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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Royal power and the war with Granada 1986

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ROYAL POWER AND THE WAR WITH GRANADA By JAMES GEORGE CONROY B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1984 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (D e p a r t m e n t o f H i s t o r y ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRIT I S H COLUMBIA September 1986 ® James George C o n r o y , 1986 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1956 Main M a l l V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (.3/81) A b s t r a c t One o f the most important i s s u e s f a c e d by the s o c i e t y of t h e I b e r i a n P e n i n s u l a d u r i n g the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y was the c o n f l i c t between the demands of the monarchy and the accumulated r i g h t s of the n o b i l i t y . The Reconquista f a c i l i t a t e d the growth o f a p r i v i l e g e d w a r r i o r c l a s s , which r e s u l t e d i n a n o b i l i t y entrenched i n t h e i r wealth and h i s t o r i c p r i v i l e g e s of r u l e . The Crown f r e q u e n t l y c h a l l e n g e d t h i s domination, y e t w i t h l i t t l e s uccess, u n t i l the reigns of I s a b e l of C a s t i l e and Fernando of Aragon. These monarchs s u c c e s s f u l l y channeled the power of the n o b i l i t y i n t o forms t h a t i n c r e a s e d the power of the monarchy without a l i e n a t i n g the wealth and p r e s t i g e of the nobles. The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s to show how the process of c o n t r o l l i n g the n o b i l i t y was a i d e d l a r g e l y by the growth i n m i l i t a r y power of the monarchy, developed and expanded through the war w i t h Granada, from 1480 to 1492. T h i s war demanded a vast i n c r e a s e i n the s i z e and a change i n the composition of the C a s t i l i a n army, with a corresponding i n c r e a s e i n the f i n a n c i a l , s o c i a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e needed to support i t . The campaigns against Granada were focused p r i m a r i l y around numerous s i e g e s , with gunpowder siege a r t i l l e r y as the primary weapon. The d i s s e r t a t i o n shows how t h i s a r t i l l e r y was v i t a l t o the eventual success of C a s t i l e over Granada. In support of the a r t i l l e r y , l a r g e i n f a n t r y armies were r a i s e d by the Monarchs t o conduct the a c t u a l s i e g e s and p r o t e c t C a s t i l i a n supply l i n e s . The c a v a l r y , f o r m e r l y the dominant arm o f the C a s t i l i a n army, was r e l e g a t e d t o s k i r m i s h i n g . The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f e f f e c t i v e f i r e p o w e r p l a c e d a t the d i s p o s a l of the monarchs s u f f i c i e n t m i l i t a r y f o r c e t o c o n t r o l the n o b i l i t y and extend t h e i r i n f l u e n c e t h r o u ghout C a s t i l e , Aragon, Granada, and Navarre, and to u n i f y p o l i t i c a l l y much of the P e n i n s u l a . T h i s r e o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e emphasis i n t h e C a s t i l i a n m i l i t a r y system had enormous p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , f i n a n c i a l and m i l i t a r y r a m i f i c a t i o n s f o r C a s t i l e . The S t a t e i n t r u d e d i n t o much of C a s t i l i a n s o c i e t y , i n the form of bureaucrats and tax c o l l e c t o r s . The f i n a n c i a l a f f a i r s of the monarchs expanded t o f i t the demands of the war e f f o r t , e v e n t u a l l y absorbing a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e revenues of the Church and t h a t o f t h e n o b i l i t y as w e l l . T h i s growth of s t a t e power e v e n t u a l l y overrode much of the l e g a l i s o l a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t areas o f the P e n i n s u l a . The massive e f f o r t r e q u i r e d of the peoples of Spain a l s o promoted a s o c i a l u n i f i c a t i o n , i n that the concept of a v i t a l task s u c c e s s f u l l y concluded was shared by a l l . The success of the war a l s o f o s t e r e d a crusade m e n t a l i t y among Spaniards and the s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f the i n f l u e n c e o f the C a t h o l i c r e l i g i o n i v under t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e monarchs. I n t h e s e ways, t h e m i l i t a r y demands o f a d e c a d e o f war a g a i n s t G r a n a d a f a c i l i t a t e d a n d f o r c e d t h e g r o w t h o f a c e n t r a l i z e d , b u r e a u c r a t i c s t a t e on a s o c i e t y d o m i n a t e d b y a r i s t o c r a t i c p r e t e n s i o n s and r e g i o n a l f a c t i o n a l i s m . TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s v I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 S p a n i s h M i l i t a r y S o c i e t y 3 The C h r i s t i a n Army 33 The G r o w t h o f R o y a l Power 70 C o n c l u s i o n 109 S e l e c t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y 113 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n One of the most important i s s u e s faced by the s o c i e t y of the I b e r i a n P e n i n s u l a d u r i n g the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y was the c o n f l i c t between the demands of the Monarchy and the accumulated r i g h t s of the N o b i l i t y . T h i s s t r u g g l e was of long s t a n d i n g . v The Reconquista f a c i l i t a t e d the growth of a p r i v i l e g e d w a r r i o r c l a s s , and by the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , culminated i n a n o b i l i t y entrenched i n t h e i r wealth and h i s t o r i c p r i v i l e g e s of r u l e . The Crown f r e q u e n t l y c h a l l e n g e d t h i s domination of the sources of power, yet with l i t t l e success u n t i l the r e i g n s of I s a b e l of C a s t i l e and Fernando of Aragon. These monarchs s u c c e s s f u l l y c h a n n e l l e d the i n f l u e n c e of the n o b i l i t y i n t o forms t h a t i n c r e a s e d the power of the Monarchy without a l i e n a t i n g the wealth and p r e s t i g e of the nobles. Most h i s t o r i a n s i n t e r p r e t t h i s s t r u g g l e i n a p o l i t i c a l and f i n a n c i a l sense, o m i t t i n g almost e n t i r e l y the f u n c t i o n that the monarchs and n o b l e s p e r c e i v e d as t h e i r p r i m a r y r e a s o n f o r e x i s t e n c e , that of f i g h t i n g . The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s to show how the process of c o n t r o l l i n g the n o b i l i t y was a i d e d l a r g e l y by the growth i n m i l i t a r y power of the Monarchy, developed and expanded through the war with Granada, from 1480 to 1492. T h i s war demanded a vast i n c r e a s e i n the s i z e and a change i n the composition of the C a s t i l i a n army, with a corresponding increase i n the f i n a n c i a l , 2 s o c i a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e needed t o s u p p o r t i t . T h e c a m p a i g n s a g a i n s t G r a n a d a were f o c u s s e d p r i m a r i l y a r o u n d n u m e r o u s s i e g e s o f G r a n a d a n f o r t i f i e d p l a c e s , w i t h g u n p o w d e r s i e g e a r t i l l e r y a s t h e p r i m a r y w e a p o n . T h e d i s s e r t a t i o n shows how t h e a r t i l l e r y was v i t a l t o t h e e v e n t u a l s u c c e s s o f C a s t i l e o v e r G r a n a d a . I t s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e use o f e f f e c t i v e a r t i l l e r y p l a c e d a t t h e d i s p o s a l o f t h e m o n a r c h s s u f f i c i e n t m i l i t a r y f o r c e t o c o n t r o l t h e n o b i l i t y , e x t e n d t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e Crown t h r o u g h o u t C a s t i l e , A r a g o n , G r a n a d a , and N a v a r r e , a n d t o u n i f y p o l i t i c a l l y much o f t h e P e n i n s u l a . F i n a l l y , i t c o n t e n t s t h a t t h i s r e o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e e m p h a s i s i n t h e C a s t i l i a n m i l i t a r y s y s t e m had enormous p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , f i n a n c i a l and m i l i t a r y r a m i f i c a t i o n s f o r C a s t i l e . The m i l i t a r y d e mands o f a d e c a d e o f war a g a i n s t G r a n a d a f a c i l i t a t e d a n d f o r c e d t h e g r o w t h o f a c e n t r a l i z e d , b u r e a u c r a t i c s t a t e i n a s o c i e t y d o m i n a t e d by a r i s t o c r a t i c p r e t e n s i o n s and r e g i o n a l f a c t i o n a l i s m . 3 Spanish M i l i t a r y S o c i e t y A c c o r d i n g t o C h a r l e s T i l l y , a n a t i o n - s t a t e i s a w e l l - d e f i n e d , c o n t i n u o u s t e r r i t o r y , r e l a t i v e l y c e n t r a l i z e d , d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s , w i t h a tendency to monopolize the use of armed f o r c e . 1 The achievement of the C a t h o l i c Monarchs i n c r e a t i n g a " n a t i o n - s t a t e " can be put i n t o p e r s p e c t i v e by n o t i n g t h a t i n the m i d d l e of the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the kings of C a s t i l e were not s t r o n g enough to r u l e t h e i r own c o u n t r y ; a hundred y e a r s l a t e r the Crown was the e f f e c t i v e r u l e r of a vast empire thousands of miles away. T h i s was "achieved through c o n t r o l of the C a s t i l i a n a r i s t o c r a c y by the monarchy, which was the major accomplishment of the C a t h o l i c monarchs. There were no noble r e v o l t s i n the realm a f t e r 1516, u n l i k e i n F r a n c e and England where they c o n t i n u e d i n t o the seventeenth century. The main impediment to the growth of r o y a l power was the n o b i l i t y . Because of constant warfare against the Muslims, the b a r r e n nature of much of the country, and the f a c t t h a t most trade and i n d u s t r y were i n n o n - C h r i s t i a n hands, the power of the n o b l e s was l a r g e l y d e p e n d e n t on m i l i t a r y a d v e n t u r e . Contemporaries saw Spain as a n a t i o n of w a r r i o r s who thought 1 C h a r l e s T i l l y , ed., The Formation of N a t i o n a l States i n Western Europe ( P r i n c e t o n : Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1975), p~. 27. 4 honour reposed largely in battle. Private wars dominated a l l of Spain, and i n 1472 alone, over 1,200 armed horse were involved in such c o n f l i c t s . "Resort to arms - not permitted to other classes in society - seemed to the [knights] to j u s t i f y their station in l i f e . " 3 The exclusive prerogative of armed force was one of the b a s i c a t t r i b u t e s of n o b i l i t y . 4 The n o b i l i t y of Spain was especially bellicose in i t s defense of and j u s t i f i c a t i o n for i t s status as warriors. The Chronicle of the Count de Luna states that "So long had wars continued i n C a s t i l e that men had no other care than to keep their arms and horses choice and in good s t a t e . " The Count de Luna himself wrote that " . . . i t was a coward who rose from bed without girding on a sword."5 In Spain the k n i g h t l y c l a s s was dependent on continuous war for i t s l i v e l i h o o d . War was s t i l l largely seen as a p a r t i c u l a r l y vicious form of joust, where courage was all-important. These noble warriors had to avoid "shame" through "despicable actions", "cowardice" 2 J.R. Hale, " I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s i n the West: Diplomacy and War, The New Cambridge Modern History, Volume I: The Renaissance 1493-1520, E d i t e d by Denys Hay (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979), p. 260. 3 J.N. H i l l g a r t h , The Spanish Kingdoms 1250-1516, vo l . I I : 1410-1516, C a s t i l i a n Hegemony (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978), p. 61. 4 Peter Shervey Lewis, Later Medieval France: the P o l i t y (New York: MacMillan, 1968), p. 187. 5 H i l l g a r t h , The Spanish Kingdoms, p. 304. 5 and " l a z i n e s s " . They must d i s p l a y "great ardour" i n combat and perform a c t s of "great courage and hardy e n t e r p r i s e s " , " f e a t s i n arms", "prowess", and experience "the d i n of b a t t l e " . 6 Courage was conceived as an a r i s t o c r a t i c , noble form of behavior, l i n k e d to race, blood and l i n e a g e , and as an i n d i v i d u a l t r a i t a r i s i n g from ambition and d e s i r e f o r temporal goods, honour, g l o r y and posthumous renown. S t i l l extant was the medieval n o t i o n that b a t t l e was f o r p r i v a t e g a i n . The c a p t u r e and ransom o f p r i s o n e r s was extremely important to these w a r r i o r s . In 1483 the L o r d o f Lucena c a p t u r e d a n o t a b l e M o o r i s h c h i e f , Abu A b d i l l a h , and the Lord of Cabra t r i e d to snatch h i s p r i s o n e r away from him. 7 The r e s u l t i n g chaos can be determined from a f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y p e r c e p t i o n of the s o c i a l e f f e c t s of t h i s k n i g h t l y d o m i n a t i o n . In one s o u r c e , k n i g h t s were d e s c r i b e d as " D e s e c r a t o r s of churches, excommunicates, murderers by ambush, v i o l a t e r s of women, w i l l i n g p e r j u r e r s of t h e i r p l i g h t e d word and s e a l e d documents, f u g i t i v e s from b a t t l e , those defeated i n gage of b a t t l e , a r s o n i s t s , leaders of f r e e companies and p i r a t e s . " 8 The economy, s o c i e t y , and c u l t u r e were o r g a n i z e d i n the s e r v i c e of t h i s r u l i n g c l a s s , whose i n f l u e n c e reached down to 6 P h i l i p p e Contamine, War In the Middle Ages, T r a n s l a t e d by Michael Jones (Oxford: B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , 1984), p. 253. 7 Ahmed Ibn Mohammed A l - M a k k a r i , The H i s t o r y o f the Mohammedan Dynasties of Spain, v o l . I I , T r a n s l a t e d by Pascual De Gayangos (New York: Johnson R e p r i n t s , 1964), p. 374. 8 Contamine, War In the Middle Ages, p. 290. 6 the lowest l e v e l s . Many normal p r e r o g a t i v e s of the s t a t e - the a u t h o r i t y to wage war, to tax, to administer and enforce the law - were p r i v a t e l y owned as l e g a l , h e r e d i t a r y r i g h t s by members of t h e m i l i t a r y a r i s t o c r a c y . These a c q u i r e d r i g h t s o f t h e n o b i l i t y , which included almost a l l r o y a l f u n c t i o n s except that of c o i n i n g money, se v e r e l y l i m i t e d the power of the Crown. 9 The e s s e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p of the n o b i l i t y toward the monarchy was one of c o n t r o l and e x p l o i t a t i o n . "They wanted j u s t i c e and more than j u s t i c e against t h e i r opponents, but none f o r themselves...They wished to l i v e u n r e s t r a i n e d . " 1 0 A l o n s o F a j a r d o , the v i c t o r i n a b a t t l e a g a i n s t Granada, i n f o r m e d Enrique IV that "You should not, Lord, press me so hard, f o r you know that I could give the c a s t l e s I hold to the Moors and be a v a s s a l of the king of Granada and l i v e as a C h r i s t i a n there as others do." 1 1 T h i s l o o s e l o y a l t y of c e r t a i n n o b l e s to the C a s t i l i a n monarchy was not a major f a c t o r i n the Crown's determination to conquer Granada, s i n c e v e r y few C h r i s t i a n n o b l e s a c t u a l l y p l e d g e d f e a l t y t o the r u l e r s of Granada, but i s a s t r o n g i n d i c a t i o n of the r e b e l l i o u s n e s s of the n o b i l i t y , who viewed the King as merely primus i n t e r pares. During the war with Granada 9 Jean H i p p o l y t e M a r i e j o l , The Spain of F e r d i n a n d and I s a b e l l a , T r a n s l a t e d by Benjamin Keen (New Brunswick: Rutgers U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1961), p. 264. 1 0 H i l l g a r t h , The Spanish Kingdoms, p. 303. 1 1 I b i d . , p. 126. 7 i n I486, t h e d i s g r u n t l e d Count o f Lemos r e v o l t e d i n G a l i c i a and s e i z e d P o n f e r r a d a , f o r c i n g t h e m o n a r c h s t o h a l t t h e war and v i s i t G a l i c i a t o r e s t o r e t h e i r a u t h o r i t y . 1 2 The m i l i t a r y power o f t h e n o b i l i t y was a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e S p a n i s h e m p h a s i s on p r o w e s s i n b a t t l e . C a s t i l i a n s o c i e t y e m p h a s i z e d m i l i t a r y s t r e n g t h b e c a u s e o f t h e f r e q u e n c y o f war t h r o u g h o u t t h e p e n i n s u l a , t h e s t r o n g bonds between t h e s o c i a l a n d m i l i t a r y h i e r a r c h y , a n d t h e w i d e s p r e a d p o s s e s s i o n o f m i l i t a r y e quipment. D u r i n g t h e y e a r s o f n o b l e a n a r c h y i n t h e e a r l y f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , c a u s e d by r o y a l m i n o r i t i e s , n o b l e a r m i e s were do m i n a n t i n t h e v a r i o u s m i l i t a r y campaigns. Even d u r i n g t h e u n d i s p u t e d monarchy o f E n r i q u e IV, t h e Duke o f Medina S i d o n i a g a t h e r e d a p r i v a t e army o f o v e r 20,000 men f o r b a t t l e . 1 3 When t h e war w i t h Granada e s c a l a t e d d u r i n g t h e e a r l y 1480s, t h e r e a c t i o n s o f t h e n o b i l i t y v a r i e d . Many o f l o s g r a n d e s de C a s t i l l a would not s e r v e i n p e r s o n b u t s i m p l y s e n t c a p t a i n s and men. 1 4 I n c o n t r a s t , t h e Duke o f A l b a g e n e r o u s l y l e n t h i s own bombards t o t h e army b e s i e g i n g Zamora. The f o r c e s o f t h e n o b i l i t y t h a t d i d f i g h t i n t h e war were g r o u p e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r n o b l e o r i g i n s , r a t h e r t h a n a c c o r d i n g 1 2 I b i d . , p. 511. 1 3 W i l l i a m H. P r e s c o t t , H i s t o r y o f t h e R e i g n o f F e r d i n a n d and I s a b e l l a , 3 v o l s . ( B o s t o n : Dana E s t e s , 1872), 1:216. 1 4 J.R. H a l e , War and S o c i e t y i n R e n a i s s a n c e E u r o p e 1450- 1620 (London: F o n t a n a P r e s s , 1985), p. 91. 8 t o s i z e , weaponry, o r m i l i t a r y u s e f u l n e s s . The l e v i e s t o a t t a c k t h e t o w n o f B a z a d u r i n g 1 489 show t h i s k i n d o f f e u d a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h e k i n g ( F e r d i n a n d ) h e l d a r e v i e w ; h i s h o s t numbered 13,000 h o r s e and 40,000 f o o t s o l d i e r s , whom he o r d e r e d drawn up as f o l l o w s . He commanded t h a t i n t h e f i r s t l i n e t h e r e s h o u l d be 150 mounted men w i t h t h e A l c a i d e o f t h e Young Pages, who, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a n c i e n t usage o f S p a i n , must go w i t h t h e m a r s h a l s t o p r e p a r e t h e cant o n m e n t s . And he commanded t h a t i n t h e v a n g u a r d s h o u l d go t h e Grand M a s t e r o f S a n t i a g o w i t h 1,800 l a n c e s , w i t h whom went t h e men o f E c i j a w i t h 1 5 0 l a n c e s a n d 7 0 0 f o o t s o l d i e r s , a n d 1 5 0 e s p i n g a r d e r o s o f t h e c i t y o f T o l e d o . A t one wing o f t h i s b a t t l e he p l a c e d t h e G r a n d M a s t e r o f C a l a t r a v a w i t h 400 l a n c e s and 1,000 f o o t s o l d i e r s . And a t t h e o t h e r w i n g m a rched P e d r o L o p e z de P a d i l l a w i t h 200 l a n c e s o f t h e s q u i r e s who had l a n d and r e c e i v e d wages f r o m t h e k i n g a n d q u e e n ; o f t h e s e men L o p e z d e P a d i l l a had been named c a p t a i n . I n t h e s e c o n d b a t t l e went Don D i e g o L o p e z de H a r o w i t h 150 l a n c e s a n d 4,000 f o o t s o l d i e r s o f t h e Kingdom o f G a l i c i a , who had b e e n g i v e n t o h i m t o command. I n t h e t h i r d b a t t l e went 1,000 men-at-arms a n d l i g h t c a v a l r y and 1,000 f o o t s o l d i e r s o f t h e C a r d i n a l o f S p a i n ; i t s c a p t a i n s were Don R o d r i g o de Mendoza, L o r d o f t h e C i d , and Don D i e g o H u r t a d o de Mendoza, A d e l a n t a d o o f C a z o r l a . I n t h e f o u r t h b a t t l e went t h e h o r s e and f o o t s o l d i e r s o f t h e Hermandades, e a c h s q u a d r o n w i t h i t s c a p t a i n . I n t h e f i f t h b a t t l e w e n t Don D i e g o F e r n a n d e z d e Co r d o b a , Count o f C a b r a , w i t h 250 l a n c e s and 300 f o o t s o l d i e r s , a nd M a r t i n A l o n z o de Montemayor, w i t h 160 l a n c e s a n d 200 f o o t s o l d i e r s . . . I n t h e t e n t h b a t t l e went Don A l o n s o , l o r d o f t h e house o f A g u i l a r , w i t h 300 l a n c e s and 300 f o o t s o l d i e r s . I n advance o f t h e r o y a l b a t t l e w ent t h e C o u n t o f T e n d i l l a w i t h 460 l a n c e s t h a t b e l o n g e d t o h i m , t o h i s b r o t h e r t h e A r c h b i s h o p o f S e v i l l e , a n d t o t h e C o u n t o f B e n a v e n t e . 1 5 T h i s s e e m i n g l y i r r a t i o n a l u s e o f t h e f o r c e s a v a i l a b l e was m a n d a t e d b y t h e s t r o n g f e u d a l i n f l u e n c e s p r e v a l e n t i n t h e C h r i s t i a n army. The s o l d i e r s owed a l l e g i a n c e t o t h e l o r d s who M a r i e j o l , The S p a i n o f F e r d i n a n d and I s a b e l l a , p . 194. 9 r a i s e d them and n o t t o t h e K i n g . A f t e r an a t t e m p t e d r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of h i s t r o o p s , the Duke of M e d i n a c e l i answered the King: " T e l l the king my l o r d that I came to serve him with the men of my household, and that I s h a l l not serve i n the war unless accompanied by my men, nor i s i t reasonable f o r them to serve without me at t h e i r head." 1 6 This a t t i t u d e made the vast m a j o r i t y of the troops present extremely d i f f i c u l t to c o n t r o l , s i n c e many of the nobles refused to serve a l o n g s i d e or under the command of t h e i r c o m p e t i t o r s . 1 7 As the n o b i l i t y dominated the m i l i t a r y f o r c e s , so they dominated the wealth of Spain. T h i s wealth, a c q u i r e d by arms, was based on l a n d and the r i g h t a l i e n a t e d from the Crown to c o l l e c t taxes. Vast t e r r i t o r i e s were under the c o n t r o l of the g r e a t a r i s t o c r a t s , who had immense r e v e n u e s , t h o u s a n d s o f v a s s a l s and t h e i r own a r m i e s . During the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y these lands brought i n rent income of 3,363,500 maravedis per y e a r , which t h e o r e t i c a l l y p a i d f o r the s e r v i t i u m debitum of 2,300 lances c o n t r o l l e d by the crown, but which were i n r e a l i t y under the c o n t r o l of the nobles who r a i s e d them. 1 8 The nobles a l s o used i l l e g a l means during p e r i o d s of weak 1 6 Henry Kamen, Spai n 1469-1714: A S o c i e t y of C o n f l i c t (London: Longman, 1983), p. 34. 1 7 H i l l g a r t h , The Spanish Kingdoms, p. 377. 1 8 Roger H i g h f i e l d , "The C a t h o l i c Kings and the T i t l e d N o b i l i t y of C a s t i l e " , Europe i n the Late Middle Ages, E d i t e d by John Hale, J.R.L. H i g h f i e l d and B e r y l Smalley (London: Faber and Faber, 1965), p. 382. 10 m o n a r c h i e s t o a c q u i r e l a n d . Many m o n a s t e r i e s i n C a s t i l e were t a k e n o v e r by n o b l e s t o whom t h e y had 'commended' t h e m s e l v e s . The a t t e m p t s o f t h e monarchy t o p r e v e n t t h e s e u s u r p a t i o n s were l a r g e l y f u t i l e . 1 9 The n o b i l i t y d o m i n a t e d not o n l y t h e c o u n t r y s i d e o f C a s t i l e b u t t h e c i t i e s as w e l l . F r e q u e n t l y t h e y e x t o r t e d t h e p o s i t i o n o f c i t y m a g i s t r a t e from t h e Crown, and by c o n t r o l l i n g t h e c i t y mob, e n s u r e d n o b l e d o m i n a t i o n o f c i t y l i f e . The C o r t e s o f 1442 a s k e d i n v a i n t h a t n o b l e s w i t h o v e r 200 v a s s a l s n ot be a l l o w e d t o l i v e i n c i t i e s . P r o u d o f t h e i r f u e r o s , t h e towns o f t h e m e s e t a r e s i s t e d , b u t t h e n o b i l i t y ' s m i l i t a r y p r o w e s s a n d r u t h l e s s n e s s u s u a l l y p r e v a i l e d . "The l o c a l n o b l e s t e r r o r i z e d t h e p e a s a n t r y d e p e n d e n t on S a l a m a n c a , t h r e w o u t t h e c i t y ' s o f f i c i a l s , p u t i n t h e i r own, u s e d s t o c k s a n d c h a i n s a g a i n s t o b j e c t o r s , and e r e c t e d a g a l l o w s as t h e s i g n o f j u r i s d i c t i o n . A n o b l e w i t h t e n men p u t t h e r o y a l and m u n i c i p a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o f l i g h t . " 2 0 T h e w e a l t h o f t h e n o b i l i t y i n v o l v e d a l m o s t d e f i e s c o m p r e h e n s i o n and i l l u s t r a t e s t h e m e d i e v a l i d e a t h a t t h e k i n g was o n l y t h e f i r s t among e q u a l s . I n 1474, a t l e a s t f o u r f a m i l i e s had an income o f o v e r one m i l l i o n m a r a v e d i s p e r y e a r , t h r e e f a m i l i e s h a d b e t w e e n f i v e h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d a n d o n e m i l l i o n , a n d many h a d u n d e r f i v e h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d . I n 1482 1 9 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h Kingdoms, p. 101. 2 0 I b i d . , p. 73. 11 s i x t y - o n e m a j o r n o b l e s had an income o f 1,254,000 d u c a d o s f r o m a p o p u l a t i o n t o t a l l i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x t o s e v e n m i l l i o n v a s s a l s . Don G u t i e r r e de S o t o m a y o r , M a s t e r o f A l c a n t a r a , h e l d as h i s own p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y 505,800 h e c t a r e a s o f l a n d ( o v e r 1,000,000 a c r e s ) , a n d owned 195,000 s h e e p and 2,000 cows. Not o n l y t h e C a s t i l i a n n o b i l i t y e n j o y e d s u c h r e v e n u e s ; i n A r a g o n n i n e t e e n n o b l e s h e l d a n n u a l i n c o m e s o f 180,000 d u c a d o s . 2 1 T h i s s t r e n g t h o f t h e n o b i l i t y was p a r t i a l l y c a u s e d by t h e C r o w n ' s n e e d t o m a i n t a i n s t r o n g m i l i t a r y f o r c e s t o d e f e n d C a s t i l e a g a i n s t G r a n a d a n a r m i e s . I n t i m e s o f a s t r o n g m o n a r c h y t h e n o b l e s and t h e i r w e l l - a r m e d r e t i n u e s were k e p t u n d e r s t r i c t c o n t r o l b y t h e C r o w n t h r o u g h b r i b e s a n d i n t i m i d a t i o n . I n c o n t r a s t , F e r n a n d o and I s a b e l i n h e r i t e d a n o b i l i t y made s t r o n g and v i r t u a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t o f a l l c o n t r o l by c i v i l w a r s c a u s e d by r o y a l m i n o r i t i e s and t h e w e a k n e s s e s o f I s a b e l ' s b r o t h e r E n r i q u e I V . H i s t o r i c a l l y , t h e K i n g s o f C a s t i l e h a d a l w a y s w i e l d e d l i m i t e d p o wer, b e c a u s e o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f a m i l i t a r y e l i t e i n t h i s m i l i t a r y s o c i e t y . F o r a l l p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s r o y a l power was s t r i c t l y l i m i t e d . A s a c o n t e m p o r a r y j u r i s t , P a l a c i o s R u b i o s , w r o t e , " . . . t o t h e K i n g i s c o n f i d e d s o l e l y t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e k i n g d o m , and n o t d o m i n i o n o v e r t h i n g s , f o r t h e p r o p e r t y and r i g h t s o f t h e S t a t e a r e p u b l i c , and c a n n o t be H i g h f i e l d , The C a t h o l i c K i n g s , pp. 362-367 p a s s i m . 12 t h e p r i v a t e p a t r i m o n y o f a n y o n e . " 2 2 A c c o r d i n g t o t h e S i e t e P a r t i d a s , t h e K i n g must be p r o t e c t e d f r o m e r r o r . "The p e o p l e s p a r e d n e i t h e r t h e i r b l o o d n o r t h e i r t r e a s u r e i n t h e r o y a l s e r v i c e , b u t t h e i r m a s t e r s had t o c o n d u c t t h e m s e l v e s i n s u c h a way t h a t t h e s a c r i f i c e be made e a s y a n d t h e d e v o t i o n h o n o r a b l e . " 2 3 The p e r i p a t e t i c t e n d e n c i e s o f t h e Crown, n e c e s s a r y i n a s y s t e m t h a t s t r e s s e d p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , f a c i l i t a t e d n o b l e a m b i t i o n s . T h e r e was l i t t l e m o t i v a t i o n f o r t h e n o b l e s t o d r i f t t o town h o u s e s i n a c a p i t a l l i k e London o r P a r i s , where t h e y c o u l d be k e p t u n d e r t h e Crown's w a t c h f u l eye and c o u l d w a s t e t h e i r r e s o u r c e s on o s t e n t a t i o u s d i s p l a y i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h e a c h o t h e r . E n r i q u e IV p e r p e t u a t e d a p o l i c y o f p e r s o n a l l e a d e r s h i p by c a m p a i g n i n g a g a i n s t G r a n a d a d u r i n g t h e y e a r s 1455-1458 f o r e c o n o m i c b e n e f i t s ( b o o t y ) a n d t h e f r e e i n g o f C a s t i l i a n c a p t i v e s . B o t h A r c h i d o n a and G i b r a l t a r were c a p t u r e d , t h e f r o n t i e r was s e c u r e d and a heavy t r i b u t e e x a c t e d f r o m G r a n a d a . H i s b e l l i c o s e n o b l e s , who demanded g l o r y r a t h e r t h a n b o o t y , h a t e d t h i s s t r a t e g y and demanded t o t a l war a g a i n s t G r a n a d a . B e c a u s e he was p i o u s and not c r u e l , more a f r i e n d o f t h e l i f e o f h i s ( f o l l o w e r s ) t h a n t h e s p i l l e r o f t h e i r b l o o d , he s a i d t h a t . . . t h e l i f e o f men had no p r i c e o r e q u i v a l e n c e , and i t was a g r e a t e r r o r t o r i s k them, a n d b e c a u s e o f t h i s i t d i d n o t p l e a s e him t h a t h i s 2 2 J . H . E l l i o t t , I m p e r i a l S p a i n 1 4 6 9 - 1 7 1 6 ( M i d d l e s e x : P e l i c a n Books, 1963), p. 84". 2 3 M a r i e j o l , The S p a i n o f F e r d i n a n d and I s a b e l l a , p. 117. 13 ( f o l l o w e r s ) went o u t on s k i r m i s h e s . . . A n d i n s u c h e x p e d i t i o n s , ( t o o ) much money was s p e n t ; he w i s h e d . . . ( r a t h e r ) t o e x p e n d h i s t r e a s u r e s ( i n ) damaging the enemies l i t t l e by l i t t l e . 2 4 The c l e r g y a l s o d i s l i k e d E n r i q u e ' s t a c t i c s , f o r they d e s i r e d the c o n q u e s t and c o n v e r s i o n o f t h e i n f i d e l s . I n an e f f o r t t o d i s c r e d i t E n r i q u e IV, Fernando and I s a b e l and t h e i r c h r o n i c l e r s l a t e r condemned h i s wars as mere c a v a l g a d a s , or b u r n i n g and l o o t i n g e x p e d i t i o n s . 2 5 E n r i q u e was more concerned w i t h c o n t r o l l i n g h i s f r e q u e n t l y r e b e l l i o u s n o b i l i t y than w i t h conquering Granada. Conquest had a low p r i o r i t y , s i n c e he f e l t t h a t p o s s e s s i o n of new p o s i t i o n s w o u l d g i v e t h e C a s t i l i a n n o b l e s g r e a t e r power, and t h a t t h e f o r t r e s s e s i n C h r i s t i a n hands would be a p r o v o c a t i o n f o r Muslim revenge. Thus, m i l i t a r y t e c h n i q u e was s u b o r d i n a t e d t o p o l i t i c a l g o a l s . Upon c a p t u r i n g G i b r a l t a r i n 1462, E n r i q u e demonstrated h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o keep the n o b l e power of i t s new g u a r d i a n l i m i t e d . The K i n g g r a n t e d i t t o t h e d u k e of Medina S i d o n i a i n 1468, but under s t r i n g e n t c o n d i t i o n s . The Duke was f o r b i d d e n t o t r a n s f e r the t i t l e t o any f o r e i g n e r , c l e r i c , or e c c l e s i a s t i c a l o r d e r , w h i l e the Crown r e t a i n e d the r i g h t s of t a x a t i o n , c o i n a g e , m i n e r a l s ( g o l d a n d s i l v e r ) a n d e s p e c i a l l y o f m i l i t a r y a c t i v i t y . 2 6 2 4 W i l l i a m D. P h i l l i p s , J r . , E n r i q u e IV and the C r i s i s of F i f t e e n t h - C e n t u r y C a s t i l e 1425-1480 (Cambridge: M e d i e v a l Academy of A m e r i c a , 1978), p. 55. 2 5 P r e s c o t t , Reign of F e r d i n a n d and I s a b e l l a , 1:475. 2 6 P h i l l i p s , J r . , E n r i q u e IV, p. 55. 14 Because of the presence 'of a p o t e n t i a l l y h o s t i l e Muslim Granada, t h i s c o n f l i c t between the C a s t i l i a n Crown and the n o b i l i t y was i n s o l u b l e . The Crown needed the m i l i t a r y power of the n o b i l i t y and the n o b l e s needed the Crown as a source of rewards and as leverage against other competing noble houses. The key that unlocked t h i s stalemate was the determination of Fernando and I s a b e l to crush Granada. In order to comprehend the immense task Fernando and I s a b e l took upon themselves i n seeking m i l i t a r y conquest over Granada and how v i t a l was the siege a r t i l l e r y , the s i t u a t i o n of Granada i t s e l f must be understood. Granada had e x i s t e d f o r c e n t u r i e s as an independent Muslim s t a t e , f r e q u e n t l y c o - o p e r a t i n g with the v a r i o u s C h r i s t i a n kingdoms to the north. The r e l a t i o n s between Granada and the C h r i s t i a n s t a t e s were e s s e n t i a l l y pragmatic, v e e r i n g between a l l i a n c e and war. The Muslims were not implacable enemies to be met only i n b a t t l e . They were men whose lands could be conquered when p o s s i b l e but who c o u l d serve e q u a l l y as a l l i e s and t r a d i n g p a r t n e r s at other t i m e s . D u r i n g the Murcian c i v i l war of 1447-1448, Granadan f o r c e s took p a r t on both s i d e s . 2 7 By the end of the f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , Granada s u f f e r e d under i n c r e a s i n g d i s a d v a n t a g e s compared t o t h e C h r i s t i a n north. In 1400 Ibn Hudayl saw Granada as occupying a p o s i t i o n of i n s e c u r i t y . "Is (Granada) not enclosed between a v i o l e n t sea H i l l g a r t h , The Spanish Kingdoms, p. 126. 15 and an enemy t e r r i b l e i n arms, b o t h o f which p r e s s on i t s p e o p l e day and n i g h t . " 2 8 I n A u g u s t o f 1415, t h e P o r t u g u e s e i n v a s i o n and o c c u p a t i o n o f C e u t a on t h e N o r t h A f r i c a n c o a s t , l o n g a p o r t o f e m b a r c a t i o n f o r M u s l i m a r m i e s i n v a d i n g S p a i n , i s o l a t e d G r a n a d a f r o m M u s l i m N o r t h A f r i c a , a s o u r c e o f p o t e n t i a l r e c r u i t s . D u r i n g t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e p o l i t i c a l d e c l i n e o f G r a n a d a a c c e l e r a t e d d u e t o d e p o s i t i o n s , r e b e l l i o n s , a s s a s s i n a t i o n s by r i v a l c l a n s , and g r o w i n g t a x e s . Endemic c i v i l w a r p e r s i s t e d i n G r a n a d a f r o m t h e t i m e o f Y u s u f I I I (1408-1417). F r e q u e n t l y two E m i r s competed w i t h e a c h o t h e r , one c o n t r o l l i n g t h e A l h a m b r a , t h e o t h e r t h e i m p o r t a n t s u b u r b o f Gra n a d a , t h e A l b a i c i n . 2 9 E n r i q u e I V , u s u a l l y s e e n by h i s t o r i a n s a s a weak a n d v a c i l l a t i n g K i n g , d o m i n a t e d Granada m i l i t a r i l y and p o l i t i c a l l y . I n 1455 and 1457, S p a n i s h t r o o p s d e v a s t a t e d t h e Vega o f G r a n a d a , and i n 1456 t h e Vega o f Ma l a g a . " G r e a t harm" was done t o t h e M u s l i m s , who s u f f e r e d " g r e a t d i s t r e s s a n d n e e d " f r o m t h e s e C h r i s t i a n f o r a y s . The f r o n t i e r l i n e was ad v a n c e d and G i b r a l t a r a n d A r c h i d o n a were c a p t u r e d i n 1462. By t h i s f o r m o f l i m i t e d war t h e Em i r Sa'd, p l a c e d on t h e t h r o n e by E n r i q u e , a g r e e d t o terms h i g h l y b e n e f i c i a l t o C a s t i l e . 3 0 In 1465 Ibn a l - K h a t i b , an E g y p t i a n v i s i t o r , d e s c r i b e d t h e s i t u a t i o n o f Granada as a l m o s t 2 8 I b i d . , p. 367. 2 9 J o s e p h F. O ' C a l l a g h a n , A H i s t o r y o f M e d i e v a l S p a i n ( I t h a c a : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1975), p. 547. 3 0 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h Kingdoms, p. 329. 16 h o p e l e s s . Granada was " . . .among the most b e a u t i f u l c i t i e s of I s lam, i f i t were not that the i n f i d e l s are so n e a r . " 3 1 One o f t h e g r e a t e s t s t r e n g t h s o f G r a n a d a was i t s wea l t h . The annual revenue was over one m i l l i o n s i l v e r r e a l e s at the t ime of the Granada War, but a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - f i f t h to o n e - q u a r t e r of i t went to C a s t i l e as t r i b u t e , an arrangement agreed upon between the Nasr id dynasty of Granada and the Kings of C a s t i l e a f t e r 1430. Accord ing to Jaime V icens V i v e s , t h i s constant i n f l ow of go ld i n the l a t e Middle Ages was one of the necessary p r o p e l l a n t s of the European economies of the 1500*s , f u e l l i n g the growing power of C a s t i l e . 3 2 The i n h a b i t a n t s of Granada pa id three t imes more i n taxes than the e q u i v a l e n t groups i n C a s t i l e . T h i s heavy t a x a t i o n undermined the s t a b i l i t y of Granadan s o c i e t y and the p o p u l a r i t y of the Emir Abu- l -Hasan ' A l i who re igned from 1464-1485. The r e s u l t i n g u n r e s t and c i v i l wars d u r i n g h i s r e i g n caused a se r i ous d e c l i n e of the once f l o u r i s h i n g economy. The p o r c e l a i n works o f Ma laga became e c l i p s e d by those of M a n i s e s , near V a l e n c i a . Economic d e c l i n e fo rced the dependence of the Emirate on Genoese merchants . 3 3 T h u s , a d e c l i n i n g economy c o u p l e d w i t h i s o l a t i o n f rom p o s s i b l e l a rge s c a l e re inforcements from North A f r i c a suggests a 3 1 I b i d . , p. 31. 3 2 O 'Ca l l aghan , H i s t o r y of Medieval Spa in , p. 601. 3 3 H i l l g a r t h , The Spanish Kingdoms, p. 368. 17 w e a kening o f Granada's a b i l i t y t o mount r e s i s t a n c e t o C h r i s t i a n i n c u r s i o n s . The e s s e n t i a l l y n o n - b e l l i g e r e n t p o l i c i e s o f E n r i q u e IV a l l o w e d G r a n a d a a few more y e a r s o f e x i s t e n c e , b u t a g a i n s t t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f Fernando and I s a b e l t o c r u s h G r a n a d a , t h e s e m i l i t a r y d i s a b i l i t i e s would be f a t a l . D e s p i t e i t s d i s a b i l i t i e s , G r a n a d a had s e v e r a l m i l i t a r y a d v a n t a g e s . The d e n s e p o p u l a t i o n o f o v e r one m i l l i o n p e o p l e p r o v i d e d a l a r g e t a x b a s e and a s o u r c e o f many s o l d i e r s . The m o u n t a i n o u s t e r r a i n was v e r y d e f e n s i b l e a n d many s t r o n g f o r t r e s s e s g u a r d e d t h e p a s s e s between t h e m o u n t a i n s . The r u g g e d c o u n t r y s i d e a l s o gave t h e adv a n t a g e t o t h e M u s l i m l i g h t c a v a l r y o v e r t h e C h r i s t i a n " s t e e l - c l a d c a v a l r y . " D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t G r a nada was c u t o f f from easy a c c e s s t o N o r t h A f r i c a , some money and r e i n f o r c e m e n t s made t h e i r way t o s t r e n g t h e n i t s d e f e n s e s . As l a t e as t h e m i d d l e o f t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , Granada c o u l d s t i l l t a k e t h e o f f e n s i v e ; i n t e r n a l d i v i s i o n s i n C a s t i l e a l l o w e d G r a n a d a t o r e c a p t u r e s e v e r a l towns, and M u s l i m r a i d s r e a c h e d w i t h i n f i v e l e a g u e s o f S e v i l l e a n d i n t o M u r c i a i n 1449 a n d 14 5 0 . 3 4 The g r e a t e s t o f t h e a d v a n t a g e s t h a t t h e Mu s l i m s e n j o y e d was t h e s u p e r b f i g h t i n g q u a l i t i e s o f t h e i r army. Among t h e s o l d i e r s o f G r a n a d a were t h e r u g g e d i n h a b i t a n t s f r o m t h e A l p u j a r r a s , s k i l l e d i n t h e u s e o f t h e c r o s s b o w a n d a c c u s t o m e d t o t h e h a r d s h i p s a n d t e c h n i q u e s o f f i g h t i n g i n t h e m o u n t a i n s . The I b i d . , p. 316. 18 G r a nadan mounted crossbowmen were c o n s i d e r e d v e r y e f f e c t i v e and a c c u r a t e w i t h t h e i r w e a p o n s . The p r i v i l e g e d few who c o u l d a f f o r d t o f i g h t on h o r s e b a c k t r a i n e d f r o m e a r l y c h i l d h o o d i n r i d i n g and f i r i n g t h e c r o s s b o w . The e s s e n t i a l t a c t i c s o f t h e M u s l i m c a v a l r y were f e i g n e d c h a r g e s o r r e t r e a t s , t o d i s o r d e r , p a n i c o r d r a w t h e enemy i n d i s o r g a n i z e d p u r s u i t . G r a n a d a n w a r r i o r s were p r i z e d so h i g h l y f o r t h e i r m i l i t a r y v i r t u e s t h a t t h e C a s t i l i a n monarchs f r e q u e n t l y u s e d Granadan t r o o p s , e i t h e r as m e r c e n a r i e s o r as a l l i e s , a g a i n s t o t h e r C h r i s t i a n monarchs o f t h e P e n i n s u l a . I n t h e m i d - f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y P e d r o t h e C r u e l r e c e i v e d f r o m G r a n a d a t h e a i d o f o v e r 20,000 M u s l i m t r o o p s , w h i l e 300 M u s l i m horsemen c o m p r i s e d t h e g u a r d o f E n r i q u e I V . 3 5 As w e l l as n a t i v e t r o o p s , t h e G r a n a d a n s c o u l d c a l l on a s m a l l number o f A f r i c a n and C h r i s t i a n m e r c e n a r i e s . D u r i n g t h e s i e g e o f M a l a g a , N e g r o gomeres (ghumarah ), "men o f f e r o c i o u s t e m per, but t r i e d v a l o r and m i l i t a r y d i s c i p l i n e " f o u g h t i n t h e g a r r i s o n . 3 6 One hundred o f t h e s e f e r o c i o u s t r o o p s were s e n t t o t h e Pope and i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o h i s b o d y g u a r d a f t e r t h e s u r r e n d e r o f M a l a g a i n 1 4 8 7 . C h r i s t i a n m e r c e n a r i e s f r o m C a t a l o n i a , C a s t i l e and P o r t u g a l a l s o s e r v e d i n M u s l i m a r m i e s , and were a l s o p r e s e n t i n t h e g a r r i s o n o f Malaga i n 1487. 3 7 T h e s i z e o f t h e G r a n a d a n army i t s e l f i s d i f f i c u l t t o 3 5 I a n H e a t h , A r m i e s o f t h e M i d d l e Ages ( W o r t h i n g : W.R.G. P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1982), p. 32. 3 6 P r e s c o t t , R e i g n o f F e r d i n a n d and I s a b e l l a , 2:17. 3 7 H e a t h , A r m i e s o f t h e M i d d l e Ages, p. 34. 19 d e t e r m i n e , a s o n l y C h r i s t i a n e s t i m a t e s a r e r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . A b u - l - H a s a n ' A l i had a s t a n d i n g army o f 7,000 c a v a l r y o f w h i c h 4,700 w e r e p r e s e n t a t a r e v i e w i n 1478. I n 1482 A b u l - H a s s a n b e s i e g e d A l h a m a w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3,000 c a v a l r y a n d 5 0 , 0 0 0 i n f a n t r y . D u r i n g 1483 t h e M u s l i m s s t a g e d l a r g e s c a l e r a i d s w i t h 1 , 2 0 0 - 1 , 5 0 0 c a v a l r y , w i t h A b u l - H a s s a n ' s s o r t i e f r o m M a l a g a i n v o l v i n g 1,500 c a v a l r y and 6,000 i n f a n t r y . B o a b d i l ' s a t t a c k on L u c e n a i n v o l v e d 700 c a v a l r y and 9,000 i n f a n t r y . D u r i n g 1 4 8 7, an a t t e m p t t o r a i s e t h e s i e g e o f V e l e z M a l a g a w i t h t h e t r o o p s o f o n l y o n e o f t h e two E m i r s i n v o l v e d 1, 500 c a v a l r y a n d up t o 40,000 i n f a n t r y . B a z a was d e f e n d e d i n 1489 by a f o r c e o f 10,000 u n d e r A b d a l l a l e l Z a g a l w i t h a n o t h e r 10,000 u n d e r t h e P r i n c e C i d H i a y a . D u r i n g t h e f i n a l s i e g e o f G r a n a d a t h e o r i g i n a l g a r r i s o n o f 1 , 2 5 0 c a v a l r y was r e d u c e d t h r o u g h s k i r m i s h e s w i t h t h e C h r i s t i a n c a v a l r y t o a f o r c e o f l e s s t h a n 1 5 0 . I n a l l t h e s e a c t i o n s , t h e m a i n s t r e n g t h o f t h e M u s l i m s was i n t h e i r c a v a l r y , b u t t h e b u l k o f t h e i r f o r c e s was i n f a n t r y , u s u a l l y u n r e l i a b l e c i t i z e n m i l i t i a . 3 8 T h e s e M u s l i m t r o o p s w e r e much a d m i r e d by t h e i r C h r i s t i a n a d v e r s a r i e s . The p o p u l a r b a l l a d s o f t h e f r o n t i e r , t h e Romances f r o n t e r i z o s , p o r t r a y e d t h e M u s l i m c a v a l r y a s k n i g h t s on t h e same s o c i a l l e v e l a s t h e C h r i s t i a n w a r r i o r s . The M u s l i m s w e r e " . . . v e r y much h i d a l g o s : t h e y come f r o m t h e l i n e a g e o f t h o s e who H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h K i n gdoms, p. 375. 20 w e r e l o r d s o f S p a i n . As w i t h C h r i s t i a n k n i g h t s , t h e e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t i e s o f t h e M u s l i m k n i g h t s were " p i e t y , v a l o r , c o u r t e s y , p r o w e s s , t h e g i f t s o f p o e t r y a n d e l o q u e n c e , a n d d e x t e r i t y i n t h e management o f t h e h o r s e , t h e sword, l a n c e , and bow." 4 0 U n t i l t h e m i d d l e o f t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , C a s t i l i a n and C a t a l a n k n i g h t s mixed f r e e l y w i t h t h e i r M u s l i m c o u n t e r p a r t s and p e a c e f u l l y v i s i t e d G ranada. Even d u r i n g t h e war t h e r e s p e c t r e m a i n e d . A t t h e s i e g e o f M a l a g a , t h e C h r i s t i a n c h r o n i c l e r w r o t e o f t h e M u s l i m s : "Who does n o t m a r v e l a t t h e b o l d h e a r t o f t h e s e i n f i d e l s i n b a t t l e , t h e i r prompt o b e d i e n c e t o t h e i r c h i e f s , t h e i r d e x t e r i t y i n t h e w i l e s o f war, t h e i r p a t i e n c e u n d e r p r i v a t i o n , a n d u n d a u n t e d p e r s e v e r a n c e i n t h e i r p u r p o s e s . " 4 1 T h i s r e s p e c t was w e l l e a r n e d , f o r d u r i n g t h e same s i e g e , t h e M u s l i m c a v a l r y c h a r g e d t h e C h r i s t i a n c a v a l r y , t h r e w away t h e i r l a n c e s , and a t t a c k e d t h e i r enemies w i t h o n l y t h e i r d a g g e r s , w i t h no q u a r t e r g i v e n . 4 2 The c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n s between t h e w a r r i o r s on b o t h s i d e s o f t h e b o r d e r e n c o u r a g e d t h e b o r r o w i n g o f m i l i t a r y t a c t i c s a n d weaponry. V e r y o f t e n t h e A n d a l u s i a n p r i n c e s and w a r r i o r s t a k e t h e n e i g h b o r i n g C h r i s t i a n s a s m o d e l s f o r t h e i r e q u i p m e n t . T h e i r arms a r e i d e n t i c a l , l i k e w i s e t h e i r s u r c o a t s o f s c a r l e t o r o t h e r s t u f f , t h e i r p e n n o n s , 39 I b i d p. 127. 40 P r e s c o t t , R e i g n o f F e r d i n a n d and I s a b e l l a , 1:392. 41 I b i d 2:30. 42 I b i d 2:19. 21 t h e i r s a d d l e s . S i m i l a r a l s o i s t h e i r mode o f f i g h t i n g w i t h b u c k l e r s and l o n g l a n c e s f o r t h e c h a r g e . T h e y u s e n e i t h e r t h e mace nor t h e bow o f t h e A r a b s , b u t employ F r a n k i s h c r o s s b o w s f o r s i e g e s and arm i n f a n t r y w i t h them f o r e n c o u n t e r s w i t h t h e enemy. 4 3 T h i s s p r e a d o f m i l i t a r y t e c h n o l o g y was not e n t i r e l y welcome by t h e r e c i p i e n t s . The S p a n i s h M u s l i m s r e s e n t e d t h e f a c t t h a t m i l i t a r y n e c e s s i t y had f o r c e d them t o a d o p t t h e weapons and h eavy armour o f t h e i r C h r i s t i a n a d v e r s a r i e s . C o n v e r s e l y , t h e C h r i s t i a n s borrowed much o f t h e i r m i l i t a r y t e r m i n o l o g y f r o m t h e M u s l i m s . Thus: a d a r g a , a l e a t h e r s h i e l d , a l a r d e , a m i l i t a r y p a r a d e , a l c a i d e , a g o v e r n o r o f a c a s t l e o r f o r t , a l f e r e z , a l i e u t e n a n t or e n s i g n , a t a l a y a , a w a t c h t o w e r , r e b a t o , an u n e x p e c t e d a t t a c k , a n d z a g a , a r e a r g u a r d . 4 4 One i n n o v a t i o n i n m i l i t a r y t a c t i c s c o p i e d by t h e C h r i s t i a n s was t h e m i l i t a r y band, c a l l e d i n A r a b i c t h e nauba o r t a b l khana. I t was u s u a l l y drawn up away from th e a c t u a l c o n f l i c t and p l a y e d d u r i n g t h e e n t i r e b a t t l e , t o e n c o u r a g e th e army. I t c o u l d a l s o be u s e d t o s i g n a l t o t h e t r o o p s as w e l l . Some s i g n a l s u s e d were t h e c a l l t o b a t t l e ( a l - h a r b ) , p l a y e d on t h e drum ( t a b l ) , a n d t h e r e t r e a t ( a l i n f i s a l ) , p l a y e d on t h e drum o r cymbals ( k a s a t ) . 4 5 By t h e m i d d l e o f t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e p e a c e f u l 4 3 L y n n W h i t e , J r . , M e d i e v a l R e l i g i o n a n d T e c h n o l o g y ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1978), p. 281. 4 4 D o u g l a s G i f f o r d , " S p a i n a n d t h e S p a n i s h L a n g u a g e " , S p a i n , A Companion t o S p a n i s h S t u d i e s , E d i t e d by P.E. R u s s e l l (London: Methuen, 1985), p. 14. 4 5 H e n r y G e o r g e F a r m e r , The M i n s t r e l s y o f "The A r a b i a n N i g h t s " ( H e r t f o r d : A u s t i n and Sons, 1945), p. 7. 22 r e l a t i o n s h i p between G r a n a d a and C a s t i l e was u n d e r i n c r e a s i n g s t r a i n . E s c a l a t i n g r e l i g i o u s t e n s i o n s between t h e two s t a t e s were e x a c e r b a t e d by c i v i l u n r e s t i n G r a n a d a and c i v i l war i n C a s t i l e . I n t h e y e a r 1476, t h e b r e a k between C a s t i l e and i t s n o r m a l l y t r i b u t a r y Granada took p l a c e , when I s a b e l s e n t a demand t o t h e M u s l i m E m i r o f G r a n a d a f o r r e n e w a l o f t r i b u t e , a n d r e c e i v e d t h e r e p l y t h a t "we no l o n g e r m i n t g o l d , o n l y s t e e l . " 4 6 B e c a u s e o f t h e s e e m i n g l y weak p o s i t i o n o f C a s t i l e d u r i n g i t s c i v i l war, A b u - l - H a s a n c a p t u r e d Z a h a r a , a C h r i s t i a n town, i n D e c e m b e r o f 1 4 8 1 , d e s p i t e a t r u c e t h e n i n e f f e c t . I n r e t a l i a t i o n , t h e C h r i s t i a n w a r - p a r t y i n A n d a l u s i a c a p t u r e d t h e M u s l i m c i t y o f A l h a m a i n F e b r u a r y , 1 4 8 2 . 4 7 T h e s e a c t i o n s p r o v i d e d a r e a s o n f o r t h e monarchs t o u n i t e C a s t i l e a g a i n s t a f o r e i g n power and a d e s p i s e d r e l i g i o n , t o h e a l t h e wounds o f t h e c i v i l war i n a c l e a n s i n g n a t i o n a l c r u s a d e . The n a t u r e o f t h e war was q u i c k l y d e t e r m i n e d . To c o n q u e r t h i s n a t u r a l f o r t r e s s , a c a m p a i g n o f a t t r i t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n b o o t y c o l l e c t i n g e x p e d i t i o n s , was r e q u i r e d . T h i s t a c t i c was s u g g e s t e d as e a r l y as t h e f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , and i s a t t r i b u t e d t o E n r i q u e I I ( 1 3 6 9 - 1 3 7 9 ) . 4 8 Few b a t t l e s were f o u g h t and t h e n u m e r i c a l l y weaker M u s l i m s a v o i d e d them. The M u s l i m s t r a t e g y was e x t r e m e l y w e l l c h o s e n . 4 6 Kamen, A S o c i e t y o f C o n f l i c t , p. 2. 4 7 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h Kingdoms, p. 370. 4 8 I b i d . , p. 202. 23 By f o r c i n g t h e C h r i s t i a n s t o a t t a c k f o r t i f i e d a r e a s , t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n , r e s o u r c e s and i n g e n u i t y o f C a s t i l e were s t r e t c h e d t o t h e l i m i t . F o r e x a m p l e , j u s t t o t r a n s p o r t t h e s i e g e a r t i l l e r y , o v e r 6,000 men were used t o b u i l d a s i n g l e causeway a t t h e s i e g e o f C a m b i l . D u r i n g t h e s i e g e o f B a z a , t h e m a s s i v e s i e g e works r e q u i r e d t h e s e r v i c e s o f o v e r 10,000 w o r k e r s . Over 16,000 m u l e s , d o n k e y s and h o r s e s were r e q u i s i t i o n e d by t h e G e n e r a l A s sembly o f P i n t o i n December o f 1482 t o s u p p l y t h e army f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g s p r i n g c a m p a i g n . 4 9 And t h i s huge e f f o r t was f o r o n l y t h e s m a l l a r m i e s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e war. C o n t r a r y t o t h e b e l i e f o f J . de Mata C a r r i a z o , t h a t t h e war was s t r i c t l y a l o c a l a f f a i r o f s i e g e s and s k i r m i s h e s , and t h a t i t "...was a l m o s t n e v e r t h e s t r u g g l e o f o n e p e o p l e w i t h a n o t h e r " 5 0 , t h e G r a n a d a c a m p a i g n was a s t r u g g l e t o t h e d e a t h . The d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f b o t h s i d e s t o r e s i s t i s h i n t e d a t i n t h e h a r a n g u e s a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C h r i s t i a n commander o f Alhama and t h e M u s l i m commander o f M a l a g a , d u r i n g t h e s i e g e s o f t h o s e c i t i e s . The s i e g e o f M a l a g a l a s t e d a l m o s t f o u r months and a f t e r i t s f a l l t h e r e v e n g e o f t h e C h r i s t i a n M o n a r c h s was v i c i o u s . C h r i s t i a n r e n e g a d e s i n t h e d e f e a t e d g a r r i s o n w e r e k i l l e d by b e i n g a c a n a v e a d o s ( p i e r c e d t h r o u g h by r e e d s ) , t h e d e s e r t e r s and c o n v e r s o s were b u r n t a l i v e , t h e M u s l i m commander was i m p r i s o n e d i n d e f i n i t e l y , and t h e g a r r i s o n and p o p u l a t i o n 4 9 J . F . C . F u l l e r , The D e c i s i v e B a t t l e s o f t h e W e s t e r n W o r l d , 480-1757 ( S t . A l b a n s : P a l a d i n , 1975), p. 393. 5 0 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h Kingdoms, p. 126. 24 w e r e e n s l a v e d . Some w e r e a l l o w e d t o r a n s o m t h e m s e l v e s f o r t h i r t y g o l d d o b l a s e a c h , b u t t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y who c o u l d n o t a f f o r d t o pay were s o l d i n t o s l a v e r y . 5 1 D u r i n g t h e s i e g e o f B a z a i n 1 4 8 9 , F e r n a n d o a n d I s a b e l ' s d e t e r m i n a t i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o o r d e r t h e b u i l d i n g o f o v e r a t h o u s a n d h u t s o f e a r t h o r c l a y w i t h r o o f s o f t i m b e r a n d t i l e s , t o p r o t e c t t h e army d u r i n g t h e autumn. T h i s e a r t h e n t o w n was b u i l t i n j u s t f o u r d a y s a n d p r o v e d v e r y d i s c o u r a g i n g t o t h e d e f e n d e r s , a s t h e M u s l i m h i s t o r i a n A l - M a k k a r i i n d i c a t e s . A b o u t t h e end o f t h e l a t t e r month t h e M o s l e m s , h a v i n g e x a m i n e d t h e e x t e n t o f t h e i r s t o r e s , f o u n d t h a t t h e y h a d b u t v e r y few i n t h e i r m a g a z i n e s ; b u t t h e y s t i l l p e r s e v e r e d i n t h e i r r e s i s t a n c e , i n t h e hope t h a t t h e C h r i s t i a n s w o u l d r a i s e t h e s i e g e a t t h e a p p r o a c h o f w i n t e r . B u t , a l a s ! what was t h e i r a s t o n i s h m e n t when, i n s t e a d o f r e t u r n i n g t o t h e i r c o u n t r y , t h e y saw them a c t u a l l y b u i l d i n g h o u s e s and h u t s , no d o u b t w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f p a s s i n g t h e w i n t e r b e f o r e t h e i r c i t y ! A t s i g h t o f t h e s e p r e p a r a t i o n s t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f B a z a w e r e s e i z e d b y t e r r o r a n d d e s p a i r , a n d t h e y a c c o r d i n g l y b e g a n t o n e g o t i a t e a c a p i t u l a t i o n on t h e same t e r m s a s h a d b e e n g r a n t e d t o t h e s u r r e n d e r e d p l a c e s . 5 2 A l - M a k k a r i d e s c r i b e d t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e mon a r c h s i n t h e y e a r l y c a m p a i g n s : " . . . t h e C h r i s t i a n k i n g s o p r e s s e d t h e t e r r i t o r y o f t h e M o s l e m s on a l l s i d e s , t h a t he a t t a c k e d no f o r t r e s s w h i c h he d i d n o t t a k e , a n d i n v a d e d no d i s t r i c t w h i c h d i d n o t i m m e d i a t e l y s u r r e n d e r t o h i s a r m s . " 5 3 I b i d . , p. 384. A l - M a k k a r i , The Mohammedan D y n a s t i e s o f S p a i n , p. 382. I b i d . , p. 376. 25 The g r e a t e s t a i d t o t h e C h r i s t i a n m o narchs was l u c k , o r a s t h e y saw i t , God's f a v o u r . I n 1483 A b u ' A b d i l l a h (Muhammad X I I ) , known t o t h e C h r i s t i a n s a s B o a b d i l , was c a p t u r e d by t h e C h r i s t i a n s . F e r n a n d o d e c i d e d n o t t o s e t up B o a b d i l a s a p u p p e t E m i r i n G r a n a d a , b u t t o c o n q u e r t h e e n t i r e e m i r a t e t h r o u g h h i m . "To p u t G r a n a d a i n d i v i s i o n a n d d e s t r o y i t We h a v e d e c i d e d t o f r e e him...He [ B o a b d i l ] has t o make war on h i s f a t h e r . " 5 4 The c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h i s m e a s u r e were t h a t d i s c o r d a n d c i v i l war b r o k e o u t i n G r a n a d a , w e a k e n i n g t h e M u s l i m s ' a b i l i t y a n d w i l l t o r e s i s t . The r e a s o n s f o r B o a b d i l ' s d i s a s t r o u s b e h a v i o u r c a n p e r h a p s be e x p l a i n e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p o l i c y o f v a s s a l a g e t o C a s t i l e . I n s t e a d o f o f f e r i n g h o p e l e s s r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e C h r i s t i a n s , h e t h o u g h t t h a t a f o r m o f p e a c e f u l a n d l i m i t e d i n d e p e n d e n c e c o u l d be won. To t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f G r a n a d a , he o f f e r e d " . . . p e a c e a n d s e c u r i t y , a n d p r o m i s i n g t h a t w h o e v e r s u b m i t t e d t o h i s a u t h o r i t y s h o u l d have n o t h i n g t o f e a r i n f u t u r e f r o m t h e h o s t i l i t i e s o f t h e C h r i s t i a n s , s u c h b e i n g t h e c o n d i t i o n o f a t r e a t y w h i c h he s a i d he had i n h i s p o s s e s s i o n , s i g n e d by t h e K i n g o f C a s t i l e . " 5 5 The p r o m i s e o f t h e end o f d e c a d e s o f u n r e s t a n d c i v i l war i n G r a n a d a was v e r y welcome t o some o f i t s i n h a b i t a n t s . T h i s a c t o f B o a b d i l ' s was j u s t a m i r r o r o f t h e f a c t i o n a l i s m 5 4 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h K i n g d o m s , p. 381. 5 5 A l - M a k k a r i , The Mohammedan D y n a s t i e s o f S p a i n , p. 378. 26 i n M u s l i m c u l t u r e r e s u l t i n g f r o m t r i b a l a f f i l i a t i o n o r b l o o d r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h w e r e a m a j o r f a c t o r i n t h e d e f e a t o f G r a n a d a . I n j u s t t e n y e a r s , f r o m 1481 t o 1491, t h e r u l i n g c l a s s o f G r a n a d a was r e n t by c o u p s a n d b e t r a y a l s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e i n v o l v i n g B o a b d i l , a l - Z a g a l , a n d t h e E m i r A b u - l - H a s a n . The C h r i s t i a n a r m y i t s e l f r e c e i v e d a i d f r o m n u m e r o u s M u s l i m s o u r c e s . I t was a c c o m p a n i e d by " . . . r e n e g a d e s and M u d e j a r s who showed [ F e r n a n d o ] t h e weak p o i n t s o f t h e M u s l i m s . " 5 6 Many o f t h e M u s l i m i n h a b i t a n t s o f G r a n a d a r e f u s e d t o f i g h t a n d r e m a i n e d i n t h e i r v i l l a g e s . T h i s was l a r g e l y due t o t h e f a c t t h a t i n t h e M u s l i m s o c i e t y o f a l - A n d a l u s , l o y a l t i e s were e t h n i c a n d r e g i o n a l i n n a t u r e r a t h e r t h a n n a t i o n a l o r r e l i g i o u s . Time a f t e r t i m e d u r i n g t h e f i n a l y e a r s , t h e C h r i s t i a n s c o n q u e r e d t o w n s w h i c h r e c e i v e d l i t t l e o r no h e l p f r o m n e i g h b o r i n g t o w n s . A s i n C h r i s t i a n E u r o p e , r e l i g i o n was a b i n d i n g f o r c e t h a t c o u l d be b e n t o r t w i s t e d f o r p o l i t i c a l r e a s o n s . " R e l i g i o n s o r e n t w i t h c l i q u e s and f a c t i o n s a l w a y s r e s t e d on u n s t a b l e e q u i l i b r i u m . . . N o common b o n d s , no deep p o l i t i c a l a l l e g i a n c e , bound t h i s d i v e r s i t y i n t o more t h a n an a c c i d e n t a l u n i t y . " 5 7 C h r i s t i a n S p a i n a l s o s u f f e r e d f r o m t h e same r e g i o n a l l o y a l t i e s a n d x e n o p h o b i a t h a t r e l i g i o n o n l y p a r t i a l l y c o m p e n s a t e d f o r . The d r i v e t o u n i f y t h e p e n i n s u l a p l a y e d a c r u c i a l r o l e i n t h e d e c i s i o n t o c o n q u e r G r a n a d a . Thus a m a j o r 5 6 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h K i n g d o m s , p. 386. 5 7 A n w a r G. C h e j n e , I s l a m a n d t h e W e s t : The M o r i s c o s ( A l b a n y : S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f New Y o r k P r e s s , 1 9 8 3 ) , p. 19. 27 r e a s o n f o r t h e war c a n be e x p l a i n e d i n p o l i t i c a l t e r m s . A v i c t o r y o v e r G r a n a d a d i d more t h a n a n y t h i n g e l s e t o r a l l y t h e c o u n t r y b e h i n d t h e Crown, and a s s o c i a t e t h e m o n a r c h s and p e o p l e i n a h e r o i c e n t e r p r i s e . The u n i f i c a t i o n o f C a s t i l e and A r a g o n , p e r s o n i f i e d b y t h e m a r r i a g e o f F e r n a n d o a n d I s a b e l , was f u r t h e r e d by t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f F e r n a n d o a s K i n g o f A r a g o n i n t h e war. I n t h i s way t h e monarchs i n s t i l l e d t h e i d e a t h a t t h e R e c o n q u e s t was a n a t i o n a l S p a n i s h e n t e r p r i s e , n o t m e r e l y a C a s t i l i a n o n e . 5 8 R e g i o n a l and l o c a l p a t r i o t i s m s were e n d e m i c i n S p a i n a s i n t h e r e s t o f E u r o p e , a n d t h e s e h i n d e r e d t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e m o n a r c h y t o c r e a t e r o y a l power and an e f f e c t i v e f o r e i g n p o l i c y . The p o l i t i c a l u n i o n b e tween C a s t i l e and A r a g o n was a b e g i n n i n g , b u t o n l y t h a t . The c u l t u r a l a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g t h e m e d i e v a l c e n t u r i e s were n o t e a s i l y r e s o l v e d and p o l i t i c a l u n i o n c o u l d n o t e n s u r e t h e a c t u a l c o h e s i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l g r o u p s . 5 9 The m a i n f a c t o r i n o v e r c o m i n g t h e c e n t r i f u g a l b i a s o f t h e I b e r i a n s were t h e m o n a r c h s 1 many v i s i t s t o e v e r y r o y a l town a n d c i t y , a s w e l l a s t h e f r o n t l i n e s i n G r a n a d a . T h i s p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n s t h e i m m e n s e p e r s o n a l l o y a l t y I s a b e l e x p e c i a l l y a t t r a c t e d . The army f r e q u e n t l y b e n e f i t e d f r o m h e r v i s i t s , a nd a t t h e d i f f i c u l t s i e g e s s h e a p p e a r e d among t h e t r o o p s , a t 5 8 E l l i o t t , I m p e r i a l S p a i n , p. 46. 5 9 O ' C a l l a g h a n , H i s t o r y o f M e d i e v a l S p a i n , p. 24. 28 M a l a g a i n 1487 and a t Baza i n 1489. I s a b e l ' s a p p e a r a n c e s were p a r t i a l l y a means o f a r o u s i n g m o n a r c h i c a l f e e l i n g , as w e l l as a s i g n t h a t t h e d i f f i c u l t s i e g e s would be p r e s s e d home. 6 0 I n t h e war camps as w e l l , I s a b e l e n c o u r a g e d t h e s o l d i e r s . As P e t e r M a r t y r r e l a t e d , "...Her p r e s e n c e seemed a t o n c e t o g l a d d e n and r e a n i m a t e our s p i r i t s , d r o o p i n g under l o n g v i g i l s , d a n g e r s a n d f a t i g u e . " 6 1 The same a u t h o r w r o t e how I s a b e l e s t a b l i s h e d one o f t h e f i r s t f i e l d h o s p i t a l s t o c a r e f o r t h e s i c k a n d t h e wounded. The camp h o s p i t a l " . . . i s s o p r o f u s e l y s u p p l i e d w i t h m e d i c a l a t t e n d a n t s , a p p a r a t u s , and w h a t e v e r may c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e r e s t o r a t i o n o r s o l a c e o f t h e s i c k , t h a t i t i s s c a r c e l y s u r p a s s e d i n t h e s e r e s p e c t s by t h e m a g n i f i c e n t e s t a b l i s h m e n t s o f M i l a n . " 6 2 The t e n t s , a t t e n d a n t s and m e d i c i n e s f o r " t h e queen's h o s p i t a l s " were p r o v i d e d a t h e r own e x p e n s e . 6 3 A c o n t e m p o r a r y wrote t h a t "Many men b e l i e v e d t h a t she [ I s a b e l ] was c r e a t e d m i r a c u l o u s l y , f o r t h e R e d e m p t i o n o f l o s t kingdoms. " 6 4 F e r n a n d o was a l s o c o n s p i c u o u s i n t h e f r o n t l i n e s among h i s t r o o p s and was a b l e t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r m o r a l e by s h a r i n g w i t h them t h e r i s k s o f b a t t l e . D u r i n g th e s i e g e o f V e l e z M a l a g a , 6 0 Kamen, A S o c i e t y o f C o n f l i c t , p. 25. 6 1 P r e s c o t t , R e i g n o f F e r d i n a n d and I s a b e l l a , 2:65. 6 2 I b i d . , 2:61. 6 3 I b i d . , 1:484. 64 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h Kingdoms, p. 363. 29 F e r n a n d o r a l l i e d h i s men and c h a r g e d t h e enemy d u r i n g a s u r p r i s e s o r t i e b y t h e M u s l i m s . "...he c o u l d n o t s t o p t o c a l c u l a t e c h a n c e s when h i s s u b j e c t s w e r e p e r i l l i n g t h e i r l i v e s f o r h i s s a k e . . . " 6 5 The r e s u l t i n g f e e l i n g o f c o m m u n i t y a n d p o p u l a r a p p r o v a l a i d e d t h e C a t h o l i c m o n a r c h s i n t h e i r p r o g r a m o f n a t i o n a l war a n d c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . Thus t h e e f f o r t t o c o n q u e r G r a n a d a u n i t e d t h e d i v i d e d k ingdoms and p e o p l e s o f S p a i n i n one e n d e a v o r , b l e s s e d by r e l i g i o n and g r e e d , a g a i n s t a v a l i a n t b u t s a t a n i c r e l i g i o n . T h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f t h e s e d i v e r s e p e o p l e s u n d e r t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f one monarchy d u r i n g t h e war a i d e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a n a t i o n a l S p a n i s h c o n s c i o u s n e s s . The h e a r t y c o o p e r a t i o n d u r i n g t h e G r a n a d a War s h o w ed t h a t C a s t i l i a n s a n d A r a g o n e s e c o u l d be c o m b i n e d i n f o r e i g n a d v e n t u r e s . The l a t e r v i c t o r i e s o f F e r n a n d o o v e r F r a n c e - t h e r e c o v e r y o f R o u s s i l l o n a nd C e r d a g n e by d i p l o m a c y , t h e c o n q u e s t by war o f N a p l e s and N a v a r r e , and t h e s e i z u r e o f much o f t h e N o r t h A f r i c a n c o a s t - w o u l d h a v e b e e n i m p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e f o r c e s o f b o t h C a s t i l e a n d A r a g o n . 6 6 F u r t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h i s d r i v e w e r e t h e d e m a n d s f o r u n i f o r m i t y a s w e l l as u n i t y . The r e m o v a l o f " f o r e i g n " e l e m e n t s , s u c h a s t h e J e w s , shows t h i s d e s i r e . I t i s a l s o i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e m o n a r c h s t o remove t h e S p a n i s h c h u r c h f r o m 6 5 P r e s c o t t , R e i g n o f F e r d i n a n d and I s a b e l l a , 2:15. 6 6 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h K i ngdoms, p. 584. 30 t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e P a p a c y . T h u s , t h e h o m o g e n i z i n g o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n was a f a c t o r i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f a n a t i o n - s t a t e . 6 7 T h e s e e f f o r t s were s u c c e s s f u l . A f t e r a l o n g s i e g e , on t h e f i r s t d a y o f t h e y e a r i n 1 4 9 2 , C h r i s t i a n t r o o p s e n t e r e d t h e A l h a m b r a a t f i r s t l i g h t , on B o a b d i l ' s r e q u e s t , t o p r e v e n t any v i o l e n c e . The r e s t o f t h e C a s t i l i a n army a p p r o a c h e d t h e c i t y l a t e r i n t h e m o r n i n g , w i t h t h e C a s t i l i a n M o n a r c h s d r e s s e d i n M o o r i s h r o b e s . The s i l v e r c r o s s (a g i f t f r o m t h e P o p e ) , t h e R o y a l S t a n d a r d and t h e S t a n d a r d o f S a n t i a g o were r a i s e d o v e r t h e t o w e r s o f t h e A l h a m b r a . As B o a b d i l handed t h e k e y s o f t h e c i t y t o F e r n a n d o , a p r o c e s s i o n o f C h r i s t i a n c a p t i v e s i n c h a i n s w e re f r e e d . To t h e s o u n d o f b o m b a r d s a n d c a n n o n s , t h e e n t i r e C h r i s t i a n army s a n g t h e Te Deum. As B o a b d i l l e f t t h e c i t y , mass was c e l e b r a t e d i n G r a n a d a " w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t t e a r s and d e v o t i o n e v e r s e e n , a s much by t h e p r i e s t c e l e b r a t i n g a s by a l l o f us who w e r e t h e r e . " 6 8 To a C h r i s t i a n o b s e r v e r i t was " t h e most s i g n a l a nd b l e s s e d day t h e r e has e v e r been i n S p a i n . " 6 9 The I s l a m i c l i t e r a t u r e o f t h e t i m e d e s c r i b e s t h e s h a t t e r i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t o f t h e s e d e f e a t s on t h e p e o p l e o f G r a n a d a . A c o n t e m p o r a r y E g y p t i a n M o s l e m w r o t e t h a t i t was "one o f t h e m o s t t e r r i b l e c a t a s t r o p h e s w h i c h h a v e b e f a l l e n I s l a m . " 7 0 A 6 7 J . A. M a r a v a l l , "The O r i g i n s o f t h e M o d e r n S t a t e " J o u r n a l o f W o r l d H i s t o r y 6 ( 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 797. 6 8 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h K i n gdoms, p. 387. 6 9 I b i d . , p. 388. 7 0 I b i d . 31 poem, w r i t t e n a f t e r t h e f a l l o f Alhama, d e s c r i b e d t h e d e s p a i r o f t h e n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n , who had s u d d e n l y l o s t t h e i r homes and t h e i r h e r i t a g e : I n c o n t r a s t , t h e C a s t i l i a n r e s p o n s e t o t h e v i c t o r i o u s war was a s p i r i t o f r o m a n t i c n o s t a l g i a . F r o n t i e r b a l l a d s , t h e Romances f r o n t e r i z o s , c e l e b r a t e d t h e deeds o f b o t h C h r i s t i a n and M u s l i m h e r o e s . The monarchs o r d e r e d propaganda songs w r i t t e n t o c e l e b r a t e t h e h o l y m i s s i o n o f S p a i n t o conquer i n t h e name o f G o d . " S e t e n i l , a y S e t e n i l ! " e x p r e s s e d t h e h o p e t h a t t h e m o n a r c h s w o u l d c o n q u e r "as f a r a s J e r u s a l e m . " " S o b r e B a z a " e n c o u r a g e d p e r s i s t e n c e i n t h e h a r d e s t s i e g e o f t h e w a r . 7 2 C o n t e m p o r a r y e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h e c o n q u e s t w e r e s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . To B e r n a l d e z i t was God's d e s i r e t o r e w a r d t h e C a t h o l i c Monarchs. In C h r i s t i a n t h e o l o g y , t o avenge wrongs and r e c o v e r s t o l e n goods were good r e a s o n s f o r a j u s t war. The outcome o f b a t t l e was t h o u g h t t o be a judgement o f God, w i t h 1 1 C h e j n e , I s l a m and t h e West, p . 5, c i t i n g M. D c i n v i l a y C o l l a d o , La e x p u l s i o n de l o s m o r i s c 5 s e s p a f i o l e s ( M a d r i d , 1 8 8 9 ) . Hombres, n i n o s y mu j e r e s L l o r a n t a n gr a n d e p e r d i d a L l o r a b a n t o d a s l a s damas, c u a n t a s en Granada h a b i a Ay de mi Alhama! Por l a s c a l l e s y v e n t a n a s mucho l u t o p a r e c i a y l l o r a r e y como fembra que es mucho l o que p e r d i a Ay de mi Alhama! Men, c h i l d r e n and women lament s u c h a g r e a t l o s s . A l l l a d i e s l a m e n t e d as many as were i n G r a n a d a . A l a s , my poor Alhama! In t h e s t r e e t and windows G r e a t mourning was s e e n And t h e k i n g c r y i n g l i k e a woman Fo r t h e much he had l o s t . A l a s , my poor A l h a m a ! 7 1 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h Kingdoms, p. 371. 32 j u s t i c e i n f a l l i b l y on t h e s i d e o f t h e v i c t o r . 7 3 M o r e r e c e n t e x p l a n a t i o n s m e n t i o n t h e f e u d s w i t h i n t h e M u s l i m d y n a s t y - c l a n s , t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e C h r i s t i a n m i l i t a r y a n d f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s , t h e v i g o r o u s and d e t e r m i n e d e f f o r t s o f t h e C h r i s t i a n r u l e r s , t h e s k i l l o f t h e C h r i s t i a n l e a d e r s , a nd t h e i n t e n s i v e r e l i g i o u s and m o n a r c h i c a l p r o p a g a n d a u t i l i z e d s o w e l l by t h e C r o w n . 7 4 T h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e c o n q u e s t t o C a s t i l e c a n n o t b e o v e r e s t i m a t e d . F e r n a n d o and I s a b e l m a n i p u l a t e d t h e n o b i l i t y a n d p e o p l e o f S p a i n f o r t h e i r own p o l i t i c a l e n d s , a c q u i r e d c o n t r o l o f a r i c h l a n d and u n i f i e d a l l C h r i s t i a n S p a n i a r d s u n d e r t h e i r l e a d e r s h i p . Above a l l , t h e y a c q u i r e d power o v e r t h e i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t d o m i n a t e d a l l t h e f o r c e s o f m e d i e v a l S p a i n , t h e army. 7 3 I b i d . , p. 392. 7 4 I b i d . , p. 392. 33 The C h r i s t i a n Army T h e C h r i s t i a n army t h a t c o n q u e r e d G r a n a d a h a d l i t t l e c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r E u r o p e a n m i l i t a r y t a c t i c s . T h e r e were some F r e n c h a d v e n t u r e r s i n i t s r a n k s , b u t i t d e v e l o p e d e s s e n t i a l l y o u t o f i t s own m a r a u d i n g t r a d i t i o n s . The c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h i s army s l o w l y changed d u r i n g t h e f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y f r o m a c a v a l r y f o r c e t o an i n f a n t r y - b a s e d m i l i t i a , w i t h c a v a l r y s u p p o r t . What f i g u r e s we do h a v e f o r t h e f o u r t e e n t h a n d e a r l y f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e number o f m e n - a t - a r m s ( a r m o u r e d c a v a l r y ) p r e s e n t n e v e r e x c e e d e d 6,000, t h e number o f l i g h t c a v a l r y f l u c t u a t e d f r o m 1,200 t o 8,000 a n d t h e number o f i n f a n t r y i n c r e a s e d f r o m 5,000 a r c h e r s i n 1374 t o o v e r 50,000. A t t h e b a t t l e o f N a v a r e t e , on A p r i l 3, 1367, t h e C a s t i l i a n army was c o m p o s e d o f 4,500 m e n - a t - a r m s , 3,000 c r o s s b o w m e n , 4,000 l i g h t c a v a l r y , 20,000 i n f a n t r y and 1,500 F r e n c h men-at-arms. 1 The C a s t i l i a n army b e f o r e t h e war w i t h Granada was l a r g e l y composed o f men f r o m two s o u r c e s : m i l i t i a f r o m t h e c i t i e s and towns o f C a s t i l e , and t h e p e r s o n a l r e t a i n e r s o f t h e n o b i l i t y , i n c l u d i n g t h o s e o f t h e K i n g . Up t o t h e m i d d l e o f t h e f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e r e t a i n e r s o f t h e n o b i l i t y were p a i d e i t h e r w i t h g r a n t s o f l a n d , a s i n F r a n c e , o r i n c r e a s i n g l y w i t h g r a n t s o f money. From 1390 on t h e Crown p l a c e d an i n c r e a s e d r e l i a n c e on a c o s t a m i e n t o s o f t i e r r a s (money f i e f s ) , due t o t h e l a c k o f H e a t h , A r m i e s o f t h e M i d d l e Ages, p. 30. 34 s u p p o r t f r o m t h e n o b i l i t y . T h i s meant t h a t t h e Crown p a i d a n a n n u a l r e t a i n e r f e e p l u s wages when t h e n o b l e s were on a c t i v e s e r v i c e . I n 1 4 2 9 , t w e n t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t o f t h e Crown's r e g u l a r i n c o m e was s p e n t on t i e r r a s f o r a f o r c e o f 9,000 l a n c e s , a t a n a v e r a g e c o s t o f 1,500 m a r a v e d i s p e r l a n c e . E a c h o f t h e c i t i e s a n d t o w n s p r o v i d e d a c e r t a i n n u m b e r o f men a c c o r d i n g t o a g r e e m e n t s n e g o t i a t e d w i t h t h e Crown, w h i l e t h e n o b l e s p r o v i d e d w h a t e v e r men t h e y c o u l d o r w o u l d a f f o r d t o s p a r e . 2 The i n f a n t r y were e q u i p p e d w i t h some armour ( s o m e t i m e s o n l y a h e l m e t ) , a s w o r d , a p i k e o r a c r o s s b o w . T h e r e was l i t t l e f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n t o t h e i n f a n t r y mass: l i k e t h e c a v a l r y , t h e y u s u a l l y a c c o m p a n i e d t h e i r l o r d o r d e s i g n a t e d l e a d e r . T h e y w e re d i s t i n c t l y a s e c o n d a r y f o r c e t o t h e c a v a l r y , b u t were u s e f u l i n s i e g e s o r h o l d i n g t h e l i n e w h i l e t h e c a v a l r y c h a r g e d , r a l l i e d , o r f l e d , d e p e n d i n g on t h e f o r t u n e s o f t h e b a t t l e . T h i s f e u d a l army was i n c a p a b l e o f s u s t a i n i n g t h e power o f t h e m o narchy o r o f c o n q u e r i n g G r a n a d a , b e c a u s e i t was n o t u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e K i n g . T h u s , a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f t h e Crown's a t t e m p t s t o c e n t r a l i z e and u n i f y t h e c o u n t r y u n d e r i t s a u t h o r i t y was t h e c o n t r o l a n d r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e u l t i m a t e s o u r c e o f p o w e r , t h e a r m y . The a b s e n c e o f s u c h c o n t r o l o f t h e a r m y f r e q u e n t l y r e s u l t e d i n c i v i l w a r s , e n d e m i c i n S p a i n b e f o r e t h e war w i t h G r a n a d a . Of a l l t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r r o y a l a u t h o r i t y , t h i s was p e r h a p s t h e m o s t d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e m o n a r c h s t o I b i d . , p. 29. 35 a c h i e v e . B e f o r e t h e r e i g n s o f F e r n a n d o and I s a b e l , t h e o n l y m i l i t a r y f o r c e s u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e C r o w n w e r e t h e p e r s o n a l r e t a i n e r s o f t h e K i n g . A t t e m p t s were made t o i n c r e a s e t h e s i z e o f t h e R o y a l a r m i e s t h r o u g h r e c o u r s e t o c i t i z e n m i l i t i a s . J u a n I o f C a s t i l e ( 1 3 7 9 - 1 3 9 0 ) made t h e f i r s t e f f o r t s t o f o r m a p e r m a n e n t m i l i t i a u n d e r r o y a l c o n t r o l . A l l m a l e s b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f t w e n t y and s i x t y , c l e r i c s and l a y m e n a l i k e , were t o be armed w i t h s p e c i f i c e q u i p m e n t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r i n c o m e , and be p r e p a r e d f o r p e r i o d i c r e v i e w s . T h e s e m u s t e r s were t o be h e l d e v e r y two months and t h e u s e o f h o r s e s r a t h e r t h a n m u l e s f o r t h e c a v a l r y was demanded. T h i s a t t e m p t f a i l e d . 3 E n r i q u e I V , u s u a l l y s e e n a s a weak K i n g , e s t a b l i s h e d a r o y a l s t a n d i n g a r m y c o m p o s e d o f 3,000 l a n z a s a n d 2 0 , 0 0 0 i n f a n t r y , p a i d f o r by s u b s i d i e s f r o m t h e C o r t e s a nd f r o m i n c o m e d e r i v e d f r o m t h e B u l l s o f C r u s a d e g r a n t e d by t h e P o p e . T h e s e u n i t s were n e v e r a t f u l l s t r e n g t h . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t d e c a d e o f h i s r e i g n , E n r i q u e ' s b o d y g u a r d was composed o f 3,600 men-at-arms a n d l i g h t c a v a l r y . 4 The n o b l e s ' f e a r s o f t h i s l a r g e f o r c e p r o m p t e d them t o demand a r e d u c t i o n o f t h e army t o a f o r c e o f o n l y 600 l a n z a s i n t h e " S e n t e n c e o f M e d i n a d e l Campo" on J a n u a r y 16, 1 4 6 5 . 5 3 O ' C a l l a g h a n , H i s t o r y o f M e d i e v a l S p a i n , p. 602. 4 P h i l l i p s , J r . , E n r i q u e I V , p. 56. 5 I b i d . , p. 78. 36 One o f t h e b a s i c s o u r c e s o f p o t e n t i a l m i l i t a r y p ower t o c o u n t e r a c t t h e l a r g e n o b l e a r m i e s was t h a t o f a c i t i z e n m i l i t i a . E n r i q u e I V b e g a n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f s u c h a m i l i t i a t h r o u g h t h e g a t h e r i n g o f many l o c a l H ermandades ( l o c a l p o l i c e f o r c e s ) i n t o a n a t i o n a l S a n t a Hermandad. The d i r e c t o r s o f t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n were a p p o i n t e d by t h e K i n g and t h u s i t was u n d e r h i s c o n t r o l . T h i s f o r c e p r o v i d e d a r e a d y s o u r c e o f t r o o p s d u r i n g t h e c i v i l war b e g i n n i n g i n 1 4 6 5 . 6 H o w e v e r , a p e r m a n e n t army u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e Crown was v i t a l t o s a f e g u a r d i t s a u t h o r i t y . The e n v i r o n m e n t n e e d e d f o r a p e r m a n e n t army i n c l u d e d t h e c r e a t i o n o f p e r m a n e n t m i l i t a r y u n i t s , t h e d e s i r e o f t h e a u t h o r i t i e s t o m a i n t a i n t h e s e u n i t s d u r i n g t i m e s o f b o t h p e a c e a n d w a r , t h e p r e s e n c e o f l a r g e numbers o f p o t e n t i a l and w i l l i n g r e c r u i t s , and r e g u l a r r e v e n u e s t o p a y t h e t r o o p s . 7 F e r n a n d o a n d I s a b e l p r o v i d e d t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s . The b u l k o f t h e r o y a l a r m i e s o f F e r n a n d o and I s a b e l were f o r m e d by r e c o u r s e t o t h e c r o w n ' s v a s s a l s , t o o r d i n a r y n o b l e s a n d t o t h e m i l i t i a s o f t h e c i t i e s ( c o n c e j o s ) . The r e s u l t was an army t h a t was i n f e r i o r t o t h a t o f t h e n o b l e s i n s i z e , b u t one t h a t c o n t a i n e d some e l e m e n t s o f s u p e r i o r o r g a n i z a t i o n . The p a i d t r o o p s p r e s e n t e n c o m p a s s e d t h e r o y a l g u a r d o f 500 men-at-arms a n d 5 0 0 l i g h t c a v a l r y . T h e s e w e r e d i v i d e d i n t o f i f t e e n 6 I b i d . , p. 61. 7 C o n t a m i n e , War I n t h e M i d d l e A g e s , p. 168. 37 c o m p a n i e s u n d e r t h e K i n g ' s p e r s o n a l command. The K i n g ' s v a s s a l s a n d t h e i r men w e r e k e p t u n d e r s t r i c t c o n t r o l , w h i l e t h e s m a l l p e r m a n e n t m i l i t i a s f r o m G a l i c i a and t h e A n d a l u c i a n b o r d e r w e re o f e x c e l l e n t q u a l i t y . A w e a k n e s s o f t h i s army was t h a t t h e s e r o y a l f o r c e s w e r e r e g r o u p e d e a c h y e a r a t t h e s t a r t o f a c a m p a i g n , a n d t h u s t h e s e was no p e r m a n e n t s t a n d i n g a r m y a s s u c h . 8 The p e r s o n a l r e t a i n e r s o f t h e Crown f o r m e d a s u b s t a n t i a l p a r t o f t h e R o y a l a r m i e s . I n 1481 Queen I s a b e l ' s p e r s o n a l h o u s e h o l d f o r c e c o n t a i n e d 1,100 m e n - a t - a r m s a n d 130 l i g h t c a v a l r y . The K i n g was a t t e n d e d by a r o y a l b o d y g u a r d o f 1,000 k n i g h t s o f w h i c h h a l f w e r e m e n - a t - a r m s a n d h a l f w e r e l i g h t c a v a l r y , a l l o f whom w e r e w e l l e q u i p p e d a n d m o u n t e d . By t h e t i m e o f t h e war w i t h G r a n a d a , t h e r o y a l t r o o p s i n c l u d e d t h e G u a r d a s R e a l e s , a p e r m a n e n t body o f 900 c a v a l r y , an Hermandad f o r c e o f 1,500 c a v a l r y , and by 1489 a h o s t o f l e s s e r n o b l e s who w e r e ' r o y a l v a s s a l s ' a n d p a i d by t h e C r o w n , c o m p r i s i n g o v e r 1,000 c a v a l r y . 9 The t r o o p s o f t h e S a n t a Hermandad, o r H o l y B r o t h e r h o o d , f o r m e d a v i t a l p a r t o f t h e r o y a l army. F e r n a n d o and I s a b e l u s e d t h e f e a r o f a P o r t u g u e s e i n v a s i o n i n 1475 t o renew t h e Hermandad m i l i t i a o f E n r i q u e I V . The army t h u s f o r m e d was co m p o s e d o f 12,000 c a v a l r y and 30,000 i n f a n t r y , many o f whom were members o f 8 M a r i e j o l , S p a i n o f F e r d i n a n d and I s a b e l l a , p. 195. 9 H a l e , War and S o c i e t y , p. 136. 38 t h e H e rmandad. 1 0 The S a n t a Hermandad was o r i g i n a l l y m e r e l y a r u r a l p o l i c e f o r c e . I t was c o m p o s e d o f r e g u l a r c o u n c i l s t o c r e a t e a n d e n f o r c e r e g u l a t i o n s , a l c a l d e s t o k e e p d o c u m e n t s a n d e n f o r c e j u s t i c e , and c u a d r i l l e r o s , o r s q u a d s o f a r c h e r s , t o a r r e s t a n d e x e c u t e l a w - b r e a k e r s . I n A p r i l o f 1 4 7 6 , F e r n a n d o a n d I s a b e l g a v e t h e l o c a l h e r m a n d a d e s j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r t h e c r i m e s o f m u r d e r , a s s a u l t , r o b b e r y , a r s o n , p r i v a t e i m p r i s o n m e n t a n d r a p e , i f c o m m i t t e d i n r u r a l , w i l d e r n e s s o r u n p o p u l a t e d a r e a s . I n A u g u s t o f t h e same y e a r , i g n o r i n g t h e c i t y f u e r o s o f l o n g s t a n d i n g g r a n t e d b y p r e v i o u s m o n a r c h s , F e r n a n d o a n d I s a b e l p l a c e d c i t i e s and towns i n t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h i s p o l i c e f o r c e c o n t r o l l e d b y t h e C r o w n . I n a d d i t i o n , a l l r u r a l a n d u r b a n p o l i c e w e r e t a k e n u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e H e r m a n d a d . T o e n f o r c e t h e s e e x t r a d u t i e s a l l t h e r u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s w e r e o r d e r e d t o b u i l d up t h e i r p o l i c e t o one l i g h t h orseman p e r 100 h o u s e h o l d e r s a n d one m a n - a t - a r m s p e r 150 h o u s e h o l d e r s . T h e c o m m u n i t i e s were a l s o o r d e r e d t o pay some t r o o p s t o be h e l d on c a l l f o r t h e m i l i t i a whenever n e e d e d . 1 1 The f u n c t i o n o f t h e Hermandad was v e r y s p e c i f i c : t o c o n t a i n a n d c o n t r o l v i o l e n c e , b u t n o t t o e l i m i n a t e i t . A l l S p a n i a r d s were a c c u s t o m e d t o b e a r i n g arms and t h e Crown e n c o u r a g e d s u c h a m e n t a l i t y . The j u s t i c e i s s u e d t o l a w b r e a k e r s was v e r y r o u g h a n d 1 0 M a r v i n L u n e n f e l d , The C o u n c i l o f t h e S a n t a H ermandad ( C o r a l G a b l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i a m i P r e s s , 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 29. 1 1 I b i d . , p. 19. 39 q u i c k l y a p p l i e d . The r o y a l p h y s i c i a n L o p e z de V i l l a l o b o s commented t h a t t h e Hermandad's " . . . p r o c e d u r e was s o s e v e r e t h a t i t a p p e a r e d t o be c r u e l t y , b u t i t was n e c e s s a r y b e c a u s e a l l t h e k i n g d o m s h a d n o t been p a c i f i e d . . . T h e s e was much b u t c h e r y , w i t h t h e c u t t i n g o f f o f f e e t , hands and h e a d s . " 1 2 The e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e H e r m a n d a d f o r c e s r e s u l t e d i n t h e i r w i d e s p r e a d u s e i n t h e G r a n a d a War, w i t h t h e r e s u l t a n t r e v i v a l o f r u r a l b a n d i t r y t h r o u g h o u t C a s t i l e . A l i s t f r o m 1 4 9 2 - 1 4 9 3 o f r e w a r d s t o i n d i v i d u a l a r c h e r s shows t h e p r e s e n c e o f many c r i m i n a l s on t h e r o a d s . 1 3 To f a c i l i t a t e t h e u s e o f t h i s p o l i c e f o r c e t h e Crown f o r m e d a J u n t a o f t h e m a j o r towns o f C a s t i l e , t h e J u n t a G e n e r a l , i n 1 4 7 6 . T h i s w a s e s s e n t i a l l y a f o r u m f o r c o o p e r a t i o n a n d c o n s u l t a t i o n . To i n c r e a s e t h e mo n a r c h s ' c o n t r o l o f t h e m i l i t i a a n d p r o v i d e i n f a n t r y f o r t h e war, b e g i n n i n g i n 1480 t h e c a p t a i n s o f t h e m i l i t i a u n i t s w e r e c h o s e n and p a i d by t h e J u n t a . 1 4 I t a l s o p r o v i d e d l a r g e sums o f money t o f i n a n c e t h e war a s w e l l a s a r r a n g i n g f o r 3,000 m i l i t i a t o f o r m t h e c o r e o f t h e r o y a l army u n d e r t h e c o m m a n d o f t h e K i n g ' s b r o t h e r , Don A l o n s o d e A r a g o n . 1 5 T h e s e f u n d s h e l p e d p a y f o r t h e l a r g e numbers o f m u l e s n e e d e d t o v i c t u a l Alhama f r o m 1482-1485 and t o h i r e b o t h 1 2 Kamen, A S o c i e t y o f C o n f l i c t , p. 18. 1 3 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h K i n gdoms, p. 507. 1 4 L u n e n f e l d , The C o u n c i l o f t h e S a n t a Hermandad, p. 77. 1 5 Kamen, A S o c i e t y o f C o n f l i c t , p. 19. 40 m e r c e n a r i e s and l o c a l m i l i t i a s f o r t h e y e a r l y c a m p a i g n s . 1 6 The J u n t a G e n e r a l o f t h e r e v i v e d Hermandad e s t a b l i s h e d q u o t a s o f l i g h t a n d h e a v y c a v a l r y as w e l l a s i n f a n t r y t o be p r o v i d e d by e a c h l o c a l i t y . 1 7 W h i l e t h e s e t r o o p s were a u s e f u l a d d i t i o n t o t h e r o y a l army ( t h e a r c h e r s o f t h e hermandades were p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f i c i e n t ) , t h e mass l e v i e s o f t h e Hermandad t r o o p s w e r e n o t s u i t a b l e f o r a s t a n d i n g army b e c a u s e t h e t r o o p s were c a l l e d up f o r p a r t i c u l a r c a m p a i g n s o n l y . As w e l l , t h e G e n e r a l A s s e m b l i e s a u t h o r i z e d o n l y e i g h t y d a y s pay f o r t h e m i l i t i a p e r c a m p a i g n . 1 8 R e g u l a r d r a f t s o f i n f a n t r y f r o m t h e H e r m a n d a d w e r e p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h v a r i o u s A s s e m b l i e s d u r i n g t h e w a r . T h e s e i n c l u d e d : 1483 A s s e m b l y o f P i n t o 8,000 1485 A s s e m b l y o f T o r r e l a g u n a 5,000 1487 A s s e m b l y o f F u e n t e s a u c o 10,000 1488 A s s e m b l y o f A r r a n d a 10,000 1489 A s s e m b l y o f T o r d e s i l l a s 10,000 1490 A s s e m b l y o f Adamuz 10,000 T h e s e f o r c e s w e r e o r g a n i z e d i n t o b a t t a l i o n s c o m p o s e d o f t e n f i f t y man c o m p a n i e s . F r e q u e n t r e v i e w s o f t h e m i l i t i a s h e l p e d i n s t i l l a s e n s e o f communal d i s c i p l i n e a n d s o l i d a r i t y . T h e s e p e r i o d i c r e v i e w s a l s o h e l p e d t o e s t i m a t e t h e d e g r e e o f d e s e r t i o n , w h i c h was b o t h l a r g e i n s c a l e a n d i m p o s s i b l e t o 1 6 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h K i n g d o m s , p. 378. 1 7 I b i d . , p. 506. 1 8 L u n e n f e l d , The C o u n c i l o f t h e S a n t a Hermandad, p. 8 1 . 1 9 I b i d . , p. 78. 41 p r e v e n t . 2 0 A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e war t h e m i l i t i a l e f t t h e towns a n d t h e c o u n t r y s i d e a nd o p e r a t e d d i r e c t l y u n d e r r o y a l command. I n 1490 t h e 10,000 Hermandad i n f a n t r y p r e s e n t c o n s t i t u t e d t w e n t y f i v e p e r c e n t o f a l l t h e i n f a n t r y o f F e r n a n d o ' s a r m y . 2 1 D u r i n g t h e G r a n a d a War t h e m a i n w e i g h t o f p r o v i d i n g t h e f i g h t i n g f o r c e was b o r n e by A n d a l u s i a . The f o l l o w i n g numbers were summoned by t h e Crown f o r t h e War: C a v a l r y I n f a n t r y M u l e s 1482 S e v i l l e 300 4,000 7,000 1483 S e v i l l e 500 6,000 C o r d o b a 750 5,000 1484 S e v i l l e 400 6,000 1485 S e v i l l e 4,000 ( f i r s t c a m p a i g n ) 500 6,000 ( s e c o n d c a m p a i g n ) 1486 S e v i l l e 500 5,000 1487 S e v i l l e 500 5,000 1489-1491 S e v i l l e 500-600 6,000 ( e a c h y e a r ) T h o u s a n d s o f m u l e s , m u l e - d r i v e r s a n d c a r t - d r i v e r s w e r e a l s o c a l l e d o u t i n l a r g e numbers e a c h y e a r . 2 2 D u r i n g 1 4 8 2 , t h e f i r s t y e a r o f s e r i o u s , s u s t a i n e d c a m p a i g n i n g , o n l y 2,500 c a v a l r y and 3,000 i n f a n t r y were p r e s e n t a t t h e s i e g e o f A l h a m a , most o f whom were A n d a l u s i a n . D u r i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g c a m p a i g n s t h e t o t a l number o f c a v a l r y e a c h y e a r h o v e r e d a t t h e 10,000 t o 12,000 mark w h i l e t h e number o f p e o n e s ( i n f a n t r y ) grew f r o m 10,000 t o o v e r 50,000 i n 1491. O v e r 30,000 2 0 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h K i n g d o m s , p. 379, 2 1 Kamen, A S o c i e t y o f C o n f l i c t , p. 19. 2 2 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h K i n gdoms, p. 379, 42 n o n - f i g h t i n g men w e r e u s e d i n 1483 a l o n e , s i m p l y t o d e v a s t a t e t h e G r a n a d a n c o u n t r y s i d e . The M u s l i m f o r c e s were i n c r e a s i n g l y o u t n u m b e r e d e v e r y y e a r , a s t h e s h e e r s i z e o f t h e C h r i s t i a n army i n c r e a s e d , u n t i l by 1489 t h e army numbered 13,000 c a v a l r y a n d 40,000 i n f a n t r y . 2 3 The i n f a n t r y component o f t h e army was l a r g e l y r a i s e d f r o m t h e c i t i e s ( c o n c e j o s ) . The c o n c e j o s o f A n d a l u s i a were t h e o n l y o n e s t o s e n d men t o e v e r y c a m p a i g n . I n 1483 a l o n e , t h e y s e n t 1,900 c a v a l r y a n d 12,800 i n f a n t r y . M o s t o f t h e s e men w e r e v o l u n t e e r s f r o m t h e u n e m p l o y e d a n d were f r e q u e n t l y u n p a i d o n c a m p a i g n f o r a s l o n g a s t w o y e a r s . O t h e r a r e a s o f S p a i n , i n c l u d i n g G a l i c i a , V i z c a y a a n d t h e A s t u r i a s , s e n t i n f a n t r y f o r c e s . I n 1486 t h e A s t u r i a s s e n t 1,200 i n f a n t r y a n d i n 1489 G a l i c i a s e n t a l a r g e number. 2 4 T h i s w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r o f f o r c e s f r o m w i d e l y d i s p a r a t e a r e a s w i t h d i f f e r e n t t r a d i t i o n s c a u s e d some comment, a n d i s a t r i b u t e t o t h e u n i f y i n g e f f o r t s o f t h e M o n a r c h s . I n t h e words o f P e t e r M a r t y r : "Who w o u l d h a v e t h o u g h t t h a t t h e G a l i c i a n , t h e p r o u d A s t u r i a n and t h e r u d e i n h a b i t a n t o f t h e P y r e n e e s , w o u l d be m i x i n g f r e e l y w i t h T o l e d a n s , p e o p l e o f L a M a n c h a , a n d A n d a l u c i a n s , l i v i n g t o g e t h e r i n h a r m o n y a n d o b e d i e n c e , l i k e m e m b e r s o f o n e f a m i l y , s p e a k i n g t h e same l a n g u a g e a nd s u b j e c t t o one common d i s c i p l i n e . " 2 5 23 I b i d p. 376. 24 I b i d p. 378. 25 Kamen, A S o c i e t y o f C o n f l i c t , p. 34. 43 When t h e Granada war ended, t h e m i l i t i a was d i s s o l v e d and th e C o u n c i l o f t h e Hermandad d i s b a n d e d b e c a u s e t h e t r o o p s were no l o n g e r n e c e s s a r y t o t h e army, but were d e s p e r a t e l y needed t o p o l i c e t h e c o u n t r y s i d e . 2 6 To i n c r e a s e r o y a l a u t h o r i t y i n time o f war, t h e Crown to o k o v e r t h e f o r c e s o f t h e M i l i t a r y O r d e r s o f C a l a t r a v a , S a n t i a g o a n d A l c a n t a r a t h r o u g h t h e e x p e d i e n t o f m a k i n g F e r n a n d o t h e M a s t e r o f e a c h o r d e r a s t h e c u r r e n t M a s t e r d i e d . The o r d e r s were t a k e n o v e r i n 1485, 1493 and 1498 r e s p e c t i v e l y . F e r n a n d o r u l e d t h e O r d e r s t h r o u g h t h e R e a l C o n s e j o d e l o s O r d e n e s M i l i t a r e s , a f u r t h e r g r o w t h o f t h e b u r e a u c r a c y n e e d e d t o c o n s o l i d a t e S p a i n under t h e Crown. 2 7 The c h a i n o f command o f t h e O r d e r s was v e r y s p e c i f i c and f i t t e d i n w e l l w i t h t h e e v o l v i n g r o y a l b u r e a u c r a c y . The M a s t e r o r M a e s t r e l e d t h e O r d e r , w i t h t h e Grand P r i o r ( P r i o r M a y o r ) , t h e G r a n d Commander ( C o m e n d a d o r M a y o r ) , t h e C a s t e l l a n o r K e y - b e a r e r ( C l a v e r o ) , t h e S u b - C a s t e l l a n ( S u b - C l a v e r o ) , t h e Q u a r t e r m a s t e r ( O b r e r o ) , and t h e S t a n d a r d - B e a r e r ( A l f e r e z ) a l l b e l o w h i m i n o r d e r o f command. 2 8 T h e a w a r d i n g o f t h e s e p o s i t i o n s p r o v i d e d t h e Monarchs w i t h a re a d y s o u r c e o f p a t r o n a g e f o r t h e i r f o l l o w e r s . The b a s i c u n i t o f t h e s e M i l i t a r y O r d e r s was t h e commandery 2 6 L u n e n f e l d , The C o u n c i l o f t h e S a n t a Hermandad, p. 50. 2 7 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h Kingdoms, p. 399. 2 8 H e a t h , A r m i e s o f t h e M i d d l e Ages, p. 31. 44 [ e n c o m i e n d a ] w h i c h u s u a l l y c o n t a i n e d f o u r b r e t h r e n . T h i s s m a l l g r o u p p r o v i d e d a t a c t i c a l f l e x i b i l i t y u s e f u l i n t h e s k i r m i s h a c t i o n s t y p i c a l o f t h e G r a n a d a War. Most o f t h e t r o o p s r a i s e d by t h e O r d e r s were v a s s a l s o r m e r c e n a r i e s u n d e r t h e command o f t h e b r e t h r e n s e r v i n g as o f f i c e r s . 2 9 The M i l i t a r y O r d e r s p r o v i d e d t h e Crown w i t h a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f t r o o p s . D u r i n g t h e y e a r 1472 t h e O r d e r o f A l c a n t a r a c o n t r o l l e d 1,500 c a v a l r y and 2,500 i n f a n t r y . 3 0 D u r i n g one y e a r t h e M a s t e r o f t h e O r d e r o f S a n t i a g o m u s t e r e d 1,760 c a v a l r y f o r t h e c o n q u e s t o f G r a n a d a , t h u s d e m o n s t r a t i n g i t s w e a l t h f o r a l l t o s e e . C a l a t r a v a , a l e s s w e a l t h y O r d e r , p r o v i d e d 450 c a v a l r y a n d 1,000 i n f a n t r y a t one t i m e d u r i n g t h e w a r . 3 1 So d e s p e r a t e was t h e C r o w n f o r men t h a t H o m i c i a n o s ( c r i m i n a l s c o n v i c t e d f o r c a p i t a l c r i m e s ) o b t a i n e d r o y a l r e m i s s i o n f r o m t h e i r s e n t e n c e s by s e r v i n g i n t h e war. A s many a s 1,000 o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s s e r v e d i n t h e l a t e r c a m p a i g n s . 3 2 T h a t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e f f o r t s o f t h e m o narchy were s t i l l i m c o m p l e t e c a n be s e e n by how t h e army was commanded. T h e s e m i l i t a r y c a m p a i g n s w e r e a m i x t u r e o f s t a t e a n d p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e . C o n t r a c t s ( c a p i t u l a c i o n e s ) were made w i t h l e a d e r s o f t h e m i l i t a r y e x p e d i t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e M u s l i m s . T h e s e 2 9 I b i d . 3 0 I b i d . 3 1 C o n t a m i n e , War I n t h e M i d d l e A g e s , p. 163. 3 2 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h K i ngdoms, p. 378. 45 c o n t r a c t s r e s e r v e d c e r t a i n r i g h t s t o t h e C r o w n w h i l e g u a r a n t e e i n g t o t h e l e a d e r o f t h e e x p e d i t i o n due r e w a r d s o r m e r c e d e s f o r h i s s e r v i c e s . E a c h c o n t i n g e n t was r a i s e d a n d l e d by a l e a d e r w h o s e f i r s t t a s k was t o r e w a r d h i s f o l l o w e r s . B e f o r e t h e e x p e d i t i o n s t a r t e d , f o r m a l a g r e e m e n t s w e r e u s u a l l y made a b o u t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e b o o t y : a p o r t i o n w o u l d be s e t a s i d e f o r t h e Crown a n d t h e r e s t w o u l d be d i v i d e d i n t o f i x e d p r o p o r t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r a n k and s t a t u s o f t h e members o f t h e e x p e d i t i o n . 3 3 T h i s n a t u r a l l y p r o m o t e d a s p i r i t o f c o m p e t i t i o n among t h e v a r y i n g g r o u p s . T h e r e was l i t t l e u n i t y i n an army c o m p o s e d , v e r y f r e q u e n t l y , o f c o n t i n g e n t s commanded by m u t u a l l y a n t a g o n i s t i c n o b l e s ; and w i t h i n t h e s e c o n t i n g e n t s t h e r e w a s f a r l e s s s e n s e o f l o y a l t y t o t h e m o n a r c h t h a n t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l c a p t a i n who had r e c r u i t e d t h e m . 3 4 T h i s t y p e o f f l u i d a n d h e t e r o g e n e o u s army p r e s e n t e d many d i f f i c u l t i e s t o t h e m o n a r c h s . As i n t h e p a s t , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o p l a n m onths a h e a d f o r t h e d a t e a nd s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f e a c h c a m p a i g n , t h e l o d g i n g o f t r o o p s , and t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t o u n i t s t o m a r c h a n d p i t c h camp i n a n o r d e r l y way. When c a m p a i g n i n g a g a i n s t G r a n a d a t h e v a s s a l s o f t h e C r o w n w e r e summoned w i t h t h e i r men, o n p a i n o f l o s i n g t h e i r p r i v i l e g e s . Many new c o n c e s s i o n s o f c a b a l l e r i a , o r k n i g h t h o o d , were made d u r i n g t h e J J E l l i o t t , I m p e r i a l S p a i n , p. 59. 3 4 J.R. H a l e , "War and O p i n i o n : War and P u b l i c O p i n i o n i n t h e 1 5 t h and 1 6 t h C e n t u r i e s " P a s t and P r e s e n t 22 ( 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 26. 46 w a r , m o s t l y t o men o f New C a s t i l e and A n d a l u s i a . S o m e t i m e s t h e n o b l e v a s s a l commanded h i s c o n t i n g e n t i n p e r s o n , b u t u s u a l l y a c a p t a i n o f renown t o o k h i s p l a c e d u r i n g t h e n o b l e ' s a b s e n c e . The l a n d s o f t h e c r o w n f u r n i s h e d l e v i e s l e d b y a d e l a n t a d o s ( s t a t e p r e s i d e n t s , c h i e f j u d g e s a nd l e a d e r s o f t r o o p s ) , o r o t h e r r o y a l o f f i c i a l s . The m u n i c i p a l m i l i t i a s f r o m t h e c i t i e s a n d t o w n s w e r e c o m m a n d e d b y c a p t a i n s o r c o r r e g i d o r e s . A l l t h e s e f o r c e s , b o t h n o b l e a n d common, c o n t a i n e d b o t h i n f a n t r y and c a v a l r y . 3 6 The n o b l e c o n t i n g e n t s were e a c h a s e p a r a t e army. I n 1483 t h e n o b i l i t y , t h e M i l i t a r y O r d e r s and t h e b i s h o p s p r o v i d e d 4,700 c a v a l r y a n d 3,440 i n f a n t r y , w h i l e i n 1489 t h e y p r o v i d e d 7,461 c a v a l r y o u t o f a t o t a l o f 13,000 and 5,795 i n f a n t r y o u t o f a t o t a l o f 4 0 , 0 0 0 . 3 7 T h e s e n o b l e f o r c e s w e r e o r g a n i z e d i n t o b a t t l e s o r b a t a l l a s o f m i x e d i n f a n t r y and c a v a l r y . The b a s i s o f t h e s e b a t a l l a s was t h e demand o f t h e n o b l e s t o command t h e i r own men, r e s u l t i n g i n u n i t s w h i c h were made up by o r i g i n b u t were u n e q u a l i n s t r e n g t h and w i t h no r a t i o n a l p r o p o r t i o n o f c a v a l r y t o i n f a n t r y . 3 8 The e a r l y C a s t i l i a n c a v a l r y f o r c e h a d o n l y a h a p h a z a r d o r g a n i z a t i o n . The mounted t r o o p s w e r e d i v i d e d i n t o u n i t s o f 3 5 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h K i n g d o m s , p. 378. 3 6 M a r i e j o l , The S p a i n o f F e r d i n a n d and I s a b e l l a , p. 193. 3 7 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h K i n gdoms, p. 377. 3 8 M a r i e j o l , The S p a i n o f F e r d i n a n d and I s a b e l l a , p. 193. 47 1 0 0 , 2 0 0 , o r 300 l a n c e s . E a c h l a n c e r e f e r r e d t o a s i n g l e h o r s e m a n , e x c e p t w h e r e F r e n c h i n f l u e n c e was s t r o n g , a s i n N a v a r r e , where i t r e f e r r e d t o a u n i t o f two t o s i x men. 3 9 I n d i c a t i o n s o f t h e g r o w i n g p q w e r o f t h e m o n a r c h y a r e p r o v i d e d i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e i n f a n t r y , by r o y a l d e c r e e a n d u n d e r r o y a l command, r a t h e r t h a n t h r o u g h t h e g o o d w i l l o f t h e n o b i l i t y . T h i s i n v o l v e d t h e c r e a t i o n o f c o m p a n i e s o f 800 men e a c h i n s i x t e e n c u a d r i l l a s ( s q u a d s ) o f f i f t y men e a c h . T h e s e c o m p a n i e s w e r e composed o f 720 men e q u i p p e d w i t h t h e p i k e a n d e i g h t y e s p i n g a r d e r o s , men e q u i p p e d w i t h a p r i m i t i v e f i r e a r m . E a c h c o m p a n y was l e d by a c a p t a i n a n d was s t a f f e d w i t h a n a l c a l d e , a p u r s e r and a t r e a s u r e r . 4 0 The f o r c e most amenable t o r o y a l c o n t r o l a v a i l a b l e t o t h e m o n a r c h s , b u t u n f o r t u n a t e l y o ne o f t h e s m a l l e s t , was t h e i r C a s t i l i a n b o d y g u a r d , t h e G u a r d a s R e a l e s . I n 1480 t h e m o n a r c h s r e o r g a n i z e d t h i s c a v a l r y i n t o f o u r t e e n c o m p a n i e s , e a c h w i t h a c a p i t a n p r i n c i p a l ( c a p t a i n ) , a l f e r e z ( e n s i g n ) , two t r u m p e t e r s , two drummers and one h u n d r e d l a n c e s . E a c h company was d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r p a r t s , e a c h l e d by a hombre p r i n c i p a l ( l i e u t e n a n t ) . 4 1 I n 1481 t h i s body c o m p r i s e d 893 l a n c e s , a n d by 1496 had grown t o 1,100 men-at-arms and 130 l i g h t c a v a l r y . 4 2 T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , 39 L u n e n f e l d , The C o u n c i l o f t h e S a n t a Hermandad, p. 76. 40 I b i d p. 78. 41 I b i d p. 76. 42 C o n t a m i n e , War I n t h e M i d d l e A g e s , p. 167. 48 a s l i t t l e a p p l i e d a s i t was, l a s t e d u n t i l 1493, when t h e G u a r d a s V i e j a s was c r e a t e d , a f o r c e c o n t r o l l e d d i r e c t l y by t h e Crown. T w e n t y f i v e c o m p a n i e s were f o r m e d , e a c h o f e i g h t y m e n - a t - a r m s , w i t h t w e n t y l i g h t c a v a l r y a t t a c h e d t o e a c h c o m p a n y . E a c h company h a d a s e c t i o n o f e s c o p e t e r o s ( m o u n t e d h a r q u e b u s i e r s ) , t h u s c o m b i n i n g s h o c k , s k i r m i s h i n g , and f i r e p o w e r p o t e n t i a l i n one u n i t . 4 3 D u r i n g t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , S p a n i s h c a v a l r y was d i v i d e d i n t o t w o s e p a r a t e a r m s , t h e h e a v y s h o c k c a v a l r y , t y p i c a l o f E u r o p e a n w a r r i o r s , and t h e l i g h t s k i r m i s h i n g c a v a l r y t y p i c a l o f A r a b i c s o c i e t i e s . The s t a n d a r d r a t i o o f l i g h t c a v a l r y t o t h e m e n - a t - a r m s d u r i n g t h e f o u r t e e n t h and f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s was a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o u r t o one, w h i l e a t c e r t a i n t i m e s t h e C a s t i l i a n c a v a l r y was c o m p r i s e d o f n i n e t y p e r c e n t l i g h t c a v a l r y a n d o n l y t e n p e r c e n t m e n - a t - a r m s . 4 4 W h i l e t h e p r e v a l e n c e o f r a i d i n g o v e r p i t c h e d b a t t l e s p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n s t h e l a c k o f h e a v y c a v a l r y , t h e h o t c l i m a t e o f c e n t r a l C a s t i l e d e l a y e d t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f f u l l p l a t e o r " w h i t e a r m o u r " . The S p a n i s h n o b i l i t y d i d n o t a d o p t p l a t e a r m o u r u n t i l M i l a n e s e a r t i s a n s p r o d u c e d s u i t a b l e l i g h t a nd w e l l v e n t i l a t e d armour i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e f i f t e e n t h , 45 c e n t u r y . 3 4 3 G e o r g e G u s h , R e n a i s s a n c e A r m i e s , 1480-1650 ( C a m b r i d g e : P a t r i c k S t e p h e n s , 1 9 8 2 ) , p. 53. 4 4 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h K i n g d o m s , p. 378. 4 5 J.G. Mann, " N o t e s on Armour Worn i n S p a i n From t h e T e n t h To t h e F i f t e e n t h C e n u r i e s " A r c h a e o l o g i a L X X X I I I ( 1 9 3 3 ) , p. 286. 49 S u c h m i n u t i a e a s t h e t y p e a n d s t y l e s o f a r m o u r w o r n by S p a n i s h k n i g h t s may seem i r r e l e v a n t , b u t t h e m e n t a l i t y o f t h e r u l i n g c l a s s e s c a n be p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n e d t h r o u g h s u c h d e t a i l s . " I f one w i s h e s t o p e n e t r a t e t h e m i n d o f t h e p a s t one may r e f l e c t t h a t C h a r l e s V p a i d l a r g e r sums f o r h i s a r m o u r s i n t h e R e a l A r m e r i a t h a n he d i d t o T i t i a n f o r h i s p i c t u r e s i n t h e P r a d o , a n d t h a t he t o o k w i t h h i m s e v e r a l o f h i s s u i t s t o a c c o m p a n y h i s r e t i r e m e n t t o t h e m o n a s t e r y o f Y u s t e . " 4 6 I n a n e r a when t h e l a c k o f s u i t a b l e weapons o r t r a i n i n g r e n d e r e d t h e S p a n i s h i n f a n t r y a l m o s t h e l p l e s s a g a i n s t t h e a r m o u r e d man on h o r s e b a c k , t h e a c t u a l armour and weapons o f t h e man-at-arms were o f v i t a l i m p o r t a n c e . A t t h e b a t t l e o f Olmedo i n 1 4 4 5 , t h e C r o n i c a de A l v a r o de Luna d e s c r i b e d one o f t h e c o n t i n g e n t s o f t h e C a s t i l i a n army: Now t h e s q u a d r o n s o f t h e K i n g o f C a s t i l e were drawn up i n t h i s manner: t h e C o n s t a b l e , who h e l d t h e v a n g u a r d , had v e r y good s o l d i e r s and k n i g h t s , n o b l e and s k i l l e d a n d a c c u s t o m e d t o war, and b o t h t h e y and t h e i r h o r s e s w e r e w e l l a n d e l e g a n t l y a r m e d . . . y o u c o u l d s c a r c e l y f i n d i n a l l o f t h e C o n s t a b l e ' s army a p e r s o n whose h o r s e was u n c o v e r e d , and e v e n t h e h o r s e s ' n e c k s were p r o t e c t e d w i t h s t e e l c h a i n - m a i l . And a l l t h o s e y o u n g , n o b l e k n i g h t s o f t h e C o n s t a b l e ' s h o u s e h o l d , and many o t h e r s , w e r e r i c h l y e q u i p p e d , f o r some h a d d i v e r s e emblems p a i n t e d on t h e i r h o r s e s ' armor and wore g i f t s f r o m t h e i r l a d i e s a s p e n n a n t s o v e r t h e i r h e l m e t s . O t h e r s h a d h e a v y c h a i n s w i t h g o l d a n d s i l v e r b e l l s a r o u n d t h e i r h o r s e s ' n e c k s ; and t h e r e were some who wore b u l l i o n s s e t w i t h p e a r l s and p r e c i o u s s t o n e s a s e d g i n g s f o r t h e i r h e l m e t s . T h e r e were o t h e r s who c a r r i e d s m a l l b u c k l e r s , r i c h l y o r n a m e n t e d w i t h w o n d e r f u l s y m b o l s and d e v i c e s . No s m a l l d i v e r s i t y d i d t h e y d i s p l a y i n t h e c r e s t o f t h e i r s a l l e t s a n d h e l m e t s , f o r some wore c r e s t s o f w i l d b e a s t s , o t h e r I b i d . , p. 305. 50 v a r i e g a t e d p a n a c h e s , a n d t h e r e were t h o s e who u s e d f e a t h e r s , b o t h a s c r e s t s f o r t h e i r h e l m e t s a n d a s c r o w n p i e c e s f o r t h e i r h o r s e s . Nor were t h e r e l a c k i n g p e o p l e who s p o r t e d plumes l i k e w i n gs, w h i c h e x t e n d e d down t h e i r b a c k s . Some went i n rough h a r n e s s ; o t h e r s wore j a c k e t s o v e r l a i d w i t h p l a t e s o v e r t h e i r a r m o r , and o t h e r s r i c h l y e m b r o i d e r e d s u r c o a t s . So went a l l t h e C o n s t a b l e ' s t r o o p s and most o f t h o s e who g a t h e r e d f o r t h i s war. As i t was a l r e a d y l a t e , and t h e sun was s h i n i n g d i r e c t l y on them, an d t h e i r t r a p p i n g s were p o l i s h e d and t h e i r armor gleamed, t h e y a l l p r e s e n t e d a f i n e a p p e a r a n c e . 4 7 By t h e t i m e o f t h e Granada war many C h r i s t i a n n o b l e s wore s u i t s o f c o m p l e t e w h i t e armour f r o m t h e M i l a n a r e a made o f h i g h q u a l i t y s t e e l w h i c h , c o m b i n e d w i t h c l e v e r d e s i g n , made t h e wearer a l m o s t immune t o sword blows and bow s h o t s . 4 8 I n c o n t r a s t t o t h i s heavy armoured E u r o p e a n s t y l e c a v a l r y , t h e t y p e o f c a v a l r y t h a t t h e S p a n i s h a d o p t e d f r o m t h e i r M u s l i m o p p o n e n t s and d e v e l o p e d i n t o t h e horsemen t h o u g h t o f by a l l o f E u r o p e a s t y p i c a l l y S p a n i s h were t h e j i n e t e s , a t e r m t h a t o r i g i n a t e d w i t h t h e " Z e n a t a " , a B e r b e r t r i b e i n N o r t h A f r i c a f a m o u s f o r i t s h o r s e m e n . 4 9 T h e s e l i g h t h o r s e m e n o f C a s t i l e a r m e d w i t h l a n c e a n d l e a t h e r s h i e l d a l a j i n e t a had l e a r n e d t h e i r t a c t i c s f r o m t h e M u s l i m s , w h i c h i n v o l v e d h o v e r i n g a r o u n d 4 / G o n z a l o C h a c o n , " C r o n i c a de d o n A l v a r o de L u n a , e d i c i o n y e s t u d i o p o r J u a n de Mata C a r r i a z o " , S p a n i s h L i f e i n t h e L a t e M i d d l e A g e s , E d i t e d a n d T r a n s l a t e d by K e n n e t h R. S c h o l b e r g ( C h a p e l H i l l : U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 ) , p . 62. 4 8 M a l c o l m V a l e , War a n d C h i v a l r y ( L o n d o n : D u c k w o r t h , 1981) , p. 105. 4 9 L e o n i d T a r a s s u k a n d C l a u d e B l a i r , T h e C o m p l e t e E n c y c l o p e d i a o f Arms and Weapons (New York: Simon and S c h u s t e r , 1982) , p . 452. 51 t h e enemy u n t i l t h e y w o u l d g i v e g r o u n d o r b r e a k , when t h e j i n e t e s w o u l d c h a r g e home. A t t h e b a t t l e o f L a H i g u e r u e l a i n 1 4 3 1 , a s p o r t r a y e d i n a p a i n t i n g i n t h e E s c o r i a l , t h e w h o l e a r e a b e t w e e n t h e a r m i e s i s f i l l e d w i t h a w h i r l i n g mass o f t h e j i n e t e s o f t h e two s i d e s , e n g a g e d i n s i n g l e c ombats w i t h t h e j a v e l i n , w h i c h was s o m e t i m e s h u r l e d and s o m e t i m e s u s e d t o t h r u s t . B e h i n d t h i s m e l e e a r e two l i n e s o f S p a n i s h h e a v y c a v a l r y , w i t h two s o l i d m a s s e s o f i n f a n t r y i n t h e r e a r . T h e i r M u s l i m o p p o n e n t s h a v e v e r y l i t t l e , o r even no a r m o u r . The M u s l i m l i g h t c a v a l r y a r e s u p p o r t e d by a l i n e o f s i x s o l i d s q u a d r o n s o f m o u n t e d l a n c e r s , a n d one l i n e o f i n f a n t r y i n e i g h t c o l u m n s . T h e r e i s e v e n a f i g u r e o f a C h r i s t i a n handgunner p r e s e n t . 5 0 The C a s t i l i a n j i n e t e s were e q u i p p e d w i t h a r o u n d s t e e l c a p , a l a r g e s h i e l d , a q u i l t e d gambeson and two l o n g j a v e l i n s . The s h i e l d o r a d a r g a was, a c c o r d i n g t o F r o i s s a r t "a v e r y l i g h t s h i e l d , c o v e r e d w i t h c u i r - b o u i l l i o f C a p p a d o c i a w h i c h , i f t h e l e a t h e r has n o t been o v e r h e a t e d ( i n t h e b o i l i n g ) , no weapon c a n p e n e t r a t e " . 5 1 An e v e n e a r l i e r s o u r c e s t a t e s t h a t i t was " p r o o f a g a i n s t s w o r d and l a n c e b l o w s and t h e m a j o r i t y o f a r r o w s . " 5 2 The weapon most f a v o u r e d by t h e s e w a r r i o r s was t h e j a v e l i n , w h i c h c o u l d be t h r o w n w i t h good a i m e v e n when g a l l o p i n g a t f u l l 5 0 C h a r l e s Oman, A H i s t o r y o f t h e A r t o f War i n t h e M i d d l e A g e s , v o l . I I ( L o n d o n : Methuen and Company, 1 9 2 4 ) , p. 180. 5 1 H e a t h , A r m i e s o f t h e M i d d l e A g e s , p. 135. 5 2 I b i d . 52 s p e e d . 3 U s e d c o r r e c t l y t h e s e j a v e l i n s c o u l d b e v e r y e f f e c t i v e . A t t h e s i e g e o f L i s b o n i n 1384, a j a v e l i n p i e r c e d a k n i g h t ' s c o a t - o f - p l a t e s , m a i l c o r s e l e t , s i l k - s t u f f e d g a m beson and b o t h s i d e s o f h i s body. A t T r a n c o s o j a v e l i n s "were t h r o w n w i t h s u c h f o r c e t h a t t h e y k n o c k e d down a l m o s t a l l t h e y h i t . " - a c c o r d i n g t o F r o i s s a r t . 5 4 The j a v e l i n c o u l d a l s o be u s e d a s an o v e r a r m t h r u s t i n g w e a p o n , u s u a l l y h e l d w e l l f o r w a r d o f i t s c e n t e r p o i n t . 5 5 A v i t a l a i d t o t h e s e t a c t i c s w a s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s t i r r u p a l a j i n e t a . T h i s c o m p r i s e d a s e t o f n o r m a l s t i r r u p s b u t w i t h s h o r t e n e d l e a t h e r s t r a p s w h i c h b e n t t h e r i d e r ' s l e g s , t h u s a i d i n g i n l e g c o n t r o l o f t h e h o r s e , l e a v i n g t h e arms f r e e . 5 6 D e s p i t e t h e l o n g e x p e r i e n c e and e m p h a s i s on c a v a l r y t h a t t h e S p a n i s h e n j o y e d , t h e i r c a v a l r y , b o t h h e a v y and l i g h t , was n o t r e g a r d e d a s v e r y e f f e c t i v e by o t h e r E u r o p e a n k n i g h t s d u r i n g t h e f o u r t e e n t h and f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . T r a i n e d a s r a i d e r s and u s e f u l i n s k i r m i s h e s , p a t r o l l i n g t h e f l a n k s and r e a r o f t h e a r m y , a n d f o r c u t t i n g down f u g i t i v e s , t h e j i n e t e s were l a r g e l y i n e f f e c t i v e a s b a t t l e c a v a l r y . A c c o r d i n g t o F r o i s s a r t "as s o o n a s t h e y have t h r o w n 2 o r 3 d a r t s , and g i v e n a s t r o k e w i t h t h e i r l a n c e s , w i t h o u t d i s c o n c e r t i n g t h e enemy, t h e y t a k e a l a r m , t u r n 5 3 Oman, A H i s t o r y o f t h e A r t o f War, p. 180. 5 4 H e a t h , A r m i e s o f t h e M i d d l e A g e s , p. 130. 5 5 I b i d . , p. 135. 5 6 T a r a s s u k and B l a i r , The C o m p l e t e E n c y c l o p e d i a , p. 452. 53 t h e i r h o r s e s ' h e a d s and s a v e t h e m s e l v e s by f l i g h t a s w e l l a s t h e y c a n . T h i s game t h e y p l a y e d a t A l j u b a r r o t a . 1 , 5 7 T h e m o u n t e d m a n - a t - a r m s , c o n s i d e r e d t h e c r e a m o f t h e C a s t i l i a n army, was a l s o n o t v e r y e f f e c t i v e a g a i n s t h i s E u r o p e a n c o u n t e r p a r t s . T hey a d o p t e d h e a v y a r m o u r much l a t e r t h a n t h e E n g l i s h a n d F r e n c h f e u d a l h o r s e m e n , t h e h o r s e s w e re g e n e r a l l y n o t b a n d e d , t h a t i s p r o t e c t e d by a r m o u r , and t h e k n i g h t s were r e l u c t a n t t o f i g h t on f o o t . I f a f i r s t c h a r g e f a i l e d t h e y t e n d e d t o u s e s k i r m i s h t a c t i c s l i k e t h e j i n e t e s . 5 8 I n some i n s t a n c e s t h e y d e m o n s t r a t e d a l a c k o f t h e e q u e s t r i a n s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y i n w a r . I n a c o n t e m p o r a r y m a n u s c r i p t t h e y a r e d e s c r i b e d a s k n o w i n g " n o t h i n g o f war o r h o n o r ; t h e y know n e i t h e r how t o w a i t o r f l e e . I n C a s t i l e t h e r e i s a l s o a d e a r t h o f g o o d r i d e r s . 1 , 5 9 A p a r t i a l r e a s o n f o r t h i s d e m o n s t r a t e d l a c k o f s k i l l c a n be t r a c e d t o t h e h e a v y demand f o r h o r s e s i n E u r o p e , w h i c h s p u r r e d h o r s e b r e e d i n g and s e l l i n g i n S p a i n . 6 0 A c c o r d i n g t o O l i v i e r de l a M a r c h e i n 1 4 4 5 , " . . . i t was a t t h i s t i m e t h a t h o r s e s o f p e d i g r e e were s o d e a r l y s o l d i n F r a n c e t h a t one n e v e r s p o k e o f s e l l i n g a h o r s e o f n o t e b u t f o r 500 , 1 0 0 0 o r e v e n 1 2 0 0 r e a l s , . . . A n d e v e r y g e n t l e m a n t h o u g h t t h a t i f he were t o a p p e a r 5 7 H e a t h , A r m i e s o f t h e M i d d l e A g e s , p. 49. 5 8 Oman, A H i s t o r y o f t h e A r t o f War, p. 181. 5 9 M a r i e j o l , The S p a i n o f F e r d i n a n d and I s a b e l l a , p. 199. 6 0 V a l e , War and C h i v a l r y , p. 122. 54 on a good h o r s e he w o u l d be more e a s i l y r e c o g n i z e d , s o u g h t a f t e r a n d r e c e i v e d i n t o t h e c o m p a n i e s . " 6 1 T h i s h e a v y demand denu d e d S p a i n o f g o o d h o r s e s , d u e t o t h e q u i c k a n d e a s y p r o f i t s a v a i l a b l e i n F r a n c e . So p r e s s i n g was t h i s l a c k o f h o r s e s t h a t t h e Crown a c t i v e l y i n t e r v e n e d t o f o r c e k n i g h t s t o r i d e h o r s e s r a t h e r t h a n m u l e s . A n t o i n e de L a l a i n g ' s a c c o u n t o f P h i l i p t h e Handsome's t r i p t o S p a i n i n 1501-1502 s t a t e s t h a t : The q u e e n , s e e i n g t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f h e r g e n t l e m e n r o d e m u l e s and when i t was n e c e s s a r y t o arm and r i d e on h o r s e b a c k t h e y w e r e t h e l e a s t d e x t e r o u s i n t h e w o r l d , c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t t h e r e was a d a i l y e x p e c t a t i o n o f war w i t h t h e F r e n c h o r t h e Moors o r a g a i n s t b o t h o f them a t t h e same t i m e , o r d e r e d t h a t n o - o n e , h o w e v e r g r e a t he was, u n l e s s he was a p r i e s t o r e c c l e s i a s t i c , s h o u l d r i d e a m u l e b u t a h o r s e and t h a t t h e h o r s e s s h o u l d s t a n d f i f t e e n h a n d s o r more, i n o r d e r t o be b e t t e r s u i t e d t o war, and she e v e n f o r c e d h e r h u s b a n d , t h e k i n g t o do t h i s and o r d e r e d t h a t t h o s e l i v i n g on t h e b o r d e r s o f F r a n c e s h o u l d r i d e i n o u r f a s h i o n and t h o s e who w e r e n e i g h b o r s o f t h e M o o r s s h o u l d r i d e s h o r t - s t i r r u p e d (a l a j i n n e t t e ) . 6 2 T h i s i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n d i c a t e s t h a t , i n S p a i n a t l e a s t , t h e c a v a l r y was l a r g e l y o b s o l e t e a g a i n s t a E u r o p e a n p o w e r , a n d e q u a l l y u s e l e s s i n t h e m o u n t a i n s o f G r a n a d a . The C a s t i l i a n army was r i p e f o r r e f o r m . The a g e o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t c a v a l r y n o b i l i t y was p a s s i n g . D e s p i t e i t s r e l a t i v e i n e f f i c i e n c y , t h e c a v a l r y p l a y e d a l e a d i n g r o l e , i f o n l y s o c i a l l y , i n t h e G r a n a d a wa r . I n t h e w o r d s o f A n d r e a N a v a g e r o , " I t was a r e a l l y l o v e l y war. S i n c e r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e u s e was made o f f i r e a r m s , e v e r y g e n t l e m a n C o n t a m i n e , War I n t h e M i d d l e A g e s , p. 131. I b i d . , p. 132. 55 c o u l d d i s p l a y h i s b r a v e r y , and h a r d l y a day p a s s e d t h a t was n o t m a r k e d by some m e m o r a b l e f e a t o f a r m s . " 6 3 So f r e q u e n t w e r e c h i v a l r o u s c o m b a t s between M u s l i m and C h r i s t i a n k n i g h t s a t t h e s i e g e o f B a z a , t h a t F e r n a n d o , i n f a v o u r o f a s t r i c t b l o c k a d e o f t h e c i t y , f o r b a d e t h e C h r i s t i a n k n i g h t s t o i n d u l g e i n s u c h d u e l s . 6 4 D u r i n g t h e war as a w h o l e , t h e r a t i o o f i n f a n t r y t o c a v a l r y c h a n g e d f r o m one t o one i n 1482 t o f i v e t o one i n 1 4 9 1 . 6 5 T h i s was i n some ways due t o t h e r u g g e d n a t u r e o f t h e t e r r a i n and t h e f r e q u e n t s i e g e s . W h i l e t h e s e t a c t i c a l r e a s o n s were i m p o r t a n t , o t h e r f a c t o r s a l s o came i n t o p l a y . The numbers o f b o t h h e a v y and l i g h t c a v a l r y d e c l i n e d r e l a t i v e t o t h e i n f a n t r y , b e c a u s e f o r s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c r e a s o n s t h e number o f c a v a l r y was c o n s t a n t , w h i l e t h e i n e x p e n s i v e i n f a n t r y c o u l d be r e c r u i t e d and e q u i p p e d i n i n c r e a s i n g numbers. I n f a n t r y were more u t i l i z e d b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e b o t h a v a i l a b l e and c h e a p e r , due t o t h e l a c k o f e x p e n s i v e m o u n t s , l i g h t e r b a ggage, and l e s s e x p e n s i v e a r m o u r . 6 6 T h e d w i n d l i n g r o l e o f c a v a l r y e v e n t u a l l y c r e a t e d a n a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e i d e a t h a t i t c o u l d be c h i v a l r o u s t o f i g h t on f o o t . By t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , E n g l i s h a r c h e r s a n d S w i s s p i k e m e n h a d r e v o l u t i o n i z e d t h e s o c i a l s t a t u s a n d m i l i t a r y 6 3 M a r i e j o l , The S p a i n o f F e r d i n a n d and I s a b e l l a , p. 198. 6 4 P r e s c o t t , R e i g n o f F e r d i n a n d and I s a b e l l a , 2:59. 6 5 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h Kingdoms, p. 375. 6 6 C o n t a m i n e , War I n t h e M i d d l e A g e s , p. 133. 56 e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e l o w l y i n f a n t r y . As i l l u s t r a t e d b y t h e E n g l i s h a r c h e r s a t C r e c y i n 1346 and S w i s s p i k e m e n a t M o r a t i n 1476, w e l l t r a i n e d i n f a n t r y came t o d o m i n a t e t h e b a t t l e f i e l d s o f E u r o p e . 6 7 D u r i n g t h e war w i t h G r a n a d a , t h e S p a n i s h u t i l i z e d b o t h t h e E n g l i s h f i r e p o w e r and t h e S w i s s p i k e t e c h n i q u e s . The s t a n d a r d S p a n i s h p i k e was a l m o s t f o u r t e e n f e e t l o n g and was c o n s i d e r e d v e r y e f f e c t i v e i n t h e b r o k e n t e r r a i n o f G r a n a d a , when w i e l d e d by w e l l t r a i n e d i n f a n t r y . 6 8 The c r o s s b o w was u s e d r a t h e r t h a n t h e l o n g e r r a n g e d a n d f a s t e r s h o o t i n g l o n g b o w , b e c a u s e w e i g h t o f b l o w and a c c u r a c y were c o n s i d e r e d more i m p o r t a n t t h a n r a n g e and s p e e d o f f i r e a g a i n s t t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f a r m o u r e d h o r s e a n d h e a v i l y a r m o u r e d m a n - a t - a r m s . 6 9 The c r o s s b o w was a t e r r i f y i n g l y e f f e c t i v e weapon. The b o l t had a maximum r a n g e o f 280-380 y a r d s and c o u l d p u n c h t h r o u g h t h e h e a v i e s t armour and c a u s e a p p a l l i n g w o u n d s . 7 0 I t was o n l y abandoned l a t e i n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y when t h e e v e n m ore e f f e c t i v e a r q u e b u s a n d m u s k e t came i n t o w i d e s p r e a d u s e . En masse, t h e crossbowmen were c o n s i d e r e d t o be a c o r p s d ' e l i t e , d u e t o t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s o n t h e 6 7 E u g e n e F. R i c e , J r . , The F o u n d a t i o n s o f E a r l y M o d e r n E u r o p e , 1460-1559 (New Y o r k : W.W. N o r t o n , 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 12. 6 8 L u n e n f e l d , The C o u n c i l o f t h e S a n t a Hermandad, p. 79. 6 9 H a l e , I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s i n t h e West, p. 283. 7 0 W i l l i a m L e d y a r d R o d g e r s , N a v a l W a r f a r e Under O a r s , 4 t h t o 1 6 t h C e n t u r i e s ( A n n a p o l i s : N a v a l I n s t i t u t e P r e s s , 1 9 8 0 ) , p. 107. 57 b a t t l e f i e l d . 7 1 The development of e f f e c t i v e hand-held gunpowder weapons i n the f i f t e e n t h century increased the usefulness of w e l l t r a i n e d i n f a n t r y equipped w i t h the new guns. By 1488 a few Spanish i n f a n t r y were armed with a gun c a l l e d an espingarda, a heavy, i n a c c u r a t e weapon with a wooden support, a long metal b a r r e l with a touch hole, a powder pan and very l i t t l e e l s e . 7 2 I t was a l a r g e weapon, the l a r g e s t b e i n g over seven f e e t l o n g and w e i g h i n g f i f t y pounds. However, t h e most common s i z e o f e s p i n g a r d a was o n l y three and o n e - h a l f f e e t l o n g and weighed approximately ten pounds. I t f i r e d a one and a h a l f ounce b a l l and was f a i r l y e f f e c t i v e against l a r g e t a r g e t s up to about 150 y a r d s . I t was the f i r s t p r a c t i c a l p o r t a b l e handgun, although the long r e l o a d i n g time caused archery to be p r e f e r r e d at s h o r t r a n g e s . Some d i s a d v a n t a g e s of such a weapon were t h a t i t r e q u i r e d a g r e a t d e a l of t r a i n i n g to use, r a i n c ould s p i l l or dampen the pan powder, and the glowing matches c o u l d g i v e away the p o s i t i o n s of the f i r e r s at n i g h t . 7 3 None of these weapons had r i f l e d b a r r e l s , although r i f l e d hand-guns were used a t a L e i p z i g shooting match i n 1498. 7 4 7 1 O.F.G. Hogg, A r t i l l e r y : I t s O r i g i n , Heyday and D e c l i n e (London: C. Hurst and Co., 1970), p. 11. 7 2 Lunenfeld, The C o u n c i l of the Santa Hermandad, p. 79. 7 3 Gush, Renaissance Armies, p. 11. 7 4 Lynn White, J r . , Medieval Technology and S o c i a l Change (Oxford: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1981), p. 164. 58 R e c e n t t e s t s u s i n g r e p l i c a s o f f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y h andguns h a v e d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e y w e r e r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e a n d c o u l d p e n e t r a t e a r m o u r p l a t e a t t w e n t y y a r d s , u s i n g w e t - m i x e d gunpowder and s t e e l b u l l e t s . A t l o n g e r r a n g e s a g a i n s t m a n - s i z e d t a r g e t s , t h e a c c u r a c y was e x t r e m e l y u n c e r t a i n . F i r i n g l e a d b u l l e t s , w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n l e s s s t r e s s on t h e g u n , r e s u l t e d i n a d r o p i n a c c u r a c y , b u t l e n g t h e n i n g t h e g u n b a r r e l i m p r o v e d a c c u r a c y somewhat. U n l e s s t h e gunpowder was w e l l rammed down t h e b a r r e l , w i t h a wad, t h e gunpowder w o u l d n o t e x p l o d e a t a l l . W i t h d r y - m i x e d g u n p o w d e r , t h e gun m i s f i r e d o v e r t w e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e t i m e , due t o t h e s e t t l i n g o u t o f t h e i n g r e d i e n t s a n d i n s u f f i c i e n t r a m m i n g . W i t h w e t - m i x e d p o w d e r , t h e r e l i a b i l i t y was i m p r o v e d ( l e s s t h a n t e n p e r c e n t m i s f i r e s ) , a n d t h e a v e r a g e m u z z l e v e l o c i t y was i n c r e a s e d . Due t o t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f w e t - m i x e d g u n p o w d e r a n d l o n g e r b a r r e l s , t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e weapon on t h e b a t t l e f i e l d was s u f f i c i e n t t o make i t a r e l i a b l e m a n - k i l l e r f o r t h e i n f a n t r y . 7 5 I n a n i n c i d e n t a t t h e s i e g e o f M a l a g a , an a r q u e b u s b a l l p e n e t r a t e d t h e b u c k l e r o f t h e M a r q u i s o f C a d i z , b u t l a c k e d t h e f o r c e t o do much i n j u r y . 7 6 T h e g r o w i n g i m p o r t a n c e o f f i r e a r m i n f a n t r y o n t h e b a t t l e f i e l d i s shown by t h e r o y a l d e c i s i o n o f 1480 t o e x c h a n g e 7 5 A. R. W i l l i a m s , "Some F i r i n g T e s t s W i t h S i m u l a t e d 1 5 t h - c e n t u r y H a n d g u n s " , J o u r n a l o f t h e Arms and Armour S o c i e t y V I I I ( 1 9 7 4 ) , pp. 116-119. 7 6 P r e s c o t t , R e i g n o f F e r d i n a n d and I s a b e l l a , 2:24. 59 m i l i t i a s e r v i c e f o r money c o m m u t a t i o n s i n o r d e r t o h i r e t r a i n e d e s p i n g a r d e r o s ( m u s k e t m e n ) . T h e s e men w e r e t r a i n e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s u n d e r t h e C r o w n ' s c o n t r o l , a n d t h u s a c o u n t e r w e i g h t t o t h e m i l i t a r y power o f t h e n o b l e s . D u r i n g t h e y e a r s 1488 and 1490, T o l e d o a l o n e p r o v i d e d 200 e s p i n g a r d e r o s . 7 7 The G e n e r a l A s s e m b l y was a s k e d t o s e n d t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f 700 s a l a r i e s i n p l a c e o f men i n o r d e r t o h i r e g o o d m a r k s m e n . 7 8 T h e s e e s p i n g a r d a - a r m e d i n f a n t r y were p a i d a s much a s a mounted r o y a l v a s s a l and t w i c e a s much as an o r d i n a r y f o o t - s o l d i e r . 7 9 T h i s e m p h a s i s o n i n f a n t r y e q u i p p e d w i t h f i r e a r m s was v i t a l l y i m p o r t a n t t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a c e n t r a l i z e d C a s t i l i a n s t a t e . I n f a n t r y c o u l d now s u c c e s s f u l l y o p p o s e c a v a l r y , a n d t h i s i n f a n t r y was u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e Crown. The m o n a r c h s no l o n g e r h a d t o r e l y on a r i s t o c r a t i c c a v a l r y a n d c o u l d t h e r e b y d i s p e n s e w i t h t h e m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e s o f t h e n o b i l i t y . Once t h e n o b l e s l o s t t h e i r m o nopoly o f m i l i t a r y power, t h e i r r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e Crown c r u m b l e d . A l o n g w i t h t h e d e c l i n e o f c a v a l r y and t h e r i s e o f i n f a n t r y , t h e e x t e n s i v e u s e o f g u n p o w d e r a r t i l l e r y by t h e C a s t i l i a n s d u r i n g t h e war w i t h G r a n a d a was d e c i s i v e f o r t h e s u c c e s s o f C h r i s t i a n arms. T h i s i s b e c a u s e t h e war w i t h G r a n a d a was a war o f s i e g e s . The M u s l i m s h a d c o n s t r u c t e d n u m e r o u s a n d s t r o n g 7 7 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h K i n gdoms, p. 379. 7 8 L u n e n f e l d , The C o u n c i l o f t h e S a n t a Hermandad, p. 79. 7 9 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h K i n gdoms, p. 377. 60 c a s t l e s a n d f o r t s o v e r a p e r i o d o f c e n t u r i e s , u s u a l l y on h i g h g r o u n d , a n d t h e S p a n i s h M u s l i m s w e r e e x c e l l e n t m i l i t a r y t h e s u c c e s s f u l p r o s e c u t i o n o f t h e war r e v o l v e d a r o u n d t h e c a p t u r e o f s u c h s t r o n g h o l d s . The new a r t i l l e r y was v i t a l t o a n y s u c c e s s f u l m i l i t a r y v e n t u r e i n G r a n a d a . The v e r y l a r g e number o f G r a n a d a n f o r t i f i e d p l a c e s demanded e f f e c t i v e use o f s u c h a r t i l l e r y a s t h e C h r i s t i a n s p o s s e s s e d t o b a t t e r t h e s o l i d m asonry o f t h e w a l l s . The o b j e c t o f a r t i l l e r y , t o b r i n g t h e maximum f i r e p o w e r t o b e a r on t h e t a r g e t w i t h t h e m i n i m u m o f d e l a y , was a m p l y c a r r i e d o u t by a s i e g e t r a i n o f a l m o s t 1 7 9 p i e c e s o f a r t i l l e r y a n d o v e r 1 5 0 0 r e s e r v e g u n c a r r i a g e s i n t h e l a t e r s i e g e s . 8 1 D e s p i t e a r a t e o f f i r e o f o n l y one r o u n d a h o u r f o r t h e h e a v y a r t i l l e r y and a maximum r a n g e o f o n l y 2,000 m e t r e s 8 2 , up t o 1,000 a r t i l l e r y r o u n d s c o u l d s t r i k e an enemy s t r o n g h o l d i n a t w e n t y - f o u r h o u r p e r i o d . 8 3 The e f f e c t o f t h i s b a t t e r i n g was p o t e n t i a l l y o v e r w h e l m i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o a F l o r e n t i n e o b s e r v e r j u s t b e f o r e t h e I t a l i a n W a r s , "When t h e t i m e f o r bombardment comes t h i r t y o r f o r t y p i e c e s a r e f i r e d s o t h a t t h e w a l l i s s o o n r e d u c e d t o r u b b l e . The F r e n c h s a y t h a t t h e i r a r t i l l e r y c a n make a r c h i t e c t s . So p e r v a s i v e were t h e s e f r o w n i n g e d i f i c e s t h a t 8 0 I b i d p. 166. 8 1 I b i d p. 377. 8 2 I b i d p. 376. 8 3 C o n t a m i n e , War I n t h e M i d d l e A g e s , p. 201. 61 a b r e e c h i n a w a l l e i g h t f e e t t h i c k . A l t h o u g h e v e r y h o l e i s s m a l l , t h e i r number i s l a r g e f o r f r o m t h e moment t h e y b e g i n t o r e v o l u t i o n a r y i n f l u e n c e o f s u c h t a c t i c s c a n be s e e n i n t h e w a r s o f C h a r l e s V I I o f F r a n c e . I n a p e r i o d o f o n l y 370 d a y s i n 1449-1450, he c o n d u c t e d s i x t y s u c c e s s f u l s i e g e s . 8 5 N o t o n l y w e r e w a l l s b a t t e r e d down by t h e f i r e b u t t h e m o r a l e o f t h e d e f e n d e r s was f r e q u e n t l y a f f e c t e d a s w e l l . B o t h C h r i s t i a n a n d M u s l i m c h r o n i c l e r s t e s t i f y t o t h e b r u t a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a t y p e o f i n c e n d i a r y a m m u n i t i o n u s e d b y t h e C h r i s t i a n s . A t t h e s i e g e o f M o c l i n , t h e C h r i s t i a n c h r o n i c l e r P u l g a r d e s c r i b e d "a s p e c i a l l y made b a l l [ p e l l a c o n f e c c i o n a d a ] o f t h e k i n d t h a t s c a t t e r e d f i e r y s p a r k s a n d r o s e h i g h i n t h e a i r " . 8 6 A M u s l i m o b s e r v e r o f t h e c a m p a i g n o f 1486 t e s t i f i e d t o t h e m i l i t a r y v a l u e o f s u c h a m m u n i t i o n : " . . . t h e C h r i s t i a n d i s p o s e d o f c a n n o n s w i t h w h i c h he l a u n c h e d f i r e - b o m b s . . . T h e s e p r o j e c t i l e s w e r e one o f t h e c a u s e s f o r t h e abandonment o f t h e p l a c e s on w h i c h t h e y f e l l . " 8 7 H i s t o r i a n s h a v e l o n g b e e n a w a r e o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a r t i l l e r y i n o v e r c o m i n g t h e w a l l s o f G r a n a d a . D e s p i t e h i s many r e s e r v a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e c e n t r a l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e o f a r t i l l e r y , f i r e t h e y d o n o t s t o p d a y o r n i g h t . Some i d e a o f t h e 84 I b i d . 85 R i c e , F o u n d a t i o n s o f E a r l y Modern E u r o p e , p. 1 1 . M a r i e j o l , F e r d i n a n d and I s a b e l l a , p. 200. 86 87 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h K i ngdoms, p. 376. 62 J.R. H a l e d o e s a d m i t t h a t " I t i s t r u e t h a t guns k n o c k e d down u n r e f o r m e d f o r t i f i c a t i o n s , and t h i s gave t h e F r e n c h an a d v a n t a g e o v e r t h e E n g l i s h a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y a n d t h e S p a n i a r d s an edge on t h e Moors a t t h e end o f i t . " 8 8 T h i s edge was d e c i s i v e , b e c a u s e t h e war w i t h G r a n a d a was a s i e g e . The G r a n a d a War was n o t t h e f i r s t t i m e a r t i l l e r y h a d been u s e d i n S p a i n , b u t was t h e m a i n i n g r e d i e n t i n t h e C h r i s t i a n s u c c e s s . A n d r e s B e r n a l d e z commented t h a t a s e r i e s o f towns f e l l i n 1486 " w i t h i n a m o n t h , t h e l e a s t o f w h i c h i n t h e p a s t c o u l d have h e l d o u t a y e a r and c o u l d n o t have been t a k e n e x c e p t by h u n g e r " . 8 9 An o f f i c i a l document m e n t i o n s t h a t t h e a r t i l l e r y " c a s t down a n d l e v e l e d t o t h e g r o u n d t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e f o r t r e s s o f A l h a b a r " . 9 0 A c c o r d i n g t o J e a n M a r i e j o l , " H i s t o r i a n s h ave n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y n o t e d t h e d e c i s i v e r o l e o f t h e a r t i l l e r y i n t h e l a s t s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t t h e Mo s l e m s . The War o f G r a n a d a was ab o v e a l l one o f s i e g e s , w i t h l a r g e - s c a l e b a t t l e s o f s e c o n d a r y i m p o r t a n c e ; t h e towns were t a k e n one by o n e , and when G r a n a d a was i s o l a t e d , i t f e l l o f i t s e l f . " 9 1 F e r n a n d o a n d I s a b e l w e r e f u l l y a w a r e o f t h e v a l u e o f t h e a r t i l l e r y . I n 1 4 7 9 , t h e C a s t i l i a n a r m y h a d o n l y f o u r 8 8 J . R. H a l e , "Gunpowder and t h e R e n a i s s a n c e : An E s s a y i n t h e H i s t o r y o f I d e a s " , From R e n a i s s a n c e t o C o u n t e r - R e f o r m a t i o n : E s s a y s i n Honor o f G a r r e t M a t t i n g l y , E d i t e d by C h a r l e s H. C a r t e r ( L o n d o n : 1 9 6 6 ) . p 114. 8 9 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h K i ngdoms, p. 376. 9 0 M a r i e j o l , F e r d i n a n d and I s a b e l l a , p. 202. 9 1 I b i d . , p. 199. 63 a r t i l l e r y m e n on i t s muster r o l e s . More were q u i c k l y h i r e d , so t h a t by 1485, ninety-one a r t i l l e r y m e n were r e g i s t e r e d i n the army. 9 2 Gunners, e n g i n e e r s , and b l a c k s m i t h s were h i r e d i n I t a l y , F l a n d e r s , and Germany, while gunpowder was imported from S i c i l y and P o r t u g a l . 9 3 The Spanish commander of the a r t i l l e r y , F r a n c i s c o Ramirez de Madrid, r e c e i v e d ample rewards f o r h i s e f f o r t s , i n c l u d i n g the senorio of Bornos f o r the d i f f i c u l t task of b u i l d i n g a road s u i t a b l e f o r a r t i l l e r y from V i s de Torre to V i l l a n u e v a . In a L e t t e r o f C o n c e s s i o n f r o m F e r n a n d o t o Ramirez, t h i s debt to the a r t i l l e r y i s acknowledged. "In the c o n q u e s t o f the kingdom and Moors of Granada f o r the h o l y C a t h o l i c f a i t h , Senor F r a n c i s c o R a m i r e z o f M a d r i d , h i s s e c r e t a r y and c a p t a i n o f a r t i l l e r y and a member o f h i s c o u n c i l , . . . e x p o s e d h i s person to g r e a t dangers and l a b o r e d i n t h e combats and the t a k i n g of a l l the c i t i e s , towns, and f o r t r e s s e s that t h e i r M a j e s t i e s gained i n t h i s war." 9 4 A r t i l l e r y had not always r e c e i v e d such a c c o l a d e s from i n f l u e n t i a l men. To John M i r f i e l d i n 1390 i t was seen as " t h i s w a r l i k e or d i a b o l i c a l i n s t r u m e n t commonly c a l l e d a cannon [gonne]." 9 5 For Francesco de G i o r g i o , a m i l i t a r y engineer, i t s 9 2 Heath, Armies of the Middle Ages, p. 33. 9 3 M a r i e j o l , Ferdinand and I s a b e l l a , p. 200. 9 4 I b i d . , p. 203. 9 5 Contamine, War In the Middle Ages, p. 138. 64 d i s c o v e r y was " n o t t o human b u t t o d e v i l i s h a g e n c y " . 9 6 As a r t i l l e r y became more e f f i c i e n t , i t was more dammed. A t t h e s i e g e o f Roxburgh on August 3, 1460, James I I o f S c o t l a n d "mair c u r i e o u s nor becam him or t h e m a j e s t i e o f ane K i n g . . . u n h a p p e l y [was] s l a n e w i t h ane gun, t h e q u h i l k b r a k i n t h e f y r i n g " . 9 7 A F r e n c h n o b l e t a k e n p r i s o n e r a t P a v i a was more d e s c r i p t i v e o f t h e c u r r e n t o p i n i o n o f t h e f a i r n e s s o f a r t i l l e r y f i r e . "Would t o God t h a t t h i s unhappy weapon had never been i n v e n t e d . I m y s e l f would n o t b e a r t h e s c a r s i t c a u s e d me and w h i c h s t i l l c r i p p l e me t o d a y . Nor would so many b r a v e and v a l i a n t men have d i e d by t h e hands o f cowards and s h i r k e r s who would not d a r e t o l o o k i n t h e f a c e t h e men t h e y b r i n g down from a d i s t a n c e w i t h t h e i r w r e t c h e d b u l l e t s . " 9 8 In O r l a n d o F u r i o s o , A r i o s t o makes t h e a r i s t o c r a t i c p o i n t t h a t gunpowder was a coward's weapon t o d e s t r o y g e n t l e m e n f r o m a f a r . T h r o u g h t h e e i s m a r t i a l g l o r y l o s t , t h r o u g h t h e e The t r a d e o f arms become a w o r t h l e s s a r t : And a t s u c h ebb a r e worth and c h i v a l r y T h a t t h e base o f t e n p l a y s t h e b e t t e r p a r t . 9 9 D e s p i t e t h e n a t u r a l a v e r s i o n o f a g e n t l e m a n t o b e i n g d e c a p i t a t e d by a s h e l l f i r e d by an o r d i n a r y g u n n e r ' s b o y , a r t i l l e r y v e r y q u i c k l y e s t a b l i s h e d i t s e l f as a n e c e s s a r y t o o l o f war. P e r h a p s t h e g r e a t e s t a p p e a l o f a r t i l l e r y t o m i l i t a r y men 9 6 I b i d . 9 7 I b i d . , p. 206. 9 8 R i c e , The F o u n d a t i o n s o f E a r l y Modern E u r o p e , p. 15. 9 9 H a l e , War and O p i n i o n , p. 29. 65 was n o t i t s e f f i c i e n c y b u t i t s n o i s e . T h e s o u n d o f l a r g e a r t i l l e r y p i e c e s b e i n g f i r e d was awesome and p r o v e d i t s v a l u e i n t h e p r e s t i g e g r a n t e d t h e owner o f s u c h n o i s y m a c h i n e s . F o r most o w n e r s o f s u c h e a r l y a r t i l l e r y , t h e p r a c t i c a l r e s u l t a t t h e downrange end was much l e s s i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e u p r a n g e e f f e c t s . O.F.G. Hogg, a h i s t o r i a n o f a r t i l l e r y , w r o t e t h a t " N o i s e , smoke an d a l l t h e f e a t u r e s o f a g r a n d p a r a d e were o u r a n c e s t o r s ' i d e a o f f i r e p o w e r and i n t h e i r v i e w t h e g r e a t e r t h e d i s p l a y t h e more e f f i c i e n t t h e o u t c o m e . " 1 0 0 Many s o l d i e r s a c c e p t e d t h e new w e a p o n , n o t f o r i t s k i l l i n g p o w e r , b u t f o r i t s i n g e n i o u s c o n s t r u c t i o n and v i o l e n t s p e c i a l e f f e c t s . N e e d l e s s t o s a y , o t h e r q u a l i t i e s b e s i d e s s o u n d s and f l a s h y e f f e c t s a p p e a l e d t o c a p t a i n s o f men. Few s o u r c e s m e n t i o n t h e o b v i o u s f a s c i n a t i o n o f a t w e l v e f o o t l o n g p h a l l i c s y m b o l t h a t d i s c h a r g e d w i t h s u c h o b v i o u s r e s u l t s , b u t t h i s i s n o t t o be i g n o r e d . The v e r y f a c t t h a t a r t i l l e r y was s o e x p e n s i v e a n d , a t l e a s t a t f i r s t , s o i n e f f e c t i v e , made i t a n a t u r a l s t a t u s s y m b o l f o r t h e f a s h i o n - c o n s c i o u s m o n a r c h o r n o b l e . So d e m a n d i n g was t h e p u l l t o w a r d s t h e a r t i l l e r y , t h a t r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e a n c i e n t s ' u s e o f guns were c o n v e n i e n t l y d i s c o v e r e d . The l a c k o f g u n p o r t s i n G r e e k and Roman f o r t i f i c a t i o n s e v e n t u a l l y h a l t e d t h i s l i n e o f t h o u g h t . 1 0 1 1 0 0 Hogg, A r t i l l e r y : I t s O r i g i n , Heyday and D e c l i n e , p. 23. 1 0 1 J . R . H a l e , "War a n d P u b l i c O p i n i o n i n R e n a i s s a n c e I t a l y " , R e n a i s s a n c e War S t u d i e s , E d i t e d by J.R. H a l e ( L o n d o n : H a m b l e d o n , 1 9 8 3 ) , p. 368. 66 What u l t i m a t e l y p rocu red a r t i l l e r y ' s acceptance was i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s on the b a t t l e f i e l d or i n s i e g e s . The c l e r g y of the t w e l f t h century might ban the crossbow and two hundred years l a t e r attempt the same wi th gunpowder weapons, but the men whose bus iness i t was to f i g h t used the most e f f e c t i v e weapons they c o u l d g e t . So p e r v a s i v e were these gunpowder weapons that by the beg inn ing of the s i x teen th century the gun began r i v a l l i n g t he sword as the symbo l of war i t s e l f . 1 0 2 No l o n g e r was a r t i l l e r y c o n s i d e r e d a d e v i l ' s t oy , and ce remon ia l o c c a s i o n s were en l i vened by the use of guns to g ive s u i t a b l e emphasis to o c c a s i o n s of s t a t e . A r n o l d von H a r f f , a p i l g r i m to Rome i n 1496, d e s c r i b e d 200 guns f i r e d o f f s imu l t aneous l y to welcome Pope Alexander VI to the C a s t e l Sant ' Angelo . "Th i s i s done i n honour of the Pope when he r i des over the b r i d g e , and s i m i l a r l y when a c a r d i n a l r i d e s across they shoot o f f three cannon i n h i s h o n o u r . " 1 0 3 Cannons were a l s o g r e a t f a v o r i t e s on s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n s and p u b l i c f e s t i v a l s , t h e i r d e s t r u c t i v e n a t u r e d i s g u i s e d i n g r e a t boomings and f l a s h i n g s to e n t e r t a i n the gentry and masses . 1 0 4 A r t i l l e r y was used p r i m a r i l y i n s i e g e s because i t was u s e f u l f o r l i t t l e e l s e , except perhaps as en te r t a i nmen t . I t g e n e r a l l y had a poor ra te of f i r e , shor t e f f e c t i v e ranges, was 1 0 2 H a l e , War and Op in ion , p. 21. 1 0 3 Contamine, War In the Middle Ages, p. 207. 1 0 4 H a l e , War and P u b l i c Op in ion , p. 368. 67 n o t o r i o u s l y i n a c c u r a t e , a n d was e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o t r a n s p o r t . An e x a m p l e o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f t r a n s p o r t i n g t h e s e g i g a n t i c p i e c e s i s t h a t i n 1472, s i x t e e n l a r g e M i l a n e s e c a n n o n r e q u i r e d 227 c a r t s a nd 1044 o x e n t o t r a n s p o r t t h e m , 1 0 5 t h o u g h o b v i o u s l y n o t a l l c a n n o n w e r e t h i s d i f f i c u l t t o move. The S p a n i s h s u f f e r e d f u r t h e r p r o b l e m s i n t h a t t h e r u g g e d n a t u r e o f t h e G r a n a d a n t e r r a i n demanded m a s s i v e e n g i n e e r i n g t o c o n s t r u c t r o a d s where o n l y mule t r a i l s had e x i s t e d . D u r i n g t h e s i e g e o f C a m b i l , 6,000 men b u i l t a c a u s e w a y t h a t a d v a n c e d o n l y t h r e e l e a g u e s i n t w e l v e d a y s . I t r e q u i r e d t h e l e v e l i n g o f one o f t h e most r u g g e d p a r t s o f t h e s i e r r a . 1 0 6 As i n a l l f e a t s o f g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y , t h e p r o b l e m s t e n d e d t o m u l t i p l y a s e a c h was o v e r c o m e . P r o v i d i n g t h e a m m u n i t i o n f o r t h e a r t i l l e r y p r o v e d a g r e a t p r o b l e m f o r t h e m o n a r c h s . I n one c a s e , a t t h e s i e g e o f M a l a g a , F e r n a n d o s e n t f o r m a r b l e c a n n o n - s h o t f r o m A l g e c i r a s f i r e d b y A l f o n s o X I i n t h e p r e v i o u s c e n t u r y . 1 0 7 T h i s was a r a r e o c c u r e n c e h o w e v e r , and most h e a v y s i e g e p i e c e s f i r e d s t o n e s h o t , u s u a l l y o f g r a n i t e . 1 0 8 I n most c a s e s i t was e a s i e r t o q u a r r y s t o n e s h o t on t h e s p o t , f r o m r o c k t h a t was h a r d b u t n o t b r i t t l e . To s a f e g u a r d t h e p r e c i o u s s u p p l y 1 0 5 H a l e , War and S o c i e t y i n R e n a i s s a n c e E u r o p e , p. 156. 106 p r e s c o t t , R e i g n o f F e r d i n a n d and I s a b e l l a , 1:480. 1 0 7 F u l l e r , The D e c i s i v e B a t t l e s o f t h e W e s t e r n W o r l d , p. 396. 1 0 8 H o g g , A r t i l l e r y : I t s O r i g i n , H e y d a y a n d D e c l i n e , p . 157. 68 o f gunpowder, u n d e r g r o u n d v a u l t s were dug t o s t o r e i t a g a i n s t p o s s i b l e M u s l i m r a i d s o r a c c i d e n t a l d e t o n a t i o n by c a r e l e s s 109 g u n n e r s . 1 0 3 T h e l o g i s t i c a l d e m a n d s £qr t h e s u p p l y o f a r t i l l e r y a m m u n i t i o n and gunpowder were enormous, as Hernando d e l P u l g a r makes c l e a r . T o make m u n i t i o n s a n d e q u i p m e n t o f t h e a r t i l l e r y , t h e r e w e r e e m p l o y e d many b l a c k s m i t h s , c a r p e n t e r s , s a w y e r s , w o o d c u t t e r s , s m e l t e r s , masons, s t o n e c u t t e r s who l o o k e d f o r s t o n e q u a r r i e s , and o t h e r s t o n e c u t t e r s who w o r k e d t h e s t o n e , and d i g g e r s , c h a r c o a l - b u r n e r s whose j o b i t was t o make c h a r c o a l f o r t h e f o r g e s , and e s p a r t e r o s [mat-makers] who made r o p e s and b a s k e t s . A n d o v e r e a c h g r o u p o f w o r k e r s was a n o v e r s e e r [ m i n i s t r o ] who u r g e d on t h e w o r k e r s and s u p p l i e d them w i t h t h e t h i n g s t h e y needed f o r t h e i r t a s k . M o r e o v e r , a g r e a t many c a r t s were needed, and f o r e a c h h u n d r e d c a r t s t h e r e was an o v e r s e e r , and under him a r t i s a n s t o whom he gave t h e equipment needed t o keep t h e c a r t s i n r e p a i r . T h e r e w e r e o t h e r a r t i s a n s t o make t h e gunpowder, w h i c h was ke p t i n p i t s dug o u t u n d e r g r o u n d by t h r e e h u n d r e d men a s s i g n e d t o g u a r d them day and n i g h t . 1 1 0 I f any g r o u p , p e o p l e o r s t a t e f i g h t a s u c c e s s f u l war, i t i s b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e a d a p t e d t o t h e demands o f t h a t war. I n C a s t i l e ' s c a s e , t h i s i n v o l v e d an army w h i c h was r a t i o n a l i z e d , o r g a n i z e d , and g i v e n a d e q u a t e t e c h n o l o g y . Mass f o r m a t i o n s o f i n f a n t r y w e r e t r a i n e d t o o p e r a t e e f f e c t i v e l y t o g e t h e r , a n d e f f i c i e n t e n g i n e e r s , a r t i l l e r y , m e d i c a l and s u p p l y s e r v i c e s were o r g a n i z e d . 1 1 1 From an e m p h a s i s on i n d i v i d u a l c o u r a g e t h e r e 109 110 111 M a r i e j o l , The S p a i n o f F e r d i n a n d and I s a b e l l a , p. 202. I b i d . , p. 200. M a r a v a l l , The O r i g i n s o f t h e Modern S t a t e , p. 808. 69 developed the values of group d i s c i p l i n e and v a l o u r . D u r i n g the war, the army, as w e l l as S p a n i s h s o c i e t y , changed. Since any c r e a t i o n of a s o c i e t y m i r r o r s that s o c i e t y , the changes i n the Spanish army during the Granadan War are a measure of the n a t i o n a l changes e f f e c t e d by Fernando and I s a b e l d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . The f r e e b o o t i n g s o c i e t y of the Reconquest and the p e r s i s t e n c e f o r so long of an open f r o n t i e r of war and conquest l a y at the root of the Spanish s k i l l s i n warfare. The t e n - y e a r l o n g s i e g e o f the f o r t r e s s t h a t was Granada gave d i s c i p l i n e to these n a t u r a l w a r r i o r s and transformed them i n t o s u c c e s s f u l s o l d i e r s . "In t h i s a d m i rable s c h o o l the S p a n i s h s o l d i e r was g r a d u a l l y t r a i n e d to p a t i e n t endurance, f o r t i t u d e and thorough s u b o r d i n a t i o n ; and those c e l e b r a t e d c a p t a i n s were formed, with that i n v i n c i b l e i n f a n t r y , which i n the beginning of the s i x t e e n t h century spread the m i l i t a r y fame of t h e i r country over a l l Christendom. 1 , 1 1 2 P r e s c o t t , Reign of Ferdinand and I s a b e l l a , 2:104. 70 The G r o w t h o f R o y a l Power P e r h a p s t h e avenue o f a p p r o a c h t h a t b e s t t y p i f i e s how t h e new gunpowder t e c h n o l o g y i n f l u e n c e d S p a n i s h s o c i e t y h a s t o do w i t h t h e r a i s i n g o f money. Money i s t h e a l p h a a nd omega o f b o t h s t a t e c r a f t and war. When L o u i s X I I was p r e p a r i n g t o i n v a d e t h e d u c h y o f M i l a n i n 1499, he a s k e d one o f h i s I t a l i a n commanders what was n e c e s s a r y f o r s u c c e s s ; t h e r e s p o n s e was b l u n t : "Money, more money and a g a i n more money." 1 F e r n a n d o and I s a b e l made tr e m e n d o u s e f f o r t s t o r a i s e money f o r t h e war w i t h G r a n a d a . Such e f f o r t s were n e c e s s a r y , f o r t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r e v e n u e s o f t h e Crown were b u t a p a r t o f t h e t o t a l r e v e n u e s o f a l l S p a i n . L u c i u s M a r i n e u s S i c u l u s , a n I t a l i a n h u m a n i s t o f t h e t i m e , s t a t e d : " I b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r e v e n u e s o f a l l S p a i n a r e d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e n e a r l y e q u a l p a r t s , o f w h i c h one b e l o n g s t o t h e k i n g , t h e s e c o n d t o t h e g r a n d e e s , t h e t h i r d t o t h e c l e r g y . " 2 These r e v e n u e s were t o t a l l y i n a d e q u a t e f o r a n e n t e r p r i s e o f t h i s m a g n i t u d e , e x p e c i a l l y when by 1474 most o f t h e s e r e v e n u e s w e r e a l i e n a t e d f r o m t h e c r o w n . Of a t o t a l o f 7 3 , 2 5 0 , 0 0 0 m r s . ( m a r a v e d i s ) o f r o y a l i n c o m e p e r annum, t h e C r o w n r e c e i v e d o n l y 1 1 , 2 5 0 , 0 0 0 m r s . . I t was s u c c e s s f u l i n r e c l a i m i n g i t s r i g h t t o much o f t h e s e moneys by v a r i o u s means, a n d e v e n i n c r e a s e d t h e amount r e c e i v e d , f o r by 1482 t h e Crown 1 R i c e , The F o u n d a t i o n s o f E a r l y Modern E u r o p e , p. 100. 2 M a r i e j o l , The S p a i n o f F e r d i n a n d and I s a b e l l a , p. 275. 71 g a t h e r e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 150,000,000 mrs. from o r d i n a r y r e v e n u e , and i n 1504 o v e r 315,000,000 mrs.. 3 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t most o f t h e money c o l l e c t e d was a c t u a l l y s p e n t on t h e war, and t h o s e who p r o v i d e d t h e money b e l i e v e d t h a t i t was. P u l g a r n o t e d : "And o u t o f what was c o l l e c t e d f r o m t h e c r u s a d e and t h e s u b s i d y o f t h e c l e r g y and t h e f i n e s i m p o s e d on t h o s e who had r e v e r t e d t o J u d a i s m and became r e c o n c i l e d w i t h t h e C h u r c h a n d o t h e r f i n e s , a n d f r o m o t h e r o r d i n a r y r e v e n u e s and f r o m e v e r y s o u r c e where money m i g h t be o b t a i n e d , t h e y [ t h e C a t h o l i c Monarchs] o r d e r e d them t o s p e n d on t h i n g s f o r t h e war." 4 T h e S p a n i s h m o n a r c h y was n o t a l o n e i n i t s s u c c e s s i n i n c r e a s i n g t h e r o y a l r e v e n u e . An a n a l y s i s o f t h e f i n a n c i a l r e c o r d s o f t h e t i m e i n d i c a t e s a l a r g e i n c r e a s e i n t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t s o f S p a i n , F r a n c e , and E n g l a n d i n t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y t o r a i s e r e v e n u e . I n t e r m s o f r e v e n u e r e c e i v e d p e r c a p i t a t h e E n g l i s h and F r e n c h m o n a r c h i e s d o u b l e d t h e i r i n c o m e s ; t h e S p a n i s h m o n a r c h y m u l t i p l i e d i t s i n c o m e b e t w e e n t e n a n d t w e n t y t i m e s , b e c a u s e o f t h e e f f o r t s o f F e r n a n d o and I s a b e l t o pay f o r t h e war. 5 3 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h Kingdoms, p. 503. 4 J o s e G o n i G a z t a m b i d e , "The H o l y See and t h e R e c o n q u e s t o f t h e Kingdom o f G r a n a d a ( 1 4 7 9 - 1 4 9 2 ) " , S p a i n i n t h e F i f t e e n t h C e n t u r y , 1 3 6 9 - 1516, E d i t e d by R o g e r H i g h f i e l d , T r a n s l a t e d by F r a n c e s M. L o p e z - M o r i l l a s (London: M a c M i l l a n , 1972), p. 364. 5 R i c h a r d B e a n , "War and t h e B i r t h o f t h e N a t i o n S t a t e " J o u r n a l o f Economic H i s t o r y 33 (1973), p. 212. 72 The s o u r c e s of t h i s i n c r e a s e d revenue were of v a r i o u s k i n d s . According to the proceedings of the Cortes of Toledo i n 1480, the p r i n c i p a l sources were: aduanas and a l m o j a r i f a z g o s (ten percent import and export d u t i e s ) ; s e r v i c i o y montazgo and portazgo ( d u t i e s on the r i g h t of passage and c i r c u l a t i o n i n s i d e S p a i n , e s p e c i a l l y on the f l o c k s of the Mesta); a l c a b a l a s and diezmos (te n percent tax on a l l commercial t r a n s a c t i o n s - the most l u c r a t i v e and hated of a l l t a x e s ) ; revenues from the r o y a l domain, e s p e c i a l l y mines and s a l t p i t s ; s e r v i c i o , moneda and moneda f o r e r a ( s p e c i a l a i d s or taxes); and the Cruzada (the s a l e of i n d u l g e n c e s granted by the Pope f o r the h o l y war and made s e m i - m a n d a t o r y ) . 6 U n f o r t u n a t e l y f o r t h e m o n archs, t h i s t a x a t i o n was not seen as a r o y a l r i g h t . M e d i e v a l t h e o r i s t s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t o t h e k i n g b e l o n g e d dominium ( p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y ) , w h i l e to the s u b j e c t belonged p r o p r i e t a s ( p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y ) . 7 The major source of r o y a l income was the a l c a b a l a or s a l e s t a x , c o u p l e d with other l e s s l u c r a t i v e tax revenues, such as customs d u t i e s , e t c . . However, many nobles owned the r i g h t to c o l l e c t t h i s t a x . D e s p i t e t h i s i n c o n v e n i e n c e , t h e amount c o l l e c t e d almost doubled between 1481 and 1496, from 150 m i l l i o n mrs. to 269 m i l l i o n mrs.. 8 The heavy r e l i a n c e on the prompt 6 M a r i e j o l , The Spain of Ferdinand and I s a b e l l a , p. 211. 7 R i c e , The Foundations of E a r l y Modern Europe, p. 101. 8 Kamen, A S o c i e t y of C o n f l i c t , p. 49. 73 payment o f s u c h t a x e s f o r c e d t h e monarchs t o compromise w i t h t h e more p o l i t i c a l l y p o w e r f u l g r o u p s who were a f f e c t e d by t h e t a x b u r d e n . To r e t a i n t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e n o b i l i t y , upon w h i c h i t was s t i l l d e p e n d e n t , t h e crown r e f r a i n e d f r o m t a x i n g t h e i r e c o n o m i c b a s e . C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t f i f t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e l a n d o f S p a i n was u n d e r t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e m a j o r n o b l e s a n d f o r t y - t w o p e r c e n t was owned by t h e C h u r c h , t h e u r b a n o l i g a r c h y a n d t h e l e s s e r n o b l e s , t h e Crown's d e c i s i o n was a w i s e o n e . 9 To f u r t h e r e n c o u r a g e n o b l e s u p p o r t , F e r n a n d o and I s a b e l exempted them f r o m f i n a n c i a l payments and t a x e d s e i g n o r i a l l a n d s l e s s h e a v i l y t h a n c i t y l a n d . 1 0 B e c a u s e o f t h e h e a v y l o a d o f s u c h t a x e s o n t h o s e who a c t u a l l y p a i d them, c o n t i n u a l r e s i s t a n c e was shown t o t h e t a x - c o l l e c t o r s . Many c i t i e s , and e s p e c i a l l y B u r g o s , r e s i s t e d t h e c o n t i n u a n c e o f p a y m e n t s . 1 1 E v e n t h e r o y a l c h r o n i c l e r s , u s u a l l y s o f a i t h f u l t o t h e r o y a l c a u s e , r e c o r d e d t h i s o p p o s i t i o n . T h e r e w e r e , a s B e r n a l d e z r e c o r d s , " m u c h a s mu r m u r a c i o n e s . " 1 2 The M o narchs a l s o m i l k e d t h e S a n t a Hermandad f o r f u n d s a s w e l l a s t r o o p s . The normal c o n t r i b u t i o n was 33,500,000 mrs. a 9 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h Kingdoms, p. 498. 10 I b i d p. 507. 11 I b i d . 12 I b i d p. 381. 74 y e a r . A s p e c i a l t a x was l e v i e d f r o m 1482 on, w h i c h i n 1491 a l o n e p r o d u c e d a r e v e n u e o f 48,000,000 m r s . . 1 3 The J u n t a de Hermandad c o n t r i b u t e d t h r o u g h t a x a t i o n 17.8 m i l l i o n m r s . i n 1478-1479, 44 m i l l i o n mrs. i n 1485-1486, and 64 m i l l i o n mrs. i n 1491-1492. 1 4 S i n c e t h e c i t i e s o f o r i g i n o f t h e Hermandad t r o o p s p r o v i d e d t h e e x p e n s e s o f t h e m i l i t i a , and n o t t h e r o y a l f u n d s , t h e t a x r a t e i n 1476 o f 10,000 mrs. p e r 100 h o u s e h o l d s jumped t o 18,000 mrs. p e r 100 h o u s e h o l d s by 1485. 1 5 The monarchs' c h i e f t a x - f a r m e r , t h e J e w i s h f i n a n c i e r A b r a h a m S e n i o r , was made t r e a s u r e r - g e n e r a l o f t h e Hermandad i n 1488, t o i n s u r e prompt and e f f i c i e n t c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e Hermandad t a x . 1 6 The b u r e a u c r a c y o f t h e Hermandad, b e s i d e s s u p e r v i s i n g t h e Hermandad t a x , was a l s o u s e d t o c o l l e c t two o f t h e p r i n c i p a l t a x e s o f t h e crown, t h e C r u z a d a o f t h e Pope, and t h e s e r v i c i o y montazgo t a x on sheep. Through t h i s s t e a d y and r e l i a b l e s t r e a m o f money, t h e Crown was a b l e t o d i s p e n s e w i t h t h e s e r v i c e s o f t h e C o r t e s , w h i c h were n o t c a l l e d i n t o s e s s i o n f r o m 1480 t o 1 4 9 8 . I r o n i c a l l y , t h e J u n t a de Hermandad was more b r o a d l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t h a n t h e n a r r o w l y f r a n c h i s e d C o r t e s . 1 7 The J e w i s h a n d M u d e j a r c o m m u n i t i e s o f C a s t i l e were a l s o 1 3 I b i d . 1 4 Kamen, A S o c i e t y o f C o n f l i c t , p. 19. 1 5 L u n e n f e l d , The C o u n c i l o f t h e S a n t a Hermandad, p. 70. 1 6 Kamen, A S o c i e t y o f C o n f l i c t , p. 19. 1 7 I b i d . 75 g r o u p s a m e n a b l e t o r o y a l p r e s s u r e a n d were c a l l e d u p o n t o p r o v i d e money f o r t h e war. The Crown f o r c e d t h e s e c o m m u n i t i e s t o make l a r g e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t h r o u g h s u b s i d i e s and i l l e g a l l o c a l t a x e s . The d e c r e a s i n g w e a l t h o f t h e S p a n i s h Jews i s shown i n t h e d e c l i n i n g y i e l d o f t h e s e s p e c i a l t a x e s , f r o m 1 8 , 0 0 0 g o l d c a s t e l l a n o s i n 1485 t o o n l y 1 0 , 0 0 0 g o l d c a s t e l l a n o s i n 1 4 8 9 . D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f 1482 t o 1492 t h e Jews p a i d a l i t t l e l e s s t h a n f i f t y m i l l i o n mrs. f o r t h e war, an amount n o t c o n s i d e r e d e x c e p t i o n a l a t t h e t i m e . 1 8 D e s p i t e t h e c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l a m o u n t s r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e s e g r o u p s , t h e f i n a n c i a l t a l e n t s o f some Jews were c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t . The f i n a n c e s o f t h e war were i n t h e hands o f two l e a d i n g Jews, Abraham S e n i o r and I s a a c A b r a v a n e l , whose s k i l l f u l management p r o v i d e d t h e n e c e s s a r y w e a l t h a t t h e n e c e s s a r y time f o r t h e M o n a r c h s . 1 9 When t h e s e s o u r c e s o f revenue p r o v e d t o be i n a d e q u a t e , t h e M o n a r c h s r e s o r t e d t o l e s s r e s p e c t a b l e ways o f r a i s i n g c a s h . F o r c e d l o a n s ( e m p r e s t i t o ) w e r e l e v i e d o n r i c h n o b l e s , c o r p o r a t i o n s a n d t o w n s , on p a i n o f s e i z u r e a n d s a l e o f t h e v i c t i m ' s g o o d s . The c i t y o f B u r g o s was f o r c e d t o l o a n t h r e e m i l l i o n mrs. d u r i n g 1482-1483. A few v e r y s t r o n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s , s u c h as t h e M e s t a , and t h e c i t y o f V a l e n c i a , were a b l e t o some e x t e n t t o d i c t a t e t h e terms o f t h e l o a n s . Some v e r y l a r g e l o a n s f r o m l e a d i n g n o b l e s were p a i d o f f by g r a n t s o f l a n d s and towns, 1 8 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h Kingdoms, p. 441. 1 9 M a r i e j o l , The S p a i n o f F e r d i n a n d and I s a b e l l a , p. X V I I . 76 w h i l e many l o a n s t o l e s s p o w e r f u l g r o u p s o r i n d i v i d u a l s w e r e n e v e r r e p a i d . 2 0 D u r i n g t h e l o n g a n d d e s p e r a t e s i e g e o f B a z a , t h e Q u e e n h e r s e l f was f o r c e d t o r e s o r t t o p a w n b r o k e r s t o r a i s e money. I s a b e l p a w n e d b o t h h e r own p e r s o n a l j e w e l s a n d t h e C r o w n J e w e l s . The c i t y o f V a l e n c i a p r o v i d e d t h e money b a s e d on t h e s e c u r i t y o f t h e j e w e l s t o t h e amount o f 35,000 f l o r i n s f o r t h e r o y a l c r o w n and 20,000 f l o r i n s f o r a c o l l a r o f r u b i e s . 2 1 A more f i n a n c i a l l y d u b i o u s s o u r c e o f money was t h e s a l e o f g o v e r n m e n t bonds o r j u r o s s e c u r e d on c e r t a i n r e v e n u e s r e l e a s e d f o r t h a t p u r p o s e . The r a t e o f i n t e r e s t on t h e s e bonds v a r i e d , f r o m f i v e t o f o u r t e e n p e r c e n t o r e v e n h i g h e r . T h i s s e l l i n g o f f u t u r e i n c o m e c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e a l i e n a t i o n o f r o y a l r e v e n u e s s i n c e p a y m e n t s o n t h e b o n d s c o u l d t a k e up a c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e r o y a l t a x e s . 2 2 The l a r g e s c a l e s a l e o f j u r o s b e g a n i n 1489 w i t h t h e i n t e r e s t r a t e o f t e n p e r c e n t . By 1504 a n n u a l p a y m e n t s t o t a l l e d o v e r 112 m i l l i o n mrs., and t h e p a y m e n t s i n c r e a s e d d r a m a t i c a l l y i n s u b s e q u e n t y e a r s . 2 3 A c o n s t r u c t i v e r e f o r m was t h e a t t e m p t t o r a t i o n a l i z e t h e c u r r e n c y s y s t e m . A t r a d i t i o n a l m e t h o d u s e d was t o l i m i t t h e d e basement o f t h e c o i n a g e . Over 150 m i n t s were c l o s e d , and o n l y 2 0 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h K i ngdoms, p. 380. 2 1 P r e s c o t t , R e i g n o f F e r d i n a n d and I s a b e l l a , 2:63. 2 2 F e r n a n d B r a u d e l , The Wheels o f Commerce, T r a n s l a t e d by S i a n R e y n o l d s ( L o n d o n : C o l l i n s , 1 9 8 2 ) , p. 522. 2 3 Kamen, A S o c i e t y o f C o n f l i c t , p. 49. 77 t h e r o y a l m i n t s a t B u r g o s , C u e n c a , L a C o r u n a , S e g o v i a , S e v i l l e a n d T o l e d o w e r e a l l o w e d t o m i n t c o i n s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e a t t e m p t t o m o n i t o r t h e p u r i t y o f t h e c o i n a g e was l a r g e l y a f a i l u r e . 2 4 T h e m o n a r c h s ' f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s l e d t o F e r n a n d o ' s b r e a k i n g o f h i s own l a w s a g a i n s t s u c h i l l e g a l m i n t i n g o f c o i n s . I n t h e c i t y o f V a l e n c i a F e r n a n d o ' s a g e n t s a t t e m p t e d t o i l l i c i t l y c o i n V e n e t i a n a n d G e n o e s e d u c a t s , F r e n c h c r o w n s , F l o r e n t i n e f l o r i n s , " a n d o t h e r g o l d c o i n s o f C a s t i l e o r P o r t u g a l a t n i g h t and v e r y s e c r e t l y . " 2 5 The o p p o s i t i o n o f t h e c i t y m a g i s t r a t e s r e n d e r e d t h i s m i n t i n g o p e r a t i o n u n s u c c e s s f u l . M o r e r e v o l u t i o n a r y m e t h o d s o f c u r r e n c y m a n i p u l a t i o n i n c l u d e d e f f o r t s t o r e g u l a t e e x c h a n g e r a t e s and t h u s i m p r o v e t h e c u r r e n c y . I n 1483 t h e V a l e n c i a n e x c e l e n t e was c r e a t e d , v a l u e d a t t w e n t y - o n e s u e l d o s ( 2 5 2 p e n n i e s ) o f e q u a l w e i g h t t o t h e V e n e t i a n d u c a t and t h e A r a g o n e s e f l o r i n . I n 1493 a C a t a l o n i a n p r i n c i p a t was e s t a b l i s h e d and t h e p r e v i o u s l y u s e d f l o r i n c e a s e d t o be s t r u c k . I n 1497 a G r a n a d a n e x c e l e n t e was c r e a t e d f o r C a s t i l e . By m a k i n g t h e V a l e n c i a n e x c e l e n t e , t h e C a s t i l i a n e x c e l e n t e and t h e C a t a l o n i a n p r i n c i p a t a l l o f e q u a l v a l u e , 375 m r s . , t h e S p a n i s h C r o w n t o o k a g i a n t s t e p t o p o l i t i c a l a n d f i n a n c i a l u n i o n o f t h e I b e r i a n P e n i n s u l a . F o r f i n a n c i a l t r a n s a c t i o n s a t a l e s s e x a l t e d l e v e l t h e m onarchs a l s o c r e a t e d 2 4 P h i l l i p s , E n r i q u e I V , p. 59. 2 5 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h K i n gdoms, p. 364. 78 t h e s i l v e r r e a l v a l u e d at t h i r t y - f o u r mrs., and the copper blanca valued at one-half a mr.. 2 6 These c u r r e n c y reforms d e c i s i v e l y broke w i t h the past by p r i c i n g g o l d a t no more than ten times the p r i c e of s i l v e r , a de p a r t u r e from p r e v i o u s l y h e l d Islamic models which o v e r p r i c e d g o l d . These new measures a s s i s t e d t r a d e among the S p a n i s h kingdoms and w i t h the r e s t of Europe as w e l l , s i n c e the new measures were c o n s i s t e n t with the European s c a l e of g o l d and s i l v e r v a l u a t i o n . 2 7 A l l i e d w i t h these c u r r e n c y reforms came s t r i c t p o l i c i e s f o r b i d d i n g the export of g o l d , s i l v e r or copper money. 2 8 Fernando and I s a b e l d i d attempt some economic measures s i m i l i a r to those of Enrique IV. They encouraged I t a l i a n and Flemish a r t i s a n s to s e t t l e i n Spain by exempting them from a l l t a x e s f o r t e n y e a r s . A l l i n t e r n a l t o l l s i n C a s t i l e were suppressed and an e f f o r t was made to standardize a l l weights and measures. 2 9 Other measures taken i n c l u d e d a ban on the export from Aragon and C a s t i l e of a l l d e v i c e s of war. From 1488 onwards the monarchs attempted to e s t a b l i s h the p r i n c i p l e o f r o y a l c o n t r o l over the p r o d u c t i o n of arms, but t h i s measure 26 I b i d p. 632. 27 I b i d p. 633. • r 28 M a r i e j o l , The Spain of Ferdinand and I s a b e l l a , p. 216. 29 I b i d p. 218. 79 f a i l e d due t o an i n a d e q u a t e b u r e a u c r a c y . u O t h e r c o m p a r a t i v e l y m i n o r s o u r c e s o f r e v e n u e were t h e I n q u i s i t i o n and t h e C r u s a d i n g O r d e r s . In 1488-1489 a p r o f i t o f 200,000 s u e l d o s was r e a l i z e d f r o m t h e c o n f i s c a t i o n o f f o u r t e e n e s t a t e s i n T e r u e l by t h e I n q u i s i t i o n . 3 1 The O r d e r s o f S a n t i a g o , C a l a t r a v a a n d A l c a n t a r a c o n t r o l l e d m a s s i v e e s t a t e s a n d were m i l k e d h e a v i l y b y t h e C r o w n . S a n t i a g o h a d t h e c o n t r o l o f 7 0 0 , 0 0 0 v a s s a l s , C a l a t r a v a 200,000 v a s s a l s , a n d A l c a n t a r a 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 v a s s a l s ; t o t a l l i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - t h i r d o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f C a s t i l e . E a c h y e a r t h e r o y a l t a x - c o l l e c t o r s l e v i e d t a x e s t o t a l l i n g 60,000 d u c a d o s on S a n t i a g o a n d 95,000 d u c a d o s on C a l a t r a v a and A l c a n t a r a c o m b i n e d . 3 2 T h e s e a t t e m p t s t o r a i s e money f r o m a n y a n d a l l s o u r c e s i n v a r i a b l y r e s u l t e d i n f i n a n c i a l c h a o s . The s o r t i n g o u t o f r e c o r d s a n d o u t s t a n d i n g d e b t s a t t h e e n d o f t h e war was v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e w i t h t h e v e r y s m a l l b u r e a u c r a c y u s e d by t h e C r o w n a t t h a t t i m e . A f t e r t h e war, t h e Crown a t t e m p t e d t o c r e a t e an army o f b u r e a u c r a t s t o c o n t i n u e t h e m i l i t a r y e f f o r t s d e m o n s t r a t e d d u r i n g t h e w a r . F e r n a n d o de Z a f r a , a r o y a l s e c r e t a r y and F e r n a n d o ' s c h i e f c i v i l i a n l i e u t e n a n t a t t h e f r o n t , s u g g e s t e d a c e n t r a l b u r e a u c r a c y t o c o n t r o l a n d a d m i n i s t e r a s p e c i a l f u n d t o c o v e r campaign e x p e n s e s . T h i s was e v e n t u a l l y 3 0 H a l e , War and S o c i e t y , p. 226. 3 1 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h Kingdoms, p. 460. 3 2 M a r i e j o l , The S p a i n o f F e r d i n a n d and I s a b e l l a , p. 270. 80 done and the r e s u l t i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , although not a p a r t of t h i s s t o r y , i s perhaps the most important and longest l a s t i n g e f f e c t of the e f f o r t s to conquer Granada. 3 3 Because of t h e i r enormous f i n a n c i a l e x e r t i o n s the Spanish Crown s u c c e s s f u l l y s u s t a i n e d i t s m i l i t a r y e f f o r t . A C a t a l a n n o v e l , T i r a n t Lo B l a n c , p u b l i s h e d a t t h i s t i me a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t s both the e f f o r t s and success of the monarchy to pay f o r war. At one stage the hero t o l d the Emperor of C o n s t a n t i n o p l e : " I s h a l l now o f f e r some a d v i c e : i n war t h r e e t h i n g s a r e necessary, and those who lack even one w i l l f a i l . . . t r o o p s , money and p r o v i s i o n s . I f any of these i s absent, your army w i l l be d e f e a t e d . " 3 4 Fernando and I s a b e l provided a l l three and won. A key f a c t o r i n the i n c r e a s i n g c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of m i l i t a r y f o r c e was the e s c a l a t i n g c o s t of armies and navies to p r o v i d e that f o r c e . The g r e a t e s t weakness f o r any monarchy was the l a c k of money to pay the s o l d i e r s , buy weapons, and p r o v i d e the n e c e s s a r y i n f r a s t r u c t u r e t o s u p p o r t t h e f i g h t i n g t r o o p s . Fernando's attempt to b r i n g Afonso of Portugal to b a t t l e i n 1475 f a i l e d due to the l a c k of funds to support an army of 10,500 c a v a l r y (most of i t j i n e t e s ) , and 12,000-15,000 i n f a n t r y . 3 5 3 3 Paul Stewart, "The S o l d i e r , the Bureaucrat and F i s c a l Records i n the Army of Ferdinand and I s a b e l l a " , H i s p a n i c American H i s t o r i c a l Review 49 (1969), p. 283. 3 4 Joanot M a r t o r e l l and M a r t i Joan de Galba, T i r a n t Lo B l a n c , T r a n s l a t e d by David H. R o s e n t h a l (New York"! Schocken Books, 1984), p. 215. 3 5 H i l l g a r t h , The Spanish Kingdoms, p. 360. 81 D u r i n g t h e r e i g n s o f F e r n a n d o a n d I s a b e l t h e r e g u l a r army, a s o p p o s e d t o t h e f o r c e s o f t h e n o b i l i t y , c o s t t w e n t y m i l l i o n m r s . p e r y e a r i n 1482 and e i g h t y m i l l i o n mrs. i n 1 5 0 4 . 3 6 U n f o r t u n a t e l y f o r t h e r o y a l e x c h e q u e r , t h e s e m i l i t a r y e x p e n s e s were n o t t h e s o l e demand on t h e r o y a l p u r s e . To t h e s e m i l i t a r y e x p e n d i t u r e s must be added t h e c o s t s o f d i p l o m a c y , t h e s a l a r i e s o f r o y a l o f f i c e r s a n d t h e p e n s i o n s g i v e n t o n o b l e s . S u c h c o s t s t o t h e Crown o c c a s i o n a l l y p r o v e d g r e a t e r t h a n t h e a l r e a d y m a s s i v e m i l i t a r y e x p e n d i t u r e s . G r a n t s a n d p e n s i o n s t o t a l l e d 52 m i l l i o n mrs. i n 1483 and 112 m i l l i o n m r s . i n 1504, w h i l e t h e c o u r t e x p e n s e s q u a d r u p l e d d u r i n g t h e same p e r i o d f r o m e i g h t m i l l i o n mrs. t o t h i r t y - f i v e m i l l i o n mrs.. The m a r r i a g e s o f t h e r o y a l i n f a n t a s a l o n e c o s t f i f t y t o s i x t y m i l l i o n m r s . e a c h . 3 7 Some d e t a i l s o f t h e c o s t s a r e u s e f u l t o b r i n g s u c h e x p e n d i t u r e s i n t o a s c a l e we c a n u n d e r s t a n d . To f u l l y e q u i p a m a n - a t - a r m s w i t h h e a v y p l a t e a r m o u r , an a r m o u r e d h o r s e , a n d a l a n c e o r c r o s s b o w c o s t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8,000 mrs . , w h i l e a l i g h t c a v a l r y m a n w i t h a v i s o r e d h e l m e t , l a n c e , a n d l i g h t a r m o u r t o p r o t e c t t h e c h e s t , abdomen, arms a n d l e g s c o s t 7,000 m r s . . 3 8 Added t o t h e s e e x p e n s e s were t h e d a i l y wages o f s u c h s o l d i e r s . E a c h man-at-arms r e c e i v e d 24,000 mrs. a y e a r , a l i g h t c a v a l r y m a n 3 6 Kamen, A S o c i e t y o f C o n f l i c t , p. 49. 3 7 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h K i n gdoms, p. 504. 3 8 L u n e n f e l d , The C o u n c i l o f t h e S a n t a Hermandad, p. 76. 82 18,000 mrs., and a f o o t s o l d i e r 15,000 mrs.. Each p r o v i n c i a l c a p t a i n t h a t commanded a lance r e c e i v e d 1,000 mrs. a year f o r each l a n c e . 3 9 Some sense of what these f i g u r e s mean can be seen by noting that I s a b e l promised Columbus a r e t a i n e r fee i n 1486 of 12,000 mrs. a year, "the pay of an able seaman...enough f o r a man of h i s simple t a s t e s to keep body and s o u l t o g e t h e r . " 4 0 The i n c r e a s i n g t e c h n o l o g i c a l b i a s of gunpowder weapons a l s o demanded m a s s i v e amounts o f money. The new weapons were d e p e n d e n t on a g r e a t i n c r e a s e o f m e t a l p r o d u c t i o n , w hich r e q u i r e d immense c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e s . In 1478, 409 sacks of c h a r c o a l were needed t o c a s t j u s t one l a r g e c u l v e r i n . 4 1 The ammunition and gunpowder were a l s o expensive. The cost of p r o v i s i o n i n g the army during the war was very h i g h . No food was a v a i l a b l e i n conquered towns because the Muslim working c l a s s and, i n many areas, the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n as w e l l , were e x p e l l e d . Food had to be purchased and t r a n s p o r t e d t o the army w i t h i n c r e d i b l e d i f f i c u l t y . 80,000 mules were needed t o s u p p l y the r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l armies of 1482-1483, s t r e t c h i n g t o a l m o s t the b r e a k i n g p o i n t the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system i n the r e s t of Spain. During the siege of Baza i n 1489, t h e Crown s p e n t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 80,000,000 mrs. t o buy and t r a n s p o r t c e r e a l s to the army and the numerous g a r r i s o n s . T h i s 3 9 I b i d . , p. 73. 4 0 Samuel E l i o t Morison, Admiral of the Ocean Sea (Boston: L i t t l e , Brown and Company, 1942), p. 9lH 4 1 Hale, War and So c i e t y , p. 213. 83 f o o d was s o l d t o t h e t r o o p s , b u t o n l y h a l f t h e o r i g i n a l c o s t was e v e r r e c o v e r e d . 4 2 To o r g a n i z e a n d c o n t r o l t h e s e m a s s i v e e f f o r t s a n e q u a l l y m a s s i v e b u r e a u c r a c y was n e e d e d . To t h i s e n d t h e M o n a r c h s c o - o p t e d t h e l e s s r e b e l l i o u s n o b i l i t y i n t o t h e b u r e a u c r a c y a s r o y a l a g e n t s , w i t h e n o r m o u s p r e s t i g e b u t l i t t l e i n d e p e n d e n t p o w er. The e x p e r i e n c e o f C a t a l o n i a was u s e f u l i n c r e a t i n g a n e f f i c i e n t b u r e a u c r a c y u n d e r r o y a l c o n t r o l . F e r n a n d o b r o u g h t i n t o t h e u n i o n o f A r a g o n and C a s t i l e t h e wisdom o f c e n t u r i e s o f A r a g o n e s e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n . I n t h e p u r s u i t o f r o y a l p o wer, and f a c e d by t h e f a c t t h a t o n l y m i l i t a r y power c o u l d a s s u r e c i v i l c o n t r o l a n d t h a t t o s u r r e n d e r m i l i t a r y a u t h o r i t y t o a nobleman r i s k e d l o s i n g i t , t h e monarchs d e v e l o p e d a b u r e a u c r a c y w i t h l i m i t e d a u t h o r i t y . 4 3 One s u c h r o y a l b u r e a u c r a t i c o f f i c e was t h a t o f t h e C a p t a i n - G e n e r a l , c r e a t e d by t h e monarchs i n t h e l a t e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y . T h i s c o n c e p t o f t h e C a p t a i n - G e n e r a l c o m b i n e d t h e m e d i e v a l c o n c e p t o f j o i n t m i l i t a r y a n d c i v i l a u t h o r i t y w i t h e m e r g i n g i d e a s o f b u r e a u c r a c y . T h i s o f f i c e e n t a i l e d t h e command o f c i t i e s , f r o n t i e r s , t h e r o y a l g u a r d , t h e S a n t a Hermandad, and f l e e t s o f s h i p s a n d o t h e r m i l i t a r y u n i t s , w h e n a c l e a r 4 2 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h K i n g d o m s , p. 380. 4 3 P a u l S t e w a r t , " M i l i t a r y Command and t h e D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e V i c e - R o y a l t y U n d e r F e r d i n a n d a n d I s a b e l l a " , J o u r n a l o f M e d i e v a l and R e n a i s s a n c e S t u d i e s 5:2 ( 1 9 7 5 ) , p. 223. 84 a s s i g n m e n t o f l e a d e r s h i p was n e c e s s a r y . The c r e a t i o n o f a new o f f i c e h e l p e d a v o i d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l v i c e r e g a l t i t l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n d e p e n d e n t p o w e r . E s p e c i a l l y a f t e r t h e c o n q u e s t o f G r a n a d a , t h e C a p t a i n s - G e n e r a l became i n c r e a s i n g l y d e p e n d e n t on t h e C r o w n . T h i s f u r t h e r e m p h a s i z e d t h e d o m i n a n c e o f t h e Crown o v e r t h e p r e v i o u s l y p o w e r f u l n o b l e s who had d o m i n a t e d C a s t i l i a n m i l i t a r y commands. 4 4 I n j u s t one e x a m p l e , t h e power o f t h e A l m i r a n t e Mayor was s a p p e d by t h e m o n a r c h s . The t a x o f o n e - f i f t h o f t h e v a l u e o f m e r c h a n t c a r g o s n o r m a l l y due t o h i m was n o t p a i d i f t h e s h i p o w n e r s o u t f i t t e d t h e s h i p f o r w a r . T h e n o m i n a t i o n o f t h e C a p i t a n M a j o r o r navy commander was t a k e n o v e r by t h e m o n a r c h s . T h u s , l i t t l e by l i t t l e , t h e A l m i r a n t e M a j o r was r e d u c e d t o t h e r o l e o f a d e c o r a t i o n i n t h e r o y a l p r e s e n c e . 4 5 To p r e v e n t n o b l e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e S p a n i s h a r m i e s f r o m b e c o m i n g t o o p r e v a l e n t , F e r n a n d o p o s t e d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s o f t h e A d m i r a l and t h e C o n s t a b l e t o a p p o i n t m e n t s i n t h e c i v i l g o v e r n m e n t and t h e q u i e t n o r t h e r n f r o n t i e r s . S i n c e o t h e r n o b l e s f r e q u e n t l y s e n t t r o o p s t o t h e f r o n t u n d e r s o n s o r d e p u t i e s , who were c l e a r l y s o c i a l l y i n f e r i o r t o t h e K i n g , t h e y w e r e t h u s e a s i e r t o c o n t r o l . F e r n a n d o ' s c a r e i n m a n i p u l a t i n g t h e p o w e r f u l n o b l e s t h r o u g h b o t h r e w a r d s and c o e r c i o n i s shown when t h e m o n a r c h s g a v e c o n t r o l o f t h e f r o n t i e r t o b o t h g r e a t 4 4 I b i d . , p. 224. 4 5 M a r i e j o l , The S p a i n o f F e r d i n a n d and I s a b e l l a , p. 165. 85 l o r d s and t o r o y a l commanders. I n t h i s way t h e Crown r e c e i v e d s u p p o r t f r o m t h e g r e a t l o r d s w h i l e p r e v e n t i n g n o b l e c o a l i t i o n s t h a t m i g h t t h r e a t e n i t , by d i v i d i n g a n d c o n s t a n t l y s h i f t i n g commands among i t s s u p p o r t e r s . A s w e l l , t h e m o n a r c h s g r a n t e d t r a d i t i o n a l p r i v i l e g e s t o t h e n o b l e f a m i l i e s , b u t t h e h e r e d i t a r y h o n o u r s o f A d e l a n t a d o w e r e n o t g i v e n a n y r e a l p o w e r i n G r a n a d a . 4 6 I n s h o r t , t h e Crown a t t e m p t e d t o r a i s e t h e a u t h o r i t y o f i t s a g e n t s b e y o n d t h a t o f t h e n o b l e s and r e d u c e t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e n o b l e s t o t h a t o f r o y a l a g e n t s . An e x a m p l e o f F e r n a n d o ' s c a r e i n m i n i m i z i n g t h e d a n g e r o f n o b l e p r e s t i g e i s t h a t o f t h e C o u n t o f T e n d i l l a , whose f a m i l y was one o f t h e g r e a t e s t o f t h e b o r d e r n o b i l i t y , members o f w h i c h h a d p r e v i o u s l y s e r v e d a s C a p t a i n s - G e n e r a l o f t h e G r a n a d a n f r o n t i e r . T e n d i l l a h i m s e l f was a s s i g n e d t o a d i p l o m a t i c m i s s i o n t o Rome i n 1 4 8 4 , away f r o m m i l i t a r y command, and t r a i n e d a s a r o y a l a g e n t w i t h e f f e c t i v e p o w e r , b e c a u s e o f F e r n a n d o ' s a p p o i n t m e n t a n d n o t b e c a u s e o f a n y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h a n y s o u r c e o f l o c a l p o w e r . He e x e m p l i f i e d a t r a n s i t i o n b e t w e e n a n o b i l i t y w h i c h was l o y a l t o t h e m o n a r c h y o n l y i n t h e i r own f a m i l y i n t e r e s t s , a n d t h e n o b l e s i n b u r e a u c r a t i c c a r e e r s who p l a y e d s o i m p o r t a n t a r o l e a f t e r t h e C a t h o l i c M o n a r c h s . 4 7 N o t o n l y t h e n o b i l i t y were s u b o r d i n a t e d t o t h e C r o wn by b e i n g c o - o p t e d i n t o t h e r o y a l b u r e a u c r a c y . A more e f f i c i e n t 4 6 S t e w a r t , M i l i t a r y Command, p. 227. 4 7 I b i d . 86 C a s t i l i a n b u r e a u c r a c y was n e c e s s a r y t o r a i s e t h e m o nies n e c e s s a r y f o r an expensive army and to c o n t r o l i t . T h i s was promoted by the appointment of non-nobles i n t o the b u r e a u c r a t i c ranks. Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, a nobleman, s t a t e d : "...The C a t h o l i c Kings placed the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of j u s t i c e and p u b l i c a f f a i r s i n t o the hands of l e t r a d o s , people mid-way between the great and the s m a l l . . .whose p r o f e s s i o n was the law." 4 8 In t h i s way men who owed t h e i r p o s i t i o n s to r o y a l favour were promoted over those who d i d not. These l e t r a d o s , or men of l e t t e r s , became lawyers, c o r r e g i d o r e s , ambassadors, c h a n c e l l o r s , r o y a l s e c r e t a r i e s , r o y a l c h a p l a i n s , and other crown o f f i c i a l s . 4 9 The f o r m a t i o n of t h i s bureaucracy was promoted by a law passed i n 1493, which made a ten year course of u n i v e r s i t y study i n canon or c i v i l law a necessary q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r many a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or j u d i c i a l posts under the Crown. 5 0 An important i n g r e d i e n t i n the development of r o y a l c o n t r o l o v e r the armed f o r c e s was the i n c r e a s i n g use of r e c o r d s t o document army a f f a i r s . These r e c o r d s h e l p e d to shape army development from d e c e n t r a l i z e d to c e n t r a l i z e d c o n t r o l and thus to f o r g e the army i n t o a r e l i a b l e instrument of the monarchy. To t h i s end the Crown used i t s own agents (continos) to organize recruitment and p r o v i s i o n i n g of the army. From 1481 to 1487 the 4 8 Kamen, A S o c i e t y of C o n f l i c t , p. 29. 4 9 H i l l g a r t h , The Spanish Kingdoms, p. 183. 5 0 P. E. R u s s e l l , ed. S p a i n , A Companion t o S p a n i s h Studies (London: Methuen, 1985), p. 116. 87 number o f t h e s e a g e n t s r o s e f r o m 126 t o 191. T h e a c t u a l p a y m e n t o f t h e t r o o p s w a s o r g a n i z e d b y p a y m a s t e r s ( p a g a d o r e s ) , t o a v o i d p r o b l e m s t h a t c o u l d o c c u r w i t h o u t a d e q u a t e amounts o f money. E a r l y i n t h e war, a c a p t a i n i n c h a r g e o f A l m e r i a a s k e d f o r r o y a l t r o o p s a c c o m p a n i e d by a p a y m a s t e r . He c i t e d t h e e xample o f a c o n t i n g e n t s e n t e a r l i e r by t h e c r u s a d i n g o r d e r o f S a n t i a g o , w h i c h was s o s h o r t o f money t h a t i t s men h a d h a d t o s e l l t h e i r a r m s a n d s t a r v e t h e i r h o r s e s . 5 2 T h e p a g a d o r e s d i v i d e d t h e m i l i t a r y u n i t s i n t o s t a n d a r d s i z e s o f f i f t y and one h u n d r e d men f o r c o n v e n i e n c e i n k e e p i n g r e c o r d s a n d t o r a t i o n a l i z e t h e p a y a c c o u n t s . T h e p a y m a s t e r s w e r e p a i d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e s t a n d a r d g r o u p i n g s r a t h e r t h a n t h e e x a c t number o f men on t h e pay l i s t . T h u s , t h e b u r e a u c r a t i c s y s t e m e v e n t u a l l y r e g u l a t e d t h e a c t u a l s i z e o f u n i t s , a d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e o f b u r e a u c r a t i c r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o n m i l i t a r y a f f a i r s . 5 3 The army f i s c a l l i s t s n o t o n l y r a t i o n a l i z e d t h e m i l i t a r y u n i t s b u t a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d t h e p r i n c i p a l o f c e n t r a l c o n t r o l a s o p p o s e d t o c o n t r o l by t h e c a p t a i n s o f t h e u n i t s i n t h e m e d i e v a l f a s h i o n . The Crown and n o t t h e n o b i l i t y became t h e g u a r a n t o r o f e a c h man's p a y . T hese permanent r e c o r d s a l s o h e l p e d e s t a b l i s h t h e p e r m a n e n c y o f t h e m i l i t a r y u n i t s . T h i s e m p h a s i s on k e e p i n g 5 1 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h K i n g d o m s , p. 379. 5 2 S t e w a r t , The S o l d i e r , t h e B u r e a u c r a t and F i s c a l R e c o r d s , p. 282. 5 3 I b i d . 88 records now made mil i t a r y a f f a i r s in general less susceptible to s h i f t i n g l o y a l t i e s , much as continuing records made m i l i t a r y units more permanent e n t i t i e s and thus lar g e l y independent of personal l o y a l t y to their leaders. Since the records of the unit were passed on from r e t i r i n g captains to their successors, the units achieved a new i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t o t a l l y separate from that of their commanding o f f i c e r s . 5 4 The slow takeover of the military bureaucracy by the Crown did not go smoothly. The nobles, jealous of t h e i r previous p r e r o g a t i v e s , f r e q u e n t l y c o n f l i c t e d w i t h the c i v i l i a n bureaucracy, expecially in overseas expeditions. This c o n f l i c t did not end with the fif t e e n t h century, because despite the new r u l e s , many s o l d i e r s and some bureaucrats just ignored them. Thus the c e n t r a l i z e d f i s c a l control had begun but was not yet completed. 5 5 As well as r e l i e v i n g the n o b i l i t y of the control of the army, the monarchs appealed to their greed. During centuries past the Crown had attempted to buy the support of the n o b i l i t y through grants of money or mercedes, which were demands on future revenues and increasingly alienated the income of the Crown. By the middle of the f i f t e e n t h century, t h i s system of grants was f a l l i n g apart. Because the tax-farmer's payments to 5 4 Ibid., p. 285. 5 5 Ibid., p. 292. 89 t h e h o l d e r s o f m e r c e d e s were n o t a u d i t e d by t r e a s u r y o f f i c i a l s , t o o many s u c h demands on t h e r e v e n u e s meant t h a t t h e r e was n o t enough money t o pay a l l h o l d e r s o f m e r c e d e s , a nd many were n o t b e i n g p a i d . D u r i n g t h e y e a r s 1477-1479 t h e a c c o u n t s o f A l f o n s o de M e d i n a (5,000 m r s . ) , M a r i a de Mendoza (40,000 m r s . ) , Gomez de R o j a s (20,000 m r s . ) , M a r i a E n r i q u e z , t h e D u c h e s s o f A l b a (32,000 m r s . ) , P e d r o F a j a r d o , t h e G o v e r n o r o f M u r c i a (150,000 mrs.) and many o t h e r s f e l l i n t o a r r e a r s . 5 6 A t t h e C o r t e s o f T o l e d o i n 1 4 8 0 , t h e Crown a t t e m p t e d t o g a i n t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e n o b i l i t y by a r e f o r m o f t h e m e r c e d p a y m e n t s . T h i s r e f o r m i n c l u d e d t h e u s e o f s t r i c t a u d i t i n g p r o c e d u r e s f r o m 1483 o n . A l i s t o f t r u e m e r c e d a c c o u n t s was d r a w n u p b y F e r n a n d o d e T a l a v e r a , I s a b e l ' s c o n f e s s o r a n d c o n f i d a n t . A s a r e s u l t o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , 3 2 , 1 7 1 , 8 7 8 m r s . i n m e r c e d e s a c c o u n t s w e r e s u p p r e s s e d , due t o d o u b t f u l a u t h e n t i c i t y . However, t h i s a t t e m p t e d r e f o r m f a i l e d , due t o t h e l a x i t y o r c o r r u p t i o n o f m a n y t a x - f a r m e r s a n d t r e a s u r y o f f i c i a l s . The r e f o r m s were i g n o r e d a n d many a c c o u n t s o f t h e g r e a t m a gnates were m a i n t a i n e d o r e v e n i n c r e a s e d . 5 7 C l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e s e m e r c e d e s , g r a n t e d f o r f a v o u r s r e c e i v e d o r d u t i e s d o n e , was t h e s a l e o f b o n d s o r j u r o s , f o r i m m e d i a t e g r a n t s o f c a s h . T h e s e were a l s o demands on f u t u r e 5 6 S t e p h e n H a l i c z e r , "The C a s t i l i a n A r i s t o c r a c y a n d t h e M e r c e d e s R e f o r m o f 1 4 7 8 - 1 4 8 2 " , H i s p a n i c A m e r i c a n H i s t o r i c a l R e v i e w 55 ( 1 9 7 5 ) , p. 456. 5 7 I b i d . , p. 458. 90 r e v e n u e s , and e x t e n d e d i n t o t h e f u t u r e t h e a b u s e s o f t h e p a s t . W h i l e s l o w f i n a n c i a l s u i c i d e , t h e j u r o s were a method o f d e a l i n g w i t h t h e n o b i l i t y by t e n d i n g t o b i n d t h e r o y a l s u b j e c t who owned them c l o s e l y t o t h e f o r t u n e s o f t h e Crown. 5 8 The Crown a l s o g a i n e d c o n t r o l o f t h e n o b i l i t y by g r a n t s o f p r e s t i g i o u s t i t l e s , c o n c i l i a t i o n , p a t r o n a g e a n d c o n s t a n t p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t . I n s o c i a l p r e s t i g e t h e n o b i l i t y r e c e i v e d h i g h h o n o u r s . F i n a n c i a l l y t h e y d i d not s u f f e r , b u t m i l i t a r i l y t h e y w e r e r e d u c e d t o t h e s t a t e o f l a c k e y s . T h e C r o w n d e m a n d e d o b e d i e n c e , b u t t h e g r a n d e e s k e p t t h e i r immense l a n d s , t h e i r v a s s a l s , t h e i r w e a l t h and t h e i r p r e s t i g e . 5 9 The s u c c e s s f u l c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e war w i t h G r a n a d a s e t t l e d r e w a r d s , b o t h f i n a n c i a l and s o c i a l , on t h e s u p p o r t e r s o f t h e m o n a r c h s . A c c o r d i n g t o a c o n t e m p o r a r y c h r o n i c l e r , " A l l t h e g r a n d e e s a n d c a b a l l e r o s a n d h i j o s d a l g o who s e r v e d i n t h e c o n q u e s t o f t h i s k i n g d o m r e c e i v e d m e r c e d e s - f a v o u r s - e a c h a c c o r d i n g t o h i s s t a t u s , i n t h e f o r m o f h o u s e s , l a n d s a n d v a s s a l s . " 6 0 T h i s r e s u l t e d i n a m a s s i v e i n c r e a s e i n t h e t i t l e d a r i s t o c r a c y o f C a s t i l e d u r i n g t h e r e i g n s o f F e r n a n d o a n d I s a b e l . The i n c r e a s e was o f t h e n a t u r e o f a b o u t twenty p e r c e n t , e x c l u d i n g s i x h o u s e s w h i c h d i e d o u t by n a t u r a l c a u s e s o r t h e m a r r i a g e o f an h e i r e s s . The f a m i l y o f Ponce de Leon r e c e i v e d 5 8 H a l e , War and S o c i e t y , p. 231. 5 9 M a r i e j o l , The S p a i n o f F e r d i n a n d and I s a b e l l a , p. 277. 6 0 E l l i o t t , I m p e r i a l S p a i n , p. 113. 91 t h e t i t l e s o f M a r q u i s e s o f C a d i z f o r t h e i r c a p t u r e o f B o a b d i l i n 1 4 8 3 , a n d Dukes o f A r c o s a f t e r t h e f a l l o f G r a n a d a . 6 1 By t h e e n d o f t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e n o b i l i t y h ad l a r g e l y l o s t i t s p o l i t i c a l b u t n o t i t s s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c p o w e r . W h i l e n u m b e r i n g o n l y a b o u t two o r t h r e e p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f S p a i n , t h e n o b i l i t y s t i l l o w n e d m o s t o f t h e s o i l o f t h e c o u n t r y . 6 2 I n t h e m i l i t a r y s p h e r e , t h e g r e a t l o r d s were p r e v e n t e d f r o m d o m i n a t i n g t h e c a m p a i g n s a n d c o l l e c t i n g t h e r e w a r d s , a s y s t e m b e g u n by E n r i q u e I V . R o y a l c o n t r o l o f c o n q u e r e d G r a n a d a was e n s u r e d , and t h e n o b i l i t y were f o r c e d t o s e r v e a s r o y a l a g e n t s w h i l e b e i n g a mply r e w a r d e d f o r t h e i r s e r v i c e s . 6 3 T h e s e d o m e s t i c a n d f o r e i g n e n d e a v o u r s w e r e p o s s i b l e o n l y b e c a u s e t h e m onarchs t o o k a c t i v e s t e p s t o s u b v e r t t h e power o f t h e n o b i l i t y b y a l l y i n g t h e m s e l v e s w i t h r i v a l h o u s e s t o c r u s h s e l e c t e d r e b e l l i o u s n o b l e s . D i e g o L o p e z P a c h e c o , t h e r e b e l l i o u s M a r q u i s o f V i l l e n a , t h e m a s t e r o f 2 5 , 0 0 0 s q u a r e k i l o m e t e r s o f l a n d , 1 5 0 , 0 0 0 v a s s a l s , a n d w i t h a n i n c o m e o f 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 d u c a t s a y e a r , was c u r b e d by t h e C r o w n , a s t a t e o f a f f a i r s w h i c h e n c o u r a g e d P e d r o F a j a r d o o f M u r c i a t o i n v a d e P a c h e c o ' s l a n d s i n 1 4 7 6 . 6 4 6 1 H i g h f i e l d , The S p a n i s h K i ngdoms, p. 373. 6 2 M a r i e j o l , The S p a i n o f F e r d i n a n d and I s a b e l l a , p. XX. 6 3 S t e w a r t , M i l i t a r y Command, p. 229. 6 4 Kamen, A S o c i e t y o f C o n f l i c t , p. 20. 92 By u n i t i n g w i t h t h e n o b i l i t y t h e Crown c o u l d o r i e n t t h e p o w e r o f t h e s e n o b l e s i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e d i r e c t i o n . T h e m o n a r c h s * p o l i c y o f t h e t o t a l c o n q u e s t o f G r a n a d a may h a v e b e e n f o r c e d upon them i n p a r t by t h e i r need t o d e f l e c t t h e a g g r e s s i v e i n s t i n c t s o f t h e n o b i l i t y away f r o m t h e monarchs t h e m s e l v e s . 6 5 The k n i g h t l y t r a d i t i o n o f o r g a n i z e d v i o l e n c e s e r v e d t h e m o n a r c h s w e l l d u r i n g t h e war. By a g r e e i n g t o s e r v e u n d e r t h e Crown, t h e n o b i l i t y q u i c k l y l o s t t h e b a s i s o f t h e r e a l p o w e r , t h e i r i n d e p e n d e n c e . A c o n t r o v e r s i a l a s p e c t o f t h e g r o w t h o f r o y a l p o w e r c o n c e r n s t h e p a r t a r t i l l e r y p l a y e d i n t h e p r o c e s s o f s u b d u i n g t h e p o w e r o f t h e n o b i l i t y . W h i l e t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e t o s u p p o r t t h e new t e c h n o l o g y was v i t a l t o t h e l o n g t e r m d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e n a t i o n s t a t e , was t h e a r t i l l e r y i t s e l f e f f e c t i v e a g a i n s t t h e n o b i l i t y ? A c c o r d i n g t o J.R. H a l e , a r t i l l e r y was n o t a s t r o n g f e a t u r e o f r o y a l c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , w h i c h began b e f o r e c a n n o n was e f f e c t i v e o r e a s i l y t r a n s p o r t a b l e . As w e l l , many c a n n o n s were p r i v a t e l y owned by t h e magnates o r by f o r t i f i e d t o w n s . As a r e s u l t , H a l e c o n c l u d e d t h a t "An o c c a s i o n a l r e b e l l i o u s b a r o n may h a v e b e e n b r o u g h t t o h e e l by r o y a l c a n n o n , b u t t h e c o m p l e x d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e f e u d a l i n t o t h e c e n t r a l i z e d s t a t e began b e f o r e c a n n o n became e f f e c t i v e a n d c a n b e e x p l a i n e d w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o P h i l l i p s , The C o u n c i l o f t h e S a n t a Hermandad, p. 128. 93 f i r e a r m s . 1 , 6 6 H o w e v e r , t h e r e c a n be l i t t l e d o u b t t h a t a r t i l l e r y was u s e f u l . A c c o r d i n g t o J . F . C . F u l l e r , "Gunpowder b l a s t e d t h e f e u d a l s t r o n g h o l d s and t h e i d e a l s o f t h e i r o w n e r s . By c h a n g i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r o f w a r , g u n p o w d e r c h a n g e d t h e m e d i e v a l way o f l i f e . " 6 7 W h i l e t h i s i s a p r o f e s s i o n a l s o l d i e r ' s e x a g g e r a t e d v i e w o f a r t i l l e r y ' s e f f e c t i v e n e s s , i t d o e s have some g r a i n o f t r u t h i n i t . A r t i l l e r y was e f f e c t i v e b e c a u s e i t was c a p a b l e o f d e s t r o y i n g c a s t l e s q u i c k l y and i t was f a r t o o e x p e n s i v e f o r a n y b u t t h e r i c h e s t n o b l e s . B e c a u s e o f i t s e x p e n s e t h e m o n a r c h y q u i c k l y d e v e l o p e d a n d e n f o r c e d a m o n o p o l y o f a r t i l l e r y f i r e p o w e r . 6 8 A l s o , i n t h e S p a n i s h c o n t e x t , a r t i l l e r y was v i t a l . The C r o w n ' s e f f o r t s t o subdue t h e n o b i l i t y were a i d e d i m m e a s u r a b l y b y t h e s u c c e s s f u l w a r a g a i n s t G r a n a d a , a n d t h e w a r was s u c c e s s f u l b e c a u s e o f t h e u s e o f a r t i l l e r y . Few n o b l e s w e r e i n t i m i d a t e d by t h e r o y a l a r t i l l e r y , b u t t h e n o b l e s were none t h e l e s s s u b d u e d b y t h e g r o w i n g a u t h o r i t y o f t h e m o n a r c h s , t h e a u t h o r i t y p r o v i d e d by s u c c e s s a g a i n s t G r a n a d a , w h i c h u l t i m a t e l y r e s t e d o n t h e new s t y l e o f war demanded by a r t i l l e r y . T h u s gunpowder a r t i l l e r y d i d a i d i n t h e b i r t h o f t h e n a t i o n s t a t e . T h e C a s t i l i a n m o n a r c h y u s e d e v e r y weapon a n d t e c h n i q u e 6 6 H a l e , Gunpowder and t h e R e n a i s s a n c e , p. 114. 6 7 I b i d . , p. 113. 6 8 R i c e , The F o u n d a t i o n s o f E a r l y Modern E u r o p e , p. 16. 94 p o s s i b l e t o f a c i l i t a t e i t s c o n q u e s t o f G r a n a d a . The n o b i l i t y , t h e m i l i t a r y , new t e c h n o l o g y , o r g a n i z a t i o n , money and g r e e d were a l l e x p l o i t e d t o t h e f u l l e s t . The power o f t h e C h u r c h a n d t h e r e l i g i o u s f a i t h o f t h e masses were a l s o c o n s c r i p t e d t o d e s t r o y G r a n a d a and enhance t h e mo n a r c h s ' power. One o f t h e f e a t u r e s o f t h e G r a n a d a War t h a t f i g u r e d p r o m i n e n t l y i n t h e m e n t a l i t y o f C a s t i l e was t h a t o f t h e C r u s a d e , t h e war a g a i n s t t h e h e a t h e n M u s l i m s . S i n c e t h e b r e a k d o w n o f c o n v i v e n c i a d u r i n g t h e f o u r t e e n t h and e a r l y f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , a n i m o s i t y t o w a r d s n o n - C h r i s t i a n s i n c r e a s e d . A c c o r d i n g t o A m e r i c o C a s t r o : I t was no l o n g e r p o s s i b l e f o r C h r i s t i a n s , M o o r s a n d J e w s t o l i v e u n d e r t h e s a m e r o o f , b e c a u s e t h e C h r i s t i a n now f e l t h i m s e l f s t r o n g enough t o b r e a k down t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c u s t o m o f S p a i n whereby t h e C h r i s t i a n p o p u l a t i o n made war a n d t i l l e d t h e s o i l , t h e Moor b u i l t t h e h o u s e s , a n d t h e J e w p r e s i d e d o v e r t h e e n t e r p r i s e a s a f i s c a l a g e n t a n d s k i l f u l t e c h n i c i a n . 6 9 The pogrom a g a i n s t t h e Jews i n 1391 was a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h i s i n c r e a s i n g l y a g g r e s s i v e C h r i s t i a n e x p a n s i o n i s m . S i n c e t h e P a p a c y h a d o n l y l i m i t e d i n f l u e n c e i n S p a i n , b e c a u s e o f t h e i s o l a t i o n o f t h e S p a n i s h C h u r c h f r o m Rome d u r i n g t h e c e n t u r i e s o f M u s l i m d o m i n a t i o n , t h i s a g g r e s s i o n was a S p a n i s h p h e n o m e n o n . The P o p e ' s i n f l u e n c e was w e a k e n e d e v e n f u r t h e r b y t h e P a p a l S c h i s m f r o m 1 3 7 8 t o 1 4 2 9 , w h e n t h e C a s t i l i a n C rown won t h e r i g h t i n 1421 t o i n t e r v e n e i n C h u r c h b 9 A m e r i c o C a s t r o , T h e S t r u c t u r e o f S p a n i s h H i s t o r y ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 4 ) , p. 225. 95 a p p o i n t m e n t s . I n C a s t i l e and A r a g o n s e c u l a r t h e o r i s t s o f r o y a l r i g h t s r e i n f o r c e d t h e c l a i m s t h a t w e r e s u c c e s s f u l l y a s s e r t e d a g a i n s t t h e P a p a c y by t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e m o n a r c h s . 7 0 The S p a n i s h C r o w n f r e q u e n t l y u s e d f o r i t s own e n d s t h e P a p a c y ' s n e e d f o r S p a n i s h p o l i t i c a l s u p p o r t . E n r i q u e I V r e c e i v e d a s e r i e s o f p a p a l b u l l s f r o m b o t h N i c h o l a s V a n d C a l i x t u s I I I f o r a c r u s a d e t o r e c o v e r C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . H o wever, t h e l a r g e i n c o m e f r o m t h e s a l e o f i n d u l g e n c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s e b u l l s o f c r u s a d e w e re u s e d f o r t h e K i n g ' s own p o l i t i c a l p u r p o s e s , a n d n o t a c r u s a d e . 7 1 F e r n a n d o a n d I s a b e l a l s o m a n i p u l a t e d t h e p a p a c y . F o r t h e d e f e n s e o f C a s t i l e i n 1475 a g a i n s t t h e i n v a s i o n o f A f o n s o o f P o r t u g a l , t h e m o n a r c h s c o n f i s c a t e d h a l f o f t h e C h u r c h p l a t e i n C a s t i l e , a f o r e t a s t e o f t h e s u b s e q u e n t l o o t i n g o f t h e C h u r c h . 7 2 The memory o f t h e e a r l i e r a nd s u c c e s s f u l B u l l o f C r u s a d e g r a n t e d i n 1457 t o E n r i q u e IV e n c o u r a g e d t h e m o n a r c h s t o a p p e a l t o t h e P a p a c y f o r a i d . The m o n a r c h s p r e a c h e d t h e war a s a C r u s a d e , a n d a s s u c h demanded and r e c e i v e d v a r i o u s b e n e f i t s . The f i r s t B u l l o f C r u s a d e was g r a n t e d t o F e r n a n d o and I s a b e l i n 1479 by Pope S i x t u s I V ; i t c o n f e r r e d p l e n a r y i n d u l g e n c e s on a l l t h o s e who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e war. The B u l l ' s m a i n i m p a c t was a n i n c r e a s e i n r e v e n u e s a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e war, and t h e M o n a r c h s 7 0 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h K i ngdoms, p. 92. 7 1 P h i l l i p s , The C o u n c i l o f t h e S a n t a Hermandad, p. 56. 7 2 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h K i ngdoms, p. 360. 96 set an example by donating 100 f l o r i n s . 7 3 F u r t h e r b e n e f i t s to the Spanish monarchs came on J u l y 3, 1482, i n an agreement signed i n Cordoba between the Spanish s o v e r e i g n s and the p a p a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e Dominico C e n t u r i o n e . The B u l l of Crusade was extended f o r a year by the Pope, and i n c l u d e d a ten percent tax on a l l the b e n e f i c e s and t i t h e s f o r a year on the Churches of C a s t i l e , Aragon and S i c i l y . The revenue from t h i s tax and one t h i r d of the "Crusade" revenue was to go t o the Pope f o r the e a s t e r n crusade a g a i n s t the Turks. T h i s agreement with the Pope proved very p r o f i t a b l e f o r the monarchs, f o r none o f the r e s u l t i n g revenue went to the Papacy. The Spanish monarchs c o n f i s c a t e d i t a l l . 7 4 The compromise of 1482 with the Pope a l s o gave the monarchs the patronage of a l l the b i s h o p r i c s , a r c h b i s h o p r i c s , and the r i c h e s t abbeys o f Aragon and C a s t i l e . 7 5 T h e r e were o t h e r b e n e f i t s as w e l l . A l l the l e g a c i e s l e f t f o r the ransom o f c a p t i v e s and the moneys a l l o c a t e d f o r p u b l i c f e a s t s were to be a p p l i e d to the Crusade. The Pope proclaimed an o f f i c i a l peace to apply w i t h i n Spain and to a l l f o r e i g n r e l a t i o n s with Spain. A l l those who broke t h i s peace were to be excommunicated. A p r o h i b i t i o n a g a i n s t i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h the wars a g a i n s t t h e Muslims or using Crusade funds f o r anything but the Crusade was 7 3 GoTii Gaztambide, The Holy See and the Reconquest, p. >. 7 4 I b i d . , p. 356. 7 5 M a r i e j o l , The Spain of Ferdinand and I s a b e l l a , p. 250. 97 i s s u e d . The P a p a l D e p u t i e s i n S p a i n had e x t r a o r d i n a r y p o w e r s t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e war a g a i n s t t h e M u s l i m s t h a t i n c l u d e d p a s s i n g j u d g m e n t on i l l e g a l l y a c q u i r e d p r o f i t s , t o a b s o l v e a n y o n e f r o m t h e s i n o f s i m o n y , t o e a s e t h e c e n s u r e c o n n e c t e d w i t h s i m o n y , t o a b s o l v e s i n s i n c e r t a i n d e g r e e s , t o r e g u l a r i z e m a r r i a g e s a n d l e g i t i m i z e o f f s p r i n g a n d t o e n f o r c e t h e e x h i b i t i o n o f w i l l s . S i x t u s I V p r e s e n t e d a g r e a t s i l v e r c r o s s t o t h e S p a n i s h m o n a r c h s a s a s t a n d a r d , t o be c a r r i e d b e f o r e t h e army t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e c a m p a i g n . 7 6 The monarchs u s e d t h i s l a s t g i f t a s a s y m b o l o f t h e C h r i s t i a n c r u s a d e a g a i n s t G r a n a d a . C a r r i e d i n t h e K i n g ' s t e n t d u r i n g t h e m i l i t a r y c a m p a i g n s , i t was r a i s e d by t h e r o y a l s t a n d a r d b e a r e r on t h e t o p m o s t p o i n t o f e a c h c o n q u e r e d town and f o r t r e s s , where i t was v e n e r a t e d w i t h i m p r e s s i v e c e r e m o n i e s . 7 7 The B u l l o f C r u s a d e c o n f e r r e d e x t e n s i v e s p i r i t u a l b e n e f i t s o n t h o s e p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e w a r . The b e n e f i t s i n c l u d e d a p l e n a r y i n d u l g e n c e , and t h e f r e e d o m t o c h o o s e a c o n f e s s o r w i t h t h e power t o a b s o l v e m a j o r c r i m e s , o m i s s i o n o f c a n o n i c a l h o u r s , s i m o n y , and c e n s u r e . Those who gave two r e a l e s f o r t h e c a r e o f i l l o r w o u n d e d s o l d i e r s o r f o r t h e b u i l d i n g o f c h u r c h e s i n c o n q u e r e d t e r r i t o r y r e c e i v e d a s h a r e i n a l l t h e g o o d w o r k s p e r f o r m e d w i t h i n t h e C h u r c h . S o l d i e r s w e r e e x e m p t e d f r o m f a s t i n g o n F r i d a y s a n d H o l y Days and f r o m r e s t i n g o n S u n d a y . 7 6 G o n i G a z t a m b i d e , The H o l y See a n d t h e R e c o n q u e s t , p . 358. 7 7 R o g e r B i g e l o w M e r r i m a n , The R i s e o f t h e S p a n i s h E m p i r e i n t h e O l d W o r l d a n d t h e New, voTT Tl (New Y o r k : C o o p e r S q u a r e P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 66. 98 C h a p l a i n s were a l l o w e d to c e l e b r a t e the Mass i n army camps b e f o r e dawn, and were exempted f r o m t h e o b l i g a t i o n s o f r e s i d e n c e , f a s t i n g , and the r e c i t a t i o n of the D i v i n e O f f i c e when i n c o n v e n i e n t . 7 8 D e s p i t e t h e d e a t h o f Pope S i x t u s IV i n 1484, w h i c h a u t o m a t i c a l l y n u l l i f i e d t h e s e agreements, t h e C r u s a d e was r e v a l i d a t e d f o r a year by the new Pope, Innocent V I I I , who a l s o e x t e n d e d the Crusade b e n e f i t s t o N a v a r r e . The s u c c e s s f u l c a p t u r e of Ronda i n the s p r i n g of 1485 enhanced the Crown's p r e s t i g e and f o r c e d Innocent to renounce h i s f i n a n c i a l r i g h t s to the Tenth tax and the o n e - t h i r d of the Crusade revenue i n favour of the Spanish Crown on August 26, 1485. He a l s o renewed the B u l l of Crusade u n c o n d i t i o n a l l y . The Crown secured a f u r t h e r T e n th tax on e c c l e s i a s t i c a l revenues, s e t by the C a r d i n a l o f S p a i n a t 100,000 A r a g o n e s e f l o r i n s per y e a r . T h i s p a p a l c a p i t u l a t i o n was eased by a " g i f t " of 10,000 d u c a t s by the Spanish Monarchs to the Pope. 7 9 By 1486 Fernando and I s a b e l almost completely dominated the Papacy. A Papal B u l l of December 13, 1486, gave the Spanish Crown t h e r i g h t o f p a t r o n a g e and a p p o i n t m e n t t o a l l t h e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l b e n e f i c e s i n Granada. This patronato secured f o r the Crown an i n v a l u a b l e source of appointments to reward t h e i r f o l l o w e r s , and the precedence to the same r i g h t i n the soon-to- 7 8 Goni Gaztambide, The Holy See and the Reconquest, p. 358. 7 9 I b i d . , p.366. 99 b e - d i s c o v e r e d New W o r l d . 8 0 F o r t h e s e g e n e r o u s g i f t s t h e p a p a c y h o p e d t o s e c u r e S p a n i s h a i d i n I t a l y a g a i n s t t h e F r e n c h . P r e s s u r e b y t h e S p a n i s h c a r d i n a l R o d r i g o de B o r j a f o r c e d I n n o c e n t t o g r a n t t h e " C r u s a d e " f o r a f u r t h e r y e a r , e n d i n g on S e p t e m b e r 1, 1488. The B u l l o f C r u s a d e was e x t e n d e d , d e s p i t e t h e o p p o s i t i o n o f t h e Roman c a r d i n a l s , f o r one y e a r on O c t o b e r 9, 1489, and a g a i n on O c t o b e r 1, 1 4 9 1 . 8 1 The c l o s e t i e s b e t w e e n t h e S p a n i s h M o n a r c h s a n d t h e P a p a c y w e r e s t r e n g t h e n e d by t h e B u l l o f 1 4 9 3 , I n t e r c a e t e r a , i n w h i c h , b e c a u s e o f t h e m u t u a l h o s t i l i t y t o F r a n c e , A l e x a n d e r V I g r a n t e d t o t h e Crown a l l t h e c o n t i n e n t s and i s l a n d s o v e r s e a s n o t b e l o n g i n g t o any C h r i s t i a n s o v e r e i g n . 8 2 I n 1496 Pope A l e x a n d e r V I g r a n t e d a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l T e n t h , t h e B u l l o f C r u s a d e , and a t h i r d o f t h e T e n t h a s a p e r p e t u a l g r a n t , a n d t h e t i t l e o f " C a t h o l i c M o n a r c h s " f o r F e r n a n d o and I s a b e l . 8 3 The e n t i r e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e C h u r c h were u s e d t o f u r t h e r t h e c o n q u e s t o f G r a n a d a . The Pope's a p p e a l t o t h e r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g o f t h e f a i t h f u l r e s o u n d e d f r o m e v e r y p u l p i t i n C a s t i l e , A r a g o n , S i c i l y , and S a r d i n i a , and e x a l t e d t h e i d e a l o f h o l y war a g a i n s t 8 0 E l l i o t t , I m p e r i a l S p a i n , p. 101. 8 1 G o n i G a z t a m b i d e , The H o l y See and t h e R e c o n q u e s t , p . 366. 8 2 J . M. B a t i s t a y R o c a , "The H i s p a n i c K i n g d o m s a n d t h e C a t h o l i c K i n g s " , The New C a m b r i d g e Modern H i s t o r y , Volume I : The R e n a i s s a n c e 1493-1520, E d i t e d by Denys Hay ( C a m b r i d g e : C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 332. 8 3 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h K i ngdoms, p. 398. 100 t h e i n f i d e l . 4 M i l i t a r y e n t h u s i a s m came e a s i l y t o t o n g u e s a l r e a d y v e r s e d i n t h e w a r - i m a g e r y o f S a i n t P a u l : t h e C h r i s t i a n was a l w a y s on a c t i v e s e r v i c e a g a i n s t S a t a n ; he wore t h e h e l m e t o f s a l v a t i o n , b r a n d i s h e d t h e s w o r d o f t h e s p i r i t a n d t u r n e d t e m p t a t i o n ' s d a r t s on t h e b r e a s t p l a t e o f r i g h t e o u s n e s s . 8 5 D e s p i t e t h e a d h e r e n c e o f t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f S p a n i a r d s t o t h e i r r e l i g i o n , many l o o k e d on t h e p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e m e a s u r e s w i t h l e s s t h a n e n t h u s i a s m . P r i e s t s , m i n i s t r o s de l a C r u z a d a , v i s i t e d e v e r y p a r i s h t o u r g e a l l t o buy i n d u l g e n c e s , and t h e p r i v i l e g e o f e a t i n g meat d u r i n g L e n t , f o r t h e p r i c e o f s i x t y - e i g h t m r s . . 8 6 T h e s e v i s i t i n g c l e r g y u s e d m e t h o d s t h a t were b i t t e r l y r e s e n t e d by t h e l o c a l s . The p r e a c h e r s ...keep t h e p e o p l e i n t h e c h u r c h e s one, two, and t h r e e d a y s f r o m m o r n i n g t o e v e n i n g t o l i s t e n t o t h e i r s e r m o n s , a n d t h u s p r e v e n t t h e m f r o m e a r n i n g t h e i r d a i l y b r e a d ; a n d when t h e y f i n d t h a t t h e y c a n n o t p e r s u a d e them t o t a k e up t h e s a i d B u l l by t h a t means, t h e y p a r a d e t h r o u g h t h e s t r e e t s , a s k i n g e v e r y o n e t h e y meet i f he knows h i s P a t e r N o s t e r and Ave M a r i a ; and i f p e r c h a n c e t h e y f i n d one who d o e s n o t , t h e y f o r c e h i m t o t a k e up t h e s a i d B u l l a s p e n a n c e ; and i f a n yone r e f u s e s , t h e y d r a g h i m a r o u n d i n s h a c k l e s t o h e a r t h e i r p r e a c h m e n t s , and t h u s p r e v a i l on h i m a t l a s t by f o r c e and t h r e a t s t o t a k e up t h e s a i d B u l l . 8 7 The m o n a r c h s t h e m s e l v e s f u l l y s u b s c r i b e d t o t h e C r u s a d e m e n t a l i t y . They s o u g h t d i v i n e a i d a t t h e s h r i n e o f S a n t i a g o de G o n i G a z t a m b i d e , The H o l y See and t h e R e c o n q u e s t , p . H a l e , War and O p i n i o n , p. 26. B a t i s t a y R o c a , The H i s p a n i c K i ngdoms, p. 334. M a r i e j o l , The S p a i n o f F e r d i n a n d and I s a b e l l a , p. 210. 84 359. 85 86 87 101 C o m p o s t e l a . 8 8 I n a n e r a when s p i r i t u a l f a i t h h a d p h y s i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , t h e p r o p h e c y o f t h e 'Beata de P i e d r a h i t a ' ( S o r M a r i a de S a n t o D o m i n g o ) , " T h a t he [ F e r n a n d o ] was n o t t o d i e u n t i l he h a d won J e r u s a l e m " , was n o t c o m p l e t e l y s c o r n e d . 8 9 T h r o u g h t h e i r l e g i s l a t i o n and p u b l i c p r o n o u n c e m e n t s , i n t h e i r c o n t e m p o r a r i e s ' e y e s , a n d i n t h e i r own m i n d s , t h e S p a n i s h monarchs a c c e p t e d c r u s a d e and p r o p h e c y as n o r m a l . The s u c c e s s e s r e s u l t i n g f r o m C h r i s t i a n f e a t s o f arms were d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e p a t r o n a g e o f God h i m s e l f f o r t h e C h r i s t i a n a r m i e s , t h u s e q u a t i n g m i l i t a r y and s p i r i t u a l v i r t u e s . I n a l e t t e r t o t h e Pope, F e r n a n d o d e s c r i b e d t h e war as a "Ho l y e n t e r p r i s e a g a i n s t t h e Moors o f t h e kingdom o f G r a n a d a , t h e e n e m i e s o f o u r h o l y C a t h o l i c f a i t h , t o t h e p r a i s e and g l o r y o f our Redeemer J e s u s C h r i s t . . " . 9 0 T h i s s t r e s s on t h e war a s a C r u s a d e was h i g h l i g h t e d b y t h e p r a c t i c e o f h a n g i n g up t h e f e t t e r s o f l i b e r a t e d C h r i s t i a n c a p t i v e s t o commemorate t h e i r f r e e d o m , " . . . t o be r e v e r e d by s u c c e s s i v e g e n e r a t i o n s as t h e t r o p h i e s o f C h r i s t i a n w a r f a r e . " 9 1 D i e g o de V a l e r a saw t h e monarchs as c r u s a d e r s , as d i d many c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , p e r h a p s as an a t t e m p t t o wipe o u t t h e memory o f t h e p e r c e i v e d f a i l u r e s o f E n r i q u e IV and t h e c o n f u s i o n o f t h e 8 8 Kamen, A S o c i e t y o f C o n f l i c t , p. 33. 8 9 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h Kingdoms, p. 606. 9 0 G o n i G a z t a m b i d e , The H o l y See and t h e R e c o n q u e s t , p . 366. 9 1 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h Kingdoms, p. 372. 102 r e c e n t c i v i l war. I n 1485 he e x p r e s s e d t h e hope t h a t God w o u l d g i v e F e r n a n d o " t h e power t o a c c o m p l i s h a l l t h a t f r o m f a r b a c k i n t i m e h a s been p r o p h e s i e d o f Your Most N o b l e P e r s o n . . . G o d i s w i t h y o u , a n d t h a t t h r o u g h y o u and t h e most S e r e n e P r i n c e s s , Dofia I s a b e l , He w i s h e s t o d e s t r o y a n d l a y w a s t e t h e p e r f i d i o u s Mahomedan s e c t . " 9 2 D i e g o de M u r o s , t h e s e c r e t a r y t o C a r d i n a l M e n d o z a , I s a b e l ' s c h i e f a d v i s e r , r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e m o n a r c h s " . . . t a k e on t h e h o l y e x p e d i t i o n w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n r a t h e r t o s p r e a d a b r o a d t h e r e l i g i o n o f C h r i s t t h a n t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r e a r t h l y e m p i r e . " 9 3 I s a b e l i n p a r t i c u l a r was s e e n a s t h e n e c e s s a r y l i n k b etween God and t h e p e o p l e o f S p a i n . A c c o r d i n g t o a c o n t e m p o r a r y , "The K i n g o v e r c o m e s m o r t a l s , t h e Q u e e n i m m o r t a l s . " 9 4 D i e g o de V a l e r a t o l d F e r n a n d o t h a t t h e Queen " . . . f i g h t s no l e s s w i t h h e r many a l m s and d e v o u t p r a y e r s t h a n y o u , L o r d , w i t h y o u r l a n c e i n h a n d . " 9 5 T h i s e m p h a s i s on C r u s a d e h e l p e d r a l l y t h e p e o p l e b e h i n d t h e m o n a r c h y a n d m o b i l i z e d t h e w a r l i k e t e n d e n c i e s o f t h e n o b i l i t y a g a i n s t a common f o e . The H o l y War was c o n s i d e r e d n o t o f f e n s i v e t o God, b u t p o s i t i v e l y p l e a s i n g t o Him. The C h r i s t i a n w a r r i o r ' s f i g h t i n g i n a b l e s s e d c a u s e was b e l i e v e d t o be a v i r t u o u s a c t w h i c h m e r i t e d God's s p e c i a l f a v o r , a s embodied i n t h e c r u s a d i n g 92 I b i d p. 605. 93 I b i d p. 372. 94 I b i d p. 373. 95 I b i d p. 372. 103 i n d u l g e n c e s g r a n t e d by p a p a l p r o c l a m a t i o n . 9 6 The r e s p o n s e on t h e p a r t o f t h o s e who had t o do t h e a c t u a l f i g h t i n g was l a r g e l y e n t h u s i a s t i c . Many s o l d i e r s w o r e t h e c r u s a d e r c r o s s on t h e i r p e r s o n s . 9 7 V o l u n t e e r s p o u r e d i n f r o m a l l o f C a t h o l i c E u r o p e ; f r o m F r a n c e , Germany, E n g l a n d , I r e l a n d , P o l a n d and e s p e c i a l l y S w i t z e r l a n d . I n P u l g a r ' s w o r d s , t h e s e men were " w a r l i k e men and f i g h t a f o o t , and a r e d e t e r m i n e d n e v e r t o t u r n t h e i r b a c k s on t h e i r e n e m i e s . " 9 8 I n 1 4 8 6 S i r E d w a r d W y d e v i l l e , L o r d S c a l e s , t o o k p a r t i n t h e c a m p a i g n w i t h 300 a r t i l l e r y m e n and a r c h e r s " t o s e r v e God and make war a g a i n s t t h e M o o r s . " 9 9 D u r i n g t h e d i f f i c u l t s i e g e o f M a l a g a , A n d r e s B e r n a l d e z commented upon t h e c r u s a d i n g e m p h a s i s a m o n g s t t h e t r o o p s : " . . . i n t h e r o y a l camp a t M a l a g a were many c l e r g y and f r i a r s o f a l l t h e O r d e r s who s a i d masses and p r e a c h e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e camp, t o t h e s o u n d a s w e l l a s t h e i l l , a n d g a v e p l e n a r y a b s o l u t i o n t o a l l by v i r t u e o f t h e H o l y C r u s a d e . " 1 0 0 G a m i n g , b l a s p h e m y , b r a w l i n g and p r o s t i t u t i o n were o u t l a w e d i n t h e camps, an d s e v e r e p e n a l t i e s were i n f l i c t e d f o r c o n t r a v e n i n g t h e s p i r i t o f t h e C r u s a d e . 1 0 1 9 6 C o n t a m i n e , War I n t h e M i d d l e A g e s , p. 278. 9 7 Kamen, A S o c i e t y o f C o n f l i c t , p. 33. 9 8 G o n i G a z t a m b i d e , The H o l y See and t h e R e c o n q u e s t , p . 359. 9 9 I b i d . , p. 364. 1 0 0 I b i d . , p. 366. 1 0 1 P r e s c o t t , R e i g n o f F e r d i n a n d and I s a b e l l a , 2:28. 104 W h i l e we c a n a d m i r e t h a t z e a l f o r t h e f a i t h t h a t a n i m a t e d t h e m o n a r c h s , e s p e c i a l l y I s a b e l , p r a g m a t i c r e a s o n s o f s t a t e p r o v i d e d some o f t h e i m p e t u s f o r F e r n a n d o ' s z e a l . He u s e d t h e I t a l i a n M a r i n a e u s S i c u l u s a n d t h e C a s t i l i a n E l i o A n t o n i o de N e b r i j a a s p r o p a g a n d i s t s o f n a t i o n a l u n i t y and t h e f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e G o t h i c p a s t . 1 0 2 A t w e l t h - c e n t u r y j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e c r u s a d e s t a t e d much t h e same t h i n g , a b e i t i n r e l i g i o u s t e r m s : " . . . s i n c e t h e S a r a c e n s o c c u p i e d l a n d s w h i c h h a d f o r m e r l y b e e n p a r t o f t h e Roman E m p i r e , i t was r i g h t t h a t t h e c h u r c h , t h e l e g i t i m a t e h e i r o f t h a t E m p i r e , s h o u l d seek t o r e c u p e r a t e what h a d b e e n t o r n f r o m i t by f o r c e . . . M o r e o v e r C h r i s t i a n s w e r e j u s t i f i e d i n l a w i n p u n i s h i n g t h e p e o p l e o f I s l a m who w e r e t e r m e d ' t h e most b l a m e w o r t h y n a t i o n ' [summa c u l p a b i l i s ] . 1 , 1 0 3 The m o n a r c h s a l s o u s e d t h e S p a n i s h C h u r c h i n d i r e c t l y a s a f u l c r u m t o c e n t r a l i z e power. The H o l y I n q u i s i t i o n was p a r t i a l l y a n i n s t i t u t i o n f o r t h e Crown t o a c q u i r e c o n t r o l o f t h e S p a n i s h C h u r c h , and was t h e f i r s t r o y a l body t o e x t e n d t h r o u g h o u t S p a i n r e g a r d l e s s o f p o l i t i c a l d i v i s i o n s . 1 0 4 Much o f t h e o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e I n q u i s i t i o n was b a s e d on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t i t v i o l a t e d p r o v i n c i a l f ue r o s . I n A r a g o n , C a t a l o n i a , V a l e n c i a a n d e s p e c i a l l y i n B a r c e l o n a , o p p o s i t i o n was v o c a l . 1 0 5 W h i l e J.N. 1 0 2 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h K i ngdoms, p. 204. 1 0 3 C o n t a m i n e , War I n t h e M i d d l e A g e s , p. 279, 1 0 4 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h K i n g d o m s , p. 422. 1 0 5 Kamen, A S o c i e t y o f C o n f l i c t , p. 40. 105 H i l l g a r t h b e l i e v e s t h a t i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e Crown u s e d t h e I n q u i s i t i o n a s a t o o l f o r t h e d r i v e t o a c e n t r a l i z e d m o n a r c h y , 1 0 6 t h e v i e w o f t h i s w r i t e r and o f J e a n M a r i e j o l i s t h a t "The I n q u i s i t i o n p l a c e d t h e c i v i l power a t t h e s e r v i c e o f o r t h o d o x y a n d t h e f a n a t i c i s m o f t h e S p a n i s h c l e r g y a t t h e s e r v i c e o f S p a n i s h n a t i o n a l i t y . " 1 0 7 T h i s d i f f u s e d t h e o p p o s i t i o n o f t h e h i g h c l e r g y t o t h e m o n a r c h y , a l m o s t a l l o f whom were n o b l e s w i t h l a r g e r e v e n u e s and m i l i t a r y r e t i n u e s . F e r n a n d o was adamant i n h i s c l a i m t o be t h e l e a d e r o f a C r u s a d e r a t h e r t h a n a l a r g e s c a l e r a i d f o r b o o t y . I n r e p l y t o a d e mand f r o m t h e P o p e f o r t h e a g r e e d u p o n o n e - t h i r d o f t h e r e v e n u e s f r o m t h e C r u s a d e , F e r n a n d o w r o t e t h a t : We h a v e n o t been moved no r a r e we moved t o t h i s war by any d e s i r e t o e n l a r g e o u r r e a l m s and s e i g n i o r i e s , n o r by g r e e d t o o b t a i n g r e a t e r r e v e n u e s t h a t t h o s e we p o s s e s s , n o r by any w i s h t o p i l e up t r e a s u r e s B u t o u r d e s i r e t o s e r v e God, and o u r z e a l f o r H i s h o l y C a t h o l i c f a i t h , make us p u t a l l o t h e r i n t e r e s t s a s i d e a n d f o r g e t t h e c o n s t a n t t r a v a i l s a n d d a n g e r s w h i c h c o n t i n u e t o i n c r e a s e f o r t h i s c a u s e ; . . . y e t we r e f u s e t h e t r e a s u r e s o f f e r e d t o u s a n d p o u r o u t o u r own, h o p i n g o n l y t h a t t h e h o l y C a t h o l i c f a i t h w i l l be m u l t i p l i e d a n d t h a t C h r i s t e n d o m w i l l be q u i t o f s o c o n s t a n t a d a n g e r a s she has h e r e a t h e r v e r y d o o r s , i f t h e s e i n f i d e l s o f t h e k i n g d o m o f G r a n a d a a r e n o t u p r o o t e d and c a s t o u t f r o m S p a i n . 1 0 8 The e m p h a s i s on s e c u l a r i s s u e s i n t h e b e g i n n i n g t e n d s t o p u t F e r n a n d o ' s f i n a n c i a l a l t r u i s m somewhat i n d o u b t , s i n c e none o f H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h K i n g d o m s , p. 461. M a r i e j o l , The S p a i n o f F e r d i n a n d and I s a b e l l a , p. 3 3 1 . 1 0 8 G o n i G a z t a m b i d e , The H o l y See a n d t h e R e c o n q u e s t , p. 3 6 1 . 106 t h e money was s e n t t o Rome. Th e r e v e n u e s r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e s e a g r e e m e n t s w i t h t h e C h u r c h w e re t r u l y m a s s i v e a n d p r o v i d e d t h e b u l k o f t h e money s p e n t o n t h e G r a n a d a War. G u i c c i a r d i n i , t h e F l o r e n t i n e a m b a s s a d o r t o C a s t i l e d u r i n g t h e y e a r s 1512-1513, w r o t e : A t f i r s t , when t h e a f f a i r was f r e s h , t h e y p r o f i t e d f r o m i t a good d e a l , and s a y i n p a r t i c u l a r t h a t i n t h e y e a r t h e k i n g t o o k M a l a g a [1487] 800,000 d u c a t s were c o l l e c t e d . . . w i t h o u t s u c h s u b s i d i e s t h i s k i n g n o t o n l y w o u l d n o t have t a k e n G r a n a d a and s o many o t h e r f o r e i g n r e a l m s , b u t he w o u l d h a v e h a d d i f f i c u l t y i n k e e p i n g A r a g o n and C a s t i l e . 1 0 9 The C a s t i l i a n C h u r c h p r o v i d e d a l m o s t one h u n d r e d m i l l i o n m r s . , t h a t o f A r a g o n t w e n t y m i l l i o n , and t h e C r u z a d a o v e r f i v e h u n d r e d m i l l i o n m r s . . A c c o r d i n g t o M. A. L a d e r o Quesada " . . . i t f i n a n c e d t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e w a r . " 1 1 0 O n c e G r a n a d a was c o n q u e r e d , t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f S p a i n ' s t e r r i t o r i a l i n t e g r i t y f o r g e d a new e m o t i o n a l b o n d among t h e p e o p l e s o f S p a i n , who s h a r e d a common s e n s e o f t r i u m p h a t t h e d o w n f a l l o f G r a n a d a . The v i c t o r y c o n t a i n e d enormous r e l i g i o u s s y m b o l i s m f o r b o t h M u s l i m s a s w e l l as C h r i s t i a n s . En l a c i u d a d de G r a n a d a I n t h e c i t y o f G r a n a d a g r a n d e s a l a r i d o s dan G r e a t o u t c r i e s a r e h e a r d . Unos l l a m a Mahoma Some i n v o k e Muhammad o t r o s a l a T r i n i d a d O t h e r s i n v o k e t h e T r i n i t y . P o r un c a b o e n t r a n l a s c r u c e s C r o s s e s e n t e r f r o m one end de o t r o s a l e a l c o r a n And t h e Q u r ' a n l e a v e s f r o m t h e o t h e r ; donde a n t e s o i a n c u e r n o s Where h o r n s were h e a r d b e f o r e campanas o y e n s o n a r . Now t h e s o u n d o f b e l l s a r e 1 0 9 I b i d . , p. 372. 1 1 0 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h K i ngdoms, p. 380. 107 h e a r d . 1 1 1 T h u s t h e c a p t u r e o f t h e c i t y o f G r a n a d a was a s y m b o l o f t h e v i c t o r y o f t h e L e g i o n s o f God o v e r t h e m i n i o n s o f t h e D e v i l , t h e M u s l i m s . I n t h e words o f J.H. E l l i o t t , "As t h e C h r i s t i a n s saw t h e k i n g d o m o f G r a n a d a c r u m b l e b e f o r e them, a n d t h e h o p e s o f c e n t u r i e s r e a l i z e d a t l a s t , i t was n a t u r a l t h a t t h e y s h o u l d t h i n k o f t h e m s e l v e s a s e n t r u s t e d w i t h a h o l y m i s s i o n t o s a v e and r e d e e m t h e w o r l d , t h r e a t e n e d a s i t was by t h e new a d v a n c e o f I s l a m f r o m t h e e a s t . " 1 1 2 The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s u c c e s s f u l war was e n o r m o u s f o r b o t h S p a i n and t h e r e s t o f E u r o p e . The l i t t l e t i m e b e t w e e n t h e f a l l o f G r a n a d a a n d C o l u m b u s ' e x p e d i t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e l a t t e r was an a c t o f renewed d e d i c a t i o n by C a s t i l e t o t h e s t i l l u n f i n i s h e d t a s k o f war a g a i n s t t h e i n f i d e l , by o u t f l a n k i n g t h e M u s l i m s and a l l y i n g w i t h t h e G r e a t Khan o f t h e I n d i e s . The k e y t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e New W o r l d c a n be s e e n i n t h e e x t e n s i o n o f t h e i d e a b e h i n d t h e C o n q u e s t o f G r a n a d a , t h e c r u s a d e a g a i n s t I s l a m . 1 1 3 A c c o r d i n g t o S t e p h e n G i l m a n , t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t h e d i s c o v e r y o f A m e r i c a was i n s p i r e d b y t h e l o n g H o l y War a n d t h e M e s s i a n i c f e e l i n g g e n e r a t e d by t h e c o n f l i c t o f t h e t h r e e r e l i g i o n s o f m e d i e v a l 1 1 1 C h e j n e , I s l a m and t h e West, p. 6, c i t i n g M. D a n v i l a y C o l l a d o , L a e x p u l s i o n de l o s m o r i s c o s e s p a n o l e s ( M a d r i d , 1 8 8 9 ) . 1 1 2 E l l i o t t , I m p e r i a l S p a i n , p. 105. 1 1 3 F u l l e r , The D e c i s i v e B a t t l e s o f t h e W e s t e r n W o r l d , p. 403. 108 S p a i n . 1 1 4 S p a i n a t t h e end o f t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y was s t i l l l i v i n g i n t h e age o f c r u s a d e s ; hence t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e c o n q u e s t o f G r a n a d a a n d t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e e x p a n s i o n i n N o r t h A f r i c a , u n d e r t a k e n a few y e a r s l a t e r . "Not o n l y d i d t h e o c c u p a t i o n o f s o u t h e r n S p a i n c o m p l e t e t h e r e c o n q u e s t o f I b e r i a n s o i l ; n o t o n l y d i d i t p r e s e n t t h e C a t h o l i c K i n g s w i t h a r i c h a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g i o n , a r e g i o n o f r i c h f a r m i n g l a n d a n d i n d u s t r i o u s a n d p o p u l o u s t o w n s : i t a l s o l i b e r a t e d f o r f o r e i g n a d v e n t u r e s t h e e n e r g i e s o f C a s t i l e , s o l o n g engaged i n an e n d l e s s combat w i t h t h e r e m n a n t s o f S p a n i s h I s l a m w h i c h r e f u s e d t o d i e - and t h e s e were y o u t h f u l e n e r g i e s . " 1 1 5 U 4 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h K i ngdoms, p. 610. 1 1 5 F e r n a n d B r a u d e l , T h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n a n d t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n W o r l d i n t h e Age of" P h i l i p I I , v o l . TT~, T r a n s l a t e d by S i a n R e y n o l d s ( New Y o r k : H a r p e r C o l o p h o n B o o k s , 1 9 7 3 ) , p . 670. 109 C o n c l u s i o n T h e s o c i e t y t h a t F e r n a n d o a n d I s a b e l r u l e d was o n e o f a g g r e s s i o n a n d m i l i t a r y p r o w e s s . T h i s h a d g r o w n o u t o f t h e e m p h a s i s o n s u c c e s s i n b a t t l e t h a t r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e r e c o n q u e s t . The n o b i l i t y ' s n a t u r a l r a m b u n c t i o u s n e s s , a v a l u e d c o m m o d i t y i n w a r , n a t u r a l l y c a r r i e d o v e r i n t o t i m e s o f p e a c e . T h i s p r o v e d d e t r i m e n t a l t o p e a c e and s e c u r i t y , a t l e a s t i n t h e e y e s o f t h e m o n a r c h s . Up t o and i n c l u d i n g t h e r e i g n s o f F e r n a n d o and I s a b e l , t h e n o b i l i t y m a i n t a i n e d t h e i r p r e r o g a t i v e s - s o c i a l , f i n a n c i a l a n d m i l i t a r y . As l a t e a s t h e e n d o f t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n K i n g and b a r o n s s t i l l r e m a i n e d t h e m i l i t a r y p a r t n e r s h i p o f t h e M i d d l e A g e s . T h e p r a c t i c a l p o l i c y o f F e r n a n d o and I s a b e l was t h a t o f c o n c e s s i o n s t o t h e n o b i l i t y f o r t h e i r s u p p o r t . T h i s p o l i c y was a r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t t h e m o n a r c h y was b a s e d , f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g , on t h e c o l l e c t i v e power o f t h e n o b l e s . The m o n a r c h s ' d e t e r m i n a t i o n was t o r e c o n s t r u c t t h e r o y a l p a t r i m o n y and t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e Crown. I n t h i s d r i v e f o r f a m i l i a l s e l f - a g g r a n d i z e m e n t , t h e a i d o f t h e n o b i l i t y , t o whom t h e y w e r e f r e q u e n t l y r e l a t e d , was o f t e n n e c e s s a r y . To F e r n a n d o a n d I s a b e l t h e s t a t e was t h e i r own p a t r i m o n y t o be d e f e n d e d , and t h e y saw t h e m s e l v e s a s t h e f i r s t n o b l e s i n t h e i r k i n g d o m s . I n t h i s programme t h e n o b i l i t y was an e s s e n t i a l a l l y , 110 an i n d i s p e n s a b l e c o l l a b o r a t o r . I n an a t t e m p t t o c r e a t e a t l e a s t t h e f i c t i o n o f m o n a r c h i c a l c o n t r o l , t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f P u l g a r ' s C l a r o s v a r o n e s i n 1486 i s s e e n a s an a t t e m p t t o u n i t e t h e n o b i l i t y b e h i n d t h e c r o w n b y " d r a w i n g a d e c o r o u s v e i l o v e r t h e r e c e n t and r e b e l l i o u s p a s t . " 2 T o r e a l i z e t h i s i d e a l F e r n a n d o a t t e m p t e d a p o l i c y o f s t r e n g t h e n i n g r o y a l a u t h o r i t y , t o t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e o f o t h e r e x i s t i n g p o w e r s , e s p e c i a l l y t h a t o f t h e n o b i l i t y a n d t h e C h u r c h . Much e f f o r t was e x p e n d e d on t h e t a s k o f p u t t i n g down t h e r e b e l l i o n s o f t h e n o b i l i t y and c u r b i n g t h e many p e r s o n s who h a d l i v e d b y w h a t V a l e r a c a l l e d " s w e e t t y r a n n y . " 3 By t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e G r a n a d a War, t h e e f f o r t was s h o w i n g o n l y meager r e s u l t s . T h e p o w e r o f t h e n o b i l i t y was n o t d e s t r o y e d by d i r e c t a t t a c k s b u t was d w a r f e d by t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r y d e v e l o p m e n t o f r o y a l power. To c o n q u e r G r a n a d a , F e r n a n d o and I s a b e l c r e a t e d a n army w h i c h r e q u i r e d e x p e n s i v e a r t i l l e r y , t h e m o b i l i z a t i o n o f men a n d money on a m a s s i v e s c a l e , e x t e n s i v e p r o p a g a n d a r e s o u r c e s , and a b u r e a u c r a c y w h i c h w o u l d e n s u r e r o y a l c o n t r o l . The n a t u r e o f t h e s e e f f o r t s was s u c h t h a t o n l y a n a t i o n a l e f f o r t c o u l d 1 H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h K i ngdoms, p. 608. 2 I b i d . , p. 371. 3 Ramon Menendez P i d a l , "The S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e R e i g n o f I s a b e l l a t h e C a t h o l i c , A c c o r d i n g t o Her C o n t e m p o r a r i e s " , S p a i n i n t h e F i f t e e n t h C e n t u r y 1 3 6 9 - 1 5 1 6 , E d i t e d by R o g e r H i g h f i e l d , T r a n s l a t e d b y F r a n c e s M. L o p e z - M o r i l l a s ( L o n d o n : M a c M i l l a n , 1 9 7 2 ) , p. 397. I l l s u s t a i n them, and t h e r e f o r e t h e y c r e a t e d a n a t i o n t o do s o . The n o b i l i t y c o u l d n o t c o m p e t e i n e i t h e r r e s o u r c e s o r r e p u t a t i o n w i t h t h e s u c c e s s f u l m o n a r c h s , and were e n v e l o p e d by r o y a l power a n d p r e s t i g e t h a t s q u e e z e d t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e f r o m them. A m a j o r r e a s o n f o r and b e n e f i t o f t h e G r a n a d a n war was t h e d r i v e f o r p e n i n s u l a r u n i f i c a t i o n . Those who had a t t e m p t e d t h i s g o a l i n c l u d e d t h e Romans, t h e V i s i g o t h s , t h e A r a b s , and f i n a l l y t h e C h r i s t i a n s , who were m e r e l y t h e h e i r s t o a l o n g t r a d i t i o n . T h e m o n a r c h s o f C a s t i l e saw t h e m s e l v e s a s t h e s e h e i r s , a n d e x c e p t f o r P o r t u g a l , s u c c e e d e d i n u n i t i n g t h e p e o p l e s o f t h e I b e r i a n P e n i n s u l a t h r o u g h t h e v i c t o r i o u s war. T h e s u c c e s s f u l p r o s e c u t i o n o f t h e war g a i n e d i m m e n s e b e n e f i t s f o r t h e C r o w n . The v i c t o r y o v e r G r a n a d a u n i t e d t h e p e o p l e s o f A r a g o n and C a s t i l e i n a c o m m o n a l i t y o f i n t e r e s t s , a nd a l l o w e d t h e m t o t h i n k o f e x t e n d i n g t h e i r f r o n t i e r s , o f e s t a b l i s h i n g S p a i n a s a g r e a t p o w e r . F r a y I n i g o de M e n d o z a e x p r e s s e d t h e " w i l l t o E m p i r e " o f S p a i n i n t h e 1 4 7 0 ' s , w h i c h w o u l d come t h r o u g h t h e c a p t u r e o f G r a n a d a . R o d r i g o P o n c e de L e o n , t h e M a r q u i s o f C a d i z , c i r c u l a t e d t h e p r o p h e c y t h a t F e r n a n d o w o u l d c o n q u e r G r a n a d a , E t h i o p i a , J e r u s a l e m , Rome an d t h e T u r k s . 4 The r e s u l t o f t h i s was t h a t i n t h e e y e s o f M a c h i a v e l l i , t h e most p r a c t i c a l p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r o f h i s d a y , "We h a v e i n o u r d a y s , F e r d i n a n d , K i n g o f A r a g o n , t h e p r e s e n t K i n g o f S p a i n , who H i l l g a r t h , The S p a n i s h K i ngdoms, p. 371. 112 may, n o t i m p r o p e r l y , be c a l l e d a new p r i n c e , s i n c e he h a s been t r a n s f o r m e d f r o m a s m a l l and weak k i n g i n t o t h e g r e a t e s t m o n a r c h i n C h r i s t e n d o m . " 5 E l l i o t t , I m p e r i a l S p a i n , p. 13. 113 S e l e c t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y C o n t e m p o r a r y Works A l - M a k k a r i , Ahmed I b n Mohammed. The H i s t o r y o f t h e Mohammedan D y n a s t i e s o f S p a i n . V o l . I I . T r a n s l a t e d by P a s c u a l De G a y a n g o s . New Y o r k : J o h n s o n R e p r i n t s , 1964. C a r t a g e n a , A l f o n s o d e . " D i s c u r s o s o b r e l a p r e c e d e n c i a d e l Rey C a t o l i c o s o b r e e l de I n g l a t e r r a e n e l C o n c i l i o d e B a s i l e a . " S p a n i s h L i f e i n t h e L a t e M i d d l e A g e s . E d i t e d and T r a n s l a t e d by K e n n e t h R. S c h o l b e r g . C h a p e l H i l l : U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1965: 11-14. C h a c o n , G o n z a l o . " C r o n i c a de don A l v a r o de L u n a , e d i c i o n y e s t u d i o p o r J u a n de M a t a C a r r i a z o . " S p a n i s h L i f e i n t h e L a t e M i d d l e A g e s . E d i t e d a n d T r a n s l a t e d by K e n n e t h R. S c h o l b e r g . C h a p e l H i l l : U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1965: 6 2 - 68. G u i c c i a r d i n i , F r a n c e s c o . The H i s t o r y o f I t a l y . E d i t e d and T r a n s l a t e d by S i d n e y A l e x a n d e r . New Y o r k : M a c M i l l a n , 1969. H i g h f i e l d , R o g e r , e d . S p a i n I n t h e F i f t e e n t h C e n t u r y , 1 3 6 9 - 1 5 1 6 . T r a n s l a t e d by F r a n c e s M. L o p e z - M o r i l l a s . L o n d o n : M a c M i l l a n , 1972. M a r t o r e l l , J o a n o t a n d J o a n de G a l b a , M a r t i . T i r a n t Lo B l a n c . T r a n s l a t e d by D a v i d H. R o s e n t h a l . New Y o r k : S c h o c k e n B o o k s , 1984. G e n e r a l H i s t o r i e s B a t i s t a y R o c a , J.M.. "The H i s p a n i c K i n g d o m s and t h e C a t h o l i c K i n g s . 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