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Nectar and ambrosia for tea : the bringing home of myth in C.S. Lewis Esau, Debra Laurie 1984

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NECTAR AND AMBROSIA FOR TEA: THE BRINGING HOME OF MYTH IN C .  S.  LEWIS  By DEBRA LAURIE ESAU B.A.  ( H o n s . ) , Queen's U n i v e r s i t y ,  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED IN P A R T I A L  1981  FULFILLMENT  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH  We a c c e p t t h i s  t h e s i s as  to the required  conforming  standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA November  1984  Co) ^ Debra L a u r i e E s a u ,  1984  OF  In  presenting  requirements  this for  an  of  British  it  freely available  agree for  that  I  by  understood  that  his  that  or  be  her or  shall  of  Date  »E-6  rvsn  C  the  University shall  and  study.  I  copying  granted  by  the  of  publication  not  be  allowed  Columbia  WW  of  make  further this  head  representatives.  • English  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h 1956 Main M a l l Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  at  the  Library  permission.  Department  f u l f i l m e n t of  the  extensive  may  copying  f i n a n c i a l gain  degree  reference  for  purposes  or  partial  agree  for  permission  scholarly  in  advanced  Columbia,  department  for  thesis  It  this  without  thesis  of  my  is  thesis my  written  ii  The him  peculiar  to  one  century, the  young  of  his  view  audience  spanning  international  vision,  rooted  Lewis'  which  of  primary  to  his  His  theory,  nor  rather,  it  is  nativeness.  framework  L e w i s i an  principal  embrace,  and  to  of  a  and  its  the  this  duet  of  Each of  informing  inexorable  his  logic  the  a  by  worlds  a  is  not  remote  or  peculiar of  'ordinary' of  the  Christian  the  yet  ever  is  grain  of  is  to  transcendent  adjunct  providing  three  novels  repeats  mythological  ethos,  as  does  a  in  as of of of  visceral  romances  'extraordinary'  was  romanticism;  and  planetary  works  pattern  extraneous  the  entire  therefore his  as  deeply.  his  his  "hominess"  in  keynote  of  a  Lewis'  more  mythological  the  also  fulfillment  it  and  Such  Ultimately,  and  of  universality  quiddity,  aesthetic,  and  comprised  every aspect  Lewis'  mythological  twentieth  cosmology.  espouse  as  very  the  and  literary aesthetic  sensibility  comprise  to  strain.  structure  piece,  commended  and  from  reality.  ratification  t i m b r e of h i s  fantasy  expression  arises  to  characterized The  for  its  comprising  it  own  deeper  experience,  mythological does  appeal  its  and  of  imagination,  thought.  concrete  works  citizen,  profound  was  personal  average  have  of  boundaries  having  he came life  audiences  mythological  finds  The m y t h o l o g i c a l  integral  and  Lewis  a fundamentally  greater  whole  product  as  largest  universal  in  cosmology  Christianity  the  Lewis'  some  mythological  ethos.  academic  everything  heralding  the  old,  C.S.  of  and  alike.  sees  sensibility  broadest  and  secularist  and  the  of  an  talents  lend  a  graphic  which  heralds  microcosm  the  the  tri-partite  i i i structure of In nature, Each  t h e p l a n e t a r y t r i l o g y as a w h o l e .  the  first  chapter,  scope,  and  inner  treating  one  of  chapters  explore  the  parabolic  symbol,  theme  technique  and  meaningful  powerful  exponent o f  in  thesis  consistency  the  of  paradigmatic the  of  planetary  reiteration  and  creating  this  trilogy  self-contained the Lewisian  thoroughly the  expansive  romances, that  mytholgoical  method. is  judged  works  ethos.  the  of  The to  investigates L e w i s i an three  be  art,  in  in  theme,  together  successful, and  ethos.  subsequent  ethos  knitting  the  both  providing  of in a  iv  T a b l e o f Contents  Chapter I:  I n t r o d u c t i o n : The L e w i s i a n Ethos  1  Chapter I I :  Out o f the S i l e n t P l a n e t : L e a r n i n g the Language  68  Chapter I I I :  P e r e l a n d r a : T a s t i n g the Language  Chapter IV: Bi b l i o g r a p h y : That Hideous S t r e n g t h : Speaking the Language Primary  Sources  Secondary  Sources  113  161 212 215  1  Chapter I n t r o d u c t i o n : The  I Lewisian  Ethos  In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , a l l moments are key moments, and l i f e i t s e l f i s g r a c e . F r e d e r i c k Buechner  Clive affinity his  Staples  and  appearance never  cut  hapless  John Ensor, who  arranged  Electric  and  well  worn  would  tweed  extraordinary observers  resolutely  very  dashing  he  jacket  met and  on  1  uncommon  Lewis t h a t even  He suits  to the C h r i s t i a n  a t Paddington  an  had  a  florid  would  resign  h i s r a t h e r dumpy frame.  in  1944,  S t a t i o n : '"He  trousers  seem u n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e i n appearance from  folk. "  New  i n Middlesex  corduroy  with  agree with  figure.  f o r Lewis to t a l k Institute  man  commonplace.  heaps once draped  Musical  d e s c r i p t i o n o f the man  an  Several  was  a  themselves i n t o  the  was  f o r the o r d i n a r y .  personal  aspect  Lewis  with  fawn  scores  of  Mr.  Fellowship gives was  us  this  dressed  raincoat, other  of  in and  ordinary  1  The  aura  outstanding characterizes  of men  commonness of  Lewis  which  letters the  author  of as  clung the much  to  the  presence  twentieth as  the  century  personage.  of  one  in For  a  of  the  manner example,  1 As quoted by Clyde S. Kilby, in "The Creative Logician Speaking," i n C S . Lewis: Speaker & Teacher, ed. C a r o l y n Keefe (Toronto: Hodder and Stoughton, 1971), pp. 23-24; the a r t i c l e i s c i t e d h e r e a f t e r as " C r e a t i v e L o g i c i a n , " and the volume i s c i t e d h e r e a f t e r as Speaker & Teacher.  2 Lewis'  literary  Christianity, grasped this  distillation  is  by t h e  material  readily  yet  topics  of  deeper  the  to  the  confirms  willing  concise  in  to  and His  to  gift Before  tackle,  the  for  of  is  Pain,  basic one  of  everyman, even  on  the  scale  easily  ten-minute  what  of  to  Mere  presentation brief  Problem  addressing  "on  of  penchant  speaking  faith,  document,  original  The  of  of  lucid  series  his  common m a n . his  elements  several  testifies  understanding. is  catholic  street.  broadcast  BBC, f u r t h e r  books,  Lewis  man on  radio,  accessible  earlier  book,  a comprehensive  on  Lewis'  his  the  ordinary  a d d r e s s e s on t h e and  of  main  of  a  subject  pamphlet  in  of a  2 church  porch,  it  provides  is,  Austin can,"  .  Farrer  .  .  an  the  excellent  judges.  continues  the  ready  whole  within  the  bracing  of  ability  Lewis'  solid  citing p.  life  matrix  sense  of  a  is  term  firm  of  theism."  example  "Without  Farrer,  ("Christian Apologist," This  origins  of  reserve Lewis'  "The  the or  chapter,  author's  good  affectation  he  "pastoral  concern"  slight  as  management," does  for  his  what  he  readers  34). to  discern  and o e u v r e . of  a  and The  appreciate man and  down-to-earth  groundwork.  basics his  reality,  "Sane,"  a  word  characterizes  work which  stand  rooted  provides  used  lovingly  the by  3 Lewis, Lewis'  a  profundity  also  often  comprises  a  employed disarming  by and  his  critics  forthright  and  reviewers.  simplicity--the  2 Austin Farrer, "The Christian Apologist," in Light on C.S. L e w i s , e d . J o c e l y n G i b b ( L o n d o n : G e o f f r e y B l e s , 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 3 4 ; t h e v o l u m e i s c i t e d h e r e a f t e r as L i g h t . C h a d W a l s h , "The E l u s i v e l y S o l i d C . S . L e w i s , " Good Work ( W i n t e r , 1967); rpt. "C.S. Lewis: The Man a n d t h e Mystery," in Shadows of Imagination, ed. Mark R. Hillegas, new ed., Crosscurrents/Modern C r i t i q u e s , g e n . e d . H a r r y T. Moore ( C a r b o n d a l e , [ I L ] : S o u t h e r n Illinois U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ; L o n d o n : F e f f e r and S i m o n s , 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 5; t h e a r t i c l e i s c i t e d h e r e a f t e r a s "The Man and t h e M y s t e r y . " 3  3 polar well  opposite  of  as C h r i s t i a n  naive  simplism.  apologist  As  literary  and m o r a l i s t ,  critic  Lewis was  and  always  through s e n t i m e n t , suave r h e t o r i c , and unwarranted c a s t l e d e f t and p i e r c i n g false  s t r o k e s he would  as  ready t o c u t  building.  the s k e l e t o n s s h i v e r i n g  With  beneath  sophistication. Such  simplicity, qualified  characterizes Nevill  applauds  standard  even  simplicity"  conversation  and  continues  of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n complex  Evan  Lewis'  K.  fiction:  Lewis'  and  to f i n d  "weight  and g e n i a l and  "The  child  and  into  meaning,  to h i s readers.  "easy  handling  He  also  and  clarity  o f argument,  and  touches praises  of the  the  adult—indicate  of his prose  sudden  turns  s h o r t sentence t o sum personal  approach"  down-to-earth  oral-sounding  analogies,  of  admires  In Lewis' most complex  paradox, the t e l l i n g  simple  or  him  criticism.^  (p. 61).  similarly  and  English"  literary  unexpected  Gibson  endears  probe  "sudden, p r o v o c a t i v e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s "  prose  illustrations  reader—whether  "homely  polemical  paragraph,  59-60).  the  to  the "pungent  Coghill  as i t i s by a robust  the corpus o f Lewis' work and  Coghill  clauses"  clear  expose  scholar,  sentences,  eye-level a writer  meeting  with  a  (pp.  quality the  of  crystal-  with  style  a  the  for a l l  5 seasons.  The common touch was,  Lewis'  lifestyle  bears  literature.  Thomas Howard t e l l s  experience,  "most  T e a c h e r , p. x ) .  of  i t very  "I would  like  indeed, at h i s f i n g e r t i p s . " the  same  us t h a t humdrum  stamp  of  simplicity  as  his  Lewis wrote and spoke out o f h i s e x p e r i e n c e " (Foreword,  everything  t o be  immemorial--to  Speaker have  &  the  4 "The Approach t o E n g l i s h , " i n L i g h t , p. 65. 5 CS. Lewis: Spinner University Press, 1980), p~. h e r e a f t e r as S p i n n e r o f T a l e s .  of 5l  Tales (Washington, D.C: emphasis added. The book  Christian i s cited  4 same  old  there, left  horizons,  changeless,"  the  United  once w i t h  his  her  death.  as  began  To  solitary  Such cup  a  Kingdom  with  a  of  to  a  end  large  tea  twice,  an  or  once her  with  enough  two  talk or  a  and  great  serve  of  lighter long  in  World  visiting  be  later  sounds,  a  War  I,  by  until  reading.  day,  enough  by  lunch  can't  suit  me,'"  an  and  evening  '"You  to  such  and enhanced  the  7  and  before  complemented  solitude"  Lewis  Greece  "normal"  followed  work  always  traveller,  in  preferably  "taken  book  a  day would  hours  or  to  and  Then t e a ,  smells  dream o f  study,  coffee,  further  same Never  ideal  of  walk.  and  the  fulfill  taste,  of  countryside  tea  only  morning  cup  day would  garden,  confesses.^  wife  Lewis'  reading,  same  Lewis  ailing  eleven-o'clock  light  the  a by  meal. get  a  Lewis  remarked.** A  survey  various  of  Lewis  evaluations  writing.  There  emphasis  on t h e  is  of even  British  example, W a l t e r Hooper own  simple  desire  criticism the  reveals  domestic  agreement  among  institution sums up h i s  "for  one  more  and  of  a  surprising  homely  critics  tea.  profound  In  qualities upon  Light  admiration  conversation  homogeneity  with  Lewis' on C . S . for  him  of  in  Lewis'  particular Lewis,  for  t h e man i n  his  over  tea  in  the  discussing  the  q sitting-room  of  the  Kilns  [Lewis'  Oxford  "To a L a d y , " 21 N o v . 1 9 6 2 , L e t t e r s (London: G e o f f r e y B l e s , 1966), 306; the Letters. 6  7 Lewis, Geoffrey Bles,  In  o f C . S . L e w i s , e d . W.H. L e w i s volume i s c i t e d h e r e a f t e r as  S u r p r i s e d b y J o y : The S h a p e o f My E a r l y 1 9 5 5 ) , pp. 135-36; c i t e d h e r e a f t e r as JoyT  8 As q u o t e d by W a l t e r S t o r i e s , by C . S . L e w i s , e d . p. v . 9  home]."  "A B i b l i o g r a p h y o f  Life  (London:  H o o p e r , P r e f . , Of O t h e r W o r l d s : E s s a y s and W a l t e r Hooper (London: G e o f f r e y B l e s , 1 9 6 6 ) ,  the Writings  of  C.S.  Lewis,"  p.  118.  5 alternating another with  "cosiness"  contributor  which  tea  ("Imaginative Wardrobe  "the  but  supply  says  of  writes  the  in  example,  the tea  for  aren't  snug  incident: he  with  felt  he  popular  when  "'I'd  would  the  Oyarsa  that  terrors as  of of he  was  an  both  that a  tea the  in  the  the  liked  that  it  chapter  fiction and  which  the  Father  children poor  information,'"  give  his  Pevensie for  frequency  Witch  party  to  Planet,  cup  of  of  is  too  as  a  and  soul"  (p.  seriously,  Lewis  mentioned  while  himself  child, "  he  1  with  telling  Ransom  is  98).  We  some m o n s t e r o r  idol  had q u i t e  the  morning  (p.  feeling  good  symbolize  Ransom d o e s  pint  . . .  undergraduate.  beer,  for  Lion,  experience  remembered  counterpart,  pub  The  Gibbons,  the  you t a k i n g  meeting  a  a  cosiness"  the  Malacandra"  liked  thing  on  prevent  "tea  Silent  have  the f i r s t  visit  have  to  Stella  1 0  the  he  to  comments  Beaver,  forgotten  writing,  of  cites  Mrs.  there  notes  nervous  Lewis,  Looking  & homely and  of  "His old  examination world  further  Lewis'  embodiment  and  an a l m o s t  of  CS.  Gibbons  Mr.  party.  Out  interview  to  98).  t o Owen B a r f i e l d .  effect  less:  p.  Beavers  Gibbons  him:  Writing,"  reader,  '"The  on  "the  an  100).  Light as  provides  adult  to  to  severity  appears  for  Christmas  and  upon  bitter.  More tea."*'''  on  than Tea,  return  Gibbons  read  of  anything  earthiness--and his  awaiting  as  well  his that  of  left an  in  the  as  its  Englishness  no  from Malacandra  is  finds  this  brand  of  30 May 1 9 4 9 , MSFAC, c / 5 3 , # 1 9 9 ; a s q u o t e d b y D o n a l d E. G l o v e r , CS. L e w i s : The A r t o f E n c h a n t m e n t ( A t h e n s , OH: O h i o U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1981), pi 35T "The o r i g i n a l s a r e h o u s e d i n t h e L e w i s c o l l e c t i o n of Wheaton C o l l e g e , W h e a t o n , I l l i n o i s . MSFAC r e f e r s to copies of these o r i g i n a l s " ( G l o v e r , p. 2 1 1 ) . The book i s c i t e d h e r e a f t e r a s E n c h a n t m e n t . 1 0  O u t o f t h e S i l e n t P l a n e t ( T o r o n t o : The B o d l e y H e a d , 1 9 3 8 ) , p p . 1 3 2 - 3 3 ; c i t e d h e r e a f t e r as P l a n e t . A l l f u r t h e r references are to t h i s edition. 1 1  6 domesticity fiction  "completely  is  hardly  imagination discovers  from  medieval  to  general  she  Europe  bluntness  Other c o n t r i b u t o r s Lewis'  satisfyingly  provincial,  "native  stressing  and  Light  maintains, to  and  English"  Deep  Heaven.  fresh  poetry"  on C . S .  Lewis  appreciation  when  for  the  in  (p.  he  ranges  On  the  his  join  98).  Lewis'  with  vivid  contrary,  writing  Gibbons  she  (p.  98).  and Hooper  ordinary.  J.A.W.  'common  life,'"  in  Bennett 12  lauds John  his  "discriminating  Lawlor  identifies  zest  in  for  Lewis  the  life,  for  same q u a l i t y  which  Lewis  while  honoured  in  13 George  MacDonald--the  Achievement "central Eliot's  of  C.S.  "quiet  Lewis,  to Lewis's  whole  aesthetic.^  fullness  Thomas vision"  Howard  of  Howard to  the  ordinary  suggests  nature."  that  same e x t e n t  In  The  "ordinariness"  that  it  defines  is T.S.  explains:  This is his native t e r r a i n , t h e r e g i o n we m o r t a l s w e r e made f o r , t h e v e r y t e x t u r e s o f w h i c h s a y "home" to us. . . . This is the very t u r f of Lewis's fiction. In every tale Lewis writes, we find ourselves r e t u r n i n g a n d r e t u r n i n g , no m a t t e r what g l o r i e s and t e r r o r s have r e g a l e d u s , t o l a n e s and p u d d l e s a n d s a n d w i c h e s and t e a a n d h e a r t h s and p i n t s o f b e e r ( p . 7 9 ; emphases a d d e d ) .  A.N.  Wilson  C.S.  Lewis  and  said."  1 2  1 3  declares that  his  it  "an  genius  extraordinary  shines  out  "'Grete Clerk," "The T u t o r  1  p.  by C . S .  the  t h e most t r i v i a l  greatness  things  he  of  wrote  48.  a n d t h e S c h o l a r , " p.  The A c h i e v e m e n t o f C . S . L e w i s 19; c i t e d h e r e a f t e r as Achievement. 1 5  to  1 5  1 4  p.  of  tribute  " L e w i s ' s Waste-Paper B a s k e t , " L e w i s , The S p e c t a t o r , 11 S e p t .  81. (Wheaton,  IL:  Harold  r e v . o f Of T h i s 1 9 8 2 , p. 2 0 .  and  Shaw,  Other  1980),  Worlds,  7 Clyde  K i l b y draws  Jenkin,  a friend  In  autobiography,  his  taught the  him  "a  very  fellow  quiddity what  whatever  explains;  yet  of it  was"  "in  a  squalid  the  of  by  189).  This  was  offering  town  to  seek  most d i s m a l  w o o d , on a w i n d y  pp.  188-89).  attractive  quality"  unromantically, reports in  that  letters  defined  1928 to  back  .  Joy,  "Homeliness" came i n t o  Lewis in  it,"  [such books]  to  Eerdmans,  .  .  and says  is  not  but all  but  rather  anchors that  (p.  simple 145).  it,"  . "the  .  .  of  the  one's  nose  being  that  rooted  records  Lewis  the  ridge"  "the  most  topic never  settled you  can  underlies  all  (pp.  him  to  16-17).  appreciate though  attaches  food,  learned  K i l b y , The C h r i s t i a n W o r l d o f C S . Lewis (Grand 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 1 7 ; c i t e d h e r e a f t e r a s C h r i s t i a n W o r l d .  He  a  of  home  which  to weather,  20).  as  a sense  which  "is,  "Lewis  Domesticity,  he  find  p.  while  taught  that  its  experience  clarifies  quality  where  day to  traditional  merely  Lewis  the w i n d i e s t  . . .  Glover  surrender  places  'homeliness'  in (so  moment,"  for  homeliness  experiences, Lewis  Hamilton  (Enchantment,  Greeves .  seek  and,  the  Arthur  particularly our  theme  .  very  that  initially  .  the  aesthetic  importance"  1iterature--"not  neighbourhood"  1 6  "It  day t o  homeyness"  he meant  that  its  on a d i s m a l  of  literary  assume  16).  to,  or  sensibility.  rub in  at  those  concludes  beauty  "the  . . .  sophistication In  the  around  (p.  the  to  Hamilton  w o u l d mean " a t o t a l  grandeur,  Glover  homeliness  'homeliness,'  get  later  of  its  begins  domesticity" never  Donald  us  rejoice  out  and a l m o s t  (Joy,  tells  itself  squalor rose to grimness and d r i p p i n g  his  determination to  which A.K.  had on  Lewis  thing,  (p.  influence  Lewis',  Joy,  gleeful,  each  atmosphere  to  Oxonian  Surprised  serious,  magnificently) to  and  our a t t e n t i o n  the to  that .  .  .  family, look  for  Rapids,  MI:  8 and  love  the  "homely"  the  ordinary vegetables  than a farmyard i n his  brother  of  in  its  his  trilogy,  That  shine.  Hideous  and  in  t h a t we d e s t i n e  to  the  for  us o f  "all  the  Strength.  share  an  1 iterature--"the  (Joy,  sorts  of  Dennistons  They  pot,"  of  p.  of  in  the  third  in  March  to  1932,  volume o f  things  for  general,  of  more  He w r i t e s  (20  "enjoy  weather  "nothing  150).  weather"  similarly  appreciation  or  beauty  the their  rain  or  1 7  Clearly, of  as  fondness  150), reminding  sake,"  as w e l l  mid-morning s o l i t u d e "  Letters,  own  nature  Lewis  domesticity  Pilgrim's  is  finds  the  Regress,  nothing  ignominious  keynote of  his  example,  Lewis  for  work.  in  In  the  the  celebrates  ordinary;  a  hymns w h i c h  "the  tether  quality  close  and  The  pang  of  18 the  particular"  their  grand  idiosyncracy dear  to  but  them.  most  but  he g o e s  all  men's  exist  of  about  the for  a  temporal  Johnson  her:  What  is  ships,  people  said,  a Lady,"  do  though  'To  envy  the  they  being  in  railways,  human  may  be,  with  like  surely  angels  the  sympathizes  work  "It  not  appreciates  Lewis  housewife's  that  does He  Letters,  world.  ("To  He  climes.  encourage  except  As D r .  human e n d e a v o u r ' "  lot.  homes,  his  on t o  in  human  ethereal  one  "feeling  i n t h e i r own homes? of  our  makes  In  i m p o r t a n t work  government e t c .  is  severely  which  correspondent's Sisyphus,"  which  his  that  of  reality  the  mines,  cars,  may be f e d , w a r m e d , and be h a p p y a t  16 M a r c h  so  home i s  the  safe end  1955, 2 6 2 ) .  17 L e w i s , T h a t H i d e o u s S t r e n g t h : A M o d e r n F a i r y - T a l e f o r G r o w n - U p s ( L o n d o n : J o h n L a n e , The B o d l e y H e a d , 1 9 4 5 ) , p. 3 0 4 ) ; c i t e d h e r e a f t e r a s Strength. A l l f u r t h e r references are to t h i s e d i t i o n . 18 The P i l g r i m ' s R e g r e s s : An A l l e g o r i c a l A p o l o g y f o r C h r i s t i a n i t y , R e a s o n a n d R o m a n t i c i s m [ 1 9 3 3 ] new a n d r e v , e d . ( L o n d o n : G e o f f r e y B l e s , 1 9 4 3 ) , p p . 1 9 8 - 9 9 ; c i t e d h e r e a f t e r as R e g r e s s .  9 As  a  generic  comfortably creature  moral  its  ranks,  defended  Lewis' or  fellow  Tightness.  devilish human  steeps  comforts  Along with  and  In  metaphor,  writing  lifestyle  societal emblems The  Screwtape from  ingathering and  refinements of  of  homeliness, Letters,  advises  junior  strong  a  temptations  to  'tea'  denotes  an tea  Screwtape  the  Lewis'  devil  that  social  to  so  than  the  more  advanced comes  which  civilization. connote  account he  of  has  ambition  even  by  a  Hell's  "known  a  a  still  the  only  19 stronger taste for  tripe  and o n i o n s . "  Screwtape  explains:  Never forget that when we a r e dealing with any pleasure in i t s h e a l t h y and normal and satisfying f o r m , we a r e , i n a s e n s e , on t h e E n e m y ' s [God's] ground. I know we h a v e won many a s o u l through pleasure. All t h e same, i t i s His invention, not ours. He made t h e p l e a s u r e s : a l l o u r r e s e a r c h s o f a r has n o t e n a b l e d us t o p r o d u c e o n e .  The d e e p e s t l i k i n g s and i m p u l s e s o f a n y man a r e t h e raw m a t e r i a l , the starting-point, with which the Enemy has f u r n i s h e d h i m . . . . I w o u l d make i t a r u l e to eradicate f r o m my p a t i e n t any s t r o n g personal t a s t e which i s not a c t u a l l y a s i n , even i f it is something q u i t e t r i v i a l such as a fondness f o r c o u n t y c r i c k e t o r c o l l e c t i n g stamps o r d r i n k i n g c o c o a . Such things, I grant you, have nothing of virtue in t h e m ; b u t t h e r e i s a s o r t o f i n n o c e n c e and h u m i l i t y a n d s e l f - f o r g e t f u l n e s s a b o u t them w h i c h I d i s t r u s t . The man who t r u l y a n d d i s i n t e r e s t e d l y e n j o y s a n y o n e t h i n g i n t h e w o r l d , f o r i t s own s a k e , a n d w i t h o u t c a r i n g t w o p e n c e w h a t o t h e r p e o p l e s a y a b o u t i t , i s by that very fact fore-armed against some of our s u b t l e s t modes o f a t t a c k . (p. 49 a n d p p . 68-69; emphasis added)  Critic proponent  of  Jared  Lobdell  N.I.C.E.  to  be  proposes  that  spared  Strength's  in  sub-warden  Curry,  holocaust,  is  similarly  19 The S c r e w t a p e L e t t e r s a n d S c r e w t a p e P r o p o s e s a T o a s t [ 1 9 4 2 ] new e d . ([New Y o r k ] : M a c m i l l a n , 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 6 9 ; t h e v o l u m e i s c i t e d h e r e a f t e r as S c r e w t a p e .  10 "defended 462)--or species  against "the  to  the  trahison  treason  of  the  des  clercs,"  intellectuals,"  become t h e m a s t e r o f  as  which  things'"--by  a taste  Dimble  calls  it  (p.  is  desire  of  the  for wire-pulling  and  '"a  20 superintending  the  lives  of  his  colleagues."  produce[s]  boredom  rather  than  concludes,  "he  almost  trivially  saved"  taste  spice  suggests,  he  egomaniacal business it's  merely hunger  has for  a  about'"  difference  is  for  (Strength,  selfishness  and  crucial.  disinterestedness  intentionally  for  power.  and w i r e - p u l l i n g  all  Curry's  is  their 44).  may  which  is  life,  only  rather  "'a  a  man  man  can  of  name  than  who  really  fine  spark  Lobdell  Curry's  what  between but  innocence  be  an  loves  ask  line  self-centredness,  little  whole  As  him  "innocently  harm,"  and d o e s n ' t  own  the  12).  his  calls  There  be  the  (p.  sake  Feverstone's "It  from  own  he  producing  in  Feverstone  p.  Because  the and  reconstructed,"  21 comments L e w i s on a c o m p a r a b l e Lewis everyday  heartily life,  endorses  quick  only  to  situation. the  prosaic,  point  out  sub-Christian  the  danger  of  values  resting  of there  22 instead  of  exercising  true  virtue.  He  says  in  his  sermon  "Transposition": May we n o t  .  .  . suppose  .  .  . that  there  is  no  expe-  "Petty Curry: Salvation by a Taste for Tripe & Onions," O r c r i s t , N o . 6 ( W i n t e r 1 9 7 1 - 7 2 ) , p. 12 and p. 1 1 ; c i t e d h e r e a f t e r a s "Petty Curry." The i m b e d d e d q u o t a t i o n i s f r o m J u l i e n B e n d a , The T r e a s o n o f t h e I n t e l l e c t u a l s (New Y o r k , 1 9 2 8 ) ; a s q u o t e d b y L o b d e l l , p. 1 1 . 2 u  2 1  Arthur 1979),  26 D e c . 1 9 4 5 , T h e y S t a n d T o g e t h e r : The L e t t e r s Greeves ( 1 9 1 4 - 1 9 6 3 ) , ed"! W a l t e r Hooper (New 506; t h e volume i s c i t e d h e r e a f t e r as T o g e t h e r .  of C.S. Lewis to York: Macmillan,  Lewis, "Christianity and Culture" (a letter), Theology, 40 (1940), 475-77; rpt. in "Christianity and Culture," in Christian R e f l e c t i o n s , e d . W a l t e r H o o p e r ( L o n d o n : G e o f f r e y B l e s , 1 9 6 7 ) , p. 2 6 . 2 2  11 r i e n c e o f t h e s p i r i t so t r a n s c e n d e n t and s u p e r n a t u r a l , no v i s i o n o f D e i t y H i m s e l f s o c l o s e and s o f a r b e y o n d a l l i m a g e s and e m o t i o n s , t h a t t o i t a l s o t h e r e c a n n o t be an a p p r o p r i a t e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e on t h e s e n s o ry level? N o t b y a new s e n s e b u t b y t h e i n c r e d i b l e f l o o d i n g o f t h o s e v e r y s e n s a t i o n s we now have w i t h a m e a n i n g , a t r a n s v a l u a t i o n , o f w h i c h we have h e r e no f a i n t e s t guess?23  Although the  not  natural  profound Four  inherently moral, man  can  treatment  Loves,  clarifies  a  aid of  late  one  the work  the value which  these en  ordinary  route  to  relationship in  Lewis'  he p o s i t s  in  and s u b - C h r i s t i a n  virtue.  between  Hooper  soul  theological  and  corpus.  values  finds spirit Here  a  of  more  in  The Lewis  homely e l e m e n t s :  A l l natural affections, including this [patriotism], c a n become r i v a l s t o s p i r i t u a l l o v e : but they can a l s o be p r e p a r a t o r y i m i t a t i o n s o f i t , t r a i n i n g ( s o t o s p e a k ) o f t h e s p i r i t u a l m u s c l e s w h i c h G r a c e may l a t e r p u t t o a h i g h e r s e r v i c e ; a s women n u r s e d o l l s in c h i l d h o o d and l a t e r n u r s e c h i l d r e n . T h e r e may come an o c c a s i o n f o r r e n o u n c i n g t h i s l o v e ; p l u c k o u t y o u r right eye. B u t y o u n e e d t o h a v e an e y e f i r s t .  [ S o m e t i m e s ] t h e n a t u r a l l o v e s a r e summoned t o become modes o f C h a r i t y w h i l e a l s o r e m a i n i n g t h e natural loves they were. One s e e s h e r e a t o n c e a s o r t o f e c h o o r rhyme o r c o r o l l a r y to the Incarnation i t s e l f . And t h i s need n o t s u r p r i s e u s , f o r t h e A u t h o r o f both i s t h e same. As C h r i s t i s p e r f e c t God and p e r f e c t M a n , t h e n a t u r a l l o v e s a r e c a l l e d t o become p e r f e c t C h a r i t y a n d a l s o p e r f e c t n a t u r a l l o v e s . . . . C h a r i t y does not d w i n d l e i n t o m e r e l y n a t u r a l l o v e b u t n a t u r a l l o v e i s t a k e n up into, made t h e t u n e d and o b e d i e n t instrument of, Love H i m s e l f . 2 4  23 I n T r a n s p o s i t i o n and O t h e r A d d r e s s e s 1 9 4 9 ) , pp. 9-20; r p t . as expanded v e r s i o n i n P a p e r s and A d d r e s s e s (London: Geoffrey Bles, volume i s c i t e d h e r e a f t e r as They A s k e d . 2 4  The F o u r L o v e s  (London: G e o f f r e y B l e s ,  (London: G e o f f r e y Bles, They Asked f o r a P a p e r : 1962), pp^ 1 8 1 - 8 2 ; the  1 9 6 0 ) , p.  34 a n d p.  152.  12 '"The  highest  does  not  stand without  the  lowest,'"  runs  a favourite  maxim  25 of  Lewis',  his  taken  genuine  also  with  evinces  an  down-to-earth,  guide  tales,  the  vast  literature  was  marvellous. elements.  itself (Joy,  In  that,  critics  Lewis'  products when  of  he  best  of  .  .  found to .  Lewis  for  is  marked  t h e mean a n d  which  is  its  by  ordinary  strong of  he  knew  they  are  25 A s q u o t e d b y L e w i s ,  that  we  as  the  his  Four Loves,  p.  spokesman  the  to of  the  its  vast  to  longing kind can  for  be  the  his  own  first  love  mythic  and  and so  of  know  of  emphatic  5). are  The also  observes  always  p.  The  his  wild  utterly  desire on  is  earth"  life,  and  writing.  ideas  or  ambrosia.  out  keynote  and  Howard  embodied  seeking  we  are  Lewis  Lewis'  possession  colour  speaking,  Heaven.  "that  Tales,  tea,  worlds  spirit-felt  theme i n  imagination. and  fantastic  a want,  "Joy"  so c l e a r l y e x p l a i n  writing  when  it  and  of  T o d a y he c o n t i n u e s  thrilled  "joy"--the  cup  outspoken  Deep  first  fullest  (Spinner  a vibrant  since  the  an  the  and  English  nectar  romantic,  have  the  documented  style  for  through  he  the  fiction.  identifies  to  for  was  Narnia  too  Lewis  refers  was  metaphors, things  respect  thirst  science  realms  Lewis  literary  taste  readers  although  have w e l l  and a n a l o g i e s  and  nature  158).  Gibson  staunch  hearth-hugger  of  desirable, p.  Imitation.  and h e a l t h y  wholeheartedly  Herein  consuming  Kempis'  unquenchable  millions  creation, in  his  tweedy  fairy  for  of  a  life.  along  fantasy,  Thomas  appreciation  elements of  Yet  from  found  kind  of  pictured"  12.  p i c t o r i a l ism  reasoned  metaphors  vivid pictures, that apt  "Lewis  (Foreword,  the  himself,  analogies  creatures  of  who  and grasp  Speaker  &  13 Teacher, be  p.  xi).  chronicled  Indeed,  nor  defended  popular planetary Thus, and  the  we  twin  sides  own  opposite  Lewis. then  His to  romantic  of  his  forged  in  the  rationality. when  permanence.  of  Lewis'  imagination  introduction  two L e w i s e s , t h e imaginative.  to  writing myth.  is  and  The  a  need  study  of  hardly  his  rational of  his  two  natures  The  crucial  point  their  roots  in  for  bonded is  Chad Walsh  and  and  did  ever  our  his  twin  to  his  these  parents'  volatile  an  Welsh  him  even  all-subsuming  really  develop  Kirkpatrick's own p u r p o s e s with  rational,  leading  to  not  together  that  the  childhood,  tutor  immaterial  Lewis'  admits  in  Lewis  and  Lewis  Hamilton  fostered  'homely'  Joy,  story-telling,  fire  largely  did ultimately fuse.  critical  was  one  In  identifying  calm,  side  fierce  It  the  personality,  creative Norse  just  and  imaginative  for  in  have  natures—the  passion  fervour  romances.  seemingly  other  the  any  until  pugilistic to  determine  intimacy  propensities  of  and  character  testifies:  It was the combination of Old Kirk's logic and [George] Macdonald's transcendent intuitions that shaped t h e mature s e n s i b i l i t y o f L e w i s and gave t o h i s books t h e i r p e c u l i a r and p o w e r f u l simultaneous a p p e a l t o mind and h e a r t . O r t o p u t i t w i t h more a c c u r a c y , t h e s e two men . . . made h i m r e c o g n i z e t h e two s i d e s o f h i s n a t u r e t h a t w e r e a l r e a d y latent. ( " T h e Man a n d t h e M y s t e r y , " p. 4 ; e m p h a s i s added)  In  his  lead  a  double  with  each o t h e r :  and  Hyde.  Lewis  formative  Fix  laments  coherent—or  life  and e a r l y  between  oil  your (Joy, to  years  and eye pp.  borrow  his  two  vinegar, on  either  natures.  a river and  115-16). a  manhood,  better  seemed condemned  to  "They  have  do  running  it  Yet  Lewis  claims he  term  was from  beside to  be  nothing a canal,  the  gradually Charles  sole  to  Jekyll truth,"  approaching  a  Williams,  a  14 co-inherent—unity, sometimes w i t h his  guiding  were  Lewis the  light  was  came  and  come  to  of one  and  It  is  this  irreducible Lewis' yoke  in  its  extraordinary  balance  functions  in  the  for  great  of  a  150).  binary  wear  stamp o f  and  Lewis'  operation planetary  of  so  wild,  in  Lewis  which  Logres, (Joy,  contrast, which  surrounded  by  A  for  and  Jan.  magical  "And here into  we my  Harandra,  and  Our  purpose  perpetual,  the  it  the  conjunction  of  be  came  to  always  to  examine  characterizes  Lewis,  of  fashion  rationality, will  and  coalition  magic  delicate  watch  (5  147).  writing.  We w i l l  Greeves  universal,  as  strange,  context.  and  basic  union,  was  Handramit  or  trilogy.  ran  deeply  "ordinary"  this  garden  bitten  provides  well.  glory,  kitchen  testifies:  Homeliness  Moving  and  homely  p.  halves  Homely  tells  have  by  the  another  the  Lewis  now  elemental  "when  explains  led  Lewis'  new w o r l d  this  Warring  personality.  little  both  and  elements.  logic,  "If  landscape,  contrasts  reason,  ground  another,"  operation,  to  a  vital.  fertile  Lewis  profound  of  pleasure if  of  Britain  his  nature's  describing  boyhood  be  dual-faceted  deepest  one  with  faculties  l o w w o r l d and t h e h i g h "  came  and  p.  In  imagination,  dominant  his  embrace  character  he  passion  humble,"  Asgard,  sense  disparate which  be t h e  the  his  single,  (Joy,  would  sometimes  enclave  327).  those  qualities  juxtaposition;  and  magic  of  and e t h e r ,  a  know  a favourite  mind--Niflheim air  to  furze"  Together,  qualities  into  sharp  homely  and  a n d now b y  narrowing  and  "Homeliness 1930,  in  a  also  both  unqualified  u n h o m e l y met  outcroppings  the  "Joy"  welded  ultimately  up  which  imagination  original  steeply  it  his  eventually  from h i s  to  at  26 P r e f . , G e o r g e M a c d o n a l d : An A n t h o l o g y ( L o n d o n : G e o f f r e y 1 9 4 6 ) , p. 2 1 ; t h e v o l u m e i s c i t e d h e r e a f t e r a s G e o r g e M a c d o n a l d .  and home  Bles,  15 in  the  unhomely  s e r v i n g us i t s  Critical identifies Scholar," in  him " t h e  (p.  82).  '"the  is  of  Lewis  of  what  is  and  not  the  "his  of a  his  split  moralist,  interest  "the  fused p.  informs  the  in  latent  piece"  of  in  another"  similarly  ("Tutor  and  82).  .  .  valued  the  ('"Grete  80),  as  at  us  p.  and  the  Lewis's  that  Lewis'  Lewis'  illumine,  his  does  p.  Chartres'  that  46  of  one"  of  of  correct,  "all  us;  Apologist,"  tells  that  assures  height  Clerk,'"  stresses  and  homely  school  also  Lawlor  ("Tutor  are  insists  the  one g e n r e w i l l  p.  the  ("Christian  nature,"  Scholar,"  Lawlor  Farrer  view"  Lewis  being'"  of  bravely  what  disjoined,  fusion .  home,  hailing  personality,  the  of  back  in  commonly  p.  man's  a book  in  Lawlor  that  myth  essential  experience  74 and  us  wholeness  of a piece: is  is  a massive e n t i r e t y  who  added).  one  is  (Enchantment,  "works are a l l  emphasis  Lewis  singularity  visionary  Bennett,  amplify  of  Glover c a l l s  "assertion  this  loudest  "peculiar merit 29).  bring  acclaim  67).  achievement"  myth,  tea.  Emphasizing  magical,"  of  n e c t a r and a m b r o s i a f o r  as p.  climes  and  or  p.  work  William  49;  .  .  .  Luther  27 White  in  rich  his  tapestry  delicate within  own  study,  for  working  Lewis,  here  the context of  Critics encompassing rigorous  2 7  1 9 6 9 ) , p.  roots  agree  or  within  Image  with focus  of  no on  Man  loose a  the Lewis  in  its  "massive himself.  in  C.S.  threads:  certain  the grand p i c t u r e that,  nature,  The Image 74; c i t e d  The  it  far-ranging  Gibson  one  intricacy  to which  entirety"  Lewis.  of  may there,  is  a  highlight  a  but  always  contributes. synthesis Lewis'  suggests  of Man i n C . S . Lewis (New h e r e a f t e r a s Image o f M a n .  Life  view  that  York:  and  all-  found  " o n e who  Abingdon  its reads  Press,  16 his  books  reads  published  his  under the  C.S.  Lewis,"  Lewis  is  on  to  say  the  of  of  that  books.  clarity" the the  Lewis  Speaker  &  and  further his  under  another  Logician  Speaking," Kilby  title,  the  man w e r e  suggested  testify  to  of  meaningfully  (p.  2).  p.  Solid  of  C.S.  one  views  his  blessed  Walsh the  C.S.  in  "that  C.S.  conduct.  title,  both  and  singularly  and  goes  personal  Lewis,  books,  Essays  paradoxical  if  1). as  on  Lewis'  thought  Elusively  b e e n more  well  by  first  mystery  has  Light  essay  least,  Mystery,"  in  one"  at  as  an  "The  times  Lewis,  man  In  "The  None,  our  essayists  consistency  volume,  in  C.S.  the  10).  observation:  Man a n d of  indeed  public  Teacher  consciousness  ("The  p.  paradoxical  No w r i t e r  contributing  i n n e r man a n d t h e  Tales,  be no m y s t e r y .  Letters  was  of  Gibson's  seems t o  his  that  testimonies confirm  echoes  that there  the g i f t  (Spinner  significantly  Walsh  t h e man t h r o u g h with  life"  "The  Lewis: unified  In  this  Creative  postulates:  Now t h e g r e a t and I t h i n k a l l b u t u n i q u e e s s e n t i a l i n C . S . L e w i s ' s makeup was a r e m a r k a b l e c o m b i n a t i o n o f two q u a l i t i e s n o r m a l l y s u p p o s e d t o be o p p o s i t e s . I mean on t h e one hand a d e e p a n d v i v i d i m a g i n a t i o n and on the other hand a profoundly analytical mind. E v e n more r e m a r k a b l e , i t was n o t t h a t these q u a l i t i e s l a y i n h i m s i d e by s i d e and d i s c o n n e c t e d b u t t h a t b y some g o o d a l c h e m y t h e y w e r e o r g a n i c a l l y joined. . . . A c t u a l l y r e a s o n and i m a g i n a t i o n are joined in Lewis's communication—both written and o r a l — b e c a u s e t h e y were f i r s t j o i n e d i n h i s thought and l i f e . ( p p . 2 4 - 2 5 ; emphases added)  The character schemata.  integrative, and For  "simultaneous the  Mystery."  unified  writing example, appeal Kilby  to  s e n s i b i l i t y which  could  be  one  could  mind  uses  and  parallel  analyzed  the  according  describe heart,"  is  as  hallmark of  Lewis'  to  binary  several  Lewis'  work  in  terms  Walsh  does  in  "The  terminology  above,  identifying  of  its  Man  and  Lewis'  17 "vivid  imagination  discuss and  the  merits  prosaic  composite and  and  .  of  .  Lewis'  qualities.  writing  mind."  in  terms of  have q u a r r e l l e d  in  its  us;  Alternatively,  according  O u r own e x a m i n a t i o n ,  sensibility  Nature  . analytical  is  its  however,  "natural  that  to  one  synchronal will  poetic  review  supernatural ism."  our  could  disease,"  Lewis  Lewis' "Spirit  diagnoses  28 in  Miracles.  gap.  Of  coined Lewis  course,  to  had been  While  and  like  By  haunted  p.  of  while  shadow"  was  Gibbons  For  Lewis,  .  .  more (pp.  Miracles:  .  ,  for  and  extraordinary.  a  saw  planetary  in  Romantic  s u p e r n a t u r a l ism  Supernature derivative  man  this  to  of  is  the  element,  as  search  what  sense  Lewis  a  man  "perpetually ("Imaginative  diminished  the  in  Joy: yet  all  common  things  and  the  common  things  drawn  The o r d i n a r y  (London:  Geoffrey  beyond.  possibilities"  appearances" never  beneath  lies  of  s u c h an i n s i g h t  added).  Study  a  "that  behind  transforming  Preliminary  unequal. is  the  belief  natural  suggestions  He r e c o r d s  170-71; emphasis  A  ordinary  was  by  however,  I  term  peculiar  reflection.  describes  accurately,  that  own  Lewis'  Lewis  lying  healing  our  nature  enthralled  ordinariness.  shadow Or,  probing  realities  97).  surface  unchanged.  he  51).  the  p.  bright  28 190.  p.  by  tance of  it,  is  towards  primary  nonetheless  conviction  ever  of  his  supernature's mythological  puts  Writing,"  of  components  element,  and  expended  t o C h r i s t i a n i t y when he w r o t e  they are  creative  (Enchantment,  bright  related,  was  duet  question  twin  appearances,  Glover  Lewisian  any  the  effort  supernatural ism"  converted  temperament  surface  the  the  long  integrally  original  As  to  dismissing  pantheism.  rather  life-long "natural  refer  trilogy,  are  His  is  impor"I  saw  itself  into  the  not  negated  Bles,  1947),  18 by  the e x t r a o r d i n a r y ;  perceive  indeed,  the e x t r a o r d i n a r y .  one must  first  K i l b y proposes  attend  that  W i l l i a m James t h a t , "'When we see a l l t h i n g s  to i t i n order t o  Lewis  would  agree  i n God and r e f e r  with  a l l things 29  to  Him, we read Thus,  i n common matters s u p e r i o r e x p r e s s i o n s  while  Gibbons behind  can t a l k  realities  lying  awareness  o f the e x t e r n a l  appearances," world,"  f u l l n e s s o f ordinary nature'" these  opposed c r i t i c a l  on  single  a  observations  the t r a n s c e n d e n t a l  that  reality  i s more than  of a  and h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n  represent  natural  naked  "heightened  o f the '"quiet Essentially,  alternate  perspectives The  converse  assertion  "that  the p r o s a i c " i n Lewis' that  Lewis  "was  on t h e one hand  i t i n v o l v e s t h e 'concrete with  with "the  p. 8 2 ) .  o f Lawlor's  Kilby explains  physical objects  contact  his  s u p e r n a t u r a l ism.  t o a paraphrase  p. 8 1 ) .  concepts on the o t h e r ; possibility  can d i s c u s s  was never a t v a r i a n c e with  ("Tutor and S c h o l a r , "  enchantment  ("Tutor and S c h o l a r , "  Lewis'  amount  Lewis'  Lawlor  statements s i m p l y  phenomenon, merely  about  o f meaning.'"  convinced  and a b s t r a c t  but i m m a t e r i a l '  the Almighty  life  Himself"  and t h e  ("Creative  L o g i c i a n , " p. 3 6 ) . The  radical  extent  o f such  concrete,  seen i n the f o l l o w i n g passage from  Lewis'  universal popular  harmony can w e l l  sermon, "The Weight o f  Glory": It i s a s e r i o u s t h i n g t o l i v e i n a s o c i e t y o f p o s s i ble gods and goddesses, t o remember t h a t the d u l l e s t and most u n i n t e r e s t i n g person you t a l k t o may one day be a c r e a t u r e which, i f you saw i t now, you would be s t r o n g l y tempted t o worship, o r e l s e a h o r r o r and a c o r r u p t i o n such as you now meet, i f a t a l l , o n l y i n a nightmare. . . . There a r e no o r d i n a r y people. You  2 9  be  As quoted by K i l b y , " C r e a t i v e L o g i c i a n , " p. 37.  19 have n e v e r t a l k e d t o a mere m o r t a l . 3 0  Clearly,  Lewis'  perception  ordinary  world  infused  recognizes distinct Miracles  by  our existence but  not  is  as  pervaded  the the  his  acute  extraordinary.  With  meeting  discontinuous—the  by  place  of  natural  two  and  awareness holy  awe  realities  the  of  an  Lewis  which  are  supernatural.  In  he w r i t e s :  The r e l a t i o n s w h i c h a r i s e a t t h a t f r o n t i e r a r e i n d e e d of a most complicated and intimate sort. That s p e a r h e a d o f t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l w h i c h I c a l l my r e a s o n l i n k s up w i t h a l l my n a t u r a l c o n t e n t s — m y s e n s a t i o n s , e m o t i o n s , and t h e l i k e — s o c o m p l e t e l y t h a t I c a l l t h e m i x t u r e by t h e s i n g l e w o r d " m e . " ( p . 40)  Although ultimately  to  immediately  illuminated  clarified "that  not  in  his  own  for  be,  but a f a i n t  134).  He  us b y h i s  life  o u r own c o m p o s i t e  by  with  the  a  religious  Christian  existence  image o f  agrees  theological,  is  critic  the  perception  conviction,  conversion.  not  Divine  Lewis'  just  Lewis  as  came  is  it  was  to  see  sheer  anomaly  it  Incarnation  itself"  (Miracles,  who  calls  might  Romanticism  seem p.  "'spilled  31 religion,'" Charles  and  he  Williams,  shares who  the  "romantic  believes  that  theology"  of  his  romanticism  good  needs  friend to  be  32 theologized of  this  source  "The Transposition 3 0  21 L e w i s ,  to of  avoid Lewis'  sterility.  Nevertheless,  illumination  2  not  Weight o f G l o r y , " Theology, 43 and O t h e r A d d r e s s e s , p p . 3 2 - 3 3 . Pref.  t o R e g r e s s , p.  inhibit (1941),  our  acknowledgment examining  263-74;  rpt.  the in  11.  C o r b i n S c o t t C a m e l 1, B r i g h t the F e e l i n g I n t e l l e c t (Grand R a p i d s , h e r e a f t e r as B r i g h t Shadow. 3  does  our  Shadow o f R e a l i t y : C S . M I : E e r d m a n s , 1 9 7 4 ) , p.  L e w i s and 64; c i t e d  20 properties  of  composition  his  of  natural  the  supernatural ism  light  by w h i c h  we  in  read  its  the  own  right,  printed  page  to  know  of  the  planetary  romance.  The  common  artificial  and  Perelandra, the  arbitrary  the  Lewis  real  distinction  second  character  supernatural  "some  kind  of  between within  volume  of  creatures.  material  Lewis'  the  contemplates  and  this  "not  whose  of  presence  could  yet (in  In  dissolves  eldila,  animals,"  is  vision.  division  existence  are  supernatural  conjunctive  trilogy,  the  They  vehicle  natural  as  which  they  are  do  have  principle)  be  33 scientifically  verified."  The  Lewis  character  is  confronted  with  a l m o s t a new d i m e n s i o n : The d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n n a t u r a l a n d s u p e r n a t u r a l , i n fact, broke down; and when it had done so, one r e a l i s e d how g r e a t a c o m f o r t i t had b e e n - - h o w i t had eased the burden o f intolerable strangeness which t h i s u n i v e r s e i m p o s e s on us b y d i v i d i n g i t i n t o two h a l v e s and e n c o u r a g i n g t h e mind n e v e r t o t h i n k of b o t h i n t h e same c o n t e x t , (pp. 9-10)  Lewis'  view,  impingement rather Shadow,  in p.  in of  a  the  the  world  100).  of  writes  in Miracles  Plato)  Corbin  where  and  two  not  51). is  Scott  in  kinds  Supernatural  hourly  (p. Real  the  is  any of  not  experience,  as  "Thus f o r  Lewis  not  ganz  Perelandra (London: John f u r t h e r references are to t h i s 3 3  all  the  of  supernatural,  "The  matter  for  daily  words  Carnell, simple  two-story  reality remote  and  L a n e , The edition.  as f o r but  as  the  Bodley  abstruse:  it  is  1943),  a  Lewis  Williams  archetype  Head,  but  (Bright  breathing,"  Charles  the  world  'co-inhere'"  intimate  anders  "represents  of  p.  (and the  9;  21 Phenomenal,"  Carnell  concludes.  'arch-nature'  to  the m i s l e a d i n g  avoid  "Williams  in  fact  implications  coined  of  the  term  'supernature'"  (pp.  100-01). In home"  Miracles,  in  nature,  interpositions: makes  it  Lewis  at  even  home  added).  eldila's  breach  in  of  to  becomes  empowered  event,  in  u n d e r s t o o d a s one  over  stage  which  illustrates  nature's  of  Lur  in  event,  of  MacPhee  contrary  to  in  the  than  That  the  Babel  the  natural  to  of  hall,  "'land  (Strength,  concludes  that  though  laws  it of  well,  of  p. in  "'has  assessing  Nature'"  it"  (p.  72;  when  the  bad  good  Merlin  the  Belbury  accomodation  is  unleashes  The  cataclysmic simply  beyond the no  of p.  seas  greater  probability  (Strength,  a  interposition.  involves  disadvantage  a  properly  again  direct  of  phenomenon.  also  action  the  planetary  being,  upon  Abhalljin,  337),  the  to  events.  of  of  situation,  Merlin  which  supernature's  the  new  supernatural  as  sequence  miraculous  the  of  "at  its  Merlin's  independent world  this  enables  a " n a t u r a l " course  even  I r o n w o o d amends M a c P h e e ' s  as  of  Strength,  invade  curse  banqueting  nature,  continuously  events  Hideous  and  an  accomodation  observed  other  quarantine  animal  ascension  being  domiciles  all  understood  the  Perelandra'"  contravention  in  the  concludes  Ransom's m i r a c u l o u s  adapts  world  be  Belbury  earthquake  Nature  inflict  rather  the  all  our  can  as  " i r r e g u l a r " occurrences  realm,  into  result  supernature  Thulcandran  to  authority  holocaust  the  example,  the  descend  supernatural Granted  her  For  deities  This  in  "Immediately  emphases  company.  describes  being 457).  thinking:  "You a r e q u i t e r i g h t . The l a w s o f t h e u n i v e r s e a r e never broken. Your m i s t a k e i s to think that the l i t t l e r e g u l a r i t i e s we have o b s e r v e d on one planet f o r a few hundred y e a r s a r e the real unbreakable  of  a the  clean Grace  22 l a w s ; whereas t h e y a r e o n l y the remote r e s u l t s which t h e t r u e l a w s b r i n g a b o u t more o f t e n t h a n n o t ; a s a kind of accident." ( p . 457)  Miraculous they  are  familiar  the  laws  with.  framework,  events  are wholly  of  a  larger  We c a t c h  for  consistent matrix  a glimpse  example,  in  seeing  of  of this  Merlin's  with  established  reality more  than  we  inclusive  resuscitation  "laws," are  and  but  commonly  less  through  local eldilic  eyes:  I t was no w o n d e r t o t h e m . In t h e i r eyes t h e normal T e l l u r i a n modes o f b e i n g — e n g e n d e r i n g and b i r t h a n d d e a t h and d e c a y — w h i c h a r e t o u s t h e f r a m e w o r k of t h o u g h t , w e r e no l e s s w o n d e r f u l than the countless o t h e r p a t t e r n s o f b e i n g w h i c h were c o n t i n u a l l y p r e s ent to t h e i r unsleeping minds. To t h o s e h i g h c r e a t u r e s whose a c t i v i t y b u i l d s w h a t we c a l l Nature, nothing i s " n a t u r a l . " From t h e i r s t a t i o n t h e e s s e n t i a l a r b i t r a r i n e s s (so to c a l l i t ) of every actual c r e a t i o n i s c e a s e l e s s l y v i s i b l e ; f o r them t h e r e a r e no b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s . . . . T h a t a body s h o u l d lie u n c o r r u p t e d f o r f i f t e e n h u n d r e d y e a r s , d i d n o t seem s t r a n g e t o t h e m ; t h e y knew w o r l d s w h e r e t h e r e was no corruption at a l l . That i t s i n d i v i d u a l l i f e should r e m a i n l a t e n t i n i t a l l t h a t t i m e , was t o t h e m no more s t r a n g e : t h e y had s e e n innumerable different modes i n w h i c h s o u l a n d m a t t e r c o u l d be c o m b i n e d a n d separated . . . . ( p . 247; emphasis added)  Indeed, of and  Lewis  t h e more  maintains  dramatic  extraordinary.  that  effects They  such of  simply  God has a l r e a d y w r i t t e n , o r w i l l  supernatural  a constant  occurences  intimacy  focus  "in  small  write,  in  letters  are merely  between  letters  the  some  ordinary  something  almost too  large  that to  be  34 noticed,  across  relationship  of  the  whole  nature  and  canvas  of  Nature."  supernature  which  Miracles, p. 162; emphasis added. which a r e documented p a r e n t h e t i c a l l y w i t h i n the paragraph are to M i r a c l e s . 3 4  we  That  is,  the  have  observed  dynamic in  its  Further page references t e x t i n t h i s and t h e n e x t  23 sensational the  aspects  drama m i g h t  especially the  if  be  one  a c t u a l l y ongoing  more  subtle,  looks  from  the  the  at  a more p r o s a i c  poetry  is  standpoint  equally  of  the  level.  Whereas  vibrant,  however,  ordinary  rather  than  extraordinary. Our  apparently  intricate  Man  been  damaged,  once  .  .  between  sort  'at  home' w i t h  'at  amazing a  home'  movement  so  occur  more  being,"  its  the  an  we  call  insight  of  Lewis'  method:  the  organic  every  and  to  return  to  the  152).  nature.  unobserved of Thus  day"  (p.  and  the  of  physical  with  our  original  now  spirit  was  Even  now  the  supernatural  acclaimed  is  of  in  the  same  the  great of  ordinary  tea  one  events  genius  spiritual,  metaphor,  is,  "only  his  Uranus,  Himself  This  there  and  beyond  involve  of  discrepancy  cortex  planet  and  human p a r t  "The  153).  most  has  God  ultimately  vision,  combination  (p.  state  "the  astronomer's  134).  miraculous  occurs  thought  (p.  as  the  physical  that  that  . . .  part"  Incarnation  startling"  realities,  integrated  composite in  demonstrates  although  organism,  our  the  of  and  equine  atoms  that  which  or  kinds  t h e r e m u s t be a s t i l l  which  extraordinary,  actually  completely  of  of  immense  miracle  so  with  evidence  that  two  composite  . fully  scarcely  of  the  once  already  which  "a  of  was  understanding  sense,  is  existence  it  a C e n t a u r was remains  prosaic  co-inherence  spiritual.  is  is  with  his with  nectar  and a m b r o s i a . "A will  supernatural  frequently  natural  being.  consonance Here,  of  although  peacefully  element  insist The these  (p.  unfallen  present  in  5 3 ) , and t h e n  radical two  is  extent  elements and  is  to seen  therefore  in a transparently natural  as  every  rational  s o o n go on t o which in  his  intensely  state:  Lewis poem,  man,"  Lewis  highlight  man's  views "Adam  spiritual,  the  utter  at  Night."  Adam  sleeps  24 . . . he w o u l d s e t a j a r The d o o r o f h i s m i n d . I n t o him t h o u g h t s would pour Other than d a y ' s . He r e j o i n e d E a r t h h i s m o t h e r . He m e l t e d i n t o h e r n a t u r e . G r a d u a l l y he f e l t , A s t h o u g h t h r o u g h h i s own f l e s h t h e e l u s i v e g r o w t h , H a r d e n i n g and s p r e a d i n g o f r o o t s i n t h e deep g a r d e n , In h i s v e i n s , t h e w e l l s r e - f i l l i n g w i t h t h e s i l v e r r a i n .  Adam  even  feels  the  womb,"  signalling  nature  and  interplay and as  we  dawns.  trees  should  Earth's  intimately  perhaps  descend," Lewis  a  tells  speaks  to  the  law,  that  man's  3 5  Lewis  writes,  "Adam a t N i g h t , "  "We  of  were  as  Lady  the  as  the  rise  with  is day  "As  if  motion.  Thus  Lewis  nature-  animal. the  and  and  added).  you  being,  told,  speech  as  their  assigned  ends  are  of  intelligence  similarly  we  With  that  continue  night  dark  "And  lower  this  you  can  207).  nature  again  he " h a s  it.  made  his  spiritual  well  higher  (p.  well  Supernatural"  as  in  guiding  arise, /  the  nature  phrases  as  perfectly  (emphases  in which  Punch,  planet's  gifted  composite  Lawlor  female  nature  and  us i n M i r a c l e s  diamond  a responsibility  each"  mineral  of  Edition,  Lord  in  allegory  as  the  and  spirituality  Adam, t h e  "spearhead  and  and  is  dreadfully  his autobiographical imagination,"  and  male  organic  was  universal  Lewis  of  her o r b i t ,  with  arise,  vegetable  is  in  erect"  the  "gold  Adam  Perelandra.  strength links  including  that  identified and  Earth's  Physicality  discover  t h e end o f  "Human  of  co-inherence  s u c h moves E a r t h  consummately  The  a  supernature.  as  to Tor at  two  fruition  3 5  to  in  summoned r e a s o n  In  his  be  neither  11 May 1 9 4 9 , p.  Pilgrim's  Preface  Regress,  to  to  cerebral  the  the men  aid  Third nor  510.  *> " R a s s e l a s , R o m a n t i c i s m a n d t h e N a t u r e o f H a p p i n e s s , " i n F r i e n d ship's Garland, ed. V i t t o r i o G a b r i e l i , Storia e Letteratura: Raccolta di S t u d i e T e s t i , 106 (Rome: E d i z i o n i d i S t o r i a e L e t t e r a t u r a , 1 9 6 6 ) , I , 2 6 3 . 3  25 visceral  men,  rational  and a n i m a l "  failed to  to  retain  complains  but  grasp the  Men.  Not  (p.  this  the  13).  central  traditional  that  beasts  idea  apparently  nor  angels  Unfortunately, concept of  of  Men—things  some o f  Lewis'  co-inherence  a two-storey  sinless  but  and  universe.  Malacandrans  have  at  once  critics  have  have  preferred  J.B.S. "a  Haldane  theology  but 37  no His  religion"—"no criticism  'eldils,' religious 20-21). from  they than i s  We m i g h t  Lewis'  article  continues:  whom acts  religious  "Their  saw  t u r n i n g on t h e  a  Professor book  or  even  conversations  occasionally  answer  Miracles,  ceremonies,  and  radio  which  was  with  heard, to  Haldane's  private passing were  listen  a  with  year  angels,  no  to Mr.  objections  published  prayers."  more  Attlee" this  after  or like (pp.  passage his  own  appeared: The r e a s o n why t h e modern l i t e r a l i s t i s p u z z l e d is that he is . . . starting from a c l e a r modern d i s t i n c t i o n between m a t e r i a l and i m m a t e r i a l . . . . He forgets t h a t the d i s t i n c t i o n itself has been made c l e a r o n l y by l a t e r t h o u g h t . We a r e o f t e n t o l d t h a t p r i m i t i v e man c o u l d n o t c o n c e i v e p u r e s p i r i t ; b u t t h e n n e i t h e r c o u l d he c o n c e i v e mere m a t t e r . . . . To r e g a r d t h a t e a r l i e r s t a g e a s u n s p i r i t u a l b e c a u s e we f i n d t h e r e no c l e a r a s s e r t i o n of unembodied s p i r i t , is a real misunderstanding. You m i g h t j u s t a s w e l l c a l l i t s p i r i t u a l b e c a u s e it c o n t a i n e d no c l e a r c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f mere m a t t e r . Mr. B a r f i e l d has shown [ i n P o e t i c D i c t i o n ] , a s regards t h e h i s t o r y o f l a n g u a g e , t h a t words d i d n o t s t a r t by r e f e r r i n g merely to physical o b j e c t s and t h e n get e x t e n d e d by m e t a p h o r t o r e f e r t o e m o t i o n s , mental s t a t e s and t h e l i k e . On t h e c o n t r a r y , w h a t we now call the "literal and m e t a p h o r i c a l " m e a n i n g s have b o t h been d i s e n g a g e d by a n a l y s i s f r o m an ancient u n i t y o f m e a n i n g w h i c h was n e i t h e r o r b o t h . (pp. 93-94; emphasis added)  " A u l d H o r n i e , F . R . S . , " The i n Shadows o f I m a g i n a t i o n , p. 2 0 . 3 7  Modern  Quarterly  (Autumn  1946);  rpt.  26 It  is  this  primitive at  c o m p o s i t e mode o f but  Night."  bodies  a  unfallen  Lewis living  life  might and  being which  on M a l a c a n d r a ,  be  holy  Lewis  saying  with  sacrifice,  portrays  as w e l l  the  as  apostle  acceptable  in in  his his  Paul,  to  picture poem,  "Adam  "Present  God,  which  of  your  is  your  38 spiritual  service of  Lewis' becomes  world  the  the  supernature,  imaginary  in  or  holocaust,  or  it  although  symbolism of  a  namely the  Christ's fails  is  a  Lewis  of  in  imagination Lewis'  and  not  the  to  beasts  a  was  Satan's  this  Natural  explains  generally  habits  a  literal  emblematic  sacramental ism  does  B i b l e , Rom. x i i : l b ; e m p h a s e s a d d e d .  which of  were and  divine  and  represent,  "According it  gives  pp.  philosophy the  of  the  medieval  (N.A.S.V.)  as rise  141-42). Belbury  the one-to-one Sharing  of  real  apocalyptic  manner.  assume  of  would  situation,  the  so  exponent  both  cruelty.  follow  view  Bestiaries  (Miracles,  precipitates  blood,  common  assigned  and  not  accomodation  bestiary. and  akin  studied  and  nature's  nature  the world  scholar,  For example, a t i g e r  which  such  also  incarnates  which  Lewis  does  of  appearances  to e x p l o i t  tiger  it the  strength  other,"  but  of  whereby  sacramental ism i s  professional  example  because  detail  His  holocaust  correspondents.  allegory  however,  as  an  of  each  sacramental,  theology,"  Belbury  cited  the  medieval  3 8  the  timely  both  exploits  one  view,  "romantic  as  spiritual  intensely  supernature.  earlier  animals,  Significantly,  of  of  Lewis,  catalogues  potentia,  spirit to  is  thus  sacramental ism,  allegorical  demoniac  whom  Indeed,  mentioned  medieval  is  Williams'  medievals  extensively. was  view  very domicile  only to Charles of  worship."  rigour  the  same  same  world  principle  27 of  physical  and s p i r i t u a l  Essentially, spiritual  sacramental ism  reality,  Nature's  co-inherence.  even  becoming  own n e u t r a l i t y  become t h e v e h i c l e  of  allows  in  the  the  that  mode o f  evil  nature  supernatural  relationship,  supernatural  physical  however,  as w e l l .  good a t  leaves  But  figures  "to  times.  her  call  open  her  to  either 39  [inherently] "Nature  is  partly  by  evil.  corruptions ues  (p.  facial  (and  .  .  .  But  regular  ship.  event  course it  is  simply  by  or  taste, has  (p.  nature will which  is "the  of  an  at  131).  runs  in  is  created  very  immorality of  the  involvement  both  her  particular  in  a  to  80;  nature,  and  place  and  In  good  or  the  supernarelation-  state  pure  mo-  independent  that  any n a t u r a l  the  (p.  element.  convey  a  almost  identity  amoral  contin-  thing"  a  of  he  idiom,  morality  or  through  character  an  its  and  a  sacramentally lends  good  individual  an  Lewis.  partly  character,"  With  remains  says  standards  flavour  manifestation  she  morality  philosophy,"  Divine)  feature or  then,  supernature  by tang  character"  events  peculiar  determined  the  boys'  Everything  Author  is  total  of  smell as  supernature,  The  same  every  the God  Nature's  but  is  probably  the  Nature's  added).  moral  'evil'  and h e r e x c e l l e n c e s .  natural  ment o f  is  human  expression,  "every  ture,  or  80).  emphasis  of  'good'  or  event  perverted  supernature. Notwithstanding reflect  supernature.  her "No  neutral  status,  natural  phenomenon  Screwtape  confesses  to  character  of  creation,  God's  Wormwood  however, is  (Screwtape  nature  is  her  nature  really  in  Letters,  p.  Creator's  does  steadily  our  favour,"  80). living  As  a  self-  M i r a c l e s , p. 1 4 7 ; f u r t h e r page r e f e r e n c e s w h i c h a r e d o c u m e n t e d p a r e n t h e t i c a l l y w i t h i n t h e t e x t i n t h i s and t h e n e x t p a r a g r a p h a r e t o Miracles. 3 9  28 expression. it  "Doubtless  expresses  emphasis reveals ship  her  and  babies,  aspects truth  of  see  this  are  spirit,  (Enchantment, pp.  only  the and  as  her .  .  one  there  her,"  graphic  deluge  as  and of  Author-  out,  cataract  of  orchids, (p.  nature,"  In The F o u r L o v e s  80;  nature  divine  supernature. in  (p.  were,  "Come  toads"  manifested  50-51; emphasis added).  her  atoms,  because  Lewis  it  forms.  of  except  says  astonishing  emblems  j_s  is  appreciates  tornadoes  concrete spirit  her  give  this  immoderate gases,  to  own  .  of  hieroglyphics,  1  fleas,  nature  equals  supernature s  will  bananas:  part  chose  appreciate  you  canaries,  He  Indeed,  truly  then  and  cancers,  Like  Author.  one  smallest  character  added).  can  back,  the  no  look bears,  oranges,  81).  These  "For  Lewis,  Glover Lewis  says  writes:  What n a t u r e - l o v e r s . . . get from nature is an iconography, a language o f images. I do n o t mean s i m p l y v i s u a l images; i t i s t h e "moods" o r " s p i r i t s " themselves--the powerful expressions of terror, gloom, jocundity, cruelty, lust, innocence, p u r i t y - - t h a t are the images. I n them e a c h man c a n clothe his belief. We m u s t l e a r n o u r t h e o l o g y or philosophy elsewhere . . . . B u t when I s p e a k o f " c l o t h i n g " o u r b e l i e f i n s u c h i m a g e s I do n o t mean a n y t h i n g l i k e u s i n g n a t u r e f o r s i m i l e s o r m e t a p h o r s i n t h e manner o f the poets. Indeed I m i g h t have s a i d " f i l l i n g " o r " i n c a r n a t i n g " r a t h e r than c l o t h i n g . . . . N a t u r e gave t h e word g l o r y a m e a n i n g f o r me. (pp. 29-30; boldface print emphases added)  Lewis as  it  recognizes  were,  of  a greater  integral  to  inherent  amorality  define  Lewis'  language  meaning.  Like  the  as  physical  universe  spiritual  reality.  sacramental ism, of a  Lewis'  nature's system of natural  to  helping  be t h e The  to  relationship signs  and  concept  reveal to  symbols  supernatural ism,  linguistic of  the  language intimacy  supernature. communicating  language  imprint,  We a  is yet will  larger  demonstrates  the  29 i n t i m a c y between m a t e r i a l meaning  was  once  an  and i m m a t e r i a l .  indivisible  compound  c o m p o n e n t s w h i c h a r e now r e g u l a r l y We that  have  already  "an a n c i e n t  metaphorical' perfectly once  in that  unity  home a  spiritual  Life,  and  but  unindividuated.  .  .  Life,  and  that  spiritual  As  and e q u i n e  had a  living  parts  so t h e word  world  felt  which  participation  o f t h e New C r e a t i o n ,  simply  was w h o l l y says,  unity  and  "heaven"  reality  the s p i r i t u a l  Kilby  contention  '"literal  reality--a  there  experience  idiom.  into  and o u r c r e a t u r e l y  confused;  A richer  Language  reveal  Barfield's  f o r example,  It i s not that  by, a poorer .  human  a s much a s t h e n a t u r a l  pp. 187-88).  accomodated  with  immaterial"  Divine  " h e a v e n " were  physical  d i d not separate  each other,  sky i t s e l f .  o f t h e word  agreement  As t h e C e n t a u r ' s  the unconditioned  (Miracles,  Lewis'  "concrete  the physical  senses  with  of  origins  separated.  o f meaning"  meaning."  denoted  included  and  at  noted  Linguistic  and p h y s i c a l  was no  division  translated "Meaning  that  into,  was t h e n  was e s s e n t i a l l y  40 metaphoric the  split  language  without of  spiritual, draw  350).  spirit  itself  and m a t t e r  in  to  be  such."  of  organic  correspondences.  m a t t e r more a n d more m a t e r i a l . further  Modern  and f u r t h e r  thought  has  apart,'" even  Today,  our consciousness,  i s " m e r e l y " and a r b i t r a r i l y m e t a p h o r i c ,  manifestation  prose  knowing  '"Minds Even  Dimble  sought  rather  to  we assume than  get  derive  that  the concrete  more  in literature, suggests  following  a n d more poetry and  in Strength (p. an  exclusively  Christian World, pp. 203-204; emphasis mine. Kilby is summarizing Robert J . R e i l l y ' s d i s s e r t a t i o n , e n t i t l e d "Romantic R e l i g i o n i n t h e Work o f Owen B a r f i e l d , C . S . L e w i s , C h a r l e s W i l l i a m s and J . R . R . Tolkien," which has s i n c e been published under the t i t l e Romantic R e l i g i o n : A Study o f B a r f i e l d , L e w i s , W i l l i a m s , and T o l k i e n (Athens [ G A ] : U n i v e r s i t y o f Georgia P r e s s , 1971). 4  0  30 "scientific" material have  world  been  our highest  expression  and  utterly  of  of  radically on  awareness  of  the  dependent  upon  the  refer  nevertheless, repressions,  to  to  the  the  soul  censors  and  and  for  the  attempts  proves  language  world  upon  Such  universe  Lewis  even  itself  continues  to  expression  of  as  of  sensory  anima,  a  preferred  engrams—are  no  demonstrates  discursive  extension  alternatives  reliant  experience.  which  metaphorical  The  physical  Flalansferes,"  extent  less  concepts.  heraldic, the  t h o u g h t and most complex  and  refined  however.  dependent  and  metaphor  its  frustrated,  "Bluspels  longer  disinfected  sacramental  itself  In  for  utterly  stubbornly confess  language,  language data.  word  by  his  acute remains  One  meaning  need  no  breath;  psychologists—complexes,  more  analytical,  still  meaning  41 tyings-up, "We We  can can  shovings-back,  make make  Roman  our  language  duller;  the  pictures  more  magistrates, we  cannot  prosaic;  and  make  we  it  cannot  scratchings.  less be  metaphorical.  less  pictorial,"  42 Lewis  writes  speech  is  in  strictly  "Is  Theology  confined  to  m e a n i n g m u s t be m e t a p h o r i c a l , in  "Bluspels  composition, belief  in  as such i t  and  the  will  be  his  own  literalness.  is  the  precondition  world  Our of  the  Lewis m a i n t a i n s  Flalansferes"  meaning  Poetry?"  Lewis found  goes in  the  senses;  (Miracles,  on  to  inverse  Imagination for  capacity  is  judgement  beyond p.  suggest ratio  the of  organ  for  to  literal that,  all  88).  Indeed,  that,  in  the  of  truth or  any  author's  meaning, falsehood  and as  41 "Bluspels and Flalansferes: A Semantic Nightmare," in Rehabilitations and Other Essays (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1 9 3 9 ) , p. 1 5 1 ; t h e v o l u m e i s c i t e d h e r e a f t e r a s R e h a b i l i t a t i o n s . "Is Theology Poetry?" The 2 5 - 3 5 ; r p t . i n T h e y A s k e d , p. 1 6 1 . 4 2  Socratic  Digest,  No.  3  (1945),  31 d e t e r m i n e d by r e a s o n , w h i c h Of  course,  Lewis  imagination  itself,  parallelism  ( o r more)  of  our  and  and  which  sacramental ism  which  do  push  language  is  that  herald might  in  the  a  we  p.  have  homogeneity like  of  define  as  system which  a  can  be  incorporates  it  beyond  such  point  ethos.  examined  any  The  (18  actual Oct.  1931,  images": greater  it  our  of  one the  it  things is  the  our real  is  ever  Nature  say  is of  physical which  by t h e  "merely"  idea  and is  own  are  God,"  it  is  speaks  a  "language  always  of  language" of  incarnate  a  fundamentally  linguistic  that  offers  n o t h i n g we a r e  we  even  "a  as  a  which  as  energies  Lewis  as  parts.  'metaphorical':  psychic  that  itself;  nature  point  non-univocal  its  picture-symbols  our Him  calls  the  Indeed,  derivative,  he  Indeed,  as  we  too  sacramental  being.  resurrection"  whose  reality.  Life  and  system  sense,  L e w i s was h a u n t e d world  428).  sacramental  immaterial  in  sense  'metaphors' 111).  a  though  "Grammatically deeper  Together,  is  metaphoric,  crucifixion,  If  elements  a m e a n i n g l a r g e r t h a n t h e sum o f  incarnation,  158).  critical  Thus, i n . h i s correspondence w i t h A r t h u r Greeves, Lewis "the  the  underscore  material  immediate  language  of  to  non-theologically  comprises  their  (p.  discussion only  arbitrary  "metaphysical  investigating  entire  the  equations  h a v e been  simply  they  in  psycho-physical  the o r i g i n a l  However,  previous  Lewis'  sacramental  all  rightness  of  example,  been  our  phenomenon; e s s e n t i a l l y , meaning  for  context,  nature,  kind  acknowledges,  already  beyond  "a  158).  freely  a certain  unless  g o o d and l i g h t ,  non-theological  spiritual  posits  universe,"  Lewis  truth.  presumes  a and  this  even  somewhat  language,  sacramental  that  us  in  consistency  the organ of  Flalansferes,"  implications,"  they  admits  t h i n k i n g , between  ("Bluspels  is  meaning. but  in  are  a  mere  (Miracles,  p.  f a m i l i a r with  in  bespeaks  an  ultimate  32 reality.  "'You  have  told  Ransom  is  nature  always  points  Being.  Lewis  learned  created,  in  never  written  else,"  the  Nature  .  .  from  read  finding  the  nature,  are  . [is]  As  its  about  reality,  fundamental  distinction  itself  its  extra-referential  between  meaning  is  S p a c e , Time a n d D e i t y a s  for  first  taught  an  experience  learned  that  are  entirely  two  Kilby  which  he  would  be  terms  "Enjoyment"  "to  contemplate"  seeing.  On  the  would  "to  contemplate"  be  contemplative  other  thoughts.  one's  perception  of  that  circumvents  the  contemplation  the  the  of  and  the  That table  our  two  p.  basic  table,  Lewis act is,  to  would  altogether. inner  an a c t  an  text  about  which  p.  157).  that  synchronic  "to  but  of  are  life  to  enjoy" optics  reflexive  "He  experience as to  one," Lewis,  see  a  the  act  contemplate  "to the  his  activities,  enjoy" to  cites  205-09).  regarded  Thus,  reality  in  According  and  inner  Lewis  influence pp.  has  on  (Miracles,  " I n o t h e r words  activities  who  "something  33).  contemplate be  by  be  but  seeing,  knit  never  continues,  of  poet  the  (Joy,  is  ordinariness  hallmark.  thought  must  that  self-contained  "Contemplation."  the  hand,  table  that  Logician,"  between  be  a major  later  all  That  declares  principle  the  things  ("Creative  differentiates  this  and  different  summarizes  Alexander  him  to  ultimate  or  else.  Lewisian  Samuel A l e x a n d e r ' s  its  in  author  a thing's  a  to  although  something  "proves  supernature,  nature's an  lines,  o n l y the commentary," Lewis  The  having  to  anything,'"  of  signature of  God  of  adjunct  existence  language  that  appearance  the  Creator's  compared  so  an  derivative the  ultimately  ultimate  than  232).  her  to  in  more  (p.  He f r e q u e n t l y  a story  consistency,  and  Perelandra  thus  extraordinary.  seen  only  which  table of  optics those afford  introspection  the enjoyment  incompatible,"  and  Lewis  33 concludes  (Joy,  p.  reflexive  animal  206). (in  The  turn  phenomenon  due  to  his  is  related  composite  to  man's  being),  a  nature  as  a  characteristic  43 frequently  noted  similarly  be  believe?'  all  to  turn  Lewis.  He  short-circuited: belief  round  from--trying  by  and to  seems t o  look  take  at  out  observes  "The  go.  that  moment  one  I  think  this  something  which  is  one's  religious asks  is  eyes  instead  of  and  Deity,  Lewis  oneself  because  there  to  be  keeping  faith  one  'Do  is  used  them i n  can I  trying  and the  work right  44 p l a c e and s e e i n g w i t h Upon  reading  Alexander's axiomatic. he  them."  Space,  distinction The  impact  subsequently  wrote.  know o r  engage  popular  assumption,  subjective their  Time  in  is  phenomena  correspondent  between  on  his  imagination  Simply  stated,  ultimately our of  about  thoughts our  own  objects.  s o m e t h i n g l i k e my v i e w , "  "Enjoyment" can  its  traced  import  is  poet,  Mr  in  "The  are  in  that  else.  perceptions but  recognized  "Contemplation"  be  minds,  Lewis w r i t e s  and  something  and  "A  immediately  virtually  all  everything  we  Contrary  are  not  integrally  Robert  to  much  merely related  Conquest,  Language o f  as  has  the to put  Religion":  Observation of real events includes the observer, ' h e a r t ' and a l l ; (The common measurable features are obtained by omitting this part.) B u t t h e r e i s a l s o a common a s p e c t i n t h e e m o t i o n a l Shared by o t h e r members o f the species: this is conveyed by ' a r t . ' 5 4  4  3  Image o f Words. 4 4  ^ 14 O c t . 4  For example, the concept i s present i n Joy M a n , p. 1 0 1 , W h i t e n o t e s i t s a p p e a r a n c e i n  "To M r s .  L.,"  27 S e p t .  1949, L e t t e r s ,  "Excerpts from a Report 1 9 5 4 , p. 6 1 2 ; q u o t e d by  and M i r a c l e s . Lewis' Studies  In in  221.  to the G a l a c t i c C o u n c i l , " L e w i s i n "The L a n g u a g e o f  The L i s t e n e r , Religion," in  34 In  the  essay,  imagining  and  imagination's of  proceeds  that  of  resultant  off-fall).  "The  or by-product Joy,  Lewis  for  he s i m i l a r l y  having  which  we  use  error  insists  between to  that as  and  was  the  prior  links,"  he  is  offer  our  and  the e t y m o l o g i c a l  sense  mistake t h i s  mere s e d i m e n t o r  track  "the  of  he w a r n s  that is  in  (Joy,  an  ("Language  p.  enabled of  is  206).  of  of  us  find  Religion,"  207).  In  a  concepts"  "[The  latter]  activity: these  p.  is  He d r a w s  linked  a prior  to  p.  unreliable  argument.  translation  alone  (Joy,  Herodotus  succession  'thought'  a sort  of  (in  itself  latter  activity  being  themselves,"  the  the  simply  reflecting  a c t i v i t y which explains  to  between  images,  complex o f f a l  thinking  thinking  a p p e a r s t o me t o be a l w a y s it  mental  activities  not as complex a p r o c e s s distinction  differentiate  and l e s s  great  the  to  and  concepts  139).  Lewis  concludes:  Finally, in a l l our j o y s and sorrows, religious, a e s t h e t i c , o r n a t u r a l , I seem t o f i n d t h i n g s ( a l m o s t indescribably) thus. They are about something. They a r e a b y - p r o d u c t o f t h e ( l o g i c a l l y ) p r i o r a c t o f attending to or looking towards something.1 . . . The v e r y e s s e n c e o f o u r l i f e as conscious b e i n g s , a l l d a y and e v e r y d a y , c o n s i s t s o f s o m e t h i n g w h i c h c a n n o t be c o m m u n i c a t e d e x c e p t by h i n t s , simil e s , m e t a p h o r s , and t h e use o f t h o s e e m o t i o n s ( t h e m s e l v e s not very important) which are p o i n t e r s to i t . Looking towards is neither metaphorical than attending to. R e l i g i o n , " pp. 139-40)  more n o r less ("Language of  1  The e s s e n c e o f is  ultimately  Christian p. 134.  a  nature  pointer.  Reflections,  ed.  too  is  something  Something  Walter  else  beyond,  extraordinary  Hooper  (London:  is  to  which  domiciled  Geoffrey  Bles,  nature in  the  1967),  35 ordinary. one's  Indeed,  relative  will  be  In  through  is  her,  Nature  writes make  it  in  in:  If  it  an  things  second  the  of  and  vital that  (Miracles,  to  it  The  110).  first  withers  and  lose  He  left  we  as p.  something as  well  as  subordination  herself," when  get  both  or  (Miracles,  "The  Nature  former  God,  contemplate  of  beauty  we  as  her"  extraordinary.  and  experience the  that  we  Lewis try  second  first  this  of  Enjoyment  to  things  and  exists.  One  cannot  through  direct  "something  but  also not  for  its  on  the  describes  that  o n l y manner i n w h i c h  refers  medium w o u l d  h e a v e n l y wave  of  the  ordinariness,  else"  any i n t e r m e d i a r y o b j e c t ,  only  her  requires  second  228).  Lewis  reality,  but  must  sheer  things  also  possess  one  the  first  Otherwise,  treat  interests  "All  is  ordinariness  pleasure  her  the  this  which  to  purpose,  p.  in  objectivity  ultimate  intermediary.  which  nature,  and  the  first  through  contemplate,  the  in  1951, L e t t e r s ,  only  "to  fully  of  only  put  intention  short  if  and  pith  nature  Put  else"  or  whole  imprint  nature's  extraordinary.  latter,  Griffiths.  sheer  idolize,  the  absolute.  is  appreciate  delighting  demanded  the  "something Were  enjoy  the  (23 A p r i l  know  the  it  t r u l y appreciate to  lose  Dom Bede  an  things"  the  to  to of  for  thereby  is  to  thrown  to  order  recognizing of  awareness  mistaken  Everything, 81).  simply  suffer  an  mechanics--"only  such  it  motivate  that  its  one  to  not o n l y  fall  enjoyment true  [for]  retreated,"  ill-fated  come  Contemplation.  impaired for  one c a n  can  apprehend  one w o u l d  be e n j o y e d  s a n d when  to  one  the  identity pattern  Lewis  activity  temple-building:  "For it is something coming through the particularities, some l i g h t w h i c h t r a n s f i g u r e s t h e m , that r e a l l y c o u n t s , and i f y o u c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e m y o u will find them t u r n i n g dead and c o l d under your  as  of  says futile  36 hands. The more e l a b o r a t e l y , i n t h a t w a y , we b u i l d t h e t e m p l e , t h e more c e r t a i n l y we s h a l l find, on c o m p l e t i n g i t , t h a t t h e g o d has f l o w n . " 4 6  One  must  "'It  not  ceases  repeating  mistake to  in  his  Nature, of  be  than  ordinary  less  than  i d o l on  a devil  Letters  indeed  supernature,  the  for  when  it  the  ceases  and The F o u r  the  whole  but  never  because  of  more the  extraordinary  of  god, to  be  a  frequently  god,'"  advises.  he  is  fond  of  is  sacramental  Loves.  our than  temporal  existence,  sacramental.  extraordinary  because  Lewis  of  the  we  While  read  in  resolute  nature  is  more  is  also  ordinariness  she  her,  she  47 comprises. things  "Reality  is  'incorrigibly  plural,'"  cites  Lewis.  a r e s h a r p and k n o b b l y a n d c o m p l i c a t e d and d i f f e r e n t "  (p.  "Real 199):  Concrete, individual, determinate things do now exist: things like flamingoes, German generals, l o v e r s , s a n d w i c h e s , p i n e a p p l e s , c o m e t s and k a n g a r o o s . One might even say [these are] opaque e x i s t e n c e s , i n the sense t h a t each c o n t a i n s something which our i n t e l l i g e n c e cannot completely d i g e s t . In so f a r as t h e y i l l u s t r a t e g e n e r a l l a w s i t can d i g e s t t h e m : b u t t h e n t h e y a r e n e v e r mere illustrations. Above and beyond t h a t t h e r e i s i n each o f them t h e "opaque" brute f a c t o f e x i s t e n c e , the f a c t t h a t i t is a c t u a l l y t h e r e and i s i t s e l f . . . . T h i s t o r r e n t [ o f opaque things] . . . alone gives our truest p r i n c i p l e s a n y t h i n g t o be t r u e a b o u t . " ( p . 105)  Nature  is  irreducibly  "merely a stage-set  46 A P r e f a c e 1 9 4 2 ) , p. 4 7 .  for  to  herself, the moral  Paradise  no  more  "the  ultimate  reality"  drama o f men a n d women" ( p .  Lost  (Toronto:  Oxford  than  81).  University  Press,  47 M i r a c l e s , p. 198; f u r t h e r page r e f e r e n c e s in this paragraph which a r e documented p a r e n t h e t i c a l l y w i t h i n t h e t e x t a r e t o M i r a c l e s .  37 The  dual  derivative to  status,  various  Indeed,  order,  as  for  both  opposed  degrees  while  keeping  with  in  proposes  potential  to  she  greater  is  not  the  has  the  and  evil  absolute  the  that  the  only  its  of  higher  attests  reality  positive  philosophy  i n The S i l v e r C h a i r the  good  to  which  attribute  nature's  indwells of  existence.  medieval  bestiaries,  something  is  capacity  for  in  good  her  Lewis  the  but  natural  also  its  48 demoniac  potential.  Christianity near,'"  allows—and  Lewis w r i t e s  Nature  does  is  not  a nature-God,  p.  139).  is  yet  soul  The  of  Nature  139).  have  the  N.T.  Dom Bede  the but  the  even It  is  separate nor  of  with  the  not  that  always [New  any  part  the  from  Lewis  of  its  spark'  finite  in  is  is  linked  .  .  man,"  one  not  points  to  .  as  go  v.  301).  divine.  out  to  abode.  Nature.  Dualism  1961, L e t t e r s ,  she  inextricably  apart  'divine  but  near  allows  (20 Dec.  Nature,"  while  as  Testament]  goodness,  God o f  and  gone  Griffiths  Creator's  extraordinary,  something  identified p.  reflect  to  '"I  "He  (Miracles,  the  ordinary,  "[God]  is  He  not  is  not  the  to  be  Lewis  warns  (Miracles,  reprehensible:  Lewis  identifies  49 contemptus "Not  mundi as  bad y o u s e e ; j u s t  Lady J u l i a n like  "dangerous"  of  a hazel  'so  entities,  but  relationship  never is  "vision of  small  Sacramental ism,  then,  I thought entails  their  preserved  48 F o r t h i s a n d Image o f M a n , p. 9 4 .  simply  very very small,"  Norwich's  nut  --but  the  'all it  could  homogeneous in  a  profound  following  it  Lewis w r i t e s , that  the  that  is  made'  hardly  integral  heartily as  a  endorsing  little  co-inherence Their  subordination, I  derivative.  thing  endure.'"  equation.  reference  is  am  of  integrity for  indebted  it  is  to  49 "To Dom Bede G r i f f i t h s , O . S . B . , " 16 A p r i l 1940, L e t t e r s , t h e n e x t s e n t e n c e c o n t a i n s a q u o t a t i o n f r o m t h i s same l o c a t i o n .  two of "by  White,  183;  38 refusing  to  identify  anything  imagined,  "proclaims  or  itself  appropriateness comments i n  itself  with  any  state  sheerly  in  the  any  object  of  our  objective"  unequal  of  own  (Joy,  relationship  the  senses,  minds,"  that  pp.  itself  or  supernature  208-09).  suggests  . . .  An to  innate  Lewis,  who  Miracles:  The t o t a l r e a l i t y , b o t h N a t u r a l a n d S u p e r n a t u r a l , i n w h i c h we a r e l i v i n g i s more m u l t i f a r i o u s l y a n d s u b t l y h a r m o n i o u s t h a n we had s u s p e c t e d . We c a t c h s i g h t o f a new k e y p r i n c i p l e — t h e p o w e r o f t h e H i g h e r , just i n s o f a r a s i t i s t r u l y H i g h e r , t o come d o w n , t h e power o f t h e g r e a t e r t o i n c l u d e t h e l e s s . Thus s o l i d b o d i e s e x a m p l i f y [ s i c ] many t r u t h s o f p l a n e g e o m e t r y , b u t p l a n e f i g u r e s no t r u t h s o f s o l i d g e o m e t r y : . . . M o n t a i g n e became k i t t e n i s h w i t h h i s k i t t e n b u t she never talked philosophy to him. (pp. 134-35; emphasis added)  In  its  religious  dramatically lower.  demonstrates  Lewis'  Pentecost,  sermon  explains the  lesser  language"  is  (p.  Nevertheless,  this  with  His  both  as  the embarrassing g i b b e r i s h  be  the  "organ  167).  Clearly,  lesser  vehicle.  itself  into  nature:  Indeed,  the  greater the  a  descending  profound  of  the  richer In  the  into  pattern  up t h e  Lewis  of  Holy  spiritual  higher  investing  the  which  he  first  delivered  at  of  he  into  meaning.  in  or  of  can  supernature  the of  which  lesser  death  we  are  and d r a w i n g  and  rebirth.  example,  "all  to  Paradise  Lost  mystics,  speaking  affirms  in  as  well  tongues,  can  ("Transposition,"  transpose does  itself  regularly the  up—is  This  is  into  a  lowest.'"  but a  p.  transpose  discussing—that it  thereby  For  the  h i g h e s t does n o t s t a n d w i t h o u t  principle  Himself,  A Preface  language  reality  way,  language  the  glossolalia, Ghost,"  tongues,  of  writes  erotic  in  temporal  own f u l n e s s  the  same  "'The  key  speaking  key p r i n c i p l e  God d r a w s  " a human t h i n g , "  very  of  "Transposition,"  that  investing  23).  phenomenon  of  the  a facet  pattern  of  more  39 globally  familiar  says:  is  it  the  to  us,  model  "a  of  thing  all  written  vegetable  all  life,  over  animal  the  world,"  generation,  Lewis  and  our  50 moral  and  emotional  and r e b i r t h Divine  pattern,  theme  into  the  greater  and  ultimately  Creation,  life.  which  is  "turn  out  (p.  136).  key"  and r e b i r t h  in  modalities  moreover,  a minor  death  These  of  death  and  the  master  or  submission  of  comprehends  this  and  death  be  but  That  the  rebirth  is  "total  misunderstood invests  as  the  greater  lower.  to  the  pattern,  inheritance  conjunction  of  establishes  the  Incarnation.  New  On t h a t  harmony o f  spirit  our  distinction  fallen  our ancestors'  and  and  in  and  will  the  and  not  it  she  is  even  the  not  be  act its  of own  is  gloriously  is  not  express  a  work  the  Christ by  the  supernature.  The  will  immaterial" is  full  view,  until  be  which  her  begun  full-toned  immaterial  to  higher  world  complete  perfectly  "concrete  In  attained  eschatological  and  in  sacramental ism  life  reason  for  sound  divine  lesser,  the  Resurrection,  136).  the  between m a t e r i a l of  (p.  of  participate  the  finishes  then  death  ashes.  very  has  will  day n a t u r e w i l l matter  that  Lewis'  matter  Creation  perception  That a r c h a i c correct sort  for  nature  yet:  they  wherein  sacramental,  Indeed,  sacramental  spirit  but  than  is,  pattern"  greater  rebirth  sacramental,  universal  transpositions  comprising  r e k i n d l e d t o r i s e anew a s t h e p h o e n i x f r o m t h e  Nature  the  the D i v i n e C r u c i f i x i o n  that  death-like  to  of  diapason, dissipate,  and as  consummated.  s o r t o f t h i n k i n g w i l l become s i m p l y t h e when N a t u r e a n d S p i r i t a r e f u l l y h a r m o -  50 M i r a c l e s , p. 135; f u r t h e r page r e f e r e n c e s in this paragraph w h i c h a r e documented p a r e n t h e t i c a l l y w i t h i n t h e t e x t a r e t o M i r a c l e s .  40 n i s e d - - w h e n S p i r i t r i d e s N a t u r e so p e r f e c t l y t h a t t h e two t o g e t h e r make r a t h e r a C e n t a u r t h a n a m o u n t e d k n i g h t . . . . That kind o f b l e n d i n g w i l l accurately m i r r o r the r e a l i t y which w i l l then e x i s t . There w i l l be no room t o g e t t h e f i n e s t r a z o r - b l a d e o f thought i n between S p i r i t and N a t u r e . Every state of a f f a i r s i n t h e New N a t u r e w i l l be t h e p e r f e c t e x p r e s s i o n o f a s p i r i t u a l s t a t e and e v e r y s p i r i t u a l s t a t e t h e p e r f e c t i n f o r m i n g o f , and b l o o m u p o n , a s t a t e o f a f f a i r s ; o n e w i t h i t as the perfume w i t h a f l o w e r o r the " s p i r i t " of great poetry with i t s form. ( M i r a c l e s , pp. 191-92)  Thus,  while  s e r v e us f o r mortal learn  Lewis  tea,  he a l s o  substance to  and  of  into  o u r own t e m p o r a l remains  know o n l y  in  teaches  our  food  which  gods.  bring  flavour.  anticipate the  does  emphasizes  inexpressible, eternity.  The  but  ural  it  which  the  subject  home the  in  also  in  knows a u n i o n w i t h  the  further  the  ambrosia  essentially  as  we  sharing  transposition  the  of  myth  an u n s e a r c h a b l e  myth  which  we w i l l  Lewis  points  level  to  trans-  refinement  heavens,  which  indeed  and  new  reality  yearning  a  a  proclaims  us t h a t  induce  its  concrete  he a l s o  romantic  disorientation can  knows  a n d an a b s o l u t e  duces a sense o f J_n n a t u r e ;  at  nectar  appreciate  taste  most  sphere,  rarified  us t o  Our  being  Lewis  home  calls  to  of  fully  Joy  the  pro-  supernat-  displacement,  supernatural, thereby  in  "discover-  51 ing  his  true  nostalgia,  our  identity longing  w h i c h we now f e e l always  seen  While also  Lewis  introduces  51 C a r n e l l ,  to  cut off,  from the  index of our real  and  home."  be r e u n i t e d w i t h to  outside,  be on t h e is  no  s i t u a t i o n , " Lewis does  spirit  "Apparently,  reveal  as a g r a c i o u s  as  a  host  of  neurotic  reflects  spirit  B r i g h t S h a d o w , p.  something  inside  mere  then,  in  120 a n d p.  the  lifelong  universe  from  some d o o r w h i c h we  have  fancy,  "Weight o f  fellow who  in  our  but  Glory"  resident  invites  us  144; t e n s e  the  of to  truest  (p.  30).  nature,  banquet  changed.  in  he a  41 yet  greater  mansion.  endeavour,'" home:  Lewis  "1st  to  Domestic  confesses,  be  happy  happiness  but  to  is  he q u a l i f i e s  prepare  for  '"the the  being  end  of  importance  happy  in  all of  our  human  making a real  home  52 hereafter;  2nd  Screwtape  admits  exhorts earth  his  as  in  the  that  protege  his  Lewis w r i t e s  meantime  men d o n ' t Wormwood  heaven  and  i n Mere  to  be  feel to  final  happy  in  completely  lull  home  his  (pp.  our  "at  human  houses."  home"  on  charge  141-45).  earth,  into  With  Even and  regarding  deep  conviction  Christianity: t  I m u s t t a k e c a r e , on t h e one h a n d , n e v e r t o d e s p i s e , o r be u n t h a n k f u l f o r , t h e s e e a r t h l y b l e s s i n g s , a n d on t h e o t h e r , n e v e r t o m i s t a k e them f o r t h e something e l s e of which they are only a kind of copy, or echo, or mirage. I m u s t keep a l i v e i n m y s e l f t h e desire f o r my t r u e c o u n t r y , w h i c h I shall not f i n d till after death." 5 3  Lewis'  penetrating  extraordinary  at  never content  with  yet  also  along  the  "This  way.  Glover  the  a  descriptive (Enchantment, with  up  central  p.  12).  homely e f f e c t s  5 2  5 3  "To a L a d y , "  in,  every  Lewis'  became  the  16 M a r c h  Mere C h r i s t i a n i t y  of  and  the  of  1955, L e t t e r s ,  of  terms:  ultimate  truth,  to  values  of  simple  his  unhomely  his  life  262; emphasis  (London: G e o f f r e y B l e s ,  hospitality  characterizes  seeking  engine  Object,  apposite  returning  structure  habit  locomotive  these  of  the  however,  ultimate  show  in  into  onward,  the  choices,  thematic  boyhood  desiring  reality,  reveals  him e v e r  fiction  penetrating  the  ordinary  signpost  Lewis'  multiplicity and  the  and a l w a y s  and u n i v e r s a l  perplexing movement  of  describes  and  into  Momentum c a r r i e s  a mere i d o l o n  appreciative  movement  of  home t h e r e .  fully  approaching out  search  1 9 5 2 ) , p.  and  added. 108.  the  fiction" together career:  42 like  the  powerful  mesh  of  e x t r a o r d i n a r y and o r d i n a r y Dom Bede  two  interlocking  engenders  a fruitful  gears,  tension.  the  union  of  Lewis  writes  to  Griffiths:  The t e n s i o n w h i c h y o u s p e a k o f ( i f i t H a tension) between doing f u l l and generous justice to the Natural while also p a y i n g h u m b l e and u n c o n d i t i o n a l o b e d i e n c e t o t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l i s t o me an a b s o l u t e k e y p o s i t i o n . I h a v e no u s e f o r mere e i t h e r - o r p e o p l e ( e x c e p t o f c o u r s e i n t h a t l a s t r e s o r t when t h e c h o i c e , t h e p l u c k i n g o u t t h e r i g h t e y e , i s upon u s : a s i t i s i n some mode e v e r y d a y . ) (23 A p r i l 1 9 5 1 , L e t t e r s , 228)  To the  conclude,  ordinary  rather  an  the  of  As  accounts  comprise  peculiar  study  the depth  its  at  of  Lewis' capstone  wholeheartedly, That  is,  Lewis' but  can  the be  the  is  indeed  its  one  of  multiple  the  show,  the  cosmic  be  is  examined  of  in  which  challenged  Jesus  Christ,  this  literary  careful  is our  balance  and a l l o w s  integral  for  relationship  reaches,  he  came  as to  spirit  non-theological  not  even  supernatural ism  Platonic  of  is  she  is  while  unity.  natural  perspective  but  she as  she  trilogy  The  as  insofar  this  within  congruency,  Insofar  profound  Christianity  or  home;  to  trilogy's  might  extraordinary  expression,  levels.  interrelationship  purpose  our  perfect  thoroughgoing in  the  relationship.  i n t o an i n d i s s o l u b l e  deep commitment t o  for  of  assimilation  endeavour  the  basic  although  implications, fiction  its  easy  and w h o l e n e s s  k n i t t i n g those distances  receives  nature  will  breadth  Although  an  nor y e t  "hominess"  the  domiciling  paradoxical  reality  this  for  provides  not  supernature,  ultimate  home.  its  does  sacramental  intricate,  sacramental not  the  embrace  as  probe  and  terms.  well  to  should  t h e Man i n whom God i s study  it  remains  an  so  Christian.  its  matter  One  clearly  broader  in  Lewis'  recognize Incarnate, enriching  43 backdrop,  and  the  ultimately  the  preeminent  effect  learned,  foundation  fantasy  writer.  of  faith  Enjoyment  of  method  Gibson  gives  Lewis'  natural  all-embracing part  of  same  the  peculiar In the  a  "[Lewis'] beauty 13; of  .  .  emphasis the  meaning  beauty  in  the  short of  an  in  theme  of  role  reader's  stopped end  and  "further  (p.  result of  in  the  m i n d was  19; and  interact  Lewis'  spirit  of  his  the  emphases up"  this  in  the life"  remain  to  two  an and  their  it  that  love  strains  of  delight,  had  that of that  sensuous  (Enchantment,  p.  consideration  created he  show  suggests  rational  as  realization aim o f  the  beauty"  quite  at  preserve  Glover  in  are  relationship.  pagan  imagination  the  higher  almost  his  religious  in  an  by  through  lies  to  the  questions  supernatural ism  understanding  itself"  way  supernature  character.  a  with  enriched  attempted  his  by  investigate  questions  t h e i r own  have  We w i l l  have  recognize  "The  his  of  we  sacramental  we  in  then,  as  the  "artistic  artistic  and  the  point.  matter  concern"  nature  context,  him t o  added).  the  disregard  fostered  and  the  and  and  phenomenon,  was w o r k i n g  spirit  man  indeed,  266).  says,  the  or  which  supported  the i n t i m a c y of  commitment  . brought  p.  for  is  literary  "larger  inherent  earliest  a  Glover  as  natural  romance  as  how  just  non-theological  and  work:  freedom  Tales,  Lewis  the  within  Lewis'  minimize  and  "the  Nevertheless,  questions,  of  As  of  within  identities  basis  logic  42).  subset  existential  of  of  which  question  p.  to  particularity  ultimately  Christianity.  (Enchantment, autonomous  speaks  is  concern  not  life  such  (Spinner  it  a larger  time:  Lewis'  s u p e r n a t u r a l ism  that  is  assume  f o c u s s e d on a more d i s t a n t  properly  [Lewis]"  recognition  in  is  we may s a f e l y  This  any  C o n t e m p l a t i v e gaze which Thus  which  images  of  [previously]  mistaking  it  for  added).  Glover  concludes  that  the  which  charts  in  life  and  he  Lewis'  44 work as  is  rooted  well  as  in  his  an amalgam o f  post-conversion  patterning,  pointing  reflects  a  on  higher  level  literary Plato  out  lower is  something  (Spinner  of  would  Gibson  Lewis'  application  Aristotle  and romance, c o m p r i s i n g  ideas.  that  plane  the  theory"  and  logic  "concept which  of p.  like  is  that  264).  the  Glover's a  more  Plato's  Tales,  be  follows  Lewis'  and of  "To  what  lose of  a  figure  rich  doctrine  amputation  secular  literary  real  pre-  at  a  'Ideas' I  to  owe  limb,"  to  Lewis  54 confesses.  Carnell  c o m p r e h e n s i v e way t o heart"  (Bright  Lewis' p.  own  reconcile  Shadow,  keynote  p.  that  reason's  67).  phrase,  "Lewis  "the  found  dialectic  Indeed, dialectic  in  with  the  Carnell's of  Desire"  Platonism reasons  assessment (Pref.  to  of  a the  echoes Regress,  10). Having  gained  primary theological tion  but  also  conjunction  of  mythic  a  concept  meaning,  available  "Sacramentalism"  and  confirms  will  the  of  then,  for  serve  prosaic  spheres—or  we  a  more  as  our  and  for  "sacramentalism" have  his  a term s t i l l  specifically umbrella  poetic,  over  synchronic  rich  for  above in  literary  term  homely and  and  connota-  application.  Lewis'  unhomely,  awareness  its  and  of  peculiar rational  "logic"  and  55 "romance,"  as  Lewis  Alternatively, Lewis'  natural  meaning f o r  designated  we w i l l  introduce  supernatural ism.  both terms i n  these the  twin  facets  of  his  term " i n c a r n a t i o n a l "  Ransom  points  to  such  perception.  to a  characterize dimension  Perelandra:  L o n g s i n c e on M a r s , a n d more s t r o n g l y s i n c e he came t o P e r e l a n d r a , Ransom had been p e r c e i v i n g t h a t the  5 4  5 5  "The  Idea o f  Walsh,  an  'English  School,'" in Rehabilitations,  "The Man and t h e M y s t e r y , " p.  3.  p.  64.  of  45 t r i p l e d i s t i n c t i o n o f t r u t h f r o m myth and o f both f r o m f a c t was p u r e l y t e r r e s t r i a l - - w a s p a r t and p a r c e l of that unhappy division between soul and body which r e s u l t e d from the F a l l . E v e n on E a r t h the s a c r a m e n t s e x i s t e d as a permanent r e m i n d e r t h a t the division was neither wholesome nor final. The Incarnation had been the beginning of its disappearance, ( p . 1 6 3 ; emphases added)  As  we  have  seen,  Lewis  for  example,  joy  becomes  (p.  180; emphasis  forth into  of  he  uses  that  [physical]  writes  itself  spirit  frequently  joy:  we  can  added).  in  "the  such  hardly  when  "the  t h e h i g h e r a n d become p a r t o f  the e x t r a o r d i n a r y  to  the  as Lewis  ordinary,  s i a f o r tea at the marriage f e a s t . Lewis  states  pairs"  of  in  The  sensibles  Allegory and  Love  insensibles  accompanies  'incarnates  says  and o f  that  first  can  any  actually  (p.  joy'" bodying  be  drawn  180).  denote the technique of serving  The m a r i t a l  of  which  say  reality  With " s a c r a m e n t a l , " " i n c a r n a t i o n a l " w i l l ding  but  "Transposition,"  suitably describes  lower  it,"  in  sensation  choose  "Incarnational"  matter,  diction;  nectar  imagery i s  "to  ask  came  and  not  wed-  ambro-  gratuitous:  how  these  together  would  "married be  great  56 folly; pairs for  the  real  will  "the  be  between  Lewis  who c o n s u m m a t e s of  is  gloriously  union  divorce,"  question  says  how  they  reunited  in  God and N a t u r e  (Miracles,  the marriage of  p.  rich  at  the  wine  marriage to  serve  banquet, at  The A l l e g o r y o f ed. (New Y o r k : Oxford h e r e a f t e r as A l l e g o r y . 5 6  a  the in  came full the  149).  supernature  t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r y and o r d i n a r y .  tea  ever  He t o o  just  Hebrew  as  He  wedding  apart."  These  redemption Person  Christ,  of  the  once feast.  the  Christ Divine  and n a t u r e , serves  of  nectar  blesses  married future,  admits  Incarnation the  union  and a m b r o s i a  transformed Marriage  water stands  Love: A Study in Medieval T r a d i t i o n University Press-Galaxy, 1958), p7  no  for  into  a  as  an  [ 1 9 3 6 ] new 44; cited  46 archetypal  emblem f o r  This  intimate  the composite nature of  union  of  natural  is  also  "incarnational";  it  confessed  that  co-inherent  phenomenon  he  transparent rigorous  initially  natural  appropriately spiritual  (Miracles,  supernatural ism,  sense.  means  an  and  extraordinary, as  then  the  mythological.  incorporated  end,  entire  Reality  into--a  and  p.  184).  it  sum o f  will  is  our  ever  super-reality  on he  came  also all  grounds to  came  experience  which  a  being his  understand  reality  might  our  of  about  transcended  was  adopt  to  ordinary  and  Lewis  reality  ultimately  be  of  "mythological."  As  Lewis  universe.  "sacramental"  physical  Given that  that  is  trial"  however,  profound  than  styled  without  m y t h o l o g y i n a new, rather  and s u p e r n a t u r a l  "rejected  "'mythology'"  a sacramental  is  a  something  be  described  by--but  present  also  existence  c o m p r i s e s o n l y shadows and g l i m m e r s . The term  concept  of  pictorially  "mythological,"  "heraldic,"  is  "sacramental" "married  and  (Allegory, Bailey,  p.  its  a  concept  of  sensibles suggests  represent 44;  "became  modus  adjectives  inherent For  is  "it  operandi  is  the  is  conveyed by  "emblematic" the  in  which  meaning  pointing reflect  very nature  immaterial  added).  in  example,  insensibles"  that  what  emphasis  the  and  t r u t h which  sister  "incarnational."  sacramental ism, Lewis to  by  actually  pairs  language  and  translated  in  for  his  life  thought  picturable  work-in  and of the  linguistic  of  "'Picture-thinking,'"  to  the  says his  and  terms" George  speech  as  57 well  as Of  in  writing."  course,  accomodated  5 7  his  while  truth,"  Lewis  "firmly  he n e v e r m i s t o o k  "the  believed portrait  "In the U n i v e r s i t y , " in Speaker & Teacher,  in  the  for p.  the  113.  doctrine reality,"  of says  47 CO  Margaret here,  Hannay.  not  flower Lewis  as  emptiness  differs  from a  writes  (sensory,  in  lines  bulb  t h a t which  on  elsewhere  solidity  the  Jane  world to the  p.  45).  what  is  is  by j u s t  an  (pp.  for  all  we but  know as  a  drawing," experiences  the  drawing,  like  178-79).  "We  the  us  are  the  are  'shadowy  is  the  flat  round o f  its  unimaginable  function  one o f  wine  natural  reality  the  life  architect's  like  u l t i m a t e l y more s o l i d  startled  from  above  Reality's rather  water  only  w h i c h we m i s t a k e in  sensory  "Our  continues  is  the  from  heavens  veritably  or  177).  are  he  the  i m m a t e r i a l , but  fewer dimensions  water  (p.  paper,"  the world  "from  cathedral  imaginative)  flat  (Allegory,  Strength,  a  "Transposition"  dimensions" to  differs from  or  personifications';  abstractions'; of  reality differs  emotional,  pencilled 'frigid  That  is  not  one  mythological l y and r e a l .  such a r e a l i z a t i o n  of  outline  lending  sketching  In T h a t  in  Hideous  as she compares  her  Christians':  H e r s o u g h t t o have been t h e v i v i d , p e r i l o u s world brought a g a i n s t t h e i r grey f o r m a l i s e d one: hers the q u i c k , v i t a l movements and t h e i r s t h e s t a i n e d - g l a s s attitudes. T h a t was t h e a n t i t h e s i s s h e was used to. T h i s t i m e , i n a sudden f l a s h o f p u r p l e and crimson, she remembered what stained glass was really like. ( p . 391)  "It  is  the  etiolated,  present the  "Transposition" Just so  as  literary  the  life  (as  it  (p.  179).  which  were)  material  constructions  the  'vegetarian'  world in  is  diminution, substitute,"  mythologically  their  own  the  turn  images herald  symbol,  Lewis  the the  writes  the in  supermaterial, material  world,  "A P r e f a c e t o P e r e l a n d r a , " i n The L o n g i n g f o r a F o r m : E s s a y s on the F i c t i o n o f C S . L e w i s , e d . P e t e r J . Schakel ( [ K e n t , OH]: Kent S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 7 ) , p. 7 9 . 5 8  48 incarnating this  in  microcosm  heraldic  wedlock  yields  representation.  for by  Lewis  artifacts;  supposition  that  themselves, external  reality  which  God relays Lewis  .  the  creator  a  Thus t h e  satisfying  human's  also  "the  he may i m i t a t e  'near  by of  readers,  actually  mythology  (Glover,  42).  writes  p.  to  see a r t  In R e f l e c t i o n s  work  Any  and  within  a  rather  in  his  must  and  between  of  world  ideas  context  of fend  unhampered  fiction  than  a  system  genuineness  imported  fictive  story as  of  and  assisting  "in  is  and  symbolical,"  'near  by l i k e n e s s '  the its  on t h e P s a l m s ,  a  his  nectar to  which  picture  of  to  his  master,  sub-creation.  If  and  p.  a  Of  can  readers  life  make  ambrosia  explains  as  by  30).  some s p a r k o f just  shared  stories  (Glover,  sub-creator  Glover  spirit  Lewis  in  home  reflected of  itself  creator"  drawing added).  stories,  is  form  mythologically idea  that  as  offer  as a r e f l e c t i o n  which  sub-creator--an  creator,  life  life  mythological  as w e l l  his  in  to  to mimic h i s  30; emphasis  such  similarity  world  live,  came t o s e e t h a t e v e r y t h i n g he came t o  the  author  content  for  more  263).  sub-creator  approach'  substance  truths"  writes  desire  arbitrary  an  'sacramental'  p.  The  than  the  this  three-dimensional  greater realm.  course,  is  Once  participation,  strives  within  experience.  integral  attempts  calls  Tolkien—likewise  mythologize  of  lived  own a c t i o n .  "It  [Lewis]  of  rather  he  its  freely  super-reality.  and  is,  (Spinner of Tales,  as  a  that  generates  .  one  particularly  moving  .  is  meaning,  strictures.  says Gibson  complexity  relationship  which  literary  its  to  the  that  spirit,  writes:  I t seems t o me a p p r o p r i a t e , a l m o s t i n e v i t a b l e , that when t h a t g r e a t I m a g i n a t i o n w h i c h i n t h e beginning . . . had i n v e n t e d a n d f o r m e d t h e w h o l e w o r l d of N a t u r e , s u b m i t t e d t o e x p r e s s i t s e l f i n human s p e e c h ,  his inner  "as  itself  the  Lewis .  is"  .  .  (p.  49 t h a t s p e e c h s h o u l d s o m e t i m e s be p o e t r y . For poetry too i s a l i t t l e i n c a r n a t i o n , g i v i n g body t o what had been b e f o r e i n v i s i b l e a n d i n a u d i b l e . 5 9  "If  God c h o o s e s  to  be m y t h o p o e i c - - a n d  is  not  the  sky i t s e l f  a  myth—shall fin  we r e f u s e t o be m y t h o p a t h i c ? " he c h a l l e n g e s Lewis'  aesthetics  Aristotle, as  it  is  of  spirit  invests  as  by  Such  1  spirit,  final  but  abode,  atmospheres  but  Nature only  is  emphasis 6 0  6 1  Lewis'  that  that it  that  it  could  but  our  one's  it  "Joy"  also  at  one  promises  that  "Our m y t h o l o g y  is  an  in Perelandra  commu-  nostalgia  unobtained  testifies  itself  destiny.  for  almost (pp.  Reflections added.  on  the  " M y t h Became F a c t , " I follow Glover, aesthetic theory.  then  Psalms  can  nature's  (London:  W o r l d D o m i n i o n , 22 ( 1 9 4 4 ) , Enchantment,  pp.  19-20,  Bles,  p. in  those on  a  infinite  231-32).  sub-creations,  Geoffrey  does  based  s u p e r n a t u r e ' s own c r e a t i o n , y e t c a n c o n v e y a b s o l u t e Much l e s s  suf-  nature  is  it  reinforces  anguished  which  beauty,  which  n e v e r be a s u b s t i t u t e  naturalizes.  dream:  only  experience  and  this  of  communication  intensifying  Through  of  with  recalls  reality  presently  the  meaning  peculiar  "Joy."  absolute  is  the  beauty  theory  experience  signals  thereby  b a s e , " Ransom d i s c o v e r s  mythologically.  5 9  express  aesthetic  but  we  of  Fact."  traditional  reader's  through  as w e l l ,  which  which  than  from t h a t  spirit,  augmenting  of  the  response,  experience  by i t s  beauty of  reality  distance  an  also  accomodate s u p e r n a t u r e ,  s o l i der  own  awareness  bittersweet  rarified  heightened  " M y t h Became  with  whereby the  experiences  identifies  a poignant  a  reader's  aesthetic  Lewis  our  The  the  matter.^  with  which fers  to  coincide  and C o l e r i d g e ,  manifested  previous nion  Poe,  largely  in  reality being  1958),  a  p.  5;  analysis  of  270. his  50 step  further  removed,  supernature. of  Admittedly,  creativity  "but  the  that  truth"  comprise  .  human  .  .  [to  insight  (p. 30).  the  or  sub-creator  discover]  revealed  He  fully  in  express  "exercises  universal art  can  this  the  truths,"  only  be  ineffable  God-like  Glover  a weak  power  explains,  reflection  of  concludes:  We c a n n e v e r a p p r e h e n d t h e u l t i m a t e t r u t h , e x c e p t i n God, so t h a t , t a k e n i n t h e l a r g e s t c o n t e x t , a r t is o n l y a t o o l , a r u d d e r t o s t e e r t h e human s k i f f i n t h e r i g h t d i r e c t i o n . . . . L e w i s , when he s p e a k s o f a r t , i s more i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e b e a u t y , t h e imaginative c r e a t i v i t y , . . . than in reaching the goal at the end o f t h e p e n e t r a t i o n i n t o t h e b e y o n d , ( p . 51)  Barfield, truth,  on  the  other  by c o n c e p t u a l l y  hand,  does  restoring  trust  the  the ancient  poets  to  reveal  absolute  unity of  perception  however,  continues  which  is  67 recoverable  in  "true  beyond t o  discern  the e n t i r e  sum o f  Like sparked beauty  nature,  by  spirit  symbolizes  supernatural heraldic but is  it the  not  result  enjoyment  is  Lewis,  absolute,  could  art it that  It  is  a  does  derivative,  central,  to is  referent  of  its  supernature;  indeed,  and  meaning.  Enjoyment  by-product  entity.  of  reality,  than  look  imaged  and  not  Any  true  and  the  in  art's  verily  in  higher  Meaning  following  says  communicates  of  an  meaning, of  beauty  Lewis;  object. [1928]  sentence  is  aesthetic  appreciation  a  it  remains  vehicle  Contemplation,  contemplating  Because  beauty  sanctified-  62 B a r f i e l d , P o e t i c D i c t i o n : A Study ( L o n d o n : F a b e r and F a b e r , 1 9 5 2 ) , p p . 8 6 - 8 7 . 63 The content of this G l o v e r , Enchantment, pp. 19-20.  and  Nevertheless,  organic of  be more  amoral  primal fi 3  man. an  never  to  experience.  reflect  the  the  which  knowledge and  meaning  pointer.  is  the  metaphors."  its In  new  a ed.  paraphrase  51 letter  t o Leo K i n g s ! e y B a k e r , L e w i s  writes:  One t h i n g i s p l a i n , t h a t t h e s t a t e m e n t s continually made about Beauty's being pure contemplation, stirring no i m p u l s e , being the antithesis of the p r a c t i c a l or e n e r g i z i n g s i d e of us, are wrong. On t h e c o n t r a r y , b e a u t y seems t o me t o be a l w a y s an i n v i t a t i o n o f some s o r t : u s u a l l y an i n v i t a t i o n t o we d o n ' t know w h a t . A wood s e e n a s " p i c t u r e s q u e " b y a fool ( w h o ' d l i k e a f r a m e r o u n d i t ) may be purely c o n t e m p l a t e d : s e e n a s " b e a u t i f u l " i t seems r a t h e r t o s a y "come u n t o m e . " 6 4  Literature is  not  similarly  "a  beckons  self-existent  one  to  thing  enjoy  to  rather  be  valued  does  not  than  contemplate  for  its  own  yield  the  absolute.  it;  sake,"  it says  65 Lewis.  Of  emphatically beginning  itself states  of,  nor  *(i.e.  literary that  a step  "this  image  it  t o be s u c h a b e g i n n i n g ) "  in  its  understood perhaps  the  (Joy,  by L e w i s  to  and p.  in  even  i n The F o u r  the  of  the  higher  life  by  its  own  imagination of  the  nature.  is  spirit, God  can  Lewis not  1  a  merely cause  159).  than  originates define  life  no more d o g m a t i c  application  word  ticklish  clarified  necessarily  sacramental ism i s  literary  lower  towards,  an  Lewis'  not  art  the  though  nor  specifically  otherwise,  although  Word.  difference,  we  have  The  already  religious ultimately which  examined  it,  is is  Loves:  We m u s t d i s t i n g u i s h two t h i n g s w h i c h m i g h t both p o s s i b l y be c a l l e d " n e a r n e s s t o G o d . " One i s likeness t o God. God has i m p r e s s e d some s o r t o f l i k e n e s s t o H i m s e l f , I s u p p o s e , i n a l l t h a t He h a s made. . . . I n t h a t way a l l m e n , w h e t h e r g o o d o r b a d , a l l a n g e l s  64 J u l y 1921, E n g l i s h Literature Manuscripts, Bodleian Lewis C o l l e c t i o n , B o d l e i a n L i b r a r y , Oxford U n i v e r s i t y , c/220/4, ( c a l l n u m b e r ) , a s q u o t e d i n G l o v e r , E n c h a n t m e n t , p. 1 2 . 65 " C h r i s t i a n i t y a n d L i t e r a t u r e , "  in Rehabilitations,  p.  196.  Library N o . 61  52 i n c l u d i n g t h o s e t h a t f e l l , a r e more l i k e God t h a n t h e animals are. T h e i r natures are i n t h i s sense " n e a r e r " to the D i v i n e Nature. B u t , s e c o n d l y , t h e r e i s what we m e a n , t h e s t a t e s i n w h i c h a man i s " n e a r e s t " t o God a r e t h o s e i n w h i c h he i s m o s t s u r e l y a n d s w i f t l y a p p r o a c h i n g h i s f i n a l u n i o n w i t h G o d , v i s i o n o f God and e n j o y m e n t o f God. And a s s o o n a s we d i s t i n g u i s h n e a r n e s s - b y - l i k e n e s s a n d n e a r n e s s - o f - a p p r o a c h , we s e e t h a t t h e y do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y c o i n c i d e . T h e y may o r may n o t . (pp. 12-13; emphasis added)  Lewis not  deeply  deny t h a t  God.  "All  not the not  respects  things,  guarantee of  approach itself  sinful  can  268).  all  p.  progress. will "I  become  the  Lewis  "'No  by  God's  can  natural  of  the  Mrs. are  the  the  one's  or  in  The  rein.  life,  low,  They a l l  but (n.d.  no  not  in  none  is  [1956],  unholy,  Divorce. go  the  will, is  holy or  Great  to  will  to  own  Halvorson  high  itself  which  spiritual  does  imagination  personally  thing  R.E.  Spirit  on  responds  and  by a p p r o a c h  truth,  submitting  every  Bright  nearer  sacramental ism of  one  actively  feelings  is  But  to  one  heavenly  Unless  explains  hand  bring  159).  servant  the  nearness-by-likeness,  reflect  think  natural  continues  h o l y when  way,  (Joy,  made.  so,"  language  their  divine be  themselves,'" are  moral  will  Letters,  in  he s a y s  the  automatically  imagination's  a sacramental  least,"  demands  the  in  '"They  bad when  they  fifi set  up on t h e i r own a n d make t h e m s e l v e s i n t o Thus,  between  where  the  generally  word take  ("Christianity  and  non-religious  an  dedication  the  6 6  one  to  should  and  seemingly  the  Word,  literature Literature," experience glory  of  as God.  honour  Lewis  less p.  false  gods."  a  profound  affirms  that  seriously 196).  any "The  other, work  Art  is  a  Christians  than as  depending of  correspondence will  non-Christians religious simply  charwoman  The G r e a t D i v o r c e : A Dream ( L o n d o n : G e o f f r e y B l e s ,  and  and  upon the  1 9 4 6 ) , p.  as its work  84.  53 of  a  poet  Lewis  become  spiritual  writes.*^  "We  can  in  the  play,  same way  as  ( " C h r i s t i a n i t y a n d L i t e r a t u r e , " p. Of c o u r s e , other  once  sacramental  actually Christ  become  is  a personal  language that  then  reflected  can  eat,  response  beyond  As  within  on  the  to  same  the  condition,"  glory  of  God"  196).  moral  goes  truth.  we  and  the  has  reflecting  apostle  the  been m a d e ,  mirrors  supernatural  Paul of  art  says,  our  the  faces,  or  any  truth  to  person  of  as  they  "are  CO  changed  into  home, o r is  the  rather  unveiled.  language  same  one One  as  having  of  the  literature  out,"  Jane's  nothing,  and  nothing  except  being  like  which  had  is  to  which  never this.  this always  When J o h n r e a c h e s  had  in  Till  We  also,  his  there  Have  equips  longed-for i n The  up  to  Last  the  "to  like  (Strength, be in  tastes  a  point  minor of  point  only the  point"  Bible,  2 Cor.  i i i : 18.  (K.J.V.)  left  there  was  this:  in  finally and  only  The  by  portent  retrospect.  Pevensie  new  and was  children meets  the  unexpected  " C h r i s t i a n i t y a n d C u l t u r e , " T h e o l o g y , 40 ( 1 9 4 0 ) , 1 6 6 - 7 9 ; " C h r i s t i a n i t y a n d C u l t u r e , " i n C h r i s t i a n R e f l e c t i o n s , p. 2 4 . 6 8  all  "There  now  394).  and O r u a l wholly  abode  the  the  like  p.  Regress,  Battle,  of  real  And  understood  its  sacramental  language:  been  brought  192). the  this.  had  in  real  with  see  is  the  "One  read  sacramental  Island  each  see  to  her  6 7  in  to  everything  comes  recognize  1941, L e t t e r s ,  existed"  Faces,  Myth  Divine.  last  anything,  anything  been  at  of  to  the  brought  meaning  Yet  able  (29 J a n .  similarly  d i s c o v e r t h e i r new N a r n i a gods  be a b l e  been  glory."  home t o m y t h , a n d a new w i n g  we w e r e  had  to  embodied  "To a L a d y "  Divine  glory  properly  along  conversion the  from  brought  all  conversion  Lewis w r i t e s  understand  is  becomes  rewards old  image  rpt.  54 experience,  yet  also  "'Both  and  evil,  good  advises  MacDonald  fullest  sacramental  potential step.  finds when  in  that they  The  are  Great  function  aesthetic  Lewis,  can  Chad Walsh  beauty,  realities,  which  unless  and  at  until  was  full  somehow  grown,  Divorce  (p.  is  assigns  most it  only  actualized "a  one  a  along.  retrospective,'"  Thus  in  all  imagination's  retrospect,  only  after  and  one's  handmaiden-of-theology"  opens  plays  there  become  62).  be d i s c e r n e d  nearness-of-approach  With  which  up  role  to  new  more  first role  experiences  directly  its  to and  analogous  to  69 sanctification "temporarily  in  the  recovered"  Walsh  suggests,  even  again  .  in  totally  .  .  and  absent  Although sacramental  Christian  Poet"  diapason,  which  super-reality, own  highly  (Bright Lewis' organic  be  humanization.  can  become  will  ix).  Of  i s moral o r  written  by  a  p.  24).  notes  the  Without  is  was  the  both  either  glance,"  any  one  Eden  moment  neither  art  indeed  its  the  literature  now  calls  is  sounded  whole  is  as  keynote  ever  and  Eden  know  at  however,  fiction  beyond o u r normal  sensible  shall  never  significant  note  Espousing  "we  itself,  Lewis'  His  addresses  being  it  the  a backward  that  Christian—no  every  style  74).  work  in  than  then  holy.  of  "his  even t h o s e  sign"  and  stamp  Perhaps  "more  discover  then,  includes  marries  unity.  it  (p.  (Glover,  p.  s  eschatological  primary  imagistic  Shadow, work  "an  language  concept, to  art  knowing  the  also  in  from us"  nor any s a c r a m e n t a l  happens  initiate  a by  hearing person,"  ordinary  insensible,  and  or  Eliot  the  mythological the  ineffable  range.  "Lewis'  Carnell  offers  extraordinary,  discovering  theologically  which  there  an  ideologically  69 F o r e w o r d , I m a g i n a t i o n a n d t h e S p i r i t : E s s a y s i n L i t e r a t u r e a n d the C h r i s t i a n F a i t h , e d . C h a r l e s A. H u t t a r (Grand R a p i d s , MI: Eerdmans, 1 9 7 1 ) , p. i x a n d p. x .  55 didactic, outlook  Lewis' and  incomplete the  word  fiction  does  mythological  copy o f in  a  ultra  rather  tonally  compatible  defense  of  vision,  extended  "but  elements are f i t t e d  whereby  reality.  with  Lewis,  imaginatively  myth is  in  indeed  together  in  everything  "[Such]  sense)  reflect  is  his  is  a  truthful  yet  parts  (I  use  methodologically  and  symbolism i n not  only  the  whole,"  the  same  s u c h a way a s  says  thing to  sacramental  the  Wayne  on  a  Shumaker  smaller  stand f o r  in  scale:  more t h a n  they  picture.  Myth directly  is  the  heraldic  literary of  the  language  core  of  which  reality.  the Enjoy/Contemplate quandary of  Lewis  judges  He e x p l a i n s  our e a r t h l y  to  be  the  t h a t myth  most  resolves  pilgrimage:  T h i s i s o u r d i l e m m a — e i t h e r t o t a s t e a n d n o t t o know o r t o know a n d n o t t o t a s t e . . . . As t h i n k e r s we a r e c u t o f f f r o m w h a t we t h i n k a b o u t ; a s t a s t i n g , t o u c h i n g , w i l l i n g , l o v i n g , h a t i n g , we do n o t c l e a r l y understand. The more l u c i d l y we t h i n k , t h e more we a r e c u t o f f : t h e more d e e p l y we e n t e r i n t o r e a l i t y , t h e l e s s we c a n t h i n k . . . . Of t h i s t r a g i c dilemma myth i s t h e p a r t i a l s o l u t i o n . In t h e e n j o y m e n t o f a g r e a t m y t h we come n e a r e s t to experiencing as a c o n c r e t e w h a t c a n o t h e r w i s e be u n d e r s t o o d o n l y a s a n abstraction. ( " M y t h Became F a c t , " p p . 2 6 8 - 6 9 )  Calling  mythical  expression Lewis  of  certain  concludes  70 "The (1955), 249.  elements  that  Cosmic  "an  basic they  elements  are  Trilogy  admirable  "the  of  in words  CS.  hieroglyphic" man's of  Lewis,"  a  and  spiritual language  The  "the  experience," which  Hudson  speaks  Review,  8  71 "On T h r e e Ways o f W r i t i n g f o r C h i l d r e n , " i n P r o c e e d i n g s , P a p e r s and Summaries o f D i s c u s s i o n s a t t h e Bournemouth C o n f e r e n c e 2 9 t h A p r i l t o 2nd May 1952 ( L o n d o n : L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 5 2 ) , p. 2 4 ; t h e a r t i c l e is c i t e d h e r e a f t e r as " W r i t i n g f o r C h i l d r e n . "  56 the e l s e  unspeakable."  I n p o e t r y t h e w o r d s a r e t h e b o d y and t h e " t h e m e " o r "content" is the s o u l . But i n myth t h e imagined e v e n t s a r e t h e b o d y and s o m e t h i n g i n e x p r e s s i b l e is the soul . . . . I t i s i n some ways more a k i n to music than to poetry . . . . I t goes beyond t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h i n g s we h a v e a l r e a d y f e l t . It arouses i n us s e n s a t i o n s we h a v e n e v e r had b e f o r e , never a n t i c i p a t e d h a v i n g , a s t h o u g h we had b r o k e n o u t of o u r n o r m a l mode o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . . . . (Pref., G e o r g e M a c d o n a l d , p. 1 6 ; e m p h a s i s a d d e d )  Lewis  defines  outward  myth  fact,  reality  accidental," By  same  or  very  rather  than  power  convey  ( C h r i s t i a n W o r l d , p.  token,  empirical  Lewis  does "When  that  is,  myths  from r i t u a l ,  held  them:  to  semblance,  sense:  experience dissociated  its  says K i l b y  the  historical  "by  not I  the  essence  genuine  rather  than  than  the  155). deem  talk  of  myth  the  to  myths  contemplated  up b e f o r e  rather  I  be  true  mean m y t h s  but  f u l l y waking  not  in  an  as  we  believed,  imagination  of  a 73  logical  mind,"  he  Nevertheless, while not  to  the  myth .  .  is .  falling  of  (Bright myth " a s  neither  but, on  historicity  myth i s  nonhistorical  distinguishes conceives  clarifies  at  its  but  rather p.  operates  within  to Paradise  writes what  Lost,  p.  .  White  Criticism.  myths  .  .  .  nondescribable," even  suggests M a n , p.  .  diabolical  .  nor  in  Miracles  calls  5 6 ; emphases  gleam  Lewis'  of  38).  Lewis Thus,  illusion  divine  (p.  refer  Carnell  that  (Image o f  unfocussed Lewis  in  great  the  history"  though  "the  White  history  real  imagination,"  to  106).  nonincarnate  a  Experiment  historical,  Shadow,  best,  An  not  "misunderstood  human  72 P r e f a c e  in  161n).  truth Its  "metaphor-plus  added.  7 3 An Experiment in Criticism (Cambridge: P r e s s , 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 4 5 ; c i t e d h e r e a f t e r a s C r i t i c i s m .  Cambridge  University  57 understanding"  of  the w o r l d , whereby  metaphor i s more—not a n d p.  e x a m p l e , we f i n d  Pilgrim's  Regress.  religion  is  Man  suddenly  who  thing.  but  He  which of  appears  actually  instance journey  John  his  that  '"Child,  if  not  of  represented  speech"  you  the  first  until  "to  realities  in  (Image o f  stories, nature' reality  although impinging  Him t o  are  of  death  myth  and  M a n , p.  is  appeals  to  always  within Lewis. trying  and  is  41  (p.  "Myth  a  to  and  is  help  Voice  .  .  then  Carnell  fact:  My  from  summarizes,  language."  inspired convey  and  is  appear even  literal  an  telling  . This  to  consequently  on  A  counters:  not  I have chosen  "are  same  143-46).  appears,  My m y t h o l o g y .  in  a  commands  embarking  truth,  points,"  the  the  (pp.  again  but  Later,  him  that  Another  is  his  metaphor-prayers  canyon,  Wisdom  that  by the  Its 'Arch-  largest  107).  metaphor-plus  world,  considers  catch  in  that  our  is  not  s u c c e s s i v e . T h i s  74  "On  Stories,"  in  the  It  tells  warns  its  historical,  'Nature,'"  Lewis  than  be d i s c u s s e d  literally  upon  it  under which 171).  and  figurative.  simply cannot not  real  rebirth.  But then  veil  John's  is  figured  by Wisdom.  it  aid,  mythology.  suspects  him  crosses  but  who  rescue  that  less  allegorically  confirmed  to  his  John  are  it  the  no  when  ( B r i g h t S h a d o w , p.  It  John  world  pilgrim  doubts  brought  now'"  which  doubting  however,  will,  is  the  has h i s  very r e a l .  this  metaphor-plus  adds,  adventures  the  inventing,  that  a figure  before  occurs  archetypal  image,  John,  metaphor-religion  similar  this  a metaphor,  solemnly  have  his  are  reality  39).  For in  less—than  "the  Essays  net  then,  "in of  life  and  successive  existential  Presented  that  myth art  both  moments  conflict  to  so  Charles  is  best  strongly . . .  we  something resolved  Williams,  with  58 by s t o r y ,  particularly  for  sake  the  experiential  of  in  the  moments  the  Myth,  purest  "where  work  form of  the  forms  story,"  s o m e t h i n g "much more l i k e 103).  "those  to  capture or  a  of  such  everything  their  else  series  ("On  events  best  all  theme,  the  that  there  timeless,  S t o r i e s , " p.  is  meets  is  of  non-sequential  quality"  mere p a t t e r n and a s  which  because  a state  story,  in  indeed  90 and  p.  matters,"  is  criterion  to  attain  75 this the  non-sequential radiance,  t h a t you f i n d  is  theme.  In  incarnate  in  myth,  the  "the  whole  meaning,  story:  any d e t a c h a b l e m e r i t s , " says Lewis  it  (p.  the  is  suggestion,  only  by  17; emphases  chance added).  I t i s o n l y w h i l e r e c e i v i n g t h e myth a s a s t o r y t h a t y o u e x p e r i e n c e t h e p r i n c i p l e c o n c r e t e l y . . . . What f l o w s i n t o y o u f r o m t h e myth i s n o t t r u t h b u t r e a l i t y (truth is always about something, but reality is t h a t about which t r u t h i s ) , and, t h e r e f o r e , every m y t h b e c o m e s t h e f a t h e r o f i n n u m e r a b l e t r u t h s on t h e abstract level. M y t h i s t h e m o u n t a i n whence a l l the d i f f e r e n t s t r e a m s a r i s e w h i c h become t r u t h s down h e r e i n t h e v a l l e y ; i n hac v a l l e a b s t r a c t i o n s (in this v a l l e y of separation). . . . It is not, l i k e truth, a b s t r a c t ; n o r i s i t , l i k e d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e , bound t o the p a r t i c u l a r . ( " M y t h Became F a c t , " p . 2 6 9 )  "The  concrete  achieves  "the  terrifying  and  Macdonald,  p.  words  at  literary  Pref.  also  form  quality ecstatic 21;  all,"  by C . S . L e w i s  myth,"  as  of  the  real  reality  emphasis  Lewis  phenomenon  of  in  in  his  chapter  (Toronto:  It  (p.  calls  universe, which  added).  continues  Lewis  we  "does  15),  it the  in  live"  not  essentially  75 L e w i s , P r e f . t o George taken from t h i s source.  Macdonald,  p.  it  15;  the  as in  1 9 4 7 ) , p. next  53),  magical,  (Pref.,  Experiment  Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press,  p.  divine,  all  describing  "On M y t h "  (Miracles,  George  exist an  in  extra-  Criticism.  105.  quotation  is  59 Because  it  penetrate the  inner  furthest  truth,  disinterested  occupied us  rises  an  with  region,"  of  Lewis  Lewis  personal  values  imagination,"  the  image  above  universal what  affirms  ("On  s u c h a p r e m i u m on m y t h , "  of  may  well  f o r m c o u l d move t h e Thomas  p.  concurs  with  the  Lewis  "the  highest  55).  of  truth"  "it  at  some  "That  is  "which  he  (p.  of  Properly sets  before  more why  saw a s  his  to  achievement  (p.  like  force  in  idiosyncracy  experience,  101).  reader to the highest  Howard  at the core of  be  concludes,  a c h i e v e m e n t o f an a u t h o r who t h r o u g h  local  discerns  human  Stories,"  Glover  as  Glover  events  reality  myth  and  central  he  the  skillful  placed  ultimate  control  of  42).  discerning  irreducible  reality  mythology:  The m a d d e n i n g h i n t a t w o r k i n a l l poetry is that this language speaks, not simply of our mortal f e e l i n g s about the t h i n g but catches something which we a r e o b l i g e d to believe is true about it, and which w i l l n o t y i e l d t o measurement and analysis. W h a t e v e r t h i s q u a l i t y i s . . . w i l l n o t be d i s m a n t l e d and m e a s u r e d : i t c a n o n l y be h a i l e d o r i n v o k e d , l i k e a god. And at this point we find ourselves in the language of mythology. (Achievement, p. 5 7 ; emphases added)  Howard Lewis'  goes  trilogy,  working  in  invoked, present the  the  it  observe  language a  as  god,"  sense  holy  in  absolute,  mythological  or  that  m u s t be w r i t t e n  central  and  religious  to  the  like  fact  beauty  on  of  of  its  and  in  in  and  otherwise.  he  the  Lewis  all  of  centrality. of  this  itself, made '"Make  no it  which  "can  never  presumes  its  fulness,  Lewis nor  "quality"  is  same s a c r a m e n t a l  mythology,  however,  reality  because  neither  literary  exception plain  that  language.  only  but  evident  be nor  or  aspires  to  simply  to  regarded  it  his was  convey  aesthetic  own but  Even  hailed  sacramental ism for  in  a  as  a  writing, dream,'"  60 the guide make i t ing to  MacDonald warns  very p l a i n .  knowledge "the  of  naked O t h e r , images),  asserts  the  soaring  in  imageless  unknown,  absolute, fantasy.  and  to  find  Meaning," p.  xiv).  to  yet  Even  though  from the  elements  do c o n t a i n  shot  through  of,"  he a t t e s t s  yet  with  also  and  real  all  meaning  which p.  (22  Sept.  1956,  the  In  (p.  but  Lewis  refers  Lewis  is  divine  author "In  271).  is  are  of  And  Lewis to  Sister  Thou,"  bridge  the  great  and t h e  p.  so  what  Spirit, elements  42),  that  have  writes  is  a  re-combine  a myth he p u t s  a  Williams.  part  never  it  this  build  (Miracles,  may  as  to  Author,  with  mythopoeia  assertion  "only  says  it  His  "Neither  ye  claim-  salutes  Imagination  indeed  "'See  ye are  Joy,  209).  trivial,  any o t h e r w a y , "  Letters,  think  imagination  (Introd.,  their  221).  117).  meanings  can  of  to  maxims u s e d by C h a r l e s  however  as  Great Divorce.  absolute  Thou,"  us  universe,"  (Allegory,  of  little  know and c d . n o t come b y i n  Milward  is  reminds  meanings  our  shy  sub-creators  the  (p.  desired"  the s p i r i t u a l  Huttar  borrowed  as  a metaphor,  meaning;  Charles  knows'" (though  is  in  the p r e t e x t  undefined,  "This  discover  character  fool  no m o r t a l  Lewis would s a y , fond of "Yet  Lewis  G i v e no p o o r  what  hundred  the  "all  been he to  those is  aware  does  not  Fr.  Peter  Penelope  Lewis  writes:  We r e - a r r a n g e e l e m e n t s He h a s p r o v i d e d . . . . And t h a t s u r e l y i s why o u r w o r k s ( a s y o u s a i d ) n e v e r mean t o o t h e r s q u i t e w h a t we i n t e n d e d ; b e c a u s e we a r e r e c o m b i n i n g e l e m e n t s made by Him a n d a l r e a d y c o n t a i n i n g His meanings. Because o f those d i v i n e meanings in o u r m a t e r i a l s i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t h a t we s h d . e v e r know t h e w h o l e m e a n i n g o f o u r own w o r k s , and t h e m e a n i n g we n e v e r i n t e n d e d may be t h e b e s t and t r u e s t one. W r i t i n g a book . . . i s l i k e p l a n t i n g a g a r d e n o r begetting a c h i l d ; in a l l t h r e e c a s e s we a r e only e n t e r i n g a s one c a u s e i n t o a causal stream which w o r k s , s o t o s p e a k , i n i t s own w a y . (20 Feb. 1 9 4 3 , L e t t e r s , 203-04)  61 Thus  Lewis  moves  "the  else  unspeakable"  historical,  We  sacramental  sacramental ism,  is  Incarnation. on  the  'great  Lewis  its  p.  acknowledges p. the  as  the  the  .  old  The  down f r o m t h e ("Myth  the  works  of  Became  is  of  heaven Fact,"  the  of p.  "the  to  of  express  greatest  of  Christ,"  creative  God,  and  i n d i s s o l u b l y weds m a t t e r and s p i r i t their  what  from  to  historicity  the of  a t t h e i r moment o f  and  as w e l l  faith  into  p.  be  of  what  Lewis  269).  myth,  earth  as  (Glover,  transcends  the  myths  nature  spirit  to  to  continues  Christianity,"  ceasing  in  termed  these  experiences"  Incarnation  without  come  he  he  ( " M y t h Became F a c t , "  imagination The  of  literary  consummated  of  springing  of  actual  literature  "the  heart  thought,  269).  and a s s u r e s t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f  his  similarly  values  romantic  a fact"  legend  in  t r a n s f o r m e d by C h r i s t i a n  Dying  no  the  longings,  the  myth t r a n s c e n d s  myth  holds  fulfilled  art,  story  at  also  which  relays  areligious,  myth o r most p r i m a l  Incarnation  best  operationally  but  But  earliest  central  "a myth w h i c h "Now a s  .  is  yet  epitomizes  "the  reviews.  "His  classic  confesses: .  which  aesthetic  n o r t h e r n myths, were  In  discovers  22).  is  non-theological  Lewis'  myth, which  cosmos,  ultimately  Glover  regards  56).  is  it  myths,'"  f r o m some o f  Lewis  while  mythopoeia,  In  of  pretensions.  b y w h a t e v e r means o f  now  sterner  that  equally  world  ability,  (Enchantment,  the  the  metaphor-plus  aesthetic  His  rest  a  established  Incarnation.  the  in  within  e m p i r i c a l , nor absolute  have  Lewis'  confidently  He  myth. comes  history"  Christ-event  greatest  union.  Now t h e s t o r y o f C h r i s t i s s i m p l y a t r u e m y t h : a m y t h w o r k i n g on us i n t h e same way a s t h e o t h e r s , b u t with this tremendous difference that it really h a p p e n e d : a n d one m u s t be c o n t e n t t o a c c e p t i t in  disparity,  62 t h e same w a y , r e m e m b e r i n g t h a t i t i s G o d ' s m y t h w h e r e the o t h e r s are men's myths: i . e . t h e Pagan stories are God e x p r e s s i n g Himself through the minds of p o e t s , u s i n g s u c h i m a g e s a s He f o u n d t h e r e , while C h r i s t i a n i t y i s God e x p r e s s i n g H i m s e l f t h r o u g h w h a t we c a l l " r e a l t h i n g s . " 7 6  Such a d e f i n i t i v e disappointing component  to  thing  in  or  was in  use  "Right  not  of  cosmic  stripped  be  that  alone  Logos,"  he  rationalism  of  all  the  is  not  only  Incarnation,  itself Man,  to  is  the  'heaven'  of  undergoes  myth  of  sense  in  he w r i t e s  His  in  of  glory,  (p.  bow  dying  gods]  a mythology  "Is Theology  for  says  (p.  18 O c t .  p.  197).  must as  ;  if  the  submit  "the  other  to  deepest facthood"  everywhere  nevertheless, was  Such  the  too  and  it  participation a  recognition  the  appeal  when to  39.  preeminent  must  "Just  as  it  the  of  152).  Fact  of  submit,  yielding  God,  becoming  in  comes down f r o m 'earth'  (Miracles,  imaginative  Poetry?"  "Creative Logician,"  7 7  logic  before  truth,  Lewis  as  connections  Reason" our  initially  him.  so t h e  humiliation,"  all  independence  history.  L e w i s , "To A r t h u r G r e e v e s , " by G l o v e r , E n c h a n t m e n t , p p . 2 2 - 2 3 . Kilby,  Joy^  imagination of  of  is  seems  identifies  see cosmic  "that  it  Reason  source  Right  must  7 6  7 7  .  in  mythic  perenially  we s p o i l  .  had h e l d f o r  factuality  [of  a certain  certain it,"  however;  the  sparkling  reason which  prosaic  'emptied'  .  but  its  it  Lewis  is  us  for  compromised.  confessed  tells  and s u p e r n a t u r e  however,  which  could  he f i r s t  nature  Lewis,  which  "Lewis reason  of  mutually  Fact  u t t e r manageability which It  as  Reason,"  the  127).  reluctantly a  such  must  reality,  ( M i r a c l e s , p. by t h e  one  elements  supernatural  conjunction  p.  the  of  history,  161n).  "In  purposes  by  In M i r a c l e s  1931, Together,  a  believing and  427;  Joy,  quoted  63 Lewis  testifies  their  lack  to  of  the  flatness  of  flavour,  especially  mythical  the  historical as  i m a g i n a t i v e Pagan m y t h o l o g i e s , and even w i t h Testament. fact,  Nevertheless,  explains:  "Christian  comparison  with  first  shock  dreams o f  of  what  (Miracles,  p.  even  would  theology, first  guess,  the  object's  that  object  real ought  be j u s t  and  like  be,  the  (Joy,  physics, dry  breaking  always  and  in  on  has t h e s e  p.  are  Old  become  222).  He  both,  by  repellent. our  to  richly  e v e r a m y t h had  this"  complex,  nature, to  "if  quantum  hard,  with  is,  The  spontaneous  characteristics"  102).  Further rationale,  the  it  compared  that  the r e l a t i v e l y splendrous  Lewis must c o n c l u d e ,  had been i n c a r n a t e d ,  gospels,  reflection,  does  bringing  however,  perfectly  both  these  reveals  that  harmonize p r o s a i c elements  to  their  Christ,  the  divine  r e a s o n and  lofty  fulness  perfection.  of  animal  imagination, Lewis  explains:  The M y t h r e m a i n s M y t h e v e n when i t becomes F a c t . The s t o r y o f C h r i s t demands f r o m u s , a n d r e p a y s , n o t o n l y a r e l i g i o u s and h i s t o r i c a l b u t a l s o an imaginative response. I t i s d i r e c t e d t o t h e c h i l d , t h e p o e t , and t h e s a v a g e i n us a s w e l l a s t o t h e c o n s c i e n c e a n d t o the i n t e l l e c t . One o f its functions is to break down d i v i d i n g w a l l s . ( M i r a c l e s , p. 161n; emphasis added)  The  ultimate  rather the  than  conjunction diminishes,  wedding  marriage Became which  of  Fact," natural  of  nature  heaven p.  and  270).  of  nature  its and  and  component  supernature elements.  supernature,  earth: The  s u p e r n a t u r a l ism  Perfect  Myth  Christ-event originates  systems d e r i v e t h e i r depth of meaning.  Lewis  is and  Lewis  gloriously  Indeed, says,  and the from  it  "for  Perfect  consummates this  concludes:  all  is  Fact"  tri-partite which  fulfills,  model  the  ("Myth from  sacramental  64 T h e r e i s t h u s i n t h e h i s t o r y o f human t h o u g h t , as e l s e w h e r e , a p a t t e r n o f d e a t h and r e b i r t h . The o l d , r i c h l y imaginative thought which s t i l l survives in Plato has to submit to the deathlike, but indispensable, process of logical analysis: nature and s p i r i t , m a t t e r and m i n d , fact and m y t h , the literal a n d t h e m e t a p h o r i c a l , h a v e t o be more a n d more sharply separated, till at last a purely m a t h e m a t i c a l u n i v e r s e and a p u r e l y s u b j e c t i v e mind c o n f r o n t one a n o t h e r a c r o s s an u n b r i d g e a b l e chasm. But from t h i s descent a l s o , i f thought i t s e l f i s to s u r v i v e , t h e r e m u s t be r e - a s c e n t and t h e Christian conception provides for i t . ( M i r a c l e s , p. 1 9 2 )  In  their  last  reunion  effected  of  a  imagination our  sight  false were  for  tea,  In h i s  but  we  acknowledged romantic own  to  of  had  and  Love,  Lewis  belief" and  taste  modern  the  83  process  to  the  development  and S c h o l a r , "  pp.  82-84).  relationship,  same d e v e l o p m e n t a l  and  then,  we  p.  in  always  82). in  gods  of  the  take  Lewis'  recognize  has  own  cue  its  old  the  reason  and that  their  wholly  been  served  myth  fare.  the  from  gods  had  to  beauty  of  'third world  world'  of  paralleled  Lawlor  of  .  .  .  this  scholarship  structure  literary aesthetic. "the  been  rather  literary  tri-partite  our  in  and t h e  Lawlor  Lewis'  at  taste.  with  world  are  transcendental  old  Europe  actual  Since  we m i g h t  pattern  the  of  " t h e y c o u l d wake a g a i n  provide  "besides  that  but  view  the  only  that  submission,  have  romance  has  not  clearer  to  writes  before  thus  imagining,"  stage,  is  ambrosia  tongues  (p.  first  a  and  vision  It  mutual  afford  Nectar  not  double  perception. their  logic  a t t e m p t s t o redeem o u r s e n s e o f  of  myth  sacramental  the  adjusting,  our  religion"  three-part  the  in  t r i l o g y Lewis  be " d i s i n f e c t e d  ("Tutor  compromised  have  In A l l e g o r y  [its]  of  relationship.  Incarnation,  that  dichotomy  needed  integrative  a  the  h a r m o n i z e d , a n d we r e a l i z e  result  of  in  In  models  and  trace  applying  myth"  being  65 "disinfected rationalist erased  by  turn,  the  and  rigour  at  recalled  as  the  of if  acknowledged is  as  a  Lewis' Any  of  of  have  thus  a  myth"  newly and  of  been  They  the  celebrative  Christianity  longer  at  variance,"  united,  as Edward Zogby d i s c o v e r s ,  Christian  commitment;  to  as  rest,  Lawlor  dreamer,  to  world'  where  first  are  then  "myth,  of  "in  83).  as  the  airy  the  however, beauty  romantic  and  in  (p.  reawakened,  live  "reason  his  says  indicted  subsequently  '"third  a  imagination  laid  are  from  mythic  religion,"  conscious  in  Romanticism f l e e s  initial  a colder  dreamer.  by  early  vestiges  Lewis'  touch  Romanticism  fabrications  This  belief"  enthusiasm.  flies  Myth  of  of  imagining."  imagination  are  no  78  In  characterizing  from T . S .  Eliot's  and  this  Little  a  mythopoeic  and  dialectical  in the person of Jesus  triadic  integration  in  Lewis 79 Christ.  Lewis,  Lawlor  are  quotes  Gidding:  And a l l s h a l l be w e l l a n d All manner of thing shall be well When t h e t o n g u e s o f f l a m e a r e i n - f o l d e d Into the crowned knot of fire And t h e f i r e and t h e r o s e a r e o n e . 8 0  Using  Eliot's  suggestive  sequence to demonstrate Lewis'  sacramental  mythic  figure  7 8  Lawlor,  7 9  Thought,"  of  imagery,  the  ethos.  fusion "The  Prometheus,  "The T u t o r  we of  might  more  m y t h and f a c t  tongues who  once  of  steals  in  the  flame" might fire  a n d t h e S c h o l a r , " p.  E d w a r d G. Z o g b y , S . J . , "Triadic i n L o n g i n g f o r a F o r m , p. 2 1 .  construct  and  our  development  first  suggest  language  own of the  from  the  Life  and  83.  Patterns  in  Lewis'  From Four Quartets, in The Norton Anthology of English L i t e r a t u r e , g e n . e d . M . H . A b r a m s , 3 r d e d . (New Y o r k : W.W. N o r t o n , 1 9 7 4 ) , I I , 2 1 9 7 , 1 1 . 2 5 7 - 6 1 ; q u o t e d by L a w l o r , p p . 8 3 - 8 4 . 8  0  66 Olympian  gods,  purloining been  the  gifted  flame"  but  is  subsequently  burning  to  man,  brands.  however,  Spirit,  with  men's  who  freely  spirits  inspiration,  as  it  utter  the  to were,  Not  only  three-part  triadic  That  of  Lewis  the  process  of  "Huge  process Woman,"  of  integration  flame that  is  is  of  integration, the  a  pagan  and still  trilogy  roses,  but  for  the  that  has  Word "The  of  tongues  the  descending  fire  language.  out,  and  a  trilogy  and  unites  Under  the  of  fire  such  and  the  knot. as  the  Hideous  besides itself.  fertility  dues  rest.  tongues  speaks  structure  That  terrible  an emblem o f  mirrored within  imagery  to  sacramental  sacramental i s m , but  of  put  crowning  crowning  is  pay  discovers  him as  himself  trilogy's  resolution  is,  integrative  imagery  the  process  sacramental  novel.  the  does  for His  to  Lewis  such myth  bestows  rose are tempered i n a s i n g l e  the  When  t a k e on a new s i g n i f i c a n c e  Holy  forced  peculiar the  triadic  rounding  a  initially wild  larger  figures  unchristened:  "Look o u t ! Look o u t , c a n ' t y o u ? " s h o u t e d J a n e , for t h e g i a n t e s s was b e g i n n i n g t o t o u c h v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e room w i t h h e r t o r c h . She t o u c h e d a v a s e on t h e mantelpiece. I n s t a n t l y t h e r e rose from i t a s t r e a k o f c o l o u r which Jane took f o r f i r e . She was just m o v i n g t o t r y t o p u t i t o u t when s h e saw t h a t the same t h i n g had h a p p e n e d t o a p i c t u r e on t h e wall. And t h e n i t happened f a s t e r and f a s t e r all round her. The v e r y t o p - k n o t s o f t h e d w a r f s w e r e now on fire. B u t j u s t a s t h e t e r r o r o f t h i s became u n b e a r able, J a n e n o t i c e d t h a t w h a t was c u r l i n g up from e v e r y t h i n g t h e t o r c h had t o u c h e d was n o t f l a m e a f t e r a l l , but v e g e t a t i o n . I v y and h o n e y s u c k l e w e r e g r o w i n g up t h e l e g s o f t h e b e d , r e d r o s e s w e r e s p r o u t i n g from the caps of the little men, and f r o m every d i r e c t i o n huge l i l i e s r o s e t o h e r k n e e s and w a i s t , s h o o t i n g out t h e i r y e l l o w tongues at her. (Strength, pp. 377-78)  own  vision  caricature  of  third  its  the  For example, J a n e ' s  in  the  bespeaks off  this  tension  microcosm of  Strength  goddess,  only  duplicate  of  bold of  an  67 This  ripe  fruition  consummately  imaged  herald,  the  himself  "sitting  furnace  of  cataracts, meaning" language the  as  when  within  turned  (Strength,  p.  that  the is  purpose  within  the  rather  on  effective  its  interest  is  which  the  of  quality.  trilogy  expresses  reading  the  success  of  Both  his  We  trilogy  We  of  the  will  in  its  ethos, attempt  than the  theme  to  hope bring  on  as  is  trilogy  controversial fiction,  of  and  by  to  cosmic  planetary  which  world  able  home.  this  but  realms.  quantitative  implicitly  myth  meaning  supernatural  be  into  reborn  cosmic  its  resonance  to  white-hot  sacramental  science  cosmos  and  finds  myth.  the  sensibility we  the  Lewis'  and  mythical  mythological  and  of  natural  and  universe,  not  genre  explore  by  his  focus  rather  explicitly  fact  examine  ill-defined  the  of  to  will  capturing  Lewis'  techniques  and  be  qualitative  hopes  primary  will  of  the  the  splashed  In  heraldic  fires  in  slain,  added). an  Ransom  broken,  kneaded,  of  the  bridging  spans.  with  from  fiction.  it  romance  franca  was  and  himself,  Anne's.  language,  fact  out,  consecrated  Meaning  St.  of  is  of  upon  emphases  study  eclectic  in  All  398;  this  lord  heart  inside  wrought  of  very  lingua  sacramentalist  distance  the  language  "the  descends  speech.  status  Our  Mercury,  caught,  is  sacramental  later  essential  phoenix  such  the  messenger,"  which  The  of  is  form, view. affirm  its the In the  68  Chapter Out o f  the S i l e n t P l a n e t :  II Learning the  Language  He g r o p e d f o r t h e d o o r l e s s l a n d o f f a e r y , that illimitable haunted country that o p e n e d somewhere b e l o w a l e a f o r stone. Thomas W o l f e , L o o k Homeward A n g e l .  Because  the  perhaps  our f i r s t  fiction  trilogy  would t r i c k letting  us  most  business is  into  them  seduce  us  into  could  be  moral  rather  derived his  a  a  Harry  at  physical  the  from  the  the  it  to  belief  truth:  religious  or  science  trying  saccharin  felt  the  or  dogged,  costs  to  in  the  fiction.  would  reality  his  persistence courage,  might  bloodless, it it raw  takes  accuse.  admittedly derive  a  from but  a  visceral  Ransom t o  determination,  him t o f i n a l l y d e s t r o y t h e Un-man.  and  Nothing  anything  requires  by  immediately  morality,  another's  by  and  from us,  concern  but  'You  and a m b r o s i a ,  critics  Lewis'  but  science  pseudo-realism,  some  Rather,  heroic  nectar  loudest,  the  is  Christianity—as  prosaic  that  religion.'  theological,  anything  the  bloodless  only  dream.  idea  a visceral a  are  transcendent  fiction's  hide  not  irreligion—is  cottage,  anguish  dispel  intoxication!'  wish-fulfillment from  to  artificially  tea of  are  deeply  own r e l i g i o n  self-serving  the  fantasy's  than  from  commitment,  in  'You  further  or  be  accusations  s w a l l o w i n g y o u r a i r y myths o f  with  T h e i r meaning i s ,  concluded  should  escapist  them s t e e p  spiking  hastily  find and  69 Nowhere imposes in  the  liked  that  creature  of  being  of  his  getting  was so  solitude  as  for  for  She t o o w a n t s  merely  to  an  nature. his I  unwelcome In J o y  the  put  kurfuffle"  be  motif  114).  Anne's archon  is  Lewis'  "weight  work.  a severe  Malacandra,  For  or  (Strength,  p.  402),  lies  the  or  even  "upon  such as m i g h t  house, flatten  the  Strength, of  her  for  Jane  demands:  monotony  the  positive glory"  the  very orb  the  more  or  at  dislike  resents life.  Christianity to  his  very  insistent  course  the  contrary,  of  treasured  patiently  what  the  of  life  than  even  Scotch  makes  in  call  inexorable  action. is  the  a  strong  "descent  residents.  feel  while on  far  bustle, on  they  found  "In  been  ordered  a s one a l w a y s much more  positive  has  fiercely  privately  I The  its  antipathetic  for  obedience"  much  life,  example,  Mars,  as  sure  19).  reluctance  in  of  experience  fear  himself  Goodness, for  part  Lewis  bother,  will  p.  his  he  whether  (Perelandra, of  are  when  felt  sure  alone.  of  I  stems f r o m a r o o t e d  In  himself his  kind.  it  who  character  immense  tour  his  always,  those  I wasn't  Ransom's  disruption  a n y amount  intolerable  in  in  disturbance,  (p.  greater  walking  left  Lewis  but  supposed"  walking.  he d e s c r i b e s  demands on t h e p e r s o n a l The  his  discomforts  another  'good,'  the  lotus-like;  the  of  actually  imperative  up w i t h  smallest  that  their  n e g a t i v e demands t h a n  could  had  Planet  actual  dreams  be  I  of  now  Similarly,  in  visionary  to  call  values  the  was  or  and  feelings  we  as  in."  he  it,  fear  realizes  adventures  pursue  "My what  "drawn  flabby  the  much  then  involved;  who  as  are  e l d i 1.  character  start  her  an  those  Such  'goodness'  Lewis  portrayed  upon  presence. meets  that  good  demands  its  first  is  "the  the  of In  whole  of  Tellus  earth, to  the  the  immense  presence  the  theme  of with  a wafer"  and  recurring  gods"  presence weight Lurg, a  of or  cold  (p.  on  St.  of  the their  Saturn, pressure  403).  When  70 Perelandra, which  or  Venus,  arrives,  r e g u l a r l y communicates  softens  a terrible  we d i s c o v e r  that  super-reality  to  the  our  sacramental  sensitive  language  ears  actually  thunder:  . . . f i e r y , s h a r p , b r i g h t , and r u t h l e s s , r e a d y t o kill, ready to die, outspeeding light: it was C h a r i t y , n o t as m o r t a l s i m a g i n e i t , n o t even as it has been h u m a n i s e d f o r them s i n c e t h e I n c a r n a t i o n o f the Word, but the t r a n s l u n a r y v i r t u e , f a l l e n upon them d i r e c t f r o m t h e T h i r d H e a v e n , u n m i t i g a t e d . They were b l i n d e d , s c o r c h e d , d e a f e n e d . They t h o u g h t it would burn t h e i r bones. They c o u l d not b e a r t h a t it should continue. They c o u l d not b e a r t h a t i t should cease, ( p . 400)  Lewis but  indeed  "how i f  home  the  brings  myth  food i t s e l f  very  place  home,  turns  you  out  can't  who makes y o u u n c o m f o r t a b l e ? " Similarly,  when  on P e r e l a n d r a , upon into  his  the  transitory,  too  too  Lewis'  [such]  they  supermaterial  limited  range  compare  to  drawing:  are  of  the  "in  is  eldila  invisible  sight  and  and  an  not  p.  with  not  a  lacks  too p.  the lines  tea,  eat,  the  and  person  19). immediate  "If  flesh  are  too  they  They  his  sermon  are  quickly 228).  had  sank,  too  because  it  fell, cannot  too  gross, too  "Transposition"  (p.  in  line  with but  perceive  compares is  laid  flimsy,  Supernatural world  been half  solid,  immaterial to  while  and b l o o d  are  innovation  they  Presence  pressure  68).  real  for  can't  comforter  half  in  because  ambrosia  "he  great  moving  as  very  being.'  says  and  him:  because  are  world it  your  unendurable  fail  (Perelandra,  natural  reality  v e r y t h i n g you  Maleldil's  legs  phantasmal," Lewis  they  are  his  'illustrious  thinking:  be t h e  (Perelandra,  that  heavenly  nectar  ( P e r e l a n d r a , p.  "as  if  serves  live,  suffers  that  Kingdom,  to  Ransom  position"  distinct,  179).  is  shoulders"  a sitting  inherit too  it  and  because  with  eldila to  this  a  incomparably  our might  pencil more  71 visible,"  Lewis  penetrate because  says  walls mere  and  by  courteously  offers to  otherwise for  this  rocks  matter  illustrated  substance  ("Transposition,"  this  an  be  is  too  not like  "weight to  his  cloud of  analogy  ambrosial of  less,  motif, his  but  '"For  must  substance  not o t h e r "  tea  i s not  dilute  this  end  for  that  meant us  I made y o u r f a c e and  but As  Lewis  to  what  lend would  senses  and  live,'"  the  however,  to  note  while  the  that  'watered down' i n Lewis' f i c t i o n , Like  o f A r b o l , to  ( P l a n e t , p.  then,  the  to  bodies  substance.  fiction to  able  171).  quality.  fields  are  supersolid  might see My  qualified,  i s indeed  i t s essential i n i n the  be  Eldila  have i n s u b s t a n t i a l  their  end your i m a g i n a t i o n , t h a t you  Our  drinks  in  to d r i n k .  Voice t e l l s John i n Regress (p.  none  to  reality,  178).  they  glory"  readers  ephemeral solid  because  p.  the halve  brilliant  light  i t s intensity  i t loses  which yields  Ransom "merely  42).  I t became c e r t a i n to the comparing i n t e l l e c t , but i t was d i f f i c u l t to feel what was happening as a d i m i n u t i o n o f l i g h t and i m p o s s i b l e to t h i n k o f i t as "darkening" because, w h i l e the r a d i a n c e changed i n degree, i t s u n e a r t h l y q u a l i t y had remained e x a c t l y the same s i n c e the moment he first beheld i t . ( P l a n e t , pp. 41-42; b o l d f a c e p r i n t emphasis added)  In  thus  far  simplistically important charge,  but  which  Lewis  symbol  course  peddles  feature of  observed of  answering  of  and that  winsome  the and  hostile sterile  h i s w r i t i n g , which  being  present  does  transposing  a weightier  myth.  process  higher  The  reality's  critics' ideas,  i f absent disprove reality  involves unfettered  charge  we  have  would it.  into  the  movement  Lewis  uncovered  h a r d l y prove  That  imagining  that  i s , we  living  or  the have  language  supposing  within  an  a  the lower  72 medium.  Such  writing  at  a  system  all.  unilaterally  The  from the  givens  and  transpositional  method,  allegory,"  supposal  language  abstractions,  of  of  is  of  of  a  is  lower  apply  an  allegory,  therefore to  not  idea-governed  on  the  medium t o  strictly  his  own  and one he " w o u l d c a l l  a  other  method hand,  systematic  moves  series  idea-governed.  words,  "is  almost  sacramental ism o r  of  of  Lewis'  the  opposite  symbolism":  I f o u r p a s s i o n s , b e i n g i m m a t e r i a l , c a n be c o p i e d by material inventions, then i t is possible that our material world in its turn is the copy of an invisible world. . . . The attempt to read that something e l s e through its sensible imitations, to see the a r c h t y p e i n the copy, i s what I mean by symbolism or sacramental ism. . . . The difference between the two c a n hardly be e x a g g e r a t e d The allegorist leaves the given--his own passions--to t a l k of t h a t which i s c o n f e s s e d l y l e s s r e a l , which is a fiction. The s y m b o l i s t l e a v e s t h e g i v e n t o f i n d t h a t w h i c h i s more r e a l . To p u t t h e d i f f e r e n c e in a n o t h e r w a y , f o r t h e s y m b o l i s t i t i s we who a r e t h e allegory. ( A l l e g o r y , p. 4 5 ; e m p h a s e s a d d e d )  The  trilogy  realities  into  allegory,  Lewis  As  a  Lewis  thought;  tongue,  exploring  "It  is  the  sort  rather  get  to  'atmosphere'  of  he  rich  Letter  in  is  up"  thing  you  cannot  know  it  you  get  a  family  as or  a  a  in  to  country  town,  29  Dec.  idiom  thought, p.  mythical  know  static  symbols 1958,  foreign of  or  48).  he  definition:  smell the  or  a  to  his  mother of  its  allegory  "No  meaning,  from a  but  of  283).  his  and s u g g e s t i v e n e s s  (Allegory,  learn  phenomenological  language  the  a mode o f  with  the  Lady,"  allusiveness  clarifies  catch  a  are  such  composing  nuance,  translate  which  ("To  working is  Lewis  quite of  objects  "Symbolism  expression," will  a  not  rather,  morphemes.  'explanation'  in  is  the  systematically  physical  explains  native  a mode o f  not  feigned  symbolist,  sacramental  does  amount  is of  suggests. you  must  taste,  personality  of  the an  73 individual" language  (Pref.,  in  meaning;  Regress,  which  rather,  represent.  the  they  Their  incidental,  p.  13).  trilogy  is  participate  written  in  relationship  of  i n t h e way t h a t t h a t o f  The  the  words do  of  not  very q u a l i t y  sign  and  the  express of  analytical  that  meaning  s p e e c h and w r i t i n g  sacramental  is,  which  they  is  not  merely  for  example:  The w r i t t e n c h a r a c t e r s e x i s t s o l e l y f o r t h e e y e , t h e spoken words s o l e l y f o r the e a r . There i s complete d i s c o n t i n u i t y between them. They a r e not l i k e one a n o t h e r , n o r d o e s t h e one c a u s e t h e o t h e r t o b e . The one i s s i m p l y a s i g n o f t h e o t h e r a n d s i g n i f i e s i t b y a convention. But a p i c t u r e i s not r e l a t e d t o the v i s i b l e w o r l d i n j u s t t h a t way. Pictures are part of t h e v i s i b l e w o r l d t h e m s e l v e s and r e p r e s e n t i t o n l y by being part of it. Their v i s i b i l i t y has t h e same source. The s u n s and l a m p s i n p i c t u r e s seem t o s h i n e o n l y b e c a u s e r e a l s u n s o r l a m p s s h i n e on t h e m : t h a t is, t h e y seem t o s h i n e a g r e a t d e a l because they really shine a little in reflecting their archetypes. The s u n l i g h t i n a p i c t u r e i s t h e r e f o r e not r e l a t e d t o r e a l s u n l i g h t s i m p l y as w r i t t e n words a r e to spoken. I t i s a s i g n , b u t a l s o s o m e t h i n g more t h a n a s i g n : a n d o n l y a s i g n b e c a u s e i t i s a l s o more than a s i g n , because i n i t the t h i n g s i g n i f i e d is r e a l l y i n a c e r t a i n mode p r e s e n t . I f I had t o name the r e l a t i o n I should c a l l it not symbolical but sacramental. ("Transposition," p. 173; boldface p r i n t emphases added)  Because a sacramental than a s i g n , itself  no  argues  that  the  proof "it  incidents  defying does  '"the  not  fact that  is keep  allegorical allegorize  a sign,  even though  t h a t you can a l l e g o r i z e it  part  morpheme i s  is of  an  the  suggesting  allegory,"  Christ,  1 A s q u o t e d by W h i t e ,  Lewis  1  force  of  this  [allegory]  interpretation" even  t h e work  Lewis's  Image o f M a n , p.  he  is  65.  is  before  points  out.  also you 1  more is  of  Howard  narrative  technique  that  while  the  time  (Achievement, though  it  p. the  at 140).  little  same  Thus, Christ  Ransom that  74 every  believer  is  to  be,  enacting  and  participating  in  the  divine  2 nature. for  In  Maleldil  killing more  (Perelandra, for  p.  the  in  Perelandra,  " t h a n a n y man s t a n d s 171).  simply predicting  watery surface,  Un-man  Although that  a  for  Him i n  friend  doing  accuses  s u c h an h e r o i c  Ransom r i g h t l y  Ransom  task  does  any good  Ransom  awaits  not  stand action"  of  megalomania  h i m on  Perelandra's  replies:  " B u t when y o u come t o t h i n k o f i t , i s i t o d d e r t h a n w h a t a l l o f us h a v e t o do e v e r y d a y ? When t h e B i b l e used that very expression about fighting with p r i n c i p a l i t i e s and p o w e r s a n d d e p r a v e d h y p e r - s o m a t i c beings at great heights (our translation is very misleading at that point, by the way) it meant t h a t q u i t e o r d i n a r y p e o p l e w e r e t o do t h e f i g h t i n g . " ( p . 24; emphasis added)  If  Ransom  most,"  it  chooses  fulfills does  not  extreme  receives  some  fictional  person  pp.  263-64).  but  symbol  writes believe  with  prove  of  and y e t  author,"  his is  allegory, Lewis  free  to  "And  and t h e  finally symbol  reference the  to  the  Lewis' the  is  "only  means  from  'just  fictional  to  Narnia  Lewis,"  and  suppose'  experience  Lewis'  the  individual  organic  essential  "more  "The  traits  be an  to  says of  but  role  writes.  character  according  Gibson  we f i n d  representative  cases,"  reflects,  the  his  an  spectacularly that  he c o n c l u d e s  which  act or  world  as  a  'let's  pretend'  (Spinner of not  as  Tales,  Kilby  illustrations  ("Creative  3 "To a L a d y , "  29 D e c .  1958, L e t t e r s ,  283.  of  'statement'  encounter,"  such  he  well-rounded  I  Logician,"  "To a L a d y , " 29 D e c . 1 9 5 8 , L e t t e r s , 2 8 3 . The same i s t r u e some e x t e n t o f P s y c h e i n T i l l We Have F a c e s ; c f . "To P r o f e s s o r C l y d e K i l b y , " 10 F e b . 1 9 5 7 , L e t t e r s , 2 7 4 . 2  .  other  present  "In  .  character  imaginative  tales.  .  sacramental  technique is  fiction  than  to S.  75 p.  45 and p. In  the  Christ, as  the  44). same  Howard  Christian its  "believable  case  134-35). in  need f o r  with  "in  possible  a  ["something Criticism Of  is  tiny  (p.  course,  Lewis  to  set out first  'ulterior  thy  the  for  respectable  of  what  to  inspire  the  Church any  As  Lewis  (p.  wishes p.  he  as  man  open  23). of  a  the  '"What  has  a pp.  in  a body o f  mistakes  to  even  either  Planet:  Modern  which  as  (Achievement,  in  belief  pinpointing,  narrative  belief,  says  174).  windows,  the  primary  of  such  teaches  Ransom  and C u l t u r e , " of  resists  within  s o much a b o d y  a series  that  not  as  the  that  of  an  be  integrous  better  or  set said  a system of "something  source  of  our pp.  literature  can  world  for  the  view  common t o a l l  of  art  we  people enclosed  for  the  only  window  on  other  "Literature  as  Logos  doors,"  in  literal  belief  writers  in  and  reading  have,  in  its  but  to  says  own  Lewis  his it  in  Much l e s s  this  The the  and t h e single sheer  and a l l  of  assumptions.  literature,  Lewis  does  Litera-  quality  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  underlying  de-  a n d dem-  mythopoeia.  is  beyond  right,  reveal  terms.  pleasure  132-36).  reader  and  form  beliefs,  made,"  (Criticism,  creating  fiction's goal  is  a particular  Poiema,  motive'  is  simultaneously  simply  experience  Poiema,  identification  ideas'"  propagate  designates  aesthetic  begs  and  allegory  could  Lewis  Anne s-on-the-Hill 1  represent  138).  o n s t r a t e what  is  not  universe  is  and  functioning  ("Christianity  said"]  does  windowless  signed not to p u b l i s h  ture  not  certain  universe,"  possibilities  not  yet  Christianity.  moment  familiarised himself  aim i s  orthodox  the  and  point"  suggests  St.  and y e t  meaning in  Ransom  that  Church  Lewis'  or  that  considers  fulfilling  text  way  which  essence  of  legitimate delight  of  and s y m p a This  is  a  believes:  76 I t i s o n l y by b e i n g a l s o a Poiema t h a t a Logos [ " s o m e t h i n g s a i d " ] becomes a w o r k o f l i t e r a r y a r t a t all. Conversely, the imaginations, emotions, and t h o u g h t s o u t o f w h i c h t h e Poiema b u i l d s i t s harmony a r e a r o u s e d i n us b y , and d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s , t h e L o g o s and w o u l d h a v e no e x i s t e n c e w i t h o u t i t . . . . The mark o f s t r i c t l y l i t e r a r y r e a d i n g . . . i s t h a t we n e e d n o t b e l i e v e o r a p p r o v e t h e L o g o s . . . . I t i s no use t r y i n g t o evade t h e q u e s t i o n by l o c a t i n g the whole goodness o f a l i t e r a r y work i n i t s c h a r a c t e r as Poiema, f o r i t i s out of our v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t s i n the L o g o s t h a t t h e P o i e m a i s made. The n e a r e s t I h a v e y e t g o t t o an a n s w e r i s t h a t we s e e k an e n l a r g e m e n t o f o u r b e i n g . We w a n t t o be more than o u r s e l v e s . . . . We w a n t t o s e e w i t h o t h e r e y e s , to imagine with other imaginations, to feel with o t h e r h e a r t s , as w e l l a s w i t h o u r own. . . . I t is connaitre not savoir; it is erleben; we become these other s e l v e s . Not o n l y n o r c h i e f l y i n o r d e r t o see what t h e y a r e l i k e but i n o r d e r t o see what t h e y see . . . . Hence i t i s i r r e l e v a n t w h e t h e r t h e mood e x p r e s s e d i n a poem was t r u l y and h i s t o r i c a l l y t h e p o e t ' s own o r one t h a t he a l s o had i m a g i n e d . What m a t t e r s i s h i s power t o make us l i v e i t . . . . T h i s , so f a r as I can s e e , i s t h e s p e c i f i c v a l u e o r good o f l i t e r a t u r e c o n s i d e r e d as L o g o s ; it admits us t o e x p e r i e n c e s o t h e r t h a n o u r o w n . (Criticism, pp. 135-39)  Lewis  unilaterally  p r i m a r i l y to  teach  there—indeed but work. stuff  they  be  Literary real  (Criticism,  p.  "truths  without  must  of  rejects  about  Logos  the  constitutive  works life;  81).  as  "are  all  additions Lewis  propaganda life"  'literature'  ( C r i t i c i s m , p.  Poiema and  all  would  not  subsidiarily  constructions: to  life  rather  130).  exist,  as  which Ideas  can  Lewis  says—  incorporated things than  made  seeks  out  comments  advises:  L e t t h e p i c t u r e s t e l l y o u t h e i r own m o r a l . For the moral inherent in them w i l l rise from whatever s p i r i t u a l r o o t s you have succeeded i n s t r i k i n g d u r i n g t h e w h o l e c o u r s e o f y o u r l i f e . . . . The o n l y m o r a l t h a t i s o f any v a l u e i s t h a t which a r i s e s inevitably from the whole c a s t of the a u t h o r ' s mind. ( " W r i t i n g f o r C h i l d r e n , " p. 2 7 ) .  be  into  the  of  the  on  it"  77 It  is  audience  pictures  to  view  which  in  the  tell  planetary  extends  the emphatic  invitation  duction  to  complex  the  mythopoeic,  more  pictorial  their  to  moral  romances. that  novels  language,  own  Out  viewing,  which  because  '"the  (Planet,  the  speech,'"  the  pfifltrigg  explains  knowledge  into  any words  change t h e i r  The r o u g h l y c o n c r e t e meaning  and n o t  at  hrossan words, all  and i t  on t h e  interchangeable  is  with  abstract  the sorns'  a d v a n c e d and a n a l y t i c a l  is  the  '"great (p.  furry,  speakers  130).  even a k i n tive,  it  It  is  to Old is  rough-edged  fervid and  singers,'"  Solar,  the  on t h e p r o c e s s o f  reveals  of  which  no i n s i g n i f i c a n t  a sacramental forms  language  and  the  of the  t h e most p r o f o u n d  linguistic  poetry  .  .  130).  '"No  him,  hrossa,  coincidence  Ur-language tongue,  is  sophistication  intro-  is  lingua  .  the  told  in  comes  in  one  '"for  learns  you  the same'"  a way t h a t  the  an h e r a l d i c  words.  to  it  in  Planet  hand, are  meaningful  his  Silent  tale  still  other  invites  a  to  forms are s o l i d l y forms o f  handle,  It  p.  other  the  being  best  s p e e c h , ' " Ransom d i s c o v e r s  Lewis  of  follow.  the roughest sorns'  that  (p.  130).  irreducible Their  generalized  are  franca  the of  and Thus  planet's Malacandra  t h a t the hrossan language  the  universe.  ultra  quiddity  universals. in a Letter  Although of  its  Lewis to  his  in  primitive  speech are n o t . who  can  is  primiknobby,  elaborates brother:  In t h e f i r s t s t a g e . . . [ w o r d s ] a r e b u r s t i n g w i t h meaning, but very c r y p t i c because they are not genera l e n o u g h t o show t h e common e l e m e n t i n different t h i n g s ; e . g . you can t a l k (and t h e r e f o r e t h i n k ) about a l l the d i f f e r e n t kinds of t r e e s , but not about t r e e s . . . . In t h e i r f i n a l s t a g e t h e y a r e a d m i r a b l y c l e a r b u t one i s s o f a r away f r o m r e a l t h i n g s t h a t they r e a l l y say n o t h i n g . . . . On t h e o t h e r hand t h e f i r s t r e a l l y means s o m e t h i n g , r e a l l y r e p r e s e n t s a c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e i n the minds o f t h o s e who u s e i t ; the s e c o n d i s mere d e x t r o u s p l a y i n g w i t h c o u n t e r s , and o n c e a man h a s l e a r n t t h e r u l e he c a n go on t h a t way . . . w i t h o u t r e a l l y u s i n g the words t o r e f e r t o any concrete f a c t at a l l . (17 J a n . 1 9 3 2 , L e t t e r s , 1 4 7 )  78  Thus, accuse  us o f  to  learn  in  the  leave  we  doing,  the  find  the  space.  God  transcend  is  universal  in  lingua  some,  T h o s e who do n o t  (Hang i t  our  Heaven:  a l l , we're  in  we  with  return  is  as  an  to  space  already  hostile  We l e a v e  intention  Earth.  of  It  really  discoverable  Him on e a r t h  the  leave.  "Space-travel  God  find  even  planet"  franca,  upon  His  To  Earth,  a "silent  tongue  matter.  nowhere.  do  it  sacramental to  with  although  is  has  unlikely  .  . ) , " Lewis  .  in  order  conversing not  that  nothing  everywhere;  are  critics  to  to  we  to  do  others,  find  writes  Him in  in his  4 essay, is the  of  "The any  Seeing Eye." interest  super-real  to  is  a  "Only  the f i r s t  imaginative  spiritual  journey  people"  on  phenomenon,  to  a new p l a n e t  empirical  and  a  grounds,  merely  .  .  .  because  physical  voyage  5 can  never  Oyeresu,  take tutelary  particular Old  One  (Planet, any  '"that p.  The remains the  to  ("The  the  the  rather  live  that  or  Utopia of  he  therefore  Him  any  has  a matter must  holds of  the  carry  no  our  planets, in  the  live  movement  farther  from  true are  destiny. not  heavens  in Him  space than  confined  at  anywhere,'"  large. Hnohra  will you  false  hopes  "'He  wealth o f  of  reaching  are  their is  tells  never at  the  to Nor  Utopia:  who would b r i n g the  Indies  with  home t h e him,'"  " O n w a r d , C h r i s t i a n S p a c e m e n , " Show, 3 ( 1 9 6 3 ) , "The S e e i n g E y e , " i n C h r i s t i a n R e f l e c t i o n s , p. 1 7 1 . 4  Even  the  Ransom  bring this  you very  168).  heart.  the  of  to  "mere  S e e i n g E y e , " p.  trilogy  Indies  but  sort  77);  to  deities  realms,  nearer  moment"  us  54  the  wealth  Lewis and  quest  117;  of  quotes rpt.  '"The establishment must die and rot . . .': CS. Lewis D i s c u s s e s S c i e n c e F i c t i o n w i t h K i n g s l e y A m i s , " SF H o r i z o n s , N o . 1 ( S p r i n g 1 9 6 4 ) , p p . 5 - 1 2 ; r p t . " U n r e a l E s t a t e s , " i n O f O t h e r W o r l d s , p. 8 8 . 5  79 in  "On  Stories"  "locally  (p.  confined  98).  to  a  in  t h e Heaven o f  that  lies  between  thing that similar  contrast  the humanities, so  much  regret  to at  how  and  and in  Satan,"  him  scientist  [for  being]  so  yet  who  he  on has  who  that  a  at  Hell,  immensity  planet  and  has  on  he  as  Malacandra  hand,  "has  than  all  only  p.  one  100).  A  a student  of  yet  other  individualistic'"  in  find  found  '"philosophy  is  can  leaves  the  Adam  surveyed  (Preface,  that  Ransom's  yet  ivory tower,  Weston,  n a r r o w and more  of  an  Lost  other  Ransom and W e s t o n :  alien  sneers  on t h e  Satan himself  learned.  nothing  abyss  Paradise planet,"  Satan,  whole  is  in  small  something of  an  insufferably see  that  the  between  Ransom i n h a b i t s  egotistical  on  in  which  c a n be drawn  little  can  park  Heavens  interest  out  h e a v e n and e a r t h .  them,  interests  points  small  i n t e r e s t s embracing a l l been  He  can  with  real  hand,  of  find  is  life  (Planet,  an  .  .  p.  territory  .  30),  to  be  conquered.** Our gain  Heaven,  silent memento and  own g o a l but  planet mori  is  leaving  rather  from for  implements  objective  in  a  the  the  "not  human  similar  in  of  a sort  life  Planet.  of  litmus  t h e t h i n g we a r e t e s t i n g ,  fi  7  Howard p e r c e i v e s "On S c i e n c e  in  speculate  on t h e  constitute  species  this  Fiction,"  of  about  paper,  of  Lewis his  so  short-sighted there  justifies  essay  Screwtape  "On  life  n.p.).  Ransom's  Lewis  experiences  it  irony in Achievement, i n Of O t h e r W o r l d s ,  p.  to  p.  74.  to the  kind  in  of  Fiction," his throw  7  stated light  accomplishes  reveals  is  66.  to  as  study  this  where  but  say, which  case what  to  Science  Letters,  diabolical  we m i g h t  this  not  Heavens,  men" ( P r e f . ,  "All  in  in  The  is  the  perspective.  principle to  Earth  penetrate  new  f r o m a new a n g l e purpose  to  planet  a  Malacandra the  nature  be h u m a n — w h a t  it  80 really  i s , " Howard p r o p o s e s  The Ransom .  .  reader  is  first  losing  This  seen  (p.  effect  image  Augray's  crown"  on  an  away—about  through  innocuous  through  encounters  consciousness,  . was now s o f a r  something  ( A c h i e v e m e n t , p.  the  telescope  108).  The  Ransom  is  disk  drugged  a mile  away,  though  end  "a is  perspective  been  a motif at  inverted  having  wrong  begins  81).  of  which  bright Earth  devastating.  a  has  Devine:  telescope"  disk  from  already  size  been  s k y l i g h t and l e a r n i n g t h a t  "the  disk"  not  as  indeed  presumed  (p.  Earth,  26).  and  This  further  is  that  disk—London, Athens,  t o o much f o r  the  He c a n n o t which  picture  even  be  is  certain  vaguely forms  in all  his  In gain  a  (p.  we  Heavens.  There  important  than  the  a  see  chain  h e r more on  fiction  our  Earth  in  imagining  not  set  up  to  to  get  literally  is  new l i g h t  clearly,  who  the  seeing  had  first  which all  There  he  now  there  Pole the  was  at  the  shape  the  in  everyone  To make t h i n g s w o r s e  North  "It  and  megalomaniac  was  Shakespeare.  the  eyes.  order  sense  memento m o r i  rocketships.  writers  his  point,  deeper  t e a c h o u r e y e s , and t h e to  not  "It  half-  by  he  perspective  109).  a  for  bottom."  of  England  bleakest  moment  109).  vantage  is  with  is  before  leave  universal  he  (p.  moon  bear.  Jerusalem,  down,  that  itself  travels"  effect,  "upside  of  Ransom t o  had l i v e d and e v e r y t h i n g had h a p p e n e d " Ransom,  Earth's  wrenching  experiences little  almost  simply  20).  peering  of  shocked  like  p.  Malacandra,  Earth through the s p a c e s h i p ' s is  clear  Ransom's  the  as  "Devine  (Planet,  in  about  seen  Planet  perfectly  culminates  as  He  by  in  in  which  the  they take  new  back  home.  We l e a v e  seeing  Earth  through  we  do  this,  perception  which  s h e d on o u r w o r l d . her  along  Lewis  expresses  other  worlds  as  his a  with  us  the  as  the  the more  Heavens  We l e a v e  impatience "huge  however;  to  ball  Earth and  with  science  backcloth"  against  81 which  "to  develop  crime-story" the  ("On  Heavens.  that  we  cannot  to  land  are  p.  Himself.  the  or  model  world,"  of the  actually  comprises  additions emphasis  to  soil  Utopian  in  search  our  for  Heaven  that  " n a k e d O t h e r " who must  genre  [science  90).  Madeleine and a r t  particularly  be  of is  ("On the  in  of  Stories,"  Lewis'  L'Engle  makes  late a  W a l k i n g on W a t e r ,  suited  to  might  exploration  Lewis  in  it  the  Perelandra  was  never  repeated  twice.  .  .  98).  to  find  it  been  copy  setting  Where "are  Fiction"  us  our  .  "secondary  alien  stories  claim,  "the actual  (p.  70;  footing  himself seems  the  to  me  of  in  "If odd  on  our that  related  her  to  you have a that  this  Estates,"  fiction the  and  rightly,  ("Unreal  science  nature  and  says,  observation  identifying  eclipsed  religious,  arriving"  similar  of  another"  do a l l  by t h e  p.  ultimately  therefore so  own,  there.  One  God.  of  we  n o t h i n g was a  "Science  Has  is  our  Tolkienian  work,"  in  Earth?  otherness  a  generated  challenges  resumed?  was  Like  whole  as  came  anything else,  of  world  out,  and  Maleldi1 never  the  points  sake,  or  penetrate  leave  world  new w o r l d  wave  otherness  of  cosmic;  fiction]  own  164-65).  trilogy  view  quality  for  reiterates  the  of  one  same  to  allegory  between its  we  is  Howard  mere  Tellus.  than  meaning  Lewis  a  wreck-story,  purpose  As  "The  and t o l e a r n a new l a n g u a g e  spiritual  faith  it  world  (pp.  grain  Thus  another.  exists  the  q u a l i t y of  life,"  what  it  said,  Our  direction,  analogues  important  its  of  making  old  spy-story,  61).  Perelandra:  else"  this  religion  study  by  the  had  the  added).  Then  of  anything  is  on  less  spiritual  marvellous  foreign  out  Lady  N o t h i n g was more o r  and  p.  sense  Malacandra  repetition As  a  certainly  Ransom f i n d s  a mere  with  world  83).  love-story,  Fiction,"  upon  that  "there  (Achievement,  not  Science  dishonour  worlds,  ordinary  Travelling  know  although  an  musings as a  Creator  p. on  genre  and  His  82 creation.** Yet is  not  but to to  to admit to  to  acknowledge  "it  a  the widest  the  not  be  "it  sets  explains, some  more  this  "dim sense o f  Children,"  gives  25).  The  enchanted  real  woods a l i t t l e bring  enough, strengthens To p e n e t r a t e we  discover.  Our  the  of  what  Stories," .  new  .  .  ,  Lewis  continues:  25).  Having  home. for  otherness  real is  another  examine  Malacandra  profits  us  enlightened  perception  which  mediate  same  reality.  Earth  or  on M a l a c a n d r a :  wish to a c q u i r e .  Lewis  hits  home i n m y t h ,  the  on  are  the  universal  language  upon t h i s  principle  of  is  on  Faith  100). route  home,  its  common  not  images o f and  because  interests  it  are  closely,  Earth,  Art  gain  the an  both  worlds  parochial  either  which  the u n i v e r s a l  and  he  paradoxically  reveals  Our  W a l k i n g on W a t e r : R e f l e c t i o n s (Toronto: Bantam, 1982), pp. 134-35. 8  all  both worlds  can  for  makes  shortest  world  emptying  reading  story,  the  that  because  been a t  find  at  woods  ("On S t o r i e s , " p.  to  Lewis  ("Writing  life"  "imageless  on  "the  any  Although  or  whole  but  through  depth" real  is  contends  "The  that  ultra  of  Nor  be l i k e  from d u l l i n g  despise  d e n o m i n a t o r w i t h o u r o w n , a n d we l e a r n  the  Lewis  dimension  is  sense,"  101). far  it  world  writing.  may w e l l  woods,"  our r e l i s h  fictional  reality  not  back  principle.  superficial  p.  trilogy  propaganda;  transcendentalist  image o f  (p.  the e n t i r e  or  our  "does  myth  We  dogma  reader  progression  Other."  and i n  sacramental  the  a  enchanted"  that  to  in  ("On  it  Planet  otherness  something beyond  read  will  of  life'  us an  region"  has  reader  of  real  before  world, p.  scope  escapist,  'like  central  actual  to  in  admission  irreducible  concession  may  the  depths  make a n y c o m p r o m i s i n g  acknowledge  greater  religious  [1980]  we  really  language  new  ed.  83 in Joy,  when he t e l l s  that  "naus  (p.  135).  and  at  earthly boat," be  ship  like?'"  the  some  realizes  that  trilogy's  that  has  dream  Lost  We l e a v e nature teaches ing of  our  "glory,"  the  the  of  lives.  before  us  and  does  rewards  him  with  similar  boat  so  "very  is  Venus'"  Ransom a l s o  (Planet,  126).  not  in  not  evoking  circle  the  marvel  melt,"  .  .  .  says  When  Thus  back  is  the .  .  Lewis  .  in  our  but  very  he the  to  unexpected,  expectation  at  ours,  however,  as w e l l .  us f u l l  beyond  The  Venus,  a  boats  wonders like  p.  an  could  mythology,  phenomenon  brings  else  and t e r r e s t r i a l  "boat."  with  '"What  like  in  image  that  our  Preface  to  language  of  57).  Earth  to  Lewis  learn  a new  language,  the meaning o f  "glory,"  tongue.  a l t h o u g h we t o o  children  another"  their  and a c c u r a c y  our  In The V o y a g e o f other  consists  discovered  one  thought,  this  He  mean  that  worlds  all  native  not  O y a r s a whom we c a l l  us  (p.  of  behind  foreign  art  do  Hyoi's  by t h e  Idea  female  lies  they  Greek.  Both M a l a c a n d r i a n  Perelandrian  a perfection  haunted  that  65).  the  an a r c h e t y p e  stands  Paradise  of  learning  travel  struck  universal  "The w h o l e  evoking with  p.  in  thing,  coincidence  exploration  own w o r l d .  phy.  the  idea  he a c t u a l l y m e e t s  a  marvels  he i s  (Planet,  '"extraordinary  associates  mean  he  later  naturally manifest  experience  interplanetary  first, but  his  both  Ransom's  revelations:  boat  of  have  We s i m i l a r l y  "Dawn T r e a d e r " ,  been  brought  to  just  we a l s o  discover  m u s t go e l s e w h e r e  the  but  for  Asian  Narnia  are  the  our  as  taught  meaning  theology  tells in  the  Lucy  order  t h e mean-  of and that  that  the  word  philososhe  they  and  might g  meet  him  and  better  9 L e w i s , The 1 9 5 2 ) , p. 2 2 2 .  know  Voyage  him  of  as  the  he  appears  "Dawn  in  Treader"  their  own  (London:  world.  The  Geoffrey  Bles,  84 reader that  i s similarly  he might  and  t o the o t h e r worlds  know them as the s i b l i n g s  common parentage. our e a r t h  brought  The f a c t  even  o f thought,"  leaving  as the s o l e  effects  terrible  rational  i n the narrowing  prejudices  teaches us the u n i v e r s a l  strong  sense  Gibbons  can  o f homecoming testify  to  language.  i n the worlds  "a  nostalgia"  s p e c i e s on  a t the mercy  He succeeds  in creating  planet  o f our  parochialism,  o f the t r i l o g y ,  f o r the  their  o f sympathies  b l o o d , the sorns s p e c u l a t e ( P l a n e t , p. 116). To remedy t h i s Lewis  i n order  o f h i s own, and r e c o g n i z e  t h a t we l i v e  "must have f a r - r e a c h i n g  o f Deep Heaven  that  of  such a Stella  Perelandra  ("Imaginative W r i t i n g , " p. 8 9 ) . Lewis  wants  t o break  through  o b j e c t i v e i s t o open our eyes relieve  that  Screwtape  "pressure  and h i s crew  "space-and-time which  ultra  one  nonsensical," to  probe  reality.  item  attitudes  system  which  contrast,  realities  designates  Planet's  skilfully  p. 12).  manipulated  By c a l l i n g  the parameters  t h o r o u g h l y , and through which  the framework  space-time,  which  and secondary  i s rapidly  annihilating  personal  sense  who  which  space  and time"  o f mystery  count i t a b l e s s i n g t h a t h i s f a t h e r had no c a r :  10 In the d e d i c a t i o n o f the n o v e l .  reality  i s t o the To look f o r  Himself  over  Planet a  of a  invented i s The c h a l l e n g e  o f space-time  gloats  by  we a r e then t o  Eye" (p. 168).  mysteries  as Weston,  He  peculiar  beyond, i n o r d e r t o  i s t o a poem o r the key i s t o music.  o f such  Lewis'  Letters,  w r i t e s i n "The Seeing  the p r i m a r y  horizons.  so  "God . . . c r e a t e d  within  Lewis  narrow  In  the o r d i n a r y "  story,Lewis  u n i v e r s e as the metre as  t o the unseen  (Screwtape  we a r e t o i n v e s t i g a t e  explore  Him  of  our iron  d e f i e s the  man's  "transport  (Planet,  and adventure  p. 153).  l e d him t o  85 I measured d i s t a n c e s by t h e s t a n d a r d o f m a n , man w a l k i n g on h i s two f e e t , n o t b y t h e s t a n d a r d o f t h e i n t e r n a l combustion engine. I had n o t been a l l o w e d to deflower the very idea of d i s t a n c e ; in return I p o s s e s s e d " i n f i n i t e r i c h e s " i n what w o u l d have been t o m o t o r i s t s "a l i t t l e r o o m . " The t r u e s t and m o s t h o r r i b l e c l a i m made f o r modern t r a n s p o r t i s t h a t it "annihilates space." It does. I t a n n i h i l a t e s one o f t h e m o s t g l o r i o u s g i f t s we h a v e been g i v e n . (Joy, pp. 149-50)  In  Planet,  him.  Lewis  calls  He e x t e n d s  away o u r road"  the s e l f " for  a  with  7)--"a (p.  road,"  208).  undisturbed  of  venture  comfortable  Pedestrian  its  Pedestrian  maps and  (p.  to  explore  a courteous  p a r t y as wondrous  Like the  us  and  ambrosial  Planet's  Lewis  our  place,  privacy  "Ransom,"  however,  As  becomes  further  the  responsibility  of  not  to  The  solely forward  grow on  his  response  after  decision, The  into.  he  for  mere  has  only  foreshadows  the  Perelandra,  a  to  this  named.  of  profound  of  moral  the moral  a  e v e r was  tea mad.  put  the  middle  of  the  leads  "right  out  are  to  looking  have  author  one's  which  our  then his  simply  solitude  names  peace  of  the  with  an  name c o r r e s p o n d s  to  one  Ransom's  Indeed,  inconvenience  is  to  interrupts  Perelandra,  innocuous  positive  Our  it  with  invited  "into  content  space  help.  destiny,  fulfillment  dilemma  more  in  personal  been  his  physical  apparent a  are  thereupon  his  as A l i c e ' s  which  of  but  p a g e s , we a r e  Joy,  uninvaded.  i m p o r t u n a t e o l d woman a s k i n g f o r  party,  shelters in  riches"  P e d e s t r i a n , we t o o  and  and  a tea  opening  says  the  to  substances  from our  Along with resting  "infinite  invitation  out  as  the  own  request the  action  chooses destiny  now  help,  which  for  entire can  which  the  Un-man  which  conundrum,  trilogy  move  the  momentous Ransom yet  whether  still  or  depends is  put  awaits  his  plot  forward.  duty  entails  will  face  ultimately  in a  86 matter  of  confront  because  albeit with  "mere"  however  physical  he now p r o v e s unwillingly  the  old  woman's  climbing  the  three  his  life.  In coming t o  adventure  of  is  with  will  a  decision  faithful  in  whatever  Ransom d o e s Rise"  three  stairs  which  for  "The  the  It  himself  and  wishes,  steps  reader ascends those cosmic  action.  to  volumes Ransom.  culminate  off  ring of  the  our  Ransom  lesser  find  bell  are  Harry,  as  about  mastery  Complying  that  trilogy,  of  will  obedience,  motives.  to  the  We t o o  in  this  mixed  set  which  finally  will it  to  change  were,  the  embark on  the  a  sacramental  language. The which  story  Walsh  Pilgrim.  notice  Walsh  is  spiritual  in  expectant  mother  implying  birth  of  Walsh  Nativity.  imagery u n t i l space  capsule  enclosure,  because  his  en of  is  itself  heavens  so  grossly  of  enter  the  weight  rapidly  pregnant  Malacandrian  woman,  but  begin  fetus,"  is  within  "the  misnamed  field,  magnified  almost  Form, p. 6 7 .  of  pp.  the  Fearful  which  "Ransom  (p. a  67).  lonely  naked  vehicle worlds,"  and  Ransom's  p.  his  is  We road  the  events  of  birth  pattern  (Planet,  Ransom pain:  the  recalls  stripped  The  "Space"  in  down  which  tracing  womb  of  suggesting  hiking  heat.  development,  maturation  to Malacandra,  excruciating  H In Longing for a paraphrases Walsh's f i n d i n g s ,  images  subsequent  intense  gravity  and s u f f e r  and  spiritual  Reeducation  birth  Ransom  not  route the  "The  h e a d , an i n c i d e n t  does  which  ocean  a  Ransom i s  lay  as  Ransom's  of  his  image  to  of  essay,  cluster  looking for a place the  that  a  and  first  is  his  notes  both  rebirth  the  follows  discusses  1 , 1 1  himself  which  inside a  the  womb-like  that  creative  36).  As  abductors  they gain  " T h e y had t h e e x p e r i e n c e s  beyond  endurance"  64-72;  the  (p.  43).  paragraph  of  Once  largely  87 landed  on  opening chilly  the  of  p l a n e t , Ransom  the  space  atmosphere.  specific eagerly  use  of  capsule  Although  language  straining  pushes and  the  of  Weston  the  spaceship  " I t might  and  into  Devine  the  they  death,  but  light  what  Lewis' been  "between  the  a  the  has  planet open  the  and  Ransom  strange  as  through  the d i c t i o n ,  imagery:  o f the  mean  shoulders  highlight  birth  some g l i m p s e "  labouring shoulders"  and  outside  Walsh does not  the  45).  head  crawls  reinforces  "to c a t c h  (p.  his  l i d of  scaffold!"  Ransom t h i n k s (p. 45). On  Malacandra's  surface,  newborn's u n c e r t a i n t y o f  Walsh  continues,  Ransom  undergoes  the  vision:  He gazed about him, and the v e r y i n t e n s i t y o f h i s d e s i r e t o take i n the new world a t a glance d e f e a t e d itself. He saw n o t h i n g but c o l o u r s — c o l o u r s that r e f u s e d to form themselves i n t o t h i n g s . Moreover, he knew n o t h i n g y e t w e l l enough t o see i t : you cannot see t h i n g s t i l l you know r o u g h l y what they a r e . His first impression was of a b r i g h t , pale world—a water-colour world out of a child's paint-box. (p. 46)  The  process  since  it  of  acquiring a  requires  broken.  "All  that  his  reality  is  cognizant  perception  terrestrial  forms  iconoclastic,"  i s painful of  f o r Ransom,  perception  Lewis  writes  first  in  A  be  Grief  12 Observed. to  learn  Through that  "the  variety  o f forms,  of  senses,  the  208-09; tense 12  A  .  j o y and naked  .  changed).  Grief  Other,"  ultimately .  p a i n , the which  Observed  or o s s ro a dVT^6TfTTJ7~5Z7~  of experience,  we  come t o  "refuses to  proclaiming In  dialectic  the  first  identify  itself  heavens,  (London,  itself  sheerly Ransom  1961;  New  with  already  York:  have  know through  objective"  has  we  any  object  (Joy, come  Seabury  a  to  pp. an  Press-  88 initial  understanding  death-and-life into  rhythm,  h i s surrendered  otherness  of  "the  felt  naked  '"sweet  body,"  and  Other."  He  influence'  experienced  pouring  known the "severe  o r even  delight"  its  stabbing  o f an awesome  ( P l a n e t , p. 35).  N e v e r t h e l e s s , p r e c a s t p e r c e p t i o n s r e t u r n with new  has  planet.  Ransom withdraws l i k e  a snail  h i s f e a r o f being on a  to h i s s h e l l  when he  overhears  h i s c a p t o r s d i s c u s s i n g h i s s a c r i f i c e t o the s o r n s :  H i s mind, l i k e so many minds o f h i s g e n e r a t i o n s , was r i c h l y f u r n i s h e d with b o g i e s . . . . No i n s e c t - l i k e , v e r m i c u l a t e o r c r u s t a c e a n Abominable, no t w i t c h i n g f e e l e r s , r a s p i n g wings, s l i m y c o i l s , c u r l i n g t e n t a c l e s , no monstrous union o f superhuman intelligence and i n s a t i a b l e c r u e l t y seemed t o him a n y t h i n g but l i k e l y on an a l i e n w o r l d . The sorns would be . . . would be . . . he dared not t h i n k what the sorns would be. . . . But the r e a l i t y would be worse: i t would be an e x t r a - t e r r e s t r i a l Otherness . . . . In t h a t moment Ransom made a d e c i s i o n . He c o u l d f a c e death, but not the s o r n s . . . . I f escape were i m p o s s i b l e , then i t must be s u i c i d e . . . . I t was no more i n h i s power, he thought, t o d e c i d e o t h e r w i s e than to grow a new limb. (pp. 39-40; b o l d f a c e p r i n t emphasis added)  Lewis a c h i e v e s a f i n e  i r o n y and d r y humour i n c a t a l o g u i n g Ransom's f e a r s ,  which expose the r e a d e r ' s chimeras  without  twitching reader  reiteration, first-time  fantastic  substance:  feelers  smiles  own  . . .  no  at  Ransom's  "the  sorns  "No  monstrous  would  his  Ransom's  own  phobia  "loathing  of  share  of  insects insects,  .  .  .  .  fears,  .  at  would  Ransom's t e r r o r .  (pp.  nor c a u s t i c : 15-16),  loathing  of  p r e j u d i c e s as .  being  Abominable,  cruelty."  and  be  not g e n t l e , i s n e i t h e r s e l f - r i g h t e o u s us  childish  insect-like  immaterial  r e a d e r must a l s o  and  the be,"  Lewis'  The  no  initiated  vanity  of his  although satire,  any while  i n J o y , he r e c o r d s f o r  doubtless  snakes,  the  loathing  source of  of  things  89 that  squashed  and  squelched"  Lewis'  satire,  horns,  stings, mandibles"  has  such as  Of  course,  the  no  choice  but  "Otherness," profound  and  later  Oyarsa's  unlikeness,  copies  the  tells  of  planet,  do  of  universe:  geocentric  strange  world"  steps,  with  a  sheet  little  "a of  by l i t t l e  to  lights  like  certain emphases  like,"  material  forms  learning  the  aspects of  is  of  which  time  teachable  much he  of  jaws,  to  was  his  be  We  are  arrival (p.  reference  difficult manage  on 45).  point in  his  the first  belt  light  blue  also  came  flat .  .  was  to  merely (pp.  in  That see  reeducation  of  blue  in  46-47;  "recognized,"  Platonic  " m y t h i c a l " embodiment o f  new  He  blue"  Ideas.  coming  .  not  borrowed underlying  of  .  'really'  universal  his  the  the  diction  in  by  imagery  but  take  his  As  through  water  of  the  progress  water  one  as  unlike.  he to  language.  the  does  the  is  well  curiosity"  still  that  and  himself  as  upon  more  that  frightened  utterly  water  language,  to  are  Ransom  the  yield  being  like  their  on M a l a c a n d r a eager  to  continues  reveals  r e a l i t y the  and  grinning  identity,  but  recognized  Platonic  "really"  sacramental  fear,  something  imitate  informs  conviction  to  however,  "perspective  terrestrial  and  Now,  "some  conclusion  The  temporal  Ransom's  or  the  added).  "something  he  water,  eyes,  sacramental  we  Nevertheless,  later  own  the  think  Earth  conveying  moment  learns  his  of  135).  for  48).  Lewis  perception: as  (p.  go,  comedy a l s o  Ransom's  confesses  not  feels  to  his  he  (p.  He has much f u r t h e r  Sheer  "bulbous  finally  speakers  Maleldil'"  of  debunk  discovers  h i m , when  Ransom s t i l l  to  He  doing  '"But  40).  40).  proceeds  between  Maleldil  both  (p.  suicide. so  p.  ludicrousness  novel  in  kinship  the  (Planet,  concept  of  Ransom  is  is,  in  the  various  an u l t r a  reality.  precisely  surroundings.  His  because nature  90 "is  'open'--able  "Before  to  anything  appreciate  else  reflected  into  h i s s p e c u l a t i o n s about  upon  arrival our  his  Ransom  We  i s so  are  (p. 49).  abductors  using  i t was  awareness  spacecraft. lunch'"  odd  the  that  he  is  It  also  and  subtly  leaves  him  water  blue"  his  busy  says.  beautiful; had  flood  of  working  when Devine  from  the  their  Malacandrian  reinforces  with  Purtill  never  and  at  own  entered  is hostile, his  harmful  earlier notion  that  rather  than  underlying  Ransom's  preconceptions that  the  '"Time f o r  The  thwarts  activity  observes  stores,  water.  he  unloading  interrupts,  13  Indeed,  mental  the ensuing meal, Ransom shrewdly  s u p p o s i t i o n , t h a t whatever i s a l i e n perception  was  possibility  that  reminded  tinned  "'really'  Richard  Malacandra  this  observant  that  During  as  i t " ( P l a n e t , p. 47; emphasis added).  suddenly  produce  love,"  learned that  even  erases  how  he  and  maturing  of  Malacandrian  danger. water  is  poisonous. His  c a p t o r s ' e x c e s s i v e c a u t i o n and  Ransom's guard:  i s in this  ground  behaviour  further  "His eyes were busy s e a r c h i n g the g r o u n d — s o  he w i t h the r e p t i l e It  furtive  fears  frame  along the  of  and mind  insect that  l e n g t h o f the  as "spooks on s t i l t s "  fears  o f modern  Ransom's  eyes  s o r n s , whom he  are  not  raise  obsessed  was  i m a g i n i n g " (p. 50). drawn  up  from  the  unnaturally perceives  (p. 53):  S p i n d l y and f l i m s y t h i n g s , t w i c e o r t h r e e times the h e i g h t o f a man. His f i r s t i d e a was t h a t they were images o f men, the work o f savage a r t i s t s . . . . But what c o u l d they be made o f , and how c o u l d they s t a n d ? — s o c r a z i l y t h i n and e l o n g a t e d i n the l e g , so top-heavily pouted in the chest, such stalky, flexible-looking distortions of earthly bipeds  1 3  1974), p.  Lord 89.  of  the  Elves  and  Eldils  (Grand  Rapids,  MI:  Zondervan,  91 . . . like s o m e t h i n g s e e n i n one mirrors, ( p . 5 0 ; emphases a d d e d )  Ransom's  point  Earth's  of  sole  unnaturally yardstick  rational  long"  (p.  with  and  in  surprise  of  p.  sheer  diverts  "nothing a  to  forest  the  time,"  is  unknown  or  however,  from him.  "the  d e t e r m i n e d t o back h i s to  perceive  and  begin  deducing from i t s lighter free  than the  to  follow  and  p.  54).  own  context. For  backward.  His  and w a s t e s  attention. water  the  his  of  man"  52;  panic  of  steps  see  out  that  of  "thin his  and  English  of  his  when  a  wits, hnakra  not  with  pain  but  strikes  out  into  the  view,  unprovisioned millions  first  53).  world  of  added).  Ransom  has  and a l o n e miles  beyond same  moments was e b b i n g  away  mind;  "At  on the  is  basic mistrust.  a  instead,  Ransom i s about  that  him  he was  at  least  as  he  able  walks,  " h e m u s t be on a  superterrestrial  Malacandrian  however,  in  the  from h i s  (p.  of  world  s t r e n g t h was n e e d e d a n d N a t u r e was  forward,  perspective  out  he  or  the  the  impulse to  the  fleeing  point  perpendicularity" less  time  emphases  the end"  interpreting  becalmed his  thousands  luck  begins  no  wandering  (p.  indeed  added).  was now f a r  to  frightened  warm,"  suicide  skyward  two  and does n o t r e l a x  of  is  bogey-men" w i t h  geocentric  fact  E a r t h , where her  was  comic  measures  "Crying  52; emphasis  with  "theme o f  Ransom  every  terror,  disabling  The i d e a o f  he  "surrealistic  vegetation  knowledge  that  Consequently  (p.  fear--except  of  reach  he  so  those  terrestrial,  53).  the  Malacandrian wilderness as  purely  the  everyone's  because  Afflicted  is  species,  faces  51  Ransom s c r e a m s suddenly  reference  of  landscape  Ransom little  scale"  only  a  "All  was d a n g e r , "  takes  more  than  (p.  within  one  set 53 its  step  stoicism,  he s t i l l  doubts:  92 He noticed dully that the water seemed to be descending a l i t t l e too s l o w l y f o r the i n c l i n e , but he was t o o t i r e d t o s p e c u l a t e a b o u t i t . . . . What he r e a l l y w a n t e d t o know was w h e t h e r he d a r e d d r i n k it. He was very thirsty b y now; but it looked very poisonous, very unwatery. He w o u l d t r y n o t t o d r i n k i t ; p e r h a p s he was s o t i r e d t h a t t h i r s t w o u l d l e t h i m sleep, ( p . 55)  Physically Ancient Only  as  well  Mariner:  when  he  Malacandrian phrenic  as  "Water,  is  water,  delirious  water,  hysteria  spiritually,  his  which  Ransom's  everywhere,  with  thirst  earlier  predicament /  does  his  any  Ransom  resolution  now d i v i d e s  Nor  is  that  drop  to  finally  overruled  self-conscious  by  and  of  the  drink."  drink  the  animal  the  schizoselves:  N o , i t was o n l y h i m s e l f : he was R a n s o m . O r was h e ? Who was t h e man whom he had l e d t o a h o t s t r e a m and t u c k e d up in bed, telling him n o t to drink the strange water? O b v i o u s l y some n e w - c o m e r who d i d n ' t know t h e p l a c e a s w e l l a s h e . B u t w h a t e v e r Ransom had t o l d h i m , he was g o i n g t o d r i n k now. He l a y down on t h e bank and p l u n g e d h i s f a c e i n t h e warm r u s h i n g liquid. I t was g o o d t o d r i n k . It had a strong mineral flavour, b u t i t was v e r y g o o d . He drank again and found himself greatly refreshed and steadied. All that about the other Ransom was nonsense. He was quite aware of the danger of madness, (pp. 56-57; b o l d f a c e p r i n t emphasis added)  The  split  consciousness  disjunctive frontier  nature  between  Malacandrian sacramental  tea,  "as 57).  a  for  flight," One  geocentric  nature  water,  Ransom's vegetation  of  afflicting  and  he  perception,  of  recovers  gradual  progress  food.  Considering  he  morning  settles he  down  comes  reflexive  supernature.  emblematic  that  his  the the  is  composite  to "a  union  the herd  he to  of  a  continue of  enormous  the  impassable drinks  served  next  business of  an  Ransom  nectar  as  impossible  underscores  builds  when  ambrosial  instead across  which  It  continues, it  being  for  whole  the flight  survival pale  a  self.  samples the  the  (p. furry  93 creatures  more  judges  them  animal  which  to  be  man  traditional  "a  presentable  very  could  probably between  ease  quiddity.  open  in  perspective  on  terrestrial  eyes  of  than  familiar,  Malacandrian  concludes  giraffes  relations  comfortably  creatures  like  It  the  the  giant,  ready  them t o  and  through  fall  be m o u n t a i n s ,  at  any  a  vista  pylon-shaped  to  with  into  is  forms,  "and w i t h  that  new  although  "an  these  towards  gain  "seemed  (p.  is  leaf-eating  to  which  Such  Ransom  openness  59).  discovery  t h e p r o s p e c t was s w a l l o w e d up i n t h e f a n t a s t i c  and  added).  able  moment"  of,"  which  which  Ransom  think  emphasis  beast,  the  could animal,"  58;  him  that  he  of  (p.  reassure  vegetation  else  sort  tame"  man  and is  anything  He  the  a  new  to  his  finally  mere  oddity  sublime":  H e r e , he u n d e r s t o o d , was t h e f u l l s t a t e m e n t o f that p e r p e n d i c u l a r theme w h i c h b e a s t a n d p l a n t and e a r t h a l l p l a y e d on M a l a c a n d r a - - h e r e i n t h i s r i o t o f r o c k , l e a p i n g a n d s u r g i n g s k y w a r d l i k e s o l i d j e t s f r o m some r o c k - f o u n t a i n , a n d h a n g i n g b y t h e i r own l i g h t n e s s i n the air, so shaped, so elongated, that all t e r r e s t r i a l m o u n t a i n s m u s t e v e r a f t e r seem t o h i m t o be m o u n t a i n s l y i n g on t h e i r s i d e s . He f e l t a lift and l i g h t e n i n g a t t h e h e a r t , ( p . 59)  With profile "The  of  every a  new  sorn  ineffaceable  running  as  hard  insight, now  appears was  hardly  he  could  into  as  possible  as  stops  to drink  the water p a l a t a b l e ,  stamped the  challenge  background on  thickest  between  the  however, and goes back t o  t u r e o n l y t e n y a r d s away f r o m h i s its  the  a  from another Malacandrian  w a t e r a p p e a r e d t o be u n o b t a i n a b l e "  d u l l y observes  comes  against  image  H a v i n g p u t a s many m i l e s finally  however,  actions,  noting  (p. 60). sheltered "in  his of  to  of  brain the  sorn lake.  test  the  it:  the  mountains.  before  forest"  he  was  (p.  and h i m s e l f ,  59). Ransom  He no l o n g e r  finds  " c u r s i n g a w o r l d where  Although  he s p i e s  a new  cold crea-  s p o t among t h e s h o r e w e e d s ,  a dry,  o b j e c t i v e way t h a t  this  he was  94 apparently land  and  mind  is  the  black  his  he  state  had  61).  thrill  a  of  The  the  61 and  p.  62;  emphases  and  to  absolute  Other  acquisition  of  all  the  beast," of  two  ship,  rational emotions  was  (p.  62).  his  skin  bottle  indescribable he  emphasis the  "The  With  on  his a  species,  Ransom f e e l s  all  greatly  frightening,  only at paws,  hross  and  that  of  . . . Each  water  s waist.  revelation"  Ransom  out  of  of  a  fall  his  a  to  higher  a the  hands"  the  in  with  itself,  into  commitment to  this  himself  language  (p.  objective  level  never the  pilgrim  in  their  of  also he  in  of  his  the on  in  other's  moment"  him a for  shell  webbed  court-  interplay.  added  the  drink  meeting  one  offering  openness,  his  this  black  an e n t i r e  all  repulsion a  the  immediate  takes  and  "at In  something  touch  embarks  is  and  enjoyed  name  62).  unbearable  but  He  stare  emotions  trust  As  to  (p.  creature  attraction  had  elbow  the  mingled  spiritual  non-human  like  hross  fingertips  learns  new  him  and  the  especial  Ransom's  thrill  added).  1  a  A  upon  intensified  ecstatic  Malacandrian the  . . .  language. himself  demonstrates  talking.  completely  of  moves  of  are  which  Ransom's  thought  new  Ransom  again  the  not  might  this  from  had  form  languages,  was  sorn  Once  happened  he  brings  very  reality,  61).  a  extra-terrestrial,  flashed  acquaintance  drank.  linguist  it  knowledge"  When R a n s o m p e r c e i v e s  not  an  Somehow  now,  added).  (p.  creature  the  foolish,  creature's  then  new,  raising  which  acceptance  contains  a  sacramental  Ransom makes  "It  seen—but matter.  between  something  The  possible  "Unconsciously"  water"  .  excitement: behind  the  .  of  principle  story—caught  "Then .  sorns;  "love  of  his  from  mind.  different  with  of  however:  already  was  connection  end animal  stretched,  language  (p.  be  a big  altered world  to  drink,  the  cup  from  the  from  membrane: ran  so  species,  career  of  "An  through  much"  the  (p.  him; 63;  and  Ransom  Old  Solar.  95 Much l a t e r , of  his  b a c k on E a r t h , t h e l i n g u i s t w i l l  adventures  philological caricature  over  part"  of  of  the  necessity  his  story.  the Malacandrian  of  whatever  seems  alien.  warning,  "the huge, s e a l - l i k e c r e a t u r e  Ransom i s Thus,  discover  "how  achieving  a  to  to the sorns deal  key s t e p  with in  its  cutting  giving  our  he c o m p l a i n s prone  to  suddenly  grips  intentions,  its  chronicler  "down  on  readers  (p.  a  175).  dissociate  seated beside  (p. 65). these  his  still  dismay  a b l y o m i n o u s , " and he q u e s t i o n s relation  are  language,"  however,  and i t s  ruthlessly  "We  p r e s e n t moment,  lament to the  him  himself  h i m " becomes degree of  reeducation  losses  of  towards  the from  Without "unbear-  rationality,  O n l y "many d a y s l a t e r " d o e s  sudden  mere  For  anew.  the  confidence,"  a clear-eyed  Ransom thereby  perception:  [ T h e s e m i s g i v i n g s ] a r o s e when t h e r a t i o n a l i t y o f t h e h r o s s t e m p t e d y o u t o t h i n k o f i t a s a man. Then i t became a b o m i n a b l e - - a man s e v e n feet high, with a s n a k y b o d y , c o v e r e d , f a c e and a l l , w i t h t h i c k black a n i m a l h a i r , and w h i s k e r e d l i k e a c a t . But s t a r t i n g f r o m t h e o t h e r e n d y o u had an a n i m a l w i t h e v e r y t h i n g an a n i m a l o u g h t t o h a v e - - g l o s s y c o a t , liquid eye, s w e e t b r e a t h and w h i t e s t teeth--and added to all t h e s e , a s t h o u g h P a r a d i s e had n e v e r been l o s t and e a r l i e s t dreams were t r u e , t h e charm o f s p e e c h and reason. N o t h i n g c o u l d be more d i s g u s t i n g t h a n the one impression; nothing more delightful than the other. I t a l l d e p e n d e d on t h e p o i n t o f v i e w . (p. 6 5 ; b o l d f a c e p r i n t emphases a d d e d )  In  the  terrestial  meantime, viewpoint  He t h e r e f o r e his  boat.  sorns that  at  until  he  continues  confronts  other  Ransom has  "His whole  end  been  to  a critical  "To s t e p on b o a r d the  gains  of  .  the  running  .  such  dominate  imaginative training  insight,  Ransom's  and  handicap  his  myopic  perception.  d e c i s i o n when t h e h r o s s b e c k o n s h i m . m i g h t mean s u r r e n d e r i n g h i m s e l f t o  journey" from  an  during  (p. his  66).  This  entire  is  stay  the on  very  into the fate  Malacandra.  somehow e n c o u r a g e d h i m t o a s s o c i a t e  super-  96 human i n t e l l i g e n c e 66).  with  Nevertheless,  parting dozen  from  ways"  deeper sense  the (p.  still, that  Ransom  hross,"  the  steps  Ransom  66).  the  monstrosity of  the  the Pedestrian The w a t e r lay of  the  passage  land.  added).  bordered  piles  the  (p.  learning though drian  that  the  "peculiar  with  the  episode right, that  he  "the  added). and  brings  distinction Ransom  r a t h e r than  "Malacandra  to  68).  less  he  of  the  between of  . (p.  .  and  passage  Malacandra  imitation earth  than  of  is  as  had  will,  hitherto. on  surveyed empha-  hardly "great  mistaken  in  his  seasickness,  It been  Ransom's  .  most for  .  compared  This  humorous  place is  al-  Malacan-  of  a  for  vocabulary,  lowland,  .  call  billowy  one  70).  the  archipelagos,  and  planets  (p.  Earth. he  of  distinction  Perhaps  himself  67;  hrossan  highland  water"  (p.  still  more  E a r t h and o t h e r  earth  side"  trust  the  and  yesterday  [their]  68).  water  experience  like  mean  .  position  recognizes  Ransom a c q u i r e s  to  of  the  hands,"  perspective  could  had  his  his journey  a chain  he  He a l s o  which  later"  a distorted  was  which  handramit  during  distinction  awful  (p.  be  in  a  and,  unlike,  later trust  on e v e r y to  for  of  in  language,  decision  a standing  marshy l a n d  importance  experiences  to  him  undertakes  and p u r p o s e o f  (p.  shocked  put  thus  will"  thought  its  being  of  "the  unlike  conscious  had o p e n e d  substance  learned  He  By h i s  mountains,  harandra  geography  erases  the  they were"  rose-red  of  was  66).  cautiously  green  68; emphasis  significant it  "pale  learn  Ransom a new and w i d e r  which  sees  to  r i v e r c u r r e n t s , a s he w i l l  affords rose  animality  fascination  (p.  waves.  prospect  so t a l l  of  cloud"  "He  He now  by  mountains,  ocean  "its  adventure  boat  entertain  longing  reverses the d i r e c t i o n  the Malacandrian sis  "his  prodigious  Hyoi's  Perelandrian  though  by  h i m s e l f to the Malacandrian to  seriously  ineluctable  to  into  even  Drawn  shy,  key  cannot  f o r m and r u t h l e s s n e s s  in  upon  beginning  its  own  conceding to  sup-  97 pose" that  Ransom l e a r n s  Nevertheless, are  "on  again,  a  Ransom  cultural  surrounded  animal, him,  low  less  than  suffering  in  "some  fear,  desires  h e a d s and f u r r y f a c e s " eyes  (p.  72).  them,"  manage  smiles  and  to  away  newcomer  is  to  in  new  environs:  Malacandrian  his  face"  was (p.  I n t h e many d a y s amasses t h e most that to  he c a n  number  "during which story  you  writes  in  the  mere  the  living  which  he  feels  their  stands them  close  his (p.  find  "no the  cubs,  73).  of  It  aright  long  after  that  follow  spent  living  and  the  view,  we  that  he  all  irony  "jolly  properly to  his  little  discover,  learned  his  called  Ransom s t i l l  function  he  bullet  you  comic  chase  to  relapses,  swim b e f o r e  with  seems and  "more  beyond  whatever  but  only  be  "Meaningless  response"  disposition,  point  Ransom  species  72).  shore  neighbourhood  72).  fellow  hrossa  on  to  inappropriateness,"  their  knowledge  learning" valuable happened'"  telescope  Planet's  finally  the  71).  the has  in  his  read  the  69).  most  'nothing  must  only  that  ghastly  puppies,  perceive  significant  "remember  as  to  granted"  (p.  (p.  of  (p.  language  seemed"  overtures  goblin"  quest  "it  the  From  and  he c a n  Ransom's  72).  "for  Devine"  patronizing  a "hairless  far  a  and  to which  improve  (p.  had  hrossan  When he  multitude  company  whelps,  somewhat  things"  go  "The  it  the  creatures,  more  Weston  in  72).  the  guide  the  even  takes  of  but  verbs  (p.  their  solitary  men,  still  level"  his  else—"any  first  by d o z e n s  human,  passionately  his  the  "Postscript." among  the  of  his  (p.  176).  of  his  (p.  "But  hrossa,  career,  They  are  journey,  176).  time  among t h e  I  "If  though not days  in  I  grudge  are  to  which  although we a r e  spent  hrossa,  me  the it. the  to  it  Ransom  the he  is  treat  comes a  it  village," Those main  type  quiet thing  time as  a  Ransom weeks, that  98 happened.  I  story"  176).  life  (p.  know  anticipates  Malacandrian climax. the  In  Lewis;  its  excursion,  inner  in  action  what  quiddity,  though  Planet  it  and  prepares  you  can't  Ransom's  constituting  even  both  that's  sheer  Perelandra,  Indeed,  hero's  them,  the  precedes  for  the the  the  into  experience  personal  Perelandra,  him  get  a  of  village  highlight novel's  of  of  his  narrative  effective  climax  mere  climax  the  of  narrative  conflict. With  the  experience, conveyed  hrossa  Ransom  discovering  by  mere  learns  much a b o u t  explanation,  he s a y s i n P e r e l a n d r a  to  (p.  enjoy  rather  Malacandra  being  '"too  that  than  contemplate  could  definite  never  for  have  his been  language,'"  as  28).  E v e r s i n c e he awoke on t h e s p a c e - s h i p Ransom h a d been t h i n k i n g a b o u t t h e a m a z i n g a d v e n t u r e o f g o i n g t o a n o t h e r p l a n e t , and a b o u t h i s c h a n c e s o f returning from i t . What he had [ n o t ] t h o u g h t a b o u t was b e i n g on i t . I t was w i t h a kind of stupefaction each m o r n i n g t h a t he f o u n d h i m s e l f n e i t h e r a r r i v i n g in, nor e s c a p i n g f r o m , but s i m p l y l i v i n g o n , Malacandra; w a k i n g , s l e e p i n g , e a t i n g , swimming and e v e n , as t h e days p a s s e d , t a l k i n g . The w o n d e r o f i t smote him m o s t s t r o n g l y when he f o u n d himself, about three weeks a f t e r h i s a r r i v a l , a c t u a l l y g o i n g f o r a w a l k , ( p . 7 3 ; b o l d f a c e p r i n t emphases added)  Ransom's  knowledge  not to  isolate  in  entirety.  its  says, can  he  can  never  build added).  be  up  from Each  individual  of  the  sacramental  t h e phenomenal The  "merely put  such  facts  and  words,  scraps  concrete  facet  grows  rapidly  as  he  from the noumenal, but to r e c e i v e  analyse  into  language  figures  .  .  and  quite of  of  his  life  .  out  of  a  no  one  in  this  the his  right  with  whole  experience  becomes  and i r r e d u c i b l e e x p r e s s i o n o f m e a n i n g .  living  world  picture"  the  experience hrossa,  memory  will (p.  learns  be  176;  important  He l e a r n s ,  for  able  he  that to  emphasis for  its  example,  99 to  distinguish  "a male f r o m a f e m a l e  differences"  soon  person  the  daily  from  language  become  grey-muzzled,  lessons  Ransom b e g i n s home--so  much  Malacandrian for  the  The  occupations  until  he  trade  one  has  been  the  sees  hrossa some  Ransom  later  first to  began  his  and  about  origin,  to  the  when to  supposed  Hnohra  indicate  ignorance  handra,  and  sense  hrossa  itself  says  than  simply version  his  Ransom  that of  audience"  explains is  general  (p.  74;  to  him  "quite  to  .  of  to  (p. how  unable  of  have  (p. an  labour tense  to  75).  odd  As  habit,  181). now  more  order He  suffer about  When  in  to  their  language  out  this  a  understanding  come  75).  on  75;  their  know  truth  added).  out  (p.  his  does.  has  enough  instance,  "division  .  old  "discovers  in  at  earlier  for  setting  (p.  Ransom  the  his  superiority  prove  he  for  himself"  .  out"  much  his  him,  of  about  his  very  emphasis  expected"  enough  him  homesick  in  revolution  curiosity  the  I was  that  he  system i n s i d e  for  of  than  Malacandrians  "a c h i l d i s h  painstakingly his  "the  feel  Ransom  perceives  real  teaches  apparently  learned  their  Thulcandra Ransom  deliberately giving  had  viewpoint  roots,  there  added).  and  the  the s o l a r  geocentric very  of  .  caravan,  point  he  .  different  added).  to  "mysterious"  emphasis  "But  Lewis,  .  individual  very  homesickness  corrected"  of  "a  who  and  being  higher  when  turning  their  universe  a  habits  confesses  are  and even  is  Hnohra,"  community  week,"  added).  tells  Ransom's at  74;  satisfaction  sometimes, of  about  the  kind  Hyoi  the  "people" a  (p.  emphasis  attempt  blow  the  "Of  sight,  p r i n t emphasis  "God knows  gradually  carried  changed,  though  all  day  venerable  later  176).  of  in  he  at  friend  personal  (p.  expedition  agriculture  of  were  develop  that  valley,  his  (p. 73; boldface  to  so  Earth"  impressions  plain:  hross  of  point  not  the  questioned the  to  be.  Earth  sky,  adapt  becomes  could  a  it  annoyed Asked out  to  100 them i n orb  in  the night question  astronomy.  In  "haunted  a  duty  by  to  "a  sort  the  'almost  bark'  sensation  in  debates  their  sense o f  makes she  the  speaks  tables  "of  to  his  that  now, and  at  of  as  himself  animality  of  patronizing an  much o f  physical about  "heated,  Their  of  74).  also  from the  t h e s o r n s , an a c t i o n w h i c h  79).  Ransom's  On hrossa  that  the  that  has g r a v e  he was  his  recipient (p.  .  .  to  have  repercussions.  hrossa which  spiritual  owing  to  his  planet,"  as  well  know  (p.  79).  him whenever  [is]  been  to  they  literary him:  he  meaningless  to  to  show a s  pretending  false  "A  understand  hrossan  merely  further  he  contrasting  of  continues  is  if  truths  incomprehensible .  77).  as  the  N o r c a n Ransom  Hrikki of  of  follow.  native  ignorance  basis  result  has  technical,"  remains  his  treated  Ransom,  came o v e r  is  be  humorously  he d o e s  "time-pattern  assumption  eldil.  nakedness  men" ( p .  and i t s  his  what  and a p p a r e n t l y  music  it,  about  Ransom  catechism"  to  the  understand  the  explanations  to  not  universal  discomfit  ignorance  a  Lewis  the  Their  can  might  "being  effect,  explication  further  nature  rhythm" (p.  Ransom c o n c e a l s  lovely  it  shorter  irritation"  sophisticated  own  closely  the  79).  to  the  point  superiority,  whether  turned  of  they  b e y o n d w h a t Ransom e v e n has l a n g u a g e  c a n "make n o t h i n g " o f his  fervent  to  hrossa  whether  instruction;  With  conversations  of  as  pretensions (p.76).  him t o o  (p.  the  the  misconceived  equivalent  77).  their  knew,"  akin  syllable"  of  scruple  finds  embarrassing  questioned  show  Ironically, wondering  religious  he  (p.  run f a r  the  is  " o n c e more a c e r t a i n  humble d i s c o v e r y  "a  their  Ransom's naice-  to  75-76).  Ransom  hrossian  Subsequent  as  as  similar  savage"  realities  (pp.  conscientious  of  "even a c h i l d with  a  efforts,"  Ransom f e e l s were  even  undertake  tentative of  sky"  he  when  assumptions,  handed  over  to  101 His until  vision  the  still  medicine  last  it  dawned  were  the  puzzle"  his  own  world,"  sacramental From H y o i  upon  (p.  a pleasure  are  fills  84).  Ransom  it  perspective was  not  Although  the  learns  that  The  '"a  to  a  of  its  pleasure  thing,'"  the whole  life  (p. 84).  Hyoi e x p l a i n s  with  finally  they,  anticipation,  one  along  but  he  is  expectation to  full  told  tack  effect.  "At  species, on  expression  82).  the  (p.  84). it  is  a n d memory  of  '"Every  a n d memory a n d  of  of  grown o n l y when  experience, (p.  that  behalf  understanding  hrossan  actual  own  false  nettled  true  is  this  takes  his  "unconsciously  quiddity  '"all  that day'"  continues  progresses  and  82).  Ransom  inverted  him t h a t  (p.  he f i r s t 1  life  of  language  remembered "  clouded,  .  .  day  in  . these  a  are  Ransom:  "When y o u and I met, the m e e t i n g was o v e r very s h o r t l y , i t was n o t h i n g . Now i t i s g r o w i n g s o m e t h i n g a s we remember i t . B u t s t i l l we know v e r y little about i t . What i t w i l l be when I remember i t a s I l i e down t o d i e , w h a t i t makes i n me a l l my d a y s t i l l t h e n — t h a t i s the r e a l meeting. The o t h e r i s only the beginning of i t . " ( p . 82)  Hyoi's and  prophetic  Weston  quiddity lines  murder  in  a  o f what  is  In  suggests  that  the Hyoi '"How  can  uses I  death,  dramatically  discomfited  a  creature only  him,  his  universe,  a c t u a l l y the s c r i p t  because  idolon.'  about  sacramental  Ransom i s pleasure,  words  it weak  by  conflicts attempt  the  because  the  somehow  disqualifies  Ransom's  make y o u  hnakra  complaint  understand,  such  that  his  when  time  the  threat  you  merely  directs  perception  'contemplation  their  his  not  Devine  dialectic  honest  'enjoyment  do  when  own  hrossan  to  strengthen  pass  of the  reality.  own e a r t h l y  their to  his  uniquely  discredit a  to  a continuous  hrossa's  is  come  emphasize  of  with to  which  of  of  the  philosophy,  he  ideal  existence,  of  the  own  point,  understand  universal.'  the  however: poets?  102 The  hnakra  think  the  sweet, well  is  our  forest  if  would  but  be  so  he  is  also  bright,  t h e good a t a  will  tell  nor  the  i n P e r e l a n d r a , the v i t a l  d e a t h i n m e e t i n g e a c h wave a s  sees  our  t h e r e w e r e no d a n g e r i n t h e l a k e s ' "  understands  little  enemy,  hand p r e d i c a t e s  quintessential you  a  day  the a r r i v a l  death  at  my  life  in  it  the  water  . . .  (pp. 84-85).  is,  of  good.  of  has  next a  shaped  not so  As t h e L a d y  so  the  vibrant  do love  quiddity  comes; t h a t the  I  so warm, n o r  enjoyment o f  core  that  beloved.  involves  forfeiture Hyoi  of  similarly  experience.  me,'"  he  a  tells  '"I  Ransom.  " I was y o u n g , n o t much more t h a n a c u b , when I w e n t f a r , f a r up t h e h a n d r a m i t t o t h e l a n d w h e r e stars s h i n e a t m i d d a y and even w a t e r i s cold. A great waterfall I climbed. I s t o o d on t h e s h o r e o f B a l k i the p o o l , which i s t h e p l a c e o f m o s t awe i n all worlds. The w a l l s o f i t go up f o r e v e r a n d e v e r a n d huge a n d h o l y i m a g e s a r e c u t i n t h e m , t h e w o r k o f o l d times. There i s the f a l l called the Mountain of Water. B e c a u s e I have s t o o d t h e r e a l o n e , Maleldil and I , f o r e v e n O y a r s a s e n t me no w o r d , my h e a r t has been h i g h e r , my s o n g d e e p e r , a l l my d a y s . B u t do y o u t h i n k i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n s o u n l e s s I had known t h a t in Balki hneraki dwelled? There I drank life b e c a u s e d e a t h was i n t h e p o o l . T h a t was t h e b e s t o f d r i n k s save o n e . " "What o n e ? " a s k e d R a n s o m . "Death i t s e l f i n the day Maleldil." (p. 85)  Having  already  strange  cup f r o m t h e  cup  of  with  death  total  mystical 157).  as  learned  death which This  encountered  is en  Deep H e a v e n ' s  the route  drink  hand o f  well.  humility,  to  " H u m a n i t y must it  is  secret  the  same  to  embrace  and  water  Ransom m u s t  now  death  to  accept  learn  to  drink  freely,  submit  convert  it  of  life,"  Lewis w r i t e s  (p.  in  the  33).  to  and  and  rhythm  so  go  dregs,  death-and-life  noon"  it  the  to Malacandra,  "changeless  drink  Malacandrian  a hross,  drink  I  which  in  Ransom  severely golden  to  into  Miracles has  a the it  that (p.  already  beneficence  of  103 Evidently taste the  for  this  upon  T h i s would well  . of  final  hnakra hunt,  attack  he  Ransom's  as  unknown  lain  .  there  pitying was  a n d Whin  evince:  (p.  89).  At  but  although  diversion to  his  killing  Whin  have  point  part  their  new-found  however, would  from  in  the  t h e b e a s t and f a l l s  he a g r e e  post  of  deadly "a  to  time  fled by  work  a  (p.  87).  "Perhaps  ago"  to triumphant  (p.  in  the  him"  society  (p.  87).  blood  awoke  in  Ransom"  Ransom  to  Oyarsa,  relief  other the  in  desire  redirect  weeks  or  when  strong  to  the  as  night"  appears  announce  England," or  eldil  Before  87).  sorns,  by t h e  the  (p.  an  the  the  business,"  in  in  in  from  in  to  monster"  change  instant  his  participate  ago,  sleeping  "an  prepares  honour and d a n g e r  long  90).  to  he now b r e a t h e d ,  "infected"  (p.  and  aquatic  short  forest  begun  present  three  does  first  air  excitedly it  had  him f e e l s  manhood"  cries  called  of  an  refines  "the  the  soon  "Something  this one  in  had  Ransom i s  he  hrossa  only  certainly  himself  which  not  accepts  when  something  hrossa,  the  impossibility  recently,  During the hunt  for  but  h a v e been an  "more  the  drink,  with  b u t he a l s o  an  had .  life  at  the  idea  urges  him  "to  can  be  issue  hnakra—"a  90).  which  The  trio  'bark'  of  any  hold  on  settled, Ransom  succeeds  rejoicing:  T h e y w e r e a l l on s h o r e , w e t , s t e a m i n g , t r e m b l i n g w i t h e x e r t i o n a n d e m b r a c i n g one a n o t h e r . I t d i d n o t now seem s t r a n g e t o h i m t o be c l a s p e d t o a b e a s t o f w e t fur. The b r e a t h o f t h e h r o s s a w h i c h , t h o u g h s w e e t , was n o t human b r e a t h , d i d n o t o f f e n d h i m . He was one w i t h them. That d i f f i c u l t y which t h e y , accustomed to more t h a n one r a t i o n a l species, had p e r h a p s never f e l t , was now o v e r c o m e . They were a l l hnau. They had s t o o d s h o u l d e r t o s h o u l d e r i n t h e f a c e o f an enemy, and the shapes of their heads no longer mattered. A n d h e , e v e n R a n s o m , had come t h r o u g h it and n o t b e e n d i s g r a c e d . He had grown u p . (p. 91; emphasis added)  Hyoi  in  104 Tragedy this  cup  his  suddenly  of  own  honour,  species  dying,  Ransom  guilt"  (p.  species  life  can  in  With  Malacandrian  would  for  himself  he had l a i n sets  out  It  tense  for  ever his  changed).  Ransom s t r u g g l e s whereabouts longer  to  presumes  the  at  Hyoi  walks  and  but  fell"  his  be  hnau,  if  they  it The  in  the  that "the  soon  as  through desire  Devine.  the  forest  simply As  of  directions  his  a  to  changed  own  that  of  he makes  "a  .  c a r r y out  mood,  .  (p.  96).  his  .  unswerving life:  "In  [to] Still  strong  on  footsteps fact  that  are  must  now which  plan  of or  him  a  man, his  view;  rather,  he  eldila"  (p.  to  road  leading  his  95;  no  journey  of  he  he  the  he was w a l k i n g  (p.  however,  directly  newly  and  announce  defying  the  which  hunted  resolution,  enact  either  in  given  up a n d man,  point  take  direction  his  tongue  best  feeling  give  will  Ransom's  of  him from c r i t i c i z i n g ,  route  self,"  sacramental  Ransom's  he  humiliation  his  done"  whom  of  is  be  to  stupor  Although  could  stage  the  hrossa  of  final  is  the  changes  ends  this  obey  all  speechless  tragedy  the  to  home t e r r i t o r y ,  to  in  lies  that  "henceforward  sorns'  hross  of  Whin,  Mel d i l o r n  restrains  as  inerrancy  aware  the  one  to  truth  determines he  As  for  in  the  precipitates  convinced  a strong  Weston  humility,  death  face  93).  the events  hrossa,"  he  with  of  tasted  distorted  knowing (p.  Oyarsa  has  hnakrapunt.  confesses  and  destination As  dregs  Hyoi's  them'"  of  Ransom  him.  the  since  its  hnau,  is  by no means  or  for  a  an a c c o u n t  is  he  village  t h e h r o s s s a have t a u g h t  "Ransom  into  serve  If  fellow  stare  journey.  proceed, to give  his  even  hrossan  however.  now d r i n k  shame  kill  death  the  shot  "only  92).  its  he m u s t  has  '"would  thought  strikes,  96).  through in  advance  Meldilorn  "right  out  reversed own f r e e  the  if of  it the  spiritual will  into  105 the  very trap  Malacandra"  that  (p.  terrestrial  he had been t r y i n g  96).  Although  of  some a l i e n ,  fears  sub-human i n c r u e l t y , " Rather,  with  He r e f l e c t s  after  and  all,  "in  the c l e a r  to  think  that  the  recognizes  was a p e r s o n a t a l l "  to  the  97-98). him  "The  as  it  everything nightmare,  on  purple  spread  else  was  his  (Miracles,  a unified  his  ascent  that  190).  of  the  that  ation  his  in  both his  resolution planet's  the  day  the  leads  distance"  for  fierce  surface,  time  physical  journey.  . . .  the  up  the  "the  top  of  (p. 99).  the  still  being  Heroically, . .  he d o e s  . driving  Ransom n o t i c e s  and  that  him"  (p.  100).  the decreasing  a  97).  rigours  Ransom  of  begins  removed  from  l a t e r able to  help  struggle  otherness  alone.  sense  carry As  on  breach.  a devastating to  but  (p.  himself to the  manage  around  quarrelled  the  r o a d was  must  (pp.  as  have  wall,  Augray i s  Ransom  all  sickness"  that  a  landscape  time  accepts  handramit  a  Malacandra,  " S p i r i t and N a t u r e  the healing of  obstacles  of  he  brings  direction  that  a sort  if  proceeding  spread in  on  further  pilgrim  through,  spent  96).  superstition  and  own  old  power,  person  in mind,"  woods  back  as  real  his  in  reaches  reeducated  he  looked time  "a  on  "those  (p.  simple  he p a s s e s  of  fears  Ransom  as  arrival  superhuman  than  c l i m b , o n c e t h e p i l g r i m has y i e l d e d but  of  likewise  altered  he e x p e r i e n c e s  track  resurgence  Ransom i n c r e a s i n g l y  " i n s t a n t l y , " even though  sorns,  battles  As  his  to his  more  which  Lewis diagnoses:  h i m by a more t h a n A l p i n e Ransom i n  is  first  own mood a t  p.  the  the  He  perception,  Reaching  on  are  half-light  changed.  "That i s our d i s e a s e , " in us"  landscape  since  journey,  duty,"  dramatically  silent,  had  the  " G r e a t l y chastened  redeemed p e r c e p t i o n  as  his  Oyarsa  an a c c e p t e d  therefore  ever  intelligence,  eldila  that  (p. 97).  on  of  is  suffers  cold,  light  which  avoid  Ransom d o e s n o t now y i e l d  time  insights.  he  to  on,  of  He  alien-  "the  old  he a p p r o a c h e s  the  atmospheric  pressure  106 d r a m a t i c a l l y sharpens scuro  symbolism  shoulder, where  move o v e r  the  demands  not  uneven  an  sacramental With  rock  increasing tongue,  all  and  his  perch  the  stars  "in  the  to  a  car"  (p.  watch  112).  his  of  good  maturity  of  the  and  like  Such  focussing  moral  stature  cave,  his  and  former  of  the  and  with  fears  and  Having  "surprising  out,  the sorn  oxygen, the  after  other  clarity  its  which  shapes  of  observing rested  i s merely  knees  grotesquely  Ransom i s  in  chin rise  on  his  "high  than  terrifying  (p.  used t o  its  face.  was much more  .  .  .  retreat" to  give  able  to  cavern.  however,  he  (p.  discern  reverts  the  to  his  knees,"  but  because  sorn's  of  ears"  the  the  sorn  normal  expected,"  " I t was t o o  unpleasantly  (p. to  Ransom  l o n g , too  like  the on  the  each  presents  emphases  a man,  he c a n  form.  still  he  fore-  it  turns  As  with  this  new  a  than  any  norm,  "would  legs  are  see  its  long  it  nothing is  time  inhuman  head— Because  as it  have  longer,  added).  Although  takes  and  sorn  of  of  form  s o l e m n and t o o c o l o u r l e s s ,  a human f a c e  the  long  sorn's  side  103;  human  the  it.  geocentric  as  huge  its  retreats  same p o s t u r e  of  turn  him a b a d l y needed dose  Ransom  shoulders  in  Although  103).  the  its  tree  learnt  102).  in  compares  a distortion than  better  above  suggestive  forth  lighted  a man s i t t i n g  Ransom p e r s i s t e n t l y more  the  perception;  that  his  reaching  to  a  indifference"  he  himself  shadow  reflects  Ransom  limbs,"  "allow  direction  speaking  when t h e s o r n makes " a s u d d e n movement w i t h one o f not  any  which  stiffens  does  Augray's  imagery  then,  phobias  on  shadow o f  evil,  hero.  chiaro-  Augray's  stark  character,  views  This  from  unnaturally distinct  increasing  of  see  and s h a d o w .  Ransom now b e a r s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f  Augray's  embodiment  of  light  when,  to  him",  accelerated  his  at  intensified  blind  headlights  narrative's  between  strangely able  did  "the  the  himself  later  Ransom i s  sunlight  before  is  the contrast  "less to and  get it  creature's  107 face  ought  to  be"  than  horrible,"  (p.  and  1 0 4 ; emphases  at  least  a  modify  Ransom's  'ghost'  receded behind those of  After  a  reassured: Oyarsa are  restful  "Nothing  . . . .  on  preconceptions  he c a n n o t  not  before  he  feels  at  in  earlier  age.  down  the  grace  of  was  opposite their  fun"  slope  and  be  thought  into  (p.  ease.  riding  on  111).  When t h e y  towards  their  his  Malacandra  except  is  effects  Soon t h e  touches  meet  and  feeling  hospitable  like  to  'giant'  109).  and  two  shoulder. him, i t  even  is  tender  riding  an  elephant  back  at  a  father's  Ransom  The e x p e r i e n c e  in  first  was  begins  awakens  "Ludicrous  It  grotesque  104).  Ransom  Augray's sorn  of  (p.  (p.  more  sorns"  ideas  of  Ransom"  was  the  'gawk'"  afraid  mind.  them,  of  cave,  on  at  his  towards  movements.  i n Ransom's f e e l i n g s  to  it  "The  sorn's  supported  boyhood--like It  the  perfectly  came c r o w d i n g  zoo  104).  s h u d d e r i n g when t h e  associations the  (p.  fence,'  Ransom help  conception  'goblin'  in  "But  "new  remained  last  way,  Although long  then  'The  their  night  added).  three  able  to  sorns  still gliding  appreciate  "a f i n a l  the  transformation  race":  " O g r e s " he had c a l l e d t h e m when t h e y f i r s t met h i s eyes as he struggled in the grip of Weston and Devine; " T i t a n s " o r " A n g e l s " he now t h o u g h t would h a v e been a b e t t e r w o r d . Even t h e f a c e s , i t seemed t o h i m , he had n o t t h e n s e e n a r i g h t . He had t h o u g h t them s p e c t r a l when t h e y w e r e o n l y a u g u s t , a n d his f i r s t human r e a c t i o n t o t h e i r l e n g t h e n e d s e v e r i t y o f line and profound stillness of expression now a p p e a r e d t o h i m n o t s o much c o w a r d l y a s v u l g a r . So might Parmenides o r C o n f u c i u s look to the eyes o f a Cockney s c h o o l b o y ! ( p . 114)  A further Ransom  his  painful  p i l g r i m must able  to  night  spent lack  recognize  supply  his  of the  in  the  company  knowledge  about  superiority  inquisitors  with  of  of  very  several his  the  own  sorns world.  seroni's  little  of  the  confirms The  for  humbled  knowledge. information  He  is  they  108 d e s i r e , a l t h o u g h t h e y can f r e q u e n t l y i n f e r much i n d i r e c t i n f o r m a t i o n from his  e x p l a n a t i o n s and remarks.  " H i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e steam e n g i n e , " f o r  example, "gave them a b e t t e r knowledge o f t e r r e s t r i a l  a i r and water  than  Ransom had e v e r had" ( p . 1 1 6 ) .  With  this  cemented.  final  chastening  He i s ready  Ransom's  to arrive  new  viewing  the Malacandrian  assuming a t e r r e s t r i a l kind  of t e r r a i n ,  strangely  like  landscape  norm.  on  Ransom proves i t s own  earthly  ( p . 117;  landscape"  before  even  r a t h e r be c a l l e d descends this  into  mentioning  a precipice"  a lovely  was M e l d i l o r n "  dreams  which  he  new  complexity of o f f i c e s  "by  which  looks  emphasis  brought  earthly  (p. 118).  handramit  ( p . 118).  had  that  knowing  Although from  earth  of  long some  to "to  ( p . 118).  Malacandra's  he  The f i n a l  without  i t "a  [ i t ] would  i s told  "that  more  than  "old  American  t a k e s him p l e a s a n t l y by  p r o o f o f Ransom's hard-won  acclimatization  m y t h i c a l c l i m e s comes when he i s f e r r i e d  t o the i s l a n d :  l i k e coming home" ( p . 121; b o l d f a c e p r i n t emphasis i s w h i l e w a i t i n g t o be summoned  Ransom meets  calls  s e t aside the  be once more i n a boat and w i t h a h r o s s , " he t e l l s  It  And  o r some e n g i n e e r s ' p a r a d i s e o f v a s t machines," y e t  the e x q u i s i t e , c l a s s i c beauty o f t h e v a l l e y s t i l l surprise  "at f i r s t  frame o f mind, Ransom  before  having  than  added).  standards  In t h i s  rather  t o see a d i f f e r e n t  when he and Augray come t o a steep d e s c e n t , Ransom a t f i r s t slope"  and o n l y  h i s readiness  terms,  Because he now e x p e c t s  he comes t o a s c e n i c p r o s p e c t  an  i s properly  at h i s ultimate destination,  the l a s t l e g o f h i s j o u r n e y l i e s b e f o r e him. by  perspective  his first  h i s usual  pfifltrigg.  terrestrial  He  into views  us, f e e l s  "almost  added).  t h e Oyarsa's presence  that  i t quite objectively  p r e j u d i c e s , although  he does admit  and  he i s  109 "glad  that  he had n o t met one o f  Malacandra"  (p.  is  a frog.  that  of  like,  on  its  limbs  on  which  elbow  than  comparison is  still  it  hand"  strangeness  "the  It  is with  odious  129).  The  Ransom's  feature  the the  diction  education,  the  apparent  unexpected procession  to  "ideal" teaches  e x t e n t to which  becomes  from of  meant  in  breaks  in  a  tone  the  of  terms,  of  in  "an  that  to  point  rather  of  the  i n upon t h e s o l e m n  with  there  view"  for (p.  understand  humanity"  Platonic  the  has  posterity,  of  nature  an  earthly  artisan  he comes t o  him t h e m y t h o l o g i c a l  interview  fore-  "even a l l o w i n g  idealisation points  "frog-  before,  pfifltrigg  in  build  its  Ransom's than  disgust,  its  resting  Ransom's eye has a d a p t e d t o t h e his  arrival  that  part  human  Malacandrian  again  is  ethnocentric  realization be  first  stone f o r Malacandrian  he r e c o i l s  subject  which  the  it  that  in  perception:  likeness  result  are  of  While  his  an o d d s e n s e  figures"  The f u l l  in  "that  really,  his  he n o t e s  thinks  notice  was  on  revulsion  and much l e s s  Ransom's  of  soon  127).  growth  b u t when Ransom s e e s  129).  (p.  race  mistakenly  supported  more c a u t i o u s  room f o r  he  he d o e s  was  third  qualm o r  Although  been s e n t t o c h i s e l  the  Without  'hands,'"  a is  127).  this  of  base  (p. of  reality.  Malacandrian  Oyarsa,  assembly:  Two c r e a t u r e s [came] w h i c h he d i d not recognize. . . . T h e y w e r e much s h o r t e r t h a n a n y a n i m a l he had y e t s e e n on M a l a c a n d r a , a n d he g a t h e r e d t h a t they w e r e b i p e d s , t h o u g h t h e l o w e r l i m b s w e r e s o t h i c k and s a u s a g e - l i k e t h a t he h e s i t a t e d t o c a l l them l e g s . The b o d i e s were a l i t t l e n a r r o w e r a t the top than a t the b o t t o m s o a s t o be v e r y s l i g h t l y p e a r - s h a p e d , a n d t h e heads were n e i t h e r round l i k e t h o s e o f h r o s s a nor long l i k e those of s o r n s , but almost square. They s t u m p e d a l o n g on n a r r o w , heavy-looking feet which t h e y seemed t o p r e s s i n t o t h e g r o u n d w i t h u n n e c e s s a r y violence. And now t h e i r f a c e s w e r e b e c o m i n g v i s i b l e as masses o f lumped and p u c k e r e d f l e s h o f v a r i e g a t e d c o l o u r f r i n g e d i n some b r i s t l y , d a r k s u b s t a n c e . . . . S u d d e n l y , w i t h an i n d e s c r i b a b l e c h a n g e o f f e e l i n g , he realized that he was looking at men. The two  when  an  110 p r i s o n e r s w e r e W e s t o n and D e v i n e and h e , for one privileged moment, had seen the human form with almost Malacandrian eyes. ( p . 141; emphasis added)  Not  only  his  have R a n s o m ' s  knowledge  begins,  of  When  a  group  Hyoi,  the  "lifts,  as i t  were,  reveals,  in  and  the  old  hear  equal,  one  lyrics  .  the Malacandrian his  . with  of  delight  of  of  for  that  148;  his  song its  death  also  emphasis dead  suddenly  mystery,  and  understanding  can  possibilities  experience  because  he  honour  hides  indefinite  life  (p.  to  fuller  "through  them,"  ears" song  and  profound  '"drank  feature;  Malacandrian  later  the  Hyoi's  into  curtain  which  glimpse  he  the  love their  breaks  meaninglessness  recall  p o o l , ' " where  .  mourners  one c o r n e r of  The  to of  a burst  ever  148).  Balki  creatures  the  friend  (p.  to  " e v e r so l i t t l e ,  added).  hardly  eyes adapted  '"on was  within"  the  in  shore  the  of  pool'":  " L e t i t go h e n c e , d i s s o l v e and be no b o d y . Drop i t , r e l e a s e i t , drop i t g e n t l y , as a stone i s l o o s e d from f i n g e r s d r o o p i n g o v e r a s t i l l p o o l . . . . Once b e l o w t h e s u r f a c e t h e r e a r e no d i v i s i o n s , no l a y e r s i n t h e w a t e r y i e l d i n g a l l t h e way down . . . . Let i t go d o w n ; t h e hnau r i s e s f r o m i t . This i s the second l i f e , the other b e g i n n i n g . " ( p . 153)  The  song  had  opened  and  yet  through Ransom  shows  before  what  he  truly has  Ransom h i s him," had  own f i n a l  it  awakens  always  experiencing  finally  learned  Ransom's f u l l - f l e d g e d is  ultimately  action  tested  into words,  in  as w e l l  a  known" this  r e c o g n i z e t h e noumenal w h i c h  home,  to it  for  "sense  (p.  "as . . .  148;  of  perceive  the  Meldilorn  as E n g l i s h  gate  he  of  knew  added).  heaven  not That  Malacandrian  phenomenal  what is,  world,  and  thereby  the sacramental  language  expressed.  assembly, into  of  the  s t a t u s as a s p e a k e r o f the  the  emphasis  otherness  has a l w a y s  if  Old  when  Solar,  he for  must  translate  the Oyarsa.  The  Ill scene  is  an  concerns.  effective  It  is  also  Ransom i n t e r p r e t s English finds  for  the  some o f  which  for  the  morphemes  points  the  his  identity  and  the  great  and  picture  down  "For  in  all  sheer  of  Oyarsa hurt  in not  of  he  gives  choice "'is If (p.  not  I cannot 161).  summary  the  The the  the in  a comic he  butt.  in  of  throws  laws,  entire  is  instead  his  lot  but it  the  in of  you, is  fundamental  to  most  against  a  contrast  comes  to  find  assembly,  bobs  like  while a  slow  a necklace  natives'  (p.  diddle.'  145). It  for  was most  said  me n o t novel;  of  and  and the  to  [are]  hnau to  an  kind,'"  have  the  novel  In  Weston  own  any  return  them.  with  up  145).  their  expedition,  linear  Weston's  falls  "unbody"  for  Oyarsa,  to  scene  "'fellow-creatures  our  better  a  performance--the  (p.  accompanying  extraterrestrial As  the  physicist's  declines  "'Love  Thulcandra,  principle  conclusion.  of  even  In  "Revolving  diddle,  Ransom's  but  Ransom  In  Malacandrian  'Diddle,  Arranging  option  it  philologist  'conciliate  great  146),  as  "conscientiously"  to  the  the  plain  Strength,  language.  humble  saying  approves.  greatest live  sacramental  whether  (p.  finally  Oyarsa  the  nonsense  as  into  untranslatable.  utter  effort  wonders  translated  into  thematic  device:  meaninglessness.  k i n d e v e r g i v e n on M a l a c a n d r a "  own w o r l d .  Ransom  is  Hideous  becomes  was  its  simply  calling  ended  brains'"  his  which  justifies  which  Ransom  decision  he  cant  broad  narrative  That  a humming-top,"  rightly  their  are  his  novel's  of  climax,  merely  knew  its  rhetoric  Ransom's  pretentious  exhaustion  successful  of  achieve  Ransom  Weston's  climax  thematic  of  a  empty  the  successful  baldly exposing  degenerates  scientist  of  enormously Oyarsa,  the  bombast  motion  the  Weston's  high-flown  which  an  reader,  anticipates  solid  dramatization  who  Earth,  agonizing Devine,  Ransom it  is  a  says, a  law.  live  at  all'"  indeed  it  both  accounts trilogy,  for  its  Planet  112 takes it  us o u t o f  also  the  sends  silent  fluent him,  reality us  planet  speaker  thereby  in  order  directly  back  in  to  order  super-reality;  the  we c a n  to  to  novel  only  show us t h e our  learn  he m u s t r e t u r n  bringing  to  native  the  learn  to  element.  sacramental  the orb full  super-reality  that  is  circle.  no  it  in  Ransom  left  but  longer  silent  are  so  no  all  but  has  language,  There  decipher  beyond,  once  for  shortcuts  its  a  to  mythological  reflections. As animal  the thirst  the  sights  the  human  which the  for  and  has  myth,  in  and  returns  language;  to  approaches mixed w i t h  of  so  sends  seen his  "the  back  he r e t u r n s  to  (p.  the  natural  human  grass  "tea,"  This  renewed  100).  Having  noumenal  through  home and f i n d  but  but it  is  of  Ransom's  for  the  a n d meat a n d  reeducated.  with  voice,"  hear  longing  added).  stringently  us  we  homesick  emphasis  "On S t o r i e s "  to  Earth,  earth--for  168;  been  having  ready to return He  (p.  preposterous Lewis  life,  smells  voice"  Ransom  writes of  spacecraft  beer the  been the  at  and  airs  and  tea  and  humble  "This  pleasure  there  descries  is  free  "wild,  end  excursion to  the  home  in  phenomenal,  to into  actual," the  world  Ransom  is  a new s u p e r n a t u r a l i s m .  therein  the  an a m b r o s i a l - f l a v o u r e d  sacramental substance.  113  Chapter  III  Perelandra: Tasting  the  Language  T h i s i s o u r d i l e m m a — e i t h e r t o t a s t e a n d n o t t o know o r t o know a n d n o t t o t a s t e . . . . Of t h i s tragic dilemma myth i s t h e p a r t i a l s o l u t i o n . C . S . L e w i s , " M y t h Became F a c t " I t i s t o be n o t e d a l l t h r o u g h t h i s s t o r y t h a t w h i l e Ransom was on P e r e l a n d r a his sense of taste had become s o m e t h i n g more t h a n i t was on E a r t h : i t g a v e knowledge as w e l l as p l e a s u r e , though n o t a knowledge t h a t c a n be r e d u c e d t o w o r d s . C.S. Lewis, Perelandra  The linear  stories course  continuum. of  The  suspension  world  is  aslant  which of  axes  new p o l a r i t y  action  second which  aligned  precede  which  novel  comes  with  and  of from  the  the  planets.  in  his  first  Perelandra  proceeds  the  The  along  trilogy,  its  cosmic  of  follow  Lewis  of  Deep  important  rest  of  the  scene  novel.  early Later  in  the  story  Ransom t o o  will  horizontal  orientation. rather  introduced  than to  sense Its the this  eldi1:  I t was n o t a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o t h e f l o o r . . . . was a s i f ] t h e c o l u m n o f l i g h t was v e r t i c a l b u t f l o o r was n o t h o r i z o n t a l . . . . T h i s c r e a t u r e r e f e r e n c e t o some h o r i z o n t a l , t o some w h o l e s y s t e m d i r e c t i o n s , b a s e d o u t s i d e t h e E a r t h , and . . . mere p r e s e n c e i m p o s e d t h a t a l i e n s y s t e m on me abolished the t e r r e s t r i a l h o r i z o n t a l , ( p . 18)  This  relatively  has a s p e c i a l  Heaven is  a  regular  vertical  character  e n c o u n t e r w i t h an  a  however,  uniquely axis  assume  sets  the  stage  encounter  [It the had of its and  tonally  eldila  who  for are  the "not  114 standing quite themselves  vertically  vertical.  Perelandra—which to  feel  is  of  Perelandra. As  the  As  was  to  our  the  of  a  underworlds  of  the  psyche  contributes  to  its  vertical  world.  Indeed,  within were, and  the  inward,  splashed  on  thin-spun  existence,  the is  That  the  if  t h e y were  the  and  wandering  airs,  of  mist"  we is  recall.  On  of  that  eyes  of  into  the  you  as  its  the the  reader  he  is  of and  from  the  in  is  "enacting  becomes  in  as  of  and  sunward  of  it  waves  winds  security  to  this island  opened,  of  in our  everyday  dwell  a  myth"  in  the  intensifies  orientation  (p.  our  primary  is  not  truth  that  the  sacramental  myth  manifested  in  brought  realize  to  in  wave.  vertical  learned  the  There  floating  our nets  made  world,  quality.  arose  illusory  of  character  a world  and  made  into  moorings  to  of  texture  epic  own  be  myth-world  descent  rocked  dew  are  an u n f a l l e n  Perelandra  that  we  the  novel's  gateway  life  moment  Ransom  incarnational,  Perelandra,  as of  All  the  timelessness  immediacy  the  cast  of  consciousness  On M a l a c a n d r a ,  infinitely  images.  so  has  to  world  peculiar  traditional  curtained  231).  the  and n o n - t e m p o r a l  r i d e the P e r e l a n d r i a n  acute  flows  (p.  in  Hell,  be  descended  whole  triumphant  any  "The  the  disequilibrium  m e a n i n g w h i c h we c a t c h  withdrawn,  sense  "what  and  sequential  reader's  because  trilogy.  stones  its  of  was  t h a t myth i n  polarization  of  own  the  as  well  Ransom's  is,  as w e l l  b u t who a p p e a r  Perelandra  of  In  might  t i m e l e s s moment a n d t o  the  dream.  Perelandra  mossy  The  myth,  nor  as  floor,"  participation  lines  delicacy  land,  (p. 228).  primal  of  the  valley--it  anchor  world  murmurings  fixed  aura  horizontal  to  reinterpretation  an  no  the  full  has  are  relation  aslant"  enactment  timelessness. Perelandra  "It  was  crucial  in  varieties the  of  52).  experience,  but  reality," language  mythological  quiddity  of  those  115 images, "his in  mythological  old  suspicion  some o t h e r "  there  may  no  strongly since triple  meaning  such  a  Thus  we  flavour  in  nature  that  earth-men  of  taste  myth.  turns  receiving  The timeless  idyll his  "You  out  the  concretely,"  myth  as  ocean  and  the  Ransom  he i s blue  aware  water  Perelandra's  golden  before  willing  he  is  of  on  of  schooled  him  the also  water" in  you  great  this  convex  38).  accepting  and  of  of  to  of  163-64).  savour you  its were  "While principle  our  the  a  planet's of  learn  a  of  a  living Upon watery  swimmer"  learned to  protracted  water,  The  theme.  Having  now  sense  into  its  lesson "As  he g o t  experience  "other";  to  navigate  however:  n e x t wave  Malacandrian  responding  be  existence.  the  planet's  hillside  to  to  him  have  269).  37).  must  would  the  the a c t i o n s  (p.  the  purely  "would  what  reader  into  spares  Ransom's  the  that  discover.  further  integral  an o c e a n  foreign  (p.  sphere  usher  Ransom  we  more  was  still but  fact  and  (pp.  experience  new  images,  Experience  drink  a  which  in  here  tasting;  principle,"  in  Malacandra,  (p.  but  .  fact  mythological"  "unconsciously  being  ocean. to  it  immediately  perform  be  ultimately  Mars,  from  happened  contributes  islands  that  on  Perelandra--and  .  buoyancy  remembers  always  recognizes,  " M y t h Became F a c t "  plunged  he r u s h e d s m o o t h l y up t h e mouthful  .  predominant  to  both  Ransom  knowing,  setting  is  since  of  call  universal  in  of  and  in  story  floating  bosom, and c h a l l e n g e d  the  a  and  novel's  arrival,  drink  a  physical  immediacy,  even b e f o r e  be  fact not  Lewis e x p l a i n s  story's  are  were  to  myth  as  might  understand  "Whatever  would  Ransom  Ransom had been p e r c e i v i n g  myth  Perelandra.  to  "Long  distinction,  all"  tasting  golden  from  at  can  one w o r l d  he b e g i n s  Perelandra,  This  Repeatedly,  in  difference:  truth  163).  be.  was m y t h  meaningful  of  may  Indeed,  he came t o  (p.  they  what  115).  distinction  terrestrial" no  that  (p.  be  though  therefore  a  has he  116 finds  himself  able  patiently rides Even to  be  sense  of  in  is  next,  the  which  represents art  the  slow,"  line  of  find  novel  (p. 40).  the  as  is  the  the  it  rhythm of  trilogy,  to  that  appears,  Lewis  shorter  In a t i m e l e s s  proper expression only  each  the  Out  him,  and  he  the  rapid  invites the  is  nuance o f  us  to  Perelandra's  of  is  by  story.  the  that  view Planet  swallowed  though  experience  peculiar  Silent  infinite  even  continues  its  however,  frame  of  waves  effect  of  complex than  dimension,  in  to  viewing,  character,  and l e s s  upon  the  Lewis  While  a new d i m e n s i o n  the  rush  helping  moral."  invitation  which  present.  novel,  In  own  unfolding  complains  this  of  their  Even  waves  images,  suspension.  cinematic.  are  specific  heraldic  the  the t i m e l e s s  cadences  "tell  constantly  novels  such  timeless  pictures  negotiate  the c r e s t of  beyond  felt  to  the  "Words  actual its  companion  very f u l l  a cinematic  plot  and  art,  can  as  it  were. There  is  well-being. swim" the  (p.  "On M a r s  231).  temporary  inconstant negotiate learning  great  substance its  rush  The  the to  the  walk  behind of  that  eldila  Perelandra, forests  and on  of  water  valleys  water that waves  them m i g h t  image o f can  adopt,  of  beneath that  itself," Peter  them"  in  Venus  swells  of  "only  (p.  is  abundant the  water,  shape  44).  lands or  is  the  Learning  to  change  places  every minute  is  "like  says  Ransom,  identifying  the  same  from  which  rush  onward  be  sacramental expressing  and s t a s i s a  but  whose  learned  the  there  stone;  are  islands,  temporally flux  are  although  hillsides  floating  the  morphemes  This  very  of  language' forms  on  Perelandrian  of  hills  meaning. the  fixity  swells  shape  'sacramental the  little  defined  is  Christ  leaving language a  reversed  shape  (p.  45). their  in  which  the  material  script,  universal in  Indeed,  with  ocean  corporeal  "co-exists  of body  with  a  117 rushing Both  movement  images  of  the  matter  it  contains"  express  the  novel's  central  challenge  perceive fixed  this  "A  and  deceptively  its  to  proves  hard  make a c o n t o u r here  to  [finally] ocean, sort  give  like of  map  to  into  every in  of  islands  eatable,  (p.  80;  tense  changed;  emphases  world  on  its  own  unearthly  terms,  we  relinquish  the  second n o v e l , f l o o d g a t e s the  actual  keynote  of  was  real;  Perelandra  nurtured  by  but  make  the  for  reality  into  Ransom  fixity  of  every 166).  our to  actual It  is  tense  is  never  land-like  but  In  of  Then  load  you  the q u i d d i t y  of  situation  was  To  balance," "when  you  the  Perelandrian  but  a  out  medium,  gold, from  accepting  learns  Lady's  world  changed).  change  terrestrial  the  new  could  breathable  added).  very  a cinematograph  it,"  a  "the once  45).  up t o  is  stuff  44;  (p.  this  look  again  sudden  "not  pours  must  the  them  universal  Although  "only  omitting  to  he has p r e v i o u s l y l e a r n e d s i m p l y t o  a r e opened  and (p.  only  set  would  drinkable,  well"  language which  not  mind  islands],  (p.  give yourself  and  As  and  because  becomes  is  to  the  world,  undulation  Presence,"  as you  thing,  which  learning  Pedestrian  feeds  sacramental  carries  and  flux  in  shape,  readiness  changed).  reader  own t e r m s : t h e  the  pocket,  "in  the  expression.  floating  be  the  "Someone's  splendour  his  the  Ransom m u s t a c c e p t  its  resist,"  ripple  to  of  own  on  of  and  Perelandrian  our  it  of  tense  absolute.  abolish  Malacandra,  the  ever  to  the  in  form  map" o f  one m u s t  responding  in  is  variation  and c o n f r o n t one  terrestrial  walk  As  any  Ransom  [of  landscapes  44).  to  aright  perpetual  own r i g h t  appearance his  the  (p.  confined  world  photograph  like  different" in  new  land.  colours  presented  227;  concept  p a r a d o x i c a l l y concomitant w i t h the u n i v e r s a l The  (p.  a  which you  this  "taste"  as new the  comprehend.  perception  in  experience. new,"  concentrated  sounds  this "Only the  attention  118 to  "the  actual"--the  waves,  w h i c h makes h e r s u c h able  to  converse  understand As  directly  reasoning  step-by-step  exclaims:  '"I  that  the  understands  some  point  (p.  new  drinkable,  creative  existence.  spiritual  activity  finds  "doing  (p. that  her  71).  For  is  in  met  in  were  and  the  fluidity  immaterial  in  meaning e x p r e s s e s of  It  also  Ransom  that  it  is  for  she  is  which  terrestrial a  as  perhaps even  she  mind  into  them  I who p l u n g e  into  me  (p.  1  78). as  this are  a  medium  leads  for  a  "sleep  performed" would  fit  for  which  we  as  her  was (p.  muscles" a  141).  have  her  Ransom  not  her.  of  vital,  example,  even w i t h  she  reference  spiritual  which  fashion  she  Lady  thinking,  Night,"  Triumphantly  experience  is  her. his  reiterates  the  to  follows  through  her,  her mind,  an a c t i o n  in  actual  activity  "Adam a t  fused  life  her  teaches  she  me d r e w  constantly  gold"  as  allows  example,  sent  language,  thing "There  Opposites no  images"  71-72). Fusing  and  I see  of  physical  for  but  no c a t e g o r y  now  waves  physical:  as  her  sacramental  which  He  existence--  the  for  spiritual  breathable  was  (pp.  of  her  picture-thinking.  Lady  something with  happened t o  her  the  Her  her,  her,  good t h i n g s  the  aspect  Because  "eatable,  to  of  a n d a r m s , a s when we go s w i m m i n g "  waves,'"  66).  speaker of  own  i s l a n d s ; but  t h e m w i t h my own l e g s the  the  animals  metaphysics  will  her  and  Maldeldi1 -  the  free  with  thought  '"Like  with  analogy  creaturely  as t h e waves l i f t  trees,  an a c c o m p l i s h e d  by c o n c r e t e  he e x p l a i n s  fruit,  nature's  replete  with  spiritual"  and  each the  facet  ultra  derivative supernatural  pleasure,  fixity,  quiddity  of  our  life  an e x p e r i e n c e  eating  which  a  the  material deepest  e v e r y mode a n d moment  natural gourd  Ransom i s  and  Perelandra's  permeates  Perelandra's that  spirit,  experience,  r e a l i t y which  being.  and  is  features an  are  "almost  never able  to  .  so .  .  describe  119 adequately to his just was  as so  call be  his  Ransom  and  that  from  .  .  that  (p.  46).  spiritual (p.  46;  the  the  to  air  rich  Ransom  Malacandra,  outer have  Like  so  that  This  flow . . .  "breathing  living "a  new  over  from  It  was  the  like  meaning  fulfill  he no  his in  has more  whole  of  and  paradise,  call his  sent. .  .  .  Adam  now, the  in  dimness  of  Paradise,  forest  landscape  on  earth"  (p.  the  into  emphases  a  human  living  a  kind can  and  the  46). brain"  unity of  of  ritual"  literally  and  a  totally  of  be  thirst,  soul  a  which new  added).  t h e most b a s i c glorify  his  to  Just  with  a  half  "the  hunger  [such  the  trees."  overload  as  was but  his  "bubble  waiting  existence  "Such  and  discovery  investing  identity  been  intense  becomes  print  would  so  with  the  to  pleasure  richer  body  pedantry  a  till  of  it  shower  sacramental ism kind  then  the  that  throbs  But  taste,  on e a r t h w a r s  been,  might  a  Similarly,  landscapes  that  Perelandra  spiritual  can the  dozen  hunger.  being.  an  beauties  (pp. 46-47; boldface  can  "you  a  Perelandra of  to  which  call  52).  natural  been  hand-to-mouth  for  to  is  h i m seemed  (p.  creates  feel.  genus o f p l e a s u r e s "  can  in  changed).  seemed  you  have  tense  that  purpose  his  course,  seemed mere  46-47).  as  of  this  vegetation  about  planet's  physical,  living  natural  clarified"  longing  while  (pp.  himself  indeed  nature,  of  to  and  such  F o r one d r a u g h t  seemed  and  With  and  it  betrayed"  colours  was,  that  he  something  a heaven  .  "It  thirst  taste  well  tasted,  was  been  as  would  Even  .  47).  t h e v e g e t a t i o n , naming t h e p l a n t s  are  what  was  .  some  the  Ransom c h r i s t e n s  furnished  had  inner  seemed  So r i c h  (p.  his  . A l l  world  "There  hunger  nations  affects  refreshment  on E a r t h  from every other  receives  it  awake.  and  a taste at a l l .  fought  that  thirst  different  it  friends  Creator  learn  the  the  period]  waiting"  aspects  (p.  even heroic  Oyarsa  waiting 31).  of  of than The  120 experience than  is  valid  Ransom's  Ransom i s  later  a fallen  cup o f to  it  its  heroic  is  his  or  physical  even  and  The  age  awaiting and  script  and  swirl  "otherness"  express  the  into  sacramental forms  language  important  (p.  are 250).  everything 249).  We  '"utters  their  of  the  course,  reality  to  as  or  the  spiritual  extent  he c a n n o t the  Lady,  such  it  is  a  close  that  know but  He c e r t a i n l y  predicts,  in  the  sacramental  the  while  tastes  impossible  next  language, their  characters.  the  the  for  him  integration  of  on  is  room f o r m o n o t o n e  keynote  flowing  Although natural  Perelandra  we  we a r e  The morphemes o f  and  savour  their  all  of  homogeneity i n  Holy  things  in  '"Never  the its  (p.  One  with  Maleldil  did  its  learned  to  the  syllables  respect  sacramental in  all  voicing own  enhances  as  exclusively  taught  Himself"  the  have  forms  utters  of  Perelandra's  s t r o k e s even  '"He  individuality.  the  no  in  because  heart of  that  own r i g h t .  simply  unity  language  o u r a t t e n t i o n on i t s  n e v e r d i d He u t t e r o n e w o r d t w i c e ' " Harmony  worthy  redemption,  known  Malacandra  taste  The a b s o l u t e  eradicates  less  t h e maximum.  having  the  on  those natural  is  full  and as T i n i d r i l after  no  Of  physical  to enjoy to  watery element oddly focusses  through  is  spiritual.  singular  they melt  and  adventures.  spiritual  such a d e s t i n y ,  die  own r i g h t ,  creature  same c o n t i n u u m o f on P e r e l a n d r a  in  that  because  voice'"  (p.  rather  He make two t h i n g s  the  than same;  246).  incarnational vast  language;  symphony o f  there  morphemes:  "Each t h i n g , from the s i n g l e g r a i n o f Dust to the s t r o n g e s t e l d i l , i s t h e end and t h e f i n a l c a u s e of a l l c r e a t i o n and t h e m i r r o r i n w h i c h t h e beam o f H i s b r i g h t n e s s comes t o r e s t and s o r e t u r n s t o H i m . . . . T h u s e a c h i s e q u a l l y a t t h e c e n t r e a n d none a r e t h e r e b y b e i n g e q u a l s , b u t some b y g i v i n g p l a c e and some b y  is  no  121 r e c e i v i n g i t , t h e s m a l l t h i n g s by t h e i r s m a l l n e s s and t h e g r e a t b y t h e i r g r e a t n e s s , and a l l t h e p a t t e r n s linked and looped together by the unions of a kneeling with a sceptred love." ( p . 250)  The  above  eulogy  celebration,  to  quiddity  i n which  is  actually  a  paeon  s p e e c h has somehow become as  from  an  eldilie  hymnal  music:  For i n the c o n v e r s a t i o n t h a t f o l l o w e d — i f i t c a n be called a conversation—though he [ R a n s o m ] believes t h a t he h i m s e l f was s o m e t i m e s t h e s p e a k e r , he n e v e r knew w h i c h w o r d s were his or another's, or even w h e t h e r a man o r an e l d i l was t a l k i n g . The s p e e c h e s f o l l o w e d one a n o t h e r — i f , indeed, they d i d not all t a k e p l a c e a t t h e same t i m e — l i k e t h e p a r t s o f a music i n t o which a l l f i v e of them had e n t e r e d as instruments, ( p . 246)  Indeed,  music  emerges  quiddity.  Supernature  by  indefinite  being  vagueness however,  of  quiddity,  is  a  song can l e n d as  conventional  major  by  being  (Miracles, its  symbol  essentially  but  language"  Furthermore,  as  p.  of  the  universal  "unspeakable,"  Lewis  too  definite  for  110).  Where  harmony  suggests, the  speech  is  of "not  unavoidable insufficient,  strength.  speech  becomes  song  music  becomes  a  music t o accomodate the q u i d d i t y o f  to  accomodate  quintessentially  sacramental  the  harmony  concrete  form  of of  song:  From w i t h o u t , m o s t c e r t a i n l y f r o m w i t h o u t , b u t n o t b y the sense of h e a r i n g , f e s t a l r e v e l r y and dance and splendour poured into him—no sound, yet in such f a s h i o n t h a t i t c o u l d n o t be remembered o r t h o u g h t o f e x c e p t as m u s i c . I t was l i k e h a v i n g a new s e n s e . I t was l i k e b e i n g p r e s e n t when t h e m o r n i n g s t a r s s a n g together. I t was a s i f P e r e l a n d r a had t h a t moment been created—and perhaps in some sense it had. ( p . 121; emphasis added)  The  solid  forth  of  reality spiritual  at  the into  core  of  physical  our  universe  reality.  predicates Even  so,  such  this  burgeoning  core  remains  122 "'too (p.  definite  35).  express  At  best,  ultra  experience a  it  when t h e  trans-sensory  diction for  of  "only  closer  to  speech  that  experience  reality.  seemed t h a t  i n the f i n a l  the  Ransom  complains  'creation' the  actual  to  his  and  'newness'  was  real,  listeners  must  and  serve  every  to  actual  new." comes  dimension of  language,'"  reality,  s i t u a t i o n was Ransom  for  what  the  becomes  together  "And now, had  stanzas of  begun  language  as  music  become  a  that and t h e  was  that  phenomenon  which  turned  describe  music  single  by a t r a n s i t i o n speech  will  he d i d  into  becomes in  not  sight,"  his  a  new  notice, we  hear  t h e G r e a t Hymn:  He t h o u g h t he saw t h e G r e a t D a n c e . I t seemed t o be woven o u t o f the intertwining undulation of many c o r d s o r b a n d s o f l i g h t , l e a p i n g o v e r a n d u n d e r one another and mutually embraced in arabesques and flower-like subtleties. E a c h f i g u r e a s he l o o k e d a t i t became t h e m a s t e r - f i g u r e o r f o c u s o f t h e whole s p e c t a c l e , b y means o f w h i c h h i s e y e d i s e n t a n g l e d a l l e l s e and b r o u g h t i t i n t o u n i t y — o n l y t o be itself e n t a n g l e d when he l o o k e d t o w h a t he had t a k e n for mere m a r g i n a l d e c o r a t i o n s and f o u n d t h a t t h e r e also t h e same hegemony was c l a i m e d , and t h e c l a i m made good, y e t the former pattern not thereby dispossessed b u t f i n d i n g i n i t s new s u b o r d i n a t i o n a s i g n i f i c a n c e g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t w h i c h i t had a b d i c a t e d . . . . And b y now t h e t h i n g m u s t h a v e p a s s e d a l t o g e t h e r o u t o f t h e r e g i o n o f s i g h t a s we u n d e r s t a n d i t . F o r he s a y s t h a t t h e whole s o l i d f i g u r e o f t h e s e enamoured and i n t e r - i n a n i m a t e d c i r c l i n g s was s u d d e n l y r e v e a l e d a s t h e mere s u p e r f i c i e s o f a f a r v a s t e r p a t t e r n i n f o u r d i m e n s i o n s , and t h a t f i g u r e as t h e boundary o f yet o t h e r s i n o t h e r w o r l d s : t i l l s u d d e n l y a s t h e movement g r e w y e t s w i f t e r , t h e i n t e r w e a v i n g y e t more e c s t a t i c , the relevance of a l l to a l l y e t more i n t e n s e , as d i m e n s i o n was a d d e d t o d i m e n s i o n , (pp. 251-53)  Spiritual  reality  consciousness, within  ultra  implodes  revealing  reality.  the  the  discrete  composite  senses  unity  of  of all  our  normal  temporal  mode  of  experience  123  Thus, level  by  virtue  of  i t s spiritual  with supernatural r e a l i t y .  parabolic  model:  every  liquid  The wave  unity,  quiddity  force.  The  .  forth  like  .  .  flow  comprises  individual  watercourse  and  are  equally  filled  quiddity,  water  Malacandra. of  fills  his  alike and  no  subterranean  remain  the  Malacandrian  strong  river  he  does  not  little  Ransom  and  as  not  to  during  hesitate  need  250).  i s determined  experience,  has  the  (p.  intimidates  pilgrim  Perelandra  which  unequal'"  yet  each wave p r o p e l l e d  the deep p o o l s and  longer  Indeed,  droplets,  Great Hymn c e l e b r a t e s : ' " H i s l o v e and a  a  P e r e l a n d r i a n ocean i s once more our  each d r o p l e t i s suspended i n a sea o f u n i t y , and s i n g l e motive  i s a f f i r m e d on  to  splendour  of  a  an  it  once  emblem  repeat  did  the  of on  thirst  journey  drink  great  crannies, that  As  his  by a  through  deeply  of  every  pool he comes a c r o s s . '"Always one must throw o n e s e l f i n t o his  endorsement  battlefield  of  quiddity,  o f h i s soul  draught hidden  of  water  yields  a  from  taste  sharing  (p. 242).  q u i d d i t y , however, i t a l s o  While  the every  Malacandrian  a  baptism  expunging  of  death  death  blackness  pool.  into and  such  as  well  pool as  He  life.  purging  fire  a cave, i s b r e a s t - f e d by Venus i n "a time we  remember  For example, the  i n f a n c y " - - " i n d e e d i t was  through of  t o be a  the  Hyoi's  hnakra life.  lies As  he  Ransom might be swimming i n  s i m i l a r l y c o n f r o n t s death, Descending  in  immersion c e l e b r a t e s  wherein  the  indeed  ocean  Perelandra's  r e g i o n s , he emerges again by b e n e f i t o f a stream  as  hard-won  quintessential  l e a r n s to n a v i g a t e P e r e l a n d r a ' s watery w o r l d , t h a t same M a l a c a n d r i a n  wisdom  i n v o l v e s a k i n d o f death.  the of  the wave,'" a d v i s e s the King i n  which s p i t s  enacts  into  the  subterranean him  out  into  remembered o n l y i n dreams  second  i n f a n c y " (p.  213)--and  124 finally  ascends  to  Ransom  learns  to  life.  "Death  and  Through lies,"  this  the die  account  is  for  .  reality  the  Language  the  mystery  of of  "Even  of p.  the  and  when  been."  Le G u i n ' s  experience, The  "'too  death-descent of  the  novel.  a fairy  for  sense us  Whereas  be  be  he for of  is  nearly  of  which  Descent helps  Lewis  and  we m u s t by d a r k  it  let  us  to  "Then  fiction, role  reality go o u r  figures,  of  our  silence;  where  to  that  daylight  in  depths  difficult  and  quintessential  describe dark  of  concludes,  pivotal  core  the  sense  immediacy.  the  tale,  Perelandra's  always  to  novel's  hid,"  the  to  new  principle.  f a n t a s y and s c i e n c e  hard  a  we  have  bears  out  describe  his  language.'"  mythic  suspension  intensified the  lies  in  finds  the  timeless  plays  very  key  pattern  affirms  guided  indeed  to  inwardness  Guin  a  this,  to  contributes  reality,"  study of  of  added).  "the  secrets  all  creature  highroad  central  of  In  is  thus  sense of  re-ascent  may  the  that  Le  new  up--it  secret  In h e r  to  a  rebirth  also  of  through  definite  gives  is  Ursula  it  tour  peculiar  and  secret  and  Perelandra.  136; emphasis  formula  ourselves  conviction,  go  overwhelming  Night,  back,  Ransom's  1  to  Perelandra's  descent  come  down  It  in merely reading  we  reborn  (p.  very  151).  c o n v i c t i o n s and t r u s t  is  postulates  the  source  and  death  Death the  (Miracles,  The  lives:  .  Perelandra's  i n the mystery of locating  of  Lewis  .  of  belittlement,  orientation.  flotation.  Re-ascent  this  in Miracles  pattern  vertical  heights  himself  bottleneck,  Quiddity's  mythical  to  Re-birth--go  Lewis w r i t e s  novel's  pinacled  other  by  two  the  which larger  volumes  of  Ransom's narrative the  archetypal framework  trilogy  use  a  1 "The C h i l d a n d t h e S h a d o w , " Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f t h e L i b r a r y o f C o n g r e s s , 32 ( A p r i l 1 9 7 5 ) ; r p t . i n The L a n g u a g e o f t h e N i g h t , e d . a n d i n t r o d . S u s a n Wood (New Y o r k : G . P . P u t n a m ' s S o n s , 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 6 7 .  125 straightforward on  a foreign  cathartic  "there-and-back-again"  planet  realization  extraterrestrial with  the  solid  Perelandra's opening  of  rituals  dream,  chapters.  idea  of  with  vision  and  think  is  98).  before  it  would  be  water  making  it  first  read  farewell his  even  hear  that  meal,  he  (p.  into  cups  look (p.  out  with  255).  which  we  Ransom "his  once  closing is  and  both of  Only  his  and  as  our  tea"  has  the  more  climbs  into  the  "narrow  house"  32  p.  engulfed" trilogy's  coffin  is  tastes  (p. central as  close  the  mythical,  and  and to  same  most home cup  of  as  for  recount  his  universe"  and  his  projectile world wave  and  changed).  narrative, novel  destiny  from until  coffin  tense  the  We  tea"  the  his  mythic  novels  there.  Perelandrian  256;  we  Perelandra  timeless  of  him  his  to  of  a  for  out  window"  the  "'that  Lewis  " t i n y windowless  ride  a  with  "poured  simply  reader  see  Perelandra  from  Ransom b e g i n s  "coffin-shaped into  in  experience  We  the  the  duration  notes,  and  return.  a  of  in  the companion  to  not  of  all  to  the  and  immediately give  a s we do i n  Lewis  behind  didn't  launched  the  world  Ransom  then  for  but  with  spend  their  pages,  pages,  nevertheless  beer  that  as  Falls  account  34).  the  say,  journeys  "meat  p.  to  tea,  flashback  do we l e a v e  is  opening  another  us  emotionally  bracket  dispensed  are  house" Thus  in  the  the  through  Appropriately  myth.  in  tea,'"  cups o f  shares  consciousness  "narrow  vision  deposits  an  novels  him  We do  of  Ransom  26 a n d  adventures over tea  two  with  unsuspectingly  Niagara  and s h o r t l y a f t e r  homecoming  other  Ransom i n  ridiculous  because  the  reader  tea-pouring  and  Perelandra  49).  Structurally,  we  life  a dream,  (p.  the  The  d r e a m and  domestic  do n o t r e t u r n t o make t h o s e (p.  provide  We t h e n waken w i t h  man had f o r g o t t e n the  not  homecoming.  of  the n a r r a t i v e there Although  does  stories  r e a l i t y w h i c h we of  but  structure,  as  this  returns Ransom,  126 imaginatively  realizing  a  timeless  existence  and  the  peculiar  death  it  manner  by  involves. Of  course,  revealing  the  example, the midst  of  Lewis  bring  supernatural Lewis  a  does  which  character  "quiet  importantly,  however,  into  its  r e a l m and  are  always  which  Lewis  (p.  however: mode o f  37).  "At being  from  trance,  sense  of  Those p e r i l s  the  very  he had and  moment  us  the  sense  coming  to  a h o m e l a n d on t h i s  we s h a r e S t e l l a G i b b o n s ' A l t h o u g h we a r e waves,  like  himself"  mythic  Ransom we  as are  our  soil  it  were,  welcomed  (p. 70; tense  is  of  ordinary.  evil  myth  to  "home"  the  the  With  route  the  (p.  7).  taking  us  Ransom,  we  of  to  a  foreign  a new  from  our  emphasis  added).  to  the  life,  ordinary  and  real,  For in  encumbrances  253; very  by  perils  farthest off  eldila  remarkable"  home t h e r e .  stood  (p.  the  way  become  stripping  nostalgia for  left,  whole w o r l d a house"  of  in  no  and l e f t  he  conventional  barrage  brings  ultimately when  his  resides  "in  also  showing  in  the  is  "turned out--deposited--solitary"  planet  the  home  encounters  landscape"  More  unearthly  myth  awaking  extent  Our that  it. on  a floating  "with  a  island  gesture  that  that  wanders  makes  that  changed).  I t was s t r a n g e t o be f i l l e d w i t h h o m e s i c k n e s s for p l a c e s w h e r e h i s s o j o u r n had been s o b r i e f and w h i c h w e r e , by any o b j e c t i v e s t a n d a r d , so a l i e n t o a l l our race. Or were t h e y ? The c o r d o f l o n g i n g w h i c h d r e w him t o the invisible isle seemed t o him a t that moment t o h a v e been f a s t e n e d l o n g , l o n g b e f o r e his coming to P e r e l a n d r a , l o n g b e f o r e the e a r l i e s t t i m e s t h a t memory c o u l d r e c o v e r i n h i s c h i l d h o o d , before h i s b i r t h , b e f o r e t h e b i r t h o f man h i m s e l f , before the o r i g i n s of time. ( p . 116)  Ransom r e c o g n i z e s Tinidril  to  adopt  his  true  him.  heritage Seeing  in  them  Perelandra, revealed  in  and e v e n all  asks  their  Tor  and  glory,  he  127 pleads: life  have n e v e r b e f o r e  among  (p. as  "'I  235;  emphasis  well,  "'What  shadows  so  is  refuge  and  broken  Perelandra  so  she  home?'"  that  she  she  is  asks, at  o r s t r a n g e n e s s anywhere To the as  be  story if  at  home,  as  life  backwards  .  (p.  "Instead  53).  .  .  in  her  was  it.  that  could  it  of  .  makes  a  I have l i v e d  Take  me  natural  about  the  with  your  home  meaning  the  universe  for  for of  concept  and  unaware  all  son,"'  the  Lady  the  word.  a  local  of of  my  alienation  73).  writes  a film  .  unfamiliar  home  (p.  a woman.  .  puzzles  Ransom d i s c o v e r s ,  Maleldil  were  images.  added).  much  because  s e e n a man o r  "This  to  itch  the  'This  root  also  ride  to  be u n r o l l e d  possibly  saying:  means  have  twice  of  is  the  things  or  all  wave  accept  over  again,  e v e n made t o  evil?"  Thou,'  and  he  work  speculates  o n e may s a y  the  fatal  Lady  says,  fruit  taste  2 word  Encore,"  '"You  could  Lewis  real  good;  thinking  of  the  other"'  only  to  life  Nov.  1962, L e t t e r s ,  spurious as  to  the  his  itself  but  all  than  through  "in (p.  the  almost  its  to  Malcolm.  could  make  77).  "We  (p.  phases,"  writes  the  light'  not  Lewis  "To  a Lady"  (21  specifically  to  satisfy  of  desire  47).  He  learns  to  groves  of  bubble  trees,  alarming  pleasure  of  green b e r r i e s  Chiefly  on  to  and  reject  the  Prayer  real 'sit  learn  teeth  the  must  to  the  Malcolm:  As  has  " r e d h e a r t s " f r o m among t h e o v a l  2 Letters 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 1 1 9 .  to  you  Ransom t o o  o r more  rationalism"  and  to  306).  desire,  rather  plunge  orgiastic  Letters  the  by  appetite,  in  refuse  insipid  moderate  warns  "sit himself in  gourds",  and  to  according  to  obedience  greedy  satiate  (p.  light"  impulses  himself and  to  a  such  in  "the  select  only  55).  (London:  Geoffrey  Bles,  128 In Lady  learning  is,  must a l s o focus  accept  give  habit  rather  its  There  be a s much a t  Ransom m u s t  Maleldil's and  to  up t h e  on w h a t  is  is  detail  no  is  purpose  "To  (21 Nov.  story  "This  was  is  his  own  what  written  the  with  in  a  useless  page,  that  learning  a  speaker  of  the  alone.  For  example,  dialect are He  eating, thinks  to  Ransom of  the  ride  postulate  that  or  what  ultimately there  is  of  a myth" is  world  "heraldically of  strictly  of  is  myth  mind  no  eats  as  the  we  in  one  world  no b o u n d a r y b e t w e e n  fantastic  trespassed shapes"  phosphorescent  creatures"  rebuffs  attempt  every  to  the  (p.  of  lines  115). over  it  of  In  in  the the  one's  his  the  mermen  and  on t h e  becomes  topside  reinforces and  teaches  own s t o r y story  own  perspective.  another,  his  had  discovers  on  which  also  cosmic  that  Ransom  their  also  166).  clouds,  fact But  the  (p.  its Lewis  Ransom  in  experience  another,  peer  to  to  writes  focus  in walking  them.  of  must  think  is  significance. story  it"  real."  language,  passage  seaweed  This  was  which  story,  changed"  185).  actual  other  the  own e x p e r i e n c e (p.  and  sentence,  language  oddly  have happened"  'encore,'"  Maleldil's  he  islands  his  an i m p o r t a n t l e s s o n : he has the  when  "his  floating  a miracle  wave  He  spiritual  very  itself;  incarnational  finds  " s t a r t ! i n g l y conscious them as  the  desires.  grasping  o c c u r r e d o r e v e r w o u l d o c c u r c o u l d be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r  In  the  a conclusion  this  eternally  as  Perelandrian  word  306),  quiddity  incarnational  unique  the  of  "would  "Only  Letters,  this  t h e waves  happening:  comparing  1962,  and  of  speculating  "The  chapter,  utterly  death  charged in  counterpart.  reaches:  of  story  terrestrial a Lady"  the  actually  Perelandrian  every  home w i t h  of  of his  that  Ransom to  read  "a  whole  Narnia  tales,  Asian  given  wave  to  see  another's: encounter  '"No-one with  the  wholly  irrelevant  leaves  Ransom w i t h  into  is  told  mermen, to  the  any  story  Ransom  other"  a terrifying  but  similarly  (p.  184).  sense  of  their  own.'"  In  his  that  "each  was  painful  and  plunges  him  discovers The  utter  lesson  solitude  is that  despair:  Like a l l s o l i t u d e s i t was, indeed, haunted: but not b y an a n t h r o p o m o r p h i c D e i t y , r a t h e r b y t h e wholly inscrutable to which man and his life remained e t e r n a l l y i r r e l e v a n t . . . . The E m p i r i c a l B o g e y came s u r g i n g i n t o h i s m i n d — t h e g r e a t myth o f o u r c e n t u r y . . . i n which e v e r y t h i n g t h a t can p o s s i b l y hold s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t h e m i n d becomes t h e mere b y - p r o d u c t o f e s s e n t i a l d i s o r d e r . . . . P a r t o f him s t i l l knew that the s i z e of a thing is its least important characteristic, that the m a t e r i a l universe derived f r o m t h e c o m p a r i n g and m y t h o p o e i c p o w e r w i t h i n him t h a t v e r y m a j e s t y b e f o r e w h i c h he was now a s k e d t o a b a s e h i m s e l f , and t h a t mere n u m b e r s c o u l d n o t o v e r awe us u n l e s s we l e n t t h e m , f r o m o u r own r e s o u r c e s , t h a t a w f u l n e s s w h i c h t h e y t h e m s e l v e s c o u l d no more supply than a banker's l e d g e r . But t h i s knowledge r e m a i n e d an a b s t r a c t i o n . Mere b i g n e s s and l o n e l i n e s s overbore him. (pp. 187-88)  Having in  learnt  watching  lesson,  a procession  insufferable prepared  his  majesty"  for  the  the  inside  something.  .  .  doubt  his  .  fellow  had an e q u a l  right  3 Lewis, Geoffrey Bles,  That  of  gigantic  through  sense  "Assuredly  Ransom l a t e r  their  of  of  this  It  world that did  in the under-land"  The Horse and 1 9 5 4 ) , p. 1 8 0 .  His  a more  earth-beetles subterranean  dislocation  thing,  creature.  exercises  was  which not  swathed not (p.  Boy,  wend  their  caverns.  for  man. in  that  its they  caution  way  He  inevitably  form  follow  delicate  "with  is  better  assails  But  it  was  chariot, were  him: for  was  no  equals  or  211).  i l l .  Pauline  Baynes  (London:  130 The but that  incarnational  one e x p o n e n t all  things  you cannot fish  of  in  swan-like  Maleldil's  utter,  come,'"  chase  of  birds,  sound  is  the  Un-man, it  far  there  Great  "and  seems  sacramental  nor  is  story,  the  heard, the l o n e l i e s t , The  language  can  know.  eternal  Ransom  was  the  have  a  hears  wildest  (p.  t h a n m a n , who are  in  the  248).  the  the  voice  places  where  While  crying  sound  not  of  that  is  riding  his  flock  of  a  had  ever  had l e a s t t o do w i t h M a n " ( p .  182).  mythical  l a n g u a g e once and f o r  '"You  silence  Hymn c e l e b r a t e s  and t h e o n e t h a t  to  more p o l y s y l l a b i c  quiddity  Ransom  which  enunciates  the  all:  I t was n o t h o s t i l e : i f i t had b e e n , i t s w i l d n e s s and s t r a n g e n e s s w o u l d h a v e been t h e l e s s , f o r hostility i s a r e l a t i o n and an enemy i s n o t a t o t a l stranger. . . . I t was s t r a n g e t h a t he t o whom a wood o r a m o r n i n g s k y on e a r t h had s o m e t i m e s been a k i n d of m e a l , s h o u l d h a v e had t o come t o a n o t h e r p l a n e t in order to realise Nature as a thing in her own right. The diffused meaning, the inscrutable character, which had been both in T e l l us and Perelandra since they s p l i t o f f f r o m t h e S u n , and w h i c h w o u l d b e , i n one s e n s e , d i s p l a c e d b y t h e a d v e n t of imperial man, y e t , in some o t h e r sense, not displaced at a l l , enfolded h i m on e v e r y s i d e and c a u g h t him i n t o i t s e l f , (pp. 183; emphasis added)  As P u r t i l l  writes,  (Mars)  Perelandra  mere rule  and  backgrounds" them,'"  themselves. The  .  the .  cosmic  "Nature  of  Great  story  almost  (Venus)  (Lord  . Their  is  are  the  a character  parts  Elves,  Hymn  of p.  continues,  the  in  written  l a n g u a g e , e a c h o f w h i c h has i t s  in  the  26).  Malacandra  set  them,  '"the  on  '"Though  men  worlds  are  or  not  angels  made  for  248).  polysyllables  own c e n t r a l  drama:  stories  own v o i c e was i n t h e m ' " ( p . is  the  of  the  sacramental  significance:  You m i g h t l o o k upon t h e P e r e l a n d r i a n s t o r y a s m e r e l y an i n d i r e c t c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e I n c a r n a t i o n on e a r t h : o r you might look on t h e E a r t h s t o r y a s a mere  131 p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e new w o r l d s o f w h i c h Perelandra was t h e f i r s t . The one was n e i t h e r more n o r less true than the other. Nothing was more or less i m p o r t a n t t h a n a n y t h i n g e l s e , n o t h i n g was a c o p y o r model o f a n y t h i n g e l s e . ( p . 165)  Of c o u r s e ,  the  the  framework  grand  riding to  a  t h e waves personal  Every s t o r y its  world  it  As  new  is  given  the g i f t  Water,  p.  frightful  to  the  in  the  (p.  One  trembles,  helping With  response springs  at which  yield  continues  from  to  279-80).  dimension"  story,"  claims  the  sphere gods  Because  or  of  our  .  role  "the  from (p.  that  which  responses  L'Engle  true  of  each 169).  is  both  one's  own  that  says  we  (Walking  width  hands--a width  gods, of  the  a  Martin  of  are on the  to which  Heidegger  destiny."^  decision  withhold  Ransom i s  .  that  all  169).  the  responsibility the  his  (p.  of  in  realizes  into  a  meaning w i t h  our  put  has  .  destiny.  for  other  God w r i t e  Ransom  but  of  relation  cosmic  and  thus  the  in  grows  is  the the  sake,  "it  seemed n a r r o w "  "we e n t e r  ourselves (pp.  to  its  for  dismay,  infinity  sees  a  within  importance  stands  to  some  Ransom  us t h e n  own  sentence  the  related  pattern  through  drama,"  165).  for  "The  next  redoubles  turn  not o n l y  well.  an i n d i v i d u a l  Each o f  in  f r e e d o m t h a t was b e i n g  Our "always  as  and  of  is  is  story  sends.  which  into  192).  merely spatial  point  lines  charged  Maleldil's  important  character  story  own s t o r y  Maleldil  destiny  and c o s m i c  one's  of  that  sprouts  personal  that  becomes  contextual  "a  fact  as  to  ourselves  a philologist,  Words whether from words  says,  are  the  we  are  them,"  he  literally  " H o e l d e r l i n und d a s Wesen d e r D i c h t u n g , " 1 9 3 6 ; " H o e l d e r l i n and t h e E s s e n c e o f P o e t r y , " t r a n s . D o u g l a s S c o t t , i n E x i s t e n c e and B e i n g ( C h i c a g o : H e n r y R e g n e r y - G a t e w a y , 1 9 4 9 ) , p. 2 7 9 . 4  132 comprise  the  literally  responsibility  "enact[s]  Further  challenged  "sphere  of  nothing  to  you  (p.  168).  his  responsibility,  learn  to  His  name  would speak  however.  still  are  Later  one  been  Gibson  with  learn  notes,  a  his  the  his  story,  the  tells  and  his  pun"  first  name  168).  not  the  philologist  for  one  the  with  act  Ransom  metaphoric  as  a  is  168).  than  is  p.  response  (p.  a more  author  '"It  name Ransom w i t h  mere in  the  Ransom e n t e r s  by w o r d s .  destiny,  connect  Lewis  (Perelandra,  Maleldil  language  that  of  defined  him  and  thinks"  lines  his  "to for  surname, meaning " f r i e n d o f As  the  Ransom,'"  sacramental  we  destiny, only  literally  although  have the  to  named  is  his  philosophy  respond  decision"  that  ransoming  what  of  portentous  of  must  sense, as  his  eldila."  Oyarsa's  name  similarly  where  he  circumscribes  his  5 responsibility.  In  b u t on P e r e l a n d r a  his  quiddity names is  of  the  Lur,'  Ransom  the  enactment'"  the  language  truly  taste  sacramental of  a  where the  realised  an  of the  5  tongue  the  emphasis  incarnation  to  name  destiny, pp.  p.  called  Oyarsa,  Such  literal  224).  repeated  uttered  added).  not  With  more  forth  "and  so  open  the  In  an a g o n y  an  and  identifies  call  the  of  King  '"Its  name  eldila.  And  resplendent less  gates  but depth  abstract;  naming  lovingly wide  the  observation  every  solid  to  40.  (p.  is  h i m many s e c r e t s .  is  112-13).  he  d e m o n s t r a t e d when  Lur,'  L'Engle  same r e a l i z a t i o n :  Spinner of Tales,  is  had  becomes  language.  further  taught  name  King  rules  "Malacandra"  is  has  'Its  241;  activity:  ( W a l k i n g on W a t e r ,  simply  Maleldil  King.  (p.  sphere  name i s  that  responsible  to t h i s  own  sacramental  place said  his  into of  recognition  with the  we  art's freedom  creativity" Ransom  comes  133 B e f o r e h i s M o t h e r had b o r n e h i m , b e f o r e h i s a n c e s t o r s had been c a l l e d R a n s o m s , b e f o r e r a n s o m had been t h e name f o r a p a y m e n t t h a t d e l i v e r s , b e f o r e t h e w o r l d was m a d e , a l l t h e s e t h i n g s had s o s t o o d t o g e t h e r in e t e r n i t y t h a t the very s i g n i f i c a n c e of the p a t t e r n at t h i s p o i n t l a y i n t h e i r coming t o g e t h e r i n j u s t t h i s fashion. And he bowed h i s h e a d and g r o a n e d and repined against his f a t e . ( p . 168)  Lewis  describes  such " f r e e "  his  decision  response to a personal  to  convert  to  Christianity  as  his  own  responsibility:  I know v e r y w e l l w h e n , b u t h a r d l y how, t h e f i n a l s t e p was t a k e n . I was d r i v e n to Whipsnade one sunny morning. When we s e t o u t I d i d not b e l i e v e that J e s u s C h r i s t i s t h e Son o f G o d , and when we r e a c h e d the zoo I d i d . . . . I t was more l i k e when a m a n , after long sleep, still lying motionless in bed, becomes a w a r e t h a t he i s now a w a k e . And i t w a s , l i k e t h a t moment on t o p o f t h e b u s , a m b i g u o u s . Freedom, o r necessity? O r do t h e y d i f f e r a t t h e i r maximum? At t h a t maximum a man i s w h a t he d o e s ; t h e r e i s n o t h i n g o f him l e f t o v e r o r o u t s i d e the a c t . ( J o y , p. 2 2 3 )  "That  moment  on  sub-Christian intertwined  top  of  the  bus"  to  of  his,  when  experience  which  Lewis  freedom  i n the overwhelming q u i d d i t y of  refers and  was  an  necessity  a sacramental  earlier similarly  universe:  I f e l t m y s e l f b e i n g , t h e r e and t h e n , g i v e n a f r e e choice. I c o u l d o p e n t h e d o o r o r keep i t s h u t ; I c o u l d u n b u c k l e t h e a r m o u r o r keep i t o n . . . . I chose to open, to unbuckle, to loosen the r e i n . I s a y , " I c h o s e , " y e t i t d i d n o t r e a l l y seem p o s s i b l e t o do t h e o p p o s i t e . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , I was a w a r e o f no m o t i v e s . You c o u l d a r g u e t h a t I was n o t a f r e e a g e n t , b u t I am more i n c l i n e d t o t h i n k t h a t t h i s came n e a r e r t o b e i n g a p e r f e c t l y f r e e a c t t h a n most t h a t I have e v e r d o n e . N e c e s s i t y may n o t be t h e o p p o s i t e o f f r e e d o m , and p e r h a p s a man i s m o s t f r e e w h e n , i n s t e a d o f p r o d u c i n g m o t i v e s , he c o u l d o n l y s a y , " I am w h a t I do." ( J o y , pp. 211-12)  The  composite  terrestrial  reality  of  distinctions.  the  sacramental  Because  'only  the  language actual  continually is  real,'  any  erases freely  134 uttered  response  only  option  walk  into  will  outside  nowhere,'"  destiny confirms  comprise  one's  speech  is  as  Lady says  this  the  responsibility.  silence:  "'To  (p.  equation of choice  walk  132).  and  Ultimately,  out  of  His  Ransom's  will  response  the  is  to  to  his  riot  of  necessity:  You m i g h t s a y , i f y o u l i k e d , t h a t t h e p o w e r o f c h o i c e had b e e n s i m p l y s e t a s i d e a n d an i n f l e x i b l e destiny substituted for i t . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , y o u m i g h t s a y t h a t he had b e e n d e l i v e r e d f r o m t h e r h e t o r i c o f his p a s s i o n s a n d had e m e r g e d i n t o u n a s s a i l a b l e f r e e d o m . Ransom could not, for the life of him, see any difference between these two statements. P r e d e s t i n a t i o n and f r e e d o m were a p p a r e n t l y i d e n t i c a l , ( p . 170)  Response  and  responsibility  quiddity  once  Ransom  Un-man.  Even  as  accompli,  he  has is  continue  to  intersect  reached  his  climactic  deciding,  the  fatal  u n d i s t u r b e d b y t h e mere f l u x o f  in  decision  encounter  a to  kill  the  a  fait  "My  free  becomes  time.  The o n l y d i f f e r e n c e was t h a t he k n e w — a l m o s t a s a h i s t o r i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n — t h a t i t was g o i n g t o be d o n e . . The future act stood there, fixed and u n a l t e r a b l e a s i f he had a l r e a d y p e r f o r m e d i t . It was a mere i r r e l e v a n t d e t a i l that it happened to o c c u p y t h e p o s i t i o n we c a l l f u t u r e i n s t e a d o f that w h i c h we c a l l p a s t . ( p . 170)  "Thus act  something  does  contributes  eternity  or  r e a c h e s me a t  to  shadow  the  cosmic  'before  all  worlds';  a particular  its  Ransom, of  and  destiny.  magnitude  depend  to  The o v e r w h e l m i n g boon  really  less  point  solidity an That  of  abettor is,  the  on'my  choice,"  shape. but in the of  That my  the  consciousness  not free  inevitability  i m p o s i n g and i t s  says.  contribution  time-series"  task his  Lewis  yet  of  enacted  the  enormousness l e s s  made  in  contributing  (Miracles,  response of  is  is  rather future  p.  214).  actually than act  inhibiting.  a  the makes Moral  135 d u t i e s w h i c h w o u l d s t a g g e r us i f are  frequently  itself  assumes  night's  decision,  calling  does  even  Stories,"  p.  precisely  such  able they  having author. the  that this  already  free  will,  breaks  of  story. down:  novelist's  the  he he  learns  with  the  can  future  his  principle  of  make  characters—seem  and  At  the  things have  one  his  in  and  free  a  response  the to  "The  been  real in  not  destiny" reader  be  one  with  responses  fictional  own  we  can  roles where  only—like  to  such be ("On  the help are  character by  the  understand  this  independent  he  because  within  a  is.  acquires  pre-determined  point  partially  can  Story readers  world, our  of  Seeing Eye,"  a  stands  which  will  of  free  of  crucial  which  free  conclusion  operandi  has  destiny  course  to  those  freedom  the  determined  stories  of  concept  to  himself  one  out  course  process  of  thing  one's  He has a l r e a d y p e n n e d .  familiar  is  The  through  points  will  a  be,  experience  Lewis  while  of  destiny  understands  the  picture  may  modus  Ransom's  s i m p l y becomes  already  seen the  no  "Whatever the  mental  a  is  what  have  is  There  of  simply enacts  do." how  need  then  tale  paradox,  free  act.  trilogy  act  quite  and  this  it  can  will  Harry.  solidity  as  s t o r y which  There  "God  the  The  urgent  thought  the  though  of  Through  even  Transposing  synonymity  Author's  free  the  Perelandra  insights:  write  are  "we  response,  to grasp  rest  Ransom's  the  significance  writing.  after  responsibility.  theorem  how  all  Small  Lewis'  101).  of  assumed  one's  Lewis,  combined,  Maleldil  that  and t h e  no  says  necessity  found  he  9-10).  class  "what  stories,  into  had  and s o l i d ,  do  melts  Rise  with  inquire  decision  The  co-inhere  only  part:  been,  pp.  to  t h e i r cosmic  Lewis'  h e r o i s m on h i s  have  We m i g h t says  the  in  inception:  him  may  (Planet,  fixed  prompts  even as  at  incrementally  a modest  assertive  thought  upon"  such  lodging  deliberate,  of  mediated  revealed in a l l  the  analogy  poet's life,  or but  136 really  have  it"  ("Seeing  analogy,  however,  that  free  choice  The  insight  decision is  to  he  into  kill  effect,  c h o i c e as  human  Ransom  this"  (p.  is  as  to  kill  decision  In m a k i n g t h i s story,  (p.  171).  solid  fully '"My  Noun  which  imagination  and  understands  the  Although that  it  than  .  it  is  might .  in  as w e l l  Even  though  philosophical  and  our  anyone  else  it  remains  his  .  . It  as  Ransom,'" all  he,  personal  of  the  as  ears.  light  might  the  it  is  all  as  he.  (p.  "He  says  (p.  to  his  continue  his  Ransom d o e s story.  with  "The  the  hero  to  see  experience. illustrate  be  thing  r e s t e d w i t h no o t h e r c r e a t u r e  was  in a l l  other  language,  depended on  seen  he  as  168).  as his  resting  with  The  little  thus  it  principle;  irreducibly,  our and  Christs.  but  we  know  no  more  171).  becomes  through  time or a l l  sheer  Ransom  (p.  his  another"  penetrates  Maleldil:  Because a  any  responsibility,  for  climac-  n e x t wave o f  be  hears  called  It  171).  language  stood  be  had  the  well  reader  one w i t h  its  now d e p e n d s he  his  story.  fate  f o r Him i n d o i n g a n y g o o d a c t i o n "  through  by  confirming  incarnational  which  a Voice  The  are  we  learn  through  well  Perelandra's  incarnational  we  impersonal,  be  might  simply riding  "it  identification  ontologically  gains  climax of  i n r e a l i t y on a l l "  that  our  the  H a r r y as  fierce  Ransom i s  be we a s  and l e a r n  .  rested  is  cannot  experience,  Ransom  "it  after  name t h a t  . a n y man s t a n d s  that  inquire  imperative:  Ransom's  choice  next.  underlies  echoes  which  the  recognizing  name a l s o  Ransom's  quiddity  "The  decision  reader  the d e c i s i o n which generates  i m p o r t a n t as  t h e Un-man.  on t h i s moment o f  own  freedom  In t h e  to  the  necessity.  understands  171).  What  through  importance of  much on R a n s o m ' s d e c i s i o n resolve  learn  172).  t h e Un-man makes h i s  for  e a c h morpheme  can  p.  does c o i n c i d e w i t h  not the p e c u l i a r  tic  Eye,"  rather  Ransom's  eyes  might  well  as  nevertheless, nakedly  space"  (p.  real. 161).  137 "If  the  issue  hands" is  (p.  this  161).  moment  really Given  Ransom's  have  it?"  fate  of  entered intense  battle  has  novel.  the  is  continues,  Ransom  mind,  "no  that  Maleldil the  issue  moral  really in  struggle  that  he  has  fate  the  next  few  hours"  really  the  centre  infinitely was  of  of  And  if  it  a  world  (p.  161).  actions,"  important.  that  the  those  next,  d e p e n d e d on t h e i r  He  choices.  in  the  nature  of  what  critics, over In  the  his  "the  (Spinner the  crude,  stone  whole  "A  at  this  universe"  Either  (p.  something  something,  of same  amounts  as  it  light,  of  Tales,  p.  who  is  really  the  personal  Lady's  makes  or  could  the  spiritual  Ransom  in  on  this to  the  the  Gibson reader's  possibly  perceiving h a v e no  Indeed,  clear  end, the  be  importance,  what  to  see  that  the  integral  Ransom  the  outcome  Ransom t h e n comes  own  hell  outcome.  patently  hang  could  he c a n  his  it  comes  finally  triumph.  and  eliminating  To  which  says,  overestimating  simply  struggle  and t h a t  spiritual  troubles  52).  163).  heaven  essentially  a world  objection  Gibson  an  by  Lewis  issues  p.  to  all  determines  indeed  problem  materialistic  proper  and  encounter  (Perelandra,  grossly  balance  opinion,  moral  its  been  the  "the  river.  bodily  intended"  i n w h a t m u s t be h e r  as  were  that  a  a  voices  such  Lady  so  t h e w o r l d was made.  hangs  many  saying  match"  the  significant  becomes  yet  disparity.  boxing  all  of  become  world  smooths  not  in  and  162).  physical  fundamental  that  individual  fray,  troubled  behaved  otherwise,  (p.  as  another,  course  had  Ransom  is  responsibility  on  a  Gibson  he  they  the  depend  not  truth  to  and n o t  must  The  a  how  moment w h i c h  s e t bounds t o  of  on  hands,  one moment  and  preposterous  "Thus,  nothing  Maleldil's  hand  may d e t e r m i n e  162).  that  at  response  horrible  The  in  Although  depended "the  stone  lay  role  concludes for  the  138 Lady has a l r e a d y had  begged  the  assailant. in  her  her  victory.  question.  She was  Up  shaken  imagination,  emphasizes the  won  but  "[He]  to  this  and w e a r y , she  that  Ransom's  job  personified  malice"  and  had now  perceived  point and  has  proven  struggle  Gibson  herself  is  not  reads  the a  the  moral  "'the  issues of  which  emphatic  ignore  Lewis'  p.  moral  way  in  That  he  some  self  repelled  her  stains  perhaps  165).  Gibson  p.  is  of  simply  escape'  affirming  Ransom's  conquest,  a planet,  had  voluble  "to  remove  promised  to  52).  aright  victor.  radically  determine the moral  text  Lady  were  incidental:  provide  his  (Perelandra,  t h o s e who a r e t e m p t e d " ( S p i n n e r o f T a l e s , Certainly  there  stood" is  the  that  and  that  ensuing that  it  Lady  physical does  however, are unfounded  statements to the  the  not  conclusions  contrary.  H i s j o u r n e y t o P e r e l a n d r a was n o t a m o r a l e x e r c i s e , n o r a sham f i g h t . . . . The f a t e o f a w o r l d really d e p e n d e d on how t h e y b e h a v e d i n t h e n e x t f e w h o u r s . . . . They c o u l d , i f t h e y c h o s e , d e c l i n e t o save the i n n o c e n c e o f t h i s new r a c e , a n d i f t h e y d e c l i n e d its i n n o c e n c e w o u l d n o t be s a v e d . ( P e r e l a n d r a , p. 1 6 1 ; emphases added)  Gibson  fails  personal  to  recognize  excuses—red  expose the f a l s e Ransom struggle with physical that  rationalizes,  It  mere m y t h o l o g y " Ransom  dichotomies  the  Devil  utters  would (p.  the  Ransom's  herrings  which  objections  Lewis  o f our normal for  example:  fit  for  degrade  163; b o l d f a c e fatal  mythology i s anything but  words  which  stood  struggle  spiritual print  the  fight  into  the  are  but  text  to  perception.  a savage.  the  to  introduces  "It  meant a s p i r i t u a l  c o m b a t was o n l y  . . . .  that  If  only  warfare  emphasis  choke  .  all  " m e r e , " a s he has been  to . it  reason  .  the  were  to  the  added). further learning:  that  notion as  of  a a  simple  as  condition  of  Here,  however,  objections,  for  139 [Ransom] g o t a n o t h e r c h e c k . . . . [He] had been p e r c e i v i n g t h a t the t r i p l e d i s t i n c t i o n of t r u t h from m y t h and o f b o t h f r o m f a c t was p u r e l y terrestrial . . . . A l l t h i s he had t h o u g h t b e f o r e . Now he knew it. The P r e s e n c e i n t h e d a r k n e s s , n e v e r b e f o r e so f o r m i d a b l e , was p u t t i n g t h e s e t r u t h s i n t o h i s h a n d s , like t e r r i b l e jewels, (pp. 163-64)  Ransom  has  language,  come  against  theoretical  The  in  which  a  the his  conceal  in  concrete objections  [such]  ("To  similarly  language  Thomas  all  Letter  reader  sacramental Un-man.  against  problems  perceptively 202).  up  vicariously  Howard  describes  by  Penelope, up  against  the  the  the  graphic  sacramental  away.  will?"  C.S.M.V.,"  experiencing how  of  wordlessly melt  shirkings  Sister comes  expression  "Do  Lewis  muses  Dec.  1942,  22  concreteness  Ransom's drama  all  fight  literally  of  the  with  the  embodies  theme:  The s h e e r p h y s i c a l g r o s s n e s s o f t h e f i g h t , described a t a g o n i z i n g l e n g t h , page a f t e r p a g e , d r a m a t i z e s w i t h t e r r i b l e c l a r i t y t h e t h i n g t h a t L e w i s has been w o r k i n g at a l l through his f i c t i o n : the d i s t i n c t i o n between f l e s h a n d s p i r i t , n a t u r e and s u p e r n a t u r e , h i s t o r y a n d m y t h , i s o n l y a p r o v i s i o n a l and c o n t i n g e n t o n e . This fight does not differ in substance from all a r g u m e n t s w i t h u n b e l i e f a n d a p o s t a s y and t e m p t a t i o n . T h i s i s s i m p l y w h a t i t l o o k s l i k e and w h a t i t comes to when all illusions and euphemisms have been s t r i p p e d away. I n o u r own s t o r y , o f c o u r s e , we a r e familiar with this sort of t h i n g : the same fight got down to nails, splinters, thorns, blood. (Achievement, pp. 113-14).  Another physical condemns between "True, flesh?  critic,  battle  is  rather good  not  than  and  Robert itself  evil  is  would  think  actually  it  assumes  essentially  rationalizes  t o become a n a r r a t i v e One  Plank,  it  has  could  like  Gibson  spiritual,  the  physical  an  abstract  but  that  unlike  encounter. process,"  to  be i n c a r n a t e d - - b u t  be  done,  without  Ransom's Gibson  "The Plank  in  fight begins.  s o much  blunting  the  he  torn point  140 of  the  really it  story, is."**  i s not  on  level  closer  (p.  i r r e l e v a n t to the  164),  nor  is  it  a  i t js^ t h a t moral  "Certain s p i r i t u a l  gifts  bodily acts.  tention.  To  spirituality (p.  194).  physical  i s as  attack  and  and  his e l d i l a will  does  not  follow  does  not  This  i s the  even  after  resolution certain the  King  that  the  the  the  be  to  realize  of  real.  itself with  reaches,  narrative  Lewis  writes:  t h a t we  perform  i n doubt o f His  called  the  Un-man; l e t us  actual  fate  of  quiddity The  is an to  to  Nature i n t o  moral  not  fight the  that  do  in-  negative  integrity  less.  attack  novel's  uncertain  the  and  After  against  the  of  the  a l l , as Bent  One  Un-man i s c l i m a c t i c .  It  the  dilemma  outcome.  Aspects  a  are  future  act  continues  resolved,  Ransom's  The  regardless  of  of  novel  secured.  c o n t i n u a l l y teaches:  been  requiring  the  comfortably  tension  has  of  fixity  i s already  narrative  Maleldil  rest  unalterable  Perelandra  indefinite,  obey  kill  a world  existential  "Some P s y c h o l o g i c a l I m a g i n a t i o n , p. 35. fi  comes  however, j u s t as  Ransom's  action  or  ran away from horses i n s t e a d o f l e a r n i n g to r i d e "  Ransom's d e c i s i o n  lesson is  condition be  however:  Ransom m i s t a k e n l y  symbol,  really  it  be p h y s i c a l w a r f a r e on a cosmic s c a l e .  mean t h a t  actual  on  struggle  story,  In M i r a c l e s ,  p r e d i c t , Deep Heaven's f i n a l  sense  anti-climactic,  the  i f we himself  Tor  only  cannot  the  i s s u e , " as  struggle.  o f f e r e d us  of  image,  back from a l l t h a t can  against  Tinidril  are  intrapsychic  point  mere  A f t e r t h a t we  shrink  Ransom  In one  the  spiritual  expedient; rather,  certain  to  P h y s i c a l i t y i s p r e c i s e l y the  "quite  suggests  some  Lewis's  the  decision  Queen's  Trilogy,"  in  build  because  commitment  agonizing of  to  only  to  the a  which  actions,  Shadows  of  141 similarly  leaves  indeterminacy. must  throw  likewise "The  night  comes  oneself  into  the  him l i t t l e black  night but  That i s , not  from  about could and  itself,"  written but  land.  "cast p.  and l o o k o v e r h i s it  stand  had  a  was  an  other:  endless  told,  are  in  from  its  Authorial  sharp  it,  ( P e r e l a n d r a , p.  herself  as  only  to  even 48).  see to  day  one  the  in  side  of  of  the  27).  and  from  and  light  Perelandrian  island  ablaze with his  own  an  Although the  of  Malacandrian  world,  is  year,  false,  brief  the  about  (p.  ship  34).  the  is  perpetually  to  proves  the  that  solar  night  p.  As  in  reference,  the  and  (Planet,  trilogy.  the  every  route  geophysics  "the whole the ends  en  of  Schiaparelli  between  experience on  if  own  language  speculation  once  everlasting  a floodlight" stand  that  frontier  night  haunt  Ransom c a n  shoulder  and beyond  considers  his  darkness  early  "not  inspiration.  line  the  the  48).  incarnational  Perelandrian to  which  167 a n d p.  jn  and  considers,  the  e a c h was m a r v e l l o u s "  continues  so  into  resolution  we  (p.  is  one  encouragements.  Ransom  Ransom's  the  similar  about  as  on  near  has  in  Always  in  spiritual  He  revolving  look  shadows 32),  nature.  and  conjecture  is  figured  sides  "There  motif  which  and  Voice's  darkness  invisible"  direction  Ransom's  as  coal-cellar,  story  is  planet  d a y on t h e  (Planet,  light  concept  Ransom  chiaroscuro  shadow"  the  darkness,"  sequentiality,  The  sunned  Ransom's  across  a  geophysical the  Malacandra:  Heaven  of  conceivably  Certainly  endless  a  fixed  242).  despite  f a c e was t o t a l l y  its  This  Perelandra's  dark  in  (p.  night  "seamless  No  of  a s s u r a n c e and s o l i d i t y a r e g o t f r o m a v e r t i c a l  temporal.  one  his  wave'"  the  being  combination  assurance.  comfort,  as a  like  horizontal.  right  is  authenticity  not  curious  me no  hand h e l d b e f o r e The  a  gave  was  Perelandrian  with  "'He  affords  future  like  him  Deep story  twilight blue,  and  enormous  142 Light both  is  Deep  of  the  they are  living  Heaven  moderation describes  the  the  in  than  is  it  .  .  .  .  [the]  "undimensioned"  .  influence'  ,  turning a  or  (p.  and  of  p.  so  "seamless  into  As  the  the  the  the  microcosm  more  abrupt  Light  and  opposed  blackness  and of  as  dark  to  blackness  impenetrable,  48;  the  of  Deep  palpable  Perelandra pressing  on  tense  changed).  In  the  Ransom l i e s  "stretched  naked  on  delighting  stabbing  Ransom  door-handle.  p.  Deep H e a v e n ,  rapidly:  even  as  in  little  " f a r more e m p h a t i c  35),  (Perelandra,  are  light  is  Within  orientation,  and  with  there  sets  48).  days  a  undimensioned,  of  sun  orientation.  (Planet,  even  "womb o f  the  vertical  Danae," wholly  Perelandra's  o n c e more i n t h i s  death"  nights  concomitant  Perelandra,  to  enigmatic,"  the  blackness  pouring In  .  eyeballs"  bed, a second  35).  of  is  On as  an h o r i z o n t a l  showed on E a r t h "  "absolute  p.  mere  "undimensioned,  is  his  the  of  dark  dark  . burning  realities  shadowy r e a l i t i e s  and  Deep H e a v e n ,  with  stark  .  but  Perelandra.  light  " t h e day .  alternate  Heaven  and  between  spaceship  reality,  in  his  the  remembrance o f  surrendered  darkness,"  it  seems  body"  that  "'sweet (Planet,  Ransom  lies  worlds":  The darkness was warm. Sweet new scents came s t e a l i n g out of i t . The w o r l d had no s i z e now. Its b o u n d a r i e s were t h e l e n g t h and b r e a d t h o f his own body and t h e l i t t l e p a t c h o f s o f t f r a g r a n c e which made h i s hammock, s w a y i n g e v e r more and more g e n t l y . Night covered him like a blanket and kept all l o n e l i n e s s from him. The b l a c k n e s s m i g h t h a v e b e e n h i s own r o o m . S l e e p came l i k e a f r u i t w h i c h falls i n t o t h e hand a l m o s t b e f o r e y o u h a v e t o u c h e d the stem. ( P e r e l a n d r a , pp. 48-49)  This involved in to  walk  chiaroscuro throwing  on w a t e r .  motif  oneself It  is to  diagrams  a  tandem  the wave, the  lack  image  and o f of  of  one's  immediate  the  little  consequent assurance  death ability  afforded  143 by  one's  response  coordinates  of  the  baptism.  '"The  brightest  without  figures to  the  the  chiaroscuro  the  most  sequential  The  as  motif  climax  to  tale  to  unfold  without  '"the  highest  narrative. vertical depth,  If  occur  not  epiphany  is  topmost  heights.  but  only  the  best  remains  conflict  sweet  '"thin greater rind'"  flesh  an  little  rind  horror, (p.  an  192).  and  and  life  lowest,'" of  to  the  and  dark  corresponds the  immediacy  of  nor  light  influence"  light  pattern  expression  cosmic  its  the  greatest  to  the  of as  down  nether  his  needing  least  theme  a fruit  (p.  of  we  what  eternal His  g e t ? D a r k n e s s , worms, h e a t ,  a world with  finally  life'" '"into  vision  pressure,  fully  of  darkened  a  peculiar  depth  after  ascending  his  expects  are  a thick  contrast, to the  be  to  imaged  to  insights, future  at  lose  his  rind  in  Tinidril  before  reaching  Weston  the  inner  continues: salt,  climax  spiritual  Moreover,  structure  In  Because  flesh.  through  255). call  torn  axis,  book's  subsequent  dramatically  before  hour.  the  thematic  vertical  Ransom  and  bite  descent  hellish  the a  the  deflation.  he has e n j o y e d g r e a t  night.  to  in  its  regions,  Gethsemane  the  by  and  of  lowest,'"  buoyed  allows  peak,  sense  followed  now been  Admittedly  which  narrative  anticlimactic  chiaroscuro  of  dark  the  fluent  principle  w i t h t h e Un-man i n an a g o n y o f  and T o r ' s a n a l o g y o f the  of  the  he now p l u n g e s  black  Perelandra's  death  contrast  "sweetest  stand without  anguish  as  the  without  most  sense  before  Perelandrian  its  in  the  the  stark  its  images  Ransom has t i l l  the  stand  appropriately  orientation,  into  model  The  does  Indeed,  continuity.  thematic  Ransom's  not  heightened  chiaroscuro  does  does  language:  death,  the  motif  blackest.  sacramental  and  grasp of  responsibility.  highest  greatest  "stab,"  to  mere  considers prelude  darkness:  '"Inside,  suffocation,  stink'"  to  under  what  do  (p.  the a the you  194).  144 The G r e a t  Hymn a f f i r m s  it  centre'":  is  all  that  "'there  seems no c e n t r e , ' "  but o n l y  '"because  " A l l t h a t i s made seems p l a n l e s s t o t h e d a r k e n e d m i n d , b e c a u s e t h e r e a r e more p l a n s t h a n i t looked f o r . . . . T h e r e seems no p l a n b e c a u s e i t i s a l l p l a n II  ....  " Y e t t h i s s e e m i n g a l s o i s t h e e n d and f i n a l cause f o r w h i c h He s p r e a d s o u t T i m e s o l o n g and H e a v e n s o d e e p ; l e s t i f we n e v e r met t h e d a r k , and t h e road t h a t l e a d s n o - w h i t h e r , and t h e q u e s t i o n t o w h i c h no a n s w e r i s i m a g i n a b l e , we s h o u l d h a v e i n o u r m i n d s no l i k e n e s s of the Abyss of the F a t h e r , i n t o which i f a c r e a t u r e d r o p down h i s t h o u g h t s f o r e v e r he shall h e a r no e c h o r e t u r n t o h i m . " ( p . 251) We  know  suffering  only  language expresses its  chiaroscuro  the  reader  to  truth,  nature, a  new  Perelandrian  night  it  with  coincides  paradisal  that  may  unavoidable  which  in  in  the  "might  planet,  its  have  its  opposite.  The  the darkness that  a fallen  bright  "impenetrable"  r e f u g e on t h e  know  but not w i t h o u t  home  an  we  world.  world  been  .  of  .  .  blackness. doorway  is  sacramental  is  inherent  Lewis  myth,  Although a coffin,  introduces  but  [Ransom's]  in  like own  Ransom  the  room," finds  a darkly  a  "narrow  house." "We m u s t guided  by  fantastic lights  let  go  dark  our  figures."  chase"  as  and s h a d o w s  he  p.  178).  danger,  to  be  of  an u n d e r w a t e r  might Weston,  be  or  a  Thus,  himself  With  dragged  cavern.  fighting  convictions we  pursues  and up and down t h e  (Perelandra, only  daylight  into As  Darkness  demon  Ransom, the  follow  inhabiting  trust  our  figure,  slowly  moving  we w r e s t l e ocean  Whether  Weston's  the  depths with his  body,  ourselves  guide  a dark  Ransom g r a p p l e s itself.  and  "in  Ransom and  ridges Un-man  out  and in  grotesque  the  shadowy  however,  "a  of  the  valleys"  "has  and  recesses  figure, is  be  in  terror  and  opponent  to  he  actually in  the  145 long  run  no  clear  differentiation in  damnation  soldier ring,"  (p.  significance,"  198).  . . . .  slips  They were  down  and  Lewis  says  the opposite of  in  was,  melted  loses  his  (p.  198).  Ransom s p e c u l a t e s  thing,"  "There  Mere  because no  doubt,  a  down i n t o  shape  in  "Evil  the  is  Christianity  Perelandrian  evil  lacks  confusion  their  of  Master,  ladle  held  a parasite,  (pp.  integral  36-37).  persons  as  over  not Its  an  a  lead  the  gas  original  solipsism  is  quiddity:  " B a d c a n n o t s u c c e e d e v e n i n b e i n g bad a s t r u l y a s good i s g o o d . . . . F o r a damned s o u l is nearly n o t h i n g : i t i s s h r u n k , s h u t up i n i t s e l f . Good b e a t s upon t h e damned i n c e s s a n t l y a s s o u n d w a v e s b e a t on the e a r s of the d e a f , but they cannot r e c e i v e it. T h e i r f i s t s are clenched, t h e i r teeth are clenched, t h e i r eyes f a s t shut. F i r s t they w i l l not, in the e n d t h e y c a n n o t , open t h e i r h a n d s f o r g i f t s , o r t h e i r mouths f o r f o o d , o r t h e i r e y e s t o s e e , "  MacDonald Ransom  tells  Lewis  fights  for  t h r e a t with which distinct  than  people  things  Even  all  Divorce  Darkness which  (pp.  in  has  113-14; emphasis  his  battle,  already  been  but  added).  it  defeated  is in  a the  order.  (as  was  Great  conglomerate  Nevertheless, real  The  against  self-destructive cosmic  in  that  that the  absolute though entices  it  from  like  present  to contend.  think,"  Lewis  me when  talked  much a b o u t  be  evil  Ransom  to  "I  writes  surprised  to  moment t h e  so of all it  the but  too  strain  I  is his  of  goes  much  evil  real  Mere  Christianity.  first  read  the  a Dark in  Power  which  in  or  literally  nothing.  against  the  Ransom  character  eyes  New  entity  it,  in Its and  remains  to  (p.  entrapped own  "perfect so  of  the  seriously  universe"  its  Dualism  "One  Testament  is  a  Christianity  nearer  in  cavern a  darkness  f r e e l y admit t h a t  Christianity-and-water)  blackness as  the  37). is  right,  so even  blackness"  "creates  phantom  146 lights mind was  and c o l o u r s "  he  found  not  felt  it  merely  that  Indeed,  his  dark, feet  every  in  water  damned who  an  his  "mere  source cannot  he  slightly  Even  perspective  prison" reward  (p. his  reaching  to  .  red  huge  .  in but  is  world,  for  he  underground  right,  that  darkness, and  205;  (p.  glance this  (p.  in  itself  his  Ransom  climbing with  up  the  tastes  the  quivering assume through  dimensions  delivery  finally  firelight  at  Unlike  coming  through  it.  sheer  initially  like  darkness  on  thirst  restored  was  202).  scaling  light  funnel  He  region  toe  added).  discover the  filled  his  He m u s t  at  in  soot.  "a v e r y d i m , t i n y ,  through  succeeds cavern  to  on  this  however,  food,"  204).  overjoyed  he w a l k e d  it"  assuaging  for  of  in  stubs  emphasis  confusion  with  water  Ransom  mouths  journey  if  on  walk  he p e r c e i v e s  and  as  and  (p.  their  slope  by t o u c h i n g  light,"  colour"  Ransom's  progress,  a  .  the  blackened  the  for  very f i r s t  his  205).  negotiate  that  own  palpable  Finally,  "the  be  encounters  an h a l l u c i n a t i o n ,  a fissure.  its  wave  hunger  "open  luminosity,  and  to  so  "By a c u r i o u s  imagine  in  the  ink  learn  language.  is  to  black  trust  sacramental  it  not  changed).  and h a n d s m u s t  navigating  faces  but  to  Ransom d o e s rock  202; tense  impossible  learning  requires  (p.  from  begins the  from  to  funnel,  a  burning  abyss. Unfortunately, one l a s t the  of  its  horror  and  209).  round"  of  also  hurling  which for  reptiles  "laboriously  Un-man  Ransom d e s t r o y s  action  earth-crawler  insects  (p.  before  conclusive  giant all  time  the  has  and  "Apparently  that  followed Indeed, moment,"  descends it  had a l l ,  into  the  him f o r e v e r .  Weston's  Ransom. died  crawls  "into even  body  the  Un-man  even the from  as  hole the  reappearing  Curiously,  into  Ransom's  cavern,  the into  firepit the  childhood the by  as  giant which  beginning,  he  takes  below,  cavern phobia  loses "about  beetle it  turns  had been  a  come" a  dark  147 enchantment. harm—had (p.  . . .  indeed  209).  released "The  The  (p.  stream,  no  the  sacramental "actual to  regal of  the  cosmic  composition, Suddenly, attains  of  Ransom's  his  full  man  in  Heaven  the  a  to  his  (p.  210).  giant  one  journey  ascent,  lie  must out  own of  story  "But  where  time to  finally  once  cried,  the  horror  had  from  no  laughed"  has  darkness  the  cavern's  a  peaceful  sleep,  example, and  the  quiddity  of  moment  is  real,  "come Ransom  subterranean  his  own memory  in  one's  anew  a  chaotic, viewing  the  plural'" own  depths  over  a  quiddity in  story  is  the  Ransom's  remembers  realizing  follow  in  back  '"incorrigibly  strictly the  reveal  subordinated  which  is  of  Ransom  down  to  is  earth-beetles it  almost  pit  living  c a r r y on  how  .  him  journey.  the  For  intended  final  can  his  creature  one's  exclaim,  himself  Because  of  how  .  journey continues  story:  and  .  following  leg of  decision"  fashion"  procession  Deep  Ransom's  "pictures"  disjointed  of  the  all.  Ransom c a n  last  language.  that  at  another  of  the  moment o f  the  once  Refreshing  having a r r i v e d at  of  joy  horror!"  voyageur  The r e s t  at  intentions  Where  209).  the  saw  inherent  Ransom.  horror,  gone?"  He  its line.  and  he  freedom:  And s o , a f t e r more s t r a n g e n e s s and g r a n d e u r and l a b o u r t h a n I c a n t e l l , t h e r e came a moment when h i s feet s l i d w i t h o u t w a r n i n g on c l a y — a w i l d g r a s p — a s p a s m o f t e r r o r — a n d he was s p l u t t e r i n g and s t r u g g l i n g in deep, s w i f t - f l o w i n g water. He t h o u g h t t h a t e v e n if he e s c a p e d b e i n g b a t t e r e d t o d e a t h a g a i n s t t h e w a l l s o f t h e c h a n n e l he w o u l d p r e s e n t l y p l u n g e a l o n g w i t h the stream i n t o the p i t of fire. . . . He lay helpless, in the end, rushing forward through echoing darkness, ( p p . 2 1 1 - 1 2 ; emphases added)  In  both  diction  and  circumstance  the  incident  suggests  baptism.  The  148 motif and  completes  air  and  itself  warmth,  and b r e a t h l e s s , At t h i s  in  the  by  light  imaginable scoured  of  his  pointed  rich  passed  into  212-13).  hell,  and  Ransom  infancy, till  timeless  present, this  "wishing  and  lost  he  moved for  standard of a  fortnight  around  (p.  from  were  faculty"  215). modes  (p.  or 213).  His of  215).  less  three  of  weeks,"  He t h e n  them  32  by  place" future desire  213).  nor  the  past  is  one  with  the  is  under  well  bleeding  "long  p.  212).  the  little Eating  lives  his  to  wound i n  a  concerned for  seemed  to  consummates destiny.  judging  have  in  having, he  "a  herself:  really  although  (pp.  knowing  Venus  which  enough  a  up.  existence  must  Having  remember"  h e r a l d s man's  "it  wondrous,  and  Ransom  for  paradisal  habitat  The  enjoys  planet  (p.  days,  35).  p.  getting  all and  language,  the  of  rubbed  less  never  consciousness The  palest  213  glowing  could  lay  blackness.  p.  without  he  Ransom o n c e  and no  added). was  daily  Ransom  incarnational  Ransom  discovers  p.  (Perelandra,  perhaps  propitious  mind  fruit  dazzled  As Danae  by " t h e  Heaven's  e x p e r i e n c e and g l o r i o u s l y  convalescence  Earth's  the  so  were,  breast-fed  that  "neither  fearing  it  transition  he was  (p.  turf"  the  gold,  fruition  Deep  as  reach  tastes  which  Ransom's c h i a r o s c u r o a  a  period"  the  After  by  as  a grape-like  could  fully  in  blue  of  he  sleeping  unweaned  have  of  clusters  leaves,  him a t  harrowing  fruit.  (Planet,  daylight  deposited,  its  and  a  broad  212; emphasis  stabbed  furnishes  dark  (p.  of  body  vitality" now  "sweet  being  into  and  bears  a shower  "his  as  on  heels,  pattern  shadows  reposing  out  of a great pool"  feeling new  "rushed  over  worlds,"  Perelandra  cast  is  head  form of  "womb o f  with  "There were  second  the  the  filled  accomplished Sabbath"  in  and  having  rolled  chiaroscuro  golds,"  light  after  the  Zeus  of  and  golden  and  Ransom  in the shallows  point  impregnated  when  by  the  been more  like  begin his  heel  walking which  149 has  been  15b:  inflicted  "He  heel"  shall  of  that  and  the  joys  Perelandrian  but  (p.  221).  he h a s d i e d .  This  again.  still  alive,  had  been  the  a  don't  of  his  you life  mists  of to  217).  heel,  Its  even  the  but  form,  an such  significant, third  full  remarkable  trek  "He  climb  was  about  that  in  his  state  of  life  he  was  that  it  Ransom  b a p t i s m and c h i a r o s c u r o  motifs  convinces  occurs  Ransom t h a t  been  trans-mortal  and  death  strange"  persists.  (p.  221;  the  New C r e a t i o n ' s  transvaluation  you  ass,  that  and a n o n - s e n s u o u s Ransom's  "so  later Ransom  there's life?'"  experience  himself  In  a (p.  occurs  high  that  trying  he  is  "If  it  mountains,  pleasures  MacPhee,  top  not,  trans-sensual  to  the  was  after  Lewis'.  nor  this  of  of  lonely  reaching  life  great  not  beauties  to  however,  had  unsurpassable  think  in  the  of  his  climbing  and the  on  more:  always  been more  experience  find  journey  out  once  suggests  theme  see,  his  sets  is  these  experience  The p i n n a c l e dense  have  favourite  trans-sensuous  the  and  realm a n t i c i p a t e s  essence  '"Oh,  hardly  human  the  state,  sensation  This  realities,  be  although indeed,  willing  i i i :  h i m on  Christ,  on  not  his  journey could  unfallen  a  course  the  of  renew  (p.  The wound i n  so  added).  To  So e f f o r t l e s s of  the  allegory  is  Ransom  and d i d  process  content"  once  a  an  bruise  It  quiddity  it.  mood,  not  shall  Genesis  and u n m i s t a k a b l e .  to  mountains  reach  present  And y o u  through  able  timeless  should  is  wound r e c a l l s  around.  He had no d e s i r e s  n o r why he  The  head,  are d e l i b e r a t e  adventures,"  celebrate  afraid.  the  working  Ransom i s  for  jaws.  Ransom  he b e g i n s w a l k i n g  "Ready through  on  Although  parallels  example,  Un-man's  you  Maleldil  Christ-like  day a f t e r  the  bruise  (N.A.S.V.).  instance  for  by  in  his  emphasis  Perelandra's  to  exclaims difference  of  material  communicate impatiently, between  a  35).  when he has c l i m b e d the  concave  of  the  above sea  150 seemed t o  close  him  in  the rose-red peaks, place  on  the  every  side  but  two n e a r e s t o f  one"  which  (p.  222).  There  stand sentinel  to  he  the  sees  secret  beyond:  He began t o f e e l a s t r a n g e m i x t u r e o f sensations—a sense of p e r f e c t duty to e n t e r t h a t s e c r e t place w h i c h t h e p e a k s w e r e g u a r d i n g c o m b i n e d w i t h an e q u a l sense of t r e s p a s s . He d a r e d n o t go up t h a t p a s s : he d a r e d n o t do o t h e r w i s e . He l o o k e d t o s e e an a n g e l w i t h a f l a m i n g s w o r d : he knew t h a t M a l e l d i l bade h i m go o n . " T h i s i s t h e h o l i e s t and t h e most unholy t h i n g I h a v e e v e r d o n e , " he t h o u g h t ; b u t he w e n t o n . ( p . 222)  Ransom h a s ,  as  it  the  is  carpeted  ground  tinted is  like  were,  a rose"  traditionally  emblem o f might  the  love.  This  a  that  evoke  the  meaning  is  The Moslem love human  the  spiritual  a  love  intimate  in  7  kinds  am  life.  of  the  application  traditions,  picture as  an  of  death  is  of  As  an emblem o f  flower,  traditionally hear  rose  of  Sharon,  a  but  the  lily  the  and  love,  where  lily  significant:  Easter  we  Holies,  like  an  as  its  the  of  lily,  role  of  and  the New  divine-human  emblem  conjunction  image o f  depth  to  as  Holy  something  combination  well  leads  the  thus the  rose  associated  famous and  an  with  words  of  the  lily  of  the  Christian  and  the  7  mystical  as  as  to  "shaped  This  redoubled  "I  access  flowers  222).  funerary  Canticle's love-song, valleys."  with  (p.  death  further  been g r a n t e d  of  of  the  material and  its  symbolic  B i b l e , S o n g . S o l . i i : 1.  Song  of  Testament  love.  We  sacramental and  Songs,  teaching are  of  death  expression,  (K.J.V.)  all  already  language,  immaterial.  pattern  the  by  life,  however.  human  familiar virtue  Associating and  cast  of  love  reveals  That  with  is,  its with  a  new  love's  151 relationship  o f male  supernature,  by  into  the  From  phoenix,  and  directly  the y i e l d i n g of  their  of  the  transposed  crushing  death-life into  them with  'life,'  submission the  of two  o f nature  and  o f the g r e a t e r  the  lesser  rise  of  pattern.  planted  as  t o the  one  strong  bespeak  love's  in  which  i t i s these  his  flowers'  exquisite  Ransom  'death'  beauty,  heel  f o r his "ruin  but a r e unable  cannot  avoid  abundance p r o v i d e s him w i t h a  bleeding  These  is  i s exchanged f o r  leaves  sun on h i s r e t u r n j o u r n e y  (p. 32).  function  F o r example, the  f l o w e r s which T o r and T i n i d r i l  the burning  the c o f f i n  symbolic  that  Their  rose-tinted  but which Humphrey and Lewis mistake open  flowers  Their  i n the v a l l e y  h i s h e e l s as he goes.  comfort  Ransom's f a c e from  lily-shaped  the drama o f the n a r r a t i v e .  however, f o r t h e i r  Significantly,  first  transposition  union  the r o s e - t i n t e d ,  a r e so t h i c k l y  carpet  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  even as nature and supernature merge i n mythology.  assimilation  his  models  the s a c r i f i c i a l  the ashes  Symbolically,  flowers  female  requiring  lesser,  greater.  and  same  no  trace.  use t o p r o t e c t to Thulcandra,  and b l o o d " when  friends  then  they  admire  t o s a l v a g e the d e l i c a t e  the  blooms  which a r e a l r e a d y w i t h e r i n g . In  a l l this  life  and  death,  c h i a r o s c u r o m o t i f comes t o the f o r e ,  that  i s , i t s profound  Vicariousness.  exchange  "And  of  this  Vicariousness—no  R e b i r t h " - - i s u n i v e r s a l l y entrenched, Ransom f i g h t s planet has  f o r h i s own  and a r a c e .  saved  sacrifice  homeward j o u r n e y . by  some  hand  that  life,  In t u r n ,  less  but i n the process  t o succour  ' " I t i s the Law.  new  aspect  o f the  principle of  than  Death  and  Lewis ( M i r a c l e s , p. 143). Thus,  the r o s e - t i n t e d  themselves  i s not  says  a  a l s o wins  flowers  life  for a  o f the h a b i t a t  he  h i s wound  and t o e x p e d i t e h i s  The b e s t f r u i t s  a r e p l u c k e d f o r each  h i s own,'"  the  Lady  explains.  '"All  is  152 gift.  . . . Through  love  and l a b o u r ,  nothing  In "the  the g i f t  o f Himself  Lewis concludes  many  which  hands, e n r i c h e d comes He  with  t o me"'  "Triadic  can p o s s i b l y  traditional  Patterns,"  understanding  different  ( p . 241).  "[God]  delegate  i n "The E f f i c a c y o f P r a y e r . "  h i s essay  many  kinds  seems  of  t o do  to His creatures,"  o  Zogby confirms  our d i s c o v e r y  that  o f the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e Sacrament o f g  Baptism  i s certainly  being  given  the  Those  t o whom t h e C r e a t o r  would  power  must  the dark  ascent"  follow  i s Lewis'  man's (p.  first  capacity  24).  "key metaphor,"  f o r the  As Ransom enacts  death t o win new l i f e elements and v e r t i c a l follows ascent  us  pattern"  this  Resurrection  "The  downward  and the ransoming o f  h i s "representative  and a p l a n e t ,  anecdote"  struggling  Perelandra's  and R e s u r r e c t i o n  pattern  to  of Christ,  not "simply  Zogby  "the downward  the Evangelium"  of this  "familiar  t o the C r u c i f i x i o n  o f C h r i s t , " but u l t i m a t e l y t o "the t o t a l  with  chiaroscuro  p o r t r a y a downward a s c e n t .  sacramental  and r e - a s c e n t  writing.  His l i f e - g i v i n g  obedience.  Zogby a l s o f o l l o w s us i n t r a c i n g the source o f descent  Lewis'  an anecdote, o b e d i e n t l y  o r i e n t a t i o n indeed  in attributing  of  explains,  is  in  and d e l e g a t e  path  Tao-Christ such  life  Zogby  f o r himself  o f the I n c a r n a t i o n  (p. 2 4 ) .  give  priority"  pattern,  and  o f which  they a r e o n l y the t u r n i n g p o i n t " ( M i r a c l e s , p. 135 and p. 136). As Lewis says,  "the r e a l  re-ascension  8  Death  i n which  and R e - b i r t h God dredged  . . . [ i s ] this  the s a l t  and oozy  huge  bottom  descent  and  of Creation"  The A t l a n t i c Monthly, 203, No. 1 (1959), p. 61.  9 " T r i a d i c P a t t e r n s , " p. 22; the next g i v e n t o e x p l a i n i n g Zogby's p r o p o s i t i o n s .  four  paragraphs  are l a r g e l y  153 (Miracles, Creator  p.  and  concludes  136). Redeemer  (p.  our  view  whereby the g r e a t e r composite  Zogby its  that  myth  enriched of  of  myth  was  not  of  the m a r i t a l  "married creation  of  and  36).  motif, of  the  the  lesser  comprise  story  of  Lewis's  the  tragic  fiction,"  Zogby  in  archetype  on  masculine  words  Zogby's  triadic  analysis  marital  schema t o  Lewisian  and  Lewis' in  in  to  says  feminine  coincides  with  in our  own  supernatural ism.  he  recognized but  of of  rather  submission  poles  without  a  is  possible,"  the  centrality  the  "gender  polar  all  at  Lewis  Zogby;  in  disappointment  union  representation  which  to  fact,  discussion  as  tension  two  insensibles."  gender,"  polar  the mutual  simply  our  fiction  until  no m a r r i a g e o r  echo  and  natural  submission  remain  Lewis'  the  of  together  relationship  reconciled  and f u l f i l l e d  opposition,  of  triadic  Christ-event,  its  polarities  sensibles  focuses  the  by  and r e c a l l  a n d t h e two r i s e  the  are  supernatural ism,  We remember L e w i s '  status,  His  natural  structure  opposites  fact  "When  (p.  the  to  conjunctive  he o u t l i n e s .  coinciding  pairs "by  Evangelium  subject  foundational  relational  Zogby e x p l a i n s  into  compromised  tension.  relationship  of  the  thing,  by i t s  polar  main  Lewis'  Coinciding  a third  marriage  of  proves  as  patternings.  the  the  descends  entity,  identifies  produce  is  "the  24).  Indeed,  a  Therefore  universe  as  characterizes is  tension"  where (p.  application Zogby w r i t e s :  F o r L e w i s , t h e p a t t e r n i s f i r s t i n God t h e C r e a t o r , then in creation. In this pattern the polar o p p o s i t i o n b e t w e e n C r e a t o r a n d c r e a t i o n means that the Masculine is Masculine because it is in relation to the Feminine, and the Feminine is Feminine because i t is placed in relation to the Masculine. Thus t h e b o t t o m l i n e f o r L e w i s i s that s u f f e r i n g h a s t o be t h e m a i n mode o f transposition f o r b o t h t h e M a s c u l i n e and t h e F e m i n i n e . The C r e a t o r i s a t r a g i c C r e a t o r and Redeemer b e c a u s e He had t o  of  he  24). the  154 relate, s u b m i t t o c r e a t i o n and s u f f e r o u t o f love . . . . Without submission c r e a t i o n could not r e c e i v e the M a s c u l i n e . L i k e w i s e , unless the Feminine submits to the Masculine in obedience, i t s own a b i l i t y to share in the q u a l i t i e s of the Masculine, of begetting and b e a r i n g , w o u l d n e v e r r e s u l t , (pp. 37-38)  The "the  outcome  central  applauded  Lewis  the  by  Zogby  the  one  Silent  se  Masculine"  (p.  25).  new  life,  .  the  Feminine the  central  legacy of  pages  scale  of  the  the  in  "the  the  (pp.  of  a  of  man"  (p.  the  Feminine  emphases  added).  his  25 a n d  pre-Christian, who  with  archon  is  under  Thulcandran  p.  .  is  27). world,  represents the  on t h e  Perelandra,  culminate  that  .  dying  God,  "a p l a n e t  the  stories  world in  unified  comprising  guardianship  man," namely M a l e l d i l  but  gender,"  of  a restored  "Through  of  story of  account  natural  archetype central  Both  of  .  the  25).  triadic  trilogy  is  (p.  have  a  Perelandra  se"  and  is  "as  confused  per  Zogby's  tension  27-28;  be  the  critics  facet  perpetual  to  under  Feminine  Christ-event.  not  is  in  Masculine  trilogy  this  thing"  Malacandra,  .  in the  That  "a Out he the  absolute brink  of  who  is  Hideous  authority  Incarnation  an  of  and  his  microcosm to  the  species.  theory of of  are  story  the  in  and  many  another  the o t h e r "  the  so  archon  but  a redeemed  Zogby's closing  .  opposites  that  by  "third  consummated  explains;  is  "governed per  the  Masculine  which  represents  celebrates  Planet  Masculine  Strength,  is  suggests  t r i a d which  As  man  between  creature  taking over  on a g r a n d  outlines,  "the  himself.  Zogby  without  exploration  of  whole  the c o i n c i d i n g  further  complete  that  which  personality,"  co-inhere  relationship  central  s u p e r n a t u r a l ism Incarnation  this  man,"  in  schema,  of  gender  Perelandra.  can As  be  further  applied  Ransom p r o c e e d s  into  in the  Holy of  Holies,  155 for  example,  glowing  he f i n d s  peaks  unrippled  about  added).  The  imagery of  to  The  Ransom's e x p e r i e n c e Heaven.  it,  clearness  emphasis  "a v a l l e y pure in  the pool  the  gold  centre  of  married  with  the  to  a  pool,  sky"  "the  ten  or  evocative  first  sight  language  (Perelandra,  gold  of  recalls  Meldilorn  in  twelve  married  of  the  as a second Danae, y i e l d e d t o t h e g o l d e n  generally  Ransom's  and  rose-red,  the  Out o f  the  in  pure  p.  222;  sky"  recalls  light  of  strongly the  of  Deep  symbolic  Silent  Planet:  The b e a u t y o f t h i s new h a n d r a m i t a s i t o p e n e d b e f o r e him t o o k h i s b r e a t h away. . . . R i g h t below him l a y an a l m o s t c i r c u l a r l a k e - - a s a p p h i r e t w e l v e m i l e s in diameter set in a border of purple f o r e s t . Amidst t h e l a k e t h e r e r o s e l i k e a low and g e n t l y sloping p y r a m i d , o r l i k e a w o m a n ' s b r e a s t , an i s l a n d o f p a l e r e d , s m o o t h t o t h e s u m m i t , a n d on t h e s u m m i t a g r o v e o f s u c h t r e e s a s man had n e v e r s e e n . Their smooth columns had the gentle swell of the noblest b e e c h - t r e e s : but t h e s e were t a l l e r than a c a t h e d r a l s p i r e on e a r t h , and a t t h e i r t o p s , t h e y b r o k e r a t h e r i n t o f l o w e r than f o l i a g e ; i n t o golden f l o w e r bright a s t u l i p , s t i l l a s r o c k , and huge a s summer c l o u d . F l o w e r s i n d e e d t h e y w e r e , n o t t r e e s , and f a r down among t h e i r r o o t s he c a u g h t a p a l e h i n t o f s l a b - l i k e architecture. He knew b e f o r e h i s g u i d e t o l d h i m t h a t t h i s was M e l d i l o r n . . . . B u t he had n o t l o o k e d f o r anything quite so classic, so virginal, as this bright grove--lying so still, so secret, in its coloured valley, soaring with inimitable grace so many h u n d r e d f e e t i n t o t h e w i n t r y s u n l i g h t . (Planet, pp. 118-19)  Having Perelandra crater  sketched goes  between  on the  the to  paint  rose  appear i n t h e i r v i s i b l e  "archetype a  peaks,  more  of  gender"  dynamic  Ransom  sees  in  a  polarity. the  two  static Moving archons  glory:  He h a s s a i d that Malacandra was like rhythm and Perelandra l i k e melody. He h a s s a i d t h a t M a l a c a n d r a a f f e c t e d h i m l i k e a q u a n t i t a t i v e , P e r e l a n d r a l i k e an a c c e n t u a l , m e t r e . . . . A t a l l e v e n t s w h a t Ransom saw a t t h a t moment was t h e r e a l m e a n i n g o f g e n d e r . . . .  portrait, into  the  themselves  156 G e n d e r i s a r e a l i t y , a n d a more f u n d a m e n t a l reality than sex. Sex i s , i n f a c t , m e r e l y t h e a d a p t a t i o n t o o r g a n i c l i f e of a fundamental p o l a r i t y which d i v i d e s a l l c r e a t e d b e i n g s . . . . M a s c u l i n e and F e m i n i n e m e e t us on p l a n e s o f r e a l i t y w h e r e m a l e and f e m a l e w o u l d be s i m p l y m e a n i n g l e s s . ( P e r e l a n d r a , p. 2 3 0 )  Out  of  such  product  of  composite Man i s  a profound its  is  the g l o r y of  Thulcandran over  fruitful  union,  Moreover,  all  suffered  "the that  because  in  tension, third  the  which in  a wondrous  Lewis the  honours triadic  marriage. as  The  the  supreme  of  gender.  scheme  relationship. has  animal  Zogby adds His  effects  thing"  Maleldil  species,  Gethsemane  Lewis  triadic  Incarnation,  other  Gethsemane  polarity  human  honoured  the  rationale (p.  28).  form  that  has  It  is  human been  in  forever  because  Ransom m u s t  form  elected  Maleldil  undergo  His  once  his  own  from  the  hour:  He c o u l d n o t u n d e r s t a n d why M a l e l d i l should remain a b s e n t when t h e Enemy was t h e r e i n p e r s o n . . . . "Where i s M a l e l d i l ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ? " The a n s w e r w h i c h came b a c k to him, quick as a f e n c e r ' s or a tennis p l a y e r ' s r i p o s t e , out of the silence and t h e d a r k n e s s , almost took his breath away. I t seemed B l a s p h e m o u s . . . . T h a t m i r a c l e on t h e r i g h t s i d e , w h i c h he had d e m a n d e d , had i n fact occurred. He h i m s e l f was t h e m i r a c l e , (pp. 159-60; b o l d f a c e p r i n t emphasis added)  Zogby e x p l a i n s  that  "the is  ransoming of  power o f  t h e B e n t One  baptism,  are also M a l e l d i l "  Perelandra  done t h r o u g h men w h o , (p.  28).  and T h u l c a n d r a  because  In M i r a c l e s  Lewis  of  their  Christian  elaborates:  This d o c t r i n e of a u n i v e r s a l redemption spreading outwards from the redemption of Man, mythological a s i t w i l l seem t o modern m i n d s , i s i n r e a l i t y f a r more p h i l o s o p h i c a l t h a n a n y t h e o r y w h i c h h o l d s that God, h a v i n g once e n t e r e d N a t u r e , s h o u l d l e a v e her, and l e a v e h e r s u b s t a n t i a l l y u n c h a n g e d , o r t h a t the glorification of one creature could be realised  157 without the glorification ( p . 149; emphasis added)  It  is  therefore  hands,  Ransom  literally  and  trembling  Ransom  "'Look  him,  "'He  on  is  his  them, his  sins  realizes  but  best  our  Lady  beloved,  indeed  And i n  the  of  there  polar  of  Maleldil,  "He  called  thought  Ares  and  their  to  own C h r i s t i a n  o n l y as s u b j e c t s  of  "The v e r y e l a b o r a t e planet .  .  to  the  . a thing  writes. ^ rationale,  1 0  of  in  whom  is  the  'My  eyes  the  (p.  231).  revealed now  These  shows past:  the  "that the  has  Mars  the  married of  the apex o f  "A R e p l y t o P r o f e s s o r H a l d a n e , "  him.  thought  Maleldil  Ransom  and  the  of  to  gender  have  them  man  is  view  takes  With  deep  wonder  I  have  then live  Patterns," the  pictured  rule on  produce been  on  i n Of O t h e r W o r l d s ,  28).  of  that  Mars  fulfilled.  p.  78.  but  p.  the  triangle.  seen  "undergo  made a d i f f e r e n c e , "  nature  the  of  archons  hand o v e r  all  because  archetypes  'angelocracy' has  think  Venus.  ("Triadic  angels  that  we  Ransom i n  Rather,  and  pagan  Incarnation  archetypes  man" now o c c u p i e s  the  to  names.  Zogby p r o p o s e s ;  i n which  if  of  point  Tellurian  human K i n g a n d Queen  ritual  has  231).  seen  unmake  added).  terrestrial  have  Perelandra.  would as,  and  universe.  to  body  fear  the  Malacandra touch  Maleldil's  awed  of  mingled  in  in  With  things  been  their  lay  fulcrum  says  Lewis  Ransom's  conversion,"  the  he  Perelandra"  (p.  humans"  such  But  them b y  Supernature  1  "central  and  himself,  Aphrodite'"  the  system,  issue  a careless  identities,  the  he  and  whole  hands."  is  have f i n a l l y  Malacandra  precedence:  the  (pp. 223-24; emphasis  " n o more a s glory  "if  him,'"  are  perish.  the  those  man  dust  archons  their  that  breathing  are f o r g i v e n ' "  splendour  were  love  would  Although the  that  and  thoughts  light  true  of  is  Lewis animal The  158 Because Maleldil's for  new  "God  again,"  man  bowing  down  undoes says  Paradise  the  peaks  the p e r f e c t  that  there  all  the  no  nature  and  Queen  in  in  and  never  as  in  235).  Tor  the  their  contrast  one d i d n o t seem r a n k n o r t h e o t h e r  the  say  the  the  to  of  form,  undo  the in  its  two  between  Tinidril  harmony o f  seal  love  Ransom  archons,  it  archons,  valley  and  tongue.  with  human  itself  and t h e i r  sacramental  species  good  still,'"  appears  p.  in  does  "Paradise  and s u p e r n a t u r e , of  reigning  molded  '"Be  hand,"  234  the  also  evil,  149).  p.  meaning  discord  but  is  p.  hand  (Perelandra, of  is  King  walking  species,  creation  anything  the  union  an emblem o f  elected  (Miracles,  before  Persons, rose  the  Perelandrian  never Lewis  is  is  marvels  that  "the  spectral":  Animal r a t i o n a l e — a n a n i m a l , y e t a l s o a reasonable s o u l : s u c h , he r e m e m b e r e d , was t h e o l d d e f i n i t i o n o f Man. B u t he had n e v e r t i l l now s e e n t h e reality. F o r now he saw t h i s l i v i n g P a r a d i s e , t h e L o r d a n d t h e Lady, as the r e s o l u t i o n o f d i s c o r d , the b r i d g e that s p a n s w h a t w o u l d e l s e be a c h a s m i n c r e a t i o n , the keystone of the whole arch. By entering that m o u n t a i n v a l l e y t h e y had s u d d e n l y u n i t e d t h e warm multitude of the brutes behind him with the transcorporal intelligences at his side. They closed the c i r c l e , and w i t h t h e i r coming a l l the separate notes of strength or beauty which that assembly had hitherto struck became one music, ( p . 238)  "We w e r e made t o once r a t i o n a l In result  be  characterizing is  that  unilateral, in  his  .  . Men.  Not  beasts  nor  angels  and a n i m a l , " p r o c l a i m s t h e p e r f e c t i o n  Man  Divine G i f t , which  Thus,  .  and  this  becomes is  the  the  to  gift be  man,"  Feminine,  Presence  continuing  willingness  "central  of of  Zogby  Himself  to  Men—things  the t r i a d i c  explains:  receptive  the Masculine  Maleldil's  of  but  and  His  schema.  "The  expectant  God t h r o u g h creation"  representative  on  at  cosmic of  the  the  free,  (p.  24).  Perelandra,  159 Ransom  has  experience What  is  become with  in  enables  to  of  beyond to  to  authority  to  of  beasts,  making  speak,'"  as  King  appoints  "'full  the  Perelandra,  its  he b e l i e v e s that  in  I who b e a r ' " The  As  That  the  Divine  gift  bustling  as  the  natures  are  .  will  is  delight of  become  hnau  to  the  to  demands  for  pattern  of  own m i n d t h r o u g h it  is  and pair  archon  of  such  life-dealing  Tinidril  r e v e r s e d and  and  nobler  dominion  capacities  the  power  natural  the  look  in  the  gender  the  '"It  y o u who  a and  comes  concepts  hers:  a an  Queen  royal  answer  turn  .  the  triadic  his  and  on  upon  meantime  explaining to  .  instructing  they  in  the  can  the  passing  festival to  of  life-dealing  Thulcandra man.  Strength, of  skills  in  In  the  Thus  says, is  196). of  redouble  that  all  obedience  her  Day  and  are  which  increase  anticipate  wise  we  his  King  heirs,  own  escape.  can  his  to  which may be  beget  and  243).  central  Hideous  (p.  191).  Tor  (p.  lavish  "'so  own  matter our  Ransom r e t u r n s fruit,  (p.  Maleldil  this  says  their  rapidly  fruition.  them  The  their  They a l s o  management'"  responsibility life-bearing  delegating  us  through  "Morning  of  of  life,  and  26).  host  of  wisdom  that  Through  gift  Perelandra's  an  of  masculine  Lady,  (p.  the  none  391).  the  notes  progeny.  until  so  Divine  upon  ruling  eventually  is  the  Thus  and  of  their  things  life  sharing  masculine  ( S t r e n g t h , p.  Zogby  begetting  In  "The  receive  prospect  their  all  it"  bestow  scene,"  Danae.  says:  descendants.  annunciation forward  he  Ransom d o e s  him  multitude  and  relation  Perelandra,  second  Jane,  above  feminine  a  life  with  Marriage while  as  community which  he  a legacy  fights  to  life-bearing  of  structures  Ransom  serves  and  gender-in-polarity the  continues  as  to  Director  save  continues  Britain  of  very  plot  receive St. from  and  and  Anne's. evil's  as  and  its  theme  of  impart  the  The  tiny  conquest  is  160 named  for  the  "represents propriety  creation," of  Maleldil's  such  fertile  many p l a c e s  he  as  they  he d o e s n ' t  he w a n t s  it  submission sterile. cosmic of  to  feminine  role,  to of  rejected  "'He can,'"  kind of  creatures will  of  submit of  is  Strength,  and  us  to  (Planet,  be.  the p.  .  155).  evil  dramatically  to  to  the usurp  nothing  us  to  be  '"He  sprung  Where the  the  seed  continues  to  reveals  the  fecundity  of  of for  in  as  says  he  . And he s a y s  creatures  in  the  and  from  .  and  1 1  suffering  Malacandra.  however,  establishes  the only  spurned, which  contrast  attempted  born  on  Callahan,  In  to  "Life"  they w i l l  gender-in-polarity,  Femininity,  has  creatures  happen  very much'"  Hideous  Weston  Ransom t e l l s  know w h a t  happen  27).  seed  the  Patrick  (p.  to  the  wants  relationship  That union  for  says  Zogby  Refusing  cared  fruition.  mothers,"  according  a  has  d o e s n o t know w h a t though  of  Masculinity.  relationship, its  "patroness  from  that us,  fruitful must  be  oppose  the  barrenness sacramental  relationships.  H "The Two G a r d e n s i n C . S . L e w i s ' s T h a t H i d e o u s S t r e n g t h , " i n S F : The O t h e r S i d e o f R e a l i s m : E s s a y s on M o d e r n F a n t a s y a n d S c i e n c e F i c t i o n , ecT Thomas D\ Clareson ( B o w l i n g G r e e n , OHl B o w l i n g Green University P o p u l a r P r e s s , 1 9 7 1 ) , p. 1 5 0 ; t h e a r t i c l e i s c i t e d h e r e a f t e r a s "Two Gardens."  161  Chapter That Hideous  IV  S t r e n g t h : Speaking the  Language  We n e e d no b a r b a r o u s words nor solemn To r a i s e t h e u n k n o w n . I t l i e s before our T h e r e h a v e b e e n men who s a n k down i n t o I n some s u b u r b a n s t r e e t ,  spell feet; Hell  And some t h e r e a r e t h a t i n t h e i r d a i l y walks Have met a r c h a n g e l s f r e s h f r o m s i g h t o f God, O r w a t c h e d how i n t h e i r b e a n s a n d c a b b a g e - s t a l k s Long f i l e s o f f a e r i e t r o d . C.S. Lewis, from "'Our D a i l y B r e a d , ' " Spirits in Bondage.  In "You  a  Letter,  will  climax  see  is"  operatic, panoply  if  ("To That  of  to  how  Charles  A.  Brady,"  Hideous  Strength  as  orientation  frenzied  activity  learned  the  or  Old  world of  any  as  Solar,  might  be  of  franca test  of our  whole  1944, cast  as  quips,  reverts  Deep  Heaven, and  If  p.  91).  that  is,  currency  the is its  proceeds  "as  myth  The  horizontal cosmic  of  given  brings  for  its  up  Perelandra  novel  Lewis  an  Perelandra:  pageant,  The  to  setting  fluency  a  as  of  building  205).  Writing,"  the  quality  action.  Gibbons  becomes  the  29 O c t .  Perelandra  Earth  we  operatic  spectacle  saga,"  Wagnerian  ("Imaginative  of  lingua  the  home  timeless plane  drama.  of  Having  Hlab-Eribol-efin  the  silent  Thulcandra.  Myth Carnell  and  doorstep  vertical  Cordi  to  look,  characters  our  refers  you  straightforwardly right  Lewis  invades  says,  our  "Lewis  everyday is  reality  attempting  to  in do  the  third  something  novel,  which  because  highlights  as his  162 view  of  brings  the  function  h i s myth o f  terrestrial one  Merlin man p.  of  had  342).  been  "And  together  "the in  now,  like  two  in  Lewis'  which are up  into  actually in  man,"  and  and the  recipe  The  concoction  the  sacramental  devilry" most of  the  the  the  framework.  the  are  further  Greater  of  natural  basis  Lewis  proves  mixes  to  is  most  novel That  he  Hideous  Strength  previous  themes  of  the  elixir  is  another  nectar,  voluble  in  is  raised deities than  Fisher-King, "central  continues  to  ambrosia  and  for  swell  Strength,  run The  person  as  marvellously,  forward of p.  is  of  the  literal  those  roles  supernatural ism  and  mythologies  his  yet  see  them,  becomes  in  we  342).  disparate  united  Merlin  'point'"  synopses  Strength,  of  d e s c e n d and M e r l i n  are  into  (Strength,  (p.  when  the  the where  be tea.  all  of the  appear.  puts  (Pref.,  two  myth, which the  earth  together  consolidated  tongues  "serious  concerns supply  of  the  the  only  strands  Britain  marvels  latter's  his  loosen  language  the  Jane  extremes  Heaven.  of  of  not  resurrects  variegated  were  Indeed,  Deep  duly  he a l s o  freely  planetary deities  arena  Lewis  modern-day  here  quiddity  voyageur  the  the  in  quicksilver,"  the preceding novels  critics  however, all  to  of  the  ascribes  104).  but  converse  notwithstanding  by w h i c h  morphemes o f  Lewis  as  triadic  the  Thus  moment t h e y m e t ,  Merlin.  Ransom's,  p.  Tell us,  weaving  space,"  amplify  Tellurian  indwell  Pendragon,  the  fictional  conjoined the  Shadow,  man who had been dug up o u t  outer  to  lore,  story.  drops  anachronism serves fact  (Bright  Arthurian  contemporary  and R a n s o m ,  who  myth"  Deep Heaven down t o  myths  powerful  of  the 7).  most  trilogy.  of in  this The  treatise While  effective In  "The  "'tall  Abolition in  such as Two  their a it  story* of  about  Man,  and  examinations  focus  is  valid,  gathers  together  Gardens,"  Callahan  163 calls  the  before" the  novel  (p.  "a coda  148).  that  Such  unites  and  expands  comprehensiveness  strict  p a r a l l e l i s m of  s t r u c t u r e which  diagram of  g o o d and e v i l ,  Strength's  for  incident  company a t of  alone his  speak  and in  his  of  an  St.  Experiments." prisoners N.I.C.E.  their into  Babel  in  the  to  1  is  their  the  puppets  They  speak  no  common  blackmail,  have  rhetoric  pride.  heard  of  only  Divided  an in  p.  the  general  individual  their among  Every  themselves,  and  offsets  to  "mere"  for  members,  Belbury's and  might  none  being of is  the an  insinuation. well  there  apply  to  talking  in  inhabitant  to  the  Co-ordinated  ultimately  passion,  common n e e d  reason  known u n d e r  true  prisoners  224).  of  Nevertheless,  of  misunderstanding in  unity  29).  and  language,  The  degrees  to  thought  than  passions,  Thulcandra  (Perelandra,  together  trusts  Institute  rather  incident  living  ironically  "National  graphic  varying  224),  all  for  Belbury.  its  (p.  but  almost  to  L o g i c i a n , " p.  and  tongues'"  drawn  reduces  fears  about  us  developed  In a  and  skeptic,  Belbury group,  are  "'I  divided  and s a v o u r  tells  own  particular:  alienating  Ransom  their  backbiting,  novel.  Anne's  honest  ("Creative  the  adherents  the  coldly  for  observation  divided  company  of  system.  Malacandra's Belbury  Its  of  out  is  overwhelming  the  themes  i m a g i n a t i o n and s u p e r n a t u r e .  who  N.I.C.E.,  first  atmosphere  Anne's  be  is  St.  language  one,  Frost,  as K i l b y p o i n t s  acronym,  of  of  the  v o l u n t a r y members w h o ,  MacPhee,  important  Belbury's  Opposing trite  Only  orders  narrative  camps  sacramental  f i e r y defiance is  chemistry,  two  comprises  the  spirit.  office  that  the  St. Anne's  fluency,  matter  between  might  all  is  and  the  erect  a  locked Belbury  tower  understands  of the  1 G i b s o n , i n h i s c h a p t e r on T h a t H i d e o u s S t r e n g t h i n S p i n n e r o f T a l e s , w r i t e s a f i n e e s s a y c o m p a r i n g t h e two camps i n t e r m s o f t r u e and s p u r i o u s membership.  164 o t h e r because every u t t e r a n c e Imagination, inversely because metaphor,  the  is  however, and  Feverstone's St. Anne's out  giving  has  collegians,  at  words  are  the  add  '"Oh  .  their  .  jargon.  ostensible  None  of  "'Die-hards,'"  clear  fantasy'"  (p.  38  the as  i d e a ' " which  Feverstone  Belbury  Belbury  On  and  p.  self-adjudged  intellectual  and d i v o r c e d  from thought,  to  being fine  than  importance (p.  a s Ransom has w i t n e s s e d  string  committed,'  shades  evil  a  . . .  for  said  "'they  the  moment,  I should  not  clan  hand,  by  to  emphasis  ominously  hesitate  values  follow  .  the .  as  that  case  makes  and  detached  hollow  sounds:  some  sense  fully . . .  .  added).  however,  as W i t h e r ' s  while  its  dismisses  centre,  'in  of  he r e f e r s  43;  Wither,  disdains  other  ironically  is  literalness,  literalness  the  sensibility.  Bracton '"a  metaphor.  of  as  of  the  Meaning  own  more  no  forces  to  on  one's  vague m u m b l i n g s ,  perfectly justified'" The  only  of  meaning.  rambling p o l i t e n e s s ,  to  ultimate  dependent  of  His  up  certain  organ  assumption  which  "'mere  nation's  clear.  manner  ignoring  and  the  unitive  the  but  "unrealistic"  manifestly  .  any  do h a v e  consistently,'"  is  ear  own a d m i s s i o n  is  the  radically  nor  "'unrealistic'" It  to  pseudo-scientific  imagination  d i v o r c e d from meaning.  remember,  proportional  language  abstract  we  is  .  .  .  recognizing we  should  be  339). grant  in  language  no more  the Un-man's b r i l l i a n t  than  a utilitarian  performance:  I t showed p l e n t y o f s u b t l e t y a n d i n t e l l i g e n c e when t a l k i n g t o t h e L a d y ; b u t Ransom s o o n p e r c e i v e d t h a t it regarded intelligence simply and solely as a weapon, which it had no more wish to employ in its off-duty hours than a soldier has to do b a y o n e t p r a c t i c e when he i s on l e a v e . T h o u g h t was for it a device necessary to certain ends, but thought i n i t s e l f d i d not i n t e r e s t i t . I t assumed r e a s o n a s e x t e r n a l l y and inorganically as it had assumed W e s t o n ' s body. The moment t h e L a d y was o u t  value,  165 of  Feverstone "'the He  sight  evinces  people  Mark  outlook,'"  to relapse.  manipulation  as ' " a t r a i n e d that  tells  Merlin,  with  schooled  journalism  in  (p.  (p. 361).  p. 146)  both  done'"  towards  words and  (Strength,  a radically the a r t  called  In c o a c h i n g  p. 4 3 ) . realistic  of  4 7 ; emphasis  ' " T h e y have an e n g i n e  are deceived'"  his position  things  sociologist  he c a n be  and c a m o u f l a g i c  Ransom l a t e r  (Perelandra,  a s i m i l a r l y mercenary a t t i t u d e ,  meaning  people  seemed  one has t o use f o r g e t t i n g  flatters  the  it  linguistic added).  the Press  Mark,  As  whereby  Feverstone  puts  forward:  " F o r i n s t a n c e , i f i t were even w h i s p e r e d t h a t t h e N . I . C . E . w a n t e d p o w e r s t o e x p e r i m e n t on c r i m i n a l s , y o u ' d h a v e a l l t h e o l d women o f b o t h s e x e s up i n arms and y a p p i n g a b o u t h u m a n i t y : c a l l i t r e - e d u c a t i o n o f the maladjusted a n d y o u h a v e them a l l s l o b b e r i n g with delight that the brutal era of retributive p u n i s h m e n t h a s a t l a s t come t o a n e n d . Odd t h i n g i t i s - - t h e word ' e x p e r i m e n t ' i s u n p o p u l a r , b u t n o t t h e word 'experimental.' You m u s t n ' t experiment on children: but o f f e r the dear little kiddies free e d u c a t i o n i n an e x p e r i m e n t a l s c h o o l a t t a c h e d t o t h e N . I . C . E . and i t ' s a l l c o r r e c t ! " ( p p . 47-48)  Such  imbalance  represents general. lack  vacuity  myopia  i n m i c r o c o s m what Belbury's  split  of holism within  between  which  and  St.  Anne's  of e v i l :  "evil  is  i s true  ranks  and  Belbury  the parallelism a parasite,  keynote  of  p.  113).  part  In a host  Belbury's  collapse  The n a r r a t i v e ' s also  diagrams  graphically  As G l o v e r  which  of  o f B e l b u r y as a whole  acts  thing,"  says, as  mirror the  of  a moral existing  structure  Belbury  in  incidents  self-destructive  "perversion  the  of details  simply  this  members  and o f e v i l  balance  portrays  n o t an o r i g i n a l  o f t h e good and t r u e . the parallelism  the  and u l t i m a t e  i t s members.  negation  (Enchantment,  on  is  is of  seen  cosmos only .  in  as a  .  . the  the  book"  t o be t h e  166 warped preys  imitation upon  of  Edgestow  toppling  i t s tower  N.I.C.E.  edifice  conclusion  S t . Anne's, a c t i n g  both  and  ultimately  of pride. in  the  The  and  a direct  devours yawning  apocalyptic  thematically  as  even  foil  t o good.  i t s own  b l a c k n e s s which  earthquakes  imagistically  to  foundations, swallows  provides a  tale  It  the  a  fitting  of  vacuous  self-destruction.  One setting the  immediately s t r i k i n g feature of Strength besides i t s t e r r e s t r i a l i s Ransom's new  development  as  a  peripheral  weakness,  position  complaining  Weston, an unman," and t h a t he "has  passed  a c t i o n , . . . o p e r a t i n g above the l e v e l  i n the p l o t .  Glover  that  becomes  "Ransom  beyond the realm o f  like  ordinary  o f most o f the book's a c t i o n  g u i d i n g i t r a t h e r than p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n i t " (Enchantment, too  reads  f i n d s Ransom "a shade g h o s t l y , a l m o s t as though  and  p. 110).  Walsh  he were pure  spirit  2 temporarily  caught  i n the  confines of  a  body."  however, c o n t r a d i c t the profound impact which  Both  these a n a l y s e s ,  Ransom's p h y s i c a l v i b r a n c y  has on Jane: Jane l o o k e d ; and i n s t a n t l y her w o r l d was unmade. On a s o f a b e f o r e h e r , w i t h one f o o t bandaged as i f he had a wound, l a y what appeared t o be a boy, twenty years o l d . . . . A l l the l i g h t i n the room seemed t o run towards the g o l d h a i r and the g o l d beard o f the wounded man. Of c o u r s e he was not a b o y — h o w c o u l d she have thought so? The f r e s h s k i n on h i s f o r e h e a d and cheeks and, above a l l , on h i s hand, had suggested the i d e a . But no boy c o u l d have so f u l l a beard. And no boy c o u l d be so s t r o n g . She had expected t o see an invalid. Now i t was m a n i f e s t t h a t the g r i p o f t h o s e  The L i t e r a r y Legacy o f C S . Lewis (New York: H a r c o u r t J o v a n i c h , 1979), p. 120; c i t e d h e r e a f t e r as L i t e r a r y Legacy. 2  Brace  167 hands w o u l d be i n e s c a p a b l e , and i m a g i n a t i o n t h a t t h o s e arms and s h o u l d e r s c o u l d s u p p o r t house, (pp. 171-72)  Ransom  is  rather,  hardly he  is  language.'" of  his  a  true  personhood from  the  confined  Ransom myth  to  232).  fiction's  dialectic.  Old  Solar  of  the  incarnational  the  nectar The  and  theme  of  setting says to  the  achieve  shift  stature;  Lewis'  kind  has of  which  he  of  focus  it  trilogy.  "Ransom a  He  is  is  as  is  wish  to  journeyed  of  who  even  before  served  for  from in  entrench the  enlightenment,  in  but  it  is  abstract  nor  "gleams  Perelandra  capacity  he  as  embodies  sacramental an  bread  does with  the  a the  tongue  incarnation food:  in  the  wine  are  diminish  the  dynamics  and  and  worlds to  not the  novel's  ordinary  unfallen  you  tea.  Ransom  with  what  into  in  his  him,  his  rather  itself:  system,  his  is  flows  sacramental  keeping  us  in  the  its  Figure  result  overwhelming  Neither only  for  towards  his  "what  be  on  a  "He  understands  in  as  growing  mythology;  feeds  consistent  to  but  mastered  morpheme  being  In  myth  of  definite  observes,  to  Ransom  individuality;  trans-mortality  remember. claims  away  of  simply  figure,  myth  simply  It  '"too  151).  qualities  a  and level  is  p.  we  philologist become  strong  astutely  conception  language.  ambrosia  and w i t h  that  Lewis'  in  approaching  myth-like  beauty,"  new  he  more  myth-become-fact  narrative  protagonist's  a  these  The  a  but  reality,"  himself  another  to  Gardens,"  and  of  of  of  .  figures  instance  has  Callahan  lacking  comfort  rationale,  experience,  strength  concrete  manner  .  particular  our  experience,  indeed  .  or  passed  ("Two  is  Ransom  has  As  is  unreal, for  animal  become"  celestial  (p.  he  sub-mortality. has  and  real  Certainly  as  Ransom  of  too  extraterrestrial  destiny than  ghostly  suggested the whole  change  reality. of  Earth  Mars that  of  Callahan and he  Venus must  J 168 r e t u r n , and  i t i s on  Gardens," p.  Earth  148).  is  the  validity and  of  most  the  obvious  will  "humdrum scenes and  fairy-tale"  (p.  7).  Because  the  Perelandra, Deep  Hideous en  and  habitat.  replaces status  gods  Ransom as  theme.  a  as  is,  the  "the  potential  our  that  native  we  interest  couple  embodies  and  the  Jane's  structure  of  of  the  an  the  two  of  Queen  on  climes  of  That  Jane, whose The  because  the  pair their  sacramental repeats  language.  Mark and  to  rationale  names.  relationship  marriage  "the  man.  animal  story  sacramental  archetypal  Nevertheless,  central  dialectic  evolving  and  Mark and  the  to  familiar  exotic  stereotyped  of gender-in-polarity,  thing":  for offspring.  their  King  the  i s t r a i n e d on  and  The  in his Preface  the  of  toward  the  character  leave  ordinary  conform  local  human  territory  attention focus  the  of  The  commonplace.  begins  the  distinction  proposition.  Lewis w r i t e s  by  version  third  novel  t r i b u t e to  the  that  ("Two  terrestrial,"  i t s conjunction  the  i s underscored  triadic  towards t h e i r own produce  paid  to  Mark  for  assuming  imperative  turns  married  That  microcosm  have  return  role  of  triple  c r u c i b l e o f the  everyday r e a l i t y ,  In p a r t i c u l a r , our  representative  i n the  method  our  Strength  ground  language, w i t h  tried  i t is further  Heaven  testing  " t h a t the  fought"  . . . [ i s ] purely  p e r s o n s " with which  elements comprising Strength  be  b a t t l e must be  understood  o f both from f a c t  sacramental  extraordinary,  traditional  his greatest  I f Ransom has  o f t r u t h from myth and Earth  that  Jane  in  Growing ultimately  r e l a t i o n s h i p , with i t s  have much to l e a r n  before  a t t a i n i n g the f u l n e s s o f t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p . Ransom, returned prove the  to  on  the  T e l l us,  temper o f  other the  hand,  voyageur  h i s own  has of  spiritual  a Deep  good  deal  Heaven  is  maturation,  but  to not  teach. only  i s also  Having meant to  to  impart  169 t h a t s t r e n g t h t o t h e s o c i e t y around him. goodness,  he  stronghold  must  of  share  himself  his privacy.  In response  completely,  Ransom  may  t o t h e demands o f  relinquishing  have  more  of  the  h i s own  last moral  e d u c a t i o n ahead o f him, but he i s beyond t h e l e v e l where we would be a b l e to perceive h i s progress. development  of a  I n s t e a d , we watch him p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e moral  spiritually  wisdom o f h i s e x p e r i e n c e . moral  and  mythic  younger  g e n e r a t i o n , bequeathing  Thus, t h e t r i l o g y ' s f i n a l  journeys  of  i t s hero,  to  them t h e  novel moves from t h e  the s o c i e t y  which  that  reeducated p i l g r i m r e c l a i m s . In  the novel's  "notably  c h a r a c t e r s , we f i n a l l y  brilliant"  dialogue  o f a whole  d i s c o v e r the context o f speaking  array of  t h e sacramental  3 language.  Ransom has l e a r n e d t h a t he stands  than  "any man  view  rightly  stands shifts  f o r Him i n d o i n g from  any good a c t i o n . "  t h e i n n e r and o u t e r  c o n s c i o u s n e s s , t o t h e panoramic view  for Maleldil,  but no more The p o i n t o f  drama o f h i s i n d i v i d u a l  o f a whole c a s t o f c h a r a c t e r s .  If  i t might as w e l l have been any o t h e r person as Ransom a c t i n g f o r M a l e l d i l , we now see those o t h e r p e r s o n s . choice  as t h a t  o f Ransom  I f i t might as w e l l  to fight  have been any o t h e r  t h e Un-man, we  now  observe  those  c h o i c e s b e i n g made, and i n t e r l o c k i n g w i t h t h e e f f e c t s o f o t h e r d e c i s i o n s . Through t h e n o v e l ' s are  able  swell  t o understand  of action,  i n v o l v i n g many d i s p a r a t e l i v e s ,  the ever-widening  impact  of a single  innocuous  d e c i s i o n , s p r e a d i n g l i k e t h e r i p p l e s o f a pebble t o s s e d i n t o a pond. Obedience  which  i s so  dear  to  Ransom's  heart  consequently  i m p o r t a n t t o us t o o , as we a r e a b l e t o t r a c e B r i t a i n ' s  present  " I m a g i n a t i v e W r i t i n g , " p. 91.  The  becomes hope f o r  s a l v a t i o n back from i t s immediate source i n S t . A n n e ' s - o n - t h e - H i l 1 , 3 Gibbons,  we  to the  170 moment when the P e d e s t r i a n stood on old  woman's  fears.  p e r s p e c t i v e , we of  each  prepared  In  are  short,  having  newly a b l e  character,  action,  Lewis moves i n t o  to  road  debating  returned  appreciate  and  a  the  to  the  circumstance.  whether t o ease  Earth  intrinsic With  kaleidoscopic plot,  with  and  a  an  cosmic  significance  his  readers  a milieu  thus  much  closer  to home than t h a t o f the p r e v i o u s n o v e l s .  Mark third  and  novel,  chiaroscuro the  Jane's marriage in  motif  Studdock  The  '"Matrimony was mutual  Jane  are  both  the  opens  ordained,  with  and  royal in  rupture myopia  invests  e x p l a i n s why  a  i n both the  people  of  only  of  like  into  the  The  unity.  them, b l i n d i n g '"Spirit  (p. 350;  pseudo-transcendent  lesser  the  one  the  of  to  in a  and  the  ends  with  suffer  matter,  have  reflects  draw  i t up  of the  process,  closes.  Mark  same  the  radical  and  perception  has  spiritual  malady  meaning  certainly.  i t so d i f f i c u l t  That  to be h a p p i l y  emphasis added). reality,  Mark  and  Jane  p r i n c i p l e o f t r a n s p o s i t i o n , whereby the to  'for  the  trilogy:  the  to  healing  Strength  to  as  herself,  ought  Disjunctive them  the  chiaroscuro  i r o n y which  which  of  misunderstanding:  Studdock  hollow  the Studdocks f i n d  i g n o r a n t o f the u n i v e r s a l descends  that  throughout  commonplace.  a  Jane  h e a l i n g , f o r they  m a r r i e d , ' " Mother Dimble diagnoses Aware  said  and  is  and  i s gradually dissolved  composite of  itself  plot  rather  begins  conflict  e p i t h a i ami urn w i t h  need  of  Strength  comfort  emphases added).  parallelled  functions  contrast  thirdly,'  help,  motif  Perelandra.  been an emblem o f e v i l  arbitrary  which  novel  i n the  marital  but  empty r e l a t i o n s h i p  which has  induced  in  (p. 9;  culminating and  serves  society,  the o t h e r ' " couple's  the  marriage,  starkness.  the  which  s u b s t r u c t u r e s the  into  "the  third  are  greater  thing."  Like  171 Weston, Mark and care  nothing  which  for  Merlin  than  accept  Jane  have  come  its fruition,  chastises the  value  as  evidenced  so  severely  suffering  inherent  gender-in-polarity,  Mark  and  Jane  thought  l o v e meant e q u a l i t y .  Ransom  (p.  179).  partnership,  to  Mark  and  abolishing  the  .  in  a  in  rather  free  have  principle  submission.  hierarchical  c o u n t e r p o i n t , the pseudo-marital  which they in  to  life.  barren  comic  as  their  Rather  i s necessary  to the  very  '"I  Jane  tells as  a  eradicating i t s  naivite'  relationship  regarding  o f e q u a l i t y to  have r e s o r t e d i s t h e i r b e s t o p t i o n , because "a dogmatic  o b j e c t i v e value  of  equals.  marriage  and  their  marriage  relationship  companionship,'"  given  They  episode.  stand  headship  corollary,  of  their  modelled  of  seed  productive  chosen  . and  Indeed,  the by  the  have  Jane  only  belief  i d e a o f a r u l e which  i s not  4 t y r a n n y o r an obedience By  usurping  of  life,  it  doesn't  the  Mark and  which i s not s l a v e r y , " Lewis s a y s .  f u n c t i o n o f the  Jane have rendered  once  furiously  shied  resents  specifications  away such  for  attitude:  "Something  spiritual  which  odd  collection  that  gripped  an  did  from  a  all  not  without  claims into  tailor-made  civilised, want she  or  to  modern,  possess  upon  ever  or  the  his  which  (p.  valued  as Jane  world.  Her  indicate  her  or  (of  her  emphases  late)  for  something without 316;  that  so  made  scholarly,  life;  However,  person,  clearly  seed  t o l d you  179).  privately  her,  her"  has  (p.  1  'herself,'  The A b o l i t i o n o f Man [1943] new F i f t e e n t h S e r i e s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Durham p. 50; c i t e d h e r e a f t e r as A b o l i t i o n . 4  one  against  her  valuing only  ' " E q u a l i t y guards  "Religion"  called  demands  '"No  necessity"  intrusions  of q u a l i t i e s and  erotic  and  i t sterile.  make i t , ' " Ransom warns Jane.  obedience—humility—is Ransom  Masculine  the  hands  added).  ed., Riddel 1 Memorial L e c t u r e s , (London: G e o f f r e y B l e s , 1946),  172 The  imposing  unexpected  supernature  which  Ransom  and unwelcome a l t e r n a t i v e .  d e s c r i b e s to  her  is a  completely  Jane w o r r i e s :  How i f t h i s i n v a s i o n o f her own being i n marriage from which she had r e c o i l e d , o f t e n i n the v e r y t e e t h o f i n s t i n c t , were . . . the l o w e s t , the f i r s t , and the easiest form of some shocking contact with r e a l i t y which would have t o be r e p e a t e d — b u t i n e v e r larger and more d i s t u r b i n g modes--on the h i g h e s t l e v e l s of a l l ? (p. 390)  Too  f a m i l i a r with  Jane's c o n d i t i o n .  i t s symptoms '"We  call  i n h i s own  p a s t , Ransom g e n t l y  i t P r i d e , ' " he  diagnoses  chastises:  "You are o f f e n d e d by the m a s c u l i n e i t s e l f : the l o u d , irruptive, possessive thing—the gold lion, the bearded bull—which breaks through hedges and s c a t t e r s the l i t t l e kingdom o f your primness . . . . The male you c o u l d have escaped, f o r i t e x i s t s o n l y on the b i o l o g i c a l l e v e l . But the masculine none o f us can escape. What i s above and beyond a l l t h i n g s i s so m a s c u l i n e t h a t we are a l l f e m i n i n e i n r e l a t i o n to i t . " (pp. 390-91)  Already  in  hierarchical rally  principle,  her usual  anything  Ransom's  might  presence  and  has  now.  against i t .  her and  173-74).  by  this  the  archetypal  rationale,  Jane  hierarchical and her.  deference  won  glimpses  relationships. through  the  She  r e l a t i o n s between matter and investing  the  she was  the  unwilling  lesser.  resistance  specimen  the  of  which  Ransom's  authority as  to  unmade:  seemed  to  (pp.  animal  underlies of  the  unable  the  integrity  demeanor, h e r a l d i c  Thus  and  of  "For her world was  reality  comprehends  spirit,  vitality  l e f t without p r o t e c t i o n "  glowing  r e s p e c t which  Through h i s whole p h y s i c a l  greater  felt  . . . For a l l power o f  have been d r a i n e d away from Strangely  has  been a l t e r n a t e l y  self-sufficiency happen  Jane  all  obeisance  commands  in  i t i s o f the t r u e  she a l s o grasps the p r i n c i p l e o f the Jane  i s able  to  a p p r e c i a t e humbly,  173 and  f o r the f i r s t  for  a  little  t i m e , her own  time  Jane  was  physical existence  hardly  w e l l - b e i n g , the comfort o f her own  conscious  Ransom g e n t l y  restoration  of  submission,  and  rules. with  The  but  the the  firmly  reigning  of  anything  but  Masculine of  obedience  "And  peace  releases  headship steals  hierarchy the  recovers  over  to  a  177).  her,  Feminine  the  Jane's  and  s a t , and  p r o p o r t i o n s o f the room" (p.  expounds m a r i t a l  reinstatement  sweetness  environment.  body i n the c h a i r where she  s o r t o f c l e a r beauty i n the c o l o u r s and As  of  and  the for  body which i t  liberated  senses  s o p o r i f i c a l l u r e , f l o o d i n g her e n t i r e b e i n g :  The word o b e d i e n c e — b u t c e r t a i n l y not obedience to Mark--came over her, in that room and in that presence, l i k e a strange o r i e n t a l perfume, p e r i l o u s , s e d u c t i v e , and ambiguous. . . . "Stop i t ! " s a i d the D i r e c t o r s h a r p l y . Jane s t a r e d a t him, open-mouthed. There were a few moments o f s i l e n c e d u r i n g which the e x o t i c f r a g r a n c e faded away. (pp. 178-79; emphases added)  One  suspects  that,  in  g e n d e r - i n - p o l a r i t y , the l a t e r appears to her a  mischievous;  Director christened  but  Ambrosius.  As  Ransom begins  is  still the  enthusiasm  boldfaced,  of  Jane's  unchristened  to  overwhelm  almost  overcome  relatively Druid  Jane in  now. the  first  goddess o f  i n a shameless v i s i o n , t r i e s  attempt  himself  the  his  to succumb to h i s h y p n o t i c  ability  to  fertility,  who  to sneak past Later  in  similar  " n e u t r a l " f i g u r e from  recites  introduction  to  the  heal  the  Ransom i n novel,  presence past, Ransom's  power:  And i n t h a t deepening i n n e r s i l e n c e o f which . . . [ M e r l i n ' s ] f a c e bore w i t n e s s , one might have b e l i e v e d t h a t he l i s t e n e d c o n t i n u a l l y to a murmur o f e v a s i v e sounds; rustling of mice and stoats, thumping progression o f f r o g s , the small shock o f falling hazel n u t s , c r e a k i n g o f branches, r u n n e l s t r i c k l i n g , the very growing o f g r a s s . The bear had c l o s e d i t s  of  the a  Merlinus wound,  174 eyes. The whole room was growing heavy w i t h a s o r t of f l o a t i n g anaesthesia. "Through me," s a i d M e r l i n , "you can suck up from the E a r t h o b l i v i o n o f a l l p a i n s . " "Silence," said the Director sharply. He had been s i n k i n g down i n t o the c u s h i o n s o f h i s s o f a w i t h h i s head d r o o p i n g a l i t t l e towards h i s c h e s t . Now he suddenly s a t b o l t u p r i g h t . . . . The a i r o f the room was c l e a r e d . Even the bear opened i t s eyes a g a i n , (p. 355; emphases added)  The  remarkably  purpose, which  similar  diction  i s t o show the  of  the  two  scenes  sheer q u i d d i t y  t o our puny frames when not p r o p e r l y  consolidates  o f n a t u r e , so  their  overwhelming  lodged i n i t s sacramental  framework,  t h a t even the D i r e c t o r i s d a n g e r o u s l y v u l n e r a b l e . For a l l the encouragement still with  Jane's  newly-awakened  instincts  will  r e q u i r e , i t i s c l e a r t h a t the i r o n y o f her d o c t o r a t e work on Donne, the  body,'"  "great has  stress"  begun  to  arranges  a  living  summoning  whistle  a  i t lays  resolve  s c o r n the f l e s h , nor any  asks,  that  h i s '"triumphant  itself  humble t h i n g .  parable. trio  on  of  '"You the  (p.  10).  Jane  To c o n s o l i d a t e  are not  creatures  afraid with  a  vindication has  learned  her i n s i g h t  o f mice note  of not  his  to  Ransom  are you?'"  from  the  he  silver  (p. 180):  Thanks t o t h i s e f f o r t she saw mice f o r the f i r s t time as they r e a l l y a r e - - n o t as c r e e p i n g t h i n g s but as d a i n t y quadrupeds, almost, when they s a t up, like t i n y kangaroos, w i t h s e n s i t i v e kid-gloved forepaws and transparent ears. With quick, inaudible movements they ranged to and f r o t i l l not a crumb was l e f t on the f l o o r . Then he blew a second time on h i s w h i s t l e and w i t h a sudden whisk o f t a i l s a l l t h r e e o f them were r a c i n g f o r home and i n a few seconds had d i s a p p e a r e d behind the coal box. . . . "There," he s a i d , "a v e r y simple adjustment. Humans want crumbs removed; mice are anxious t o remove them. I t ought never t o have been a cause o f war." (p. 181)  Pointing  the  lesson,  Ransom c o n t i n u e s , '"But  you  see  that  obedience  and  175 rule  a r e more l i k e  where  the  roles  Miracles, as  "We  the  are  think  only  two  counterpoint,  the  reality"  (p.  that  Jane  she  jeopardizes home had  always of  a drill--specially  changing"  flat  (p.  1  repetitive  alternatives—thus vibrant  between  181).  equality missing  sensitiveness,  enamoured  longs  to  seek  her  the  entire  Jane  takes  opened  in  against  than  As  and  Lewis  the  woman  writes  arbitrary  all  the  man and  in  privilege  overtones,  inter-inanimations  the of  150).  Completely reality,  a dance  herself  experience, participation  Jane  and  her  stay with husband's  notice it"  of  (p.  operation that 182;  still  does  the  first  the  St.  at  St.  fog  i n the w o r l d around  new  begun  added).  company.  On to  of  hierarchical Ransom  even  the  Though  insists  though  train-ride  lift:  misunderstanding freedom  with  however,  Anne's.  has  emphasis  a  Anne's  permission,  partially  enjoy  encounter  it back  "Great  windows  fiercely  divided  the  sensation  nature and  her.  She saw f r o m t h e w i n d o w s o f t h e t r a i n t h e outlined beams o f s u n l i g h t p o u r i n g o v e r s t u b b l e o r burnished woods and f e l t t h a t t h e y w e r e l i k e t h e n o t e s o f a trumpet. H e r e y e s r e s t e d on t h e r a b b i t s and cows a s t h e y f l i t t e d b y and s h e e m b r a c e d them i n h e a r t w i t h merry, holiday love. She d e l i g h t e d i n t h e o c c a s i o n a l s p e e c h o f t h e one w i z e n e d o l d man who s h a r e d her compartment and saw, as n e v e r b e f o r e , t h e b e a u t y o f h i s shrewd and sunny o l d m i n d , sweet as a nut and E n g l i s h a s a c h a l k d o w n . . . . She r e j o i c e d a l s o i n h e r h u n g e r a n d t h i r s t and d e c i d e d t h a t s h e w o u l d make herself buttered toast for tea—a great deal of buttered toast. And she rejoiced also in the c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f h e r own b e a u t y . . . . T h e r e was little vanity in this. For b e a u t y was made for others. Her beauty belonged t o the D i r e c t o r . It b e l o n g e d t o him so c o m p l e t e l y t h a t he c o u l d even d e c i d e n o t t o keep i t f o r h i m s e l f but t o o r d e r t h a t i t be g i v e n t o a n o t h e r , b y an a c t o f o b e d i e n c e l o w e r , and therefore higher, more unconditional and t h e r e f o r e more d e l i g h t i n g , t h a n i f he had demanded i t for himself, ( p p . 1 8 4 - 8 5 ; emphases added)  a  of  her  joyous  176  Jane's Mark's been  meeting  with  introduction  decapitated  engineering.  the  head  Head  from Alcasan  The  have o b j e c t e d .  to  the  Head  is  of  of  and  it  Anne's  N.I.C.E.—a  artificially  another  Kilby calls  St.  the  feature  of  novel's  is  counterbalanced  literal  head  sustained Strength  "least  by to  which  by has  Filostrato's which  successful  critics  ingredient":  The u n b e a r a b l e s l o b b e r i n g o f L e w i s ' s m o n s t e r a m i d i t s t u b e s and pumps i s s u f f i c i e n t t o make one s i c k a t t h e s t o m a c h , a n d t h e Head makes no s e n s e i n t h e story u n l e s s i t be a c c e p t e d a s t h e m o u t h p i e c e o f t h e e v i l eldila . . . . Of c o u r s e t h i s is the actual use L e w i s makes o f i t , b u t t h e g r u e s o m e n e s s o f t h e t h i n g tends t o usurp any l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n o f i t s place i n the n o v e l . ( C h r i s t i a n W o r l d , p. 1 1 2 )  Admittedly, experience  the which  Nevertheless, we c a n n o t whole.  Ransom  by  did  fittingly  some  pronounce incident  an  calls  dreadful  not even  function has  little  leaves  look  (Perelandra,  closely  when J a n e d e s c r i b e s  "Well,  h e r dream  quite  novel  pp.  the  utterly  the  not and  demoniac hulk  of  Un-man  slowly  and  139-40).  introduction  made  its  In d e t a i l of  the  the  l i k e when an e n g i n e  is  and  trilogy with  as  its  matter  began  to  cumbrously, mouth  in  started,  of  which are  speak. as  and  and d i c t i o n , Head  a  own  takeover  vision:  suddenly,  novel.  machinations  the  it  wretched  gratuitous, the  dehumanized  later  of  atrocity  locomoted  oiling,  an  is  The  direction;  needed  to  the  is  re-readings  reader  Its  "Hours  Ransom's  his  in  the  within  Un-man.  that  compares  on  artificially  machinery name"  avoid  abhorrent.  witness:  in  to  Head  foreshadowed  less  the  to  grotesque  inflicted  valid  a  the  choose  Perelandra  only  body  singularly  horror  its  Indeed,  Weston's  with  one m i g h t  the  deny  abomination  It  encounter  if lips the  Strength,  177 t h e r e came a p u f f of a i r out o f i t s mouth, w i t h a hard dry r a s p i n g sound. . . . Then i t began working i t s mouth about and even l i c k i n g i t s l i p s . I t was like someone g e t t i n g a machine i n t o working o r d e r . . . . I t spoke i n a queer way. . . . With no proper e x p r e s s i o n . And o f course i t c o u l d n ' t t u r n i t s e l f t h i s way or t h a t , the way a--a r e a l p e r s o n — d o e s . " (pp. 221-22)  On  Perelandra,  the  Un-man's  to a n t i c i p a t e Belbury's  similarly  impersonal  manipulations  continue  Head:  I t had a whole r e p e r t o r y o f o b s c e n i t i e s to perform w i t h i t s o w n — o r r a t h e r with Weston's—body: and the mere s i l l i n e s s o f them was almost worse than the dirtiness. I t would s i t making grimaces a t him f o r hours t o g e t h e r ; and then, f o r hours more, i t would go back t o i t s o l d r e p e t i t i o n o f "Ransom . . . Ransom." . . . But worst o f a l l were those moments when i t allowed Weston t o come back i n t o i t s countenance. Then i t s v o i c e , which was always Weston's v o i c e , would begin . . . "That boy keeps on s h u t t i n g the windows. That's a l l right, they've taken off my head and put someone e l s e ' s on me." (Perelandra, p. 147; emphasis added)  Weston's  voice continues  Ransom, i t ' s a w f u l . layers.  You  Buried a l i v e .  your head o f f . . .'" Evil  has  of  the  You  universe  Walsh is  understand.  t r y to  become  connect  notes,  evil.  The  dramatizing to  a  point."  "Lewis's 5  In  God,  layers  and  can't.  grotesque,  but  transfigured  They  take  with  the  the  Ransom a t  trilogy's  have been r a i s e d theory  Planet,  L i t e r a r y Legacy, p. 121; f u r t h e r t h i s paragraph are a l s o from p. 121. 5  '"My  emphasis added).  defines  stakes  down under  t h i n g s and  physically  markedly  same c o m p l a i n t s : Right  Head o p p o s i t e a g l o r i o u s l y  novel, Strength  coming  the  ( P e r e l a n d r a , p. 157;  c o n t e s t between good and novels,  surface with  don't  certainly  gruesome Saracen's centre  to  that Walsh  quotations  sharpening  i n the  everything says,  from  the  three in  Weston  this  work  the and  in  178 Devine's doomed  chances  from  o f c a r r y i n g out t h e i r  the b e g i n n i n g . "  Perelandra,  with  Walsh  paradise.  "A s t i l l  overthrow  of  resistance  to t h e i r  Weston  putting  plans  holds  the odds  by  the  temporal  rule.  Nimrod  built  (p. 356). Lord do-or-die  a  Feverstone  situation  Busby's s t y l e  tower  hope  o f success i n  awaits  which  fallen  us i n S t r e n g t h : the end  a l l earthly  The S t . Anne's company  i s painfully  t o reach  a veiled  would  heads.  heaven,'"  paints a similar  to deliver  and r u i n "are  a t "one i n two" f o r a  macrobes,  aware o f t h i s Damoclean sword above t h e i r when  a greater  more g h a s t l y p o s s i b i l i t y "  Logres  f o r wrack  ' " I t i s as i n the days Ransom  cautions  Merlin  p i c t u r e f o r Mark, u s i n g the  ultimatum:  ' " I t sounds r a t h e r i n  t o say t h a t humanity i s a t the c r o s s - r o a d s .  But i t i s the  main q u e s t i o n a t the moment: which s i d e one's on--obscurantism  or order'"  (pp. 44-45). Strength  retraces  previous  novels.  narrator  t o appear  exaggerated  and  Ransom  i n the o r i g i n a l  and  but "a minor f i g u r e  cast,  both  Feverstone  name  suggests  callousness. than  nevertheless disease,"  "The technique  carnal  i n the g a l l e r y  7  used  returns  sketched  figures  return  momentum  been merely an i n c o r r i g i b l y  Strength,"** which  outlines  the o n l y  c h a r a c t e r s , r e v e a l i n g the moral Having  broader  the  and F e v e r s t o n e ,  choices. being  emboldens  to Strength  individual  libertine  i n Planet,  for his last  gamble  h i s engrained  W r i t i n g , " p. 9 1 ) . Dimble e x p l a i n s t o Jane and Mother Dimble:  Lord o f the E l v e s and E l d i l s , p. 26.  7  C a l l a h a n , "Two Gardens," p. 152.  Hideous with  "a  r a p a c i t y and  [the characters]  i n e i t h e r o f the o t h e r two books," Gibbons says  Purtill,  with  of their  i n That  i n drawing  the  b e s i d e s the  of v i l l a i n s  bespeaking  6  by  . . . is  ("Imaginative  179 "Good i s a l w a y s g e t t i n g b e t t e r and bad i s always g e t t i n g worse: the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of even apparent n e u t r a l i t y are always d i m i n i s h i n g . The w h o l e thing is sorting itself out a l l the t i m e , coming t o a p o i n t , g e t t i n g s h a r p e r and h a r d e r . L i k e i n t h e poem a b o u t H e a v e n and H e l l e a t i n g i n t o m e r r y M i d d l e E a r t h from o p p o s i t e s i d e s . " ( p . 350)  If  the  laceration  of  artificial  language.  Masculine  from  divorced literal  its  from  the  fact  heart  like  concrete  together there,  black  entered  they  would  be  had b e e n d r o p p e d  into  itself  a  (p.  is  113).  telling  is  also  hole  the  only  description  of  no  of  Deep  consciousness swallowed that  has  Head of  the  of  yon  to  MacDonald  this his  evil's  all  yellow as  which  your  tells  Lewis  this  of  were,  the  has  been  idea  into  own  heraldic  parasitical  vacuity that  trace,  anticipated  individual,  language.  '"If  wee  illustrates  the  it  both  the  phenomenal,  translate  diagram of  Heaven.  Ocean  again  as  given  of  idolization  the sacramental  up w i t h o u t  Great  man's  of  from  within  head,  exposing  production  perversion  noumenal  In  relentless  graphically  body,  the  the  ghastly  final  should  a graphic  in  Head's  surprise,  nature,  molecule,'"  Perelandra  Lewis  conception  non-substantial a  society.  That as  from  power,  reflects  the  sundering soul  within  come  the  guillotined  and  body.  head  expresses  life-dealing  The s e v e r e d Head essentially  evil,  nature—its  should  m e t h o d and h i s  The  and  and  severed  turgid  Feminine,  marriage,  Masculine  the  perfectly  disjunctive  within  of  Strength's  speech  sacramental evil's  violence  lies  Hell's bird  if  at  the  drop  terrestrial in  aspect  Great of  its  miseries  on  one  and  evil  t h e Un-man:  T h i s c r e a t u r e w a s , by a l l human s t a n d a r d s , inside o u t — i t s h e a r t on t h e s u r f a c e a n d i t s s h a l l o w n e s s a t the h e a r t . On t h e s u r f a c e , g r e a t d e s i g n s a n d an  bough of  ink  Pacific Divorce in  a  180 antagonism to Heaven which involved the fate of w o r l d s : but deep w i t h i n , when every v e i l had been p i e r c e d , was t h e r e , a f t e r a l l , nothing but a b l a c k p u e r i l i t y , an a i m l e s s empty s p i t e f u l n e s s c o n t e n t to sate i t s e l f with the t i n i e s t c r u e l t i e s , as l o v e does not d i s d a i n the s m a l l e s t kindness? (p. 112; emphasis added)  As the  emblems o f e v i l  severed  the  "Men  Head  part.'"  "Men  part,'"  ghostly  such  which  that  shadows  Lewis  writes observer, are  values  are  absolute  contrast  the  only  solid,  emergence  of  (p.  Their  atrophied  chests  by  organic  the  " c h e s t s " comprise our v e r y  by  applied--  the  and  Men!'"  demonstrate  all,'"  omitting do  and  Abo!ition.  omit  we  this '"this  noumenal  negations,  c o r p o r e a l i t y of  Bodiless aptly  be  in  who  that  absences  Un-man  " h e a r t " and  heartless wraiths  Characterized  can  obtained  or  the  about  are  '"The  f o r our  term  Chests"  rationale.  nature,  v a c u i t y , both  paradoxical  events i n c l u d e s the  Without  reality.  241).  a  common measurable f e a t u r e s  denying  objective  Chests"  of real  remember; '"The  i t s fundamental  personify--if  Without  "'Observation  and  has these  the  animal  announces  Dimble  evil's  subhuman  humanity:  The head r u l e s the b e l l y through the c h e s t - - t h e s e a t , as Alanus tells us, of Magnanimity, o f emotions organized by t r a i n e d h a b i t i n t o s t a b l e sentiments. The Chest--Magnanimity--Sentiment--these are the i n d i s p e n s a b l e l i a i s o n o f f i c e r s between c e r e b r a l man and v i s c e r a l man. I t may even be s a i d t h a t i t i s by t h i s middle element t h a t man i s man: f o r by his i n t e l l e c t he i s mere s p i r i t and by h i s a p p e t i t e mere animal. ( A b o l i t i o n , p. 21)  It  i s obviously  destroy, '"Once heart  as  the o f the  the thing  this  "middle element" which  Un-man and gets  British  going  public.  the we  disembodied shan't  We'll  Head  have  make the  to  N.I.C.E.  i s seeking  graphically bother  great  heart  about  to  illustrate. the  what we  great  want i t  181 to  be, "  Feverstone's  1  speaks  of  effecting  '"a  enemy's  target  absolute  v a l u e , which  hearts  and  whatever  is  ethical,  Ironically, o u r own  a man w i t h what "the  opposed as  to  merely  doctrine  very  sense  of It  amidst  emotions which  of  the  through takes  centre  of  (p.  in  firm  of  novel.  and  belief  wear,  in  us  is  our  to  rallies  reader  the  us  to  be  Mark  opts  that  certain  kind  of  p.  "'all  17).  of  the  jolt that  sweet  as As  motives  365),  the  The  a resolution  vision  for  attitudes  thing  as  value—  chamber.  p.  Head  himself  objective  recognizes  to  of  to  (Strength,  belief to  severed  desensitizing  (Abolition,  does  The  preferences,  the  what  which  "Some k i n d  us a s i t  the  commitment  Frost's  false,  provides  294).  and g i v e s  they  towards  revealing  the  are"  beings  too  or  instinctive  feel  epiphenomena'"  really we  "oughtness"  of  Abo!ition  [is]  (p.  Wither  366). we  our  47).  Mark  disguise  objectivity,'"  value,  Head  hold of  logical  in  our  system  "oughtness,"  things  the  or  distortion  and o t h e r s kind  the  whole  Way"  the  objective  the  of  secures  "the  heart'"  sense  revulsion  subjective  is  straight"  the  of  ( S t r e n g t h , p.  this  intones  animal,  true,  us s o l i d l y  Frost  '"real  really and  '"That  Frost's  of  change  aesthetic,  calls  Normal"  real  ominously  comprises  a chest.  Lewis  ring  precisely  chests.  simply destroyed,'"  incites  words  "the are  universe to  our  carries and  the  Mark:  But t h e r e i t w a s — s o l i d , m a s s i v e , w i t h a shape o f i t s own, a l m o s t l i k e s o m e t h i n g you c o u l d t o u c h , o r e a t , or f a l l in love with. I t was a l l m i x e d up w i t h J a n e a n d f r i e d e g g s and s o a p a n d s u n l i g h t and t h e r o o k s c a w i n g a t C u r e H a r d y and t h e t h o u g h t t h a t , somewhere o u t s i d e , d a y l i g h t was g o i n g on a t t h a t moment. . . . He was c h o o s i n g a s i d e : t h e N o r m a l . " A l l t h a t , " as he c a l l e d i t , was w h a t he c h o s e . ( S t r e n g t h , p. 3 7 0 )  Like  Mark,  the  reader  is  "not  thinking  in  moral  terms  at  all,"  although  182 he  is  having  perhaps  his  "first  deeply  A f f i r m i n g the i n h e r e n t v a l u e o f l i f e all  i t s organic  "objectivity" (p.  p r o f u s i o n , the  process,  which  v e r y vehemence o f  has not o n l y found  (p.  370).  i n i t s l e a s t a u s p i c i o u s forms and i n  reader  Frost  our  a powerful  central  image deep w i t h i n the  L'Engle  uses Lewis'  example.  A Wrinkle its  experience"  rejects  boasts  the  dismemberment  ' " i s like  killing  of  a  the  nerve'"  366). The  for  moral  The  reaction  the  twentieth-century  innovations to great e f f e c t climax  Head  suggests  d e v i c e f o r h i s n o v e l , but  of  her  award-winning  i n Time, draws h e a v i l y upon  '"brain  to  the  has  that  also struck a  consciousness.  Madeleine  some f i f t e e n y e a r s science  disembodied  later,  fiction  Head  in  story,  Strength,  s w o l l e n t o superhuman p r o p o r t i o n s ' " ( S t r e n g t h , p. 240).  i s the Head's c o r o l l a r y i n L'Engle's  Lewis  "IT"  story:  As she c o n t i n u e d t o step s l o w l y forward, a t l a s t she r e a l i z e d what the Thing on the d a i s was. IT was a b r a i n . A disembodied brain. An oversized brain, just enough l a r g e r than normal t o be c o m p l e t e l y r e v o l t i n g and t e r r i f y i n g . A living brain. A brain that pulsed and q u i v e r e d , t h a t s e i z e d and commanded. No wonder the b r a i n was c a l l e d IT. IT was the most h o r r i b l e , the most r e p e l l e n t t h i n g she had ever seen, f a r more n a u s e a t i n g than a n y t h i n g she had ever imagined with her c o n s c i o u s mind, o r t h a t had e v e r tormented her i n her most t e r r i b l e nightmares. But as she had f e l t she was beyond f e a r , so now she was beyond screaming. She looked a t C h a r l e s W a l l a c e , and he stood t h e r e , t u r n e d towards IT, h i s jaw hanging s l i g h t l y loose; and h i s vacant blue eyes s l o w l y t w i r l e d . 8  The  fear of l o s i n g  8  p.  158.  A  Wrinkle  our  individuality  i n Time  (New  York:  to  "men  without  F a r r a r , Straus  c h e s t s " has  and  Giroux,  figured  1962),  183 prominently wars,  in  and  the  the  sacrifice  utilitarianism non-human men.  (p.  are  into  They are  has  not  the  not  void.  the  era  modern our  at  all.  Nor  are  all:  an  of  personhood  grips  men  men a t  vacuity of  systems which  they  evil  prepare  to  hearts:  their  are  mass-production  and  the  forces  impersonal  imagination. "It  Stepping  is  It  not  outside  subjects  is  that  the  Lewis  world  horror they  Tao,  necessarily  artefacts,"  Haldane,"  pointing  story  is  N.I.C.E.  out  writes  of  of  are  a bad  they  have  unhappy  men.  in  reveals:  remember,  that  thinking,  for  College  some  "what  has  men  example,  to  eradicates  individual. closer  to  Gibson  a vortex,  characteristics" depersonalized,  any notes  war  is  (p.  37).  Abolition  as  witnessed  elaborate  equivocations  banishing  her  from  of  his  in  to  the  which Tales,  presence,  take  for  The  of  employs  his  treatment  most  of  humane  Fairy  in  or  even  at  the  assimilates p.  the  the  rest'"  of long  N.I.C.E.  negative Hardcastle's are  means,  tolerance  Even  of  That  this  and d e s t r o y s  96).  example,  goals  diabolical  man.  charge  brutal  Professor throughout  Feverstone's of  and  Strength  "Reply to  78).  charge  Wither's  rejecting  that  Feverstone  "obedience  by  philosophies  up a g a i n s t  (p.  as  appreciation  a whirlpool  (Spinner  got  that  the  his  obviously  take  rationalize  s h u t h i m up i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y ' " Evil  to  added).  "'Total  is  in  officials"  got  have  it  purpose  we a r e  but  emphasis  meeting:  his  pseudo-scientific, '"Man  46;  and  such d e - i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n  defends  that  only  p.  dehumanizing,  scientists  paraphrase  (Strength,  Lewis  not  are  is  t h e way f o r  vehemently a t t a c k s .  the  so  of  45). The  the  of  haunted  enemy w h i c h  They  stepped  literature  line  of  Jewel  at  run.  I  for  the  moves  one  individual  language  becomes  politeness. proposition  chillingly  His and  impersonal  184 under g u i s e o f being  solicitous:  "I had almost f o r g o t t e n , my dear l a d y , how t i r e d you must be, and how very v a l u a b l e your time i s . We must t r y to save you f o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r kind o f work i n which you have shown y o u r s e l f i n d i s p e n s a b l e . You must not a l l o w us to impose on your good nature. There i s a l o t o f d u l l e r and more r o u t i n e work which i t i s o n l y reasonable t h a t you should be spared." He got up and h e l d the door open f o r her. (p. 292)  Hardcastle's elicits  last-minute  ploy  for a  prolonged  audience  with  Wither  only  h i s complete withdrawal o f p e r s o n a l i t y :  And suddenly, as Wither stood with h i s hand on the d o o r - h a n d l e , c o u r t l y , p a t i e n t , and s m i l i n g , the whole e x p r e s s i o n faded out o f h i s f a c e . The pale lips, open wide enough to show h i s gums, the white c u r l y head, the pouchy eyes, ceased to make up any s i n g l e expression. Miss H a r d c a s t l e had the f e e l i n g t h a t a mere mask o f s k i n and f l e s h was s t a r i n g a t her. A moment l a t e r and she was gone. (pp. 292-93; emphasis added)  S i m i l a r l y , S t r a i k and  Filostrato's  in  of  the  protege  stark that  shadows the  decapitated. they  looked  figurehead members  defeat,  the  like  faces  masks  N.I.C.E. were  hanging  assume  dehumanizing a  of  moonlit is  in  Belbury  of  the  him:  who  have  explain  in  that 217).  The  appearance  of  strength  has  to  its  Head the  g r a p h i c a l l y portrayed  Thulcandra's  Alcasan, light is  the  Belbury  disembodiment.  actually spells  betrayed  their  disastrous  sense, and  core  hovering  Francois  traditional  anatomy  broken  they that:  a i r " (p.  grisly  evil's  " ' T h e i r own  agents  to  vacuousness a t e v i l ' s  f u r t h e r aspect Head.  the  room, as literally  close  o f N.I.C.E. i n a more than  disembodied of  "Both  literally  The  Head  Mark's  f a c e s appear to be mere masks  them,'"  its  own  by  the  Ransom  quarantine.  says  " ' I f of  185 their  own  celestial  evil  will  Powers,  they  had  t h i s would  not  be t h e i r  p u l l e d down Deep H e a v e n on t h e i r an  accomplice  scourge'" demoniac taken  in  Merlin,  (p.  359).  attack  he  sides,"  Gibson  wholly  on  the  incapable  Co-ordinated  by  points  "N.I.C.E.  Bracton College reader  envisions  purposes, p.  but  154).  discover  that  the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s  They have  (p.  its  363).  Mark  to  proving p.  at  that  its  organized,  as  organization  in is  is  "a  that destroy i t . "  own  novel  a  he  has very  Babel  is  Institute  of  an  begins,"  and  irony  Callahan  its  move  to  put  over  that  machine,  achievement"  soon  undermined,  Callahan  .  the  its  Bel b u r y ' s  their  chaos,"  .  84).  smoothly  a well-oiled  efficient  impression  so  by  defeat,  flawlessly  wood i s  is  its  the  .  seeking  that  The  "As  the  help,"  height.  reversal.  little  by  for  "evil  in  themselves  decision  centre,  only  for  out  83 and p.  horrendous  coordinate  up  "cry his  let  Similarly,  '"raised  "strengthens  its  institute  first the  victory.  inducing  can  brilliantly  Our  moment o f  puerility"  seems  sell  the  and  only  thereby  narrative  to  frontier  (Spinner of Tales,  Experiments  out,  have  supporting  highlighted  the  heads'"  simply  notes,  "black  of  a  by  suffers  nature s e l f - d e f e a t i n g " Founded  they  And  broken  sinister ("Two  in  the its  Gardens,"  however,  containing  force  "within  as  we  itself  continues:  E v i l i s a n e g a t i o n , a d i s t o r t i o n or perversion of the good. I f the garden a t S t . Anne's represents the f e c u n d and h a r m o n i o u s p a t t e r n o f l i f e , B e l b u r y c a n only be its grotesque parody, and thus it must c o n t a i n the seeds of i t s d e s t r u c t i o n : o r d e r i s c h a o s , the 'conquest of organic l i f e ' is death, liberation i s s l a v e r y " (p. 154).  Evil's the  self-destruction  imagery of  disembodied  consumption,  Head.  "To  us  is  a  parasitic  a concept a  human  which is  quality is  aptly  explicitly  primarily  food;  expressed  pictured our  aim  by  by  the  is  the  186 absorption  of i t s w i l l  i n t o ours,  the  a t i t s expense," Screwtape w r i t e s Wither s  descriptions  1  of  the  I n s t i t u t e "betray  its  diseased  B e l b u r y as  body—feeding  destruction," Callahan preyed upon h i s own through the  formless  universe,"  and  and  i s able  soul:  would  open  my  arms  young man,'" he  says o f Mark.  would  an  melt  into  embrace  their  from  and  pp.  He  now  to  229-30).  '"I  point own  which  desire of  "interpenetration seemed  to  be  telling  us"  circle,'" almost  the  of  with  so  F r o s t , the  (Enchantment,  Wither menacingly  fatherly—concern'"  p.  us  struggling  feel  121).  Wither  body  to  to  floor  evil  is  '"Unity, (p.  you  259).  extends  to  this  close,  298; two  escape,"  the  and  bond.  lost  so  souls in  and  (p. 298  and  '"The Mark  The  p.  Frost  "rather  know.  an  which  i n a paroxysm like  I  emphasis  " n e a r l y obscene v i s i o n o f  what  i n v i t e s Mark that  awkward  p e r s o n a l i t i e s , " "locked  than a s e n i l e parody o f l a u g h t e r "  making  with  a  body  assimilate  (p.  of  haunts as  closest possible  1  Glover praises t h i s  for  absorb—to  gas  rooms  corpse-like  individuality "  Wither, c l u t c h i n g , g i g g l i n g , grappling devourings,"  His  of  since  like a  lumber  personalities  in his conversation  each  long  w a i t s to prey upon o t h e r s ,  i t almost t r a n s c e n d s  emphasis added).  mutual  and  and  purposeless  i t s movements o n l y  receive—to  interpenetration  ends i n " r a t h e r an animal 299;  through  lands  suggests  members  dissipating i t s e l f  waste  to n e g o t i a t e  extreme d i f f i c u l t y .  At t h i s  and  worlds,  (Strength,  e f f o r t and  added).  the  For example, Wither has  "spreading  that  Callahan  1  Wither  that  processes  selfhood  which  p e r i o d i c a l l y condemned to wander B e l b u r y s  remains, but  irrevocable,  picture  o f T a l e s , p. 96).  own  153).  lightless  projection  welcome  a  of  Gibson notes  a cancerous growth e a t i n g  says (p.  wraith-like  '"I  (Spinner  "its  s o u l , now  area  to Wormwood (p. 45).  the d i g e s t i v e organs o f a g i a n t " Gibson both d e s c r i b e  i n c r e a s e o f our own  of  than family  friendly—the on  the  Head's  187 behalf  ominously  parodies  the  '"way  back  Dimble i s t o o f f e r Mark o n l y hours l a t e r With i t s members thus d i v i d e d malice  and  already  b a c k b i t i n g , N.I.C.E.  l i t .  Belbury  a p o c a l y p t i c downfall be  imminent,  Wither  and  sacrifice falling  the  and  last  Straik  to  only  the  first  Head.  (p. 259  sitting  comes  members o f  to  its  N.I.C.E.  then  member  Institute's  of  N.I.C.E.,  self-destructive  indulge  Frost  is  pathology.  whose  ante-room,  watched  bloodied (p.  corpse.  444).  begun  existence it  years  pull  The  Fittingly,  many  Frost  the  a  ago,  up  chemical Frost  reaction  completes  and  by  his  Ironically,  the p a s s i o n l e s s s c i e n t i s t  he  his  betrays  own  person  one  at  final  the own  orgy  of  death.  grisly  ritual  knife  on  Straik,  before  bear.  Left  as the  example he  has  o f a person. body  sight  process  meets  and  of  the  long  ago  "Thus the into  the  a  naked  and  shock, of  sole  go  of  occurred"  self-immolation his  sets himself ablaze. time--once  the  a  called  hand  in  fuse  in  his  the  its  Knowing doom t o  Wither,  watched  sharply  with  conclusion  chilling  Like  denied  bomb  i n an  Filostrato turns  i n an atmosphere o f  butchery.  abandoned h i s soul t o d i e , l e a v i n g o n l y the s h e l l Frost  a  f a m i l y ' " which  273).  logical  prey h i m s e l f t o the a t t a c k o f an avenging  surviving  human  and p.  on  of internal  guillotine  Wither  the  amongst themselves is  aftermath  into  for  final  Before all  Escape f o r the s o u l , i f not f o r the body, was o f f e r e d him. He became a b l e to know (and simultaneously r e f u s e d the knowledge) t h a t he had been wrong from the b e g i n n i n g , t h a t s o u l s and p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y existed. He h a l f saw: he w h o l l y hated. The p h y s i c a l t o r t u r e o f the burning was h a r d l y f i e c e r [ s i c ] than h i s h a t r e d o f t h a t . With one supreme e f f o r t he f l u n g h i m s e l f back i n t o h i s i l l u s i o n . In t h a t a t t i t u d e eternity overtook him as sunrise in old tales overtakes t r o l l s and t u r n s them i n t o unchangeable stone, (p. 445)  end. dying,  eternity:  188 As C a l l a h a n do  so  "only  in  the  ("Two  Gardens,"  seeds  were  Bracton,"  says,  Howard  says  of  itself"  (Howard,  curse  of  meaning  Babel from  send  upon  their  one!'"  the  Director  death  warrant.  Merlin  is  law  written  "I  is  into  "Upon  They  exclaims  None  at  St.  (p.  Lewis  writes,  into  the  universe,  means  "but  that,  the very atoms"  as  to  say  so  p.  a  nature  takes  we  do  God  ( C h r i s t i a n W o r l d , p.  that  frenzy  its in  the  not  divorced  we  to  in  call  papers  has  built  190).  He  battle,  world  the  the  Christ,  of  revenge.  a  chaos  an  for  its and  The  sacramental  have  the  them  the  in  own  of  "a  send  sent  in  a hand  at  paradigm  B e l b u r y company s i g n s  lift  transcribed  Room  always  splendour  of  whose  by i n f l i c t i n g  shall  advertised  The  need  speak,  the  spirit  have  that  to  by  .  unleashes  has  "'We  .  intrigue  Belbury,  judges,  154).  .  Common  minor  language  N.I.C.E.  contradictions"  the  merely  Callahan of  destroy  Belbury  in  hardens  392).  Anne's  at  The  '"Yes,  them He  all  too  to  internal  125).  use  Gardens,"  promises.  at  Merlin  whose  destroyer."  in  and  its  watered  p.  125).  simply a c a t a l y s t ,  believe  Kilby  ("Two  them o n e .  for  p.  those  Ransom  haste  and  the o r g a n i z a t i o n , "  words  interpreter!'" will  in  nothing  planted  "thickens  who h e l p  amplify  (Achievement,  simply  implicit  they  "We s e e  carefully  business  already  that  154).  college hell  planetary deities  sense  p.  not  the  own even  moral  language. plus  moral  God,"  principle  continues:  S i n v i o l a t e s n o t s i m p l y t h e commands o f God b u t t h e very p r i n c i p l e of l i f e . 'Be s u r e y o u r s i n s w i l l find you out' is not an edict from outside or the c a p r i c i o u s d e c r e e o f God b u t r a t h e r a l a w a t the center of creation. The w o r l d i s s o c o n s t r u c t e d t h a t t h i s w o r l d as w e l l as t h e n e x t pays o f f for ill conduct, ( p . 190)  Even protesting  so, that  Plank "the  objects logic  of  to the  the  bloodbath  story  at  requires  the the  end  of  Strength,  annihilation  of  the  forces  of  evil;  ("Psychological  but  hardly  Aspects,"  of  p.  the  35).  persons  Embodiment  that is  just  embody  them"  the  point, as the  however, and Plank  i s guilty  o f the same d i s j u n c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n  Belbury  momentous  spiritual  crowd.  morpheme  in  elements.  A  the  When  sacramental  Dimble  meaning  language,  speaks  "the Great  thus  invests  every  comprising  Tongue,"  material  solid,  "great  firm  syllables  of  words t h a t sounded l i k e c a s t l e s " come o u t o f h i s mouth:  The v o i c e d i d not sound l i k e Dimble's own: i t was as i f the words spoke themselves through him from some s t r o n g p l a c e a t a d i s t a n c e — o r as i f they were not words a t a l l but p r e s e n t operations o f God, the planets, and the Pendragon. For t h i s was t h e language spoken b e f o r e the F a l l and beyond the Moon and the meanings were not g i v e n t o the s y l l a b l e s by chance, or s k i l l , or long tradition, but t r u l y i n h e r e n t i n them as the shape o f the g r e a t Sun i s i n h e r e n t i n the l i t t l e waterdrop. T h i s was Language h e r s e l f , as she f i r s t sprang a t M a l e l d i l ' s b i d d i n g , (pp. 280-81; emphases added)  The  Babel-mongers  morphemes fleshed  have  for their  spurned  delight  embodied  o f sound  meaning  only.  and  Because  exploited meaning  i n sound, however, even as two a r e made one f l e s h  have d e s p i s e d  the Word o f God, from  man a l s o be taken away,'" r i n g s the c u r s e building solid, that  blocks  o f language with  and the e d i f i c e  top-heavy  manipulation  significant  Bel bury's  round  disastrous  o f the p l o t ,  when  f o r S t . Anne's as they  shall  i n Babel's ears  which Belbury  constructed  s t r u c t u r e crashes  Furthermore, unfair  they  them  has p l a y e d  parlously real. their  heads  the word o f  ( p . 435). The are dangerously The impact when real.  be c o n s i d e r e d  actions  a r e f o r Belbury.  as w e l l .  can be no l e s s  end can h a r d l y individual  has been  i n marriage, t o  deny the meaning o f words must u l t i m a t e l y immolate t h e i r phonics '"They t h a t  these  an  a r e as m o r a l l y  The f a t e o f Lewis'  190 characters  generally  example,  "what  aesthetic  repugnance  and  darkened,  was  in  hand, best of  had  Curry is  Ransom.  enough  called  better  fought  minor  their  determining in  the  are  words,  is  understood  at  now.  The  side.  I  emphasis surprising  simply  said  the  the  the  St.  are  Indeed, "'there  don't added). Mr.  real Anne's has  had  in  a  moment  nothing  takes  Jane's  to  is you  ultimate  only  too  to  'This  He a l w a y s  time  the  obedience  happened of  other  loving  knows  revealed  ever  that  the  by  in  Even  was  deepened  Director.  282).  "It  that  cosmic  battlefield  outcomes  "'a  glorious.  On  she  herself  had  merely  everything  spared  that  a  For  in  its  her  had,  short  to  be  395).  Dimble with  (p.  45).  In Plank  such that  I'm  will a  less  real  the  (p.  side  a  of  you  a  place  Dimble  tells  arena,  it  should  win  and  good and  evil  at  and  choices  for  on Mark  should all,  own  concept  security a  seem  Feverstone's  casualties,'" no  moral  fates  indecision In  of  encounters  individual  350).  is  series  The  divergence  room f o r  offering win,'"  soul.  sealing  '"There  dangerous  one  comprises  acute  says  war  which  of  the  even  started.  know  war  decisive,  with  is  momentous,'"  battle  to  of  438).  placing  (p.  youth  p.  protested  knew'"  remember.  vulgar,  refusal  is  present,'  itself  then,  in  age,  more  it  or  (Strength,  by  we  far-off  crude  fixed  having  thing  for  (p.  history.  present  even  a  and Mark  you  more  room  sides,  skirmishes but  into  the  than  largest  found  both  t h a t were  simply  for  little  time at a l l "  For  [Wither's]  himself"  saved  moments,  Deep H e a v e n : t h a t when y o u mean w e l l ,  The  apparently,  .  .  Similarly,  is  is  departure.  .  year, than  is  meant  regeneration  other  Jane  '"It  have  innocuous  realities  after  knows.  the courtesy of to  to  in  upon  " t r i v i a l l y saved"  he  Maleldil,  been  year  any degree  which  depends  than  best anyone  the  right  (p. rather that  273; be the  191 opposing s i d e should  The  disembodied  self-destruction, ruin  dismembers  poisoning  his  hedonistic  though  He  have  its  "monumental  proposes  it  is  wife.  is,  agrees  much  life  of  derides  such  Belbury's  report  National  on  the  spittles,  cleaning  [and]  would  be  i t s p a r t i c u l a r course  of  body which  opposes  aspires  all  literally  aspects  i s doomed  solely such  to  as  the  disdain  of  by  the  the  polar  headship  and  replaced  for  on  of  and  example,  organic  global  '"organic of  in  his  '"dirty  and  organisms,  as  at  in  the  by  Bracton's  In a s i m i l a r v e i n in  (p.  which 215).  mould'" w i t h  budding  dirt'"  sneer  41).  hygiene,  blue  and  (which opposed  i s the to  chemical  trees  complete  with  which and  '"sweat,  the  '"art  he His  breeding  shaving the p l a n e t o f i t s o f f e n s i v e n a t u r a l by  that  vegetable'"  fecundity  stain'"  "'the  and  perspective  recently written  a l l sprouting  excretions'"  Belbury  for  for  materialistic  Element" (p. 36).  planet's  of  decapitated  about, animal  Sanitation"  planet  been  a f a m i l y , James'" (p.  harangues  . . .  the  values,  had  has  grossly  kind  d i s i n f e c t i n g Earth  d i r t ' " o f m i n e r a l s ) and which  of  qualities  with  "Progressive  eliminating  over  evil's  N.I.C.E.  Alcasan  every  common  satirizes  '"furred  which  of  is a  makeup.  Feverstone,  he  include  quality  resolutely  inorganic  Even  several  decaying,'"  it  ideology,  only  delivers  suggestions  diagram o f  significantly,  Warden, a stooge f o r the Filostrato  picture  seen, N.I.C.E.  Busby: " ' I ' d q u i t e f o r g o t t e n you Lewis  a  B e l b u r y shuns the p o l a r Feminine, which more humbly  life;  f a r too  46).  of  prowess.  organic  (p.  we  emulates  embraces  '"there's  only  i n c l u d i n g man's b o d i l y  and  intellectual  not  Furthermore,  imbalance  Masculine,  is  defeat.  even a g r a p h i c  As  itself.  life,  inherent  Head  but  i n Strength.  organic  go down i n u t t e r  '"clean trees, birds'"  192 that  sing  only  "'Consider no e g g s , birds  again  an  negation  feelers,  no  cruelty  '"Not  blade  dust. in  envisioning  of  satirically is  endorses  the as  and  .  ,"  . . .  feathers '"No  not  Ransom's one  fibre  No c r u m b l i n g , life  on  that  conceptions,'" own o b e s i t y outcome  of  a (p. a  (p.  the "'the  .  to  and  about, fall,  210).  The  p.  hopes of  en  no  language  of  of  the  no e r o s i o n , ' " moon  not  and  one  p.  the  then,  myopia,  twitching  the  slavers  borne  Clearly,  pathological  to  (Strength,  impure  rich  intelligence  route  lichen,  nests,  twigs,  . . A b o m i n a b l e , no superhuman  210).  no  no  rejection  proposition 211).  211  dropped  similar  of  (p.  leaves  mess'"  union  race  concludes  direct  supplied  "No i n s e c t - l i k e  non-organic  by h i s  is  dangerously  monstrous .  No  gloats;  muck  grass,  scientist  interchangeable  Head  .  Not even a i r .  Belbury  no  on M a l a c a n d r a :  insatiable one  Filostrato  Ransom's  . . .  current  improvement.  nests,  recalls life  electric  the  no d i r t , ' "  building  organic  as  and  planet. grain  of  Filostrato 214).  The  organic  are  out the  at  least  disembodied  which  follows:  " I n us o r g a n i c l i f e has p r o d u c e d M i n d . . . . L e a r n t o make o u r b r a i n s l i v e w i t h l e s s a n d l e s s b o d y : l e a r n to build our bodies directly with chemicals, no l o n g e r have t o s t u f f them f u l l o f dead b r u t e s and weeds. Learn how t o reproduce ourselves without c o p u l a t i o n . . . . T h e r e w i l l n e v e r be p e a c e a n d o r d e r and d i s c i p l i n e so l o n g as t h e r e i s s e x . When man has thrown it away, then he will become finally g o v e r n a b l e . . . . The w o r l d I l o o k f o r w a r d t o i s t h e world of perfect purity. The c l e a n m i n d a n d the clean minerals. What a r e t h e t h i n g s t h a t m o s t o f f e n d t h e d i g n i t y o f man? B i r t h a n d b r e e d i n g and d e a t h . . . . [This I n s t i t u t e ] i s f o r the conquest of death: o r f o r the conquest o f o r g a n i c l i f e , i f you p r e f e r . T h e y a r e t h e same t h i n g . I t i s to b r i n g out of t h a t cocoon o f o r g a n i c l i f e which s h e l t e r e d the babyhood o f m i n d t h e New M a n , t h e man who w i l l n o t d i e , the artificial man, f r e e from Nature. Nature is the l a d d e r we h a v e c l i m b e d up b y , now we k i c k h e r a w a y . " ( p . 2 1 1 , p. 2 1 2 , a n d p. 2 1 5 )  Filostrato  193 As  Lewis  Nature  turns  conquest  of  starvation Lewis' final  out,  in  Man"  (p.  that  in  the  Abo!ition,  moment  47).  plagues  conquest  "Man's  the  has  its  Anorexia  our  "man's  consummation,  nervosa,  increasingly  conquest  analysis  proved to  grotesque of  conditioned  be t h e  Head h o v e r s  himself  the  plastic  the  Horror  transfixes  Alcasan's  face  befall  him,  horror  lump c h a i n e d  onto  denunciation  of  which  a wall  this  exploitation  "There n e i t h e r  is  insists.  (Abo!ition, England  p. at  "What  exercised  by  the  conquest  to  be  of  society,  he  self-  bears  men  over  result  Nature u l t i m a t e l y avenges  are the  of  (p.  over  p.  exploitation the  fate  once  of  least  that a  is  Nature  grotesque St.  Anne's '"at the  hnau."  p o w e r on M a n ' s  side,"  o v e r man  its and  turns  Nature  a  to  "bent  a power  Edgestow  with  Alcasan.  Ransom's p i t y f o r  establishes  over men  at  increase  of  His  someone who was o n c e  273), recalls  b y man i s  51).  of  laboratory.  indeed  other  Conditioners  (Abolition,  of  warning, 45).  Filostrato's  was  his  p.  recognizing  who  power  the  out  "Man's  (Abolition,  upon  expense  Man's  of  discovers  exploitation  new p o w e r won  direct  rule  share  in  Weston,  in Abolition  The i n e v i t a b l e  We is  as  M a n , " comes  of  Nature's  disease  imaginations  Institute's  later  N.I.C.E.  of  affirms  ( S t r e n g t h , p.  we c a l l  some  Lewis concludes  Lewis  bracket  of  42).  victims.  our  n o r c a n be a n y s i m p l e "Each  only  we  diabolical  least a plain murderer'" demoniac  in  human m a t e r i a l , " describes  a  abolition  means s i m p l y t h e  exactly  Lewis  of  however,  c o n c l u s i o n more g r a p h i c a l l y t h a n he c o u l d have a n t i c i p a t e d .  even as  the  demonstrates  power its  out  as  well"  base  in  experimental to  its  as  be  a  power  instrument,"  40).  such enmity w i t h  Nature,  of  course,  herself.  always conquering Nature, name for what we have,  because to some  "Nature" extent,  is  that  194 conquered. The p r i c e o f c o n q u e s t i s t o t r e a t a t h i n g a s mere N a t u r e . Every conquest over Nature increases her domain. The s t a r s do n o t become N a t u r e t i l l we c a n w e i g h a n d m e a s u r e t h e m : t h e s o u l d o e s n o t become N a t u r e t i l l we c a n p s y c h o - a n a l y s e h e r . The w r e s t i n g o f powers from N a t u r e i s a l s o t h e s u r r e n d e r i n g of things to Nature. ( A b o l i t i o n , p. 4 9 )  Nature's  domain  himself  over  eugenics,  by  based  a  on  himself.  thus  to  grows  her  as  pre-natal perfect  Human  with  well:  nature  .  42).  t o what  as  his as  to  its  is  won.  Savagely  Frost  is  left  only with  victim.  session in  For  partly  obedience  an  what  through'  because  the  of  'I  it  in Abolition  "Without against Belbury's  the  the  and  aid  last  the  is  come  obtained part  of  the  and  full  by  propaganda  control  Nature  over  surrender  consignment of  everthing  scientist  process  his  Man  to  Belbury  In  when  hands  he  mastery  to  does  bring  relinquishes be  lost  even  thought  to  mere c h e m i c a l  phenomena,  random c h e m i s t r y  to  which  ultimately  he  Mark's  opts  to  impulse  417).  hold  pressing (such  "When a l l  want'  had  any  It  he m u s t  final  urgency,  impulses  that  remains.  be m o t i v a t e d  of  man e v e n t u a l l y  education  radical  discovers  the m a t t e r ' s  (p.  an  has  the  all  until stage  by  surrender.  never  t h e r e f o r e , m u s t come t o explains  in  unexplained  says  and  Frost's  reducing  w i t h him e v e r y d a y ) " ( p . debunked,  [is]  With  example,  because  to  .  however,  it  fall  final  "mere N a t u r e , "  knees  human a u t h o r i t y ,  "The  psychology,  .  t o Man" ( A b o l i t i o n , p.  human n a t u r e  vengeance,  conditioning,  applied  he p a t r o n i z e s  a  says  'it  cannot  be  pretensions.  s i m p l y by t h e i r  indoctrination  but  also  g r e w more is  good'  exploded The  "partly frequent has or  been 'seen  Conditioners,  own p l e a s u r e , "  Lewis  46). trained  animal  organism,"  condition  (Abolition,  emotions  continues p.  20).  the  Lewis,  intellect  is  graphically  Indeed, N.I.C.E.  powerless diagnosing  literally  falls  195 prey  to  the  "animal  organism"  practices backfire. experimentation beasts and play  which  bloody ended  avenge  by  Wither,  the  last  at  her  t o maul  t h a t devours  him  a real  comes f u l l  his  vivisection  tiger  and  briefly  when  (p.  s u b j e c t to  macabre their  462).  The  Deputy D i r e c t o r  speculates  Straik  a  other  about and  astutely  circle  henchman  body i s t r u l y  gorilla,  banquet, adding  judges  N.I.C.E., be  i t s cruel  elephant,  Belbury  i n , ' " MacPhee  might  i t s own  wolf,  the  when  "mere" s u b j e c t s o f i t s s c i e n t i f i c  '"There was  s u r v i v o r of  head  judges  themselves  self-destruction  about  Lewis,  menacing  to the f e a s t .  bear  the "animal  the  letting  theme o f e v i l ' s  i t s heart  What were once the  become  twist  at  whether  reincarnated.  the  The  final  revenge  of  body.  Indeed,  he  organism."  on  the  a l l organic  other life  hand, p r o f o u n d l y to  be  the  r e s p e c t s the  mediator  of  meaning  and  grace.  "The  regenerate  s c i e n c e which I have i n mind would not do even to m i n e r a l s  vegetables  what  protests.  He  g l o s s on  the  modern  continues  science i n an  threatens  to  do  to  man  e x p o s t u l a t i o n t h a t might  himself," serve  as  the  and  Lewis best  Strength:  When . . . [ s c i e n c e ] e x p l a i n e d i t would not e x p l a i n away. When i t spoke o f the p a r t s i t would remember the whole. While s t u d y i n g the I t i t would not l o s e what M a r t i n Buber c a l l s the Thou-situation. The analogy between the Tao o f Man and the i n s t i n c t s o f an animal s p e c i e s would mean f o r i t new l i g h t c a s t on the unknown t h i n g , I n s t i n c t , by the i n l y known r e a l i t y of c o n s c i e n c e and not a r e d u c t i o n o f c o n s c i e n c e t o the c a t e g o r y o f I n s t i n c t . I t s f o l l o w e r s would not be f r e e w i t h the words o n l y and merely. In a word, i t would conquer Nature w i t h o u t being a t the same time conquered by her and buy knowledge a t a lower c o s t than t h a t o f l i f e . ( A b o l i t i o n , p. 54)  The  reader  certainly  encounters  this  refreshingly  reverent  attitude  in  196 Lewis'  wonderful  meetings are  to  with  descriptions  of Bultitude's  Ransom, f o r example, are  life  t o him  as  a bear.  The  "what m y s t i c a l  bear's  experiences  men":  The D i r e c t o r had brought back w i t h him from Venus some shadow o f man's l o s t p r e r o g a t i v e to ennoble beasts. In h i s presence Mr. B u l t i t u d e trembled on the very borders of personality, thought the u n t h i n k a b l e and d i d the i m p o s s i b l e , was t r o u b l e d and e n r a p t u r e d w i t h gleams from beyond h i s own woolly w o r l d , and came away t i r e d . But w i t h Ivy he was p e r f e c t l y a t home--as a savage who b e l i e v e s i n some remote High God i s more a t home with the little d e i t i e s o f wood and water. I t was Ivy who f e d him, chased him out o f f o r b i d d e n p l a c e s , c u f f e d him, and talked to him a l l day long. I t was her firm c o n v i c t i o n t h a t the c r e a t u r e "understood e v e r y word she s a i d . " I f you took t h i s l i t e r a l l y i t was u n t r u e ; but i n another sense i t was not so wide o f the mark. For much o f Ivy's c o n v e r s a t i o n was the e x p r e s s i o n not of thought but o f f e e l i n g , and of f e e l i n g s Mr. Bultitude almost shared--feelings of alacrity, snugness, and p h y s i c a l a f f e c t i o n . In t h e i r own way they understood one another p r e t t y w e l l . (Strength, pp. 380-81)  The  passage  Firstly, kind  we  see  develops  Bultitude's  of p a r t i c i p a t i o n  such.  "One  trembling, emerged (p.  richly  of  our  race,  iridescent  believing  379).  The  existence,  lived  a t an  spiritual  yourself  spiritually  had  animal  relation  then  realities. superior  (p. 204).  the  us  physical  "'You to  for  pre-Adamite  brings  were  Ivy,'"  to  e x i s t e n c e drawn  back  grasped  essentially  the e r u d i t e Jane  organic  s u p e r n a t u r a l , or at  of that  he  passage  basic  i f plunged  pool  that  profound  rebukes  i n the  nature's  to  least a  an  moment  supernature. up  into  intimation in  the  realize  level, never Mother  how  i s her goose  Lewis  enough  Dimble  have  affirms  Ivy's own  of  warm,  c o n s c i o u s n e s s , would absolute,"  some  vital  avenue to  to  think  good-naturedly  197 A That  novel  "more  Hideous  robustly  Strength  human  in  vigorously  treatment"  defends  than  organic  its  predecessors,  nature  and  closely  9 examines nature  its  mediation  thematic  Bragdon  within  the  dense  and  touchstone  for  alights  ruby-throat" lilac  An  rest  of  graces  we  malicious  prose,  Myth h o v e r s leave.  in  The  story,  even  the  lace-like  passage  narrative  As  the in  its  the  episode  serves  "the  of  subtly  as  a  a s we e x p l o r e harmony  of  Duncan  loci right,  romantic  but  centre kind  the  its  dew e n c r u s t e d  tracery  own  operates and  air  of  antipodal  lyrical  the  scission  counterbalanced  a  timeless as  is  images a r e  prose  the  whole.  the  of  Wood,  presence  jewel  /  Campbell  Of  a  Scott's  tree: The The Hid By  As  into  fast-paced  as  Both  excellent  larger  The  s e v e r e d Head p o r t r a y s  B r a g d o n Wood.  the n o v e l .  there  the  the  introduction  within  the  enhances  of  concerns.  Wood's  pivotally  and  supernature.  and s u p e r n a t u r e w h i c h  by t h e wholesomeness of  of  the  "Joy"  quintessential is  best  n  ruby-throat  apprehended  looking  sidelong  pattern  of  and  Gibbons,  foliage  in  is  best  indirectly,  beyond.  B r a g d o n Wood:  uninterrupted  9  s e c r e t o f t h i s dream d e l i g h t , core of this bride-quiet, even from the moonlight the heart-leaved screen.*  "The the  This trees  so  perceived myth  principle were  distance,  " I m a g i n a t i v e W r i t i n g , " p.  is  is  obliquely, most  enjoyed  reiterated  just  so w i d e  but  the  apart  place  and  in  where  while  the  that  very  one  one  as  saw  stood  87.  !0 Scott, "Lilacs and Humming Birds," in Poets of the C o n f e d e r a t i o n , e d . M a l c o l m R o s s , New C a n a d i a n L i b r a r y , No" 1 ( [ T o r o n t o ] : M c C l e l l a n d a n d S t e w a r t , 1 9 6 0 ) , p. 1 1 2 ; e m p h a s e s a d d e d .  198 seemed  always  to  be  a  clearing:  walked i n mild sunshine" The  Wood  nightmare our  is  into  staged events cosy  the  (p.  of  27).  Wood's  of  It  sale.  image  also  reflected  as  Bragdon sacramental  morality.  not  her  points  her  through  morality narrator's activities a  static  point  of  of  and them  the  [which]  This  isolated  point  the  shadows,  one  worth  the  quiet to  ominous drama  the  transition Soler  is  from  where  being  of  cruelly  area coloured  that  of  for  the  the pink  forfeited  the  proponents  of  several  subsequent  scenes,  novel.  It  character's  but  also  by  she and  functions  morality  out  the  also  is  Tales,  and  her  own  as  directly  reinforces  its  own  reflection  of  the  the  what p.  unmistakable  out  p.  79).  it  otherwise  73).  Bragdon  entry  into  of  with  The the  is  "his  have  been  is  own  says Gibson sense  by  Wood  his  in  flavour  simply  that  would  scene's  neutral  creatures,  (Miracles,  omniscience, the  by  established  oblique  by h i s  novel  morally  one o f  points of  its  is  is  Gibson  the  is  emphasizes  episode  of  in  remember,  Lewis  single  The  stuffy of  centrality  points  (Spinner  Jane's  Wood.  we  Wood  view  hot,  '"sale  the Absolute: bad  after  precursor  poverty  a  its  are c u r t a i l e d of  the  its  is,  there.  narrator's  f u r t h e r appearances  to  norm f o r  make an e p i s o d e  description"  of  Indeed, our d i r e c t  backdrop  myth,  all,"  experience  the  a  that  Bragdon  world  Curry.  peaceful  moral  Nature,  " F o r she i s  running  the  such  of  a  reader  with  inimitable  establishes  herself. good  the  perception of  mediation  narrator's  Wood,  a continuing  Wood  the  a  engineering  centrality;  by h i s  also  Meeting.  stresses  Serving  of  Wood i s  is  for  politicking  underscores  t h e Wood p r o v i d e s an  refuge  Bragdon  Element"  plan,'"  of  fretful  the  by  19).  the College  mystery  "Progressive on  sort  and M a r k ' s  excursion  the  a  (p.  surrounded  (p.  the tale; 73).  timelessness  199 and  enhances t h e Wood's f u n c t i o n as an emblem o f mythic  incident's romantic  suspension  outside  t h e r e g u l a r course  permanence.  of action  The  redoubles the  l y r i c i s m and cosmic q u a l i t y o f i t s prose.  Thus we  o f gradual  penetration  i n t o a h o l y o f h o l i e s , " as he proceeds i n t o  t h e Wood through  a series of  ancient  (Strength,  itself  gates,  the  Coeur  the very  o f Cure  ( p . 245; emphases  of this  heart.  '"We  Bragdon,'"  Warden o f Bracton  The  had been  and "the v i l l a g e  without  o f these  strong  "sense  passageways, and quadrangles  Hardi"  heart  Britain  the n a r r a t o r ' s  " l a y i n what  discover, le  share  College  quotes  heart  Hardy  know  Wood,  not by a n c i e n t e s t  Merlin's  from  Well,  a  we  o f Ozana  i n turn, i s  report  o f any  sixteenth-century  the l a s t  Chinese boxes, as i t were, r e s t s a t t h e c e n t r e  Edgestow  Logres,"  t h e name  Bragdon  the n a r r a t o r  (p. 2 0 ) .  of ancient  preserved  added).  p. 1 8 ) .  and h o l i e s t  o f Bragdon Wood.  narrator reports:  I came t o the c e n t r e o f t h e Wood. I knew i t was t h e c e n t r e , f o r t h e r e was t h e t h i n g I had c h i e f l y come t o see. I t was a w e l l : . . . I d i d not s t e p on i t , but I l a y down i n t h e g r a s s and touched i t w i t h my fingers. For t h i s was t h e h e a r t o f Bracton or Bragdon Wood: o u t o f t h i s a l l t h e legends had come and on t h i s , I s u s p e c t e d , t h e v e r y e x i s t e n c e o f t h e College had originally depended. (pp. 19-20; emphasis added)  Bragdon  Wood  Tellurian novel's  i s the heart  not o n l y  s t o r y as w e l l , even  living  emblem  of  as A l c a s a n  o f organic  Bracton  College,  i s i t s Head.  f e c u n d i t y , while  but o f t h e  The Wood  t h e Head  is  i s but  the its  dead badge o f s t e r i l i t y .  Indeed,  there  Bragdon Wood, which  i s an  extensive  parallelism  between  i s drawn up i n a s e r i e s o f d i a b o l i c a l  t h e Head  and  contrasts.  For  200 example,  Mark  makes  n a r r a t o r ' s , except  a  labyrinthine  excursion  behind  in a privilege  both  as  they  him  to e x p l o r e  when  he  alienated,  large  room  doors"  (p.  unreality  the  to a  their  brick  airy  stumbles,  he  edifice  in a  deserted  house  19).  Mark's e x p e d i t i o n t o r t u r e s  "I was  when a l o n e — r e a l l y  more  delirium  n a r r a t o r , on  rooted r e a l i t y :  in  the  including century  the  "humble,  like  like  any  . . . .  b e f o r e , doors  l i g h t s were on"  almost  clinical fresh  atmosphere  bread"  room with  (p. 219  with  range  a  glaring  lights,"  a  of  sense  The  p.  into  is a  out  of  a  very of  garish  I thought,  o r no one?'  sense  of  domestic"  of  purpose,  where  the  architecture buildings  of  he the  then  passage,  passes  into  next  by,  seventeenth through  passages  he  had  a p l a c e where a l l the  narrator's "whiff of  Mark he  age  symbolized  " s t r a n g e s m e l l s " which g r e e t Mark i n  18).  'But  Youth and  Mark, however, i s l e d p a s s i v e l y  c o n t r a s t with and  alone  and  (p. 19).  t o u n l o c k , and  (p. 219).  with  A moment l a t e r  is a child:  i s infused  (p. 18; emphasis added).  seen  being  alone  loneliness  lingers  the b e w i l d e r i n g t u r n s o f a maze, "passage a f t e r never  arms with  universal,  ordered  which  link  ordinary solitude  him  of  the n a r r a t o r ' s  utterly  of  the  feeling  the o t h e r hand, becomes aware o f a  alone—everyone  chronologically  Mark's  locked  following  q u i t e alone  n a r r a t o r ' s walk  feel  are  are  the  touch o n l y the s u r f a c e o f our l i v e s " The  to  "It felt  The  the  Both men  doors  Mark's companions  feeling:  disjointed  but  consciousness  than  and  c o n t r a s t s with  continues  narrator's  few,  destination,  outdoors.  but  s u n - l i t walk.  select  secure  and  morning.  solid  the  while  friendly,  allotted  approach  entrapment w i t h i n the liberty  to  t h a t Mark's i s a much l e s s p l e a s a n t , drunken n i g h t t i m e  a f f a i r , as opposed t o the n a r r a t o r ' s l e i s u r e d initiates  equivalent  enters  i s " r e c e i v e d " by  "a "a  the  this  smell  of  surgical-looking young  man  whom  201 he  hardly  knew,  narrator, enjoys  on t h e o t h e r  a  distinct  emphasis centre  dressed  the  His  Wood,  a white  hand,  and  added).  of  in  is  coat"  alone  welcoming  journey  "the  Bracton  c l o s e o n l y to the r a s p i n g labours of The  narrator  sometimes Mark,  raise  control  bunches o f one  the  tubes  tentacles" As  if  (p.  being  which  while  dead  of  him  Mark  he  foolish  The Mark into  meets  at  is  led  19;  well  at  the  but  Mark  at  with  is  an  19).  visage  in  the  faces  and  the  pulsating,  gave  the  orifice  and  Head in  The  many  itself.  this  wall,  nightmarish  time  the  narrator  into  hideously  parodies  the  lull  from  eyes  that  only  rest  who  (p.  many  anticipates  way,  him  dial  death-chamber. his  the  be f a i n t l y  through  Filostrato's  along  staring  creature  visage  shadows  but  (p.  Wood,"  menacing  seemed t o  disturbs  the  stare"  and  macabre then  to  Bragdon  to  "The  some  received"  near  sheep  faces  shown:  there  soothing  few  inanimate  looking  or  The  t h e Wood p r o p e r ,  being  him  added).  Head.  a  them, which  emphasis  forward, a  soft,  sleep. artificially  preservation  our  is  219).  Wood's  The  Earth  panel  devoured,  that the  dreamy  an  beneath  swallows  horror  long,  confronts  impression  the  encountered  "their  however,  mounted  has  of  brought  of  219;  when he e n t e r s  "sense  has  heart  (p.  in  Merlin's  a chamber  normal and  of  under  distinction only  preserved  which  Bragdon's  between  spuriously  only apparently dead.  body,  Head  life  alive,  Jane's  has  been  Well. and  while  Both death, Merlin  dream p o i n t s  this  protected Merlin but is  deep  and  the  within  the  Head  is  essentially  contrast  natural  between  The visitor, adjusting his pince-nez and still s m i l i n g his cold s m i l e , seized the p r i s o n e r ' s head b e t w e e n h i s two h a n d s . He g a v e i t a s h a r p t u r n - - j u s t a s J a n e had l a s t summer s e e n men g i v e a s h a r p t u r n t o  Head  the blur  actually alive the  and two:  202 the helmet on a d i v e r ' s head. The v i s i t o r unscrewed the p r i s o n e r ' s head and took i t away. Then a l l becameconfused. The head was s t i l l the c e n t r e o f t h e dream, but i t was q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t head now--a head with a r e d d i s h - w h i t e beard a l l covered with earth. I t belonged t o an o l d man whom some people were d i g g i n g up i n a kind o f churchyard--a s o r t o f a n c i e n t British, druidical kind o f man, i n a long mantle. Jane d i d n ' t mind t h i s much a t f i r s t because she thought i t was a corpse. Then suddenly she n o t i c e d t h a t t h i s a n c i e n t t h i n g was coming t o l i f e . "Look out!" she c r i e d i n her dream. "He's a l i v e . Stop! Stop! You're waking him." But they d i d not s t o p . The o l d , buried man s a t up and began talking something t h a t sounded vaguely l i k e Spanish, ( p . 12)  "Merlin  had not d i e d , "  side-tracked, centuries.  247-48).  Druid  proves Latin  primary  Merlin's  o f a man  intelligible, (p. 344).  than  Merlin  one-dimensioned  i s indeed  force  t o whom  Apuleius  language  the bloodless  i s more  obscene, q u i v e r i n g  nothing  ' " M e r l i n i s the r e v e r s e  those  hidden,  for  fifteen  t o h i s body"  h i s body, and t h e  Although  h i s speech i s  Capella  were the  o f the Hisperica and indeed  raspings  o f the novel;  (p. 335).  it.  with  profound,  and b r e a t h l e s s  i s the p u l s i n g h e a r t  return  and Martianus resembled  "enormous c h e s t , " we a r e t o l d  support  reunited  had been time,  i t would  i n the novel.  elegances  lump, with  "His l i f e  conditions  spirit  obscure  later.  our  certain  and whose  Merlin's  hear  of  t o be a v i t a l  classics  Famina,"  out  But under  (pp.  "the  moved  we  more  o f t h e Head  he i s a man w i t h an  In c o n t r a s t , t h e Head i s o n l y an  more than a neck s p r o u t i n g o f Belbury,'"  as Dimble  says:  "He i s t h e l a s t v e s t i g e o f an o l d o r d e r i n which matter and s p i r i t were, from o u r modern p o i n t o f view, c o n f u s e d . For him e v e r y o p e r a t i o n on Nature i s a kind o f p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t , l i k e coaxing a c h i l d o r s t r o k i n g one's horse. A f t e r him came t h e modern man to whom Nature i s something d e a d — a machine t o be worked, and taken t o b i t s i f i t won't work the way he p l e a s e s . F i n a l l y come t h e Belbury p e o p l e , who take over t h a t view from t h e modern man u n a l t e r e d and  tubes t o  203 s i m p l y want t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r power by it the a i d of spirits—extra-natural, spirits." ( p . 3 5 2 ; emphases a d d e d )  Our  excursion  understand The  the  episode  element  of  establishes  almost  animated  for  the  B r a g d o n Wood t h a t world, were man  days  still of  animal  our  Dimble  those  actions'"  days.  (p.  of  able  for  are  visceral  thought  and  of  seems  produce  his  results  to  contrasting occultists "back  the  powers  (p.  246).  planet  had  been  and  supernature,  Wood we s h a r e , was  as  us  traditionally  nectar.  This  great  the  the  Druid  were, drunk cup  agrees,  those this  and  the  of  the  know" of  and  draught  of  water  Bractonian  antiquity,  was  of  of  Merlin's '"There  aren't  for  a  more  like  much more  like  physical  of  arts that  the  Lady's  '"Merlin Dimble of  201).  .  .  ceremonial  Merlin's  and  harmony  art  goes  between In  from M e r l i n ' s Wardens  figuratively  as  this  experience  romance.  .  proposes,  the  Our  an  own  m i n d and m a t t e r on  integral logic  to  was  1  (p.  nature  matter.  there  Merlin, "  of  the  experience  dynamism.  magic  relations  sense  the  being  all  and  itself  suggesting  we  reality,  by  by to  general  than just  myth it  simply  ancient  account  course,  natural  that  vital  spirit  were  of  speaks.  our v i s i t  age w h i c h  processes  figure  enliven  our  earth  reminded,  Ransom  other  B r a g d o n Wood g i v e s  '"The  Perelandra's  of  t o an e r a i n w h i c h  that  to  Indeed,  Dimble's  of  us  moved.  way t h a t  through  bifurcation  a man o f  which  the  understand  explains.  We  in  helps  especially  forebears  us is  Wood  druidical  nature,  histories,  It  to  Bragdon the  our  Wood f o r  And m e n t a l  351).  with  Merlin  the  in  which  which  modern  possibilities  in  in  ancients.  we a r e  before  ours,'"  link  unity"  animate  Well  language  his  v i v i d accounts  Well,  once  Merlin's  sacramental  "living  narrator's the  to  t a c k i n g onto anti-natural  speaking,  nature Bragdon  Well  a  in  which  ceremonial prepares  204 us  f o r the myth  Ambrosius,'"  that  Ransom  announces  the  brings  Director  home. to  '"This  the  man  household  is  of  Merlinus  S t . Anne's  (p. 345; emphasis added).  Myth  stands  whips M e r l i n ' s mass stood hurry"  before  back as he stops  as i f i t had been  ( p . 334).  continues:  our eyes,  Our  and does  on S t . Anne's  planted  suspense  "And the v o i c e ,  not m e l t .  like  grows  t o o , was such  threshold,  a tree,  as  A  the  raging  "but h i s g r e a t  and he seemed  narrator's  as one might  imagine  t o be the r o o t s and  of a tree, large  and slow and p a t i e n t , drawn  up through  clay  and  the depths  ( p . 334).  uniquely  earthy  from  and a n i m a l - l i k e  of  character,  the worst as soon as the b e s t .  That  been  is a  so  intimately  identified  presume M e r l i n  t o be n e u t r a l .  can  neutral,'"  is  be a r e a l either  neutral Merlin  obeying  God  in relation descends  the  or disobeying  explains.  Him.  living  We  columns o f a n g e l s  however, t h a t  "'there  more t o a p o i n t ' "  and d e v i l s ' "  to which s i d e M e r l i n w i l l In  keeping w i t h  We  the Bragdon  Wood  indeed  of s p i r i t  we  can  that  might  only  anything  be  being things  recognized  that  and m a t t e r , and  t h a t won't e x a c t l y f i t i n t o o u r  then,  therefore  We  have  also  understood,  but the u n i v e r s e  have a j u s t i f i a b l e  has come  concern as  now j o i n .  the medieval  sacramentalist's  moral p o t e n t i a l , we have no guarantee o f M e r l i n ' s and  so  he has  "'A c o n s c i o u s  there  have  ( p . 351).  was room f o r them  ( p . 285).  But  unity  we have caught "'glimpses o f a p o p u l a t i o n two  element,  mean, o f c o u r s e ,  quickly  antiquity's  however, has l e d us t o expect  neutral  t o us'" ( p . 351).  from  Merlin's  i s , as the nature with which  " ' I don't  Dimble  Earth"  i n no  description  voice  gravel  storm  narrator  rehearse  view o f n a t u r e ' s  good f a i t h .  the i n d e t e r m i n a c y  dual  Both Dimble of  Merlin's  205 s t a t u s , unable t o c o n f i r m notes t h a t  "the p h y s i c a l  a l r e a d y been warped  him as e i t h e r  a Christian  i n h i s own  time (p. 248).  right  i s also  "'untransformed, demoniac'" f e r t i l i t y  won't  conjectures  that  have the  Mother is  Dimble with  it,  But  he  isn't  breathe  it.  a  Christian.  He  Britain,  we  discover,  and  authority. forbidding very  the  Nevertheless, Merlin  and  good and e v i l  saved'"  will  (pp. 356-57).  Ransom  says, (p.  "'like  and  352  Ransom warns  and  p.  356).  Merlin  his  field  In f a c t , was  command  he  presence.  '"Mother  Dimble  the woods and  has  Merlin  not  rejected  powers  to  the  to  the  Ransom  o f the  soul  own  with  that  modern defeat.  i t s own  in  unlawfulness  of  this  o f wood  break the  age  of  '"One  should and  of  "'never  Merlin,  soul  weapons,'"  the weapon would  against  precaution  informs  your  been  Pendragon's  water,'" which  unlawful'"  that  Logres  current  takes and  has a l s o  Logres i n i t s p r e s e n t b a t t l e .  Belbury  a u t o m a t i c a l l y decrees t h e i r  She  out t h a t  "'utterly  reawakening  The  Indeed,  Mother Dimble, '"but  i s f r i e n d s with  himself  with  be  Merlin's  fighting  t o us i n  Merlin's  continues:  immediately  (p. 356).  moreover, would not even a v a i l much  commit  submit  would  purposes o f y o u r  by  himself.  to f i n d  h i s "'commerce  lawful,'"  focussed  too  He  o f the  She i s a C h r i s t i a n w i f e ' " (p. 389).  of r e l i e f  baptized  of  out.'"  a wood o r a r i v e r  a sigh  (p. 314).  induced  of  "'She's what y o u ' l l  the Huge Woman i s l i k e  something l e f t  but she has b a p t i z e d We  was  (p. 389).  f r i e n d s with a l l t h a t world as M e r l i n u s  rivers.  i n Jane's v i s i o n  Ransom warns  i s probably  Ransom agrees with Jane t h a t  potential  goddess, which i s a l a r m i n g  the o t h e r , ' " vision  The menacing  revealed  our e r a o f s h a r p l y s e p a r a t e d good and e v i l i f you  Ransom  s c i e n c e s , good and innocent i n t h e m s e l v e s , " have  something good i n i t s own  get  o r demoniac.  be  water,  I t would be Mother  Dimble  i n h i s hands  ancient  methods  206 Merlin's eldilic Earth been  role,  withstand,  previously  be  and  incredulity  at  Maleldil's  affairs.  home  any  of  such  Several  critics  c r i t i c who  "rather  of  book," and  the  judges the  incoherent  "sensational  are  element"  is  'point,'"  Samaan  complaint  that  their  deus their  resuscitated  in "not  i n t e r f e r e s "with  initially  i n t e r v e n t i o n , because  the  to be  in  ex  complaints  in  extend  almost  melodramatic.  with  criticizes  (p.  exalted  intellectual  159).  miraculous  the  He  not  of  the  to  Merlin  brilliance  chapters, This  1,11  theme  of  the  q u a l i t y or  its  further  happenings,  on  Botros Samaan i s  in i t s l a t t e r  keeping  can  Earth's  effect  Angele  be  i s aware  reservations  machina  Druid.  its essentially  '"the  '"to  he  involvement own  had  expresses  inauthentic  parts  for  that  powers  unanimous i n t h e i r p r a i s e o f the  novel  and  channel  mind  supernatural  Merlin  expressed to  a  mortal  supernatural  Indeed, many o f  although c r i t i c s  Lewis' c o n c e p t i o n  Orwell's  have  objecting  gods.  of  Thulcandra.  delimitation  the  serious  to  provide  i t i s n a t u r a l i z e d through M e r l i n  eldilic  descent o f  one  Only as  to  virginal  invasion  of  grounds,  of  the  be  i n i t s naked element f o r Middle  for a  prospect  dissimilar  himself,  to  will  strong  strong  (p. 359).  brought  too  too  unopened  so v i o l a t e d ' " now  of  explains,  power, which would be  to  myth  Ransom  cites  though  George  they  grow  12 more f r e q u e n t Our the  examination  opposite  o f the  towards the end,  i s true,  sacramental  of  the  that  are not trilogy,  the  however,  "supernatural"  language which the  H Samaan, Angele Botros, C r i t i c s , " Cairo Studies in English  1945,  integral  trilogy  to has  it.'" shown  events are has  that part  been working  "C.S. Lewis, the Utopist (1963-66), pp. 137-66.  12 Rev. o f That Hideous S t r e n g t h , Manchester p. 2; as quoted by Samaan, p. 164.  Evening  precisely and  parcel  to  render  and  His  News, 16  Aug.  207 intelligible.  The  the universe.  Ransom's  merely  an  arbitrary  expression things with  Merlin, not  of  are  my  bear it  quarantine is  wicked thing  and  he l e a s t a  tongue;  In t u r n , longer  as  when  natural;  said the  language'"  human b e i n g  '"I  have  to  become  Meaning" h i m s e l f of of  deities. the  field  has  a  sacramental  descends  themselves against  it.  one-sided an  by  shatters  Ransom  gods,  says  the  has  for  sit  here to  Maleldil  did  broke  the  first  gods  there.  '"For  '"And  all  so  the  about,  the  learn  the  from Numinor,  but  brought  been  able  n o r by m a g i c (p.  359;  commitment t o  to  emphasis  added).  rationalism is  dialect.  '"It's  no  It  is  no  deities (p.  longer  in  his  359).  and w i t h  unnatural  home  Thus him t h e  as  Merlin,'" words  Merlin so of  the  once  lord  heavenly the  as  for  of host  fulness  operated  solidity  Belbury  know  territory:  "the  simply mediates  no  good,  F o r one t h i n g y o u d o n ' t  Druid  faulty  plainest  explains  who  Judas  not  literal  you  Ransom  in  added).  naturally  being the  as  go.  planetary  that  is  a  the  emphasizes.  obsolete  added).  As  the  road'"  upon S t . A n n e ' s ,  by t h e  '"simply  a  true  men  Ransom  'you c a n ' t  with  language.  language  even  miracle in  emphasis  bridge,'"  Empowered  wood  meet  become  converse  sacramental and  Ransom  by G o d ' s  men  276;  evil  but  as  now d e s c e n d ,  order,'" about,  is  elements  masters  believes,  Moreover,  trouble  kidnapping,  Director,  (p.  the  his  '"True  it  to  unqualified,  it  as  (p. 359; emphasis  his  two  first  should  to  brought  "'neither  MacPhee's  MacPhee,'  had  'true  Heavens  natural  of  Merlin  Powers  integral  the Oyeresu are  357-58).  reacting the  are twin  experience.  (pp.  the  intended'"  result  naturally,  that  invaded the  as  Ransom;  you'"  from  man [ W e s t o n ]  eldilic  a  them  that  personal  repeated  proper  within  As  the  password,  beside  is  and s u p e r n a t u r a l  statement  Ransom's  true,'  forbid  this  natural  on  of  the  they  hurl  208  In the Strength moods  restoration  bring  and  together  emotions,  tenderness,  majesty  affection.  Dignified  gambols; unfit  problem even  of  more  fulness is  as  for  of  the  118).  moreover, more  more  a  sacramental  host  setting beside human  austere  Grace  pacing  in  Strength,  at  reality  the which  released  With the  as  the  we  has  been  the  from  We  to  the  but  the  says,  of  conclusion  focussed  and  fulness  not  all  acceleration  of  only  is  is  the of  variety  of  beside jovial  merry  animal  be  nothing  will  worries  prose,  in  of  beside  appropriately  '"everything else  Walsh  realized  its  that is,  '"There  pages  terror  alongside  textured  gradually  a  sobriety  Although  having  That  humour,  stands  novel,  climax  everything see  even  the c l o s i n g  juxtapose  grim  highly  comprising  remember,  different begin  of  and e m p h a t i c .  and  471). the  and  beside  Ironwood  (p.  universe  elements  horror  end  in  language,  events,  intimacy  see'"  dense  of  humility,  to  distinct  plural,'"  the  anyone  now f u l l y  p.  of  about  which  becomes  reflects  the  to  reality reality  getting  the  trilogy,  (Literary come  a  and  Legacy,  a  point,  have  become  '"incorrigibly  more  itself  and  time'"  (Strength,  p.  350).  "the  polychrome  of  this  13 novel,"  for  reactions  example,  in  Merlin  s  extreme  to the prospe