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Gender differences in science achievement tests Farkas, Sandra Irene 1986

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GENDER D I F F E R E N C E S  I N SCIENCE ACHIEVEMENT  TESTS  by SANDRA B.Sc;  University  IRENE FARKAS of British  Columbia,  1976  A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF A R T S  FACULTY  OF GRADUATE S T U D I E S , DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS AND S C I E N C E THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A  We  accept this thesis to the required  THE U N I V E R S I T Y  OF B R I T I S H  April Sandra  as conforming standard  COLUMBIA  1986  I r e n e F a r k a s 1986  In  presenting  requirements of  British  it  freely  agree for  this f o r an  in partial  advanced  Columbia, I agree available  that  scholarly  understood  that  financial  that  for extensive  p u r p o s e s may  o r by  degree  f o r reference  permission  department  for  thesis  be  fulfilment of at the  University  the Library  shall  and  I  study.  copying  granted  by  gain  or publication  shall  n o t be  allowed  make  further  of this  t h e head  h i s or her representatives. copying  the  of this  thesis  of  I t i s thesis  w i t h o u t my  written  permission.  *  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  Columbia  my  AB S T R A C T  The the  primary  possible  role  contributing science  in  BC  Science  and  group  of  major  data  base  interviewing me for  audio-taped, categories for  the  examine  in  in  selected  on  items the  items  school the  what you  were  question  1..  transcribed, provided  drawn of  a  was  thinking  between  selected  obtained  a  from The  through  question,  when you  The  to  District.  basic  the  difference  administered  School  the  from  greater  randomly  study  with  or  were  Vancouver  students  basis  10%  students  this  were  "Can  chose  your  interviews  were  2..  ?"  and  condensed  the  main  into  five  analytical  major  framework  study. the  significant  Boys'  explanations  items  referred  learning 2.  achievement  for  which  Among  1.  15  to  experiences  differences  The  in  was  items.  Assessment  high  study  learning  females.  schools  answer  early  c o r r e c t ) of  23 8  tell  this  (percent  three  you  of  sex-related  science  P value  males  to  of  achievement  The 1982  intent  Girls' items  to  for their  explanations  experiences  to  than  of  than for  study  to  the  were:  test  informal  girls.  their  responses  c o n s i d e r a b l y more boys.  this  responses  c o n s i d e r a b l y more  experiences  referred  findings  to  formal  the  test  learning  3.  Even  though g i r l s  boys  to justify  was  still  majority 4.  Girls number  their  of t e s t  some  of t e s t  items,  their  responses  uncertainty  The  findings  related items.  could  than  negative  performance  boys f o r t h e  reactions  particularly  appear  I t appears  of g i r l s  to a  items  expressed  f o r a number  appeared  of  differences  experiences  their  than  i n the  sciences.  this  experiences  experiences  items.  A s u b s t a n t i a l number in  answers,  s u b s t a n t i a l l y lower  expressed  physical 5.  used more f o r m a l  this  among  study  observed from  t h e boys.  that  prior  of the sex-  i n the science  achievement  this  result i n superior  i i i  of  t o some  study  r e i n f o r c e and enhance  possibly  of items.None  suggest  to contribute  uncertainty  that  school  informal  learning  performance  levels.  and  TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  i  ABSTRACT  ii  L I S T OF TABLES  vi  CHAPTER I  II  INTRODUCTION  TO THE STUDY  PROBLEM STATEMENT  4  LIMITATIONS  OF THE STUDY  5  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  6  INTRODUCTION  6  BIOLOGICAL FACTORS  8  SOCIO-CULTURAL  III  1  FACTORS  10  EXPERIENTAL FACTORS  13  METHODOLOGY  20  INTRODUCTION  20  DESIGN OF THE STUDY  20  A.  THE TEST  20  B.  THE INTERVIEW  23  C.  THE SAMPLE  24  DATA COLLECTION  26  A.  TEST ADMINSTRATION  26  B.  INTERVIEW  27  DATA ANALYSIS  PROCEDURES  28  iv  CHAPTER IV  V  PAGE  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  31  THE FIRST RESEARCH QUESTION  33  THE SECOND RESEARCH QUESTION  36  THE THIRD RESEARCH QUESTION  49  THE FOURTH RESEARCH QUESTION  53  CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS  57  DISCUSSION OF THE MAJOR FINDINGS  57  CONCLUSION  64  IMPLICATIONS  66  RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH  68  APPENDIX A APPENDIX  70  B  86  BIBLIOGRAPHY  95  v  L I S T OF TABLES  TABLE 1  PAGE  CLASSIFICATION  OF TEST ITEMS BY DOMAIN  22  AND CONTENT AREA  2  MALE/FEMALE RESPONSES  FOR SELECTED  SCIENCE ACHIEVEMENT ITEMS FOR RESULTS FROM CURRENT STUDY AND 1982  B.C.  SCIENCE ASSESSMENT  3  NUMBER OF RESPONSES  25  BY CATEGORY FOR MALES  AND FEMALES  4  32  PERCENTAGE OF BOYS AND GIRLS  RESPONSES  BY CATEGORY  37  PERCENTAGES  OF  1983  SAMPLE  POSITIVELY TO ITEMS CONCERNING ACTIVITIES,  BY GENDER  vi  RESPONDING  SCIENCE 44  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  First advisor,  of  Gaalen  encouragement  member  would  like  Erickson  t o thank  f o r h i s  my  thesis  continual  and a d v i c e throughout t h e y e a r .  Secondly, a  a l l , I  I would  o f my  like  t o thank  committee,  Reginald  f o r h i s keen  Wild,  insight  and  suggestions. Finally towards in  I would  like  my  a l l t h e s t u d e n t s a n d t e a c h e r s who  the research. Without  this  to extend  t h e s i s wouldn't  their  have been  vii  appreciation participated  c o o p e r a t i o n and s u p p o r t possible.  1.  CHAPTER INTRODUCTION  In  Canada  by t h e y e a r  out  of every  the  labour  and  technology  62%  of Canadian  sales,  three  the  women  over  A study  t o do j o b s  increasingly  required 1982)  training  .Research  enroll that  girls  have  achievement (Comber NAEP  indicates  university scientific  As  a  science  tests have  ( P h i l i p s and  the  consequence, classes  Turns  not only  areas,  the  girls  on  boys  high  and  sciences  and Erickson  fewer  to  standarized  physical  g i r l s  but  Wheel?,  than  i n senior  few  and even  Council  men l a c k  scores  1973; E r i c k s o n  which  between  and e n r o l l m e n t been  i n  clerical,  1984;  e n r o l l  women  i n  become  professionals.  Explanations discrepancy  lower  over  f o r admission  fewer  courses  consistently  examinations  1978).  (Who  that  and math  and Keeves  than  required  programs  i n science  i n the  i n the technological  the qualifications  of science  by t h e S c i e n c e  more women  two  be i n  important,  o f t h e economy.  completed  that  that  t h e a g e o f 20 w i l l  a r e employed  sector  revealed  s k i l l s  also  20 00 i t i s e s t i m a t e d  i s becoming  and s e r v i c e  Canada  TO THE STUDY  f o r c e . In a world where t h eimpact  Philips,1983). of  women  I  based  on  biological  factors.  biological  basis  i s  males  attempt over  patterns  weak  rationalize the  females  on a c h i e v e m e n t  i n the physical  hypothesized While  to  many  s o c i o l o g i c a l and  authors  (Kimball,  sciences  argue  that the  1981; McGee, 1979;  2  Sherman, give  1978)  boys  Numerous as  an  classroom  and  actual  selected  test  from  tended  tests  and  of  the  defined  by  any  grade  broad the  and  parental  Kelly,  1981;  level.  might  nature of  achievement  and  to  the  explanations  Harris items items  mitigate  in  (1981)  requiring stressing  against  (1984) e x a m i n e d and  on  the  goal  the  items  logic no  another  which and  good  of  of  as  science  Dwyer  boys  tested  skills,  a measure  differences study  that  science  process  team  results  the  application  physical  area  test  discovered  knowledge  in  context, In  Kelly,  examined  female  opposed  and  1984;  emphasize  assessment  understand  scientific  and  which  scientific  in  a  science,  Erickson  Wheeler  girls  However,  in  science.  to  1984;  have  Assessment  knowledge  to  girls  possible  male  Erickson  scientific  ability  in  to  girls.  outscore  understanding  was  for  content  in  Science  to  and  Murphy,  1981)  areas.  algebraic  performance  a BC  working  sociological factors  1979;  and  items  between  that  Erickson  be  counsellors,  ( Dwyer,  v i s u a l i z a t i o n as and  such  Erickson,  Harris,  content  hypothesized  test  and  to  advantage  boys  Johnson  discrepancy  verbal  of  seem  1978).  1984;  Wheeler  spatial  examined  authors  Erickson,  the  have  (Erickson  Sherman,  the  learning  attitude  Several  of  factors  i n s t r u c t i o n , peers,  influence  1981;  social  early  studies  culture,  1978;  some  and were  (1979)  to  of  areas. which of  the  reason  found  at  suggested  3  that  males  items  achieve  business,  Females  achieve  context  i s drawn  based  from  possible a  Erickson factors  and  Erickson  1978  i n many BC  relatively  Science large  tested  boy's  sphere The  (1978)  revealed  are  i n their taught  items and  marked  science  so f o r t h .  example,  socio-cultural experiential  They  determined  from  data  that  were  study  and g i r l s . often  there  items  encountered  i n a  girls  that  Secondary boys  NAEP  cars,  males  may  have  which  trucks,  generally play  science  i n a l l  the  with  s o r t s of a c t i v i t i e s  different  might  help  that  boys  s t u d i e s . She s u g g e s t s  with  These  by  studied.  learning experiences science  completed  than  activities  reported  to play  while  For  males  differences i n extracurricular  less  of early  alluded to the  that  typically  Assessment  participated  (1981)  have  experience.  boys  Kelly  them  more  between  extracurricular  differences i n  an e a r l y  areas.  and i s  i n providing  argue males  item  relationships.  tests  Assessment  knowledge of  when  sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n d i v i d u a l  National  activities  types  science  mathematics.  males  i n the sciences.  to give  scientific,  or  f o r these  (1984)  when t h e  and humanities  experience  advantage  are working  advantage  which  of early  learning  than  o f human  on m u l t i p l e c h o i c e  role  affairs  the arts  accounting  females  are primarily  scores  on an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  achievement  girls  that  than  practical  higher  Explanations  the  scores  are s e t i n contexts  mechanical,  with  higher  and dolls,  mechanical animals,  f o r boys  could  4  lead  to a better  on.  In  spite  understanding  of  studies examining scarce  with  these  conjectures,  the role  l i t t l e  of science  firm  played  concepts  actual  research  by e x p e r i e n c e  evidence  later  has been  documented  i n this  area. Clearly,  the role  of experience  of t h e above i s s u e s r e l a t e d an  area  that  primary  should  t o t h e women i n s c i e n c e i s  be e x a m i n e d  i n t e n t of t h i s  i n e x p l a i n i n g some  study  i n closer detail.  was t o c a r r y  The  out such  an  examination.  PROBLEM This  thesis Can  addressed  i n selected science  attributed  day  questions  Can t h e e v e r y d a y identified provided set  which  and c a t e g o r i z e d  achievement  categories?  items,  more  are as f o l l o w s : o f boys and g i r l s  be  by t h e e x p l a n a t i o n s choices  on a  items?  sex-related d i f f e r e n c e s i n terms  explanatory  been  females?  to explain their  of science achievement  Are there  have  was b r o k e n down i n t o  experiences  by s t u d e n t s  question:  t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n the every-  o f males and  broad question  specific  2.  i n part  experiences  This  1.  the f o l l o w i n g general  the sex-related differences, which  observed be  STATEMENT  of  these  5  3.  Are  there  any  differences  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between in  these  categories  sex-related  and  test  item  contexts? 4.  Is  there  any  influences  evidence the  that  students'  the  context  affective  of  the  response  item  to  that  item?  L I M I T A T I O N S OF  This  study  to  examine  study  contributing science  population.  largely  possible  sex-related  from  role  as  an  of  experience  differences  sample  to  2  representative only  representative  which  a larger group be  a  However,  Table  increase  the  STUDY  exploratory  in  in  selected  items.  considered  from  designed  interview  volunteers be  to  test  The  was  THE  totally the  suggest of i f  the  that  larger  of  238  students,  random  performance  similiar  groups  of  consisted  their  sampling of  students  be  with  of  the  students  Validity larger  conducted.  15  cannot  performance  population.  research  the  of  i s can more  CHAPTER REVIEW  OF  THE  II LITERATURE  INTRODUCTION  The  underachievement  sciences  i s  literature. from  the  changes  now  and  the  Assessment  physical  assessment (BC  Not  but  on  they  physical  only a  was  had  sciences.  Scott  achievement  study senior of  items  in  higher  revealed math  than  A  girls  the  lower (1982)  that  i n each  job  physics. who  of  IEA  countries  girls  in  the  throughout  these  of  other  findings.  1978).  females  had  gathered  among  girls  in  the  data  girls  in  than  boys  found  were  lower  sciences,  enrolments  She  the  The  19  physical  has  fewer  grade  and  National  number  NAEP,  patterns  and  over  increased  1982;  from  the (NAEP).  confirmed  considerably  Canada.  percentage  of  part  Evaluation  schooling.  1978;  in  the and  trend  have  stems  the  surveys:  for  70's  in  major  i t established that  range  school  studying  this  Assessment,  and  Her  and  secondary  enrolment in  early  physical  technology  Progress  scored  programs  Science  scores  boys  sciences of  the  of  two  the  area  (IEA)  Educational  that  years  of  Achievement  in  in  phenomna  this  awareness  results  conducted  discovered  in  Associations  of  girls  documented  sparked  increasing  Educational  the  well  Interest  International  survey  a  of  that  enrolled  on high  are the in  7  physics high  varied  o f 25.2%  number times  from i n New  of boys  United  than  with  Kingdom  immensity  Brunswick.  enrolled  greater  accordance  a l o w o f 8.6% i n N e w f o u n d l a n d In each  i n physics  girls.  This  reported  Kelly.  of this  two  to  observation  of science  by  province  were  the patterns  the three  was  enrolment  She  to a  i n  i n the  summarizes  the  problem:  Half the population of the country-the female h a l f i s m i s s i n g o u t on s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n . Most g i r l s a r e r e c e i v i n g only a rudimentary education in p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e ( K e l l y 1978, p 1 8 ) .  This and  divergence  enrolment  o f f e r i n g  generally proposed Some  f o r these  accepted  or  at  these  causes  argue  best  some  causes  from that  Research  offer  no  can suggest  of the This  factors  males.  been  differences exist,  the  situation  society  It i s this simple  at  possible  are varied.  i s at fault,  a r g u e t h a t f e m a l e s a r e d e s t i n e d by t h e i r  distinct  aimed  i t has  of t h i s  that  achievement  studies  d i f f e r e n c e s . Although  that  underlying  boys and g i r l s  has prompted  remedies  researches  other  out  patterns  some  explanations  between  complexity  while  s e x t o be  of underlying  s o l u t i o n s to the problem.  and o f f e r  s t r a t e g i e s both  i n and  classroom. chapter  which  have  for  the variation  and  females.  These  briefly been  reviews  some  of the current  o f f e r e d as p o t e n t i a l  i n science  achievement  f a c t o r s c a n be  explanations  between  discussed  males  i n terms  of  8  three  broad  categories:  biological,  socio-cultural,  and  experiential. BIOLOGICAL  Until  recently,  emphasis  on  the  for  the  between  and  girls.  boys  metabolic account  and  for  girls.  the  X-linked  the  Of  brain  involving spatial  this  abilities various  (ability  to  and  higher  Jacklin,  ability for  by  theory sides  1974;  brain  refers of  perform controls  the  to  an  that  by  or  et  theory,  the  research  I t has  been  (Gray,  in  1982;  a l , 1982).  the  Why  lateralization  theory.  Briefly  are  while the  specialized The  spatial  right  females  the  rely  to  left  more  some  degree  side  the  this  and  of  are  Research on  accounted  l e f t  functions  side.  mind)  spatial  is  that  shown  Maccoby  females  notion  in  visualization  than  the  most  variations  pattern  females,  boys  including  the  spatial  object  males  of  to  between  as  on  sexes.  of  postulated  emerges focus  the  Skolnick  brain  speech  heavy  achievement  lateralization  that  than  for  a  p o s s i b l e  theories,  centered  different functions.  principally revealed  studies  i s higher the  major  between  males  and  brain  has  been  achievement  theory  The  manipulate  for  in  the  theory  through  is  and  sound.  as  science  o r i g i n have  laterization  empirically  in  explanations  theory  placed  Additionally, explanations  differences  these  has  t h e o r i e s  variation  hormonal  the  and  literature  b i o l o g i c a l  explanations  FACTORS  the  to  brain  controlled  studies  left  right  have  hemisphere  9  than  the right  hemisphere earlier  dominance  i n females  established 1979)  for spatial  boys  major  right  (1978)  and  girls  that  and  hemisphere  dominance  (Vandenberg  and  might  i s  Kuse,  the actual  to  i n many  the  hemisphere  exist  as the ability.  between  differences  to account  the  are quite  for the  achievement  large  items.  She  and games t h a t boys  differential  i s a  play  development  of  skills. (1982)  on  lateralization  and  of  science  evidence  She  had  f a c t o r s  differences  nature  tasks,  lead  b i o l o g i c a l  best.  there  i n spatial  differences  the types of toys  Kimball  that  although  n o t be c o n s i d e r e d  for variations  observed  suggests that  spatial  that  i t should  are insufficient  differences  with  cautions  although  on s p a t i a l  small  disputed  any  tendencies  f o r the X-linked theory  suggests size  a r e weak that  that  towards  become  available.  weak  and  area  tests.  theory  that  to  She  and  and h i g h l y  the  brain  inferential affect  and b i o l o g i c a l  factors  math  that  skills  girls  and  this  i n the  weakness  at the have  with  abilities  i f opportunities a r e weak  sex  suggests  may  i f girls  abilities,  position  contribute  She a r g u e s  excellent  i n this  the  environment  genetic  Conversely,  s k i l l s  type  achievement  an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y .  math  left  i s established  i n the use of t h e r i g h t and l e f t  argues  may  functions  f o r males.  explanations  sexes  on  while  Additionally,  .  difference  She  for verbal  earlier  Sherman  for  functions.  aren't basic  could  be  10  addressed  by  summarizes  increasing  her position  the opporunities by  available.  She  arguing:  We m u s t f o c u s o n t h e i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n o f why i s i s t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f men and women i n s c i e n t i f i c f i e l d s i s s o l a r g e , when sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n t e l l u c t u a l a b i l i t i e s a r e s o s m a l l ( K i m b a l l 1982, p 5 9 ) .  SOCIO-CULTURAL  The  more  recent  cultural  factors  display  superior  sciences.  social, acting  achievement  that  situations  role  i n items  on  physics  through  together  items  J o h n s o n and Murphy  males  the superior i s based  Several  cultural  and f e m a l e s  social-  o f why  and e x p e r i e n t i a l  to create  appropriate  on  i n the physical  that  or i n combination.  f o r males  considered  explanations  attitudinal  pressure work  has focused  hypothesized  of males  cultural,  influences  point  as p o s s i b l e  separately  suggest  literature  I t has been  performance  FACTORS  and  on  factors authors  educational  different  social  and communicate  what i s  behaviour.  As  a  case  i n  emphasize:  S o c i e t y ' s r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r men a n d women r e s u l t i n the kinds of d i f f e r e n c e s i n the early s o c i a l i z a t i o n experiences o f boys and g i r l s . . . and a r e r e i n f o r c e d by a p p r o p r i a t e r o l e m o d e l s i n r e a l l i f e , i n t h e media, and i n textbooks, and by t h e s u b t l e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e h i d d e n curriculum throughout their schooling ( J o h n s o n and Murphy 1 9 8 4 , p 4 0 7 ) .  There the  negative  i s a wide  body  influences  of literature  of peers,  encompassing  traditional  parents,  11  i n f l u e n t i a l schools,  biased  of  authors  may  have  agree  parents  feel  can  future  affect  (1979)  and  too  role  how  these  a  teachers  perceives  perceptions  from  Some  a  masculine  as  a girl  decisions.  away  and  homemaker.  counsellors  subject  or  not  A  necesary  suggest  that  teachers  subconsciously  to  test  teachers  three  award  identical science  than  teachers and  c)  science  more  Are  experiment discovered  given  higher  work  essay  in  written  lower  The  the  a)  the  written  essay  recent  schools  and  girls  suggest  that  girls  of  for  to  the  and  the  work  do  than  study  of  girls? in  various  writeup  of  scientists.  and  a  for  boys  the  teachers  on  boys  al  science  girls  a t t r i b u t e d to  than  et  interect  than  than  required  work  marks  boys  science  Fox  Whether  expectations  to  a  (1984) c o n d u c t e d  boys  on  based  on  ratings i n terms  expressed  to  Based  procedure  an  that  marks  ascribed  evaluate and  Spear  attributes relevant  likely  to  science.  hypotheses:  w o r k b)  have  experimental  schools  basic  higher  written  girls?  females.  for  influences  do  males  and  because  teacher's  in  the  influence  students  study  higher  and  majority  counsellors,  on  sex  The  well  with  often  how  formats.  s i n g l e  how  more  The  is  testing  parents,  girls  i t  counsellors,  effect  actions  steer  and and  that  sciences  subsequent  girls  texts  a negative  physical  they  teachers  Spear  a girl  boys  were  a t t i t u d e s and  an  was give  interests  questions.  l i t e r a t u r e success achieve  in  i n v o l v i n g the  better  in  s i n g l e  physical single  sex  sex  sciences schools  12  (Kahle  1983).  Kelly  disadvantage dominated subject The  in  by  whereas  on  explored  female  science  school. sex  of  the  schools. little male  science the  Kelly  will  and He  is a  goes  viewed  on as  behaviour  to  are  All paragraphs  would  to  study  do  a  a i s  boy's  school.  teacher the  has  physical  and  Cobonc  or  absence  of  influence  enrollment  and  and  support  this  to  school  difference  that  l i t t l e  a  Vockell  states  and  a  although view,  a  the  in  the  there  i s  exclusively  the  matter  girls  between  achievement  dispel  s u b j e c t no  how  idea  that  sympathetic  be.  (1982)  has  argued  concept  of  characteristic suggest  that and  and  that  m a s c u l i n i t y and traits  i n North  in  influence  other  factors in  that  male  ways  peer  social  the  by  feminity with  them.  science i s and  female  parental  pressure,  TV,  agents.  mentioned  turn,  go  America,  many  behaviours,  these  in a l l societies,  s t e r e o t y p e s of  reinforced  t e a c h e r s , and of  of  at  presence  enrollment  to  masculine  expectations literature,  and  general  particular  the  as  in a girl's  sex  by  significant  masculine  Fischer there  no  (1981)  t e a c h e r s may  desire  initiated  evidence  is a  the  are  science  i s labelled  coeducational public  teacher  staff  girls  girls  because  occur  that  teachers  found  real  science  whether  in a  They  a  that  school  doesn't  study  (1981)  achievement  and  suggests  One  suggested  mixed  this  influence  sciences.  a  boys  literature  little  (1981)  wide  in  the  spectrum  above of  13  experiences age  that  b o y s and  games.  girls  spatial  in  that  than like  often  considered  and  maybe  discouraged  a  this girls  science  type  of  Several early  and  in  science  Murphy,  Johnson  and  different  kinds play  of  from  pursuing  have  games and  toys  Kahle,  Murphy  stress:  and  peers  activities.  It  throughout  feelings  towards  masculine.  attitudes  1984;  and play  these  discussed  (Erickson  more  skills  parents  negative  considered  be  and  girls  attitude continuing  creates  on  that  boys  early  of toys  related  their  an  would  toys  with  From  types  toys  physics  ' t o m b o y s ' by  authors  experiences  females  the to  that  anything  encounter.  electrical  pervasive  schooling or  with  and  are  is  girls  developing  abilities  Girls  and  play  Mechanical  instrumental  with.  boys  and  the  and  achievement  Erickson,  Matyas,  and  relevance  1984;  Cho,  of of  Johnson  1985).  As  A g r e a t d e a l of d i s c u s s i o n about the undera c h i e v e m e n t o f g i r l s i n p h y s i c s has centered around the s u b j e c t p o l a r i z a t i o n i s s u e i n the s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l , b u t i t s h o u l d be c l e a r f r o m the evidence i n t h i s p a p e r and e l s e w h e r e t h a t t h e r o o t of the problem l i e s r a t h e r i n d i f f e r e n c e s i n early s o c i a l i z a t i o n experiences ( J o h n s o n and Murphy 1984, p 407).  It  is this  role  of  in  greater  detail  experience  documented  as  will  be  discussed  in  below.  EXPERIENTAL  Differences  which  in  early  FACTORS  science as  age  experiences  three.  In  an  has  early  been study  14  completed year  by  olds,  Bridges i t  was  (1927)  calling  freedom  expression  follow such there year  pairing  were  follow  to  try  engage  in  Hutt the  number  the  time  by  and  may  of  that  which  messages  of  they  be  adults are  the  boys  of  Kelly  of  usually  voice  two  that  to  than  boys  suggests  are  treated  unaware  of  messages.  and  four  willing  (197 8)  girls  transmitting  tone  activities  hesitant  and  are  girls  were more  more  activities. birth  while  for  discovered  behaviour  were  preferred  routine  (1972)  three  allowing  bricks)  in  of  boys  one  g i r l s at play. G i r l s  a  differently means  and  i n s t r u c t i o n s and  from  that  (building  variations  out  interests  invention,  colours.  o l d b o y s and  to  that  for  instructions  as  the  demonstrated  activities of  on  the  These  p a r t i c u l a r body  postures. Both indicate that  the  national  inequities  girls  and  boys  classroom.  When  ever  magnet?  used  a  reported  that  completed  by  in  surveys  the  had  types  both  responding  they  the  BC  had.  of  In  an  a  it  was  related  revealed  that  activities  activities  would  completed  fewer  girls  outside  include  the as  reading  science have  than  by  et  the  al in  classroom  books,  boys  girls  experiments Kahle  you  survey  fewer  participated  of  survey  experiences  girls  Assessment  boys.  study  BC  a t t i t u d i n a l  participating in laboratory current  of  such  fewer  reported In  out  items  etc.  Science  the  science  i n and to  compass?  and  than (1985)  science (such  magazines,  or  15  working  with  mentioned science by  Lie  that  and  they  related and  seems  to  Bryhni  (1983)  more  and  performing  less  than  a  indicated  in  boys  type  Additionally,  that  not  only  than  performance  scores  well  many some  activities  striking  test  as in  girls.  science  discovered  twice  involved  in science  affect  experience  Over  were  activity  Bryhni  participate this  hobbies).  as  areas  science where  a  do  study  boys  girls  but  well.  Lie  correspondence  i n  of  between  with  they  g i r l s  had  less  experience. Howe find to  out  10  11  improve  s t i l l  boys  the  new  They  are  ideas  differences  the  in  and  the  concrete  of It  social  girls  from  there  instruction  was  be  when  and  sex  that  there between  appropriate  their  assimilate level  i s .  differences  based  his  study  aspiration  society  should  have  Piaget's  stages  from  He  but  girls  milieu,  in  density  apparent  wherever  might  given  discovered  females  that boys  and  to  in  i n f l u e n c e c o g n i t i v e development.  (1975)  of  both  experient  volume  and  concluded  that  operations.  boys  for males  that  females  for  a  performance.  starting  development  formal  on  available,  G r a y b i l l  and  task  They  experiences  males  olds  an  sex-related difference  speculated  early  completed classroom  improved  girls.  experiences  (1981)  p e r i o d of  test  the  and  a  year  performance was  Shayer  whether  and  would  and  discovered  and  p e r i o d may  that  that  different  account  test  on  and  whether reward  an  for  effect  on  concrete  to  scores  varied  experiences  during  for this  widening  gap.  16  He  suggested  obtain  outside  transition types  of  boys  that  females  Graf  achievement success  when  the  sets and  of the  other  the  produces of  72  this  reduced. were  in a  one  new  smoked  lasted  of  him  pursue,  and  the  role.  h i s own  main to  consider.  (1972)  study  One  day  a cigarette seven  in  are  as  parallel male  from  butts  six  butts  collected  How  role  follows:  from  every  hours.  problem  two in a  he  found  appropriate  one  tobacco  Since  indicators  cigarettes  The  doing  Stafford,  differences  They  that  1959).  Riddell  Milton's  in  and  variable  sex  cigarette.  and  t o make i t l e s s  in his travels.  b u t t s . He supply  rolls  sport  possibility  males  constructed;  female  the  These  of  they  Milton,  one  Graf  In  types  ( Castore  1972;  role,  boys  in  operations.  the  from  important  sex  helpful  games  tested  are  and  the  etc.).  a problem  tramp,  collects  an  (1959)  problems  Snuffy, he  are  and  results  results  were  formal  differ  test  masculine  solving  may  be  that  i n c l u d e the  have  test  altering  to  sets  Riddell,  Milton  to  train  and  they  might  might  authors  affect  experience  hobbies  experiences  will  that  the  hockey,  of  school  concrete  and  Several  of  types  experiences  play  1971;  of  from  (baseball,  so  the  half  a  hour,  d i d he  total yet  manage  this? Sally,  the  morning. dozen  cook, She  round  cuts  rolls  cookies  out  c o o k i e s . One  from  s i x cups day  she  b a t t e r she of  made  batter a  total  makes to  cut  of  72  each one cups  17  of  batter.  this  She s o l d  supply  lasted  a dozen  cookies every  h e r seven  hours.  half  hour, y e t  How d i d s h e m a n a g e  this? These  problems  females  were  t o solve.  given  From  t h a t men o n t h e a v e r a g e women  experiments  they  t o determine  experimenter,  variable  some Maier  marked  They  were  a series of  eight  able  problems  variables:  than i n  sex o f  the  similiar  from  the results  that  each  o n some o f t h e p r o b l e m s .  t h esex o f t h e experimenter  differences  that  the  and feminine v e r s i o n s o f  the results  v s masculine  suggested  greater  selected  main  concluded  o f the problems  variables  when they  completed  t h e s u b j e c t s t o do b e t t e r  feminine  showed  They  three  instances  influenced  (1966)  and masculine  influences  some  The  appropriateness of  added m o t i v a t i o n ( e x t r a work w i t h  type problems) problems.  than the  w h e t h e r women w e r e l e s s  solving.  tested  concluded  role.  and Maier  i n problem  which  In  s o l v e d more problems  i n a feminine  Hoffman  o f males and  Milton  w h i l e women s o l v e d m o r e p r o b l e m s  presented  the  the results  regardless ofthe role  problem  men  t o a group  o n some  versions of the  between  males  a complex  problems  and females on  and n o t on o t h e r s .  must be t a k i n g  problems.  interaction  Hoffman and between t h e  p l a c e and s h o u l d be examined i n  detail.  Erickson examining  and  Erickson  the results  (1984)  discovered  o f t h e BC S c i e n c e  when  Assessment  that  18  no  difference  of  understanding  items  a t any grade  which  interpreting inferred  processes.  involved  graphing,  t h a t boys  do b e t t e r  events  drawn  was  found  i n the  that  throwing to  were  have  their  with  the  can into  from  g i r l s  lack  girls  of experience  difference  have  or bring  extensively  what into  i n  important  knowledge  Acknowledging  of background  to  this  instruction  knowledge i s  years.  types their  researched  girls  that the early  and p r o v i d i n g a d e q u a t e  i n the early  Exactly  and  taken  sciences.  background  potential  then i t  s h o u l d be  boys  stress  more s o p h s i c a t e d c o n c e p t s .  essential  experience  are particularly  the  i n the  on i t e m s d e a l i n g  of experience  (1984)  items  suggested  use t h i s  the physical  compensate f o r the lack  related  these  They  This  answers.  formulate  to  dealing  sex  of  balls.  sphere  instruction  might  i t was  on i t e m s  One  instructing  and E r i c k s o n  of science  than  lack  sciences, especially  years  tables,  where  a n d may  their  that this  Erickson  reading  extensive experience  better  c o n s i d e r a t i o n when  the  included  of experience.  area  of rubber  than g i r l s  drawn  be a r g u e d  f o r the goal goal  girls  greatest.  more  boys perform  events  This  sphere  physics  much  of b a l l s  than  provide explanations f o r their If  as  from  t o the motion  boys  found  and o b s e r v a t i o n s . A d d i t i o n a l l y  with  referred  was  science  data  differences  level  of experience s c h o o l based  girls  work  i n the literature.  and  boys  has n o t been This  study i s  19  an  attempt  experiences the on  to  explore  of  males  differences selected  that  science  whether  and have test  differences  females been items.  contribute  observed  in  in to  everyday some  of  performance  20. CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY  INTRODUCTION  The  primary  possible males  role  From  responses  interview  chapter  procedures),  and d a t a  twelve  volunteered e x p l a i n i n g item  those  items The  tool  t o be their  test  Assessment  was  and the  displaying  unstructured felt  f o r the major  study. and d i s c u s s  t h e sample,  data  adminstration  the design  collection and  interview  analysis.  DESIGN  A.  a 23  as t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r  i n this  test  item  differences.  identify  study,  problem  T h e 23  appropriate  will  includes  upon  chosen  addressed  the research  ( which  was  test  o f 238 g r a d e  of  items.  which  achievement  15 s t u d e n t s  was b a s e d  t h e most  being  This  group  sex-related  format  i t was  basic  t h e 1 9 8 2 BC S c i e n c e  criteria  greatest  experiences  to science  t o a group  test  was t o e x a m i n e t h e  the prior  f o r the purpose  from  selection  question  this  to these  extracted  of  bring  study  To i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s  interviewed  that  by  was a d m i n i s t e r e d  students.  the  played  and females  situations. test  aim of this  OF THE STUDY  The T e s t  The  multiple choice  Science  Assessment.  test  items  Twenty-three  were  taken  items  from  were  t h e 1982  s e l e c t e d on  21  the  basis  greater  of  between  statistic  used  percentage correct  of  domains  of  Level  problems.  facts,  ten P  the  percent  value  survey)  learning  as  1982  Recall  or  (main  refers  to  the  who  chose  the  one  of  item  to  problems  Assessment:  and  for  Recall,  recall  and  and  Higher  into  Processes  by  of  understand  Thinking  of and  solving  Understanding  transfering  and  consisted  purpose  principles,  Level  Science  c l a s s i f y i n g ,  the and  three  Understanding;  observing,  information  involved  various  science  including  safety  involved  prior  the  ability  knowledge  and/or  behaviour.  addition, by  biology,  the  f e l l  Thinking. Science  concepts,  solve  the and  these  items  items  and  Appendix  A.  Out  of  would  the  items  by  Knowledge,  procedures.  were  of  females.  attempting  test  such  ability  groups  students  the  intepreting  In  and  in interpreting  Knowledge,  processes  to  males  established  Processes;  the  i n P-value  response.  Each  Higher  a difference  altered make  performance.  each  1982  item  was  assessment  earth/space  classified team:  science.  i s displayed student  i n s t r u c t i o n s  these  items  to any  23  see  i f changes  difference  Item  22  four  was  in  physics,  The  in Table  1,  i n the  altered  to  one  of  four  chemistry,  classification while  are  items  the  into  the  of  actual  reproduced  in  (20,21,22,and  23)  context  boys  and  determine  of  an  girls  item test  whether  a  22  TABLE CLASSIFICATION  OF  Science Processes a) i n t e r p r e t d a t a b)  II.  III.  DOMAIN AND  Item  i d e n t i f y and control variables  9  18  7,8,17,22  solve abstract problems  See Appendix  AREA  Earth/Space  11  safety procedures  number.  CONTENT  1,2  Higher Level Thinking a) e v a l u a t e evidence f o r conclusions b)  *  BY  20,21*  Knowledge, R e c a l l a) u n d e r s t a n d i n g b)  ITEMS  Content Area Biology Chemistry Physics  Domain 1.  TEST  1  10  A  for a  full  6  5,16  13  15,23  12  14,19  3,4  description  of the  items.  23  subtle  change  setting  would  Item  23  diagram  was  from have  attempt  scores.  I t  four  changes  to  each  d i d not The  the  change  in a  two  of  the  form  test  second  form,  printed  forms.  were  given  The  as  on  simple  the  alternate  upon  altered  variables  that  the  would  based  in  an  familiar  differences  in  t h i s  test  would  performance.  for alterations  because  were  simple  four  relatively  items  being  paper,  to  quickly  half  of  the  of  One  form,  23  items;  contained  was  means  used  the  by  the  identify  the  students  the  items.  subsequently  original  paper  version  the  printed.  the  green  coloured  in  tested  test.  Interviews  minutes  pilot  a  The  21,  test  contained  Approximately  Each  used  .  items  performance.  conceptual content of  paper,  items  girls*  these the  of  kitchen  change  were  any  selected  white  investigator  B.  the  on  revised  two  of  use  a  saucepans  and  e x p e c t e d  were  alteration  resulted printed  affect  test  to  data,  the  to  small  20  create  not  items  i f a  Items  would  on  bottles  whether  was  differentially These  see  graphical  to observe  a l l students  and  to  performance. of  setting  difference  laboratory  interpretation  to  laboratory  any  altered  from  a f f e c t  a  interview  i n length.  i n the  interviews  interviews.  structured  The  but  The  ranged  from  structure were  format  centered  on  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20-30  and  type  developed during of  the  of q u e s t i o n s a  interviews  students  series were  responses  to  of  nonthe  24  basic or  question  explain  "Could  why  you  you  tell  chose  this  item  e l a b o r a t i o n  requested  of  This  style  educational as  a  one  researchers( Posner  and  of  interview has  been  1978;  Erickson,  required  address  necessary the  for  question  guide  for  each  responses B  for  utilized  Aguirre,  be  thinking  a  f a i r l y  students  G e r t z o g , 1982). T h i s  to  i s  for  to  were  were  complete  interviews.  tool  investigator  a  Appendix  these  and  as  their  of  research  research  of  See  you  answer  basic question  i f necessary.  transcript  what  your  1...2...?" U s i n g further  me  method to  a  1979;  obtain  problem  and  by  was  of  common  justified  number Kuhn, by  the  of  data  in  this  type  interest  of  1978;  judged  the  i n  study.  C.  The  Sample  The  test  randomly School  adminstered  s e l e c t e d from  District.  o f f i c i a l s as  was  being  i n the roughly  The  t o a g r o u p o f 238  three three  Research  schools schools  i n the were  of  the  Vancouver  selected  Services Division  representative  students  of  the  Vancouver  by VSB  school  population. An sample from  e m p i r i c a l check was  this  students Table  2  obtained sample  obtained  by  of  the  representativeness  comparing  students  from  i n d i c a t e s the  on  the match  with  1982 in  the  p-values  the  Science  of  obtained  population Assessment  performance  the  between  of  BC  .  As  this  25 TABLE  2  MALE/FEMALE RESPONSES FOR SELECTED SCIENCE ACHIEVEMENT ITEMS FOR RESULTS FROM CURRENT STUDY AND 1982 B.C. SCIENCE ASSESSMENT  I t e m No.  1982 R e s u l t s (N-22,110) Percent Correct Male Female  Current Results (N-238) Percent Correct Male Female  1  46  38  49  32  2  43  26  42  27  3  48  26  60  31  4  41  19  42  26  5  36  25  54  36  6  60  34  65  38  7  53  38  55  36  8  27  17  20  22  9  71  57  72  48  10  50  32  57  32  11  57  46  68  52  12  52  38  52  45  13  74  44  66  35  14  76  55  72  51  15  69  44  54  47  16  58  39  57  39  17  80  67  67  51  18  72  62  73  61  19  69  46  70  50  20  47  37  *38 41  *30 32  21  66  58  *57 58  *41 40  22  70  46  *48 60  *30 51  23  60  45  *49 63  *30 51  *Male/Female Responses foi the a l t e r e d  26 s a m p l e and The to  t h e 1982  tests  English  were 12  Because these this  would  s a m p l e was  very  administered  and  Consumer  high.  by  a  classroom  Education  12  classes.  c l a s s e s a r e c o m p u l s o r y , i t was  result  in a  more  teacher  felt  that  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample  of  students. From females) study.  When to  longer  their  own  that  they  A.  238  Test  asked the  to  take  students part  volunteer, that  the  30  minutes,  be  interviewed,  were not  in  (8  the  the  males,  that  they  and  evaluated.  DATA  COLLECTION  7  interview  investigator  i n t e r v i e w would  being  a d m i n s t r a t i o n of  minutes.  The  test  explained  was  deliberate questions up  directions  a  when  teachers  was  to  point  as  explanation  could  most  not  choose  importantly  the  each  of  avoid  word  test  by  being  assessed  the  were doing  to  initial i s  mentioned. to  were designed  i n science. Since  pressure  put  to  negative  the  A  these  reactions The  only  inquisitive to the  see  teachers  how  classes  Consumer E d u c a t i o n on  25  science  teachers.  refer  investigator  were E n g l i s h and  h a v e b e e n no  approximately  classroom  not  that the questions  students  took  the  made  to  offered  test  f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g the  was  test the  well  should  to  student  than  time  to  15  Adminstration  The  set  students,  volunteered  stressed take  the  there  for  the  27  students the  to perform  teacher  The t e s t s  and t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r  B. I n t e r v i e w  Each  well.  were  scored  collected  by  a l l the tests.  Procedure  of  t h e 15  students  that  volunteered  to  i n t e r v i e w e d had t h e i r c h o i c e of t h e t i m e of day and to  be i n t e r v i e w e d ( w i t h i n  of  t h e 15  students  chose  student  was  investigators t o be  be  date  guidelines). A l l  interviewed after  school  hours. Each empty  classroom.  interviewed  In this  students were r e l a t i v e l y school  time  of time  span  approximately  unmarked  test  Before small  starting  that the from  was  the answer they  their  subsequent  testing  and  was g i v e n  engaged  right  d i d . They  other  scheduling  interviewing  time  t o examine  i n t o reduce  i t was wasn't  or wrong were  was  major their  response  Each  i n t e r v i e w was  record  analysis.  of  interested  to  the  to reread  they  audio-taped  they  chose t h e  the questions  question  students'  students  i n whether  b u t i n why  each  minutes  any a n x i e t y o r  explained to the  able  own  accurate  and t e a c h e r  any o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s a few  In addition,  interview. an  and away  an  during the interview.  the investigator  answer and  restrictions  student  paper  talk  tension.  got  felt  one week. T h i s w a s n ' t p e r c e i v e d a s a  as each  that  comfortable  between  obstacle  of  i t was  of  distractions.  Because the  setting  i n t h e back  during  the  so as t o have responses  for  28  DATA  The their  explanations  answers  study.  The  following  1.  Each a  one  of  of  the  the  list  both  students  source  was  to e x p l a i n  of data  analyzed  tapes  items.  the  23  was  the  knowledge,  These  to  weren't  and  to  wide  for  using  a  the of  the the  guessing, which  were For  sure  f o r g o t how  how  student's common  and  of  noted  on  explanations began  common  and  of  group  simply  to  formal  experience, a  on  were d e s c r i b e d i n  got  arrived  the  at  as  miscellaneous  where their  sense,  idiosyncratic  categorized  responses  they  time  experiences  factors  factors  they  get  analysis.  example,  included  to  g i r l s  second  were  following categories: informal  once  variety  experiences  common  miscellanous. category  a  to  out-of-classroom  a number  experience,  responses  to  and  boys  listened  for further  These  of  listened  for  tapes  cards  was of  listening  terms  tapes  alluding  emerge.  they  main  overview  prepared.  From the  15  classroom  index  3.  the  data  the  steps:  Each  was  by  interview  g e n e r a l  a  given  comprise  explanations  2.  ANALYSIS  the  answer  their  students or  answer.  when  29  The  d e s c r i p t i o n s of  given  a)  these  FORMAL  EXPERIENCE-  experience.  material,  media  This  This  INFORMAL  EXPERIENCE  of  school  experience.  hobbies,  TV,  listening  to  reading the  SENSE  knowledge  that  particular  event.  where  they  This  by  guessing.  e)  MISCELLANEOUS  obtained  where their  looked  like  by  process  4.  the  Using was  and  are  of  reading  category  consisted  included  had  such  books,  category  and  so  without  students  couldn't  answer  they  forth.  practical  or  their  remember  they  answer  a l l how  stated  found  any  responses  included  simply  as  naming  dervived  category  out  newspapers,)  included  This  of  events  included students  or  school  instruction.  p l a y i n g games,  the they  that i t  their  answer  elimination.  categories to  i l l u s t r a t e d above, again,  explanation  for  of  school  s t a t e d t h a t they  -  consisted textbooks,  ( magazines,  category  right  written  followed  This  This  listened  student's  This  answers,  the  the  -  and  students  simply  responses  included  -  radio,  COMMON  GUESSING-  category  resources,  b)  d)  categories  below:  based  c)  explanatory  onto a l l 15  a  item  f o r an  f i l e  item  card.  students.  by  For  item.  was  This each  each  tape Each  categorized  procedure student  was there  30  was  5.  o n l y one  Using  the  response  category  assigned  i n f o r m a t i o n on f o r b o y s and  the  girls  category. T h i s procedure  described  i n the  file was  yielded  base f o r subsequent a n a l y s i s  per  and  item.  cards a  frequency  t a b u l a t e d f o r each the primary  data  interpretation  f o l l o w i n g chapter.  as  CHAPTER  RESULTS  The study  basic  was  to  secondary some  IV  AND  DISCUSSION  research question  explore  school  whether  boys  and  being  the  girls  sex-related differences  addressed  prior  in  this  experiences  of  contribute in part,  in selected  science  to  test  items. This  question  selection the  BC  with  chose  Each  students  Science  students you  of  the  the  and  yielded  frequency each  categories.  Table  is  the  organized  questions excerpts used  to  data  of  to  science  of  you  item and  these  i n Chapter  1.  raised  quote,  education  have  the been  why  audio-  3  as  procedures  for  boys  and  explanatory  f  frequencies. this  chapter  the  general  of  been by  these  categorized  Whenever  i n t e r v i e w s have  each  was  response  discussion  of  1...2.. e t c ? "  by  in Table  from  explain  analytic  down  random  taken  test  responses  broken  some p o i n t s  besides  23  These  presented  student  "Can  analyzed  the  a  i n t e r v i e w i n g 15  the  provides  around  exemplify  parentheses, level  3  items  did for question  III.  item  testing  test  question  table  presented from  you  Chapter  for  Using  and  responses  in  through  specific  response  discussed  g i r l s  on  specific  answer  their  a  examined  Assessment  student's  taped  was  possible,  quoted  this  subjects noted.  and  study. sex  In  and  32 TABLE 3 NUMBER OF RESPONSES BY CATEGORY FOR MALES AND FEMALES (N=8 m a l e s , 7 females)  P. Values F M 49 42 60 42 54 65 55 20 72 57 68 52 66 72 54 57 67 73 60 41 58 60 63  32 27 31 26 36 38 36 22 48 32 52 45 35 51 47 39 51 61 50 32 40 51 51  Common Experience I n f o r m a l Sense Formal M F M F M F 4 6 2 1 1 4 6 7 5 2 4  4 3 3 1 1 4 4 3 4 1 1 3 1 3  O 3 3 2 0  2  2  1 2 4 2  5 3 2 1 1 2 2 3 4 4  4 3  A 3 3 0 3  OA 3 4 3 3 3 0 o; 1  0 1 1 0  A 0 0 2  1  1  2  1  3 1 1 1 3 3 3 4 1 1 6 3 1 2  4 6 6  Miscellaneous M F 1  2  6 2 4  1 7 6  2  Guessing M F  OA O A  0 3 2 0 0 1  1 2 3  1 6 1 1 1 1 1  OA 0 1  OA  0 1  1 0  2 0  OA  O A'  0 2 2  The O/A s p l i t r e f e r s t o r e s p o n s e s t o t h e two forms o f q u e s t i o n s 2 0 - 2 3 . There were 3 g i r l s and 4 boys r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e o r i g i n a l i t e m s (0) and 4 g i r l s and 4 boys r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e a l t e r e d items ( A ) .  33  The  F i r s t  Can  Research  the everyday  be  identified  provided on  Five  experiences  to explain  a s e t of science  analysis  of  consisted  the  of  their  number  o f common which  factors were  common  by  sense,  a  result  interview  explanations  formal  and  from  of interviews are i l l u s t r a t e d  This  For  a  common t o  as  informal  with  excerpts  below.  Experience  category  experiences. material,  along  test  miscellaneous.  of these  Formal  categories  referred  experience,  guessing,  to  on t a p e  e s t a b l i s h e d . These  an  data  t o t h e 23 s c i e n c e  Descriptions a number  of  the students  subsequently  c a t e g o r i e s were:  experience,  as  given  were  choices  items?  The  t o these  girls  explanations  data.  of answers  listening  explanatory  established  interview  choice  From  factors  were  and  their  achievement  explanations  items.  of boys  a n d c a t e g o r i z e d by  by s t u d e n t s  categories  explain  Question:  These  media  c o n s i s t e d included  resources,  and  of  school  textbooks, school  based  reading  instruction.  example:  W e l l , i t ' s s o m e t h i n g I remember me t o d o ( f e m a l e , s c i e n c e 1 1 ) .  my  teacher  telling  34  You always mix the (female, science 1 1 ) .  water  with  We learned that from a b i o l o g y taken (male, s c i e n c e 1 2 ) .  Informal  This  hobbies,  This  TV,  listening  to  course  a c i d ,  that  I  had  Experience  category  experience.  the  c o n s i s t e d  included  reading the  reference  (magazines,  radio,  playing  of  out  to  such  books,  of  school  events  as  newspapers)  games and  so  forth.  For  example:  I chose number two because in driver training school, t h a t ' s how long i t t a k e s you to stop, (male, s c i e n c e 1 1 ) .  I g u e s s I've a l w a y s b e e n i n t e r e s t e d i n s u b m a r i n e s and s t u f f and I used that to choose my answer (male, s c i e n c e 1 2 ) .  Common S e n s e  This students  category had  included  without  practical  naming  any  knowledge  particular  that  the  event.  For  example:  Well, that's just basic knowledge. learned a t i m e ago. (female, science  Something 12).  I  Guessing  This simply  category  stated  included  that  they  student derived  responses their  where  answers  they by  35  guessing.  For  example:  0h I had no i d e a f o r (female, science 11). r  this  question  so  I  guessed,  Oh b o y , I d o n ' t k n o w w h a t w o u l d h a p p e n . I h a v e t o o much p r i d e t o p u t I don't know so I g u e s s e d , (female, science 12).  Miscellaneous This  category  students answers right of  couldn't or  they  answer,  remember  simply  or  elimination.  included  they For  a l l the how  where  obtained  their  they  stated that  found  responses  their  i t looked  answer  by  like  the  the  process  example:  At t h e t i m e I knew t h e a n s w e r , but i t seems l o n g and c o m p l i c a t e d t o remember what I was t h i n k i n g (male, s c i e n c e 11). Well, wrong  I s o r t of e l i m i n a t e d the ( f e m a l e , s c i e n c e 11) .  These e x p l a n a t o r y condensing student  responses  large  interviews.  interview f a i r l y  the  tapes  easy  to  the  categorization  categories provided amount From  a  to  one  of  scheme a l l o w e d  b e t w e e n b o y s and  girls  of  data  knew  of  review  of  by  the  of  the  i t  was  student's  categories.  This  f o r c o m p a r i s o n s t o be  made  responses  five  the  were  a means  discovered  each the  I  presented  thorough  investigator  categorize  according  ones  too  to various science  test  36  items  and p e r m i t t e d  response  patterns  categorization by  s e x was  was  responses  insights  between  complete  table  t o each  the d i f f e r e n t i a l  sexes.  a total  number  category  comprising  item,  the remainder  into  the  e s t a b l i s h e d f o r each  comprehensive  which  some  provided  Once of  responses  (Table  3). This  the  students  a l l of the source  of the research  this  of data  questions  upon  could  be  addressed.  The  Second  Are  Research  there  s e x - r e l a t e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n terms  explanatory  From  number the  r e s u l t s  categories  of boys  categories boys  and  these  of  that  formal  these  w i l l  be  t o t h e 23  the  items  measurably  were  informal  respectively.  examined  3  f o r the greatest  and m i s c e l l a n e o u s , were  Table  experience,  sense,  responses  categories  i n  accounted  responses  common  of guessing  and g i r l s  displayed  and g i r l s  categories  experience,  of  categories?  the  explanatory  Question:  For the  t h e number smaller.  i n greater  of  A l l of detail  below.  A)  FORMAL  This in 4).  EXPERIENCE  category  accounted  the percentage In the types  mentioned  f o rthe largest  of responses of responses  teachers,  something  f o r boys cited that  and g i r l s  both they  variation  boys had  and  (Table girls  remembered  37  TABLE 4 P E R C E N T A G E OF BOYS AND G I R L S R E S P O N S E S B Y  Formal  Informal  Common S e n s e  Guessing  CATEGORY  Miscellaneous  Boys  36*  21  22  10  12  Girls  54  16  14  7  9  * Rounded t o t h e n e a r e s t h u n d r e d s  38  doing  in  reasons  class,  and  for their  textbook  choice  of  learning  as  their  answers.  I remember learning about circuit p h y s i c s 11 ( f e m a l e , s c i e n c e 1 1 ) .  I've h e a r d my s c i e n c e  this  from  Chemistry  I d o n ' t h a v e much b a c k g r o u n d on g e o g r a p h y i n g r a d e 10 we s t u d i e d (female,science 11).  In in  this  the  category there  responses  selected Item  science 2  was  test a  physics  The  the question  distance  needed  majority  of  their  choice  mentioned  for  that  a  used  car  they  sexes  for  which  a  For  number  the  on  a  bar  the  this  a l l of  graph  of  17).  to  the  graph.  time  and  item  the  experiences to  Virtually  utilized  (male,  involved  centered around stop.  i t in  differences  and  displayed  formal  answers.  substantial  question  to  11  in  e a r t h r o t a t i o n . In mainly seismographs  (2,8,11,13,  information  girls of  the  items  of  of  were  between  interpretation setting  breakers  the term before. I think I heard c l a s s (female, s c i e n c e 12).  I learned about science 12).  main  explain  the  girls  find  their  answers.  I chose that answer because the g r a p h u n d e r one s e c o n d  the r e a c t i o n time i n ( f e m a l e , s c i e n c e 11).  I chose the middle graph because i t appeared the average t i m e ( f e m a l e , s c i e n c e 11).  to  be  39  It  i s i n t e r e s t i n g  substantial graph, A  by J o h n s o n  science  Northern  and Murphy  surveys  charts. Johnson  graphs many  i s more  more  13,  will  familiarity  Responses only  formal  common  sense  have  with  a  the  t h e boys. collected  Wales,  and  performance  graphs,  suggest  that  tables,  work  with  s c i e n c e s and s i n c e  discontinue  benefited  physics  from  a  after  age  continued  graphical representation.  from  boys  experience, as  i n England,  i n the physical boys  of data  f o r using  and Murphy  than  than  s i g n i f i c a n t  o f boys  common  girls  boys  showed  although  to interpret  i s lower  (1984)  conducted  i n favour  that  attempted  of the g i r l s  Ireland,  differences and  of g i r l s  the P values  study  from  number  to observe  f o r this  item  but informal  reflected  not  experience  and  well.  I t o o k a d r i v e r s t e s t w h i c h g a v e me p r a c t i c a l l y t h e same q u e s t i o n a s t h i s ( m a l e , s c i e n c e 12).  I b a s e d my a n s w e r o n h o w l o n g in a c a r (male, s c i e n c e 11).  Item dilution cited out  8 was a c h e m i s t r y o f an a c i d w i t h  formal  of 8  experience  item  water.  i ttakes  which Seven  me  to stop  involved the out of 7  as e x p l a n a t i o n s compared  girls to 3  boys.  I a s k e d my t e a c h e r a n d h e s a i d t h a t w h e n e v e r y o u d i l u t e something you add water (female, s c i e n c e 11).  40  I t o o k c h e m i s t r y l a s t y e a r and we s o r t of p u t one s o l u t i o n i n t o another ( f e m a l e , s c i e n c e 12).  It  is interesting  referred to formal the  type  of  to notice that while a l l experience to j u s t i f y  knowledge  being  tested  p e r t a i n e d to performing l a b o r a t o r y  of the  their  answers,  the  question  by  w o r k . K a h l e (1983)  s t a t e s t h a t g i r l s have fewer o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o i n common l a b o r a t o r y  girls  participate  e x p e r i e n c e s than boys and t h e r e f o r e  l a c k the s k i l l s and knowledge needed i n t h i s a r e a . Item 11 was a c h e m i s t r y i t e m i n v o l v i n g the c o n c e p t s of shape, w e i g h t , and d e n s i t y u s i n g an egg as the example. Four  out  of 7 g i r l s  used f o r m a l  e x p e r i e n c e to answer  t h i s item compared t o 1 out of 8 b o y s . We l e a r n e d a l i t t l e a b o u t t h a t i n s c i e n c e 10 a l t h o u g h I never d i d a n y t h i n g w i t h i t ( f e m a l e , science 11). I remember t h e t e r m s (female, s c i e n c e 11).  in  my c h e m i s t r y  11  class  Responses from the boys seemed t o f o c u s around the common sense and m i s c e l l a n e o u s c a t e g o r i e s .  The o t h e r r e s p o n s e s d i d n ' t sound r i g h t so I down volume as my answer (male, s c i e n c e 11).  put  I assumed t h a t most eggs have e q u a l d e n s i t y j u s t by l o o k i n g them (male, s c i e n c e 11).  41 13  Item a  fuse  girls  or c i r c u i t used  compared  experience  t o 3 o u t o f 8 boys. that  only  35%  involving  t h e purpose o f 6  out of 7  to explain their  answers  For this  item  The P v a l u e s  of g i r l s  from  t o 66%  compared  electricity (Johnson  (1983)  of girls seems  that  electricity  and have  domain  higher  interests reveals,  than  or experiences. t h e female  electrical  students  some  who  related  students  Lie  i n the  involving  and Bryhni  are interested i n  experience  i n this  who d o n o t h a v e  As t h e f o l l o w i n g  subject  of  e s t a b l i s h e d phenomna  1984). A d d i t i o n a l l y ,  reported  score  on q u e s t i o n s  t o be a f a i r l y  a n d Murphy,  have  and boys  3  Table  s e l e c t e d t h ec o r r e c t answer. D i s c r e p a n c i e s  performance  the  item  breaker.  formal  illustrate boys  was a p h y s i c s  had very  t h e same  excerpt  little  interest i n  area.  Interviewer:  Why d i d y o u c h o s e answer?  that  Subject:  I know w h a t a c i r c u i t b r e a k e r i s . I t m a k e s t h i n g s g o i n t w o d i r e c t i o n s . We d i d i t i n g r a d e 10. I wasn't i n t o i t . I d i d n ' t p u t i t i n my l o n g t e r m memory. I t was a l i t t l e t e d i o u s a n d h a r d f o r me t o u n d e r s t a n d . I t wasn't something t h a t I would use a l lt h e t i m e . I w o u l d n ' t p u t w i r e s u p i n my house. I think i n other areas that aren't as t e c h n i c a l as that.  Interviewer:  Such  Subject:  Well, I like making drawing p i c t u r e s .  particular  as... things  and  42 Boys r e s p o n s e s experiences time  or  that  g e n e r a l l y tended they  t o f o c u s on  had been i n v o l v e d w i t h  a t one  another.  I b u i l t a basement s u i t e d o w n s t a i r s s t a g e c r a f t a s w e l l (male, s c i e n c e 1 1 ) .  and I  took  T h a t I know f r o m s t u f f a r o u n d t h e h o u s e . F u s e s b l o w i n o u r house a l l t h e t i m e . I u s u a l l y go d o w n s t a i r s and s w i t c h t h e b r e a k e r s (male, s c i e n c e 1 2 ) .  Item  17  was  substances  sense  for this  formal  tended  HC1  and p o t a s s i u m  and e t h e r  Responses used  chemistry  (including  hydroxide alcohol  a  experience  and  involving  sulfuric  hydroxide,  ) away item  item  from  open  indicated  keeping  acid,  sodium  t i n and l e a d , and sparks  and  flames.  t h a t 4 out of 7  compared t o 1 o u t o f 8 b o y s .  t o p r e f e r t o use i n f o r m a l e x p e r i e n c e to explain their  girls Boys  a n d common  answers.  I c h o s e t h i s one b e c a u s e when we worked w i t h b u n s e n b u r n e r s and c h e m i c a l s u b s t a n c e s t h e t e a c h e r w o u l d say be c a r e f u l when y o u l i g h t i t ( f e m a l e , s c i e n c e 11) . Oh, I know t h i s o n e f r o m c h e m i s t r y . T h e OH w o u l d be s n a t c h e d up ( f e m a l e , s c i e n c e 1 2 ) .  group  I know t h a t a l c o h o l i s f l a m m a b l e . I b u r n t i t . E t h e r is a g a s a n d t o my k n o w l e d g e g a s e s a r e e x p l o s i v e (male, s c i e n c e 11 ) .  Findings suggest  that  in this girls  tend  explanatory  category  t o u s e more f o r m a l  strongly  experiences  43  than  boys  could  and  be  sphere  considered  be  labs).  with  et  a l  activities dominate apart,  g i r l s  5).  underachieve Perhaps  were  related  to  of  a  learned  i s not  to  that  boys  don't  where  more  to  much  greater  trepretation Kelly  of  considered  for  boys.  It  one  say  as  extent  was  knowledge  whereby  girls even  study,  the  time  are  though girls  they  have  or  to  physics  as have  be  not  that  g i r l s  experience. base  in  but  3  the that  girls  use  answers.An  Science  Assessment  instruction  in  in  important  Kelly  seen  findings,  their  dependent  can  these  knowledge  i n Table  more by  i n  another.  justify  that  to  items  and  less  formal  tended  postulated  experience  upon  and  girls  taking  weak  experiences,  t o be  more  as  more  and  boys  Bryhni  reflected  suggested of  that  above  (1983)  experience  International  girls  acquire  school,  draw  indicated  by  and  boys  chemistry  boys  such  limited  formal  the  (1981)  was  at  use  and  a  are  Bryhni  r e l a t i v e l y Lie  fields  boys cars,  that  activities  sciences, girls  have  This  in  and  of  which  discussed  which  Lie  Moreover,  i s  because  physical  by  items  realm  items  in  quite different  while  the  illustrated  in tinkering  (Table  the  for  (electricity,  completed  are  evident  within  items  girls  (1985)  achievement  by  be  as  than  Studies  Kahle  a  to  regarded  familiar  they  i s especially  of e x p e r i e n c e . A l l of  could  areas  this  (1981)  informal upon from  thoroughly  than  indata  physics i t  that  was boys  situations  instruction the  i t  data  in  in  this  understood  the  44  TABLE 5 PERCENTAGES OF 1983 SAMPLE RESPONDING POSITIVELY TO ITEMS CONCERNING SCIENCE A C T I V I T I E S , BY GENDER  Item  P e r c e n t a g e Responding P o s i t i v e l y Total (Std. Error) Male Female %  %  %  %  Have you e v e r worked o r experimented w i t h / u s e d / s e e / visited: electricity? erosion? telescope? e l e c t r i c i t y meter? animal skeleton? s o l a r heat c o l l e c t o r ? North Star? moon t h r o u g h a t e l e s c o p e ? skyscraper? e l e c t r i c i t y plant? rock quarry/mine?  74..1 39,.2 78,.4 40..5 86,.8 44..9 68,.9 51,.6 66,.9 34,.3 59,.5  (3,.0) (3,.1) (2,.6) (3,.1) (2,.1) (3,.2) (2,.9) (3,.2) (3,.0) (3,.0) (3,.1)  84..2 41,.1 83..2 54.,2 93,.0 53..2 98,.1 60..4 82..3 44..8 65..6  69..5 36..9 73..1 32..8 82..3 37,.0 59,.5 47..3 57..2 25..4 57..2  64,.5 82,.0  (3,.8) (2,.4)  77..1 94,.8  55..4 70..0  72,.9  (2,.8)  90..0  59..2  40,.9 46,.6 54,.2  (3,.1) (3,.2) (3,.1)  52..1 68..4 77,.1  32..8 27..5 37..4  46,.8  (3,.1)  38..5  49,.6  Have you e v e r : w i r e d t o g e t h e r an e l e c t r i c circuit? touched a s n a k e / l i z a r d t a k e n something a p a r t t o see how i t works? made a magnet w i t h e l e c t r i c i t y and w i r e ? f i x e d something e l e c t r i c a l ? f i x e d something m e c h a n i c a l ? t a k e n c a r e o f an unhealthy animal?  S o u r c e : K a h l e , M a t y a s , and Cho (1985) p .  391  45  concepts  and ideas  that  were  discussed  i n the science  classroom.  B)  Informal  Experience  In t h i s of  boys  explained  experience items the  than  where  boys  were  13  items  pursuing  (Table  their  where  their  using  informal  There  was  n o t used  choice  by t h e b o y s  a t home  to reading  were  only  by  use  any  books  from  there  informal  of answers.  ranged  7  any o f  In contrast,  didn't  cited  or  percentage  4).  answers.  girls  a hobby  a greater  answers  experience  to explain  had done  simply  their  informal  explanations  they  category  did girls  to justify  experiences the  explanatory  Some o f  something  or magazines or  interest.  Everytime a f u s e b l o w s , I u s u a l l y go d o w n s t a i r s check the c i r c u i t breaker (male, s c i e n c e 11).  to  I l e a r n e d a b o u t t h i s when I was i n s t a g e c r a f t w h e r e I was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e l i g h t i n g (male, s c i e n c e 11) .  I remember s o m e t h i n g about t h i s because as a surveyor (male, s c i e n c e 11).  I'm i n t e r e s t e d i n n u c l e a r p o w e r . stuff on i t (male, s c i e n c e 12).  Some o f hobbies  the  explanations  they pursued  newspaper or  watched  cited  or something o n TV.  I had a j o b  I read  by  the  they had  books and  girls read  were  i nt h e  46  W e l l , I know f r o m d i v i n g t h a t t h e d e e p e r y o u g r e a t e r the p r e s s u r e ( f e m a l e , s c i e n c e 11).  go  the  What I t h o u g h t about steam i s t h a t i t moves a b o u t a r o o m . When y o u p u t a k e t t l e on a s t o v e and close the k i t c h e n d o o r t h e w i n d o w s f o g up (female, s c i e n c e 11) .  I saw something were a l l burned 11) .  Findings girls  use  tested.  item  these  such  as  informal  magazines  or  postulated  that to  items  that  These  items,  boys  do  objects  a  boys  are with  or  the a  boys  boy's  It  more  than of  on  drawn  more  than  (1984)  items  and  which  that  items t o be  a  more  1985).  suggest  their  girls.  were  many  a l ,  from  likely  be  informal  lab  et  Erickson  could  experience.  chemistry  (Kahle  hobbies  girls  than  girls  test  scientific  that  mention  life  a  the  include  used  and  answering  reading  sphere  boys  of  considered items  physics are  everyday  nature  questions  girls  events  in  s c i e n c e programs.  and  than  They  the  making,  included  Erickson  and  upon  where  within  familiar  electricity  to  that  experiences  model  answer  item,  experience.  in  and  which  better  of  suggest  e x p e r i e n c e s f o r boys  items  were  electricity  Moreover,  types  listening  experiences  category  Depending  computers  are  this  different  questions  boys  from  l i k e t h i s on a show Q u i n c y - w h e r e up f r o m r a d i a t i o n ( f e m a l e , s c i e n c e  deal sphere  that with of  involving encountered  they  47  For  the g i r l s ,  informal  something  they  listening  to friends,  seems  f o r some  experiences  for their  to  girls  that  they  5,  which  involved  explaining  went,  was  swimming  an and  included  h a d o b s e r v e d on TV o r r e a d i n a m a g a z i n e ,  that  and  experiences  and hobbies items  where  answers  can r e c a l l diving  why  into  where  diving  as swimming. I t  girls  cited  are items informal  the water  item  such  familiar  near  got colder  experiences  enough  experiences.  t h e ocean  several  informal  the equator  the deeper  g i r l s to  Item  used  you  their  formulate  their  answers.  W e l l , I know f r o m d i v i n g t h a t t h e d e e p e r y o u go t h e c o l d e r t h e water g e t s (female, s c i e n c e 11).  I know f r o m t a k i n g s w i m m i n g true (female, s c i e n c e 11).  C) Common  In common sense  this i s  Sense  this  category  boys  responded  sense  compared  to 9  items  responses  seemed  lessons that  t o draw  Boys  responses  that  they  included upon  f o r many  had l e a r n e d  f o r the g i r l s .  experiences  without  naming  time  that  the  involved  using Common  students  any p a r t i c u l a r  of the items  a t some  t o 19 i t e m s  event.  something  or another.  Well, that just basic knowledge. Something l e a r n e d a l o n g time ago (male, s c i e n c e 11). This sort o f made (male, s c i e n c e 11).  sense  to  me.  I t was  I  logical  48  Because experiences the  that  social  advantage range in  common an  individual  girls  I I no  then  boys  may  by s o c i e t y  enhance  endeavors,  to play  than  to accumulate  the understanding  they  area.  how  with  a b i l i t i e s have  of relevant  The  on an  whole  discussed and  girls  Because  boys  toys  and games  and  encourage  greater  experience  have  as  boys  environment.  spatial  scientific girls  should  factors  influences  to their  a l l the  has and i s d e p e n d e n t  i n the science  doubt  and r e a c t  conditioned  which  D)  incorporates  o f s o c i o l o g i c a l and c u l t u r a l  perceive  for  knowledge  environment over  Chapter  are  sense  opportunities  that  science  i s necessary concepts.  Guessing  The  category  percentage (Table  of guessing  of the t o t a l  a  l i m i t e d  sample  illustrate  that  and  i s not that  girls  boys  a r e more  particular  In  responses  large.  willing  than  only  f o r boys  to observe  was  the difference  studied,  girls  to  small  and  girls  i sthat the  i n guessing I t doesn't  a  even  r e s u l t s  between appear  guess  boys as i f  f o r any  item.  summary,  categories  formal  responses  4 ) .The i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t  though  comprised  from  i tappears do  exist  experience,  an  that  examination sex-related  particularly  informal  of  the  above  differences i n  i n the categories  experience,  a n d common  of  sense.  49  It  i s suggested  a  science  w i l l  do  question  on  a  experiental higher sense and  category  little  Is  may  well  G i r l s  of  with  more  the  that  boys  i n f l u e n c e how  on  responses  reflect  their  boys  i n f l u e n c e s of  well  more  formal  for  bring they  l i m i t e d  learning. for  to  the  early  The  common  societal  factors.  the  explanatory  substantial  Third  experience  rely  percentage  Finally,  the  item.  base  cultural  The  that  differences  Research  there  any  differences  category  of  between  guessing boys  showed  and  girls.  Question:  relationship i n these  between s e x - r e l a t e d  c a t e g o r i e s and  test  item  context?  From 4  i t appears  ferent 17  the  as  lab more  illustrated  that  of  the  items  boys  and  girls.  responses discussed  number items  responses  of  work,  could  experiences.  answers.  under  formal  responses  involved  familiar  utilize  from  formal  which  some  be  with  considered  Responses  informal  from  relate  Items  from  girls  the  experiences  by  dif-  2,8,11,13,and  and  derive  greater These  chemistry boys  more  show  a  boys.  in which  boys  Table  quite  than  using  to  and  elicited  physics  items to  3  elicited  experience,  electricity,  and  i n Table  are  informal  that their  they  50  W e l l , I know from d r i v i n g t h a t i s how l o n g i t me t o s t o p (male, s c i e n c e 1 2 ) .  takes  I'm i n t e r e s t e d i n e l e c t r o n i c s so I circuit b r e a k e r s (male, s c i e n c e 11).  about  To probe f u r t h e r  know  i n t o the q u e s t i o n of whether  item context would r e s u l t  in different  test  responses for  b o y s and g i r l s , an a t t e m p t was made t o a l t e r s e v e r a l of t h e t e s t i t e m s . A p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f of t h e  interviewed  s t u d e n t s were g i v e n t h e a l t e r e d v e r s i o n and t h e half  r e c e i v e d the o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n of the  other  test.  Item 22 was a c h e m i s t r y i t e m whose o r i g i n a l  setting  was a l a b o r a t o r y where a t i g h t l y s t o p p e r e d t e s t tube was l e f t t o b o i l under t h e f l a m e of a b u n s e n b u r n e r . I n  the  a l t e r e d v e r s i o n t h e s e t t i n g was c h a n g e d t o a k i t c h e n w h e r e a t i g h t l y s e a l e d c a s s e r o l e d i s h was l e f t t o u n d e r t h e d i r e c t f l a m e of a g a s s t o v e . For t h e  boil  original  v e r s i o n 3 out of 4 g i r l s used f o r m a l e x p e r i e n c e compared t o 2 out of 4 b o y s . W e l l , I remember my s c i e n c e t e a c h e r t e l l i n g me t h a t you should never l e a v e a s t o p p e r e d t e s t tube b o i l i n g ( f e m a l e , s c i e n c e 11). I t h i n k I remember d o i n g s o m e t h i n g l i k e t h i s i n a l a b b u t my p a r t n e r was d o i n g most of t h e work (female, s c i e n c e 11).  However,  i n t h e a l t e r e d v e r s i o n of  the t e s t  t h r e e g i r l s e x p l a i n e d t h e i r answers i n terms of  all  informal  e x p e r i e n c e compared t o 2 out of 4 boys. The m a j o r i t y  of  51  girls they  responses had  done  centered  in  the  around  cooking  or  something  kitchen.  I w o u l d t u r n i t down t o l o w h e a t . I f s t e a m b u i l t it would b l o w t h e l i d o f f i f i t was sealed t i g h t l y (female, s c i e n c e 11).  Whenever I have a n y t h i n g b o i l i n g turn i t down to low heat and off (female, s c i e n c e 11).  up  on t h e s t o v e I take the l i d  I know that a casserole dish i s pretty deadly because i t c a n e x p l o d e on y o u i f y o u don't turn down t h e h e a t ( f e m a l e , s c i e n c e 11).  It of  appears  from  the  above  a q u e s t i o n does i n f l u e n c e  question.  A  kitchen,  seems  informal  responses  improve  more  the  should  be  to  girls  the more  water  i s boiling to  low.  however,  was  Items  to  distractors  for  both  contained were  changed  temperature.  to  although  the  correct turn 21  would  boysand such  in  a  i t did on  were  girls.  The  unfamiliar more  When  examining  such  a  for  heat  in  as  percentage  of  significantly This  failure  changed  item  to turn the  down  original  of the  item  completely. t o see  i f a change  different  original as  terms the  girl  the  t h e l i d on)  terms  common  a  i s when a s a u c e p a n  altered  result  a  item.  of  setting  answers  not  the  the  or g i r l  higher  response  o f f the  that  to  light  (even w i t h  and  the  setting  result  in  a boy  standard practice  The  20  how  performance  examined  where  heat  familiar  findings  explanations  distractors ball  such  mill as  responses  in  which  abrasion,  moisture given  by  and boys  52  and  girls,  For out  both  sexes  relied  on  formal  this question I looked at the c o r r e c t answer (male,  experience.  t h e g r a p h and s c i e n c e 11).  figured  By l o o k i n g a t t h e g r a p h I f i g u r e d t h a t t h e would be s i x h o u r s ( f e m a l e , s c i e n c e 11).  These  explanations  s i m i l i a r  regardless  distractors appears  had  that  been  the  not  the  following excerpt  obtaining  mislead  actual  an  Do  Subject:  No  to  Regardless confusing confusion  are  or the  between  set  not  the  interview  reading  either  students  from  of  had  items data  the  i t  graphs  distractors.  i n t e r v i e w e r and  distractor  are  l i t t l e  As  subject  to  do  with  B e c a u s e o f t h i s ( p o i n t i n g t o a l i n e on g r a p h ) I c h o s e my a n s w e r w h i c h i s b a l l abrasion.  Interviewer:  altered  From  the  answer.  Subject:  Item  by  by  whether  students  were  the  of  altered.  and  reveal,  provided  time  23  , a  show of by is  you  know  a  ball  mill  abrasion  is?  ideal  chemistry saucepans  the  what  the mill  question instead  alterations large  reflected  in  the  of  , this  number  of  was  diagramically  laboratory item  was  students  responses  cited.  flasks.  considered and  this  53  W e l l , f o r t h i s one diagram. I didn't ( f e m a l e , s c i e n c e 11).  I was c o n f u s e d know w h a t t h e y  about the meant  I don't r e a l l y remember what I was t h i n k i n g when I a n s w e r e d t h i s q u e s t i o n . I t w o u l d t a k e t o o much e f f o r t t o go o v e r i t (male, s c i e n c e 12) .  A  calculation  showed  that  original  of P values  f o r the a l t e r e d  was  variation  there  little  i t e m s and t h e r e v i s e d  ones  items  between  the  ( T a b l e 2). More o f  t h e b o y s a n s w e r e d more o f t h e i t e m s c o r r e c t l y r e g a r d l e s s of whether  or n o t they  In summary primarily physics girls. rely  Boys use more  might  girls  i t e m s whose c o n t e x t i s  electricity,  chemistry  responses  informal responses  on f o r m a l  made t o a l t e r  the  with  altered.  that  t o evoke d i f f e r e n t  strictly  girls  i t appears  concerned  seem  had been  responses.  used  familiar  from  b o y s and  while  girls  When an a t t e m p t  t h e c o n t e x t o f an i t e m  be more  l a b s or  into  (kitchen  informal experiences  one  setting)  was  i n which more  to justify  of  their  answers. The  Fourth Research  Question:  I s t h e r e any e v i d e n c e influences that  There  that  t h e c o n t e x t o f an i t e m  the students a f f e c t i v e  responses t o  item?  were  a  number  of  items  immediate negative responses from  that  the g i r l s  elicited when  they  54  were asked t o e x p l a i n the r e a s o n i n g f o r  their  c h o i c e of  a n s w e r s . F o r t h e m a j o r i t y of b o y s t h i s w a s n ' t t h e c a s e . In  fact,  item.  only  This  one boy m e n t i o n e d t h a t he d i s l i k e d an  negativity  in  r e s p o n s e s by  girls  was  e s p e c i a l l y apparent f o r i t e m s 7 and 1 3 . Item operation  7 was of  a physics  item  a bunsen b u r n e r .  which Many  involved of  the  the  girls  e x p r e s s e d concern over the o p e r a t i o n of a bunsen b u r n e r .  I never want t o l i g h t another bunsen burner a g a i n . They s c a r e me ( f e m a l e , s c i e n c e 11). W e l l , I got my p a r t n e r to do i t . I went and d i d the other s t u f f . Maybe I was a f r a i d of bunsen b u r n e r s (female, s c i e n c e 11). Bunsen b u r n e r s s c a r e me. I n e v e r d i d l e a r n how t o use them ( f e m a l e , s c i e n c e 12).  Item  13 was a p h y s i c s i t e m  purpose of a f u s e or c i r c u i t  which  involved  the  breaker.  Oh n o , n o t a n o t h e r p h y s i c s i t e m ! ( f e m a l e , s c i e n c e 11) . I remember d o i n g a t h i n g on t h i s but most of t h i s comes from t a l k i n g t o the guys. I'm not i n t o t e c h n i c a l s t u f f ( f e m a l e , s c i e n c e 11).  T h e r e was one boy who e x p r e s s e d s t r o n g  negative  r e a c t i o n s t o any e a r t h / s p a c e s c i e n c e q u e s t i o n .  I haven't taken e a r t h s c i e n c e . I hate anything do w i t h e a r t h s c i e n c e , t h e s t a r s e t c . I f i n d  to it  55  extremely boring. I found t h i s item very boring. I t t o o k t o o much e f f o r t t o e l i m i n a t e t h e d i s t r a c t o r s s o I g u e s s e d ( m a l e , s c i e n c e 12)  The  general  n e g a t i v i t y  precipitated might  against  Erickson  and  teaching  s i t u a t i o n  the  output  state  instructional  motivational  displayed  the  23  several  state from  items.  experience  Some  of items,  the  this  of  i n  system i s which  course  point  the  i n time. the g i r l s  was a n  underlying  explanations  f o r their  pervasive  of the f o l l o w i n g stress  current  and s k i l l s  a t that  t o be f a i r l y  of the interviews  (mind) and  or minimized  and  there  i n any (teaching  negativity that  of the g i r l s  appeared  for girls.  input  that  knowledge  the immediate  i n many  This  argue  g i r l s  confidence  that  i t i s often  of the student  f o r a number  unsureness answers.  prior  of  suggest  i s ignored  by p r e r e q u i s i t e  the  of the system  behaviour)  They  of  performance  involves  state  planning.  include  Aside  (1984)  which  part  and lack  test  which  the current  of the system  might  good  Erickson  (students  influenced  the  by b a d e x p e r i e n c e  mitigate  materials),  on  this  exerpt  throughout taken  from  point.  Oh, I d o n ' t k n o w why I p u t t h a t o n e . I g u e s s t h e answer i s density, isn't i t ? (female, s c i e n c e 11).  I wasn't sure about this one. I b e l i e v e that d e n s i t y h a d t o d o w i t h w a t e r . We d i d a n e x p e r i m e n t on i t o n c e . M e r c u r y h a s a h i g h d e n s i t y a n d w a t e r has a s o so d e n s i t y (female, s c i e n c e 11).  Oh,  this  I think  I remembered  doing  i n the  physics  56  lab. I sort s c i e n c e 11).  of l o o k e d a t  This uncertainty the  boys e x p l a i n e d  appeared to  the  was d e f i n i t e l y their  choice  be much more s e l f  reflected in their  diagrams  (female,  n o t p r e s e n t when of  answers.  Boys  a s s u r e d and t h i s  r e s p o n s e s f o r a number of t e s t  was  items.  I n summary t h e r e were c e r t a i n i t e m s w h i c h e v o k e d negative  reactions  from  the  girls.  Additionally,  t h r o u g h o u t t h e 23 i t e m s t h e r e was a g e n e r a l l a c k of s e l f c o n f i d e n c e d i s p l a y e d on t h e p a r t of t h e g i r l s . Many of the  girls  expressed u n c e r t a i n t l y  or  hesitation  when  r e s p o n d i n g t o i t e m s e s p e c i a l l y i n the p h y s i c s and space science area. It  c o u l d be p l a u s i b l e t h a t g i r l s have been  c o n d i t i o n e d by a b r o a d s e r i e s of s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s r a n g i n g from s o c i e t y t o peers t o f e e l t h a t s c i e n c e i s a masculine  subject  and  therefore  expected t o do as w e l l as boys.  they  shouldn't  be  CHAPTER  CONCLUSIONS  The  purpose  discussion of  of  the  of  the  recommendations  this  major  study.  AND  V  IMPLICATIONS  final  chapter  findings followed  E d u c a t i o n a l for  i s to  future  by  present  conclusions  i m p l i c a t i o n s  research  will  a  and  conclude  this  chapter.  Discussion  This  are  each  of  The  in  the  they  the  Can  major  under  research  Research the  IV.  and  by  a  written  The whether  of  experiences  be of  experiences students  on  23  to  of  boys  and  organized  Chapter  1  and  corresponding  the  to  this  and  their  responses  science to  items  the  These  through and  be  to  items?  t h e s i s was in  girls  explanations  achievement  girls.  test  boys  explain  i n part,  explored  selected  of  by  differences  attributed  were  as  questions.  science  intent  sex-related  could  f i n d i n g s are  in  headings  experiences  students  original  findings  presented  categorized  provided set  the  major  Question:  everyday  identified  the  These  questions  discussed the  Findings  examines  Chapter  general  First  items  Major  s e c t i o n  reported around  of  to  examine  achievement  early early  learning learning  interviewing asking  them  15 what  58 they  were  thinking  particular to  test  in  item.  explain their  activities class,  when  they  choice  t h a t they  of answers  pursued,  students five  categories explanations  These  common  categories  categorizing remaining  Are  there  There this  b.  a number  number  items a  experiences  lower  a  hobbies  particular into  one o f  from  experience,  used  These  informal  means  t o address  of t h i s  of major  electricity  of g i r l s  using  formal  greater  They  of the  study.  boys, and  over  findings  a r e as  these  their  experience  than  number  of  girls  for their  t h e 23 i t e m s  especially chemistry.  resulting  follows:  explained  as explanations  of g i r l s than  the  miscellaneous.  systematic  were  and  had l e a r n e d  of answers.  and  students  Question:  research question.  Although  values  and  they  developed  guessing,  provided  from  a  categories?  were  A greater test  sense,  by t h e  chose a  choice  to  s e x - r e l a t e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n terms of  explanatory  a.  were  research questions  Research  answer  were grouped  for their  the data  major  Second  from  they  categories included: formal  experience,  The  which  ranged  something  t o n o t r e m e m b e r i n g why  five  an  The e x p l a n a t i o n s g i v e n  answer. A l l of t h e e x p l a n a t i o n s the  chose  did  used answers,  was  f o r items  answers  to  boys. formal the P  consistently  dealing  with  59  c.  A g r e a t e r number the  test  items  of  boys  using  explained  informal  their  answers  experiences  than  to did  girls.  d.  A  greater  the  e.  test  There  number items  of  These  that  responses  willing  to  to  answers—  item  experiences s t i l l  majority and  test  not  more  experience than  do  have  been  with  girls. found  of  the  given  answers,  did  to  girls.  in  the  the  categories  be  by  are  Boys  when  been  the  study that  boys  and  the  students  i t appears  more  as  interested  books 15  that  boys  to  more  Johnson  effectively  than  as  seven  girls From  account boys  the  practical  young  magazines.  for  by  their  much  formal  performance  suggested  reinforce  by  informal  used  their  who  their  assessed to  in  more  girls,  justify  girls  than  much  than  applicable  lower  more  reflected  being  answers,  I t has  d i f f e r e n t  seemed  to  knowledge  boys  the  experiences  even  appears  to  have  experience  theoretical  information  explanations  for  that  items.  their  that  It  girls  directly  items.  (1984)  than  answers  differences  girls  informal  justify  test  Murphy  choice  the  substantially of  reading  and  Moreover,  to  sense  suggest  boys  or  was  and  their  miscellaneous.  formal  whether  test  common  boys  upon  use  experiences.  was  to  draw  preferred  the  and  explained  measurable  findings  experiences their  any  between  guessing  boys  using  weren't  responses  of  than  in the  for  their  girls  60  r e l a t e d answers to something they had read about or been i n v o l v e d w i t h at one time or another. It i s plausible  t h a t the i n f o r m a l experiences  many boys b r i n g to the achievement item q u e s t i o n s p r o v i d e them w i t h a d i s t i n c t advantage over it  comes to s e l e c t i n g  a correct  response,  that might  girls  when  especially  in  the areas i n v o l v i n g p h y s i c s ,  e l e c t r i c i t y , and l a b o r a t o r y  work.  (Erickson  Numerous  authors  and  Erickson,  1984; Johnson and Murphy, 1984; K a h l e , 1983; K e l l y , 1981; and  L i e and B r y h n i ,  enthusiasm things  for  work  experience'  1983) suggest t h a t boys show  informal a c t i v i t i e s  than  girls  strengthens  and  their  F u r t h e r m o r e L i e and B r y h n i t y p e of a c t i v i t i e s have in  are  related  fields  seem  arguments  that  women r e s u l t  to  items.  support  for  factors,  that  girls  underachieve  the  common  sense  Johnson  and  Murphy  (1984)  role  expectations  for  men and  s o c i a l i z a t i o n experiences  boys  and  girls.  as d i s c u s s e d  These  over  the  23  which early  i n Chapter II may l e a d which favour  boys and  i n t h e r e s p o n s e s g i v e n to t h e  F i n d i n g s i n the category  responses  boys and  the  by  of guessing  t h a t there r e a l l y i s n ' t much d i f f e r e n c e girls  that  experience.  in experiences  reflected  'tinkering  background.  and g i r l s  presented  from e a r l y  differences  c o u l d be  achievement  society's  different  sociological to  to  of  science  and i n t e r e s t s  findings  category  sort  w i t h how  (1983) p o s t u l a t e d  where they have l e s s  The  are  this  dealing  greater  items.  test  suggest  between boys and  61  The  Third  Research  Is  Question:  there  any  differences  relationship  i n these  between  c a t e g o r i e s and  sex-related  test  item  content?  The  major  question  a.  The  are  as  items  required a  Moreover,  The  more  These  a  boys  in  boys  to  differences  appeared  to  p h y s i c s and items  values  the  than  much  be  in  items  chemistry  boys  the  more  justify  had  girls.  on  their  of  l i t t l e student  kitchen setting  events of  they  support  Erickson and  was  formal answers  activities  to  variation  to  used, to  It  items  incorporate  i s  girls  justify  suggest that  are  only  In  that  responded answers.  authors boys  drawn  do  from  that  when  physics  formal  the the  their  such  conceivable  dealing with not  from  responses.  c l a i m s m a d e by  ( 1 9 8 4 ) who  experience.  responding  chemistry  exhibited  i n terms  findings  sphere are  of  informal experiences  E r i c k s o n and  their  P  relied  items  items  where  using  better  research  items.  original  as  this  largest  a l l these  higher  than  altered  item  from  girls  knowledge  girls  experiences these  b o y s and  work. In  substantially  b.  d i s p l a y e d the  between  laboratory  emerging  follows:  which  responses which  findings  and  based  62  learning time  but  informal experiences  or a n o t h e r .  cited  by  the  experiences  classroom superior coupled in  The  Fourth  that  they  rely  instead  on  spite  there  that  a.  major  performance that  prior  learning provides  evidence  the  that the  boys  students  context  affective  based  boys i s  on  s t i l l  experiences with  an  edge  findings in this  immediate  i n which  dealt with bunsen  of  an  responses  item to  item? area  w e r e as  There were a number of t e s t i t e m s  items  this  negative response  electrcity  and  i n which  girls  r e a c t i o n s . Those was  the  follows:  most  pronounced  operation  of  a  burner.  T h e r e was negative  c.  classroom  Question: any  exhibited  b.  informal  more h e a v i l y than  suggests  one  responses  these  formal  at  performance.  influences  The  relying  which  formal  Research Is  of  lack  l e a r n i n g , boys  girls  with  test  girls,  based to  have had  I t i s safe to assume from the  and  knowledge. In  they  only  response  dealt  with  Many  g i r l s  responses.  one  space  boy  who  towards a t e s t  a generalized  item.  This  item  science.  expresssed  This  expressed  general  uncertainty  l a c k of  confidence  in was  their not  63  limited  to  pervasive  These  is  to or  Chos  the  science. number  by  of  the  which  that  humanistic  aspect  and  society  the  technical The  throughout comfortable a  male  with  are  of 23  of  items  with  I  such  are  science  a than  girls.  Kelly  body,  of  greater  interested human  more  aspects in  particularly  (1981) in  the  the home,  interested  in  science.  uncertainty  which  illustrates  science  as  boys  fairly  that  and  responses  is  girls  perhaps  were  often  sure  but  consistent  aren't view  i t  as as  permeated  as:  think",  "  According  to  Smail  (1983)  boys  girls  in  science  boys  the  Matyas,  for  and  the This  have  activities  more  science,  domain. T y p i c a l  words  •  g i r l s of  girls  (1983)  lack  boys.  boys  technical  science  respond  Kahle,  participated  Bryhni  aspects  the  more  to  by  that  than  and  whereas  tone  reported  to  either  comparison  attitudes  Lie  fairly  tend  they  revealed  extracurricular  emphasize  in  boys  be  girls  where  the  to  items.  that  findings  addition,  Furthermore,  23  areas  involving In  the  experience  science  activities  appeared  suggest  subject  (1985)  positive  but  throughout  supported  and  time  findings  negatively interest  one  science.  activities  I'm  a  not  study  really  completed  have  certain  Boys  tended  as  weird  and  Kelly,  White,  and  stereotypic  views  of  to  by  view  girls  peculiar,  and  that at  an  did age  64  w h e r e g i r l s have a g r o w i n g i n t e r e s t want t o appear d i f f e r e n t the g i r l s  i n boys they  or s t r a n g e . I t  g e n e r a l tone of u n c e r t a i n t y  don't  i s possible that over the 23  items  i s a r e s u l t of n o t w a n t i n g t o a p p e a r t o o k n o w l e d g e a b l e i n s c i e n c e or perhaps f e e l i n g , through of boys a t t i t u d e s ,  the  transmittance  t h a t s c i e n c e i s a male domain. CONCLUSION  The o v e r a r c h i n g address the f o l l o w i n g related  differences,  intent  of  this  thesis  general question: which  have  s e l e c t e d science achievement items,  was  Can t h e  to  sex-  been o b s e r v e d  in  be a t t r i b u t e d  in  p a r t t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n the everyday e x p e r i e n c e s of males and f e m a l e s ? B a s e d on t h e  results  of  this  study  the  c o n c l u s i o n s a r e as f o l l o w s : a.  P r i o r e x p e r i e n c e s from n o n - s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s e x e m p l i f i e d by the c a t e g o r i e s of  (as  informal  l e a r n i n g and common sense) appear t o  contribute  t o some of the s e x - r e l a t e d d i f f e r e n c e s observed i n the 23 t e s t  i t e m s . Boys used t h e s e n o n - s c h o o l based  l e a r n i n g experiences to e x p l a i n t h e i r  answers t o a  much l a r g e r e x t e n t than g i r l s , who based the majority  of t h e i r  answers on f o r m a l based l e a r n i n g .  Boys o v e r a l l performance over the 23 items was c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e r than g i r l s which might t h a t t h i s s u p e r i o r performance i s l i n k e d t o ability  t o draw upon a wide range of  indicate the  informal  65  experiences. b.  Formal s c h o o l based e x p e r i e n c e s (as e x e m p l i f i e d by the c a t e g o r y of f o r m a l e x p e r i e n c e ) d i d n ' t appear to be p a r t i c u l a r l y  helpful in contributing  to  the  o v e r a l l performance of g i r l s over the 23 i t e m s . A l t h o u g h a s u b s t a n t i a l number of g i r l s used f o r m a l s c h o o l based e x p e r i e n c e s t o respond t o t e s t their  performance was s t i l l  items,  lower than b o y s .  M o r e o v e r , t h e t y p e of f o r m a l r e s p o n s e s c i t e d w e r e vague and s i m p l y e l u d e d t o some c o u r s e or something t h e t e a c h e r had d i s c u s s e d i n c l a s s . T h i s s u g g e s t s that informal  e x p e r i e n c e s , as e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e  boys r e s p o n s e s , may be s t r o n g c o n t r i b u t o r s  t o boys  s u p e r i o r performance on the 23 t e s t i t e m s . Perhaps informal skills turn,  e x p e r i e n c e s l e a d to the development  and k n o w l e d g e r e l e v a n t  to  s c i e n c e and  r e i n f o r c e and s t r e n g t h e n the f o r m a l  of in  learning  situation. c.  P r i o r e x p e r i e n c e s from n o n - s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s might contribute  t o a f e e l i n g of c o n f i d e n c e and  p o s i t i v e n e s s when r e s p o n d i n g t o a number of t e s t i t e m s . Throughout the 23 t e s t items was a g e n e r a l tone of u n c e r t a i n t y  there  among the  when r e s p o n d i n g t o items which was not  girls  present  among the b o y s . Boys seemed more c o n f i d e n t and p o s i t i v e when e x p l a i n i n g how they d e r i v e d an answer. Perhaps because g i r l s l a c k the  informal  66  experiences which development inadequate  appear  t o be i m p o r t a n t  of b a s i c science s k i l l s , or unsure  turn,  i s reflected  given  i n the test  of themselves,  i n the types  of  f o rthe  they  feel  which i n responses  items. IMPLICATIONS  Based in  this  the  on t h e t y p e s  study  i tappears  t h a t many  same e x t e n t o r r a n g e  phenomna  which  the p h y s i c a l lacking the of  of responses  the g i r l s items  when they with  as t h e f u n c t i o n  confidence  and understanding  a  bunsen  above t h e f o l l o w i n g teaching  teachers the  should  burner.  strategies a  unit  every-day i n  of the g i r l s are their  answers t o  humanistic aspects c o u l d be drawn  breaker  some  and t h e  increase areas  g i r l s  mentioned  a r e recommended. physical will  sciences,  n o t have  k n o w l e d g e a s b o y s a n d may  r e a c t i o n s towards  experience.  To  of these  i n the  should plan introductory  which  with  of confidence  assume t h a t g i r l s  same b a c k g r o u n d  negative  the  lack  a a circuit  of  When  girls  d i s p l a y e d an i m m e d i a t e n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n t o  operation  1.  many  explain  this  the  of the basic concepts  science. Additionally  23 i t e m s . C o u p l e d  such  some  by  o f them do n o t h a v e  of experience  illustrate  i n confidence  given  these  subjects.  activities  which  have  Teachers emphasizes  o f s c i e n c e and use examples  from  For example,  a females o n e way  sphere  of  to interest  both  67 g i r l s  and boys  physics thus 2.  would  be t o a p p r o a c h  emphasizing  a passive  the relevance  laboratory should work. with  role  work.  attempt  so they  won't f e e l  situation.  Girls  should  be e n c o u r a g e d activities.  activities  emphasizing  of  such  science  institutions stations.  as  traditional  to participate This might  mechanics,  how a k i d n e y  dialysis  social  b e e n made  but  also the societal  research  should  attempt t o  machine works  and d i s c u s s  might  thus  examine  stressing  An e f f o r t  secondary  the physics  topics  i s s u e s . A study i n  has  science  incorporate  i s s u e s . The u n i t on n u c l e a r includes  aspects  and  and c h e m i s t r y  i n B.C. t o a t l e a s t  only  include  and c h e m i s t r y  of technology.  not  i n  physical science  b y t h e new j u n i o r  curriculum societal  aspects  girls  to various  teachers  applications to societal  electricity,  the  i n "hands on"  as i n t i m i d a t e d as i n a  trips  mechanics,  setting  involve pairing  including hospitals,  electricity,  their  as f i e l d  girls  chemistry  the humanistic  Additionally,  examine such  and  might  group  related  i t appears that  t o involve a l l students this  body,  to ourselves.  i n physics  mixed  science  t h e human  Instructors i n a laboratory  I f necessary, girls  of levers i n  i t using  From t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s study play  3.  i n the p r i n c i p l e s  power  of nuclear  some studies energy  implications involved i n using  68  nuclear 4.  energy.  S t a r t i n g at the elementary encouraged would  t o pursue s c i e n c e  involve  explore  level,  girls  activities  encouraging g i r l s  understanding  or p u t t i n g together  development of s p a t i a l  f o r fun. This  help g i r l s  gain  of the b a s i c concepts of  s c i e n c e . F o r example, p l a y i n g w i t h materials  be  t o e x p e r i m e n t and  v a r i o u s m a t e r i a l s which could  some i n t u i t i v e  should  skills  various building  a model m i g h t l e a d t o t h e .  RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH On study  the basis  of the research  i t i s apparent  additional research  The  f o l l o w i n g a r e recommendations f o r f u r t h e r  research:  a.  Develop science  emphasis  should science  curriculum materials context  be d e v e l o p e d e s p e c i a l l y areas  where g i r l s may  the  i n t e r a c t i o n s between t e c h n o l o g y  and s o c i e t a l  beneficial.  o f t h e major a n a l y t i c a l  used  study.  T h i s would  was i n d e e d  categories  involve trying to  s i t u a t i o n s where  experiences  as b e i n g  that attempts t o explore  A refinement  earlier  materials  see t h i s area  t e c h n i c a l . Any m a t e r i a l  distinguish  that  i n the p h y s i c a l  too  i n this  a r e warranted.  o f s c i e n c e . These  i s s u e s w o u l d be e x t r e m e l y b.  experiences  i n t o boys  girls  humanistic  and s c h o o l  in this  and  the  everyday  that  conducted  the reference  to  w a r r a n t e d and u s e f u l  69  to  the  student  simply  those  'inventing'  situations  or  just  where they  making  a  t o some v a g u e e x p e r i e n c e  from  (eg;  "Oh,  I t h i n k I remember d o i n g  something  that  i n G r a d e 10).  While  r e v e a l something  of  sense are an  of  not  problem  performance  make t h i s  to  do  on  experience standing  can  of  be  science  tire  or  experiences s c i e n c e . How read  many o f  the  items.  analysis  like  the  i t might of  into  clearly  in sorting from  out  girls  I f one be  t h e way  were  possible in  a better  which  under-  concepts.  studies to understand  cited  by  students  does the a b i l i t y  a compass r e l a t e  ability  i n science? This  through  case  where i n d e p t h  they  see  translated  D e v e l o p more i n d e p t h  school  however,  then  past  t r y t o make  a s we  distinction,  a more d e t a i l e d  the  students  situations,  the  'weak* a s s o c i a t i o n s  o f much a s s i s t a n c e t o them  to  of  how  a p p r o p r i a t e response  poorer  these  were  passing  reference  do  c.  and  to a  c o u l d be  studies involving i n t e r v i e w s are  one  how  relate  some  to  t o change  a  student's conducted or  two  initiated.  students  70  APPENDIX A  71 SCIENCE QUESTIONS AND BACKGROUND INFORMATION What i s your d a t e o f b i r t h ? Y e a r : 1962 o r e a r l i e r ,  1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 o r l a t e r  Sex:  Male  Female What language d i d you use when you f i r s t l e a r n e d t o speak? English Another language What language do you now speak most o f t e n a t home? English Another language Check ALL o f t h e f o l l o w i n g w h i c h you have s u c c e s s f u l l y completed. Science 8 Science 9 S c i e n c e 10 B i o l o g y 11 B i o l o g y 12 C h e m i s t r y 11 C h e m i s t r y 12 P h y s i c s 11 P h y s i c s 12 E a r t h S c i e n c e 11 Geology 12 ' Other s c i e n c e Check ALL s c i e n c e c o u r s e s you a r e t a k i n g now. Not t a k i n g any now Science 8 Science 9 S c i e n c e 10  72 B i o l o g y 11 B i o l o g y 12 C h e m i s t r y 11 C h e m i s t r y 12 P h y s i c s 11 P h y s i c s 12 E a r t h S c i e n c e 11 E a r t h S c i e n c e 12 Geology 12 Other s c i e n c e 7 . A t t h i s t i m e , what do you p l a n t o do i m m e d i a t e l y l e a v i n g se co n d a ry s c h o o l ? Attend a business school Attend v o c a t i o n a l , a r t , trade t r a i n i n g school  or  Attend a t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t e A t t e n d community c o l l e g e : u n i v e r s i t y t r a n s f e r program A t t e n d community c o l l e g e : c a r e e r program other plans undecided  after  73  SCIENCE  QUESTIONS  INSTRUCTIONS The  questions  i n this  A number o f c h o i c e s "I  don't  make  know."  an  i s available  After  an x on t h e l i n e  question.  I f you have  x on t h e l i n e  EXAMPLE:  How  next  many  handout have  reading next  30 31  answer  should  f o r each question,  t o t h e one  t o "I don't  29  The  answer. including  a l l t h e p o s s i b l e answers,  days a r e there  don't  best  best  answer  t o each  no i d e a o f t h e c o r r e c t answer,  28  I  a single  know  be 31.  know."  i n December?  make  74 Use  the  m/ sec 8.9  f o l l o w i n g graph  km/ hr  5.5  17.9  C3  48  13.4m  25.6 ftt  80  41.2 m  16.8m 26.8  1.  Braking distance: the a c a r needs to s t o p .  64  !3.4nv 22.3  97  Which  20.1m  60. Om  the  following conclusions  of The  higher  one's  speed,  the  i s most longer  justified?  i t takes  to  react As  _  one  doubles  necessary  for  the  speed,  stopping  For  the  the  greater  the  The  braking  distance  the  distance  danger I 2.  2  Reaction distance: distance t r a v e l l e d between seeing danger and a p p l y i n g b r a k e s .  m  10.1 m  1 and  questions  KEY  I  6.7 m 13.4  answering  Distance needed to stop  M  32  when  From  the  time  of  one  greater  as  the  great  i s always  _  speed-  reaction distance  travelled  _  greater  i n reacting to  than the  _  you  could  average than  one  conclude  driver  that  little  the  reaction  is  second  _  second  don't  twice  know  _  more  much more I  the  distance  _  chart the  given,  becomes  total  signal  don't  less  a  speeds  the  than  know  than one  one  second  second  _ _  distance  If  the earth's  instead  axis  were  o f 23°which  The  of the following  y e a r would  There  would  t o be t i p p e d  be l o n g e r  be o n l y  than  half  a t a n a n g l e o f 10 would  a s many h o u r s o f  i n a year as a t present  We  be a b l e  The  moon w o u l d  rather  than  t o see both  appear  don't  Scientists visited  sides  o f t h e moon  t o be m o t i o n l e s s  a p p e a r i n g t o move  None o f t h e a b o v e w o u l d I  true?  at present  daylight would  be  i n the sky  be t r u e  know  are skeptical  by beings  from  that  earth  outside  has  been  the solar  system  because there  i s no l i f e  except the  few  Think you  places  outside  life  I  know  don't  of diving  go d e e p e r ,  into  sinks  stars  a r e enormous  i n such  the solar  t h e ocean  t h e water  saltiest  nonsense  system can  near  t h e e q u a t o r . As  gets colder  water  i s always  because  coldest  and  t o t h e bottom  warm w a t e r on  between  crackpots believe  support  the  i n the universe  on e a r t h  distances  only  anywhere  i s lighter  than  cold  and  stays  top  the  deeper  water  i s not i n contact  with the  air I Which a  don't  know  o f t h e s e c o n c e p t s c a n be used  driver  through  who  i s wearing  the windshield  a seat  Friction energy  Inertia Mechanical I  don't  advantage  know  may  i fh i s c a r stops  Buoyancy  Potential  belt  to explain be  why  thrown  suddenly?  76 7 . You a r e g o i n g t o l i g h t a bunsen b u r n e r . do j u s t b e f o r e you t u r n on t h e gas?  What s h o u l d you  Guess a t t h e p o s i t i o n a t w h i c h t h e a i r  control  s h o u l d be open f o r p r o p e r b u r n i n g Close the a i r c o n t r o l completely Leave t h e a i r c o n t r o l as you found i t , it  since  probably i s i n the c o r r e c t p o s i t i o n  Open t h e a i r c o n t r o l c o m p l e t e l y I d o n ' t know 8 . When d i l u t i n g an a c i d , w h i c h i s t h e c o r r e c t p r o c e d u r e ? Add w a t e r t o a c i d Add a c i d t o w a t e r Add w a t e r t o o n e - h a l f o f t h e a c i d and t h e n add t h e remainder o f t h e a c i d Pour a c i d and w a t e r t o g e t h e r i n t o an empty beaker I d o n ' t know 9 . Green p l a n t s a r e i m p o r t a n t t o a n i m a l s because t h e p l a n t s consume b o t h food and oxygen consume food and g i v e o f f oxygen consume, food and g i v e o f f c a r b o n d i o x i d e produce food and g i v e o f f oxygen produce f o o d and g i v e o f f c a r b o n d i o x i d e I d o n ' t know 1 0 . A t m o s p h e r i c c a r b o n d i o x i d e i s b e l i e v e d t o be i n c r e a s i n g due t o i n c r e a s e d c a r b o n d i o x i d e f i x a t i o n by green plants i n c r e a s e d r e l e a s e from v o l c a n o e s increased burning of f o s s i l fuels c u t t i n g down o f t o o many t r e e s I d o n ' t know 1 1 . S a l t may be added t o a s o l u t i o n u n t i l i t w i l l f l o a t an e g g . T h i s statement i s based on t h e assumption t h a t a l l eggs have equal weight e q u a l volume equal density about t h e same shape I d o n ' t know  77 12.  A poem  entitled  "The A n c i e n t M a r i n e r " c o n t a i n s t h e l i n e s :  The  s u n now  Out  o f t h e s e a came h e ,  Still  h i d i n mist,  Went down In which  r o s e upon  into  direction  the right  and on t h e  left  thesea.  was  the Ancient Mariner  sailing?  north south east west I 13.  don't  The purpose turn  know  of a fuse or c i r c u i t the lights  protect  breaker  i sto  on and o f f  circuits  from  carrying  t o o much  electricity protects saves  14.  What  don't  getting  from  electric  shocks  being wasted  t h e number o f v o l t s  i n the circuit  know  i s t h e main  disposal  from  electricity  regulate I  people  problem  o f waste  associated  products  from  with the  a nuclear  reactor?  Some o f t h e p r o d u c t s remain  likely  can  d e s t r o y t h e ozone  I Look  f o r thousands  are  give  15.  radioactive  t o explode  o f f dangerous  don't  at the figure  a t any time layer  levels  know below  MH.K  OMM||,  c  v  of years  o f microwaves  This  figure the  demonstrates  deeper  that  the liquid,  the greater the  liquid  pressure liquid  moves a t d i f f e r e n t  air  pressure causes  the  deeper  speeds  the liquid  the liquid,  t o shoot out  the greater the a i r  pressure I 16.  Look  The  don't  know  a t t h e diagram  sun would  below  be l o c a t e d  at position  A B C D I 17.Which from  don't  know  of the following sparks  o r open  Hydrochloric Sodium  Tin I  and  don't  and s u l f u r i c  and e t h e r lead know  must  be k e p t  flames?  hydroxide  Alcohol  substances  acid  and potassium  hydroxide  away  79  18.  In which differ  o f t h e f o l l o w i n g ways  from a sample  of ice?  move m o r e are  lamps  battery  less  x ®  are  farther apart  steam  d o n ' t know X,  i n a circuit, switch  Y,  and Z  which  represent  also  includes  x  ®®  y  x  z  ®®®  y  D  a  S.  y * k  of  steam  energy  closer together  and a  of  slowly  In t h e diagrams below, three  The m o l e c u l e s  are  I  a sample  smaller  contain  19.  does  z  B  x  ®  y  z  E  y @  z k  ®  80  A  student  or you  flask saw  i s boiling a s shown.  water What  i n a stoppered  p r e c a u t i o n would  glass j a r you take i f  this?  Immediately Make so  sure  t u r n o f f t h e gas t o t h e burner  the stopper  t h e steam  Make  sure  cannot  i s i n tightly  escape  t h e gas l i n e  does  n o t become  down  t o low  disconnected Keep I  the burner  don't  know  turned  heat  81  When t h e s w i t c h i s o p e n , X f a i l s t o l i g h t w h i l e Y and Z do l i g h t . Which one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c i r c u i t s i s i t ? A B C D  E I d o n ' t know 2 0 . Use t h e graph below when a n s w e r i n g q u e s t i o n s 20 and 21 Concentrated acid  Percent of  seeds  germinating  12  24  Time ( i n h o u r s )  Which ONE t r e a t m e n t o f seeds seems t o be MOST e f f e c t i v e f o r s t a r t i n g g e r m i n a t i o n i n a maximum number o f seeds ( i . e ; f o r b r e a k i n g dormancy)? Concentrated a c i d B a l l m i l l abrasion T h r e s h i n g machine a b r a s i o n Sulfuric acid I d o n ' t know 2 1 . I f t h e t r e a t m e n t were g i v e n f o r o n l y s i x h o u r s , w h i c h ONE would be MOST e f f e c t i v e f o r s t a r t i n g g e r m i n a t i o n i n maximum number o f seeds ( i . e ; f o r b r e a k i n g dormancy)? Concentrated a c i d B a l l m i l l abrasion T h r e s h i n g machine a b r a s i o n Sulfuric acid I d o n ' t know  82  In  t h e diagrams  below,  HOWEVER, T H E Y MAY contains without  1 and 2 a r e e x a c t l y  BE AT D I F F E R E N T TEMPERATURES.  a substance any  bottles  which  i s transferred  what  Bottle  to bottle  2  loss.  AFTER  BEFORE  Which  alike  one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g you see i n the In  1, t h e s u b s t a n c e  2 the substance  bottle  1, t h e s u b s t a n c e  in  bottle  2 the substance  In  bottle  1, t h e s u b s t a n c e  In  i n bottle bottle  than I  don't  know  liquid i s a liquid  2  and  i s a gas i s a  2 the substance  1, t h e s u b s t a n c e  i n bottle  i s a gas and i n  i s a  In  and  explanation of  diagrams?  bottle  bottle  i s the best  solid  i s a  has l e s s  liquid mass  1  83  ALTERED VERSIONS 20.  OF ITEMS 20 and 2 1  U s e t h e g r a p h b e l o w when a n s w e r i n g q u e s t i o n s 20 and 2 1 Concentrated  -  acid  ' Percent o f seeds germinating  Time ( i n h o u r s )  W h i c h ONE t r e a t m e n t o f s e e d s for  starting  (i.e;  seems t o be MOST  effective  g e r m i n a t i o n i n a maximum number o f s e e d s  f o r b r e a k i n g dormancy)? Concentrated Ball mill  acid  abrasion  High moisture c o n d i t i o n High temperature  condition  I d o n ' t know 21.  I f t r e a t m e n t were g i v e n f o r o n l y ONE w o u l d in  be MOST e f f e c t i v e  s i x hours,  f o r starting germination  a maximum number o f s e e d s  ( i . e ; f o r breaking  dormancy)? Concentrated acid Ball mill  abrasion  High moisture c o n d i t i o n High temperature I don't  know  which  condition  84  A L T E R E D V E R S I O N OF 22.  A cook tight you  ITEM  i s boiling fitting  take  22  water  lid,  a s shown.  i f y o u saw  steam Make  What  with  precaution  a  would  this?  Immediately Make  i n a casserole dish  sure  t u r n o f f t h e gas t o t h e stove  the l i d fits  cannot sure  tightly  so t h e  i s gas g e t t i n g  to the  escape  there  stove Keep I  the stove  don't  know  turned  down  t o low  heat  85  ALTERED VERSION  23.  OF  ITEM  23  In t h e diagram below, HOWEVER T H E Y contains without  MAY  saucepan  BE AT  D I F F E R E N T TEMPERATURES.  a substance which any  i s transferred  x  Saucepan  t o saucepan  1  2  X  i  &EFOR£  you  alike.  loss.  i  Which  1 and 2 a r e e x a c t l y  AFTER  one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g  i s the best  explanation  o f what  can see i n t h e diagram? In  saucepan  saucepan In  2 the substance i s a l i q u i d  saucepan  and  1, t h e s u b s t a n c e i s a g a s , a n d i n  1, t h e s u b s t a n c e i s a  i n saucepan  liquid  2, t h e s u b s t a n c e i s a g a s  In  saucepan  1, t h e s u b s t a n c e i s a s o l i d ,  in  saucepan  2 the substance i s a l i q u i d  In  saucepan  1, t h e s u b s t a n c e h a s l e s s  than I  i n saucepan  don't  know  2  and  mass  86  APPENDIX B  87  TRANSCRIPT  SUBJECT: MELANIE GRADE 12 AGE: 17 FEMALE I - INTERVIEWER S- S U B J E C T IN  PARENTHESES,  CATEGORY  I:  B E S I D E S EACH  ASSIGNED  Tell  me  FOR  what  EACH  SUBJECT'S EXCERPT,  ITEM.  you were  thinking  answer you d i d f o r q u e s t i o n  S:  I chose  No. 3 b e c a u s e  before. at  a  Somebody  higher  stop.  So  science  that  What  was  S:  Oh.. I t w a s  Question  S:  Umm..  other  through  I chose  something t o me a  that  longer  knowledge  like  this  i f y o u go  distance  besides  to  basic  reaction  time.  figure  knowledge?  drivers school.  That  helped  me  experience).  No. 1. T h a t  as  Now  takes  other  the  2?  reasons  to  I:  this  l o t (informal  I:  was  you chose  knowledge.  I:  a  I've done  i t  when  1?  has explained  speed  I S THE  Question  for question  1.  I looked  i t out also  was  more They  showed  a t the graph  (formal  3. T a k e  or l e s s  your  a  experience).  time.  t h e same a  f i l m  b i t and  on tried  88  S:  Okay.  For  was.I  haven't  rotation  this  one  I didn't  had  much  What about  S:  The  only  other  geography  I had  semismographs,  I:  Question  4?  S:  Okay. For  that  you  know.  I:  How  d i d you  S:  Through  I: S:  enough  one  thinking the that  find  TV,  Question  road  one  on  i t  earth  this  the  i n G r a d e 10  was  earthquakes  I chose No.l  That there  i s no  because  life  which  etc.  information  was  That's i t .  i t s a  anywhere  theory  on  earth.  out?  m e d i a , and  the  movies.  are  creatures  out  there.  proof  (informal  experience).  there  This  background  what  background?  studying  not  know  (miscellaneous).  I:  think  really  Some To  movies  me  there  5? I  didn't  when so  really  i t s frosty the  because  weeks. I d i d n ' t  of  ice our  know. outside  melts. past  know a b o u t  For  I  you was  experience the  other  1  No.  I  throw thinking of  was salt  Moving  on  S:  O k a y . The  to question answer  a  couple  answers  (common  6  I chose  was  interia.  I learnt  on  about  sense). I:  is  this  of  89  through  driving  and s e a t  belt  commercials  (informal  experience).  I:  Question  S:  Okay. with is  When a  and  and  what  I  allows  where  put  f o r my  about  i t (formal  S:  Past  This  i n t o  do  my  kind  of  a  study i t  be. W e l l ,  I'm going  never  read  it.So  because  a i r  didn't a  me  , I'm  No.  had  gave  i t  burner I  was  answer  burner  i t and  should  i t so  to light  4  want  to  b i t of  put  I  knowledge  a bunsen  I t scared  me  burner  again?  a bit.  No. 8?  chose last  adding  year  a n o t h e r . T o  don't  read  bunsen  I  I quess.  interchangeable. I  teacher  should  burn. I  whether  experience).  y o u want  one I  chemistry  science  answer  to  because  experience  Question  to  experience  l i t the bunsen  another  else  flame  didn't  you  to light  someone  a  My  I  know  the a i r control  know  Why  me. that  9 I had a bad  I don't  n o t . When  don't  I:  S:  burner.  said  going  get  i n grade  shocked  know  never  I:  or  of  sheet  I was  bunsen  right  kind  to  7?  have  experience).  a n d we me  No.  that  the acid  No. 3  sort 1  t o water. o f p u t one  and  i s getting  background  I  No. really  knowledge  2  took  solution a r e  technical. (formal  90  I:  S:  Question  Well  No. 9?  I know  they  do  that  produce  I:  How  S:  Well,  what  green  plants  I  green food  plants  give  f o r human  do y o u know t h a t t h e y  I perceived themselves  i n t e r p r e t a t e d food.  and  consumption.  produce  from  o f f oxygen  food?  this  question  i s that  a r e food  t o us,so  thats  Basic  knowledge  how  (Common  sense).  I:  Now  moving  on t o q u e s t i o n  S:  I c h o s e No. 3 b e c a u s e have  a l o t  much  C02  too  many  During  cars  and  plus  the heat  I chose put  I  No. an that  d i d an  density  the road,  Question  there  monoxide  was  would  etc (informal  4.  I wasn't  answer  fuels  t o o much  t o o much be  theres  bad  so  burning,  congestion.  traffic.  f o r the  A l l runners  experience)  density  and w a t e r  12?  my  sure  anyway.  about Okay,  has something  experiment  interpretated  I:  on  that  they  No. 1 1 ?  down  believe  on t h e f a c t of f o s s i l  carbon  S:  on t h e news a n d  i n the a i rbecause  the  Question  I listen  of information  the Olympics  I:  10.  on  has a  answer  this I  know t o do  i t . Mercury so  so d e n s i t y .  (formal  one, b u t I that, with  has  a  That's  experience).  I water.  higher how  I  91  S:  For t h i s and it  one I t h o u g h t  rises i s my  S:  the sun sets  I guess  faces  a t the globe.  (common I:  i n the east.  bedroom  looking  that  south.  How  i n the west  t h e way I was  would  I  perceived  picturing  the  sun  myself  look?  sense).  Question  13?  For question  13  I  chose  experience  i np h y s i c s .  breakers  b i t and  a  overloading  No.  2  because  We t a l k e d  t o me  o f an o u t l e t  a  about  breaker  o f my  past  circuit i s to  so I chose  No.  2  else  circuit  prevent  (formal  experience).  I:  Have  y o u done  besides  S:  W e l l ,  anything  p r e t t y  much  electronics  or  I:  Okay.  on t o q u e s t i o n  S:  This  one  like  good  Moving  answers  news  one  (informal  S:  This end  you hear  like  really  No.  I  I  don't  take  that.  know.  t o me. these  i t .  14  A l l o f them  chose  things  so  No.  4  I  just  seemed  because chose  i n this  experience).  No. 1 5 ?  one was so I  anything  I didn't  the  Question  breakers  physics?  that's  I:  with  was  a b i tconfusing.  I was  getting  I chose  restless.  getting No.  1  to the because  92 I  perceived  into  water  I:  How  S:  I take go  the answer there's  d o y o u know  t o be  more  that.  pressure  When  you  go  down  on y o u .  that?  swimming l e s s o n s  'wonko' w h e n  that's  I go  to a  sure  about  why.  deeper  My  ears  depth  kind  of  (informal  experience).  I:  Question  S:  I  16?  wasn't  quite  (pointing cover  the  basic  Moving  S:  Okay.  to  I: S:  diagram)  moon.  knowledge  I:  that  to  I  on t o q u e s t i o n  With  this  No. 4  one  wasn't  think  about.  chemistry  class. So  What  ether?  about  I wasn't  sure  attention talk  ether.  paid  I:  Question  S:  Okay. What  I wasn't  and  much  to  eclipse use  really  i t would  some  s u l f u r i c  there's  that  that  I have  one  come  acid  of  the  I had are not  Alcohol  pay  i n chemistry.  to that  about  this  i s  t h e word  much We d i d but I  word.  18? I thought  i n  experience).  I didn't  across  knew  something  a l c o h o l .  (formal  I  three  doing  because  attention  sure.  The f i r s t  remember  Then  about  an  thought  17?  I  I chose  I  sense).  t o the end of t h e year  about  haven't  (common  HCL  because  flammable.  trying  the answer.  flammable  one.  i f i t was  was  I had  this  i s that  steam  moves  93  about  i n t h e room.  kettle  on t h e s t o v e  a  kitchen)  ice  I  move  I:  Question  S:  More  and y o u c l o s e  the  much  stuff!  I chose  circuit  would  involved  i n the diagram.  Question  S:  I  sure  stay  (informal  (like i n I think  of  the ice.  I t  experience).  No. 4  because the  l i t because  about  dormancy  evens  chose  (from  around  a  Physics  of  the  circuit  information  20?  wasn't  thought  I  t h e door  put  experience).  I:  then  you  f o g up. When  sea forming  around  when  19?  physics  (formal  can t e l l  and the windows  think of  doesn't  You  I:  Question  S:  This  was  No.  2.  graph)  i t reaches  changes  I t  so  speed.  increases  that's  so a  level  I  I and  So t h e a n s w e r  pretty  how  what  normally  g o t my  answer  21?  related ( theres  to that  (pointing  to a line  which  ball  was  mill  I:  Do y o u know w h a t b a l l  I:  No  ideal  when  dormancy  experience).  i s  Because  was  out or then  the  (formal  t h e word  20  i n a  word  way  again  on t h e g r a p h ) abrasion  mill  by  the  dormancy) I chose  (formal  my  graph. of  answer  experience).  abrasion i s ?  this  94  I:  Moving  S:  This  on t o q u e s t i o n  one was  No.22  a b i tconfusing.  anything  i n experiments  I:  Really?  Nothing  S:  Well,  I:  With  S:  Yeah.. A c i d s e t c .  S:  I chose tight  I:  S:  No.  answer  2 . I wasn't pressure  two.I  thought  S:  No,  Okay  stopper.  stopper?  water.  sure.  i t will know  If i t s really  explode.  because  I  didn't  I sort  o f knew  experience).  this  my  Melanie  we  (pointing  like  reading  answer  (common  have  bottle  one and  this and  bottle  t o diagram)  two so I chose  anything  through  about  one  one and b o t t l e  Have y o u done  I:  grows  of confused  I:  derived  done  23  kind  but  a  really  I don't  (formal  I was  bottle  I had t o use a  i t , but not with  t o p u t down  Question  really  things?  and  want the  at a l l with  I've done  other  where  I haven't  was  No. 2  before? common  knowledge  I  sense).  finished.  Thank  you very  much.  95 BIBLIOGRAPHY A g u i r r e , J . (1978). C h i l d r e n ' s B e l i e f s About F o r c e s i n E q u i l i b r i u m . U n p u b l i s h e d M.A. T h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. B r i d g e s , K.  (1927). 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