms of space f o r , "C'est en d £ p l a c a n t l e regard sur un espace clairement imaginable que nous pourrons v^ritablement suivre o  l a marche du temps. . . . "  Thus he sees the journey as the  i d e a l means of r e s t r u c t u r i n g t i m e :  4 Les l i e u x ayant toujours une h i s t o r i c i t y , s o i t par rapport a l ' h i s t o i r e u n i v e r s e l l e , s o i t par rapport a l ' h i s t o i r e de l ' i n d i v i d u , tout d£placement dans l ' e s p a c e impliquera une r e o r g a n i s a t i o n de l a s t r u c t u r e temporelle, changements dans l e s souvenirs ou dans l e s p r o j e t s , dans ce qui v i e n t au premier p l a n , plus ou moins profond ou plus ou moins grave. This i s the s i t u a t i o n that we observe i n La M o d i f i c a t i o n i n which L4on Delmont, as he t r a v e l s between P a r i s and Rome, not only reviews the memories of a twenty-year span but a l s o p r o j e c t s himself i n t o the future and, through the works of art,  develops a new perspective on " l ' h i s t o i r e u n i v e r s e l l e . " In h i s e x p l o r a t i o n of the connections between past and  present, art,  Butor uses the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the works of  fictional  i n L'Emploi du temps, r e a l i n La M o d i f i c a t i o n ,  to r e - s t r u c t u r e the u n i v e r s a l s t o r i e s of mankind. universal stories, " l ' h i s t o i r e u n i v e r s e l l e " , he has stated,  the main theme of h i s work.  1 1  These  constitute,  as  By reconstructing  the s t o r i e s and myths of western man, he changes the r e l a t i o n s h i p of these u n i v e r s a l myths to each other, to the c e n t r a l character i n each novel, and to the reader. the r o l e of the works of a r t i n t h i s reconstruction? the question I propose to address.  What i s This i s  5 Notes to Introduction Michel Butor, "Recherches sur l a technique du roman," Repertoire I I , ( P a r i s : M i n u i t , 1 964), p. 90. 1  2  Butor,, Repertoire t j . p. 90.  3 Michel Butor, "Le Roman comme recherche," ( P a r i s : M i n u i t , 1960), p. 8.  repertoire  ^ Butor, Repertoire, p. 8. 3  Butor, R ^ p e r t o i r e , p. 9.  Dean McWilliams, The N a r r a t i v e s of Michel B u t o r : The Writer as Janus (Athens: Ohio U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1968), o. 4. 6  7  7  Butor, Repertoire I I , p. 92.  0  Butor, Repertoire I I , p. 92.  9  Butor, Repertoire T I , p. 9 6 .  1 0  Butor, Repertoire T J . p. 96-  Jean Gaugeard, "Michel B u t o r : 6 p e r t o i r e T J " , L e t t r e s f r a n c a i s e s , no- 1022 (56 March, 1964), o. 4. 1 1  p  Les  6  CHAPTER I L ' EMPL 61 DU TEMPS  In L ' Emploi du temps Jacques R e v e l ' s f i r s t  preoccupation  i s to regain c o n t r o l of h i s own consciousness through a systematic e x p l o r a t i o n of the seven months which have elapsed since h i s a r r i v a l i n B l e s t o n . proceeds,  As the examination of the past  the temporal s t r u c t u r e of the novel becomes  i n c r e a s i n g l y complex and c e r t a i n works of a r t play an i n c r e a s i n g l y important r o l e . subject  These works range i n o r i g i n and  from the ambiguously t i t l e d novel w i t h i n the novel,  "Le Meurtre de B l e s t o n " , which acts as a guide to the c i t y and to the a r t of w r i t i n g for Revel, to the Harrey Tapestries,  woven i n eighteenth-century France and d e p i c t i n g  the adventures of Theseus. Another work of a r t ,  the Murderer's Window, housed i n  B l e s t o n ' s Old Cathedral, o r i g i n a t e d i n  sixteenth-century  France and portrays the story of the f i r s t f r a t r i c i d e , murder of Abel by Cain. has done w i t h Theseus. statuitry  the  Revel w i l l i d e n t i f y with Cain as he The innovative a r c h i t e c t u r e  and  of the nineteenth century New Cathedral contrast  with the t r a d i t i o n a l design of i t s predecessor.  As Revel  explores these two s t r u c t u r e s , they become much more than two i n t e r e s t i n g h i s t o r i c b u i l d i n g s and t h e i r influence  is  r e f l e c t e d at both the p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s t r u c t u r a l  levels.  7 However, while Revel i s fascinated w i t h the higher forms of B l e s t o n i a n c u l t u r e , the only a r t form popular with the people of B l e s t o n , who pay l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n to the t a p e s t r i e s , the  Cathedrals, or the "Meurtre de B l e s t o n " , are  the f i l m s shown i n B l e s t o n ' s cinemas.  Revel i s a  frequent  patron of one of these cinemas whose f i l m s about Ancient Greece and Rome are of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t do these various works of a r t ,  to him.  What r o l e  widely separated i n form,  o r i g i n and theme, play i n the development of L ' Emploi du temps?  At f i r s t glance they are a s e r i e s of m i r r o r s each  r e f l e c t i n g one aspect of western man's h i s t o r y . the diary progresses, find,  However, as  the images become more complex and we  i n each work and interwoven throughout the d i a r y ,  r e f l e c t i o n s cast by the other works.  It i s these  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e to Butor, to Revel, to the reader, that we propose to study i n t h i s chapter.  "Le Meurtre de Bleston" The novel w i t h i n the novel, "Le Meurtre de B l e s t o n " , . i s introduced i n the diary entry of May 30th f o l l o w i n g R e v e l ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s f i r s t v i s i t ,  i n October, to the Old  Cathedral, a v i s i t during which he paid l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n the Murderer's Window.  to  The words "Le Meurtre de B l e s t o n "  announce the f i c t i t i o u s novel before Revel purchases i t . They appear on a newsvendor's b i l l b o a r d and a second time, moments l a t e r ,  as the t i t l e of a Penguin d e t e c t i v e novel i n a  8 bookstore window.  The Frenchman buys i t towards the end of  October, when he i s f e e l i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y i s o l a t e d and a l i e n a t e d from h i m s e l f : Je me s u i s s e n t i tout contamine* de brume gourde, abandonne' l o i n de moi-meme, l o i n de c e l u i que j ' a v a i s 6t£ avant de d^barquer i c i , et q u i s ' e f f a c a i t dans une immense d i s t a n c e . I t i s the f i r s t book which he has bought since h i s a r r i v a l i n Bleston and represents h i s f i r s t attempt to shake off B l e s t o n ' s e f f e t of "enlisement". Revel i s i n i t i a l l y a t t r a c t e d to the novel by the ambiguity of the words "Le Meurtre de B l e s t o n " which, by r e f l e c t i n g h i s nascent d e s i r e to destroy that c i t y , seem to offer him a v i c a r i o u s revenge.  Not only does the t i t l e  present the f i c t i t i o u s n o v e l ' s p r i n c i p a l theme, murder,  it  foreshadows a l l the murders narrated i n L'Emploi du temps: the f r a t r i c i d e of Cain by Abel depicted i n the Murderer's Window, the murder of Aegeus by Theseus portrayed i n the Harrey T a p e s t r i e s , the suspected attempted murder of George Burton, the murder i n e f f i g y of B l e s t o n symbolized by R e v e l ' s burning of the map of that c i t y , and the "murder" of t r a d i t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e by Butor h i m s e l f .  In J . C. Hamilton,  and "Le Meurtre de B l e s t o n " , Revel seeks: non seulement un amuseur, mais, sur l a f o i de son t i t r e , un complice contre l a v i l l e , un s o r c i e r habitue a ce genre de p e r i l s , qui put me munir de charmes assez puissants pour me permettre de traverser victorieusement cette ann6e. . . (p. 5 7 ) . 2 Revel, the modern mythological hero , sees i n the as yet 1  9 unknown author of "Le Meurtre de B l e s t o n " someone who w i l l protect him from the " s o r c e l l e r i e " of B l e s t o n and guide him through h i s y e a r ' s e x i l e i n that c i t y . level,  At a more pragmatic  "Le Meurtre de B l e s t o n " supplements the map purchased  from Ann B a i l e y , thus p r o v i d i n g Revel with a much c l e a r e r p i c t u r e of B l e s t o n ' s geographical c o n f i g u r a t i o n :  "Ce qui  a v a i t f a i t pour moi 1*importance du "Meurtre de B l e s t o n " , c ' e t a i t l a p r e c i s i o n avec l a q u e l l e c e r t a i n s aspects de l a v i l l e s ' y trouvaient d £ c r i t s , l a p r i s e q u ' i l me permettait sur e l l e . . . " (p. 65) . The novel also serves as a c a t a l y s t for much of R e v e l ' s future e x p l o r a t i o n s of B l e s t o n ' s works of a r t through which he plumbs not only the depths of B l e s t o n ' s past but those of modern western  civilization:  Une a f f i c h e de j o u r n a l m'avait men6 vers l e roman p o l i c i e r de J . C. Hamilton, "Le Meurtre de B l e s t o n " , et l a l e c t u r e de c e l u i - c i vers l e V i t r a i l du M e u r t r i e r q u i , lui-meme, a v a i t provoqu6 cette conversation dont l e s derniers mots me c o n s e i l l a i e n t d ' a l l e r vers l a Nouvelle C a t h 6 d r a l e ; c ' e t a i t comme une p i s t e t r a c 6 e a mon i n t e n t i o n , une p i s t e ou a chaque 6tape on me d e v o i l a i t l e terme de l a suivante, une p i s t e pour mieux me perdre (pp. 81-82) . However, i t i s only by f o l l o w i n g t h i s t r a i l , by making t h i s journey through h i s own and man's past, that he can hope to escape from the l a b y r i n t h of h i s year i n B l e s t o n . It i s through the copy of "Le Meurtre de B l e s t o n " , l y i n g on the t a b l e at the O r i e n t a l Bamboo, a restaurant to which the novel has l e d Revel, that he meets i t s author,  10 George Burton.  As a r e s u l t of t h i s meeting, the novel w i t h i n  the n o v e l ' s r o l e i s expanded:  In a d d i t i o n to serving as a  geographical and h i s t o r i c a l guide to B l e s t o n , i t becomes a guide to the a r t of w r i t i n g and a v e h i c l e for B u t o r ' s thoughts on the treatment of time i n l i t e r a t u r e .  It i s no  accident that Burton i s almost an anagram of Butor. The n o v e l i s t , George Burton, takes over from the novel w i t h i n the novel as guide during R e v e l ' s Sunday v i s i t s to h i s home i n May when the theory of the d e t e c t i v e novel i s the t o p i c of d i s c u s s i o n on three consecutive Sundays.  In the  course of one of these discussions George Burton s t a t e s t h a t : dans l e roman p o l i c i e r , l e r £ c i t est f a i t a contre-courant, ou plus exactement q u ' i l superpose deux s e r i e s temporelles: l e s jours de l'enquete qui commencent au crime, et l e s jours du drame qui menent a l u i , ce qui est tout a f a i t naturel puisque, dans l a r £ a l i t 6 , ce t r a v a i l de l ' e s p r i t tourne' vers l e passe s ' a c c o m p l i t dans l e temps pendant que d ' a u t r e s ev^nements s'accumulent (p. 171). 1  Revel uses t h i s temporal s t r u c t u r e i n the account of h i s f i r s t month i n B l e s t o n .  The symbolic burning of the map of  Bleston on A p r i l 30th c o n s t i t u t e s the "crime" which stimulates Revel to conduct an "enquete" i n the form of a retrospective diary.  The c h r o n o l o g i c a l account, w r i t t e n i n  May, of the events of the previous October, represents "les jours du drame q u i menent a l u i " (the " c r i m e " ) . In the d i a r y entry dated May 19th, the day following George B u r t o n ' s acknowledgement that he i s i n fact J . C. Hamilton, Revel s t a t e s "C'est maintenant que commence  11 l a v e r i t a b l e recherche." (p. 3 7 ) .  3  This statement refers not  only to R e v e l ' s research i n t o the previous seven months which he has spent i n B l e s t o n , but a l s o to the e x p l o r a t i o n of novel i s t i c form upon which he i s about to embark.  Although  for the moment the Frenchman continues with the c h r o n o l o g i c a l account of h i s f i r s t month i n B l e s t o n , by the end of May he finds himself " p e r p £ t u e l l e m e n t s o l l i c i t e " par des eV£nements plus r £ c e n t s q u i proclament l e u r importance  . . . "  (p. 5 0 ) .  This prompts him, i n the second chapter, to adopt B u r t o n ' s "deux s e r i e s t e m p o r e l l e s , " adding an account of c e r t a i n events which occurred i n June to h i s record of the events of November.  In p a r t i c u l a r , R e v e l ' s " b e t r a y a l " of George Burton  to the B a i l e y s i s t e r s i s described.  However, the influence  of "Le Meurtre de B l e s t o n " and i t s author on R e v e l ' s diary extends beyond the dual temporality of the second chapter. The way i n which Revel b u i l d s up the suspense i n the J u l y e n t r i e s p r i o r to the announcement of B u r t o n ' s accident i s i n true d e t e c t i v e novel s t y l e .  This new development, which i s  to a f f e c t the s t r u c t u r e of the diary and R e v e l ' s perspective on events and people, occurs immediately f o l l o w i n g the account of B u r t o n ' s discourse on the theory of the d e t e c t i v e novel: i l s a l u a i t 1 ' a p p a r i t i o n a l ' i n t £ r i e u r du roman comme d'une nouvelle dimension, nous expliquant que ce ne sont plus seulement l e s personnages et l e u r s r e l a t i o n s q u i se transforment sous l e s yeux du l e c t e u r , mais ce que l ' o n s a i t de ces r e l a t i o n s et meme de l e u r h i s t o i r e . . . (p. 161) .  12 This j u x t a p o s i t i o n leaves the reader i n l i t t l e doubt about the connection between B u r t o n ' s t h e o r i z i n g and R e v e l ' s writing.  As Revel re-examines past events i n the l i g h t of  the h i t and run accident i n which Burton was almost  killed,  he remembers aspects of these events which he had omitted when he f i r s t recorded them and finds t h a t : l e r £ c i t n ' e s t plus l a simple p r o j e c t i o n plane d'une s £ r i e d'6v£nements mais l a r e s t i t u t i o n de leur a r c h i t e c t u r e , de leur espace, p u i s q u ' i l s se p r £ s e n t e n t diff£remment selon l a p o s i t i o n qu'occupe par rapport a eux l e detective ou l e narrateur . . . (p. 161). Thus, i n J u l y he discusses the events not only of December but a l s o of May, making several references to May 31st,  the  date on which he divulged George B u r t o n ' s name to James Jenkins.  From t h i s point on the temporal s t r u c t u r e of the  diary becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y complex as Revel develops a temporal s t r u c t u r e i n which he interweaves not two but f i v e "series temporelles"  4  thereby surpassing h i s mentor.  In a d d i t i o n to a c t i n g as a guide to Bleston and to the a r t of w r i t i n g , "Le Meurtre de B l e s t o n " i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d to the other works of a r t i n L'Emploi du temps.  We have  already noted t h a t B u r t o n ' s i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the Murderer's Window into h i s novel has l e d Revel to r e v i s i t the Old Cathedral i n order to examine t h i s work i n d e t a i l .  Butor, by  l i n k i n g the two f i c t i o n a l works of a r t l i n g u i s t i c a l l y through the term "meurtre" and t h e m a t i c a l l y through the crime of fratricide,  has created a bridge between B u r t o n ' s novel and  13 J u d e o - C h r i s t i a n mythology.  The crime of f r a t r i c i d e  committed  i n the "Le Meurtre de B l e s t o n " i s rooted i n the murder of Abel by Cain whose s t o r y , t o l d i n the stained glass window, prefigures a l l the other murders committed i n B l e s t o n , "cette v i l l e hant£e de meurtre" (p. 149).  Moreover, the connection  between the novel w i t h i n the novel and the Murderer's Window i s emphasized when the second, " p u r i f y i n g " murder of the f r a t r i c i d a l Bernard Winn by the avenging d e t e c t i v e Barnaby Morton i s committed i n the Old Cathedral beneath the  stained  glass p o r t r a y a l of the murder of Abel by C a i n . Burton's statement that "Le detective est l e f i l s du meurtrier,  Oedipe, non seulement parce q u ' i l r^sout une  6nigme, mais a u s s i parce q u ' i l tue c e l u i a q u i i l d o i t son titre  . . . "  (p. 148) l i n k s the novel w i t h i n the novel with  the scene i n the t a p e s t r i e s d e p i c t i n g Theseus o f f e r i n g shelter  to an outcast, Oedipus.  It also creates a l i n k w i t h  the g u i l t - s t r i c k e n Revel who, seeing i n Burton a father and mentor,  i d e n t i f i e s w i t h the p a t r i c i d a l Oedipus after  "accident."  Burton's  S i m i l a r l y , the l a b y r i n t h depicted i n the  eleventh panel of the Harrey Tapestries  i s evoked i n R e v e l ' s  d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s e x p l o r a t i o n of B l e s t o n ' s works of  art  which was set i n motion by h i s reading of "Le Meurtre de B l e s t o n " and which he describes as "une p i s t e t r a c £ e a mon intention,.  . . une p i s t e pour mieux me perdre."  This i s the  only panel whose theme Revel recognizes on h i s f i r s t v i s i t to the Museum.  14 In h i s praise of the Old Cathedral, Burton shows t h a t he i s a champion of the o l d order w h i l e h i s scathing comments on the New Cathedral t e s t i f y to h i s o p p o s i t i o n to change and innovation.  There i s , therefore,  a dichotomy between  B u r t o n ' s apparent espousal of a new l i t e r a r y order when he discusses the theory of the novel with Revel and L u c i e n , and h i s obvious h o s t i l i t y towards change and innovation as expressed i n h i s o p i n i o n of the New Cathedral.  It i s because  of t h i s dichotomy, because of B u r t o n ' s f a i l u r e to break out of the c o n s t r a i n t s of t r a d i t i o n , that Revel must continue h i s e x p l o r a t i o n of l i t e r a r y form alone: Je d£bouchais l a sur un t e r r i t o i r e dans l e q u e l ce J . C. Hamilton, qui m'avait s i bien d i r i g 4 j u s q u ' a l o r s , ne pouvait plus me s e r v i r de guide, ou i l me f a u d r a i t m'aventurer seul (p. 122).  The Harrey Tapestries The Harrey Tapestries, d e p i c t i n g the myth of Theseus, are l o c a t e d i n the B l e s t o n Museum which i s b u i l t i n the Greek Revival s t y l e .  I t s "chapiteaux ioniques,  aujourd'hui  recouverts par l a s u i e . . . " (p. 257) form an i r o n i c contrast to t h e i r o r i g i n a l Greek counterparts,  emphasizing how far  removed B l e s t o n i s from i t s Greek c u l t u r a l heritage and how i t has deformed that h e r i t a g e .  The museum, b u i l t to house"  the t a p e s t r i e s which form i t s c e n t r a l e x h i b i t , c o n s i s t s of nine rooms arranged i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l order. The f i r s t contains various a r c h e o l o g i c a l objects: La premiere, arch^ologie (deux ou t r o i s scarab^es 6gyptiens, un vase grec, un  15 fragment de t i s s u copte, une poign£e de monnaies romaines, et surtout quelques monuments f u n £ r a i r e s g r o s s i e r s trouv^s dans l e sol de B l e s t o n , datant du deuxieme ou du t r o i s i e m e s i e c l e . . .) (p. 70) . As Jennifer W a e l t i - W a l t e r s notes,  "the o r i g i n s of Western  Europe are present for a l l to see i n the objects from Ancient Egypt* Greece, C h r i s t i a n Egypt-Arab t r a d i t i o n and, Rome. . . . " ^  The second room houses  c l o t h e s and f u r n i t u r e .  seventeenth-century  Then, " i n the rooms between the  important numbers of three and seven,"^ we f i n d the Harrey Tapestries.  These are flanked on the other side by a modest  c o l l e c t i o n of nineteenth-century twentieth-century p a i n t i n g s .  a r t and an e x h i b i t of  The windows of rooms three to  seven look out on the s t r e e t s with t h e i r ugly b u i l d i n g s and on to the railway l i n e which forms a tenuous l i n k with the tapestries'  (and R e v e l ' s ) country of o r i g i n .  On one of h i s  v i s i t s to the museum Revel punctuates h i s perusal of the panels with comments on what he sees through the windows, c r e a t i n g a connection between the t a p e s t r i e s and the c i t y . Described i n the entry of June 4th, R e v e l ' s discovery of the t a p e s t r i e s on November 3rd, l i k e h i s discovery of "Le Meurtre de B l e s t o n , " i s a c c i d e n t a l and r e s u l t s from h i s summons to B l e s t o n P o l i c e Headquarters to apply for h i s "carte d ' i d e n t i t y . "  However, Revel w i l l not f i n d h i s  i d e n t i t y i n B l e s t o n through a photograph a f f i x e d to a piece of yellow cardboard; instead he w i l l seek i t by i d e n t i f y i n g  16 with the hero of the t a p e s t r i e s on which he stumbles that afternoon. The panel to which Revel i s drawn most s t r o n g l y , and which i s the only one he recognizes on November 3rd, portrays Theseus s l a y i n g the Minotaur and h i s subsequent escape from the l a b y r i n t h .  This panel has been announced several times  i n the text p r i o r to i t s appearance.  R e v e l ' s attempt to go  for a walk i n the country has a l a b y r i n t h i n e q u a l i t y as he finds t h a t : C ' 6 t a i t comme s i je n'avancais pas; c ' 6 t a i t comme s i j e n ' e t a i s pas arrive" a ce rond-point, comme s i je n ' a v a i s pas f a i t demi-tour, comme s i je me r e t r o u v a i s non seulement au meme e n d r o i t , mais encore au meme moment q u i a l l a i t durer i n d £ f i n i m e n t , dont r i e n n'annoncait l ' a b o l i t i o n . . . (p. 3 5 ) . This statement introduces not only the idea of being l o s t i n space but a l s o that of being l o s t i n time, which i s fundamental to the novel.  Later on the same day Revel has  "1 * impression qu'une trappe v e n a i t de se fermer (p. 3 5 ) .  . . . "  We r e c a l l t h i s image when we read h i s d e s c r i p t i o n  of the panel d e p i c t i n g Theseus imprisoned i n the l a b y r i n t h . On another of h i s weekend o u t i n g s , Revel v i s i t s Lanes Park where he sees " l e j a r d i n des s e n t i e r s , qui comporte un p e t i t l a b y r i n t h e agr6ment£ de rochers en ciment, f l e u r i a l o r s de chrysanthemes aux toisons de b £ l i e r s et de chevres (p.  49).  . . . "  This i s the f i r s t time that the word " l a b y r i n t h e "  appears i n the t e x t , p r e f i g u r i n g the l a b y r i n t h of the tapestries.  The "chrysanthemes aux t o i s o n s de b £ l i e r s "  17 suggest another of Theseus  1  adventures, h i s s a i l i n g on the  Argos with Jason i n search of the Golden F l e e c e .  Thus,  although the t a p e s t r i e s are not o v e r t l y announced i n the t e x t , as are the Murderer's Window and "Le Meurtre de B l e s t o n , " oblique references to i t s themes (even R e v e l ' s f a v o u r i t e restaurant  i s "The Sword") set the scene for t h e i r  introduction. Since the t a p e s t r i e s o r i g i n a t e d i n France, they provide Revel with a l i n k w i t h h i s n a t i v e country.  As far as can be  ascertained they are not based on an e x i s t i n g work of  art.  7  The trees i n the panel d e p i c t i n g the death of the four bandits are for him the " p e u p l i e r s , . t r e m b l e s ou ch§nes" of the l i e de France.  At the same time they are r e f l e c t e d i n  the t r e e s i n B l e s t o n ' s parks. tapestries,  Through the story t o l d i n the  the Frenchman i s a l s o l i n k e d with ancient Greek  c u l t u r e and w i t h the warm sunny climes for which he longs. C e r t a i n themes r e l a t e d to Revel and to the other works of a r t appear i n the t a p e s t r i e s . tapestry,  The theme of the eleventh  the story of the s l a y i n g of the Minotaur and  Theseus's elopement with Ariadne, finds i t s counterpart i n Revel's l i f e .  He sees himself as Theseus f o l l o w i n g h i s own  A r i a d n e ' s thread (the map s o l d to him by Ann B a i l e y ) through the B l e s t o n i a n l a b y r i n t h , to f i n d and s l a y the monster that lurks there.  S i m i l a r l y , he sees the love t r i a n g l e which he  has created i n h i s mind between h i m s e l f , Ann, and Rose i n terms of the story of Theseus, Ariadne and Phaedra.  18 The Frenchman i d e n t i f i e s with Theseus and uses him as a model.  Like Theseus, he i s an e x i l e on a foreign i s l a n d .  Like Theseus, he i s thrown i n t o a l a b y r i n t h f u l l of menace from which he imagines being rescued by h i s own modern Ariadne whose map of B l e s t o n i s the " f i l d ' A r i a n e " which shows him the way through the maze.  Furthermore, Ann gives  him a calendar,- which, s y m b o l i c a l l y , he keeps i n h i s guide book to B l e s t o n i n the s e c t i o n on the t a p e s t r i e s .  This  calendar, through h i s d i a r y , i s to become R e v e l ' s A r i a d n e ' s thread as he moves back and f o r t h across i t i n order to unravel the web of h i s y e a r ' s e x i l e i n B l e s t o n .  At each  stage of h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h B l e s t o n and w i t h the B a i l e y s i s t e r s , he sees i n the t a p e s t r i e s a mirror of h i s own experiences.  Lucien, h i s f r i e n d and f e l l o w e x i l e , becomes  P i r i t h o u s ; Rose B a i l e y i s h i s Phaedra for whom he deserts Ann h i s Ariadne.  There i s , however, an i r o n i c r e v e r s a l i n  L u c i e n ' s r o l e as P i r i t h o u s , for i t i s L u c i e n / P i r i t h o u s who escapes from Bleston/Hades and Revel/Theseus who i s l e f t behind. By drawing p a r a l l e l s between the events of h i s year i n Bleston and the scenes depicted i n the t a p e s t r i e s ,  the  Frenchman weaves the Theseus myth i n t o the f a b r i c of h i s diary.  Following George B u r t o n ' s a c c i d e n t , Revel i d e n t i f i e s  himself with Theseus, who was rendered " t r a i t r e et aveugle" by "cette Rose, cette Phedre pour l a q u e l l e i l a v a i t abandonne  1  Ariane, c e t t e femme dont i l ne r £ u s s i s s a i t pas a se prot£ger . . . "  (p. 174).  For i t i s i n order to impress  19 Rose/Phedre for whom he has abandoned Ann/Ariane that he divulges B u r t o n ' s name.  The Frenchman a l s o i d e n t i f i e s with  Oedipus, seeing himself as possessing the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s hero a l s o .  On May 25th, Burton had s a i d , "Le d e t e c t i v e  est l e f i l s du m e u r t r i e r , Oedipe, non seulement parce q u i l 1  r6sout une 6nigme, mais a u s s i parce qu i l tue c e l u i a q u i i l 1  d o i t son t i t r e . . . "  (p. 148).  Since Revel compares h i s  research i n t o the past year with the work of the  fictional  d e t e c t i v e Barnaby Morton, and since he sees Burton as h i s mentor,  i t i s easy for him to i d e n t i f y with the d e t e c t i v e ,  the " f i l s du m e u r t r i e r " who k i l l s " c e l u i a q u i i l d o i t son titre."  R e v e l ' s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with Oedipus i s  further  emphasized by h i s several references to himself as "aveugle" and by h i s d e s i r e to b l i n d h i m s e l f on l e a r n i n g of Ann's engagement to James,  " J ' a u r a i s voulu bruler mes yeux q u i  n'avaient s e r v i q u ' a me l e u r r e r . . . " (p. 252). Like Theseus, Revel must t r a v e l the path through "separation-initiation-return"  - h i s p h y s i c a l separation  from France and h i s c u l t u r a l a l i e n a t i o n i n B l e s t o n ; i n i t i a t i o n through h i s dream of the New Cathedral; and h i s return to France at the end of h i s year i n B l e s t o n .  Like  Theseus, Revel "ventures f o r t h from the world of common experience i n t o a new realm where he i s t e s t e d and wins a 9 v i c t o r y for h i m s e l f and h i s community." modern mythic hero.  He becomes the  However, he can only emulate Theseus to  a c e r t a i n p o i n t , after which he must f i n d h i s own way.  20 Just as the threads of the t a p e s t r i e s are interwoven to form the p i c t o r i a l story of Theseus, the t a p e s t r i e s  are  themselves "interwoven" w i t h the other works of a r t .  Revel's  v i s i t to the Murderer's window on the day f o l l o w i n g h i s f i r s t v i s i t to the t a p e s t r i e s creates a l i n k between these works of art.  This i s emphasized by the resemblance between Cain and  Theseus: Cain tuant son f r e r e A b e l , Cain dans une cuirasse l u i moulant l e ventre avec des rubans f l o t t a n t sur ses cuisses comme Th£s£e, presque dans l a m£me a t t i t u d e que Th£s6e aux p r i s e s avec l e Minotaure, pench£ comme l u i , l e pied gauche pos§ sur l a p o i t r i n e de sa v i c t i m e a l l o n g £ e , mais relevant l a t § t e , nue, d£ja b l e s s £ e , s i d i f f e r e n t pourtant, brandissant un tronc aux racines 6chevel6es sur l e c i e l rouge (p. 2 ) . Cain, the founder of the f i r s t c i t y and therefore the father of B l e s t o n , i s , through h i s murderous a c t , the brother of Theseus.  The red sky which forms the backdrop to the scene  i n the Murderer's window r e c a l l s the scene i n the Tapestries where Theseus f l e e s a burning Athens.  Greek and  J u d e o - C h r i s t i a n mythology meet i n these two works, both of which have been created by French craftsmen.  Similarly,  T a p e s t r i e s , Plaisance Gardens, "Le Meurtre de B l e s t o n " and the New Cathedral are l i n k e d through the motif of the tortoise: Je s u i s a l l 6 r e v o i r l a t o r t u e - l u t h £norme par rapport a l a tortue vivante que j ' a v a i s vue l e dimanche pr6c6dent a Plaisance Gardens, comme c e l l e - c i 6 t a i t gnorme par rapport a c e l l e que j ' a v a i s d e s s i n £ e sur l ' e x e m p l a i r e du "Meurtre de B l e s t o n " que j ' a v a i s pr§te" l e l u n d i a James et q u i , de nouveau se trouve entre  the  21 ses mains, tache" de boue, mais p e t i t e e l l e a u s s i par rapport a cette tortue que j ' a v a i s decide" d ' a l l e r r e v o i r l e lendemain, monstrueuse et c a r n a s s i e r e , dans l a troisieme t a p i s s e r i e de Musee (p. 152). The t a p e s t r i e s c o n s t i t u t e a "mise en abyme"  10  of the  temporal s t r u c t u r e adopted by Revel f o l l o w i n g h i s r e a l i s a t i o n that the d e t e c t i v e novel form i s too r e s t r i c t i n g .  This  temporal system r e f l e c t s "cet examen zigzagant" of the t a p e s t r i e s during which Revel gradually makes sense of them. The j u x t a p o s i t i o n , i n the t a p e s t r i e s ,  of events which are  connected but separated i n time, i s r e f l e c t e d i n the i n c r e a s i n g l y complex s t r u c t u r e of the Frenchman's d i a r y , i n which the events of one month are recorded alongside other previous events which are r e l a t e d but separated i n time. the diary progresses, u n t i l i n the f i f t h  As  one month i s added to each new chapter  and f i n a l chapter a complex arrangement  has been developed. C e r t a i n images, found i n the t a p e s t r i e s aire repeated throughout the t e x t .  The thread guiding Theseus out of the  l a b y r i n t h i s "un f i l 6pais comme une a r t e r e gorged de sang . . . "  (p. 7 1 ) .  This metaphor of the thread as a  l i f e - g i v i n g force i s repeated i n R e v e l ' s reference to the act of w r i t i n g as a " f i l d'Ariane parce que j e s u i s dans un l a b y r i n t h e , parce que j ' £ c r i s pour m'y retrouver (p. 187).  . . . "  The diary i s h i s l i f e l i n e , guiding him through the  l a b y r i n t h of h i s time i n B l e s t o n . labyrinth is  The imagery of the  22 repeated on various occasions i n the months f o l l o w i n g the Frenchman's f i r s t v i s i t to the Museum.  He sees h i s time i n  Bleston as a journey through a l a b y r i n t h .  This i s expressed  through the complexity of the temporal s t r u c t u r e of the diary and i n h i s comment that through h i s diary he i s searching for himself i n " l e l a b y r i n t h e de mes jours a B l e s t o n " (p. 187). spatially.  The l a b y r i n t h i s also expressed  When he learns of Ann's engagement to James  J e n k i n s , Revel wanders alone i n the B l e s t o n i a n l a b y r i n t h : Je me s u i s enfonce' dans l e s rues, me hatant sans d e s t i n a t i o n , comme tourmentg par une rage de gencives, tournant et retournant, emprisonne" dans ce grand piege dont l a trappe v e n a i t de claquer, parmi l e s meules des maisons q u i c r i s s a i e n t l e s unes contre l e s autres . . . (p. 260). The impression that he i s l o s t i n a l a b y r i n t h i s i n t e n s i f i e d when he passes Lanes Park whose ornamental l a b y r i n t h he had v i s i t e d i n October. C e r t a i n colours which appear i n the t a p e s t r i e s recur i n the t e x t .  The blue of A r i a d n e ' s dress and the blue of the  Athenian s k i e s are r e f l e c t e d i n the blue s k i e s of the f i l m s of Ancient Greece and Rome which offer Revel an escape from B l e s t o n ' s smoke and fog (pp. 224-225).  This colour i s  s i g n i f i c a n t l y absent from B l e s t o n ' s a c t u a l skies which are constantly obscured by a p a l l of cloud and smog.  The s i l v e r  threads woven i n t o A r i a d n e ' s dress reappear i n the wallpaper of h i s new room.  23 The flames of Athens are echoed i n the numerous small outbreaks of f i r e that plague B l e s t o n .  The Amusement Arcade  boasts a game whose background i s a burning c i t y , an i r o n i c reminder of how B l e s t o n has debased i t s Greek h e r i t a g e .  On  h i s f i r s t v i s i t to Horace Buck's room, Revel i s offered rum, a symbol of fire.-'-- 1  The Murderer's Window r e f l e c t s the red  of the Athenian f i r e s when the sun shines on i t . Buck's voice i s "comme b r u i s e " (p. 9 6 ) .  Horace  "Le Meurtre de  B l e s t o n " i n f l i c t s a "brulure" on James J e n k i n s .  Revel i s  haunted by the f i r e s of B l e s t o n and by h i s own d e s i r e to contribute to them.  We r e c a l l how he burned the t i c k e t to  Plaisance Gardens and how he was tempted to burn the photographic negative of the Burtons p r i o r to h i s symbolic burning of the map. the instrument  We should note t h a t , i n alchemy, f i r e i s  of p u r i f i c a t i o n and r e n e w a l . ' '  Thus, the act  of burning the map of Bleston r e f l e c t s not only R e v e l ' s d e s i r e to destroy B l e s t o n , but also h i s desire for  its  renewal, a renewal which can only be achieved through weeding out the c i t y ' s e v i l and by i n t e g r a t i n g a l l of i t s h i s t o r i c a l heritage. The t a p e s t r i e s are important at both the personal and the c o l l e c t i v e l e v e l s .  At the personal l e v e l they serve as a  guide and model for Revel, and, at the c o l l e c t i v e l e v e l ,  they  form a l i n k between B l e s t o n and i t s mythological roots. However, i n both c a p a c i t i e s ,  they are j u s t one piece of the  mosaic and can only be f u l l y understood when they  are  24 integrated i n t o the whole framework of western man's c u l t u r e . Just as Horace Buck and George Burton are found l a c k i n g as guides, so too are Theseus and Oedipus.  An understanding of  h i s Greek heritage can only take Revel part of the way on h i s journey towards s e l f knowledge. Tfhe Murderer's Window The Murderer's Window i s s i t u a t e d i n B l e s t o n ' s Old Cathedral which i s b u i l t on the s i t e of a Roman temple of war.  Thus a connection i s e s t a b l i s h e d , through geographic  l o c a t i o n , between the Murderer's Window and Roman B r i t a i n . By the nature of i t s composition i t i s the " l i e u de rencontre de l ' e x t ^ r i e u r et de 1 ' i n t ^ r i e u r " ,  at one and the same time  part of the C a t h e d r a l ' s i n t e r i o r r e f l e c t i n g B l e s t o n ' s s p i r i t u a l and mythological h e r i t a g e ,  and of the e x t e r i o r , 13  reaching out towards the w o r l d l y c i t y . i s symbolized i n the a r t i s t ' s  This reaching out  use of the B l e s t o n of h i s time  as a model for C a i n ' s c i t y and by the view of the modern c i t y through the p l a i n glass window.  The attempt at  integration,  however, i s ignored by most B l e s t o n i a n s , who are much more i n t e r e s t e d i n the a t t r a c t i o n s of Plaisance Gardens,  the  entrance of which i r o n i c a l l y bears a close resemblance to " 1 ' a n t i c a t h £ d r a l e . . . qui regne sur l a v i l l e de Cain dans le Vitrail  . . . "  (pp. 141-142).  Although Revel does not v i s i t the Murderer's Window u n t i l Sunday November 4th, a v i s i t described i n the  entries  25 of June 6th and 7th, i t i s announced i n the text p r i o r to these dates.  The most obvious reference occurs i n the May  30th entry i n which the purchase of "Le Meurtre de B l e s t o n " i s described.  The f i r s t sentence of that novel,  "L'Ancienne  Cathedrale de B l e s t o n est c £ l e b r e par son grand V i t r a i l , l e V i t r a i l du M e u r t r i e r . . . " to R e v e l .  dit  (p. 57), introduces the Window  By c a l l i n g the stained glass window " l e V i t r a i l du  M e u r t r i e r " rather than " l e V i t r a i l de C a i n , " Butor emphasizes the theme of murder and the l i n k between B u r t o n ' s novel and the Murderer's W i n d o w .  14  The f i r s t bus, Number 17, that Revel catches, and which he w i l l catch every morning for the duration of h i s stay at the seedy hotel a p p r o p r i a t e l y c a l l e d the "Ecrou", bears the sign "Old C a t h e d r a l . "  The frequency with which t h i s bus  appears i n the text p r i o r to the June 6th and 7th e n t r i e s t e s t i f i e s to the importance of the Old C a t h e d r a l .  It i s one  of the signs marking the way for Revel through h i s l a b y r i n t h . One sunny October Sunday, he i s overcome with a d e s i r e to go for a s t r o l l i n the countryside, and sets out from B l e s t o n only to f i n d nothing but a s e r i e s of suburban housing schemes s t r e t c h i n g e n d l e s s l y before him (pp. 33-34) .  Significantly,  i t i s Number 17 which takes him back to the c i t y  centre,  towards, but not t o , the Old C a t h e d r a l . The reference to the Murderer's Window i n "Le Meurtre de B l e s t o n " and the sign on the Number 17 bus  26 announce the Old Cathedral and i t s Window very c l e a r l y . A study of the f i r s t chapter reveals many other more subtle r e f l e c t i o n s of the window. In the opening paragraphs of the novel, Revel i s seated, "pres de l a v i t r e n o i r e couverte a l ' e x t e r i e u r de gouttes de pluie . . . "  (p. 9 ) , an image which we r e c a l l when we read  the f o l l o w i n g :  " l e v i t r a i l , ayant perdu toute  transparence,  semblait une mosaique de lames de charbon p o l i e s " (p. 8 0 ) . The r a i n - s p a t t e r e d window also foreshadows the constant r a i n which plagues B l e s t o n - r a i n which i s l a t e r described as black and m a l e f i c e n t , echoing the " p l u i e de soufre" i n the Sodom and Gomorrha window.  (p. 78)  Similarly, Revel's  d e s c r i p t i o n of the B l e s t o n a i r as "ces vapeurs sournoises" (p. 10) whose deposits are " l e s p o i n t s n o i r s des e s c a r b i l l e s qui tombent encore de mes cheveux" (p. 15), prefigures the scene i n the Murderer's Window i n which the smoke from C a i n ' s o f f e r i n g "envahit tout l e c i e l au-dessus de l u i et retombe pour 1'envelopper"  (p. 7 3 ) .  Just as the atmosphere of Hamilton S t a t i o n r e f l e c t s the Murderer's Window, so a l s o does i t s a r c h i t e c t u r e ;  the  "immense vodte de m6tal et de v e r r e " (p. 10) a n t i c i p a t e s the v a u l t e d transept of the Old C a t h e d r a l , while " l a grande horloge au cadran lumineux" (p. 10) announces the l u m i n o s i t y of the c e n t r a l c i r c u l a r window on R e v e l ' s f i r s t v i s i t to that neglected place of worship. H i s t o r i c a l l y , the Murderer's Window, l i k e the  27 t a p e s t r i e s , i s rooted i n several key periods of western civilization.  The C a t h e d r a l ' s l o c a t i o n on the s i t e of an  ancient Roman temple of war l i n k s i t , as p r e v i o u s l y mentioned,  to the Roman occupation of B r i t a i n and thus to  Imperial Rome.  The story depicted i n the Murderer's Window,  the account of the f i r s t f r a t r i c i d e ,  goes back to Genesis,  the beginnings of the J u d e o - C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n .  to  Janet  Paterson notes the i n t e r e s t i n g connection between the  first  sentence of L'Empioi du temps, "les lueurs se sont m u l t i p l i £ e s , " and Genesis I where God says "Que l a lumiere s o i t . T h e  connection between the window and C h r i s t i a n  Rome i s further  underlined i n the quotations from the Vulgate  which accompany the p i c t o r i a l h i s t o r y of Cain.  The  comparison of Cain w i t h Theseus e s t a b l i s h e s a l i n k w i t h Ancient Greek mythology.  Likewise, through the i l l u s t r a t i o n  of the i n s c r i p t i o n , "et a e d i f i c a v i t c i v i t a t e m " ( p . 74) which i s based on Sixteenth Century B l e s t o n , another key period i n Western h i s t o r y i s represented. windows t e s t i f y  The unfinished and damaged  to t h i s s t r i f e - t o r n period when the  struggle  between C a t h o l i c i s m and Protestantism was coming to a climax. The glimpses of modern and ancient Bleston through the c l e a r panes of the destroyed windows, the sound of the r a i n on them, the dissonant  sound of " l a profonde c r 6 c e l l e d'un  camion" (p. 75) - a l l b r i n g the various periods evoked by the window into contact w i t h modern B l e s t o n . The c e n t r a l theme of the Murderer's Window, the story of  28 Cain and A b e l , the crime of f r a t r i c i d e , i s r e f l e c t e d i n the murder of Johnny Winn by h i s brother i n "Le Meurtre de B l e s t o n " , and i n a l l the murders which haunt the c i t y . with the t a p e s t r i e s ,  As  the themes of the various scenes are  r e f l e c t e d e i t h e r i n the other works of a r t or i n R e v e l ' s experiences.  The scene d e p i c t i n g the smoke from C a i n ' s  o f f e r i n g f a l l i n g back on him i s repeated throughout the novel as Revel i s enveloped i n B l e s t o n s smoke and f o g . 1  theme, f i r e ,  Another  i s expressed i n the "poutres flambantes" (p. 78)  of the d e s t r u c t i o n of Sodom, and i n the crimson glow which suffuses the Murderer's Window. expressed i n the t a p e s t r i e s ,  The theme of e x i l e ,  already  reappears i n the window i n the  scene i l l u s t r a t i n g the i n s c r i p t i o n , "profugus i n t e r r a . " Janet Paterson sees i n the Murderer's Window "un centre de concentration et d ' e x p l o s i o n dans l e q u e l convergent et d'ou se m u l t i p l i e n t toute une c o n s t e l l a t i o n de c e l l u l e s g e n e r a t r i c e s . ""^  A study of the text shows t h i s to be t r u e .  At both the thematic and semantic l e v e l s , the Murderer's Window i s c l o s e l y interconnected with the rest of the t e x t . We have already noted the s i m i l a r i t y between the t i t l e of the stained glass window and the t i t l e of the novel w i t h i n the novel, both of which immediately evoke the other murders i n the t e x t .  Revel describes the Murderer's Window as " l ' u n de  ces deux grands h i £ r o g l y p h e s q u i i n s c r i v e n t l e meurtre au front de B l e s t o n , au front de cette v i l l e hantee de  29 meurtre . .  (p. 149).  It i s i n front of the Murderer's  Window that the d e t e c t i v e , Barnaby Morton, k i l l s the f r a t r i c i d a l Bernard Winn i n the f i c t i o n a l n o v e l .  James  J e n k i n s , whom Revel at one point suspects of the attempted murder of Burton, i s seen outside the Cathedral, looking at the Murderer's Window "son regard £tonnamment rempli de haine" (p. 149) .  Revel himself i s branded on h i s June 1st  visit: Le sang s ' e s t mis a couler jusqu'en bas, comme une lente averse dans tout l e c i e l rouge de l a c i t £ , . . . meme sur mes mains, surtout sur mes mains couvertes, t e i n t e s , impr£gn£es de cette £ p a i s s e couleur lumineuse, comme des mains de m e u r t r i e r , comme s i j ' e t a i s condamn6 au meurtre, mes mains au centre de l a flaque, mes mains au centre de l a tache p r o j e t £ e par l a scene d'en haut dans l e silence. (p. 197) The c i r c u l a r shape of the window d e p i c t i n g the murder of Cain by Abel i s repeated i n the s p h e r i c a l m i r r o r s i n the homes of the Burtons and the B a i l e y s .  These m i r r o r s , symbols  of "mise en abyme, " of the s e l f - r e f l e c t i v e nature of the novel, give Revel a d i f f e r e n t perspective on the r e f l e c t e d scene, just as h i s d i a r y , which he describes as "ce m i r o i r piege pour te prendre, Bleston . . . " perspective on past events.  (p. 275), changes h i s  Revel sees i n the Burtons'  m i r r o r , "1'image d'Ann, de dos, toute p e t i t e , comme s i e l l e 6 t a i t d£ja t r e s l o i n de moi, comme s i nous £ t i o n s d6ja s £ p a r £ s par l a mer . . . "  (p. 273).  L a t e r , he sees "les deux  images des fiances entre l e s deux visages des 4poux q u i nous recevaient,  l e s images d'Ann et de James et l a mienne a u s s i ,  30 tout pres du bord, minuscule dans 1*embrasure d'une minuscule porte courb^e . . . "  (p. 287).  These two d i s t o r t e d scenes, from one of which Revel i s e n t i r e l y excluded, and i n the other of which h i s r e f l e c t i o n i s d i s t o r t e d i n such a way that he i s minute i n comparison to the other people, r e f l e c t the Frenchman's p o s i t i o n as an outsider.  The f i r s t scene i s evocative of the scene i n the  t a p e s t r i e s i n which Ariadne i s separated from Theseus by the sea.  Only i n the mirror the s i t u a t i o n i s reversed; i t i s  Ann/Ariadne who r e j e c t s Theseus/Revel, i r o n i c a l l y b l o c k i n g him out of the scene with a copy of "Le Meurtre de B l e s t o n . " Both mirrored scenes put i n t o perspective R e v e l ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p with Ann, James and the Burtons. The m i r r o r s and B l e s t o n ' s windows, which often take on a r e f l e c t i v e q u a l i t y , are themselves metaphors for R e v e l ' s diary which he describes as "ce m i r o i r piege" (p. 275).  Just  as the story of Cain and h i s descendants has been engraved on the transparent  surface of the Murderer's Window, so Revel  w i l l engrave the story of h i s year i n Bleston on the mirror of h i s page: pour me reV£ler peu a peu, au t r a v e r s de toutes ces craquelures que sont mes phrases, mon propre visage perdu dans une gangue de suie boueuse, mon propre visage dont mes malheurs et mon acharnement lavent peu a peu l e noyau de quartz h y a l i n , mon propre visage et l e t i e n d e r r i e r e l u i , Bleston . . . (p. 276). The temporal c i r c u l a r i t y of the diary r e f l e c t s the c i r c u l a r  c e n t r a l window and, l i k e the Cathedral windows, i t remains incomplete. The c i r c u l a r window i s r e f l e c t e d at a more profane  level  i n the f e r r i s wheel at the f a i r , i n " l e grand h u i t " of Plaisance Gardens, and i n the c i r c u l a r route followed by the f a i r as i t moves from s i t e to s i t e around the c i t y ' s perimeter.  I t i s from the f e r r i s wheel, "a l a hauteur d'un  quatrieme £ t a g e " (p. 135) , that Revel spots George and H a r r i e t Burton, which leads to the betrayal of t h e i r i d e n t i t y to James and perhaps to the murder attempt on George B u r t o n ' s life.  Thus the shadow of f r a t r i c i d e cast by the Murderer's  Window i s extended to the f a i r g r o u n d .  The f a i r , s i t e of a  s e r i e s of small f i r e s , r e f l e c t s the " c i t £ s maudites" (p. 77) portrayed i n the Murderer's Window.  Always crowded, i n  contrast to the empty cathedrals and Museum, the  fair  t e s t i f i e s to B l e s t o n ' s abandonment of i t s s p i r i t u a l inheritance i n favour of more w o r l d l y p u r s u i t s . The Murderer's Window i s also r e f l e c t e d i n the text through colour and imagery. The o i l lamp i n the c h o i r i s made of red glass echoing " l e c i e l rouge" which forms the backdrop to the scene of A b e l ' s murder.  The l i g h t shining through  A b e l ' s blood p r o j e c t s a red s t a i n on to the f l o o r of the transept, evoking the scene i n "Le Meurtre de B l e s t o n " i n which Johnny Winn's body i s found.  The t r i a n g l e s connecting  the c e n t r a l window to the others are decorated by "des f l e u r s a s i x p^tales q u i sont p e u t - § t r e des flammes" (p. 7 3 ) .  Red,  32 the colour of blood and f i r e ,  symbol of l i f e and of death, of  d e s t r u c t i o n and of p u r i f i c a t i o n , dominates the Window and echoes through the whole t e x t .  I t i s echoed i n the f i r e s , i n  the t a p e s t r i e s and i n the f i l m s Revel watches.  The p o r t r a y a l  of the burning of Sodom reminds the reader of the scene i n the tapestry  i n which Theseus f l e e s a burning Athens.  These  scenes are i m i t a t e d and g r o s s l y d i s t o r t e d i n the f i l m "The Red Nights of Roma": C ' § t a i t une sorte de 'Quo V a d i s ' superpreduction en t e c h n i c o l o r avec martyrs, fauves et bains des dames, avec de grandes flammes naturellement, deVorant l e s q u a r t i e r s de carton, avec l e r e f l e t rouge de l a d e s t r u c t i o n sur l e s nuages . . . (p. 227) . In the Amusement Arcade game i n which Revel watches the pyromaniacal Horace Buck, "s'acharnant  a t i r e r sur l e s images  d'avions eVoluant dans l e c i e l de verre peint au dessus de 1 * image d'une v i l l e en flammes . . . "  (p. 181), " l e c i e l de  verre p e i n t " r e f l e c t s the " c i e l rougeoyant" of the Murderer's Window and emphasizes B l e s t o n ' s degradation.  The l i n k  between the f i r e s which haunt B l e s t o n , the f i l m s and the other a r t works i s apparent to Revel who, when he reads i n the Evening News of yet another f i r e which occurred, "au moment meme ou nous contemplions sur l ' e c r a n du Theatre de Nouvelles, sous l e c i e l pur et bleu du desert o r i e n t a l , ces sombres flammes de p i e r r e b r i l l a n t e , ces b r a i s e s d'une v i l l e romaine . . . " (p. 124), i s prompted to t h i n k : aux flammes q u i deVorent Ath^nes dans l a derniere t a p i s s e r i e du Mus£e, au c i e l  33 rouge d e r r i e r e l a v i l l e de Cain dans l e V i t r a i l de l ' A n c i e n n e Cathedrale, comme j ' y avais song£, i l y a quinze j o u r s , lorsque j ' a v a i s a p p r i s l a catastrophe du grand h u i t dans Plaisance Gardens (p. 124) . Revel cannot escape contamination by the " f l £ a u de B l e s t o n , " as he finds himself more and more obsessed by f i r e . He.burns a t i c k e t to Plaisance Gardens and i s tempted to burn the photographic negative of George and H a r r i e t Burton. Towards the end of h i s stay i n B l e s t o n , the s i g h t of the pages of h i s diary p i l e d on h i s t a b l e plunges the Frenchman i n t o such despair that he i s "envahi d'une furieuse envie de l e s brQler completement  . . . "  (p. 258).  However, just  as  the f i r e s of Athens and Rome have not erased our c o l l e c t i v e memory of our mythological h e r i t a g e ,  neither w i l l the burning  of h i s diary erase R e v e l ' s year i n B l e s t o n :  In fact i t w i l l  simply plunge him back i n t o the l a b y r i n t h , condemning him to begin h i s task over and over again and even more p a i n f u l l y . However, the negative q u a l i t i e s of B l e s t o n ' s f i r e s  are  balanced by the fact that f i r e also has a p u r i f y i n g and regenerative f u n c t i o n .  Out of the symbolic act of burning  the map of B l e s t o n comes R e v e l ' s d e c i s i o n to reclaim h i s  life  from the c i t y ' s " s o r c e l l e r i e " (p. 31) by w r i t i n g a d i a r y . Born of f i r e ,  the diary i s marked by f i r e on the  first  evening of w r i t i n g when the f i r s t page " s ' e s t mise a brQler dans mes yeux . . . "  (p. 185).  The f i r e which dazzles him on  t h i s occasion emanates not from one of B l e s t o n ' s malevolent  34 f i r e s but from the sun, symbol of l i f e and l i g h t .  The act of  w r i t i n g , a metaphorical burning of the c i t y , comes under  the  sign of d e s t r u c t i o n but, since i t i s a l s o under the sign of the sun, i t i s an instrument of  regeneration.  In the Murderer's Window, the red of A b e l ' s blood i s balanced by the yellow of "cette foudre, ce rayon jaune" (p. 74) which brands Cain as an outcast and at same time renders him i n v u l n e r a b l e .  the  We should note that  R e v e l ' s "carte d ' i d e n t i t y " which he obtained on the day preceding h i s f i r s t v i s i t to the Murderer's Window i s a l s o yellow.  Like the mark of Cain, i t brands him as an o u t s i d e r .  Revel i s again i d e n t i f i e d with Cain f o l l o w i n g h i s night of i n i t i a t i o n when he f e e l s "au m i l i e u de mon front comme l a pointe d'un cautere s'enfoncant  . . . "  with the sign of i n v u l n e r a b i l i t y .  (p. 257), marking him  Again, i n the scene i n the  Cathedral, on a day so b r i g h t that he remarks, "jamais j e n ' a v a i s vu l a nef s i c l a i r e . . . " (p. 199), a t r i c k of the l i g h t spreads the s t a i n of A b e l ' s blood to R e v e l ' s hands, thus branding him as a murderer. The Frenchman i s marked as a murderer on the afternoon of June 1 s t , the day f o l l o w i n g h i s betrayal of George B u r t o n ' s i d e n t i t y to James Jenkins and the day on which he compounds t h a t betrayal by making the same d i o s c l o s u r e to the Bailey sisters,  thus s e t t i n g i n motion the "meurtre manqu£"  of Burton, h i s b r o t h e r / f a t h e r .  In t h i s v i s i t to the  Murderer's Window, which Revel made i n order to refresh h i s  35 memory of the November 4th v i s i t , we f i n d an example of the temporal complexity of the t e x t , as the memory of a s t i l l earlier v i s i t ,  i n October, i s evoked.  Through t h i s memory,  Revel r e a l i z e s why he d i s c l o s e d B u r t o n ' s i d e n t i t y to the Bailey  sisters.  The sunshine which i l l u m i n a t e s the Murderer's Window on the two occasions which we have described i s a rare occurrence i n B l e s t o n .  The fog, smoke and r a i n i n t o which  the c i t y ' s winter plunges Revel are r e f l e c t e d i n the window. In one panel we see the smoke from C a i n ' s s a c r i f i c e  falling  back down on him; i n another we see the " p l u i e de soufre"  (p. 78) f a l l i n g on Sodom.  In November Revel watches  the s t r e e t urchins burning t h e i r "guys" - e f f i g i e s of Guy Fawkes - whose smoke descends and impregnates h i s c l o t h e s , reminding the reader of the scene of C a i n ' s s a c r i f i c e i n which the smoke from the a l t a r (p. 7 3 ) .  "retombe pour 1' envelopper"  Revel i s thus again marked as C a i n ' s descendant.  The smoke from C a i n ' s s a c r i f i c e merges with the " p l u i e de soufre" to form the d i r t y fog and r a i n which envelop Bleston during much of R e v e l ' s stay.  From the f i r s t day of  w r i t i n g , the diary abounds i n references to them: vapeurs sournoises"  "ces  (p. 10), " l a n u i t et l a p l u i e n o i r e s "  (p. 33), "une p l u i e bien plus f r o i d e , bien plus n o i r e , bien plus s a l e " (p. 150) , "cette £cume de plomb q u i tombe en f i n e s g o u t t e l e t t e s sur ma v i t r e " (p. 176), emphasizing the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Murderer's Window and the t e x t .  36 Even B l e s t o n ' s snow i s t a i n t e d :  " l a sale neige de B l e s t o n "  (p. 223), "les sales flocons tombaient" (p. 167), evoking the scene i n which L o t ' s wife looks back at " l a porte de 1'enceinte de briques . . . l e s flocons jaunes et n o i r s s'abattant sur l e s poutres flambantes"  (p. 7 8 ) .  This scene  i s r e f l e c t e d i n "les sommets des poteaux c a l c i n e s du Scenic Railway" (p. 116), which l i n k s that fairground w i t h the condemned c i t i e s i n the B i b l i c a l n a r r a t i v e s .  Revel's  reference to the source of the Slee as "cette mer morte" (p. 255) a l s o creates a l i n k with the ruins of Sodom and Gomorrha, which l i e under the Dead Sea. The Tower of Babel i s r e f l e c t e d i n R e v e l ' s d i f f i c u l t y  in  understanding the p e c u l i a r accent of the Blestonians and i n communicating with them:  "je ne comprenais ce qu'on me  d i s a i t qu'au t r a v e r s d'un b r o u i l l a r d . . . "  (p. 184).  Like  the c i t i z e n s of ancient Babylon, he i s condemned to being surrounded by words that he cannot decipher.  The other  fragment of Babylon which remains i n the Murderer's Window i s "ce visage portant pour cheveux des plumes de corbeaux, c e l u i du r o i Nabuchodonosor change en bSte . . . "  (p. 7 8 ) .  We  i d e n t i f y Revel with t h i s image when he describes himself as "un oiseau migrateur" and when he t a l k s about how, once he has l e f t B l e s t o n , he w i l l regain h i s human form:  "quand j e  p a r t i r a i en f i n septembre, quand j e m'arracherai e n f i n a B l e s t o n , a cette Circe et a ses sombres s o r t i l e g e s , quand enf i n j ' a u r a i p o s s i b i l i t e , d e i i v r e , de retrouver ma forme  37 humaine . . . "  (p. 115).  Bleston i s the modern Circe"  transforming her inhabitants  i n t o animals, as Circe"  transformed U l y s s e s ' s companions. An important theme, expressed i n both the Murderer's Window and the t a p e s t r i e s , i s that of the wanderer and outcast.  This theme i s r e f l e c t e d i n the f a i r which t r a v e l s  around B l e s t o n ' s perimeter,  and spends a month i n each of  eight l o c a t i o n s before repeating the same t r a j e c t o r y .  This  s e l f - c o n t a i n e d community, i s a descendant of C a i n ' s wandering tribe.  Another s e l f - c o n t a i n e d community, the p r i s o n where  B l e s t o n ' s outcasts are kept apart from the rest of her c i t i z e n s , i s shaped "comme une sorte de nggatif de l a marque £ b l o u i s s a n t e imprim^e au front de Cain" (p. 262), outcast and wanderer,  The  Cain, i s p a r a l l e l e d by Horace Buck who  i s marked as an outsider by h i s colour and h i s accent as he wanders the s t r e e t s of B l e s t o n .  Branded as a foreigner by  h i s yellow i d e n t i t y card whose colour corresponds,  as  p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, to the "foudre jaune" t h a t imprints the mark on C a i n ' s forehead, land.  Revel too i s an e x i l e i n a f o r e i g n  Cain " 6 d i f i a n t un mur de briques" (p. 75) i s echoed by  Revel whose diary i s "ce rempart de l i g n e s sur des f e u i l l e s blanches" ( p . . 1 9 9 ) .  C a i n ' s c i t y w a l l s become R e v e l ' s diary  constructed to protect him from B l e s t o n ' s " s o r c e l l e r i e " . In B u t o r ' s work, the unstated i s often as s i g n i f i c a n t as the s t a t e d .  This i s evident i n the Murderer's Window whose  blank windows - replacing those destroyed by the  sixteenth-  century mob - create an imbalance which r e f l e c t s  the  38 imbalance of B l e s t o n and a l l i t s modern counterparts.  In  reply to R e v e l ' s q u e s t i o n , "Pourquoi cet immense v i t r a i l consacr£ a un r§prouv£?" (p. 75), the p r i e s t points out that " i l n ' e t a i t pas f a i t pour § t r e vu s e u l " (p. 7 6 ) .  Thus the  perspective presented by the Murderer's Window i s d i s t o r t e d because i t i s removed from i t s context:  I t t e l l s only a part  of the story and can only make sense when seen i n the context of the whole.  This i s a "mise en abyme" of R e v e l ' s diary i n  which i s o l a t e d i n c i d e n t s only achieve true s i g n i f i c a n c e when seen i n the l a r g e r context which surrounds them. The key to understanding the Murderer's Window i s provided through the w r i t i n g of a sixteenth-century c h r o n i c l e r whose account of the feast day c e l e b r a t i n g the i n s t a l l a t i o n of the windows included a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e i r subject matter.  Thus Revel and the p r i e s t  enabled to reconstruct the Window's s t o r y .  Similarly,  through h i s own act of w r i t i n g , Revel hopes to h i s own, and B l e s t o n s , s t o r y . 1  are  reconstruct  Opposite the Murderer's Window  and balancing i t , Adam and Eve, the ancestors of humanity, should have been depicted with the infant A b e l .  In t h e i r  place i s the empty window through which can be seen "ces t r o i s p e t i t e s chemin^es tordues" (p. 7 6 ) , symbols of the smoke and f i r e which are B l e s t o n s h e r i t a g e . 1  Also destroyed by the  sixteenth-century rabble were the windows p o r t r a y i n g Imperial and C h r i s t i a n Rome.  Thus the B l e s t o n i a n s have cut themselves  off not only from t h e i r Judaic heritage but a l s o from t h e i r  39 Roman r o o t s .  R e v e l ' s view of the window (and therefore h i s  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of i t ) are d i s t o r t e d by another missing l i n k : the Last Judgement which would have put Cain and h i s c i t y to God's l e f t and Abel to H i s r i g h t , c o r r e c t i n g the imbalance which puts B l e s t o n under the sign of C a i n .  U n t i l that  imbalance i s corrected, u n t i l B l e s t o n integrates i t s c u l t u r a l heritage,  i t w i l l continue to be a v i c t i m of i t s own  "sorcellerie."  1 9  The " v i t r e s blanches" (p. 76) of the Abel window r e f l e c t the blank windows which l i n e B l e s t o n ' s s t r e e t s and the blank square on the cover of the "Le Meurtre de B l e s t o n " .  If  Bleston i s to regain i t s balance, i t s windows must take on the colours of the Murderer's Window i n an acknowledgement of the c i t y ' s past and as a commitment to the future.  This i s  expressed i n R e v e l ' s dream of the New Cathedral whose windows 20 had also impressed him with t h e i r blankness.  In the dream,  the windows" n ' 6 t a i e n t plus blanches mais peintes de scenes changeantes avec des personnages beaucoup plus grands que nature devant des v i l l e s . . . "  (p. 277).  The s t a t i c  scenes  of the Murderer's Window have been replaced by "des scenes changeantes" r e f l e c t i n g and recording the complexity of man's e x i s t e n c e , just as the New Novel w i l l replace the l i n e a r i t y of the t r a d i t i o n a l n o v e l . However, balance w i l l only be restored to Bleston and to Revel when the descendants of Yubal can again make themselves heard.  In reply to R e v e l ' s q u e s t i o n , "Bleston, v i l l e de  40 tisserands et de forgerons, q u ' a s - t u f a i t de tes musiciens?" p. 7 5 ) , the only answer he receives i s , " l a profonde c r £ c e l l e d'un camion" (p. 7 5 ) .  Revel i s e i t h e r surrounded by s i l e n c e  or by such dissonant sounds as, " l e raclement d'une v o i t u r e de p o l i c e s ' a r r £ t a n t brusquement, puis sa sirene comme e l l e repartait  . . . "  (p. 197).  Revel i d e n t i f i e s himself as a descendant of Cain, comparing h i s w r i t i n g to the work of Yabal, Yubal and Tubalcain, "cette d e s c r i p t i o n e x p l o r a t r i c e que j e compose, forge et t i s s e , f i l s de Cain" (p. 204) .  Revel i s also the  son of Yubal as the t e x t ' s many musical metaphors The novel as a whole, as Butor has stated,  testify.  i s "une sorte  d'immense canon temporel " - w i t h i n which are contained many AJ  musical references.  R e v e l ' s desire for B l e s t o n i s t h a t ,  "tes  propres paroles atteignent enf i n au chant brulant" (p. 269). The e x p l o r a t i o n of h i s year i n B l e s t o n i s described i n musical terms,  "chaque j o u r , e v e i l l a n t de nouveaux j o u r s  harmoniques, transforme l'apparence du passe" . . . " (p. 294). The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the pieces of glass making up the Murderer's Window i s described as f o l l o w s :  "ces moreaux de  v e r r e t a i l l £ s et j o i n t s dans l a France du seizieme s i e c l e dont l e s harmoniques h i s t o r i q u e s p r i n c i p a l e s s ' i n t e r c a l e n t entre c e l l e s des t a p i s s e r i e s du Mus6e . . . "  (p. 295).  Revel  i s equally the descendant of Tubalcain when he describes h i s j o u r n a l as,  "cette longue chaine r £ t i c u l e e de phrases,  l a forge m ' a v a i t £puis£ . . . " (p. 256).  dont  The metaphor of the  forge i s repeated i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of the New Cathedral as,  41 "un nouveau chalnon de cette p i s t e i n t r i g a n t e , eVasive, que j e s u i v a i s depuis quelque temps . . . " (p. 113).  Revel i s a  descendant too of Yabal as he weaves the " t o i l e " of his diary. I t i s c l e a r to the reader that, as long as the imbalance r e f l e c t e d i n the Murderer's Window remains unredressed and Bleston - the representative  of the modern western c i t y -  refuses to acknowledge and integrate i t s J u d e o - C h r i s t i a n and Roman roots, man's c i t i e s w i l l be corrupt.  Only when modern  man has f u l l y accepted h i s past and integrated the s k i l l s of all  three descendants of Cain i n t o h i s c r e a t i v e process,  he create a society free of the i l l s which presently it.  will  plague  S i m i l a r l y , Revel w i l l only be freed from B l e s t o n ' s  " s o r c e l l e r i e " when he has understood and integrated c u l t u r a l heritage,  his  o n l y . t h e n w i l l he be able to grow and  expand i n t o new forms of expression.  The New Cathedral The New Cathedral i s announced several times Revel v i s i t s i t .  before  On h i s f i r s t attempt to v i s i t the Old  Cathedral, i t i s towards the New Cathedral that the bus takes him.  James d r i v e s past i t the f i r s t time he takes Revel to  lunch at h i s home.  His reading of the "Le Meurtre de  B l e s t o n " a l s o introduces Revel to the New Cathedral but i n such a way that he does not even consider i t worth v i s i t i n g for,  i n the n o v e l , the New Cathedral i s no more than,  r e f l e t amoindri de l ' A n c i e n n e " (p. 121).  "un  I t i s i r o n i c that a  42 n o v e l i s t who chooses C h r i s t ' s i n i t i a l s for h i s own should d i s d a i n the New Cathedral, symbol of the New Testament,  for  the Old Cathedral on whose windows only the Old Testament s t o r i e s are portrayed.  I t i s on the advice of the p r i e s t i n  the Old Cathedral that Revel f i n a l l y v i s i t s the New Cathedral and then i t i s more out of c u r i o s i t y than i n t e r e s t and because i t houses the b e l l s taken from the Old C a t h e d r a l . Thus h i s discovery of t h i s important work i s , l i k e h i s discovery of the t a p e s t r i e s ,  accidental.  It i s the next step  i n h i s e x p l o r a t i o n of the l a b y r i n t h , an important one i n h i s e x p l o r a t i o n of B l e s t o n and e s s e n t i a l to h i s development of a new l i t e r a r y form. Dean McWilliams suggests t h a t Butor has based h i s imaginary cathedral on the Sagrada F a m i l i a church i n Barcelona, designed by Antonio Gaudi, which McWilliams describes as the "most audacious and successful attempt to 22 integrate natural forms i n t o e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a r c h i t e c t u r e . He further notes that w h i l e Butor was w r i t i n g L'Emploi du temps he v i s i t e d and admired t h i s s t r u c t u r e whose a r c h i t e c t "resolved the tension between the modern age's s c i e n t i f i c 23 i n t e r e s t s and i t s outmoded a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e c o r a t i o n , " and adds t h a t "Gaudi attempted to integrate h i s church i n t o the contemporary world by borrowing h i s decorative schemes from 24 the natural s c i e n c e s . "  Butor's f i c t i o n a l  architect,  E. C. Douglas, observes s i m i l a r p r i n c i p l e s i n designing the nineteenth-century  Cathedral. The a r c h i t e c t has created "a 25 kind of evolutionary museum" i n which are portrayed  43 the various stages of p l a n t , animal and human e v o l u t i o n . Thus, i n the New Cathedral the various elements from which the modern world has evolved are brought together to create an innovative new a r c h i t e c t u r e .  Contrary to Burton, who, i n  s p i t e of h i s t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s , i s entrenched t r a d i t i o n a l approach to a r t ,  i n the  Revel sees i n the New Cathedral  the beginnings of an e x c i t i n g new a r t form: Car moi s i neuf dans B l e s t o n , j ' a v a i s bien d6cel£ q u ' i l y a v a i t tout autre chose qu'un d£marquage dans cette b i z a r r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , j ' a v a i s £te" bien oblige" de s e n t i r qu'un e s p r i t d'une 6tonnante audace y dgnaturait violemment l e s themes, l e s ornements, et l e s d e t a i l s t r a d i t i o n n e l s , aboutissant a i n s i a une oeuvre certes i m p a r f a i t e , presque i n f i r m e , r i c h e pourtant d'un profond reve i r r e f u t a b l e , d'un sourd pouvoir germinateur, d'un path4tique appel vers des r ^ u s s i t e s plus l i b r e s et m e i l l e u r e s ; oui ' a d i s t o r t e d shadow', une ombre d6form£e, comme d i t J . - C . Hamilton, mais ce q u ' i l n ' a v a i t pas su v o i r , c ' e t a i t combien p r £ c i e u s e 4 t a i t cette deformation! (p. 121) The audacity of the New Cathedral, i t s o r i e n t a t i o n towards an i n t e g r a t i o n of past, present and future, a model for h i s j o u r n a l .  provides Revel with  "Imparfaite" and "presque i n f i r m e , "  i t represents the novel which i s t a k i n g shape through B u t o r ' s writing.  George Burton has proved a v a l u a b l e guide to  Bleston and to the a r t of w r i t i n g , but h i s refusal  to  recognize the value of the New Cathedral means t h a t he must be abandoned and that Revel must continue h i s e x p l o r a t i o n alone:  "Mais j e d£bouchais l a sur un t e r r i t o i r e dans l e q u e l  ce J . C. Hamilton, qui m'avait s i bien dirige" j u s q u ' a l o r s ,  ne  44 pouvait plus me s e r v i r de guide, ou i l me f a u d r a i t m'aventurer  s e u l " (p. 122).  Like the Old Cathedral, the New Cathedral i s r e f l e c t e d i n and i n t e r r e l a t e d w i t h the rest of the t e x t .  We have  already noted how the two are brought together, i n "Le Meurtre de B l e s t o n " , through B l e s t o n s buses and through 1  t h e i r Roman foundations,  the Old Cathedral being b u i l t on the  s i t e of a Roman temple of war and the New Cathedral on a Roman b u r i a l ground whose sarcophages are housed i n the Museum.  Dogmatically opposed,  "les deux poles d'un immense  aimant" (p. 180) , they are nonetheless connected. transfer  The  of the b e l l s from the Old Cathedral to the New  Cathedral maintains that l i n k w h i l e suggesting that the r e s t o r a t i o n of B l e s t o n ' s music should come from i t .  For the  present, however, the only music i t offers to the c i t y i s the four bars i n which the same mistake i s repeated over and over again. The l i g h t i n the New Cathedral f a l l s on the spot,  "a l a  c r o i s ^ e du t r a n s f e r t " (p. 82), where the body of the murdered Johnny Winn l a y i n the novel w i t h i n the n o v e l .  Likewise, i n  the Old Cathedral i t f a l l s on the spot where the body of the murderer, Bernard Winn - s l a i n by the avenging d e t e c t i v e , Barnaby Morton - l a y .  In contrast to the Murderer's Window,  which at times suffuses the i n t e r i o r of the Old Cathedral with red l i g h t , the windows of the New Cathedral are transparent, f i l l i n g the transept w i t h a  45 "lumiere v e r t i c a l e verdatre quasi sous-marine, pale et t r e s froide.  . . . " (p. 113).  The r e d - t i n t e d l i g h t i n the Old  Cathedral, symbol of blood and f i r e ,  c a r r i e s with i t not only  the threat of death and d e s t r u c t i o n but a l s o the hope of p u r i f i c a t i o n and regeneration.  The v e r t i c a l green-tinged  l i g h t of the New Cathedral offers the hope of new l i f e and new growth.  The Murderer's Window presents one perspective  on man's past, while the transparent windows of the New Cathedral are w a i t i n g for the "scenes changeantes" of R e v e l ' s dream to portray man's  (p. 277)  future.^  Leafing through "Le Meurtre de B l e s t o n " on December 2nd, f o l l o w i n g a v i s i t to Plaisance Gardens, Revel i s stimulated by the two words "Nouvelle C a t h £ d r a l e , " to draw a small t o r t o i s e i n the margin.  This drawing evokes not only  the l i v e t o r t o i s e s i n the Plaisance Gardens zoo but a l s o the huge "tortue l u t h " of the New Cathedral, thus l i n k i n g these two with "Le Meurtre de B l e s t o n . "  On h i s December 8th  v i s i t to the New Cathedral, Revel makes a further connection when he compares the "tortue l u t h " t o "cette tortue  . . . .  monstrueuse et c a r n a s s i e r e , dans l a troisieme t a p i s s e r i e du Mus#e" (p. 152).  These t o r t o i s e s come to l i f e i n the  dream of August 31st-September 1st i n which he l i e s s l e e p l e s s beneath " l e s o u f f l e de ce mufle t a c h £ de sang fumeux, de cette tortue monstrueuse aux g c a i l l e s de briques et de fonte, aux cornes de taureau poussi^reuses, planant immobile, quelques centimetres au-dessus de moi . . . "  (p. 255).  The  46 t o r t o i s e , whose bloodstained jaws evoke S c i r y o n ' s t o r t o i s e , whose " £ c a i l l e s de briques et de fonte" evoke i n t u r n B l e s t o n ' s w a l l s and foundries, tortoise,  i s transformed i n t o the winged  symbol of new beginnings, announcing R e v e l ' s  night of i n i t i a t i o n from which he w i l l emerge with a new insight into his w o r k .  2 7  The New Cathedral i s l i n k e d to the Jenkins and to George Burton by the image of the f l y which i s represented i n one of the sculptures "que James lui-meme m*avait d£sign£ sur l e chapiteau des insectes  . . . "  (p. 152) and i n the  frieze  decorating the alcove which houses the statue of the V i r g i n . Already prefigured i n the text on the evening of R e v e l ' s attempted escape i n t o the countryside when he compares the halo of fog around the s t r e e t l i g h t s to "un essaim de mouches blanches aux a i l e s i r i s ^ e s " (p. 35), the f l y , symbol of 28 incessant p u r s u i t  and, by v i r t u e of i t s connection with  the New Cathedral, symbol of the New Novel, i s also part of Bleston:  "ces mouches q u i t ' a p p a r t i e n n e n t , B l e s t o n , qui te  sont attach^es, qui font p a r t i e de t o i " (p. 293). The j u x t a p o s i t i o n of R e v e l ' s purchase of "Le Meurtre de B l e s t o n , " which i s to s t a r t him on h i s e x p l o r a t i o n of B l e s t o n ' s h i s t o r i c a l s i t e s , with h i s f i r s t s i g h t of the f l y encased i n Mrs. J e n k i n s ' engagement r i n g , creates a connection between the Jenkins and George Burton who stand at opposite poles i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h , and a t t i t u d e t o , the New Cathedral.  Burton can denigrate the New Cathedral i n  47 h i s novel but he cannot escape the new a r t i s t i c form which i t exemplifies.  This i s made apparent on two occasions when the  bedridden Burton - perhaps the v i c t i m of a murder attempt by James Jenkins - i s tormented by a f l y buzzing around h i s head.  He can have the f l y chased away but, l i k e the new a r t  form that i t represents,  i t w i l l continue to haunt him.  In h i s despair f o l l o w i n g the news of Ann and James's engagement, Revel wanders through the s t r e e t s of B l e s t o n , "comme p o u r s u i v i par un v o l de taons blancs et sales aux a i l e s trempees dans 1' eau de l a Slee" (p. 255), a manifestation of B l e s t o n ' s malevolence.  Sleepless on that  night of September 1st, he i s haunted by a v i s i o n of the t o r t o i s e of mythological times, garbed i n the b r i c k s and cast i r o n of Bleston and supported i n the a i r by the wings of the New C a t h e d r a l ' s huge f l y while the waters of "cette mer morte que draine l a Slee" (p. 255) cover him i n a p a r a l y s i n g coat 29 of bitumen.  Images from the T a p e s t r i e s , the Murderer's  Window and the New Cathedral, man's Ancient Greek, Roman C a t h o l i c and Protestant heritages a l l unite with R e v e l ' s memories of h i s past year i n Bleston f o r c i n g him t o : ecouter tournoyer l e s j o u r s et l e s rues et se r4percuter l e r i r e de maison en maison, d'Sge en Sge, lointainement vers d ' a u t r e s v i l l e s et d ' a u t r e s eres j u s q u ' a ces f o r e t s cryptogames du carbonifere, profondement enfouies maintenant dans leur metamorphose en h o u i l l e sous l e s regions a v o i s i n a n t e s , jusqu'a ces f o r i t s de lepidodendrons et cycadees, jusqu'a ces palmes et ces fougeres arborescentes o s c i l l a n t au-dessus de l e u r humus fourre de charognes et de minerals q u ' e c r a s a i e n t l e s pas des r e p t i l e s , toute l a n u i t (p. 256).  48 Only after  t h i s r i t e of i n i t i a t i o n , t h i s symbolic journey  not only i n t o h i s personal past but a l s o back to the very beginnings of l i f e ,  can Revel break out of "cette couche de  bitume q u i m'enfermait comme une cuirasse de c h e v a l i e r ou d'insecte . . . "  (p. 256).  J . C. Davies sees t h i s dream as  an " i n i t i a t i o n r i t u a l - a pattern of symbolic death and rebirth."  I t i s f o l l o w i n g t h i s dream that Revel w r i t e s the  words, "Nous sommes q u i t t e s " (p. 257) " i n d i c a t i n g . . . . the transformation of h i s experiences i n the c i t y through the c r e a t i v e power of a r t .  n J 1  F i n a l l y , after  t h i s n i g h t of  i n i t i a t i o n , Revel sees B l e s t o n c l e a r l y and f e e l s capable of t u r n i n g i t s base metal into g o l d : Je vous v o i s maintenant, rues de B l e s t o n , vos murs, vos i n s c r i p t i o n s et vos v i s a g e s ; j e v o i s b r i l l e r pour moi, au fond de vos regards apparemment v i d e s , l a pr^cieuse matiere premiere avec l a q u e l l e j e puis f a i r e l ' o r ; mais q u e l l e plong^e pour l ' a t t e i n d r e , et quel e f f o r t pour l a f i x e r , l a rassembler, toute cette poussiere! (p. 271) In a second dream, on the night f o l l o w i n g t h i s i n s i g h t , Revel i s i n the New Cathedral Square i n front of the new department to l i f e ,  store.  As he stands there the New Cathedral comes  engulfing the new department store and a l l else  before i t u n t i l ,  "sous une 6norme mouche d'or et d ' 6 m a i l , "  which i s seen by J . C. Davies as a symbol of " c r e a t i v e 32 inspiration,"  the Cathedral i s transformed i n t o a  completely new s t r u c t u r e which Revel i s unable to d e s c r i b e . He can only catch a glimpse of the new e d i f i c e ,  " l a poign£e et l a fente, au t r a v e r s de l a brume q u i s ' § p a i s s i s s a i t " (p. 278).  This v i s i o n of an incomplete  s t r u c t u r e where only the doorway i s v i s i b l e symbolizes the New Novel which i s to emerge from R e v e l ' s e x p l o r a t i o n . "Le Meurtre de B l e s t o n " , the Harrey Tapestries and the Murderer's Window have formed p a r t of the mosaic of R e v e l ' s d i a r y , each taking him a step further  along the "piste  trac£e  a mon i n t e n t i o n " (p. 81) of h i s e x p l o r a t i o n , but i t i s the New Cathedral which takes him out of the past and towards an understanding of B l e s t o n ' s mysteries.  The Films R e f l e c t i n g the B l e s t o n i a n s ' preoccupation with the w o r l d l y , and i n contrast to the deserted Museum and Cathedrals,  B l e s t o n ' s places of entertainment - Plaisance  Gardens, the f a i r , the amusement arcade and the cinemas always crowded.  are  Of these, the cinema stands out as the home  of an a r t form which has replaced the t a p e s t r i e s and the stained glass window as a v i s u a l n a r r a t i v e appealing to a much wider audience than t r a d i t i o n a l a r t forms.  Situated close to  the Town H a l l Square and therefore near the centre of the c i t y , the News Theatre offers an escape from B l e s t o n ' s r a i n and f o g . The t o p i c s of the travelogues which are the main feature of the News T h e a t r e ' s programmes range from man's ancient past, with f i l m s on Crete, Petra, Athens and Ancient Rome, to the New World represented by New Zealand, San Francisco and  50 the Canadian Great Lakes.  For James Jenkins the travelogues  offer an escape from B l e s t o n and a window on a world he has never v i s i t e d and probably nerver w i l l . much more.  To Revel, they mean  Just the advertisement for the f i l m on Crete,  b i r t h p l a c e of Ariadne and Phaedra, evokes for him the scene i n the eleventh tapestry p o r t r a y i n g Theseus i n the L a b y r i n t h . Through h i s n o s t a l g i c l o n g i n g for the c l e a r , sunny s k i e s of Crete comes h i s hatred of B l e s t o n ' s w i n t e r : i c i vou§es au calfeutrement,  "ces semaines  vou§es a l ' a s s £ c h a n t e haleine  rouge des r a d i a t e u r s a gaz . . . (p. 102).  The "plages  p e r p £ t u e l l e m e n t rendues b r i l l a n t e s par l e s b a i s e r s s a l £ s des l e v r e s bleues des eaux . . . (p. 101) form a marked contrast with the pavements on which the c h i l d r e n play i n summer on " l a boue d u r c i e des t r o t t o i r s dont l e s flaques se sont sdch<§es" (p. 102) . As Revel watches a f i l m on the Roman ruins he sees, through the I t a l i a n s k i e s , the skies of Crete and " d e r r i e r e l e s p i e r r e s et l e s p e i n t u r e s , c e l l e s du p a l a i s de Minos . . . (p. 224) .  This conveys the way i n which the  d i f f e r e n t ancient c u l t u r e s overlap i n man's consciousness to form a composite p i c t u r e of a c o l l e c t i v e past that he cannot deny.  During the f i l m The Red Nights of Roma the blue sky i s  again emphasized, symbolizing not only the i n t e r m i n g l i n g of d i f f e r e n t h i s t o r i c a l periods i n our c u l t u r e but a l s o the non-linear q u a l i t y of time:  "sa permanence, sa c o n t i n u i t y  avec c e l u i q u i s ' £ t e n d a i t , pur, b £ n £ f i q u e ,  immense, sur l a  jeunesse de ces p a l a i s et de ces temples" (p. 228) .  51 In the d e s c r i p t i o n on August 26th and 27th of the f i l m s on Athens and Rome, seen r e s p e c t i v e l y on August 26th and 19th, the blue sky once again serves to l i n k the two p e r i o d s . In R e v e l ' s mind the Roman sky superimposes i t s e l f on the Athenian one, s t i m u l a t i n g images of the Roman Empire and of Rome.  S i m i l a r l y , the f i l m on Athens r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y a f f e c t s  R e v e l ' s view of the one on Rome: L amphitheatre F l a v i e n , l e s Thermes de C a r a c a l l a , l e Pantheon et l e s ruines du P a l a t i n me sont apparus au t r a v e r s de l e u r echo dans Athenes ( l a Nouvelle Agora, l e Temple de J u p i t e r , et l a grande Bibliotheque) comme l e foyer d'une gigantesque resonance, t e l l e une flamme qui se m u l t i p l i e dans une enceinte de m i r o i r s en quantite d* images d ' e l l e meme, dont l a chaleur est renvoyee de t e l l e sorte que 1'incandescence augmente. (p. 241) 1  Into t h i s h a l l of m i r r o r s crowd other images of even more ancient c i v i l i z a t i o n s , Petra (the "rose red c i t y " ) and Timgad, c i t i e s which had come under the r u l e of Rome, and Baalbeck which had been at d i f f e r e n t times of i t s h i s t o r y i n the hands of the Greeks and the Romans and which reminds us of the azure sea and sky of P r o u s t ' s Balbec.  These ancient  c i t i e s , l i k e Rome and Athens, are l i n k e d to Bleston through fire.  At some time i n t h e i r h i s t o r y , they have been the  v i c t i m s of v i o l e n t d e s t r u c t i o n by f i r e . Not only do the f i l m s on Athens and Rome evoke memories of the t a p e s t r i e s and the missing stained glass window, they go further  i n t o B l e s t o n ' s past, l i n k i n g that c i t y with Rome  through the images o f :  "ces sarcophages d'enfants morts de  f i e v r e et de f r o i d l o i n de l e u r grande v i l l e  52 natale.  . . (p. 244) found near the New Cathedral, and  through the images of the model of the "Bleston, B e l l i s t a , B e l l i C i v i t a s " (p. 244) of the Second Century A . D . This r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of Bleston"s h i s t o r y , t h i s v i s i o n of  its  c u l t u r a l background, brings Revel to see the c i t y i n a new light: et du meme coup, cette v i l l e , je l ' a i vue elle-meme dans une nouvelle lumiere, comme s i l e mur que je longe depuis mon a r r i v e ^ i c i , par i n s t a n t s un peu moins opaque, soudainement s a m i n c i s s a i t , comme s i une profondeur oubli6e se d £ p l o y a i t , de t e l l e sorte que j ' a i retrouve" l e courage qui m abandonnait, me sentant de nouveau capable, grace a ces nouvelles l u e u r s , de m'en d £ f i e r , de cette v i l l e , de mieux l u i r e g i s t e r j u s q u ' a cette f i n de septembre ou j e l a q u i t t e r a i . . . . (p. 245) 1  1  Thus, through the f i l m i c r e s t r u c t u r i n g of ancient h i s t o r y , the works of a r t take on meaning as Revel discovers new patterns i n the kaleidoscope of h i s experiences i n Bleston.  Out of these new patterns a r i s e s a c l e a r e r  understanding of h i s own and B l e s t o n ' s c u l t u r a l heritage from which he can draw the strength to continue h i s struggle against that c i t y . The works of art form an i n t e g r a l part of the novel both i n terms of R e v e l ' s immediate past and, more importantly, i n terms of western man's c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e .  Their influence i s  apparent at the s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l , as Revel f i r s t models h i s d i a r y on the "Le Meurtre de B l e s t o n " then, as memories of d i f f e r e n t events j o s t l e each other, creates a verbal i n which scenes,  tapestry  separated i n time, are superimposed on each  53 other r e f l e c t i n g the design of the Harrey T a p e s t r i e s .  In our  next chapter we w i l l see how Butor again uses a work of art - t h i s time an e x i s t i n g work, the S i s t i n e C e i l i n g - as a model for the temporal s t r u c t u r e of La M o d i f i c a t i o n . On the personal l e v e l i t i s through an examination of the works of art and an understanding of t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s that Revel regains c o n t r o l of h i s own consciousness and frees himself from B l e s t o n ' s " s o r c e l l e r i e " . U n t i l the Frenchman sees the i n d i v i d u a l works as interconnected p a r t s of a vast t a p e s t r y , him with the answers he seeks.  they f a i l to provide  "Le Meurtre de B l e s t o n " i s  abandoned as a model for the temporal s t r u c t u r e of the diary and R e v e l ' s path soon diverges from those of Theseus and Cain.  It i s only when he sees beyond i n d i v i d u a l guides and  models that he begins to understand h i s , and western man's, past.  While each work of a r t i s complete i n i t s e l f , i t i s  only when i t i s seen i n r e l a t i o n s h i p with the others t h a t i t s r o l e i n the novel can be f u l l y understood.  Just as Revel  finds that he cannot examine i n d i v i d u a l memories of h i s year i n B l e s t o n without t a k i n g i n t o account e a r l i e r or l a t e r events, c r e a t i n g an "immense canon temporel", so each of the works of a r t i s interwoven with the others to produce a t e x t u a l tapestry of European h i s t o r y . In h i s search for meaning through the act of w r i t i n g , Revel has discovered that h i s Greek, Roman, and JudeoC h r i s t i a n heritages must be considered, not as i s o l a t e d u n i t s  54 of h i s t o r y but as complementary parts of h i s c u l t u r a l heritage.  Like B l e s t o n , the symbol of modern Western Europe,  he w i l l remain fragmented u n t i l he recognizes not only h i s own immediate past but the past of western man and i n t e g r a t e s i t i n t o h i s present and f u t u r e .  This i s a lesson which he i s  only beginning to l e a r n as h i s year i n B l e s t o n draws to a close - a lesson which has only become c l e a r to him through the act of w r i t i n g .  55 Notes to Chapter I  Michel Butor, L'Emploi du Temps, ( P a r i s : Les E d i t i o n s de M i n u i t , 1956), pp. 55-56. Subsequent references to t h i s work w i l l be noted i n the t e x t . ^ Joseph Campbell, The' Hero with a Thousand Faces, (Princeton, N . J . : Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1968), p. 30. Revel, l i k e the hero of the "monomyth" goes through the r i t e s of: "separation-initiation-return". R e v e l ' s r o l e as a searcher i s emphasized i n h i s name which can be s a i d to derive from reve, r j v e i l , riviler. We note a l s o that George Burton, who reveals the theory of the novel to Revel and i s h i s f r i e n d and mentor, i s given the i n i t i a l s J . C. (Jesus C h r i s t ) and the surname Hamilton. (Hamil - I am Javeh, - t o n - town/yours, H(ami)lton - ami). 3  Georges Charbonnier, Entretiens avec Michel Butor, ( P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1 9 6 7 ) , p p . 106-109. In t h i s interview Butor describes L'Emploi du Temps a s : "une sorte d'immense canon temporel" i n which f i v e temporal s e r i e s are superimposed on each other l i k e the parts of a canon. 4  ^ Jennifer W a e l t i - W a l t e r s , Michel B u t o r : A Study of h i s View of the World and a Panorama of h i s Work, ( V i c t o r i a , B . C . : Sono N i s Press, 1977), p. 65. ^ W a e l t i - W a l t e r s , p. 65. ^ However, Beauvais was the centre of a booming weaving industry i n the 18th Century and i t s cathedral i s famous for f i n e examples of gothic a r t i n c l u d i n g t a p e s t r i e s . Like B l e s t o n , Beauvais i s now a h i g h l y i n d u s t r i a l i z e d centre with an emphasis on the t e x t i l e , chemical and metal working industries. H i s t o r i c a l l y the t a p e s t r i e s o r i g i n a t e i n two key periods of the e v o l u t i o n of Western c i v i l i z a t i o n : Ancient Greek mythology, i n which we f i n d the foundation of our c i v i l i z a t i o n , and the beginning of the 18th Century. 8  Campbell, p. 30.  Dean McWilliams, The N a r r a t i v e s of Michel B u t o r : The Writer as Janus, (Athens: Ohio U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1968), p. 6. 9  Lucien Dallenbach, Le Rgcit s p g c u l a i r e , ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s du S e u i l , 1977), p. 52. Lucien Dallenbach defines the "mise en abyme" as f o l l o w s : "est mise en abyme tout m i r o i r interne r6f16chissant l'ensemble du r £ c i t par r e d u p l i c a t i o n simple, r£p£t£e ou s p £ c i e u s e . " 1 0  56 Jean C h e v a l i e r , A l a i n Gheerbrant, e d . , D i e t i o n n a i r e des Symboles, ( P a r i s : Seghers and J u p i t e r , 1 (1973), p. 37. " L ' a l c o o l r e a l i s e l a synthese de I ' e a u et du f e u . " 1 1  D. Meakm, E. Dand, "Alchemy and Optimism i n Butor* s ' L ' E m p i o i du Temps'," Forum for Modern Language S t u d i e s , 15 (1979), p. 271. In t h i s a r t i c l e Meakin and Dand s t a t e t h a t : "What at f i r s t appeared to be d e s t r u c t i v e turns out - thanks to the power of art - to be c r e a t i v e ; the apparent d e s i r e for death i n B l e s t o n ("qui au fond desires ta mort autant que moi") i s r e a l l y a d e s i r e for p u r i f i c a t i o n and r e s u r r e c t i o n . " Janet M. Pater son, "Le V i t r a i l de Ca'in: L'Engendrement t e x t u e l dans L'Empioi du Temps de Michel B u t o r , " Romanic Review, LXX (1979), p. 381. Paterson s t a t e s that the glass of the Murderer's Window "repr^sente l e l i e u de rencontre de l ' e x t £ r i e u r et de 1 ' i n t 4 r i e u r . " 1 3  Paterson, p. 381. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Murderer's Window, the "Le Meurtre de B l e s t o n , " and the other murders: " T i t r e : Le V i t r a i l du M e u r t r i e r , au l i e u du V i t r a i l de Cain, rgunit d'embl4e l e V i t r a i l au "Meurtre de B l e s t o n " et a tous l e s autres meurtres." 15 Paterson, pp. 378-380. 1 4  16 Paterson, pp. 376-377. 17 Paterson, p. 376. 18 b i c t i o n n a i r e des Symboles, p. 37. 19 McWilliams, p. 25. McWilliams p o i n t s out that the d e s t r u c t i o n of the Abel windows "produced an effect opposite to that intended by B l e s t o n ' s Reformers. R a d i c a l l y separating the human and the d i v i n e , far from p u r i f y i n g and e l e v a t i n g B l e s t o n , l e f t i t with no models but those of the profane c i t i e s . " 20 E l s Jongeneel, "Un Meurtrier en cause - La Fonction du " V i t r a i l de Cain" dans L'Emploi du Temps de Michel Butor", Neophilologus, 64, No. 3 (July 1980), p. 364. Jongeneel notes the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the cathedral windows seen i n R e v e l ' s dream. 21 Charbonnier, p. 106. See note 3. 22 McWilliams, p. 27. 23 McWilliams, p. 27. 24 McWilliams, p. 27.  57 2 5  McWilliams, p. 27.  26 Jongeneel, see note 19. 97  .  -  D i c t i o n n a i r e des Symboles, 4, p. 312. The t o r t o i s e i n an engraving of "une femme tenant dans une main une pa i r e d ' a i l e s deployles et dans 1'autre une tortue" i s i n t e r p r e t e d as " l e symbole de l a matiere de l ' A r t . Apres sa preparation, e l l e d e v i e n t , e n e f f e t , aux yeux des a l c h i m i s t e s , premiere matiere de i ' o e u v r e . On rej oint a i n s i 1 i n t e r p r e t a t i o n c h i n o i s e : l a tortue apparait comme l e bo i n t de depart de 1 ' e v o l u t i o n . Au l i e u de marquer une i n v o l u t i o n , une regression, e l l e est au c o n t r a i r e l ' u n des termes, l e commencement d'une s p i r i t u a l i s a t i o n de l a matiere; l e s a i l e s deploy£es eVoquant 1'autre terme, 1'aboutissement de cette evolution." 1  op  9Q  D i c t i o n n a i r e des Symbol es, 3, p. 245.  The term "mer morte" evokes the scene d e p i c t i n g the d e s t r u c t i o n of Sodom, the s i t e of which i s believed to l i e under the Dead Sea. 3n J . C. Davies, "Butor and the Power of A r t : the Quest of Jacques R e v e l " , A u s t r a l i a n Journal of French' Studies, XVI parts 1 and 2, (1979), p. 114. 31 Davies, p. 114. 32 Davies, p. 115. J  33 Marcel Proust, A l a recherche du temps perdu, Gallimard, 1954), I , p. 383 .  (Paris:  58 CHAPTER II LA MODIFICATION The opening pages of La M o d i f i c a t i o n r e f l e c t the f i r s t few paragraphs of L'Empioi' du° temps.  Our f i r s t meeting with  Jacques Revel occurs as he enters B l e s t o n by t r a i n , seated i n "ce coin de compartiment . . . face a l a m a r c h e , t o h i s year i n B l e s t o n .  begin  A year i n which, through an e x p l o r a t i o n  of the Greek and J u d e o - C h r i s t i a n mythology expressed i n B l e s t o n ' s works of a r t , he w i l l embark on a process of s e l f - d i s c o v e r y and transformation. charted i n h i s d i a r y .  This process w i l l be  The reader meets L6on Delmont i n  s i m i l a r circumstances - as he enters a t h i r d - c l a s s railway compartment i n another grey, northern c i t y , P a r i s , and seats himself i n " l e coin c o u l o i r face a l a marche."  2  Thus begins  Leon's " m o d i f i c a t i o n " as h i s journey from P a r i s to Rome develops i n t o an e x p l o r a t i o n of c e r t a i n of those c i t i e s ' works of a r t which have a s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e for him. As h i s p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l journey progresses, these works take on a new meaning.  Embracing a r t ,  a r c h i t e c t u r e and s c u l p t u r e as w e l l as myth, l i t e r a t u r e and music, they, u n l i k e the works of L'Empioi du temps, are a l l verifiable.  H i s t o r i c a l l y they are centered on the C l a s s i c a l ,  Renaissance and Baroque periods which have profoundly influenced the development of western c i v i l i z a t i o n .  They  range from c l a s s i c a l mythology as expressed i n the Aeneid, to Michelangelo's masterly union of c l a s s i c a l and C h r i s t i a n  59 themes i n The Last Judgement and the S i s t i n e C e i l i n g . S p a t i a l l y they are organized between Rome, whose modern side i s s i g n i f i c a n t by i t s absence, and P a r i s , whose modernity i s a l i t t l e more evident, but s t i l l subordinate to Leon's n o s t a l g i a for ancient times. In t h i s chapter we propose to study the works of a r t , t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to each other, to L6on, and to modern man. Since the works are d i v i d e d between Rome and P a r i s , we w i l l categorize them as f o l l o w s :  Rome i n P a r i s , C l a s s i c a l Rome i n  Rome, and Renaissance and Baroque Rome.  Our fourth s e c t i o n  w i l l study the r o l e of the works of a r t i n the dream sequences which c o n s t i t u t e the " l i e u de rencontre" of the myths, l i t e r a t u r e and works of a r t .  Rome in Paris L6on Delmont can be described as a man at the mid- point of h i s l i f e who i s t o r n between two women:  his Parisian  w i f e , H e n r i e t t e , and h i s Roman m i s t r e s s , C 6 c i l e ; two c i t i e s : P a r i s and Rome; two c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e s :  classical antiquity  represented by Ancient Rome, and C h r i s t i a n i t y represented by the Roman C a t h o l i c Church.  His name, which when s p e l t  backwards becomes Noel, i s that of a long l i n e of popes thus announcing h i s C h r i s t i a n background - a background which i s emphasized i n the name of h i s m i s t r e s s , C 6 c i l e whose namesake was an e a r l y C h r i s t i a n martyr.  His presence i n a  t h i r d c l a s s compartment of a t r a i n other than the one he  60 h a b i t u a l l y takes for h i s frequent business t r i p s to Rome at the command of h i s I t a l i a n employers, t e s t i f i e s to h i s d e c i s i o n to abandon h i s dreary pretence of a marriage i n favour of a s p a r k l i n g new l i f e with h i s mistress whom he proposes to b r i n g to P a r i s to l i v e with him.  This journey,  made on November 15th and 16th 1955, i s a f i n a l attempt to b r i n g Rome to P a r i s , a Rome i n which L6on has chosen to seek out only those aspects of a r t and the a r t s which remind him of the ancient Rome of h i s dreams.  A c i t y i n which, i n s p i t e  of the pervasive presence of that c i t y w i t h i n a c i t y , V a t i c a n , and the C a t h o l i c t r a d i t i o n that i t represents,  the lAon  and C £ c i l e are drawn to the a r t i f a c t s which remind them of that other great root of Western C i v i l i z a t i o n - C l a s s i c a l Rome.  L6on and C d c i l e ' s obsessive i n t e r e s t  i n the works of  a r t of ancient Rome reminds us of Jacques R e v e l ' s f a s c i n a t i o n with the Theseus myth, as depicted i n the Harrey T a p e s t r i e s , and with the f i l m s of ancient Greece and Rome which feed h i s n o s t a l g i a for that c u l t u r e . In P a r i s , l i k e w i s e , L6on i s drawn to those works which d e p i c t , evoke or i m i t a t e Ancient Rome.  Whether he i s i n the  Louvre, i n h i s apartment at "15 place du Pantheon" (p. 14) , or i n the s t r e e t s of modern P a r i s , he only sees those t h i n g s , whether they be posters, p a i n t i n g s or b u i l d i n g s , which remind him of ancient Rome.  His wife and family are e c l i p s e d by the  61 shadow of the Pantheon, h i s o f f i c e i s surrounded by I t a l i a n t r a v e l agencies whose posters proclaim the g l o r i e s of ancient Rome and h i s v i s i t to the Louvre i s dominated by works d e p i c t i n g that c i t y .  However, i n s p i t e of Leon's  preoccupation with ancient Rome, he cannot escape  the  reminders of C h r i s t i a n Rome which are often contained w i t h i n the very works which for him symbolize p r e - C h r i s t i a n Rome. On h i s return from the t r i p to Rome which preceded the  present  journey, instead of s l i p p i n g back i n t o h i s usual r o u t i n e , he t r i e s to maintain h i s hold on the magic of Rome by pretending to be a Roman t o u r i s t i n P a r i s . This fantasy i s enhanced by the unseasonably b r i g h t and warm November day - more t y p i c a l of Rome than P a r i s - which allows him to s t r o l l round the c i t y humming an I t a l i a n o p e r a t i c a i r , with h i s coat unbuttoned as i t would be i n Rome (pp. 63-64) . On h i s way to the Louvre, L£on pays l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n to "les t r o i s mauvaises statues repr^sentant  l e s f i l s de Cain"  (p. 66) nor to the " a i g u i l l e g r i s e de l ' o b £ l i s q u e " (p. 66) symbols of those two other key periods i n the development of western c i v i l i z a t i o n - e a r l y b i b l i c a l times and Ancient Egypt.  He spares no more than a passing glance "aux  sarcophages et aux copies en bronze des antiques du V a t i c a n " (p. 6 6 ) , nor does he pause at the " V i c t o i r e de Samothrace" (p. 66) - the former evocative of C h r i s t i a n Rome, the l a t t e r of the Golden Age of Greece.  He passes q u i c k l y through the  Egyptian rooms to a r r i v e at the eighteenth-century  rooms  62 where, ignoring the array of works by such major a r t i s t s as Goya and David, he stops i n front of "deux grands tableaux d'un p e i n t r e du t r o i s i e m e ordre" (p. 66), P a n n i n i .  These  p a i n t i n g s " g a l e r i e de vues de l a Rome moderne" (p. 67) and " g a l e r i e de vues de l a Rome antique" (p. 67) r e f l e c t the "constant d £ f i j e t £ par l ' a n c i e n Empire a l ' a c t u e l l e Eglise . . . "  (p. 6 7 ) .  That Lion chooses to stop i n front of  the p a i n t i n g i n which the a r c h i t e c t u r e of Ancient Rome i s depicted, t e s t i f i e s to h i s f a s c i n a t i o n with that p e r i o d . We should note a l s o that i t i s t h i s side of Rome to which C e c i l e has introduced him.  Indeed, much of t h e i r time together i n  Rome i s spent seeking out and v i s i t i n g ancient Roman monuments.  However, even i n t h i s p a i n t i n g dedicated to  Ancient Rome, the Church imposes i t s e l f - L£on describes " l e portique du temple d'Antonin et Faustine avec l a facade de 1 ' e g l i s e que l ' o n a v a i t c o n s t r u i t e a l ' i n t £ r i e u r et que l ' o n n ' a pas encore demolie . . . " (p. 6 7 ) .  This image of the  church constructed w i t h i n the w a l l s of a pagan temple draws our a t t e n t i o n to the nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between these two c r u c i a l periods i n the h i s t o r y of man.  The enclosure of  the church w i t h i n the w a l l s of the pagan temple symbolizes man's r e l a t i o n s h i p with h i s pagan and C h r i s t i a n h e r i t a g e . Just as the temple contains the church, so man w i t h i n him, i n t h a t part of h i s s e l f which Jung c a l l s the " c o l l e c t i v e unconscious," contains the memory of a i l of h i s c u l t u r a l 4 heritage. Seen i n t h i s l i g h t i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g  63 that the church w i t h i n the temple has not been demolished. History cannot be reversed, ancient Rome cannot e l i m i n a t e C h r i s t i a n Rome.  Nor can modern man demolish the s t r u c t u r e of  h i s Christian.background.  This i s a lesson which Lion w i l l  l e a r n i n the course of h i s journey between P a r i s and Rome. Commenting on the composition of the two Pannini p a i n t i n g s , L4on remarks t h a t : i l n ' y a aucune difference de matiere s e n s i b l e entre l e s objets represented comme r E e l s et ceux represented comme p e i n t s , comme s ' i l a v a i t voulu f i g u r e r sur ses t o i l e s l a r E u s s i t e de ce project commun a tant d ' a r t i s t e s de son temps: donner un Equivalent absolu de l a r E a l i t E , l e chapiteau peint devenant i n d i s c e r n a b l e du chapiteau riel, a part l e cadre q u i l ' e n t o u r e , de meme que l e s grands a r c h i t e c t e s i l l u s i o n n i s t e s du baroque romain peignent dans l ' e s p a c e et donnent a imaginer, grUce a l e u r s m e r v e i l l e u x systemes de signes, l e u r s agrEgations de p i l a s t r e s , et l e u r s voluptueuses courbes, des monuments r i v a l i s a n t e n f i n dans l ' e f f e t et l e p r e s t i g e avec l e s Enormes masses r e p l i e s des ruines antiques q u ' i l s avaient perpEtuellement sous l e s yeux et q u i l e s h u m i l i a i e n t , integrant mEthodiquement l e s d e t a i l s de l e u r ornementation comme base mime de l e u r langage (pp. 66-67). In P a n n i n i ' s attempt to represent  r e a l i t y , the viewer cannot  d i s t i n g u i s h between the " r e a l " and the "painted"; r e a l i t y and the representation of r e a l i t y merge i n t o one. Francoise Van Rossum-Guyon remarks t h a t , while La M o d i f i c a t i o n does not present us w i t h "un Equivalent absolu de l a r E a l i t E " (p. 67), the d e s c r i p t i o n of the Pannini  64 p a i n t i n g s and the reference to "les grands  architectes  i l l u s i o n n i s t e s du baroque romain" (p. 67) emphasize "1'importance q u ' i l faudra accorder aux moyens mis en oeuvre dans l e roman pour s u s c i t e r 1 ' i l l u s i o n de r E a l i t E . " ^  The  spectators i n P a n n i n i ' s " G a l e r i e de vues de l a Rome antique" (p. 67) are at the same time part of the composition and viewers of i t .  Contained w i t h i n the p h y s i c a l confines of  the p i c t u r e frame w h i l e viewing the p i c t u r e s w i t h i n the p i c t u r e , they r e f l e c t LEon and C E c i l e as the l a t t e r view the works of a r t of ancient Rome i n Rome.  S i m i l a r l y through h i s  use of the second person p l u r a l Butor has placed the spectator/reader text.  w i t h i n the work so that he i s drawn i n t o the  The reader i s at the same time a spectator of and an  actor i n the novel, f o r , from the moment when he reads the opening l i n e s :  "Vous avez mis l e pied gauche sur l a rainure  de c u i v r e . . . " (p. 9 ) , the reader i s i m p l i c a t e d i n L6on Delmont's experience.  I t i s he who enters the railway  compartment for the journey from P a r i s to Rome.  The "vous"  makes him the speaker and at the same time the one being addressed i n a dialogue which w i l l continue u n t i l the t r a i n draws i n t o the Stazione Termini i n Rome.  As with Pannini*s  p a i n t i n g s , the boundary between reader and text i s not c l e a r l y defined, the reader i s i n the  text.  LEon pays l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n to the " G a l e r i e de vues de l a Rome moderne" (p. 67) whose only appeal i s that i t reminds him of C E c i l e .  Instead he chooses to spend the few remaining  65 minutes of h i s v i s i t i n two other rooms where ancient Rome i s again portrayed.  The f i r s t i s the room housing works by  Poussin and L o r r a i n e "ces deux Frangais de Rome" (p. 7 1 ) , second contains Ancient Roman works. canvases,  the  As with the Pannini  L6on i s a t t r a c t e d to works d e p i c t i n g scenes of  Ancient Rome.  In p a r t i c u l a r he i s drawn to the p a i n t i n g of  the forum "ce marche" aux bestiaux q u ' e t a i t devenue l ' 6 p i n e dorsale de l a c a p i t a l e du monde . . . "  (p. 7 2 ) .  p a i n t i n g s by the two Frenchmen i n Rome which our  The other "touriste  romain" r e c a l l s , also depict scenes from Ancient Greek and Roman h i s t o r y . In the second room, which he makes a detour to v i s i t i n s p i t e of r e a l i z i n g that "vous auriez pu descendre et  sortir  beaucoup plus v i t e que vous ne l ' a v e z f a i t . . . " (p. 72-73), he i s a t t r a c t e d by the p o r t r a i t s of women of Nero's reign and by that emperor's s t a t u e .  Again, i t i s the a r t i f a c t s of an  a n c i e n t , pagan Rome, dating from a period notorious for  the  persecution of C h r i s t i a n s and for i t s promiscuity that Leon seeks out.  For L£on, Nero and h i s women represent a freedom  and s e n s u a l i t y which he has l o s t w i t h Henriette and which he hopes he has re-discovered w i t h  C£cile.  offers him a wide inventory of works from  Although the Louvre a l l ages and  c u l t u r e s , our Roman lover has eyes only for those works which evoke h i s chosen c i t y . Leon's p u r s u i t of Rome i n P a r i s continues f o l l o w i n g h i s v i s i t to the Louvre.  The "arc de triomphe du  66 C a r r o u s e l " - (p. 7 3 ) , that great nineteenth-century  monument  to the power of the French Empire, i s barely v i s i b l e through the r a i n , and the o b e l i s k , representing that other cornerstone obscured.  of western c i v i l i z a t i o n - Egypt - i s t o t a l l y Thus, the supremacy of Ancient Rome i s again  underlined. Even Leon's lunch of "spaghetti  a l a bolognese" (p. 73),  the espresso coffee he drinks and the I t a l i a n c i g a r e t t e which he l i g h t s - but which i s s y m b o l i c a l l y put out by the P a r i s i a n r a i n - continue the theme of Rome i n P a r i s .  However, the  spaghetti and coffee are but poor i m i t a t i o n s of true Roman fare as i s the Roman bar he r e p a i r s t o .  This bar, peopled by  l a d i e s of dubious repute, who r e f l e c t much more r e a l i s t i c a l l y the women of Nero's time than do t h e i r p o r t r a i t s i n the Louvre, has a "cadre antique,  aussi l o i n que p o s s i b l e des  bars a c t u e l s de l a c a p i t a l e l a t i n e " (p. 76) , and i s at best a c a r i c a t u r e of the Roman c a f £ s i n which L4on and C 4 c i l e delight.  The second-rate p i c t u r e s d e p i c t i n g Messaline dans  un venerium and L ' E n t r e e triomphale de N6ron a Rome (p. 77) do not r e f l e c t the g l o r i e s of Ancient Rome but: cette l i b e r t y morale fastueuse et brumeuse a l a f o i s , de cette espece de deVergondage grandiose dont r £ v a i t , comme de sa r e a l i s a t i o n ouverte et magnifique, l e l i b e r t i n a g e y t r i q u e des P a r i s i e n s du temps de l a " B e l l e Epoque" (p. 7 7 ) . They are but a poor c a r i c a t u r e of the moral freedom enjoyed by the a n c i e n t s ,  a freedom which L4on seeks i n h i s Roman  l i a i s o n with C£cile.  I r o n i c a l l y , Leon's a f f a i r with C £ c i l e ,  67 f u r t i v e l y c a r r i e d on i n Rome out of s i g h t of h i s employers, i s more a k i n to the "1ibertinage " E t r i q u e " of the e a r l y twentieth-century  than to the free and open s e n s u a l i t y of  Ancient Rome. Loath to end h i s Roman day i n P a r i s , LEon takes a l e s s d i r e c t route home to "15 Place du PanthEon" (p. 78) i n order not to stop and gaze, but simply to " f r d l e r ces murs de briques et de p i e r r e s q u i subsistent de ces thermes que c o n n a i s s a i t J u l i e n l ' A p o s t a t " (p. 7 8 ) .  Delmont sees these  baths as yet another symbol of the supremacy of Ancient Rome and i t s i n v i n c i b i l i t y to C h r i s t i a n a t t a c k .  What he f a i l s to  acknowledge i s t h a t , on the s i t e of these baths the abbots of Cluny b u i l t t h e i r residence and that today there i s "a museum to medieval C h r i s t i a n France" on the spot.**  L6on i d e n t i f i e s  with J u l i a n whose l e t t e r s he often reads during h i s journeys to Rome; furthermore,  as h i s single-minded p u r s u i t of  the a r t of ancient Rome t e s t i f i e s ,  he dreams of f o l l o w i n g  J u l i a n ' s example by abandoning C h r i s t i a n i t y and embracing paganism.  He may be unaware of the irony of J u l i a n ' s baths  forming the foundation of a C h r i s t i a n monastery but the reader i s not.  Like J u l i a n , LEon cannot turn back the clock  and deny h i s C h r i s t i a n heritage i n favour of the r e l i g i o n of ancient Rome. Try as he may to see only Ancient Rome i n P a r i s , the influence of C h r i s t i a n i t y pervades much of what he seeks out. Among those viewing the paintings i n P a n n i n i ' s "vues de l a Rome antique" (p. 67) are clergymen.  The Pantheon,  that  68 imitation of an ancient Roman temple on which L£on gazes while at home in the evening was built to serve as a Catholic church.  Not only was the Pantheon in Paris built to house a  Catholic Church, its Roman counterpart provided the brass for the baldachin designed for St. Peter's by B e r n i n i .  7  Not content to seek out Rome in the art and architecture of his native city, the lover of Rome has brought the city of his dreams into his livingroom in the form of literary and a r t i s t i c works.  On the evening of his Roman days in Paris,  he seats himself in his armchair from which he can see "la frise illumined du Pantheon" (p. 83) and gazes at "les deux eaux fortes de Pireanese une des prisons et une des constructions . . . " (p. 83).  We recall that, two years  previously, on his f i r s t morning in Rome with C6cile, they looked out on "la construction de Dioclttien."  The music to  which he listens is Monteverdi's Orfeo whose story 8 anticipates Leon's journey.  Like Orpheus, L4on w i l l venture  into the underworld - physically by passing through a series of railway tunnels, psychologically by journeying into the depths of his own subconscious - and, like Orpheus, he w i l l lose the one whom he has set out to rescue.  The book that he  chooses from the "petite biblotheque d'auteurs latins et italiens que vous vous etes constitute depuis le d6but de votre liaison avec Cecile" (p. 83) is the f i r s t volume of the Bude translation of V i r g i l ' s Aeneid.  It is understandable  69 t h a t , at a time when he i s s e r i o u s l y considering s t a r t i n g anew, lAon should choose to read about a hero "who l e f t behind the wreckage of an e a r l i e r l i f e to begin a new one i n Italy."  9  The s i x t h book, d e s c r i b i n g Aneas's descent i n t o the  underworld i n search of h i s father  and h i s future,  will  echo  through the s e r i e s of dreams which haunt the Frenchman during the journey to Rome which forms the framework of the n o v e l . I r o n i c a l l y , V i r g i l , whose e p i c poem the Aeneid i s a song i n praise of Rome's pagan r e l i g i o n , was embraced by C h r i s t i a n i t y . "Because h i s fourth ecloque was taken as an announcement of C h r i s t ' s coming"-^ he was regarded as the "pagan p r o p h e t d u r i n g the Renaissance. Leon's attempt to i n j e c t some of Rome's magic i n t o P a r i s by b r i n g i n g C e c i l e to h i s n a t i v e c i t y a year after f i r s t met her,  i s also i l l - f a t e d .  he  Their s p i r i t s dampened by  the P a r i s i a n r a i n , they had spent what l i t t l e time they had together seeking out Rome i n P a r i s . stranger  The Frenchman was such a  to a l l but the Roman aspects of P a r i s that he was  q u i t e incapable of a c t i n g as C E c i l e ' s guide to the c i t y .  The  landmarks which imposed themselves symbolize a heritage which cannot be ignored.  The "Arc de triomphe du  C a r r o u s e l " (p. 176) reminded them at the same time of the  70 power of Imperial Rome and the power of Napoleonic France; " 1 ' o b i l i s i q u e de l a Concorde" (p. 176) r e c a l l s the  obelisks  taken to Imperial Rome by the v i c t o r i o u s Emperors; and the towers of Notre Dame reminded them of t h e i r C h r i s t i a n heritage.  Thus, although the h i g h l i g h t of t h e i r afternoon  in  the Louvre was: l e s statues romaines, l e s paysages de Claude L o r r a i n e , l e s deux t o i l e s de Pannini que vous avez amoureusement d e t a i n e d (p. 185) . which b r i n g Rome to P a r i s , those other works, looming i n the background, t e s t i f y  to the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of ignoring a  c u l t u r a l background which i s i n e x t r i c a b l y woven i n t o f a b r i c of the l o v e r s ' world.  It i s t h e i r refusal  the  to  i n t e g r a t e a l l aspects of that background i n t o t h e i r  lives  which dooms C E c i l e ' s v i s i t to P a r i s , as w e l l as the future of their relationship,  to f a i l u r e .  Although LEon can f i n d r e f l e c t i o n s of Pagan Rome i n P a r i s through the many i m i t a t i o n s and representations of Imperial c i t y ' s a r t and a r c h i t e c t u r e ,  the  he cannot deny the  influence of C h r i s t i a n i t y on these a r t i f a c t s .  Nor can Pagan  Rome be brought to P a r i s i n the person of C E c i l e .  If  the  Rome of h i s dreams e x i s t s at a l l , i t must be sought i n the c l a s s i c a l temples and statues of the I t a l i a n  capital.  71 Classical Rome As he t r a v e l s towards Rome, on November 15th 1955, L£on clutches h i s railway timetable as i f i t were a t a l i s m a n :  "II  £ t a i t comme l e talisman, l a c l £ , l e gage de v o t r e i s s u e , d'une a r r i v e e dans une Rome lumineuse, de cette cure de jouvence . . . "  (p. 4 1 ) .  He leaves behind a dismal marriage  and a dark and dreary P a r i s where he has l e d "cette existence l a r v a i r e , c r e p u s c u l a i r e " (p. 41) to seek rejuvenation i n a "Rome lumineuse."  The Rome of h i s dreams i s the Rome of  V i r g i l and of the pagan Emperors.  Untarnished by the taboos  and hypocrisy of the C a t h o l i c Church, i t i s a c i t y  protected  by Venus, goddess of love and beauty, mother of Aeneas. i s the Rome that beckons to the middle-aged Frenchman.  This It  is  a c i t y i n which he imagines t h a t e r o t i c l o v e , beauty and sensuality flourished.  A c i t y i n which he can recapture  l o s t youth and bathe i n the splendour of a d i s t a n t  his  age.  U n t i l h i s meeting with C £ c i l e two years e a r l i e r , L€on had been a stranger  i n Rome.  Only after meeting her does he  begin to know and l o v e that c i t y :  "C'est avec e l l e seulement  que vous avez commence a 1'explorer avec quelque detail . . . "  (p. 6 3 ) .  She i s h i s doorway to Rome and, i n  p a r t i c u l a r , to pagan Rome.  For, although they v i s i t c e r t a i n  C h r i s t i a n churches and monuments (with the exception of the V a t i c a n which C e c i l e refuses to e n t e r ) ,  they are always drawn  72 back t o : c e t t e p a r t i e de l a v i l l e ou l ' o n rencontre a chaque pas l e s ruines des anciens monuments de 1'Empire, ou l ' o n ne v o i t pour a i n s i d i r e plus qu'eux, l a v i l l e moderne et l a v i l l e baroque se reculant en quelque sorte pour l e s l a i s s e r dans leur s o l i t u d e immense (p. 87) . Icon's f i r s t meeting with C E c i l e comes under the sign of Ancient Rome and her goddess.  Seated opposite h i s  future  mistress i n the t r a i n , the Frenchman catches s i g h t of the planet Venus i n the early morning sky and immediately afterwards  recognizes " l a gare de T a r q u i n i a " (p. 112),  b i r t h p l a c e of one of the e a r l y kings of Rome.  The only  landmarks which he recognizes on t h e i r a r r i v a l i n Rome are C e s t i u s ' pyramid, "puis l a porte Majeure et l e temple de l a Minerve MEdecin . . . "  (p. 113).  Even the breakfast  they  share i s eaten w h i l e they contemplate " d e r r i e r e l e s grands panneaux de verre l e s ruines de l a c o n s t r u c t i o n de D i o c l E t i e n i l l u m i n E e s par l e jeune s o l e i l superbe . . . "  (p. 113).  ruins which dominate t h e i r f i r s t meeting r e f l e c t  The  CEcile's  hatred of C h r i s t i a n i t y - both Cestius and D i o c l e t i a n persecuted the C h r i s t i a n s - and the return to Pagan Rome which the l o v e r s seek. LEon and C E c i l e ' s love f l o u r i s h e s as they explore ancient Rome.  The night they become l o v e r s f o l l o w s an  evening spent on the V i a Appia where they watch the sunset near the tomb of C e c i l i a M e t e l l a (p. 123).  Although i n the  73 e a r l y days of t h e i r love a f f a i r they spent some weekends v i s i t i n g c e r t a i n Baroque and Renaissance works of a r t ,  they  devoted most of t h e i r time to e x p l o r i n g the ruins of the Ancient Roman Empire:  an Empire dominated by pagan emperors  who at best t o l e r a t e d the C h r i s t i a n s and at worst persecuted them.  Wandering among the ruined palaces and temples, and i n  the Forum, the one time center of the Roman w o r l d , L£on and C 6 c i l e are no longer surrounded by ruins but rather are i n the r e b u i l t Ancient Rome of t h e i r dreams:  " . . . mais au  m i l i e u d'un 6norme rSve qui vous 6 t a i t commun de plus en plus s o l i d e , p r e c i s et j u s t i f i e " a chaque passage"  (p. 167).  The monuments which the l o v e r s seek out during t h e i r p e r e g r i n a t i o n s through ancient Rome are those erected by or for Emperors who were notorious for t h e i r persection of C h r i s t i a n s . Nero's Golden House, C e s t i u s ' s pyramid and the Coliseum, scene of the martyrdom of thousands of C h r i s t i a n s , are a l l s i t e s to which L6on and C £ c i l e are drawn, and which r e f l e c t C 6 c i l e * s hatred of C h r i s t i a n i t y .  The lovers* c l o s e s t  moments are spent e x p l o r i n g these ancient monuments: f o l l o w i n g the tension created between them by C t c i l e ' s v i s i t to P a r i s , the previous year, the reunited l o v e r s spend an evening " s e r r t s l ' u n contre 1'autre" v i s i t i n g t h e i r beloved ancient Rome (p. 263) . However, as the l o v e r s gaze at the various monuments which they see as symbols of t h e i r love for each other,  the  74 reader i s aware of a more s i n i s t e r message.  The two-headed  Janus overseeing the crossroads of the Roman World symbolizes the crossroads i n LEon's l i f e  (p. 263).  The youthful face of  Janus w i l l give way to that other, o l d man's face i n s p i t e of LEon's attempt to f o r e s t a l l t h i s through h i s a f f a i r with Cecile.  The temple to Vesta, goddess of the hearth,  is a  reminder of H e n r i e t t e , the keeper of Delmont's hearth, and home to whom he w i l l r e t u r n .  The P a l a t i n e H i l l  i s home, not  only to pagan temples and monuments, but to several C h r i s t i a n churches reminding us of the v i c t o r y of the Church over paganism.  Similarly, Caelius' H i l l  and convents.  i s dotted w i t h churches  The l o v e r s are b l i n d to the threat to t h e i r  dream i m p l i c i t i n these s i t e s and see only what they want to see.  For them, Nero's golden house i s a romantic symbol of  the freedom and voluptuousness of ancient Rome, rather than a reminder of the debauchery and barbarous c r u e l t y which were perpetrated w i t h i n i t s w a l l s .  It i s i n e v i t a b l e that t h i s  romantic v i s i o n of ancient Rome must crumble. While Leon pursues C l a s s i c a l Rome with C E c i l e , he i s aware that something i s m i s s i n g .  In order to complete h i s  e x p l o r a t i o n of Rome, he must a l s o explore C h r i s t i a n Rome: Une f o i s vos p e r e g r i n a t i o n s , vos p e l e r i n a g e s , vos quetes vous avaient men£s d'obElisque en obElisque, et vous saviez bien que pour continuer cette e x p l o r a t i o n systEmatique des themes romains i l vous a u r a i t f a l l u a u s s i a l l e r , une f o i s  75 d ' E g l i s e S a i n t - P a u l en 6 g l i s e S a i n t - P a u l , de San Giovanni en San G i o v a n n i , de Sainte-Agnes en Sainte-Agnes, de Lorenzo en Lorenzo, pour essayer d'approfondir ou de cerner, de capter et d ' u t i l i s e r l e s images l i £ e s a ces noms, portes de bien £ t r a n g e s dtcouvertes a n'en pas douter sur l e monde c h r £ t i e n . . . " (pp. 167-168). However, C £ c i l e , h i s "porte de Rome" w i l l only guide him through ancient Rome since she refuses even to enter Vatican,  the  "cette poche de pus s i stupidement, d o r £ e " (p. 168),  as he sees the s i t e where Michelangelo's genius succeeded i n b r i n g i n g together pagan and C h r i s t i a n mythology.  This denial  of her C h r i s t i a n heritage dooms C t c i l e ' s l o v e to f a i l u r e , Henriette's  excessive piety has doomed h e r s .  as  The two women,  at opposite poles with regard to Rome, symbolize the  tension  w i t h i n L£on as he i s t o r n between the two c u l t u r e s .  Venus  smiles on him as he and C t c i l e explore Ancient Rome but, when he v o i c e s h i s d e s i r e to v i s i t C h r i s t i a n Rome he meets with his mistress'  resistance.  "Sainte-Marie-des-Anges"  The Church of (p. 7 2 ) , b u i l t w i t h i n D i o c l e t i a n ' s  baths, houses "cette h o r r i b l e statue de s a i n t Bruno par je ne s a i s quel sculpteur f r a n c a i s "  (p. 172) .  She sees the only  gothic church i n Rome - S a i n t e - M a r i e - s u r - l a - M i n e r v e (p. 173) as "une des plus l a i d e s du monde" (p. 173) .  Only i n  the a r t of ancient Rome does C £ c i l e see beauty.  Their v i s i t  to Michelangelo's Moses i s marred by Leon's sense that something i s m i s s i n g : vous sentiez en a l l a n t d'un l i e u a 1'autre, d'une oeuvre a une autre, que  76 quelque chose d ' e s s e n t i e l vous manquait, quelque chose q u i E t a i t a v o t r e d i s p o s i t i o n mais q u ' i l vous E t a i t i n t e r d i t de v o i r a cause de C E c i l e , dont vous ne v o u l i e z pas l u i p a r l e r , mais dont vous saviez bien q u ' e l l e y pensait a u s s i , hantEs tous l e s deux par ces prophetes et ces s i b y l l e s , par ce Jugement absent . . (pp. 173-174) . At the beginning of t h e i r l i a i s o n the e x p l o r a t i o n of ancient Rome was a l l that LEon needed, but as t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p progresses the denial of C h r i s t i a n Rome and the V a t i c a n creates a g u l f between the l o v e r s , since LEon becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y aware of a missing l i n k i n h i s e x p l o r a t i o n s and in his l i f e .  This g u l f cannot be bridged u n t i l , l i k e  the  a r t i s t s of the Renaissance, they integrate the two c u l t u r e s . In order to do t h i s , they must v i s i t not only the Renaissance works but,  i n p a r t i c u l a r , those of Michelangelo (scattered i n  v a r i o u s Roman churches and museums) and e s p e c i a l l y h i s two great works - the Last Judgement and the c e i l i n g of the S i s t i n e Chapel.  Through Michelangelo's r e s o l u t i o n of the  dichotomy between pagan and C h r i s t i a n mythology, LEon w i l l be enabled to move towards h i s own r e s o l u t i o n .  Renaissance and Baroque Rome As LEon seeks out Ancient Roman works, he cannot ignore the a r t and a r c h i t e c t u r e of Renaissance and Baroque Rome which sometimes e x i s t i n harmony with the monuments of  77 Ancient Rome and sometimes have replaced them.  Though  c l a s s i c a l themes predominate i n these works, they are not mere i m i t a t i o n s , since they r e f l e c t the a r t i s t s '  desire not  merely to equal the works of a n t i q u i t y but to surpass them. Ancient Roman a r t served not as models to be copied, but rather as a basis for the c r e a t i o n of new a r t forms. In Annibale Caracci we f i n d such an a r t i s t .  His v a u l t  frescoes for the Farnese Palace r e f l e c t h i s a r t i s t i c - Ancient Roman and Renaissance - c r e a t i n g e n t i r e l y new i n the h i s t o r y of a r t . " 1 2  heritage  "something  Although L£on does  not describe the i n t e r i o r of the Farnese Palace, i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t Butor has chosen i t as C £ c i l e ' s workplace. Famous for i t s g a l l e r y , b u i l t to "display some of the great antique statues i n the Farnese c o l l e c t i o n , "  1 3  it is a fitting  place for such a lover of Roman a n t i q u i t y to work. Even more apt for a woman who has already been placed under the sign of Venus i s the fact that the theme of C a r a c c i ' s v a u l t  frescoes  i n the G a l l e r y i s the u n i v e r s a l power of love - a power i n which Lion believed at the beginning of h i s journey to Rome.  14  Unlike Michelangelo's c e i l i n g i n the S i s t i n e Chapel,  which i n s p i r e d C a r a c c i ' s design technique and i n which pagan c u l t u r e i s brought together w i t h and subjugated to C h r i s t i a n theology, C a r a c c i ' s c e i l i n g i s a s e r i e s of " i l l u s t r a t i o n s of 15 profane l o v e . "  Nowhere do we f i n d even a h i n t of C h r i s t i a n  philosophy i n t h i s work which portrays such scenes of love from Roman a n t i q u i t y as Venus entering "the bed of the mortal  78 Anchises,"  1 6  and whose c e n t r a l p a i n t i n g i s the Triumph of  Bacchus and Ariadne.  That LEon does not describe t h i s ode to  the triumph of sensual love which dominates  CEcile's  workplace places the love a f f a i r under a negative  influence.  For the reader who knows Rome, the absence of t h i s work from the text a n t i c i p a t e s the f a i l u r e of a love which places i t s e l f s o l e l y i n the hands of the Ancient Roman Gods.  It  is  even more s u r p r i s i n g t h a t C a r a c c i ' s G a l l e r y v a u l t i s not mentioned when we r e a l i z e the p a r a l l e l between architectural vault.  the  space of La M o d i f i c a t i o n and t h a t of C a r a c c i ' s  Where the c e i l i n g of the S i s t i n e Chapel i s "a kind of  p i c t u r e -and sculpture - bearing facade on the surface of the c e i l i n g at which the spectator looks . . . A n n i b a l e ' s i s , by contrast, a unified architectural and s c u l p t u r e s ,  space containing p i c t u r e s  in which the spectator s t a n d s . I s  not B u t o r ' s aim i n La M o d i f i c a t i o n ? into the t e x t ?  this  - to b r i n g the reader  Thus, by i t s very absence, the missing  Farnese G a l l e r y v a u l t plays a major r o l e i n the novel, reminding us t h a t , with Butor, the unsaid i s often as important as the s t a t e d . One of C E c i l e and LEon's f a v o u r i t e meeting places i s the Piazza Navone, scene of t h e i r f i r s t prearranged  rendez-vous.  Constructed on the s i t e of an ancient Roman c i r c u s , square i s flanked by B o r r o m i n i ' s Baroque masterpiece,  St. Agnes i n Piazza Navone.  the  architectural The reader f a m i l i a r  with Rome knows t h a t , seen from the square, the facade of the church b l o t s out the view of the dome of St.  Peter's,  79 c r e a t i n g a p h y s i c a l emanation of the b a r r i e r C £ c i l e has placed between Lion and the Cathedral.  The centrepiece of  the Piazza Navone, designed by B o r r o m i n i ' s r i v a l , B e r n i n i , the Fountain of the Four R i v e r s .  is  B u i l t around an Egyptian  o b e l i s k , the fountain i s , for the l o v e r s , "cette £pine dorsale de v o t r e Rome" (p. 99) .  Representing the four major  r i v e r s of the Renaissance world grouped around the o b e l i s k , the fountain symbolizes the world with a center - Rome which the P a r i s i a n seeks.  Like Rome, the Fountain i s  luminous, "La Fontaine des Fleuves r u i s s e l a i t de s o l e i l " (p. 156), promising Lion a l i f e of l i g h t and happiness with h i s Roman m i s t r e s s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the Fountain of the Four R i v e r s i s the only work by B e r n i n i which Lion and C £ c i l e v i s i t and admire. The taboo which C £ c i l e has placed on the V a t i c a n prevents them from seeing the f i n e s t examples of h i s a r t - the tabernacle of St. P e t e r ' s and the bronze Throne of St. Peter - which t e s t i f y not to Rome's secular power, but to her r e l i g i o u s might.  The l o v e r s may see i n B e r n i n i ' s fountain  Rome's dependence on her ancient Egyptian and Roman heritage but they, and i n p a r t i c u l a r Lion,  cannot ignore the  other,  C h r i s t i a n c u l t u r e g l o r i f i e d i n many of B e r n i n i ' s works. Forbidden to him i n Rome, these two works invade h i s railway compartment, together with b i b l i c a l figures from Rome's Renaissance and Baroque works of a r t . ' time he names h i s companions after  To pass the  some of these works.  A  80 l i t t l e boy i s named "AndrE" a f t e r the church Saint Andrea d e l l a V a l l e which i s s i t u a t e d near C E c i l e ' s apartment and houses copies of Michelangelo's most famous s t a t u e s .  The  newlywed "Agnes" i s named after B o r r o m i n i ' s St Agnese i n Piazza Navone, while her groom, " P i e r r e , " i s given the name of Rome's great church. companions,  In some of h i s t r a v e l l i n g  L6on sees a resemblance to c e r t a i n f i g u r e s i n the  the Last Judgement and the S i s t i n e c e i l i n g .  A bearded,  e l d e r l y man i n the compartment doorway reminds LEon of prophet E z e k i e l (p. 183).  the  When we r e c a l l that E z e k i e l  despised hypocrisy, we can understand why h i s appearance i s particularly fitting.  The e l d e r l y couple who take the place  vacated by the clergyman, representative of the V a t i c a n , are described  as, Un v i e i l homme avec un longue barbe blanche comme Zacharie . . . une v i e i l l e femme avec un nez un peu crochu comme l a s i b y l l e persique (p. 191) ,  reminding the reader of Michelangelo's Zacharias and s i b y l on the S i s t i n e C e i l i n g .  Each time that LEon rouses himself  from h i s dream, he i s aware of Zacharias'  eyes on him,  judging and condemning him. In h i s tours of Rome with C E c i l e , however, these  figures  from the V a t i c a n are out of bounds and L§on has to be content to seek out Michelangelo's works i n other churches.  The work  81: which i s most important to him outside of the V a t i c a n and S t . P e t e r ' s i s the statue of Moses designed for the tomb of Julius II.  Lion r e c a l l s having seen i t with Henriette on t h e i r  v i s i t to Rome four years p r e v i o u s l y , i n such poor l i g h t c o n d i t i o n s that the most s t r i k i n g features were the horns which were i l l u m i n a t e d i n such a way that "ses cornes semblaient veritablement des cornes de lumiere" (p. 172) , g i v i n g an e t h e r e a l l y r e l i g i o u s impression. On h i s second visit,  i n the company of C t c i l e , during h i s l a s t weekend i n  Rome, he has to w a i t , l i s t e n i n g to the sounds of Mass being c e l e b r a t e d , before he can enter the church.  This time, i n  s p i t e of the candle l i t a l t a r , the incense and the devout at prayer, Lion sees not the stern defender of the f a i t h , but a Moses "dont l e marbre semblait couvert d ' h u i l e ou de graisse jaune comme l a statue d'un dieu romain d ' a u t r e f o i s "  (p. 172).  The statue no longer belongs to the J u d e o - C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n , but, with i t s Pan's horns, r e f l e c t s Leon's f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h , and n o s t a l g i a f o r , pagan Rome. However, v i s i t e d at S a n - P i e t r o - i n - V i n c o l i , on the f o l l o w i n g day i n broad d a y l i g h t and uninterrupted by r e l i g i o u s ceremonies: l a statue £ t a i t l a comme un fantdme dans un grenier et surtout, vous sentiez en a l l a n t d'un l i e u a 1'autre, d'une oeuvre a une autre, que quelque chose d ' e s s e n t i e l vous manquait, quelque chose qui 6 t a i t a v o t r e d i s p o s i t i o n mais q u ' i l vous £ t a i t i n t e r d i t de v o i r a cause de C g c i l e , . . . h a n t £ s tous l e s deux par ces prophetes et ces s i b y l l e s , par ce Jugement absent, . . . (pp. 173-174).  82 The statue i s l i k e a long forgotten ghost i n an a t t i c which, once disturbed, haunts LEon, reminding him "que quelque chose d ' e s s e n t i e l vous manquait" (p. 173).  The sense  that something i s missing r e s u l t s from LEon's r e f u s a l to i n t e g r a t e h i s C h r i s t i a n and C l a s s i c a l h e r i t a g e s . therefore,  It i s ,  not s u r p r i s i n g that he i s huanted by the c e i l i n g  of the S i s t i n e Chapel and the Last Judgement.  Like the P i e t a  that they were unable to see i n the V i l l a Sansavarino, the Moses cannot f i l l  the v o i d l e f t by the u n v i s i t e d S i s t i n e  Chapel. In s p i t e of C E c i l e ' s e f f o r t s to exclude the V a t i c a n from LEon's l i f e ,  i t i s never far from h i s consciousness i n the  course of h i s journey from P a r i s to Rome on November 15th/16th 1955.  From the moment he enters the compartment,  whose v a u l t e d shape r e f l e c t s the shape of the S i s t i n e Chapel (as do the tunnels, both r e a l and o n e i r i c , through which he passes i n h i s d r e a m - f i l l e d n i g h t ) , and s i t s down opposite a p r i e s t , L6on i s haunted by M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s two great works. We have already noted how a bearded man becomes E z e k i e l and an e l d e r l y couple are compared to Zacharias and a s i b y l ; l i k e w i s e Agnes and P i e r r e i n t h e i r young, newlywed innocence can be compared to the Adam and Eve of the S i s t i n e Chapel. The "tapis de fer chauffant,"  (p. 179) which undergoes  several transformations during the journey, at one point gives the Frenchman the impression "que l e s losanges ondulent comme l e s E c a i l l e s sur l a peau d'un grand serpent"  (p. 179).  83 This evokes the snake i n the S i s t i n e panel d e p i c t i n g the temptation and expulsion of Adam and Eve.  Similarly,  the  boats depicted i n one of the photographs i n the compartment b r i n g to mind Charon's boat i n the Last Judgement.  In h i s  ruminations about h i s marriage, H e n r i e t t e ' s d e s i r e to drag him down i n t o bourgeois boredom i s compared to " l e morose p l a i s i r des damn£s a entrainer quelqu'un d ' a u t r e qu'eux dans l e u r margcage de poix et d ennui . . . " 1  (p. 8 2 ) , r e f l e c t i n g  the f a l l of the damned i n the East Judgement.  Remembering  h i s return journey to P a r i s the previous week, L£on r e c a l l s t h a t he was seated "en face d'une photographie en couleurs r e p r £ s e n t a n t un des d e t a i l s de l a S i x t i n e , un des damn£s cherchant a se cacher l e s yeux" (p. 102) .  We see i n t h i s  f i g u r e a r e f l e c t i o n of Leon's a t t i t u d e to l i f e .  P r i o r to  making the d e c i s i o n to leave h i s wife for h i s m i s t r e s s , he has adopted an o s t r i c h - l i k e p o s i t i o n v i s - a - v i s h i s w i f e ,  his  f a m i l y , h i s job and h i s C a t h o l i c h e r i t a g e , condemning himself to a l i f e of boredom and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n .  However, the  d e c i s i o n to f l e e i n t o the arms of a mistress who r e j e c t s C h r i s t i a n i t y i s equally damning, as i t requires that he cut himself off from h i s C h r i s t i a n r o o t s .  Thus, the reproduction  of "un des damn£s" not only r e f l e c t s h i s past but foreshadows his future.  This i s i r o n i c a l l y underlined by the Frenchman's  choice of reading m a t e r i a l .  In order not to have to  contemplate the reproduction which might force him i n t o the i n t r o s p e c t i o n which he has been a v o i d i n g , he plunges i n t o the  84 l e t t e r s of h i s Roman hero, J u l i a n , whose motto was "know thyself". However, the influence of c e r t a i n works of a r t  extends  beyond LEon's p s y c h o l o g i c a l journey, to be r e f l e c t e d i n the a r c h i t e c t u r e of the n o v e l .  While the s t r u c t u r e of L Emploi 1  du temps i s based on the form of the musical canon, that of La M o d i f i c a t i o n i s modelled on the s t r u c t u r e of the S i s t i n e C e i l i n g and Dante's Divine Comedy, whose influence i s evident in the the Last Judgement. The b i v i n e Comedy i s d i v i d e d i n t o nine chapters, Michelangelo's c e i l i n g d e p i c t s nine scenes from Genesis, and Butor has chosen to d i v i d e La Modif i c a t i o n i n t o nine chapters. three,  The choice of t h i s number, whose square root i s  symbol of the T r i n i t y ,  i s yet another reminder of the  C h r i s t i a n heritage from which LEon cannot escape.  As  Michelangelo makes use of the a r c h i t e c t u r e of the c e i l i n g to frame and separate the various scenes he d e p i c t s , so too Butor makes use of blank spaces and short passages i n the present tense to create an a r c h i t e c t u r a l d i v i s i o n i n the text between LEon's various pasts and f u t u r e s .  This device,  coupled with such key phrases as "de 1'autre c&t£ du c o r r i d o r " (p. 62); "au dela de l a f e n § t r e " (p. 43), i n d i c a t e s to the reader that Butor i s s h i f t i n g from one time frame to another without i n t e r r u p t i n g the flow of LEon's thoughts, just as Michelangelo used the s t r u c t u r a l d i v i s i o n s of the S i s t i n e C e i l i n g to s h i f t from one subject and timeframe to  85 another.  In h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the S i s t i n e C e i l i n g ,  Charles  Seymour observes t h a t : the c e i l i n g . . . presents a completely new sense of scale . . . What we f i n d . . . i s a unity on a h i t h e r t o unprecedented grandeur of scale . . . We f i n d . . . an overwhelming t o t a l i t y of e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y d i v e r s e , yet c l o s e l y i n t e r l o c k i n g images, motives and shapes . . . The f i r s t scene of the Genesis story that meets the o b s e r v e r ' s eye i n s i d e the o r i g i n a l entrance i s The Drunkenness of Noah, which i s a c t u a l l y the l a s t u n i t i n the n a r r a t i v e sequence as shown; and the l a s t v a u l t composition to be seen, immediately before the a l t a r , i s The Separation of L i g h t and Darkness, the f i r s t i n the Genesis n a r r a t i v e sequence depicted . . . By t h i s device, which i n effect reverses the expected c h r o n o l o g i c a l order of events, the a r t i s t i n a v i s u a l sense l i f t s those events out of time and i n t o a whole new context of sensation and ideas. 9  S i m i l a r l y , the t r a d i t i o n a l , c h r o n o l o g i c a l approach the past i s reversed i n La M o d i f i c a t i o n .  to  In the course of  h i s journey to Rome, Leon's thoughts range from the  immediate  past ( P a r i s , May 11th - 15th, 1955) t o h i s honeymoon with Henriette i n Rome i n the spring of 1936, and from the immediate future future  (his weekend w i t h C £ c i l e ) to a more d i s t a n t  i n which he imagines l i f e i n P a r i s w i t h h i s Roman  mistress.  The j u x t a p o s i t i o n and interweaving of these  temporal elements r e f l e c t the impression of the "overwhelming t o t a l i t y of e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y d i v e r s e , yet c l o s e l y i n t e r l o c k i n g images, motives and shapes" t h a t Seymour notes i n the S i s t i n e 20 Ceiling. The complex temporal s t r u c t u r e of B u t o r ' s n o v e l ,  86 l i k e Michelangelo's masterpiece,  "lifts  [the] events out of  time and i n t o a whole new c o n t e x t . " In p a i n t i n g the S i s t i n e C e i l i n g , Michelangelo modelled h i s f i g u r e s on the works of Ancient Rome, and i n both the S i s t i n e C e i l i n g and the Last 'Judgement the influence of C l a s s i c a l a r t and sculpture i s c l e a r . However, he c e r t a i n l y d i d not s l a v i s h l y copy the c l a s s i c a l forms, but developed h i s own s t y l e from them. In s p i t e of having to work w i t h i n very c l e a r l y defined a r c h i t e c t u r a l and i d e o l o g i c a l l i m i t s ,  he  succeeded i n c r e a t i n g a masterpiece whose innovative b r i l l i a n c e provides "a standard of excellence never O O  superseded. equally complex.  The temporal s t r u c t u r e of L a ' M O d i f i c a t i o n i s In each of the nine chapters three  d i f f e r e n t times (present, past and future) w i t h i n c r e a s i n g complexity.  are  juxtaposed  This i s combined w i t h the  manipulation of space through the device of the t r a i n journey, which at the same time frames the a c t i o n of the novel and gives i t freedom.  The n o v e l ' s density i s increased  by the use of references to the works of a r t which, u n l i k e those of Passage de Milan and L'Emploi du temps are r e a l and not imaginary.  F i n a l l y the i n c l u s i o n of the reader i n the  text through the use of "vous" adds a further does B u t o r ' s use of imagery.  dimension as  A l l these elements combine to  create a work whose richness and innovation r e f l e c t Michelangelo's two great works. The S i s t i n e C e i l i n g and the Last Judgement influence not only the a r c h i t e c t u r e of the novel but a l s o i t s impact on the  87 reader.  As these works move i n and out of Leon's  consciousness, they are a constant  reminder, to him and to  the reader, of western man's need to integrate h i s c u l t u r a l heritage i n t o h i s present.  Although LEon perceives himself  as happiest walking among the r e l i c s of pagan Rome, t h i s need i s emphasized by the constant presence of the S i s t i n e Chapel in which, according to Jennifer W a e l t i - W a l t e r s , "are united the pagan and C h r i s t i a n worlds i n a l l t h e i r wisdom, s i b y l s and prophets together.  I f we see the S i s t i n e Chapel as  "the place where the i d e a l i s t i c and the r e a l i s t i c can be synthesized i n t o one magnificent whole, where the C h r i s t i a n present manifests i t s pagan o r i g i n s and the l e g i t i m a t e development from one to the other i s o b v i o u s , "  2 4  then we must  r e a l i z e that only when LEon can achieve t h i s synthesis can he hope to move i n t o the  future.  The bream Sequences I t i s i n and through h i s a r t i s t i c endeavours t h a t man's subconscious processes are expressed and the c o l l e c t i v e memory of h i s race i s accessed.  I t f o l l o w s , then,  that  LEon's t r a i n journey with i t s many tunnels, symbolic of a journey into the subconscious, should be peopled, f i r s t at a conscious l e v e l ,  i n h i s reminiscences of Rome and P a r i s , then  at a subconscious l e v e l ,  i n h i s dreams, by those works of a r t  which have p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e i n h i s search for self-knowledge.  Just as the t r a i n l i n k s the two centers,  so  88 the dreams l i n k h i s conscious and subconscious r e a l i t i e s . His journey from P a r i s to Rome i s , at the mythological l e v e l , a journey of i n i t i a t i o n .  2 5  Like Aeneas he must descend i n t o  the Underworld i n search of the foundations of h i s race. study of the dream sequences,  A  the myths and elements of the  works of a r t portrayed i n them, shows how LEon makes t h i s journey. As the Frenchman t r a v e l s through the forest of Fontainebleau on h i s return journey to P a r i s on November 11th, he imagines he sees " l a f i g u r e d'un c a v a l i e r . . . dont vous avez meme 1'impression d'entendre l a cElebre p l a i n t e : ' M ' entendez-vous?"'  (p. 116).  This f i r s t imaginary glimpse  of the "Grand Veneur" whose questions haunt Leon, i s a precursor of the dream sequences. **  Symbol of that ultimate  2  moment of t r u t h which i s our death, the Grand Veneur poses 27 the questions which LEon i s a f r a i d to ask h i m s e l f : etes-vous?"  (p. 152),  "Etes vous fou?" (p. 182) .  "Ou Finally,  i n h i s d r e a m - f i l l e d n i g h t , the Frenchman c l e a r l y hears a person "qui a l e s memes vetements que vous, mais i n t a c t s , porte a l a main une v a l i s e du meme modele que l a v o t r e , semble un peu plus Sg6 que vous." (pp. 251-252). repeats the Grand Veneur's q u e s t i o n s : allez-vous? sentez-vous?  Que cherchez-vous? Me voyez-vous?  "Qui etes-vous?  Qu attendez-vous? 1  This double Ou  Que  M'entendez-vous?" (p. 252).  As  n i g h t f a l l s LEon can no longer avoid f a c i n g these questions and seeking answers to them.  He contemplates the book which  89 he had bought h u r r i e d l y at the s t a t i o n b o o k s t a l l before l e a v i n g P a r i s , and which he has not read,.and r e a l i z e s t h a t , if  i t were to i n t e r e s t him at a l l " c ' a u r a i t &t6 q u * i l se  s e r a i t trouve" dans une conformity t e l l e avec v o t r e s i t u a t i o n q u ' i l vous a u r a i t expose a vous-meme votre probleme (p. 178) .  . . . "  As he continues h i s musings on the p o s s i b l e  contents of t h i s book which symbolizes "ce l i v r e futur  et  n £ c e s s a i r e " (p. 283) that he w i l l begin to w r i t e on h i s a r r i v a l i n Rome, he imagines t h a t i t t e l l s the story of "un homme perdu dans une f o r § t q u i se referme d e r r i e r e l u i sans q u ' i l a r r i v e . . . " (p. 202).  The p l i g h t of the "homme  perdu" i s a l s o Leon's p l i g h t and, as imagination gives way to dream, the middle-aged Frenchman embarks on the search for s e l f which he has so assiduously avoided i n h i s waking s t a t e . In f a c t , through the use of " i l " i n the dream segments, which e f f e c t i v e l y d i s s o c i a t e s him and the reader from the experiences of the p r o t a g o n i s t , Leon continues to avoid h i s i n e v i t a b l e "prise de conscience." The f o r e s t ,  i n which the dreamer finds h i m s e l f , evokes  the forest of Fontainbleau, home of the Grand Veneur, and the sacred forest of the s i x t h book of the Aeneid which L6on had read on h i s return from Rome on November 11th. progresses, Aeneid.  As the dream  the reader i s struck by other echoes of the  Aeneas continuing h i s journey towards the  Underworld, "aux premier feux du s o l e i l levant" f i n d s the 28 earth rumbling and trembling beneath h i s f e e t . Similarly,  90 as he continues h i s journey, the LEon of the dream also finds that: . . . l e s plantes auxquelles i l veut se r e t e n i r se dEracinent; l e s p i e r r e s sur l e s q u e l l e s i l veut poser l e s pieds s ' e f f r i t e n t , se dEchaussent, et roulent d'Etage en Etage j u s q u ' a ce q u ' i l ne puisse plus d i s t i n g u e r l e b r u i t de l e u r chute au m i l i e u du bourdonnement gEnEral q u i v i e n t d'en bas (p. 206). We a l s o f i n d i n t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n a r e f l e c t i o n of the F a l l of the Damned i n the Last Judgement, as the dream, which at f i r s t resembles Aeneas's journey i n t o the Underworld, i s gradually invaded by elements of M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s work.  The  o l d woman i n the cave with her " r e s p i r a t i o n l o u r d e , rauque" (p. 214) r e c a l l s V i r g i l ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of the S i b y l of Cumes, "sa p o i t r i n e halete . . . sa v o i x n ' a plus un son O ft  h u m a i n e . H e r q u e s t i o n , "T'imagines-tu que j e ne s a i s pas que t o i aussi t u vas a l a recherche de ton pere a f i n q u ' i l t'enseigne l ' a v e n i r de ta race?" (p. 214), coupled with the g i f t of "ces deux gateaux brQIEs dans l e four" (p. 215), leaves us i n no doubt that she represents the S i b y l of the Aeneid.  However, t h i s " v i e i l l e femme immobile qui regarde un  grand l i v r e " (p. 214) a l s o r e f l e c t s the S i b y l of Cumes of the Sistine Ceiling.  LEon's journey may r e f l e c t Aeneas's journey  i n t o the underworld, but i t cannot p a r a l l e l i t .  Aeneas had  set out i n search of h i s father and the knowledge of the future of h i s race, LEon denies t h i s :  "je ne veux r i e n ,  91 S i b y l l e , je ne veux que s o r t i r de l a , rentrer chez^moi, reprendre l e chemin que j ' a v a i s commence . . . " (p. 215). These words evoke the damned i n the Last Judgement f r a n t i c a l l y t r y i n g to climb back up whence they came.  The  "personnage emmitoufl£, qui t i r e une lampe torche de sa poche . . . puis se r e c r o q u e v i l l e a l ' i n t g r i e u r de sa l o g e t t e semblable a une 6norme motte de t e r r e . . . "  (p. 202) i s seen  by P a t r i c e Qu6r£el as being " l ' u n des demons places au bas du Jugement D e r n i e r . "  3 0  It i s not d i f f i c u l t to recognize i n the  "barque sans v o i l e s avec un v i e i l l a r d debout arm£ d'une rame q u ' i l t i e n t l e v £ e sur son £ p a u l e comme pret a frapper"  (p. 219) the ferryman depicted i n the bottom r i g h t  corner of the Last Judgement.  By h i s stance and the way i n  which he holds h i s oar, he r e f l e c t s M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s work, h i s beard and h i s eyes:  " i l n ' y a point d'yeux mais seulement  deux c a v i t t s semblables a des bruleurs avec des flammes sifflantes Aeheid.  . . . "  (p. 219) mark him as the Charon of the  As with the S i b y l , pagan and C h r i s t i a n mythology  which have been brought together by M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s works i n the S i s t i n e Chapel, are i n t e r t w i n e d i n L § o n ' s subconscious where they f i n a l l y are expressed i n h i s dreams.  Although, i n  the dream sequences, L£on, l i k e Aeneas, has r e c e i v e d ,  "ces  deux gateaux b r u i t s dans l e four" (p. 215) from the S i b y l , he i s refused the a i d of the golden bough which, he i s t o l d i s "point pour t o i , point pour ceux q u i sont aussi Strangers a  92 l e u r s d £ s i r s . " (p. 215).  Unlike Aeneas, LEon does not know  what he i s l o o k i n g for on t h i s journey.  His path thus  diverges from that of Aeneas - i t i s not towards the E l y s i a n F i e l d s that the Fenchman w i l l be taken i n Charon's boat but towards judgement by h i s pagan and C h r i s t i a n ancestors. i s emphasized by the appearance,  This  i n the course of h i s dream  voyage, of metal a m p l i f i e r s and of a "fine p l u i e de goudron qui devenait de plus en plus blanc comme de l a neige, de plus en plus sec comme des bribes de pages dEchirEes . . . " (p. 222).  The metal a m p l i f i e r s evoke the angels of the Last  Judgement awakening the dead with golden trumpets w h i l e , i n the "bribes de pages d £ c h i r 4 e s " , we see the pages of the Holy S c r i p t u r e which they are dropping on the dead.  They are a  symbolic reminder of L6on's C h r i s t i a n h e r i t a g e . Aeneas's descent i n t o the Underworld gives way i n the dream sequence to the dreamer's a r r i v a l before  "quelqu'un,  nettement plus grand qu'un homme, avec non point un mais deux visages . . . " beginnings.  (p. 223).  He i s Janus, the Roman god of  Even i n t h i s pagan f i g u r e we can see an echo of  the Last Judgement f o r , l i k e Janus,  St. Bartholemew, as he -a i  holds up h i s own s k i n , has two faces.  Janus i s seated i n  front of " l a porte majeure mais sans tramways sans chemins de f e r , o u v r i e r s , n i foule . . . "  (p. 223).  L6on has a r r i v e d i n  the ancient c i t y of h i s dreams whose monuments he has v i s i t e d and r e v i s i t e d w i t h C £ c i l e .  His guide through the ancient  93 c i t y i s a she-wolf symbolizing a return to the very beginnings of Rome.  However the she-wolf leads him not to  p r e - C h r i s t i a n Rome but to the catacombes where he sees "des gens en robes blanches q u i portent des cadavres en chantant des cantiques . . . "  (p. 232)  I t i s f o l l o w i n g t h i s dream  sequence that he acknowledges "cette r e o r g a n i s a t i o n de 1* image de vous-meme et de v o t r e v i e " (p. 235) and f i n a l l y recognizes t h a t the " i l " of the dream i s , i n f a c t , and " i l " becomes " v o u s " .  himself  3 2  As the dream sequences progress, the d i s t i n c t i o n between dream and r e a l i t y becomes l e s s d i s t i n c t ; conscious thought stimulates new dream sequences. Thus, from the memory of being seated opposite a reproduction of M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s deluge, Leon's mind s l i p s back i n t o the dream where he i s met by a procession of c a r d i n a l s who ask him, "Pourqoi p r t t e n d s - t u nous h a i r ? ne sommes-nous pas des Romains?" (p. 257)  They are followed by the Pope who asks  t h i s man who i s " v e i l l e par tant d'images, incapable de l e s ordonner et de l e s nommer, pourquoi p r t t e n d s - t u aimer Rome? Ne s u i s - j e pas l e fantdme des empereurs, hantant depuis des s i e c l e s l a c a p i t a l e de l e u r monde a b o l i ,  r e g r e t t £ ? " (p. 258).  The Pope and h i s c a r d i n a l s v e r b a l l y d e l i v e r the message which Michelangelo has so g r a p h i c a l l y declared i n the S i s t i n e C e i l i n g and the Last Judgement - that i t i s impossible to separate the a n c i e n t , pagan world from the C h r i s t i a n world for the one has i n h e r i t e d the other.  This i s underlined by  94 the parade of pagan gods (pp. 265-266) followed by the procession of emperors.  Before the "Roi du Jugement" (p. 259),  who i s not the benign f i g u r e of C a v a l l i n i ' s Last Judgement but rather the s t e r n , forbidding f i g u r e of Michelangelo's C h r i s t i n h i s v e r s i o n , LEon f i n a l l y has to face up to the fact that he i s i r r e v o c a b l y l i n k e d to a l l of the past of h i s race and that he i s dammed not by C h r i s t but by "tous ceux qui m'accompagnent et l e u r s a n c e t r e s , . .  . . tous ceux q u i  t * accompagnent et l e u r s enfants" (p. 260).  A l l of the  ancestors depicted i n the S i s t i n e Chapel, coupled w i t h those who have been met i n h i s dreams,.condemn LEon. This condemnation reaches a climax when, i n response to Leon's attempt to reason with them, the gods and emperors of Ancient Rome converge on him: C ' e s t une foule de visages q u i s approchent, Enormes et haineux comme s i vous E t i e z un insecte retournE, des E c l a i r s zebrant l e u r s faces et l a peau en tombant par plaques (p. 268) . 1  Damned i n h i s dream by both the "Roi du Jugement" and the "Empereurs et dieux romains" (p. 268), symbolic representatives of the works of a r t which he has sought out e i t h e r i n r e a l i t y or i n h i s imagination, LEon must seek out and accept not only the gods of Ancient Rome but a l s o h i s b i b l i c a l ancestors.  As i n h i s dream, he must become f a m i l i a r  w i t h the messages of both V i r g i l and Michelangelo, of paganism and C h r i s t i a n i t y .  Only then can he begin to f i n d  95 himself through w r i t i n g ,  "ce l i v r e futur et n t c e s s a i r e dont  vous tenez l a forme dans v o t r e main" (p. 283). The works of a r t have influenced Da M o d i f i c a t i o n both i n terms of the n o v e l ' s a r c h i t e c t u r e and of i t s p s y c h o - s o c i a l content.  The c o n f l i c t between the "mythe romain" (p. 276)  and C h r i s t i a n i t y expressed through these works and Leon's r e a c t i o n to them r e f l e c t s not only the Frenchman's dilemma but the dilemma of modern Western man.  At a time when the  o l d , C a t h o l i c values are no longer v a l i d and when he has not been able to replace them, L6on, l i t e r a l l y strung between P a r i s , once the center of the Napoleonic Empire, and Rome, center of f i r s t the C l a s s i c a l Roman then the C h r i s t i a n Empires, epitomizes modern man's predicament.  A product of  both c u l t u r e s , he no longer belongs to e i t h e r , as he flounders i n a constantly changing w o r l d , a world without a centre: Une des grandes vagues de l ' h i s t o i r e s'acheve a i n s i dans vos consciences, c e l l e ou l e monde a v a i t un centre, qui n ' e t a i t pas seulement l a t e r r e au m i l i e u des spheres de Ptolemte, mais Rome au centre de l a t e r r e , un centre q u i s ' e s t d e p l a c t , qui a cherche" a se f i x e r apres 1'tcroulement de Rome a Byzance, puis beaucoup plus t a r d dans l e P a r i s i m p e r i a l , l ' 6 t o i l e noire des chemins de fer sur l a France 4tant comme 1'ombre de l ' e t o i l e des v o i e s romaines. S i puissant pendant tant de s i e c l e s sur tous l e s r i v e s europtens, l e souvenir de L'Empire est maintenant une f i g u r e i n s u f f i s a n t e pour designer l ' a v e n i r de ce monde, devenu pour chacun de nous beaucoup plus vaste et tout autrement distribu<§ (p. 277) .  96 The C l a s s i c a l Roman, Renaissance and Napoleonic periods were eras which saw major paradigmatic s h i f t s i n s o c i e t y which were expressed i n the l i t e r a t u r e and a r t of the time. A s i m i l a r paradigmatic s h i f t threatens the world of LEon Delmont whom we can see as a modern Everyman.  Our reading of  La M o d i f i c a t i o n t e l l s us that another paradigmatic s h i f t i s i n process, as modern man t r i e s and f i n d s wanting the teachings of the C l a s s i c a l , Renaissance and Baroque p e r i o d s . However, i t i s not only LEon who undergoes a transformation i n the course of h i s journey from P a r i s to Rome: For,  The novel as an a r t form has a l s o been transformed. as man's ideology changes so must the a r t i s t i c and  l i t e r a r y forms through which he expresses that form be changed.  However, these necessary new forms cannot be  created through a return to the past nor can they be created i n a vacuum.  Like the S i s t i n e C e i l i n g and the Last  Judgement, they must r e s u l t from a knowledge and acceptance of h i s c o l l e c t i v e past.  Only by e x p l o r i n g h i s past and  recognizing a l l of h i s ancestors,  as has LEon i n h i s dream,  by i n t e g r a t i n g that past i n t o h i s present, search for a new form.  can man begin h i s  This w i l l be expressed i n "ce l i v r e  f u t u r " (p. 283) which, l i k e Pannini*s view of Rome, w i l l both be closed - w i t h i n the frame of i t s covers - and open - the boundary between r e a l i t y and f i c t i o n , t e x t , w i l l be f l u i d .  between reader and  I t i s "ce l i v r e futur et nEcessaire  dont vous tenez l a forme dans v o t r e main" (p. 283).  97 Notes to Chapter I I  1  Michel Butor, L ' Emploi du temps, p. 9.  Michel Butor, La M o d i f i c a t i o n ( P a r i s : Les E d i t i o n s de M i n u i t , 1957), p. 10. Subsequent references to t h i s work w i l l be noted i n the t e x t . 2  The V i c t o i r e de Samothrace i s b e l i e v e d to commemorate a Greek naval v i c t o r y . 3  C. G. Jung, The Portable Jung t r a n s . R . F . C . H u l l , ed. Joseph Campbell (New York: V i k i n g Press, 1971), "In a d d i t i o n to our immediate consciousness which i s of a thoroughly personal nature . . . there e x i s t s a second psychic system of a c o l l e c t i v e , u n i v e r s a l and impersonal nature which i s identical in a l l individuals." 4  Francoise Van Rossum-Guyon, C r i t i q u e du roman ( P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1970), p. 79. 5  ^ Dean McWilliams, The N a r r a t i v e s of Michel B u t o r : The Writer as Janus (Athens: Ohio U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1968), p. 37, 7 McWillilams, p. 37. "The P a r i s i a n Pantheon i n whose shadow Delmont l i v e s , i s b u i l t i n the c l a s s i c a l s t y l e , but was intended as a C a t h o l i c church and has several times served that f u n c t i o n . I t s model, portrayed by Pannini as one of the g l o r i e s of ancient Rome (52, 55), has fared no b e t t e r : the Roman Pantheon's brass roof was melted down and used to cast B e r n i n i ' s baldachin i n S t . P e t e r ' s b a s i l i c a . " p Leon's choice of an opera i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n terms of the s t r u c t u r e of the novel whose nine chapters are d i v i d e d i n t o three sections which can be seen as the three a c t s of an opera. 9  McWilliams, p. 35.  1 0  McWilliams, p. 36.  1 1  McWilliams, p. 36.  T O  - ~  ---  -----  -  ---  -  --  Dona1d Posner, Annibale C a r r a c c i : A Study i n the Reform of I t a l i a n P a i n t i n g around 1950 (London: Phaidon Press, 1971) , p. 107. 13 Posner, p. 94. 14 Posner, p. 93. "The v a u l t frescoes of the Farnese G a l l e r y . . . celebrate the power and u n i v e r s a l dominion of Love. "  98 15 Posner, p. 94. 16 Posner, p. 94. 17 Posner, p. 101. 18 Van Rossum-Guyon, pp. 246-247. " I l s u f f i t d'examiner l e texte d'un peu p l u pres pour constater que l e s fonctions d ' i n t r o d u c t i o n et de l i a i s o n que l ' o n peut reconnaltre aux strophes d e s c r i p t i v e s relevent d'une motivation q u i n ' e s t pas r E a l i s t e mais compositionnelle . . . De meme que l e s sequences r e l a t i v e s au passe" avec C E c i l e et au passe" avec Henriette sont associEes aux motifs f i x e s : 'sur l e t a p i s de fer chauffant' et 'un homme passe l a t&te par l a p o r t e ' , l e s sequences au present au futur et au passe" proche sont associEes respectivement aux m o t i f s : 'passe l a gare d e , 'de 1*autre cdte" du c o r r i d o r ' , ' a u - d e l a de l a f e n e t r e . ' . " 1  Charles Seymour J r . e d , , Michelangelo: The S i s t i n e Chapel C e i l i n g (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1972), pp. 84-85) . 1 9  2 0  Seymour, p. 84.  2 1  Seymour, p. 85.  99 Seymour, p. 73. ---Jennifer W a e l t i - W a l t e r s , Michel BUtor: A Study of h i s View of the World and a Panorama of h i s Works ( V i c t o r i a , B . C . , Sono Nis Press, 1977), p. 50. W a e l t i - W a l t e r s , p. 50. 25 Joseph Campbell, The Hero with a Thousand Faces (Princeton, N . J . : Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1968), LEon goes through the r i t e s of i n i t i a t i o n described by Campbell: "separation initiation return." J  2 4  2fc  ..  _  _._  "LEgende du Grand veneur." Larousse du XXe S i e c l e , 1933 ed. "On nomme a i n s i une lEgende rEpandue parmi l e s gardes et l e s bucherons de l a fordt de Fontainebleau. A u t r e f o i s , nombre de vieux f o r e s t i e r s prEtendaient a v o i r rencontre" ce Grand veneur, tout de n o i r vStu, une plume rouge a son chapeau, sonnant effroyablement de l a trompe et galopant d e r r i e r e une meute sur un cheval n o i r aux naseaux flamboyants. Sa rencontre E t a i t toujours de mauvais presage. On l i t , dans l e ' J o u r n a l de P i e r r e de l ' E s t o i l e , * a l a date du 20 aout 1598, qu'Henri IV, chassant dans l a f o r £ t de Fontainebleau, fut tout Etonne" d'entendre l e cor et l e s aboiements des chiens d'une chasse autre que l a sienne, et que l e comte de Goissons, Etant a l l E , sur son ordre, a l a  99 rencontre de ces chasseurs, v i t distinctement l e Grand veneur et sa meute, qui disparurent a u s s i t d t : c ' e t a i t l e prEsage de l a mort prochaine de G a b r i e l l e d ' E s t r E e s . " P a t r i c e Qu£r£el, "La M o d i f i c a t i o n " de Butor ( P a r i s : Hachette, 1973), p. 76. QuErEel i d e n t i f i e s the Grand Veneur as the symbol of death: " l a mort elle-meme represented par l e Grand Veneur." 2 7  2 8  V i r g i l e , p. 249.  2 9  V i r g i l e , p. 249.  3 0  QuSrdel, p. 76.  Qu£r£el, pp. 76-77. " . . . et Charon f a i t place au douanier Janus avec son double v i s a g e . Mais s a i n t BarthElemy, chez Michel-Ange, n ' e s t - i l pas, une r e i n c a r n a t i o n du dieu palen? Le s a i n t l u i aussi possede deux visages p u i s q u ' i l t i e n t a l a main sa propre peau d'ecorchE v i f . " 3 1  Michel L e i r i s , Le R£alisme Mythologique de Michel Butor ( P a r i s : Les E d i t i o n s de M i n u i t , 1957), p. 301. L e i r i s p o i n t s out that i t i s at the moment when " l ' e g a r E " becomes an " a s s o i f f E " t h a t the second person p l u r a l reappears. 3 2  100 CONCLUSION From our study of the works of a r t i n L'Emploi du temps and La M o d i f i c a t i o n , we f i n d that the two novels have much i n common.  From the "coin c o u l o i r face a l a marche"- -, common to 1  both t r a v e l l e r s , to the r a i n which f a l l s on B l e s t o n and P a r i s a l i k e , they r e f l e c t one another.  The m i r r o r s of B l e s t o n ' s  drawing rooms become the mirror i n Leon's bedroom, not to mention the r e f l e c t i v e windows of the Paris/Rome t r a i n i n which he t r a v e l s through the n i g h t .  The vaulted roof of the  dingy Hamilton Street S t a t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d i n a grandiose fashion i n the soaring a r c h i t e c t u r e of the magnificent Statione Termini.  Jacques Revel arms himself with a map for  h i s year of e x p l o r a t i o n i n B l e s t o n , L6on c a r r i e s a railway timetable.  Both men are employed i n monotonous jobs and f e e l  as i f they are being dragged down i n t o o b l i v i o n :  Revel by  B l e s t o n ' s " s o r c e l l e r i e " , Delmont by h i s meaningless job and dreary marriage.  Although t h e i r overt reactions d i f f e r -  Revel seeks to regain c o n t r o l over h i s l i f e through w r i t i n g a r e t r o s p e c t i v e d i a r y , while Delmont seeks renewal and rejuvenation i n the arms of h i s I t a l i a n mistress - t h e i r journeys are e s s e n t i a l l y one and the same.  They are both,  at  the beginning of the novels, s e t t i n g out on a journey of s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n i n which they w i l l explore not only t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l pasts but the c o l l e c t i v e past of mankind.  If they  are to become "cet homme l i b r e et sincere" (M. p. 155) which both dream of being, they must acknowledge and accept  this  101 heritage as an i n t e g r a l part of t h e i r being.  Their  e x p l o r a t i o n of man's past i s accomplished w i t h the a i d of the works of a r t which, as we have seen, represent key periods i n the h i s t o r y of western man. C h r i s t i a n h i s t o r y and c l a s s i c a l mythology, through the medium of these works, weave i n and out of both novels.  In  L'Emploi du temps the emphasis i s placed on the Greek heroes, Theseus and Oedipus, and the story of Cain; i n La M o d i f i c a t i o n , on the Roman hero, Aeneas, on the story of Genesis and on the Last Judgement.  Thus, between the two novels, the major  periods of western c i v i l i z a t i o n are represented. novels Butor uses the p l a s t i c a r t s :  tapestry,  In both  stained g l a s s ,  a r c h i t e c t u r e i n L'Emploi du temps; a r c h i t e c t u r e , and p a i n t i n g i n La M o d i f i c a t i o n .  sculpture  In L'Emploi du temps these  works, although based on c l a s s i c a l mythology and C h r i s t i a n i t y , are f i c t i o n a l , while i n La M o d i f i c a t i o n they 2 are a l l v e r i f i a b l e .  L i t e r a r y works a l s o appear i n both  novels - the f i c t i o n a l novel i n L'Emploi du temps,  Virgil's  Aeneid, the L e t t e r s of J u l i a n the Apostate and the unread novel i n La M o d i f i c a t i o n .  Butor has described L'Emploi du 3  temps as "une sorte d'immense canon temporel"  while  La M o d i f i c a t i o n may be seen as a three act opera. At the thematic l e v e l , one of the major  differences  between the works of a r t i n L'Emploi du temps and those of La M o d i f i c a t i o n i s t h a t , i n the former, the works of a r t ,  102 although based on v e r i f i a b l e s t o r i e s such as the Theseus myth and B i b l i c a l h i s t o r y , are a l l imaginary.  In La M o d i f i c a t i o n ,  moreover, the works as w e l l as the myths are v e r i f i a b l e . Thus, i n L'Emploi du temps the reader shares R e v e l ' s ignorance of the works of a r t and explores them with him. R e v e l ' s l a c k of knowledge extends from the works of a r t to the myths and h i s t o r y which they p o r t r a y . Murderer's Window he confesses:  As he admires the  "Je s u i s d'Education  catholique romaine, mais i l y a longtemps que j ' a i l a i s s E effacer en moi l a plupart des rudiments d ' ' H i s t o i r e S a i n t e que l ' o n m'avait i n c u l q u E s . . . . "  4  1  R e v e l ' s hazy  r e c o l l e c t i o n s of the " H i s t o i r e Sainte" and of c l a s s i c a l mythology b r i n g him to the works of a r t with a more innocent and l e s s s e l e c t i v e a t t i t u d e  than we observe i n Delmont.  For,  while Delmont*s choice of reading m a t e r i a l ( V i r g i l ' s Aeneid and the L e t t e r s of J u l i a n the Apostate) demonstrates h i s knowledge of, and i n t e r e s t interest  i n the C l a s s i c s , h i s e x c l u s i v e  i n the C l a s s i c a l period t e s t i f i e s to a c e r t a i n  closed mindedness on h i s p a r t . Just as LEon Delmont i s more knowledgeable than Jacques Revel, so the reader of La M o d i f i c a t i o n w i l l benefit from b r i n g i n g to h i s reading of t h i s novel a wider c u l t u r a l background than that required of the reader of L'Empioi du temps.  Since, as we have noted, the works of a r t i n the  l a t t e r are a l l f i c t i o n a l ,  the only demand on the reader's  c u l t u r a l knowledge i s that he have some f a m i l i a r i t y with the  103 myth of Theseus and the B i b l e . However, B u t o r ' s use, not only of mythology, but a l s o of real works of a r t i n La Modif i c a t i o n makes greater demands on the reader.  In L'Emploi du temps  the complex r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the works of a r t w i t h each other and t h e i r influence on Revel can, as we have shown i n our study, be traced i n the t e x t . La M o d i f i c a t i o n ,  On the other hand, i n  i f the reader i s not f a m i l i a r , at l e a s t w i t h  Michelangelo's two great works i n the S i s t i n e Chapel and w i t h V i r g i l ' s Aeneid, i n p a r t i c u l a r the s i x t h book, h i s understanding of the novel w i l l be l i m i t e d at best. understand the dream sequences i n La M o d i f i c a t i o n ,  To for  example, we must be f a m i l i a r with V i r g i l ' s s i x t h book and w i t h the Last Judgement w h i l e i n L'Emploi du temps,  some  knowledge of mythology i s u s e f u l , but we can adequately i n t e r p r e t the dreams by r e f e r r i n g to the f i c t i o n a l works described i n the t e x t . In both novels, the complex i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s  between  one work and another, between the d i f f e r e n t works and R e v e l ' s and Leon's l i v e s , as w e l l as between the works and the dream sequences emphasize the complexity of B u t o r ' s f i c t i v e universe.  It i s a world i n which we cannot confine  ourselves  to one p a r t i c u l a r period to the e x c l u s i o n of a l l others - R e v e l ' s year i n B l e s t o n , Leon's n o s t a l g i a for ancient Rome do not form i s o l a t e d u n i t s .  Like the f i c t i o n a l  characters,  we are forced i n t o the acknowledgement, acceptance and i n t e g r a t i o n of our personal and c o l l e c t i v e past.  104 In h i s use of the works of a r t ,  Butor i s e x p l o r i n g the  r o l e of the past i n the present not only at the p h i l o s o p h i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l e v e l s but a l s o at the s t r u c t u r a l  level.  For, while we can say that the b a n a l i t y of h i s heroes and t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s brands them as Everyman, that b a n a l i t y can also be seen to put story i n a secondary p o s i t i o n l e a v i n g the true emphasis to be placed on form and experimentation with form.  There i s nothing new i n the story of a man alone i n a  foreign c i t y or of a middle-aged man t o r n between a d u l l marriage and an e x o t i c m i s t r e s s ,  these have been the basic  b u i l d i n g blocks of the story since man f i r s t f i l l e d l e i s u r e hours with story t e l l i n g . the blocks can be rearranged.  presque tous p a r e i l s , 5 ces l i v r e s . . . . "  The challenge l i e s i n how  Butor, i n an interview with  Georges Charbonnier, has commented: l e s l i v r e s que j ' a i dEja f a i t s ,  his  "Quand j e r E f l E c h i s sur  j ' a i 1'impression q u ' i l s sont  je retrouve l e s memes themes dans tous This choice of the same or s i m i l a r  themes has l e f t Butor free to experiment w i t h form. In both novels, therefore, Butor has sought to answer the fundamental an a r t form? novel?  questions:  What i s the r o l e of the novel as  How do we represent time and space i n the  His use of myth and h i s t o r y , as we have seen,  demonstrates h i s view of the novel as an encyclopedic work whose purpose i s not so much to e n t e r t a i n as to remind the reader of the ongoing influence of h i s c u l t u r a l background and to i n v o l v e him i n the n o v e l i s t i c process.  The  105 use of the diary form with i t s concomitant use of the  first  person s i n g u l a r i n L'Empioi du temps and of the second person p l u r a l i n La Modif i c a t i o n further involvement.  the aim of reader  Although, as we have noted, f a m i l i a r i t y with  the works of Michelangelo enhances the r e a d e r ' s a p p r e c i a t i o n of La M o d i f i c a t i o n , B u t o r ' s choice of mythical and h i s t o r i c a l s t o r i e s i n both novels (Theseus, Aeneas, Cain, Genesis,  the  Last Judgement) i s such that they could be expected to be recognized by the average French reader. the s t o r i e s ,  The f a m i l i a r i t y of  l i k e the use of "vous" i n La M o d i f i c a t i o n  i n v i t e s the r e a d e r ' s involvement. a c t i v e l y i n these novels'  He must  participate  construction.  B u t o r ' s use of the p l a s t i c a r t s and, i n the s t r u c t u r e and rhythm of the novels, music, t e s t i f i e s to h i s stated b e l i e f t h a t , the novel i s i n t i m a t e l y l i n k e d w i t h music i n i t s e x p l o r a t i o n of time, and i s c l o s e l y related to the  plastic  g  a r t s i n i t s e x p l o r a t i o n of space .  The mathematical  s t r u c t u r e , the r e p r i s e s of s p e c i f i c scenes or phrases,  the  rhythmic cadence of the language which at times can be read l i k e a prose-poem,  the temporal f l e x i b i l i t y of the novels,  a l l these elements f i n d t h e i r o r i g i n s i n musical form. temporal f l e x i b i l i t y  i s , however, achieved through  This  the  manipulation of n o v e l i s t i c space and references to works of art. By re-presenting  these representations of r e a l i t y , by  interweaving t h e i r s t o r i e s w i t h each other and w i t h the  106 s t o r i e s of Revel and Delmont, and by experimenting with t h e i r forms i n the structure of h i s novels, Butor has succeeded i n representing " r e a l i t y " i n a new way.  The two works which we  have studied, together with h i s l a t e r works, show t h a t , although there i s a f i n i t e number of s t o r i e s a v a i l a b l e to us, there i s an i n f i n i t e number of ways of t e l l i n g or s t r u c t u r i n g them.  For Butor, the only way to explore these ways i s  through w r i t i n g , for i n w r i t i n g he can b r i n g a l l a r t forms and a l l of h i s t o r y together i n an e x p l o r a t i o n which, as the a r b i t r a r y endings of both novels seem to say, could go on forever.  107 Notes to Conclusion  Michel Butor, La M o d i f i c a t i o n ( P a r i s : M i n u i t , 1957), p. 10. Subsequent references to t h i s work w i l l be noted i n the t e x t as L . M . 1  Francoise Van Rossum-Guyon, C r i t i q u e du Roman ( P a r i s : Gallimard, 197 0 ) , pp. 46-80 . Van Rossum-Guyon discusses the " v e r i f i a b l e " i n La M o d i f i c a t i o n i n t h i s chapter. L  5  (Paris:  Georges Charbonnier, Entretiens avec Michel Butor G a l l i m a r d , 1967), p. 106.  Michel Butor, L'Emploirdu temps ( P a r i s : 1956) , p. 74. 4  5 Charbonnier, 6  (Paris:  Minuit,  p. 99.  Michel Butor, "L'Espace du Roman," Repertoire M i n u i t , 1964), pp. 42-43.  II  108 Bibliography  Works by Michel Butor Butor, M i c h e l . Passage de M i l a n . M i n u i t , 1954. Minuit,  L'Empioi du temps. 1956.  Minuit,  La M o d i f i c a t i o n . 1957. Degrees.  1960. 1964.  Paris:  REpertoire.  Paris: Paris:  Les E d i t i o n s de Les E d i t i o n s de  Les E d i t i o n s de  G a l l i m a r d , 1960.  Paris:  Repertoire I I .  Paris:  Les E d i t i o n s de M i n u i t ,  Paris:  Les E d i t i o n s de M i n u i t ,  "Une technique s o c i a l e du roman. " 24/25, N.D.  Obiiques,  Works c i t e d Campbell, Joseph. The Hero w i t h a Thousand Faces. P r i n c e t o n , N. J . : Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1968. Charbonnier, Georges. E n t r e t i e n s avec Michel Butor. Paris: G a l l i m a r d , 1967. C h e v a l i e r , Jean, A l a i n Gheerbrant, ed. D i c t i o n n a i r e des Symboles. P a r i s : Seghers and J u p i t e r , 1973. V o l . 1, 3 and 4. Dallenbach, Lucien. Le' R E c i t s p E c u l a i r e . du S e u i l , 1977.  Paris:  Editions  Davies, J . C. "Butor and the Power of A r t : the Quest of Jacques R e v e l . " A u s t r a l i a n Journal of French Studies, XVI, Part 1 and 2 (1979), pp. 105-115. Jongeneel, E l s . "Un M e u r t r i e r e n cause - l a fonction du ' V i t r a i l de Cain' dans L'Emploi du temps de Michel B u t o r . " Neophilologus, 64, no. 3 (July 1980), pp. 358-373.  109 Jung, C. J . The Portable Jung. Trans. R . F . C . H u l l , ed. Joseph Campbell. New York: V i k i n g Press, 1971. Larousse du X X e S i e c l e .  Paris:  L i b r a i r i e Larousse,  1933.  L e i r i s , M i c h e l . Le R6alisme Mytholoqique de Michel Butor. P a r i s : Les E d i t i o n s de M i n u i t , 1957. McWilliams, Dean. The" N a r r a t i v e s of Michel Butor: The Writer as Janus. Athens: Ohio U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1978. Meakin, p . , a n d E . D a n d . "Alchemyand Optimism i n B u t o r s L'Emploi du temps." Forum for Modern Language Studies, 15 (1979), pp. 264-278. 1  Paterson, Janet M. "Le V i t r a i l de C a i n : L Engendrement t e x t u e l dans L'Emploi du temps de Michel B u t o r . " Romanic Review, 70, no. 4 (November 1979), pp. 375-383. 1  Posner, Donald. Annibale C a r r a c c i : A S t u d y i n the Reform of I t a l i a n P a i n t i n g around 1590. London: Phaidon Press, 1971. Proust, M a r c e l . A l a Recherche du temps perdu. G a l l i m a r d , 1954. Qu4r£el, P a t r i c e . "La M o d i f i c a t i o n " de Butor. Hachette, 1973.  Paris: Paris:  Seymour, Charles J r . , ed. Michelangelo: The S i s t i n e Chapel C e i l i n g . New York: W. W. Norton, 1972. Van Rossum-Guyon, Francoise. Gallimard, 1970. V i r g i l e . L ' Eneide. 1955.  C r i t i g u e du* Roman.  Trans. Maurice Pat.  Paris:  Paris: Gamier,  Wa e l t i - W a l t e r s , J e n n i f e r . Michel B u t o r A Study of h i s View of the World and a Panorama of h i s Work, 1954-1974. V i c t o r i a , B . C . : Sono Nis Press, 1977.  Works consulted Baguley, D a v i d . " T h e Reign of C h r o n o s : ( M o r e ) on Alchemy i n B u t o r ' s L'Emploi du temps." Forum for Modern Language Studies, XVI (1980), pp. 281-292. B e r g s o n , H e n r i . Essai sur l e s donntes immtdiates de l a conscience. 1888 r p t . P a r i s : Presses u n i v e r s i t a i r e s de France, 1940.  110 Dal1enbach, Lucien. Le l i v r e et ses m i r o i r s dans l ' o e u v r e romanesque de Michel Butor. P a r i s : Minard, 1972. De Tolnay, Charles. Michelangelo. Princeton, N. J . : Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1975. Gaugeard, Jean. francaises,  "Michel B u t o r : Repertoire I T . " no. 1022 (26 March 1964), p. 4.  Les L e t t r e s  Grant, Marian A . Michel B u t o r : "L'Empioi du temps." London: Edward A r n o l d , 1973. G r i m a l , P i e r r e . D i c t i o n n a i r e de l a mythologie grecque et romaine. P a r i s : Presses u n i v e r s i t a i r e s de France, 1969. Hamilton, E d i t h . Mythology. American L i b r a r y , 1969.  1927 r p t .  New York:  New  H a r t t , F r e d e r i c k . History of I t a l i a n Renaissance A r t . York: Harry N. Abrams, 1969. Jefferson, Ann. The Nouveau roman and the Poetics of F i c t i o n . Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press,  New  1980.  Martens, Lorna. "Empty Center and Open End?_Th_e theme of Language i n Michel B u t o r ' s L ' Emploi du- temps. " PMLA, 96, no. 1 (January 1981), pp. 49-63. McWilliams, Dean. "The N o v e l i s t as A r c h e o l o g i s t : Butor*s L'Emploi du temps." L ' E s p r i t CrEateur, 15 (1975), pp. 367-376. "Mythic Structures i n Michel B u t o r ' s N a r r a t i v e s . " French L i t e r a t u r e S e r i e s no. 3 (1976), pp. 129-137. P o u i l l o n , Jean.  Temps et Roman.  Paris:  G a l l i m a r d , 1946.  Poulet, Georges. Etudes sur l e temps humain, 3 . E d i t i o n s du Rocher, 1964. R a i l l a r d , Georges. L'Exemple. d ' E d i t . , 1966. Ricardou, J . 1967.  Paris:  Union GEnErale  Problemes du nouveau roman. Le Nouveau roman.  Ricoeur, P a u l .  Temps et r l c i t .  Paris: Paris:  Paris:  Paris:  Seuil,  S e u i l , 1973. S e u i l , 1983.  Ill Roudraut, Jean. Michel Butor ou l e l i v r e f u t u r . G a l l i m a r d , 1964. Roudiez, L4on S. Michel B u t o r . U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1965.  New York:  Paris:  Columbia  "Murs, fenStres, m i r o i r s : r e f l e c t i o n s a p a r t i r de textes de Michel B u t o r . " Stanford French Review, 2, 1 (Spring 1978), pp. 81-90. Ryan, Marie-Laure. "Michel B u t o r ' s L'Emploi du temps: Matrix of a Phenomenology of Reading." L ' E s p r i t CrEateur XXI, no. 2 (Summer 1981), pp. 60-69. S t . P i e r r e , GaEtan. "Point de vue n a r r a t i f et technique de l a ' c o i n c i d e n c e ' dans deux romans de Michel B u t o r . " L i b e r t y , 12, 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1970), pp. 99-108. Spencer, Sharon. Space, Time and S t r u c t u r e . York U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1971.  New York:  New  S p i t z e r , Leo. "Quelques aspects d e l a technique des romans de Michel B u t o r . " Archivum L i n g u i s t i c u m , 13 (1961), pp. 171-195, and 14 (1962), pp. 49-76. Sturrock, John. The French New Novel. U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1979.  London:  Oxford  Warme, Lars G. " R e f l e c t i o n and Revelation i n Michel B u t o r ' s La M o d i f i c a t i o n . " i n t e r n a t i o n a l F i c t i o n Review, 1, no. 2 (July 1974), pp. 88-95. Weinstein, A r n o l d . " O r d e r and Excess i n B u t o r ' s L'Emploi du temps." Modern F i c t i o n Studies, 16, no. 1 (Spring 1970), pp. 41-55.  

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