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A study of the role of the works of art in two novels by Michel Butor Fuller, Margaret M. 1986

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A STUDY OF THE ROLE OF THE WORKS OF ART IN TWO NOVELS BY MICHEL BUTOR by MARGARET M. FULLER M.A. , UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH, 1964 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of French) We accept t h i s thes is as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA OCTOBER 1986 (c) Margaret M. Fu l l e r In presenting t h i s thes is i n p a r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ib ra ry s h a l l make i t f ree ly ava i l ab le for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thes is for scho la r ly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representat ives. I t i s understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of t h i s thes is for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my wr i t t en permission. Department of The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 AB STRACT TITLE: A STUDY OF THE ROLE OF THE WORKS OF ART IN TWO NOVELS BY MICHEL BUTOR In L'Emploi du temps (1956) and La Modif i ca t ion (1957) Michel Butor continues the explorat ion of n o v e l i s t i c form begun i n Passage de Milan (1954) . In these and h i s l a t e r works, he seeks to answer the fundamental questions: What i s the role of the novel as an a r t form? How do we represent time and space i n the novel? A study of the works of ar t i n L'Emploi du temps and La Modi f ica t ion , t he i r role and t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i onsh ip with each other, with the centra l characters, and with the reader, shows how he explores these questions. For Butor the novel i s a means of transforming the way in which we see the world and therefore of transforming the world. For, as the nove l i s t experiments with new structures he creates new re la t ionships which change our perception of " r e a l i t y . " The in t roduct ion of works of a r t - imaginary but based on some of the archetypal s to r i es of western c i v i l i z a t i o n (Theseus, Oedipus, Cain) in E'Empioi du 'temps, real (the Aeneid, the S i s t i ne C e i l i n g , the Last Judgement) in La Modif ica t ion - extends the temporal and spa t i a l scope of th two novels. This al lows Butor to create i n t r i c a t e s t ruc tura l patterns which i n turn create complex in t e r r e l a t ionsh ips i n the tex t . Through the works of ar t , the key periods of western c i v i l i z a t i o n - ancient Greece and Rome, early Judaic i i i and C h r i s t i a n times and the Renaissance - are restructured and re-presented to Jacques Revel , L6on Delmont and the reader. In t h i s re-presentat ion, a l l the major a r t i s t i c forms appear: tapestry, stained glass windows archi tec ture , l i t e r a t u r e and f i l m , in L 'Emploi du temps; a rch i tec ture , sculpture, pa in t ing and l i t e r a t u r e i n La Modi f ica t ion . Music i s absent from the content but present i n the form of both novels whose mathematical s t ructure , "reprises" of spec i f i c scenes or phrases and temporal f l e x i b i l i t y f ind t h e i r o r ig ins i n musical form. Butor ' s use of works of ar t and, through them, of myth and h i s to ry demonstrates h i s view of the novel as an encyclopedic work whose purpose i s to remind the reader of the ongoing influence of his c u l t u r a l background and to involve him in the n o v e l i s t i c process. By res t ructur ing the universal s to r i es of mankind through the works of art and by demonstrating t h e i r influence on the s to r ies of Jacques Revel and L6on Delmont, Butor shows us that i n order to understand himself and h i s universe, modern man must explore, acknowledge and integrate h i s c o l e l c t i v e past. In Butor, t h i s i s accomplished through the act of w r i t i n g . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER I - L'EMPLOI DU TEMPS 6 l ; "Le Meurtre de Bleston" 7 2. The Harrey Tapestries 14 3. The Murderer's Window 24 4. The New Cathedral 41 5. The Films 49 CHAPTER II - LA MODIFICATION 5 8 1. Rome i n Par i s 59 2. C l a s s i c a l Rome 71 3. Renaissance and Baroque Rome 76 4. The Dream Sequences 87 CONCLUSION 100 BIBLIOGRAPHY 108 V ACKNOWLEDG EMENTS To a l l those who helped and encouraged me i n w r i t i n g t h i s thes i s , my hear t fe l t thanks. To Dr. Grover for introducing me to Butor ' s novels. To Ralph for h i s patience i n d iscuss ing, reading and rereading my work. To V a l e r i e for reading at short notice and at inconvenient times. To J o e l l e and Yolande for the i r support and company in the Reading Room. To a l l those i n the French Department whose fr iendship and support have been invaluable . To Leigh for tea and sympathy. To John for h i s love , endless patience and support and to Alasda i r and Bruce for t he i r encouragement and cheerful assumption of domestic duties while Mum wrote. 1 INTRODUCTION L'Emploi du temps (1956) and La Modi f i c a t i on (1957) are the second and t h i r d novels wr i t t en by Michel Butor. They continue the explorat ion of n o v e l i s t i c form, of the representation of r e a l i t y i n f i c t i o n , begun i n h i s f i r s t novel, Passage de Milan (1954). In that novel, set i n a seven-storey Par is apartment block i n the twelve-hour period between seven i n the evening and the same time the next morning, Butor uses temporal and s p a t i a l constraints to experiment with n o v e l i s t i c s t ruc ture . He uses a s imi la r temporal and s p a t i a l framework i n the two novels discussed i n t h i s study. In L'Empioi du temps the time frame i s one year and the ac t ion i s confined to the imaginary c i t y of Bleston i n northern England. In La Modif ica t ion space and time are l im i t ed to the confines of the t h i rd - c l a s s railway compartment of a t r a i n t r a v e l l i n g from Par is to Rome, and to a period of twenty-one hours t h i r t y - f i v e minutes - the time i t takes to complete the journey. However, i n both novels, through the in t roduct ion of works of ar t which incorporate myth and h i s t o ry , the temporal scope i s extended to encompass the myths of ancient Greece and Rome, early Judaic and C h r i s t i a n times as we l l as the Renaissance. These key periods of western c i v i l i z a t i o n recur as themes, not only i n the two novels that I propose to study, but a lso i n Butor ' s subsequent works. They are themes with 2 which we are f ami l i a r but of whose d e t a i l s , l i k e Jacques Revel in L'Emploi du temps, we have but a hazy r e c o l l e c t i o n . The emphasis placed on them in Butor ' s novels re-awakens us to the continuing ro le these periods play in the present. Obviously for Butor the purpose of l i t e r a t u r e goes beyond simple entertainment. He wri tes that , while " i l y a certes un roman naif et une consommation naive du roman"^, great l i t e r a r y works play qui te a di f ferent r o l e : "e l l e s transforment l a facon dont nous voyons et racontons l e monde et par consequent transforment l e monde." I t i s t h i s transformation that he seeks to achieve through h i s novels and which we s h a l l study in L'Emploi du temps and La  Modi f ica t ion . In "Le roman comme recherche", Butor states that the novel i s " le l i e u par excellence ou 6tudier de quel le facon 3 l a r e a l i t y nous apparait ou peut nous apparai t re . . . . " Since the way in which r e a l i t y i s represented affects our perception of i t , we can understand h i s conclusion that : "Le t r a v a i l sur l a forme dans l e roman rev&t . . . une importance de premier p l a n . " 4 i t i s of primary importance because, as the novel i s t experiments with new structures, he creates h i ther to unrecognized re la t ionships which change h is as w e l l as the reader 's perception of r e a l i t y : "Des formes nouvelles rev^leront dans l a rgal i te ' des choses nouvelles , des l i a i s o n s nouvel les . . . . "^ This i s the reader 's experience with L'Emploi du temps and La Modif ica t ion i n 3 which, as we s h a l l see, Butor 's experimentation with new temporal s t ructures , in Dean McWilliams 1 words, "force Is] us to recognize the re la t ionsh ip between seemingly i so la ted moments i n the past and i n the present"**. In w r i t i n g about the theory of the novel, Butor has discussed the problem of the treatment of time i n the novel . He f inds a s t r i c t l y chronological narra t ive to be inadequate because, amongst other fac tors , i t makes impossible any reference to h i s to ry or to the characters ' past. After exploring other p o s s i b i l i t i e s , he f i n a l l y proposes a "quadruple journa l" i n which: on va remonter l e cours du temps, plonger de plus en plus profond£ment comme un arch£ologue ou un g^ologue q u i , dans leurs f o u i l l e s , rencontrent d'abord l e s t e r ra ins r £ c e n t s , puis de proche en proche, gagnent l e s anciens. The resu l t of t h i s temporal organizat ion i s that the narra t ive "n'est plus une l i g n e , mais une surface dans l aque l l e nous isolons un cer ta in nombre de l i gnes , de points , g ou de groupements remarquables." The f i r s t chapter of t h i s essay w i l l examine, through a study of the ro le of the works of ar t and t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i onsh ips , how he has put t h i s theory into pract ice i n L'Empioi du temps. Time, Butor contends, must a lso be seen i n terms of space for , "C'est en d£placant l e regard sur un espace clairement imaginable que nous pourrons v^ritablement suivre o l a marche du temps. . . . " Thus he sees the journey as the ideal means of res t ructur ing t ime: 4 Les l i e u x ayant toujours une h i s t o r i c i t y , so i t par rapport a l ' h i s t o i r e un ive r se l l e , s o i t par rapport a l ' h i s t o i r e de l ' i n d i v i d u , tout d£placement dans l 'espace impliquera une reorganisation de l a structure temporelle, changements dans l e s souvenirs ou dans l e s proje ts , dans ce qui v ient au premier plan, plus ou moins profond ou plus ou moins grave. This i s the s i t ua t ion that we observe i n La Modif ica t ion i n which L4on Delmont, as he t r ave l s between Par is and Rome, not only reviews the memories of a twenty-year span but also projects himself into the future and, through the works of ar t , develops a new perspective on " l ' h i s t o i r e u n i v e r s e l l e . " In h i s explorat ion of the connections between past and present, Butor uses the in te r re l a t ionsh ips of the works of ar t , f i c t i o n a l in L'Emploi du temps, real in La Modi f ica t ion , to re-s t ructure the universal s to r i es of mankind. These universal s t o r i e s , " l ' h i s t o i r e u n i v e r s e l l e " , 1 1 cons t i tu te , as he has stated, the main theme of h is work. By reconstructing the s to r ies and myths of western man, he changes the r e l a t ionsh ip of these universal myths to each other, to the centra l character i n each novel, and to the reader. What i s the ro le of the works of ar t i n t h i s reconstruction? This i s the question I propose to address. 5 Notes to Introduction 1 Michel Butor, "Recherches sur l a technique du roman," Repertoire I I , (Pa r i s : Minu i t , 1 964), p. 90. 2 Butor,, Repertoire t j . p. 90. 3 Michel Butor, "Le Roman comme recherche," reper to i re (Par i s : Minui t , 1960), p. 8. ^ Butor, Repertoire, p. 8. 3 Butor, R^pertoire, p. 9. 6 Dean McWilliams, The7 Narrat ives of Michel Butor: The  Writer as Janus (Athens: Ohio Univers i ty Press, 1968), o. 4. 7 Butor, Repertoire I I , p. 92. 0 Butor, Repertoire I I , p. 92. 9 Butor, Repertoire T I , p. 96 . 1 0 Butor, Repertoire T J . p. 96-1 1 Jean Gaugeard, "Michel Butor: p 6pe r to i r e T J " , Les Let t res francaises , no- 1022 (56 March, 1964), o. 4. 6 CHAPTER I L ' EMPL 61 DU TEMPS In L ' Emploi du temps Jacques Revel ' s f i r s t preoccupation i s to regain control of h is own consciousness through a systematic explorat ion of the seven months which have elapsed since h i s a r r i v a l in Bles ton . As the examination of the past proceeds, the temporal s tructure of the novel becomes increas ingly complex and ce r t a in works of ar t play an increas ingly important r o l e . These works range i n o r i g i n and subject from the ambiguously t i t l e d novel w i th in the novel, "Le Meurtre de Bles ton" , which acts as a guide to the c i t y and to the a r t of w r i t i n g for Revel , to the Harrey Tapestr ies, woven i n eighteenth-century France and depict ing the adventures of Theseus. Another work of ar t , the Murderer's Window, housed i n Bles ton ' s Old Cathedral , or ig inated i n sixteenth-century France and portrays the story of the f i r s t f r a t r i c i d e , the murder of Abel by Cain. Revel w i l l ident i fy with Cain as he has done with Theseus. The innovative archi tec ture and s t a t u i t r y of the nineteenth century New Cathedral contrast with the t r a d i t i o n a l design of i t s predecessor. As Revel explores these two structures, they become much more than two in te res t ing h i s t o r i c bui ld ings and t he i r influence i s re f lec ted at both the psychological and s t ruc tu ra l l e v e l s . 7 However, while Revel i s fascinated with the higher forms of Blestonian cu l ture , the only ar t form popular with the people of Bles ton, who pay l i t t l e a t tent ion to the tapes t r ies , the Cathedrals, or the "Meurtre de Bles ton" , are the f i lms shown i n Bles ton ' s cinemas. Revel i s a frequent patron of one of these cinemas whose f i lms about Ancient Greece and Rome are of pa r t i cu l a r in teres t to him. What ro le do these various works of a r t , widely separated i n form, o r i g i n and theme, play in the development of L ' Emploi du temps? At f i r s t glance they are a ser ies of mirrors each r e f l ec t i ng one aspect of western man's h i s t o r y . However, as the diary progresses, the images become more complex and we f i n d , in each work and interwoven throughout the d ia ry , re f lec t ions cast by the other works. It i s these in te r re l a t ionsh ips and t he i r s igni f icance to Butor, to Revel , to the reader, that we propose to study in t h i s chapter. "Le Meurtre de Bleston" The novel wi th in the novel, "Le Meurtre de B l e s t o n " , . i s introduced i n the diary entry of May 30th fo l lowing Revel ' s descr ip t ion of h is f i r s t v i s i t , i n October, to the Old Cathedral , a v i s i t during which he paid l i t t l e a t tent ion to the Murderer's Window. The words "Le Meurtre de Bleston" announce the f i c t i t i o u s novel before Revel purchases i t . They appear on a newsvendor's b i l l b o a r d and a second time, moments l a t e r , as the t i t l e of a Penguin detective novel in a 8 bookstore window. The Frenchman buys i t towards the end of October, when he i s f ee l ing increas ingly i so la ted and a l ienated from himself: Je me suis sent i tout contamine* de brume gourde, abandonne' l o i n de moi-meme, l o i n de c e l u i que j ' a v a i s 6t£ avant de d^barquer i c i , et qui s ' e f f aca i t dans une immense dis tance. I t i s the f i r s t book which he has bought since h i s a r r i v a l in Bleston and represents h i s f i r s t attempt to shake off Bles ton ' s effet of "enlisement". Revel i s i n i t i a l l y a t t racted to the novel by the ambiguity of the words "Le Meurtre de Bleston" which, by r e f l ec t ing h i s nascent desire to destroy that c i t y , seem to offer him a v ica r ious revenge. Not only does the t i t l e present the f i c t i t i o u s nove l ' s p r i n c i p a l theme, murder, i t foreshadows a l l the murders narrated i n L'Emploi du temps: the f r a t r i c i d e of Cain by Abel depicted i n the Murderer's Window, the murder of Aegeus by Theseus portrayed i n the Harrey Tapestr ies, the suspected attempted murder of George Burton, the murder i n ef f igy of Bleston symbolized by Revel 's burning of the map of that c i t y , and the "murder" of t r a d i t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e by Butor himself . In J . C. Hamilton, and "Le Meurtre de Bles ton" , Revel seeks: non seulement un amuseur, mais, sur l a f o i de son t i t r e , un complice contre l a v i l l e , un sorc ier habitue1 a ce genre de p e r i l s , qui put me munir de charmes assez puissants pour me permettre de traverser victorieusement cette ann6e. . . (p. 57). 2 Revel, the modern mythological hero , sees i n the as yet 9 unknown author of "Le Meurtre de Bleston" someone who w i l l protect him from the " s o r c e l l e r i e " of Bleston and guide him through h i s year ' s e x i l e i n that c i t y . At a more pragmatic l e v e l , "Le Meurtre de Bleston" supplements the map purchased from Ann B a i l e y , thus providing Revel with a much clearer p ic ture of Bles ton ' s geographical conf igura t ion: "Ce qui avai t f a i t pour moi 1*importance du "Meurtre de Bles ton" , c ' e t a i t l a p rec i s ion avec l aque l l e cer tains aspects de l a v i l l e s 'y trouvaient d £ c r i t s , l a pr ise q u ' i l me permettait sur e l l e . . . " (p. 65) . The novel also serves as a ca ta lys t for much of Revel ' s future explorat ions of Bles ton ' s works of ar t through which he plumbs not only the depths of Bles ton ' s past but those of modern western c i v i l i z a t i o n : Une af f iche de journal m'avait men6 vers l e roman p o l i c i e r de J . C. Hamilton, "Le Meurtre de Bles ton" , et l a lec ture de c e l u i - c i vers l e V i t r a i l du Meurtr ier q u i , lui-meme, avai t provoqu6 cette conversation dont l e s derniers mots me conse i l l a i en t d ' a l l e r vers l a Nouvelle C a t h 6 d r a l e ; c ' e t a i t comme une p is te t r a c 6 e a mon in ten t ion , une pis te ou a chaque 6tape on me d e v o i l a i t l e terme de l a suivante, une p is te pour mieux me perdre (pp. 81-82) . However, i t i s only by fol lowing t h i s t r a i l , by making t h i s journey through h i s own and man's past, that he can hope to escape from the l abyr in th of h is year i n Bles ton . I t i s through the copy of "Le Meurtre de Bles ton" , l y i n g on the table at the Or ien ta l Bamboo, a restaurant to which the novel has led Revel , that he meets i t s author, 10 George Burton. As a resu l t of t h i s meeting, the novel w i th in the novel ' s ro le i s expanded: In addi t ion to serving as a geographical and h i s t o r i c a l guide to Bles ton, i t becomes a guide to the a r t of w r i t i n g and a veh ic le for Butor ' s thoughts on the treatment of time i n l i t e r a t u r e . It i s no accident that Burton i s almost an anagram of Butor. The nove l i s t , George Burton, takes over from the novel wi th in the novel as guide during Revel ' s Sunday v i s i t s to h i s home i n May when the theory of the detective novel i s the topic of discussion on three consecutive Sundays. In the course of one of these discussions George Burton states that : dans l e roman p o l i c i e r , l e r £ c i t est f a i t a contre-courant, ou plus exactement q u ' i l superpose deux ser ies temporelles: l e s jours de l 'enquete qui commencent au crime, et l es jours du drame qui menent a l u i , ce qui est tout a f a i t naturel puisque, dans l a r £ a l i t 6 , ce t r a v a i l de l ' e s p r i t tourne' vers l e passe1 s 'accompli t dans l e temps pendant que d'autres ev^nements s'accumulent (p. 171). Revel uses t h i s temporal s tructure i n the account of his f i r s t month i n Bles ton . The symbolic burning of the map of Bleston on A p r i l 30th const i tu tes the "crime" which stimulates Revel to conduct an "enquete" i n the form of a retrospect ive d ia ry . The chronological account, wr i t ten i n May, of the events of the previous October, represents "les jours du drame qui menent a l u i " (the "cr ime") . In the diary entry dated May 19th, the day fol lowing George Burton 's acknowledgement that he i s i n fact J . C. Hamilton, Revel states "C'est maintenant que commence 11 3 l a v e r i t a b l e recherche." (p. 37) . This statement refers not only to Reve l ' s research into the previous seven months which he has spent i n Bles ton, but also to the explorat ion of novel i s t i c form upon which he i s about to embark. Although for the moment the Frenchman continues with the chronological account of his f i r s t month i n Bles ton, by the end of May he finds himself "perp£tuel lement so l l i c i t e " par des eV£nements plus r £ c e n t s qui proclament leur importance . . . " (p. 50) . This prompts him, in the second chapter, to adopt Burton 's "deux ser ies temporel les ," adding an account of ce r ta in events which occurred i n June to h i s record of the events of November. In p a r t i c u l a r , Revel 's "betrayal" of George Burton to the Bai ley s i s t e r s i s described. However, the influence of "Le Meurtre de Bleston" and i t s author on Revel ' s diary extends beyond the dual temporality of the second chapter. The way in which Revel bui lds up the suspense i n the Ju ly entr ies p r io r to the announcement of Burton 's accident i s i n true detective novel s t y l e . This new development, which i s to affect the structure of the diary and Revel ' s perspective on events and people, occurs immediately fol lowing the account of Burton 's discourse on the theory of the detect ive novel : i l s a lua i t 1 'appar i t ion a l ' i n t £ r i e u r du roman comme d'une nouvelle dimension, nous expliquant que ce ne sont plus seulement l e s personnages et leurs re la t ions qui se transforment sous les yeux du lec teur , mais ce que l ' o n s a i t de ces re la t ions et meme de leur h i s t o i r e . . . (p. 161) . 12 This jux tapos i t ion leaves the reader i n l i t t l e doubt about the connection between Burton 's theor iz ing and Revel ' s w r i t i n g . As Revel re-examines past events i n the l i g h t of the h i t and run accident i n which Burton was almost k i l l e d , he remembers aspects of these events which he had omitted when he f i r s t recorded them and finds that : l e r £ c i t n 'est plus l a simple project ion plane d'une s £ r i e d '6v£nements mais l a r e s t i t u t i o n de leur archi tec ture , de leur espace, p u i s q u ' i l s se p r£ sen t en t diff£remment selon l a pos i t ion qu'occupe par rapport a eux l e detective ou l e narrateur . . . (p. 161). Thus, in Ju ly he discusses the events not only of December but also of May, making several references to May 31st, the date on which he divulged George Burton 's name to James Jenkins . From th i s point on the temporal s tructure of the diary becomes increas ingly complex as Revel develops a temporal s tructure i n which he interweaves not two but f i v e "series temporel les" 4 thereby surpassing h i s mentor. In addi t ion to ac t ing as a guide to Bleston and to the a r t of w r i t i n g , "Le Meurtre de Bles ton" i s c lose ly l inked to the other works of ar t i n L 'Emploi du temps. We have already noted that Burton's incorporat ion of the Murderer's Window into h i s novel has l ed Revel to r e v i s i t the Old Cathedral in order to examine t h i s work i n d e t a i l . Butor, by l i n k i n g the two f i c t i o n a l works of ar t l i n g u i s t i c a l l y through the term "meurtre" and thematical ly through the crime of f r a t r i c i d e , has created a bridge between Burton 's novel and 13 Judeo-Christ ian mythology. The crime of f r a t r i c i d e committed i n the "Le Meurtre de Bles ton" i s rooted i n the murder of Abel by Cain whose story, t o l d i n the stained glass window, prefigures a l l the other murders committed i n Bles ton, "cette v i l l e hant£e de meurtre" (p. 149). Moreover, the connection between the novel w i th in the novel and the Murderer's Window i s emphasized when the second, "pur i fy ing" murder of the f r a t r i c i d a l Bernard Winn by the avenging detect ive Barnaby Morton i s committed i n the Old Cathedral beneath the stained glass por t rayal of the murder of Abel by Cain . Burton's statement that "Le detective est l e f i l s du meurtr ier , Oedipe, non seulement parce q u ' i l r^sout une 6nigme, mais aussi parce q u ' i l tue ce lu i a qui i l do i t son t i t r e . . . " (p. 148) l i n k s the novel w i th in the novel with the scene i n the tapes t r ies depict ing Theseus of fe r ing shel ter to an outcast, Oedipus. It also creates a l i n k with the g u i l t - s t r i c k e n Revel who, seeing i n Burton a father and mentor, i d e n t i f i e s with the p a t r i c i d a l Oedipus after Burton 's "accident ." S i m i l a r l y , the l abyr in th depicted i n the eleventh panel of the Harrey Tapestries i s evoked i n Revel ' s descr ip t ion of his explorat ion of Bles ton ' s works of ar t which was set i n motion by h is reading of "Le Meurtre de Bleston" and which he describes as "une p is te t r a c £ e a mon i n t e n t i o n , . . . une pis te pour mieux me perdre." This i s the only panel whose theme Revel recognizes on h i s f i r s t v i s i t to the Museum. 14 In h i s praise of the Old Cathedral , Burton shows that he i s a champion of the o ld order while h i s scathing comments on the New Cathedral t e s t i f y to h i s opposi t ion to change and innovat ion. There i s , therefore, a dichotomy between Burton 's apparent espousal of a new l i t e r a r y order when he discusses the theory of the novel with Revel and Lucien, and h i s obvious h o s t i l i t y towards change and innovation as expressed i n h i s opinion of the New Cathedral . It i s because of t h i s dichotomy, because of Burton 's f a i l u r e to break out of the constra ints of t r a d i t i o n , that Revel must continue h i s explorat ion of l i t e r a r y form alone: Je d£bouchais l a sur un t e r r i t o i r e dans lequel ce J . C. Hamilton, qui m'avait s i bien d i r ig4 jusqu 'a lo r s , ne pouvait plus me se rv i r de guide, ou i l me faudrai t m'aventurer seul (p. 122). The Harrey Tapestries The Harrey Tapestries, depic t ing the myth of Theseus, are located i n the Bleston Museum which i s b u i l t i n the Greek Revival s t y l e . I t s "chapiteaux ioniques, aujourd'hui recouverts par l a s u i e . . . " (p. 257) form an i r o n i c contrast to t he i r o r i g i n a l Greek counterparts, emphasizing how far removed Bleston i s from i t s Greek c u l t u r a l heritage and how i t has deformed that her i tage. The museum, b u i l t to house" the tapes t r ies which form i t s centra l exh ib i t , consis ts of nine rooms arranged i n chronological order. The f i r s t contains various archeological objects: La premiere, arch^ologie (deux ou t r o i s scarab^es 6gyptiens, un vase grec, un 15 fragment de t i s s u copte, une poign£e de monnaies romaines, et surtout quelques monuments f u n £ r a i r e s grossiers trouv^s dans l e sol de Bles ton, datant du deuxieme ou du troisieme s i e c l e . . .) (p. 70) . As Jennifer Waelt i-Walters notes, "the or ig ins of Western Europe are present for a l l to see i n the objects from Ancient Egypt* Greece, Ch r i s t i an Egypt-Arab t r a d i t i o n and, Rome. . . . "^ The second room houses seventeenth-century clothes and fu rn i tu re . Then, " i n the rooms between the important numbers of three and seven,"^ we f ind the Harrey Tapestr ies. These are flanked on the other side by a modest c o l l e c t i o n of nineteenth-century art and an exh ib i t of twentieth-century pa in t ings . The windows of rooms three to seven look out on the s treets with the i r ugly bui ld ings and on to the railway l ine which forms a tenuous l i n k with the t apes t r i e s ' (and Revel ' s ) country of o r i g i n . On one of h is v i s i t s to the museum Revel punctuates h i s perusal of the panels with comments on what he sees through the windows, creat ing a connection between the tapes t r ies and the c i t y . Described i n the entry of June 4th, Revel 's discovery of the tapes t r ies on November 3rd, l i k e h i s discovery of "Le Meurtre de B le s ton , " i s accidental and resu l t s from his summons to Bleston Pol ice Headquarters to apply for h i s "carte d ' i d e n t i t y . " However, Revel w i l l not f i nd h i s iden t i ty in Bleston through a photograph aff ixed to a piece of yellow cardboard; instead he w i l l seek i t by iden t i fy ing 16 with the hero of the tapes t r ies on which he stumbles that afternoon. The panel to which Revel i s drawn most s t rongly, and which i s the only one he recognizes on November 3rd, portrays Theseus s lay ing the Minotaur and h i s subsequent escape from the l a b y r i n t h . This panel has been announced several times i n the text p r ior to i t s appearance. Revel ' s attempt to go for a walk i n the country has a labyr in th ine qua l i t y as he finds that : C ' 6 t a i t comme s i je n'avancais pas; c ' 6 t a i t comme s i je n ' e t a i s pas arrive" a ce rond-point, comme s i je n 'avais pas f a i t demi-tour, comme s i je me retrouvais non seulement au meme endroi t , mais encore au meme moment qui a l l a i t durer ind£f in iment , dont r i en n'annoncait l ' a b o l i t i o n . . . (p. 35) . This statement introduces not only the idea of being l o s t i n space but also that of being l o s t i n time, which i s fundamental to the novel . Later on the same day Revel has "1 * impression qu'une trappe venait de se fermer . . . " (p. 35) . We r e c a l l t h i s image when we read h i s descr ip t ion of the panel depict ing Theseus imprisoned i n the l a b y r i n t h . On another of h is weekend outings, Revel v i s i t s Lanes Park where he sees " le j a r d i n des sent ie rs , qui comporte un p e t i t labyr inthe agr6ment£ de rochers en ciment, f l e u r i a lors de chrysanthemes aux toisons de b £ l i e r s et de chevres . . . " (p. 49) . This i s the f i r s t time that the word "labyrinthe" appears i n the tex t , pref igur ing the l abyr in th of the t apes t r i es . The "chrysanthemes aux toisons de b £ l i e r s " 17 suggest another of Theseus1 adventures, his s a i l i n g on the Argos with Jason i n search of the Golden Fleece. Thus, although the tapes t r ies are not over t ly announced i n the tex t , as are the Murderer's Window and "Le Meurtre de B le s ton , " oblique references to i t s themes (even Revel ' s favouri te restaurant i s "The Sword") set the scene for t he i r in t roduc t ion . Since the tapes t r ies or ig ina ted i n France, they provide Revel with a l i n k with h i s nat ive country. As far as can be ascertained they are not based on an e x i s t i n g work of a r t . 7 The trees i n the panel depict ing the death of the four bandits are for him the "peupliers , . t rembles ou ch§nes" of the l i e de France. At the same time they are re f lec ted i n the trees i n Bles ton ' s parks. Through the story t o l d i n the tapes t r ies , the Frenchman i s also l inked with ancient Greek cul ture and with the warm sunny climes for which he longs. Certain themes related to Revel and to the other works of art appear i n the t apes t r i es . The theme of the eleventh tapestry, the story of the s lay ing of the Minotaur and Theseus's elopement with Ariadne, finds i t s counterpart i n Revel ' s l i f e . He sees himself as Theseus fo l lowing h i s own Ariadne 's thread (the map sold to him by Ann Bai ley) through the Blestonian l aby r in th , to f i nd and slay the monster that lurks there. S i m i l a r l y , he sees the love t r i ang l e which he has created i n h i s mind between himself , Ann, and Rose i n terms of the story of Theseus, Ariadne and Phaedra. 18 The Frenchman i d e n t i f i e s with Theseus and uses him as a model. Like Theseus, he i s an e x i l e on a foreign i s l a n d . Like Theseus, he i s thrown into a l abyr in th f u l l of menace from which he imagines being rescued by his own modern Ariadne whose map of Bleston i s the " f i l d 'Ariane" which shows him the way through the maze. Furthermore, Ann gives him a calendar,- which, symbol ica l ly , he keeps i n h i s guide book to Bleston i n the sect ion on the tapes t r ies . This calendar, through h is d iary , i s to become Revel ' s Ar iadne ' s thread as he moves back and for th across i t i n order to unravel the web of h is yea r ' s e x i l e i n Bles ton . At each stage of h is r e l a t ionsh ip with Bleston and with the Bai ley s i s t e r s , he sees i n the tapes t r ies a mirror of his own experiences. Lucien, his f r iend and fel low e x i l e , becomes P i r i t h o u s ; Rose Bai ley i s h i s Phaedra for whom he deserts Ann h i s Ariadne. There i s , however, an i r o n i c reversal in Luc ien ' s ro le as P i r i t hous , for i t i s Luc ien /P i r i thous who escapes from Bleston/Hades and Revel/Theseus who i s l e f t behind. By drawing p a r a l l e l s between the events of his year i n Bleston and the scenes depicted i n the tapes t r ies , the Frenchman weaves the Theseus myth into the fabr ic of his d ia ry . Following George Burton 's accident, Revel i d e n t i f i e s himself with Theseus, who was rendered " t r a i t r e et aveugle" by "cette Rose, cette Phedre pour l aque l l e i l avai t abandonne1 Ariane, cette femme dont i l ne r £ u s s i s s a i t pas a se p ro t£ger . . . " (p. 174). For i t i s i n order to impress 19 Rose/Phedre for whom he has abandoned Ann/Ariane that he divulges Burton 's name. The Frenchman also i d e n t i f i e s with Oedipus, seeing himself as possessing the cha rac te r i s t i c s of t h i s hero a l s o . On May 25th, Burton had sa id , "Le detect ive est l e f i l s du meurtr ier , Oedipe, non seulement parce q u 1 i l r6sout une 6nigme, mais aussi parce qu 1 i l tue c e l u i a qui i l do i t son t i t r e . . . " (p. 148). Since Revel compares h i s research in to the past year with the work of the f i c t i o n a l detective Barnaby Morton, and since he sees Burton as h i s mentor, i t i s easy for him to iden t i fy with the detect ive , the " f i l s du meurtr ier" who k i l l s "ce lu i a qui i l do i t son t i t r e . " Revel ' s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with Oedipus i s further emphasized by his several references to himself as "aveugle" and by his desire to b l i n d himself on learning of Ann's engagement to James, "J ' aura is voulu bruler mes yeux qui n 'avaient s e rv i qu 'a me leur rer . . . " (p. 252). Like Theseus, Revel must t r ave l the path through " sepa ra t ion - in i t i a t ion - re tu rn" - his physical separation from France and h i s c u l t u r a l a l i ena t ion i n Bles ton; i n i t i a t i o n through h i s dream of the New Cathedral; and h i s return to France at the end of h is year i n Bles ton . Like Theseus, Revel "ventures for th from the world of common experience into a new realm where he i s tested and wins a 9 v i c t o r y for himself and h i s community." He becomes the modern mythic hero. However, he can only emulate Theseus to a ce r ta in point , after which he must f ind h i s own way. 20 Just as the threads of the tapes t r ies are interwoven to form the p i c t o r i a l story of Theseus, the tapes t r ies are themselves "interwoven" wi th the other works of a r t . Revel ' s v i s i t to the Murderer's window on the day fol lowing h i s f i r s t v i s i t to the tapes t r ies creates a l i n k between these works of a r t . This i s emphasized by the resemblance between Cain and Theseus: Cain tuant son frere Abel , Cain dans une cuirasse l u i moulant l e ventre avec des rubans f l o t t an t sur ses cuisses comme Th£s£e, presque dans l a m£me a t t i tude que Th£s6e aux pr i ses avec l e Minotaure, pench£ comme l u i , l e pied gauche pos§ sur l a po i t r ine de sa v ic t ime a l l o n g £ e , mais relevant l a t § t e , nue, d£ja b l e s s £ e , s i d i f ferent pourtant, brandissant un tronc aux racines 6chevel6es sur l e c i e l rouge (p. 2 ) . Cain, the founder of the f i r s t c i t y and therefore the father of Bles ton, i s , through h i s murderous act , the brother of Theseus. The red sky which forms the backdrop to the scene i n the Murderer's window r eca l l s the scene i n the Tapestries where Theseus f lees a burning Athens. Greek and Judeo-Chris t ian mythology meet i n these two works, both of which have been created by French craftsmen. S i m i l a r l y , the Tapestr ies, Plaisance Gardens, "Le Meurtre de Bleston" and the New Cathedral are l i nked through the motif of the t o r t o i s e : Je suis a l l 6 revoi r l a to r tue- lu th £norme par rapport a l a tortue vivante que j ' a v a i s vue l e dimanche pr6c6dent a Plaisance Gardens, comme c e l l e - c i 6 t a i t gnorme par rapport a c e l l e que j ' a v a i s dess in£e sur l ' exemplai re du "Meurtre de Bles ton" que j ' a v a i s pr§te" l e lundi a James et q u i , de nouveau se trouve entre 21 ses mains, tache" de boue, mais pe t i t e e l l e aussi par rapport a cette tortue que j ' a v a i s decide" d ' a l l e r revoi r l e lendemain, monstrueuse et carnassiere, dans l a troisieme t ap i s se r i e de Musee (p. 152). The tapes t r ies const i tute a "mise en abyme" 1 0 of the temporal s tructure adopted by Revel fol lowing h i s r e a l i s a t i o n that the detective novel form i s too r e s t r i c t i n g . This temporal system re f lec t s "cet examen zigzagant" of the tapes t r ies during which Revel gradually makes sense of them. The jux tapos i t ion , in the tapes t r ies , of events which are connected but separated i n time, i s ref lec ted i n the increas ingly complex s tructure of the Frenchman's d ia ry , in which the events of one month are recorded alongside other previous events which are re la ted but separated i n time. As the diary progresses, one month i s added to each new chapter u n t i l i n the f i f t h and f i n a l chapter a complex arrangement has been developed. Certain images, found i n the tapes t r ies aire repeated throughout the t ex t . The thread guiding Theseus out of the l abyr in th i s "un f i l 6pais comme une ar tere gorged de sang . . . " (p. 71) . This metaphor of the thread as a l i f e - g i v i n g force i s repeated i n Revel ' s reference to the act of w r i t i n g as a " f i l d 'Ariane parce que je suis dans un labyr in the , parce que j ' £ c r i s pour m'y retrouver . . . " (p. 187). The diary i s h i s l i f e l i n e , guiding him through the l abyr in th of h is time i n Bles ton . The imagery of the l abyr in th i s 22 repeated on various occasions i n the months fo l lowing the Frenchman's f i r s t v i s i t to the Museum. He sees h i s time i n Bleston as a journey through a l a b y r i n t h . This i s expressed through the complexity of the temporal s tructure of the diary and i n h i s comment that through h i s diary he i s searching for himself in " le labyr in the de mes jours a Bles ton" (p. 187). The l abyr in th i s also expressed s p a t i a l l y . When he learns of Ann's engagement to James Jenkins, Revel wanders alone i n the Blestonian l a b y r i n t h : Je me suis enfonce' dans l e s rues, me hatant sans des t ina t ion , comme tourmentg par une rage de gencives, tournant et retournant, emprisonne" dans ce grand piege dont l a trappe venait de claquer, parmi l e s meules des maisons qui c r i s sa i en t l e s unes contre l e s autres . . . (p. 260). The impression that he i s l o s t i n a l abyr in th i s i n t e n s i f i e d when he passes Lanes Park whose ornamental l abyr in th he had v i s i t e d i n October. Certain colours which appear i n the tapes t r ies recur i n the t ex t . The blue of Ariadne 's dress and the blue of the Athenian skies are ref lec ted i n the blue skies of the f i lms of Ancient Greece and Rome which offer Revel an escape from Bles ton ' s smoke and fog (pp. 224-225). This colour i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y absent from Bles ton ' s actual skies which are constantly obscured by a p a l l of cloud and smog. The s i l v e r threads woven in to Ariadne 's dress reappear i n the wallpaper of h is new room. 23 The flames of Athens are echoed i n the numerous small outbreaks of f i r e that plague Bles ton . The Amusement Arcade boasts a game whose background i s a burning c i t y , an i r o n i c reminder of how Bleston has debased i t s Greek her i tage. On h i s f i r s t v i s i t to Horace Buck's room, Revel i s offered rum, a symbol of fire.-'--1- The Murderer's Window ref lec t s the red of the Athenian f i r e s when the sun shines on i t . Horace Buck's voice i s "comme bruise" (p. 96) . "Le Meurtre de Bleston" i n f l i c t s a "brulure" on James Jenkins . Revel i s haunted by the f i r e s of Bleston and by his own desire to contribute to them. We r e c a l l how he burned the t i c k e t to Plaisance Gardens and how he was tempted to burn the photographic negative of the Burtons p r io r to h i s symbolic burning of the map. We should note that, in alchemy, f i r e i s the instrument of p u r i f i c a t i o n and r e n e w a l . ' ' Thus, the act of burning the map of Bleston r e f l ec t s not only Revel ' s desire to destroy Bles ton, but also h i s desire for i t s renewal, a renewal which can only be achieved through weeding out the c i t y ' s e v i l and by in tegra t ing a l l of i t s h i s t o r i c a l her i tage. The tapes t r ies are important at both the personal and the c o l l e c t i v e l e v e l s . At the personal l e v e l they serve as a guide and model for Revel , and, at the c o l l e c t i v e l e v e l , they form a l i n k between Bleston and i t s mythological roots. However, in both capac i t i es , they are just one piece of the mosaic and can only be f u l l y understood when they are 24 integrated into the whole framework of western man's cu l tu re . Just as Horace Buck and George Burton are found l ack ing as guides, so too are Theseus and Oedipus. An understanding of his Greek heritage can only take Revel part of the way on h i s journey towards s e l f knowledge. Tfhe Murderer's Window The Murderer's Window i s s i tuated i n Bles ton ' s Old Cathedral which i s b u i l t on the s i t e of a Roman temple of war. Thus a connection i s es tabl ished, through geographic l o c a t i o n , between the Murderer's Window and Roman B r i t a i n . By the nature of i t s composition i t i s the " l i e u de rencontre de l ' e x t ^ r i e u r et de 1 ' i n t^ r i eu r " , at one and the same time part of the Cathedral ' s i n t e r i o r r e f l e c t i n g Bles ton ' s s p i r i t u a l and mythological heri tage, and of the ex te r io r , 13 reaching out towards the worldly c i t y . This reaching out i s symbolized i n the a r t i s t ' s use of the Bleston of h is time as a model for Ca in ' s c i t y and by the view of the modern c i t y through the p l a i n glass window. The attempt at in tegra t ion , however, i s ignored by most Bles tonians , who are much more interested i n the a t t rac t ions of Plaisance Gardens, the entrance of which i r o n i c a l l y bears a close resemblance to " 1 ' a n t i c a t h £ d r a l e . . . qui regne sur l a v i l l e de Cain dans l e V i t r a i l . . . " (pp. 141-142). Although Revel does not v i s i t the Murderer's Window u n t i l Sunday November 4th, a v i s i t described i n the entr ies 25 of June 6th and 7th, i t i s announced i n the text pr ior to these dates. The most obvious reference occurs i n the May 30th entry in which the purchase of "Le Meurtre de Bleston" i s described. The f i r s t sentence of that novel, "L'Ancienne Cathedrale de Bleston est c£ l eb re par son grand V i t r a i l , d i t l e V i t r a i l du Meurtrier . . . " (p. 57), introduces the Window to Revel . By c a l l i n g the stained glass window "le V i t r a i l du Meurt r ier" rather than " le V i t r a i l de C a i n , " Butor emphasizes the theme of murder and the l i n k between Burton 's novel and the Murderer's Window. 1 4 The f i r s t bus, Number 17, that Revel catches, and which he w i l l catch every morning for the duration of his stay at the seedy hotel appropriately c a l l e d the "Ecrou", bears the sign "Old Cathedra l ." The frequency with which t h i s bus appears i n the text p r io r to the June 6th and 7th entr ies t e s t i f i e s to the importance of the Old Cathedral . It i s one of the signs marking the way for Revel through h is l a b y r i n t h . One sunny October Sunday, he i s overcome with a desire to go for a s t r o l l i n the countryside, and sets out from Bleston only to f ind nothing but a ser ies of suburban housing schemes s t re tching endlessly before him (pp. 33-34) . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , i t i s Number 17 which takes him back to the c i t y centre, towards, but not to , the Old Cathedral . The reference to the Murderer's Window in "Le Meurtre de Bleston" and the sign on the Number 17 bus 26 announce the Old Cathedral and i t s Window very c l e a r l y . A study of the f i r s t chapter reveals many other more subtle r e f l ec t ions of the window. In the opening paragraphs of the novel, Revel i s seated, "pres de l a v i t r e noire couverte a l ' e x t e r i e u r de gouttes de p lu ie . . . " (p. 9 ) , an image which we r e c a l l when we read the f o l l o w i n g : " le v i t r a i l , ayant perdu toute transparence, semblait une mosaique de lames de charbon po l i e s " (p. 80) . The rain-spat tered window also foreshadows the constant r a in which plagues Bleston - ra in which i s l a t e r described as black and maleficent, echoing the "pluie de soufre" (p. 78) in the Sodom and Gomorrha window. S i m i l a r l y , Revel ' s descr ip t ion of the Bleston a i r as "ces vapeurs sournoises" (p. 10) whose deposits are "les points noi rs des e s c a r b i l l e s qui tombent encore de mes cheveux" (p. 15), prefigures the scene i n the Murderer's Window in which the smoke from Cain ' s of fer ing "envahit tout l e c i e l au-dessus de l u i et retombe pour 1'envelopper" (p. 73) . Just as the atmosphere of Hamilton Sta t ion r e f l ec t s the Murderer's Window, so also does i t s a rch i tec ture ; the "immense vodte de m6tal et de verre" (p. 10) an t ic ipa tes the vaulted transept of the Old Cathedral , while " l a grande horloge au cadran lumineux" (p. 10) announces the luminosity of the central c i r c u l a r window on Revel ' s f i r s t v i s i t to that neglected place of worship. H i s t o r i c a l l y , the Murderer's Window, l i k e the 27 tapes t r ies , i s rooted i n several key periods of western c i v i l i z a t i o n . The Cathedral 's loca t ion on the s i t e of an ancient Roman temple of war l i n k s i t , as previously mentioned, to the Roman occupation of B r i t a i n and thus to Imperial Rome. The story depicted i n the Murderer's Window, the account of the f i r s t f r a t r i c i d e , goes back to Genesis, to the beginnings of the Judeo-Chris t ian t r a d i t i o n . Janet Paterson notes the in te res t ing connection between the f i r s t sentence of L'Empioi du temps, "les lueurs se sont m u l t i p l i £ e s , " and Genesis I where God says "Que l a lumiere s o i t . T h e connection between the window and C h r i s t i a n Rome i s further underlined i n the quotations from the Vulgate which accompany the p i c t o r i a l h is tory of Cain. The comparison of Cain with Theseus es tabl ishes a l i n k with Ancient Greek mythology. Likewise, through the i l l u s t r a t i o n of the i n s c r i p t i o n , "et a e d i f i c a v i t c iv i ta tem"(p. 74) which i s based on Sixteenth Century Bles ton, another key period i n Western h i s to ry i s represented. The unfinished and damaged windows t e s t i f y to t h i s s t r i f e - t o r n period when the struggle between Cathol icism and Protestantism was coming to a climax. The glimpses of modern and ancient Bleston through the clear panes of the destroyed windows, the sound of the r a in on them, the dissonant sound of " l a profonde c r6ce l l e d'un camion" (p. 75) - a l l br ing the various periods evoked by the window into contact with modern Bles ton . The centra l theme of the Murderer's Window, the story of 28 Cain and Abe l , the crime of f r a t r i c i d e , i s ref lec ted i n the murder of Johnny Winn by his brother i n "Le Meurtre de Bles ton" , and i n a l l the murders which haunt the c i t y . As with the tapes t r ies , the themes of the various scenes are re f lec ted e i ther i n the other works of ar t or i n Reve l ' s experiences. The scene depict ing the smoke from Cain ' s of fe r ing f a l l i n g back on him i s repeated throughout the novel as Revel i s enveloped i n Bles ton 1 s smoke and fog. Another theme, f i r e , i s expressed i n the "poutres flambantes" (p. 78) of the destruct ion of Sodom, and i n the crimson glow which suffuses the Murderer's Window. The theme of e x i l e , already expressed i n the tapes t r ies , reappears i n the window in the scene i l l u s t r a t i n g the i n s c r i p t i o n , "profugus i n t e r r a . " Janet Paterson sees i n the Murderer's Window "un centre de concentration et d 'explosion dans lequel convergent et d'ou se mu l t i p l i en t toute une cons te l l a t ion de c e l l u l e s generatr ices. ""^ A study of the text shows t h i s to be t rue. At both the thematic and semantic l e v e l s , the Murderer's Window i s c lose ly interconnected with the rest of the text . We have already noted the s i m i l a r i t y between the t i t l e of the stained glass window and the t i t l e of the novel wi th in the novel, both of which immediately evoke the other murders i n the t ex t . Revel describes the Murderer's Window as " l ' u n de ces deux grands h i£ rog lyphes qui inscr ivent l e meurtre au front de Bles ton, au front de cette v i l l e hantee de 29 meurtre . . (p. 149). It i s i n front of the Murderer's Window that the detect ive, Barnaby Morton, k i l l s the f r a t r i c i d a l Bernard Winn i n the f i c t i o n a l novel . James Jenkins, whom Revel at one point suspects of the attempted murder of Burton, i s seen outside the Cathedral, looking at the Murderer's Window "son regard £tonnamment rempli de haine" (p. 149) . Revel himself i s branded on h i s June 1st v i s i t : Le sang s 'es t mis a couler jusqu'en bas, comme une lente averse dans tout l e c i e l rouge de l a c i t £ , . . . meme sur mes mains, surtout sur mes mains couvertes, t e in tes , impr£gn£es de cette £pa i s s e couleur lumineuse, comme des mains de meurtr ier , comme s i j ' e t a i s condamn6 au meurtre, mes mains au centre de l a f laque, mes mains au centre de l a tache p r o j e t £ e par l a scene d'en haut dans l e s i l ence . (p. 197) The c i r c u l a r shape of the window depict ing the murder of Cain by Abel i s repeated i n the spherical mirrors i n the homes of the Burtons and the B a i l e y s . These mir rors , symbols of "mise en abyme, " of the s e l f - r e f l e c t i v e nature of the novel , give Revel a different perspective on the ref lec ted scene, just as h i s d iary , which he describes as "ce mi ro i r piege pour te prendre, Bleston . . . " (p. 275), changes h i s perspective on past events. Revel sees i n the Burtons' mirror , "1'image d'Ann, de dos, toute pe t i t e , comme s i e l l e 6 t a i t d£ja t res l o i n de moi, comme s i nous £ t i o n s d6ja s£par£s par l a mer . . . " (p. 273). Later , he sees "les deux images des fiances entre l e s deux visages des 4poux qui nous recevaient, les images d'Ann et de James et l a mienne auss i , 30 tout pres du bord, minuscule dans 1*embrasure d'une minuscule porte courb^e . . . " (p. 287). These two d is tor ted scenes, from one of which Revel i s e n t i r e l y excluded, and i n the other of which h is r e f l e c t i o n i s d i s to r ted i n such a way that he i s minute i n comparison to the other people, re f lec t the Frenchman's pos i t ion as an outs ider . The f i r s t scene i s evocative of the scene i n the tapes t r ies i n which Ariadne i s separated from Theseus by the sea. Only in the mirror the s i tua t ion i s reversed; i t i s Ann/Ariadne who rejects Theseus/Revel, i r o n i c a l l y blocking him out of the scene with a copy of "Le Meurtre de Bles ton . " Both mirrored scenes put in to perspective Revel ' s r e l a t ionsh ip with Ann, James and the Burtons. The mirrors and Bles ton ' s windows, which often take on a r e f l e c t i v e q u a l i t y , are themselves metaphors for Revel ' s diary which he describes as "ce mi ro i r piege" (p. 275). Just as the story of Cain and h i s descendants has been engraved on the transparent surface of the Murderer's Window, so Revel w i l l engrave the story of his year i n Bleston on the mirror of his page: pour me reV£ler peu a peu, au t ravers de toutes ces craquelures que sont mes phrases, mon propre visage perdu dans une gangue de suie boueuse, mon propre visage dont mes malheurs et mon acharnement lavent peu a peu l e noyau de quartz h y a l i n , mon propre visage et l e t i en derr iere l u i , Bleston . . . (p. 276). The temporal c i r c u l a r i t y of the diary re f l ec t s the c i r c u l a r cent ra l window and, l i k e the Cathedral windows, i t remains incomplete. The c i r c u l a r window i s ref lec ted at a more profane l eve l in the f e r r i s wheel at the f a i r , in " le grand hu i t " of Plaisance Gardens, and i n the c i r c u l a r route followed by the f a i r as i t moves from s i t e to s i t e around the c i t y ' s perimeter. I t i s from the f e r r i s wheel, "a l a hauteur d'un quatrieme £ t a g e " (p. 135) , that Revel spots George and Harr ie t Burton, which leads to the betrayal of t he i r iden t i ty to James and perhaps to the murder attempt on George Burton 's l i f e . Thus the shadow of f r a t r i c i d e cast by the Murderer's Window i s extended to the fairground. The f a i r , s i t e of a ser ies of small f i r e s , r e f l ec t s the " c i t £ s maudites" (p. 77) portrayed i n the Murderer's Window. Always crowded, in contrast to the empty cathedrals and Museum, the f a i r t e s t i f i e s to Bles ton ' s abandonment of i t s s p i r i t u a l inheritance i n favour of more worldly pursu i t s . The Murderer's Window i s also ref lec ted i n the text through colour and imagery. The o i l lamp i n the choir i s made of red glass echoing " le c i e l rouge" which forms the backdrop to the scene of Abe l ' s murder. The l i g h t shining through Abe l ' s blood projects a red s t a in on to the f loor of the transept, evoking the scene i n "Le Meurtre de Bleston" i n which Johnny Winn's body i s found. The t r i ang les connecting the central window to the others are decorated by "des f l eurs a s ix p^tales qui sont p e u t - § t r e des flammes" (p. 73) . Red, 32 the colour of blood and f i r e , symbol of l i f e and of death, of destruct ion and of p u r i f i c a t i o n , dominates the Window and echoes through the whole tex t . I t i s echoed i n the f i r e s , i n the tapes t r ies and i n the f i lms Revel watches. The portrayal of the burning of Sodom reminds the reader of the scene i n the tapestry in which Theseus f lees a burning Athens. These scenes are imitated and grossly d i s to r ted i n the f i l m "The Red Nights of Roma": C ' § t a i t une sorte de 'Quo Vadis ' superpreduction en technicolor avec martyrs, fauves et bains des dames, avec de grandes flammes naturellement, deVorant l e s quar t ie rs de carton, avec l e r e f l e t rouge de l a destruct ion sur l es nuages . . . (p. 227) . In the Amusement Arcade game i n which Revel watches the pyromaniacal Horace Buck, "s'acharnant a t i r e r sur l e s images d'avions eVoluant dans l e c i e l de verre peint au dessus de 1 * image d'une v i l l e en flammes . . . " (p. 181), " le c i e l de verre peint" r e f l ec t s the " c i e l rougeoyant" of the Murderer's Window and emphasizes Bles ton ' s degradation. The l i n k between the f i r e s which haunt Bles ton, the f i lms and the other ar t works i s apparent to Revel who, when he reads i n the Evening News of yet another f i r e which occurred, "au moment meme ou nous contemplions sur l ' e c r a n du Theatre de Nouvelles, sous l e c i e l pur et bleu du desert o r i e n t a l , ces sombres flammes de p ie r re b r i l l a n t e , ces braises d'une v i l l e romaine . . . " (p. 124), i s prompted to th ink : aux flammes qui deVorent Ath^nes dans l a derniere t ap i s se r i e du Mus£e, au c i e l 33 rouge derr iere l a v i l l e de Cain dans l e V i t r a i l de l 'Ancienne Cathedrale, comme j ' y avais song£, i l y a quinze jours , lorsque j ' a v a i s appris l a catastrophe du grand hu i t dans Plaisance Gardens (p. 124) . Revel cannot escape contamination by the "f l£au de B le s ton , " as he finds himself more and more obsessed by f i r e . He.burns a t i c k e t to Plaisance Gardens and i s tempted to burn the photographic negative of George and Harr ie t Burton. Towards the end of his stay in Bles ton, the s ight of the pages of his diary p i l e d on h i s table plunges the Frenchman in to such despair that he i s "envahi d'une furieuse envie de l e s brQler completement . . . " (p. 258). However, just as the f i r e s of Athens and Rome have not erased our c o l l e c t i v e memory of our mythological heri tage, neither w i l l the burning of his diary erase Revel ' s year i n Bles ton: In fact i t w i l l simply plunge him back into the l aby r in th , condemning him to begin h i s task over and over again and even more p a i n f u l l y . However, the negative q u a l i t i e s of Bles ton ' s f i r e s are balanced by the fact that f i r e also has a pur i fy ing and regenerative funct ion. Out of the symbolic act of burning the map of Bleston comes Revel ' s decis ion to reclaim his l i f e from the c i t y ' s " s o r c e l l e r i e " (p. 31) by wr i t i ng a d ia ry . Born of f i r e , the diary i s marked by f i r e on the f i r s t evening of w r i t i n g when the f i r s t page "s 'est mise a brQler dans mes yeux . . . " (p. 185). The f i r e which dazzles him on t h i s occasion emanates not from one of B les ton ' s malevolent 34 f i r e s but from the sun, symbol of l i f e and l i g h t . The act of w r i t i n g , a metaphorical burning of the c i t y , comes under the sign of destruct ion but, since i t i s also under the sign of the sun, i t i s an instrument of regeneration. In the Murderer's Window, the red of Abe l ' s blood i s balanced by the yellow of "cette foudre, ce rayon jaune" (p. 74) which brands Cain as an outcast and at the same time renders him invulnerable . We should note that Revel ' s "carte d ' i d e n t i t y " which he obtained on the day preceding h i s f i r s t v i s i t to the Murderer's Window i s a lso ye l low. Like the mark of Cain, i t brands him as an outs ider . Revel i s again i d e n t i f i e d with Cain fo l lowing h i s night of i n i t i a t i o n when he fee ls "au m i l i e u de mon front comme l a pointe d'un cautere s'enfoncant . . . " (p. 257), marking him with the sign of i n v u l n e r a b i l i t y . Again, in the scene i n the Cathedral, on a day so br ight that he remarks, "jamais j e n 'avais vu l a nef s i c l a i r e . . . " (p. 199), a t r i c k of the l i g h t spreads the s t a in of Abe l ' s blood to Revel ' s hands, thus branding him as a murderer. The Frenchman i s marked as a murderer on the afternoon of June 1st , the day fol lowing h i s betrayal of George Burton 's iden t i ty to James Jenkins and the day on which he compounds that betrayal by making the same diosclosure to the Bai ley s i s t e r s , thus se t t ing i n motion the "meurtre manqu£" of Burton, h i s brother/father . In t h i s v i s i t to the Murderer's Window, which Revel made i n order to refresh h is 35 memory of the November 4th v i s i t , we f i n d an example of the temporal complexity of the text , as the memory of a s t i l l e a r l i e r v i s i t , i n October, i s evoked. Through th i s memory, Revel r ea l i zes why he disc losed Burton 's iden t i ty to the Bai ley s i s t e r s . The sunshine which i l luminates the Murderer's Window on the two occasions which we have described i s a rare occurrence i n Bles ton . The fog, smoke and r a in into which the c i t y ' s winter plunges Revel are ref lec ted i n the window. In one panel we see the smoke from Cain ' s s a c r i f i c e f a l l i n g back down on him; i n another we see the "p lu ie de soufre" (p. 78) f a l l i n g on Sodom. In November Revel watches the street urchins burning t h e i r "guys" - e f f i g i e s of Guy Fawkes - whose smoke descends and impregnates h i s c lothes , reminding the reader of the scene of Cain ' s s a c r i f i c e i n which the smoke from the a l t a r "retombe pour 1' envelopper" (p. 73) . Revel i s thus again marked as Cain ' s descendant. The smoke from Cain ' s s a c r i f i c e merges with the "p lu ie de soufre" to form the d i r t y fog and r a in which envelop Bleston during much of Revel 's stay. From the f i r s t day of w r i t i n g , the diary abounds i n references to them: "ces vapeurs sournoises" (p. 10), " l a nui t et l a p lu i e noires" (p. 33), "une p lu ie bien plus f ro ide , bien plus no i re , bien plus sa le" (p. 150) , "cette £cume de plomb qui tombe en f ines gouttelet tes sur ma v i t r e " (p. 176), emphasizing the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Murderer's Window and the tex t . 36 Even Bles ton ' s snow i s t a in ted : " l a sale neige de Bles ton" (p. 223), "les sales flocons tombaient" (p. 167), evoking the scene i n which L o t ' s wife looks back at " l a porte de 1'enceinte de briques . . . l e s flocons jaunes et noirs s 'abattant sur l es poutres flambantes" (p. 78) . This scene i s re f lec ted i n "les sommets des poteaux ca lc ines du Scenic Railway" (p. 116), which l i n k s that fairground with the condemned c i t i e s i n the B i b l i c a l nar ra t ives . Revel 's reference to the source of the Slee as "cette mer morte" (p. 255) also creates a l i n k with the ruins of Sodom and Gomorrha, which l i e under the Dead Sea. The Tower of Babel i s ref lec ted i n Revel ' s d i f f i c u l t y in understanding the pecul iar accent of the Blestonians and i n communicating with them: "je ne comprenais ce qu'on me d i s a i t qu'au t ravers d'un b r o u i l l a r d . . . " (p. 184). Like the c i t i z e n s of ancient Babylon, he i s condemned to being surrounded by words that he cannot decipher. The other fragment of Babylon which remains i n the Murderer's Window i s "ce visage portant pour cheveux des plumes de corbeaux, c e l u i du r o i Nabuchodonosor change en bSte . . . " (p. 7 8 ) . We iden t i fy Revel with th i s image when he describes himself as "un oiseau migrateur" and when he ta lks about how, once he has l e f t Bles ton, he w i l l regain h i s human form: "quand je p a r t i r a i en f i n septembre, quand j e m'arracherai enfin a Bles ton, a cette Circe et a ses sombres so r t i l eges , quand enf in j ' a u r a i p o s s i b i l i t e , d e i i v r e , de retrouver ma forme 37 humaine . . . " (p. 115). Bleston i s the modern Circe" transforming her inhabitants into animals, as Circe" transformed Ulysses ' s companions. An important theme, expressed i n both the Murderer's Window and the tapes t r ies , i s that of the wanderer and outcast . This theme i s ref lec ted i n the f a i r which t rave l s around Bles ton ' s perimeter, and spends a month i n each of eight loca t ions before repeating the same t ra jec tory . This self-contained community, i s a descendant of Cain ' s wandering t r i b e . Another self-contained community, the pr ison where Bles ton ' s outcasts are kept apart from the rest of her c i t i z e n s , i s shaped "comme une sorte de nggatif de l a marque £ b l o u i s s a n t e imprim^e au front de Cain" (p. 262), The outcast and wanderer, Cain, i s pa ra l l e l ed by Horace Buck who i s marked as an outsider by his colour and h i s accent as he wanders the streets of Bles ton . Branded as a foreigner by his yellow ident i ty card whose colour corresponds, as previously mentioned, to the "foudre jaune" that imprints the mark on Cain ' s forehead, Revel too i s an e x i l e i n a foreign land. Cain "6dif iant un mur de briques" (p. 75) i s echoed by Revel whose diary i s "ce rempart de l ignes sur des f e u i l l e s blanches" (p . .199) . Ca in ' s c i t y wal ls become Revel ' s diary constructed to protect him from Bles ton ' s " s o r c e l l e r i e " . In Butor ' s work, the unstated i s often as s i gn i f i c an t as the stated. This i s evident i n the Murderer's Window whose blank windows - replacing those destroyed by the s ixteenth-century mob - create an imbalance which re f l ec t s the 38 imbalance of Bleston and a l l i t s modern counterparts. In reply to Reve l ' s question, "Pourquoi cet immense v i t r a i l consacr£ a un r§prouv£?" (p. 75), the pr ies t points out that " i l n ' e t a i t pas f a i t pour § t r e vu seu l" (p. 76) . Thus the perspective presented by the Murderer's Window i s d i s to r ted because i t i s removed from i t s context: I t t e l l s only a part of the story and can only make sense when seen i n the context of the whole. This i s a "mise en abyme" of Revel ' s diary in which i so la ted incidents only achieve true s igni f icance when seen i n the larger context which surrounds them. The key to understanding the Murderer's Window i s provided through the w r i t i n g of a sixteenth-century chronic ler whose account of the feast day celebrat ing the i n s t a l l a t i o n of the windows included a de ta i led descr ip t ion of t he i r subject matter. Thus Revel and the pr ies t are enabled to reconstruct the Window's s tory . S i m i l a r l y , through h i s own act of w r i t i n g , Revel hopes to reconstruct h i s own, and B le s ton 1 s , s tory . Opposite the Murderer's Window and balancing i t , Adam and Eve, the ancestors of humanity, should have been depicted with the infant Abe l . In t h e i r place i s the empty window through which can be seen "ces t r o i s pe t i t es chemin^es tordues" (p. 76), symbols of the smoke and f i r e which are Bles ton 1 s her i tage. Also destroyed by the sixteenth-century rabble were the windows portraying Imperial and C h r i s t i a n Rome. Thus the Blestonians have cut themselves off not only from the i r Judaic heritage but also from the i r 39 Roman roots . Revel ' s view of the window (and therefore h i s in te rpre ta t ion of i t ) are d i s tor ted by another missing l i n k : the Last Judgement which would have put Cain and h i s c i t y to God's l e f t and Abel to His r i gh t , correc t ing the imbalance which puts Bleston under the sign of Cain. U n t i l that imbalance i s corrected, u n t i l Bleston integrates i t s c u l t u r a l heri tage, i t w i l l continue to be a v i c t i m of i t s own " s o r c e l l e r i e . " 1 9 The "v i t r e s blanches" (p. 76) of the Abel window ref lec t the blank windows which l i n e Bles ton ' s s t reets and the blank square on the cover of the "Le Meurtre de Bles ton" . If Bleston i s to regain i t s balance, i t s windows must take on the colours of the Murderer's Window in an acknowledgement of the c i t y ' s past and as a commitment to the future. This i s expressed i n Revel ' s dream of the New Cathedral whose windows 20 had also impressed him with t he i r blankness. In the dream, the windows" n '6 ta ient plus blanches mais peintes de scenes changeantes avec des personnages beaucoup plus grands que nature devant des v i l l e s . . . " (p. 277). The s t a t i c scenes of the Murderer's Window have been replaced by "des scenes changeantes" r e f l e c t i n g and recording the complexity of man's existence, just as the New Novel w i l l replace the l i n e a r i t y of the t r a d i t i o n a l novel . However, balance w i l l only be restored to Bleston and to Revel when the descendants of Yubal can again make themselves heard. In reply to Revel ' s question, "Bleston, v i l l e de 40 tisserands et de forgerons, qu 'as- tu f a i t de tes musiciens?" p. 75) , the only answer he receives i s , " l a profonde c r £ c e l l e d'un camion" (p. 75) . Revel i s e i ther surrounded by s i lence or by such dissonant sounds as, " le raclement d'une voi ture de pol ice s ' a r r £ t a n t brusquement, puis sa sirene comme e l l e repar ta i t . . . " (p. 197). Revel i d e n t i f i e s himself as a descendant of Cain, comparing h i s w r i t i n g to the work of Yabal, Yubal and Tubalcain, "cette descr ip t ion explora t r ice que je compose, forge et t i s s e , f i l s de Cain" (p. 204) . Revel i s also the son of Yubal as the t e x t ' s many musical metaphors t e s t i f y . The novel as a whole, as Butor has stated, i s "une sorte d'immense canon temporel " A J - wi th in which are contained many musical references. Revel 's desire for Bleston i s that , "tes propres paroles atteignent enf in au chant brulant" (p. 269). The explorat ion of his year i n Bleston i s described i n musical terms, "chaque jour , e v e i l l a n t de nouveaux jours harmoniques, transforme l'apparence du passe" . . . " (p. 294). The re la t ionsh ip between the pieces of glass making up the Murderer's Window i s described as fo l lows : "ces moreaux de verre t a i l l £ s et j o i n t s dans l a France du seizieme s i e c l e dont l e s harmoniques h is tor iques p r inc ipa les s ' i n t e rca len t entre c e l l e s des t ap i s se r i e s du Mus6e . . . " (p. 295). Revel i s equally the descendant of Tubalcain when he describes h i s journal as, "cette longue chaine r £ t i c u l e e de phrases, dont l a forge m'avait £puis£ . . . " (p. 256). The metaphor of the forge i s repeated i n the descr ip t ion of the New Cathedral as, 41 "un nouveau chalnon de cette p is te in t r igan te , eVasive, que je su iva i s depuis quelque temps . . . " (p. 113). Revel i s a descendant too of Yabal as he weaves the " t o i l e " of his d ia ry . I t i s c lear to the reader that, as long as the imbalance ref lec ted i n the Murderer's Window remains unredressed and Bleston - the representative of the modern western c i t y -refuses to acknowledge and integrate i t s Judeo-Chris t ian and Roman roots, man's c i t i e s w i l l be corrupt. Only when modern man has f u l l y accepted h i s past and integrated the s k i l l s of a l l three descendants of Cain into h i s crea t ive process, w i l l he create a society free of the i l l s which presently plague i t . S i m i l a r l y , Revel w i l l only be freed from Bles ton ' s " s o r c e l l e r i e " when he has understood and integrated h i s c u l t u r a l heri tage, only. then w i l l he be able to grow and expand in to new forms of expression. The New Cathedral The New Cathedral i s announced several times before Revel v i s i t s i t . On h i s f i r s t attempt to v i s i t the Old Cathedral , i t i s towards the New Cathedral that the bus takes him. James drives past i t the f i r s t time he takes Revel to lunch at h i s home. His reading of the "Le Meurtre de Bleston" also introduces Revel to the New Cathedral but i n such a way that he does not even consider i t worth v i s i t i n g fo r , i n the novel , the New Cathedral i s no more than, "un r e f l e t amoindri de l 'Ancienne" (p. 121). I t i s i r o n i c that a 42 novel i s t who chooses C h r i s t ' s i n i t i a l s for h i s own should d isdain the New Cathedral, symbol of the New Testament, for the Old Cathedral on whose windows only the Old Testament s to r ies are portrayed. I t i s on the advice of the p r i es t i n the Old Cathedral that Revel f i n a l l y v i s i t s the New Cathedral and then i t i s more out of c u r i o s i t y than in teres t and because i t houses the b e l l s taken from the Old Cathedral . Thus h i s discovery of t h i s important work i s , l i k e h i s discovery of the tapes t r ies , acc iden ta l . It i s the next step i n h i s explora t ion of the l aby r in th , an important one i n h i s explorat ion of Bleston and essent ia l to h i s development of a new l i t e r a r y form. Dean McWilliams suggests that Butor has based h i s imaginary cathedral on the Sagrada Famil ia church i n Barcelona, designed by Antonio Gaudi, which McWilliams describes as the "most audacious and successful attempt to 22 integrate natural forms into e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a rchi tec ture . He further notes that while Butor was w r i t i n g L'Emploi du temps he v i s i t e d and admired t h i s s tructure whose a rch i tec t "resolved the tension between the modern age's s c i e n t i f i c 23 in te res t s and i t s outmoded a rch i t ec tu ra l decorat ion," and adds that "Gaudi attempted to integrate h i s church into the contemporary world by borrowing h i s decorative schemes from 24 the natural sc iences ." Butor ' s f i c t i o n a l a rch i t ec t , E. C. Douglas, observes s imi l a r p r i n c i p l e s i n designing the nineteenth-century Cathedral . The a rch i tec t has created "a 25 kind of evolutionary museum" in which are portrayed 43 the various stages of plant , animal and human evolu t ion . Thus, in the New Cathedral the various elements from which the modern world has evolved are brought together to create an innovative new archi tec ture . Contrary to Burton, who, in sp i te of his theore t i ca l d iscussions , i s entrenched i n the t r a d i t i o n a l approach to a r t , Revel sees i n the New Cathedral the beginnings of an e x c i t i n g new art form: Car moi s i neuf dans Bles ton, j ' a v a i s bien d6cel£ q u ' i l y avai t tout autre chose qu'un d£marquage dans cette b izar re construct ion, j ' a v a i s £te" bien oblige" de sen t i r qu'un e sp r i t d'une 6tonnante audace y dgnaturait violemment l e s themes, les ornements, et l e s de t a i l s t r a d i t i o n n e l s , aboutissant a i n s i a une oeuvre certes imparfai te , presque inf i rme, r iche pourtant d'un profond reve i r r e fu t ab le , d'un sourd pouvoir germinateur, d'un path4tique appel vers des r^ussi tes plus l i b r e s et mei l leures ; oui ' a d i s to r ted shadow', une ombre d6form£e, comme d i t J . - C . Hamilton, mais ce q u ' i l n ' ava i t pas su v o i r , c ' e t a i t combien p r£c ieuse 4 t a i t cette deformation! (p. 121) The audacity of the New Cathedral, i t s o r i en ta t ion towards an in tegra t ion of past, present and future, provides Revel with a model for h i s j ou rna l . "Imparfaite" and "presque in f i rme ," i t represents the novel which i s taking shape through Butor ' s w r i t i n g . George Burton has proved a valuable guide to Bleston and to the a r t of w r i t i n g , but h i s refusal to recognize the value of the New Cathedral means that he must be abandoned and that Revel must continue h i s explorat ion alone: "Mais je d£bouchais l a sur un t e r r i t o i r e dans lequel ce J . C. Hamilton, qui m'avait s i bien dirige" jusqu 'a lo r s , ne 44 pouvait plus me se rv i r de guide, ou i l me faudrai t m'aventurer seul" (p. 122). Like the Old Cathedral , the New Cathedral i s ref lec ted i n and in t e r re l a t ed with the rest of the t ex t . We have already noted how the two are brought together, in "Le Meurtre de Bles ton" , through Bles ton 1 s buses and through the i r Roman foundations, the Old Cathedral being b u i l t on the s i t e of a Roman temple of war and the New Cathedral on a Roman bu r i a l ground whose sarcophages are housed i n the Museum. Dogmatically opposed, "les deux poles d'un immense aimant" (p. 180) , they are nonetheless connected. The transfer of the b e l l s from the Old Cathedral to the New Cathedral maintains that l i n k while suggesting that the res tora t ion of Bles ton ' s music should come from i t . For the present, however, the only music i t offers to the c i t y i s the four bars i n which the same mistake i s repeated over and over again. The l i g h t i n the New Cathedral f a l l s on the spot, "a l a crois^e du t ransfer t" (p. 82), where the body of the murdered Johnny Winn lay in the novel w i th in the novel . Likewise, i n the Old Cathedral i t f a l l s on the spot where the body of the murderer, Bernard Winn - s l a i n by the avenging detect ive , Barnaby Morton - l ay . In contrast to the Murderer's Window, which at times suffuses the i n t e r i o r of the Old Cathedral with red l i g h t , the windows of the New Cathedral are transparent, f i l l i n g the transept with a 45 "lumiere v e r t i c a l e verdatre quasi sous-marine, pale et t res f ro ide . . . . " (p. 113). The red- t in ted l i g h t i n the Old Cathedral , symbol of blood and f i r e , ca r r i e s with i t not only the threat of death and destruction but also the hope of p u r i f i c a t i o n and regeneration. The v e r t i c a l green-tinged l i g h t of the New Cathedral offers the hope of new l i f e and new growth. The Murderer's Window presents one perspective on man's past, while the transparent windows of the New Cathedral are wai t ing for the "scenes changeantes" (p. 277) of Revel ' s dream to portray man's f u t u r e . ^ Leafing through "Le Meurtre de Bles ton" on December 2nd, fol lowing a v i s i t to Plaisance Gardens, Revel i s st imulated by the two words "Nouvelle C a t h £ d r a l e , " to draw a small to r to i se i n the margin. This drawing evokes not only the l i v e to r to i ses i n the Plaisance Gardens zoo but also the huge "tortue l u th " of the New Cathedral, thus l i n k i n g these two with "Le Meurtre de Bles ton . " On h i s December 8th v i s i t to the New Cathedral, Revel makes a further connection when he compares the "tortue l u th " to "cette tortue . . . . monstrueuse et carnassiere, dans l a troisieme t ap i s se r i e du Mus#e" (p. 152). These to r to i ses come to l i f e i n the dream of August 31st-September 1st i n which he l i e s s leepless beneath "le souffle de ce mufle t ach£ de sang fumeux, de cette tortue monstrueuse aux g c a i l l e s de briques et de fonte, aux cornes de taureau poussi^reuses, planant immobile, quelques centimetres au-dessus de moi . . . " (p. 255). The 46 t o r t o i s e , whose bloodstained jaws evoke Sc i ryon ' s t o r t o i s e , whose " £ c a i l l e s de briques et de fonte" evoke i n turn Bles ton ' s wa l l s and foundries, i s transformed into the winged t o r t o i s e , symbol of new beginnings, announcing Reve l ' s night of i n i t i a t i o n from which he w i l l emerge with a new ins ight in to h i s w o r k . 2 7 The New Cathedral i s l i nked to the Jenkins and to George Burton by the image of the f l y which i s represented i n one of the sculptures "que James lui-meme m*avait d£sign£ sur l e chapiteau des insectes . . . " (p. 152) and i n the f r i eze decorating the alcove which houses the statue of the V i r g i n . Already prefigured i n the text on the evening of Revel ' s attempted escape into the countryside when he compares the halo of fog around the street l i g h t s to "un essaim de mouches blanches aux a i l e s i r i s ^ e s " (p. 35), the f l y , symbol of 2 8 incessant pursui t and, by v i r tue of i t s connection with the New Cathedral, symbol of the New Novel, i s also part of Bles ton : "ces mouches qui t 'appart iennent, Bleston, qui te sont attach^es, qui font pa r t i e de t o i " (p. 293). The jux tapos i t ion of Revel ' s purchase of "Le Meurtre de B le s ton , " which i s to s ta r t him on h i s explorat ion of Bles ton ' s h i s t o r i c a l s i t e s , with h i s f i r s t s ight of the f l y encased i n Mrs. Jenkins ' engagement r i n g , creates a connection between the Jenkins and George Burton who stand at opposite poles i n t he i r re la t ionsh ip wi th , and a t t i tude to , the New Cathedral . Burton can denigrate the New Cathedral in 47 his novel but he cannot escape the new a r t i s t i c form which i t exemplif ies . This i s made apparent on two occasions when the bedridden Burton - perhaps the v i c t i m of a murder attempt by James Jenkins - i s tormented by a f l y buzzing around h i s head. He can have the f l y chased away but, l i k e the new art form that i t represents, i t w i l l continue to haunt him. In h i s despair fo l lowing the news of Ann and James's engagement, Revel wanders through the s treets of Bles ton, "comme poursuivi par un vo l de taons blancs et sales aux a i l e s trempees dans 1' eau de l a Slee" (p. 255), a manifestation of Bles ton ' s malevolence. Sleepless on that night of September 1st , he i s haunted by a v i s i o n of the to r to i se of mythological times, garbed i n the br icks and cast i ron of Bleston and supported i n the a i r by the wings of the New Cathedral ' s huge f l y while the waters of "cette mer morte que draine l a Slee" (p. 255) cover him i n a paralysing coat 29 of bitumen. Images from the Tapestr ies, the Murderer's Window and the New Cathedral, man's Ancient Greek, Roman Cathol ic and Protestant heritages a l l unite with Revel ' s memories of h is past year i n Bleston forc ing him to : ecouter tournoyer l e s jours et l e s rues et se r4percuter l e r i r e de maison en maison, d'Sge en Sge, lointainement vers d'autres v i l l e s et d 'autres eres jusqu'a ces forets cryptogames du carbonifere, profondement enfouies maintenant dans leur metamorphose en h o u i l l e sous l e s regions avoisinantes, jusqu'a ces f o r i t s de lepidodendrons et cycadees, jusqu'a ces palmes et ces fougeres arborescentes o s c i l l a n t au-dessus de leur humus fourre de charognes et de minerals qu'ecrasaient l e s pas des r e p t i l e s , toute l a nui t (p. 256). 48 Only after t h i s r i t e of i n i t i a t i o n , t h i s symbolic journey not only into h i s personal past but also back to the very beginnings of l i f e , can Revel break out of "cette couche de bitume qui m'enfermait comme une cuirasse de chevalier ou d ' insecte . . . " (p. 256). J . C. Davies sees t h i s dream as an " i n i t i a t i o n r i t u a l - a pattern of symbolic death and r e b i r t h . " I t i s fo l lowing t h i s dream that Revel wr i tes the words, "Nous sommes qu i t t e s" (p. 257) " i nd i ca t i ng . . . . the transformation of his experiences i n the c i t y through the creat ive power of a r t . n J 1 F i n a l l y , after t h i s night of i n i t i a t i o n , Revel sees Bleston c l e a r l y and fee ls capable of turning i t s base metal into gold: Je vous vo i s maintenant, rues de Bles ton, vos murs, vos i n sc r ip t ions et vos visages; je vo is b r i l l e r pour moi, au fond de vos regards apparemment v ides , l a pr^cieuse matiere premiere avec l aque l l e je puis f a i r e l ' o r ; mais que l le plong^e pour l ' a t t e i n d r e , et quel ef for t pour l a f i x e r , l a rassembler, toute cette poussiere! (p. 271) In a second dream, on the night fo l lowing t h i s i n s igh t , Revel i s i n the New Cathedral Square i n front of the new department s tore. As he stands there the New Cathedral comes to l i f e , engulfing the new department store and a l l else before i t u n t i l , "sous une 6norme mouche d'or et d ' 6ma i l , " which i s seen by J . C. Davies as a symbol of "creat ive 32 i n s p i r a t i o n , " the Cathedral i s transformed into a completely new structure which Revel i s unable to describe. He can only catch a glimpse of the new e d i f i c e , " l a poign£e et l a fente, au t ravers de l a brume qui s ' § p a i s s i s s a i t " (p. 278). This v i s i o n of an incomplete s tructure where only the doorway i s v i s i b l e symbolizes the New Novel which i s to emerge from Revel ' s exp lora t ion . "Le Meurtre de Bles ton" , the Harrey Tapestries and the Murderer's Window have formed part of the mosaic of Revel ' s d ia ry , each taking him a step further along the "piste t r a c £ e a mon in ten t ion" (p. 81) of his explora t ion , but i t i s the New Cathedral which takes him out of the past and towards an understanding of B les ton ' s mysteries. The Films Reflec t ing the Bles tonians ' preoccupation with the wor ld ly , and i n contrast to the deserted Museum and Cathedrals, Bles ton ' s places of entertainment - Plaisance Gardens, the f a i r , the amusement arcade and the cinemas - are always crowded. Of these, the cinema stands out as the home of an a r t form which has replaced the tapes t r ies and the stained glass window as a v i s u a l narra t ive appealing to a much wider audience than t r a d i t i o n a l ar t forms. Situated close to the Town H a l l Square and therefore near the centre of the c i t y , the News Theatre offers an escape from Bles ton ' s r a in and fog. The topics of the travelogues which are the main feature of the News Theatre 's programmes range from man's ancient past, with f i lms on Crete, Petra, Athens and Ancient Rome, to the New World represented by New Zealand, San Francisco and 50 the Canadian Great Lakes. For James Jenkins the travelogues offer an escape from Bleston and a window on a world he has never v i s i t e d and probably nerver w i l l . To Revel , they mean much more. Just the advertisement for the f i l m on Crete, b i r thplace of Ariadne and Phaedra, evokes for him the scene i n the eleventh tapestry portraying Theseus i n the Labyr in th . Through h i s nos ta lg ic longing for the c lea r , sunny skies of Crete comes h i s hatred of Bles ton ' s winter : "ces semaines i c i vou§es au calfeutrement, vou§es a l ' a s s £ c h a n t e haleine rouge des radiateurs a gaz . . . (p. 102). The "plages perp£ tue l l ement rendues b r i l l a n t e s par l e s baisers s a l £ s des levres bleues des eaux . . . (p. 101) form a marked contrast with the pavements on which the ch i ldren play in summer on " l a boue durcie des t r o t t o i r s dont l e s flaques se sont sdch<§es" (p. 102) . As Revel watches a f i l m on the Roman ruins he sees, through the I t a l i a n sk ies , the skies of Crete and "derr iere l e s p ier res et l e s peintures, c e l l e s du pa la i s de Minos . . . (p. 224) . This conveys the way in which the different ancient cul tures overlap i n man's consciousness to form a composite p ic ture of a c o l l e c t i v e past that he cannot deny. During the f i l m The Red Nights of Roma the blue sky i s again emphasized, symbolizing not only the in termingl ing of different h i s t o r i c a l periods i n our cul ture but also the non-linear qua l i t y of time: "sa permanence, sa cont inui ty avec c e l u i qui s ' £ t e n d a i t , pur, b£n£fique, immense, sur l a jeunesse de ces pa la i s et de ces temples" (p. 228) . 51 In the descr ip t ion on August 26th and 27th of the f i lms on Athens and Rome, seen respect ively on August 26th and 19th, the blue sky once again serves to l i n k the two periods. In Revel ' s mind the Roman sky superimposes i t s e l f on the Athenian one, s t imulat ing images of the Roman Empire and of Rome. S i m i l a r l y , the f i l m on Athens re t rospect ive ly affects Revel ' s view of the one on Rome: L 1 amphitheatre F lav ien , les Thermes de Caraca l la , l e Pantheon et l es ruines du P a l a t i n me sont apparus au travers de leur echo dans Athenes ( la Nouvelle Agora, l e Temple de Jup i t e r , et l a grande Bibliotheque) comme l e foyer d'une gigantesque resonance, t e l l e une flamme qui se m u l t i p l i e dans une enceinte de mi ro i r s en quantite d* images d ' e l l e meme, dont l a chaleur est renvoyee de t e l l e sorte que 1'incandescence augmente. (p. 241) Into t h i s h a l l of mirrors crowd other images of even more ancient c i v i l i z a t i o n s , Petra (the "rose red c i t y " ) and Timgad, c i t i e s which had come under the rule of Rome, and Baalbeck which had been at dif ferent times of i t s h i s tory in the hands of the Greeks and the Romans and which reminds us of the azure sea and sky of Proust ' s Balbec. These ancient c i t i e s , l i k e Rome and Athens, are l inked to Bleston through f i r e . At some time i n t h e i r h i s to ry , they have been the v ic t ims of v io l en t destruct ion by f i r e . Not only do the f i lms on Athens and Rome evoke memories of the tapes t r ies and the missing stained glass window, they go further into Bles ton ' s past, l i n k i n g that c i t y with Rome through the images o f : "ces sarcophages d'enfants morts de f i ev re et de f r o i d l o i n de leur grande v i l l e 52 natale . . . (p. 244) found near the New Cathedral, and through the images of the model of the "Bleston, B e l l i s t a , B e l l i C i v i t a s " (p. 244) of the Second Century A.D. This reconstruction of Bleston"s h i s to ry , t h i s v i s i o n of i t s c u l t u r a l background, brings Revel to see the c i t y in a new l i g h t : et du meme coup, cette v i l l e , je l ' a i vue elle-meme dans une nouvelle lumiere, comme s i l e mur que je longe depuis mon a r r ive^ i c i , par instants un peu moins opaque, soudainement s 1 aminc i s sa i t , comme s i une profondeur oubli6e se d £ p l o y a i t , de t e l l e sorte que j ' a i retrouve" l e courage qui m 1abandonnait, me sentant de nouveau capable, grace a ces nouvelles lueurs , de m'en d £ f i e r , de cette v i l l e , de mieux l u i regis ter jusqu'a cette f i n de septembre ou je l a q u i t t e r a i . . . . (p. 245) Thus, through the f i l m i c res t ructur ing of ancient h i s to ry , the works of ar t take on meaning as Revel discovers new patterns i n the kaleidoscope of h is experiences i n Bles ton . Out of these new patterns a r i ses a clearer understanding of his own and Bles ton ' s c u l t u r a l heritage from which he can draw the strength to continue h i s struggle against that c i t y . The works of art form an in tegra l part of the novel both i n terms of Revel ' s immediate past and, more importantly, in terms of western man's c u l t u r a l heri tage. Their influence i s apparent at the s t ruc tura l l e v e l , as Revel f i r s t models h i s diary on the "Le Meurtre de Bleston" then, as memories of di f ferent events j o s t l e each other, creates a verbal tapestry in which scenes, separated i n time, are superimposed on each 53 other r e f l e c t i n g the design of the Harrey Tapestr ies. In our next chapter we w i l l see how Butor again uses a work of art - t h i s time an e x i s t i n g work, the S i s t i ne C e i l i n g - as a model for the temporal s tructure of La Modi f ica t ion . On the personal l e v e l i t i s through an examination of the works of art and an understanding of t he i r i n t e r re l a t ionsh ips that Revel regains control of his own consciousness and frees himself from Bles ton ' s " s o r c e l l e r i e " . U n t i l the Frenchman sees the i nd iv idua l works as interconnected parts of a vast tapestry, they f a i l to provide him with the answers he seeks. "Le Meurtre de Bleston" i s abandoned as a model for the temporal s tructure of the diary and Reve l ' s path soon diverges from those of Theseus and Cain . It i s only when he sees beyond ind iv idua l guides and models that he begins to understand h i s , and western man's, past. While each work of ar t i s complete i n i t s e l f , i t i s only when i t i s seen i n r e l a t ionsh ip with the others that i t s ro le i n the novel can be f u l l y understood. Just as Revel finds that he cannot examine ind iv idua l memories of his year i n Bleston without taking in to account e a r l i e r or l a t e r events, creat ing an "immense canon temporel", so each of the works of ar t i s interwoven with the others to produce a textual tapestry of European h i s t o r y . In h i s search for meaning through the act of w r i t i n g , Revel has discovered that h i s Greek, Roman, and Judeo-C h r i s t i a n heri tages must be considered, not as i so la t ed uni ts 54 of h is tory but as complementary parts of his c u l t u r a l heri tage. Like Bles ton, the symbol of modern Western Europe, he w i l l remain fragmented u n t i l he recognizes not only his own immediate past but the past of western man and integrates i t in to h i s present and future. This i s a lesson which he i s only beginning to learn as h i s year i n Bleston draws to a close - a lesson which has only become clear to him through the act of w r i t i n g . 55 Notes to Chapter I Michel Butor, L'Emploi du Temps, (Par i s : Les Edi t ions de Minui t , 1956), pp. 55-56. Subsequent references to t h i s work w i l l be noted i n the t ex t . ^ Joseph Campbell, The' Hero with a Thousand Faces, (Princeton, N . J . : Princeton Univers i ty Press, 1968), p. 30. Revel, l i k e the hero of the "monomyth" goes through the r i t e s o f : " sepa ra t ion - in i t i a t i on - r e tu rn" . 3 Revel ' s ro le as a searcher i s emphasized i n h i s name which can be said to derive from reve, r j v e i l , riviler. We note also that George Burton, who reveals the theory of the novel to Revel and i s h i s f r i end and mentor, i s given the i n i t i a l s J . C. (Jesus Chris t ) and the surname Hamilton. (Hamil - I am Javeh, - ton - town/yours, H(ami)lton - ami). 4 Georges Charbonnier, Entretiens avec Michel Butor, (Pa r i s : Gal l imard , 1967) ,pp . 106-109. In t h i s interview Butor describes L'Emploi du Temps as: "une sorte d'immense canon temporel" i n which f i v e temporal ser ies are superimposed on each other l i k e the parts of a canon. ^ Jennifer Wael t i -Walters , Michel Butor: A Study of h is View of the World and a Panorama of h is Work, ( V i c t o r i a , B . C . : Sono Nis Press, 1977), p. 65. ^ Waelt i -Walters , p. 65. ^ However, Beauvais was the centre of a booming weaving industry in the 18th Century and i t s cathedral i s famous for f ine examples of gothic a r t inc luding t apes t r i e s . Like Bles ton, Beauvais i s now a highly i n d u s t r i a l i z e d centre with an emphasis on the t e x t i l e , chemical and metal working indus t r i e s . H i s t o r i c a l l y the tapes t r ies or ig ina te i n two key periods of the evolut ion of Western c i v i l i z a t i o n : Ancient Greek mythology, i n which we f ind the foundation of our c i v i l i z a t i o n , and the beginning of the 18th Century. 8 Campbell, p. 30. 9 Dean McWilliams, The Narrat ives of Michel Butor: The Writer as Janus, (Athens: Ohio Univers i ty Press, 1968), p. 6. 1 0 Lucien Dallenbach, Le Rgci t spgculaire , (Pa r i s : Edi t ions du S e u i l , 1977), p. 52. Lucien Dallenbach defines the "mise en abyme" as fo l lows : "est mise en abyme tout m i r o i r interne r6f16chissant l 'ensemble du r £ c i t par redupl ica t ion simple, r£p£t£e ou s p £ c i e u s e . " 56 1 1 Jean Cheval ier , A l a i n Gheerbrant, ed . , Die t ionnai re des Symboles, (Pa r i s : Seghers and Jup i t e r , 1 (1973), p. 37. " L ' a l c o o l rea l i se l a synthese de I 'eau et du feu . " D. Meakm, E. Dand, "Alchemy and Optimism in Butor* s 'L 'Empio i du Temps'," Forum for Modern Language Studies, 15 (1979), p. 271. In t h i s a r t i c l e Meakin and Dand state that : "What at f i r s t appeared to be destruct ive turns out - thanks to the power of art - to be c rea t ive ; the apparent desire for death i n Bleston ("qui au fond desires ta mort autant que moi") i s r e a l l y a desire for p u r i f i c a t i o n and resur rec t ion . " 1 3 Janet M. Pater son, "Le V i t r a i l de Ca'in: L'Engendrement textuel dans L'Empioi du Temps de Michel Butor ," Romanic Review, LXX (1979), p. 381. Paterson states that the glass of the Murderer's Window "repr^sente l e l i e u de rencontre de l ' e x t £ r i e u r et de 1 ' i n t 4 r i e u r . " 1 4 Paterson, p. 381. The re la t ionsh ip between the Murderer's Window, the "Le Meurtre de B le s ton , " and the other murders: " T i t r e : Le V i t r a i l du Meur t r ier , au l i e u du V i t r a i l de Cain, rgunit d'embl4e l e V i t r a i l au "Meurtre de Bles ton" et a tous l e s autres meurtres." 15 16 17 18 19 Paterson, pp. 378-380. Paterson, pp. 376-377. Paterson, p. 376. b i c t ionna i re des Symboles, p. 37. McWilliams, p. 25. McWilliams points out that the destruct ion of the Abel windows "produced an effect opposite to that intended by Bles ton ' s Reformers. Radica l ly separating the human and the d iv ine , far from pur i fy ing and e levat ing Bles ton , l e f t i t with no models but those of the profane c i t i e s . " 20 Els Jongeneel, "Un Meurtrier en cause - La Fonction du " V i t r a i l de Cain" dans L'Emploi du Temps de Michel Butor", Neophilologus, 64, No. 3 (July 1980), p. 364. Jongeneel notes the s igni f icance of the cathedral windows seen i n Reve l ' s dream. 21 22 23 24 Charbonnier, p. 106. See note 3. McWilliams, p. 27. McWilliams, p. 27. McWilliams, p. 27. 57 2 5 McWilliams, p. 27. 26 Jongeneel, see note 19. 9 7 . -Dic t ionna i re des Symboles, 4, p. 312. The to r to i se in an engraving of "une femme tenant dans une main une pa i r e d ' a i l e s deployles et dans 1'autre une tortue" i s interpreted as " le symbole de l a matiere de l ' A r t . Apres sa preparation, e l l e d e v i e n t , e n ef fe t , aux yeux des a lch imis tes , premiere matiere de i ' oeuvre . On rej oint a i n s i 1 1 i n t e rp re t a t ion chinoise : l a tortue apparait comme l e bo i n t de depart de 1 'evolut ion . Au l i e u de marquer une i nvo lu t i on , une regression, e l l e est au contra i re l ' u n des termes, le commencement d'une s p i r i t u a l i s a t i o n de l a matiere; l e s a i l e s deploy£es eVoquant 1'autre terme, 1'aboutissement de cette e v o l u t i o n . " op Dict ionnai re des Symbol es, 3, p. 245. 9 Q The term "mer morte" evokes the scene depict ing the destruct ion of Sodom, the s i t e of which i s believed to l i e under the Dead Sea. 3 n J J . C. Davies, "Butor and the Power of A r t : the Quest of Jacques Revel" , Aus t ra l i an Journal of French' Studies, XVI parts 1 and 2, (1979), p. 114. 31 32 33 Davies, p. 114. Davies, p. 115. Marcel Proust, A l a recherche du temps perdu, (Par i s : Gal l imard, 1954), I , p. 383 . 58 CHAPTER II LA MODIFICATION The opening pages of La Modif ica t ion re f lec t the f i r s t few paragraphs of L'Empioi ' du° temps. Our f i r s t meeting with Jacques Revel occurs as he enters Bleston by t r a i n , seated i n "ce coin de compartiment . . . face a l a m a r c h e , t o begin h i s year i n Bles ton . A year i n which, through an explorat ion of the Greek and Judeo-Chris t ian mythology expressed i n Bles ton ' s works of ar t , he w i l l embark on a process of se l f -d iscovery and transformation. This process w i l l be charted i n h i s d ia ry . The reader meets L6on Delmont i n s imi l a r circumstances - as he enters a t h i r d - c l a s s railway compartment i n another grey, northern c i t y , Pa r i s , and seats himself in " le coin cou lo i r face a l a marche." 2 Thus begins Leon's "modif icat ion" as h i s journey from Par is to Rome develops in to an explora t ion of ce r ta in of those c i t i e s ' works of ar t which have a specia l s igni f icance for him. As h i s physical and psychological journey progresses, these works take on a new meaning. Embracing a r t , a rchi tec ture and sculpture as w e l l as myth, l i t e r a t u r e and music, they, unl ike the works of L'Empioi du temps, are a l l v e r i f i a b l e . H i s t o r i c a l l y they are centered on the C l a s s i c a l , Renaissance and Baroque periods which have profoundly influenced the development of western c i v i l i z a t i o n . They range from c l a s s i c a l mythology as expressed i n the Aeneid, to Michelangelo's masterly union of c l a s s i c a l and C h r i s t i a n 59 themes i n The Last Judgement and the S i s t i n e C e i l i n g . S p a t i a l l y they are organized between Rome, whose modern side i s s i g n i f i c a n t by i t s absence, and Pa r i s , whose modernity i s a l i t t l e more evident, but s t i l l subordinate to Leon's nos ta lg ia for ancient times. In t h i s chapter we propose to study the works of a r t , t he i r r e l a t ionsh ip to each other, to L6on, and to modern man. Since the works are divided between Rome and P a r i s , we w i l l categorize them as fo l lows : Rome i n Pa r i s , C l a s s i c a l Rome i n Rome, and Renaissance and Baroque Rome. Our fourth sect ion w i l l study the ro le of the works of ar t i n the dream sequences which const i tute the " l i e u de rencontre" of the myths, l i t e r a t u r e and works of a r t . Rome in Paris L6on Delmont can be described as a man at the mid- point of h is l i f e who i s torn between two women: h i s Pa r i s i an wife , Henriet te , and h i s Roman mistress , C 6 c i l e ; two c i t i e s : Pa r i s and Rome; two cu l t u r a l heri tages: c l a s s i c a l an t iqu i ty represented by Ancient Rome, and C h r i s t i a n i t y represented by the Roman Cathol ic Church. His name, which when spel t backwards becomes Noel, i s that of a long l i n e of popes thus announcing h i s Chr i s t i an background - a background which i s emphasized i n the name of his mistress , C6ci le whose namesake was an ear ly Chr i s t i an martyr. His presence i n a t h i r d c lass compartment of a t r a i n other than the one he 60 habi tua l ly takes for h i s frequent business t r i p s to Rome at the command of his I t a l i a n employers, t e s t i f i e s to h i s decis ion to abandon h i s dreary pretence of a marriage i n favour of a sparkl ing new l i f e with h i s mistress whom he proposes to bring to Par i s to l i v e with him. This journey, made on November 15th and 16th 1955, i s a f i n a l attempt to br ing Rome to Pa r i s , a Rome i n which L6on has chosen to seek out only those aspects of ar t and the a r t s which remind him of the ancient Rome of his dreams. A c i t y in which, in spi te of the pervasive presence of that c i t y wi th in a c i t y , the Vat ican , and the Cathol ic t r a d i t i o n that i t represents, lAon and C£c i l e are drawn to the a r t i f a c t s which remind them of that other great root of Western C i v i l i z a t i o n - C l a s s i c a l Rome. L6on and C d c i l e ' s obsessive in teres t i n the works of ar t of ancient Rome reminds us of Jacques Revel ' s fasc ina t ion with the Theseus myth, as depicted i n the Harrey Tapestr ies, and with the f i lms of ancient Greece and Rome which feed h i s nos ta lg ia for that cu l tu re . In Pa r i s , l i kewise , L6on i s drawn to those works which depic t , evoke or imitate Ancient Rome. Whether he i s i n the Louvre, in h i s apartment at "15 place du Pantheon" (p. 14) , or i n the s treets of modern Pa r i s , he only sees those things, whether they be posters, paintings or bu i ld ings , which remind him of ancient Rome. His wife and family are ec l ipsed by the 61 shadow of the Pantheon, h is o f f i ce i s surrounded by I t a l i a n t r a v e l agencies whose posters proclaim the g lo r i e s of ancient Rome and h i s v i s i t to the Louvre i s dominated by works depic t ing that c i t y . However, in spi te of Leon's preoccupation with ancient Rome, he cannot escape the reminders of Chr i s t i an Rome which are often contained wi th in the very works which for him symbolize p re -Chr i s t i an Rome. On h i s return from the t r i p to Rome which preceded the present journey, instead of s l i pp ing back into h i s usual routine, he t r i e s to maintain h i s hold on the magic of Rome by pretending to be a Roman t o u r i s t i n P a r i s . This fantasy i s enhanced by the unseasonably br ight and warm November day - more t y p i c a l of Rome than Par is - which allows him to s t r o l l round the c i t y humming an I t a l i a n operat ic a i r , with h i s coat unbuttoned as i t would be i n Rome (pp. 63-64) . On h i s way to the Louvre, L£on pays l i t t l e a t tent ion to "les t r o i s mauvaises statues repr^sentant l e s f i l s de Cain" (p. 66) nor to the " a i g u i l l e gr ise de l ' o b £ l i s q u e " (p. 66) symbols of those two other key periods i n the development of western c i v i l i z a t i o n - early b i b l i c a l times and Ancient Egypt. He spares no more than a passing glance "aux sarcophages et aux copies en bronze des antiques du Vat ican" (p. 66), nor does he pause at the " V i c t o i r e de Samothrace" (p. 66) - the former evocative of Chr i s t i an Rome, the l a t t e r of the Golden Age of Greece. He passes qu ick ly through the Egyptian rooms to a r r i v e at the eighteenth-century rooms 62 where, ignoring the array of works by such major a r t i s t s as Goya and David, he stops i n front of "deux grands tableaux d'un peintre du troisieme ordre" (p. 66), Pannini . These paintings "galer ie de vues de l a Rome moderne" (p. 67) and "galer ie de vues de l a Rome antique" (p. 67) r e f l ec t the "constant d£f i j e t £ par l ' a n c i e n Empire a l ' a c t u e l l e Egl i se . . . " (p. 67) . That Lion chooses to stop i n front of the pain t ing i n which the archi tec ture of Ancient Rome i s depicted, t e s t i f i e s to h i s fasc ina t ion with that per iod. We should note also that i t i s t h i s side of Rome to which Cec i le has introduced him. Indeed, much of t he i r time together i n Rome i s spent seeking out and v i s i t i n g ancient Roman monuments. However, even i n t h i s pa in t ing dedicated to Ancient Rome, the Church imposes i t s e l f - L£on describes " le portique du temple d'Antonin et Faustine avec l a facade de 1 'egl i se que l ' o n ava i t construi te a l ' i n t £ r i e u r et que l ' o n n ' a pas encore demolie . . . " (p. 67) . This image of the church constructed w i th in the wa l l s of a pagan temple draws our a t tent ion to the nature of the r e l a t ionsh ip between these two c r u c i a l periods i n the h i s to ry of man. The enclosure of the church wi th in the wa l l s of the pagan temple symbolizes man's r e l a t ionsh ip with h i s pagan and C h r i s t i a n her i tage. Just as the temple contains the church, so man wi th in him, in that part of h is s e l f which Jung c a l l s the " c o l l e c t i v e unconscious," contains the memory of a i l of his c u l t u r a l 4 heri tage. Seen i n t h i s l i g h t i t i s not surpr i s ing 63 that the church wi th in the temple has not been demolished. History cannot be reversed, ancient Rome cannot el iminate C h r i s t i a n Rome. Nor can modern man demolish the structure of h i s Christ ian.background. This i s a lesson which Lion w i l l l earn i n the course of h i s journey between Par i s and Rome. Commenting on the composition of the two Pannini pa in t ings , L4on remarks that : i l n ' y a aucune difference de matiere sensible entre l e s objets represented comme rEels et ceux represented comme peints , comme s ' i l avai t voulu f igurer sur ses t o i l e s l a rEussi te de ce project commun a tant d ' a r t i s t e s de son temps: donner un Equivalent absolu de l a r E a l i t E , l e chapiteau peint devenant indiscernable du chapiteau riel, a part l e cadre qui l ' en toure , de meme que les grands archi tec tes i l l u s i o n n i s t e s du baroque romain peignent dans l 'espace et donnent a imaginer, grUce a leurs merveil leux systemes de signes, leurs agrEgations de p i l a s t r e s , et leurs voluptueuses courbes, des monuments r i v a l i s a n t enfin dans l ' e f f e t et l e prestige avec l e s Enormes masses r ep l i e s des ruines antiques q u ' i l s avaient perpEtuellement sous l e s yeux et qui l e s humi l ia ien t , integrant mEthodiquement l e s de t a i l s de leur ornementation comme base mime de leur langage (pp. 66-67). In Pannin i ' s attempt to represent r e a l i t y , the viewer cannot d i s t ingu i sh between the " rea l " and the "painted"; r e a l i t y and the representation of r e a l i t y merge into one. Francoise Van Rossum-Guyon remarks that , while La Modif ica t ion does not present us with "un Equivalent absolu de l a r E a l i t E " (p. 67), the descr ip t ion of the Pannini 64 paintings and the reference to "les grands archi tec tes i l l u s i o n n i s t e s du baroque romain" (p. 67) emphasize "1'importance q u ' i l faudra accorder aux moyens mis en oeuvre dans l e roman pour susci ter 1 ' i l l u s i o n de r E a l i t E . " ^ The spectators i n Pannin i ' s "Galer ie de vues de l a Rome antique" (p. 67) are at the same time part of the composition and viewers of i t . Contained wi th in the physical confines of the p ic ture frame while viewing the pictures w i th in the p ic tu re , they re f lec t LEon and CEc i l e as the l a t t e r view the works of ar t of ancient Rome i n Rome. S i m i l a r l y through h i s use of the second person p lu ra l Butor has placed the spectator/reader wi th in the work so that he i s drawn into the t ex t . The reader i s at the same time a spectator of and an actor i n the novel, for , from the moment when he reads the opening l i n e s : "Vous avez mis l e pied gauche sur l a rainure de cuivre . . . " (p. 9 ) , the reader i s implicated i n L6on Delmont's experience. I t i s he who enters the railway compartment for the journey from Par is to Rome. The "vous" makes him the speaker and at the same time the one being addressed i n a dialogue which w i l l continue u n t i l the t r a i n draws into the Stazione Termini i n Rome. As with Pannini*s pa in t ings , the boundary between reader and text i s not c l e a r l y defined, the reader i s i n the t ex t . LEon pays l i t t l e a t tent ion to the "Galer ie de vues de l a Rome moderne" (p. 67) whose only appeal i s that i t reminds him of C E c i l e . Instead he chooses to spend the few remaining 65 minutes of his v i s i t i n two other rooms where ancient Rome i s again portrayed. The f i r s t i s the room housing works by Poussin and Lorraine "ces deux Frangais de Rome" (p. 71) , the second contains Ancient Roman works. As with the Pannini canvases, L6on i s a t t racted to works depict ing scenes of Ancient Rome. In pa r t i cu la r he i s drawn to the pain t ing of the forum "ce marche" aux bestiaux q u ' e t a i t devenue l ' 6p ine dorsale de l a cap i ta le du monde . . . " (p. 72) . The other paintings by the two Frenchmen i n Rome which our " touris te romain" r e c a l l s , also depict scenes from Ancient Greek and Roman h i s t o r y . In the second room, which he makes a detour to v i s i t i n spi te of r e a l i z i n g that "vous auriez pu descendre et s o r t i r beaucoup plus v i t e que vous ne l ' avez f a i t . . . " (p. 72-73), he i s a t t rac ted by the po r t r a i t s of women of Nero's reign and by that emperor's statue. Again, i t i s the a r t i f a c t s of an ancient , pagan Rome, dating from a period notorious for the persecution of Chr is t ians and for i t s promiscuity that Leon seeks out. For L£on, Nero and h i s women represent a freedom and sensual i ty which he has l o s t with Henriette and which he hopes he has re-discovered with C £ c i l e . Although the Louvre offers him a wide inventory of works from a l l ages and cu l tu res , our Roman lover has eyes only for those works which evoke h i s chosen c i t y . Leon's pursui t of Rome i n Par is continues fo l lowing h i s v i s i t to the Louvre. The "arc de triomphe du 66 Carrousel" - (p. 73) , that great nineteenth-century monument to the power of the French Empire, i s barely v i s i b l e through the r a i n , and the obel i sk , representing that other cornerstone of western c i v i l i z a t i o n - Egypt - i s t o t a l l y obscured. Thus, the supremacy of Ancient Rome i s again underl ined. Even Leon's lunch of "spaghetti a l a bolognese" (p. 73), the espresso coffee he drinks and the I t a l i a n c igaret te which he l i g h t s - but which i s symbol ical ly put out by the Par i s i an r a in - continue the theme of Rome i n P a r i s . However, the spaghetti and coffee are but poor imi ta t ions of true Roman fare as i s the Roman bar he repairs t o . This bar, peopled by lad ies of dubious repute, who re f l ec t much more r e a l i s t i c a l l y the women of Nero's time than do t h e i r p o r t r a i t s i n the Louvre, has a "cadre antique, aussi l o i n que possible des bars actuels de l a cap i ta le l a t i n e " (p. 76) , and i s at best a car ica ture of the Roman caf£s i n which L4on and C4c i l e de l igh t . The second-rate pictures depict ing Messaline dans un venerium and L'Entree triomphale de N6ron a Rome (p. 77) do not r e f l ec t the g lo r i e s of Ancient Rome but: cette l i b e r t y morale fastueuse et brumeuse a l a f o i s , de cette espece de deVergondage grandiose dont r £ v a i t , comme de sa r e a l i s a t i o n ouverte et magnifique, l e l ibe r t inage ytr ique des Par is iens du temps de l a "Bel le Epoque" (p. 77) . They are but a poor car ica ture of the moral freedom enjoyed by the ancients , a freedom which L4on seeks i n h i s Roman l i a i s o n with C £ c i l e . I r o n i c a l l y , Leon's a f f a i r with C£c i l e , 67 f u r t i v e l y ca r r ied on i n Rome out of s ight of h is employers, i s more akin to the "1ibertinage "Etrique" of the ear ly twentieth-century than to the free and open sensual i ty of Ancient Rome. Loath to end h i s Roman day in Pa r i s , LEon takes a less d i rec t route home to "15 Place du PanthEon" (p. 78) in order not to stop and gaze, but simply to "f rdler ces murs de briques et de pierres qui subsistent de ces thermes que connaissai t J u l i e n l 'Apos ta t " (p. 78) . Delmont sees these baths as yet another symbol of the supremacy of Ancient Rome and i t s i n v i n c i b i l i t y to Chr i s t i an at tack. What he f a i l s to acknowledge i s that , on the s i t e of these baths the abbots of Cluny b u i l t t he i r residence and that today there i s "a museum to medieval C h r i s t i a n France" on the spot.** L6on i d e n t i f i e s with J u l i a n whose l e t t e r s he often reads during h i s journeys to Rome; furthermore, as h i s single-minded pursui t of the a r t of ancient Rome t e s t i f i e s , he dreams of fo l lowing J u l i a n ' s example by abandoning C h r i s t i a n i t y and embracing paganism. He may be unaware of the irony of J u l i a n ' s baths forming the foundation of a C h r i s t i a n monastery but the reader i s not. Like J u l i a n , LEon cannot turn back the clock and deny his Ch r i s t i an heritage i n favour of the r e l i g i o n of ancient Rome. Try as he may to see only Ancient Rome i n Pa r i s , the influence of C h r i s t i a n i t y pervades much of what he seeks out. Among those viewing the paintings i n Pannin i ' s "vues de l a Rome antique" (p. 67) are clergymen. The Pantheon, that 68 imitation of an ancient Roman temple on which L£on gazes while at home in the evening was built to serve as a Catholic church. Not only was the Pantheon in Paris built to house a Catholic Church, its Roman counterpart provided the brass for the baldachin designed for St. Peter's by Bernini. 7 Not content to seek out Rome in the art and architecture of his native city, the lover of Rome has brought the city of his dreams into his livingroom in the form of literary and artist ic works. On the evening of his Roman days in Paris, he seats himself in his armchair from which he can see "la frise illumined du Pantheon" (p. 83) and gazes at "les deux eaux fortes de Pireanese une des prisons et une des constructions . . . " (p. 83). We recall that, two years previously, on his f irst morning in Rome with C6cile, they looked out on "la construction de Dioclttien." The music to which he listens is Monteverdi's Orfeo whose story 8 anticipates Leon's journey. Like Orpheus, L4on will venture into the underworld - physically by passing through a series of railway tunnels, psychologically by journeying into the depths of his own subconscious - and, like Orpheus, he will lose the one whom he has set out to rescue. The book that he chooses from the "petite biblotheque d'auteurs latins et italiens que vous vous etes constitute depuis le d6but de votre liaison avec Cecile" (p. 83) is the f irst volume of the Bude translation of Virg i l ' s Aeneid. It is understandable 69 that , at a time when he i s ser ious ly considering s t a r t i ng anew, lAon should choose to read about a hero "who l e f t behind the wreckage of an e a r l i e r l i f e to begin a new one i n I t a l y . " 9 The s ix th book, descr ibing Aneas's descent into the underworld i n search of his father and h i s future, w i l l echo through the ser ies of dreams which haunt the Frenchman during the journey to Rome which forms the framework of the novel . I r o n i c a l l y , V i r g i l , whose epic poem the Aeneid i s a song in praise of Rome's pagan r e l i g i o n , was embraced by C h r i s t i a n i t y . "Because h i s fourth ecloque was taken as an announcement of C h r i s t ' s coming"-^ he was regarded as the "pagan p r o p h e t d u r i n g the Renaissance. Leon's attempt to in ject some of Rome's magic in to Par is by br inging Cec i l e to h i s nat ive c i t y a year after he f i r s t met her, i s also i l l - f a t e d . Their s p i r i t s dampened by the Pa r i s i an r a i n , they had spent what l i t t l e time they had together seeking out Rome i n P a r i s . The Frenchman was such a stranger to a l l but the Roman aspects of Par is that he was qui te incapable of act ing as C E c i l e ' s guide to the c i t y . The landmarks which imposed themselves symbolize a heritage which cannot be ignored. The "Arc de triomphe du Carrousel" (p. 176) reminded them at the same time of the 70 power of Imperial Rome and the power of Napoleonic France; "1 'obil is ique de l a Concorde" (p. 176) r e c a l l s the obelisks taken to Imperial Rome by the v i c to r ious Emperors; and the towers of Notre Dame reminded them of t he i r Ch r i s t i an her i tage . Thus, although the h igh l igh t of t he i r afternoon i n the Louvre was: l e s statues romaines, les paysages de Claude Lorra ine , les deux t o i l e s de Pannini que vous avez amoureusement d e t a i n e d (p. 185) . which bring Rome to Pa r i s , those other works, looming i n the background, t e s t i f y to the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of ignoring a c u l t u r a l background which i s i nex t r i cab ly woven in to the f ab r i c of the love r s ' world. I t i s t h e i r refusal to integrate a l l aspects of that background into t h e i r l i v e s which dooms C E c i l e ' s v i s i t to Pa r i s , as we l l as the future of t he i r r e la t ionsh ip , to f a i l u r e . Although LEon can f ind re f l ec t ions of Pagan Rome i n Par is through the many imi ta t ions and representations of the Imperial c i t y ' s a r t and a rch i tec ture , he cannot deny the influence of C h r i s t i a n i t y on these a r t i f a c t s . Nor can Pagan Rome be brought to Par is i n the person of C E c i l e . If the Rome of his dreams ex i s t s at a l l , i t must be sought i n the c l a s s i c a l temples and statues of the I t a l i a n c a p i t a l . 71 Classical Rome As he t r ave l s towards Rome, on November 15th 1955, L£on clutches h is railway timetable as i f i t were a tal isman: "II £ t a i t comme l e tal isman, l a c l £ , l e gage de votre issue, d'une ar r ivee dans une Rome lumineuse, de cette cure de jouvence . . . " (p. 41) . He leaves behind a dismal marriage and a dark and dreary Par is where he has l ed "cette existence l a r v a i r e , crepusculaire" (p. 41) to seek rejuvenation i n a "Rome lumineuse." The Rome of his dreams i s the Rome of V i r g i l and of the pagan Emperors. Untarnished by the taboos and hypocrisy of the Cathol ic Church, i t i s a c i t y protected by Venus, goddess of love and beauty, mother of Aeneas. This i s the Rome that beckons to the middle-aged Frenchman. It i s a c i t y in which he imagines that e r o t i c love , beauty and sensual i ty f lour i shed . A c i t y in which he can recapture h i s l o s t youth and bathe i n the splendour of a dis tant age. U n t i l h i s meeting with C£ci le two years e a r l i e r , L€on had been a stranger i n Rome. Only after meeting her does he begin to know and love that c i t y : "C'est avec e l l e seulement que vous avez commence a 1'explorer avec quelque detail . . . " (p. 63) . She i s h i s doorway to Rome and, in p a r t i c u l a r , to pagan Rome. For, although they v i s i t ce r ta in Chr i s t i an churches and monuments (with the exception of the Vat ican which Cec i l e refuses to enter ) , they are always drawn 72 back t o : cette par t ie de l a v i l l e ou l ' o n rencontre a chaque pas l e s ruines des anciens monuments de 1'Empire, ou l ' o n ne v o i t pour a i n s i d i re plus qu'eux, l a v i l l e moderne et l a v i l l e baroque se reculant en quelque sorte pour les l a i s s e r dans leur sol i tude immense (p. 87) . Icon's f i r s t meeting with CEci le comes under the sign of Ancient Rome and her goddess. Seated opposite h i s future mistress i n the t r a i n , the Frenchman catches s ight of the planet Venus i n the early morning sky and immediately afterwards recognizes " l a gare de Tarquinia" (p. 112), b i r thplace of one of the early kings of Rome. The only landmarks which he recognizes on t h e i r a r r i v a l in Rome are Ces t ius ' pyramid, "puis l a porte Majeure et l e temple de l a Minerve MEdecin . . . " (p. 113). Even the breakfast they share i s eaten while they contemplate "derriere l e s grands panneaux de verre l e s ruines de l a construct ion de Dioc lE t i en i l luminEes par l e jeune s o l e i l superbe . . . " (p. 113). The ruins which dominate t he i r f i r s t meeting re f l ec t C E c i l e ' s hatred of C h r i s t i a n i t y - both Cestius and Dioc l e t i an persecuted the Chr is t ians - and the return to Pagan Rome which the lovers seek. LEon and C E c i l e ' s love f lour i shes as they explore ancient Rome. The night they become lovers fol lows an evening spent on the V i a Appia where they watch the sunset near the tomb of C e c i l i a Metel la (p. 123). Although i n the 73 early days of the i r love a f f a i r they spent some weekends v i s i t i n g ce r t a in Baroque and Renaissance works of ar t , they devoted most of the i r time to explor ing the ruins of the Ancient Roman Empire: an Empire dominated by pagan emperors who at best to lera ted the Chr i s t ians and at worst persecuted them. Wandering among the ruined palaces and temples, and i n the Forum, the one time center of the Roman world, L£on and C6c i l e are no longer surrounded by ruins but rather are i n the r e b u i l t Ancient Rome of t he i r dreams: " . . . mais au m i l i e u d'un 6norme rSve qui vous 6 t a i t commun de plus en plus s o l i d e , precis et jus t i f ie" a chaque passage" (p. 167). The monuments which the lovers seek out during t h e i r peregrinations through ancient Rome are those erected by or for Emperors who were notorious for the i r persection of Chr i s t i an s . Nero's Golden House, Ces t ius ' s pyramid and the Coliseum, scene of the martyrdom of thousands of Chr i s t i ans , are a l l s i t e s to which L6on and C£c i l e are drawn, and which re f lec t C6ci le*s hatred of C h r i s t i a n i t y . The lovers* closest moments are spent explor ing these ancient monuments: fo l lowing the tension created between them by C t c i l e ' s v i s i t to Pa r i s , the previous year, the reunited lovers spend an evening "serr ts l ' u n contre 1'autre" v i s i t i n g t h e i r beloved ancient Rome (p. 263) . However, as the lovers gaze at the various monuments which they see as symbols of t he i r love for each other, the 74 reader i s aware of a more s i n i s t e r message. The two-headed Janus overseeing the crossroads of the Roman World symbolizes the crossroads i n LEon's l i f e (p. 263). The youthful face of Janus w i l l give way to that other, o ld man's face i n spi te of LEon's attempt to f o r e s t a l l t h i s through h i s a f f a i r with C e c i l e . The temple to Vesta, goddess of the hearth, i s a reminder of Henriet te , the keeper of Delmont's hearth, and home to whom he w i l l return. The Palat ine H i l l i s home, not only to pagan temples and monuments, but to several Chr i s t i an churches reminding us of the v i c to ry of the Church over paganism. S i m i l a r l y , Cae l ius ' H i l l i s dotted with churches and convents. The lovers are b l i n d to the threat to t h e i r dream i m p l i c i t i n these s i t e s and see only what they want to see. For them, Nero's golden house i s a romantic symbol of the freedom and voluptuousness of ancient Rome, rather than a reminder of the debauchery and barbarous cruel ty which were perpetrated w i t h i n i t s w a l l s . It i s inev i tab le that t h i s romantic v i s i o n of ancient Rome must crumble. While Leon pursues C l a s s i c a l Rome with C E c i l e , he i s aware that something i s miss ing. In order to complete h i s explora t ion of Rome, he must also explore Chr i s t i an Rome: Une f o i s vos peregrinat ions, vos pelerinages, vos quetes vous avaient men£s d'obElisque en obElisque, et vous saviez bien que pour continuer cette explorat ion systEmatique des themes romains i l vous aura i t f a l l u aussi a l l e r , une f o i s 75 d 'Eg l i s e Saint-Paul en 6g l i se Sa in t -Pau l , de San Giovanni en San Giovanni , de Sainte-Agnes en Sainte-Agnes, de Lorenzo en Lorenzo, pour essayer d'approfondir ou de cerner, de capter et d ' u t i l i s e r l es images l i £ e s a ces noms, portes de bien £ t r a n g e s dtcouvertes a n'en pas douter sur l e monde c h r £ t i e n . . . " (pp. 167-168). However, C£c i l e , h is "porte de Rome" w i l l only guide him through ancient Rome since she refuses even to enter the Vat ican , "cette poche de pus s i stupidement, dor£e" (p. 168), as he sees the s i t e where Michelangelo 's genius succeeded i n br inging together pagan and C h r i s t i a n mythology. This denial of her Chr i s t i an heritage dooms C t c i l e ' s love to f a i l u r e , as Henr ie t te ' s excessive piety has doomed hers. The two women, at opposite poles with regard to Rome, symbolize the tension w i th in L£on as he i s torn between the two cu l tures . Venus smiles on him as he and C t c i l e explore Ancient Rome but, when he voices h i s desire to v i s i t Ch r i s t i an Rome he meets with h i s mis t ress ' resis tance. The Church of "Sainte-Marie-des-Anges" (p. 72) , b u i l t w i t h i n D i o c l e t i a n ' s baths, houses "cette ho r r ib l e statue de saint Bruno par je ne sa is quel sculpteur f rancais" (p. 172) . She sees the only gothic church i n Rome - Sainte-Marie-sur- la-Minerve (p. 173) as "une des plus la ides du monde" (p. 173) . Only i n the ar t of ancient Rome does C£ci le see beauty. Their v i s i t to Michelangelo 's Moses i s marred by Leon's sense that something i s miss ing: vous sentiez en a l l a n t d'un l i e u a 1'autre, d'une oeuvre a une autre, que 76 quelque chose d ' essen t ie l vous manquait, quelque chose qui E t a i t a votre d i spos i t i on mais q u ' i l vous E t a i t i n t e r d i t de v o i r a cause de C E c i l e , dont vous ne voul iez pas l u i par le r , mais dont vous saviez bien q u ' e l l e y pensait auss i , hantEs tous l e s deux par ces prophetes et ces s i b y l l e s , par ce Jugement absent . . (pp. 173-174) . At the beginning of the i r l i a i s o n the explorat ion of ancient Rome was a l l that LEon needed, but as t he i r r e l a t ionsh ip progresses the denial of Chr i s t i an Rome and the Vat ican creates a gulf between the lovers , since LEon becomes increas ingly aware of a missing l i n k i n h i s explorat ions and i n h i s l i f e . This gulf cannot be bridged u n t i l , l i k e the a r t i s t s of the Renaissance, they integrate the two cu l tures . In order to do t h i s , they must v i s i t not only the Renaissance works but, in p a r t i c u l a r , those of Michelangelo (scattered i n various Roman churches and museums) and espec ia l ly his two great works - the Last Judgement and the c e i l i n g of the S i s t ine Chapel. Through Michelangelo's resolu t ion of the dichotomy between pagan and C h r i s t i a n mythology, LEon w i l l be enabled to move towards h i s own reso lu t ion . Renaissance and Baroque Rome As LEon seeks out Ancient Roman works, he cannot ignore the a r t and archi tec ture of Renaissance and Baroque Rome which sometimes ex i s t i n harmony with the monuments of 77 Ancient Rome and sometimes have replaced them. Though c l a s s i c a l themes predominate i n these works, they are not mere imi ta t ions , since they re f lec t the a r t i s t s ' desire not merely to equal the works of ant iqui ty but to surpass them. Ancient Roman ar t served not as models to be copied, but rather as a basis for the creat ion of new art forms. In Annibale Caracci we f ind such an a r t i s t . His vaul t frescoes for the Farnese Palace re f lec t h i s a r t i s t i c heritage - Ancient Roman and Renaissance - crea t ing "something e n t i r e l y new in the h i s to ry of art ."12 Although L£on does not describe the i n t e r i o r of the Farnese Palace, i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that Butor has chosen i t as C £ c i l e ' s workplace. Famous for i t s ga l l e ry , b u i l t to "display some of the great antique statues i n the Farnese c o l l e c t i o n , " 1 3 i t i s a f i t t i n g place for such a lover of Roman an t iqu i ty to work. Even more apt for a woman who has already been placed under the sign of Venus i s the fact that the theme of Caracc i ' s vau l t frescoes i n the Gal le ry i s the universal power of love - a power i n which Lion believed at the beginning of his journey to Rome. 1 4 Unlike Michelangelo 's c e i l i n g i n the S i s t i ne Chapel, which inspi red Ca racc i ' s design technique and i n which pagan cul ture i s brought together with and subjugated to Chr i s t i an theology, Caracc i ' s c e i l i n g i s a ser ies of " i l l u s t r a t i o n s of 15 profane l o v e . " Nowhere do we f ind even a hint of Ch r i s t i an philosophy in t h i s work which portrays such scenes of love from Roman an t iqu i ty as Venus entering "the bed of the mortal 78 A n c h i s e s , " 1 6 and whose centra l pa in t ing i s the Triumph of Bacchus and Ariadne. That LEon does not describe t h i s ode to the triumph of sensual love which dominates C E c i l e ' s workplace places the love a f f a i r under a negative inf luence. For the reader who knows Rome, the absence of t h i s work from the text an t ic ipa tes the f a i l u r e of a love which places i t s e l f so le ly in the hands of the Ancient Roman Gods. It i s even more surpr i s ing that Ca racc i ' s Gal le ry vaul t i s not mentioned when we r e a l i z e the p a r a l l e l between the a rch i t ec tu ra l space of La Modif ica t ion and that of Caracc i ' s vau l t . Where the c e i l i n g of the S i s t i ne Chapel i s "a kind of p ic ture -and sculpture - bearing facade on the surface of the c e i l i n g at which the spectator looks . . . Annibale ' s i s , by contrast , a un i f ied a rch i t ec tu ra l space containing p ic tures and sculptures , in which the spectator s t a n d s . I s t h i s not Butor ' s aim in La Modif icat ion? - to bring the reader into the text? Thus, by i t s very absence, the missing Farnese Gal le ry vault plays a major ro le i n the novel, reminding us that , with Butor, the unsaid i s often as important as the stated. One of CEci le and LEon's favouri te meeting places i s the Piazza Navone, scene of t he i r f i r s t prearranged rendez-vous. Constructed on the s i t e of an ancient Roman c i r cus , the square i s flanked by Borromini ' s Baroque a rch i t ec tu ra l masterpiece, St. Agnes i n Piazza Navone. The reader f ami l i a r with Rome knows that , seen from the square, the facade of the church b lo ts out the view of the dome of St. Pe te r ' s , 79 creat ing a physical emanation of the bar r ie r C£ci le has placed between Lion and the Cathedral . The centrepiece of the Piazza Navone, designed by Borromini ' s r i v a l , B e r n i n i , i s the Fountain of the Four Rivers . B u i l t around an Egyptian obe l i sk , the fountain i s , for the lovers , "cette £pine dorsale de votre Rome" (p. 99) . Representing the four major r i v e r s of the Renaissance world grouped around the obel isk , the fountain symbolizes the world with a center - Rome -which the Pa r i s i an seeks. Like Rome, the Fountain i s luminous, "La Fontaine des Fleuves r u i s s e l a i t de s o l e i l " (p. 156), promising Lion a l i f e of l i g h t and happiness with h i s Roman mist ress . In te res t ing ly , the Fountain of the Four Rivers i s the only work by Bern in i which Lion and C£c i l e v i s i t and admire. The taboo which C£ci le has placed on the Vat ican prevents them from seeing the f ines t examples of his a r t - the tabernacle of St. Peter ' s and the bronze Throne of St. Peter - which t e s t i f y not to Rome's secular power, but to her r e l i g i o u s might. The lovers may see i n B e r n i n i ' s fountain Rome's dependence on her ancient Egyptian and Roman heritage but they, and i n pa r t i cu la r Lion, cannot ignore the other, Ch r i s t i an cul ture g l o r i f i e d i n many of B e r n i n i ' s works. Forbidden to him in Rome, these two works invade h i s railway compartment, together with b i b l i c a l f igures from Rome's Renaissance and Baroque works of a r t . ' To pass the time he names h i s companions after some of these works. A 80 l i t t l e boy i s named "AndrE" after the church Saint Andrea d e l l a V a l l e which i s s i tuated near C E c i l e ' s apartment and houses copies of Michelangelo 's most famous statues. The newlywed "Agnes" i s named after Borromini ' s St Agnese i n Piazza Navone, while her groom, "P ie r r e , " i s given the name of Rome's great church. In some of his t r a v e l l i n g companions, L6on sees a resemblance to ce r ta in f igures i n the the Last Judgement and the S i s t i ne c e i l i n g . A bearded, e lder ly man i n the compartment doorway reminds LEon of the prophet Ezek ie l (p. 183). When we r e c a l l that Ezek ie l despised hypocrisy, we can understand why his appearance i s p a r t i c u l a r l y f i t t i n g . The e lder ly couple who take the place vacated by the clergyman, representative of the Vat ican , are described as, Un v i e i l homme avec un longue barbe blanche comme Zacharie . . . une v i e i l l e femme avec un nez un peu crochu comme l a s i b y l l e persique (p. 191) , reminding the reader of Michelangelo 's Zacharias and s i b y l on the S i s t i n e C e i l i n g . Each time that LEon rouses himself from his dream, he i s aware of Zacharias ' eyes on him, judging and condemning him. In h i s tours of Rome with C E c i l e , however, these f igures from the Vat ican are out of bounds and L§on has to be content to seek out Michelangelo 's works i n other churches. The work 81: which i s most important to him outside of the Vat ican and St . Peter ' s i s the statue of Moses designed for the tomb of J u l i u s I I . Lion r e c a l l s having seen i t with Henriette on t h e i r v i s i t to Rome four years previous ly , in such poor l i g h t condit ions that the most s t r i k i n g features were the horns which were i l luminated i n such a way that "ses cornes semblaient veritablement des cornes de lumiere" (p. 172) , g iv ing an e thereal ly r e l ig ious impression. On h i s second v i s i t , i n the company of C t c i l e , during h i s l a s t weekend i n Rome, he has to wai t , l i s t e n i n g to the sounds of Mass being celebrated, before he can enter the church. This time, in sp i te of the candle l i t a l t a r , the incense and the devout at prayer, Lion sees not the stern defender of the f a i t h , but a Moses "dont l e marbre semblait couvert d ' hu i l e ou de graisse jaune comme l a statue d'un dieu romain d 'au t re fo is" (p. 172). The statue no longer belongs to the Judeo-Chris t ian t r a d i t i o n , but, with i t s Pan's horns, r e f l ec t s Leon's fasc ina t ion wi th , and nos ta lg ia for , pagan Rome. However, v i s i t e d at S a n - P i e t r o - i n - V i n c o l i , on the fo l lowing day in broad dayl ight and uninterrupted by re l ig ious ceremonies: l a statue £ t a i t l a comme un fantdme dans un grenier et surtout, vous sentiez en a l l a n t d'un l i e u a 1'autre, d'une oeuvre a une autre, que quelque chose d ' essen t ie l vous manquait, quelque chose qui 6 t a i t a votre d i spos i t i on mais q u ' i l vous £ t a i t i n t e r d i t de v o i r a cause de C g c i l e , . . . hant£s tous l e s deux par ces prophetes et ces s i b y l l e s , par ce Jugement absent, . . . (pp. 173-174). 82 The statue i s l i k e a long forgotten ghost i n an a t t i c which, once disturbed, haunts LEon, reminding him "que quelque chose d 'essen t ie l vous manquait" (p. 173). The sense that something i s missing resu l t s from LEon's refusal to integrate h i s Chr i s t i an and C l a s s i c a l heri tages. I t i s , therefore, not surpr i s ing that he i s huanted by the c e i l i n g of the S i s t i ne Chapel and the Last Judgement. Like the Pieta that they were unable to see i n the V i l l a Sansavarino, the Moses cannot f i l l the void l e f t by the unvis i ted S i s t i ne Chapel. In spi te of C E c i l e ' s e f for t s to exclude the Vat ican from LEon's l i f e , i t i s never far from his consciousness i n the course of h is journey from Par is to Rome on November 15th/16th 1955. From the moment he enters the compartment, whose vaulted shape r e f l ec t s the shape of the S i s t i ne Chapel (as do the tunnels, both real and o n e i r i c , through which he passes i n h i s dream-f i l led n i g h t ) , and s i t s down opposite a p r i e s t , L6on i s haunted by Michelangelo 's two great works. We have already noted how a bearded man becomes Ezekie l and an e lde r ly couple are compared to Zacharias and a s i b y l ; l ikewise Agnes and P ie r re i n t h e i r young, newlywed innocence can be compared to the Adam and Eve of the S i s t i ne Chapel. The "tapis de fer chauffant," (p. 179) which undergoes several transformations during the journey, at one point gives the Frenchman the impression "que les losanges ondulent comme les E c a i l l e s sur l a peau d'un grand serpent" (p. 179). 83 This evokes the snake i n the S i s t i ne panel depict ing the temptation and expulsion of Adam and Eve. S i m i l a r l y , the boats depicted i n one of the photographs i n the compartment br ing to mind Charon's boat i n the Last Judgement. In h i s ruminations about h i s marriage, Henr ie t te ' s desire to drag him down into bourgeois boredom i s compared to " le morose p l a i s i r des damn£s a entrainer quelqu'un d'autre qu'eux dans leur margcage de poix et d 1ennui . . . " (p. 82), r e f l ec t ing the f a l l of the damned i n the East Judgement. Remembering his return journey to Par i s the previous week, L£on r e c a l l s that he was seated "en face d'une photographie en couleurs r e p r £ s e n t a n t un des de t a i l s de l a S i x t i n e , un des damn£s cherchant a se cacher l e s yeux" (p. 102) . We see i n t h i s f igure a r e f l e c t i on of Leon's a t t i tude to l i f e . Pr ior to making the decis ion to leave h i s wife for h i s mistress , he has adopted an o s t r i c h - l i k e pos i t ion v i s - a - v i s h i s wi fe , h is family , h is job and h i s Cathol ic her i tage, condemning himself to a l i f e of boredom and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . However, the decis ion to f lee into the arms of a mistress who rejects C h r i s t i a n i t y i s equally damning, as i t requires that he cut himself off from his Chr i s t i an roots . Thus, the reproduction of "un des damn£s" not only re f l ec t s h i s past but foreshadows h i s future. This i s i r o n i c a l l y underlined by the Frenchman's choice of reading ma te r i a l . In order not to have to contemplate the reproduction which might force him into the in t rospect ion which he has been avoiding, he plunges into the 84 l e t t e r s of h is Roman hero, J u l i a n , whose motto was "know thyse l f " . However, the influence of ce r ta in works of ar t extends beyond LEon's psychological journey, to be ref lec ted i n the archi tec ture of the novel . While the structure of L 1 Emploi du temps i s based on the form of the musical canon, that of La Modif ica t ion i s modelled on the structure of the S i s t i ne C e i l i n g and Dante's Divine Comedy, whose influence i s evident in the the Last Judgement. The bivine Comedy i s divided in to nine chapters, Michelangelo 's c e i l i n g depicts nine scenes from Genesis, and Butor has chosen to divide La Modif i c a t i on into nine chapters. The choice of t h i s number, whose square root i s three, symbol of the T r i n i t y , i s yet another reminder of the Chr i s t i an heritage from which LEon cannot escape. As Michelangelo makes use of the archi tec ture of the c e i l i n g to frame and separate the various scenes he depicts , so too Butor makes use of blank spaces and short passages i n the present tense to create an a rch i t ec tu ra l d i v i s i o n i n the text between LEon's various pasts and futures. This device, coupled with such key phrases as "de 1'autre c&t£ du cor r idor" (p. 62); "au dela de l a f e n § t r e " (p. 43), indicates to the reader that Butor i s s h i f t i n g from one time frame to another without in te r rup t ing the flow of LEon's thoughts, just as Michelangelo used the s t ruc tura l d iv i s i ons of the S i s t i ne C e i l i n g to sh i f t from one subject and timeframe to 85 another. In h i s discussion of the S i s t i n e C e i l i n g , Charles Seymour observes that : the c e i l i n g . . . presents a completely new sense of scale . . . What we f i n d . . . i s a unity on a h i ther to unprecedented grandeur of scale . . . We f i n d . . . an overwhelming t o t a l i t y of ex t r ao rd ina r i ly diverse , yet c lose ly in t e r lock ing images, motives and shapes . . . The f i r s t scene of the Genesis story that meets the observer 's eye inside the o r i g i n a l entrance i s The Drunkenness of Noah, which i s ac tua l ly the l a s t unit i n the narrat ive sequence as shown; and the l a s t vau l t composition to be seen, immediately before the a l t a r , i s The Separation of L igh t and Darkness, the f i r s t i n the Genesis narra t ive sequence depicted . . . By th i s device, which i n effect reverses the expected chronological order of events, the a r t i s t i n a v i s u a l sense l i f t s those events out of time and in to a whole new context of sensation and ideas. 9 S i m i l a r l y , the t r a d i t i o n a l , chronological approach to the past i s reversed i n La Modi f i ca t ion . In the course of h is journey to Rome, Leon's thoughts range from the immediate past (Par is , May 11th - 15th, 1955) to h i s honeymoon with Henriette i n Rome i n the spring of 1936, and from the immediate future (his weekend with C£ci le) to a more distant future i n which he imagines l i f e i n Par is with h i s Roman mist ress . The jux tapos i t ion and interweaving of these temporal elements re f lec t the impression of the "overwhelming t o t a l i t y of ex t r ao rd ina r i ly diverse , yet c lose ly in t e r lock ing images, motives and shapes" that Seymour notes i n the S i s t i ne 20 C e i l i n g . The complex temporal s tructure of Butor ' s novel , 86 l i k e Michelangelo 's masterpiece, " l i f t s [the] events out of time and in to a whole new context ." In pain t ing the S i s t i ne C e i l i n g , Michelangelo modelled h i s f igures on the works of Ancient Rome, and i n both the S i s t i ne C e i l i n g and the Last 'Judgement the influence of C l a s s i c a l ar t and sculpture i s c l ea r . However, he ce r t a in ly did not s l a v i s h l y copy the c l a s s i c a l forms, but developed h i s own s ty l e from them. In spi te of having to work w i t h i n very c l e a r l y defined a rch i t ec tu ra l and ideo log ica l l i m i t s , he succeeded i n creat ing a masterpiece whose innovative b r i l l i a n c e provides "a standard of excellence never O O superseded. The temporal s tructure of La 'MOdif ica t ion i s equally complex. In each of the nine chapters three di f ferent times (present, past and future) are juxtaposed with increasing complexity. This i s combined with the manipulation of space through the device of the t r a i n journey, which at the same time frames the ac t ion of the novel and gives i t freedom. The novel ' s density i s increased by the use of references to the works of ar t which, unl ike those of Passage de Milan and L'Emploi du temps are real and not imaginary. F i n a l l y the inc lus ion of the reader i n the text through the use of "vous" adds a further dimension as does Butor ' s use of imagery. A l l these elements combine to create a work whose richness and innovation re f lec t Michelangelo 's two great works. The S i s t i ne C e i l i n g and the Last Judgement influence not only the archi tec ture of the novel but also i t s impact on the 87 reader. As these works move i n and out of Leon's consciousness, they are a constant reminder, to him and to the reader, of western man's need to integrate h i s c u l t u r a l heritage into h i s present. Although LEon perceives himself as happiest walking among the r e l i c s of pagan Rome, t h i s need i s emphasized by the constant presence of the S i s t i ne Chapel in which, according to Jennifer Wael t i -Walters , "are united the pagan and C h r i s t i a n worlds i n a l l t he i r wisdom, s i b y l s and prophets together. I f we see the S i s t i ne Chapel as "the place where the i d e a l i s t i c and the r e a l i s t i c can be synthesized in to one magnificent whole, where the C h r i s t i a n present manifests i t s pagan o r ig in s and the legi t imate development from one to the other i s o b v i o u s , " 2 4 then we must r e a l i z e that only when LEon can achieve t h i s synthesis can he hope to move in to the future. The bream Sequences I t i s i n and through h i s a r t i s t i c endeavours that man's subconscious processes are expressed and the c o l l e c t i v e memory of h is race i s accessed. I t fo l lows , then, that LEon's t r a i n journey with i t s many tunnels, symbolic of a journey into the subconscious, should be peopled, f i r s t at a conscious l e v e l , i n h i s reminiscences of Rome and P a r i s , then at a subconscious l e v e l , in h i s dreams, by those works of ar t which have pa r t i cu la r s igni f icance i n h i s search for self-knowledge. Just as the t r a i n l i n k s the two centers, so 88 the dreams l i n k h i s conscious and subconscious r e a l i t i e s . His journey from Par is to Rome i s , at the mythological l e v e l , a journey of i n i t i a t i o n . 2 5 Like Aeneas he must descend in to the Underworld i n search of the foundations of his race. A study of the dream sequences, the myths and elements of the works of ar t portrayed i n them, shows how LEon makes t h i s journey. As the Frenchman t r ave l s through the forest of Fontainebleau on h i s return journey to Par is on November 11th, he imagines he sees " l a f igure d'un cava l ie r . . . dont vous avez meme 1'impression d'entendre l a cElebre p l a i n t e : ' M ' entendez-vous?"' (p. 116). This f i r s t imaginary glimpse of the "Grand Veneur" whose questions haunt Leon, i s a precursor of the dream sequences.2** Symbol of that ultimate moment of t ru th which i s our death, the Grand Veneur poses 27 the questions which LEon i s a f r a id to ask himself : "Ou etes-vous?" (p. 152), "Etes vous fou?" (p. 182) . F i n a l l y , in h i s dream-f i l led night , the Frenchman c l e a r l y hears a person "qui a l es memes vetements que vous, mais in t ac t s , porte a l a main une v a l i s e du meme modele que l a votre , semble un peu plus Sg6 que vous." (pp. 251-252). This double repeats the Grand Veneur's quest ions: "Qui etes-vous? Ou a l lez-vous? Que cherchez-vous? Qu 1attendez-vous? Que sentez-vous? Me voyez-vous? M'entendez-vous?" (p. 252). As night f a l l s LEon can no longer avoid facing these questions and seeking answers to them. He contemplates the book which 89 he had bought hur r ied ly at the s ta t ion books ta l l before leaving P a r i s , and which he has not read,.and r ea l i zes that , i f i t were to in teres t him at a l l "c ' au ra i t &t6 q u * i l se s e ra i t trouve" dans une conformity t e l l e avec votre s i t ua t ion q u ' i l vous aura i t expose a vous-meme votre probleme . . . " (p. 178) . As he continues h i s musings on the possible contents of t h i s book which symbolizes "ce l i v r e futur et n £ c e s s a i r e " (p. 283) that he w i l l begin to wr i te on h i s a r r i v a l in Rome, he imagines that i t t e l l s the story of "un homme perdu dans une f o r § t qui se referme der r ie re l u i sans q u ' i l a r r ive . . . " (p. 202). The p l i g h t of the "homme perdu" i s also Leon's p l i g h t and, as imagination gives way to dream, the middle-aged Frenchman embarks on the search for s e l f which he has so assiduously avoided i n h i s waking s ta te . In fac t , through the use of " i l " i n the dream segments, which e f f ec t i ve ly d issocia tes him and the reader from the experiences of the protagonist , Leon continues to avoid h i s inev i t ab le "prise de conscience." The fores t , in which the dreamer finds himself , evokes the forest of Fontainbleau, home of the Grand Veneur, and the sacred forest of the s ix th book of the Aeneid which L6on had read on h i s return from Rome on November 11th. As the dream progresses, the reader i s struck by other echoes of the Aeneid. Aeneas continuing h i s journey towards the Underworld, "aux premier feux du s o l e i l levant" f inds the 2 8 earth rumbling and trembling beneath h i s feet . S i m i l a r l y , 90 as he continues h i s journey, the LEon of the dream also finds that : . . . les plantes auxquelles i l veut se r e ten i r se dEracinent; l e s p ier res sur l esque l les i l veut poser l e s pieds s ' e f f r i t e n t , se dEchaussent, et roulent d'Etage en Etage jusqu'a ce q u ' i l ne puisse plus dis t inguer l e b ru i t de leur chute au m i l i e u du bourdonnement gEnEral qui v ient d'en bas (p. 206). We also f ind i n t h i s descr ip t ion a r e f l e c t i o n of the F a l l of the Damned i n the Last Judgement, as the dream, which at f i r s t resembles Aeneas's journey into the Underworld, i s gradually invaded by elements of Michelangelo 's work. The old woman i n the cave with her " resp i ra t ion lourde, rauque" (p. 214) r e c a l l s V i r g i l ' s descr ip t ion of the S i b y l of Cumes, "sa po i t r ine halete . . . sa vo ix n ' a plus un son O ft h u m a i n e . H e r question, "T'imagines-tu que je ne sa is pas que t o i aussi tu vas a l a recherche de ton pere a f i n q u ' i l t 'enseigne l ' a v e n i r de ta race?" (p. 214), coupled with the g i f t of "ces deux gateaux brQIEs dans l e four" (p. 215), leaves us i n no doubt that she represents the S i b y l of the Aeneid. However, t h i s " v i e i l l e femme immobile qui regarde un grand l i v r e " (p. 214) a lso re f l ec t s the S i b y l of Cumes of the S i s t i n e C e i l i n g . LEon's journey may re f lec t Aeneas's journey into the underworld, but i t cannot p a r a l l e l i t . Aeneas had set out i n search of his father and the knowledge of the future of h i s race, LEon denies t h i s : "je ne veux r i e n , 91 S i b y l l e , je ne veux que s o r t i r de l a , rentrer chez^moi, reprendre l e chemin que j ' a v a i s commence . . . " (p. 215). These words evoke the damned i n the Last Judgement f r a n t i c a l l y t ry ing to climb back up whence they came. The "personnage emmitoufl£, qui t i r e une lampe torche de sa poche . . . puis se recroquevi l le a l ' i n t g r i e u r de sa logette semblable a une 6norme motte de te r re . . . " (p. 202) i s seen by Patr ice Qu6r£el as being " l ' u n des demons places au bas du Jugement D e r n i e r . " 3 0 I t i s not d i f f i c u l t to recognize i n the "barque sans v o i l e s avec un v i e i l l a r d debout arm£ d'une rame q u ' i l t i en t lev£e sur son £paule comme pret a frapper" (p. 219) the ferryman depicted i n the bottom r ight corner of the Last Judgement. By his stance and the way in which he holds h i s oar, he r e f l ec t s Michelangelo 's work, h is beard and h i s eyes: " i l n 'y a point d'yeux mais seulement deux c a v i t t s semblables a des bruleurs avec des flammes s i f f l a n t e s . . . " (p. 219) mark him as the Charon of the Aeheid. As with the S i b y l , pagan and C h r i s t i a n mythology which have been brought together by Michelangelo 's works i n the S i s t i ne Chapel, are intertwined i n L§on 's subconscious where they f i n a l l y are expressed i n h i s dreams. Although, in the dream sequences, L£on, l i k e Aeneas, has received, "ces deux gateaux b ru i t s dans l e four" (p. 215) from the S i b y l , he i s refused the a id of the golden bough which, he i s t o l d i s "point pour t o i , point pour ceux qui sont aussi Strangers a 92 leurs d £ s i r s . " (p. 215). Unlike Aeneas, LEon does not know what he i s looking for on t h i s journey. His path thus diverges from that of Aeneas - i t i s not towards the E lys ian F ie lds that the Fenchman w i l l be taken i n Charon's boat but towards judgement by his pagan and C h r i s t i a n ancestors. This i s emphasized by the appearance, i n the course of his dream voyage, of metal ampl i f ie rs and of a "fine p lu i e de goudron qui devenait de plus en plus blanc comme de l a neige, de plus en plus sec comme des bribes de pages dEchirEes . . . " (p. 222). The metal ampl i f ie rs evoke the angels of the Last Judgement awakening the dead with golden trumpets whi l e , in the "bribes de pages d £ c h i r 4 e s " , we see the pages of the Holy Scr ipture which they are dropping on the dead. They are a symbolic reminder of L6on's Chr i s t i an her i tage. Aeneas's descent into the Underworld gives way in the dream sequence to the dreamer's a r r i v a l before "quelqu'un, nettement plus grand qu'un homme, avec non point un mais deux visages . . . " (p. 223). He i s Janus, the Roman god of beginnings. Even i n t h i s pagan f igure we can see an echo of the Last Judgement for , l i k e Janus, St. Bartholemew, as he -a i holds up h i s own sk in , has two faces. Janus i s seated i n front of " l a porte majeure mais sans tramways sans chemins de f e r , ouvr iers , n i foule . . . " (p. 223). L6on has a r r ived i n the ancient c i t y of his dreams whose monuments he has v i s i t e d and r e v i s i t e d with C £ c i l e . His guide through the ancient 93 c i t y i s a she-wolf symbolizing a return to the very beginnings of Rome. However the she-wolf leads him not to p re -Chr i s t i an Rome but to the catacombes where he sees "des gens en robes blanches qui portent des cadavres en chantant des cantiques . . . " (p. 232) I t i s fo l lowing t h i s dream sequence that he acknowledges "cette reorganisat ion de 1* image de vous-meme et de votre v i e " (p. 235) and f i n a l l y recognizes that the " i l " of the dream i s , in fac t , himself and " i l " becomes " v o u s " . 3 2 As the dream sequences progress, the d i s t i n c t i o n between dream and r e a l i t y becomes less d i s t i n c t ; conscious thought stimulates new dream sequences. Thus, from the memory of being seated opposite a reproduction of Michelangelo 's deluge, Leon's mind s l i p s back in to the dream where he i s met by a procession of cardinals who ask him, "Pourqoi prt tends-tu nous ha i r? ne sommes-nous pas des Romains?" (p. 257) They are followed by the Pope who asks t h i s man who i s " v e i l l e par tant d'images, incapable de les ordonner et de l e s nommer, pourquoi prt tends-tu aimer Rome? Ne su i s - j e pas l e fantdme des empereurs, hantant depuis des s i e c l e s l a cap i ta le de leur monde a b o l i , r e g r e t t £ ? " (p. 258). The Pope and h i s cardinals ve rba l ly de l ive r the message which Michelangelo has so graphica l ly declared i n the S i s t i ne C e i l i n g and the Last Judgement - that i t i s impossible to separate the ancient , pagan world from the Chr i s t i an world for the one has inher i ted the other. This i s underlined by 94 the parade of pagan gods (pp. 265-266) followed by the procession of emperors. Before the "Roi du Jugement" (p. 259), who i s not the benign f igure of C a v a l l i n i ' s Last Judgement but rather the stern, forbidding f igure of Michelangelo 's Chr is t i n h i s vers ion , LEon f i n a l l y has to face up to the fact that he i s i r revocably l inked to a l l of the past of his race and that he i s dammed not by Chr is t but by "tous ceux qui m'accompagnent et leurs ance t res , . . . . tous ceux qui t * accompagnent et leurs enfants" (p. 260). A l l of the ancestors depicted i n the S i s t i ne Chapel, coupled with those who have been met i n h i s dreams,.condemn LEon. This condemnation reaches a climax when, in response to Leon's attempt to reason with them, the gods and emperors of Ancient Rome converge on him: C'est une foule de visages qui s 1approchent, Enormes et haineux comme s i vous Et iez un insecte retournE, des E c l a i r s zebrant leurs faces et l a peau en tombant par plaques (p. 268) . Damned i n h i s dream by both the "Roi du Jugement" and the "Empereurs et dieux romains" (p. 268), symbolic representatives of the works of ar t which he has sought out e i ther i n r e a l i t y or i n h i s imagination, LEon must seek out and accept not only the gods of Ancient Rome but also h i s b i b l i c a l ancestors. As i n h i s dream, he must become fami l i a r wi th the messages of both V i r g i l and Michelangelo, of paganism and C h r i s t i a n i t y . Only then can he begin to f ind 95 himself through w r i t i n g , "ce l i v r e futur et ntcessaire dont vous tenez l a forme dans votre main" (p. 283). The works of ar t have influenced Da Modif ica t ion both i n terms of the novel ' s a rchi tec ture and of i t s psycho-social content. The c o n f l i c t between the "mythe romain" (p. 276) and C h r i s t i a n i t y expressed through these works and Leon's react ion to them re f lec t s not only the Frenchman's dilemma but the dilemma of modern Western man. At a time when the o l d , Cathol ic values are no longer v a l i d and when he has not been able to replace them, L6on, l i t e r a l l y strung between Pa r i s , once the center of the Napoleonic Empire, and Rome, center of f i r s t the C l a s s i c a l Roman then the Chr i s t i an Empires, epitomizes modern man's predicament. A product of both cu l tures , he no longer belongs to e i the r , as he flounders i n a constantly changing world, a world without a centre: Une des grandes vagues de l ' h i s t o i r e s'acheve a i n s i dans vos consciences, c e l l e ou l e monde avai t un centre, qui n ' e t a i t pas seulement l a terre au m i l i e u des spheres de Ptolemte, mais Rome au centre de l a te r re , un centre qui s 'est deplact , qui a cherche" a se f i x e r apres 1'tcroulement de Rome a Byzance, puis beaucoup plus tard dans l e Par is imper ia l , l ' 6 t o i l e noire des chemins de fer sur l a France 4tant comme 1'ombre de l ' e t o i l e des voies romaines. S i puissant pendant tant de s i ec les sur tous l e s r ives europtens, l e souvenir de L'Empire est maintenant une f igure insuff isante pour designer l ' a v e n i r de ce monde, devenu pour chacun de nous beaucoup plus vaste et tout autrement distribu<§ (p. 277) . 96 The C l a s s i c a l Roman, Renaissance and Napoleonic periods were eras which saw major paradigmatic s h i f t s i n society which were expressed i n the l i t e r a t u r e and a r t of the time. A s imi l a r paradigmatic s h i f t threatens the world of LEon Delmont whom we can see as a modern Everyman. Our reading of La Modif ica t ion t e l l s us that another paradigmatic s h i f t i s in process, as modern man t r i e s and f inds wanting the teachings of the C l a s s i c a l , Renaissance and Baroque periods. However, i t i s not only LEon who undergoes a transformation i n the course of his journey from Par i s to Rome: The novel as an ar t form has also been transformed. For, as man's ideology changes so must the a r t i s t i c and l i t e r a r y forms through which he expresses that form be changed. However, these necessary new forms cannot be created through a return to the past nor can they be created i n a vacuum. Like the S i s t i ne C e i l i n g and the Last  Judgement, they must resu l t from a knowledge and acceptance of his c o l l e c t i v e past. Only by exploring h i s past and recognizing a l l of h is ancestors, as has LEon i n h i s dream, by in tegra t ing that past in to h i s present, can man begin h i s search for a new form. This w i l l be expressed i n "ce l i v r e futur" (p. 283) which, l i k e Pannini*s view of Rome, w i l l both be closed - wi th in the frame of i t s covers - and open - the boundary between r e a l i t y and f i c t i o n , between reader and t ex t , w i l l be f l u i d . I t i s "ce l i v r e futur et nEcessaire dont vous tenez l a forme dans votre main" (p. 283). 97 Notes to Chapter I I 1 Michel Butor, L ' Emploi du temps, p. 9. 2 Michel Butor, La Modif ica t ion (Par i s : Les Edi t ions de Minui t , 1957), p. 10. Subsequent references to t h i s work w i l l be noted i n the t ex t . 3 The V i c t o i r e de Samothrace i s believed to commemorate a Greek naval v i c t o r y . 4 C. G. Jung, The Portable Jung t rans . R . F . C . H u l l , ed. Joseph Campbell (New York: V i k i n g Press, 1971), "In addi t ion to our immediate consciousness which i s of a thoroughly personal nature . . . there ex i s t s a second psychic system of a c o l l e c t i v e , universal and impersonal nature which i s i d e n t i c a l in a l l i n d i v i d u a l s . " 5 Francoise Van Rossum-Guyon, Cr i t ique du roman (Par i s : Gal l imard, 1970), p. 79. ^ Dean McWilliams, The Narrat ives of Michel Butor: The  Writer as Janus (Athens: Ohio Univers i ty Press, 1968), p. 37, 7 McWil l i lams, p. 37. "The Pa r i s i an Pantheon i n whose shadow Delmont l i v e s , i s b u i l t i n the c l a s s i c a l s t y l e , but was intended as a Cathol ic church and has several times served that funct ion. I t s model, portrayed by Pannini as one of the g lo r i e s of ancient Rome (52, 55), has fared no bet ter : the Roman Pantheon's brass roof was melted down and used to cast B e r n i n i ' s baldachin i n St . Peter ' s b a s i l i c a . " p Leon's choice of an opera i s in te res t ing i n terms of the s tructure of the novel whose nine chapters are divided in to three sections which can be seen as the three acts of an opera. 9 McWilliams, p. 35. 1 0 McWilliams, p. 36. 1 1 McWilliams, p. 36. T O - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -Dona1d Posner, Annibale Car racc i : A Study in the Reform of I t a l i a n Paint ing around 1950 (London: Phaidon Press, 1971) , p. 107. 13 Posner, p. 94. 14 Posner, p. 93. "The vaul t frescoes of the Farnese Gal le ry . . . celebrate the power and universal dominion of Love. " 98 15 16 17 Posner, p. 94. Posner, p. 94. Posner, p. 101. 18 Van Rossum-Guyon, pp. 246-247. " I l s u f f i t d'examiner l e texte d'un peu p lu pres pour constater que l e s fonctions d ' in t roduc t ion et de l i a i s o n que l ' o n peut reconnaltre aux strophes descr ip t ives relevent d'une motivation qui n 'est pas r E a l i s t e mais compositionnelle . . . De meme que les sequences r e l a t i ve s au passe" avec CEc i l e et au passe" avec Henriette sont associEes aux motifs f i x e s : 'sur l e tapis de fer chauffant' et 'un homme passe l a t&te par l a po r t e ' , les sequences au present au futur et au passe" proche sont associEes respectivement aux mot i f s : 'passe l a gare de 1 , 'de 1*autre cdte" du c o r r i d o r ' , 'au-dela de l a f e n e t r e . ' . " 1 9 Charles Seymour J r . ed , , Michelangelo: The S i s t i ne  Chapel C e i l i n g (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1972), pp. 84-85) . 2 0 Seymour, p. 84. 2 1 Seymour, p. 85. 99 Seymour, p. 73. - - - - -J Jennifer Wael t i -Walters , Michel BUtor: A Study of  h i s View of the World and a Panorama of h is Works ( V i c t o r i a , B . C . , Sono Nis Press, 1977), p. 50. 2 4 Waelt i -Walters , p. 50. 25 Joseph Campbell, The Hero with a Thousand Faces (Princeton, N . J . : Princeton Univers i ty Press, 1968), LEon goes through the r i t e s of i n i t i a t i o n described by Campbell: "separation i n i t i a t i o n re turn ." 2fc .. _ _._ "LEgende du Grand veneur." Larousse du XXe S i e c l e , 1933 ed. "On nomme a i n s i une lEgende rEpandue parmi les gardes et l e s bucherons de l a fordt de Fontainebleau. Aut re fo i s , nombre de vieux fo re s t i e r s prEtendaient avoi r rencontre" ce Grand veneur, tout de noir vStu, une plume rouge a son chapeau, sonnant effroyablement de l a trompe et galopant derr iere une meute sur un cheval noi r aux naseaux flamboyants. Sa rencontre E t a i t toujours de mauvais presage. On l i t , dans l e ' Journal de P ie r re de l ' E s t o i l e , * a l a date du 20 aout 1598, qu'Henri IV, chassant dans l a f o r £ t de Fontainebleau, fut tout Etonne" d'entendre l e cor et l es aboiements des chiens d'une chasse autre que l a sienne, et que l e comte de Goissons, Etant a l l E , sur son ordre, a l a 99 rencontre de ces chasseurs, v i t distinctement l e Grand veneur et sa meute, qui disparurent auss i td t : c ' e t a i t l e prEsage de l a mort prochaine de G a b r i e l l e d 'Es t rEes . " 2 7 Pa t r ice Qu£r£el , "La Modif ica t ion" de Butor (Par i s : Hachette, 1973), p. 76. QuErEel i d e n t i f i e s the Grand Veneur as the symbol of death: " l a mort elle-meme represented par l e Grand Veneur." 2 8 V i r g i l e , p. 249. 2 9 V i r g i l e , p. 249. 3 0 QuSrdel, p. 76. 3 1 Qu£r£el , pp. 76-77. " . . . et Charon f a i t place au douanier Janus avec son double visage. Mais saint BarthElemy, chez Michel-Ange, n ' e s t - i l pas, une reincarnat ion du dieu palen? Le saint l u i aussi possede deux visages p u i s q u ' i l t i en t a l a main sa propre peau d'ecorchE v i f . " 3 2 Michel L e i r i s , Le R£alisme Mythologique de Michel  Butor (Par i s : Les Edi t ions de Minui t , 1957), p. 301. L e i r i s points out that i t i s at the moment when " l ' egarE" becomes an "assoiffE" that the second person p lu r a l reappears. 100 CONCLUSION From our study of the works of ar t i n L 'Emploi du temps and La Modi f ica t ion , we f ind that the two novels have much i n common. From the "coin cou lo i r face a l a marche"-1-, common to both t r a v e l l e r s , to the ra in which f a l l s on Bleston and Par i s a l i k e , they re f lec t one another. The mirrors of Bles ton ' s drawing rooms become the mirror i n Leon's bedroom, not to mention the r e f l e c t i v e windows of the Paris/Rome t r a i n i n which he t r ave l s through the night . The vaulted roof of the dingy Hamilton Street Sta t ion i s ref lec ted i n a grandiose fashion i n the soaring archi tec ture of the magnificent Statione Termini . Jacques Revel arms himself with a map for h i s year of explorat ion i n Bles ton, L6on ca r r i es a railway t imetable. Both men are employed i n monotonous jobs and fee l as i f they are being dragged down in to o b l i v i o n : Revel by Bles ton ' s " s o r c e l l e r i e " , Delmont by his meaningless job and dreary marriage. Although the i r overt reactions d i f fe r -Revel seeks to regain control over h i s l i f e through w r i t i n g a re t rospect ive d ia ry , while Delmont seeks renewal and rejuvenation i n the arms of h is I t a l i a n mistress - t he i r journeys are e s sen t i a l l y one and the same. They are both, at the beginning of the novels, se t t ing out on a journey of s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n i n which they w i l l explore not only the i r i nd iv idua l pasts but the c o l l e c t i v e past of mankind. If they are to become "cet homme l i b r e et sincere" (M. p. 155) which both dream of being, they must acknowledge and accept t h i s 101 heritage as an in tegra l part of t he i r being. Their explorat ion of man's past i s accomplished with the a id of the works of ar t which, as we have seen, represent key periods i n the h i s to ry of western man. Chr i s t i an h i s to ry and c l a s s i c a l mythology, through the medium of these works, weave i n and out of both novels. In L'Emploi du temps the emphasis i s placed on the Greek heroes, Theseus and Oedipus, and the story of Cain; i n La Modi f ica t ion , on the Roman hero, Aeneas, on the story of Genesis and on the Last Judgement. Thus, between the two novels, the major periods of western c i v i l i z a t i o n are represented. In both novels Butor uses the p l a s t i c a r t s : tapestry, stained glass , archi tec ture i n L 'Emploi du temps; a rch i tec ture , sculpture and pa in t ing i n La Modi f i ca t ion . In L 'Emploi du temps these works, although based on c l a s s i c a l mythology and C h r i s t i a n i t y , are f i c t i o n a l , while i n La Modif ica t ion they 2 are a l l v e r i f i a b l e . L i t e ra ry works also appear i n both novels - the f i c t i o n a l novel in L'Emploi du temps, V i r g i l ' s Aeneid, the Let te rs of J u l i a n the Apostate and the unread novel in La Modi f i ca t ion . Butor has described L'Emploi du 3 temps as "une sorte d'immense canon temporel" while La Modif ica t ion may be seen as a three act opera. At the thematic l e v e l , one of the major differences between the works of ar t i n L'Emploi du temps and those of La Modif ica t ion i s that , in the former, the works of ar t , 102 although based on v e r i f i a b l e s to r ies such as the Theseus myth and B i b l i c a l h i s to ry , are a l l imaginary. In La Modi f ica t ion , moreover, the works as we l l as the myths are v e r i f i a b l e . Thus, in L'Emploi du temps the reader shares Revel ' s ignorance of the works of ar t and explores them with him. Revel ' s lack of knowledge extends from the works of ar t to the myths and h i s tory which they portray. As he admires the Murderer's Window he confesses: "Je suis d'Education catholique romaine, mais i l y a longtemps que j ' a i l a i s s E effacer en moi l a plupart des rudiments d ' ' H i s t o i r e Sainte 1 que l ' o n m'avait inculquEs. . . . " 4 Revel 's hazy reco l l ec t ions of the "His to i re Sainte" and of c l a s s i c a l mythology br ing him to the works of ar t with a more innocent and l ess se lec t ive a t t i tude than we observe i n Delmont. For, while Delmont*s choice of reading mater ia l ( V i r g i l ' s Aeneid and the Let te rs of J u l i a n the Apostate) demonstrates h i s knowledge of, and in teres t i n the C l a s s i c s , h is exclus ive in teres t i n the C l a s s i c a l period t e s t i f i e s to a ce r ta in closed mindedness on h i s par t . Just as LEon Delmont i s more knowledgeable than Jacques Revel , so the reader of La Modif ica t ion w i l l benefit from br inging to h i s reading of t h i s novel a wider c u l t u r a l background than that required of the reader of L 'Empioi du  temps. Since, as we have noted, the works of ar t i n the l a t t e r are a l l f i c t i o n a l , the only demand on the reader 's c u l t u r a l knowledge i s that he have some f a m i l i a r i t y with the 103 myth of Theseus and the B i b l e . However, Butor ' s use, not only of mythology, but a lso of real works of ar t i n La Modif i ca t ion makes greater demands on the reader. In L'Emploi du temps the complex re la t ionships of the works of ar t with each other and t h e i r influence on Revel can, as we have shown i n our study, be traced i n the t ex t . On the other hand, i n La Modi f ica t ion , i f the reader i s not f a m i l i a r , at leas t with Michelangelo 's two great works i n the S i s t i ne Chapel and with V i r g i l ' s Aeneid, in pa r t i cu l a r the s ix th book, h is understanding of the novel w i l l be l i m i t e d at best. To understand the dream sequences i n La Modi f ica t ion , for example, we must be f ami l i a r with V i r g i l ' s s i x th book and with the Last Judgement whi le i n L 'Emploi du temps, some knowledge of mythology i s useful , but we can adequately in terpret the dreams by refer r ing to the f i c t i o n a l works described i n the t ex t . In both novels, the complex in t e r re l a t ionsh ips between one work and another, between the di f ferent works and Revel ' s and Leon's l i v e s , as we l l as between the works and the dream sequences emphasize the complexity of Butor ' s f i c t i v e universe. It i s a world i n which we cannot confine ourselves to one pa r t i cu la r period to the exclusion of a l l others - Revel ' s year i n Bles ton, Leon's nos ta lg ia for ancient Rome do not form i so la ted u n i t s . Like the f i c t i o n a l characters, we are forced into the acknowledgement, acceptance and in tegra t ion of our personal and c o l l e c t i v e past. 104 In h i s use of the works of a r t , Butor i s explor ing the ro le of the past i n the present not only at the phi losophica l and psychological l e v e l s but a lso at the s t ruc tura l l e v e l . For, while we can say that the banal i ty of his heroes and t h e i r s i tua t ions brands them as Everyman, that banal i ty can also be seen to put story in a secondary pos i t ion leaving the true emphasis to be placed on form and experimentation with form. There i s nothing new in the story of a man alone i n a foreign c i t y or of a middle-aged man torn between a d u l l marriage and an exot ic mistress , these have been the basic bu i ld ing blocks of the story since man f i r s t f i l l e d h i s l e i s u r e hours with story t e l l i n g . The challenge l i e s i n how the blocks can be rearranged. Butor, i n an interview with Georges Charbonnier, has commented: "Quand je rE f lEch i s sur l e s l i v r e s que j ' a i dEja f a i t s , j ' a i 1'impression q u ' i l s sont presque tous p a r e i l s , je retrouve l e s memes themes dans tous 5 ces l i v r e s . . . . " This choice of the same or s imi l a r themes has l e f t Butor free to experiment with form. In both novels, therefore, Butor has sought to answer the fundamental questions: What i s the ro le of the novel as an a r t form? How do we represent time and space i n the novel? His use of myth and h i s to ry , as we have seen, demonstrates h i s view of the novel as an encyclopedic work whose purpose i s not so much to enter ta in as to remind the reader of the ongoing influence of his c u l t u r a l background and to involve him in the n o v e l i s t i c process. The 105 use of the diary form with i t s concomitant use of the f i r s t person singular i n L'Empioi du temps and of the second person p l u r a l in La Modif i c a t i on further the aim of reader involvement. Although, as we have noted, f a m i l i a r i t y with the works of Michelangelo enhances the reader 's appreciat ion of La Modi f ica t ion , Butor ' s choice of mythical and h i s t o r i c a l s to r i es i n both novels (Theseus, Aeneas, Cain, Genesis, the Last Judgement) i s such that they could be expected to be recognized by the average French reader. The f a m i l i a r i t y of the s t o r i e s , l i k e the use of "vous" i n La Modif ica t ion i nv i t e s the reader 's involvement. He must pa r t i c ipa te a c t i v e l y i n these novels ' const ruct ion. Butor ' s use of the p l a s t i c a r t s and, i n the structure and rhythm of the novels, music, t e s t i f i e s to h i s stated b e l i e f that , the novel i s in t imately l inked with music i n i t s explora t ion of time, and i s c lose ly related to the p l a s t i c g ar t s i n i t s explorat ion of space . The mathematical s t ructure , the reprises of spec i f i c scenes or phrases, the rhythmic cadence of the language which at times can be read l i k e a prose-poem, the temporal f l e x i b i l i t y of the novels, a l l these elements f i n d t h e i r o r ig ins i n musical form. This temporal f l e x i b i l i t y i s , however, achieved through the manipulation of n o v e l i s t i c space and references to works of a r t . By re-presenting these representations of r e a l i t y , by interweaving t h e i r s to r i es with each other and with the 106 s to r i e s of Revel and Delmont, and by experimenting with the i r forms i n the structure of his novels, Butor has succeeded i n representing " r e a l i t y " i n a new way. The two works which we have studied, together with h i s l a t e r works, show that , although there i s a f i n i t e number of s to r i es ava i l ab le to us, there i s an i n f i n i t e number of ways of t e l l i n g or s t ruc tur ing them. For Butor, the only way to explore these ways i s through w r i t i n g , for i n w r i t i n g he can bring a l l a r t forms and a l l of h is tory together i n an explorat ion which, as the a rb i t r a ry endings of both novels seem to say, could go on forever. 107 Notes to Conclusion 1 Michel Butor, La Modif ica t ion (Par i s : Minu i t , 1957), p. 10. Subsequent references to t h i s work w i l l be noted i n the text as L . M . L Francoise Van Rossum-Guyon, Cr i t ique du Roman (Par i s : Gall imard, 197 0) , pp. 46-80 . Van Rossum-Guyon discusses the " v e r i f i a b l e " i n La Modif ica t ion i n t h i s chapter. 5 Georges Charbonnier, Entretiens avec Michel Butor (Pa r i s : Gal l imard , 1967), p. 106. 4 Michel Butor, L'Emploirdu temps (Par i s : Minu i t , 1956) , p. 74. 5 Charbonnier, p. 99. 6 Michel Butor, "L'Espace du Roman," Repertoire I I (Pa r i s : Minui t , 1964), pp. 42-43. 108 Bibliography Works by Michel Butor Butor, Miche l . Passage de Mi lan . P a r i s : Les Edi t ions de Minui t , 1954. L'Empioi du temps. P a r i s : Les Edi t ions de Minui t , 1956. La Modi f ica t ion . P a r i s : Les Edi t ions de Minui t , 1957. 1960. 1964. Degrees. P a r i s : Gal l imard, 1960. REpertoire. P a r i s : Les Edi t ions de Minui t , Repertoire I I . P a r i s : Les Edi t ions de Minui t , "Une technique soc ia le du roman. " Obiiques, 24/25, N.D. Works c i t e d Campbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Princeton, N. J . : Princeton Univers i ty Press, 1968. Charbonnier, Georges. Entretiens avec Michel Butor. P a r i s : Gal l imard, 1967. Cheval ier , Jean, A l a i n Gheerbrant, ed. Dic t ionna i re des Symboles. P a r i s : Seghers and Jup i t e r , 1973. V o l . 1, 3 and 4. Dallenbach, Lucien. Le' REci t spEcula i re . P a r i s : Edi t ions du S e u i l , 1977. Davies, J . C. "Butor and the Power of A r t : the Quest of Jacques Reve l . " Aus t r a l i an Journal of French Studies, XVI, Part 1 and 2 (1979), pp. 105-115. Jongeneel, E l s . "Un M e u r t r i e r e n cause - l a fonction du ' V i t r a i l de Cain ' dans L'Emploi du temps de Michel Butor ." Neophilologus, 64, no. 3 (July 1980), pp. 358-373. 109 Jung, C. J . The Portable Jung. Trans. R . F . C . H u l l , ed. Joseph Campbell. New York: V i k i n g Press, 1971. Larousse du X X e S i e c l e . P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e Larousse, 1933. L e i r i s , Miche l . Le R6alisme Mytholoqique de Michel Butor. P a r i s : Les Edi t ions de Minui t , 1957. McWilliams, Dean. The" Narrat ives of Michel Butor: The Writer as Janus. Athens: Ohio Univers i ty Press, 1978. Meakin, p . , a n d E . D a n d . "Alchemyand Optimism in Butor 1 s L'Emploi du temps." Forum for Modern Language Studies, 15 (1979), pp. 264-278. Paterson, Janet M. "Le V i t r a i l de Cain: L1Engendrement textuel dans L'Emploi du temps de Michel Butor . " Romanic Review, 70, no. 4 (November 1979), pp. 375-383. Posner, Donald. Annibale C a r r a c c i : A S t u d y i n the Reform of I t a l i a n Paint ing around 1590. London: Phaidon Press, 1971. Proust, Marcel . A l a Recherche du temps perdu. P a r i s : Gal l imard, 1954. Qu4r£el , Pa t r i ce . "La Modi f ica t ion" de Butor. P a r i s : Hachette, 1973. Seymour, Charles J r . , ed. Michelangelo: The S i s t i n e Chapel C e i l i n g . New York: W. W. Norton, 1972. Van Rossum-Guyon, Francoise. Cr i t igue du* Roman. P a r i s : Gall imard, 1970. V i r g i l e . L ' Eneide. Trans. Maurice Pat. P a r i s : Gamie r , 1955. Wa e l t i -Wal ters , Jennifer . Michel B u t o r A Study of his View of the World and a Panorama of h is Work, 1954-1974. V i c t o r i a , B . C . : Sono Nis Press, 1977. Works consulted Baguley, D a v i d . " T h e Reign of Chronos : (More ) on Alchemy in Butor ' s L 'Emploi du temps." Forum for Modern Language  Studies, XVI (1980), pp. 281-292. Be rgson ,Henr i . Essai sur l e s donntes immtdiates de l a conscience. 1888 rpt . P a r i s : Presses un ive r s i t a i r e s de France, 1940. 110 Dal1enbach, Lucien. Le l i v r e et ses mi ro i r s dans l 'oeuvre romanesque de Michel Butor. P a r i s : Minard, 1972. De Tolnay, Charles. Michelangelo. Princeton, N. J . : Princeton Univers i ty Press, 1975. Gaugeard, Jean. "Michel Butor: Repertoire IT . " Les Let t res  francaises, no. 1022 (26 March 1964), p. 4. Grant, Marian A. Michel Butor: "L'Empioi du temps." London: Edward Arnold, 1973. G r i m a l , P i e r r e . Dic t ionnai re de l a mythologie grecque et  romaine. P a r i s : Presses un ive r s i t a i r e s de France, 1969. Hamilton, Ed i th . Mythology. 1927 rpt . New York: New American L i b r a r y , 1969. Hart t , Frederick. History of I t a l i a n Renaissance A r t . New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1969. Jefferson, Ann. The Nouveau roman and the Poetics of F i c t i o n . Cambridge: Cambridge Univers i ty Press, 1980. Martens, Lorna. "Empty Center and Open End?_Th_e theme of Language i n Michel Butor ' s L ' Emploi du- temps. " PMLA, 96, no. 1 (January 1981), pp. 49-63. McWilliams, Dean. "The Novel i s t as Archeologis t : Butor*s L'Emploi du temps." L ' E s p r i t CrEateur, 15 (1975), pp. 367-376. "Mythic Structures in Michel Butor ' s Nar ra t ives . " French L i t e r a tu r e Series no. 3 (1976), pp. 129-137. P o u i l l o n , Jean. Temps et Roman. P a r i s : Gal l imard, 1946. Poulet, Georges. Etudes sur l e temps humain, 3. P a r i s : Edi t ions du Rocher, 1964. R a i l l a r d , Georges. L'Exemple. P a r i s : Union GEnErale d ' E d i t . , 1966. Ricardou, J . Problemes du nouveau roman. P a r i s : S e u i l , 1967. Le Nouveau roman. P a r i s : S e u i l , 1973. Ricoeur, Paul . Temps et r l c i t . P a r i s : S e u i l , 1983. I l l Roudraut, Jean. Michel Butor ou l e l i v r e futur . P a r i s : Gal l imard, 1964. Roudiez, L4on S. Michel Butor . New York: Columbia Univers i ty Press, 1965. "Murs, fenStres, m i r o i r s : r e f l e c t i o n s a p a r t i r de textes de Michel Butor . " Stanford French Review, 2, 1 (Spring 1978), pp. 81-90. Ryan, Marie-Laure. "Michel Butor ' s L'Emploi du temps: Matrix of a Phenomenology of Reading." L ' E s p r i t CrEateur XXI, no. 2 (Summer 1981), pp. 60-69. St . P ie r re , GaEtan. "Point de vue na r r a t i f et technique de l a 'coincidence ' dans deux romans de Michel Butor . " L i b e r t y , 12, 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1970), pp. 99-108. Spencer, Sharon. Space, Time and Structure . New York: New York Univers i ty Press, 1971. Spi tzer , Leo. "Quelques aspects d e l a technique des romans de Michel Butor . " Archivum Linguis t icum, 13 (1961), pp. 171-195, and 14 (1962), pp. 49-76. Sturrock, John. The French New Novel. London: Oxford Univers i ty Press, 1979. Warme, Lars G. "Reflect ion and Revelat ion i n Michel Butor ' s La Mod i f i c a t i on . " in te rna t iona l F i c t i o n Review, 1, no. 2 (July 1974), pp. 88-95. Weinstein, A r n o l d . " O r d e r and Excess i n Butor ' s L'Emploi du temps." Modern F i c t i o n Studies, 16, no. 1 (Spring 1970), pp. 41-55. 

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