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Royal power and the war with Granada Conroy, James George 1986

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ROYAL POWER AND THE WAR  WITH  GRANADA  By J A M E S GEORGE CONROY B.A., T h e U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a , 1984  A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE MASTER OF ARTS in THE F A C U L T Y OF GRADUATE S T U D I E S (Department o f  We a c c e p t to  this  thesis  the required  History)  as conforming standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H September  COLUMBIA  1986  ® James George C o n r o y , 1986  In  presenting  requirements of  British  it  freely  agree for  this f o r an  in partial  advanced  degree  Columbia, I agree that available  that  f o r reference  permission  scholarly  o r by  understood  that  financial  f o r extensive  p u r p o s e s may  department for  thesis  be  copying  gain  (.3/81)  the Library  shall  and  I  study.  copying  or publication  shall  n o t be  by  Columbia  make  further  of this  t h e head  of this  thesis  of  my  I t i s thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  of  the  University  h i s or her representatives.  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main M a l l Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  DE-6  at the  granted  permission.  Department  fulfilment of  written  Abstract  One the  of  Iberian  conflict rights of  the  a  most  Peninsula  i s s u e s f a c e d by  during  the  fifteenth  of  the  entrenched  nobility.  The  warrior  in their  wealth  Reconquista  class, and  frequently challenged  this  T h e s e monarchs s u c c e s s f u l l y into  purpose  controlling military  vast  forms  alienating  The  war  the  power with  reigns of  that  of  this  thesis  Granada,  from  army, w i t h  s o c i a l and The  the  in a  growth  i s to  aided  1480  of  the  show how  largely  to  1492.  and  Fernando power o f  p r e s t i g e of the  of the  monarchy  nobles. the  by  process  of  growth  in  the  expanded  T h i s war  through  demanded  a change i n t h e c o m p o s i t i o n  a corresponding  The  little  the  power  the  nobility  with  and  channeled  t h e monarchy, d e v e l o p e d  i n c r e a s e i n t h e s i z e and  Castilian  and  was  was  of  accumulated  yet  Castile  i n c r e a s e d the  nobility of  resulted  Isabel of  the wealth  the  domination,  Aragon.  the  century  h i s t o r i c p r i v i l e g e s of r u l e .  until  nobility  the  society  facilitated  which  success,  without  the  between t h e demands o f t h e monarchy and  privileged  Crown  important  i n c r e a s e i n the  of  a  the  financial,  t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e needed t o s u p p o r t i t .  campaigns a g a i n s t Granada were f o c u s e d p r i m a r i l y  numerous  sieges, with  weapon.  The  gunpowder  dissertation  siege a r t i l l e r y  shows how  this  as  artillery  the e v e n t u a l success of C a s t i l e over Granada.  the was  around primary  vital  In support  of  to the  artillery, conduct The  large  the actual  cavalry,  The  the  of effective  nobility  and extend  their  G r a n a d a , and N a v a r r e ,  reorientation  military  ramifications  placed  military force  influence  and t o u n i f y  at the  to control  throughout  Castile,  politically  o f the emphasis  h a d enormous p o l i t i c a l , for Castile.  of C a s t i l i a n society,  collectors.  much o f  The f i n a n c i a l  affairs  nobility  of as  the revenues  well.  This  i n the C a s t i l i a n  social,  intruded  of bureaucrats  and into  and t a x  o f t h e monarchs expanded t o eventually  of the Church  growth  financial  The S t a t e  i n t h e form  t h e demands o f t h e war e f f o r t ,  proportion  of state  o v e r r o d e much o f t h e l e g a l i s o l a t i o n  absorbing and  that  power  a  large  of the  eventually  of the d i f f e r e n t areas o f  Peninsula. The  promoted task  firepower  Peninsula.  system  the  lines.  to skirmishing.  military  fit  C a s t i l i a n supply  arm o f t h e C a s t i l i a n army,  o f t h e monarchs s u f f i c i e n t  This  much  and p r o t e c t  t h e dominant  introduction  disposal  Aragon,  sieges  formerly  was r e l e g a t e d  the  i n f a n t r y a r m i e s were r a i s e d by t h e M o n a r c h s t o  massive a social  successfully  the  war a l s o  the  strengthening  effort  required  of the peoples  u n i f i c a t i o n , i n that concluded  fostered  was s h a r e d  a crusade  the concept by a l l .  mentality  of the influence  of Spain  among  of a  also vital  The s u c c e s s o f S p a n i a r d s and  of the C a t h o l i c  religion  iv  under  the d i r e c t i o n of the In  against  these  ways,  Granada  centralized, aristocratic  monarchs.  the m i l i t a r y  f a c i l i t a t e d  bureaucratic pretensions  demands  and  state  on  and r e g i o n a l  forced a  of  a  decade  the  society  growth  of  of  dominated  factionalism.  war a by  T A B L E OF Abstract Table  i  of Contents  1  Military  The C h r i s t i a n  Society  Army  The G r o w t h o f R o y a l  3 33  Power  Conclusion Selected  i v  Introduction Spanish  CONTENTS  Bibliography  70 109 113  1  Introduction  One the  of  Iberian  conflict rights The  the  most  Peninsula  the  and  by  entrenched  the  with  and  challenged little  Fernando  channelled  the  increased  the  w e a l t h and  p r e s t i g e of  Most  power  sense,  monarchs  and  existence,  that of  purpose  controlling military  vast  war  omitting  nobles  the  power with  increase  Castilian  growth  was of  of  a  domination  of  the  the  These  the  of the  reigns  warrior nobility  rule.  The  sources  of  Isabel  of  successfully  into  without  the  standing.  of  monarchs  of  accumulated  in a  of  nobility  Monarchy  was  privileged  culminated  until  forms  that  alienating  the  nobles. this  almost  perceived  struggle  entirely as  their  is  to  in a p o l i t i c a l  the  function  primary  that  reason  and the for  fighting. of  this  nobility of  long  Aragon.  the  century  historic privileges  historians interpret  financial  The  of  society  struggle  this  influence  the  the  success  of  by  fifteenth  century,  w e a l t h and  faced  the Monarchy and  the  fifteenth  in their  yet  Castile  the  the  This  facilitated  frequently  power,  during  Nobility.  Reconquista  Crown  issues  between the demands o f of  class,  important  the  Granada, i n the  army, w i t h  was  aided  Monarchy, from  size a  thesis  and  1480  show how  largely  developed to  1492.  and  by  increase  the  process  of  growth  in  expanded  This  a change i n the  corresponding  the  war  demanded  composition i n the  through  of  a  the  financial,  v  2  social  and  The around  technological campaigns  numerous  gunpowder  success  of  against  sieges  siege  dissertation  artillery  sufficient  military  Navarre,  and  Finally, the  financial demands forced society  to  and of  the  military  growth  dominated  factionalism.  of by  this  system  control  a  war  vital  suggests  the  primarily  places,  with  weapon.  The  to  the  that of  the  Aragon,  much  of  the  Granada,  and  the  Peninsula.  had  political,  against  centralized,  the  Castile.  Granada  emphasis  The  a r i s t o c r a t i c pretensions  military  state and  in  social,  facilitated  bureaucratic  of  extend  of  for  use  monarchs  reorientation enormous  eventual  the  nobility,  Castile,  ramifications of  focussed  disposal  p o l i t i c a l l y  that  decade  to  the  support i t .  primary was  It  throughout  unify  military a  artillery  at  to  fortified  the  Granada.  force  Crown  as  needed  were  Granadan  placed  i t contents  Castilian  the  over  effective  the  of  how  Castile  of  Granada  a r t i l l e r y  shows  influence  infrastructure  and in  a  regional  3  Spanish  According defined,  to  Charles  continuous  differentiated  from  monopolize  use  Catholic  the  Monarchs  perspective century, their  the  own  "achieved  other  armed  noting  that  years  France  nobles  main  Western 27.  later  be  the  strong  where  into  to  rule  Crown  was  the  away.  aristocracy  i n the they  put  the  fifteenth  thousands of m i l e s  revolts  of  to  enough  the  accomplishment  England  impediment  to  the  Because o f c o n s t a n t of  of  the  realm  This by  the  Catholic  after  continued  1516,  into  the  much  of  growth  warfare  the  country,  of  royal  against and  the  power  was  the  the Muslims, fact  that  i n d u s t r y were i n n o n - C h r i s t i a n hands, t h e power o f was  largely  Contemporaries  1  and  major noble  tendency  century.  nature  t r a d e and  the  a  of  c o n t r o l o f the C a s t i l i a n  unlike  barren  not  well-  centralized,  achievement  middle  hundred  T h e r e were no  nobility.  the  a  monarchs.  The  in  were  was  is a  " n a t i o n - s t a t e " can  Castile  which  seventeenth  The  1  of  monarchy,  in  nation-state relatively  force.  o f a v a s t empire  through  a  o r g a n i z a t i o n s , with  in creating a  kings  ruler  Tilly,  Society  territory,  of  country;  effective was  by  Military  saw  dependent  Spain  as  a  on  nation  military of  warriors  the most the  adventure. who  thought  C h a r l e s T i l l y , ed., The F o r m a t i o n o f N a t i o n a l S t a t e s i n E u r o p e ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1975), p~.  4 honour of  reposed  Spain,  and  largely  in battle.  i n 1472  alone,  i n v o l v e d i n such c o n f l i c t s . other  classes  in society  their station in l i f e . " The basic  exclusive  attributes  P r i v a t e wars dominated a l l  over  1,200  horse  were  "Resort to arms - not p e r m i t t e d to  - seemed to the  [knights] to  justify  3  p r e r o g a t i v e of armed of  armed  nobility.  4  The  force  was  nobility  one  of  of  Spain  the was  e s p e c i a l l y b e l l i c o s e i n i t s defense of and j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r i t s s t a t u s as w a r r i o r s . that  "So  l o n g had  The  C h r o n i c l e of the Count de Luna  wars c o n t i n u e d i n C a s t i l e  that  men  states had  no  other care than to keep t h e i r arms and horses choice and i n good state."  The  coward who the  Count  de  Luna h i m s e l f wrote  that  "...it  rose from bed without g i r d i n g on a sword."  knightly  class  was  dependent  on  continuous  5  war  was  a  In Spain for i t s  livelihood. War of  was  still  largely  j o u s t , where courage was  had  seen as a p a r t i c u l a r l y all-important.  t o a v o i d "shame" through  vicious  form  These noble w a r r i o r s  "despicable a c t i o n s " ,  "cowardice"  J.R. H a l e , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s i n t h e W e s t : Diplomacy and War, The New Cambridge Modern H i s t o r y , Volume I: The R e n a i s s a n c e 1493-1520, E d i t e d by Denys Hay (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1979), p. 260. 2  J.N. H i l l g a r t h , The Spanish Kingdoms 1250-1516, v o l . I I : 1410-1516, C a s t i l i a n Hegemony (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978), p. 61. 3  P e t e r Shervey Lewis, L a t e r Medieval France: York: MacMillan, 1968), p. 187. 4  (New  5  H i l l g a r t h , The Spanish Kingdoms, p.  304.  the  Polity  5 and  "laziness".  perform  a c t s of  arms", was to  They must d i s p l a y " g r e a t c o u r a g e and  "prowess", and  experience  hardy "the  c o n c e i v e d as an a r i s t o c r a t i c , race,  from  blood  and  ambition  posthumous battle  and  was  the  of  away from  him.  century  private  Lucena  and  The  Still  extremely  Abdillah,  the  was  gain.  The  important  of  chaos  perception  Cabra  In of  of  one  can  the  churches,  documents,  The service  fugitives  arsonists,  economy, of  this  be  form  the  medieval  capture these  tried  trait  honour,  to  arising  glory  that of  In  chief,  snatch  and  ransom  warriors.  Moorish  linked  notion  and  in  Courage  6  of behavior,  goods,  notable  determined  social  source,  v i o l a t e r s o f women, w i l l i n g  of b a t t l e ,  a  enterprises", "feats  individual  to  and  1483 Abu  his prisoner  7  domination.  sealed  an  extant  captured  Lord  resulting  "Desecrators  noble as  i n combat  d i n of b a t t l e " .  d e s i r e f o r temporal  for  prisoners Lord  l i n e a g e , and  renown.  was  "great ardour"  effects  knights  excommunicates,  from of  were  battle,  those  ruling  and  class,  culture whose  were  knightly  described by  plighted defeated  l e a d e r s o f f r e e companies and  society,  fifteenth  this  murderers  p e r j u r e r s of t h e i r from  a  ambush, word  i n f l u e n c e reached  and  i n gage  pirates."  organized  as  in  8  the  down  P h i l i p p e Contamine, War In t h e M i d d l e Ages, T r a n s l a t e d by M i c h a e l J o n e s ( O x f o r d : B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , 1984), p. 253. 6  Ahmed I b n Mohammed A l - M a k k a r i , The H i s t o r y o f the Mohammedan D y n a s t i e s o f S p a i n , v o l . I I , T r a n s l a t e d by P a s c u a l De Gayangos (New Y o r k : J o h n s o n R e p r i n t s , 1964), p. 374. 7  8  C o n t a m i n e , War  In the M i d d l e  Ages, p.  290.  to  6 the  lowest  authority  levels.  t o wage war,  - were p r i v a t e l y the  military  nobility, of  for  owned as  included  essential was  and  one  of  Fajardo,  more t h a n  the  IV  victor  that  "You  know t h a t  I could  vassal  of  the  others  do."  This  almost  and  wished in  a  king  of  the  loyalty  not  a major  conquer  Granada,  pledged  fealty of  since to  the  the  of  e n f o r c e the  law  by  members  rights  the  the  except  that  to  as  a  the  none  Alonso  1 0  Granada,  the  wanted  o p p o n e n t s , but  unrestrained."  I hold  9  toward  "They  so  of  of  Crown.  nobility  their  live  factor  informed  hard,  for  Moors and  Christian  very  H i l l g a r t h , The p.  126.  nobles  i n the few  rulers  you be  there  of  to  the  a as  Castilian  Crown's d e t e r m i n a t i o n  Christian  of  merely primus i n t e r pares.  Ibid.,  the  certain  Jean Hippolyte M a r i e j o l , I s a b e l l a , T r a n s l a t e d by B e n j a m i n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961), p. 264.  1 1  of  L o r d , p r e s s me  and  rebelliousness  9  1 0  power o f  against  castles  state  functions  the  live  battle  Granada  the  exploitation.  to  s h o u l d not,  -  rights  a l l royal  limited  and  acquired  justice against  give  loose  indication  These  the  11  monarchy was  K i n g as  l e g a l , hereditary  control  of  to administer  relationship  themselves...They  Enrique  tax,  money, s e v e r e l y  monarchy justice  to  aristocracy.  which  coining The  Many normal p r e r o g a t i v e s  Granada, the  nobles but  is  n o b i l i t y , who  During  the  war  to  actually a  strong  viewed  with  the  Granada  The Spain of Ferdinand and Keen (New Brunswick: Rutgers  S p a n i s h Kingdoms, p.  303.  7  in  I486,  seized visit  the disgruntled  Ponferrada, Galicia  The Spanish  forcing  to restore  military  power  emphasis  Count  on  prowess  throughout  the peninsula,  military  military  century,  hierarchy,  the years  caused  the various  monarchy private  men.  bombards The grouped  1 2  because  and  t h e war a n d  reflection  Castilian  of the society  of the frequency  the strong  bonds  between  the widespread  army  of noble  anarchy  o f war  the  social  possession  noble  military  campaigns.  Even  o f over  I V , t h e Duke 2 0 , 0 0 0 men  t h e war w i t h  would  Granada  not serve  t o t h e army forces  of  to their  dominant  undisputed gathered  Many  the early  1480s,  o f l o s grandes sent  generously  de  c a p t a i n s and lent  h i s own  Zamora.  noble  that  did fight  origins,  i n t h e war  rather  than  were  according  p. 511.  W i l l i a m H. P r e s c o t t , H i s t o r y o f t h e R e i g n o f F e r d i n a n d I s a b e l l a , 3 v o l s . ( B o s t o n : Dana E s t e s , 1 8 7 2 ) , 1:216. 1 3  and  J . R . H a l e , War a n d S o c i e t y i n R e n a i s s a n c e (London: Fontana P r e s s , 1985), p. 91.  1 4  1620  a  1 3  but simply  of Alba  the  Sidonia  escalated during varied.  fifteenth  were  during  o f Medina  i n person  besieging  armies  for battle.  of the nobility  according  Ibid.,  i n the early  minorities,  I n c o n t r a s t , t h e Duke  1 4  was a  i n battle.  reactions of the n o b i l i t y  Castilla  to halt  and  1 2  by r o y a l  of Enrique  When the  strength  i n Galicia  equipment.  During  in  authority.  of the nobility  military  revolted  t h e monarchs  their  emphasized  and  o f Lemos  Europe  1450-  8 to  size,  the  weaponry,  town  of  Baza  or military during  usefulness.  1489  show  The l e v i e s  this  kind  to attack  of  feudal  organization. The king (Ferdinand) held a review; h i s host n u m b e r e d 1 3 , 0 0 0 h o r s e a n d 4 0 , 0 0 0 f o o t s o l d i e r s , whom he o r d e r e d drawn up a s f o l l o w s . He commanded t h a t i n the f i r s t l i n e t h e r e s h o u l d b e 1 5 0 m o u n t e d men w i t h t h e A l c a i d e o f t h e Y o u n g P a g e s , who, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a n c i e n t u s a g e o f S p a i n , must go w i t h t h e m a r s h a l s t o prepare t h e cantonments. A n d h e commanded t h a t i n t h e v a n g u a r d s h o u l d go t h e Grand Master o f S a n t i a g o with 1,800 l a n c e s , w i t h whom w e n t t h e men o f E c i j a with 150 l a n c e s a n d 700 f o o t s o l d i e r s , a n d 150 espingarderos o f the c i t y of Toledo. A t one wing o f t h i s b a t t l e he p l a c e d t h e Grand M a s t e r o f C a l a t r a v a w i t h 4 0 0 l a n c e s a n d 1,000 f o o t s o l d i e r s . And a t t h e o t h e r w i n g m a r c h e d P e d r o L o p e z d e P a d i l l a w i t h 200 l a n c e s o f t h e s q u i r e s who h a d l a n d a n d r e c e i v e d w a g e s from t h e king and queen; o f these men L o p e z d e P a d i l l a h a d b e e n named c a p t a i n . In the second battle went Don D i e g o L o p e z de H a r o w i t h 150 l a n c e s a n d 4,000 f o o t s o l d i e r s o f t h e K i n g d o m o f G a l i c i a , who h a d b e e n g i v e n t o h i m t o command. In the third battle went 1,000 m e n - a t - a r m s a n d l i g h t c a v a l r y a n d 1,000 foot s o l d i e r s o f the Cardinal o f Spain; i t s captains w e r e Don R o d r i g o d e M e n d o z a , L o r d o f t h e C i d , a n d Don D i e g o H u r t a d o de Mendoza, A d e l a n t a d o o f C a z o r l a . In t h e f o u r t h b a t t l e went t h e h o r s e a n d f o o t s o l d i e r s o f the Hermandades, each squadron with i t s c a p t a i n . In the f i f t h battle went Don D i e g o Fernandez de C o r d o b a , C o u n t o f C a b r a , w i t h 250 l a n c e s a n d 300 f o o t s o l d i e r s , a n d M a r t i n A l o n z o d e M o n t e m a y o r , w i t h 160 l a n c e s a n d 200 f o o t s o l d i e r s . . . I n t h e t e n t h battle went Don A l o n s o , l o r d o f t h e house o f A g u i l a r , with 300 l a n c e s a n d 300 f o o t s o l d i e r s . I n advance o f t h e r o y a l b a t t l e went t h e Count o f T e n d i l l a w i t h 460 lances that belonged t o him, t o h i s brother the Archbishop o f S e v i l l e , and t o t h e Count o f Benavente. 1 5  This  seemingly  mandated  by  Christian  army.  irrational  the strong  Mariejol,  use of the forces  feudal  The s o l d i e r s  The Spain  influences  owed  prevalent  allegiance  of Ferdinand  available  i nthe  to the lords  and I s a b e l l a ,  was  p . 194.  who  9 raised  them  and  reorganization the  King:  t h e men  "Tell  o f my  unless  of  not  the  me  of  k i n g my  household,  serve without  the  by  at  my  troops  As  the  dominated was  based  collect great  the on  land  taxes.  and  these  lands  year,  which  2,300 l a n c e s  men,  nor  head."  Vast  their  also  the  i n rent  by  used  The  Spanish  military  alienated were under  immense  armies.  1 6  Hillgarth,  with  i n the  war  f o r them  made t h e  difficult  T h i s wealth,  to  to  vast  control,  income o f paid  for  the  the  so  acquired from the  the  by  the  raised  Crown  control  of  Kingdoms, p.  to the  thousands  fifteenth  of  century per  s e r v i t i u m debitum which were i n them.  means d u r i n g A  they arms,  3,363,500 m a r a v e d i s  t h e crown, but  illegal  forces,  revenues,  During  H e n r y Kamen, S p a i n 1 4 6 9 - 1 7 1 4 : (London: Longman, 1983), p. 34. 1 7  him  1 7  right  had  theoretically  nobles  serve  This attitude  t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e n o b l e s who The  not  answered  serve  i s i t reasonable  territories  controlled  attempted  Medinaceli  I came t o  extremely  Spain.  who  brought  an  r e f u s e d t o s e r v e a l o n g s i d e or under  the  own  Duke o f  I shall  16  dominated of  After  that  that  present  and  aristocrats,  vassals  under  wealth  the  lord  competitors.  nobility  King.  and  their  s i n c e many o f t h e n o b l e s command o f t h e i r  the  his troops,  accompanied  majority  to  Society  reality  18  periods of  of  weak  Conflict  377.  R o g e r H i g h f i e l d , "The C a t h o l i c K i n g s and t h e T i t l e d N o b i l i t y o f C a s t i l e " , Europe i n t h e L a t e M i d d l e Ages, E d i t e d by J o h n H a l e , J.R.L. H i g h f i e l d and B e r y l S m a l l e y (London: F a b e r and F a b e r , 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 382. 1 8  of  10  monarchies  to acquire  taken  by  The  over  attempts  largely  but of  of  mob, asked  live  officials,  noble  only  families three  wealth  1 9  2 0  with  Proud but  the  of  the  usurpations  200  their  prevailed. on  extorted  were  vassals  own,  used  the  city  of  1442  n o t be  local  out  and  as the sign  of the  prowess  nobles  threw  stocks  allowed  t h e towns  military  Salamanca,  position  The C o r t e s  fueros,  "The  Castile  the  controlling  life.  nobility's  and  and  terrorized the  chains  city's against  of jurisdiction.  A  and m u n i c i p a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  had  between  had  involved  the medieval  equals.  o f over  under  The S p a n i s h  p . 73.  n o b i l i t y  among  income  many  Hillgarth,  the  illustrates  f i r s t  had an  Ibid.,  themselves.  the countryside of  a n d by  over  put the royal  of  and  families  million,  these  were  2 0  comprehension was  nobles  i n their  t e n men  flight."  i n Castile  'commended'  they  of city  and e r e c t e d a gallows  with  The  not only  t h e Crown,  dependent  put  objectors,  had  to prevent  domination  usually  peasantry  they  Frequently  from  that  resisted,  ruthlessness  to  as w e l l .  i n cities.  meseta  the  dominated  noble  i n vain  t o whom  monasteries  1 9  magistrate  ensured  Many  t h e monarchy  nobility  the c i t i e s city  to  nobles  futile.  The  land.  In  five five  idea  1474,  one m i l l i o n  Kingdoms,  that at  the king  per  thousand thousand.  p. 101.  defies  least  maravedis  hundred hundred  almost  four year,  and In  one 1482  11 s i x t y - o n e major population Don  totalling  Gutierre  personal acres),  and  This Crown's  hectareas  195,000  annual  sheep  enjoyed incomes  strength  nobles  to  and  by  contrast,  of  and  such  the  Fernando  Isabel  independent  minorities  and  2,000  was  In  held  his  only  the  nineteen  caused  forces a  were  kept  by  to  strong  inherited  a  nobility  by  civil  monarchy strict  intimidation.  Isabel's  the  defend  under  and  of  1,000,000  Not  bribes  the weaknesses  own  2 1  times of  of a l l c o n t r o l  as  (over  partially  retinues  a  vassals.  i n Aragon  ducados.  from  million  cows.  strong military  through  and  land  revenues;  nobility  well-armed  Crown  of  o f 180,000  maintain  their  the  virtually  royal  505,800  of Alcantara,  a g a i n s t Granadan armies.  control  and  income o f 1,254,000 d u c a d o s  Sotomayor, Master  owned  need  an  approximately s i x to seven  nobility  nobles held  the  de  property  Castilian  Castile  n o b l e s had  made  In  strong  wars caused brother  by  Enrique  IV. Historically, limited this was  power,  military  because  administration the  limited.  wrote,  the For As  "...to  of  rights  a  The  Catholic  the  had  purposes  contemporary King  i s  confided  State are  wielded elite  royal  jurist,  not dominion  K i n g s , pp.  always  of a m i l i t a r y  a l l practical  the  of  Castile  influence  o f t h e kingdom, and  p r o p e r t y and  Highfield,  Kings  of  society.  strictly  Rubios,  the  over  public,  362-367  power  Palacios  solely things,  and  in  cannot  passim.  the for be  12  the  private  Partidas, spared  the  but  that  The system  of  must  their  their  the  honorable. "  be  According  2 2  protected  blood  nor  masters  had  s a c r i f i c e  be  peripatetic that  town  anyone."  from  their  to  the  Siete  "The  people  error.  treasure  conduct  made  to  in  the  themselves  easy  and  in  the  royal such  a  devotion  2 3  ambitions. to  King  neither  service, way  patrimony  stressed There in  kept  under  be  their  resources  on  personal  was  houses  could  tendencies  a  little  the  Crown,  relationships,  motivation  capital the  of  like  Crown's  for  London  ostentatious display  in  facilitated  the  or  watchful  necessary  nobles  Paris,  eye  and  noble  to  drift  where could  i n competition  a  they waste  with  each  other. Enrique campaigning economic  His  against  Both was  this  a  Granada (booty)  Archidona  secured  bellicose  hated  perpetuated  benefits  captives. frontier  IV  and  nobles,  a  who  s t r a t e g y and  policy  of  during and  and heavy  the  the  years  freeing  Gibraltar tribute  demanded  demanded  personal  total  were  1455-1458 of  by for  C a s t i l i a n  captured,  exacted  glory war  leadership  from  rather against  Granada.  than  booty,  Granada.  B e c a u s e he was p i o u s a n d n o t c r u e l , m o r e a f r i e n d o f the l i f e of h i s ( f o l l o w e r s ) than the s p i l l e r of their b l o o d , h e s a i d t h a t . . . t h e l i f e o f men h a d no p r i c e o r e q u i v a l e n c e , a n d i t was a great error to risk them, and b e c a u s e o f t h i s i t d i d not p l e a s e him that his  2 2  Pelican 2 3  J.H. E l l i o t t , Imperial B o o k s , 1 9 6 3 ) , p . 84". Mariejol,  The  Spain  of  Spain  Ferdinand  1469-1716  and  (Middlesex:  Isabella,  p.  the  117.  13 ( f o l l o w e r s ) w e n t o u t on s k i r m i s h e s . . . A n d i n s u c h expeditions, ( t o o ) m u c h m o n e y was spent; he w i s h e d . . . ( r a t h e r ) to expend h i s t r e a s u r e s ( i n ) damaging t h e e n e m i e s l i t t l e by l i t t l e . 2 4  The  c l e r g y a l s o d i s l i k e d Enrique's t a c t i c s , f o r they d e s i r e d the  conquest  and  discredit  Enrique  later  conversion  condemned  rebellious a  low  would  h i s wars  give  Castilian  goals. his  I s a b e l and  mere  felt  or  The  nobles  chroniclers burning  Granada.  Conquest new  g r e a t e r p o w e r , and  t e c h n i q u e was  King granted  subordinated to  i n 1462,  title  t o any  Enrique  power o f  i t to t h e d u k e  but under s t r i n g e n t c o n d i t i o n s . the  activity.  (gold  and  The  foreigner,  and  silver)  and  had  positions that  the  Muslim  political  demonstrated  i t s new  guardian  of Medina S i d o n i a i n Duke was  cleric,  or  forbidden to ecclesiastical  o r d e r , w h i l e t h e Crown r e t a i n e d t h e r i g h t s o f t a x a t i o n , minerals  to  his frequently  that possession of  Upon c a p t u r i n g G i b r a l t a r  transfer  effort  their  with controlling  d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o keep the n o b l e  1468,  an  i n C h r i s t i a n hands w o u l d be a p r o v o c a t i o n f o r Thus, m i l i t a r y  limited.  In  cavalgadas,  than w i t h conquering  s i n c e he  revenge.  infidels.  2 5  priority,  fortresses  as  more c o n c e r n e d  nobility  the  the  I V , F e r n a n d o and  looting expeditions. E n r i q u e was  of  especially  of  coinage, military  2 6  W i l l i a m D. P h i l l i p s , J r . , E n r i q u e IV and t h e C r i s i s o f F i f t e e n t h - C e n t u r y C a s t i l e 1425-1480 ( C a m b r i d g e : M e d i e v a l Academy of A m e r i c a , 1 9 7 8 ) , p. 55. 2 4  2 5  P r e s c o t t , R e i g n o f F e r d i n a n d and  2 6  P h i l l i p s , J r . , E n r i q u e I V , p.  55.  Isabella,  1:475.  14 Because Granada,  this  nobility the  of  was  rewards  and  The  that  as  and  how  itself an  the  themselves was  Muslim  who  were men could  times. forces By under  the  the  p a r t on end  In  1400  insecurity.  Hillgarth,  military  the  noble  of  houses.  determination  conquest  the  of  over  situation  could  be  allies  the C h r i s t i a n  to  alliance be  met  conquered  and  civil  Granada  of  Granada  with  the  s t a t e s were  and  war.  only  in  battle.  when p o s s i b l e  trading partners at  war  of  The  1447-1448,  but  other  Granadan  2 7  fourteenth  H u d a y l saw  Isabel  e x i s t e d f o r c e n t u r i e s as  between  disadvantages  Ibn  source  of  north.  enemies  both s i d e s .  of  the  a  frequently co-operating  veering  Murcian  as  the  power  immense t a s k F e r n a n d o and  Granada had  e q u a l l y as  Crown  was  and  military  competing  between Granada and  increasing  north. of  During took  the  implacable  Crown  Muslim  Granada.  state,  whose l a n d s  serve  other  kingdoms t o t h e  not  the  the  siege a r t i l l e r y ,  pragmatic,  were  needed  hostile  Castilian  stalemate  understood.  relations  essentially  the  i n seeking  the  various Christian  They  this  potentially  Crown needed  against  t o comprehend  independent  Muslims  The  leverage  must be  The  between  I s a b e l to crush  vital  'of a  nobles  unlocked  In o r d e r upon  conflict  and  F e r n a n d o and  took  presence  insoluble.  nobility  key  the  century, compared  Granada as  "Is  (Granada) not  The  Spanish  enclosed  Kingdoms, p.  Granada to  the  occupying  suffered Christian  a  position  between a v i o l e n t  126.  sea  15  and  a n enemy  day  and  and  o c c u p a t i o n o f Ceuta  of  terrible  night."  Granada  Granada  Muslim  During  war  p e r s i s t e d  (1408-1417).  Enrique  In  IV,  King,  i n 1456  Muslims,  who  Christian  forays.  Archidona  war  t h e Emir  terms  highly  Egyptian  from  seen  dominated  "great  captured  Sa'd, placed beneficial  visitor,  potential  the  decline  Endemic  time  of  with  each  I I I  o t h e r , one  important  suburb  by  historians militarily  as  a  and  "Great  of  was  distress  and  need"  line  advanced  i n 1462.  on  the throne  to Castile.  described  By  3 0  this by  and  politically.  harm"  was  weak  of  Granada,  done  to the  from  and  form  Enrique,  these  Gibraltar  of  limited  agreed  I n 1465 I b n a l - K h a t i b ,  the situation  o f Granada  Ibid.,  2 9  Joseph F. O ' C a l l a g h a n , A H i s t o r y of Medieval C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1975), p . 547.  3 0  of  civil  Yusuf  2 8  (Ithaca:  port  r e b e l l i o n s ,  taxes.  the  a  isolated  of  t r o o p s d e v a s t a t e d t h e Vega  The f r o n t i e r  were  source  competed  Granada  o f Malaga.  suffered  and  long  Spain,  d e p o s i t i o n s ,  the other  usually  t h e Vega  a  invasion  2 9  1455 a n d 1457, S p a n i s h  and  coast,  invading  and growing  Granada  the A l b a i c i n .  vacillating  to  clans,  the Alhambra,  the Portuguese  century the p o l i t i c a l  F r e q u e n t l y two E m i r s  controlling Granada,  due  p r e s s on i t s p e o p l e  African  Africa,  the f i f t e e n t h  i n  1415,  armies  North  by r i v a l  o f which  on t h e N o r t h  a c c e l e r a t e d  assassinations  both of  f o r Muslim  from  recruits.  In August  2 8  embarcation  i n arms,  as  The S p a n i s h Kingdoms,  p. 329.  an  almost  p . 367.  Hillgarth,  to  Spain  16  hopeless.  Granada was " . . . a m o n g the most b e a u t i f u l  Islam, i f  i t were not t h a t the i n f i d e l s are so n e a r . "  One  of  the  greatest  strengths  of  cities  of  3 1  G r a n a d a was  its  w e a l t h . The annual revenue was over one m i l l i o n s i l v e r r e a l e s a t the  time  of  one-quarter  t h e Granada War, but of  it  went  approximately  to C a s t i l e as t r i b u t e ,  one-fifth  to  an arrangement  agreed upon between the N a s r i d dynasty of Granada and the K i n g s of  Castile after  1430.  A c c o r d i n g to Jaime V i c e n s V i v e s ,  this  c o n s t a n t i n f l o w of g o l d i n the l a t e M i d d l e Ages was one of n e c e s s a r y p r o p e l l a n t s of  the European economies of  f u e l l i n g the growing power of C a s t i l e . The i n h a b i t a n t s than the  equivalent  undermined the s t a b i l i t y of  the 1 5 0 0 * s ,  3 2  of Granada p a i d t h r e e times more i n groups  in C a s t i l e .  T h i s heavy  of Granadan s o c i e t y and the  unrest  and c i v i l  wars d u r i n g  his  reign  s e r i o u s d e c l i n e of the once f l o u r i s h i n g economy. works  of  Valencia.  M a l a g a became e c l i p s e d by t h o s e o f  popularity The  caused a  The p o r c e l a i n M a n i s e s , near  Economic d e c l i n e f o r c e d the dependence of the E m i r a t e  on Genoese m e r c h a n t s . Thus,  taxes  taxation  the Emir A b u - l - H a s a n ' A l i who r e i g n e d from 1464-1485.  resulting  the  33  a declining  economy c o u p l e d w i t h  isolation  from  p o s s i b l e l a r g e s c a l e r e i n f o r c e m e n t s from North A f r i c a s u g g e s t s a 3 1  I b i d . , p. 3 1 .  3 2  O ' C a l l a g h a n , H i s t o r y of M e d i e v a l S p a i n , p. 601.  3 3  H i l l g a r t h , The Spanish Kingdoms, p. 368.  17  weakening  o f Granada's  incursions. IV  The e s s e n t i a l l y  allowed  the  Granada  determination  military  Despite  large  mountainous fortresses  and As  late  gave  within 1450.  very  made  the middle  easy their  recapture  five  leagues  source  of  Christian of Enrique  but  against  Granada,  between  these  way  and  many  towns, and  that  some m o n e y  Granada  in Castile  and Muslim into  cavalry  i t s defenses.  century,  divisions  rugged  the fact  Africa,  to strengthen  The  strong  The  light  Despite  to North  people  soldiers.  to the Muslim  access  military  one m i l l i o n  the mountains.  cavalry."  Seville  several  defensible  internal  several  had  o f many  of the fifteenth  the offensive;  to  to crush  o f over  the advantage  "steel-clad  policies  of existence,  Granada  and a  was  to  fatal.  population  was c u t o f f f r o m  take  Granada  raids  Murcia  could  allowed reached  i n 1449  and  enjoyed  was  3 4  The  of  also  as  years  and I s a b e l  be  the passes  reinforcements  s t i l l  the  terrain  the Christian  Granada  would  t a x base  guarded  countryside  few more  dense  resistance  non-belligerent  of Fernando  The  a  t o mount  i t sd i s a b i l i t i e s ,  advantages.  over  a  disabilities  provided  ability  greatest  superb Granada  s k i l l e d  o f the advantages  fighting were  qualities  the rugged  i n the use  hardships  Ibid.,  and  of  techniques  p . 316.  that  of their  army.  inhabitants  the crossbow of  the Muslims  fighting  Among  from  and  the  the  soldiers  Alpujarras,  accustomed  to the  i n the mountains.  The  18  Granadan  mounted  accurate  with  their  afford  to  riding  and  Muslim  cavalry  panic  the as  fight  draw were  feigned  so  as In  from  while  Muslim  allies, the  the  horsemen  as  native  small  number  of  African  siege  of  but  garrison. the of  Pope  3 6  and  Malaga  One  Castile  and  present  i n the  The  and  and  hundred  of  also  g a r r i s o n of of  the  3 5  Prescott,  3 7  Heath,  Reign  Armies  of  of  century  the  guard  ferocious  the  in  1487.  army  Middle  Middle  and Ages,  of  either  the  of  Cruel  troops,  Enrique  IV.  could  "men  call  from  armies,  on  a the  ferocious  fought  after  3 5  During  of  troops  were the  in  the  sent  to  surrender  Catalonia, and  were  also  3 7  itself  Ages  is  d i f f i c u l t  (Worthing:  Isabella, p.  that  Muslim  discipline"  i n Muslim  Malaga  the  virtues  troops,  20,000  i n t o h i s bodyguard  served  of  Granadan  Pedro  Granadans  military  in  C h r i s t i a n monarchs  (ghumarah),  these  could  disorder,  pursuit.  Granadan  over  to  C h r i s t i a n mercenaries.  Ferdinand  the  who  and  childhood  military  other  the  Granadan  Ian Heath, Armies of P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1982), p. 32. 3 6  early  C h r i s t i a n mercenaries  Portugal  size  of  gomeres  valor  1487.  used  comprised  incorporated in  aid  few  retreats,  their  against  troops,  Negro  tried  or  disorganized for  effective  essential tactics  mid-fourteenth  well  temper,  from  The  charges  in  very  privileged  trained  frequently  Granada  Malaga,  The  highly  monarchs or  considered  crossbow.  prized  received  As  the  enemy  Peninsula.  300  horseback  the  Castilian  were  weapons.  were  mercenaries  the  on  firing  or  warriors  crossbowmen  34.  2:17.  W.R.G.  to  19 determine,  as  Abu-l-Hasan 4,700  present  Alhama  infantry.  1,200-1,500  Lucena  only  1,500  of  with  1,250  Christian actions, but  700 c a v a l r y  the  two  citizen  was  cavalry  to a  involved  defended  force  fronterizos, level  The  less  was  on  1487, an  and of  of up  to  10,000  the Prince C i d  the o r i g i n a l skirmishes  than  Malaga  the troops  10,000 under  through  with  attack  During  cavalry  150.  o f t h e M u s l i m s was  forces  troops  as  were  popular  portrayed the  much h i d a l g o s :  Hillgarth,  1, 500  o f Granada  of  from  Boabdil's  with  50,000  raids  i n 1489 by a f o r c e  another  reduced  and  scale  sortie  which  garrison with  In a l l  i n their  infantry, usually  the these  cavalry,  unreliable  3 8  Muslim  adversaries.  "...very  their  large  of  Abul-Hassan  cavalry  of Velez Malaga  siege  the main strength  These  social  the f i n a l  militia.  3,000  a n d 9,000 i n f a n t r y .  Emirs  B a z a was  of  I n 1482  a n d 6,000 i n f a n t r y .  cavalry  the bulk  i n 1478.  Abul-Hassan's  under A b d a l l a l e l Zagal with  of  o f 7,000 c a v a l r y  approximately  cavalry  During  are readily available.  1483 t h e M u s l i m s s t a g e d  infantry.  Hiaya.  army  review  to raise the siege  one  40,000  standing  at a  cavalry,  involved  attempt  a  with  During  involving  C h r i s t i a n estimates  ' A l i had  were  besieged  only  much  ballads  admired  they  their  of the f r o n t i e r ,  the Muslim cavalry Christian  by  as k n i g h t s  warriors.  come f r o m  the  The  the lineage  The S p a n i s h K i n g d o m s , p. 375.  Christian Romances  on t h e same  Muslims of those  were who  20  were  lords  essential  Spain.  qualities  courtesy,  in  the  Until  4 0  the  and  peacefully visited during  does  the  not  prompt  wiles  of  the  war,  the  in  for  close  border  the  cavalry, with  the  horse,  and the  fifteenth  freely  the  with  respect  bold to  heart  their  patience  their  during  enemies The  the  their  the  knights,  were  poetry  their  "piety,  the valor,  eloquence, sword,  Muslim  counterparts  only  same  under  their  the  away  their  the  the  borrowing  with  Muslims:  and  military  "Who battle, in  was  and  quarter on  40 41 42  p.  both  Prescott,  Reign  Ibid  2:30.  Ibid  2:19.  of  Ferdinand  and  Isabella,  1:392.  the  well charged  attacked given. sides  tactics  127.  of  undaunted  cavalry  lances,  warriors of  in  respect  no  siege  dexterity  Muslim  their  the  infidels  This  4 1  daggers,  between  the  privation,  siege,  threw  these  chiefs,  purposes."  connections  encouraged  of  of  At  V e r y o f t e n t h e A n d a l u s i a n p r i n c e s and w a r r i o r s take the neighboring C h r i s t i a n s as models for their equipment. T h e i r arms a r e i d e n t i c a l , l i k e w i s e t h e i r s u r c o a t s of s c a r l e t or other stuff, their pennons,  Ibid  and  Castilian  weaponry.  39  and  lance,  century,  remained.  c h r o n i c l e r wrote  obedience  Christian  their  war  at  of  knights  of  of  Christian  Granada.  Christian  perseverance earned,  mixed  the  marvel  their  gifts  middle  knights  with  Muslim  management  Catalan  Malaga,  the  the  and  Even  As  of  prowess,  dexterity bow."  of  4 2  of and  21  their saddles. S i m i l a r a l s o i s t h e i r mode o f f i g h t i n g w i t h b u c k l e r s and long lances f o r the charge. They use n e i t h e r t h e mace nor t h e bow of the Arabs, but e m p l o y F r a n k i s h c r o s s b o w s f o r s i e g e s and arm infantry w i t h them f o r e n c o u n t e r s w i t h the enemy. 4 3  This  spread  the  of  military  recipients.  military heavy  The  necessity  armour  of  terminology alarde, fort,  a  the to  entire signal  call  to  retreat By  away  battle, to  the  battle  to  Thus:  or  tactics  the  middle  of  the  the  fact  by  that  weapons  a  and  by  a  or  well.  on  the  army.  tabl  drum  fifteenth  or  or  One  4 4  khana.  and  signals  the  castle  watchtower,  played  It could  Some on  a  a  C h r i s t i a n s was  actual conflict the  of  shield,  rearguard.  the  nauba  military  leather  atalaya,  copied the  their  governor  zaga,  (al-harb), played played  the  of  adarga,  and  encourage as  much  ensign,  in Arabic from  welcome  adversaries.  attack,  troops  (al infisal), the  adopt  to  alcaide, a  lieutenant  called  d r a w n up  them  forced  parade,  entirely  resented  Muslims.  in military  band,  not  C h r i s t i a n s borrowed  unexpected  innovation  usually  a  was  Muslims  Christian  the  military  an  military  had  the  from  alferez,  rebato,  Spanish  their  Conversely,  technology  drum  also  used  (tabl),  cymbals  century,  Lynn White, J r . , Medieval R e l i g i o n and ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1978), p. 4 3  It  was  during be  used  were  the  and  the  (kasat). the  the  4 5  peaceful  Technology 281.  Douglas G i f f o r d , "Spain and the Spanish Language", S p a i n , A Companion to Spanish S t u d i e s , E d i t e d by P.E. Russell (London: Methuen, 1985), p. 14. 4 4  4 5  Nights"  H e n r y G e o r g e F a r m e r , The ( H e r t f o r d : A u s t i n and Sons,  M i n s t r e l s y of 1945), p. 7.  "The  Arabian  22  relationship strain. were  exacerbated In  normally the  the  Muslim the  Because  of  of  the  Muslim  city  of  a  reason  civil  power  war The  this  natural  booty  to  as  Enrique Few  avoided  for a  of  as  mint  a  truce  monarchs  was  a  b a t t l e s were The  Kamen, A  4 7  Hillgarth,  The  I b i d . , p.  202.  a  heal  its  demand  tribute, only  in  and  steel." during  i t s  town,  e f f e c t .  Castile the  in In  captured  These  4 6  the  actions against  wounds  of  a the  quickly  was  of  determined.  To  attrition,  required. century,  rather  This and  conquer  tactic  than was  is attributed  4 8  fought  of  to  and  sent  of  in  crusade.  fourteenth  Muslim  Society  unite  war  Castile  Christian  4 7  states  civil  Andalusia  1482. to  campaign  the  a  two  Castile  then  in  religion,  war  and  gold,  of  increasing  the  Isabel  renewal  Zahara,  national  (1369-1379).  when  February,  despised  between  position  expeditions,  4 6  4 8  in the  the  early  them.  for  longer  weak  despite  fortress,  II  no  under  between  place,  captured  Alhama  collecting  suggested  break  "we  cleansing  nature  the  was  Granada  C h r i s t i a n war-party  and  in a  in  took  seemingly  retaliation,  foreign  that  1481,  tensions  Granada  Abu-l-Hasan  December  provided  of  Castile  unrest  1476,  Granada  Emir  the  war,  civil  year  reply  and  religious  by  tributary  received  c i v i l  Granada  Escalating  Castile.  to  between  and  the  strategy  Conflict,  Spanish  p.  numerically was  extremely  2.  Kingdoms, p.  weaker  370.  well  Muslims chosen.  23  By  forcing  the  determination, to  the  the  siege  resources  limit.  artillery, at  For  over  siege works  of  General  Assembly  for  the  for  only  strictly  a  "...was  another" The  5 0  after  The i t s  siege  f a l l  the  vicious.  Christian  killed  being  by  deserters was  4 9  World, 5 0  and  i n December  the of of  1482  And  4 9  de  Mata  sieges  the  was  of  to  Malaga,  massive  huge  the  of  struggle  of  renegades  were  indefinitely,  during  in  the  to  and  the  Kingdoms,  of  four  through the  p.  126.  and  at  war that with  death. in  the  Alhama  and  of  those  months  and  Monarchs garrison  by  and  of the 393.  was were  reeds),  Muslim  garrison  was  the  the  hinted  defeated  alive,  that  people  Christian  the  army  effort  sieges  almost  (pierced burnt  the  the  war.  one  is  Over  the  skirmishes,  resist  lasted  revenge  Spanish  supply  C h r i s t i a n commander  acanaveados  The  causeway  the  Carriazo,  and  a  to  Fuller, The Decisive Battles ( S t . A l b a n s : P a l a d i n , 1975), p.  Hillgarth,  Baza,  this  struggle  sides  the  of  beginning  J.  Malaga  conversos  imprisoned  J.F.C. 480-1757  of  of  single  siege  r e q u i s i t i o n e d by  horses  campaign  of  siege  a  the  were  both  commander  transport  stretched  and  never  to  to  build  were  10,000 w o r k e r s .  affair  of  Castile  the  over  belief  Granada  areas,  s e r v i c e s of  at  the  fortified  of  to  the  armies  attributed  Muslim  used  campaign.  local  the  just  spring  determination  cities.  the  almost  ,  harangues the  to  ingenuity  were  Pinto  small  Contrary  it  of  attack  During  donkeys  following the  men  Cambil.  required  mules,  and  to  example,  6,000  16,000  was  Christians  the  commander population  Western  24 were  enslaved.  Some  doblas  were  thirty  gold  afford  t o pay were s o l d  During  the siege  determination building timber  town  discouraging Makkari  into slavery. o f Baza  a thousand  and t i l e s ,  built  themselves  majority  who  by  their  t h e army  to the defenders,  could not  and I s a b e l ' s  decision  t o order  of earth or clay  i n just  for  5 1  i n 1489, Fernando  huts  to protect  was  t o ransom  but the vast  i s illustrated  o f over  earthen  each,  allowed  during  four  with  the  roofs of  t h e autumn.  This  and proved  very  days  as the Muslim  historian A l -  indicates.  About t h e end o f t h e l a t t e r month t h e Moslems, h a v i n g examined t h e extent o f t h e i r s t o r e s , found t h a t they had b u t v e r y few i n t h e i r m a g a z i n e s ; b u t t h e y still persevered i n t h e i r r e s i s t a n c e , i n t h e hope t h a t t h e C h r i s t i a n s would r a i s e t h e siege a t t h e approach o f winter. B u t , a l a s ! what was t h e i r a s t o n i s h m e n t when, i n s t e a d o f r e t u r n i n g t o t h e i r c o u n t r y , t h e y saw them a c t u a l l y b u i l d i n g h o u s e s a n d h u t s , no d o u b t w i t h t h e intention of passing the winter before their c i t y ! At s i g h t o f these preparations the i n h a b i t a n t s o f Baza were s e i z e d by t e r r o r and d e s p a i r , and they a c c o r d i n g l y began t o n e g o t i a t e a c a p i t u l a t i o n on t h e same t e r m s a s h a d b e e n g r a n t e d t o t h e s u r r e n d e r e d places. 5 2  Al-Makkari yearly  campaigns:  territory fortress did  described  the determination "...the  o f t h e Moslems which  Ibid.,  king  on a l l s i d e s ,  surrender  so  that  and invaded  t o h i s arms."  he  i nthe  pressed  the  attacked  no d i s t r i c t  T h e Mohammedan D y n a s t i e s  5 3  p. 376.  of Spain,  no  which  p. 384.  Al-Makkari, Ibid.,  Christian  he d i d n o t t a k e ,  not immediately  o f t h e monarchs  p. 382.  25 The they  saw  XII),  greatest  i t , God's  known  Christians. Emir "To  favour.  I n 1483 A b u ' A b d i l l a h  Fernando  decided  consequences  i n division  (Muhammad  was c a p t u r e d  n o t t o s e t up B o a b d i l  i n Granada, but t o conquer  him...He  m o n a r c h s was l u c k , o r a s  t o the C h r i s t i a n s as Boabdil,  p u t Granada  free  a i d to the Christian  the entire  and destroy  emirate i t We  as a  measure  were  broke o u t i n Granada, weakening  that  have  discord  the Muslims'  puppet  through  him.  decided  [ B o a b d i l ] h a s t o make w a r o n h i s f a t h e r . " of this  by t h e  to The  5 4  and c i v i l  ability  and w i l l  war to  resist. The  reasons  be  explained  to  Castile.  f o r Boabdil's  i n relation Instead  Christians,  he  independence  could  offered submitted from of the  unrest  a To  of Castile."  and c i v i l  5 5  of  and  and promising have n o t h i n g  that  to fear  such being  to the limited  The p r o m i s e  he  whoever i n future  the condition  he h a d i n h i s p o s s e s s i o n ,  war i n G r a n a d a  vassalage  resistance  of peaceful  of the Christians, said  can perhaps  the i n h a b i t a n t s of Granada,  and s e c u r i t y ,  he  policy  hopeless  form  t o h i s a u t h o r i t y should  t r e a t y which King  that  be won.  the h o s t i l i t i e s  a  to the traditional  of offering  thought  "...peace  disastrous behaviour  signed  by  o f t h e end o f decades o f  was v e r y  welcome  t o some o f i t s  inhabitants. This  act of Boabdil's  5 4  Hillgarth,  5 5  Al-Makkari,  The S p a n i s h  was j u s t  a mirror  of thefactionalism  Kingdoms, p. 381.  T h e Mohammedan  Dynasties  of Spain,  p. 378.  26 in  Muslim  culture  relationships Granada. of  was  by  Boabdil,  Christian  army  sources.  in  in  nature  during  the  received Christian bent  or  cliques  the  twisted  or  no  the  compensated crucial  5 6  5 7  (Albany:  role  and  The  was  Hillgarth,  The  a  drive  the r u l i n g  numerous and  to fight  force  and  of  i n the  after  time  towns  so  who  regional  that  "Religion  unstable  The  remained  n e i g h b o r i n g towns.  unity."  those  Muslim  that  Time  conquered  allegiance,  class  Many  5 6  and  to the fact  religious.  on  of  Mudejars  were e t h n i c  reasons.  which As  i n  could  be  rent  with  equilibrium...No  bound t h i s  diversity  5 7  suffered that to  defeat  Muslims."  binding  rested  also  i n the d e c i s i o n  or  from  xenophobia  for.  due  Christians  help  i n t o more t h a n an a c c i d e n t a l  l o y a l t i e s  refused  the  blood  Abu-l-Hasan.  from  the  loyalties  for political  Spain  of  largely  no d e e p p o l i t i c a l  Christian  aid  points  national  always  Emir  or  especially  "...renegades  of Granada  religion  factions  common b o n d s ,  weak  by  T h i s was  Europe,  and  received  years,  l i t t l e  t o 1491,  and  than  final  i n  al-Zagal,  of al-Andalus,  rather  factor  betrayals,  inhabitants  society  affiliation  and  the  villages.  major  f r o m 1481  accompanied  [Fernando]  their  a  tribal  coups  itself  I t was  Muslim  Muslim  rent  from  were  ten years,  involving  the  which  In just  Granada  showed  resulting  from  r e l i g i o n  unify  t o conquer  S p a n i s h Kingdoms,  the  p.  the  same  only  regional p a r t i a l l y  peninsula  Granada.  Thus  played a  major  386.  A n w a r G. C h e j n e , I s l a m and t h e W e s t : The S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f New Y o r k P r e s s , 1 9 8 3 ) , p .  a  Moriscos 19.  27 reason  for  the  victory  over  country  behind  in  a  war  Granada  heroic  the  by  by  the  the  In  this  Reconquest  was  one.  Regional the  rest  monarchy The but  to  various  local  that.  were  the  the  terms.  to  rally  monarchs and C a s t i l e and  as  instilled  Spanish  A the  people Aragon,  and  Isabel,  King  of  Aragon  in  idea  that  the  the  enterprise,  the  social  and  an  not  was  merely  front  army  frequently  sieges  Imperial  groups.  personal  5 8  Elliott,  5 9  O'Callaghan, History  she  Aragon  of  efforts  was  were not  the  actual  a  a  as of  in the  policy.  beginning, differences  easily  resolved  cohesion  of  the  centrifugal bias  of  the  town  and  5 9  the  in  to  every  Granada.  royal This  loyalty Isabel benefited  expecially  her  visits,  and  among  the  troops,  at  S p a i n , p.  24.  46.  Medieval  partially  from  appeared  S p a i n , p.  Spain  psychological  ensure  lines  the  in  effective foreign  many v i s i t s  1  endemic  hindered  i n overcoming  immense  d i f f i c u l t  were  centuries  not  monarchs  as  The  power  medieval  and  Iberians  at  else  Fernando Fernando  these  could  factor  attracted.  of  c u l t u r a l and  the  main  the  u n i f i c a t i o n of  monarchs  and  The  political  explains  the  b e t w e e n C a s t i l e and  union  well  anything  patriotisms  royal  union  as  political  5 8  The  city,  the  in  associate  The  national  create  political  than  marriage  way  a  developed during and  more  Crown, and  Europe,  political  explained  p a r t i c i p a t i o n of  and  of  only  did  the  furthered  Castilian  be  enterprise.  personified  war.  can  28  Malaga  in  1487  partially  a  sign  the  that In  As  means  the  Peter  gladden  war  camps  with  medical  to  the  A was  queen's  created  kingdoms. "  them  was  that  was  also  able  risks  of  6 0  Kamen, A  6 1  Prescott,  6 2  Ibid.,  2:61.  6 3  Ibid.,  1:484.  64  wrote  how  camp  or  The  hospitals  hospital  to  solace  of  respects tents,  "Many men for  and  the by  the  at  believed the  for  the  profusely  that  may  i t  is  magnificent and  her  to  vigils,  whatever  sick,  attendants  provided  so  once  Isabel  care  "...is  apparatus,  at  own  that  medicines expense.  she  Redemption  6 3  [Isabel] of  lost  6 4  and  the  author  field  a  soldiers.  long  miraculously,  Fernando troops  wrote  the  under  same  as  60  drooping  h o s p i t a l s " were  contemporary  home.  encouraged  were  well  spirits,  these 6 2  pressed  as  seemed  The  Milan."  feeling,  presence  restoration  of  appearances  "...Her  first  in  be  Isabel  attendants,  surpassed  establishments  would  The  1  the  wounded.  scarcely  "the  of  6  Isabel's  monarchical  well,  our  the  contribute  for  as  related,  one  1489.  sieges  fatigue."  established  in  arousing  reanimate  and  supplied  Baza  difficult  and  and  at of  Martyr  dangers  sick  and  maintain  their  battle.  Reign  The  in  to  Society  Hillgarth,  conspicuous  of of  During  Conflict, Ferdinand  Spanish  the  p. and  Kingdoms,  the  front  morale siege  lines by  sharing  of  Velez  Isabella,  2:65.  25.  p.  363.  among  his with  Malaga,  29 Fernando r a l l i e d sortie  by  the  chances  when  sake..."  6 5  war  satanic  of  the be  one  Spanish  over  of  uniformity  the  as  these  in  Thus  the  greed,  surprise calculate  lives  for  and  their  his  popular  program  effort  peoples  of  to  of  conquer  Spain  against a  diverse  consciousness. showed  i n foreign  of  without  in  one  valiant  but  under  the  -  the the  that  recovery by war  North  The  of  of  later  and  coast  the  cooperation  and  Roussillon  of Naples  development  hearty  Castilians  African  assistance  aided the  The  adventures.  the  peoples  Aragonese  victories and  Cerdagne  Navarre,  -  would  forces  of  of  and  have  both  the been  Castile  6 6  aspects  as w e l l  the Jews,  actions  of  the conquest  much  Aragon.  War  France  Further  such  to  community  monarchs  and  stop their  m o n a r c h y d u r i n g t h e war  combined  impossible and  of  kingdoms and  religion  Granada  diplomacy,  seizure  divided  not  perilling  feeling  Catholic  cooperation  Fernando by  could  centralization.  the  national  could  the  t h e enemy d u r i n g a  religion.  leadership  during  "...he  resulting  b l e s s e d by  The  a  charged  s u b j e c t s were  and  united  endeavor,  of  his  aided  national  and  Muslims.  The  approval  Granada  h i s men  of  6 5  Prescott,  6 6  Hillgarth,  as  of  this  unity.  shows t h i s  the  Reign The  monarchs  The  drive removal  desire. to  were  the  584.  church  2:15.  for  elements,  illustrated  Spanish  Isabella,  S p a n i s h K i n g d o m s , p.  demands  "foreign"  It i s also  remove  o f F e r d i n a n d and  of  the  in from  30 the  control  population  of  was  the  a  day  Alhambra  of at  violence. later  in  Moorish Royal  to  year  first  rest  morning,  robes.  The  the  Fernando,  the  Christian  army sang  celebrated  were  there."  and  blessed The  To  day  6 7  Journal  a  Te  the  terrible  has  of  Egyptian  J . A. Maravall, of World H i s t o r y 6 Hillgarth,  The  6 9  Ibid.,  388.  7 0  Ibid.  p.  gift  Santiago handed  Deum. "with  As the  priest  and  ever of  these  the  Moslem  which  "The O r i g i n s of ( 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 797.  Spanish  K i n g d o m s , p.  city  the  were r a i s e d o v e r  the  the  the  keys of in  cannons, left  chains  were  entire  city,  and  mass  devotion  by  a l l of  "the  most  us  who  signal  6 9  the  i t was  befallen  387.  city  the  people  the  the  the  tears  the  that  the  Pope),  Spain."  have  any  from  time describes  wrote  prevent  in  i t was  on  the  dressed  greatest  defeats  the  Monarchs  Boabdil  in  6 7  entered  approached  c e l e b r a t i n g as  been  the  s i e g e , on  to  Christian captives  bombards  catastrophes  6 8  army  C h r i s t i a n observer  there  effect  contemporary  most  the  of  Islamic literature  psychological A  sound  m u c h by  (a  Boabdil of  request,  Castilian  cross  As  i n Granada  6 8  the  Standard of  procession  To  seen, as  with  long  C h r i s t i a n troops  Castilian  of  a nation-state.  After a  Boabdil's  the  Alhambra. a  ever  on  homogenizing  c r e a t i o n of  1492,  silver  the  freed.  was  of  the  of  in  light,  S t a n d a r d and  towers  the  were s u c c e s s f u l .  the  The  Thus,  f a c t o r i n the  These e f f o r t s first  Papacy.  shattering of  Granada.  "one  of  Islam."  Modern  7 0  State"  the A  31  poem, the  written  native  their  after  the f a l l  p o p u l a t i o n , who  In a  contrast, spirit  Romances Muslim  God.  of  heroes.  romantic  lost  their  homes  and  monarchs  the holy  would  encouraged  mission  ay  persistence  Contemporary  the  Catholic  and  recover  outcome  of  battle  of Spain  was  f a r as  Bernaldez  In C h r i s t i a n were  thought  The S p a n i s h  f o r  good  t o be  the  the  theology,  a  Christian  and  written  hope  that  "Sobre  of the war.  God's  reasons  the  to  i n t h e name o f  Jerusalem." siege  war  ballads,  songs  t o conquer  i t was  Chejne, I s l a m and t h e West, L a e x p u l s i o n de l o s m o r i s c 5 s Hillgarth,  of both  expressed  i n the hardest  goods  Frontier  ordered propaganda  "as  Monarchs.  to the v i c t o r i o u s  t h e deeds  e x p l a n a t i o n s  To  stolen  response  nostalgia.  Setenil!"  conquer  straightforward.  7 1  celebrated  The monarchs  "Setenil,  Collado,  suddenly  the despair of  Men, c h i l d r e n a n d women lament such a g r e a t l o s s . A l l ladies lamented a s many a s w e r e i n G r a n a d a . A l a s , my p o o r A l h a m a ! In t h e s t r e e t and windows G r e a t m o u r n i n g was s e e n A n d t h e k i n g c r y i n g l i k e a woman F o r t h e much h e h a d l o s t . A l a s , my p o o r A l h a m a !  the Castilian  fronterizos,  celebrate  1 1  had  described  heritage:  Hombres, n i n o s y mujeres L l o r a n t a n grande p e r d i d a L l o r a b a n t o d a s l a s damas, c u a n t a s en Granada h a b i a Ay d e mi A l h a m a ! Por l a s c a l l e s y ventanas mucho l u t o p a r e c i a y l l o r a r e y como f e m b r a q u e e s mucho l o q u e p e r d i a Ay d e mi A l h a m a !  was  o f Alhama,  Baza"  7 2  conquest desire  to  t o avenge  for a  judgement  just  the  were reward wrongs  war.  The  o f God,  with  p . 5, c i t i n g M. D c i n v i l a y espafioles (Madrid, 1889).  Kingdoms,  p. 371.  32  justice  infallibly  More Muslim  recent  on t h e s i d e  explanations  dynasty-clans,  financial  resources,  the  Christian  rulers,  the  intensive  religious  by t h e C r o w n . The  people of  a  of rich  Spain land  leadership. that  mention  of  the  feuds  within  of the C h r i s t i a n  the vigorous  the s k i l l  7 3  and d e t e r m i n e d the Christian  and m o n a r c h i c a l  propaganda  the  military efforts  leaders,  of and  utilized  so  can  be  7 4  importance  overestimated.  victor.  the superiority  and  well  of the  of  the  conquest  to  Castile  Fernando and I s a b e l m a n i p u l a t e d for their and  own  unified  Above a l l , they  political  a l l Christian  Ibid.,  p.  392.  7 4  Ibid.,  p.  392.  the n o b i l i t y acquired  Spaniards  a c q u i r e d power  dominated a l l the forces of medieval  7 3  ends,  over  Spain,  not  and  control  under  their  the i n s t i t u t i o n t h e army.  33  The  The  Christian  contact  with  adventurers  out  i t s own  of  army  slowly  force  do  have  present  fluctuated  infantry  increased  was  the battle composed  light  f o r the  from  of  4,500  Castilian  composed  of  towns  Castile,  of  men  including  those  century,  the  grants money.  of  acostamientos  Heath,  army  as  1390  before  sources:  of  Armies  of  Up the  t h e Crown  tierras  with  p.  from  50,000.  due  army 4,000  was  1  largely  the c i t i e s  of  the  and  nobility,  of the fourteenth paid  either  with  increased  30.  of  men-at-arms.  Granada  were  fiefs),  light  number  t o over  French  an  the  of  crossbowmen,  increasingly  Ages,  What  the C a s t i l i a n  retainers  placed  a cavalry  number  and  1367,  nobility  (money  of the Middle  the  to the middle  or  this  (armoured  militia  the personal  from  of  men-at-arms  3,000  t h e war  essentially  fifteenth  i n 1374  3,  some  early  8,000  a n d 1,500  i n France,  on  to  were  composition  and  6,000,  on A p r i l  of the King.  retainers  There  l i t t l e  cavalry support.  of  men-at-arms,  two  and  The  archers  infantry  from  land,  From  1,200  had  i t developed  with  number  5,000  of Navarete,  c a v a l r y , 20,000 The  but  exceeded  from  tactics.  fourteenth  the  never  Granada  the fourteenth century  that  cavalry  At  military  traditions.  during  suggest  cavalry)  conquered  i n i t s ranks,  marauding  Army  infantry-based m i l i t i a ,  we  centuries  that  European  changed  t o an  figures  army  other  French  Christian  to  with  grants  of  reliance  on  the  lack  of  34 support  from  annual  income  In  was  average  towns  of  1,500  a  a  for  could  the  or  sword,  a  a  or  fled,  holding  pike  d e p e n d i n g on  This  feudal  the  monarchy  or  the  c o n t r o l of  army of  the  a  of  9,000  force  lance.  was  c o n t r o l and  power,  the  frequently with  army. resulted  Granada.  was  Ibid.,  perhaps  p.  29.  was  the  of  incapable  Of  absence  a l l the  the  most  of  of  wars,  at  an  cities to  provided  2  (sometimes  There the  was  only  l i t t l e  cavalry,  they  leader.They  were  were u s e f u l  charged,  sustaining because  in  rallied,  the  i t was  part  of  under  of  ultimate  the  such  control  endemic  requirements  in for  for  power not  the  country  d i f f i c u l t  regular  battle.  necessary  u n i f y the  in civil  the  Granada,  reorganization The  spare.  cavalry  active  the  nobles  c a v a l r y , but  the  an  according  the  designated  on  lances,  men  some a r m o u r  or  Thus, a  and  of  paid  Crown's  Each of  crossbow.  fortunes  King.  to centralize  a  while  conquering  attempts the  to  were  the  Crown, w h i l e  lord  Crown  of  i n f a n t r y mass: l i k e  line the  the  nobles  number  or  force  the  the  would a f f o r d to  their  secondary  that  percent  certain  with  accompanied  distinctly  this  when  maravedis per  o r g a n i z a t i o n to the  sieges  meant  i n f a n t r y were equipped w i t h  usually  war  wages  tierras  negotiated  helmet),  or  on  they  This  twenty-three  provided  w h a t e v e r men  formal  plus  1429,  cost  The  fee  spent  agreements  a  nobility.  retainer  service.  and  the  of  under  Crown's  i t s authority  of  Spain  source the before  of army the  royal authority, the  monarchs  to  35 achieve. Before forces  under  retainers of  t h e r e i g n s o f Fernando and  of  armies  Castile  permanent ages  of  armed  prepared  royal  infantry, derived units  paid  from  were  his  reign,  and  light  prompted only 16,  600  never at  seen  and  as  subsidies  4  rather  weak 3,000  strength.  The  t o demand  a  During composed  nobles'  fears  reduction  of  O'Callaghan, History  of Medieval  4  Phillips,  J r . ,Enrique  5  Ibid.,  78.  I V , p.  56.  Juan form  between were  a  the be  income, and  be  t o be  than mules  held  f o r the  3  King,  established  lanzas  by  20,000  from  income  the Pope.  These  and  the f i r s t o f 3,600 of  this  t h e army  S p a i n , p.  a  and  decade  large to a  602.  of  men-at-arms  i n t h e " S e n t e n c e o f M e d i n a d e l Campo" o n  3  size  to  5  p.  the  to  m u s t e r s were  from the Cortes  E n r i q u e ' s b o d y g u a r d was cavalry.  a  efforts  to their  of Crusade granted  full  personal  militias.  laymen a l i k e ,  failed.  of  military  the  A l l males  These  composed  the Bulls  lanzas  1465.  army  f o r by  them  first  control.  This attempt  usually  were  to citizen  the  clerics  the only  made t o i n c r e a s e  and t h e use of h o r s e s  IV,  standing  made  reviews.  demanded.  Enrique  Crown  equipment a c c o r d i n g  for periodic  was  the  recourse  royal  sixty,  specific  two months  cavalry  through  under  t w e n t y and  of  A t t e m p t s were  (1379-1390)  militia  with  every  control  of the King.  the Royal  I  the  Isabel,  force  force  of  January  36 One  of the basic  counteract militia.  the large Enrique  the gathering  forces)  into a national  his  were  control.  during  the c i v i l  However,  armies  o f many Santa  force  local  provided  vital  to safeguard  for  a permanent army i n c l u d e d  under  militia  during  times  numbers  o f p o t e n t i a l and w i l l i n g  to  the troops.  peace  i t was  source  this under  of  the control  troops  o f t h e Crown  The e n v i r o n m e n t  to maintain  recruits, and  military units  of  and r e g u l a r  Isabel  needed  these  and war, t h e presence  Fernando  police  6  of the authorities  7  a  (local  and thus  to  citizen  the c r e a t i o n o f permanent  the desire  of both  a  of such  ready  i t s authority.  units,  pay  a  i n 1465.  army  of  power  The d i r e c t o r s o f  by t h e King  was  that  Hermandades  Hermandad.  war b e g i n n i n g  a permanent  was  the formation  appointed  This  of potential military  noble  IV began  through  organization  sources  large  revenues  provided  these  requirements. The formed and  bulk by  recourse  to the m i l i t i a s  army  that  that  contained  troops and  of the royal  was  present  500  light  armies  t o t h e crown's of the c i t i e s  inferior  to that  o f Fernando vassals,  encompassed cavalry.  6  Ibid.,  7  C o n t a m i n e , War  to ordinary  (concejos).  the royal These  were  i n size,  organization.  guard  were  nobles  The r e s u l t was a n  of the nobles  some e l e m e n t s o f s u p e r i o r  and I s a b e l  o f 500  divided  p. 61. I n t h e M i d d l e Ages, p. 168.  b u t one The  paid  men-at-arms  into  fifteen  37 companies under and  their  permanent of  men w e r e  kept  militias  from  excellent  royal  such.  quality.  forces  campaign,  t h e K i n g ' s p e r s o n a l command.  were  under  strict  Galicia  and thus  these  control,  while  and t h e Andalucian  A weakness  regrouped  The K i n g ' s v a s s a l s  of this  each  army  year  the small  border  were  was t h a t  these  at the start  of a  was no p e r m a n e n t  standing  army  as  8  The part  personal  retainers  of the Royal  household cavalry. knights cavalry, time  force  o f which a l l  armies.  contained  The K i n g  half  Reales,  o f 1,500 c a v a l r y ,  were  'royal  vassals'  cavalry. The  formed  the fear militia  Granada,  equipped the royal  body  and paid  personal  a n d 130  bodyguard  and h a l f  troops  were  light By t h e  included the an  of lesser  by t h e Crown,  light  o f 1,000  and mounted.  o f 900 c a v a l r y ,  a n d by 1489 a h o s t  o f t h e Santa  Hermandad,  part of the royal  o f a Portuguese of Enrique  12,000 c a v a l r y  well  substantial  Hermandad nobles  comprising  who over  9  troops  a vital  men-at-arms  a permanent  force  1,000  were  by a r o y a l  a  Isabel's  1,100 m e n - a t - a r m s  were  o f whom  formed  I n 1481 Queen  was a t t e n d e d  o f t h e war w i t h  Guardas  o f t h e Crown  IV.  a n d 30,000  army.  invasion  or Holy  Brotherhood,  Fernando and I s a b e l  used  i n 1475 t o renew t h e Hermandad  The army  thus  formed  was composed o f  i n f a n t r y , many o f whom w e r e m e m b e r s o f  8  Mariejol,  Spain o f Ferdinand and I s a b e l l a ,  9  H a l e , War a n d S o c i e t y , p . 1 3 6 .  p. 195.  38  the  Hermandad. The  1 0  Santa  Hermandad  force.  I t was  enforce  regulations,  justice,  the local  August  of  standing placed  t h e same  controlled  enforce ordered  were  taken  1 0  (Coral 1 1  up t h e i r  were  also  the city  monarchs,  the control  whenever  of  and  Isabel  the crimes and  of  rape,  areas.  fueros  of  of this  police  a l l rural  In long  Isabel force  and  urban  t h e Hermandad. communities horseman  To were  p e r 100  p e r 150 h o u s e h o l d e r s .  t o p a y some needed.  troops  The  t o be h e l d  on  1 1  specific:  to contain  but not t o e l i m i n a t e i t . A l l Spaniards  t o b e a r i n g arms a n d t h e Crown  The j u s t i c e  and  and  t o one l i g h t  o f t h e H e r m a n d a d was v e r y  violence,  enforce  Fernando  a l l the rural  police  ordered  over  and  to arrest  imprisonment  In addition,  duties  and  or unpopulated  ignoring  and one man-at-arms  were accustomed mentality.  wilderness  under  extra  function  control  of archers,  private  police  to create  documents  jurisdiction  previous  rural  o f 1476, Fernando  arson,  t h e Crown.  f o r the m i l i t i a The  and  by  to build  communities  by  a  councils  t o keep  or squads  year,  merely  and towns i n t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n  these  householders  call  robbery,  granted  regular  In A p r i l  i n rural,  cities  police  of  hermandades  assault,  committed  originally  alcaldes  law-breakers.  murder, if  composed  and c u a d r i l l e r o s ,  execute gave  was  issued t o lawbreakers  encouraged was v e r y  such  rough  and  M a r v i n L u n e n f e l d , The C o u n c i l o f t h e S a n t a Hermandad G a b l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f Miami P r e s s , 1970), p. 29. Ibid.,  p. 19.  a  39 quickly  applied.  commented it  that  appeared  kingdoms  cutting  the  Hermandad  forces  War,  with  1476.  was  consultation.  To  provide  i n their  l i s t  from  the presence  provided  arranging under  the use of t h i s  increase  that  a l l the  butchery,  with  The e f f i c i e n c y  1 2  widespread of  o f many  of  of  use i n the  rural  1492-1493  needed  of Castile, a  These  forum  t h e monarchs'  chosen  l a r g e sums o f money  f o r 3,000 m i l i t i a  1 5  police  banditry  rewards  to  c r i m i n a l s on t h e  f o r c e t h e Crown the Junta  control  of  funds  to victual  helped Alhama  the core  1482-1485  Kamen, A S o c i e t y o f C o n f l i c t ,  1 3  Hillgarth,  The S p a n i s h  1 4  Lunenfeld,  The C o u n c i l o f t h e S a n t a  1 5  Kamen, A S o c i e t y o f C o n f l i c t ,  Don  Alonso numbers  and t o h i r e  p. 18.  Kingdoms, p. 507.  p. 19.  I t  1 4  of the royal  brother,  1 2  and  t h e war a s w e l l  pay f o r t h e l a r g e from  i n  of the m i l i t i a  by t h e J u n t a .  to finance  the King's  General,  i n 1480 t h e c a p t a i n s  and p a i d  t o form  formed  f o r cooperation  f o r t h e war, beginning  u n i t s were  t h e command  Aragon.  towns  essentially  infantry  the m i l i t i a  mules  shows  of t h e major This  also  A  because  was m u c h  hands and h e a d s . "  Villalobos  was s o s e v e r e  the resultant revival  archers  facilitate  Junta  of  "...procedure  de  1 3  To  and  Lopez  b u t i t was n e c e s s a r y  resulted  Castile.  individual  physician  pacified...These  o f f of feet,  throughout  a  t h e Hermandad's  had n o t been  Granada  royal  t o be c r u e l t y ,  the  roads.  The  Hermandad, p. 77.  as  army de of both  40 mercenaries  and  Junta  General  light  and  each the  royal  yearly  cavalry  as  well  as  campaigns.  established  infantry  to  be  The  1 6  quotas  of  provided  by  these  t r o o p s were a u s e f u l  addition  (the archers of  the hermandades were  particularly  the  mass  levies  standing  particular  of  army  campaigns  drafts  only.  of  the  Hermandad  because  o n l y e i g h t y days pay  Regular provided  f o r the  r e v i v e d Hermandad  While  for a  authorized  militias  the  1 7  army  efficient),  for  of  heavy  locality.  suitable  local  As  well,  various  Assembly Assembly Assembly Assembly Assembly Assembly  of of of of of of  troops  from  Assemblies  troops  were  were  called  the General  f o r the m i l i t i a  infantry  through  the  per  the  during  to  up  Assemblies  campaign.  Hermandad the  not  war.  1 8  were These  included: 1483 1485 1487 1488 1489 1490 These  forces  fifty  man  instill  a  periodic  were  organized  companies. sense  of  which  also was  1 6  Hillgarth,  The  1 7  Ibid.,  506.  1 8  L u n e n f e l d , The  1 9  Ibid.,  p.  p.  78.  8,000 5,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000  into  Frequent  communal  reviews  desertion,  Pinto Torrelaguna Fuentesauco Arranda Tordesillas Adamuz  reviews  discipline  helped  both  Spanish  battalions  large  to in  the  and  scale  the Santa  of  ten  militias  helped  solidarity.  These  estimate  K i n g d o m s , p.  C o u n c i l of  of  composed  and  the  degree  impossible  378.  Hermandad, p.  81.  of to  41  prevent. At the  2 0  t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e war  c o u n t r y s i d e and operated  1490 five  t h e 10,000  Hermandad  directly  infantry  percent  of a l l the infantry  During  t h e G r a n a d a War  fighting  f o r c e was  borne  Thousands called  of  campaigning, at  the siege  the  hovered  weight The  army. of  Infantry  mule-drivers  numbers each the  2,500  f i r s t  twenty  providing the  following  numbers  Mules  year.  and  10,000 t o o v e r  2 0  Hillgarth,  2 1  Kamen, A S o c i e t y o f C o n f l i c t ,  2 2  Hillgarth,  The S p a n i s h  of  number while  50,000  serious, infantry  also  sustained were  present  Andalusian.  During  of cavalry t h e number i n 1491.  K i n g d o m s , p . 379, p.  were  2 2  3,000  t o 12,000 mark  year)  cart-drivers  o f whom w e r e  campaigns the t o t a l  The S p a n i s h  (each  and  year  cavalry  o f Alhama, most  grew from  In  2 1  6,000  a t t h e 10,000  (infantry)  of Fernando's  500-600  1482,  following  constituted  500 500 500  mules,  only  command.  4,000 7,000 6,000 5,000 6,000 4,000 ( f i r s t c a m p a i g n ) 6,000 ( s e c o n d c a m p a i g n ) 5,000 5,000  out i n large  During  t h e towns and  f o r t h e War:  300 500 750 400  Seville  present  the main  Cavalry  1486 S e v i l l e 1487 S e v i l l e 1489-1491  left  under r o y a l  by A n d a l u s i a .  w e r e summoned b y t h e C r o w n  1482 S e v i l l e 1483 S e v i l l e Cordoba 1484 S e v i l l e 1485 S e v i l l e  the m i l i t i a  19.  K i n g d o m s , p . 379,  each  year  o f peones  Over  30,000  42 non-fighting the  every  increased, 40,000  volunteers campaign  forces. Galicia  as t h e sheer  component  12,800  long  Galicia,  numbered  o f t h e a r m y was  some  comment,  Monarchs.  as  two  Vizcaya  disparate  years.  and  and i s a  the Galician,  Mancha,  areas  tribute  obedience,  Andalucians, like  these  Other  areas  infantry  working  members  of  one  l a n g u a g e a n d s u b j e c t t o o n e common 23  Ibid  p.  376.  24  Ibid  p.  378.  25  Kamen, A S o c i e t y o f C o n f l i c t ,  "Who  men  were  Spain,  infantry  and i n 1489 of forces caused of the  would have  thought  together family,  on  efforts  with Toledans,  inhabitant of people  i n harmony  speaking  discipline."  p. 34.  sent  traditions  to the unifying  living  they  of  together  different  freely  the only  sent  t h e proud A s t u r i a n and t h e rude  w o u l d be m i x i n g  and  of  from  frequently unpaid  1,200  with  raised  were  the Asturias,  This  2 4  largely  Most  I n t h e words o f P e t e r M a r t y r :  Pyrenees,  army  c a v a l r y and  I n 1483 a l o n e ,  infantry.  a l a r g e number.  widely  increasingly  13,000  of Andalusia  campaign.  I n 1486 t h e A s t u r i a s s e n t  from  devastate  of the Christian  t h e unemployed and were  f o r as  sent  to  f o r c e s were  size  The c o n c e j o s  t o every  and  from  including  The M u s l i m  simply  2 3  men  cavalry  i n 1483 a l o n e ,  1489 t h e army  (concejos).  t o send  1,900  by  infantry  cities  ones  the  used  year,  until  infantry.  The  that  were  Granadan countryside.  outnumbered  the  men  2 5  the  of La and same  43  When the no  t h e Granada  Council longer  police  and  necessary  increase  Alcantara  were  of  each  taken  ruled  over  consolidate The fitted or  i n well  him  positions for  their The  i n time Orders  the current  through  further under  of  the Crown.  o f command with  the troops  were  o f war, t h e Crown of Calatrava,  of making  to  with  The  royal  was  very  Fernando  needed  t h e Grand  command.  Prior  Mayor),  The  (Prior  to  and  Master Mayor),  the Castellan  or  (Sub-Clavero) , the (Alferez)a l l  The  awarding  a ready  source  2 8  with  specific  bureaucracy.  and the Standard-Bearer  p r o v i d e d t h e Monarchs  orders  2 7  the Sub-Castellan  of  the  l o s Ordenes  the bureaucracy  (Comendador  (Obrero),  de  took  Santiago  Fernando  died.  Consejo  of the Orders  the evolving  i n order  and  d e s p e r a t e l y needed  Master  the Real  growth  (Clavero),  Quartermaster below  as  Commander  Key-bearer  b u t were  the expedient  l e d the Order,  Grand  because  dissolved  i n 1 4 8 5 , 1 4 9 3 a n d 1498 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Spain  chain  Maestre  the  a  authority  through  the Orders  Militares,  was  2 6  of the M i l i t a r y  order  the m i l i t i a  disbanded  t o t h e army,  royal  the forces  Master  ended,  o f t h e Hermandad  the countryside.  To over  war  of of  these  patronage  followers. basic  unit  of these  Military  Orders  2 6  L u n e n f e l d , The C o u n c i l  o f the Santa  2 7  Hillgarth,  Kingdoms,  2 8  Heath,  The S p a n i s h  Armies  of the Middle  Ages,  was  t h e commandery  Hermandad,  p. 399. p. 31.  p . 50.  44 [encomienda] which group  provided  actions by  the  a  typical Orders  usually tactical  of  the  were  Military  v a s s a l s or  number o f  troops.  controlled  1,500  the  Master  of  the  conquest  to  see.  and  of  of  Granada,  So  desperate  was  the  convicted  for  1,000  of  That  these  the  imcomplete m i l i t a r y  the  campaigns  Ibid.  3 0  Ibid.  by  were  Contracts  m i l i t a r y  2 9  seen  Order,  by  served  the  i n the of  the  army  of  (capitulaciones)  450  for  for a l l cavalry  Homicianos  obtained  later  war.  royal As  campaigns.  monarchy were commanded. state  many  and  3 2  s t i l l These  private  were  made w i t h  leaders  the  Muslims.  These  against  C o n t a m i n e , War  I n t h e M i d d l e A g e s , p.  3 2  Hillgarth,  Spanish  K i n g d o m s , p.  year  3 1  that  was of  one  cavalry  provided  men  3 1  The  command  i t s wealth  crimes)  mixture  expeditions  raised  of A l c a n t a r a  1,760  s e r v i n g i n the  efforts  a  the  During  3 0  war.  for  capital  how  skirmish  troops  Order  mustered  d u r i n g the  individuals  be  the  demonstrating  sentences  the  under  infantry.  Crown  organizational  can  enterprise.  time  the  small  Crown w i t h a c o n s i d e r a b l e  1472  wealthy  a t one  their  the  year  thus  less  of  in  This  2 9  Santiago  infantry  from  Most  2,500  1,000  remission  of  the and  Order  Calatrava, a  (criminals  as  cavalry  useful  mercenaries  provided  During  the  War.  officers.  Orders  four brethren.  flexibility  Granada  t h e b r e t h r e n s e r v i n g as The  contained  163. 378.  45 c o n t r a c t s  reserved  guaranteeing mercedes by  a  aside  competition army  mutually  composed,  This  very  sense  type  difficulties  of  groups.  loyalty  march  against their  and p i t c h Granada  men,  concessions  J J  pain  of  of caballeria,  Elliott,  Imperial  o f t h e members o f a  s p i r i t  army  way.  than  by  there to the  presented  i t was point  When were  w e r e made  many  necessary of  each units  campaigning  summoned  privileges.  or knighthood,  Spain,  commanded  and t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t o  their  of  unity i n  contingents  and s t a r t i n g  o f t h e Crown  losing  fixed  3 4  As i n t h e p a s t ,  i n an o r d e r l y  the vassals  be s e t  into  T h e r e was l i t t l e  and heterogeneous  camp  usually  Many during  with new the  p. 59.  J . R . H a l e , "War a n d O p i n i o n : War a n d P u b l i c O p i n i o n i n 1 5 t h a n d 1 6 t h C e n t u r i e s " P a s t a n d P r e s e n t 22 ( 1 9 6 2 ) , p . 2 6 . 3 4  the  on  were  t o t h e monarch  f o r the date  or  h i s followers.  promoted  and w i t h i n these  campaign, the lodging of troops, to  rewards  be d i v i d e d  and s t a t u s  naturally  t o t h e monarchs. ahead  while  r a i s e d and l e d  frequently, of contingents  of f l u i d  months  was  agreements  c a p t a i n who h a d r e c r u i t e d t h e m .  This  Crown  due  t o reward  would  t o t h e rank  antagonistic nobles;  individual  was  and the r e s t  3  the  of the booty: a p o r t i o n would  among t h e v a r y i n g  f a r less  plan  3  to  contingent  s t a r t e d , formal  according  expedition.  Each task  the distribution  f o r t h e Crown  the  to  first  the expedition  proportions  was  whose  rights  of the expedition  for h i s services.  made a b o u t  an  to the leader  leader  Before  c e r t a i n  46  war,  mostly  t o men  Sometimes person,  but usually  noble's  led  by adelantados troops),  from  both  the  nobility,  out of a of  battles these  to  3,440  40,000.  resulting  and  were  cavalry.  3 7  while  noble  both  a  and  by  leaders militias  captains  noble  separate  5,795  forces  were no  and  The m u n i c i p a l  or  and  common,  army.  I n 1483  provided  4,700  provided  7,461  infantry  were  out of  organized  and c a v a l r y .  was t h e d e m a n d o f t h e n o b l e s which  levies  i n 1489 t h e y  of mixed i n f a n t r y  i n units  furnished  and t h e b i s h o p s  o f 13,000  These  during  3 6  each  Orders  h i s place  judges  commanded  forces,  i n s t r e n g t h and w i t h  infantry. The  towns  total  took  of the crown  officials.  infantry,  or batallas  batallas  unequal  and  h i s contingent i n  presidents, chief  royal  the Military  cavalry  men,  (state  c o n t i n g e n t s were  and  total  lands  A l l these  cavalry  commanded  c a p t a i n o f renown  infantry  noble  and A n d a l u s i a .  vassal  The  or other  corregidores.  The  a  absence.  the cities  contained  Castile  the noble  the  of  o f New  into  The b a s i s o f  t o command  their  made u p b y o r i g i n  rational  a  but  proportion of  own were  cavalry  3 8  early  organization.  3 5  Hillgarth,  3 6  Mariejol,  3 7  Hillgarth,  3 8  Mariejol,  Castilian The  cavalry  mounted  The S p a n i s h  troops  f o r c e had were  divided  a  into  haphazard units  Kingdoms, p. 378.  The S p a i n o f F e r d i n a n d The S p a n i s h  only  and I s a b e l l a ,  p. 193.  Kingdoms, p. 377.  The S p a i n o f F e r d i n a n d  and I s a b e l l a ,  p. 193.  of  47 100,  200, or  horseman,  300  lances.  except  where  Each  French  N a v a r r e , where i t r e f e r r e d Indications provided and  royal  nobility.  companies  Each  were  company  force  monarchs, Castilian  In  a  this  t h e Guardas  cavalry  into  and one hundred  parts,  each  Lunenfeld,  39  by  are  decree  the goodwill  of the  men  o f 800  each.  with  a n d was  These  the pike  a primitive  men  and  firearm.  staffed  with  an  4 0  control  available  the smallest,  Reales.  fourteen  to the  was  their  I n 1480 t h e monarchs companies,  each  with  (ensign),  two t r u m p e t e r s ,  Each  was  lances.  company  893 l a n c e s ,  a n d 130 l i g h t  The C o u n c i l  a  divided  l e d by a hombre p r i n c i p a l ( l i e u t e n a n t ) .  body c o m p r i s e d  men-at-arms  as i n  of companies  with  one o f  bodyguard,  strong,  royal  equipped  captain  treasurer.  single  the monarchy  of f i f t y  but unfortunately  1481 t h i s  39  (squads)  principal (captain), alferez  four  through  to royal  drummers  1,100  most  than  equipped  l e d by  of  of the infantry,  o f 7 2 0 men  men  and a  pqwer  amenable  reorganized capitan  was  a purser  The  into  composed  was  to a  o f two t o s i x men.  the creation  cuadrillas  espingarderos,  alcalde,  two  involved  i n sixteen  eighty  the growing  command, r a t h e r  This  referred  influence  to a unit  i n the organization  under  each  of  lance  4 1  a n d by 1496 h a d grown t o  cavalry.  4 2  This  organization,  o f t h e Santa Hermandad, p. 76.  40  Ibid  p.  78.  41  Ibid  p.  76.  42  C o n t a m i n e , War I n t h e M i d d l e A g e s , p . 1 6 7 .  48 as  little  applied  Viejas  was  Twenty  five  with  thus one  light a  the  European  warriors,  societies. during  approximately  ten  were  of  was  four  arms, and  to  one, of  of  adopt  plate  light  and  4 4  4 5  the  well  ninety  central  "white  armour  while  4 4  climate  4 3  by  eighty  each  Guardas  the  Crown.  men-at-arms,  company.  (mounted  Each  harquebusiers),  firepower  potential  cavalry  shock  cavalry,  ratio  of  and  at  While  the  explains  in  Milanese  v e n t i l a t e d armour  in  of  typical  of the  fifteenth centuries  was  times  light  the  lack  of the  artisans  Castilian  cavalry  Spanish  the  typical  to  C a s t i l e delayed The  divided  cavalry  prevalence of the  was  cavalry  light  certain  percent  armour".  until  Spanish  skirmishing  fourteenth  comprised  or  light  the  the  Patrick  of  to  and  heavy  standard  partially  plate  the  The  battles  , century.  attached  when t h e  directly  each  escopeteros  the  pitched  full  formed,  skirmishing,  percent men-at-arms.  hot  controlled  f i f t e e n t h century,  separate  men-at-arms  To  shock,  two  cavalry  force  1493,  4 3  During  Arabic  lasted until  cavalry  section  combining  into  a  companies  had  unit.  i t was,  created,  twenty  company  as  raiding  heavy  only over  cavalry,  introduction  nobility produced  middle  and  of  the  did  fifteenth  3  Hillgarth,  The  Armies,  S p a n i s h K i n g d o m s , p.  1480-1650  (Cambridge:  378.  J.G. Mann, " N o t e s on A r m o u r Worn i n S p a i n F r o m t h e Fifteenth Cenuries" Archaeologia L X X X I I I ( 1 9 3 3 ) , p.  not  suitable  45  George Gush, Renaissance S t e p h e n s , 1 9 8 2 ) , p. 53.  of  Tenth 286.  49  Such Spanish ruling "If  classes  can  wishes  Charles  Armeria that  he  V  took  In rendered  seem be  type  an  partially  paid  larger  era  him  when  but  on  man-at-arms were o f  de  his  Yuste." of  suits  such  p.  305.  the  details.  may  reflect  i n the  Real  i n the Prado,  and  to  his  accompany  weapons  helpless  armour  importance. Luna  At  and  the  or  training  against  the  weapons o f  the  battle  d e s c r i b e d one  of  Olmedo  of  army:  Now t h e s q u a d r o n s o f t h e K i n g o f C a s t i l e w e r e d r a w n u p i n t h i s m a n n e r : t h e C o n s t a b l e , who h e l d t h e vanguard, had v e r y good s o l d i e r s and k n i g h t s , n o b l e and skilled and a c c u s t o m e d t o war, and b o t h t h e y and t h e i r h o r s e s were w e l l and e l e g a n t l y armed...you c o u l d s c a r c e l y f i n d i n a l l o f t h e C o n s t a b l e ' s army a p e r s o n whose h o r s e was u n c o v e r e d , a n d e v e n t h e h o r s e s ' n e c k s w e r e p r o t e c t e d w i t h s t e e l c h a i n - m a i l . And a l l t h o s e y o u n g , n o b l e k n i g h t s o f t h e C o n s t a b l e ' s h o u s e h o l d , a n d many o t h e r s , w e r e r i c h l y e q u i p p e d , f o r some h a d diverse emblems p a i n t e d on t h e i r h o r s e s ' armor and w o r e g i f t s from t h e i r l a d i e s as pennants over t h e i r h e l m e t s . O t h e r s had heavy c h a i n s w i t h g o l d and silver b e l l s a r o u n d t h e i r h o r s e s ' n e c k s ; a n d t h e r e w e r e some who w o r e b u l l i o n s s e t w i t h p e a r l s a n d p r e c i o u s s t o n e s as e d g i n g s f o r t h e i r helmets. There were o t h e r s who carried small bucklers, richly ornamented with w o n d e r f u l s y m b o l s a n d d e v i c e s . No s m a l l d i v e r s i t y d i d they display i n the crest of t h e i r sallets and h e l m e t s , f o r some w o r e c r e s t s o f w i l d b e a s t s , o t h e r  Ibid.,  by  4 6  almost  A l v a r o de  worn  m e n t a l i t y of  t h e p a s t one  suitable  the a c t u a l  contingents of the C a s t i l i a n  the  armour  f o r h i s armours  of  infantry  vital  Cronica  of  lack  horseback,  of  for his pictures  several  the  Spanish  the  styles  explained through  sums  d i d to T i t i a n  with  the  and  irrelevant,  t o the monastery  a r m o u r e d man  1445,  the  t o p e n e t r a t e the mind of  t h a n he  retirement  in  as  k n i g h t s may  one  that  minutiae  the  50  v a r i e g a t e d panaches, a n d t h e r e w e r e t h o s e who used feathers, both as c r e s t s f o r t h e i r helmets and as crownpieces for their horses. Nor were t h e r e l a c k i n g p e o p l e who s p o r t e d plumes l i k e wings, which extended down t h e i r b a c k s . Some w e n t i n r o u g h h a r n e s s ; o t h e r s wore j a c k e t s o v e r l a i d w i t h p l a t e s o v e r t h e i r armor, and o t h e r s r i c h l y embroidered s u r c o a t s . So w e n t a l l t h e C o n s t a b l e ' s t r o o p s a n d m o s t o f t h o s e who gathered f o r t h i s war. A s i t was a l r e a d y l a t e , a n d t h e s u n was s h i n i n g d i r e c t l y on them, and t h e i r t r a p p i n g s were p o l i s h e d and t h e i r armor gleamed, t h e y a l l p r e s e n t e d a fine appearance. 4 7  By suits  the  of  complete  quality wearer  steel  almost  In the  of  opponents  the  Granada  white  immune  armour  t o sword this  cavalry  that  developed  typically  into  with  famous  i t s horsemen.  armed  with  lance  their  tactics  4 9  the  clever bow  a  the  light  shield  Muslims,  which  wore  a r e a made o f  high  design,  shots.  adopted  Berber  These  nobles  European  horsemen  were  Christian  Milan  and  Spanish  leather  the  the  armoured  "Zenata",  and  from  blows  the  many  with  heavy  originated for  from  Spanish  the  war  combined  to  and  as  of  which,  contrast  type  Europe  time  a  made  4 8  style  from  cavalry,  their  thought  Muslim  of  by  jinetes,  a  term  tribe  North  in  horsemen la  jineta  involved  the  of  a l l of that Africa Castile  had  hovering  learned around  Gonzalo Chacon, "Cronica de don A l v a r o de Luna, e d i c i o n y e s t u d i o p o r J u a n de M a t a C a r r i a z o " , S p a n i s h L i f e i n the L a t e M i d d l e Ages, Edited and T r a n s l a t e d by K e n n e t h R. Scholberg (Chapel H i l l : U n i v e r s i t y of North C a r o l i n a Press, 1 9 6 5 ) , p . 62. 4 /  Malcolm 1981) , p . 105. 4 8  Vale,  War  and  Chivalry  (London:  Duckworth,  Leonid Tarassuk and Claude B l a i r , The E n c y c l o p e d i a o f A r m s a n d W e a p o n s (New York: Simon and 1982) , p . 452. 4 9  Complete Schuster,  51 the  enemy  jinetes 1431,  would  the  which  two  very  are  At  even  large  shield  by  one  a figure The  shield,  covered  leather  has  The which  a  line  of  of  a quilted was,  with  not  been  An  sword  no  even  and  be  La  a whirling  the whole  mass o f t h e  combats  with  cavalry,  rear.  armour.  Their The  six solid  gambeson and  according to  cuir-bouilli  of  with two  long  Froissart  "a  Cappadocia  states  good  that  the m a j o r i t y these warriors aim  even  cavalry mounted There  is  steel  cap,  javelins.  earlier  with  opponents  of  a round  ( i n the b o i l i n g ) ,  and  two  5 0  overheated  source  with  columns.  handgunner p r e s e n t .  were e q u i p p e d  Behind  light  squadrons  i n eight  javelin,  Muslim  Muslim  area  jinetes  the  Spanish  heavy  the  Higueruela i n  to thrust.  infantry  l a n c e blows  thrown  of  when  sometimes used  weapon m o s t f a v o u r e d by  could  break,  i n the E s c o r i a l ,  i n the  even  jinetes  adarga  5 1  of  of a C h r i s t i a n  shield,  penetrate".  and  or  battle  in single  or  line  Castilian  or  against  infantry  little,  and  lines  ground  the  with  engaged  two  of  supported  lancers,  Ages,  give  home.  sometimes h u r l e d  masses  have  5 0  would  is filled  sides,  melee  solid  a  charge  the armies  was  this  are  they  as p o r t r a y e d i n a p a i n t i n g  between of  until  of  The  very  which, no  light i f the  weapon  i t was  "proof  arrows."  was  the  when g a l l o p i n g  can  5 2  javelin, at  full  C h a r l e s Oman, A H i s t o r y o f t h e A r t o f War i n t h e M i d d l e v o l . I I ( L o n d o n : M e t h u e n and Company, 1 9 2 4 ) , p. 180.  5 1  Heath,  5 2  Ibid.  Armies  of the M i d d l e Ages,  p.  135.  52  speed.  Used  3  effective.  At  c o r r e c t l y  the  siege  of  knight's  coat-of-plates,  and  sides  both  with  such  according  center  force to  overarm  of  thrusting  development of  the  leaving  the  A  5  the  arms  the  Spanish  not  regarded  stirrup  the  fourteenth  useful  in and  lances,  thus  long  for  have  5 4  Heath, Armies of  5 5  Ibid.,  5 6  Tarassuk  a l l they  hit."-  be  used  as  forward  straps  of  a  the set  the  of  bent horse,  down  of  the  emphasis both  other  the  fugitives,  the  Art  of  and  heavy  Trained flanks the  p.  M i d d l e A g e s , p.  cavalry  and  knights as  and  to  that  light,  during  rear  of  stroke  with  take  alarm,  they  Blair,  The  180. 130.  Complete Encyclopedia,  p.  and the  largely  F r o i s s a r t "as a  was  raiders  j i n e t e s were  given  enemy, War,  on  European  According  3 darts,  the  and  135. and  i t s  which  of  an  was  comprised  control  centuries.  disconcerting  History  a  gambeson  tactics  This  leg  cavalry,  patrolling  2 or  Oman, A  pierced  thrown  well  these  very  "were  also  leather  in  e f f e c t i v e by  5 3  p.  aiding  battle cavalry.  without  held  shortened  fifteenth  thrown  could  to  experience  cutting  as  aid  almost  a la jineta.  their  very and  usually  javelin  javelins  down  javelin  a  be  5 6  skirmishes,  ineffective they  with  enjoyed, as  The  could  silk-stuffed  Trancoso  knocked  v i t a l  free.  the  5 4  i n 1384,  corselet, At  weapon,  legs,  Despite  as  5  mail  they  s t i r r u p s but  rider's  army,  that  javelins  Lisbon  body.  Froissart.  point.  normal  his  these  452.  soon their turn  53 their they  horses' can.  heads  mounted  Castilian  banded,  reluctant  that  they  necessary  on  In  as knowing  foot. tactics  a  a  t h e cream  much  like lack  later  than  were  charge  the  generally  manuscript  some skills  they  t h e y know  there i s also  they  In  5 8  the equestrian  " n o t h i n g o f war o r h o n o r ;  were  failed  the ji n e t e s . of  of the  and t h e k n i g h t s  first  contemporary  In Castile  1 , 5 7  the horses  If a  as  a g a i n s t h i s European  armour  horsemen,  as well  are  neither  a d e a r t h o f good  1 , 5 9  A partial  horse  heavy  demonstrated  t o wait or f l e e .  traced  flight  considered  i s p r o t e c t e d by armour,  i n war.  described  la  feudal  t o use s k i r m i s h  riders.  by  not very e f f e c t i v e  adopted  to fight  instances  how  They  and French  tended  themselves  man-at-arms,  a r m y , was a l s o  counterparts.  not  save  T h i s game t h e y p l a y e d a t A l j u b a r r o t a .  The  English  and  reason  t o t h e heavy  for this demand  b r e e d i n g and s e l l i n g  Marche  i n 1445 ,  pedigree  were  s e l l i n g  a  reals,...And  horse every Armies  of  f o r horses i n Spain.  " . . . i t  so d e a r l y  demonstrated  sold  note  gentleman  was  at  which  c a n be spurred  According to Olivier  6 0  this  time  that  f o r 500 ,  thought  of s k i l l  i n Europe,  i n France but  lack  that  that  one never 1000  or  5 7  Heath,  5 8  Oman, A H i s t o r y  5 9  Mariejol,  The S p a i n o f F e r d i n a n d and I s a b e l l a ,  6 0  V a l e , War  and C h i v a l r y ,  horses  of  spoke  of  even  i f he w e r e  to  1200 appear  o f t h e M i d d l e A g e s, p. 49. o f t h e A r t o f War, p. 1 8 1 .  p. 122.  de  p. 199.  54 on  a good horse  and  received  Spain  of  he  into  good  w o u l d be the  i n France.  the  actively  Crown  rather  than  companies."  horses,  available  due  So  to  Antoine  to Spain  the  heavy  quick  was  to  de  recognized,  This  6 1  pressing  intervened  mules.  Handsome's t r i p  more e a s i l y  force  demand  and  this  sought  after  denuded  easy  profits  lack  of  horses  knights  to  ride  L a l a i n g ' s account  of  that horses  Philip  the  i n 1501-1502 s t a t e s t h a t :  The q u e e n , s e e i n g t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f h e r g e n t l e m e n r o d e m u l e s a n d when i t was n e c e s s a r y t o a r m a n d ride on h o r s e b a c k t h e y w e r e t h e l e a s t d e x t e r o u s i n the w o r l d , c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t t h e r e was a d a i l y e x p e c t a t i o n o f war w i t h t h e F r e n c h o r t h e M o o r s o r a g a i n s t b o t h o f t h e m a t t h e same t i m e , o r d e r e d t h a t n o - o n e , h o w e v e r g r e a t he w a s , u n l e s s he was a p r i e s t o r e c c l e s i a s t i c , s h o u l d r i d e a mule but a h o r s e and t h a t t h e horses s h o u l d s t a n d f i f t e e n h a n d s o r m o r e , i n o r d e r t o be b e t t e r s u i t e d t o war, and she even f o r c e d h e r h u s b a n d , t h e k i n g t o do t h i s a n d o r d e r e d t h a t t h o s e l i v i n g on t h e b o r d e r s of F r a n c e s h o u l d r i d e i n our f a s h i o n and t h o s e who were n e i g h b o r s of the Moors should ride s h o r t - s t i r r u p e d (a l a j i n n e t t e ) . 6 2  This  ineffectiveness indicates that,  cavalry equally was  was  useless  ripe  nobility  largely  for was  words  of  The  i t s relative i f only  Andrea  age  of  the  l i t t l e  p.  132.  use  inefficiency,  socially,  Navagero,  C o n t a m i n e , War Ibid.,  a  at  least,  the  European  power,  and  i n the mountains of Granada. reform.  role,  relatively  against  Spain  The  Castilian  independent  army  cavalry  passing.  Despite leading  obsolete  in  was  in  " I t was made  In the Middle  a  of  the  the  cavalry  Granada  really  A g e s , p.  war.  lovely  firearms, 131.  played  every  In  war.  a the  Since  gentleman  55 could  display  marked  by  some  chivalrous siege the  of  Baza,  the  war  one  as one  i n some w a y s d u e  to  sieges.  factors  light  while  a day  arms." and  passed So  6 3  that  was  of  a strict  knights  to  not  frequent  were  Christian knights  i n favour  Christian  cavalry  and the  i n 1482  to  the  these into  at  the  blockade  indulge  in  acceptance  of  foot.  the  By  had  the  role  idea  of  such  of  6 4  Prescott,  6 5  Hillgarth,  6 6  C o n t a m i n e , War  Spain of  Reign of The  to  terrain were  due  century, the  the  was  Ferdinand  the  lack  heavy  and  M i d d l e A g e s , p.  133.  expensive  an  to  on  and  I s a b e l l a , p.  375.  they  created  archers  Isabella,  equipped  6 6  chivalrous  status  for  constant,  of  eventually  social  and  the  because  armour.  English  Ferdinand  both  r e c r u i t e d and  be  and  important,  of  cavalry  to  cavalry  This  6 5  i n f a n t r y , because  S p a n i s h K i n g d o m s , p. In  the  numbers  the  be  i t could  revolutionized  M a r i e j o l , The  The  cavalry  i n 1491.  reasons  less expensive  that  fifteenth  6 3  one  number o f  cheaper,  b a g g a g e , and  dwindling  i n f a n t r y to  I n f a n t r y were more u t i l i z e d  a v a i l a b l e and  The  play.  infantry could  numbers.  to  tactical  the  of  nature of  relative  reasons  ratio five  rugged  declined  economic  mounts, l i g h t e r  pikemen  the  came  inexpensive  both  a whole,  While  also  increasing  were  of  Muslim  Fernando,  to  social  in  the  from  frequent  and  feat  between  that  hardly  6 4  changed  other  and  memorable  forbade  During  was  bravery,  combats  city,  duels.  his  2:59.  fight  and  Swiss  military 198.  56 effectiveness English 1476,  the  archers at  well  Europe.  the  war  with  Spanish  p i k e was  very  effective  well  trained  longer and  and  fire  pikemen  by  Swiss  pike  terrain  The  in  the b a t t l e f i e l d s  of  faster  punch  7 0  the  widespread corps  d '  long  was  the  The  6 9  had  used  of  crossbow  late  i n the  arquebus  and  both  The was  considered  when w i e l d e d  because  a of  and  than  by  the  weight  of  range  and  horse  and  than  armoured was  the  standard  rather  a maximum r a n g e  h e a v i e s t armour  effective  and  important  combination  o n l y abandoned  more  use.  bolt  through  I t was even  The  techniques.  s h o o t i n g longbow,  the  utilized  of Granada,  crossbow  armoured man-at-arms.  could  terrifyingly 280-380  cause  appalling  sixteenth musket  yards  century  came  into  En m a s s e , t h e c r o s s b o w m e n w e r e c o n s i d e r e d t o  e l i t e ,  due  to  their  effectiveness  E u g e n e F. R i c e , J r . , T h e F o u n d a t i o n s o f E a r l y 1 4 6 0 - 1 5 5 9 (New Y o r k : W.W. N o r t o n , 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 12.  6 8  L u n e n f e l d , The  6 9  Hale,  Council  International  o f t h e S a n t a Hermandad, p.  Relations  i n t h e W e s t, p.  on  be  the  Modern 79.  283.  W i l l i a m L e d y a r d Rodgers, N a v a l Warfare Under O a r s , 1 6 t h C e n t u r i e s ( A n n a p o l i s : N a v a l I n s t i t u t e P r e s s , 1 9 8 0 ) , p. 7 0  the  at Morat  the Spanish  fourteen feet  6 8  against  and  6 7  the  infantry.  weapon.  Europe,  Swiss  a c c u r a c y were c o n s i d e r e d more  of  wounds.  Granada,  almost  effective  a  illustrated  came t o d o m i n a t e  i n the broken  ranged  heavily  when  and  As  6 7  f i r e p o w e r and  speed  infantry.  i n 1346  infantry  English  blow  lowly  Crecy  trained  During  to  of  4th 107.  57 battlefield. The the  7 1  development o f e f f e c t i v e h a n d - h e l d gunpowder weapons i n  fifteenth  century  infantry  equipped  infantry  were  inaccurate with a  a  hole,  fifty  espingarda  was  yards. the  long  dampen  a  the  the  great pan  deal  had  rifled  the  barrels,  the  such  feet  at  night. rifled  The  7 3  Gush, R e n a i s s a n c e  of  weighed  to  ball  about  150  although short  were  that  i t  could  spill  or  could  give  these were  away  weapons  used  at  74  C o u n c i l of the Santa A r m i e s , p.  Heyday  and  Hermandad, p.  Decline 79.  11.  L y n n W h i t e , J r . , M e d i e v a l T e c h n o l o g y and ( O x f o r d : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1981), p. 164. 7 4  and  size  preferred at  rain  was  ounce  handgun,  None o f  O.F.G. Hogg, A r t i l l e r y : I t s O r i g i n , (London: C. H u r s t and Co., 1970), p. 11. Lunenfeld,  barrel  long  and  a half  hand-guns  7 1  7 2  heavy,  It  7 2  common  matches  7 3  a  feet  weapon  t o use,  glowing  Spanish  metal  long  and  a  few  else.  seven  t o be  the  s h o o t i n g match i n 1 4 9 8 .  long  portable  archery of  although  a  most  a one  trained  a  l a r g e t a r g e t s up  training  firers  1488  well  espingarda,  over  practical  caused  of  little  one-half  against  powder, and  p o s i t i o n s of  very  being  It fired  of  an  support,  and  and  disadvantages  By  called  However,  first  r e l o a d i n g time  the  gun  three  I t was  usefulness  guns.  wooden  t e n pounds.  Some  new  largest  effective  a  a  the  a powder pan  only  the  Leipzig  with  fairly  ranges. required  the  pounds.  was  approximately and  armed  weapon,  weighing  with  weapon w i t h  touch  large  increased  Social  Change  a  58 Recent have  tests  determined  penetrate  using that  armour  they  and s t e e l  targets,  the accuracy  drop  With  and  due  i n s u f f i c i e n t was  average  At longer extremely  muzzle  uncertain.  t h e gunpowder  was  well  t h e gun  would  misfired  With  wet-mixed  than  velocity  ten percent  was  o f t h e weapon on t h e b a t t l e f i e l d  incident the much  at  buckler  the siege  The  an  at a l l .  powder,  the  misfires),  and  longer was  Due  to  the  barrels,  the  sufficient  infantry.  arquebus  7 5  ball  In  to an  penetrated  b u t l a c k e d t h e f o r c e t o do  7 6  growing  battlefield  of Malaga,  of the Marquis of Cadiz,  injury.  and  f o r the  down  twenty-five  increased.  gunpowder  man-killer  rammed  over  in a  out of the i n g r e d i e n t s  effectiveness  reliable  lead  improved  not explode  of  i t a  man-sized  Firing  barrel  (less  could  wet-mixed  gun  introduction  make  using  ranges a g a i n s t  to the s e t t l i n g  wet-mixed  and  the  ramming.  improved  accurate  handguns  s t r e s s on t h e gun, r e s u l t e d  t h e gunpowder  gunpowder,  century  yards,  lengthening  Unless  of the time,  reliability the  but  reasonably  twenty  i n less  w i t h a wad,  dry-mixed  percent  was  resulted  somewhat.  barrel,  at  bullets.  i n accuracy,  accuracy the  which  of f i f t e e n t h  were  plate  gunpowder  bullets,  replicas  importance  i s shown  by  of  the royal  firearm  infantry  decision of  1480  on  the  t o exchange  A. R. W i l l i a m s , "Some F i r i n g T e s t s W i t h S i m u l a t e d 1 5 t h c e n t u r y Handguns", J o u r n a l o f t h e Arms and Armour S o c i e t y V I I I (1974), pp. 116-119. 7 5  7 6  P r e s c o t t , Reign  of Ferdinand  and I s a b e l l a ,  2:24.  59 militia  s e r v i c e f o r money c o m m u t a t i o n s  e s p i n g a r de r o s  (musket  p r o f e s s i o n a l s  under  counterweight  the  years The  1488  to  and  General  salaries  1490,  place  was  of  espingarda-armed  royal  v a s s a l and  important  state.  Infantry could  infantry longer  had  dispense nobles to  the  was  with lost  the  with  the  Christian  war  arms.  sieges.  the on  200  hire  paid  a  thus  During  the  of  marksmen.  much  as  a  the  aristocratic  military  services  7 9  firearms  was  centralized Castilian  monopoly  of  Crown.  cavalry of  military  7 8  mounted  foot-soldier. with  7 7  700  s u c c e s s f u l l y oppose c a v a l r y , and  c o n t r o l of  a  espingarderos.  good  as  equipped of  and  equivalent  ordinary  development  t r a i n e d  nobles.  the  to  an  infantry  now  the  trained  were  c o n t r o l ,  send  order  hire  the  The and  monarchs  could  Once  their  no  thereby  nobility.  power,  this  the  resistance  crumbled.  extensive  during  of  the  in  to  to  men  provided  much a s  the  rely  their  Crown  Along  to  under to  as  on  vitally  alone  of  i n f a n t r y were  twice  emphasis  power  asked  men  These  Crown's  Toledo  These  This  the  military  Assembly  in  men).  i n order  The  the  d e c l i n e of  use  of  with  gunpowder Granada  This  c a v a l r y and  was  i s because  Muslims  had  rise  of  infantry,  artillery  by  the  Castilians  decisive  for  the  success  the  war  constructed  7 7  Hillgarth,  The  Spanish  K i n g d o m s , p.  7 8  Lunenfeld,  The  Council  of  7 9  Hillgarth,  The  Spanish  K i n g d o m s , p.  the  the  with  G r a n a d a was  numerous  and  377.  war  strong  379.  S a n t a Hermandad, p.  a  of  79.  60 castles  and  ground,  forts  and  of  So  pervasive  very  effective batter to  the  almost  of 179  maximum  i n the a  later rate and  artillery  of  new  artillery  a  the  comes t h i r t y o r  period.  Italian forty  rubble.  80  Ibid  p.  166.  81  Ibid  p.  377.  82  Ibid  p.  376.  83  C o n t a m i n e , War  The  military  edifices  revolved  that  around  was  as  fortified  the  vital  the  to  any  to  bear  only  range  could  by  one of  a  of  to  artillery,  target  with  the  siege  train  of  1500  Wars,  "When  are say  In the Middle  round  only an  effect  According  French  the  over  strike  The  pieces  object  on  out  and  demanded  reserve  gun  8 1  of  8 3  The  carried  places  C h r i s t i a n s possessed  the w a l l s .  maximum  rounds  high  i n Granada.  fire  overwhelming.  to  The  sieges.  potentially  reduced  war  artillery  hour  before  frowning  the  amply  of  excellent  of  firepower  twenty-four  just  were  these  artillery  was  pieces  artillery  1,000  such  delay,  Despite  to  venture  s o l i d masonry of  carriages  heavy  of  the  minimum  c e n t u r i e s , u s u a l l y on  l a r g e number o f G r a n a d a n  use  bring  were  prosecution  military  of  Muslims  such strongholds.  successful The  period  Spanish  successful  capture  a  the  architects. the  over  a  for  battering  Florentine time  f i r e d so  that  that their  for the  the  ,  up in  a  was  observer  bombardment wall  artillery  201.  8 2  stronghold  this  the  A g e s , p.  hour  2,000 m e t r e s  enemy  of  to  a  is can  soon make  61 a  breech  small, f i r e  i n a wall  their they  number do  revolutionary of  Charles  eight  i s large  not stop  morale  Christians.  air". the  sixty  walls  of a  that  military  disposed  Some  period  successful  of only sieges.  frequently  by  observer  value  projectiles  were  on which  of  i n t h e wars 370 d a y s i n  the fire  t e s t i f y  fell."  i n overcoming  reservations  such  as w e l l .  he  brutal  ammunition  used  by t h e  Ibid.  85  Rice,  86  Mariejol,  87  Hillgarth,  Foundations  and  chronicler  confeccionada] of rose  high  long  8  "...the  launched  i n the to  Christian  fire-bombs...These  f o r t h e abandonment  of the  7  been  the walls  aware  of  the importance  o f Granada.  concerning the centralizing  84  Both  the  ammunition:  one o f t h e causes  have  but the  to  [pella  sparks  to  of the  o f t h e campaign o f 1486 t e s t i f i e d  w i t h which  they  Historians  fiery  begin  8 5  affected  made b a l l  hole i s  idea  c a n be seen  of incendiary  scattered  o f cannons  artillery  they  At the siege of Moclin, the Christian  A Muslim  8 6  t h e moment  tactics  chroniclers  type  every  b a t t e r e d down  was  Muslim  Although  night.  In a  d e s c r i b e d "a s p e c i a l l y  kind  places  were  and  effectiveness  the  o f such  of the defenders  Christian  Pulgar  f o r from  V I I of France.  only  thick.  day or  influence  1449-1450, he c o n d u c t e d Not  feet  F e r d i n a n d and I s a b e l l a ,  D e s p i t e h i s many  influence  o f E a r l y Modern Europe, p. 200.  The S p a n i s h Kingdoms, p. 376.  of  of  p. 11.  artillery,  62 J.R.  Hale  does  unreformed over the  admit  Spaniards  an edge  Granada  i n Spain,  success. fell could by  "cast  down  f o r t r e s s  the main  Bernaldez  the least  importance;  G r a n a d a was i s o l a t e d ,  0  noted  a r t i l l e r y .  In  to  1479,  were the  towns  except  artillery of the  M a r i e j o l , role  of the  T h e War  battles of  9 1  of the value  army  had  only  of the four  J . R. H a l e , " G u n p o w d e r a n d t h e R e n a i s s a n c e : A n E s s a y i n t h e H i s t o r y o f I d e a s " , From R e n a i s s a n c e t o C o u n t e r - R e f o r m a t i o n : E s s a y s i n H o n o r o f G a r r e t M a t t i n g l y , E d i t e d b y C h a r l e s H. C a r t e r (London: 1966). p 114. 8 8  8 9  Hillgarth,  9 0  Mariejol,  9 1  Ibid.,  The S p a n i s h K i n g d o m s , p. 376. Ferdinand and I s a b e l l a ,  p. 199.  of  one by o n e , a n d when  aware  C a s t i l i a n  been  Christian  part  with large-scale  fully  had  taken  a g a i n s t t h e Moslems.  of i t s e l f . "  This  8  i n the past  the  Jean  8  of  the decisive  t h e towns were t a k e n i tfell  that  the greater  According  struggle  and I s a b e l  a series  document m e n t i o n s  9  advantage  siege.  i n the  of which  down  c e n t u r y and  artillery  and c o u l d not have been  have not s u f f i c i e n t l y  i n the last  that  t o t h e ground  Alhabar".  time  ingredient  commented  a month,  and l e v e l e d  Fernando  an  a t t h e end o f i t . "  G r a n a d a was a b o v e a l l one o f s i e g e s , secondary  knocked  of the fifteenth  not the f i r s t  An o f f i c i a l  of  "Historians artillery  was  h e l d out a year 8 9  guns  gave t h e F r e n c h  on t h e Moors  b u t was  i n 1486 " w i t h i n  hunger".  that  b e c a u s e t h e war w i t h G r a n a d a was a  War  Andres  have  and t h i s  at the beginning  e d g e was d e c i s i v e ,  used  " I t i s true  fortifications,  the English  The  that  p. 202.  63 artillerymen that  by  army.  on  i t s muster  1485,  ninety-one  Gunners,  9 2  F l a n d e r s , and  Sicily  and  efforts, of  building  a  In  Ramirez,  this  conquest  of  Catholic  a  Senor captain  council,...exposed the  combats  fortresses  Artillery influential warlike [gonne]."  or 9 5  were  ample  in  for a r t i l l e r y  hired  of  Concession  and  the  had  of  of  of  a  artillery to great of  and  always  To J o h n  diabolical  instrument  Francesco  9 2  Heath,  Armies  9 3  Mariejol,  9 4  I b i d . , p.  9 5  C o n t a m i n e , War  received  Mirfield  de  i n 1390  Giorgio,  i t was  33. 200.  138.  to the  holy  of  his  labored i n towns,  and  94  seen  called  203. In t h e M i d d l e Ages, p.  and  to  his  accolades  a military  I s a b e l l a , p.  the  member  war."  such  "In  for  cities,  commonly  o f t h e M i d d l e Ages, p.  F e r d i n a n d and  Torre  Madrid,  dangers  a l l the  task  Fernando  Granada  F r a n c i s c o Ramirez  taking  not  V i s de  from  from  for his  i s acknowledged.  Moors  in  artillery,  rewards  from  so the  imported  of the  t h e i r Majesties gained i n t h i s  men.  For  received  h i s person  and  that  Letter  kingdom  and  commander  t o the a r t i l l e r y  faith,  secretary  Madrid,  suitable  debt the  registered  blacksmiths  Spanish  hired,  t h e s e n o r i o o f Bornos f o r t h e d i f f i c u l t  road  Villanueva.  The  9 3  de  including  and  were  Germany, w h i l e gunpowder was  Portugal. Ramirez  More were q u i c k l y  artillerymen  engineers,  Italy,  Francisco  roles.  as a  from "this  cannon  engineer, i t s  64  discovery  was  artillery  became  siege  of  not  today. hands face  this  Nor of  point from  would  In  that  the  1460,  the  quhilk  at  of  had  who  Furioso,  Scotland  the  been  and  fire.  which  still  men  have  look  in  the  their  to  me the  with  weapon  myself  by  a distance  coward's  to  died  to  the  the  cripple  dare  makes  of  I  not  Ariosto  A  9 7  "Would  invented.  valiant  the "mair  fyring".  more d e s c r i p t i v e  would  down f r o m  a  me  and  in  At  King...unhappely  artillery  never  i t caused  was  brak  ane  As  9 6  dammed.  II of  of  P a v i a was  agency".  more  James  majestie  shirkers  Orlando  devilish  the  weapon  bring  gunpowder  to  i t was  fairness  scars  and  they  9 8  gun,  3,  s o many b r a v e  cowards  t h e men  bullets."  the  or  prisoner  of  but  efficient,  him  unhappy  bear  human  August  ane  taken  opinion  that  would  with  noble  current  on  becam  slane  French  God  nor  to  more  Roxburgh  curieous [was]  "not  wretched  aristocratic  destroy  gentlemen  afar. Through thee i s m a r t i a l g l o r y l o s t , through The t r a d e o f arms become a w o r t h l e s s a r t : And a t s u c h ebb a r e w o r t h and c h i v a l r y That the base o f t e n p l a y s the b e t t e r p a r t .  thee  9 9  Despite  the  decapitated artillery war.  9 6  9 7  by  very  Perhaps  natural  a  shell  quickly the  aversion fired  by  established  greatest  appeal  of an  gentleman  ordinary  itself of  a  as  a  artillery  to  being  gunner's  necessary to  tool  military  Ibid. Ibid.,  p.  206.  9 8  R i c e , The  Foundations  9 9  Hale,  and  War  of  O p i n i o n , p.  Early 29.  Modern  Europe,  p.  boy,  15.  of men  65 was  not  i t s efficiency  artillery the  pieces  being  p r e s t i g e granted  owners  of  such  downrange  end  O.F.G. H o g g , a and  a l l the  of  firepower  efficient weapon,  the  not  outcome."  c o n s t r u c t i o n and  i t s  to  captains  f a s c i n a t i o n of  least  at  with  such  very  first,  a  so  the  fashion-conscious  the  pull  towards the  use  of  in  Greek  thought.  1 0 0  most the  effects.  "Noise,  smoke  ancestors'  the  but  in  result at  that  display  for  besides  foot  i t s  idea  the  more  the  new  ingenious  artillery made  monarch that  flashy  sources  mention  long  phallic  symbol  but was  i t a  or  sounds and  Few  results,  this so  noble.  So  references The  eventually  is  not  expensive  natural  discovered.  Roman f o r t i f i c a t i o n s  to  status  that to  be  and,  at  symbol  demanding the  lack  halted  the  was  ancients'  of  gunports  this  line  1 0 1  Hogg, A r t i l l e r y :  J.R. Hale, I t a l y " , Renaissance H a m b l e d o n , 1 9 8 3 ) , p. 1 0 1  For  soldiers accepted  men.  twelve  guns were c o n v e n i e n t l y  i t s value  uprange  were our  large  effects.  of  artillery,  wrote  power,  ineffective,  the  greater  qualities  that  for  and  the  obvious  fact  than  parade  Many  1 0 0  other  obvious  The  view  say,  appealed  ignored.  grand  of  machines.  practical  artillery,  violent special  to  the  sound  proved  such noisy  important  k i l l i n g  effects  discharged  a  in their  for  Needless  of  The  awesome a n d  artillery,  much l e s s  features  the  was  owner o f  h i s t o r i a n of  and  i t s noise.  fired  early  was  but  I t s O r i g i n , Heyday and  Decline,  p.  23.  "War and Public Opinion in Renaissance War S t u d i e s , E d i t e d by J.R. Hale (London: 368.  of  66 What u l t i m a t e l y  procured a r t i l l e r y ' s  e f f e c t i v e n e s s on the b a t t l e f i e l d  or  a c c e p t a n c e was  in sieges.  its  The c l e r g y  of  the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y might ban the crossbow and two hundred y e a r s l a t e r attempt the same w i t h gunpowder weapons, but the men whose business  it  was t o f i g h t  could get.  sword  artillery  weapons  they  So p e r v a s i v e were these gunpowder weapons t h a t  the b e g i n n i n g of the  used the most e f f e c t i v e  the s i x t e e n t h century  as the  s y m b o l of  war  considered a d e v i l ' s  the gun began  itself.  toy,  rivalling  No l o n g e r  1 0 2  was  and c e r e m o n i a l o c c a s i o n s  were e n l i v e n e d by the use of guns to g i v e s u i t a b l e emphasis o c c a s i o n s of 1496,  state.  A r n o l d von H a r f f ,  d e s c r i b e d 200 guns f i r e d  off  a pilgrim  simultaneously  Pope Alexander VI t o the C a s t e l S a n t ' A n g e l o .  when a c a r d i n a l r i d e s a c r o s s they shoot o f f Cannons were a l s o g r e a t  1 0 3  to  occasions  and p u b l i c  disguised  in  great  g e n t r y and m a s s e s . Artillery useful  for  festivals,  on  destructive to  in  similarly  t h r e e cannon i n  boomings and f l a s h i n g s  his  special nature  entertain  the  s i e g e s because i t  was  e l s e , except perhaps as e n t e r t a i n m e n t .  It  104  was used p r i m a r i l y  little  their  welcome  " T h i s i s done  favorites  to  t o Rome i n  honour of the Pope when he r i d e s over the b r i d g e , and  honour."  by  g e n e r a l l y had a poor r a t e of  fire,  in  short  effective  1 0 2  H a l e , War and O p i n i o n , p. 2 1 .  1 0 3  Contamine, War In the M i d d l e Ages, p. 207.  1 0 4  H a l e , War and P u b l i c O p i n i o n , p. 368.  r a n g e s , was  67 notoriously transport.  i n a c c u r a t e , and  An  example of  gigantic  pieces  required  227  obviously Spanish the  not  leagues most  As  the  terrain  6,000  men  case,  at  shot  from  century.  Algeciras  1 0 7  This  was  pieces  fired  cases  i t was  easier  was  a  great  great  hard  but  a  to quarry  not  H a l e , War  and  106  prescott,  Reign  1 0 7  Fuller,  1 0 8  Hogg,  existed.  brittle.  move.  The  nature  to  siege  only  of  of  construct  the  advanced  leveling  cannon though  1 0 5  rugged  During  that  one  three of  the  difficulty,  problems  P r o v i d i n g the f o r the  Fernando by  the  sent  Alfonso  stone To  of  shot  the  safeguard  and  Decisive Battles  in  most  heavy  In  1 0 8  p.  one  previous  spot,  Europe,  the  In  most  from  the p r e c i o u s  Isabella,  of  and  for  cannon-  the  granite.  on  Society i n Renaissance of Ferdinand  monarchs.  however,  usually  ammunition  f o r marble  XI  tended  rock  supply  156.  1:480.  Western  World,  p.  396. 157.  Artillery:  of  1 0 6  problem  shot,  the  to  to  these  Milanese  engineering  rare occurence  stone  1 0 5  The  fired  large  i n that  overcome.  s i e g e of Malaga,  siege  that  of  transporting  difficult  causeway  sierra.  was  proved  the  this  had  d i f f i c u l t  t r a n s p o r t them,  I t r e q u i r e d the  the  i n a l l feats  artillery  a  days.  each  were  to  problems  built  p a r t s of  as  oxen  trails  of  sixteen  demanded m a s s i v e  mule  i n twelve  multiply  1044  further  only  rugged  i n 1472,  and  extremely  the d i f f i c u l t i e s  a l l cannon  suffered  where  Cambil,  to  carts  Granadan  roads  i s that  was  Its Origin,  Heyday  and  Decline,  p.  68  of  gunpowder,  possible  underground  Muslim  raids  vaults  or  were  dug  to store  accidental  detonation  £qr  supply  i t against  by  careless  109  gunners.  1 0 3  The  l o g i s t i c a l  ammunition makes  demands  a n d gunpowder  were  the  enormous,  of  a r t i l l e r y  as Hernando  d e l Pulgar  clear. To make m u n i t i o n s and equipment of t h e a r t i l l e r y , t h e r e w e r e e m p l o y e d many b l a c k s m i t h s , carpenters, sawyers, woodcutters, s m e l t e r s , masons, s t o n e c u t t e r s who l o o k e d f o r s t o n e q u a r r i e s , a n d o t h e r s t o n e c u t t e r s who w o r k e d t h e s t o n e , a n d d i g g e r s , charcoal-burners w h o s e j o b i t was t o make c h a r c o a l f o r t h e f o r g e s , a n d esparteros [ m a t - m a k e r s ] who made r o p e s a n d b a s k e t s . And over each g r o u p o f w o r k e r s was a n overseer [ m i n i s t r o ] who u r g e d o n t h e w o r k e r s a n d s u p p l i e d t h e m w i t h t h e t h i n g s they needed f o r t h e i r t a s k . Moreover, a g r e a t many c a r t s w e r e n e e d e d , a n d f o r e a c h h u n d r e d c a r t s t h e r e was a n o v e r s e e r , a n d u n d e r h i m a r t i s a n s t o whom h e g a v e t h e e q u i p m e n t n e e d e d t o k e e p t h e c a r t s i n repair. There were o t h e r a r t i s a n s t o make t h e g u n p o w d e r , w h i c h was k e p t i n p i t s d u g o u t u n d e r g r o u n d b y t h r e e h u n d r e d men a s s i g n e d t o g u a r d them day a n d night. 1 1 0  If  any group,  because  they  Castile's  have  case,  organized,  people  adapted  a s u c c e s s f u l war, i t  t o t h e demands  this  involved  an  and given  adequate  technology.  infantry  were  efficient  engineers,  organized.  or state fight  trained  From  1 1 1  109  Mariejol,  110  Ibid.,  111  Maravall,  to operate  artillery, an  army  The Spain  on  that  was Mass  effectively  medical  emphasis  which  of  of Ferdinand  formations  courage  and  there  p . 202.  p . 200. State,  of  s e r v i c e s were  and I s a b e l l a ,  The O r i g i n s o f t h e Modern  In  rationalized,  together,  and supply  individual  war.  i s  p . 808.  69  developed  the  During changed. the  Since  measure o f  and  the  changes  during  in the  this  the  values  of group d i s c i p l i n e  war,  the  any  c r e a t i o n of  the  Spanish  national  period.  persistence  conquest  lay at  ten-year  long  the  for  successful  soldiers.  and  was  thorough  these  of  to  the  sixteenth  long  of  "In  the  an  warriors this to  and  patient  the  frontier  that  over a l l C h r i s t e n d o m .  spread  the  society, a  Isabel  war  and  i n warfare.  The  was  school  of  Granada  celebrated  them  the  endurance,  m i l i t a r y fame o f  gave into  Spanish fortitude  captains  were  beginning their  1 , 1 1 2  R e i g n o f F e r d i n a n d and  are  Reconquest  transformed  admirable  those  of  skills  and  that  F e r n a n d o and  open  Spanish  society,  Granadan War  society  fortress  trained  Spanish  i n v i n c i b l e i n f a n t r y , which i n the  century  Prescott,  during  of  the  the  subordination;  formed, w i t h that  as  a society mirrors  army  natural  gradually  well  freebooting so  root  siege  as  valour.  changes e f f e c t e d by  The  discipline  soldier  army,  and  I s a b e l l a , 2:104.  of  country  70 The G r o w t h o f R o y a l  Perhaps new  t h e avenue o f approach  gunpowder  with  technology  the r a i s i n g  statecraft duchy  of Milan  what  was  f o r success;  for  and  Isabel  revenues  of  a l lS p a i n .  humanist  of  the time,  all  Spain  one  belongs  to  are divided  the clergy."  enterprise these  and  were  mrs.  (maravedis)  even  i t s right  "I believe  increased  1  R i c e , The F o u n d a t i o n s  2  Mariejol,  both the  that  expecially from  mrs..  by  per  by  which  the  third  f o r an most  of  total  of  annum,  the  successful various 1482  Modern Europe,  The S p a i n o f F e r d i n a n d  a  and I s a b e l l a ,  p. p.  of  of  1474  Of  I t was  moneys  total  Italian  inadequate  r e c e i v e d , f o r by  of Early  an  parts,  when  income  f o r the  the revenues  the crown.  royal  money  of the  t o the grandees,  of these  t h e amount  to raise  Siculus,  were t o t a l l y  of  do  "Money,  necessary,  nearly equal  11,250,000 t o much  were  Marineus  the second  alienated  to  commanders  blunt:  were b u t a p a r t  three  magnitude,  received only  reclaiming  into  has  the  1  Such e f f o r t s  These revenues  this  revenues  73,250,000 Crown  of  2  was  made t r e m e n d o u s e f f o r t s  stated:  how  preparing to invade  the response  Lucius  to the king,  society  one o f h i s I t a l i a n  o f t h e Crown  revenues  typifies  i s t h e a l p h a a n d omega o f  money."  t h e war w i t h G r a n a d a .  traditional  best  Spanish  When L o u i s X I I was  more money a n d a g a i n more Fernando  Money  i n 1 4 9 9 , he a s k e d  necessary  that  influenced  o f money.  and war.  Power  i n  means,  the 100. 275.  Crown  71  gathered and  approximately  i n 1504 It  was  over  315,000,000  i s interesting  actually  spent  believed  that  collected  from  fines  reconciled  the on  with  obtained,  they  records the  capita the  3  to the  time  f o r the  of  English  Hillgarth,  most  of  those  who  noted:  the  had and  from  every  ordinary  other  money  revenue,  collected  provided out  of  the  to  ordered  money  what  clergy  and  where  the  of  Judaism  fines,  source  Monarchs]  the  "And  subsidy  reverted  Church  was  not  revenue.  indicates  a  An  France,  revenue.  In  and  French  and  was the  and  became  from  other  money  might  be  spend  on  i t s success  in  them  the  in  analysis  to  and  England of  monarchies  of  in  revenue doubled  i t s income  efforts  of  the  i n c r e a s e i n the  terms  multiplied of  alone  large  Spain,  because  war.  who  monarchy  monarchy  times,  and  and  from  4  royal  raise  Spanish  twenty pay  the  governments  century  war,  Catholic  war."  Spanish  the  and  [the  f o r the  of  the  crusade  the  revenues  increasing  that  Pulgar  mrs.  3  note  those  ordinary  The  on  mrs..  to  i t was.  imposed  things  150,000,000  financial ability  the  between  Fernando  fifteenth  received their  and  of  per  incomes; ten  and  Isabel  5  The  Spanish  Kingdoms, p.  503.  J o s e G o n i G a z t a m b i d e , "The H o l y See a n d t h e Reconquest of the Kingdom of Granada (1479-1492)", Spain i n the F i f t e e n t h Century, 1 3 6 9 - 1 5 1 6 , E d i t e d by R o g e r H i g h f i e l d , T r a n s l a t e d by F r a n c e s M. L o p e z - M o r i l l a s ( L o n d o n : M a c M i l l a n , 1 9 7 2 ) , p . 364. 4  5  Journal  R i c h a r d B e a n , "War of Economic H i s t o r y  and the B i r t h o f t h e 33 ( 1 9 7 3 ) , p . 212.  Nation  State"  to  72 The kinds. 1480, (ten  sources According  the  Spain,  on  especially  domain,  and  taxation  was  suggested  property).  not  the  Mesta);  pits;  the  Pope  for  Unfortunately  to  as  the  to  y montazgo  circulation  a l l commercial  salt  a  royal  king  the  various  transactions -  the  belonged  from  holy  the  right.  the  royal  moneda  and  (the  sale  and  made  war  monarchs,  Medieval  this  theorists  dominium  s u b j e c t belonged  inside and  the Cruzada  for  and  alcabalas  servicio,  the  in  (political  proprietas  (private  7  coupled  to  of  of  almojarifazgos  servicio  o f p a s s a g e and  and  by  seen  and  of a l l t a x e s ) ; revenues  mines  6  while  major  source of with  duties,  collected mrs.  hated  granted  that  authority),  on  aduanas  duties);  flocks  were  the C o r t e s o f T o l e d o  ( s p e c i a l a i d s o r t a x e s ) ; and  semi-mandatory).  collect  right  tax  indulgences  customs  the  (ten percent  moneda f o r e r a  tax,  export  revenue of  were:  and  the  especially  The  sources  on  most l u c r a t i v e  increased  t o the p r o c e e d i n g s  import  (duties  diezmos  this  principal  percent  portazgo  of  of  this  etc..  tax.  almost 269  other  royal  income was  less  lucrative  million  tax  However, many n o b l e s  Despite  doubled  the a l c a b a l a  this  mrs..  8  The  revenues, owned  the  inconvenience,  between 1481  and  heavy  6  Mariejol,  The  7  R i c e , The  Foundations  8  Kamen, A S o c i e t y o f C o n f l i c t , p.  1496,  from  reliance  S p a i n o f F e r d i n a n d and  on  p.  sales  such  as  right  to  the  amount  150  million  the  prompt  I s a b e l l a , p.  o f E a r l y Modern E u r o p e , 49.  or  211. 101.  73  payment more  of  such  taxes  politically  forced  powerful  the  monarchs  groups  who  to  compromise  were  affected  with  the  the  tax  by  burden. To s t i l l  the  dependent,  base. was  retain  the  Considering  under  percent lesser  the  was  by  the  financial  payments  of  the  of  continuance so  troops.  Hillgarth,  Ibid.  12  Ibid  was  which  their  the  nobles  of  Isabel  one.  exempted  lands  less  and  To  9  Spain  forty-two  oligarchy  a wise  was  economic  land and  i t  the  further  them  from  heavily  than  load  of  payments. to were,  royal  the  on  was  especially Even  1 1  as  taxes  resistance  and  the  such  shown  Burgos,  royal  cause,  Bernaldez  those  who  to  the  resisted  chroniclers, recorded  records,  this  "muchas  1 2  Monarchs  11  of  urban  seignorial  cities,  There  murmuraciones. "  Ibid  the  upon  taxing  major  and  continual  f a i t h f u l  opposition.  10  the  Fernando  taxed  them,  the  9  of  from  percent  Church,  heavy  Many  as  the  and  tax-collectors.  well  refrained  fifty-five  support,  paid  The  nobility,  1 0  Because  u s u a l l y  the  Crown's d e c i s i o n  noble  actually  crown  that  owned  nobles,  land.  of  jurisdiction  encourage  city  support  also The  The  p.  507.  p.  381.  milked  normal  Spanish  the  Santa  contribution  Kingdoms, p.  Hermandad was  498.  for  funds  33,500,000  mrs.  as a  74  year.  A  alone  special  produced  tax  a  contributed  1478-1479,  44  provided the  mrs.  per the  treasurer-general efficient The  of  montazgo  the 1498.  representative The  1 3  Jewish  the  used  able not  i n 1488, tax.  this  de  jumped t o  Senior,  besides two  steady  into  chief  was  Kamen, A  1 5  Lunenfeld,  1 6  Kamen, A Ibid.  Society  of  prompt  with  the  The C o u n c i l  Society  p.  reliable  was  from more  1480  of Conflict,  p.  19.  of to  broadly  1 7  Castile  Hermandad,  y  stream  the s e r v i c e s  Cortes. of  the  principal  were  19.  of the Santa  and  the s e r v i c i o  session  franchised  of Conflict,  made  supervising  and  Hermandad  communities  funds,  1 6  to dispense  Junta  troops  royal  to insure  in  mrs. i n  monarchs'  o f t h e Pope, and  called  Mudejar  1 5  to collect  the narrowly  and  million  the  de  mrs.  Ibid.  1 4  1 7  were  than  not  Abraham  t h e Hermandad,  Through  was  Ironically,  and  1491  Junta  o f t h e Hermandad  1485.  financier  the Cruzada  sheep.  which  64  The  by  in  million  households  of  t h e Crown  Cortes,  the m i l i t i a ,  The  1 3  17.8 and  which  households  also  t h e crown,  money,  of origin  on,  mrs..  taxation  o f t h e Hermandad  t a x , was  t a x on  48,000,000  o f t h e Hermandad  bureaucracy  1482  o f 1 0 , 0 0 0 m r s . p e r 100  Jewish  collection  Hermandad  of  100  of  from  i n 1485-1486,  the c i t i e s  i n 1476  tax-farmer,  taxes  mrs.  the expenses  tax rate  18,000  Since  of  through  million  1 4  levied  revenue  Hermandad  1491-1492.  was  p.  70.  also  75  groups  amenable  to  royal  provide  money  for  to  large  c o n t r i b u t i o n s through  make  taxes. the  The  castellanos  than  the  amounts  Jews  were  in  When Monarchs Forced  extent from  mrs.  the  from  whose  skillful  sources  and  towns, The  during Mesta,  dictate  from  18,000  Hillgarth,  1 9  Mariejol,  The The  and  the terms  were  war,  of  castellanos  Jews an  paid  amount  a  groups,  the  financial  Jews,  the  Monarchs. proved  were of  few of  the off  ways  war Isaac  necessary  inadequate,  of  raising  on  seizure  rich  and  the cash.  nobles,  sale  of  forced  to  very  strong  organizations,  loans.  p.  Ferdinand  and  able  Some v e r y  grants  Kingdoms,  were  loan  the  was  Valencia,  by  the  and  the  of  1 9  be  levied  Burgos A  to  of  Senior  provided  small  talents  finances  Abraham  less  considered  comparatively  The  1489.  little  not  in  gold  in  the  city of  shown  Despite  pain  paid  Spanish Spain  the  respectable  of  local  taxes,  1482-1483.  the  nobles  1 8  city  illegal  special  gold  to  communities  is  revenue  on  upon  Jews  for  less  these  s u b s i d i e s and  management  of  called  Spanish  (emprest i t o )  goods.  leading  to  forced  important.  time  were  the  leading  necessary  loans  to  two  of  the  these  considered  Crown  1492  1 8  of  these  the  for  time.  and  10,000  to  hands  the  mrs.  1482  of  resorted  victim's  as  only  at  corporations  such  to  were  the  at  million  1485  million  Abravanel, wealth  these  received  some  wealth  of  in  exceptional  The  yield  period  fifty  war.  decreasing  declining  During  the  pressure  of  to  large  lands  three  and  some loans  towns,  441. Isabella,  p.  XVII.  76 while  many  loans  never  repaid. During  herself Isabel  pawned The  security  of  for  city the  more  government that  from  since  in  her  of  bonds  or  A  amount  of  Baza,  rate  on  the  royal  with  system. the  Hillgarth,  2 1  Prescott,  The  take  over  million  112  i n subsequent the  traditional Over  of  Reign of  Ferdinand  and  to  used  Society  of  Conflict,  p.  49.  released varied, of  revenues  the  of  juros By  1504  payments  rationalize  was  to  the  limit and  the only  380.  F e r n a n d B r a u d e l , The W h e e l s o f Commerce, R e y n o l d s ( L o n d o n : C o l l i n s , 1 9 8 2 ) , p. 522. Kamen, A  sale  and  Isabella,  2 2  of  considerable  m i n t s were c l o s e d ,  S p a n i s h K i n g d o m s , p.  the  2 3  attempt  150  for  selling  percent.  mrs.,  years.  method  a  the  sale  bonds  royal  scale  ten  the  This  up  large  rate  was  these  on  2 1  revenues  a l i e n a t i o n of  could  2 2  florins  higher.  interest  coinage.  The  the  bonds  reform A  even  Crown  based  rubies.  certain  money.  the  m o n e y was  i n t e r e s t on or  to  taxes.  the  dramatically  2 0  2 3  were  Queen  raise  money  of  the  and  35,000  source of  of  percent  the  the  of  on  to  jewels  for a collar  secured  contributed  1489  debasement of  Sian  individuals  pawnbrokers  provided  dubious  The  constructive  currency  or  siege  personal  the  juros  fourteen  of  own  to  financially  to  to  Valencia  annual payments t o t a l l e d increased  groups  desperate  20,000 f l o r i n s  income  percentage  powerful  resort  jewels  payments  began  to  purpose.  five  future  and  both  crown and A  long  forced  Jewels.  royal  less  2 0  the  was  to  2:63. Translated  by  77 the  r o y a l mints  and  Toledo  attempt  to  f a i l u r e .  2  at  were  Burgos,  allowed  monitor The  4  coins.  In  to  i l l i c i t l y  Florentine  c i t y  of  the  mint  purity  of  night  the  coinage  was  such  Fernando's  secretly."  of  this  to  minting  crowns,  Castile  opposition  minting  a  attempted  French  The  2 5  led  agents  coins  the  largely  illegal  ducats,  gold  rendered  Seville  d i f f i c u l t i e s  Genoese  other  Segovia,  Unfortunately,  laws a g a i n s t  very  magistrates  of  and  "and and  Coruna,  coins.  Valencia  Venetian  florins,  La  financial  h i s own  city  coin  P o r t u g a l a t the  the  to  monarchs'  Fernando's breaking of  Cuenca,  or of  operation  unsuccessful. More included  revolutionary  efforts  currency. at  In  Venetian principat to  be  was  By  excelente  and  mrs.,  and  the  financial  (252  the  In  making the  union at  2 4  Phillips,  2 5  Hillgarth,  a  the  of a  the  less  Enrique The  Spanish  of  florin.  the  a  Iberian  p.  thus  created,  equal  weight  In  1493  a  a l l of step  Peninsula.  level  the  the  364.  to  For  the  ceased for  Castilian value,  political  monarchs  59.  K i n g d o m s , p.  to  valued  created  equal  the  Catalonian  florin  was  excelente,  giant  improve  was  excelente  principat  took  manipulation  p r e v i o u s l y used  Valencian  exalted  IV,  r a t e s and  excelente  Granadan  Catalonian Crown  currency  pennies)  Aragonese  1497  Spanish  transactions  Valencian  e s t a b l i s h e d and  struck.  Castile.  the  sueldos  ducat  of  to r e g u l a t e exchange  1483  twenty-one  methods  375 and  financial  also  created  78 the  silver  real  valued  at thirty-four  b l a n c a v a l u e d a t o n e - h a l f a mr.. These pricing  currency  gold  departure gold.  from  new  measures  kingdoms  and w i t h  measures  were  policies  money.  similiar Flemish  with  these  a  as w e l l ,  the  Spanish  since  t h e new  scale  currency  o f g o l d and reforms  of gold, s i l v e r  and I s a b e l d i d attempt  artisans  of Enrique to settle  f o r ten years.  measures.  2 9  Other  or  came copper  and C a s t i l e  control  26  Ibid  27  Ibid  28  Mariejol,  29  Ibid  over  They  i n Spain  economic  encouraged  by exempting tolls  measures  Italian  them  from a l l  in Castile  taken  of a l l devices  attempted  o f war.  to establish  the production  o f arms,  From  The S p a i n o f F e r d i n a n d  1488  the p r i n c i p l e but t h i s  of  measure  p. 633.  p. 218.  were  i n c l u d e d a ban on t h e e x p o r t  p. 632. • r  and  was made t o s t a n d a r d i z e a l l w e i g h t s and  measures  t h e monarchs  IV.  some  A l linternal  and an e f f o r t  Aragon  onwards royal  by  of s i l v e r ,  among  the European  f o r b i d d i n g the export  to those  suppressed  from  the past  the p r i c e  trade  o f Europe  Allied  2 7  with  28  Fernando  taxes  assisted  the rest  broke  I s l a m i c models w h i c h o v e r p r i c e d  c o n s i s t e n t with  valuation.  strict  t e n times  previously held  copper  26  decisively  a t no more t h a n  These  silver  reforms  mrs., and t h e  and I s a b e l l a , p . 216.  79  failed  due  t o an  Other  inadequate  bureaucracy.  comparatively  Inquisition  and  minor  the Crusading  sources  Orders.  200,000  sueldos  estates  i n T e r u e l by t h e I n q u i s i t i o n .  Calatrava milked  and  was  realized  Alcantara  heavily  by  the  u  from  I n 1488-1489  The O r d e r s  3 1  massive  Santiago  100,000  vassals;  totalling  approximately year  levied  taxes  ducados  on C a l a t r a v a and A l c a n t a r a  These  attempts  invariably records  totalling  Each  to  resulted  and  60,000  raise  virtually  impossible with  Crown  that  time.  army  of  at  create  an  demonstrated secretary suggested special  fund  bureaucrats  during  central  the  Hale,  War  3 1  Hillgarth,  3 2  Mariejol,  The  Spanish Spain  p.  Alcantara  war,  the  and  sorting of  Crown  95,000  the  out war  used  de  control  Zafra,  and  This  was  by t h e  of Ferdinand  and  a  royal  at the  front,  administer  was  a  eventually  460. Isabella,  to  efforts  226.  Kingdoms, p.  of  attempted  lieutenant  expenses.  the  a l l sources  the m i l i t a r y  Fernando  to  of  and  small bureaucracy  civilian  campaign  and S o c i e t y , The  war.  chief  end  to continue  bureaucracy  t o cover  3 0  the  of  tax-collectors  The  the  were  3 2  any  chaos.  and  control  Santiago  from  at  the very  on  of  fourteen  one-third  royal  combined.  money  debts  After  and Fernando's a  ducados  in financial  outstanding  the  the  Santiago,  estates  and  200,000  Castile.  of  vassals,  Calatrava  of  of  the  vassals,  were  a profit  had  700,000  population  revenue  the c o n f i s c a t i o n  controlled Crown.  of  p.  270.  80 done  and  this  story,  effect  the  resulting i s perhaps  of the e f f o r t s  Because Crown  both  war.  one  At shall  A force that of  stage  and  those  force.  of  to  i n the  escalating  The  success told  the  advice:  these  at  the  Spanish  A  Catalan  time  accurately  Emperor o f war  will  three  things  fail...troops,  i s absent,  your  army  increasing centralization of  armies  soldiers,  infrastructure  to  buy  and  navies  the  and  cavalry  (most  of  funds  i t jinetes),  to  and  support  fighting  an  army  12,000-15,000  lack  provide  the  troops.  lack  of  provide the  failed  the  be  won.  to  to b r i n g Afonso of P o r t u g a l to b a t t l e  to  money  military  monarchy was  weapons,  support  of  are  will  I s a b e l p r o v i d e d a l l t h r e e and  cost  for  Constantinople:  Fernando's attempt due  lasting  o f t h e monarchy t o pay  in  of  the  effort.  this  g r e a t e s t weakness f o r any  pay  a part  longest  exertions  i t s military  l a c k even one  I f any  factor the  necessary  who  F e r n a n d o and  3 4  was  some  and  not  33  financial  published  the hero  offer  key  money  Blanc,  important Granada.  enormous  t h e e f f o r t s and  provisions.  defeated."  most  sustained  now  necessary, and  Lo  the  t o conquer  their  Tirant  reflects  "I  of  successfully  novel,  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , although  of  in  1475  10,500  infantry.  3 5  P a u l S t e w a r t , "The S o l d i e r , t h e B u r e a u c r a t and Fiscal R e c o r d s i n t h e Army o f F e r d i n a n d and I s a b e l l a " , H i s p a n i c A m e r i c a n H i s t o r i c a l Review 49 (1969), p. 283. 3 3  J o a n o t M a r t o r e l l and M a r t i J o a n de G a l b a , T i r a n t Lo B l a n c , T r a n s l a t e d by D a v i d H. R o s e n t h a l (New York"! S c h o c k e n Books, 1 9 8 4 ) , p. 215. 3 4  3 5  Hillgarth,  The  Spanish  Kingdoms, p.  360.  81 During  the  opposed per  reigns  to  year  of  the  forces  i n 1482  and  expenses were  of  costs  already  52  while  the  eight  million  the  each.  the  added and  to  1504.  the  costs  expenditures. in  1483  and  112  alone  cost  fifty  the  costs  are  To  given  to  million  mrs.  than  the  pensions in  1504,  same p e r i o d  mrs.. to  the  nobles.  greater  the  these  diplomacy,  and  during  mrs.  military  Grants  thirty-five million  infantas  these  of  pensions  as  3 6  royal purse.  the  expenses quadrupled  mrs.  in  exchequer,  on  army,  twenty m i l l i o n  o c c a s i o n a l l y proved  mrs.  details  expenditures man-at-arms or  protect to  into  of a  with  with  the  a  chest,  these  scale  heavy  crossbow  cavalryman  Added  be  regular  The  sixty  from  marriages  million  mrs.  bring  such  3 7  Some  lance  must  the  cost  mrs.  royal  s o l e demand  military  court  royal  the  Crown  million  Isabel  nobility,  officers  the  massive  totalled  of  the  royal to  the  for  expenditures  salaries Such  not  of  and  eighty million  Unfortunately  military  Fernando  cost  we  can  plate  armour,  helmet,  abdomen,  expenses  Each man-at-arms r e c e i v e d  S o c i e t y of  understand.  approximately  visored  arms  were  the  an  To  and  p.  and  legs  daily  a year,  3 7  Hillgarth,  The  Spanish  K i n g d o m s , p.  3 8  Lunenfeld,  The  Council  of  of a  equip  horse, while  light  cost  wages  Kamen, A  fully  armoured  lance,  3 6  the  to  8,000 m r s . ,  24,000 mrs.  Conflict,  useful  light  a  mrs..  to 3 8  soldiers. cavalryman  49. 504.  S a n t a Hermandad, p.  a  light  armour  7,000 such  and  a  76.  82 18,000  mrs., and a f o o t  captain  that  each l a n c e .  commanded  15,000  a lance  noting  of  12,000 mrs. a y e a r ,  that  Isabel  massive  dependent  on  a  required  immense  charcoal  were  promised  The high.  " t h e pay o f an a b l e  amounts  great  money.  increase  capital  needed  of  cost No  well,  was  of  to cast  available  expelled.  t h e army  4 1  Food  4 0  just  I n 1478, 409  one  large  Crown  spent  t h e army  cereals  which  sacks of  culverin.  during  i n conquered  t h e war towns  The  4 1  small  the breaking During  was  very  because  the  the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n  had t o be p u r c h a s e d  approximately  were  expensive.  the r e l a t i v e l y  to almost  also  weapons  production,  incredible difficulty.  i n the r e s t of Spain.  transport  Little,  with  to supply  stretching system  together."  new  metal  expenditures.  of provisioning  food  were  needed  f e e i n 1486  seaman...enough f o r a  The  M u s l i m w o r k i n g c l a s s and, i n many a r e a s ,  4 0  mrs. a y e a r f o r  Columbus a r e t a i n e r  ammunition and gunpowder were a l s o  3 9  1,000  received  i n c r e a s i n g t e c h n o l o g i c a l b i a s o f gunpowder weapons  demanded  the  Each p r o v i n c i a l  o f h i s s i m p l e t a s t e s t o keep body and s o u l The  to  mrs..  Some s e n s e o f what t h e s e f i g u r e s mean c a n be s e e n  3 9  by  man  soldier  and  80,000  armies  point  the  the siege  80,000,000  of  as  transported mules  were  1482-1483,  transportation  o f Baza mrs.  i n 1489,  t o buy  t o t h e army and t h e numerous g a r r i s o n s .  and This  I b i d . , p. 73. Samuel E l i o t M o r i s o n , A d m i r a l o f t h e Ocean Sea Brown and Company, 1942), p . 9lH H a l e , War and S o c i e t y ,  p. 213.  (Boston:  83 f o o d was s o l d ever  t o the troops, but only half  recovered. To  royal  and c o n t r o l  bureaucracy  co-opted  the less  agents,  cost  was  4 2  organize  massive  the o r i g i n a l  was  these  needed.  rebellious  with  massive  enormous  To  efforts  this  end  an  the  nobility  into  prestige  but l i t t l e  equally  Monarchs  the bureaucracy  as  independent  power. The  experience  efficient into  bureaucracy  the union  Aragonese of  royal  could  One  c i v i l  medieval  concept  4 2  and  of  ships  Hillgarth,  losing  and  an  brought  In the pursuit  only military  power  to surrender  military  t h e monarchs  developed  it, 4 3  was  military  and c i v i l  This office  the royal  guard,  other  military  that  i n the late  the Captain-General  ideas of bureaucracy.  of  that  that  authority.  of joint  frontiers,  Fernando  bureaucratic office  concept  i n creating  t h e wisdom o f c e n t u r i e s o f  c r e a t e d by t h e monarchs  This  fleets  control  royal  century.  cities,  control.  by t h e f a c t  with limited  such  useful  i n the Mediterranean.  and f a c e d  Captain-General,  of  royal  t o a nobleman r i s k e d  bureaucracy  was  o f Aragon and C a s t i l e  power,  assure  emerging  under  administration  authority a  of Catalonia  units,  fifteenth  combined  authority  entailed  the Santa  of the  the with  t h e command  Hermandad, and when  a  clear  The S p a n i s h K i n g d o m s , p. 380.  P a u l S t e w a r t , " M i l i t a r y Command a n d t h e D e v e l o p m e n t o f the V i c e - R o y a l t y Under F e r d i n a n d and I s a b e l l a " , J o u r n a l o f M e d i e v a l a n d R e n a i s s a n c e S t u d i e s 5:2 ( 1 9 7 5 ) , p . 2 2 3 . 4 3  84 assignment office  l e a d e r s h i p was  helped  with  avoid  the  Crown.  over  the  This  just  sapped  further  by  merchant  one  the  monarchs. normally  owners  outfitted  Capitan  Major  Thus, role  or  little  the  power  The  tax  due  to  ship  little,  prevent  becoming leaders civil  noble  the Admiral  government  nobles  and  the  who  were  easier  thus  powerful the  were  for  4 4  Ibid.,  p.  4 5  Mariejol,  dependent  on  of  of  the  Almirante  one-fifth  him  was  war.  and  the  the  The  taken  the  Crown  Castilian  the  to  both  control  the  armies  traditional  inferior  rewards of  to  to  care and  from  military in  Since  under the in  sons  King,  Spain of Ferdinand  and  manipulating  to  Isabella,  or they  coercion i s  frontier  the  other  both  shown great  224. The  the  4 5  front  Fernando's  the  monarchs.  reduced  frontiers.  the  socially  control.  gave  to  was  the  of  ship  of  to appointments  quiet northern  through  nomination by  was  value  i f the  Spanish  the  Mayor  the  paid  over  presence.  Constable  troops  of  not  A l m i r a n t e Major royal  clearly  nobles  monarchs  of  dominated  l e a d e r s h i p of  f r e q u e n t l y sent  deputies,  new  conquest  had  too p r e v a l e n t , Fernando posted of  dominance  a  associated  who  of  c o m m a n d e r was  of a d e c o r a t i o n i n the To  when  the navy  by  the  increasingly the  nobles  titles  of  44  example,  cargos  creation  after  became  emphasized  powerful  The  viceregal  Especially  Captains-General  commands.  In  necessary.  traditional  power.  previously  military  the  the  independent  Granada, the  of  p.  165.  85 lords  and  support that  to  r o y a l commanders.  from  might  commands  the  threaten  among  traditional honours  i t , by  to the  Adelantado  of  i t s agents  beyond  of  the  to that of  nobles An  noble was had  example  prestige  one  of  the  Rome  royal  in  appointment source  of  nobility family played  Not being 4 6  4 7  served  with and  local which  co-opted Stewart, Ibid.  as  not  was  the  He  border  a  to  the role  assigned  the  Military  of  any  the  after  raise  granted  hereditary power  the  reduce  in  authority  the  position  in  danger  whose  of  the  because  Granadan  transition only  in  bureaucratic  with between  227.  to A  a  any a  their  own  careers  who  C a t h o l i c Monarchs.  subordinated  mission  Fernando's  identification a  which  t r a i n e d as  of  of  family  members o f  to a diplomatic  bureaucracy.  Command, p .  the  Tendilla,  monarchy  the  were  royal  the  command, a n d  power,  nobles  nobility  into  to  shifting  real  nobility,  exemplified  loyal and  any  and  of  military  because  power.  but  Captains-General  from  coalitions  monarchs  i n minimizing  Count  effective  important only  care  the the  received  agents.  h i m s e l f was  away  interests, so  of  greatest of  1484,  agent  royal  noble  the  given  nobles  Crown  constantly  families,  not  the  Fernando's  Tendilla  well,  noble  that of  the  and  Crown a t t e m p t e d  i s that  previously  frontier. to  of  As  were  way  preventing  dividing  i t s supporters.  In s h o r t , the  4 6  this  lords while  privileges  of  Granada.  great  In  the  more  4 7  Crown  by  efficient  86 Castilian  bureaucracy  necessary promoted  by  ranks.  way  into  and  men  over  who  who  1493,  did  civil  or  judicial An  law  document  armed army  f o r g e the  To  this  end  recruitment  not.  These  bureaucracy ten year  forces  of  was  was  the  t h e Crown used  promoted  and  public  between  law."  In  4 8  by  a  the this  were  promoted  of  letters,  men  f o r many  law  royal The  4 9  passed  study  in  i n canon  administrative  50  records  reliable  of  records  helped  to  shape  instrument agents  Kamen, A S o c i e t y o f C o n f l i c t , p.  4 9  Hillgarth,  5 0  P. E . R u s s e l l , e d . S p a i n , A (London: Methuen, 1985), p. 116.  control  use  to c e n t r a l i z e d  i t s own  was  "...The  crown o f f i c i a l s .  p r o v i s i o n i n g o f t h e army.  The  stated:  chancellors,  increasing  These  a  This  the b u r e a u c r a t i c  favour or  monies  i n t h e development o f r o y a l  decentralized into  i t .  justice  the  letrados,  other  the  mid-way  royal  4 8  Studies  into  nobleman,  qualification  was  affairs.  army  and  control  people  to  raise  course of u n i v e r s i t y  ingredient  from  to  a  letrados,  p o s t s under t h e C r o w n .  development  to  administration  positions  necessary  important  the  Mendoza,  c h a p l a i n s , and  this  a  to  c o r r e g i d o r e s , ambassadors,  w h i c h made a  or  over  their  royal  of  and  s m a l l . . .whose p r o f e s s i o n  lawyers,  formation  army  hands o f  owed  secretaries,  de  necessary  of non-nobles  p l a c e d the  the  the  those  became  Hurtado  Kings  affairs  expensive  the appointment  Diego  Catholic  great  f o r an  was  control of  the  and  army thus  monarchy.  (continos) to organize From 1481  t o 1487  29.  S p a n i s h Kingdoms, p.  to  183.  Companion  to  Spanish  the  87 number o f  these  The  actual  paymasters without in  of  paymaster.  asked  the  troops  avoid  was  problems  money. for  191. organized  that  E a r l y i n the  royal  troops  could  war,  a  sent  crusading  order  of  Santiago,  short  i t s men  had  The  5 2  records  of  paymasters  were  rather  the  units,  a  military  units  opposed fashion.  5 1  Hillgarth,  5 2  Stewart, Ibid.  lists  by  the  The  The  men  for pay  these  earlier  pay  regulated  bureaucratic  by  starve  their  units  into  convenience accounts.  in The  groupings  list.  the  a  money  standard  the  by  of  military  the  on  and  men  captain  Thus,  actual  the  size  of  rationalization  on  5 3  the  not  only  the  Spanish  Soldier,  of  central  also  Bureaucrat  military  control  u n i t s i n the  This  K i n g d o m s , p. the  the  became t h e  records  units.  of  the  nobility  permanent  military  rationalized  principal  captains  not  These of  the  to  so  arms  rationalize  e s t a b l i s h e d the  man's p a y .  was  hundred  number o f  Crown and  permanency  one  i n f l u e n c e of  control The  divided  eventually  fiscal  also  their  according  exact  system  army  to  sell  and  to  paid  direct  but  fifty and  affairs.  The  to  pagadores  keeping  than  had  which  by  occur  accompanied  example of a c o n t i n g e n t  sizes  5 3  to  to  the  standard  282.  of  amounts o f  Almeria  bureaucratic  p.  payment  126  cited  horses.  the  from  He  that  each  rose  (pagadores),  adequate  charge  the  agents  medieval  guarantor  helped  emphasis  Fiscal  of  establish on  keeping  379. and  as  Records,  88 records now shifting  made m i l i t a r y a f f a i r s i n general l e s s s u s c e p t i b l e to  l o y a l t i e s , much as  u n i t s more permanent personal unit  loyalty  were passed  c o n t i n u i n g r e c o r d s made  entities  to t h e i r  and  leaders.  a new  not  slow takeover go  bureaucracy,  the  records  The  nobles,  frequently  expecially  of  the  successors, from  j e a l o u s of  conflicted  i n overseas  with  expeditions.  by the Crown  their  previous  the  civilian  This c o n f l i c t  d i d not end with the f i f t e e n t h century, because d e s p i t e the rules,  many s o l d i e r s  and  Thus the c e n t r a l i z e d completed. As  some bureaucrats  fiscal  w e l l as  relieving  past the Crown had  future  c o n t r o l had  just  ignored  begun but was  new  them.  not  yet  of  the  55  the  army, the monarchs appealed  through  of  5 4  of the m i l i t a r y bureaucracy  smoothly.  prerogatives,  Since  independent  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t o t a l l y separate  that of t h e i r commanding o f f i c e r s .  did  largely  on from r e t i r i n g captains to t h e i r  the u n i t s achieved  The  thus  military  grants  nobility  to t h e i r  attempted to buy  of the  greed.  control During  centuries  the support of the  nobility  of money or mercedes, which were demands  revenues and  increasingly  a l i e n a t e d the  income of  on the  Crown. By  the  grants was  middle falling  5 4  I b i d . , p.  285.  5 5  I b i d . , p.  292.  of  the  apart.  fifteenth  century,  this  Because the tax-farmer's  system  of  payments to  89 the  h o l d e r s o f mercedes were  too  many  enough being de  such  money  Rojas  During  (5,000 m r s . ) ,  Pedro  At gain  into  the Cortes  the support  payments.  drawn  up  from by  confidant.  l a x i t y  or  arrears.  A  de  list  of  accounts  However, t h i s  this  were  related  many  were  immediate  grants  Gomez d e  of cash.  was  (32,000  (150,000 mrs.) and  reform  of true  merced  Isabel's  reform  was  confessor  and  due  a n d many  mercedes, the sale were  to doubtful  and  due t o t h e treasury  accounts  o f bonds  of the  5 7  granted  also  32,171,878  failed,  tax-farmers  auditing  accounts  investigation, suppressed,  to  of t h e merced  o r even i n c r e a s e d .  These  attempted  the use of s t r i c t  ignored  t o these  o r d u t i e s done,  by a  attempted  g r e a t magnates were m a i n t a i n e d  received  of Alfonso  (40,000 m r s . ) ,  of Murcia  Talavera,  result  The r e f o r m s  Closely  a n d many w e r e n o t  i n 1480, t h e Crown  included  1483 o n .  a  t h e r e was n o t  5 6  of Toledo  c o r r u p t i o n of  officials.  that  the accounts  de Mendoza  t h e Governor  reform  i n mercedes  authenticity.  Maria  Fernando As  1477-1479  of the nobility  This  procedures  meant  officials,  M a r i a E n r i q u e z , t h e Duchess o f A l b a  Fajardo,  many o t h e r s f e l l  mrs.  the years  (20,000 m r s . ) ,  mrs.),  on t h e revenues  t o pay a l l h o l d e r s o f mercedes,  paid.  Medina  demands  not a u d i t e d by t r e a s u r y  f o r favours  or juros, f o r  demands  on  future  S t e p h e n H a l i c z e r , "The C a s t i l i a n A r i s t o c r a c y a n d t h e Mercedes Reform of 1478-1482", H i s p a n i c American Historical R e v i e w 55 ( 1 9 7 5 ) , p . 4 5 6 . 5 6  5 7  Ibid.,  p. 458.  90 revenues, While  and  slow  extended  financial  with  the  nobility  them  closely The  to  Crown  prestigious personal  obedience, vassals,  their  rewards,  the  social  the the  of  according  and  their  this his  aristocracy  of  The  six of  an  War  and  in  houses  was  Hale,  and  5 9  M a r i e j o l , The  6 0  Elliott,  a  of  the  died  out  family  p.  Spain  Ferdinand  Spain,  they  Crown  who  of  -  by  demanded  lands,  Granada  their  of  about natural  Ponce  de  settled of  " A l l  served  in  favours  -  houses,  increase  of  of  militarily  supporters  reigns  nature  in  lands the  Fernando twenty  p.  113.  I s a b e l l a , p.  the the each and  and  percent,  causes Leon  the  titled  or  the  received  231. and  of  constant  chronicler,  form  the  grants  high  with  mercedes  Society,  Imperial  on  the  The  of  war  massive  during  which  heiress.  5 8  in  the  by  5 9  hi josdalgo  received  resulted  increase  the  but The  contemporary  status,  Castile  of  owned  received  immense  prestige.  dealing  who  and  nobility  suffer,  social,  a  kingdom  This  6 0  and  to  patronage  their  of  past.  5 8  lackeys.  kept  the  subject  nobility  the  not  of  grandees  caballeros  to  excluding  did  state  According  conquest  the  of  method  royal  Crown.  prestige  they  financial  and  the  c o n t r o l of  abuses  were a  conciliation,  wealth  both  grandees  marriage  of  successful conclusion  monarchs.  Isabel.  fortunes  In  to  but  The  vassals."  bind  gained  the  juros  to  Financially  reduced  future  tending  t i t l e s ,  contact.  honours. were  also  the  s u i c i d e , the  by  the  into  277.  91 the  titles  1483, end  of Marquises  and  of  Dukes  the  p o l i t i c a l numbering  the  country.  6 2  In  by  while  about  two  nobility  and  being  because the  i t s social  not  the  These the  campaigns IV.  nobility  amply  rewarded and  monarchs by  rebellious  Marquis  kilometers  of  land,  100,000  ducats  affairs  which  a  was  i n 1476. The  soil  from  of  rewards,  serve  steps  to  with  by  Granada  as  were  royal  Lopez  the  houses  of  power to  an  the  Crown,  a  Murcia  Highfield,  Spanish  K i n g d o m s , p.  6 2  Mariejol,  6 3  Stewart,  Military  6 4  Kamen, A  S o c i e t y of C o n f l i c t ,  Spain of Ferdinand Command, p .  and  the square  income  of  state  of  to  invade  229. p.  20.  373. Isabella,  p.  of  crush  25,000  with  of  only  Pacheco,  and  Fajardo  was  agents  possible  subvert  master  system  6 3  rival  Diego  a  6 4  6 1  The  l o r d s were p r e v e n t e d  vassals,  Pedro  While  the  endeavours  curbed  i t s  population of  the  services.  the  lost  of  forced to  Villena,  year,  of  the  conquered  nobles.  150,000  of  the  power.  control  active  encouraged  lands  most  themselves  of  cent  By  6 1  largely  economic  for their  allying  had  the  were  took  Granada.  collecting  foreign  rebellious  and  the great  Royal  of  nobility  owned  and  capture of B o a b d i l i n  fall  three per  s t i l l  the  nobility  Pacheco's  or  the  sphere,  domestic  selected  the  but  Enrique  ensured,  after  century  the m i l i t a r y  dominating begun  Arcos  for their  fifteenth  only  Spain,  of  of Cadiz  XX.  92 By power  uniting of  these  monarchs*  policy  forced  upon  instincts The  the n o b i l i t y  nobles  them  of  with  of the t o t a l i n part  during  nobility  t h e war.  quickly  conquest  away  from  By a g r e e i n g the  orient  direction.  o f G r a n a d a may  need t o d e f l e c t t h e  of organized  lost  could  appropriate  by t h e i r  the nobility  knightly tradition  well  i n the  t h e Crown  the monarchs  basis  of  The  have  been  aggressive  themselves.  violence served to serve  real  6 5  the monarchs  under the Crown,  the  the  the  power,  their  royal  power  independence. A  c o n t r o v e r s i a l aspect  concerns the  the part  power  of  the  infrastructure long  term  itself  artillery  development of  According  against  t o J.R.  brought the  "An  to heel  feudal  e f f e c t i v e  by  into  As  o r by  well,  state,  was  many  fortified  occasional  of  of  subduing  creation was was  of  vital the  the  to the  artillery  not a strong  feature  c a n n o n was  effective  cannons were  privately  towns.  As a r e s u l t ,  r e b e l l i o u s baron  may  have  Hale been  r o y a l cannon, but the complex development of  t h e c e n t r a l i z e d s t a t e began b e f o r e  and  Phillips,  the nation  which began b e f o r e  transportable.  that  the  technology  artillery  easily  concluded  t h e new  Hale,  or  the magnates  While  nobility?  royal centralization,  growth  i n the process  the  of  owned by  the  played  n o b i l i t y .  to support  effective  of  can  be  The C o u n c i l  explained  without  cannon  became  reference  o f t h e Santa Hermandad, p.  128.  to  93 firearms.  1 , 6 6  However, useful.  According  feudal the  c h a r a c t e r of  view  can to  s t r o n g h o l d s and  l i f e . "  6  While  7  of  truth  in i t .  the  the  castles  Fuller,  ideals  i s a  doubt  of  quickly  nobles. and  the  i t does  i t was  Because  enforced  of a  By  some  of  of  grain  of  capable  of  expensive  i t s expense  monopoly  way  exaggerated  i t was  f a r too  the  changing  medieval  have  was  blasted  soldier's  e f f e c t i v e because and  artillery  t h e i r owners.  professional  was  that  "Gunpowder  changed  effectiveness,  developed  the  for  any  monarchy  artillery  fire  6 8  Also,  in  the  Spanish  Crown's  e f f o r t s to  subdue  by  successful  war  the  successful  because  intimidated  by  less  l i t t l e  gunpowder  Artillery  richest  quickly power.  this  be  J.F.C.  war,  artillery's  destroying but  there  subdued  authority rested  on  the  against  the  use  growing  p r o v i d e d by  success  new  style  of  were  of  6 6  H a l e , Gunpowder and  6 7  I b i d . , p.  6 8  Rice,  and  artillery. but  of  demanded  every  the Renaissance,  the  war  was  nobles  were  the  by  of  which  the  ultimately  artillery.  Thus  the n a t i o n s t a t e .  weapon p.  the  monarchs,  and  technique  114.  113. Foundations  The  immeasurably  Few  a g a i n s t Granada,  used  vital.  t h e n o b l e s were none  authority  war  was  aided  Granada,  d i d a i d i n the b i r t h  C a s t i l i a n monarchy  The  nobility  royal a r t i l l e r y ,  gunpowder a r t i l l e r y The  the  the  the  by  of  context, a r t i l l e r y  of E a r l y Modern Europe,  p.  16.  94 possible  to facilitate  i t s conquest  the  military,  all  exploited to the f u l l e s t .  religious  new t e c h n o l o g y ,  faith  of  The power  o f t h e masses  prominently the  war  were  against  animosity  of  i n the mentality  convivencia  Americo  the features  the heathen  during  The  nobility,  o r g a n i z a t i o n , money a n d g r e e d  Granada and enhance t h e monarchs' One  o f Granada.  also  of the Church conscripted  were  and the  to  destroy  power.  the Granada  of Castile  that  Since  the breakdown  and e a r l y f i f t e e n t h  towards non-Christians  figured  was t h a t o f t h e C r u s a d e ,  Muslims.  the fourteenth  War  increased.  of  centuries,  According  to  Castro:  I t was no l o n g e r p o s s i b l e f o r C h r i s t i a n s , M o o r s a n d Jews t o l i v e under t h e same r o o f , b e c a u s e t h e C h r i s t i a n now f e l t h i m s e l f s t r o n g e n o u g h t o b r e a k d o w n the t r a d i t i o n a l custom o f Spain whereby t h e C h r i s t i a n p o p u l a t i o n made war a n d t i l l e d t h e s o i l , t h e M o o r built t h e h o u s e s , and t h e Jew p r e s i d e d over t h e e n t e r p r i s e as a f i s c a l agent and s k i l f u l technician. 6 9  The  pogrom  against  increasingly Since  t h e Jews  aggressive the Papacy  centuries  Spanish  had o n l y  further Castilian  by  The  the Papal  Crown  won  limited  of the Spanish  of Muslim  phenomenon.  domination, Pope's  Schism  the right  influence  this  Church this  influence  from  1378  i n  Spain,  f r o m Rome  during  aggression was to  was  weakened  i n 1421 t o i n t e r v e n e  a  even  1 4 2 9 , when  A m e r i c o C a s t r o , The S t r u c t u r e o f S p a n i s h ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1954), p. 225. b 9  of  C h r i s t i a n expansionism.  because o f the i s o l a t i o n the  i n 1 3 9 1 was a m a n i f e s t a t i o n  the  i n Church  History  95 appointments.  In  C a s t i l e and  rights  reinforced  against  the  The  P a p a c y by  Spanish  Papacy's  need  received  a  Calixtus the  these  of  the  confiscated  in  to  Papacy  The 1479  by  those an  of  of  1457  and  first  the  for as of  participated i n revenues  7 0  Hillgarth,  7 1  Phillips,  7 2  Hillgarth,  The The The  used  the  IV  of  and  war.  of  the  IV  V  and  However,  own  with  political  Isabel  Castile the  also  in  1475  monarchs  foretaste  Bull  of  the  and  S p a n i s h K i n g d o m s , p.  Isabel  in a l l  impact  was  Monarchs  92.  360.  a  on  the  S a n t a H e r m a n d a d , p.  as  benefits.  indulgences main  appeal  war  various  Bull's war,  Crusade  to  F e r n a n d o and  plenary  the  of  monarchs  preached  to  S p a n i s h K i n g d o m s , p. Council  the  The for  Enrique  7 2  received  granted  available  and  successful  i t conferred the  King's  of  the  associated  in Castile, a  and  ends  Nicholas  Portugal,  monarchs  demanded  both  the  encouraged  The  in  support.  defense  Church.  earlier  i t s own  Fernando  7 1  asserted  Constantinople.  for  royal  7 0  indulgences  Afonso  C r u s a d e was IV;  of  Church p l a t e  aid.  such  sale  the  for  from  recover  For  of  monarchs.  used  bulls  t h e o r i s t s of  successfully  p o l i t i c a l  crusade.  Enrique  Pope S i x t u s  increase  a  to  were  the  to  Bull  who  the  l o o t i n g of  memory  Crusade,  papal  papacy.  half  granted the  of  invasion  subsequent The  Spanish  from  the  were  frequently  crusade  not  that  secular  their respective  crusade  and  manipulated against  a  income  purposes,  the  for  series  bulls  claims  Crown  I I I for  large  the  Aragon  56.  96  set  an  example by d o n a t i n g  Further 1482,  b e n e f i t s to  i n an  agreement  sovereigns The  Bull  and  of  the  on  from  this  to  the  Crusade  florins. Spanish  signed  was  tax  Pope  none  The  and for  of  extended  third  of  eastern  the  resulting  compromise o f 1482  as  captives applied  of  abbeys  benefits  and to  apply  All  between  a l l the  of  for a  the  year  the the  crusade  who  Crusade.  prohibition Muslims or  and  7 3  GoTii G a z t a m b i d e ,  7 4  I b i d . , p.  7 5  Mariejol,  tithes The  the  for a  revenue  was  to  f o r the the  go  This  monarchs,  Papacy.  The  funds  for  for public  were  to  with  See  feasts an  other  ransom were  official with  of  to  be  peace Spain.  wars but  against  A the  the Crusade  and  the  Reconquest,  and  I s a b e l l a , p.  356. Spain of Ferdinand  the  excommunicated.  the  for anything  Holy  the  relations be  were  >.  The  and  Turks.  There  7 5  Pope p r o c l a i m e d  peace  The  Pope,  a r c h b i s h o p r i c s , and  Castile.  interfering  u s i n g Crusade  Spanish  7 4  to a l l foreign  this  to  legacies left  The  and  against  went  3,  w i t h t h e Pope a l s o gave t h e monarchs  moneys a l l o c a t e d  broke  the  revenue  against  July  Centurione.  Sicily.  very p r o f i t a b l e  revenue  A l l the  w i t h i n Spain  those  by  "Crusade"  bishoprics,  Aragon  well.  the  t a x on a l l t h e b e n e f i c e s and  one the  came on  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e Dominico  t h e Pope p r o v e d  patronage  richest  to  monarchs  i n Cordoba  S p a n i s h monarchs c o n f i s c a t e d i t a l l .  the  7 3  t h e C h u r c h e s o f C a s t i l e , A r a g o n and  agreement w i t h for  the  papal  included a ten percent year  100  250.  p.  was  97 issued.  The  facilitate judgment the  the  on  Sixtus a  campaign.  during  standard  Bull  those  the  Crusade  i l l  wounded  territory  performed  within  on  Goni  Fridays  or  and  Gaztambide,  gave  for  Holy  The  The  Holy  two  and  See  King's  the  spiritual  benefits a  royal  town  and  building  from  and  the  included  confessor  with  hours, of  of  in  churches good  works  exempted  resting  on  from  Sunday.  Reconquest,  p.  358. R o g e r B i g e l o w M e r r i m a n , The i n t h e O l d W o r l d a n d t h e New, voTT P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 66. 7 7  a  f o r the care  i n a l l the were  7 7  benefits  canonical  reales  Soldiers  Days  by  the  symbol  i n the  conquered  t o choose  share  Church.  monarchs  impressive ceremonies.  the  a  wills.  as a  raised  crimes, omission of  received  the  gift  extensive  freedom  of  and  throughout  Carried  of each  war.  T h o s e who  soldiers  conquered  the  the  t o a b s o l v e major censure.  point  conferred in  last  i t was  venerated with  i n d u l g e n c e , and  and  fasting  topmost  this  army  to  marriages  to the Spanish the  from  simony,  exhibition  Granada.  campaigns,  participating  power  or  military on  cross  to  passing  t o a b s o l v e anyone  the  before  powers  included  regularize  enforce  crusade against  of  simony,  7 6  to  monarchs used  w h e r e i t was  The  plenary  the  bearer  fortress,  the  to  carried  The  7 6  the C h r i s t i a n  on  profits,  degrees,  and  be  that  the censure connected with  i n certain  standard, to  extraordinary  Muslims  acquired  t o ease  offspring  the  IV p r e s e n t e d a g r e a t s i l v e r  entire  tent  against  illegally  sins  legitimize  of  war  s i n of simony,  absolve  as  P a p a l D e p u t i e s i n S p a i n had  Rise of the Spanish Tl (New Y o r k : C o o p e r  Empire Square  98 Chaplains before  were  allowed to  dawn,  residence,  and  fasting,  inconvenient.  the  automatically  extended capture  exempted  from  Mass the  i n army  camps  obligations  and t h e r e c i t a t i o n o f t h e D i v i n e O f f i c e  death  of  nullified  the  Crusade  Ronda  p r e s t i g e and f o r c e d  Pope  these  f o r a y e a r by  of  the  of when  7 8  Despite  revalidated  were  celebrate  IV  in  agreements,  t h e new  benefits  i n the  Sixtus  spring  Pope,  the  1484,  Crusade  Innocent V I I I ,  to  Navarre.  of  1485  The  enhanced  which was  who  also  successful the  I n n o c e n t t o renounce h i s f i n a n c i a l  Crown's  rights  to  t h e T e n t h t a x and t h e o n e - t h i r d o f t h e C r u s a d e r e v e n u e i n f a v o u r of  t h e S p a n i s h Crown on  Bull  of  Crusade  August  unconditionally.  Tenth  tax  on  ecclesiastical  Spain  at  100,000  capitulation  was  Aragonese eased  by  Papacy. Crown  A  a  7 9  Ibid.,  s e t by per  benefices  of  the  year.  10,000  further  Cardinal This  December  13,  and  i n Granada.  1486,  gave  appointment  papal  source of appointments  p.366.  The  Holy  See  the to  Spanish a l l the  This patronato secured f o r  t h e p r e c e d e n c e t o t h e same r i g h t  Gaztambide,  ducats  of  79  patronage  invaluable  and  Goni  358.  of  of  "gift"  secured a  the  the  Crown an  7 8  florins  renewed  F e r n a n d o and I s a b e l a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y d o m i n a t e d  right  followers,  Crown  also  the  ecclesiastical the  The  He  by  Papal B u l l  the  1485.  revenues,  S p a n i s h Monarchs t o t h e P o p e . By 1486  26,  and  t o reward  their  i n the soon-to-  the Reconquest,  p.  99  be-discovered hoped  to  by  Innocent  the  and  of  of  hostility  to  continents sovereign.  The the  Inter  and  Monarchs" The conquest of  the  Sicily,  as  a  the  1496  Pope  and  Elliott,  8 1  Goni  were  not  Tenth,  the B u l l  Isabel.  The  and  I m p e r i a l S p a i n , p.  Gaztambide,  The  Holy  ending  despite  on  October  ties  to  of  the  between  granted  a  title  by  the  Crown  to  on  any  the  mutual a l l the  Christian  continuation and of  a  third  of  "Catholic  8 3  every  exalted  forced  strengthened  the  the Church  from  close  of Crusade,  were used  Pope's a p p e a l  resounded  year  belonging  and  French.  Borja  because  VI  the  papacy  extended,  The  granted  Alexander  resources of  Sardinia,  8 0  VI  perpetual grant,  of Granada. faithful  was  the  year,  f o r one  8 1  Papacy  de  further  Crusade  1491.  overseas  f o r F e r n a n d o and entire  Rodrigo  cardinals, 1,  gifts  against  for a  of  Alexander  islands In  8 2  Italy  caetera, i n which,  France,  and  Tenth  Bull  Roman  the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l  the  "Crusade"  Monarchs  1493,  in  generous  cardinal  a g a i n on O c t o b e r  Spanish  Bull  of  1488.  opposition 1489,  the  these  aid  Spanish  grant  1,  For  8 0  Spanish  the  to  September  9,  World.  secure  Pressure  the  New  the  to the  pulpit ideal  to further  the  religious  feeling  in Castile,  Aragon,  of  h o l y war  against  101. See  and  the  Reconquest,  p.  366. J . M. B a t i s t a y R o c a , "The H i s p a n i c K i n g d o m s a n d the C a t h o l i c K i n g s " , T h e New C a m b r i d g e M o d e r n H i s t o r y , V o l u m e I : T h e R e n a i s s a n c e 1 4 9 3 - 1 5 2 0 , E d i t e d b y D e n y s Hay ( C a m b r i d g e : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 332. 8 2  8 3  Hillgarth,  The  Spanish  K i n g d o m s , p.  398.  100 the  infidel.  already was of  Military  4  versed  always  on  i n the active  salvation,  their  war-imagery service  brandished  t e m p t a t i o n ' s d a r t s on Despite  the  religion,  Cruzada,  and  the  many  privilege  sixty-eight  mrs..  were b i t t e r l y  8 6  of  looked than  every of  against  the  adherence  visited  of  sword  came  easily  Saint  Paul:  Satan; of  he  the  to  tongues  the  Christian  wore  spirit  the  the on  vast majority of the  practical  enthusiasm.  parish  to urge  r e s e n t e d by  visiting  the  locals.  turned  8 5  Spaniards  to  application  of  Priests,  m i n i s t r o s de  a l l t o buy  indulgences,  e a t i n g meat d u r i n g These  helmet  and  the b r e a s t p l a t e of r i g h t e o u s n e s s .  these measures w i t h l e s s la  enthusiasm  Lent,  clergy The  for  used  the  price  methods  of  that  preachers  ...keep t h e p e o p l e i n t h e c h u r c h e s one, two, and t h r e e days from morning to evening to l i s t e n to their s e r m o n s , and t h u s p r e v e n t them from e a r n i n g their d a i l y b r e a d ; and when t h e y f i n d t h a t t h e y cannot p e r s u a d e them t o t a k e up t h e s a i d B u l l by t h a t m e a n s , they parade through the s t r e e t s , a s k i n g everyone they meet i f he knows h i s P a t e r N o s t e r a n d Ave M a r i a ; a n d i f perchance t h e y f i n d o n e who d o e s n o t , t h e y f o r c e h i m t o t a k e up t h e s a i d B u l l a s p e n a n c e ; and i f a n y o n e r e f u s e s , they drag him around i n shackles to hear t h e i r p r e a c h m e n t s , and t h u s p r e v a i l on h i m a t l a s t by f o r c e and t h r e a t s t o t a k e up t h e s a i d B u l l . 8 7  The  monarchs  mentality.  They  84  Goni  85  H a l e , War  86  Batista  87  Mariejol,  359.  themselves  sought  Gaztambide, and  The  a i d at  Holy  O p i n i o n , p.  y R o c a , The The  divine  fully  See  subscribed the and  to  s h r i n e of the  the  Crusade  Santiago  Reconquest,  26.  H i s p a n i c K i n g d o m s , p.  Spain of Ferdinand  and  334.  Isabella,  p.  210.  p.  de  101  Compostela  .  8  In an  8  e r a when  manifestations,  the prophecy  Maria  de  Santo  Domingo),  until  he  had  Through  won  their  eyes,  monarchs  crusade  resulting to  from  equating Pope, the  Fernando  Moors  Catholic  of  9  highlighted  "...to  be  Christian Diego  by  revered  warfare."  perceived  failures  8 9  Hillgarth,  In a  "Holy  Spanish successes  attributed  letter  as  a  hanging  up  to  commemorate as  thus  to the against  of our  o f o u r Redeemer  war  holy Jesus  Crusade  the  8 9  their  armies,  the enemies  of  t h e monarchs as an attempt of Enrique  of Conflict,  The S p a n i s h  Gaztambide,  Hillgarth,  i n  enterprise  was  fetters  their  of  freedom,  the trophies  as c r u s a d e r s , t o wipe  of  o u t t h e memory o f of the  p . 33.  Kingdoms, p . 606.  The Holy  The S p a n i s h  a s d i d many  IV and t h e c o n f u s i o n  See and  the Reconquest,  366. 9 1  The  directly  successive generations  perhaps  Kamen, A S o c i e t y  Goni  the  scorned.  9 1  8 8  9 0  on  captives  d e V a l e r a saw  contemporaries, the  by  as a  and g l o r y  the practice  Christian  were  (Sor  not t o d i e  the  as normal.  virtues.  o f Granada,  stress  minds,  f o r the Christian  t h e war  to the praise This  0  own  o f arms  and s p i r i t u a l  t h e kingdom  was  pronouncements,  i n their  himself  physical  Piedrahita'  not completely  and prophecy  described  faith,  C h r i s t . . " .  liberated  o f God  military  was  feats  de  had  [Fernando]  and p u b l i c  and  Christian  the patronage  he  Jerusalem",  contemporaries'  faith  o f t h e 'Beata  "That  legislation  accepted  spiritual  Kingdoms,  p. 372.  p.  102 recent give  civil  war.  Fernando  I n 1485 he e x p r e s s e d  " t h e power t o a c c o m p l i s h  time has been p r o p h e s i e d you,  and that  Isabel,  He  Mahomedan  through  wishes  sect."  Isabel's  "...take  on t h e h o l y  spread  abroad  earthly  to  a  link  "...fights Lord, This monarchy against to  Isabel  between  Diego  9 4  no  less  with  with  of Christ  a common f o e .  i n a blessed  merited  told  the warlike  Ibid  p. 6 0 5 .  93  Ibid  p. 372.  94  Ibid  p. 3 7 3 .  95  Ibid  p. 372.  was  cause  to Cardinal t h e monarchs  seen  to  their  as the  of Spain.  According  mortals,  t h e Queen  that  and devout  t h e Queen  prayers  than  9 5  rally  the people  tendencies  t o Him.  behind  the  of the n o b i l i t y  T h e H o l y War was c o n s i d e r e d pleasing  Dofia  the perfidious  to increase  Fernando  alms  i n hand."  not o f f e n s i v e  The C h r i s t i a n w a r r i o r ' s  was b e l i e v e d  God's s p e c i a l f a v o r ,  92  than  de V a l e r a  emphasis on Crusade h e l p e d  Princess,  that  i n particular  h e r many  i s with  the intention rather  overcomes  lance  God, b u t p o s i t i v e l y  which  reported  God a n d t h e p e o p l e  with  your  God w o u l d  f a r back i n  the secretary  "The K i n g  and m o b i l i z e d  fighting  adviser,  expedition  contemporary,  immortals."  you,  chief  9 3  from  Serene  and l a y waste  de M u r o s ,  the religion  empire."  necessary  you and t h e most  Diego  Mendoza,  a l l that  that  o f Your Most Noble Person...God  to destroy  9 2  t h e hope  t o be a v i r t u o u s a c t  as embodied  i n the  crusading  103 indulgences granted The  response  fighting  was  crusader all  of  cross  and  on  on  " w a r l i k e men  turn  their  artillerymen  troops: friars the  fight  on  their  archers the  the  royal  to  absolution  the  to  of  severe the  penalties  Crusade.  in  C o n t a m i n e , War  9 7  Kamen, A  and  siege  9 8  make w a r  emphasis  masses and  as  well  as  the  the  Holy  prostitution inflicted  Goni  9 9  Ibid.,  1 0 1  Prescott,  300  and  clergy  and  throughout  gave  Crusade."  the  the  1 0 0  plenary Gaming,  i n the  for contravening  I n t h e M i d d l e A g e s , p.  Gaztambide,  p.  with  amongst  many  were outlawed  Edward  Andres  preached  i l l ,  to  against  Malaga,  were  men  never  Sir  the  camps, spirit  The  Holy  p.  See  278.  33. and  the  Reconquest,  359.  Ibid.,  from  Ireland,  campaign  of  Malaga  S o c i e t y of C o n f l i c t ,  1 0 0  in  the  1 0 1  9 6  p.  actual  wore  poured  1486  the  said  were  soldiers  In  9 8  crusading  of  the  determined  who  virtue  b l a s p h e m y , b r a w l i n g and and  part  camp a t  sound  a l l by  are  enemies."  the  t o do  In Pulgar's words, these  " t o s e r v e God  upon  had  Germany, E n g l a n d ,  a f o o t , and  difficult  of a l l the Orders  camp,  who  Many  France,  took  9 6  Volunteers  9 7  Switzerland.  commented  "...in  from  Scales,  and  those  persons.  and  During  9 9  Bernaldez  their  backs Lord  p a r t of  enthusiastic.  Europe;  were  Moors."  the  especially  Wydeville,  papal proclamation.  largely  Catholic  Poland  by  364. 366. Reign  of Ferdinand  and  Isabella,  2:28.  p.  104 While the  we  can admire  monarchs,  provided  some  that  especially  zeal  Isabel,  o f t h e impetus  pragmatic  f o r Fernando's  Italian  Marinaeus  Nebrija  as propagandists of national  of  Siculus  f o r the f a i t h  the Gothic past.  crusade  stated  "...since part  of  t h e Roman  been  heir  fulcrum an  i t by  Church,  also  to centralize  institution  p r o v i n c i a l especially  was  f ue r o s .  should  of  Antonio  on  f o r the terms:  seek  the  to recuperate  what  Christians  were  of  Islam  who  culpabilis].  Church  t o extend  1 , 1 0 3  indirectly  Inquisition  was  were  as a  partially  of the Spanish throughout  Spain  Much o f t h e o p p o s i t i o n t o  1 0 4  the grounds  Aragon,  that  Catalonia,  i n Barcelona, opposition  was  vocal.  1 0 2  Hillgarth,  The S p a n i s h K i n g d o m s , p. 204.  1 0 3  Contamine,  War  1 0 4  Hillgarth,  The S p a n i s h Kingdoms, p. 422.  1 0 5  Kamen, A S o c i e t y  I n t h e M i d d l e A g e s , p . 279,  of Conflict,  de  fulfillment  the church,  to acquire control body  the  had f o r m e r l y been  that  [summa  state  used  i n religious  the people  divisions.  In  right  The H o l y  royal  based  abeit  the Spanish  f o r t h e Crown  Inquisition  and t h e  lands which  nation'  power.  of p o l i t i c a l  He  Elio  force...Moreover  used  a n d was t h e f i r s t  regardless the  Empire,  i n law i n punishing  monarchs  unity  thing,  i t was  ' t h e most blameworthy  The  zeal.  the C a s t i l i a n  occupied  Empire,  from  reasons  animated  twelth-century justification  t h e same  of that  torn  justified termed  much  the Saracens  legitimate had  A  1 0 2  and  that  p. 40.  i t violated  Valencia 1 0 5  While  and J.N.  105 Hillgarth  believes  I n q u i s i t i o n monarchy, that  "The  i t i s u n l i k e l y that  a  tool  view  of  for  and of  opposition  the  the  Fernando Crusade  rather  demand  from  was  revenues from the  civil of  clergy  large  adamant  than a the  the  and  large  Pope  1  the  for  his  scale the  Crown a  at  0  raid  be  upon  Crusade, Fernando wrote  almost  of the  the  a l l  of  retinues.  the  for booty.  agreed  at  diffused  military to  is  service  clergy  monarchy,  claim  the  Mariejol the  This  7  used  c e n t r a l i z e d  Jean  Spanish  r e v e n u e s and in  to  of  the  to  the  power  n a t i o n a l i t y . "  high  whom w e r e n o b l e s w i t h  drive  writer  fanaticism  Spanish of  the  this  I n q u i s i t i o n placed  orthodoxy service  as the  1 0 6  that  leader In  of  a  to  a  reply  one-third  of  the  that:  We h a v e n o t b e e n m o v e d n o r a r e we m o v e d t o t h i s war by any d e s i r e t o e n l a r g e our r e a l m s and s e i g n i o r i e s , nor by g r e e d t o o b t a i n g r e a t e r revenues that those we p o s s e s s , n o r b y a n y w i s h t o p i l e up t r e a s u r e s B u t o u r d e s i r e t o s e r v e God, and our z e a l f o r H i s holy C a t h o l i c f a i t h , make u s p u t a l l o t h e r i n t e r e s t s a s i d e and f o r g e t the constant t r a v a i l s and d a n g e r s w h i c h continue t o i n c r e a s e f o r t h i s c a u s e ; . . . y e t we refuse the t r e a s u r e s o f f e r e d t o us and p o u r o u t our own, hoping only that the holy C a t h o l i c f a i t h w i l l be m u l t i p l i e d and t h a t C h r i s t e n d o m w i l l be q u i t o f so constant a d a n g e r as she has h e r e a t her v e r y doors, i f these i n f i d e l s of the kingdom of Granada are not u p r o o t e d and c a s t out f r o m Spain. 1 0 8  The  emphasis  Fernando's  on  financial  Hillgarth, Mariejol, 1 0 8  361.  Goni  secular  The The  issues  altruism  in  the  beginning  somewhat  in  S p a n i s h K i n g d o m s , p. Spain of  Gaztambide,  The  Ferdinand Holy  See  and and  doubt,  tends since  to  put  none  461. I s a b e l l a , p. the  331.  Reconquest,  p.  of  106 t h e money was s e n t The  revenues  Church  were  spent  on  truly  t o Rome. resulting massive  the Granada  ambassador  to Castile  from  these  and p r o v i d e d  War.  agreements the bulk  Guicciardini,  during the years  the  o f t h e money  the  1512-1513,  with  Florentine  wrote:  A t f i r s t , when t h e a f f a i r was f r e s h , t h e y profited from i t a good d e a l , and s a y i n p a r t i c u l a r t h a t i n t h e y e a r t h e k i n g took M a l a g a [1487] 800,000 d u c a t s were c o l l e c t e d . . . w i t h o u t such s u b s i d i e s t h i s k i n g not o n l y w o u l d n o t h a v e t a k e n G r a n a d a a n d s o many o t h e r f o r e i g n r e a l m s , b u t he w o u l d h a v e h a d d i f f i c u l t y i n k e e p i n g Aragon and C a s t i l e . 1 0 9  The that  Castilian o f Aragon  million  mrs..  Church  provided  almost  twenty  million,  and t h e Cruzada  According  t o M. A. L a d e r o  the greater p a r t of the war." Once  Granada  territorial peoples downfall symbolism  was  integrity  of Spain,  who  of Granada.  forged shared  a  1 0 9  Ibid.,  1 1 0  Hillgarth,  new  as w e l l  sonar.  emotional  a common s e n s e  En l a c i u d a d de G r a n a d a grandes a l a r i d o s dan U n o s l l a m a Mahoma otros a l a Trinidad Por un cabo e n t r a n l a s c r u c e s de o t r o s a l e a l c o r a n  campanas oyen  Quesada  "...it  mrs.,  hundred financed  contained as  of  bond  Spain's  among  of triumph enormous  the  at the  religious  Christians.  I n the c i t y o f Granada Great o u t c r i e s a r e heard. Some i n v o k e Muhammad Others invoke the T r i n i t y . C r o s s e s e n t e r from one end And t h e Qur'an l e a v e s from the other; Where h o r n s were h e a r d before Now t h e s o u n d o f b e l l s a r e  p. 372. The S p a n i s h  five  the achievement  The v i c t o r y  o i a n cuernos  over  million  1 1 0  conquered,  f o r both Muslims  donde a n t e s  one h u n d r e d  Kingdoms, p. 380.  107 heard. Thus  the  victory  capture  of  the  Muslims. the  In  think  of  redeem Islam  of  and  the  Granada  was  an  unfinished Muslims the  last,  task  and  of  i t was  the  by  successful  Europe.  The  the  Devil,  the  Christians  saw  the  and  the  that  the  hopes  they to  new  the  discovery  the  crusade  the  against  exploitation  inspired  by  the  long  generated  by  the  conflict  save  of  idea  Islam.  of  Holy  Khan o f  the  War the  of  by the  the  Elliott,  1 1 3  Fuller,  Imperial The  and of  the  three  for  between  to  that the  Indies.  Spain,  Decisive  p.  s t i l l  The  the  the key  New  World  can  be  the  Conquest  of  of  to  America  Messianic  religions  Stephen  of  was  feeling medieval  105.  B a t t l e s of  the the  outflanking  According  discovery and  time  Castile  behind 1 1 3  enormous  C h e j n e , I s l a m a n d t h e W e s t , p . 6, c i t i n g M. D a n v i l a y L a e x p u l s i o n de l o s m o r i s c o s e s p a n o l e s ( M a d r i d , 1 8 8 9 ) .  1 1 2  of  should  advance  suggests  infidel,  the  was  little  d e d i c a t i o n by  of  of  war  expedition  Great  Granada,  403.  of  a holy mission  the  extension  1 1 1  symbol  the  natural  with  the  Collado,  them,  with  against  in  the  before  as  renewed  understanding  Gilman,  "As  Columbus'  war  allying  a  1 1 2  and of  Elliott,  entrusted  r e s t of  act  was  the minions of  i t was  threatened  east."  Granada  over  J.H.  s i g n i f i c a n c e of  Spain  latter  seen  world,  of  crumble  at  t h e m s e l v e s as  the  God  of  Granada  from the  f a l l  to  of  city  of  words  realized  The both  the  Legions  the  kingdom  centuries  of  1 1 1  Western  World,  p.  108 Spain.  1 1 4  Spain in  the  the  of  crusades;  age  Granada  and  undertaken southern did  at  a  populous energies  years  the  towns:  remnants  of  of  the  rich  so  Spanish  were y o u t h f u l e n e r g i e s . "  U  4  Hillgarth,  The  the the  "Not  only  Kings  liberated  Islam  a  land for  the  foreign  of  Africa,  occupation soil;  rich  and  living  conquest  North  Iberian  with  still  the  in  did  of  was  of  expansion  farming  long  century  importance  reconquest  Catholic  i t also  Castile,  of  later.  complete the  fifteenth  hence  few  region  of  the  beginning  Spain  a  of  the  i t present  region,  end  not  of  only  agricultural  industrious  and  adventures  the  engaged  i n an  endless  which  refused  to die  combat -  and  with these  1 1 5  Spanish  K i n g d o m s , p.  610.  Fernand B r a u d e l , The Mediterranean and the M e d i t e r r a n e a n W o r l d i n t h e A g e o f " P h i l i p I I , v o l . TT~, T r a n s l a t e d by S i a n R e y n o l d s ( New York: Harper Colophon Books, 1973), p. 670. 1 1 5  109 Conclusion  The  society  aggression  and  emphasis  commodity This  eyes of  F e r n a n d o and  royal for whom  of  out  of  the  that  resulted  from  over  the  their as  the  Isabel  and  into  times  security,  r e i g n s of  at  the  from  The  familial  end  and  defended,  and  the  the  the  a  valued  of  peace.  least  in  the  Isabel,  the  financial  and  century,  the  Ages.  The  was  on  the  authority  of the  frequently related,  In t h i s  the  saw  to  state  was  themselves  programme t h e  as  the  to  often  their  own  the  first was  an  for  monarchy the  reconstruct  the  power  In  the  was  nobility  nobility  of  of  Crown.  a i d of  military  policy  that the  collective  the  the  practical  recognition  self-aggrandizement,  they  remained  d e t e r m i n a t i o n was  the  Isabel  social,  concessions a  and  fifteenth  still  beginning,  and  of  barons  that of  monarchs'  were  Fernando  Middle was  Fernando  prerogatives -  This policy  patrimony  kingdoms.  grown  had  carried  late  support.  they  of  naturally  between K i n g and  partnership  nobles.  one  rambunctiousness,  including  As  based,  was  natural  maintained  relationship  was  ruled  monarchs.  military.  their  This  battle  d e t r i m e n t a l to peace  t o and  nobility  i n  Isabel  nobility's  i n war,  the  Up  and  prowess.  success The  proved  Fernando  military  on  reconquest.  that  this  drive  nobility,  necessary. patrimony nobles  to To  to  be  in  their  essential  ally,  110 an  indispensable I n an  control, seen  as  "drawing To  collaborator.  attempt  the  to create at least  publication  an  attempt  a  decorous  r e a l i z e  royal  powers,  Church.  Much  rebellions  of  had  lived  what  beginning  of  was  the  Valera  the  that  and  a  the  the  crown  of  by  past."  p o l i c y of  nobility  task  is  "sweet  other  and  the  putting  the e f f o r t  tyranny."  was  showing  3  2  of  down  c u r b i n g t h e many p e r s o n s  called  t h e G r a n a d a War,  the  disadvantage  of  on  i n 1486  rebellious  attempted  to  expended  nobility  behind  r e c e n t and  Fernando  especially  the  nobility  the  authority,  effort  by  the  over  ideal  of monarchical  Pulgar's Claros varones  unite  veil  this  strengthening existing  to  of  the f i c t i o n  By  who the  o n l y meager  results. The attacks royal  power  of  but  was  power.  To  the  dwarfed conquer  army w h i c h  required  and  money  on  and  a  of  a  efforts  1  Hillgarth,  2  Ibid.,  p.  by  the  Granada,  was  not  which was  The  scale, would such  destroyed  extraordinary Fernando  expensive a r t i l l e r y ,  massive  bureaucracy  these  nobility  and  Isabel  that  only  S p a n i s h K i n g d o m s , p.  a  control.  national  of  created  the m o b i l i z a t i o n  royal  direct  development  e x t e n s i v e propaganda ensure  by  of  an men  resources, The  effort  nature could  608.  371.  Ramon M e n e n d e z P i d a l , "The S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e R e i g n o f I s a b e l l a t h e C a t h o l i c , A c c o r d i n g t o Her C o n t e m p o r a r i e s " , S p a i n i n t h e F i f t e e n t h C e n t u r y 1 3 6 9 - 1 5 1 6 , E d i t e d by R o g e r Highfield, T r a n s l a t e d b y F r a n c e s M. L o p e z - M o r i l l a s ( L o n d o n : M a c M i l l a n , 1 9 7 2 ) , p. 397. 3  Ill sustain  them, and  nobility with and  could  the  not  compete  successful  prestige  reason  i n c l u d e d the  the  Christians,  The  monarchs  the  f o r and  who  of  for  Iberian  P e n i n s u l a through  The benefits peoples  for  the  Crown.  allowed  them  establishing expressed would  come  Leon,  the  Fernando  The  think  Spain  as  "will  through Marquis  would  Turks.  Castile  to  the  The  of  a  of  as  these  war  over  extending  Spain  the  capture  of  Granada.  in  circulated  of  was  the this  finally  tradition. heirs,  and  of  the  Ethiopia,  the  interests,  and  frontiers,  of  Inigo the  de  Mendoza  1470's,  Rodrigo  the  immense  united  of  Fray  of  Granada,  and  gained  their  power.  conquer  was  peoples  Granada  Empire"  Cadiz,  power  war.  i n a commonality  great  royal  long  the  to  of  Arabs, a  the  victory  reputation  attempted  to  in uniting  The  them.  had  the  heirs  the v i c t o r i o u s  so.  G r a n a d a n war  themselves  prosecution  o f A r a g o n and  the  T h o s e who  the  P o r t u g a l , succeeded  successful  of  Visigoths,  saw  or by  independence from  were merely  Castile  resources  were e n v e l o p e d  benefit  Romans, t h e  except  which  Ponce  prophecy  Jerusalem,  de  that Rome  and  t h a t i n the eyes of M a c h i a v e l l i ,  the  4  result  most p r a c t i c a l days,  in either  for peninsular unification.  goal  the  c r e a t e d a n a t i o n t o do  monarchs, and  t h a t squeezed  A major drive  t h e r e f o r e they  political  Ferdinand,  Hillgarth,  this  King  The  of  p h i l o s o p h e r of h i s day, Aragon,  Spanish  the  present  K i n g d o m s , p.  371.  "We  King  of  have  in  our  Spain,  who  112 may,  not  improperly,  transformed in  from a small  Christendom."  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