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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Nectar and ambrosia for tea : the bringing home of myth in C.S. Lewis Esau, Debra Laurie 1984

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NECTAR AND AMBROSIA FOR TEA: THE BRINGING HOME OF MYTH IN C. S. LEWIS By DEBRA LAURIE ESAU B.A. ( H o n s . ) , Queen ' s U n i v e r s i t y , 1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 1984 Co) ^ Debra L a u r i e E s a u , 1984 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f • E n g l i s h The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1956 Main Ma l l V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3 Date C WW »E-6 r v s n i i The p e c u l i a r t a l e n t s and s e n s i b i l i t y of C . S . Lew i s have commended h im t o one of t h e b r o a d e s t and l a r g e s t a u d i e n c e s of t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , an a u d i e n c e s p a n n i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l b o u n d a r i e s and c o m p r i s e d o f t h e young and o l d , a cadem i c and a v e r age c i t i z e n , and C h r i s t i a n and s e c u l a r i s t a l i k e . L e w i s ' u n i v e r s a l a ppea l a r i s e s f r om t h e u n i v e r s a l i t y of h i s v i s i o n , r o o t e d i n a f u n d a m e n t a l l y m y t h o l o g i c a l c o s m o l o g y . Such a v i e w see s e v e r y t h i n g as h a v i n g i t s own p r o f o u n d q u i d d i t y , y e t a l s o as h e r a l d i n g some g r e a t e r and d eepe r r e a l i t y . U l t i m a t e l y , L e w i s ' m y t h o l o g i c a l c o smo l ogy f i n d s i t s r a t i f i c a t i o n and f u l f i l l m e n t i n t h e C h r i s t i a n i t y w h i c h he came t o emb ra ce , and t o e spouse e v e r more d e e p l y . L e w i s ' who l e l i f e was o f a p i e c e , and i t s m y t h o l o g i c a l k e yno t e was t h e p r o d u c t o f p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , i n f o r m i n g e v e r y a s p e c t o f h i s e n t i r e e t h o s . The m y t h o l o g i c a l t i m b r e of h i s l i t e r a r y a e s t h e t i c i s t h e r e f o r e as i n t e g r a l t o h i s wo rk s o f i n e x o r a b l e l o g i c as i t i s t o h i s works o f p r i m a r y i m a g i n a t i o n , c o m p r i s i n g t h e v e r y g r a i n o f h i s p a t t e r n o f t h o u g h t . H i s m y t h o l o g i c a l s e n s i b i l i t y i s n o t t h e e x t r a n e o u s a d j u n c t o f t h e o r y , n o r does i t c o m p r i s e a remote o r t r a n s c e n d e n t r o m a n t i c i s m ; r a t h e r , i t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a p e c u l i a r " h o m i n e s s " and a v i s c e r a l n a t i v e n e s s . The f a n t a s y w o r l d s o f L e w i s ' p l a n e t a r y romances l e n d c o n c r e t e e x p r e s s i o n t o t h i s m y t h o l o g i c a l a e s t h e t i c , p r o v i d i n g a g r a p h i c f ramework f o r t h e due t o f ' o r d i n a r y ' and ' e x t r a o r d i n a r y ' wh i c h h e r a l d s t h e Lewi s i an s t r a i n . Each o f t h e t h r e e n o v e l s r e p e a t s i n m i c r o c o sm t h e p r i n c i p a l s t r u c t u r e o f h i s m y t h o l o g i c a l e t h o s , as does t h e t r i - p a r t i t e i i i s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p l a n e t a r y t r i l o g y as a w h o l e . In t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r , t h i s t h e s i s t h o r o u g h l y i n v e s t i g a t e s t h e n a t u r e , s c o p e , and i n n e r c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e e x p a n s i v e Lewi s i an e t h o s . Each t r e a t i n g one o f t h e p l a n e t a r y r omances , t h e t h r e e s ub sequen t c h a p t e r s e x p l o r e t h e r e i t e r a t i o n o f t h a t m y t h o l g o i c a l e t h o s i n theme, p a r a b o l i c s y m b o l , and p a r a d i g m a t i c me thod . The k n i t t i n g t o g e t h e r o f theme and t e c h n i q u e i n t h e t r i l o g y i s j u d g e d t o be s u c c e s s f u l , bo th i n c r e a t i n g m e a n i n g f u l s e l f - c o n t a i n e d works o f a r t , and i n p r o v i d i n g a p o w e r f u l e xponen t o f t h e L e w i s i a n e t h o s . i v Table of Contents Chapter I: Introduction: The Lewisian Ethos 1 Chapter I I : Out of the S i l e n t Planet: Learning the Language 68 Chapter I I I : Perelandra: Tasting the Language 113 Chapter IV: That Hideous Strength: Speaking the Language 161 Bi bliography: Primary Sources Secondary Sources 212 215 1 Chapter I Introduction: The Lewisian Ethos In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , a l l moments are key moments, and l i f e i t s e l f i s grace. Frederick Buechner C l i v e Staples Lewis was an extraordinary man with an uncommon a f f i n i t y f o r the ordinary. Several observers agree with Lewis that even his personal appearance was r e s o l u t e l y commonplace. He had a f l o r i d aspect and never cut a very dashing f i g u r e . New s u i t s would resign themselves into hapless heaps once draped on his rather dumpy frame. Mr. John Ensor, who arranged f o r Lewis to t a l k to the C h r i s t i a n Fellowship of the E l e c t r i c and Musical I n s t i t u t e in Middlesex in 1944, gives us t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the man he met at Paddington Station: '"He was dressed in well worn tweed jacket and corduroy trousers with fawn raincoat, and would seem undistinguishable in appearance from scores of other ordinary f o l k . 1 " 1 The aura of commonness which clung to the presence of one of the outstanding men of l e t t e r s of the twentieth century in a manner characterizes Lewis the author as much as the personage. For example, 1 As quoted by Clyde S. Kil b y , in "The Creative Logician Speaking," in C S . Lewis: Speaker & Teacher, ed. Carolyn Keefe (Toronto: Hodder and Stoughton, 1971), pp. 23-24; the a r t i c l e i s c i t e d hereafter as "Creative Logician," and the volume i s c i t e d hereafter as Speaker & Teacher. 2 L e w i s ' l i t e r a r y d i s t i l l a t i o n o f t h e c a t h o l i c e l e m e n t s o f f a i t h , Mere  C h r i s t i a n i t y , i s a c omp r ehen s i v e y e t c o n c i s e and l u c i d document , e a s i l y g r a s p e d by t h e o r d i n a r y man on t he s t r e e t . H i s o r i g i n a l p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s m a t e r i a l on r a d i o , b r o a d c a s t i n s e v e r a l s e r i e s o f b r i e f t e n - m i n u t e a d d r e s s e s on t he BBC, f u r t h e r t e s t i f i e s t o h i s penchan t f o r what i s b a s i c and r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e common man. The P r ob l em o f P a i n , one o f L e w i s ' e a r l i e r b o o k s , c o n f i r m s h i s g i f t o f s p e a k i n g t o e v e r yman , even on t o p i c s o f d eepe r u n d e r s t a n d i n g . B e f o r e a d d r e s s i n g t h e ma in s u b j e c t o f h i s book , L ew i s i s w i l l i n g t o t a c k l e , "on t he s c a l e o f a pamph l e t i n a 2 c h u r c h p o r c h , . . . t h e o r i g i n s o f t h e i s m . " "The c h a p t e r , s l i g h t as i t i s , p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t examp le o f t h e a u t h o r ' s good management , " A u s t i n F a r r e r j u d g e s . " W i t h o u t r e s e r v e o r a f f e c t a t i o n he does what he c a n , " c o n t i n u e s F a r r e r , c i t i n g L e w i s ' " p a s t o r a l c o n c e r n " f o r h i s r e a d e r s ( " C h r i s t i a n A p o l o g i s t , " p. 3 4 ) . T h i s r e ady a b i l i t y t o d i s c e r n and a p p r e c i a t e b a s i c s c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e who le o f L e w i s ' l i f e and o e u v r e . The man and h i s work s t a n d r o o t e d w i t h i n t h e s o l i d m a t r i x o f a d o w n - t o - e a r t h r e a l i t y , wh i c h p r o v i d e s t h e b r a c i n g sense o f a f i r m g roundwork . " S a n e , " a word used l o v i n g l y by 3 L e w i s , i s a t e rm a l s o o f t e n emp loyed by h i s c r i t i c s and r e v i e w e r s . L e w i s ' p r o f u n d i t y c o m p r i s e s a d i s a r m i n g and f o r t h r i g h t s i m p l i c i t y - - t h e 2 A u s t i n F a r r e r , "The C h r i s t i a n A p o l o g i s t , " i n L i g h t on C . S .  L e w i s , e d . J o c e l y n G i bb ( London : G e o f f r e y B l e s , 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 34 ; t h e vo lume i s c i t e d h e r e a f t e r as L i g h t . 3 Chad W a l s h , "The E l u s i v e l y S o l i d C . S . L e w i s , " Good Work ( W i n t e r , 1 9 6 7 ) ; r p t . " C . S . L e w i s : The Man and t h e M y s t e r y , " i n Shadows o f  I m a g i n a t i o n , e d . Mark R. H i l l e g a s , new e d . , C r o s s c u r r e n t s / M o d e r n C r i t i q u e s , g en . e d . H a r r y T. Moore ( C a r b o n d a l e , [ I L ] : S o u t h e r n I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ; London: F e f f e r and S i m o n s , 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 5; t h e a r t i c l e i s c i t e d h e r e a f t e r as "The Man and t he M y s t e r y . " 3 polar opposite of naive simplism. As l i t e r a r y c r i t i c and scholar, as well as C h r i s t i a n apologist and m o r a l i s t , Lewis was always ready to cut through sentiment, suave r h e t o r i c , and unwarranted c a s t l e b u i l d i n g . With deft and pie r c i n g strokes he would expose the skeletons shivering beneath f a l s e s o p h i s t i c a t i o n . Such s i m p l i c i t y , q u a l i f i e d as i t i s by a robust probe into meaning, characterizes the corpus of Lewis' work and endears him to his readers. N e v i l l Coghill applauds the "homely English" and "easy handling of clauses" standard even to Lewis' l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m . ^ He also admires the "pungent s i m p l i c i t y " and "sudden, provocative generalizations" of his conversation and polemical prose (p. 61). In Lewis' most complex prose Coghill continues to f i n d "weight and c l a r i t y of argument, sudden turns of generalization and genial paradox, the t e l l i n g short sentence to sum a complex paragraph, and unexpected touches of personal approach" (pp. 59-60). Evan K. Gibson s i m i l a r l y praises the down-to-earth q u a l i t y of Lewis' f i c t i o n : "The simple and oral-sounding sentences, the c r y s t a l -c l e a r i l l u s t r a t i o n s and analogies, the eye-level meeting with the reader—whether c h i l d or a d u l t — i n d i c a t e a writer with a s t y l e f o r a l l 5 seasons. The common touch was, indeed, at his f i n g e r t i p s . " Lewis' l i f e s t y l e bears the same stamp of s i m p l i c i t y as his l i t e r a t u r e . Thomas Howard t e l l s us that Lewis wrote and spoke out of his experience, "most of i t very humdrum experience" (Foreword, Speaker &  Teacher, p. x). "I would l i k e everything to be immemorial--to have the 4 "The Approach to English," in Light, p. 65. 5 C S . Lewis: Spinner of Tales (Washington, D.C: C h r i s t i a n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1980), p~. 5l emphasis added. The book i s c i t e d hereafter as Spinner of Tales. 4 same o l d h o r i z o n s , t h e same g a r d e n , t h e same s m e l l s and s o u n d s , a lway s t h e r e , c h a n g e l e s s , " L ew i s c o n f e s s e s . ^ Neve r a g r e a t t r a v e l l e r , Lew i s l e f t t h e U n i t e d K ingdom o n l y t w i c e , once t o s e r v e i n Wo r l d War I , and once w i t h h i s a i l i n g w i f e t o f u l f i l l h e r dream o f v i s i t i n g G reece b e f o r e h e r d e a t h . To L e w i s ' t a s t e , an i d e a l day wou ld be a " n o r m a l " day, such as began w i t h a mo rn i ng o f s t u d y , p r e f e r a b l y complemented by an e l e v e n - o ' c l o c k cup o f t e a o r c o f f e e , and l a t e r f o l l o w e d by l u n c h and a s o l i t a r y c o u n t r y s i d e w a l k . Then t e a , " t a k e n i n s o l i t u d e " and enhanced by l i g h t r e a d i n g , and a f u r t h e r two hou r s o f work u n t i l t h e e v e n i n g m e a l . Such a day wou l d end w i t h t a l k o r l i g h t e r r e a d i n g . 7 ' " Y o u c a n ' t g e t a cup o f t e a l a r g e enough o r a book l o n g enough t o s u i t m e , ' " Lew i s remarked.** A s u r v e y o f L ew i s c r i t i c i s m r e v e a l s a s u r p r i s i n g homogene i t y i n v a r i o u s e v a l u a t i o n s o f t h e d o m e s t i c and homely q u a l i t i e s o f L e w i s ' w r i t i n g . The re i s even agreement among c r i t i c s upon L e w i s ' p a r t i c u l a r emphas i s on t he B r i t i s h i n s t i t u t i o n o f t e a . In L i g h t on C . S . L e w i s , f o r e x a m p l e , W a l t e r Hooper sums up h i s p r o f o u n d a d m i r a t i o n f o r t h e man i n h i s own s i m p l e d e s i r e " f o r one more c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h h im o v e r t e a i n t h e q s i t t i n g - r o o m o f t h e K i l n s [ L e w i s ' O x f o r d h o m e ] . " In d i s c u s s i n g t h e 6 "To a L a d y , " 21 Nov. 1962 , L e t t e r s o f C . S . L e w i s , e d . W.H. Lew i s ( L ondon : G e o f f r e y B l e s , 1 9 6 6 ) , 306; t h e vo lume i s c i t e d h e r e a f t e r as L e t t e r s . 7 L e w i s , S u r p r i s e d by J o y : The Shape o f My E a r l y L i f e ( London : G e o f f r e y B l e s , 1 9 5 5 ) , pp . 135 -36 ; c i t e d h e r e a f t e r as JoyT 8 As quo t ed by W a l t e r Hoope r , P r e f . , Of O t h e r W o r l d s : E s s a y s and  S t o r i e s , by C . S . L e w i s , e d . W a l t e r Hooper ( London : G e o f f r e y B l e s , 1 9 6 6 ) , p. v . 9 "A B i b l i o g r a p h y o f t h e W r i t i n g s o f C . S . L e w i s , " p. 118 . 5 a l t e r n a t i n g " c o s i n e s s " and s e v e r i t y o f L e w i s ' w r i t i n g , S t e l l a G i b b o n s , a n o t h e r c o n t r i b u t o r t o L i g h t on C S . L e w i s , comments on t he f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h t e a a p p e a r s as " t h e embodiment o f c o s i n e s s " i n h i s f i c t i o n ( " I m a g i n a t i v e W r i t i n g , " p. 9 8 ) . L o o k i n g t o The L i o n , t h e W i t c h and t h e  Wardrobe f o r an e x a m p l e , G i bbons c i t e s t h e t e a p a r t y w h i c h F a t h e r C h r i s t m a s p r o v i d e s f o r Mr . and M r s . B e a v e r , t h e P e v e n s i e c h i l d r e n and " t h e a d u l t r e a d e r , an a l m o s t f o r g o t t e n e x p e r i e n c e f o r t h e poo r s o u l " ( p . 1 0 0 ) . ' " T h e B e a v e r s a r e n ' t t h e r e t o p r e v e n t you t a k i n g i t t o o s e r i o u s l y , bu t t o s u p p l y t h e snug & homely and t o g i v e i n f o r m a t i o n , ' " L ew i s h i m s e l f s a y s o f t h e t e a p a r t y . " ' I ' d have l i k e d t h a t c h a p t e r as a c h i l d , 1 " he w r i t e s t o Owen B a r f i e l d . 1 0 G ibbons f u r t h e r n o t e s t h a t " t e a . . . i s men t i o ned w i t h t e l l i n g e f f e c t i n Out o f t h e S i l e n t P l a n e t , w h i l e Ransom i s a w a i t i n g h i s i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e Oya r s a o f M a l a c a n d r a " ( p . 9 8 ) . We r e ad o f t h a t i n c i d e n t : " H i s o l d t e r r o r s o f m e e t i n g some mons t e r o r i d o l had q u i t e l e f t h im: he f e l t n e r vou s as he remembered f e e l i n g on t h e mo rn i ng o f an e x a m i n a t i o n when he was an u n d e r g r a d u a t e . More t han a n y t h i n g i n t h e w o r l d he wou ld have l i k e d a cup o f good t e a . " * ' ' ' T e a , as w e l l as i t s p o p u l a r c o u n t e r p a r t , b e e r , bo th s y m b o l i z e e a r t h i n e s s - - a n d E n g l i s h n e s s no l e s s : t h e f i r s t t h i n g t h a t Ransom does upon h i s r e t u r n f r om M a l a c a n d r a i s t o v i s i t a pub f o r a p i n t o f b i t t e r . G i bbons f i n d s t h i s b r and o f 1 0 30 May 1949 , MSFAC, c / 5 3 , #199; as quo t ed by Dona l d E. G l o v e r , C S . L e w i s : The A r t o f Enchantment ( A t h e n s , OH: Oh io U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 8 1 ) , p i 35T "The o r i g i n a l s a r e housed i n t h e Lew i s c o l l e c t i o n o f Wheaton C o l l e g e , Whea ton , I l l i n o i s . MSFAC r e f e r s t o c o p i e s o f t h e s e o r i g i n a l s " ( G l o v e r , p. 2 1 1 ) . The book i s c i t e d h e r e a f t e r as Enchan tmen t . 1 1 Out o f t h e S i l e n t P l a n e t ( T o r o n t o : The B o d l e y Head , 1 9 3 8 ) , p p . 1 3 2 - 3 3 ; c i t e d h e r e a f t e r as P l a n e t . A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s a r e t o t h i s e d i t i o n . 6 d o m e s t i c i t y " c o m p l e t e l y and s a t i s f y i n g l y E n g l i s h " ( p . 9 8 ) . L e w i s ' f i c t i o n i s h a r d l y p r o v i n c i a l , she m a i n t a i n s , when he r anges w i t h v i v i d i m a g i n a t i o n f r om m e d i e v a l Europe t o Deep Heaven . On t h e c o n t r a r y , she d i s c o v e r s " n a t i v e b l u n t n e s s and f r e s h p o e t r y " i n h i s w r i t i n g ( p . 9 8 ) . O t h e r c o n t r i b u t o r s t o L i g h t on C . S . L ew i s j o i n G i bbons and Hooper i n s t r e s s i n g L e w i s ' g e n e r a l a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e o r d i n a r y . J . A . W . B e n n e t t 12 l a u d s h i s " d i s c r i m i n a t i n g z e s t f o r l i f e , f o r 'common l i f e , ' " w h i l e John L a w l o r i d e n t i f i e s i n L ew i s t h e same q u a l i t y wh i c h L ew i s honoured i n 13 George M a c D o n a l d - - t h e " q u i e t f u l l n e s s o f o r d i n a r y n a t u r e . " In The  A ch i e v emen t o f C . S . L e w i s , Thomas Howard s u g g e s t s t h a t " o r d i n a r i n e s s " i s " c e n t r a l t o L e w i s ' s who le v i s i o n " t o t h e same e x t e n t t h a t i t d e f i n e s T . S . E l i o t ' s a e s t h e t i c . ^ Howard e x p l a i n s : T h i s i s h i s n a t i v e t e r r a i n , t h e r e g i o n we m o r t a l s were made f o r , t h e v e r y t e x t u r e s o f wh i ch s ay "home" t o u s . . . . T h i s i s t h e v e r y t u r f o f L e w i s ' s f i c t i o n . In e v e r y t a l e L ew i s w r i t e s , we f i n d o u r s e l v e s r e t u r n i n g and r e t u r n i n g , no m a t t e r what g l o r i e s and t e r r o r s have r e g a l e d u s , t o l a n e s and p u d d l e s and s andw i che s and t e a and h e a r t h s and p i n t s o f b e e r ( p . 7 9 ; emphases a d d e d ) . A . N . W i l s o n d e c l a r e s i t "an e x t r a o r d i n a r y t r i b u t e t o t h e g r e a t n e s s o f C . S . L ew i s t h a t h i s g e n i u s s h i n e s ou t o f t h e most t r i v i a l t h i n g s he w r o t e and s a i d . " 1 5 1 2 " ' G r e t e C l e r k , " 1 p. 4 8 . 1 3 "The T u t o r and t h e S c h o l a r , " p. 8 1 . 1 4 The A ch i e v emen t o f C . S . L ew i s (Whea ton , I L : H a r o l d Shaw, 1 9 8 0 ) , p. 19 ; c i t e d h e r e a f t e r a s A c h i e v e m e n t . 1 5 " L e w i s ' s W a s t e - P a p e r B a s k e t , " r e v . o f Of T h i s and O t h e r W o r l d s , by C . S . L e w i s , The S p e c t a t o r , 11 S e p t . 1982 , p. 2 0 . 7 C l y d e K i l b y draws o u r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i n f l u e n c e wh i c h A . K . H a m i l t o n J e n k i n , a f r i e n d and f e l l o w Oxon i an o f L e w i s ' , had on h i s s e n s i b i l i t y . In h i s a u t o b i o g r a p h y , S u r p r i s e d by J o y , L ew i s t e l l s us t h a t H a m i l t o n t a u g h t h im "a s e r i o u s , y e t g l e e f u l , d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o rub o n e ' s nose i n t h e v e r y q u i d d i t y o f each t h i n g , t o r e j o i c e i n i t s b e i n g ( so m a g n i f i c e n t l y ) what i t was" ( p . 1 8 9 ) . T h i s wou ld mean "a t o t a l s u r r e n d e r t o w h a t e v e r a tmosphe re was o f f e r i n g i t s e l f a t t h e moment ," L ew i s e x p l a i n s ; " i n a s q u a l i d town t o seek o u t t h o s e v e r y p l a c e s where i t s s q u a l o r r o s e t o g r i m n e s s and a l m o s t g r a n d e u r , on a d i s m a l day t o f i n d t h e most d i s m a l and d r i p p i n g wood, on a w i n d y day t o seek t he w i n d i e s t r i d g e " ( J o y , pp . 1 8 8 - 8 9 ) . Dona l d G l o v e r c o n c l u d e s t h a t f o r L ew i s " t h e most a t t r a c t i v e q u a l i t y " o f t h e b e a u t y o f a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e " i s , u n r o m a n t i c a l l y , i t s h o m e l i n e s s o r homeyness" ( En chan tmen t , p. 2 0 ) . He r e p o r t s t h a t a round 1928 " t h e l i t e r a r y theme o f ' h o m e l i n e s s ' as a t o p i c i n l e t t e r s b e g i n s t o assume i m p o r t a n c e " a n d , t h a t w h i l e " L ew i s n e v e r d e f i n e d ' h o m e l i n e s s , ' . . . he meant i n i t i a l l y . . . a sense o f s e t t l e d d o m e s t i c i t y " ( p . 1 6 ) . " I t i s n o t . . . t h e t r a d i t i o n a l home you can n e v e r g e t back t o , . . . b u t r a t h e r t h e h o m e l i n e s s wh i c h u n d e r l i e s a l l l a t e r s o p h i s t i c a t i o n and an cho r s i t , " G l o v e r c l a r i f i e s ( p p . 1 6 - 1 7 ) . In J o y , L ew i s s a y s t h a t A r t h u r G r eeve s t a u g h t h im t o a p p r e c i a t e " H o m e l i n e s s " i n 1 i t e r a t u r e - - " n o t . . . m e r e l y D o m e s t i c i t y , t hough t h a t came i n t o i t , " bu t p a r t i c u l a r l y " t h e r o o t e d q u a l i t y wh i c h a t t a c h e s . . . [ s u c h book s ] t o a l l o u r s i m p l e e x p e r i e n c e s , t o w e a t h e r , f o o d , t h e f a m i l y , t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d " ( p . 1 4 5 ) . L ew i s r e c o r d s t h a t he l e a r n e d t o l o o k f o r 1 6 K i l b y , The C h r i s t i a n Wo r l d o f C S . Lew i s (Grand R a p i d s , MI : Ee rdmans , 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 17 ; c i t e d h e r e a f t e r as C h r i s t i a n W o r l d . 8 and l o v e t he " home l y " i n n a t u r e as w e l l as i n 1 i t e r a t u r e - - " t h e b e a u t y o f t h e o r d i n a r y v e g e t a b l e s t h a t we d e s t i n e t o t h e p o t , " o r o f " n o t h i n g more t h a n a f a r m y a r d i n i t s m i d -mo rn i n g s o l i t u d e " ( J o y , p. 1 5 0 ) . He w r i t e s t o h i s b r o t h e r o f h i s f o n d n e s s f o r " a l l s o r t s o f w e a t h e r " (20 March 1932 , L e t t e r s , 1 5 0 ) , r e m i n d i n g us o f t h e D e n n i s t o n s i n t h e t h i r d vo lume o f t h e t r i l o g y , Tha t H i d eous S t r e n g t h . They s i m i l a r l y " e n j o y t h i n g s f o r t h e i r own s a k e , " and s h a r e an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f w e a t h e r i n g e n e r a l , r a i n o r s h i n e . 1 7 C l e a r l y , L ew i s f i n d s n o t h i n g i g n o m i n i o u s i n t h e o r d i n a r y ; a q u a l i t y o f d o m e s t i c i t y i s t h e keyno t e o f h i s wo r k . In t h e hymns w h i c h c l o s e The P i l g r i m ' s R e g r e s s , f o r e x a m p l e , L ew i s c e l e b r a t e s " t h e t e t h e r and pang o f 18 t h e p a r t i c u l a r " wh i c h i s o u r human l o t . He does no t envy t he a n g e l s t h e i r g r and bu t s e v e r e l y e t h e r e a l c l i m e s . He a p p r e c i a t e s t h e human i d i o s y n c r a c y w h i c h makes men 's homes, t empo r a l t hough t h e y may b e , so d e a r t o them. In one o f h i s L e t t e r s , L ew i s s y m p a t h i z e s w i t h h i s c o r r e s p o n d e n t ' s " f e e l i n g abou t a h o u s e w i f e ' s work b e i n g l i k e t h a t o f S i s y p h u s , " bu t he goes on t o en cou rage h e r : " I t i s s u r e l y i n r e a l i t y t h e most i m p o r t a n t work i n t h e w o r l d . What do s h i p s , r a i l w a y s , m i n e s , c a r s , government e t c . e x i s t f o r e x c e p t t h a t p e o p l e may be f e d , warmed, and s a f e i n t h e i r own homes? As D r . J ohnson s a i d , 'To be happy a t home i s t h e end o f a l l human e n d e a v o u r ' " ("To a L a d y , " 16 March 1955 , 2 6 2 ) . 17 L e w i s , T h a t H i d eou s S t r e n g t h : A Modern F a i r y - T a l e f o r Grown-Ups ( L ondon : John L ane , The B o d l e y Head , 1 9 4 5 ) , p. 3 0 4 ) ; c i t e d h e r e a f t e r as S t r e n g t h . A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s a r e t o t h i s e d i t i o n . 18 The P i l g r i m ' s R e g r e s s : An A l l e g o r i c a l A p o l o g y f o r C h r i s t i a n i t y ,  Reason and R o m a n t i c i s m [1933 ] new and r e v , e d . ( London : G e o f f r e y B l e s , 1 9 4 3 ) , p p . 198 -99 ; c i t e d h e r e a f t e r as R e g r e s s . 9 As a g e n e r i c and i n g a t h e r i n g m e t a p h o r , t h e ' t e a ' wh i c h so c o m f o r t a b l y s t e e p s L e w i s ' w r i t i n g and l i f e s t y l e d eno t e s more t han t he c r e a t u r e c o m f o r t s o r s o c i e t a l r e f i n e m e n t s o f an advanced c i v i l i z a t i o n . A l o n g w i t h i t s f e l l o w emblems o f h o m e l i n e s s , t e a comes t o c onno t e even a mo ra l T i g h t n e s s . In The S c r ew tape L e t t e r s , L e w i s ' a c c o u n t o f H e l l ' s d e v i l i s h r a n k s , S c r ew t ape a d v i s e s a j u n i o r d e v i l t h a t he has "known a human de f ended f r om s t r o n g t e m p t a t i o n s t o s o c i a l a m b i t i o n by a s t i l l 19 s t r o n g e r t a s t e f o r t r i p e and o n i o n s . " S c r ew tape e x p l a i n s : Neve r f o r g e t t h a t when we a r e d e a l i n g w i t h any p l e a s u r e i n i t s h e a l t h y and norma l and s a t i s f y i n g f o r m , we a r e , i n a s e n s e , on t h e Enemy's [ G o d ' s ] g r o u n d . I know we have won many a s o u l t h r o u g h p l e a s u r e . A l l t h e same, i t i s H i s i n v e n t i o n , n o t o u r s . He made t h e p l e a s u r e s : a l l o u r r e s e a r c h so f a r has n o t e n a b l e d us t o p roduce o n e . The d e e p e s t l i k i n g s and i m p u l s e s o f any man a r e t h e raw m a t e r i a l , t h e s t a r t i n g - p o i n t , w i t h w h i c h t h e Enemy has f u r n i s h e d h im . . . . I wou l d make i t a r u l e t o e r a d i c a t e f r om my p a t i e n t any s t r o n g p e r s o n a l t a s t e w h i c h i s n o t a c t u a l l y a s i n , even i f i t i s s ome th i ng q u i t e t r i v i a l such as a f o n d n e s s f o r c o u n t y c r i c k e t o r c o l l e c t i n g s tamps o r d r i n k i n g c o c o a . Such t h i n g s , I g r a n t y o u , have n o t h i n g o f v i r t u e i n them; bu t t h e r e i s a s o r t o f i n n o c e n c e and h u m i l i t y and s e l f - f o r g e t f u l n e s s abou t them wh i c h I d i s t r u s t . The man who t r u l y and d i s i n t e r e s t e d l y e n j o y s any one t h i n g i n t h e w o r l d , f o r i t s own s a k e , and w i t h o u t c a r i n g twopence what o t h e r p e o p l e s a y abou t i t , i s by t h a t v e r y f a c t f o r e - a r m e d a g a i n s t some o f o u r s u b t l e s t modes o f a t t a c k . ( p . 49 and pp . 6 8 - 6 9 ; emphas i s added) C r i t i c J a r e d L o b d e l l p r o p o s e s t h a t sub-warden C u r r y , t h e o n l y p r o p o n e n t o f N . I . C . E . t o be s p a r e d i n S t r e n g t h ' s h o l o c a u s t , i s s i m i l a r l y 19 The S c r ew tape L e t t e r s and S c r ew t ape P r opo se s a T o a s t [ 1942 ] new e d . ([New Y o r k ] : M a c m i l l a n , 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 6 9 ; t h e vo lume i s c i t e d h e r e a f t e r as S c r e w t a p e . 10 " d e f e n d e d a g a i n s t t h e t r a h i s o n des c l e r c s , " as D imb l e c a l l s i t ( p . 4 6 2 ) - - o r " t h e t r e a s o n o f t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l s , " wh i c h i s ' " a d e s i r e o f t h e s p e c i e s t o become t h e m a s t e r o f t h i n g s ' " - - b y a t a s t e f o r w i r e - p u l l i n g and 20 s u p e r i n t e n d i n g t he l i v e s o f h i s c o l l e a g u e s . " Because he " i n n o c e n t l y p r o d u c e [ s ] boredom r a t h e r t h an i n t e n t i o n a l l y p r o d u c i n g h a r m , " L o b d e l l c o n c l u d e s , "he i s a l m o s t t r i v i a l l y s a v e d " ( p . 1 2 ) . As C u r r y ' s name s u g g e s t s , he m e r e l y has a t a s t e f o r s p i c e i n h i s l i f e , r a t h e r t h an an e goman i a c a l hunger f o r power . F e v e r s t o n e c a l l s h im " ' a man who l o v e s b u s i n e s s and w i r e - p u l l i n g f o r t h e i r own sake and d o e s n ' t r e a l l y a sk what i t ' s a l l a b o u t ' " ( S t r e n g t h , p. 4 4 ) . The re i s o n l y a f i n e l i n e between C u r r y ' s s e l f i s h n e s s and F e v e r s t o n e ' s own s e l f - c e n t r e d n e s s , bu t t h e d i f f e r e n c e i s c r u c i a l . " I t may be t h e l i t t l e s p a r k o f i n n o c e n c e and d i s i n t e r e s t e d n e s s f r om wh i c h t h e who l e man can be r e c o n s t r u c t e d , " 21 comments Lew i s on a c ompa rab l e s i t u a t i o n . L ew i s h e a r t i l y e n d o r s e s t h e p r o s a i c , s u b - C h r i s t i a n v a l u e s o f e v e r y d a y l i f e , q u i c k o n l y t o p o i n t o u t t h e dange r o f r e s t i n g t h e r e 22 i n s t e a d o f e x e r c i s i n g t r u e v i r t u e . He s ay s i n h i s sermon " T r a n s p o s i t i o n " : May we no t . . . suppose . . . t h a t t h e r e i s no e x p e -2 u " P e t t y C u r r y : S a l v a t i o n by a T a s t e f o r T r i p e & O n i o n s , " O r c r i s t , No. 6 ( W i n t e r 1 9 7 1 - 7 2 ) , p. 12 and p. 1 1 ; c i t e d h e r e a f t e r as " P e t t y C u r r y . " The imbedded q u o t a t i o n i s f r om J u l i e n Benda , The T r ea son  o f t h e I n t e l l e c t u a l s (New Y o r k , 1 9 2 8 ) ; as quo t ed by L o b d e l l , p. 1 1 . 2 1 26 Dec . 1945 , They S t and T o g e t h e r : The L e t t e r s o f C . S . L ew i s t o  A r t h u r G r e eve s ( 1 9 1 4 - 1 9 6 3 ) , ed"! W a l t e r Hooper (New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n , 1 9 7 9 ) , 506; t h e vo lume i s c i t e d h e r e a f t e r as T o g e t h e r . 2 2 L e w i s , " C h r i s t i a n i t y and C u l t u r e " (a l e t t e r ) , T h e o l o g y , 40 ( 1 9 4 0 ) , 4 7 5 - 7 7 ; r p t . i n " C h r i s t i a n i t y and C u l t u r e , " i n C h r i s t i a n  R e f l e c t i o n s , e d . W a l t e r Hooper ( L ondon : G e o f f r e y B l e s , 1 9 6 7 ) , p. 2 6 . 11 r i e n c e o f t h e s p i r i t so t r a n s c e n d e n t and s u p e r n a t u -r a l , no v i s i o n o f D e i t y H i m s e l f so c l o s e and so f a r beyond a l l images and e m o t i o n s , t h a t t o i t a l s o t h e r e c anno t be an a p p r o p r i a t e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e on t h e s e n s o -r y l e v e l ? Not by a new sense bu t by t h e i n c r e d i b l e f l o o d i n g o f t h o s e v e r y s e n s a t i o n s we now have w i t h a m e a n i n g , a t r a n s v a l u a t i o n , o f w h i c h we have he re no f a i n t e s t g u e s s ? 2 3 A l t h o u g h no t i n h e r e n t l y m o r a l , t h e s e o r d i n a r y and s u b - C h r i s t i a n v a l u e s o f t h e n a t u r a l man can a i d one en r o u t e t o v i r t u e . Hooper f i n d s a more p r o f o u n d t r e a t m e n t o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o u l and s p i r i t i n The  F ou r L o v e s , a l a t e work i n L e w i s ' t h e o l o g i c a l c o r p u s . Here Lew i s c l a r i f i e s t h e v a l u e w h i c h he p o s i t s i n homely e l e m e n t s : A l l n a t u r a l a f f e c t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g t h i s [ p a t r i o t i s m ] , can become r i v a l s t o s p i r i t u a l l o v e : bu t t h e y can a l s o be p r e p a r a t o r y i m i t a t i o n s o f i t , t r a i n i n g ( s o t o s peak ) o f t h e s p i r i t u a l m u s c l e s wh i c h G race may l a t e r pu t t o a h i g h e r s e r v i c e ; as women n u r s e d o l l s i n c h i l d h o o d and l a t e r n u r s e c h i l d r e n . The re may come an o c c a s i o n f o r r e n o u n c i n g t h i s l o v e ; p l u c k o u t y o u r r i g h t e y e . But you need t o have an eye f i r s t . [ Some t imes ] t h e n a t u r a l l o v e s a r e summoned t o become modes o f C h a r i t y w h i l e a l s o r e m a i n i n g t h e n a t u r a l l o v e s t h e y w e r e . One s ee s he re a t once a s o r t o f echo o r rhyme o r c o r o l l a r y t o t h e I n c a r n a t i o n i t s e l f . And t h i s need no t s u r p r i s e u s , f o r t h e A u t h o r o f bo th i s t h e same. As C h r i s t i s p e r f e c t God and p e r f e c t Man, t h e n a t u r a l l o v e s a r e c a l l e d t o become p e r f e c t C h a r i t y and a l s o p e r f e c t n a t u r a l l o v e s . . . . C h a r i t y does no t d w i n d l e i n t o m e r e l y n a t u r a l l o v e bu t n a t u r a l l o v e i s t a k e n up i n t o , made t he t uned and o b e d i e n t i n s t r u m e n t o f , Love H i m s e l f . 2 4 23 In T r a n s p o s i t i o n and O t h e r A d d r e s s e s ( London: G e o f f r e y B l e s , 1 9 4 9 ) , p p . 9 - 2 0 ; r p t . as expanded v e r s i o n i n They Asked f o r a P a p e r : P a p e r s and A d d r e s s e s ( L ondon : G e o f f r e y B l e s , 1 9 6 2 ) , pp^ 1 8 1 - 8 2 ; t h e vo lume i s c i t e d h e r e a f t e r as They A s k e d . 2 4 The Fou r Loves ( L ondon : G e o f f r e y B l e s , 1 9 6 0 ) , p. 34 and p. 152 . 12 ' " T h e h i g h e s t does no t s t a n d w i t h o u t t h e l o w e s t , ' " r un s a f a v o u r i t e maxim 25 o f L e w i s ' , t a k e n f r om Thomas a Kemp i s ' I m i t a t i o n . L ew i s i s marked by h i s g e n u i n e a p p r e c i a t i o n o f and h e a l t h y r e s p e c t f o r t h e mean and o r d i n a r y e l e m e n t s o f l i f e . Y e t a l o n g w i t h h i s s t a u n c h t a s t e f o r t h e E n g l i s h cup o f t e a , L ew i s a l s o e v i n c e s an unquenchab l e t h i r s t f o r n e c t a r and a m b r o s i a . The d o w n - t o - e a r t h , tweedy h e a r t h - h u g g e r was an o u t s p o k e n spokesman f o r f a n t a s y , f a i r y t a l e s , and s c i e n c e f i c t i o n . Today he c o n t i n u e s t o be t h e g u i d e f o r m i l l i o n s o f r e a d e r s t h r o u g h t he f a n t a s t i c w o r l d s o f h i s own c r e a t i o n , t h e v a s t r e a l m s o f N a r n i a and Deep Heaven . L e w i s ' f i r s t l o v e i n l i t e r a t u r e was w h o l e h e a r t e d l y r o m a n t i c , s e e k i n g ou t t h e m y t h i c and m a r v e l l o u s . In n a t u r e t o o he f i r s t t h r i l l e d t o i t s v a s t and w i l d e l e m e n t s . H e r e i n L ew i s f ound " j o y " - - t h e s p i r i t - f e l t l o n g i n g so u t t e r l y consuming t h a t , a l t h o u g h t o have i t i s a wan t , " t h a t k i n d o f d e s i r e i s i t s e l f d e s i r a b l e , . . . t h e f u l l e s t p o s s e s s i o n we can know on e a r t h " ( J o y , p. 1 5 8 ) . L ew i s i d e n t i f i e s " J o y " as t h e keyno te o f h i s l i f e , and c r i t i c s have w e l l documented i t s theme i n h i s w r i t i n g . G i b s o n r e f e r s t o t h e s t r o n g c o l o u r and e m p h a t i c p i c t o r i a l i sm o f L e w i s ' l i t e r a r y s t y l e ( S p i n n e r o f T a l e s , p. 5 ) . The r e a s oned metapho rs and a n a l o g i e s w h i c h so c l e a r l y e x p l a i n i d e a s a r e a l s o v i v i d p i c t u r e s , t h e p r o d u c t s o f a v i b r a n t i m a g i n a t i o n . Howard o b s e r v e s t h a t " L e w i s h i m s e l f , when he was w r i t i n g and s p e a k i n g , a l w a y s f ound a p t a n a l o g i e s and m e t a p h o r s , s i n c e he knew t h a t we a r e t h e k i n d o f c r e a t u r e s who g r a s p t h i n g s b e s t when t h e y a r e embod ied o r p i c t u r e d " ( F o r e w o r d , S p e a k e r & 25 As quo t ed by L e w i s , Fou r L o v e s , p. 12 . 13 T e a c h e r , p. x i ) . I n d e e d , t h e f e r v o u r o f L e w i s ' i m a g i n a t i o n need h a r d l y be c h r o n i c l e d no r d e f ended i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o a s t u d y o f h i s e v e r p o p u l a r p l a n e t a r y r omances . T hu s , we s e e m i n g l y have two L ew i s e s , t h e one ' h o m e l y ' and r a t i o n a l , and t he o t h e r r o m a n t i c and i m a g i n a t i v e . In J o y , L ew i s a d m i t s t o t h e s e t w i n s i d e s o f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y , i d e n t i f y i n g t h e i r r o o t s i n h i s p a r e n t s ' own o p p o s i t e n a t u r e s — t h e c a l m , c r i t i c a l H a m i l t o n and t h e v o l a t i l e We lsh L e w i s . H i s i m a g i n a t i v e s i d e was f o s t e r e d i n c h i l d h o o d , l e a d i n g h im even t hen t o c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g and s t o r y - t e l l i n g , and t o an a l l - s u b s u m i n g p a s s i o n f o r No r se m y t h . The r a t i o n a l L ew i s d i d n o t r e a l l y d e v e l o p u n t i l f o r g e d i n t h e f i e r c e f i r e o f h i s t u t o r K i r k p a t r i c k ' s p u g i l i s t i c r a t i o n a l i t y . I t i s l a r g e l y i m m a t e r i a l f o r o u r own pu r po s e s t o d e t e r m i n e j u s t when L e w i s ' two n a t u r e s bonded t o g e t h e r w i t h any i n t i m a c y and pe rmanence . The c r u c i a l p o i n t i s t h a t h i s t w i n p r o p e n s i t i e s o f c h a r a c t e r d i d u l t i m a t e l y f u s e . Chad Wa lsh t e s t i f i e s : I t was t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f O l d K i r k ' s l o g i c and [ G e o r g e ] M a c d o n a l d ' s t r a n s c e n d e n t i n t u i t i o n s t h a t shaped t h e matu re s e n s i b i l i t y o f L ew i s and gave t o h i s books t h e i r p e c u l i a r and p o w e r f u l s i m u l t a n e o u s appea l t o mind and h e a r t . Or t o pu t i t w i t h more a c c u r a c y , t h e s e two men . . . made h im r e c o g n i z e t h e two s i d e s o f h i s n a t u r e t h a t were a l r e a d y l a t e n t . ("The Man and t h e M y s t e r y , " p. 4 ; emphas i s added) In h i s f o r m a t i v e y e a r s and e a r l y manhood, L ew i s seemed condemned t o l e a d a d oub l e l i f e between h i s two n a t u r e s . "They have n o t h i n g t o do w i t h ea ch o t h e r : o i l and v i n e g a r , a r i v e r r u n n i n g b e s i d e a c a n a l , J e k y l l and Hyde . F i x y o u r eye on e i t h e r and i t c l a i m s t o be t h e s o l e t r u t h , " L ew i s l amen t s ( J o y , pp . 1 1 5 - 1 6 ) . Y e t he was g r a d u a l l y a p p r o a c h i n g a c o h e r e n t — o r t o bo r r ow a b e t t e r t e r m f r om C h a r l e s W i l l i a m s , a 14 c o - i n h e r e n t — u n i t y , t o wh i c h bo th q u a l i t i e s wou ld be v i t a l . W a r r i n g somet imes w i t h h i s i m a g i n a t i o n and somet imes w i t h h i s r e a s o n , l e d now by h i s g u i d i n g l i g h t " J o y " and now by h i s f a c u l t i e s o f l o g i c , L e w i s ' h a l v e s were e v e n t u a l l y we l ded i n t o a s i n g l e , d u a l - f a c e t e d p e r s o n a l i t y . Mov ing f r om h i s o r i g i n a l u n q u a l i f i e d p a s s i o n f o r n a t u r e ' s w i l d , e l e m e n t a l g l o r y , L ew i s u l t i m a t e l y came t o know h i s d e e p e s t p l e a s u r e "when t h e Homely and t h e unhomely met i n s h a r p j u x t a p o s i t i o n ; i f a l i t t l e k i t c h e n ga rden r an s t e e p l y up a n a r r o w i n g e n c l a v e o f f e r t i l e g round s u r r o u n d e d by o u t c r o p p i n g s and f u r z e " ( J o y , p. 1 5 0 ) . " I f t h i s new w o r l d was s t r a n g e , i t was a l s o homely and h u m b l e , " L ew i s e x p l a i n s i n a n o t h e r c o n t e x t . " H o m e l i n e s s and mag i c embrace one a n o t h e r , " L ew i s t e l l s G r e eve s (5 J a n . 1930 , T o g e t h e r , 3 2 7 ) . In d e s c r i b i n g bo th t h e homely and m a g i c a l q u a l i t i e s o f a f a v o u r i t e boyhood l a n d s c a p e , L ew i s t e s t i f i e s : "And he re we come t o one o f t h o s e g r e a t c o n t r a s t s w h i c h have b i t t e n d e e p l y i n t o my m i n d - - N i f l h e i m and A s g a r d , B r i t a i n and L o g r e s , Hand ram i t and H a r a n d r a , a i r and e t h e r , t h e low w o r l d and t h e h i g h " ( J o y , p. 1 4 7 ) . I t i s t h i s s ense o f a p r o f o u n d c o n t r a s t , u n i v e r s a l , p e r p e t u a l , and i r r e d u c i b l e i n i t s b i n a r y o p e r a t i o n , w h i c h p r o v i d e s f o r t h e c o a l i t i o n o f L e w i s ' d i s p a r a t e c h a r a c t e r e l e m e n t s . H o m e l i n e s s and mag ic f a s h i o n t h e y oke wh i c h he came t o wear so w e l l . A d e l i c a t e c o n j u n c t i o n o f e x t r a o r d i n a r y i m a g i n a t i o n , and " o r d i n a r y " o r b a s i c r a t i o n a l i t y , came t o be t h e dom inan t stamp o f L e w i s ' w r i t i n g . Our pu rpose w i l l be t o examine t he b a l a n c e and o p e r a t i o n o f t h i s u n i o n , as i t c h a r a c t e r i z e s and f u n c t i o n s i n t h e p l a n e t a r y t r i l o g y . We w i l l wa t ch L e w i s , a l w a y s a t home 26 P r e f . , George Ma cdona l d : An A n t h o l o g y ( London: G e o f f r e y B l e s , 1 9 4 6 ) , p. 2 1 ; t h e vo lume i s c i t e d h e r e a f t e r as George M a c d o n a l d . 15 i n t h e unhomely c l i m e s o f m y t h , b r i n g t h i s myth back home, b r a v e l y s e r v i n g us i t s n e c t a r and a m b r o s i a f o r t e a . C r i t i c a l a c c l a i m o f L ew i s i s l o u d e s t i n h a i l i n g what L a w l o r i d e n t i f i e s as ' " t h e s i n g u l a r i t y o f h i s e s s e n t i a l b e i n g ' " ( " T u t o r and S c h o l a r , " p. 6 7 ) . L ew i s i s n o t a s p l i t p e r s o n a l i t y , L a w l o r a s s u r e s u s ; i n h im " t h e v i s i o n a r y and t he m o r a l i s t , commonly d i s j o i n e d , a r e a t one " ( p . 8 2 ) . E m p h a s i z i n g " h i s i n t e r e s t i n t h e f u s i o n o f t h e homely and t h e m a g i c a l , " G l o v e r c a l l s " t h e f u s e d e x p e r i e n c e . . . t h e h e i g h t o f L e w i s ' s a c h i e v e m e n t " ( En chan tmen t , p. 74 and p. 8 2 ) . F a r r e r i n s i s t s t h a t L e w i s ' " p e c u l i a r m e r i t i s a m a s s i v e e n t i r e t y o f v i e w " ( " C h r i s t i a n A p o l o g i s t , " p. 2 9 ) . B e n n e t t , who i n f o r m s us t h a t L ew i s v a l u e d t h e s c h o o l o f C h a r t r e s ' " a s s e r t i o n o f t h e who l e ne s s o f man ' s n a t u r e , " a l s o t e l l s us t h a t L e w i s ' "works a r e a l l o f a p i e c e : a book i n one gen re w i l l c o r r e c t , i l l u m i n e , o r a m p l i f y what i s l a t e n t i n a n o t h e r " ( ' " G r e t e C l e r k , ' " p. 46 and p. 4 9 ; emphas i s a d d e d ) . L a w l o r s i m i l a r l y s t r e s s e s t h a t " a l l o f h i s work . . . i s o f one p i e c e " ( " T u t o r and S c h o l a r , " p. 8 0 ) , as does W i l l i a m L u t h e r 27 Wh i t e i n h i s own s t u d y , The Image o f Man i n C . S . L e w i s . L i f e i s a r i c h t a p e s t r y f o r L e w i s , w i t h no l o o s e t h r e a d s : one may h i g h l i g h t a d e l i c a t e w o r k i n g he r e o r f o c u s on a c e r t a i n i n t r i c a c y t h e r e , bu t a lway s w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e g r and p i c t u r e t o w h i c h i t c o n t r i b u t e s . C r i t i c s a g r e e t h a t , i n i t s f a r - r a n g i n g s y n t h e s i s and a l l -en compas s i ng n a t u r e , t h e " m a s s i v e e n t i r e t y " o f L e w i s ' v i e w f ound i t s r i g o r o u s r o o t s w i t h i n L ew i s h i m s e l f . G i b s o n s u g g e s t s t h a t "one who r e ad s 2 7 The Image o f Man i n C . S . L ew i s (New Y o r k : Ab i ngdon P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 7 4 ; c i t e d h e r e a f t e r as Image o f Man. 16 h i s books r e ad s h i s l i f e " ( S p i n n e r o f T a l e s , p. 1 0 ) . In an e s s a y f i r s t p u b l i s h e d unde r t h e s i g n i f i c a n t l y p a r a d o x i c a l t i t l e , "The E l u s i v e l y S o l i d C . S . L e w i s , " Wa l sh e choes G i b s o n ' s o b s e r v a t i o n : "The m y s t e r y o f C . S . L ew i s i s t h a t t h e r e seems t o be no m y s t e r y . None, a t l e a s t , i f one v i ews t h e man t h r o u g h h i s b o o k s . No w r i t e r i n o u r t i m e s has been more b l e s s e d w i t h t h e g i f t o f c l a r i t y " ("The Man and t h e M y s t e r y , " p. 1 ) . Wa l sh goes on t o s a y t h a t t h e L e t t e r s o f C . S . L e w i s , as w e l l as t h e p e r s o n a l t e s t i m o n i e s o f t h e c o n t r i b u t i n g e s s a y i s t s i n L i g h t on C . S . L e w i s , bo th c o n f i r m t h a t L ew i s was i n d e e d t he man s u g g e s t e d by h i s b o o k s , and " t h a t t h e i n n e r man and t h e p u b l i c man were one " ( p . 2 ) . E s s a y s i n C . S . L e w i s : S p e a k e r & T e a c h e r f u r t h e r t e s t i f y t o L e w i s ' s i n g u l a r l y u n i f i e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s and h i s c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h o u g h t and c o n d u c t . In t h i s v o l u m e , unde r a n o t h e r m e a n i n g f u l l y p a r a d o x i c a l t i t l e , "The C r e a t i v e L o g i c i a n S p e a k i n g , " K i l b y p o s t u l a t e s : Now t h e g r e a t and I t h i n k a l l bu t un i que e s s e n t i a l i n C . S . L e w i s ' s makeup was a r e m a r k a b l e c o m b i n a t i o n o f two q u a l i t i e s n o r m a l l y supposed t o be o p p o s i t e s . I mean on t h e one hand a deep and v i v i d i m a g i n a t i o n and on t h e o t h e r hand a p r o f o u n d l y a n a l y t i c a l m i n d . Even more r e m a r k a b l e , i t was no t t h a t t h e s e q u a l i t i e s l a y i n h im s i d e by s i d e and d i s c o n n e c t e d bu t t h a t by some good a l chemy t h e y were o r g a n i c a l l y j o i n e d . . . . A c t u a l l y r e a s o n and i m a g i n a t i o n a r e j o i n e d i n L e w i s ' s c o m m u n i c a t i o n — b o t h w r i t t e n and o r a l — b e c a u s e t h e y were f i r s t j o i n e d i n h i s t h o u g h t and l i f e . ( p p . 2 4 - 2 5 ; emphases added) The i n t e g r a t i v e , u n i f i e d s e n s i b i l i t y wh i c h i s t h e h a l l m a r k o f L e w i s ' c h a r a c t e r and w r i t i n g c o u l d be a n a l y z e d a c c o r d i n g t o s e v e r a l b i n a r y s c h e m a t a . F o r e x a m p l e , one c o u l d d e s c r i b e L e w i s ' work i n t e rms o f i t s " s i m u l t a n e o u s appea l t o mind and h e a r t , " as Wa lsh does i n "The Man and t h e M y s t e r y . " K i l b y u se s p a r a l l e l t e r m i n o l o g y a b o v e , i d e n t i f y i n g L e w i s ' 17 " v i v i d i m a g i n a t i o n and . . . a n a l y t i c a l m i n d . " A l t e r n a t i v e l y , one c o u l d d i s c u s s t h e m e r i t s o f L e w i s ' w r i t i n g a c c o r d i n g t o i t s s y n c h r o n a l p o e t i c and p r o s a i c q u a l i t i e s . Our own e x a m i n a t i o n , howeve r , w i l l r e v i e w L e w i s ' c o m p o s i t e s e n s i b i l i t y i n t e rms o f i t s " n a t u r a l s u p e r n a t u r a l i s m . " " S p i r i t and N a t u r e have q u a r r e l l e d i n u s ; t h a t i s o u r d i s e a s e , " L ew i s d i a g n o s e s 28 i n M i r a c l e s . H i s l i f e - l o n g e f f o r t was expended t owa r d s h e a l i n g t h a t g a p . Of c o u r s e , " n a t u r a l s u p e r n a t u r a l i s m " i s o u r own p e c u l i a r t e rm c o i n e d t o r e f e r t o t h e L e w i s i a n due t o f o r d i n a r y and e x t r a o r d i n a r y . L ew i s had been l o n g c o n v e r t e d t o C h r i s t i a n i t y when he w r o t e t h e p l a n e t a r y t r i l o g y , d i s m i s s i n g any q u e s t i o n o f h i s p r i m a r y b e l i e f i n Romant i c p a n t h e i s m . W h i l e t h e t w i n components o f L e w i s ' n a t u r a l s u p e r n a t u r a l i sm a r e i n t e g r a l l y r e l a t e d , t h e y a r e n o n e t h e l e s s u n e q u a l . S u p e r n a t u r e i s t h e o r i g i n a l and c r e a t i v e e l e m e n t , w h i l e n a t u r e i s a d e r i v a t i v e e l e m e n t , r a t h e r l i k e s u p e r n a t u r e ' s m y t h o l o g i c a l r e f l e c t i o n . By temperament and c o n v i c t i o n L ew i s was a man t o s e a r c h benea th s u r f a c e a p p e a r a n c e s , e v e r p r o b i n g f o r s u g g e s t i o n s o f what l i e s beyond . As G l o v e r p u t s i t , he was e n t h r a l l e d by " t h a t sense o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s " ( En chan tmen t , p. 5 1 ) . G i bbons d e s c r i b e s L ew i s as a man " p e r p e t u a l l y haun ted by t h e r e a l i t i e s l y i n g b e h i n d a p p e a r a n c e s " ( " I m a g i n a t i v e W r i t i n g , " p. 9 7 ) . F o r L e w i s , howeve r , t h i s n e v e r d i m i n i s h e d t h e impo r -t a n c e o f s u r f a c e o r d i n a r i n e s s . He r e c o r d s such an i n s i g h t i n J o y : " I saw t h e b r i g h t shadow . . . , t r a n s f o r m i n g a l l common t h i n g s and y e t i t s e l f un changed . O r , more a c c u r a t e l y , I saw t h e common t h i n g s drawn i n t o t h e b r i g h t shadow" ( pp . 1 7 0 - 7 1 ; emphas i s a d d e d ) . The o r d i n a r y i s n o t nega t ed 28 M i r a c l e s : A P r e l i m i n a r y S t u d y ( L ondon : G e o f f r e y B l e s , 1 9 4 7 ) , p. 190 . 18 by the extraordinary; indeed, one must f i r s t attend to i t in order to perceive the extraordinary. Kilby proposes that Lewis would agree with William James that, "'When we see a l l things i n God and r e f e r a l l things 29 to Him, we read in common matters superior expressions of meaning.'" Thus, while Gibbons can tal k about Lewis' enchantment with "the r e a l i t i e s l y i n g behind appearances," Lawlor can discuss his "heightened awareness of the external world," and his appreciation of the '"quiet f u l l n e s s of ordinary nature'" ("Tutor and Scholar," p. 82). E s s e n t i a l l y , these opposed c r i t i c a l statements simply represent alternate perspectives on a sing l e phenomenon, Lewis' natural supernatural ism. The converse observations merely amount to a paraphrase of Lawlor's assertion "that the transcendental was never at variance with the prosaic" i n Lewis' l i f e ("Tutor and Scholar," p. 81). Kilby explains that Lewis "was convinced that r e a l i t y i s more than physical objects on the one hand and abstract concepts on the other; i t involves the 'concrete but immaterial' and the p o s s i b i l i t y of a naked contact with the Almighty Himself" ("Creative Logician," p. 36). The rad i c a l extent of such concrete, universal harmony can well be seen in the following passage from Lewis' popular sermon, "The Weight of Glory": It i s a serious thing to l i v e i n a society of possi-ble gods and goddesses, to remember that the d u l l e s t and most uninteresting person you ta l k to may one day be a creature which, i f you saw i t now, you would be strongly tempted to worship, or else a horror and a corruption such as you now meet, i f at a l l , only i n a nightmare. . . . There are no ordinary people. You 2 9 As quoted by Kilby , "Creative Logician," p. 37. 19 have n e v e r t a l k e d t o a mere m o r t a l . 3 0 C l e a r l y , L e w i s ' p e r c e p t i o n i s p e r vaded by h i s a c u t e awa renes s o f an o r d i n a r y w o r l d i n f u s e d by t he e x t r a o r d i n a r y . W i t h h o l y awe L ew i s r e c o g n i z e s o u r e x i s t e n c e as t h e m e e t i n g p l a c e o f two r e a l i t i e s wh i c h a r e d i s t i n c t bu t n o t d i s c o n t i n u o u s — t h e n a t u r a l and t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l . In M i r a c l e s he w r i t e s : The r e l a t i o n s wh i c h a r i s e a t t h a t f r o n t i e r a r e i n d e e d o f a most c o m p l i c a t e d and i n t i m a t e s o r t . T ha t s p ea r head o f t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l w h i c h I c a l l my r e a s o n l i n k s up w i t h a l l my n a t u r a l c o n t e n t s — m y s e n s a t i o n s , e m o t i o n s , and t he l i k e — s o c o m p l e t e l y t h a t I c a l l t h e m i x t u r e by t h e s i n g l e word "me . " ( p . 40) A l t h o u g h no t i m m e d i a t e l y t h e o l o g i c a l , L e w i s ' p e r c e p t i o n i s u l t i m a t e l y i l l u m i n a t e d f o r us by h i s r e l i g i o u s c o n v i c t i o n , j u s t as i t was c l a r i f i e d i n h i s own l i f e by C h r i s t i a n c o n v e r s i o n . L ew i s came t o see " t h a t o u r own c o m p o s i t e e x i s t e n c e i s n o t t h e s h e e r anoma ly i t m i gh t seem t o be , bu t a f a i n t image o f t h e D i v i n e I n c a r n a t i o n i t s e l f " ( M i r a c l e s , p. 1 3 4 ) . He a g r e e s w i t h a c r i t i c who c a l l s R o m a n t i c i s m " ' s p i l l e d 31 r e l i g i o n , ' " and he s h a r e s t h e " r o m a n t i c t h e o l o g y " o f h i s good f r i e n d C h a r l e s W i l l i a m s , who b e l i e v e s t h a t r o m a n t i c i s m needs t o be 32 t h e o l o g i z e d t o a v o i d s t e r i l i t y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , o u r acknowledgment o f t h i s s o u r c e o f L e w i s ' i l l u m i n a t i o n does no t i n h i b i t o u r e x a m i n i n g t h e 3 0 "The We igh t o f G l o r y , " T h e o l o g y , 43 ( 1 9 4 1 ) , 2 6 3 - 7 4 ; r p t . i n T r a n s p o s i t i o n and O t h e r A d d r e s s e s , p p . 3 2 - 3 3 . 21 L e w i s , P r e f . t o R e g r e s s , p. 1 1 . 3 2 C o r b i n S c o t t C a m e l 1, B r i g h t Shadow o f R e a l i t y : C S . L ew i s and  t h e F e e l i n g I n t e l l e c t (G rand R a p i d s , M I : Ee rdmans , 1 9 7 4 ) , p. 6 4 ; c i t e d h e r e a f t e r as B r i g h t Shadow. 20 p r o p e r t i e s o f h i s n a t u r a l s u p e r n a t u r a l i sm i n i t s own r i g h t , t o know t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e l i g h t by wh i c h we r e a d t h e p r i n t e d page o f p l a n e t a r y romance . The common d i s t i n c t i o n between n a t u r a l and s u p e r n a t u r a l i s a r t i f i c i a l and a r b i t r a r y w i t h i n L e w i s ' c o n j u n c t i v e v i s i o n . In P e r e l a n d r a , t h e s e cond vo lume o f t h e t r i l o g y , t h i s d i v i s i o n d i s s o l v e s as t h e Lew i s c h a r a c t e r c o n t e m p l a t e s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f e l d i l a , wh i c h a r e r e a l s u p e r n a t u r a l c r e a t u r e s . They a r e " n o t a n i m a l s , " y e t t h e y do have "some k i n d o f m a t e r i a l v e h i c l e whose p r e s e n c e c o u l d ( i n p r i n c i p l e ) be 33 s c i e n t i f i c a l l y v e r i f i e d . " The L ew i s c h a r a c t e r i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a l m o s t a new d i m e n s i o n : The d i s t i n c t i o n between n a t u r a l and s u p e r n a t u r a l , i n f a c t , b r o k e down; and when i t had done s o , one r e a l i s e d how g r e a t a c o m f o r t i t had been--how i t had ea sed t h e burden o f i n t o l e r a b l e s t r a n g e n e s s w h i c h t h i s u n i v e r s e imposes on us by d i v i d i n g i t i n t o two h a l v e s and e n c o u r a g i n g t he mind n e v e r t o t h i n k o f bo th i n t h e same c o n t e x t , ( p p . 9 -10 ) L e w i s ' v i e w , i n t h e words o f C o r b i n S c o t t C a r n e l l , " r e p r e s e n t s t h e imp ingement o f t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l , n o t i n any s i m p l e t w o - s t o r y w o r l d bu t r a t h e r i n a w o r l d where t h e two k i n d s o f r e a l i t y ' c o - i n h e r e ' " ( B r i g h t  Shadow, p. 1 0 0 ) . "The S u p e r n a t u r a l i s n o t remote and a b s t r u s e : i t i s a m a t t e r o f d a i l y and h o u r l y e x p e r i e n c e , as i n t i m a t e as b r e a t h i n g , " L ew i s w r i t e s i n M i r a c l e s ( p . 5 1 ) . "Thus f o r L ew i s as f o r C h a r l e s W i l l i a m s (and f o r P l a t o ) t h e Rea l i s n o t ganz a n d e r s bu t t h e a r c h e t y p e o f t h e 3 3 P e r e l a n d r a ( L ondon : John L a n e , The B o d l e y Head , 1 9 4 3 ) , p. 9 ; a l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s a r e t o t h i s e d i t i o n . 21 P h e n o m e n a l , " C a r n e l l c o n c l u d e s . " W i l l i a m s i n f a c t c o i n e d t h e t e rm ' a r c h - n a t u r e ' t o a v o i d t h e m i s l e a d i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s o f ' s u p e r n a t u r e ' " ( p p . 1 0 0 - 0 1 ) . In M i r a c l e s , L ew i s d e s c r i b e s s u p e r n a t u r e as b e i n g c o n t i n u o u s l y " a t home" i n n a t u r e , even i n t h e " i r r e g u l a r " occurrences o f i t s m i r a c u l o u s i n t e r p o s i t i o n s : " I m m e d i a t e l y a l l N a t u r e d o m i c i l e s t h i s new s i t u a t i o n , makes i t a t home i n h e r r e a l m , a d a p t s a l l o t h e r e v e n t s t o i t " ( p . 7 2 ; emphases a d d e d ) . F o r e x a m p l e , i n Tha t H i deous S t r e n g t h , when t he bad e l d i l a ' s b r e a c h o f t h e T h u l c a n d r a n q u a r a n t i n e e n a b l e s t h e good p l a n e t a r y d e i t i e s t o descend i n t o o u r w o r l d and i n v a d e M e r l i n ' s b e i n g , M e r l i n becomes empowered t o i n f l i c t t h e c u r s e o f Babe l upon t h e B e l b u r y company. T h i s r e s u l t can be u n d e r s t o o d as t h e n a t u r a l a c c o m o d a t i o n o f a s u p e r n a t u r a l e v e n t , r a t h e r t h an an i n d e p e n d e n t s u p e r n a t u r a l phenomenon. G r a n t e d a u t h o r i t y o v e r t h e an ima l w o r l d as w e l l , M e r l i n u n l e a s h e s a h o l o c a u s t i n t h e B e l b u r y b a n q u e t i n g h a l l , w h i c h i s a l s o p r o p e r l y u n d e r s t o o d as one s t a g e i n a " n a t u r a l " c o u r s e o f e v e n t s . The c a t a c l y s m i c e a r t h q u a k e wh i c h c o n c l u d e s t h e sequence o f a c t i o n a g a i n s i m p l y i l l u s t r a t e s n a t u r e ' s a c c omoda t i o n o f s u p e r n a t u r e ' s d i r e c t i n t e r p o s i t i o n . Ransom's m i r a c u l o u s a s c e n s i o n t o t h e " ' l a n d o f A b h a l l j i n , beyond t he seas o f L u r i n P e r e l a n d r a ' " ( S t r e n g t h , p. 3 3 7 ) , i n v o l v e s no g r e a t e r a c o n t r a v e n t i o n o f n a t u r e , even though i n a s s e s s i n g t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f t h e e v e n t , MacPhee c o n c l u d e s t h a t i t " ' h a s t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e o f b e i n g c l e a n c o n t r a r y t o t h e o b s e r v e d l aws o f N a t u r e ' " ( S t r e n g t h , p. 4 5 7 ) . G race I ronwood amends MacPhee ' s t h i n k i n g : "You a r e q u i t e r i g h t . The l aws o f t h e u n i v e r s e a r e n e v e r b r o k e n . Your m i s t a k e i s t o t h i n k t h a t t h e l i t t l e r e g u l a r i t i e s we have o b s e r v e d on one p l a n e t f o r a few hundred y e a r s a r e t h e r e a l u n b r e a k a b l e 22 l a w s ; whereas t h e y a r e o n l y t h e remote r e s u l t s w h i c h t h e t r u e l aws b r i n g abou t more o f t e n t h a n n o t ; as a k i n d o f a c c i d e n t . " ( p . 457) M i r a c u l o u s e v e n t s a r e w h o l l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h e s t a b l i s h e d " l a w s , " bu t t h e y a r e t h e l aws o f a l a r g e r m a t r i x o f r e a l i t y t h an we a r e commonly f a m i l i a r w i t h . We c a t c h a g l i m p s e o f t h i s more i n c l u s i v e and l e s s l o c a l f r amewo r k , f o r e x a m p l e , i n s e e i n g M e r l i n ' s r e s u s c i t a t i o n t h r o u g h e l d i l i c e y e s : I t was no wonder t o them. In t h e i r eyes t h e norma l T e l l u r i a n modes o f b e i n g — e n g e n d e r i n g and b i r t h and d ea t h and d e c a y — w h i c h a r e t o us t h e f ramework o f t h o u g h t , were no l e s s w o n d e r f u l t h a n t h e c o u n t l e s s o t h e r p a t t e r n s o f b e i n g w h i c h were c o n t i n u a l l y p r e s -e n t t o t h e i r u n s l e e p i n g m i n d s . To t h o s e h i g h c r e a -t u r e s whose a c t i v i t y b u i l d s what we c a l l N a t u r e , n o t h i n g i s " n a t u r a l . " From t h e i r s t a t i o n t h e e s s e n -t i a l a r b i t r a r i n e s s ( so t o c a l l i t ) o f e v e r y a c t u a l c r e a t i o n i s c e a s e l e s s l y v i s i b l e ; f o r them t h e r e a r e no b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s . . . . T ha t a body s h o u l d l i e u n c o r r u p t e d f o r f i f t e e n hundred y e a r s , d i d n o t seem s t r a n g e t o them; t h e y knew w o r l d s where t h e r e was no c o r r u p t i o n a t a l l . Tha t i t s i n d i v i d u a l l i f e s h o u l d r ema in l a t e n t i n i t a l l t h a t t i m e , was t o them no more s t r a n g e : t h e y had seen i n n u m e r a b l e d i f f e r e n t modes i n w h i c h s o u l and m a t t e r c o u l d be comb ined and s e p a r a t e d . . . . ( p . 247 ; emphas i s added) I n d e e d , L ew i s m a i n t a i n s t h a t such s u p e r n a t u r a l o c c u r e n c e s a r e m e r e l y some o f t h e more d r a m a t i c e f f e c t s o f a c o n s t a n t i n t i m a c y between t he o r d i n a r y and e x t r a o r d i n a r y . They s i m p l y f o c u s " i n s m a l l l e t t e r s s ome th i ng t h a t God has a l r e a d y w r i t t e n , o r w i l l w r i t e , i n l e t t e r s a l m o s t t o o l a r g e t o be 34 n o t i c e d , a c r o s s t h e who l e canvas o f N a t u r e . " Tha t i s , t h e dynamic r e l a t i o n s h i p o f n a t u r e and s u p e r n a t u r e w h i c h we have o b s e r v e d i n i t s 3 4 M i r a c l e s , p. 162; emphas i s a dded . F u r t h e r page r e f e r e n c e s wh i c h a r e documented p a r e n t h e t i c a l l y w i t h i n t h e t e x t i n t h i s and t h e n e x t p a r a g r a p h a r e t o M i r a c l e s . 23 s e n s a t i o n a l a s p e c t s i s a c t u a l l y o ngo i n g a t a more p r o s a i c l e v e l . Whereas t h e drama m igh t be more s u b t l e , t h e p o e t r y i s e q u a l l y v i b r a n t , howeve r , e s p e c i a l l y i f one l o o k s f r om t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f t h e o r d i n a r y r a t h e r t h an t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r y . Our a p p a r e n t l y p r o s a i c e x i s t e n c e a c t u a l l y d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e most i n t r i c a t e c o - i n h e r e n c e o f t h e two k i n d s o f r e a l i t i e s , p h y s i c a l and s p i r i t u a l . Man i s "a c o m p o s i t e b e i n g , " and a l t h o u g h t h a t s t a t e has now been damaged, i t was once so c o m p l e t e l y i n t e g r a t e d t h a t " t h e s p i r i t was once . . . f u l l y ' a t home' w i t h i t s o r g a n i s m , . . . as t h e human p a r t o f a C e n t a u r was ' a t home' w i t h t h e e q u i n e p a r t " ( p . 1 5 2 ) . Even now t h e r e r ema i n s amaz ing e v i d e n c e o f o u r c o m p o s i t e n a t u r e . "The d i s c r e p a n c y between a movement o f atoms i n an a s t r o n o m e r ' s c o r t e x and h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t t h e r e must be a s t i l l u nobse r ved p l a n e t beyond U r a n u s , i s a l r e a d y so immense t h a t t h e I n c a r n a t i o n o f God H i m s e l f i s , i n one s e n s e , s c a r c e l y more s t a r t l i n g " ( p . 1 3 4 ) . Thus t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l e v e n t s w h i c h o c c u r wh i c h we c a l l m i r a c u l o u s u l t i m a t e l y i n v o l v e " o n l y t h e same s o r t o f m i r a c l e w h i c h o c c u r s e v e r y d a y " ( p . 1 5 3 ) . T h i s i s t h e g r e a t i n s i g h t o f L e w i s ' t h o u g h t and v i s i o n , and t he a c c l a i m e d g e n i u s o f h i s method: t h e o r g a n i c c o m b i n a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l w i t h s p i r i t u a l , o r d i n a r y w i t h e x t r a o r d i n a r y , o r t o r e t u r n t o o u r o r i g i n a l me t apho r , o f t e a w i t h n e c t a r and a m b r o s i a . "A s u p e r n a t u r a l e l emen t i s p r e s e n t i n e v e r y r a t i o n a l m a n , " L ew i s w i l l f r e q u e n t l y i n s i s t ( p . 5 3 ) , and t hen as soon go on t o h i g h l i g h t man 's n a t u r a l b e i n g . The r a d i c a l e x t e n t t o wh i c h L ew i s v i e w s t h e u t t e r c onsonance o f t h e s e two e l e m e n t s i s seen i n h i s poem, "Adam a t N i g h t . " H e r e , a l t h o u g h u n f a l l e n and t h e r e f o r e i n t e n s e l y s p i r i t u a l , Adam s l e e p s p e a c e f u l l y i n a t r a n s p a r e n t l y n a t u r a l s t a t e : 24 . . . he wou l d s e t a j a r The d o o r o f h i s m i n d . I n t o h im t h o u g h t s wou l d pou r O t h e r t h an d a y ' s . He r e j o i n e d E a r t h h i s m o t h e r . He m e l t e d i n t o h e r n a t u r e . G r a d u a l l y he f e l t , As though t h r o u g h h i s own f l e s h t h e e l u s i v e g r o w t h , H a r d e n i n g and s p r e a d i n g o f r o o t s i n t h e deep g a r d e n , In h i s v e i n s , t h e w e l l s r e - f i l l i n g w i t h t h e s i l v e r r a i n . 3 5 Adam even f e e l s t h e f r u i t i o n o f E a r t h ' s " g o l d and d iamond i n h i s d a r k womb," s i g n a l l i n g a c o - i n h e r e n c e o f ma le and f e m a l e as w e l l as t h a t o f n a t u r e and s u p e r n a t u r e . P h y s i c a l i t y and s p i r i t u a l i t y c o n t i n u e t h e i r i n t e r p l a y as we d i s c o v e r t h a t Adam i s t h e p l a n e t ' s g u i d i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e and as such moves E a r t h i n he r o r b i t , a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y s i m i l a r l y a s s i g n e d t o T o r a t t h e end o f P e r e l a n d r a . Adam, t h e p e r f e c t l y s p i r i t u a l b e i n g , i s consummate l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h o r g a n i c n a t u r e as t h e n i g h t ends and day dawns. "Human and e r e c t " t h e L o r d and Lady a r i s e , we a r e t o l d , "As i f two t r e e s s h o u l d a r i s e , d r e a d f u l l y g i f t e d / W i t h speech and m o t i o n . The E a r t h ' s s t r e n g t h was i n e a c h " (emphases a d d e d ) . Thus L ew i s i n t i m a t e l y l i n k s t h e " s p e a r h e a d o f t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l " w i t h n a t u r e -i n c l u d i n g v e g e t a b l e and m i n e r a l n a t u r e as w e l l as a n i m a l . "And t h i s pe rhaps i s a u n i v e r s a l l a w , t h a t t h e h i g h e r you r i s e t h e l o w e r you can d e s c e n d , " L ew i s t e l l s us i n M i r a c l e s ( p . 2 0 7 ) . L ew i s s peaks t o man ' s c o m p o s i t e n a t u r e a g a i n i n P i l g r i m ' s R e g r e s s , h i s a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l a l l e g o r y i n w h i c h he "has summoned r e a s o n t o t h e a i d o f i m a g i n a t i o n , " as L a w l o r p h r a s e s i t . In h i s P r e f a c e t o t h e T h i r d E d i t i o n , L ew i s w r i t e s , "We were made t o be n e i t h e r c e r e b r a l men n o r 3 5 "Adam a t N i g h t , " P u n c h , 11 May 1949 , p. 510 . 3*> " R a s s e l a s , R o m a n t i c i s m and t he N a t u r e o f H a p p i n e s s , " i n F r i e n d -s h i p ' s G a r l a n d , e d . V i t t o r i o G a b r i e l i , S t o r i a e L e t t e r a t u r a : R a c c o l t a d i S t u d i e T e s t i , 106 (Rome: E d i z i o n i d i S t o r i a e L e t t e r a t u r a , 1 9 6 6 ) , I , 2 6 3 . 25 v i s c e r a l men, bu t Men. Not b e a s t s n o r a n g e l s bu t M e n — t h i n g s a t once r a t i o n a l and a n i m a l " ( p . 1 3 ) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , some o f L e w i s ' c r i t i c s have f a i l e d t o g r a s p t h i s c e n t r a l c o n c e p t o f c o - i n h e r e n c e and have p r e f e r r e d t o r e t a i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l i d e a o f a t w o - s t o r e y u n i v e r s e . J . B . S . Ha ldane c o m p l a i n s t h a t t h e a p p a r e n t l y s i n l e s s M a l a c a n d r a n s have "a t h e o l o g y bu t 37 no r e l i g i o n " — " n o r e l i g i o u s c e r e m o n i e s , o r even p r i v a t e p r a y e r s . " H i s c r i t i c i s m c o n t i n u e s : " T h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h p a s s i n g a n g e l s , o r ' e l d i l s , ' whom t h e y o c c a s i o n a l l y saw and h e a r d , were no more l i k e r e l i g i o u s a c t s t h a n i s t u r n i n g on t he r a d i o t o l i s t e n t o Mr . A t t l e e " ( p p . 2 0 - 2 1 ) . We m i gh t answer P r o f e s s o r H a l d a n e ' s o b j e c t i o n s w i t h t h i s pas sage f r om L e w i s ' M i r a c l e s , a book wh i c h was p u b l i s h e d a y e a r a f t e r h i s own a r t i c l e a p p e a r e d : The r e a s o n why t h e modern l i t e r a l i s t i s p u z z l e d i s t h a t he i s . . . s t a r t i n g f r om a c l e a r modern d i s t i n c t i o n between m a t e r i a l and i m m a t e r i a l . . . . He f o r g e t s t h a t t h e d i s t i n c t i o n i t s e l f has been made c l e a r o n l y by l a t e r t h o u g h t . We a r e o f t e n t o l d t h a t p r i m i t i v e man c o u l d n o t c o n -c e i v e pu re s p i r i t ; bu t t h en n e i t h e r c o u l d he c o n c e i v e mere m a t t e r . . . . To r e g a r d t h a t e a r l i e r s t a g e as u n s p i r i t u a l because we f i n d t h e r e no c l e a r a s s e r t i o n o f unembodied s p i r i t , i s a r e a l m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g . You m i gh t j u s t as w e l l c a l l i t s p i r i t u a l because i t c o n t a i n e d no c l e a r c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f mere m a t t e r . M r . B a r f i e l d has shown [ i n P o e t i c D i c t i o n ] , as r e g a r d s t h e h i s t o r y o f l a n g u a g e , t h a t words d i d no t s t a r t by r e f e r r i n g m e r e l y t o p h y s i c a l o b j e c t s and t h en g e t e x t e n d e d by me tapho r t o r e f e r t o e m o t i o n s , men ta l s t a t e s and t h e l i k e . On t h e c o n t r a r y , what we now c a l l t h e " l i t e r a l and m e t a p h o r i c a l " mean ings have bo th been d i s e n g a g e d by a n a l y s i s f r om an a n c i e n t u n i t y o f mean ing w h i c h was n e i t h e r o r b o t h . ( p p . 9 3 - 9 4 ; emphas i s added) 3 7 " A u l d H o r n i e , F . R . S . , " The Modern Q u a r t e r l y (Autumn 1 9 4 6 ) ; r p t . i n Shadows o f I m a g i n a t i o n , p. 2 0 . 26 I t i s t h i s c o m p o s i t e mode o f b e i n g wh i c h L ew i s p o r t r a y s i n h i s p i c t u r e o f p r i m i t i v e bu t u n f a l l e n l i f e on M a l a c a n d r a , as w e l l as i n h i s poem, "Adam a t N i g h t . " L ew i s m i g h t be s a y i n g w i t h t h e a p o s t l e P a u l , " P r e s e n t y o u r b o d i e s a l i v i n g and h o l y s a c r i f i c e , a c c e p t a b l e t o God , w h i c h i s y o u r 38 s p i r i t u a l s e r v i c e o f w o r s h i p . " L e w i s ' w o r l d v i ew i s t h u s i n t e n s e l y s a c r a m e n t a l , whereby n a t u r e becomes t h e v e r y d o m i c i l e o f s u p e r n a t u r e . H i s s a c r a m e n t a l i sm i s a k i n n o t o n l y t o C h a r l e s W i l l i a m s ' " r o m a n t i c t h e o l o g y , " bu t a l s o t o t h e w o r l d v i ew o f t h e m e d i e v a l s whom L e w i s , as a p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o l a r , s t u d i e d so e x t e n s i v e l y . I n d e e d , t h e B e l b u r y h o l o c a u s t o f b e a s t s and b l o o d , w h i c h was men t i o ned e a r l i e r as an examp le o f n a t u r e ' s a c c o m o d a t i o n o f s u p e r n a t u r e , i s t i m e l y c i t e d because i t i n c a r n a t e s a common exponen t o f m e d i e v a l s a c r a m e n t a l i s m , name ly t h e b e s t i a r y . B e s t i a r i e s were a l l e g o r i c a l c a t a l o g u e s o f t h e a ppea r an c e s and h a b i t s o f r e a l and i m a g i n a r y a n i m a l s , ea ch d e t a i l o f w h i c h was a s s i g n e d bo t h d i v i n e and demon iac s p i r i t u a l c o r r e s p o n d e n t s . F o r e x a m p l e , a t i g e r wou l d r e p r e s e n t , i n p o t e n t i a , b o t h C h r i s t ' s s t r e n g t h and S a t a n ' s c r u e l t y . " A c c o r d i n g as s p i r i t e x p l o i t s o r f a i l s t o e x p l o i t t h i s N a t u r a l s i t u a t i o n , i t g i v e s r i s e t o one o r t h e o t h e r , " L ew i s e x p l a i n s ( M i r a c l e s , p p . 1 4 1 - 4 2 ) . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , i t i s a t i g e r wh i c h p r e c i p i t a t e s t h e a p o c a l y p t i c B e l b u r y h o l o c a u s t , a l t h o u g h L ew i s does no t g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w t h e o n e - t o - o n e r i g o u r o f m e d i e v a l a l l e g o r y i n such a l i t e r a l manner . S h a r i n g t h e same s ymbo l i sm o f i m a g i n a t i o n and t he e m b l e m a t i c p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e same w o r l d v i e w , howeve r , L e w i s ' s a c r a m e n t a l i sm does assume t h e m e d i e v a l p r i n c i p l e 3 8 B i b l e , Rom. x i i : l b ; emphases a dded . ( N . A . S . V . ) 27 o f p h y s i c a l and s p i r i t u a l c o - i n h e r e n c e . E s s e n t i a l l y , s a c r a m e n t a l i sm a l l o w s t h a t p h y s i c a l n a t u r e f i g u r e s s p i r i t u a l r e a l i t y , even becoming t h e mode o f s u p e r n a t u r a l good a t t i m e s . N a t u r e ' s own n e u t r a l i t y i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p , however , l e a v e s h e r open t o become t he v e h i c l e o f s u p e r n a t u r a l e v i l as w e l l . Bu t " t o c a l l h e r e i t h e r 39 [ i n h e r e n t l y ] ' g o o d ' o r ' e v i l ' i s b o y s ' p h i l o s o p h y , " s a y s L e w i s . " N a t u r e i s by human (and p r o b a b l y by D i v i n e ) s t a n d a r d s p a r t l y good and p a r t l y e v i l . . . . Bu t t h e same t a n g o r f l a v o u r r uns t h r o u g h bo th he r c o r r u p t i o n s and h e r e x c e l l e n c e s . E v e r y t h i n g i s i n c h a r a c t e r , " he c o n t i n -ues ( p . 8 0 ) . N a t u r e ' s e v e r y f e a t u r e i s " t h e v e r y i d i o m , a l m o s t t h e f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n , t h e s m e l l o r t a s t e , o f an i n d i v i d u a l t h i n g " ( p . 8 0 ; emphas i s a d d e d ) . God as A u t h o r has c r e a t e d a c h a r a c t e r i n n a t u r e , and " e v e r y n a t u r a l e v e n t i s t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n a t a p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e and mo-ment o f N a t u r e ' s t o t a l c h a r a c t e r " ( p . 1 3 1 ) . W i t h an i d e n t i t y i n d e p e n d e n t o f mora l s u p e r n a t u r e , t h e n , n a t u r e r ema i n s an amora l e l e m e n t . In t h e r e g u l a r c o u r s e o f e v e n t s she w i l l s a c r a m e n t a l l y c onvey a good s u p e r n a -t u r e , bu t i t i s s u p e r n a t u r e wh i ch l e n d s i t s m o r a l i t y t o t h a t r e l a t i o n -s h i p . The p e c u l i a r m o r a l i t y o r i m m o r a l i t y o f any n a t u r a l s t a t e o r e v e n t i s d e t e r m i n e d s i m p l y by t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f a pu r e o r p e r v e r t e d s u p e r n a t u r e . N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g h e r n e u t r a l s t a t u s , howeve r , n a t u r e does s t e a d i l y r e f l e c t s u p e r n a t u r e . "No n a t u r a l phenomenon i s r e a l l y i n o u r f a v o u r , " S c r e w t a p e c o n f e s s e s t o Wormwood ( S c r e w t a p e L e t t e r s , p. 8 0 ) . As a c h a r a c t e r o f G o d ' s c r e a t i o n , n a t u r e i s h e r C r e a t o r ' s l i v i n g s e l f -3 9 M i r a c l e s , p. 147; f u r t h e r page r e f e r e n c e s wh i c h a r e documented p a r e n t h e t i c a l l y w i t h i n t h e t e x t i n t h i s and t h e n e x t p a r a g r a p h a r e t o M i r a c l e s . 28 e x p r e s s i o n . " D o u b t l e s s no s m a l l e s t p a r t o f he r i s t h e r e e x c e p t because i t e x p r e s s e s t h e c h a r a c t e r He chose t o g i v e h e r , " s a y s L ew i s ( p . 8 0 ; emphas i s a d d e d ) . L i k e s u p e r n a t u r e 1 s h i e r o g l y p h i c s , as i t w e r e , n a t u r e r e v e a l s he r A u t h o r . I n d e e d , o n l y as one a p p r e c i a t e s h e r d i v i n e A u t h o r -s h i p can one t r u l y a p p r e c i a t e h e r own g r a p h i c f o r m s . "Come o u t , l o o k b a c k , and t hen you w i l l see . . . t h i s a s t o n i s h i n g c a t a r a c t o f b e a r s , b a b i e s , and bananas : t h i s immoderate d e l u g e o f a t oms , o r c h i d s , o r a n g e s , c a n c e r s , c a n a r i e s , f l e a s , g a s e s , t o r n a d o e s and t o a d s " ( p . 8 1 ) . These a s p e c t s o f n a t u r e a r e t h e c o n c r e t e emblems o f s u p e r n a t u r e . " F o r L e w i s , t r u t h e q u a l s s p i r i t , and s p i r i t j_s m a n i f e s t e d i n n a t u r e , " G l o v e r s ay s ( En chan tmen t , pp . 5 0 - 5 1 ; emphas i s a d d e d ) . In The Fou r Loves Lew i s w r i t e s : What n a t u r e - l o v e r s . . . g e t f r om n a t u r e i s an i c o n o g r a p h y , a l anguage o f i m a g e s . I do no t mean s i m p l y v i s u a l images ; i t i s t h e "moods" o r " s p i r i t s " t h e m s e l v e s - - t h e p o w e r f u l e x p r e s s i o n s o f t e r r o r , g l o om , j o c u n d i t y , c r u e l t y , l u s t , i n n o c e n c e , p u r i t y - - t h a t a r e t h e image s . In them each man can c l o t h e h i s b e l i e f . We must l e a r n o u r t h e o l o g y o r p h i l o s o p h y e l s e w h e r e . . . . Bu t when I speak o f " c l o t h i n g " o u r b e l i e f i n su ch images I do no t mean a n y t h i n g l i k e u s i n g n a t u r e f o r s i m i l e s o r me tapho r s i n t h e manner o f t h e p o e t s . Indeed I m i g h t have s a i d " f i l l i n g " o r " i n c a r n a t i n g " r a t h e r t h a n c l o t h i n g . . . . N a t u r e gave t h e word g l o r y a mean ing f o r me. ( p p . 2 9 - 3 0 ; b o l d f a c e p r i n t emphases added) L ew i s r e c o g n i z e s t h e p h y s i c a l u n i v e r s e t o be t h e l i n g u i s t i c i m p r i n t , as i t w e r e , o f a g r e a t e r s p i r i t u a l r e a l i t y . The c o n c e p t o f l a nguage i s i n t e g r a l t o L e w i s ' s a c r a m e n t a l i s m , h e l p i n g t o r e v e a l t h e i n t i m a c y y e t i n h e r e n t a m o r a l i t y o f n a t u r e ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o s u p e r n a t u r e . We w i l l d e f i n e l a nguage as a s y s t em o f s i g n s and symbo l s c ommun i c a t i n g a l a r g e r m e a n i n g . L i k e L e w i s ' n a t u r a l s u p e r n a t u r a l i s m , l anguage d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e 29 i n t i m a c y between m a t e r i a l and i m m a t e r i a l . L i n g u i s t i c o r i g i n s r e v e a l t h a t mean ing was once an i n d i v i s i b l e compound o f p h y s i c a l and s p i r i t u a l components wh i ch a r e now r e g u l a r l y s e p a r a t e d . We have a l r e a d y n o t e d L e w i s ' ag reement w i t h B a r f i e l d ' s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t "an a n c i e n t u n i t y o f mean i ng " d i d n o t s e p a r a t e i n t o ' " l i t e r a l and m e t a p h o r i c a l ' m e a n i n g . " As t h e C e n t a u r ' s human and e q u i n e p a r t s f e l t p e r f e c t l y a t home w i t h each other, f o r e x a m p l e , so t h e word " h e a v e n " once d eno t ed a " c o n c r e t e bu t i m m a t e r i a l " r e a l i t y - - a r e a l i t y w h i c h i n c l u d e d t h e u n c o n d i t i o n e d D i v i n e L i f e , and o u r c r e a t u r e l y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h a t s p i r i t u a l L i f e , as much as t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d o f t h e New C r e a t i o n , and t h e p h y s i c a l s k y i t s e l f . I t i s n o t t h a t t h e s p i r i t u a l and p h y s i c a l s e n s e s o f t h e word " h e a v e n " were c o n f u s e d ; t h e r e s i m p l y was no d i v i s i o n ( M i r a c l e s , pp . 1 8 7 - 8 8 ) . A r i c h e r e x p e r i e n c e was w h o l l y t r a n s l a t e d i n t o , and accomodated b y , a p o o r e r i d i o m . As K i l b y s a y s , "Mean ing was t hen u n i n d i v i d u a t e d . . . . Language had a l i v i n g u n i t y t h a t was e s s e n t i a l l y 40 m e t a p h o r i c w i t h o u t knowing i t s e l f t o be s u c h . " Today , f o l l o w i n g t h e s p l i t o f s p i r i t and m a t t e r i n o u r c o n s c i o u s n e s s , we assume t h a t l a nguage i s " m e r e l y " and a r b i t r a r i l y m e t a p h o r i c , r a t h e r t h an t h e c o n c r e t e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f o r g a n i c c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s . ' " M i n d s g e t more and more s p i r i t u a l , m a t t e r more and more m a t e r i a l . Even i n l i t e r a t u r e , p o e t r y and p r o s e draw f u r t h e r and f u r t h e r a p a r t , ' " D imb l e s u g g e s t s i n S t r e n g t h ( p . 3 5 0 ) . Modern t h o u g h t has even s ough t t o d e r i v e an e x c l u s i v e l y 4 0 C h r i s t i a n W o r l d , pp . 2 0 3 - 2 0 4 ; emphas i s m i n e . K i l b y i s s u m m a r i z i n g Robe r t J . 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The u n i v e r s e p r o v e s i t s e l f s t u b b o r n l y s a c r a m e n t a l and r a d i c a l l y h e r a l d i c , and l anguage c o n t i n u e s t o c o n f e s s i t s e l f u t t e r l y dependent on t he p h y s i c a l w o r l d f o r e x p r e s s i o n o f o u r h i g h e s t t h o u g h t and most comp lex e x p e r i e n c e . In " B l u s p e l s and F l a l a n s f e r e s , " L ew i s d e m o n s t r a t e s h i s a c u t e awareness o f t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h even d i s c u r s i v e l a nguage r ema i n s dependen t upon t h e m e t a p h o r i c a l e x t e n s i o n o f s e n s o r y d a t a . One need no l o n g e r r e f e r t o t h e s o u l as a n i m a , a word mean ing b r e a t h ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s p r e f e r r e d by p s y c h o l o g i s t s — c o m p l e x e s , r e p r e s s i o n s , c e n s o r s and e n g r a m s — a r e no more a n a l y t i c a l , s t i l l mean ing 41 t y i n g s - u p , s h o v i n g s - b a c k , Roman m a g i s t r a t e s , and s c r a t c h i n g s . "We can make o u r l a nguage d u l l e r ; we c a n n o t make i t l e s s m e t a p h o r i c a l . We can make t h e p i c t u r e s more p r o s a i c ; we c anno t be l e s s p i c t o r i a l , " 42 Lew i s w r i t e s i n " I s T h e o l o g y P o e t r y ? " Our c a p a c i t y f o r l i t e r a l s peech i s s t r i c t l y c o n f i n e d t o t h e w o r l d o f t h e s e n s e s ; beyond t h a t , a l l mean ing must be m e t a p h o r i c a l , L ew i s m a i n t a i n s ( M i r a c l e s , p. 8 8 ) . I n d e e d , i n " B l u s p e l s and F l a l a n s f e r e s " L ew i s goes on t o s u g g e s t t h a t , i n any c o m p o s i t i o n , mean ing w i l l be f ound i n i n v e r s e r a t i o t o t h e a u t h o r ' s b e l i e f i n h i s own l i t e r a l n e s s . I m a g i n a t i o n i s t h e o rgan o f mean i n g , and as su ch i t i s t h e p r e c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e judgement o f t r u t h o r f a l s e h o o d as 41 " B l u s p e l s and F l a l a n s f e r e s : A S eman t i c N i g h t m a r e , " i n R e h a b i l i t a t i o n s and O t h e r E s s a y s ( T o r o n t o : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 9 ) , p. 1 5 1 ; t h e vo lume i s c i t e d h e r e a f t e r as R e h a b i l i t a t i o n s . 4 2 " I s T h e o l o g y P o e t r y ? " The S o c r a t i c D i g e s t , No. 3 ( 1 9 4 5 ) , 2 5 - 3 5 ; r p t . i n They A s k e d , p. 161 . 31 d e t e r m i n e d by r e a s o n , w h i c h i s t h e o r gan o f t r u t h . Of c o u r s e , L ew i s a d m i t s t h a t t h i s p o s i t s a c e r t a i n r i g h t n e s s i n t h e i m a g i n a t i o n i t s e l f , and even presumes "a k i n d o f p s y c h o - p h y s i c a l p a r a l l e l i s m ( o r more) i n t h e u n i v e r s e , " u n l e s s a l l t h e o r i g i n a l e q u a t i o n s o f o u r t h i n k i n g , between good and l i g h t , f o r e x a m p l e , have been a r b i t r a r y ( " B l u s p e l s and F l a l a n s f e r e s , " p. 1 5 8 ) . However , su ch " m e t a p h y s i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s , " wh i c h Lew i s f r e e l y a c k n o w l e d g e s , s i m p l y p o i n t t o t h e s a c r a m e n t a l i sm w h i c h we have a l r e a d y been i n v e s t i g a t i n g ( p . 1 5 8 ) . I f t h e y do push us somewhat beyond o u r p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n o f s a c r a m e n t a l l a nguage i n a n o n - t h e o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t , t h e y o n l y u n d e r s c o r e t h e c o n s i s t e n c y and homogene i t y o f L e w i s ' e n t i r e e t h o s . The c r i t i c a l p o i n t i s t h a t l a n g u a g e , l i k e n a t u r e , can be examined n o n - t h e o l o g i c a l l y as a s a c r a m e n t a l phenomenon; e s s e n t i a l l y , i t c o m p r i s e s m a t e r i a l e l e m e n t s wh i c h h e r a l d a s p i r i t u a l mean ing beyond t h e i r immed i a t e b e i n g . I n d e e d , we m i g h t d e f i n e as a s a c r a m e n t a l l a nguage any d e r i v a t i v e , n o n - u n i v o c a l s y s t e m wh i c h i n c o r p o r a t e s a mean ing l a r g e r t h an t he sum o f i t s p a r t s . T hu s , i n . h i s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h A r t h u r G r e e v e s , L ew i s s peaks even o f " t h e a c t u a l i n c a r n a t i o n , c r u c i f i x i o n , and r e s u r r e c t i o n " as "a l a n g u a g e " (18 O c t . 1 9 3 1 , T o g e t h e r , 4 2 8 ) . N a t u r e t o o he c a l l s a " l a n g u a g e o f i m a g e s " : i t i s a s a c r a m e n t a l s y s t em whose p i c t u r e - s y m b o l s i n c a r n a t e a g r e a t e r though i m m a t e r i a l r e a l i t y . I n d e e d , n a t u r e i s as f u n d a m e n t a l l y m e t a p h o r i c , i n one s e n s e , as i s o u r own l i n g u i s t i c mean i ng . " G r a m m a t i c a l l y t h e t h i n g s we s a y o f Him a r e ' m e t a p h o r i c a l ' : bu t i n a deepe r s en se i t i s o u r p h y s i c a l and p s y c h i c e n e r g i e s t h a t a r e mere ' m e t a p h o r s ' o f t h e r e a l L i f e w h i c h i s G o d , " L ew i s o f f e r s ( M i r a c l e s , p. 1 1 1 ) . L ew i s was haun ted by t he i d e a t h a t n o t h i n g we a r e f a m i l i a r w i t h i n o u r w o r l d i s e v e r " m e r e l y " i t s e l f ; i t a lway s be speaks an u l t i m a t e 32 r e a l i t y . " ' Y o u have n e v e r seen more t han an appea r an ce o f a n y t h i n g , ' " Ransom i s t o l d i n P e r e l a n d r a ( p . 2 3 2 ) . As t h e a d j u n c t o f s u p e r n a t u r e , n a t u r e a lway s p o i n t s f r om he r d e r i v a t i v e e x i s t e n c e t o i t s u l t i m a t e B e i n g . L ew i s l e a r n e d t o r e a d t he C r e a t o r ' s s i g n a t u r e i n a l l t h a t i s c r e a t e d , t h u s f i n d i n g t h e l anguage o f n a t u r e ' s o r d i n a r i n e s s e x t r a o r d i n a r y . He f r e q u e n t l y compared God t o an a u t h o r o r p oe t who has w r i t t e n a s t o r y i n n a t u r e , so t h a t i t s l i n e s , a l t h o u g h k n i t by an i n n e r c o n s i s t e n c y , a r e u l t i m a t e l y abou t s ome th i n g e l s e . Tha t " s o m e t h i n g e l s e , " t h e u l t i m a t e r e a l i t y , " p r o v e s i t s e l f t o be t h e t e x t on wh i c h N a t u r e . . . [ i s ] o n l y t h e commen ta ry , " L ew i s d e c l a r e s ( M i r a c l e s , p. 1 5 7 ) . The f undamen ta l d i s t i n c t i o n between a t h i n g ' s s e l f - c o n t a i n e d r e a l i t y and i t s e x t r a - r e f e r e n t i a l mean ing i s a L e w i s i a n h a l l m a r k . L ew i s c i t e s Samuel A l e x a n d e r ' s S p a c e , Time and D e i t y as a m a j o r i n f l u e n c e i n h i s l i f e f o r h a v i n g f i r s t t a u g h t h im t h i s p r i n c i p l e ( J o y , pp . 2 0 5 - 0 9 ) . "He l e a r n e d t h a t an e x p e r i e n c e and t he l a t e r t h o u g h t abou t t h a t e x p e r i e n c e a r e two e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s t h a t must n e v e r be r e g a r d e d as o n e , " K i l b y summar i zes ( " C r e a t i v e L o g i c i a n , " p. 3 3 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o L e w i s , A l e x a n d e r d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between two b a s i c and s y n c h r o n i c a c t i v i t i e s , w h i c h he t e rms " E n j o y m e n t " and " C o n t e m p l a t i o n . " T h u s , t o see a t a b l e wou l d be " t o c o n t e m p l a t e " t h e t a b l e , bu t " t o e n j o y " t h e a c t o f s e e i n g . On t h e o t h e r hand , L ew i s c o n t i n u e s , t o c o n t e m p l a t e o p t i c s wou l d be " t o c o n t e m p l a t e " t h e a c t o f s e e i n g , bu t " t o e n j o y " o n l y t h o s e c o n t e m p l a t i v e t h o u g h t s . Tha t i s , t o c o n t e m p l a t e t h e o p t i c s w h i c h a f f o r d o n e ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e t a b l e wou l d be an a c t o f r e f l e x i v e i n t r o s p e c t i o n t h a t c i r c u m v e n t s t h e t a b l e a l t o g e t h e r . " I n o t h e r words t h e en j oymen t and t h e c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f o u r i n n e r a c t i v i t i e s a r e i n c o m p a t i b l e , " L ew i s 33 c o n c l u d e s ( J o y , p. 2 0 6 ) . The phenomenon i s r e l a t e d t o man ' s n a t u r e as a r e f l e x i v e an ima l ( i n t u r n due t o h i s c o m p o s i t e b e i n g ) , a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c 43 f r e q u e n t l y no t ed by L e w i s . He o b s e r v e s t h a t r e l i g i o u s f a i t h can s i m i l a r l y be s h o r t - c i r c u i t e d : "The moment one a s k s o n e s e l f 'Do I b e l i e v e ? ' a l l b e l i e f seems t o go . I t h i n k t h i s i s because one i s t r y i n g t o t u r n round and l o o k a t s ome th i ng w h i c h i s t h e r e t o be used and work f r o m - - t r y i n g t o t a k e o u t o n e ' s eyes i n s t e a d o f k e e p i n g them i n t h e r i g h t 44 p l a c e and s e e i n g w i t h t h e m . " Upon r e a d i n g S p a c e , Time and D e i t y , L ew i s i m m e d i a t e l y r e c o g n i z e d A l e x a n d e r ' s d i s t i n c t i o n between " En j o ymen t " and " C o n t e m p l a t i o n " as a x i o m a t i c . The i m p a c t on h i s i m a g i n a t i o n can be t r a c e d i n v i r t u a l l y a l l he s u b s e q u e n t l y w r o t e . S i m p l y s t a t e d , i t s i m p o r t i s t h a t e v e r y t h i n g we know o r engage i n i s u l t i m a t e l y abou t s ome th i n g e l s e . C o n t r a r y t o much p o p u l a r a s s u m p t i o n , o u r t h o u g h t s and p e r c e p t i o n s a r e n o t m e r e l y t h e s u b j e c t i v e phenomena o f o u r own m i n d s , bu t a r e i n t e g r a l l y r e l a t e d t o t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d e n t o b j e c t s . "A p o e t , Mr Robe r t C o n q u e s t , has pu t s ome th i ng l i k e my v i e w , " L ew i s w r i t e s i n "The Language o f R e l i g i o n " : O b s e r v a t i o n o f r e a l e v e n t s i n c l u d e s t h e o b s e r v e r , ' h e a r t ' and a l l ; (The common m e a s u r a b l e f e a t u r e s a r e o b t a i n e d by o m i t t i n g t h i s p a r t . ) Bu t t h e r e i s a l s o a common a s p e c t i n t h e e m o t i o n a l Sha r ed by o t h e r members o f t h e s p e c i e s : t h i s i s c onveyed by ' a r t . ' 4 5 4 3 F o r e x a m p l e , t h e c o n c e p t i s p r e s e n t i n J o y and M i r a c l e s . In Image o f Man, p. 1 0 1 , Wh i t e n o t e s i t s appea r ance i n L e w i s ' S t u d i e s i n  Words . 4 4 "To M r s . L . , " 27 S e p t . 1949 , L e t t e r s , 2 2 1 . 4 ^ " E x c e r p t s f r om a R e p o r t t o t h e G a l a c t i c C o u n c i l , " The L i s t e n e r , 14 O c t . 1954 , p. 612 ; quo t ed by L ew i s i n "The Language o f R e l i g i o n , " i n 34 In t h e e s s a y , L ew i s p r o c e e d s t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between t he a c t i v i t y o f i m a g i n i n g and t h a t o f h a v i n g men ta l image s , t h e l a t t e r s i m p l y b e i n g i m a g i n a t i o n ' s r e s u l t a n t and l e s s comp lex o f f a l ( i n t h e e t y m o l o g i c a l s ense o f o f f - f a l l ) . "The g r e a t e r r o r i s t o m i s t a k e t h i s mere s ed imen t o r t r a c k o r b y - p r o d u c t f o r t h e a c t i v i t i e s t h e m s e l v e s , " he warns ( J o y , p. 2 0 7 ) . In J o y , he s i m i l a r l y i n s i s t s t h a t r e f l e c t i n g t h a t He r odo t u s i s u n r e l i a b l e i s n o t as comp lex a p r o c e s s as t h i n k i n g i t s e l f i s ( J o y , p. 2 0 6 ) . He draws a d i s t i n c t i o n between t h i n k i n g and " t h e s u c c e s s i o n o f l i n k e d c o n c e p t s " w h i c h we use t o o f f e r o u r ' t h o u g h t ' i n an a rgumen t . " [ The l a t t e r ] a p p e a r s t o me t o be a lway s a s o r t o f t r a n s l a t i o n o f a p r i o r a c t i v i t y : and i t was t h e p r i o r a c t i v i t y w h i c h a l o n e e n a b l e d us t o f i n d t h e s e c o n c e p t s and l i n k s , " he e x p l a i n s ( "Language o f R e l i g i o n , " p. 1 3 9 ) . L ew i s c o n c l u d e s : F i n a l l y , i n a l l o u r j o y s and s o r r o w s , r e l i g i o u s , a e s t h e t i c , o r n a t u r a l , I seem t o f i n d t h i n g s ( a l m o s t i n d e s c r i b a b l y ) t h u s . They a r e abou t s o m e t h i n g . They a r e a b y - p r o d u c t o f t h e ( l o g i c a l l y ) p r i o r a c t o f a t t e n d i n g t o o r l o o k i n g t owa rd s s o m e t h i n g . 1 . . . The v e r y e s s e n c e o f o u r l i f e as c o n s c i o u s b e i n g s , a l l day and e v e r y d a y , c o n s i s t s o f s ome th i n g wh i c h c a n n o t be commun ica ted e x c e p t by h i n t s , s i m i -l e s , m e t a p h o r s , and t h e use o f t h o s e emo t i o n s ( t h em-s e l v e s n o t v e r y i m p o r t a n t ) w h i c h a r e p o i n t e r s t o i t . L o o k i n g t owa rd s i s n e i t h e r more n o r l e s s m e t a p h o r i c a l t h a n a t t e n d i n g t o . ( "Language o f R e l i g i o n , " pp . 139-40) 1 The e s s e n c e o f n a t u r e t o o i s s ome th i n g e l s e b e yond , t o wh i c h n a t u r e i s u l t i m a t e l y a p o i n t e r . Someth ing e x t r a o r d i n a r y i s d o m i c i l e d i n t h e C h r i s t i a n R e f l e c t i o n s , e d . W a l t e r Hooper ( London : G e o f f r e y B l e s , 1 9 6 7 ) , p. 134 . 35 o r d i n a r y . I n d e e d , s i m p l y t o a p p r e c i a t e n a t u r e ' s o r d i n a r i n e s s r e q u i r e s o n e ' s r e l a t i v e awareness o f t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r y . O t h e r w i s e , t h e f o r m e r w i l l be m i s t a k e n f o r t h e l a t t e r , and " t o t r e a t h e r as God , o r as E v e r y t h i n g , i s t o l o s e t h e who l e p i t h and p l e a s u r e o f h e r " ( M i r a c l e s , p. 8 1 ) . In o r d e r t o e n j o y n a t u r e f u l l y one must c o n t e m p l a t e s ome th i ng t h r o u g h h e r , t h e r e b y d e l i g h t i n g i n h e r s h e e r o r d i n a r i n e s s , as w e l l a s r e c o g n i z i n g i n i t t h e i m p r i n t o f t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r y . "The s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f N a t u r e i s demanded i f o n l y i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f N a t u r e h e r s e l f , " L ew i s w r i t e s t o Dom Bede G r i f f i t h s . " A l l t h e b e a u t y w i t h e r s when we t r y t o make i t an a b s o l u t e . Pu t f i r s t t h i n g s f i r s t and we g e t se cond t h i n g s th rown i n : pu t s e cond t h i n g s f i r s t and we l o s e bo t h f i r s t and second t h i n g s " (23 A p r i l 1 9 5 1 , L e t t e r s , 2 2 8 ) . I f i t i s o n l y t h r o u g h t h i s e x p e r i e n c e o f En joyment t h a t one can t r u l y a p p r e c i a t e n a t u r e , i t i s a l s o t h e o n l y manner i n w h i c h one can come t o know t he s h e e r o b j e c t i v i t y t h a t e x i s t s . One c a n n o t app rehend t h a t " s o m e t h i n g e l s e " t o w h i c h L ew i s r e f e r s t h r o u g h d i r e c t C o n t e m p l a t i o n . Were an i n t e n t i o n t o p o s s e s s t h i s " s o m e t h i n g e l s e " t o m o t i v a t e one t o i d o l i z e , o r c o n t e m p l a t e , any i n t e r m e d i a r y o b j e c t , one wou l d n o t o n l y f a l l s h o r t o f t h e u l t i m a t e r e a l i t y , bu t a l s o s u f f e r an i m p a i r e d en j oymen t o f t h e i n t e r m e d i a r y . The medium wou ld n o t be e n j o y e d f o r i t s t r u e i d e n t i t y and v i t a l p u r p o s e , bu t o n l y f o r i t s m e c h a n i c s - - " o n l y [ f o r ] t h e p a t t e r n w h i c h t h a t h e a v e n l y wave l e f t on t h e sand when i t r e t r e a t e d , " L ew i s s ay s ( M i r a c l e s , p. 1 1 0 ) . He d e s c r i b e s su ch i l l - f a t e d a c t i v i t y as f u t i l e t e m p l e - b u i l d i n g : " F o r i t i s s ome th i ng coming t h r o u g h t h e p a r t i c u -l a r i t i e s , some l i g h t w h i c h t r a n s f i g u r e s t hem, t h a t r e a l l y c o u n t s , and i f you c o n c e n t r a t e on them you w i l l f i n d them t u r n i n g dead and c o l d unde r y o u r 36 hands . The more e l a b o r a t e l y , i n t h a t way , we b u i l d t h e t e m p l e , t h e more c e r t a i n l y we s h a l l f i n d , on c o m p l e t i n g i t , t h a t t h e god has f l o w n . " 4 6 One must n o t m i s t a k e t h e i d o l on f o r t h e g o d , L ew i s f r e q u e n t l y a d v i s e s . " ' I t c e a s e s t o be a d e v i l when i t c e a s e s t o be a g o d , ' " he i s f o nd o f r e p e a t i n g i n h i s L e t t e r s and The Fou r L o v e s . N a t u r e , i n d e e d t h e who l e o f o u r t empo r a l e x i s t e n c e , i s s a c r a m e n t a l o f s u p e r n a t u r e , bu t n e v e r more t han s a c r a m e n t a l . W h i l e n a t u r e i s more t h a n o r d i n a r y because o f t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r y we r e ad i n h e r , she i s a l s o l e s s t h an e x t r a o r d i n a r y because o f t h e r e s o l u t e o r d i n a r i n e s s she 47 c o m p r i s e s . " R e a l i t y i s ' i n c o r r i g i b l y p l u r a l , ' " c i t e s L e w i s . " Rea l t h i n g s a r e s h a r p and k n o b b l y and c o m p l i c a t e d and d i f f e r e n t " ( p . 1 9 9 ) : C o n c r e t e , i n d i v i d u a l , d e t e r m i n a t e t h i n g s do now e x i s t : t h i n g s l i k e f l a m i n g o e s , German g e n e r a l s , l o v e r s , s a n d w i c h e s , p i n e a p p l e s , comets and k a n g a r o o s . One m i gh t even s a y [ t h e s e a r e ] opaque e x i s t e n c e s , i n t h e sense t h a t each c o n t a i n s s ome th i n g wh i c h o u r i n t e l l i g e n c e c a n n o t c o m p l e t e l y d i g e s t . In so f a r as t h e y i l l u s t r a t e g e n e r a l l aws i t can d i g e s t them: bu t t h en t h e y a r e n e v e r mere i l l u s t r a t i o n s . Above and beyond t h a t t h e r e i s i n each o f them t h e " opaque " b r u t e f a c t o f e x i s t e n c e , t h e f a c t t h a t i t i s a c t u a l l y t h e r e and i s i t s e l f . . . . T h i s t o r r e n t [ o f opaque t h i n g s ] . . . a l o n e g i v e s o u r t r u e s t p r i n c i p l e s a n y t h i n g t o be t r u e a b o u t . " ( p . 105) N a t u r e i s i r r e d u c i b l y h e r s e l f , no more " t h e u l t i m a t e r e a l i t y " t h an " m e r e l y a s t a g e - s e t f o r t h e mora l drama o f men and women" ( p . 8 1 ) . 46 A P r e f a c e t o P a r a d i s e L o s t ( T o r o n t o : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 4 2 ) , p. 4 7 . 47 M i r a c l e s , p. 198; f u r t h e r page r e f e r e n c e s i n t h i s p a r a g r a p h wh i c h a r e documented p a r e n t h e t i c a l l y w i t h i n t h e t e x t a r e t o M i r a c l e s . 37 The dua l p o t e n t i a l f o r b o t h good and e v i l a t t e s t s t o n a t u r e ' s d e r i v a t i v e s t a t u s , as opposed t o t h e a b s o l u t e r e a l i t y w h i c h i n d w e l l s he r t o v a r i o u s d eg r ee s w h i l e she has t h e p o s i t i v e a t t r i b u t e o f e x i s t e n c e . I n d e e d , i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f m e d i e v a l b e s t i a r i e s , L ew i s p r o p o s e s i n The S i l v e r C h a i r t h a t t h e h i g h e r s ome th i ng i s i n t h e n a t u r a l o r d e r , t h e g r e a t e r i s no t o n l y i t s c a p a c i t y f o r good bu t a l s o i t s 48 demon iac p o t e n t i a l . ' " I have a l w a y s gone as n e a r D u a l i s m as C h r i s t i a n i t y a l l o w s — a n d t h e N.T. [New Te s t amen t ] a l l o w s one t o go v . n e a r , ' " L ew i s w r i t e s t o Dom Bede G r i f f i t h s (20 Dec . 1 9 6 1 , L e t t e r s , 3 0 1 ) . N a t u r e does r e f l e c t t h e C r e a t o r ' s g o o d n e s s , bu t she i s n o t d i v i n e . "He i s n o t a n a t u r e - G o d , bu t t h e God o f N a t u r e , " L ew i s p o i n t s o u t ( M i r a c l e s , p. 1 3 9 ) . The e x t r a o r d i n a r y , w h i l e i n e x t r i c a b l y l i n k e d t o t h e o r d i n a r y , i s y e t s ome th i ng s e p a r a t e and a p a r t f r om i t s abode . " [God ] i s n o t t h e s o u l o f N a t u r e no r o f any p a r t o f N a t u r e . . . . He i s n o t t o be i d e n t i f i e d even w i t h t h e ' d i v i n e s p a r k ' i n m a n , " L ew i s warns ( M i r a c l e s , p. 1 3 9 ) . I t i s n o t t h a t t h e f i n i t e i s r e p r e h e n s i b l e : L ew i s i d e n t i f i e s 49 con temptus mundi as " d a n g e r o u s " - - b u t s i m p l y t h a t i t i s d e r i v a t i v e . "Not bad you s e e ; j u s t v e r y v e r y s m a l l , " L ew i s w r i t e s , h e a r t i l y e n d o r s i n g Lady J u l i a n o f N o r w i c h ' s " v i s i o n o f ' a l l t h a t i s made' as a l i t t l e t h i n g l i k e a h a z e l nu t ' s o s m a l l I t h o u g h t i t c o u l d h a r d l y e n d u r e . ' " S a c r a m e n t a l i s m , t h e n , e n t a i l s t h e i n t e g r a l c o - i n h e r e n c e o f two e n t i t i e s , bu t n e v e r t h e i r homogeneous e q u a t i o n . T h e i r i n t e g r i t y o f r e l a t i o n s h i p i s p r e s e r v e d i n a p r o f o u n d s u b o r d i n a t i o n , f o r i t i s "by 48 F o r t h i s and t he f o l l o w i n g r e f e r e n c e I am i n d e b t e d t o W h i t e , Image o f Man, p. 9 4 . 49 "To Dom Bede G r i f f i t h s , O . S . B . , " 16 A p r i l 1940 , L e t t e r s , 183; t h e n e x t s e n t e n c e c o n t a i n s a q u o t a t i o n f r om t h i s same l o c a t i o n . 38 r e f u s i n g t o i d e n t i f y i t s e l f w i t h any o b j e c t o f t h e s e n s e s , . . . o r a n y t h i n g i m a g i n e d , o r any s t a t e o f o u r own m i n d s , " t h a t s u p e r n a t u r e " p r o c l a i m s i t s e l f s h e e r l y o b j e c t i v e " ( J o y , pp . 2 0 8 - 0 9 ) . An i n n a t e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s i n t h e unequa l r e l a t i o n s h i p s u g g e s t s i t s e l f t o L e w i s , who comments i n M i r a c l e s : The t o t a l r e a l i t y , bo th N a t u r a l and S u p e r n a t u r a l , i n w h i c h we a r e l i v i n g i s more m u l t i f a r i o u s l y and s u b t l y ha rmon ious t han we had s u s p e c t e d . We c a t c h s i g h t o f a new key p r i n c i p l e — t h e power o f t h e H i g h e r , j u s t i n so f a r as i t i s t r u l y H i g h e r , t o come down, t h e power o f t h e g r e a t e r t o i n c l u d e t he l e s s . Thus s o l i d b o d i e s e x a m p l i f y [ s i c ] many t r u t h s o f p l a n e g e o m e t r y , bu t p l a n e f i g u r e s no t r u t h s o f s o l i d g eome t r y : . . . Mon ta i gne became k i t t e n i s h w i t h h i s k i t t e n bu t she n e v e r t a l k e d p h i l o s o p h y t o h i m . ( p p . 1 3 4 - 3 5 ; emphas i s added) In i t s r e l i g i o u s phenomenon o f s p e a k i n g i n t o n g u e s , l anguage d r a m a t i c a l l y d e m o n s t r a t e s t h i s key p r i n c i p l e o f t h e h i g h e r i n v e s t i n g t h e l o w e r . L e w i s ' sermon " T r a n s p o s i t i o n , " w h i c h he f i r s t d e l i v e r e d a t P e n t e c o s t , e x p l a i n s t h a t God draws up t h e t empo r a l i n t o H i m s e l f , t h e r e b y i n v e s t i n g t h e l e s s e r w i t h H i s own f u l n e s s o f mean i ng . F o r e x a m p l e , " a l l l a n g u a g e " i s "a human t h i n g , " L ew i s w r i t e s i n A P r e f a c e t o P a r a d i s e L o s t ( p . 2 3 ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s , b o t h t h e e r o t i c l a nguage o f t h e m y s t i c s , as w e l l as t h e e m b a r r a s s i n g g i b b e r i s h o f g l o s s o l a l i a , o r s p e a k i n g i n t o n g u e s , can be t he v e r y " o r g an o f t h e H o l y G h o s t , " he a f f i r m s ( " T r a n s p o s i t i o n , " p. 1 6 7 ) . C l e a r l y , a r i c h e r s p i r i t u a l r e a l i t y can t r a n s p o s e i t s e l f i n t o a l e s s e r v e h i c l e . In t h e same way, s u p e r n a t u r e does r e g u l a r l y t r a n s p o s e i t s e l f i n t o n a t u r e : " ' T h e h i g h e s t does n o t s t a n d w i t h o u t t h e l o w e s t . ' " I n d e e d , t h e key p r i n c i p l e wh i c h we a r e d i s c u s s i n g — t h a t o f t h e g r e a t e r d e s c e n d i n g i n t o t h e l e s s e r and d r a w i n g i t u p — i s b u t a f a c e t o f t h e p r o f o u n d p a t t e r n o f d e a t h and r e b i r t h . T h i s i s a p a t t e r n more 39 g l o b a l l y f a m i l i a r t o u s , "a t h i n g w r i t t e n a l l o v e r t h e w o r l d , " Lew i s s a y s : i t i s t h e model o f a l l v e g e t a b l e l i f e , a n ima l g e n e r a t i o n , and o u r 50 mo ra l and e m o t i o n a l l i f e . These m o d a l i t i e s o f t h e u n i v e r s a l d e a t h and r e b i r t h p a t t e r n , m o r e o v e r , " t u r n o u t t o be bu t t r a n s p o s i t i o n s o f t h e D i v i n e theme i n t o a m i n o r k ey " ( p . 1 3 6 ) . Tha t i s , t h e y p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e g r e a t e r d e a t h and r e b i r t h o f t h e D i v i n e C r u c i f i x i o n and R e s u r r e c t i o n , and u l t i m a t e l y i n t h a t d e a t h and r e b i r t h c o m p r i s i n g t h e d i v i n e a c t o f C r e a t i o n , wh i c h i s t h e m a s t e r o r " t o t a l p a t t e r n " ( p . 1 3 6 ) . In i t s own d e a t h - l i k e s u b m i s s i o n o f t h e g r e a t e r t o t h e l e s s e r , s a c r a m e n t a l i sm comprehends t h i s d e a t h and r e b i r t h p a t t e r n , w h e r e i n l i f e i s g l o r i o u s l y r e k i n d l e d t o r i s e anew as t h e p h o e n i x f r om t h e a s h e s . N a t u r e i s s a c r a m e n t a l , bu t f o r t h a t v e r y r e a s on she i s n o t t o be m i s u n d e r s t o o d as g r e a t e r t h an s a c r a m e n t a l , f o r i t i s t h e h i g h e r wh i c h i n v e s t s t h e l o w e r . I n d e e d , n a t u r e has n o t even a t t a i n e d h e r f u l l s a c r a m e n t a l i n h e r i t a n c e y e t : i n L e w i s ' e s c h a t o l o g i c a l w o r l d v i e w , t h e c o n j u n c t i o n o f s p i r i t and m a t t e r w i l l n o t be c o m p l e t e u n t i l C h r i s t e s t a b l i s h e s t h e New C r e a t i o n and f i n i s h e s t h e work begun by t h e I n c a r n a t i o n . On t h a t day n a t u r e w i l l p e r f e c t l y e x p r e s s s u p e r n a t u r e . The harmony o f s p i r i t and m a t t e r w i l l t h en sound a f u l l - t o n e d d i a p a s o n , and o u r f a l l e n d i s t i n c t i o n between m a t e r i a l and i m m a t e r i a l w i l l d i s s i p a t e , as o u r a n c e s t o r s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e " c o n c r e t e i m m a t e r i a l " i s consummated. Tha t a r c h a i c s o r t o f t h i n k i n g w i l l become s i m p l y t h e c o r r e c t s o r t when N a t u r e and S p i r i t a r e f u l l y harmo-50 M i r a c l e s , p. 135; f u r t h e r page r e f e r e n c e s i n t h i s p a r a g r a p h w h i c h a r e documented p a r e n t h e t i c a l l y w i t h i n t h e t e x t a r e t o M i r a c l e s . 40 n i s e d - - w h e n S p i r i t r i d e s N a t u r e so p e r f e c t l y t h a t t h e two t o g e t h e r make r a t h e r a C e n t a u r t h an a mounted k n i g h t . . . . Tha t k i n d o f b l e n d i n g w i l l a c c u r a t e l y m i r r o r t h e r e a l i t y w h i c h w i l l t h en e x i s t . The re w i l l be no room t o g e t t h e f i n e s t r a z o r - b l a d e o f t h o u g h t i n between S p i r i t and N a t u r e . E v e r y s t a t e o f a f f a i r s i n t h e New N a t u r e w i l l be t h e p e r f e c t e x p r e s s i o n o f a s p i r i t u a l s t a t e and e v e r y s p i r i t u a l s t a t e t h e p e r f e c t i n f o r m i n g o f , and b loom upon , a s t a t e o f a f f a i r s ; one w i t h i t as t h e per fume w i t h a f l o w e r o r t h e " s p i r i t " o f g r e a t p o e t r y w i t h i t s f o r m . ( M i r a c l e s , pp . 191 -92 ) Thus , w h i l e L ew i s does b r i n g home r a r i f i e d n e c t a r and a m b r o s i a t o s e r v e us f o r t e a , he a l s o t e a c h e s us t o a p p r e c i a t e i t s e s s e n t i a l l y t r a n s -m o r t a l s u b s t a n c e and f l a v o u r . Our t a s t e knows a new r e f i n e m e n t as we l e a r n t o a n t i c i p a t e o u r b e i n g most a t home i n t h e h e a v e n s , s h a r i n g t h e f o o d o f t h e g o d s . L ew i s emphas i z e s t h e c o n c r e t e t r a n s p o s i t i o n o f myth i n t o o u r own t e m p o r a l s p h e r e , bu t he a l s o p r o c l a i m s an u n s e a r c h a b l e myth w h i c h r ema i n s i n e x p r e s s i b l e , and an a b s o l u t e r e a l i t y wh i c h we w i l l f u l l y know o n l y i n e t e r n i t y . The r o m a n t i c y e a r n i n g wh i c h Lew i s c a l l s J o y p r o -duces a sense o f d i s o r i e n t a t i o n i n us t h a t i n d e e d p o i n t s t o t h e s u p e r n a t -u r a l J_n n a t u r e ; i t can a l s o i n d u c e a f u r t h e r l e v e l o f d i s p l a c e m e n t , i n w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t knows a u n i o n w i t h t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l , t h e r e b y " d i s c o v e r -51 i n g h i s t r u e i d e n t i t y and home." " A p p a r e n t l y , t h e n , o u r l i f e l o n g n o s t a l g i a , o u r l o n g i n g t o be r e u n i t e d w i t h s ome th i ng i n t h e u n i v e r s e f r om w h i c h we now f e e l c u t o f f , t o be on t h e i n s i d e o f some d o o r wh i c h we have a l w a y s seen f r o m t h e o u t s i d e , i s no mere n e u r o t i c f a n c y , bu t t h e t r u e s t i n d e x o f o u r r e a l s i t u a t i o n , " L ew i s r e f l e c t s i n "We igh t o f G l o r y " ( p . 3 0 ) . W h i l e L ew i s does r e v e a l s p i r i t as a f e l l o w r e s i d e n t o f n a t u r e , he a l s o i n t r o d u c e s s p i r i t as a g r a c i o u s h o s t who i n v i t e s us t o banque t i n a 51 C a r n e l l , B r i g h t Shadow, p. 120 and p. 144; t e n s e c h anged . 41 y e t g r e a t e r m a n s i o n . Domes t i c h a p p i n e s s i s ' " t h e end o f a l l human e n d e a v o u r , ' " L ew i s c o n f e s s e s , bu t he q u a l i f i e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f mak ing a home: " 1 s t t o be happy t o p r e p a r e f o r b e i n g happy i n o u r r e a l home 52 h e r e a f t e r ; 2nd i n t h e meant ime t o be happy i n o u r h o u s e s . " Even S c r e w t a p e a d m i t s t h a t men d o n ' t f e e l c o m p l e t e l y " a t home" on e a r t h , and e x h o r t s h i s p r o t e g e Wormwood t o l u l l h i s human c h a r g e i n t o r e g a r d i n g e a r t h as h i s heaven and f i n a l home ( p p . 1 4 1 - 4 5 ) . W i t h deep c o n v i c t i o n L ew i s w r i t e s i n Mere C h r i s t i a n i t y : t I must t a k e c a r e , on t he one hand , n e v e r t o d e s p i s e , o r be u n t h a n k f u l f o r , t h e s e e a r t h l y b l e s s i n g s , and on t h e o t h e r , n e v e r t o m i s t a k e them f o r t h e s ome th i ng e l s e o f w h i c h t h e y a r e o n l y a k i n d o f c o p y , o r e c h o , o r m i r a g e . I must keep a l i v e i n m y s e l f t h e d e s i r e f o r my t r u e c o u n t r y , wh i c h I s h a l l n o t f i n d t i l l a f t e r d e a t h . " 5 3 L e w i s ' p e n e t r a t i n g s e a r c h i n t o t h e o r d i n a r y r e v e a l s t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r y a t home t h e r e . Momentum c a r r i e s h im e v e r o nwa rd , howeve r , n e v e r c o n t e n t w i t h a mere i d o l o n and a lway s d e s i r i n g t h e u l t i m a t e O b j e c t , y e t a l s o f u l l y a p p r e c i a t i v e o f e v e r y s i g n p o s t and show o f h o s p i t a l i t y a l o n g t he way. G l o v e r d e s c r i b e s L e w i s ' f i c t i o n i n t h e s e a p p o s i t e t e r m s : " T h i s movement up and i n , p e n e t r a t i n g i n t o t h e u l t i m a t e t r u t h , a p p r o a c h i n g t h e c e n t r a l and u n i v e r s a l r e a l i t y , r e t u r n i n g t o s i m p l e v a l u e s o u t o f a p e r p l e x i n g m u l t i p l i c i t y o f c h o i c e s , c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e d e s c r i p t i v e movement and t h e t h e m a t i c s t r u c t u r e o f h i s f i c t i o n " ( En chan tmen t , p. 1 2 ) . L e w i s ' boyhood h a b i t o f s e e k i n g unhomely t o g e t h e r w i t h home ly e f f e c t s became t he l o c o m o t i v e e n g i n e o f h i s l i f e and c a r e e r : 5 2 "To a L a d y , " 16 March 1955 , L e t t e r s , 262 ; emphas i s a dded . 5 3 Mere C h r i s t i a n i t y ( London : G e o f f r e y B l e s , 1 9 5 2 ) , p. 108 . 42 l i k e t h e p o w e r f u l mesh o f two i n t e r l o c k i n g g e a r s , t h e u n i o n o f e x t r a o r d i n a r y and o r d i n a r y engende r s a f r u i t f u l t e n s i o n . L ew i s w r i t e s t o Dom Bede G r i f f i t h s : The t e n s i o n wh i c h you speak o f ( i f i t H a t e n s i o n ) between d o i n g f u l l and gene rous j u s t i c e t o t h e N a t u r a l w h i l e a l s o p a y i n g humble and u n c o n d i t i o n a l o b e d i e n c e t o t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l i s t o me an a b s o l u t e key p o s i t i o n . I have no use f o r mere e i t h e r - o r p e o p l e ( e x c e p t o f c o u r s e i n t h a t l a s t r e s o r t when t h e c h o i c e , t h e p l u c k i n g o u t t h e r i g h t e y e , i s upon u s : as i t i s i n some mode e v e r y d a y . ) (23 A p r i l 1 9 5 1 , L e t t e r s , 228) To c o n c l u d e , t h e s a c r a m e n t a l d o m i c i l i n g o f t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r y w i t h i n t h e o r d i n a r y does no t c o m p r i s e an e a s y a s s i m i l a t i o n o r c o n g r u e n c y , bu t r a t h e r an i n t r i c a t e , p a r a d o x i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . I n s o f a r as she i s s a c r a m e n t a l o f s u p e r n a t u r e , n a t u r e i s i n d e e d o u r home; i n s o f a r as she i s n o t t h e u l t i m a t e r e a l i t y n o r y e t i t s p e r f e c t e x p r e s s i o n , she i s n o t o u r home. As t h i s s t u d y w i l l e ndeavou r t o show, t h i s c a r e f u l b a l a n c e a c c o u n t s f o r t h e d ep t h and who l ene s s o f t h e c o sm i c t r i l o g y and a l l o w s f o r i t s p e c u l i a r " h o m i n e s s " a t m u l t i p l e l e v e l s . The i n t e g r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p p r o v i d e s t h e b r e a d t h o f t h e t r i l o g y ' s p r o f o u n d r e a c h e s , even w h i l e k n i t t i n g t h o s e d i s t a n c e s i n t o an i n d i s s o l u b l e u n i t y . A l t h o u g h L e w i s ' t h o r o u g h g o i n g n a t u r a l s u p e r n a t u r a l i sm c l e a r l y r e c e i v e s i t s c a p s t o n e i n t h e C h r i s t i a n i t y w h i c h he came t o embrace so w h o l e h e a r t e d l y , i t s b a s i c p e r s p e c t i v e i s P l a t o n i c as w e l l as C h r i s t i a n . Tha t i s , a l t h o u g h one m i gh t be c h a l l e n g e d t o p robe i t s b r o a d e r i m p l i c a t i o n s , t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s p i r i t and m a t t e r i n L e w i s ' f i c t i o n can be examined i n n o n - t h e o l o g i c a l t e r m s . One s h o u l d r e c o g n i z e L e w i s ' deep commitment t o J e s u s C h r i s t , t h e Man i n whom God i s I n c a r n a t e , bu t f o r t h e pu r po s e o f t h i s l i t e r a r y s t u d y i t r ema i n s an e n r i c h i n g 43 b a c k d r o p , and t he f o u n d a t i o n wh i c h we may s a f e l y assume f o r t h e man and u l t i m a t e l y t h e f a n t a s y w r i t e r . T h i s i s n o t t o m i n i m i z e o r d i s r e g a r d t h e p r e e m i n e n t e f f e c t o f f a i t h i n L e w i s ' l i f e and wo rk : i n d e e d , as we have l e a r n e d , En joyment o f any such p a r t i c u l a r i t y i s f o s t e r e d by a C o n t e m p l a t i v e gaze w h i c h i s f o c u s s e d on a more d i s t a n t p o i n t . Thus G i b s o n p r o p e r l y speaks o f " t h e f r eedom wh i c h t h e s a c r a m e n t a l method g i v e s [ L e w i s ] " ( S p i n n e r o f T a l e s , p. 2 6 6 ) . We w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e L e w i s ' n a t u r a l s u p e r n a t u r a l i sm as a l i t e r a r y phenomenon, w i t h t h e r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t i t i s u l t i m a t e l y s u p p o r t e d and e n r i c h e d by h i s a l l - e m b r a c i n g C h r i s t i a n i t y . As G l o v e r s a y s , t h e " a r t i s t i c q u e s t i o n s a r e p a r t o f a l a r g e r c o n c e r n wh i c h Lew i s was w o r k i n g h i s way t h r o u g h a t t h e same t i m e : t h e q u e s t i o n o f how s p i r i t and m a t t e r i n t e r a c t i n l i f e " ( En chan tmen t , p. 4 2 ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e a r t i s t i c q u e s t i o n s r ema in an autonomous s u b s e t w i t h i n t h e " l a r g e r c o n c e r n " o f L e w i s ' r e l i g i o u s and e x i s t e n t i a l q u e s t i o n s , j u s t as n a t u r e and s u p e r n a t u r e p r e s e r v e t h e i r p e c u l i a r i d e n t i t i e s w i t h i n t h e i n t i m a c y o f t h e i r own r e l a t i o n s h i p . In a n o n - t h e o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t , t h e n , we have a t t e m p t e d t o show t h a t t h e b a s i s o f L e w i s ' n a t u r a l s u p e r n a t u r a l i sm l i e s i n t h e two s t r a i n s o f l o g i c and romance i n h e r e n t i n h i s c h a r a c t e r . G l o v e r s u g g e s t s t h a t " [ L e w i s ' ] e a r l i e s t commitment t o an a l m o s t pagan l o v e o f sensuous b e a u t y . . . b r o u g h t h im t o r e c o g n i z e s p i r i t i n b e a u t y " ( En chan tmen t , p. 13 ; emphas i s a d d e d ) . "The r e s u l t o f h i s q u i t e r a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e mean ing and r o l e o f t h e i m a g i n a t i o n as i t c r e a t e d images o f b e a u t y i n t h e r e a d e r ' s mind was t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t he had [ p r e v i o u s l y ] s t o p p e d s h o r t o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e a im o f t h i s d e l i g h t , m i s t a k i n g i t f o r an end i n i t s e l f " ( p . 19; emphases a d d e d ) . G l o v e r c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e theme o f " f u r t h e r i n and h i g h e r up " w h i c h he c h a r t s i n L e w i s ' l i f e and 44 work i s r o o t e d i n an amalgam o f l o g i c and romance , c o m p r i s i n g L e w i s ' p r e -as w e l l as h i s p o s t - c o n v e r s i o n i d e a s . G i b s o n f o l l o w s G l o v e r ' s s e c u l a r p a t t e r n i n g , p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t L e w i s ' " c o n c e p t t h a t a l i t e r a r y f i g u r e r e f l e c t s on a l o w e r p l a n e s ome th i ng w h i c h i s more r e a l and r i c h a t a h i g h e r l e v e l i s t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f P l a t o ' s d o c t r i n e o f ' I d e a s ' t o l i t e r a r y t h e o r y " ( S p i n n e r o f T a l e s , p. 2 6 4 ) . "To l o s e what I owe t o P l a t o and A r i s t o t l e wou l d be l i k e t h e a m p u t a t i o n o f a l i m b , " L ew i s 54 c o n f e s s e s . C a r n e l l c o n f i r m s t h a t " L e w i s f o und i n P l a t o n i s m a c omp rehen s i v e way t o r e c o n c i l e r e a s o n ' s d i a l e c t i c w i t h t h e r e a s o n s o f t h e h e a r t " ( B r i g h t Shadow, p. 6 7 ) . I n d e e d , C a r n e l l ' s a s s e s smen t e choes L e w i s ' own k eyno t e p h r a s e , " t h e d i a l e c t i c o f D e s i r e " ( P r e f . t o R e g r e s s , p. 1 0 ) . Hav i n g g a i n e d a c o n c e p t o f " s a c r a m e n t a l i s m " o v e r and above i t s p r i m a r y t h e o l o g i c a l m e a n i n g , t h e n , we have a t e rm s t i l l r i c h i n c o n n o t a -t i o n bu t a l s o a v a i l a b l e f o r a more s p e c i f i c a l l y l i t e r a r y a p p l i c a t i o n . " S a c r a m e n t a l i s m " w i l l s e r v e as o u r u m b r e l l a t e rm f o r L e w i s ' p e c u l i a r c o n j u n c t i o n o f t h e p r o s a i c and p o e t i c , homely and unhome l y , and r a t i o n a l and m y t h i c s p h e r e s — o r f o r h i s s y n c h r o n i c awareness o f " l o g i c " and 55 " r o m a n c e , " as L ew i s d e s i g n a t e d t h e s e t w i n f a c e t s o f h i s p e r c e p t i o n . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , we w i l l i n t r o d u c e t he t e rm " i n c a r n a t i o n a l " t o c h a r a c t e r i z e L e w i s ' n a t u r a l s u p e r n a t u r a l i s m . Ransom p o i n t s t o such a d i m e n s i o n o f mean ing f o r bo th t e rms i n P e r e l a n d r a : Long s i n c e on M a r s , and more s t r o n g l y s i n c e he came t o P e r e l a n d r a , Ransom had been p e r c e i v i n g t h a t t h e 5 4 "The Idea o f an ' E n g l i s h S c h o o l , ' " i n R e h a b i l i t a t i o n s , p. 6 4 . 5 5 W a l s h , "The Man and t he M y s t e r y , " p. 3 . 45 t r i p l e d i s t i n c t i o n o f t r u t h f r om myth and o f bo th f r om f a c t was p u r e l y t e r r e s t r i a l - - w a s p a r t and p a r c e l o f t h a t unhappy d i v i s i o n between s o u l and body wh i c h r e s u l t e d f r om t h e F a l l . Even on E a r t h t h e s a c r amen t s e x i s t e d as a permanent r e m i n d e r t h a t t h e d i v i s i o n was n e i t h e r wholesome n o r f i n a l . The I n c a r n a t i o n had been t h e b e g i n n i n g o f i t s d i s a p p e a r a n c e , ( p . 163; emphases added) As we have s e e n , L ew i s f r e q u e n t l y uses su ch d i c t i o n ; i n " T r a n s p o s i t i o n , " f o r e x a m p l e , he w r i t e s t h a t " t h e [ p h y s i c a l ] s e n s a t i o n w h i c h a c compan ie s j o y becomes i t s e l f j o y : we can h a r d l y choose bu t s a y ' i n c a r n a t e s j o y ' " ( p . 180; emphas i s a d d e d ) . " I n c a r n a t i o n a l " s u i t a b l y d e s c r i b e s any b o d y i n g f o r t h o f s p i r i t i n m a t t e r , when " t h e l o w e r r e a l i t y can a c t u a l l y be drawn i n t o t h e h i g h e r and become p a r t o f i t , " as Lew i s s a y s ( p . 1 8 0 ) . W i t h " s a c r a m e n t a l , " " i n c a r n a t i o n a l " w i l l d eno t e t h e t e c h n i q u e o f wed-d i n g t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r y t o t h e o r d i n a r y , and o f s e r v i n g n e c t a r and ambro-s i a f o r t e a a t t h e m a r r i a g e f e a s t . The m a r i t a l image r y i s n o t g r a t u i t o u s : L ew i s s t a t e s i n The A l l e g o r y o f Love t h a t " t o ask how t h e s e " m a r r i e d p a i r s " o f s e n s i b l e s and i n s e n s i b l e s f i r s t came t o g e t h e r wou l d be g r e a t 56 f o l l y ; t h e r e a l q u e s t i o n i s how t h e y e v e r came a p a r t . " These m a r r i e d p a i r s w i l l be g l o r i o u s l y r e u n i t e d i n t h e f u l l r e d e m p t i o n o f t h e f u t u r e , f o r " t h e u n i o n between God and N a t u r e i n t h e P e r s on o f C h r i s t a d m i t s no d i v o r c e , " L ew i s s a y s ( M i r a c l e s , p. 1 4 9 ) . C h r i s t , t h e D i v i n e I n c a r n a t i o n who consummates t h e m a r r i a g e o f s u p e r n a t u r e and n a t u r e , b l e s s e s t h e u n i o n o f t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r y and o r d i n a r y . He t o o s e r v e s n e c t a r and a m b r o s i a f o r t e a a t t h e m a r r i a g e b a n q u e t , j u s t as He once t r a n s f o r m e d w a t e r i n t o a r i c h w i ne t o s e r v e a t a Hebrew wedd ing f e a s t . M a r r i a g e s t a n d s as an 5 6 The A l l e g o r y o f L o ve : A S t u d y i n M e d i e v a l T r a d i t i o n [ 1936 ] new e d . (New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s - G a l a x y , 1 9 5 8 ) , p7 44 ; c i t e d h e r e a f t e r as A l l e g o r y . 46 a r c h e t y p a l emblem f o r t h e c o m p o s i t e n a t u r e o f a s a c r a m e n t a l u n i v e r s e . T h i s i n t i m a t e u n i o n o f n a t u r a l and s u p e r n a t u r a l i s " s a c r a m e n t a l " and " i n c a r n a t i o n a l " ; i t i s a l s o a p p r o p r i a t e l y s t y l e d " m y t h o l o g i c a l . " Lew i s c o n f e s s e d t h a t c o - i n h e r e n t s p i r i t u a l and p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y was a phenomenon he i n i t i a l l y " r e j e c t e d w i t h o u t t r i a l " on g r ounds o f b e i n g t r a n s p a r e n t " ' m y t h o l o g y ' " ( M i r a c l e s , p. 1 8 4 ) . As he came t o adop t h i s r i g o r o u s n a t u r a l s u p e r n a t u r a l i s m , howeve r , L ew i s a l s o came t o u n d e r s t a n d m y t h o l o g y i n a new, p r o f o u n d s e n s e . G i v e n t h a t a l l o r d i n a r y r e a l i t y i s a means r a t h e r t h an an e n d , and t h a t i t i s u l t i m a t e l y abou t s ome th i ng e x t r a o r d i n a r y , t h en t h e e n t i r e sum o f o u r e x p e r i e n c e m i g h t be d e s c r i b e d as m y t h o l o g i c a l . R e a l i t y w i l l e v e r be t r a n s c e n d e d b y - - b u t a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o - - a s u p e r - r e a l i t y o f wh i c h o u r p r e s e n t e x i s t e n c e c o m p r i s e s o n l y shadows and g l i m m e r s . The c o n c e p t o f p i c t o r i a l l y t r a n s l a t e d t r u t h wh i c h i s c onveyed by t h e t e r m " m y t h o l o g i c a l , " and by i t s s i s t e r a d j e c t i v e s " e m b l e m a t i c " and " h e r a l d i c , " i s a c t u a l l y a c o n c e p t i n h e r e n t i n t h e mean ing o f " s a c r a m e n t a l " and " i n c a r n a t i o n a l . " F o r e x a m p l e , i n p o i n t i n g t o t h e " m a r r i e d p a i r s o f s e n s i b l e s and i n s e n s i b l e s " wh i c h r e f l e c t l i n g u i s t i c s a c r a m e n t a l i s m , L ew i s s u g g e s t s t h a t " i t i s t h e v e r y n a t u r e o f t h o u g h t and l anguage t o r e p r e s e n t what i s i m m a t e r i a l i n p i c t u r a b l e t e r m s " ( A l l e g o r y , p. 4 4 ; emphas i s a d d e d ) . " ' P i c t u r e - t h i n k i n g , ' " s a y s George B a i l e y , "became t h e modus o p e r a n d i f o r h i s l i f e w o r k - i n h i s speech as 57 w e l l as i n h i s w r i t i n g . " Of c o u r s e , w h i l e L ew i s " f i r m l y b e l i e v e d i n t h e d o c t r i n e o f accomodated t r u t h , " he n e v e r m i s t o o k " t h e p o r t r a i t f o r t h e r e a l i t y , " s a y s 5 7 " I n t h e U n i v e r s i t y , " i n S p e a k e r & T e a c h e r , p. 113 . 47 C O M a r g a r e t Hannay. Tha t r e a l i t y d i f f e r s " f r o m t h e s e n s o r y l i f e we know h e r e , n o t as e m p t i n e s s d i f f e r s f r om w a t e r o r w a t e r f r om w ine bu t as a f l o w e r d i f f e r s f r om a b u l b o r a c a t h e d r a l f r om an a r c h i t e c t ' s d r a w i n g , " L ew i s w r i t e s i n " T r a n s p o s i t i o n " ( p . 1 7 7 ) . "Our n a t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e s ( s e n s o r y , e m o t i o n a l , i m a g i n a t i v e ) a r e o n l y l i k e t h e d r a w i n g , l i k e p e n c i l l e d l i n e s on f l a t p a p e r , " he c o n t i n u e s ( pp . 1 7 8 - 7 9 ) . "We a r e t h e ' f r i g i d p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s ' ; t h e heavens above us a r e t h e ' shadowy a b s t r a c t i o n s ' ; t h e w o r l d wh i c h we m i s t a k e f o r r e a l i t y i s t h e f l a t o u t l i n e o f t h a t wh i c h e l s e w h e r e v e r i t a b l y i s i n a l l t h e round o f i t s u n i m a g i n a b l e d i m e n s i o n s " ( A l l e g o r y , p. 4 5 ) . R e a l i t y ' s f u n c t i o n i s no t one o f l e n d i n g s o l i d i t y t o t h e i m m a t e r i a l , bu t r a t h e r one o f m y t h o l o g i c a l l y s k e t c h i n g i n f e w e r d i m e n s i o n s what i s u l t i m a t e l y more s o l i d and r e a l . In Tha t H i d eous  S t r e n g t h , J ane i s s t a r t l e d by j u s t such a r e a l i z a t i o n as she compares h e r w o r l d t o t h e C h r i s t i a n s ' : He r s ough t t o have been t h e v i v i d , p e r i l o u s w o r l d b r o u g h t a g a i n s t t h e i r g r e y f o r m a l i s e d one : h e r s t h e q u i c k , v i t a l movements and t h e i r s t h e s t a i n e d - g l a s s a t t i t u d e s . Tha t was t h e a n t i t h e s i s she was used t o . T h i s t i m e , i n a sudden f l a s h o f p u r p l e and c r i m s o n , she remembered what s t a i n e d g l a s s was r e a l l y l i k e . ( p . 391) " I t i s t h e p r e s e n t l i f e w h i c h i s t h e d i m i n u t i o n , t h e s y m b o l , t h e e t i o l a t e d , t h e ( a s i t we re ) ' v e g e t a r i a n ' s u b s t i t u t e , " L ew i s w r i t e s i n " T r a n s p o s i t i o n " ( p . 1 7 9 ) . J u s t as t h e m a t e r i a l w o r l d m y t h o l o g i c a l l y images t h e s u p e r m a t e r i a l , so l i t e r a r y c o n s t r u c t i o n s i n t h e i r own t u r n h e r a l d t h e m a t e r i a l w o r l d , 5 8 "A P r e f a c e t o P e r e l a n d r a , " i n The L o n g i n g f o r a Form: E s s a y s on  t h e F i c t i o n o f C S . L e w i s , e d . P e t e r J . S c h a k e l ( [ K e n t , OH]: Kent S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 7 ) , p. 7 9 . 48 i n c a r n a t i n g i n m i c r o c o s m i t s c o m p l e x i t y o f l i v e d e x p e r i e n c e . Once more t h i s h e r a l d i c r e l a t i o n s h i p i s one o f i n t e g r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and a wed l o c k wh i c h y i e l d s mean i ng , r a t h e r t h a n an a r b i t r a r y s y s t em o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . L ew i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r i v e s f o r such g e n u i n e n e s s i n h i s l i t e r a r y a r t i f a c t s ; t h a t i s , he a t t e m p t s t o work w i t h i n a w o r l d o f s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t g e n e r a t e s i t s own a c t i o n . Any i m p o r t e d i d e a s must f e nd f o r t h e m s e l v e s , mov ing f r e e l y w i t h i n t h e f i c t i v e c o n t e x t and unhampered by e x t e r n a l s t r i c t u r e s . " I t i s t h i s s i m i l a r i t y between f i c t i o n and r e a l i t y w h i c h . . . [ L e w i s ] c a l l s ' s a c r a m e n t a l ' r a t h e r t h a n s y m b o l i c a l , " s a y s G i b s o n ( S p i n n e r o f T a l e s , p. 2 6 3 ) . God as t h e c r e a t o r w r i t e s t h e s t o r y o f l i f e wh i c h m y t h o l o g i c a l l y r e l a y s a s u p e r - r e a l i t y . The a u t h o r as s u b - c r e a t o r - - a n i d e a s h a r e d by Lew i s and T o l k i e n — l i k e w i s e w r i t e s m y t h o l o g i c a l s t o r i e s , s t o r i e s wh i c h m y t h o l o g i z e a t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l w o r l d t h a t i s i t s e l f a p i c t u r e o f a g r e a t e r r e a l m . Thus t h e s u b - c r e a t o r i s ' n e a r by l i k e n e s s ' t o h i s m a s t e r , s a t i s f y i n g " t h e human's d e s i r e t o m im i c h i s c r e a t o r " ( G l o v e r , p. 3 0 ) . Of c o u r s e , he may i m i t a t e c o n t e n t as w e l l as f o rm i n h i s s u b - c r e a t i o n . I f a l s o ' n e a r by a p p r o a c h ' t o h i s c r e a t o r , t h e s u b - c r e a t o r can make t h e s u b s t a n c e o f m y t h o l o g y l i v e , and o f f e r i t s n e c t a r and a m b r o s i a t o h i s r e a d e r s , a c t u a l l y a s s i s t i n g " i n d r a w i n g home t o r e a d e r s t h e i n n e r t r u t h s " ( G l o v e r , p. 30 ; emphas i s a d d e d ) . G l o v e r e x p l a i n s t h a t "as Lew i s came t o see t h a t e v e r y t h i n g i n l i f e r e f l e c t e d some s p a r k o f s p i r i t , . . . he came t o see a r t as a r e f l e c t i o n o f s p i r i t j u s t as l i f e i t s e l f i s " ( p . 4 2 ) . In R e f l e c t i o n s on t he P s a l m s , L ew i s w r i t e s : I t seems t o me a p p r o p r i a t e , a l m o s t i n e v i t a b l e , t h a t when t h a t g r e a t I m a g i n a t i o n w h i c h i n t h e b e g i n n i n g . . . had i n v e n t e d and f o rmed t h e who l e w o r l d o f N a t u r e , s u b m i t t e d t o e x p r e s s i t s e l f i n human s p e e c h , 49 t h a t speech s h o u l d somet imes be p o e t r y . F o r p o e t r y t o o i s a l i t t l e i n c a r n a t i o n , g i v i n g body t o what had been b e f o r e i n v i s i b l e and i n a u d i b l e . 5 9 " I f God choose s t o be m y t h o p o e i c - - a n d i s n o t t h e s k y i t s e l f a m y t h — s h a l l fin we r e f u s e t o be m y t h o p a t h i c ? " he c h a l l e n g e s i n "Myth Became F a c t . " L e w i s ' a e s t h e t i c s l a r g e l y c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l t h e o r y o f A r i s t o t l e , P oe , and C o l e r i d g e , whereby t h e r e a d e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e o f b e a u t y , as i t i s m a n i f e s t e d by a h e i g h t e n e d r e s p o n s e , s i g n a l s t h e c ommun i c a t i o n o f s p i r i t t o t h e r e a d e r ' s own s p i r i t , t h r o u g h t he mean ing w i t h wh i c h i t i n v e s t s m a t t e r . ^ 1 Such an e x p e r i e n c e o f b e a u t y r e c a l l s and r e i n f o r c e s p r e v i o u s a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e s as w e l l , t h e r e b y i n t e n s i f y i n g o n e ' s commu-n i o n w i t h s p i r i t , bu t a l s o augmen t i ng t h a t p e c u l i a r a n g u i s h e d n o s t a l g i a wh i c h L ew i s i d e n t i f i e s by i t s e x p r e s s " J o y . " Through t h i s " J o y " one s u f -f e r s a p o i g n a n t awa reness o f t h a t a b s o l u t e r e a l i t y wh i c h p r o m i s e s i t s e l f as o u r f i n a l a bode , bu t wh i c h i s p r e s e n t l y o n l y o u r u n o b t a i n e d d e s t i n y . The b i t t e r s w e e t b e a u t y o f a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e t e s t i f i e s t h a t n a t u r e does accomodate s u p e r n a t u r e , bu t t h a t i t c o u l d n e v e r be a s u b s t i t u t e f o r t h o s e r a r i f i e d a tmosphe r e s w h i c h i t n a t u r a l i z e s . "Our m y t h o l o g y i s based on a s o l i d e r r e a l i t y t h an we dream: bu t i t i s a l s o a t an a l m o s t i n f i n i t e d i s t a n c e f r om t h a t b a s e , " Ransom d i s c o v e r s i n P e r e l a n d r a ( pp . 2 3 1 - 3 2 ) . N a t u r e i s s u p e r n a t u r e ' s own c r e a t i o n , y e t can c onvey a b s o l u t e r e a l i t y o n l y m y t h o l o g i c a l l y . Much l e s s t h en can n a t u r e ' s s u b - c r e a t i o n s , b e i n g a 5 9 R e f l e c t i o n s on t h e Psa lms ( London : G e o f f r e y B l e s , 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 5; emphas i s a dded . 6 0 "Myth Became F a c t , " Wo r l d D o m i n i o n , 22 ( 1 9 4 4 ) , p. 2 7 0 . 6 1 I f o l l o w G l o v e r , En chan tmen t , pp . 1 9 - 2 0 , i n h i s a n a l y s i s o f L e w i s ' a e s t h e t i c t h e o r y . 50 s t e p f u r t h e r r emoved , c o m p r i s e o r f u l l y e x p r e s s t h i s i n e f f a b l e s u p e r n a t u r e . A d m i t t e d l y , t h e s u b - c r e a t o r " e x e r c i s e s t h e G o d - l i k e power o f c r e a t i v i t y . . . [ t o d i s c o v e r ] u n i v e r s a l t r u t h s , " G l o v e r e x p l a i n s , " b u t t h e human i n s i g h t r e v e a l e d i n a r t can o n l y be a weak r e f l e c t i o n o f t h a t t r u t h " ( p . 3 0 ) . He c o n c l u d e s : We can n e v e r app rehend t h e u l t i m a t e t r u t h , e x c e p t i n God , so t h a t , t a k e n i n t h e l a r g e s t c o n t e x t , a r t i s o n l y a t o o l , a r u d d e r t o s t e e r t h e human s k i f f i n t h e r i g h t d i r e c t i o n . . . . L e w i s , when he speaks o f a r t , i s more i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e b e a u t y , t h e i m a g i n a t i v e c r e a t i v i t y , . . . t h an i n r e a c h i n g t h e g oa l a t t h e end o f t h e p e n e t r a t i o n i n t o t h e beyond , ( p . 51) B a r f i e l d , on t h e o t h e r hand , does t r u s t t h e p o e t s t o r e v e a l a b s o l u t e t r u t h , by c o n c e p t u a l l y r e s t o r i n g t h e a n c i e n t u n i t y o f p e r c e p t i o n w h i c h i s 67 r e c o v e r a b l e i n " t r u e m e t a p h o r s . " L e w i s , howeve r , c o n t i n u e s t o l o o k beyond t o d i s c e r n t h e a b s o l u t e , w h i c h c o u l d n e v e r be more t han imaged i n t h e e n t i r e sum o f knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e . L i k e n a t u r e , a r t i s a d e r i v a t i v e , amora l e n t i t y . Because i t i s s p a r k e d by s p i r i t i t does r e f l e c t s u p e r n a t u r e ; i n d e e d , a r t ' s a e s t h e t i c b e a u t y s y m b o l i z e s t h a t c e n t r a l , p r i m a l r e a l i t y , and v e r i l y commun i ca tes fi 3 s u p e r n a t u r a l mean ing t o man. N e v e r t h e l e s s , b e a u t y r e m a i n s an h e r a l d i c p o i n t e r . I t i s an o r g a n i c and s a n c t i f i e d - v e h i c l e o f mean i n g , bu t i t i s n o t t h e r e f e r e n t o f m e a n i n g . Any t r u e a p p r e c i a t i o n o f b e a u t y i s t h e r e s u l t o f i t s En joyment and n o t C o n t e m p l a t i o n , s a y s L e w i s ; i t s en j oymen t i s t h e b y - p r o d u c t o f c o n t e m p l a t i n g a h i g h e r o b j e c t . In a 62 B a r f i e l d , P o e t i c D i c t i o n : A S t u d y i n Mean ing [ 1928 ] new e d . ( London : F abe r and F a b e r , 1 9 5 2 ) , p p . 8 6 - 8 7 . 63 The c o n t e n t o f t h i s and t h e f o l l o w i n g s e n t e n c e p a r a p h r a s e G l o v e r , En chan tmen t , p p . 1 9 - 2 0 . 51 l e t t e r t o Leo K i n g s ! e y B a k e r , L ew i s w r i t e s : One t h i n g i s p l a i n , t h a t t h e s t a t e m e n t s c o n t i n u a l l y made abou t B e a u t y ' s b e i n g pu re c o n t e m p l a t i o n , s t i r r i n g no i m p u l s e , b e i n g t h e a n t i t h e s i s o f t h e p r a c t i c a l o r e n e r g i z i n g s i d e o f u s , a r e w r o n g . On t h e c o n t r a r y , b e a u t y seems t o me t o be a lway s an i n v i t a t i o n o f some s o r t : u s u a l l y an i n v i t a t i o n t o we d o n ' t know w h a t . A wood seen as " p i c t u r e s q u e " by a f o o l (who 'd l i k e a f rame round i t ) may be p u r e l y c o n t e m p l a t e d : seen as " b e a u t i f u l " i t seems r a t h e r t o s a y "come un to me . "64 L i t e r a t u r e s i m i l a r l y beckons one t o e n j o y r a t h e r t h an c o n t e m p l a t e i t ; i t i s n o t "a s e l f - e x i s t e n t t h i n g t o be v a l u e d f o r i t s own s a k e , " s a y s 65 L e w i s . Of i t s e l f l i t e r a r y a r t does n o t y i e l d t h e a b s o l u t e . L ew i s e m p h a t i c a l l y s t a t e s t h a t " t h i s l o w e r l i f e o f t h e i m a g i n a t i o n i s n o t 1 a b e g i n n i n g o f , n o r a s t e p t o w a r d s , t h e h i g h e r l i f e o f t h e s p i r i t , m e r e l y an image * ( i . e . n o t n e c e s s a r i l y and by i t s own n a t u r e . God can c au se i t t o be su ch a b e g i n n i n g ) " ( J o y , p. 1 5 9 ) . L e w i s ' s a c r a m e n t a l i sm i s no more d ogma t i c n o r s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l i g i o u s i n i t s l i t e r a r y a p p l i c a t i o n t h a n o t h e r w i s e , a l t h o u g h u l t i m a t e l y u n d e r s t o o d t h e word o r i g i n a t e s i n t h e Word. The d i f f e r e n c e , w h i c h i s p e rhaps t i c k l i s h t o d e f i n e even t hough we have a l r e a d y examined i t , i s c l a r i f i e d by L ew i s i n The Fou r L o v e s : We must d i s t i n g u i s h two t h i n g s w h i c h m i g h t b o t h p o s s i b l y be c a l l e d " n e a r n e s s t o G o d . " One i s l i k e -ne s s t o God . God has i m p r e s s e d some s o r t o f l i k e n e s s t o H i m s e l f , I s u p p o s e , i n a l l t h a t He has made. . . . In t h a t way a l l men, whe t he r good o r b a d , a l l a n g e l s 64 J u l y 1 9 2 1 , E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e M a n u s c r i p t s , B o d l e i a n L i b r a r y Lew i s C o l l e c t i o n , B o d l e i a n L i b r a r y , O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y , c / 2 2 0 / 4 , No. 61 ( c a l l n umbe r ) , as quo t ed i n G l o v e r , En chan tmen t , p. 12 . 65 " C h r i s t i a n i t y and L i t e r a t u r e , " i n R e h a b i l i t a t i o n s , p. 196 . 52 i n c l u d i n g t h o s e t h a t f e l l , a r e more l i k e God t h a n t h e a n i m a l s a r e . T h e i r n a t u r e s a r e i n t h i s s ense " n e a r e r " t o t h e D i v i n e N a t u r e . B u t , s e c o n d l y , t h e r e i s what we mean, t h e s t a t e s i n w h i c h a man i s " n e a r e s t " t o God a r e t h o s e i n wh i c h he i s most s u r e l y and s w i f t l y a p p r o a c h i n g h i s f i n a l u n i o n w i t h God , v i s i o n o f God and en j oymen t o f God . And as soon as we d i s t i n g u i s h n e a r n e s s - b y - l i k e n e s s and n e a r n e s s - o f - a p p r o a c h , we see t h a t t h e y do no t n e c e s s a r i l y c o i n c i d e . They may o r may n o t . ( p p . 1 2 - 1 3 ; emphas i s added) L ew i s d e e p l y r e s p e c t s t h e i m a g i n a t i o n ' s n e a r n e s s - b y - l i k e n e s s , and does no t deny t h a t a s a c r a m e n t a l l a nguage can b r i n g one n e a r e r by app r oa ch t o God . " A l l t h i n g s , i n t h e i r way, r e f l e c t h e a v e n l y t r u t h , t h e i m a g i n a t i o n no t t h e l e a s t , " he s a y s ( J o y , p. 1 5 9 ) . Bu t s a c r a m e n t a l i sm o f i t s e l f w i l l n o t g u a r a n t e e mo ra l p r o g r e s s . U n l e s s one r e s pond s p e r s o n a l l y t o t h e demands o f t h e d i v i n e w i l l by a c t i v e l y s u b m i t t i n g o n e ' s own w i l l , no a pp r o a ch w i l l be made. " I t h i n k e v e r y n a t u r a l t h i n g w h i c h i s n o t i n i t s e l f s i n f u l can become t h e s e r v a n t o f t h e s p i r i t u a l l i f e , bu t none i s a u t o m a t i c a l l y s o , " L ew i s e x p l a i n s t o M r s . R .E . H a l v o r s o n ( n . d . [ 1 9 5 6 ] , L e t t e r s , 2 6 8 ) . " ' N o n a t u r a l f e e l i n g s a r e h i g h o r l o w , h o l y o r u n h o l y , i n t h e m s e l v e s , ' " c o n t i n u e s t h e B r i g h t S p i r i t i n The G r e a t D i v o r c e . ' " T h e y a r e a l l h o l y when God ' s hand i s on t h e r e i n . They a l l go bad when t h e y fifi s e t up on t h e i r own and make t h e m s e l v e s i n t o f a l s e g o d s . " T h u s , where one s h o u l d s e e m i n g l y honour a p r o f o u n d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between t h e word and t h e Word, L ew i s a f f i r m s t h a t C h r i s t i a n s w i l l g e n e r a l l y t a k e l i t e r a t u r e l e s s s e r i o u s l y t h a n n o n - C h r i s t i a n s ( " C h r i s t i a n i t y and L i t e r a t u r e , " p. 1 9 6 ) . A r t i s as r e l i g i o u s and as n o n - r e l i g i o u s an e x p e r i e n c e as any o t h e r , d epend i ng s i m p l y upon i t s d e d i c a t i o n t o t h e g l o r y o f God. "The work o f a charwoman and t h e work 6 6 The G r e a t D i v o r c e : A Dream ( London : G e o f f r e y B l e s , 1 9 4 6 ) , p. 8 4 . 53 o f a p oe t become s p i r i t u a l i n t h e same way and on t he same c o n d i t i o n , " L ew i s w r i t e s . * ^ "We can p l a y , as we can e a t , t o t h e g l o r y o f God" ( " C h r i s t i a n i t y and L i t e r a t u r e , " p. 1 9 6 ) . Of c o u r s e , once a p e r s o n a l mora l r e s p o n s e has been made, a r t o r any o t h e r s a c r a m e n t a l l a nguage goes beyond r e f l e c t i n g s u p e r n a t u r a l t r u t h t o a c t u a l l y become t h a t t r u t h . As t h e a p o s t l e Pau l s a y s , t h e p e r s o n o f C h r i s t i s t h en r e f l e c t e d w i t h i n t h e m i r r o r s o f o u r f a c e s , as t h e y " a r e CO changed i n t o t h e same image f r om g l o r y t o g l o r y . " Myth i s b r o u g h t home, o r r a t h e r one i s b r o u g h t home t o m y t h , and a new w i ng i n i t s abode i s u n v e i l e d . One becomes p r o p e r l y a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e t h e s a c r a m e n t a l l a nguage as h a v i n g a l l a l o n g embod ied t h e D i v i n e . "One o f t h e m i n o r r ewa rd s o f c o n v e r s i o n i s t o be a b l e a t l a s t t o see t h e r e a l p o i n t o f a l l t h e o l d l i t e r a t u r e wh i c h we were b r o u g h t up t o r e ad w i t h t h e p o i n t l e f t o u t , " Lew i s w r i t e s "To a Lady " (29 J a n . 1 9 4 1 , L e t t e r s , 1 9 2 ) . J a n e ' s c o n v e r s i o n s i m i l a r l y e q u i p s h e r " t o see t h e r e a l p o i n t " and u n d e r s t a n d t h e D i v i n e mean ing o f s a c r a m e n t a l l a n g u a g e : " The re was n o t h i n g , and n e v e r had been a n y t h i n g , l i k e t h i s . And now t h e r e was n o t h i n g e x c e p t t h i s . Ye t a l s o , e v e r y t h i n g had been l i k e t h i s : o n l y by b e i n g l i k e t h i s had a n y t h i n g e x i s t e d " ( S t r e n g t h , p. 3 9 4 ) . The p o r t e n t w h i c h had a lway s been t h e r e comes t o be u n d e r s t o o d o n l y i n r e t r o s p e c t . When John r e a c h e s h i s l o n g e d - f o r I s l a n d i n R e g r e s s , t h e P e v e n s i e c h i l d r e n d i s c o v e r t h e i r new N a r n i a i n The L a s t B a t t l e , and O rua l f i n a l l y meets t h e gods i n T i l l We Have F a c e s , each t a s t e s a w h o l l y new and unexpe c t ed 6 7 " C h r i s t i a n i t y and C u l t u r e , " T h e o l o g y , 40 ( 1 9 4 0 ) , 1 6 6 - 7 9 ; r p t . i n " C h r i s t i a n i t y and C u l t u r e , " i n C h r i s t i a n R e f l e c t i o n s , p. 2 4 . 6 8 B i b l e , 2 C o r . i i i : 18 . ( K . J . V . ) 54 e x p e r i e n c e , y e t a l s o f i n d s t h a t w h i c h was somehow t h e r e a l l a l o n g . " ' B o t h good and e v i l , when t h e y a r e f u l l g r own , become r e t r o s p e c t i v e , ' " a d v i s e s MacDona ld i n The G r e a t D i v o r c e ( p . 6 2 ) . Thus i m a g i n a t i o n ' s f u l l e s t s a c r a m e n t a l f u n c t i o n can be d i s c e r n e d o n l y i n r e t r o s p e c t , and i t s p o t e n t i a l n e a r n e s s - o f - a p p r o a c h i s a c t u a l i z e d o n l y a f t e r o n e ' s f i r s t s t e p . W i t h L e w i s , Chad Wa lsh a s s i g n s "a h a n d m a i d e n - o f - t h e o l o g y " r o l e t o a e s t h e t i c b e a u t y , w h i c h a t most opens one up t o new e x p e r i e n c e s and r e a l i t i e s , u n l e s s and u n t i l i t p l a y s a r o l e more d i r e c t l y a n a l o g o u s t o 69 s a n c t i f i c a t i o n i n t h e i n i t i a t e s h u m a n i z a t i o n . P e r hap s t h en t h e Eden " t e m p o r a r i l y r e c o v e r e d " i n a r t can become "more t han a backward g l a n c e , " Wa l sh s u g g e s t s , even "an e s c h a t o l o g i c a l s i g n " t h a t "we s h a l l know Eden a g a i n . . . and i n knowing i t w i l l d i s c o v e r i t was n e v e r a t any moment t o t a l l y a b s e n t f r o m u s " ( p . i x ) . Of and i n i t s e l f , howeve r , n e i t h e r a r t n o r any s a c r a m e n t a l l a nguage i s mora l o r h o l y . A l t h o u g h t h e p r i m a r y stamp o f L e w i s ' f i c t i o n i s i n d e e d i t s s a c r a m e n t a l c o n c e p t , t h e n , " h i s work i s s i g n i f i c a n t as l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h happens a l s o t o be w r i t t e n by a C h r i s t i a n — n o one now c a l l s E l i o t t h e C h r i s t i a n P o e t " ( G l o v e r , p. 2 4 ) . H i s k eyno t e i s a m y t h o l o g i c a l d i a p a s o n , w h i c h i n c l u d e s e v e r y n o t e e v e r sounded by t h e i n e f f a b l e s u p e r - r e a l i t y , even t h o s e n o t e s beyond o u r norma l h e a r i n g r a n g e . " L e w i s ' own h i g h l y i m a g i s t i c s t y l e a d d r e s s e s t h e who l e p e r s o n , " C a r n e l l o f f e r s ( B r i g h t Shadow, p. 7 4 ) . E s p o u s i n g bo t h t h e o r d i n a r y and e x t r a o r d i n a r y , L e w i s ' work m a r r i e s t h e s e n s i b l e and i n s e n s i b l e , d i s c o v e r i n g t h e r e an o r g a n i c u n i t y . W i t h o u t b e i n g e i t h e r t h e o l o g i c a l l y o r i d e o l o g i c a l l y 69 F o r e w o r d , I m a g i n a t i o n and t h e S p i r i t : E s s a y s i n L i t e r a t u r e and  t h e C h r i s t i a n F a i t h , e d . C h a r l e s A . H u t t a r (G rand R a p i d s , M I : Ee rdmans , 1 9 7 1 ) , p. i x and p. x . 55 d i d a c t i c , L e w i s ' f i c t i o n does i m a g i n a t i v e l y r e f l e c t h i s s a c r a m e n t a l o u t l o o k and m y t h o l o g i c a l v i s i o n , whereby e v e r y t h i n g i s a t r u t h f u l y e t i n c o m p l e t e copy o f u l t r a r e a l i t y . " [ S u c h ] s ymbo l i sm i n t h e p a r t s ( I use t h e word i n a r a t h e r e x t ended s e n s e ) i s n o t o n l y m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y and t o n a l l y c o m p a t i b l e w i t h myth i n t h e w h o l e , " s a y s Wayne Shumaker i n d e f e n s e o f L e w i s , " b u t i s i n d e e d t h e same t h i n g on a s m a l l e r s c a l e : e l e m e n t s a r e f i t t e d t o g e t h e r i n such a way as t o s t a n d f o r more t han t h e y p i c t u r e . Myth i s t h e l i t e r a r y l a nguage w h i c h L ew i s j u d g e s t o be t h e most d i r e c t l y h e r a l d i c o f t h e c o r e o f r e a l i t y . He e x p l a i n s t h a t myth r e s o l v e s t h e E n j o y / C o n t e m p l a t e quanda r y o f o u r e a r t h l y p i l g r i m a g e : T h i s i s o u r d i l e m m a — e i t h e r t o t a s t e and no t t o know o r t o know and no t t o t a s t e . . . . As t h i n k e r s we a r e c u t o f f f r om what we t h i n k a b o u t ; a s t a s t i n g , t o u c h i n g , w i l l i n g , l o v i n g , h a t i n g , we do no t c l e a r l y u n d e r s t a n d . The more l u c i d l y we t h i n k , t h e more we a r e c u t o f f : t h e more d e e p l y we e n t e r i n t o r e a l i t y , t h e l e s s we can t h i n k . . . . Of t h i s t r a g i c d i l emma myth i s t h e p a r t i a l s o l u t i o n . In t h e en j oymen t o f a g r e a t myth we come n e a r e s t t o e x p e r i e n c i n g as a c o n c r e t e what can o t h e r w i s e be u n d e r s t o o d o n l y as an a b s t r a c t i o n . ( "Myth Became F a c t , " pp . 268 -69 ) C a l l i n g m y t h i c a l e l e m e n t s "an a d m i r a b l e h i e r o g l y p h i c " and " t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f c e r t a i n b a s i c e l e m e n t s i n man ' s s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e , " L ew i s c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e y a r e " t h e words o f a l a nguage w h i c h speaks 70 "The Cosmic T r i l o g y o f C S . L e w i s , " The Hudson Rev i ew , 8 ( 1 9 5 5 ) , 2 4 9 . 71 "On Th ree Ways o f W r i t i n g f o r C h i l d r e n , " i n P r o c e e d i n g s , P ape r s  and Summar ies o f D i s c u s s i o n s a t t h e Bournemouth C o n f e r e n c e 2 9 t h A p r i l t o  2nd May 1952 ( London : L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 5 2 ) , p. 24 ; t h e a r t i c l e i s c i t e d h e r e a f t e r as " W r i t i n g f o r C h i l d r e n . " t h e e l s e u n s p e a k a b l e . " 56 In p o e t r y t h e words a r e t h e body and t h e " theme" o r " c o n t e n t " i s t h e s o u l . Bu t i n myth t h e i m a g i n e d e v e n t s a r e t h e body and s ome th i n g i n e x p r e s s i b l e i s t h e s o u l . . . . I t i s i n some ways more a k i n t o mus i c t h an t o p o e t r y . . . . I t goes beyond t he e x -p r e s s i o n o f t h i n g s we have a l r e a d y f e l t . I t a r o u s e s i n us s e n s a t i o n s we have n e v e r had b e f o r e , n e v e r a n t i c i p a t e d h a v i n g , as though we had b r oken o u t o f o u r normal mode o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . . . . ( P r e f . , George M a c d o n a l d , p. 16; emphas i s added) Lew i s d e f i n e s myth " by i t s v e r y power t o c onvey e s s e n c e r a t h e r t h an ou twa rd f a c t , r e a l i t y r a t h e r t h an s e m b l a n c e , t h e g enu i n e r a t h e r t h an t h e a c c i d e n t a l , " s a y s K i l b y ( C h r i s t i a n W o r l d , p. 1 5 5 ) . By t h e same t o k e n , L ew i s does no t deem myth t o be t r u e i n an h i s t o r i c a l o r e m p i r i c a l s e n s e : "When I t a l k o f myths I mean myths as we e x p e r i e n c e them: t h a t i s , myths c o n t e m p l a t e d bu t n o t b e l i e v e d , d i s s o c i a t e d f r om r i t u a l , h e l d up b e f o r e t h e f u l l y wak i ng i m a g i n a t i o n o f a 73 l o g i c a l m i n d , " he c l a r i f i e s i n An E x p e r i m e n t i n C r i t i c i s m . N e v e r t h e l e s s , w h i l e myth i s n o t h i s t o r i c a l , " t h e g r e a t myths . . . r e f e r n o t t o t h e n o n h i s t o r i c a l bu t r a t h e r t o t h e n o n d e s c r i b a b l e , " C a r n e l l d i s t i n g u i s h e s ( B r i g h t Shadow, p. 1 0 6 ) . Wh i t e even s u g g e s t s t h a t L ew i s c o n c e i v e s o f myth " a s n o n i n c a r n a t e h i s t o r y " (Image o f Man, p. 3 8 ) . T hu s , myth i s n e i t h e r " m i s u n d e r s t o o d h i s t o r y . . . n o r d i a b o l i c a l i l l u s i o n . . . b u t , a t i t s b e s t , a r e a l t hough u n f o c u s s e d g l eam o f d i v i n e t r u t h f a l l i n g on human i m a g i n a t i o n , " w r i t e s L ew i s i n M i r a c l e s ( p . 1 6 1 n ) . I t s h i s t o r i c i t y o p e r a t e s w i t h i n what Wh i t e c a l l s L e w i s ' " m e t a p h o r - p l u s 72 P r e f a c e t o P a r a d i s e L o s t , p. 56 ; emphases added . 73 An E x p e r i m e n t i n C r i t i c i s m (Camb r i d ge : Cambr i dge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 4 5 ; c i t e d h e r e a f t e r as C r i t i c i s m . 57 u n d e r s t a n d i n g " o f t h e w o r l d , whereby " t h e r e a l i t y r e p r e s e n t e d i n myth and me tapho r i s m o r e — n o t l e s s — t h a n a f i g u r e o f s p e e c h " (Image o f Man, p. 41 and p. 3 9 ) . F o r e x a m p l e , we f i n d t h i s m e t a p h o r - p l u s w o r l d a l l e g o r i c a l l y f i g u r e d i n P i l g r i m ' s R e g r e s s . J o h n , t h e d o u b t i n g p i l g r i m who s u s p e c t s t h a t h i s r e l i g i o n i s bu t a m e t a p h o r , has h i s d oub t s c o n f i r m e d by Wisdom. L a t e r , a Man who s u d d e n l y a p p e a r s b e f o r e John t o r e s c u e h im t e l l s h im t he same t h i n g . He s o l e m n l y a d d s , howeve r , t h a t i t i s J o h n ' s m e t a p h o r - p r a y e r s w h i c h have a c t u a l l y b r o u g h t Him t o h i s a i d , and warns t h a t t h e commands o f h i s m e t a p h o r - r e l i g i o n a r e no l e s s r e a l t h an i t s h e l p ( p p . 1 4 3 - 4 6 ) . A s i m i l a r i n s t a n c e o c c u r s when John c r o s s e s t h e c a n y o n , emba r k i n g on an a r c h e t y p a l j o u r n e y o f d e a t h and r e b i r t h . Wisdom a g a i n a p p e a r s , t e l l i n g John t h a t h i s a d v e n t u r e s a r e bu t f i g u r a t i v e . A n o t h e r V o i c e c o u n t e r s : ' " C h i l d , i f you w i l l , i t i s m y t h o l o g y . I t i s bu t t r u t h , n o t f a c t : and image , n o t t h e v e r y r e a l . Bu t t h en i t i s My m y t h o l o g y . . . . T h i s i s My i n v e n t i n g , t h i s i s t h e v e i l unde r w h i c h I have chosen t o appea r even f r om t h e f i r s t u n t i l n ow ' " ( p . 1 7 1 ) . "Myth t h en p o i n t s , " C a r n e l l s u m m a r i z e s , " t o r e a l i t i e s w h i c h s i m p l y c anno t be d i s c u s s e d i n l i t e r a l l a n g u a g e . " I t s s t o r i e s , a l t h o u g h no t l i t e r a l l y h i s t o r i c a l , " a r e i n s p i r e d by ' A r c h -n a t u r e ' i m p i n g i n g upon ' N a t u r e , ' " and c o n s e q u e n t l y c onvey t h e l a r g e s t r e a l i t y ( B r i g h t Shadow, p. 1 0 7 ) . I t i s w i t h i n a m e t a p h o r - p l u s w o r l d , t h e n , t h a t myth so s t r o n g l y a p p e a l s t o L e w i s . L ew i s c o n s i d e r s t h a t " i n l i f e and a r t b o t h . . . we a r e a lway s t r y i n g t o c a t c h i n o u r n e t o f s u c c e s s i v e moments s ome th i ng t h a t i s n o t s u c c e s s i v e . T h i s e x i s t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t i s b e s t r e s o l v e d 74 "On S t o r i e s , " i n E s s a y s P r e s e n t e d t o C h a r l e s W i l l i a m s , w i t h 58 by s t o r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n " t h o s e f o rms i n wh i c h e v e r y t h i n g e l s e i s t h e r e f o r t h e sake o f t h e s t o r y , " because t h e i r s e r i e s o f t i m e l e s s , e x p e r i e n t i a l moments work t o c a p t u r e a n o n - s e q u e n t i a l t heme , i n d e e d s o m e t h i n g "much more l i k e a s t a t e o r q u a l i t y " ("On S t o r i e s , " p. 90 and p. 1 0 3 ) . M y t h , "where t h e mere p a t t e r n o f e v e n t s i s a l l t h a t m a t t e r s , " i s t h e p u r e s t f o rm o f s t o r y , and as such b e s t meets t h e c r i t e r i o n t o a t t a i n 75 t h i s n o n - s e q u e n t i a l theme. In m y t h , " t h e mean i n g , t h e s u g g e s t i o n , t h e r a d i a n c e , i s i n c a r n a t e i n t h e who l e s t o r y : i t i s o n l y by chance t h a t you f i n d any d e t a c h a b l e m e r i t s , " s a y s L ew i s ( p . 17; emphases a d d e d ) . I t i s o n l y w h i l e r e c e i v i n g t h e myth as a s t o r y t h a t you e x p e r i e n c e t he p r i n c i p l e c o n c r e t e l y . . . . What f l o w s i n t o you f r om t he myth i s n o t t r u t h bu t r e a l i t y ( t r u t h i s a lway s abou t s o m e t h i n g , bu t r e a l i t y i s t h a t abou t w h i c h t r u t h i s ) , a n d , t h e r e f o r e , e v e r y myth becomes t he f a t h e r o f i n n u m e r a b l e t r u t h s on t h e a b s t r a c t l e v e l . Myth i s t h e moun ta i n whence a l l t h e d i f f e r e n t s t r e ams a r i s e w h i c h become t r u t h s down he re i n t h e v a l l e y ; i n hac v a l l e a b s t r a c t i o n s ( i n t h i s v a l l e y o f s e p a r a t i o n ) . . . . I t i s n o t , l i k e t r u t h , a b s t r a c t ; n o r i s i t , l i k e d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e , bound t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r . ( "My th Became F a c t , " p. 269) "The c o n c r e t e f o r m o f m y t h , " as L ew i s c a l l s i t ( M i r a c l e s , p. 5 3 ) , a c h i e v e s " t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e r e a l u n i v e r s e , t h e d i v i n e , m a g i c a l , t e r r i f y i n g and e c s t a t i c r e a l i t y i n wh i c h we a l l l i v e " ( P r e f . , George  M a c d o n a l d , p. 2 1 ; emphas i s a d d e d ) . I t "does no t e s s e n t i a l l y e x i s t i n words a t a l l , " L ew i s c o n t i n u e s ( p . 1 5 ) , d e s c r i b i n g i t as an e x t r a -l i t e r a r y phenomenon i n h i s c h a p t e r "On M y t h " i n E x p e r i m e n t i n C r i t i c i s m . P r e f . by C . S . L ew i s ( T o r o n t o : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 4 7 ) , p. 105 . 75 L e w i s , P r e f . t o George M a c d o n a l d , p. 15; t h e n e x t q u o t a t i o n i s a l s o t a k e n f r om t h i s s o u r c e . 59 Because i t r i s e s f u r t h e s t above p e r s o n a l and l o c a l i d i o s y n c r a c y t o p e n e t r a t e i n n e r t r u t h , L ew i s v a l u e s myth as " t h e h i g h e s t a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e d i s i n t e r e s t e d i m a g i n a t i o n , " G l o v e r d i s c e r n s ( p . 5 5 ) . P r o p e r l y o c c u p i e d w i t h t h e u n i v e r s a l e v e n t s o f human e x p e r i e n c e , " i t s e t s b e f o r e us an image o f what r e a l i t y may w e l l be l i k e a t some more c e n t r a l r e g i o n , " L ew i s a f f i r m s ("On S t o r i e s , " p. 1 0 1 ) . " Tha t i s why he p l a c e d such a premium on m y t h , " G l o v e r c o n c l u d e s , "wh i c h he saw as t h e u l t i m a t e a c h i e v emen t o f an a u t h o r who t h r o u g h t h e f o r c e o f h i s s k i l l f u l c o n t r o l o f f o rm c o u l d move t he r e a d e r t o t h e h i g h e s t t r u t h " ( p . 4 2 ) . Thomas Howard c o n c u r s w i t h L ew i s i n d i s c e r n i n g i r r e d u c i b l e r e a l i t y a t t h e c o r e o f m y t h o l o g y : The madden ing h i n t a t work i n a l l p o e t r y i s t h a t t h i s l a nguage s p e a k s , n o t s i m p l y o f o u r m o r t a l f e e l i n g s abou t t h e t h i n g bu t c a t c h e s s ome th i ng w h i c h we a r e o b l i g e d t o b e l i e v e i s t r u e abou t i t , and w h i c h w i l l n o t y i e l d t o measurement and a n a l y s i s . Wha teve r t h i s q u a l i t y i s . . . w i l l n o t be d i s m a n t l e d and measu r ed : i t can o n l y be h a i l e d o r i n v o k e d , l i k e a g o d . And a t t h i s p o i n t we f i n d o u r s e l v e s i n t h e l a nguage o f m y t h o l o g y . ( A c h i e v e m e n t , p. 57 ; em-phases added) Howard goes on t o o b s e r v e t h a t because t h i s " q u a l i t y " i s e v i d e n t i n L e w i s ' t r i l o g y , i t must be w r i t t e n i n t h e same s a c r a m e n t a l l a n g u a g e . Even w o r k i n g i n t h e l a nguage o f m y t h o l o g y , w h i c h " can o n l y be h a i l e d o r i n v o k e d , l i k e a g o d , " howeve r , L e w i s n e v e r presumes n o r a s p i r e s t o p r e s e n t t h e c e n t r a l r e a l i t y i n a l l o f i t s f u l n e s s , bu t s i m p l y t o convey t he f a c t and s ense o f i t s c e n t r a l i t y . L ew i s n e i t h e r r e g a r d e d a e s t h e t i c b e a u t y as h o l y i n and o f i t s e l f , n o r l i t e r a r y s a c r a m e n t a l i sm as a r e l i g i o u s a b s o l u t e , and he made no e x c e p t i o n f o r h i s own w r i t i n g , m y t h o l o g i c a l o r o t h e r w i s e . ' "Make i t p l a i n t h a t i t was bu t a d r e a m , ' " 60 t h e g u i d e MacDona ld warns t h e L ew i s c h a r a c t e r i n G r e a t D i v o r c e . " ' S e e ye make i t v e r y p l a i n . G i v e no poo r f o o l t h e p r e t e x t t o t h i n k ye a r e c l a i m -i n g knowledge o f what no m o r t a l k n o w s ' " ( p . 1 1 7 ) . In J o y , L ew i s r e f e r s t o " t h e naked O t h e r , i m a g e l e s s ( t hough o u r i m a g i n a t i o n s a l u t e s i t w i t h a hundred i m a g e s ) , unknown, u n d e f i n e d , d e s i r e d " ( p . 2 0 9 ) . H i s my thopoe i a a s s e r t s t h e a b s o l u t e , y e t i s as shy o f a b s o l u t e a s s e r t i o n as i t i s s o a r i n g i n f a n t a s y . " T h i s a l s o i s T h o u , " bu t " N e i t h e r i s t h i s T h o u , " L e w i s wou ld s a y , f o nd o f t h e s p i r i t u a l maxims used by C h a r l e s W i l l i a m s . " Y e t t o d i s c o v e r a me t apho r , however t r i v i a l , i s t o b u i l d a b r i d g e and t o f i n d mean i ng ; and a l l l i t t l e mean ings a r e p a r t o f t h e g r e a t M e a n i n g , " C h a r l e s H u t t a r r em inds us ( I n t r o d . , I m a g i n a t i o n and t h e S p i r i t , p. x i v ) . Even t hough s u b - c r e a t o r s can i n d e e d " o n l y r e - c o m b i n e e l e m e n t s bo r rowed f r om t he r e a l u n i v e r s e , " as L ew i s s a y s ( M i r a c l e s , p. 4 2 ) , t h o s e e l e m e n t s do c o n t a i n t h e mean ing o f t h e i r d i v i n e A u t h o r , so t h a t " a l l i s s h o t t h r o u g h w i t h mean ings wh i c h t h e a u t h o r may n e v e r have been aware o f , " he a t t e s t s ( A l l e g o r y , p. 2 2 1 ) . " I n a myth he p u t s what he does no t y e t know and c d . n o t come by i n any o t h e r w a y , " L ew i s w r i t e s t o F r . P e t e r M i l w a r d (22 S e p t . 1956 , L e t t e r s , 2 7 1 ) . And t o S i s t e r P ene l o pe L ew i s w r i t e s : We r e - a r r a n g e e l emen t s He has p r o v i d e d . . . . And t h a t s u r e l y i s why o u r works ( a s you s a i d ) n e v e r mean t o o t h e r s q u i t e what we i n t e n d e d ; because we a r e r e -c o m b i n i n g e l e m e n t s made by Him and a l r e a d y c o n t a i n i n g H i s m e a n i n g s . Because o f t h o s e d i v i n e mean ings i n o u r m a t e r i a l s i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t h a t we s h d . e v e r know t h e who l e mean ing o f o u r own w o r k s , and t h e mean ing we n e v e r i n t e n d e d may be t h e b e s t and t r u e s t o n e . W r i t i n g a book . . . i s l i k e p l a n t i n g a ga rden o r b e g e t t i n g a c h i l d ; i n a l l t h r e e c a s e s we a r e o n l y e n t e r i n g as one c au se i n t o a c a u s a l s t r e a m w h i c h w o r k s , so t o s p e a k , i n i t s own way. (20 Feb . 1 943 , L e t t e r s , 203 -04 ) 61 Thus Lew i s moves c o n f i d e n t l y w i t h i n t h e w o r l d o f m y t h , w h i c h b e s t r e l a y s " t h e e l s e u n s p e a k a b l e " i n a m e t a p h o r - p l u s cosmos , y e t w h i c h h o l d s no h i s t o r i c a l , e m p i r i c a l , n o r a b s o l u t e p r e t e n s i o n s . We have e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t w h i l e i t i s o p e r a t i o n a l l y a r e l i g i o u s , L e w i s ' s a c r a m e n t a l a e s t h e t i c i s u l t i m a t e l y f u l f i l l e d i n t h e a c t u a l I n c a r n a t i o n . H i s m y t h o p o e i a , w h i c h e p i t o m i z e s h i s l i t e r a r y s a c r a m e n t a l i s m , i s e q u a l l y n o n - t h e o l o g i c a l bu t s i m i l a r l y consummated i n t h e I n c a r n a t i o n . In L e w i s ' a e s t h e t i c " t h e v a l u e s o f l i t e r a t u r e come t o r e s t on i t s a b i l i t y , by w h a t e v e r means o f a r t , t o e x p r e s s what he te rmed t h e ' g r e a t m y t h s , ' " G l o v e r r e v i e w s . Bu t " t h e g r e a t e s t o f t h e s e myths L ew i s now a cknow l edge s i s t h e s t o r y o f C h r i s t , " he c o n t i n u e s ( En chan tmen t , p. 2 2 ) . " H i s e a r l i e s t l o n g i n g s , s p r i n g i n g f r om n a t u r e and f r om some o f t h e c l a s s i c works o f t h e r o m a n t i c c r e a t i v e s p i r i t as w e l l as t h e s t e r n e r n o r t h e r n m y t h s , were t r a n s f o r m e d by C h r i s t i a n f a i t h i n t o what L ew i s r e g a r d s as t h e c e n t r a l myth o r most p r i m a l o f e x p e r i e n c e s " ( G l o v e r , p. 5 6 ) . In t h e I n c a r n a t i o n a t " t h e h e a r t o f C h r i s t i a n i t y , " L ew i s d i s c o v e r s "a myth w h i c h i s a l s o a f a c t " ( "My th Became F a c t , " p. 2 6 9 ) . He c o n f e s s e s : "Now as myth t r a n s c e n d s t h o u g h t , I n c a r n a t i o n t r a n s c e n d s my th . . . . The o l d myth o f t h e Dy i ng God , w i t h o u t c e a s i n g t o be m y t h , comes down f r om t he heaven o f l e g e n d and i m a g i n a t i o n t o t h e e a r t h o f h i s t o r y " ( "My th Became F a c t , " p. 2 6 9 ) . The h i s t o r i c i t y o f t h e C h r i s t - e v e n t i n d i s s o l u b l y weds m a t t e r and s p i r i t a t t h e i r moment o f g r e a t e s t d i s p a r i t y , and a s s u r e s t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e i r u n i o n . Now t h e s t o r y o f C h r i s t i s s i m p l y a t r u e my th : a myth w o r k i n g on us i n t h e same way as t h e o t h e r s , bu t w i t h t h i s t remendous d i f f e r e n c e t h a t i t r e a l l y happened: and one must be c o n t e n t t o a c c e p t i t i n 62 t he same way , remember ing t h a t i t i s God ' s myth where t h e o t h e r s a r e men 's my t h s : i . e . t h e Pagan s t o r i e s a r e God e x p r e s s i n g H i m s e l f t h r o u g h t h e m inds o f p o e t s , u s i n g such images as He f ound t h e r e , w h i l e C h r i s t i a n i t y i s God e x p r e s s i n g H i m s e l f t h r o u g h what we c a l l " r e a l t h i n g s . " 7 6 Such a d e f i n i t i v e c o n j u n c t i o n o f n a t u r e and s u p e r n a t u r e i s i n i t i a l l y d i s a p p o i n t i n g t o one such as L e w i s , howeve r , f o r i t seems as i f t h e component e l e m e n t s must be m u t u a l l y c omprom i sed . Reason must s u b m i t t o s u p e r n a t u r a l o r " R i g h t R e a s o n , " w h i c h Lew i s i d e n t i f i e s as " t h e d e e p e s t t h i n g i n r e a l i t y , t h e F a c t wh i c h i s t h e s o u r c e o f a l l o t h e r f a c t h o o d " ( M i r a c l e s , p. 1 2 7 ) . " L e w i s c o u l d . . . see c o sm i c c o n n e c t i o n s e ve r ywhe r e by t h e use no t o f r e a s o n a l o n e bu t o f R i g h t R e a s o n " 7 7 ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , i t was r e l u c t a n t l y t h a t he f i r s t c o n f e s s e d " t h a t o u r l o g i c was p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c o sm i c L o g o s , " he t e l l s us i n Joy^ ( p . 1 9 7 ) . Such a r e c o g n i t i o n s t r i p p e d r a t i o n a l i s m o f a l l i t s s p a r k l i n g i ndependence and t h e appea l o f u t t e r m a n a g e a b i l i t y w h i c h i t had h e l d f o r h i m . I t i s n o t o n l y r e a s o n w h i c h must bow b e f o r e t h e p r e e m i n e n t F a c t o f t h e I n c a r n a t i o n , however ; m y t h i c i m a g i n a t i o n t o o must s u b m i t , y i e l d i n g i t s e l f t o t h e p r o s a i c f a c t u a l i t y o f h i s t o r y . " J u s t as God , i n becoming Man, i s ' e m p t i e d ' o f H i s g l o r y , so t h e t r u t h , when i t comes down f r o m t h e ' h e a v e n ' o f myth [ o f p e r e n i a l l y d y i n g g od s ] t o t h e ' e a r t h ' o f h i s t o r y , unde rgoes a c e r t a i n h u m i l i a t i o n , " L ew i s s a y s ( M i r a c l e s , p. 1 6 1 n ) . " I n a c e r t a i n s ense we s p o i l a m y t h o l o g y f o r i m a g i n a t i v e p u r p o s e s by b e l i e v i n g i n i t , " he w r i t e s i n " I s T h e o l o g y P o e t r y ? " ( p . 1 5 2 ) . In M i r a c l e s and J o y , 7 6 L e w i s , "To A r t h u r G r e e v e s , " 18 O c t . 1931 , T o g e t h e r , 4 27 ; quo t ed by G l o v e r , En chan tmen t , p p . 2 2 - 2 3 . 7 7 K i l b y , " C r e a t i v e L o g i c i a n , " p. 3 9 . 63 L ew i s t e s t i f i e s t o t h e f l a t n e s s o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l g o s p e l s , t h a t i s , t o t h e i r l a c k o f m y t h i c a l f l a v o u r , e s p e c i a l l y as compared w i t h t h e r i c h l y i m a g i n a t i v e Pagan m y t h o l o g i e s , and even w i t h t h e r e l a t i v e l y s p l e n d r o u s O l d T e s t a m e n t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , L ew i s must c o n c l u d e , " i f e v e r a myth had become f a c t , had been i n c a r n a t e d , i t wou l d be j u s t l i k e t h i s " ( J o y , p. 2 2 2 ) . He e x p l a i n s : " C h r i s t i a n t h e o l o g y , and quantum p h y s i c s , a r e b o t h , by c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e f i r s t g u e s s , h a r d , c o m p l e x , d r y and r e p e l l e n t . The f i r s t shock o f t h e o b j e c t ' s r e a l n a t u r e , b r e a k i n g i n on o u r s pon t aneous dreams o f what t h a t o b j e c t ough t t o b e , a lway s has t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " ( M i r a c l e s , p. 1 0 2 ) . F u r t h e r r e f l e c t i o n , however , r e v e a l s t h a t C h r i s t , t h e d i v i n e a n i m a l r a t i o n a l e , does p e r f e c t l y ha rmon i ze p r o s a i c r e a s on and l o f t y i m a g i n a t i o n , even b r i n g i n g bo t h t h e s e e l e m e n t s t o t h e i r f u l n e s s o f p e r f e c t i o n . L ew i s e x p l a i n s : The Myth r ema i n s Myth even when i t becomes F a c t . The s t o r y o f C h r i s t demands f r om u s , and r e p a y s , n o t o n l y a r e l i g i o u s and h i s t o r i c a l bu t a l s o an i m a g i n a t i v e r e s p o n s e . I t i s d i r e c t e d t o t h e c h i l d , t h e p o e t , and t h e savage i n us as w e l l as t o t h e c o n s c i e n c e and t o t h e i n t e l l e c t . One o f i t s f u n c t i o n s i s t o b r eak down d i v i d i n g w a l l s . ( M i r a c l e s , p. 161n; emphas i s added) The u l t i m a t e c o n j u n c t i o n o f n a t u r e and s u p e r n a t u r e g l o r i o u s l y f u l f i l l s , r a t h e r t h an d i m i n i s h e s , i t s component e l e m e n t s . I n d e e d , i t consummates t h e wedd ing o f n a t u r e and s u p e r n a t u r e , L ew i s s a y s , " f o r t h i s i s t h e m a r r i a g e o f heaven and e a r t h : P e r f e c t Myth and P e r f e c t F a c t " ( "Myth Became F a c t , " p. 2 7 0 ) . The C h r i s t - e v e n t i s t h e t r i - p a r t i t e model f r om w h i c h n a t u r a l s u p e r n a t u r a l i sm o r i g i n a t e s and f r om wh i c h a l l s a c r a m e n t a l s y s t ems d e r i v e t h e i r d ep t h o f mean i ng . L ew i s c o n c l u d e s : 64 The re i s t h u s i n t h e h i s t o r y o f human t h o u g h t , as e l s e w h e r e , a p a t t e r n o f d e a t h and r e b i r t h . The o l d , r i c h l y i m a g i n a t i v e t h o u g h t w h i c h s t i l l s u r v i v e s i n P l a t o has t o s u b m i t t o t h e d e a t h l i k e , bu t i n d i s p e n s a b l e , p r o c e s s o f l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s : n a t u r e and s p i r i t , m a t t e r and m i n d , f a c t and m y t h , t h e l i t e r a l and t h e m e t a p h o r i c a l , have t o be more and more s h a r p l y s e p a r a t e d , t i l l a t l a s t a p u r e l y m a t h e m a t i c a l u n i v e r s e and a p u r e l y s u b j e c t i v e mind c o n f r o n t one a n o t h e r a c r o s s an u n b r i d g e a b l e chasm. Bu t f r o m t h i s d e s c e n t a l s o , i f t h o u g h t i t s e l f i s t o s u r v i v e , t h e r e must be r e - a s c e n t and t he C h r i s t i a n c o n c e p t i o n p r o v i d e s f o r i t . ( M i r a c l e s , p. 192) In t h e i r r e u n i o n e f f e c t e d i n t h e I n c a r n a t i o n , l o g i c and romance a r e a t l a s t h a r m o n i z e d , and we r e a l i z e t h a t o u r d o u b l e v i s i o n has o n l y been t h e r e s u l t o f a f a l s e d i c h o t o m y o f p e r c e p t i o n . I t i s no t t h a t r e a s on and i m a g i n a t i o n were compromised i n t h e i r mutua l s u b m i s s i o n , bu t r a t h e r t h a t o u r s i g h t needed a d j u s t i n g , t o a f f o r d a c l e a r e r v i ew o f t h e i r w h o l l y i n t e g r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p . N e c t a r and a m b r o s i a have a lway s been s e r v e d f o r t e a , bu t we have n o t had t ongues t o t a s t e t h e t r a n s c e n d e n t a l f a r e . In h i s t r i l o g y L ew i s a t t e m p t s t o redeem o u r sense o f t a s t e . In A l l e g o r y o f L o v e , L ew i s w r i t e s t h a t t h e o l d gods o f myth had t o be " d i s i n f e c t e d o f b e l i e f " b e f o r e " t h e y c o u l d wake a g a i n i n t h e b e a u t y o f a c know l edged myth and t h u s p r o v i d e modern Europe w i t h i t s ' t h i r d w o r l d ' o f r o m a n t i c i m a g i n i n g , " " b e s i d e s t h e a c t u a l w o r l d and t h e w o r l d o f . . . [ i t s ] own r e l i g i o n " ( p . 83 and p. 8 2 ) . L a w l o r has p a r a l l e l e d t h i s t h r e e - p a r t p r o c e s s t o t h e deve l opmen t i n L e w i s ' own l i t e r a r y s c h o l a r s h i p ( " T u t o r and S c h o l a r , " pp . 8 2 - 8 4 ) . S i n c e t h e t r i - p a r t i t e s t r u c t u r e mode l s a s a c r a m e n t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , we m i g h t t a k e o u r cue f r om L a w l o r and t r a c e t h e same d e v e l o p m e n t a l p a t t e r n i n L e w i s ' l i t e r a r y a e s t h e t i c . In a p p l y i n g t h e f i r s t s t a g e , t h e n , we r e c o g n i z e " t h e o l d gods o f my th " b e i n g 65 " d i s i n f e c t e d o f b e l i e f " as L e w i s ' e a r l y R o m a n t i c i s m f l e e s f r om h i s f i r s t r a t i o n a l i s t e n t h u s i a s m . Any v e s t i g e s o f m y t h i c i m a g i n a t i o n a r e t h en e r a s e d by t h e r i g o u r o f L e w i s ' i n i t i a l C h r i s t i a n commitment; " m y t h , i n t u r n , f l i e s a t t h e t o u c h o f a c o l d e r r e l i g i o n , " as L a w l o r s a y s ( p . 8 3 ) . Myth and R o m a n t i c i s m have t hu s been l a i d t o r e s t , i n d i c t e d as t h e a i r y f a b r i c a t i o n s o f a d r e ame r . They a r e s u b s e q u e n t l y r e awakened , however , r e c a l l e d as i f by a new l y c o n s c i o u s d r e ame r , t o l i v e " i n t h e b e a u t y o f a cknow ledged my th " and i n t h e ' " t h i r d w o r l d ' o f r o m a n t i c i m a g i n i n g . " T h i s i s a c e l e b r a t i v e C h r i s t i a n i t y where " r e a s o n and i m a g i n a t i o n a r e no 78 l o n g e r a t v a r i a n c e , " and a m y t h o p o e i c and d i a l e c t i c a l L ew i s a r e 79 u n i t e d , as Edward Zogby d i s c o v e r s , i n t h e p e r s o n o f J e s u s C h r i s t . In c h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h i s t r i a d i c i n t e g r a t i o n i n L e w i s , L a w l o r q u o t e s f r om T . S . E l i o t ' s L i t t l e G i d d i n g : And a l l s h a l l be w e l l and A l l manner o f t h i n g s h a l l be w e l l When t he t ongues o f f l a m e a r e i n - f o l d e d I n t o t h e c rowned kno t o f f i r e And t he f i r e and t he r o s e a r e one . 80 U s i n g E l i o t ' s s u g g e s t i v e i m a g e r y , we m i g h t once more c o n s t r u c t o u r own sequence t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e f u s i o n o f myth and f a c t i n t h e deve l opmen t o f L e w i s ' s a c r a m e n t a l e t h o s . "The t ongues o f f l a m e " m i gh t f i r s t s u g g e s t t h e m y t h i c f i g u r e o f P r o m e t h e u s , who s t e a l s f i r e and l a nguage f r om t h e 7 8 L a w l o r , "The T u t o r and t h e S c h o l a r , " p. 8 3 . 7 9 Edward G. Zogby , S . J . , " T r i a d i c P a t t e r n s i n L e w i s ' L i f e and T h o u g h t , " i n L ong i ng f o r a Fo rm, p. 2 1 . 8 0 From Fou r Q u a r t e t s , i n The No r t on A n t h o l o g y o f E n g l i s h  L i t e r a t u r e , g e n . e d . M.H. Ab rams , 3 r d e d . (New Y o r k : W.W. N o r t o n , 1 9 7 4 ) , I I , 2197 , 1 1 . 2 5 7 - 6 1 ; quo t ed by L a w l o r , pp . 8 3 - 8 4 . 66 O l ymp i an g o d s , bu t i s s u b s e q u e n t l y f o r c e d t o pay t e r r i b l e dues f o r p u r l o i n i n g t he b u r n i n g b r a n d s . When L ew i s d i s c o v e r s t h e Word t h a t has been g i f t e d t o man, howeve r , such myth i s pu t t o r e s t . "The t ongues o f f l a m e " t a k e on a new s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r h im as an emblem o f t h e d e s c e n d i n g H o l y S p i r i t , who f r e e l y bes tows H i s c r o w n i n g t ongues o f f i r e and u n i t e s w i t h men ' s s p i r i t s t o u t t e r t h e s a c r a m e n t a l l a n g u a g e . Under such i n s p i r a t i o n , as i t w e r e , L ew i s h i m s e l f s peaks o u t , and t h e f i r e and t h e r o s e a r e t empered i n a s i n g l e c r o w n i n g k n o t . Not o n l y does t h e t r i l o g y ' s s t r u c t u r e as a t r i l o g y d u p l i c a t e t h i s t h r e e - p a r t p r o c e s s o f s a c r a m e n t a l i s m , bu t t h e p e c u l i a r t r i a d i c t e n s i o n o f t h e s a c r a m e n t a l r e s o l u t i o n i s m i r r o r e d w i t h i n t h e m i c r o co sm o f t h e t h i r d n o v e l . Tha t i s , t h e image r y o f Tha t H i d eous S t r e n g t h be speaks i t s own t r i a d i c p r o c e s s o f i n t e g r a t i o n , b e s i d e s r o u n d i n g o f f t h e l a r g e r i n t e g r a t i v e p r o c e s s o f t h e t r i l o g y i t s e l f . F o r e x amp l e , J a n e ' s v i s i o n o f t h e "Huge Woman," a pagan f e r t i l i t y g o d d e s s , i n i t i a l l y f i g u r e s b o l d image r y o f f l a m e and r o s e s , bu t o n l y i n a w i l d c a r i c a t u r e o f an i n t e g r a t i o n t h a t i s s t i l l u n c h r i s t e n e d : "Look o u t ! Look o u t , c a n ' t y o u ? " s h ou t ed J a n e , f o r t h e g i a n t e s s was b e g i n n i n g t o t o u c h v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e room w i t h he r t o r c h . She t ou ched a v a se on t h e m a n t e l p i e c e . I n s t a n t l y t h e r e r o s e f r om i t a s t r e a k o f c o l o u r wh i c h Jane t ook f o r f i r e . She was j u s t mov ing t o t r y t o pu t i t o u t when she saw t h a t t h e same t h i n g had happened t o a p i c t u r e on t h e w a l l . And t h en i t happened f a s t e r and f a s t e r a l l r ound h e r . The v e r y t o p - k n o t s o f t h e d w a r f s were now on f i r e . Bu t j u s t as t h e t e r r o r o f t h i s became unbea r -a b l e , J ane n o t i c e d t h a t what was c u r l i n g up f r o m e v e r y t h i n g t he t o r c h had t o u c h e d was no t f l a m e a f t e r a l l , b u t v e g e t a t i o n . I v y and h o n e y s u c k l e were g row-i n g up t he l e g s o f t h e b e d , r e d r o s e s were s p r o u t i n g f r om t h e caps o f t h e l i t t l e men, and f r om e v e r y d i r e c t i o n huge l i l i e s r o s e t o h e r knees and w a i s t , s h o o t i n g o u t t h e i r y e l l o w t ongues a t h e r . ( S t r e n g t h , pp . 377 -78 ) 67 T h i s r i p e f r u i t i o n o f t h e s a c r a m e n t a l l a n g u a g e i s c o n s e c r a t e d a n d c o n s u m m a t e l y i m a g e d when M e r c u r y , " t h e l o r d o f M e a n i n g h i m s e l f , t h e h e r a l d , t h e m e s s e n g e r , " l a t e r d e s c e n d s u p o n S t . A n n e ' s . R a n s o m f i n d s h i m s e l f " s i t t i n g w i t h i n t h e v e r y h e a r t o f l a n g u a g e , i n t h e w h i t e - h o t f u r n a c e o f e s s e n t i a l s p e e c h . A l l f a c t wa s b r o k e n , s p l a s h e d i n t o c a t a r a c t s , c a u g h t , t u r n e d i n s i d e o u t , k n e a d e d , s l a i n , a n d r e b o r n a s m e a n i n g " ( S t r e n g t h , p . 3 9 8 ; e m p h a s e s a d d e d ) . I n t h e s a c r a m e n t a l l a n g u a g e w h i c h i s t h e l i n g u a f r a n c a o f a n h e r a l d i c u n i v e r s e , m e a n i n g i s t h e p h o e n i x t h a t i s w r o u g h t f r o m t h e f i r e s o f f a c t a n d m y t h . T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y w i l l be t o e x a m i n e L e w i s ' c o s m i c t r i l o g y a s s u c h s a c r a m e n t a l i s t f i c t i o n . We w i l l f o c u s n o t o n i t s c o n t r o v e r s i a l s t a t u s w i t h i n t h e e c l e c t i c a n d i l l - d e f i n e d g e n r e o f s c i e n c e f i c t i o n , b u t r a t h e r o n i t s e f f e c t i v e b r i d g i n g o f t h e n a t u r a l a n d s u p e r n a t u r a l r e a l m s . O u r i n t e r e s t i s i n t h e q u a l i t a t i v e r a t h e r t h a n t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e c o s m i c d i s t a n c e w h i c h i t s p a n s . We w i l l e x p l o r e t h e c o s m o s o f t h i s p l a n e t a r y r o m a n c e w i t h h o p e s o f c a p t u r i n g t h e m y t h i c a l r e s o n a n c e w h i c h i s i t s p r i m a r y q u a l i t y . B o t h e x p l i c i t l y b y t h e m e a n d i m p l i c i t l y b y f o r m , t h e t r i l o g y e x p r e s s e s L e w i s ' m y t h o l o g i c a l s e n s i b i l i t y a n d w o r l d v i e w . I n r e a d i n g t h e t e c h n i q u e s o f h i s e t h o s , we h o p e t o be a b l e t o a f f i r m t h e s u c c e s s o f h i s t r i l o g y i n i t s a t t e m p t t o b r i n g m y t h home . 68 C h a p t e r I I Out o f t h e S i l e n t P l a n e t : L e a r n i n g t he Language He g roped f o r t h e d o o r l e s s l a n d o f f a e r y , t h a t i l l i m i t a b l e haun ted c o u n t r y t h a t opened somewhere be low a l e a f o r s t o n e . Thomas W o l f e , Look Homeward A n g e l . Because t he most h a s t i l y c o n c l u d e d a c c u s a t i o n s a r e t h e l o u d e s t , pe rhaps o u r f i r s t b u s i n e s s s h o u l d be t o d i s p e l t h e i d e a t h a t t h e s c i e n c e f i c t i o n t r i l o g y i s e s c a p i s t o r a r t i f i c i a l l y t r a n s c e n d e n t f i c t i o n . 'You wou ld t r i c k us i n t o s w a l l o w i n g y o u r a i r y myths o f n e c t a r and a m b r o s i a , by l e t t i n g them s t e e p i n t h e t e a o f s c i e n c e f i c t i o n ' s p s e u d o - r e a l i s m , and by s p i k i n g them w i t h f a n t a s y ' s i n t o x i c a t i o n ! ' some c r i t i c s wou ld a c c u s e . T h e i r mean ing i s , 'You a r e t r y i n g t o h i d e a v i s c e r a l r e a l i t y f r om u s , and seduce us i n t o a s a c c h a r i n b e l i e f i n a b l o o d l e s s r e l i g i o n . ' N o t h i n g c o u l d be f u r t h e r f r om t he t r u t h : no t o n l y i s L e w i s ' c o n c e r n i m m e d i a t e l y mora l r a t h e r t h an r e l i g i o u s o r t h e o l o g i c a l , bu t h i s m o r a l i t y , a d m i t t e d l y d e r i v e d f r om a d e e p l y f e l t C h r i s t i a n i t y — a s a n o t h e r ' s m i gh t d e r i v e f r om h i s own r e l i g i o n o r i r r e l i g i o n — i s a n y t h i n g bu t b l o o d l e s s , a n y t h i n g bu t a s e l f - s e r v i n g w i s h - f u l f i l l m e n t d ream. R a t h e r , i t r e q u i r e s a v i s c e r a l commi tment , f r om t h e dogged , p r o s a i c p e r s i s t e n c e i t t a k e s Ransom t o f i n d H a r r y a t t h e c o t t a g e , t o t h e h e r o i c c o u r a g e , raw d e t e r m i n a t i o n , and p h y s i c a l a n g u i s h i t c o s t s him t o f i n a l l y d e s t r o y t h e Un-man. 69 Nowhere i s good p o r t r a y e d as f l a b b y o r l o t u s - l i k e ; a l w a y s , i t imposes demands upon t h o s e who pu r s ue i t , and d i s c o m f o r t s t h o s e who a r e i n i t s p r e s e n c e . Such a r e t h e f e e l i n g s o f t h e Lew i s c h a r a c t e r when he f i r s t meets an e l d i 1. "My f e a r was now o f a n o t h e r k i n d . I f e l t s u r e t h a t t h e c r e a t u r e was what we c a l l ' g o o d , ' bu t I w a s n ' t s u r e whe the r I l i k e d ' g o o d n e s s ' so much as I had s u p p o s e d " ( P e r e l a n d r a , p. 1 9 ) . The Lew i s c h a r a c t e r t h en r e a l i z e s t h a t t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f h i s f e a r has been t h a t o f b e i n g "drawn i n . " S i m i l a r l y , Ransom's immense r e l u c t a n c e a t t h e s t a r t o f h i s a d v e n t u r e s i n P l a n e t a c t u a l l y stems f r om a r o o t e d d i s l i k e o f g e t t i n g i n v o l v e d ; he v a l u e s h i s w a l k i n g t o u r as much f o r i t s t r e a s u r e d s o l i t u d e as f o r t h e a c t u a l w a l k i n g . In S t r e n g t h , Jane f i e r c e l y r e s e n t s he r v i s i o n a r y dreams f o r t h e i r d i s r u p t i o n o f he r p r i v a t e l y o r d e r e d l i f e . She t o o wants m e r e l y t o be l e f t a l o n e . L ew i s h i m s e l f f ound C h r i s t i a n i t y t o be an unwelcome i m p e r a t i v e i n h i s l i f e , a n t i p a t h e t i c t o h i s v e r y n a t u r e . In J o y he d e s c r i b e s h i m s e l f as one a lway s much more i n s i s t e n t i n h i s n e g a t i v e demands t han i n h i s p o s i t i v e demands: " I n t h e c o u r s e o f l i f e I c o u l d pu t up w i t h any amount o f monotony f a r more p a t i e n t l y t han even t he s m a l l e s t d i s t u r b a n c e , b o t h e r , b u s t l e , o r what t h e S c o t c h c a l l k u r f u f f l e " ( p . 1 1 4 ) . Goodness , on t he c o n t r a r y , makes i n e x o r a b l e demands on the p e r s o n a l w i l l f o r p o s i t i v e a c t i o n . The i n t o l e r a b l e " w e i g h t o f g l o r y " i s a s t r o n g theme and r e c u r r i n g m o t i f i n L e w i s ' wo r k . Fo r e x amp l e , t h e " d e s c e n t o f t h e god s " on S t . A n n e ' s i s a s e v e r e e x p e r i e n c e f o r t h e r e s i d e n t s . In t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e a r c hon M a l a c a n d r a , o r M a r s , t h e y f e e l " t h e immense w e i g h t o f t h e i r o b e d i e n c e " ( S t r e n g t h , p. 4 0 2 ) , w h i l e t h e p r e s e n c e o f L u r g , o r S a t u r n , l i e s "upon t h e h o u s e , o r even on t h e who le e a r t h , w i t h a c o l d p r e s s u r e such as m i gh t f l a t t e n t he v e r y o r b o f T e l l u s t o a w a f e r " ( p . 4 0 3 ) . When 70 P e r e l a n d r a , o r Venus , a r r i v e s , we d i s c o v e r t h a t t h e s a c r a m e n t a l l anguage w h i c h r e g u l a r l y commun i ca tes s u p e r - r e a l i t y t o o u r s e n s i t i v e e a r s a c t u a l l y s o f t e n s a t e r r i b l e t h u n d e r : . . . f i e r y , s h a r p , b r i g h t , and r u t h l e s s , r e a d y t o k i l l , r e a d y t o d i e , o u t s p e e d i n g l i g h t : i t was C h a r i t y , n o t as m o r t a l s imag i n e i t , n o t even as i t has been human ised f o r them s i n c e t h e I n c a r n a t i o n o f t h e Word, bu t t h e t r a n s l u n a r y v i r t u e , f a l l e n upon them d i r e c t f r om t he T h i r d Heaven , u n m i t i g a t e d . They were b l i n d e d , s c o r c h e d , d e a f e n e d . They t h o u g h t i t wou l d bu rn t h e i r b one s . They c o u l d no t b e a r t h a t i t s h o u l d c o n t i n u e . They c o u l d n o t b e a r t h a t i t s h o u l d c e a s e , ( p . 400) Lew i s i n d e e d b r i n g s myth home, and s e r v e s n e c t a r and a m b r o s i a f o r t e a , bu t "how i f f o o d i t s e l f t u r n s o u t t o be t h e v e r y t h i n g you c a n ' t e a t , and home t he v e r y p l a c e you c a n ' t l i v e , and y o u r v e r y c o m f o r t e r t h e p e r s on who makes you u n c o m f o r t a b l e ? " ( P e r e l a n d r a , p. 1 9 ) . S i m i l a r l y , when Ransom s u f f e r s M a l e l d i l ' s immed ia te P r e s e n c e w h i l e on P e r e l a n d r a , i t i s " a s i f [ s u c h ] an u n e n d u r a b l e p r e s s u r e had been l a i d upon h i s s h o u l d e r s " t h a t h i s l e g s f a i l h im : "he h a l f s a n k , h a l f f e l l , i n t o a s i t t i n g p o s i t i o n " ( P e r e l a n d r a , p. 6 8 ) . " I f f l e s h and b l o o d c a n n o t i n h e r i t t h e K ingdom, t h a t i s n o t because t h e y a r e t oo s o l i d , t o o g r o s s , t o o d i s t i n c t , t o o ' i l l u s t r i o u s w i t h b e i n g . ' They a r e t o o f l i m s y , t o o t r a n s i t o r y , t o o p h a n t a s m a l , " L ew i s s ay s i n h i s sermon " T r a n s p o s i t i o n " ( p . 1 7 9 ) . L e w i s ' h e a v e n l y e l d i l a a r e a g r e a t i n n o v a t i o n i n l i n e w i t h t h i s t h i n k i n g : t h e y a r e i n v i s i b l e no t because t h e y a r e i m m a t e r i a l bu t because t h e y a r e s u p e r m a t e r i a l and mov ing t o o q u i c k l y t o p e r c e i v e w i t h o u r l i m i t e d range o f s i g h t ( P e r e l a n d r a , p. 2 2 8 ) . S u p e r n a t u r a l e l d i l a m i gh t compare t o t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d as t h e r e a l w o r l d compares t o a p e n c i l d r a w i n g : " i n r e a l i t y i t l a c k s l i n e s because i t i s i n c o m p a r a b l y more 71 v i s i b l e , " Lewis says ("Transposition," p. 178). E l d i l a are able to penetrate walls and rocks not because they have insubstantial bodies but because mere matter i s l i k e cloud to t h e i r supersolid substance. As i l l u s t r a t e d by t h i s "weight of glory" motif, then, the tea that Lewis courteously o f f e r s to his readers in his f i c t i o n i s not meant to lend substance to an ephemeral r e a l i t y , but to d i l u t e f o r us what would otherwise be too s o l i d to drink. '"For t h i s end I made your senses and f o r t h i s end your imagination, that you might see My face and l i v e , ' " the Voice t e l l s John in Regress (p. 171). Our analogy must be q u a l i f i e d , however, to note that while the ambrosial substance i s indeed 'watered down' in Lewis' f i c t i o n , i t loses none of i t s es s e n t i a l q u a l i t y . Like the b r i l l i a n t l i g h t which Ransom drinks in in the f i e l d s of Arbol, to halve i t s i n t e n s i t y y i e l d s "merely l e s s , not other" (Planet, p. 42). It became c e r t a i n to the comparing i n t e l l e c t , but i t was d i f f i c u l t to f e e l what was happening as a diminution of l i g h t and impossible to think of i t as "darkening" because, while the radiance changed in degree, i t s unearthly q u a l i t y had remained exactly the same since the moment he f i r s t beheld i t . (Planet, pp. 41-42; boldface p r i n t emphasis added) In thus f a r answering the h o s t i l e c r i t i c s ' charge that Lewis s i m p l i s t i c a l l y peddles winsome and s t e r i l e ideas, we have uncovered an important feature of his w r i t i n g , which i f absent would hardly prove the charge, but which being present does disprove i t . That i s , we have observed Lewis transposing a weightier r e a l i t y into the l i v i n g language of symbol and myth. The process involves imagining or supposing the course of that higher r e a l i t y ' s unfettered movement within a lower 72 medium. Such a s y s t e m o f s u p p o s a l i s n o t an i d e a - g o v e r n e d method o f w r i t i n g a t a l l . The l anguage o f a l l e g o r y , on t h e o t h e r h and , moves u n i l a t e r a l l y f r om t h e g i v e n s o f a l o w e r medium t o a s y s t e m a t i c s e r i e s o f a b s t r a c t i o n s , and i s t h e r e f o r e s t r i c t l y i d e a - g o v e r n e d . L e w i s ' t r a n s p o s i t i o n a l me thod , t o a p p l y h i s own w o r d s , " i s a l m o s t t h e o p p o s i t e o f a l l e g o r y , " and one he "wou ld c a l l s a c r a m e n t a l i sm o r s y m b o l i s m " : I f o u r p a s s i o n s , b e i n g i m m a t e r i a l , can be c o p i e d by m a t e r i a l i n v e n t i o n s , t h en i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t o u r m a t e r i a l w o r l d i n i t s t u r n i s t h e copy o f an i n v i s i b l e w o r l d . . . . The a t t e m p t t o r e a d t h a t s ome th i ng e l s e t h r o u g h i t s s e n s i b l e i m i t a t i o n s , t o see t h e a r c h t y p e i n t h e c o p y , i s what I mean by s y m b o l i s m o r s a c r a m e n t a l i s m . . . . The d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two can h a r d l y be e x a g g e r a t e d The a l l e g o r i s t l e a v e s t h e g i v e n - - h i s own p a s s i o n s - - t o t a l k o f t h a t wh i c h i s c o n f e s s e d l y l e s s r e a l , w h i c h i s a f i c t i o n . The s y m b o l i s t l e a v e s t h e g i v e n t o f i n d t h a t w h i c h i s more r e a l . To pu t t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n a n o t h e r way, f o r t h e s y m b o l i s t i t i s we who a r e t h e a l l e g o r y . ( A l l e g o r y , p. 4 5 ; emphases added) The t r i l o g y does no t s y s t e m a t i c a l l y t r a n s l a t e p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l r e a l i t i e s i n t o f e i g n e d p h y s i c a l o b j e c t s w h i c h a r e t h e s t a t i c symbo l s o f a l l e g o r y , L ew i s e x p l a i n s i n a L e t t e r ("To a L a d y , " 29 Dec . 1958 , 2 8 3 ) . As a s y m b o l i s t , L ew i s i s n o t w o r k i n g i n such a l anguage f o r e i g n t o h i s n a t i v e t h o u g h t ; r a t h e r , he i s compos ing i n t h e i d i o m o f h i s mo the r t o n g u e , e x p l o r i n g t h e r i c h nuan ce , a l l u s i v e n e s s and s u g g e s t i v e n e s s o f i t s s a c r a m e n t a l morphemes. "Symbo l i sm i s a mode o f t h o u g h t , bu t a l l e g o r y i s a mode o f e x p r e s s i o n , " Lew i s c l a r i f i e s ( A l l e g o r y , p. 4 8 ) . "No amount o f ' e x p l a n a t i o n ' w i l l q u i t e c a t c h up" w i t h m y t h i c a l mean i n g , he s u g g e s t s . " I t i s t h e s o r t o f t h i n g you c anno t l e a r n f r om d e f i n i t i o n : you must r a t h e r g e t t o know i t as you g e t t o know a s m e l l o r a t a s t e , t h e ' a t m o s p h e r e ' o f a f a m i l y o r a c o u n t r y t o w n , o r t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o f an 73 i n d i v i d u a l " ( P r e f . , R e g r e s s , p. 1 3 ) . The words o f t h e s a c r a m e n t a l l a n g u a g e i n w h i c h t h e t r i l o g y i s w r i t t e n do no t e x p r e s s a n a l y t i c a l m e a n i n g ; r a t h e r , t h e y p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e v e r y q u a l i t y o f t h a t w h i c h t h e y r e p r e s e n t . T h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s i g n and mean ing i s n o t m e r e l y i n c i d e n t a l , i n t h e way t h a t t h a t o f s peech and w r i t i n g i s , f o r e xamp l e : The w r i t t e n c h a r a c t e r s e x i s t s o l e l y f o r t h e e y e , t h e spoken words s o l e l y f o r t h e e a r . The re i s c o m p l e t e d i s c o n t i n u i t y between them. They a r e no t l i k e one a n o t h e r , n o r does t he one c au se t he o t h e r t o b e . The one i s s i m p l y a s i g n o f t h e o t h e r and s i g n i f i e s i t by a c o n v e n t i o n . But a p i c t u r e i s n o t r e l a t e d t o t h e v i s i b l e w o r l d i n j u s t t h a t way. P i c t u r e s a r e p a r t o f t h e v i s i b l e w o r l d t h e m s e l v e s and r e p r e s e n t i t o n l y by b e i n g p a r t o f i t . T h e i r v i s i b i l i t y has t h e same s o u r c e . The suns and lamps i n p i c t u r e s seem t o s h i n e o n l y be cause r e a l suns o r lamps s h i n e on them: t h a t i s , t h e y seem t o s h i n e a g r e a t d ea l because t h e y r e a l l y s h i n e a l i t t l e i n r e f l e c t i n g t h e i r a r c h e -t y p e s . The s u n l i g h t i n a p i c t u r e i s t h e r e f o r e n o t r e l a t e d t o r e a l s u n l i g h t s i m p l y as w r i t t e n words a r e t o s p o k e n . I t i s a s i g n , bu t a l s o s ome th i n g more t h a n a s i g n : and o n l y a s i g n because i t i s a l s o more t han a s i g n , because i n i t t h e t h i n g s i g n i f i e d i s r e a l l y i n a c e r t a i n mode p r e s e n t . I f I had t o name t h e r e l a t i o n I s h o u l d c a l l i t n o t s y m b o l i c a l bu t s a c r a m e n t a l . ( " T r a n s p o s i t i o n , " p. 173; b o l d f a c e p r i n t emphases added) Because a s a c r a m e n t a l morpheme i s a s i g n , even though i t i s a l s o more t han a s i g n , ' " t h e f a c t t h a t you can a l l e g o r i z e t h e work b e f o r e you i s o f i t s e l f no p r o o f t h a t i t i s an a l l e g o r y , " 1 L ew i s p o i n t s o u t . 1 Howard a r gue s t h a t " i t i s p a r t o f t h e f o r c e o f L e w i s ' s n a r r a t i v e t e c h n i q u e t h a t t h e i n c i d e n t s keep s u g g e s t i n g t h i s [ a l l e g o r y ] w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e d e f y i n g a l l e g o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " ( A c h i e v e m e n t , p. 1 4 0 ) . T h u s , Ransom does no t a l l e g o r i z e C h r i s t , even though he i s t h e l i t t l e C h r i s t t h a t 1 As quo t ed by W h i t e , Image o f Man, p. 6 5 . 74 e v e r y b e l i e v e r i s t o b e , e n a c t i n g and p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e d i v i n e 2 n a t u r e . In k i l l i n g t h e Un-man i n P e r e l a n d r a , Ransom does no t s t a n d f o r M a l e l d i l more " t h a n any man s t a n d s f o r Him i n d o i n g any good a c t i o n " ( P e r e l a n d r a , p. 1 7 1 ) . A l t h o u g h a f r i e n d a c c u s e s Ransom o f mega loman ia f o r s i m p l y p r e d i c t i n g t h a t such an h e r o i c t a s k a w a i t s h im on P e r e l a n d r a ' s w a t e r y s u r f a c e , Ransom r i g h t l y r e p l i e s : " B u t when you come t o t h i n k o f i t , i s i t odde r t h an what a l l o f us have t o do e v e r y day? When t h e B i b l e used t h a t v e r y e x p r e s s i o n abou t f i g h t i n g w i t h p r i n c i p a l i t i e s and powers and dep r aved h y p e r - s o m a t i c b e i n g s a t g r e a t h e i g h t s ( o u r t r a n s l a t i o n i s v e r y m i s l e a d i n g a t t h a t p o i n t , by t h e way) i t meant t h a t q u i t e o r d i n a r y p e o p l e were t o do t h e f i g h t i n g . " ( p . 24 ; emphas i s added) I f Ransom f u l f i l l s h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e r o l e "more s p e c t a c u l a r l y t h a n m o s t , " i t does n o t p r o ve a l l e g o r y , bu t " o n l y means t h a t f i c t i o n . . . c hoo se s ex t r eme c a s e s , " L ew i s w r i t e s . "The s a c r a m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r r e c e i v e s some o f h i s c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s f r om t he o t h e r w o r l d wh i c h he r e f l e c t s , and y e t i s f r e e t o be an i n d i v i d u a l and a c t as a w e l l - r o u n d e d f i c t i o n a l p e r s on a c c o r d i n g t o t h e ' j u s t s uppo s e ' o r ' l e t ' s p r e t e n d ' o f t h e a u t h o r , " G i b s o n s ay s o f L e w i s ' f i c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e ( S p i n n e r o f T a l e s , pp . 2 6 3 - 6 4 ) . "And f i n a l l y t h e e x p e r i e n c e i s p r e s e n t n o t as ' s t a t e m e n t ' bu t symbol and t h e symbol i s o r g a n i c t o an i m a g i n a t i v e e n c o u n t e r , " K i l b y w r i t e s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o L e w i s ' N a r n i a t a l e s . " I n such i l l u s t r a t i o n s I b e l i e v e we f i n d t h e e s s e n t i a l L e w i s , " he c o n c l u d e s ( " C r e a t i v e L o g i c i a n , " 2 "To a L a d y , " 29 Dec . 1958 , L e t t e r s , 283 . The same i s t r u e t o some e x t e n t o f P s y che i n T i l l We Have F a c e s ; c f . "To P r o f e s s o r C l y d e S . K i l b y , " 10 Feb . 1957 , L e t t e r s , 274 . 3 "To a L a d y , " 29 Dec . 1958 , L e t t e r s , 2 8 3 . 75 p. 45 and p. 4 4 ) . In t he same way t h a t Ransom s u g g e s t s and y e t does n o t r e p r e s e n t C h r i s t , Howard c o n s i d e r s t h a t S t . A n n e 1 s - o n - t h e - H i l l begs i d e n t i f i c a t i o n as t h e C h r i s t i a n Chu r ch and y e t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y r e s i s t s such p i n p o i n t i n g , f u l f i l l i n g i t s mean ing and f u n c t i o n i n g w i t h i n t h e n a r r a t i v e as a " b e l i e v a b l e c a s e i n p o i n t " o f what t h e Chu r ch t e a c h e s ( A c h i e v e m e n t , p p . 1 3 4 - 3 5 ) . L e w i s ' a im i s n o t t o i n s p i r e any p r i m a r y b e l i e f , e i t h e r i n t h e t e x t o r i n o r t h o d o x C h r i s t i a n i t y . As Ransom say s i n P l a n e t : ' "What we need f o r t h e moment i s n o t so much a body o f b e l i e f as a body o f p e o p l e f a m i l i a r i s e d w i t h c e r t a i n i d e a s ' " ( p . 1 7 4 ) . Modern man has e n c l o s e d h i m s e l f " i n a t i n y w i n d o w l e s s u n i v e r s e wh i c h he m i s t a k e s f o r t h e o n l y p o s s i b l e u n i v e r s e , " and Lew i s s i m p l y w i s h e s t o open a window on o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s ( " C h r i s t i a n i t y and C u l t u r e , " p. 2 3 ) . " L i t e r a t u r e as Logos [ " s o m e t h i n g s a i d " ] i s a s e r i e s o f w i ndows , even o f d o o r s , " s a y s Lew i s i n C r i t i c i s m ( p . 1 3 8 ) . Of c o u r s e , a l l e g o r y i s an i n t e g r o u s a r t f o rm i n i t s own r i g h t , d e -s i g n e d no t t o p u b l i s h a p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f b e l i e f s , bu t t o r e v e a l and dem-o n s t r a t e what c o u l d n o t be b e t t e r s a i d i n l i t e r a l t e r m s . Much l e s s does Lew i s s e t o u t t o p r o p a g a t e a s y s t em o f b e l i e f i n h i s m y t h o p o e i a . L i t e r a -t u r e i s f i r s t P o i ema , o r " s ome th i n g made , " and i t i s t h i s q u a l i t y wh i c h Lew i s d e s i g n a t e s as t h e s o u r c e o f o u r r e a d i n g p l e a s u r e and t he e s s e n c e o f a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e ( C r i t i c i s m , pp . 1 3 2 - 3 6 ) . The s i n g l e l e g i t i m a t e ' u l t e r i o r m o t i v e ' t h a t l i t e r a t u r e can h ave , beyond t h e s h e e r d e l i g h t o f P o i ema , i s t h a t o f c r e a t i n g f o r t h e r e a d e r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f and sympa-t h y f o r t h e f i c t i o n ' s w o r l d v i ew and u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n s . T h i s i s a r e s p e c t a b l e goa l common t o a l l w r i t e r s and a l l l i t e r a t u r e , L ew i s b e l i e v e s : 76 I t i s o n l y by b e i n g a l s o a Po iema t h a t a Logos [ " s o m e t h i n g s a i d " ] becomes a work o f l i t e r a r y a r t a t a l l . C o n v e r s e l y , t h e i m a g i n a t i o n s , e m o t i o n s , and t h o u g h t s o u t o f wh i ch t h e Po iema b u i l d s i t s harmony a r e a r o u s e d i n us b y , and d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s , t h e Logos and wou l d have no e x i s t e n c e w i t h o u t i t . . . . The mark o f s t r i c t l y l i t e r a r y r e a d i n g . . . i s t h a t we need no t b e l i e v e o r app rove t he L ogo s . . . . I t i s no use t r y i n g t o evade t he q u e s t i o n by l o c a t i n g t h e who le goodness o f a l i t e r a r y work i n i t s c h a r a c t e r as P o i ema , f o r i t i s o u t o f o u r v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t s i n t h e Logos t h a t t h e Poiema i s made. The n e a r e s t I have y e t go t t o an answer i s t h a t we seek an e n l a r g e m e n t o f o u r b e i n g . We want t o be more t han o u r s e l v e s . . . . We want t o see w i t h o t h e r e y e s , t o imag i n e w i t h o t h e r i m a g i n a t i o n s , t o f e e l w i t h o t h e r h e a r t s , as w e l l as w i t h o u r own. . . . I t i s c o n n a i t r e n o t s a v o i r ; i t i s e r l e b e n ; we become t h e s e o t h e r s e l v e s . Not o n l y n o r c h i e f l y i n o r d e r t o see what t h e y a r e l i k e bu t i n o r d e r t o see what t h e y see . . . . Hence i t i s i r r e l e v a n t whe the r t h e mood e x p r e s s e d i n a poem was t r u l y and h i s t o r i c a l l y t h e p o e t ' s own o r one t h a t he a l s o had i m a g i n e d . What m a t t e r s i s h i s power t o make us l i v e i t . . . . T h i s , so f a r as I can s e e , i s t h e s p e c i f i c v a l u e o r good o f l i t e r a t u r e c o n s i d e r e d as L ogo s ; i t a d m i t s us t o e x p e r i e n c e s o t h e r t h a n o u r own. ( C r i t i c i s m , pp . 135-39) Lew i s u n i l a t e r a l l y r e j e c t s as p ropaganda a l l ' l i t e r a t u r e ' wh i c h s eek s p r i m a r i l y t o t e a c h " t r u t h s abou t l i f e " ( C r i t i c i s m , p. 1 3 0 ) . I deas can be t h e r e — i n d e e d w i t h o u t Logos t h e Po iema wou ld n o t e x i s t , as L ew i s s a y s — bu t t h e y must be c o n s t i t u t i v e and s u b s i d i a r i l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e wo r k . L i t e r a r y works " a r e a l l c o n s t r u c t i o n s : t h i n g s made o u t o f t h e s t u f f o f r e a l l i f e ; a d d i t i o n s t o l i f e r a t h e r t han comments on i t " ( C r i t i c i s m , p. 8 1 ) . L ew i s a d v i s e s : L e t t h e p i c t u r e s t e l l you t h e i r own m o r a l . F o r t h e mora l i n h e r e n t i n them w i l l r i s e f r om w h a t e v e r s p i r i t u a l r o o t s you have su c ceeded i n s t r i k i n g d u r i n g t h e who le c o u r s e o f y o u r l i f e . . . . The o n l y mora l t h a t i s o f any v a l u e i s t h a t wh i c h a r i s e s i n e v i t a b l y f r om t h e who l e c a s t o f t h e a u t h o r ' s m i n d . ( " W r i t i n g f o r C h i l d r e n , " p. 2 7 ) . 77 I t i s p i c t u r e s wh i c h t e l l t h e i r own mora l t h a t L ew i s i n v i t e s h i s a u d i e n c e t o v i ew i n t h e p l a n e t a r y r omance s . Out o f t h e S i l e n t P l a n e t e x t e n d s t h e e m p h a t i c i n v i t a t i o n t o t h a t v i e w i n g , b e i n g an h e r a l d i c i n t r o -d u c t i o n t o t h e more comp lex n o v e l s wh i c h f o l l o w . I t i s a t a l e t o l d i n m y t h o p o e i c , p i c t o r i a l l a n g u a g e , because ' " t h e b e s t p o e t r y . . . comes i n t h e r o u g h e s t s p e e c h , ' " Ransom d i s c o v e r s ( P l a n e t , p. 1 3 0 ) . ' "No one l e a r n s t h e s o r n s ' s p e e c h , ' " t h e p f i f l t r i g g e x p l a i n s t o h i m , ' " f o r you can change t h e i r know ledge i n t o any words and i t i s s t i l l t h e s a m e ' " ( p . 1 3 0 ) . The r o u g h l y c o n c r e t e h r o s s a n w o r d s , on t he o t h e r h and , a r e i r r e d u c i b l e i n mean ing and no t a t a l l i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e w i t h o t h e r w o r d s . T h e i r p r i m i t i v e f o rms a r e s o l i d l y m e a n i n g f u l t o h a n d l e , i n a way t h a t t h e g e n e r a l i z e d and a b s t r a c t f o rms o f t h e s o r n s ' advanced and a n a l y t i c a l speech a r e n o t . Thus i t i s t he f u r r y , f e r v i d l anguage o f t h e h r o s s a , who a r e t h e p l a n e t ' s ' " g r e a t s p e a k e r s and s i n g e r s , ' " wh i c h i s t h e l i n g u a f r a n c a o f M a l a c a n d r a ( p . 1 3 0 ) . I t i s no i n s i g n i f i c a n t c o i n c i d e n c e t h a t t h e h r o s s a n l anguage i s even a k i n t o O l d S o l a r , t h e U r - l a n g u a g e o f t h e u n i v e r s e . A l t h o u g h p r i m i -t i v e , i t i s a s a c r a m e n t a l t o n g u e , and t h e u l t r a q u i d d i t y o f i t s knobby , r ough -edged f o rms r e v e a l s t h e most p r o f o u n d u n i v e r s a l s . L ew i s e l a b o r a t e s on t h e p r o c e s s o f l i n g u i s t i c s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n a L e t t e r t o h i s b r o t h e r : In t h e f i r s t s t a g e . . . [wo r d s ] a r e b u r s t i n g w i t h mean i n g , bu t v e r y c r y p t i c because t h e y a r e no t g e n e r -a l enough t o show t h e common e l emen t i n d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s ; e . g . you can t a l k (and t h e r e f o r e t h i n k ) abou t a l l t h e d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f t r e e s , bu t n o t abou t t r e e s . . . . In t h e i r f i n a l s t a g e t h e y a r e a d m i r a b l y c l e a r bu t one i s so f a r away f r om r e a l t h i n g s t h a t t h e y r e a l l y s a y n o t h i n g . . . . On t h e o t h e r hand t h e f i r s t r e a l l y means s o m e t h i n g , r e a l l y r e p r e s e n t s a c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e minds o f t h o s e who use i t ; t h e s e cond i s mere d e x t r o u s p l a y i n g w i t h c o u n t e r s , and once a man has l e a r n t t h e r u l e he can go on t h a t way . . . w i t h o u t r e a l l y u s i n g t he words t o r e f e r t o any c o n c r e t e f a c t a t a l l . (17 J a n . 1932 , L e t t e r s , 147) 78 Thu s , a l t h o u g h we do t r a n s c e n d E a r t h , even as t h e h o s t i l e c r i t i c s a c c u s e us o f d o i n g , i t i s a " s i l e n t p l a n e t " we l e a v e . We l e a v e i n o r d e r t o l e a r n t h e u n i v e r s a l l i n g u a f r a n c a , w i t h an i n t e n t i o n o f c o n v e r s i n g i n t h e s a c r a m e n t a l t ongue upon o u r r e t u r n t o E a r t h . I t i s n o t t h a t we l e a v e t o f i n d God i n H i s Heaven: " S p a c e - t r a v e l r e a l l y has n o t h i n g t o do w i t h t h e m a t t e r . To some, God i s d i s c o v e r a b l e e v e r y w h e r e ; t o o t h e r s , nowhere . Those who do no t f i n d Him on e a r t h a r e u n l i k e l y t o f i n d Him i n s p a c e . (Hang i t a l l , w e ' r e i n space a l r e a d y . . . ) , " L ew i s w r i t e s i n h i s 4 e s s a y , "The S e e i n g E y e . " " O n l y t h e f i r s t j o u r n e y t o a new p l a n e t . . . i s o f any i n t e r e s t t o i m a g i n a t i v e p e o p l e " on e m p i r i c a l g r o u n d s , because t h e s u p e r - r e a l i s a s p i r i t u a l phenomenon, and a m e r e l y p h y s i c a l voyage 5 can n e v e r t a k e us t o t h e U t o p i a o f o u r t r u e d e s t i n y . Even t h e O y e r e s u , t u t e l a r y d e i t i e s o f t h e p l a n e t s , a r e no t c o n f i n e d t o t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r r e a l m s , bu t r a t h e r l i v e i n t h e heavens a t l a r g e . Nor i s t h e O l d One ' " t h a t s o r t t h a t he has t o l i v e a n y w h e r e , ' " Hnohra t e l l s Ransom ( P l a n e t , p. 7 7 ) ; t h e r e f o r e "mere movement i n space w i l l n e v e r b r i n g you any n e a r e r t o Him o r any f a r t h e r from Him than you a r e a t t h i s v e r y moment" ("The S e e i n g E y e , " p. 1 6 8 ) . The t r i l o g y holds no f a l s e hopes o f reaching Utopia: t h e quest remains a m a t t e r o f t h e h e a r t . " ' He who would b r i n g home t h e wealth o f t h e I n d i e s must c a r r y t h e wealth o f t h e I n d i e s w i t h h i m , ' " L ew i s q uo t e s 4 "Onward , C h r i s t i a n Spacemen , " Show, 3 ( 1 9 6 3 ) , 54 and 117; r p t . "The S e e i n g E y e , " i n C h r i s t i a n R e f l e c t i o n s , p. 171 . 5 ' " T h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t must d i e and r o t . . . ' : C S . Lew i s D i s c u s s e s S c i e n c e F i c t i o n w i t h K i n g s l e y A m i s , " SF H o r i z o n s , No. 1 ( S p r i n g 1 9 6 4 ) , pp . 5 -12 ; r p t . " U n r e a l E s t a t e s , " i n Of O t h e r W o r l d s , p. 8 8 . 79 i n "On S t o r i e s " ( p . 9 8 ) . He p o i n t s o u t t h a t i n P a r a d i s e L o s t Adam i s " l o c a l l y c o n f i n e d t o a s m a l l p a r k on a s m a l l p l a n e t , " y e t can f i n d i n t e r e s t s emb ra c i ng a l l heaven and e a r t h . S a t a n , on t he o t h e r h and , "has been i n t h e Heaven o f Heavens and i n t h e a by s s o f H e l l , and s u r v e y e d a l l t h a t l i e s between t hem, and i n t h a t who l e immens i t y has f o u n d o n l y one t h i n g t h a t i n t e r e s t s S a t a n , " wh i ch i s S a t a n h i m s e l f ( P r e f a c e , p. 1 0 0 ) . A s i m i l a r c o n t r a s t can be drawn between Ransom and Wes ton: as a s t u d e n t o f t h e h u m a n i t i e s , Ransom i n h a b i t s s ome th i ng o f an i v o r y t o w e r , y e t can f i n d so much t o i n t e r e s t h im on an a l i e n p l a n e t t h a t he l e a v e s w i t h r e a l r e g r e t a t how l i t t l e he has l e a r n e d . Wes t on , on t h e o t h e r h and , i s an e g o t i s t i c a l s c i e n t i s t who s n e e r s a t Ransom's ' " p h i l o s o p h y o f l i f e . . . [ f o r b e i n g ] so i n s u f f e r a b l y na r r ow and i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c ' " ( P l a n e t , p. 3 0 ) , y e t who can see n o t h i n g more i n M a l a c a n d r a t han t e r r i t o r y t o be conquered.** Our own goa l i n l e a v i n g p l a n e t E a r t h i s n o t so s h o r t - s i g h t e d as t o g a i n Heaven , bu t r a t h e r t o p e n e t r a t e t h e Heavens , t h e r e t o s t u d y t he s i l e n t p l a n e t f r om a new p e r s p e c t i v e . L ew i s j u s t i f i e s t h i s k i n d o f memento mor i f o r t h e human s p e c i e s i n h i s e s s a y "On S c i e n c e F i c t i o n , " 7 and imp l emen t s t h e p r i n c i p l e i n The S c r ew tape L e t t e r s , where h i s s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e i s " n o t t o s p e c u l a t e abou t d i a b o l i c a l l i f e bu t t o t h r ow l i g h t f r om a new a n g l e on t he l i f e o f men" ( P r e f . , n . p . ) . L ew i s a c c o m p l i s h e s a s i m i l a r pu rpose i n P l a n e t . " A l l o f Ransom's e x p e r i e n c e s i n M a l a c a n d r a c o n s t i t u t e a s o r t o f l i t m u s p a p e r , we m i g h t s a y , wh i c h r e v e a l s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e t h i n g we a r e t e s t i n g , i n t h i s c a s e what i t i s t o be human—what i t fi Howard p e r c e i v e s t h i s i r o n y i n A c h i e v e m e n t , p. 7 4 . 7 "On S c i e n c e F i c t i o n , " i n Of O t h e r W o r l d s , p. 66 . 80 r e a l l y i s , " Howard p r o p o s e s ( A c h i e v e m e n t , p. 8 1 ) . The r e a d e r f i r s t e n c o u n t e r s an i n v e r t e d p e r s p e c t i v e i n P l a n e t as Ransom i s l o s i n g c o n s c i o u s n e s s , h a v i n g been d rugged by D e v i n e : " D e v i n e . . . was now so f a r away—abou t a m i l e away, though p e r f e c t l y c l e a r l i k e s ome th i n g seen t h r o u g h the wrong end o f a t e l e s c o p e " ( P l a n e t , p. 2 0 ) . T h i s i n no cuou s image b e g i n s a m o t i f w h i c h c u l m i n a t e s i n Ransom's p e e r i n g t h r o u g h A u g r a y ' s t e l e s c o p e a t "a b r i g h t d i s k abou t t h e s i z e o f a h a l f -c r own " ( p . 1 0 8 ) . The d i s k i s E a r t h as seen f r om M a l a c a n d r a , and t he e f f e c t on Ransom i s d e v a s t a t i n g . He has a l r e a d y been shocked by s e e i n g E a r t h t h r o u g h t he s p a c e s h i p ' s s k y l i g h t and l e a r n i n g t h a t " t h e mega loman iac d i s k " i s i n d e e d E a r t h , and no t s i m p l y E a r t h ' s moon as he had f i r s t presumed ( p . 2 6 ) . T h i s f u r t h e r w r e n c h i n g o f p e r s p e c t i v e wh i c h he now e x p e r i e n c e s i s a l m o s t t o o much f o r Ransom t o b e a r . " I t was a l l t h e r e i n t h a t l i t t l e d i s k — L o n d o n , A t h e n s , J e r u s a l e m , S h a k e s p e a r e . The re e v e r y o n e had l i v e d and e v e r y t h i n g had happened" ( p . 1 0 9 ) . To make t h i n g s worse f o r Ransom, t h e p i c t u r e i s " u p s i d e down, w i t h t h e N o r t h P o l e a t t h e b o t t o m . " He c anno t even be c e r t a i n t h a t he i s no t i m a g i n i n g t h e shape o f Eng l and wh i c h v a g u e l y f o rms i t s e l f b e f o r e h i s e y e s . " I t was t h e b l e a k e s t moment i n a l l h i s t r a v e l s " ( p . 1 0 9 ) . In e f f e c t , we l e a v e E a r t h i n o r d e r t o g e t back home. We l e a v e t o g a i n a u n i v e r s a l v an t age p o i n t , l i t e r a l l y s e e i n g E a r t h t h r o u g h t h e Heavens . The re i s a deepe r sense i n wh i c h we do t h i s , however ; more i m p o r t a n t t h an t h e memento mo r i i s t h e new p e r c e p t i o n w h i c h t h e Heavens t e a c h o u r e y e s , and t h e new l i g h t t h e y shed on o u r w o r l d . We l e a v e E a r t h t o see he r more c l e a r l y , n o t t o t a k e h e r a l o n g w i t h us as t h e b a l l and c h a i n on o u r r o c k e t s h i p s . L ew i s e x p r e s s e s h i s i m p a t i e n c e w i t h s c i e n c e f i c t i o n w r i t e r s who s e t up o t h e r w o r l d s as a "huge b a c k c l o t h " a g a i n s t 81 w h i c h " t o d e v e l o p an o r d i n a r y l o v e - s t o r y , s p y - s t o r y , w r e c k - s t o r y , o r c r i m e - s t o r y " ("On S c i e n c e F i c t i o n , " p. 6 1 ) . Our pu rpose i s t o p e n e t r a t e t h e Heavens . T r a v e l l i n g w i t h a sense o f d i r e c t i o n , we l e a v e t h e w o r l d t h a t we know t o l a n d upon and s t u d y a n o t h e r . As Howard p o i n t s o u t , we c a n n o t d i s h o n o u r t h a t w o r l d by mak ing i t a mere a l l e g o r y o f o u r own, a l t h o u g h " t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n l y a n a l o g u e s between one w o r l d and a n o t h e r " ( A c h i e v e m e n t , p. 8 3 ) . M a l a c a n d r a e x i s t s f o r i t s own s a k e , as do a l l t h e w o r l d s , Ransom f i n d s o u t on P e r e l a n d r a : "The new w o r l d o f P e r e l a n d r a was no t a mere r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e o l d w o r l d T e l l u s . M a l e l d i 1 n e v e r r e p e a t e d H i m s e l f . As t h e Lady had s a i d , t h e same wave n e v e r came t w i c e . . . . N o t h i n g was more o r l e s s i m p o r t a n t t h a n a n y t h i n g e l s e , n o t h i n g was a copy o r model o f a n y t h i n g e l s e " ( p p . 1 6 4 - 6 5 ) . L i k e a T o l k i e n i a n " s e c o n d a r y w o r l d , " t h e s p i r i t u a l q u a l i t y o f o t h e r n e s s g e n e r a t e d by t h e a l i e n s e t t i n g a c t u a l l y c o m p r i s e s i t s mean ing ("On S t o r i e s , " p. 9 8 ) . Where " t h e m a r v e l l o u s i s i n t h e g r a i n o f t h e who l e w o r k , " s t o r i e s " a r e a c t u a l a d d i t i o n s t o l i f e , " L ew i s r e i t e r a t e s i n " S c i e n c e F i c t i o n " ( p . 7 0 ; emphas i s a d d e d ) . Thus t h e t r i l o g y c h a l l e n g e s us t o f i n d o u r f o o t i n g on f o r e i g n s o i l and t o l e a r n a new l a nguage t h e r e . Then what o f o u r v i ew o f E a r t h ? Has i t been e c l i p s e d and o u r U t o p i a n s e a r c h f o r Heaven resumed? One m i gh t c l a i m , and r i g h t l y , t h a t t h i s s p i r i t u a l q u a l i t y o f o t h e r n e s s i s u l t i m a t e l y r e l i g i o u s , r e l a t e d t o t h a t "naked O t h e r " who i s L e w i s ' God. L ew i s h i m s e l f s a y s , " I f you have a r e l i g i o n i t must be c o s m i c ; t h e r e f o r e i t seems t o me odd t h a t t h i s gen re [ s c i e n c e f i c t i o n ] was so l a t e i n a r r i v i n g " ( " U n r e a l E s t a t e s , " p. 9 0 ) . M a d e l e i n e L ' E n g l e makes a s i m i l a r o b s e r v a t i o n i n h e r mus ings on f a i t h and a r t i n W a l k i n g on Wa t e r , i d e n t i f y i n g s c i e n c e f i c t i o n as a gen re p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t e d t o e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e C r e a t o r and H i s 82 c r e a t i o n . * * Ye t t o a dm i t t o r e l i g i o u s dep th s i n P l a n e t and i n t h e e n t i r e t r i l o g y i s n o t t o make any c omp rom i s i n g a d m i s s i o n t o dogma o r p r o paganda ; i t i s bu t t o a cknow ledge t h e w i d e s t s cope o f t h e s a c r a m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e . Nor i s t o a cknow ledge t h e i r r e d u c i b l e o t h e r n e s s o f o u r f i c t i o n a l w o r l d any g r e a t e r a c o n c e s s i o n t o e s c a p i s t , t r a n s c e n d e n t a l i s t w r i t i n g . A l t h o u g h " i t may no t be ' l i k e r e a l l i f e ' i n t h e s u p e r f i c i a l s e n s e , " L ew i s e x p l a i n s , " i t s e t s b e f o r e us an image o f what r e a l i t y may w e l l be l i k e a t some more c e n t r a l r e g i o n " ("On S t o r i e s , " p. 1 0 1 ) . L ew i s c o n t e n d s t h a t t h i s " d im sense o f s ome th i ng beyond . . . , f a r f r om d u l l i n g o r e m p t y i n g t h e a c t u a l w o r l d , g i v e s i t a new d i m e n s i o n o f d e p t h " ( " W r i t i n g f o r C h i l d r e n , " p. 2 5 ) . The r e a d e r "does no t d e s p i s e r e a l woods because he has r ead o f e n c h a n t e d w o o d s , " L ew i s c o n t i n u e s : " t h e r e a d i n g makes a l l r e a l woods a l i t t l e e n c h a n t e d " ( p . 2 5 ) . Hav i n g been a t home i n m y t h , t h e r e a d e r w i l l b r i n g myth back home. "The who l e s t o r y , p a r a d o x i c a l l y enough , s t r e n g t h e n s o u r r e l i s h f o r r e a l l i f e " ("On S t o r i e s , " p. 1 0 0 ) . To p e n e t r a t e t h a t o t h e r n e s s i s bu t t o f i n d t h e s h o r t e s t r o u t e home, we d i s c o v e r . Our p r o g r e s s i o n t h r o u g h a n o t h e r w o r l d r e v e a l s i t s common d e n o m i n a t o r w i t h o u r own, and we l e a r n t h a t bo th w o r l d s a r e images o f t h e " i m a g e l e s s O t h e r . " We can examine M a l a c a n d r a c l o s e l y , and g a i n an e n l i g h t e n e d p e r c e p t i o n wh i c h p r o f i t s us on E a r t h , because bo th w o r l d s m e d i a t e t h e same u l t r a r e a l i t y . Our i n t e r e s t s a r e n o t p a r o c h i a l e i t h e r on E a r t h o r on M a l a c a n d r a : i t i s t h e u n i v e r s a l l a nguage w h i c h we r e a l l y w i s h t o a c q u i r e . L ew i s h i t s upon t h i s p r i n c i p l e o f t h e u n i v e r s a l l a nguage 8 W a l k i n g on Wa te r : R e f l e c t i o n s on F a i t h and A r t [ 1980 ] new e d . ( T o r o n t o : Ban tam, 1 9 8 2 ) , p p . 1 34 -35 . 83 i n J o y , when he t e l l s o f h i s e x p e r i e n c e i n l e a r n i n g G r e e k . He d i s c o v e r e d t h a t "naus and s h i p bo th mean a t h i n g , t h e y do no t mean one a n o t h e r " ( p . 1 3 5 ) . Ransom's i n t e r p l a n e t a r y t r a v e l r ewa rds h im w i t h s i m i l a r r e v e l a t i o n s : a t f i r s t , he m a r v e l s t h a t H y o i ' s boa t i s so " v e r y l i k e an e a r t h l y b o a t , " bu t l a t e r he i s s t r u c k by t h e t h o u g h t , ' "Wha t e l s e c o u l d a b oa t be l i k e ? ' " ( P l a n e t , p. 6 5 ) . Bo th M a l a c a n d r i a n and t e r r e s t r i a l b o a t s n a t u r a l l y m a n i f e s t t h e u n i v e r s a l Idea o f " b o a t . " Ransom a l s o wonders a t t h e ' " e x t r a o r d i n a r y c o i n c i d e n c e t h a t t h e i r m y t h o l o g y , l i k e o u r s , a s s o c i a t e s some i d e a o f t h e f e m a l e w i t h V e n u s ' " ( P l a n e t , p. 1 2 6 ) . When he a c t u a l l y meets t h e P e r e l a n d r i a n Oya r s a whom we c a l l V enus , howeve r , he r e a l i z e s t h a t an a r c h e t y p e l i e s b eh i n d t h i s phenomenon as w e l l . Thus t he t r i l o g y ' s e x p l o r a t i o n o f f o r e i g n w o r l d s b r i n g s us f u l l c i r c l e back t o o u r own w o r l d . "The who l e a r t c o n s i s t s n o t i n e v o k i n g t h e u n e x p e c t e d , bu t i n e v o k i n g w i t h a p e r f e c t i o n and a c c u r a c y beyond e x p e c t a t i o n t h e v e r y image t h a t has haun ted us a l l o u r l i v e s . The ma rve l . . . i s . . . t h a t o u r dream s t a n d s b e f o r e us and does n o t m e l t , " s a y s L ew i s i n P r e f a c e t o P a r a d i s e L o s t ( p . 5 7 ) . We l e a v e E a r t h t o l e a r n a new l a n g u a g e , bu t j u s t as t h e l anguage o f n a t u r e t e a c h e s L ew i s t h e mean ing o f " g l o r y , " we a l s o a r e t a u g h t t h e mean-i n g o f o u r n a t i v e t o n g u e . We s i m i l a r l y d i s c o v e r t h e mean ing o f t h e word " g l o r y , " a l t h o u g h we t o o must go e l s e w h e r e f o r o u r t h e o l o g y and p h i l o s o -phy . In The Voyage o f t h e "Dawn T r e a d e r " , A s i a n t e l l s Lu cy t h a t she and t h e o t h e r c h i l d r e n have been b r ough t t o N a r n i a i n o r d e r t h a t t h e y m i gh t g meet h im and b e t t e r know h im as he a p p e a r s i n t h e i r own w o r l d . The 9 L e w i s , The Voyage o f t h e "Dawn T r e a d e r " ( London: G e o f f r e y B l e s , 1 9 5 2 ) , p. 2 22 . 84 reader i s s i m i l a r l y brought to the other worlds of Deep Heaven in order that he might know them as the s i b l i n g s of his own, and recognize t h e i r common parentage. The f a c t that we l i v e as the sole rati o n a l species on our earth "must have far-reaching e f f e c t s in the narrowing of sympathies and even of thought," leaving t e r r i b l e prejudices at the mercy of our blood, the sorns speculate (Planet, p. 116). To remedy t h i s parochialism, Lewis teaches us the universal language. He succeeds in creating such a strong sense of homecoming in the worlds of the t r i l o g y , that S t e l l a Gibbons can t e s t i f y to "a nosta l g i a " f o r the planet of Perelandra ("Imaginative Writing," p. 89). Lewis wants to break through our iron horizons. Planet's pe c u l i a r objective i s to open our eyes to the unseen r e a l i t i e s beyond, in order to r e l i e v e that "pressure of the ordinary" so s k i l f u l l y manipulated by Screwtape and his crew (Screwtape L e t t e r s , p. 12). By c a l l i n g Planet a "space-and-time s t o r y , L e w i s designates the parameters of a r e a l i t y which we are to investigate thoroughly, and through which we are then to explore u l t r a r e a l i t y . "God . . . created space-time, which i s to the universe as the metre i s to a poem or the key i s to music. To look f o r Him as one item within the framework which He Himself invented i s nonsensical," Lewis writes in "The Seeing Eye" (p. 168). The challenge to probe the primary and secondary mysteries of space-time defies the narrow attitudes of such as Weston, who gloats over man's "transport system which i s r a p i d l y a n n i h i l a t i n g space and time" (Planet, p. 153). In contrast, Lewis' personal sense of mystery and adventure led him to count i t a blessing that his father had no car: 10 In the dedication of the novel. 85 I measured d i s t a n c e s by t h e s t a n d a r d o f man, man w a l k i n g on h i s two f e e t , n o t by t h e s t a n d a r d o f t h e i n t e r n a l c o m b u s t i o n e n g i n e . I had no t been a l l o w e d t o d e f l o w e r t h e v e r y i d e a o f d i s t a n c e ; i n r e t u r n I p o s s e s s e d " i n f i n i t e r i c h e s " i n what wou l d have been t o m o t o r i s t s "a l i t t l e r o o m . " The t r u e s t and most h o r r i b l e c l a i m made f o r modern t r a n s p o r t i s t h a t i t " a n n i h i l a t e s s p a c e . " I t d o e s . I t a n n i h i l a t e s one o f t h e most g l o r i o u s g i f t s we have been g i v e n . ( J o y , pp . 149-50) In P l a n e t , L ew i s c a l l s us t o e x p l o r e t h e " i n f i n i t e r i c h e s " o f space w i t h h i m . He e x t e n d s a c o u r t e o u s i n v i t a t i o n t o a t e a p a r t y , bu t i t i s a t e a p a r t y as wondrous w i t h i t s a m b r o s i a l s u b s t a n c e s as A l i c e ' s e v e r was mad. L i k e t h e P e d e s t r i a n o f P l a n e t ' s o p e n i n g p a g e s , we a r e i n v i t e d t o pu t away o u r maps and v e n t u r e ou t f r om o u r s h e l t e r s " i n t o t h e m i d d l e o f t h e r o a d " ( p . 7 ) - - " a r o a d , " as Lew i s s a y s i n J o y , wh i c h l e a d s " r i g h t o u t o f t h e s e l f " ( p . 2 0 8 ) . A l o n g w i t h t h e P e d e s t r i a n , we t o o a r e l o o k i n g s i m p l y f o r a c o m f o r t a b l e r e s t i n g p l a c e , and a r e c o n t e n t t o have o u r s o l i t u d e u n d i s t u r b e d and o u r p r i v a c y u n i n v a d e d . Our a u t h o r t h en names t h e P e d e s t r i a n "Ransom, " howeve r , and t h e r e u p o n i n t e r r u p t s h i s peace w i t h an i m p o r t u n a t e o l d woman a s k i n g f o r h i s h e l p . As becomes f u r t h e r a p p a r e n t i n P e r e l a n d r a , o n e ' s name c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f a p e r s o n a l d e s t i n y , wh i c h one c hoo se s whe t he r o r n o t t o grow i n t o . The f u l f i l l m e n t o f Ransom's own d e s t i n y now depends s o l e l y on h i s r e s p o n s e t o t h i s i n n o c u o u s r e q u e s t f o r h e l p , wh i c h i s pu t f o r w a r d a f t e r he has been named. I n d e e d , t h e e n t i r e t r i l o g y a w a i t s h i s d e c i s i o n , f o r o n l y h i s p o s i t i v e mora l a c t i o n can move t he p l o t f o r w a r d . The mere p h y s i c a l i n c o n v e n i e n c e w h i c h t h e momentous d u t y e n t a i l s f o r e shadows t h e d i l emma o f t h e Un-man w h i c h Ransom w i l l f a c e i n P e r e l a n d r a , a more p r o f o u n d mora l conundrum, y e t s t i l l u l t i m a t e l y a 86 m a t t e r o f "mere" p h y s i c a l a c t i o n . I t i s a d e c i s i o n wh i c h Ransom w i l l c o n f r o n t because he now p r o v e s h i m s e l f f a i t h f u l i n t h i s l e s s e r o b e d i e n c e , a l b e i t however u n w i l l i n g l y and f o r w h a t e v e r m ixed m o t i v e s . C o m p l y i n g w i t h t h e o l d woman's w i s h e s , Ransom does s e t o f f t o f i n d H a r r y , f i n a l l y c l i m b i n g t he t h r e e s t e p s o f "The R i s e " t o r i n g t h e b e l l t h a t w i l l change h i s l i f e . In coming t o t h e t h r e e vo lumes o f t h e t r i l o g y , as i t w e r e , t h e r e a d e r a s c ends t h o s e s t a i r s w i t h Ransom. We t o o a r e abou t t o embark on a c o sm i c a d v e n t u r e w h i c h w i l l c u l m i n a t e i n o u r m a s t e r y o f t h e s a c r a m e n t a l l a n g u a g e . The s t o r y w h i c h f o l l o w s i s t h a t o f Ransom's s p i r i t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t , wh i c h Wa lsh d i s c u s s e s i n h i s e s s a y , "The R e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e F e a r f u l P i l g r i m . 1 , 1 1 Wa lsh n o t e s a c l u s t e r o f b i r t h images i n w h i c h "Ransom h i m s e l f i s bo th e x p e c t a n t mothe r and f e t u s , " s u g g e s t i n g Ransom's s p i r i t u a l r e b i r t h and i m p l y i n g h i s s ub s equen t m a t u r a t i o n ( p . 6 7 ) . We n o t i c e t h e f i r s t b i r t h image as Ransom i s h i k i n g down a l o n e l y r oad l o o k i n g f o r a p l a c e t o l a y h i s h ead , an i n c i d e n t wh i ch r e c a l l s t h e e v e n t s o f t h e N a t i v i t y . Wa l sh does no t b e g i n t r a c i n g t he p a t t e r n o f b i r t h image ry u n t i l Ransom i s en r o u t e t o M a l a c a n d r a , s t r i p p e d naked i n s i d e t h e space c a p s u l e because o f t h e i n t e n s e h e a t . The v e h i c l e i s a w o m b - l i k e e n c l o s u r e , wh i c h i s i t s e l f w i t h i n " t h e womb o f w o r l d s , " t h a t c r e a t i v e ocean o f heavens so g r o s s l y misnamed " S p a c e " ( P l a n e t , p. 3 6 ) . As t h e y e n t e r t h e M a l a c a n d r i a n g r a v i t y f i e l d , Ransom and h i s a b d u c t o r s g a i n w e i g h t r a p i d l y and s u f f e r e x c r u c i a t i n g p a i n : "They had t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f a p r e g n a n t woman, bu t m a g n i f i e d a l m o s t beyond e n d u r a n c e " ( p . 4 3 ) . Once H In L o n g i n g f o r a Fo rm, pp . 6 4 - 7 2 ; t h e p a r a g r a p h l a r g e l y p a r a p h r a s e s W a l s h ' s f i n d i n g s , p. 6 7 . 87 landed on the planet, Ransom pushes his head and shoulders through the opening of the space capsule and crawls outside into the l i g h t and the c h i l l y atmosphere. Although Walsh does not highlight the d i c t i o n , Lewis' s p e c i f i c use of language reinforces the b i r t h imagery: Ransom has been eagerly s t r a i n i n g "to catch some glimpse" of the strange planet "between the labouring shoulders" of Weston and Devine as they open the l i d of the spaceship (p. 45). " I t might mean death, but what a s c a f f o l d ! " Ransom thinks (p. 45). On Malacandra's surface, Walsh continues, Ransom undergoes the newborn's uncertainty of v i s i o n : He gazed about him, and the very i n t e n s i t y of his desire to take in the new world at a glance defeated i t s e l f . He saw nothing but c o l o u r s — c o l o u r s that refused to form themselves into things. Moreover, he knew nothing yet well enough to see i t : you cannot see things t i l l you know roughly what they are. His f i r s t impression was of a b r i g h t , pale w o r l d — a water-colour world out of a c h i l d ' s paint-box. (p. 46) The process of acquiring a cognizant perception i s painful f o r Ransom, since i t requires that his t e r r e s t r i a l forms of perception f i r s t be broken. " A l l r e a l i t y i s i c o n o c l a s t i c , " Lewis writes in A G r i e f 12 Observed. Through joy and pain, the d i a l e c t i c of experience, we have to learn that "the naked Other," which we f i r s t come to know through a v a r i e t y of forms, ultimately "refuses to i d e n t i f y i t s e l f with any object of the senses, . . . proclaiming i t s e l f sheerly objective" (Joy, pp. 208-09; tense changed). In the heavens, Ransom has already come to an 12 A G r i e f Observed (London, 1961; New York: Seabury Press-or o s s ro a dVT^6TfTTJ7~5Z7~ 88 i n i t i a l understanding of "the naked Other." He has experienced i t s death-and-life rhythm, f e l t '"sweet influence' pouring or even stabbing into his surrendered body," and known the "severe d e l i g h t " of an awesome otherness (Planet, p. 35). Nevertheless, precast perceptions return with his fear of being on a new planet. Ransom withdraws l i k e a s n a i l to his s h e l l when he overhears his captors discussing his s a c r i f i c e to the sorns: His mind, l i k e so many minds of his generations, was r i c h l y furnished with bogies. . . . No i n s e c t - l i k e , vermiculate or crustacean Abominable, no twitching f e e l e r s , rasping wings, slimy c o i l s , c u r l i n g tenta-c l e s , no monstrous union of superhuman i n t e l l i g e n c e and i n s a t i a b l e c r u e l t y seemed to him anything but l i k e l y on an a l i e n world. The sorns would be . . . would be . . . he dared not think what the sorns would be. . . . But the r e a l i t y would be worse: i t would be an e x t r a - t e r r e s t r i a l Otherness . . . . In that moment Ransom made a de c i s i o n . He could face death, but not the sorns. . . . If escape were impossible, then i t must be s u i c i d e . . . . It was no more in his power, he thought, to decide otherwise than to grow a new limb. (pp. 39-40; boldface p r i n t emphasis added) Lewis achieves a f i n e irony and dry humour in cataloguing Ransom's fear s , which expose the reader's own f a n t a s t i c and c h i l d i s h prejudices as being chimeras without substance: "No i n s e c t - l i k e . . . Abominable, no twitching f e e l e r s . . . no monstrous . . . c r u e l t y . " The i n i t i a t e d reader smiles at Ransom's immaterial f e a r s , and at the vanity of his r e i t e r a t i o n , "the sorns would be would be," although any f i r s t - t i m e reader must also share Ransom's t e r r o r . Lewis' s a t i r e , while not gentle, i s neither self-righteous nor c a u s t i c : in Joy, he records f o r us his own phobia of insects (pp. 15-16), doubtless the source of Ransom's "loathing of i n s e c t s , loathing of snakes, loathing of things 89 t h a t squashed and s q u e l c h e d " ( P l a n e t , p. 4 0 ) . Shee r comedy a l s o i n f o r m s L e w i s ' s a t i r e , su ch as t h e l u d i c r o u s n e s s o f " b u l b o u s e y e s , g r i n n i n g j a w s , h o r n s , s t i n g s , m a n d i b l e s " ( p . 4 0 ) . Of c o u r s e , t h e n o v e l p r o c eed s t o debunk Ransom's c o n v i c t i o n t h a t he has no c h o i c e bu t s u i c i d e . He f i n a l l y l e a r n s t o y i e l d h i m s e l f t o " O t h e r n e s s , " and i n so d o i n g d i s c o v e r s h i s own i d e n t i t y , as w e l l as t h e p r o f o u n d k i n s h i p between s p e a k e r s o f t h e s a c r a m e n t a l l a n g u a g e . As M a l e l d i l l a t e r t e l l s h i m , when he c o n f e s s e s t o b e i n g f r i g h t e n e d by t he O y a r s a ' s u n l i k e n e s s , ' " B u t do no t t h i n k we a r e u t t e r l y u n l i k e . We a r e b o t h c o p i e s o f M a l e l d i l ' " ( p . 1 3 5 ) . Now, howeve r , upon h i s a r r i v a l on t h e p l a n e t , Ransom s t i l l f e e l s "some f e a r , bu t more c u r i o s i t y " ( p . 4 5 ) . He has much f u r t h e r t o g o , f o r E a r t h c o n t i n u e s t o be t h e r e f e r e n c e p o i n t o f h i s g e o c e n t r i c u n i v e r s e : " p e r s p e c t i v e was s t i l l d i f f i c u l t i n t h e s t r a n g e w o r l d " ( p . 4 8 ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s , Ransom does manage h i s f i r s t s t e p s , w i t h Lew i s c o n v e y i n g much o f h i s p r o g r e s s t h r o u g h image r y o f p e r c e p t i o n : "a moment l a t e r he r e c o g n i z e d t h e f l a t b e l t o f l i g h t b l u e as a s h e e t o f w a t e r , o r o f s ome th i ng l i k e w a t e r . . . . He a l s o came l i t t l e by l i t t l e t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e w a t e r was no t m e r e l y b l u e i n c e r t a i n l i g h t s l i k e t e r r e s t r i a l w a t e r bu t ' r e a l l y ' b l u e " ( p p . 4 6 - 4 7 ; emphases a d d e d ) . The P l a t o n i c d i c t i o n bo r rowed i n " r e c o g n i z e d , " " s o m e t h i n g l i k e , " and " r e a l l y " r e v e a l s t h e u n d e r l y i n g P l a t o n i c c o n c e p t o f m a t e r i a l f o rms w h i c h i m i t a t e t h e i r u n i v e r s a l I d e a s . Tha t i s , Ransom i s l e a r n i n g t he s a c r a m e n t a l l a n g u a g e , and coming t o see i n t h e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t e m p o r a l r e a l i t y t h e " m y t h i c a l " embodiment o f an u l t r a r e a l i t y . Ransom's t i m e on M a l a c a n d r a i s one o f r e e d u c a t i o n p r e c i s e l y because he i s t e a c h a b l e and e a g e r t o t a k e i n h i s new s u r r o u n d i n g s . H i s n a t u r e 90 13 " i s 'open'--able to appreciate and love," as Richard P u r t i l l says. "Before anything else he learned that Malacandra was b e a u t i f u l ; and he even r e f l e c t e d how odd i t was that t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y had never entered into his speculations about i t " (Planet, p. 47; emphasis added). Indeed, upon a r r i v a l Ransom i s so observant that his flood of mental a c t i v i t y erases our awareness that he i s busy working at unloading the spacecraft. We are suddenly reminded when Devine i n t e r r u p t s , '"Time f o r lunch'" (p. 49). During the ensuing meal, Ransom shrewdly observes that his abductors produce tinned water from t h e i r own stores, rather than using the " ' r e a l l y ' blue" Malacandrian water. The underlying supposition, that whatever i s a l i e n i s h o s t i l e , thwarts Ransom's maturing perception and subtly reinforces his e a r l i e r preconceptions of danger. It also leaves him with the harmful notion that Malacandrian water i s poisonous. His captors' excessive caution and f u r t i v e behaviour further r a i s e Ransom's guard: "His eyes were busy searching the ground—so obsessed was he with the r e p t i l e fears and insect fears of modern imagining" (p. 50). It i s in t h i s frame of mind that Ransom's eyes are drawn up from the ground along the length of the sorns, whom he not unnaturally perceives as "spooks on s t i l t s " (p. 53): Spindly and fli m s y things, twice or three times the height of a man. His f i r s t idea was that they were images of men, the work of savage a r t i s t s . . . . But what could they be made of, and how could they s t a n d ? — s o c r a z i l y thin and elongated in the l e g , so top-heavily pouted in the chest, such s t a l k y , f l e x i b l e - l o o k i n g d i s t o r t i o n s of e a r t h l y bipeds 1 3 Lord of the Elves and E l d i l s (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1974), p. 89. 91 . . . l i k e s ome th i ng seen i n one o f t h o s e com i c m i r r o r s , ( p . 50 ; emphases added) Ransom's p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e i s p u r e l y t e r r e s t r i a l , i s i n d e e d t h a t o f E a r t h ' s s o l e r a t i o n a l s p e c i e s , so t h a t he measures t h e " t h i n and u n n a t u r a l l y l o n g " f a c e s o f t h e " s u r r e a l i s t i c bogey-men" w i t h h i s E n g l i s h y a r d s t i c k ( p . 51 and p. 5 3 ) . C o n s e q u e n t l y f r i g h t e n e d o u t o f h i s w i t s , Ransom sc reams i n s h e e r t e r r o r , and w a s t e s no t i m e f l e e i n g when a hnak ra s u d d e n l y d i v e r t s e v e r y o n e ' s a t t e n t i o n . " C r y i n g ou t no t w i t h p a i n bu t w i t h s u r p r i s e because t h e w a t e r was wa rm , " he s t r i k e s o u t i n t o t h e M a l a c a n d r i a n w i l d e r n e s s ( p . 52 ; emphas i s a d d e d ) . A f f l i c t e d as he i s w i t h h i s g e o c e n t r i c p o i n t o f v i e w , Ransom has " n o t h i n g t o f e a r - - e x c e p t t h e f a c t o f w a n d e r i n g u n p r o v i s i o n e d and a l o n e i n a f o r e s t o f unknown v e g e t a t i o n t h ou sand s o r m i l l i o n s o f m i l e s beyond t h e r e a c h o r knowledge o f man" ( p . 52 ; emphases a d d e d ) . " A t t h e same t i m e , " howeve r , " t h e d i s a b l i n g p a n i c o f t h e f i r s t moments was e b b i n g away f r om h i m . The i d e a o f s u i c i d e was now f a r f r om h i s m i n d ; i n s t e a d , he was d e t e r m i n e d t o back h i s l u c k t o t h e e n d " ( p . 5 3 ) . Ransom i s a t l e a s t a b l e t o p e r c e i v e and b e g i n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e w o r l d abou t h im as he w a l k s , d e d u c i n g f r om i t s "theme o f p e r p e n d i c u l a r i t y " t h a t "he must be on a w o r l d l i g h t e r t h an t he E a r t h , where l e s s s t r e n g t h was needed and N a t u r e was s e t f r e e t o f o l l o w he r s kyward i m p u l s e on a s u p e r t e r r e s t r i a l s c a l e " ( p . 53 and p. 5 4 ) . Ransom b e g i n s t o see t h e M a l a c a n d r i a n l a n d s c a p e w i t h i n i t s own c o n t e x t . Fo r e v e r y two s t e p s f o r w a r d , howeve r , Ransom t a k e s one s t e p b a c k w a r d . H i s beca lmed p e r s p e c t i v e i s o n l y a l i t t l e more t h a n s t o i c i s m , and does no t r e l a x h i s b a s i c m i s t r u s t . " A l l was d a n g e r , " he s t i l l d o u b t s : 92 He n o t i c e d d u l l y t h a t t h e w a t e r seemed t o be d e s c e n d i n g a l i t t l e t o o s l o w l y f o r t h e i n c l i n e , bu t he was t oo t i r e d t o s p e c u l a t e abou t i t . . . . What he r e a l l y wan ted t o know was w h e t h e r he da r ed d r i n k i t . He was v e r y t h i r s t y by now; bu t i t l o o k e d v e r y p o i s o n o u s , v e r y u n w a t e r y . He wou l d t r y n o t t o d r i n k i t ; p e rhaps he was so t i r e d t h a t t h i r s t wou ld l e t h im s l e e p , ( p . 55) P h y s i c a l l y as w e l l as s p i r i t u a l l y , Ransom's p r e d i c a m e n t i s t h a t o f t h e A n c i e n t M a r i n e r : " W a t e r , w a t e r , e v e r y w h e r e , / Nor any d rop t o d r i n k . " O n l y when he i s d e l i r i o u s w i t h t h i r s t does Ransom f i n a l l y d r i n k t h e M a l a c a n d r i a n w a t e r , h i s e a r l i e r r e s o l u t i o n o v e r r u l e d by t h e s c h i z o -p h r e n i c h y s t e r i a w h i c h now d i v i d e s h i s s e l f - c o n s c i o u s and an ima l s e l v e s : No, i t was o n l y h i m s e l f : he was Ransom. Or was he? Who was t h e man whom he had l e d t o a ho t s t r e a m and t u c k e d up i n b e d , t e l l i n g h im no t t o d r i n k t h e s t r a n g e w a t e r ? O b v i o u s l y some new-comer who d i d n ' t know t h e p l a c e as w e l l as he . But w h a t e v e r Ransom had t o l d h i m , he was g o i n g t o d r i n k now. He l a y down on t h e bank and p l u n g e d h i s f a c e i n t h e warm r u s h i n g l i q u i d . I t was good t o d r i n k . I t had a s t r o n g m i n e r a l f l a v o u r , bu t i t was v e r y good . He d r ank a g a i n and f ound h i m s e l f g r e a t l y r e f r e s h e d and s t e a d i e d . A l l t h a t abou t t h e o t h e r Ransom was n o n s e n s e . He was q u i t e aware o f t h e dange r o f madness , ( p p . 5 6 - 5 7 ; b o l d f a c e p r i n t emphas i s added) The s p l i t c o n s c i o u s n e s s a f f l i c t i n g h i s r e f l e x i v e b e i n g u n d e r s c o r e s t h e d i s j u n c t i v e n a t u r e o f g e o c e n t r i c p e r c e p t i o n , wh i c h b u i l d s an i m p a s s a b l e f r o n t i e r between n a t u r e and s u p e r n a t u r e . I t i s when Ransom d r i n k s t h e M a l a c a n d r i a n w a t e r , emb l ema t i c o f t h e a m b r o s i a l n e c t a r s e r v e d f o r a s a c r a m e n t a l t e a , t h a t he r e c o v e r s t h e c o m p o s i t e u n i o n o f a who l e s e l f . Ransom's g r a d u a l p r o g r e s s c o n t i n u e s , as he n e x t s amp l e s t h e v e g e t a t i o n f o r f o o d . C o n s i d e r i n g i t i m p o s s i b l e t o c o n t i n u e t h e f l i g h t "as a f l i g h t , " he s e t t l e s down i n s t e a d t o t h e b u s i n e s s o f s u r v i v a l ( p . 5 7 ) . One mo rn i ng he comes a c r o s s "a h e r d o f enormous p a l e f u r r y 93 c r e a t u r e s more l i k e g i r a f f e s t h an a n y t h i n g e l s e he c o u l d t h i n k o f , " and j u d g e s them t o be "a v e r y p r e s e n t a b l e s o r t o f a n i m a l , " a l t h o u g h "an a n i m a l wh i c h man c o u l d p r o b a b l y tame" ( p . 58; emphas i s a d d e d ) . Such t r a d i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s between man and b e a s t , w i t h wh i c h Ransom i s c o m f o r t a b l y f a m i l i a r , ease and r e a s s u r e h im i n t o a new openness t owa rds M a l a c a n d r i a n q u i d d i t y . I t i s t h r o u g h t he v i s t a wh i c h t h e s e l e a f - e a t i n g c r e a t u r e s open i n t h e v e g e t a t i o n t h a t Ransom i s a b l e t o g a i n a new p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e g i a n t , p y l o n - s h a p e d f o r m s , wh i c h "seemed t o h i s t e r r e s t r i a l eyes r e a d y t o f a l l a t any moment" ( p . 5 9 ) . He f i n a l l y c o n c l u d e s them t o be m o u n t a i n s , "and w i t h t h a t d i s c o v e r y t h e mere o d d i t y o f t h e p r o s p e c t was s w a l l o w e d up i n t h e f a n t a s t i c s u b l i m e " : H e r e , he u n d e r s t o o d , was t h e f u l l s t a t e m e n t o f t h a t p e r p e n d i c u l a r theme wh i c h b e a s t and p l a n t and e a r t h a l l p l a y e d on M a l a c a n d r a - - h e r e i n t h i s r i o t o f r o c k , l e a p i n g and s u r g i n g skyward l i k e s o l i d j e t s f r om some r o c k - f o u n t a i n , and hang i ng by t h e i r own l i g h t n e s s i n t h e a i r , so s h a p e d , so e l o n g a t e d , t h a t a l l t e r r e s t r i a l moun t a i n s must e v e r a f t e r seem t o h im t o be moun t a i n s l y i n g on t h e i r s i d e s . He f e l t a l i f t and l i g h t e n i n g a t t h e h e a r t , ( p . 59) W i t h e v e r y new i n s i g h t , howeve r , comes a c h a l l e n g e t o t e s t i t : t h e p r o f i l e o f a s o r n now a p p e a r s a g a i n s t t h e backg round o f t h e m o u n t a i n s . "The i n e f f a c e a b l e image was h a r d l y s tamped on h i s b r a i n b e f o r e he was r u n n i n g as ha rd as he c o u l d i n t o t h e t h i c k e s t o f t h e f o r e s t " ( p . 5 9 ) . H a v i n g pu t as many m i l e s as p o s s i b l e between t h e s o r n and h i m s e l f , Ransom f i n a l l y s t o p s t o d r i n k f r om a n o t h e r M a l a c a n d r i a n l a k e . He no l o n g e r f i n d s t h e w a t e r p a l a t a b l e , howeve r , and goes back t o " c u r s i n g a w o r l d where c o l d w a t e r appea red t o be u n o b t a i n a b l e " ( p . 6 0 ) . A l t h o u g h he s p i e s a new c r e a -t u r e o n l y t e n y a r d s away f r om h i s s h e l t e r e d s p o t among t h e s h o r e weeds , he d u l l y o b s e r v e s i t s a c t i o n s , n o t i n g " i n a d r y , o b j e c t i v e way t h a t t h i s was 94 a p p a r e n t l y t o be t h e e n d o f h i s s t o r y — c a u g h t b e t w e e n a s o r n f r o m t h e l a n d a n d a b i g b l a c k a n i m a l f r o m t h e w a t e r " ( p . 6 1 ) . O n c e a g a i n R a n s o m ' s m i n d i s s t r e t c h e d , h o w e v e r : " T h e n s o m e t h i n g h a p p e n e d w h i c h c o m p l e t e l y a l t e r e d h i s s t a t e o f m i n d . . . . T h e c r e a t u r e was t a l k i n g . . . . A new w o r l d he h a d a l r e a d y s e e n — b u t a n e w , a n e x t r a - t e r r e s t r i a l , a n o n - h u m a n l a n g u a g e was a d i f f e r e n t m a t t e r . Somehow he h a d n o t t h o u g h t o f t h i s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e s o r n s ; n o w , i t f l a s h e d u p o n h i m l i k e a r e v e l a t i o n " ( p . 6 1 ) . T h e " l o v e o f k n o w l e d g e " b r i n g s R a n s o m o u t o f h i m s e l f w i t h a t h r i l l o f e x c i t e m e n t : " T h e v e r y f o r m o f l a n g u a g e i t s e l f , t h e p r i n c i p l e b e h i n d a l l p o s s i b l e l a n g u a g e s , m i g h t f a l l i n t o h i s h a n d s " ( p . 61 a n d p . 6 2 ; e m p h a s e s a d d e d ) . W i t h t h i s new c o m m i t m e n t t o t h e o b j e c t i v e O t h e r a n d t o a b s o l u t e r e a l i t y , R a n s o m m o v e s t o a h i g h e r l e v e l i n h i s a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e s a c r a m e n t a l l a n g u a g e . " U n c o n s c i o u s l y " r a i s i n g h i m s e l f o n h i s e l b o w t o s t a r e " a t t h e b l a c k b e a s t , " R a n s o m m a k e s t h e a c q u a i n t a n c e o f a h r o s s ( p . 6 2 ) . I n t h i s m e e t i n g o f t w o r a t i o n a l s p e c i e s , R a n s o m f e e l s a l l t h e e m o t i o n s o f a n e n t i r e c o u r t -s h i p , e m o t i o n s w h i c h a r e g r e a t l y i n t e n s i f i e d i n t h e i r i m m e d i a t e i n t e r p l a y . " I t was f o o l i s h , f r i g h t e n i n g , e c s t a t i c a n d u n b e a r a b l e a l l i n o n e m o m e n t " ( p . 6 2 ) . When R a n s o m p e r c e i v e s t h a t t h e c r e a t u r e i s o f f e r i n g h i m a d r i n k , h i s a c c e p t a n c e d e m o n s t r a t e s e s p e c i a l t r u s t a n d o p e n n e s s , f o r t h e c u p c o n t a i n s n o t o n l y M a l a c a n d r i a n w a t e r b u t a l s o s o m e t h i n g a d d e d f r o m t h e s k i n b o t t l e a t t h e h r o s s 1 s w a i s t . A s he t a k e s t h e s h e l l f r o m t h e c r e a t u r e ' s p a w s , R a n s o m ' s f i n g e r t i p s t o u c h w e b b e d m e m b r a n e : " A n i n d e s c r i b a b l e t h r i l l o f m i n g l e d a t t r a c t i o n a n d r e p u l s i o n r a n t h r o u g h h i m ; t h e n he d r a n k . . . . He h a d n e v e r e n j o y e d a d r i n k s o m u c h " ( p . 6 3 ; e m p h a s i s a d d e d ) . E a c h l e a r n s t h e name o f t h e o t h e r ' s s p e c i e s , a n d Ran som t h e l i n g u i s t a n d s p i r i t u a l p i l g r i m e m b a r k s on h i s c a r e e r o f O l d S o l a r . 95 Much l a t e r , back on E a r t h , t h e l i n g u i s t w i l l l amen t t o t h e c h r o n i c l e r o f h i s a d v e n t u r e s o v e r t h e n e c e s s i t y o f r u t h l e s s l y c u t t i n g "down on t h e p h i l o l o g i c a l p a r t " o f h i s s t o r y . "We a r e g i v i n g o u r r e a d e r s a mere c a r i c a t u r e o f t h e M a l a c a n d r i a n l a n g u a g e , " he c o m p l a i n s ( p . 1 7 5 ) . F o r t h e p r e s e n t moment, howeve r , Ransom i s s t i l l p rone t o d i s s o c i a t e h i m s e l f f r om w h a t e v e r seems a l i e n . T hu s , d i smay s u d d e n l y g r i p s h im anew. W i t h o u t w a r n i n g , " t h e huge , s e a l - l i k e c r e a t u r e s e a t e d b e s i d e h im " becomes " u n b e a r -a b l y o m i n o u s , " and he q u e s t i o n s i t s i n t e n t i o n s , i t s deg ree o f r a t i o n a l i t y , and i t s r e l a t i o n t o t h e s o r n s ( p . 6 5 ) . O n l y "many days l a t e r " does Ransom d i s c o v e r "how t o d e a l w i t h t h e s e sudden l o s s e s o f c o n f i d e n c e , " t h e r e b y a c h i e v i n g a key s t e p i n h i s r e e d u c a t i o n t owa rd s a c l e a r - e y e d p e r c e p t i o n : [These m i s g i v i n g s ] a r o s e when t h e r a t i o n a l i t y o f t h e h r o s s t empted you t o t h i n k o f i t as a man. Then i t became a b o m i n a b l e - - a man seven f e e t h i g h , w i t h a snaky body , c o v e r e d , f a c e and a l l , w i t h t h i c k b l a c k an ima l h a i r , and w h i s k e r e d l i k e a c a t . Bu t s t a r t i n g f r om t h e o t h e r end you had an an ima l w i t h e v e r y t h i n g an a n i m a l ough t t o h a v e - - g l o s s y c o a t , l i q u i d e y e , sweet b r e a t h and w h i t e s t t e e t h - - a n d added t o a l l t h e s e , as t hough P a r a d i s e had n e v e r been l o s t and e a r l i e s t dreams were t r u e , t h e charm o f speech and r e a s o n . N o t h i n g c o u l d be more d i s g u s t i n g t han t h e one i m p r e s s i o n ; n o t h i n g more d e l i g h t f u l t h a n t h e o t h e r . I t a l l depended on t h e p o i n t o f v i e w . ( p . 6 5 ; b o l d f a c e p r i n t emphases added) In t h e mean t ime , u n t i l he g a i n s su ch an i n s i g h t , Ransom's myop i c t e r r e s t i a l v i e w p o i n t c o n t i n u e s t o dom ina t e and h a n d i c a p h i s p e r c e p t i o n . He t h e r e f o r e c o n f r o n t s a c r i t i c a l d e c i s i o n when t h e h r o s s beckons h im i n t o h i s b o a t . "To s t e p on boa rd . . . m i gh t mean s u r r e n d e r i n g h i m s e l f t o t h e s o r n s a t t h e o t h e r end o f t h e j o u r n e y " ( p . 6 6 ) . T h i s i s t h e v e r y f a t e t h a t Ransom has been r u n n i n g f r om d u r i n g h i s e n t i r e s t a y on M a l a c a n d r a . " H i s who l e i m a g i n a t i v e t r a i n i n g somehow en cou r aged h im t o a s s o c i a t e s u p e r -96 human i n t e l l i g e n c e w i t h m o n s t r o s i t y o f f o rm and r u t h l e s s n e s s o f w i l l " ( p . 6 6 ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s , Ransom c anno t s e r i o u s l y e n t e r t a i n " t h e t h o u g h t o f p a r t i n g f r om t h e h r o s s , " even though " i t s a n i m a l i t y s ho cked h im i n a dozen ways " ( p . 6 6 ) . Drawn by " h i s l o n g i n g t o l e a r n i t s l a n g u a g e , a n d , d e e p e r s t i l l , t h e s h y , i n e l u c t a b l e f a s c i n a t i o n o f u n l i k e f o r u n l i k e , t h e s ense t h a t t h e key t o p r o d i g i o u s a d v e n t u r e was b e i n g pu t i n h i s h a n d s , " Ransom s t e p s i n t o H y o i ' s boa t ( p . 6 6 ) . He t h u s u n d e r t a k e s t o t r u s t h i m s e l f t o t h e M a l a c a n d r i a n r i v e r c u r r e n t s , as he w i l l l a t e r t r u s t h i m s e l f t o t h e P e r e l a n d r i a n o cean waves . By h i s c o n s c i o u s d e c i s i o n o f t h e w i l l , t h e P e d e s t r i a n r e v e r s e s t h e d i r e c t i o n and pu r po s e o f h i s j o u r n e y h i t h e r t o . The w a t e r p a s sage a f f o r d s Ransom a new and w i d e r p e r s p e c t i v e on t he l a y o f t h e l a n d . "He r o s e c a u t i o u s l y t o a s t a n d i n g p o s i t i o n and s u r v e y e d t h e M a l a c a n d r i a n p r o s p e c t w h i c h had opened on e v e r y s i d e " ( p . 6 7 ; empha-s i s a d d e d ) . He now sees t h e marshy l a n d t o be a c h a i n o f a r c h i p e l a g o s , b o r d e r e d by " p a l e g r e en m o u n t a i n s , w h i c h he c o u l d s t i l l h a r d l y c a l l m o u n t a i n s , so t a l l t h e y we r e " ( p . 6 8 ) . He a l s o r e c o g n i z e s " g r e a t b i l l o w y p i l e s o f t h e r o s e - r e d s u b s t a n c e w h i c h he had y e s t e r d a y m i s t a k e n f o r c l o u d " ( p . 6 8 ; emphas i s a d d e d ) . Ransom a c q u i r e s more h r o s s a n v o c a b u l a r y , l e a r n i n g t h a t h a r a n d r a and h a n d r a m i t mean h i g h l a n d and l o w l a n d , a l -though t he " p e c u l i a r i m p o r t a n c e o f . . . [ t h e i r ] d i s t i n c t i o n i n M a l a c a n -d r i a n geog raphy he l e a r n e d l a t e r " ( p . 6 8 ) . Pe rhaps one o f Ransom's most s i g n i f i c a n t e x p e r i e n c e s d u r i n g t h e w a t e r pas sage i s h i s s e a s i c k n e s s , f o r i t e r a s e s " t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between E a r t h and o t h e r p l a n e t s . . . compared w i t h t h e aw fu l d i s t i n c t i o n o f e a r t h and w a t e r " ( p . 7 0 ) . T h i s humorous e p i s o d e b r i n g s Ransom t o e x p e r i e n c e M a l a c a n d r a as a p l a c e i n i t s own r i g h t , r a t h e r t h a n a d i s t o r t e d i m i t a t i o n o f E a r t h . I t i s upon c o n c e d i n g t h a t " M a l a c a n d r a was l e s s l i k e e a r t h t h a n he had been b e g i n n i n g t o s up -97 p o s e " t h a t Ransom l e a r n s h i s f i r s t v e r b s i n t h e h r o s s a n l anguage ( p . 7 1 ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s , Ransom s t i l l t a k e s i t " f o r g r a n t e d " t h a t t h e h r o s s a a r e "on a low c u l t u r a l l e v e l " ( p . 7 2 ) . When he f i n a l l y s t a n d s on s h o r e a g a i n , s u r r o u n d e d by dozens o f t h e c r e a t u r e s , he f e e l s them t o be "more a n i m a l , l e s s human, i n t h e i r m u l t i t u d e and t h e i r c l o s e n e i ghbou rhood t o h i m , t han h i s s o l i t a r y g u i d e had seemed" ( p . 7 2 ) . Ransom r e l a p s e s , s u f f e r i n g "some f e a r , bu t more a g h a s t l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s , " and he p a s s i o n a t e l y d e s i r e s t h e company o f h i s f e l l o w s p e c i e s beyond a l l e l s e — " a n y men, even Weston and D e v i n e " ( p . 7 2 ) . " M e a n i n g l e s s b u l l e t heads and f u r r y f a c e s " t o w h i c h he can f i n d "no r e s p o n s e " swim b e f o r e h i s e ye s ( p . 7 2 ) . "The w h e l p s , t h e p u p p i e s , t h e c u b s , w h a t e v e r you c a l l e d t h e m , " manage t o imp rove Ransom's d i s p o s i t i o n , bu t w i t h com i c i r o n y h i s s m i l e s and somewhat p a t r o n i z i n g o v e r t u r e s o n l y chase t he " j o l l y l i t t l e t h i n g s " away ( p . 7 2 ) . From t h e i r p o i n t o f v i e w , we d i s c o v e r , t h e newcomer i s a " h a i r l e s s g o b l i n " ( p . 7 3 ) . I t seems t h a t Ransom s t i l l has f a r t o go i n h i s q u e s t t o p e r c e i v e a r i g h t and f u n c t i o n p r o p e r l y i n h i s new e n v i r o n s : " i t was o n l y l o n g a f t e r t h a t he l e a r n e d t o r e ad t he M a l a c a n d r i a n f a c e " ( p . 6 9 ) . In t h e many days w h i c h f o l l o w s p e n t l i v i n g among t he h r o s s a , Ransom amasses t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t knowledge o f h i s c a r e e r , t hough no t t h e t y p e t h a t he can "remember l e a r n i n g " ( p . 1 7 6 ) . They a r e days w h i c h he comes t o number as t h e most v a l u a b l e o f h i s j o u r n e y , a l t h o u g h i t i s a t i m e " d u r i n g w h i c h ' n o t h i n g h a p p e n e d ' " ( p . 1 7 6 ) . " I f we a r e t o t r e a t i t as a s t o r y you must t e l e s c o p e t h e t i m e I s p e n t i n t h e v i l l a g e , " Ransom w r i t e s i n P l a n e t ' s " P o s t s c r i p t . " " Bu t I g rudge i t . Those q u i e t week s , t h e mere l i v i n g among t h e h r o s s a , a r e t o me t h e ma in t h i n g t h a t 98 happened . I know them, L e w i s ; t h a t ' s what you c a n ' t g e t i n t o a mere s t o r y " ( p . 1 7 6 ) . In i t s s h e e r q u i d d i t y , Ransom's e x p e r i e n c e o f v i l l a g e l i f e a n t i c i p a t e s P e r e l a n d r a , c o n s t i t u t i n g t h e p e r s o n a l h i g h l i g h t o f h i s M a l a c a n d r i a n e x c u r s i o n , even though i t p r e c e d e s t h e n o v e l ' s n a r r a t i v e c l i m a x . I n d e e d , i n b o t h P l a n e t and P e r e l a n d r a , t h e e f f e c t i v e c l i m a x o f t h e h e r o ' s i n n e r a c t i o n p r e p a r e s h im f o r t h e c l i m a x o f t h e n a r r a t i v e c o n f l i c t . W i t h t h e h r o s s a Ransom l e a r n s t o e n j o y r a t h e r t h a n c o n t e m p l a t e h i s e x p e r i e n c e , d i s c o v e r i n g much abou t M a l a c a n d r a t h a t c o u l d n e v e r have been c onveyed by mere e x p l a n a t i o n , b e i n g ' " t o o d e f i n i t e f o r l a n g u a g e , ' " as he s a y s i n P e r e l a n d r a ( p . 2 8 ) . E v e r s i n c e he awoke on t h e s p a c e - s h i p Ransom had been t h i n k i n g abou t t h e amaz ing a d v e n t u r e o f g o i n g t o a n o t h e r p l a n e t , and abou t h i s c han ce s o f r e t u r n i n g f r om i t . What he had [ n o t ] t h o u g h t abou t was b e i n g on i t . I t was w i t h a k i n d o f s t u p e f a c t i o n ea ch mo rn i ng t h a t he f ound h i m s e l f n e i t h e r a r r i v i n g i n , n o r e s c a p i n g f r o m , bu t s i m p l y l i v i n g o n , M a l a c a n d r a ; w a k i n g , s l e e p i n g , e a t i n g , swimming and e v e n , as t h e days p a s s e d , t a l k i n g . The wonder o f i t smote h im most s t r o n g l y when he f o u n d h i m s e l f , abou t t h r e e weeks a f t e r h i s a r r i v a l , a c t u a l l y g o i n g f o r a w a l k , ( p . 7 3 ; b o l d f a c e p r i n t emphases added) Ransom's knowledge o f t h e s a c r a m e n t a l l a nguage grows r a p i d l y as he l e a r n s n o t t o i s o l a t e t h e phenomenal f r om t h e noumena l , bu t t o r e c e i v e e x p e r i e n c e i n i t s e n t i r e t y . The f a c t s and f i g u r e s o f h i s l i f e w i t h t h e h r o s s a , he s a y s , he can " m e r e l y a n a l y s e . . . o u t o f a who le l i v i n g memory t h a t can n e v e r be pu t i n t o w o r d s , and no one i n t h i s w o r l d w i l l be a b l e t o b u i l d up f r om such s c r a p s q u i t e t h e r i g h t p i c t u r e " ( p . 176; emphas i s a d d e d ) . Each c o n c r e t e f a c e t o f h i s e x p e r i e n c e becomes i m p o r t a n t f o r i t s i n d i v i d u a l and i r r e d u c i b l e e x p r e s s i o n o f m e a n i n g . He l e a r n s , f o r e x a m p l e , 99 t o d i s t i n g u i s h "a ma le f r om a f e m a l e h r o s s a t s i g h t , and even i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s " soon become p l a i n : h i s f r i e n d Hyo i i s "a v e r y d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n f r om t he g r e y - m u z z l e d , v e n e r a b l e H n o h r a , " who t e a c h e s h im h i s d a i l y l a nguage l e s s o n s ( p . 7 3 ; b o l d f a c e p r i n t emphas i s a d d e d ) . Ransom b e g i n s t o d e v e l o p p e r s o n a l h a b i t s and t o f e e l v e r y much a t home--so much so t h a t he l a t e r c o n f e s s e s homes i c kne s s f o r h i s o l d M a l a c a n d r i a n v a l l e y , t hough "God knows . . . t h e r e I was homes i c k enough f o r t h e E a r t h " ( p . 1 7 6 ) . "Of t h e commun i ty i n g e n e r a l h i s e a r l i e r i m p r e s s i o n s were a l l g r a d u a l l y b e i n g c o r r e c t e d " ( p . 7 4 ; emphas i s a d d e d ) . The o c c u p a t i o n s o f t h e " p e o p l e " a r e " m y s t e r i o u s " t o h i m , f o r i n s t a n c e , u n t i l he one day s ee s a k i n d o f c a r a v a n , a p p a r e n t l y s e t t i n g o u t on a t r a d e e x p e d i t i o n ( p . 7 4 ; emphas i s a d d e d ) . Ransom " d i s c o v e r s t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r e i n t h e f i r s t week , " and p e r c e i v e s t h a t " d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r has been c a r r i e d t o a h i g h e r p o i n t t h a n he e x p e c t e d " ( p . 7 5 ; t e n s e c h a n g e d , emphas i s a d d e d ) . " B u t t h e r e a l r e v o l u t i o n i n h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e h r o s s a began when he had l e a r n e d enough o f t h e i r l a nguage t o a t t e m p t some s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e i r c u r i o s i t y abou t h i m s e l f " ( p . 7 5 ) . As Ransom l a t e r t e l l s L e w i s , " t h e M a l a c a n d r i a n s . . . have an odd h a b i t , s o m e t i m e s , o f t u r n i n g t he s o l a r s y s t em i n s i d e o u t " ( p . 1 8 1 ) . Ransom's g e o c e n t r i c v i e w p o i n t and sense o f s u p e r i o r i t y now s u f f e r a b low a t t h e i r v e r y r o o t s , f o r t h e h r o s s a p r o v e t o know more abou t t h e u n i v e r s e and abou t T h u l c a n d r a i t s e l f t h an Ransom d o e s . When q u e s t i o n e d abou t h i s o r i g i n , Ransom say s s i m p l y t h a t he has come ou t o f t h e s k y , d e l i b e r a t e l y g i v i n g "a c h i l d i s h v e r s i o n o f t h e t r u t h i n o r d e r t o adap t i t t o t h e supposed i g n o r a n c e o f h i s a u d i e n c e " ( p . 7 5 ) . He becomes annoyed when Hnohra p a i n s t a k i n g l y e x p l a i n s t o h im how t h i s c o u l d n o t b e . A sked t o i n d i c a t e h i s h a n d r a , Ransom i s " q u i t e u n a b l e t o p o i n t E a r t h ou t t o 100 them i n t h e n i g h t s k y " ( p p . 7 5 - 7 6 ) . I r o n i c a l l y , t h e h r o s s a p o i n t t o t h e o r b i n q u e s t i o n even as Ransom i s w o n d e r i n g whe the r t h e y can u n d e r s t a n d a s t r o n o m y . In a s i m i l a r show o f m i s c o n c e i v e d s u p e r i o r i t y , Ransom i s " h aun t ed by a c o n s c i e n t i o u s s c r u p l e as t o whe the r i t m i g h t n o t be h i s d u t y t o u n d e r t a k e t h e i r r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n ; now, as a r e s u l t o f h i s t e n t a t i v e e f f o r t s , " he f i n d s t h e t a b l e s t u r n e d and h i m s e l f t h e r e c i p i e n t o f "a s o r t o f h r o s s i a n e q u i v a l e n t o f t h e s h o r t e r c a t e c h i s m " ( p . 7 7 ) . Ransom f e e l s "once more a c e r t a i n i r r i t a t i o n " a t " b e i n g t r e a t e d as i f he were t h e s a v a g e " ( p . 7 7 ) . W i t h l o v e l y e f f e c t , L ew i s has t h e h r o s s a ' a l m o s t b a r k ' i n t h e i r f e r v e n t e x p l i c a t i o n o f t h e u n i v e r s a l t r u t h s w h i c h " even a c h i l d knew, " t h e i r s o p h i s t i c a t e d a n i m a l i t y humo rou s l y c o n t r a s t i n g w i t h Ransom's na i c e - p r e t e n s i o n s ( p . 7 6 ) . T h e i r e x p l a n a t i o n s o f s p i r i t u a l r e a l i t i e s run f a r beyond what Ransom even has l anguage t o f o l l o w . Subsequen t c o n v e r s a t i o n s f u r t h e r d i s c o m f i t Ransom, ow ing t o h i s humble d i s c o v e r y " o f h i s own i g n o r a n c e a bou t h i s n a t i v e p l a n e t , " as w e l l as t o t h e e m b a r r a s s i n g n a t u r e o f much o f what he does know ( p . 7 9 ) . "A s e n s a t i o n a k i n t o t h a t o f p h y s i c a l nakedness came o v e r h im whenever t h e y q u e s t i o n e d h im t o o c l o s e l y abou t men" ( p . 7 9 ) . Nor can Ransom u n d e r s t a n d "a s y l l a b l e " o f t h e " h e a t e d , and a p p a r e n t l y t e c h n i c a l , " h r o s s a n l i t e r a r y d e b a t e s ( p . 7 9 ) . T h e i r mus i c a l s o r ema i n s i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e t o h im: he can "make n o t h i n g " o f i t , and i t s " t i m e - p a t t e r n . . . [ i s ] m e a n i n g l e s s t o h i s sense o f r h y t h m " ( p . 7 4 ) . Ransom's i g n o r a n c e c o n t i n u e s t o show as he makes t h e p a t r o n i z i n g a s s u m p t i o n t h a t H r i k k i i s m e r e l y p r e t e n d i n g when she speaks t o an e l d i l . On t h e b a s i s o f f u r t h e r f a l s e a s s u m p t i o n s , Ransom c o n c e a l s f r om t h e h r o s s a t h a t he was t o have been handed o v e r t o t h e s o r n s , an a c t i o n wh i c h has g r a v e r e p e r c u s s i o n s . 101 H i s v i s i o n s t i l l c l o u d e d , Ransom c o n t i n u e s a l o n g t h i s f a l s e t a c k u n t i l t h e m e d i c i n e o f i n v e r t e d p e r s p e c t i v e f i n a l l y t a k e s e f f e c t . " A t l a s t i t dawned upon h im t h a t i t was no t t h e y , bu t h i s own s p e c i e s , t h a t were t h e p u z z l e " ( p . 8 4 ) . A l t h o u g h " u n c o n s c i o u s l y n e t t l e d on b e h a l f o f h i s own w o r l d , " Ransom p r o g r e s s e s t o a t r u e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s a c r a m e n t a l l a nguage and t h e q u i d d i t y o f i t s h r o s s a n e x p r e s s i o n ( p . 8 4 ) . From Hyo i he f i r s t l e a r n s t h a t ' " a p l e a s u r e i s f u l l grown o n l y when i t i s r emembe red 1 " ( p . 8 2 ) . The a n t i c i p a t i o n , a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e , and memory o f a p l e a s u r e a r e ' " a l l one t h i n g , ' " he i s t o l d ( p . 8 2 ) . ' " E v e r y day i n a l i f e f i l l s t h e who l e l i f e w i t h e x p e c t a t i o n and memory and . . . t h e s e a r e t h a t d a y ' " ( p . 8 4 ) . Hyo i e x p l a i n s t o Ransom: "When you and I me t , t h e m e e t i n g was o v e r v e r y s h o r t l y , i t was n o t h i n g . Now i t i s g r ow i ng s ome th i ng as we remember i t . Bu t s t i l l we know v e r y l i t t l e abou t i t . What i t w i l l be when I remember i t as I l i e down t o d i e , what i t makes i n me a l l my days t i l l t h e n — t h a t i s t h e r e a l m e e t i n g . The o t h e r i s o n l y t h e b e g i n n i n g o f i t . " ( p . 82) H y o i ' s p r o p h e t i c words abou t h i s d e a t h , w h i c h come t o pa s s when Dev i ne and Weston murder h i m , d r a m a t i c a l l y emphas i z e h i s own d i a l e c t i c o f q u i d d i t y i n a s a c r a m e n t a l u n i v e r s e , such t h a t t i m e m e r e l y d i r e c t s t h e l i n e s o f what i s a c t u a l l y t h e s c r i p t o f a c o n t i n u o u s r e a l i t y . Ransom i s d i s c o m f i t e d by t h e h r o s s a ' s u n i q u e l y hone s t p e r c e p t i o n o f p l e a s u r e , because i t c o n f l i c t s w i t h h i s own e a r t h l y ' c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f t h e i d o l o n . ' In a weak a t t e m p t t o d i s c r e d i t t h e h r o s s a n p h i l o s o p h y , he s u g g e s t s t h a t be cause t h e hnak ra i s a t h r e a t t o t h e i r i d e a l e x i s t e n c e , t h e c r e a t u r e somehow d i s q u a l i f i e s t h e i r ' e n j o ymen t o f t h e u n i v e r s a l . ' Hyo i o n l y uses Ransom's c o m p l a i n t t o s t r e n g t h e n h i s own p o i n t , however : ' "How can I make you u n d e r s t a n d , when you do no t u n d e r s t a n d t h e p o e t s ? 102 The hnak r a i s o u r enemy, bu t he i s a l s o o u r b e l o v e d . . . . I do no t t h i n k t h e f o r e s t wou l d be so b r i g h t , n o r t h e w a t e r so warm, n o r l o v e so s w e e t , i f t h e r e were no dange r i n t h e l a k e s ' " ( p p . 8 4 - 8 5 ) . As t h e Lady so w e l l u n d e r s t a n d s i n P e r e l a n d r a , t h e v i t a l en j oymen t o f q u i d d i t y i n v o l v e s a l i t t l e d e a t h i n m e e t i n g each wave as i t comes; t h a t i s , t h e f o r f e i t u r e o f t h e good a t hand p r e d i c a t e s t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e n e x t g ood . Hyo i s i m i l a r l y s ee s a q u i n t e s s e n t i a l d e a t h a t t h e c o r e o f a v i b r a n t e x p e r i e n c e . ' " I w i l l t e l l you a day i n my l i f e t h a t has shaped m e , ' " he t e l l s Ransom. " I was y o u n g , n o t much more t han a c u b , when I went f a r , f a r up t h e h a n d r a m i t t o t h e l a n d where s t a r s s h i n e a t m idday and even w a t e r i s c o l d . A g r e a t w a t e r f a l l I c l i m b e d . I s t o o d on t h e s ho r e o f B a l k i t h e p o o l , w h i c h i s t h e p l a c e o f most awe i n a l l w o r l d s . The w a l l s o f i t go up f o r e v e r and e v e r and huge and h o l y images a r e c u t i n t h em, t h e work o f o l d t i m e s . The re i s t h e f a l l c a l l e d t h e Moun t a i n o f Wa t e r . Because I have s t o o d t h e r e a l o n e , M a l e l d i l and I , f o r even Oya r sa s e n t me no w o r d , my h e a r t has been h i g h e r , my song d e e p e r , a l l my d a y s . Bu t do you t h i n k i t wou l d have been so u n l e s s I had known t h a t i n B a l k i h n e r a k i d w e l l e d ? The re I d r ank l i f e because d e a t h was i n t h e p o o l . T ha t was t h e b e s t o f d r i n k s save o n e . " "What o n e ? " a sked Ransom. "Dea th i t s e l f i n t h e day I d r i n k i t and go t o M a l e l d i l . " ( p . 85) Hav i n g a l r e a d y l e a r n e d t o d r i n k M a l a c a n d r i a n w a t e r and t o a c c e p t a s t r a n g e cup f r om t h e hand o f a h r o s s , Ransom must now l e a r n t o d r i n k t h e cup o f d e a t h as w e l l . "Human i t y must embrace d e a t h f r e e l y , s u b m i t t o i t w i t h t o t a l h u m i l i t y , d r i n k i t t o t h e d r e g s , and so c o n v e r t i t i n t o t h a t m y s t i c a l d e a t h w h i c h i s t h e s e c r e t o f l i f e , " L ew i s w r i t e s i n M i r a c l e s ( p . 1 5 7 ) . T h i s i s t h e same d e a t h - a n d - l i f e r hy thm wh i c h Ransom has a l r e a d y e n c o u n t e r e d en r o u t e t o M a l a c a n d r a , i n t h e s e v e r e l y g o l d e n b e n e f i c e n c e o f Deep Heaven ' s " c h a n g e l e s s noon" ( p . 3 3 ) . 103 E v i d e n t l y Ransom's l i f e w i t h t h e h r o s s a r e f i n e s and p r e p a r e s h i s t a s t e f o r t h i s f i n a l d r i n k , f o r no t o n l y does he ag r e e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e hnak r a h u n t , bu t he a l s o a c c e p t s " t h e p o s t o f honour and dange r i n an a t t a c k upon an unknown bu t c e r t a i n l y d e a d l y a q u a t i c m o n s t e r " ( p . 8 7 ) . T h i s wou l d have been an i m p o s s i b i l i t y "a s h o r t t i m e a g o , i n E n g l a n d , " as w e l l as "more r e c e n t l y , when he had f i r s t f l e d f r om t h e s o r n s , o r when he had l a i n p i t y i n g h i m s e l f i n t h e f o r e s t by n i g h t " ( p . 8 7 ) . " P e r hap s . . . t h e r e was s o m e t h i n g i n t h e a i r he now b r e a t h e d , o r i n t h e s o c i e t y o f t h e h r o s s a , w h i c h had begun t o work a change i n h i m " ( p . 8 7 ) . D u r i n g t h e hunt Ransom i s soon " i n f e c t e d " by t h e s t r o n g d e s i r e wh i c h Hyo i and Whin e v i n c e : " Some th i ng l o n g s l e e p i n g i n t h e b l o o d awoke i n Ransom" ( p . 8 9 ) . A t t h i s p o i n t an e l d i l a p p e a r s t o r e d i r e c t Ransom t o O y a r s a , bu t a l t h o u g h one p a r t o f h im f e e l s "an i n s t a n t r e l i e f a t t h e i d e a o f any d i v e r s i o n f r om t h e i r p r e s e n t b u s i n e s s , " t h e o t h e r u r ge s h im " t o h o l d on t o h i s new- found manhood" ( p . 9 0 ) . B e f o r e t h e i s s u e can be s e t t l e d , howeve r , Whin c r i e s e x c i t e d l y t o announce t he h n a k r a — " a ' b a r k ' Ransom wou ld have c a l l e d i t t h r e e weeks ago " ( p . 9 0 ) . The t r i o s u c c eed s i n k i l l i n g t h e b e a s t and f a l l s t o t r i u m p h a n t r e j o i c i n g : They were a l l on s h o r e , w e t , s t e a m i n g , t r e m b l i n g w i t h e x e r t i o n and emb ra c i ng one a n o t h e r . I t d i d n o t now seem s t r a n g e t o h im t o be c l a s p e d t o a b e a s t o f wet f u r . The b r e a t h o f t h e h r o s s a w h i c h , though s w e e t , was no t human b r e a t h , d i d n o t o f f e n d h i m . He was one w i t h t hem. Tha t d i f f i c u l t y w h i c h t h e y , a c cus tomed t o more t han one r a t i o n a l s p e c i e s , had pe rhaps n e v e r f e l t , was now ove r come . They were a l l hnau . They had s t o o d s h o u l d e r t o s h o u l d e r i n t h e f a c e o f an enemy, and t he shapes o f t h e i r heads no l o n g e r m a t t e r e d . And he , even Ransom, had come t h r o u g h i t and no t been d i s g r a c e d . He had grown up . ( p . 9 1 ; emphas i s added) 104 T r agedy s u d d e n l y s t r i k e s , howeve r . I f Ransom has t a s t e d dea th i n t h i s cup o f h onou r , he must now d r i n k i t s d r e g s o f h u m i l i t y , f o r one o f h i s own s p e c i e s has s h o t h i s f e l l o w h n a k r a p u n t . As t h e h r o s s l i e s d y i n g , Ransom can " o n l y s t a r e i n t o H y o i ' s d i s t o r t e d f a c e i n s p e e c h l e s s g u i l t " ( p . 9 2 ) . W i t h shame he c o n f e s s e s t h e t r u t h t o Wh i n , t h a t h i s s p e c i e s ' " w o u l d k i l l even a hnau , knowing i t t o be hnau , i f t h e y t h o u g h t i t s d e a t h wou l d s e r v e t h e m ' " ( p . 9 3 ) . The t r a g e d y ends Ransom's l i f e i n t h e h r o s s a n v i l l a g e and p r e c i p i t a t e s t h e f i n a l s t a g e o f h i s M a l a c a n d r i a n j o u r n e y . I t i s Oya r sa a t Mel d i l o r n t o whom he must now p r o c e e d , t o g i v e an a c c o u n t o f t h e e v e n t s i n t h e s a c r a m e n t a l t ongue wh i c h t h e h r o s s s a have t a u g h t h i m . "Ransom i s by no means c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h i s i s t h e b e s t p l a n e i t h e r f o r h i m s e l f o r f o r t h e h r o s s a , " bu t " t h e s t u p o r o f h u m i l i a t i o n i n w h i c h he had l a i n e v e r s i n c e Hyo i f e l l " r e s t r a i n s h im f r om c r i t i c i z i n g , and he s e t s o u t f o r h i s d e s t i n a t i o n as soon as d i r e c t i o n s a r e g i v e n ( p . 9 5 ; t e n s e c h a n g e d ) . As he w a l k s t h r o u g h t h e f o r e s t f e e l i n g a hun ted man, Ransom s t r u g g l e s w i t h a s t r o n g d e s i r e s i m p l y t o g i v e up and announce h i s whe r eabou t s t o Weston and D e v i n e . As a changed man, howeve r , he no l o n g e r presumes t h e i n e r r a n c y o f h i s own p o i n t o f v i e w ; r a t h e r , he d e t e r m i n e s " h e n c e f o r w a r d t o obey t h e h r o s s a o r e l d i l a " ( p . 9 6 ) . A l t h o u g h he i s aware t h a t h i s r o u t e w i l l t a k e h im d i r e c t l y t h r o u g h t he s o r n s ' home t e r r i t o r y , he makes "a s t r o n g r e s o l u t i o n , d e f y i n g i n advance a l l changes o f mood, . . . [ t o ] c a r r y o u t t h e j o u r n e y t o M e l d i l o r n i f i t c o u l d be done" ( p . 9 6 ) . S t i l l on t h a t r o ad l e a d i n g " r i g h t o u t o f t h e s e l f , " Ransom's u n s w e r v i n g f o o t s t e p s e n a c t t h e new l y r e v e r s e d s p i r i t u a l d i r e c t i o n o f h i s l i f e : " I n f a c t he was w a l k i n g o f h i s own f r e e w i l l i n t o 105 t he v e r y t r a p t h a t he had been t r y i n g t o a v o i d e v e r s i n c e h i s a r r i v a l on M a l a c a n d r a " ( p . 9 6 ) . A l t h o u g h he s u f f e r s t h e r e s u r g e n c e o f " t h o s e o l d t e r r e s t r i a l f e a r s o f some a l i e n , c o l d , i n t e l l i g e n c e , superhuman i n power , sub-human i n c r u e l t y , " Ransom does no t now y i e l d t o h i s f e a r s ( p . 9 6 ) . R a t h e r , w i t h t i m e t o t h i n k on h i s j o u r n e y , Ransom r e a c h e s f u r t h e r i n s i g h t s . He r e f l e c t s t h a t t h e e l d i l a a r e more t han s i m p l e s u p e r s t i t i o n a f t e r a l l , and r e c o g n i z e s t h a t Oya r s a i s l i k e w i s e "a r e a l p e r s o n i f he was a p e r s o n a t a l l " ( p . 9 7 ) . " G r e a t l y c h a s t e n e d i n m i n d , " and p r o c e e d i n g " i n t h e c l e a r l i g h t o f an a c c e p t e d d u t y , " t h e r e e d u c a t e d p i l g r i m b r i n g s a redeemed p e r c e p t i o n t o t h e l a n d s c a p e w h i c h he p a s s e s t h r o u g h , a l a n d s c a p e w h i c h i s t h e r e f o r e as d r a m a t i c a l l y a l t e r e d as h i s own d i r e c t i o n ( p p . 9 7 - 9 8 ) . "The s i l e n t , p u r p l e h a l f - l i g h t o f t h e woods s p r e a d a l l a r ound h im as i t had s p r e a d on t h e f i r s t day he s p e n t i n M a l a c a n d r a , bu t e v e r y t h i n g e l s e was c h anged . He l o o k e d back on t h a t t i m e as on a n i g h t m a r e , on h i s own mood a t t h a t t i m e as a s o r t o f s i c k n e s s " ( p . 9 7 ) . " Tha t i s o u r d i s e a s e , " L ew i s d i a g n o s e s : " S p i r i t and N a t u r e have q u a r r e l l e d i n u s " ( M i r a c l e s , p. 1 9 0 ) . As Ransom i n c r e a s i n g l y a c c e p t s t h e r i g o u r s o f a u n i f i e d p e r c e p t i o n , he e x p e r i e n c e s t h e h e a l i n g o f t h a t b r e a c h . Rea ch i ng t he t r a c k t h a t l e a d s up t h e h a n d r a m i t w a l l , Ransom b e g i n s h i s a s c e n t " i n s t a n t l y , " even though " t h e t o p o f t h e r oad was removed f r om h im by a more t h a n A l p i n e d i s t a n c e " ( p . 9 9 ) . Aug r a y i s l a t e r a b l e t o h e l p Ransom i n h i s c l i m b , once t he p i l g r i m has y i e l d e d h i m s e l f t o t h e o t h e r n e s s o f t h e s o r n s , bu t f o r t h e t ime b e i n g Ransom must s t r u g g l e a l o n e . He b a t t l e s b o t h f i e r c e p h y s i c a l o b s t a c l e s and a d e v a s t a t i n g s ense o f a l i e n -a t i o n i n h i s j o u r n e y . H e r o i c a l l y , he does manage t o c a r r y o n , " t h e o l d r e s o l u t i o n . . . s t i l l . . . d r i v i n g h im" ( p . 1 0 0 ) . As he a pp r oa che s t h e p l a n e t ' s s u r f a c e , Ransom n o t i c e s t h a t t h e d e c r e a s i n g a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e 106 d r a m a t i c a l l y s h a r p en s t h e c o n t r a s t between l i g h t and shadow. T h i s c h i a r o -s c u r o s ymbo l i sm i s l a t e r i n t e n s i f i e d when, f r om h i s p e r c h on A u g r a y ' s s h o u l d e r , Ransom i s s t r a n g e l y a b l e t o see t h e t h e s t a r s " i n any d i r e c t i o n where s u n l i g h t d i d n o t b l i n d h i m " , and t o wa t ch h i s and A u g r a y ' s shadow move o v e r " t h e uneven r o c k u n n a t u r a l l y d i s t i n c t l i k e t h e shadow o f a t r e e b e f o r e t h e h e a d l i g h t s o f a c a r " ( p . 1 1 2 ) . Such s t a r k image r y r e f l e c t s t h e n a r r a t i v e ' s a c c e l e r a t e d f o c u s s i n g o f good and e v i l , w h i c h i n t u r n demands an i n c r e a s i n g mora l m a t u r i t y o f t h e h e r o . H a v i n g l e a r n t t h e s a c r a m e n t a l t o n g u e , Ransom now b e a r s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f s p e a k i n g i t . W i t h h i s i n c r e a s i n g s t a t u r e o f c h a r a c t e r , t h e n , Ransom p r e s e n t s h i m s e l f a t A u g r a y ' s c a v e , and v i ews w i t h " s u r p r i s i n g i n d i f f e r e n c e " t h e embodiment o f a l l h i s f o r m e r f e a r s and p h o b i a s ( p . 1 0 2 ) . A l t h o u g h he s t i f f e n s when t he s o r n makes "a sudden movement w i t h one o f i t s l o n g f o r e -l i m b s , " he does n o t " a l l o w h i m s e l f t o r e t r e a t " ( p . 1 0 3 ) . As i t t u r n s o u t , t h e s o r n i s m e r e l y r e a c h i n g f o r t h t o g i v e h im a b a d l y needed dose o f o x y g e n , a f t e r w h i c h Ransom i s b e t t e r a b l e t o d i s c e r n t h e s o r n ' s f o rm and t h e o t h e r shapes i n t h e l i g h t e d c a v e r n . Ransom r e t r e a t s w i t h t h i s new c l a r i t y o f p e r c e p t i o n ; h o w e v e r , he r e v e r t s t o h i s g e o c e n t r i c no rm, o b s e r v i n g t h a t a man s i t t i n g i n t h e same p o s t u r e as t h e s o r n "wou ld have r e s t e d h i s c h i n on h i s k n e e s , " bu t because t he s o r n ' s l e g s a r e l o n g e r , i t s knees r i s e " h i g h above i t s s h o u l d e r s on each s i d e o f i t s h e a d — g r o t e s q u e l y s u g g e s t i v e o f huge e a r s " ( p . 103; emphases a d d e d ) . Because Ransom p e r s i s t e n t l y compares t h e s o r n t o a man, he can see i t as n o t h i n g more t han a d i s t o r t i o n o f t h e normal human f o r m . A l t h o u g h i t i s " l e s s t e r r i f y i n g t han . . . e x p e c t e d , " Ransom s t i l l t a k e s a l o n g t i m e t o g e t used t o i t s f a c e . " I t was t oo l o n g , t o o so lemn and t oo c o l o u r l e s s , and i t was much more u n p l e a s a n t l y l i k e a human f a c e t han any inhuman c r e a t u r e ' s 107 f a c e ough t t o be " ( p . 104; emphases a d d e d ) . " Bu t i t was more g r o t e s q u e t h a n h o r r i b l e , " and a t l e a s t a "new c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e s o r n s " b e g i n s t o m o d i f y Ransom's p r e c o n c e p t i o n s ( p . 1 0 4 ) . "The i d e a s o f ' g i a n t ' and ' g h o s t ' r e c e d e d b e h i n d t h o s e o f ' g o b l i n ' and ' g a w k ' " ( p . 1 0 4 ) . A f t e r a r e s t f u l n i g h t i n t h e s o r n ' s c a v e , Ransom awakens f e e l i n g r e a s s u r e d : " N o t h i n g t h en r ema ined t o be a f r a i d o f i n M a l a c a n d r a e x c e p t O y a r s a . . . . 'The l a s t f e n c e , ' t h o u g h t Ransom" ( p . 1 0 9 ) . Soon t he two a r e on t h e i r way , Ransom s u p p o r t e d on A u g r a y ' s h o s p i t a b l e s h o u l d e r . A l t h o u g h he c a n n o t h e l p s h u d d e r i n g when t h e s o r n f i r s t t o u c h e s h i m , i t i s n o t l o n g b e f o r e he f e e l s p e r f e c t l y a t e a s e . " L u d i c r o u s and even t e n d e r a s s o c i a t i o n s came c r o w d i n g i n t o h i s m i n d . I t was l i k e r i d i n g an e l e p h a n t a t t h e zoo i n b o y h o o d - - l i k e r i d i n g on h i s f a t h e r ' s back a t a s t i l l e a r l i e r a g e . I t was f u n " ( p . 1 1 1 ) . When t h e y meet t h r e e s o r n s g l i d i n g down t h e o p p o s i t e s l o p e t owa rd s them, Ransom i s a b l e t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e g r a c e o f t h e i r movements . The e x p e r i e n c e e f f e c t s "a f i n a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n Ransom's f e e l i n g s t owa rd s t h e i r r a c e " : " O g r e s " he had c a l l e d them when t h e y f i r s t met h i s eyes as he s t r u g g l e d i n t h e g r i p o f Weston and D e v i n e ; " T i t a n s " o r " A n g e l s " he now t h o u g h t wou l d have been a b e t t e r w o r d . Even t h e f a c e s , i t seemed t o h i m , he had no t t h en seen a r i g h t . He had t h o u g h t them s p e c t r a l when t h e y were o n l y a u g u s t , and h i s f i r s t human r e a c t i o n t o t h e i r l e n g t h e n e d s e v e r i t y o f l i n e and p r o f o u n d s t i l l n e s s o f e x p r e s s i o n now appea r ed t o h im no t so much c o w a r d l y as v u l g a r . So m i gh t Pa rmen i de s o r C o n f u c i u s l o o k t o t h e eyes o f a Cockney s c h o o l b o y ! ( p . 114) A f u r t h e r n i g h t s p e n t i n t h e company o f s e v e r a l s o r n s c o n f i r m s f o r Ransom h i s p a i n f u l l a c k o f knowledge abou t h i s own w o r l d . The humbled p i l g r i m must r e c o g n i z e t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e s e r o n i ' s k now l edge . He i s a b l e t o s u p p l y h i s i n q u i s i t o r s w i t h v e r y l i t t l e o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y 108 d e s i r e , although they can f r e q u e n t l y i n f e r much i n d i r e c t i nformation from h i s explanations and remarks. "His d e s c r i p t i o n of the steam engine," f o r example, "gave them a b e t t e r knowledge of t e r r e s t r i a l a i r and water than Ransom had ever had" (p. 116). With t h i s f i n a l chastening Ransom's new persp e c t i v e i s p r o p e r l y cemented. He i s ready to a r r i v e at h i s u l t i m a t e d e s t i n a t i o n , and only the l a s t l eg of h i s journey l i e s before him. Ransom proves h i s readiness by viewing the Malacandrian landscape on i t s own terms, r a t h e r than assuming a t e r r e s t r i a l norm. Because he now expects to see a d i f f e r e n t kind of t e r r a i n , he comes to a scenic prospect which looks "at f i r s t s t r a n g e l y l i k e an e a r t h l y landscape" (p. 117; emphasis added). And when he and Augray come to a steep descent, Ransom at f i r s t c a l l s i t "a slope" before even mentioning that "by e a r t h l y standards [ i t ] would r a t h e r be c a l l e d a p r e c i p i c e " (p. 118). In t h i s frame of mind, Ransom descends i n t o a l o v e l y new handramit knowing before he i s t o l d "that t h i s was M e l d i l o r n " (p. 118). Although having long set aside the " o l d dreams which he had brought from earth of some more than American complexity of o f f i c e s or some engineers' paradise of vast machines," y et the e x q u i s i t e , c l a s s i c beauty of the v a l l e y s t i l l takes him p l e a s a n t l y by s u r p r i s e (p. 118). The f i n a l proof of Ransom's hard-won a c c l i m a t i z a t i o n to Malacandra's mythical climes comes when he i s f e r r i e d to the i s l a n d : "to be once more i n a boat and with a hross," he t e l l s us, f e e l s "almost l i k e coming home" (p. 121; boldface p r i n t emphasis added). I t i s while w a i t i n g to be summoned i n t o the Oyarsa's presence that Ransom meets h i s f i r s t p f i f l t r i g g . He views i t q u i t e o b j e c t i v e l y and without h i s usual t e r r e s t r i a l p r e j u d i c e s , although he does admit he i s 109 " g l a d t h a t he had no t met one o f t h i s t h i r d r a c e on h i s f i r s t a r r i v a l i n M a l a c a n d r a " ( p . 1 2 7 ) . W i t h o u t qua lm o r r e v u l s i o n he n o t e s t h a t i t s b u i l d i s t h a t o f a f r o g . A l t h o u g h he m i s t a k e n l y t h i n k s i t i s r e s t i n g " f r o g -l i k e , on i t s ' h a n d s , ' " he does soon n o t i c e " t h a t t h a t p a r t o f i t s f o r e -l i m b s on wh i ch i t was s u p p o r t e d was r e a l l y , i n human t e r m s , r a t h e r an e l b ow than a hand " ( p . 1 2 7 ) . W h i l e t h e t one o f Ransom's e a r t h l y c o m p a r i s o n i s more c a u t i o u s and much l e s s e t h n o c e n t r i c t h a n b e f o r e , t h e r e i s s t i l l room f o r g r ow th i n h i s p e r c e p t i o n : t h e p f i f l t r i g g a r t i s a n has been s e n t t o c h i s e l Ransom's l i k e n e s s i n s t o n e f o r M a l a c a n d r i a n p o s t e r i t y , bu t when Ransom sees t h e r e s u l t he r e c o i l s i n d i s g u s t , " even a l l o w i n g f o r t h e s t r a n g e n e s s o f t h e s u b j e c t f r om a M a l a c a n d r i a n p o i n t o f v i e w " ( p . 1 2 9 ) . I t i s w i t h an odd sense o f r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t he comes t o u n d e r s t a n d " t h e o d i o u s f i g u r e s " a r e meant t o be "an i d e a l i s a t i o n o f h u m a n i t y " ( p . 1 2 9 ) . The d i c t i o n o f t h e " i d e a l " a g a i n p o i n t s t o t h e P l a t o n i c base o f Ransom's e d u c a t i o n , wh i c h t e a c h e s h im t h e m y t h o l o g i c a l n a t u r e o f r e a l i t y . The f u l l e x t e n t t o wh i c h Ransom's eye has adap t ed t o t h e M a l a c a n d r i a n f e a t u r e becomes a p p a r e n t i n h i s i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e O y a r s a , when an unexpe c t e d p r o c e s s i o n b r e a k s i n upon t he so lemn a s s e m b l y : Two c r e a t u r e s [came] w h i c h he d i d n o t r e c o g n i z e . . . . They were much s h o r t e r t h a n any an ima l he had y e t seen on M a l a c a n d r a , and he g a t h e r e d t h a t t h e y were b i p e d s , t hough t he l o w e r l i m b s were so t h i c k and s a u s a g e - l i k e t h a t he h e s i t a t e d t o c a l l them l e g s . The b o d i e s were a l i t t l e n a r r o w e r a t t h e t o p t han a t t h e bo t tom so as t o be v e r y s l i g h t l y p e a r - s h a p e d , and t h e heads were n e i t h e r round l i k e t h o s e o f h r o s s a n o r l o n g l i k e t h o s e o f s o r n s , bu t a l m o s t s q u a r e . They stumped a l o n g on n a r r o w , h e a v y - l o o k i n g f e e t w h i c h t h e y seemed t o p r e s s i n t o t h e g round w i t h u n n e c e s s a r y v i o l e n c e . And now t h e i r f a c e s were becoming v i s i b l e as masses o f lumped and p u c k e r e d f l e s h o f v a r i e g a t e d c o l o u r f r i n g e d i n some b r i s t l y , d a r k s u b s t a n c e . . . . S u d d e n l y , w i t h an i n d e s c r i b a b l e change o f f e e l i n g , he r e a l i z e d t h a t he was l o o k i n g a t men. The two 110 p r i s o n e r s were Weston and Dev i n e and h e , f o r one p r i v i l e g e d moment, had seen t he human f o rm w i t h a l m o s t M a l a c a n d r i a n e y e s . ( p . 141 ; emphas i s added) No t o n l y have Ransom's eyes adap t ed t o t h e M a l a c a n d r i a n f e a t u r e ; " t h r o u g h h i s knowledge o f t h e c r e a t u r e s and h i s l o v e f o r t h e m , " he a l s o b e g i n s , " e v e r so l i t t l e , t o hea r . . . w i t h t h e i r e a r s " ( p . 148; emphas i s a d d e d ) . When a g roup o f mourne r s b r e a k s i n t o song t o honour h i s dead f r i e n d H y o i , t h e o l d m e a n i n g l e s s n e s s o f M a l a c a n d r i a n song s u d d e n l y " l i f t s , as i t w e r e , one c o r n e r o f t h e c u r t a i n t h a t h i d e s i t s m y s t e r y , and r e v e a l s , i n a b u r s t o f d e l i g h t wh i c h l a t e r and f u l l e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g can h a r d l y e v e r e q u a l , one g l i m p s e o f t h e i n d e f i n i t e p o s s i b i l i t i e s w i t h i n " ( p . 1 4 8 ) . The l y r i c s r e c a l l H y o i ' s p r o f o u n d e x p e r i e n c e ' " o n t h e s ho r e o f B a l k i t h e p o o l , ' " where he ' " d r a n k l i f e because d e a t h was i n t h e p o o l ' " : " L e t i t go h e n c e , d i s s o l v e and be no body . Drop i t , r e l e a s e i t , d r op i t g e n t l y , as a s t o n e i s l o o s e d f r om f i n g e r s d r o o p i n g o v e r a s t i l l p o o l . . . . Once be low t he s u r f a c e t h e r e a r e no d i v i s i o n s , no l a y e r s i n t h e w a t e r y i e l d i n g a l l t h e way down . . . . L e t i t go down; t h e hnau r i s e s f r om i t . T h i s i s t h e second l i f e , t h e o t h e r b e g i n n i n g . " ( p . 153) The song shows Ransom h i s own f i n a l home, f o r " a s i f t h e g a t e o f heaven had opened b e f o r e h i m , " i t awakens a " s e n s e . . . o f he knew no t what and y e t what he had a l w a y s known" ( p . 148; emphas i s a d d e d ) . Tha t i s , t h r o u g h t r u l y e x p e r i e n c i n g t h i s o t h e r n e s s o f t h e M a l a c a n d r i a n w o r l d , Ransom has f i n a l l y l e a r n e d t o p e r c e i v e t h e phenomenal and t h e r e b y r e c o g n i z e t h e noumenal w h i c h i t has a lway s e x p r e s s e d . Ransom's f u l l - f l e d g e d s t a t u s as a s p e a k e r o f t h e s a c r a m e n t a l l a nguage i s u l t i m a t e l y t e s t e d i n t h e M e l d i l o r n a s s e m b l y , when he must t r a n s l a t e a c t i o n i n t o w o r d s , as w e l l as E n g l i s h i n t o O l d S o l a r , f o r t h e O y a r s a . The I l l s cene i s an e f f e c t i v e d r a m a t i z a t i o n o f t h e n o v e l ' s b r o ad t h e m a t i c c o n c e r n s . I t i s a l s o an e n o r m o u s l y s u c c e s s f u l n a r r a t i v e d e v i c e : as Ransom i n t e r p r e t s f o r t h e O y a r s a , W e s t o n ' s c a n t i s t r a n s l a t e d i n t o p l a i n E n g l i s h f o r t h e r e a d e r , b a l d l y e x p o s i n g i t s m e a n i n g l e s s n e s s . Ransom even f i n d s some o f W e s t o n ' s empty r h e t o r i c s i m p l y u n t r a n s l a t a b l e . In a s cene w h i c h a n t i c i p a t e s t h e c l i m a x o f Tha t H i deous S t r e n g t h , W e s t o n ' s h i g h - f l o w n bombast d e g e n e r a t e s i n t o u t t e r nonsense as i t f a l l s a g a i n s t t h e s o l i d morphemes o f Ransom's s a c r a m e n t a l l a n g u a g e . In a c o n t r a s t w h i c h p o i n t s t h e t h e m a t i c c l i m a x , t h e humble p h i l o l o g i s t comes t o f i n d h i s i d e n t i t y and a c h i e v e h i s c a l l i n g i n t h e M a l a c a n d r i a n a s s e m b l y , w h i l e t h e g r e a t s c i e n t i s t m e r e l y becomes a com i c b u t t . " R e v o l v i n g l i k e a s l o w m o t i o n p i c t u r e o f a humming - t op , " he " c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y " bobs a n e c k l a c e up and down i n a p r e t e n t i o u s e f f o r t t o ' c o n c i l i a t e t h e n a t i v e s ' ( p . 1 4 5 ) . " F o r a l l Ransom knew he was s a y i n g ' D i d d l e , d i d d l e , d i d d l e . ' I t was s h e e r e x h a u s t i o n w h i c h ended t he g r e a t p h y s i c i s t ' s p e r f o r m a n c e - - t h e most s u c c e s s f u l o f i t s k i n d e v e r g i v e n on M a l a c a n d r a " ( p . 1 4 5 ) . Oya r s a r i g h t l y wonders whe t he r Ransom's " ' f e l l o w - c r e a t u r e s [ a r e ] h u r t i n t h e i r b r a i n s ' " ( p . 1 4 6 ) , bu t d e c l i n e s t o "unbody " any hnau who a r e n o t o f h i s own w o r l d . A r r a n g i n g i n s t e a d f o r t h e i r r e t u r n t o E a r t h , he g i v e s Ransom t h e o p t i o n o f a c company ing them. In an a g o n i z i n g d e c i s i o n Ransom f i n a l l y t h r ows h i s l o t i n w i t h Weston and D e v i n e , a c h o i c e wh i c h O y a r s a a p p r o v e s . " ' L o v e o f o u r own k i n d , ' " Ransom s a y s , " ' i s n o t t h e g r e a t e s t o f l a w s , bu t y o u , O y a r s a , have s a i d i t i s a l a w . I f I c a n n o t l i v e i n T h u l c a n d r a , i t i s b e t t e r f o r me no t t o l i v e a t a l l ' " ( p . 1 6 1 ) . The p r i n c i p l e i s f undamen ta l t o t h e n o v e l ; i n d e e d i t b o t h j u s t i f i e s t h e e n t i r e e x t r a t e r r e s t r i a l e x p e d i t i o n , and a c c o u n t s f o r i t s summary c o n c l u s i o n . As t h e most l i n e a r n ove l o f t h e t r i l o g y , P l a n e t 112 t a k e s us ou t o f r e a l i t y i n o r d e r t o show us t h e s u p e r - r e a l i t y b e yond , bu t i t a l s o sends us d i r e c t l y back t o o u r n a t i v e e l e m e n t . Ransom has l e f t t h e s i l e n t p l a n e t i n o r d e r t o l e a r n t h e s a c r a m e n t a l l a n g u a g e , bu t once a f l u e n t s p e a k e r he must r e t u r n t o t h e o r b t h a t i s no l o n g e r so s i l e n t f o r h i m , t h e r e b y b r i n g i n g t h e nove l f u l l c i r c l e . The re a r e no s h o r t c u t s t o s u p e r - r e a l i t y ; we can o n l y l e a r n t o d e c i p h e r i t i n a l l i t s m y t h o l o g i c a l r e f l e c t i o n s . As t h e s p a c e c r a f t a pp r oa che s E a r t h , we hea r o f Ransom's " w i l d , a n i m a l t h i r s t f o r l i f e , m ixed w i t h homes i ck l o n g i n g f o r t h e f r e e a i r s and t h e s i g h t s and s m e l l s o f e a r t h - - f o r g r a s s and meat and b e e r and t e a and t h e human v o i c e " ( p . 168; emphas i s a d d e d ) . T h i s i s t h e humble end t o w h i c h Ransom has been so s t r i n g e n t l y r e e d u c a t e d . " T h i s e x c u r s i o n i n t o t h e p r e p o s t e r o u s sends us back w i t h renewed p l e a s u r e t o t h e a c t u a l , " w r i t e s Lew i s i n "On S t o r i e s " ( p . 1 0 0 ) . H a v i n g been a t home i n t h e w o r l d o f m y t h , and h a v i n g seen t he noumenal t h r o u g h t he phenomena l , Ransom i s r e a d y t o r e t u r n t o h i s n a t u r a l home and f i n d t h e r e a new s u p e r n a t u r a l i s m . He r e t u r n s t o " t h e human v o i c e , " bu t d e s c r i e s t h e r e i n t h e s a c r a m e n t a l l a n g u a g e ; he r e t u r n s t o " t e a , " bu t i t i s an a m b r o s i a l - f l a v o u r e d s u b s t a n c e . 113 C h a p t e r I I I P e r e l a n d r a : T a s t i n g t h e Language T h i s i s o u r d i l e m m a — e i t h e r t o t a s t e and n o t t o know o r t o know and no t t o t a s t e . . . . Of t h i s t r a g i c d i l emma myth i s t h e p a r t i a l s o l u t i o n . C . S . L e w i s , "Myth Became F a c t " I t i s t o be n o t e d a l l t h r o u g h t h i s s t o r y t h a t w h i l e Ransom was on P e r e l a n d r a h i s s ense o f t a s t e had become s o m e t h i n g more t h a n i t was on E a r t h : i t gave knowledge as w e l l as p l e a s u r e , t hough no t a know ledge t h a t can be r e du ced t o w o r d s . C . S . L e w i s , P e r e l a n d r a The s t o r i e s w h i c h p r e c ede and f o l l o w P e r e l a n d r a assume a r e l a t i v e l y l i n e a r c o u r s e o f a c t i o n wh i c h p r o c e e d s a l o n g a r e g u l a r h o r i z o n t a l c o n t i n u u m . The s e cond nove l o f t h e t r i l o g y , howeve r , has a s p e c i a l s en se o f s u s p e n s i o n w h i c h comes f r om i t s u n i q u e l y v e r t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n . I t s w o r l d i s a l i g n e d w i t h t h e c o s m i c a x i s o f Deep Heaven r a t h e r t h a n t h e a s l a n t axes o f t h e p l a n e t s . The Lew i s c h a r a c t e r i s i n t r o d u c e d t o t h i s new p o l a r i t y i n h i s f i r s t e n c o u n t e r w i t h an e l d i 1 : I t was n o t a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o t h e f l o o r . . . . [ I t was as i f ] t h e co lumn o f l i g h t was v e r t i c a l bu t t h e f l o o r was no t h o r i z o n t a l . . . . T h i s c r e a t u r e had r e f e r e n c e t o some h o r i z o n t a l , t o some who l e s y s t e m o f d i r e c t i o n s , based o u t s i d e t h e E a r t h , and . . . i t s mere p r e s e n c e imposed t h a t a l i e n s y s t em on me and a b o l i s h e d t h e t e r r e s t r i a l h o r i z o n t a l , ( p . 18) T h i s i m p o r t a n t s cene e a r l y i n t h e s t o r y s e t s t h e s t a g e t o n a l l y f o r t h e r e s t o f t h e n o v e l . L a t e r Ransom t o o w i l l e n c o u n t e r e l d i l a who a r e " n o t 114 s t a n d i n g q u i t e v e r t i c a l l y i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e f l o o r , " bu t who a p p e a r t o be t h e m s e l v e s v e r t i c a l . " I t was t h e v a l l e y - - i t was t h e who l e w o r l d o f P e r e l a n d r a — w h i c h was a s l a n t " ( p . 2 2 8 ) . The d i s e q u i l i b r i u m we a r e made t o f e e l i s c r u c i a l t o o u r f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p e c u l i a r m y t h - w o r l d o f P e r e l a n d r a . As t h e enac tmen t o f a p r i m a l m y t h , P e r e l a n d r a has t h e t e x t u r e o f t i m e l e s s n e s s . As t h e r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h a t myth i n an u n f a l l e n w o r l d , P e r e l a n d r a has an a u r a o f d ream. In i t s t r i u m p h a n t d e s c e n t i n t o t h e u n d e r w o r l d s o f t h e p sy che as w e l l as o f H e l l , t h e n o v e l ' s e p i c c h a r a c t e r c o n t r i b u t e s t o i t s v e r t i c a l p o l a r i z a t i o n and n on - t empo r a l q u a l i t y . The re a r e no h o r i z o n t a l a n c h o r l i n e s n o r any t r a d i t i o n a l moo r i n g s i n t h i s w o r l d . I n d e e d , P e r e l a n d r a m i gh t w e l l be c a s t as i t s own f l o a t i n g i s l a n d w i t h i n t h e w o r l d o f t h e t r i l o g y . "The eyes o f P e r e l a n d r a opened , as i t w e r e , i n w a r d , as i f t h e y were t h e c u r t a i n e d ga teway t o a w o r l d o f waves and murmur ings and w a n d e r i n g a i r s , o f l i f e t h a t r o c k e d i n w i nd s and s p l a s h e d on mossy s t o n e s and descended as t h e dew and a r o s e sunward i n t h i n - s p u n d e l i c a c y o f m i s t " ( p . 2 3 1 ) . A l l t h e i l l u s o r y s e c u r i t y o f o u r f i x e d l a n d , t h e s e q u e n t i a l mean ing w h i c h we c a t c h i n o u r n e t s o f e v e r y d a y e x i s t e n c e , i s w i t h d r a w n , so t h a t t h e r e a d e r i s made t o d w e l l i n t h e t i m e l e s s moment and t o r i d e t h e P e r e l a n d r i a n wave . Ransom's own a c u t e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f " e n a c t i n g a my th " i n t e n s i f i e s t h e r e a d e r ' s s ense o f t i m e l e s s n e s s and v e r t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n ( p . 5 2 ) . Tha t i s , t h e immed i a cy o f t h e moment becomes o u r p r i m a r y e x p e r i e n c e , because "what f l o w s i n t o you f r om t h e myth i s n o t t r u t h bu t r e a l i t y , " we r e c a l l . On M a l a c a n d r a , Ransom l e a r n e d t h a t t h e s a c r a m e n t a l l a nguage i s i n f i n i t e l y i n c a r n a t i o n a l , m a n i f e s t e d i n v a r i e t i e s o f m y t h o l o g i c a l image s . On P e r e l a n d r a , he i s b r ough t t o r e a l i z e t h e q u i d d i t y o f t h o s e 115 i m a g e s , m y t h o l o g i c a l t hough t h e y may be . R e p e a t e d l y , Ransom remembers " h i s o l d s u s p i c i o n t h a t what was myth i n one w o r l d m i gh t a lway s be f a c t i n some o t h e r " ( p . 1 1 5 ) . I n d e e d , he b e g i n s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t u l t i m a t e l y t h e r e may be no m e a n i n g f u l d i f f e r e n c e : "Long s i n c e on M a r s , and more s t r o n g l y s i n c e he came t o P e r e l a n d r a , Ransom had been p e r c e i v i n g t h a t t h e t r i p l e d i s t i n c t i o n o f t r u t h f r om myth and o f bo th f r om f a c t was p u r e l y t e r r e s t r i a l " ( p . 1 6 3 ) . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n , Ransom r e c o g n i z e s , "wou ld have no mean ing a t a l l " i n P e r e l a n d r a . "Wha teve r happened he re wou l d be o f such a n a t u r e t h a t e a r t h -men wou ld c a l l i t m y t h o l o g i c a l " ( p p . 1 6 3 - 6 4 ) . Thus we can t a s t e myth as f a c t i n P e r e l a n d r a - - a n d s t i l l s a v o u r i t s f l a v o u r o f m y t h . "You were no t k n o w i n g , bu t t a s t i n g ; bu t what you were t a s t i n g t u r n s o u t t o be a u n i v e r s a l p r i n c i p l e , " we d i s c o v e r . " W h i l e r e c e i v i n g t h e myth as a s t o r y . . . you e x p e r i e n c e t h e p r i n c i p l e c o n c r e t e l y , " L ew i s e x p l a i n s i n "Myth Became F a c t " ( p . 2 6 9 ) . The s t o r y ' s p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g c o n t r i b u t e s f u r t h e r t o o u r sense o f t i m e l e s s immed i a c y , and o f buoyancy i n a new sphe r e o f e x i s t e n c e . The g o l d e n ocean and f l o a t i n g i s l a n d s w h i c h u s h e r t h e r e a d e r i n t o a l i v i n g i d y l l a r e t h e n o v e l ' s p r e dom inan t i m a g e s , i n t e g r a l t o i t s theme. Upon h i s a r r i v a l , Ransom i s p l u nged i m m e d i a t e l y i n t o t h e p l a n e t ' s w a t e r y bosom, and c h a l l e n g e d t o p e r f o r m " u n c o n s c i o u s l y t h e a c t i o n s o f a swimmer" even b e f o r e he i s aware o f b e i n g i n an ocean ( p . 3 7 ) . H a v i n g l e a r n e d t o d r i n k t h e b l u e w a t e r on M a l a c a n d r a , Ransom must now l e a r n t o n a v i g a t e P e r e l a n d r a ' s g o l d e n o c e a n . E x p e r i e n c e s p a r e s h im a p r o t r a c t e d l e s s o n b e f o r e he i s w i l l i n g t o d r i n k t h i s f o r e i g n p l a n e t ' s w a t e r , however : "As he r u shed s m o o t h l y up t h e g r e a t convex h i l l s i d e o f t h e n e x t wave he g o t a m o u t h f u l o f t h e w a t e r " ( p . 3 8 ) . Ransom's M a l a c a n d r i a n e x p e r i e n c e has s c h o o l e d h im a l s o i n a c c e p t i n g and r e s p o n d i n g t o " o t h e r " ; t h e r e f o r e he 116 f i n d s h i m s e l f a b l e t o n e g o t i a t e t h e waves wh i c h r u s h upon h i m , and he p a t i e n t l y r i d e s t h e c r e s t o f t h e t i m e l e s s p r e s e n t . Even beyond such s p e c i f i c image s , t h e rhy thm o f t h e waves c o n t i n u e s t o be f e l t i n t h e c aden ce s o f t h e n o v e l , h e l p i n g t o e f f e c t i t s p e c u l i a r s en se o f t i m e l e s s s u s p e n s i o n . In t h e t r i l o g y , L ew i s i n v i t e s us t o v i ew p i c t u r e s wh i c h " t e l l t h e i r own m o r a l . " W h i l e Out o f t h e S i l e n t P l a n e t r e p r e s e n t s t h e h e r a l d i c i n v i t a t i o n t o t h a t v i e w i n g , howeve r , P e r e l a n d r a ' s a r t i s c i n e m a t i c . Even as i t a p p e a r s , each f rame i s s w a l l o w e d by t h e n e x t , c o n s t a n t l y u n f o l d i n g a new d i m e n s i o n o f t h e i n f i n i t e s t o r y . "Words a r e s l o w , " c o m p l a i n s t h e Lew i s c h a r a c t e r , even though t h e a c t u a l p l o t l i n e o f t h i s n o v e l i s s h o r t e r and l e s s comp lex t han t h a t o f i t s compan ion n o v e l s ( p . 4 0 ) . In a t i m e l e s s d i m e n s i o n , e x p e r i e n c e i s v e r y f u l l and can f i n d p r o p e r e x p r e s s i o n o n l y i n t h e r a p i d nuance o f a c i n e m a t i c a r t , as i t w e r e . The re i s l i t t l e f i x i t y on P e r e l a n d r a , a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s abundan t w e l l - b e i n g . "On Mars t h e v e r y f o r e s t s a r e o f s t o n e ; i n Venus t h e l a n d s sw im" ( p . 2 3 1 ) . The P e r e l a n d r i a n h i l l s i d e s a r e bu t s w e l l s o f w a t e r , o r t h e t e m p o r a r y s w e l l s o f f l o a t i n g i s l a n d s , whose " o n l y shape i s t h e i n c o n s t a n t shape o f t h e w a t e r benea th them" ( p . 4 4 ) . L e a r n i n g t o n e g o t i a t e t h e h i l l s and v a l l e y s t h a t change p l a c e s e v e r y m i n u t e i s " l i k e l e a r n i n g t o wa l k on w a t e r i t s e l f , " s a y s Ransom, i d e n t i f y i n g t h e same ' s a c r a m e n t a l l a n g u a g e ' t h a t P e t e r l e a r n e d f r om C h r i s t ( p . 4 5 ) . I n d e e d , t h e g r e a t f o rms o f waves wh i c h r u s h onward l e a v i n g t h e i r m a t e r i a l s u b s t a n c e b e h i n d them m i gh t be t h e s a c r a m e n t a l l a nguage i n s c r i p t , w i t h i t s r u s h o f morphemes t e m p o r a l l y e x p r e s s i n g a u n i v e r s a l o cean o f m e a n i n g . T h i s image o f f l u x and s t a s i s i s r e v e r s e d i n t h e c o r p o r e a l body t h a t t h e e l d i l a can a d o p t , a d e f i n e d shape wh i c h " c o - e x i s t s w i t h a 117 r u s h i n g movement o f t h e m a t t e r i t c o n t a i n s " ( p . 227; t e n s e c h a n g e d ) . Bo t h images e x p r e s s t h e n o v e l ' s c e n t r a l c o n c e p t o f t h e f l u x wh i ch i s p a r a d o x i c a l l y c o n c o m i t a n t w i t h t h e u n i v e r s a l a b s o l u t e . The c h a l l e n g e p r e s e n t e d t o Ransom and t h e r e a d e r i n l e a r n i n g t o p e r c e i v e t h i s new w o r l d a r i g h t i s t o a b o l i s h t h e mind s e t n u r t u r e d by f i x e d l a n d . "A p h o t o g r a p h [ o f t h e P e r e l a n d r i a n i s l a n d s ] , o m i t t i n g t h e c o l o u r s and t h e p e r p e t u a l v a r i a t i o n o f s h a p e , wou l d make them l o o k d e c e p t i v e l y l i k e l a n d s c a p e s i n o u r own w o r l d , bu t t h e r e a l i t y i s v e r y d i f f e r e n t " ( p . 4 4 ) . As i n M a l a c a n d r a , Ransom must a c c e p t t h i s new w o r l d i n i t s own r i g h t and c o n f r o n t i t on i t s own t e r m s : t h e u n i v e r s a l i s n e v e r c o n f i n e d t o any one f o rm o f e x p r e s s i o n . A l t h o u g h " t h e l a n d - l i k e appea r an ce p r o v e s ha rd t o r e s i s t , " t h e P e d e s t r i a n must once a g a i n s t u f f h i s t e r r e s t r i a l map i n t o h i s p o c k e t , because " o n l y a c i n e m a t o g r a p h c o u l d make a c o n t o u r map" o f t h e f l o a t i n g i s l a n d s ( p . 4 4 ; t e n s e c h a n g e d ) . To wa l k he re one must e v e r be " i n r e a d i n e s s f o r sudden change o f b a l a n c e , " r e s p o n d i n g t o e v e r y r i p p l e and u n d u l a t i o n ( p . 4 5 ) . Then "when you [ f i n a l l y ] g i v e i n t o t h e t h i n g , g i v e y o u r s e l f up t o i t , " t h e P e r e l a n d r i a n o c e a n , l i k e "Someone ' s P r e s e n c e , " becomes " n o t a l o a d bu t a medium, a s o r t o f s p l e n d o u r as o f e a t a b l e , d r i n k a b l e , b r e a t h a b l e g o l d , w h i c h f e e d s and c a r r i e s you and no t o n l y p ou r s i n t o you bu t o u t f r om you as w e l l " ( p . 8 0 ; t e n s e c hanged ; emphases a d d e d ) . In a c c e p t i n g t h i s new w o r l d on i t s own u n e a r t h l y t e r m s , Ransom l e a r n s t o " t a s t e " t h e s a c r a m e n t a l l a nguage w h i c h he has p r e v i o u s l y l e a r n e d s i m p l y t o comprehend . As we r e l i n q u i s h t h e f i x i t y o f o u r t e r r e s t r i a l p e r c e p t i o n i n t h i s s e cond n o v e l , f l o o d g a t e s a r e opened t o t h e q u i d d i t y o f e x p e r i e n c e . " O n l y t h e a c t u a l was r e a l ; and e v e r y a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n was new , " sounds t h e k eyno t e o f P e r e l a n d r a ( p . 1 6 6 ) . I t i s t h e L a d y ' s c o n c e n t r a t e d a t t e n t i o n 118 t o " t h e a c t u a l " - - t h e wave s , f r u i t , t r e e s , and a n i m a l s o f h e r e x i s t e n c e - -w h i c h makes h e r su ch an a c c o m p l i s h e d s p e a k e r o f t h e s a c r a m e n t a l l a n g u a g e , a b l e t o c o n v e r s e d i r e c t l y w i t h M a l d e l d i 1 - I t a l s o a l l o w s h e r t o u n d e r s t a n d by c o n c r e t e a n a l o g y t h e m e t a p h y s i c s wh i c h Ransom t e a c h e s h e r . As he e x p l a i n s c r e a t u r e l y f r e e w i l l t o h e r , f o r e x a m p l e , she f o l l o w s h i s r e a s o n i n g s t e p - b y - s t e p w i t h he r own p i c t u r e - t h i n k i n g . T r i u m p h a n t l y she e x c l a i m s : ' " I t h o u g h t t h a t t h e good t h i n g s He s e n t me drew me i n t o them as t h e waves l i f t t h e i s l a n d s ; bu t now I see t h a t i t i s I who p l unge i n t o them w i t h my own l e g s and a rms , as when we go s w i m m i n g " 1 ( p . 7 8 ) . ' " L i k e t h e w a v e s , ' " t h e Lady c o n s t a n t l y r e i t e r a t e s as she u n d e r s t a n d s some new a s p e c t o f s p i r i t u a l l i f e t h r o u g h t h i s r e f e r e n c e p o i n t ( p . 6 6 ) . Because t h e waves o f a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e a r e a medium o f " e a t a b l e , d r i n k a b l e , b r e a t h a b l e g o l d " f o r h e r , t h e Lady l e a d s a v i t a l , c r e a t i v e e x i s t e n c e . Her p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y i s as s p i r i t u a l as h e r s p i r i t u a l a c t i v i t y i s p h y s i c a l : as she i s t h i n k i n g , f o r e x a m p l e , Ransom f i n d s h e r " d o i n g s ome th i n g w i t h h e r m i n d , p e rhaps even w i t h h e r m u s c l e s " ( p . 7 1 ) . F o r h e r , as f o r "Adam a t N i g h t , " even " s l e e p was no t a t h i n g t h a t happened t o h e r bu t an a c t i o n wh i c h she p e r f o r m e d " ( p . 1 4 1 ) . " The re was no c a t e g o r y i n t h e t e r r e s t r i a l m ind w h i c h wou ld f i t h e r . O p p o s i t e s met i n h e r and were f u s e d i n a f a s h i o n f o r wh i c h we have no images " ( p p . 7 1 - 7 2 ) . F u s i n g f l u i d i t y and f i x i t y , q u i d d i t y and s p i r i t , and t he m a t e r i a l and i m m a t e r i a l i n each f a c e t o f o u r e x p e r i e n c e , P e r e l a n d r a ' s d e e p e s t mean ing e x p r e s s e s t h e u l t r a r e a l i t y w h i c h pe rmea tes e v e r y mode and moment o f n a t u r e ' s d e r i v a t i v e b e i n g . P e r e l a n d r a ' s n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s a r e so r e p l e t e w i t h s u p e r n a t u r a l l i f e t h a t e a t i n g a gou rd i s an " a l m o s t . . . s p i r i t u a l " p l e a s u r e , an e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h Ransom i s n e v e r a b l e t o d e s c r i b e 119 a d e q u a t e l y t o h i s f r i e n d s on E a r t h ( p . 4 7 ) . " I t wa s , o f c o u r s e , a t a s t e , j u s t as h i s t h i r s t and hunger had been t h i r s t and hunge r . Bu t t h en i t was so d i f f e r e n t f r om e v e r y o t h e r t a s t e t h a t i t seemed mere p e d a n t r y t o c a l l i t a t a s t e a t a l l . . . . F o r one d r a u g h t o f t h i s on e a r t h wars wou ld be f o u g h t and n a t i o n s b e t r a y e d " ( p p . 4 6 - 4 7 ) . S i m i l a r l y , t h e shower Ransom r e c e i v e s f r om some n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n i s a p l e a s u r e so i n t e n s e t h a t i t a f f e c t s h i s i n n e r as w e l l as h i s o u t e r b e i n g . "Such was t he r e f r e s h m e n t t h a t he seemed t o h i m s e l f t o have b e e n , t i l l now, bu t h a l f awake. . . . A l l t h e c o l o u r s abou t h im seemed r i c h e r and t h e d imness o f t h a t w o r l d seemed c l a r i f i e d " ( p . 5 2 ) . L i k e an Adam i n h i s P a r a d i s e , Ransom c h r i s t e n s t h e v e g e t a t i o n , naming t h e p l a n t s " b u b b l e t r e e s . " So r i c h a r e t h e p l a n e t ' s n a t u r a l b e a u t i e s t h a t " t h e f o r e s t l a n d s c a p e f u r n i s h e d what wou l d have been a dozen l a n d s c a p e s on e a r t h " ( p . 4 6 ) . " The re was s ome th i n g i n P e r e l a n d r a t h a t m i gh t o v e r l o a d a human b r a i n " ( p . 4 6 ) . Even t h e a i r o f P e r e l a n d r a t h r o b s w i t h t h e l i v i n g u n i t y o f s p i r i t u a l and p h y s i c a l , so t h a t " b r e a t h i n g becomes a k i n d o f r i t u a l " ( p . 4 6 ; t e n s e c h a n g e d ) . T h i s l i v i n g s a c r a m e n t a l i sm can l i t e r a l l y be t a s t e d , and i n d e e d c r e a t e s "a new k i n d o f hunger and t h i r s t , a l o n g i n g t h a t seemed t o f l o w o v e r f r om t h e body i n t o t h e s o u l and w h i c h was a heaven t o f e e l . . . . I t was l i k e t h e d i s c o v e r y o f a t o t a l l y new genus o f p l e a s u r e s " ( p p . 4 6 - 4 7 ; b o l d f a c e p r i n t emphases a d d e d ) . W i t h such r i c h s p i r i t u a l mean ing i n v e s t i n g t h e most b a s i c a s p e c t s o f n a t u r e , Ransom can f u l f i l l h i s i d e n t i t y and g l o r i f y h i s C r e a t o r even w h i l e l i v i n g hand - t o -mou th i n p a r a d i s e , w a i t i n g t o l e a r n t h e h e r o i c pu r po se f o r w h i c h he has been s e n t . J u s t as w i t h t h e O y a r s a o f M a l a c a n d r a , "you can no more c a l l . . . [ s u c h a p e r i o d ] w a i t i n g t han you can c a l l t h e who l e o f h i s e x i s t e n c e w a i t i n g " ( p . 3 1 ) . The 120 e x p e r i e n c e i s v a l i d i n i t s own r i g h t , and i s no l e s s w o r t h y o r s p i r i t u a l t h a n Ransom's l a t e r h e r o i c a d v e n t u r e s . Of c o u r s e , t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t Ransom i s a f a l l e n c r e a t u r e a w a i t i n g f u l l r e d e m p t i o n , he c a n n o t know t h e same c on t i n uum o f s p i r i t u a l and p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y as t h e L a d y , bu t w h i l e on P e r e l a n d r a i t i s h i s t o e n j o y t o t h e maximum. He c e r t a i n l y t a s t e s t h e cup o f such a d e s t i n y , and as T i n i d r i l p r e d i c t s , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r h im t o d i e o r even age a f t e r h a v i n g known such a c l o s e i n t e g r a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l and s p i r i t u a l . The s i n g u l a r s c r i p t o f t h e s a c r a m e n t a l l a nguage i n P e r e l a n d r a ' s w a t e r y e l emen t o d d l y f o c u s s e s o u r a t t e n t i o n on i t s f l o w i n g s t r o k e s even as t h e y m e l t and s w i r l i n t o t h e n e x t c h a r a c t e r s . A l t h o u g h we have l e a r n e d t h r o u g h " o t h e r n e s s " on M a l a c a n d r a t h a t no n a t u r a l f o rms e x c l u s i v e l y e x p r e s s t h e s a c r a m e n t a l l a n g u a g e , on P e r e l a n d r a we a r e t a u g h t t o r e s p e c t t h o s e n a t u r a l f o rms i n t h e i r own r i g h t . The morphemes o f t h e s a c r a m e n t a l l a nguage a r e i m p o r t a n t s i m p l y because ' " H e u t t e r s H i m s e l f " i n a l l t h a t i s ( p . 2 5 0 ) . We t a s t e t h e s y l l a b l e s and s a v o u r t h e i r v o i c i n g because e v e r y t h i n g ' " u t t e r s t h e h e a r t o f t h e H o l y One w i t h i t s own v o i c e ' " ( p . 2 4 9 ) . The a b s o l u t e u n i t y o f a l l t h i n g s i n M a l e l d i l enhances r a t h e r t h a n e r a d i c a t e s t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i t y . ' " N e v e r d i d He make two t h i n g s t h e same; n e v e r d i d He u t t e r one word t w i c e ' " ( p . 2 4 6 ) . Harmony i s t h e keyno t e o f t h e i n c a r n a t i o n a l l a n g u a g e ; t h e r e i s no room f o r monotone homogene i t y i n i t s v a s t symphony o f morphemes: "Each t h i n g , f r om t he s i n g l e g r a i n o f Dus t t o t h e s t r o n g e s t e l d i l , i s t h e end and t h e f i n a l c au se o f a l l c r e a t i o n and t he m i r r o r i n w h i c h t h e beam o f H i s b r i g h t n e s s comes t o r e s t and so r e t u r n s t o H im. . . . Thus ea ch i s e q u a l l y a t t h e c e n t r e and none a r e t h e r e by b e i n g e q u a l s , bu t some by g i v i n g p l a c e and some by 121 r e c e i v i n g i t , t h e s m a l l t h i n g s by t h e i r s m a l l n e s s and the g r e a t by t h e i r g r e a t n e s s , and a l l t h e p a t t e r n s l i n k e d and l o o p e d t o g e t h e r by t h e u n i o n s o f a k n e e l i n g w i t h a s c e p t r e d l o v e . " ( p . 250) The above e u l o g y t o q u i d d i t y i s a c t u a l l y a paeon f r om an e l d i l i e hymnal c e l e b r a t i o n , i n wh i c h speech has somehow become as m u s i c : F o r i n t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n t h a t f o l l o w e d — i f i t can be c a l l e d a c o n v e r s a t i o n — t h o u g h he [Ransom] b e l i e v e s t h a t he h i m s e l f was somet imes t h e s p e a k e r , he n e v e r knew wh i c h words were h i s o r a n o t h e r ' s , o r even whe the r a man o r an e l d i l was t a l k i n g . The speeches f o l l o w e d one a n o t h e r — i f , i n d e e d , t h e y d i d n o t a l l t a k e p l a c e a t t h e same t i m e — l i k e t h e p a r t s o f a mus i c i n t o wh i c h a l l f i v e o f them had e n t e r e d as i n s t r u m e n t s , ( p . 246) I n d e e d , mus i c emerges as a m a j o r symbol o f t h e u n i v e r s a l harmony o f q u i d d i t y . S u p e r n a t u r e i s e s s e n t i a l l y " u n s p e a k a b l e , " L ew i s s u g g e s t s , " n o t by b e i n g i n d e f i n i t e bu t by b e i n g t o o d e f i n i t e f o r t h e u n a v o i d a b l e vagueness o f l a n g u a g e " ( M i r a c l e s , p. 1 1 0 ) . Where speech i s i n s u f f i c i e n t , howeve r , song can l e n d i t s s t r e n g t h . F u r t h e r m o r e , as speech becomes song t o accomodate t h e harmony o f q u i d d i t y , c o n v e n t i o n a l mus i c becomes a q u i n t e s s e n t i a l l y c o n c r e t e f o rm o f mus i c t o accomodate t h e q u i d d i t y o f s a c r a m e n t a l s ong : From w i t h o u t , most c e r t a i n l y f r om w i t h o u t , bu t n o t by t h e sense o f h e a r i n g , f e s t a l r e v e l r y and dance and s p l e n d o u r pou red i n t o h i m — n o s o u n d , y e t i n such f a s h i o n t h a t i t c o u l d no t be remembered o r t h o u g h t o f e x c e p t as m u s i c . I t was l i k e h a v i n g a new s e n s e . I t was l i k e b e i n g p r e s e n t when t he mo rn i ng s t a r s sang t o g e t h e r . I t was as i f P e r e l a n d r a had t h a t moment been c r e a t e d — a n d pe rhaps i n some sense i t h a d . ( p . 121 ; emphas i s added) The s o l i d r e a l i t y a t t h e c o r e o f o u r u n i v e r s e p r e d i c a t e s such b u r g e o n i n g f o r t h o f s p i r i t u a l i n t o p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y . Even s o , t h i s c o r e r ema i n s 122 " ' t o o d e f i n i t e f o r l a n g u a g e , ' " Ransom c o m p l a i n s t o h i s l i s t e n e r s ( p . 3 5 ) . A t b e s t , t h e d i c t i o n o f ' c r e a t i o n ' and ' n ewnes s ' must s e r v e t o e x p r e s s u l t r a r e a l i t y , f o r " o n l y t h e a c t u a l was r e a l , and e v e r y a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n was new . " Ransom comes c l o s e r t o t h e l anguage t h a t w i l l d e s c r i b e h i s e x p e r i e n c e when t h e speech t h a t becomes mus i c and t h e mus i c t h a t becomes a t r a n s - s e n s o r y e x p e r i e n c e t o g e t h e r become a s i n g l e phenomenon i n a new d i m e n s i o n o f r e a l i t y . "And now, by a t r a n s i t i o n wh i c h he d i d n o t n o t i c e , i t seemed t h a t what had begun as speech was t u r n e d i n t o s i g h t , " we hea r i n t h e f i n a l s t a n z a s o f t h e G r e a t Hymn: He t h o u g h t he saw t he G r e a t Dance . I t seemed t o be woven o u t o f t h e i n t e r t w i n i n g u n d u l a t i o n o f many c o r d s o r bands o f l i g h t , l e a p i n g o v e r and unde r one a n o t h e r and m u t u a l l y embraced i n a r a b e s q u e s and f l o w e r - l i k e s u b t l e t i e s . Each f i g u r e as he l o o k e d a t i t became t h e m a s t e r - f i g u r e o r f o c u s o f t h e who l e s p e c t a c l e , by means o f wh i c h h i s eye d i s e n t a n g l e d a l l e l s e and b r o u g h t i t i n t o u n i t y — o n l y t o be i t s e l f e n t a n g l e d when he l o o k e d t o what he had t a k e n f o r mere m a r g i n a l d e c o r a t i o n s and f ound t h a t t h e r e a l s o t h e same hegemony was c l a i m e d , and t he c l a i m made g o o d , y e t t h e f o r m e r p a t t e r n n o t t h e r e b y d i s p o s s e s s e d bu t f i n d i n g i n i t s new s u b o r d i n a t i o n a s i g n i f i c a n c e g r e a t e r t h an t h a t wh i ch i t had a b d i c a t e d . . . . And by now t he t h i n g must have p a s s ed a l t o g e t h e r ou t o f t h e r e g i o n o f s i g h t as we u n d e r s t a n d i t . Fo r he s a y s t h a t t h e who le s o l i d f i g u r e o f t h e s e enamoured and i n t e r - i n a n i m a t e d c i r c l i n g s was s u d d e n l y r e v e a l e d as t h e mere s u p e r f i c i e s o f a f a r v a s t e r p a t t e r n i n f o u r d i m e n s i o n s , and t h a t f i g u r e as t h e bounda ry o f y e t o t h e r s i n o t h e r w o r l d s : t i l l s u d d e n l y as t h e movement grew y e t s w i f t e r , t h e i n t e r w e a v i n g y e t more e c s t a t i c , t h e r e l e v a n c e o f a l l t o a l l y e t more i n t e n s e , as d i m e n s i o n was added t o d i m e n s i o n , ( p p . 251 -53 ) S p i r i t u a l r e a l i t y i m p l o d e s t h e d i s c r e t e s en s e s o f o u r norma l mode o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s , r e v e a l i n g t h e c o m p o s i t e u n i t y o f a l l t empo r a l e x p e r i e n c e w i t h i n u l t r a r e a l i t y . 123 Thus, by v i r t u e of i t s s p i r i t u a l unity, quiddity i s affirmed on a level with supernatural r e a l i t y . The Perelandrian ocean i s once more our parabolic model: every l i q u i d wave comprises individual droplets, yet each droplet i s suspended in a sea of unity, and each wave propelled by a s i n g l e motive force. The Great Hymn celebrates: '"His love and splendour . . . flow f o r t h l i k e a strong r i v e r which has need of a great watercourse and f i l l s a l i k e the deep pools and the l i t t l e crannies, that are f i l l e d equally and remain unequal'" (p. 250). As an emblem of quiddity, water no longer intimidates Ransom as i t once did on Malacandra. Indeed, the p i l g r i m i s determined not to repeat the t h i r s t of his Malacandrian experience, and during his journey through subterranean Perelandra he does not hesitate to drink deeply of every pool he comes across. '"Always one must throw oneself into the wave,'" advises the King in his endorsement of quiddity, sharing the wisdom hard-won in the b a t t l e f i e l d of his soul (p. 242). While every such immersion celebrates quiddity, however, i t also involves a kind of death. For example, Hyoi's draught of water from the Malacandrian pool wherein the hnakra l i e s hidden y i e l d s a taste of death as well as quintessential l i f e . As he learns to navigate Perelandra's watery world, Ransom might be swimming in that same Malacandrian pool. He s i m i l a r l y confronts death, indeed enacts a baptism of death into l i f e . Descending through the ocean into the expunging blackness and purging f i r e of Perelandra's subterranean regions, he emerges again by benefit of a stream which s p i t s him out into a cave, i s breast-fed by Venus in "a time to be remembered only in dreams as we remember infancy"--"indeed i t was a second infancy" (p. 213)--and 124 f i n a l l y a s c ends t o t h e p i n a c l e d h e i g h t s o f P e r e l a n d r a . In a l l o f t h i s , Ransom l e a r n s t o d i e t o h i m s e l f and i s r e b o r n a new c r e a t u r e t o a new l i f e . "Dea th and R e - b i r t h - - g o down t o go u p - - i t i s a key p r i n c i p l e . Th rough t h i s b o t t l e n e c k , t h i s b e l i t t l e m e n t , t h e h i g h r o a d n e a r l y a lway s l i e s , " L ew i s w r i t e s i n M i r a c l e s ( p . 136; emphas i s a d d e d ) . Q u i d d i t y ' s p a t t e r n o f d e a t h and r e b i r t h t h u s c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e n o v e l ' s v e r t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n . I t i s a l s o c e n t r a l t o t h e n o v e l ' s s ense o f m y t h i c a l f l o t a t i o n . L ew i s p o s t u l a t e s t h a t " t h e p a t t e r n o f De s cen t and R e - a s c e n t i s . . . t h e v e r y f o r m u l a o f r e a l i t y , " wh i c h h e l p s us t o a c c o u n t f o r P e r e l a n d r a ' s o ve rwhe lm i ng s ense o f t i m e l e s s immed i a c y . "Then i n t h e m y s t e r y o f Death t h e s e c r e t o f s e c r e t s l i e s h i d , " L ew i s c o n c l u d e s , l o c a t i n g t h e s o u r c e o f P e r e l a n d r a ' s s e c r e t i nwa r dne s s and q u i n t e s s e n t i a l r e a l i t y ( M i r a c l e s , p. 1 5 1 ) . In he r s t u d y o f f a n t a s y and s c i e n c e f i c t i o n , The Language o f t h e N i g h t , U r s u l a Le Gu i n a f f i r m s t he p i v o t a l r o l e t h a t t h e m y s t e r y o f d e s c e n t and r e - a s c e n t p l a y s i n t h e c o r e r e a l i t y o f o u r l i v e s : "Even i n m e r e l y r e a d i n g a f a i r y t a l e , we must l e t go o u r d a y l i g h t c o n v i c t i o n s and t r u s t o u r s e l v e s t o be g u i d e d by d a r k f i g u r e s , i n s i l e n c e ; and when we come b a c k , i t may be v e r y h a r d t o d e s c r i b e where we have b e e n . " 1 Ransom's t o u r t h r o u g h P e r e l a n d r a ' s d a r k d e p t h s b e a r s o u t Le G u i n ' s c o n v i c t i o n , f o r he i n d e e d f i n d s i t d i f f i c u l t t o d e s c r i b e h i s e x p e r i e n c e , " ' t o o d e f i n i t e f o r l a n g u a g e . ' " The p e c u l i a r s ense o f m y t h i c s u s p e n s i o n wh i c h Ransom's a r c h e t y p a l d e a t h - d e s c e n t g i v e s us i s i n t e n s i f i e d by t h e l a r g e r n a r r a t i v e f ramework o f t h e n o v e l . Whereas t h e o t h e r two vo lumes o f t h e t r i l o g y use a 1 "The C h i l d and t h e Shadow," Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f t h e L i b r a r y o f  C o n g r e s s , 32 ( A p r i l 1 9 7 5 ) ; r p t . i n The Language o f t h e N i g h t , e d . and i n t r o d . Susan Wood (New Y o r k : G . P . Pu tnam ' s S o n s , 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 6 7 . 125 s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d " t h e r e - a n d - b a c k - a g a i n " s t r u c t u r e , P e r e l a n d r a d e p o s i t s us on a f o r e i g n p l a n e t bu t does no t p r o v i d e t h e r e a d e r w i t h an e m o t i o n a l l y c a t h a r t i c r e a l i z a t i o n o f homecoming. The o t h e r two n o v e l s b r a c k e t t h e i r e x t r a t e r r e s t r i a l s t o r i e s w i t h dream and v i s i o n i n t h e o p e n i n g p a g e s , and w i t h t h e s o l i d r i t u a l s o f d o m e s t i c l i f e i n t h e c l o s i n g p a g e s , bu t a l l o f P e r e l a n d r a ' s d ream, v i s i o n and t e a - p o u r i n g i s d i s p e n s e d w i t h i n t h e o p e n i n g c h a p t e r s . We t hen waken w i t h Ransom i n a n o t h e r w o r l d t o see t h e r e a l i t y w h i c h we t h i n k i s a d ream, and u n s u s p e c t i n g l y spend t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e n a r r a t i v e t h e r e ( p . 4 9 ) . A l t h o u g h i t wou l d be r i d i c u l o u s t o s a y , as Ransom n o t e s , " ' t h a t a man had f o r g o t t e n w a t e r because N i a g a r a F a l l s d i d n ' t i m m e d i a t e l y g i v e h im t h e i d e a o f mak ing i t i n t o cups o f t e a , ' " n e v e r t h e l e s s i n P e r e l a n d r a we do no t r e t u r n t o make t h o s e cups o f t e a , as we do i n t h e compan ion n o v e l s ( p . 9 8 ) . S t r u c t u r a l l y , Ransom j o u r n e y s bo th t o and f r om P e r e l a n d r a b e f o r e we even h e a r t h e f l a s h b a c k a c c o u n t o f h i s e x p e r i e n c e t h e r e . We f i r s t r e ad t h a t he s h a r e s "meat and b e e r and t e a " w i t h Lew i s f o r h i s f a r e w e l l m e a l , and s h o r t l y a f t e r t h a t L ew i s has " pou red o u t t h e t e a " f o r h i s homecoming ( p . 26 and p. 3 4 ) . O n l y as Ransom b e g i n s t o r e c o u n t h i s a d v e n t u r e s o v e r t e a do we l e a v e b e h i n d o u r " t i n y w i n d o w l e s s u n i v e r s e " and l o o k o u t w i t h h im t h r o u g h t he " c o f f i n - s h a p e d w indow" o f h i s p r o j e c t i l e ( p . 2 5 5 ) . We a r e t h e n l a u n c h e d i n t o a m y t h i c a l , t i m e l e s s w o r l d f r om wh i c h we do no t r e t u r n . We s i m p l y r i d e t h e P e r e l a n d r i a n wave u n t i l Ransom once more c l i m b s i n t o t h e " n a r r ow house " o f h i s c o f f i n and " h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s e n g u l f e d " ( p . 32 and p. 256; t e n s e c h a n g e d ) . A p p r o p r i a t e l y f o r t h e t r i l o g y ' s c e n t r a l and most m y t h i c n a r r a t i v e , t h i s " n a r r o w house " o f a c o f f i n i s as c l o s e t o home as t h e nove l r e t u r n s m y t h . Thus t h e r e a d e r t a s t e s t h e same cup o f d e s t i n y as Ransom, 126 i m a g i n a t i v e l y r e a l i z i n g a t i m e l e s s e x i s t e n c e and t he p e c u l i a r d e a t h i t i n v o l v e s . Of c o u r s e , L ew i s does b r i n g myth home i n h i s c o n v e n t i o n a l manner by r e v e a l i n g t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l wh i ch a lway s r e s i d e s i n t h e o r d i n a r y . Fo r e x a m p l e , t h e Lew i s c h a r a c t e r e n c o u n t e r s t h e b a r r a g e o f e v i l e l d i l a i n t h e m i d s t o f a " q u i e t l a n d s c a p e " w h i c h i s " i n no way r e m a r k a b l e " ( p . 7 ) . More i m p o r t a n t l y , howeve r , L ew i s a l s o b r i n g s myth "home" by t a k i n g us i n t o i t s u n e a r t h l y r e a l m and show ing us o u r home t h e r e . W i t h Ransom, we a r e " t u r n e d o u t - - d e p o s i t e d - - s o l i t a r y " and l e f t t o t h e p e r i l s o f a f o r e i g n p l a n e t ( p . 3 7 ) . Those p e r i l s u l t i m a t e l y become t h e r o u t e t o a new l i f e , however : " A t t h e v e r y moment when he s t o o d f a r t h e s t f r om o u r o r d i n a r y mode o f b e i n g he had t h e sense o f s t r i p p i n g o f f encumbrances and awak ing f r om t r a n c e , and coming t o h i m s e l f " ( p . 2 53 ; emphas i s a d d e d ) . Our sense o f a homeland on t h i s m y t h i c s o i l i s v e r y r e a l , t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t we s h a r e S t e l l a G i b b o n s ' n o s t a l g i a f o r i t . A l t h o u g h we a r e l e f t , as i t w e r e , on a f l o a t i n g i s l a n d t h a t wanders t h e wave s , l i k e Ransom we a r e welcomed " w i t h a g e s t u r e t h a t makes t h a t who l e w o r l d a house " ( p . 7 0 ; t e n s e c h a n g e d ) . I t was s t r a n g e t o be f i l l e d w i t h h omes i c kne s s f o r p l a c e s where h i s s o j o u r n had been so b r i e f and w h i c h w e r e , by any o b j e c t i v e s t a n d a r d , so a l i e n t o a l l o u r r a c e . Or were t h e y ? The c o r d o f l o n g i n g wh i c h drew h im t o t h e i n v i s i b l e i s l e seemed t o h im a t t h a t moment t o have been f a s t e n e d l o n g , l o n g b e f o r e h i s coming t o P e r e l a n d r a , l o n g b e f o r e t h e e a r l i e s t t i m e s t h a t memory c o u l d r e c o v e r i n h i s c h i l d h o o d , b e f o r e h i s b i r t h , b e f o r e t h e b i r t h o f man h i m s e l f , b e f o r e t h e o r i g i n s o f t i m e . ( p . 116) Ransom r e c o g n i z e s h i s t r u e h e r i t a g e i n P e r e l a n d r a , and even a s k s T o r and T i n i d r i l t o adop t h i m . S e e i n g them r e v e a l e d i n a l l t h e i r g l o r y , he 127 p l e a d s : " ' I have n e v e r b e f o r e seen a man o r a woman. I have l i v e d a l l my l i f e among shadows and b roken i m a g e s . . . . Take me f o r y o u r s o n , " ' ( p . 235 ; emphas i s a d d e d ) . P e r e l a n d r a makes a n a t u r a l home f o r t h e Lady as w e l l , so much so t h a t she p u z z l e s abou t t he mean ing o f t h e wo r d . " 'Wha t i s home? ' " she a s k s , u n f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e c o n c e p t o f a l o c a l r e f u g e because she i s a t home i n h e r u n i v e r s e and unaware o f a l i e n a t i o n o r s t r a n g e n e s s anywhere ( p . 7 3 ) . To be a t home, Ransom d i s c o v e r s , means t o r i d e t h e wave and a c c e p t t h e s t o r y as M a l e l d i l w r i t e s i t . " T h i s i t c h t o have t h i n g s o v e r a g a i n , as i f l i f e were a f i l m t h a t c o u l d be u n r o l l e d t w i c e o r even made t o work backwards . . . was i t p o s s i b l y t h e r o o t o f a l l e v i l ? " he s p e c u l a t e s ( p . 5 3 ) . " I n s t e a d o f s a y i n g : ' T h i s a l s o i s T h o u , ' one may s a y t h e f a t a l 2 word E n c o r e , " L ew i s warns i n L e t t e r s t o M a l c o l m . As t h e Lady s a y s , ' " Y o u c o u l d r e f u s e t h e r e a l good ; you c o u l d make t h e r e a l f r u i t t a s t e i n s i p i d by t h i n k i n g o f t h e o t h e r " ' ( p . 7 7 ) . "We must ' s i t l i g h t ' n o t o n l y t o l i f e i t s e l f b u t t o a l l i t s p h a s e s , " w r i t e s L ew i s "To a Lady " (21 Nov. 1962 , L e t t e r s , 3 0 6 ) . Ransom t o o has t o l e a r n t o " s i t l i g h t " and t o modera te h i s d e s i r e , o r more s p e c i f i c a l l y t o s a t i s f y h i m s e l f a c c o r d i n g t o a p p e t i t e , r a t h e r t h an " i n t h e t e e t h o f d e s i r e and i n o b e d i e n c e t o a s p u r i o u s r a t i o n a l i s m " ( p . 4 7 ) . He l e a r n s t o r e j e c t g r e e d y i m p u l s e s such as t o p l u n g e t h r o u g h t h e g r o v e s o f b ubb l e t r e e s , s a t i a t e h i m s e l f i n " t h e o r g i a s t i c and a l m o s t a l a r m i n g p l e a s u r e o f t h e g o u r d s " , and s e l e c t o n l y t h e " r e d h e a r t s " f r om among t h e o v a l g r e en b e r r i e s ( p . 5 5 ) . 2 L e t t e r s t o M a l c o l m : C h i e f l y on P r a y e r ( London: G e o f f r e y B l e s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 119 . 128 In l e a r n i n g t o be as much a t home w i t h t h e waves o f q u i d d i t y as t h e Lady i s , Ransom must a c c e p t t h e d ea t h o f h i s own g r a s p i n g d e s i r e s . He must a l s o g i v e up t he h a b i t o f s p e c u l a t i n g what "wou ld have happened" and f o c u s r a t h e r on what i s a c t u a l l y h a p p e n i n g : " O n l y t h e a c t u a l was r e a l . " M a l e l d i l ' s P e r e l a n d r i a n s t o r y i s w r i t t e n i n t h e i n c a r n a t i o n a l l a n g u a g e , and i t s e v e r y d e t a i l i s c h a r ged w i t h a un i que s p i r i t u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . T he r e i s no pu r po s e i n c ompa r i n g t h e P e r e l a n d r i a n s t o r y t o i t s t e r r e s t r i a l c o u n t e r p a r t . "The u s e l e s s word i s ' e n c o r e , ' " w r i t e s Lew i s "To a Lady " (21 Nov . 1962 , L e t t e r s , 3 0 6 ) , a c o n c l u s i o n w h i c h Ransom a l s o r e a c h e s : " T h i s c h a p t e r , t h i s p age , t h i s v e r y s e n t e n c e , i n t h e c o s m i c s t o r y was u t t e r l y and e t e r n a l l y i t s e l f ; no o t h e r pa s sage t h a t had o c c u r r e d o r e v e r wou l d o c c u r c o u l d be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r i t " ( p . 1 6 6 ) . In l e a r n i n g t o r i d e t h e wave o f M a l e l d i l ' s s t o r y , Ransom d i s c o v e r s t h a t a s p e a k e r o f t h e i n c a r n a t i o n a l l a nguage must f o c u s on h i s own d i a l e c t a l o n e . F o r e x a m p l e , when he e a t s t h e seaweed w h i c h t h e mermen a r e e a t i n g , Ransom f i n d s " h i s mind o d d l y c hanged " t o t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e . He t h i n k s o f t h e f l o a t i n g i s l a n d s as we t h i n k o f c l o u d s , and becomes " s t a r t ! i n g l y c o n s c i o u s o f h i s own e x p e r i e n c e i n w a l k i n g on t h e t o p s i d e o f them as a m i r a c l e o r a m y t h " ( p . 1 8 5 ) . T h i s e x p e r i e n c e r e i n f o r c e s h i s p o s t u l a t e t h a t what i s myth i n one w o r l d i s f a c t i n a n o t h e r , and t h a t u l t i m a t e l y t h e r e i s no bounda ry between them. But i t a l s o t e a c h e s Ransom an i m p o r t a n t l e s s o n : he has t r e s p a s s e d t h e l i n e s o f h i s own s t o r y t o r e ad t h e " h e r a l d i c a l l y f a n t a s t i c s h a p e s " o f a n o t h e r , t h e s t o r y o f "a who l e w o r l d o f p h o s p h o r e s c e n t c r e a t u r e s " ( p . 1 1 5 ) . In t h e N a r n i a t a l e s , A s i a n s t r i c t l y r e b u f f s e v e r y a t t e m p t t o p e e r o v e r o n e ' s g i v e n wave t o see a n o t h e r ' s : ' " N o - o n e i s t o l d any s t o r y bu t t h e i r o w n . ' " In h i s e n c o u n t e r w i t h t h e mermen, Ransom s i m i l a r l y d i s c o v e r s t h a t " each was w h o l l y i r r e l e v a n t t o t h e o t h e r " ( p . 1 8 4 ) . The l e s s o n i s p a i n f u l and l e a v e s Ransom w i t h a t e r r i f y i n g s ense o f u t t e r s o l i t u d e t h a t p l u n g e s h im i n t o d e s p a i r : L i k e a l l s o l i t u d e s i t wa s , i n d e e d , h a u n t e d : bu t n o t by an a n t h r o p o m o r p h i c D e i t y , r a t h e r by t h e w h o l l y i n s c r u t a b l e t o wh i c h man and h i s l i f e r ema i ned e t e r n a l l y i r r e l e v a n t . . . . The E m p i r i c a l Bogey came s u r g i n g i n t o h i s m i n d — t h e g r e a t myth o f o u r c e n t u r y . . . i n w h i c h e v e r y t h i n g t h a t can p o s s i b l y h o l d s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t h e mind becomes t he mere b y - p r o d u c t o f e s s e n t i a l d i s o r d e r . . . . P a r t o f h im s t i l l knew t h a t t h e s i z e o f a t h i n g i s i t s l e a s t i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l u n i v e r s e d e r i v e d f r om t h e c ompa r i ng and m y t h o p o e i c power w i t h i n h im t h a t v e r y m a j e s t y b e f o r e w h i c h he was now a s ked t o abase h i m s e l f , and t h a t mere numbers c o u l d n o t o v e r -awe us u n l e s s we l e n t t hem, f r om o u r own r e s o u r c e s , t h a t a w f u l n e s s wh i c h t h e y t h e m s e l v e s c o u l d no more s u p p l y t h an a b a n k e r ' s l e d g e r . Bu t t h i s knowledge r ema ined an a b s t r a c t i o n . Mere b i g n e s s and l o n e l i n e s s o v e r b o r e h im . ( p p . 187-88) Hav i n g l e a r n t h i s l e s s o n , Ransom l a t e r e x e r c i s e s a more d e l i c a t e c a u t i o n i n w a t c h i n g a p r o c e s s i o n o f g i g a n t i c e a r t h - b e e t l e s wend t h e i r way " w i t h i n s u f f e r a b l e m a j e s t y " t h r o u g h t h e i r s u b t e r r a n e a n c a v e r n s . He i s b e t t e r p r e p a r e d f o r t h e s ense o f d i s l o c a t i o n wh i c h i n e v i t a b l y a s s a i l s h im : " A s s u r e d l y t h e i n s i d e o f t h i s w o r l d was no t f o r man. But i t was f o r s o m e t h i n g . . . . Tha t t h i n g , t h a t swathed f o rm i n i t s c h a r i o t , was no doub t h i s f e l l o w c r e a t u r e . I t d i d n o t f o l l o w t h a t t h e y were e q u a l s o r had an equa l r i g h t i n t h e u n d e r - l a n d " ( p . 2 1 1 ) . 3 L e w i s , The Ho r se and H i s Boy , i l l . P a u l i n e Baynes ( London : G e o f f r e y B l e s , 1 9 5 4 ) , p. 180 . 130 The i n c a r n a t i o n a l l a nguage i s f a r more p o l y s y l l a b i c t h an man, who i s bu t one exponen t o f M a l e l d i l ' s s t o r y , can know. ' " Y o u a r e n o t t h e v o i c e t h a t a l l t h i n g s u t t e r , n o r i s t h e r e e t e r n a l s i l e n c e i n t h e p l a c e s where you c a n n o t c o m e , ' " t h e G r e a t Hymn c e l e b r a t e s ( p . 2 4 8 ) . W h i l e r i d i n g h i s f i s h i n chase o f t h e Un-man, Ransom h e a r s t h e c r y i n g o f a f l o c k o f s w a n - l i k e b i r d s , "and i t was t h e w i l d e s t sound t h a t Ransom had e v e r h e a r d , t h e l o n e l i e s t , and t h e one t h a t had l e a s t t o do w i t h Man" ( p . 1 8 2 ) . The sound seems t o have a m y t h i c a l q u i d d i t y w h i c h e n u n c i a t e s t h e s a c r a m e n t a l l a nguage once and f o r a l l : I t was n o t h o s t i l e : i f i t had b e e n , i t s w i l d n e s s and s t r a n g e n e s s wou l d have been t h e l e s s , f o r h o s t i l i t y i s a r e l a t i o n and an enemy i s n o t a t o t a l s t r a n g e r . . . . I t was s t r a n g e t h a t he t o whom a wood o r a mo rn i ng s k y on e a r t h had somet imes been a k i n d o f m e a l , s h o u l d have had t o come t o a n o t h e r p l a n e t i n o r d e r t o r e a l i s e Na t u r e as a t h i n g i n h e r own r i g h t . The d i f f u s e d m e a n i n g , t h e i n s c r u t a b l e c h a r a c t e r , wh i c h had been bo t h i n T e l l us and P e r e l a n d r a s i n c e t h e y s p l i t o f f f r om t he S u n , and w h i c h wou l d b e , i n one s e n s e , d i s p l a c e d by t h e a d v e n t o f i m p e r i a l man, y e t , i n some o t h e r s e n s e , n o t d i s p l a c e d a t a l l , e n f o l d e d h im on e v e r y s i d e and c augh t h im i n t o i t s e l f , ( p p . 183; emphas i s added) As P u r t i l l w r i t e s , " N a t u r e i s a l m o s t a c h a r a c t e r i n t h e d rama: M a l a c a n d r a (Ma r s ) and P e r e l a n d r a (Venus ) a r e p a r t s o f t h e s t o r i e s s e t on t hem, n o t mere b a c k g r o u n d s " ( L o r d o f t h e E l v e s , p. 2 6 ) . ' " Though men o r a n g e l s r u l e t h e m , ' " t h e G r e a t Hymn c o n t i n u e s , ' " t h e w o r l d s a r e made f o r t h e m s e l v e s . . . . T h e i r own v o i c e was i n t h e m ' " ( p . 2 4 8 ) . The c o s m i c s t o r y i s w r i t t e n i n t h e p o l y s y l l a b l e s o f t h e s a c r a m e n t a l l a n g u a g e , ea ch o f w h i c h has i t s own c e n t r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e : You m i g h t l o o k upon t h e P e r e l a n d r i a n s t o r y as m e r e l y an i n d i r e c t consequence o f t h e I n c a r n a t i o n on e a r t h : o r you m i g h t l o o k on t he E a r t h s t o r y as a mere 131 p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e new w o r l d s o f w h i c h P e r e l a n d r a was t he f i r s t . The one was n e i t h e r more n o r l e s s t r u e t h a n t h e o t h e r . N o t h i n g was more o r l e s s i m p o r t a n t t h a n a n y t h i n g e l s e , n o t h i n g was a copy o r model o f a n y t h i n g e l s e . ( p . 165) Of c o u r s e , t h e f a c t t h a t o n e ' s own s t o r y i s an i n d i v i d u a l s e n t e n c e w i t h i n t h e g r and f ramework o f M a l e l d i l ' s s t o r y r e d o u b l e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f r i d i n g t h e waves t h a t M a l e l d i l s e n d s . Each o f us t h en s t a n d s i n r e l a t i o n t o a p e r s o n a l d e s t i n y w h i c h i s i n t u r n r e l a t e d t o a c o s m i c d e s t i n y . E v e r y s t o r y becomes i m p o r t a n t n o t o n l y f o r i t s own s a k e , bu t f o r t h a t o f i t s c o n t e x t u a l l i n e s as w e l l . "The p a t t e r n grows and . . . f r o m each w o r l d i t s p r o u t s i n t o t h e n e x t t h r o u g h some o t h e r d i m e n s i o n " ( p . 1 6 9 ) . As "a new c h a r a c t e r i n t h e d r a m a , " Ransom t h u s has a r o l e t h a t i s b o t h p e r s o n a l and c o sm i c ( p . 1 6 5 ) . One s ee s t h e mean ing w i t h wh i c h o n e ' s own s t o r y i s c h a r g e d and t r e m b l e s , f o r " i t i s i n o u r r e s p o n s e s t h a t we a r e g i v e n t h e g i f t o f h e l p i n g God w r i t e o u r s t o r y , " L ' E n g l e s a y s ( W a l k i n g on  W a t e r , p. 1 9 2 ) . W i t h d i s m a y , Ransom r e a l i z e s " t h e t r u e w i d t h o f t h e f r i g h t f u l f r eedom t h a t was b e i n g pu t i n t o h i s h a n d s - - a w i d t h t o wh i c h a l l m e r e l y s p a t i a l i n f i n i t y seemed n a r r o w " ( p . 1 6 9 ) . Our r e s p o n s e t o t h e c l a i m s o f t h e g o d s , M a r t i n H e i d e g g e r s a y s , " a l w a y s s p r i n g s f r om t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f a d e s t i n y . " ^ Words a r e t h e p o i n t a t wh i c h "we e n t e r t h e s phe r e o f t h e d e c i s i o n as t o whe t he r we a r e t o y i e l d o u r s e l v e s t o t h e gods o r w i t h h o l d o u r s e l v e s f r om t h e m , " he c o n t i n u e s ( pp . 2 7 9 - 8 0 ) . Because Ransom i s a p h i l o l o g i s t , words l i t e r a l l y 4 " H o e l d e r l i n und das Wesen d e r D i c h t u n g , " 1936; " H o e l d e r l i n and t h e E s sence o f P o e t r y , " t r a n s . Doug l a s S c o t t , i n E x i s t e n c e and B e i n g ( C h i c a g o : Henry Regne r y -Ga t eway , 1 9 4 9 ) , p. 279 . 132 c o m p r i s e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f h i s d e s t i n y , and Lew i s t h e a u t h o r l i t e r a l l y " e n a c t [ s ] what p h i l o s o p h y o n l y t h i n k s " ( P e r e l a n d r a , p. 1 6 8 ) . F u r t h e r c h a l l e n g e d t o r e spond t o t h e l i n e s o f h i s s t o r y , Ransom e n t e r s a " s p h e r e o f d e c i s i o n " s t i l l l i t e r a l l y d e f i n e d by w o r d s . ' " I t i s n o t f o r n o t h i n g t h a t you a r e named R a n s o m , ' " M a l e l d i l t e l l s t h e p h i l o l o g i s t ( p . 1 6 8 ) . H i s name i s one w i t h h i s d e s t i n y , and h i s r e s p o n s e one w i t h h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , a l t h o u g h " t o c o n n e c t t h e name Ransom w i t h t h e a c t o f r an som ing wou l d have been f o r h im a mere pun " ( p . 1 6 8 ) . Ransom must l e a r n t o speak t h e s a c r a m e n t a l l a nguage i n a more t h a n m e t a p h o r i c s e n s e , howeve r . L a t e r we l e a r n t h a t h i s f i r s t name i s as p o r t e n t o u s as h i s su rname , mean ing " f r i e n d o f t h e e l d i l a . " As G i b s o n n o t e s , O y a r s a ' s name s i m i l a r l y c i r c u m s c r i b e s h i s 5 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . In h i s own s phe r e where he r u l e s he i s c a l l e d O y a r s a , bu t on P e r e l a n d r a h i s name i s s i m p l y " M a l a c a n d r a " ( p . 2 2 4 ) . Such l i t e r a l q u i d d i t y o f t h e s a c r a m e n t a l t ongue i s f u r t h e r d e m o n s t r a t e d when t he K i n g names t h e p l a c e where M a l e l d i l has t a u g h t h im many s e c r e t s . ' " I t s name i s L u r , ' s a i d t h e K i n g . ' I t s name i s L u r , ' r e p e a t e d t h e e l d i l a . And Ransom r e a l i s e d t h a t t h e K i n g had u t t e r e d no t an o b s e r v a t i o n bu t an e n a c t m e n t ' " ( p . 2 4 1 ; emphas i s a d d e d ) . W i t h e v e r y r e s p l e n d e n t d ep t h t h e l a nguage o f i n c a r n a t i o n becomes more s o l i d and l e s s a b s t r a c t ; we t r u l y t a s t e t h e l a n g u a g e . L ' E n g l e i d e n t i f i e s naming w i t h a r t ' s s a c r a m e n t a l a c t i v i t y : t o name i s t o c a l l f o r t h l o v i n g l y i n t o t h e f r eedom o f a r e s p o n s i b l e d e s t i n y , "and so open t h e w i de g a t e s o f c r e a t i v i t y " ( W a l k i n g on W a t e r , p p . 1 1 2 - 1 3 ) . In an agony o f r e c o g n i t i o n Ransom comes t o t h i s same r e a l i z a t i o n : 5 S p i n n e r o f T a l e s , p. 4 0 . 133 B e f o r e h i s Mo t he r had borne h i m , b e f o r e h i s a n c e s t o r s had been c a l l e d Ransoms, b e f o r e ransom had been t h e name f o r a payment t h a t d e l i v e r s , b e f o r e t h e w o r l d was made, a l l t h e s e t h i n g s had so s t o o d t o g e t h e r i n e t e r n i t y t h a t t h e v e r y s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e p a t t e r n a t t h i s p o i n t l a y i n t h e i r coming t o g e t h e r i n j u s t t h i s f a s h i o n . And he bowed h i s head and g r oaned and r e p i n e d a g a i n s t h i s f a t e . ( p . 168) Lew i s d e s c r i b e s h i s d e c i s i o n t o c o n v e r t t o C h r i s t i a n i t y as h i s own such " f r e e " r e s p o n s e t o a p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y : I know v e r y w e l l when, bu t h a r d l y how, t h e f i n a l s t e p was t a k e n . I was d r i v e n t o Whipsnade one sunny m o r n i n g . When we s e t o u t I d i d no t b e l i e v e t h a t J e s u s C h r i s t i s t h e Son o f God , and when we r e a c h e d t h e zoo I d i d . . . . I t was more l i k e when a man, a f t e r l o n g s l e e p , s t i l l l y i n g m o t i o n l e s s i n b e d , becomes aware t h a t he i s now awake. And i t was , l i k e t h a t moment on t o p o f t h e b u s , amb iguous . F reedom, o r n e c e s s i t y ? Or do t h e y d i f f e r a t t h e i r maximum? A t t h a t maximum a man i s what he d o e s ; t h e r e i s n o t h i n g o f h im l e f t o v e r o r o u t s i d e t h e a c t . ( J o y , p. 223) " Tha t moment on t o p o f t h e bu s " t o w h i c h Lew i s r e f e r s was an e a r l i e r s u b - C h r i s t i a n e x p e r i e n c e o f h i s , when f r eedom and n e c e s s i t y s i m i l a r l y i n t e r t w i n e d i n t h e o v e rwhe lm i ng q u i d d i t y o f a s a c r a m e n t a l u n i v e r s e : I f e l t m y s e l f b e i n g , t h e r e and t h e n , g i v e n a f r e e c h o i c e . I c o u l d open t h e d o o r o r keep i t s h u t ; I c o u l d u n b u c k l e t h e armour o r keep i t o n . . . . I c hose t o o p e n , t o u n b u c k l e , t o l o o s e n t h e r e i n . I s a y , " I c h o s e , " y e t i t d i d n o t r e a l l y seem p o s s i b l e t o do t h e o p p o s i t e . On t h e o t h e r h and , I was aware o f no m o t i v e s . You c o u l d a r gue t h a t I was no t a f r e e a g e n t , bu t I am more i n c l i n e d t o t h i n k t h a t t h i s came n e a r e r t o b e i n g a p e r f e c t l y f r e e a c t t h an most t h a t I have e v e r done . N e c e s s i t y may no t be t h e o p p o s i t e o f f r e e d o m , and pe rhaps a man i s most f r e e when, i n s t e a d o f p r o d u c i n g m o t i v e s , he c o u l d o n l y s a y , " I am what I d o . " ( J o y , pp . 211 -12 ) The c o m p o s i t e r e a l i t y o f t h e s a c r a m e n t a l l a nguage c o n t i n u a l l y e r a s e s t e r r e s t r i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s . Because ' o n l y t h e a c t u a l i s r e a l , ' any f r e e l y 134 u t t e r e d r e s p o n s e w i l l c o m p r i s e o n e ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . U l t i m a t e l y , t h e o n l y o p t i o n o u t s i d e speech i s s i l e n c e : " ' T o wa l k o u t o f H i s w i l l i s t o w a l k i n t o n o w h e r e , ' " as t h e Lady s a y s ( p . 1 3 2 ) . Ransom's r e s p o n s e t o h i s d e s t i n y c o n f i r m s t h i s e q u a t i o n o f c h o i c e and n e c e s s i t y : You m i g h t s a y , i f you l i k e d , t h a t t h e power o f c h o i c e had been s i m p l y s e t a s i d e and an i n f l e x i b l e d e s t i n y s u b s t i t u t e d f o r i t . On t h e o t h e r h and , you m i g h t s a y t h a t he had been d e l i v e r e d f r om t h e r h e t o r i c o f h i s p a s s i o n s and had emerged i n t o u n a s s a i l a b l e f r e e d o m . Ransom c o u l d n o t , f o r t h e l i f e o f h i m , see any d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s e two s t a t e m e n t s . P r e d e s t i n a t i o n and f r eedom were a p p a r e n t l y i d e n t i c a l , ( p . 170) Response and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y c o n t i n u e t o i n t e r s e c t i n a r i o t o f q u i d d i t y once Ransom has r e a ched h i s c l i m a c t i c d e c i s i o n t o k i l l t h e Un-man. Even as he i s d e c i d i n g , t h e f a t a l e n c o u n t e r becomes a f a i t a c c o m p l i , u n d i s t u r b e d by t h e mere f l u x o f t i m e . The o n l y d i f f e r e n c e was t h a t he k n e w — a l m o s t as a h i s t o r i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n — t h a t i t was g o i n g t o be done . . The f u t u r e a c t s t o o d t h e r e , f i x e d and u n a l t e r a b l e as i f he had a l r e a d y p e r f o rmed i t . I t was a mere i r r e l e v a n t d e t a i l t h a t i t happened t o o c cupy t h e p o s i t i o n we c a l l f u t u r e i n s t e a d o f t h a t wh i c h we c a l l p a s t . ( p . 170) "Thus s ome th i n g does r e a l l y depend o n ' m y c h o i c e , " L ew i s s a y s . "My f r e e a c t c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e c o sm i c s h ape . Tha t c o n t r i b u t i o n i s made i n e t e r n i t y o r ' b e f o r e a l l w o r l d s ' ; bu t my c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f c o n t r i b u t i n g r e a c h e s me a t a p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t i n t h e t i m e - s e r i e s " ( M i r a c l e s , p. 2 1 4 ) . The o ve rwhe lm i ng s o l i d i t y o f t h e t a s k no t y e t e n a c t e d i s a c t u a l l y a boon t o Ransom, and an a b e t t o r o f h i s f r e e r e s p o n s e r a t h e r t h an t h e shadow o f d e s t i n y . T h a t i s , t h e i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f t h e f u t u r e a c t makes i t s magn i t ude l e s s i m p o s i n g and i t s enormousness l e s s i n h i b i t i n g . Mo ra l 135 d u t i e s w h i c h wou ld s t a g g e r us i f r e v e a l e d i n a l l t h e i r c o sm i c s i g n i f i c a n c e a r e f r e q u e n t l y m e d i a t e d i n c r e m e n t a l l y i n L e w i s ' w r i t i n g . The t r i l o g y i t s e l f assumes such a modest i n c e p t i o n : o n l y Ransom's u r g e n t need o f a n i g h t ' s l o d g i n g p rompts h im t o i n q u i r e a f t e r H a r r y . The re i s no d e l i b e r a t e , a s s e r t i v e h e r o i s m on h i s p a r t : t h e t h o u g h t s i m p l y becomes t h e d e c i s i o n , even as t h e d e c i s i o n m e l t s i n t o t h e a c t . "Wha teve r t h e p r o c e s s o f t h o u g h t may have b e e n , he f ound t h a t t h e men ta l p i c t u r e o f h i m s e l f c a l l i n g a t The R i s e had assumed a l l t h e s o l i d i t y o f a t h i n g d e t e r m i n e d upon " ( P l a n e t , p p . 9 - 1 0 ) . S m a l l t hough i t may b e , o n e ' s f r e e r e s p o n s e does c o - i n h e r e w i t h o n e ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The f u t u r e a c t t h en s t a n d s f i x e d and s o l i d , and t h e r e s t o f t h e t a l e s i m p l y e n a c t s what a l r e a d y i s . We m i gh t c l a s s L e w i s ' P e r e l a n d r a as one o f t h o s e s t o r i e s wh i c h he s a y s do "what no t heo rem can q u i t e d o . " A t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f such s t o r i e s , s a y s L e w i s , "we have seen how d e s t i n y and f r e e w i l l can be c o m b i n e d , even how f r e e w i l l i s t h e modus o p e r a n d i o f d e s t i n y " ("On S t o r i e s , " p. 1 0 1 ) . Th rough Ransom's e x p e r i e n c e t h e r e a d e r a c q u i r e s p r e c i s e l y such i n s i g h t s : he u n d e r s t a n d s f r eedom t o be one w i t h t h e n e c e s s i t y o f r e s p o n s e , and he l e a r n s t h r o u g h h i s f r e e r e s p o n s e s t o h e l p M a l e l d i l w r i t e t h a t s t o r y wh i c h He has a l r e a d y penned . S t o r y r e a d e r s a r e a b l e t o g r a s p t h i s p a r a d o x , L ew i s p o i n t s o u t i n "The S e e i n g E y e , " because t h e y a r e a l r e a d y f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e c o n c e p t o f a f i c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r h a v i n g f r e e w i l l , even w h i l e h i s c o u r s e has been p r e - d e t e r m i n e d by t h e a u t h o r . T r a n s p o s i n g t h i s p r i n c i p l e t o t h e r e a l w o r l d , we can u n d e r s t a n d t h e s y n o n y m i t y o f f r e e w i l l and d e s t i n y i n o u r own r o l e s w i t h i n t h e A u t h o r ' s s t o r y . The r e i s o f c o u r s e one c r u c i a l p o i n t where t h i s a n a l o g y b r e a k s down: "God can make t h i n g s w h i c h n o t o n l y — l i k e a p o e t ' s o r n o v e l i s t ' s c h a r a c t e r s — s e e m t o have a p a r t i a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t l i f e , bu t 136 r e a l l y have i t " ( " S e e i n g E y e , " p. 1 7 2 ) . What t h e r e a d e r c a n n o t l e a r n by a n a l o g y , howeve r , he can l e a r n t h r o u g h Ransom's e x p e r i e n c e , c o n f i r m i n g t h a t f r e e c h o i c e does c o i n c i d e w i t h n e c e s s i t y . The i n s i g h t i n t o human f r eedom wh i c h Ransom g a i n s t h r o u g h h i s d e c i s i o n t o k i l l t h e Un-man makes h i s c h o i c e t h e c l i m a x o f t h e s t o r y . I t i s n o t t h e p e c u l i a r i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e d e c i s i o n wh i c h g e n e r a t e s i t s c l i m a c -t i c e f f e c t , f o r Ransom u n d e r s t a n d s t h a t " i t m i gh t as w e l l be any o t h e r c h o i c e as t h i s " ( p . 1 7 1 ) . In t h e q u i d d i t y o f t h e i n c a r n a t i o n a l l a n g u a g e , each morpheme i s as i m p o r t a n t as t h e n e x t . P e r e l a n d r a ' s f a t e depended as much on Ransom's d e c i s i o n t o i n q u i r e a f t e r H a r r y as i t now depends on h i s r e s o l v e t o k i l l t h e Un-man. "The f i e r c e l i g h t wh i c h he had seen r e s t i n g on t h i s moment o f d e c i s i o n r e s t e d i n r e a l i t y on a l l " ( p . 1 7 1 ) . In mak ing t h i s d e c i s i o n Ransom i s s i m p l y r i d i n g t h e n e x t wave o f h i s own s t o r y , f u l l y r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t " i t m i gh t as w e l l be he as a n o t h e r " ( p . 1 7 1 ) . ' "My name a l s o i s R a n s o m , ' " a V o i c e s a y s ( p . 1 6 8 ) . The s h e e r s o l i d Noun w h i c h u n d e r l i e s a l l i n c a r n a t i o n a l l a nguage p e n e t r a t e s o u r i m a g i n a t i o n and e choes i n o u r e a r s . The r e a d e r h ea r s w i t h Ransom and u n d e r s t a n d s t h e i m p e r a t i v e : we a r e a l l c a l l e d t o be l i t t l e C h r i s t s . A l t h o u g h i t i s Ransom's name t h a t i s one w i t h h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , we know t h a t i t m i g h t as w e l l be we as h e . "He s t o o d f o r M a l e l d i l : bu t no more t h a n . . . any man s t a n d s f o r Him i n d o i n g any good a c t i o n " ( p . 1 7 1 ) . Even though o u r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e he ro t h u s becomes r a t h e r p h i l o s o p h i c a l and i m p e r s o n a l , we c o n t i n u e t o see t h r o u g h Ransom's eyes and l e a r n o n t o l o g i c a l l y t h r o u g h h i s e x p e r i e n c e . Because i t m i g h t as w e l l be anyone e l s e as h e , Ransom does i l l u s t r a t e a p r i n c i p l e ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , i t r ema i n s h i s p e r s o n a l s t o r y . "The t h i n g was i r r e d u c i b l y , n a k e d l y r e a l . . . . I t r e s t e d w i t h no o t h e r c r e a t u r e i n a l l t i m e o r a l l s p a c e " ( p . 1 6 1 ) . 137 " I f t h e i s s u e l a y i n M a l e l d i l ' s h a n d s , Ransom and t h e Lady were t h o s e hands " ( p . 1 6 1 ) . A l t h o u g h one moment i s as s i g n i f i c a n t as t h e n e x t , i t i s t h i s moment a t hand and n o t a n o t h e r , so t h a t " t h e f a t e o f a w o r l d r e a l l y depended on how t h e y behaved i n t h e n e x t few h o u r s " ( p . 1 6 1 ) . G i v e n " t h e p r e p o s t e r o u s t r u t h t h a t a l l r e a l l y depended on t h e i r a c t i o n s , " Ransom's r e s p o n s e t o r e s p o n s i b i l i t y becomes i n f i n i t e l y i m p o r t a n t . "A s t o n e may d e t e r m i n e t h e c o u r s e o f a r i v e r . He was t h a t s t o n e a t t h i s h o r r i b l e moment w h i c h had become t h e c e n t r e o f t h e who l e u n i v e r s e " ( p . 1 6 2 ) . " T h u s , and n o t o t h e r w i s e , t h e w o r l d was made. E i t h e r s o m e t h i n g o r n o t h i n g must depend on i n d i v i d u a l c h o i c e s . And i f s o m e t h i n g , who c o u l d s e t bounds t o i t ? " ( p . 1 6 2 ) . The f a t e o f a w o r l d hangs i n t h e b a l a n c e and a l l heaven and h e l l have e n t e r e d t h e f r a y , y e t a b o d i l y e n c o u n t e r d e t e r m i n e s t h e ou t come . The i n t e n s e p h y s i c a l n a t u r e o f what amounts t o an e s s e n t i a l l y s p i r i t u a l b a t t l e has t r o u b l e d many c r i t i c s , as i t i n d e e d t r o u b l e s Ransom i n t h e n o v e l . G i b s o n smooths o v e r t h e p r o b l e m by s i m p l y e l i m i n a t i n g t h e f undamen t a l d i s p a r i t y . In h i s o p i n i o n , L ew i s makes i t p a t e n t l y c l e a r t h a t he i s n o t s a y i n g " t h e mora l i s s u e s o f a w o r l d hang on t h e outcome o f a b o x i n g m a t c h " ( S p i n n e r o f T a l e s , p. 5 2 ) . To t h i s e n d , G i b s o n c o n t i n u e s , Ransom v o i c e s t h e same o b j e c t i o n wh i c h comes t o t h e r e a d e r ' s m i n d , t h a t "no such c r u d e , m a t e r i a l i s t i c s t r u g g l e c o u l d p o s s i b l y be what M a l e l d i l r e a l l y i n t e n d e d " ( P e r e l a n d r a , p. 1 6 3 ) . Ransom t h en comes t o see t h e i s s u e i n i t s p r o p e r l i g h t , G i b s o n s a y s , f i n a l l y p e r c e i v i n g t h a t t h e mora l s t r u g g l e i s r e a l l y t h e L a d y ' s and t h a t he can have no i n t e g r a l r o l e i n what must be h e r p e r s o n a l s p i r i t u a l t r i u m p h . I n d e e d , Ransom c o n c l u d e s t h a t he has been g r o s s l y o v e r e s t i m a t i n g h i s own i m p o r t a n c e , f o r t h e 138 Lady has a l r e a d y won h e r v i c t o r y . " [He ] p e r c e i v e d t h a t h i s v o l u b l e s e l f had begged t he q u e s t i o n . Up t o t h i s p o i n t t h e Lady had r e p e l l e d h e r a s s a i l a n t . She was shaken and w e a r y , and t h e r e were some s t a i n s pe rhaps i n h e r i m a g i n a t i o n , bu t she had s t o o d " ( P e r e l a n d r a , p. 1 6 5 ) . G i b s on empha s i z e s t h a t Ransom's j o b now i s i n c i d e n t a l : he i s s i m p l y " t o remove t h e p e r s o n i f i e d m a l i c e " and p r o v i d e " ' t h e way o f e s c a p e ' p r o m i s e d t o t h o s e who a r e t e m p t e d " ( S p i n n e r o f T a l e s , p. 5 2 ) . C e r t a i n l y G i b s o n r e ad s t h e t e x t a r i g h t i n a f f i r m i n g t h a t t h e Lady has p r oven h e r s e l f t h e mora l v i c t o r . Tha t Ransom's e n s u i n g p h y s i c a l s t r u g g l e i s n o t a r a d i c a l l y mora l c o n q u e s t , and t h a t i t does n o t d e t e r m i n e t he mora l i s s u e s o f a p l a n e t , howeve r , a r e un founded c o n c l u s i o n s w h i c h i g n o r e L e w i s ' empha t i c s t a t e m e n t s t o t h e c o n t r a r y . H i s j o u r n e y t o P e r e l a n d r a was n o t a mora l e x e r c i s e , n o r a sham f i g h t . . . . The f a t e o f a w o r l d r e a l l y depended on how t h e y behaved i n t h e n e x t few h o u r s . . . . They c o u l d , i f t h e y c h o s e , d e c l i n e t o s ave t h e i n n o c e n c e o f t h i s new r a c e , and i f t h e y d e c l i n e d i t s i n n o c e n c e wou l d n o t be s a v e d . ( P e r e l a n d r a , p. 161 ; emphases added) G i b s o n f a i l s t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t Ransom's o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e f i g h t a r e bu t p e r s o n a l e x c u s e s — r e d h e r r i n g s w h i c h L ew i s i n t r o d u c e s i n t o t h e t e x t t o expose t h e f a l s e d i c h o t o m i e s o f o u r norma l p e r c e p t i o n . Ransom r a t i o n a l i z e s , f o r e xamp l e : " I t s t o o d t o r e a s o n t h a t a s t r u g g l e w i t h t h e D e v i l meant a s p i r i t u a l s t r u g g l e . . . t h e n o t i o n o f a p h y s i c a l combat was o n l y f i t f o r a s a v a g e . I f o n l y i t were as s i m p l e as t h a t . . . . I t wou l d deg rade t h e s p i r i t u a l w a r f a r e t o t h e c o n d i t i o n o f mere m y t h o l o g y " ( p . 163; b o l d f a c e p r i n t emphas i s a d d e d ) . H e r e , howeve r , Ransom u t t e r s t h e f a t a l words w h i c h choke a l l f u r t h e r o b j e c t i o n s , f o r m y t h o l o g y i s a n y t h i n g bu t " m e r e , " as he has been l e a r n i n g : 139 [Ransom] go t a n o t h e r c h e c k . . . . [He] had been p e r c e i v i n g t h a t t h e t r i p l e d i s t i n c t i o n o f t r u t h f r om myth and o f bo th f r om f a c t was p u r e l y t e r r e s t r i a l . . . . A l l t h i s he had t h o u g h t b e f o r e . Now he knew i t . The P r e s e n c e i n t h e d a r k n e s s , n e v e r b e f o r e so f o r m i d a b l e , was p u t t i n g t h e s e t r u t h s i n t o h i s h and s , l i k e t e r r i b l e j e w e l s , ( p p . 163-64) Ransom has come up a g a i n s t t h e c o n c r e t e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e s a c r a m e n t a l l a n g u a g e , a g a i n s t w h i c h a l l h i s o b j e c t i o n s w o r d l e s s l y m e l t away. "Do a l l t h e o r e t i c a l p r ob l ems c o n c e a l [ s u c h ] s h i r k i n g s by t h e w i l l ? " L ew i s muses p e r c e p t i v e l y i n a L e t t e r ("To S i s t e r P e n e l o p e , C . S . M . V . , " 22 Dec . 1942 , 2 0 2 ) . The r e a d e r s i m i l a r l y comes up a g a i n s t t h e c o n c r e t e n e s s o f t h e s a c r a m e n t a l l a nguage i n v i c a r i o u s l y e x p e r i e n c i n g Ransom's f i g h t w i t h t h e Un-man. Thomas Howard d e s c r i b e s how g r a p h i c drama l i t e r a l l y embod ies theme: The s h e e r p h y s i c a l g r o s s n e s s o f t h e f i g h t , d e s c r i b e d a t a g o n i z i n g l e n g t h , page a f t e r p age , d r a m a t i z e s w i t h t e r r i b l e c l a r i t y t h e t h i n g t h a t L ew i s has been w o r k i n g a t a l l t h r o u g h h i s f i c t i o n : t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between f l e s h and s p i r i t , n a t u r e and s u p e r n a t u r e , h i s t o r y and m y t h , i s o n l y a p r o v i s i o n a l and c o n t i n g e n t o n e . T h i s f i g h t does no t d i f f e r i n s u b s t a n c e f r om a l l a rguments w i t h u n b e l i e f and a p o s t a s y and t e m p t a t i o n . T h i s i s s i m p l y what i t l o o k s l i k e and what i t comes t o when a l l i l l u s i o n s and euphemisms have been s t r i p p e d away. In o u r own s t o r y , o f c o u r s e , we a r e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h i s s o r t o f t h i n g : t h e same f i g h t g o t down t o n a i l s , s p l i n t e r s , t h o r n s , b l o o d . ( A c h i e v e m e n t , pp . 1 1 3 - 1 4 ) . A n o t h e r c r i t i c , R o b e r t P l a n k , assumes l i k e G i b s o n t h a t Ransom's p h y s i c a l b a t t l e i s n o t i t s e l f e s s e n t i a l l y s p i r i t u a l , bu t u n l i k e G i b s o n he condemns r a t h e r t h a n r a t i o n a l i z e s t h e p h y s i c a l e n c o u n t e r . "The f i g h t between good and e v i l i s a c t u a l l y an a b s t r a c t p r o c e s s , " P l a n k b e g i n s . " T r u e , t o become a n a r r a t i v e i t has t o be i n c a r n a t e d - - b u t i n so much t o r n f l e s h ? One wou ld t h i n k i t c o u l d be done , w i t h o u t b l u n t i n g t h e p o i n t 140 of the story, on some level c l o s e r to the intrapsychic struggle i t r e a l l y i s . " * * P h y s i c a l i t y i s p r e c i s e l y the point of the story, however: i t i s not "quite i r r e l e v a n t to the s p i r i t u a l issue," as Ransom mistakenly suggests (p. 164), nor i s i t a mere image, symbol, or narrative expedient; rather, i t js^ that moral struggle. In Miracles, Lewis writes: "Certain s p i r i t u a l g i f t s are offered us only on condition that we perform c e r t a i n bodily acts. A f t e r that we cannot r e a l l y be in doubt of His i n -tention. To shrink back from a l l that can be c a l l e d Nature into negative s p i r i t u a l i t y i s as i f we ran away from horses instead of learning to r i d e " (p. 194). Ransom himself comes to r e a l i z e the moral i n t e g r i t y of the physical attack against the Un-man; l e t us not do l e s s . A f t e r a l l , as Tor and T i n i d r i l p r e d i c t , Deep Heaven's f i n a l attack against the Bent One and his e l d i l a w i l l be physical warfare on a cosmic scale. In one sense Ransom's decision to k i l l the Un-man i s c l i m a c t i c . It does not follow that the actual f i g h t and the rest of the novel are a n t i - c l i m a c t i c , however, j u s t as the unalterable f i x i t y of a future act does not mean that the fate of a world i s already comfortably secured. This i s the lesson of quiddity that Perelandra c o n t i n u a l l y teaches: only the actual i s r e a l . The novel's narrative tension continues to b u i l d even a f t e r Ransom's e x i s t e n t i a l dilemma has been resolved, because the re s o l u t i o n i t s e l f i s i n d e f i n i t e , r equiring Ransom's commitment to a c e r t a i n action with an uncertain outcome. The agonizing decision which the King reaches, to obey M a l e l d i l regardless of the Queen's actions, fi "Some Psychological Aspects of Lewis's T r i l o g y , " in Shadows of  Imagination, p. 35. 141 s i m i l a r l y l e a v e s h im w i t h a c u r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n o f d i r e c t i o n and i n d e t e r m i n a c y . " ' H e gave me no a s s u r a n c e . No f i x e d l a n d . A l w a y s one must t h r ow o n e s e l f i n t o t h e w a v e ' " ( p . 2 4 2 ) . Ransom's r e s o l u t i o n l i k e w i s e a f f o r d s h im l i t t l e c o m f o r t , d e s p i t e t h e V o i c e ' s e n c o u r a g e m e n t s . "The f u t u r e was b l a c k as t h e n i g h t i t s e l f , " we a r e t o l d , and t he P e r e l a n d r i a n n i g h t i s a " s e a m l e s s d a r k n e s s , " as Ransom c o n s i d e r s , " n o t l i k e n i g h t bu t l i k e b e i n g i n a c o a l - c e l l a r , d a r k n e s s i n w h i c h h i s own hand h e l d b e f o r e h i s f a c e was t o t a l l y i n v i s i b l e " ( p . 167 and p. 4 8 ) . The a u t h e n t i c i t y o f a s t o r y w r i t t e n i n t h e i n c a r n a t i o n a l l a nguage comes no t f r om i t s s e q u e n t i a l i t y , bu t f r om i t s A u t h o r i a l i n s p i r a t i o n . Tha t i s , a s s u r a n c e and s o l i d i t y a r e g o t f r om a v e r t i c a l l i n e o f r e f e r e n c e , n o t h o r i z o n t a l . The l i g h t w h i c h i s s p i r i t u a l i s j n t h e d a r k n e s s t h a t i s t e m p o r a l . T h i s c o n c e p t i s f i g u r e d i n Ransom's e a r l y s p e c u l a t i o n abou t P e r e l a n d r a ' s g e o p h y s i c a l n a t u r e . He c o n s i d e r s t h a t i f S c h i a p a r e l l i i s r i g h t abou t t h e p l a n e t r e v o l v i n g on h e r s e l f o n l y once e v e r y s o l a r y e a r , one c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y s t a n d n e a r t h e f r o n t i e r between t h e p e r p e t u a l l y d a r k and sunned s i d e s and l o o k i n t o e v e r l a s t i n g day and n i g h t ( p . 2 7 ) . C e r