UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The life of Severus Alexander Ertel, Andrea Beverly 1986

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THE L I F E OF SEVERUS ALEXANDER By ANDREA BEVERLY ERTEL B . A . , McMaster U n i v e r s i t y , 1984 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of C l a s s i c s ) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s tandard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1986 © Andrea B e v e r l y E r t e l , 1986 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f CjtsiAJLUCA)  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1956 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3 )E - 6 £ 3 / 8 1 ) i i ABSTRACT There has been no biography p u b l i s h e d i n E n g l i s h of the Emperor Severus Alexander s i n c e that of Hopkins i n 1907. Jarde produced a more c r i t i c a l work i n French i n 1925, but s i n c e that time much p r o g r e s s has been made i n source c r i t i c i s m ( e s p e c i a l l y of the H i s t o r i a A u g u s t a ) and t h e r e have been e p i g r a p h i c a l and p a p y r o l o g i c a l d i s c o v e r i e s that shed new l i g h t on h i s r e i g n . I t has been my aim i n t h i s t h e s i s t o r e - e v a l u a t e the a n c i e n t l i t e r a r y sources on the b a s i s of these advances to produce a new b i o g r a p h i c a l study of the l i f e and r e i g n of Severus Alexander. The t h e s i s i s d i v i d e d c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y i n t o e l e v e n c h a p t e r s . Chapter I i s a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of the ancient sources. Chapter II d e a l s with Alexander's b i r t h and the nature of h i s C a e s a r s h i p . The t h i r d chapter d i s c u s s e s h i s a c c e s s i o n to the p r i n c i p a t e , the t i t l e s and powers he assumed. Chapter IV deals with the date of J u l i a Maesa's d e a t h based on the F e r i a l e Duranum, the A c t a  Fratrum A r v a l i u m , and other i n s c r i p t i o n a l e vidence. Chapter V covers the career of U l p i a n and the r e c e n t l y d i s c o v e r e d date f o r h i s d e a t h based on P.Oxy. 2565. The s i x t h c h a p t e r i n c l u d e s A l e x a n d e r ' s m a r r i a g e and J u l i a Mamaea's r o l e i n h i s r e i g n . Chapter VII covers various aspects of Alexander's a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g t h e c o n s i l i u m p r i n c i p i s and t h e o f f i c e o f t h e p r a e f e c t u s p r a e t o r i o . I t i n c l u d e s a d i s c u s s i o n of the Maecenas-A g r i p p a debate i n Book 52 of Dio's Roman H i s t o r y . The e i g h t h c h a p t e r i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h the y e a r s 226-9 and the m i l i t a r y i i i u p r i s i n g s d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d . C h a p t e r s IX and X d e a l w i t h t h e P e r s i a n and G e r m a n i c Wars r e s p e c t i v e l y . The e l e v e n t h and f i n a l c h a p t e r i n c l u d e s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e d a t e , l o c a t i o n and c a u s e s o f A l e x a n d e r ' s m u r d e r . The e v i d e n c e f o r a p r o p o s e d v i s i t t o E g y p t i s d i s c u s s e d i n A p p e n d i x I ; t h e t r a d i t i o n o f A l e x a n d e r a s a s t r i c t d i s c i p l i n a r i a n , i n A p p e n d i x I I . i v CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I THE SOURCES 1 II BACKGROUND 17 I I I IMPERATOR M. AURELIUS SEVERUS ALEXANDER 29 IV THE DEATH OF JULIA MAESA 35 V THE DEATH OF ULPIAN 4 2 VI JULIA MAMAEA 50 V I I ALEXANDER'S ADMINISTRATION 58 V I I I THE MIDDLE YEARS 78 IX THE PERSIAN WAR 84 X THE GERMANIC WAR 9 5 XI THE END OF THE SEVERAN DYNASTY 100 BIBLIOGRAPHY 105 APPENDIX I 111 APPENDIX II 115 V ABBREVIATIONS A l l a b b r e v i a t i o n s c o n t a i n e d h e r e i n f o l l o w t h e s t a n d a r d o f t h o s e l i s t e d i n L'annee P h i l o l o g i q u e , w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g e x c e p t i o n s : BMC C o i n s o f t h e Roman E m p i r e i n t h e B r i t i s h Museum C I L C o r p u s I n s c r i p t i o n u m L a t i n a r u m P I R P r o s o p o g r a p h i a I m p e r i i Romani S a e c . I . I I . I l l v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s owes a g r e a t d e a l t o P r o f e s s o r K.A. D u s i n g f o r h e r h e l p f u l g u i d a n c e and p a t i e n c e . I am g r a t e f u l f o r h e r g e n e r o s i t y w i t h h e r t i m e and k n o w l e d g e . I a l s o w i s h t o t h a n k P r o f e s s o r J . A . S . E v a n s f o r h i s u s e f u l s u g g e s t i o n s a n d comments. 1 THE SOURCES The t h r e e m a i n s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e l i f e a n d c a r e e r o f S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r a r e C a s s i u s D i o , H e r o d i a n a n d t h e H i s t o r i a  A u g u s t a . S h o r t e r s y n o p s e s o f h i s l i f e c a n be f o u n d i n t h e w o r k s o f S e x t u s A u r e l i u s V i c t o r , E u t r o p i u s , Z o s i m u s a n d Z o n a r a s . H o w e v e r , t h e s e e p i t o m a t o r s a r e l e s s i n f o r m a t i v e d u e t o t h e b r e v i t y o f t h e i r a c c o u n t s . H e n c e , t h e h i s t o r i e s o f D i o a n d H e r o d i a n , a n d t h e H i s t o r i a A u g u s t a must be c o n s i d e r e d i n some d e t a i l i n o r d e r t o e v a l u a t e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y c o n t a i n . B u t t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n i s by no means an e x h a u s t i v e s o u r c e -c r i t i c i s m , s i n c e t h e m a i n f o c u s must be t h e b i o g r a p h y o f S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r h i m s e l f . I n my a t t e m p t t o be b o t h t h o r o u g h a n d c o n c i s e , t h e r e a r e many f o o t n o t e s t o w h i c h t h e r e a d e r may r e f e r f o r f u l l e r d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e s o u r c e s and t h e i r p r o b l e m s . F o r t h e s a k e o f c l a r i t y , t h e s o u r c e s w i l l be t a k e n i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r where p o s s i b l e . What we know o f D i o ' s l i f e d e r i v e s f r o m h i s Roman H i s t o r y . H i s n a t i v e c i t y was N i c a e a i n B i t h y n i a , a H e l l e n i s t i c f o u n d a t i o n w h i c h was a p r o s p e r o u s c i t y i n D i o ' s own t i m e . H i s f a t h e r , C a s s i u s A p r o n i a n u s was a s e n a t o r a n d a c o n s u l , who g o v e r n e d L y c i a - P a m p h y l i a , C i l i c i a a n d D a l m a t i a . D i o a c c o m p a n i e d h i m t o C i l i c i a . 1 We know n o t h i n g more o f h i s e a r l y y e a r s u n t i l he came t o Rome i n a b o u t A.D. 180 a t t h e age o f s i x t e e n o r s e v e n t e e n . As ' F e r g u s M i l l a r , A S t u d y o f C a s s i u s D i o ( L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964 ), p.8. 2 t h e s o n o f a s e n a t o r , h e may h a v e h e l d a p o s t i n t h e v i g i n t i v i r a t e , a m i l i t a r y t r i b u n a t e , a n d a q u a e s t o r s h i p a t t h e age o f a b o u t t w e n t y - f i v e . B u t t h e r e i s no c e r t a i n e v i d e n c e . The f i r s t d a t a b l e e v e n t i s r e c o r d e d by t h e h i s t o r i a n h i m s e l f , who t e l l s u s t h a t he was g i v e n t h e h o n o u r o f a p p o i n t m e n t t o t h e p r a e t o r s h i p by P e r t i n a x ( 7 3 . 1 2 . 2 ) . 2 As t h i s was i n 1 9 3 , one w o u l d e x p e c t h i s p r a e t o r s h i p t o be h e l d i n 194. M i l l a r s u p p o r t s t h e d a t e 3 b u t B a r n e s d i s a g r e e s , p o i n t i n g t o D i o ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f P e r t i n a x ' s f u n e r a l i n 1 9 3 . 4 D i o u s e s a t h i r d - p e r s o n v e r b t o d e s c r i b e t h e m a g i s t r a t e s i n o f f i c e and m a g i s t r a t e s - e l e c t , b u t a f i r s t - p e r s o n v e r b f o r " a l l t h e r e s t o f u s " , w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t D i o i s n o t y e t i n o f f i c e i n 193, o r e l e c t e d f o r 194 ( 7 4 . 5 . 2 - 3 ) . On t h e b a s i s o f t h i s p a s s a g e B a r n e s r i g h t l y c o n c l u d e s t h a t a d a t e o f 195 i s p r e f e r a b l e f o r D i o ' s p r a e t o r s h i p . The d a t e o f D i o ' s b i r t h c a n t h e n be p l a c e d a t c a . 164/65, a s t h e p r a e t o r s h i p was n o r m a l l y h e l d a t t h e age o f t w e n t y - n i n e , t h i r t y , o r v e r y s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r . 5 A f t e r h i s p r a e t o r s h i p , D i o w i l l h a v e g o v e r n e d a t l e a s t o n e p r o v i n c e , p r o b a b l y a n e a s t e r n o n e , b e f o r e b e c o m i n g c o n s u l , 2 A 1 1 r e f e r e n c e s t o book numbers and p a s s a g e s o f D i o ' s t e x t f o l l o w B o i s s e v a i n ' s n u m b e r i n g s y s t e m f o u n d a t t h e t o p o f t h e r i g h t h a n d p a g e s a n d i n r i g h t h a n d m a r g i n s . T h e o r i g i n a l n u m b e r i n g i s f o u n d a t t h e t o p o f l e f t hand p a g e s . 3 M i l l a r , o p . c i t . , p.16. 4 T . D . B a r n e s , "The C o m p o s i t i o n o f C a s s i u s D i o ' s Roman  H i s t o r y " , P h o e n i x 38 ( 1 9 8 4 ) , p.242. 5 J o h n M o r r i s , " L e g e s A n n a l e s U n d er t h e P r i n c i p a t e " , L i s t y  F i l o l o g i c k e 87 ( 1 9 6 4 ) , p .317,335. 3 p r o b a b l y s u f f e c t u s i n 205 o r 2 0 6 . 6 I t i s t h e a c c e p t e d v i e w t h a t D i o h e l d t h i s f i r s t c o n s u l s h i p u n d e r S e p t i m i u s S e v e r u s ( 7 6 . 1 6 . 4 ) . 7 Under S e p t i m i u s and h i s s o n , C a r a c a l l a , he was a l s o an a m i c u s p r i n c i p i s . He was i n Rome when C a r a c a l l a was m u r d e r e d i n M e s o p o t a m i a on 8 A p r i l 217 a n d when h i s s u c c e s s o r , M a c r i n u s was p r o c l a i m e d (78.16.2 - 1 7 . 4 ) . D i o r e m a i n e d i n Rome f o r most o f M a c r i n u s ' r e i g n , b u t , b e f o r e t h e l a t t e r ' s d e a t h , he was a p p o i n t e d c u r a t o r o f P e r g a m u m a n d S m y r n a ( 7 9 . 7 . 4 ) . A f t e r s p e n d i n g t h e w i n t e r o f 2 1 8 / 1 9 i n P e r g a m u m , he w e n t home t o B i t h y n i a , where he f e l l i l l . I n a b o u t 223/4 he went t o A f r i c a a s p r o c o n s u l , n e x t , a s l e q a t u s A u g u s t i , t o g o v e r n D a l m a t i a i n c a . 2 2 4 - 6 , and f i n a l l y t o P a n n o n i a S u p e r i o r f r o m c a . 226-8 ( 8 0 . 1 . 2 -3 ) . 8 From t h e r e he r e t u r n e d t o I t a l y w h e r e he h e l d t h e j o i n t c o n s u l s h i p w i t h S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r i n 229. A f t e r c o m p l e t i n g t h i s o f f i c e , D i o r e t u r n e d t o B i t h y n i a t o l i v e o u t t h e r e s t o f h i s l i f e , t h e l e n g t h o f w h i c h i s u n c e r t a i n . C o n c e r n i n g t h e d a t e a n d m e t h o d o f c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e Roman  H i s t o r y , D i o h i m s e l f g i v e s some i n f o r m a t i o n ( 7 2 . 2 3 . 5 ) . T h e r e w e r e t e n y e a r s s p e n t i n c o l l e c t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n a n d t w e l v e y e a r s o n c o m p o s i t i o n , b u t i t i s n o t c l e a r when t h i s t w e n t y - t w o y e a r p e r i o d f e l l . D i o s a y s t h a t he w r o t e two e a r l i e r w o r k s , a p a m p h l e t a b o u t d r e a m s and p o r t e n t s h e r a l d i n g S e p t i m i u s S e v e r u s ' 6 M i l l a r , o p . c i t . , p.17; B a r n e s , o p . c i t . , p .243. 7 F o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f D i o ' s f i r s t c o n s u l s h i p , s e e M i l l a r , o p . c i t . , A p p e n d i x I I , pp.204-7. 8 B a r n e s , o p . c i t . , p.224. 4 a c c e s s i o n , a n d a s h o r t h i s t o r y o f t h e c i v i l w a r s f r o m w h i c h S e p t i m i u s e m e r g e d a s v i c t o r ( 7 2 . 2 3 . 1 - 2 ) . S i n c e S e p t i m i u s f a v o u r a b l y a c k n o w l e d g e d t h e p a m p h l e t o f dreams on t h e d a y i t was p u b l i s h e d , a d a t e o f 196 o r 197 i s a s c r i b e d t o b o t h w o r k s , d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e S e p t i m i u s was i n Rome. I n t h e s h o r t h i s t o r y D i o d i d n o t i n c l u d e S e p t i m i u s 1 f i n a l v i c t o r y o v e r C l o d i u s A l b i n u s on 19 F e b r u a r y 197, w h i c h he s u r e l y w o u l d have done i f t h e b a t t l e had a l r e a d y t a k e n p l a c e when he w r o t e i t . 9 M i l l a r assumes t h a t D i o b e g a n h i s c o m p i l a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l i m m e d i a t e l y t h e r e a f t e r , f r o m 1 9 7 - 2 0 7 , a n d a c t u a l l y c o m p o s e d t h e Roman H i s t o r y i n t h e t w e l v e e n s u i n g y e a r s , f r o m 207-219. On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e c o n s e n s u s t h a t D i o c o l l e c t e d h i s m a t e r i a l u n d e r S e p t i m i u s S e v e r u s a n d w r o t e a l m o s t a l l o f h i s H i s t o r y b e f o r e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r ' s r e i g n i n 222 h a s r e c e n t l y b e e n c h a l l e n g e d . B a r n e s p o i n t s o u t t h a t h i s t o r y was c o n v e n t i o n a l l y w r i t t e n a b o u t d e a d e m p e r o r s a n d t h a t t h e l i v i n g r e c e i v e d p a n e g y r i c s , two p i e c e s o f w h i c h D i o had a l r e a d y w r i t t e n f o r S e p t i m i u s . I n t h i s c a s e , D i o c a n n o t h a v e c o n t e m p l a t e d a h i s t o r y down t o 211 w h i l e S e p t i m i u s s t i l l l i v e d . The e a r l i e s t a n d s h o r t e s t c h r o n o l o g y , t h e r e f o r e , w o u l d p l a c e t h e d e c a d e o f c o l l e c t i o n f r o m 2 1 1 - 2 2 0 , c o m p o s i t i o n f r o m 2 2 0 - 2 3 1 , m o s t l y u n d e r t h e r e i g n o f S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r . 1 0 E v e n l a t e r d a t e s h a v e b e e n p r o p o s e d o n t h e a r g u m e n t t h a t D i o d e c i d e d t o u n d e r t a k e h i s 9 M i l l a r , o p . c i t . , pp. 29-30. 1 0 B a r n e s , o p . c i t . , p. 241. 5 h i s t o r y o n l y a f t e r t h e d e a t h o f S e p t i m i u s , p u s h i n g f o r w a r d t h e d e c a d e o f r e s e a r c h t o 212-222 and t h e t w e l v e y e a r s o f c o m p o s i t i o n t o 2 2 2 - 2 3 4 . 1 1 A f t e r r e c o r d i n g t h e d e a t h o f C a r a c a l l a ( A p r i l 2 1 7 ) , D i o s a y s t h a t a f t e r S e p t i m i u s S e v e r u s d i e d , S e p t i m i u s a p p e a r e d t o h i m i n a d r e a m a n d o r d e r e d h i m t o r e c o r d a l l t h a t was s a i d a n d d o n e ( 7 8 . 1 0 . 1 - 2 ) . T h i s p a s s a g e has been i n t e r p r e t e d i n two ways, t h a t D i o ' s o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n was t o s t o p a t t h e d e a t h o f S e p t i m i u s , b u t t h a t a f t e r C a r a c a l l a ' s d e a t h he d e c i d e d t o go b e y o n d 4 F e b r u a r y 2 1 1 . By i m p l i c a t i o n t h i s w o u l d mean t h a t D i o h a d a t l e a s t f i n i s h e d g a t h e r i n g h i s m a t e r i a l t o 211 by t h i s t i m e . 1 2 C o n v e r s e l y , t h e p a s s a g e h a s b e e n u s e d t o a r g u e t h a t t h i s d ream was t h e m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e f o r D i o t o b e g i n a Roman h i s t o r y a n d , a s s u c h , g i v e s a t e r m i n u s p o s t quern f o r t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f m a t e r i a l . 1 3 Though t h i s a rgument i s by no means c o n c l u s i v e , t h e l a t e r d a t e s , p r o p o s e d by B a r n e s a nd L e t t a seem more c o n v i n c i n g . D i o w r o t e h i s Roman H i s t o r y i n e i g h t y b o o k s by t h e a n n a l i s t i c m e t h od. Of t h e s e , D i o ' s o r i g i n a l t e x t i s p r e s e r v e d o n l y i n B o o k s 3 6 - 5 4 , s u b s t a n t i a l f r a g m e n t s o f B o o k s 55-60 a n d i n a s e c t i o n c o n t a i n i n g p a r t s o f Books 79 and 80, f r o m t h e d e a t h o f C a r a c a l l a 1 1 C e s a r e L e t t a , " L a C o m p o s i z i o n e D e l l ' O p e r a d i C a s s i o D i o n e : C r o n o l o g i a E S f o n d o S t o r i c o - P o l i t i c o " , R i c e r c h e d i  S t o r i o g r a f i a A n t i c a I . R i c e r c h e d i S t o r i o g r a f i a G r e c a d i E t a Romana ( P i s a : G i a r d i n i , 1 9 7 9 ) , pp.117-189. 1 2 B a r n e s , o p . c i t . , p .245. 1 3 L e t t a , o p . c i t . , pp.148 f f . 6 t o t h e m i d d l e o f E l a g a b a l u s ' r e i g n . T h e r e a r e t h r e e m a j o r s o u r c e s f r o m w h i c h t h e m i s s i n g t e x t c a n be r e s t o r e d , t h e e a r l i e s t b e i n g e x c e r p t s f r o m h i s t o r i c a l w o r k s made on t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s o f E m p e r o r C o n s t a n t i n e P o r p h y r o g e n i t u s ( 9 1 2 - 9 5 9 ) . T h e s e e x c e r p t s , w r i t t e n b y a number o f c l a s s i c a l a n d B y z a n t i n e G r e e k s c h o l a r s , a r e o f g r e a t v a l u e f o r t h e r e s t o r a t i o n o f D i o ' s t e x t b e c a u s e t h e y l a r g e l y p r e s e r v e D i o ' s own w o r d i n g and c o v e r t h e w h o l e r a n g e o f D i o ' s h i s t o r y . 1 4 I n t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e monk X i p h i l i n u s o f T r a p e z u s w r o t e an e p i t o m e o f Books 36-80. The e p i t o m e f i l l s g a p s i n Books 56-60 and c o m p r i s e s t h e b u l k o f D i o ' s w o r k , a s we have i t , f r o m Book 61 t o t h e end. Though i t i s an e r r a t i c s e l e c t i o n o f m a t e r i a l , i t i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n D i o ' s o r i g i n a l o r d e r a n d o f t e n c l o s e t o D i o ' s w o r d i n g . 1 5 H a l f a c e n t u r y a f t e r X i p h i l i n u s , Z o n a r a s c o m p o s e d a n e p i t o m e f r o m c r e a t i o n t o 1118, u s i n g D i o f o r h i s Books 7-9. 1 6 H i s e p i t o m e i s t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e f o r r e c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e R e p u b l i c a n p e r i o d o f D i o ' s h i s t o r y a n d , b e c a u s e i t i s c l e a r t h a t he r e a d D i o i n t h e o r i g i n a l , he c a n a l s o be u s e d t o s u p p l e m e n t X i p h i l i n u s . F o r t h e r e i g n o f S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r , c o n t a i n e d w h o l l y i n Book 80, D i o w a r n s t h a t he i s u n a b l e t o g i v e a c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n o w i n g t o t h e f a c t t h a t he was r a r e l y i n Rome ( 8 0 . 1 . 1 - 2 ) . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o i m a g i n e , h o w e v e r , t h a t a man o f D i o ' s p o s i t i o n d i d n o t have 1 4 M i l l a r , o p . c i t . , p p.1-2. 1 5 I b i d . , p . 2 . 1 6 B o o k 12.14-15 c o n t a i n s i n f o r m a t i o n on S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r . 7 t h e b e s t s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o h i m . A more l i k e l y r e a s o n i s t h a t D i o was w r i t i n g a n a c c o u n t o f t h e r e i g n o f a l i v i n g e m p e r o r , w h i c h had i t s d a n g e r s . D i o ' s a c c o u n t , t h e r e f o r e , o f t h e r e i g n i s b r i e f , b u t i n f o r m a t i o n on A l e x a n d e r ' s e a r l i e r l i f e c a n be f o u n d i n h i s a c c o u n t o f t h e r e i g n o f E l a g a b a l u s ( a d . i n i t . 7 9 . 1 7 . 2 ) . Of t h e h i s t o r i a n H e r o d i a n we know v e r y l i t t l e , b u t m o d e r n s c h o l a r s h i p i s a g r e e d i n r e g a r d i n g h i m t o be g r e a t l y i n f e r i o r t o D i o . 1 7 The d a t e o f c o m p o s i t i o n and e x a c t d a t e s when he l i v e d , h i s s o c i a l s t a t u s a n d p o s i t i o n , h i s n a t i o n a l i t y , e v e n h i s name a r e m a t t e r s f o r d e b a t e . 1 8 H e r o d i a n ' s h i s t o r y , i n e i g h t b o o k s , e x t e n d s f r o m t h e d e a t h o f M a r c u s A u r e l i u s (A.D. 180) t o t h e a c c e s s i o n o f G o r d i a n I I I (A.D. 2 3 8 ) , a p e r i o d o f f i f t y - e i g h t y e a r s , w h i c h t h e h i s t o r i a n c l a i m s f e l l w i t h i n h i s own l i f e t i m e ( 1 , 2 , 5 ) . T e n t a t i v e d a t e s o f 178-250 f o r H e r o d i a n ' s l i f e a n d 2 4 8 - 2 5 0 f o r t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f h i s h i s t o r y seem t h e most r e a s o n a b l e b a s e d on t h e few c l u e s g i v e n i n h i s t e x t . 1 9 I t i s known t h a t I t a l y was n o t H e r o d i a n ' s h o m e l a n d -'With t h e e x c e p t i o n o f H e r o d i a n ' s a c c o u n t o f t h e r e i g n o f E l a g a b a l u s . See G.W. B o w e r s o c k , " H e r o d i a n and E l a g a b a l u s " , YC1S 24 ( 1 9 7 5 ) , pp.229-36. 1 8C.R. W h i t t a k e r , H e r o d i a n I (The Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y ) , ( L o n d o n , 1 9 7 0 ) , p . i x . 1 9 H e r o d i a n m e n t i o n s b o t h a s i x t y - y e a r p e r i o d o f t h e e m p i r e ( 1 . 1 . 5 ) and a s e v e n t y - y e a r p e r i o d ( 2 . 1 5 . 7 ) , t h e s e c o n d o f w h i c h i s t h e more p r e c i s e s t a t e m e n t and s h o u l d be u s e d f o r c a l c u l a t i o n o f l e n g t h o f l i f e . He a l s o m e n t i o n s w i t n e s s i n g t h e games o f Commodus, h e l d i n 192 ( 1 . 1 5 . 4 ) , i n w h i c h c a s e he w o u l d be a t l e a s t f o u r t e e n y e a r s o l d . From t h i s a b i r t h d a t e o f 178 c a n be c o n j e c t u r e d . F o r a f u l l d i s c u s s i o n , s e e W h i t t a k e r , o p . c i t . , 8 ( 2 . 1 1 . 8 ) a n d t h a t he was e m p l o y e d i n some f o r m o f i m p e r i a l a n d p u b l i c s e r v i c e ( 1 . 2 . 5 ) b u t t h e p r e c i s e n a t u r e o f t h i s s e r v i c e i s n o t a t a l l c l e a r . I t has been a r g u e d t h a t he was a t l e a s t u n d e r s e n a t o r i a l p a t r o n a g e , i f n o t a s e n a t o r h i m s e l f , o w i n g t o t h e f a c t t h a t Roman h i s t o r i a n s t r a d i t i o n a l l y had s u c h a s t a t u s . 2 0 On t h e o t h e r h a n d , G r o s s o a r g u e s f o r f r e e d m a n s t a t u s , b e c a u s e o f H e r o d i a n ' s l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s , h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n on p e r s o n a l i t i e s and i n t r i g u e , and h i s k n o w l e d g e o f i n t i m a t e p a l a c e d e t a i l s . H e r o d i a n d e s c r i b e s h i s h i s t o r y a n d m e n t i o n s h i s own p e r s o n a l s h a r e i n i t : a 5e u e x a x n v Mapicou x e X e u x r i v irapa i r a v x a x o v e u a u x o u B i o v e i f i o v xe i c a i rficouao: - V o x i S ' t&v < a i i r e f p a u e x e a x o v ev B a a i X i x a T s n S n u o a i a i s U T t r i p e a i a i s yevovevos - xourra o u v e Y P a ^ a ( 1 . 2 . 5 ) . G r o s s o a l s o p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e word u i r r i p e o i a i u s u a l l y r e f e r s t o a l o w o f f i c e , a s o p p o s e d t o gp x o t i / w h i c h i s u s e d t o d e s c r i b e s e n a t o r i a l p o s t s . 2 1 H e r o d i a n ' s r e l i a b i l i t y i s c o n s i d e r e d g r e a t l y i n f e r i o r t o t h a t o f D i o . H i s c h r o n o l o g y i s c o n f u s e d and s o m e t i m e s c o n t r a d i c t o r y , a n d o f t e n h i s n u m e r a l s a r e wrong. He i s g u i l t y o f t e l e s c o p i n g e v e n t s and h i s g e o g r a p h y i s p o o r . S i n c e he was a c o n t e m p o r a r y o f D i o i t w o u l d be s u r p r i s i n g i f he d i d n o t know o f D i o , t h o u g h he n e v e r p p . i x - x v i i . 2 0 I b i d . , p p . x x , n . l , x x i - x x i i . 2 1 F . G r o s s o , L a l o t t a p o l i t i c a a l tempo d i Commodo ( T o r i n o , 1 9 6 4 ) , pp. 34-5,42"! 9 m e n t i o n s h i m . T h e r e a r e a d v o c a t e s f o r t h e v i e w t h a t H e r o d i a n d i d n o t u s e D i o a t a l l , t h a t he d i d u s e D i o , o r t h a t t h e y b o t h u s e d a common s o u r c e . I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t H e r o d i a n u s e d D i o t o some e x t e n t b e c a u s e he w o u l d h a v e n e e d e d a l i t e r a r y s o u r c e f o r t h e e a r l i e r y e a r s o f h i s h i s t o r y , d u r i n g w h i c h he was a you n g b o y . 2 2 H e r o d i a n ' s g e n e r a l l a c k o f c r e d i b i l i t y i s c o n f i r m e d by t h e f a c t t h a t l a t e r w r i t e r s a v o i d e d h i m when p r e s e n t e d w i t h a n o t h e r c h o i c e o f s o u r c e s . Z o s i m u s , a G r e e k h i s t o r i a n o f t h e l a t e f i f t h o r e a r l y s i x t h c e n t u r y u s e d H e r o d i a n f o r h i s New H i s t o r y b u t p r e f e r r e d D e x i p p u s f o r t h e e v e n t s o f 238 . 2 3 Z o n a r a s p r e f e r r e d D i o t o H e r o d i a n , and W h i t t a k e r f i n d s no e v i d e n c e t h a t V i c t o r o r E u t r o p i u s u s e d H e r o d i a n . E u t r o p i u s a n d A u r e l i u s V i c t o r were c o n t e m p o r a r i e s who w r o t e i n t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r y . E u t r o p i u s w r o t e a s u r v e y o f Rome i n t h e 3 6 0 ' s i n t e n b o o k s , e x t e n d i n g f r o m R o m u l u s a n d Remus t o t h e d e a t h o f J o v i a n i n A.D. 364, c a l l e d B r e v i a r i u m ab  u r b e c o n d i t a . Though s h o r t , i t i s w e l l - b a l a n c e d a n d shows g o o d j u d g e m e n t and i m p a r t i a l i t y . H i s summary o f t h e r e i g n o f S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r i s c o n t a i n e d i n Book 8.23. A u r e l i u s V i c t o r , a l s o i n t h e 3 6 0 ' s , w r o t e h i s L i b e r de C a e s a r i b u s f r o m A u g u s t u s t o C o n s t a n t i u s ( 3 6 0 ) . The E p i t o m e de C a e s a r i b u s , w h i c h s u m m a r i z e s 2 2 S e e W h i t t a k e r , o p . c i t . , p . l x v i i n w h i c h he c i t e s a l i n g u i s t i c s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n H e r o d i a n a n d D i o (H 2.2.4 = D i o ( X i p h ) 73.2.2-4) t h a t seems t o o g r e a t t o be c o i n c i d e n t a l . 2 3 Z o s i m u s ' New H i s t o r y , w r i t t e n i n s i x b o o k s , e x t e n d e d f r o m t h e P e r s i a n Wars Eo t h e c a p t u r e o f Rome i n 410. He i m i t a t e d P o l y b i u s . I n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r i s f o u n d i n Book 1.11.1-13.2. 10 a n d a d d s t o V i c t o r ' s i n f o r m a t i o n , i s o f unknown a u t h o r s h i p . S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r ' s r e i g n i s c h r o n i c l e d i n b o t h V i c t o r ' s L i b e r de  C a e s a r i b u s , 24 and i n t h e E p i t o m e , 2 4 . 2 4 The H i s t o r i a A u g u s t a i s t h e most complex o f t h e p r i m a r y s o u r c e s . I t s a u t h o r s h i p a n d d a t e have l o n g been s u b j e c t s o f t h e h o t t e s t c o n t r o v e r s y . T h e H i s t o r i a A u g u s t a i s a l o n g s e q u e n c e o f b i o g r a p h i e s o f E m p e r o r s , C a e s a r s , and p r e t e n d e r s , w h i c h b e g i n s w i t h H a d r i a n and ends w i t h C a r u s , C a r i n u s and Numerian. Ta k e n as a w h o l e , t h e HA c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e s a p r o g r e s s i o n f r o m some d e g r e e o f a c c u r a c y t o a l m o s t t o t a l f i c t i o n by t h e end o f t h e c o l l e c t i o n . T h e e a r l y v i t a e , f r o m H a d r i a n t o C a r a c a l l a , a r e d i v i d e d i n t o two g r o u p s : t h e Emperors f o r m t h e "main" o r "major" v i t a e ; A e l i u s C a e s a r , G e t a , N i g e r , C a s s i u s , and A l b i n u s f o r m t h e g r o u p o f "minor" o r " s e c o n d a r y " v i t a e . The s e c o n d a r y v i t a e were comp o s e d s u b s e q u e n t t o t h e m a i n v i t a e b u t p r o b a b l y b e f o r e t h e S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r . 2 5 T h e r e f o l l o w s u p o n t h i s s e r i e s f o u r b i o g r a p h i e s , M a c r i n u s , D i a d u m e n i a n u s , E l a g a b a l u s , and S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r , t h e l a t e r two o f w h i c h s u p p l y much d e t a i l , t h o u g h d u b i o u s , o f A l e x a n d e r ' s l i f e . 2 6 2 4 I f o l l o w t h e n u m b e r i n g s y s t e m i n t h e T e u b n e r t e x t . P r . P i c h e l m a y r , e d . ( 1 9 6 6 ) . A u g u s t a C o l l o q u i u m 1968/69 ( 1 9 7 0 ) , pp.285-307. 2 6 T h e p r o g r e s s i o n i n t o h i g h e r d e g r e e s o f f i c t i o n c u l m i n a t e s w i t h t h e s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d T y r a n n i T r i g i n t a . T h i s m u s t be c o n s i d e r e d s h e e r f i c t i o n , s i n c e s e v e n o f t h e t h i r t y u s u r p e r s n e v e r e x i s t e d a t a l l , and u s u r p a t i o n s a r e i n v e n t e d f o r h i s t o r i c a l c h a r a c t e r s who n e v e r c l a i m e d t h e p u r p l e . See T. B a r n e s . The  S o u r c e s o f t h e H i s t o r i a A u g u s t a ( B r u s s e l s : Latomus, 1 9 7 8 ) , p.38. 11 The p r o b l e m o f a u t h o r s h i p o r i g i n a t e s f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s i x a u t h o r s named i n t h e HA a r e n o t a l l o c a t e d t o t h e v i t a e a c c o r d i n g t o a n y g u i d e l i n e s o f c h r o n o l o g y o r s e n s e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e name-l a b e l s g i v e n t o some o f t h e v i t a e c o n t r a d i c t s t a t e m e n t s i n t h e t e x t . 2 7 F u r t h e r m o r e , t w o o f t h e a u t h o r s , C a p i t o l i n u s a n d S p a r t i a n u s d e d i c a t e v i t a e o f d i f f e r e n t e r a s t o b o t h D i o c l e t i a n a n d C o n s t a n t i n e i n no c h r o n o l o g i c a l s e q u e n c e . T h e s e p r o b l e m s w e re r e c o g n i z e d by s c h o l a r s o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y b u t i t was n o t u n t i l 1889 t h a t i t was s t a t e d f i r m l y t h a t t h e e n t i r e HA was t h e w o r k o f o n e a u t h o r , who s o u g h t t o c o m p o s e a f r a u d u l e n t h i s t o r y . Hermann D e s s a u c l a i m e d t h a t t h i s s i n g l e a u t h o r , who w r o t e t h e HA d u r i n g t h e r e i g n o f T h e o d o s i u s ( 3 7 9 - 3 9 5 ) , a d d e d t h e d e d i c a t i o n s t o D i o c l e t i a n a n d C o n s t a n t i n e t o l e n d a n a i r o f a u t h o r i t y t o h i s work by m a k i n g i t a p p e a r t o be o f e a r l i e r o r i g i n S i m i l a r l y , t h e s e c t i o n s t y l e d Q u a d r i g a e T y r a n n o r u m i s o f d o u b t f u l v e r a c i t y . Of t h e f o u r t y r a n t s i n t h e t e x t , F i r m u s and S a t u r n i n u s a r e s u r e l y b o g u s a n d P r o c u l u s a n d B o n o s u s , t h o u g h h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e s , a r e t h o r o u g h t l y f i c t i o n a l i z e d . S e e B a r n e s . "Some P e r s o n s i n t h e H i s t o r i a A u g u s t a " , P h o e n i x 26 ( 1 9 7 2 ) , p p . 1 4 0 - 1 8 2 . 2 7 I n t h e l i f e o f P e s c e n n i u s N i g e r , A e l i u s S p a r t i a n u s p r o p o s e s t o w r i t e t h e l i f e o f C l o d i u s A l b i n u s ( P e s c . N i g . 9 . 3 ) , b u t t h e l i f e o f A l b i n u s i s w r i t t e n u n d e r t h e name o f J u l i u s C a p i t o l i n u s . The l a t t e r , i n t u r n , i n t h e A l b i n u s , c l a i m s t o h a v e w r i t t e n t h e l i f e o f N i g e r h i m s e l f ( C l o d . A l b . 1 . 4 ) ; A e l i u s L a m p r i d i u s b e l i e v e s he h a s w r i t t e n t h e l i f e o f M a c r i n u s ( D i a d . 6 . 1 ) , w h i c h c a r r i e s t h e name J u l i u s C a p i t o l i n u s ; L a m p r i d i u s d e c l a r e s h i s i n t e n t i o n t o w r i t e t h e l i v e s o f t h e E m p e r o r s who f o l l o w E l a g a b a l u s , s p e c i f y i n g A l e x a n d e r , A u r e l i a n , and C l a u d i u s ( E l a g . 3 5 . 2 ) , b u t t h e l i f e o f C l a u d i u s i s a s c r i b e d t o T r e b e l l i u s P o l l i o a nd t h e l i f e o f A u r e l i a n , t o F l a v i u s V o p i s c u s . 12 t h a n i t a c t u a l l y was. 8 A c c o r d i n g t o D e s s a u , t h e s i x a u t h o r s a s s i g n e d t o t h e v i t a e were a f u r t h e r r e d h e r r i n g . To s u p p o r t h i s c l a i m f o r t h e l a t e r d a t e o f c o m p o s i t i o n , he p o i n t e d t o t r a c e s i n t h e t e x t o f E u t r o p i u s a n d A u r e l i u s V i c t o r , who w r o t e i n t h e 3 6 0 ' s , b u t c o n s e r v a t i v e s c h o l a r s , i n s u p p o r t o f t r a d i t i o n a l s i x a u t h o r s a n d a d a t e i n t h e e a r l y f o u r t h c e n t u r y , c l a i m e d t h a t t h e p a s s a g e s i n q u e s t i o n were n o t d e r i v e d f r o m E u t r o p i u s a n d V i c t o r , b u t f r o m t h e i r common s o u r c e , t h e KG. 2 9 I n 1883 A l e x a n d e r Enmann h a d p r o p o s e d h i s t h e o r y o f a " K a i s e r g e s c h i c h t e " ( K G ) , w h i c h i s now c o n s i d e r e d t o have been w r i t t e n b e t ween A.D. 33 7 - 3 4 0 , a s t h e m a i n s o u r c e f o r E u t r o p i u s , V i c t o r and p a r t s o f t h e HA. 3 0 Mommsen s u p p o r t e d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l d a t e b u t c l a i m e d t h a t t h e e n t i r e c o l l e c t i o n was r e v i s e d a t t h e end o f t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r y , t o a l l o w f o r t h e c o n f u s i o n s a n d r e p e t i t i o n s i n t h e t e x t . 3 1 2 8 D a v i d M a g i e , S c r i p t o r e s H i s t o r i a e A u g u s t a e v o l . 1 (The L o e b C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y , 1 9 2 4 ) , p p . v i i i - i x . F o r D e s s a u ' s o r i g i n a l a r g u m e n t s : " U b e r Z e i t u n d P e r s o n l i c h k e i t d e r S c r i p t o r e s H i s t o r i a e A u g u s t a e " , Hermes 24 ( 1 8 8 9 ) , p p . 3 3 7 - 9 2 . "Uber D i e S c r i p t o r e s H i s t o r i a e A u g u s t a e " , Hermes 27 ( 1 8 9 2 ) , pp.561-605. D e s s a u , s e e E l i m a r K l e b s , " D i e Samlung d e r S c r i p t o r e s H i s t o r i a e A u g u s t a e " , RhM 45 ( 1 8 9 0 ) , pp.436-64; " D i e S c r i p t o r e s H i s t o r i a e A u g u s t a e " , RhM 47 ( 1 8 9 2 ) , p p . 1 - 5 2 ; 515-49. 3 0 T . D . B a r n e s , "The l o s t K a i s e r g e s c h i c h t e a n d t h e L a t i n h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n " , BHAC 1968/69 ( 1 9 7 0 ) , pp.14-20 3 1 F o r M ommsen's a r g u m e n t , " D i e S c r i p t o r e s H i s t o r i a e A u g u s t a e " , Hermes 25 ( 1 8 9 0 ) , pp.228-92 13 B u t s c h o l a r s w e r e f o r c e d t o a c c e p t p a r t o f D e s s a u ' s a r g u m e n t , t h a t much o f t h e HA was f i c t i t i o u s . S t u d y t u r n e d t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e e x t e n t o f f r a u d u l e n c e , a n d t h e q u e s t i o n o f p l u r a l i t y o f a u t h o r s h i p was o b s c u r e d by d e t a i l e d and c o m p l e x s o u r c e - c r i t i c i s m t h a t a t t e m p t e d , f o r t h e most p a r t , t o p r e s e r v e a s f a c t u a l a s much o f t h e HA a s p o s s i b l e . I t was d i s c o v e r e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e c l o s e r t h e s c r u t i n y o f t h e t e x t , t h e g r e a t e r was t h e p e r c e n t a g e t h a t was c o n c l u d e d t o be f i c t i t i o u s . A n a l y s i s o f t h e t y p e s o f f i c t i o n l e n d s s u p p o r t t o D e s s a u ' s o r i g i n a l h y p o t h e s i s o f s i n g u l a r a u t h o r s h i p o f t h e HA. A t l a s t t h e i d e a t h a t t h e e n t i r e c o l l e c t i o n was w r i t t e n by one man has g a i n e d a s c e n d a n c y . 3 2 The p r o g r e s s i o n f r o m f a c t t o f i c t i o n i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n s u p p o r t s t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f a s i n g l e a u t h o r . The m a i n e a r l y v i t a e a r e more s e r i o u s i n t o n e a n d more f a c t u a l t h a n b o t h t h e s e c o n d a r y a n d l a t e r v i t a e . The m a i n v i t a e o f t h e n i n e E m p e r o r s f r o m H a d r i a n t o C a r a c a l l a c a n be s e e n a s a u n i t o w i n g t o t h e i r a c c u r a c y a n d g e n e r a l k n o w l e d g e o f t h e p e r i o d . T h e n e x t b i o g r a p h y , t h e M a c r i n u s , i s a m a r k e d c o n t r a s t t o t h e m a i n v i t a e i n t h a t i t i s l a r g e l y i n v e n t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , t h e f i v e s e c o n d a r y v i t a e a r e f u l l o f e r r o r s and f a b r i c a t i o n s l i k e t h o s e f o u n d i n t h e l a t e r v i t a e , a s i g n t h a t c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e y w e re l a t e r i n s e r t e d i n t o t h e m a i n v i t a e . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e a u t h o r ' s a t t i t u d e c h a n g e d , p r o b a b l y w h i l e c o m p o s i n g t h e E l a g a b a l u s , t o w a r d a l e s s s e r i o u s • ^ A . M o m i g l i a n o i s t h e modern h o l d o u t . See M o m i g l i a n o , "An U n s o l v e d P r o b l e m o f H i s t o r i c a l F o r g e r y " , J o u r n a l o f t h e W a r b u r g  an d C o u r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e s 17 ( 1 9 5 4 ) , pp.22-46. 14 a p p r o a c h t o t h e work. He t h e n i n s e r t e d t h e f i v e s e c o n d a r y v i t a e a n d a s s i g n e d s i x b o g u s a u t h o r s t o t h e b i o g r a p h i e s t h u s f a r c o m p l e t e d . I n t h e l a t e r v i t a e one f i n d s a w e a l t h o f i n v e n t i o n a n d humour: f a k e d a n c e s t r y , omens, s p o o f s on V e r g i l i a n v e r s e , j o k e s , p u n s o n n a m e s , e t c . 3 3 T h e v a l u e o f c o n s i d e r i n g t h e f a b r i c a t i o n s i n t h e s e c o n d a r y v i t a e becomes c l e a r . A p a t t e r n emerges t h a t a n t i c i p a t e s t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f f a b r i c a t i o n i n t h e l a t e r v i t a e ; t h e c o n s i s t e n c y o f s t y l e r e v e a l s t h e h a n d o f a s i n g l e a u t h o r . 3 4 An e x a m p l e o f t h e s p i r i t i n w h i c h t h e a u t h o r w r o t e i s t o be f o u n d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e D i v u s A u r e l i a n u s . A t t h e f e s t i v a l o f t h e H i l a r i a , w h e r e a l l manner o f c o s t u m e s a n d masks a r e w o r n , t h e p r e f e c t o f t h e c i t y , J u n i u s T i b e r i a n u s , e n c o u r a g e s " F l a v i u s V o p i s c u s " t o w r i t e a l i f e o f A u r e l i a n . He c r i t i c i z e s t h e w o r k s o f " T r e b e l l i u s P o l l i o " and when V o p i s c u s comes t o t h e d e f e n s e o f P o l l i o by p o i n t i n g o u t e r r o r s i n L i v y , S a l l u s t , and T a c i t u s , t h e p r e f e c t j o k i n g l y r e p l i e s , S c r i b e u t l i b e t , s e c u r u s q u o d v e l i s d i c e s , h a b i t u r u s m e n d a c i o r u m c o m i t e s , q u o s h i s t o r i c a e e l o q u e n t i a e m i r a m u r a u c t o r e s ( D i v . A u r . 1 . 1 - 2 . 2 ) . " R o n a l d S yme, " F i c t i o n i n t h e E p i t o m a t o r s " , H i s t o r i a  A u g u s t a P a p e r s ( L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 8 3 ) , p . 1 6 4. 3 4 F o r d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f t h e p r o g r e s s i v e e m e r g e n c e o f f a b r i c a t i o n , s e e Syme, "The S e c o n d a r y V i t a e " , BHAC 1 9 6 8 / 6 9 ( 1 9 7 0 ) , pp.292 f f . ; Syme, " F i c t i o n i n t h e E p i t o m a t o r s " , H i s t o r i a  A u g u s t a P a p e r s ( L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 8 3 ) , p p . 1 5 6 -6 6 . ; B a r n e s , T h e S o u r c e s o f t h e H i s t o r i a A u g u s t a ( B r u s s e l s : L a t o m u s , 1 9 7 8 ) , pp.32-78. 15 N o t h i n g c o u l d be a b r o a d e r h i n t a s t o t h e t o n g u e - i n - c h e e k a t t i t u d e o f t h e a u t h o r . I n t h e words o f Syme, The r e s u l t i s d e c i s i v e : one a u t h o r o f t h e HA, w i t h a v e r i f i a b l e enhancement i n i n v e n t i o n and a u d a c i t y , s o t h a t b e f o r e t h e end t h e i m p o s t e r s t a n d s r e v e a l e d as a m a s t e r i n t h e a r t o f h i s t o r i c a l f i c t i o n . 3 5 A n o t e o f c a u t i o n i s needed, however, a g a i n s t t a k i n g t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e HA t o o l i g h t l y . C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f i t s s o u r c e s r e v e a l s t h a t i t c o n t a i n s some i n f o r m a t i o n a s g o o d a s , o r b e t t e r t h a n , a n y o t h e r e x i s t i n g a c c o u n t o f t h e p e r i o d . F o r t h e m a i n v i t a e a n unknown s o u r c e , s t y l e d I g n o t u s , has been s u g g e s t e d , who must have w r i t t e n n o t l o n g a f t e r 217, s i n c e he was so f u l l and a c c u r a t e a s o u r c e f o r t h e p e r i o d . 3 6 M a r i u s Maximus was a s u b s i d i a r y s o u r c e , u s e d t o a g r e a t e r d e g r e e a f t e r C a r a c a l l a t h r o u g h t h e l i f e o f M a c r i n u s a n d f o r t h e s e c o n d a r y v i t a e . 3 7 Maximus was a l s o a s o u r c e f o r t h e l i f e o f E l a g a b a l u s ; H e r o d i a n has been d e t e c t e d i n t h e l i f e o f A l e x a n d e r . 3 8 T r a c e s o f E u t r o p i u s and V i c t o r h a v e " R o n a l d Syme, Th e H i s t o r i a A u g u s t a , A c a l l o f c l a r i t y (Bonn, 1971), p.10. 3 6 I b i d . , p . 1 3 . c f . A n t h o n y B i r l e y , S e p t i m i u s S e v e r u s (ChathalnT l y r e & S p o t t i s w o o d e ( P u b l i s h e r s ) L t d . , 1971), pp.308-26. 3 7 F o r d i s c u s s i o n o f Maximus 1 c r e d i b i l i t y , s e e Syme, " M a r i u s Maximus O n c e A g a i n " , H i s t o r i a A u g u s t a P a p e r s ( L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 8 3 ) , p p . 3 0 - 4 5 . ; B a r n e s , S o u r c e s o f t h e  H i s t o r i a A u g u s t a ( B r u s s e l s : Latomus, 1 9 7 8 ) , pp.98-107.; Syme, Ammianus a n d t h e H i s t o r i a A u g u s t a ( L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 ) , pp.89 f f . 3 8 T r a c e s o f H e r o d i a n i n t h e S e v . A l e x . 25.1-2, 52.2, 57.3, 5 9 . 7 - 8 , 6 1 . 8 . M a r i u s M aximus was t h e m a i n s o u r c e f o r t h e M aximinus and t h e e v e n t s o f 238, and a minor s o u r c e s u b s e q u e n t t o 16 b e e n f o u n d i n w i d e l y s e p a r a t e d p o r t i o n s o f t h e HA, b u t t h e KQ c o n t i n u e s t o be c o n s i d e r e d an a c c u r a t e s o u r c e i n o r d e r t o e x p l a i n g e n u i n e d e t a i l s i n t h e HA t h a t a r e o m i t t e d by b o t h E u t r o p i u s a n d V i c t o r . 3 9 T h e s e t r a c e s o f E u t r o p i u s a n d V i c t o r p r o v e b e y o n d d o u b t t h a t t h e HA b e l o n g s t o t h e p e r i o d s u b s e q u e n t t o 3 7 0 , a p e r i o d c o i n c i d e n t a l w i t h a r e v i v a l i n s c h o l a r s h i p and l i t e r a t u r e . 2 3 8 . S e e B a r n e s , S o u r c e s o f t h e H i s t o r i a A u g u s t a ( B r u s s e l s : L a t o m u s , 1 9 7 8 ) . 3 9 F o r e x a m p l e s s e e B a r n e s , S o u r c e s o f t h e H i s t o r i a A u g u s t a ( B r u s s e l s : L a t o m u s , 1 9 7 8 ) , p. 95.; Syme, H i s t o r i a A u g u s t a P a p e r s ( L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ) , p p . 1 5 8 - 6 3 . 17 BACKGROUND S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r was t h e l a s t Emperor o f a S y r i a n d y n a s t y t h a t l a s t e d f o r 43 y e a r s , b e g i n n i n g w i t h S e p t i m i u s S e v e r u s ' a c c e s s i o n i n A.D. 193 and e n d i n g w i t h A l e x a n d e r ' s own d e a t h i n 235. He was r u l e r o f t h e Roman E m p i r e f o r t h e l a s t f o u r t e e n o f t h o s e 43 y e a r s , t h e l o n g e s t r e i g n u n t i l t h e t i m e o f C o n s t a n t i n e . The l a c k o f c r e d i t a b l e a n c i e n t s o u r c e m a t e r i a l h a s , h o w e v e r , r e s u l t e d i n m o d e r n - d a y o b s c u r i t y f o r A l e x a n d e r . He was b o r n G e s s i u s A l e x i a n u s ( H e r o d . 5 . 3 . 3 ) B a s s i a n u s ( D i o 78.30.3) on 1 O c t o b e r 208 t o J u l i a A v i t a Mamaea ( P I R 2 J 649) and G e s s i u s M a r c i a n u s ( P I R 2 G 171) i n t h e c i t y o f A r e a C a e s a r e a i n S y r i a (HA, S e v . A l e x . 1.2) . H i s f a t h e r w a s a n a t i v e S y r i a n who h a d r i s e n t h r o u g h p r o c u r a t o r i a l s e r v i c e ( D i o 7 8 . 3 0 . 3 ) , b u t t h r o u g h h i s m o t h e r A l e x a n d e r was b o r n w i t h i m p e r i a l c o n n e c t i o n s . Mamaea's m o t h e r , J u l i a M a e s a , was s i s t e r o f t h e w i f e o f S e p t i m i u s S e v e r u s , J u l i a Domna ( P I R 2 J 6 6 3 ) . A l e x a n d e r was a nephew o f C a r a c a l l a , a n d c o u s i n t o E l a g a b a l u s . Mamaea's s i s t e r , J u l i a S o a e m i a s B a s s i a n a ( P I R 2 J 7 0 4 ) , was E l a g a b a l u s ' m o t h e r . 1 Mamaea h a d a s e c o n d h u s b a n d o f whom n o t h i n g i s known o t h e r t h a n t h a t s h e m a r r i e d h i m when C a r a c a l l a was s o l e E m p e r o r , a f t e r 2 1 2 . 2 W h i l e C a r a c a l l a r u l e d , Mamaea l i v e d w i t h h e r s i s t e r , S o a e m i a s , and t h e i r s o n s i n Emesa. Upon C a r a c a l l a ' s d e a t h , J u l i a M aesa, who had been i n Rome ^ h e i s c a l l e d S y m i a m i r a i n HA, E l a g . 2 . 1 ) . 2 M a r y G i l m o r e W i l l i a m s , " S t u d i e s i n t h e L i v e s o f Roman E m p r e s s e s : J u l i a M a m a e a " , R o m a n H i s t o r i c a l S o u r c e s a n d  I n s t i t u t i o n s , H.A. S a n d e r s , e d . (New Y o r k , 1 9 0 4 ) , p.68. 18 d u r i n g t h e r e i g n , r e t u r n e d t o Emesa w h e r e s h e a n d S o a e m i a s p l o t t e d t o b r i n g E l a g a b a l u s t o p o w e r . Though Mamaea's name i s n e v e r m e n t i o n e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e s e p l a n s o r w i t h t h e b a t t l e a t A n t i o c h on 8 J u n e 218, w h i c h b r o u g h t E l a g a b a l u s t o p o w e r , i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t s h e w o u l d do h e r p a r t t o k e e p h e r f a m i l y i n power a nd t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s open f o r h e r own s o n , A l e x i a n u s , y e t a c h i l d . When t h e p l a n s o f Maesa a nd h e r d a u g h t e r s f i n a l l y b o r e f r u i t , i n J u n e o f 218, t h e S e v e r a n s were a g a i n i n power i n t h e p e r s o n o f V a r i u s A v i t u s B a s s i a n u s , o r E l a g a b a l u s , a f t e r t h e s u n -god whose c h i e f p r i e s t he was. 3 Maesa went t o g r e a t e x t r e m e s t o e n s u r e h e r f a m i l y ' s r e t u r n t o p o w e r . H e r p l a n s i n c l u d e d c i r c u l a t i n g t h e r u m o u r t h a t h e r d a u g h t e r , S o a e m i a s , h a d b e e n i n v o l v e d i n an a d u l t e r o u s a f f a i r w i t h C a r a c a l l a a n d t h u s t h e boy was C a r a c a l l a ' s s o n and S e p t i m i u s S e v e r u s ' g r a n d s o n . 4 D u r i n g t h e summer o r e a r l y autumn o f 219 Mamaea and h e r s o n a c c o m p a n i e d t h e Emperor t o Rome ( D i o 7 9 . 1 1 ) , a t l e a s t a y e a r a f t e r E l a g a b a l u s was p r o c l a i m e d E m p e r o r . E l a g a b a l u s s p e n t t h e w i n t e r o f 218/19 i n N i c o m e d i a ( H e r o d . 5 . 5 . 3 ) . The e x a c t d a t e o f h i s a r r i v a l i n Rome i s u n c e r t a i n . E u t r o p i u s ( B r e v . 8.22) s a y s t h a t i t was i n J u l y 2 1 9, b u t a n a l t a r d e d i c a t e d ob r e d i t u m d o m i n i n o s t r i i s d a t e d 29 S e p t e m b e r . 5 When he came t o Rome he b r o u g h t w i t h h i m h i s g o d , E l a g a b a l u s , w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f m a k i n g him t h e supreme d e i t y o f 3 D i o c a l l s h i m B a s s i a n u s , T h e F a l s e A n t o n i n u s , S a r d a n a p a l l u s . H e r o d i a n p r o p e r l y c a l l s h i m A n t o n i n u s . 4 S e e H A , E l a g . 2 . 1 , C a r a c . 9 . 2 , M a c r . 9 . 4 ; H e r o d . 5 . 7 . 3 . 5 I L S 2188. 19 Rome ( D i o 7 9 . 1 1 . 1 ) . He c o n t i n u e d t o p e r f o r m r e l i g i o u s r i t e s w i t h f a n a t i c a l z e a l a n d p r o f a n e d Roman t r a d i t i o n t o t h e e x t e n t o f m a r r i a g e t o a V e s t a l V i r g i n . 6 H i s s e x u a l p e r v e r s i o n s w e r e n o t o r i o u s . The s o l d i e r s a n d t h e p o p u l a c e g r e w more a n d more d i s p l e a s e d w i t h t h e i r new E m p e r o r , w h i c h c a u s e d Maesa t o f e a r f o r h e r f a m i l y ' s p o s i t i o n . By f l a t t e r i n g E l a g a b a l u s w i t h t h e a r g u m e n t t h a t he n e e d e d someone t o l o o k a f t e r w o r l d l y m a t t e r s , l e a v i n g h i m f r e e t o p e r f o r m h i s p r i e s t l y d u t i e s , Maesa p e r s u a d e d h i m t o a d o p t h i s c o u s i n , A l e x i a n u s , a s s o n a n d C a e s a r ( H e r o d . 5 . 7 . 1 - 2 ) . H i s name was c h a n g e d t o M a r c u s A u r e l i u s S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r . 7 The p r e c i s e d a t e o f t h e a d o p t i o n i s d i s p u t e d . C I L V I 2001 shows A l e x a n d e r ' s i n d u c t i o n i n t o t h e s o d a l e s A n t o n i n i a n i on 10 J u l y 221 and on t h e b a s i s o f t h i s i n s c r i p t i o n i t h a s b e e n s u p p o s e d t h a t t h i s was a l s o t h e d a t e f o r A l e x a n d e r ' s a d o p t i o n . B u t t h e r e i s c o n f l i c t i n g e v i d e n c e . C I L V I 3 0 6 9 , d a t e d 1 J u n e 2 2 1 , i s d e d i c a t e d t o A n t o n i n u s a n d A l e x a n d e r , d e s i g n a t i n g them i m p e r a t o r e s , w h i c h may i n d i c a t e t h a t A l e x a n d e r was a l r e a d y C a e s a r b y 1 J u n e 2 2 1 . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e F e r i a l e D u r a n u m l i s t s "Long a c c o u n t s o f E l a g a b a l u s ' b e h a v i o u r a r e f o u n d i n D i o 7 9 , H e r o d . 5, and t h e V i t a E l a g a b a l i . 7 T h e r e i s a s t o r y i n t h e HA, S e v . A l e x . 5.1-3 t h a t A l e x a n d e r came by h i s name b e c a u s e he was b o r n i n a t e m p l e d e d i c a t e d t o A l e x a n d e r t h e G r e a t . As p r o o f i t i s c l a i m e d t h a t S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r ' s b i r t h d a y i s t h e same day a s t h a t upon w h i c h A l e x a n d e r t h e G r e a t d i e d . B o t h o f t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s a r e p u r e f i c t i o n , p r o b a b l y i n v e n t e d b e c a u s e o f h i s p r o p e r name, A l e x i a n u s , w h i c h was b o t h a name t a k e n by t h e Emesene p r i e s t h o o d a n d a f a m i l y name. See C R . W h i t t a k e r , H e r o d i a n I I ( L o e b ) , 5.7.3 n. and PIR_ J 1 9 2 ; AE ( 1 9 6 3 ) 4 2 . F u r t h e r m o r e , A l e x a n d e r ' s b i r t h d a y i s 1 O c t o b e r w h e r e a s A l e x a n d e r t h e G r e a t d i e d i n J u n e . F o r A l e x a n d e r ' s b i r t h d a t e , s e e t h e F a s t i P h i l o c a l i , C I L I 2 , p.274. 20 A l e x a n d e r ' s a d o p t i o n : [ v i k a l ] i u l i a s q u o d d o m i n u s n o s t [ e ] r [ m ] a r c u s a u r e [ l ] i u s s e v e r u s a l [ e ] x a [ n d e r c a e ] s a r a p p e [ l l a t ] u s s i t B u t t h e v i t a l i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e d a t e , i s i n a l a c u n a , r e s t o r e d a s 26 J u n e , t h e d a t e upon w h i c h A l e x a n d e r assumed t h e t o g a v i r i l i s . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s i s b y no means c o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e . 8 T h e t r a d i t i o n t h a t A l e x a n d e r was a p p o i n t e d C a e s a r by t h e S e n a t e a f t e r t h e d e a t h o f M a c r i n u s i n 218 i s i n c o r r e c t (BA, S e v . A l e x . 1.2, De  C a e s . 2 3 . 3 ) . A t t h i s p o i n t D i o r e l a t e s an i n t e r e s t i n g s t o r y i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h A l e x a n d e r ' s a d o p t i o n . D i o s a y s t h a t s h o r t l y b e f o r e A l e x a n d e r ' s a d o p t i o n , t h e s p i r i t o f A l e x a n d e r t h e G r e a t was s e e n t r a v e l l i n g t h r o u g h U p p e r M o e s i a a n d T h r a c e i n t h e c o mpany o f 400 m a l e a t t e n d a n t s e q u i p p e d w i t h t h y r s i a n d f a w n s k i n s . D i o s a y s t h a t , t h o u g h t h e company d i d no h a r m , n o - o n e d a r e d t o o p p o s e i t and so i t p r o c e e d e d t o B y z a n t i u m and s a i l e d on t o C h a l c e d o n . T h e r e i t p e r f o r m e d s a c r e d r i t e s by n i g h t , b u r i e d a w o o d e n h o r s e a n d v a n i s h e d ( D i o 7 9 . 1 8 . 1 - 3 ) . An e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h i s b i z a r r e l i t t l e a n e c d o t e i s d i f f i c u l t t o p r o d u c e . P e r h a p s i t i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e numerous p r e t e n d e r s and w o u l d - b e u s u r p e r s who p l a g u e d A l e x a n d e r ' s r e i g n . B u t a more l i k e l y p o s s i b i l i t y seems t o me t o be t h a t t h e i n c i d e n t was e n g i n e e r e d by M a e s a , a s a n omen t o g a i n s u p p o r t f o r t h e new C a e s a r . 8 S e e W h i t t a k e r , o p . c i t . , p.58,^ n . l . a n d A u g u s t e J a r d e , E t u d e s C r i t i q u e s s u r l a v i e e t l e r e g n e de S e v e r e A l e x a n d r e ( P a r i s : E. De B o c c a r d , 1 9 2 5 ) , p . 1 1 , n . l . 21 Thus i n J u n e o r J u l y o f 221 A l e x a n d e r e n t e r e d t h e p o l i t i c a l s c e n e a s E l a g a b a l u s ' C a e s a r a t t h e age o f t w e l v e . T h e r e i s u n c e r t a i n t y a b o u t A l e x a n d e r ' s l e g a l s t a t u s and t h e e x t e n t o f h i s power d u r i n g h i s C a e s a r s h i p . I n t h e e a r l y t h i r d c e n t u r y t h e c o n c e p t o f a C a e s a r was n o t y e t f u l l y d e v e l o p e d w i t h t h e p o l i t i c a l a n d m i l i t a r y p o w e r s t h a t i t l a t e r c a r r i e d by t h e t i m e o f D i o c l e t i a n . B e f o r e t h a t t i m e , t h e p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f a p p o i n t i n g a C a e s a r was t o d e n o t e s u c c e s s i o n . The u n d e f i n e d s t a t u s o f t h e C a e s a r s h i p h a s l e d t o s c h o l a r l y d e b a t e a s t o w h e t h e r o r n o t A l e x a n d e r h e l d any l e g a l i m p e r i u m . I n t h e p r a e t o r i a n d i p l o m a t a o f 7 J a n u a r y 222, A l e x a n d e r ' s t i t u l a t u r e i s g i v e n : I m p e r ( a t o r ) C a e s ( a r ) M ( a r c i ) A u r e l l i A n t o n i n i P i i F e l i c i ( s ) A u g ( u s t i ) f i l ( i u s ) d i v i A n t o n i n i M a g n i n e p ( o s ) d i v i S e v e r i P i i p r o n ( e p o s ) M ( a r c u s ) A u r e l l i u s A l e x a n d e r n o b i l i s s i m u s C a e s a r i m p e r i e t s a c e r d o t i s c o ( n ) s ( u l ) 9 Some s c h o l a r s , i n c l u d i n g W h i t t a k e r , a c c e p t t h e r e s t o r a t i o n o f I m p e r . C a e s . i n t h e n o m i n a t i v e , a n d c l a i m t h a t A l e x a n d e r h e l d some f o r m o f s e c o n d a r y i m p e r iu m s i n c e he i s c a l l e d i m p e r a t o r h e r e , b e f o r e h i s a c c e s s i o n . 1 0 Two o t h e r i n s c r i p t i o n s , C I L V I 2 0 0 1 , l i n e 1 1 : n o b i l i s s i m u m C a e s . i m p e r i i [ ] and C I L V I I 585, l i n e 4 f . : [ n o b i l i s s ] C a e s a r i m p e r [ i ] h a v e u s u a l l y b e e n c o m p l e t e d w i t h t h e word c o n s o r s o r h e r e s , i n s u p p o r t o f t h e i d e a t h a t A l e x a n d e r s h a r e d h i s c o u s i n ' s power. B u t t h e d i s c o v e r y o f 9 C I L XVI 140, 141; AE (1964) 269. 1 0 S e e W h i t t a k e r , o p . c i t . , p.60, n . l ; p.62, n.2. 22 AE (1964) 269, w h i c h c o m p l e t e s t h e p h r a s e w i t h c o n s u l , weakens t h i s a r g u m e n t . L o r i o t w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o p r o v e t h a t A l e x a n d e r h e l d i m p e r i a l power b e f o r e h i s a c c e s s i o n . 1 1 He i s j u s t i f i a b l y t r o u b l e d by t h e f a c t t h a t A l e x a n d e r came t o power i n 222, y e t h i s d e c e n n a l i a was c e l e b r a t e d i n 230. He a l s o f i n d s t h e c h r o n o l o g y o f AE (1941) 163 d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n . I m p ( e r a t o r i ) C a e s ( a r i ) d i v i S e v e r i n e p ( o t i ) d i v i A n t o n i n i M a g ( n i ) P i i f i l ( i o ) M ( a r c o ) A u r ( e l i o ) S e v e r o [ A l e x a n d r o ] p i o f e l i c i A u g ( u s t o ) p o n t ( i f i c i ) m a x ( i m o ) t r i b ( u n i c i a e ) p o t e s t ( a t i s ) i m p ( e r a t o r i ) I I c o ( n ) s ( u l i ) p ( a t r i ) p ( a t r i a e ) p r o c o ( n ) s ( u l i ) p e r A s i n i u m L e p i d u m l e g ( a t u m ) A u g ( u s t i ) p r ( o ) p r ( a e t o r e ) p r a e s i d ( e m ) p r o v i n c ( i a e ) C a p p ( a d o c i a e ) . I.A. T h e a b s e n c e o f a n u m e r a l a f t e r TR P c r e a t e s d i f f i c u l t y . A l e x a n d e r h a d t h e t r i b u n i c i a n p o w e r f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e on 13 M a r c h 222 u n t i l December o f t h a t y e a r and was j o i n t - c o n s u l w i t h E l a g a b a l u s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f 222. B u t i t seems wrong tha't he be c a l l e d i m p e r a t o r I I d u r i n g h i s f i r s t y e a r i n power. A s s u m i n g t h a t t h e e n g r a v e r has n o t s i m p l y l e f t o f f t h e n u m e r a l f r o m TR P, t h e r e must be a n o t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e i n c o n g r u i t y . L o r i o t r e f e r s t o t h e s t a t e m e n t o f H e r o d i a n , ( > ^ > n ' ^ ^ c / ^ O AVTOV1VOS OtUTOV E $OUX ETO . . . T ns^ T £ lEQUiaUVnS KOIVOJVEIV (£.7.4); ueTEYivwaicE Oefuevos autov uiov <al <oivu>vov T T I S apxns (5.7.5) . He t h i n k s t h a t t h i s e v i d e n c e , and t h e p h r a s e n o b i l i s s i m u s C a e s a r U X . L o r i o t , " L es A c c l a m a t i o n s I m p e r i a l e s dans l a T i t u l a t u r e de S e v e r e A l e x a n d r e e t de G o r d i e n I I I " , ZPE 43 (1981), pp.222-35. 23 i m p e r i i e t s a c e r d o t i s c o ( n ) s ( u l ) i n t h e d i p l o m a t a , s h o w a d e f i n i t e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e i m p e r i u m . 1 2 The m a j o r o b s t a c l e t o t h e t h e o r y t h a t A l e x a n d e r was i m p e r a t o r d u r i n g h i s c a e s a r s h i p , i s t h e F e r i a l e Duranum. I n c o l u m n 1, 11.23-26, t h e r e s t o r e d l i n e s s t a t e t h a t A l e x a n d e r was named i m p e r a t o r f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e by t h e s o l d i e r s o n 13 M a r c h 2 2 2 . L i n e 2 6 , a s r e s t o r e d by t h e e d i t o r s , r e a d s : [ p r i m o ] I m p [ e r a t o r ] a p ( p ) e l [ l a t u s s i t , s u p p l i c a t i o ] 1 3 B u t t h e e d i t o r s a l s o n o t e t h a t " I n l i n e 26 p r i m o i s somewhat t o o l o n g f o r t h e s p a c e b u t some s u c h word i s n e c e s s a r y " . 1 4 L o r i o t p r o p o s e s t h a t t h e w o r d be b i s . Thus A l e x a n d e r w o u l d h a v e b e e n i m p e r a t o r f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e when he became C a e s a r and f o r t h e s e c o n d t i m e when he became E m p e r o r . D u s a n i c , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , c l a i m s t h a t t h e c o r r e c t e x p a n s i o n o f t h e d i p l o m a t a i s I m p e r ( a t o r i s ) C a e s ( a r i s ) , r e f e r r i n g t o E l a g a b a l u s . 1 5 He p o i n t s o u t t h a t no a u t h o r i t a t i v e document o r c o i n o f A l e x a n d e r ' s c a e s a r s h i p g i v e s h i m t h e t i t l e o f i m p e r a t o r a n d , f u r t h e r m o r e , t h a t n o w h e r e i n t h e d i p l o m a t a i s t h e r e a n y m e n t i o n o f A l e x a n d e r h a v i n g e i t h e r p r o c o n s u l a r i m p e r i u m o r 1 2 L o r i o t , o p . c i t . , p.227. 1 3 W e l l e s , F i n k , G i l l i a m , E x c a v a t i o n a t D u r a , F i n a l R e p o r t V  1: The P a r c h m e n t and P a p y r i (New Haven, 1 9 5 9 ) , p.198. 1 4 W e l l e s , F i n k , G i l l i a m , o p . c i t . , p.207. 1 5 S . D u s a n i c , " N o b i l i s s i m u s C a e s a r I m p e r i i e t S a c e r d o t i s " , ZPE 37 ( 1 9 8 0 ) , p . 1 1 8 , n.8.; " S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r a s E l a g a b a l u s ' A s s o c i a t e " , H i s t o r i a 13 ( 1 9 6 4 ) , p.495 f f . 24 t r i b u n i c i a n p o w er. As f o r t h e p h r a s e n o b i l i s s i m u s C a e s a r i m p e r i i  e t s a c e r d o t i s , D u s a n i c t r a n s l a t e s i t n o t as "most n o b l e C a e s a r o f t h e S t a t e and o f E l a g a b a l u s " b u t a s " most n o b l e C a e s a r o f t h e E m p e r o r - P r i e s t " . He c l a i m s t h a t i m p e r i i s t a n d s f o r i m p e r a t o r i s b y metonymy a n d t h a t i m p e r i i a n d s a c e r d o t i s i s a h e n d i a d y s . 1 6 T h i s seems t o s t r e t c h a p o i n t r a t h e r f a r and l a c k s c o n v i c t i o n . I f i n d L o r i o t ' s a r g u m e n t a n d j u s t i f i c a t i o n s more t e n a b l e , n a m e l y t h a t A l e x a n d e r h e l d some f o r m o f s e c o n d a r y i m p e r ium w h i l e he was C a e s a r . H e r o d i a n c o n t i n u e s t h a t E l a g a b a l u s d i d h i s b e s t t o e n t i c e A l e x a n d e r i n t o w o r s h i p o f t h e s u n - g o d a n d t h e v i c e s t h a t w e n t a l o n g w i t h i t , b u t Maesa and Mamaea k e p t a c l o s e w a t c h o v e r t h e boy a n d saw t o i t t h a t he was t r a i n e d i n m a n l y e x e r c i s e s and t h e s t u d y o f L a t i n a nd G r e e k ( H e r o d . 5.7.5, HA, S e v . A l e x . 3 ) . The HA l i s t s - t e n t e a c h e r s , none o f whom a r e known; t h e y a r e p r o b a b l y a l l bogus (HA, S e v . A l e x . 3 . 2 - 3 ) . As E l a g a b a l u s ' p o p u l a r i t y d e c r e a s e d A l e x a n d e r ' s i n c r e a s e d o w i n g t o h i s u p r i g h t way o f l i f e . When E l a g a b a l u s r e a l i z e d t h i s , he r e g r e t t e d t h e a d o p t i o n and b e g a n t o p l o t a g a i n s t h i s c o u s i n . He removed a l l o f A l e x a n d e r ' s t e a c h e r s f r o m t h e p a l a c e , e x e c u t i n g some and s e n d i n g o t h e r s i n t o e x i l e on t h e c h a r g e t h a t t h e y w e r e c o r r u p t i n g A l e x a n d e r ( H e r o d . 5 . 7 . 6 ) . Mamaea and Maesa s t e p p e d up t h e i r p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e b o y ; Mamaea h a d s e p a r a t e c o o k s a n d c u p b e a r e r s t o s e r v e A l e x a n d e r a n d p r i v a t e l y d i s t r i b u t e d money t o t h e s o l d i e r s t o e n s u r e t h e i r ' D u s a n i c , ZPE 37 ( 1 9 8 0 ) , p.118. 25 l o y a l t y ( H e r o d . 5 . 8 . 2 - 3 ) . When E l a g a b a l u s r e a l i z e d t h a t a l l h i s p l a n s were b e i n g f r u s t r a t e d , he p l a n n e d t o remove A l e x a n d e r f r o m t h e C a e s a r s h i p , and i s s u e d t h e command t h a t A l e x a n d e r no l o n g e r be s e e n a t p u b l i c e v e n t s o r p r o c e s s i o n s ( 5 . 8 . 4 ) . The s o l d i e r s r e v o l t e d i n a n g e r a t t h e d e m o t i o n a n d d e m a n d e d A l e x a n d e r ' s p r e s e n c e . E l a g a b a l u s r e p l i e d w i t h t h e rumour t h a t A l e x a n d e r was d y i n g , w h i c h u p s e t t h e s o l d i e r s t o s u c h a d e g r e e t h a t t h e y r e f u s e d t o mount t h e i r g u a r d b u t s h u t t h e m s e l v e s up i n t h e i r camp p e n d i n g A l e x a n d e r ' s p r e s e n c e ( 5 . 8 . 5 ) . E l a g a b a l u s c o m p l i e d and e s c o r t e d A l e x a n d e r t o t h e c a m p , w h e r e t h e s o l d i e r s e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y g r e e t e d A l e x a n d e r and i g n o r e d E l a g a b a l u s . The E mperor was f u r i o u s and o r d e r e d A l e x a n d e r ' s s u p p o r t e r s a r r e s t e d . The s o l d i e r s r e t a l i a t e d by m u r d e r i n g E l a g a b a l u s , h i s m o t h e r , S o a e m i a s , a n d t h e w h o l e i m p e r i a l r e t i n u e . T h e i r b o d i e s w e r e d r a g g e d t h r o u g h t h e c i t y , m u t i l a t e d a n d t h r o w n i n t o t h e s e w e r s t h a t empty i n t o t h e T i b e r ( 5 . 8 . 6 - 9 ) . H e r o d i a n ' s a c c o u n t d i f f e r s f r o m b o t h t h a t o f D i o and o f t h e HA. I n t h e l a t t e r two a c c o u n t s t h e r e were two s e p a r a t e and d i s t i n c t m i l i t a r y r i o t s l e a d i n g up t o E l a g a b a l u s ' m u r d e r . D i o ' s a c c o u n t , s u p p o r t e d by t h e HA, i s t o be p r e f e r r e d t o H e r o d i a n ' s v e r s i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n l i g h t o f H e r o d i a n ' s r e c o g n i z e d t e n d e n c y t o t e l e s c o p e e v e n t s . Though h i s a c c o u n t c o n t a i n s most o f t h e d e t a i l f o u n d i n t h e o t h e r s , he h a s n a r r a t e d i t i n s u c h a way a s t o make i t a p p e a r t o be a l l one e v e n t . D i o r e c o r d s t h a t E l a g a b a l u s ' f i r s t a t t e m p t t o d e s t r o y A l e x a n d e r was t h w a r t e d by M a e s a , Mamaea, and a t e r r i b l e u p r i s i n g o f t h e 26 P r a e t o r i a n s , who, upon h e a r i n g t h e news, r i o t e d u n t i l A l e x a n d e r was b r o u g h t t o t h e i r camp a n d t h e E m p e r o r s u r r e n d e r e d h i s c o m p a n i o n s i n v i c e ( D i o 7 9 . 1 9 . 2 - 3 ) . By t h i s m e a s u r e , E l a g a b a l u s managed t o a p p e a s e t h e s o l d i e r s f o r t h e t i m e b e i n g . B u t l a t e r E l a g a b a l u s f o r m e d a n o t h e r p l o t a g a i n s t A l e x a n d e r and a g a i n t h e P r a e t o r i a n s r i o t e d . The E m p e r o r t o o k A l e x a n d e r t o t h e camp, w h e r e he r e a l i z e d he was i n d a n g e r o f h i s l i f e . E l a g a b a l u s a t t e m p t e d t o e s c a p e i n a c h e s t b u t was d i s c o v e r e d a n d s l a i n , a l o n g w i t h h i s m o t h e r . T h e y w e r e d e c a p i t a t e d , s t r i p p e d , a n d d r a g g e d t h r o u g h t h e c i t y . The E m p e r o r ' s body was c a s t i n t o t h e r i v e r ( 7 9 . 1 9 . 4 - 2 0 . 2 ) . The a u t h o r o f t h e HA s a y s t h a t E l a g a b a l u s f i r s t commanded t h e S e n a t e t o r e v o k e t h e t i t l e o f C a e s a r b u t t h e s e n a t o r s r e f u s e d (HA, E l a g . 1 3 . 1 - 2 ) . Then he s e n t a s s a s s i n s t o t h e p a l a c e t o k i l l A l e x a n d e r w h i l e he h i m s e l f w i t h d r e w t o t h e G a r d e n s o f Spes V e t u s . A t t h e same t i m e , he s e n t o r d e r s t o A l e x a n d e r ' s g u a r d i a n s t o k i l l h i m , t o t h e s o l d i e r s t o smear A l e x a n d e r ' s s t a t u e s w i t h mud a n d t a k e a w ay t h e t i t l e o f C a e s a r ( 1 3 . 4 - 8 ) . T h e s o l d i e r s w e r e a n g e r e d when A l e x a n d e r ' s s t a t u e s were d e f a c e d s o some went t o t h e p a l a c e , t o p r o t e c t A l e x a n d e r . O t h e r s went t o t h e G a r d e n s t o k i l l E l a g a b a l u s . T hose s e n t t o t h e p a l a c e e s c o r t e d A l e x a n d e r , Mamaea, an d Maesa t o t h e camp. A t t h e G a r d e n s , t h e s o l d i e r s d e c i d e d t o s p a r e E l a g a b a l u s ' l i f e on t h e c o n d i t i o n t h a t he r e t u r n t o a m o d e s t way o f l i f e a n d d i s m i s s h i s f a v o u r i t e s ( 1 4 . 2 - 1 5 . 1 ) . I n t h i s way, E l a g a b a l u s a v o i d e d d e a t h f o r t h e moment. B u t t h e E mperor c o n t i n u e d t o p l o t a g a i n s t h i s c o u s i n , r e f u s i n g t o a p p e a r 27 w i t h h i m f o r t h e i r f o r m a l i n a u g u r a t i o n a s c o n s u l s on 1 J a n u a r y 2 2 2 . T h e n he o r d e r e d a l l t h e s e n a t o r s o u t o f Rome a n d g a v e o r d e r s t o a c e n t u r i o n t o k i l l A l e x a n d e r . T h e s o l d i e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e P r a e t o r i a n s , a t t a c k e d t h e E m p e r o r ' s c o n s p i r a t o r s , k i l l i n g t h e m . T h e n t h e y s l e w E l a g a b a l u s a n d S o a e m i a s , d r a g g e d h i s body t h r o u g h t h e s t r e e t s and t h e n h u r l e d i t i n t o t h e T i b e r , whence he g o t t h e name T i b e r i n u s ( 1 6 . 1 - 1 7 . 7 ) . D i o a l s o c a l l s h i m T i b e r i n u s ( 7 9 . 2 1 . 3 ) . The d e t a i l s o f t h e s t o r y , a s s t a t e d i n t h e t h r e e a c c o u n t s , t h a t seem g e n u i n e a r e t h o s e t h a t a r e c o n t a i n e d i n a t l e a s t two o f t h e t h r e e v e r s i o n s . M a e s a a n d Mamaea f i g u r e d p r o m i n e n t l y i n A l e x a n d e r ' s p r o t e c t i o n ( H e r o d . 5 . 8 . 3 , D i o 7 9 . 1 9 . 2 ) . E l a g a b a l u s t r i e d t o r e v o k e A l e x a n d e r ' s t i t l e o f C a e s a r ( H e r o d . 5.8.4, H A , E l a g . 1 3 . 2 , 1 3 . 6 ) . T h e s o l d i e r s e n c l o s e d t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e camp a n d d e m a n d e d A l e x a n d e r ' s p r e s e n c e ( H e r o d . 5.8.5, D i o 7 9 . 1 9 . 2 ) . A l e x a n d e r went t o t h e c a m p ( H A , E l a g . 1 4 . 3 ) a c c o m p a n i e d b y E l a g a b a l u s ( H e r o d . 5 . 8 . 6 , D i o 7 9 . 1 9 . 2 - 3 ) . E l a g a b a l u s managed t o a p p e a s e t h e s o l d i e r s t e m p o r a r i l y ( D i o 79.19.3-4, HA, E l a g . 1 5 . 1 ) . B e c a u s e o f a n o t h e r d i s c o v e r e d p l o t , t h e s o l d i e r s r i o t e d a g a i n a n d k i l l e d E l a g a b a l u s and h i s mother i n t h e camp o r p a l a c e ( H e r o d . 5 . 8 . 8 - 9 , D i o 7 9 . 2 0 . 1 - 2 , HA, E l a g . 16.1-17.3 and 1 8 . 2 ) . The a d d e d d e t a i l s i n t h e HA a r e u n s u p p o r t e d and t h e r e f o r e , s u s p e c t . A d a m n a t i o  m emoriae was e n a c t e d upon E l a g a b a l u s . H i s name i s e r a s e d i n many o f h i s i n s c r i p t i o n s . " T h e HA, E l a q . 17.4 i s d a m n a t i o m e m o r i a e . S e e I L S  D a m n a t i o M e m o r i a e o f E l a g a b a l S c h w e i z e r M u n z b l a t t e r 30 (1980) t h e o n l y s o u r c e t o m e n t i o n t h e 468 f . a n d A r i e K i n d l e r , "The on C i t y C o i n s o f t h e Near E a s t " , , pp.3-7. 29 IMPERATOR M. AURELIUS SEVERUS ALEXANDER E l a g a b a l u s ' m urder t o o k p l a c e on 13 M a r c h 222 and on t h e same d a y A l e x a n d e r , a t t h e age o f t h i r t e e n , was p r o c l a i m e d Emperor by t h e v o t e o f t h e s o l d i e r s and t h e s e n a t e . 1 D i o and H e r o d i a n g i v e no d e t a i l s a b o u t t h e a c c l a m a t i o n b u t t h e HA, S e v . A l e x . 6 . 1 - 1 2 . 5 , r e c o u n t s t h e ceremony i n s u c h d e t a i l a s t o be s u s p e c t . The d a t e o f t h e a c c l a m a t i o n i n t h e HA ( S e v . A l e x . 6.2) i s i n c o r r e c t l y g i v e n a s 6 M a r c h . The a u t h o r p r o f e s s e s t o q u o t e t h e a c c l a m a t i o n f r o m t h e A c t a U r b i s b u t i t smacks o f f o r g e r y f o r a number o f r e a s o n s . F i r s t o f a l l , a s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , t h e d a t e o f t h e i n a u g u r a t i o n i s i n c o r r e c t , a n d t h e r e a r e s i m i l a r a c c l a m a t i o n s i n o t h e r v i t a e . 2 One t e n d s t o c o n s i d e r t h e s e t o be l i t e r a r y e x e r c i s e s , s e t p i e c e s . I t i s a l s o d i f f i c u l t t o i m a g i n e a c h i l d o f t h i r t e e n y e a r s r e s p o n d i n g s o e l o q u e n t l y t o t h e i n s i s t e n c e o f t h e s e n a t o r s . I t i s g r a n t e d t h a t t h e y o u t h w o u l d be c o a c h e d , b r i e f e d , a n d g i v e n a s p e e c h b e f o r e he a p p e a r e d b e f o r e t h e s e n a t e b u t e v e n s o , t h i s c o u l d n o t a n t i c i p a t e e x a c t l y t h e s e n a t o r s ' r e a c t i o n s . J a r d e r e f u t e s t h e a r g u m e n t f o r a u t h e n t i c i t y t h a t i s b a s e d o n r e s e m b l a n c e i n w o r d i n g w i t h t h e A c t a F r a t r u m A r v a l i u m o r t h e T h e o d o s i a n C o d e . J a r d e b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e f o r g e r a d a p t e d a n a u t h e n t i c t e x t , q u o t i n g g e n e r a l f o r m u l a s a n d i n s e r t i n g ! T h e r e i s some q u e s t i o n a s t o w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e s e n a t e v o t e d A l e x a n d e r Emperor on t h e same day a s t h e s o l d i e r s d i d . F o r d i s c u s s i o n , s e e F i n k , Hoey, S n y d e r , "The F e r i a l e Duranum", YC1S 7 ( 1 9 4 0 ) , p p . 8 5 - 9 4 . 2 A v i d . C a s s . 1 3 . 1 - 5 , Comm. 1 8 - 1 9 , M axim. 1 6 . 3 - 7 , 26, G o r d . 1 1 . 9 - 1 0 , M a x . - B a l b . 2.9-12"; 30 p a r t i c u l a r s s u i t e d t o h i s own s u b j e c t . 3 I t i s i n t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r s t h a t t h e f o r g e r y o f t h e p i e c e i s e x p o s e d . The t i t l e o f S e v e r u s , w h i c h A l e x a n d e r i s known t o h a v e t a k e n u p o n h i s a c c e s s i o n , i s l e f t o u t h e r e . 4 I n f a c t , t h e a u t h o r o f t h e v i t a w r o n g l y s t a t e s t h a t t h e s o l d i e r s c o n f e r r e d t h a t t i t l e b e c a u s e o f A l e x a n d e r ' s e x c e s s i v e s e v e r i t y . The a u t h o r ' s w e a k n e s s f o r puns o n t h e names o f E m p e r o r s h a s i g n o r e d t h e f a c t t h a t A l e x a n d e r a c t u a l l y had d i f f i c u l t y c o n t r o l l i n g h i s t r o o p s . 5 I t i s odd t h a t when t h e S e n a t e p r e s s e d t h e t i t l e Magnus upon h i m ( 1 1 . 2 - 5 ) , he m e n t i o n e d A l e x a n d e r t h e G r e a t and Pompey b u t n o t h i s own k i n s m a n , C a r a c a l l a , who a l s o b o r e t h a t t i t l e . The s o n o f M a c r i n u s i s i n c o r r e c t l y n amed D i a d u m e n u s ( 9 . 3 , 1 0 . 5 ) a n d C a r a c a l l a i s r e f e r r e d t o a s B a s s i a n u s ( 1 0 . 5 ) . A g l a r i n g a n a c h r o n i s m i s t h e p h r a s e P a r t h o s e t P e r s a s A n t o n i n u s v i n c a t ( 7 . 5 ) . F i n a l l y , i t i s i n s t r u c t i v e t o c o m p a r e t h e l i s t o f p o w e r s s a i d t o h a v e b e e n c o n f e r r e d upon h i m a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e v i t a ( 1 . 3 ) w i t h t h o s e h e was g r a n t e d b y t h e s e n a t e , w h i c h a r e c h r o n i c l e d i n t h e s u p p o s e d A c t a U r b i s ( 8 . 1 ) . The f o r m e r i n c l u d e s t h e t i t l e s A u g u s t u s a n d P a t e r P a t r i a e , t h e i u s p r o c o n s u l a r e , t r i b u n i c i a  p o t e s t a s , a n d t h e i u s q u i n t a e r e l a t i o n i s . The l a t t e r , A u g u s t u s , P o n t i f e x M a x i m u s , t h e t r i b u n i c i a p o t e s t a s , and t h e p r o c o n s u l a r e  i m p e r i u m . T h e r e a r e o b v i o u s d i s c r e p a n c i e s . T h a t i s n o t t o s a y 3 J a r d e , o p . c i t . , pp.17-18. 4 C I L V I 1454 i s t h e e a r l i e s t i n s c r i p t i o n b e a r i n g t h e t i t l e S e v e r u s , d a t e d 13 A p r i l 222. 5 S e e P e r t . 1.1, S e p t . S e v . 14.13, M a c r . 11.2 f o r o t h e r p u n s . 31 t h a t many t i t l e s w e r e n o t c o n f e r r e d upon A l e x a n d e r i n a s i n g l e d a y , o n l y t h a t t h e d e t a i l s p a s s e d o f f a s a u t h e n t i c A c t a U r b i s c a n n o t be a c c e p t e d w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e HA, A l e x a n d e r r e f u s e d two t i t l e s t h a t t h e S e n a t e t r i e d t o p r e s s upon h i m , t h e f i r s t b e i n g t h a t o f A n t o n i n u s ( 8 . 3 -1 0 . 5 ) . I n t h e v i t a A l e x a n d e r r e f u s e s t h e t i t l e on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t he i s n o t w o r t h y o f s o i l l u s t r i o u s a t i t l e ( 8 . 4 - 5 ) , b u t one c a n s e e t h e t a c t f u l i n f l u e n c e o f A l e x a n d e r ' s women i n t h i s r e f u s a l . S u r e l y h i s g r a n d m o t h e r , M a e s a , a n d Mamaea w o u l d h a v e a n t i c i p a t e d t h e s i t u a t i o n and d e c i d e d i t u n w i s e f o r A l e x a n d e r t o a c c e p t a t i t l e t h a t w o u l d r e m i n d t h e p e o p l e o f h i s c o r r u p t p r e d e c e s s o r . S i m i l a r l y , t h e new Emperor was o f f e r e d t h e t i t l e o f M a g n u s , w h i c h he a l s o r e f u s e d f o r t h e same r e a s o n . M a g n i v e r o  nomen c u r a c c i p i a m ? Q u i d e n i m iam magnum f e c i ? ( 1 1 . 4 ) . A g a i n t h e S e v e r a n women made a p o l i t i c d e c i s i o n by p r e s e n t i n g t h e yo u n g r u l e r i n s o humble a l i g h t . T h e r e h a s been some q u e s t i o n , h o w e v e r , w h e t h e r o r n o t A l e x a n d e r e v e r a c c e p t e d t h e t i t l e o f Magnus. I n s c r i p t i o n s c o m m e m o r a t i n g t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e town o f G u i f i i n t o a c i v i t a s c o n t a i n t h e t i t l e Magnus i n t h e i r t i t u l a t u r e . C I L V I I I 866: L i c i n i a e S a t u r / n i n a e , A u r e l l i / D i o n y s i p a t r o / n i c o n i u g i , / r a u n i c i p e s / m u n i c i p i i A u r e l / l i A l e x a n d r i a / n i A u g u s t i / M a g n i G u i f i t a n i C I L V I I I 23995: A u r e l i a e D i o / n y s i a e , A u r e l / l i D i o n y s i p a / t r o n i f i l i a e , / m u n i c i p e s / m u n i c i p i i A u r e l / l i A l e x a n d r i a / n i A u g u s t i / M a g n i G u i f i t a n i 32 The town o f G u i f i , s i t u a t e d a b o u t f i f t y k i l o m e t e r s s o u t h - w e s t o f C a r t h a g e , was made a m u n i c i p i u m sometime b e t w e e n 10 December 228 a n d 21 M a r c h 2 3 5 , t h e d a t e o f A l e x a n d e r ' s d e a t h . 6 T h e r e a r e o t h e r i n s c r i p t i o n s o f G u i f i i n w h i c h i t i s n a m e d c i v i t a s  G u i f i t a n a ( C I L V I I I 2 3 9 9 4 ) , m u n i c i p i u m A l e x a n d r i a n i G u i f i t a n i ( C I L V I I I 865) b u t i n i t s f u l l e s t f o r m , i t i s s t y l e d m u n i c i p i u m  A u r e l l i u m A l e x a n d r i a n u m Augustum Magnum G u i f i t a n u m . The magnum i s a p r o b l e m b e c a u s e i t d o e s n o t b e l o n g among t h e i m p e r i a l e p i t h e t s . S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r i s n e v e r c a l l e d M a g n u s i n i n s c r i p t i o n s . He i s o f t e n c a l l e d D i v i M a g n i A n t o n i n i P i i f i l i u s o r D i v i A n t o n i n i M a g n i P i i f i l i u s , i n r e f e r e n c e t o h i s s u p p o s e d f a t h e r , C a r a c a l l a , b u t t h e t i t l e Magnus h a s n e v e r b e e n a p p l i e d d i r e c t l y t o A l e x a n d e r h i m s e l f . 7 By way o f s o l v i n g t h e p r o b l e m , i t h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e magnum d o e s n o t a p p l y t o t h e E m p e r o r b u t r a t h e r t o t h e c i t y o f G u i f i . H o w e v e r , t h e r e a r e o b j e c t i o n s . I n t h i r d c e n t u r y L a t i n i n s c r i p t i o n s o f A f r i c a , s u c h a d j e c t i v e s a l w a y s p r e c e d e t h e w o r d m u n i c i p i u m a n d a r e n e v e r p l a c e d a t t h e end o f a l i s t o f i m p e r i a l e p i t h e t s . 8 F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e a d j e c t i v e magnum i s n o t u s e d t o g l o r i f y t h e name o f a c i t y . A n o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t magnum i s u s e d h e r e t o d i s t i n g u i s h G u i f i f r o m a n o t h e r c i t y o f t h e same name, i n t h e same way a s 6 J a c q u e s G a s c o u , "Une enigme e p i g r a p h i q u e , S e v e r e A l e x a n d r e e t l a t i t u l a t u r e de G u i f i " , A n t A f r 17 ( 1 9 8 1 ) , p.232. 7 C I L V I I I 1406, 6356. 8 G a s c o u , o p . c i t . , p p .234-5. 33 L e p c i s Magna. B u t i n s u c h c a s e s t h e a d j e c t i v e s h o u l d f o l l o w t h e name o f t h e c i t y and. n o t be p l a c e d a t t h e e n d o f t h e i m p e r i a l e p i t h e t s . I f t h e a d j e c t i v e d o e s n o t a p p l y t o G u i f i , i t must t h e n b e l o n g w i t h A l e x a n d e r h i m s e l f . One i m m e d i a t e l y w o n d e r s , t h e n i f A l e x a n d e r d i d assume t h e t i t l e o f Magnus l a t e r on i n h i s r u l e . B u t t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e f r o m o t h e r a r e a s , e i t h e r i n s c r i p t i o n a l o r n u m i s m a t i c t o s u p p o r t t h i s i d e a . The u s e o f magnum a p p e a r s t o be u n i q u e t o G u i f i , w h i c h w o u l d p o i n t t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t i t was u s e d by G u i f i i n a c o m p l e t e l y u n o f f i c i a l c a p a c i t y . S u r e l y t h i s w o u l d p l e a s e t h e E m p e r o r . H i s a f f i n i t y f o r A l e x a n d e r t h e G r e a t was w e l l k n own. T h e r e a r e c o n s t a n t a l l u s i o n s , t h o u g h p r o b a b l y o f t e n f a n c i f u l , i n t h e HA, S e v . A l e x . t o some d i v i n e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r and A l e x a n d e r t h e G r e a t . We a r e t o l d t h a t he i m i t a t e d A l e x a n d e r t h e G r e a t and r e a d a b o u t h i s l i f e ( 3 0 . 3 ) . He d e i f i e d A l e x a n d e r by p l a c i n g h i m among t h e g o d s i n h i s s a n c t u a r y ( 3 1 . 5 ) . He was e s p e c i a l l y p l e a s e d by p o e t s and o r a t o r s who r e l a t e d t h e d e e d s o f A l e x a n d e r t h e G r e a t ( 3 5 . 1 ) . A f t e r d e s s e r t he w o u l d s e r v e a g l a s s o f w i n e t o be d r u n k i n h o n o u r o f A l e x a n d e r ( 3 9 . 1 ) . He s t r o v e t o s u r p a s s t h e M a c e d o n i a n i n war ( 5 0 . 4 ) . He was c r i t i c i z e d a f t e r h i s d e a t h f o r w a n t i n g t o a p p e a r a s a s e c o n d A l e x a n d e r t h e G r e a t ( 6 4 . 3 ) . D i o a l s o m e n t i o n s some c o n n e c t i o n when he r e p o r t s t h e s t o r y o f A l e x a n d e r ' s s p i r i t ( 7 9 . 1 8 . 1 - 3 ) . H e r o d i a n s a y s t h a t S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r t o o k t h a t name i n h o n o u r o f t h e M a c e d o n i a n ( 5 . 7 . 3 ) . I f A l e x a n d e r d i d n o t o f f i c i a l l y assume t h e t i t l e o f Magnus, he c e r t a i n l y s u p p o r t e d t h e a l l u s i o n o f a c o n n e c t i o n b e tween h i m s e l f and t h e M a c e d o n i a n . 34 By way o f f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e G u i f i t i t u l a t u r e , G a s c o u makes a c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n G u i f i ' s t i t u l a t u r e a n d A l e x a n d e r ' s P e r s i a n War, f o r wh i c h p r e p a r a t i o n was made i n 230. The cam p a i g n was l a u n c h e d i n 2 3 1 , t h e b a t t l e s f o u g h t i n 232, a n d i n 233 A l e x a n d e r r e t u r n e d t o Rome t o c e l e b r a t e a t r i u m p h . 9 G a s c o u p o i n t s o u t t h a t i t was d u r i n g t h e l a t t e r y e a r s o f A l e x a n d e r ' s r e i g n t h a t G u i f i became a Roman m u n i c i p i u m and t h a t i t i s v e r y l i k e l y t h a t t h i s e v e n t took p l a c e d u r i n g e i t h e r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r t h e c a m p a i g n , t h e w a r i t s e l f , o r t h e s u b s e q u e n t c e l e b r a t i o n s . 1 0 He p r o p o s e s t h a t t h e a d j e c t i v e magnum was a p p l i e d p u r e l y f o r f l a t t e r y , t o u n d e r l i n e t h e c o n n e c t i o n between t h e two A l e x a n d e r s who d e s t r o y e d P e r s i a n power and was i n no way an o f f i c i a l i m p e r i a l t i t l e . 1 1 The c o m b i n a t i o n o f A l e x a n d e r ' s a f f e c t i o n f o r t h e M a c e d o n i a n k i n g a n d t h e s p i r i t o f t h e t i m e d u r i n g w h i c h G u i f i became a m u n i c i p i u m makes t h i s an a t t r a c t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n . 9 V i d e i n f r a , pp.85-91. 1 0 G a s c o u , o p . c i t . , pp.239-40. n I b i d . , p.240. 35 THE DEATH OF J U L I A MAESA Owing t o A l e x a n d e r ' s y o u t h , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f g o v e r n m e n t was c o m p l e t e l y i n t h e hands o f h i s m o t h e r , Mamaea, and g r a n d m o t h e r , M a e s a , up u n t i l t h e t i m e o f h e r d e a t h ( H e r o d . 5.8.10, 6 . 1 . 1 ) . T h e s e two women c o r r e c t e d many o f t h e e v i l s c a u s e d by E l a g a b a l u s ; H e r o d i a n s a y s t h a t t h e y t r i e d t o e f f e c t a c o m p l e t e r e t u r n t o t e m p e r a t e a n d d i g n i f i e d g o v e r n m e n t ( 6 . 1 . 1 ) . One c a n i d e n t i f y t h e i r w i s e i n f l u e n c e i n some o f A l e x a n d e r ' s e a r l y d e c i s i o n s . 1 2 B u t t h e l o n g - h e l d b e l i e f i n Maesa's i n f l u e n c e d u r i n g t h e r e i g n o f A l e x a n d e r h a s been c h a l l e n g e d . U n d o u b t e d l y J u l i a Maesa was, a t t h i s t i m e , t h e m a t r i a r c h o f t h e S e v e r a n d y n a s t y . Her s t r o n g w i l l m a n i f e s t e d i t s e l f o f t e n d u r i n g t h e r e i g n o f E l a g a b a l u s , b u t h e r i n f l u e n c e d i d n o t e x t e n d a s f a r i n t o A l e x a n d e r ' s r e i g n a s i t was o n c e b e l i e v e d . 1 3 N e i t h e r D i o n o r t h e HA make a n y m e n t i o n o f M a e s a ' s d e a t h . H e r o d i a n , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , s a y s t h a t a f t e r a l o n g t i m e ( C T T I T T O X U ) u n d e r a g o v e r n m e n t i n w h i c h A l e x a n d e r p o s s e s s e d t h e E m p i r e i n name o n l y , Maesa d i e d an o l d woman and r e c e i v e d t h e c u s t o m a r y h o n o u r s and d e i f i c a t i o n ( 6 . 1 . 1 - 4 ) . I t i s t h i s t y p i c a l l y v a g u e s t a t e m e n t o f H e r o d i a n ' s t h a t h a s l e d s c h o l a r s t o b e l i e v e t h a t Maesa l i v e d l o n g i n t o A l e x a n d e r ' s r e i g n . B u t t h i s i s n o t t h e c a s e . The n e x t m a j o r e v e n t r e c o r d e d by H e r o d i a n i s A l e x a n d e r ' s m a r r i a g e ( 6 . 1 . 9 ) , w h i c h i s known t o h a v e 1 2 V i d e s u p r a , p. 3 1. 1 3 M a e s a u n d e r E l a g a b a l u s : D i o 7 8 . 3 8 . 4 , 7 9 . 1 5 . 4 , 7 9 . 1 7 . 2 ; H e r o d . 5.5.5, 5.5.1, 5.7.1-2, 5.8~73^4. 36 t a k e n p l a c e i n 225 o r 2 2 6 . 1 4 T h e r e f o r e , a t e r m i n u s a n t e quern i s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r Maesa's d e a t h . F u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n may be f o u n d i n t h e F e r i a l e Duranum ( P . D u r a 5 4 ) , a p a p y r u s f o u n d a t D u r a E u r o p u s i n 1 9 3 1 / 2 c o n t a i n i n g m i l i t a r y r e c o r d s o f f e s t i v a l s and a n n i v e r s a r i e s t o be o b s e r v e d . 1 5 I t i s c o m p r i s e d o f f o u r c o l u m n s o f l i s t s ; t h e f i r s t t w o a r e n e a r l y w h o l e , t h e s e c o n d two a r e n e a r l y gone. The d a t e i s f i r m l y a s s i g n e d t o t h e r e i g n o f S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r f r o m l i n e s 16-18 i n c o l u m n 2 a n d f u r t h e r d e f i n e d by l i n e 7 i n c o l u m n 2, w h i c h l i s t s t h e b i r t h d a y o f t h e d e i f i e d J u l i a M a e s a a s o n e o f i t s o b s e r v a n c e s . S i n c e M a e s a i s l i s t e d a s a d i v a , t h e r e i s a t e r m i n u s p o s t quern o f 225-6 f o r t h e F e r i a l e . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , on c o l u m n 1, l i n e s 1 1 -12, t h e r e i s r e f e r e n c e t o t h e b i r t h d a y o f a n u n s p e c i f i e d L . C a e s a r , who h a s b e e n c o n j e c t u r e d t o b e O r b i a n a ' s f a t h e r f o r two m a i n r e a s o n s : f i r s t , t h e two o t h e r L u c i u s C a e s a r s a r e u n s a t i s f a c t o r y c a n d i d a t e s , a n d s e c o n d , t h e l i n e s seem t o r e f e r t o a C a e s a r s t i l l l i v i n g a t t h e t i m e , t h a t i s , d u r i n g S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r ' s r e i g n . 1 6 The HA, S e v . A l e x . 49.3 s a y s t h a t A l e x a n d e r g ave h i s w i f e ' s f a t h e r t h e name o f C a e s a r . A r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f h i s name f r o m h e r s w o u l d r e n d e r L u c i u s ( G n a e u s ? ) S e i u s H e r e n n i u s S a l l u s t i u s B a r b i u s ( O r b i a n u s ? ) . T h e r e i s a s m a l l l a c u n a a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f l i n e 12, i n w h i c h t h e t h r e e 1 4 V i d e i n f r a , pp. 50-1. 1 5 F i n k , Hoey, S n y d e r , o p . c i t . , p.2. 1 6 I b i d . , p. 76. 37 l e t t e r s s e l w o u l d f i t v e r y w e l l . 1 7 I f , i n f a c t , t h e s e l i n e s do r e f e r t o O r b i a n a ' s f a t h e r , t h e F e r i a l e w o u l d be d a t e d t o t h e p e r i o d b e t w e e n 2 2 5 , t h e e a r l i e s t d a t e f o r O r b i a n a ' s w e d d i n g , h e n c e h e r f a t h e r ' s C a e s a r s h i p , a n d l a t e 2 2 7 , by w h i c h t i m e A l e x a n d e r was d i v o r c e d . 1 8 I f t h e F e r i a l e h ad c o n t i n u e d i n u s e a f t e r t h e d i v o r c e a n d t h e f a t h e r - i n - l a w ' s d o w n f a l l , h i s name w o u l d h a v e been s t r i c k e n f r o m t h e r e c o r d . 1 9 To assume, h o w e v e r , t h a t c o l u m n 1, l i n e s 11-12 do r e f e r t o O r b i a n a ' s f a t h e r i s a r i s k y p r o p o s i t i o n when we do n o t e v e n know h i s name, and t h e o n l y e v i d e n c e t h a t he was a C a e s a r i s a s i n g l e r e f e r e n c e i n t h e HA, i n w h i c h he i s w r o n g l y named M a c r i n u s (HA, S e v . A l e x . 4 9 . 3 ) . The a r g u m e n t i s t o o c o n j e c t u r a l . The t e r m i n u s p o s t quern f o r t h e F e r i a l e s h o u l d s t i l l be c o n s i d e r e d t o be 225-6 b a s e d on t h e d i v a i n l i n e 7, c o l u m n 2. T h e r e i s a n o t h e r f a c t o r t o c o n s i d e r i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . The F r a t r e s A r v a l e s , a c o l l e g e o f t w e l v e p r i e s t s , a r e known t o h a v e s a c r i f i c e d t o a g r o u p o f t w e n t y d i v i and d i v a e i n A.D. 183, 218, a n d 7 N o v e m b e r 2 2 4 . 2 0 S i n c e t h e number r e m a i n s c o n s t a n t a t t w e n t y i n a l l t h r e e c a s e s , i t i s assumed by some s c h o l a r s t h a t 1 7 I b i d . , p.76. F o r f u l l d i s c u s s i o n o f c o l u m n 1, l i n e s 1 1 - 1 2 , s e e F i n k , Roman M i l i t a r y R e c o r d s on P a p y r u s ( M i c h i g a n , 1971) , p . 4 2 4 . 1 8 I L S 4 8 6 , d a t e d some t i m e i n 2 2 7 , r e c o r d s O r b i a n a a s c o n i u g i A u g . n o s t r i . b u t a f t e r t h i s y e a r s h e i s no l o n g e r m e n t i o n e d . 1 9 F i n k , Hoey, S n y d e r , o p . c i t . , p.23. 20W. H e n z e n , A c t a F r a t r u m A r v a l i u m ( B e r l i n , 1 8 7 4 ) . 38 t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e s e A c t a a l s o r e m a i n e d c o n s t a n t o v e r t h a t e n t i r e t i m e p e r i o d . They c o n c l u d e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t J u l i a Maesa must n o t h a v e d e i f i e d by 7 November 224, b u t r a t h e r d i e d i n 2 2 5 . 2 1 The A c t a o f 218, i n p a r t i c u l a r , a r e u s e d t o s t r e n g t h e n t h i s l i n e o f a r g u m e n t . J u l i a Domna d i e d i n 217, s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e d e a t h o f h e r s o n , C a r a c a l l a , b u t t h e A c t a F r a t r u m A r v a l i u m r e f l e c t no change i n number i n 218. I t has been c o n c l u d e d f r o m t h i s t h a t Domna was n o t d e i f i e d u n t i l Maesa's d e a t h , a n d t h a t t h e y w e r e d e i f i e d t o g e t h e r . T h i s b o l d a s s u m p t i o n i s made t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e argument t h a t t h e l i s t s o f t h e F r a t r e s A r v a l e s were n o t a l t e r e d u n t i l 225, t h e p u r p o r t e d y e a r o f Maesa's d e a t h . T h i s a r g u m e n t h a s s e r i o u s f l a w s . I t a s k s u s t o b e l i e v e t h a t Domna was dead some e i g h t y e a r s b e f o r e she was d e i f i e d , when t h e r e a s o n a b l e t i m e f o r Domna's d e i f i c a t i o n w o u l d be e a r l y i n t h e r e i g n o f E l a g a b a l u s . The i n s c r i p t i o n C I L X I I I 12042 s u p p o r t s t h i s v i e w . d i v a e I u l i a e l e g . I M i n . A n t o n i n i a n a p . f . S i n c e A n t o n i n i a n a was a name added t o t h e L e g i o I M i n e r v i a d u r i n g E l a g a b a l u s 1 r e i g n , t h i s i n s c r i p t i o n i s d a t e d t o t h a t p e r i o d . I f one t a k e s t h e d i v a e I u l i a e t o be Domna, t h e n i t i s c l e a r t h a t she was d e i f i e d d u r i n g h i s r e i g n . 2 2 S u r e l y Soaemias and Maesa w o u l d 2 1 F i n k , Hoey, S n y d e r , o p . c i t . , p.22, 114.; W e l l e s , F i n k , G i l l i a m , o p . c i t . , p.208. 2 2H. B e n a r i o , "The Date o f t h e F e r i a l e Duranum", H i s t o r i a 11 ( 1 9 6 2 ) , p.194. 39 make u s e o f t h e s u p p o r t t h a t w o u l d a c c r u e t o E l a g a b a l u s ' c l a i m t o t h e t h r o n e i f he h a d n o t o n l y a d e i f i e d f a t h e r , b u t a l s o two d e i f i e d g r a n d p a r e n t s , S e p t i m i u s S e v e r u s a n d J u l i a D o m n a . 2 3 F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e i s n o t h i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e l i s t s o f t h e d i v i a n d d i v a e w e r e s u b j e c t t o r e v i s i o n o v e r t h e y e a r s . B e n a r i o p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e number o f d i v i f l u c t u a t e d d u r i n g t h e r e i g n o f S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r and was d e c r e a s e d t o t w e l v e by t h e t i m e o f h i s d e a t h . " C o n f u s i o n c o u l d h a v e a r i s e n , a l o n g w i t h i m p r e c i s i o n , i n t h i s s t a t e o f f l u x . " 2 4 And f i n a l l y , a l l o t h e r e v i d e n c e , e p i g r a p h i c a l and n u m i s m a t i c , seems t o p o i n t t o an e a r l i e r d e a t h f o r Maesa. I n s c r i p t i o n a l e v i d e n c e o f J u l i a Maesa i s s c a n t a n d d i f f i c u l t t o d a t e a t b e s t . Some i n s c r i p t i o n s a r e t e n t a t i v e l y s a i d t o r e f e r t o M a e s a , b u t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o c o n f i r m o r d e n y t h e s e c l a i m s . 2 5 The o n e s t h a t do s p e c i f y Maesa c l e a r l y a r e d i f f i c u l t t o d a t e . 2 6 One f a c t d o e s emerge. A f t e r 224 Maesa i s no l o n g e r m e n t i o n e d by name. The f i r s t i n s c r i p t i o n t h a t i s t e n t a t i v e l y d a t a b l e a n d i d e n t i f i e s Maesa i s AE (1912) 155. The f a c t t h a t J u l i a Mamaea i s l i s t e d f i r s t a n d d o e s n o t h o l d t h e t i t l e o f m a t e r c a s t r o r u m i n d i c a t e s a d a t e e a r l y i n t h e r e i g n o f S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r . The 2 3 T h e r u m o u r t h a t S o a e m i a s h a d a n i l l e g i t i m a t e s o n ( E l a g a b a l u s ) by C a r a c a l l a , h e r f i r s t c o u s i n , i s i n H e r o d . 5.7.3 an d HA, E l a g . 2.1 and D i o 78 . 3 2 . 2 - 3 , 79.19.4. 2 4 B e n a r i o , o p . c i t . , p.194. 2 5 A E (1917/ 1 8 ) 9, (1912) 28, (1902) 147. 2 6 A E (1912) 155, C I L V I 36775. 40 t r i b . p o t . i n l i n e 7 may f u r t h e r s p e c i f y t h e y e a r 2 2 2 . 2 7 L a t e r i n s c r i p t i o n s t h a t m e n t i o n b o t h Mamaea and Maesa name Maesa f i r s t . C I L V I 32544, naming b o t h women, i s g i v e n a t e r m i n u s a n t e quern o f 8 M a r c h 2 2 4 ; C I L V I 3 6 7 7 5 , a d e d i c a t i o n f o r t h e s a f e t y o f A l e x a n d e r , h i s g r a n d m o t h e r a n d m o t h e r , i s n o t d a t a b l e w i t h c e r t a i n t y b u t Maesa's name a g a i n a p p e a r s f i r s t . 2 8 A l s o , Mamaea i s n o t c a l l e d m a t e r c a s t r o r u m i n t h i s i n s c r i p t i o n , a s s h e i s i n t h e f o r m e r . Thus t h i s i n s c r i p t i o n may be e a r l i e r . C I L X I V 1 2 5 , a d e d i c a t i o n t o A l e x a n d e r and Mamaea, d a t e d 8 M a r c h 224, d o e s n o t i n c l u d e M a e s a . 2 9 The most l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t s h e i s no l o n g e r a l i v e by t h i s t i m e . The f a c t t h a t Maesa d i e d b e f o r e A l e x a n d e r ' s m a r r i a g e c o m p l e t e l y r u l e s o u t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f h e r d e a t h t a k i n g p l a c e a f t e r A u g u s t o f 226. A r g u m e n t s f o r a d e a t h - d a t e o f 225 f r o m t h e F e r i a l e a n d t h e A c t a F r a t r u m A r v a l i u m a r e w e a k w h e n c o m p a r e d t o t h e e p i g r a p h i c a l e v i d e n c e , o r l a c k t h e r e o f . 223 o r e a r l y 224 seems most s u i t a b l e f o r t h e d a t e o f h e r d e a t h . As K e t t e n h o f e n p o i n t s o u t , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o i m a g i n e a l a t e r d a t e f o r Maesa's d e a t h when s h e i s m e n t i o n e d i n o n l y t h r e e o f t h e 120 h o n o u r s f o r Mamaea. 3 0 Though Maesa was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e t u r n i n g h e r f a m i l y t o p ower a f t e r t h e d e a t h ,of Domna, h e r own d e a t h i n 223 o r 224 2 7 E r i c h K e t t e n h o f e n , "Zum Tod e s d a t u m J u l i a M a e s a s " , H i s t o r i a 30 ( 1 9 8 1 ) , p . 2 4 5 . 2 8 I b i d . , P. 245. 2 9 I b i d . , P- 245. 3 0 I b i d . , P- 246. 41 cut shor t her c o n t r o l of her second grandson, A lexander . I t must have been Mamaea, mother of the young r u l e r , who c o n t r o l l e d the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Empire from a ve ry e a r l y s t a g e o f the r e i g n . THE DEATH OF ULPIAN Maesa was n o t t h e o n l y p i l l a r o f A l e x a n d e r ' s r e i g n t o f a l l e a r l y . I t was l o n g t h o u g h t t h a t - U l p i a n ' s d e a t h t o o k p l a c e i n 228, b a s e d on t h e c h r o n o l o g y o f D i o ' s n a r r a t i v e , w h i c h r e l a t e s t h e d e a t h o f U l p i a n b e f o r e D i o ' s own s e c o n d c o n s u l s h i p i n 229 ( 8 0 . 2 . 2 , 8 0 . 5 . 1 ) . The a r b i t r a r y d a t i n g o f U l p i a n ' s d e a t h seems r e m a r k a b l e i n l i g h t o f t h e f a c t t h a t D i o h i m s e l f , o u r most r e l i a b l e s o u r c e , s t a t e s t h a t U l p i a n was m u r d e r e d n o t much l a t e r ( o u TTOXXU) u o x e p o v ) t h a n t h e m u r d e r s o f h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s , F l a v i a n u s and C h r e s t u s . I t h a s now b e e n p r o v e n d e f i n i t i v e l y , by t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e p a p y r u s P.Oxy. 2565 i n 1966, t h a t U l p i a n was a l r e a d y d e a d b e f o r e May o f 2 2 4 . 1 The p a p y r u s shows t h a t M. A u r e l i u s E p a g a t h u s , t h e man c h i e f l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r U l p i a n ' s m u r d e r , was i n o f i c e a s P r e f e c t o f E g y p t i n May o r J u n e o f 224 . D i o s t a t e s t h a t E p a g a t h u s was made P r e f e c t o f E g y p t i n o r d e r t o remove h i m f r o m Rome s o t h a t h i s m u r d e r w o u l d n o t c a u s e a n y u p r i s i n g i n t h e c a p i t a l . He a d d s t h a t E p a g a t h u s was t a k e n f r o m E g y p t t o C r e t e a n d e x e c u t e d ( 8 0 . 2 . 4 ) . T h e r e f o r e , U l p i a n ' s m u r d e r t o o k p l a c e b e f o r e May o r J u n e o f 224. K n o w l e d g e o f U l p i a n ' s c a r e e r i s s k e t c h y , b u t t w o f a c t s a r e c e r t a i n ; he was p r a e f e c t u s annonae on 31 M a r c h 222 and p r a e f e c t u s  p r a e t o r i o on 1 December 2 2 2 . 2 A u r e l i u s V i c t o r c l a i m s t h a t U l p i a n was a p p o i n t e d P r a e t o r i a n P r e f e c t by E l a g a b a l u s a n d was r e t a i n e d 1 J . R e a , Oxy.Pap., 31 ( L o n d o n , 1 9 6 6 ) , no.2565, p p . 1 0 2 - 3 . 2 C o d . J u s t . 8.37.4, 4.65.4. 43 i n t h a t o f f i c e by A l e x a n d e r (De C a e s . 2 4 . 6 ) . The s e c o n d h a l f o f t h i s s t a t e m e n t i s known t o be f a l s e , a s A l e x a n d e r a p p o i n t e d F l a v i a n u s a n d C h r e s t u s a s p r e f e c t s u p o n h i s a c c e s s i o n . 3 The f a l s i t y o f t h e l a s t h a l f o f t h e s t a t e m e n t c a s t s d o u b t on t h e v e r a c i t y o f t h e f i r s t h a l f . The HA i s l e s s c e r t a i n o f t h e f a c t s , r e p o r t i n g t h a t some s a y U l p i a n was a p p o i n t e d by E l a g a b a l u s , some, by A l e x a n d e r h i m s e l f . H o w e v e r , t h e a u t h o r i s s u r e t h a t U l p i a n h a d been an a d v i s o r t o A l e x a n d e r a s m a g i s t e r s c r i n i 4 i n c h a r g e o f l e g a l m a t t e r s a n d t h e i m p e r i a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , and had been an a s s e s s o r u n d e r P a p i n i a n (HA, S e v . A l e x . 2 6 . 5 - 6 ) . I n t h e v i t a o f N i g e r , t h e a u t h o r s a y s t h a t U l p i a n was s e c r e t a r y a l i b e l l i s t o A l e x a n d e r a n d a d v a n c e d f r o m t h e r e i m m e d i a t e l y t o t h e p r a e t o r i a n p r e f e c t u r e ( P e s c . 7 . 4 ) . T h i s s t a t e m e n t , h o w e v e r , i s f a l s e , f o r i t i s known t h a t U l p i a n a d v a n c e d f r o m p r a e f e c t u s a n n o n a e t o t h e p r a e t o r i a n p r e f e c t u r e u n d e r A l e x a n d e r . 5 C l e a r l y , U l p i a n c o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n a p p o i n t e d P r a e t o r i a n P r e f e c t u n d e r E l a g a b a l u s , who r e m o v e d h i m ( r e m o v i t ) when he o r d e r e d t h e s e n a t o r s o u t o f t h e c i t y (HA, E l a g . 1 6 . 3 ) . C o n f u s i o n h a s a r i s e n f r o m u s e o f t h e w o r d r e m o v i t . I t i s c e r t a i n l y n o t t h e c o r r e c t t e r m f o r e x i l e s o must r e f e r e i t h e r t o r e m o v a l f r o m h i s p o s t ( p e r h a p s t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d 3 D i o 8 0 . 2 . 2 , Z o s . 1.11.2, Zon. 12.15. 4 S e e a l s o E u t r o p i u s , B r e v . 8.23. 5 C o d . J u s t . 8.37.4, 4.65.4. 44 a l i b e l l i s ) , o r r e m o v a l f r o m t h e c i t y a l o n g w i t h t h e s e n a t o r s . The a u t h o r l a b e l s U l p i a n j u r i s c o n s u l t u m ( E l a g . 1 6 . 4 ) , n o t a s p r a e t o r i a n p r e f e c t , a s one w o u l d e x p e c t i f i n f a c t he was p r e f e c t u n d e r E l a g a b a l u s . I n t h e same p a s s a g e , i t i s l e a r n e d t h a t U l p i a n ' s l i f e was s p a r e d , t h o u g h o t h e r s were n o t s o l u c k y . Syme s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e f a v o u r o f t h e S e v e r a n women, Mamaea and M a e s a , h e l p e d t o s a v e h i s l i f e i n t h i s p e r i l o u s p e r i o d . 7 Z o s i m u s i s t h e o n l y one o f t h e s o u r c e s t o s t a t e t h a t t h e c h o i c e o f U l p i a n a s A l e x a n d e r ' s a d v i s o r was s o l e l y Mamaea's ( 1 . 1 1 . 2 ) . D i o ( 8 0 . 1 . 1 ) and t h e HA ( S e v . A l e x . 26.5) a t t r i b u t e t h e c h o i c e t o A l e x a n d e r h i m s e l f . I t i s n o t known e x a c t l y when U l p i a n was p r o m o t e d t o t h e p r a e f e c t u s p r a e t o r i o o t h e r t h a n i t t o o k p l a c e some t i m e b e t w e e n 31 M a r c h 222 and 1 December 222. D i o s a y s t h a t U l p i a n was g i v e n command o f t h e p r a e t o r i a n s i m m e d i a t e l y u p o n A l e x a n d e r ' s a c c e s s i o n ( 8 0 . 1 . 1 ) . A l e x a n d e r was made Emperor on 13 M a r c h . A t t h e e a r l i e s t , U l p i a n c o u l d have been made p r e f e c t o f t h e g u a r d i n A p r i l . A t w o week p e r i o d c a n c e r t a i n l y b e i n t e r p r e t e d a s " i m m e d i a t e l y " . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e HA seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t U l p i a n d i d n o t b e c o m e p r a e t o r i a n p r e f e c t i m m e d i a t e l y . U l p i a n i s m e n t i o n e d a c o u p l e o f t i m e s i n t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h e V i t a A l e x a n d r i , b u t i s n o t r e f e r r e d t o a s a p r e f e c t o f t h e g u a r d u n t i l 31.2. B u t t h i s c a n be m i s l e a d i n g b e c a u s e i n 6 T h e o f f i c e a l i b e l l i s h a s b een a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e r e i g n s o f S e v e r u s , C a r a c a l l a , and E l a g a b a l u s . Syme s u g g e s t s U l p i a n h e l d t h e o f f i c e u n d e r A l e x a n d e r , when he was C a e s a r . See R o n a l d Syme, " T h r e e J u r i s t s " , BHAC 1968/69 ( 1 9 7 0 ) , p . 3 2 1 . 7 I b i d . , p p . 3 2 0 - 2 1 . 45 t h e e a r l i e r m e n t i o n s o f U l p i a n , he was engaged i n p r a c t i c e s t h a t a r e e n t i r e l y p o s s i b l e f o r a p r a e t o r i a n p r e f e c t . He c o n d u c t e d s t a t e b u s i n e s s a n d h a n d l e d l a w s u i t s ( S e v . A l e x . 15.6) and was a member o f A l e x a n d e r ' s c o u n c i l ( 2 6 . 6 ) . Z o s i m u s r e c o r d s , M a n i a s 6e Tris toX) f J a a i X e w s ^n.Tp'bs eui OTrjoaaris auroTs O u X i r i a v o v e TTI Y v u i u o v a icai uousp K O I V U V O V rrfs apxrfs ( 1 . 1 1 . 2 ) . The t r a n s l a t i o n i s d i f f i c u l t b e c a u s e t h e t e r m eTTiYWdumv i s v a g u e a n d d o e s n o t p r e c i s e l y s p e c i f y U l p i a n ' s p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e o t h e r two p r e f e c t s . 8 From t h e r e s t o f t h e s t a t e m e n t i t seems c l e a r e n o u g h , h o w e v e r , t h a t U l p i a n was a p r a e t o r i a n p r e f e c t (<oivtovbv TTTS a p x n s ) and t h a t he was s u p e r i o r t o h i s a s s o c i a t e s ( e i r i g i T i o a o n s a u t o i s ) . I t a p p e a r s t h a t Z o s i m u s was a w a r e o f U l p i a n ' s s u p e r i o r s t a n d i n g , b e c a u s e when he u s e s K O I V O O V O S , w h i c h i m p l i e s e q u a l i t y , t o d e s c r i b e U l p i a n ' s p o s i t i o n , he a p o l o g i z e s f o r i t w i t h tocnrep. Z o s i m u s i s a l s o t h e o n l y o ne t o t e l l t h e s t o r y t h a t t h e s o l d i e r s , a n g e r e d by U l p i a n ' s a p p o i n t m e n t f o r m e d a p l o t a g a i n s t h i m w h i c h was f o i l e d upon d i s c o v e r y by Mamaea. She had t h e c o n s p i r a t o r s e x e c u t e d ( 1 . 1 1 . 2 - 3 ) . Z o s i m u s s a y s t h a t o n l y t h e n was U l p i a n g i v e n s o l e command o f t h e p r a e t o r i a n p r e f e c t u r e ( 1 . 1 1 . 3 ) . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , D i o s a y s t h a t w h i l e U l p i a n was p r e f e c t , he p u t F l a v i a n u s and C h r e s t u s t o d e a t h i n o r d e r t h a t he m i g h t s u c c e e d them. B u t he h i m s e l f was k i l l e d n o t much l a t e r by 8 R o n a l d T. R i d l e y , Z o s i m u s ( A u s t r a l i a : A u s t r a l i a n A s s o c . f o r B y z a n t i n e S t u d i e s , 1 9 8 2 ) , p.137, n.24. 46 t h e p r a e t o r i a n s , who a t t a c k e d h i m i n t h e n i g h t . N ot e v e n t h e E m p e r o r ' s p r e s e n c e c o u l d s a v e h i m ( 8 0 . 2 . 2 ) . One may c o n c l u d e f r o m Z o s i m u s ' s t a t e m e n t t h a t F l a v i a n u s a n d C h r e s t u s w e re among t h o s e e x e c u t e d a s c o n s p i r a t o r s . S u r e l y t h e y w o u l d r e s e n t U l p i a n b e i n g p r o m o t e d o v e r t h e i r h e a d s . I t may w e l l b e , t h e n , t h a t Mamaea was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d e a t h o f t h e two p r e f e c t s a n d n o t , a s D i o c l a i m s , U l p i a n h i m s e l f . G r o s s o o f f e r s an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e m u r d e r e r ' s name g i v e n by D i o a n d Z o s i m u s . He p r o p o s e s t h a t t h e r e were two f a c t i o n s i n t h e S e v e r a n f a m i l y . Owing t o A l e x a n d e r ' s y o u t h , one c a n s a f e l y c o n s i d e r F l a v i a n u s a n d C h r e s t u s t o be Maesa's c h o i c e s . I f Mamaea p u s h e d U l p i a n t o t h e f o r e , h e e d l e s s o f Maesa's w i s h e s , Maesa w o u l d s u r e l y i n t e r p r e t i t a s a c h a l l e n g e t o h e r p o w e r , r e s u l t i n g i n a s t r u g g l e f o r s u p r e m a c y . D i o ' s a c c o u n t , b y p o i n t i n g o u t U l p i a n ' s l u s t f o r p o w e r , r e f l e c t s s u p p o r t o f M a e s a ' s o r i g i n a l c h o i c e s w h e r e a s Z o s i m u s ' v e r s i o n , i n w h i c h Mamaea i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d e a t h s , r e f l e c t s Mamaea's f a v o u r f o r U l p i a n . 9 T h e r e i s a l s o u n c e r t a i n t y a s t o t h e t i m e o f d e a t h o f t h e two p r e f e c t s . A l l t h e a n c i e n t s o u r c e s , i n c l u d i n g D i o , s t a t e t h a t U l p i a n was a p p o i n t e d t h e i r s u p e r i o r , so D i o c o n t r a d i c t s h i m s e l f by s a y i n g t h a t U l p i a n m u r d e r e d F l a v i a n u s and C h r e s t u s i n o r d e r t o s u c c e e d t h em. The d i s c r e p a n c y r a i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n o f how l o n g t h e t h r e e p r e f e c t s h e l d o f f i c e t o g e t h e r . G r o s s o a r g u e s t h a t by 1 s F u l v i o G r o s s o , " I I P a p i r o O x y .2565 e G l i A v v e n i m e n t i D e l 222-224", A c c a d e m i a D e i L i n c e i A t t i R e n d i c o n t i 23, S e r . 8 ( 1 9 6 8 ) , p p . 2 1 0 - 1 1 . 47 D e c e m b e r 222 F l a v i a n u s a n d C h r e s t u s w e r e d e a d b e c a u s e i n t h e C o d e x J u s t i n i a n u s ( 4 . 6 5 . 4 ) A l e x a n d e r a d d r e s s e s p r a e f e c t u m  p r a e t o r i o i n s t e a d o f p r a e f e c t o s meos, as one w o u l d e x p e c t i f t h e o t h e r two were s t i l l a l i v e . 1 0 B u t t h e argument i s weak. T h e r e i s n o t h i n g t o p r e v e n t A l e x a n d e r f r o m w r i t i n g t o U l p i a n a l o n e , a s s u p e r i o r p r e f e c t , i n w h i c h c a s e he w o u l d u s e t h e s i n g u l a r w h e t h e r F l a v i a n u s and C h r e s t u s were a l i v e o r n o t . B u t i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e m u r d e r s o f t h e t w o p r e f e c t s t o o k p l a c e n o t l o n g a f t e r U l p i a n ' s a c c e s s i o n t o t h e p r e f e c t u r e . Under t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e o f i n t e r n a l f a m i l y s t r i f e c o n c e r n i n g t h e c h o i c e o f p r e f e c t , one w o u l d e x p e c t t h e s i t u a t i o n t o be b r o u g h t t o a s w i f t a n d f i n a l c o n c l u s i o n . As we h a v e s e e n , D i o s t a t e s t h a t U l p i a n ' s d e a t h o c c u r r e d n o t l o n g a f t e r t h a t o f F l a v i a n u s and C h r e s t u s . He a l s o d e s c r i b e s a t h r e e -d a y p o p u l a r u p r i s i n g a g a i n s t t h e p r a e t o r i a n s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h h i s a c c o u n t o f U l p i a n ' s d e a t h ( 8 0 . 2 . 3 ) . Z o s i m u s m e n t i o n s a oTao-is, i n w h i c h U l p i a n was k i l l e d ( 1 . 1 1 . 3 ) . The HA s a y s t h a t A l e x a n d e r f r e q u e n t l y p r o t e c t e d U l p i a n f r o m t h e h o s t i l i t y o f t h e s o l d i e r s , t h o u g h i t d o e s n o t m e n t i o n U l p i a n ' s d e a t h ( S e v . A l e x . 5 1 . 4 ) . The c a u s e o f t h e u p r i s i n g i s n o t s t a t e d i n t h e s o u r c e s , n o r h a s m o d e r n s c h o l a r s h i p s a t i s f a c t o r i l y e x p l a i n e d t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h i s u p r i s i n g and U l p i a n ' s d e a t h . I t a p p e a r s f r o m D i o ' s a c c o u n t , w h i c h i s t h e most d e t a i l e d , t h a t t h e p o l u l a c e was w i n n i n g u n t i l t h e p r a e t o r i a n s r e s o r t e d t o i n c e n d i a r i s m I b i d . , p p . 209-10. 48 ( 8 0 . 2 . 3 ) . O ne w o n d e r s how t h e p o p u l a c e c o u l d h a v e b e e n s u c c e s s f u l a g a i n s t t h e t r a i n e d , w e l l - a r m e d s o l d i e r s w i t h o u t h e l p . G r o s s o p o i n t s o u t t h a t i n 1 9 0 , i n t h e r e v o l t a g a i n s t C l e a n d e r , t h e p e o p l e h ad t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e u r b a n c o h o r t s , b u t none o f t h e s o u r c e s m e n t i o n t h e m i n t h i s c a s e . 1 1 P e r h a p s t h e s o l d i e r s r e a c t e d a g a i n s t t h e m u r d e r o f t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s , F l a v i a n u s a n d C h r e s t u s , a n d t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f a c i v i l , r a t h e r t h a n m i l i t a r y , o f f i c e r t o t h e c h a r g e o f t h e p r a e t o r i a n s . G r o s s o s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e Emperor a nd h i s mo t h e r a t t e m p t e d t o c h e c k t h e p r a e t o r i a n s by m a k i n g u s e o f t h e n a t u r a l h o s t i l i t y o f t h e c i v i l i a n s f o r t h e s o l d i e r s . 1 2 G r o s s o ' s a r g u m e n t i s p l a u s i b l e b u t t h e r e i s n o t eno u g h i n f o r m a t i o n t o come t o a f i r m c o n c l u s i o n . The a p p o i n t m e n t o f U l p i a n t o t h e p r e f e c t u r e was r e m a r k a b l e on two c o u n t s . L o n g p r i o r t o t h e r e i g n o f A l e x a n d e r , i t h a d b e e n c u s t o m a r y t o a p p o i n t a j u r i s t a n d a s o l d i e r a s p r e f e c t s o r two men who had b o t h j u d i c i a l and m i l i t a r y e x p e r i e n c e . A l e x a n d e r , o r r a t h e r Mamaea, by p l a c i n g U l p i a n o v e r F l a v i a n u s a n d C h r e s t u s , a t t e m p t e d t o s u b o r d i n a t e t h e m i l i t a r y e l e m e n t t o t h e c i v i l e l e m e n t . T h i s r e f l e c t s t h e t e n d e n c y o f t h e t i m e t o w a r d m a k i n g t h e p r a e t o r i a n p r e f e c t u r e a more a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r a t h e r t h a n a p u r e l y m i l i t a r y one. S e c o n d , t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f a s u p e r -p r e f e c t , w h o s e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p o s i t i o n was n o t a t a l l c l e a r l y d e f i n e d , was r e m a r k a b l e i n i t s e l f . U l p i a n i s p o r t r a y e d i n t h e n I b i d . , p . 2 1 2 . 1 2 I b i d . , p.213 49 s o u r c e s a s a c a p a b l e and j u s t a d m i n i s t r a t o r , who was h e l d i n h i g h e s t e e m by A l e x a n d e r a n d e x e r t e d a g o o d d e a l o f i n f l u e n c e o v e r h i m . 1 3 As U l p i a n was k i l l e d i n l a t e 223 o r e a r l y 224, he h e l d t h e o f f i c e o f t h e p r a e f e c t u s p r a e t o r i o f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e y e a r . 1 J D i o 8 0 . 1 . 1 , 80.2.2; Z o s . 1.11.2; HA ( E l a g . 16.4, S e v . A l e x . 15.6, 2oT5, 31.2-3. 5 1 . 4 ) . 50 J U L I A MAMAEA The n e x t m a j o r e v e n t t o t a k e p l a c e i n A l e x a n d e r ' s l i f e was h i s m a r r i a g e . What r e m a i n s o f D i o ' s h i s t o r y makes no m e n t i o n o f i t , b u t H e r o d i a n r e c o r d s t h a t Mamaea p r o v i d e d a w i f e f o r h e r s o n , t h o u g h he d o e s n o t name h e r ( H e r o d . 6 . 1 . 9 ) . The o n l y f i r m l y a t t e s t e d w i f e o f A l e x a n d e r i s G n e i a S e i a H e r e n n i a S a l l u s t i a B a r b i a O r b i a n a , whose name a p p e a r s on a s p e c i a l m a r r i a g e i s s u e o f Roman c o i n a g e d a t e d c a . 225 and on A l e x a n d r i a n c o i n s o f t h e y e a r s 225/6 a n d 2 2 6 / 7 . 1 The m a r r i a g e was s h o r t - l i v e d ; a f t e r 227 a l l r e c o r d o f h e r name had d i s a p p e a r e d . 2 Though A l e x a n d e r was happy w i t h t h e m a t c h , s a y s H e r o d i a n , Mamaea e x i l e d h e r t o L i b y a b e c a u s e s h e was j e a l o u s o f t h e y o u n g g i r l b e a r i n g t h e t i t l e A u g u s t a ( 6 . 1 . 9 ) . 3 Mamaea a l s o h e a p e d i n s u l t s upon t h e g i r l ' s f a t h e r , who was h i g h l y h o n o u r e d by A l e x a n d e r , u n t i l he f l e d t h e p a l a c e , s e e k i n g r e f u g e i n t h e m i l i t a r y camp. He l a i d c h a r g e s a g a i n s t Mamaea, who h a d h i m p r o m p t l y e x e c u t e d ( 6 . 1 . 9 - 1 0 ) . T h i s i s t h e a c c o u n t g i v e n by H e r o d i a n b u t i t does n o t r i n g t r u e f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t Mamaea w o u l d e x i l e t h e g i r l s o l e l y b e c a u s e s h e b o r e t h e t i t l e o f A u g u s t a . The E m p e r o r ' s w i f e must b e a r t h i s t i t l e . The f a c t t h a t O r b i a n a ' s f a t h e r t o o k r e f u g e i n t h e m i l i t a r y camp l e a d s one t o s u s p e c t t r e a s o n a b l e m o t i v e s on h i s 1BMC V I , p.142 f f . See W h i t t a k e r , o p . c i t . , p .86, n . l . 2 W i l l i a m s , o p . c i t . , p.80. 3 O r b i a n a b e a r s t h e t i t l e A u g u s t a : C I L I I 3734. She a l s o b e a r s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c e p i t h e t o f t h e S y r i a n h o u s e , s a n c t i s s i m a ( C I L V I I I 9355) . 51 p a r t , i f he r e q u i r e d t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e s o l d i e r s . I t i s a l s o u n l i k e l y t h a t O r b i a n a ' s f a t h e r w o u l d l a y c h a r g e s a g a i n s t t h e m o t h e r o f t h e E m p e r o r . I f o n e r e a d s b e t w e e n t h e l i n e s o f H e r o d i a n ' s a c c o u n t , a n o t h e r , more p l a u s i b l e v e r s i o n a p p e a r s . I f O r b i a n a and h e r f a t h e r were s e c r e t l y p l o t t i n g a g a i n s t A l e x a n d e r , who a t t h i s t i m e was s t i l l v e r y young and v u l n e r a b l e , i t w o u l d n a t u r a l l y f o l l o w t h a t , upon Mamaea's d i s c o v e r y o f t h e p l o t , t h e f a t h e r w o u l d a p p e a l t o t h e s o l d i e r s f o r s u p p o r t . No c e n s u r e c a n a c c r u e t o Mamaea f o r m e t i n g o u t t h e c u s t o m a r y p u n i s h m e n t s o f e x i l e f o r O r b i a n a and d e a t h f o r h e r f a t h e r , who c o n s p i r e d a g a i n s t t h e E m p e r o r . T h i s v e r s i o n i s s u p p o r t e d by t h e HA. I n t h e V i t a  A l e x a n d r i a s t o r y i s a t t r i b u t e d t o D e x i p p u s t h a t A l e x a n d e r ' s f a t h e r - i n - l a w made a n a t t e m p t on h i s l i f e , f o r w h i c h he was e x e c u t e d and t h e w i f e d i v o r c e d ( 4 9 . 3 - 4 ) . The name o f t h e f a t h e r -i n - l a w i s g i v e n a s M a c r i n u s ( P I R 2 M 2 7 ) , w h i c h i s u n s u p p o r t e d , b u t t h e b a s i c s t o r y i s t h e same. 4 However, one must a c c e p t t h i s c o n j e c t u r a l v e r s i o n w i t h r e s e r v e . One w o n d e r s what O r b i a n a ' s f a t h e r h a d a s a power b a s e f r o m w h i c h t o o p e r a t e and c o n s t r u c t h i s p l a n s . One m u s t a l s o a s k w h a t b e n e f i t w o u l d a c c r u e t o O r b i a n a a s d a u g h t e r , r a t h e r t h a n w i f e , o f t h e E m p e r o r . Why w o u l d s h e s u p p o r t h e r f a t h e r i n p r e f e r e n c e t o h e r h u s b a n d ? H e r o d i a n ' s a c c o u n t o f t h e m a r r i a g e c a s t s Mamaea, u n d e s e r v e d l y , i n a b a d l i g h t . H i s d i s l i k e f o r h e r i s o b v i o u s . He s a y s t h a t T h e r e A l e x a n d r i , d a u g h t e r o f i s no e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h e c l a i m i n t h e V i t a 20.3 t h a t A l e x a n d e r m a r r i e d a woman named Memmia, S u l p i c i u s and g r a n d - d a u g h t e r o f C a t u l u s . 52 A l e x a n d e r ' s o n l y f a u l t was t h a t he showed more r e s p e c t f o r h i s m o t h e r t h a n s h e d e s e r v e d ( 6 . 1 . 1 0 ) . He s a y s t h a t e v e n A l e x a n d e r f o u n d f a u l t w i t h h e r f o r h e r a v a r i c e and o b s e s s i o n w i t h money, a n d c h a r g e s t h a t s h e f o r c i b l y c o n f i s c a t e d i n h e r i t e d p r o p e r t y ( 6 . 1 . 8 ) . H e r o d i a n a l s o c l a i m s , f a l s e l y , t h a t A l e x a n d e r ' s r e i g n w o u l d h a v e b e e n a c o m p l e t e s u c c e s s , b u t f o r h i s m o t h e r ' s (friXotpYupiot a n d y u c p o X o y i a ( 6 . 9 . 8 ) . T h i s i s h i s c l o s i n g s t a t e m e n t on A l e x a n d e r ' s r e i g n . Y e t H e r o d i a n i s n o t t h e o n l y o n e o f t h e a n c i e n t a u t h o r s t o c r i t i c i z e Mamaea, t h o u g h he i s t h e most vehement. The l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n i s h o s t i l e t o Mamaea, c h a r g i n g h e r w i t h a v a r i c e . The t r a d i t i o n p r o b a b l y e v o l v e d f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t s h e w a s s o p r o m i n e n t i n t h e r e i g n a n d t h e t e n d e n c y o f a u t h o r s t o l a y t h e b l a m e o n a woman i n a n E m p e r o r ' s l i f e . The V i t a A l e x a n d r i m e n t i o n s h e r g r e e d ( 1 4 . 7 , 5 9 . 8 ) . The a u t h o r o f t h e E p i t o m e s a y s t h a t Mamaea was s o s t i n g y t h a t i f any f o o d was l e f t o v e r f r o m t h e noon-day m e a l , t h o u g h h a l f - e a t e n , i t w o u l d be r e s e r v e d a t a n o t h e r m e a l ( E p i t . de C a e s . 2 4 . 5 ) . E u t r o p i u s and V i c t o r a r e s i l e n t on t h e i s s u e . Z o n a r a s t o o s a y s t h a t s he was u n a b l e t o r e s i s t money a n d made i t f r o m e v e r y p o s s i b l e s o u r c e ( Z o n . 1 2 . 1 5 ) ; Z o s i m u s a t t r i b u t e s g r e e d t o A l e x a n d e r h i m s e l f , s a y i n g t h a t he h o a r d e d money i n a t r e a s u r y c o n t r o l l e d by Mamaea ( Z o s . 1 . 1 2 . 2 ) . The c h a r g e , h o w e v e r , seems e x a g g e r a t e d and u n j u s t . C o n t r a r y t o t h e l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n , Mamaea i s d e s e r v i n g o f much p r a i s e . She was i n d e e d t h e g u i d i n g f o r c e b e h i n d A l e x a n d e r ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r i t s d u r a t i o n . P e r h a p s s he c o u l d be f a u l t e d 53 f o r n o t g r a d u a l l y r e l i n q u i s h i n g c o n t r o l a s A l e x a n d e r grew o l d e r , b u t i f o n e c a n b e l i e v e h i s c h a r a c t e r - a n a l y s i s i n t h e s o u r c e s , Mamaea c a n n o t be b l a m e d f o r m a i n t a i n i n g c o n t r o l o v e r a p e r s o n o f a k i n d a n d g e n t l e d i s p o s i t i o n , who was t o o weak t o assume c o n t r o l f o r h i m s e l f . A l e x a n d e r i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n t h e a n c i e n t s o u r c e s by e x c e s s i v e d e v o t i o n t o and d e p e n d a n c y o n . h i s m o t h e r . H e r o d i a n c l a i m s t h a t , t h o u g h A l e x a n d e r o b j e c t e d t o h i s m o t h e r ' s t r e a t m e n t o f h i s w i f e , he was c o m p l e t e l y d o m i n a t e d by h e r and d i d e x a c t l y w h a t h e was t o l d ( H e r o d . 6 . 1 . 1 0 ) . T h e HA s t a t e s t h a t h i s d e v o t i o n e x t e n d e d t o b u i l d i n g s p e c i a l a p a r t m e n t s named f o r h e r i n t h e p a l a c e a t Rome and b u i l d i n g a p a l a c e and a p o o l f o r h e r n e a r B a i a e ( S e v . A l e x . 2 6 . 9 ) . The V i t a A l e x a n d r i a l s o m e n t i o n s t h a t a f t e r t h e P e r s i a n c a m p a i g n , he e s t a b l i s h e d an o r d e r o f b o y s a n d g i r l s c a l l e d Mamaeani a n d Mamaeanae ( 5 7 . 7 ) . The a u t h o r o f t h e v i t a s a y s t h a t he d i d e v e r y t h i n g o n h i s m o t h e r ' s a d v i c e ( 6 0 . 2 ) an d t h a t he was u l t i m a t e l y m u r d e r e d b e c a u s e h i s m o t h e r p e r s u a d e d h i m t o a b a n d o n t h e G e r m a n i c War ( 6 3 . 5 ) . 5 The two e p i t o m a t o r s , V i c t o r a n d E u t r o p i u s , a l s o t e s t i f y t o A l e x a n d e r ' s r e l i a n c e on h i s m o t h e r . V i c t o r m e n t i o n s h i s f i l i a l p i e t y (De C a e s . 2 4 . 5 ) ; E u t r o p i u s s a y s t h a t he was l o y a l t o h i s m o t h e r , Mamaea, a l o n e ( B r e v . 8 . 2 3 ) . Z o n a r a s a t t e s t s t h a t A l e x a n d e r was r u l e d by h i s 5 H e r o d i a n s a y s t h a t A l e x a n d e r ' s f a i l u r e i n t h e P e r s i a n c a m p a i g n may h a v e b e e n due t o h i s m o t h e r r e s t r a i n i n g h i m f r o m g o i n g t o b a t t l e a s p l a n n e d ( 6 . 5 . 8 - 9 ) . H i s a c c o u n t o f t h e G e r m a n i c c a m p a i g n s u p p o r t s t h a t o f t h e HA by r e p o r t i n g t h a t i t was Mamaea's i n f l u e n c e t h a t c a u s e d A l e x a n d e r t o t r y t o buy h i s way o u t o f t h e war ( 6 . 8 . 3 ) . I n a p i t i f u l f i n a l s c e n e A l e x a n d e r i s d e p i c t e d c l i n g i n g t o h i s mother and w e e p i n g a s he w a i t s i n h i s t e n t f o r h i s e x e c u t i o n e r ( 6 . 9 . 6 ) . 54 m o t h e r ( 1 2 . 1 5 ) . I n f a c t , Z o n a r a s s a y s t h a t A l e x a n d e r ' s f i r s t a c t was t o name h i s m o t h e r A u g u s t a . He s a y s t h a t A l e x a n d e r o t u x i K O t  x r i v o i K E i a v u n x e p a Mauaictv AUYOuaxav aveTiTeu ( Z o n . 1 2 . 1 5 ) . I t h a s b e e n w i d e l y a g r e e d t h a t Mamaea d i d n o t r e c e i v e t h e t i t l e o f A u g u s t a u n t i l h e r s o n became Em p e r o r . B e n a r i o , h o w e v e r , s u g g e s t s t h a t Mamaea h e l d t h e t i t l e o f A u g u s t a b e f o r e M a r c h o f 222 on t h e b a s i s o f a n i n s c r i p t i o n , AE ( 1 9 3 3 ) 2 8 1 , i n w h i c h t h e E m p e r o r E l a g a b a l u s , h i s m o t h e r , S o a e m i a s , a n d a u n t , M a m a e a , a r e m e n t i o n e d . 6 [M. A u r e l i u m A n ] t o n i n u [ m A u g u s t ] u m P i [ u m F e l i c e m e t I u l i a m S o a e ]miadem [ e t I u l i a m ] Mama[eam A u g u s t a s A r i s [ t a e n e t u [ s e t .... s. l i b . p r [ o c c . The a r g u m e n t i s b a s e d on t h e r e s t o r a t i o n , A u g u s t a s , f o r a l a c u n a i n l i n e 2. B e n a r i o s u p p o r t s t h e r e s t o r a t i o n b e c a u s e , f i r s t , some t i t l e i s r e q u i r e d , s e c o n d , a f t e r t h e a c c e s s i o n o f E l a g a b a l u s , S o a e m i a s n e v e r a p p e a r e d i n i n s c r i p t i o n s w i t h o u t t h i s t i t l e , a n d t h i r d , A u g u s t a i s t h e o n l y t i t l e t h e y c o u l d h a v e s h a r e d , a s Mamaea was no more t h a n t h e E m p e r o r ' s a u n t a t t h e t i m e . 7 I f t h e r e s t o r a t i o n i s c o r r e c t , i t a p p e a r s t h a t Z o n a r a s i s wrong when he s a y s t h a t Mamaea was made A u g u s t a i m m e d i a t e l y u p o n A l e x a n d e r ' s a c c e s s i o n . I t i s p l a u s i b l e t h e Mamaea, as a p r o m i n e n t menber o f t h e i m p e r i a l h o u s e , be g r a n t e d a l s o t h e t i t l e o f A u g u s t a . A f t e r a l l s h e t o o had a s o n who was r e c o g n i z e d a s a p o t e n t i a l h e i r t o 6 H e r b e r t W. B e n a r i o , "The T i t u l a t u r e o f J u l i a S o a e m i a s a n d J u l i a Mamaea: Two N o t e s " , TAPA 90 ( 1 9 5 9 ) , p.14. 7 I b i d . , p.14. 55 t h e t h r o n e v e r y e a r l y i n E l a g a b a l u s ' r e i g n . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e c o n c e p t o f domus d i v i n a , w h i c h was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e S e v e r a n h o u s e , w o u l d b e u p h e l d b y s u c h a t i t l e c o n f e r r e d u p o n t h e E m p e r o r ' s a u n t . 8 The power t h a t Mamaea w i e l d e d d u r i n g h e r s o n ' s r e i g n i s b o r n e o u t by e p i g r a p h i c a l a n d n u m i s m a t i c e v i d e n c e . She was h i g h l y h o n o u r e d f r o m t h e v e r y b e g i n n i n g , h o l d i n g t h e t i t l e o f m a t e r c a s t r o r u m e v e n b e f o r e Maesa's d e a t h . 9 Her name was a l s o g i v e n t o a c o h o r t o f v i g i l e s , a d i s t i n c t i o n g i v e n t o no o t h e r E m p r e s s . 1 0 H e r o f f i c i a l t i t l e , a s o f 2 2 7 , was m a t e r A u g u s t i e t c a s t r o r u m e t  s e n a t u s a t q u e p a t r i a . 1 1 C o i n s s t r u c k i n t h e y e a r s p r i o r t o 227 r e f e r t o t h e harmony between Mamaea and h e r s o n , and t o Mamaea a s an i m p e r i a l m o t h e r . 1 2 The o b v e r s e o f e a c h c o i n h a s a p o r t r a i t o f Mamaea a n d t h e w o r d s I u l i a Mamaea A u g . ; t h e r e v e r s e c o n t a i n s v a r i o u s l e g e n d s s u c h a s P a x A e t e r n a A u g , F e l i c i t a s P e r p e t u a , e t c . 1 3 Few o f t h e i n s c r i p t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g Mamaea's name a r e d a t a b l e , o r g i v e much a d d e d i n f o r m a t i o n on h e r c a r e e r . A t a b l e t d e d i c a t e d t o 8 I n s c r i p t i o n s m e n t i o n i n g t h e domus d i v i n a : C I L V I 2 1 0 8 , 2799; V I I 319; V I I I 2620, 8203, 15846; X I I 144; X I V T75. 9 C I L V I 2832 1 0 C I L V I 3008. See W i l l i a m s , o p . c i t . , p p . 7 4 - 1 0 0 . n C I L V I 2108. 1 2R.A.G. C a r s o n , C o i n s o f t h e Roman E m p i r e i n t h e B r i t i s h  Museum, V I ( L o n d o n , 1 9 6 2 ) , S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r 1090, 920. 1 3BMC V I , S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r 527, 537, 997. 56 A l e x a n d e r a n d Mamaea i n t h e y e a r 224 by a d i v i s i o n o f t h e f r u m e n t a r i i i n O s t i a i n d i c a t e s t h a t Mamaea i n c r e a s e d t h e p o l i c e f o r c e . 1 4 An i n s c r i p t i o n o f 228 on an a l t a r t o A s c l e p i u s a s k s f o r t h e w e l l - b e i n g o f A l e x a n d e r and h i s m o t h e r . 1 5 I t i s l i k e l y t h a t one o f them was i l l a t t h i s t i m e . An i n s c r i p t i o n d a t e d t o 229, s c r a t c h e d u n d e r r o u g h p o r t r a i t s o f A l e x a n d e r a n d Mamaea, i n d i c a t e s t h a t s h e s t i l l h a d t h e l o y a l t y o f members o f t h e v i g i l e s . 1 6 One p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r i k i n g i n s c r i p t i o n f r o m C a r t h a g e g i v e s Mamaea a most e l a b o r a t e t i t l e , C I L I I 3413: I u l i a e A v i t a e / M a m e a e A u g ( u s t a e ) / m a t r i d o m i n i / n ( o s t r i ) s a n c t i s s i m i / i m p ( e r a t o r i s ) S e v e r i A l e / x a n d r i P i i F e / l i c i s A u g ( u s t i ) e t / c a s t r o r u m e t / s e n a t u s e t p a / t r i a e e t u n i v e r / s i g e n e r i s hu/mani c o n v e n / t u s K a r t h a g ( i n i s ) T h e r e i s e v i d e n c e o f d e d i c a t i o n s t o Mamaea i n many d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e E m p i r e , o f t e n made b y s o l d i e r s . 1 7 A f r i c a n i n s c r i p t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t f o r t s were b u i l t a n d d e d i c a t e d t o A l e x a n d e r and Mamaea. 1 8 I n s c r i p t i o n s on l e a d p i p e s i n d i c a t e t h a t Mamaea h a d much p r o p e r t y o f h e r own a n d was i n v o l v e d i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f p u b l i c w o r k s . 1 9 C o n t r a r y t o H e r o d i a n ' s s t a t e m e n t 1 4 C I L XIV 125. 1 5 C I L V I 13. 1 6 C I L V I 3075. 1 7 D a c i a : C I L I I I 798, S i c i l y : C I L X 7478, N u m i d i a : C I L V I I I 10767, Rome: TTTL VI 2833, P a n n o n i a : C I L I I I 3327,7955, A f r i c a : C I L V I I I 8203 and many o t h e r s . 1 8 C I L V I I I 1. 1 9 C I L XIV 3037, See W i l l i a m s , o p . c i t . , pp.75-6. 57 t h a t A l e x a n d e r ' s r e i g n w o u l d have been a s u c c e s s b u t f o r Mamaea, i t a p p e a r s t h a t - i t w a s M a m a e a ' s s t r e n g t h t h a t h e l d t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o g e t h e r . She a l s o seems t o have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f o i l i n g c o n s p i r a c y a g a i n s t h e r s o n , w o r k i n g b e h i n d t h e s c e n e s , a s i t w e r e , t o keep h e r s o n ' s p o s i t i o n s e c u r e . 2 0 ^Mamaea's a n o m a l o u s p o s i t i o n u n d e r Roman l a w i s i l l u s t r a t e d b y a n i m p e r i a l d e c r e e r e n d e r e d i n 2 2 4 ( C . I . C . C o d . 5 . 3 5 ) : I m p e r a t o r A l e x a n d e r A u g u s t u s O t a c i l i a e : T u t e l a m  a d m i n i s t r a r e v i r i l e m u n u s e s t e t u l t r a s e x u m f e m i n i a e  i n f i r m i t a t i s t a l e o f f i c i u m e s t , X. K a l . O c t . J u l i a n o e t C r i s p i n o C o n s i l i b u s . 58 ALEXANDER'S ADMINISTRATION T h e s o u r c e s l i s t n u m e r o u s r e f o r m s , s u p p o s e d l y i n t r o d u c e d b y A l e x a n d e r ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Two o f t h e s e , d e a l i n g w i t h t h e c o n s i l i u m p r i n c i p i s a n d t h e r a n k o f t h e p r a e t o r i a n p r e f e c t , a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n t r o v e r s i a l . H e r o d i a n s a y s t h a t t h e f i r s t r e f o r m o f t h e new r e i g n was t h e c h o o s i n g o f s i x t e e n s e n a t o r s a s c o u n s e l l o r s t o t h e E m p e r o r ( 6 . 1 . 2 ) . B u t , a p p a r e n t l y i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o t h i s s t a t e m e n t , he s a y s l a t e r on t h a t members o f A l e x a n d e r ' s c o u n c i l were c h o s e n by t h e s e n a t e ( 7 . 1 . 3 ) . The HA s a y s neque u l l a m c o n s t i t u t i o n e m s a c r a v i t s i n e v i g i n t i i u r i s p e r i t i s e t d o c t i s s i m i s a c s a p i e n t i b u s v i r i s i i s d e m q u e d i s e r t i s s i m i s non m i n u s q u i n q u a g i n t a , u t non m i n u s i n c o n s i l i o e s s e n t s e n t e n t i a e quam s e n a t u s c o n s u l t u m c o n f i c e r e n t ( S e v . A l e x . 16.1) L i t t l e i s known o f t h e c o n s i l i u m p r i n c i p i s , w h i c h o r i g i n a t e d a s an a d hoc a d v i s o r y c o m m i t t e e o f s e n a t o r s and a m i c i t o d e l i b e r a t e w i t h t h e E m p e r o r o n p u b l i c a f f a i r s , o w i n g t o t h e l a c k o f d o c u m e n t a r y e v i d e n c e . The e x a c t number o f members i s n o t known b u t p r o b a b l y was q u i t e f l e x i b l e . 1 The r e v i v a l o f t h e c o n s i l i u m  p r i n c i p i s r e f l e c t s A l e x a n d e r ' s d e s i r e t o r e t u r n t o n o r m a l p o l i c y . T h e i n f o r m a t i o n o f o u r s o u r c e s , h o w e v e r , h a s b e e n s e e n a s c o n t r a d i c t o r y a n d c o n t r o v e r s i a l . I t h a s l o n g b een a c a u s e f o r c o n c e r n t h a t H e r o d i a n m e n t i o n s a g r o u p o f s i x t e e n , w h e r e a s t h e HA s p e a k s o f t w e n t y , a n d t h e n f i f t y men. The q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r ^ e e S u e t o n i u s , T i b e r i u s 55. 59 t h e c o n s i l i a r i i a r e c h o s e n by t h e E m p e r o r o r e l e c t e d b y t h e S e n a t e h a s a l s o b een d e b a t e d . V a r i o u s s o l u t i o n s t o t h e p r o b l e m s h a v e b e e n p r o p o s e d . I t h a s been s u g g e s t e d t h a t H e r o d i a n a nd t h e a u t h o r o f t h e HA a r e n o t s p e a k i n g o f t h e same c o u n c i l ; t h a t t h e r e w e r e t w o c o u n c i l s , t h e o n e m e n t i o n e d b y H e r o d i a n b e i n g a n i n f o r m a l c o u n c i l f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f a i d i n g i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n u n t i l A l e x a n d e r came o f a g e , t h e o n e i n t h e HA b e i n g t h e c o n s i l i u m p r i n c i p i s . J a r d e t a k e s t h i s v i e w and a d d s t o i t t h a t t h i s c o u n c i l o f s i x t e e n e i t h e r d i s a p p e a r e d o r became i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e c o n s i l i u m p r i n c i p i s . 2 The p a s s a g e i n t h e HA m e n t i o n s a t o t a l o f s e v e n t y men, one g r o u p o f t w e n t y j u r i s t s a n d a n o t h e r o f f i f t y w i s e a n d e l o q u e n t men. C r o o k p r o p o s e s t h a t t h e t o t a l o f s e v e n t y was t h e c o m b i n e d f o r c e s o f t h e a m i c i , j u r i s c o n s u l t s , a n d t h e s i x t e e n s e n a t o r s , f o r m i n g t h e c o n s i l i u m . 3 B u t t h i s s o l u t i o n i g n o r e s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e HA d e s c r i b e s two d i s t i n c t g r o u p s . I p r o p o s e t h a t t h e g r o u p o f t w e n t y j u r i s t s i n t h e HA i s t h e same g r o u p a s t h e s i x t e e n s e n a t o r s m e n t i o n e d by H e r o d i a n , a n d t h a t t h i s g r o u p i s t h e c o n s i l i u m p r i n c i p i s . 4 The d i f f e r e n c e i n number b e t w e e n s i x t e e n , i n H e r o d i a n , a n d t w e n t y , i n t h e HA, i s n e g l i g i b l e when one i s c o n s i d e r i n g a g r o u p t h a t v a r i e s i n number. An a d v i s o r y c o u n c i l o f e i t h e r f i f t y o r s e v e n t y members seems t o me t o be u n w i e l d y and i m p r a c t i c a l . The g r o u p composed o f f i f t y 2 J a r d e , o p . c i t . , p.26. 3 J o h n C r o o k , C o n s i l i u m P r i n c i p i s ( L o n d o n , 1 9 5 5 ) , p . 90. 4 S e e R.V. N i n d H o p k i n s , T h e L i f e o f A l e x a n d e r S e v e r u s ( L o n d o n , 1 9 0 7 ) , p p . 1 0 9 - 1 3 . 60 members i s e a s i l y e x p l i c a b l e a s a quorum f o r a s e n a t u s c o n s u l t u m . I n A.D. 356 t h e quorum f o r t h e e l e c t i o n o f a p r a e t o r c o n s i s t e d o f f i f t y s e n a t o r s . 5 I t i s a l t o g e t h e r p o s s i b l e t h a t , a c e n t u r y e a r l i e r , o t h e r s e n a t o r i a l v o t e s r e q u i r e d a quorum o f f i f t y . 6 I n t h i s c a s e , t h e p a s s a g e i n t h e HA becomes e a s y t o c o m p r e h e n d . The E m p e r o r d i d n o t i s s u e a c o n s t i t u t i o w i t h o u t c o n s u l t i n g h i s p r i v a t e c o u n c i l a n d p a s s i n g i t by v o t e t h r o u g h t h e s e n a t e , w here a minimum o f f i f t y members was r e q u i r e d . The c o n s i l i u m p r i n c i p i s was, t h e n , i n t h e t i m e o f A l e x a n d e r , a p e r s o n a l a d v i s o r y c o u n c i l o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w e n t y members, t h a t was composed o f s e n a t o r s , a m i c i , and j u r i s c o n s u l t s . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e number o f members was f l e x i b l e and t h a t t h e y were c h o s e n by t h e Emperor f o r t h e most p a r t , t h o u g h i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e S e n a t e d i d p l a y some p a r t i n c h o o s i n g i t s own r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o t h e c o u n c i l . The HA g i v e s a l i s t o f i t s members a t t h e v e r y end o f t h e V i t a A l e x a n d r i , i n c l u d i n g t h e famous j u r i s t s U l p i a n a n d P a u l u s ( 6 8 . 1 ) . None o f t h e o t h e r s l i s t e d a r e known. A n o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t r e f o r m a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e r e i g n o f S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r c o n c e r n s t h e p r a e t o r i a n p r e f e c t u r e . The HA s t a t e s t h a t A l e x a n d e r e l e v a t e d t h e p r e f e c t o f t h e g u a r d f r o m t h e e q u e s t r i a n o r d e r t o s e n a t o r i a l r a n k , l e s t one n o t o f s e n a t o r i a l r a n k p a s s j u d g e m e n t on a s e n a t o r . P r a e f e c t i s p r a e t o r i i s u i s s e n a t o r i a m a d d i d i t 5 C o d . T h e o d . 6.4.9. 6 J a r d e , o p . c i t . , p p . 2 2 - 3 . 61 d i g n i t a t e m , u t V i r i C l a r i s s i m i e t e s s e n t e t d i c e r e n t u r . . . A l e x a n d e r a u t e m i d c i r c o s e n a t o r e s e s s e v o l u i t p r a e f e c t o s p r a e t o r i i , ne q u i s non s e n a t o r de Romano S e n a t o r e i u d i c a r e t . ( S e v . A l e x . 21.3-5) Many h a v e q u e s t i o n e d t h i s s t a t e m e n t on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t some o f t h e p r a e t o r i a n p r e f e c t s t h a t a r e known t o u s , i n t h e i r p o s t s d u r i n g a n d s h o r t l y a f t e r A l e x a n d e r ' s r e i g n , w e r e o f t h e e q u e s t r i a n o r d e r . 7 Of F l a v i a n u s ( P I R 2 F 180 and J 3 1 2 ) , one o f t h e p r e f e c t s a p p o i n t e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f A l e x a n d e r ' s r e i g n , n o t h i n g more i s known, b u t he was p r o b a b l y an e q u e s t r i a n . 8 H i s c o l l e a g u e , C h r e s t u s ( P I R 2 G 1 4 4 ) i s p r o b a b l y t h e G e m i n i u s C h r e s t u s who was P r e f e c t o f E g y p t i n 219/20, s i n c e t h e name i s r a r e . 9 L. D o m i t i u s H o n o r a t u s ( P I R 2 D 1 5 1 ) , who was p r o b a b l y U l p i a n ' s s u c c e s s o r , 1 0 i s d e s i g n a t e d on an i n s c r i p t i o n i n E g y p t , C I L I I I 12052, a s H o n o r a t u m , p r a e f ( e c t u m ) p r a e t ( o r i o ) , e m ( i n e n t i s s i m u m ) v ( i r u m ) The t i t l e e m i n e n t i s s i m u s i n d i c a t e s t h a t he was a n e q u e s t r i a n . F u r t h e r m o r e , a D o m i t i u s H o n o r a t u s , who m u s t h a v e b e e n t h e p r e f e c t , was P r e f e c t o f E g y p t . 1 1 M. A t t i u s C o r n e l i a n u s ( P I R 2 A 7 P r i o r t o A l e x a n d e r ' s r e i g n t h e r e were r a r e e x c e p t i o n s . F o r e x a m p l e s , s e e t h e c a r e e r s o f S e j a n u s and P l a u t i a n u s . 8 J a r d e , o p . c i t . , p . 3 6 , n.7. 9 L a u r e n c e L e e Howe, The P r e t o r i a n P r e f e c t f r o m Commodus t o  D i o c l e t i a n A.D. 180-305 (Rome, 1 9 4 2 ) , p .75. 1 0 I b i d . , p.76 and 102-3. n P . O x y . I , 62. 62 1353) was p r a e t o r i a n p r e f e c t c a . 230. An i n s c r i p t i o n f r o m U c h i M a i u s , C I L V I I I 26270, c a l l s h i m M. A t t i o C o r n e l i a n o , p r a e f e c t o p r a e t o r i o , e m i n e n t i s s i m o v i r o A g a i n , he i s g i v e n t h e e q u e s t r i a n t i t l e . I n a d d i t i o n , t w o unknown p r e f e c t s o f A l e x a n d e r ' s r e i g n a r e c a l l e d e m i n e n t i s s i m u s i n C I L I I 2664, d a t e d 234. S u b s e q u e n t t o A l e x a n d e r ' s r e i g n , C. F u r i u s S a b i n i u s A q u i l a T i m e s i t h e u s ( P I R 2 F 5 8 1 ) , who was p r e f e c t i n 2 4 1 , and C. J u l i u s P r i s c u s ( P I R 2 J 4 8 8 ) , p r e f e c t i n 2 4 2 / 3 , a r e e x a m p l e s o f e q u e s t r i a n p r e f e c t s . 1 3 The number o f p r e f e c t s who c a n be p r o v e d t o h a v e been e q u e s t r i a n s w h i l e t h e y h e l d t h a t p o s t u n d e r and s h o r t l y a f t e r A l e x a n d e r i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e s t a t e m e n t i n t h e HA i s p r o b a b l y f a l s e . 1 4 The p a s s a g e i n t h e V i t a A l e x a n d r i ( 2 1 . 5 ) , i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d , r e f e r s t o t h e e x c e p t i o n a l c a s e o f U l p i a n , who was f a v o u r e d by t h e S e v e r a n f a m i l y , r a t h e r t h a n t o any d e f i n i t e p o l i c y . The a u t h o r o f t h e HA a l s o c l a i m s t h a t A l e x a n d e r made t h e c h o i c e o f p r a e t o r i a n p r e f e c t s u b j e c t t o t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e S e n a t e 1 2Howe, o p . c i t . , pp.39-40. 1 3 I b i d . , p.49 and 78-9. 1 4Some s c h o l a r s , i n c l u d i n g J a r d e , r e j e c t t h i s a r g u m e n t w i t h t h e c l a i m t h a t t h e g r a n t i n g o f s e n a t o r i a l o r c o n s u l a r o r n a m e n t a t o t h e p r a e t o r i a n p r e f e c t u r e e n t i t l e d t h e p r e f e c t s t o e m p l o y t h e r a n k t i t l e , c l a r i s s i m u s , o r t h e o f f i c e t i t l e , e m i n e n t i s s i m u s , i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . T h e r e f o r e , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e s c h o l a r s , t h e t i t l e e m i n e n t i s s i m u s d i d n o t p r e c l u d e s e n a t o r i a l r a n k . S e e J a r d e , o p . c i t . , p p . 3 3 - 4 3 . F o r Howe's r e f u t a t i o n , s e e h i s A p p e n d i x I I , H, p p . 1 2 0 - 3 . S e e a l s o A n d r e C h a s t a g n o l , " R e c h e r c h e s s u r L ' H i s t o i r e A u g u s t e " , A n t i q u i t a s 4 6 ( 1 9 7 0 ) , p p . 3 9 - 5 2 . ( S e v . A l e x . 1 9 . 1 ) . 5 T h i s s t a t e m e n t h a s a l s o come u n d e r c r i t i c i s m o w i n g t o t h e f a c t t h a t h e r e t o f o r e t h e c h o i c e o f p r e f e c t was made s o l e l y by t h e E m p e r o r . However, t h e s t a t e m e n t i n t h e HA d o e s n o t s a y t h a t t h e S e n a t e c h o s e t h e p r e f e c t , o n l y t h a t i t a p p r o v e d h i m . S u r e l y , i f i t d i d n o t , t h e E m p e r o r ' s c h o i c e w o u l d r e m a i n t h e same. The a u t h o r o f t h e HA may be r e c o u n t i n g some a t t e m p t o n A l e x a n d e r ' s p a r t t o b o l s t e r t h e S e n a t e ' s p r e s t i g e . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e s t a t e m e n t may be c o m p l e t e l y f a l s e . A l e x a n d e r ' s p o l i c i e s c o n c e r n i n g g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s a r e m e n t i o n e d by H e r o d i a n and t h e a u t h o r o f t h e HA. S i n c e b o t h o f t h e s e s o u r c e s l a c k c r e d i b i l i t y , h o w e v e r , one must q u e s t i o n t h e v e r a c i t y o f t h e i r s t a t e m e n t s . H e r o d i a n s t a t e s t h a t , u p o n A l e x a n d e r ' s a c c e s s i o n , a l l men a d v a n c e d w r o n g l y u n d e r E l a g a b a l u s w e r e d e m o t e d , a n d a l l o f f i c i a l s w e r e r e t u r n e d t o t h e i r f o r m e r p o s t s . 1 6 He s a y s t h a t c i v i l , l e g a l a n d m i l i t a r y a f f a i r s w e r e e n t r u s t e d t o t h o s e men b e s t s u i t e d t o manage them ( 6 . 1 . 3 - 4 ) . The a u t h o r o f t h e HA s a y s t h a t A l e x a n d e r ' s f i r s t a c t was t o remove f r o m g o v e r n m e n t a l l j u d g e s e l e v a t e d b y E l a g a b a l u s ; t h e n he c l e a n e d up t h e S e n a t e , t h e e q u e s t r i a n o r d e r , t h e t r i b e s a nd t h e 1 5 c f . Z o s . 1.11.2 w h e r e Mamaea a p p o i n t s U l p i a n t o t h e p r e f e c t u r e . 1 6 E x a m p l e s o f men r e s t o r e d t o p o s i t i o n s o f i m p o r t a n c e , p r e v i o u s l y d i s m i s s e d o r i d l e u n d e r E l a g a b a l u s : M a r i u s M a x i m u s , d i s m i s s e d f r o m u r b a n p r e f e c t u r e i n 2 1 8 , made c o s . I I i n 223 P. V a l e r i u s Comazon ( P f l a u m #290), d i s m i s s e d by E l a g a b a l u s f r o m t h e u r b a n p r e f e c t u r e i n 2 2 1 , r e - e m p l o y e d a s u r b a n p r e f e c t f o r t h i r d t i m e i n 222 J u l i u s F l a v i a n u s , p r a e t o r i a n p r e f e c t i n 218, r e s t o r e d t o t h a t p o s i t i o n i n 222. p a l a c e r e t i n u e ( S e v . A l e x . 1 5 . 1 - 2 ) . B u t e p i g r a p h i c a l e v i d e n c e shows t h a t r e p l a c e m e n t o f g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s was n o t n e a r l y a s t h o r o u g h a s t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s i n d i c a t e . J a r d e g i v e s a l i s t o f men w h o s e c a r e e r s , e v i d e n t u n d e r E l a g a b a l u s , c o n t i n u e d u n d e r A l e x a n d e r . 1 7 T h e r e a r e o t h e r s . 1 8 The a l b u m C a n u s i n u m ( C I L I X 3 3 8 ) , a l i s t o f s e n a t o r s who were p a t r o n s o f C a n u s i u m , c o n t a i n s , i n 2 2 3 , t h e names o f many p r e v i o u s l y h o n o u r e d by E l a g a b a l u s . 1 9 The s t a t e m e n t s i n H e r o d i a n a nd t h e HA a r e m i s l e a d i n g i n t h a t t h e y i m p l y a t h o r o u g h o v e r - h a u l o f g o v e r n m e n t p e r s o n e l . T h i s was n o t t h e c a s e . The o f f i c e s o f g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s u n d e r w e n t f u r t h e r c h a n g e s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e V i t a A l e x a n d r i . Once more, i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o k e e p i n m i n d t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l i s s u s p e c t . A l e x a n d e r a b o l i s h e d t h e a d s c r i p t i , t h e s a l a r i e d m i l i t a r y o f f i c i a l s o f h i g h r a n k who t o o k no a c t i v e p a r t i n commanding t h e army ( 1 5 . 3 ) . He a p p o i n t e d 'C. O c t a v i u s A p p i u s S u e t r i u s S a b i n u s ( C I L I I I 3428, 3429, 1 0 4 0 5 , 10491) L. A n n i u s I t a l i c u s H o n o r a t u s ( C I L I I I 1 0 7 1 , 1072, 6154, 6224) S e r . C a l p u r n i u s D e x t e r ( C I L V I 1368) C. P o r c i u s P r i s c u s L o n g i n u s ( C I L V I 2107, 2108; X I V 3611) Cn. P e t r o n i u s P r o b a t u s ( C I L X 1254) P. J u l i u s Junianus MartialTanus ( C I L V I I I 2392, 2742, 7049) L. J u l i u s A p r o n i u s M a e n i u s P i u s S a l a m a l l i a n u s ( C I L V I I I 1 7369, 1 8 0 1 8 , 1 8 2 7 0 , 18271) C. C a e s o n i u s Macer R u f i n i a n u s ( C I L X I V 3900, 3902) See J a r d e , o p . c i t . , p . 60, n.3. 1 8M. A e d i n i u s J u l i a n u s , P I R 2 A 113 ( C I L I X 338; X I I I 3162) T. A e l i u s D e c r i a n u s , P I R 2 A 1 6 7 ( C I L V I I I 1 0 4 3 2 , 1 0 4 3 6 , 1 0 4 6 1 - 6 3 , 10465, 10468-9) See H.G. P f l a u m , L e s C a r r i e r e s P r o c u r a t o r i e n n e s E q u e s t r e s s o u s l e  H a u t - E m p i r e Romain ( P a r i s , 1960) 1 9H.G. P f l a u m , Le M a r b r e de T h o r i g n y ( P a r i s , 1 9 4 8 ) , p p . 3 7 -49. See a l s o W h i t t a k e r , o p . c i t . , p . 8 1 , n.3. 65 f o u r t e e n c u r a t o r e s , f r o m t h e r a n k s o f t h e e x - c o n s u l s t o a s s i s t t h e p r a e f e c t u s u r b i ( 3 3 . 1 ) . Many o f t h e p r o v i n c e s t h a t w e r e p r e v i o u s l y i m p e r i a l , h e h a n d e d o v e r t o t h e g o v e r n o r s h i p o f p r o c u r a t o r e s o f e q u e s t r i a n r a n k ( 2 4 . 1 ) . He n e v e r e n r o l l e d f r e e d m e n i n t o t h e e q u e s t r i a n o r d e r b e c a u s e , he c l a i m e d , f r o m t h e e q u e s t r i a n o r d e r came s e n a t o r s ( 1 9 . 4 ) . T h e V i t a s a y s t h a t A l e x a n d e r i n i t i a t e d payment o f s a l a r i e s t o h i s a d s e s s o r e s ( 4 6 . 1 ) , w h i c h , i f t r u e , was a n i m p o r t a n t s t e p . P e r m a n e n t s a l a r i e d o f f i c i a l s l e d t o g r e a t e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y . He a l s o p a i d s a l a r i e s t o t e a c h e r s , r h e t o r i c i a n s , d o c t o r s , a u g u r s , a s t r o l o g e r s , e n g i n e e r s a n d a r c h i t e c t s ( 4 4 . 4 ) . T h e q u a e s t o r e s c a n d i d a t i  p r i n c i p i s p u t o n p u b l i c games a t t h e i r own e x p e n s e , a s was c u s t o m a r y . B u t t h e e l e c t e d q u a e s t o r s , who f o r m e r l y a l s o p a i d f o r t h e i r own games, r e c e i v e d money f r o m t h e p r i v y p u r s e f o r t h i s p u r p o s e ( 4 3 . 3 - 4 ) . A l e x a n d e r r e d u c e d t h e c o n s u l s ' e x p e n s e s ( 4 3 . 2 ) . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e a d j u s t m e n t s l i s t e d a b o v e a r e a i m e d a t r e d u c t i o n o f s t a t e e x p e n d i t u r e a n d t h e f i n a n c i a l b u r d e n o f p u b l i c o f f i c e . T h o u g h i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s i n t e n t i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d A l e x a n d e r ' s r e i g n t o some d e g r e e , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e d e t a i l s l i s t e d h e r e a r e p u r e l y t h e i n v e n t i o n o f t h e a u t h o r o f t h e HA, who t e n d s t o i d e a l i z e t h e E m p e r o r ' s r e i g n . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e V i t a A l e x a n d r i , o t h e r e c o n o m i c m e a s u r e s w e r e t a k e n t o r e d u c e e x p e n d i t u r e and i n c r e a s e s t a t e f u n d s . He r e d u c e d e x p e n d i t u r e o n i m p e r i a l c l o t h i n g and o r n a m e n t a t i o n ( 3 3 . 4 , 3 4 . 5 , 4 0 . 1 , 4 1 . 1 ) . G o l d o r s i l v e r w e r e n e v e r g i v e n t o a c t o r s a n d r a r e l y e v e n p r e s e n t s ( 3 3 . 3 , 3 7 . 1 ) . He r e d u c e d t h e r a t e o f 66 i n t e r e s t e x a c t e d by m o n e y - l e n d e r s t o f o u r p e r c e n t ( 2 1 . 2 , 2 6 . 2 ) . A l e x a n d e r p e r m i t t e d s e n a t o r s t o e x a c t s i x p e r c e n t on l o a n s , i n l i e u o f g i f t s ( 2 6 . 3 ) . . He r e m i t t e d t a x on m e r c h a n t s i n Rome i n o r d e r t o draw more b u s i n e s s t o t h e C i t y ( 2 2 . 1 , 3 2 . 5 ) . The a u t h o r a l s o m e n t i o n s r e m i s s i o n o f t h e aurum c o r o n a r i u m ( 3 2 . 5 ) . 2 0 The s t a t e m e n t i s v e r i f i a b l e . A p a p y r u s , P.Fayum 20, c o n t a i n i n g an e d i c t o f S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r c o n f i r m s t h e a u t h o r ' s s t a t e m e n t . 2 1 The e d i c t , r e c o u n t e d on c o l u m n two, o f t h e p a p y r u s , s t a t e s t h a t , t h o u g h t a x o f t h i s t y p e o w i n g f r o m t h e p a s t a n d v o t e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h A l e x a n d e r ' s a p p o i n t m e n t a s C a e s a r was s t i l l d u e , no new l e v i e s f o r h i s s u c c e s s i o n w o u l d be e n a c t e d . 2 2 A l e x a n d e r i m p o s e d a t a x u p o n a r t i s a n s , t h e p r o c e e d s o f w h i c h w e n t t o m a i n t e n a n c e o f p u b l i c b a t h s ( 2 4 . 5 ) . A t t h e same t i m e , A l e x a n d e r was a t t e n t i v e t o t h e n e e d s o f h i s p e o p l e . He f o r m e d g u i l d s o f a l l t h e t r a d e s a n d g a v e t h e m s p o k e s m e n ( 3 3 . 2 ) . He a s s i g n e d p u b l i c f u n d s t o i n d i v i d u a l c o m m u n i t i e s t o f u r t h e r t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r c r a f t ( 2 1 . 1 ) . The l a r g e s s o f o i l , w h i c h was g i v e n u n d e r S e p t i m i u s , was r e -e s t a b l i s h e d ( 2 2 . 2 ) and t h r e e t i m e s a l a r g e s s o f g r a i n was g i v e n 2 0 T h e a u r u m c o r o n a r i u m w a s o r i g i n a l l y a v o l u n t a r y c o n t r i b u t i o n made by c i t i e s Eb~ p r o v i d e g o l d v i c t o r y w r e a t h s f o r t h e g e n e r a l a t h i s t r i u m p h . I t s o o n became c o m p u l s o r y . 2 1 B . P . G r e n f e l l , A.S. H u n t , Fayum Towns a n d T h e i r P a p y r i ( L o n d o n , 1 9 0 0 ) , p p . 1 1 6 - 2 0 . 2 2 J a m e s H. O l i v e r , "On t h e E d i c t o f S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r ( P . Fayum 2 0 ) " , A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f P h i l o l o g y 99 ( 1 9 7 8 ) , p p . 4 7 4 - 8 5 . c f . A.K. Bowman, "The Crown Tax i n Roman E g y p t " , B u l l e t i n o f t h e  A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y o f P a p y r o l o g i s t s 4 ( 1 9 6 7 ) , pp.59-74. 67 t o t h e p e o p l e ( 2 6 . 1 ) . He a l s o gave them m e a t ( 2 6 . 1 ) . The a u t h o r s a y s t h a t A l e x a n d e r g r a n t e d t h r e e l i b e r a l i t a t e s t o t h e s o l d i e r s ( 2 6 . 1 ) b u t e x t a n t Roman c o i n a g e o f A l e x a n d e r ' s r e i g n shows t h a t he g a v e f i v e g i f t s o f money. 2 3 A l e x a n d e r a l s o a t t e m p t e d t o i m p r o v e t h e s y s t e m o f c o i n a g e , w h i c h was b a d l y d e b a s e d by t h e t i m e he a s c e n d e d t h e t h r o n e . The a u t h o r o f t h e HA c l a i m s t h a t t h e Emperor i s s u e d h a l f - a n d t h i r d - a u r e i p i e c e s a n d t h a t he m i n t e d q u a r t e r - a u r e i b u t n e v e r i s s u e d t h e m ( S e v . A l e x . 3 9 . 7 - 8 ) . H o w e v e r , t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f e i t h e r t h e q u a r t e r - o r t h i r d - a u r e u s u n t i l t h e t i m e o f V a l e r i a n . The a u t h o r s a y s , t o o , t h a t A l e x a n d e r m e l t e d down c o i n s o f l a r g e r d e n o m i n a t i o n s t h a t w e r e i s s u e d b y E l a g a b a l u s , n a m e l y t h e two, t h r e e , f o u r , t e n and above a u r e i p i e c e s ( 3 9 . 9 ) . None o f t h e s e h i g h e r p i e c e s s u r v i v e , s o t h e s t a t e m e n t may be c o r r e c t o r i t may be e n t i r e l y f a l s e . T h a t A l e x a n d e r r e p r e s e n t e d h i m s e l f a s a r e f o r m e r o f c o i n a g e i s e v i d e n t f r o m t h e l e g e n d s on h i s c o i n s , w h i c h r e a d IMP "SEV* ALEXANDER "AUG* RESTITVTOR'MONETAE an d I MP * S EV" ALEXANDER • AUG * RE ST I T VT A * MONET A. 2 4 E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e e x t a n t c o i n a g e , h o w e v e r , shows t h a t A l e x a n d e r was no r e s t i t u t o r . The a u r e u s n e v e r a t t a i n e d i t s f o r m e r w e i g h t and t h e v a r i e t y i n w e i g h t o f c o i n s o f t h e same d e n o m i n a t i o n i s s t a r t l i n g . 2 5 The 2 3BMC V I , S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r , #1-3, 6-9, 210- 1 1 , 213-16, e t c . H e r o d i a n m e n t i o n s two g i f t s o f money t o t h e s o l d i e r s , 6 . 4.1, 6.6.4. 2 4BMC V I , S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r , #546-50. 2 5 H o p k i n s , o p . c i t . , p p.187-89. 68 a u t h o r o f t h e HA c r e a t e s t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t A l e x a n d e r ' s e c o n o m i c p o l i c y was b a s e d on t h r i f t . E p i g r a p h i c a l and- n u m i s m a t i c e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t t h i s , t o some e x t e n t , on t h e i s s u e s o f r e p l a c e m e n t o f o f f i c i a l s , c r o w n t a x and c o i n a g e . A l l t h e o t h e r d e t a i l s i n t h e V i t a A l e x a n d r i s h o u l d be a c c e p t e d o n l y w i t h e x t r e m e c a u t i o n . I t a p p e a r s t h a t A l e x a n d e r made f e w c h a n g e s i n m i l i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n . The number o f l e g i o n s , r a i s e d by S e p t i m i u s f r o m t h i r t y t o t h i r t y - t h r e e , r e m a i n e d c o n s t a n t u n d e r A l e x a n d e r . 2 6 One p a s s a g e i n t h e V i t a A l e x a n d r i i s o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t . s o l a q uae de h o s t i b u s c a p t a s u n t , l i m i t a n e i s d u c i b u s e t m i l i t i b u s d o n a v i t , i t u t eorum e s s e n t , s i h e r e d e s eorum m i l i t a r e n t , nec umquam ad p r i v a t o s p e r t i n e r e n t ( 5 8 . 4 ) The c r e a t i o n o f t h e o f f i c e o f dux l i m i t a n e u s , f r o n t i e r g e n e r a l , s i g n a l l e d t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f c i v i l a n d m i l i t a r y p o w e r i n t h e p r o v i n c e s b e c a u s e i t t o o k m i l i t a r y c o n t r o l o u t o f t h e h a n d s o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n o r , l e a v i n g h i m w i t h c i v i l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . By t h e t i m e o f D i o c l e t i a n t h i s s e p a r a t i o n was c o m p l e t e . I t h a s b e e n t h o u g h t t h a t i t began u n d e r A u r e l i a n , b u t , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a b o v e p a s s a g e , t h e o f f i c e o f dux l i m i t a n e u s was i n e x i s t e n c e i n A l e x a n d e r ' s r e i g n . 2 7 A c c o r d i n g l y , i t has been a r g u e d t h a t some move t o w a r d t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f m i l i t a r y and c i v i l power began e v e n 'CIL V I 3492 a and b H o p k i n s , o p . c i t . , p p.201-2. e a r l i e r t h a n t h e r e i g n o f A u r e l i a n . T h e d a n g e r o f t h i s a r g u m e n t l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e p a s s a g e , o r r a t h e r t h e t e r m , i s an a n a c h r o n i s m . The g r a n t i n g o f t e r r i t o r i u m  l e q i o n i s t o s o l d i e r s on c o n d i t i o n o f t h e i r s e r v i n g was n o t a new p r a c t i c e ; 2 9 t h e i n n o v a t i o n o f A l e x a n d e r was t h a t he made t e n u r e o f l a n d h e r e d i t a r y o n c o n d i t i o n o f c o n t i n u e d s e r v i c e b y t h e h e i r s . A l e x a n d e r i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n t h e HA a s s t r i c t , 3 0 b u t f a i r w i t h t h e s o l d i e r s . He i n f l i c t e d c a p i t a l p u n i s h m e n t on t r i b u n e s who g a v e p r i v i l e g e s t o s o l d i e r s i n e x c h a n g e f o r a p o r t i o n o f t h e i r r a t i o n s ( 1 5 . 5 ) . When a t r i b u n e was f o u n d g u i l t y o f a c h a r g e b r o u g h t by a s o l d i e r , A l e x a n d e r meted o u t a f i t t i n g p u n i s h m e n t ; t h e r e was no hope o f p a r d o n ( 2 3 . 1 ) . Y e t he saw t o i t t h a t t h e s o l d i e r s were w e l l c l a d , s h o d and armed ( 5 0 . 3 ) . When on c a m p a i g n t h e Emperor d i n e d i n an open t e n t on o r d i n a r y s o l d i e r s ' r a t i o n s ( 5 1 . 5 ) . He f o r b a d e a n y o n e t o c a l l h i m d o m i n u s , p r e f e r r i n g t h e t i t l e o f i m p e r a t o r ( 4 . 1 ) . T h e s e a n e c d o t e s o n A l e x a n d e r ' s s t r i c t n e s s w i t h t h e s o l d i e r s c a n be d i s m i s s e d a s p u r e f i c t i o n . N o t h i n g c o u l d be f u r t h e r f r o m t h e t r u t h . A l e x a n d e r ' s i n a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l t h e t r o o p s i s r e f l e c t e d by t h e numerous m e n t i o n s o f 2 8 I b i d . , p . 2 0 3 . See a l s o P e t e r J . P a r s o n s , "M. A u r e l i u s Zeno I a n u a r i u s " , P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e 1 2 t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n g r e s s  o f P a p y r o l o g y ( A n n A r b o r , M i c h . , 1 9 6 8 ) ( A m e r i c a n S t u d i e s i n P a p y r o l o g y 7 ( 1 9 7 0 ) ) , p p.389-97. 2 9 H o p k i n s , op. c i t . , pp. 205-6. 3 0 V i d e i n f r a , pp. 115-7. 70 m i l i t a r y u n r e s t i n t h e s o u r c e s . 1 A l e x a n d e r ' s b u i l d i n g p r o g r a m was q u i t e e x t e n s i v e . He r e s t o r e d many p u b l i c w o r k s o f o t h e r E m p e r o r s . H i s Thermae A l e x a n d r i a n a ( V i t a A l e x a n d r i 2 5 . 3 ) a r e a n e x t e n s i o n a n d r e n o v a t i o n o f t h e T h e r m a e N e r o n i a n a e a n d a r e d e p i c t e d o n c o i n s o f 226 . 3 2 He c o m p l e t e d t h e b a t h s o f C a r a c a l l a ( 2 5 . 6 ) , r e s t o r e d T r a j a n ' s b r i d g e s a n d b u i l t new o n e s ( 2 6 . 1 1 ) . He a l s o b u i l t an a q u e d u c t ( 2 5 . 3 ) , many p u b l i c w o r k s a t B a i a e ( 2 6 . 9 - 1 0 ) , and f o u r t e e n p u b l i c s t o r a g e w a r e h o u s e s , one i n e a c h r e g i o o f t h e C i t y ( 3 9 . 3 ) . He b e gan t h e B a s i l i c a A l e x a n d r i n a , e q u i p p e d t h e s h r i n e s o f I s i s a n d S e r a p i s ( 2 6 . 8 ) , and s e t up c o l o s s a l s t a t u e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e C i t y ( 2 5 . 8 , 2 8 . 6 ) . T h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t A l e x a n d e r ' s a m b i t i o u s b u i l d i n g p r o g r a m . 3 3 B e c a u s e a l m o s t a l l o f t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f A l e x a n d e r ' s g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c i e s i s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e HA, much o f i t must be d i s r e g a r d e d a s f i c t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , d e t a i l s o f A l e x a n d e r ' s p r i v a t e l i f e a n d p e r s o n a l i t y a r e p r a c t i c a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t , e x c e p t f o r t h e f i c t i o n s i n t h e V i t a A l e x a n d r i . The V i t a abounds i n t r i v i a l i t i e s t h a t a r e o f t e n r i d i c u l o u s . The a u t h o r i d e a l i z e s A l e x a n d e r ' s a p p e a r a n c e a n d p e r s o n a l i t y t o t h e p o i n t t h a t t h e V i t a b e c o m e s a l m o s t a 3 1 D i o 8 0 . 2 . 2 - 3 , 8 0 . 3 . 1 , 8 0 . 4 . 1 - 2 , 8 0 . 5 . 1 ; H e r o d i a n 6.1.9, 6 . 4 . 7 , ~ 5 7 6 . 1 , 6.7.3, 6.7.10, 6.8.3-9.7; HA, S e v . A l e x . 4 8 . 1 - 8 , 49.3-4, 53.1-4, 59.4-5; Z o s i m u s 1.12; E p i t . de C a e s . 24. 3 2BMC V I , S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r , #323-4, 3 2 6 - 7 . S e e D a v i d M a g i e , The S c r i p t o r e s H i s t o r i a e A u g u s t a e I I ( L o e b ed.) ( L o n d o n , 1 9 2 4 ) , p . 2 2 4 , n.6. 3 3 F c r f u l l e r d i s c u s s i o n o f A l e x a n d e r ' s p u b l i c w o r k s d e p i c t e d on c o i n s a n d i n s c r i p t i o n s , s e e H o p k i n s , o p , c i t . , p p . 1 7 1 - 8 1 . 71 p r o g r a m m a t i c p i e c e on t h e i d e a l r u l e r . 3 4 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t none o f t h e s o u r c e s m e n t i o n c h i l d r e n . Though t h e y do n o t s t a t e t h a t he was c h i l d l e s s , t h i s i s l i k e l y t h e c a s e . I f A l e x a n d e r h a d c h i l d r e n , t h e r e w o u l d s u r e l y be some m e n t i o n o f them a t t h e t i m e o f h i s d e a t h and t h e s u c c e s s i o n t o t h e t h r o n e . I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h A l e x a n d e r ' s p o l i c i e s , some m e n t i o n must be made o f t h e d e b a t e b e tween A g r i p p a and Maecenas c o n t a i n e d i n Book 52 o f D i o ' s Roman H i s t o r y . The s e t t i n g i s i n t r o d u c e d w h e r e i n O c t a v i a n s e e k s t h e a d v i c e o f t h e s e two men a s t o w h e t h e r o r n o t he s h o u l d l a y down h i s power. The d e b a t e c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s . I n t h e f i r s t p a r t A g r i p p a a r g u e s t h e m e r i t s o f a r e p u b l i c a n c o n s t i t u t i o n w h i l e Maecenas a d v o c a t e s t h e r e s u m p t i o n o f m o n a r c h y ( 5 2 . 2 . 1 - 1 8 . 7 ) . The d i s c u s s i o n i s g e n e r a l a n d p h i l o s o p h i c a l . W i t h i n t h i s f i r s t p a r t , t h e r e i s a p o r t i o n o f t h e m a n u s c r i p t m i s s i n g t h a t c o n t a i n e d A g r i p p a ' s c o n c l u s i o n a n d t h e b e g i n n i n g o f Ma e c e n a s ' s p e e c h ( 5 2 . 1 3 . 7 ) . The s e c o n d p a r t o f t h e d e b a t e c o n t a i n s Maecenas' s p e c i f i c s u g g e s t i o n s on t h e r u n n i n g o f an E m p i r e ( 5 2 . 1 9 - 4 0 ) . I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h i s d e b a t e i s n o t a r e n d i t i o n o f a n y a c t u a l d i s c u s s i o n t h a t t o o k p l a c e b e t w e e n ^ A l e x a n d e r i s g r a c e f u l and m a n l y , w i t h a s o l d i e r ' s h e i g h t and s t r e n g t h ( 4 . 4 ) . He has b r i l l i a n t e y e s ( 1 4 . 6 ) , an e x c e p t i o n a l m e m o r y ( 1 4 . 6 ) . He i s c o u r t e o u s a n d g r a c i o u s ( 2 0 . 1 ) . He d i s c o u r a g e s f l a t t e r y ( 1 8 . 1 - 3 ) . H i s m e a l s a r e m o d e r a t e ( 3 4 . 8 , 3 7 . 2 - 1 2 , 4 1 . 5 ) . He i s d e v o u t ( 4 3 . 5 ) , g e n e r o u s t o t h e p o o r ( 4 0 . 2 ) . He g i v e s p r e s e n t s t o r e t i r i n g o f f i c i a l s ( 3 2 . 3 ) . He i s an a c c o m p l i s h e d p o e t , m u s i c i a n , a s t r o l o g e r , a u g u r , p a i n t e r , a n d s i n g e r ( 2 7 . 5 - 1 0 ) . An a c c o u n t o f a t y p i c a l d a y i n t h e l i f e o f A l e x a n d e r d e p i c t s h i m a s v e r y h a r d w o r k i n g a n d c o n s c i e n t i o u s ( 2 9 . 1 - 3 1 . 2 ) . 72 A g r i p p a a n d M a e c e n a s ; n o r d o e s D i o a t t e m p t t o r e p r e s e n t i t a s s u c h . I n f a c t , t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e d i s c u s s i o n a d a p t e d t h e s p e e c h e s t o known o p i n i o n s o f t h e t w o a d v i s o r s . O b s e r v e t h e f a c t t h a t i t was A g r i p p a , n o t M a e c e n a s , who became O c t a v i a n ' s a d v i s o r o n i m p e r i a l p o l i c y . A g r i p p a ' s s p e e c h , w i t h i t s p h i l o s o p h i c a l t o n e , i s i m p r a c t i c a l a n d u n r e a l i s t i c , n e v e r i n t e n d e d by D i o t o be c o n s i d e r e d a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e t o i m p e r i a l g o v e r n m e n t . 3 5 I t c o n t a i n s f l a w s i n l o g i c a n d a s s o c i a t e s Roman r e p u b l i c a n i s m w i t h G r e e k d e m o c r a c y . T h u s , A g r i p p a p r o p o s e s a s o l u t i o n v e r y f o r e i g n t o R o m a n t r a d i t i o n a n d i d e o l o g y . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s p e e c h l a c k s a n y p r a c t i c a l a d v i c e o n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f i t s p r o p o s a l s . O c t a v i a n i s a d v i s e d t o r e t i r e ( 5 2 . 1 3 . 1 ) a f t e r f i r s t s e t t i n g o u t l a w s t o s e t t l e i m p o r t a n t b u s i n e s s i n t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t ( 5 2 . 1 3 . 5 ) . B eyond t h i s , t h e r e i s •no f u r t h e r d e t a i l a s t o how e x a c t l y O c t a v i a n s h o u l d r e l i n q u i s h h i s p o w e r . M c K e c h n i e i n t e r p r e t s A g r i p p a ' s s p e e c h a s "a d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f how outmoded a nd i m p r a c t i c a l d e m o c r a t i c i d e a s were i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e w o r l d - E m p i r e o f t h e f i r s t c e n t u r y B.C. an d o f t h e t h i r d c e n t u r y A.D. 3 6 M a e c e n a s ' s p e e c h , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , c o n t a i n s v e r y s p e c i f i c p r o p o s a l s t h a t h a v e i n c i t e d s c h o l a r s t o p r o p o s e a v a r i e t y o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f D i o ' s p u r p o s e i n w r i t i n g t h e d e b a t e . The 3 5 P a u l M c K e c h n i e , " C a s s i u s D i o ' s S p e e c h o f A g r i p p a : A R e a l i s t i c A l t e r n a t i v e t o I m p e r i a l G o v e r n m e n t ? " , G r e e c e a nd Rome 28, 2 ( 1 9 8 1 ) , p p . 1 5 0 - 5 . 3 6 I b i d . , p.154. 73 s t a n d a r d v i e w , p r o p o s e d by M e y e r , i n t e r p r e t s t h e s e c o n d p a r t o f t h e d e b a t e a s a p o l i t i c a l p a m p h l e t a i m e d a g a i n s t t h e p r o -s e n a t o r i a l p o l i c i e s o f t h e E m p e r o r A l e x a n d e r . 3 7 I n t h e b e l i e f t h a t D i o ' s Roman H i s t o r y was w r i t t e n much e a r l i e r t h a n i s c u r r e n t l y t h o u g h t , 3 8 Meyer c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e s e c o n d p a r t o f t h e d e b a t e was i n s e r t e d a t a d a t e l a t e r t h a n t h e o r i g i n a l w r i t i n g . S u p p o r t i v e o f t h i s t h e o r y i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s a g r e a t i m b a l a n c e i n t h e l e n g t h o f t h e two s p e e c h e s . M a e c e n a s ' s p e e c h i s n e a r l y t h r e e t i m e s t h e l e n g t h o f A g r i p p a ' s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i f o n e r e m o v e s t h e s e c o n d p a r t o f t h e d e b a t e ( 5 2 . 1 9 - 4 0 ) , o t h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s e . Book 5 2 , a s i t s t a n d s now, i s o f n o r m a l l e n g t h f o r D i o ' s b o o k s . I f one c o n s i d e r s t h e s e c o n d p a r t o f t h e d e b a t e t o be a l a t e r i n s e r t i o n , one must a c c e p t e i t h e r t h a t D i o o r i g i n a l l y made Book 52 a b o u t o n e - t h i r d a s l o n g a s t h e o t h e r s o r t h a t i t c o n t a i n e d o t h e r m a t e r i a l t h a t was l a t e r o m i t t e d . 3 9 N e i t h e r s o l u t i o n i s v e r y s a t i s f a c t o r y . S i n c e D i o ' s H i s t o r y was w r i t t e n d u r i n g t h e r e i g n o f S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r , i t i s no l o n g e r n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a l a t e r i n s e r t i o n . M e y e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s p e e c h a s a p o l i t i c a l p a m p h l e t a i m e d a g a i n s t A l e x a n d e r ' s s e n a t o r i a l p o l i c i e s i s a l s o q u e s t i o n a b l e . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d i n Ma e c e n a s ' s p e e c h a n y p o l i c y d e s i g n e d t o d e n i g r a t e s e n a t o r i a l power o r p r e s t i g e . Nor 3 7 P a u l M e y e r , De M a e c e n a t i s o r a t i o n e a D i o n e F i c t a ( D i s s . , B e r l i n , 1 8 9 1 ) . 3 8 V i d e s u p r a , p p . 3 - 5. 3 9 F e r g u s M i l l a r , o p . c i t . , p p . 102-3. 74 i s t h e r e a n y i n d i c a t i o n o f h o s t i l i t y o n D i o ' s p a r t t o w a r d t h e S e n a t e . I n f a c t , D i o has Maecenas a d v i s e O c t a v i a n t o p a y r e g u l a r s a l a r i e s t o h i s c i t y p r e f e c t , s u b - c e n s o r , a n d a l l t h o s e men who h e l d o f f i c e s o u t s i d e t h e c i t y o f Rome ( 5 2 . 2 1 . 7 , 5 2 . 2 3 . 1 ) . W h i l e M e y e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f M a e c e n a s 1 s p e e c h i s i n c o r r e c t , he i s r i g h t i n p l a c i n g i t s c o m p o s i t i o n , a n d r e l e v a n c e , t o t h e t i m e o f S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r . A c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t p o i n t o f v i e w i s e x p r e s s e d by Hammond, who f i n d s i n M a e c e n a s ' p r o p o s a l s s u f f i c i e n t s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h t h e A u g u s t a n c o n s t i t u t i o n t o i n t e r p r e t t h e s p e e c h a s D i o ' s v i e w o f i m p e r i a l g o v e r n m e n t f r o m t h e t i m e o f A u g u s t u s t o h i s own d a y ; he c a l l s i t " a summary e x p o s i t i o n o f t h e a c t u a l p r i n c i p a t e " . 4 0 B e r i n g - S t a s c h e w s k i p r o p o s e s an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n somewhat a k i n t o t h a t o f Hammond. 4 1 She r e l a t e s t h e c o n t e n t o f M a e c e n a s ' s p e e c h t o D i o ' s j u d g e m e n t o f t h e p r i n c i p a t e a n d o f A u g u s t a n p o l i t i c s , c l a i m i n g t h a t i t i s r i s k y t o s e p a r a t e t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h e s p e e c h f r o m i t s c o n t e x t . T h e r e f o r e , s he c o n s i d e r s D i o ' s o p i n i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p a t e u n d e r A u g u s t u s f r o m t h e b a t t l e o f A c t i u m t o h i s d e a t h . 4 2 B e r i n g - S t a s c h e w s k i c o n c l u d e s t h a t D i o ' s i n t e n t i o n was t o l a y o u t a d i a g n o s i s o f t h e p o s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s o f 4 0 M a s o n Hammond, "The S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e S p e e c h o f Maecenas i n D i o C a s s i u s , Book L I I " , TAPA 63 ( 1 9 3 2 ) , p . 1 0 2 . D e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f M a e c e n a s ' p r o p o s a l s on p p . 9 1 - 1 0 1 . 4 1 R o s e m a r i e B e r i n g - S t a s c h e w s k i , " R o mische Z e i t g e s c h i c t e b e i C a s s i u s D i o " , Bochumer h i s t o r i s c h e S t u d i e n , A l t e G e s c h i c h t e N r . 5 (Bochum, 1 9 8 1 ) , pp.129-34. 4 2 I b i d . , p p . 1 3 1 - 3 3 . 75 t h e p r i n c i p a t e w h i l e d e v e l o p i n g a n i d e a l i n w h i c h t h e S e n a t e p l a y s a r e g u l a t o r y r o l e f o r i n f e r i o r r u l e r s . 4 3 She f i n d s no p r o g r a m m a t i c p u r p o s e i n Maecenas' s p e e c h . M i l l a r h a s a d i f f e r e n t v i e w , s a y i n g t h a t t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n M a e c e n a s ' p r o p o s a l s a n d e x i s t i n g p r a c t i c e i s n o t a v a l i d b a s i s f o r a r g u i n g t h a t t h e s p e e c h i s a summary o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . 4 4 M i l l a r p o i n t s o u t t h a t D i o was n o t i n v e n t i n g h i s i d e a l m o n a r c h y , b u t r a t h e r p r o p o s i n g s o l u t i o n s f o r p r o b l e m s o f h i s own d a y . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t M a e c e n a s ' p r o p o s a l s o f t e n c o i n c i d e w i t h c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s i n t r o d u c e d b y A u g u s t u s . M i l l a r a g r e e s w i t h M e y e r t h a t t h i s i s i n d e e d a p o l i t i c a l p a m p h l e t , " f o r i t s e n t i r e c o n t e n t ( w i t h t r i v i a l e x c e p t i o n s ) r e l a t e s t o t h e e a r l y t h i r d c e n t u r y a n d n o t t o t h e t i m e o f A u g u s t u s . " 4 5 B u t he d o e s n o t a g r e e w i t h Meyer t h a t i t a d d r e s s e s t h e p r o b l e m s o f S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r ' s p r i n c i p a t e . M i l l a r t a k e s t h e y e a r 207 a s t h e b e g i n n i n g o f c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e Roman H i s t o r y a n d c o n s i d e r s t h a t D i o r e c o r d e d e v e n t s o f h i s own l i f e t i m e more o r l e s s a s t h e y h a p p e n e d . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s method o f c a l c u l a t i o n , he s u p p o s e s t h e d e b a t e was w r i t t e n i n 2 1 4 , u n d e r t h e E m p e r o r C a r a c a l l a . A g a i n , t h e d a t e o f c o m p o s i t i o n i s t o o e a r l y , b u t M i l l a r d o e s make v e r y v a l i d p o i n t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e S e n a t e ' s r o l e a n d D i o ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f i t . M a e c e n a s a d v o c a t e s t h e 4 3 I b i d . , p . 1 3 3 . 4 4 M i l l a r , o p . c i t . , p.107. 4 5 M i l l a r , o p . c i t . , p.104. 76 t r a d i t i o n a l s e n a t o r i a l c u r s u s ( 5 2 . 2 0 . 1 - 2 ) . He t h i n k s t h a t a l l p r o v i n c e s a r e t o be g o v e r n e d by s e n a t o r s ( 5 2 . 2 2 . 2 ) f o r a p e r i o d o f t h r e e t o f i v e y e a r s ( 5 2 . 2 3 . 2 ) . M i l l a r p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h i s p r a c t i c e w o u l d r e s u l t i n s e n a t o r s h o l d i n g more p o s t s f o r a l o n g e r p e r i o d t h a n t h e p r a c t i c e c u r r e n t i n t h e e a r l y t h i r d c e n t u r y . 4 6 M a e c e n a s a l s o a d v i s e s t h a t s e n a t o r i a l m a g i s t r a c i e s , t h e o f f i c e o f q u a e s t o r , a e d i l e , t r i b u n e , p r a e t o r , and c o n s u l , s h o u l d be f i l l e d by e l e c t i o n , b u t an e l e c t i o n i n name o n l y . The e m p eror s h o u l d a c t u a l l y c h o s e t h e o f f i c i a l s h i m s e l f ( 5 2 . 2 0 . 3 ) . M a e c e n a s s u g g e s t s t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l p o w e r s o f t h e s e o f f i c e s s h o u l d be a b a t e d w h i l e t h e h o n o u r be p r e s e r v e d ( 5 2 . 2 0 . 3 ) . He a l s o s a y s t h a t t h e Emperor s h o u l d go t h r o u g h t h e m o t i o n s o f r a t i f y i n g h i s l e g i s l a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e S e n a t e ( 5 2 . 3 1 . 2 ) . T h e s e p o i n t s p r o v e t h a t D i o was a r e a l i s t ; h e w a s n o t w r i t i n g o f a n i d e a l , p r i n c i p a t e . D i o grew up, and had an a c t i v e s e n a t o r i a l c a r e e r , i n a n e r a when t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l power o f t h e S e n a t e has l o n g b e e n i n a b e y a n c e . T h r o u g h h i s c a r e e r , he g a i n e d k n o w l e d g e a n d i n s i g h t s t h a t w e l l q u a l i f i e d h i m t o s p e c u l a t e on t h e r e m e d i e s f o r t h e i l l s o f p r i n c i p a t e . 4 7 T h e r e f o r e , I a g r e e w i t h M i l l a r t h a t 4 6 I b i d , , p.114. 4 7 M o r e d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e A g r i p p a - M a e c e n a s d e b a t e i s b e y o n d t h e s c o p e o f t h i s work. F o r f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s r e f e r t o : J . B l e i c k e n , " D e r p o l i t i s c h e S t a n d p u n k t D i o s g e g e n u b e r d e r M o n a r c h i e " , Hermes 90 ( 1 8 6 2 ) , pp..444-467 B. M a n u w a l d , C a s s i u s D i o u n d A u g u s t u s : P h i l o l o g i s c h e  U n t e r s u c h u n g e n z u d e n B u c h e r n 4 5 - 5 6 d e s d i o n i s c h e n  G e s c h i c h t s w e r k e s ( W i e s b a d e n , 1 9 7 9 ) , pp.77 f f . U. E s p i n o z a R u i z , D e b a t e A g r i p p a - M a e c e n a s e n D i o n C a s s i o :  R e s p u e s t a s e n a t o r i a l a l a c r i s i s d e l I m p e r o Romano en e p o c a  S e v e r i a n a ( M a d r i d , 1 9 8 2 ) , pp.273 f f . 77 D i o w r o t e M a e c e n a s ' s p e e c h f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f d i a g n o s i n g t h e p r o b l e m s o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t o f h i s d a y , a n d p r o p o s i n g p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n s t o t h e s e p r o b l e m s . S i n c e D i o w r o t e h i s Roman H i s t o r y u n d e r A l e x a n d e r ' s r e i g n , t h e p r o b l e m s a r e t h o s e o f h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . J.M. R o d d a z , "De C e s a r a A u g u s t e : L'image de l a m o n a r c h i e c h e z un h i s t o r i e n du S i e c l e de S e v e r e s . R e f l e x i o n s s u r l ' o e u v r e de D i o n C a s s i u s , a p r o p o s d ' o u v r a g e s r e c e n t s " , R e v u e d e s E t u d e s  A n c i e n n e s 85, 1-2 ( 1 9 8 3 ) , pp.67-87. T.D. B a r n e s , "The C o m p o s i t i o n o f C a s s i u s D i o ' s Roman H i s t o r y " , P h o e n i x 38 ( 1 9 8 4 ) , p.254. 78 THE MIDDLE YEARS Of t h e y e a r s b e t w e e n A l e x a n d e r ' s m a r r i a g e a n d t h e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e P e r s i a n c a m p a i g n i n 2 3 0 , l i t t l e i s known. A l e x a n d e r was c o n s u l o r d i n a r i u s f o r t h e s e c o n d t i m e i n 226 . None o f t h e a n c i e n t s o u r c e s c o n t a i n a c h r o n o l o g i c a l a c c o u n t o f t h e p e r i o d , l e a v i n g o n e w i t h t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t i t w a s r e l a t i v e l y u n e v e n t f u l . B u t t h e r e a r e i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t t h i s was n o t t h e c a s e . D i o s a y s , i r o X X a i Se ^ a i ira p a iroXXwv eiTavaaxaoeis y e v o u e v a i , icaf' x i v e s i c a i l a x u p w s eK(j>o6noaoai , icaxGTTauQrio-av. ( 8 0 . 3 . 1 ) He a l s o r e c o r d s t h a t t h e a r m i e s i n M e s o p o t a m i a were s o l a c k i n g i n d i s c i p l i n e , t h a t t h e y k i l l e d t h e i r commander, F l a v i u s H e r a c l e o ( 8 0 . 4 . 2 ) . 1 I t i s d i f f i c u l t , h o w e v e r , t o d a t e t h i s e v e n t b e c a u s e D i o ' s c h r o n o l o g y , a s X i p h i l i n u s p r e s e n t s i t , seems u n c l e a r . I n Book 80.3.1-3 t h e r e i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t r o u b l e i n M e s o p o t a m i a a n d A r t a x e r x e s ' v i c t o r y o v e r A r t a b a n u s , w h i c h t o o k p l a c e i n 2 2 4 . 2 D i o a l s o d e s c r i b e s A r t a x e r x e s ' i n v a s i o n s o f M e s o p o t a m i a a n d S y r i a , w h i c h t o o k p l a c e i n t h e n e x t few y e a r s . Then he r e l a t e s t h e m u r d e r o f F l a v i u s H e r a c l e o ( 8 0 . 4 . 2 ) ; t h e n t h e c o m p l a i n t o f t h e P r a e t o r i a n s t o ( ? ) U l p i a n o f D i o ' s own s e v e r i t y w i t h h i s t r o o p s i n P a n n o n i a . T h i s seems e x t r e m e l y o d d . D i o g o v e r n e d N o t h i n g more i s known of t h i s man. P I R 2 F 283. 2 V i d e i n f r a , p.84. P a n n o n i a a b o u t 2 2 6 - 2 8 , 3 by w h i c h t i m e U l p i a n was d e a d . The n a r r a t i v e c o n t i n u e s w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n o f D i o ' s s e c o n d c o n s u l s h i p w i t h A l e x a n d e r , w h i c h t o o k p l a c e i n 229 ( 8 0 . 5 . 1 ) . 4 Some s c h o l a r s h a v e s u p p o s e d t h a t t h e r e v o l t i n M e s o p o t a m i a t h a t r e s u l t e d i n H e r a c l e o ' s d e a t h , r e l a t e d by D i o , s h o u l d be d a t e d t o 2 3 1 , when A l e x a n d e r was known t o have been i n M e s o p o t a m i a . 5 They p o i n t t o H e r o d i a n ' s a c c o u n t o f a n a t t e m p t e d m u t i n y j u s t a s A l e x a n d e r p r e p a r e d t o c r o s s t h e T i g r i s a n d E u p h r a t e s R i v e r s ( 6 . 4 . 7 ) , c l a i m i n g t h a t D i o ' s p a s s a g e r e f e r s t o t h i s e v e n t . 6 T h i s seems t o me t o be wrong f o r t h r e e r e a s o n s . F i r s t , i t i s u n w i s e t o c o r r e c t D i o on t h e b a s i s o f a p a s s a g e i n H e r o d i a n . S e c o n d , a r e a s o n a b l e c h r o n o l o g y f o r D i o ' s a c c o u n t c a n be e s t a b l i s h e d . A r t a x e r x e s 1 i n v a s i o n s o f M e s o p o t a m i a a n d S y r i a t o o k p l a c e c a . 2 2 6 / 7 . The a c c o u n t o f H e r a c l e o ' s d e a t h f o l l o w s , w h i c h r e m i n d s D i o o f h i s own t r o u b l e s i n P a n n o n i a a t a b o u t t h e same t i m e , 226-8. The r e f e r e n c e t o U l p i a n h a s b e e n e x p l a i n e d b y B a r n e s . He b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e p h r a s e irpos OUXTTIOIVO) ( 8 0 . 4 . 2 ) s h o u l d be t r a n s l a t e d ' i n a d d i t i o n t o U l p i a n ' n o t ' t o U l p i a n ' a s C a r y t r a n s l a t e s i t . 7 T h e s e n t e n c e w o u l d t h e n r e a d , ' a n d t h e 3 V i d e s u p r a , p.42. Vide i n f r a , p.84. s V i d e i n f r a , p.85. 6 H o p k i n s , o p . c i t . , p.132; J a r d e o p . c i t . , p . 65. 7 T . D . B a r n e s , "The C o m p o s i t i o n o f C a s s i u s D i o ' s Roman H i s t o r y " , P h o e n i x 38 ( 1 9 8 4 ) , p . 2 4 5 , n.21; E. C a r y , D i o ' s Roman  H i s t o r y IX (The Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y ) , ( L o n d o n , 1 9 2 7 ) , p . 4 8 5 . 80 P r a e t o r i a n s c o m p l a i n e d o f me, i n a d d i t i o n t o U l p i a n , b e c a u s e I r u l e d t h e s o l d i e r s w i t h a s t r o n g hand.' I n t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n D i o c o m p a r e s h i s own s t r i c t n e s s w i t h t h a t o f U l p i a n . The s t a t e m e n t i n no way s u g g e s t s t h a t U l p i a n was s t i l l a l i v e . D i o ' s own c o n s u l s h i p f o l l o w s i n 229. C l e a r l y , t h e r e v o l t i n M e s o p o t a m i a i n w h i c h H e r a c l e o was k i l l e d t o o k p l a c e some t i m e b e t w e e n 226 a n d 229. T h i r d , D i o s a y s t h a t t h e r e were many u p r i s i n g s . T h e r e i s no n e e d t o c o n n e c t t h e two a c c o u n t s . Z o s i m u s m e n t i o n s two p r e t e n d e r s t o t h e t h r o n e . He s a y s t h a t t h e s o l d i e r s m u t i n i e d , b r i n g i n g f o r w a r d A n t o n i n u s a s E m p e r o r , b u t t h a t he f l e d f r o m f e a r . Then U r a n i u s , a man o f s l a v e a n c e s t r y , was c h o s e n E m p e r o r ( 1 . 1 2 . 1 - 2 ) . T h e r e a r e e x t a n t c o i n s b e a r i n g t h e name C. J u l i u s A u r e l i u s S u l p i c i u s U r a n i u s A n t o n i n u s ( P I R 2 J 1 9 5 ) , a f a c t t h a t has l e d s c h o l a r s t o c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e A n t o n i n u s a n d U r a n i u s m e n t i o n e d by Z o s i m u s a r e one and t h e same p e r s o n . 8 T h e y h a v e b e e n a s c r i b e d t o t h e e a r l y r e i g n o f A l e x a n d e r , s i n c e t h e y b e a r t h e s t a r o f E l a g a b a l u s , b u t t h e s t a r c a n e a s i l y be a c c o u n t e d f o r by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c o i n s a r e f r o m Emesa, t h e home o f t h e s u n - g o d . 9 O t h e r s c l a i m t h a t t h e c o i n s a r e o f a l a t e r d a t e a n d do n o t r e f e r t o A l e x a n d e r ' s r e i g n a t a l l , b u t r a t h e r t o 2 5 3 / 4 , u n d e r G a l l i e n u s , a t w h i c h t i m e t h e r e was a p r e t e n d e r by BMC V I , S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r , #883. 9 H o p k i n s , o p . c i t . , p.135. 81 t h e name o f A n t o n i n u s . J a r d e , h o w e v e r , i s o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e l a t t e r S u l p i c i u s U r a n i u s was a d e s c e n d a n t o f t h e f o r m e r a n d s e e s no n e e d t o d i s r e g a r d Z o s i m u s ' c l a i m . 1 1 The E p i t o m e de  C a e s a r i b u s , f u r t h e r m o r e , t e l l s o f a man named T a u r i n u s , who was made A u g u s t u s b u t t h r e w h i m s e l f i n t o t h e E u p h r a t e s o u t o f f e a r . 1 2 B a s e d on t h e r e f e r e n c e t o t h e E u p h r a t e s , H o p k i n s t i e s t h i s e v e n t i n w i t h t h e a c c o u n t i n D i o , i n w h i c h F l a v i u s H e r a c l e o was k i l l e d , a n d H e r o d i a n ' s a c c o u n t , i n w h i c h a r e v o l t t o o k p l a c e on t h e b a n k s o f t h e E u p h r a t e s . 1 3 The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s r a t h e r f a r - f e t c h e d . The V i t a A l e x a n d r i c o n t a i n s m e n t i o n s o f a few d i s t u r b a n c e s n o t o t h e r w i s e a t t e s t e d . O v i n i u s C a m i l l u s , o t h e r w i s e u n k n o w n , b u t s a i d t o be a s e n a t o r o f a n c i e n t f a m i l y , made p l a n s t o r e b e l a n d s e i z e t h e t h r o n e . He was d i s c o v e r e d a n d s e n t t o h i s c o u n t r y home w h e r e he was u l t i m a t e l y k i l l e d by s o l d i e r s on t h e E m p e r o r ' s l u Z o s . 1.38. n J a r d e , o p . c i t . , p p.66-7. 1 2 E p i t . d e C a e s . 24.2. Sub hoc i m p e r a n t e T a u r i n u s , A u g u s t u s  e f f e c t u s , ob t i m o r e m i p s e s e E u p h r a t e r l u v i o a b i e c i t . 1 3 H o p k i n s c o m b i n e s t h e a c c o u n t s o f D i o , H e r o d i a n , Z o s i m u s and t h e E p i t . d e C a e s . , m a k i n g one v e r s i o n . He s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e name T a u r i n u s , i n t h e E p i t o m e , i s a f a l s e r e a d i n g f o r U r a n i u s a n d t h a t H e r o d i a n ' s a c c o u n t i s p o s t - d a t e d . The v e r s i o n r u n s a s f o l l o w s : T h e M e s o p o t a m i a n t r o o p s m u t i n y , k i l l i n g t h e i r c o m m a n d e r , F l a v i u s H e r a c l e o , a n d a p p o i n t S u l p i c i u s U r a n i u s a s E m p e r o r , who a s s u m e s t h e r i g h t t o m i n t c o i n a g e u n t i l he i s ov e r c o m e by J u n i u s P a l m a t u s ( H o p k i n s i n t e r p r e t s t h e r e f e r e n c e i n t h e HA, S e v . A l e x . 5 8 . 1 , A c t a s u n t r e s f e l i c i t e r . . . i n A r m e n i a p e r  J u n i u m P a l m a t u m , t o b e t o t h e same e v e n t ) . When U r a n i u s d i s c o v e r s he h a s been b e a t e n , he t a k e s h i s own l i f e a n d p e a c e i s r e s t o r e d . See H o p k i n s , o p . c i t . , p . 1 3 5, n.2. One o f t h e p r o b l e m s w i t h t h i s v e r s i o n i s t h a t H e r o d i a n and D i o s p e a k o f M e s o p o t a m i a , w h e r e a s t h e HA m e n t i o n s A r m e n i a . T h e s e two r e g i o n s a r e t o o d i s t a n t t o r e f e r t o t h e same e v e n t . 82 command ( 4 8 . 1 - 6 ) . S i n c e O v i n i u s C a m i l l u s i s p r o b a b l y a b o g u s name, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e s t o r y i s an i n v e n t i o n o f t h e a u t h o r . T h e r e i s a l s o m e n t i o n o f u n r e s t i n M a u r e t a n i a T i n g i t a n a , I l l y r i a , A r m e n i a a n d I s a u r i a ( 5 8 . 1 ) . E v i d e n c e o f r a m p a r t s , b u i l t a r o u n d g a r r i s o n s i n 227 i n M a u r e t a n i a C a e s a r i e n s i s , may i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e was t r o u b l e i n t h i s a r e a . 1 4 I t a p p e a r s t h a t A l e x a n d e r h ad h i s s h a r e o f m i l i t a r y u p r i s i n g s , c o n t r a r y t o t h e p i c t u r e o f a p e a c e f u l r e i g n p a i n t e d by t h e a u t h o r o f t h e HA. Roman c o i n a g e o f t h i s p e r i o d t e s t i f i e s t o a c h a n g e i n t h e a t t i t u d e o f A l e x a n d e r ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . By t h e y e a r 228, t h e r e i s a c h a n g e i n theme o f A l e x a n d e r ' s c o i n a g e . He a p p e a r s armed w i t h s h i e l d a n d s p e a r . 1 5 Mars a p p e a r s w e a r i n g a m a n t l e o r armed f o r w a r . 1 6 I n 229 t h e same c o i n s a p p e a r . 1 7 I n a d d i t i o n , A l e x a n d e r i s d e p i c t e d s i t t i n g i n a c h a r i o t w i t h V i c t o r y a b o v e h i m . 1 8 An i n s c r i p t i o n o f t h e same y e a r , f o u n d i n B e u e l , Germany, r e f e r s t o a v i c t o r y , p e r h a p s o v e r t h e u s u r p e r , U r a n i u s . 1 9 I n 230 A l e x a n d e r ' s c o i n s show h i m c r o w n e d by V i c t o r y w h i l e a m i l i t a r y 1 4 S e e P a u l - A l b e r t F e v r i e r , "A P r o p o s d e T r o u b l e s d e M a u r e t a n i e ( V i l l e s e t C o n f l i t s du I I I e ' S ) , ZPE 43 ( 1 9 8 1 ) , p p . 1 4 3 -48. F e v r i e r a r g u e s t h a t t h e w a l l s a r e n o t s i g n s o f u n r e s t b u t o f u r b a n i z a t i o n . 1 5BMC V I , S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r , #468, 511. 1 6 I b i d . , #451, 453, 456-7, 473, 476, 503. 1 7 I b i d . , #601, 603, 608-9. 1 8 I b i d . , #575, 579, 581-2, 5 8 7 - 9 0 , 622. 1 9 A E 34 ( 1 8 9 9 ) , p . 3 1 5 , 1 1 . 1 - 1 2 . See W i l l i a m s , o p . c i t . , p . 78. 83 f i g u r e w i t h a s h i e l d s t a n d s i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d ; c o i n s o f M a r s U l t o r , M a r s P a c i f e r , a n d c o i n s b e a r i n g t h e l e g e n d V I C T O R I A AUGUSTI b e l o n g t o t h i s y e a r . 2 0 S i n c e t h e P e r s i a n c a m p a i g n d i d n o t b e g i n u n t i l 2 3 1 , t h e a l l u s i o n s t o v i c t o r y must r e f e r t o t h e r e v o l t s o f t h i s p e r i o d and t h e i r s u p p r e s s i o n . 2 1 'BMC V I , S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r , #669, 799, 642, 1020. H o p k i n s , o p . c i t . , p p . 132-3. 84 THE PERSIAN WAR I n t h e y e a r 229 A l e x a n d e r h e l d t h e c o n s u l s h i p f o r t h e t h i r d t i m e , w i t h D i o a s h i s c o l l e a g u e ( D i o 8 0 . 5 . 1 ) . D i o r e l a t e s t h a t t h e c h o i c e was a n u n p o p u l a r one a n d t h a t A l e x a n d e r o r d e r e d h i m t o s p e n d t h e p e r i o d o f h i s c o n s u l s h i p o u t s i d e Rome f o r f e a r t h a t t h e s o l d i e r s m i g h t k i l l h i m ( 8 0 . 5 . 1 ) . T h i s i n d i c a t e s y e t a g a i n t h a t A l e x a n d e r ' s c o n t r o l o f t h e t r o o p s was s h a k y . D i o t h e n r e c o r d s t h a t , d u e t o m e d i c a l p r o b l e m s , h e r e t i r e d t o h i s home i n B i t h y n i a . A t t h i s p o i n t , X i p h i l i n u s ' e p i t o m e o f D i o ' s Roman  H i s t o r y e n d s , s o we do n o t have an a c c o u n t o f t h e P e r s i a n War, G e r m a n i c War, o r A l e x a n d e r ' s d e a t h . D i o , h o w e v e r , d o e s g i v e some b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e P e r s i a n c o n f l i c t . A r t a b a n u s , K i n g o f t h e P a r t h i a n s , a n d A r t a x e r x e s ( A r d a s h i r ) , K i n g o f t h e P e r s i a n s , e n g a g e d i n t h r e e m a j o r b a t t l e s i n t h e e a r l y 220's t o e s t a b l i s h s u p r e m a c y i n t h i s e a s t e r n r e g i o n . I n t h e t h i r d b a t t l e , i n 224, A r t a b a n u s was b e a t e n and k i l l e d . A r t a x e r x e s t h e n o v e r r a n A r m e n i a a nd M e d i a , p r o c l a i m i n g h i m s e l f t o be t h e new K i n g o f t h e P e r s i a n s . He v o i c e d h i s i n t e n t i o n o f r e g a i n i n g t h e P e r s i a n K i n g d o m , a s i t h a d b e e n u n d e r D a r i u s , a s f a r a s t h e A e g e a n Sea ( D i o 8 0 . 3 . 1 - 4 ) . H e r o d i a n r e c o r d s t h a t A r t a x e r x e s c r o s s e d t h e T i g r i s R i v e r , o v e r r u n n i n g M e s o p o t a m i a a n d t h r e a t e n i n g S y r i a ( 6 . 2 . 1 - 2 ) . Z o n a r a s s a y s t h a t he o v e r r a n C a p p a d o c i a a n d b e s i e g e d N i s i b i s ( 1 2 . 1 5 ) b e f o r e A l e x a n d e r s e n t h i s f i r s t embassy t o t h e P e r s i a n K i n g a s k i n g f o r p e a c e . H e r o d i a n h a s t h e most c o h e r e n t and d e t a i l e d n a r r a t i v e o f t h e P e r s i a n c a m p a i g n . He s a y s t h a t t h e 85 e m b a s s y c a r r i e d a l e t t e r t o A r t a x e r x e s w a r n i n g h i m n o t t o i n i t i a t e war w i t h t h e Romans, who had r e p e a t e d l y b e a t e n e a s t e r n a r m i e s i n t h e p a s t . A r t a x e r x e s i g n o r e d t h e a d v i c e a nd p r e s s e d f o r w a r d h i s a d v a n c e ( 6 . 2 . 3 - 5 ) . T h e s e e v e n t s must h a v e t a k e n p l a c e i n 229/30 b e c a u s e p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r war were w e l l u n d e r way i n 230. H e r o d i a n s a y s t h a t l e v i e s were r e c r u i t e d f r o m I t a l y a n d a l l t h e Roman p r o v i n c e s ( 6 . 3 . 1 ) . He a l s o m e n t i o n s a l a r g e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f money t o t h e s o l d i e r s . A f t e r p r o p e r s a c r i f i c e s f o r d e p a r t u r e , A l e x a n d e r s e t o u t f r o m Rome ( 6 . 4 . 1 - 2 ) . The A c t a  F r a t r u m A r v a l i u m o f t h e y e a r 231 c o n t a i n a p r a y e r f o r t h e s a f e r e t u r n a n d v i c t o r y o f A l e x a n d e r . 1 C o i n s o f t h e same y e a r b e a r t h e l e g e n d PROFECTIO AUG. 2 I t i s l i k e l y t h a t A l e x a n d e r m a r c h e d f r o m Rome i n t h e s p r i n g o f 231. H e r o d i a n s a y s t h a t t h e m a r c h was made i n h a s t e , t h r o u g h I l l y r i a , w h e r e A l e x a n d e r c o l l e c t e d more t r o o p s , a n d t h e n o n t o A n t i o c h i n S y r i a . W h i l e A l e x a n d e r was t r a i n i n g t h e t r o o p s o v e r t h e w i n t e r o f 2 3 1 , he s e n t a n o t h e r e m b a s s y t o t h e P e r s i a n K i n g t o d i s c u s s a p e a c e f u l a l l i a n c e . A r t a x e r x e s r e m a i n e d o b d u r a t e and s e n t t o A l e x a n d e r a d e l e g a t i o n o f f o u r h u n d r e d P e r s i a n s o n h o r s e b a c k , d r e s s e d i n g o l d a n d e x t r a v a g a n t c l o t h i n g d e s i g n e d t o o v e r a w e t h e Romans w i t h t h e i r m a g n i f i c e n c e . T h e i r message o r d e r e d A l e x a n d e r t o a b a n d o n t h e w h o l e o f A s i a up t o t h e A e g e a n S e a . A l e x a n d e r s e i z e d t h e e m i s s a r i e s , r e m o v e d t h e i r w e a p o n s a n d f a n c y c l o t h i n g , a n d *W. H e n z e n , A c t a F r a t r u m A r v a l i u m ( B e r l i n , 1 8 7 4 ) , p . 2 17. 2BMC V I , S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r , #747, 749, 7 5 1 , 775-6, 7 8 1 - 2 . 86 b a n i s h e d them t o P h r y g i a t o f a r m . They w e r e n o t p e r m i t t e d t o r e t u r n home ( 6 . 4 . 3 - 6 ) . 3 A t t h i s p o i n t H e r o d i a n r e c o r d s t h a t t h e r e was a n a t t e m p t e d m u t i n y by some o f t h e E g y p t i a n a n d S y r i a n t r o o p s , j u s t a s A l e x a n d e r p r e p a r e d t o c r o s s t h e T i g r i s a n d E u p h r a t e s R i v e r s ( 6 . 4 . 7 ) . Some t h i n k t h a t H e r o d i a n m i s p l a c e d t h e e a r l i e r m u t i n y , r e l a t e d by D i o , i n w h i c h F l a v i u s H e r a c l e o was k i l l e d . 4 B u t , a s d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , numerous d i s t u r b a n c e s t o o k p l a c e . T h e r e i s no r e a l r e a s o n t o d o u b t H e r o d i a n h e r e . The V i t a  A l e x a n d r i a l s o c l a i m s t h a t a m u t i n y was a t t e m p t e d i n A n t i o c h . I n t h a t v e r s i o n t h e t r o o p s , upon a r r i v a l i n A n t i o c h , e n g a g e d i n b e h a v i o u r n o t f i t t i n g t o s o l d i e r s t h a t r e s u l t e d i n t h e i r a r r e s t . I n t u r n , t h e s o l d i e r s m u t i n i e d i n p r o t e s t o f t h e p u n i s h m e n t , b u t A l e x a n d e r s u c c e e d e d i n r e s t o r i n g o r d e r b y d i s m i s s i n g t h e o f f e n d i n g l e g i o n ( 5 3 - 5 4 ) . T h o u g h i t i s n o t u n l i k e l y t h a t A l e x a n d e r e n c o u n t e r e d d i f f i c u l t y i n m a i n t a i n i n g d i s c i p l i n e , t h i s a n e c d o t e i s s u r e l y f a l s e . I t i s m o d e l l e d on t h e famous i n c i d e n t , r e l a t e d by S u e t o n i u s , i n w h i c h J u l i u s C a e s a r a v e r t e d a m u t i n y by a d d r e s s i n g h i s s o l d i e r s a s q u i r i t e s ( S u e t . J u l i u s 7 0 ) . When a l l t h e a r r a n g e m e n t s h a d b e e n c o m p l e t e d a n d A l e x a n d e r ' s f o r c e was r e a d y , t h e m a i n e x p e d i t i o n was l a u n c h e d i n t h e s p r i n g o f 232. H e r o d i a n g i v e s a d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t o f t h e p l a n o f a t t a c k . A l e x a n d e r d i v i d e d h i s f o r c e s i n t o t h r e e c o l u m n s . The f i r s t c o l u m n was t o march t h r o u g h A r m e n i a and o v e r r u n M e d i a , t h e s e c o n d 3 S e e a l s o Z o n a r a s 12.15. Vide s u p r a , pp.78-9. 87 was t o t a k e a s o u t h e r n r o u t e t h r o u g h M e s o p o t a m i a where t h e T i g r i s a n d E u p h r a t e s R i v e r s j o i n e d , t h e t h i r d c o l u m n , c o n t a i n i n g t h e b e s t t r o o p s a n d h e a d e d by A l e x a n d e r h i m s e l f , was t o f o l l o w a c e n t r a l c o u r s e b e t w e e n t h e o t h e r t w o . The c o l u m n s w o u l d t h e n r e n d e z v o u s a t an a g r e e d p o i n t when e a c h had g a i n e d c o n t r o l o f i t s t e r r i t o r y ( 6 . 5 . 1 - 2 ) . A l e x a n d e r ' s s t r a t e g y was a f a i r l y s o u n d o n e . By s p l i t t i n g h i s f o r c e s he hoped t o weaken t h e r e s i s t a n c e o f t h e enemy. The n o r t h e r n and s o u t h e r n c o l u m n s were t o c r e a t e d i v e r s i o n s f o r t h e m a i n f o r c e , l e d b y A l e x a n d e r ( 6 . 5 . 7 ) . H o w e v e r , a c c o r d i n g t o H e r o d i a n , A l e x a n d e r ' s p l a n was n o t t h e s u c c e s s h e p l a n n e d . T h e n o r t h e r n - m o s t c o l u m n h a d g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y c r o s s i n g t h e m o u n t a i n o u s t e r r i t o r y i n A r m e n i a b u t , o n c e i n M e d i a , i t was q u i t e s u c c e s s f u l . I t d o e s n o t seem t h a t t h e a c t i o n was v e r y d e c i s i v e , h o w e v e r , b e c a u s e , when news o f t h e s o u t h e r n c o l u m n ' s i n v a s i o n o f P a r t h i a r e a c h e d A r t a x e r x e s , he l e f t some t r o o p s t o h o l d t h e Romans and made h a s t e e a s t w a r d ( 6 . 5 . 5 - 7 ) . The P e r s i a n f o r c e s j o i n e d b a t t l e w i t h t h e s o u t h e r n Roman c o l u m n , t a k i n g i t c o m p l e t e l y by s u r p r i s e ( 6 . 5 . 9 ) . B u t , f o r some r e a s o n , A l e x a n d e r ' s c e n t r e c o l u m n f a i l e d t o j o i n them. H e r o d i a n o f f e r s t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t A l e x a n d e r was a f r a i d , o r t h a t h i s m o t h e r , Mamaea, may h a v e d i s s u a d e d h i m f r o m f i g h t i n g ( 6 . 5 . 8 - 9 ) . I n l i g h t o f H e r o d i a n ' s o b v i o u s d i s l i k e o f Mamaea, t h e s e s u g g e s t i o n s s h o u l d be d i s r e g a r d e d . Nor a r e t h e y v e r y p l a u s i b l e . I c a n f i n d two p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r A l e x a n d e r ' s f a i l u r e . H e r o d i a n , o n l y a few l i n e s l a t e r , m e n t i o n s t h a t A l e x a n d e r and h i s w h o l e army was i l l . P e r h a p s t h e army f e l l p r e y t o some d i s e a s e . S i n c e t h e y 88 w e r e t r a v e l l i n g d u r i n g t h e summer, t h e s e a s o n c o n d u c i v e , t o s u c h m a l a d i e s , t h i s i s n o t a t a l l u n l i k e l y . H e r o d i a n h i m s e l f s a y s t h a t t h e t r o o p s were u s e d t o a m o i s t e r , c o o l e r c l i m a t e ( 6 . 6 . 2 ) . S e c o n d , H e r o d i a n s a y s t h a t A r t a x e r x e s ' t r o o p s made h a s t e ( e n e i y u ) f r o m M e d i a t o P a r t h i s w i t h t h e e n t i r e army ( 6 . 5 . 7 ) and t h a t t h e Romans w e r e n o t e x p e c t i n g t h e m ( o u iTpoa6o<(tf\JTos TOU axpotTou) ( 6 . 5 . 9 ) . P e r h a p s A l e x a n d e r , a n d t h e s o u t h e r n t r o o p s , u n d e r e s t i m a t e d t h e s p e e d w i t h w h i c h A r t a x e r x e s c o u l d move h i s f o r c e s , o r t h e y u n d e r e s t i m a t e d t h e s i z e o f t h e f o r c e A r t a x e r x e s h a d w i t h h i m , t h i n k i n g t h a t a g r e a t e r number o f t r o o p s w o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o h o l d t h e f i r s t c o l u m n i n M e d i a . P e r h a p s t h e i l l n e s s o f t h e t r o o p s c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e s e f a c t o r s . A t a n y r a t e , H e r o d i a n r e p r e s e n t s t h e b a t t l e a s a r e s o u n d i n g d e f e a t f o r t h e R o m a n s . T h e y w e r e o u t n u m b e r e d , s u r r o u n d e d , a n d c o m p l e t e l y d e s t r o y e d ( 6 . 5 . 9 - 1 0 ) . A l e x a n d e r d e c i d e d t o r e t u r n t o A n t i o c h a n d s e n t o r d e r s f o r t h e n o r t h e r n c o l u m n t o do t h e same. B u t by now i t was w i n t e r i n t h e m o u n t a i n s o f A r m e n i a . H e r o d i a n s a y s most o f t h e s e s o l d i e r s f r o z e t o d e a t h . As f o r A l e x a n d e r ' s c o l u m n , many o f t h e s e men t o o h a d d i e d o f i l l n e s s ( 6 . 6 . 2 - 3 ) . Of t h e t h r e e c o l u m n s t h a t s e t o u t i n 2 3 1 , H e r o d i a n d e s c r i b e s t h e a l m o s t c o m p l e t e d e s t r u c t i o n o f a l l o f them. I f t h e l o s s e s h a d t r u l y b e e n t h a t s e v e r e , A l e x a n d e r c o u l d n o t p o s s i b l y h a v e p r e p a r e d f o r a n o t h e r a t t a c k , a s H e r o d i a n s t a t e s ( 6 . 6 . 4 ) . H e r o d i a n i s c l e a r l y g u i l t y o f g r e a t l y e x a g g e r a t i n g t h e Roman m i s f o r t u n e s . A l e x a n d e r r e g a i n e d h i s h e a l t h i n A n t i o c h and r a i s e d t h e m o r a l e o f t h e s o l d i e r s w i t h a n o t h e r d i s t r i b u t i o n o f money. H e r o d i a n s a y s 89 t h a t A l e x a n d e r made p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r a n o t h e r a t t a c k o n t h e P e r s i a n s , b u t f o u n d i t u n n e c e s s a r y b e c a u s e t h e P e r s i a n s h a d d i s b a n d e d , i n t y p i c a l f a s h i o n , a n d r e t u r n e d t o t h e i r homes ( 6 . 6 . 4 - 5 ) 5 One wonders, i f t h e Roman d e f e a t was so o v e r w h e l m i n g , why t h e P e r s i a n s d i d n o t p r e s s t h e i r a d v a n t a g e and c o n t i n u e t h e a t t a c k . H e r o d i a n s a y s t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h e P e r s i a n s w e r e t h e v i c t o r s i n t h e P a r t h i a n b a t t l e , t h e y s u f f e r e d heavy l o s s e s , b o t h i n t h a t b a t t l e a n d i n t h e e n g a g e m e n t s i n M e d i a ( 6 . 6 . 5 ) . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e P e r s i a n K i n g r e a l i z e d t h a t e n g a g i n g t h e Roman l e g i o n s i n b a t t l e was no s m a l l u n d e r t a k i n g and would e n t a i l f a r g r e a t e r l o s s e s t h a n he h a d p r e v i o u s l y a n t i c i p a t e d . He was c o n t e n t t o l e t t h e s i t u a t i o n r e s t a s i t was. A r t a x e r x e s had n o t r e a l i z e d h i s g o a l o f r e g a i n i n g t h e v a s t P e r s i a n E m p i r e o f o l d , b u t n e i g h e r had t h e Romans s u b j u g a t e d h i s E m p i r e . The Greek l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n t e n d s t o f o l l o w H e r o d i a n ' s a c c o u n t . Z o n a r a s s a y s t h a t t h e r e were many k i l l e d on b o t h s i d e s and t h a t A l e x a n d e r was blamed by t h e Romans f o r t h e outcome ( 1 2 . 1 5 ) . The L a t i n w r i t e r s , h o w e v e r , g i v e a v e r y d i f f e r e n t a c c o u n t o f t h e outcome o f t h e P e r s i a n War. V i c t o r c l a i m s t h a t A l e x a n d e r p u t t h e P e r s i a n K i n g t o f l i g h t (de C a e s . 2 4 . 2 ) ; E u t r o p i u s s a y s t h a t he c o n q u e r e d A r t a x e r x e s g l o r i o s i s s i m e ( B r e v . 8.23). The HA, as one w o u l d e x p e c t , i s t h e most e x t r a v a g a n t i n i t s a c c o u n t o f t h e Emperor's b r a v e r y and t h e d e f e a t o f t h e P e r s i a n Army. The a u t h o r c l a i m s t h a t A l e x a n d e r h i m s e l f i n s p e c t e d t h e f l a n k s , u r g e d on t h e 5M.A.R. C o l l e d g e , The P a r t h i a n s (London, 1967), p.59. 90 s o l d i e r s , was exposed to m i s s i l e s , and fought hand to hand i n b a t t l e . F i n a l l y he put Ar taxerxes to f l i g h t . The P e r s i a n King i s d e s c r i b e d as potent iss imus and as having 700 e lephan ts , 1800 s c y t h e d c h a r i o t s and many thousands of c a v a l r y ( 5 5 . 1 - 2 ) . The added d e t a i l s make A l e x a n d e r ' s supposed v i c t o r y appear a l l the g rea te r f o r overcoming such power. Much of the account i n the HA can be d is regarded as embel l ishment c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the author . On one p o i n t , however, the HA i s supe r i o r to Herod ian . Herodian says that Alexander rece i ved news of the German i n v a s i o n wh i l e he was s t i l l i n A n t i o c h and t ha t A lexander went s t r a i g h t from Ant ioch to the Rhine R i ve r ( 6 . 7 . 2 -6 ) . Herodian has neg lec ted to mention A lexande r ' s re tu rn to Rome i n 233 and h i s t r i u m p h . 6 The HA records that upon A l e x a n d e r ' s r e tu rn to Rome, he ce leb ra ted a sp lend id tr iumph and then made a v i c t o r y speech to the Senate . The author quotes the speech ex  a c t i s senatus ; i t may be d is regarded as one of the a u t h o r ' s many t r i c k s (Sev .A lex . 56 .1 -10 ) . To g ive some c r e d i t to h im, he does ment ion t h a t o the r accoun ts e x i s t i n wh ich A lexander was the l o s e r . He even mentions Herod ian 's account but says that i t i s c o n t r a r y to popular b e l i e f , a long wi th a l l the o thers ( 5 7 . 2 . 3 ) . In the HA ' s accoun t , A lexander a l s o presented a l a r g e s s to the p e o p l e 7 and founded the Mamaeanae and Mamaeani ( 5 7 . 6 - 7 ) . The 6The t r iumph i s c e l e b r a t e d on a meda l l i on of 233 on which the Emperor i s dep i c t ed s i t t i n g i n a quadr iga . BMC V I , Severus A lexander , p .207. 7 Probab ly the LIBERALITAS AUG. QUINTA recorded on h i s c o i n s . BMC V I , Severus A lexander , #945-8. 91 L a t i n t r a d i t i o n , i n w h i c h A l e x a n d e r emerges a s v i c t o r i s p r o b a b l y a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e o f f i c i a l v e r s i o n o f t h e b a t t l e t h a t was p r o m o t e d i n Rome. C o i n a g e a n d i n s c r i p t i o n s o f 233 commemorate A l e x a n d e r ' s v i c t o r y . 8 A m e d a l l i o n d e p i c t s A l e x a n d e r c r o w n e d by V i c t o r y w i t h two r i v e r s , t h e T i g r i s and E u p h r a t e s , a t h i s f e e t . 9 The d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e a c c o u n t o f H e r o d i a n a n d t h a t o f t h e HA i s n o t d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n . H e r o d i a n was a c o n t e m p o r a r y o f t h e P e r s i a n War, who h a d b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t y t o f o l l o w i t s p r o g r e s s t h a n d i d t h e a u t h o r o f t h e HA. H i s d e t a i l e d k n o w l e d g e o f t h e c a m p a i g n - s t r a t e g y i n s t i l l s b e l i e f i n h i s n a r r a t i v e . I n f a c t , H e r o d i a n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c a m p a i g n l e a d s t h e r e a d e r t o e x p e c t d i s m a l f a i l u r e on t h e p a r t o f t h e Roman a r m i e s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e L a t i n s o u r c e s d e s c r i b e t h e P e r s i a n War a s a Roman v i c t o r y . A n d i n a s e n s e i t was. A l t h o u g h A l e x a n d e r g a i n e d no new t e r r i t o r y f o r t h e E m p i r e , he removed t h e t h r e a t o f P e r s i a n e n c r o a c h m e n t . O b v i o u s l y , t h e i m p e r i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w o u l d e m p h a s i z e t h e p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s o f t h e c a m p a i g n a nd p l a y down t h e m i s t a k e s . T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e c o i n a g e , i n s c r i p t i o n s , a n d a c c o u n t s o f t h e L a t i n a u t h o r s . T h e m o r e s t r i c t l y a c c u r a t e a c c o u n t , h o w e v e r , i s t o be f o u n d i n H e r o d i a n . C o i n a g e a n d i n s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e p e r i o d o f t h e P e r s i a n War a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t Mamaea s t i l l f i g u r e d p r o m i n e n t l y i n A l e x a n d e r ' s o p e r a t i o n s . C o i n a g e d e p i c t i n g p r e p a r a t i o n s a n d s y m b o l s o f t h e 8 C I L V I I I 8 322, 15259, 15846, 14447; I I I 3427; V I 186. 9BMC V I , S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r , #949. 92 c o m i n g war b e a r o n t h e o b v e r s e p o r t r a i t s o f b o t h A l e x a n d e r a n d M a m a e a . 1 0 C o i n s o f Mamaea b e a r i n g t h e l e g e n d MATER CASTRORUM r e p r e s e n t Mamaea a s p r o t e c t o r o f t h e s t a n d a r d s . 1 1 Mamaea a c c o m p a n i e d t h e Emperor on t h e P e r s i a n e x p e d i t i o n ; i n s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e t i m e r e f e r t o t h e war and e x p r e s s hope f o r t h e s u c c e s s a n d s a f e r e t u r n o f A l e x a n d e r a n d Mamaea. 1 2 I n s c r i p t i o n s o f 233 c e l e b r a t e t h e i r s u c c e s s a n d s a f e r e t u r n t o Rome. 1 3 The E m p e r o r ' s m o t h e r was s t i l l v e r y a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e management o f t h e E m p i r e . Mamaea a l s o f i g u r e s i n t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n o f A l e x a n d e r ' s r e g i m e on C h r i s t i a n i t y . E u s e b i u s s a y s t h a t w h i l e i n A n t i o c h , Mamaea, who was a v e r y r e l i g i o u s woman, s e n t f o r O r i g e n . She h a s h e a r d o f h i s fame and w a n t e d t o i m p r o v e h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e C h r i s t i a n f a i t h . O r i g e n s p e n t some t i m e w i t h Mamaea, a c c o r d i n g t o E u s e b i u s , i n s t r u c t i n g h e r i n t h e ways o f God, a n d t h e n r e t u r n e d t o A l e x a n d r i a ( E c c . H i s t . 6 . 2 1 . 3 ) . He a l s o s a y s t h a t A l e x a n d e r ' s h o u s e h o l d c o n s i s t e d m a i n l y o f b e l i e v e r s , w h i c h p r o m p t e d M a x i m i n u s , A l e x a n d e r ' s s u c c e s s o r , t o resume p e r s e c u t i o n ( E c c . H i s t . 6 . 2 8 ) . I f Mamaea d i d f a v o u r t h e C h r i s t i a n f a i t h , one w o u l d e x p e c t t o s e e i t r e f l e c t e d i n A l e x a n d e r ' s p o l i c i e s . N e i t h e r D i o n o r H e r o d i a n make any m e n t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n i t y a t a l l 1 0BMC V I , S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r , #733, 555, 5 3 9 , 7 3 4 - 6 , 6 7 1 , e t c . n I b i d . , #729-30, 732. 1 2 C I L I I I 3639; V I 2108, 2111; X I V 4303. 1 3 C I L I I I 3427; V I I I 15846, 2620. 93 but the V i t a A l e x a n d r i does i n s e v e r a l p l a c e s . The author s t a t e s t h a t the s p e c i a l r i g h t s of the Jews were p r e s e r v e d and t h a t C h r i s t i a n i t y was p e r m i t t e d (22.4). He says t h a t Alexander kept s t a t u e s of C h r i s t and Abraham i n h i s sanctuary (29.2), and that he wished to b u i l d a temple to C h r i s t but was advised not to l e s t a l l men become C h r i s t i a n s and abandon the other temples (43.6-7 ) . In the V i t a A l e x a n d e r c i t e d C h r i s t i a n i t y and Judaism as models of o r g a n i z a t i o n s that p u b l i c l y announce the o r d a i n i n g of o f f i c i a l s (45.7). When a d i s p u t e arose between the C h r i s t i a n s and owners of a cook-shop concerning the ownership of a b u i l d i n g , Alexander judged i n favour of the C h r i s t i a n s (49.6). Alexander o f t e n repeated the phrase he had heard from a Jew or C h r i s t i a n and had i t announced when d i s c i p l i n i n g someone, Quod t i b i f i e r i  non v i s , a l t e r i ne f e c e r i s (51.7). One can hardly c r e d i t such i n c i d e n t s . They a r e a l l of t h a t s u s p i c i o u s ' s t o r y - t e l l i n g ' q u a l i t y t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s much of the c o n t e n t of the V i t a  A l e x a n d r i . 1 4 Be that as i t may, no other V i t a c o n t a i n s so many r e f e r e n c e s t o C h r i s t i a n i t y . T h i s phenomenon c o u l d be a r e f l e c t i o n o f A l e x a n d e r ' s t o l e r a n c e o f , or even f a v o u r t o C h r i s t i a n i t y . On the other hand i t could simply be a r e s u l t of 1 4 S u p r i s i n g l y , E l i a a c c epts these anecdotes at f a c e v a l u e and uses them to support her t h e o r y t h a t A l e x a n d e r , who had reforming i n t e n t i o n s , sought to disarm C h r i s t i a n i t y by p l a c i n g i t on a l e v e l o f p a r i t y w i t h o t h e r c u l t s , t h u s r e m o v i n g t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r martyrdom, which seemed to s t r e n g t h e n the f a i t h . She does not d e a l with the HA's known tendency f o r i n v e n t i o n . See F e b r o n i a E l i a , " I S e v e r i e l a Q u e s t i o n e C r i s t i a n a : S i n c r e t i s m o R e l i g i o s o o Realismo P o l i t i c o " , Quaderni Catanesi d i  S t u d i C l a s s i c a e M e d i e v a l i 1 (1979), pp.557-9. 94 t h e a u t h o r ' s i n t e r e s t i n t h e r e l i g i o n . B u t i t i s a s t r i k i n g c o i n c i d e n c e t h a t E u s e b i u s t e l l s o f M a m a e a ' s i n t e r e s t i n C h r i s t i a n i t y and t h e V i t a A l e x a n d r i makes so many r e f e r e n c e s t o i t . S u b s e q u e n t t o E u s e b i u s , a l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n d e v e l o p e d i n w h i c h Mamaea was c o n v e r t e d t o C h r i s t i a n i t y and e x t e n d e d o f f i c i a l i m p e r i a l p r o t e c t i o n t o t h e f a i t h . 1 5 T h i s i s p r o b a b l y a n e m b r o i d e r y o f t h e e a r l i e r s t o r y . Z o n a r a s m e n t i o n s E u s e b i u s , r e p e a t i n g h i s s t o r y , and adds t h a t , b e c a u s e o f Mamaea's i n t e r e s t , p e r s e c u t i o n was d i s c o n t i n u e d and C h r i s t was h o n o u r e d (12.15). I n c o n c l u s i o n , E u s e b i u s ' s t o r y i s a l t o g e t h e r p o s s i b l e . 1 6 T h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h e l a t e r c l a i m t h a t Mamaea became a C h r i s t i a n . A t any r a t e , whether o r not Mamaea a c t u a l l y c o n v e r t e d i s n o t t h e i s s u e . Owing t o Mamaea's i n f l u e n c e o v e r h e r s o n , any f a v o u r i n g , on h e r p a r t , o f t h e C h r i s t i a n f a i t h w o u l d s u r e l y a f f e c t A l e x a n d e r ' s a t t i t u d e , i f n o t o f f i c i a l p o l i c y , on t h e m a t t e r . T h e V i t a A l e x a n d r i a p p e a r s t o s u p p o r t E u s e b i u s ' s t a t e m e n t , w i t h i t s n u m e r o u s r e f e r e n c e s t o C h r i s t i a n i t y a n d J u d a i s m . 1 5 O r o s i u s 7.18.7; S y n c e l l u s C h r o n . , p.358 D; C e d r e n u s , C o m p e n d i u m H i s t o r i a r u m , p.450, 11.3-12; G l y c a s , A n n a l s 3, A l e x a n d e r . 1 6 T i m o t h y D. B a r n e s , C o n s t a n t i n e a n d E u s e b i u s ( L o n d o n , 1981), p.84. B a r n e s a c c e p t s E u s e b i u s h e r e . 95 THE GERMANIC WAR A f t e r A l e x a n d e r ' s t r i u m p h i n 233, he r e m a i n e d i n Rome f o r s e v e r a l m onths b e f o r e s e t t i n g o u t on h i s German c a m p a i g n , p r o b a b l y i n t h e s p r i n g o f 234. Once a g a i n , H e r o d i a n s u p p l i e s t h e f u l l e s t a c c o u n t o f t h e e v e n t s o f t h e G e r m a n i c War. 1 He s a y s t h a t t h e g o v e r n o r s o f I l l y r i a s e n t w o r d t o A l e x a n d e r t h a t t h e Germans had c r o s s e d t h e R h i n e a n d t h e Danube and were o v e r r u n n i n g t h e Roman towns a nd g a r r i s o n s t h e r e . A l e x a n d e r m a r c h e d t o t h e b a n k s o f t h e R h i n e a n d made a b r i d g e o f b o a t s t o c r o s s t h e r i v e r . He had a l a r g e f o r c e o f t r o o p s f r o m O s r h o e n e , 2 P a r t h i a a n d M a u r e t a n i a , w h i c h he began t o t r a i n f o r t h e c o m i n g war. B e f o r e f i g h t i n g b e gan A l e x a n d e r , i n a n e f f o r t t o a v o i d b a t t l e , s e n t a n e m b a s s y t o t h e G e r m a n s o f f e r i n g them money and t h e i r own t e r m s f o r p e a c e . The s o l d i e r s w e r e a n g e r e d by A l e x a n d e r ' s show o f c o w a r d i c e a n d many, m o s t l y P a n n o n i a n s , t r a n s f e r r e d t h e i r a l l e g i a n c e t o M a x i m i n u s , who was l e a d e r o f t h e r e c r u i t s . 3 H e r o d i a n s a y s t h a t t h e s o l d i e r s a l s o i H e r o d _ L 6.7.6-9.7. 2 C I L X I 3 1 0 4 ; X I I I 6 6 7 7 a g i v e e v i d e n c e o f t h e p r e s e n c e o f e a s t e r n t r o o p s . 3 C . J u l i u s V e r u s M a x i m i n u s ( P I R 2 J 619) M a x i m i n u s was a m i l i t a r y man, b o r n c a . 1 7 2 / 3 , p r o b a b l y i n t h e r e g i o n o f T h r a c e ( Z o n . 1 2 . 1 6 , H e r o d . 6 . 8 . 1 ) . He was f i r s t r e c r u i t e d i n t o t h e Roman c a v a l r y u n d e r S e p t i m i u s ( H e r o d . 6.8.1, V i t a Max. 2 . 2 - 3 ) . H e r o d i a n s a y s t h a t he p r o g r e s s e d t h r o u g h a l l t h e r a n k s o f t h e army t o command o f l e g i o n s . He was e m p l o y e d u n d e r C a r a c a l l a b u t was r e t i r e d f r o m s e r v i c e u n d e r M a c r i n u s and h i s s o n ( V i t a Max. 4 . 4 ) . U n d e r E l a g a b a l u s he may h a v e h e l d a t r i b u n a t e i n t h e p r a e t o r i a n g u a r d ( V i t a Max. 5 . 1 ) . I t seems t h a t M a x i m i n u s h e l d an number o f e q u e s t r i a n p r e f e c t u r e s u n d e r A l e x a n d e r ; V i c t o r s a y s he w a s p r a e s i d e n s T r e b e l l i c a e ( d e C a e s . 2 5 . 1 ) . A b o u t 230 M a x i m i n u s may ha v e been a p p o i n t e d p r a e f e c t u s l e g i o n i s I I T r a i a n a e 96 h a d a g e n e r a l i n c l i n a t i o n t o r e v o l t a n d w e r e d i s c o n t e n t e d w i t h t h e i r p a y ( 6 . 8 . 4 ) . They p r o c l a i m e d M a x i m i n u s E m p e r o r , an h o n o u r w h i c h h e r e f u s e d a t f i r s t b u t l a t e r a c c e p t e d when t h e t r o o p s t h r e a t e n e d h i s l i f e . M a x i m i n u s g a t h e r e d h i s t r o o p s a nd s e t o u t f r o m h i s camp a g a i n s t A l e x a n d e r , who was s t a t i o n e d n e a r b y . News o f t h e r e v o l t r e a c h e d A l e x a n d e r a n d he m u s t e r e d h i s own f o r c e , e x a c t i n g t h e i r p r o m i s e o f l o y a l t y . H o w e v e r , a s M a x i m i n u s a p p r o a c h e d , A l e x a n d e r ' s s o l d i e r s d e f e c t e d t o h i s s i d e , l e a v i n g A l e x a n d e r i n h i s t e n t w i t h h i s m o t h e r a n d h i s f o l l o w e r s . M a x i m i n u s s e n t s o l d i e r s i n t o A l e x a n d e r ' s t e n t , who k i l l e d t h e E m p e r o r , h i s mo t h e r and t h e e n t i r e r e t i n u e . F rom H e r o d i a n ' s n a r r a t i v e , i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t A l e x a n d e r h ad no d e f e n d e r s . He d o e s n o t m e n t i o n t h a t a n y f i g h t i n g t o o k p l a c e w h a t s o e v e r , b u t t h a t A l e x a n d e r ' s s o l d i e r s d e f e c t e d t o a man a t M a x i m i n u s ' a p p r o a c h ( 6 . 9 . 5 ) . The s t a t e m e n t i s s u s p i c i o u s l y s i m p l i s t i c b u t i f t h e r e was a n y a t t e m p t t o d e f e n d t h e r e i g n i n g E m p e r o r , i t must have been m i n i m a l . The a c c o u n t o f t h e G e r m a n i c War i n t h e HA i s much l e s s d e t a i l e d . The a u t h o r s a y s t h a t , upon A l e x a n d e r ' s a r r i v a l i n G a u l , he f o u n d t h e l e g i o n s r e a d y t o m u t i n y s o he o r d e r e d t h e m t o d i s b a n d i n E g y p t a n d H e r o d i a n a l l u d e s t o a p r e f e c t u r e i n M e s o p o t a m i a d u r i n g t h e P e r s i a n War ( H e r o d . 7.8.4) c f . J . F . G i l l i a m , "The Dux R i p a e a t D u r a " , T A P A 72 ( 1 9 4 1 ) , p . 1 7 2 , w h e r e M a x i m i n u s i s c o n j e c t u r e d t o h a v e b e e n d u x r i p a e . I n t h e G e r m a n i c War M a x i m i n u s was p r a e f e c t u s t i r o n i b u s u n d e r A l e x a n d e r ( H e r o d . 6 . 8 . 2 ) . Z o s i m u s s a y s t h a t M a x i m i n u s was p r a e f e c t u s a l a e i n 235 ( 1 . 1 3 ) . Though t h e above d e t a i l s may w e l l be i n a c c u r a t e t o some d e g r e e , t h e s o u r c e s a r e i n a g r e e m e n t t h a t M a x i m i n u s p o s s e s s e d a g r e a t d e a l o f m i l i t a r y e x p e r i e n c e . 97 ( S e v . A l e x . 5 9 . 5 ) . T h i s a n g e r e d t h e s o l d i e r s s t i l l f u r t h e r a n d f i n a l l y t h e y m u r d e r e d h i m . T h e r e i s no m e n t i o n o f a n a t t e m p t t o buy p e a c e . The a u t h o r c l a i m s t h a t t h e m u r d e r t o o k p l a c e i n a v i l l a g e named S i c i l i a , w h i c h was i n B r i t a i n ( o b v i o u s l y an e r r o r ) o r i n G a u l ( 5 9 . 6 ) . 4 He a l s o s a y s t h a t t h e m u r d e r , c o m m i t t e d by a n a s s a s s i n , was n o t t h e r e s u l t o f g e n e r a l d i s c o n t e n t . He m e n t i o n s M a x i m i n u s a s a p o s s i b l e i n s t i g a t o r o f t h e d e e d ( 5 9 . 6 - 7 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e V i t a , a German s o l d i e r e n t e r e d A l e x a n d e r ' s t e n t w h i l e he was s l e e p i n g , w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f o m i t t i n g t h e m u r d e r , b u t h i s c o u r a g e f a i l e d h i m a n d he l e f t a g a i n . T h e n a g r e a t e r n u m b e r o f s o l d i e r s e n t e r e d t h e t e n t a n d s l a u g h t e r e d a l l t h e o c c u p a n t s ( 6 1 . 3 - 7 ) . A n o t h e r r e a s o n f o r t h e m u r d e r i s g i v e n , n a m e l y t h a t t h e s o l d i e r s g r e w a n g r y when t h e y d i s c o v e r e d t h a t Mamaea w i s h e d t o abandon t h e war and r e t u r n t o t h e E a s t . B u t t h e a u t h o r d i s c r e d i t s t h i s a s a f i c t i o n c r e a t e d t o p r o t e c t M a x i m i n u s f r o m b lame ( 6 3 . 5 - 6 ) . V i c t o r c l a i m s t h a t A l e x a n d e r p u t down many m u t i n i e s i n G a u l , w h e r e f o r e he was k i l l e d f o r e x c e s s i v e s e v e r i t y ( d e C a e s . 2 4 . 4 ) . E u t r o p i u s s a y s , v e r y b r i e f l y , t h a t he was k i l l e d i n a m i l i t a r y u p r i s i n g i n G a u l ( B r e v . 8 . 2 3 ) . Z o n a r a s ' a c c o u n t f o l l o w s H e r o d i a n t o t h e l e t t e r (12.15) b u t Z o s i m u s * work c o n t a i n s a n e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n t h a t i s c l e a r l y f a l s e ( 1 . 1 3 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o Z o s i m u s , t h e a r m i e s i n P a n n o n i a a nd M o e s i a r e v o l t e d a n d named M a x i m i n u s E m p e r o r , who t h e n m u s t e r e d h i s t r o o p s a n d s e t o u t f o r Rome. A l e x a n d e r , who was i n t h e R h i n e See a l s o A u r e l i u s V i c t o r , de C a e s . 24.4. 98 r e g i o n a t t h e t i m e , h a s t e n e d b a c k t o Rome a n d a t t e m p t e d t o c o n c i l i a t e t h e s o l d i e r s a n d t h e i r l e a d e r . He f a i l e d a n d was m u r d e r e d a l o n g w i t h Mamaea and t h e p r e f e c t s . Two e x p l a n a t i o n s have been p r o p o s e d f o r t h e d r a s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t a c c o u n t o f A l e x a n d e r ' s d e a t h i n Z o s i m u s . J a r d e p r o p o s e s t h a t Z o s i m u s ' a c c o u n t d e r i v e s f r o m a d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t by D e x i p p u s . S i n c e D e x i p p u s ' a c c o u n t d o e s n o t s u r v i v e , J a r d e c o n j e c t u r e s one i n w h i c h M a x i m i n u s , t a k i n g a d v a n t a g e o f A l e x a n d e r ' s a b s e n c e f r o m Rome, s e t o u t f r o m P a n n o n i a f o r I t a l y w i t h h i s army. He s e n t a d e t a c h m e n t o f t r o o p s t o t h e R h i n e ; t h e s e t r o o p s m u r d e r e d A l e x a n d e r . Once r i d o f h i s r i v a l , M a x i m i n u s d i s c o n t i n u e d h i s j o u r n e y t o Rome and went n o r t h t o t h e R h i n e , where he t o o k up t h e c a m p a i g n a g a i n s t t h e Germans. A f t e r t h e c a m p a i g n , he r e t u r n e d t o P a n n o n i a . J a r d e ' s p u r p o s e , i n i n v e n t i n g t h i s a c c o u n t , i s t o show t h a t a l e s s d e t a i l e d v e r s i o n c o u l d e a s i l y r e s u l t i n an a c c o u n t s u c h a s Z o s i m u s r e l a t e s . 5 The e x p l a n a t i o n , h o w e v e r , i s b a s e d e n t i r e l y on c o n j e c t u r e . A s i m p l e r e x p l a n a t i o n i s p r o p o s e d by W h i t t a k e r . He t h i n k s t h a t t h e s i m i l a r v o c a b u l a r y u s e d by H e r o d i a n ( 6 . 8 . 7 ) a n d Z o s i m u s ( 1 . 1 3 . 1 ) i n d i c a t e s t h a t Z o s i m u s was a t t e m p t i n g t o i n c o r p o r a t e H e r o d i a n i n t o h i s o t h e r s o u r c e s . I n d o i n g s o , Z o s i m u s m i s u n d e r s t o o d t h e r e f e r e n c e t o P a n n o n i a n t r o o p s ( H e r o d . 6.8.3) a n d a s s u m e d t h a t M a x i m i n u s was i n P a n n o n i a when A l e x a n d e r ' s t r o o p s r e v o l t e d . W h i t t a k e r e x p l a i n s Z o s i m u s ' a c c o u n t a s a n 5 J a r d e , o p . c i t . , p . 9 1 , n . l . 99 a t t e m p t t o e x p l a i n how M a x i m i n u s , i n P a n n o n i a , a n d A l e x a n d e r , i n Germany, c o u l d have met. 5 T h i s i s a more l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n b u t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s e e how Z o s i m u s c o u l d h a v e m i s u n d e r s t o o d H e r o d i a n t o s u c h a n e x t e n t , w h e n H e r o d i a n c l e a r l y p l a c e s M a x i m i n u s i n Germany w i t h A l e x a n d e r ' s army ( H e r o d . 6.8.1, 6.8.3-4 ) . Z o s i m u s ' a c c o u n t r e m a i n s i n e x p l i c a b l e t o me. A l e x a n d e r a n d h i s m o t h e r l e f t Rome f o r t h e R h i n e i n 2 3 4 . 7 H e r o d i a n ' s r e f e r e n c e t o t h e d a n g e r t o I l l y r i a i n d i c a t e s t h a t G e r m a n i c t r i b e s were p u s h i n g s o u t h w a r d a l l a l o n g t h e R h i n e - D a n u b e b o r d e r . M a x i m i n u s l a t e r e x t e n d e d h i s German c a m p a i g n a l o n g t h e D a n u b e ( H e r o d . 7 . 2 . 9 ) . T h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e , h o w e v e r , t h a t A l e x a n d e r s e n t a n y d e t a c h m e n t s t o t h a t a r e a . The more s e r i o u s t h r e a t l a y t o t h e n o r t h i n t h e r e g i o n s o f R a e t i a a n d N o r i c u m . 8 T h e r e a r e s i g n s o f A l e x a n d e r ' s a c t i v i t i e s n o r t h o f M o g u n t i a c u m ( M a i n z ) a t t h i s t i m e . 9 Though H e r o d i a n n e v e r a c t u a l l y s a y s t h a t A l e x a n d e r c r o s s e d h i s b r i d g e o f b o a t s , he must h a v e done s o . A c o i n o f 235 shows A l e x a n d e r c r o s s i n g a b r i d g e o f b o a t s ; t h e o b v e r s e b e a r s p o r t r a i t s o f b o t h A l e x a n d e r and Mamaea. 1 0 W h i t t a k e r , o p . c i t . , p.138, n . l . 7BMC V I , S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r , # 788. 8 H o p k i n s , o p . c i t . , p.238, n.2. 9Whittaker, o p . c i t . , p.126, n.2. 1 0BMC V I , S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r , #967. 100 THE END OF THE SEVERAN DYNASTY Upon A l e x a n d e r ' s m u r d e r , t h e s o l d i e r s p r o c l i a m e d M a x i m i n u s T h r a x E m p e r o r , t h e s e c o n d member o f t h e i r own rank, t o a t t a i n t h e p r i n c i p a t e . S i n c e t h i s was an age i n w h i c h d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n s e n a t o r i a l a n d e q u e s t r i a n a p p o i n t m e n t s h a d l o s t much o f i t s r i g i d i t y , t h e r e i s no r e a s o n t o d o u b t t h e s o u r c e s when t h e y s a y t h a n M a x i m i n u s was n o t o f s e n a t o r i a l r a n k when he was e l e v a t e d t o t h e p r i n c i p a t e ( V i t a Max. 8.1, B r e v . 9 . 1 ) . A l l o f h i s p o s t s c a n be e x p l a i n e d i n t e r m s o f e q u e s t r i a n m i l i t a r y a p p o i n t m e n t s . 1 The S e v e r a n d y n a s t y o f f o u r t y - t h r e e y e a r s had come t o an e n d . The d a t e a n d l o c a t i o n o f A l e x a n d e r ' s d e a t h a r e n o t c e r t a i n . The t r a d i t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n t h e HA a n d V i c t o r , t h a t A l e x a n d e r was k i l l e d i n S i c i l i a , i n B r i t a i n , p r o b a b l y d e r i v e d f r o m some c o n f u s i o n i n t h e name o f t h e p l a c e o f h i s d e a t h . P e r h a p s t h e m u r d e r t o o k p l a c e i n o r n e a r a town w i t h a name s i m i l a r t o a S i c i l i a i n B r i t a i n . V i c t o r c a l l s S i c i l i a a v i c u s B r i t a n n i a e , a v i l l a g e i n B r i t a i n (de C a e s . 2 4 . 4 ) . I f t h i s were a c o r r u p t i o n o f v i c u s B r i t a n n i c u s , a v i l l a g e o f B r i t i s h s e t t l e r s i n Germany, i t i s e a s y t o s e e how c o n f u s i o n w o u l d a r i s e . 2 I t i s l i k e l y t h a t A l e x a n d e r ' s m u r d e r t o o k p l a c e s o m e w h e r e i n t h e a r e a o f M o g u n t i a c u m , t h e n o r t h e r n - m o s t p o i n t a t w h i c h t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e 1M . B a n g , " D i e M i l i t a r i s c h e L a u f b a h n d e s K a i s e r s M a x i m i n u s " , Hermes 41 ( 1 9 0 6 ) , p p .300-3. 2 H o p k i n s , o p . c i t . , p. 240 . T h e r e i s no known S i c i l i a i n B r i t a i n . See RE 2, Band I I A, 2. 101 o f h i s a c t i v i t i e s . 3 L i t e r a r y t e s t i m o n y s u p p o r t s t h e l o c a t i o n . H e r o d i a n p l a c e s A l e x a n d e r ' s d e a t h i n h i s camp, w h i l e t h e t r o o p s w e r e w a i t i n g t o engage t h e Germans ( H e r o d . 6 . 9 . 7 ) . The a u t h o r o f t h e HA a d m i t s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e murder t a k i n g p l a c e i n G a u l ( S e v . A l e x . 5 9 . 6 ) . E u t r o p i u s s a y s A l e x a n d e r d i e d i n G a u l ( B r e v . 8.23) a n d Z o n a r a s l o c a t e s t h e murder i n Germany ( 1 2 . 1 5 ) . A l e x a n d e r was m u r d e r e d e a r l y i n t h e y e a r 235. We h a v e a t e r m i n u s  a n t e quem o f 25 M a r c h 235, on w h i c h d a t e M a x i m i n u s was r e c o g n i z e d and h o n o u r e d by t h e S e n a t e . 4 E u t r o p i u s and t h e a u t h o r o f t h e HA a g r e e t h a t t h e d u r a t i o n o f A l e x a n d e r ' s r e i g n was t h i r t e e n y e a r s and n i n e d a y s ( B r e v . 8.23, S e v . A l e x . 6 0 . 1 ) . C a l c u l a t i o n f r o m 13 M a r c h 2 2 2 , t h e d a t e o f A l e x a n d e r ' s a c c e s s i o n , s e t s A l e x a n d e r ' s d e a t h a t 21 M a r c h 2 3 5 . 5 A n o t h e r s t a t e m e n t i n t h e V i t a A l e x a n d r i , t h a t A l e x a n d e r l i v e d f o r t w e n t y - n i n e y e a r s , t h r e e m o n t h s , a n d s e v e n d a y s , i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e known p e r i o d o f t h e G e r m a n i c c a m p a i g n and may be d i s r e g a r d e d ( S e v . A l e x . 6 0 . 1 ) . 6 A t t e m p t s h a v e b e e n made t o p l a c e A l e x a n d e r ' s d e a t h i n e a r l y J a n u a r y 235, b a s e d on t h e E g y p t i a n p a p y r u s , P.Oxy. 912, w h i c h r e c o r d s M a x i m i n u s a s 3 S e e C I L X I I I , 2 , p.298. 4 C I L V I 2001, 2009. 5 S o S n y d e r i n "The F e r i a l e Duranum", YC1S 7 ( 1 9 4 0 ) , p . 8 6 , n. 2 85. 6 A s A l e x a n d e r was b o r n on 1 O c t o b e r 208, t h e l e n g t h o f h i s l i f e g i v e n i n t h e HA w o u l d p l a c e h i s d e a t h on 8 J a n u a r y 238 . T h i s i s i m p o s s i b l e . 102 E mperor and h a s been t e n t a t i v e l y d a t e d t o 25 F e b r u a r y 235.' The a r g u m e n t a s s u m e s a t i m e - l a p s e b e t w e e n M a x i m i n u s ' a c c e s s i o n and r e c e p t i o n o f t h e news i n E g y p t . S i n c e , h o w e v e r , t h e d a t e i s m o s t l y m i s s i n g f r o m t h e p a p y r u s , 25 F e b r u a r y 2 3 5 i s a r e s t o r a t i o n . 8 F u r t h e r m o r e , G i l l i a m p o i n t s o u t t h a t c o i n s o f A l e x a n d e r ' s f o u r t e e n t h t r i b u n i c i a n y e a r (235) a r e common, a f a c t more e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d i f A l e x a n d e r r u l e d f o r n e a r l y t h r e e months i n 235 i n s t e a d o f a mere week. 9 G i l l i a m a l s o c i t e s p a p y r i o f A p r i l 235 t h a t r e f e r t o A l e x a n d e r a s i f he were s t i l l r u l e r . 1 0 A d e a t h - d a t e i n M a r c h o f 235 i s b e t t e r i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e e x i s t i n g e v i d e n c e . A d a m n a t i o m e m o r i a e was e n a c t e d u p o n A l e x a n d e r and Mamaea by M a x i m i n u s . T h e i r names a r e m u t i l a t e d , o r e r a s e d i n a l m o s t a l l o f t h e i r i n s c r i p t i o n s . 1 1 The s o u r c e s p r o v i d e v a r i o u s e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r A l e x a n d e r ' s m u r d e r . H e r o d i a n s a y s t h a t t h e s o l d i e r s a c c u s e d h i m o f n e g l i g e n c e o r c o w a r d i c e i n t h e P e r s i a n War a n d p r o c r a s t i n a t i o n o v e r t h e n o r t h e r n c r i s i s ( 6 . 7 . 3 ) . He a l s o s a y s t h a t A l e x a n d e r was d e s p i s e d by h i s t r o o p s f o r h i s c o w a r d i c e and s u b s e r v i e n c e t o h i s 7 S e e C.E. Van S i c k l e , "The T e r m i n a l D a t e s o f t h e R e i g n o f A l e x a n d e r S e v e r u s " , C l a s s i c a l P h i l o l o g y 22 ( 1 9 2 7 ) , p.316 and J a c q u e s S c h w a r t z , " L e s s t e l e s d e T e r e n o u t h i s e t l a m o r t d ' A l e x a n d r e S e v e r e " , C h r o n i q u e d ' E g y p t e 30 ( 1 9 5 5 ) , p . 1 2 5 . 8 J . F . G i l l i a m , "The D e a t h o f A l e x a n d e r S e v e r u s a n d t h e S t e l a e f r o m T e r e n o u t h i s " , C h r o n i q u e d ' E g y p t e 31 ( 1 9 5 6 ) , p . 1 5 1 . 9 I b i d . , p . 1 5 0 . 1 0 I b i d . , p . 1 5 1 . n W i l l i a m s , o p . c i t . , p.93. 103 m o t h e r . The s o l d i e r s r e s e n t e d t h a t t h e b u s i n e s s o f t h e e m p i r e was c o n d u c t e d on Mamaea's a u t h o r i t y . The s o l d i e r s were f u r t h e r d i s p l e a s e d b y t h e l e n g t h o f A l e x a n d e r ' s r u l e a n d h i s l a c k o f m u n i f i c e n c e . H e r o d i a n a d d s t h a t t h e G e r m a n s o l d i e r s h a d a t e n d e n c y t o r e v o l t ( 6 . 8 . 3 - 4 ) . The r e a s o n s p r e s e n t e d by H e r o d i a n a r e v a l i d a n d l i k e l y w e r e c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s i n A l e x a n d e r ' s d o w n f a l l . H i s i n e f f e c t u a l d i t h e r i n g i n t h e f a c e o f b a t t l e must h a v e i n c u r r e d t h e s o l d i e r s ' c o n t e m p t . The HA a l s o s a y s t h a t , when A l e x a n d e r a r r i v e d i n G a u l , he f o u n d t h e l e g i o n s r e a d y t o m u t i n y . T h i s i s l i k e l y , b u t one must d i s c o u n t t h e e x p l a n a t i o n t h a t A l e x a n d e r ' s s e v e r i t y p r o m p t e d t h e r e v o l t t h a t r e s u l t e d i n h i s d e a t h ( S e v . A l e x . 5 9 . 5 ) . The V i t a g i v e s a n o t h e r r e a s o n f o r A l e x a n d e r ' s m u r d e r , b u t r e g a r d s i t a s a f i c t i o n d e s i g n e d t o e x o n o r a t e M a x i m i n u s . The a u t h o r s a y s t h a t t h e s o l d i e r s g r e w a n g r y when t h e y l e a r n e d t h a t Mamaea w i s h e d t o a b a n d o n t h e war and r e t u r n t o t h e E a s t ( 6 3 . 5 - 6 ) . F a r f r o m b e i n g f i c t i o n a l , t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n p r o b a b l y comes c l o s e s t t o t h e t r u t h . By t h i s p e r i o d i n t h e E m p i r e , t h e l e g i o n s were composed, t o a g r e a t e x t e n t , o f l o c a l r e c r u i t s . 1 2 When i t b e c a m e n e c e s s a r y t o move t h e s e l e g i o n s , d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n a r o s e o n t h e p a r t o f s o l d i e r s who, t h o u g h q u i t e w i l l i n g t o d e f e n d t h e i r own t e r r i t o r y a g a i n s t i n c u r s i o n s , w e r e n o t w i l l i n g t o l e a v e t h e i r homes and f a m i l i e s o p e n t o a t t a c k w h i l e t h e y f o u g h t o f f Rome's e n e m i e s on a n o t h e r f r o n t i e r . E v i d e n c e o f t h e s t r o n g l o c a l a t t a c h m e n t w i t h i n t h e V i d e s u p r a , p.68-9. 104 t r o o p s c a n b e f o u n d a l s o i n H e r o d i a n . When t h e I l l y r i a n g o v e r n o r s s e n t n e ws o f t h e G e r m a n i c t h r e a t , t h e s o l d i e r s t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m I l l y r i c u m w e r e g r e a t l y d i s t r e s s e d . T h e y h a d s u f f e r e d a d o u b l e t r a g e d y , f i r s t t h e m i s f o r t u n e o f t h e P e r s i a n War, t h e n , r e p o r t s o f t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e i r f a m i l i e s by t h e Germans ( 6 . 7 . 2 - 3 ) . The p a t r i o t i s m f e l t by t h e l o c a l r e c r u i t s f o r t h e i r h o m e l a n d r e g i o n s b e g a n t o o u t w e i g h t h e i r f e e l i n g s o f l o y a l t y t o t h e E m p i r e . 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Zosime H i s t o i r e N o u v e l l e , L i v r e s  I e t I I . P a r i s , 1971. R i d l e y , R o n a l d T. e d . Z o s i m u s , New H i s t o r y . S y d n e y , 1982. M o d e r n Boo k s and A r t i c l e s B a l d w i n , B a r r y . "Fumum v e n d e r e i n t h e H i s t o r i a A u g u s t a " , G l o t t a 63 ( 1 9 8 5 ) , p p . 1 0 7 - 9 . 106 B a n g , M a r t i n . " D i e M i l i t a r i s c h e L a u f b a h n d e s K a i s e r s M a x i m i n u s " , Hermes 41 ( 1 9 0 6 ) , p p .300-3. B a r a g , D. "The B o r d e r s o f S y r i a - P a l a e s t i n a on a n I n s c r i p t i o n f r o m t h e R a p h i a A r e a " , I s r a e l E x p l o r a t i o n J o u r n a l 23 ( 1 9 7 3 ) , p p . 5 0 - 2 . B a r n e s , T i m o t h y D. C o n s t a n t i n e and E u s e b i u s . L o n d o n , 1 9 8 1 . B a r n e s , T i m o t h y D. "The C o m p o s i t i o n o f C a s s i u s D i o ' s Roman H i s t o r y " , P h o e n i x 38 ( 1 9 8 4 ) , p p .240-55. 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"The A u t h o r s h i p o f t h e H i s t o r i a A u g u s t a " , J o u r n a l  o f Roman S t u d i e s 57 ( 1 9 6 7 ) , p p . 1 1 5 - 3 3 . W i l d , P a y s o n S. "Two J u l i a s " , C J 13 ( 1 9 1 7 - 1 8 ) , p p . 1 4 - 2 4 . W i l l i a m s , M a r y G i l m o r e . " S t u d i e s i n t h e L i v e s o f Roman E m p r e s s e s : J u l i a M a m a e a " , R o m a n H i s t o r i c a l S o u r c e s a n d  I n s t i t u t i o n s H e n r y H. S a u n d e r s , e d . New Y o r k , 1904, p p . 6 7 - 1 0 0 . I l l APPENDIX I - AN INTENDED V I S I T TO EGYPT I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h A l e x a n d e r ' s c a m p a i g n t o t h e E a s t , two p a p y r i h a v e b e e n d i s c o v e r e d r e c e n t l y i n E g y p t t h a t s u g g e s t t h a t A l e x a n d e r a t l e a s t p l a n n e d , i f he d i d n o t c a r r y o u t , a v i s i t t o t h a t p r o v i n c e . The f i r s t o f t h e s e , p u b l i s h e d by B a r n s , c o n t a i n s a l e t t e r , p r o b a b l y w r i t t e n b y S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r , w h i c h i s a d d r e s s e d on t h e v e r s o t o A p o l i n a r i u s . 1 The t e x t o f t h e l e t t e r i s f o u r t e e n l i n e s l o n g i n i t s p r e s e n t f o r m , a n d h a s b e e n r e c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m two f r a g m e n t s . The f i r s t t h r e e l i n e s c o n t a i n l a r g e l a c u n a e . S u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n s a r e a l s o m i s s i n g f r o m t h e end o f l i n e s 5 and 8. T h e r e f o r e , much o f t h e l e t t e r ' s c o n t e n t i s c o n j e c t u r a l . I t d o e s , h o w e v e r , r e f e r t o a p r o p o s e d v i s i t , p r e s u m a b l y by t h e E m p e r o r A l e x a n d e r , t o E g y p t . I t i s t h o u g h t t h a t A l e x a n d e r was t h e a u t h o r o f t h e l e t t e r b e c a u s e t h e d a t e , on l i n e 14, p l a c e s t h e w r i t i n g o f t h e l e t t e r b e t w een 27 M a r c h a nd 25 A p r i l 2 2 2 . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e f i r s t w o r d o f t h e l e t t e r b e g i n s ' A X e ^ a v [ . 2 The f a c t t h a t t h e l e t t e r was f o u n d i n E g y p t a n d t h a t 'J.W.B. B a r n s , "A L e t t e r o f S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r " , J o u r n a l o f  E g y p t i a n A r c h a e o l o g y 52 ( 1 9 6 6 ) , p p . 1 4 1 - 4 6 ; c f . J.R~I R e a , 'TA L e t t e r o f S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r ? " , C h r o n i q u e d ' E g y p t e 42 ( 1 9 6 7 ) , p p . 3 9 1 - 6 . Rea d i s a g r e e s w i t h B a r n s and t h i n k s t h a t t h e l e t t e r was w r i t t e n by M a x i m i n u s t o Rome a f t e r A l e x a n d e r ' s d e a t h . He b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e a X e ^ a v [ i n l i n e 1 o f f r a g m e n t ' a ' s h o u l d be r e s t o r e d a s aXe£av[fipe]iaev, n o t a X e ^ a v [ 5 p o s ] . The a r g u m e n t i s no more c e r t a i n t h a n tha't* o f B a r n s . Rea p r o p o s e s t h a t M a x i m i n u s i n c l u d e d i n t h e l e t t e r t o Rome, a r e f e r e n c e t o A l e x a n d r i a n s , p e r h a p s t o c o n f e r p r i v i l e g e s o n t h e m ( p . 394 ) . I f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o u n d e r s t a n d why M a x i m i n u s , i n a n n o u n c i n g a v i s i t t o Rome, w o u l d f i n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o i n f o r m t h e Romans o f p r i v i l e g e s t o be c o n f e r r e d upon t h e A l e x a n d r i a n s . B a r n s , o p . c i t . , p . 1 4 1 . 112 i t i s d a t e d i n t h e E g y p t i a n method i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e c i p i e n t o f t h e l e t t e r , h e n c e t h e v i s i t , was t o E g y p t . 3 The a d d r e s s e e on t h e v e r s o , A p o l i n a r i u s , i s c a l l e d 8ouXex(n) upe[oBuxax(co) ] . An A l e x a n d r i a n s e n a t o r i s s o d e s i g n a t e d on a p a p y r u s d a t e d t o t h e t h i r d c e n t u r y . 4 T h i s p a p y r u s c a n b e c o n s i d e r e d , w i t h r e s e r v a t i o n s , t o e x p r e s s an i n t e n t i o n on t h e p a r t o f A l e x a n d e r t o v i s i t t h e p r o v i n c e o f E g y p t . T h e s e c o n d p a p y r u s , P . M i c h . 3 6 2 7 , p r o v i d e s much m o r e s o l i d e v i d e n c e f o r an i n t e n d e d v i s i t t o E g y p t . T h i s p a p y r u s c o n t a i n s a l e t t e r a d d r e s s e d t o t h e s t r a t e g o i a n d b a s i l i k o i o f t h e S e v e n N omes a n d t h e A r s i n o i t e , g i v i n g t h e m i n s t r u c t i o n s o n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r a v i s i t o f S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r and h i s m o t h e r . 5 U n f o r t u n a t e l y b o t h t h e a u t h o r o f t h e l e t t e r a n d i t s d a t e a r e m i s s i n g f r o m t h e t e x t . The l e t t e r r e i n f o r c e s a p r e v i o u s c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a s c h e d u l e o f r e q u i s i t i o n s t h a t a r e now t o be p o s t e d i n p u b l i c p l a c e s ( 1 . 6 - 7 ) . A r e s t o r a t i o n i n l i n e 5 o f e i r i o x p o t x r i Y O s , a s t h e a u t h o r o f t h e e a r l i e r c o m m u n i q u e , w o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e p r e f e c t was a l s o t h e a u t h o r o f t h i s l e t t e r . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e t h r e a t o f s e v e r e p u n i s h m e n t f o r d i s o b e d i e n c e o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s c o u l d o n l y have been made by t h e p r e f e c t . 6 Thomas an d C l a r y s s e s u g g e s t a d a t e o f 233 b a s e d on t h e avvtuvris i n l i n e 9 3 I b i d . , p . 1 4 5 . 4 P . G i s s . 34,2.10. See J.W.B. B a r n s , o p . c i t . , p . 1 4 5 . 5 J . D . T homas, W. C l a r y s s e , "A P r o j e c t e d V i s i t o f S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r t o E g y p t " , A n c i e n t S o c i e t y 8 ( 1 9 7 7 ) , p p . 1 9 5 - 2 0 7 . 6 I b i d . , p .197. a n d a n o t h e r p a p y r u s , P.Lond. I l l 9 4 4 / They p o i n t o u t t h a t a l l r e f e r e n c e s t o annona i n p a p y r i and o s t r a c a o f t h e S e v e r a n d y n a s t y o c c u r i n o r n e a r y e a r s i n w h i c h i m p e r i a l v i s i t s w e r e made t o E g y p t . The p a p y r u s , P . L o n d . I l l 9 4 4 , f i r m l y d a t e d 10 F e b r u a r y 2 3 3 , m e n t i o n s p a y m e n t f o r a n n o n a . T h i s w o u l d f i t w e l l , i f A l e x a n d e r v i s i t e d E g y p t i n t h e s p r i n g o f 233 on h i s way b a c k f r o m A n t i o c h t o Rome. A much e a r l i e r d a t e o f 218 f o r P . M i c h . 3627 h a s be e n p r o p o s e d by H a r n a c k . 8 I f one b e l i e v e s E u s e b i u s 1 s t o r y t h a t O r i g e n was summoned by Mamaea i n A n t i o c h , a n e a r l i e r d a t e i s a r g u a b l e . I t w o u l d be odd f o r Mamaea t o b r i n g O r i g e n t o A n t i o c h i f s h e w e r e p l a n n i n g t o v i s i t E g y p t s h o r t l y h e r s e l f . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , p e r h a p s O r i g e n was n o t i n E g y p t when Mamaea was i n A n t i o c h . 9 T h e c h r o n o l o g y o f O r i g e n ' s l i f e a t t h i s p e r i o d i s u n c e r t a i n . Mamaea was i n A n t i o c h i n 232 and a g a i n e a r l y i n 233. O r i g e n l e f t A l e x a n d r i a i n 230/1 t o go t o G r e e c e . By 232 he had s e t t l e d i n C a e s a r e a i n P a l e s t i n e . 1 0 P e r h a p s when Mamaea summoned h i m , he was n o t i n E g y p t a t a l l . Though b o t h o f t h e s e p a p y r i make r e f e r e n c e t o i n t e n d e d v i s i t s t o E g y p t / i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e v i s i t e v e r t o o k p l a c e . None o f t h e s o u r c e s m e n t i o n an i m p e r i a l v i s i t t o E g y p t . Nor do t h e y s a y t h a t o ne was p l a n n e d . I f t h e v i s i t was t o t a k e p l a c e e a r l y i n 7 I b i d . , p . 1 9 9 . 8 A . H a r n a c k , G e s c h i c h t e d e r a l t c h r i s t l i c h e n L i t e r a t u r I I 2  ( D i e C h r o n o l o g i e ) ( L e i p z i g , 1 9 5 8 2 ) , p p . 3 0 - 1 . n.5. 9Thomas, C l a r y s s e , o p . c i t . , p.200. 1 0 E u s e b i u s , E c c . H i s t . 6.26. 114 t h e r e i g n , a s i n d i c a t e d by t h e p a p y r u s p u b l i s h e d by B a r n s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n why t h e v i s i t was c a n c e l l e d . I f i t was t o t a k e p l a c e l a t e -in t h e r e i g n , a s P . M i c h . 3627 seems t o i n d i c a t e , a p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n a p p e a r s . A l t h o u g h H e r o d i a n was c e r t a i n l y i n e r r o r when he s a y s t h a t A l e x a n d e r l e f t d i r e c t l y f r o m A n t i o c h t o G e r m a n y ^ p e r h a p s he was n o t w r o n g i n s a y i n g t h a t news o f t r o u b l e on t h e R h i n e h ad r e a c h e d A l e x a n d e r i n A n t i o c h ( H e r o d • 6 . 7 . 2 - 5 ) . Maybe t h e s i t u a t i o n was n o t y e t s e r i o u s , b u t A l e x a n d e r o p t e d t o r e t u r n t o Rome s o o n e r t o be c l o s e r t o t h e t r o u b l e a r e a i n s t e a d o f s t o p p i n g i n E g y p t a s p l a n n e d . I f t h e v i s i t h a d e v e r t a k e n p l a c e , one w o u l d e x p e c t t o f i n d some r e f e r e n c e t o i t i n t h e s o u r c e s . APPENDIX I I - SEVERITAS The HA, i n t h e V i t a A l e x a n d r i , i d e a l i z e s , among o t h e r t h i n g s , A l e x a n d e r ' s a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l t h e t r o o p s . T h e V i t a m a k e s c o n s t a n t r e f e r e n c e t o h i s s t r i c t n e s s , b o t h w i t h t h e s o l d i e r s , a nd w i t h t h e c i v i l i a n p o p u l a t i o n . He o r d e r e d t h a t j u d g e s g u i l t y o f t h e f t n e v e r a p p e a r i n any c i t y u n d e r t h r e a t o f b a n i s h m e n t ( 1 5 . 4 ) . W h e n e v e r t h e E m p e r o r saw a t h i e v i n g j u d g e , h i s h a t r e d was s o s t r o n g t h a t he h a d h i s f i n g e r r e a d y t o d i g o u t t h e man's e y e ( 1 7 . 1 ) . A s j u d g e , he i n f l i c t e d t h e s e v e r e s t p u n i s h m e n t s on t h i e v e s ( 1 8 . 2 ) , d e c l a r i n g them t o be t h e o n l y r e a l e n e m i e s o f t h e s t a t e . When a c l e r k was d i s c o v e r e d t o have f o r g e d a d o c u m e n t , A l e x a n d e r o r d e r e d h i s t e n d o n s c u t s o t h a t he c o u l d n e v e r w r i t e a g a i n and b a n i s h e d h i m ( 2 8 . 2 - 3 ) . A n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f A l e x a n d e r ' s s e v e r i t y i n p u n i s h i n g d i s h o n e s t y i s t h e s t o r y o f V e r c o n i u s T u r i n u s , who s o l d f a v o u r s on t h e p r e t e n s e t h a t he c o u l d i n f l u e n c e t h e E m p e r o r ' s d e c i s i o n . When he was c a u g h t , he was p u t t o d e a t h by s u f f o c a t i o n . The p h r a s e u s e d f o r s e l l i n g f a l s e p r o m i s e s i s fumum v e n d e r e . I n a n a t t e m p t t o make t h e p u n i s h m e n t f i t t h e c r i m e , A l e x a n d e r had T u r i n u s t i e d t o a s t a k e and s u f f o c a t e d by t h e smoke o f b u r n i n g wet l o g s , w h i l e a h e r a l d s a i d Fumo p u n i t u r  q u i v e n d i d i t fumum ( 3 5 . 5 - 3 6 . 3 ) . T h i s l a s t a n e c d o t e i s a p r i m e e x a m p l e o f t h e w i t t i c i s m s e m p l o y e d by t h e a u t h o r o f t h e HA. N o t o n l y i s t h e a l l e g e d p u n i s h m e n t an i n v e n t i o n o f t h e a u t h o r f o r an o p p o r t u n i t y t o make a p l a y on w o r d s , b u t T u r i n u s i s a b o g u s 116 p e r s o n , 1 whose name i s t h e L a t i n word ( t u r i n u m ) f o r an eye s a l v e made o f i n c e n s e . The i n c i d e n t i s o b v i o u s l y p u r e i n v e n t i o n a n d c a s t s d o u b t by a s s o c i a t i o n on o t h e r s u c h a n e c d o t e s . A s c o n c e r n s t h e s o l d i e r s , A l e x a n d e r c o n d u c t e d t h e P e r s i a n c a m p a i g n w i t h s u c h d i s c i p l i n e t h a t o n e w o u l d h a v e t h o u g h t s e n a t o r s , n o t s o l d i e r s , were p a s s i n g by ( 5 0 . 1 ) . I f any s o l d i e r t r e s p a s s e d upon p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , t h e E m p e r o r saw h i m p u n i s h e d w i t h a c l u b , a r o d , o r by c o n d e m n a t i o n t o d e a t h ( 5 1 . 6 ) . When a s o l d i e r m i s t r e a t e d a n o l d woman, A l e x a n d e r d i s m i s s e d h i m f r o m s e r v i c e a n d g a v e h i m t o t h e o l d woman as a s l a v e ( 5 2 . 1 ) . T h e r e a r e f u r t h e r m e n t i o n s o f A l e x a n d e r ' s s t r i c t d i s c i p l i n e . 2 I t i s n o t d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s o b v i o u s l y f a l s e l e g e n d o f A l e x a n d e r ' s s e v e r i t y i n t h e HA. I n f a c t , t h e a u t h o r h i m s e l f g i v e s t h e a n s w e r . I n two p l a c e s he s a y s t h a t A l e x a n d e r was g i v e n t h e t i t l e S e v e r u s by t h e s o l d i e r s b e c a u s e he u p h e l d s u c h s t r i c t d i s c i p l i n e . I t i s t r u e t h a t A l e x a n d e r b o r e t h e t i t l e o f S e v e r u s , w h i c h was a f a m i l y name, f r o m t h e o n s e t o f h i s r e i g n . Once a g a i n t h e a u t h o r i s p l a y i n g w i t h w o r d s . A f t e r h a v i n g c r e a t e d a pun on A l e x a n d e r ' s name, he i n v e n t s n u m e r o u s i n c i d e n t s t o s u p p o r t t h e i l l u s i o n . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t i s p e r h a p s more d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n t h e same s e n t i m e n t when i t i s f o u n d i n V i c t o r and E u t r o p i u s . T h e s e e p i t o m a t e r s , w r i t i n g i n t h e 3 6 0 ' s , p r e c e d e d t h e HA by a t l e a s t Donald Syme, " M i s s i n g P e r s o n s " , H i s t o r i a 5 ( 1 9 5 6 ) , p . 2 1 1 . 2 V i t a A l e x a n d r i 59.5, 64.3. 117 t e n y e a r s . V i c t o r s t a t e s t h a t A l e x a n d e r g o t t h e name S e v e r u s f r o m h i s s t r i c t t r e a t m e n t o f t h e s o l d i e r s . He f u r t h e r s a y s t h a t A l e x a n d e r ' s e x c e s s i v e s e v e r i t y r e s u l t e d i n h i s mu r d e r (de C a e s . 2 4 . 4 ) . E u t r o p i u s s a y s t h a t A l e x a n d e r r u l e d w i t h t h e s t r i c t e s t m i l i t a r y d i s c i p l i n e ( B r e v . 8 . 2 3 ) . A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e f a c t t h a t t h e t r a d i t i o n o f A l e x a n d e r ' s s t r i c t n e s s i s f o u n d i n t h e s e two e p i t o m a t e r s , a n d i n t h e HA, i s t h e common s o u r c e , t h e 1 K a i s e r g e s c h i c h t e ' , p r o p o s e d by Enmann. 3 B u t , a s n e i t h e r D i o , H e r o d i a n , n o r t h e l a t e r s o u r c e s , Z o s i m u s a n d Z o n a r a s make a n y m e n t i o n o f A l e x a n d e r ' s s t r i c t n a t u r e , one c a n n o t h e l p b u t wonder w h e r e a n d how t h i s e r r o n e o u s a n d i s o l a t e d t r a d i t i o n d e v e l o p e d . S i n c e f u r t h e r s o u r c e c r i t i c i s m i s be y o n d t h e s c o p e o f t h i s w o r k , I l e a v e t h e q u e s t i o n o p e n . 3 V i d e s u p r a , p .12. 

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