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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Continuing citizen participation and local area planning Enns, Cheryl Carlene 1986

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CONTINUING CITIZEN PARTICIPATION AND LOCAL AREA PLANNING BY CHERYL CARLENE ENNS B.A., T r i n i t y Western U n i v e r s i t y , 1983 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES S c h o o l of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1986 (c) C h e r y l C a r l e n e Enns, 1986 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requi rements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia , I agree t ha t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e fe rence and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t pe rm iss i on f o r e x t e n s i v e copy ing o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t ha t copy ing o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be a l l owed w i thou t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Graduate Studies (School of Community and Regional Planning) The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1 56 Main Mall Vancouver , Canada V6T 1Y3 Date Sept. 24, 1986 ABSTRACT Continued c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the Vancouver Local Area Planning Program (L.A.P.P) i s not a new issue. As early as 1973, Vancouver planners documented a commitment to not only produce a plan for a l o c a l area, but to i n i t i a t e an ongoing process that would respond to area issues and f a c i l i t a t e continuous c i t i z e n input (Community planning D i v i s i o n , 1973, 10). However, no firm policy establishes continued, e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the Vancouver planning process. Presently, planning s t a f f work with a C i t i z e n Planning Committee (C.P.C.) to create a plan for a l o c a l area, but upon completion and adoption of the plan, technical and f i n a n c i a l support i s gradually withdrawn from the l o c a l area. The L.A.P. s t a f f implement and monitor the effects of the plan without formalized c i t i z e n ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I n i t i a l l y , c i t i z e n s remain active in the L.A.P. process, but as the major area plan p o l i c i e s are implemented, c i t i z e n interest and involvement decreases. When the implementation stage of the L.A.P.P. i s reached, concern i s often expressed by the l o c a l area planner and by the C.P.C. as how to f a c i l i t a t e continued p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the planning process. The purpose of this thesis i s : To Outline A Model For Continued E f f e c t i v e C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n In The Vancouver L.A.P.P. In order to outline this model, three objectives must be accomplished: 1) To define a theory of e f f e c t i v e continued c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n in Vancouv^i; 2) To evaluate selected Vancouver l o c a l areas and determine the effectiveness of p a r t i c i p a t i o n during the plan creation stage r e l a t i v e to the long term plan implementation stage; 3) To a p p l y e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h e o r y and L.A.P.P. e v a l u a t i o n r e s u l t s t o Mount P l e a s a n t , a Vancouver L o c a l Area i n t e r e s t e d i n c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and m o n i t o r i n g t h e i r r e c e n t l y adopted community p l a n . The methods t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e s e t h r e e o b j e c t i v e s i n c l u d e : a l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w on C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n ; t e l e p h o n e i n t e r v i e w s w i t h one p l a n n e r and one c i t i z e n from f o u r s e l e c t e d L.A.P.P's.; and p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n i n Mount P l e a s a n t , where as an i n t e r n s t u d e n t , the a u t h o r of t h i s t h e s i s was i n v o l v e d i n d e v e l o p i n g c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Mount P l e a s a n t l o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g program. The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w , i s used t o d e f i n e e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . G e n e r a l l y , e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Vancouver s h o u l d i n v o l v e f o u r "elements: 1) An a d v i s o r y l e v e l of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , c i t i z e n s i n t e r a c t i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , they a r e not j u s t i n f o r m e d ; 2) A c i v i c c o n s u l t a t i o n s t r a t e g y , c i t y s t a f f r e s p e c t and f a c i l i t a t e an a d v i s o r y l e v e l of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; 3) A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c i t i z e n group t e c h n i q u e , c i t i z e n s p a r t i c i p a t e as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of a group, not as i n d i v i d u a l s ; 4 ) An a r e a c o u n c i l s t r u c t u r e f o r the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e group t e c h n i q u e , the c i t i z e n group r e c e i v e s r e c o g n i t i o n as an o f f i c i a l p a r t i c i p a n t i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . F u r t h e r , a model t h a t a d v o c a t e s e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n must a l s o be a d a p t a b l e t o community v a r i a b l e s and f a c i l i t a t e c o n t i n u e d components such as a c c e s s t o t e c h n i c a l r e s o u r c e s . The r e s u l t s of the t e l e p h o n e i n t e r v i e w s i n d i c a t e t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n was l e s s e f f e c t i v e d u r i n g the l o n g term p l a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t a g e than d u r i n g p l a n c r e a t i o n s t a g e . R e v i s i o n s to the L . A . P . P . to ensure e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n e lements c o u l d i n v o l v e p l a n n i n g s t a f f o r g a n i z i n g c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r i o r t o c o m p l e t i n g the p l a n c r e a t i o n s t a g e o f the p rogram. In a d d i t i o n , i t i s a d v i s e d t h a t p l a n n i n g s t a f f p e r i o d i c a l l y rev iew each l o c a l a r e a p l a n t o h e l p e n s u r e c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n i n t e r e s t i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . P a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n r e s u l t s document Mount P l e a s a n t r e s i d e n t s ' e f f o r t s to o r g a n i z e c o n t i n u e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n , r e i n f o r i n g the e a r l i e r c o n c l u s i o n t h a t p l a n n i n g s t a f f need t o f a c i l i t a t e an amalgamat ion of the C . P . C . w i t h an e x i s t i n g community o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t i s i n t e r e s t e d i n m o n i t o r i n g t h e i r a r e a p l a n . Examples of o t h e r Vancouver l o c a l a r e a s and of o t h e r urban c e n t r e s e f f o r t s t o i n i t i a t e c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n g i v e f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o an a p p r o p r i a t e model o u t l i n e f o r c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n V a n c o u v e r ' s L . A . P . P . The t h e s i s c o n c l u s i o n s y n t h e s i z e s p r e c e d i n g t h e o r y and a n a l y s i s i n a model f o r e f f e c t i v e c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h i n V a n c o u v e r . To summar ize , the major recommendat ion of t h i s t h e s i s i s : Tha t the C i t y o f Vancouver d e v e l o p a R e c o g n i t i o n P o l i c y f o r a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c i t i z e n ' s g roup e x i s t i n g w i t h i n a l o c a l a r e a t h a t i s i n t e r e s t e d i n m o n i t o r i n g the L o c a l A r e a P l a n and i n amalgamat ing w i t h the C i t i z e n ' s P l a n n i n g Committee upon a d o p t i o n o f the a r e a p l a n . T h i s r e c o g n i t i o n p o l i c y must : 1) R e f l e c t our c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n e f f e c t i v e e l e m e n t s ; 2) S t a t e c r i t e r i a and p r o c e d u r e s f o r l o c a l a r t a c o u n c i l r e c o g n i t i o n w e l e c t i o n ; 3) D e v e l o p f u n c t i o n s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f the r e c o g n i z e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d or a r e a c o u n c i l ; 4) D e v e l o p r e s p o n d i n g f u n c t i o n s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t e s f o r the C i t y and c i v i c s t a f f . - i y -It i s hoped that t h i s thesis w i l l i n i t i a t e concepts, ideas, and further research that w i l l be relevant to future Vancouver L.A.P.P. progress. - v-TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT l i TABLE OF CONTENTS u i LIST OF TABLES v i i i LIST OF FIGURES XX ACKNOWLEDGEMENT X CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Purpose 1.2 Focus and Objectives 1.3 Con s t r a i n t s 1.4 Premises 1.5 Ration a l e 1.6 Approach CHAPTER 2: THESIS METHODOLOGY 5 2.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 2.2 L i t e r a t u r e Review: Method 1 2.3 Telephone Interview: Method 2 2.4 P a r t i c i p a n t Observation: Method 3 2.5 Terms Defined 2.6 Thesis Development CHAPTER 3: LITERATURE REVIEW 14 3.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 3.2 Purpose of C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n 3.3 Levels of P a r t i c i p a t i o n 3.4 S t r a t e g i e s f o r C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n 3.5 Techniques f o r C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n 3.6 S t r u c t u r a l Forms for C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n 3.7 V a r i a b l e s that Influence Community Organization 3.8 E f f e c t i v e C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n 3.9 Components of Continued E f f e c t i v e C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n 3.10 Summary CHAPTER 4: EVALUATIONS OF CONTINUED CITIZEN PARTICIPATION IN VANCOUVER L.A.P. PROGRAM 38 4.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 4.2 C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n Examples i n Vancouver 4.3 C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n and the Vancouver Local Area Planning Program 4.4 Local Area Planning Program i n Vancouver 4.5 An Evaluation of Continued C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Local Area Planning Program i n Vancouver 4.6 I m p l i c a t i o n s of L.A.P.P. Evaluation Results 4.7 Continued C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n Examples i n Vancouver 4.8 Other C i v i c Examples of Continued C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Planning Process 4.9 E f f e c t i v e Continued C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n Observations - u i -TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 5: CONTINUED EFFECTIVE PARTICIPATION CASE STUDY 66 5.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 5.2 L.A.P. i n Mount P l e a s a n t 5.3 C o n t i n u e d P a r t i c i p a t i o n A c t i o n s 5.4 A p p l i c a t i o n o f E f f e c t i v e P a r t i c i p a t i o n Theory 5.5 Mount P l e a s a n t V a r i a b l e s 5.6 E v a l u a t i o n of A l t e r n a t i v e C o n t i n u e d P a r t i c i p a t i o n Models 5.7 S e l e c t e d A l t e r n a t i v e 5.8 O b s e r v a t i o n s From Mount P l e a s a n t Case Study CHAPTER 6: CONTINUED CITIZEN PARTICIPATION MODEL 86 6.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 6.2 E f f e c t i v e C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Vancouver's L.A.P.Program 6.3 L.A.P.Program A l t e r n a t i v e s 6.4 Mechanism f o r I n s t i t u t i n g S e l e c t e d A l t e r n a t i v e 6.5 F i n a n c i a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s 6.6 C o n s u l t a t i o n P r o c e s s 6.7 C o n c l u s i o n s 6.8 Recommendations BIBLIOGRAPHY 102 LIST OF INTERVIEWS 106 APPENDICES 108 A: A r e a C o u n c i l By-law Example B: Keys t o Eugene's Program C: Telephone Q u e s t i o n n a i r e D: Grandview Woodland A r e a C o u n c i l - v i i -LIST OF TABLES Table 1: T h i r t y L o c a l i t i e s with Neighbourhood Councils by Major C l u s t o r s 30 Table 2: Table 3: Evaluation of L.A.P. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Four Selected Areas 47 Mount Pleasant Continued P a r t i c i p a t i o n A l t e r n a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n 83 Table 4: Vancouver Continued C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n Model E v a l u a t i o n 95 - v i i i -LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e 1: E f f e c t i v e P a r t i c i p a t i o n Elements 6 F i g u r e 2: L o c a l A r e a s Reviewed 8 F i g u r e 3: T h e s i s Flow C h a r t 13 F i g u r e 4: A r n s t e i n ' s Ladder of L e v e l s f o r C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n 21 F i g u r e 5: Recommended C o n t i n u e d C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n Model 33 F i g u r e 6: L.A.P. Models A l t e r n a t i v e s 43 F i g u r e 7: Vancouver L.A.P. P r o c e s s 45 F i g u r e 8: R e v i s e d Vancouver L.A.P. P r o c e s s 58 F i g u r e 9: Grandview-Woodland Model 79 F i g u r e 10: M a r p o l e - O a k r i d g e Model 79 F i g u r e 11: R i l e y Park Model 80 F i g u r e 12: Recommended C o n t i n u e d C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n Model 87 F i g u r e 13: Proposed Model f o r C o n t i n u e d L.A.P. C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n 97 - i x -ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I t i s w i t h s i n c e r e t h a n k s t h a t I acknowledge t h e f o l l o w i n g p e o p l e : f i r s t , my husband f o r h i s e n d u r i n g s u p p o r t ; s e c o n d , my p a r e n t s and my s i s t e r f o r t h e i r encouragement and h e l p ; t h i r d , my s u p p o r t i v e a d v i s o r Dr. Henry H i g h t o w e r ; f o u r t h , my i n s p i r i n g r e a d e r s L a r r y B e a s l e y and Brahm Wiesman; f i f t h , Cathy S i n d o n - D u d l e y , J a n i c e O'Genski and T e r r i Rosenau f o r w o r d p r o c e s s i n g ; s i x t h , J e n n i f e r W i l s o n , f o r m o t i v a t i n g me; and f i n a l l y my g r e a t e s t t h a n k s i s t o God f o r g i v i n g me t h e d i s c i p l i n e t o f i n i s h when so many o t h e r i n t e r e s t s a t t e m p t e d t o d i s t r a c t me. - x -CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Purpose The purpose of this thesis is to outline a model for continued effective citizen participation in Vancouver's Local Area Planning Program (L.A.P.P.). 1.2 Focus and Objectives C i t i z e n participation has been emphasized since the development of the Magna Carta. Citizens have r e a l i z e d t h e i r right to be informed and involved in the planning decisions a f f e c t i n g t h e i r l i v e s . Public p a r t i c i p a t i o n not only creates more informed and committed c i t i z e n s , i t also provides p r a c t i c a l benefits for planners and managers through resident's knowledge and through t h e i r understanding of community values, goals and p r i o r i t i e s . The objective of a public p a r t i c i p a t i o n program can be stated as to work towards ensuring that t e c h n i c a l l y sound and economically a t t r a c t i v e plans are generally understood and supported by most of those affected by them and are thus p o l i t i c a l l y viable (Connor 1974, S). In Vancouver, c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the planning process has been developed and implemented through the L.A.P.P. John Winsor, a senior planner in Vancouver, stated in the October 1980 C i t y of Vancouver Quarterly Review that c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n has been the key to the success of the Vancouver L.A.P.P. The L.A.P.P. generally involves focusing planning resources in selected loc a l areas of the c i t y , for the purpose of preparing a community plan. Resource d i s t r i b u t i o n may include the operation of an on-site loc a l area planning o f f i c e and most often includes the formation of a c i t i z e n planning committee (C.P.C.) who v o l u n t a r i l y work with the planning s t a f f to prepare the community plan. Upon adoption of the plan, resources are cut-back, s i t e - o f f i c e s are closed and - 1 -C.P.C.s generally disband. The planning staff begin the implementation stage of the L .A .P .P . from their City Hall office without formalized or structured cit izen participation. In i t ia l ly citizens remain active in the L . A . P . process, but as the major area plan policies are implemented, c i t izen interest and involvement decreases. When this stage is reached, many cit izens, are concerned as to how they can most effectively continue participate. It is this concern that this thesis wi l l address. To outline a model for effective L . A . P . P . continued cit izen participation, the following objectives must be attained: 1. To define a theory of effective continued cit izen participation in Vancouver; 2. To evaluate selected Vancouver local areas and determine the effectiveness of participation during the plan creation stage relative to the long term plan implementation stage; 3. To apply effective participation theory and L . A . P . P . evaluation results to Mount Pleasant, a Vancouver Local Area interested in continued cit izen participation and monitoring their recently adopted community plan. The methods to develop these objectives wi l l be discussed in Chapter 2. 1.3 Constraints The f i r s t major constraint to this thesis is that there is not an unified body of l iterature on continued cit izen participation in the planning process. A literature review is then, only a foundation for developing theory. This theory is necessary for i t is used to examine case studies, both within Vancouver and outside of Vancouver, and to develop the effective continuing c i t izen participation model for Vancouver's L .A .P .P . A second constraint is that after a local plan is completed, no perfect formula for cit izen participation is possible. Options can be analyzed and a general struccural framework can be proposed. This framework must be adaptable to each specific local area; be continuous and capable of stimulating community interest. There must also be some sort of control mechanism to ensure that the resulting participation group remains representative of the local area t h a t i t p l a n s f o r . T h i r d l y , the a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s i s l i m i t e d f o r what i s t r u e f o r Vancouver, a c i t y w i t h o u t a ward system, may not be t r u e f o r o t h e r N o r t h American urban c e n t e r s . There i s however, v a l u e i n r e v i e w i n g the methods used i n t h i s t h e s i s t o d e v e l o p the c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n model, f o r i t i s the method of a n a l y s i s t h a t can be a p p l i e d t o o t h e r urban c e n t r e s concerned w i t h the c o n t i n u e d e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s s u e . 1.4 Premises 1. There i s a commitment i n Vancouver t o p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . However, p a r t i c i p a t i o n d u r i n g the p l a n c r e a t i o n s t a g e appears t o be more e f f e c t i v e than d u r i n g the l o n g term p l a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t a g e . The p l a n n i n g s t a f f a t t i t u d e towards p a r t i c i p a t i o n d u r i n g the l o n g term p l a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t a g e appears t o be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a b e n i g n n e g l e c t . 2. There i s v a l u e i n e n c o u r a g i n g community i n v o l v e m e n t , i n the p l a n i mplementaion and m o n i t o r i n g s t a g e of the L.A.P.P. I t i s not assumed by the a u t h o r of t h i s t h e s i s , t h a t no p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s b e t t e r than bad or n e g a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n but r a t h e r t h a t e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s b e t t e r than no p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 3. Community o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i l l i n t e r a c t w i t h l o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g o f f i c i a l s r e g a r d l e s s of any f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e . T h e r e f o r e , a s t u d y of t h i s n a t u r e can p r o v i d e i n s i g h t i n t o the means by which t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n and p l a n m o n i t o r i n g •an be improved f o r more e f f e c t i v e r h a n n e l i n g of community e n e r g i e s ( r e a l i z i n g t h a t t h e r e i s no one s o l u t i o n but t h a t an i n t e r e s t i n g and a p p r o p r i a t e a l t e r n a t i v e can be d e v e l o p e d ) . - 3 -1.5 Rationale Local Area Planning seems to endorse and support c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the plan creation stage and to benignly neglect c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the long term plan implementation stage. Therefore, a rationale for t h i s thesis i s that this observation needs to be tested, and i f substantiated, an alternative approach for continued c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the planning process needs to be developed. Secondly, no comprehensive documentation exists on the p a r t i c i p a t i o n role that c i t i z e n s play i n Vancouver's l o c a l area planning process. This research i s timely in the sense that the L.A.P.P. i s currently being reviewed. This l a s t rationale gives the author further j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r completing this study. 1.6 Approach Chapter two presents the thesis methodology. Chapter three reviews l i t e r a t u r e on c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and develops theory on e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Chapter four reviews the Vancouver L.A.P.P and evaluates selected programs both during the plan creation and long term plan implementation stage to determine the effectiveness of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and to test the observation that p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s less e f f e c t i v e during the long term plan implementation stage. Chapter f i v e documents and analyzes a process for developing continued c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n in Mount Pleasant, a local area where a plan has just been completed. Chapter six outlines a model for continued c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the Vancouver planning process. -4-CHAPTER 2: THESIS METHODOLOGY 2.1 Introduction This chapter presents the three methods s e l e c t e d to develop the ob j e c t i v e s of t h i s t h e s i s . The s e l e c t e d methods include l i t e r a t u r e review, telephone i n t e r v i e w s , and p a r t i c i p a n t observation. Following the method d i s c u s s i o n , important terms w i l l be defined and the author's value p o s i t i o n w i l l be s t a t e d . 2.2 Literature Review: Method 1 L i t e r a t u r e review develops Objective one: To define Effective Continued Citizen Participation in Vancouver A model f o r c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n has four elements. In Chapter three the elements recommended f o r Vancouver's L.A.P.P. w i l l be discussed. The advocated elements w i l l then used as c r i t e r i a f o r the ev a l u a t i o n of se l e c t e d L.A.P.P.s i n Chapter f o u r . The degree to which each element i s present i n a given program i n d i c a t e s the degree to which i t i s e f f e c t i v e . The four elements are shown i n the f o l l o w i n g diagram (Figure 1). In Chapter three, c i v i c s t r a t e g i e s , l e v e l s of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , techniques or methods f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and s t r u c t u r e s of the techniques w i l l be discussed and evaluated i n the context of Vancouver's L.A.P.P. -5-Figure 1: E f f e c t i v e P a r t i c i p a t i o n Elements B B S ® / 7* 2.3 Telephone Interview: Method 2 V«ECWM -sn»**TH ^ MNtatTMl Telephone i n t e r v i e w s a r e used t o a t t a i n t h e s i s O b j e c t i v e two: To evaluate selected Vancouver L.A.P.P.'s and determine the long term effectiveness of p a r t i c i p a t i o n during the plan creation stage r e l a t i v e to the plan implementation stage. I f t h i s were an e v a l u a t i o n of t h e L.A.P.P., i t would be r e l e v a n t t o measure each program a g a i n s t s t a t e d i n d i v i d u a l program g o a l s . What we a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n i s not the e x p l i c i t s t a t e d g o a l s of L.A.P., but an i m p l i c i t u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n has an i n t r i n s i c v a l u e t o b o t h c i t i z e n and p l a n n e r . The v a l u e of c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d i n l o c a l a r e a p l a n documents, i n L.A.P.P. r e v i e w s and i n i t i a l L.A.P.P. s t a t e m e n t s . - 6 -The i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d f o r t h i s e v a l u a t i o n o f L.A.P.P. c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n was a t t a i n e d by a t e l e p h o n e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t s , supplemented w i t h Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g Department L.A.P.P. r e v i e w s and a r e a p l a n s , p r o v i d e i n s i g h t i n t o t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e L.A.P.P. Only L.A.P.P.'s co m p l e t e d s i n c e 1973 t h a t i n v o l v e d a C.P.C., and o p e r a t e d from a s i t e o f f i c e and t h a t were not c o n s i d e r e d t o be Neighbourhood Involvement Programs or R e s i d e n t i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A s s i s t a n c e Programs were e v a l u a t e d . 1973 was s e l e c t e d as a s t a r t i n g d a t e because i t was the y e a r when the L.A.P. program was r e v i s e d t o t a k e i t s p r e s e n t s t r u c t u r e , f o l l o w i n g an i n i t i a l program e v a l u a t i o n . The c r i t e r i a f o r t h e s e l e c t e d L.A.P.P. r e v i e w were d e v e l o p e d so as t o i n c l u d e o n l y programs t h a t had a s i m i l a r mandate and s t r u c t u r e . Programs t h a t meet t h i s c r i t e r i a and t h a t were s e l e c t e d f o r e v a l u a t i o n a r e shown on the f o l l o w i n g page (see F i g u r e 2 ) . One p l a n n e r and one p a r t i c i p a n t from each L.A.P. program were i n t e r v i e w e d . The a n a l y s i s of t h e r e s u l t s was not t o be s t a t i s t i c a l but d e s c r i p t i v e . The d e s i g n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was r e t r o s p e c t i v e . L.A.P.P. p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked t o r e c o l l e c t what happened when t h e y were i n v o l v e d . As r e m i n i s c e n c e s may be b i a s e d , b i a s e s a r e p a r t i a l l y compensated by not o n l y s u r v e y i n g and e v a l u a t i n g s e l e c t e d programs, but by a l s o s u r v e y i n g the Shaughnessy L.A.P.P., t h e H a s t i n g - S u n r i s e L.A.P.P., R i l e y Park Neighbourhood Improvement program, the Mount P l e a s a n t L.A.P.P. and by r e a d i n g about a l l o t h e r L.A.P., N.I.P. and R.R.A.P. programs i n Vancouver.* The Mount P l e a s a n t r e v i e w i s p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter F i v e . -7-Figure 2: Local Areas Reviewed .INT cakx 7 1 "T - J ' J I I 1 I I I 1 N i — * T f nuer P«K i „ J . i I £>AJ<*IP*S? I " T • I I I I , _ J _ p o u t e r i f I&dLIPJP.' 2.4 P a r t i c i p a n t Observation: Method 3 Participant observation is used to attain thesis Objective three: To test theory and evaluation r e s u l t s i n Mount Pleasant, a Vancouver Local Area interested i n continued c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and i n monitoring their recently adopted community plan. - 8 -I n Chapter 5 the a u t h o r d e s c r i b e s her p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Mount P l e a s a n t P l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . T h i s community i s i n t e r e s t e d i n c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n a f t e r i t s s i t e o f f i c e has been c l o s e d . O b s e r v a t i o n s from t h i s i n v o l v e m e n t a r e s y n t h e s i z e d w i t h p r e c e e d i n g t h e o r y from Ch a p t e r t h r e e and from L.A.P.P. a n a l y s i s i n Chap t e r f o u r t o d e v e l o p an o u t l i n e o f a g e n e r a l model f o r c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Chap t e r 6. Method 3, p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n , began i n J a n u a r y 1985 and was extended t o September 1985. As an i n t e r n s t u d e n t , the a u t h o r o f t h i s t h e s i s had the o p p o r t u n i t y t o work w i t h a group o f c i t i z e n s i n t e r e s t e d i n c o n t i n u e d L.A.P.P. p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The i n v o l v e m e n t has a l l o w e d the a u t h o r t o i d e n t i f y t he elements r e q u i r e d f o r a c o n t i n u e d L.A.P.P. m o n i t o r i n g and p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o c e s s t h a t i s a d a p t a b l e t o Mount P l e a s a n t community v a r i a b l e s . The a u t h o r ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n extended beyond w r i t i n g o f a paper t o i n c l u d e a s s i s t i n g i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of c i t i z e n group m e e t i n g s about c o n t i n u e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i n t e r v i e w i n g i n t e r e s t e d r e s i d e n t s and p l a n n e r s and r e s e a r c h i n g o t h e r s i m i l a r community groups i n t h e c i t y . The paper t h a t e v o l v e d from t h i s e x p e r i e n c e i s a s y n o p s i s of t h i s t h e s i s . I t i s b e i n g d i s c u s s e d ( J a n u a r y , 1986) by the Mount P l e a s a n t p l a n n e r and c i t i z e n s . T h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n gave t h e a u t h o r o f t h i s t h e s i s an awareness and u n d e r s t a n d i n g e s s e n t i a l f o r making recommendations on c o n t i n u e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A major l i m i t a t i o n o f method 3 i s the p o e n t i a l b i a s of the p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v e r . As t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n was supplemented by d i d c u s s i o n s w i t h a l l o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s , h o p f u l l y t h e e x t e n t o f the a u t h o r ' s b i a s i s l i m i t e d . *N.I.P. and R.R.A.P programs a r e c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t p l a n n i n g examples and i n the c o n t e x t of t h i s t h e s i s t h e y have been r e v i e w e d , not e v a l u a t e d . One good N.I.P. p a r t i c i p a t i o n example w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter f i v e . The f o c u s of t h i s t h e s i s i s the L.A.P.P. I t was an a r b i t r a r y d e c i s i o n made by t h e a u t h o r o f t h i s t h e s i s t o e x c l u d e N.I.P. and R.R.A P. from t h e e v a l u a t i o n . -9-P a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n i s the a p p r o p r i a t e methodology f o r O b j e c t i v e t h r e e because i t meets t h e g o a l o f a t t e m p t i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d a s o c i a l p r o c e s s . P a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n i s u s u a l l y more a p p r o p r i a t e when t h e s t u d y r e q u i r e s an e x a m i n a t i o n o f complex s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s or i n t r i c a t e p a t t e r n s o f i n t e r a c t i o n . . . ; when t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r d e s i r e s f i r s t - h a n d b e h a v i o r a l i n f o r m a t i o n on c e r t a i n s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s . . . ( L i n i n g e r and Warwick 1979, 9). "The range of a p p l i c a t i o n o f o b s e r v a t i o n a l methods i n s o c i a l s u r v e y s i s l i m i t e d b u t , when th e y can be employed, t h e y have a n o t a b l e advantage" ( K a l t o n and Moser, 1972, 254). 2.5 Terms Defined The terms used i n t h e subsequent c h a p t e r s a r e t o be u n d e r s t o o d as s t a t e d . L.A.P.P. r e f e r s t o t h e Vancouver L o c a l Area P l a n n i n g Program. T h i s program i s endorsed by c i t y c o u n c i l . I t s o b j e c t i v e i s t o d e v e l o p and implement a r e a p l a n s i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h a c i t i z e n ' s p l a n n i n g committee (C.P.C.). G e n e r a l l y a C.P.C. i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e x t e n d i n g community i n v o l v e m e n t and s u p p l e m e n t i n g t h e e f f o r t s of a l o c a l government agency, such as the Vancouver L.A.P. department. The membership o f the C.P.C. i s c o m p r i s e d o f any c i t i z e n t h a t works or l i v e s i n a l o c a l a r e a and t h a t p a r t i c i p a t e s r e g u l a r l y i n t he C.P.C. m e e t i n g s . The C.P.C.'s have a c c e s s t o L.A.P.P. r e s o u r c e s . The L.A.P.P. i n i t i a t e d C.P.C. a t t e m p t s t o be s o c i a l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the community. I t ' s s t r u c t u r e i s shaped t o the needs and v a r i a b l e s o f each L.A.P. community s i t u a t i o n . . These C.P.C.'s v a r y i n t h e i r community i m p a c t , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s , s i z e and l e n g t h o f o p e r a t i o n . A t h i r d i m p o r t a n t term t o be d e f i n e d i s the Ar e a C o u n c i l . A r e a C o u n c i l i s a g e n e r i c term t h a t d e s c r i b e s neighbourhood b o d i e s w i t h q u a s i - o f f i c i a l or o f f i c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n s e p a r a t i n g i t from any government body such as a p l a n n i n g department. C i t i z e n c o u n c i l s have a mandate t o s t u d y , p r e p a r e p r o p o s a l s , implement programs and p r e s e n t recommendations on a v a r i e t y of common i s s u e s . The membership of an a r e a c o u n c i l s h o u l d i d e a l l y , be d i v e r s e and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the community. The a r e a c o u n c i l can m o n i t o r community change and t h e impact of a l o c a l a r e a p l a n e i t h e r as a v o l u n t e e r t a s k , w i t h p u b l i c f u n d s or w i t h e x i s t i n g community r e s o u r c e s . An a r e a c o u n c i l d i f f e r s from t h e common neighbourhood a s s o c i a t i o n or committee because i t has g r e a t e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and r e s o u r c e s due t o o f f i c i a l ( f o r m a l or i n f o r m a l ) r e c o g n i t i o n , w hich i n t u r n g i v e i t a g r e a t e r a b i l i t y t o p l a y a c o n t i n u o u s community p l a n n i n g 'watchdog' r o l e . The s t a g e i n t h e L.A.P.P. where t h e a r e a p l a n i s p r e p a r e d i s r e f e r r e d t o here as the p l a n c r e a t i o n s t a g e . The p h r a s e l o n g - t e r m p l a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t a g e r e f e r s t o t h e s t a g e i n the L.A.P.P. when major i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e p l a n ' s p o l i c i e s has a l r e a d y begun. A l t h o u g h the p l a n s t i l l c o n t i n u e s t o be implemented, i t i s more a m a t t e r of m o n i t o r i n g p r e v i o u s a c t i o n s t h a n i t i s a m a t t e r of i n i t i a t i n g new a c t i o n s . The d e f i n i t i o n o f e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r t h r e e , based on the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d . 2.6 Thesis Development To ensure t h a t a L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g Program f a c i l i t a t e s a p r o c e s s by w h i c h e f f e c t i v e community p l a n n i n g c o n t i n u e s a f t e r the L.A.P. program o f f i c e r s l e a v e an a r e a , c e r t a i n g u i d e l i n e s s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d . T h i s c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s the methods t o be used t o d e v e l o p t h e s e g u i d e l i n e s . I t i s not an o b j e c t i v e of t h i s t h e s i s t o e v a l u a t e l o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g but i t i s an o b j e c t i v e t o e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and t o a n a l y z e the e x i s t i n g program p r o c e s s i n o r d e r t o p r e p a r e an a l t e r n a t i v e model f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g a c o n t i n u o u s p a r t i c i p a t o r y p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The f l o w c h a r t on t h e f o l l o w i n g page ( F i g u r e 3) i l l u s t r a t e s the development of t h i s t h e s i s . The t h e s i s approach i s based on t h e a u t h o r ' s v a l u e p o s i t i o n . The a u t h o r s u p p o r t s the i d e o l o g y t h a t c e n t r a l t o the t h e o r y of democracy i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e government, e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s , o b s e r v a n c e of the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t and of v a r i o u s t y p e s of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . F u r t h e r , the a u t h o r b e l i e v e s t h a t i n o r d e r f o r p l a n n i n g t o be d e m o c r a t i c , i t must i n i t i a t e a p r o c e s s which i s p l u r a l i s t i c , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , and which i n c o r p o r a t e s t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . I n summary t h e r e a r e two l e v e l s t o t h i s t h e s i s . The f i r s t l e v e l i s a human s t o r y about p e o p l e whose d e s i r e i s c o n t i n u i t y i n c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The second l e v e l i n v o l v e s a case s t u d y of community a c t i o n , or contemporary p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y i n t e r p r e t e d i n an a t t e m p t t o i n i t i a t e i d e a s or c o n c e p t s t h a t c o u l d be r e l e v a n t t o f u t u r e L.A.P.P. p r o g r e s s . -12-Figure 3: Thesis Flow Chart 1 2 TH£ UM£t T&PM ftAN MfWW&JTAVW ^ #WtfAPet> 3 (JA&tfDP *?y>. A^piO^ of TTJgSK WA<> \UVt>UfcP A^> AW 4 fAJZri^ipArW IM ftte' v/AWc^ v^ a^  uA .pp . (tkpipiee. 6 -fB>M -fife H"p*£AfMZ0 ggMW j P&M^ fftxu U A - f f . -13-CHAPTER 3: LITERATURE REVIEW 3.1 Introduction In this chapter literature on citizen participation is reviewed. The evaluation of citizen participation in Vancouver's L.A.P.P. and the formulation of theory on a model for continued citizen participation demand an understanding of effective citizen participation. The literature does not explicitly define effective citizen participation, nor prescribe a formula for effective citizen participation in the Vancouver planning process. The literature does discuss the elements of effective citizen participation and gives insight as to how to define effective continued citizen participation in Vancouver. The questions to be answered in this chapter include: 1) What is the purpose of citizen participation? 2) Questions about the effective participation elements: What are the levels of citizen participation? What are the civi c strategies for citizen participation? What are the techniques for developing citizen participation? What are the organizational structures for citizen participation? 3) What variables shape the citizen participation model selected for a community? 4) What should effective citizen participation comprise in Vancouver L.A.P.P.? 5) How can continued effective participation be facilitated? This chapter concludes with a definition of effective citizen participation. It is from this definition that the c r i t e r i a are developed to evaluate Vancouver L.A.P.P.'s in Chapter 4. -14-3.2 Purpose of Citizen Participation In the subsequent sections, the purpose of citizen participation is discussed. A major premise of this thesis is that effective participation affects a purpose that is of value to the planner and to the citizen. This discussion is then on the purpose of effective participation. Theory on citizen participation combines the disciplines and theories of decision making, communication, urban management, social organization and p o l i t i c a l processes. Public participation may be defined as a continued active involvement of citizens in planning decisions that affect their lives. It is important to understand this complex process of participation for, as Antoft writes; "Properly understood, i t can become a useful tool in achieving the smooth operation of a municipal government" (Antoft, K., 1977,33). The value of citizen participation extends beyond assisting the smooth operation of government to a promotion or, at least, a justification for local government in a democracy (Sharpe, 1976, 56). Public participation is viewed by many to be essential for the perpetuation of democracy. Hallman subscribes to this view, as is evident in the following quote: "Democracy is a competitive p o l i t i c a l system in which competing leaders and organizers define the alternatives of public policy in such a way that the public can participate in the decision making process" (Hallman, 1977, 126). Citizen participation in the policies that affect their lives is part of a long historic tradition, from the oligarchic conception of Athenian democracy, through the broadening of the franchise arising out of the French and American revolutions, to the emerging conceptions of "participatory" democracy. (Burke, 1979, 76-77). Today public participation forms an integral part of the planning process in most democratic countries. Darner and Hague write, -15-that the growth of interest in participatory rather than representative democracy is an international phenomenon, and that the demands from people for more participation in the formulation of policies that are going to affect them are often characterized by a radicalization of p o l i t i c a l value and a concern for c i v i l rights" (Damer and Hague, 1971, 219). Participatory democracy impacted the planning process in the early 1960's in Britain. The 1968 Town and Country Planning Act required the Ministry of Housing and Local Government "....to consider and report on the best methods, including publicity of securing the participation of the public at the formative stages in the making of development plans "(Soen, 1984, 205). The British Magna Carta and the early British legal tradition of hearings, town meetings and the later 1960's planning interest in citizen participation were to furnish a backdrop for the Canadian experience in community development and community planning. In the United States, the British tradition influenced ..the development of citizen participation; the New England Town meetings are a prime example. Public participation as an identifiable and organized movement was strengthened by the more recent urban renewal experience in the United States. Opposition to urban renewal projects, eventually resulted in mandatory public participation. This movement was echoed in Canada. In Toronto during the landmark Spadina Expressway opposition, Nowlan wrote: "If planners do not involve the citizens, citizens will involve themselves" (Nowlan 1970, 84). Two themes developed as a result of this early 1970's citizen participation concept. One was Draper's community development focus and another was Saul Alinsicy's p o l i t i c a l activism focus. -16-Regardless of the emphasis, a Canadian consensus included and s t i l l includes the concept that the citizen: 1) be informed at an early stage in the decision making process; 2) be heard and be responded to; 3) be involved in a mutual educational process, joint problem solving; 4) has a respected advisory role (Connor, 1974). Connor concluded: Public participation is not only good for developing more informed and committed citizens, i t also provides practical benefits for planners.... (e.g. additional f i e l d data....); technical expertise from those with relevant training; creative solutions which escape the tunnel vision of many experts; essential data on residents' values, goals and priorities; a more accepting climate for emerging solutions (Connor, 1985, 4). In Canada, although the phenomenon of public participation as an identifiable and organized theme bloomed later then in the U.S. and U.K., its impact on politics and planning was just as great. In the 1960's public participation was combined with the package of other perceived c i v i l rights and in the 1970's expanded further as an identifiable movement. Public participation came to be understood as a citizens' act of sharing in the formulation of policies and proposals that affect their lives. Constructive public participation conceptually emerged as a "....two-way process, embracing informed input from the public and honest disclosure from the planning authorities" (Cowen, 1980, 13). According to Tennant, public participation developed even later in Vancouver than in eastern Canadian c i t i e s . Citizen participation was not an often used _erm prior to 1968. Tennant writes that in the early 1970's citizen participation became part of a political - belief concensus for Vancouver residents (Tennant 1981, 129). The development of citizen participation and the position developed in the 1970's Vancouver Local Area Planning Program will be discussed later. It -17-is sufficient to state that this consensus on the value of citizen participation was accepted by the Vancouver public servants. Although there was, and is opposition to citizen participation, many public o f f i c i a l s recognized that citizens' participation could serve three functions in planning: 1) a constituency of support for planning activities; 2) a means for obtaining wisdom and knowledge in the development of a plan and in identifying a planning agency's goals and objectives; 3) an emerging watchdog role over the impact of those goals, objectives and plans. (City of Vancouver Documents and Tennant, 1981.) A body of literature on citizen participation supports these three functions. As identified in the literature, the benefits of citizen participation in the planning process include: 1) a more legitimate planning process; 2) valuable information; 3) the identification of c r i t i c a l issues, new alternatives, potential conflict, opportunities and solutions; 4) development of plans, testing of communication techniques; 5) encouragement of wider participation; 6) documentation of community opinions, values, attitudes; 7) a two-way information flow: 8) consultation made available to elected o f f i c i a l s and administrators; 9) improved social and political awareness for involved citizens; 10) more social integration, people aware of implications of public policy upon themselves and others; 11) increased respect and trust of the political and bureaucratic system due to individual responsibility. These functions and benefits stress the importance of fostering citizen participation in the L.A.P. planning process; a viewpoint that prevails -18-today. " . . . . S k i l l s necessary to the planner extend beyond knowledge to include. . .his and her capacity to create cooperative relationships to sanction his or her planning activit ies" (Burke, 1979, 61). A 1982 Toronto Municipal Discussion paper develops the purpose of public or cit izen participation in the planning process. A summary, which expresses the author's position is presented in the next several paragraphs. P l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s , p u b l i c and p r i v a t e , i n f l u e n c e the q u a l i t y of p e o p l e ' s l i v e s and may change t h e i r s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t s . There i s a w i d e l y s u p p o r t e d t r a d i t i o n i n T o r o n t o which h o l d s t h a t p e o p l e have a r i g h t to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the making o f t h o s e d e c i s i o n s which d i r e c t l y a f f e c t them. I t i s the degree and the q u a l i t y of p a r t i c i p a t i o n which i s o f t e n i n d i s p u t e , e s p e c i a l l y when the i n t e r e s t s of the p roponent of a scheme are d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed to t h o s e of the p e o p l e i n the a r e a a f f e c t e d . In a d d i t i o n t o the p r i n c i p l e of p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t as a r i g h t , p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g tends to p roduce more , w e l l rounded r e s u l t s . P l a n n e r s , d e v e l o p e r s , o w n e r s , t e n a n t s and o t h e r p e o p l e l i v i n g and w o r k i n g i n communi t ies o r o t h e r w i s e i n v o l v e d i n an i s s u e , p o s s e s s d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of k n o w l e d g e . A l l of t h i s knowledge i s needed to make p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s . Even i f " b e t t e r " d e c i s i o n s do not r e s u l t f rom t h i s k n o w l e d g e , d e p e n d i n g on o n e ' s p o i n t - o f - v i e w , p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l be a b l e to judge how t h e s e d e c i s i o n s have been a r r i v e d a t . A p a r t i c i p a t o r y p r o c e s s , wh ich s o l i c i t s and r e c e i v e s a b road e x p r e s s i o n f rom a wide v a r i e t y of i n t e r e s t s , i s a l s o l i k e l y to produce more a c c e p t a b l e d e c i s i o n s . Such d e c i s i o n s w i l l meet w i t h l e s s d i s t r u s t and w i l l , p e r h a p s , be s u p p o r t e d and implemented to a g r e a t e r d e g r e e . A l l o f t h i s assumes , of c o u r s e , t h a t the p u b l i c p r o c e s s w i l l not be a l l o w e d , i n the l o n g r u n , to be misused by any one of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g c o n t r i b u t e s to p e o p l e ' s knowledge of how government o p e r a t e s and how d e c i s i o n s a re made and i m p l e m e n t e d . We l l i n f o r m e d peop le are more l i k e l y to i d e n t i f y w i t h an a r e a or a p l a n n i n g i s s u e and the more t h a t p e o p l e p a r t i c i p a t e the b e t t e r they w i l l be a b l e to p a r t i c i p a t e . A s t r o n g e r and more e f f e c t i v e community or i n t e r e s t group w i l l be b e t t e r a b l e to a c t r a t h e r than to r e a c t or be " a c t e d u p o n " . P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g can h e l p make ever yone i n v o l v e d i n d e c i s i o n making more a c c o u n t a b l e . A c i v i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , w o r k i n g e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h i n a b u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e i s o n l y a c c o u n t a b l e f o r i t s d e c i s i o n s th rough the f o r m a l p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s , e x c e p t i n s p e c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Wi thout any p u b l i c s c r u t i n y , the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s can be m a n i p u l a t e d more e a s i l y by any one p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to the e x c l u s i o n of o t h e r s . A p a r t i c i p a t o r y p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s can h e l p keep p e o p l e i n f o r m e d about p l a n n i n g i s s u e s i n t h e i r n e i g h b o u r h o o d , even when no major d e c i s i o n s a re to be made or when p e o p l e have d e c i d e d not to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the d e c i s i o n making r e g a r d i n g a s p e c i f i c a rea of i s s u e . P u b l i c p o l i c y p l a n n i n g i s aimed at p r o t e c t i n g the C i t y f rom - 1 9 -arbitrary decisions by any particular interest group. A p u b l i c participation process can focus on the issues which are important t o people in a community, which ought to be examined. Also, i f in o r d e r t o implement its policies a municipality commits its e l f to p u b l i c investments, the kind of investment should be determined through a public process. This process should involve as many different groups and individuals as possible. Planning staff can help articulate the interests of those groups or individuals who cannot do i t themselves. As well, local initiative should be fostered (City of Toronto, Planning Board, 1982, 5-6). As in any summary, that which is not stated may be just as important as that which i s . The ability of public policy to protect 'citizens' from arbitrary decisions by any particular interest group is determined by the distribution of power and resources, and by the presence of hidden agendas and under the table politics. No system or model can eradicate differences or equalize a l l players in a local p o l i t i c a l system. However, given the i d e a l purpose of effective public participation, a model or system can be developed that addresses the resource distribution issue and facilitates an equal opportunity for citizens to speak and be heard on relevant local area planning issues. The components or elements of an effective citizen participation model will now be discussed. 3.3 Levels of Participation There is a growing interest in public participation as a result of s e v e r a l lifestyle factors identified in the literature. Included amongst t h e s e lifestyle changes a r e : 1) increased l e v e l of education; 2) improved communication media; 3) improved l i v i n g s t a n d a r d s ; 4) growing number of poor and disillusioned residents; 5) an i n c r e a s i n g c o m p l e x i t y of l i f e . C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , o f t e n i n a s t r u c t u r e d or s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d form i s d e v e l o p e d to d e a l w i t h change and the i n c r e a s i n g c o m p l e x i t y of the c i t i z e n s ' -20-surroundings. Citizens' ab i l i t y to affect planning decisions and impact change was, and is directly related to their permitted level or role in the participation process, the civic theory or strategy for f a c i l i t a t i n g this role, the technique or means through which the citizens participate or monitor the local area plan, and more specifically the structure for this process. The levels of participation are to be discussed f i r s t . Figure 4: Arnstein's Ladder of Levels for Citizen Participation 8 Citizen Control ) 7 Delegated Power ) Degrees of Citizen Power 6 Partnership ) 5 Placation (Advisory) ) 4 Consultant ) Degrees of Tokenness 3 Informing ) 2 Therapy ) Non Participation 1 Manipulation ) (Arnstein, 1969) In this simplistic but clear ladder (Figure 4) prepared by Arnstein in 1969, participation levels are presented. Participation is not considered a reality until level three is reached. Levels one and two are more to pacify citizens than to involve them. Level three, informing, is also a one-way passive role. The residents do not have an opportunity to review and comment on policy decisions, for decisions have generally, already been made. A more positive level is consultation level four, although consultation encompasses input just prior to the making of a final decision. Level five, advisory, moves beyond token interaction to an advisory role in the planning process. Level five typically involves a citizen organization, such as a citizen planning advisory committee. Advice is advice -therefore, i t can be ignored. Level six, patnership, permits a greater degree of citizen influence or c o n t r o l and i t a d v o c a t e s s h a r e d d e c i s i o n making. P r e f e r e n c e i s g i v e n t o f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ( i . e . a p l a n n e r - c i t i z e n team). L e v e l s e v e n , d e l e g a t e d power, i n f e r s complete c i t i z e n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the a r e a i n d i c a t e d t h rough d e l e g a t i o n , a degree of d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of m u n i c i p a l d e c i s i o n making. L e v e l e i g h t , c i t i z e n c o n t r o l , g i v e s complete c o n t r o l t o c i t i z e n s , or independence from l o c a l government as w e l l as f i n a n c i a l independence. A f o u r t h l e v e l t i e r of government i s added, a complete d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of m u n i c i p a l d e c i s i o n making. Examples of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n can be drawn f o r each p a r t i c i p a t i o n l e v e l . I t i s not a q u e s t i o n of whether t o i n c l u d e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s but r a t h e r , the d i s p u t e a r i s e s as t o the degree or l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o i n c l u d e . At the lower l e v e l s of the l a d d e r i s n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n and a t the t o p end of the l a d d e r i s complete neighbourhood c o n t r o l . N e i t h e r a r e d e s i r a b l e g i v e n our Canadian s o c i a l v a l u e s . A l t h o u g h , the p e r c e p t i o n t h a t government s t a f f a r e e x p e r t s s t i l l p r e v a i l s , w i t h i n a democracy p e o p l e do have the r i g h t t o be h e a r d . L e v e l f o u r , c o n s u l t a t i o n , and f i v e , a d v i s o r y , have been g e n e r a l l y a d v o c a t e d w i t h i n the Vancouver L.A.P. model. The a d v i s o r y l e v e l i s a d v o c a t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s as an a p p r o p r i a t e and r e a l i s t i c a l l y a t t a i n a b l e l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Vancouver. A l t h o u g h a range or s pectrum, not l e v e l s , of p a r t i c i p a t i o n would be more r e a l i s t i c i n d e s c r i b i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n , L e v e l f o u r , a d v i s o r y , i s c o n s i d e r e d an a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l f o r the purpose of t h i s t h e s i s . I t i s the l e v e l c o n s i d e r e d a p r o p r i a t e i n the Vancouer L.A.P.P. p l a n p r e p a r a t i o n s t a g e and i n t h i s t h e s i s i t i s a l s o a d v o c a t e d as a p p r o p r i a t e i n the p l a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and m o n i t o r i n g s t a g e . -22-3.4 Strategies for Citizen Participation Prior to discussing techniques and organizational structures for continued citizen participation, i t is necessary to review more generally civic strategies or theories for citizen participation. There are four major civic strategies or theories for citizen participation. These theories are presented here as adapted from Sorkin (1981). 1) Co-option Theory - a strategy based upon the premise that citizen participation is necessary for the success of given programs. This stategy advocates a lower rung of the participation ladder. Participation is one-way, citizens are informed just prior to a final decision being made. 2) Consultation Theory - a strategy that involves some redistribution of power. If no power is redistributed this participation strategy is reduced to co-option. The consultation theory allows for citizens to be informed about options and state their opinions which then may be incorporated in community plans. 3) Education/Social Therapy Theory - a strategy that attempts to improve the citizens' understanding of planning by actively involving, residents of target areas in their community plans. There is no formal redistribution of power; the attitudes of the people are more important than are the specific plans. This theory places the level of participation more at an informing than advisory level. 4) Community Power Theory - a strategy for redistribution of government power. Those who are excluded from the economic and political process are given the opportunity to gain some influence over the decisions that affect their lives. This theory places the level of participation at the highest level, citizen contol. A community interested in monitoring the plan's impact and playing a watchdog role, looks for a strategy or civic theory that will complement the -2 3-a d v i s o r y / c o n s u l t a t i o n l e v e l of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n we have i d e n t i f i e d as most a p p r o p r i a t e . In V a n c o u v e r , the c o n s u l t a t i o n t h e o r y would b e s t complement the c o n s u l t a t i o n or a d v i s o r y l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a l t h o u g h the e d u c a t i o n / s o c i a l t h e r a p y t h e o r y would a l s o be i n t e g r a t e d . N e i t h e r the c o - o p t i o n t h e o r y nor community power t h e o r y would f a c i l i t a t e the a d v i s o r y r o l e recommended i n the p r e c e e d i n g s e c t i o n . The c o - o p t i o n t h e o r y i n v o l v e s n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The community power t h e o r y i n f e r s c o m p l e t e c i t i z e n c o n t r o l . In V a n c o u v e r , the c i t y c h a r t e r p r o h i b i t s d e l e g a t i o n of power . The e d u c a t i o n / s o c i a l t h e r a p y t h e o r y i n v o l v e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t rung two o f the p a r t i c i p a t i o n l a d d e r , s t i l l below the a c c e p t e d l e v e l . In t h e o r y t h r e e , community c o n t a c t i s found n e c e s s a r y i f t r u s t i s t o be promoted and c i t i z e n s a r e t o r e s p e c t the p l a n n i n g p r o f e s s i o n ( B a i l e y , 1975 ) . T h i s e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s i s then t o s e r v e the sys tem i n a p e r p e t u a t i o n o f s t a b i l i t y , not a two-way c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o c e s s . T h e r e f o r e , the c o n s u l t a t i o n t h e o r y or s t r a t e g y i s a d o p t e d . In a d o p t i n g the c o n s u l t a t i o n t h e o r y , a lower l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s not a p p r o p r i a t e because c o n s u l t a t i o n i m p l i e s a two-way p r o c e s s . I n c o r p o r a t i o n of the s e l e c t e d a d v i s o r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n l e v e l d i c t a t e s the s e l e c t i o n of the c o n s u l t a t i o n s t r a t e g y and a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d l e v e l o f d e m o c r a t i c p l a n n i n g . R e a l i z i n g , t h a t i f no power i s t r a n s f e r r e d , p a r t i c i p a t i o n remains between rungs o n e - t h r e e , and c o - o p t i o n not c o n s u l t a t i o n . The i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of an a p p r o p r i a t e and e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t r a t e g y w i l l depend on the means or t e c h n i q u e th rough which p a r t i c i p a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of t e c h n i c a l and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s t o implement the p r e f e r r e d s t r a t e g y . The s t r a t e g y chosen and l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r e f e r r e d d i c t a t e the t e c h n i q u e c h o s e n . R e s o u r c e s a re r e q u i r e d , t h e r e f o r e , to g u a r a n t e e the s u c c e s s of any s e l e c t e d s t r a t e g y and l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . - 2 4 -The preferred strategy and selected levels of participation demand not only appropriate resources but also a technique or means through which citizen participation can appropriately and effectively take place. 3.5 Techniques for Citizen Participation There are several techniques for citizen participation in the Local Area Planning Process. The five utilized most often in Vancouver and other Canadian cities include: 1. a l l citizens by phoning, vi s i t i n g , surveying, or holding large public meeting; 2. electoral process; 3. public hearing; 4. surrogate planners, planners acting on behalf of the public; 5. representative group, a group of citizens that generally reflects the diversity of citizens' views in the community or local area It is realized that in each situation, a special combination of techniques is optimum. If the goal is to attain an advisory/consultant level of participation, with a strategy of consultation, a representative group technique is the most practical, considering resources, time and the practicality of communicating with one representative group compared to a whole population. A degree of decentralized planning is required to implement the desired strategy of consultation. Therefore, the most desired technique, is some form of neighbourhood group or council, as discussed by Schmandt. "Most advocates of decentralization ca l l f o " some form of neighbourhood council, taking the representativeness and responsiveness of that group to the area's constituents as an article of faith" (Schmandt, 1972, 583). -25-3.6 Structural Forms for C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n There a r e many d i f f e r e n t s t r u c t u r e s t h a t a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e group may adopt. T h i s s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s a range of s t r u c t u r e s and i d e n t i f i e s the one most a p p r o p r i a t e t o the t a s k o f m o n i t o r i n g a community p l a n . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e groups can be c l a s s i f i e d by many d i f f e r e n t s t r u c t u r e s . A g e n e r a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r the s t r u c t u r a l forms o f c i t i z e n groups i s as f o l l o w s : 1) Neighbourhood A s s o c i a t i o n s -Key elements i n c l u d e : advocacy; low budget s e l f - h e l p a c t i v i t i e s ; members r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f community, a g e n c i e s , i n d i v i d u a l s or a c o m b i n a t i o n ; m u l t i - i s s u e s as w e l l as s i n g l e i s s u e o r g a n i z a t i o n 2) Neighbourhood Congresses - a co n g l o m e r a t e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t c o n c e n t r a t e on advocacy and may sponsor a neighbourhood c o r p o r a t i o n f o r program o p e r a t i o n s or a neighbourhood c o r p o r a t i o n t h a t may sponsor an advocacy o r g a n i z a t i o n 3) Neighbourhood A d v i s o r y Committee - p l a n n i n g committees, s e t up by a government agency t o d e a l w i t h i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o i t s m i s s i o n , has an advocacy r o l e i n program p l a n n i n g ; s e l e c t i o n of members by government agency or nominees of a s p e c i f i c o r g a n i z a t i o n or some c o m b i n a t i o n of t h e s e 4) Neighbourhood C o u n c i l - an o f f i c i a l l y r e c o g n i z e d group t o d e a l w i t h p o l i c y i s s u e s i n a number of program a r e a s , advocacy, l i m i t e d a d v i s o r y r o l e members u s u a l l y e l e c t e d by r e s i d e n t s , p r e v i o u s l y e x i s t i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s may g a i n r e c o g n i t i o n as an a r e a or neighbourhood c o u n c i l . 5) Neighbourhood C o r p o r a t i o n s - funded and s t a f f e d t o o p e r a t e s p e c i f i c s e r v i c e s or t o u n d e r t a k e development a c t i v i t i e s , n o n - p r o f i t , may have p r o f i t - m a k i n g s u b s i d u a r y , l e g a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d , a b l e t o a c t as a l e g a l e n t i t y . 6) Neighbourhood Government - l e g a l power, a u t h o r i t y e q u i v a l e n t t o t h a t of a m u n i c i p a l i t y t o make p o l i c y and p r o v i d e s p e c i f i c p r o g r a m s , a c c e s s to f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s to c a r r y out r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , d e m o c r a t i c a l l y s e l e c t e d by government o f f i c i a l s and r e s i d e n t s . ( H a l l m a n , 1984) F o r our p u r p o s e s we a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n the s e l e c t i o n of a s t r u c t u r e t h a t has the f l e x i b i l i t y to s a t i s f y un ique community needs f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n and p l a n m o n i t o r i n g , and t h a t can expand the base of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . R e s e a r c h i n T o r o n t o i n d i c a t e s t h a t , " . . . p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o c e s s e s s h o u l d not be governed by r i g i d s t r u c t u r e s , but they s h o u l d be molded to f i t the s i t u a t i o n at hand ( C i t y of T o r o n t o P l a n n i n g B o a r d , " January 18, 1982, 3 ) . U s i n g t h i s c r i t e r i a , i t i s the n e i g h b o u r h o o d c o u n c i l t h a t appears to be as most a d a p t a b l e and f l e x i b l e , g i v e n a range of community v a r i a b l e s . These c o u n c i l s a re r e c o g n i z e d as a v i a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o p t i o n i n many Amer ican and C a n a d i a n c i t i e s . Ne ighbourhood c o u n c i l s a re u n d e r s t o o d to have some o f f i c i a l , o r q u a s i - o f f i c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h l o c a l government . ( H a l l m a n , 1979, 4 ) . The n e i g h b o u r h o o d or a rea c o u n c i l i s an a d v i s o r y , advocacy body w i t h e l e c t e d l e a d e r s , w i t h f o c u s e d i n t e r e s t on a range of s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l p o l i c i e s . The d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e of n e i g h b o u r h o o d c o u n c i l i s t h a t they have government r e c o g n i t i o n and t h e r e f o r e , a communica t ion c h a n n e l tha t i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r p l a n n i n g and community m o n i t o r i n g . Area c o u n c i l s are o r g a n i z a t i o n s , " . . d e d i c a t e d to p r e s e r v a t i o n and enhancement of n e i g h b o u r h o o d i n t e r e s t ; a d v o c a t e of n e i g h b o u r h o o d n e e d s . From a b r o a d e r c i v i c v i e w p o i n t , they promote a g r e a t e r sense of community and s e r v e as a forum f o r d e v e l o p i n g new c i v i c l e a d e r s h i p . " ( H a l l m a n , 1979, 4-5) The s t r u c t u r a l forms of n e i g h b o u r h o o d c o u n c i l s can be d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r major g r o u p s . Examples of each are l i s t e d i n T a b l e I. Ne ighbourhood or a r e a c o u n c i l s can b e : 1) C h a r t e r C r e a t e d B o a r d s , a u t h o r i z e d by c i t y c h a r t e r i n v o l v e comprehensive development of boards w i t h i n n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . These c h a r t e r c r e a t e d boards may have c i t y - w i d e c o v e r a g e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i . e . New York C i t y ; may have a n e i g h b o u r h o o d o p t i o n f o r f i x e d t i m e i n w h i c h t o be o r g a n i z e d , i . e . D i s t r i c t o f C o l u m b i a ; or have an open ended neighbourhood o p t i o n phase, i . e H o n o l u l u . 2) C i t y - w i d e Network of l o c a l g r o u p s , o r g a n i z e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , but not c r e a t e d by a c h a r t e r . These neighbourhood c o u n c i l s a r e c r e a t e d by c i t y r e s o l u t i o n t o c o v e r whole c i t y . I n 1975, t h e c i t y of W i c h i t a , Kansas, o r g a n i z e d 15 c i t y - w i d e a r e a c o u n c i l s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h v o t i n g p r e c i n c t b o u n d a r i e s . The v o t e d members of b oards a c t e d as a d v i s o r s t o t h e c i t y c o m m i s s i o n e r . 3) Phased O r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t e x p a n d i n g c o v e r a g e . These c o u n c i l s a r e phased i n over m o n t h s / y e a r s , s t a r t e d o f t e n as p a r t of neighbourhood p l a n n i n g program, s t a g i n g p r o c e s s , i . e . P o r t l a n d . 4) A s s o c i a t i o n s or c o u n c i l s w i t h de f a c t o r e c o g n i t i o n a r e c o u n c i l s not f o r m a l l y r e c o g n i z e d by C i t y H a l l b u t , i n f o r m a l l y C i t y H a l l has g i v e n t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s or c o u n c i l s de f a c t o r e c o g n i t i o n . T h i s i s e v i d e n c e d by c o n t a c t s w i t h c i t y agency t h r o u g h s t a f f a s s i s t a n c e and modest f i n a n c i a l a i d ( g r a n t s ) . These c o u n c i l s have a s p e c i a l s t a t u s w i t h l o c a l government but have no s p e c i f i c endorsement by c i t y c o u n c i l , i . e . - Kansas C i t y . Numbers one, two and t h r e e a l l have f o r m a l endorsement by c i t y c o u n c i l and a r e i n i t i a t e d by c i t y c o u n c i l not by t h e community. In a s t u d y of 30 l o c a l i t i e s , Hallman ( 1975) r e c o r d e d t h e number of each t y p e a r e a c o u n c i l (see T a b l e 1) i n 28 U.S. c i t i e s and c o u n t i e s r e f l e c t i n g on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e s e l e c t e d s t r u c t u r e s f o r the c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , He a d v o c a t e d a r e a c o u n c i l s , w i t h de f a c t o r e c o g n i t i o n as b e i n g most e f f e c t i v e i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . R a f t e r a l s o , a f t e r s t u d y i n g 60 c i t i e s , c o n c l u d e d t h a t de f a c t o Neighbourhood A s s o c i a t i o n s or c o u n c i l s were most e f f e c t i v e ( R a f t e r , 1984). -28-H i s r e s e a r c h was b a s e d on q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n s e s f rom p a r t i c i p a t i n g c i t i e s . I n f o r m a l or f o r m a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f e x i s t i n g n e i g h b o u r h o o d a s s o c i a t i o n s were v iewed t o be 100% e f f e c t i v e as compared t o c i t y - w i d e b o a r d s w h i c h were v iewed t o be 66% e f f e c t i v e . R e c o g n i t i o n i n c l u d e s a c c e s s t o t e c h n i c a l or monetary r e s o u r c e s . The de f a c t o o r g a n i z a t i o n s have the advan tage o f b e i n g i n e x i s t e n c e or a t most r e q u i r i n g o n l y s l i g h t a d a p t a t i o n i n o r d e r t o t a k e on the t a s k o f m o n i t o r i n g t h e i r a r e a p l a n . In f a c t , i n C h a p t e r 4 we w i l l see t h a t many V a n c o u v e r a r e a a s s o c o a t i o n s have the p o t e n t i a l t o become a r e a c o u n c i l s p r o v i d e d they r e c i e v e de f a c t o r e c o g n i t i o n f rom the c i t y . - 2 9 -TABLE 1: T h i r t y L o c a l i t i e s with Neighbourhood Councils, by Major Clusters L o c a l i t y (population 1000's) Local Name for Number of Neighbourhood Neighbourhoods Number of Neighbour-hoods I d e n t i f i e d Organized Group 1: Charter Created Boards Newton, Mass. (1) Neighbourhood servica area council n.a. 1 Honolulu (691) Neighbourhood board 32 11 Pittsburgh (479) Community advisory board - -D i s t r i c t of Columbia (734) Advisory neighbourhood commission 36 30 New York (7,647) Community board 62 62 Group 2: Ci tywide Network, Organized Simultaneously Milwaukie, Ore. (19) Neighbourhood council 5 5 Simi V a l l e y , C a l i f . (70) Neighbourhood council 5 5 Dayton (214) Neighbourhood p r i o r i t y board 6 6 Wichita (261) Neighbourhood council 15 15 Birmingham (296) Neighbourhood c i t i z e n committee 84 84 Minneapolis (382) Planning d i s t r i c t c i t i z e n advisory 10 10 committee Group 3: Phased Organizing, Expanding Coveragi e Salem, Ore. (76) Neighbourhood planning organization 15 14 Eugene (90) Neighbourhood association 16 14 Anchorage (149) Community council 16 15 St. Paul (287) D i s t r i c t planning council 17 9 Fort Worth (360) Sector planning council 11 11 Atlanta (451) Neighbourhood planning committee 24 24 Jackso n v i l l e (522) Neighbourhood organization 153 9 San Diego (757) Community planning group 32 32 Washington Co., Ore. (190) Community planning organization 14 10 Clackamas Co., Ore. (201) Community planning organization 33 11 G u i l f o r d Co., N.C. (299) Community council 22 14 San Mateo Co.,Calif. (572) Municipal advisory council n.a. 1 San Diego Co. , C a l i f . (1518) Community planning group 25 13 Grou p 4: Associations with De Facto Recognition Lincoln (163) Neighbourhood association 31 20 Fort Wayne (185) Neighbourhood association n.a. 84 Portland (378) Neighbourhood association 63 53 Kansas City (488) Neighbourhood association, communit} ' n.a. 120 council (Hallman, 1979) -30-3.7 Variables that Influence Community Organization V a r i a b l e s t h a t i n f l u e n c e community o r g a n i z a t i o n must be p r e s e n t e d p r i o r t o d i s c u s s i n g t h e recommended model f o r c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n V ancouver. Community o r g a n i z a t i o n or development can be viewed as a s o c i a l p r o c e s s i n w h i c h human b e i n g s can become more competent t o l i v e and g a i n some c o n t r o l over l o c a l a s p e c t s of a f r u s t r a t i n g and r a p i d l y c h a n g i n g w o r l d G u e r r e t t e , 1979, 1 5 ) . Baran d e f i n e s community o r g a n i z a t i o n as a method of i n t e r v e n t i o n whereby i n d i v i d u a l s , groups and o r g a n i z a t i o n s engage i n p l a n n e d a c t i o n t o i n f l u e n c e s o c i a l p r o b l e m s . I t i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e e n r i c h m e n t development, and/or change of s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and i n v o l v e s two major r e l a t e d p r o c e s s e s : p l a n n i n g ( t h a t i s i d e n t i f y i n g p roblem a r e a s ) d i a g n o s i n g and o r g a n i z i n g ( t h a t i s d e v e l o p i n g t h e c o n s t i t u e n c i e s and d e v i s i n g t h e s t r a t e g i e s t o e f f e c t a c t i o n ) ( B a r a n , 1979,2). Community groups i n v o l v e d i n a community o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e f f o r t have a g o a l of s e l f - h e l p . They t e n d t o emphasize l o c a l i t y development, where n e c e s s a r y , w h i l e t a k i n g on a f u n c t i o n of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l a c t i o n . L o c a l i t y development i s d e f i n e d as a c t i v e g o a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n and a c t i o n , a p r o c e s s d e s i g n e d t o c r e a t e c o n d i t i o n s of economic and s o c i a l p r o g r e s s ( b e t t e r m e n t ) , e m p h a s i s i n g on d e m o c r a t i c p r o c e d u r e s , v o l u n t a r y c o - o p e r a t i o n and community i n t e g r a t i o n w h i l e s o c i a l a c t i o n , as s t a t e d by Rothman and summarized by Cox, i s advocacy o r i e n t e d . S o c i a l p l a n n i n g i s a t e c h n i c a l p r o c e s s of problem s o l v i n g w i t h r e g a r d t o s u b s t a n t i v e s o c i a l problems w i t h i n a g u i d e d or s t r u c t u r e d community change p r o c e s s (Cox, 1970). Community o r g a n i z a t i o n and c i t i z e n group development i n f e r d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of some a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and p o l i t i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o the community. The p r o p o r t i o n o f l o c a l i t y development, o o c i a l p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l a c t i o n p r a c t i s e d i n t h e community i s r e l a t e d t o community v a r i a b l e s and t o the c i v i c model f o r c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The r e s u l t i n g community group mandate i n f l u e n c e s the s t r u c t u r e of l o c a l community o r g a n i z a t i o n . Community o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t can be and a r e i n v o l v e d i n the L o c a l -31-Area Planning process, are influenced by various input, as well as having various structural forms. Citizen participation structural forms, techniques, strategy and the level of participation vary according to the variables interacting in the community decision making process. These variables are listed here and discussed in the context of Mount Pleasant in Chapter 5. The variables are: 1) input to and allowances of a community's degree of autonomy by civic council; 2) national society; 3) demographic character of community; 4) socio-economic status; 5) economic function; 6) local p o l i t i c a l structure, ward versus at large; 7) integrated mechanisms, structural characteristics of po l i t i c a l processing; 8) social patterns; 9) community values, norms and their influence on output; 10) leadership characteristics; 11) decision making structure - po l i t i c a l interaction among p o l i t i c a l actors within community and their influence on choices, alternative goals, maintenance, and modification of institutions or f a c i l i t i e s that involve the majority of the community residents; 12) community output results, quality of their participation. (adapted from Clark, 1968, 17-22) The structure of community organizations is a subject relevant to both p o l i t i c a l and sociological literature. Federalism, the national society in Canada, lends i t s e l f to some form of local autonomy, f a c i l i t a t i n g inter-governmental relations that include a neighbourhood p o l i t i c a l and administration function (Schmandtt, 1972, 522). The organizational structure F i g u r e 5: Recommended Co n t i n u e d C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n Model CITIZENS. P^r^rtABfJfb* l^AL AP6A awNiHfir i^PPBSJii. STRONG ^ MNtarw v«»if tT« 1. C i t y H a l l c o n s u l t s a n d i n f o r m a l l y o r f o r m a l l y r e c o g n i z e s t h e a r e a c o u n c i l ( c i v i c s t r a t e g y ) 2 . The a r e a c o u n c i l p a r t i c i p a t e s a t an a d v i s o r y l e v e l i n t h e L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s ( L e v e l o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n ) 3 . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e l o c a l a r e a g r o u p ( T e c h n i q u e o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n ) 4 . An a r e a c o u n c i l s t r u c t u r e , f o r t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e l o c a l a r e a g r o u p i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e g r o u p i s n o t a component o f t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t o r C i v i c H a l l b u t i t i s a c o m m u n i t y c o n t r o l l e d g r o u p t h a t h a s r e c o g n i t i o n a n d s u p p o r t f r o m t h e i r l o c a l a r e a and f r o m C i v i c H a l l ( S t r u c t u r e o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n ) . - 3 3 -and l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l d y n a m i c a l l y r e f l e c t l o c a l v a l u e s and i n t e r e s t , l e g i t i m i z i n g the l o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . The e l e v e n major v a r i a b l e s and t h e i r impact on community o r g a n i z a t i o n and the l o c a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n p l a n m o n i t o r i n g , - c o u l d be p l a c e d w i t h i n a g e n e r a l framework which bends t o the range of each v a r i a b l e i n Canadian c i t i e s . A framework, or more e x p l i c i t l y , a p r o c e s s c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d t h a t f a c i l i t a t e s an e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n model, which would r e c o g n i z e community v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n the Vancouver c i t y c o n t e x t . 3.8 E f f e c t i v e C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n Based on the p r e c e e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n , an e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n model would i n c o r p o r a t e : 1) an a d v i s o r y l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the c i t i z e n s p a r t i c i p a t e as a d v i s o r s ; 2) a c o n s u l t a t i o n s t r a t e g y , C i t y H a l l c o n s u l t s and r e c o g n i z e s the a r e a c o u n c i l ; 3) a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e group t e c h n i q u e , the c i t i z e n s i n the a r e a c o u c i l r e p r e s e n t t h e i r community; 4) an a r e a c o u n c i l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , the a r e a c o u n c i l i s a body s e p a r a t e from the p l a n n i n g department, e l e c t e d by the community. The diagram ( F i g u r e 5) on the p r e c e e d i n g page i l l u s t r a t e s e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n f o r e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h e o r y i s based on t h i s c h a p t e r ' s l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w . P r i o r t o d i s c u s s i n g how t o implement t h e s e e l e m e n t s , c h a p t e r 4 w i l l e v a l u a t e L.A.P. The p r e s e n t e f f e c t i v e n e s s of L.A.P. d u r i n g the p l a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t a g e compared t o tne p l a n c r e a t i o n s t a g e . E f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s d e f i n e d here as i t a p p l i e s t o the Vancouver L.A.P.P. The a d v i s o r y l e v e l or r o l e of p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e f l e c t s the r o l e a l r e a d y c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e d u r i n g the p l a n c r e a t i o n s t a g e . The a p p r o p r i a t e c i v i c response t o ensure an a d v i s o r y l e v e l i s the c o n s u l t a t i o n c i v i c -34-s t r a t e g y , whereby c i t y c o u n c i l or t h e p l a n n i n g department c o n s u l t s w i t h the l o c a l a r e a on p l a n n i n g i s s u e s . The t e c h n i q u e s e l e c t e d f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n i s t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e group. To h e l p e n s u r e e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h e s t r u c t u r e of the group s e l e c t e d i s the a r e a c o u n c i l , a f o r m a l l y or i n f o r m a l l y c i v i c r e c o g n i z e d c i t i z e n group. The m e r i t s of a n e i g h b o u r h o o d a r e a c o u n c i l i n c l u d e i t s c a p a c i t y t o i n f l u e n c e d e c i s i o n making and be i n v o l v e d i n p u b l i c networks and i n f o r m a t i o n exchange. ( S m i t h and J o n e s , 1981, 123). Neighbourhood c o u n c i l s f o c u s t h e i r a t t e n t i o n upon th e needs and d e s i r e s of n e ighbourhood r e s i d e n t s and they t r y t o i n f l u e n c e the g o v e r n i n g c o a l i t i o n so t h a t p u b l i c p o l i c i e s b e n e f i t t h o s e n e ighbourhoods ( H a l l m a n , 1977, 128). These n o n - s t a t u t o r y b o d i e s can p r o v i d e a v e h i c l e f o r the development of community s p i r i t . I n r e g a r d t o i n v o l v e m e n t i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , R a f t e r c o n c l u d e d a f t e r s t u d y i n g 60 c i t i e s , t h a t r e c o g n i z e d de f a c t o Neighbourhood A s s o c i a t i o n s or C o u n c i l s were most e f f e c t i v e ( R a f t e r , 1984). I n f o r m a l or f o r m a l r e c o g n i t i o n of c o u n c i l may i n v o l v e s modest t e c h n i c a l and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s . The a r e a c o u n c i l s t r u c t u r e can be c o s t e f f e c t i v e i f e x i s t i n g c i t i z e n groups i n the community h e l p s h a r e t h e expenses i f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l l o w s f o r more e q u i t a b l e p l a n s and i f L.A.P. t r a i n s c i t i z e n t o be e f f e c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d and d o e s n ' t t r y t o do e v e r y t h i n g f o r t h e c o u n c i l s . To e n s u r e t h e a r e a c o u n c i l i s c o s t e f f e c t i v e t h e r e must be c o n d i t i o n s of r e c o g n i t i o n . For example, a c e r t a i n d i v e r s i t y of c i t i z e n s , age - sex and a d d r e s s e s , may have t o be a c t i v e i n t h e c o u n c i l b e f o r e r e c o g n i t i o n c o u l d be g r a n t e d . I n r e g a r d t o the c o s t , i f an e x i s t i n g o r g a n i . ~ v . i o n s sponsor the a r e a c o u n c i l , t h i s w i l l be r e d u c e d . The a r e a c o u n c i l has t h e freedom t o h i r e p l a n n e r s i f the need a r i s e s . The key f a c t o r s of an a r e a c o u n c i l s t r u c t u r e a r e : i t has c i t y c o u n c i l r e c o g n i t i o n ; i t i s c o n s u l t e d on p l a n n i n g i s s u e s ; has a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s t o complete c e r t a i n t a s k s and i t has a c o n t i n u o u s l i f e w h i l e m e e t i n g r e c o g n i t i o n c r i t e r i a . I f a c i t i z e n ' s group i s a l r e a d y i n v o l v e d i n community o r g a n i z a t i o n and adds t h e f u n c t i o n of a watchdog m o n i t o r i n g . r o l e w i t h t h e promis e o f c i v i c r e c o g n i t i o n and p e r i o d i c r e v i e w , t h e a r e a c o u n c i l i s not a v i a b l e c o n c e p t . 3.9 Components of Continued E f f e c t i v e C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n I n r e v i e w i n g the r e a s o n why c i v i c c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h p u b l i c groups does not always work, Desmond M. Conner has p r e p a r e d a l i s t o f 10 components e s s e n t i a l f o r e f f e c t i v e p u b l i c c o n s u l t a t i o n e i g h t o f wh i c h a r e p r e s e n t e d h e r e . 1. O b j e c t i v e s - S p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s must be d e v e l o p e d t o g i v e d i r e c t i o n t o the c i t i z e n g r o u p / c i v i c s t a f f r e l a t i o n s h i p . 2. P r o c e s s - C o n s i d e r a t i o n must be g i v e n t o t h e means f o r com m u n i c a t i o n , p l a c e , t i m e , f r e q u e n t y o f m e e t i n g s . . . 3. R e s o u r c e s - Connor w r i t e s t h a t t h e r e i s i n s u f f i c i e n t i n v e s t m e n t o f r e s o u r c e s i n d e s i g n i n g and p u t t i n g t h e program i n t o o p e r a t i o n . P a r t i c i p a t i o n needs e x t e n s i v e i n v e s t m e n t i n i t s i n i t i a l s t a g e s ; t h e n a l o w e r c o n t i n u e d i n v e s t m e n t of t i m e , money and t e c h n i c a l s u p p o r t ( r e c o g n i t i o n ) t o m a i n t a i n i t . 4. T i m i n g - Make s u r e t h a t c i t i z e n s a r e i n f a c t c o n s u l t e d p r i o r t o the ti m e d e c i s i o n s . 5. E v a l u a t i v e C r i t e r i a - S e l e c t c r i t e r i a t h a t i n c l u d e economic, e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s o c i a l i m p a c t s f o r e v a l u a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s i n any p l a n n i n g i s s u e . 6. T e c h n i q u e s - Connor a d v o c a t e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p u b l i c m e e t i n g not be o n l y c a l l e d when a c o n f l i c t needs t o be r e s o l v e d ; - c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a s t r u c t u r e d c o n t i n u i n g p r o c e s s . 7. C r e d i b i l i t y - As d i s t r u s t e n t e r s the p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e n a , c r e d i b i l i t y d i m i n i s h e s . 8. E q u i t y - j u s t i c e must be a p p a r e n t i n the c i v i c t o p u b l i c d e a l i n g s . (Connor, 1985, 5-6). A l l components must be p r e s e n t f o r a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n program t o o p e r a t e e f f e c t i v e l y . 3.10 Summary As e a r l y as 1973, t h e C i t y of Vancouver i d e n t i f i e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n as an o b j e c t i v e of i t s L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g Program. I n C h a p t e r 3, t h e o r y on a model f o r e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s o u t l i n e d , based on a r e v i e w of a l i t e r a t u r e . O nly t h e f o u r t h recommended model element f o r Vancouver c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s not p r e s e n t l y an element of t h e L.A.P. p r o c e s s . I n summary, th e a d v o c a t e d e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n model i n t e g r a t e s : 1) a c i v i c s t r a t e g y of c i t i z e n c o n s u l t a t i o n s ; 2) a c i t i z e n a d v i s o r y l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; 3) a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c i t i z e n group p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e ; 4) an a r e a c o u n c i l s t r u c t u r e f o r the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e group t e c h n i q u e . In the subsequent c h a p t e r , t h e p r e m i s e t h a t e f f e c t i v e c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Vancouver i s not a lways a r e a l i t y i s t e s t e d . P a r t i c i p a t i o n d u r i n g t h e p l a n c r e a t i o n s t a g e of the L.A.P. p r o c e s s i s p e r c i e v e d t o be l e s s e f f e c t i v e than p a r t i c i p a t i o n d u r i n g t h e l o n g term p l a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t a g e . Four Vancouver L.A.P. program a r e e v a l u a t e d a g a i n s t the f o u r e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n element c r i t e r i a i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s C h a p t e r . I n Chapter f o u r , r e s u l t s from t h e e v a l u a t i o n a r e p r e s e n t e d , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Vancouver i s g e n e r a l l y d i s c u s s e d and c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n models i n s e v e r a l o t h e r N o r t h American c i t i e s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d . -37-CHAPTER 4: EVALUATION OF CONTINUED CITIZEN PARTICIPATION IN THE VANCOUVER L.A.P.P. 4.1 Introduction This chapter evaluates Vancouver local areas to determine whether effective citizen participation has continued after the local area plan has been adopted and the i n i t i a l implementation has been completed. In the ensuing sections Local Area Planning in Vancouver is described; and L.A.P.P. citizen participation is discussed and evaluated. The evaluation uses the definition of effective citizen participation proposed in Chapter 3. Effective participation is defined by four elements: 1) an advisory level of participation; 2) a civic consultation strategy; 3) a representative citizen group technique; 4) an area council organizational structure. The degree to which each element is evident in a given program indicates the relative effectiveness of citizen participation. Succeeding the evaluation is a comparative analysis of citizen participation models. The chapter then concludes with general observations on a model for effective continued citizen participation in Vancouver. 4.2 C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n Examples i n Vancouver Prior to discussing citizen participation and the L.A.P.P., earlier approaches to participation in Vancouver will be described to set the context for the ini t i a t i o n of the L.A.P.P. One early example was the United Way effort in the 60's to organize 21 local area councils. Only two or three of these councils remain. A second attempt included the short lived Community Resource Boards included by the N.D.P. government in the mid '70's. A change of government ended these boards. -38-A t h i r d a t tempt t o o r g a n i z e the communi ty , t h a t i s s t i l l o n - g o i n g , a r e the a r e a - s e r v i c e - t e a m s i n i t i a t e d by the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . These teams a r e made up o f l o c a l s o c i a l s e r v i c e p r o f e s s i o n a l s who meet about once a month t o d i s c u s s s o c i a l p r o b l e m s . They have no power t o a c t on the b e h a l f o f the communi ty , nor do they a t tempt t o do s o , u n l e s s i t i s t h r o u g h one o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e i r m e e t i n g s s u c h as a N e i g h b o u r h o o d House . A n o t h e r example o f c i t i z e n o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s the i n d e p e n d a n t n e i g h b o u r h o o d r a t e p a y e r a s s o c i a t i o n s . T h e y ' r e not c o n s u l t e d by c i t y c o u n c i l or by the p l a n n i n g depar tment e x c e p t i n an a d - h o c manner . A w e l l o r g a n i z e d r a t e p a y e r ' s g roup i s the Shaughnessy A s s o c i a t i o n . These g r o u p s do p a r t c i p a t e a t t i m e s o f c r i s i s d e p e n d i n g on the a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f r e s o u r c e s . Most e x i s t i n g V a n c o u v e r n e i g h b o u r h o o d a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e w i t h o u t the t e c h n i c a l and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s n e c e s s a r y f o r e f f e c t i v e m o n i t o r i n g of t h e i r l o c a l a r e a p l a n . Even i f a s t r o n g community group does e x i s t p r i o r to the c o m p l e t i o n of the p l a n , s u b s e q u e n t m o n i t o r i n g by the community w i l l not n e c e s s a r i l y o c c u r . However , some l o c a l a r e a s t h a t do have a l i m i t e d degree of c o n t i n u e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n and t h e s e examples w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . T h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s l i m i t e d because they do not a lways have the n e c e s s a r y r e c o g n i t i o n and s u p p o r t c f the c i t y and o f the p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t . 4.3 C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n and the Vancouver Local Area Planning Program L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g may be d e s c r i b e d as h a v i n g two e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : 1) c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; 2) d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n ; l o c a l a r e a p l a n s r a t h e r than c i t y - w i d e p l a n s a r e p r e p a r e d . C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n may i n c o r p o r a t e v a r i o u s t e c h n i q u e s . In o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t v a r i o u s s t a g e s t h e r e may be d e p u t a t i o n s t o c i t y c o u n c i l f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l p u b l i c m e e t i n g s , open h o u s e s , w o r k s h o p s , -39-d i s p l a y s , a d v e r t i s i n g , w o r k i n g c o m m i t t e e s , t a s k f o r c e s and n e i g h b o u r h o o d a d v i s o r y c o m m i t t e e s . A l l of t h e s e a r e used i n the V a n c o u v e r L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s , a l t h o u g h emphasis i s on a w e l l d e v e l o p e d w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h c i t i z e n s p l a n n i n g c o m m i t t e e s . When i n i t i a t e d by the L . A . P . P . s t a f f , the c i t i z e n s p l a n n i n g commit tee meets r e g u l a r l y i n an a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y to c o n t r i b u t e i t s v iews on the o p e r a t i o n of the L . A . P . P u b l i c m e e t i n g s a r e h e l d when e x t e n s i v e f e e d b a c k i s r e q u i r e d . C o n s t r u c t i v e , s y s t e m a t i c c i t i z e n p a r t i c i a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g p r o v i d e s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c i t i z e n s , p l a n n e r s , e l e c t o r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and members of community o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o s h a r e e x p e r i e n c e , knowledge and g o a l s and to combine t h e i r energy i n the c r e a t i o n of a p l a n ( C o n n o r , 1974, 7 ) . The v a l u e of c i t i z e n s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g i s e x t e n s i v e . The c i t i z e n s g i v e p e r s o n a l d a t a on community g o a l s , v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s and p r e f e r e n c e s . The c i t i z e n s p o s s e s s a w e a l t h of a d d i t i o n a l d a t a , e s p e c i a l l y i n r e g a r d t o l o c a l h i s t o r y . They a l s o i n t r o d u c e a c r e a t i v e e lement i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The p l a n n e r s complement the c i t i z e n s ' i n p u t w i t h p r o c e s s e d knowledge and t e c h n i c a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s k i l l s . T h i s i n t e r a c t i o n b u i l d s a more r e s p o n s i v e and r e s p o n s i b l e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s as i t b r i n g s s o l u t i o n s to the most p r e s s i n g p r o b l e m s . F o l l o w i n g the 1972 i n i t i a t i o n of L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g , c o u n c i l a u t h o r i s e d a r e a programs t h a t were recommended by the p l a n n i n g depar tment a n d / o r the c i t i z e n s of the a r e a . S i t e l o c a t i o n s f o r the L . A . P . o f f i c e s d e c e n t r a l i z e d p l a n n i n g and i n c r e a s e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . C i t i z e n p l a n n i n g commit tees were formed as a d v i s o r y b o d i e s to work w i t h the p l a n n i n g s t a f f on the l o c a l a r e a p l a n . A l l major and f i n a l d e c i s i o n making power remained w i t h the c i t y c o u n c i l . L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g has s e v e r a l b e n e f i t s as d i s c u s s e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e , some of t h e s e a r e a d a p t e d f rom a r e c e n t t h e s i s ( G u e r r e t t e , 1980, 3). L . A . P . e s t a b l i s h e s : - 4 0 -1. A c l e a r e r d e f i n i t i o n o f the e f f e c t l a n d use d e c i s i o n s have on s o c i a l s e r v i c e p o l i c i e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s to m i n o r i t y g r o u p s . ( D a v i d o f f , 1965; F r i e d m a n n , 1973 ) ; 2 . A g r e a t e r s e n s i t i v i t y to the p a r t i c u l a r needs o f d i f f e r e n t c i t y a r e a s ( K a s p e r s o n , 1974; A n d e r s o n , 1976; A n d e r s o n , 1977; Schmandt , 1973 ) ; 3 . A more e q u i t a b l e d e l i v e r y o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e s i n wh ich a l l o c a t i v e d e c i s i o n s between the d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f the c i t y a r e made more e x p l i c i t ( K a s p e r s o n , 1974b; A n d e r s o n , 1976, 2 0 ) ; 4 . A b e t t e r and more a c c e s s i b l e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n due t o the more u n d e r s t a n d a b l e and c o m p r e h e n s i v e n a t u r e o f l o c a l i s s u e s ( K a s p e r s o n , 1974b) r e s u l t i n g i n . . . 5. A f a s t e r f e e d b a c k p r o c e s s t h r o u g h the i n v o l v e m e n t o f the consumers o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e s i n p o l i c y making and r e v i e w i n g ( K a s p e r s o n , 1974b) ; 6. A t e r r i t o r i a l power b a s i s w h i c h c h a l l e n g e s e x i s t i n g e l i t e s ( K a s p e r s o n , 1974b, K o t l e r , 1969; Schmandt , 1973; F r a s e r , 1972 ) ; 7. A p o p u l a r s u p p o r t f o r e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t h r o u g h the s e n s i t i z a t i o n of p o l i t i c i a n s t o v o c a l p u b l i c o p i n i o n ( A n d e r s o n , 1976 ) ; and 8. An a l i g n m e n t o f p l a n n e r s w i t h p u b l i c o p i n i o n , c r e a t i n g a c o n v i n c i n g package f o r the p o l i t i c i a n , and e n h a n c i n g the i n f l u e n c e o f the p l a n n e r as w e l l as t h a t of the c i t i z e n (Need leman , 1 9 7 4 ) . V a n c o u v e r ' s l o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g program p o s i t i o n a p p e a r s to be a l i g n e d w i t h b e n e f i t s 1, 2 , and 3 as l i s t e d a b o v e . T h i s i s r e i n f o r c e d by a 1973 L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g Repor t t h a t e m p h a s i z e s the n e c e s s i t y o f f a c i l i t a t i n g c i t i z e n / p l a n n e r d i a l o g u e and improvement o f an i n f o r m a t i o n base f o r p l a n n i n g tha t i n c l u d e s an i n t i m a t e awareness o f the i s s u e s . As a r e s u l t , the p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n becomes more v i s i b l e ; a t r u s t r e l a t i o n s h i p i s formed and the community becomes an a c t i v e p a r t o f i t s p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m ; a mutua l l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s i s d e v e l o p e d , t h a t b u i l d s a b r i d g e between the p l a n n e r and c l i e n t by i n t e g r a t i n g -41-p r o c e s s e d and p e r s o n a l knowledge ( F r i e d m a n ) . I n o t h e r words, a more d e m o c r a t i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g i s a p r o c e s s t h a t emphasizes p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g , community development and o r g a n i z a t i o n . P a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o c e s s i n c l u d e s a c i t i z e n ' s p l a n n i n g committee as an a d v i s o r y body and g i v e s i t a mandate t o p l a n f o r community development. 4.4 Local Area Planning Program i n Vancouver L o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g was i n t r o d u c t e d i n Vancouver, w i t h the e l e c t i o n i n of 'The E l e c t o r s A c t i o n Movement' (TEAM) i n 1972. The mandate and r a t i o n a l e f o r l o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g i n Vancouver i s summarized by Anderson. L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g can make p l a n n i n g more e f f e c t i v e by a l l o w i n g c i t i z e n s t o i n f l u e n c e t h e development of t h e i r community. At t h e same time a two way f l o w of communication i s e s t a b l i s h e d between c i t i z e n s and c i t y h a l l h u m a n i z i n g b u r e a u c r a c y and making p e o p l e aware of and i n v o l v e d i n c i v i c a f f a i r s . C i t y r e s o u r c e s and problems s h o u l d be r e d i s t r i b u t e d among the n e i g h b orhoods c o r r e c t i n g i m b a l a n c e s w i t h i n the c i t y . The L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g Program w i l l i n v o l v e i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the community from the f i r s t s t a g e s of p l a n p r e p a r a t i o n i n an e f f o r t t o work on a p a r t i c i p a t o r y , c o - o p e r a t i v e b a s i s . A s t r o n g i n i t i a t i n g r o l e on t h e p a r t of the c i t y s t a f f w i l l g u a r a n t e e t h e l e a d e r s h i p e s s e n t i a l t o the p l a n n i n g i n L o c a l A r e a s . ( A n derson, 1977, 3 5 ) . The C i t i z e n A d v i s o r Model Vancouver L.A.P.P. As the C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n model f o r the Vancouver L not an a r e a c o u n c i l . (see F i g u r e 6) was s e l e c t e d f o r the A d v i s o r Model r e f l e c t s t h e p r e s e n t A.P.P. The a d v i s o r y body i s the C.P.C., -42-F i g u r e 6: L . A . P . f l o d a l A l t e r n a t i v e s m m 1Wf»W«lLT <yj L J f — 7 / Pl>NHIN6r TEAM INPIViPUAt-'b I M M M - ( — 4 _ ^ ~ t PLANNING TS^ M 1= 3P ^ ^ UNCERTAIN •STEENftT14 -43--a —•—vts— 3flr> • ^r~-—fik-t S T R O N G ) A E P U M S J ^ s e H A T H ' ' ' V ^V^ W E A K ^ ^ uNcetTAiN t-TseNtvm - 4 3 A -The Vancouver C i t i z e n A d v i s o r Model s u p p o r t s the t h e s i s a d v o c a t e d c i v i c c o n s u l t a t i o n s t r a t e g y , an a d v i s o r y l e v e l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e group t e c h n i q u e but i t does not f a c i l i t a t e the a r e a c o u n c i l s t r u c t u r e . The C i t i z e n A d v i s o r M o d e l , c i t i z e n ' s p l a n n i n g c o m m i t t e e , d i f f e r s f rom t h e f o u r t h a d v o c a t e d e l e m e n t , the a r e a c o u n c i l , b e c a u s e the C . P . C . does not have a s e p a r a t e and c o n t i n u i n g e x i s t e n c e . F u r t h e r , b e c a u s e the C . P . C . i s a component o f the p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t , the C . P . C . can be c r e a t e d and d i s b a n d e d as the p l a n n i n g depar tment s e e s f i t . When an a r e a p l a n i s c o m p l e t e d the C . P . C . i s d i s s o l v e d whereas an a r e a c o u n c i l has a c o n t i n u i n g l i f e o f i t s own. The c i t i z e n spokesman, c i t i z e n c o n t r o l , and c i t i z e n forum model were r e j e c t e d by the c i t y of V a n c o u v e r . A l t h o u g h the c i t i z e n spokesman model would p e r p e t u a t e the c i v i c c o n s u l t a t i o n s t r a t e g y , i t was thought t o p l a c e too much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the hands o f r e s i d e n t s . The c i t i z e n c o n t r o l model was not c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e i n a c i t y w i t h o u t a ward s y s t e m . The c i t i z e n forum m o d e l , i n v o l v e s p e r i o d i c a l l y i n f o r m i n g c i t i z e n s of p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s t h r o u g h p u b l i c m e e t i n g s . The c i t i z e n forum model was not c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e because i t d i d not i n v o l v e c i t i z e n s e n o u g h . F i g u r e 7 p r e s e n t s g e n e r a l l y the L . A . P . p r o c e s s as d e v e l o p e d by L a r r y B e a s l e y , the p l a n n e r w o r k i n g on the L . A . P . P . i n R i l e y P a r k . -44-FIGURE 7: - VANCOUVER L.A.P. PROCESS STAGES 1. Work ing t h r o u g h E x i s t i n g O r g a n i z a t i o n s S t e p s 1. G a t h e r i n g community i n f o r m a t i o n ( terms of r e f e r e n c e ) A t t a i n l o c a l a c c e p t a n c e 2 . F o s t e r i n g a P l a n n i n g 1. o r g a n i z a t i o n when m e e t i n g the 2. community (a commi t tee ) 3. 4 . 5. 3 . S e e k i n g and E n t e r t a i n i n g 1. Input f rom U n o r g a n i z e d Segments of the Community 2 . 4 . C o m p l e t i n g a Concept P l a n 1. 2 . 3. P r i m a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n S e c o n d a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n m e e t i n g t o g e n e r a t e more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e g roup Community s o c i a l i z e d to r e q u i r e m e n t s of p l a n Committee s o c i a l i z e d by p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s Agreement on a work s c h e d u l e , p r o c e d u r e s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n Work w i t h commit tee on community q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( i m p o r t a n t f o r i n p u t ) Work w i t h the commit tee t o d e v e l o p and implement o t h e r s o u r c e s of i n p u t D e v e l o p s e l e c t e d i s s u e s i n t o s c e n a r i o s P r o p o s e a l t e r n a t i v e o p t i o n s P r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n I m p l e m e n t a t i o n Phase of P l a n 1. R e t u r n t o c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n t o implement p l a n and to m o n i t o r p l a n and community change 2. Phase out commit tee work ( G u e r r e t t e , 1 9 8 0 , 144) 4 . 5 An Evaluation of Continued C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Local Area  Planning Program i n Vancouver L o c a l a r e a s i n V a n c o u v e r have b e n e f i t e d f rom p l a n n i n g programs d u r i n g the l a s t 15 y e a r s . These programs were d e v e l o p e d i n h i g h p r i o r i t y need a r e a s , o f t e n i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the F e d r r a l Ne ighbourhood Improvement Program ( N . I . P . ) and R e s i d e n t i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A s s i s t a n c e Program ( R . R . A . P . ) . John Winsor w r i t e s i n the O c t o b e r 1980 Q u a r t e r l y Review t h a t c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n has been the key to s u c c e s s of t h e s e p r o g r a m s . E i g h t e e n i n t e n s i v e programs have been i n i t i a t e d to d a t e . In 1977, the Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department r e v i e w e d the - 4 5 -L.A.P.P. and p r e p a r e d a c h e c k l i s t o f elements t o be used i n i t s e v a l u a t i o n which i n c l u d e d . . . . "Does t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s make p r o v i s i o n f o r a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the m o n i t o r i n g of L.A.P. d u r i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n ? " (Review of L.A.P., 1977, 1 0 ) . I n t h i s t h e s i s , t h e i s s u e o f whether or not c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s a r e a l i t y , i s t e s t e d . Four L.A.P.P.s a r e s e l e c t e d f o r purpose of e v a l u a t i o n . A l l f o u r programs had s i t e o f f i c e s and a C.P.C. The M a r p o l e - O a k r i d g e , Grandview-Woodland, K i t s i l a n o and the West End l o c a l a r e a were e v a l u a t e d a t l e a s t f i v e t o s i x y e a r s a f t e r t he a r e a p l a n had been a d o p t e d . F i g u r e 2 i l l u s t r a t e d t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e s e a r e a s w i t h i n Vancouver and the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e p r e s e n t s t h e r e s u l t s o f the e v a l u a t i o n . ( s e e T a b l e 2) -46-TABLE 2 - EVALUATION OF L.A.P.P. PARTICIPATION IN FOUR SELECTED AREAS WEST END KITSILANO GRANDVIEW-WOODLAND MARPOLE-OAKRIDGE CITIZEN PLANNER CITIZEN PLANNER CITIZEN PLANNER CITIZEN PLANNER During the Plan Creation Stage A d v i s o r y L e v e l XX C o n s u l t a t i o n C i v i c S t r a g e g y R e p r e s e n t a t i v e C i t i z e n Group T e c h n i q u e A r e a C o u n c i l S t r u c t u r e ( C o - e x i s t i n g w i t h C . P . C . and h a v i n g i n f o r m a l o r f o r m a l c i v i c c o u n c i l r e c o g n i t i o n ) XXX X XX XX XXX X XX XXX XX XX XXX XXX XX XX XX XX XX XX TOTAL 8 8 XXX XX XX XXX XXX XX During the Long Term Plan Implementation Stage A d v i s o r y L e v e l - -C o n s u l t a t i o n C i v i c S t r a t e g y X X E x i s t i n g R e p r e s e n t a t i v e C i t i z e n s . Group X X A r e a C o u n c i l S t r u c t u r e ( w i t h i n f o r m a l o r - -f o r m a l c i v i c c o u n c i l r e c o g n i t i o n ) XX X X XX X X XX XX X X XX TOTAL KEY n e g a t i v e o r n o n - e x i s t a n t l i t t l e s t r e n g t h xx m o d e r a t e l y s t r o n g xxx v e r y s t r o n g - 4 7 -Evaluation The continuation of citizen participation ultimately rests with the community and i t s abi l i t y to remain organized. Yet i f continuing participation is a L.A.P.P. goal, there are certain measures that could f a c i l i t a t e effective continued citizen participation. In Table 2, the factors which contribute to the development of our model of effective citizen participation have been identified and evaluated in each case study. The values were assigned based on information obtained through interviews. Twelve is the highest score that a program could obtain. Generally speaking there was effective citizen participation during each stage of each program, but in the long term plan implementation stage participation was less effective. It appears that even when a representative community structure was organized or re-organized to take over the monitoring of the plan upon completion of the area plan program, the withdrawal of L.A.P.P. technical and financial support ensured less effective citizen participation. The most common reasons for less effective participation in the long term plan implementation stage were withdrawal of planning suport and the lack of citizen interest. Each local area will now be discussed. West End In 1973, a catalyst L.A.P. program was initiated in the West End. In response to organized citizen concerns, City Council adopted a number of policy objectives for the West End. In August, 1975, the West End District O f f i c i a l Development Plan was adopted. Major policy objectives of the plan included reduced future population density (by 1/3), reinforcement of local-scale commercial use, increased variety of housing types and the encouragement of citizen planning sub-committees. During this early L.A.P.P., -48-c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n was r a t e d t o be 8. (See T a b l e 2 ) . The West End i s an u n i q u e c a s e as i t has r e c e n t l y been i n v o l v e d i n a second L . A . P . s t a g e . Ten y e a r s a f t e r the o r i g i n a l p o l i c y p l a n was c o m p l e t e d g o a l s and p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s a r e once a g a i n b e i n g s e t . I n t e r v i e w s w i t h the c u r r e n t West End L o c a l A r e a p l a n n e r and w i t h r e s i d e n t , Nancy T i l s o n , (who was e a r l i e r i n v o l v e d and s t i l l i s i n v o l v e d i n the L . A . P . p r o c e s s ) g i v e us some i n s i g h t i n t o our q u e s t i o n of c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Nancy T i l s o n ( i n t e r v i e w e d 5 November, 1985) was i n v o l v e d i n community deve lopment b e f o r e the L . A . P . program was i m p l e m e n t e d . In the e a r l y 1 9 7 0 ' s i t was the West End Community C o u n c i l , a remnant f rom the 1 9 6 0 ' s U n i t e d Way deve lopment of a r e a c o u n c i l s . The West End community c o u n c i l s u p p o r t e d the L . A . P . p r o g r a m . A f t e r the L . A . P . program was o v e r , the c o u n c i l d i s b a n d e d . In the mid t o l a t e 7 0 ' s a t r a f f i c c i t i z e n s commit tee was v e r y a c t i v e i n i n i t i a t i n g the West End t r a f f i c p l a n . In the l a t e 7 0 ' s Gordon P r i c e ( s o c i a l p l a n n i n g ) , community c o - o r d i n a t o r , o r g a n i z e d the West End A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l t h a t e n c o u r a g e d the deve lopment o f t h i s second L . A . P . p h a s e . In the West E n d , t h e r e has been a g r e a t f l u c t u a t i o n i n community g roup deve lopment and i n v o l v e m e n t . A c i t i z e n commented t h a t as o f t e n as community g r o u p s d i s b a n d e d , new community g roups formed and p a r t i c i p a t d i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . T h i s c i t i z e n f e l t t h a t community g roup i n v o l v e m e n t was not to be i n i t i a t e d by C i t y H a l l , but t h a t t e c h n i c a l s u p p o r t and r e c o g n i t i o n would a s s i s t i n e n s u r i n g c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . As t h e r e was no one group t o m o n i t o r the e a r l y p l a n ' s i m p a c t , p a r t i c i p a t i o n d u r i n g the p l a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t a g e was o n l y g i v e n a v a l u e 2. (See T a b l e 2 ) . C r a i g R o w l a n d , the c u r r e n t West End P l a n n e r ( i n t e r v i e w e d 5 November, 1985) commented t h a t t h e r e had been a c o n t i n u a t i o n of c e r t a i n c i t i z e n s i n v o l v e m e n t i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f rom the e a r l y program t o t h i s l a t e r p r o g r a m . Due t o the p r o b l e m f a c e d i n the e a r l y 1973 program w i t h t r y i n g t o form - 4 9 -a s e p a r a t e C . P . C , open m e e t i n g s were h e l d to d i s c u s s i s s u e s . C u r r e n t l y , no C . P . C . e x i s t s . Those p r e s e n t a t the m e e t i n g s have a n o n - d e s i g n a t e d a d v i s o r y r o l e . The t h e o r y b e h i n d t h i s s e c o n d program i s t h a t when the new and r e v i s e d p l a n i s c o m p l e t e d i n 1987, p l a n n i n g s t a f f f rom the C i t y H a l l w i l l d e a l w i t h the community as i s s u e s come u p ; no one g r o u p w i l l p l a y a watchdog o r m o n i t o r i n g r o l e . K i t s i l a n o K i t s i l a n o b e n e f i t e d f rom L . A . P . , N . I . P . and R . R . A . P . p r o g r a m s . When (1974) L . A . P . began i n K i t s i l a n o many a c t i v e community g r o u p s a l r e a d y e x i s t e d . T h e r e f o r e , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f rom community g r o u p s were a p p o i n t e d to be C . P . C . members. A g o a l o f the K i t s i l a n o C . P . C . was to p r e s e r v e the d i v e r s i t y o f the a r e a . O r i g i n a l p l a n s f o r t h i s a r e a l o s e t h e i r r e l e v a n c y as the community i s p r e s e n t l y u n d e r r a p i d c h a n g e , e s p e c i a l l y t h r o u g h the f o r c e s o f g e n t r i f i c a t i o n . R e s o u r c e s t o the K i t s i l a n o C . P . C . were c u t i n the 1 9 8 0 ' s and where t h e r e was once p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h r o u g h the C . P . C , r a t e d a t 8 , t h e r e i s now no o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r m a l l y i n v o l v e d i n u p d a t i n g the communty p l a n . (See T a b l e 2) In 1977, D r . H. M a l l e k , the c h a i r m a n o f K i t s i l a n o C i t i z e n P l a n n i n g Commit tee was i n v o l v e d i n a c o n f e r e n c e on c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g . He s u g g e s t e d t h a t c o n t i n u e d L . A . P . P . a s s i s t a n c e , b o t h f i n a n c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l , was n e c e s s a r y i f the C . P . C was to c o n t i n u e . The C . P . C . c o u l d not f u n c t i o n on a l o n g te rm b a s i s w i t h o u t s t a f f s u p p o r t ; c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n w o u l d (and d i d ) d e c l i n e ( P u b l i c Response to a Review o f L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g , C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , V a n c o u v e r , S e p t . 7 8 ) . In 1980, R i c k G a t e s , t h e n CPD ( C e n t r a l P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n ) s t a f f , wrote t h a t the 1974/75 K i t s i l a n o community p l a n a d d r e s s e d p r o b l e m s w i t h s o l u t i o n s no l o n g e r r e l e v a n t today ( O c t . Q u a r t e r l y Review 1980, 9 ) . P l a n n i n g s o l u t i o n s d e v e l o p e d i n the 7 0 ' s were a l s o found to be i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n the 8 0 ' s . - 5 0 -A c c o r d i n g t o D r . M a l l e k , the f a c t t h a t the C . P . C . r e c e i v e s l i t t l e i f any r e c o g n i t i o n f rom the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department today i m p l i e s t h a t r e l e v a n t s o l u t i o n s w i l l not be found u n l e s s a second L . A . P . P . i s i n i t i a t e d . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n K i t s i l a n o i s r a t e d a 2 by c i t i z e n s and 1 by the p l a n n e r . The lower i n the v a l u e f o r the p l a n n e r i s due t o the p e r c e p t i o n t h a t the e x i s t i n g C . P . C . i s not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n d i c a t i n g a l a c k of community i n t e r e s t i n p l a n n i n g ; thus n e c e s s i t a t i n g a w i t h d r a w a l of p l a n n i n g s t a f f s u p p o r t . However , t h o s e s t i l l i n the C . P . C . meet a t the K i t s i l a n o Ne ighbourhood house and f e e l t h a t i f the p l a n n i n g depar tment acknowledged t h e i r e x i s t a n c e , c o n s u l t e d them, and r e v i e w e d the 1970 's p l a n communi ty , i n t e r e s t i n the p l a n n i n g would be r e n e w e d . (See T a b l e 2 ) . D r . M a l l e k r e f l e c t e d on the 1974/75 p l a n n i n g program ( I n t e r v i e w e d 7 November, 1985) . A f t e r the p l a n n i n g s u p p o r t was c u t b a c k , the K i t s i l a n o C . P . C . r e t u r n e d to K i t s House where they s t i l l meet t o d a y . D r . M a l l e k s u g g e s t e d t h a t b e c a u s e t h e r e were no major i s s u e s and no money or t e c h n i c a l s u p p o r t , p e o p l e l o s t i n t e r e s t i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The M a l l e k s f e l t t h a t the commit tee was s t i l l n e c e s s a r y to a s s i s t p e o p l e i n the e x p r e s s i o n of t h e i r c o n c e r n s and p r o b l e m s . The M a l l e k s e x p r e s s e d a need f o r a l o c a l c e n t r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n . They have r e q u e s t e d p l a n n i n g s t a f f s u p p o r t a t t h e i r m e e t i n g s but have been t u r n e d down due to the e x p e n s e . D r . M a l l e k e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n a t the L . A . P . g e n e r a t i o n of paper w i t h o u t u n d e r s t a n d i n g and e f f e c t i v e l y i m p a c t i n g the l o c a l communi ty . V a n c o u v e r P l a n n e r , L i n d a C h a l l i s i n f o r m e d the a u t h o r of t h i s t h e s i s t h a t the K i t s i l a n o C . P . C . e x i s t e d f o r a l o n g t ime a f t e r the L . A . P . p r o g r a m , but t h a t t h e r e i s no l o n g e r any f o r m a l c o n t a c t . I f a major i s s u e a r o s e the p l a n n i n g depar tment would g e n e r a l l y t r y and c o n t a c t community g roups i n the a r e a . There i s no mechanism o r s t r u c t u r e f o r c o n t i n u o u s K i t s i l a n o c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Grandv iew -Woodland L . A . P . G r a n d v i e w - W o o d l a n d was V a n c o u v e r ' s f i r s t s u b u r b ; i t i s t h e r e f o r e an o l d e r a r e a w i t h a d i v e r s e p o p u l a t i o n . In 1975, Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l a d o p t e d a r e s o l u t i o n t h a t e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g p r o g r a m . T h i s L . A . P . P . program r e p r e s e n t e d a s u c c e s s f u l c u l m i n a t i o n of more than e l e v e n y e a r s o f s u s t a i n e d e f f o r t by the G r a n d v i e w - W o o d l a n d A r e a C o u n c i l , a remnant o f the 1 9 6 0 ' s U n i t e d Way (Grandv iew-Wood land A r e a C o u n c i l , I n f o r m a t i o n B o o k e t ) * . When L . A . P . P . formed the Grandv iew-Wood land c i t i z e n ' s p l a n n i n g c o m m i t t e e ; the commit tee mandate i n v o l v e d assuming the a r e a c o u n c i l ' s fo rmer t a s k s of i d e n t i f y i n g and recommending s o l u t i o n s f o r the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l needs o f the a r e a . The a r e a c o u n c i l s u b s e q u e n t l y a d o p t e d the r o l e o f e n c o u r a g i n g c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n L . A . P . and o t h e r community p r o g r a m s . Roy B l u n d e n , fo rmer c h a i r m a n o f the C . P . C . , s t a t e d i n a l e t t e r t h a t : "The once and f o r a l l a p p r o a c h of L . A . P . d i c t a t e s c o m p l e t e d a d o p t i o n o f a r e a p l a n w i t h d i r e c t c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s c e a s i n g " ( B l u n d e n , 1977, 1 3 ) . B l u n d e n c o n t i n u e d by r e m a r k i n g t h a t the a r e a p l a n i s a " p e r f e c t s o l u t i o n f o r y e s t e r d a y ' s p r o b l e m " and c o n c l u d e d by n o t i n g " . . . i f a f i n a l l o c a l a r e a p l a n f o r the community i s t o have any r e l e v a n c y i n d e e d , i f i t ' s not to p r o v e d i s a s t r o u s f o r the community t h e r e must be some degree of s u b s e q u e n t l o c a l m o n i t o r i n g as t o i t s e f f e c t s " ( B l u n d e n , 1977, 1 4 ) . In h i s l e t t e r , B l u n d e n comments t h a t a d e c i s i o n was made by the L . A . P . p l a n n e r not t o use the e x i s t i n g a r e a c o u n c i l , a l t h o u g h the a r e a c o u n c i l was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r g e t t i n g the L . A . P . program i n G r a n d v i e w - W o o d l a n d . The d e c i s i o n t o not use the a r e a c o u n c i l e n c o u r a g e d the a r e a c o u n c i l i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o wi thdraw a c t i v e s u p p o r t . B l u n d e n w r o t e , " In a d o p t i n g a r i g i d * F o r more i n f o r m a t i o n on the Grandv iew-Wood land A r e a C o u n c i l See Append ix D. - 5 2 -commit tee p r o c e d u r e , a r e a p l a n n i n g has f a i l e d t o take due r e g a r d t o the n a t u r e of the e l e c t e d and c o - o p t e d members w i t h r e s p e c t to community a t l a r g e " ( B l u n d e n , 1978, 1 7 ) . There was a l o t of s u s p i c i o n and d i s t r u s t i n the community and B l u n d e n b e l i e v e d l i t t l e was done t o a l l e v i a t e i t . Due to p rob lems w i t h the f i r s t L . A . P . p l a n n e r and the l o c a l p o l i t i c a l p r o b l e m s , when a new s e c o n d p l a n n e r came i n t o the Grandv iew-Wood land communi ty , the CPC no l o n g e r had an a d v i s o r y r o l e but was used m e r e l y t o r u b b e r stamp d e c i s i o n s . B lunden b e l i e v e s t h a t no one L . A . P . program w i l l work f o r a l l communi t i es and t h a t the s u c c e s s of the program r e s t s w i t h the p l a n n e r s and t h e i r a b i l i t y t o d e v e l o p a p r o c e s s w e l l - s u i t e d to the community they a r e i n . B lunden b e l i e v e s t h a t the p l a n n i n g program must d e v e l o p a c o n t i n u e d p r o c e s s t o h e l p p e o p l e h e l p t h e m s e l v e s . ( I n t e r v i e w w i t h B l u n d e n , 2nd Nov . 1985 . ) L . A . P . p a r t i c i p a t i o n was t h e r e f o r e g i v e n a lower v a l u e t h a n the o t h e r were the o t h e r programs (see T a b l e 2 ) . The L . A . P . P . i n Grandview-Woodand a p p e a r s t o have been l e s s a d a p t a b l e t o community v a r i a b l e s t h a n i t has been i n o t h e r l o c a l a r e a s . F o l l o w i n g the a d o p t i o n of the p l a n , the C . P . C . amalgamated w i t h the G . W . A . C . The a r e a c o u n c i l , u s i n g l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s , c o n t i n u e s t o m o n i t o r the a r e a p l a n ' s impact and p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . From the p l a n n e r ' s p o i n t of v i e w , the p l a n n i n g and c i v i c r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the a r e a c o u n c i l work w e l l when i s s u e s need t o be s o l v e d . However , t h e r e a r e some who do not f e e l the c o u n c i l speaks f o r the communi ty . I n s p i t e of t h e s e f e e l i n g s , a l l a re f r e e to j o i n the c o u n c i l i f they would l i k e to p a r t i c i p a t e . There i s no f o r m a l p r o c e s s by w h i c h the G . W . A . C . i s c o n s u l t e d by C i t y H a l l on p l a n n i n g i s s u e s . The Grandv iew A r e a C o u n c i l has f r e e space and the use of o f f i c e s e r v i c e s a t the B r i t t a n i a Community C e n t e r . The a r e a c o u n c i l i s made up of v o l u n t e e r s who l i v e a n d / o r work i n the a r e a . Depend ing on the i s s u e at h a n d ; community group r e p r e s e n t a t i o n c o u l d be l a r g e or s m a l l a t the once a month p u b l i c m e e t i n g s . - 5 3 -Community groups are allowed one vote. The formal area council structure includes a president, vice-president, treasurer and secretary. Sub-committees are formed and meet more informally to discuss issues. L o c a l i t y development, with emphasis on r e s u l t s , i s the focus of t h i s group. Often using grant money, the area council hires planners to do t r a f f i c planning in the area, thus by-passing the s i t u a t i o n of always dealing with c i v i c s t a f f . The council monitors the community plan's impact and, depending on the issue at hand, i t also plays a service and/or advocacy r o l e . Therefore, in Table 2, the community is rated at 5 in terms of e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . If the G.W.A.C. was given c i v i c recognition, the p a r t i c i p a t i o n value would be much higher i n the plan implementation stage. Marpole-Oakridge L.A.P. In 1980, David Thomsett, then in the L.A.P. Department, wrote "The Marpole C i t i z e n s Planning Committee continues to meet on a monthly basis to r e t a i n the strong l i n k between C i t y H a l l and the community which i s e s s e n t i a l to the area's future" (Quarterly Reivew, Oct. 1980, 17). During the plan creation stage p a r t i c i p a t i o n was evaluated as quite high (See Table 2). By 1985, the C.P.C. had amalgamated with the Marpole-Oakridge Area Council, also a United Way remnant. In speaking with the planner in charge of Marpole-Oakridge, his views of the area council are that the area council can pick up issues that need to be addressed, and shrink or expand then according to need. In Marpole-Oakridge i t i s through the senior's centre that the c i t i z e n s have developed an inter-gentration c o u n c i l to with community issues. Although the Marpole-Oakridge co u n c i l i s less a r t i c u l a t e than the Grandview-Woodland Council, both councils manage to accomplish a lot within -54-t h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s , p r i o r t o and f o l l o w i n g t h e i r L . A . P . P . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t a g e i s g i v e n the v a l u e of 5, as was g i v e n i n Grandv iew-Wood land (See T a b l e 2 ) . A l i c e James ( i n t e r v i e w e d M a r c h , 1985) i s a member of the M a r p o l e - O a k r i d g e A r e a c o u n c i l . In the mid 1970 's the c o u n c i l was i n v o l v e d i n the p l a n n i n g program w i t h o t h e r g roups and c i t i z e n s and when the p l a n was c o m p l e t e d the community m o n i t o r i n g and p l a n n i n g r o l e r e t u r n e d to the c o u n c i l . The M a r p o l e - O a k r i d g e a r e a c o u n c i l has a s e r v i c e f o c u s as w e l l as a l o c a l i t y deve lopment e m p h a s i s . D e p e n d i n g on the i s s u e at h a n d , a d v o c a c y has a p l a c e . The c o u n c i l has been i n v o l v e d i n i n i t i a t i n g s e n i o r s r e c r e a t i o n a l programs and s e r v i c e s (meals on w h e e l s ) . These programs have the s u p p o r t of the L i o n s C l u b . Community p l a n n i n g i s s u e s t h a t a r o s e out of the Oak S t r e e t B r i d g e p r o p o s a l a l s o i n v o l v e d community g r o u p s , and l o c a l b u s i n e s s e s w i t h the a r e a c o u n c i l . E x c e p t when s p e c i f i c i s s u e s a r i s e , community o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e not i n v o l v e d w i t h the M a r p o l e - O a k r i d g e a r e a c o u n c i l , but l o c a l s e n i o r c i t i z e n s and o t h e r r e s i d e n t s and b u s i n e s s m e n a r e . The L i o n s , the Community C e n t r e and the c o u n c i l a r e a l l a c t i v e and most f r e q u e n t l y tend to speak i n d e p e n d e n t l y . Sometimes t h e r e w i l l be j o i n t s u b m i s s i o n on p l a n n i n g i s s u e s ; the a r e a c o u n c i l u s u a l l y t a k e s the i n i t i a t i v e i n j o i n t p l a n n i n g i s s u e s . The f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e of the a r e a c o u n c i l i n c l u d e s an e l e c t i o n of the a r e a c o u n c i l board i n J u n e , an a n n u a l p u b l i c m e e t i n g and month ly e x e c u t i v e m e e t i n g s . D u r i n g the t imes of s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m d e b a t e s , p u b l i c m e e t i n g s a r e h e l d more o f t e n ( i . e . gun c o n t r o l ) . The e x c e l l e n t r a p p o r t t h a t the a r e a c o u n c i l has w i t h the p l a n n i n g depar tment has g i v e n them a un ique community s i t u a t i o n -o f t e n an a d v i s o r y l e v e l p l a n n i n g i n t e r a c t i o n . Ms. MacKay d i d m e n t i o n t h a t the use of t e c h n i c a l s u p p o r t would make a p o s i t i v e d i f f e r e n c e i n the degree of impact t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n c o u l d have on community i s s u e s . - 5 5 -H a s t i n g s S u n r i s e P r i o r t o d i s c u s s i n g the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the e v a l u a t i o n f i n d i n g s , t h e r e i s one more l o c a l a r e a t h a t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o d i s c u s s h e r e . T h i s l o c a l a r e a c a n n o t be e v a l u a t e d as the l a s t f o u r a r e a s were , f o r t h e i r l o c a l a r e a p l a n has been too r e c e n t l y c o m p l e t e d . Of i m p o r t a n c e i n t h i s a r e a , i s the c o n c e r n f e l t by the c i t i z e n s i n r e g a r d t o c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I t i s the same c o n c e r n t h a t i s emphas ized i n Mount P l e a s a n t and d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 5 , where the a u t h o r a p p l i e s the t h e o r y and r e s e a r c h of t h i s t h e s i s t o an a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n . In J a n u a r y , 1980 the L . A . P . P . was adopted i n H a s t i n g s - S u n r i s e . The C . P . C . began i n March w i t h P a t r i c i a C o u t t s as the Cha i rman and w i t h 30 c i t i z e n s . They have been m e e t i n g f o r 5 y e a r s , w i t h p l a n s t o c o n t i n u e t h e s e m e e t i n g s . L a r r y B e a s l e y , i n d e s c r i b i n g L . A . P . i n H a s t i n g s - S u n r i s e , s a i d t h a t the key t o the C . P . C . s u r v i v a l , was t h e t h o u s a n d s of r e s i d e n t v o l u n t e e r h o u r s i n v e s t e d t o d e a l w i t h l o c a l i s s u e s ( Q u a r t e r l y R e v i e w , O c t o b e r 1980, 1 9 ) . In H a s t i n g s - S u n r i s e a v e r y a c t i v e and i n v o l v e d C . P . C . i s d i s c u s s i n g the i s s u e o f c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . M i c h a e l G o r d o n , the H a s t i n g s - S u n r i s e p l a n n e r ( i n t e r v i e w e d 22 O c t o b e r , 1985) s a i d t h e r e were t h r e e c o n d i t i o n s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h a t were p r e s e n t l y b e i n g d i s c u s s e d : 1) t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n s h o u l d c o n t i n u e ; 2) t h a t the g r o u p would meet l e s s o f t e n ; 3) t h a t t h e r e were many c u r r e n t i s s u e s t h a t would r e q u i r e c i t i z e n i n p u t , i . e . PNE p l a n . M i c h a e l Gordon b e l i e v e s t h a t c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n must be e n c o u r a g e d , but t h a t the c i t i z e n s would have t o t a k e over some of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s p r e s e n t l y b e i n g h a n d l e d by the p l a n n e r s . Mary O l i v i e r i , an a c t i v e H a s t i n g s - S u n r i s e C . P . C . member ( i n t e r v i e w e d 2 November, 1985) a g r e e d t h a t c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t . She - 5 6 -f e l t that technical s t a f f and assistance should be made available to the community through the L.A.P.P. as issues demanded , and that the community should be encouraged to make t h e i r planning concerns known to c i t y c o u n c i l . There i s presently no one group within the community to handle issues. There was a Hastings-Sunrise Action council p r i o r to the L.A.P. program, but i t no longer e x i s t s . During the l a s t s i x months L.A.P. resources have been cut back and the communty centre has provided resources. However, there i s no guarantee that these resources w i l l continue, nor i s there a guarantee that the C.P.C. w i l l continue to e f f e c t i v e l y exist or continue to be heard and/or consulted by the L.A.P. Department. 4.6 Implications of L . A . P . P . Evaluation Results As stated e a r l i e r , p a r t i c i p a t i o n during the plan creation stage was much more e f f e c t i v e than during the long term plan implementation stage. Even when a representative community structure was organized or re-organized to take over the monitoring of the plan, the withdrawal of L.A.P. technical and f i n a n c i a l support f a c i l i t a t e d less e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n according to the thesis e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n c r i t e r i a . Where an interested community group existed, p a r t i c i p a t i o n was more e f f e c t i v e than where no group existed but due to lack of resources and recognition, p a r t i c i p a t i o n was l i m i t e d . In Hastings-Sunrise, i t can be concluded that even i f an e x i s t i n g group becomes organized to monitor the plan, limited continued L.A.P.P. c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l exist a f t e r the i n i t i a l implementation phase of the plan i s completed. In Hastings-Sunrise, the draft plan indicates that the C.P.C. w i l l continue to meet as issues a r i s e . It i s the author's hypothesis that unless e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n elements are present, e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n monitoring t h e i r area plan w i l l not continue. To e n s u r e c o n t i n u e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n , two s t e p s must be added t o the L . A . P . P . In F i g u r e 8 , s t a g e 4 - s t e p 4 , and s t a g e 5 - s t e p 3 have been a d d e d . A f t e r a c o n c e p t p l a n i s c o m p l e t e d , the p l a n n e r s c o u l d b e g i n t o d e v e l o p p o s t L . A . P . o r g a n i z a t i o n and as t h e y phase out commit tee work they can f a c i l i t a t e a n o t h e r community g roup t a k i n g over the m o n i t o r i n g p l a n . T h i s m o n i t o r i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n would e x i s t s e p a r a t e l y f rom the L . A . P . P . To f u r t h e r e n s u r e c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , c i v i c r e c o g n i t i o n , f i n a n c i a l and t e c h n i c a l s u p p o r t would be r e q u i r e d . To e n c o u r a g e c i t i z e n i n t e r e s t , a p e r i o d i c u p d a t i n g o f the p l a n would be e s s e n t i a l . The program must be f l e x i b l e enough t o adapt t o s p e c i f i c community v a r i a b l e s . FIGURE 8: REVISED VANCOUVER L . A . P . PROCESS STAGES S t e p s 1. Work ing t h r o u g h E x i s t i n g 1. G a t h e r i n g community i n f o r m a t i o n ( terms O r g a n i z a t i o n s o f r e f e r e n c e ) 2 . A t t a i n l o c a l a c c e p t a n c e 2. F o s t e r i n g a P l a n n i n g 1. P r i m a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n when m e e t i n g 2 . S e c o n d a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n m e e t i n g t o the community (a commit tee ) g e n e r a t e more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e g r o u p 3 . Community s o c i a l i z e d t o r e q u i r e m e n t s o f p l a n 4. Commit tee s o c i a l i z e d by p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s 5. Agreement on a work s c h e d u l e , p r o c e d u r e s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n 3 . S e e k i n g and E n t e r t a i n i n g 1. Work w i t h commit tee on community Input f rom U n o r g a n i z e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( i m p o r t a n t f o r i n p u t ) Segments of the Community 2. Work w i t h the commit tee t o d e v e l o p and implement o t h e r s o u r c e s of i n p u t 4 . C o m p l e t i n g a C o n c e p t P l a n 1. D e v e l o p s e l e c t e d i s s u e s i n t o s c e n a r i o s 2. P r o p o s e a l t e r n a t i v e o p t i o n s 3. P r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n 4. O r g a n i z e t h e a r e a f o r c o n t i n u e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n 5. I m p l e m e n t a t i o n Phase o f 1. R e t u r n t o c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n t o implement P l a n p l a n and t o m o n i t o r p l a n and community change 2. Phase out commit tee work 3. F a c i l i t a t e a smooth t r a n s i t i o n between p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n c r e a t i o n and p l a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t a g e . - 5 8 -F i n a l l y , i n a 1978 r e p o r t , P u b l i c Response to a Review o f L . A . P . , members o f C . P . C . ' s g a t h e r e d to d i s c u s s the L . A . P . p r o c e s s . T h e i r comments e n d o r s e the c o n c l u s i o n of t h i s t h e s i s e v a l u a t i o n . The c i t i z e n s v i e w e d a need f i r : 1) more L . A . P . g r o u p s and y e a r l y c o n f e r e n c e s ; 2) c i t i z e n s to be c o n t i n u a l l y i n v o l v e d i n d e c i s i o n s ; 3) f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r the minimum amount o f h e l p - s e c r e t a r i a l h e l p ; t e c h n i c a l a d v i c e f rom the p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t , e t c . ; 4) o f f i c i a l a t t e n d a n c e by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f c i t y c o u n c i l s a t the C . P . C . m e e t i n g s ; 5) c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s . I f t h e r e i s no s u b s e q u e n t a l t e r n a t i v e f o r c o n t i n u o u s i n v o l v e m e n t o f c i t i z e n s , the c l o s u r e o f s i t e o f f i c e s and w i t h d r a w a l o f s u p p o r t c o n f l i c t s w i t h the an o b j e c t i v e o f the L . A . P . P . F o r e x a m p l e , i n the s e c o n d d r a f t o f the West End p l a n an o b j e c t i v e i s : to c o n t i n u o u s l y i n v o l v e r e s i d e n t s i n any changes to the p l a n and i n a l l f u t u r e p l a n n i n g f o r the West End i n o r d e r to c r e a t e c o n f i d e n c e by r e s i d e n t s i n t h e i r l o c a l a r e a and i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to c o n t r o l i t s f u t u r e ( C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , 1973, 2). 4.7 Continued Citizen Participation Examples in Vancouver P r i o r to c o n c l u d i n g t h i s c h a p t e r t h e r e a r e examples i n V a n c o u v e r o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h a t can be a p p l i e d to our t o p i c o f e f f e c t i v e c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The f i r s t one we w i l l d i s c u s s i s i n the Shaughnessy l o c a l a r e a . The Shaughnessy H e i g h t s P r o p e r t y O w n e r ' s A s s o c i a t i o n ( S . H . P . O . A . ) h i r e d a c o n s u l t a n t to s t u d y t h e i r a r e a and i n p a r t i c u l a r , to d e a l w i t h the deve lopment p r e s s u r e s a f f e c t i n g the h e r i t a g e e lement of the l a r g e e s t a t e p r o p e r t i e s . S u b s e q u e n t l y , a L . A . P . program was i n i t i t a t e d to work w i t h a C . P . C . to p r e p a r e a new p l a n f o r -59-F i r s t Shaughnessy i n 1979. The SHPOA i s a l s o d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n the development of a second phase of the L . A . P . p rogram. Joanne L e i t h e a d , s t a f f , ( I n t e r v i e w e d 2 November, 1985) d i s c u s s e d the c u r r e n t second Shaughnessy L . A . P . program t h a t began i n May, 1982. A s p e c i a l , pe rmanent ly a p p o i n t e d commit tee has been formed to d e a l w i t h development p r o p o s a l s and d e s i g n r e l a t e d i s s u e s . P l a n n i n g s t a f f s u p p o r t does work w i t h the F i r s t Shaughnessy A d v i s o r y Commi t tee . There i s a l s o , however , p l a n n i n g l i a s o n between the Shaughnessy H e i g h t s P r o p e r t y Owners A s s o c i a t i o n (SHPOA) and the p l a n n i n g depar tment on p l a n n i n g i s s u e s . A f t e r the f i r s t phase p l a n was adopted ( 1980 ) , the m o n i t o r i n g of the community p l a n d i d i n e f f e c t r e t u r n to the SHPOA. E v e l y n MacKay, c i t i z e n , ( I n t e r v i e w e d 7 November, 1985) was v e r y happy about the r e s p o n s e t h e i r s o c i e t y has r e c e i v e d from the Vancouver p l a n n i n g Depar tment . The e x c e l l e n t r a p p o r t they have w i t h the p l a n n i n g depar tment has g i v e n them a un ique community s i t u a t i o n - an a d v i s o r y l e v e l of p l a n n i n g i n t e r a c t i o n . Ms. MacKay d i d ment ion t h a t the use of t e c h n i c a l s u p p o r t makes a b i g d i f f e r e n c e i n the degree of impact t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n has on community i s s u e s . A second examples i s the R i l e y Park L o c a l A r e a . In 1976, R i l e y Park had a c c e s s to a NIP g r a n t . I n c l u d e d i n the ach ievements of the NIP program was the L i t t l e Mounta in Ne ighbourhood H o u s e / Y o u t h C e n t r e / S t o r e - f r o n t L i b r a r y f a c i l i t y . NIP ( L . A . P . ) s t a f f were i n v o l v e d i n f a c i l i t a t i n g the Ne ighbourhood House p l a n n i n g r o l e . R e s o u r c e s f o r p l a n n i n g were made a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h the Ne ighbourhood House b u d g e t . The Ne ighbourhood House has taken an a c t i v e r o l e i n community p l a n n i n g . The Ne ighbourhood House s p o n s o r s i n f o r m a t i o i s h a r i n g , i n t e r - a g e n c y m e e t i n g s . The meet ings a re h e l d every e i g h t h week, and when a p p r o p r i a t e an advocacy r o l e f o r the community i s d e v e l o p e d . A l t h o u g h c i t i z e n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n may not be v e r y s t r o n g , t h i s i n t e r - a g e n c y commit tee does m o n i t o r the p l a n and takes an a c t i v e p a r t i n p l a n n i n g i s s u e s . - 6 0 -There a r e two p o i n t s t h a t can be drawn from t h i s l a s t example. The f i r s t i s the i m p o r t a n c e o f r e c o g n i t i o n and s u p p o r t f o r c o n t i n u e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The s e c o n d , i s t h a t a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e group i n t e r e s t e d i n m o n i t o r i n g the p l a n and r e c e i v i n g r e c o g n i t i o n and a r e a c o u n c i l s t a t u s does not have t o be a. u n i - p u r p o s e o r g a n i z a t i o n . I n the case o f R i l e y P a r k , the Neig h b o u r h o o d House has f a c i l i t a t e d a t y p e o f a r e a c o u n c i l t h a t has t a k e n on the watchdog r o l e f o r the community. 4.8 Other Civic Examples of Citizen Participation in the Planning Process I n an a r b i t r a r y r e v i e w o f s e l e c t e d urban c e n t r e s , the v a r i o u s l e v e l s , s t r a t e g i e s , t e c h n i q u e s and models of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e e v i d e n t . For example c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s encouraged i n B a l t i m o r e t h r o u g h t h e i r ' • d i s t r i c t p l a n n i n g program. "The d i s t r i c t p l a n n i n g program r e s u l t s from B a l t i m o r e ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f the i m p o r t a n c e o f i n v o l v i n g c i t i z e n s i n government d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s e s " ( C i t y o f B a l t i m o r e , 1985, 1 7 ) . The p l a n n e r works w i t h v a r i o u s community g r o u p s ; no f o r m a l r e s o l u t i o n o r by law i s i n v o l v e d . I n W i n n i p e g , aldermen form l o c a l a r e a community committees t o encourage c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Though t h e s e new s t r u c t u r e s were formed f i r s t i n the e a r l y 70's, no power was g i v e n t o them. The impact o f t h e s e committees i s u n c l e a r as t h e r e have been few p o l i c y c h a l l e n g e s ( L o r i m e r , 1972). I n W a s h i n g t o n , D.C. an i n t e r v i e w was h e l d w i t h Mark Brown, a Ward 2 Community P l a n n e r . I n 1970, c i t y c o u n c i l l e g i s l a t e d the A d v i s o r y N eighborhood Commission (ANC), a body o f i n d i v i d u a l s from each community. There a r e 8 wards w i t h i n D.C. and 3 - 8 ANC's per ward. The ANC's mandate i s t o m o n i t o r p l a n n i n g programs, t o a c t on i s s u e s of c o n c e r n , t o be an a d v o c a t e f o r the community and an a d v i s o r y body f o r the p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t . The ANC's r e c e i v e funds from the c i t y f o r l i m i t e d s u p p l i e s . ANC members are e l e c t e d f o r 1 y e a r terms. -61 -In A p r i l 1984, l e g i s l a t i o n was p a s s e d t o p l a n c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y f o r the 8 wards i n W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . The c r i t e r i a f o r the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s was t h a t i n e a c h ward a community a d v i s o r y c o m m i s s i o n (CAC) was t o be formed t o a s s i s t i n the deve lopment of a p l a n . The C A C ' s were o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o n s i s t i n g of i n d i v i d u a l s and n e i g h b o r h o o d a s s o c i a t i o n s . When the p l a n was i m p l e m e n t e d , the m o n i t o r i n g of the p l a n ' s impact would rema in w i t h the ANC. T h i s t r a n s f e r i s e n c o u r a g e d and s u p p o r t e d . The Wash ing ton D . C . c a s e s t u d y i s a v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g one f o r our p u r p o s e s . There i s a need i n V a n c o u v e r t o smooth the t r a n s i t i o n between p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n c r e a t i o n s t a g e t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the l o n g te rm p l a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t a g e . Wash. D . C . has d e v e l o p e d a p a r t i c i p a t i o n program t h a t does smooth the t r a n s i t i o n . A second a p p l i c a b l e example i s found i n E u g e n e , O r e g o n . E u g e n e ' s c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t program p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c i t i z e n s to p a r t i c i p a t e a t a l l l e v e l s and phases i n p l a n n i n g — at the n e i g h b o u r h o o d , c i t y and r e g i o n a l l e v e l s . At the n e i g h b o u r h o o d l e v e l , 20 c h a r t e r e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d groups a re o f f i c i a l l y r e c o g n i z e d by c i t y c o u n c i l . These groups e a c h r e p r e s e n t t h e i r n e i g h b o u r h o o d a r e a and a d v i s e the c i t y c o u n c i l , the p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n and o t h e r c i t y o f f i c i a l s and s t a f f i n v o l v e d i n the growth and deve lopment of d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g the community and the n e i g h b o r h o o d . In J a n u a r y 1983, a r e s o l u t i o n was p a s s e d by the Eugene c i t y c o u n c i l , A N e i g h b o r h o o d O r g a n i z a t i o n R e c o g n i t i o n P o l i c y (see A p p e n d i x B ) . The r e c o g n i t i o n p o l i c y came as a r e s u l t , of t h i n k i n g t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n needed to go beyond the s i m p l e r o l e of c i v i c i n f o r m i n g , toward a p r o c e s s which would i n v o l v e the p u b l i c i n an a c t i v e , two-way ( a d v i s o r y ) r o l e . The r e c o g n i t i o n p o l i c y moves a n e i g h b o u r h o o d o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t o a s t r o n g a d v i s o r y r o l e . The r e s o l u t i o n f a c i l i t a t e s r e c o g n i z e d n e i g h b o r h o o d - 6 2 -o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o n t i n u e d i n v o l v e m e n t i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . These r e c o g n i z e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o e v a l u a t e p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s and recommendat ions c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the n e i g h b o u r h o o d p l a n . The c i t y p r o v i d e s the r e c o g n i z e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h s u p p l i e s and s t a f f a s s i s t a n c e . The o r g a n i z a t i o n becomes the community l i a s o n d u r i n g the p l a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s . The c r i t e r i a f o r r e c o g n i t i o n demand t h a t the community o r g a n i z a t i o n p r o p o s a l f o r community o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n be w e l l c i r c u l a t e d among the n e i g h b o u r h o o d and t h a t the community o r g a n i z a t i o n i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the d i v e r s e range of n e i g h b o u r h o o d c i t i z e n s . A second c r i t e r i o n i s t h a t as l o n g as the n e i g h b o u r h o o d o r g a n i z a t i o n rema ins o r g a n i z e d and i n v o l v e d w i t h c u r r e n t i s s u e s o r i n d e v e l o p i n g a p a r t of the p l a n , i t w i l l be r e c o g n i z e d . The Eugene model w i l l a l s o be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r as a model t h a t has some a p p l i c a b i l i t y to V a n c o u v e r . A f i n a l example i s the T o r o n t o L . A . P . P . In 1973 the T o r o n t o c i t y p l a n n i n g s t a f f r e o r g a n i z e d to r e s p o n d t o the p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s s u e . T o r o n t o had been w o r k i n g w i t h c i t i z e n commi t tees s i n c e 1 9 6 0 ' s . A Community and N e i g h b o u r h o o d s D i v i s i o n was c r e a t e d by p l a n n i n g s t a f f commit ted to p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . C i t i z e n t a s k f o r c e s , w o r k i n g commi t tees and p l a n n i n g g r o u p s were put i n t o o p e r a t i o n but w i t h o u t s p e c i f i c p o l i c i e s g o v e r n i n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g i n the C i t y of T o r o n t o ( C i t y o f T o r o n t o P l a n n i n g B o a r d ; J a n u a r y 18, 1982, . 4 ) . Today p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n c o n t i n u e s to combine a v a r i e t y of t e c h n i q u e s at a range of l e v e l s . I n c l u d e d i n the v a r i e t y of t e c h n i q u e s f o r T o r o n t o i s the w o r k i n g c o m m i t t e e , w h i c h o p e r a t e s at an a d v i s o r y / c o n s u l t a n t l e v e l . The w o r k i n g commit tee was found more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r l o n g e r term p l a n n i n g a n d / o r a p l a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s . Work ing commi t tees a re c o n s i d e r e d v i a b l e f o r p r o v i d i n g a c o n t i n u i n g l i a s i o n w i t h the community i n w h i c h an a r e a s t u d y i s b e i n g d o n e . Yet a s u n s e t c l a u s e i s o f t e n w r i t t e n i n t o the terms of r e f e r e n c e f o r the w o r k i n g - 6 3 -committee- Depending on the issue, representation may be from one i n t e r e s t group or several. It i s r e a l i z e d that public meetings w i l l s t i l l be required regardless of the working committee development. There i s no formal structure for continued c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; Toronto's program i s very s i m i l a r to Vancouver•s. 4.9 Effective Continued Cit izen Participation Observations The evaluation of selected Vancouver l o c a l area planning programs supports a preliminary conclusion that the process for continued (post L.A.P.P.) c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s not as e f f e c t i v e as o r i g i n a l l y intended. To f a c i l i t a t e continued e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n a model w i l l be o u t l i n e d , one that provides an a l t e r n a t i v e to Vancouver's e x i s t i n g model, without s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r i n g Vancouver's e x i s t i n g L.A.P.P. model. The implications of the revised L.A.P.P. w i l l be discussed i n Chapter 6 . Observations from the l i t e r a t u r e and thesis analysis indicate that c i t y council recognition of community formed organizations i s the best approach for continued c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Recognition involves responsible action on the part of the c i t y and the organization. In Appendix B, there i s a copy of a recognition p o l i c y , area council and c i v i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are outlined and include factors such as the area council p u b l i c a t i o n of i t s meetings and e x h i b i t i o n of meeting minutes. Further, planning departments must o f f e r s t a f f assistance, i f possible, and hold o r i e n t a t i o n sessions once or twice or year for involved residents. These observations are in l i n e with l i t e r a t u r e findings in Chapter 3 where authors such as Rafter, Connor and Hallman stress the importance of resource access and recognition. The review of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n examples prove very applicable. For example, the Washington, D.C. planning program f a c i l i t a t e s a p a r t i c i p a t i o n t r a n s i t i o n from a plan creation to long term plan implementation or monitoring -64-s t a g e . The V a n c o u v e r L . A . P . P . does not f o r m a l l y a d d r e s s t h i s t r a n s i t i o n , a l t h o u g h i t has been a c o n c e r n i n s e v e r a l l o c a l a r e a s , n o t a b l y the H a s t i n g s - S u n r i s e a r e a . F u r t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n s f rom t h i s c h a p t e r i n c l u d e the need t o s t i m u l a t e c i t i z e n s ' i n t e r e s t i n p l a n n i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h r o u g h L . A . P . P . p e r i o d i c u p d a t i n g of a p l a n and the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t the s t r u c t u r e f o r c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n does not have t o be i n d e p e n d e n t . The s t r u c t u r e can be t i e d t o an e x i s t i n g community o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t i s i n t e r e s t e d i n a d d i n g a p l a n n i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and t h a t meets the c r i t e r i a f o r c i v i c r e c o g n i t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r now p r e s e n t s an o p p o r t u n i t y to a p p l y the t h e s i s t h e o r y and e v a l u a t i o n r e s u l t s . R a f t e r c o n c l u d e d t h a t i n f o r m a l o r f o r m a l r e c o g n i t i o n of e x i s t i n g community g roups p r o v i d e s more e f f e c t i v e community p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e s u l t s . The s p e c i f i c mechanisms f o r i n i t i a t i n g t h i s p r o c e s s w i l l be the s u b j e c t s of the r e m a i n i n g c h a p t e r s . I t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o say t h a t r e c o g n i t i o n must i n c l u d e some l e v e l of r e s o u r c e d i s t r i b u t i o n . The r e s o u r c e networks of money, i n f o r m a t i o n , t e c h n i c a l a i d and s u p p o r t c o n s t i t u t e key e l e m e n t s r e l e v a n t to the f u n c t i o n i n g needs of community o r g a n i z a t i o n and d e f i n e the p a r a m e t e r s of a c t i o n s r e l e v e n t t o the community s i t u a t i o n ( G a l a s k i e w i c z , J . , 1979, 9 5 ) . In c o n c l u s i o n , the recommended s t r a t e g y i n v o l v e s a c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n model t h a t i n c l u d e s : 1) c i t i z e n a d v i s o r y l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; 2) c i v i c s t r a t e g y of c o n s u l t a t i o n ; 3) r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c i t i z e n group t e c h n i q u e ; 4) a r e a c o u n c i l s t r u c t u r e . Upon a d o p t i o n of a L . A . P . p l a n , r e c o g n i t i o n of an e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t amalgamates w i t h the C . P . C , may be the most e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n model i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e d u r e , as seen i n G r a n d v i e w - W o o d l a n d . C h a p t e r 5 p r e s e n t s a c a s e where t h i s p r o c e d u r e i s p r e s e n t l y i n p r o g r e s s . - 6 5 -CHAPTER 5: CONTINUED E F F E C T I V E PARTICIPATION CASE STUDY 5.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s c h a p t e r documents and d i s c u s s e s the e f f o r t s i n Mount P l e a s a n t , a V a n c o u v e r l o c a l a r e a , to e n s u r e c o n t i n u e d e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . In V a n c o u v e r , c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g i s d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n the framework o f the L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g ( L . A . P . ) p r o g r a m . C i t i z e n P l a n n i n g Commit tees a r e formed to a s s i s t p l a n n e r s i n c r e a t i n g a p l a n f o r t h e i r a r e a . In Mount P l e a s a n t , a C . P . C . i s p r e s e n t l y i n v o l v e d i n the c r e a t i o n o f an a r e a p l a n . L . A . P . s t a f f moved to Mount P l e a s a n t , to a s i t e o f f i c e , so t h a t t h e y c o u l d work c l o s e l y w i t h the c i t i z e n p l a n n i n g c o m m i t t e e . Upon c o m p l e t i o n o f the p l a n and the c i t y c o u n c i l a p p r o v a l o f the p l a n , the L . A . P . s t a f f w i l l r e t u r n to the C i t y H a l l o f f i c e f o r the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t a g e o f the p l a n . The s t a f f s u p p o r t o f the C . P . C . w i l l d e c l i n e and the C . P . C . c o u l d , as d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 4, d i s b a n d o r amalgamate w i t h a n o t h e r community o r g a n i z a t i o n . R e s e a r c h i n C h a p t e r 4 i n d i c a t e d t h a t even i n the l o c a l a r e a s where an e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n took on the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f m o n i t o r i n g the p l a n , the t r a n s i t i o n f rom c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n c r e a t i o n s t a g e to c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t a g e was not f a c i l i t a t e d by a L . A . P . p o l i c y . T h i s r e s e a r c h , s u p p l e m e n t e d by a r e v i e w o f o t h e r m u n i c i p a l i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m s , a l l o w e d the a u t h o r o f t h i s t h e s i s to draw the f o l l o w i n g p r e l i m i n a r y c o n c l u s i o n s : 1. P r e s e n t l y no L . A . P . p o l i c y i s put i n t o e f f e c t a t S tage 4 and s t a g e 5 o f the L . A . P . P . ( s e e F i g u r e s 7 , 46 and 8 , 60) to a s s i s t the l o c a l a r e a i n d e v e l o p i n g c o n t i n u e d e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; 2. R e c o g n i t i o n by c i t y c o u n c i l needs to be g i v e n to a community o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h a t meets s p e c i f i e d c r i t e r i a , t h a t i s i n t e r e s t e d i n t a k i n g on a p l a n n i n g - 66 -role and that f a c i l i t a t e s e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; 3. Recognition involves c i v i c consultation and access to technical and f i n a n c i a l resources; 4. To stimulate c i t i z e n s interest and to update the l o c a l area plans, the planning department should formally review each area program every few years. In this chapter, these preliminary conclusions and the e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n theory developed i n Chapter 3 are applied to Mount Pleasant where the author of this thesis participated as an intern student. Her task was to help i n i t i a t e a process for continued c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n after the Mount Pleasant C.P.C. disbands. The f i r s t section of Chapter f i v e places Mount Pleasant within the context of the L.A.P.P. in Vancouver. Following a narrative of actions taken to ensure continued c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s an application of p a r t i c i p a t i o n theory, an the evaluation of al t e r n a t i v e continued p a r t i c i p a t i o n strategies for Mount Pleasant. Chapter 5' concludes with observations from the Mount Pleasant review. 5.2 L.A.P. i n Mount Pleasant L.A.P. arrived in Mount Pleasant early in 1982, following i t s 1981 M.P.N.A.(Mount Pleasant Neighbourhood Association) i n i t i a t e d council endorsement. The M.P.N.A. i s a community organization that plays a s o c i a l advocacy role in Mount Pleasant. The M.P.N.A. pressured City Hall for a L.A.P.P. in the Mount Pleasant l o c a l area. Those at early planning committee meeting formed the nucleus of a c i t y council endorsed Mount Pleasant C i t i z e n Planning Committee (M.P.C.P.C.). In order to develop a more representative committee, greater membership was encouraged through an open house brochures l o c a l press coverage and newsletters.* - 67 -The r e s u l t i n g M . P . C . P . C . meets e v e r y s e c o n d T u e s d a y , a t the Mount P l e a s a n t s i t e o f f i c e . The p l a n n i n g s t a f f c h a i r the m e e t i n g s . S u b - c o m m i t t e e s meet more o f t e n t o r e s e a r c h s p e c i f i c i s s u e s as p rob lems demand. The g o a l of the L . A . P . program i s t o d e v e l o p a c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n t h a t w i l l i n i t i a t e a c t i o n s t r a t e g i e s t o meet the c o m m u n i t y ' s needs and o b j e c t i v e s . T h i s p l a n w i l l be a p r o d u c t of b o t h the t e c h n i c a l p l a n n i n g work done by the s t a f f and the p e r s o n a l knowledge of the Mount P l e a s a n t r e s i d e n t s i n v o l v e d i n the C . P . C . A p r e l i m i n a r y d r a f t o f t h a t p l a n , Mount P l e a s a n t A t The C r o s s R o a d s , has been p r e p a r e d , p l a c i n g the Mount P l e a s a n t LAP program a t S t a g e 4 , S t e p 4 (see F i g u r e 8 , ) . T h e r e i s a s e r i e s o f p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s t h a t have been p r o p o s e d f o r Mount P l e a s a n t . The p o l i c y t h a t r e l a t e s t o the a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s , t o be a n a l y z e d h e r e , i s as i n the d r a f t p l a n : t o d e v e l o p s t r o n g community o r g a n i z a t i o n t o a s s i s t r e s i d e n t s and a r t i c u l a t e and a d v o c a t e Mount P l e a s a n t v i e w p o i n t s . (Vancouver P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , S e p t . 1985, 2 0 ) . * * T h i s community o r g a n i z a t i o n p o l i c y r e l a t e s t o our b r o a d e r c o n c e r n of a need f o r a v e h i c l e t h r o u g h wh ich c i t i z e n s can c o n t i n u e t o p a r t i c i p a t e . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e i s r e q u i r e d t h a t w i l l f a c i l i t a t e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s d u r i n g the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the community p l a n . A l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s w i l l be d e v e l o p e d f o r the o b j e c t i v e : C o n t i n u e d community p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a f t e r a l o c a l a r e a p l a n has been a d o p t e d . * The c o n c e r n f o r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c r e s i d e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n has been ex tended i n t o the p r e s e n t . G e o r g i a N e l s o n ( M . P . C . P . C . ) moved a m o t i o n on a c t i o n t o a t t r a c t f u r t h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a t the T u e s d a y , May 28 , 1985 M . P . C . P . C . m e e t i n g . * * A p l a n has been a d o p t e d s i n c e t h i s d a t e . - 68 -5.3 Continued P a r t i c i p a t i o n Actions On November 2 6 t h , 1984 K a r i H u h t a l a (a p l a n n i n g a s s i s t a n t i n Mount P l e a s a n t a t t h a t t ime) s e n t out a l e t t e r t o p r i v a t e v o l u n t e e r community g r o u p s i n Mount P l e a s a n t . The l e t t e r p r e s e n t e d the c o n c e p t o f a need t o an o r g a n i z a t i o n t o work f o r the common b e t t e r m e n t o f the communi ty . The recommended a c t i o n was t h a t a l l i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s s h o u l d a t t e n d a m e e t i n g on December 12 , 1984 a t the Mount P l e a s a n t P l a n n i n g o f f i c e . T h i s m e e t i n g was the f i r s t s t e p t a k e n i n o r d e r t o implement P o l i c y I o f the L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g P l a n d r a f t . A t t h i s f i r s t m e e t i n g , i d e a s s h a r e d on the mandate o f a community o r g a n i z a t i o n i n c l u d e d i n f o r m a t i o n s h a r i n g , the m o n i t o r i n g o f the p l a n and a d v o c a c y a c t i o n . A c o n c e n s u s was formed t h a t i n d i c a t e d s u p p o r t f o r the deve lopment o f an u m b r e l l a community o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h a t p e r h a p s the M . P . N . A . c o u l d assume t h i s r o l e . The N e i g h b o u r h o o d A s s o c i a t i o n came t o the m e e t i n g p r e p a r e d to p r o p o s e t h a t the M . P . N . A . assume t h i s r o l e . T h e i r p r o p o s a l of December 6, 1984 l a i d out f o r t h c o m i n g a c t i o n s t h a t would accommodate t h i s r o l e . I n c l u d e d i n t h e s e a c t i o n s was the m o n i t o r i n g o f the community p l a n impact and the a d a p t a t i o n of an a d v o c a c y r o l e f o r Mount P l e a s a n t r e s i d e n t s . C o n c e r n was e x p r e s s e d a t t h a t m e e t i n g about the M . P . N . A . ' s r e q u e s t e d need f o r o f f i c e space and the p o t e n t i a l t h a t the M . P . N . A . might have t o d e t r a c t f rom t h e f u n d s t h a t were a n e c e s s i t y t o o t h e r e x i s t i n g community s e r v i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I t was a l s o f e l t t h a t the M . P . N . A . was not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e enough and t h a t a l t h o u g h i t had p r o v e d i t s e l f i n somewhat of an a d v o c a c y r o l e , i t had never p l a y e d a l o c a l i t y deve lopment r o l e or a community p l a n n i n g r o l e . T h i s was c o u n t e r a c t e d by the M . P . N . A . p r o m i s e t o i n c r e a s e i t s - 69 -r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and by the M . P . N . A . e x p l a n a t i o n t h a t i t had kept ou t o f community deve lopment d u r i n g the LAP p r o g r a m , but i t was now ready t o become more a c t i v e . A l e t t e r was s e n t out on J a n u a r y 14, 1985 t o a r r a n g e f o r a s e c o n d m e e t i n g . P r i o r t o t h i s m e e t i n g each group was p e r s o n a l l y c o n t a c t e d by the a u t h o r (on the recommendat ion o f K. H u h t a l a ) . A t t h i s s e c o n d m e e t i n g on J a n u a r y 30 , 1985, c o n c e r n was f o r m a l l y e x p r e s s e d f o r the need of an o r g a n i z a t i o n i n Mount P l e a s a n t t h a t w o u l d : 1) a d v i s e o u t s i d e o r g a n i z a t i o n s s u c h as c i t y c o u n c i l ; 2) m o n i t o r the p l a n f o r the communi ty ( i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the M . P . C . P . C . ) ; 3) c o - o r d i n a t e community g r o u p s and agency i n f o r m a t i o n s h a r i n g m e e t i n g s ; 4) c u l t i v a t e g r e a t e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n and a sense of i d e n t i t y w i t h i n the communi ty . A t t h i s s e c o n d m e e t i n g , an e a r l i e r c o n c e r n was f u r t h e r e x p r e s s e d . The M . P . N . A . seemed t o i n d i c a t e t h a t i f i t assumed t h i s a r e a c o u n c i l r o l e , i t would a l s o p l a y a s e r v i c e r o l e . I t was f e l t by o t h e r g r o u p s r e p r e s e n t e d a t t h a t m e e t i n g t h a t an a r e a c o u n c i l or u m b r e l l a o r g a n i z a t i o n c o u l d o n l y be s u p p o r t e d i f i t l e f t the s e r v i c e r o l e t o the t r a i n e d s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s . Many a t the m e e t i n g f e l t t h a t the p r i m a r y i s s u e was the m o n i t o r i n g o f the p l a n and t h a t a l l o t h e r i s s u e s c o u l d be i r o n e d out i n t i m e . Susan A n d e r s o n , a s o c i a l p l a n n e r f o r the C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , recommended t h a t a s t u d y be done on o t h e r a r e a c o u n c i l s i n Vancouver and p r e s e n t e d as e x a m p l e s . She f e l t t h a t p e r h a p s the a r e a c o u n c i l c o u l d be a c o l l a b o r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h a t the Ne ighbourhood A s s o c i a t i o n c o u l d c o n t i n u e t o o p e r a t e as a r e s i d e n t s ' a d v o c a c y g r o u p , as p a r t o f the c o u n c i l . The M . P . N . A . , as a c o u n c i l member, would have a v e r y s p e c i a l and i n f l u e n t i a l r o l e s i n c e i t was a v o l u n t a r y r e s i d e n t s ' g r o u p . The a r e a c o u n c i l would then p r o v i d e a forum t h a t would f a c i l i t a t e community i n t e r a c t i o n and would thus a t t r a c t o u t s i d e f u n d i n g . T h e r e f o r e the m e e t i n g o f F e b r u a r y 27 , 1985 was t o f u r n i s h i n f o r m a t i o n and a l l o w d i s c u s s i o n - 70 -time for Mount Pleasant s t a f f , volunteers, and community organization board members. A l l community organization board members were to be encouraged to attend; board members are elected and thus represent the community ( i . e Neighbourhood House Board). At the February 27 meeting, other area council models were presented by the author of t h i s t h e s i s . Also present at t h i s meeting was Mary Bosze of the Grandview-Woodland Area Council. She reinforced the r o l e that an area council could play i n a community, i f i t operated i n cooperation with other associations. It was f e l t by those present that perhaps the Neighbourhood Association was i n fact already an area council and that with greater representation and resources i t could become the appropriate, more i d e a l monitoring structure. Kari Huhtala suggested that each community had to develop i t s own s p e c i f i c organizational structure. If there was to be a separate organization created, the fear of the M.P.N.A. being duplicated had to be dealt with, as would the i m p r a t i c a l i t y of c r e a t i n g a separate organization have to be j u s t i f i e d . In conclusion, at the t h i r d meeting i t was r e a l i z e d that the Neighbourhood Association could possibly be an appropriate model but that i t was best to begin the evolution process slowly. Meetings were to be held which included members of each d i f f e r e n t organization so that issues could be shared and when action became necessary, the appropriate agency would do the work. In time, the Neighbourhood Association could assume or sponsor t h i s f a c i l i t a t i n g r:.le and with increased a s s o c i a t i o n representation, become the umbrella group. This was s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t than the Neighbourhood Association simply holding inter-agehcy meetings. If the Neighbourhood Association sponsored the umbrella organization, a phasing in of a new more representative structure would occur, while allowing the usage of an e x i s t i n g organizational framework. - 71 -A f o u r t h m e e t i n g , J u l y 3 , 1985, was an a p p r o p r i a t e t ime to r e c a p i t u l a t e what had a l r e a d y t r a n s p i r e d . The meet ing began w i t h g e n e r a l comments on who was g o i n g to p l a n f o r the Mount P l e a s a n t community a f t e r L . A . P . was c o m p l e t e d . I t was r e c o g n i z e d t h a t community groups a r e not v e r y f u n c t i o n a l u n l e s s t h e r e i s some s o r t o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f s u p p o r t . T h e r e was no e x i s t i n g community g roup t h a t c o u l d take on t h i s m o n i t o r i n g and i n f o r m a t i o n s h a r i n g r o l e . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t the M . P . C . P . C . and the M . P . N . A . s h o u l d amalgamate to e n s u r e c o n t i n u e d community i n v o l v e m e n t i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The M . P . N . A . s u g g e s t e d t h a t a name change would be i n o r d e r and the M . P . N . A . would e i t h e r f a c i l i t a t e o r j o i n an u m b r e l l a o r g a n i z a t i o n . The u m b r e l l a o r g a n i z a t i o n would be a l o o s e c o l l e c t i o n of community g roups s h a r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n has not been a c c e p t e d by a l l i n v o l v e d and f u r t h e r a c t i o n w i l l depend on f o r m a t i o n o f a community c o n c e n s u s . 5 .4 A p p l i c a t i o n o f E f f e c t i v e P a r t i c i p a t i o n T h e o r y O r g a n i z e d community a c t i o n s a r e c o n s i d e r e d v e r y i m p o r t a n t , g i v e n the u n d e r s t o o d range o f s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l p rob lems i n Mount P l e a s a n t and the n o n - e x i s t e n c e o f any w e l l r e c o g n i z e d and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e community o r g a n i z a t i o n . Community g r o u p s t r a d i t i o n a l l y p l a y i n g an a d v o c a c y r o l e i n Mount P l e a s a n t e x p e r i e n c e c o n f l i c t i n f u n d i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s and a c t on the c o m m u n i t y ' s b e h a l f w i t h o u t adequate r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . W i th the r e l a t i v e l y c l o s e c o m p l e t i o n o f the L . A . P . program and i t s c i t i z e n p l a n n i n g commit tee i n v o l v e m e n t , i t was e s s e n t i a l t h a t a s t r o n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a d v o c a t e i n s u p p o r t o f Mount P l e a s a n t ' s i n t e r e s t s be d e v e l o p e d . The c u r r e n t s o c i a l p rob lems i n Mount P l e a s a n t and the p r o x i m i t y of B . C . P l a c e and Expo i n t e n s i f y t h i s n e e d . T h i s s e l e c t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e w i l l have to be a c o l l a b o r a t i o n of e x i s t i n g g r o u p s , as w e l l as of r e s i d e n t s i n Mount P l e a s a n t i f i t i s to be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and thus worthy o f a r e c o g n i z e d a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g - 72 -i n t e r a c t i o n r o l e w i t h c i t y c o u n c i l . The s e l e c t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e must r e f l e c t the e l e m e n t s o f e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n c o n c l u d e d t o be e s s e n t i a l i n c h a p t e r 3 w h i c h a r e : (1) a d v i s o r y l e v e l o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; 2) c o n s u l t a t i o n s t r a t e g y f o r p u , b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t o f c i t i z e n s i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ; 3) r e p r e s e n t a t i v e group p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e emphas is a n d ; 4) the a r e a c o u n c i l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . F u r t h e r m o r e , i f the d e v e l o p e d o r g a n i z a t i o n i s t o f a c i l i t a t e c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h e r e must be a commitment f rom c i t y h a l l and f l e x i b i l i t y w i t h i n the s t r u c t u r e t h a t a l l o w s the o r g a n i z a t i o n t o adapt t o s p e c i f i c Mount P l e a s a n t community v a r i a b l e s . The Mount P l e a s a n t v a r i a b l e s t h a t w i l l i n f l u e n c e the deve lopment o f t h i s d e f i n e d e f f e c t i v e model f o r c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l be d i s c u s s e d n e x t . 5 .5 M o u n t P l e a s a n t V a r i a b l e s The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f ramework o f the u m b r e l l a g roup o r a r e a c o u n c i l w i l l be a p r o d u c t o f a p r o c e s s t h a t i s i n f l u e n c e d by a number o f v a r i a b l e s . The major v a r i a b l e s i m p a c t i n g on l o c a l a r e a s s u c h as Mount P l e a s a n t a r e as l i s t e d . 1) D e g r e e o f A u t o n o m y G i v e n t o M o u n t P l e a s a n t . I f c i t y c o u n c i l r e c o g n i z e s t h e a r e a c o u n c i l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n a f o r m a l o r i n f o r m a l way, a l e v e l o f c i t i z e n c o n t r o l w i l l be f a c i l i t a t e d , e s p e c i a l l y i f r e c o g n i t i o n i n c l u d e s some form o f f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t . 2) T h e N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y t o W h i c h M o u n t P l e a s a n t B e l o n g s . L o g i c a l l y , g i v e n the d e m o c r a t i c n a t u r e o f Canada and i t s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h r e e l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t , a p a r t n e r s h i p form o f c o n t r o l g i v i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e autonomy c o u l d e x i s t , but c o m p l e t e c i t i z e n c o n t r o l c o u l d n o t . 3) T h e D e m o g r a p h i c N a t u r e o f M o u n t P l e a s a n t . Mount P l e a s a n t i s a den e l y p o p u l a t e d , h i g h l y t r a n s i e n t a r e a s . As i n d i c a t e d i n the P r o v i n c e on Sunday March 17 , 1985, many o f the s o c i a l p r o b l e m s o c c u r r i n g i n Mount P l e a s a n t c a n be a t t r i b u t e d to b o t h t h e s e e l e m e n t s and to the ma jor p r o x i m a t e d e v e l o p m e n t s s u c h as Expo and B . C . P l a c e . ( S c o t t , March 17 , 1985, 2 1 ) . The n a t u r e o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n d e v e l o p e d i n Mount P l e a s a n t must be s u c h t h a t i t can a d e q u a t e l y d e a l w i t h the d e m o g r a p h i c n a t u r e o f Mount P l e a s a n t . - 73 -4) E c o n o m i c F u n c t i o n . Unemployment i n Mount P l e a s a n t exceeds the Vancouver a v e r a g e . S t o r e s are empty and p r o s p e r i t y i s low. T h i s v a r i a b l e demands a community o r g a n i z a t i o n which can h e l p a t t r a c t the n e c e s s a r y f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s and i n v e s t m e n t . 5) Local P o l i t i c a l Structure. Mount P l e a s a n t i s r e p r e s e n t e d p o l i t i c a l l y a t l a r g e , not i n a ward s y s t e m . 6) S t r u c t u r a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of P o l i t i c a l Processes. In Mount P l e a s a n t t h i s i n c l u d e s the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s as w e l l as the p o l i t i c i a l p r o c e s s . The o r g a n i z a t i o n d e v e l o p e d must r e f l e c t a knowledge o f b o t h t h e s e p r o c e s s e s i f i t i s t o be e f f e c t i v e . 7) Community Values, Norms and t h e i r Influence on Output I t a p p e a r s t h a t d e s p i t e the community prob lems t h e r e a r e a l o t o f c i t i z e n s who have a r e a l c o n c e r n f o r t h e i r communi ty . H o p e f u l l y t h i s w i l l be r e f l e c t e d p o s i t i v e l y i n the community m o n i t o r i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n . 8) Leadership C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Development o f a m o n i t o r i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l i n v o l v e a b a s i c c h o i c e by the community l e a d e r s as to whether the o r g a n i z a t i o n s h o u l d be a new o n e , or i f an e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s h o u l d be u t i l i z e d . Of i m p o r t a n c e here i s the p r o p o s a l t h a t the N e i g h b o u r h o o d A s s o c i a t i o n (MPNA) assume the m o n i t o r i n g r o l e . The MPNA i s an a d v o c a c y low budget s e l f - h e l p o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t has no f o r m a l c o u n c i l r e c o g n i t i o n though i t d e a l s w i t h a v a r i e t y of community i s s u e s . The MPNA i s a more a c t i v e community o r g a n i z a t i o n than m o s t ; i t does have some i n f o r m a l r e c o g n i t i o n and t h e r e f o r e o c c a s i o n a l l y r e c e i v e s g r a n t s from c o u n c i l ( t h r o u g h s o c i a l p l a n n i n g ) . I t a l s o i s an e l e c t e d body though i t does not have a v e r y c o m p r e h e n s i v e community p r o f i l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . I t i s t h i s group t h a t i s most a c t i v e and t h e r e f o r e t h e i r i n f l u e n c e w i l l be the s t r o n g e s t . However , t h e r e a r e t h o s e t h a t d i s a g r e e w i t h the N e i g h b o u r h o o d A s s o c i a t i o n and p r i o r to any f i n a l and a c o u n c i l f o r m a t i o n t h i s c o n f l i c t w i l l have to be r e s o l v e d . 9) Decision Making Structure. P o l i t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n among key p e o p l e w i t h i n the community and t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on a l t e r n a t i v e g o a l s , m a i n t e n a n c e , and m o d i f i c a t i o n o f the i n s t i t u t i o n s or f a c i l i t i e s th-.t i n v o l v e the m a j o r ' t y o f the community r e s i d e n t s , w i l l a f f e c t the m o n i t o r i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n and d e v e l o p m e n t . 10) Output o r m o n i t o r i n g r e s u l t s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l f u r t h e r i n f l u e n c e the o n g o i n g p r o c e s s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n development and i t s i n f l u e n c e on d e c i s i o n makers . (adapted from C l a r k , 1968, 17-22) -74-5 . 6 Evaluation of Alternative Continued P a r t i c i p a t i o n Models The development of a model for continued citizen participation i n the planning process must be flexible enough to adapt to specific variables. In Mount Pleasant, actions taken to ensure continued citizen participation include the draft plan policy to develop strong community organization. Community organization was to foster community identity, m o n i t o r the local area plan and to generally strengthen community development and self-help. There are four major alternatives that could be selected to f u l f i l this continued participation goal. The cr i t e r i a for selection i n v o l v e ascertaining which alternative most closely achieves the effective e lements of continued citizen participation. The alternatives are: 1. Continue as is with the M.P.C.P.C. and the M.P.N.A. acting independently; 2. Planning staff play a surrogate Mount Pleasant resident role from t h e i r centralized location at City Hall; 3. Form a new collaborative organization or area council; 4 . Find another local group that could add a planning function to i t s o t h e r objectives and that the C.P.C. could join. A l t e r n a t i v e 1 Continue as i s with the M.P.C.P.C. and M.P.N.A. acting independently. The L o c a l Area P l a n n i n g program a p p r o a c h g e n e r a l l y does not i n c l u d e s u p p o r t i n g the continuation o f a c i t i z e n ' s p l a n n i n g committe* upon the c o m p l e t i o n of the p l a n . During the l o n g term i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t a g e of the p l a n , b e n i g n n e g l e c t i s the approach to c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the L . A . P . P . C h a p t e r f o u r has shown t h i s to be the c a s e i n most L . A . P . programs i n V a n c o u v e r . Roy B l u n d e n , the c h a i r m a n of G r a n d v i e w - W o o d l a n d P l a n n i n g commit tee s t a t e d i n a l e t t e r ( F e b . 3 , 1978 14) to the V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t : I t m u s t . . . b e c o n c l u d e d t h a t i f the f i n a l l o c a l a r e a p l a n f o r the community i s to have any r e l e v a n c e , i n d e e d i f i t i s not to p r o v e d i s a s t r o u s f o r the communi ty , t h e r e must be some degree of subsequent l o c a l m o n i t o r i n g as to i t s e f f e c t . T h e r e f o r e , a l t e r n a t i v e one w i l l not meet the e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n c r i t e r i a , even i f when the C . P . C . d i s b a n d s , the M . P . N . A . s o l i c t s s u p p o r t and takes o v e r the p l a n n i n g r o l e . The K i t s i l a n o c i t i z e n p l a n n i n g commit tee i s an example of i n e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I t c o n t i n u e d to o p e r a t e d u r i n g the f i r s t p a r t o f the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n phase o f the p l a n , but e v e n t u a l l y c e a s e d to p l a y an a c t i v e r o l e due to the l a c k o f m u n i c i p a l r e c o g n i t i o n and s u p p o r t , as w e l l as due to the l a c k o f l o c a l i n v o l v e m e n t and i n t e r e s t . A l t e r n a t i v e 2 Planning staff play a surrogate Mount Pleasent resident role from their centralized location at City Hall. C h a p t e r Two d i s c u s s e d A r n s t e i n ' s d e v e l o p e d l a d d e r wh ich i l l u s t r a t e s l e v e l s o f c i t i z e n o r c i t i z e n group p a r t i c i p a t i o n . S u r r o g a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n does not p l a c e the r e s i d e n t s at any l e v e l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n . At the h i g h e s t l e v e l p o s s i b l e , s u r r o g a t e p l a n n i n g c o u l d p l a c e the community a t rung two or t h r e e , i n f o r m i n g o r t h e r a p y . T h i s f a c t wou ld go a g a i n s t the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the l o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g program - c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . P r e s e n t l y , t h i s i s the a l t e r n a t i v e a d v o c a t e d by the V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g Depar tment , b e n i g n n e g l e c t . C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n d u r i n g the p l a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t a g e i s o n l y a l i m i t e d r e a l i t y when i n i t i a t e d by a c i t i - z e n s g r o u p . T h e r e f o r e , a l t e r n a t i v e two i s r e j e c t e d as t h e r e i s no g u a r a n t e e c i t i z e n s w i l l i n i t i a t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i f not s u p p o r t e d by a p u b l i c a g e n c y . - 76 -A l t e r n a t i v e 3 Form a new c o l l a b o r a t i v e organization or area c o u n c i l . G i v e n t h a t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s seen as not o n l y a means f o r i n c r e a s e d e f f i c i e n c y , but i s a l s o seen to f u r t h e r d e m o c r a c y , some form o f c i t i z e n c o n t r o l i n the d e c i s i o n s t h a t a f f e c t t h e i r l i v e s i s e s s e n t i a l . B o t h c o m p l e t e c i t i z e n c o n t r o l and community government a r e not e a s i l y a t t a i n a b l e i n o u r C a n a d i a n d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y . The h i g h e s t l e v e l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h a t can be o b t a i n e d i s a degree o f p a r t n e r s h i p and t h i s can o n l y be a c h i e v e d by f o r m a l c o u n c i l r e c o g n i t i o n , e l e c t e d community r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and r e s o u r c e a c c e s s . The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e w h i c h has a l l t h r e e p a r t n e r s h i p e lements and t h a t c a n be a d a p t e d to s p e c i f i c community needs i s an a r ea c o u n c i l . T h i s a l t e r n a t i v e would be s e l e c t e d but i f one r e f l e c t s on the community a c t i o n s taken thus f a r , the p r e f e r r e d s t r a t e g y seems to be an e v o l u t i o n o f the e x i s t i n g M . P . N . A . i n t o a more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a r e a c o u n c i l t h r o u g h the amalgamat ion o f the M . P . N . A . and C . P . C . I t i s t h i s g r a d u a l p r o c e s s t h a t has been s e t i n t o m o t i o n by the i n f o r m a t i o n s h a r i n g m e e t i n g s . An e x t e n s i v e s u r v e y on community o r g a n i z a t i o n s t r u c t u r e s d i s c o v e r e d t h a t a f o r m a l o r i n f o r m a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f e x i s t i n g n e i g h b o u r h o o d a s s o c i a t i o n s as the most e f f e c t i v e type o f a r e a c o u n c i l ( R a f t e r , 1980) . A l t e r n a t i v e 4 Find another l o c a l group that could add a planning function to i t s other duties. In Mount P l e a s a n t t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e has been d i s c u s s e d . The Mount P leasant ; N e i g h b o u r h o o d A s s o c ! - i o n i s . group t h a t would be i n t e r e s t e d i n t a k i n g on the n e c e s s a r y p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n , amalgamat ing w i t h the C.P.C, i n c r e a s i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and f a c i l i t a t i n g c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . - 77 -At the f i r s t December m e e t i n g , the M . P . N . A . p r o p o s e d to r e d e v e l o p the a s s o c i a t i o n so as to meet a r e a c o u n c i l r e q u i r e m e n t s . T h i s M . P . N . A . redeve lopment p r o p o s a l s h o u l d be s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d , as s h o u l d a r e c i p r i c a t i n g p r o p o s a l of r e c o g n i t i o n and s u p p o r t f rom C i t y H a l l a l s o be d i s c u s s e d . T h i s amalgamated Mount P l e a s a n t a r e a c o u n c i l would p l a y an a d v i s o r y , a c o - o r d i n a t i n g and an advocacy r o l e . I n f o r m a t i o n n e t - w o r k i n g , community l e a d e r s h i p and community p l a n m o n i t o r i n g would be the major emphasis of the g r o u p . T h i s c o u n c i l would i d e n t i f y s e r v i c e gaps and c u l t i v a t e a g r e a t e r sense of i d e n t i t y w i t h i n the communi ty . The c i t i z e n s i n Mount P l e a s a n t do r e a l i z e , t h a t to e f f e c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e , they w i l l need c e r t a i n s u p p o r t and r e c o g n i t i o n f rom C i t y H a l l . Two r e l e v e n t examples of i n f o r m a l a r e a c o u n c i l r e c o g n i t i o n i n Vancouver a re M a r p o l e - O a k r i d g e and G r a n d v i e w - W o o d l a n d , bo th were d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 4 . I f the M . P . N . A amalgamated w i t h the M . P . C . P . C . the r e s u l t i n g community model c o u l d l o o k l i k e e i t h e r G r a n d v i e w - W o o d l a n d ( F i g u r e 9) o r M a r p o l e - O a k r i d g e ( F i g u r e 10 ) . In b o t h m o d e l s , the a r e a c o u n c i l and C . P . C . amalgamated; the d i f f e r e n c e i n the models i s where the c o u n c i l ' s o f f i c e has been l o c a t e d . In Grandv iew-Woodland the a r e a c o u n c i l ' s o f f i c e i s i n the community c e n t r e and i n M a r p o l e - O a k r i d g e the a r e a c o u n c i l ' s o f f i c e i s i n the s e n i o r c e n t e r . - 78 -Figure 9: Grandview-Woodland Model GRANDVIEW WOODLAND COMMUNITY Figure 10: Marpole-Oakridge Model MARPOLE-OAKRIDGE COMMUNITY - 7 9 -Independant counc i l s or assoc ia t ions may be a good st ructured a l t e r n a t i v e but are not the only opt ion for Mount P leasant . For example, as d iscussed in chapter 4, in R i l e y Park, the Neighbourhood House has organized an in-house area c o u n c i l or umbrella group that includes in i t s ob jec t ives a planning r o l e . Figure 11 i l l u s t r a t e s the R i l ey Park Model. The key to success of any se lec ted a l t e r n a t i v e l i e s in i t s f a c i l i t a t i o n of continued e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n elements, i t s a d a p t a b i l i t y to s p e c i f i c community v a r i a b l e s , and the presence of continued components as d iscussed in Chapter 3.. Figure 11: Riley Park Model LITTLE MOUNTAIN (RILEY PARK) - 8 0 -These l o c a l a r e a models have l i m i t e d a c c e s s t o t e c h n i c a l and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s , t h e y a r e not o f f i c i a l l y r e c o g n i z e d and c o n s u l t e d by C i t y C o u n c i l , and th e y a r e not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e enough o f t h e i r community p r o f i l e s . However, t h e r e s t i l l e x i s t s an a c c e p t e d l e v e l o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n e v i d e n t i n t h e i r ad hoc m o n i t o r i n g o f t h e i r a r e a p l a n and of t h e l o c a l s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l a r e a i s s u e s . T h i s m o n i t o r i n g p r o v i d e s t he a r e a c o u n c i l w i t h the i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d t o p r e p a r e a case f o r program or fund a l l o c a t i o n s and t o encourage, c i v i c r e a c t i o n t o i s s u e s . The f i r s t t he two example a r e a s had a L .A.P.P. and a C.P.C. I n bo t h c a s e s , t h e C.P.C. merged w i t h t he a r e a c o u n c i l a f t e r t h e a r e a p l a n was c o m p l e t e d . In Mount P l e a s a n t , t he M.P.C.P.C. and M.P.N.A. c o u l d amalgamate a l s o . T h i s p r o c e s s has a l r e a d y begun. The i s s u e of where the newly r e o r g a n i z e d a r e a c o u n c i l s h o u l d l o c a t e has not been s e t t l e d . The R i l e y Park model c o u l d a l s o be a p p l i e d t o the Mount P l e a s a n t a r e a i f the Neighbouhood House or some o t h e r community agency was w i l l i n g t o add a ' p a r t i c i p a t o r y ' p l a n m o n i t o r i n g r o l e to t h e i r agency r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . R e g a r d l e s s of how t h e a r e a c o u n c i l i s i n i t i a t e d , i t s h o u l d emphasize the im p o r t a n c e of agency s t a f f and r e s i d e n t s m e e t i n g t o d i s c u s s r e l e v a n t a r e a i s s u e s . These i n f o r m a t i o n s h a r i n g m e e t i n g s s h o u l d h e l p ensure c o n t i n u e d p l a n n i n g , community o r g a n i z a t i o n and encourage community i d e n t i t y . When o r g a n i z a t i o n s d i s a g r e e w i t h t he Mount P l e a s a n t a r e a c o u n c i l p o s i t i o n on a i s s u e , t h e y can a c t i n d e p e n d e n t l y but s t i l l c o n t i n u e t o be i n v o l v e d i n t h e i n t e r - a g e n c y , u m b r e l l a m e e t i n g s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t he p o t e n t i a l f o r e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Mount P l e a s a n t t h r o u g h t h e M.P.N.A. i s l i m i t e d w i t h o u t t he a p p r o p r i a t e c i v i c r e s p o n s e , c i v i c r e c o g n i t i o n and s u p p o r t . 5 . 7 Selected A l t e r n a t i v e Even w i t h o u t c i v i c r e c o g n i t i o n of a M.P.N.A. or a r e a c o u n c i l , t h e s e l e c t e d a l t e r n a t i v e f o r Mount P l e a s a n t i s t o f i n d a community o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t would m o n i t o r the a r e a p l a n . A summary o f the a l t e r n a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e 3 . A c t i o n s to implement the s e l e c t e d a l t e r n a t i v e u s i n g the Mount P l e a s a n t N e i g h b o u r h o o d A s s o c i a t i o n , have b e g u n . The i n i t i a l i d e a o f ama lgamat ing the C . P . C . and M . P . N . A . has been d i s c u s s e d and i n t e r - a g e n c y m e e t i n g s a r e a l r e a d y b e i n g h e l d . A f t e r the ama lgamat ion o f the M . P . N . C . and M . P . C . P . C . t h e r e must be i n c r e a s e d c i t i z e n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , a name change and i n i t i a t e d i n t e r - a g e n c y o r u m b r e l l a m e e t i n g s . These a c t i o n s w i l l e n s u r e the f o r m a t i o n o f an e f f e c t i v e a r e a c o u n c i l i f the c i v i c and s u p p o r t found i n the Oregon and W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . p rogram f o l l o w s . The r e c o g n i t i o n o f an a r e a c o u n c i l i n i t i a t e d by the community i s the most e f f e c t i v e type o f a r e a c o u n c i l . ( H a l l m a n , 1977 and R a f t e r , 1980) . The amalgamated a r e a c o u n c i l , t h e r e f o r e , r e c e i v e s the h i g h e s t s c o r e and i s the recommended s t r u c t u r e f o r c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Mount P l e a s a n t ( s e e T a b l e 3 ) . The amalgamated a r e a c o u n c i l s t r a t e g y a d d r e s s e s b o t h community v a r i a b l e s and e l e m e n t s o f e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . F i n a l l y , to e n s u r e c i t i z e n i n t e r e s t i t wou ld be a d v i s a b l e to r e v i e w the l o c a l a r e a p l a n s e v e r y few y e a r s as i s p r e s e n t l y h a p p e n i n g i n V a n c o u v e r ' s West End l o c a l a r e a . A f t e r the a r e a p l a n has been r e v i e w e d , the r o l e o f m o n i t o r i n g t h e a r e a p l a n r e t u r n s to the A r e a C o u n c i l as d i s c u s s e d i n the W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . e x a m p l e . - 82 -TABLE 3: MOUNT PLEASANT CONTINUED PARTICIPATION ALTERNATIVE EVALUATION EFFECTIVE PARTICIPATION STRATEGY 1 STRATEGY 2 STRATEGY 3 STRATEGY 4 A d v i s o r y L e v e l X x XX XXX of P a r t i c i p a t i o n C i v i c C o n s u l t a t i o n S t r a t e g y X X XX XXX R e p r e s e n t a t i v e X - XX XXX Group Technique A r e a C o u n c i l X - XX XXX S t r u c t u r e C o n t i n u e d E f f e c t i v e C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n X X X XX A d a p t a b l e t o S p e c i f i c Community V a r i a b l e s XX X - XXX 4 9 17 KEY x - weakest xx - weak xxx - s t r o n g xxxx - s t r o n g e s t The e v o l u t i o n o f an a r e a c o u n c i l i n Mount P l e a s a n t c o u l d u l t i m a t e l y promote a more d e m o c r a t i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , t h r o u g h e q u a l i t a r i a n p l a n s . A s i d e from t h i s p l a n n i n g p r o d u c t i s t h e i m p o r t a n t a t t a i n m e n t o f g o a l s of i n h e r e n t i m p o r t a n c e t o a d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y : 1) improved s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l awareness f o r a l l members of a community; 2) more s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n ; r e s i d e n t s w i l l be made aware of t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f p u b l i c p o l i c y upon t h e m s e l v e s and o t h e r s i n the community t h r o u g h meetings and p u b l i c a t i o n s ; 3) i n c r e a s e d r e s p e c t o f the p o l i t i c a l and ( p l a n n i n g ) b u r e a c r a t i c system due t o i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; - 83 -These b e n e f i t s must be r e a l i z e d by c i t y c o u n c i l i f the e s s e n t i a l a r e a c o u n c i l r e c o g n i t i o n i s t o be g r a n t e d . Now i s the t ime t o make the c i t y c o u n c i l aware , f o r Mount P l e a s a n t s t i l l has a c c e s s t o L . A . P r e s o u r c e s d u r i n g an i n i t i a l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t a g e of the a r e a p l a n . 5.8 O b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m t h e Mount P l e a s a n t C a s e S t u d y The s e l e c t e d a l t e r n a t i v e c o u l d f a c i l i t a t e p e r p e t u a t i o n of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t the c i t i z e n a d v i s o r y l e v e l a l r e a d y a d o p t e d by the Vancouver L . A . P . P d u r i n g the p l a n c r e a t i o n s t a g e of the L . A . P . P . .With f o r m a l or i n f o r m a l a r e a c o u n c i l r e c o g n i t i o n by the Vancouver P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , c o n t i n u e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s w i l l move the c i v i c s t r a t e g y or model of p a r t i c i p a t i o n f rom a C i t i z e n A d v i s o r y Model i n the p l a n c r e a t i o n s t a g e to C i t i z e n Spokesman Model d u r i n g the l o n g term i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t a g e of the L . A . P . P . (see F i g u r e 6 ) . The C i t i z e n A d v i s o r model i s p r e s e n t l y r e a l l y o n l y i n e f f e c t f o r m a l l y d u r i n g the p l a n c r e a t i o n s t a g e . T h i s c h a n g e , wh ich r e c o g n i z e s the a r e a c o u n c i l as p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n d e p e n d e n t l y f rom the p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t , needs t o be e n d o r s e d by Vancouver C i t y H a l l . A l t h o u g h the l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l not r e a l l y c h a n g e , i t w i l l be c l o s e r t o rung 5, or c o n s u l t a t i o n than t o rung 4 , o r a d v i s o r y (see F i g u r e 4 ) . The c i v i c s t r a t e g y w i l l remain a t c o n s u l t a t i o n , but w i l l be implemented not o n l y d u r i n g the p l a n c r e a t i o n s t a g e but a l s o d u r i n g the l o n g term p l a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t a g e . - 84 -The Mount P l e a s a n t l o c a l a r e a has the p o t e n t i a l to e x h i b i t the f o u r e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n components at the h i g h e s t p o s s i b l e l e v e l . G e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s d e v e l o p e d i n the t h e s i s and augmented i n t h i s c h a p t e r i n c l u d e : - t h a t a s e l e c t e d s t r a t e g y f o r c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l l o s e i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i f t h e r e i s no p l a n n i n g depar tment t e c h n i c a l s u p p o r t , no c i v i c r e c o g n i t i o n and f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t , and i f t h e r e i s no e f f o r t t o update and r e v i e w the community p l a n s by the p l a n n i n g depar tment e v e r y few y e a r s ; - t h a t e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s s h o u l d be s t r e n g t h e n e d o r amalgamated f o r c o n t i n u i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t s t a g e 4, s t e p 4, o f the L . A . P . P . , b e f o r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n t o c r e a t i n g a new o r g a n i z a t i o n ; - t h a t i t i s f e a s i b l e t o d e v e l o p a framework f o r e f f e c t i v e - c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t h a t c a n be a p p l i e d to o t h e r L . A . P . P . s and a d a p t e d t o s p e c i f i c community v a r i a b l e s ; - t h a t r e s i d e n t s a l s o v a l u e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and t h a t the i s s u e o f c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s i m p o r t a n t to b o t h the p l a n n e r and the r e s i d e n t s ; - t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l f e a s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r e f f e c t i v e c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t but the most e f f e c t i v e s t r a t e g y a p p e a r s to i n v o l v e c i v i c r e c o g n i t i o n and s u p p o r t of an e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t e r e s t e d i n m e e t i n g e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n c r i t e r i a and i n t a k i n g on a p l a n n i n g r o l e . C h a p t e r 6 w i l l now o u t l i n e a model f o r c o n t i n u e d e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the V a n c o u v e r L . A . P . P . t h a t r e f l e c t s the c o n c l u s i o n s of the t h e s i s . - 85 -CHAPTER 6 - CONTINUED CITIZEN PARTICIPATION MODEL 6.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n In t h i s c h a p t e r a model f o r c o n t i n u e d e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the L . A . P . p r o c e s s i n V a n c o u v e r i s p r e s e n t e d , and g e n e r a l and recommendat ions f o r the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the model a r e d i s c u s s e d . The model o u t l i n e has e v o l v e d f rom the p r e c e e d i n g t h e s i s rev iew and a n a l y s i s . The t h e s i s c a s e s t u d y a p p r o a c h l e n d s i t s e l f t o p r e s e n t i n g , then r e f i n i n g a p a r a d i g m a l r e a d y d e v e l o p e d i n c e r t a i n Vancouver l o c a l a r e a s f o r the p u r p o s e o f b r o a d e r L . A . P . a p p l i c a t i o n . 6.2 E f f e c t i v e C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n V a n c o u v e r ' s L.A.P. Program To u t i l i z e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n as e f f e c t i v e l y as p o s s i b l e i n the p l a n n i n g and deve lopment o f u rban a r e a s i s a c h a l l e n g e f o r the urban p l a n n e r ( S o e n , 19 , 2 1 8 ) . The c o n c e p t o f democracy i s a c o m p e t i t i v e p o l i t i c a l sys tem i n which c o m p e t i n g l e a d e r s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s d e f i n e the a l t e r n a t i v e s o f p u b l i c p o l i c y i n s u c h a way t h a t the p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t e s i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . ( H a l l m a n , 1979, 1 2 6 ) . D e m o c r a t i c government and p l a n n e r s have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o e n c o u r a g e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , b o t h f o r the b e t t e r m e n t o f l o c a l d e c i s i o n making and t o s a t i s f y the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f d e m o c r a t i c p l a n n i n g programs (see Append ix B ) . L i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d i n C h a p t e r 3 s u p p o r t s t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s and s u g g e s t t h a t c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n can a l s o p r o v i d e the p l a n n e r w i t h p e r s o n a l d a t a on community g o a l s , v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s and p r e f eren*x.- ; . The c i t i z e n p o s s e s s e s a w e a l t h o f a d d i t i o n a l d a t a , e s p e c i a l l y i n r e g a r d t o h i s t o r y , and community v a l u e s and g o a l s . C i t i z e n s can a l s o i n t r o d u c e a c r e a t i v e e lement i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The p l a n n e r s compl iment the c i t i z e n ' s i n p u t w i t h t h e i r p r o c e s s knowledge and t e c h n i c a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s k i l l s . T h i s i n t e r a c t i o n - 8 6 -Figure 12: Recommended Continued C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n Model SUMS! 5& — r ^ /i A A ^ « ^ ^ UNCERTAIN -S-SENfrfU - 8 7 -b u i l d s a more r e s p o n s i v e and r e s p o n s i b l e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s as i t b r i n g s s o l u t i o n s t o p r e v a l e n t and impend ing p r o b l e m s . In C h a p t e r 3 the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d a s s i s t e d i n the deve lopment o f t h e o r y on e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . L i t e r a t u r e on n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n was not as t h o r o u g h l y r e v i e w e d f o r t h a t c i t i z e n ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Tha t c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s v a l u a b l e , i s a major p r e m i s e of t h i s t h e s i s . T h e r e f o r e , i n C h a p t e r 3 i t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t a model f o r e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Vancouver i s c o m p r i s e d of f o u r e l e m e n t s : 1) a c i v i c s t r a t e g y of c i t i z e n c o n s u l t a t i o n ; 2) a c i t i z e n a d v i s o r y l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; 3) a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c i t i z e n g r o u p p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e ; 4) an a r e a c o u n c i l s t r u c t u r e f o r the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e g r o u p t e c h n i q u e (see C h a p t e r 3 , s e c t i o n 3 . 1 0 ) . F u r t h e r , an e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n model must not o n l y f a c i l i t a t e a c o n t i n u o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o c e s s but a l s o must be a d a p t a b l e t o s p e c i f i c community v a r i a b l e s . The d i a g r a m on the p r e c e e d i n g page ( a l s o F i g u r e 5) i l l u s t r a t e s the recommended e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n m o d e l . In Vancouver the v a l u e of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s r e c o g n i z e d and t h e r e i s a commitment t o the c h a l l e n g e and enhancement o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the L . A . P . p r o c e s s . As e a r l y as 1973, p l a n n e r s i n Vancouver documented t h i s commitment . L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g i s not m e r e l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h p r o d u c i n g a p l a n f o r the a r e a , but an o n g o i n g p r o c e s s r e s p o n d i n g t o the i s s u e s of the l o c a l communi ty . A l t h o u g h a p l a n i s e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t t o s e r v e as a g u i d e f o r the f u t u r e of the a r e a , a h e a l t h y p r o c e s s which a l l o w s f o r m o d i f i c a t i o n and c o n t i n u o u s c i t i z e n i n p u t must be m a i n t a i n e d (Community P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n 1973, 1 0 ) . However , r e s e a r c h i n C h a p t e r 4 i n d i c a t e s t h a t no f i r m Vancouver p o l i c y e s t a b l i s h e s o r g a n i z e d c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a f t e r a community p l a n has been a d o p t e d . The g e n e r a l model f o r e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n as d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 3 e x i s t s d u r i n g the p l a n -88-c r e a t i o n s t a g e , but i s not m a i n t a i n e d d u r i n g the l o n g term p l a n i m p l m e n t a t i o n s t a g e u n l e s s i n i t i a t e d by i n d e p e n d e n t l o c a l a r e a c i t i z e n o r g a n i z a t i o n s who o f t e n o p e r a t e w i t h o u t c i v i c r e c o g n i t i o n . C i v i c r e c o g n i t i o n f a c i l i t a t e s a c c e s s t o the t e c h n i c a l and f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t t h a t i s e s s e n t i a l f o r e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . P r e s e n t l y , the V a n c o u v e r L . A . P . P e n d o r s e s the f i r s t t h r e e e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n e l e m e n t s d u r i n g the c r e a t i o n of the community p l a n . The Vancouver L . A . P . P . w i thdraws i t s r e c o g n i t i o n o f an i d e n t i f i e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e community g r o u p or a r e a c o u n c i l t o m o n i t o r the a r e a p l a n upon i t s a d o p t i o n . The c i t i z e n ' s p l a n n i n g commit tee d i s b a n d s as L . A . P . s t a f f s u p p o r t i s g r a d u a l l y w i thdrawn f rom the a r e a . A f t e r the p l a n has been a d o p t e d no r e p r e s e n t a t i v e g roup i n the community i s c o n s u l t e d as to the impact o f the p l a n . I f a g roup w i t h i n the l o c a l a r e a was r e c o g n i z e d as the body f o r c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n a f t e r a p l a n has been a d o p t e d and the f o u r t h e f f e c t i v e e lement would a l s o be r e a l i z e d . In C h a p t e r 5 , Mount P l e a s a n t was p r e s e n t e d as an example of a community a t S t a g e 4 , S t e p 4 i n the L . A . P . p r o c e s s (see F i g u r e 8, p . 6 0 ) . Mount P l e a s a n t i s c o n c e r n e d about the i s s u e of c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . D i s c u s s i o n s a r e p r e s e n t l y b e i n g h e l d as t o which group w i l l c o n t i n u e to communicate w i t h the L . A . P . Department upon c o m p l e t i o n o f the p l a n , what r e s o u r c e s w i l l be a v a i l a b l e t o a s s i s t them and what l e v e l o f r e c o g n i t i o n t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n e f f o r t s w i l l r e c e i v e f rom C i t y H a l l . In Mount P l e a s a n t a p p r o p r i a t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t e p s seem t o i n c l u d e amalgamat ion of the c i t i z e n s ' p l a n n i n g commit tee w i t h the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e Mount P l e a s a n t Ne ighbourhood A s s o c i a t i o n . I f the p l a n n i n g depar tment and C i t y C o u n c i l r e c o g n i z e the Mount P l e a s a n t N e i g h b o u r h o o d A s s o c i a t i o n as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the communi ty , the f o u r t h e lement o f the model would be a c h i e v e d . In the p a s t , s e v e r a l C . P . C . ' s have ama lga ted upon a d o p t i o n o f the p l a n . - 8 9 -These l o c a l a r e a o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n p l a n n i n g i s s u e s but have r e c e i v e d l i m i t e d r e c o g n i t i o n f rom c i t y c o u n c i l and f rom the p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t . In C h a p t e r f o u r , the r e v i e w of s e l e c t e d l o c a l a r e a s r e v e a l e d t h a t each l o c a l a r e a houses t h e i r a r e a o r g a n i z a t i o n i n d i f f e r e n t n e i g h b o u r h o o d s t r u c t u r e s . In M a r p o l e - O a k r i d g e the a r e a c o u n c i l o p e r a t e s under the a u s p i c e s o f the s e n i o r s c e n t e r , i n G r a n d v i e w - W o o d l a n d i t ' s the community c e n t e r and i n R i l e y Park i t ' s the N e i g h b o u r h o o d H o u s e . I t i s the a u t h o r ' s c o n c l u s i o n t h a t f o r m a l c i t y c o u n c i l r e c o g n i t i o n and s u p p o r t o f t h e s e l o c a l commi t tees c o u l d f a c i l i t a t e and s t r u c t u r e c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n would then c o n t i n u e t o be an e f f e c t i v e r e a l i t y a f t e r the community p l a n has been a d o p t e d , not j u s t d u r i n g the c r e a t i o n s t a g e of the p l a n d u r i n g the i n i t i a l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the p l a n or a t the s c e n e o f a major i s s u e . In summary the model t o be o u t l i n e d f o r V a n c o u v e r , e x i s t s g e n e r a l l y i n form but does not e x i s t i n f u n c t i o n . S t e p s t o e n s u r e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n must be t a k e n a t s t a g e 4 and s t a g e 5 of the L . A . P . p r o c e s s , (See F i g u r e 8, p . 6 0 ) . A c i v i c r e c o g n i t i o n p o l i c y f o r l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s can move r a t e - p a y e r s and o t h e r community a s s o c i a t i o n s f rom u n r e c o g n i z e d community o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o r e c o g n i z e d a r e a c o u n c i l s t r u c t u r e s . An a r e a c o u n c i l s t r u c t u r e i s u n d e r s t o o d h e r e t o be a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t has r e c e i v e d f o r m a l or i n f o r m a l r e c o g n i t i o n f rom c i t y c o u n c i l and t h a t has a c c e s s to t e c h n i c a l or f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s r e q u i r e d f o r e f f e c t i v e c o n t i n u o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . R a f t e r ' s r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s f o r m a l / i n f o r m a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f a c i t i z e n , not a c i v i c i n i t i a t e d a r e a c o m m i t t e e , b e s t implements the a d v i s o r y / c o n s u l t a t i o n l e v e l and model o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n a l r e a d y s u p p o r t e d i n V a n c o u v e r , ( R a f t e r , 1980 ) . The a r e a c o u n c i l s t r u c t u r e i s a p p r o p r i a t e i n V a n c o u v e r because i t g e n e r a l l y implements the p a r t i c i p a t i o n model a l r e a d y s u p p o r t e d i n Vancouver and i t can be a d a p t e d t o each s p e c i f i c l o c a l a r e a v a r i a b l e s . . How e f f e c t i v e the a r e a - 9 0 -c o u n c i l i s depends upon i t s a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s , t he e x i s t e n c e of the f o u r c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n model e l e m e n t s , and t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e L.A.P. program t o be aware of s p e c i f i c community v a r i a b l e s when i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e c o n t i n u o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n model. The implemented model f o r Vancouver t h e r e f o r e , must not o n l y meet e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n e l e m e n t s but must a l s o r e f l e c t t h e a b i l i t y t o d e a l w i t h t he range o f v a r i a b l e s i n each l o c a l a r e a community i n Vancouver. There a r e t h r e e p r o b a b l e c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n model a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r the Vancouver L.A.P.P. Only one a l t e r n a t i v e , when e v a l u a t e d a g a i n s t our e f f e c t i v e elements and when c o n s i d e r e d i n the c o n t e x t of t h i s t h e s i s r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s , b e s t meets the d e s i r e d g o a l of e f f e c t i v e c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e L.A.P. p r o c e s s . 6.3 L.A.P.P. Alt e r n a t i v e s The c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n model a l t e r n a t i v e s a r e : A. Continue with the planning program as i t has been developed; B . L e g i s l a t e area councils within each l o c a l area for the purpose of continuing c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the planning process; C. Develop a recognition p o l i c y for representative c i t i z e n s groups already e x i s t i n g within the l o c a l area, at stage 4, step 4 of the L.A.P.P. A. Continue with the planning program as i t has been developed. The L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g program approach g e n e r a l l y p r e c l u d e s t he d i s b a n d i n g o f the c i t i z e n ' s p l a n n i n g committee upon the c o m p l e t i o n o f the p l a n and a b e n i g n n e g l e c t a t t i t u d e towards c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the l o n g term m o n i t o r i n g of the a r e a p l a n . T h i s has been the case f o r most L.A.P. programs i n Vancouver. In most a r e a s , i n c l u d i n g Mount P l e a s a n t , c o n c e r n i s e x p r e s s e d about the d i s c o n t i n u a t i o n of the C.P.C. I n many i n s t a n c e s , t he C.P.C.'s have -91-amalgamated w i t h an e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t has a g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t i n the m o n i t o r i n g of t h e community p l a n ' s i m p a c t . However, t h i s i n f o r m a l a c t i v i t y does not e n s u r e t h e p r e s e n c e of t h e f o u r e f f e c t i v e e l ements of ( c o n t i n u e d ) c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . - F u r t h e r , the p r e s e n t L.A.P. s t r a t e g y of b e n i g n n e g l e c t i n r e g a r d s t o c i t i z e n c o n s u l t a t i o n i n t h e l o n g term i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and m o n i t o r i n g s t a g e s of the L.A.P.P. has met w i t h o p p o s i t i o n i n l o c a l a r e a s such as Grandview-Woodland and K i t s i l a n o . The p r e s e n t L.A.P. s t r a t e g y l e a v e s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h t h e community, and does not e ncourage, f a c i l i t a t e or smooth t h e t r a n s i t i o n from p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h r o u g h the C.P.C. d u r i n g t h e L.A.P. program p l a n c r e a t i o n s t a g e t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n d u r i n g the l o n g term p l a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t a g e . T h e r e f o r e , s t r a t e g y A w i l l not meet th e o b j e c t i v e s of c o n t i n u e d e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n as i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 4. B L e g i s l a t e area councils within each l o c a l area for the purpose of continuing c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the planning process. G i v e n t h a t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s seen as not o n l y a means f o r i n c r e a s e d p l a n n i n g e f f i c i e n c y , but t h a t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s seen t o f u r t h e r democracy, some form of c i t i z e n c o n t r o l i n the d e c i s i o n s t h a t a f f e c t t h e i r l i v e s i s e s s e n t i a l . Complete c i t i z e n c o n t r o l , or community government i s not p o s s i b l e i n our Canadian d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y . The h i g h e s t l e v e l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h a t can be a t t a i n e d i s a degree of p a r t n e r s h i p and t h i s can o n l y be a c h e i v e d by f o r m a l c o u n c i l r e c o g n i t i o n , e l e c t e d community r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and r e s o u r c e a c c e s s . The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e t h a t has a l l t h r e e e l ements and t h a t can be adapted t o s p e c i f i c community needs i s an a r e a c o u n c i l . The above a l t e r n a t i v e c o u l d be s e l e c t e d but a c c o r d i n g t o the n i n e -92-community v a r i a b l e s t h a t must be c o n s i d e r e d ( c h a p t e r 3 ) , the e x i s t i n g l e a d e r s h i p s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n the community must be r e c o g n i z e d . Imposed community o r g a n i z a t i o n i s l i k e l y t o meet w i t h s t r o n g o p p o s i t i o n . When e x i s t i n g r e s p e c t e d community o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s a r e r e c o g n i z e d , c o n t i n u e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n becomes more v i a b l e and f e a s i a b l e t h a n i f community o r g a n i z a t i o n i s l e g i s l a t e d . The G r a n d v i e w / W o o d l a n d A r e a C o u n c i l i s a good example of an e x i s t i n g community o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t would more e f f e c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i f i t r e c e i v e d c i v i c r e c o g n i t i o n and s u p p o r t . C. Develop a recognition policy for a representative citizens group already existing within the local area. In Mount P l e a s a n t , the Mount P l e a s a n t N e i g h b o u r h o o d A s s o c i a t i o n ( M . P . N . A . ) i s c o n s i d e r i n g i n c r e a s i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and amalgamat ing w i t h the c i t i z e n p l a n n i n g commit tee t o become the Mount P l e a s a n t A r e a C o u n c i l . As an a r e a c o u n c i l , the M . P . N . A . would f a c i l i t a t e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . C i v i c r e c o g n i t i o n , and monetary and t e c h n i c a l s u p p o r t c o u l d p r o v i d e the n e c e s s a r y impetus f o r c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Eugene , Oregon has s u c h a p o l i c y and i t can be r e v i e w e d i n Append ix B. P l a n n e r s do not have t o remain i n the a r e a , but r e g u l a r a c c e s s t o p l a n n e r s ' t e c h n i c a l a d v i c e and a c c e s s t o government o p e r a t i o n a l g r a n t s and t o o t h e r community g roup f a c i l i t i e s s u c h as o f f i c e s p a c e , would be more r e a l i s t i c i f o f f i c i a l s t a t u s was g r a n t e d t o an e x i s t i n g c i t i z e n s g r o u p . To implement the a b o v e , S t e p 4 , o r g a n i z e d c o n t i n u e d community p a r t i c i p a t i o n must be added t o L . A . P . S t a g e 4 (see F i g u r e 8 ) . F u r t h e r , i n S t a g e 5 ( S t e p 3 ) L . A . P . s t a f f must work t o smooth the t r a n s i t i o n f rom the c i t i z e n commit tee p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t r u c t u r e i n the p l a n c r e a t i o n s t a g e t o the a r e a c o u n c i l p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t r u c t u r e i n the l o n g term p l a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t a g e . T h i s a r e a c o u n c i l s t r u c t u r e must be a d a p t e d t o e x i s t i n g l o c a l a r e a community o r g a n i z a t i o n . The s e l e c t i o n of A l t e r n a t i v e C i s s u p p o r t e d by t h e s i s r e s e a r c h and more s p e c i f i c a l l y by o b s e r v a t i o n s f rom the Mount P l e a s a n t Case S tudy ( C h a p t e r 5). In C h a p t e r 5, i t was o b s e r v e d t h a t f o r an o r g a n i z a t i o n t o c o n t i n u e t o e f f e c t i v e l y m o n i t o r the p l a n ' s impact on the communi ty , c i v i c r e c o g n i t i o n and s u p p o r t i s r e q u i r e d . C h a p t e r 5 a l s o i l l u s t r a t e d the need t o s t r e n g t h e n e x i s t i n g community o r g a n i z a t i o n s b e f o r e c r e a t i n g new s t r u c t u r e s , and the need t o d e v e l o p p a r t i c i p a t i o n programs t h a t can be a d a p t e d t o community v a r i a b l e s . E v a l u a t i o n A l t e r n a t i v e C , as i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e 4, a c h i e v e s the h i g h e s t s c o r e . A l t e r n a t i v e A does not f o r m a l l y f a c i l i t a t e e f f e c t i v e c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and t h e r e f o r e , i t can not s c o r e as h i g h . A l t e r n a t i v e B , w h i l e i t may f a c i l i t a t e c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , would not be as a d a p t a b l e t o i n d i v i d u a l community v a r i a b l e s as an a l t e r n a t i v e . A l t e r n a t i v e C f o r m a l l y f a c i l i t a t e s c o n t i n u e d e f f e c t i v e c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and i s a d a p t a b l e t o community v a r i a b l e s . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n p a r a l l e l s the r e s u l t s of R a f t e r ' s s t u d y which i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n f o r m a l or f o r m a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f e x i s t i n g community g r o u p s was the most e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n m o d e l . Ha l lman a l s o a d v o c a t e s the need t o back e x i s t i n g l e a d e r s h i p . -94-TABLE 4: VANCOUVER CONTINUED CIT IZEN PARTICIPATION MODEL EVALUATION F a c i l i t a t e s C o n t i n u e d C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n A d a p t a b i l i t y t o Community V a r i a b l e s A d v i s o r y L e v e l C o n s u l t a t i o n S t r a t e g y R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Group T e c h n i q u e A r e a C o u n c i l S t r u c t u r e A l t e r n a t i v e A l t e r n a t i v e A B L . A . P . L e g i s l a t e Program A r e a C o u n c i l E x i s t i n g Commin i ty r e m a i n s as i s A l t e r n a t i v e C R e c o g n i z e on xxx xxx xx xxx xx xxx O r g a n i z a t i o n xxx xxx X X xxx X X xxx TOTAL 5 13 16 KEY no impact x l e s s impact xx l i m i t e d impact xxx g r e a t e s t impact 6.4 Mechanism f o r I n s t i t u t i n g S e l e c t e d A l t e r n a t i v e A n e i g h b o u r h o o d o r g a n i z a t i o n r e c o g n i t i o n p o l i c y must be a d o p t e d by the m u n i c i p a l i t y . T h i s p o l i c y w i l l s t a t e the c r i t e r i a and g u i d e l i n e s f o r c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . In a s t u d y (1975) o f 30 p l a n n i n g l o c a l i t i e s , Ha l lman s t a t e d t h a t members o f a r e a c o u n c i l s can r e f l e c t the o p i n i o n s and p e r s p e c t i v e s p a r a l l e l e d by the p u b l i c ( H a l l m a n , 1984, 2 5 1 ) . I n t e g r a t i n g t h e s e b o d i e s i n t o t h e l o c a l government p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s s t r e n g t h e n s the l o c a l s o c i a l f a b r i c and enhances the sense of i d e n t i t y w i t h the communi ty . O r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e s e c o u n c i l s can be government or c i t i z e n i n i t i a t e d . The l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s t h a t the most e f f e c t i v e t o o l f o r - 9 5 -o r g a n i z a t i o n i s r e c o g n i t i o n o f community i n i t i a t e d a r e a c o u n c i l s . A g u i d e f o r m u n i c i p a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f neighbourhood o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s found i n Appendix C. The Vancouver neighbourhood group r e c o g n i t i o n p o l i c y must i n c l u d e : 1) c r i t e r i a and p r o c e d u r e s f o r l o c a l a r e a group r e c o g n i t i o n s e l e c t i o n ; 2) f u n c t i o n s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e neighborhood a r e a c o u n c i l ; 3) f u n c t i o n s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of t h e c i t y i n response t o t h e neighbourhood a r e a c o u n c i l . The recommended p a r t i c i p a t i o n model w i l l r e q u i r e r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the e x i s t i n g p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s (see F i g u r e 1 5 ) . The Vancouver p a r t i c i p a t i o n model w i l l remain t h e same d u r i n g t h e p l a n c r e a t i o n s t a g e but w i l l change d u r i n g t h e l o n g term p l a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t a g e . The c i v i c s t r a t e g y o f c o n s u l t a t i o n w i l l now h o l d t r u e f o r b o t h the p l a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and c r e a t i o n s t a g e as w i l l t he r e p r e s e n t a t i v e group t e c h n i q u e and a d v i s o r y l e v e l o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The r e c o g n i t i o n of an a r e a c o u n c i l s t r u c t u r e i n the p l a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t a g e w i l l move the Vancouver model of p a r t i c i p a t i o n c l o s e r t o t h e c i t i z e n spokesman model. A d v i s o r y model p r e s e n t l y a d v o c a t e d by t h e Vancouver P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t / C i v i c H a l l can c o n t i n u e t o o p e r a t e d u r i n g the p l a n c r e a t i o n s t a g e o f the L.A.P.P. (see F i g u r e 6 ) . The i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s c i v i c model change a r e t h a t d u r i n g t h e l o n g term p l a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t a g e , t h e r e w i l l be c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i n d e p e n d e n t from a c i v i c department. The s u c c e e d i n g d i a g r a m i l l u s t r a t e s , t h a t as i n Washington, D.C, the C.P.C. e x i s t s d u r i n g a p l a n c r e a t i o n s t a g e and amalgamates w i t h an e x i s t i n g community o r g a n i z a t i o n upon a d o p t i o n o f the p l a n . E v e r y few y e a r s , a r e v i e w o f the a r e a p l a n c o u l d i n i t i a t e a new C.P.C, which would t h e n once a g a i n r e t u r n t o the A r e a C o u n c i l upon c o m p l e t i o n of the r e v i e w program. - 9 6 -FIGURE 13: Proposed Model for Continued L.A.P. Citizen Participati on ^ ? 5 f W v 6tBJuf*>/lHPlVlDuA^ - -—SIR £.P.£. S T — cmr33ncir*)y A P P E A L S T E ^ '1 Z1 '-i ^ ^ ^Ntee-A)N tjTEEK/firTH - 9 7 -6. 5 F i n a n c i a l Considerations Legal r e c o g n i t i o n must be backed with t e c h n i c a l as w e l l as f i n a n c i a l resources. The planning department could provide l i m i t e d t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e and p e r i o d i c workshop sessions on how to resolve issues of common concern. F i n a n c i a l resource needs can be kept at a minimum by encouraging the community or g a n i z a t i o n s that are represented by the area c o u n c i l to donate support as discussed i n the Mount Pleasant example. This support can include meeting space and o f f i c e resources. Support of the community o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l be ea s i e r to s o l i c i t i f c i v i c r e c o g n i t i o n has already been granted, as w i l l grant monies f o r p r o j e c t s a l s o be more obt a i n a b l e . 6.6 Consultation Process C o n s u l t a t i o n must begin w i t h i n the l o c a l area i t s e l f . An e f f o r t must be made by the p o t e n t i a l area c o u n c i l to meet the c i t y r e c o g n i t i o n c r i t e r i a , i n c r e a s i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and developing appropriate by-laws. A sample area c o u n c i l by-law i s found i n Appendix A. An area c o u n c i l or c i t i z e n s c o u n c i l g e n e r a l l y has a large membership, represents a broad range of people, ages, i n t e r e s t groups, employment c a t e g o r i e s , ethnic groups and requires a s s i s t a n c e from p u b l i c agency s t a f f and p r o f e s s i o n a l groups i n terms of meeting space and p u b l i c a t i o n c o s t s . The major d i f f e r e n c e between the proposed area c o u n c i l and e x i s t i n g c i t i z e n s advisory committees or a s s o c i a t i o n s i s the re p r e s e n t a t i o n , c i v i c r e c o g n i t i o n and support, continued operation and i n t e r e s t i n planning i s s u e s . These area c o u n c i l s , as discussed e a r l i e r may be independent or a component of an e x i s t i n g community o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r example, a Neighbourhood House. The c r u c i a l concept i s that there i s a re p r e s e n t a t i v e group that i s recognized as having w i t h i n i t s -98-mandate the f u n c t i o n of m o n i t o r i n g t h e impact of the l o c a l a r e a p l a n . 6.7 Conclusions The v a l u e p o s i t i o n of the a u t h o r r e s t s on the f o u n d a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s . The f o u n d a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s i s the i d e o l o g y t h a t c e n t r a l t o the t h e o r y of democracy i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e government, e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s , o b s e r v a n c e of the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t and p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s of c o n t r o l . The i s s u e of s p e c i f i c models f o r c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n or c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e d e c i s i o n s t h a t a f f e c t t h e i r l i v e s has been debated and r e v i e w e d e x t e n s i v e l y i n t h e l a s t two decades. C i t y P l a n n i n g Departments have i n c o r p o r a t e d v a r i o u s p o s i t i o n s on c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I n Vancouver, the L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g Program g o a l i s t o f a c i l i t a t e c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t or p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The L.A.P.P g e n e r a l l y i n v o l v e s an o n - s i t e o f f i c e f o r s e l e c t e d p l a n n i n g s t a f f and a c i t i z e n p l a n n i n g committee ( C . P . C ) . The C.P.C. works w i t h the p l a n n i n g s t a f f t o d e v e l o p a p l a n f o r t h e i r a r e a . Once the p l a n i s adopted by c i t y c o u n c i l , t h e p l a n n i n g s t a f f c l o s e t h e i r a r e a s i t e o f f i c e and r e t u r n t o C i t y H a l l t o c o n t r o l the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n phase of the p l a n . The C.P.C e v e n t u a l l y d i s b a n d s , or d i s o l v e s . Many c i t i z e n s and p l a n n e r s i n Vancouver l o c a l a r e a s a r e c o n c e r n e d as t o whether a c i t i z e n o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l c o n t i n u e t o m o n i t o r the p l a n ' s impact on the l o c a l a r e a d u r i n g t h e l o n g term p l a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t a g e of t h e L.A.P.P. There a r e a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s t h a t c o u l d be implemented t o e n s u r e c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . An e v a l u a t i o n of t h r e e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n a l t e r n a t i v e s l e d t o the s e l e c t i o n of an o p t i o n t h a t a p p ears t o a l r e a d y be s e t i n m o t i o n i n many l o c a l a r e a s i n Vancouver. The C.P.C can be encouraged t o amalgamate w i t h an e x i s t i n g community o r g a n i z a t i o n . C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n c r e a t i o n -99-s t a g e of the L . A . P . P . can be c a r r i e d t h r o u g h i n t o the l o n g term p l a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t a g e i f the C i t y C o u n c i l p a s s e s s a r e c o g n i t i o n p o l i c y t h a t i n v o l v e s f a c i l i t a t i n g a c c e s s t o t e c h n i c a l and f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f o r an e x i s t i n g l o c a l a r e a g r o u p i n t e r e s t e d i n ' p a r t i c i p a t o r y ' a r e a p l a n m o n i t o r i n g . T h i s s e l e c t e d a l t e r n a t i v e meets the o v e r a l l g o a l of c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n as i t a l s o c o n s i d e r s s p e c i f i c community v a r i a b l e s and the e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n e l e m e n t s . E f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s c o m p r i s e d o f f o u r e l e m e n t s : 1. an a d v i s o r y l e v e l o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; 2. a c i v i c c o n s u l t a t i o n s t r a t e g y ; 3. a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c i t i z e n group p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e ; 4. an a r e a c o u n c i l s t r u c t u r e f o r c i t i z e n group t e c h n i q u e ; L i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s t h a t e f f e c t i v e community o r g a n i z a t i o n s r e q u i r e t e c h n i c a l and f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t as w e l l as o f f i c i a l c i v i c r e c o g n i t i o n . W i t h o u t t h e s e s u p p o r t e l e m e n t s the o r g a n i z a t i o n i s an a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h l i m i t e d impact and not an a r e a c o u n c i l w i t h a p o t e n t i a l t o r e p r e s e n t the community on p l a n n i n g c o n c e r n s . C i v i c r e c o g n i t i o n c o u l d be c u l t i v a t e d w i t h the a i d o f the C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . The P l a n n i n g Department has a l r e a d y i l l u s t r a t e d i t s s u p p o r t o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community p l a n n i n g t h r o u g h i t s L . A . P . P . T h i s t h e s i s a d v o c a t e s s l i g h t changes t o the L . A . P . P . , and t o the Vancouver c i v i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n model so t h a t e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n V a n c o u v e r ' s L . A . P . P . w i l l be a c o n t i n u e d r e a l i t y . Wi th the recommended c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o c e s s a l r e a d y b e g i n n i n g i n Mount P l e a s a n t and o t h e r l o c a l a r e a s , a Vancouver p o l i c y r e s p o n s e i s a l l t h a t i s r e q u i r e d t o e n s u r e t h a t e f f e c t i v e c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Vancouver becomes a v i a b l e l o n g term c o n c e p t . -100-F i n a l l y , i t must be s t a t e d t h a t the a u t h o r of t h i s t h e s i s r e a l i z e s t h a t t h e r e may be weaknesses i n the c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendat ions of t h i s t h e s i s . It i s hoped t h a t r e a d e r s w i l l not view any weaknesses as a l i m i t a t i o n of t h i s document but t h a t r e a d e r s w i l l r e c o g n i z e the f o l l o w i n g as o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h : how can p l a n n e r s e n s u r e t h a t the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g group r e t a i n s an adequate r e f l e c t i o n of the community; what i s the minimum energy r e q u i r e d to keep a community group a c t i v e i n t h e i r wa tch -dog community r o l e ; a n d , i s the a d v o c a t e d e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n model c o s t - e f f e c t i v e ? A l l t h r e e i s s u e s a r e t h e s i s t o p i c s i n t h e m s e l v e s and have not been d e a l t w i t h f u l l y h e r e . . Hav ing s t a t e d t h i s , the t h e s i s recommendat ions may be summarized as f o l l o w s . - 1 0 1 -6.8 Recommendat i ons A model f o r c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n must r e f l e c t each e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n e l e m e n t ; have c o n t i n u e d components s u c h as a c c e s s t o t e c h n i c a l r e s o u r c e s ; and be a d a p t a b l e t o s p e c i f i c community v a r i a b l e s . In the V a n c o u v e r L . A . P . P s u c h a model i s i n e x i s t e n c e w i t h s l i g h t r e v i s i o n s . R e v i s i o n s i n c l u d e i m p l e m e n t i n g S t a g e 4, s t e p 4 i n the L . A . P . p r o c e s s . I t i s recommended t h a t L . A . P . P . s t a f f a s s i s t the community i n o r g a n i z i n g c o n t i n u e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r i o r t o d i s b a n d i n g the C . P . C . T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n s h o u l d i n v o l v e amalgamat ing the C . P . C . w i t h an e x i s t i n g l o c a l a r e a o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t i s i n t e r e s t e d i n p l a n m o n i t o r i n g . In a d d i t i o n , i n S t a g e 5 o f t h e L . A . P . P . , e f f o r t s must be made by p l a n n i n g s t a f f t o smooth the n e c e s s a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n t r a n s i t i o n . F u r t h e r , C i t y H a l l must r e c o g n i z e the new p a r t i c i p a t i n g body as a spokesman f o r the community and c o n s u l t w i t h t h i s community g roup on r e l e v a n t p l a n n i n g i s s u e s . To e n s u r e c o n t i n u e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n , c i v i c r e c o g n i t i o n o f the p a r t i c i p a t i n g g r o u p must be f o r m a l i z e d and l o c a l a r e a p l a n s must be r e v i e w e d by p l a n n i n g s t a f f e v e r y few y e a r s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e recommended t h a t the C i t y o f Vancouver adopt a model -f o r i t s L . A . P . P t h a t f a c i l i t a t e s e f f e c t i v e c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n by D e v e l o p i n g a R e c o g n i t i o n P o l i c y f o r a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c i t i z e n s g r o u p s a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g w i t h i n a l o c a l a r e a t h a t when p o s s i b l e i n c l u d e s ama lgamat ing t h e c i t i z e n s p l a n n i n g commi t tee w i t h t h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c i t i z e n s g r o u p . The Vancouver n e i g h b o r h o o d group r e c o g n i t i o n p o l i c y must : 1) r e f l e c t our c o n t i n u e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n e f f e c t i v e e l e m e n t s ; 2) s t a t e c r i t e r i a and p r o c e d u r e s f o r l o c a l a r e a c o u n c i l r e c o g n i t i o n s e l e c t i o n ; 3) d e v e l o p f u n c t i o n s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the r e c o g n i z e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d or a r e a c o u n c i l ; 4) d e v e l o p r e s p o n d i n g f u n c t i o n s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r the Vancouver C i t y and c i v i c s t a f f . -101 A -BIBLIOGRAPHY A n t o f t , K. e d i t o r (1977) A guide to l o c a l government i n Nova S c o t i a . H a l i f a x , Canada: The I n s t i t u t e of P u b l i c A f f a i r s , Dalhousie U n i v e r s i t y . Anderson, Grant (1977) "Local Area Planning: The Dream and the R e a l i t y " C i t y  Magazine, 11:7, pp35-43. A r n s t e i n , S. (1969) "A Ladder of C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n " Journal of American  I n s t i t u t e of Planners. V o l . 35. No. 4. B a i l e y , J . (1975) S o c i a l Theory f o r Planning, Routledge and Kegan P a u l , London. Baltimore C i t y Planning Commission/Department of Planning (1985) Guide to  Baltimore C i t y Department of Planning. May 1985 Baltmore, Maryland. Benwall, Mary (1979) Four Models of P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n S t r u c t u r a l  Planning. CTS Report No. 4. Blunden, Roy (B-Feb. 1978). A L e t t e r to LAP from the Grandview-Woodland C i t i z e n s Planning Committee. Brown, D. (1972) "The Management of Advisory Committees: An Assignment f o r the 70's", P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Review, Volume 32, No. 4 (July/August 1972). Burke, M.E. (1979) A P a r t i c i p a t o r y Approach to Urban Planning. New York: Human Sciences Press. C i t y of Eugene, Oregon (1983) Eugene Neighbourhood Organization Recognition  P o l i c y (with g u i d e l i n e s ) R e s o l u t i o n No. 3746. C i t y of Eugene Planning Department (1984/1985) C i t y C i t i z e n Involvement Program  for 1984/1985. C i t y of Eugene. C i t y of Toronto Planning Board (January 18, 1982) Discussion Paper on P u b l i c  P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Planning. C i t y of Toronto Planning and Development Department. C i t y of Toronto Planning Board(March 8, 1985)Working Committee G u i d e l i n e s . C i t y of Vancouver Planning Department (Nov. 27, 1973). West End Plan Second  D r a f t . Vancouver, B.C. C i t y of Vancouver Planning Department (Nov. 1977). The K i t s i l a n o Neighborhood  Plan. Vancouver, B.C. C i t y of Vancouver Planning Department (December, 1977) Understanding Vancouver. Vancouver, B.C. C i t y of Vancouver Planning Department (Oct. 1979) The Marpole P l a n . Vancouver, B.C. C i t y of Vancouver Planning Department (Feb. 1980) Marpole Plan: Summary Vancouver, B.C. C i t y of Vancouver Planning Department (Oct. 1980) The F i r s t Shaughnessy Plan. -102-Vancouver, B.C. C i t y of Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department (1980) "A Look a t C u r r e n t Trends and t h e i r I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Vancouver" Q u a r t e r l y Review Volume 7, Num 4, October 1980. C i t y of Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department ( A p r i l 1982) Grandview-Woodland A r e a  P o l i c y P l a n P a r t 2: Commercial D r i v e . Vancouver, B.C. C i t y o f Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department ( A p r i l 1983) Grandview-Woodland A r e a  P o l i c y P l a n : P a r t 3: B r i t t a n i a A r e a P l a n . Vancouver, B.C. C i t y o f Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department (March 1985) H a s t i n g s S u n r i s e P l a n D r a f t . V a n couver, B.C. 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(1978) E x p e c t a t i o n : The S i t u a t i o n o f the L o c a l A r e a P l a n n e r i n  Vancouver, M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , S c h o o l of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g . D a v i d o f f (1965) "Advocacy and P l u r a l i s m i n P l a n n i n g " J o u r n a l of t h e American  I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , 31, No. 4 (Nov); pp331-338. Downs, M a r t i n and Smeyak (1980) P r o f e s s i o n a l I n t e r v i e w i n g , New Y o r k , Harp and Row P u b l i s h e r s . D r a p e r , J.A. (Ed.) ( 1 9 7 1 ) , C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Canada. T o r o n t o : New P r e s s . -103-Egan, M. (177) S o c i a l P l a n n i n g i n Vancouver. P l a n Canada, June, 1977. E x f o r d R e s e a r c h C o - o r d i n a t o r (1976) Documentation and A n a l y s i s of Development  Programs i n Canada. F o r e s t e r , John (1980) " C r i t i c a l Theory and P l a n n i n g P r a c t i c e " JAPA V o l . 46, No. 3. F r a s e r , Graham (1972) F i g g i n g Back: Urban Renewal i n T r e f f a n C o u r t , H a k k e r t , T o r o n t o . Friedman (1973) "The T r a n s a c t i v e S t y l e of P l a n n i n g " from R e t r a c t i n g A m e r i c a : A  Theory of T r a n s a c t i v e P l a n n i n g , Anchor P r e s s , New York. G u r r e t t e , D.A. (1980 Neighbourhood Improvement Programs M.A. T h e s i s , UBC, S c h o o l of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g . Hallman (1977) The O r g a n i z a t i o n and O p e r a t i o n of Neighborhood C o u n c i l s : A  P r a c t i c a l G u i d e , P r a e r g e r P u b l i s h e r s , New Y o r k . H a l l m a n , H. (1984) Neighbourhood t h e i r p l a c e i n Urban L i f e . London: Sage L i b r a r y of S o c i a l R e s e a r c h . Volume 154. Jones and S m i t h , e d i t o r s , (1981) D e p r i v a t i o n , P a r t i c i p a t i o n and Community  A c t i o n . R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , London. - K a l t o n , G and C A . Moser (1972) Survey Methods i n S o c i a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n , 2nd ed. New Y o r k : B a s i c Books, I n c . P u b l i s h e r s . K a s p e r s o n (1974) "Dancing on a F e d e r a l S t r i n g " i n K. Kasperson and M. B r e i b a r t , e d i t o r s , P a r t i c i p a t i o n , D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and Advocacy P l a n . A s s o c i a t i o n of American G e o g r a p h e r s , Washington. Land Use Committee ( F e b r u a r y 9, 1983) O f f i c i a l P l a n n i n g S t a t e m e n t s on P u b l i c  P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n P l a n n i n g and t h e R o l e and F u n c t i o n s of the C i t y o f T o r o n t o  P l a n n i n g Board. T o r o n t o , O n t a r i o , Canada (memo). L i n i n g e r , C and D Warwick (1979) The Sample S u r v e y : Theory and P r a c t i c e New York: M c G r a w - H i l l Book Co. L o r i m e r , J . ( 1 9 7 2 ) . A C i t i z e n s Guide t o C i t y P o l i t i c s . T o r o n t o : James and Lewis and Samuel. Model C i t i e s Management S e r i e s (1971) "The A d m i n i s t r a t i v e A s p e c t s of Model C i t i e s " C i t i z e n ' s O r g a n i z a t i o n a B u l l e t i n . No. 6 D e p a r t , of Housing and Urban Develop. Wash. D.C. Needleman, M and C E . Needleman (1974) G u e r i l l a s i n the B u r e a u c r a c y : The Community P l a n n i n g E x p e r i m e n t i n t h e U.S., John W i l e y , New Y o r k . Nowlan D. and Nowlan, W. (1970) . The U n t o l d S t o r y of t h e S p a d i n a Expressway. T o r o n t o : New P r e s s P l a n n i n g A d v i s o r y Committee (December 17, 1984). Working Committee G u i d e l i n e s memo t o P l a n n i n g A d v i s o r y Committee, T o r o n t o , O n t a r i o / C a n a d a . -104-C Rafter (1980) "Neighbourhood Planning: Arnstein's Ladder Applied" APA  Planning, V. 46, No. 1. Schmandt, H. (1972) "Municipal Decentralization: An Overview" in Public  Administration Review Oct., No. 32, Special Issue. Scott, 0. (1985) "Streets Turn mean", The Province Sunday, March 17, p. 21. Seebaron, Roop (1979) Community Work in Vancouver:" Current Trends U.B.C. School of Community Work. Sharpe, L.J. (1976) "Theories of Local Government" in Politics and Government  of Urban Canada: Selected Readings edited by Feldman and Goldrick, Toronto, Methoen. Sorkin (1981) The Community Development Strategies Evaluation: A Local  Government Perspective. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Steering Committee and Department of Planning .(1979) A Community Working Together: Final Report: The Cold Spring Charrette City of Baltmore, Maryland. Styles (1974) "Public Participation: A Reconsideration" Journal. TP1. Tennant, P. (1981) "Vancouver Civic Politics 1929 - 1980". Politics and  Government of Urban Canada: Selected Readings/Fourth Edition Edited by Lionel D. Feldman Toronto: Methoen Trecker, H. (1970) Citizen Boards at Work New Challenges to Effective Action. Association Press, NY United Community Services of the Greater Vancouver Area(1973)Supplementary  Brief to the Public Hearings On Social Service Organizations in the City of  Vancouver. Vancouver City Planning Department (1977) Local Area Planning: A Review, January, Vancouver, British Columbia. Vancouver City Planning Department (October, 1980) Q a r t e r l y Review. Volume 7, Number 4. Vancouver City Planning Department (1983) Local Area Planning, June, Vancouver, British Columbia. - 1 0 5 -LIST OF INTERVIEWS I n t e r v i e w w i t h G e r r y Z i p u r s k y , Mount P l e a s a n t Neighborhood House, Vancouver, Feb. 1985 I n t e r v i e w w i t h D a v i d A d a i r , Mount P l e a s a n t Neighborhood House, Vancouver, Feb. 1985 I n t e r v i e w w i t h V a l A n d e r s o n , Grace M e m o r i a l , U n i t e d C h u r c h , V a n c o u v e r , Feb. 1985 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Nancy Mc K e n z i e , H e r i t a g e H a l l , V ancouver, Feb. 1985 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Tom P h i p p s , L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g Vancouver, Vancouver, Feb. 1985 I n t e r v i e w w i t h L a r r y B e a s l e y , L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g V a ncouver, Vancouver, Feb. 1985 I n t e r v i e w w i t h K a r i H u h t a l a , LAP Mount P l e a s a n t , Vancouver, Feb. 1985 I n t e r v i e w w i t h B i l l Wood, MPNA, Mount P l e a s a n t , Vancouver, Feb. 1985 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Derek Murphy, Canada Works P r o j e c t - S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , E. Vancouver, Vancouver, Feb. 1985 I n t e r v i e w w i t h C h a r l i e C u z z e t t o , Mount P l e a s a n t Community C e n t e r , Vancouver, Feb. 1985 I n t e r v i e w w i t h R i c k S e o b i e , L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g , Vancouver, Feb. 1985 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Susan A n d e r s o n , S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , Vancouver, Feb. 1985 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Nathon E d e l s o n , L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g , Vancouver, Feb. 1985 I n t e r v i e w w i t h H a l Gray, L i t t l e M o u n tain Neighborhood House, Vancouver, Feb. 1985 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mark Brown, Ward P l a n n e r , June 1985, Washington, D.C. I n t e r v i e w w i t h Dr. Howard M a l l e k , West 7 t h K i t s i l a n o C i t i z e n s P l a n n i n g Committee, Vancouver, 6 Nov. 1985 I n t e r v i e w w i t h R. H. B l u n d e n , 2045 E. Broadway, Grandview-Woodlands, C i t i z e n P l a n n i n g Committee, Vancouver, 5 Nov. 1985. I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mary B o s z e , 2155 W i l l o w Dr., Grandview-Woodlnd A r e a C o u n c i l , V a n couver, March 1985. I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mary A r m s t r o n g , 8565 Shaughnessy, M a r p o l e - O a k r i d g e A r e a C o u n c i l , V ancouver, March 1985. I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mary O l i v i e r i , H a s t i n g - S u n r i s e C i t i z e n A d v i s o r y Committee, Vancouver, 2 Nov. 1985. I n t e r v i e w w i t h M i c h a e l Gordon, L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g , Vancouver, 22 Oct. 1985. -106-Interview with Nancy T i l s o n , West End Citizens Advisory Committee, Vancouver, 5 Nov. 1985. Interview with Evelyn Mackay, Shaughnessy Property Owners and Tenants Association, Vancouver, 6 Nov. 1985. Interview with Staff Person, Toronto Planning Department, March 1986. Interview with Linda C h a l l i s , Central Area Planning, Vancouver, March 1986. Interview with Craig Rowland, Local Area Planning, Vancouver, 6 Nov. 1985. Interview with Joanne Leithead, Local Area Planning, Vancouver, 5 Nov. 1985. -107-Appendices APPENDIX A AREA COUNCIL BY-LAW EXAMPLE (These are the Bylaws of a highly successful community con c i l that has been in continuous operation in Norman, Oklahoma, since September 1959) ARTICLE 1 NAME Section 1 - The name of t h i s organization s h a l l be the CIVIC IMPROVEMENT COUNCIL OF NORMAN. Section 2 - This organization s h a l l be an uniincorporated a s s o c i a t i o n , conducting i t s p r i n c i p a l a c t i v i t i e s within the c i t y of Norman, Oklahoma. ARTICLE II OBJECTIVE Section 1 - The fundamental purpose of t h i s organization s h a l l be to work for the continued improvement of a l l aspects of the community of Norman, Oklahoma. Section 2 - It s h a l l be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of t h i s organization to receive f a c t u a l information pertaining to various problems, to make recommendations, and to a s s i s t in the presentation and communication of these facts and recommendations to a l l c i t i z e n s of the community. ARTICLE III - LIMITATION OF METHODS Section 1 - The Council s h a l l be nonpartisan and nonsectarian and s h a l l take no part i n or lend i t s influence or f a c i l i t i e s , e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , to the nomination, e l e c t i o n or appointment of any candidate for o f f i c e i n c i t y , county, state or nation. ARTICLE IV - MEMBERSHIP a l l functioning c i v i c . Section 1 - Membership in the organization i s open to service and community groups who desire to work for betterment of the Norman community. Each p a r t i c i p a t i n g group s h a l l s e l e c t three members (one of whom must be the president or his designated representative) to serve as members of the organization. Section 2 - The membership committee s h a l l make recommendations to the board o f d i r e c t o r s as to a d d i t i o n a l c i t i z e n s whom i t regards as worthy of membership at large. The board of d i r e c t o r s may extend i n v i t a t i o n s to such recommended c i t i z e n s to become m e m b e r s at large of the c o u n c i l . The term o f membership of a member at large s h a l l be for one year unless s u c h membership be renewed by i n v i t a t i o n of the board of d i r e c t o r s , and such renewal s h a l l only be authorized by the board of d i r e c t o r s a f t e r recommendation by the membership committee. Section 3 - Each member at large in good standing, and each representative of a p a r t i c i p a t i n g c i v i c club or organization, shall be e n t i t l e d t o o n e v o t e a s a n in d i v i d u a l o n a n y m a t t e r t o be d e t e r m i n e d by v o t e o f t h e m e m b e r s h i p o f t h e c o u n c i l . S e c t i o n U - T h e r e s h a l l be n o d u e s f o r membership i n t h e c o u n c i l , b u t t h e c o u n c i l s h a l l a c c e p t contributions from t h e v a r i o u s organizations r e p r e s e n t e d . T h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of e a c h p a r t i c i p a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n -1C8-s h a l l e n c o u r a g e d f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t toward the w o r k o f the c o u n c i l f rom t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n which they r e p r e s e n t . C o n t r i b u t i o n s f rom members at l a r g e may be a c c e p t e d i n s u c h amounts as the board of d i r e c t o r s may d e t e r m i n e f rom t ime to t i m e . S e c t i o n 5 - No more than o n e - t h i r d ( 1 / 3 ) of the e n t i r e number of i n d i v i d u a l s c o n s t i t u t i n g the membershin of the c o u n c i l s h a l l be members at l a r g e at any t i m e . Members at l a r g e s h a l l be e l i g i b l e t o h o l d o f f i c e i n the c o u n c i l . ARTICLE V - MEETING Section 1 - This organization s h a l l hold a regular meeting at 7:30 P.M. on the fourth Monday of each month. Special meetings may be held upon c a l l of the president, or upon written request of any f i v e (5) members of the c o u n c i l . Special meetings s h a l l be c a l l e d a s u f f i c i e n t time in advance of the meeting that due notice thereof may be given by pu b l i c a t i o n i n the newspaper and by radio. Section 2 - A quorum at any meeting of the membership of the council s h a l l be a majority of the members of the c o u n c i l . When a quorum i s present, a majority vote of those present s h a l l be s u f f i c i e n t to adopt any motion or transact any other business f o r the c o u n c i l . ARTICLE VI - BOARD OF DIRECTORS Section 1 - The board of d i r e c t o r s s h a l l meet in regular session i n advance of each monthly meeting of the organization and s h a l l be responsible f o r the preparation of the agenda. Section 2 - Decisions as to the order of importance of project to be undertaken by t h i s organization s h a l l be made by the members of the c o u n c i l . Section 3 - The board of d i r e c t o r s s h a l l be composed of one representative from each p a r t i c i p a t i n g organization, together with the executive committee of the c o u n c i l . The president of the council s h a l l preside at meetings of the board of d i r e c t o r s . Section 4 - A majority of the membership of the board co n s t i t u t e a quorum at any meeting of the board. those present at a meeting of the board of of d i r e c t o r s s h a l l A majority vote of d i r e c t o r s at which meeting a quorum i s present s h a l l be s u f f i c i e n t to transact business. Section 5 - The board of d i r e c t o r s s h a l l function as the planning body for the organi zat ion. ARTICLE VII - OFFICERS S e c t i o n 1 - T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a l l have e l e c t e d o f f i c e r s as f o l l o w s : p r e s i d e n t , v i c e - p r e s i d e n t , s e c o n d v i c e - p r e s i d e n t , s e c r e t a r y and t r e a s u r e r . S e c t i o n 2 - The e l e c t e d o f f i c e r s s h a l l c o m p r i s e the e x e c u t i v e c o m m i t t e e o f the c o u n c i 1 . S e c t i o n 3 - ELECTION OF O F F I C E R S : At the m o n t h l y m e e t i n g i n September of e a c h y e a r , the above o f f i c e r s s h a l l be e l e c t e d to s e r v e f o r one y e a r and u n t i l t h e i r s u c c e s s o r s a r e e l e c t e d and q u a l i f i e d . At the m e e t i n g p r e c e d i n g s u c h September m e e t i n g , the p r e s i d e n t s h a l l a p p o i n t a n o m i n a t i n g commi t tee f rom names of members s u b m i t t e d to him by the board of d i r e c t o r s , and s u c h n o m i n a t i n g commi t tee s h a l l , at the September m e e t i n g , p r e s e n t to the membership i t s n o m i n a t i o n s f o r the - 1 0 9 -r e s p e c t i v e o f f i c e s above m e n t i o n e d , to be f i l l e d by the e l e c t i o n at the September m e e t i n g . The n o m i n a t i n g commit tee s h a l l c o n s i s t of t h r e e members of the c o u n c i l . S e c t i o n U - The p r e s i d e n t s h a l l p r e s i d e at a l l m e e t i n g s of the membership and of the board of d i r e c t o r s and s h a l l p e r f o r m a l l d u t i e s i n c i d i n t to the o f f i c e . He s h a l l a p p o i n t a l l commi t tee s u b j e c t t o the a p p r o v a l of the ' o a r d . o f d i r e c t o r s . 'le s h a l l be the ex o f f i c i o member of a l l c o m m i t t e e s . He s h a l l a t s u c h t i m e s as hey may deem p r o p e r commend to the membership a n d / o r the board of d i r e c t o r s u c h m a t t e r s and make s u c h s u g g e s t i o n s as may tend to promote the p u r p o s e s of the c o u n c i l . S e c t i o n 5 - The f i r s t v i c e - p r e s i d e n t s h a l l a c t i n the a b s e n c e of the p r e s i d e n t . S e c t i o n 6 - The s e c o n d v i c e - p r e s i d e n t s h a l l a c t i n the a b s e n c e of the p r e s i d e n t and the f i r s t v i c e - p r e s i d e n t . S e c t i o n 7 - The s e c r e t a r y s h a l l c o n d u c t the o f f i c i a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ; p r e s e r v e d a l l b o o k s , documents and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s ; and m a i n t a i n o r c a u s e to be m a i n t a i n e d a l l a c c u r a t e r e c o r d of the p r o c e e d i n g s o f the c o u c i l , the board of d i r e c t o r s and the e x e c u t i v e c o m m i t t e e . He s h a l l keep o r c a u s e t o be kept s u c h o t h e r n e c e s s a r y r e c o r d s as the b o a r d of d i r e c t o r s may d e t e r m i n e . S e c t i o n 8 - The t r e a s u r e r s h a l l r e c e i v e and d i s b u r s e the f u n d s of the c o u n c i l . He s h a l l make r e p o r t s t o the b o a r d of d i r e c t o r s a t l e a s t a n n u a l l y , and more o f t e n i f the board s h a l l r e q u i r e . S e c t i o n 9 - In the i n t e r i m between m e e t i n g s o f the b o a r d o f d i r e c t o r s , the e x e c u t i v e commi t tee s h a l l have c h a r g e of the r o u t i n e b u s i n e s s of the c o u n c i l . I t s h a l l have g e n e r a l c h a r g e of the f i n a n c e s and the p r o p e r t y of the c o u n c i l and s h a l l have a u t h o r i t y to o r d e r d i s b u r s e m e n t s f o r n e c e s s a r y e x p e n s e s . A l l a c t i o n t a k e n by the e x e c u t i v e commi t tee s h a l l be r e p o r t e d to the b o a r d o f d i r e c t o r s . The e x e c u t i v e c o m m i t t e e s h a l l have s u c h o t h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and be v e s t e d w i t h s u c h o t h e r powers as the b o a r d of d i r e c t o r s may d e t e r m i n e . ARTICLE V I I I - COMMITTEES S e c t i o n 1 - The board of d i r e c t o r s s h a l l a u t h o r i z e and d e f i n e the powers and d u t i e s o f a l l c o m m i t t e e s . S e c t i o n 2 - The p r e s i d e n t s h a l l a p p o i n t a l l commi t tee s u b j e c t t o c o n f i r m a t i o n by the b o a r d of d i r e c t o r s . E a c h commi t tee member s h a l l s e r v e d u r i n g the p l e a s u r e of the p r e s i d e n t . S e c t i o n 3 - No c o m m i t t e e , s t a n d i n g o r s p e c i a l , s h a l l ve the power to commit the c o u n c i l on any m a t t e r of g e n e r a l p o l i c y . No c o m m i t t e e s h a l l spend or o b l i g a t e funds i n e x c e s s of the amount a l l o c a t e d to i t by the board of d i r e c t o r s o r the e x e c u t i v e commmit tee . S e c t i o n U - Commit tee m e e t i n g s may be c a l l e d at any t ime by the c h a i r m a n of the c o m m i t t e e , o r by the p r e s i d e n t . S e c t i o n 5 - In the e v e n t any c o m m i t t e e f a i l s to d i s c h a r g e the d u t i e s a s s i g n e d to i t w i t h r e a s o n a b l e p r o m p t n e s s , s u c h commi t tee may be d i s c h a r g e d by the p r e s i d e n t , who s h a l l r e p o r t h i s a c t i o n to the board of d i r e c t o r s and t h e r e u p o n a p p o i n t a new c o m m i t t e e . S e c t i o n b - The c o m m i t t e e s of the c o u n c i l s h a l l c o n s i s t of the f o l l o w i n g : s t r e e t s and s to rm s e w e r s ; s a f e t y ; c i t y b e a u t i f i c a t i o n ; l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s ; parks and p l a y g r o u n d s ; y o u t h ; s a n i t a t i o n ; a n n e x a t i o n ; g o v e r n m e n t a l r e l a t i o n s ; m e m b e r s h i p ; and s u c h o t h e r c o m m i t t e e s as the board of d i r e c t o r s may d e t e r m i n e to be n e c e s s a r y . -119-ARTICLE IX - DISBURSEMENTS Sect ion 1 - No disbursement of the funds of the counc i l s h a l l be made unless the same s h a l l have been approved, author ized and ordered by the board of d i r e c t o r s or the executive committee. Sect ion 2 - A l1 disbursements s h a l l be made by check. Checks sha l l , be signed by the t reasurer and countersighed by the p res iden t . ARTICLE X - BUDGET Section 1 - The annual budget of the council s h a l l be prepared by the board of d i r e c t o r s , or by a committee appointed by the board of di r e c t o r s for that purpose, and s h a l l be subject to approval by the membership of the c o u n c i l . ARTICLE XI - FISCAL YEARS Section 1 - The f i s c a l year s h a l l begin on the f i r s t day of October in each year and end on the 30th day of September of the following year. ARTICLE XII - PARLIAMENTARY PROCEDURE Section 1 - The proceedings of meetings of the council s h a l l be governed by and conducted according to the l a t e s t e d i t i o n of Roberts Manual of Parliamentary Rules. ARTICLE XIII - AMENDMENTS Section 1 - These bylaws may be amended or a l t e r e d by two-thirds (2/3) vote of a quorum present at any regular or s p e c i a l meeting of the membership of the c o u n c i l , provided that notice of the proposed change s h a l l have been given e i t h e r by mail to each member, of the council at least t h i r t y days p r i o r to the date of such meeting, or by verbal announcement at the preceding regular monthly meeting of the c o u n c i l . - I l l -APPENDIX B:KEYS TO EUGENE'S PROGRAM APPENDIX B CHAPTER I I . KEYS TO EUGENE'S PROGRAM A . C i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t Program E u g e n e ' s C i t i z e n Invo lvement Program c r e a t e s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c i t i z e n s to p a r t i c i p a t e at a l l l e v e l s and i n a l l p h a s e s of the l a n d use p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . T h i s i n v o l v e s p r o v i d i n g a c c e s s t o the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s at the n e i g h b o r h o o d , C i t y , and r e g i o n a l l e v e l s i n the d e v e l o p m e n t , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , and e v a l u a t i o n of l a n d use p l a n s and d e c i s i o n s . E u g e n e ' s m u l t i - l e v e l a p p r o a c h to c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t s a t i s f i e s the LCDC r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t as s t a t e d i n Goa l 1 i n the s t a t e w i d e G o a l s and G u i d e l i n e s . The l e v e l s of i n v o l v e m e n t and the g r o u p s t h a t f u n c t i o n at e a c h l e v e l a r e as f o l l o w s : 1. N e i g h b o u r h o o d - T h e r e a r e 20 c h a r t e r e d n e i g h b o r h o o d g r o u p s o f f i c i a l l y r e c o g n i z e d by the C i t y C o u n c i l . T h e s e g r o u p s e a c h r e p r e s e n t t h e i r n e i g h b o r h o o d a r e a and a d v i s e the C i t y C o u n c i l , P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n , and o t h e r C i t y o f f i c i a l s and s t a f f i n v o l v e d i n g rowth and deve lopment d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g the community a n d , i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e i r n e i g h b o r h o o d . 2. C i t y - w i d e - The P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n was c r e a t e d t o h e l p p l a n f o r the o r d e r l y g rowth and d e v e l o p m e n t of the c i t y . I t s c h a r g e i n c l u d e s a d v i s i n g the C i t y C o u n c i l on the d e v e l o p m e n t and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a G e n e r a l P l a n , the Eugene Commity G o a l s and P o l i c i e s , f u n c t i o n a l p l a n s , and n e i g h b o r h o o d p l a n s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n a d v i s e s the C i t y C o u n c i l on an o n g o i n g b a s i s c o n c e r n i n g r e v i s i o n s t o the Eugene C o d e , the a n n u a l C a p i t a l Improvement P r o g r a m , and o t h e r ma jor i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . The C i t i z e n I n v o l v e m e n t C o m m i t t e e , a l s o a p p o i n t e d by the C i t y C o u n c i l , i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e v i e w i n g a n d , where p o s s i b l e , i m p r o v i n g upon the means by w h i c h c i t i z e n s c a n p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The n ine -member commi t tee p r o v i d e s f o r c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t i n two ways - t h r o u g h membersh ip on t h e c o m m i t t e e , and t h r o u g h the c o m m i t t e e ' s r e g u l a r r e v i e w and improvement of the C i t i z e n I n v o l v e m e n t P r o g r a m . 3. R e g i o n a l - The M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a P l a n n i n g A d v i s o r y Commit tee (MAPC) c o o r d i n a t e s c i t i z e n r e s p o n s e s t o p l a n n i n g i s s u e s at the r e g i o n a l l e v e l . It p r o v i d e s a d v i c e c o n c e r n i n g c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t r e l a t e d t o the M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a G e n e r a l P l a n , the Eugene - S p r i n g f i e l d T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P l a n , and o t h e r d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a s s i g n e d o r a p p r o v e d by the Lane C o u n c i l of Governments o r i t s d e s i g n a t e d p o l i c y - m a k i n g b o d y . To i n v o l v e ' i n d i v i d u a l s o r g r o u p s not a c t i v e w i t h n e i g h b o r h o o d g r o u p s ' , c i t y - w i d e c m m i t t e e s , o r MAPAC, Eugene r e l i e s p r i m a r i l y on i t s h e a r i n g p r o c e s s , c o v e r a g e of p l a n n i n g i s s u e s by the l o c a l news m e d i a , and p r o v i d i n g l e g a l p u b l i c n o t i c e to a l e r t as many c i t i z e n s as p o s s i b l e c o n c e r n i n g p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n by the C i t y . In a d d i t i o n , c i t i z e n g r o u p s s u c h as the Land County H o m e b u i l d e r s A s s o c i a t i o n , the League of Women V o t e r s , and the E u g e n e - S p r i n g f i e l d Chamber of Commerce r e c e i v e r e g u l a r n o t i c e and i n f o r m a t i o n on p l a n n i n g i s s u e s . C i t i z e n a d v i s o r y g r o u p s a r e a l s o formed to work on s p e c i f i c r e f i n e m e n t p l a n s , s p e c i a l a r e a s t u d i e s , o r o t h e r major p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . -112-APPENDIX B EUGENE NEIGHBORHOOD ORGANIZATION RECOGNITION POLICY (With G u i d e l i n e s ) The C i t i z e n s I n v o l v e m e n t Committee (CIC) has recommended t h a t g u i d e l i n e s be p r e p a r e d f o r une C i t y o f Eugene's N e i g h b o r h o o d O r g a n i z a t i o n R e c o g n i t i o n P o l i c y , R e s o l u t i o n No. 2554. S i n c e t h i s r e s o l u t i o n was ad o p t e d i n A u g u s t , 1976, t h e meaning and i n t e n t o f some o f the p r o v i s i o n s have been s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d or have d e v e l o p e d c e r t a i n meanings t h r o u g h p r a c t i c e . The m a r g i n a l n o t e s t o the a t t a c h e d copy o f t h e r e s o l u t i o n e x p l a i n t h e C i t y ' s c u r r e n t t h i n k i n g on the i n t e n t o f t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s and, i n some i n s t a n c e s , c u r r e n t i m p l e m e n t a i o n p r o c e d u r e s . A p p r o v e d by R e s o l u t i o n No. 3746 o f the Eugene C i t y C o u n c i l , on t h e 26th day o f J a n u a r y , 1983. -113-EUGENE NEIGHBORHOOD ORGANIZATION RECOGNITION POLICY (Wi th G u i d e l i n e s ) RESOLUTION NO. 2554 AUGUST 1976 A RESOLUTION REPEALING THE NEIGHBORHOOD ORGANIZA-TION POLICY FOR CITIZEN PLANNING GROUPS ADOPTED AUGUST 2 8 , 1973 , AND ADOPTNG A NEW NEIGHBORHOOD ORGANIZATION RECOGNITION POLICY. The Common C o u n c i l o f t h e C i t y o f Eugene f i n d s t h a t : P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s t h e a c t o f s h a r i n g i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f p o l i c i e s and p r o p o s a l s wh i c h a f f e c t t h e l i v e s o f a l l c i t i z e n s . L o c a l government has a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e n c o u r a g i n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , b o t h f o r t h e b e t t e r -ment o f l o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and t o s a t i s f y r e q u i r e m e n t s o f s t a t e and f e d e r a l p l a n n i n g p r og r ams . P a r t i c i p a t i o n needs t o go beyond j u s t t he s i m p l e r o l e o f comment ing toward a p r o c e s s wh i ch i n v o l v e s t he p u b l i c i n an a c t i v e r o l e . RESOLUTION—1 -114-The C i t y o f Eugene r e c o g n i z e s t h a t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n th rough ne ighbo rhood o r g a n i z a t i o n s can produce b e n e f i t s f o r the g e n e r a l h e a l t h , w e l f a r e , and p r i d e o f the t o t a l communi ty . NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED BY THE COMMON COUNCIL OF THE CITY OF EUGENE, a M u n i c i p a l C o r p o r a t i o n o f the S t a t e o f O regon , as f o l l o w s : S e c t i o n 1. The C i t y o f Eugene en cou r -ages the f o r m a t i o n o f ne i ghbo rhood o r g a n i z a -t i o n s and t h e i r i n v o l v emen t i n the l o c a l g ove r nmen t ' s d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s . S e c t i o n 2. The C i t y o f Eugene adop t s t h i s Ne ighborhood O r g a n i z a t i o n R e c o g n i t i o n P o l i c y i n o r d e r to e s t a b l i s h c r i t e r i a f o r the r e c o g n i t i o n of ne i ghbo rhood o r g a n i z a t i o n s and d e f i n e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c i t y and r e c o g n i z e d ne i ghbo rhood o r g a n i -z a t i o n s . S e c t i o n 3. The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s one th rough f i v e , which c omp r i s e t h i s Ne ighbo rhood O r g a n i z a t i o n R e c o g n i t i o n P o l i c y , a re adopted as p o l i c y s t a t emen t s and are to be used to RESOLUT10N--2 -115-(GUIDELINES) Th i s section i s a general guide o f what is expected to be in your charter. A model charter has been developed to a s s i s t groups in reviewing t h e i r charters to determine whether changes should be made to better r e f l e c t the intent of the p o l i c y . A copy of the model charter i s in each leader's notebook. See A r t i c l e V I I I , Section 3 of model charter concerning n o t i -f i c a t i o n . This requires 1 that p a r t i c i p a t i o n be open to property owners or tenants (includes businesses) w i t h i n the neighborhood, but the neighborhood groups may decide whether they wish to r e s t r i c t v oting to residents only. The neighborhood groups may e s t a b l i s h a d d i t i o n a l , reasonable voting c r i t e r i a , such as r e q u i r i n g attendance at a minimum of one meeting w i t h i n the year p r i o r to being allowed to vote. Most groups do not r e s t r i c t voting to res i d e n t s . It is recommended that those groups r e s t r i c t i n g voting to the r e s i d e n t s , estab-l i s h some mechanism to assure p a r t i c i p a t i o n by non-resident p r o p e r t y owners on i s s u e s t ha t miqht c on ce rn them. Th i s might be done by s p e c i a l n o t i c e of mee t i ngs when t h e r e i s an agenda R E S 0 L U T I 0 N - - 3 a f f i r m and govern the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c i t y and recognized neighborhoods as they p a r t i c i p a t e i n the decision-making processes of the c i t y : NEIGHBORHOOD ORGANIZATION RECOGNITION POLICY Section 1. C r i t e r i a for Recognition of Neighborhood Organizations. (a) At the time a neighborhood governing document is submitted to the C i t y Council f o r re c o g n i t i o n , evidence s h a l l be submitted showing that the document was widely c i r c u -lated w i t h i n the neighborhood before adoption by the group. (b) A l l meetings s h a l l be w e l l - p u b l i -c i z e d i n advance. (c) The neighborhood o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a l l be open to the t o t a l area and d i v e r s i t y of i n t e r e s t s present in the neighborhood. P a r t i c i p a t i o n s h a l l be open to any property owner or tenant w i t h i n the neighborhood. C r i t e r i a r e g u l a t i n g voting s h a l l be deter-mined by each neighborhood group, s h a l l not exclude re s i d e n t s , and s h a l l be included in the governing document. -116-item of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t : encouraging the business com-munity to have representation at the general meetings; or holding a sp e c i a l meeting of business people to get input; and being sure the business com-munity and non-residents have time at the meetings to speak. See the model ch a r t e r f o r some general g u i d l e l i n e s . Members of neighborhood groups or resi d e n t s of the area are gen-e r a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r being sure the group c a r r i e s out i t s respon-s i b i l i t i e s as in d i c a t e d in (g). With respect to ( h ) , an admini-s t r a t i v e process for neighborhood groups to become i n a c t i v e rather (d) The or g a n i z a t i o n s t r u c t u r e s h a l l provide f o r necessary coordination among neighborhood r e s i d e n t s and between the neighborhood and c i t y departments and elected and appointed o f f i c i a l s . (e) The boundaries of the neighborhood s h a l l s p e c i f i c a l l y define an area of appro-p r i a t e geographic s i z e and population f o r e f f e c t i v e planning and these boundaries s h a l l take into account natural boundaries, commercial p a t t e r n s , community o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and h i s t o r i c a l f a c t o r s . ( f ) A neighborhood governing document which meets the l i s t e d requirements may be submitted to the C i t y Council with a request f o r r e c o g n i t i o n of the neighborhood by o f f i c i a l Council a c t i o n . (g) The neighborhood o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a l l assume the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of maintaining the requirements for r e c o g n i t i o n . Alleged v i o l a t i o n s s h a l l be taken before the neigh-borhood organization at a p u b l i c i z e d general R E S O L U T I 0 N - - 4 t h a n h a v e r e c o g n i t i o n w i t h d r a w n , was a p p r o v e d by t h e C i t y C o u n c i l O c t o b e r 8, 1980, and i s a t t a c h e d . The p u r p o s e o f t h e p r o c e s s i s t o a l l o w t h e g r o u p t h a t has l o s t i t s l e a d e r s h i p and p a r t i c i p a n t s t i m e t o r e o r g a n i z e , i f t h e r e a r e o t . r s i n t h e a r e a t h a t w i s h t o do s o . I t a l s o makes i t e a s i e r f o r a g r o u p d e s i g n a t e d as " i n a c t i v e " t o become a c t i v e a g a i n w i t h o u t h a v i n g t o be f o r m a l l y r e c o g n i z e d b y t h e C i t y C o u n c i l . S e e a t t a c h e d " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e G u i d e l i n e s f o r I n i t i a t i n g and E s t a b l i s h i n g I n a c t i v e S t a t u s f o r N e i g h b o r h o o d O r g a n i z a t i o n s . " m e e t i n g . T h e r e a f t e r , u n s e t t l e d d i s p u t e s w h i c h c o n c e r n a d h e r e n c e t o p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s P o l i c y may be t a k e n t o t h e C i t y C o u n c i l , w h i c h w i l l t a k e a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n , up t o and i n c l u d i n g w i t h d r a w a l o f r e c o g n i t i o n . ( h ) A s l o n g as t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d r e m a i n s o r g a n i z e d and a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h c u r r e n t i s s u e s o r i n d e v e l o p i n g any p a r t o f a p l a n , i t w i l l c o n t i n u e t o be r e c o g n i z e d . E a c h n e i g h b o r h o o d g r o u p s h o u l d e s t a b l i s h a p r o c e s s f o r i n v e s t i -g a t i n g and r e s p o n d i n g t o i n f o r -m a t i o n r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e C i t y a b o u t p r o p o s e d p o l i c i e s , p r o j e c t s , p l a n s , e t c . A p l a n n i n g c o m m i t t e e , a s p e c i a l c o m m i t t e e d e p e n d i n g on t h e s u b j e c t , e x e c u t i v e b o a r d , o r c h a i r p e r s o n c o u l d r e v i e w i n f o r -m a t i o n and make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s s u b j e c t t o t h e g e n e r a l membe r -s h i p ' s a p p r o v a l , i f t i m e p e r m i t s . R e v i e w " N e i g h b o r h o o d S y s t e m s f o r R e s p o n d i n g t o R e f e r r a l s " i n l e a d e r ' s n o t e b o o k i n R e f e r r a l S e c t i o n . T h e r e f e r e n c e t o " n e i g h b o r h o o d p l a n s " a p p l i e s o n l y t o t h o s e n e i g h b o r h o o d s d e s i g n a t e d f o r r e f i n e m e n t p l a n s . S e c t i o n 2. F u n c t i o n and R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f N e i g h b o r h o o d O r g a n i z a t i o n s . ( a ) N e i g h b o r h o o d o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i l l be a d v i s o r y t o t h e C i t y C o u n c i l , P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n , and o t h e r c i t y b o a r d s , c o m m i s -s i o n s , and o f f i c i a l s on m a t t e r s a f f e c t i n g t h e i r n e i g h b o r h o o d s . W i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f , s u b j e c t t o t h e i r a v a i l a b i l i t y , t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d o r g a n i z a t i o n may d e v e l o p n e i g h b o r h o o d p l a n s and p r o p o s a l s w i t h r e s p e c t t o l a n d u s e , z o n i n g , p a r k s , o p e n s p a c e and r e c r e a t i o n , a n n e x a t i o n , h o u s i n g , c o m m u n i t y f a c i l i t i e s , t r a n s p o r t a i o n and t r a f f i c , p u b l i c s a f e t y , s a n i t a t i o n , and o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s and p u b l i c s e r v i c e s w h i c h a f f e c t t h e i r n e i g h b o r h o o d s . RESOLUTI0 N - - 5 -118-Th i s s e c t i o n i n d i c a t e s t ha t ne iohborhood groups are not r e s t r i c t e d in t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s to c i t y m a t t e r s . Ne ighborhood groups have become n o n - p r o f i t g r ouos , sought g r a n t s ( n o n - C i t y ) , and worked w i t h o t h e r groups on p r o j e c t s of c once rn to the ne i ghbo rhood . A sys tem f o r f i n d i n g out what t h e most d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d n e i g hbo r s t h i n k about c i t y p l a n s , p r o p o s a l s , and a c t i v i t i e s i s an impo r t an t p a r t o f any ne ighbo rhood o r g a n i -z a t i o n p r o ce s s deve l oped f o r a d v i s i n g t h e c i t y . T h i s c o u l d be done i n v a r i o u s ways depend ing on t h e t ime a v a i l a b l e f o r r e s p o n s e , e . g . , g o i ng d o o r - t o - d o o r t a l k i n g t o peop l e about a p r opo sa l and f i n d i n g ou t t h e i r c o n c e r n s ; n o t i f y i n g t h e ne ighborhood about mee t ings and p r o p o s a l s s chedu l ed f o r d i s c u s s i o n ; h a v i n g t h e ne ighbo rhood agree a n n u a l l y on g o a l s , wh ich wou ld p r o v i d e a g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n t o t he e x e c u -t i v e board f o r a d v i s i n g t h e C i t y based on the g o a l s ( i f t h e r e i s a r e f i n e m e n t p l a n f o r t h e a r e a , t h i s m igh t be s u f f i c i e n t ) o r p o l l i n g t h e ne ighborhood on i s s u e s . Reques t s wh ich a f f e c t t he budget may a l s o be made v i a the N e i g h -borhood L i a i s o n O f f i c e u s i n g t h e ne i ghbo rhood need r eques t r e p o r t form (See i n f o r m a t i o n i n Leade r s Notebook , Ne ighborhood I n f o rma -t i o n S e c t i o n ) . (b) Ne ighborhood o r g a n i z a t i o n s may address themse lves to a l l ma t t e r s which a f f e c t them and may e s t a b l i s h r e l a t i o n s , not i n c o n f l i c t w i t h c i t y - n e i g h b o r h o o d r e l a t i o n s se t f o r t h i n t h i s P o l i c y , w i t h any agency o r j u r i s d i c t i o n w i t h wh ich they have mutua l c o n c e r n s . Th i s P o l i c y governs o n l y the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e c o g n i z e d ne ighborhood o r g a n i z a t i o n s and the c i t y o f Eugene. ( c ) Ne ighborhood o r g a n i z a t i o n s s h a l l i n f o rm t hemse l ve s o f ne ighborhood needs and d e s i r e s and m a i n t a i n commun ica t i on w i t h t h e i r ne i ghbo rhoods on p l a n s , p r o p o s a l s and a c t i v i -t i e s a f f e c t i n g t h e i r a r e a s . (d) Ne ighborhood o r g a n i z a t i o n s may submi t t o c i t y depar tments and e l e c t e d o r appo i n t ed c i t y bod i e s r e que s t s or p r o p o s a l s f o r p r o j e c t s o r a c t i v i t i e s needed i n t h e i r ne ighbo rhood a r e a s . RES0LUTI0N--6 -119-This applies to j u s t those neighborhoods that have refi n e -ment plans. (e) Neighborhood organizations s h a l l continue the planning process by reevaluating the goals, o b j e c t i v e s , and recommendations contained w i t h i n the neighborhood plan The main a l l o c a t i o n of funds f o r neighborhood p r i n t i n g , m a i l i n g , and supplies for organizations has been for neighborhood news-l e t t e r s and f l y e r s . There is a Neighborhood L i a i s o n p o s i t i o n in the C i t y Manager's O f f i c e to a s s i s t in the imple-mentation of the Neighborhood Recognition P o l i c y . A Newsletter Coordinator provides technical assistance to neighborhoods in producing the newsletters. Various departments also provide l i m i t e d services to groups upon requests: e.g., s p e c i a l maps, p u b l i c a t i o n s , planning informa-t i o n from the computer, pre-sentations of information at neighborhood meetings. The Neighborhood L i a i s o n is responsible for providing or arranging f o r these o r i e n t a t i o n sessions. C i t y proposals, land use a p p l i -c a t i o n s , and a l l matters which may a f f e c t neighborhoods are referred, by departments v i a the Neighborhood L i a i s o n O f f i c e to the appropriate neighborhood. The l i a i s o n also a l e r t s neighborhoods to relevant l e g i s l a t i o n and p o l i c i e s being considered by the C i t y Council or other other boards and commissions. Section 3. Functions and R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the C i t y  (a) The c i t y w i l l provide recognized neighborhood organizations with supplies, p r i n t i n g , m a i l i n g , and l i m i t e d s t a f f a s s i s -tance to aid in t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s , subject to budgetary a l l o c a t i o n s . (b) The c i t y s h a l l provide an o r i e n t a t i o n session twice y e a r l y to acquaint neighborhood leaders with c i t y functions and programs, and city-neighborhood r e l a t i o n s h i p s and responsi-b i l i t i e s . (c) Neighborhood organizations s h a l l be n o t i f i e d of land use and development a p p l i -cations w i t h i n the neighborhood and annexations contiguous to the neighborhood w i t h i n f i v e days af t e r the receipt of such a p p l i c a t i o n s . RESOLUTION--/ -120-In r e s p e c t to n o t i f i c a t i o n " i n ample t i m e , " t h e r e i s not a lways t ime f o r ne ighborhood groups to t ake proposed changes in p o l i c i e s , p r o j e c t s , s e r v i c e s , and a c t i v i t i e s to the gene r a l membersh ip, because some groups do not meet e ve r y month, o r t h e i n f o r m a t i o n might m i s s the g r o u p ' s mee t i ng t i m e . However, t he goa l i s to p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t t ime to t he e x e c u t i v e commit tee t o meet t o c o n s i d e r an i s s u e . S e c t i o n 3 ( e ) and ( f ) a pp l y o n l y t o ne ighbo rhood groups t h a t have been wo r k i n g on r e f i n e m e n t p i a n s . Ne ighborhood o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i l l a l s o be n o t i f i e d of p u b l i c h ea r i n g s a f f e c t i n g d i s -p o s i t i o n of t hese a p p l i c a t i o n s . (d) Ne ighborhood o r g a n i z a t i o n s s h a l l be n o t i f i e d of a l l p roposed changes in c i t y p o l i c i e s , p r o j e c t s , s e r v i c e s , and a c t i v i t i e s h a v i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on t h e i r n e i g h -borhoods ( e . g . , l and u se , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and t r a f f i c , pa rks and r e c r e a t i o n , h o u s i n g , and p u b l i c s e r v i c e s ) , i n ample t ime to a l l o w p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . S p e c i f i c s i t e l o c a t i o n s f o r land a c q u i s i t i o n need not be i d e n t i f i e d by t h e c i t y . (e) A l l ne ighborhood p l a n s s h a l l be r e v i ewed by the P l a n n i n g Commiss ion at a p u b l i c h e a r i n g open t o t he Eugene community b e f o r e a recommendat ion i s f o rwarded to the C i t y C o u n c i 1 . ( f ) Upon adop t i o n by the C i t y C o u n c i l , t he ne ighbo rhood p l a n s h a l l be c o n s i d e r e d a g ene r a l p l a n r e f i n emen t by t he c i t y and i t s v a r i o u s depa r tmen t s . N e w s l e t t e r G u i d e l i n e s e x p l a i n i n g t h i s s e c t i o n were p repa red i n t he f a l l o f 1976 i n c o n s u l t a t i o n and w i t h f i n a l agreement from the ne i ghbo rhood l e a d e r s , the C i t y S e c t i o n 4 . Ne ighborhood N e w s l e t t e r s . (a) The c i t y s h a l l f i n a n c e the p r i n t i n g and m a i l i n g o f ne ighborhood n e w s l e t t e r s and commun i ca t i ons , w i t h i n budge t a r y a l l owance s R E S 0 L U T I 0 N - - 8 -121-Manager and C i t y A t t o r n e y , and set by the c i t y . Ne ighborhood o r g a n i z a t i o n s are a t t a c h e d . may r a i s e funds to f i n a n c e t h e i r own p u b l i -c a t i o n s . (b) N e w s l e t t e r s f i n a n c e d by the c i t y s h a l l be governed by these g u i d e l i n e s : (1) The main purposes o f the ne ighborhood n e w s l e t t e r s are to d i s t r i b u t e i n f o r m a t i o n to ne ighborhood members on m a t t e r s a f f e c t i n g t h e i r a reas and to p r o v i d e a forum f o r the f r e e e x p r e s s i o n o f t he o p i n i o n s o f ne ighborhood members on i s s u e s o f i n t e r e s t t o t he ne i ghbo r hood . (2) Advocacy p o s i t i o n s may be i n c l u d e d i n t h e n e w s l e t t e r s i n an e d i -t o r i a l f o r m a t . N e w s l e t t e r s s h a l l c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e e d i t o r i a l m a t e r i a l and gua ran t ee space f o r t i m e l y p r i n t i n g o f d i f f e r i n g v i e w p o i n t s . (3) Commerc ia l a d v e r t i s i n g wi11 not be p e r m i t t e d i n n e w s l e t t e r s u n l e s s f i n a n c e d by o t h e r than c i t y f u nd s . (4) The c i t y s h a l l have access to ne ighbo rhood n e w s l e t t e r s f o r c i t y i n f o r m a t i o n . S e c t i o n 5. Recommended P r o cedu r e f o r E s t a b l i s h -ment of C i t y - R e c o g n i z e d Ne ighborhood O r g a n i z a t i o n s .  (a) When s u f f i c i e n t i n t e r e s t has been exp re s sed by a s u b s t a n t i a l number of pe r sons RES0LUTI0N--9 -122-i n t e r e s t e d in the ne i ghbo rhood , a r eques t s hou l d be made to the c i t y manager f o r s t a f f a s s i s t a n c e . A model c h a r t e r , approved (b) A f t e r i n f o rma l mee t i ngs between c i t y by the C i t y Counci1 on , s t a f f and i n t e r e s t e d p e r s o n s , a ne i ghbo rhood -i s a v a i l a b l e and s h o u l d be a gu i de i n w r i t i n g the wide mee t i ng or mee t i ng s s h a l l be h e l d g ove r n i n g document . f o r the purpose o f i n f o r m a t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n , a d o p t i o n of ne i ghbo rhood gove rn i ng document and e l e c t i o n of o f f i c e r s . ( c ) A f t e r a ne ighborhood gove rn i ng document has been adopted by t he ne ighborhood o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t may be subm i t t ed to the C i t y Manager f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n by the C i t y C o u n c i l . (d) The C i t y C o u n c i l , upon app rova l o f the g o v e r n i n g document o f the ne ighborhood o r g a n i z a t i o n , s h a l l a c cep t the document , and any m o d i f i c a t i o n t h e r e t o , by r e s o l u t i o n . The ne i ghbo rhood o r g a n i z a t i o n i s then r e c o g n i z e d as the o f f i c i a l v o i c e o f t h a t ne ighbo rhood a r e a under the p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s P o l i c y . S e c t i o n 4. The Ne ighborhood O r g a n i -z a t i o n P o l i c y f o r C i t i z e n P l a n n i n q Groups adopted by the Common C o u n c i l of the C i t y o f Euqene on August 28 , 1973 , i s r e p e a l e d and superceded by the Ne ighborhood O r g a n i -z a t i o n R e c o g n i t i o n P o l i c y c o n t a i n e d h e r e i n . The f o r e g o i n g R e s o l u t i o n adopted the 23rd day o f Augus t , 1976 . CM38bl8 R E S 0 L U T I 0 N - - 1 0 -123-APPENDIX C :TELEPHONE QUESTIONNAIRE > APPENDIX C TELEPHONE QUESTIONAlRE 1) Were you a p l a n n e r i n ( p l a c e ) d a t e s ) 2) Was t h e r e a s i t e o f f i c e and was t h e r e a c i t i z e n ' s P l a n n i n g Committee (CPC)? If yes -To the P l a n n e r and to the CPC Member 1) What were the terms f o r the c i t i z e n p l a n n i n g c o m m i t t e e ? 2) Was t h e r e good i n t e r a c t i o n between a l l p a r t i e s , c o u n c i l , c i t y h a l l , P l a n n i n g , CPC and the Community 3) D i d the c i t i z e n s f e e l c o o p t e d or d i d they p e r c e i v e c o - o p e r a t i o n ? A) Was t h e r e a good r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h e x i s t i n g commi t tee g r o u p s ? 5) How c o u l d have the CPC i n t e r a c t i o n been i m p r o v e d ? 6) Does the CPC s t i l l e x i s t , why? 7) I f n o t , i s t h e r e any g r o u p w i t h i n the community c a r r y i n g on a m o n i t o r i n g (of the p l a n and the communi ty ) f u n c t i o n ? -124-APPENDIX D: GRANDVIEW_WOODLAND AREA COUNCIL APPENDIX D GRANDVIEW-WOODLAND AREA COUNCIL A d e s c r i p t i o n of the area council in Grandview-Woodland i s found in Figure I. Grandview-Woodland Area Council (GWAC) was founded i n March 1964, the f i r s t a r e a council to be established i n Vancouver. It was preceeded by resident associations since the 1907 Grandview Progressive A s s o c i a t i o n . GWAC would be defined as a people committed to preserving and strengthening FIGURE I - 1 7 5 -t h e i r communi ty , and the f e a t u r e s t h a t make i t an a t t r a c t i v e p l a c e to l i v e . GWAC o b j e c t i v e s i n c l u d e s : - p u b l i c i n g and p r o m o t i n g p u b l i c awareness of l o c a l i s s u e s - p r o v i d i n g a forur, Tor r e s i d e n t s to e x p r e s s t h e i r o p i n i o n s upon m a t t e r s of community i n t e r e s t - i d e n t i f y i n g community needs and p r o b l e m s , t a k i n g a c t i o n when n e c e s s a r y w i t h government o r o t h e r d e c i s i o n mak ing a u t h o r i t i e s - i n f o r m i n g r e s i d e n t s of s e r v i c e s and programs a v a i l a b l e to them (GAWC ) GWAC a c h i e v e m e n t s i n c l u d e : (1972) - s p o n s o r i n g of community p l a n n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n p r o j e c t s t o i n i t i a t e LAP (1967) - i n v o l v e m e n t i n s t u d y t h a t l e d to c o m m i s s i o n o f B r i t a n n i a Community S e r v i c e s C e n t r e (1970) - E a s t - W e s t Freeway d e b a t e , c a m p a i g n e d s u c c e s s f u l l y and recommended a l t e r n a t i v e r o u t e s ( 1 9 8 0 ' s ) - R e c i p i e n t s of g r a n t s f o r h i r i n g of p l a n n e r s t o do t r a f f i c p l a n S i n c e 1975 , the GWAC has not been as a c t i v e as i t has l o s t some of i t s r e c o g n i t i o n and s u p p o r t , t h i s i s due to s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . F i r s t , the L . A . P . CPC took o v e r the s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . S e c o n d , the p r o v i n c i a l government i n i t i a t e d the community R e s o u r c e Boards w h i c h r e l i e v e d the GWAC of any i n v o l v e m e n t i n s o c i a l s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y . T h e r e f o r e , a new r o l e was r e q u i r e d , but w i t h the c o m p l e t i o n of L . A . P . and of the community r e s o u r c e b o a r d s , the need f o r the GWAC to f u l f i l l a l l r o l e s w i t h minimum a s s i s t a n c e and l i m i t e d o f f i c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n e x i s t s . Some g r e a t e r fo rm of r e c o g n i t i o n f a c i l i t a t e d by c i v i c p o l i c y becomes e s s e n t i a l i s GWAC i s to s u r v i v e . -126-

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