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Slow cortical brain potentials in criminal psychopaths Forth, Adelle Elizabeth 1986

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SLOW C O R T I C A L B R A I N P O T E N T I A L S IN  CRIMINAL  PSYCHOPATHS By  ADELLE B.  ELIZABETH  A., T h e U n i v e r s i t y  A  THESIS THE  SUBMITTED  FORTH  of B r i t i s h  IN PARTIAL  REQUIREMENTS  FOR  MASTER  OF  Columbia,  1982  FULFILLMENT  OF  THE DEGREE  OF  ARTS  in THE  F A C U L T Y OF (Department  We  accept to  THE  this  GRADUATE of  thesis  OF  October,  ©  Psychology)  the required  UNIVERSITY  Adelle  STUDIES  as  conforming  standard  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  1986  Elizabeth  Forth,  1986  In p r e s e n t i n g  this thesis  in partial  f u l f i l m e n t of the  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of  British  Columbia,  it  freely available  I agree that f o r reference  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n  the Library  shall  and study.  I  make  further  f o rextensive copying o f t h i s  thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . understood for  that  copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n  f i n a n c i a l gain  iSSjC^h OZ&jY  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3  E-6  (3/81)..  thesis  s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department o f  of this  It is  Columbia  written  i i  ABSTRACT  Slow  cortical  recorded  p o t e n t i a l s and  while  criminal  anticipation  task  psychopathic  and  auditory or  no  There  groups across consisted  of  contingent a  monetary  twelve  reinforcement  r e w a r d and  nonpsychopathic  two  occur  components,  of  differences  did  emerge  psychopaths  being  for  larger  across  The  hypothesis  psychopaths  selectively  attend  latter  to  early  of  have a that  Twelve  as  a  loss,  6-second  Slow the  received  monetary  differences  between  EEG  activity  early  l a t e CNV  and  did  late  not  vary  s i g n i f i c a n t group CNV,  with  a l l conditions  r e s u l t was  events  gain,  end  ( C N V ) . The  the  two-stimulus  punishment.  conditions.  Statistically  nonpsychopaths. that  the  identified  variation  group.  monetary at  a  were  male c r i m i n a l s  electrodermal  reinforcement  negative  function  would  w e r e no  the  activity  psychopaths performed  s t i m u l i s i g n a l l i n g that  foreperiod.  as  with  electrodermal  the that  consistent  heightened interest  early those  with  capacity  them.  the to  CNV of  of the  Ill  T A B L E OF  CONTENTS  Abstract  i i  List  of T a b l e s  v  List  of F i g u r e s  v i i  Acknowledgements  ix  I .  Introduction  II.  Review  of  1  the  A.  Autonomic  B.  'Avoidance 1.  Passive  2.  Active  Literature correlates learning  of psychopathy  in  avoidance avoidance  psychopaths learning  Disinhibition  D.  The  contingent negative variation  E.  The  contingent negative variation  theories  III.  of  19  of psychopathy  psychopathy Purpose  13  learning  C.  F.  8  21 29  and 41  proposed  research  47  Method A.  Subjects  50  B.  Physiological  C.  Stimulus presentation  recording  51 53  iv  IV.  D.  Procedure  54  E.  Data  59  Results A.  V.  analysis  Performance  data  1.  Reaction  time  2.  Error rate  (RT)  (ER)  potential  data  data  61 63  B.  Evoked  C.  Slow  D.  Skin Conductance  data  70  E.  Speilberger Anxiety questionnaire data  80  F.  Rating data  81  G.  Qualitative  cortical  data  63  potentials  67  observations  Discussion  86  References Appendix  A  Appendix  B  Appendix  C  84  95 107 ..  108 109  V  L I S T OF T A B L E S  Table  I.  G r o u p C o m p a r i s o n s on A g e , E d u c a t i o n , Anxiety,  Table  I I .  G r o u p means a n d s t a n d a r d (in  parentheses)  across Table  I I I .  IV.  for reaction  (msec) 62.  deviations  for error  rate i n  and punishment c o n d i t i o n s  G r o u p means a n d s t a n d a r d (in  time  reinforcement conditions  parentheses)  reward  52.  deviations  G r o u p means a n d s t a n d a r d (in  Table  a n d APD D i a g n o s i s  parentheses)  (microvolts)  f o r N100  across  ,  deviations amplitudes  reinforcement  conditions Table  V.  65.  G r o u p means a n d s t a n d a r d (in  parentheses)  (microvolts)  f o r P300  across  deviations amplitudes  reinforcement  conditions Table  VI.  66.  G r o u p means a n d s t a n d a r d (in  parentheses)  (microvolts) conditions  64.  for early  across  deviations CNV  amplitudes  reinforcement 72.  vi  Table  VII.  G r o u p means a n d s t a n d a r d (in  parentheses)  (microvolts)  for late  across  deviations CNV  amplitudes  reinforcement  conditions Table  VIII.  74.  G r o u p means a n d s t a n d a r d (in  parentheses)  conductance  deviations  for anticipatory  responses  across  skin  reinforcement  conditions Table  IX.  77.  G r o u p means a n d s t a n d a r d (in  parentheses)  anticipatory across Table  X.  skin  f o r extreme  groups f o r  conductance  responses  reinforcement conditions  G r o u p means a n d s t a n d a r d (in  deviations  parentheses)  responses  f o r skin  78.  deviations conductance  to reinforcement conditions  79.  vii  LIST  Figure  1.  Idealized late  CNV  CNV  FIGURES  illustrating  components and  Figure  2.  Stimulus paradigm  Figure  3.  Averaged each  OF  plotted  and  E R P s t o S1  34.  57.  slow c o r t i c a l  group  the early  r e s p o n s e waves f o r  across reinforcement  conditions  Figure  4.  Between cortical  group  68.  comparisons  r e s p o n s e waves  of averaged  slow  f o r each reinforcement  conditions  Figure  5.  G r o u p means f o r e a r l y reinforcement  Figure  6.  69.  amplitude across  conditions  G r o u p means f o r l a t e reinforcement  CNV  CNV  conditions  71.  amplitude across 73.  viii  Figure  7.  G r o u p means across  Figure  8.  Mean  f o r a n t i c i p a t o r y SC  reinforcement  conditions  r a t i n g s of i n t e r e s t  reinforcement  responses  conditions  76.  and boring  to  collapsed  across  groups  Figure  9.  Mean  82.  r a t i n g s of a n t i c i p a t i o n  tones c o l l a p s e d across  groups  and eagerness t o 83.  ix  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I and  would  t o t h a n k my c o m m i t t e e  D r . T. P h i l l i p s f o r t h e i r  particular, Robert  H a r e , who s t i m u l a t e d  throughout  this  t o Gary  I also  subjects  Dave,  research.  Karen Harlos,  advice.  my  m e m b e r s , D r . R.  I  gratitude  interest  Birch,  would  t o my  f o rh i sc o n s t a n t  like  Williamson  wish t o acknowledge  fortheir  also  cooperation.  supervisor, Dr.  i n the area of  Tim Harpur, Mike  and S h e r r i e  assistance  t o e x p r e s s my Satterfield,  f o rtheir  those individuals Finally,  encouragement  Hakstian  and suggestions. In  and f o rh i ssupport and invaluable  appreciation Dey,  advice  I e x p r e s s my e x t r e m e  psychopathy  as  like  Rodney  time and who  served  I wish t o thank,  and support.  1 I.  INTRODUCTION  The  attempt  to define  clinically  psychopathic  p e r s o n a l i t y has a long  In  18th century,  the early  called  "manie  emotion  sans  or affect  psychiatrist, deranged", describe  delire"  i n which  strongly  (1835)  and a c t i v e perverted  or  the  i s found  individual  or reasoning  but of  propriety  and d i v i d e d  impulsive,  the unstable, the a n t i s o c i a l  t o an i n b o r n  the term  the  importance  psychopathy.  an  intact  but  American  "morally  "moral  insanity"  the  or greatly  impaired  t o be  himself  (1915)  to  with  are  power o f  incapable  of l i f e  and  not of  proposed decency  to and  (p.15).  proposed  the disorder  into  a topology seven  the eccentric, the l i a r  of  subtypes: the and t h e  a n d t h e q u a r r e l s o m e . He a t t r i b u t e d t h e  defect.  sociopath,  of the mind  depraved;  i n the business  psychopathy  use  the term  upon any s u b j e c t  conducting  In Germany, K r a e p e l i n  disorder  remained  (1812),  principles  i s lost  swindler,  Rush  used  self-government  him,  reason  a c o n d i t i o n he  i n whom  moral  talking  described  cases c h a r a c t e r i z e d as  and P r i c h a r d  the  and c o n t r o v e r s i a l h i s t o r y .  (1809)  was d i s t u r b e d .  described  those  Pinel  the concept of  Birnbaum  and i n c o n t r a s t  of sociogenic  causes  i n 1917 was t h e f i r s t to Kraepelin,  i n t h e development  to  stressed of  2 The  c o n f u s i o n and c o n t r o v e r s y surrounding the concept of  psychopathy has  been  diagnosis  i s s t i l l  used  prevalent.  as a synonym  forantisocial  psychiatric  categories  (1944) d e s c r i p t i o n psychopathy  valid  less  than  box,  brimful  political i s  miscellany  h a l f - u n d e r s t o o d and It  makings  scourge.  i sa  Pandora's  f o r a malignant  T h e name  personality.  of  this  I t s half  n a t u r e , e v i d e n c e d by t h e m u l t i t u d e  terms  which  imbecility, sociopathy,  been  inferiority,  moral  etc. - - i sfurther multiplicity  of  and i s c a l l e d  dementia,  anethopathy,  contradictory  Perhaps  has  psychopathic  semantic  tropopapthy,  symptoms  i s  Lindner's  wrote:  has served as a  psychopathic  constitutional  been  to treat.  understood by  other  man d e s c r i b e s h i s  half-appreciated.  and  category  by w h i c h  the  "wastebasket"  surrounding the concept of  I t i s only  with  psychopath  who d o n o t f i t i n t o  today. Lindner  i s one t h a t  the term  or as a  o r who a r e d i f f i c u l t  many d e c a d e s .  social  patients  those categories  fellow-man for  forcriminality  of the problems  i s s t i l l  Among  For example,  moral  —  moral  insanity,  mania,  egopathy,  attested  t o by t h e  of  i t s signs  and  (p.1).  the largest  obstacle  the unsystematic and v a r i a b l e  to research i n this way  i n which  area has  psychopathy  has  3 been a s s e s s e d . Because criteria it  and  the absence  is difficult  findings.  of  the  of any  on  p r o v i d e d the most  the  psychopathic personality.  not  He  from  the psychopath  impulsively, in  Appendix  as  "an  little  and  no  affection  lack  primary  features  There  and  are a  from  (1976) of  psychopathy  is  salient  to form  of and  nor  he  lying,  criteria  are  the  lasting (1966)  listed  psychopath  p e r s o n , who  feels  bonds  of  distinguishes  the psychopath. tendency  to  the  lack  The  behave  are aggressiveness, lack e x p e r i e n c e and  he  characteristics  describe  a  the does  does  pathological  impulsive  of a f f e c t  most  description  or g u i l t ,  (1964)  features  features  to profit  of of  motivation. i s disagreement  anxiety  in this  between  the primary or  neurotic  highly  compare  motivation;  (Cleckley's  i s unable  lack  that  rational  remorse  McCord  secondary  Secondary  inability  appropriate  and  methods,  to  According to Cleckley,  o t h e r human b e i n g s " . C r a f t  p r i m a r y and  impulsively.  believes  empathy  aggressive,  between  guilt,  of  perspective,  r e s e a r c h or  complete  are h i s u n r e l i a b i l i t y ,  guilt,  with  of  e x p e r i e n c e . Other  A ) . McCord  asocial, or  and  b e h a v i o r seems t o l a c k  to profit  theoretical  assessment  symptoms. C l e c k l e y  psychosis.  seem t o e x p e r i e n c e a n x i e t y ,  appear of  influential  n e u r o s i s and  consistent  assessment  a common c o r e o f  has  psychopath's  any  to assess the v a l i d i t y  agree  from  of  unitary  D e s p i t e the d i f f e r i n g  researchers  distinct  lack  disorder.  psychopath.  concerning the presence A clinical  "true"  distinction  psychopath  This distinction  and  implies  the  or absence  i s often secondary  that  the  of  drawn or  secondary  4 psychopath  s h a r e s t h e same b a s i c  psychopath, the  except  f o r the presence  primary psychopath,  experience form  guilt  lasting  causes  such  and remorse  behavior  cannot  has  out that  be  used,  since the  psychopaths  arising  whereas  However,  unlike  are able to  their The  actions  and can  secondary  to underlying  psychogenic  f o r by t h e s e c a u s e s . Hare  neurotic  psychopath  component  personality  psychopath  as the primary  the behavior of primary  the secondary  the l i f e - h i s t o r y ,  from  relationships.  be a c c o u n t e d  but ratharthe  secondary  of anxiety.  i s attributed  as neurosis,  psychopaths pointed  secondary  interpersonal  psychopath's  characteristics  differ  from  label  s h o u l d be  structure  (1970)  should not stressed,  and m o t i v a t i o n s of  those of a primary  psychopath. Many c l i n i c a l lack  of anxiety  (Cleckley, 1966; one  and an  inability  Areiti,  1963).  behavior  learn  socially  i s unaffected  with  may  f o r themselves  described  "a s e e m i n g l y  of  behavior  such  experience  1964; Karpman,  for suffering  inability  that  1961; Buss,  the psychopath  Their  as  to profit  failure  many  as opportunism,  actions are  or hardship  or others as a r e s u l t .  of repeated p a i n f u l  (1978) b e l i e v e s  psychopath,  from  by p u n i s h m e n t .  self-destructive  i n spite  emphasized the  a c c e p t a b l e forms of b e h a v i o r , or  disregard  the psychopath's  as  Trasler  total  have  These a u t h o r s d e s c r i b e  committed arise  to profit  1976; McCord and McCord,  who c a n n o t  whose  accounts of psychopathy  Lykken from  to modify  this  of t h e b e h a v i o r s seen and  (1957)  experience  consequences"  unreliability,  that  pattern (p.6 ) . i n the  5 impulsiveness psychopath lacks  the  can  be  explained  by  is under-socialized. usual  internalized  postulating that  In  other  words,  inhibitions  that  the  the  psychopath  restrain  other  people. Researchers associative evidence  have  looked  conditioning  comes  from  to  for evidence aversive  of  a  stimuli.  psychophysiological  studies  a n t i c i p a t o r y autonomic  activity  (electrical  shock  Psychopaths  electrodermal review  by  tones).  conditioners  Hare,  anticipatory  loud  1978),  to  suggesting  anxiety  or  fear.  One  consequence  of  an  normally  threatening  stimuli  behavior  i n the  of  psychopaths apparent have  face  frequently  disregard  suggested  for  that  engage the  they  Experimentally,  avoidance  learning  (1970)  passive  avoidance  disapproval,  when t h e  there  m o n e y was  was  loss  of  that  p s y c h o p a t h s can  motivated  to  do  are  that  no  of  anxiety  an  make p a s s i v e  the  to  1970).  shock  in passive  avoidance  presence  of  inhibit  with  investigators  show p o o r  shock.  (see  Because  behavior  psychopaths  deficiency  stimuli  in passive  r e i n f o r c e r was  stimuli  poor  i n the  several  Schmauk,  the  lack  inability  p s y c h o p a t h s do  although  are  punishment.  defective  1957;  aversive  may  in antisocial  substituted for  so.  of  be  examining  aversive  they  consequences,  (Lykken,  found  may  to  that  absence  threats  learning.  Schmauk  s i g n a l s of  in  Supportive  psychopaths  and  deficit  avoidance passive However,  were d e f i c i e n t or  social  avoidance  This  at  study  responses i f  when  suggests  6 Recent  theoretical  psychopathy system  may  be  (Fowles,  psychopath's  1980; G o r e n s t i e n  weak  learning  provide  of monetary  those  produced  1978)  i s contrary  i n the  basis  punishment  by p h y s i c a l to this  weak  1980).  poorer  (SC) r e s p o n s e  effects  (Schmauk,  to  avoidance  theories.  to produce  or d e f i c i e n t  The  passive  f o r these  punishment  that  "inhibitory"  conductance  and s i g n i f i c a n t l y  an e m p i r i c a l  suggested  a n d Newman,  anticipatory skin  stimulation  failure  have  related to a defect  aversive  the  formulations  However,  similar  to  1970; S e i g e l ,  inhibitory  system  hypothesis. Much  of the biological  research  relied  on p e r i p h e r a l m e a s u r e s  (CNS).  Over  increase  underlying  techniques.  examining evoked  many  the e l e c t r o c o r t i c a l  p o t e n t i a l s may  convergent  information  psychopathy. contingent  negative  negative  shift  the presentation  stimulus,  which  typically  the subject.  there  have  basis  a substantial  been  few s u c h  of psychopathy.  t h e much  needed  one o f s e v e r a l  during  of a warning calls  wave  the warning stimulus  f o r an o v e r t  have  refers  found  that  brain  studies  The use o f  source  our understanding  (CNV),  found  Researchers  system  by t h e u s e o f e v o k e d  potentials. This  i n voltage  has  of the n e u r o p h y s i o l o g i c a l  to further  variation  event-related  from  provide  has been  A c o r r e l a t e of a n t i c i p a t o r y processing  cerebral  between  there  disorders  However,  psychopaths,  of the c e n t r a l nervous  two d e c a d e s  i n our understanding  substrate related  the past  with  of of i s the slow t o the slow  period,  and an  or covert  imperative response  the amplitude  of  7 the  CNV  varies  presented 1979;  at  relative  t h e end  of  Solyom and  Elbert,  R o c k s t r o h , and  a l . (1982)  increased, The study,  be  with  For  i s concerned cortical My  of  with  approach  will  psychopathy,  p a s s i v e and  also  of  several  followed  a discussion  to review  by  that  Finally  a  the psychopath's  to  reward  and  f o r the  physiological of  studies  have attempted  The  autonomic  punishment.  and  i n psychopaths,  the  literature of  the  literature  and  present  anticipatory  rewards  the  the present experiment  investigate  Rockstroh  the s t i m u l u s  review  a discussion  i n psychopaths. of  by  1982;  Lutzenberger,  background  avoidance  theories  psychopaths.  t h e CNV  be  Lang,  increased.  to monetary  followed  active  Ohman, a n d  the psychopath's  responses  the s t i m u l u s  example,  t h e CNV  and  monetary  1981).  of  reviewed  examining  Birbaumer,  r e s e a r c h p r o v i d e s the  of  Lutzenberger,  the amplitude  b e h a v i o r of  will  Schwartz,  and  the a v e r s i v e n e s s of  discussion  the  1978;  (Simons,  as  punishments.  examining  Birbaumer,  quality  that  which  correlates  foreperiod  Dubrovsky,  found  above  autonomic  a  the  Rochstroh, Elbert,  Barbas,  et  to the a f f e c t i v e  and  to on  then  explain the  CNV  studies review  designed cortical  ends  to functioning  8 II.  R E V I E W OF THE L I T E R A T U R E  A. AUTONOMIC C O R R E L A T E S OF  One o f t h e b a s i c of  anxiety,  behaviors.  guilt, This  some a u t o n o m i c  and remorse  deficit  stimuli  aversive  stimuli.  over  antisocial  i n the psychopath's  or to c o n d i t i o n a l stimuli The e x p e r i m e n t a l  Tonic heart  and cardiovacular  ( H R ) , do n o t r e l i a b l y  lower  of r e s t i n g s k i n conductance  no  1975; Hare,  and  Craigen,  combined  level  the r e s u l t s of several have a s i g n i f i c a n t  criminals,  but the absolute  have  no c o n s i s t e n t  found  has  with  focused  nervous  system:  activity  reported  (SC; Dengerink  1970),  while  o f r e s t i n g SC  tonic  (Hare,  d i f f e r e n c e was s m a l l .  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  report  1972; Hare  Hare  and found  SC l e v e l  a  and  others  1965).  of h i s studies lower  (EDA)  have  1974; Schmauk, 1970, G o l d s t e i n ,  psychopaths  to respond to  associated  Some s t u d i e s  1965; M a t h i s ,  d i f f e r e n c e s or a higher  interpersonal  d i s t i n g u i s h between  and nonpsychopaths.  Bertilson,  lack  f o r evidence of  electrodermal  psychopaths level  i s a  activity.  p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures, rate  and  ability  research  on two measures o f t h e autonomic  electrodermal  and  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of psychopathy  has l e d i n v e s t i g a t o r s t o look  aversive  primarily  PSYCHOPATHY  then  (1978) that other  Researchers  t o n i c HR a n d  psychopathy. There psychopaths  i s some e v i d e n c e t h a t and others  may  tonic  increase  SC d i f f e r e n c e s  during  monotonous  between  9 experiments. while  that  same  (Hare,  1973).  In these  the  to apply that  monotonous this  Levander,  S c h u b e r t , and Washburn an i n c r e a s e  to psychopaths. psychopaths  (1972)  in arousal.  This  tend  increased  finding  decreased  or remained  the  and D a h l i n ,  suggested  that  I f so, i t does not may  be e x p l a i n e d  t o become drowsy  s t i m u l a t i o n and the e l e c t r o d e r m a l  by  during  results  may  reflect  drowsiness. Similar  measurement  results  have  been  of electrodermal  (NSP).  No d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n  during  an i n i t i a l  1973).  However,  may  either  1968; S c h a l l i n g , L i d b e r g ,  London,  fact  t o n i c SC o f p s y c h o p a t h s  of the nonpsychopath  boredom can produce seem  studies  increase  with  aversive  remaining increasing  during  groups  a  different  non-specific fluctuations  i n NSP a c t i v i t y  (Hare,  was  a boring with  experiment  or during  t h e NSP a c t i v i t y  t h e same o r d e c r e a s i n g  found  1968; S c h a l l i n g e t a l . ,  t o n i c SC, t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between  elements,  (Hare,  with  activity,  rest period  like  found  and that  1968; Hare a n d Q u i n n ,  an  groups  experiment  of the psychopath  of other  subjects  1971; S c h a l l i n g e t a l . ,  1973). Based  on t h e s e  f i n d i n g s one c a n c o n c l u d e  tend  t o be l e s s e l e c t r o d e r m a l l y a r o u s e d  than  other  Perhaps tonic  is  c r i m i n a l s , but i t i s d i f f i c u l t  i n experiments with  electrodermal  anxiety  during  activity  aversive reflects  o r a p p r e h e n s i o n . However,  relatively  psychopaths  some  experiments  to explain  elements  why.  t h e low l e v e l  a relative  since  non-specific, responses  that  of  lack  of f e a r ,  electrodermal  activity  c a n be e l i c i t e d  by a  wide  10 range and  of  factors  cognitions.  found  between  stressful that  such as These  groups  tasks.  1975).  account  in electrodermal  There  or  support  uncertainty  i n the  sorts  may  insufficiently  of  cognitive  processing  criminals  may  desire  do  to  are  worried  are  involved  the  about  tonic  please  fail  Although  NSP  activity  i t i s important  been  typically  engage  to  an  the  be to  for  to  very  Even  (Christie,  type  may or  they  Other  because  or  of  because  a  they  stimuli  assess  the  processes  threat  to  cope  interesting theoretical psychopath's  Quinn, that  and  may  1971; the be  low  level  Hare and  Craigen,  differences of  little  of  found  practical  significance. In  an  were poor  early  study,  electrodermal  Subsequent  research  associated  with  has  Lykken  (1957)  conditioners supported  impending  shock  the  of  when a v e r s i v e to  by  or  i n SC.  tasks  cognitive  remember small,  increase  simple  the  (Hare and  hypothesis  unaffected  i n the  unmotivated  several  the  situation,  experimenter,  use  non-  attitudes held,  to  happen.  p s y c h o p a t h s may may  and  during  during  for  arousal  differences  4  response  experimental  leads  have been advanced  and  1974),  that  the  relatively  expectancies  w h a t may  or  be  motivated  w e l l , to  threat.  accounts  the  become a r o u s e d  aversiveness  with  of  may  surprise,  i n t e r a c t i o n s have  electrodermal  subjects  differ be  for  for  activity  is increasing  implications  Psychopathic  novelty  have  f a c t o r s may  subject-experimenter-situational  important  of  interest, motivation,  or  the  found to  that  psychopaths  electrical  finding that  loud  tones  shock. signals  elicit  less  11 electrodermal by  Hare,  1978).  s h o w n by  with  anticipatory psychopaths  SC  relatively  small  fear are  (Hare,  1965).  unsignalled Frazelle,  between  tones  and  While  studies  Cox,  80  activity  situation Quinn  with  subjects  i n the a c q u i s i t i o n  of  Hare  and  Craigen  Hare,  that  psychopaths  (1974)  (1971)  and  displayed  db  These  little that  Mathis,  differences  inmates  (Hare,  1970).  with  1975;  Hare,  Frazelle  by  an  data  cardiac  and  Cox  larger  that  impending  just  is different.  response.  (1978)  found  cardiac than d i d  psychopaths  aversive  reviewed  order to reconcile  electrodermal Lacey's  (1967;  and  cardiac  Lacey  and  the d i s s o c i a t i o n r e s p o n s e s , Hare  were  event,  indicates  the  Lacey,  1974)  between  (1978)  For  between  unpleasant stimuli  indicate an  aversive  difference  a conditioned  of  o f an  activity no  exhibit  reverse. In  is  aversive  psychopaths  reported  findings  the electrodermal  that  significantly  in anticipation  more a u t o n o m i c a l l y a r o u s e d whereas  other  120  cardiac  Hare and  nonpsychopaths.  1972;  in anticipation  example,  accelerations  stimulus  produce  significant  and  to  activity  i s some e v i d e n c e  no  review  1978).  t h e r e i s good e v i d e n c e  the  aversive  these cues  (Hare,  psychopaths  (see  i n ED  hyporesponsive to  found  ranging from  electrodermal  stressor,  have  o f an  There  electrodermally  several  than others, increases  in anticipation  the h y p o t h e s i s that  responses  little  i n psychopaths  presented without warning  However, in  The  psychopaths  consistent  stimuli  activity  has  used  hypothesis concerning  1 2 cardiac  c h a n g e s and  to  this  theory,  is  modulated.  which  cardiac  Lacey  carotid  and  'sensory  increased  sinus  (1978)  by  cope  the  rejection  that  the  and  response  suggests  great  which,  this  consequence  better  able  reduce  anticipatory fear"  to  to  impact  little  which  The  response "as  a  the  lack  (p.  aversive 137).  Hare  to  actively 'sensory  aversive  of  electrodermal  is successful  result,  simply  situations be  because  sensory  with  accelerations  attempt  of  with  is associated  hypothesized  impact  in  arousal  is associated  f o r m o s t p e o p l e may  the  cortical  via  psychopaths,  attenuate  in baroreceptors  increased  the  input  deceleration  an  coping that  sensory  reflect  the  According  'sensory-rejection'.  arousal.  Hare concludes  emotional  cardiac  sinus  and  way  anticipatory cardiac  fear  that  the  pressure  carotid  attenuates  inhibits  that  with  p s y c h o p a t h may  process',  psychopaths.  the  'rejection'.  acceleration  arousal  situation,  stimulus  have  i n the  and  reflect  decreased  Cardiac  in cortical  displayed with  by  intake'.  suggests  responses  is associated  pressure  decrease  'intake'  (1967) argued  i s accompanied  the  a  sensory  of the  input  in that  relatively latter  and  to  are  13 B.  AVOIDANCE L E A R N I N G I N PSYCHOPATHS  1. P a s s i v e  Passive behavior  avoidance  to avoid  difficulty concern  Avoidance  Learning  involves  punishment.  f o r future  e v e n t s have generated  performance  i n tasks  Much o f t h e e a r l y r e s e a r c h interpreted  version stages  by S e l i g m a n  and s i t u a t i o n a l )  capacity,  conditioned  reinforcement, individual avoided  criticism  are  the response of h i s theory  (1960)  associated  informs events),  some o t h e r  added with  (passive (Solomon,  acquire  elicit  that  Punishment  remove t h e c a n be  (active avoidance)  1953),  s i g n a l s . These  of aversive events  o r by  In response t o  K a m i n , a n d Wynne,  and a r e capable of motivating  cues  stage c o n s i s t s of  of safety  of pleasant  two  stage,  punishment  avoidance).  the termination  the individual  with  cues.  response  the concept  postulated  In the f i r s t  of responses  the fear-producing  by making  inhibiting  Mowrer  from  reduction,  two-process  cognitive  conditioning, to  r e s p o n s e s . The s e c o n d  by f e a r  (1947)  1973). Mowrer  associated  or anxiety.  learning  of Mowrer's  punishment.  examining the  by f e a r  (see also modified  through c l a s s i c a l  fear  research  i n avoidance  and Johnson,  i n learning to avoid  (behavior the  learning  apparent  and h i s lack of  mediated  the f i n d i n g s i n terms  of avoidance  of a response or  The p s y c h o p a t h ' s  i n l e a r n i n g through punishment  psychopath's  theory  the inhibition  events,  (or lack  behavior.  signals and  of aversive  14 At show of  the experimental  significantly  an a v e r s i v e  avoidance  that  avoidance  UCS  suggests There  psychopaths  (1957),  Cleckley's students  criteria)  of four  choice-point  levers  "manifest"  task  Several  their  controls given  other  and n e u r o t i c under  (defined  by shock.  The  (1964)  responses. responses  there  were  learning  psychopaths  well. showed t h e  responses. of the  i n psychopaths.  r e p l i c a t e d Lykken's  study  (Cleckley criteria)  ( s a l i n e ) and epinephrine psychopaths  no  i.e. a l l  have used m o d i f i c a t i o n s  psychopaths  primary  of  t h e maze e q u a l l y  t o the shocked  Each  subject's  incorrect  task,  maze  incorrect  sequence  the shocked  by  school  was a m e n t a l  and three  the primary  avoidance  placebo  a placebo,  task  on t h e m a n i f e s t  researchers  and Latane  psychopaths  the correct  way t h r o u g h  avoidance  maze t o s t u d y  primary  i n passive  conditioning i n  The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t  However, on t h e l a t e n t t a s k ,  Schachter  that  o f 20 c h o i c e - p o i n t s .  was p u n i s h e d  group d i f f e r e n c e s  passive  avoidance  response  was t o a v o i d  each c h o i c e - p o i n t .  learned  passive  a t each  was t o l e a r n  " l a t e n t " task  mental  d i s p l a y an  display a deficit  The s u b j e c t ' s  had one c o r r e c t  one o f w h i c h  least  also  and i n a group of c o l l e g e and high  responses,  subjects  do i n d e e d  and " n e u r o t i c "  ( c o n t r o l group).  consisting  between  t h e y may  i nanticipation  i s some e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e  studied  male and female p r i m a r y  at  that  activity  psychopaths  learning.  Lykken  The  the f i n d i n g that  less electrodermal  "deficit".  suggests  level,  performed  with and  conditions. poorly  on t h e  When  15 latent  task.  psychopaths These clinical to  findings,  the of  types  shock,  not aware aversive  there  reached Schmauk  disapproval  i n passive  studies  the type  t o the above  (1970),  using  a mental  (MMPI) maze  of a v e r s i v e  to punish  task  stimuli  incorrect  disapproval.  conditions,  avoidance  have  when a d i f f e r e n t  administered  were used  stimuli.  However,  and  primary  and r e p o r t e d  the c o n t r o l  learned  Under  psychopaths  that  no g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s  psychopaths can learn  i n avoidance  a punished  Schmauk  (1970)  concluded:  single  most  important  experiment  is,it  consisted  contingency,  to avoid  seems,  subjects  to passively avoid  When t h e p u n i s h m e n t  aware of t h e l e v e r - p u n i s h m e n t  The  held  they  of t h e a s s o c i a t i o n between t h e l e v e r pressed  stimuli.  conditions.  In contrast  l o s s o f money a n d v e r b a l  contingency  were  f o r the widely  Personality Inventory  but v a r i e d  of s t i m u l i  and v e r b a l  a deficit  aversive  used.  subjects,  shock  this  was  were  to classify  to Lykken's,  avoidance.  A l l of the above  stimuli.  Multiphasic  responses;  were  response.  stimuli  the primary  psychopaths are d e f i c i e n t i n learning  as the a v e r s i v e  Three  showed  some s u p p o r t  Minnesota  identical  the  that  epinephrine,  i n passive  different conclusion  primarily  given.  provide  a punished  of a v e r s i v e  criteria  when g i v e n  no d e f i c i t  assumption  shock  type  showed studies  inhibit  used  However,  this  were  and  aware  these  o f l o s s o f money  and a l l groups  were  i n d i c a t i n g that response  result  finding that  of  under  the  primary  certain  1 6 sociopaths as  can learn  normals  i f  experienced not  to  as  rather  between the  above  association this  case  other  between  passive  avoid  certain  aversive  Lykken set  (p.  be  This  i s  punishment  must  be  highly  but  selective  and  334).  emphasizes  the important  distinction  The p s y c h o p a t h i c s u b j e c t s i n  have been c a p a b l e o f f o r m i n g t h e  the lever  and the a p p r o p r i a t e  a v o i d a n c e ) , b u t due t o l a c k  who  explanation aversive  t o them.  used  individually  these  genuinely  response ( i n  of motivation  or  reasons, d i d not perform the response. A partial  not  may  well  i n o r d e r t o be e f f e c t i v e ,  and performance.  studies  i s  as  distressing.  the  i t must  finding  learning  above  that  selected  punishment  punishment  noxious or  severe  that  properly  The  the  say  excessively  to avoid  levels  Thorvaldson increased  (cigarettes)  (1970)  explained  be t h a t  In a l l of t h e above  reported  tolerance  that  level  of psychopaths to the stimuli studies,  of punishment,  significantly  were o f f e r e d  passive  may  at a self-reported  Neuman a n d K o s s o n adequate  stimuli  a set level  differed  their  f o r the failure  except f o r  t h e shock  "painful"  used a r e  level.  level  None o f  among t h e g r o u p s . H a r e  psychopaths f o r shock  was  and  significantly  when  incentives  f o r doing so.  (1986)  argue  that  avoidance t o monetary  by t h e p r o c e d u r a l  differences  the psychopath's  punishment  c a n be  i n Schmauk's  study. In  17 the monetary  punishment  condition,  made m o r e  salient  and  attention  t o , and  learning  o f , the punishment  Kosson  examined  passive  Neuman a n d  this  may  the avoidance contingency  psychopaths assessed using successive rewarded correct  go/  responding  (S+)  subjects  worth  and  cues  more p a s s i v e  failed  to  nonpsychopaths. "psychopathic"  These  (loss  a  learning  i n which  delinquents  In  subjects  a  were  for responding to chip) for made  ( t h e number o f  t o S-)  have a l s o  in  Checklist.  of a poker  response  psychopath's  contingency.  ( S - ) , psychopaths  findings  juvenile  task  avoidance errors  inhibit  the  Psychopathy  10 c e n t s e a c h )  punished  to incorrect  significantly  Hare's  increased  avoidance  nogo d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  (poker chips cues  have  was  times  than  been  reported  using  (Neuman, Widom, a n d  Nathan,  1985). There major  are  problem  psychopathic  several i s that  group  limitations in several  likely  the c l i n i c a l / b e h a v i o r a l in  were used  comparing report  criteria  assessment  measures  discriminating Another  and  to classify  few  Schmauk  (1970) In a  group.  psychopathy  from o t h e r  i s that  who  would  For  found  MMPI  study that  weakly  and  meet  example,  studies,  recent  (1985)  studies.  the  for psychopathy.  subjects.  measures of  limitation  subjects  t h e MMPI) c o r r e l a t e d  psychopaths  important control  these studies  p r o c e d u r e s , Hare  (such as  clinical-behavioral  an  contained  t h e Neuman e t a l . ( 1 9 8 6 )  scores  of  to the above-noted  self-  with  were poor  at  criminals.  several  of  In the Lykken  these (1957)  studies and  lacked  Schmauk  A  18 (1970)  studies  were used. its as  The  neurotic  members u s u a l l y a psychopath,  Noncriminals the A  "neurotic"  may  studies.  responses.  differ  i n unknown ways  their  criminal  Finally,  ratios since  differed  between  this  finding.  of  avoidance  effects  of  test. in  incarceration. is a  with  these  studies  the  rate  of  over  punished  reported  significantly  from have  tine,  response  these  whether  chance statistically  i t i t not  acquisition  groups.  these  limitations, do  Contradictory  the a v e r s i v e  different  the c r i m i n a l s  studies  i n passive avoidance  some c o n d i t i o n s ,  as  the e a r l y  none of  t o know w h e t h e r  used  anxiety  methodological problems  differed  possible  performance.  the  from  an  group.  of  changes  under  s c o r e h i g h on  since  classified  c o u n t e r - b a l a n c e d the o r d e r of  analyzed  Despite  of  t o be  when s t u d y i n g p s y c h o p a t h s  several  have any  avoidance  levels.  group  s t u d y has Not  the c r i t e r i a  they  because  noncriminal controls  i s a c o n f u s i n g group,  that  are also  No  of  and  except  necessary control  There  psychopath  meet most  psychopathic group  nonpsychopathic  psychopaths  More  i t i s clear  show a d e f i c i t data  found  s t i m u l u s q u e s t i o n s the  types of  performance.  punishment  on  psychopaths,  in passive  when  research i s required  that  the  loss  avoidance o f money i s  generalizability  to determine  psychopaths  the  passive  of  effects  19 2.  Active  The fear  Avoidance  i n Psychopaths  psychopath's d e f i c i t  has been  used  to explain  i n conditioned  or  the psychopaths deficiency  passive  avoidance performance  problem  with  deficit  i n responding to conditioned  fear  predict  that  a deficit  avoidance. that  attainment  deficit  they would  avoidance  If this  view  i n psychopaths  behaviors  The  also  there  of stimuli  avoidance.  (Hare,  interpretation  However,  active  signals).  this  1970; Hare,  i s that  exhibit  i s evidence  i s to a large associated  that  1978).  stimuli  have  a  would  in active  1975: B o l l e s ,  1972)  by t h e  non-punishment  would  The  t h a n one  extent reinforced  avoidance  performance  in  i f p s y c h o p a t h s have  (Gray,  with  of a c t i v e  few s t u d i e s  anticipatory  (safety  i s correct,  no  be e x p e c t e d  in active  examined a c t i v e  avoidance  i n psychopaths have o b t a i n e d  some w h a t  conflicting  results. Active order  avoidance refers  to avoid  (1975)  examined  conditions aversive  subject's  of high  stimulus  incorrectly. when  punishment.  and a c t i v e  avoidance  (95 db) and low (35 db) ambient was e l e c t r i c a l s h o c k  and p a s s i v e  levels.  Chesno and Kilmann  of  passive  poor  passive  of background  active  of a response i n  I n one s t u d y Chesno and K i l m a n n  The p s y c h o p a t h s d i s p l a y e d  the level  effective  to the performance  noise.  The  f o r responding poor  stimulation  was  a v o i d a n c e under  suggested that  avoidance conditioning  under  active  avoidance  low, but high  displayed  stimulation  the previous finding  i n psychopaths could  be  20 an  artifact  mental  of the long,  maze t a s k .  under-arousal  b o r i n g and u n s t i m u l a t i n g  They a r g u e d  that  their  theory of psychopathy.  findings  Under  psychopaths  seek  stimulating  themselves;  however, as t h e background  increases,  their  need  for further  s u p p o r t e d an  conditions  stimulation  level  to increase  nature of the  their  of low  "arousal"  sensory  by  simulation  input i s  reduced. Several deficit  studies  i n psychopaths.  described  earlier,  nonpsychopaths Brunnings  subject's  controls  little  i n order their  displayed and were  the available difficulty  avoidance.  any a c t i v e  I n t h e Neuman a n d K o s s o n between  avoidance  l o o k e d a t a form  defined  about  psychopaths  sparse,  to find  (1986)  psychopaths  errors  was f o u n d .  of active  avoidance study  and Persons and  avoidance i n  by h i g h P d s c o r e s on t h e MMPI. The  t a s k was t o d r a w a l i n e  blindfolded, feedback  failed  no d i f f e r e n c e  in active  (1966)  psychopaths,  the  have  to avoid  electric  performance "superior" slower  of a s p e c i f i c shock.  and punishment avoidance  to extinguish  evidence  i n laboratory  suggests  length, When  verbal  was g i v e n ,  learning  compared t o  the response.  that  psychopaths  tasks involving  while  active  Though have  21  sort There  C.  D I S I N H I B I T I O N T H E O R I E S OF  The  above  of performance  deficit  i s considerable  indicating form  r e s u l t s suggest  that  passive  reinforcement,  displayed  conditioning".  In t h i s  behavior.  o f a new  Razran  (1971)  (1975,  substantial avoidance neuronal  systems  from  those  t o Gray,  inhibition  state  i s elicited  mediate  t o a novel  the behavioral  of  conditioning  not t o do. that  provides  evidence that  passive  by a d i f f e r e n t complex o f  that  mediate  i n response  classical and escape  substrate  (BIS).  Anxiety  learning.  i s assumed  i s the t o be t h e  of punishment  or  The B I S i s t h o u g h t t o  e f f e c t s of four  classes  of  stimuli  associated  with  punishment  conditioned  stimuli  associated  with  frustrative  REW),  stimuli,  fear  conditioning,  of anxiety  to threats  environment.  and innate  inhibitory  inhibitory  conditioned  novel  independent  o c c u r s but an i n h i b i t i o n  aversive  the neural  system  and  organisms too  o f l e a r n i n g what  i s mediated  evidence  i t i s not the  1982) h a s d e v e l o p e d a m o d e l  behavioral  exposure  that  some  conditioning.  "aversive  type of c o n d i t i o n i n g ,  learning, active avoidance  According  that  display  or to respond t o  p h y s i o l o g i c a l and b e h a v i o r a l  instrumental  by  observed  concluded that  learning  that  i s a distinct  conditioned  response  may  avoidance  what he c a l l e d  was a n a s s o c i a t i o n m e c h a n i s m Gray  psychopaths  i n passive  avoidance  t o be c l a s s i c a l l y  acquisition  that  t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l  of l e a r n i n g . Razran  primitive  PSYCHOPATHY  stimuli.  stimuli;  (CS-PUN), non-reward  The B I S  (CS-  responds  to  a l l of these  increasing  inputs  the level  the  environment.  two  other  mediates  by s u p p r e s s i n g  of arousal  Gray's  systems,  the Behavioral  postulates  (BAS),  e f f e c t s of s t i m u l i  paired  with  and a  "fight-flight"  system,  mediates  development  the  behavioral  it  i s possible  to  drugs  that  Several be  of  the e f f e c t of punishment  explained controls  reduce  the nature of anxiety  anxiety  (Gray,  i n v e s t i g a t o r s have  opportunism, lack  within  a model  on b e h a v i o r .  found  emphasizes  inhibitory  malfunction  makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o punishment"  also  raised the p o s s i b i l i t y  with  some t y p e o f i n h i b i t i o n  that  "... t h e p r o c l i v i t y  may  of  be inhibitory  the temporal "... r e f l e c t  a  this  behavior that i s  Clinical  psychopathy  deficit.  could  mechanism and t h a t  to inhibit (p.31).  that  personal  poor  the lack  speculated  may  mixture  c a l l o u s maximization of  (1970)  that  system.  the psychopath's  i n some p s y c h o p a t h s  limbic  psychopathy  of long-term plans  o f some  that  that  of f e e l i n g s of g u i l t ,  which  Hare  from  form of i n h i b i t i o n  t o see that  malfunction  suggest  examining  1982).  suggested  o f some  c o n t r o l s , and l a c k  to lead  on  the reactions  slow-wave a c t i v i t y  likely  non-reward.  to infer  o f empathy,  behavioral  positive  assumes  i t i s possible  lack  which  e f f e c t s of a n t i - a n x i e t y drugs. Gray  impulsiveness,  gain,  and  o f t h e BIS has been p r i m a r i l y based  related to a dysfunction  Clinically  of  system  (reward and non-punishment),  The  the existence  Approach  reinforcement which  behavior,  a n d by i n c r e a s i n g a t t e n t i o n t o  model a l s o  the behavioral  ongoing  researchers  may  be  associated  McCord and McCord  f o r psychopathy  have  found  (1964) even i n  23 mildly  rejected  individuals  i f aggravated  incompatible  with inhibition,  syndrome  54)".  (p.  Trasler importance social  of  the  further  argued  interaction  Trasler  Reber  between  the  bases  cues  of  the  of  the c o n t r o l  of  the  certain  situation. learning  notion that  from  an  over  their  lines  of  an  controls  imbalance  scruples,  and  relationships  the  process  shift  from  behavior. This  of to  external shift  the of  mechanism  importance  behavior  can  be  situational  of  cues Reber,  controlled  perhaps  hypothesis  by  internalization.  suggests  effect  results  of c o n d i t i o n e d  c o n t i n g e n c i e s and  that  to  of  environmental  b e h a v i o r . The  Aronfreed  t o A r o n f r e e d and  i s the c e n t r a l  individual's  between  e v i d e n c e . The  i s the of  emphasize  immediate  internalized  socialized;  regulate  According  i n the process  stimuli  the  his  Trasler  behaviors being controlled  aversive  by  and  influences.  Aronfreed. According  internalization  over  avoidance  work  They  both  the  salient  the moral  h i s t h e o r y on  internalization.  The  emphasized  most  i s under  which  system  psychopathic  psychopath  social  inhibitions,  obligations  much o f  on  inhibition  independent  1981)  the  neural  the  psychopath's to  a  284).  (1965)  intrinsic  into  Trasler,  the psychopath  social  internalization  passive  of  l e a r n e d the  o t h e r s " (p.  the  One  that  not  awareness of  in  and  is his insusceptibility  "[he]...has  and  Siddle  environment.  features  with  (1978;  develops  by  and  psychopaths  intrinsic  i s supported  immediate  by  by  suffer  controls several  incentives  on  the  behavior  of psychopaths  concluded strong  that  enough  f o r psychopaths  a c c o r d i n g t o Hare  about  the psychopath tendency  been  noted. Grant  of consequences"  i s what  to satisfy  he c a l l s  immediate  h i s "short-range  needs even  The  impulsivity,  callousness,  c a n be  situational  and i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  i n which  from  Psychopaths  performance  of simple learning  and rewarding  Hetherington  tasks  i n a response  opposite  reinforcement psychopaths procedure trial.  If  readily by  with  d i d well  1971; Hare,  a response  But, they performed  poorly  was d e t e r m i n e d  found t o  t o nonpsychopaths; learned  1973).  was b a s e d  were a l s o  1966;  continuous reinforcement  under  Painting  i n a two-choice p a r t i a l  when p e r f o r m a n c e  their  when t h e r e i n f o r c e m e n t i s  Psychopaths  under  this  ( F a i r w e a t h e r , 1954; P e r s o n s  i n contrast  (Ross and Dooby,  given t r i a l  trials  learned  had begun,  was t h e c a s e  1964).  support  from o t h e r s i n  (Doctor and Craine,  and K l i n g e r ,  once e x t i n c t i o n  any  do n o t d i f f e r  B r u n i n g , 1966) n o r do t h e y d i f f e r  persist  of  psychopath's  h i s behavior i s controlled  experimental research also  hypothesis.  immediate  hedonism  factors.  Results  and  things  at the risk  severe discomfort i n the future".  i n a model  (p.48).  ( 1 9 6 5 ) , one o f t h e more s t r i k i n g  experiencing  explained  (1977)  " t h e a p p e a l o f t h e moment i s  t o block out a l l thought  Also,  a  has frequently  partial  (1961)  found  that  reinforcement  on t h e i m m e d i a t e  when  the  the correct  previous  response  by what had been c o r r e c t  on  two  avay. internalized  controls  are acquired  v i a passive avoidance  25 learning, (Gray,  and i f t h i s  1982),  psychopath's  type of learning  then perhaps behavior  Trasler's  of s o c i a l l y - p r o s c r i b e d  Psychopaths  could  lack  septo-hippocampal  suggests implies for  underlies that  internal system,  necessary  inhibitory  r e s p o n s e s may  responsive  to situational  physiological More of  defect  recently  psychopathy.  work  association  Activation between  suggesting  electrodermal  proposed  i s also  based  Clinically, characteristics  Fowles  model to provide  of  internalized  who  i s wholly  of a  on G r a y ' s  model  (1975,  System  1982)  (BIS) and  discussed the  from  a  He p r e s e n t e d e v i d e n c e correlate  Fowles'  o f BAS  i s reflected  attempted  psychopaths  by  i s heart changes  to explain  are characterized  B I S . He p r e s e n t e d c l i n i c a l , support  This  fails  Inhibition  BIS a c t i v a t i o n  by s u g g e s t i n g t h a t  psychophysiological  (1975)  a three arousal  (BAS). Fowles  of view.  activity.  weak o r d e f i c i e n t  which  BIS and psychopathy  while  Gray  i n a person  a psychophysiological  acceleration,  psychopathy a  that  that  unnecessary.  System  point  due t o a d e f e c t i n  The p o s t u l a t i o n  (1980)  T h i s model  psychophysiological  in  result  on t h e h y p o t h e s i z e d B e h a v i o r a l  Behavioral  rate  Fowles  that  internal  f o r the acquisition  cues. be  of  learning.  training  also  may  hypothesis  inhibitions  the system  social  process  behavior i s correct.  passive avoidance  defective  the conditions  (1978)  i s due t o an a b s e n c e  inhibitions  the  i s a distinct  behavioral  and  f o r h i sh y p o t h e s i s .  argued  that  of the psychopath  some o f t h e m a j o r  c a n be e x p l a i n e d  by a  by  weak  26 BIS.  Firstly,  presence inhibit result  i n impulsive behavior to learn  finding  in trouble  i n some  accommodate more  unsocialized  assault).  F o u r t h l y , any  socialization  i n a s t r o n g tendency  which  should  S e c o n d l y , an  result  i s caught  (e.g. lying,  Finally,  for alcohol,  will  towards  a weak BIS w o u l d p r e d i c t  a low  i s a commonly r e p o r t e d c l i n i c a l  i n psychopaths.  psychopath's  poor  active  At  a weak BIS a n d a n o r m a l passive avoidance  activity,  over  a weak BIS w o u l d  event  t h e o r y comes f r o m  responses skin  level,  assuming  explain  hyporesponsive  the f i n d i n g to cues  I f psychopaths  conductance  the psychopath's  data  prediction (Hare,  that  an normally  f o r Fowles'  response  to novel  should d i s p l a y  i s generally  1978).  psychopaths  appears  support  have a weak BIS t h e y  to novelty. This  t h e BIS i s  signalling  system  t o such cues. A d d i t i o n a l examining  that  a n d t h e BAS w i t h HR  while the c a r d i o v a s c u l a r  reactive  stimuli.  b e h a v i o r and h i s apparent  with electrodermal a c t i v i t y  are e l e c t r o d e r m a l l y aversive  BAS would e x p l a i n t h e  avoidance.  the p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l  associated  the  i n psychopaths.  once a person  resulting  Behaviorally,  or  of punishment  p u n i s h m e n t makes t o n o r m a l  undersocialization. tolerance  and h i s i n a b i l i t y t o  p a s t punishment w i l l  responses  that  be m i n i m i z e d ,  seen  a weak BIS w i l l  avoidance  contribution  from  Thirdly,  transgression,  normal  of a n x i e t y i n the  behaviors i n the face of threats  society.  active  absence  of normally t h r e a t e n i n g s t i m u l i ,  inability with  the psychopath's  weak  s u p p o r t e d by  There  a r e some p r o b l e m s  it  does  not explain  of  the psychopath,  relationships". there  with to  such  "it  reward  then  i snot necessarily  should  show n o r m a l  There  Quinn,  three  different  followed  HR r e s p o n s e s  tones each  slide  o f a nude  female  NEU).  Consistent  with  gave  smaller  REW  t h a n t o t h e CS-PUN,  electrodermal  electrodermal group  predictions  I f EDA i s l i m i t e d cues  associated notes  EDA r e s p o n d s  that  only to  psychopaths  signalling  responses  subjects  10 s e c o n d s  reward.  i n psychopaths  were p r e s e n t e d  long.  discussed  suggesting that  studies,  smaller CS-REW  Psychopaths  t o t h e CS-REW. T h e r e  i n cardiac  responses  by a  by n o t h i n g ( C S -  females) a r e not p a r t i c u l a r l y conditioning.  with  followed  E D R s t o t h e CS f o l l o w e d gave  (Hare  One t o n e w a s  (CS-PUN), a n o t h e r  Nonpsychopaths  response  differences  t o cues  previously  nonpsychopaths.  for  that  BAS  relationships  C o n c e r n i n g HR,  reward  shock  anticipatory  o f nude  that  (CS-REW), a n d a t h i r d  did  pictures  expect  normal  one e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d y e x a m i n i n g t h e  In the study  by an e l e c t r i c  personal  EDR, a l t h o u g h F o w l e s '  t h e BIS".  of conditioned 1971).  "given the quite  a n d HR a c t i v i t y .  one would  h a s been o n l y  acquisition  that  being argued  activate  characteristics  t h e o r y makes s p e c i f i c  should not e l i c i t  which  important  r e a s o n why s t r o n g  not develop". Fowles'  stimuli  and  admits  respect to electrodermal  with  hypothesis. Clinically  as h i s "poverty i n interpersonal  Fowles'  BIS a c t i v a t i o n ,  Fowles'  some o f t h e o t h e r  i s no i n h e r e n t  should  with  psychopaths  by shock  than  EDRs t o t h e CS(orat least effective  stimuli  showed no were no between  to either  t h e CS-REW o r  28 the  C S - P U N . F o r t h e CS-REW a s l i g h t  developed In that  over  the t r i a l s  contrast  incentive  t o t h e above  possible studies been  explanation i s that  i n HR  reliable  HR  increases.  the rewards  used  that  increases  f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t HR  model  reinforcers The  pictures  of instrumental  that  i s particularly explains  Fowles  are found.  findings  i n t h e above  o f nude  One  between  s t u d y may  these  n o t have  (1971),  f e m a l e s were, i n f a c t  adequate  responding i n psychopaths.  a p p l i c a t i o n of Gray's  psychopathy model  that  predicts  when money i s  e f f e c t i v e r e i n f o r c e r s . However, Hare and Quinn  demonstrated  and  f i n d i n g s , Fowles'  (1969) have demonstrated  a s an i n c e n t i v e ,  deceleration  groups.  e f f e c t s should result  (1983) and E l l i o t used  f o r both  cardiac  model  t o p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g y and t o  interesting, since  much o f t h e p s y c h o p a t h ' s  clinical characteristics.  i tprovides a psychophysiological  29 D.  A  THE  CONTINGENT NEGATIVE  measure  research because  of  i s the  by  McCallum  The  distinct  endogeneous. components quarter  of  a  - negative  begins second.  parameters  state  the  exogenous  of  they  Donchin, serially  after  evoking  a  the  (p.351).  ERP  stimulus  of  cognitive,  affected  the  by  decisions Of  and  potential  are  variation shift  motor  subject's prior  particular  negative  and  modulated interest  by  extrinsic  ( C N V ) . The  which develops  are  experience,  term  to  to  lower the  last  for  the  be brain  nervous  often  elicited  associated  These  and  general  considered  processes.  in this  and  the  f u n c t i o n i n g of  task  scalp  ERP  a f f e c t e d by  s t i m u l u s and  e x t e r n a l s t i m u l a t i o n and  perceptual,  of  onset  c o n t r a s t , endogeneous components are  absence  events  on  system. the  by  and  activated  and  in  evoked  the  is  Ritter,  sequence  components are  represent  ERP  thus  c a t e g o r i e s , exogeneous  These components are the  i s named  manifested  fluctuations" two  in  stimulus  structures By  are  of  elicit  shortly  s u b j e c t . The  since  sequence  stimulus w i l l  physical of  a  by  It  used  s t i m u l u s . An  f r o m many  i s described  been d i v i d e d i n t o  Any  that  evoking EEG  commonly  (ERP).  components) t h a t are  positive  components have  a  "...  (labelled  t o an  together  ERP  (1978) as  processes  (EEG)  event-related potential  averaging  presentations.  as  electroencephalogy  i t i s time-locked  obtained  VARIATION  with  components  are  i n t e n t i o n s and  parameters. study CNV  during  i s the  describes a warned  contingent a  slow  negative  foreperiod  prior  to  an a n t i c i p a t e d  two  decades  event,  such  o f r e s e a r c h have  significance  and t h e o r e t i c a l  hypotheses  have  the  first  Cooper,  slow  paradigm,  signal,  w h i l e t h e second They  after  frameworks  Aldridge,  classic  shortly  been d e v o t e d  the f i r s t  found  S1 a n d r e a c h e d  usually  different  and Winter  (1964)  potentials.  shift  a maximum p r i o r of t h e motor  a  warning  motor  which  started  t o S 2 . Upon t h e response,  returned to baseline.  studies  represent  probability suggest  expectancy.  when s u b j e c t s occur,  that  were  In their  Walter  the slow  and h i s co-  c o n s i d e r e d t h e CNV a s a m e a s u r e o f e x p e c t a n c y  subjective  would  McCallum,  a negative potential  shift  that  several  s t i m u l u s (S2) r e q u i r e d  negative  later  of terminology,  s t i m u l u s (S1) s e r v e d as a  o f S2 a n d p e r f o r m a n c e  the  Over  to the functional  used,  negative brain  delivery  workers  task.  emerged.  t o observe  response.  or mental  o f t h e CNV, b u t d u e t o t h e v a r i e t y  paradigms,  Walter,  as a motor  of a stimulus occurrence.  related to However,  t h e CNV d o e s n o t e x c l u s i v e l y  Leifer,  Otto, Hart  had t o p r e d i c t  t h e more d i f f i c u l t  which  and Huff of four  the prediction  (1978)  different  found S2's  the larger the  CNV. There in  terms  between (1966; the  CNV  have  been  several  theories  of nonassociative concepts stimuli.  F o r example,  Irwin,  that  rather  supported  motivational  by K n o t t a n d Tecce  than  an  t h e CNV  association  K n o t t , McAdam, a n d R e b e r t  R e b e r t , McAdam, K n o t t , a n d I r w i n , reflects  have viewed  1967) s u g g e s t e d  that  d e t e r m i n a n t s . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was (1978)  who  found  larger  CNV  31 amplitudes response,  1) i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f a r e s p o n s e 2) i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f a n o x i o u s  nonaversive to  easily  stimuli  that  require  Rebet  greater  changes  organism".  McAdam  hypothesis  by c o m p a r i n g  the latter  concluded  that  compared  t o no  to a compared  a n d 4) i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f  muscular  effort that  f o r t h e same t h e CNV w a s " a n  related to a general  (1969) p r o v i d e d  ERP c o m p o n e n t s d u r i n g Under  stimuli,  e t a l . (1967) c o n c l u d e d  of cerebral  event  3) i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f n e a r - t h r e s h o l d  discriminable  response. index  event,  t o S2 c o m p a r e d  support  the latency  a baseline  s t a t e of the  for this  of the l a t e  drive  somatosensory  s t a t e a n d i n a CNV  c o n d i t i o n he f o u n d  shorter  t h e CNV w a s a c c o m p a n i e d  state  paradigm.  l a t e n c i e s and  by an  increase  i n CNV  excitability. It by  has been  found  the presentation  conversation pictures  that  of extraneous  and reading  such as memorizing  mental  arithmetic  two  separate  hypothesized  1964),  1968),  letters  (1972) c o n c l u d e d  but r e l a t e d processes; that  the amplitude  increased  a t t e n t i o n . And t h a t  (inverted  U function)  arousal  a large  CNV  smaller  amplitudes  i s found, a r e found.  when a s e c o n d a r y 1970),  1 9 7 3 ) . On that  and  task i s performing  the basis of  t h e CNV  i s related to  a t t e n t i o n and a r o u s a l .  o f t h e CNV  t h e CNV  to arousal.  i s reduced  i r r e l e v a n t tones or  (Teece,  (Teece and H a m i l t o n ,  s t u d i e s , Teece  o f t h e CNV  s t i m u l a t i o n such as  (Walter,  (McCallum and Walter,  given,  these  the amplitude  increases  He  with  i s related non-linearly  Thus a t moderate  but a t higher  l e v e l s of  l e v e l s of  arousal  32 Several hypothesis.  other  lines  P a r t i c u l a r support  rate  increases  Drug  effects parallel  data.  found^hen after  tasks  The  "rebound  Yrchuk, Meinbresse, relation  by  Fenwick,  Dessonville,  b e t w e e n CNV  utilized  the c l a s s i c a l  (1.5  sec).  100%  oxygen  condition  40 % m i x t u r e ) . start  of  oxide  tasks  and Cole,  and c o r t i c a l  large  t h e N100  dependent reports  of lowered  Perry,  study they :  to varying  been  Both  distraction.  i n RT. T h e d r u g  According  also  and a high  t o Teece's model,  investigated  experiments  a short ISI  t h e e f f e c t s of an  of n i t r o u s  a dose-dependent  (Teece,  (1979) a n d by  using  compared  doses  difficult  state  (1978).  paradigm  to  1980).  and Gamble  and Moeglen  alertness  CNV  attention  oxide  (10 t o  was p r e s e n t e d  reduction  produced degree since  of  at the  session. i n amplitude  e v o k e d p o t e n t i a l t o S1 a n d a s i g n i f i c a n t  increase  CNV  i s believed  after  has r e c e n t l y  The o x y g e n c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n  produced  also  to decrease  (pre-drug) and a t the end of the experimental  Nitrous  rate  alertness  effect  to undivided  click-flash  In the Fenwick  Heart  amplitude.  the heart  tended  This  t o easy  i n humans  Audibert,  data.  a s e r i e s o f no d i s t r a c t i o n t r i a l s  from d i v i d e d  Bushman, H o r w a r d ,  Timsit-Berthier,  with  Sedatives  experienced  (arousal/attentiveness)  i n CNV  subjective  of d i s t r a c t i o n t r i a l s .  and t h e change  The  found  rate  e f f e c t " i s the unusually  are given  the "relief"  this distraction  from heart  increased  amplitudes.  subjects  a series  reflect  CNV  which  support  by r e d u c t i o n  the e f f e c t s  drugs  larger  amplitudes.  comes  a r e accompanied  Stimulant  produced  of evidence  dose-  subjective subjective  both arousal  and  33 attention  appeared  reduction  i n CNV  to  have d e c r e a s e d  would  significant  e f f e c t s of  results  difficult  are  I S I , w h i c h makes  early  and  late  There  has  regarded  used  seconds. CNV  c o n s i s t s of negative  first  several  and  wave  that  properties  The  the  and  over  for  of  duration  (Klorman  and  early  1983)  S1  the  -  has  appears  the to  1978;  These  d i s r i m i n a t e between  extent  and  the  between to  (see  wave  a the  of  SI.  1 and  2  4 seconds  intensity and  the  just  The  amplitude  the  the  or  at  physical  early -  CNV  greater 1974);  Vaughan,  the  S1  versus  1980);  and  durations  Rohrbaugh of  The  evidence  longer  (1978;  the  frontal-  for auditory  for  the  s i g n i f i c a n c e of the  1).  before  Sanford,  amplitudes  a f f e c t e d by  research  over  reflects  Rotkin,  psychological  can  early  Figure  Recent  Ritter,  the  CNV  i t s maximum d u r i n g  wave p e a k s  S1  the  3 to  i s maximal  (Loveless  that  that  of  peaks  reaches  1975). G a i l l a r d  be  no  s t u d i e s a l l used  larger amplitude  shown  were  the  central region.  - greater  there  a  amplitude.  i s extended  f u n c t i o n of  S1  drug,  CNV  (ISI)  negative  sounds  Bentsen,  s e n s i t i v e to CNV  on  negative  CNV)  the  (Gaillard,  stimulus  also  a  louder  modality S1  to  functional processing  amplitude  Gaillard,  since  'early' negative  v a r i e s as  visual  distinct  second  amplitude  a  ISI  (early  the  CNV.  seconds a f t e r  i s maximal  suggests  the  u n i t a r y phenomenon. Most  two  region.  sensory  the  been much d e b a t e an  on  i t impossible  H o w e v e r , when t h e  central  dose  to  However,  inter-stimulus intervals  first  S2  drug  waves of  as  short  expected.  to evaluate  short  be  be  due  and  e a r l y CNV S1.  is  The  following properties  of  F i g u r e 1 . I d e a l i z e d CNV illustrating CNV c o m p o n e n t s and ERPs t o S I .  the  early  and  late  35 SI:  informative vs. non-informative  relevance  of  the  discrimination the  difficulty and  early  processes  and  was  the  the  orienting  relating  the  or  the  wave  participate of  the  by  Rohrbaugh and  number  ways  that  Several CNV 1979;  1983).  to  motor  paid  to  Herning,  the  earlier  1977,  requirements  Cohen  would  the  of  traces.  (p. 553).  This  More  t h e OR  has  noted  strong relation  (Donchin, that  1977,  Rohrbaugh and  sec)  Leifer,  anticipatory  a  between Simons  short  cortical  and  in  from  Gaillard,  s t i m u l u s i n the absence  this  been  1979;  with  reported a  Gerbrandt,  recent  expect  process.  (1.5  shift  wave d i f f e r s  theoretically  wave e x p e r i m e n t s  EEG  Donchin,  orienting  second  (1974) argued  Sokolov  the e a r l y  the  and  literature  (1983). Although that  (1963)  i n the mechanism of  wave and  1978;  slow  orienting  n e g a t i v e waves  preparation (Loveless,  Gaillard,  preceding  0  Gaillard  r e s e a r c h e r s have and  reflex"  the  what one  role  fixation  (1978) n o t e d  from  slow  with stimulation,  i n the  stimulus intervals  negativity response  of  t h e O-wave. S o k o l o v  between  play a  between  relates  However,  interval  1972).  link  McCallum  of  component  al.,  level  Squires, Donchin,  t o as  orienting  reviewed  et  the  attention  r e v i e w i n g the animal  "may  the  and  link  In  of  late  the  been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  negative shifts  a component  the  and  amount of  1976;  referred  evidence  a  the  Lang,  also  response.  that  activation  has  to note  slow  concluded  CNV  i s often  first  Ritter,  and  1978),  1978),  1977).  The  is  i n f o r m a t i o n (Kok,  s t i m u l u s (Simons  McCarthy,  (Gaillard,  of Tucker,  negativity  36 could that  be e l i c i t e d a "motor  because  by t h e e x p e c t a n c y  response  of the short  i s not necessary  interval  and  late  did  a s e r i e s of studies  whether  the late  pronounced  He  easy  late  included  CNV found  task.  accuracy  a long  used  that  the late  response  There  However, the early  Gaillard  component  (1978)  was  required  discriminations  i n the discrimination task,  o r motor  was more as compared  were no s i g n i f i c a n t  a speed  to a  differences  i n the amplitude of d e a d l i n e was  t h e r e was a n i n c r e a s e  response  condition  than  under  in an  condition.  (Naatanen,  findings  Gaillard,  have  been  found  and Mantysalo,  i n several  1980).  One  other  study  studies  examined  e f f e c t s o f p r o b a b i l i t y o f t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f S2 u n d e r  conditions, condition study  and  I S I (4 s e c ) , t e s t i n g t o s e e  c o m p o n e n t . H o w e v e r , when a r e s p o n s e  Similar  late  with  and d i f f i c u l t  CNV a m p l i t u d e u n d e r  the  paradigms  p r i m a r i l y r e f l e c t e d expectancy  when a m o t o r  discrimination  the  stimulus  f o r a CNV...".  c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e CNV w e r e o b s c u r e d .  preparation.  between  of i n t e r e s t i n g material  speed,  accuracy, and d e t e c t i o n .  the reaction  response  replicated other  studies  CNV a m p l i t u d e w e r e  found  was d e l a y e d i n which  between  f o r one second. differences i n  and  detection  (Peters,  amplitudes  were  condition.  The S2 p r o b a b i l i t y h a d no e f f e c t on t h e a m p l i t u d e o f  late  the  present  found  f o r t h e speed  component. G a i l l a r d study  suggest  (1977)  strongly  than  1976).  The  conditions  the  Knott and Hamilton,  In the detection  large  speed  three  larger  f o r the accuracy  concluded: that  Also,  "The r e s u l t s o f  the late  CNV i s  37 contingent level  on a m o t o r  of motor  preparation"  CNV  i s positively  and  McSherry,  different tension  force  were  optimal,  required during  Several  that  network  movement"  noted  Rohrbaugh,  CNV. T h e y  Syndulko,  movements.  obtained  self-paced  RT t a s k s .  Gaillard  involved  i n form and  CNV a n d t h e shift  forms  i n the  and'Kornhuber, different  i n the d e n d r i t i c intended  1976, p. 9 9 ) . tasks  (1978) v i e w s  and L i n d s l e y  from  and w i t h t h e CNV a n d  component  unpaired  CNV  paradigm.  substrate.  (1980) have  provided  of the late  together  stimuli  s y n t h e t i c CNV c o r r e s p o n d e d  i n the classic  which  I t c a n be i n t e r p r e t e d  CNV w a v e f o r m s b y a d d i n g  This  no  of isometric  b y t h e same n e u r o p h y s i o l o g i c a l  wave  found  preparation f o r  process  t h e RP c o n s t i t u t e s a m a j o r  separately  levels  i s a negative  during  Sanquist,  synthesized  CNV's o b t a i n e d  the late  methods, G a i l l a r d  generated  that  (Low  The  (1980)  the s i m i l a r i t y  a preparatory  obtained  averaging  RP a s b e i n g  1976).  and Jones  reflects  between  (Deecke, G r o z i n g e r ,  different  evidence  have  c o r t i c a l areas  typically  required  responses.  self-paced  representing  of those  Although  motor  CNV  p o t e n t i a l ( R P ) . T h e RP  "probably  of the l a t e  t h e I S I . From h i s s t u d i e s ,  distribution  precedes voluntary as  and Merlo,  when d i f f e r e n t  the late  researchers  topographical  effort  by t h e  i n CNV a r e n o t d u e t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n m u s c l e  i n CNV a m p l i t u d e s  effective  readiness  Berry  ISI. Papakostopoulos  (1978) c o n c l u d e d  determined  ( p . 1 2 7 ) . The a m p l i t u d e  1968; R e b e r t ,  during  and i s mainly  r e l a t e d t o the muscular  amplitudes  differences  response  and  from  closely  to  38 H o w e v e r , a number also  be  a non-motoric  conveyed  task  response  was  Tucker,  1982;  distinction  studies  late  wave.  relevant not  Cooper,  of  Ryan,  and  two  "scopeutic"  The  is selectively  This  mode i s a s s o c i a t e d  (CNV).  The  automatic there  second and  i s an  scopeutic  unexpected  is  i n d i c a t e d by  a  research  these  modes, and  transition A  from  similar  example,  from  Automatic  support  for this  his  of  to  environment.  slow  potentials  processing,  is  processing  the  'categoric'  of  slow  'scopeutic'  processing  what c o n d i t i o n s  of  the  occurs. cognitive psychologists, (1980)  controlled and  have  for  postulated  processing.  involuntary,  i s regulated  from  If  potential amplitude.  Shiffrin and  first  actions.  i s pre-determined.  under  i s made b y  comes  The  i n e s t a b l i s h the existence  is effortless  model  a  for planned  the absence  i n slow  which  draw  processing.  automatic  'categoric'  and  1973).  (1979)  with  may  motor  Leifer,  t a k e o v e r . The  mode t o a n o t h e r  to c o n t r o l l e d processing  Donald,  'categoric'  with  between automatic  processing  a  i s necessary  will  S c h n e i d e r , Dumais and  differences  that  cerebral  to determine  dichotomy  subject  in this  i s required  one  to the  response  change  reduction  Empirical two  the  associated  A change  S1  the presence  processing  mode i s s u p p o s e d l y  the  involved  mode, t e r m e d  mode o f  potentials.  and  with  mechanical;  studies  1980;  modes o f  there  these  Papakostopoulos  mode i s c a l l e d individual  indicated that  (Donchin, Gerbarandt,  and  McCallum, between  In  information  required  Klorman  have  by  habituation  the  in  contrast  subject.  studies.  Some  Walter  39 (1964),  in a classical  reported trials of  that  and then  while  middle then  declined.  early  time  phase,  CNV  rose  Rockstroh  trials  errors  attributed  to habituation.  different  S2 q u a l i t i e s  experiments, of  other  required.  early  CNV a l s o  consisted  slide  would  h a s been  the influences of  which  In these predict  a t S2. I n a study  CNV  by  t o S2 was  inanticipation  as S2) t h e a m p l i t u d e  increased.  i s also  o f o n e S1 t h a t  appear  (nude  a low i n t e r e s t s l i d e  The f i n d i n g t h a t  supported  increased  of both the the quality  by Simons e t a l . (1979),  a f f e c t CNV a m p l i t u d e s . T h e  signaled  that  females), while would  which  (65 db) t h e  response  e a r l y and l a t e  p o s i t i v e consequences  study  that  occur  was u s e d  across  response  o f t h e CNV.  ( 1 1 0 d b ) . No m o t o r  shock  S2 a f f e c t s t h e CNV  who s h o w t h a t  that  S2. As t h e a v e r s i v e n e s s o f t h e s t i m u l i  i felectric and l a t e  tone  phase and  o n e S2 w a s o f a w e a k t o n e  was a l a r g e r  the aversive  (ie,  of  There  to test  2 d i f f e r e n t tones  will  e t a l . (1982),  an a v e r s i v e  been done  hear  found  i n i t s amplitude  on t h e a m p l i t u d e  two d i f f e r e n t e v e n t s  Rockstroh  of  subjects  the early to  of the o r i e n t i n g  1979) a n d a r e d u c t i o n  have  from  found  o f t h e e a ' r l y CNV d e c r e a s e s . T h e  (Loveless,  studies  and  i n the middle  e t a l . (1982) a l s o  the amplitude  the development  interval  decreased  t o a peak  i s considered as part  Several  (1966) examined  of a temporal  estimation  paradigm,  p e a k e d a f t e r a m a x i m u m o f 20  McAdam  learning  t h e CNV  declined.  repetitive  eye-lid conditioning  t h e CNV a m p l i t u d e  t h e CNV d u r i n g  that,  aversive  appear  a high  another  (household  interest  tone  signaled  o b j e c t ) . The  40 late the  CNV low  was  interest  The  results  additional affective Dongier, the  CNV  found  He  from  to the  that  Klorman  t h e CNV Barbas  the  and  studies  and  found  affective  positive, have  the  and  the  i s sensitive  stimulation.  In  late  task.  CNV  of  related  condition  phobics  than  to  CNV  summary,  provide  to anticipation Dubrovsky  compared  the  conditions.  t o the  examined signaled  t o be  larger  i t would  to the  to  the by  and  of  anticipation  CNV.  of  easy  CNV  effect  two  different  the of  both  the  in preparation  appear  of  results  event,  amplitude  of  amplitude The  the a n t i c i p a t e d  task d i f f i c u l t y  problems,  the d i f f i c u l t early  neutral  et a l . (1981),  arithmetic early  1980)  quality  was  with  is sensitive  Ryan,  investigated  Birbaumer  difficult  interest  e t a l . (1978;  d u r i n g p h o b i c g e n i c and  that  high  experiments  stimulation.  amplitude. and  prior  condition.  support  1978;  negative Other  larger  SI. for  amplitude  affective  of  41 E.  THE  The by  two  C O N T I N G E N T N E G A T I V E V A R I A T I O N AND  application  goals.  indications the  of  obtain after  the  Ornitz,  more t h a n that  research  very  poor  ERP  underlying reviews  not  i s to  have p o i n t e d  variability and  explained  by  differences  in methodology,  components.  Rather  or  smaller  in a  researchers experimental  than  should  such as  which produced  ERP  is  "... a  because  further  of  goal  possible several  Pfefferbaum,  both  little ERP  et  ERP  a l . , 1978),  within to  do  and  with  variability  scoring  i n the  517)  i s that;  However, as  diagnostic  an  reached  ( 1 9 7 9 , p.  The  variability,  g r o u p as  examine ERPs  conditions  that  The  to  been  and  Shagrass  have  disorder.  weak, but  thing."  responses,  state,  report  pathological  are  1979;  individual  in psychological  ERP  uncover  goal  not  diagnosis  Horvath,  disorder.  differences  has  guided  diagnostic  the  success  function.  c o n t r o l s , may  psychological  be  ERP  been  i s to  Callaway  of  shoddy  Kopell, of  with  some u n d e r s t a n d i n g  (Roth,  and  goal  1 9 7 8 ) . The  lack  the  in brain  the  possibly  this  provide  Mezzich,  particular  associated  research.  because  out  second  Tueting,  i s such a  disturbances  patients  The  psychopathology  for  has  develop objective  c o r r e l a t i o n s between  Tinklenberg,  between  of  reason  diagnosis  reported  and  decades of  approach,  research  i s to  functions  Sutton,  two  psychopathology  disorders.  indices  the for  psychiatric  goal  specific  objective  suggests  ERP's t o  first  neurophysiological  (Shagrass,  of  The  of  PSYCHOPATHY  and  such  the  may as  criterion,  or  by  labelling  of  ERP  component  is  larger  compared  to  normals,  context  of  the  them.  42 It  i s commonly assumed  characterized CNV  by  reduced  - antisocial  "Antisocial small  relation  description  of  little  (Walter,  by  the or  1966)  seem c a p a b l e active  CNV,  no  (1973)  group.  the  A l l of  s t u d i e s which  groups which these  have  Venables,  1986)  amplitudes  patients  patients  Fenwick, with  an  1982) .  in a  t h a t had  Ferguson, anti-social  than  the  a  "  CNV  1978)  to  rather  initial patients  A  not  even third  with study  have  non-prison  I S I . There  and  Ziskind,  control  have  Noel,  1975;  in  Three  and  CNV psychopaths,  a d o l e s c e n t s . I n two  scores  other  CNV's were  found  and  Ma  and  in extroverted patients  d i a g n o s i s (Howard, F e n t o n ,  (Fenton,  and  of  1978;  Raine  imprisoned  larger  been  antisocial  findings.  differences  hospital,  h i g h MMPI P d  21).  above  as  group  a CNV,  in various  the  antisocial  this  (p.  normal  "psychopaths",  Lam,  have  a  in  t r a c e of  short  significant  forensic  and  statements  d e l i n q u e n t s "do  Eschapasse  Maltzman,  XYY  that  a l . (1964)  by  psychopaths  to support  no  and  a  s t u d i e s used  Iris,  et  study  encouragement  amplitudes  failed  i n XXY  second  prison  non-institutionalized  studies in  and  found  In Walters'  more t h a n  s t u d i e s (Paty, Benezech, Parker,  such  appearing  that recidivist  have measured  Syndulko,  and  found  above  This assumption  l e d to  125)  are  reported that psychopathic  In a  found  lower  p.  they  CNV.  support  has  individuals  f o r example, c o n s i s t e n t l y  producing  significantly  5  exists  textbooks.  they  of  social  McCallum  amplitudes.  ( H a s s e t t , 1978,  psychophysiological  showed  CNV  psychopaths,  CNV's"  that antisocial  Fenwick,  43 Although exist  several  i n a l l of  relation  exists  The  major  differing  used  criteria  based  1986;  CNV  and  with used  on  antisocial  these studies and  Cleckley's  et a l . ,  i n CNV.  significantly  Another  group,  in prison  thus not  suspect, since  female p s y c h i a t r i c the of  diagnostic  studies normal  that  found  schizophrenics.  socials.  and  These  However,  on  significant  of  consequently the larger  CNV  was  of  were  given  CNV  amplitude  but  portion  used  differences  group  and  shown t o have  i n the  and  reported  control been  on  two  patients  and  K o n i n c k x , and found  a  a  i t s members  (Abrabran, McCallum,  Delaunoy,  used  the e x p e r i m e n t a l group  controls,  have  lack  reported  m e d i c a t i o n . The  f o u n d no  schizophrenics  i s the  i s t h e unknown  in anti-social than  used  Venables,  information  problem  the s c h i z o p h r e n i c  Timsit-Berthier,  three  little  which  the psychopathic group  CNVs  normal  to controls  studies  f o r the e f f e c t  was  studies  and  of  the  diagnostic  no  that  5 years younger  between  CNVs r e l a t i v e 1976;  larger  anti-social  differences  and  procedure. Another  controls  between  homogeneity  patients,  the p s y c h o p a t h i c group  from  ( 1 9 7 3 ) , who  controlling  in  i s also  consistent  psychopaths, only  The  study  no  methodological problem  institutionalization. this  of  two  reported  groups. McCallum  l o w e r CNV  control  both  weaknesses  personality. arise  the v a r i e t y The  that  c o n c e p t i o n (Raine and  1975)  control  conceptual  they suggest  to assess psychopathy.  appropriate  normal  between problem  Syndulko  differences of  these studies,  populations  criteria  m e t h o d o l o g i c a l and  antismaller  Gourlay,  Rousseau,  antisocials  1973)  44 relative the  to the schizophrenics  latter  may  b e d u e t o t h e r e d u c e d CNV i n  group.  Much o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s e has  been based  CNV  reflected a cortical  this  basis  (1966)  r e f l e c t e d an  Syndulko  to learn  from e x p e r i e n c e .  support t h i s  excitability/inhibitory  CNV  paradigm  the subject  does  SI - S2 - m o t o r  usually  c l e a r l y explained  Typically  the subject  understands suggest should  except found  older  a loud  tone  adopted  p r o c e s s e s . The paradigm.  to learn  a  the  classic In  this  contingencies  these contingencies  cannot  to ensure  CNV  that  i s no c l i n i c a l  he  are  between  paradigm.  fully  literature  form a s s o c i a t i o n s ,  to  and thus  one  psychopaths and  A l l t h e above  studies,  a n o n a v e r s i v e S2. S y n d u l k o e t a l . (1975)  psychopaths controls  (M = 3 5 ) u n l i k e  (M = 2 8 ) f a i l e d  ( 9 5 db) r e l a t i v e t o a weak  A s t u d y by Howard e t a l . (1982) positive  in recidivist  before the experiment begins.  i s tested  Syndulko's, used  (M = 2 1 ) o r s t a f f to  not have  On  on t h e c o n c e p t s o f e x p e c t a n c y  association  any d i f f e r e n c e s  in a classic  recently  responding since  psychopaths  not predict  that  based  the r e l a t i o n . There  that  controls  has more  the  theoretical position.  i s not a c o n d i t i o n i n g  between  learning.  inability  and  paradigm  of a s s o c i a t i o n  that  o f CNV  approach  however,  thought  the lack  and McCallum  Pavolovian  originally  that  Howard e t a l . ( 1 9 8 2 ) , however, strongly  who  correlate  Walters postulated  delinquents Both  on W a l t e r s  findings  younger  psychopaths  t o show a l a r g e r tone  examined  and negative r e i n f o r c e r s d e l i v e r e d  (70 d b ) . the e f f e c t of  a t S2 o n t h e CNV  CNV  45 amplitude.  The s u b j e c t  population  psychiatric  hospital divided  personality  disorder  personality  disordered  'psychopathic and  were  The  MHA  the  mind  which  defined  under  or extraversion.  psychopaths  age  and sex,consisted  staff.  The s t u d y  rewarding neutral  The m a j o r i t y  examined  (slides  (blank  o f nude  t h e two p s y c h i a t r i c groups  between  the reinforcement  differences control the gave  found  CNV t o c u e s  significantly  reward  A 3.5 s e c o n d displayed  smaller  i n d i c a t i n g , according  from  There  the nursing  t o cues  signalling  (110 db t o n e ) , and  I S I was u s e d .  were no group"  Control  the reward.  CNVs t h a n  i n the  differences  the "psychopathic  signalling  were no  group, matched f o r  selected  g r o u p on a n y o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s .  largest  There  (7 o u t o f 10) a n d 2 o f  aversive  conditions.  between  of intelligence)  of patients  t h e CNV i n r e s p o n s e  s l i d e ) events.  of  sociability,  A control  females),  et a l .  o f t h e MMPI o r a n a n y  of impulsiveness,  o f 10 s u b j e c t s  A c t (MHA)  or d i s a b i l i t y  of the patient".  were on m e d i c a t i o n .  a  or seriously  g r o u p were on m e d i c a t i o n  the  as having  group by Howard  i n t h e Pd s c a l e  scales  i n the  Health  subnormality  aggressive  on t h e p a r t  group d i f f e r e n c e s  schizophrenic  t h e 1959 M e n t a l  or not including  conduct  and a  o u t o f 10 s u b j e c t s  PD a s " a p e r s i s t e n t d i s o r d e r  t h e MMPI d e r i v e d  anxiety  of  Seven  r e s u l t s i n abnormally  between  into a schizophrenic  t o as the psychopathic  (whether  from a s p e c i a l  (PD) g r o u p were c l a s s i f i e d  disorder'  referred  irresponsible  of  group.  were p a t i e n t s  controls  to these authors,  Neither  i n CNV significant and the  subjects  gave  Schizophrenics i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of that  these  46 patients The  were d e f i c i e n t  authors  than  combined  two  high  i m p u l s i v i t y group gave similar  considered  they  the  conditioners  (Ax,  results  of  support deficit  psychopaths.  This  signalling  Ax  reward. and  both  conclusions  d r a w n by  with  psychopathy.  In  summary, t h e  evidence  that  CNV's. S i n c e  failure  processing,  examining  the  to  emotional  The  poor  the  Gottlieb, conclude  with  but  lack  of  in this  processing  should and  of  Fowles  to  proper  a  (1980)  have  cues diagnostic effects little  to  section provide  no  reduced  have a d e f i c i t  CNV  that  and  not  a l . ( 1 9 8 2 ) may  research  1970)  relatively  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by to  are  electrodermal  schizophrenics  be  of  Since  authors  should  of  authors  schizophrenics  (1978) h y p o t h e s i s  reviewed  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  with  the  c o n t r o l for medication  appear  future  be  punishment  Howard et  psychopaths are  emotional  experiments  to  studies  psychopaths  to  i s incompatible  H o w e v e r , due  the  Because  reward.  the  Lloyd's  signalling  them  in anticipation  F r e t z , and  events,  conclusion  divided  defining characteristic  Beckett,  and  CNV  group.  reported  common t o  to cues  assessment,  do  amplitude  which p r e d i c t s psychopaths  unresponsive  the  impulsivity scores.  low  signalling  aversive  outcome.  and  p s y c h o p a t h s and  been  reward  g r o u p s and  the  that  Bamford,  motivational  model,  be  for  patient  low  to cues  have a l s o  anticipation  their  high  expectancy  schizophrenic  argued  undersensitive  schizophrenics  in  to  on  i m p u l s i v i t y to  psychopathy, both  based  the  into  reward,  groups  in their  or  related  concentrate  psychopathy  requirements.  absent to on  within  47  F.  PURPOSE  There  punishment  (electrical  The  importance  punishment In t h i s  response.  The a b o v e  The p u r p o s e  the of  psychopaths are (see review  may  of t h i s  used  s t u d y was  learned  consisted  autonomic  i n electrodermal  loss  anticipatory anticipation  to the type of  to determine  of  to  also  of electrodermal  be r e l a t e d  has been  psychopaths  psychopaths  Hare,  punishment  whether  conditioning  to  punishment. i n the electrodermal  the particular psychopath. t h e CNS  provide  pattern  show a d e f i c i t  Anomalies of  condition  study suggests that  i n psychopaths  monetary  that  i n which  examining  signalling  i f the punishment  punishment  the appropriate  psychopaths  t o cues  and tones)  study  passively,  displayed  used.  studies  of the type of r e i n f o r c e r  avoid  deficits  from  hyporesponsive t o these cues  i n Schmauk's (1970)  money.  responses  shock  shown  of  EXPERIMENT  evidence  electrodermal  electrodermally v  PROPOSED  i s considerable  anticipatory  1978)  OF  Evoked  functioning  valuable  motivational designed  t o measure  incentive  slow c o r t i c a l task.  reflection  demands p l a c e d on  There  was  i n psychopaths  has been  little  wave a c t i v i t y ,  may  and  behavior. This study  potentials  on s l o w  measure  s u c h a s SC a n d HR a n d  evidence of cognitive  on p s y c h o p a t h s  effects  be a  a r e a much more d i r e c t  than measures  significant  may  and m o t i v a t i o n a l  potentials  convergent  effects  motivationally examining  cognitive  system  in a  research  a n d no  48 research of  looking  psychopaths  at  slow  wave p o t e n t i a l s  in anticipation  of  reward  Therefore,  the  present  r e s e a r c h was  effects  the  warning  signals  of  psychopath's long  and  ISI w i l l  components of functional The  design  the  of  Recent  warning  and  addition,  this  reports Raine  of  and In  exposed  r e s e a r c h has  study  1978;  will  electrodermal Nonpsychopaths electrodermal differences groups  or  BIS  study  analysis  of  and  of  a  late  the  potentials  following  the  the amplitude  early  CNV  (Kok,  of  further  data  1978;  on  i n psychopaths  warning  the  P300  to  Rohrbaugh,  S q u i r e s et a l . , 1977).  provide  psychopaths  hypothesized they  response  In  the  recent  (Raine,  would  to  that  1986;  proceeding  little of  the  loss  or  time  which  no have  of  money. anticipatory  reinforcement.  responses  conditions.  a  anticipatory  largest  punishment  in reaction  reinforcement  loss,  were  tones  i f psychopaths  display  show  nonpsychopaths  three d i f f e r e n t  in anticipation  were e x p e c t e d  and  g a i n , monetary  were e x p e c t e d  the  early  the  p r e s e n t a t i o n s of  response  across  use  1986).  I t was  in their  The  permitted  P300 a m p l i t u d e s  present  to repeated  the  on  also  related  to  the  components.  study  evoked  were p a i r e d w i t h monetary  deficit  these  present  Lindsley,  reinforcement.  permit  of  cortical  Venables, the  amplitude.  separate  the  enhanced  value  and  CNV  of  to assess  s e p a r a t i o n between  s t i m u l u s and  Syndulko,  reinforcement  punishment.  f o r the  significance  examination signal.  the  and  designed  n o n p s y c h o p a t h ' s CNV  allow  i n a w e l l - d e f i n e d group  No  between  Although  there  is  49 s t i l l  debate  over  the functional  research  has demonstrated  positive  and n e g a t i v e  predicted CNVs  that  neutral  condition.  display  little  show  of t h i s  reduced  punishment of  giving  Previous  deficit  normal  conditions, and  SC  the  l a t e CNV  then  responding  differences conditions.  show  preceding  that  an a v e r s i v e  predicted  compared  amplitude  as compared  has found  that  I t was early to the  psychopaths  stimuli.  psychopaths  t o nonpsychopaths  under  the appropriate  no g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s should  between  larger  event.  As a would  i n the  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , i f psychopaths are capable  responses  represents  i s sensitive to  conditions  research  i t was  amplitudes  condition.  waveform  would  and punishment  ED a c t i v i t y  CNV  this  q u a l i t i e s o f an a n t i c i p a t e d  nonpsychopaths  f o r the reward  result  that  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e CNV,  occur. motor  I t was  in early further  preparation  the groups or across  there  reinforcement CNV  amplitudes  predicted should  reinforcement  be  that i f no  50 III.  METHODS  A.  SUBJECTS  Subjects of  a medium  security  information complete This  were male  inmates  drawn  from  institution.  Insititutional  file  and a s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d  i n t e r v i e w were  used  a Psychopathy  checklist,  based  C h e c k l i s t (Hare,  i s reliable  psychometric  a n a l y s i s of the c h e c k l i s t  Hare,  alpha  generalizability interrater done  was  coefficient  and  had normal  of age, were  blinking.  Data  technical  errors i n data  this  a  (inter-  of  Schroeder,  and  intrarater  t o .93 a n d  .90. I n t h e p r e s e n t  s e l e c t e d i f they  inmate.  recent  (Schroeder,  .82  to  a study  the  had two r a t i n g s were  between  f r e e o f known n e u r o l o g i c a l  18  impairments  hearing.  were c o l l e c t e d  score  of  were  on  3 of the subjects c o u l d  cutoff  For example,  of  population  f o r each  f o r t h e 15 s u b j e c t s who  .86. V o l u n t e e r s  45 y e a r s  from  coefficients)  reliability  and  Data  and v a l i d .  1983) y i e l d e d r e l i a b i l i t i e s  correlations,  1980)  on C l e c k l e y ' s (1976) c o n c e p t i o n  psychopathy,  and  the inmate  from  2 other  29 s u b j e c t s . H o w e v e r n o t be s c o r e d  acquisition,  l e a v i n g 24  s c o r i n g below  32 w e r e  group  ( G r o u p N P ) . The  total  assigned  group  to the  mean c h e c k l i s t  of due  data  excessive to  subjects. A  32. S u b j e c t s  to the psychopathic  those  because  s u b j e c t s were d r o p p e d  f o r g r o u p m e m b e r s h i p was  were a s s i g n e d  t h e EEG  s c o r i n g above  (Group P ) , w h i l e nonpsychopathic  score  for this  sample  51 was  27.50  that P  obtained  scores  28.  (SD = 9 . 0 2 ) , a v a l u e with  ranged  There were  that  i s virtually  s e v e r a l much l a r g e r  from  32  samples  t o 3 8 . G r o u p NP  12 s u b j e c t s  scores  i n e a c h g r o u p . The  Group  ranged  14 t o  18 t o 41 y e a r s  of age. Subjects  group  from  18 t o 30 y e a r s  of age. There  presents  characteristics  on  i n the P  i n t h e NP  were  g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s i n age o r e d u c a t i o n .  background  from  subjects  from  significant  as  of inmates.  group ranged ranged  t h e same  no Table  the subjects  I  i n each  group. Subjects money t h e y earlier  were p a i d  made  EEG  $6.00  for participating,  i n the experiment.  experiment  plus  whatever  A l lhad p a r t i c i p a t e d  but were n a i v e  to the hypothesis  i n an being  tested.  B. P H Y S I O L O G I C A L  RECORDING  A  16-channel  Beckman  obtain  recordings  of e l e c t r o e n c e p h a l o g r a p h ^  movements  (EOG), s k i n  additional was  recorded  sites, via  channel from  referenced  Beckman type  produce  a low pass  at  .01 H z ;  was  used  frontal  polygraph  to record  ears  was  used  to  (EEG) a c t i v i t y ,  (SC) and h e a r t  rate  ( H R ) . An  (Cz) and p a r i e t a l  (A1, A 2 ) . S i g n a l s were  3 db c u t o f f couplers  with  band f i l t e r s  a t 30 H z a n d a h i g h  were m o d i f i e d  EEG  (Pz)  obtained  c h l o r i d e e l e c t r o d e s and recorded  couplers  eye  stimulus presentation.  (Fz), central  to linked  9806A A.C.  t h e EEG  R-711  conductance  silver-silver  Beckman  type  with  set to pass  to produce  a  cutoff 14.75  TABLE I  Group  Comparisons Anxiety  and  on A g e , APD  Education,  Diagnosis  Group Nonpsychopaths  Psychopaths  Checklist*  24.0  36.0  Age*  24.8  25.2  9.5  8.8  40.3  38.2  45.6  40.3  33%  93%  Education* Anxiety* (Speilberger) State Trait D S M - I I I - APD ( p e r c e n t of group) group  means  53 second Redux The  time  constant.  electrode  electrodes  Medi-trace  A l lsites  paste  were c l e a n e d  and abraded  were a t t a c h e d  EEG g e l a c t e d  lightly  the experiment EOG  was  as the e l e c t r o y l t e .  and they  recorded  with  never  supra-orbital ridge  the  couplers  and time  exceeded  and the outer  constant  were  needle.  c o l l o d i o n , and  Electrical  at the beginning  and end  5 kohms.  v i a Beckman m i n i a t u r e  the  with  a blunt  to the scalp using  impedances were measured a t a l l s i t e s of  thoroughly  electrodes  canthus  placed  on  of the right eye;  t h e same a s t h o s e  used f o r  EEG. E E G a n d EOG micro-computer line  and were  stored  a n a l y s i s . A 50 m i c r o v o l t  each channel times and  were d i g i t i z e d  f o r subsequent  o n - l i n e a t 256 Hz by a on a Compaq  calibration  amplitude  magnetic  on t h e h a r d  tape  controlled classical subject  received  were  recorded  on  Reaction  transferred to  trial  Scotch  storage.  and the i n t e r - s t i m u l u s i n t e r v a l  by a Compaq m i c r o c o m p u t e r . forewarned  imperative  was  PRESENTATION  presentation  received  signal  for off-  m i l l i s e c o n d f o r each  c a r t r i d g e s f o r permanent  C. S T I M U L U S  Stimuli  d i s k . Data  disk  measurements.  were c a l c u l a t e d t o t h e n e a r e s t  stored  hard  Compaq  r e a c t i o n time  a warning  stimulus  stimulus  The p r o c e d u r e  paradigm,  types  (S1) f o l l o w e d  of reinforcement,  involved a  i n which the  ( S 2 ) , t o w h i c h h e made a m o t o r  one o f t h r e e  were  by an response.  each of which  He was  54 signalled monetary  by  the  gain  (Punishment  (Reward  of  SI  db,  S1  1300  would  was  followed  Hz  tone  ( 9 0 0 Hz)  tone  that  always  associated  with  randomized  between  between  and  10  randomized, followed tones  60  db  C.  1600 6  predicted  msec.  Sony  by  tape the  a  duration  consisting The  middle  of  Hz)  and  (300  tones  low  than  were  25  2  experiment  trials  was  of  same  by  used  the  UBC  was  pseudotype The  Psychology  to provide white  in order  t o mask  75  varied  condition. the  a  outcome  was  trials  per  built  was  interval  the  trials  generator  recorder  of  Hz)  100  frequency  The  order  more  frequencies  outcome.  The  no  The  was  neutral  seconds. that  tone  the  inter-trial  noise  out  noises.  PROCEDURE  carried  institution.  Due  to  electrical majority  noises  S2  The  was  the  (1600  100  by  no  Each  intensity,  signalled  loss  that  headphones.  later  for  tone  monetary  condition).  a l l 75db  seconds  One  signalled  stereo  lasted  Testing  or  third  Hz,  SI.  another  (Neutral  o t h e r . There  A  a  as  groups.  throughout  background  and  high  generated  Department. at  15  such  each  were  the  used  condition),  through  900,  200,  tones  occur  binaurally  were,  msec.  of  condition),  reinforcement presented  pitch  such  the  shielding of  as  sounds, cell  out  i n an  location  of  empty  tier  in  the  the  study  no  soundproofing  was  available.  but  d i d not  doors  being  The  white  control  closed  or  noise  for loud  the  masked  random  occasional  yelling  55 of  inmates  to  c o n t r o l the f o r the use of c o f f e e ,  medication subjects long  i n the halls  or s t r e e t drugs  were a s k e d  ago they  experiment.  were  and  tea, cigarettes,  to the experiment,  There  a s t r e e t drug  inmate  was  initially  form.  given  a brief  t o be t a k e n  Electrodes  out the Spielberger  (Speilberger, taken  f o r 10 s e c o n d s  closed.  The i n m a t e  (Appendix button, to  placed  S2. Since  were used and he  with  blue  directly  was g i v e n  Reaction explained  time  1970).  a chip  plus  and  read  impedances  h e was a s k e d t o Inventory Resting  detailed  to  EEG  was eyes  instructions  He w a s t o l d  to press  a  i n f r o n t of him, as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e  was c o n t i n g e n t  money  (white  t o motivate  him the  on t h e h i s r e a c t i o n  i n t h e p r i s o n , poker chips  10 c e n t s ) .  representing  thresholds An  asked  a n d 10 s e c o n d s w i t h  requirements.  representing  below.  given  i s not permitted  to represent  of the  d e s c r i p t i o n of the  were a t t a c h e d  of the c o n d i t i o n . In order  money  chips  eyes open  was t h e n  of reinforcement  from  the author  and then  State-Trait Anxiety  and Lushene,  B) on t h e t a s k  S2 r e g a r d l e s s  level to  Gorsuch,  one s u b j e c t ,  present,  measured. Once t h e e l e c t r o d e s were c o n n e c t e d f i l l  t o i n d i c a t e how  assistant.  and the recordings  sign a consent  although  w i t h i n 6 hours  2 experimenters  a male o r female  experiment  I t was n o t p o s s i b l e  had used any of t h e above. Only using  The  prior  tiers.  a t the end of the experiment  G r o u p P, r e p o r t e d  either  o r on o t h e r  representing  25  who  chips cents  In the reward c o n d i t i o n ,  either  25 c e n t s  o r 10  cents.  were c a l c u l a t e d by t h e p r o c e d u r e  inmate  time  responded  quicker  then h i s  56 threshold cent  received  chip.  a 25 c e n t s  chip,  f a s t e r then h i s t h r e s h o l d ,  responded  slower.  lost  he c o u l d  and l o s t  10 c e n t s  25 c e n t s  I n t h e n e u t r a l c o n d i t i o n , he n e i t h e r  any money. A t t h e b e g i n n i n g  i n m a t e was g i v e n that  he r e c e i v e d  I n t h e p u n i s h m e n t c o n d i t i o n , he l o s t  responded  nor  otherwise  a pile  of c h i p s  a 10 i f he  i f he gained  of the experiment, the  representing  $6.00. He was  told  keep w h a t e v e r money he made i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t . The  minimum amount o f money made was $2.25, a n d t h e maximum amount was  $9.75. In  was as  order  given  20 t r i a l s  possible  for  to determine  Each  i n w h i c h he was a s k e d  o f RT  subject  was g i v e n  was g i v e n  front  until  to identify  were made w i t h  by  each  twice  the tone-  on t h e t a b l e i n time  responses  the SI, followed  6 seconds  hand.  the s u b j e c t  heard  a response  button  placed  of him as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e . F o l l o w i n g  this  lights  were p l a c e d  l i t up ( s e e F i g u r e  predicted.  i n a row. An i n d e x  the experiment. Reaction  was t o p r e s s  the three  the tones  he c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d  t h e dominant  trial  S2. H i s t a s k  used  the tones as h i g h ,  t h e t o n e - o u t c o m e a s s o c i a t i o n was l e f t  o f him throughout  On  subsequently  practice at identifying  outcome a s s o c i a t i o n f o r e a c h c o n d i t i o n with  as q u i c k l y  scores.  medium, a n d low a n d t o s a y w h i c h c o n d i t i o n  card  inmate  was s e t a t t h e 7 5 t h q u a r t i l e o f h i s  t o n e s u s e d a s S I . He was a s k e d  Practice  each  t o respond  t o a, s i n g l e t o n e . The RT t h r e s h o l d  each s u b j e c t  distribution  i n d i v i d u a l RT t h r e s h o l d ,  2 ) . The l i g h t s  in front  one o f t h r e e on t h e w a l l  Baseline 1 sec i  *  1 r~  ISI 6 sees  10-15  *  1  ITI sees randomized  #  *  100 msec SI  S2  Response  ( B u t t o n press)  LED F e e d b a c k Reinforcement  Figure  2.  Stimulus  paradigm.  i  58 directly  i n front  represented reward  should  He w a s t o l d  look  taken  down  rest  move a r o u n d , minimize  to  t o keep h i s eyes  blink  the rest  during  during periods  the t r i a l s ,  between  i n blocks  each  the subject fixated  the  block was  towards  The  o f 15. A 2 t o of t r i a l s .  experimental  the lights,  and t o  trial.  the subject a n d was a g a i n  was a g a i n told  removed and t h e s u b j e c t  questionnaire  (see Appendix  to rate h i s reactions during  experiment  lasted  approximately: 2  In  not to  reminded not  about  the toneanother  p e r i o d o f 10 s e c o n d s o f e y e s o p e n a n d c l o s e d w a s  e l e c t r o d e s were  asked  had given  instructed  outcome a s s o c i a t i o n s . At t h e end of t h e experiment resting  the  h a d gone o f f he  the assistant  were p r e s e n t e d  EEG a r t i f a c t s ,  represented  the neutral  the light  t o s e e how m u c h m o n e y  his blinking  During  represented  once  p e r i o d was g i v e n  t o reduce  (1.2 meters away). A r e d l i g h t  c o n d i t i o n , a green  that  away. The t r i a l s  3 minute order  the punishment  c o n d i t i o n , and a yellow  condition.  or  of the subject  was g i v e n  post-  C ) , i n w h i c h he was  the experiment. hours.  a  given.  The  59 D. DATA  All  EEG m e a s u r e s w e r e  obtained  i.  during  Slow  Because used,  ANALYSIS  microvolts  trials  the  averaged  of  trials  and  vertex  to obtain  t o S1 o n s e t  and spanning  condition.  indicated  that  slow  r e s p o n s e . The f i r s t  early  Individual a  the task  Visual  averages  early  6 seconds  component component  CNV w a s i d e n t i f i e d .  the  averaged  amplitude  was  scored as the averaged  The  i n each  differences averages  group  between time-  w e r e made  f o r each  of these  averages  inspection  filter.  exceeded  11 t o 2 5 . S i n c e  of t r i a l s  found. Grand  a t Cz i n e a c h  3 Hz p h a s e l e s s d i g i t a l  maximal  from  requirements e l i c i t e d  CNV a n d t h e s e c o n d  50  data analysis.  w e r e a n a l y z e d . No s i g n i f i c a n t were  Trials  i s d e p e n d e n t on t h e number  i t , t h e number  locked  the  ranged  amplitude of a waveform  i n each  interval  o f more t h a n  further  per average  or across conditions  wave  inter-stimulus  EEG a m p l i t u d e s t h a t  were e x c l u d e d from  groups  group  long  eye movements  with  of t r i a l s  condition  t o S1 o n s e t .  were c o n t a m i n a t e d by e y e b l i n k s .  by v e r t i c a l  used  prior  baseline  Potentials  and t r i a l s  number  period  of the r e l a t i v e l y  100 m i c r o v o l t s total  t h e one second  Cortical  several  contaminated  referenced to a blink-free  will  a two component be r e f e r r e d  as the l a t e  condition  t o as  CNV.  were  smoothed  using  The a p p r o x i m a t e  location  of the  The e a r l y  CNV w a s s c o r e d a s  1000 t o 1200 msec p o s t  S 1 . The l a t e  a m p l i t u d e 200 msec p r i o r  t o S2.  CNV  60  i i .  Auditory  Grand  averages  calculated smoothed peak  wave as  the  A (in  umhos)  the  maximal  SC  the  measured.  Those  200  and  averages  filter  identified msec  post  wave  latencies  .05  as  analyses.  Three  response  which  subjects umhos  to  to  as  of  the  Cz  were  then  facilitate  S I . The  between  at  were  the  maximum P300  250  N100  5  seconds  the  6  and and  was 500  msec  P300  were  tones  to  as  the  than  show  i n the  .05  any  were  nonresponders  psychopathic group. i t was  The felt  the  SC  subject's  coupler.  response that  included  on  the  in  data  This  session  i t r e p r e s e n t e d an  of were  the  and  two  were  subject  first  was  response  practice  nonpsychopaths  with  umhos  SC  not  One  and  anticipatory  were  nonresponders.  difference  p r e - s t i m u l u s (SI)  second  greater  failed  the  defined  and  problems  since  was  was  who  nonresponders  were  SC  during  response  described  included,  was  positive  mean  reached  Any  technical  and  maximum  between  psychopaths  N100  80  conductance  than  Individual  (AEP)  Conductance  interval.  greater  SI.  potentials  subject.  Skin  skin  The  amplitudes  f o r each  i i i .  to  evoked  phaseless d i g i t a l  between  S i . Both  scored  the  Hz  identification.  identified  to  20  Potentials  auditory  in response  with a  negative  post  Evoked  trial  lost  due  was  from  was  not  orienting  61 response  to the  response.  In order  SC  was  of  the average  two  consisted  was  IV.  of of  tone  the  two first  the condition  Performance  over  the t r i a l s ,  Block  one  consisted  of each  condition.  Only  trials  12  f o r the Neutral trial  the  Block  were  condition  since  one.  Data  Time  The  threshold  54.63),  m e a n RT was  than  difference  positively  (RT)  somewhat  f o r Group  was  distributions  not  NP  Prior  w e r e made b e t w e e n significance (Anderson,  i n the a n a l y s i s degree  of  f o r Group  freedom  P  groups at  SD  Reaction  1958)  .05  of v a r i a n c e matrices  probability  were computed,  of v a r i a n c e  f o r which  for a within  factor.  SD  one  there  =  this  time  tended to  be  (ANOVA) F  (Barlett's  at each c o n d i t i o n .  the  the  = 73.99); but  i n each c o n d i t i o n  of covariance  of  (M = 2 3 2 . 1 6 ms;  significant.  to the a n a l y s i s  test)  symmetry  set at the beginning  (M = 2 5 5 . 7 5 ms;  group  f o r the homogeneity  statistical  was  statistically  f o r each  skewed.  Data  faster  tests  one  trials.  p r e s e n t e d on  1) R e a c t i o n  experiment  term  i n SC  of t r i a l s .  trials  one  anticipatory  RESULTS  A.  for  13 12  i n Block  t h e n an  changes  blocks  the f i n a l  together  rather  t o examine  averaged across  averaged it  initial  None  level.  reached F  tests  f o r each  error  was  than  None o f  more  these  reached  TABLE I I  Group  Means and  Standard Deviations  for Across  Reaction  Times  ( i nparentheses)  (msec)  Reinforcement Conditions  Group Condition  Nonpsychopaths  Psychopaths  Neutral  268.6  (71.3)  237.0  (54.9)  Reward  251.3  (76.1)  227.6  (60.7)  Punishment  254.1  (83.3)  228.9  (63.7)  Group  258.0  (75.2)  231.2  (58.3)  Mean  63 significance subject  at  the  i n each  performed;  none  the  .05  As  Group P  2)  Prior and  and  be  seen  difference  Error  (ER)  Rate  faster  at  in Table  tests  the  .05  was  as  tested.  level.  There  the in =  basis  of  B.  Evoked  tests  and  reached  (M  Potentials  Assumptions matrices  be  regarding  symmetry  was  a  trend  as compared  for to  significant.  times the  =  :  subject threshold.  of c o v a r i a n c e m a t r i c e s  Neither  F-ratio  reached  w e r e no s i g n i f i c a n t of  I I I . The  distinguished  o f m o n e y made G r o u p NP  ANOVA  s i g n i f i c a n c e at  statistically  i n t h e number  t h e i r performance.  t h e amount $6.82) and  groups  cannot  not  were  are presented i n Table  psychopaths  II there  f o r homogeneity  ERs that  reached  t h e number o f  between  SDs  (Group X C o n d i t i o n )  effects  differences and  3  than h i s i n d i v i d u a l l y set-RT  symmetry a s s u m p t i o n s  significance  2 X  f o r each  Data  were c a l c u l a t e d  t o ANOVA, F  a  were c a l c u l a t e d  faster across a l lconditions  this  to respond  Mean RTs  t h e main  but  Errors failed  of  can  to respond  G r o u p NP,  level.  condition  was  level.  .05  There  errors ER  made. Mean  results  indicate  from nonpsychopaths  w e r e no  i n the experiment  group  on  differences  between  Group P  $6.90).  Data  the homogeneity  a s s u m p t i o n s were  of c o v a r i a n c e  tested.  s i g n i f i c a n c e . Separate 2 X 3  None o f  (Group  x  these  Condition)  (M  TABLE I I I  G r o u p Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s for  ( i n parentheses)  E r r o r Rate i n  Reward and Punishment  Conditions  Group Condition  Nonpsychopaths  Psychopaths  Reward  9.08  (7.21)  9.25  (6.01)  Punishment  9.75  (6.87)  10.08  (6.58)  TABLE I V  G r o u p Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s for  N100 A m p l i t u d e s  Across  ( i n parentheses)  (microvolts)  Reinforcement  Conditions  Group Condition  Nonpsychopaths  Psychopaths  Neutral  -11.5  (4.1)  -12.0 ( 5 . 5 )  Reward  -11.3  (4.9)  -11.8 ( 4 . 5 )  Punishment  -12.8  (4.9)  -13.5 (4.2)  Group  -11.9  (4.6)  -12.4 ( 4 . 7 )  Mean  TABLE  G r o u p Means  and Standard  for  P300  Across  V  Deviations  Amplitudes  ( i n parentheses)  (microvolts)  Reinforcement  Conditions  Group Condition  Nonpsychopaths  Psychopaths  Neutral  6.1  (4.5)  3.2  (5.2)  Reward  3.6  (4.2)  3.6  (4.5)  Punishment  4.2  (5.5)  5.0  (6.8)  Group  4.6  (4.7)  3.9  (5.5)  Mean  67 between-within performed  on  amplitudes  analysis. the  N100  .05  level.  The  significantly conditions. SDs  of  the  V  the  cortical  slow  wave  each  between-within of  significance  MANOVA the  was  was  CNV. the  The  presented of  main  p  A  effect  the  in Figure  2 X on  at  the  condition  slow  of  means  was  and  3.  Figure  wave  the  early F  each  second  (Group  multivariate  results.  6  3  f o r group  .03).  of c o v a r i a n c e  curves  during  .02).  <  means  significant  averaged  performed only  no  response  reinforcement condition.  components  with  reinforcement conditions  comparisons  the  homogeneity  averaged  for  3.88, the  <  for  significant  the  Potentials  group  were  present, respectively,  tested  between  =  was  p  NEU  were  the  3.63,  and  Cortical  are  =  REW  amplitude.  interval  either  significant  between to  for  PUN  P300  anticipatory  NP)  (F(2,44)  to  were  P300  the  symmetry  the  on  amplitude  response  and  across  reach  and  (MANOVA)  statistically  (P a n d  made  and  regarding  and  (F(4,19)  when c o m p a r e d and  no  to  N100  were  amplitude  larger  Assumptions  The  latency  comparisons N100  F  for condition N100  variance  latencies  Groups  IV  Slow  matrices  on  of  were  Table  f o r N100  C.  There  multivariate  amplitude  multiple  and  involving  effect  tests  f o r the  Tukey  latencies.  only  main  analysis  amplitudes  effects  The  Univariate only  N100  and  significant  multivariate  to  group  4  plots  responses  X Condition) and  late  reach  (F(2,21)  =  5.02,  p  <  P300 i 0  t 1  l 2  l 3  1 4  1  5  SECONDS  F i g u r e 3. A v e r a g e d slow c o r t i c a l response waves f o r each group p l o t t e d across reinforcement conditions. S t i m u l u s onset o c c u r r e d a t the i n t e r v a l d e s i g n a t e d as 0. R e l a t i v e n e g a t i v i t y i s d i s p l a y e d u p w a r d . C u r v e r e p r e s e n t s d a t a s a m p l e d a t e v e r y 64 s a m p l e p o i n t s .  .  ' 6  1  0  I 1  I  1  2  3  1  L  *  5  SECONDS  F i g u r e 4. Between group c o m p a r i s o n s of a v e r a g e d c o r t i c a l response waves f o r each reinforcement condition.  slow  .02).  Univariate  significance As P  seen  f o r only  i n Figure  to display  across  tests  on t h e two d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s the early  5 this  greater  result  early  interaction  2.79,  .07),indicating  significantly conditions. in  groups  there  of the l a t e  significance  t o the warning  significance  the early  f o r Group tones  the Group (F(2,44)  X =  CNV d i d n o t v a r y  f o r the three  reinforcement  CNV a m p l i t u d e s  a n d SD's a r e p r e s e n t e d  w e r e no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s  CNV. T h e u n i v a r i a t e  f o r the group e f f e c t  t h e Group X C o n d i t i o n  These  results  presented  D.  i n Figure  i nthe  d i d not  = 2.80, p >  (F(2,44)  reach .10) o r  = 1.25, p > . 3 0 ) .  6 a n d means a n d SDs a r e  i n Table V I I .  Skin  Conductance  covariance  reported  F test  (F(1,22)  interaction  are plotted  Significant  results  matrices  Data  were o b t a i n e d  and symmetry  a r e Greenhouse-Geisser  departures A 2 X 2 X 3 the  that  the tendency  to predictions  approached  T h e mean e a r l y  predicted  analyses  of  only  = 6.19, p < . 0 2 ) .  Table V I .  As  for  across  reflects  Contrary  Condition  (F(1,22)  negativity  a l l the conditions.  p >  CNV  indicated  from  homogeneity  (Group x Block  mean a n t i c i p a t o r y  on t e s t s  (p <  .005).  probabilities  of variances X Condition)  SC r e s p o n s e s .  f o r homogeneity A l l p  i n which  i s taken ANOVA  values  into  account.  was p e r f o r m e d  on  T h e r e w e r e no s i g n i f i c a n t  71  PUN  REW  NEU  CONDITION  F i g u r e 5. G r o u p means f o r reinforcement c o n d i t i o n s .  early  CNV a m p l i t u d e s  across  TABLE VI  G r o u p Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s for  Early Across  CNV  Amplitudes  Reinforcement  ( i n parentheses)  (microvolts) Conditions  Group Condition  Nonpsychopaths  Psychopaths  Neutral  -2.8  (5.2)  -8.1  Reward  -4.9  (3.8)  -6.3 ( 4 . 3 )  Punishment  -4.3  (2.4)  -6.4  Group  -4.0 ( 4 . 3 )  Mean  (3.1)  (3.5)  -7.0 ( 3 . 7 )  73  -7  fZa PSYCHOPATH • i  NONPSYCHOPATH  > 3 LU  -4  bZ  -3  Q 3  <  -H  0 PUN  REW  NEU  CONDITION  rl?nfJ  * f ° reinforcement 6  G  U  P  ^ " conditions. a  S  f  o  r  l  a  t  e  C  N  V  amplitudes  across  TABLE V I I  G r o u p Means for  and Standard Late  Across  CNV  Deviations ( i n parentheses)  Amplitudes  Reinforcement  (microvolts) Conditions  Group Condition Neutral  Nonpsychopaths  Psychopaths  0.5  (3.7)  -3.1  (4.1)  Reward  -1.9  (4.8)  -2.0  (2.7)  Punishment  -1.4  (2.4)  -3.8  (4.2)  Group  -0.9  (3.9)  -3.0  (3.7)  Mean  group p  >  (F(1,16)  = 1.13 p >  .30),condition  .10) o r g r o u p by c o n d i t i o n  (F(1.32,21.19) reached all  = 1.32, p >  significance  subjects  gave  interaction  . 5 0 ) . The main  (F(1,16)  larger  Given was b a s e d result,  the small  N involved  on a c u t o f f  research.  in this  Hare,  Frazelle  in anticipatory  when  defined  well  block.  The  i n Figure study  7.  group  separation  Checklist.  As a  was n o t a s w i d e a s i t h a s b e e n i n  group d i f f e r e n c e s "a v e r y  that  are presented i n  o f 32 o n t h e P s y c h o p a t h y  group separation  previous  the f i r s t  SC d a t a  are plotted  f o r blocks  .05), indicating  responses during  and t h e r e s u l t s  = 2.60,  effects effect  = 4.63, p <  means a n d SDs f o r t h e a n t i c i p a t o r y Table V I I I ,  (F(1.32,21.19)  a n d Cox  (1978)  reported  SC r e s p o n s e s may  group of primary  only  that  occur  psychopaths" i s  obtained. Further  analyses  more s t r i n g e n t receiving those  cutoff  a checklist  receiving  9 subjects  o n SC r e s p o n s e s criterion score  a checklist  i n each  pattern  groups.  out using  f o r group membership.  Subjects  score  o f 20 a n d b e l o w ,  resulting in  g r o u p . A 2 X 3 (Group by C o n d i t i o n )  of r e s u l t s  a  o f 35 a n d a b o v e w e r e c o m p a r e d t o  m e a s u r e s ANOVA w a s p e r f o r m e d , The  were c a r r i e d  revealing  replicated  no s i g n i f i c a n t  the findings  The means a n d SDs f o r t h e s e  subjects  f o r the  repeated effects. larger  are presented i n  Table IX. Electrodermal to  evaluate  anticipatory  responses  f o r two r e a s o n s . period  i n which  to the reinforcement  were  First,  after  they  the baseline  occurred was  changing  difficult an  76  0.30-1  0.25 -  Nonpsychopaths  Psychopaths  GROUP  Figure  7.  G r o u p means f o r a n t i c i p a t o r y  SC  TABLE  Group Means and S t a n d a r d for  VIII  Deviations  Anticipatory Skin  Responses  Across  ( i n parentheses)  Conductance  Reinforcement  Conditions  Group Condition  Nonpsychopaths  Psychopaths  Neutral  .13  (.14)  .07  (.07)  Reward  .18  (.33)  .07  (.08)  Punishment  .21  (.37)  .10  (.14)  Group  .17  (.29)  .08  (.10)  Mean  TABLE  IX  G r o u p Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s for for  Extreme  Groups  Anticipatory Skin  Responses  ( i n parentheses)  Conductance  Across Reinforcement Conditions  Group Condition  Nonpsychopaths  Psychopaths  Neutral  .16  (.13)  .08  (.11)  Reward  .32  (.33)  .12  (.14)  Punishment  .25  (.27)  .08  (.09)  Group  .24  (.27)  .09  (.11)  Mean  TABLE  X  Group Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s for Responses  Skin  ( i n parentheses)  Conductance  To R e i n f o r c e m e n t C o n d i t i o n s  Group Condition  Nonpsychopaths  Psychopaths  Neutral  .45  (.55)  .18  (.20)  Reward  .44  (.62)  .18  (.19)  Punishment  .53  (.70)  .16  (.13)  Group  .47  (.62)  .17  (.17)  Mean  80 (cf.  E p s t e i n , Boudreau,  responses  were compared  difficulty and  the  was  time  depended  on  assistant  the  the the  the  same a n a l y s i s  SC  only  (F(1,16) to  and  the  effect  level  Anxiety  of  state  respectively.  (t(21)  =  scale,  45.55  p > (SD  =  as  and  The  on  .10).  SC  the  response  6  reinforcement  the  anticipatory  means and  presented  SDs  for  i n Table  X.  (Speilberger et a l . ,  anxiety that  situation.  scores  =  fast  approached  The  are  how  to the  f o r group  tone  interval  largest  with  Inventory  state  between Groups  (5.92)  1.65,  time  second  warning  This  the  Data  than  Measures of  s c a l e were M  the  differences in anxiety  amplitudes  1973).  between  reinforcement  reason  b a s e l i n e . The  response  p >  this  presented.  performed  in a particular  differentiate the  the  subjects with high  Irwin,  was  the  = 2.13,  individual  s h o w s m a l l e r CNV  on  was  main  State-Trait  experienced  and  used as  the  measures  (trait)  normal  was  Anxiety Questionnaire  The 1970)  S2  response  E.  interval  For  r e i n f o r c e m e n t . When t h e  and  the  pre-S1  reinforcement  after  significance  the  1975).  subject's reaction  gave  responses,  to  Kling,  variable  seconds the  and  I t was  because  anxiety inventories  do  those  with  and NP.  (SD  =  means w e r e n o t  10.39) t h a n  used here  trait  P and  . 5 2 ) . G r o u p NP  actually  on  state  38.17  is  proneness  scored  low  scores  (Knott  trait  anxiety did  Means  f o r Group P and  9.05)  and  M  =  significantly higher  d i d G r o u p P,  on  40.25  NP  40.27 different  the (SD  not  trait =  5.31);  81 however, .13. and  this  These  difference  findings  Speilberger,  absence  are consistent  state  the reinforcement  in  r a t i n g of the c o n d i t i o n s .  dependent  variables  level  rated effect  was  (p <  level  were  The o n l y  tests  multivariate  tests  Interesting  on e a c h  as compared  t o t h e NEU  as s i g n i f i c a n t l y  (p < (p <  between  more  of the  Figure  f o r the i n t e r e s t i n g and boring  across the  .0001), .0001).  Boring  (p  Tukey  t h e means w i t h  the  REW  i n t e r e s t i n g and  condition.  more b o r i n g .  F to reach  Bonferroni  o f . 0 0 1 . A s e x p e c t e d t h e PUN a n d significantly  differences  of the s i x dependent  .003) a n d E x c i t i n g  rated  scale)  rate the  significant differences  were p e r f o r m e d  was  ( F ( 1 2 , 9 ) = 4.88, p <  (by the  on e a c h  point  w e r e no g r o u p  effect  s e t a t .008  highly  comparisons  conditions  There  f o r the univariate  f o r the following:  significance  exciting  conditions.  Univariate  .0003), Uneasy  multiple  of the  between  (one t o seven  f o r the experiment-wise error  indicated  conditions  (1978)  r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s MANOVA  f o r the condition  variables  procedure).  <  was  To c o n t r o l  significance  reports  differences  ratings  to  .01).  (1978)  a n d Cox  criminals.  by C o n d i t i o n )  on t h e s u b j e c t i v e  significance  t h e Hare  Data  A 2 X 3 (Group performed  and t r a i t  and nonpsychopathic  F. R a t i n g  with  K l i n g , a n d O'Hagan  of anxiety  psychopathic  was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t t ( 2 1 ) =1.56, p >  T h e NEU c o n d i t i o n 8 summarizes  variables.  this  was  ra  PW^MH«.VJV.W.V.]  INTERESTING  Neutral  m  Reward  SSI  Punishment  l* S S * /Hill | • MM!  BORING  F i g u r e 8 . Mean r a t i n g s o f i n t e r e s t a n d b o r e d o m t o reinforcement conditions collapsed across groups.  F i g u r e 9 . Mean r a t i n g s o f a n t i c i p a t i o n and to tones c o l l a p s e d a c r o s s groups.  eagerness  84 A  2 X  performed  3  tests the wise  by C o n d i t i o n )  on t h e s u b j e c t i v e  differences effect  (Group  was  were  found.  significant  on e a c h  results  found  Anticipation  (p <  f o r two o f t h e d e p e n d e n t  with  PUN a n d REW  differed significantly  associated the  a significance level  REW  with  ratings  a n d PUN c o n d i t i o n s  exciting  than  t h e NEU  G. Q u a l i t a t i v e  Most  significantly  of the subjects  appeared  behaviors  were  recorded  and behaviors  interest.  One  deal  the a s s i s t a n t  suggested  that  .006).  Tukey  indicated  multiple that  i n Figure  the  This  9.  and t o the tones  that more  a l ls u b j e c t s  found  i n t e r e s t i n g and  Observations  i n t e r e s t i n g . Where  with  Significant  condition.  procedure  comments  with  variables:  i s shown  indicates  performed  t h e NEU c o n d i t i o n .  to the conditions  reinforcement  group  f o r experiment-  o f .001  from  f o r a n t i c i p a t i o n and eagerness  Subjective  were  procedure).  (p <  no  also  .05). Univariate  variables  .001) a n d E a g e r n e s s  Again  was  f o r the condition  s e t a t .008 t o c o n t r o l  comparisons  effect  F  = 3.26, p <  (by t h e B o n f e r r o n i  MANOVA  to the tones.  The m u l t i v a r i a t e  of the s i x dependent  rate  were  ratings  (F(12,8)  significance level error  between-within  subject,  relevant  throughout made  v e r b a l i z a t i o n s and  the experiment.  a break  would  Several  i n Group P a r e of  period,  was h a n d l i n g  i f the assistant  the experimental  subject  by s u b j e c t s  during who  to find  offered  t o make  the reinforcement.  give  him only  quarters  a  He and  85 remove o n l y d i m e s he w o u l d assistant. because take  he f e l t  the rest  subjects keeping the  Another  he c o u l d  periods,  tried  the reaction  Both  comment  was w r i t t e n  questionnaire  better.  A third  he e n j o y e d  subjects  were  i n order  subjects  Two  one by  a l l the time, and to  respond  f r o m G r o u p P. A n  interesting  a t the end of the p o s t - e x p e r i m e n t a l  by one o f t h e p s y c h o p a t h s .  they  comment found  that  He w r o t e  " I  rather  enjoyed then the  w a s made b y a n u m b e r o f t h e s u b j e c t s  i tdifficult  the h i g h and low tone.  neutral  t h e game.  task,  b u t t o n p r e s s e d down half-way  d i d n o t want t o  playing  time  over  gain aspect of the procedure".  Another was t h a t  with the  t o do t h e e x p e r i m e n t  on t h e r e a c t i o n  i t down  of these  the winnings  c h a l l e n g e o f t h e game o n a p e r s o n a l l e v e l  material  from  do even  time  o t h e r by h o l d i n g  wanted  because  to cheat  faster.  the  inmate  split  condition. made t h i s  However,  to discriminate  The m i d d l e since  comment, g r o u p  tone  no r e c o r d  the middle  always  predicted the  w a s made o f  comparisons  tone  cannot  be  which made.  86 V.  DISCUSSION  This  s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o e x a m i n e  anticipatory monetary  reward  psychopaths this  form  as  and e l e c t r o c o r t i c a l  and punishment.  are not d e f i c i e n t  with  Schmauk's  in their  (1970)  psychopaths punishment  failed when  and w i t h  that  i n which when  (1978)  t o show a n y p e r f o r m a n c e  the p r o b a b i l i t y  to  that response  to  i s generally  deficit  Seigel's  prior  indicate  anticipatory  study  t o show a p a s s i v e a v o i d a n c e  the punishment,  responses  The r e s u l t s  of reinforcement, a f i n d i n g  consistent failed  autonomic  the psychopath's  psychopaths money  was  report  that  deficit  with  of punishment  was a  used  monetary  near  certainty. Before conductance the  discussing data w i l l  the e l e c t r o c o r t i c a l  be r e v i e w e d . G e n e r a l l y ,  SC m e a s u r e s w e r e l e s s  electrocortical differences  conclusive  findings.  in anticipatory  compared  t o nonpsychopaths  activity  across the conditions  in line  in  which  with  differentiate of  t o have  between  tones  Fowles'  described  that  h y p o t h e s i s o f a weak  than  group  r e s p o n s e s , t h e r e was a SC  less  responses  as  differential  SC  by H a r e a n d Q u i n n SC r e s p o n s e s  preceded  slide.  i n SC a n t i c i p a t o r y  from  than d i d the nonpsychopaths.  anticipatory  nude f e m a l e s , and a b l a n k  differences  smaller  a n d t o show  the findings  the psychopath's  a n d more v a r i a b l e  electrodermal  f o r psychopaths  the skin  the r e s u l t s  A l t h o u g h t h e r e w e r e no  tendency  is  results,  The  responses  electric  lack  of  to slides  group  i s inconsistent  BIS i n psychopaths.  (1971)  failed shock,  This  with  As to the  expected, nonpsychopaths  the tone tone  the smallest  SC  responses  preceding the neutral  condition,  and t h e l a r g e s t  p r e c e d i n g t h e punishment  condition.  The  differential to  gave  the task  SC c o n d i t i o n i n g  i n nonpsychopaths  r e q u i r e m e n t s . In each  required  to prepare  reported  that  f o r a motor  condition  response.  t h e mere p r e s e n c e  to  small  may  have  subjects  been  due  were  Simons e t a l . (1979)  of a motor  response  will  enhance  SC r e s p o n d i n g . Past  theoretical  psychopath's to aversive Newmen, types  deficits stimuli  1980). Most  rewards, present  results,  suggest  that  may  Fowles'  ( A r o n f r e e d , 1968).  "sensitization"  relation  second between  psychopathy  of punishment along with  results  and  (1983;  Hare  Venables,  1986).  used  activity  "sensitization"  "Induction"  in this  deficit  have  prior  1980; G o r e n s t e i n and  punishments  i n autonomic  forms  and  experiment.  t h o s e o b t a i n e d by Schmauk  to "sensitization"  The  (1970)  responding  of punishment  and  that  t o be m o d i f i e d t o a p p l y o n l y  to  punishments. purpose slow  of t h i s  cortical  in anticipation  The N100  the  t o the withdrawal of a f f e c t i o n  B I S h y p o t h e s i s may  The  1978; F o w l e s ,  the psychopaths's  be c o n f i n e d  autonomic  of the r e s e a r c h has i n v o l v e d  1968) r e f e r  the form  have emphasized  in anticipatory  (Hare,  of punishments  (Aronfreed,  formulations  s t u d y was potentials,  of monetary  were c o n s i s t e n t Jutai, There  with  to investigate ERP's,  reward  and  and punishment.  t h o s e o b t a i n e d by  Hare and C o n n o l l y , 1985; R a i n e w e r e no d i f f e r e n c e  i n N100  the  Jutai  and  response of  88 psychopaths  and nonpsychopaths.  fluctuations Naatanen,  i n central arousal  1975). Changes  associated  with  in  response  an  unattended  associated paid it  channel  presented (Hillyard,  abnormal  more a t t e n t i o n  i s noteworthy  tone  i n N100 a m p l i t u d e  i n N100 a m p l i t u d e with  associated  with  with  the other  monetary  have a l s o  t h e N100  1 9 8 2 ) . The  suggests  f o r both  and Gluck,  i n an a t t e n d e d  that  central arousal  than  that  i s sensitive to  (Khachaturian  selective attention  to stimuli  differences  The N100  being  of  larger than i n  group  psychopathy  and that  tones.  t h e N100 was  l o s s as compared  i s not  neither  to the warning  groups  been  channel  lack  1969;  group Still,  larger  to the  to the  other  tones. The peaking second  CNV c o n s i s t e d after  the S1, and a second  stimulus.  findings  These  of Rohrbaugh  differences  o f two n e g a t i v e  i n CNV  hypothesis  were  preparation Gaillard, The  with  f o r the early  This CNV  (1978). CNV.  Group  The  late  by t h e d i f f e r e n t  latter  finding supports the  i s a cortical  and M e r i s a l o ,  the earlier  c o r r e l a t e of motor  1977; Rohrbaugh and  1983). CNV  has been  reported  properties  studies  affective  only  as expected,  the late  (Naatanen  motivational Several  found  wave  wave p r o c e e d i n g t h e  e t a l . (1976) and G a i l l a r d  conditions.  that  negative  r e s u l t s a r e i n agreement  CNV w a s n o t i n f l u e n c e d reinforcement  components, an e a r l y  have  stimuli  t o be s e n s i t i v e t o  of a s t i m u l i  reported  (Klorman  (Irwin  a l a r g e r CNV  and Ryan,  subjective  e t a l . , 1976). i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of  1980; Simons  e t a l . , 1979;  89 Rockstroh the (p  e t a l . , 1982; D u b r o v s k y  G r o u p by C o n d i t i o n >  .07) t h i s  and Doniger,  interaction failed  f i n d i n g warrants early  associated  with  the p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e  conditions  than  with  early  reinforcement may  deficit  CNV  experiment,  show d i f f e r e n t i a l  emotional  words.  psychopaths language.  i n which  expected  when  In  t h e S1  was  contrast,  there  This  that  interpreted  this  finding  semantic i s a  and a f f e c t . In a recent  (1986) r e p o r t e d  ERP  psychopaths  failed  to emotional  and non-  f i n d i n g as i n d i c a t i n g  that  do n o t d i f f e r e n t i a t e between a f f e c t i v e components o f  Although,  this  study  processing,  i t d i d involve  psychopaths  lack  conditions,  i s consistent  discriminate suggests  As  condition.  RT a n d E R P r e s p o n d i n g  She  significance  reinforcement  (1976) p o s t u l a t e d  a deficit  thought  Williamson  larger  condition.  and the n e u t r a l  by C l e c k l e y ' s  between  were  Although,  d i d not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between t h e  i n psychopaths;  dissociation  to  the neutral  conditions  be e x p l a i n e d  amplitudes  to reach  comment.  nonpsychopath's  psychopath's  CNV  further  1978).  that  motivational  was n o t e x a m i n i n g  affective processing.  of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n across  between  with  neutral  psychopaths  language Thus,  reinforcement  the hypothesis  that  and a f f e c t i v e events.  fail  to attach  s i g n i f i c a n c e to events  the  they  fail  to  I t also  appropriate  of d i f f e r i n g  affective  value. Another CNV from  possible  i n the neutral evidence  that  explanation  f o r psychopath's  condition  as compared  the early  CNV  larger  t o nonpsychopaths  amplitude  i s affected  early comes  by t h e  90 level  of discrimination  Enhanced  negativity  discriminate. the  middle  difficulty  i s found  found  from  tone  be e x p e c t e d . S e v e r a l  problem,  with  1976).  are difficult  i td i f f i c u l t  was a s s o c i a t e d  condition, would  and Lang,  when t h e s t i m u l i  I f psychopaths  tone, which  (Simons  to  to discriminate  the neutral  the other tones, then a l a r g e r  early  of the subjects  a l t h o u g h i t was n o t r e c o r d e d w h i c h  CNV  to this  d i d mention  group  they  this  were  from. Previous attentional reported  t h e CNV  early  relates  stimuli  or events  Samenow,  psychopaths  1976).  that  Jutai  same t o n e s d u r i n g  the psychopaths a task  selectively  attend  interpreted  as i n d i c a t i n g  the  relatively  interesting  Connolly to  large  (1986)  phonemic  One  (Hare,  (1983)  found  t o a tone gave  i s based  t o a v i d e o game that  proportion  v i d e o game.  i n a passive  In a second  reason t o  differences attention  response t o instructed  This result  psychopaths of t h e i r  N100  t h e y were  task.  on t h e  to attend to  no g r o u p  to  was  were a b l e t o a l l o c a t e  attentional  resources to  study, Jutai,  r e c o r d e d N100, P300 a n d s l o w  stimuli  i s some  of  1982; Y o c h e l s o n and  smaller  i n which  (1972)  interpretation  There  them  to  o f an  have a h e i g h t e n e d a b i l i t y  a m p l i t u d e o f N100 r e s p o n s e s  these  a  attention.  and Hare  However,  i s sensitive  Teece  i n psychopaths  interest  task.  CNV  e t a l . 1978).  the foreperiod.  r e s e a r c h on s e l e c t i v e that  the early  to the mobilization  CNV o b s e r v e d  believe  in  that  (Rohrbaugh  s e t throughout  larger  recent  indicate  factors  that  attentive the  data  presented alone or during  positive  Hare and wave  (SPW)  a v i d e o game  task.  91 There were  no  g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s i n N100  psychopaths displayed stimuli their in  during  results  as  allocating  the  the  pattern  reduced to  interpreted arousal  a  Although study  i s of  Venables of  stimuli  than  assumed  to  test  in a  (1982)  as  be  recent  the  screen  In  a  out  a  of  P300 and  to  series that experiment  i n response  i n response  to  (Raine,  selective to  a  a  focus  Raine  amplitudes  their  antisocial  subjects  This  response  1986)  i n two  by  designed  to  the  stimuli.  reaction had  warning was the  only  subject.  specifically  presented  P300 and  the  i t was  a t t e n t i o n measured digit  samples  adolescents  paradigm  since  one  and  forewarned  in response  amplitude  and  subjects,  point.  classical  the  target  target  to  when  stimuli.  CNV  involved a  greater the  the  a  Hare  conflict  ability  prosocial subjects.  interest  showed  reduced  this  l a r g e r P300 a m p l i t u d e s the  are  reported  psychopathic  at  samples  demands  between  tone.  aversive  with  during  difficulty  an  aversive  deal  have  fluctuations,  heightened  interest  both  psychopath's  Psychopaths  to  interpreted  nonspecific  indicating  adolescents  did  long  amplitudes  SPW  Hare  (1986) measured  experiment.  A  study,  particular  significantly  one  In another  i t d i d not  antisocial  time  task  prior  phonemic  resources  when  comedian  to  processing  the  the  p s y c h o p a t h s may  electrodermal  but  a l . (1986)  tasks,  h i s data  and  et  to  two  i n p s y c h o p a t h s and  attention  Jutai  that  P300,  amplitude  a t t e n t i o n a l and  demands of  heavy.  listening  task.  indicating  relatively of  l a r g e r SPW  video  their  competing  a  or  to  P300 visually.  a more  sustained  92 Assuming  that  the  psychopaths,  the  psychopath's  enhanced  measure  of  times.  highly  motivated  this  task P300  unpredicted  to  this  results  did  conditions finding  not nor  Squires,  they  than  reported  differences  disassociation to  the  the  in  study  this  taken  the  and to  of  at  the  P 3 0 0 was could vertex  P300 a m p l i t u d e s  are  that  stimulus  events  P300  of  as  due  a  function  Raine's  Ryan CNV  rather  to  faster  they  were of  psychopaths  did  are or  judgment  1984). A l l but  the  stimuli  P300  reinforcement  of  group.  (1986; Raine were  larger  in their  (1980) a l s o  found  The  CNV  end  of  This and  However, J u t a i et  amplitude.  in  a l .  (1986)  selective a was  sensitive  given  at  the  the  foreperiod,  lack  of  P300 a m p l i t u d e  differences  the  than  typically  to  observations  the  P300 a m p l i t u d e s  The  reaction  trend  response  response,  r e l a t e to  with  and  possible was  that  Vaughan, McCallum, a  the  that  the  the  exciting.  i n P300 a m p l i t u d e  not. be  show a  Informal  some t y p e  that  P300 and  groups  suggesting  task.  in nonpsychopaths.  Klorman  i n t e r e s t i n g to  demands. A  between  suggested  affective stimulation  whereas  task  experiment,  vary  consistent report  to  psychopaths d i d  elicited  did  task.  represent  require  psychopaths  attention  could  systematically  1986)  no  response  subjects  that  i s not  Venables,  the  is elicited  experiment  was  perform  the  (Wood, M c C a r t h y ,  study  difference  challenging  or  in this  attention  times during  The  in  CNV  motivational  comments of  find  large  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the  reaction  the  task  fact  over  maximal  that  the  the  recordings  parietal  over  the  cortex.  parietal  were The  cortex  93 (Hillyard, Syndulko, Pz  may  Courchesne, and  parietal)  and  contaminate because  of  peak  each  o t h e r by inverse  that  the  during  the  (Plooij-van  Gorsel  nonpsychopaths  psychopaths. Thus,  CNV  shown by  CNV  a m p l i t u d e s i n the  findings,  specific.  between  monotonous,  but  t h e P300  be  Janssen,  be  to  other  to  group i t is  differences  i n the  have demonstrated  that  distraction  Scheff,  including  1969;  Teece,  white  noise  Conceivably the  by  i t i s possible  vs tend  resources,  group  and  1980).  the  1978).  many t y p e s o f  1976)  and  (frontal  each  related  (Teece  at  findings.  they w i l l  cancelling  studies  Meinbresse,  the white noise that  the higher  explained  by  the  than  were  amplitude depressed  nonpsychopaths.  this  study, taken together with support that  psychopaths  P s y c h o p a t h s may in tasks  msec),  reflect  Several  provides additional  differences  may  the psychopaths could  conclusion,  300  centers  (Gaillard,  were more d i s t r a c t e d  the  deficits  findings  and  of  a l t h o u g h t h e CNV  of a t t e n t i o n a l  foreperiod  Savignano-Bowman, and  In  partially  a m p l i t u d e i s r e d u c e d by  presented  vs  polarity  to distraction.  Rohbraugh,  analysis  spatial  (1000  i n the a l l o c a t i o n  possible  CNV  i s that  to their  latency  1976;  supports the previous  the present f i n d i n g s  differences  the  regard  their  While  response  explanation  with  Picton,  1976). F u r t h e r  evidence that  possible  P300 d i f f e r  also  Lindsley,  provide  Another  K r a u s z and  which  and  autonomic  nonpsychopaths  demonstrate  autonomic  are p h y s i c a l l y  t h e y s h o w no  the  impairment  past  are  and  threatening when t h e y  task-  performance and  find  the  task  94 motivating the  view  and  interesting.  advanced  psychopaths  are  to  task-relevant  of  ERP's  variety  by  Jutai  concurrent  events  sensory  of  and  electrocortical Hare  (1983;  proficient  interest.  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R e l a t i o n s between psychopathy and p e r s i s t a n t c r i m i n a l i t y - M e t h o d o l o g i c a l a n d t h e o r e t i c a l i s s u e s . I n : R. D. H a r e a n d D. S c h a l l i n g ( E d s . ) , P s y c h o p a t h i c B e h a v i o r : A p p r o a c h e s t o R e s e a r c h . New Y o r k : W i l e y , 1 9 7 8 . W a l t e r , W. G. The c o n t i n g e n t n e g a t i v e v a r i a t i o n : An e l e c t i c s i g n o f s i g n i f i c a n c e o f a s s o c i a t i o n i n t h e human b r a i n . S c i e n c e , 164, 434, 1964. W a l t e r , W. G. Electrophysiologic therapy. Current Psychiatric  contributions to psychiatric T h e r a p i e s , 6, 1 3 - 2 5 , 1 9 6 6 .  W a l t e r , W. G. , C o o p e r , R., A l d r i d g e , V . J . , M c C a l l u m , W. C , a n d W i n t e r , A. L . C o n t i n g e n t n e g a t i v e v a r i a t i o n : An e l e c t r i c s i g n o f s e n s o r i m o t o r a s s o c i a t i o n a n d e x p e c t a n c y i n man. N a t u r e , 203, 380-384, 1964. W i l l i a m s o n , S. Responses by P s y c h o p a t h s t o E m o t i o n a l Words. U n p u b l i s h e d M.A. t h e s i s U n i v e r i s t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 986.  107 Wood, C . C , M c C a r t h y , G., S q u i r e s , N. K., V a u g h a n , W. G., a n d M c C a l l u m , W. C . A n a t o m i c a l a n d p h y s i o l o g i c a l s u b s t r a t e s o f e v e n t - r e l a t e d p o t e n t i a l s . I n : R. K a r r e r , J . C o h e n , a n d P. Tueting (Eds.), Brain and Information: Event-related P o t e n t i a l s . A n n a l s o f New Y o r k A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e . 4 5 1 , 681-721, 1984. Yochelson, York:  S. a n d Samenow, S. The C r i m i n a l J a s o n A r o n s o n , 1976.  Personality.  New  APPENDIX A  Cleckley's  1.  Superficial  2.  Absence  of delusions  3.  Absence  of 'nervousness'  4.  charm  criteria  and good  f o r psychopathy  intelligence.  and other  signs  of i r r a t i o n a l  or psychoneurotic  thinking.  manifestations.  Unreliability.  5.  Untruthfulness  and  6.  Lack  7.  Inadequately  8.  Poor  9.  Pathologic  10.  General  11.  Specific  12.  Unresponsiveness  13.  Fantastic sometimes  14.  Suicide  15.  Sex l i f e  16.  Failure  of remorse  insincerity.  o r shame.  motivated  judgement  antisocial  and f a i l u r e  to learn  behavior. by  e g o c e n t r i c i t y and incapacity  poverty loss  i n major  affective  experience. for love.  reactions.  of i n s i g h t . i n general  and u n i n v i t i n g without.  interpersonal relations.  behavioral  with  drink  and  rarely carried out. impersonal, to follow  trivial  any l i f e  and poorly plan.  integrated.  108 APPENDIX B Subject  Instructions  You w i l l be h e a r i n g one o f t h r e e t o n e s , a b o u t 6 s e c o n d s l a t e r y o u w i l l h e a r a n o t h e r t o n e , when y o u h e a r t h e s e c o n d tone p r e s s t h i s RT b u t t o n a s q u i c k l y a s y o u c a n . One t o n e w i l l b e f o l l o w e d by y o u l o s i n g money, a n o t h e r by y o u g a i n i n g money a n d a t h i r d t o n e w i l l be f o l l o w e d by n o t h i n g . A f t e r you have p r e s s e d t h i s b u t t o n o n e o f t h e t h r e e l i g h t s w i l l come o n . I f t h e t o n e y o u f i r s t h e a r d was t h e p u n i s h m e n t t o n e t h a n t h e r e d l i g h t will come o n , i t t h e f i r s t t o n e was t h e r e w a r d t o n e t h e g r e e n light w i l l come o n . A n d i f t h e f i r s t t o n e w a s t h e n e u t r a l t o n e t h e y e l l o w l i g h t w i l l come o n . A f t e r t h e l i g h t h a s g o n e o f f t h e a s s i s t a n t w i l l e i t h e r remove o r g i v e you a c h i p . F o r t h e r e w a r d c o n d i t i o n y o u w i l l b e g i v e n e i t h e r a 25 o r 10 c e n t c h i p d e p e n d i n g o n how f a s t y o u p r e s s e d t h e b u t t o n . S o f o r t h e r e w a r d c o n d i t i o n , i f y o u p r e s s t h e b u t t o n f a s t y o u c a n g e t a 25 c e n t c h i p o t h e r w i s e y o u w i l l g e t a 10 c e n t c h i p . F o r t h e p u n i s h m e n t c o n d i t i o n , y o u w i l l e i t h e r l o s e a 25 o r a 10 c e n t c h i p . Y o u w i l l o n l y l o s e a 10 c e n t c h i p i f y o u p r e s s t h e b u t t o n q u i c k l y o t h e r w i s e y o u w i l l l o s e a 25 c e n t c h i p . So f o r t h e r e w a r d c o n d i t i o n i f y o u p r e s s q u i c k l y y o u w i l l g e t a 25 c e n t c h i p a n d i f you press f a s t f o r the punishment c o n d i t i o n you w i l l lose o n l y a 10 c e n t c h i p . F o r t h e n e u t r a l c o n d i t i o n , n o c h i p s w i l l b e g i v e n o r t a k e n away. Here i s a p i l e o f c h i p s t h a t r e p r e s e n t $ 6 . 0 0 . T h e w h i t e c h i p s r e p r e s e n t 25 c e n t s a n d t h e b l u e c h i p s r e p r e s e n t 10 c e n t s . Y o u w i l l b e g i v e n $ 6 . 0 0 f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t p l u s y o u w i l l g e t h o w e v e r m u c h y o u make i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t . The maximum a m o u n t o f money y o u c a n g e t i s $ 6 . 0 0 p l u s $9.75 i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t , w h i c h e q u a l s $15.75. The l e a s t a m o u n t o f money y o u w i l l g e t i s . $ 6 . 0 0 p l u s $ 2 . 2 5 i n t h e experiment, which e q u a l s $8.25. Remember you w i l l l o s e that you w i l l know t h a t y o u  t h a t when y o u h e a r t h e l o w / h i g h t o n e y o u know t h a t money, when y o u h e a r t h e l o w / h i g h t o n e y o u know g a i n money, a n d when y o u h e a r t h e m i d d l e t o n e y o u w i l l neither gain or lose.  109 POST E X P E R I M E N T A L Q U E S T I O N N A I R E Date  1) W h i c h  2)  3)  Subject  tone  ( h i g h , m e d i u m , l o w ) was f o l l o w e d b y :  a)  loss  o f money  b)  nothing  c)  g a i n i n g money  Which of the f o l l o w i n g statements best during the experiment... (check one) (1)  Feeling active  (2)  Functioning at a high concentrate  (3)  Relaxed;  awake;  not at f u l l  (4)  A little  foggy;  n o t a t peak;  (5)  Fogginess; beginning a w a k e , s l o w e d down  (6)  Sleepiness; prefer  (7)  Almost  and v i t a l ;  asleep;  Please indicate p l a c i n g a check TENSE very  #  lost  alert;  level;  to lose  d e s c r i b e s your wide  state  awake  but n o t a t peak; a b l e t o alertness;  responsive  l e t down interest  t o be l y i n g  i n remaining  down; f i g h t i n g  s t r u g g l e t o remain  sleep  awake  y o u r g e n e r a l r e a c t i o n when y o u l o s t money b y mark i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e on e a c h s c a l e .  little:  :  :  :  :  :  :  :very  much  INTERESTED very l i t t l e :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :very  much  BORED very  :  :  :  :  :  :  :very  much  little:  1 1 0  UNEASY very l i t t l e :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :very much  UNCOMFORTABLE very l i t t l e :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :very much  EXCITED very l i t t l e :  :  :  :  :  :  _:  :very much  4) Please i n d i c a t e your g e n e r a l r e a c t i o n when you gained money by p l a c i n g a check mark in the a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e on each scale.  5)  TENSE very l i t t l e :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :very much  INTERESTED very l i t t l e :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :very much  BORED very l i t t l e :  :  :  :  :  :  :_  :very much  UNEASY very l i t t l e :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :very much  UNCOMFORTABLE very l i t t l e :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :very much  EXCITED very l i t t l e :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :very much  Please i n d i c a t e your g e n e r a l r e a c t i o n when nothing followed the tones by p l a c i n g a check mark in the a p p r o p r i a t e place on each s c a l e . TENSE very l i t t l e :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :very much  INTERESTED very l i t t l e :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :very much  BORED very l i t t l e :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :very much  UNEASY very l i t t l e :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :very much  1 1 1  UNCOMFORTABLE very little: EXCITED very  little:  6)  D i d you feel  7)  Please i n d i c a t e your general between t h e two t o n e s , w h i l e to remove money.  anxious  a t any p o i n t  i n this  :very  much  :very  much  experiment?  reactions during the interval you waited f o r the experimenter  ANTICIPATION very little:  _:very  much  UNEASINESS very little:  _:very  much  EAGERNESS very little:  _:very  much  BOREDOM very  little:_  _:very  much  DISCOMFORT very little:_  _:very  much  NERVOUSNESS very little:_  :very  much  APPREHENSION very little:_  :very  much  SLEEPY very  •.very  much  little:_  1 1 2  8) Please i n d i c a t e your g e n e r a l r e a c t i o n s d u r i n g the i n t e r v a l , between the two tones, while you waited f o r the experimenter to g i v e you money. ANTICIPATION very l i t t l e :  :  :  :  .  .  .  :  v  e  r  y  m  u  c  h  UNEASINESS very l i t t l e :  :  :  :  .  .  .  ;  v  e  r  y  m  u  c  h  EAGERNESS very l i t t l e :  :  BOREDOM very l i t t l e :  :  :  :  DISCOMFORT very l i t t l e :  :  :  :  NERVOUSNESS very l i t t l e :  :  :  :  APPREHENSION very l i t t l e :  :  :  :  SLEEPY very l i t t l e :  :  :  :  :  :  :  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  :  .  :  .  .  :  :  v  :  e  v  :  e  v  :  r  v  e  u  c  h  c  u  m  h  c  u  m  y  h  u  m  y  r  c  m  y  r  u  m  y  r  e  m  y  r  e  v  :  y  e  v  :  _ .  r  h  c  u  h  c  h  9) Please i n d i c a t e your g e n e r a l r e a c t i o n s d u r i n g the i n t e r v a l , between the two tones, while you waited f o r n o t h i n g to o c c u r . ANTICIPATION very l i t t l e :  :  :  UNEASINESS very l i t t l e :  :  :  :  :  .  .  :  v  e  r  y  m  u  c  h  EAGERNESS very l i t t l e :  :  :  :  :  .  .  :  v  e  r  y  m  u  c  h  BOREDOM very l i t t l e :  :  :  .  .  DISCOMFORT very l i t t l e :  :  :  .  .  :  •  :  :  :  :  :  e r y much  : V  :  :  v  v  e  e  r  r  y  y  m  m  u  u  c  c  h  h  1 13  10)  NERVOUSNESS very l i t t l e :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :very  much  APPREHENSION very l i t t l e :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :very  much  SLEEPY very  :  :  :  :  :  :  :very  much  little:  I n t h e l a s t 24 h o u r s , (please check) a)  drunk if  anything  s o how  do any o f t h e f o l l o w i n g  with  caffeine  c)  s o how  taken if  d) d r u n k if  (aspirin,anti-biotics,cold  drugs:  l o n g ago ( h o u r s ) :  any a l c o h o l :  s o how  l o n g ago ( h o u r s ) :  NOTE: T h e a b o v e q u e s t i o n experimenter score Did  (coffee,tea,coke):  l o n g ago ( h o u r s ) :  any non-medication  s o how  t o you?  l o n g ago ( h o u r s ) :  b) t a k e n a n y m e d i c a t i o n s medicine): if  apply  you t r y very could?  hard  t o push  Yes: Somewhat: No:  will your  be u s e d o n l y t o h e l p t h e physiological responses. the button  as q u i c k l y  as you  

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